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The 

Twentieth Yearbook 






NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY 

tOF EDUCATION 
i 



PART I 

SECOND REPORT Dl 
NEW MATERIALS OF INSTRLic 



KBOOK 









THE 

Twentieth Yearbook 

OF THE 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY 

OF EDUCATION 



PART I 

SECOND REPORT OF THE SOCIETY'S COM- 
MITTEE ON NEW MATERIALS 
OF INSTRUCTION 

A COLLECTION OP TWO HUNDRED EIGHTY-FIVE PROJECTS COM- 
PILED BY THE COMMITTEE WITH THE AID OP VARIOUS 
SUB-COMMITTEES FROM MATERIAL SUBMITTED BY 
THE REPRESENTATIVES OF NUMEROUS 
SCHOOL SYSTEMS 



Edited by 

GUY MONTEOSE WHIPPLE 



THIS YEARBOOK WILL BE DISCUSSED AT THE ATLANTIC CITY 
MEETING OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, SATURDAY 
FEBRUARY 26, 1021, 2:00 P. M. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

BLOOMINGTON, ILLINOIS 

1921 



• J*A1., L.otfAfiV 







• . •• 



 m 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
for the Atlantic City Meeting 



President 

Harry B. Wilson 
Superintendent of Schools, Berkeley, California 

Vice-President 

David Felmley 
Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Guy Montrose Whipple 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Executive Committee 

(The Year Indicates Date of Expiration of Term) 

Ernest Horn (1921) 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Frederick James Kelly (1922) 
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 

Paul Whitfield Horn (1923) 
Superintendent of Schools, Houston, Texas 

Stephen S. Colvin (1924) 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 

Board of Trustees 

Daniel Starch (1921) 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

W. W. Kemp (1922) 
State Normal School, San Jose, California 

Frank W. Ballou (1923) 
Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D. C. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Editor's Preface vi 

Introduction and Second Report of the Committee vn 

Membership of the Society's Committee on New Materials of 

Instruction x 

Membership of the Society's Sub-Committees on New Materials 

of Instruction xi 

CHAP. 

I. New Materials for the Kindergarten (Nos. 1-20) .... 1 

II. New Materials for the Primary Grades (Nos. 21-64) 14 

A. Materials Primarily for the First Grade (Nos. 21-37) 14 

B. Materials for the Second Grade (Nos. 38-53) 24 

C. Materials for the Third Grade (Nos. 54-64) 34 

III. New Materials for Grades IV, V, and VI (Nos. 65-193) 39 

A. Materials for the Fourth Grade (Nos. 65-101) 39 

B. Materials for the Fifth Grade (Nos. 102-148) 60 

C. Materials for the Sixth Grade (Nos. 149-193) 86 

IV. New Materials for the Junior High School 

(Nos. 194-274) 115 

A. Projects Concerned with School Activities and In- 

terests (Nos. 194-212) 118 

B. Projects Concerned with Community Civic Interests 

(Nos. 213-228) 134 

C. Projects Concerned with General Civic and Patriotic 

Interests (Nos. 229-240) 147 

D. Projects Concerned with A vocational and Cultural 

Interests (Nos. 241-255) 154 

E. Projects Concerned with Vocational Interests (Nos. 

256-263) 166 

F. Projects Concerned with Business Interests (Nos. 

264-270) 172 

G. Projects Concerned with Home Interests (Nos. 271- 

274) 176 



• 



CHAP. PAGE. 

V. New Materials fob Special Classes (Nos. 275-285) .... 179 

VI. A Bibliography op the Project Method in the Ele- 
mentary School, the Junior High School, and the 
High School 189 

Constitution of the National Society for the Study of Education 222 

Minutes of the 1920 Meeting of the Society 224 

Honorary and Active Members of the Society 227 

Report of the Treasurer of the Society for 1920 236 

Information Concerning the Society 238 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

As explained in detail elsewhere, this part of the Twentieth 
Yearbook represents the contributions of an unusually large number 
of different persons, who, at the solicitation of the various sub- 
committees, submitted accounts of classroom exercises that had 
been developed by them and had been found to possess merit. 

Whether the reader wishes to apply the term 'projects' to all 
these exercises or not, the fact remains that they all possess a 
degree of novelty, that they at least represent departures from the 
stock material of the school textbook, that they are calculated to 
enlist the interests of children, and that they afford obvious oppor- 
tunity both for the exhibition of initiative and also for the securing 
of drill in the fundamental pedagogical tools. 

The chairman of the various sub-committees and more par- 
ticularly, Dr. F. J. Kelly, the chairman of the general committee, 
deserve the credit for assembling and arranging the material re- 
ported by the classroom teachers. The editor takes the responsi- 
bility for the final arrangement of the material and for excluding, 
on account of limitations of space, a considerable amount of excel- 
lent material. As it is, the 285 ' projects ' are surely numerous 
enough, varied enough, and comprehensive enough to afford an ex- 
cellent sample of these newer educational developments. 

Where known to the editor, the name and school address of the 
contributor has been credited to each item. This will make it pos- 
sible, we hope, for supervisors and teachers who use this Yearbook 
to get into direct correspondence with these contributors, who will 
be glad, we are sure, to impart further details of their work and to 
exchange experiences. If the Yearbook can be used in this way, 
it will meet the hopes of the Society's Committee who have had in 
mind from the start the direct assistance of wide-awake classroom 
teachers in their daily work. 

Guy M. Whipple, 



INTRODUCTION AND SECOND REPORT OF THE 

COMMITTEE 

The Committee on New Materials of Instruction whose names 
are appended hereto, is a committee created by the National So- 
ciety for the Study of Education in 1919. This Committee ap- 
proved the plan for the assembling of materials such as appear in 
this report. The materials were to be submitted by a large sub- 
committee consisting primarily of teachers in actual contact with 
classroom situations. The chairman of the Committee was author- 
ized to proceed with the work on this basis, and other members of 
the Committee have had no further opportunity to share with the 
chairman the responsibility for the contents of the report. 

In following out the Committee's plan, the chairman sought 
from a large number of educators throughout the country the names 
of teachers who were doing outstanding work with curriculum ma- 
terials based upon the genuine interests of children. The teachers 
whose names were thus secured were arranged in sub-committees 
according to their major interests. They were then asked to re- 
port to their respective chairmen, the new materials which they 
had successfully tried out in their classrooms. 

For the final organization of the materials, sub-committee chair- 
men were held responsible. These were : for the kindergarten ma- 
terials, Miss Nina C. Vandewalker, Specialist in Kindergarten Edu- 
cation with the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. ; for pri- 
mary grades, Miss Frances M. Berry, Supervisor, Trimary Grades, 
Baltimore, Md. ; for Grades Four, Five and Six, Miss Edna Keith, 
Supervisor, Elementary Grades, Joliet, 111. ; for the Junior High 
School, Mr. H. G. Lull, Superintendent of the Training School, 
State Normal, Emporia, Kan. ; for sub-normal children, Miss Nel- 
lie R. Olson, teacher of an ungraded class, Faribault, Minn. A 
sixth committee under the chairmanship of Mr. F. L. Whitney, of 
the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, was asked to assemble 
materials not readily classified under traditional school subjects, 
and that committee submitted valuable materials. However, since 
materials assembled by the other committees were not found readily 

VII 



vra 

classifiable under the traditional school subjects, the materials sub- 
mitted by Mr. Whitney were not made into a separate section, but 
were distributed in the most appropriate places throughout the 
reports submitted by the other committees. 

It is impossible to give adequate recognition to the very large 
number of people who have contributed from their experience to 
the materials of the following report. All, however, are seriously 
engaged in the effort to make the subject matter and method used 
in elementary schools function better than .they now do in the pro- 
duction of an efficient citizenship. We can only express our ap- 
preciation of their service in making available to other teachers the 
results of their valuable experiences. 

A word should be said with reference to the bibliography ap- 
pearing at the close of this report. Each sub-committee presented 
a bibliography particularly valuable to workers in its own field. 
These were found to be embodied in the more complete bibliography 
which was prepared by Willis N. Kerr, librarian, and his assistants 
in the library at the State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas; it 
was thought best, therefore, to confine the bibliography to this one 
splendid classified list of references. I am glad to make public ac- 
knowledgment of the pains-taking work done by all those who pre- 
pared bibliographies, and especially to Mr. Kerr. 

There is no longer any need for entering into a defense of the 
use of the sort of materials contained in the following report. Such 
defense is quite complete in many of the treatises referred to in 
the bibliography. One point may, however, be urged at this time. 
The traditional classification of materials for elementary education 
seems poorly adapted to these newer materials based upon genuine 
interests of children. It was found impossible, therefore, to make 
a distinct classification of materials under Beading, Arithmetic, 
Geography, and the like. In many cases each of these "tool" sub- 
jects was used in carrying out the objects of a single project. It 
seems fitting, therefore, to state that the following report adds strik- 
ing testimony to the claim for the classification of materials in ele- 
mentary schools above the primary grades on quite a different basis 
than prevails in our present classification. No distinctive classifica- 
tion was undertaken in this report, because it was thought at the 



DC 

time when work on the report was begun that it would be impos- 
sible to assemble any very large number of projects which had been 
successfully tried, except upon the basis of the traditional classi- 
fication of subjects. However, when the accounts were submitted, 
it was discovered that in a great many cases they were independ- 
ent of the traditional subjects, but did not lend themselves to any 
other classification. In the Junior High School section, Mr. Lull, 
Chairman of the Committee, has used a classification which he ex- 
plains in his introduction, but he recognizes that the projects sub- 
mitted do not fit especially well into his classification. 

Respectfully submitted, for the Committee : 

F. J. Kelly, Chairman. 



MEMBERSHIP OP THE SOCIETY'S COMMITTEE ON NEW 

MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION 

Professor W. C. Bagley, Teachers College. 

President J. C. Brown, State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Dean C. E. Chadsey, University of Illinois. 

President L. D. Coffman, University of Minnesota. 

Dean E. P. Cubberley, Leland Stanford University. 

President E. C. Elliott, University of Montana. 

Director C. H. Judd, University of Chicago. 

Dean P. J. Kelly, University of Kansas, Chairman. 

Professor H. C. Morrison, University of Chicago. 

Professor C. D. Strayer, Teachers College. 

Professor G. M. Whipple, University of Michigan. 



XI 



MEMBERSHIP OF THE SOCIETY'S SUB-COMMITTEES ON NEW 

MATEBIALS OF INSTRUCTION 

Committee I. Materials suitable for Kindergarten Children. 

Miss Nina C. Vanderwalker, chairman, Specialist in Kindergarten 
Education, U. S. Bureau of Education. 

Emma Flinn, Kindergarten Critic, State Normal, Valley City, 
N. D. 

Marion Watson, Kindergarten Critic, State Normal College, 
Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Committee 11. Materials suitable for Grades 1, 11, and 111. 
General Committee. 

Miss Frances M. Berry, chairman, Primary Supervisor, Baltimore, Md. 

Miss Ellice Burke, Murray Hill School, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Miss Frances Dearborn, Primary Method, Detroit Normal School, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Miss Mary L. Dougherty, Primary Critic. Mankato, Minn. 
Miss Achsah Harris, Primary Supervisor, State Normal, Emporia, Kan. 
Miss Alison Hayne, First Grade Critic, Marr School, Detroit, Mich. 
Miss Begenia B. Heller, Primary Supervisor, Public Schools, Detroit, 

Mich. 
Miss Helen Beynolds, Primary Supervisor, Public Schools, Seattle, 

Wash. 
Miss Mary G. Bud, Primary Supervisor, Minot, N. D. 
Miss Cora Jean Smith, Primary Critic, Valley City, N. D. 

Committee 11 a. Materials for Grade I. 

Mrs. Mabel Orr, Chairman, City Normal School, Rochester, N. Y. 
Miss Martha Griffith, City Normal, Dayton, Ohio. 
Miss Margaret Morris, Primary Critic, Training School, Athens, O. 
Miss Laura Bemer, Primary Department, State Normal, Pittsburg, 

Kan. 
Miss Isabolle Veazey, Critic Teacher, Alva, Okla, 

Committee 11 b. Materials for Grade 11. 

Miss Fannie Ballow, Chairman, State Normal, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Miss Ann Den Blyker, State Normal, Pittsburg, Kan. 
Miss Katherine Nichols, City Normal School, Rochester, N. Y. 
Miss Amy Weihr, Critic Teacher, Training School, Athens, Ohio. 

Committee II e. Materials for Grade 111. 

Miss Edith B. Whitney, Chairman, Critic Teacher, Stevens Point, Wis. 
Miss Edith Buchanan, Critic Teacher, Training School, Athens, Ohio. 
Miss J. U. Charlton, Critic Teacher, Alva, Okla. 
Miss Nell C. Curtiss, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 

Committee III. Materials suitable for Grades IV, V, and VI. 
General Committee. 

Miss Edna Keith, Chairman, Elementary Supervisor, Joliet, HI. 
Miss Jennie M. Flemming, Director of Practice School, Detroit Normal, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Mrs. 0. Flood, Eagle School, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Miss Mary Gardner, Critic Teacher, State Normal School, Valley City, 

North Dakota. 
Miss Catherine Morgan, Director of Substitutes, Detroit Normal, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Miss Kate Sharrard, Elementary Supervisor. Rockford, HI. 

Committee 111 a. Materials for Grade IV. 

Miss Maude McBrown, Chairman, Fourth Grade Critic, Marr School, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Miss Blanche Bussey, Alva, Okla. 

Miss Myrtle Hesse, Critic Teacher, Training School, Athens, Ohio. 
Miss Mae Kileullen, Critic Teacher, Stevens Point, Wis. 
Miss Hazel McCullock, Critic Teacher, Minot, N. D. 

Committee 111 b. Materials for Grade V. 

Mrs. Anna K. Price, Chairman, Critic Teacher, Training School, 

Athens, Ohio. 
Miss Besse M. Hayden, Critic Teacher, Pittsburg, Kan. 
Miss Julia Hubbard, Critic Teacher, Winona, Minn. 
Miss Blanch Louden, Critic Teacher, Moorhead, Minn. 
Miss Susan Norton, Critic Teacher, State Normal, Valley City, N. D. 
Miss Johanna G. Soland, Critic Teacher, State Normal, Minot, N. D. 

Committee Hie. Materials for Grade VI. 

Miss Elsie J. Cook, Chairman, Critic Teacher, Training School, Minot, 

N. D. 
Miss Mabel Benson, Critic Teacher, State Normal, Moorhead, Minn. 
Miss Ethel Black, Sixth Grade Critic, Marr School, Detroit, Mich. 
Miss Stella Everett, Critic Teacher, Training School, Athens, Ohio. 
Miss Carrie Lankford, Franklin School, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Miss Kathryn Mulry, State Normal, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Committee IV. Materials for Grades VII, VI11, and IX. 
General Committee. 

Mr. H. G. Lull, Chairman, Superintendent Training School, Emporia, 

Kan. 
Miss Nelle H. Brown, City Normal, Dayton, Ohio. 
Mr. Leo J. Brueekner, Assistant Principal, Detroit Normal School, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. W. G. Cisne, Principal Junior High School, State Normal, Car- 

bondale, HI. 
Miss Laura MacArthur, Principal Irving Junior High School, Duluth, 

Minn. 
Miss Eula Miller, Critic Teacher, Mankato, Minn. 
Mr. James M. Glass, Principal, Washington Junior High School, 

Bochester, N. Y. 

Committee IV a. Materials for Grade Vll. 

Miss Louise Steinway, Chairman, State Normal, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Miss Cora Bailey, Critic Teacher, Training School, Athens, 0. 
Miss Anna Wilke, Critic Teacher, Alva, Okla. 

Committee IV b. Materials for Grade VIII. 

Miss Lydia Kreutz, Critic Teacher, State Normal, Valley City, N. D. 
Miss Louise McDonald, Emerson School, Okmulgee, Okla. 



xin 

Ma. Mildred Smith, Critic Teacher, Alva, Okla. 
Miss Margaret Tilley, Chairman, Critic Teacher, Training School, 
Athens, Ohio. 

Committee IV e. Materials for Grade IX. 

Miss Margaret McCarthy, Chairman, Critic Teacher, State Normal, 
Valley City, N. D. 

Committee F. MateriaU suitable for subnormal children. 

Miss Nellie B. Olson, Chairman, 511 Fourth Street, West, Faribault, 

Minn. 
Miss Blanche Towne, Special Boom Critic Teacher, Tpsilanti, Mich. 

Committee VI. Materials not readily classified under the traditional school 
subjects. 

Mr. F. L. Whitney, Chairman, University of Minnesota. 

Miss Flora B. Cotterill, City Normal, Dayton, Ohio. 

George B. Crissman, Supervisor of Training, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Orville Davis, Principal, Greenwood School, Kirksville, Mo. 

Miss Florence Hall, State Normal, Muncie, Ind. 

Miss Ada Van Stone Harris, Supervisor Public Schools, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Mr. Herschel T. Manuel, Department of Education, State Normal, 
Platteville, Wis. 

Miss Cora A. Newton, Supervisor of Training, State Normal, Bridge- 
water, Mass. 

Mr. C. E. Porter, Head Practice School, State Normal, Milwaukee, 
Wis. 

Mr. D. W. Boberts, Supt, Training School, Tpsilanti, Mich. 

Mr. Charles C. Boot, Head of Educational Department, State Normal, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Miss Ethel I. Salisbury, Supervisor of Instruction, Berkeley, CaL 

Mr. Wade H. Shumate, Director of Training, Talequah, Okla. 

Miss Susan Stinson, Critic Teacher, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Miss Ida Lee Tall, Teacher Training, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. E. H. Wilds, Department of Education, State Normal, Platteville, 
Wis. 

Miss Belle Wallace, Training School, State Normal, Billingham, Wash. 

Mr. Frederic P. Woellner, Head of Part Time Education, State Nor- 
mal, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Committee VII. Materials assembled by subjects — to be then submitted to the 
appropriate grade committee listed above. 

Committee VII a. General Science, biological, physical. 

Phillip W. L. Cox, Chairman, Principal Ben Blewett Junior High 

School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Philipine Crecelius, Ben Blewett Junior High School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Florence Billig, Science Supervisor, State Normal, Emporia, Kan. 
W. L. Eikenberry, Training School, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 

Kan. 
Charles B. Finley, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 
Earl B. Glenn, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 
C. H. Watson, Training School, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Committee VII b. Agriculture. 

Fred T. Ullrich, Chairman, Department of Agriculture, State Normal, 
Platteville, Wis. 



XIV 

Committee Vile, Home Economic*. 

Miss Bessie Mae Allen, Chairman, Director Home Economics, Stevens 
Point, Wis. 

Committee VII d. Hygiene and Health. 

Miss Georgia Davis, Supervisor of Instruction, Muskogee, Okla. 

Committee Vile. Social Studies, economic, civic. 

Miss Elizabeth Breckenridge, Chairman, State Normal, Louisville, Ky. 
Miss Cornelia A. Forbes, Ben Blewett Junior High School, St. Louis, 

Mo. 
Maud Myers, 701 West 38th St., Kansas City, Mo. 
Miss Erma Dolfinger, State Normal, Louisville, Kentucky. 
Miss Louise Bobertson, State Normal, Louisville, Kentucky. 
Mrs. Louise Mears, State Normal, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Committee VII f. History. 

Miss Lotta A. Clark, History Department, Boston Normal School. 
Mr. Grant E. Finch, Director of Training, State Normal, Dillon, Mont. 

Committee VII g. Geography. 

Miss Blanch E. Campbell, Chairman, Elementary Supervisor, Board of 
Education, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Mr. Grant E. Finch, Director of Training, State Normal, Dillon, Mont. 

Miss Sarah M. Imboden, Elementary Supervisor, Decatur, 111. 

Miss Bertha Mason, Superintendent of Geography, Jacksonville, HI. 

Mr. Leonard F. Packard, Geography Department, Boston Normal 
School. 

Miss Zor M. Thralls, Geographical Department, Normal, Pittsburg, 
Kansas. 

Miss Jennie Williams, Geography Department, State Normal, Em- 
poria, Kan. 

Miss Lydia A. Woliung, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York 
City. 

Committee VII h. Industrial Arts. 

Mr. A. H. Edgerton, Chairman, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New 

York City. 
G. H. Hargitt, Ben Blewett Junior High School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. A. L. Herr, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 

Committee VII i. Drawing and Painting. 

Miss Floy Campbell, Chairman, Junior College, Kansas City, Mo. 
Miss Helen E. Cleaves, Art Department, Boston Normal School. 
Miss Ethelwyn Bradish, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York 
City. 

Committee VII j. Music. 

Miss Catherine Stronse, Music Supervisor, Emporia, Kan. 

Committee VII Jc. English Literature. 

Miss A. Laura McGregor, Chairman, Washington Junior High School, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Miss Harriet Beale, Instructor Children's Lit., State Teachers College, 

Mankato, Minn. 



Mrs. W. B. 8every, Supervisor English, State Normal, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. £. £. Chiles, Supervisor English, Ben Blewett Junior High School, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Committee VII Z. Composition. 

Mr. Grant E. Finch, Chairman, Director of Training, State Normal, 
Dillon, Mont. 

Miss F. Ursula Payne, Brooklyn Training School for Teachers, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Mr. 8. A. Leonard, Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 

Committee VII m. Arithmetic 

Intermediate Grades. 

Miss Georgia Davis, Chairman, Supervisor of Instruction, Muskogee, 

Okla. 
Miss Emma Meyer, Brooklyn Training School for Teachers, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
Mrs. Jessie Barr Weild, Brooklyn Training School for Teachers, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Miss Orpha E. Worden, Instructor, Arithmetic, Detroit Normal School, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Junior High School. 
H. P. Shepherd, Chairman, Principal Junior High School, Tenth and 

Ivandale Ave., Kansas City, Kan. 
Miss Gertrude Brown, State Normal, Emporia, Kan. 
Miss Carrie Markham, Ben Blewett Junior High School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Committee VII n. Penmanship. 

Clyde C. Lister, Brooklyn Training School for Teachers, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 



CHAPTER I 

NEW MATERIALS FOR THE KINDERGARTEN 

INTRODUCTION 

The work of the kindergarten must be constantly new if the 
present-day conception of education as a meeting of children's 
needs at the successive stages of their development is kept clearly 
in mind. Having grasped this principle, the kindergartner sees 
that children's interests and activities must serve as the starting 
point in their education and that these interests must be so guided 
as to create problems for them to solve. The approach to subject 
matter is made by the meeting of play situations and the solving 
of play problems. It cannot, therefore, be stereotyped, but must 
be brought afresh to each individual or group. 

When the approach is thus psychologically made, the working 
out of the problem naturally takes the project form. The project 
method is not, therefore, new to the kindergartner of insight, since 
she has worked in the spirit of that method for years. The cur- 
riculum of the kindergartner is in fact embodied in a series of 
projects by the working out of which children gain an insight into 
the world of man and nature and their own relation to both. At 
the beginning of the year, for example, they carry out in play the 
activities of the home; they build the store from which the home 
secures its supply of food and dramatize the process of buying and 
selling; and they make in the sand table the garden or miniature 
farm which supplies the store. They arrange a harvest festival in 
preparation for the Thanksgiving party in which the products 
that characterize the season are grouped together. Other projects 
worked out in other seasons or in preparation for other festivals 
interpret for the children other significant aspects of life. In these 
several ways human life and activity come to have meaning for chil- 
dren, and they see themselves as parts and partners in the great 
drama that is being played on the stage of nature. 

Because of the method that characterizes kindergarten pro- 
cedure, the expression "New Material of Instruction for the Kin- 



2 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

dergarten" should not be taken to mean extraneous matter brought 
to the children for which they have no basis in their experience. 
The kindergartner must find her material in the aspects of the chil- 
dren 's environment. The newness needed is a newness of inter- 
pretation — a clothing of the familiar in new forms so that its real 
significance may be made apparent. New interpretations of known 
facts in project form therefore constitutes the best form of "New 
Material for the Kindergarten/ ' Projects vary in value, however, 
and need to be weighed in the balance before being adopted. There 
are many that grow out of the stimulus of the material and have 
little if any thought value. Since they show initiative and the re- 
sult of experimentation, they should be worked out. If these only 
are worked out, however, the curriculum lacks cohesiveness and con- 
tinuity, and does not yield the results that it should in the child's 
developing life. The projects of real value arc those that interpret 
some aspect of life. Among these are the garden, cither in spring 
or fall, the doll house and family, and the community, in which 
each is seen to be needed to make a complete whole. 

TYPICAL KINDERGARTEN PROJECTS 

The following projects furnished by the kindergarten sub-com- 
mittee are, of course, too few in number to represent adequately 
the work being done by the kindergartners of the country. This is 
doubtless due to the fact that few could be reached during the sum- 
mer, and that the opening weeks of school hardly admit of a favor- 
able response to requests for such material. Some of these fur- 
nished are of the accidental and others of the interpretative type. 
Some are a combination of both. 

1. "A Collection of Seeds for Spring Planting" 
(Reported by Mrs. Elizabeth Jacobson, of Minneapolis) 

This project started from the children's seeing dandelion seeds 
floating about while on an excursion, and led to their bringing to 
kindergarten seeds from their home gardens. 

The steps in carrying the project forward were : 

1. Converting the baskets they had made into boxes with cov- 
ers in which they could bring their seeds to the kindergarten. 



MATERIALS FOB TEE KINDEBOABTEN 3 

2. The making of boxes of uniform size and shape, and of colors 
selected by themselves, to hold the collection of seeds. 

3. The sorting of the seeds, making labels for the boxes, and 
storing them away for the spring planting. 

This led to the collection of milkweed pods, rose hips, cat tails, 
and many other kinds of seeds, which were used to decorate the 
room. 

2. "The Making of a Barn" 

(Worked out under the direction of a group of students in the Mil- 
waukee Normal School) 

This project originated in a suggestion from two boys that they 
make a shelter for the toy horses they had received at Christmas 
to correspond to the doll house made for the dolls. 

The steps were as follows : 

1. Making with blocks the ground floor of a barn arranged 
from the children's personal knowledge. 

2. Looking at pictures of barn interiors. 

3. Building the ground floor with stalls for the horses on one 
side and a feed bin and place for implements with which the horse 
does its work on the other. 

4. Making a barn for each child from construction paper (at 
the children's request), so that they might take them home to 
play with. 

This was of special interest to the boys, whose interests are too 
often ignored. It fitted in with the kindergartner's idea of help- 
ing the children to play happily at home during the winter months. 

3. "The Making of a Toboggan" 

(Carried out in the kindergarten of the State Normal School at 
Valley City, North Dakota, under the direction of Miss 

Emma Flinn) 

This project was suggested by a child whose father had a to- 
boggan. 



4 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The steps were: 

1. The free building of a toboggan. 

2. The gradual improvement of the toboggan as the result of 
observation, trial, and discussion, until it was good enough to be 
used, and large enough to hold eighteen children. 

3. The construction of toboggans in card board, the making of 
clay forms and sand table scenes, and the illustration of coasting 
scenes with crayons and scissors. 

The interest in this was maintained throughout the winter, and 
the results were real dramatization, skillful hand work, cooperation 
and marked progress in construction. 

4. "The Valentine Party" 

(Reported by Miss Mary C. Jacobs, Milwaukee Normal School) 

To make the children conscious of the ties of friendship and of 
the written message as a means of maintaining these is one of the 
purposes of the customary Valentine party in the kindergarten. 
The incident of the children's receiving a letter from a soldier in 
France during the war, the father of one of the group, was the 
stimulus to a new interest in such messages in one of the kinder- 
gartens of the Milwaukee Normal School, directed by Miss Mary 
G. Jacobs. 

The steps in the carrying on of their work were : 

1. The composing of a letter by the children in reply to the 
one received and the writing of this for them by the kindergartner. 

2. Folding envelopes (one of which was to contain the letter) 
addressing, stamping, and mailing the finished envelope. 

3. Making of Valentines and post cards to send to other friends. 

4. Making a mail bag and mail box to be used at the Valen- 
tine party. 

5. Making the street car, train, and boat to carry the soldier's 
letter to France. 

Among the results were a marked improvement in the hand 
work, and an interest in the letters received at home. 



MATERIALS FOB THE EINDEBOABTEN 5 

5. "The Church for Easter' ' 

(Reported by Miss Anne M. Wells, State Normal School, Bridge- 
water, Massachusetts) 

Thanksgiving is made much of in kindergarten because it sym- 
bolizes the season's completed work. It is no less important that 
children's attention be called to the re-awakening of the life of 
nature at Easter time. Just as the markets full of vegetables have 
been brought to the children's attention in the fall in preparation 
for Thanksgiving, so the shops full of flowers may herald the com- 
ing of Easter. It is because children frequently see and hear about 
the preparations for Easter in the nearby Sunday Schools and 
churches that many kindergartners include the building of a church 
in their Easter preparation. The steps taken in building it, con- 
siderably simplified, are as follows: 

1. Experimental building of churches during the year. 

2. Observation of the best church architecture in the neigh- 
borhood. 

3. Building freely with miscellaneous blocks. 

4. Looking at pictures of churches. 

5. Building by suggestion and direction of the final form. 

This experience in the building of a church as a building hav- 
ing definite characteristics of its own would be a valuable prepara- 
tion for the building of a community of houses later on. 

6. "Building a Village" 
(Reported by Marcita Halkyard, Bidgewood School, Joliet, Illinois) 

After a walk around the neighborhood to learn the names of the 
streets and to look at the buildings, we built a little village in the 
room. 

We laid out our plan on the floor using long strips of paper for 
our streets ; we named each street. 

The floor blocks were used to make the houses, garages, stores, 
school, church, and the viaduct near by. 

We found material, such as boxes and paper, to make street 
cars, automobiles, mail boxes and the other things suggested by 
the children. 



6 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

When it was finished, the children brought their dolls and let 
them play in the village. 

7. "A Seed Store" 

(Reported by Miss Marcita Halkyard, Joliet, Illinois) 

We observed that the flowers in our room, golden-rod, asters, 
sunflowers, cat-tails, were withering. Breaking them apart, we 
found something which a few children were able to identify as 
seeds. This gave opportunity to talk of seeds — what they were 
good for, where to get them, etc. Some seeds, I was told, one had 
to buy at the store. At this point the children were asked if they 
would like to have a seed store in school and they, of course, were 
most enthusiastic. 

From this opening there resulted: (1) making a seed store of 
big blocks, (2) making boxes for seeds in store, (3) printing labels 
for different kinds of seeds — flower seeds, fruit seeds, tree seeds, 
weed seeds, etc., (4) making baskets in which to gather seeds, (5) a 
trip to a vacant lot for seeds, and (6) selling of the seeds. 

The last day of our store the children cut money out of paper 
and went to the store to buy seeds. Out of these purchased seeds 
they were encouraged to make something — baskets and dolls out of 
burrs, necklace of milkweed, pipes of acorns, a watch chain of sun- 
flower seeds, and designs out of eome of the seeds which could not 
be strung, were among the things suggested. 

Some results of this store were: (1) some little knowledge 
about seeds, (2) a keen interest in various kinds of seeds, (3) a few 
new words in the children's vocabulary, (4) a linking together of 
home, out-of-doors, and the schoolroom. Many mothers helped the 
children gather seeds for the store. 

8. " Dressing a Doll" 

(Reported by Miss Edith Adams, State Normal College, Ypsilanti, 

Michigan) 

The kindergarten purchased a doll without clothes. One little 
girl, seeing the doll, wished to dress it. The need of each article 
of clothing arose naturally in the following manner: First, a dress 



MATERIALS FOB TEE E1NDEEGABTEN 7 

was made which was such a good product that the kindergarten 
director decided to take it to the State Teachers' Association to 
illustrate a talk. If the doll was to take a trip, the little girl 
thought it should have a coat and hat to keep it warm. She chose 
her material, even to such details as cloth for a handkerchief and 
for a pocket to hold the handkerchief. The hat was made with 
turned-back corners, like a Dutch cap. After finishing the hat, she 
discovered it would not stay on, so she sewed strings on far enough 
back to allow the corners to stay as she had planned them first. 

When the doll was dressed in a petticoat, dress, coat, and hat, 
we thought she was ready for her journey, but not so with the little 
girl. She decided it would not do to let the doll go in bare feet. 
She asked a student to cut a paper pattern for her. This she pinned 
to a piece of cloth, cut it out, and made a trial shoe. As this fitted, 
she pinned the same pattern to a piece of wide velvet ribbon which 
she found in the cloth box and made a pair of shoes. The doll was 
then ready for its journey. 

9. "A Doll House and Furniture' ' 

(Reported by Miss Blanche Lovett, State Normal School, Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin) 

A three-inch celluloid doll was given the children to play with 
at the beginning of the school year. They then wished to dress 
the doll, and each child was allowed to select the material from 
pieces of cloth or crepe paper furnished and decide how a dress 
could be made. The children then wished to make a bed for the 
doll and did so from spool or other boxes, fasteners, and paper and 
paste. The making of three walls of the room like a screen was 
suggested by the teacher. This led to the making of a chair, a 
dresser, bed clothes, and a rug, each child working out the plan 
for himself. 

10. "Furnishing a Play House' ' 

(Reported by Miss Elizabeth Hannan, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The children of this class were given an opportunity to choose 
something to make that they might take to the first grade with them 



g THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

on promotion day. After much discussion, they decided to furnish 
a play house. One group of children papered the walls, hung the 
curtains, cut and decorated the rugs; another group made the 
furniture; while a third group cut out a paper doll family and 
dressed the dolls appropriately. The teacher was consulted from 
time to time by the various groups. When the play house was com- 
pleted, it was criticised by the class and teacher, a few changes made 
by the children, then taken with the class to the first-grade room. 

11. "A Toy Shop" 

(Outline submitted by Florence Williams, Richmond, Indiana) 

Shop built with blocks, including counters, shelves, etc. 

Toys of various kinds constructed of clay, paper, wood, etc. 

Problems involved — building shop, constructing toys, buying 
and selling, counting, wrapping parcels, etc. 

General excursions made to toy store. 

Experimental results criticised by teachers and children, and the 
best chosen. 

Tools of learning involved — language through conversation, dis- 
cussion, dramatization ; handwork, number work, drawing. 

12. "An Entertainment" 

(This project and Nos. 13, 14, and 15 are reported by Miss Allene 

Seaton, Louisville, Kentucky) 

Kindergarten children selected and arranged the program from 
stories, rhymes, dramatizations and songs which they had learned 
during the year. They also suggested very simple costumes for 
the parts they took, and made them. First-grade children made 
and sold the tickets, made cardboard money, posters for advertis- 
ing and cards for announcing program ; they also acted as ushers, 
finding number of seat corresponding to number of ticket. 

13. "A Train" 

This project continued several days with accumulating interest 
as the needs arose for new materials and new characters. The idea 
was initiated by children who had traveled during the summer. 



MATERIALS FOB THE KINDEBGABTBN Q 

The first step was the construction with large floor blocks of a pas- 
senger train with seats ; the second, the tickets ; the third, a dining 
car with small tables and chairs; the fourth, a Pullman, using 
tables for berths. Detailed problems arising within this project 
were the representation of satchels, trunks, money, tickets, pocket 
books, ticket office, train yard and signs indicating proper train. 
Character dramatizations were the conductor, the waiter, the porter, 
the fireman, a family, the chauffeur and the baggage man. 
Compare with this project No. 20. 

14. "A Grocery Store' ' 

This was a group project developed in a locality where the 
patrons work in neighboring shops. Smaller groups cooperated in 
carrying out the larger group project. One group built a store; 
another modeled and painted vegetables and fruits; another con- 
structed market baskets ; another a grocery wagon ; others, grocery 
books and paper bags, etc. One boy made a sign for the grocery. 
This project was stimulated by an excursion to a grocery store. 

15. "Christmas Celebration for Parents of Kindergarten Children" 

This subject was launched by the teacher, but developed by the 
children, the mothers, and the teacher. The mothers were asked 
(without the children's knowledge) to allow the children to do some 
little service for which they might be paid a small sum. This money 
they used to buy the tree which they (the children) selected. All 
the ornaments were made and the tree was decorated by the children. 
They also made invitations and simple presents which they deliv- 
ered in person to their parents. This plan was preceded by a con- 
scious consideration of the child's interests at this season, and he 
was, of course, remembered in the festivities planned, but this was 
a surprise and incidental to the real pleasure of the occasion. 

16. "A School Cafeteria'' 

(Outline submitted by Miss Prances M. Berry, Baltimore, 

Maryland) 

Discussion of materials used, things to be sold, signs, labels, and 
price marks. 



10 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Experimentation (discussion, judgment, decision) visit to real 
cafeteria. Visit to store, dairy, and garden for sources of supply. 

Children visited school cafeteria, took tray, bought milk and 
crackers, ate at table, and paid at counter on going out. 

Visits and excursions modified and amplified. 

Much oral language was involved, also dramatization, number 
work, and manual training. 

Project used in kindergarten and first grade. 

17. "A Mother Goose Show" 

(Outline from Miss Prances Berry, Baltimore, Maryland) 

In a summer school preparing non-kindergarten children for 
the first grade, a Mother Qoose show furnished material for six 
weeks' work. The following are some of the features: 

Telling Mother Goose rhymes by children and teacher. 

Singing, repeating, and acting rhymes by children. 

Making characters and objects in plasticine and day for the 
sand table. 

Beading rhymes attached to pictures. 

Suggestion of a show was made by children and worked up for 
public exhibition. 

A third-grade child was "Mother Goose" in costume. 

First-grade children sang the songs as "Mother Goose" intro- 
duced her children, who appeared one by one in costume on the 
stage. 

Much reading was involved, also dramatization, manual train- 
ing, music, and drawing. 

18. "A Kindergarten Circus" 

(Beported by Marion Watson, State Normal College, Ypsilanti, 

Michigan) 

A circus in town had created the interest and many conversa- 
tions resulted. It was then decided to have a circus in the kinder- 
garten. Then followed a discussion about what was needed to have 
a good circus. 



MATEB1ALS FOB THE KINDERGARTEN H 

The following participants were chosen: 

(1) Manager 

(2) Band (6 persons) 

(3) Costume Committee — "Clothes to dress up" 

(4) Actors 

Next followed a discussion about the "stunts" that they could 
do and many children illustrated their capacities. A lively prac- 
tice was the result that was heartily enjoyed, and then the "best 
stunts" were decided upon. 

Costumes were brought from home and some were made by the 
children, though very crudely, from paper cambric and paper. 
These were placed in an empty drawer when completed. 

The audience was discussed and the position of chairs, ring, 
etc., decided upon. 

They played this game several days, adding something each day, 
until it was voted good enough to invite the first grade in to see it. 

19. "The Rainy Day" 

(Reported by Miss Lillian E. Stege, Louisville, Kentucky) 
A morning of unusually steady, heavy rain before school and 
during assembly roused the interest of children and became a natu- 
ral topic of conversation. A suggestion by the teacher to do or make 
something connected with this unusual rain met with enthusiasm. 
Drawing, cutting, dressing dolls in rainy weather clothes, construc- 
tion of umbrellas, etc., resulted. Later, when called on for a story, 
a rhyme or a song pertaining to rain, contributions were readily 
given. The well-known Mother Goose rhyme — "Rain, rain go 
away" — proved most popular, and as no song was forthcoming for 
it, it was requested that the children try to sing it. Many responses 
followed, one of which proved so very good that it was published 
in a local paper. 

The excellent thing about this project was that for the re- 
mainder of the session we had many spontaneous bits of music for 
rhymes or original words, and now in the new session of 1920-21 
the name of the child whose effort proved most singable is remem- 
bered with real respect, and the desire to emulate his example is 
still proving a real stimulus. 



12 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

20. "Building a Railway Station" 

(Reported by Miss Mary A. Goodwin, Richmond, Virginia) 

The building of this, like the building of the church, Project 
No. 5, might be a step toward the larger community project later. 
It grew out of the story of a visit to the station by one of the chil- 
dren, and was carried out in the following order : 

1. The attempt to make an engine. 

2. A visit to the station by a group of children. 

3. The making of a full-fledged train, consisting of the engine 
and tender, baggage and passenger cars. 

4. Making the station itself. 

5. Making trunks and suit cases by one group of children, and 
cutting paper dolls or dressing china dolls by othern. 

6. Making signs, such as "Union Station," "Ticket Office," 
"No Smoking," etc., and putting these up. In the ticket office 
there were two groups of dolls representing people waiting for 
the train. 

This project stimulated the children to several other lines of 
work later on, and was of special interest to the boys. 

COMMENT 

There are many additional projects that have been successfully 
worked out illustrating other phases of the year's thought. Among 
these are: a park play ground; a farm yard, using construction 
paper ; a winter play-ground in the sand table, the sand being cov- 
ered with cotton for snow. Some projects representing out-of-door 
life have been successfully worked out in Summer Observation 
Kindergartens. In the Milwaukee Normal School a summer band 
concert was successfully worked out by a group of children under 
the direction of Miss Blanche Lovett. The children made the band 
stand and the seats for the audience, making the scats with large 
blocks, large enough for the children to sit on. They then devised 
musical instruments of different kinds and gave a concert to their 
friends. 

The projects above described have been confined to one kind — 
those requiring the use of materials. Many kindergarteners have 



MATEBIALS FOB THE KINDERGARTEN 13 

worked out game and story projects, but these have been omitted 
as they will probably be well represented in the work of the pri- 
mary grades. To be of maximum value all these projects need a 
fuller description than could be given in the brief space allowed. 
The conditions as well as the equipment in the grades are fairly 
uniform and a brief description will suffice for the projects used 
there. Those in the kindergarten have not yet become standardized 
and a more detailed statement is therefore needed. Several of the 
projects named could not be carried out in the average kinder- 
garten because of the lack of the needed material and of adequate 
floor space. A project requiring floor space and several days of 
work for its development is practically impossible if the room must 
be used by different groups of children in the forenoon and in the 
afternoon. 

The work here given will have value, however, if it gives an 
added insight into the nature and purposes of kindergarten edu- 
cation, and shows the unity of aim and effort in the work of the 
kindergarten and in the grades that follow. The recognition of the 
project is bringing about a truer relation between the kindergarten 
and the primary grades than has ever existed, because it is based 
upon the principles that subject matter must grow out of the ex- 
periences of the children and that it must have real content, which 
finds expression in many kinds of material. 



CHAPTER n 

NEW MATERIALS FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES 

The materials assembled by the sub-committee on the primary 
grades are presented in this chapter in three sections, according as 
they are designed for use in the first, the second, or the third grade. 
The project materials for the third grade naturally fell under 
classification of school subjects, as : history, geography, arithmetic 
Those for the first and second grades, because each project involved 
several of the tools of learning, were more difficult of organization, 
therefore more inclusive terms were used as: seasonable, special 
occasions. The chairman regrets that much valuable material came 
too late to be used. Readers may find it of interest to refer also to 
the "Reading Exercises Based on Children's Experiences" pre- 
sented as Chapter I of the earlier report in the Nineteenth Year- 
book, Part I, of the Society. 

A. MATERIALS PRIMARILY FOR THE FIRST GRADE 

21. "Our Garden Fair" 
(Reported by Miss Mary L. Dougherty, Mankato, Minnesota) 

In the spring the children of the Primary Department ordered 
seeds from the Children's Flower Mission and made plans for their 
gardens at home. These they cared for all summer and when school 
opened were ready for the Fair, which had been planned for the 
second week when the County Fair would be in progress. 

In preparation, the children made doilies on which to display 
the vegetables and flowers, labels bearing the name of the exhibit 
and the name of the exhibitor, posters for advertising. The third- 
grade pupils each made a poster, while the second-grade used that 
as a group project. Invitations were taken home by all. The pupils 
of the second and third grades wrote their own. The first-grade 
pupils composed theirs and made decorated folders for the type- 
written copies which were made for them. The science instructor 
in the school acted as judge and gave red and blue ribbon awards 

14 



MATERIALS FOB THE PB1MABY GRADES 15 

just as was done at the County Pair. A large attendance of par- 
ents and general appreciation for the work rewarded the children 
for their efforts. 

Third-grade children wrote to a teacher who was ill, letters tell- 
ing about the fair, and so had drill on correspondence forms and 
a general summary of the experience. 

22. A Series of Suggestive Projects 

(Submitted by Aschah May Harris, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

1. A Kite Tournament (see No. 25, further on) 

2. A Puppet Show (to raise money to purchase a canvas for our 
new play house) 

3. A Bed Time Story Book (for a wee girl *s Christmas) 

4. A Picnic for the Three B. Class (planned by the Three A. Class) 

5. A Bobert Louis Stevenson Program (for chapel) 

6. A Bossetti Program (for chapel) 

7. An Entertainment " Christmas in Other Lands," for the first and 
second grades or for our mothers (third grade) 

8. A Mother's Day Program 

9. An Easter Greeting for the Home (a small potted plant grown 
from seed, planted in the school-room window-box — the pot deco- 
rated with paper cuttings representing the flowers and leaves 
conventionalized, then the pot covered with shellac) 

10. A Picture Show "Little Black Sambo" (by the first grade to 
entertain the kindergarten or the second grade) 

11. A Play — Dramatization of Little Black Sambo (by the second 
grade — costumes all made by children in their "Free Choice 
Boom") 

12. Making a School Garden (to earn money for purchasing new 
books) 

13. Making a Dictionary for Grade One (planned by the third grade) 

14. Making Christmas Presents (to be distributed by the Welfare 
Association to the needy children in the city) 

a. Noah's Ark (made by the first grade) 

b. Picture Puzzles (made by the second grade) 

15. Planning a Christmas Dinner (third grade) 

16. A Christmas Present for Father (box of stuffed dates) 

23. "The Spirit of Spring" 

(Reported by Miss Prances M. Berry, Baltimore, Maryland) 

Subject Matter 

Mother Nature's work, her care for her children. Awakening 
life. Preparation of garden, planting of seeds, study germination. 
Care of garden. Study of flowers. Kinds — garden, field and 
woods. Their beauty and use. Poems and stories in correlation. 



16 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Activities 

1. Illustrate "Mary Quite Contrary." Use the sand table. 
Make house, wall, and garden. Cut and paint tulips, daffodils, 
sunflowers, lilies. Trees and wall in background. Make a paper 
doll ; dress in spring costume with a watering can for Mary. Cut 
and dress a man with wheelbarrow, a boy with rake or lawn mower. 

2. Illustrate a "May Pole Dance." Construct of cardboard 
houses, a church, and fences, hedge and gardens. The "Village 
Green,' ' with May pole. Paper or real dolls (15 cent celluloid) 
dressed in costumes of crepe paper, dancing around May pole. 

3. Weave May baskets of raffia. Take trip to fields or woods ; 
fill baskets with flowers. Present them to a friend. 

24. "A Flower Shop' ' 

(Reported by Mildred Dickinson, Richmond, Indiana) 

Easter and the spring flowers suggested the project ; one child 
thought of a flower shop and the others accepted the idea. Patty 
Hill blocks made the shop, shelves, tables, etc. Flowers were made 
of crepe, tissue, and drawing paper ; pots of paper, clay and plas- 
ticine ; baskets of various original forms, of paper. One child sug- 
gested that gold fish be placed in the shop, and one day all went out 
of doors with the toy wagon and brought back violet-plants in 
bloom. A long narrow sand tray was placed in the center of the 
shop, the gold-fish bowl put in it, and the violets planted about it. 
The children bought, sold, and delivered the flowers. 

25. "A Kite Tournament' ' 

(Reported by Aschah May Harris, Emporia, Kansas) 

The making of kites this sp.ing, which started in the "Free- 
Choice Room," led to a kite tournament. The result was that 
every child in the primary department made a kite. Honors were 
given to the child making the largest kite that would fly and the 
smallest kite that would fly, also to the one making the prettiest 
kite, and the kite that would sail the highest in five minutes. The 
children selected their own judges and invited them to assist in 
the tournament. They wrote their notes of invitation. 



MATERIALS POB THE P&IMA&Y Q&ADES If 

Work that grew out of this project was as follows : 

(a) Beading for Information 

"Our Little Japaneso Cousin" 
"When I Was a Little Boy in China" 
"Home-made Toys for Boys and Girls" 
"Harper's Out-of-Door Books for Boys" 
"Child Life in Japan" 

(b) Beading for Inspiration and Appreciation 

Stevenson— "The Wind" 

Bossetti— " Who Has Seen the 'Wind! " 

Steadman— "What the Winds Bring" 

JSsop — "The Wind and the Sun" 

Bailey— "The Windmill" 

"The Foolish Weather Vane" 

"The Little Half Chick"— from Kansas Second Header 

"The Windmill "—from Ebon Rinkel's Primer 

"Ulysses and the Bag of Winds" 

(e) Language, Writing and Spelling 

Dramatization of the Wind and the Sun (first grade) 

Writing quotations that have been memorized (second and third 

grades) 
Invitations to judges. 
The Work of the Wind. 
Story made by the One B. reading class. 
"I have a kite. 

I made my kite. 

It is a red kite. 

I can fly my kite. 

See the pretty kite fly." 

(d) Singing 

Knowlton's Nature Songs for Children. ("March Wind") 
Normal Institute and Primary Plans, March. 1920. ("The March 

Wind") 
Primary Education, March, 1918. ("I should Like to Be a Kite") 

(e) Band Work 

Making kites — two-piece frames and three-piece frames. 

Decorating kites with birds, butterflies, etc., calling for free choice 

in selection of colors, careful paper-cutting, pasting, etc. 
Chapel programs, using the wind songs, poems, stories and rhythm 

work. 

(f) Number Work 

Measuring string, sticks for frames. 
Kite sales (playing store). 

26. "A Halloween Party" 
(Reported by Florence Williams, Richmond, Indiana) 
Decorations were made for the room by using the pumpkin Jack- 
oljantern, comical cats from circles of black paper, apples, etc., as 



18 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

units for border design. The room was so pleasing that the chil- 
dren wished others to see it, and so decided to give the kindergarten 
a party. Invitations were planned, designed, and sent (using oral 
composition). An entertainment committee was chosen, also a re- 
freshment committee. After much discussion, first without, then 
with, the teacher, plans were made. The entertainment consisted 
of games suitable for the occasion and a story. The refreshments 
were pop-corn which the children popped themselves and animal 
crackers which were donated. These were served in baskets made 
of orange-colored paper and appropriately decorated. 

27. "A Toy Shop" 

(Reported by Alison Hayne, Detroit, Michigan) 

The shop was constructed from materials borrowed from the kin- 
dergarten. The children made toys, dolls, doll clothes, beads, doll 
house and furniture, picture books, blocks, animals, picture puz- 
zles, clay dishes, vases, etc. The arranging and selling of toys was 
also done by the children. Their plans and discussions formed the 
basis for board reading lessons. The buying and selling involved 
the use of numbers. The prices were marked from five to twenty 
cents. 

28. "The Christmas Spirit" 

(Reported by Prances M. Berry, Baltimore, Maryland) 

Subject Matter 

The legendary Santa Claus, his home, his work, his visit. The 
Santa Claus spirit — a kind thought taking human form never passes 
away. A beautiful spirit enters people's hearts, telling what to do 
to make others happy. Santa Claus of the home, the school, the 
shop, the natural world. Work of father and mother to give people 
happiness. Presents, toys. History of Santa Claus. Santa Claus 
of other lands. 

Activities 

1. On the sand table make a room. Show mantel, fire-place, 
and chimney. Construct bed ; place dolls in bed, dressed in night 
gowns. Cut out and dress a Santa Claus with bag. Secure small 



MATEBIAL8 FOB THE PBIMABY 0BADB8 19 

fir tree. Children make the ornaments for tree. Paper icicles, 
cornucopias, chains, drums, stars, trumpets, lanterns and flowers. 
String pop-corn and cranberries. 

2. Make a community toy bag of burlap. Each child make or 
donate a toy. 

29. " Fairyland" 
(Reported by Floy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The class took a May walk, gathering pretty pebbles, bits of 
moss, and other materials. Each child brought the lid of a shoe 
box, covered it with green paper, and arranged in it his treasures, 
making a bit of fairyland by adding paper bridges, little paper 
trees, tiny fairies cut from paper or fairies made from white-headed 
pins dressed and arranged in a circle. The children had listened 
to stories of the "Legend of the Fairy Eing" and of the return of 
the fairies in the spring, and this little project resulted therefrom. 

30. "A Country Home on the Sand Table" 
(Reported by Frances M. Berry, Baltimore, Maryland) 

In this first-grade project there was involved the building of 
house, fences, barns, out-buildings, chiefly by paper construction. 

The problems involved were such as the following : the selection 
of materials best suited for the construction of each part — experi- 
mentation, criticism, judgment, decision, final construction, the 
best product then chosen by group. 

The materials used were paper, cardboard, clay, wood, twigs and 
branches, seeds. 

The project involved much oral language, also dramatization, 
drawing, manual training, number work, and measuring. 

31. "A Post Office" 

(Reported by Frances Berry) 

There was a discussion of the use of the post office in the com- 
munity. One was built of blocks and rough boards. 
Use was made of it in play thus: 



20 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

When entering, child is given card with names upon it, becomes 
familiar with it, returns it when leaving. Gradually card is filled 
with full names, address, name of school teacher, principal, janitor, 
nurse. Envelopes addressed to these people are supplied. Child 
selects one he wants, mails in it some of his own work, an invitation, 
thanks, greetings, etc. Teacher supplies type-written stories, poems, 
songs, etc. Child chooses one of these, reads at home to someone. 

The tools of learning involved are reading, oral language, com- 
position, and dramatization. 

32. "The County Fair" 1 

(Reported by Prances Berry) 

The fair grounds were made on the sand table, using clay, sand, 
and paper. There were represented the band stand, boohs, stalls, 
various exhibit buildings, people, and animals. 

This project led to abundant free conversation and supplied 
stories for reading lessons. 

33. "The Family" 
(Reported by Frances Berry) 

Subject Matter 

The family members — mother, her scrvice3; father, his services; 
children, how they may help. Family pleasures, activities, food, 
shelter, clothing. 

Activities 

Cut out paper dolls to represent various members of the family. 
Paste on faces cut from advertisements in magazines. Cut kimona 
patterns. Use for petticoat — scallop edge. Use for dress, make of 
checked tissue paper. Trim dress with pockets and belt. Hat of 
cardboard or tag board; cut slit for head; trim to match dress. 
Cut short coat of paper ; color with crayola to match hat. 



1 Compare the use made of the County Fair in the primary grades at Janes- 
ville, Wisconsin, as described in the Nineteenth Yearbook, Part I, pp. 20-23. — 
Editor. 



MATER1AL8 FOB THE PRIMARY GRAVE 8 21 

These dolls may be dressed in cotton when studying Eskimo Life 
in January. Also may be dressed as Dutch children when study- 
ing Dutch Life, and used in Dutch village on sand table in March. 

34. "A Mother Goose Party' ' 

(Reported by Alison M. Hayne, Detroit, Michigan) 

There were presented attractive pictures of "Jack and Jill," 
"Little Miss Muffct," "Little Jack Horner," "Little Boy Blue," 
"There Was an Old Woman," etc., by Jessie Wilcox Smith. 

The dramatization, memorizing, and discussion which followed 
led to plans for a Mother Goose party. This party was distinctly 
a first-grade party and only first-grade games were used. These 
were: (1) marching around, as in "Musical Chairs," having pho- 
netic sounds on cards; puzzles getting the words and pictures 
matched; (2) matching words in different places; (3) labeling 
actors in dramatization, removing labels and having children recog- 
nize the names ; and many other games recalling such association. 

The children made the costumes to be worn in dramatization. 
The dances were chosen by the children from the course of study 
in physical training. The music teacher furnished the songs. The 
boys made the tuffet, Bo Peep's staff, sheep's coats, the pie, etc. 
The girls painted the cardboard plates and made doilies, and all 
helped with the costumes. Each individual had an important part 
in making the occasion successful for the group as a whole. 

35. "An Exchange of Houses" 

(Reported by Alice C. Porter, Louisville, Kentucky) 
This project was carried over from the kindergarten. A two- 
room house completely furnished by a kindergarten group was 
brought to the first grade when the group was promoted in Feb- 
ruary. The house was occupied by a family of paper dolls. The 
first grade had two rag dolls and the children began playing vis- 
itors. One child suggested that the rag dolls were country cousins 
who had come to visit the paper dolls in the city. There was but 
one bed. How were the visitors to be made comfortable? The 
children asked for wood to make another bed. The bed was made, 



22 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

but where was it to be placed? One child said a larger house was 
needed, and asked for floor blocks. Several groups built houses, 
but they realized that the block houses were not as stable as the 
little house. The teacher suggested that perhaps the large boys 
would make a four-room house, if asked. The class dictated a note 
asking help. The sixth-grade boys agreed to build, but the first 
grade must furnish measurements. The best block house was meas- 
ured and the new house was built. At the suggestion of the class, 
a note which was dictated to the teacher was sent to the builders, 
thanking them for their cooperation. The next problem was what 
to do with the old house. One group visited the neighborhood to 
see how empty houses were advertised. They printed a "For Sale" 
sign and advertised in a newspaper, which fell into the hands of the 
kindergarten children, who sent a note inquiring the price of the 
house. The note was read by the first grade. They had a sale and 
the house was bought by the kindergarten for ten dollars. The next 
problem: additional furniture was needed for the larger house. 
The class divided into three groups for this work. One group vis- 
ited a neighboring store and bought material for draperies. On 
their return, this was measured and made up to fit the windows. 
The kitchen needed a cabinet and this was made by the child who 
had discovered the need. A miniature bath-tub was sent by an 
interested parent and a real iron stove by another parent. A child 
brought a tiny telephone. Many other lines of thought were sug- 
gested by the class and were worked out. The project furnished 
material for thought and work for a period of five months. 

36. "A Doll Sale" 

(Beported by Marguerite DeLano and Myrtle L. Kaufmann, 

Springfield, Illinois) 

It was desired to raise money enough to buy rubber tips for 
the chairs in the first-grade room. The children suggested means 
of raising the money and finally decided to sell paper-bag dolls to 
children in other rooms in the building. 

In making the dolls cotton was put in the bottom of the bag 
and tied to make the head. The top of the bag, when inverted, 
served as a skirt stiff enough to support the doll in a standing 



MATERIALS FOB THE PBIMABY GBAVE8 23 

position. A face and hair were painted on the head. Variation in 
facial expression made each doll different from the others. Rolls 
of paper put through slits in the dress and fastened with paper 
fasteners formed the arms. Dresses and caps were made of col- 
ored crepe paper. The variety of dolls made included : witches, 
Red Riding Hood dolls, sun-bonnet babies, and dolls with and with- 
out aprons. 

The children were in charge of the sale. Five cents was the 
price of each doll. Advertising posters were planned and made. 

The plan called for: 

1. Language 

(a) Oral : discussion of plana and the announcing of the sale in 
other rooms. 

(b) Written: addressing of package sent out of city to a visitor 
who had left an order. 

2. Heading of posters. 

3. Art: Selection of pictures for posters, and arrangement of the 

same. Cutting of letters for posters. Decorations of doll 
heads. Planning color combinations for the dresses. 

4. Occupation work : Preparation for making the dolls was given in 

the period set aside for project work. Later children were 
able to work unsupervised at tables and workbenches. After 
the sale the children made dolls for themselves. 

5. Number: The class felt the necessity of learning to make change. 

As a result, every chair in the room is rubber-tipped. 

37. "An Egg Hunt" 

(Reported by Wezette Hayden and Myrtle Kaufmann, 

Springfield, Illinois) 

The children (IB Grade) talked about the approach of Easter 
and planned for some observation of the day. Some of the chil- 
dren told about experiences with colored eggs. It was decided to 
have an egg hunt and to invite another first grade to participate. 

The children brought eggs to school and boiled them, timing the 
process. Later, they decorated them with water colors, — in some in- 
stances applying flat washes and then designs in contrasting colors. 

The eggs were hidden in the grass at the foot of shrubs and 
trees in a small park near the school. At the time set for the egg 
hunt, the children of the two rooms went to the park and had a 
happy time finding the nests. Those who found several voluntarily 
gave to those few who found none. 



24 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The plans for the egg hunt furnished interesting language work, 
and the records of the experience were used as reading material. 
Word study and writing grew out of the plan to send invitations 
to the other children. The decorating of the eggs made very in- 
teresting work in color and design. 

B. MATERIALS FOB THE SECOND GRADE 

38. "Old Pipes and the Dryad" 

(Reported by Fannie L. Ballou, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

The second grade was given charge of " Assembly.' ' The 
children conferred together and decided on the dramatization of 
"Old Pipes and the Dryad." Committees were appointed, five 
scenes were finally decided upon and arranged and children chosen 
for the parts. Costumes were gathered from various sources and 
were simply made. Scenery was made in the art class on huge 
sheets of bogus paper and was pleasing, though crude. Oral and 
written language and hand work were involved in this project. 

39. "The Easter Rabbit" 

We determined the acts for this dramatization, to be outlined 
by the children as follows: 

Act I. In the woods, just before spring. 

Act II. Springtime in the woods. 

Act III. Easter morning in the town. 

The characters were not chosen until everything else was ready. 
The daily language lesson was the rehearsal of the various parts 
of the story by different individuals. Then the selection of the 
characters was left entirely to the children. 

This particular story called for much investigation on the part 
of the pupils in order to have a more perfect understanding. The 
following were some of the children's questions which they an- 
swered for themselves: 



it 



When is Spring duet" 

What are the first spring flowers and birds t" 



MATERIALS FOB THE PEIMABY GRAVE 8 25 

"Do bears really sleep all winter t" 
"What kind of homes do foxes have? Etc." 

Occupational activities concerned were : 

Writing invitations 
Posters 
Programs 
Tickets 
Costumes 
Stage settings 

Decorations for room, picturing different scenes and writing 
a few sentences to explain the picture. 

Writing "What I would like to be in the play and how I 
would do it." (Here the children came to the teacher 
for the spelling of very difficult words. She often di- 
rected them to one of the class who had asked for the 
same information at some previous time.) 

Beading these stories by the children to the class. 

The undertaking involved language, nature work, reading, writ- 
ing, a limited conception of number, much spelling, handwork of 
every description, and most of all, the cooperation and directed 
effort of every child in the room. These children had one hour 
every morning in which all worked toward one goal — the presenta- 
tion of "Bunny's Easter Trip." 

40. "The Party" 
(Reported by Fannie L. Ballou, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

Suggested by the offering of some child of his bag of cookies 
or box of candy. 

The host chooses an entertainment committee and refreshment 
committee, each after a short conference. The entertainment is 
decided upon, which takes the form of a short play, stories, or 
games. Many lessons are learned regarding manners and simple 
courtesy during these parties and much training is given in social 
etiquette. 



26 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

41. ' ' Making a Story and Picture Book for the First-Grade Library 

Table" 

(Reported by Ruth E. Davis, Bridgewater, Massachusetts) 

The children selected from a number of bird pictures a few in 
which they were interested. These were trimmed and mounted in 
a brown paper book, and were made a basis of conversation, the chil- 
dren contributing from a study of the pictures and from experi- 
ence. For each picture the facts were organized into story form, 
for each child wrote his own story. Encouragement was given when 
necessary to assist in mastering the difficulties in spelling. The 
corrected draft was used as penmanship material and the best 
final result chosen for one page in the book. 

42. "Seed Planting" 

(Reported by Neva I. Lockwood, Bridgewater, Massachusetts) 

This question was raised by the children, "How do seeds grow?" 
Beans were soaked and examined. Other seeds were placed on 
damp blotting paper and in damp sawdust that the first stages of 
growth might be observed. Each pupil made a flower pot of oak 
and planted seeds of his own choosing. He was responsible for the 
care of his pot and reported to the class what he observed. When 
the plants were ready for transplanting, each pupil took his home 
to put in his garden. In the fall a number of the children brought 
to school flowers or vegetables which their plants had produced. A 
little manual work and much oral language grew out of this study. 

43. "Bird Diaries" 

(Reported by Fannie L. Ballou, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

As the birds began to return in the spring, the children became 
so interested in them that some of them wanted to keep a report of 
what they were seeing each day. "Bird Diaries," with attractive 
covers were made in the art class and each day, the date and the 
birds seen were recorded. The children saw many they did not 
know and wished to have a near-by place where they could solve 
their problems. A table was put in the back of the room, and all 



MATERIALS FOB THE PBIMABT GBADE8 27 

the bird books available from home and library were collected there. 
Frequently, we met together for a nature conference to share in- 
dividual bits of new information with the group. 

44. "A Wool Book" 
(Reported by Fannie Ballou) 

Children were interested in the study of wool. As informational 
material was difficult to find in a form simple enough to read, the 
teacher answered their questions, and the pupils decided to make 
books of their own. Different groups worked together, and as a 
result there were several compositions which were mimeographed 
and used as reading lessons. These were bound into book form. 
Covers and illustrations were made in the art class. Original stories 
and poems were prepared in the same way. 

45. "Making Bank Books" 

(Reported by Fannie Ballou) 

During the war, the children brought money to school for the 
purchase of thrift stamps. One day, someone suggested that we 
have a savings bank in our room, so that pennies and nickels would 
grow to quarters without the danger of being spent for candy. The 
children decided that they needed bank books as well as a bank, so 
each made his own book, ruling the columns on the pages and using 
the words In, Out, and Left, instead of Deposit, Withdrawal and 
Balance. Each child kept his own account; the teacher kept a 
duplicate on filing cards. It was interesting to see how quickly 
the children knew when they had saved twenty-five cents. They 
learned much arithmetic easily and naturally through their "Thrift 
Stamp Bank.' 1 

46. "A Health Code" 
(Reported by Jessie O. Kennedy, Kansas City, Missouri.) 

The day after the coming of the Health Exhibit to our school, 
for language we talked about Miss Brown's visit, each one telling 
what interested him most. After a number had said "We must do 



28 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

this" and "mustn't do that," I asked them if they would like to 
make their own health rules. They wanted very much to do it. 

Then some one suggested that we make posters of them, like 
Miss Brown's. To the question, "Where will we get pictures to 
illustrate them," one little girl said, "I saw in a magazine a picture 
of an, open window ; we could let that tell us to keep our windows 
open at night. ' ' Others thought of pictures they could bring. 

That afternoon l he first picture was brought by a little boy 
whom I hadn't before been able to interest in anything. As he 
handed it to me, he said, "That picture tells us to go to bed early." 
He was one who had been accustomed to spend as many nights at 
the picture show as he could get nickels to pay his admittance. As 
each picture was brought, the class decided whether it was suitable 
for a health rule and then we made the rule. 

Of course, a number of the pictures that were brought could not 
bo used. If they disagreed with what the "Health Lady" taught, 
they were at once discarded. We spent several weeks in planning 
for the posters. 

During this time all of the writing period was spent in writing 
the health rules. We also took all of our spelling words in the 
second grade from this source. We used the language and hygiene 
period in talking about our pictures and making all our plans. In 
the hand work period the pictures were cut out and mounted. The 
cutting of the letters for the folder was part of our art work for the 
month. (The children used half -inch ruled paper, but we found the 
letters too large to use, so the teacher made the letters and the chil- 
dren colored them.) 

Many new words were added to their reading vocabulary, as 
the rules made one day must be read the next day before they were 
used for writing. We also had a number of supplementary reading 
lessons on the board with our health project for its basis. I also 
found a number enjoying reading a few health stories we had on 
our reading table. 

Before we took up this work the health lesson seemed something 
foreign to the children, but while we were doing it and afterwards, 
it seemed a part of them. Often the first thing in the morning 
and afternoon session, they would say "I did a health rule; I 



MATERIALS FOB TH& P&1MAR? GRADES gg 

brushed my teeth." "I washed my hands before eating." "I 
drank milk for breakfast." "I ate something green for lunch." 

Working out the health project was not only a very pleasant and 
profitable school experience, but I am sure the lesson learned will 
stay with the children and carry over into their everyday life. 

47. "The 'We Like It' Cafeteria" 
(Reported by Jessie G. Kennedy, Kansas City, Missouri.) 

We had just finished making a health project, based upon the 
Health Exhibit, in which we illustrated health rules with pictures 
cut from magazines (No. 46). 

In waiting to be served at our school cafeteria, I noticed that 
sometimes pupils were not courteous in the way they asked for food. 
I thought if my pupils could have a cafeteria, we could teach the 
proper way of serving and being served. The next day in language 
time, I found that all of the pupils had eaten at a cafeteria, either 
at school or elsewhere. When I asked if they would like to have 
one in the room, they were enthusiastic. To the question, ' ' Where 
will we get the food?" they replied, "Out of magazines." At the 
next session the pictures began coming in. 

I was very much delighted at the resourcefulness they showed 
in getting pictures. To illustrate : we were unable to find suitable 
pictures of butter. One day we had a visitor who asked for butter. 
The girl serving said, "I am sorry but we have no butter." 

The next day a boy brought to school a half-pound butter carton 
with a small butter mould on the end. This was too small to use, 
but some one said, ' ' We have a pound box like that at home. " So it 
was brought and that problem was solved. 

We decided to follow as nearly as possible our own school 
cafeteria, both as to food served and prices asked. 

The pictures were pasted on card-board and then cut out. These 
were given to a group who decided which ones should stand and a 
way to make them stand. 

Then came the question of plates. A paper plate was brought 
to school for a pattern. The teacher ventured a suggestion, but 
found it wouldn't work, so one boy said he could make them of the 



30 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

sort he ate ice cream from down town. He was given material and 
made his own and showed the rest of us how to do it. We decided 
to use forget-me-nots to decorate our dishes. 

We used lids of large boxes for trays. In choosing a name for 
our cafeteria, three or four names, any one of which was thought 
suitable, were placed on the board and the class voted. "We Like 
It Cafeteria" was chosen. 

Names for those to serve were suggested by the class and then 
voted on. The different helpers were changed after serving a while, 
so as to give a number a chance to help. 

Food was divided into meats, vegetables, breads, fruits, and 
desserts. Milk was served with the meats, soup and crackers with 
the bread, and lemonade and cookies with the fruits. 

We borrowed three individual desks from our neighbor (ours 
rerc screwed down tight) and these with a table in the room were 
used for serving tables. The teacher's desk was the checker's 
stand and a kindergarten table was our dining table. The cashier 
used a box lid on top of a desk. On the board back of each serving 
table was written the names of the food served, with its price. 
Advertisements that had been made at the writing period were 
placed where it was thought the customer would see them. 

Each person in charge of a food had her own box and displayed 
her food and put it away when through with it. Others removed 
the chairs and placed the various tables. We elected a manager 
who looked after all this. 

A customer got his tray, knife, fork, spoon, and plate. He 
passed along the various tables and selected his food, stopping at 
the checker's stand to have his tray valued. Those at their seats 
would often have paper and pencil and, as the food was taken, put 
down the price and then see if their addition agreed with the 
checker's. We would often discuss the food chosen to see if the 
meal was a balanced one. 

The person served sat down to enjoy his meal. At first on leav- 
ing the table, he merely left his check with the cashier. Later toy 
money was used and change made. These checks were saved and 
used to find out the day's business (drill in adding and carrying). 



MATEEIAL8 FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES 31 

48. "The Store" 

(Reported by Fannie L. Ballou, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

A group of boys decided to make a store, so gathered grocery 
boxes and boards of different lengths and sizes. The making of 
the store occupied two weeks' time. Other boys joined, and finally 
the entire group was involved, the leader giving orders to sub- 
groups. They made paper money, signs, price tags, articles to sell, 
etc. Through their play came recognition, addition, subtraction, 
and a splendid motive for drill. 

49. "The Grocery Store' ' 

(Reported by Frances Berry, Baltimore, Maryland) 

After a visit to a grocery the children brought cereal boxes, can 
wrappers, soap wrappers, etc., from home. Boards supported on 
boxes answered for shelves. The children copied fruit and vegetable 
wrappers on manila drawing paper and made hollow cylinders 
(without top or bottom) for cans. Cereal boxes were folded, deco- 
rated and pasted; representations of match boxes, bars of soap, 
soap powder, Dutch Cleanser, packages of vegetable and flower seeds 
were made. On the table was a show case for the candy. This was a 
large gray box with a sloping lid and a large piece of window glass 
set in with glued corners. A cash register, various trays and baskets 
were evolved and constructed, and each child made his own paper 
money and a purse to contain it. The stock was invoiced and a 
grocer was asked to make a price list. Small price cards were 
made and articles bought and sold. As articles were sold, they were 
replaced by the ' ' farmers, " " canners, ' ' and ' ' manufacturers, ' ' thus 
affording wholesale, as well as retail exchange. 

Conversation, reading, composition, arithmetic, manual training 
were involved. 

50. "Health Charts" 

(Outline from Frances Berry) 

Topic: "What the good citizen tries to do." 
Takes care of his health. 
Tries to be neat and orderly. 



32 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Tries to be courteous and considerate. 
Tries to be honest and trustworthy. 
Tries to be fair and generous. 
Tries to be prompt. 
Discussion of each of these, and a chart made for each, such as 
the following on care of health. 

"I wash my face, neck, ears, hands and arms every 

morning." 
"I wash my hands and clean my nails before each meal." 
"I wear my rubbers when it is wet." 
Illustration of these by pictures from magazines. 
Individual books may be made, containing related readings and 
pictures. 

51. ' ' Dramatization of Arab Life * ' 

(Reported by Florence E. Williams, Richmond, Indiana) 

At the outset pictures were shown and discussed, and there were 
lectures to the children by a native of Jerusalem. 

The children then made and wore Arab costumes, e. g., tunics, 
head-dresses, veils. They made camels by turning down small 
chairs, making head and neck of brown construction paper and 
gluing to a ruler, then tying the ruler to the back of the chair and 
draping a coat over the chairs for the bodj\ They constructed an 
Arab tent in the corner of the room and sat there to weave their 
rugs, which were made of rags dyed by themselves. 

An oasis was made in the sand table. Palm trees were made 
of green and brown construction paper (the fronds by folding green 
paper slashed diagonally — five or six tied together and glued to the 
end of a roll of brown paper) . A spring of water was represented 
by a tin lid ; sheep were made of plastico covered with white cotton ; 
goats and camels of clay ; dolls were dressed in Arab costumes, some 
sitting before the tent weaving tiny rugs on tag board looms. The 
camels laden with rugs were being ridden across the desert. 

52. "Watching Caterpillars Turn into Butterflies" 
(Reported by Ethel Salisbury, Berkeley, California) 
A caterpillar was brought into the classroom. Several children 
were afraid of it. It was put into a glass case and given leaves to 



MATEEIAL8 FOB THE PBIMAEY GRADES 33 

cat. Other children brought more. The children found out all they 
could about them. Its metamorphosis was watched and one morn- 
ing a beautiful mourning-cloak butterfly emerged from its brown 
cradle. It dried its wings in the sun and flew away as the children 
watched. They were told that after awhile it would lay little black 
eggs which would make pretty brown caterpillars and then more 
beautiful butterflies. Several of the children who were afraid of 
caterpillars found and brought some in the following days and 
put them in the case. 

53. "Doing Something for a Sick Classmate' ' 
(Reported by Lucia M. Densmore, Ypsilanti, Michigan) 

A few weeks ago a little boy in our room met with a serious 
accident which necessitated his removal to the hospital at once. As 
his seat was vacant the next morning, we began a "conversation" 
about this absence — why he was not in school, etc. I stated briefly, 
without going into detail, the reason he was not there, telling the 
children Glen would not be with us for several weeks, as the acci- 
dent was serious. 

Then followed several questions. "What can we do for him 
while he is away?" "What do you think he would like to have 
us dot" "What would he enjoy most?" 

These questions were answered quickly by the children as fol- 
lows: "We could make picture books." "We could write him a 
letter." "We could send fruit and flowers." "We could send 
toys." 

As a result, apples, grapes, pears, oranges and flowers have 
come in abundance. These we have arranged tastily in boxes and 
sent to him with a little written message suggested by the children. 
They have also written a letter, made picture books, pages of which 
were their own drawings, illustrating stories. Other books have 
been made of paper cuttings. 

By letting two or three sit at a small table which is in the corner 
of our room, the children have made several toys for him — among 
them boats, wagons, baskets and aeroplanes. 

This project will 'carry on' several weeks, as some of the chil- 



34 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

dren are just beginning their activities. All are eager to do some- 
thing. 

0. MATERIALS FOB THE THIRD GRADE 

54. "A Library" 

(Outline from Jennie Smith) 

Election by the class, of librarian, assistants, etc. Books 
brought from home and from public libraries. Rules for manage- 
ment, care of books, etc., worked out by committee on rules and 
adopted by the group. Card system used. Name for library chosen 
by group. Oral and silent reading. 

55. "A Health Club" 

(Outline from Jennie Smith) 

Class organized and selected their leaders, chose name for club, 
etc., using standard leaflet of Health Chores published by Tuber- 
culosis Society. Reports of successes, questions, problems, etc., 
came in to the business meetings of the club. Discussions were car- 
ried on here also. All records, inspection of same, and charge of 
buttons issued for chores completed in hands of officers of the club. 
The teacher works through these officers, as a guide to the group. 

56. "An Indian Entertainment" 

(Outline from Gertrude E. Pollard, Atlanta, Georgia) 

History : Life, customs, dress, etc. 

Reading: Indian stories. 

Literature: Hiawatha. 

Composition: Arranged an original play based on Hiawatha. 
Each child wrote of his Indian adventure to tell around the camp 
fire. 

Music : Part of Hiawatha. Indian records on Victrola. 

Dance : Made up a corn dance from a reading lesson. 

Construction : Measured and made head gear. Made costumes 
from cambric. 

Drawing: Drew borders and designs for their costumes after 
studying Indian design. 



MATEBIAL8 FOB TEE PB1MABY GBADBS 35 

57. "Making the School Garden Pay" 

(Reported by Ellice B. Burk, Cleveland, Ohio) 

The seeds for the garden were provided by the school and the 
garden was a class project. The children did all the work with the 
exception of plowing. When the vegetables were ready for the 
market, the class was divided into committees, each one having a 
particular responsibility, such as keeping in touch with the market 
prices, soliciting customers or delivering goods. At regular inter- 
vals the crops were harvested, weighed, measured, put in bags 
with labels attached giving quantity, prices, and name of customers. 
The arithmetic lesson for that day consisted in finding out how much 
the sales amounted to and of keeping the record in good form. A 
strict account was kept, and at the end of the season, after paying 
back the amount advanced for seeds, the class had a nice little sum 
which was spent in buying some much desired apparatus. 

58. "Making a Notebook" 

(Reported by Isabel W. Riddell, Quincy, Massachusetts) 

A notebook was needed for some arithmetic work and the chil- 
dren were asked to choose between a book made by themselves and 
one furnished by the school. They decided that they would like to 
make one. A discussion took place as to materials for covers, num- 
ber of pages, manner of binding, etc. These materials were pro- 
vided and estimates made as to how much would be needed for one 
notebook, and then for notebooks for the entire class. Each child 
measured his own covers and pages, and where help was needed, it 
was given in most instances by the children. After they were fin- 
ished, it was suggested by the teacher that they find out whether 
these notebooks had cost more or less than those furnished by the 
school. The cost of the materials was computed as accurately as 
possible and compared with the cost of the ready-made notebook. 
The pupils seemed to take pride in the fact that a small sum had 
been saved. 



36 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

59. "Construction of a Japanese Village on a Sand Table" 

(Reported by Isabel W. Riddell, Bridgewater, Massachusetts) 

The desire to construct a village arose while the children were 
reading stories of the life customs of the Japanese people. 

Pictures and stories were collected from outside sources by the 
children. These were examined and discussed for some time before 
the village was started. Through the kindness of the instructor in 
drawing, some plans were obtained, and the class was divided into 
groups, some working on houses, some on jinrikishas, some making 
figures, lanterns, flowers, etc. Another group prepared the table, 
making a miniature lake. When the models were ready, another 
group had charge of placing them on the table, and members of 
the class offered suggestions. 

60. "Making Product Maps" 
(Outline from Ellice E. Burk, Cleveland, Ohio) 

The aim in this project was to make maps to indicate such items 
as : location of our school, streets leading to the market, important 
buildings on these streets, location of the market, also to study 
products, like fruits, vegetables and meats, dairy products and 
poultry. 

The following activities were developed : Making a trip to the 
market, making a map showing the route we took, locating streets, 
buildings and our school, collecting pictures of products, making 
charts, like a fruit chart, a vegetable chart, a dairy products chart; 
taking a trip to a truck farm, constructing and decorating a market 
stall of cardboard, making fruits of clay and painting them in colors, 
making a price list and the name of the owner of the stall, buying 
and selling, making out bills, making a book describing the trip, with 
pictures of products. 

« 

61. "Dramatization of 'The Hardy Tin Soldier.' " 
(Reported by Isabel W. Riddell, Bridgewater, Massachusetts) 

The story was discussed by the children and scenes and char- 
acters decided upon. Several groups were chosen to try the parts, 



4 
MATEBIALS FOB THE PRIMARY GRADES 37 

and a final choice was made by the class. Of those not taking part 
in the play, one group attended to making the programs, while 
another wrote the invitations to guests. 

Out of this language project grew projects of a different type, 
such as the making of crepe paper costumes by the girls, and the 
making of a few simple stage settings by the boys. 

62. "Preserving Tomatoes" 
(Reported by Mary L. Dougherty, Mankato, Minnesota) 

The children of the third grade were given some ripe tomatoes. 
They decided to make preserves for refreshments at a Hallowe'en 
party, which the primary department was enjoying. Each child 
inquired at home for a recipe for preserving tomatoes. These were 
reported in a composition period and the method of procedure set- 
tled. The domestic science teacher offered the use of her kitchen, 
so the thirty-two children could all take part — two at a stove. The 
teacher scalded the tomatoes and the children finished the cooking. 

The second day, an arithmetic lesson was based upon the use of 
the scales in weighing the fruit and sugar. Then the fruit was 
boiled down and lemons were sterilized by two other groups of 
children. The fruit was put in jars and when cold, covered with 
parafine. The children washed all dishes and cleaned up the 
tables. None of the fruit was burned or spilled. 

Following this work the children wrote a note of thanks for the 
use of the kitchen, prepared a report to go in their book of records 
of work, and in the art period made labels for the jars. 

63. "The Doll Museum" 

(Reported by Florence "Williams, Richmond, Indiana) 

The children were asked to make dolls of any material they 
chose. The only condition was that it should be the child's own 
work. Boys as well as girls entered into the fun, and dolls of every 
sort, some dressed, some not, were brought. The following were 
some materials used: paper, paper bags, cardboard, cardboard 
boxes (cylindrical shapes), rags, stockings, beads, corn cobs, clothes 



38 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

pins, chestnuts, raisins, candy, potatoes, gourds, bottles, spools, 
raffia, yarn, and string. 

A little exhibit was held and all the dolls were inspected and 
criticised. 

Later, these dolls were used for suggestion materials from which 
to make dolls for the various projects carried out in connection 
with history and literature. 

64. "Robinson Crusoe" 

(Outline from Bllice E. Burk, Cleveland, Ohio) 

From the book the following points are learned : His life in Eng- 
land. Home, family, love of sea, his running away. Life on ship, 
shipwreck. Life on the Island. Food, shelter, clothing. Weapons. 
Transportation. Records. Return to England. What he learned 
from life on the Island. The children then made a collection of 
pictures of ships, took a trip to the park to see the artificial island, 
illustrated on sand table Robinson Crusoe's Island, constructed a 
house, built a stockade, pen for animals, and palm trees, made a 
canoe for sand table, kept a weather chart, and made a community 
poster : ' ' Life on the Island. ' ' 



CHAPTER III 

NEW MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 

There are grouped in this chapter materials, mostly of the type 
now frequently referred to as "projects," which have been actu- 
ally used in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Many of them will 
be found useful in more than one grade, but they have been ar- 
ranged within the chapter as projects for the fourth, the fifth, or 
the sixth grade according to the grade in which they were originally 
developed. Within each grade they are also grouped roughly to 
bring together those that feature a given aspect of school work, like 
geography, nature study, composition, etc. 

A. MATERIALS FOB THE FOURTH GRADE 

65. ' ' The Neighborhood Map ' ' 

(Reported by Floy Campbell, Bancroft School, Kansas City, 

Missouri) 

The teacher draws on the board a rectangle representing the 
schoolgrounds, and at the dictation of the children, she adds all 
the streets in the district, with their names. The children follow 
at their seats. Each child then comes to the board, and traces on 
the map his route to school, and draws his house where it belongs. 
It is wise to use different colors for the various children. The best 
of these maps is framed, and hung beside the Room Constitution, 
the idea being that it is an adjunct to the Boom Club, helping us 
all to find at once the home of any one who is ill or in trouble. 

66. "A Live Map" 

(Reported by Floy Campbell) 

Children of a Porto Rico school went to the town "plaza," or 
square, and there paced off all the main dimensions, and noted them 
on paper. Regathered at school, each one with a piece of plotting 
paper, the teacher at the board with a large sheet of heavier paper, 
the entire group worked out a plan or map of the square. Each 

39 



40 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

child was now given one house or store to study, and one tree. 
Thejc he drew, making a front elevation only of the house, and 
using the same scale the teacher had used in her large map. Box- 
forms were made, and the "elevations" were pasted on the box 
fronts. The teacher's map was placed on a table of suitable size, 
the houses put in the proper place on it, the tree-drawings cut out 
and placed where they belonged, sand-paper cut and pasted for 
streets and walks, green crepe paper for grass, and colored papers 
for the flower beds. Benches were made of paper. By this time the 
class was enthusiastic about the work, and asked to finish it by 
indicating the type of life that went on in the square. They made a 
wedding procession coming out of the church, people in front of the 
stores, autos, horses, wagons of all kinds, dogs, etc. Each child was 
permitted to add what he thought especially characteristic and 
interesting, unless vetoed by the rest of the class or the teacher. 
Scale was observed throughout. One pace in the original estimate 
of sizes was counted 3 feet, and the rest of the construction planned 
accordingly. 

Following this, a committee of boys volunteered to make a map 
of the entire village, as none existed, and outside school hours they 
paced off every street in town, and drew a very good little map. 
The town was about a mile wide and two miles long. 

67. "Learning About Bread" 
(Reported by Anne den Blykes, Normal School, Pittsburg, Kansas) 

The children made a collection of grains, different flours, and 
things made of wheat, bran, puffed wheat, cream of wheat, etc. 
They exhibited on a bulletin board all the stages from planting to 
the finished products. Then they made bread. Each child brought 
a small package of flour. The bread was made in school and placed 
by the window where they could see it rise. It was put into three 
small pans and three little girls took it home and baked it. When 
it was brought back, each child was given a piece of bread to eat. 

The class wrote to a bakery and asked if they might visit. They 
were allowed to do so, and a very interesting and instructive time 
they had. The children were told to ask questions if they wanted 



MATERIALS FOE GRADES IV, V, AND VI 41 

to. They asked how many loaves of bread the baker could put in the 
oven f How many loaves he baked a day f etc. They learned that 
a lb. loaf cost them 10 cents, a two-lb. loaf cost 20 cents, and 1%-lb. 
loaf cost 15 cents. The baker boy showed how he weighed each loaf. 
They were interested in watching the pies being made and marked 
"A" for apple, etc. 

The children were told to make up arithmetic problems for the 
next day about this visit to the bakery. 

This project led to two little girls entertaining the teachers of 
the training school. They wanted to make some little cakes and 
have a party. This was allowed, and they served hot chocolate and 
cake. 

68. "A Study of Kansas City ' ' 
(Reported by Floy Campbell, Kansas City) 

For six weeks the topic in geography was Kansas City. After 
considering all the textbook had to give on the subject, each child 
took one local activity (manufacture, organized charity, former in- 
habitants of place, etc.), and found out all he could about that one 
subject. When the topic allowed, the child made a Saturday visit 
to the manufacturing plant or office he was studying, and reported 
to the class all that he saw or learned. He reported on his topic 
in the class, wrote a theme on it, made a slogan, which he lettered, 
with or without illustration, on a large piece of cardboard, and de- 
signed and made a costume that would express the especial char- 
acter of his investigations. For instance, the child who reported 
on newspapers made his costume of the daily papers. The child 
who reported on the care of the old and poor wore a cap, spectacles, 
a shawl, and walked with a cane. They tacked their posters on 
long poles, and, in their costumes, marched through the school halls, 
and around the block, to the great enjoyment of the class, the very 
vivid interest of the school at large, and the edification of the neigh- 
bors. We had a photograph made of the procession. 

In addition to the study of local geography, the project was of 
great social value, gave excellent work in reading, writing, oral 
language, lettering, and design. 



1 



42 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

69. "Getting Acquainted with the City's Public Buildings' ' 

» 

(Reported by Hedwig Carlson, Rockford, Illinois) 

The class became interested in the buildings of Rockford through 
their study of the city. They expressed their desire to see the 
buildings. They planned several trips through the city, being 
careful to choose the places where the most buildings could be seen. 
When they returned, they traced their trips on the map of Rock- 
ford. As the class became more interested, they brought in pic- 
tures of Rockford buildings. The pictures were all classified and 
hung up. Before the^semester was over, we had a large collection 
of pictures. 



/'") 70. "The Making of Leather" 

(Reported by Mary May Wyman, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

In connection with the study of world geography the question 
arose as to where leather came from. Through pictures of hides 
in a tannery and cattle grazing on the plains, enough of an answer 
to stimulate further interest was given. The children found a 
number of pictures of cattle on the plains and in Argentina. They 
divided themselves in two groups, one to study ranch-life in the 
United States, and the other to study cattle raising in Argentina. 
Prom suggestive pictures, each group worked out his country in 
the sand table. At the invitation of a stock broker, we visited our 
local stockyards to see branded cattle from the west. One boy re- 
ported that his father (a butcher) sold skins to a Louisville tannery. 
The boy wrote for permission for the class to visit the tannery. The 
entire class made the trip. The processes were discussed in class ; 
the class divided itself into small groups each to represent one 
process in the sand table. All worked to a scale so as to have a 
complete tannery. Books were consulted to see if all tanneries were 
alike. The tanner gave us the address of a Louisville shoe manu- 
facturer who used his leather. Permission was granted to the class 
to visit the factory. Permission to share their experiences with the 
school in an assembly period was granted. The class selected the 
most important topics and the children to represent them. Letters 



MATEBIAL8 FOB GRAVES IV, V, AND VI 43 

were written, at the suggestion of the children, to thank the busi- 
ness men for their kindness. 

71. " Making Industry Books ' ' 
(Reported from Joliet, Illinois) 
Each fourth-grade class in Joliet made a special investigation of 
an industry and illustrated it with charts and booklets. 

When the projects were completed, the charts and booklets were 
brought together and then sent from building to building in order 
that all the fourth-grade classes might study the collection. 

72. "Iron Ore — from Minnesota to Youngstown" 
(Reported by Virginia Mariner, Youngstown, Ohio) 

As Youngstown is one of the great steel centers of the world, 
iron ore seemed to us a peculiarly suitable project around which to 
build geography work. The children were first sent to the mills 
to secure iron ore with which they filled a large sand table. They 
were given a description of the iron mines of the Mesaba range of 
northern Minnesota. Using the sand table, they modeled in suc- 
cession shaft mines, open-pit mines, the Mesaba range itself, the 
railroad leading to Duluth, the docks at Duluth, the loading ma- 
chinery (made with a steel "Constructo" set), wooden boats, the 
Great Lakes, the locks of the "Soo" canal, the docks at Cleveland, 
the railroad connection at Youngstown, and finally a blast furnace. 
Meanwhile, a blackboard map of the Great Lakes region was devel- 
oped day by day connecting up the story as shown through the 
models. The teacher merely provided the outline and organized the 
material. In the actual work itself the children were allowed to use 
their own initiative. Socialized recitations were carried on and 
papers were also prepared by the pupils, thus correlating the work 
with English. 

73. "An Imaginary Trip Around the World" 

(Reported by Marie Higgins, Joliet, Illinois) 

After reading "Around the World with the Children" for 
silent reading, it was suggested that the class take an imaginary 
trip around the world. 



44 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The class was divided into groups and each group chose the 
country through which they would like to conduct the others. They 
then planned how best to make their country attractive to the 
travelers. The pupils found pictures to show and visited the library 
to find interesting facts. 

The group who worked on Japan made a sand table, a repre- 
sentation of the country in cherry blossom time. One group gave 
a dramatization and another used lantern slides. This called for 
much reading, careful group planning, and was altogether an en- 
joyable project. 

74. "A Christmas Trip to Palestine" 

The study of the Holy Land was held for the pre-Christmas 
season, and this Kansas City class made a trip there. They wrote 
or called for pamphlets giving all routes by rail and steamer from 
their home town to the Holy Land, figured the time needed for the 
trip, the cost of it, estimated how much " extra' ' they should pro- 
vide, found out what type of clothing they would need for each 
stage of the journey, etc. 

They decided what stop-overs they should demand, and read 

up on all of the things they would see in each place they stopped. 

They collected pictures dealing with the places visited, and also 

pictures illustrating events of great importance that happened in 

Palestine. They made a list of words and names met with — 

Bethlehem, Raphael, Magi, Handel, etc., and used these as spelling 
lists. 

Having reached Jerusalem, they wrote a letter home, telling of 
their journey and their plans, and illustrating it with the pictures 
they had collected, treating these as kodaks of their own, and telling 
under what circumstances each was snapped. While making this 
study, they constructed a large modelled map, and placed on it at 
the proper places the figures of animals or vegetation they would be 
likely to see there. 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 45 

75. "An Irish Museum and Play" 

(Reported by Anne den Blyks, Manual Training Normal School, 

Pittsburg, Kansas) 

A small exhibit of Irish pictures and laces was collected. The 
children brought shamrock and peat to school. Some Irish songs 
were learned and music brought for the victrola. The children 
made bobbinct lace upon spools. 

The talk of the Irish belief in fairies motivated a play. Anabel 
brought a story by Eugene Field called "The Fairies of Pesth" 
and asked to play it. Under her management this was done. The 
children made and collected their own costumes. 

The elves wore brownie costumes of brown cambric. The chil- 
dren made crepe paper dresses for the fairies. The fairy queen 
was furnished with several tinsel crowns before it was decided to 
use a crown of real apple blossoms. Her wand was a pointer with 
a tinsel star. 

The prince of the elves wore a scout suit and a German helmet. 
The poet appeared in overalls and wore a man 's coat and hat. He 
wore spectacles and carried a cane. The play was given in the 
gymnasium. The music was furnished by a fifth-grade child who 
played a waltz for the fairies to dance. The dancing was impro- 
vised. The children wrote invitations asking the other grades to 
attend. 

76. "Central Africa versus Eskimo Land" 

(Reported by Hattie E. Cox, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

After a study of Central Africa and the Eskimo country the 
question arose among the children as to which country they would 
rather live in. After an informal discussion in which the advan- 
tages of each country were enumerated, the class was divided into 
groups, each group to be held responsible for representing life in 
one of the above countries. Imaginary trips were taken from 
their home to each place, which led to a study of maps and direc- 
tions. Clothing needed was also studied. Each group accounted 
for what it had seen. This was written and illustrated in book- 



46 TEE TWENTIETH TEABBOOK 

lets. The sand table was used to represent the life of the two 
countries. Original plays were worked out by the children in each 
group. Much number work was developed from this series of 
lessons. 

77. ' ' What Was Kansas Like When the First White Men Came ! * ' 

(Reported by Anne den Blykes, Manual Training Normal 

School, Pittsburg, Kansas) 

The story of Coronado's search for the cities of gold and his 
visit to Quivira were studied. 

The project was worked out on the sand table. The sand table 
formed the map of Kansas. The children made the rivers in the 
sand. The Pawnee village of Quivira wa3 built upon the Kansas, 
or "Kaw," river. 

The children made the Indian tents from brown paper and deco- 
rated them with Indian borders and signs. The winter lodges were 
made from clay and grasses. The children wove mats from grasses, 
splints and wool yarn. Some of the white yarn they dyed with 
berry juices. These looms were very simply made from cardboard. 
One boy made a large wooden loom and started a rug of carpet rags 
for his own room. This same boy made a large work basket of cat- 
tail rushes, while the other children were making small baskets of 
reed. 

Clay was used for making ovens and pottery and also for a herd 
of buffalos and the ponies which Coronado's men rode. The chil- 
dren constructed canoes from paper and bark. The bark was soaked 
so that it would be pliable. One child made a canoe out of a 
Nabisco box. 

The trees along the streams were made of paper, evergreen and 
hemlock branches. Tansy blossoms made the prairie flowers. The 
fifth-grade pupils were invited to see our sand table and hear the 
stories about it. 

78. "Visiting Our French Orphan" 

(Reported by Florence Jelly, State Normal College* 

Ypsilanti, Michigan) 
This project originated in the question: "What can we do for 
Michael this winter !" (Michael is our French Orphan. He lives 



MATEBIAL8 FOB GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 47 

near the Vosges Mountains.) The children decided to go and visit 
Michael, to tell him what they are doing and relate to him the ex- 
periences of their journey. 

There were instituted inquiries about railroad and steamship 
rates. Then we set up a bank, using toy money, and drew this 
money from the bank for tickets and spending money. There was 
a ticket office for buying tickets, and we converted American money 
into francs. 

Business letters were written to Mr. C. P. Leidich (Detroit) for 
information regarding ocean trip, followed by "Thank you" letters 
for the information. The children selected the letter to be sent in 
each case. 

After a visit in Paris, the children sent letters home to the 
first-grade teacher telling of their experiences thus far. The organ- 
ization of material for oral reports of places visited and things 
seen included : 

Eastern United States. 

Important cities passed through on train 

Character of country — mountains, plains, etc. 

Rivers crossed; Erie canal 

New York City 

Crossing Ocean 
Weather conditions 
Study of sea life 
France (compared with America) 
Character of land, customs of people, occupations, etc 
Visit with Michael at his home 
Trip home by southern route 

Finally, there was a general discussion, on our return home, of 
what we had seen and done and what we would do differently if we 
went another time. 

79. "Making Maps" 

(Reported by Ruby M. Harris) 

A fourth-grade class was making a study of the geography of 
Kansas. The only available map of Kansas was a detailed, uni- 
formly colored, political map. During a class exercise the pupils 
who were sent to the map had great difficulty in locating the cities 
required in the lesson. When questioned as to the cause of their 
failure, one pupil said, "On the outline map at home I can find 
these cities.' 9 Further questioning brought out the fact that a 



48 THE TWENTIETH TEABBOOK 

series of maps, each for a definite purpose, would be desirable. The 
class expressed a desire for such maps as: relief maps, railroad 
maps, product maps, and forest maps. 

The project thus suggested by the class was: "Let us make a 
series of these maps large enough for the class to use." 

The procedure involved: 

1. Listing materials needed and plans made for obtaining them. 

2. Division of the class into groups. 

3. Decision as to kind of map each group wished to make. 

4. Plans for making the maps. (As a large number of outline maps 

were needed, a pattern was suggested and used to save time.) 

5. Similar outline maps made on the board. 

6. Small-sized maps selected for copying. 

7. Board outline maps made as lessons were developed. 

8. Wall maps made by the pupils. 

80. "Making a Miniature California Department of the 

State Library' ' 

(Reported by I. McLeod, Berkeley, California) 
The teacher told of her recent visit to the California section of 
the State Library. The class decided to make a collection of all 
things Calif ornian. Letters were written by the pupils and sent all 
over the state to the Federal Board, State Library, Bureau of the 
Interior, development boards, etc., asking for bulletins and other 
material. A suitable place for exhibition purposes was made by 
the boys. Collections of postcards, pictures, flowers, pictures of 
birds, minerals, names of California authors, etc., were made and 
organized. Birds and flowers were drawn and painted. They 
measured, drew, painted, sewed, pasted, and cut, in the making of 
California flags. They made California out of clay, salt, and flour 
and water, sticks, cardboard, chalk. They became early California 
settlers and did things which they did. Short plays were given, 
poems recited, and articles read to other classes about California. 

81. "Writing a Local History" 1 

(Reported by Clarice Houston, Rockford, Illinois) 
Stories of the early settlers were read and retold by the children 
in class, afterwards being written as group work. The writing of 



1 Compare in this connection the material reported in Chapter VIII of the 
Nineteenth Yearbook, Part I. 



MATERIALS FOB GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 49 

these stories in short form gave a splendid opportunity for work in 
English, as good sentence structure was very necessary. The Eng- 
lish was also emphasized when the children gave oral talks about 
the early settlers. 

When these stories were written, they were gathered together 
and preparations were made to put them into permanent form. 
They were taken to the school printer, who had them printed in 
small books. To illustrate their work, the children cut out a block 
picture of a log cabin and tree which represented Rockford as it 
looked in early days. This picture was printed on the second page. 

One hundred copies of these books were printed ; the books were 
bound, and the children presented each fourth grade in the city of 
Rockford with a copy. The children then felt that they had 
accomplished a valuable piece of work which would help other 
children in the city. 

82. ' ' History of Pioneer Life ' ' 

(Reported by Ethelyn Yount, Experimental School, State 

University of Iowa) 

Many projects grow out of the Pioneer Study of Iowa. The 
projects may be worked out under about the same conditions that 
the Pioneers solved them. Some of the most interesting projects 
coming out of this study have been : the building of a log cabin, 
the oiling of paper (for windows), the starting of a fire with flint 
and steel, the churning of butter (as the pioneers did), the making 
of paraffin candles, the making of hominy, of lye, of a butter ladle, 
of a wooden husking peg, and of a flail. 

In connection with this study, other activities arose which came 
under the head of language, such as the writing of letters by the 
children to pioneers, asking for information about the problems 
and conditions they had to face when they came to Iowa, the ex- 
plaining of the processes which the projects involved, the account 
of a trip made to the carpet weaver or the log cabin (in the city 
park). 



50 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

This work may be carried on accurately if the directions in the 
following books are noted carefully: 

Earle, Home Life in Colonial Day*, MacMillan Co., New York. 
Aurner, Iowa Stories, Book 1, Clio Press, Iowa City, Iowa. 
Nida, Letter* of Polly, the Pioneer, MacMillan Co., New York. 
Stone & Fickott, Everyday Life in the Colonies, D. C. Heath & Co., 
Boston. 

83. "A Celebration for Columbus Day" 
(Reported by Floy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The children collaborated in writing the story of Columbus' life; 
each child took a certain part of the story to investigate. As part 
of the work, the child had to look up a picture illustrating his 
"chapter," and to arrange for that picture to be posed by class 
members. The boys made a frame for the pictures ; the girls fur- 
nished curtains to draw in front of the frame. The children spent 
several hours in the library, studying details of costume, flags, etc. 
Finally, they put on a program, all their own work, including the 
making of the costume. The "Story of Columbus" was read aloud, 
chapter by chapter, by a reader chosen by the class. At the end 
of each episode, another child announced the title and artist of the 
picture that illustrated the episode, the curtain was drawn aside, 
and the living picture shown for nearly a minute. The entire class 
was engaged in giving the program, and the school auditorium was 
filled with the children from the other rooms. 

84. "The Story of Columbus" 

(Reported by Mrs. A. F. Douglas, Franklin School, Louisville, 

Kentucky) 

It was decided by the members of the group that they would 
dramatize the Story of Columbus, and invite other grades of the 
school to see the play. The visitor who was to be present was invited 
particularly to see the "surprise" involved in the last act of the 
play. 

First, in order to get the necessary data, children read and 
reported what they had gathered in regard to the story of the 
discovery of America. 



MATEBIAL8 FOB 0BADE8 IV, V, AND VI 51 

Second, the class decided what acts would be necessary to tell 
the story of Columbus and just which experiences in his life must 
be selected in order to get the essential episodes. 

Third, it was necessary to select the characteristics of the time 
of Columbus that showed the most decisive contrast to the present 
day, as the children planned in the last act of the play to have 
Columbus return and see the wonders of the present. 

These problems were discussed, and a boy selected by the class 
to represent Columbus. 

The children planned the extremely simple costumes. By intro- 
ducing sailors, courtiers, and Indians, a part was arranged for each 
member of the class. 

The last act was extremely informal. The small Columbus came 
to the American children and in surprise and bewilderment asking 
such questions as: "What is this little glass ball (touching an 
electric-light bulb) !" "What is that strange bird that I see in 
the sky t" The American children took great pleasure in explain- 
ing to Columbus. Finally, the young Columbus closed the play with 
the conclusive remark. "All this is too much for me. I think 111 
go back where I came from." 

85. "Our Pilgrim Father*— a Booklet" 
(Reported by Alma Van Der Kar, Rockford, Illinois) 
The class studied the Pilgrims — a detailed account of their ex- 
periences from the time they left England, including their life with 
the Indians in this country. Group composition, as well as 
individual compositions, were written during this study, which was 
begun in October and reached its climax in November, when a 
Thanksgiving party was given for their parents and friends. The 
planning of the party included invitations, room decorations, two 
original sand tables. These involved the making of windmills, 
boats, log-cabins, cradles, spinning wheels, Indian tents, canoes, 
and a scene in Holland developing the program which included an 
original playlet. All this and more was worked out by the class. 
After the party they decided to write about it Later, a book- 
cover was designed and all the details completed for the printing 
of the chapters in an elementary print shop. 



52 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

86. "Colonial Life" 

(Reported by Catherine Morgan, Teachers College, Detroit, 

Michigan) 

"From the time a little Colonial boy arose in the morning until 
he went to bed at night, how was his day different from yours t" 
The class suggested many phases in which they were interested 
as games, amusements, occupations and school. They formed com- 
mittees, made reports, visited museums, libraries and other places 
of public interest. They listed the advantages and disadvantages 
of both boys. 

87. "The Pageant-' End of the School Year* " 

Planning this pageant furnishes the best possible type of review 
of the work of the entire year. The final result cannot be twice 
alike. 

Every student sits dreaming over the year that is past, and 
the vacation that is near. Memory, leading the past months, enters, 
and each month carries a representation of the most significant and 
worthy project the class worked with during that month. The selec- 
tion and representation of these projects must be the result of class 
discussion, which should be fully as illuminating to the teacher as 
it is valuable to the child as review. Designing appropriate cos- 
tumes and planning the general color scheme is splendid art work. 
Following the school months, the summer months frolic in, beckon- 
ing the children to the fields, and bringing Nature with all her 
riches to help them have a happy time. 

88. "Dramatization of Joseph and His Brethren" 

(Reported by Harriet Bcale, State Teachers College, 

Mankato, Minnesota) 

The teacher told the story, using the version in Hodges' Garden 
of Eden. After considering the possible ways of retelling it, the 
fourth grade chose to dramatize it. Because of its length, they 
decided to work it out in two units. One class was responsible for 
the part laid in Canaan and the stronger class for that in Egypt. 
The knowledge gathered by this second class included the location 
of Egypt and the Nile, the idea of "B. C," the customs of that 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 53 

time, particularly as they bore on costumes and action, the use of 
the lotus flower in art. They turned to versions of the story to 
get typical phrasing for their play. They worked out the acts as 
they had planned them: Act I, In Canaan, The Coat of Many 
Colors; Act II, In Egypt, The Seven Years of Famine. They 
planned costumes and held try-outs for parts. Then the classes 
met, and each presented to the other its part of the play. They pro- 
posed presenting it in the gymnasium for a larger audience. The 
teacher suggested inviting the third grade, because they had loaned 
costumes, and the children decided to invite the librarian, who had 
lent many books and pictures, and others who might enjoy it. They 
cut and colored a lotus design for the front page of the typed pro- 
grams. They asked the aid of the gymnasium instructor in planning 
a set drill based on the idea of the wheel with spokes, in which they 
used f ans they copied from pictures. The music teacher provided a 
march from Aida to accompany it. 

89. "Booklets on Vacation Fun" 

After examination of a few well-planned pamphlets, and free 
reading of Roosevelt's letters, Daddy Long Legs (the latter for the 
sake of the illustrations), the class members wrote a booklet with 
free illustrations, telling the funniest or most interesting thing 
they did during the summer. We emphasized cover and title-page 
design, margins, decorations, and expressive freedom of illustration. 
The books were placed on the table where all the class could get 
them. The ones that were best liked were given in assembly as chalk 
talks, and finally the whole small library was sent to a sick comrade, 
or a last year's class member who had left the city, or a hospital for 
children. 

90. " Valentine and Hallowe'en Celebrations" 

A Kansas City fourth grade had 'adopted' a certain Old Ladies' 
Home, and every holiday they planned some special treat for "their 
old ladies." On Valentine Day they made valentines, with original 
verses, and many original decorations, and took them to the Home. 
They had practiced "Annie Laurie," "Believe Me if All Those En- 



54 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

clearing Young Charms," " Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes," 
" Love's Old Sweet Song," and other songs, and these they sang for 
the old people, who thoroughly enjoyed the entertainment. One 
of the boys dressed as Saint Valentine, in a white beard, red robe, 
and pointed cap, and distributed the valentines with appropriate 
speeches. 

The same Kansas City fourth grade planned a nutting party 
shortly before Hallowe'en, and afterward made baskets that would 
hold about a pint each. These they decorated, filled with nuts, 
placed on top of each a little witch with a head made from a nut, 
and gave a basket to each old lady in the home. Christmas Carols, 
and the distribution of Christmas cards; and an Easter Song 
Festival, with Easter Greeting Cards, were other class projects of 
the same nature. 

91. "A Class Story Book" 

(Reported by Harriet E. Gannett, Bridgewater Normal School, 

Bridgewater, Massachusetts) 

This book contained stories of birds, reproductions of fables, 
conundrums, and history stories. These stories were written repro- 
ductions of some told by members of the class, by student-teachers, 
and by the regular teacher, or were based on some of the pupils' own 
reading. Some were written in letter form ; others were descrip- 
tions of animals and objects written as conundrums. Many of these 
conundrum letters were written to different teachers, who guessed 
the name of the animal described. Oral work always preceded 
the written. The work was then read to the class, criticized by it, 
and corrected by pupil and teacher, and then rewritten. The best 
story, as to language and penmanship, was chosen sometimes by 
the teacher, but more often by the class, and pasted into a book 
which was illustrated with free-hand drawings. 

92. "Writing a Letter to St. Paul, Minnesota" 

(Reported by Irene McLeod, Berkeley, California) 

A pupil in my class, having come from St. Paul, Minnesota, told 
the class a few facts about this city. It was decided that more 



MATERIALS FOR GRADES IV, V, AND VI 55 

knowledge could be gained by receiving letters from other pupils 
of that city. Therefore, each individual in the class wrote a letter 
to a teacher (whose name was furnished us by our new pupil) ask- 
ing permission to correspond with members of her class. After the 
letters were finished, the best paragraphs from each were selected, 
and these were combined to make one long letter. The final letters 
were written by pupils elected to be the best in penmanship in the 
class. 

Other letters were written in similar fashion on the following 
subjects: 

1. To absentees. 

2. To janitor for favors received. 

3. To principal for favors received. 

4. To Lincoln Day Speaker. 

5. To a school- visit or for stories' told. 

6. To Educational Foundations for store materials. 

7. To Baker's Chocolate Co. for exhibit. 

8. To California State Library for materials and acknowledgment. 

9. To California Development Board for minerals and acknowl- 

edgment. 

10. To United Fruit Company for books. 

11. To Oakland Museum acknowledging exhibits received. 

12. To Seed Co. for catalogues. 

13. To San Diego for folders. 

14. To parents inviting them to visit an exhibit. 

15. To Colgate Co. for sample Dental Cream tubes. 

93. "Illustrating Stories on the Blackboard' ' 

(Reported by Harriet Beale, State Teachers College, 

Mankato, Minnesota) 

The children decided that they woul^T like to tell the story of 
"The Boy Who Discovered Spring," by Raymond Alden, which 
they had enjoyed hearing their teacher tell. At their request, she 
retold it, while they listened to note characters and settings. They 
discussed suitable backgrounds for the four scenes, fall, winter, 
spring, and summer. The teacher made the series of crayon back- 
grounds as a blackboard border. The children cut the characters 
out of colored poster paper and placed them on the blackboard. 
They told the story to entertain another section of the fourth grade. 
A different child told each of the four scenes. Comment by visitors 
to the room on the beauty of the pictures several times called forth 
a telling of the story to explain the pictures. 



56 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

94. "A Health Play" 

(Reported by Gertrude Olson) 

A health play was written and given by the third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth grades. The children planned a suitable program to 
present for the Fresh Air group of boys and girls, who had been 
invited for an afternoon. Besides a spelling contest, readings, 
music, and games, a health play of four acts was decided on as most 
suited to our work and needs. The four grades were arranged in 
four groups, each group to write one act. The acts were then 
read, discussed, criticised, and finally rewritten by the groups. 
Suitable costumes were discussed and most of them made by the 
children. A program and the invitations were written. 

95. "A Health Crusade ' ' 
(Reported by Georgia Davis, Muskogee, Oklahoma) 

In each school, the children were stimulated to think about 
health. The following are typical problems : 

1. What does Muskogee do to protect the health of its people! 

2. What can we do as boys and girls so that we may grow up 
to be strong men and women? 

3. What can those of us that are under weight do to increase 
our weight t 

In working these out, many ways of bringing the important 
points before the rest of their classmates were devised by the pupils. 
Drills, plays, and pageants were written by the children in their 
language classes and given in the school auditoriums. Compositions 
dealing with health were written, read and exhibited. Posters and 
banners illustrating the 'high points' of the project were made in 
the art classes and shown about the buildings and grounds. Spelling 
lessons based upon the work in health were given. Problems deal- 
ing with the costs of proper and improper food and clothing were 
stated and solved by the children. 

The children not only learned the health facts and rules but 
actually put them into practice. Ways of bringing the health facts 
before the children throughout the year were devised by the pupils 
and teachers in order that the pupils might more surely form the 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 57 

habits of good health. The pupils not only covered the course of 
study in a more thorough way, but they also covered it with an 
enthusiasm and interest that is seldom seen in any work on health. 

96. "The Friendly Club" 

One of the first things this class did was to organize into a club, 
with the usual officers, and to adopt a constitution and by-laws. 
The constitution sets out the purposes of the class for the year; 
the by-laws, such rules as they believe essential to carrying out 
those purposes. Everyone in class now plans, letters, and illumines 
a copy of the constitution and by-laws; or if it is too long for 
lettering, they write it. In either case, they observe correct mar- 
gins, and try for a beautiful effect. The best copy is framed by 
the manual training class, and hung in a prominent place in the 
room. This has been done in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, the formality of 
the procedure being increased as the grade grows older. The class 
enforces its own rules, once it has adopted them, and the result is 
excellent. This idea was worked out partly in Kansas City, partly 
in Porto Rico. 

97. ' ' Making a Toy Shop ' ' 

(Reported by Mrs. Velma Cuddeback, Berkeley, California) 

The school had decided to have a bazaar to raise funds for a 
printing press. This class decided that their part should be the 
making and selling of toys. Patterns and scraps of wood were 
obtained from the manual training shop, and toys made and 
painted. The prices were calculated, and the articles tagged for 
sale. The amount realized from this project was commendable. 

98. "What Is the Best Soil for a Garden !" 

(Reported by Constance Brown) 

Either from class discussion or from a supervised study period 
(depending upon the ability of the class), the class was led to 
discover : 

1. The names of the various kinds of soil. 

2. The qualities of soil desired in a garden. 



58 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

After this short and general preparation the assignment was 
made. The class was divided into three groups according to ability 
(the more difficult problems being studied by the more able groups). 
Each group worked out one of the following problems: 

1. How do sand, clay, loam differ when dryf When wetf 

(Examined by feeling, weighing, use of hand lena) 
In which will bean seedlings grow bestt 

From your observation, which soil do you think is best suited 
for a garden soilf 

2. Which soil is better — an acid or a sweet soilf 

a. How to determine whether soil is acid or sweet. 

b. Grow bean seedlings in each kind of sandy, clayey, and 

loamy soil. 

c. How to sweeten the soil. 

From your results which kind of soil do you consider best for 
the garden f 

3. How does water act on sandy, clayey, and loamy soilf 

a. Pour the same amount of water on each kind of dry soil 

arranged in lamp chimneys and time the results. 

b. Place another set of lamp chimneys arranged as above in 

a pan of water so that the same amount of water is 
available to each kind of dry soil and time the 
results. 

c. Place the same amount of each kind of dry soil in pans 

and pack with the parts tilted at the same angle. 
Pour the same amount of water on each soil to 
determine the effect of surface water. 

From these experiments which kind of soil would you desire for 
your garden f 

The work of each group was planned for by the leader of the 
group and the teacher. The leader in turn worked out the problem 
with his special group. The teacher supervised the work of all 
groups. After results were obtained, each group prepared an 
organized report, which was given to the class by the group leader 
in the next recitation period. While the report was being given, 
the chief points were placed on the board by the teacher. At the 
close of the last report, the work of the several groups was put 
together and the whole class allowed to decide the original question, 
"Which soil is best for a garden?" 

As a home assignment, the class was asked to test the soil found 
in the school or home garden. 



MATEBIAL8 FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 59 

99. "How to Rid the Garden of Weeds' ' 

(Reported by Constance Brown) 

The dandelion was chosen as a typical garden weed. In the 
preparation for the assignment the class was led to discover the 
various means by which plants in general protect themselves. The 
dandelion itself was then studied, each group taking one part, as 
seed, flower head, stem, leaf, and root, to discover whereby the 
dandelion protects itself. The actual material was examined by 
each group during the supervised study period. The children were 
guided by the teacher and books placed at their disposal. 

Thus each group came to its own conclusions and presented its 
report to the class. The class in turn drew up a set of directions 
whereby the dandelion might be exterminated from the garden. 

In application of the fact gained various garden weeds, plantain, 
mullein, burdock, horse-nettle, wild lettuce, were studied with the 
same question in mind — how to rid the garden of them. The home 
reports were given in class. 

100. "Raising Money by Selling Garden Produce' 9 

(Reported by Irene McLeod, Berkeley, California) 

Some money was needed for the school's French orphan. The 
children decided to form a garden club. The object of the club was 
to make gardens, raise vegetables, and sell them. 

They held a meeting, and elected officers. It was decided that 
it would be nice to let the whole school know about this project. It 
was voted to have a parade and to give a talk in each classroom. 
After these things were done and catalogues and seeds obtained, the 
gardens were made and a fence was built around them. Enough 
money was raised from the sale of vegetables to give the proper 
amount to the French orphan, to buy a classroom picture, and a 
Victor record. 

101. "Keeping a Library in the School Room" 

(Reported by Irene McLeod, Berkeley, California) 

Books were borrowed from the public library. A librarian and 
assistants were appointed from among the pupils. The books were 



GO THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

catalogued, indexed, and loaned to pupils in the room by the usual 
library system. Children who had never taken library books and 
read very little at home, at first did not avail themselves of this 
opportunity. Before the term was over, most of these were bor- 
rowing regularly and not only enjoyed the class library books, but 
were also regular visitors at the public library. 

B. MATERIALS FOR THE FIFTH GRADE 

102. "Making a Candle as Primitive Man Did" 

(Reported by Florence King, Southern Illinois State Normal 
Training School, Carbondale, Illinois) 

After studying how primitive man discovered and tamed fire, 
it is interesting to follow with a series of lessons on lighting, lead- 
ing up to candle making. 

The children think about what was probably the first light used, 
as the bonfire. Then they see that some other kind of light might 
be needed in going from one place to another, so a torch might have 
been used, then a shallow dish with oil and a wick, leading to the 
tallow dips and the candles, or the old kerosene lamp. 

Then the children tried to think how candles were made. They 
greatly enjoyed 'trying out' suet. They dipped a string in the 
hot oil, let it cool, then dipped again and again until a tiny candle 
was made. 

The next problem was how a number of candles could be made 
at once and so save time. Several wicks were tied on one stick and 
all dipped at once. These were found to be rough when compared 
with our beautiful Christmas candles. One child found a piece of 
gas pipe which the children filled with warm oil. The following 
morning the oil had hardened and they found a fine smooth candle. 

103. "A Weed Book and Museum" 

(Reported by Katherine Thompson, Macomb Normal School, 

Macomb, Illinois) 

Preliminary observations during the preceding spring, while 
extensive, must of necessity have been rather unorganized and 



MATERIALS FOU CBADEB IV, V, AND VI fll 

scattering, but they widen the children's experience, make them 
discriminating weed destroyers during the summer, and keep their 
interest in weeds, and in plants in general, fairly keen in most cases. 
On the return to school in the fall they are ready to organize the 
knowledge they have gained and to go on with the study of weed 
seeds, which are the most abundant and interesting phase for fall 
study. 

The organization work culminates in a booklet in which are 
set down the collective experiences of the class, plus some of the very 
interesting facts made available in the reports of certain of the 
state experiment stations. Each pupil is allowed a good deal of 
individuality in the organization and decoration of his booklet. 

In addition to this written account, seed charts are made by 
pasting the seeds to show methods of distribution ; the seeds of a 
single plant of many different species are gathered, counted, bottled 
in tiny glass vials, and mounted. Charts are made to show the parts 
and growth of typical annuals and biennials from seed to seed, 
and of perennials from seed to maturity. A resourceful teacher can 
find many such problems, fitting the ones she uses to her local 
environment. 

Books which have been helpful are : 

Manual of Weeds, by Ada Georgia. Macmillan Co. 

Indiana Weed Book, by W. S. Blatchley. Nature Publ. Co., 
Indianapolis. 

Unlawful and Other Weeds of Iowa, Bulletin No. 31, Iowa State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

104. ' ' The Home Garden ' ' 

(Reported by Frances Trainor, Ada M. Tea, and Maude Kelley, 

Joliet, Illinois) 

Many children in our building had their individual home gar- 
den. The homes were located near the school building, consequently 
close supervision during the preparation of ground and early 
growth of the plants was easily arranged. 

Very little money was expended for seed, as we obtained many 
packages from the United States Department of Agriculture. 



62 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Early in the spring, meetings were held ; our clubs were organ- 
ized; the preparation of ground and the selection of seed were 
discussed. 

A record card of each child's garden was kept by him and the 
teacher. In this was recorded a diagram of the plot drawn to a 
scale, the date of each visit, expenditures, and receipts, the condi- 
tion of the garden, and the help given. At the end of the season 
each child checked up an account of receipts and reported same on 
his card. These amounts ranged from four to fifteen dollars. 

When early vegetables were removed, a second crop was planted. 
If possible, the surplus was canned. 

Our garden work closed in the fall with an exhibit of the best 
vegetables out of each garden, canned vegetables, and any choice 
seeds that had been saved. Blue, red, and white ribbons were 
pinned on the first, second, and third choice of each kind. 

105. "Learning About Beef" 
(Reported by Dorothy B. Marx, Louisville, Kentucky) 

Charts and graphs were made to show the reasons for cost and 
scarcity of meat, also to show the distribution of cattle in North 
America. Life on a cattle ranch was approached through pictures, 
and oral discussions were given. Written descriptions soon fol- 
lowed. Blackboard sketching and modeling in the sand table were 
used to bring out the surface features; animals and buildings were 
made out of plasticine; people of clothes-pins. Shipping and 
marketing of cattle were studied, especially the packing house. A 
trip was made by the teacher and a group of children to a provision 
company. Names of the meat procured from different parts of the 
animal were studied, and also the uses of cattle products. The 
class divided itself into groups ; each group took a special topic on 
which to give an oral report and to bring out the most important 
points in this industry. 

106. "A Coffee Plantation" 
(Reported from the Marr Training School, Detroit, Michigan) 
The children decided upon working out a Sao Paulo coffee 
plantation. The room was divided into two groups. They wished 



MATERIALS FOR GRADES IV, V, AND VI 63 

the girls in one group and the boys in a second, because the boys 
were to make use of their manual training. The mill was made from 
a large box, a roof put on, and papered by the boys; they also 
made the cement (white paper pasted on a wide board) drying 
floor, the machinery (worked out from pictures from the Art 
Museum), the plantation railroad, etc. Each boy submitted print- 
ing, from which selections were made. Such signs as "Sao Paulo 
Plantation," "Private," "Dangerous," were printed. The girls 
made the sacks for the coffee; collected green, roasted and dry 
coffee, and filled the sacks. They carried the process through from 
the picking of the berry to the shipment to the United States. 

107. ' ' Making Old-Fashioncd Hominy ' ' 

(Reported by Hose Baumgarten, Bockford, Illinois) 

In discussions of pioneer life, methods of preparing food then 
and now were contrasted. In order to appreciate these contrasts, 
the class decided to make some hominy just as the pioneer women 
did. The work, as done by the class, consisted of these steps: 
making of old fashioned hopper, making of lye, soaking and wash- 
ing corn, cooking it. When the hominy was prepared, the children 
enjoyed eating it. 

108. "A Fifth-Grade Pupil's Account of Tanning Leather" 

(Written by Tom Ewing, Williams Street School, Atlanta, Georgia) 

"We have been studying leather and found it very interesting, 
so we decided to tan a piece of it. One of the girls in our class 
brought us a piece of skin with the hair on it. We put it in a strong 
solution of lime water to make the hair come off easily. Then we 
took it out and scraped it. The hair came off easily and we washed 
it. Then we sent to the drugstore and got three boxes of red oak 
bark. We put an ounce of red oak bark to one gallon of warm 
water, and after we had mixed the red oak bark well in the water 
and it had cooled, we put the skin in and left it for three days. 
Then we put in more red oak bark to make the solution stronger. 
Three days later, we put in half an ounce of red oak bark and one- 
third of an ounce of tannic acid that a boy in our class brought us. 



64 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

We let it stay in it for about a week and then put it on a board and 
stretched it. Then we put it up to dry. After it has dried, we will 
grease it to make it soft." 

109. "A Fifth-Grade Pupil's Account of Making Cheese" 

(Written by Helen Witherspoon, Peoples State School, 

Atlanta, Georgia) 

"We made some cheese at school about a month ago. The reason 
we made it was that we were studying about cheese and butter. So 
we decided we would try and make some cheese. 

' ' The first thing we had to do was to get a coffee can. One of the 
children got the can and melted the bottom off, so it would not 
have any top nor bottom. Five other children brought sweet milk. 
With all the milk put together we had a gallon. Another child 
brought a saucer. Another brought a crockery bowl. Then we 
were ready to make cheese. First, we heated the gallon of milk just 
a little, then we dissolved four junket tablets in a little cold water, 
and put it into the milk, which was in the crockery bowl, and let it 
stand until the next day. The next day the milk had been changed 
into curds and whey. We strained the whey out, raked the curds, 
and added a teaspoonf ul of salt. We lined the can with white cheese 
cloth, which had been greased, and set it in a plate. Our curds were 
packed in the can and covered with a saucer. At the end of the 
second day, we had a half a can of cheese. This was all our gallon 
of milk made. We decided to eat it. Some of the girls brought 
crackers, our teacher made sandwiches, and we had enough for 
everybody in the class. 

"We really enjoyed making our cheese more than eating it. We 
were proud of it, too, and had its picture taken." 

110. "Making Bricks" 

(Reported by Latrelle Meadors, Atlanta, Georgia) 

The children did all the planning themselves. One of the boys 
volunteered to bring the clay, another the mall to beat the clay with, 
and a box to prepare it in. Another child had a mold. Two of the 
boys placed the clay in a box and beat it until it was in powder form, 



MATEBIAL8 FOB GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 65 

then they mixed a bucket of water with it and stirred the mixture 
well. Then they placed the clay in a mold, pressed it as hard as 
they could and put it in the sun to dry. In two days' time, they had 
a sun-dried brick like those of antiquity. 

111. "A Booklet About Cotton' ' 

(Reported by M. McBroom, Detroit Teachers College) 

Letters were written to friends in the south asking for samples 
of cotton bolls, for descriptions of fields, etc., letters to New Orleans 
Cotton Exchange asking shipping rates on a bale of cotton to New 
York, letters to mills in the east and south as to the wages paid in 
the mills, letters to the Weather Bureau in southern parts, asking 
for rainfall reports. Charts were made containing samples of 
articles made from cotton and showing the prices as compared with 
a few years ago. Members were delegates to go to the natural 
science department to get material on the work of the boll weevil. 
In arithmetic classes graphs were made showing the comparative 
production in the last few years. A book containing charts, letters, 
and reports was made to send to two members of the class who had 
been absent during the study. 

112. "Life in a Lumber Camp" 

(Reported by Tippa Coleman, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

In connection with the study of lumbering the class asked to be 
permitted to go to the woods for a day and live the life of the 
lumbermen. They divided themselves into groups, with a chairman 
for each group. Their object was to plan the day, with the activities 
as nearly as possible like those of a lumber-camp. One group 
planned the lunch, one the games to be played, and one worked on 
the things that should be observed while they were in the woods. 
Much reading was done while planning the trip. Charts were made 
showing the products from trees, forest scenes, forest animals, and 
lumber camps. The day of the trip happened to come during fire- 
prevention week; a camp-fire was built for cooking the lunch, and 
the children observed how easily it could spread and the difficulty 



66 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

of putting it out. The children were asked to give a demonstration 
lesson that would show what they had learned. They wrote and 
gave a one-act play showing the life in a lumber camp. 

113. ' ' A Book on Lumbering ' ' 

(Reported by Charlotte J. Flood, Eagle School, Cleveland, Ohio) 

The class is divided into groups and given different aspects of 
lumbering. The library is used to get the reading matter, supple- 
mentary to geography textbook. 

Every group is assigned a day on which it is to be prepared. 
The group having Topic 1 bring books from which they read ex- 
tracts relating to their topic or they tell stories of it and, if possible, 
bring illustrations. The others are given time to discuss, ask ques- 
tions or contribute pictures. That group then prepares a spelling 
lesson with words from its material. This lesson is given the next 
day. Then the group prepares to write the story. Also, a short 
general statement is chosen for a writing lesson. 

Next day, the second group bring materials on Topic 2 and 
follow the procedure of Group 1. So each group continues. 

When all stories are well written, and all illustrations well 
mounted, they are bound as chapters of a book. In drawing time, 
title pages are made, letters cut and pasted, illustrations mounted, 
and chapters and book bound. 

Every day, an original problem is made for the arithmetic class. 
These problems include the abstract difficulties of the grade, and 
are made concerning cutting, shipping, measuring, etc. 

When completed the "bound volume* ' is placed on the table for 
reference. 

114. "Reports of Home and School Gardens" 

(Reported by Mary 'Sullivan and Dorothy Marx, Louisville 
Normal School, Louisville, Kentucky) 

The study grew out of a request for a report of the gardens cul- 
tivated by the children during the spring and summer months. 
Points to be considered in this report were suggested by the pupils 
and listed on the board. To determine the size of the school garden 



MATEBIALS FOB QBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 67 

the class divided itself into groups; each group was responsible 
for the measurement of a part of the garden. After the measure- 
ments were gotten, the irregularity of the plot called for much 
discussion as to how to get the area. At the suggestion of a pupil 
a diagram of the garden was drawn to scale, and the pupils worked 
out how to get the areas of the triangles and rectangles included in 
this diagram. After the report of the school garden was completed, 
pupils found the area, cost of plants or seeds, and value of crops 
in home gardens. Graphs were made showing comparative sizes of 
the gardens, and expenditures and returns. A discussion of the 
reasons for the failures of some of the gardens led to a considera- 
tion of rainfall and temperature. In connection with this study a 
trip was taken to the Weather Bureau. Arithmetic problems of 
various kinds grew out of the work. A form of report was recom- 
mended by the class that was afterwards adopted by the other 
schools of the city in reporting the results of home and school 
gardens. 

115. "A Home Garden Fair" 

(Reported from the Bancroft School, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The children were prevented from having a school garden this 
year by lack of suitable ground. The seed was therefore distributed 
in the spring, and the children made their own gardens at home. 
This fall they had a Home Garden Show in the gymnasium. They 
brought the kindergarten tables to the room, decorated them with 
crepe paper, choosing each his own color scheme. There were flower 
tables and fruit tables. The most artistic table and the table offering 
the greatest variety of products grown by one person were given 
blue ribbons. The children made written reports to the principal, 
covering the amount actually raised on each garden, the sum it 
would have cost if bought at the store, and the amount, if any, 
sold, and the saving to the family from use of the garden products. 
The reports indicated a 'saving to the family of from two to thirty 
dollars, and cash sales from one to seventeen dollars. Those chil- 
dren who had no gardens wrote- on the value of a garden to a home. 
The reports furnished a basis for many arithmetic problems. 



68 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

116. "Paper Making" 

(Reported by Elizabeth McEvoy, Rockford, Illinois) 
The class made a study of paper making and printing, beginning 
with the earliest history. After securing as much material as possi- 
ble, suitable for the grade, a composition was neatly written on 
uniform paper. 

The engine room in the building was made into a work shop 
where paper could be made more conveniently and with less annoy- 
ance to the other classes. Each member of the class made two pieces 
of paper, one to be taken home and one which was to be mounted. 
The latter, together with the composition, was bound into a book 
with title in cut letters as a design for the cover. Some volunteered 
to give their extra pieces to be used as place cards for the Eighth- 
Grade Graduation Banquet. The members of the eighth grade 
printed them suitably for the occasion. 

The lower classes were allowed to watch the process of paper 
making. 

117. "A Museum of Home Manufacture" 

(Reported by Mrs. Beulah Johnson, Rockford, Illinois) 

The class had studied the different occupations of Illinois, and 
was interested to learn that manufacturing was carried on so ex- 
tensively. Choosing Rockford as their type city, the children cut 
out "ads" of various concerns. The story of Illinois was written, 
the pages illustrated with pictures cut out, and a large chart was 
entirely covered with pictures, pieces of steel, tiny knit stockings, 
miniature bags of flour, knives, watches, doll chairs, etc., represent- 
ing all sorts of articles manufactured in Rockford. 

118. "A Zone Exhibit" 

(Reported by A. L. Benson, Bennett School, Boston, Massachusetts) 

In the early part of the geography course for the fifth grade, 
a short time is given for the consideration of zones. Types of life 
in these various belts appealed so strongly to the class that it was 
decided to portray them in such a way that a direct comparison 
could really be made by eye. 



MATERIALS FOB GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 69 

The frigid zones were easily mastered with cotton-batting artifi- 
cial snow, dogs, fur dressed dolls, mirrors, toys in the shape of polar 
bears and walruses. 

The torrid zone brought us wet moss for our jungle and sand 
for a desert. We had black dolls and dark brown dolls engaged in 
several activities. A strong desire to have the activities of this 
region shown brought us a toy train with the cars belted with 
broken rubber erasers. An orange, banana, lemon, etc., illustrated 
the typical fruits. 

For the temperate zone we had a typical village with house, 
animals, people, and so forth. 

119. "A Sand Table Map" 

(Reported by Jennie Williams, Kansas State Normal, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

A fifth-grade class of children studying Europe was taking up 
the study of Holland. They asked if they could not represent the 
country in a sand pan, size six feet by four and a half feet. They 
planned that the class be divided into three equal groups. Two 
groups should see which could make the best representation, and the 
third group was to study in order to be capable of judging which 
group had the best work. The pan was divided into two sections. 
Each group elected a captain and proceeded to work. It was sur- 
prising the amount of good work that was done in a week's time. 
They volunteered to do much outside work. 

The same class made a sand pan representation of Switzerland, 
but they planned to do this differently. One group made the whole 
map, but it was divided into smaller groups. One took the surface 
features, another the rivers and lakes, another the cities and several 
groups took different industries. 

120. ' ' A Floor Map of Africa ' ' 
(Reported from a Summer School at Kansas City, Missouri) 

The class made a large map on the floor covering a space about 
12 feet across. They modelled the mountains on this map, strewed 
sand for the desert, constructed palm-trees of paper, painted and 



70 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

cut out a camel train crossing the desert, made pyramids of clay, 
and placed them properly, made jungles for the wild beasts, and 
placed the beasts in them, represented every crop grown, in its 
proper place, painted red roofs for the cities, and put them where 
they belonged. The animals and trees, etc., were too large for the 
map, of course, but a scale was observed in making the individual 
things. The elephant, for instance, was larger than the horse or the 
lion. The class visited the 'Zoo' several times during the progress 
of the work. 

121. "A Travel Club" 

(Reported from Youngstown, Ohio) 

The class formed an imaginary travel club. With their home 
town as a starting point they journeyed to Ellis Island where they 
studied the various nationalities. On suggestion of the class they 
divided themselves into groups, each group representing a country 
of Europe. Guides were appointed to supply the class with time- 
tables, maps, travel books and descriptions of routes that were 
secured from steamship lines. The route voted on by the majority 
was selected and preparations made for the trip. The groups then 
set out for the various countries assigned them. 

One group journed to Italy. They made a study of the physical 
conditions, social and industrial life. A model Italian farm was 
built in the schoolroom. Small dolls dressed in the native cos- 
tume of the country represented the family. The house, furniture, 
and farm implements were constructed by the group. 

Other countries were similarly studied. 

Bulletins on Immigration Laws were secured from the U. S. 
Department of Labor. An outline of the laws was placed on the 
board and discussed by the entire class. 

The conditions of the foreigner in America were taken up. An 
attempt was made to list the nationalities represented in the differ- 
ent lines of work, such as, Portuguese, textile; Spaniards, cigar 
manufacture; Russians, mining, iron and steel; Magyars, sugar 
refining plants; Italians, clothing. 

Conditions of work in factories, mills, etc., were studied and 
ways of improving those conditions were discussed. 



MATERIALS FOB BABES IV, V, AND VI 71 

122. "A Norway Book" 

(Reported by Jennie Williams, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

After the children had finished their study of Norway, they 
asked if they might write a book. The teacher, recognizing this 
as an excellent means for review, consented. 

The class proceeded with their plans. It resulted in each child 
contributing a chapter to the book. Supervised study followed. 
When the chapters were written, each was read to the class. Any 
points not clear were revised. As the work progressed, some one 
suggested making a book cover in the industrial arts class. The 
one having the best would be selected. The one chosen had a picture 
of North Cape and the midnight sun painted in black on white 
paper. This was posted on a gray cover, edged with a black line 
and the word Norway for the title printed across the upper half 
above the picture. 

The contents of the book were as follows: 

Introduction: A poem, "The Building of the Long Serpent" (pic- 
ture of a viking ship). 

Chapter I. Christiania (picture of the city). 

Chapter II. Bergen (picture of the city). 

Chapter III. Trondhjem (picture of the city and of a cathedral). 

Chapter IV. Tromso (illustrated). 

Chapter V. The Food of the Norwegians. 

Chapter VI. Lumbering in Norway. 

Chapter VII. Sardine and Herring Fishing (picture of a fisn 

market). 
Chapter VIII. Farm Life in Norway (picture of drying hay). 
Chapter IX. Bailroads of Norway. 
Chapter X. Manufactures. 
Chapter XI. The Children of Norway. 
Chapter XII. The Sports of Norway. 
Chapter XIII. The Midnight Sun (three pictures, "The Fiery Ball 

of the Midnight Sun," "Landing Stage at the 

North Cape," and the "Steam Yacht at North 

Capo"). 

Chapter XTV. Labels found on Packages: "Halden's Electric 

Matches," "Giraffe Safety Matches," "Safety 
Matches packed in Norway for Fred Harvey," 
"Norway Smoked Sardines," "Norwegian Sar- 
dines. ' ' 



72 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

123. "A 'See-the-United-States-First' Exhibit" 

(Reported by Bess M. Hayden and Zoe A. Thralls, State Manual 

Training Normal, Pittsburg, Kansas) 

Each child selected an industry for which he was to work up a 
chart, using pictures, clippings, drawings, and also write an account. 
The charts were about 24 by 36 inches. After finishing one chart, 
several of the children asked of the class permission to make 
another, and a number made as many as three charts. They did 
the same with the chief cities of the United States. They wrote to 
chambers of commerce, industrial concerns, and railroads for ma- 
terial, and secured a large amount of valuable and unusual 
material. 

They borrowed the kindergarten's sand table and made a large 
sand map of the United States. For the map they made tiny oil 
derricks, ships, etc., to illustrate the industries. On a table they 
J aid out the books and magazines which they had used for references. 
They also mounted a number of pictures of historical and scenic 
interest. 

Then they asked the printing class to make them some tickets 
which they distributed. The afternoon of the tour the class acted 
as guides and explained to their interested guests, the charts and 
exhibits. 

124. "An Oriental Bazaar" 

(Reported from the Marr Training School, Detroit, Michigan) 

Collections of pictures, fabrics, coins, and articles of Asiatic 
countries were made. Committees were chosen to solicit the co- 
operation of other departments. The Art Department produced 
some splendid posters; the Physical Education Department helped 
with the Japanese dance ; the Music Department taught the class 
Japanese and Chinese descriptive songs. A second-grade class 
gave an oriental dance. A visit to the Art Museum was made by 
the whole class. 

Some of the boys and girls dressed dolls to show the native 
costumes; others made product maps; others collected pictures. 
A large exhibit from the Art Museum helped swell the collection. 



MATERIALS FOR GRADES IV, V, AND VI 73 

Invitations were written by the children, inviting the parents to 
attend on "Open Day" the culmination of the project, which was 
the work of several months. The arrangement of the program was 
in the hands of the children and was thoroughly enjoyed. 

125. "A History of Bridgewater" 

(Reported by Jane Bennett, State Normal School, Bridgewater, 

Massachusetts) 

Class discussed freely and decided what subjects should be in- 
cluded in this history. Groups of pupils visited the library to con- 
sult old records. Research was made for local Indian names. Maps 
were made and various industries visited by groups of pupils. 
After the class had contributed all it could, short chapters were 
written. The illustrations were in charge of the drawing teacher. 
Observations and drawings of old colonial houses and a colonial 
church were made. Old doorways and windows were drawn. Pupils 
made collections of pictures of colonial days. The drawings and 
language papers were bound with attractive covers under the title 
"History of Bridgewater." Under the direction of the manual 
training supervisor, groups of pupils made models to illustrate 
colonial kitchen, well sweep, the stocks, etc. The boys did the 
wood work ; the girls dressed the colonial dolls. These models are 
to be used as permanent illustrative material for the school. 

126. "A Columbus Day Program" 
(Reported by Floy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The children were asked: "Did Columbus really discover 
America? If not, who did? Why do we honor Columbus rather 
than any other man? How shall we, as a room, show our respect?" 

The suggestion was made that his name be lettered on the board, 
with the date of his birth, his death, and the date of his discovery 
of America, the whole surrounded by a border of oak leaves. That 
on the Day itself every child in the room come prepared to give 
a poem, a song, or a story about Columbus, or to show and explain 
a picture of him. To prevent duplication, and make things go 
smoothly, a committee was appointed, to which each child reported 



74 THE TWENTIETH YBABBOOK 

his intended contribution; the committee arranged the program, 
and warned the child if his theme was already taken, or if his con- 
tribution took too much time. 

Another class dramatized the story of the landing of Columbus, 
making the flag, costumes, etc., out of paper and old clothes rescued 
from attics. 

The discussion of our reason for honoring Columbus was most 
valuable, and gave meaning to the entire program. The painting 
of brilliant oak leaves from nature was a preliminary step to the 
design on the blackboard, which was patterned after a very fine 
"Roll of Honor' ' in bronze. 

127. "A Columbus Play" 

(Reported by Ada M. Tea, Joliet, Illinois) 

After talking the matter over, we decided that we should like to 
celebrate Columbus Day by writing a play, dramatizing it, and 
inviting our parents and friends to see it. 

A knowledge of the story of Columbus' life was found to be 
necessary. To gain this information, books were consulted, stories 
told, pictures studied, and questions asked. 

The composition of the play, invitations, and letters required 
many language and writing lessons. As each part of the play was 
finished and practiced, articles that were needed to make the play 
effective were listed. These were mostly made by the children ; a 
few were borrowed, or brought from home. For instance, a cap 
worn by the boy Columbus came from Italy; Indian beads, re- 
quested by letter, were made from straws and colored papers, by 
the beginners. 

The play was written in six parts : 

Scene I. Columbus as a Boy. 

Scene II. Failure to Get Help. 

Scene III. At the Convent of La Rabida. 

Scene IV. Before Queen Isabella. 

Scene V. The Voyage. 

Scene VI. The Discovery of the New World. 

As a finale a child called "The Spirit of America" told of the 
wonderful resources and advantages of this new country. 



MATBBIALS FOB OB AD E 8 IV, V, AND VI 75 

128. "An Historical Play" 

(Reported by Tippa Coleman, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The desire to write a play was expressed by the children in 
this class after the reading of several mediaeval stories as a back- 
ground for American History. The children suggested contrasting 
the life of the middle ages with the life of to-day. Pictures were 
studied, castles worked on the sand table and blackboard; stories 
were read ; a Health Crusade was carried on, with the knighting of 
each child who kept the health rules ; and finally a plot was sub- 
mitted by each child. Prom these, the class chose the one they 
deemed the best. Committees were formed to be responsible for 
(1) the costumes, (2) the stage properties, and (3) the stage man- 
agement. The play was written on the board during the English 
periods with one child as the scribe. Each child made an attractive 
book cover for his play during the art periods, made his costume 
during the industrial periods and learned the music used in one 
of the scenes during the music periods. A production of 
the drama — "The Goose-girl and the Knight" — was given the last 
week of school as an assembly program. 

129. "Making Bird Sticks" 

(Reported by Heber M. Cubberley, Bartlett School, 

Lowell, Massachusetts) 

The children in this grade were growing bulbs, and at the same 
time a study was being made of the winter birds. The blossoming 
bulbs, being rather top-heavy, needed support badly, and in dis- 
cussing how to furnish that support it was brought out that orna- 
mental sticks were sometimes used. It was suggested that we might 
make sticks with bird forms perched upon them. The teacher pro- 
vided each child with the outlines of the winter birds. These out- 
lines were traced on boards of white pine a quarter of an inch thick, 
and a strip was marked out one-half inch wide and about fifteen 
inches long extending from the bird's feet. The children were 
taught the use of a coping saw, and then they proceeded to saw out 
the bird stick, sawing just outside of the marked outline. With a 



76 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

knife and sandpaper the edges were rounded and smoothed. The 
birds were then colored naturally with wax crayons. In every case 
the name of the bird was taught to the child. 

These sticks were used to support the bulb blossoms. A piece of 
raffia was used to attach the stem to the supporting bird stick. 

130. "ASpeakwellClub" 

(Reported by Agnes Scanlin, Buffalo, New York) 

The purpose of the club was to keep up a lively interest in the 
use of correct English. This club keeps its thoughts on not more 
than two or three common errors at one time. When these are con- 
quered, other new ones are attacked. Some excellent rules were 
devised by the club as follows : 

1. No child shall use any incorrect form which is listed on 
the blackboard for that week. 

2. Any member noticing another member using one of the in- 
correct forms shall write down on a paper the name of the trans- 
gressor and his offense. 

3. Errors shall be reported to the class once a week, during a 
language period. 

4. Any member reported three times for the same error shall 
be placed on the black list, which is kept somewhere on the black- 
board. 

. 5. Members may get themselves off this list by being free from 
complaint the following week. 

131. "Dramatizing King Arthur Stories' ' 

(Reported by Elizabeth B. Small, Buffalo State Normal School, 

Buffalo, New York) 

The dramatization, a pantomime, "How Arthur Was Chosen 
King," given on the school campus as a part of the May Day exer- 
cises, was the culmination of many simple dramatizations of the 
daily reading lessons. It was out of these lessons there grew the 
desire and decision to make a play from one of the King Arthur 
Stories. 



MATERIALS FOB GBADE8 IF, V, AND VI 77 

The large sections into which the story naturally fell were 
considered acts ; and the points that made the acts were organized 
as: first, the introduction, explaining the situation; second, the 
sequence of events leading into, third, the problem to be settled. 
The dialogue was lifted bodily from the text and indirect discourse 
changed to direct discourse. The working up of the speeches 
afforded opportunity for applying the requisite standards of the 
paragraph which the grade had already been taught Mary Mac- 
Leod's adaptation of the Malory stories was used as the basis for 
the play. 

132. "A Class Book" 

(Reported by Ella Wilson, Michigan State Normal Colleges, 

Ypsilanti, Michigan) 

This booklet was made by the fifth and presented to the seventh 
grade. It contained acrostics based on each child's initials, expan- 
sions of nursery rhyme themes, short nature poems and stories. The 
material for the booklet was selected by a grade committee after 
the standards for criticism had been worked out by the grade. The 
booklet was made, a presentation speech was composed, and the 
booklet was delivered to the grade. 

133. "A Literary Society" 

Organization by the children was according to parliamentary 
procedure, and there was a business meeting each day preceding the 
program. The president acted as chairman; the secretary kept 
records; sergeants-at-arms were responsible for order, etc. The 
programs consisted of debates, original stories and poems, dram- 
atizations written and prepared by children, first-aid demonstra- 
tions, etc 

134. "The Reading Period as a Contest" 

The class was divided into rival groups. Each group chose a 
leader, prepared material and presented it to the other groups. 
The class as a whole worked out standards for judging material 
presented. Score cards were kept and scores gathered at close of 



78 TEE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

each class period. The class, after sufficient training in self-control, 
co-operation, self direction and judgment of their own work, car- 
ried on their contest without the teacher's help. 

135. "A Hawaiian Entertainment' ' 
(Reported by Jennie Williams, State Normal, Emporia, Kansas) 

Purpose : To represent life in Hawaii in pantomime with music 
and dancing for the entertainment of the intermediate grades in 
General Assembly. 

Books, pictures, pamphlets and maps were placed on tables in 
the library. The children were told that this material about the 
Hawaiian Islands was placed there for them to read, that they 
might select anything of interest to discuss at the next recitation. 
An hour was thus employed. In the discussion the next day the 
girls asked if they might represent the native girls dancing for a 
program number. A boy said he could learn to play a Hawaiian 
piece on his mandolin, accompaning a Victrola. Some other chil- 
dren wished a part, but did not know what they could represent. 
The teacher said that probably they hadn't read enough to be able 
to decide. All plunged into reading to perfect their plans for a 
program. There were eight girls and eight boys. Their plans grew 
and materialized. One girl brought in a dress she had made of wild 
grass, another one made of raffia. These served as patterns for the 
other girls. They made mats of raffia and corn husks, and dishes 
for squashes to substitute for those of gourds and calabashes. The 
gymnastic teacher helped with the dancing. Some boys suggested 
having sugar and pineapple plantation owners; others, Chinese 
and Japanese as laborers. They could carry sorghum stalks and 
canned pineapples. One wished to be a surf-board rider. This 
could represent a scene described by someone. This description was 
written by all in the class under the title ' ' A Trip to Hawaii. " The 
best was selected to be read. 

In the final program "A Trip to Hawaii" was read first. The 
curtain was drawn aside and showed the girls seated in a semi- 
circle eating poi, later changing to make leis. Back of them stood 
the surf -board rider holding his board, the plantation owners and 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 79 

the Chinese at work. Jack sat at one side playing his mandolin. 
He had no nkelele. As the last strains were played, the boys and 
girls moved to one side to clear the stage for the five dancing 
girls. The curtain was drawn at the close of the dance. 

136. "Story-Telling" 

(Reported from the State Normal Training School, 

Westfield, Massachusetts) 

This project takes for granted the usual story-telling in the 
classroom by individual pupils, and provides in addition for: 

(1) The choice by the children of the stories most suitable for 
the audiences mentioned below. 

(2) The arranging by a committee for the interchange of 
class visits and the re-telling of stories for the entertain- 
ment of the visitors. 

(3) The arranging by the committee for telling stories in the 
Training School assembly hall and at the Normal School. 

(4) The arranging for groups of story-tellers to visit " shut- 
ins,' ' the Children's Home, The Home for Aged People, 
and the State Sanatorium. 

These activities all involve the offering of services, either by 
personal interview or by letter, the planning of the different pro- 
grams, the arranging when necessary for transportation, and the 
acquiring by the story-tellers of the niceties of conduct that such 
occasions demand. 

137. "An Operetta" 

(Reported by Mrs. Maude Meyer, Decatur, Illinois) 

The fifth-grade class of the Lincoln School at Decatur wrote an 
operetta entitled "Fairy Flowers' ' and gave it at an evening enter- 
tainment in connection with the annual money making event of 
the Mothers' Club. 

All the planning and execution of suggestions adopted, was 
carried on by the pupils under the guidance of the teacher. Oral 
and written English, music, art, and physical education were 
motivated for a period of four weeks. 

As a rounded finished product and to preserve the work in 
some permanent form, a booklet was made for the supervisor of 



80 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

elementary grades. The book contains one or more papers from 
each child and includes copies of program, invitations, posters, stage 
arrangement carrying out color scheme, design of costumes, descrip- 
tion of dances, songs used, letters of thanks to mothers who made 
the costumes or who played for their practices or who gave other 
general assistance on the night of the performance. 

138. "A Riddle Book Made for an Absent Member 1 ' 

(Reported by Edith M. Robbins, State Normal, Westfield, 

Massachusetts) 

When Victor broke his leg, the class wished to show their sym- 
pathy by making something for him. They discussed whether it 
should be a joke book, a scrap book, or a riddle book. They decided 
upon a riddle book. They decided to set aside a time for making it 
They brought in a large collection of riddles and through class dis- 
cussion selected those that appealed to them as being the most 
enjoyable and the cleverest. The next part of the project was the 
making of the book. Each child copied a riddle and, realizing that 
Victor should have a chance to guess, wrote the answer on the back 
of the sheet. Then the class selected a committee to plan and make 
the cover and another committee to carry the book to Victor with 
a note, the outcome of community composition, expressing greetings 
and good will. Should occasion arise for repeating this project, 
there will be included in the book a preface, the result of community 
composition, stating what the children have been able to find out 
about the origin of riddles and the nature of the earlier ones. 

139. "Learning Thrift by Keeping Accounts' * 

(Reported by Bertha A. Morse, Rockford, Illinois) 

Inexpensive bookkeeping sets, especially prepared for each 
study, were purchased to keep daily accounts of all money received 
(allowances, earnings, etc.) and spent, as well as a form to account 
for ways in which the money was disposed of or saved. A scale 
for the class as a whole was arranged to show weekly percents spent 
on luxuries as compared with entire expenditures; besides each 
pupil kept his individual percent of progress. Gradually, pupils 



MATERIALS FOE GBADES IV, V, AND VI gl 

handled their own accounts with interest and confidence in their 
own accuracy, as was, of course, necessary to balance their records 
each week. 

140. "A Pageant: 'To Arms for Liberty' " 

(Reported by Marguerite F. Maloney, Dearborn School, 

Boston, Massachusetts) 

In our oral English class we were reading Miss Catherine 
B rice's fine patriotic pageant, "To Arms for Liberty." Some of 
the children asked if we could not play it. We started to do this 
for our own amusement, and we found that it grew and grew. It 
entered into our work in history, geography, English, music, draw- 
ing and manual training. 

Our music was the national anthem of each country with which 
the pageant was making us acquainted. Our history and geography 
were the stories of their people — the fears, joys, sorrows, customs, 
and everything we could find that made us better acquainted with 
them and their problems. 

The hearts of the children were in this enterprise to such an 
extent that when they gave the entertainment as a whole, they 
interested many people outside of our school in the attainment. 
We gave it for our neighbors and earned money enough to have a 
wonderful Christmas party which we shared with them again. We 
gave it for a social centre where we were strangers. Later we 
gave it for teachers and supervisors who were surprised that such 
a serious message could be given in such a simple way by children. 

141. "Building and Furnishing a Cardboard House" 

(Reported by Charlotte J. Flood, Eagle School, Cleveland, Ohio) 

This fifth-grade class was divided into groups and to each group 
was assigned a certain part of the work of building and furnishing 
a house of cardboard and paper. The house had three rooms on 
the ground floor and three rooms and a bath on the second floor. 
The furniture was stained to resemble oak, mahogany and pine 
and was shellacked to give it stiffness. The exterior was painted 



g2 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

gray brown with dark brown trimmings, a green roof and red 
chimney. 

The measurements for the building and its furnishings were 
worked out and the paper cutting was done during the drawing 
periods. Original arithmetic problems were submitted by each 
group daily having to do with measuring, drawing to scale, figuring 
costs of furniture, papering, etc. 

When completed, the house was donated to a summer school play 
ground. 

142. ''Staging Toy Scenes" 

(Reported by Anne H. Stewart, Cleveland, Ohio) 

One project to be worked out in thin wood was a stage group 
representing some phase of the colonial period which the children 
were studying. Each pupil selected his own subject and made his 
designs for it. He found for himself helpful pictures from which 
he made the drawings needed to tell his story. He made his draw- 
ings in right proportion, cut them out of paper, transferred them 
to the wood and sawed them out. He finished and assembled the 
parts. He then painted the wood in a color scheme which had been 
tried out on the paper template. Each child made a base of thicker 
wood on which to mount his group. This base or stage was pierced 
with many holes. A peg was placed in the base of each unit, thus 
affording choice and variety of arrangement. 

Some of these groups showed "Dutch Life," "The Landing of 
the Pilgrims," "The Return of the Mayflower," "Paul Revere 's 
Ride," etc. When all were finished, the children constructed a 
large stage by placing together many small ones. Units were taken 
from the small stages; enough trees were collected for a forest; 
there were animals in the woods, dancing warriors and Indians on 
the hunt and in the camp. 

In another fifth-grade room a different subject was chosen. The 
children had written original fables and each child illustrated his 
own in the working out of similar stages. The problem makes vital 
appeal to the children. 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 83 

143. "Making a Toy Circus for the First-Grade Class' ' 

(Reported by Marguerite Reasor, Mary D. Hill School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 
The class listed articles to be found in every good circus. Each 
boy decided what he wished to make and then worked out a way 
to saw the wood most economically. Some boys chose to work alone. 
Others, working out individual problems, grouped themselves as 
they chose, some members of the group sawing, others sand- 
papering, etc. One group volunteered to make all animals 
"stand," using different methods for different toys. Several boys 
made articles for which patterns were not obtainable. A committee 
of four, acting as " finishers,' ' inspected the completed toys and 
passed them on to an art class to paint. Several boys well ad- 
vanced in woodwork worked out their own plans and made the 
tent of unbleached muslin. Others brought rings and sawdust and 
arranged an entire circus. In their English work, the 5-B class 
wrote about the animals, making their stories simple enough for 
first-grade children to read. 

144. ' ' A Picture Museum ' * 

(Reported by Francis D. Young, Berkeley, California) 

Through the interest aroused by a talk given by the teacher the 
class decided to try to make a worth-while collection of pictures with 
facts about each picture. This grew into ideas of contests on the 
part of individuals of the class to see who could learn the most 
about the pictures. Reprints of forty different pictures were pur- 
chased at a cost of one or two cents each. The children, with the 
help of the teacher, took up the study of five different artists with 
the important pictures painted by each. They classified the pic- 
tures as follows: portraits, animals, landscape, history, sacred, 
decorative, still life. The children then developed and wrote stories 
for booklets. The class developed some of the outlines by means 
of a socialized recitation. A stereoptican lecture on pictures was 
given by the class for other classes in the building. Children 
selected by these classmates contributed interesting facts about their 
favorite pictures. The children wrote to Milton Bradley Company 



84 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

for pictures and spent some fourteen dollars for copies to place 
in their booklets. The subject matter covered was that of oral 
language, picture stories, discussions, descriptions, biographies, 
silent reading, use of library, penmanship. Pride was stimulated to 
make the work in the booklets look neat and legibly written. 

145. "Writing Music for a Play" 

(Reported by Catharine E. Strouse, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

A class in English were dramatizing "The Maid of Orleans." 
The text gave the words of a song supposed to occur at intervals, 
but no tune. The class asked the English teacher if they might 
request the music teacher to find a suitable tune so they could sing 
it. The music teacher suggested that it might be more desirable to 
make a tune than to find one ready made. The class took the sug- 
gestion eagerly, and they studied diligently the successive steps 
involved in matching music with words as these steps were pro- 
posed by the teacher. They wrote the music and when the play 
was given in public, the song was used as made by class. 

146. "Music Naming Contest" 

(Reported by Effie E. Harmon, South Bend, Indiana) 

Fifty compositions have been selected for the pupils to study in 
order to be able to recognize them whenever played or sung. After 
three months' study, the contest is held. Twenty of the selections 
are played or sung. The pupils try to write the name of each com- 
position and its composer. The contest is an annual affair, and ten 
selections are added each year to the list of the previous year. 

147. ' ' Class Self Government ' ' 

(Reported by Miss Tippa Coleman, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

In a fifth-grade civics class there had been a discussion as to 
why certain rules of conduct were necessary when people live 
together in groups. "How can we improve our deportment, as a 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 86 

class, this termt" was the question left with the children. The 
following day the class voted to adopt the suggestion made of 
organizing a club that should take care of the deportment of the 
class when the teacher was not present. A president, secretary, 
girl and boy governor, and a jury were elected. Definite laws were 
formulated and written during the English period. Penalties were 
decided upon by the club. Great improvement was noted in the 
general deportment of the class during recitation periods as well 
as times when the teacher was not in the room. 

148. "A Jury of Fifth-Grade Pupils" 
(Reported by Marguerite F. Maloney, Boston, Massachusetts) 

A new boy entered our schoolroom about the middle of Febru- 
ary. From his habits, I judged that he must have come from a 
school where the "be good while the teacher is looking" idea is 
the custom. 

When I had occasion to leave the room, he poked the girl beside 
him, annoyed the boy in front of him by looking over his shoulder 
and made himself generally disagreeable. The class surprised me 
one afternoon by saying that a certain boy was breaking their rules 
and deserved punishment. 

We gave our attention to the case, heard everyone in the room 
who had anything to say, and asked for any defense which could 
be offered. Not a child in the room offered a word in behalf of the 
offender. Seven children were selected to decide what his pun- 
ishment should be, while I waited fearful lest they should decide 
to take his case to the highest powers of the school, or to put him 
back into the fourth grade. I was immensely relieved to hear the 
decision. — " James is to have his seat changed to the fourth row, 
first seat, where he can be under the eye of everyone in the room. 
If at the end of the month he has proved he can be trusted, he may 
return to his own seat again. We were easy with him because he is 
new in our room." 

The solemnity and firmness with which this was all carried out 
proved beyond a doubt the sacredness of self-imposed law. 



86 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

C. MATERIALS FOR THE SIXTH GRADE 

149. "A Ground Map of the United States" 

(Reported by H. H. Ryan, St. Louis, Missouri) 

On the floor of a large room or an out-door vacant space con- 
struct an outline map of United States, using two tape lines, small 
map, and scale. Points on large map are located by their respective 
distances from two set points as found by proportion. Have chil- 
dren bring in objects and materials to represent the products, and 
place them in position on the map. Miniature flour mills, elevators, 
packing houses, cotton mills, hardwood forests, etc., can be con- 
structed of cardboard. 

150. "A Products Contest" 

(Reported by H. H. Ryan, St. Louis, Missouri) 

Place in position on a ground map cardboard discs to represent 
fifty principal products, taking care that each state has some discs : 
naturally several will be needed for "cotton," several for "coal," 
etc. Divide the class into two sections, and play some contest game 
like racing, jumping, etc., for possession of each disc, the victory 
depending upon number of discs, aggregate value of annual crops, 
outputs, etc. 

151. ' * The Japanese Festival ' ' 

(Reported by Grace Ellis, Rockford, Illinois) 

A play, representing Japanese festivals, was written and staged 
by the class. After making a careful study of Japanese home-life, 
the children selected the "Dolls Festival" and the "Flag Festival" 
as the most enjoyable holidays for boys and girls. Japanese games, 
music, and folk-lore connected with these festival occasions fur- 
nished the material for a two-act play, "Sunrise." Besides being 
an interpretation of happy childhood, the play was written to show 
the intense religious feeling and patriotic devotion of the Japanese 
people. 



MATERIALS FOB GBADES IV, V, AND VI 87 

152. "A Trip Over the Lincoln Highway" 

(Reported by Catherine Morgan, Teachers College, Detroit, 

Michigan) 

The class decided that a trip over the Lincoln Highway would 
make both an interesting and profitable vacation. They formed into 
committees to approximate the necessary time, expense, and places 
of interest to be visited. They collected pictures and souvenirs 
interesting from the standpoint of history and geography and, 
in the best English at their command, gave the account of their 
trip to the seventh-grade class. 

153. "Making Potato Starch" 

(Reported by Louise A. Dawson, Rockford, Illinois) 

Having learned that one-fifth of the potato was composed of 
starch they wondered why potato starch wasn't used. This led to 
inquiries about it. The suggestion was made that we make some 
potato starch. The class was divided into working groups, which 
learned the various processes, and then began the operation of 
them. The potatoes were peeled, grated to a pulp and placed in 
cold water. This pulp was washed through a very fine sieve sev- 
eral times until only the pure starch remained. The comparative 
cost and values of corn starch and potato starch were discussed. 
The starch was used in Domestic Science by the girls, and made 
into a "potato-starch pudding," which was served to the class. 

154. "Discovering the Reasons for a Military Move" 
(Reported by Marguerite Reasor, Louisville, Kentucky) 

In this sixth-grade class we sought an answer to the question : 
"Why, during the recent World War, were the Germans so anxious 
to obtain possession of the Po Valley!" 

The conclusions reached were that the Po Valley must be excel- 
lent in some features, and that a study of Italy would reveal them. 
Free discussion determined the following method of procedure : 

I. Class selected topics of study necessary, such as location of 
Italy, size and population, raw materials, etc 



88 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

II. Class divided itself into committee*, children selecting the 
topics they preferred studying. Each committee selected its own 
chairman, who directed the work of the group. 

III. Each group outlined points to consider under its topic, 
then discussed sources of material. Beprcsentatives were sent for 
supplementary and reference books. 

IV. Class study began, children preparing charts, graphs, maps, 
tables, statistics, etc., to illustrate certain points. Teacher assisted 
individuals and made suggestions only when necessary. 

V. Children reported on topics, answering original question. All 
reasons were summed up. 

155. "A Museum of Nations" 

(Reported by Ploy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

In one large school, the space down the middle of the hall was 
filled with a line of show cases, and a series of small models of for- 
eign lands was made, covering Egypt, Japan, Prance, Italy, 
Greece, etc. As these became dusty, or were discovered to be faulty, 
they were replaced with improved representations. The following 
description of the Hawaiian scene will indicate the general method. 

A large hat box was used. One side was removed, and the other 
three covered with blue paper on which the mountains, a volcano, 
etc., were drawn. Sandpaper represented the beach, and a painted 
sea with white breakers met its edges. A group of paper palms 
(cocoanut) was fastened to the beach by a touch of sealing wax. 
A raffia hut was built on the edge of the beach, with a mat under 
the front thatch, to eat on. Clay utensils were made and decorated. 
A surf -board and two canoes rode at the edge of the water. Drying 
poles with fish nets on them stood near. A brown man stood in 
the edge of the surf, fishing. The scale was about half an inch 
to a foot. Broad reading, and the consultation of many pictures, 
and help from a returned missionary were helpful factors in the 
making of this picture. 

156. "An Illustrated Diary of a Trip to South America" 

(Reported by Sue Bishop, Government School, Quincy, 

Massachusetts) 

The children and their teacher talked over a "Raymond Whit- 
comb Tour Through South America' ' just as if they were actually 
to take the"mp. The "Autumn Tour" was selected because of 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI gg 

places included and expenses. The tour was planned on the map ac- 
cording to dates scheduled by Raymond Whitcomb. Children vol- 
unteered to be responsible to act as guide through places visited at 
each given date. Each volunteer, together with his two or three 
helpers, then withdrew to discuss how to find the interesting points 
about which to tell the class on the trip. For example, Santos, 

m 

Brazil, would call for a study of the Brazilian coffee region. Sim- 
ilarly, the industries, resources, or historical facts associated with 
each place visited were discussed. Each group wrote and illustrated 
its page in the diary. 

157. ' * The Mythology Play : * The Greeks Sailing to Troy ' ' f 

(Reported by Mary S. Shelley, Victor H. Engelhard School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

After the episode was read, one act and six scenes were decided 
upon. Six groups of children were arranged, each group responsi- 
ble for the scene assigned it. A chairman was selected and con- 
sulted with each of his group. Introductions for the scenes were 
written. These were read before the class for approval and the 
best were selected. The characters were studied, and the pupiU 
chose the child whom they thought best suited a particular part. 
All the members took part, either in a leading role or as pages, 
heralds, or a member of the army. After selecting the characters, 
the time and place were considered. The costumes and customs 
of those days required a great deal of search, and the library was 
frequented many days while the work was in progress. The manual 
training and domestic art periods were used for constructing the 
shields, the war weapons, the costumes and head dresses for the 
girls. Use of measurements was brought in many times. Various 
decorations in gold and silver were done in the art period. In 
literature the myths and stories of the Greeks and Trojans were 
consulted. In geography the climates, soil, dress, and nature of 
the people were reviewed. The sixth grade gave their play as a 
program for the Parent-Teachers Association. They worded their 
invitations, wrote them, addressed and sent them. 



90 TEE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

158. "Folk-lore and Story Representation' ' 
(Reported by Grace Ellis, Rockford, Illinois) 

Polk stories connected with the Siege of Troy were told by 
members of the class, then a miniature stage setting representing 
the region around Troy was painted on tag board 13 by 27 inches. 
Brilliant orange, blue, and purple, the favorite colors of ancient 
Greeks, made a gorgeous background for tiny figures of papier 
mache that formed the opposing armies. Simple materials, such as 
pipe-stem wire, tissue paper, and paste were developed into other 
historical characters that aroused interest and aided in visualization. 

159. "A Scrapbook of Classical References in Modern Business' ' 
(Reported by Ruth Craig, Rockford, Illinois) 

The class was ready to take up the study of Europe in geogra- 
phy, the study of Greek and Roman history, the study of Greek 
stories and myths in reading. By lecture, and by study and dis- 
cussion of reading work in Gordy's American Beginnings in 
Europe, pp. 11-104, we produced an exhaustive list of modern 
traces of ancient influence in architecture, other art, sports, etc. 
Such a list included styles of pillars on modern local buildings, road 
construction of stone, Olympic sports, theatre buildings, etc. At 
the same time we studied modern Greece, Italy, and other Balkan 
states to compare the ancient and modern. (Tarr and McMurry, 
Geography, Book II, p. 334). We followed these countries' 
courses through the World War, finally bringing in the study of 
the rest of Europe with the history of the invasions and crusades 
(Gordy). In the Elson Reader, Book II, we read the stories of 
Greek heroes and gods. After nearly four weeks of this we dis- 
covered that advertisements had expressed many modern uses of 
ancient arts and customs. We then collected advertisements of this 
sort, succeeding in finding a different advertisement for nearly 
every child. They included Atlas cement, Ajax tires, Athens, the 
Home Journal symbol, etc. With these in hand each child hunted 
up the story of his hero or god, and told the story to the class. 
Then the advertisement was pasted on a large sheet of school paper 
on which was the story neatly copied from a corrected paper. 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 91 

Below the story was an explanation as to why that god or hero was 
used for that 'ad.' We had nearly thirty leaves to bind. A cover 
design, made by one lad, was chosen after competition. Another 
child bound it with raffia. 

The children connected the ancient and modern peoples in this 
experiment, making the ancients, real people. They got drill in 
speaking and in composition and penmanship. In hunting up 
their stories they learned how to use the reference books in the 
Public Library. The cover offered an opportunity in design. 

160. "To the Rescue''— a Play 

(Reported by Edith Stewart) 

The motive for the play was furnished by our desire to earn 
money for the support of a French orphan ; the theme was supplied 
by current events. Uncle Sam's problem of meeting war demands 
was solved when his natural resources, one by one, came "to the 
rescue." The signing of the armistice, before we were ready to 
present the play, furnished a fitting climax. Each child of the class 
prepared a suggested part from day to day. A committee of three 
— different every day — selected from all the papers the most in- 
teresting portions and combined them. Class work included criti- 
cism by the children — a study of the natural resources of the United 
States, writing of invitations to parents and friends, planning of 
simple costumes, printing of tickets with a child's printing outfit, 
keeping account of funds from the sale of tickets, writing of news- 
paper accounts, and finally, the presentation of the play. 

161. "A Diary of Beauty" 

(Reported by Ruth Craig, Rockford, Illinois) 

Beginning with April Pool's day we kept a five-cent note book 
for a "pretty thing a day." The schoolroom was on the second 
floor, with an exposure to open country. Often we had watched 
clouds and rain effects across the hills and trees. Now we watched 
color effects of coming spring. Doing this in the classroom led them 
to looking for sounds and smells of spring in their own world out 
of school. Some of them began to find beauty in their friends and 



92 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

their actions. Each day developed a picture of nature, a little 
story of a kind act, or a little talk of a beautiful thought they had. 
This took but fifteen minutes a day. I went from seat to seat 
correcting and advising. The last day of the month we made our 
booklets. I had a supply of heavy paper in six different colors. 
We studied color combination and made paper-cutting designs 
which we pasted on the cover. After tying the booklets together 
with colored raffia, we copied our diary. The booklet was about 
four and one half inches by six inches and contained twelve double 
leaves. The children thought a good deal of these, because they 
were something they could keep, and something worth keeping. 

162. "Publication of a Monthly Magazine' 9 

The material suitable for a magazine, the number of copies to be 
sold, the price per copy, cost of printing, suitable covers, etc., were 
discussed and investigated. The group elected an editorial staff 
and divided themselves into committees according to their choice 
of work. The editor-in-chief acted as chairman of all meetings and 
each committee selected its own chairman. Each pupil wrote for 
the magazine what he could. This material was judged by the 
group before being accepted or rejected. Standards were set up, 
and if material did not come up to these standards, its author 
worked it over and presented it again. The business managers in- 
vestigated various printing concerns and brought reports to the 
group before a contract was entered into. Advertising was solicited, 
and in some cases this covered the expense of printing. Covers were 
made during the drawing period. One hundred copies were sold at 
ten cents each. The pupils handled all money, paid all bills, etc 
The interest in this activity carried for several months. Each issue 
had an entirely new organization. Three issues were published. 

163. "Conducting a Real Library" 

Upon the information that books might be secured from the 
Public Library or brought from home, a library organization con- 
sisting of librarian, assistants, secretary and treasurer was worked 
out by the children. Committees chosen by the group arranged 



HAtEblALB FOB GRADES IV, P, AND Vl 95J 

shelves in the room, visited the public library and secured cards, 
rules, etc., for the use of children's books. Another committee 
brought books from the library. Each pupil was asked as a favor 
to keep a record of each book read and his opinion of each book. A 
certain period was set aside each day for book reports, dramatiza- 
tions, etc, chosen from books in the library. Standards for both 
preparing and presenting material were set up here and judg- 
ments made by keeping scores. Each pupil measured his speed in 
silent reading and kept records of progress. 

164. "Writing a Class Creed" 

(Reported by Josephine E. Maloney, Milwaukee Normal School, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin) 

Different creeds were read to the class by the teacher. The 
meaning of a creed was discussed by the class. The teacher asked 
the children if they would like to write a class creed of their own. 
At first it seemed quite an undertaking, but they thought they 
would like to try. The following day each one was to bring a 
suggestion that would be helpful in writing the creed. The next 
day the suggestions were given, and what the creed ought to stand 
for was discussed. It was decided that each member of the class 
would write a creed, and then a vote would be taken to decide which 
one was best. This one was to be accepted as the ' ' Class Creed. ' ' 
The following one, written by Dorothy Morgan, was chosen : 

A Class Creed 

I believe in Class Spirit — the foundation of all motives in 
school life. 

I believe that success and achievement are only obtained by class 
and school unity, co-operation and team-work. 

I acknowledge that to be a member of a progressive and worth- 
while class, I must attend to myself only — not to others. 

I believe that it is the little things of life, done well, that fit us 
to accomplish greater things when the opportunity comes. 

I believe that each individual of this eighth-grade class should 
set a good example, that the boys and girls to come may find it worth 
their while to foUow, so they may be good citizens. 

When the creed was re-read after the voting, one of the boys 
who liked to print volunteered, for his work during free periods, 
to print a copy of the creed on a large sheet of paper, to tack up in 



94 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

the front of the room. He did such a splendid piece of work, that 
when it was finished, the class suggested that it ought to be framed, 
so it was taken to the Manual Training room, where with the help 
of the Manual Training teacher it was very artistically framed. It 
now hangs in the most conspicuous place in our room. 

165. "Writing and Performing a Play" 

(Reported by Gertrude Brown, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The sixth grade read in the Bolenius Sixth Reader the selec- 
tion from "New Chronicles of Rebecca,' ' called "The Flag-Raising 
at Riverboro." Part of it is in conversation form, and while read- 
ing those parts in dialogue fashion in the class, a pupil suggested 
the selection could be made into a fine play. With this as a start, 
the work began. The story easily divided itself into two acts and 
the 6-A class wrote Act I, while Act II was assigned to the 6-B class. 
There were no parts for boys, so at the outset the children proposed 
a scene by which the boys could be brought into the play. The 
play was written, speech by speech ; the class decided which parts 
they wanted or often combined parts of several to make a certain 
part. Interest was keen throughout the eight days taken for the 
writing of the play. Many explaining parts had to be dramatized, 
and much original material was added to give parts to all. Long 
before it was completed, it was decided to print it in the magazine 
of the department, "The Searchlight.' ' 

The class chose the cast of characters, having an understudy for 
each important part, and rehearsals began. These showed that 
many changes must be made. It was the children's own play and 
interest did not once lag, especially as they were asked to hasten 
their work on it and give it at the Lyon County Pair. It formed the 
basis for all work in literature and composition for over two weeks. 

166. "A Debate" 

(Reported by Julia E. Norris, State Normal School, 

Dillon, Montana) 

In the study of the Greeks the pupils were much interested in 
the Trojan War and its leading heroes. They divided, naturally, 



MATERIALS FOB GBADES IV, V, AND VI 95 

in their opinions on matters pertaining to the two sides in the 
struggle. It was decided to hold a series of debates on the question, 
"Resolved that Achilles was braver than Hector." This was done, 
first in private, and afterwards in public. The final victory lay with 
the side supporting the claims of Hector. 

We give a sample paper from each side of the debate. 

I think that Hector was just as brave as Achilles. Achilles was 
immortal, as the Elson Reader said. When Hector took the armor 
of Achilles he didn't know the weak spot in it. Achilles got a new 
armor from the gods. It was of immortal make. Achilles had horses 
from the gods, too. Hector didn't have anyone to help him fight 
either but Achilles did. Wouldn't you be afraid if you saw fire on 
another man's headf If two men fought and one got killed wouldn't 
you call the one who got killed just as brave as the one who lived f 
If one man was small and the other large the smaller one would be 
brave to fight the larger one. 

I think Achilles was the bravest man in the Trojan war. When 
Achilles appeared on the scene of battle unarmed, the whole Trojan 
army fled in terror. Achilles did not know what fear meant. Achilles 
went out to the battle in the Trojan war without any armor on and 
was not afraid. 

I think that Hector was not as brave as Achilles. When Hector 
saw Achilles coming he was afraid to stand and fight at first. He 
thought the people would rebuke him so he stayed outside the walls. 
He ran from Achilles. 

167. "Publishing an Annual" 

(Reported by Gertrude Brown, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The children of the intermediate department of our training 
school publish a magazine called ' * The Searchlight. ' ' From its be- 
ginning, it has been a wonderful stimulus toward good work in 
composition. Last spring the children heard the students of the 
Normal talking much about their " Annual' ' and in a fifth-grade 
composition class, it was suggested that our spring magazine take 
the form of an annual. This was followed by much discussion as 
to what should be included in such a number, differing from what 
we had had in previous numbers. The wish of the children was that 
any outsider, reading the magazine, should get a good idea as to 
the scope of our year's work. To accomplish this, our organization 
was fully written up — the year's work of all our committees, our 
school planning periods, our special programs, our regular pro- 



96 TES TWENTIETH TSABBOOK 

grams which are the result of classroom activity, a "point" con- 
test at the gymnasium in which the entire department was greatly 
interested, an account of our annual operetta, a sketch regarding 
the French orphans we are supporting, full accounts of the year's 
work in industrial arts, our spring poems, echoes from the geogra- 
phy, arithmetic, science, history, and literature classes, a dramatiza- 
tion worked out by one of the classes, and a few of the best original 
stories of the year. 

For nearly two months the children eagerly worked on this num- 
ber, gathering material, making and rejecting suggestions, and 
working as a unit to make this number the best of the year. Each 
child wrote on themes of particular interest to him ; on some of the 
larger themes the work would be divided, and group work would 
be in order later to compare results and to judge them. All these 
articles passed before the critical eyes of the editorial staff, and 
while the first and basal question was always, "Is it interesting?" 
the second was, "Is it well written, properly planned and punc- 
tuated ?" The children paid for the printing of the magazine by 
giving plays, selling sandwiches at ball games, etc. The sandwich- 
selling gave rise to a splendid project in arithmetic. 

168. "Editing Poems of the Great War" 

(Reported by Mary McCrory Pierce, Rockford, Illinois) 

The children read poems of the war in current magazines, news- 
papers and books. They selected the ones they liked best and read 
them to the class. Questions were asked about them and criticism 
made. In this way they collected several hundred poems. The class 
was divided into groups of four or five; one of each group was 
appointed leader, to read and talk over several poems. Many class 
periods were spent in this way. Each group saved the poems they 
liked best and discarded the poorest. We applied to every poem 
two tests — Is the thought enduring? Is it well expressed? They 
selected thirty-one poems to be made into a book. This book was 
printed by the pupils of a neighboring school in their print shop. 
The children were intensely interested in the making of books, 
their shape, size, material, preface, dedication, copyright. 



MATERIALS FOB GBADES IV, V, AND VI 97 

The Board of Education paid for the printing materials, and 
sent a set of the books to every school in Rockf ord to be used as 
supplementary reading. 

169. "Search for Poems Describing the Sea" 

(Reported by Harriet Beale, State Teachers College, 

Mankato, Minnesota) 

The teacher read a poem descriptive of the sea to a class familiar 
with it from vacation experiences. The lack of response caused her 
to ask questions which brought out the explanation that her choice 
did not describe their favorite aspects of the sea. One after another 
described his favorite picture, and much diversity appeared. One 
pupil asked, "Do you suppose there is a poem describing 'the surf 
after a big storm' ?" So a search was begun which gave an en- 
riched appreciation of the ocean, as well as familiarity with library 
aids and methods and valuable training in reading to determine 
the experience realized by the poet and to judge his success in 
expressing it. They became interested in one another's search, so 
that the work was increasingly socialized. 

170. "A History Play" 

(Reported by Gertrude R. Lynch, Wells School, Boston, 

Massachusetts) 

One of my girls owned Miss Hubbard's Little American History 
Plays for Little Americans. One day she asked if the class might 
act some of the plays. I agreed, provided she took charge and the 
class was willing. They were delighted, so with a few helpers she 
copied the parts of "Columbus," since we were studying Columbus 
at the time. After a class discussion, the parts were assigned to 
appropriate girls. At the first rehearsal of the play the class offered 
suggestions for improvement in expression and action, which were 
gratefully accepted. Many plays were thus learned, and every 
girl in the room had a chance to act in more than one play. These 
were entirely class projects with little or no aid from me. The stage 
manager took entire charge of the 'stage setting,' arranging chairs, 
collecting rulers for guns, etc. Every child was responsible for a 
part and was kept busy and interested. 



98 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

171. "A School Fair" 

(Reported from Kansas City) 

This fair was given in a school of 18 rooms, with three floors and 
a basement. A general committee decided. what booths to have, 
where to place them, what room to make responsible for each one, 
what type of advertising to do, etc. This committee appointed 
sub-committees, one for each floor. The sub-committees decided on 
color schemes and general plans for the decorations on their floor, 
sizes of booths, etc. Booths were drawn and constructed by the 
Manual Training boys, and detailed plans for their decoration made 
by the different rooms. The general committee bought materials 
and carried out these designs. Price tags and signs were lettered 
and posters made. The general committee saw to the proper plac- 
ing of the posters in stores, picture shows, etc. Handbills were 
mimeographed and sent around the district; the writing and 
arrangement of the handbill was a careful study in design. Invi- 
tations and programs were designed and decorated. 

A continuous dramatic entertainment was carried on in the 
assembly room to which each room contributed some 'stunt.' The 
children made all scenery and costumes, and wrote all 'stunts' or 
plays, and even wrote the words of many of the songs given. 

The amount of design and color work required was unlimited. 
The opportunities for drawing from nature, in connection with 
posters, were numerous. And the chance for studying the question 
of advertising, its methods, and its relation to modern public ques- 
tions, was not neglected. Excursions to billboards, talks from ad- 
vertisers, the question of the cost of advertising, and who pays it, 
were all part of the work. The social aspect of the project was 
emphasized all along the line. It was so successful that it had to 
be repeated three times, and its financial returns were astonishing; 
but we hope that its results as a lesson in co-operation, and its dis- 
cussions of ethical advertising were of greater value. 



MATERIALS FOB QBADES IV, V, AND VI gg 

172. "An Arbor Day Pageant' ' 

(Reported by Agnes Cavanaugh and Lillian McNulty, 
Albert S. Brandeis School, Louisville, Kentucky) 

A bare avenue leads up to the Brandeis School. The school 
grounds, themselves, are beautiful. The children of the upper 
grades desired to set out an avenue of trees on Arbor Day, after 
having studied about trees in the science classes. They wished to 
have a ceremony on the occasion of the planting and settled upon 
a pageant as a fitting entertainment. The problems arose: (a) to 
select trees, (6) to plan the planting, (c) to prepare the enter- 
tainment. 

First, a study of the shade trees of the neighborhood was made 
by the class to determine what trees flourished best. Next, the 
children canvassed the neighborhood to secure consent from the 
property owners to do the planting. Then a letter was written to 
the city for a permit to plant on the city streets. A survey of the 
street was made to ascertain the number of trees needed for the 
avenue. Then a trip was made by members of the class to the 
nursery of the State Department of Forestry to get the trees, 
which were 'heeled in,' in the garden, till needed. In the mean- 
time, the class had made a study of the life, structmre, care, use, 
and economic importance of shade and forest trees. The scientific 
facts so obtained were used as the basis for writing the pageant 
under the direction of the English teacher. The art department 
aided in providing opportunity for designing and making costumes 
and decorations. As the pageant was to end with the tree-planting, 
each room-group submitted a plan for the ceremony ; the best was 
selected by the vote of the groups. Invitations were then written 
and delivered to all the people in the neighborhood. This has been 
the means of interesting the neighborhood in the school in a way 
hitherto impossible. 

173. "A Hygiene Book" 

(Reported by Jennie G. Ramp, Gastman School, Decatur, Illinois) 

At the first meeting of the hygiene class for the term, a member 

suggested that it would be more interesting to find out things which 



c0&> 



\ 



100 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

would make Decatur a healthier city than to follow the regular 
lessons. So together the class listed topics for study. On looking 
into the book for suggestions it was found that the regular topics 
assigned to them would fit in well, so they were embodied in the 
list. Health of School Children, the Park System, Milk Supply, 
Water Supply, Cleaning of Streets, Junior Sanitation League, and 
Hospitals were among the topics chosen. At the next class meeting 
it was suggested that each pupil make a book treating and illustrat- 
ing each topic. It was decided that each child should be free to 
arrange his book as he thought best, with regard to illustrations, 
clippings, chapters, and addition of topics. The class meetings were 
discussions of topics, in which the children contributed from ex- 
perience, reading, and conversations with others, and in which 
questions were asked and answered. Periods were set aside for 
book work. Trips were taken to waterworks, etc. At close of the 

term the books were read and enjoyed by all. 

* 

174. "The Cleaning of the Lunch Room" 

(Reported by Kate Hardin, Geo. D. Prentice School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

Suggestions from the children, both oral and written, were 
made as to how to make the lunch room attractive. Talks on sani- 
tation were given to instruct the children about the importance of 
the subject and to awaken their enthusiasm to the point that they 
would be eager to do the work. The social aspect of the subject 
was emphasized in the need of sanitary surroundings as good citi- 
zens. A day was appointed, materials assembled, work assigned. 
The lunch room emerged transformed. 

This project was carried into all their subjects: e. g., in his- 
tory, the cleaning up of Cuba and the Canal Zone ; in geography, 
the location of these places ; in mathematics, the cost of materials 
used in cleaning the lunch room ; in science, the effect of differ- 
ent cleansers on grease and dirt; in language, their written work; 
in spelling, the new words used. We finished with an observation 
lesson by paying a visit to the Public Institution for the Blind and 
writing a letter of thanks for the courtesy extended to us. 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 101 

175. "A Campaign for Good Diet" 

(Reported by Mary McDermott, State Normal College, 

Ypsilanti, Michigan) 

For the purpose of seeing what sort of lunches the children 
would bring, they were told to bring a portion of their lunches from 
home. These were to supplement the school lunch, which was fur- * 
nished. Many of them brought three and four thick meat sand- 
wiches, one or two doughnuts and either a piece of pie or cake. It 
was also noted that a great many of the children did not care to eat 
vegetables. 

When it was found that this combination made the lunches 
too heavy, they were told to bring from home only two thin bread 
and butter sandwiches or one thick one and some fruit, but nothing 
more. They were also told that they should eat whatever the kitchen 
matron provided for them. 

Some of the children asked the teacher why they could not bring 
cakes and pie if they wanted them. The question led to a study 
of proper food for children of their ages. The lessons were grouped 
under three headings : what and how much to eat for (a) breakfast, 
(6) lunch, (c) dinner. 

Some of the menus which they worked out were tried out in 
the kitchen by the children themselves. Recipes were collected from 
which language lessons were made. Lists of misspelled words were 
made and corrected. Arithmetic problems came from their work 
in the kitchen. The children had to buy the groceries. Interesting 
posters were also made by the children. Appropriate pictures and 
clippings were cut from magazines and arranged as menus — break- 
fast across the top, lunch in the center and dinner at the bottom of 
the poster. One had the heading, ' ' Don *ts for Eating. ' ' Pictures of 
a number of things children should not eat and drink followed. 
Another had colored pictures of a few healthful foods with original 
couplets under each. 

The results were: first, a better understanding of food values; 
second, an interest in the kind and variety of the foods they had to 
eat; and third, vegetables were not spurned as before. 



1Q2 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

176. "Popularizing the Shower Bath" 

(Reported by Mrs. Harry B. Whiteside, Geo. D. Prentice School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The institution of new shower baths necessitated arousing the 
children's desire to use them. We chose the sixth grade to inspire 
the entire school. The boys visited public baths and reported about 
them to the class. Each child reported baths typical of his own 
country (the school was in a foreign neighborhood) : the Russian, 
the Turkish, the Hebrew, the American Y. M. C. A. Groups 
studied at the library, "Greek and Roman Baths," and reported 
on these. The class studied the physiology of the bath — hot, cold, 
etc., cleansing, tonic, etc. The sixth-grade children then went to 
the other grades of the school and gave them the benefit of their 
work, both written and oral. When the day came to open the 
showers, nearly every hand went up to be allowed to take a shower 
bath. Now it is quite the fashion. 

177. "A Little Mothers' League" 

(Reported by Mrs. Harry R. Whiteside, Louisville, Kentucky) 

Many girls 'tended the baby' at home. After a talk with them, 
they decided to invite a trained nurse from the Louisville Public 
Nurse Association (who was willing to co-operate) to come each 
week and lead them in a Mother Craft Class. With actual demon- 
trations in washing, dressing, feeding baby, etc., they formed a 
"Little Mothers' League." Requirement for membership was the 
obligation to make an attractive booklet in which each week's lesson 
was to be reported. The content, English, penmanship, etc., was 
to determine whether the member at the end of the course was to 
receive a printed certificate, or little diploma, certifying that she 
was a member of the League and that she had completed the course 
satisfactorily. Their interest was intense and the result gratifying. 

178. "Playground Arithmetic" 
(Reported by Edith Cheney, Berkeley, California) 
The bond issue had made possible the playground expansion for 
the Emerson School. The children were eager for larger and better 



MATEBIALS FOB GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI 1Q3 

equipped grounds. The playground director was approached by 
the teacher and agreed to accept and use the ideas shown in the 
three best plans worked out by the class for equipping and arrang- 
ing the playground. The children were eager to make plans 
acceptable to him. This involved a large number of problems 
which extended not only into arithmetic but into various other sub- 
jects. They found the size and value of the property, the cost of 
preparing and equipping it, cost for labor, gravel, etc. ; they asked 
experts from Oakland and Berkeley to speak to them on various 
ways of equipping the playground ; they wrote to Superintendent 
Wilson to ascertain how much had been allowed for equipping the 
Emerson playground; they sent for a Spaulding catalog, and as 
prices had advanced twenty percent, there arose the necessity of 
solving percentage problems; they sought information in their 
homes and visited numerous playgrounds to secure ideas. The sub- 
ject matter involved might be classified as follows : 

1. Arithmetic. Linear, square, cubic, liquid measures, board measures. 
Drawing maps of grounds and building to different scales thereby 
bringing in fractions and decimals. They found need for % inch 
which the ruler did not show and this led to the comparison of %" 
with %". 

2. Language. Oral discussions relative to the work; letters asking for 
information; notes of acknowledgment to informants; invitations 
to classwork ; information secured by the pupils from various sources 
and given to the class; stating problems. 

S. Spelling. Words used in the written work. 

4. Geography. In connection with surfacing; tracing the principal 
highways in California from map secured at the Ferry and ascertain- 
ing the type of surfacing used. 

5. History of Playground. Very general; bibliography furnished by Mr. 
Hetherington, State Director of Physical Education. 

6. Hygiene. Health value of playground; ascertained how nearly the 
rooms met the requirements of a model schoolroom as regards light 
surface and blackboards, according to Bapeer. 

7. Penmanship. No remarks necessary. 

8. Map drawing to a scale. 

9. Line work. 

10. Lettering. In the arrangement of the apparatus the playground 
directors gave 'pointers,' then the children cut from pasteboard to 
the scale of their maps, patterns containing the necessary square feet 
of each apparatus and placed them as they thought best. There was 
a variety, no two were exactly alike. 

Bamifications into Informational Arithmetic 

1. Bonds, (a) School (why not raise large amounts by taxes) ; (b) mu- 
nicipal; (c) commercial, U. S. bonds, and Liberty bonds. 



104 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

2. Taxes, (a) school taxes; (5) personal; (e) real estate; (&) license 
— why necessary; («) income; (/) inheritance; (g) poll — who abol- 
ished t (discussion pro and con). 

3. Banking, (a) commercial accounts; (ft) savings; (c) checks — how 
to write. 

4. What is meant by foreign exchange. 

5. Purchase of public property: Process; condemnation proceedings. 
Letters were written to the principal comparing the textbook problem 

method and playground arithmetic. Each child stated which he preferred 
and why. Out of 44 pupils, all but two chose the playground work. They 
mastered the term 'a work and enjoyed it. 

Types of Examples Derived from the Work 

1. The school ground is 205' long on the west, 196'%* on the north, 
172'6" on the south, 205' on the east with a jog 22' long for sand 
piles on the girls' side; find perimeter of yard. How many yard* 
around the yardf How many rodsf 

2. Find perimeter of acquired property t 

3. Find square feet in school yardf In property purchased f 

4. How many feet of lumber will be required to build a solid fence 205' 
long and six feet high using 12" boards. Find cost at $54.00 per 
thousand feetf 

5. How many cubic feet of crushed rock will be required to build a 
solid fence 205' long and six feet high using 12" boards. Find cost at 
$54.00 per thousand feet. 

6. One bbl. of oil, containing 42 gal. will spray 100 sq. feet. How many 
gals, will be needed for our school yard, which contains 37,617 sq. feetf 
Find cost at $5.00 per gal. 

7. Apparatus had advanced 20% since the issue of Spaul ding's catalog. 
How can you get the right price f 

179. ' ' An Expenditure Card ' ' 

(Reported by L. C. Call, Emporia, Kansas) 

A thrift card was hung on our wall upon which each child had 
a space to record all money spent for penmanship paper, scratch 
paper, drawing paper, pencils and erasers. These are the things 
that are bought too lavishly. At the end of six weeks, each child 
reported his total expenditure. A committee of ten found the room 
total to be $30.08. Each child found the average per pupil, and 
if his expenditure was more than the average he made a special 
effort to buy with more care and use with economy. We know now 
where we can get the very best tablet for seven cents, and the most 
satisfactory pencil for five cents. 

Our pencils are in better shape and we work with much less 
'lost motion. 9 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 105 

180. "Care of the Feet" 

(Reported by Zelpha E. Shumate, Rockford, Illinois) 

The children were given a good idea of the general structure 
of the foot, by comparing it with the hand, etc. For this much good 
reading material may be had by writing any of the large shoe 
companies. Ours, through a local dealer, came from the Brown 
Shoe Company, St. Louis. From the Y. W. C. A., 600 Lexington, 
New York City, we received "Foot Charts," one on "Good and 
Bad Arches" and one testing the straight line of the foot from heel 
to toe. Each child made two impressions of each foot, according 
to directions on the chart, testing each arch and line and com- 
paring them with charts. Many defects were discovered, most of 
which could be cured by corrective exercises, which were also ob- 
tained from the Y. W. C. A. This study led with interest to the 
proper care of the feet, which in turn led to a study of shoes. Com- 
parisons of good and bad shoes were made through charts, pictures, 
and shoes. 

181. "Philanthropic Efforts for Tuberculous Children" 

(Reported by Ada O. Bache, Emmet Field School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

Two hundred fifty pupils in an elementary school (grades one 
through six) and the Parent-Teacher Association of a well-to-do 
residential suburb joined efforts to give sunshine to sixty-two chil- 
dren in a tuberculosis sanatorium. The Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tion raised several hundred dollars from business men. The auto- 
mobile committee saw to all transportation. The philanthropy com- 
mittee made reports to the association. The children had a class 
play and home "penny shows" to add to fund. A group of four 
adopted one child to whom it sent hand-painted cards, letters, cloth- 
ing and presents on holidays and class booklets written about holi- 
days. Sixth-grade children were bookkeepers and correspondents 
for the project, buying, wholesale and retail, cloth for gowns, 
bloomers, stockings, underwear and having shoes mended. The 
fifth- and sixth-grade girls did the sewing as well as the mending 
of old clothes, while the boys made and mended toys. Three groups 



106 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

of twenty-five went, one with the Thanksgiving Party, a second with 
the Christmas Party, and a third with the Easter Hunt. The 
best descriptions of trips, etc., were read in the auditorium. The 
work resulted in the appointment of a business manager to care 
for clothing, etc., for the children at the sanatorium. This year 
the girls have asked to furnish materials and to make clothing for 
the babies in the Home of the Innocents. 

182. "A Thrift Society' » 

(Reported by Jeannette Owens, Gavin H. Cochran School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

A program committee was elected. This committee, in turn, 
elected a chairman. The committee met on Monday after school 
in the schoolroom to arrange the week's program, which was given 
on each Friday at 10 :15 a. m. The meetings were conducted in a 
corner of the room without any suggestions or supervision — the 
teacher took care to be otherwise employed. No one in the class 
could refuse to do what the committee requested. One aim was to 
get everyone to do something. The programs were live and 
effective, as is proved by the result. Original plays were written 
and produced ; living pictures impressed the lesson desired ; short 
talks were made; short papers were read on topics that aroused 
the interest of the hearers, and increased stamp buying ; personal 
experiences on "How I Make My Money" were unique and in- 
spiring. Every member of the class bought stamps. In sixteen 
weeks the class of forty bought $1,067.69 worth of War Stamps 
and Thrift Stamps. 

183. "Savings Deposits Earned by an Easter Party and Sale" 

(Reported by Myrtle Sproule, Victor H. JSngelhard School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The registration of the school (something over six hundred) of 
whom one hundred and fifty were dependent children from orphan 
homes and fifty additional children from extremely poor homes, 
necessitated a plan to help thirty-three and a third percent of the 
school who could not otherwise hope to become depositors. The 
means adopted was an "Easter Party and Sale," the proceeds to 



MATERIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 107 

be divided equally among six hundred members of the school for 
their School Savings Bank. 

The manual and drawing periods of the month preceding the 
sale were devoted to a study of basket designs and the making of 
cardboard baskets by fifth- and sixth-grade children. Sewing periods 
were used in these grades to cover baskets with crepe paper. Artistic 
color combinations were studied. The manual periods of third and 
fourth grades were used for similar work simpler in construction, 
and those of the first and second grades were devoted to cutting 
tissue paper grass and filling baskets with candy bought from 
manufacturer and novelties bought at wholesale. In arithmetic 
periods the work included measuring in construction of baskets, and 
in cutting paper for covering, marking novelties to sell at ten per- 
cent profit; figuring actual cost of basket and determining how 
many and what sized eggs could be placed so as to allow a gain of 
ten percent on each basket sold, totalling receipts, estimating profit, 
distributing the funds among six hundred children. A little pro- 
gram offered by different classes consisting of dramatizations, music, 
and folk dances, a baby show where dolls were babies and baskets 
were offered as prizes, added to the interest and fun, also to the 
profits of the occasion. Every child in school contributed some form 
of work, had a good time, added six cents to its school bank account, 
bringing up our school to one hundred percent depositors. 

184. "The Play Store and Bank" 
(Reported from the Marr Training School, Detroit, Michigan) 

Requests having been made to have a bank, the topic was placed 
before the class for discussion, resulting in a decision that we must 
obtain money first and that this could be done by means of a play 
store. 

Organization of the store was taken over by the children ; com- 
mittees were appointed to see that money was made, grocery pack- 
ages brought in, price lists obtained, and other minor details at- 
tended to. The construction of a counter and shelves was taken 
by the boys to Manual Training and very carefully done, while 
the making of necessary signs as a means of advertisement was 
taken up in the Art work. 



108 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The actual class activity was of a two-fold nature: the store 
activity (use of money and store bill forms) and the class work on 
the problem most pertinent to the store work at that time (the chil- 
dren passing to and from the class and the store as their turn as 
the customer came) . Simple accounts were kept by each child while 
the manager and store officials kept books (open to class inspection) 
and took a monthly inventory, at which time new officers were 
chosen. 

This project, covering a term, carried out the entire course of 
study, using the textbook as a reference only to help when new 
problems presented themselves. Many of these came from the 
children (as a discount sale). This suggestion came from a news- 
paper advertisement and at once we gave a week to such a sale, 
referring back to our text for a study of discount. Others, such 
as giving the clerks a commission, determining buying and selling 
prices on the basis of gain and loss, were presented by the teacher. 
When such a problem arose, the store work was suspended and the 
problem taken back to the class as a whole. 

As the store progressed, the children felt they were ready to 
organize a bank in which to place their extra funds. Visits were 
made to various banks, books and pamphlets read, and checks, entry 
blanks, deposit slips, etc., were obtained. Accounts were opened, 
checks endorsed, receipts made, and all forms of simple banking 
carried on. 

185. "Making Blocks and a House for the Kindergarten" 

(Reported from Kansas City) 

The sixth-grade boys made building blocks, after the suggestion 
furnished by the kindergarten teacher, to supplement the sorts pur- 
chased. Grooved corner pieces, and grooved window and door 
frames were made, and light boards fitted into the grooves, so that, 
when built, it made a little house about three feet high to the roof, 
and large enough for three or four kindergarten children to get 
into. The lumber was very light, and the largest children could 
handle it with little or no help from the teacher. Grooved pieces 
were made for the roof, also. The project proved equally valuable 



MATERIALS FOR GRADES IV, V, AND VI JQ9 

for the boys and for the kindergarten. The boys had to make their 
own drawings, plan all proportions, purchase material, etc., originat- 
ing the whole detail of the building. 

186. "Making a Stenciled Tray Cloth" 

(Reported by Helen S. Patterson, Rockford, Illinois) 

The class, after studying various ways in which design is applied 
to textiles, decided to stencil linen. They planned a linen tray 
doth to fit a tray or top of a tea wagon. The stencils were made 
from cut leaf forms in two values and later cut from stencil board. 
The stencils were small and formed a pattern by repeating several 
times near ends of cloth. Dark tones in oil paint were used. Later 
the ends were connected across the cloth by 'running' stitches in 
embroidery silks, using two colors. A margin was left on each side 
and linen was turned back to edge of design and sewed by hand. 

187. "A Book on Book Making" 

(Reported by Helen Stockton, Trenton, New Jersey) 

The children of Westfield, N. J., had been studying lettering in 
their art classes and had become intensely interested in the different 
types of letters and their derivations. Many of them had begun 
collecting examples of types from magazines and newspapers. 
These they kept in boxes or envelopes, according to individual 
taste. All felt the need of a container of some sort, so it was decided 
that a scrap book be made. A lesson was spent in a discussion of 
types of scrap books and content of such a book. During the dis- 
cussion the idea of writing a book which would contain the neces- 
sary information upon lettering developed. The children were most 
enthusiastic and decided to write, bind, and own a book containing 
this desired information. They suggested numerous references and 
places where material relative to the subject might be obtained. 
The teacher supplemented this list, and work on the project began 
in earnest. Next followed a discussion of reference work done and 
selection and rejection of topics for the book. After much dis- 
cussion, five topics were decided upon. These five topics were then 
divided into sub-topics, and each child chose one or more of them 



108 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The actual class activity was of a two-fold nature: the store 
activity (use of money and store bill forms) and the class work on 
the problem most pertinent to the store work at that time (the chil- 
dren passing to and from the class and the store as their turn as 
the customer came). Simple accounts were kept by each child while 
the manager and store officials kept books (open to class inspection) 
and took a monthly inventory, at which time new officers were 
chosen. 

This project, covering a term, carried out the entire course of 
study, using the textbook as a reference only to help when new 
problems presented themselves. Many of these came from the 
children (as a discount sale). This suggestion came from a news- 
paper advertisement and at once we gave a week to such a sale, 
referring back to our text for a study of discount. Others, such 
as giving the clerks a commission, determining buying and selling 
prices on the basis of gain and loss, were presented by the teacher. 
When such a problem arose, the store work was suspended and the 
problem taken back to the class as a whole. 

As the store progressed, the children felt they were ready to 
organize a bank in which to place their extra funds. Visits were 
made to various banks, books and pamphlets read, and checks, entry 
blanks, deposit slips, etc., were obtained. Accounts were opened, 
checks endorsed, receipts made, and all forms of simple banking 
carried on. 

185. "Making Blocks and a House for the Kindergarten" 

(Reported from Kansas City) 

The sixth-grade boys made building blocks, after the suggestion 
furnished by the kindergarten teacher, to supplement the sorts pur- 
chased. Grooved corner pieces, and grooved window and door 
frames were made, and light boards fitted into the grooves, so that, 
when built, it made a little house about three feet high to the roof, 
and large enough for three or four kindergarten children to get 
into. The lumber was very light, and the largest children could 
handle it with little or no help from the teacher. Grooved pieces 
were made for the roof, also. The project proved equally valuable 



MATEEIAL8 FOB GRAVE 8 IV, V, AND VI JQ9 

for the boys and for the kindergarten. The boys had to make their 
own drawings, plan all proportions, purchase material, etc., originat- 
ing the whole detail of the building. 

186. "Making a Stenciled Tray Cloth" 

(Reported by Helen S. Patterson, Rockford, Illinois) 

The class, after studying various ways in which design is applied 
to textiles, decided to stencil linen. They planned a linen tray 
cloth to fit a tray or top of a tea wagon. The stencils were made 
from cut leaf forms in two values and later cut from stencil board. 
The stencils were small and formed a pattern by repeating several 
times near ends of cloth. Dark tones in oil paint were used. Later 
the ends were connected across the cloth by 'running' stitches in 
embroidery silks, using two colors. A margin was left on each side 
and linen was turned back to edge of design and sewed by hand. 

187. "A Book on Book Making" 

(Reported by Helen Stockton, Trenton, New Jersey) 

The children of Westfield, N. J., had been studying lettering in 
their art classes and had become intensely interested in the different 
types of letters and their derivations. Many of them had begun 
collecting examples of types from magazines and newspapers. 
These they kept in boxes or envelopes, according to individual 
taste. All felt the need of a container of some sort, so it was decided 
that a scrap book be made. A lesson was spent in a discussion of 
types of scrap books and content of such a book. During the dis- 
cussion the idea of writing a book which would contain the neces- 
sary information upon lettering developed. The children were most 
enthusiastic and decided to write, bind, and own a book containing 
this desired information. They suggested numerous references and 
places where material relative to the subject might be obtained. 
The teacher supplemented this list, and work on the project began 
in earnest. Next followed a discussion of reference work done and 
selection and rejection of topics for the book. After much dis- 
cussion, five topics were decided upon. These five topics were then 
divided into sub-topics, and each child chose one or more of them 



HO THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

upon which to write. The compositions were then submitted for 
class criticism, and the best selected for the book. (Care was taken 
that something was selected from each contributor). The copy 
ready, the next step was a visit to the printers. The class journeyed 
to a near-by print shop and there witnessed a demonstration of 
modern printing. They were shown different styles of type and 
also various samples of paper. A discussion of papers and the 
manufacture of paper followed. The class thereupon decided to 
make paper. They organized themselves into groups, and each 
group was responsible for one process in the manufacture of paper. 
The paper was duly made and dyed, and each child given a sample. 
The proof was sent up from the printers, corrected, and returned to 
be printed. The question of a design for the cover of the book next 
claimed attention. Each child designed a cover. These designs 
were criticized by the class, and eight were selected to be cut of 
linoleum. The children worked together on the cutting, then each 
chose his color scheme and block-printed his cover. The books were 
then assembled and bound. Illuminated letters were placed at the 
beginning of each chapter and photographs of the class making 
paper and of the moulds and deckles made by the boys, and used 
in making the paper, were mounted in the books. A list con- 
taining the names of the contributors, which comprised the entire 
class, was then added. 

188. "A Ribbon Sale for Drill in Fractions' ' 

(Reported by Mary E. Icke, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The children of the 6 B class knew, from the results of a frac- 
tions test, their weakness in multiplication of mixed numbers. They 
were shown the process again. 

84% 

.08% 



% 
11% 
4 
272 

2.87% 



MATERIALS FOE GBADE8 IV, V, AND VI HI 

They planned a play ribbon sale to provide for this need. The 
ribbon sale was chosen because yards provide halves, fourths, 
eighths, and thirds, with which to work, whereas the measures in 
the grocery store (also suggested) only include the fractional parts 
halves, fourths, eighths. The children secured paper from ribbon 
bolts, pasted strips of colored paper together and were given some 
material. They made a line on the counter of the school grocery 
and marked off inches and the half, fourths, eighths and thirds of 
yards. They fixed the prices of ribbon so that all had fractional 
parte— $1.87y 2 , $.66%, $.06%. The children selected two clerks by 
vote. The teacher offered them toy money ($50.00 each) and asked 
that every penny be accounted for in the final reckoning. The chil- 
dren decided that they would need four days of this drill to become 
rapid and accurate in the multiplication of mixed numbers. 

The following is a bill prepared by a child : 

1% yd. cream ribbon @ 18%e 
% yd. wide ribbon @ $1.87 Mi 
4% yd. pink plaid @ 9%c 

The children revised their plan the second day, by electing five 
clerks instead of two. They decided to change the whole group of 
storekeepers the next day, so that all could be clerks in thetr turn. 

The bills were noticeably longer (usually five or six items), and 
nearly all completed them at their seats before going to the store. 
They compared their work with the clerk's at every step. The 
teacher was called in when disagreement appeared. 

It was found unnecessary to continue drill the fourth day. The 
time was spent checking accounts and returning money left over. 

189. "Fixing the Bowling Alley" 

(Reported by W. G. Cisne) 

A class of sixth-grade boys decided they needed a return alley 
in their bowling game in their play room. They presented the 
matter to their teacher, who immediately saw opportunities for a 
practical lesson and encouraged them. As a group they made the 
required measurements, decided upon the width and thickness of 
the boards needed, made allowance for standards, and then with the 



112 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

price of lumber from the local yard they counted the total cost, 
including ten cents extra for nails. The average cost was then 
computed and this amount collected from each member. The 
money was given to a committee, who went to the lumber yard and 
purchased the supplies. The required tools were secured from the 
manual training shop and the alley soon constructed. The entire 
class had come in contact with actual business procedure in finding 
cost of materials, estimating lumber, finding average cost, and in 
making change through collection. All the situations encountered 
were not only of great interest, but also real, in the sense that they 
were connected up with actual business. 

190. "Making a Frieze Illustrating the Story of Miles Standish" 
(Reported by Emma C. Juth, Berkeley, California) 

From the interest which had grown up while making the booklet* 
came the suggestion that they make a frieze for their room showing 
the story of Miles Standish. The class selected the quotations which 
seemed best to show the progress of the story. The fact that they 
had previously selected quotations for the booklets for the same 
purpose helped in this work. The frieze was a composite of the in- 
dividual efforts put forth on the booklets. In this co-operative 
project they proceeded as follows; they described scenes which 
would best illustrate the quotations and listed the details which 
would be needed to make each picture in the frieze. In some cases 
these details were ships, trees, and costume figures ; in others, the 
detail of the Colonial interiors. In order to get the information 
regarding articles which would appear in a Colonial home they 
referred to their histories and read extensively. They examined 
many pictures, also. They then practiced drawing the various 
articles or figures needed. This involved drill in the drawing of 
trees, figure drawing, etc. 

The work of all children was saved, and when the principal 
things needed in a picture were ready, they were assembled and 
arranged by the class. The efforts of various children were selected 
on the following basis: fitness as to proportion, perspective, and 
merit 



UATEBIALS FOB GRADES IV, V, AND VI 113 

When the frieze was finished, every child was represented in 
the work. The project extended throughout the semester and cov- 
ered work in silent reading, appreciation in English and composi- 
tion, proportion, and perspective in art. It was of such interest to 
sixth-grade children that the teacher's problem was to try to include 
all of the suggestions made by various individuals rather than to 
push the work. A lower class asked to be allowed to work on the 
project, although they were not, at the time, studying "Miles 
Standish." 

191. " Helping the Humane Society ' ' 

(Reported by Jennie C. Bakewell and Cordelia Sims, Louisville 
Normal School, Louisville, Kentucky) 

To help the work of the Humane Societies of America was a 
project undertaken by a class of children who resented the fact that 
the birds and squirrels of the neighborhood were being killed. Each 
child wrote to the national headquarters at Albany, N. Y., stating 
his reasons for writing and asking for literature, which came in 
abundance. The class divided itself into groups. One group 
undertook to find out about the organization in the state and city i , 
another decided to collect noted pictures of animals by Landseer 
and Rosa Bonheur and also to report on the life and work of these 
artists. Another group wished to read and give oral reports on 
• ' The Bell of Atri ' ' and ' ' The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. ' ' The 
director of the humane work in Louisville was invited by one group 
to give an illustrated lecture. The school was invited to be present. 
The chairman of one group explained what had been done by the 
various groups and then introduced the speaker. The lecture was 
reported by one of the class for a daily paper. Every child in the 
class and many others in the school took the pledge required by the 
Humane Society. Interest throughout the neighborhood was 
aroused. 

192. "A Sixth-Grade Orchestra' ' 

(Reported by Prances Viola Newton, Rockford, Illinois) 
A class in the study of violin is organized each year under the 
direction of Mrs. Eloise Spoor Morgan, violin teacher. Both class 



114 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

and private lessons are given during school hours. As soon as a 
pupil is sufficiently advanced, he is admitted to the school orchestra. 
Last year the orchestra consisted of sixteen members ; this year it 
is even more promising. Regular weekly rehearsals are held. A 
plan is being worked out whereby the school will purchase some of 
the instruments. The orchestra and the children study them, thus 
making it possible to have a better balanced orchestra than could 
be obtained otherwise. The orchestra is often called upon to play 
at entertainments given outside the school and in this way is 
of service to the community as welL 

193. "Original Composition of Poetry and Music" 

(Reported by Zelpha E. Shumate, Rockford, Illinois) 

Choose the best two or three original poems written by the chil- 
dren in the fifth or sixth grades and have the boys and girls in the 
seventh or eighth grades compose original melodies for them. Select 
the best two or three ; teach them, perhaps by rote, to the children 
in the fifth or sixth grades and let those in the higher grades work 
the melodies out by note. Sing the songs and enjoy them. 



CHAPTER IV 

NEW MATERIALS FOR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS * 



INTRODUCTION 

(H. G. Lull, State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas) 

On the whole the following brief records of projects deserve 
high commendation. They indicate the beginnings of a new and 
vitalized course of study and improved methods of procedure in 
junior-high-school instruction. 

The projects submitted from the junior-high-school grades are 
essentially like those submitted from the grades below. This is, no 
doubt, due in part to the fact that many of the projects came from 
seventh, eighth, and ninth grades which are not yet included in 
junior-high-schocl organization, and also to the fact that much of 
junior-high-school instruction still follows the traditional curricu- 
lum and methods of procedure of the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
grades not organized as junior high schools. This lack of change in 
harmony with junior-high-school aims is shown by the records of 
many of the projects, the assigned purpose of which is to provide 
motivation for the various subjects of the school. While such a 
project attitude is entirely appropriate for the primary grades, 
the situation should be, for the most part, exactly reversed in the 
junior high school. Here the projects should be the important 
matters and the several school subjects should occupy a position of 
secondary importance, except in so far as they are needed as tools 
in working out projects. A conservative statement of the matter 
would be something as follows: the outcomes of the project method 
of learning in the primary grades, and to a lesser degree in the 



1 On account of limitations of space nearly one half of the materials trans- 
mitted by Professor Lull have been omitted in the final editing. I have 
sought, however, to retain examples sufficiently varied in character to afford 
the reader an adequate idea of the scope and quality of the projects now in 
use in the junior high school. The projects omitted were, for the most part, 
similar to others that were retained or were descriptive of activities that are 
already in operation in many schools. — Editor. 

115 



116 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

intermediate grades, should require the development of by-products 
in the technics of reading, writing, spelling, numbers, etc. The 
projects of the junior high school, on the other hand, should require 
the use of the technics of reading, writing, language, number com- 
binations, and the like, in working them out. The projects of the 
junior high school should, therefore, be more valuable in themselves 
and only indirectly valuable as means of securing by-products in the 
school skills. It follows, also, that the tendency for developing 
projects outside of school subjects should increase as the pupils 
pass from the lower grades to the junior-high-school grades. The 
records of many of the following projects do show a marked tend- 
ency to break over the boundary lines of the separate subjects and 
to find their setting in significant community life and extra- 
curricular interests. 

Many of the records submitted do not fully meet the require- 
ments of the project method of learning, but do indicate good 
subject matter for junior-high-school instruction. Some records 
exemplify the project method of learning quite well, but do not 
show a good selection of subject matter. A few of the records, 
however, are good in both subject matter and method. 

The examples of projects for the junior high school show in 
general a need for two lines of improvement — (1) a better selection 
of subject matter, more in keeping with the outstanding aims of 
junior-high-school instruction, and (2) a better understanding of 
the procedures required by the project method of learning. 

There seems to be a unanimity of agreement among those who 
have studied the question carefully regarding the great objectives 
or aims of the junior high school. These objectives may be stated 
briefly as follows: (1) the need for moral guidance and training, 
including personal morality and social morality, or citizenship; 
(2) physical development and health guidance and training, in- 
cluding personal hygiene and social sanitation; (3) vocational 
guidance and training; and (4) avocational and cultural guidance 
and training. 

The curriculum should be made up in the first place of those 
common elements of knowledge and training which should become 
the social inheritance of all pupils. The first two objectives, above 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL \n 

stated, provide the organizing principles of this group. Those ele- 
ments of guidance and training should constitute the constants of 
the junior high school. In the second place, the curriculum should 
be composed of those differentiated elements of knowledge and 
training for which the last two objectives, above indicated, provide 
the organizing principles. These elements should constitute the 
electives of the junior high school. 

If these great objectives are to be reached, teachers must venture 
out boldly away from much of the traditional organization of sub- 
ject matter. We are not confronted with the old problem of the 
correlation of the subjects as they stand, but rather with the 
problem of throwing the curriculum out into the life of society, 
and then utilizing such parts of the present curriculum as prove to 
be good instruments in working out the significant projects and 
problems of junior-high-school pupils. Of course, such a movement 
would not annihilate all of the present curriculum, but would 
retain much that has already been vitalized in the effort to reach 
the real objectives of the school. 

Already the fields of subject matter included under the headings 
of civics, general science, geography, and hygiene, respectively, 
overlap in large areas. History is, more and more, coming to be 
historical civics, and it furnishes a perspective for present civic 
projects. Civics includes the elements of economics, government, 
and sociology. Teachers of the various subjects are being held re- 
sponsible for English composition as an effective tool in their own 
work. 

The project method of learning cannot be used effectively to 
any great extent in connection with the traditional organization of 
subject matter. This is true for the simple reason that the pupils 
do not find themselves vitally related to the traditional organization 
of the separate subjects, and hence they are unable to initiate 
worth-while purposes and plans. But pupil-purposing and pupil- 
planning are the unique requirements of the project method of learn- 
ing. The teacher who persists in using the project method of 
learning will, and must, go in search of a course of study which is 
more significant in the lives of the boys and girls. We need a 
thorough-going series of social surveys as the first step in organ- 



118 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

izing the curriculum of the junior high school. In this respect 
vocationalists have opened the door for us. 

The records of projects submitted may be classified in a general 
way under the following headings : A, school activities and inter- 
ests; B, community civic interests; C, general civic and patriotic 
interests; D, avocational and cultural interests; E, vocational 
interests; F, business interests; and G, home interests. Many 
of the projects have been placed under one or another of these 
classifications regardless of the fact that they were used by the 
teachers to motivate various school subjects. It is easy to see, how- 
ever, that the pupils were interested primarily in the projects 
themselves and not in their use in motivating school subjects. 
These projects would have been of more value to the pupils if the 
teachers had considered them as having real values in themselves 
rather than as a means of learning portions of the separate sub- 
jects. In other words, the projects would have been more success- 
ful if the teachers had assigned the same values to them as the 
pupils did and had helped them to develop those values. Moreover, 
the development of the separate subjects would not have suffered, 
for they would have been brought into play even more than they 
were in the attempt to make the projects motivate them. 

A. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH SCHOOL ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS 

194. "A Civics Club" 

(Reported by Ida von Donhoff, Monsarrat School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

Each class formed itself into a civics club, electing its own 
officers and committees. Two delegates were chosen to represent 
each class, and these delegates constituted the Civics Conference, 
or governing body. At the preliminary meeting of the conference 
they chose their offices and chairmen of committees. Among others, 
a welfare committee and complaint committee were formed. Sug- 
gestions for improvements were submitted to the chairman of the 
welfare committee; complaints were submitted to the chairman of 
the complaint committee. The president of the conference selected 
members of the conference for yard and hall duty. At the end of 



MATERIALS FOE THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL HQ 

each week a different group was selected for this work. Reports of 
their work were submitted to the conference at each meeting. The 
delegates of the various classes reported to the home-class the mat- 
ters of importance that came before the conference. Those who 
broke the laws adopted by the conference and ratified by the vari- 
ous classes were warned by the officers on duty, and if a continued 
lack of co-operation was evidenced the offender was brought before 
the conference and given a trial by jury. We have especially 
emphasized the importance of the rights of others, the care of school 
property, the safety of all while on the play-grounds, and cleanli- 
ness and order in halls, rooms, and yard. 

A spirit of mutual helpfulness, pride in the school, and efficiency 
in self-government were evidenced by the enthusiasm with which 
the children have taken up affairs where we dropped them at the 
end of last term. Through our Civics Conference our school is 
becoming unified in thought and action. 

195. "Installing Electric Bells"* 

(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

A science class had been studying electricity and its practical 
applications. The pupils noted that the people in the recitation 
rooms had no clocks, and classes were not dismissed promptly, so 
they suggested the installing of an electric bell system as a remedy 
for the difficulty. The pupils made out a requisition of the materialu 
that would be needed, estimated the cost, and planned their work. 
The data were then submitted to the principal, who accepted the 
report of the committee and ordered the necessary material. After 
the bells were installed, the pupils decided they should be able to 
locate breaks in the circuit so that the system could be kept in 
working order. The teacher of the class broke the circuit at different 
times, and members of the class proceeded to locate the "trouble" 
and repair damages. Then someone suggested a switch so the current 
might be shut off completely, or only for the room not in use. The 
reason given for installing a switch was that by so doing the bat- 



■Cf. Project 262. 



120 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

teries would last longer. The push button was conveniently located 
near the teacher's desk. Later when a pupil assumed the responsi- 
bility for ringing the bells, the button was moved nearer to his seat 

196. "A School Magazine"* 

(Reported by Ploy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The class appointed an editor-in-chief and an art editor each 
month, and no pupil could hold the office twice in a term. The 
editor-in-chief appointed the rest of his staff. The entire work was 
done by hand. Only one copy was made for each month ; but the 
last number, composed of the best work from all of the copies, was 
printed and sold. The advertisements for the last copy and the 
sale of it paid fully for all expense connected with it. There was 
a cover-design for every number of the magazine, at least one 
illustrated story, and several cartoons, news items about class mem- 
bers, comic incidents of the classroom, and all the usual school 
news. Every page was carefully margined, carefully planned, 
after study of the best models available. The writing was the best 
the class could produce, the drawings in ink, and the cover a poster 
in color. All the book designing of the year was done in connec- 
tion with this magazine, and its publication was the event of each 
month. 

197. "Printing a School Paper" 4 

(Reported by Josephine Maloney) 

The printing of the first issue was done by a single boy by hand 
on a sheet of composition paper, and when finished was a most 
interesting piece of work. The head lines advertised the basket- 
ball game which was to be played the following Friday night. Then 
the most conspicuous place in the paper was given to a detailed 



• Accounts of somewhat similar school magazines,were reported by Alice E. 
Bussell, State Normal College, Dillon, Montana; Vensen E. Gorman, Thomson. 
School, Portland, Oregon; and Augusta M. Tappan, State Normal Training 
School, Westficld, Massachusetts. — Editor. 

4 A somewhat similar account of a paper written and published by an 
eighth-grade class is reported by Sterling A. Leonard, the Wisconsin High 
School, Madison, Wisconsin. 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 121 

account of the game. These, with reproductions of other interesting 
activities of the school, an editorial, news items, jokes, etc., made up 
the paper. When finished, it was put on the bulletin board and 
the enthusiasm over it was as great as the enthusiasm over the most 
successful basket-ball game. The editor was so encouraged that 
he decided to continue his work. Realizing his responsibility, how- 
ever, he concluded he must have help with the next issue. So he 
asked two of his friends to be his assistants. The following three 
numbers were printed by hand, but there was growth and improve- 
ment in each one. After the boys had printed the fourth copy, 
they thought it was so well received that they ought to have a "real 
paper." So they investigated and found that it would be possible 
to have the paper printed in the shop. The first copy consisted of 
only one page, but it continued to grow until it contained six pages. 
The paper was published once a week and closed the year with a 
Commencement Annual of sixteen pages. There were numerous 
by-products of this project. We covered all our work in compo- 
sition, in the writing of stories, poems, descriptions, editorials, per- 
sonals, etc. Careful punctuation, spelling, and sentence-structure 
were necessary. So we had to use our grammars. Arithmetic was 
also very essential, for careful bookkeeping was needed. Subscrip- 
tions had to be collected, bills sent out, contracts for advertising 
were solicited and followed up. Then, too, our art lessons were 
more interesting, for posters had to be made to advertise the paper, 
and cartoons drawn for it. It also brought us nearer the home, 
for parents were able by reading the paper to come more closely in 
touch with the activities of the school and were interested in seeing 
their own children's work in print. The greatest gain of all, how- 
ever, was the fact that it gave the boys and girls something worth 
while to write about, made them enjoy composition, and stimulated 
them to do their best. 

198. "A Monthly Paper" 

(Reported b}r Agnes Snyder, Newark, Delaware) 

The children read and discussed newspapers in class, learned 

what are the essential parts of a newspaper, and decided to run a 

monthly paper themselves. A committee was appointed to visit 

the printing office of the village newspaper and inquire into the 



122 THE TWENTIETH TEABBOOK 

possibility of having their little paper printed there. The owner 
agreed to do this if the children could turn in such copy as could 
go to press and needed no supervision or correction from the 
foreman. 

The class discussed the general appearance of the sheet, and 
agreed upon the size and number of pages of the paper, the size 
and spacing of print for titles, for columns, the width of margins, 
etc. Much calculation and measurement were involved in this. 

The class also discussed the contents and finally selected 
the following : editorial column, school-news by classes, athletics, 
jokes, short stories and advertisements. Many newspapers were 
examined before this decision was reached. 

At a business meeting they selected and voted for editor-in-chief 
and assistant editors, a staff of reporters, members of business 
committee. A vote was also taken as to what to charge for a single 
copy and what to charge a yearly subscriber. 

During supervised study periods, the editorial staff composed 
editorials, the reporters worked up their news-stories, jokes were 
originated or recalled and written down, and short stories were 
composed and written. 

In the discussion periods each committee presented to the entire 
class the work accomplished in the study period. The class rejected 
and accepted as it saw fit. 

In the instruction period the children were taught those specific 
things that would aid them in producing the effects they were 
desirous of making. These instructions included the selection of 
a good topic, how to organize it into paragraphs, how to make each 
paragraph strong and effective by arrangement, sentence structure, 
diction and the like ; how to write original stories or how to write 
good reproductions ; standards for selection of good jokes ; how to 
write jokes in the most effective way and the like. 

199. "A Weekly Paper" 

(Reported by Alice B. Russell, State Normal College, 

Dillon, Montana) 

The pupils look upon this work with great interest. The class 
chooses those who are best fitted for the different departments and 



MATBBIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 123 

for the position of business manager. The many mechanical details 
are so well taken care of that very little supervision is needed by 
the teacher. New editors are chosen for the different departments 
each month. These editors in turn choose certain pupils to con- 
tribute articles. In this way each one in the class contributes some- 
thing to each issue. Usually no editor is allowed to choose the same 
person to contribute to his department twice ; thus practice is given 
to each one in the different types of work. The work of criticism 
rests chiefly upon the editors, but those in the lower classes some- 
times hand in criticisms. The teacher finds in this paper all sorts of 
suggestions as to topics that have to be reviewed more carefully and 
type errors that must be eradicated. A sample index of contents 
will show the nature of the work. 

Volume Four. Number Four, Feb. 19, 1920. 

Editorials 

The New Band in Dillon L. 8. 

Spelling Contest J. W. 

The New Klein Block M. 6. 

Literary Department 

Two Deer D. P. 

An Unexpected Discovery. M. H. 

The End of the Old Brewery D. P. 

Black Ants P. C. 

Society Notes 

Shaw Family Left for Butte G. P. 

8ociety Assembly Notes B. G. 

jrprBo imi B . . . ••••••••••••••••••••••••«««»«x« \j» 

Miss Hatch's Becital L. T. 

Athletics 

First Team Leaving for Butte C. P. 

Junior Second vs. Seniors B. G. 

Dillon vs. Butte W. K. 

The Coming Game with Sheridan B. G. 

The Game with the Juniors E. M. 

Jokes 

A New Name L. B. 

A Strange Being L. B. 



124 THE TWENTIETH TEABBOOK 

200. "An Assembly Program on the History of the School* ' 

(Reported by M. L. Johnston, George W. Morris School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The topic, "Morris School," was suggested to the class as one 
of general interest. A discussion was held and it was decided to 
find out the history of the building from its inception to the present 
day, the change in the character of the school population, the 
differences between the school activities of early days and of present 
days. Committees were elected and each group was to be responsi- 
ble for a certain part. The only school records available were the 
registration slips of 1920 from which one group gathered informa- 
tion concerning the present school population, and from which the 
children worked out the percentages of foreign and of native-born 
children. A second group wrote letters to ex-principals, teachers, 
and former pupils of the school and asked for information concern- 
ing the building and the use to which it had been put during the 
Civil War. Another group visited a pupil of the first class which 
attended Morris School, and from her obtained much interesting 
data. After the papers were written, the class selected the papers 
which could be given in the usual thirty-minute assembly period. 
The work of collecting and preparing the data for the program was 
accomplished in two weeks. 

201. "Christmas Celebrations" 

(Reported by Alma R. Gold, State Normal Training School, 

Westfield, Massachusetts) 

The class organized a club at the beginning of the year and 
chose for their December work a study of Christmas celebrations in 
various countries. Each pupil, having made his choice of the coun- 
try to be investigated, made search for material, books, pictures, 
etc., at his home, at the town library, and elsewhere, and then gave 
an illustrated talk to the club. The project was of special value in 
this class, composed largely of foreign children, since it gave oppor- 
tunities for presenting first-hand knowledge, often supplemented 
by actual reminders of the celebration — costumes, sweetmeats, etc. 
The project was enlarged by the class selection of the most inter- 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR BIGB 8CH00L 125 

esting speakers to represent the room in a Christmas program in 
the assembly hall, where, on the day before vacation, these pupils, 
dressed in native costumes and provided with other illustrative 
material, gave vivid accounts of Christmas in those countries 
where they or their parents had lived. 

202. "Class Day Exercises' ' 
(Reported by Carrie T. Booker, Atlanta, Georgia) 

The class was organized; officers were elected; college com- 
mencements were studied. A banquet, graduation with diplomas, 
and class exercises, with a bonfire, were decided upon. The class 
was divided into groups — one to finance, another to plan the ban- 
quet, another to arrange the literary part, and still another to take 
charge of the bonfire. After discussion, chairmen for the groups, 
class historian, poet, prophet, trophy orator, executor of the will, 
composer of class song, chaplain, pall bearers, and torch bearers 
were elected. The music was supervised by the teacher of that 
subject. A printing concern was visited by the teacher and finance 
committee to get samples and quotations on diplomas. The prin- 
cipal was consulted in regard to plans for raising the money ; the 
Parent-Teacher's Association was consulted for the preparing of 
the menu, and a florist was visited regarding decoration. Invita- 
tions, and place cards for the sixth grade, and the school officials 
were made by the class. Everything was done by the class groups, 
supervised by the seventh-grade teacher, except the actual prepara- 
tion of the food and the service at the banquet. The domestic science 
girls of the Normal School served. Accurate accounts were kept 
of all money spent ; money was deposited in the bank by the com- 
mittees; the bills were paid promptly after the class had verified 
each. A fund of two dollars and thirty cents was left in the treasury 
and willed to the next seventh grade. 

203. "A Pageant of Spring" 

(Reported by Clara A. Dobbin, Baltimore, Maryland) 
In preparing a suitable spring entertainment for our Patron's 
Association, the following steps were developed in our seventh and 
eighth grades : 



126 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

Step I. Class discussion of all types of entertainments that, 
might prove satisfactory. All agreed finally upon a pageant having 
a "Spring Motif." 

Step II. Children and teacher brought in for examination and 
criticism many plays, pageants, and books dealing with festivals 
and festival making. Among them were "A Flower Wedding." 
"Flower Wedding" was chosen for their play. 

Step III. Discussion of plots based upon stories and plays read. 
A plot was adopted. A little girl is overcome with sleep in a garden, 
dreams she overhears the gossip among the wall flowers concerning 
a wedding they had just witnessed. 

Step IV. Class discussion of flowers and shrubs that could be 
used as characters. This involved a trip to the woods and the 
identification of many common wild flowers. The following were 
selected: 

Time, Four O 'Clock; Place, Steeple Bash Church; Belle, Blue 
Bells; Minister, Jack-in- the-Pulpit; License Clerk, Solomon's Seal. 

The Wedding: Bride, gowned in Lily White; Groom, Sweet 
William; Train Bearer, Baby Blue Eyes; Matron of Honor, Orchid; 
Bride's Maids, Pinks; Mother, Lavender. 

Quests: Miss Daisy, Miss Phlox, Miss Bagged Robins, Miss 
Marche Neil, Miss Rose La France, Miss Blue-Eyed Mary, Master 
Johnny Jump-up, Miss Violet, Miss Black-Eyed-Susan, and Master 
Bleeding Heart. 

Befreshments : Partridge (Berry); Flavors, Mint and Sage; 
Butter and Eggs; Sweet Peas, Snow Balls, Cherry Wine; Waitress, 
Bouncing Bet. 

Gifts: Lady Slippers, Pitcher (Plant), Butter Cups, Arrow Head, 
Flags. 

Step Y. Class divided into committees, each responsible for 
the following items : 

a. Staging — Worked out in manual training department; in- 
volved preparing drawings to scale to report to class before actual 
construction could begin. Many changes were worked out in 
original plans after such discussions. 

b. Composing the dialogue for the various characters. Many 
lessons in English involved. Competitive prize offered for best 
verses submitted for use in play. Several good ones were accepted. 

c. Costuming the characters. Involved study of the flowers. 
Making drawings to show design and coloring to class before actual 



UATEB1ALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 127 

work on material was undertaken. Many of the parents came to 
the school daily to aid the girls in the actual work of seaming, 
stitching, and the like. 

d. Songs to be used in the play. Many were presented, class 
made selections. These were taught under direction of instructor 
of music. 

e. Program-Making. Folders bearing original or copied de- 
signs were submitted for class criticism. This lead to adoption of 
some, rejection of others. Every child in the school wrote two (no 
printing presses were available), and these were tied in the folder 
for distribution to the patrons. 

/. Booklet made by those children having cameras. These 
children took pictures of the stage, of the characters and of some 
striking scenes, arranged them in an attractive manner, and pre- 
sented the booklet to the school. 

204. "Earning and Spending Money for Graduating Expenses" 

(Reported by Cora Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

It has always been the custom for the children of the seventh 
grade in the Bancroft School to leave a graduating present with 
the school and to pay for their own programs, ribbons, class party, 
etc. Last year they felt that they should not ask their parents to 
bear these expenses, so they decided to earn the money themselves. 
There were two rooms of graduates. One room appointed leaders 
who visited all the other rooms in the school, asked for reports as to 
stores of old papers they might collect for sale, when such papers 
could be called for, and what boys in the room had small wagons 
they would rent for the use of collectors. They wrote to the firm 
that purchases paper, and arranged for them to call at the school 
at 2 o'clock on a stated afternoon. The morning of that day they 
had all wagons engaged and ready, the district mapped out, boys 
appointed to make all calls, girls to take the papers in and sort them 
and tie into bundles, boys to weigh and stack, an accountant to 
keep tally, etc. At two, all papers were ready for the purchaser. 
The actual work took about three fourths of one day. The proceeds 
were about $50.00. 



128 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

The other room decided to give a play. A little girl who was 
a natural leader with a strong sense of the dramatic was appointed 
stage manager. The play was chosen from the volume of dramas 
written by Louise Alcott as a girl. The manager chose her cast, 
drilled them, arranged for the school orchestra to give the open- 
ing music and numbers between acts. The janitor and the manual 
training boys put up a stage in the kindergarten room, draped 
green curtains for the background, dressing rooms and stage cur- 
tains. The manager, with her helpers, saw to the costumes, drilled 
the players, and, with the cooperation of the room, and entirely 
without teachers' assistance, gave the play. There were two per- 
formances, one in the evening, one in the afternoon, so that pupils 
and parents could both come. The proceeds were about $80.00. 

The pupils designed book cases, one for each of the two rooms 
in question, to fill spaces available for such use. They estimated 
the amount of lumber necessary to build the cases, selected and 
bought the hardware, and the glass for the doors. The boys visited 
the lumber yards and personally selected the lumber. The manual 
training boys of the two rooms built the cases, which are now in use 
in the rooms. 

The class appointed a committee to see the printer, and get bids 
on the programs for the graduating exercises. They planned, or 
selected, the make-up of the programs, and saw to distributing 
them. Committees of children attended to purchasing the class 
ribbons, and arranging for the decoration of the stage. The girls 
made their own dresses, which the custom of the school decrees 
shall be only a middy and a white skirt, with a tie of school colors. 
The dresses were made in the sewing classes. Each girl purchased 
her own material for her dress. 

All the money remaining after the necessary expenses were 
met, was used for a class party and dance one afternoon shortly 
before graduation. The kindergarten room was cleared, the floor 
waxed slightly, and the school orchestra engaged for the afternoon. 
The girls had been conducting private dancing lessons for the boys 
for several months, as a former party, about Easter, had indicated 
a need for such training, and the physical director was willing to 
supervise the lessons. A committee ordered refreshments and an- 



MATEBIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH 8CH00L 129 

other committee served them. The entire management was in the 
hands of the pupils. A treasurer's report, turned in at the last 
class meeting, showed in detail all receipts from every source and 
all expenditures, with a perfect balance. 

205. "Choosing and Hanging a Picture for the Hall" 

(Reported by Ploy Campbell, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The class surveyed the halls to decide what spot most needed the 
addition of a picture. After selecting the wall, pieces of cardboard 
of various sizes and shapes were tried in place, to see which gave 
the best proportion for the space selected. The color of the wall 
was matched in watercolors, and the pupils made color schemes 
which they thought would look well in a picture, against that wall, 
and in the light that obtained there. These color schemes, while 
merely daubs of color, or arrangements of colored paper without 
form, were large enough to be seen at some distance. The schemes 
were next tried against the wall, and the class voted for the most 
agreeable ones. Some four or five were selected and several shapes 
and sizes were chosen, also. A committee was appointed to visit 
the art stores, and look over all prints in stock, and bring back to 
school those that most nearly fulfilled the requirements of size, 
shape, and color. When the pictures were tentatively selected by 
the committee and were delivered, they tried them out by hanging 
them on the spots of the wall previously selected, and those which 
seemed unsuitable were sent back. The two or three pictures 
thought to be good were left hanging in place for a week apiece, 
the class meanwhile finding out all they could about the painter and 
the meaning of the picture. At the end of the period the final vote 
was taken, and the picture chosen was permanently framed and 
hung. 

206. "Decorating the Reception Room" 

(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

The pupils noticed that the reception room was not attractive. 
It was a north room and the walls were decorated in a light grayish 



130 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

green. Most of the furniture was green and the whole effect was 
cold and cheerless. The children decided it needed warmer color 
and draperies to make it more hospitable. Colors were discussed, 
and after several samples of cretonne had been examined, the class 
decided upon one which had a variety of warm colors. The cre- 
tonne was used in draperies for the windows and doors, and in 
combination with a neutral color, in making pillow covers, table 
scarfs, etc Then the class discussed the value of putting a border 
on the wall to relieve the monotony. They examined the cretonne 
again, and using suggestions gained from this source, each child 
made a stencil pattern for the border. The class chose the design 
which they considered the best, and a stencil was cut. Then the 
members of the class worked at spare moments painting the border. 

207. "Earning Money to Buy Pictures for the Schoolroom' * 

(Reported by A. Alice Nolan, Bockford, Illinois) 

After much discussion on ways of earning money, the class 
decided to form a corporation known as "The Blake School Com- 
pany." A meeting was held and officers and board of directors 
elected. As "it pays to advertise," sample candies were sent to 
each room one week previous to the sale. Following this, a study 
was made of the overhead expenses of a corporation, including 
insurance (fire, liability, and life), taxes (real-estate, personal, and 
income). The first sale was held when sugar was eleven cents a 
pound and other materials corresponding in prices. The sale netted 
a profit of 213 percent. All the candy was made under supervision 
by firm-members in the domestic-science kitchen. Drill in multipli- 
cation and division of fractions and whole numbers resulted. The 
treasurer deposited in a local bank the money earned, and this led 
to a study of banking. At the time of our second sale, the necessary 
money was withdrawn by the treasurer. Owing to rapid advance 
in costs, only about 70 percent profit was made. Two pictures were 
purchased, and each pupil received par value for his stock before 
the class entered the high school. 



' A similar undertaking is reported by Mabel Miller, Kansas City, Kansas. 
—Editor. 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUN10B HIGH SCHOOL 131 

208. "Comparing the School Marks of Boys and Girls" 

(Reported by Drusilla Keller, Kansas City, Kansas) 

Because of questions put to the class as to whether the boys or 
the girls were doing the better work of the class, it was proposed 
by a member of the class that a comparison be made of all the work 
being done. Each member furnished his portion of the necessary 
data. The percents of I's, II 's, Ill's, IV 's, and V's for each pupil 
were found and these percents were graphed. The interpretation 
of the graphs was made, and it revealed that the girls were doing the 
better work. The data were also used for word problems made by 
members of the class and used for practice in equation solving. 

209. "A 'Better-Speech' Crusade" 

(Reported by Katharine Gladfelter, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

This crusade was composed and staged by seventh- and eighth- 
grade classes as part of a school program in connection with "Better 
Speech Week." It was motivated by an attempt to eradicate the 
most glaring class errors and to portray in a forceful way the ideal 
of good English. The children first discussed the handicap of in- 
correct English in business or social life. They then selected their 
most glaring errors and pledged themselves to eliminate them. To 
accomplish this and to convince their school-mates of the necessity 
for waging active warfare upon the use of incorrect English, they 
decided to write a play. After discussion of several ideas the frame- 
work of the King Arthur stories, suggested by the teacher, was 
chosen. The six class errors, "I Seen," "I Had Went," and so on, 
thus became the villains of Bad Speech who were opposed by "I 
Saw" and "I Had Gone," the Knights of King Arthur, or Good 
Speech. The actual composition of the play was done orally by the 
entire class of twenty-one children. They first outlined the story 
and divided it into acts. The first act showed the departure of 
the Knights of Good Speech on their quests in search of Bad Speech ; 
the second, the contest ; and the third, the sentence imposed upon 
Bad Speech. The next step was the creation of a cast of twenty- 



132 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

one speaking parts and the selection, by vote, of the children to 
play those parts. The play was then acted out ; words and motions 
were fitted to the story as previously conceived. Each child was 
left free to create his own role, subject to the group criticism. 
Necessary costumes and stage properties were made by the chil- 
dren. Shields and helmets were made by all under the direction of 
the art teacher, while swords were made by the boys in the work- 
shop, and dresses by the girls in the sewing class. 

210. "A Play for a Halloween Party" 

(Reported by Sterling A. Leonard, The Wisconsin High School, 

Madison, Wisconsin) 

The ninth grade wanted to provide entertainment for a 
Halloween party and several suggestions were considered. The 
teacher proposed dramatizing Hawthorne's Feathertop, and read it 
to the class. Here the suggestion was the teacher *s, because the class 
could not have provided it 

Scenes were at once planned, and the work divided so that sev- 
eral pupils wrote each one. Much of the dialog (chiefly monolog) 
in the first was already in the story, and so for the street scene and 
the final, brief catastrophe. But most of the dialog of Justice 
Gookin's house had to be imagined, and several pupils' efforts 
were combined for this. The play when completed had in it some- 
thing from each one in the class, contributed in writing or dis- 
cussion, and each pupil had written at least one scene, in length 
from two or three pages to ten or twelve. Early in rehearsal a boy 
who had previously done poor work in English carried the hero's 
part by acclamation. Btst understudies practiced for each place, 
and in some cases contested it hotly, till the final rehearsal. No 
one told any actor a gesture, word, or inflection; but the query: 
"What sort of person was he?" or "How did he probably say or do 
that?" was frequent, and various suggestions were made and tried. 
The performance was thus wholly the pupils' cooperative attempt to 
interpret ideas they formed of characters, costume, and setting. 
Their gain was through trying to make the details fit the time and 
idea of the story and the enunciation distinct for an audience of 



MATEBIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 133 

their friends ; the spirit of the whole was genuine and fine. Every 
one had at least a line in the street scene, as well as work on prop- 
erty, stage, or costume committee. 

This play was adapted from Chapter IX of The Teaching of 
Literature and Reading (forthcoming), by permission of The J. B. 
Lippincott Co. 

211. "A Study of Stories" 

(Reported by Florence Bamberger, Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Maryland) 

Step I. A study of interesting short stories. Teacher told or 
read several. The following assignments were made. "Bring to 
class those stories you like. Be ready to read or tell them to the 
class." The class enjoyed several periods in this way. Finally 
the pupils asked if they might tell stories to other classes. Arrange- 
ments were made for this to take place. Some of the children visited 
the primary classes and found they had no stories of interest for 
the young children. They returned and asked their teacher "What 
kind of stories do little primary children like?" 

Step II. A study of children's stories was made which resulted 
in a selection of ten to be tried out on the children themselves. 
Great success attended this second attempt. The eighth-grade chil- 
dren then decided to write a story for the first-grade class, put it 
into book form and present a copy of it to each pupil of that grade. 

Step III. Helen Banncrman's story of Little Black Sambo 
was selected as a model. The entire class made a careful study of 
its plot, the climax of the story, the selection and arrangement of 
details, the animals interesting to children it contained, the actions 
and words of the little boy hero ; and the many attractive repeti- 
tions occurring throughout the story which make so strong an 
appeal to the little ones. 

Step IV. A series of supervised study lessons in which the 
children attempted to invent original plots using the model as a 
guide, to weave a story around the plot, to secure good diction. 
Discussions followed each study period. The children submitted 
their ideas as to plot, arrangements, and the like. The class finally 
agreed to accept certain parts and weave them into the class story. 



134 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

As a result, a most ingenious little story entitled "Golden Haired 
Letty," was evolved. This is a real story with a plot, a most 
original climax, many quaint and interesting repetitive phrases, 
and a little girl heroine, who has terrifying experiences in which 
animals appear. While it bears a strong resemblance to its model 
in plot, the situation and climax are distinctly original. 

Step V. Committee work. Children with a talent for art 
painted water-color illustrations in the book and on the cover. 
Others wrote the story in the book. Enough copies were made to 
distribute one to each first-grade pupil. These were placed at the 
foot of their Christmas tree and formed a much desired gift. 

212. "Dramatization of 'The Pied Piper' " 

(Reported by Miss Nelle Warden, Portland School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

After class discussion, the pupils, under the direction of the 
teacher, wrote a scenario of the entire play. Then followed the 
dialogue, suggested by pupils, chosen after criticism and discussion, 
written by the teacher on the blackboard, and lastly, copied by the 
pupils. As the scenes were finished, each one was tried out by the 
pupils, and altered if necessary. The pupils of the seventh grade 
wrote the words to the song for the play; the teacher of music 
taught them the song. The boys in the workshop made a "Ben 
Greet" screen to serve as a background; they also made some of 
the furniture. The play was presented at the school for the pur- 
pose of defraying the expenses of a social given at the end of the 
term. It was accepted by Popular Educator. The money is to be 
given to the Victrola fund. 

B. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH COMMUNITY CIVIC INTERESTS 

213. "An Americanization Club" 

(Reported by Laura E. Ryan, Rockford, Illinois) 

This club was organized by the class for the purpose of study- 
ing the civic life of the community. Officers were elected and com- 
mittees appointed to carry on the work—- one committee to invests 



MATEBIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIOH SCHOOL ]& 

gate the Americanization work of other communities, one to inter- 
view the heads of various civic organizations, and one to make a 
general survey of our own district Letters were written to Cham- 
bers of Commerce and Directors of Americanization in various parts 
of the country. The vast amount of Americanization material re- 
ceived was preserved in a large scrap book and formed the basis of 
the work. In the classroom the committees gathered to exchange 
information, discuss community problems and their solutions, and 
to propose ways in which the Americanization club might help. 

Heads of various civic organizations and city officials addressed 
the club from time to time, outlining plans in which the club could 
be a power for good in the community. Children were made re- 
sponsible for actual labors to be performed. They furnished 
Americanization pamphlets, books, and papers for the foreign homes 
of the district, participated in the naturalization ceremonies at the 
Court House and observed every national holiday throughout the 
year in a manner most suitable to the particular significance of 
the day. The club provided ample opportunities for practicing citi- 
zenship and became a power for good in the community. 

214. "The Government of Our City" 

(Reported by Katherine C. McGaughey, Youngstown, Ohio) 

On account of the great number of nationalities represented in 
Youngstown, Americanization is a great and ever-increasing prob- 
lem. Of all the agencies at work, the public schools seem to come 
nearer to the heart of the situation. Because of these facts, we 
chose to make the "Government of Youngstown" the project upon 
which to build our Civic Course. Working through the Public 
Library, the officials of the public buildings and court house, the 
local members of Congress and Legislature, the children were able 
to obtain an immense store of information. This was applied first 
to the early history of the city and .its industries, their growth and 
development, and in making comparisons with the present condi- 
tions, giving reasons for the same. The local form of government 
was studied ; committees of pupils made frequent visits to the City 
Council, courts, police station, waterworks, parks, Butler Art 



136 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Gallery, and wherever practical, actual reproductions of these 
departments were dramatized in the classroom, for example, the 
Council and Jury Trial. Comparisons were made from time to 
time between the work of the branches of the various departments 
of our city government with those of other cities. The practical 
side of this was carried through a system of student control by 
means of which pupils assisted materially in the school govern- 
ment. This plan was found to work so well that it has been con- 
siderably extended this present year. On the completion of the 
city government the pupils found it an easy step to that of the 
State and Federal Government, which was taught by comparison 
with what they already had of local affairs. The pupils took the 
initiative in all, as far as possible; the teacher only assisted in 
organizing the work and in making necessary suggestions. 

215. "Earning Membership in the Junior Bed Cross* ' 

(Reported by Jennie C. Bake well, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

It was decided by this eighth-grade class that enrolling as mem- 
bers in the Junior Bed Cross Society was a question to be brought 
before its Civic Club for discussion and settlement. Since a mone- 
tary fee as well as certain work must be pledged, the Club decided 
that an entertainment to raise the necessary amount must be given. 
Two minute speeches and original verses on the theme of the 
"Junior Bed Cross" were written by the English class and used 
to help advertise the entertainment. A committee from the Club 
submitted for class criticism its program consisting of a play and 
tableaux. The play had been dramatized several weeks before by 
the class from a story emphasizing service to country. The tableaux 
represented the I}ed Cross posters and illustrations found by the 
class in the Red Cross Magazine. Committees were formed to look 
after each detail — tickets, door keepers, ushers, stage properties, 
costumes, lighting, and so on. The result was enough money to give 
the school a one hundred percent membership in the Junior Red 
Cross Society and quite a large sum left over. The Club was con- 
fronted now with a problem — more money than it needed. The 



MATEBIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 137 

members decided it should be used to enroll another school. A 
letter was written to the superintendent asking information about 
the various schools. The club acted upon recommendation of the 
superintendent, and sent the money to the school he suggested. The 
initiative and cooperation shown by this group of eighth-grade boys 
and girls was one of the chief values of this piece of work. 

216. "Our Park System' ' 

(Reported by Jennie C. Bakewell and Agnes Cavanaugh, Louisville 

Normal School, Louisville, Kentucky) 

This study grew out of a discussion among the children of the 
way they had passed their leisure time during the summer vacation. 
Questions asked by the children concerning the supervision and 
' l up keep ' ' of the parks finally led to a profitable study of the * ' Park 
System of Louisville." The class, after suggesting topics to be 
investigated, divided itself into small groups for the work. Each 
group chose the topic in which it was most interested. The park 
commissioners were interviewed through writing. Older people in 
the neighborhood were* consulted. Newspapers and magazines were 
searched. All the information was assembled in book form and 
presented to the library at the end of the study. Various groups 
visited the different parks and reported to the class on the things 
of interest, as trees, flowers, birds, animals, fountains, bridges, 
statues, shelter houses and recreation grounds. Original nature 
myths as well as nature poems were written. The class realized 
the advantages to be gained from the city parks and were ready 
to do their part toward making further improvements in the park 
system. 

217. "A 'Stay-in-School' Campaign" 

(Reported by Jessie M. Law, Springfield, Massachusetts) 

This experimental class was composed of lads who had found 
the conventional high-school subjects so difficult that they had failed 
in one or more and were obliged to stay an additional half year in 
the Junior High School. The boys, however, furnished the best 
kind of material for a group with which to discuss live problems, 



138 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

because in the capacity of newsboys, errand boys in large factories, 
or telegraph messenger boys, they had come in contact with the 
business world and were more worldly wise than their teacher upon 
certain business tactics. Among the subjects considered were dig- 
nity of labor, conservation, and the H. C. L., business ethics, capital 
and the trusts, labor and the unions, cooperation and profit sharing, 
personal and family budgets, public office and the franchise. The 
project method was pursued throughout the semester. 

In the spring of 1920, Springfield, Massachusetts, conducted a 
"Stay-in-School" campaign by movies, pamphlet propaganda, ser- 
mons and lectures. The class chose this campaign as a subject of 
study. In order to eliminate snap-shot judgments each boy was 
given the following questions upon which to ponder over night: 

1. Why do boys of fourteen leave school? 

2. What places are open to boys of fourteen to sixteen f 

3. What work is open to senior-high-school graduates f 

4. What positions await college graduates f 

5. What must a boy consider in choosing his life workf 

The lads knew perfectly the motives which led their mates to 
leave school. The chief one was the lure of high wages, they all 
agreed. They opined that in some cases the money was actually 
needed by the family, but they felt that in many instances the boy 
wished more spending money for recreation. More than one of 
the class thought there was a distinct advantage in starting early 
to learn such a trade as printing or plumbing. The teacher at this 
point got the class to discussing the dangers of 'dead alley 9 jobs. 
One lad ventured the opinion that some fellows found school prosy, 
but honest expression brought out the fact that this particular group 
found in the curriculum rather more oases than plain desert sand. 
In the consideration of the openings for the high-school graduate, 
the old platitude that the lad of eighteen has to start upon the same 
earning basis as the grammar-school boy was brought up. For- 
tunately, Dr. Piexotto's tests of the New York situation furnished 
adequate answer to the earning capacity of the comparative groups. 
When the class arrived at the discussion of the managerial and pro- 
fessional work open to college graduates, the boys took fire. Like 



MATBBIAL8 FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 139 

Caesar, they were all * ' ambitious. ' 9 Each man saw himself a future 
Bosenwald or a Dr. Mayo. The training necessary for expert work 
was considered from the standpoint of kind of work, time, money, 
and effort. Then the members of the class swung very naturally 
into this line of thought: "What must I consider in choosing my 
life work?" The discussion evolved these points: training for 
future ability rather than for immediate compensation, the joy of 
doing a thing well, better standards of living, thrift, service to the 
community. These recitations were punctuated by illustrations of 
such personal nature that they would never have passed the censor 
and in a vernacular that would have shocked the purist. 

Of course, the obvious criticism of this whole lesson is that it 
is an inadequate treatment of so large a subject, but the answer 
is that several lads admitted to their principal that they had re- 
mained in school because of this same course in " social economics." 

218. "A Cleanliness Campaign" 

(Reported by Florence G. Billig, State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The fact that several pupils had been coming to school in an 
untidy condition had been noted by many of the boys and girls. As 
a result, in one of the science classes the question arose: "What 
can we do to make everyone come to school clean and tidy?" After 
some discussion, the class laid the situation before all the members 
of the junior-high-school grades and asked their cooperation. After 
a general discussion of the situation, it was agreed by every member 
of the school that each pupil should come to school with his person 
and dress clean and tidy. A committee consisting of members from 
each class drew up general rules which were posted on the bulletin 
board for one week in order that each boy and girl might study 
them. At the following school assembly, the rules were accepted 
without a dissenting vote. The committee also planned that a pro- 
gram should be given every other week in the regular assembly 
period in which topics as the following should be considered : the 
care of the teeth, hands, hair, and clothing ; the value of soap, and 
the making of soap. The members of the general committee were 



140 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

elected to hold office for six weeks. When new officers were installed, 
the outgoing officers gave a summary of the work which the class 
had performed. At this time, also, the new officers stated what 
they hoped to accomplish. The work was conducted by the various 
committees during the entire year. By the close of the year's work 
a health-index card had been worked out by the pupils. Copies of 
this card, made by the State Printer, were filled out by the mem- 
bers of the committee at the opening of the school term. Many 
posters emphasizing cleanliness were made. Many rhymes were 
written and used on the posters. From time to time articles and 
rhymes relating to the work of the "Clean Up Committee" were 
published in the school paper. Pupils spoke in Parent-Teachers' 
meeting regarding the work. The plan of the campaign for clean- 
liness, which was made and carried out entirely by the pupils, not 
only served its purpose during the year, but was continued and 
expanded the following year. 

219. "The City's Water Supply" 

(Reported by Eva T. Mason, George Rogers Clark School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The school is located near the filter house. The question arose 
as to why a city should have pure water. It was found that the 
class did not have the necessary information to answer the ques- 
tion satisfactorily, so a letter was written to the chief engineer 
asking for literature on the subject and permission to visit the 
plant. Another committee was formed to visit the City Health 
Office and get data on the health situation in the city before and 
since the installation of the filter. The class divided itself into 
eight groups. Each group was made responsible for a certain phase 
of the work and gave it to the class through its reporter and artist. 

220. "The City's Milk Supply" 

(Reported by Elizabeth D. Zachari, Louisville Normal School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The class selected the project: "How Louisville attempts to 
have the city provided with a pure milk supply." The class pre- 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 141 

pared an outline which included the proper care of milk from the 
milking until received by the consumer. The class then divided 
into groups and began work on the topics. In some instances indi- 
viduals worked out a topic Groups of individuals reported on (1) 
visit to a certified dairy farm; (2) packing and care of milk in 
shipment; (3) experiments or demonstrations by those reporting, 
on (a) temperatures at which bacterial growth ceases, and (6) 
pasteurization. These experiments were decided upon after the 
class had visited a large dairy and had watched the process of pas- 
teurization. Another group studied the work of the Health Depart- 
ment in analyzing the quality of Louisville milk. The group then 
made a graph of the results. Questions from the children led to a 
study of the food values of milk compared with other beverages. 
Experiments were sought which disclosed the composition of milk. 
One group collected data for a graph showing the comparative fuel 
value of milk, cocoa, tea, and coffee. A program, which consisted 
of a summary of the project, was planned by the class and given. 

221. "A Health Play" 

(Reported by Jennie C. Bakewell and Gladys Wyatt, Louisville 

Normal School, Louisville, Kentucky) 

The class had suffered during the recent epidemic of "Spanish 
influenza." They had studied causes and the means of controlling 
such epidemics. As a civic duty, they expressed a wish to show 
the community that the rules of the Board of Health should be 
strictly enforced during times of communicable diseases. Their 
problem was to choose the best medium, and after consideration 
of possible ways, they decided to write a play. The plot of their 
story was outlined and separated into four divisions. The first act 
was then developed and written as a class exercise — the children 
dictating and criticizing. The class next divided itself into three 
groups ; each group assumed the responsibility of one act. When 
the whole play was written, the chairman of each group submitted 
his part for class criticism. When finished and accepted by the 
class, the title "The Costly Party" was agreed upon. Shakes- 
pearean dramas were consulted for form; government pamphlets 



142 ' THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

and bulletins issued by the Board of Health were studied; phy- 
sicians, district nurses, and lawyers were interviewed ; and a trial 
in the common pleas court was witnessed in order to verify the sub- 
ject matter and stage procedure. The English classes of the de- 
partment were the critics during the rehearsals. The play was 
given three times : first, to the English and science teachers of the 
city; second, to the children and teachers of the public schools 
during the Spring Health Pageant ; and third, to the school nurses 
and members of the Board of Health. 



222. "An Exercise in School Hygiene 



»> 



(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

The exercise consisted in determining whether the classroom 
occupied by the pupils had sufficient floor space, air space, and 
lighting surface. Practical measurements, approximate and actual 
were the important by-products of this project. In the civics class 
the question of crowding in schools was discussed. This led to the 
question of the conditions in their own schoolroom and whether or 
not those conditions met the accepted standards. A committee of 
the class reported the number of square feet of floor space, the num- 
ber of the cubic feet of air space there should be on an average for 
each child, and the ratio between the floor space and the surface of 
window glass. The pupils then saw the need of gaining certain 
room measurements. No yard stick was immediately available, and 
the question of approximate measurements was raised and dis- 
cussed by the pupils. This led to the discussion of measuring one's 
pace or measuring with the arms extended. (The distance between 
finger tips with arms extended horizontally is about equal with a 
person's height.) The pupils discovered that the height of a room 
could be judged by comparing the height of a person who stood 
close to the wall with a total height. Several lessons were spent in 
making actual and approximate measurements and the value of 
each kind was noted* 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 143 

223. "City Health Graphs" 

(Reported by Julia M. Bay ha) 

Various statistics were collected by the pupils from various 
ources, chiefly the city health department. Special attention was 
;iven to the death report of children. The idea of a scale was taught 
md then used in the preparation of graphs. Each child selected 
i list of statistics most interesting to him, and by using the scale, 
>repared a graph. These graphs were used as material for a lesson 
n hygiene, and afterwards were posted in conspicuous places for 
he pupils of other places to observe. 

224. "Acquiring Habits of Good Posture While Studying" 

'Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

The class discussed the importance of straight bodies and well- 
leveloped lungs as a means of keeping well. This led to a realiza- 
ion of the need of sitting in good position when working. They 
lecided it was difficult for a person to find out for himself if he were 
itting in a healthy posture, so the Physical Training teachers were 
nvited to come in and watch them at work. The pupils did not 
mow when they were being observed and as a result assumed their 
justomary postures. The next day the pupils were taken indi- 
ridually and told their weaknesses and how to correct them. Cer- 
ain defects in posture were common to many members of the class. 
Phey discussed the evil results of these incorrect postures, and a 
campaign to rectify them was planned. Individual troubles were 
igain discussed privately with the teacher of the room, and a 
nethod of correcting the difficulties was formulated and carried 
rat by the pupils individually with the help of teacher and friends. 

225. "A Supplementary Text for Community Civics" 

(Reported by Sarah Mark Imboden, Decatur, Illinois) 

A text for use in home geography has been written by the pupils 
in Grades V to VIII, inclusive, of the schools of Decatur, Illinois. 



144 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

The book contains eleven chapters of 192 pages. The table of con- 
tents is : 

I. History of Decatur 

II. Decatur as an Educational Center 

III. Institutional Decatur 

IV. Industrial Decatur 

V. Decatur's Transportation Facilities 

VI. PubUc Buildings 

VII. Churches and Civic Organizations 

VIII. Decatur Department Stores 

IX. Government of Decatur 

X. Beautiful Decatur 

XI. Future of Decatur 

The information was gained through observation, study and re- 
search. Where it was impracticable to visit a factory, the necessary 
data were gotten by the pupils by writing letters to the heads o£ 
concerns, listing questions that they wished answered, or as in many 
cases, inviting the person to talk to them. In many classes English 
and geography were thus motivated for a period of three months. 
All of the art work, which includes cover design and tail pieces to 
chapters, was done by the pupils of the junior high school. One 
hundred copies were also hand-bound by the same pupils. Two 
thousand copies of the book were published at the cost $1,300. In 
a vigorous four-day campaign, 1,200 copies were sold to children, 
parents, and citizens at $.75 per copy. 

226. "The School Service Club" 

(Reported by Alberta Rowell, George Rogers Clark School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

The 8-A class has been organized as a club for two years. Offi- 
cers are president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and business 
director (teacher). At the suggestion of the director, the club 
undertook four kinds of services for the term (community, school, 
patriotic and charitable). As a community service, a committee 
volunteered to assist smaller children across two dangerous corners 
near the school. As a school service, the boys undertook to see that 
the playground was in readiness each day for directed games. They 
removed grass, marked off and lined three volley courts, they put 
up and take down nets daily and see the balls are placed on triangle, 



MATBB1ALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 145 

corner, scrimmage, end-ball and volley courts. The club appointed 
a committee of girls who provide our assembly room with cut flowers 
and plants. The girls volunteered to act as waitresses at Parent- 
Teacher luncheons. They addressed post cards to parents of the 
entire enrollment inviting them to Parent-Teacher meetings. As a 
patriotic duty, the club decided to show respect to the American 
flag and national hymn on all occasions. As a charitable duty, the 
members of the club contribute weekly from their allowance to the 
school milk fund for providing indigent children of a neighboring 
school with daily milk. The girls are making scrap books and joke 
books for the Children's Free Hospital and the Children's Ward of 
the City Hospital. All of these duties are still being actively per- 
formed. 

227. ''Establishing a Quiet Zone Around the School Building' ' 

(Reported by Irma B. Spangler, Emporia High School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The class in Community Civics had completed the study of the 
city and had drawn plans for an ideal city with a civic center, well- 
located school buildings, hospitals, restricted zones, quiet zones, 
and other features which make a city safe, convenient, and beau- 
tiful. For several days the class had been disturbed by heavy 
trucks passing the schoolhouse. To the class it seemed as if the 
noise interrupted the recitation and distracted study for several 
minutes daily. Finally, one day, one of the pupils exclaimed: "I 
don't think this school is well located." "Why not?" was asked. 
"Because it is so noisy here all the time. " The class then discussed 
what could be done about the situation. Several remedies were sug- 
gested, until one boy said that he couldn 't see why a quiet zone 
would not be placed around the high-school building. The class 
thought this a valuable suggestion. Then arose the problem of the 
method by which to secure such a zone. A petition was suggested, 
and the class undertook for the next day to find out how a petition 
should be written and to whom it should be addressed. Each mem- 
ber of the class was then to submit a petition. This was done, and 
a committee elected to read the petitions and select the best one. 
The committee reported the best ones, but the class was not satis- 



146 TEE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

fied. The petitions seemed weak because there were no facts upon 
which to base definite statements. A pupil suggested that the class 
find out just how much the time lost cost the tax payers in money. 
Accordingly, committees were appointed. Some who had watches 
were appointed to keep account for a week of the time actually lost 
each day. Another committee was to interview the superintendent 
and learn how much each child cost the school. The third com- 
mittee was to take these two sets of facts and discover how much 
the time lost per pupil cost the city in a whole year. Still another 
committee was to find out how many and what signatures were 
necessary to the petition. The committees all reported on the same 
day. The petitions were then rewritten and a committee selected 
the best one. This was typewritten by two members of the class 
and given to another committee to secure signatures. When this 
had been accomplished, the petition was presented to the mayor by 
three members of the class. This project, by allowing the pupils to 
use their newly acquired knowledge and by stimulating them to 
seek further knowledge, made Community Civics a subject alive 
and of active interest to the class. By working upon the petition, 
the children realized the right and duty of every citizen to be inter- 
ested in his city and make helpful suggestions. By carrying the 
project to completion the pupils learned the process provided by 
a democratic government by which a citizen may in a peaceful and 
lawful manner take steps to remedy laws or conditions which are 
obnoxious to him. 

228. "An Election" 

(Reported by Irma B. Spangler, Emporia High School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

. The class had been studying nominations and elections and 
were confused as to the function of the primary election. 

In working out plans for the two elections the class discovered 
that there were many things it would have to know before it could 
carry out the project. Therefore, committees were appointed to re- 
port concerning the registration of voters, nomination by petition, 
form of ballot, officers and conduct of elections. These committees 
reported the following day, when election officials were appointed, 



MATERIALS FOB TEE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 147 

ballots made ; aspirants for office secured signatures to their peti- 
tions, and registration took place. On the third day both the pri- 
mary and general election were held. In working out and carrying 
through this project the students realized the need of the different 
steps in the nominations and election procedure which became 
actualities to them rather than mere definitions. By taking part in 
both elections the pupils understood clearly the function of the two 
elections. 

C. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH GENERAL CIVIC AND 

PATRIOTIC INTERESTS 

229. "An Historical Museum" 
(Reported by Francis Forsaith, Boston, Massachusetts) 

While studying the early history of Boston my pupils made a 
really valuable collection of material relating to that period, con- 
sisting of pictures, magazine articles, brochures, etc. Besides 
soliciting from relatives and friends, they wrote to several banks 
and business houses of the city, from which they secured many 
interesting contributions. 

We found this an excellent method of correlating history and 
English. The pupils came to realize (some, possibly for the first 
time) the importance of being able to produce a courteous, well- 
written letter. 

230. "An Assembly Program on Famines" 

(Reported by Pearl A. Yocum, Gavin H. Cochran School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

After somewhat intensive studies in geography and science of 
the physical features, resources and existing conditions in many 
countries of war-torn Europe, as well as special studies, such as 
wheat of the United States, Cochran girls and boys proposed a pro- 
gram on "Famines" for the benefit of an audience of several classes. 
They planned to present the program mainly as a tableau, supple- 
mented by discussions and advice as to how America should aid in 
the problem of reconstruction. The class was divided by the class 
president into four committees to present bread, meat, butter, and 



148 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

sugar conditions of the world, to stress world needs, and to show 
the nations that should come to the rescue. Each of these com- 
mittees secured loaves of bread, grocers ' advertising meats, such as 
hams and bacon, butter on dishes, and sugar in bowls to make the 
situation vitally interesting and concrete. One committee pre- 
pared the slogans, diagrams, graphs, and maps of famine areas. 
The entire class eagerly searched newspapers and magazines for 
reports regarding the famine stricken countries and provided some 
valuable information for the occasion. One of the articles of great 
interest was on the potato crop of 1918-19. The presentation met 
with marked success and true class satisfaction. 

231. "How to Help Starving Children in Poland and Armenia" 

(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

Much interest was aroused by hearing a lecture by Jane Addams 
on the suffering of the children in the war-stricken countries of 
Europe. The pupils decided something must be done by them to 
alleviate this suffering, and a committee was appointed to interview 
Miss Addams and ask advice. Her suggestion led to the pupils 9 
writing to their congressmen at Washington requesting that they 
do what they could to get our government to provide relief for the 
suffering and starving people in Europe and contiguous countries. 
The class decided to raise money to send to Mr. Hoover, who was 
in charge of the distributing of the funds raised for the starving 
children. In the course of the next six weeks many letters were 
written to Mr. Hoover, Miss Addams, and others. The pupils 
raised the question : "To what countries shall we send our funds?" 
Poland and Armenia were chosen. The decision was based upon 
knowledge gained in classes in current events and geography and 
upon the feeling that the Poles and Armenians were friends of the 
United States. Several lessons in geography resulted from a desire 
to know more about the countries to which the money was to be 
sent. This knowledge was afterwards used to good advantage in a 
stereopticon lecture given to earn money. The interest in current 
events was materially stimulated. Practical work in mathematics 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL \4Q 

resulted from their efforts to raise money. Graphs were kept to 
show the progress of the three teams which had been organized to 
increase interest. Lessons on thrift resulted from a desire to see 
how much could be saved from allowances. The children studied 
methods of keeping accounts of money received and spent. Methods 
of sending money were discussed. Business experience was gained 
from buying and selling pencils and post cards designed by the 
teacher of art. They learned how to finance a play and a stereopti- 
con lecture. 

One of the means of earning money to send to the starving 
children in Poland and Armenia was the giving of a play. Choos- 
ing a play stimulated the work in reading. Many stories were read 
in the effort to find one that could be dramatized successfully. 
The class finally chose "The Courtship of Miles Standish." The 
poem was studied, dramatized, and produced. The pupils assumed 
practically all of the responsibility. The art periods were used in 
making posters to advertise this play and also to advertise the candy 
sales and the stereopticon pictures. The scenery was also made in 
the drawing classes. A knowledge gained in classes in cookery was 
applied in making candy for the candy sale. The printing group 
made tickets. The typewriting class wrote some of the letters and 
notices. Many lessons in ethics resulted leading to discussions in 
the following questions: (1) "Is it right to help your enemies ?" 
(2) "Should children be allowed to suffer for the wrong doing of 
others ?" (3) "Is getting money from people who can afford to 
give and don't as worthy as getting it from one's own manual 
labor?" (4) "Is it honest to sell something for more than its real 
value, if you are giving the profits to a worthy cause?" (5) "Is it 
fair to use social disapproval to make a slacker in your group do 
his share?" (6) "Is it necessary to be able to tell just how much 
you received from people solicited?" 

232. "Civil Service vs. the Spoils System" 

(Reported by Clella Stufft, State Normal College, 

Dillon, Montana) 

Pupils suggested the kinds of positions locally which are a part 
of this department, civil service. The pupils wrote these on the 



160 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

board as suggested, and volunteer groups, or sometimes pupils in 
rows, acted as committees to investigate personally the postoffice 
department, mail carrier's department, mail clerk's work on pas- 
senger trains, and forest service office. Some worked in groups to 
secure material on the Indian reservation work in the state, while 
others worked to show how the government work was handled under 
the old system and to show why the new method was an improve- 
ment over the old. The group chose members to give one report, 
and after all the reports were given, several pupils summarized the 
points necessary for the conclusion of the project. The materials 
were organized and put in good English. Friendly and helpful 
criticisms and group responsibility developed. 

233. "A Pageant Representing the Pioneer Period in Wisconsin' ' 

(Reported by Louise W. Mears, Normal School, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin) 

The entire work was performed and planned by the pupils. The 
materials for the pageant were furnished by the members of the 
class and discussed daily by them for several weeks. 

The work was motivated by a contest in pageant-writing, con- 
ducted by the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association. The best 
Wisconsin pageants were to be presented at the meeting of the 
State Teachers' Association. 

234. "A Pageant of Old St. Louis" 

(Reported by Cornelia A. Forbes, Ben Blewett Junior High School, 

St. Louis, Missouri) 

This pageant grew out of interest aroused by reports given on 
"What my grandparents remember about St. Louis," gathered 
from personal interviews made by members of the civics classes. 
They then went to work to give these pioneers a glimpse of St. 
Louis before their time. This led to the pageant.* 



"Details of procedure were similar to those described for other pageants 
reported in this volume. — Editor. 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 151 



>! 



235. "The Making of Americans 

(Reported by Mrs. John A. Baird, Eastern Departmental School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

Each child in the class related all information available as to 
when, whence, where, why, and how the ancestors of both parents 
came to America. Pictures of different races of Europe were 
exhibited ; nativities of ancestors were located on maps of Europe ; 
manners and customs of foreign nations and their effect upon 
American life were considered. Graphs showing how their class, 
composed of one hundred percent Americans, derived from many 
different races, were prepared by the children. Under the topic of 
"Americans by Choice," the lives of the following naturalized citi- 
zens were reviewed : Alexander Hamilton, Albert Gallatin, Stephen 
Girard, Edmund Genet, Carl Schurz, John Ericcson, Louis Agassiz, 
Andrew Carnegie, James Hill, Jacob Riis, S. S. McClure, Edward 
Bok, Mary Antin, Theodore Thomas, Mme. Schumann-Heink, 
Nazimova, and Anna Howard Shaw. Copies of first naturalization 
papers were obtained from the Customs House and were made out 
by the children. Some of the children displayed the second papers 
of their forebears. Pictures, newspaper clippings, and magazine 
articles dealing with immigration and Americanization were put 
in note-books and discussed by the class. Maps showing propor- 
tion of foreign elements in the United States, and diagrams indi- 
cating the line of increase or decline of immigration since 1820 
were prepared and explained. After study of the immigration 
problem, themes were written on the following topics: "How I 
Came to be an American," "The United States, the Melting Pot of 
the World," "The Old and New Immigration," "Desirable and 
Undesirable Immigrants," "The Soviet Ark," "Our Immigration 
Laws," "How to Become a Naturalized Citizen," "Ellis Island, the 
Front Door of America," "The Immigrant at Ellis Island," "Pres- 
ent Congestion at Ellis Island," "Where the Immigrant Goes and 
Why," "The Yellow Peril," "Why so Pew Post-War Immigrants 
Come to Louisville," "Our Interest in the Immigration Problem," 
"The Promised Land," "Immigration and Labor," "Americans by 
Choice," "America, the Land of Opportunity." 



152 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

236. "Our American League" 

(Reported by Ida M. Bennett, State Normal School, 

Trenton, New Jersey) 

The idea of what constituted a real American arose in a class 
discussion one day. The class then decided to form an American 
League. This league project required the use of several subjects. 
The following points indicate only a few of the many ways by which 
the idea was carried out. 

1. Opening Exercises. Bules for self government worked out, 
American ideals discussed, independence in managing of program. 

2. History. Study of real Americans both past and present. 
What made them real Americans. 

3. Art. Working out of American posters and slogans, choosing 
of class colors, block printing for materials for room, designing of 
programs for American festivals, costumes for a play, "America 
First. ' ' 

4. Industrial Arts. Making of booklets to be sent to soldiers, 
making of articles needed in room, garden work. 

5. Nature study. A good American must be strong: How can 
we become strong. Good health posters. 

6. English. American League Pledge, writing of play of 
"America First," planning of programs for American Holidays, 
planning to entertain our friends (other grades) and our parents. 

7. Music. American songs, National and Folk songs. The class 
learned some of the Negro Christmas melodies as well as some of the 
folk songs of the foreign born. 

8. Beading and Literature. Beading of classics for grade, indi- 
vidual books read and reports made by class. Headings from current 
magazines. For the literature we not only had many of the early 
American folk stories, but also stories about the making of the foreign- 
born into real Americans. Of course, the children were much interested 
in talking over the Promised Land and many other stories by Ameri- 
cans by adoption. 

237. "Dramatization of the Constitutional Convention" 

(Reported by Cornelia A. Forbes, Ben Blewett Junior High School, 

St. Louis, Missouri) 

Each member of the class impersonated a prominent member 
of the convention. Groups representing each state made badges, 
banners, etc., to designate their respective states. Each representa- 
tive formulated his opinions on each point discussed in the con- 
vention from his reading "Madison's Journals of the Constitutional 
Convention." Individual references to Journals, committee plan- 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 153 

ning, etc, were accomplished during two recitation periods of the 
week; the last was taken up with the dramatization of the con- 
vention. The three features stressed by dramatization were the 
Compromises on Representation (which took two dramatization 
periods), the Presidential discussion and Compromises, and the 
Report of the Committee on the writing of the Constitution, to- 
gether with the Signing. The teacher was consulted only on the 
most difficult problems of selection from the Journals and in giving 
the previous drill for parliamentary procedure. The class after- 
wards engineered the working out of a school self-governing code 
of laws. 

238. "History Booklets on Kansas" 

(Reported by Zoe A. Thralls, State Normal School, 

Pittsburg, Kansas) 

"Why is Kansas an attractive state for home-seekers t" With 
no textbook and only a few reference books, the class decided to 
make a book of Kansas and work out the material as they went 
along. Each pupil got two note-books, one for rapid notes in class 
and the other for permanent record, and a map of Kansas. 

The first project which the class worked out was: "Why is 
Kansas an attractive state for home-seekers V 9 In working this 
out the class covered the geography of Kansas through climate, soil, 
water, surface advantage of location, etc. Then the class turned to 
the history, tracing out the early Spanish and French explorations 
and their influence in making Kansas known to the world. They 
also compared their accounts of Kansas with conditions as we know 
them to-day. The old trails were of special interest. The Santa 
Pe and the Oregon were traced, and reasons were given for their 
location and stories of the trail told. Important incidents of the 
state as a territory and its struggle to become a state, and inci- 
dents in it» statehood were collected. Usually the class selected 
incidents that marked Kansas as a leader, as, for example, the pro- 
hibition movement, women's suffrage, and the industrial court 
law. 

After completing the historical side, the class returned to the 
geographical. The pupils wanted to know Kansas' rank among 
other states among agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. So the 



154 THB TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

different products were studied, and product maps were made. The 
final work was on the cities of Kansas. Each member of the class 
selected one of the larger cities and was responsible for an adver- 
tising booklet on his chosen town, which he made and presented to 
the class. Some of the booklets would have given excellent sug- 
gestions to a Chamber of Commerce. 

239. "A Pageant of the States" 

(Reported by Margaret J. Long, Rockford, Illinois) 

An original pageant entitled "Our Union of Forty-eight 
States," was worked out and staged by the pupils. Banners, posters, 
and sashes lettered with the names of the states were designed and 
made by the pupils under the supervision of the art teacher. Appro- 
priate costumes were designed and made, or secured by the pupils 
assisted by the teachers. The special stair platform was made in 
the manual training department by the boys, and the tickets were 
printed by the boys in the print shop. The pageant was a blending 
of story, song and poetry in such a way as to make a pleasing and 
lasting impression of the history, growth and development of our 
country into forty-eight states, with a brief tribute paid to Wash- 
ington, Lincoln, and Our Flag. More than one hundred dollars 
were raised for school purposes. 

240. "The Sailing of the Mayflower" 

(Reported by S. E. Lovell, Lowell, Massachusetts) 

A play was written and staged by the class entitled * ' The Sail- 
ing of the Mayflower, ' ' from ' ' The Courtship of Miles Standish. ' ' 
The object was to celebrate the Pilgrims ' Tercentenary. (Details 
omitted as similar in spirit to other projects here described.) 

D. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH A VOCATIONAL AND 

CULTURAL INTERESTS 

241. "The Arithmetic of the Sport Page" 

(Reported by Mary A. Ruth, Horton, Kansas) 

The keen interest felt by the boys concerning the outcome of 
the world series was turned into mathematical channels by using 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH 8CH00L 155 

the various figures given as the basis for much interesting work in 
beginning the study of literal equation. We figured the standing 
of the teams in the various leagues, the batting average and the 
fielding percentage of the various players, first working out the 
formula and then using the figures obtained from the newspapers. 



242. "A Pantomime Written and Staged by the Class 



»» 



(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

The class was unexpectedly requested to participate in the cele- 
bration of Shakespeare's birthday. The class contribution was to 
be a unit in itself and was to consume not over twenty minutes. 
The acoustic properties of the hall were bad. The audience was to 
be large, and the pupils had only four days in which to prepare a 
program. After discussing all of these phases of the problem, the 
class divided itself into groups of six each and planned a line of 
action. Reports were then given and the best plan was chosen and 
carried out. The pupils decided to give a pantomime because it 
would be impossible for most of them to make themselves heard, 
and they would not have time to learn speaking parts. They chose 
the Fairy Scene from "Midsummer Night's Dream' ' which had 
been read in Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare a few weeks before. 
They adapted this part to meet the needs of the occasion, then 
selected the actors and actresses, and chose the best reader in the 
class to read the story. The costumes in the school property room 
were supplemented by the children and their older friends. The 
physical training teacher taught the fairies a very simple dance. 
The latter part of the program was a musical selection, Mendel- 
sohn's Overture to Midsummer Night's Dream. After the reader 
had given a few words of explanation about this selection, he played 
it on the Victrola. This composition had already been studied by 
the class in connection with the reading of the play and the short 
talk about it was a result of this work. 



156 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

243. "Organizing a Beading Table" 

(Reported by Jane Holm, Atchison, Kansas) 

Most of the pupils in these classes knew very little about any 
kinds of magazines except the Farm and Fireside and McCaJl's 
Weekly. The teacher presented some attractive copies of new maga- 
zines to them and immediately their curiosity was aroused about 
the contents. Just before this, the classes had organized by elect- 
ing a president, secretary, and treasurer, and they had learned the 
order of business. Accordingly, the pupils decided to use this 
organization in carrying out the reading table project. They voted 
to pay dues every two weeks, each one paying ten cents the first 
time and any convenient amount later. They further voted to use 
this money to purchase magazines. In order to have this reading 
matter where it could be used, one boy brought a good-sized reading 
tabic, which was placed in the front of the room with two chairs 
near. The first lot of magazines included: Geographic Magazine, 
The Outlook, Popular Mechanics, Asia, Travel, Review of Reviews, 
Baseball, Current Opinion, American Boy, World's Work, Kansas 
City Star, etc. Following this, almost everyone purchased a new 
magazine or reported that they were going to subscribe for some 
magazine of their choice. We use this reading material every day 
in our class work. At the passing periods the reading corner is 
crowded and quiet. On Friday afternoons the Social Science Club 
uses some of this material for current events. Some pupils have 
asked the teacher to nominate them as members in the National 
Geographic Society. Others have mentioned other magazines in 
which their parents were becoming interested. Most of the homes 
from which these pupils come had very little if any reading matter 
in them before this project was undertaken. 

244. "Illustrating Life in Egypt by the Use of the Sand Tray" 

(Reported by Alice Corwin, Monsarrat School, 

Louisville, Kentucky) 

Egypt was studied intensely. Much outside reading was done. 
Numbers of pictures were collected and studied very carefully. The 
class was then divided into groups. For several days at recesses 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HlGB SCHOOL 157 

these groups met for work. Each group was responsible for all 
necessary material. Pyramids, obelisks, and a sphinx were made 
out of plaster of Paris. Plasticine was molded into caravans, 
natives, wells near the oases, etc. A complete irrigation system 
was shown. The whole was assembled upon the sand tray as 
artistically as possible. The finished product was displayed in a 
class period when each pupil told the history or use of his contribu- 
tion and its bearing upon Egyptian life. This was voluntary out- 
side work in which the teacher played no part at all, except to sug- 
gest reference books or to decide a question of perspective or some- 
thing similar. 

245. "A Reading Club"' 

(Reported from the State Normal Training School, 

Westfield, Massachusetts) 

In order to promote an interest in outside reading that shall 
continue beyond grammar-school life, especially in the case of those 
whose course ends with the grades, the pupils of the eighth grade 
are formed into a club (with a name of their own choosing) for 
reading ten of thirty books in a list selected and published by the 
principal. The course is to be finished in one year, and its com- 
pletion brings the reward of a certificate signed by the principal and 
the room teacher and presented with the graduation diploma — u 
certificate by no means lightly earned, since it stands for some sort 
of written commentary on each book read, and a more formal and 
comprehensive examination when the course is finished. 

The club meetings are held monthly and their conduct is modeled 
on accepted forms. The pupils learn parliamentary procedure, 
and! under the teacher's careful supervision, they make and carry 
out their own programs. One book makes the subject for each 
meeting. A roll call, briefly responded to by each member, gives 
information as the program demands, of the author's life or some 
other pertinent topic. The one or two chief speakers are, of course, 
those who have chosen to read the book assigned for the day. Their 



'One of the projects omitted from this section describes plans for stimu- 
lating the use of good books for borne reading. It was submitted by Louise 
Steinway, Kalamazoo, Michigan. — Editor. 



158 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

talks are often supplemented by readings and dramatizations based 
on the text. Occasionally, two pupils prepare a conversation upon 
the book with the object of thus acquainting the others with its 
contents. 

The project is still young, but it is confidently believed that it 
will be most effective in developing a lasting love for good reading. 

246. " A Kaffir Village in Miniature" 

(Reported by Bertha King Mason, David Prince Junior High 

School, Jacksonville, Illinois) 

The class was studying Africa and I wanted them to get a clear 
idea of the life of the people in a primitive village. The pupils 
secured pictures of the people and homes of the natives of Central 
Africa, and I procured a book at the Public Library giving a 
description and pictures of a Kaffir village. Interest in this work 
led the pupils to ask to be allowed to make the Kaffir village in 
miniature on the sand table. All of the members of the class con- 
tributed material and a group of pupils carried on the work. They 
made circular huts of cardboard covered with clay, and roofs were 
covered with corn husks for thatch. Kettle-shaped containers were 
made of cardboard covered with bark. These held the grain for 
the tribe. The entire village was arranged in the form of a circle, 
with a circular enclosure in the middle for the live stock of the 
tribe. One palisade inclosed the live stock, and another inclosed the 
village. The water supply for the tribe was a spring at a little 
distance from the village. It was made on higher ground, and a 
lake made with a small mirror was just below the spring. A forest 
made of twigs of trees surrounded the village outside the palisade. 
I assisted by giving suggestions as to the proportions and materials 
used and by blackboard drawings. I also helped the class make 
the proper arrangement of their village. 

247. "The Tales of the Wayside Inn" 

(Reported by A. L. McGregor, Washington Junior High School, 

Rochester, New York) 

The pupils were seated in seven rows. Each row read one of 
the following poems from Longfellow: Paul Revere' $ Ride, The 



MATEB1AL8 FOB TEE JUNIOB HIGH 8CH00L 159 

Fdcon of Sir Federigo, The Vision Beautiful, Robert of Sicily, The 
Birds of KiUingworth, The Bell of Atri, The Monks of CasaL 
Maggiors. 

The meeting at the Inn was then dramatized. One pupil repre- 
sented the landlord, and seven represented the guests who tell the 
stories. Each row was allowed to choose its own representative to 
tell the story read by that row. When all stories had been told the 
pupils voted upon the most interesting story and this story was read 
to the pupils. 

248. "A Robert Louis Stevenson Program* ' 

(Reported by A. L. McGregor, Washington Junior High School, 

Rochester, New York) 

Interest was created in this project by showing a copy of the 
St. Gaudens bas-relief of Stevenson writing while propped up in 
bed. The class read "Treasure Island." Individual pupils read 
the "Master of Ballantrae," " Kidnaped' ' and "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. 
Hyde," reporting upon them to the class. A committee of three 
pupils searched Stevenson's essays for quotations giving evidence 
of the optimistic spirit. Another committee selected and read let- 
ters from the "Vailima Letters." One pupil prepared and pre- 
sented an account of Stevenson's life, bringing out its heroic quali- 
ties. A committee of ten read selections from the "Child's Garden 
of Verses." The class memorized the "Prayer at Morning" and 
the "Requiem." A Stevenson program was given before another 
class as a culmination of the study. 

249. "Enlarging Vocabularies" 

(Reported by Louise S. Steinway, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan) 

As a result of reading some excellent descriptions and of trying 
to entertain the class by giving one, a group of pupils suggested 
that one spelling period in every two or three weeks be given to the 
study of new words, that their vocabularies might be made adequate 
to their need. The pupils suggested that the words be taken from 
daily reading or from words heard in conversation. When a pupil 



160 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

saw or heard a desirable word lie wrote it in a note book. The day 
before the lesson, about eight words were written on the board by 
the pupils, the teacher having previously decided what words should 
be chosen from the many submitted. Each pupil was responsible 
for teaching the class the word he wished added to their vocabu- 
laries. He gave the word in a sentence, its meaning and derivation 
when it could be linked with something already understood, the part 
of speech and an explanation of any difficulties in pronunciation or 
spelling. Other pupils were then asked to give sentences using the 
word. At the close of this lesson or at the next one each pupil was 
asked to put all the words in sentences. Dictionaries were fre- 
quently used to settle discussions and doubts. 

250. "A Lesson at the Zoo" 

(Reported by P. Crecelius, St. Louis, Missouri) 

The class made a trip to the "Zoo," which is located in a park 
near the school. This was in the nature of a general observation 
lesson ; the pupils were permitted to wander about at will, stopping 
to observe anything that interested them. The following day the 
class was divided into four groups, each group to study one animal 
that had seemed particularly attractive. The animals finally de- 
cided upon by the children were the lion, the Polar-bear, the Vir- 
ginia deer, and the elephant. Each group chose one of its members 
to act as leader. The following outline was planned in class with 
the aid of the teacher, and each pupil carried a copy to refer to 
when the class returned to the Zoo the next day. 

1. Form. 

a. What is his general shape f 

b. What is the shape of his beadf 
c Describe his footprints. 

d. Describe his eyes (size, color, expression) 

e. Can you see his teeth f What use does he make of themf 

2. Color. 

a. What is his chief color f 

b. Has he any special markings f Can you describe or draw themf 

8. Movements. 

a. Describe his walkf 

b. Can he run fastf What makes you think sot 

c. Can he jumpf 

d. How does he move when he eatsf 

e. How does he move when he is frightened f 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB EWE 8CE00L 161 

4. Odor. 

a. Has he any distinguishing odorf 

b. Does this help or hinder him in any wayf 

5. Food. 

a. What does his keeper feed himf 

b. What does he eat in his native haunts f 

6. Care of Young. 

a. How does he care for his young t 

b. How does he protect them from enemies f 

e. Does he provide a homef Can you find out what it is liket 

7. His Value. 

a. Is he worth anything to manf 

(1) Good to eatf 

(2) Furnish fur or leather? 

(3) Can he do workf 

(4) Does be protect man in any wayf 

(5) Should man protect himf 

b. Is he harmful to manf 

(1) Is he dangerous f 

(2) Does he destroy plants or animals that are necessary to manf 

After the second trip to the Zoo, the pupils were encouraged to 
resort to books for information which they could not get by observa- 
tion. Each group then organized the information for the final 
report which was made to the class by the leader. 



251. "A Winter Bird Study" 

(Reported by P. Crecelius) 

The pupils were asked to observe the birds for a week and keep 
a list of the birds they saw in the vicinity of their homes. In case 
they were unable to recognize the bird, they were told to look for 
some distinguishing feature such as the color, unusual size or shape, 
topknot, etc. They were able in most cases to establish its identity 
with the aid of a bird-guide. From the number reported in this 
way, the four which were named oftenest were selected for study. 
They were the English sparrow, crow, jay, and junco. Each pupil 
in the class chose the one he wished to learn about, and in this way 
the class was arranged in four groups, each of which chose its 
leader who would act as spokesman for the group when the pupils 
were ready to make their final report. The following outline was 
planned by the pupils under the teacher's guidance to help them 



152 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

in their study. For a week the subject was laid aside in the class- 
room while the pupils were making their observations. 

1. Form. 

a. What shape is hef Make sketches. 

b. Is he large or small f 

e. What kind of bill has hef (Long, short, slender, strong, etc.) 
d. Describe his feet. 

2. Color. 

a. Does he seem to be all one color f 

b. Has he special markings? 

c What color can jou see when he flies f 

3. Food. 

a. What did he eatf 

b. What else can he eatf 

4. Where found. 

a. Keep a record of all the places where yon have seen him, such as 
in tree, shrub, on a fence, in street, etc. 

b. Does he usually spend the winter in St. Louis f 
c Can you find his nestf 

5. Flight. 

a. Does he fly highf 

b. Does he fly in a straight linef 
c Does he fly in a zigzag linef 

d. Does he fly in short jerky flights f 

e. Does he fly slowly and gracefully f 

6. Song. 

a. Did you hear him singf 

b. Did you bear him calif 

c Did you hear him make any other sound f 
d. Can you imitate himf 

7. Habits. 

a. Is he quarrelsome f 

b. Is he noisy f 

c. Is he vicious toward other birds f 

d. Has he any peculiar habits f 

8. Value. 

a. Does he do any goodf 

b. Does he do any harmf 

c Should one protect himf Howf 
d. What can we do for him in winter f 

When the pupils were ready to make their reports, stuffed 
specimens from the Educational Museum were at hand to give 
every pupil an opportunity to observe the bird at close range. For 
additional information the pupils used the Bird-Ouide, Jackman's 
Bird Life, Mrs. Comstock's Handbook of Nature Study, Burroughs 
Winter Sunshine. 



MATBBIAL8 FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 163 

This study proved so interesting that the pupils frequently asked 
to have the work in bird study continued. 

252. "Repairing the Electric Bell" 1 

(Reported by P. Crecelius) 

The class studied the problem of the door-bell in order to learn 
how to repair one. The pupils were led to see that they would need 
to understand the construction and installation of an electric bell 
before they could attempt any repair work. They examined the 
bell system in their homes and read what they could find in the 
books available. When they got this far they had a number of 
questions which puzzled them. These questions were put on the 
board and left to be answered by the teacher if the combined efforts 
of the pupils failed to bring out the facts. A few of them are given 
to show what puzzled the boys : 

1. ' ' When the bell fails to ring, where should one begin to look for the 

trouble I" 

2. "When the bell fails at intervals and works at other times, what is 

wrong! ' ' 

3. "What makes a bell keep on ringing when the finger has been removed 

from the push-button f " 

4. "Is it better to use wet or dry cells! " 

Three of the boys volunteered to act as a committee to demon- 
strate the working of an electric bell by setting one up in the school- 
room where the others could trace the circuit and see every part 
clearly. They put diagrams of the various parts upon the board, 
which they used in explaining to those boys who were not able to 
understand as readily. A fourth boy made an electro-magnet with 
a couple of iron nails and some copper wire and with this succeeded 
in demonstrating the principle of the electric bell very well. When 
they had completed their study, they put in their note-books, under 
the supervision of the teacher, a drawing of a bell circuit, a list of 
the important features, a list of possible causes for trouble, and a 
set of suggestions for the best way to remedy each. This project 
was tried in the same way with a class of girls and proved to be 



• Cf. Project 195. 



164 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

just as interesting to them as it had been to the boys. The books 
used were: 

Fall — Science for Beginners, 

Elhuff — General Science. 

Clark — An Introduction to Sciences, 

Millikan and Gail— A First Course in Physics. (Eevised Edition) 

253. "Making a Fire-Extinguisher" 

(Reported by P. Crecelius) 

During a study of the subject of fire prevention a group of boys 
undertook to find out how a modern fire-extinguisher worked and to 
explain it to the class. They decided to make and demonstrate one. 
With the aid of an old tin can, a small bottle, a piece of rubber 
tubing, and some sealing-wax they made a fire-extinguisher which 
worked well enough to put out a small fire which had been built 
on the demonstration table. Before the lesson they put on the board 
these questions which they undertook to answer: 

1. What does a fire-extinguisher contain f 

2. Why most it be turned upside downf 

3. What is it that puts out the fire and how can it do this! 

4. Can a fire-extinguisher be used more than once without refilling f 

Their information was gathered from the following general 
science texts: Van Buskirk and Smith, Science of Everyday Life 
(pp. 25-27) ; Elhuff, General Science (pp. 57-58). 

254. "Dissections and Demonstrations by Seventh-Grade Pupils" 

(Reported by Jennie Hall, Francis Parker School, 

Chicago, Illinois) 

The following account is transmitted as it was prepared and 
written by two seventh-grade boys : 

"Yesterday James gave a report on the body. He has been 
dissecting for a while and has found out many things. About a week 
ago he dissected a sheep 's head in front of us and showed us where the 
brain and a lot of other things were. Then he showed bow the eye 
worked by the light coming in from the front and through the lens, 
which is a little oblong mass. This takes a picture of an object upside 
down on the retina; thus we see. 

' ' On every tongue in the world there are little knobs which are 
called taste buds: some taste salted food, others sweets, and every kind 
of a taste is tasted there. James showed us taste buds. 



MATEBIALS FOB TEE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL HJ5 

"You hear by the sound coming through the hole in your ear 
which makes the ear drum vibrate, causing us to hear. We saw the 
parts of the sheep's ear. 

4 ( James also dissected a frog and a rabbit. When the heart was 
out of the frog it still kept beating, like a chicken moving with its 
head off. When he dissected the rabbit he showed me where the heart, 
the liver, and the lungs are placed. Then he carefully took apart the 
rabbit's joints in his front legs and found them to be like ours. But 
the rabbit's front leg is not attached to the skeleton at all. Only 
muscles hold it to the body. 

* ' Muscles are the tools that make you move. They seem to be like 
cords that are fastened to the bone. When these are pulled you move. 
We saw fine working muscles on the rabbit's foot. Leif and James 
found two pairs. By pulling one they opened and spread the toes. By 
pulling its mate they closed and bent the toes into a sort of fist. The 
other pair threw the whole foot forward and backward. It was very 
strange to see a dead foot move as a boy pulled the strings. Leif was 
playing the part of the rabbit's brain. 

"Your finger nails and hair are made up of the same substance, 
which is hardened skin which is very queer, I think. And did you ever 
know that a man has ten ribs and a woman eleven f All this is most 
miraculous and inconceivably wonderful." 

255. "A Music Contest' ' 

(Beported by Edward B. Birge, Director of Music, Public Schools, 

Indianapolis, Indiana) 

A list of fifty representative musical compositions was approved 
by a citizens' committee. The list was printed and distributed to 
the pupils of the high schools. Every opportunity was utilized 
to have the pupils hear these selections in school, at home, at con- 
certs, and at the movies. After several months of this preparatory 
effort, preliminary contests were held in each school, and a team 
of ten students was chosen to represent the school at the final con- 
test. The Rotary Club offered a banner to be contested for annually 
and held for one year by the winning team. Individual cash prizes 
were offered by various musical organizations. At the contest, the 
principal chamber music organization of the city played parts of 
twenty selections, chosen from the list. The Contestants wrote the 
title and name of the composer. While the judges were conferring, 
the audience sang. The superintendent of schools awarded the 
prizes. 

The project was successful in arousing interest in music study 
and we shall repeat the contest this year. 



166 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

E. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH VOCATIONAL INTERESTS 

256. "Vocational Questionnaire" 

(Reported by Cornelia A. Forbes, Ben Blewett Junior High School, 

St. Louis, Missouri) 

The inability to secure up-to-date material for study in voca- 
tion classes led to the pupils' taking the initiative in collecting this 
much needed material for the school library. Each pupil volun- 
teered to obtain personal interviews from at least five prominent 
persons in the professions, trades, commercial lines, management, 
manufacturing, or farming, and to report these to class for discus- 
sion. A series of questions was agreed upon by the class. Com- 
mittees were formed to take charge of each type of interview, as 
lawyers, physicians, etc., and to work over material collected and 
formulate one comprehensive report on its vocation. Each one be- 
came a member of the committee representing work he or she was 
most interested in. One member of each committee received con- 
tributions of pictures, magazine clippings, and references con- 
tributed by the class and arranged these in folders. The spirit of 
active cooperation was here very marked. Contributions were ex- 
changed daily. At this point several classes doing the same work 
agreed to combine their respective reports for the final report for 
file and arranged for general "show day" for all . The chairmen of 
each class met weekly for this summary. 

The result was a folder filled with pictures, clippings of success- 
ful careers, references, and a well-rounded tabulation of a ques- 
tionnaire on fifty different live lines of work that a girl or a boy 
might choose from, all properly labeled to be turned over to the 
school library. The prime value lay in the doing, and in the fact 
that it brought out local conditions, that the information was up- 
to-date and not an average struck from conditions all over the 
country. 

257. "The Bulletin Board" 
(Reported by J. L. Burns, Boston, Massachusetts) 

One noon a boy came to me early and said: "Eight of us boys 
from the class belong to a club at the church and we want a bulletin 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 167 

board. Could we make one! Of course we want to pay for the 
lumber. M I said, "Yes, if you will do it all." And before they 
were through, they discovered that doing it all meant more than 
paying for the value of the lumber and the actual work of making 
the board. 

The first question that came up was : what kind of lumber should 
they use! This meant a study of the different kinds and the kinds 
best suited for individual things. Then they became curious about 
where these trees grew, and their geographies were consulted. Some 
wondered what the "sweet gum" and the "tulip" trees were like, 
and these went to the nature books. 

One boy found it convenient to go to the lumber yard to inquire 
the price of two or three kinds of lumber and he returned with his 
mind full of things he had seen and of expressions he had heard 
with which he was unfamiliar. After his report, the boys began 
reading up about the process of logging and milling and inquiring 
the meaning of "board feet," "dressed" and "rough" lumber 
and other expressions he had brought back with him. 

There was a real live lesson in arithmetic when they determined 
how many board feet they needed, and another in composition 
when they wrote out their order to the dealer, in a business-like 
letter. 

Then the problems in proportion, contour, printing and spacing 
were solved by the aid of their instruction in drawing and manual 
training. 

They wanted each boy to do the part on the board that he could 
do better than anyone else, so that they might have a fine board and 
the zeal exhibited every day in thoughtful, careful work was very 
great, for each wanted to show what a good workman he was. 

The result of their labors was finally borne away in triumphal 
procession, not to be the possession of any one boy, but a prized 
possession of the whole club — a thought which in itself made its 
slight contribution to good citizenship. 



168 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

258. "Study of the Spring Canker Worm" 

(Reported by Florence G. Billig, Kansas State Normal School, 

Emporia, Kansas) 

The spring canker worm was destroying many beautiful trees 
of the town. During a general discussion of the situation by the 
class, many questions were asked. After various suggestions had 
been made by the members of the class, one pupil stated the gen- 
eral question as follows: "Why are. people banding and spraying 
the shade trees t" After further discussion by the class, the follow- 
ing attack was made and carried out by the pupils. An excursion 
was made to examine trees which had been banded and sprayed. 
Many egg colonies, larvae, and adults which had wings and some 
which did not have wings were found. While none of the pupils 
had seen the adults emerge from the ground, one pupil reported 
the fact that the adults do come from the ground. After a studj 
of a circular from the State Department of Agriculture giving 
information regarding the spring canker worm, a careful study was 
made of the insect in its various stages of development. Specimens 
of the different stages in the life history of the insect were collected, 
preserved, and added to the school museum. All available informa- 
tion in the library and in the community was obtained. Other ex- 
cursions were made to study the banding of trees. The class visited 
one m&n who was engaged in banding his trees and another who 
was spraying his trees. Some of the pupils assisted the man in 
banding his trees. Many of the pupils helped their fathers band 
trees. The advantages and disadvantages of both banding and 
spraying trees as methods of control of the spring canker worm 
were discussed. Reports of the study were made in the school 
assembly in order that everyone in school might be informed re- 
garding this pest of the shade trees. 

259. "Cleaning a Vineyard and Planting Trees' ' 

(Reported by Maude M. Myers, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The School Board of Kansas City, in buying ground adjoining 
a school building, acquired a piece of land containing an abandoned 
vineyard. The boys of the sixth and seventh grades were allowed 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 169 

the grapes if they would clear the ground of the undergrowth and 
small trees, mostly elms. They dug a line of holes on two sides of 
the school yard where there were no trees and planted the trees 
which they dug up in the vineyard. As yet they have had no 
grapes to market, since this year's crop was damaged by frost. 
Under the direction of the school gardener they were shown how 
to take out the trees without injury, how to trim, how to sight and 
plant in straight rows, how to determine the best trees for trans- 
planting. A study of the different kinds of shade trees and their 
use was afforded at this time as well as the study of the grape and 
wine industry of California and southern Europe. 

260. "Railroad Salary Increases" 

(Reported by Mary A. Ruth, Horton, Kansas) 

Since ours is a shop town, the question of railroad increases in 
salary is rather vital. We first discussed the increases in the differ- 
ent departments represented by the fathers of pupils in the class, 
figuring rate of increase by the hour and by the day. As interest 
developed, we were able to secure a list of comparative figures from 
the C. R. I. & P. store house. This list gave us the number of men 
employed in the various shop projects, their hours of labor, and 
the rate of payment per hour at different periods during the last 
few years. This gave us a fund of material for work in the funda- 
mental operations, and the various phases of percentage. 

261. " Raising Potatoes' ' 

(Reported by W. G. Cisne, State Normal University, 

Carbondale, Illinois) 

The boys of the Junior High School decided to try raising 
potatoes. They secured a plot of about an acre from a farm near 
the school. A contract was made with the farmer to the effect that 
he would plow the ground, work it down in good condition, and 
furnish the seed. The boys were to do the planting, tending, and 
harvesting and were to get half the crop. This contract was made 
under the usual conditions. Many of the boys knew nothing what- 
ever about growing potatoes. The field was measured accurately 



170 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

and was found to contain .92 of an acre. A surveyor's chain was 
used in the regular way in this measurement. There were 42 rows 
of potatoes and 28 boys. Two boys were assigned to a certain three 
rows and were made responsible for the condition of these rows 
during the entire season. In order to make the work interesting, 
contests of various sorts were organized and small prizes given. 
Certain points were given for absence of weeds in the entire three 
rows, for loose dirt between the hills, for absence of bugs, etc. The 
time spent in labor was carefully tabulated. Extra cost, such as 
spraying material and the expense of a team for plowing when the 
ground became hard, was noted. At the opening of the fall term 
the crop was harvested, divided according to contract and the boys' 
part sold in huckster style. They then computed the amount per 
hour each received for his season's work. The money was turned 
over to the Junior Red Cross. 

The whole experience was of much value to the boys, both from 
a social and business standpoint. They will not forget how to 
measure land nor the approximate size of an acre. They now 
realize more fully the items that go to make up the total cost of 
production and the vital influence of climatic conditions. They 
came in contact with this experience in such a way that the im- 
pression will be lasting. 

262. " The Care of Gardens During the Summer" 

(Reported by Florence G. Billig, Emporia, Kansas) 

Near the close of the school year the question arose: "How can 
we care for our gardens during the summer?" Since the products 
were not all mature, and since several members of the class expected 
to be out of town during the vacation period, various plans for the 
care of the ^chool gardens were discussed. The other gardening 
classes of the school were invited to cooperate in the undertaking. 
A member of each class, together with four members of the seventh 
grade, composed the general committee of the school which adopted 
the following plan. A sale day was planned on which each person 
unable or not desiring to care for his garden plot might sell it. 
General posters announcing the sale were made by the art classes. 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUN10B HIGH SCHOOL 171 

Individual posters announcing the good points and indicating the 
selling price of the gardens were made. Each person desiring to 
buy a garden had ample opportunity to visit the plot, to estimate 
the value of the growing crop and to estimate the gain which might 
be derived from a second planting. Business was transacted in the 
presence of some member of the committee. The buyer and two 
witnesses signed the following contract which was then sent to the 
supervisor of the garden work. Her endorsement signified her 
approval of the transaction. 

Garden Contract 

I, the undersigned, hereby promise that during the summer of 

I will faithfully take care of my garden and in payment for 

this ground I will help keep the paths and side lines free from weeds. 
If I violate any of the above provisions I will forfeit my garden to 
some one designated by the overseer. 

Signed : 



Witness: 



Approved : 



After the sale, the land owners met and elected one of their 
number to act as "overseer." His chief duty was to make certain 
that the obligations of the contract were observed. Each land 
owner was requested to keep an accurate account of the amount of 
time which he spent on his garden and the value of the produce 
which he grew. During the summer, the gardens were visited regu- 
larly by the various workers. In some instances, the gardens were 
not properly worked, and after two notifications from the "over- 
seer," were forfeited. As soon as the first crop was mature, the 
ground was cleared, and a second crop was planted. When school 
opened in the fall, the gardens were visited and found to be in good 
condition. Many of the products had been gathered ; most of the 
gardens had been cleared and were ready for the fall plowing. The 
overseer then made a detailed report of the work to the members of 
the school. The report indicated that the undertaking had been a 
profitable one. This work was conducted entirely by the gardeners, 
t. e., the pupils, with advice from the instructor when it was asked. 



172 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

263. "Building a Bungalow" 

(Reported by Minnie A. Muttfeldt, Rockford, Illinois) 

An interesting discussion among the pupils arose regarding the 
character of a good house, kind and cost of materials, etc The 
boys laid off the lot on the school grounds, and the corners of the 
house were staked out by the use of the carpenter's tape line. They 
decided to make the lot 50' by 150' and the house 28' by 38'. The 
pupils went out into the city to investigate for themselves the vari- 
ous stages in house construction. Instructive talks with contractors 
and carpenters followed. Pupils brought in plans and pictures of 
houses for inspection. Each pupil drew a plan of his own. The 
best plan was chosen by the class and placed on the blackboard. All 
pupils copied the plan to the exact scale of y± to 1'. At this point 
the manual training teacher became interested and agreed to have 
the boys build the house under his supervision, as the various prob- 
lems were worked out in class, e. g. f problems of excavation, concrete 
work in walls and floors, brick work for foundation, lumber, roof- 
ing, etc. The house, on the scale of 1" to 1', was built in every way 
exactly like a real house. The house was painted and electric 
lighted, and the girls of the domestic science classes made the cur- 
tains under the supervision of the domestic science teacher. 

F. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH BUSINESS INTERESTS 

264. "Starting a Business" 
(Reported by Jennie M. Ferguson, Forest Park, Illinois) 

The boys pretended that they started business with a capital of 
$2,000. They wrote to several firms for catalogs, and from these 
secured prices for machines and all necessary supplies for a small 
shop. They kept the accounts for all the work done by the print 
shop with different departments of the school : the office, the news- 
paper, and the English, Art, and Practical Arts Departments. This 
involved many problems in arithmetic, as they had to figure the 
price of paper for each piece of work, and the cutting of it to ad- 
vantage, the cost of labor by the hour or by the job, the necessary 
percentage for overhead expenses, etc. At the end of two months, 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 173 

their balances showed that they had paid all running expenses and 
had made a small profit. 

265. "A Clearing House" 

(Reported by Drnsilla Keller, Kansas City, Kansas) 

The children desired to know how checks cashed in Kansas City, 
Missouri, reached the bank in Kansas City, Kansas. The teacher 
took two boys and three girls who had time for it to a Clearing 
House on Saturday morning. They then planned a clearing house 
for the next week's work. Each aisle was a bank from which a clerk 
and messenger was appointed. A president of the clearing house 
was elected ; each aisle had one vote. Checks were written and were 
cashed in banks other than those on which check was written. 
Pupils who had visited the clearing house instructed clerks and 
messengers as to their duties, furnished the clerks with the sheets 
which had been given them at the Clearing House, and directed the 
work so that it was done as they had seen it done, even to placing 
a fine for those who made mistakes in addition. The pupils know 
how checks reach their makers, and the work of returning them 
when books were balanced was not taken up at this time. 

266. "Teaching Thrift by a Thrift Bank" 

(Reported by Emma Hyde, Agricultural College, 

Manhattan, Kansas) 

Thrift week was being emphasized by talks on how and why 
thrift was advisable. The temptation to spend could be overcome 
if the money was out of reach or if a special object was kept in 
view. A Thrift Bank was organized and operated for the class by 
class officers, directors and employers. Deposits of one cent up 
were taken. Deposit slip and pass book were made by each pupil, 
and the money kept in the school vault. Deposits were saved from 
picture shows, car fare and Hersheys. The books were audited once 
a month by members of the class, when the cashier and bookkeeper 
were changed. Principle of debit and credit methods of opening 
an account with a bank, and of writing checks were taught The 
largest amount saved by one pupil was $2.67. Combined deposits 



174 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

in real banks increased during this period from $625 (including 
bonds) to $1,175.80. 

"Reorganizing a Bank" 

Later the thrift bank 'failed' and was reorganized. Shares of 
common stock, of preferred stock, and so many $1,000 bonds were 
issued and sold by class brokers, below par. Receipts and broker- 
age were calculated, everything being paid by draft or check. 
Yearly expenses were calculated and deducted, surplus decided 
upon, and the rest invested in oil stock at the current price. At the 
end of two months holdings were sold at a good profit. Capital stock 
was deducted; interest on bonds and preferred stock was com- 
puted and paid. Dividend was declared and paid. Examination 
on Stocks and Bonds very satisfactory. 

267. "The Finances of a Cafeteria" 

(Reported by Helen M. Eckstein, Wichita, Kansas) 

The Alexander Hamilton Intermediate School Cafeteria fur- 
nished fine material for many project lessons developing accuracy 
in arithmetic and algebra. Graphical problems were motivated and 
made interesting by submitting to the pupils the checks issued in 
payment for the various articles used in our cafeteria from Sep- 
tember 22, 1919, to March 1, 1920. The checks were grouped by 
the pupils and the amount expended obtained. From this ma- 
terial furnished by the principal, graphs were made. The daily 
receipts furnished the basis for other projects. Accuracy was 
stimulated, as correct graphs depended upon correct addition. The 
invoice of groceries on hand, amounting to $166.98, also furnished 
material for other problems. 

268. "Forming a Mercantile Company' ' 

(Reported by Maude M. Myers, Marlborough School, 

Kansas City, Missouri) 

The class formed a mercantile company. Each pupil was per- 
mitted to buy a limited amount of stock. Bonds were sold to those 
who preferred them to stock. A supply of school materials, such 



MATEBIALS FOB TEE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL 175 

as pencils, pens, tablets, rulers, erasers, etc., was bought by pupils 
who acted as buyers for the company ; the teacher acted as adviser. 
A bookkeeping department was established, and when the selling 
price was determined npon, some pupil became salesman, being on 
duty between 8 :30 and 9 :00 A. M. The girls made pencil cases, 
candy, and several other articles to sell to the company. The di- 
rectors of the company determined what articles should be pur- 
chased. Dividends were declared when profits justified. Each 
stockholder received his profits. In this case there were no over- 
head costs. 

269. "Harvesting and Marketing the Hay of the School Yard" 

(Reported by Maude M. Myers, Kansas City, Missouri) 

The school yard contained five acres of fairly good hay. The 
same pupils who constituted the Cooperative Mercantile Company 
just described harvested and marketed the hay. They figured on the 
cost of gathering and marketing and employed some one to cut and 
Take the hay. Since there was no place for storage, the hay had 
to be sold green. The crop was insured. In bargaining for the 
gathering and the selling of the crop the pupils consulted the 
teacher and their fathers. There was little chance for a loss; on 
the contrary, a profit for the stockholders was realized. 

270. "An Alphabet Game of Products" 
(Reported from Buffalo, New York) 

The pupils of the seventh g rade, with very little help from their 
teacher, have compiled two lists of products, one for New York 
state, and the other for the world. 

The game is played in this manner. One pupil starts to name 
products beginning, say with ' * s, ' 9 and continues until he makes a 
mistake. In every case when he names a product, he must give the 
location where found or manufactured. 

The list for New York includes aeroplanes, apples, automobiles, 
beans, bicycles, books, boots, bottles, brass castings, brooms, butter, 
cannon, canned goods, carpet, car wheels, cheese, cigars, china ware, 
clothing, cotton cloth, dairy products, deer, electrical supplies, engines, 
fire arms, floor, furniture, glass, gloves, graphite, hay, hats, hops, 



176 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

hosiery, iron, knit goods, kodaks, limestone, lumber, matches, milk, oil, 
optical instruments, phonographs, pianos, peaches, potatoes, cement, 
pottery, salt, sandstone, scales, ships, silk, silver ware, starch, steel, 
talc, typewriters, upholstery, wagons, wire, woolen cloth, yachts, yarn, 
yeast. 

The pupils have not only enjoyed the game, but have added 
materially to their knowledge of geography thereby. 

O. PROJECTS CONCERNED WITH HOME INTERESTS 

271. "Furnishing an Apartment" 

(Reported by Martha Bucher, Kansas City, Kansas) 

A man with six hundred dollars capital was supposed to rent 
and furnish a small apartment. First the apartment was chosen, a 
committee of children interviewing local real estate agents. The 
apartment was then furnished room by room. A list of the articles 
purchased, the names of the dealers from whom they came, and 
the cost was kept. The expense of the furnishing for each room 
was estimated. The amount owed to each dealer was paid by check, 
whereby a study of banking was introduced. As some of the pupils 
found it necessary to borrow money, this was also studied. 

272. "The Home Budget' ' 

(Reported by Mary A. Ruth, Horton, Kansas) 

These pupils secured and planned budgets for their homes, 
based upon the salaries earned by their fathers. Budgets were 
worked over in the class, compared, discussed and changed if the 
class found them to be faulty. Later the budgets were compared 
with model plans worked out by economic experts. Much valuable 
work in keeping accounts, percentage, interest, and a great variety 
of problems developed, since some parents were buying homes upon 
the payment plan, others carried large amounts of insurance and 
in fact each budget had its individuality. Care must be taken in 
this type of work to avoid becoming too personal, and this was the 
teacher's chief work. From the home budget we went to the sys- 
tem employed by our local school board and city administration. 
This material was obtained by the pupils from the offices of th& 
school superintendent and city clerk. 



MATERIALS FOB THE JUNIOB HIGH SCHOOL ffl 

273. "The Fircless Cooker' ' 

(Reported by P. Crecelius, St. Louis, Missouri) 

The class was making a study of the modern conveniences found 
1 the kitchen. A group of girls undertook to make a study of 
le fireless cooker and to present the results of their work to the 
lass. With the help of the other pupils they drew up a set of 
aestions, twenty in all, which they agreed to answer when they 
Eid completed their study. The following samples are given to show 
le kind of questions asked by the class : 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 



'What makes it cook!" 

'Why does not the food burnt " 

'How long will it cook I" 

'Who invented itt" 

'Is it anything like a Thermos bottle!" 



mug 
diffc 



'Are there different kinds t" 



The girls read all they could find on the subject in the general 
cience books at their disposal, carefully examined and tried out a 
ireless cooker in the home of one of the girls, interviewed a dealer 
a the neighborhood as to the merits of the various makes, and 
tnally reported the results of their study to the class. They re- 
ferred to Elhuff, General Science (p. 108) ; Clark, Introduction to 
Science (p. 30) ; and Clute, General Science (p. 88). 

274. "Fitting up a Bedroom" 

(Reported by Katherine Morrison and Hazel Steibling, Kansaj 

State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas) 

A committee reported to their class-fellows the following needs 
of their practice house bedroom : pictures, dresser cover with color 
if possible, dressing-table accessories, clean woodwork, floors, win- 
dows, and rugs, and a well-made bed. The need for suitable pic- 
tures led them to visit the librarian to ask for discarded magazine 
covers to frame in industrial art. The need for a dresser cover 
finally developed a desire for an inexpensive bedroom set of un- 
bleached muslin, appliqued in fabrics dyed to harmonize with the 
color scheme of the room. The need for dressing table accessories 
suggested the collection and decoration of small boxes which lent 
themselves readily to enamel decoration. With great satisfaction 



178 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

one child contributed a pair of glass candlesticks to be enameled 
ivory as a part of the dressing table appointments. A desk set for 
the table was also designed and constructed. The need for clean- 
ing the woodwork and floors led to a study of the effect of various 
cleaning agents on enameled, oiled and varnished surfaces, followed 
by a lesson on practical cleaning and bedmaking. The art side was 
carried on in the industrial art classes and the housewifery was 
carried on in the household arts classes. The teachers cooperated 
to the extent of interchanging and combining class hours as the 
needs of the project demanded. 



CHAPTER V 

NEW MATERIALS FOR SPECIAL CLASSES 

INTRODUCTION 

The purpose of the special class work is to teach pupils to be- 
come useful members of society. This type of child usually leaves 
school early. He should then have had proper health habits estab- 
lished and should then know what kind of work he can do as well 
as where he can get a job. 

Everything in this child's life should lead toward fitting hin? 
for some useful work. The subjects to be taught should be those that 
would arouse the individual will and the impulse to do. He should 
be encouraged to produce what he has seen, heard, or experienced. 

Much (if not all) of this child's school work could be made to 
revolve about some center. As tie child's interest at all times 
should be encouraged, the center or purposeful activity should be 
something that will contain his experience, work that will hold his 
interest, while the work is being executed, and give him satisfaction 
when completed. 

The following projects or purposeful activities are some that 
have been used with subnormal children. 

• 

275. "Hand Work and Arithmetic for Adolescent 

Subnormal Girls" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne, Michigan State Normal College, 

Ypsilanti, Michigan) 

The purpose was to make money to buy a sewing machine, by 
making rag rugs. The cost of the warp for one yard of a rug was 
determined, and also the waste between the rugs was measured 
and the cost ascertained. A fair price was added to this for labor. 
Then a few friends were told about the plan. They sent in their 
rugs. The borders were carefully planned. When the rugs were 
finished, the price was found. Then the girls made the deliveries 
and collections. 

179 



180 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

276. "Hand Work for Pre- Adolescent Children" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne) 

They desired to make something for one of the pupils who was 
sick at the hospital. After many suggestions, a scrap book was 
decided upon. A friend donated eight yards of dark green cambric 
which was divided and cut into leaves. The kind of pictures, size, 
arrangement, and theme were discussed. The pictures were cut 
from magazines secured from home, neighbors, and friends. These 
were carefully sorted, pages planned by laying the pictures on 
them, then they were pasted into the books. Two of the children 
then visited the hospital and took the book to their little friend. 

277. "Arithmetic for Pre- Adolescent Subnormal Children" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne) 
"Can't we play store t" was answered in the affirmative by the 

r 

teacher, provided the children would make the store. Boards were 
obtained from the manual training room and a counter constructed. 
Clean, empty cartons were brought from home. Then newspapers 
and storekeepers were consulted from time to time to get present- 
day prices. Money was made from pasteboard. Shopping lists 
were made next, and the articles purchased at the store. An item- 
ized bill of each purchase was made and often these were totaled 
only once a week, when payment was made. 

278. "Lesson in Decorating for Pre- Adolescent 

Subnormal Children" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne) 

The children desired a Halloween party and were asked if they 
thought the room was pretty enough for a party. They decided 
to decorate the room. All the ideas that they had seen or could 
get from pictures were brought together and discussed. It was 
decided that they needed corn stalks, pumpkins, and autumn leaves, 
also that owls, bats, cats, witches, squirrels, etc., should be hung 
from streamers at the windows and put around the room for a 
border. The children brought the corn stalks, pumpkins, and 



MATERIALS FOB SPECIAL CLASSES igi 

autumn leaves from home, some of them even saving their pennies 
to buy pumpkins. The teacher was asked for patterns for most of 
the bats, cats, etc., and out of a box of various and sundry patterns, 
those that would best fit the spaces were chosen. The exact num- 
ber needed was counted, and the number of sheets of each color of 
paper was estimated. The children put up the border and arranged 
the other material, criticising and changing their own work until 
the desired effect was obtained. 

279. "Adolescent Subnormal Children Cooking Noon-Day Meal" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne) 

The children planned to serve a meal to the teachers in the 
building in order to obtain money to buy a piano. Properly bal- 
anced menus were made by the girls ; prices of foods were ascer- 
tained, and advertisements in the newspapers were studied to find 
the best places where they might buy. The cost of each meal was 
figured, and the price to be charged was then determined. The 
girls prepared the food, set the table, and served the meal. Then 
they put away the food, and washed the dishes. Afterward they 
washed and ironed the table linen. At the end of each week the 
profits were figured and the girls themselves made the payments 
upon the piano. 

280. "Reading Signs by Pre- Adolescent Subnormal Children" 

(Reported by Blanche M. Towne) 

The children desired to know what certain signs, as "Take One, " 
"Forest Ave.," etc., said. A walk was taken to seethe signs; then, 
to remember them, several of the children wrote them on pieces of 
paper. It was decided to make signs like those which were seen, 
so they could be kept in the school room. This was done with rubber 
stamped letters on cardboard. The children also suggested that 
they could make their own reading books and some games with 
the words. Pictures were drawn or cut out of old magazines 
wherever it was possible to use them. The writing in both the 
book and the games was practiced before it was written in the 
books. 



1S2 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

281. "Adolescent Subnormal Girls' English" 

(Reported by Nellie R. Olson, Faribault, Minnesota) 

In story-telling hour, a girl told the story of Rip Van Winkle. 
Someone immediately asked if the class might make a play out of 
the story and see what good English they could use. The teacher 
said that if they did real well, the class might give the play at the 
High-School Auditorium. Immediately they set to work. They 
planned the names of the acts, and then the acts themselves. One 
girl planned and secured the improvised costumes. Then the class 
divided into groups of three and each group wrote the words for 
Act I, "The Home Scene." A day was given each group to prac- 
tice their parts. Then each group presented its act to the class. 
The best work was selected, as well as the most suitable actors. 
In the first act, meal time was shown. The table linen and dishes 
were brought from home. Table etiquette was discussed. As the 
play was being practiced, the other members of the class were on 
the lookout for places where the English could be improved. The 
places, as they were improved, were noted in their English note 
books. Then the other acts were similarly prepared. Finally, the 
whole play was given. The play was also written and put in book- 
lets, properly decorated with pictures. These booklets were kept 
to be shown at the school exhibit. As the play progressed, the girls 
decided to invite their mothers to see the play when it was complete. 

282. "An English Exercise for Adolescent Subnormal Boys" 
(Reported by Nellie A. Olson, Faribault, Minnesota) 

A boy brought an army booklet. Someone said, ' ' Can 't we be 
an armyf" The teacher, after finding out if the class wished to 
do this, asked how this could be carried out. The class divided into 
companies, each in charge of a corporal, who was appointed by the 
captain. The captain had been selected by the class, by balloting. 
The teacher was appointed by the captain as his assistant. The 
captain was to have charge of the class for two weeks. Each cor- 
poral was responsible for the work of his own company and at 
the beginning of each day reported to the captain the results of 
the previous day's work, which was shown in individual graphs. 



MATERIALS FOB 8PECIAL CLA88E8 183 

The winning company had the stars and stripes placed in front of 
their company. The next captain was the corporal of the company 
who had had the flag the greatest number of times. The class de- 
cided to salute the captain each time they recited. The captain 
appointed an inspector, whose business it was to keep a record of the 
daily inspection of the "soldiers'" faces, teeth, hair, shoes and 
clothes. 

The following things necessary to the making of a good Amer- 
ican soldier were studied by the class : 

1. How to become an American. 

a. Experiences of parents were tola. 

b. Teacher told of her visit to Ellis Island. Pictures were shown. 

2. The training that a soldier must have. 

3. Learned and gave the * * Flag salute ' ' each day. 

4. How we could become good Americans. 

a. Have good habits. 

b. Associate and talk to good Americans, on topics of interest and 

value as — 

(1) What I am going to be when a man, 

(2) News items. 

(3) Inventions. 

(4) How to improve our city. 

(5) Short debates. 

6". Select and read good newspapers and good magazines. 

6. Select, read and report on good books. 

a. Visited the city library. 

b. Prepared a small school library containing books and magazines. 

(One boy acted as school roomlibrarian.) 
e. Teacher told parts of good books. 

d. Decided on a brief book-review outline. 

e. Gave book reviews. 

f. Stories dramatized. 

7. Prepared the spelling of words Americans ought to know. 

a. Lists of fifty words foreigners ought first to learn were prepared 

by the class, each making his own list and seeing if the othe/ 
members of the class could spell his words. 

b. Words needed in different kinds of business. 

c. Election Day words. 

d. Armistice Day words. 

8. Ability to write good letters. 

a. Friendly letters to ' shut-ins ' and friends. 

b. Business letters. 

(1) Ordering a good boy's magazine for the class. 

(2) Wrote to the Youth's Companion, and ordered it for the 

teacher. 

(3) Sent for some catalogue, or booklet about trapping, fann- 

ing, electricity, etc 



184 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

9. Improved the penmanship. 

a. Special drills, where needed, were given. 

b. Samples of pupil's penmanship for each month were collected 

and kept. 

10. Stories were read and told, which would help pupils to become good 

Americans. 

11. Improved the English at all times. 

a. New words were collected and used. 

b. Errors in speech were corrected. Certain errors were corrected 

each month. 

12. "Good Americans " posters were made showing: 

a. Errors and how to get rid of them. 

b. American soldier pictures. 

13. Pictures were collected at all times. 

14. Good American games were made and played. 

15. Suitable poems and memory gems were studied. 

16. Jobs for the members of the class were studied and discussed. 

17. Studied thrift. 

18. Made ballots and voted in the schoolroom on election day. 

283. "Arithmetic Exercise Based on Street Paving for Adolescent 

Subnormal Boys" 

(Reported by Nellie R. Olson) 

Sand piles and paving machinery occupied the street near the 
school building. Questions like these were asked by the children: 
"What are they going to do with the sand?" "How do they make 
cement ?" "Who pays the workmen?" "How do they mix 
cement ?" "Who pays for the cement ?" "Can the city get money 
to pay for the paving ?" "Does it pay to spend so much money to 
pave the street? " The last question became the project, end the 
class set about to solve the different points that had to be consid- 
ered, such as the expense of the paving to the city, and to the 
owners of homes along Fourth Street, how the cement is made, the 
money paid the men, the effect of the paved street on the value of 
the homes, and on the rent of the homes. They also found the sav- 
ing to the city in the amount paid for sprinkling, oiling and street 
repairs. When difficulties in the arithmetical processes arose, the 
class stopped and drilled on that difficulty. Work was collected in 
a "Paving Booklet.' 9 Pictures of paved and unpaved streets and 
drawings of paving machinery were collected. The class were fully 
convinced that it had more than paid to pave Fourth Street. 



MATEBIAL8 FOB 8PECIAL CLA88E8 185 

284, "Arithmetic Exercise for Adolescent Subnormal Girls 

Based on Home Building" 

(Reported by Nellie B. Olson) 

The first day of school the teacher and the girls discussed the 
kind of homes they would like to have some day. The teacher 
showed the class a picture of the home that she liked. The class 
decided each to bring a picture of a house plan that he liked. 
They then decided each one to work out everything that needed 
to be thought of in starting a home of his own. The following 
things were done: 

1. Studied cost of lots in different parts of the city. 

2. Went through procedure of buying a lot 

3. Found the cost of digging and making the basement and foundation. 

4. Found and decided on a house plan suited to a family of four. 

5. Some drew the house plan. Others made pasteboard models of 

the house. 

6. Wrote contractors 1 sealed bids, giving estimates of the cost of 

building. 

7. Opened the sealed bids on a certain date. Selected the most 

sensible and economical bid. 

8. Found the amount of lumber, kinds of lumber, and wrote the bills. 

(Visited a house being built.) 

9. Studied kinds and cost of wood for flooring. 

10. Found how many square yards of plastering were needed and the 

cost. (Visited plasterers at work.) 

11. Found the cost. Decided to tint the walls as it was cheaper. 

12. Found the cost of different kinds of windows and purchased them. 

13. Found the cost of finishing the floors. Practiced finishing a small 

section of a floor. 

14. Found the cost of the heating plant, plumbing, electric wiring, 

and lighting. Showed on the drawings of the house plan 
exactly where the wiring and plumbing would be placed. 

15. Bought curtains and furnishings for each room of the house. 

Found where discounts were given, and made use of the dis- 
counts in their purchases. 

16. Wrote payrolls for the laborers employed. 

17. Found the total cost of the home. Decided whether the contractor 

made any profit. 

18. Found the cost of clothing for the family for one year. 

19. Figured the grocery and meat bills for one year. 

20. Decided where and what the men in each family earned a year. 

21. Decided how the salary should be used — what percent for each ex- 

penditure — how much saved. 

22. Decided how to invest the savings. 

23. Figured how much would be had in five years, if savings were 

placed in a local savings bank. 

24. Figured the teacher's and pupils' savings accounts. 



186 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



This work was kept in individual booklets. Each child had his 
own book and a composite booklet made for the teacher. This work 
gave the girls a greater realization of how to use money intelligently 
and gave them a larger respect for honesty, intelligence, and good 
management. 

285. "Arithmetic Exercises for Adolescent Subnormal Boys 

Based on a 'Farm Book* " 

(Reported by Nellie R. Olson) 
All were interested in farm work and had worked on farms. 
The first day of school they discussed their own farm work. They 
finally decided that each one would make a 'Farm Book' showing 
a real farm and the transactions involved in farming. The lessons 
from day to day were shown in this book. Interesting pictures were 
also added. Original problems arose in connection with the follow- 
ing points which were suggested by the pupils : 



Problems and Discussions on: 

1. Size of the farms in this com- 

munity 

2. Location of farms where boys had 

worked 



3. Value of farms in this vicinity and 
where boys had worked 



4. Comparison of values of different 

farms 

5. Decide on having a 320-acre farm. 

Each one laid out his farm into 
grains, orchard, garden, pas- 
ture, barnyard, farmhouse with 
yard, etc. 



8ome of the DriU Work as It Came Up: 

1. Comparison of size of 320 acres 

with 160 acres and 40 acres 

2. Size and drawing of a township, a 

section and quarter section 

3. Realization of fractions and their 

values as: 

% section = f acres 

% section = f acres 

1 section = f acres 

1% section = f acres 

4. Multiplication of numbers as 

320 X *120 
160 X *HX> 

80 X *U5 

40 X *150 

5. Drill on needed tables as of 2% 

5's, etc 

6. Short way to multiply by 10 and 

100 

7. Subtraction and multiplication 

8. In drawing the farm, careful 

reasoning was needed in decid- 
ing length and width of farm 
so that the farm would be 320 
acres in size, as: 
20 by 16 

4 by 80 

8 by 40 



MATBSIAL8 FOB 8PECIAL CLA88S8 



187 



Probleme and Discueeioni on: 



6. Building farm buildings, as barn, 
granary, hoghouse, chickencoop, 
farmhouse, garage, etc 

a. Excavating for basement 

b. Lumber 

c Plastering 
cL Concrete work 

e. Painting 

f. Plumbing 

g. Electricity 
h. Heating 

L Laying of floors 

j. Furnishing the farmhouse 

(one room at a time) 
k. Payroll of workmen 



7. Buying and upkeep of machinery 



8. Buying and keep of horses, cattle, 

chickens, etc. 

9. Planting and harvesting 

10. Farm labor problems 

11. Banking 

12. Drawings were made. Paper and 

pasteboard buildings were con- 
structed. Pictures were brought 



8ome of ike Drill Work a* It Came Up : 

9. In apportioning the farm into 
parts as it is in this commu- 
nity. 8eeing that all parts 
added would make 320. This 
gave practice in addition and 
reasoning 

10. Fractions and pereents were also 

taken up with the apportioning 
of the parts of the farm 

11. Finding the amount of lumber 

needed (board measure) 

12. Writing lumber bills 

13. Drawing plans to an agreed scale. 

Comparison of values of num- 
bers, as: "If the length of the 
barn is 40 ft. and the width 30 
ft. or 20 ft., how long ought the 
lines be drawnf" Much rea- 
soning was here demanded 

14. Cubic measures were needed in the 

excavating 

15. Square measure was needed in the 

plastering, painting, etc 

16. Need for multiplication and divi- 

sion often arose. Pupils knew 
where to look for tables wheu 
in need of them. Often some 
tables needed special drill by 
the whole class 

17. Buying at a discount. Sensible 

and usable pereents were de- 
cided on and learned 

18. Writing of bills, checks, notes, 

etc 

19. Payrolls furnished much drill in 

multiplication and addition 

20. Discounts offered by machine 

shops in this city were con- 
sidered. The amount saved was 
estimated 

21. Profit and loss considered in con- 

nection with cattle, chickens, 
etc 

22. Profit and loss of farming 

23. Farm accounts 

24. Saving '8 Account, problems solved 

Practice in percentage was here 
needed 



188 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

By the end of the year each boy felt that he knew more about 
a farm than ever before. Information and problems were gotten 
from farmers, the agriculture teacher, boys' fathers, arithmetic 
books, farm papers, and the boys themselves. Each boy's book was 
proudly taken home at the end of the year. 



CHAPTER VI 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE PROJECT METHOD 
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, THE JUNIOR HIGH 

SCHOOL, AND THE HIGH SCHOOL 1 



willis h. kerr, Librarian 

jessie luther, Reference Librarian 

anita hostetter, Research Secretary 

Kellogg Library, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas 



ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS 
I. FOUNDATIONS AND DEFINITIONS 

1. Bibliography 

2. Philosophical and psychological foundations 

3. Definitions 

4. Technique and administration 



IL SPECIAL APPLICATIONS AND EXAMPLES 


5. 


Curriculum and program 


6. 


Dramatization 


7. 


Elementary education 


8. 


Kindergarten education 


9. 


Library correlation 


10. 


Measurements and tests 


11. 


Socialization 


12. 


Study, thinking, learning 


13. 


Teacher-training 



1 The bibliography by Herring and the list by the IT. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion, both cited below, have been used freely, although sometimes adapted and 
frequently re-arranged. The advice of Dr. H. G. Lull, Director of Training, 
Kansas State Normal School, is acknowledged. 

An error in the enumeration of the references in the original manuscript 
brings the numbering ten units too high in items following the 179th. This 
error was unfortunately not detected until too late for correction. The total 
number of references is, therefore, 394 instead of 404. — Editor. 

189 



190 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

EEL SUBJECTS OP INSTBUCTION 

14. Agriculture 

15. Agriculture — High schools 

16. Citizenship, civics, ethics, and religion 

17. English 

18. English — Elementary schools 

19. English — Junior high schools 

20. English — High schools 

21. Geography 

22. Geography — Elementary schools 

23. Geography — Junior high schools 

24. History 

25. History — Junior high schools 

26. History — High schools 

27. Home economics 

28. Hygiene and physical training 

29. Industrial education 

30. Industrial education — Elementary schools 

31. Industrial education — High schools 

32. Mathematics 

33. Mathematics — Elementary schools 

34. Mathematics — Junior high schools 

35. Mathematics — High schools 

36. Science 

37. Science — Chemistry and physics 

38. Science — Elementary and ' ' General ' ' 

IV. PEEIODICALS INDEXED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY 



I. FOUNDATIONS AND DEFINITIONS 



1. Bibliography 

1. Geyer, D. L. Beferences on the problem-project method. Chicago School* 

Journal, 2:18-19, Sept. 1919. 

2. Herring, J. P. Bibliography of the project method. Teach. CotL 

Record, 21:150-174, March, 1920. 

3. Herrold, B. E. Bibliography of the project method. Gen. Science 

Quarterly, 4:283-91, Nov. 1919. 

4. Kansas State Normal School (Emporia). Kellogg Library. Select list 

of references on the project method in education. Teaching No. 51, 
Feb. 1920, pp. 30-32. 

5. U. S. Education Bureau. Library division. List of references on the 

project method in education. (Library Leaflet No. 9, Nov. 1919.) 

t . Philosophical and Psychological Foundations 

6. Allen, I. M. Notes. Illinois State Teachers Assoc, Proo. 1917: 126-33. 

— Reviews C. H. Johnston's philosophy of education as to discipline, 
method, socialized recitation, and supervised study. The absolutist's 
and the experimentalist's positions are stated antithetically for each 
of the topics named. (Herring) 

7. Bogardus, E. S. Essentials of Social Psychology. 159pp. 1918. Uni- 

versity of Southern California, Los Angeles. — Written to develop the 
'problem getting 1 method of education in the student of psychology. 
At the close of each chapter is a list of problems. (Herring) 

8. Charters, W. W. Methods of Teaching Developed From a Functional 

Standpoint. 255pp. 1909. Bow-Peterson, Chicago. — A suggestive 
reading on the multiplicity of aims, tho relations of method and con- 
tent, the intrinsic function of subject-matter, structure and subject 
matter, motives, control of values, methods, order, concreteness, and 
drill. (Herring) 

9. Colvin, S. S. Learning Process. 336pp. 1915. 'Macmillan, N. Y. — Chap- 

ters 20-22 analyze logical thinking, judgment, and reasoning, and dis- 
cuss instruction in the form of the problem. (Herring) 

10. Dewey, J. Activity. In Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education, 1:33. — 

Philosophy, psychology, logic, practice and equipment as related to 
the concept of activity. (Herring) 

11. Dewey, J. Child and Curriculum. 40pp. 1902. Univ. of Chic Pr.— 

From the point of view of Dewey 's philosophy of education, the basis 
and background of project learning are presented in relation to the 
learner and what is learned. Principles for the guidance of teaching; 
education as its own end ; society as its own end ; interest and motive. 
(Herring) 

12. Dewey, J. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy 

of Education. 434pp. 1916. Macmillan, N. Y. — The general phil- 
osophic background and basis of the problem-project method. 
(Herring) 

191 



192 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

13. Dewey, J. Interest and Effort in Education. 101pp. 1913. Houghton 

Mifflin, Boston. — An integral portion of the Dewey philosophy and 
psychology of education that is the basis and background for the pro- 
ject method. Deals with ethical educational problems sure to arise 
in the earlier stages of experiment with the project method. Virtually 
a later edition of the author's Interest as Belated to Will. (Herring) 

14. Dewey, J. Interest as Related to Will. (Herb art Yearbook, second sup- 

plement.) 40pp. 1895. Public School Publishing Co., Bloomington, 
111. — A philosophic consideration of the first rank, dealing with cer- 
tain illogical and harmful dualisms frequently held as true and of 
certain logical and beneficial monistic aspects of the problem of 
interest aa related to will. Propulsive, objective, and emotional phases 
of interest, work, and drudgery; pleasure, desire, ends, ideals, effort, 
strain, and discipline are treated. (Herring) 

15. Dewey, J. Method. In Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education, 4:202-5. — An 

exposition of a part of the philosophy fundamental to the project 
method. Method as related to institutional agencies and to subject 
matter; educational method; logical method; general method; 
method as an aspect of content; purpose and interest; relation of 
scientific method to educational method. (Herring) 

16. Dewey, J. Moral Principles in Education. 60pp. 1909. Houghton 

Mifflin, Boston. — Morality as an aspect of method and of content; 
moral purpose of the school; moral training given by the school com- 
munity; social nature of the coarse of study; psychological aspect 
of moral education. The philosophical source, as opposed to the dual- 
ism of much that is common in practice. (Herring) 

17. Dewey, J. Nature of method. In his Democracy and Education, ch. 13, 

pp. 193-211. 1916. Macmiilan, N. Y. — Treats of method as an aspect 
of content, as general and individual; of self-consciousness, open- 
mindedne8s, single-mindedness, and responsibility as traits of indi- 
vidual method. A piece of philosophy fundamental to the problem- 
project method. (Herring) 

18. Dewey, J. Problem. In Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education, 5:47. — A 

brief statement of the philosophy of the problem as fundamental in 
educational method. (Herring) 

19. Dewey, J. School and Society. 164pp. 1915. Univ. of Chic. Pr., Chi- 

cago. — Treats of the relation of active occupation to the development 
of spirit in the school, and of certain projects as recapitulations of 
race experiences. A fundamental discussion of the psychology of 
occupation for common ends. (Herring) 

20. Kilpatrick, W. H. The project method. Teach. Coll. Becord, 19:319-35, 

Sept. 1918. Also reprinted in separate form with title, The project 
method : the use of the purposeful act in the educative process. 1918. 
Teachers College, Bureau of Pub., Columbia Univ., N. Y. — A philo- 
sophical and psychological base of the problem-project movement. A 
contribution presenting the psychology of the project, a concept which 
serves to unify three factors of education: activity, the laws of learn- 
ing, and conduct. Effective purpose is the essence of project method. 
The purposeful act is the typical unity of worthy life and should be 
that of school procedure. Four types of project are distinguished. 
(Herring) 

21. Moore, E. C. What is Education? 357pp. 1915. Ginn, Boston. — A very 

live presentation in everyday terms from the point of view of the 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 193 

Dewey philosophy and the Thorndike psychology. Presents strikingly 
the relativity of process, concept, etc., and the project idea of educa- 
tion. Especially chapters on the place of method in education and on 
learning by problem getting. (Herring) 

22. Strayer, G. D., and Norsworthy, N. How to Teach. 297pp. 1917. Mae- 

millan, N. Y. — The chapters entitled "How thinking may be stimu- 
lated ' ' and ' ' How to study ' ' are especially relevant and worth care- 
ful reading by those who teach. Our scientific knowledge of learning 
and of the improvement of function is here related to the processes of 
education. (Herring) 

23. Thorndike, £. L. Education, a First Book. Chapters 9 and 10, pp. 

168-202. 1912. Macmillan, N. Y. — Really, if not professedly, con- 
cerned with aspects of project method. Assuming the scientific atti- 
tude and the relevancy of purposes in educative processes, these chap- 
ters give concrete and illuminating direction. (Herring) 

24. Thorndike, E. L. Education for initiative and originality. Teach. Coll. 

Record, 17:405-16, 1916; also in Teach. Coll Bulletin, series 11, No. 4, 
1919. — Two virtues basic in project method, in ethics in use, and in 
civic practice. "From the standpoint of education in a democratic 
state and for the sake of efficient democratic citizenship." The 
definitions proposed do much to clarify ethical educational thought. 
Certainly one of the best analyses of these traits. (Herring) 

25. Thorndike, E. L. Educational Psychology, 3v. 327, 452, 408pp. 1913-14. 

Teach. Coll., Bur. of Pub., Columbia Univ., N. Y. — Pertinent to pro- 
ject study because every method of education must concern reflexes, 
instincts, capacities, laws of learning, and the factors and conditions 
of improvement. A scientific correlate of the John Dewey philosophy 
of education as a base of the problem -project method. (Herring) 

26. Thorndike, E. L. Principles of Teaching. 293pp. 1906. A. G. Seiler, 

N. Y. — Invaluable for teachers making the transition to methods in- 
volving reasoning by children. Very helpful on the technique of 
handling the element of interest, on habit formation, and on much 
else. (Herring) 

27. Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. Motivation of School Work. 265pp. 

1916. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. — Treats of the basis of motive, and 
of motivation in school subjects and in extra-curricular activities. 
Much concrete illustration. Very helpful. (Herring) 

28. Wright, W. R. Some effects of incentives on work and fatigue. 

Psychological Rev., 13:23-4, 1906. — One of the few experimental 
studies bearing on the arousing of initiative. The conclusions are 
of prime interest in their bearing on the problem-project method. 
(Herring) 

3. Definitions 

29. Branom, M. E. Project Method in Education. 282pp. 1919. Badger, 

Boston. — Should be generally available. A full and systematic 
presentation. Excellent criticism of definitions thus far proposed; 
relation of method to instincts and to adult activities; illustrative 
material. The first book in its field. (Herring.) — Has been criticized 
as interpreting "project" too broadly. 

30. Courtis, S. A. Teaching through the use of projects or purposeful acts. 

How provide for the development of fundamental skills f Teach. Coll. 
Record, 21:139-49, March, 1920. — Faces squarely certain considerations 



194 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

very often urged as limitations of the project method. Searching 
positive and negative criticism, both of project method and of drill 
methods; of existing practice and theory. The broad outline of a 
constructive program synthesizing project and drill. (Herring) 

31. Davis, E. An inquiry into the nature of the project-problem. Sch. and 

800., 12:346-8, Oct. 16, 1920. 

32. Fogle, O. M. Some real project teaching. Maryland 8tate Teachers 

Assoc., Proc n 1917:94-9. 

33. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. Education through Concrete Experi- 

ence. 187pp. (Francis W. Parker 8chool Yearbook, v. 4, 1915.) — 
There is as yet, perhaps, no fuller single source of clear and sound 
illustrations of education that has been accomplished through pro- 
jects. (Herring's annotation for the whole series. See the following 
two titles, also under Socialization and under Science.) 

34. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. Expression as a Means of Training 

Motive. 188pp. (Francis W. Parker School Yearbook, v.3, 1914.) 

35. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. Studies in Education, v.6, 1920. 

(Formerly Francis W. Parker School Yearbook.) 

36. Hall, J. The individual project method. In Francis W. Parker School 

Studies in Education, 6:5-46, 1920. — An account of a year's trial of 
the individual project method. The basic problems and the detail 
of the daily work are fully explained. 

37. Henry T. S. Problem method in teaching. Sch. and Home Educ^ 

36:162-8, 1917. — Education as problem solving; characteristics ot 
real problems; developing the problematic situation; scope and limi- 
tations; dangers. A comprehensive discussion from the point of view 
of the Dewey philosophy. (Herring) 

38. Holycross, H. W. The problem idea in teaching. Ohio Educ. Monthly, 

67:105-7, March 1918. 

39. Horn, E. What is a project f El. 8ch. J., 21:112-6, Oct. 1920.— Dis- 

cussion of the prevalent interpretation of project. 

40. Hosic, J. F. Outline of the problem-project method. English J., 

7:599-603, Nov. 1918. — Treats of the definition, name, nature, value, 
procedure, pitfalls, and difficulties of the problem-project method. 
Project is defined as a single complete unit of purposeful experience. 
A very compact and usefully suggestive series of theses. (Herring) 

41. Judd, C. H. Initiative, or the discovery of problems. El. 8ch. Teacher, 

13:153, 1912. 

42. Kilpatrick, W. H. Problem-project attack in organisation, subject- 

matter, and teaching. N. E. A. Proc* 1918:528-31. Same art., School, 
29:396-7, 1918. Since the unit of worthy living is the project, the 
project should be the unit of school procedure; it utilizes the laws 
of learning; it leads to moral living. Four types of projects are dis- 
tinguished. (Herring) 

43. Kilpatrick, W. H. Project teaching. Gen. Sci. Quarterly, 1:67-72, 

1917. — A compilation from notes by several persons who heard the 
author speak. (Herring) 

44. Kilpatrick, W. H. Teaching by the project method. School and home, 

1-4, Winter 1920. — Extract from an address delivered before the 
Pennsylvania State Teachers Association. (U. S. Educ Bur.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 195 

45. Leonard, 8. A. Social recitation. Chicago School* J., l:No. 10, 2-9, 

1919. — The project method is not soft pedagogy. The teacher must 
strongly influence the purposing of the pupils. A sound discussion of 
certain points of modern method which are frequently called into 
question. (Herring) 

46. Lull, H. G. Project-problem instruction. 8ch. and Home Educ., 38 : 79-82, 

1918. — Definition of the term project. A thorough treatment covering 
much of the author's "What are projects and problems f" (q. v.), 
and in addition presenting a very comprehensive and detailed analysis 
of the activities involved. This analysis does much to suggest the 
technique of the method. (Herring) 

47. Lull, H. G. What are problems and projects! Chicago 8chooU /., 

2:19-25, Sept. 1919. Also in Teaching, No. 45, Febr. 1919. 

48. Lull, H. G., and Finch, A. V. The project-problem method. Journal of 

Educ, 92:378-9, Oct. 21, 1920.-— An outline. 

49. McMurry, C. A. Teaching by Projects; a Basis for Purposeful Study. 

257pp. 1920. Afacmillan, N. T. — Treats of the growing tendency to 
adopt large projects and of the simplifying and enriching of study 
through large projects. Presents in detail a number of such projects. 
Relations of projects to classroom method. (Herring) 

50. Mayberry, L. W. Individualizing problems for pupils. EL ScK J., 

18:133-37, Oct. 1917. 

51. O 'Shea, M. V. " Project, " " Problem, » " Motive, " " Interest. ' ' Nor- 

mal Instructor and Prim, Plans, 29:18, Nov. 1920.— Editorial. 

52. Owen, W. B. Problem method. Chicago Schools J., 1:3-6, 1918.— Treats 

of the problem method as a synthesis of the philosophy of experience, 
the logic of purpose, the psychology of the act, the method of science, 
and the processes of industry. Discloses clearly the vitality of rela- 
tionship between the method and certain contemporaneous phases of 
thought and life. The psychology of purpose is dominant. (Herring) 

53. Bandall, J. A. Project teaching. N. E. A. Proa, 1915:1009-12. 

54. Buch, G. M. Contribution to the psychology of the project. ScK and 

8oa, 11:386-8, March 27, 1920. 

55. Sharpe, B. W. The project as a teaching method. Sch. Science and 

Math., 20:20-26, Jan. 1920. 

56. Stevenson, J. A. Problems and projects. Sch. and Home Educ., 

38:209-15, 1919. — Method; definitions; projects and problems differ- 
entiated and classified; summary. (Herring) 

57. Stevenson, J. A. Project Method of Teaching. Announced, Autumn 

1920. Macmillan, N. Y. 

58. Stewart, B. M. The project as a method of teaching. Sch. Science and 

Math^ 20:594-601, Oct. 1920. — A definition of project and a statement 
of the standards of teaching. Discussion of how the project method 
meets these requirements and the possibilities of its further develop- 
ment. 

59. Stockton, J. L. Project Work in Education. (Riverside educ. monog.) 

166pp. 1920. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. — An explanation of the 
theory of the project method of teaching school subjects. It has a 
background of educational history worth while reading in itself, and a 
breadth of view which makes the book valuable in aiding any teacher 
to orient himself in the maze of modern fads and methods. (The 
Booklist) 



196 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

60. Teaching, No. 50, Jan. 1920. The project method of instruction. — Con- 

tents: 1. H. G. Lull, The function of the project, pp. 3-11. 2. Achsah 
Harris, First-grade project: A Christmas present for father, pp. 11-15; 
3. Ruby Minor, A school magazine project, pp. 15-19; 4. Katherine 
Morrison, Industrial art, pp. 19-21; 5. Jennie Williams, Belgium 
interpreted through local environment, pp. 21-23 ; 6. Florence G. Billig, 
A study in lawn planning, pp. 33-39. — The January 1920 number of 
Teaching is devoted to the project method. Function, types, descrip- 
tive illustrations, verbatim reports, means of measuring progress in 
project education in widely different fields. A large range of sugges- 
tion and concrete help useful to those experimenting with the method. 
(Herring) 

61. Wilson, H. B. Problem attack in teaching. El Sch. J. t 17:749-55, 1917. 

— The problem attack in the presence of conscious difficulty is requisite 
to good school work and results in real learning and economy. Two 
types of problems are presented, and one illustration from history is 
given in some detail (Herring) 

4. Technique and Administration 

62. Lull, H. G. • The Project Method of Learning: 1. The word project and 

its function. 2. Method of procedure, and use of observation score 
cards. 12pp. 1920. Kansas State Normal School, Bureau of Educ. 
Meas. and Tests, Emporia. 

63. Lull, H. G. Schoolroom technic in problem instruction in grammar 

grades. Sch. and Soc, 5:496-99, Apr. 28, 1917.— Socialisation, 
motivation, problem instruction, supervised study, changed relationship 
of recitation to study, and suggestions as to what to avoid are dis- 
cussed from the point of view of education through purposeful 
activity. (Herring) 

64. Lull, H. G., and Wilson, H. B. The Redirection of High School Instruc- 

tion. In press, November, 1920. Lippincott, Philadelphia. — Contains 
important chapters on the project, both in junior and senior high 
school. 

65. Meister, M. Guiding and aiding the pupil in his project. Gen. Sci- 

ence Q., 3:209-15, 1919.— Suggestions are made as to certain elements 
of the technique of project method, such as use of references, card 
indexes, conferences, questions, lists of experiments, etc (Herring) 

66. Minor, Buby. Supervision of project teaching. Educ. Admin, and 

Superv., 5:357-63, 1919. — Several definitions are presented; the value 
of the method is considered ; a very detailed analysis of the values is 
presented. Selected bibliography. (Herring) 

67. Parker, S. C. Methods of Teaching in Sigh Schools. 529pp. 1915. 

Ginn, Boston. — Contains much that is pertinent to the technique of 
supervised problem study and to the difficulties of transition from 
other methods to the project method. Well organized. (Herring) 

68. Parker, S. C. Problem-solving or practice in thinking, 4 parts : 1. Prob- 

lems of everyday life. El Sch. J., 21:16-25, Sep. 1920. 2. Actual 
lessons illustrating problem-solving in school. El. Sch. J., 21:98-111, 
Oct. 1920. 3. How skilled problem-solvers think. El Sch. J., 
21 : 174-88, Nov. 1920. 4. Rules for training pupils in effective problem- 
solving. El. Sch. J., December 1920 ( f — not yet published at date of 
this entry). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 197 

69. Snedden, D. The project as a teaching unit. Sch. and Soc, 4:419-23, 

1916. — Discussion of various units: the question and answer, the 
lesson, the topic, and the project. Characteristics, definition, history, 
and classification of projects. (Herring) 

70. Teaching, No. 45, February, 1919. Examples of project-problem in- 

struction, by H. G. Lull and others. (Out of print.) — Treats of the 
definition, stimuli, processes, relations to the study period, the recita- 
tion, the teacher, facilities, and examples of projects. Contains an 
adequate and detailed manual of practice. Twenty pages are de- 
voted to the reproduction of children's notes, plans, revisions, out- 
lines, and expositions of projects in geography, English, arithmetic, 
and science. An attempt to define certain details of procedure 
implicit in Dewey's philosophy of education. (Herring) 

H. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS AND EXAMPLES 
5. Curriculum and Program 

• 

71. Bigelow, G. I. The course of study and the program in the project 

method. (Horace Mann studies in primary education.) Teach. Coll. 
Record, 21:327-36, Sept. 1920. 

72. Bonser, F. G. The Elementary School Curriculum. 466pp. 1920. Mac- 

millan, N. Y. — Ch. 6, The project method and the curriculum. Ch. 7, 
Illustrations of two types of project organization. 

73. Columbia University. Teachers College. Speyer School. The Speyer 

School Curriculum, by the staff and supervisors of the experimental 
and demonstration school of Teachers College. 180pp. 1913. 
Teachers Coll., Bur. of Pub., Columbia Univ., N. Y. — The interre- 
lation of the content of the subjects of the curriculum, with projects 
and sources of data. Projects and sources accompany each grade 
curriculum. Projects are found most frequently with the subject of 
industrial arts. Rich in concrete suggestion from the kindergarten 
through the eighth grade. Excellent lists of books needed by children 
and teachers. (Herring) 

74. Lull, H. G. Relation of project-problem instruction to the curriculum. 

Sch. and Home Educ, 38:114-15, 1919. — The boundaries between sub- 
jects. Drill subjects and use subjects (applied technique) in ele- 
mentary and junior high schools. Acquisition of the technique of 
subjects of the curriculum. (Herring) 

75. Stevenson, J. A. The project and the curriculum. Sch. and Home 

Educ., 38:146-51, 1919. — Some principles of curriculum making. An 
analysis of a first-grade project: making a flower garden. " Pro- 
jects need not cut across subjects of the curriculum. 1 ' Project as 
the basis of curriculum organization. (Herring) 

6. Dramatization 

76. Charters, J. A. The problem method of teaching ideals. English J., 

8:461-73, Oct. 1919. — The problem must grow out of some interest 
which the children already have. Emphasizes dramatization; many 
subjects, such as civics, history and literature, lend themselves to 
dramatization. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) 

77. Clark, A. B. Experiment in problem teaching. English J., 6:535-38, 

1917. — Describes the writing and production of a play in one year 



198 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

br seventeen high-school pupils. Preliminary writing of plots and 
plays; earning money to see Forbes-Robertson; interviewing the 
great actor; conversations with miners and mining experts; com- 
munity suggestions; type-writing, producing, and printing. A long, 
complex, but well-sustained problem-project. (Herring) 

78. Cook, H. C. Play Way; an Essay in Educational Method. 367pp. 1917. 

Stokes, N. Y. — Unique, undoubtedly possessing style, full of epigram- 
matic wit and pedagogical wisdom. Discusses principles and methods 
of education; as play, self-government, "littleman lectures," a play 
town, acting, and play making. Easily skimmed for its kernels, yet 
sustained in quality. "The basis of educational method is regard 
for the interests of children," suggests a dominant attitude. (Herring) 

79. Weller, Mrs. H. Finlay-Johnson. Dramatic Method of Teaching. 199pp. 

1912. Ginn, Boston. — History, geography, arithmetic, composition, 
nature study, and manual arts taught through plays written or 
adapted to purpose by the pupils. (Herring) 

7. Elementary Education 

80. Batchelder, M. I. Materials and activities in the second grade. (Horace 

Mann studies in elementary education.) Teach. CoU. Becord, 
20:205-10, May 1919. — A typical day's program is described and an 
account given of activities in an experimental room largely dominated 
by the spirit and method of the project. (Herring) 

81. Bonser, F. G., ed. Studies in elementary school practice. Teach. CoU. 

Becord, 12:1-59, Jan. 1911. 

82. Brady, A. M. Motivation in primary work. Kinder g, and First Grade, 

5:155-56, April 1920. — Children make butter for a party. 

83. Branom, M. E. Value of the problem-project method in elementary edu- 

cation. El. 8ch. J., 18:618-22, Apr. 1918.— Treats of four steps and 
nine advantages. The teacher can no longer afford not to be master 
of the method. The illustrative material is excellent. (Herring). — 
Discusses plan as worked out in the St. Louis schools. (U. 8. Educ. 
Bur.) 

84. Burke, A. First-grade materials and stimuli. (Horace Mann studies in 

primary education.) Teach. Coll. Becord, 20:118-25, March 1919. 

85. Detraz, M. J. Materials and activities in the third grade. (Horace 

Mann studies in elementary education.) Teach. CoU. Becord, 
20:210-18, May 1919.— Tells of the social difficulties in a self -directed 
group, of which the teacher is an influential member, and of their 
solution by the group. The narrative is vivid, dignified, and con- 
vincing. The curriculum content is given. (Herring) 

86. Dewey, J. Prospective elementary education. In Bapeer, L. W., ed., 

Teaching Elementary School Subjects, pp. 552-69. 1917. Scribner, 
N. Y. — Such topics as pragmatism and intelligence, former theories, 
the new theory of mind, thinking, method, subject matter, occupation, 
and values are presented from the point of view of education through 
purposeful activity. (Herring) 

87. Dobbs, E. V. Transformation of the primary school. Kinder g, and 

First Grade, 2:313-15, Oct 1917.— Address given before the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union, Boston. The factors necessary to 
transform a school of the old type into one of the new type, and the 
chief features of the old and the new type. (U. 8. Educ Bur.) 



BIBLIOGBAPET 1QQ 

88. Freeland, G. E. Modem Elementary School Practice. 1919. Macmillan, 

N. Y. Ch. 2, The problem method; ch. 3, The project. 

89. Frits, J. A. How a project was worked out in a 1 B room. Kinderg. 

and First Grade, 4:20, 1919. — A good illustration of the rise and 
leads of a simple project. (Herring) 

90. Fritz, J. A. Motivated Christmas work in the first grade. Kinderg. and 

First Grade, 2:423, 1917. 

91. Garrett, L. B. Study of Animal Families. Bulletin No. 2, Bureau of 

educational experiments, 70 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 

92. Good health project. Pop. Educator, 38: 194, Dec. 1920. 

93. Grout, £. B. Power of the project. Prim. Educ., 22:212-14, Apr. 1920. 

94. Herr, L. A. Making a merry-go-round, a Christmas project. Indus. 

Arts Mag., 9:476-79, Dec 1920. 

95. Imboden, S. M. A co-operative community study. El Sen. J., Nov. 1920. 

96. Jenkins, A. U. Project teaching in the elementary school. Pop. Edu- 

cator, 38:136-7, Nov. 1920.-~-Outlines four types of projects, with 
suggestions for their application. 

97. Jennings, H. S., and others. Suggestions of Modern Science Concerning 

Education. 1917. Macmillan, N. Y. — Eather general application to 
the project in the elementary school, but the following parts are 
especially suggestive: H. S. Jennings, Biology of children in rela- 
tion to education; J. B. Watson, Practical and theoretical problems 
in instinct and habits. 

98. Kendall, C. N., and Mirick, G. A. How to Teach the Fundamental Sub- 

jects. 1915. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. — Project in the sense of mak- 
ing the work practical. 

99. Kilpatrick, W. H. Theories underlying the experiment. (Horace Mann 

studies in elementary education.) Teach. Coll. Becord, 20:99-106, 
March, 1919. — What children are to learn of common affairs; of 
social ideals and skills, of self-reliance, and of school arts; learning 
to do by doing; the child's method; child doing under teacher guid- 
ance. A presentation before patrons of the Horace Mann School of 
the theories of a significant experiment. (Herring) 

100. Rrackowitzer, A. M. Projects in Primary Grades. 221pp. 1919. Lippin- 

cott, Philadelphia. — A presentation from the point of view of the 
Dewey philosophy; play, construction, social ethics, nature, and the 
formal subjects are all treated as ' ' purposeful activity. ' ' Discussion 
of problem and project, and of criteria. Eich with illustrations of 
projects for the primary grades. A type of book bound to appear 
more and more frequently. (Herring) 

101. Linke, E. A. An experiment in teaching in response to children's ques- 

tions. Teach. Coll. Becord, 21:55-67, Jan. 1920. 

102. McKee, J. W. Primary experiments. Kinderg. and First Grade, 5:95-98, 

March 1920. 

103. Mackie, M. Story of the Pilgrims, a fourth-grade project. Prim. Educ., 

28:547-49, Nov. 1920. 

104. McMurry, F. M. Elementary School Standards. 218pp. 1914. World 

Bk. Co., Yonkers, N. Y. — Interesting, searching, qualitative criticism 
of a school system in the light of four standards, which are standards 
for problem teaching; provision for motive on the part of pupils, con- 
sideration of values by pupils, attention to organisation by pupils, and 



200 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

initiative by pupils. The book will long be vitally pertinent. 
(Herring) 

105. Meadowcroft, F. M. Specimen activities of the first grade (Horace 

Mann studies in elementary education.) Teach. Coll Record, 
20:106-18, March, 1919. 

106. Miller, I. E. Education for the Needs of Life. 1917. Macmillan, N. Y. 

— Ch. 5, Principles of method, is particularly on the project. 

107. Minor, B. Project teaching in grade six. El Sch. /., 20:137-45, Oct 

1919. — The rise of problems; fists of problems and of pupil activities; 
titles of compositions; relationships among subjects of the curriculum; 
results; how the work of the grade as a whole was handled. Con- 
cretely helpful. (Herring) 

108. Moore, A. £. Use of children 's initiative in beginning reading. Teach. 

Coll. Record, 17:330-43, 1916. — The purpose of the experiment was 
to "see what could be accomplished in beginning reading through 
self -directed individual effort/' and to select those reactions which 
were most effective. A most promising first-grade project, with a 
list of pictures, apparatus, and books used. (Herring) 

109. Morris, M. Third-grade project. Central Normal Bulletin, 15:1, 1919.— 

Valuable as suggesting that teachers who move to new fields may put 
their new pupils into communication with their former ones. Leave* 
of timber trees, peanuts on the stalk, cotton, etc., were exchanged and 
utilized as drives for letter-writing, spelling, and geography. (Herring) 

110. Parker, 8. C. General Methods of Teaching in Elementary Schools. 1919. 

Ginn, Boston. 

111. Patri, A. A School-Master in a Great City. 1917. Macmillan, N. Y. 

112. Powell, P. A. Projects for primary grades. Prim. Educ, 28:480-83, 

546-7, 622-23, Oct., Nov., Dec. 1920. 

113. Project in an English school, by a London Teacher. Prim. Educ^ 

28:484-86, Oct. 1920. 

114. Bapeer, L. W., ed. Teaching Elementary School Subjects. 569pp. 1917. 

Scribner, N. Y. — A symposium of more than a score of leaders of 
thought and practice in education. Each author treats of a subject of 
the curriculum. In numerous places the content is related with pro* 
jects. (Herring) 

115. Bich, F. M. Projects in plant study; autumn term. Pop. Educator, 

38:200-201, Dec. 1920.— For Grades 1-8. 

116. Bussell, L. Christmas disorganization, a remedy. Pop. Educator, 

38:138-40, Nov. 1920. — A project to restore morale when attention 
has been away from the regular round of study. 

117. Stone, C. B. Some illustrative silent reading lessons. El. Sch. J., Sep. 

1920. 

118. Storm, G. E. Project for the second grade: pt. 1, Trimming a bird's 

Christmas tree, a bird study unit; pt. 2, A morning assembly based on 
a bird study unit. Prim. Educ., 28:550-52, 620-21, Nov. and Dec 
1920. 

119. Sweeney, E. L. Problem-project method in primary grades. Kinder g. 

and First Grade, 5:177-79, May 1920. 

— See also following section, Kindergarten, and entry No. 78, above. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 201 

8. Kindergarten Education 

(Note: Project ifl here interpreted rather generally as any activity lead- 
ing to self-expression. Hence considerable general material on kindergarten 
theory is included.) 

120. Aultman, E. M. Odds and ends of hand work. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 5:204, May 1920. 

121. Bailey, C. S. Summer constructive play. Kinderg. and First Grade, 

3:246-48, June 1918. 

122. Banta, C. M. Individuality developed through self-expression and free 

play. Kinderg. and First Grade, 2:14, Jane 1917. 

123. Barbour, G. W. The free period as an educational factor. Kinderg. and 

First Grade, 3 : 133-39, Apr. 1918. — Some of the values resulting from 
the free period. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) 

124. Bureau of educational experiments. Catalogue of Flay Equipment. 

(Bulletin No. 8.) 70 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 

125. Bureau of educational experiments. Experimental Schools. (Bulletins 

3, 4, and 5.) 70 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 

126. Bureau of educational experiments. Playthings. (Bulletin No. 1.) 70 

Fifth Ave., N. Y. 

127. Chambers, W. G. Childhood education. Kinderg. and First Grade, 

1:334-38, Oct. 1916. 

128. Crawford, S. W. Some problems of industrial art worked out by chil- 

dren. Kinderg. and First Grade, 2:166, Nov. 1917. 

129. Dixon, E. D. An experiment illustrating spontaneous group work. 

Kinderg. and First Grade, 3:13, Jan. 1918. 

130. Dobbs, E. V. Primary Handwork. 1914. Macmillan, N. Y. — Sugges- 

tive guide to use of sand table, scissors, clay, cardboard, etc. Outlines 
methods tested by actual practice and organizes them for the use of 
untrained teachers with a view to the limitations of a small-town 
school. (A. L. A. Booklist.) 

131. Ellis, E. Comparison of results of the kindergarten and Montessori 

methods. Kinderg. Bev., 26:209-14, Dec. 1915. — Given before the 
Boston Froebel club. Frankly and enthusiastically in favor of 
Montessori. (U. S. Educ Bur.) 

132. Fad dis, J. B. Belation of the kindergarten and elementary grades. 

Kinderg. and First Grade, 1:66-72, Feb. 1916. 

133. Greenwood, B. Development of the curriculum. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 1:117-21, March 1916. 

134. Griffiths, N. W. Four-year-old child and the project method. Kinderg. 

and First Grade, 5:187, May 1920. 

135. Hegner, B. H. Home activities in the kindergarten. Beprint from 

Kinderg. Mag. 

136. Henley, F. Spontaneous group work vs. organized group work. Kinderg. 

and First Grade, 3:10, Jan. 1918. 

137. Hetherington, Mrs. C. W. Demonstration play school of the University 

of California. Kinderg. and First Grade, 2:59, Feb. 1917. 

138. Hill, M. D. Educational values which the child carries over from the 

kindergarten into the primary grades. Kinderg. and First Grade, 
1:371-75, Nov. 1916. Also in Kinderg. Prim. Mag., 29:53-56, Oct 



2Q2 T BE TWENTIETH YEAEBOOK 

1916. — Plan for basing early first grade work directly upon last work 
done in kindergarten. 

139. Hill, P. 8., ed. Experimental studies in kindergarten theory and prac- 

tice. Teach. Coll. Becord, 15:1-60, 1914. Also in separate pamphlet, 
same title, 1914, Bureau of Pub., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., 
N. Y. 

140. HilL P. 8. Kindergarten of yesterday and tomorrow. Kinder g. and 

First Grade, 1:331-33, Oct. 1916. Also in Kinder g. Prim. Mag., 
29:4-6, Sep. 1916. 

141. Holmes, E. G. Plan for Kindergarten course of study. Kinderg. Bev., 

26:148-65, Nov. 1915. — An outline for a kindergarten course which is 
suggestive of project method. 

142. Hoxie, J. L. A child's garden. Kinderg. and First Grade, 1:164-65, 

Apr. 1916. 

143. International kindergarten union. Proceedings (of the annual meetings). 

144. International kindergarten union. Sub-committee on curriculum of the 

Bureau of Education committee. The kindergarten curriculum. (U. 8. 
Educ. Bur., Bulletin, 1919, No. 16.) Govt. Pr. Office, Washington, 
D. 0. 

145. Krackowitzer, A. M. Social enterprises of little children: gardening. 

Kinderg. and First Grade, 5:142-45, Apr. 1920. 

146. Loeb, J. An experiment in a public school kindergarten. Kinderg. and 

First Grade, 5:58-63, Feb. 1920. — Results of an experiment to ascer- 
tain just what kindergarten children would do with as little interfer- 
ence and as few suggestions from the teacher as possible. (U. 8. 
Educ. Bur.) 

147. Moore, A. E. Beport of I.K.U. committee on minimum essentials in 

kindergarten and primary grades. Kinderg. and First Grade, 2:283-90, 
Sep. 1917. 

148. National council of primary education. Beport of second annual meeting 

at Kansas City, Mo., Feb. 27, 1917, and of the third annual meeting 
at Atlantic City, N. J., Feb. 26, 1918. (U. S. Educ Bur., Bulletin, 

1918, No. 26.) Govt. Pr. Office, Washington, D. C. 

149. National council of primary education. Proceedings of the fourth annual 

meeting, Chicago, HI., Feb. 25, 1919. (U. S. Educ Bur. Bulletin, 

1919, No. 69.) Govt. Pr. Office, Washington, D. C. 

150. National education association, Department of kindergarten education. 

Reports of addresses, in N. E. A., Proe., any year. 

151. Paine, M. D. Suggestions for fall nature study. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 1:348-55, Oct. 1916. 

152. Robinson, B. H. A building project with large floor blocks. Kinderg. 

and First Grade, 3:373, Nov. 1918. 

153. Sargent, W. Beginnings of art for little children. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 2:370, Nov. 1917. 

154. Schaffer, L. I. Christmas in the kindergarten. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 2:316, Oct. 1917. 

155. Scott, C. A. Self -organized groups. Kinderg. and First Grade, 2:316, 

Oct. 1917. 

156. Shute, M. C. Practice of democracy in the kindergarten. Kinderg. and 

First Grade, 3:89-94, March, 1918.— Training "in freedom " trains 



BIBL10GBAPET 203 

child "for freedom" and for responsibility. Method is evidently 
project. See also entry No. 267. 

157. Sies, A. C. Problems in sensory-motor education involving the selection 

of play materials and apparatus for small children. Kinderg. and 
First Grade, 1:49-55, Feb. 1916. — Specific sense-training through play 
to form habits which will be useful in life. 

158. Smith, M. Beport of the experiment in primary education in the School 

of childhood of the University of Pittsburgh. Kinderg. and First 
Grade, 1:288-90, Sep. 1916. 

159. Temple, A. The kindergarten-primary unit. El Sch. J., 20:498-509 

618-27, March and April 1920. — An account of what the school of 
education has done... "to bring the work of the kindergarten into 
organic relationship with that of the rest of the school. ' ' Discusses 
language activities in the kindergarten-primary period. (U. S. Educ. 
Bur.) 

160. Temple, A. Survey of Kindergartens of Biehmond, Indiana. 1917. 

Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

161. Tupper, H. B. A farm project. Kinderg. and First Grade, 5:249-50, 

June, 1920. 

162. Wall, A. D. What are we going to do with the war in the kindergarten f 

Kinderg. and First Grade, 3:320-22, Oct. 1918.— A unit of work de 
veloped through the project method. (U. 8. Educ Bur.) 

163. Watkins, C. Industrial arts in the kindergarten. Kinderg. and First 

Grade, 1:160-62, Apr. 1916. 

164. Watson, J. B. The pre-kindergarten age; a laboratory study. Kinderg. 

and First Grade, 5:14-18, 68-72, 105-109, Jan., Feb., March 1920.— 
Beport of various experiments to test reflexes. 

165. Wells, H. G. Floor Games. 1912. Small, Boston. 

166. Wilson, C. O. Problem method of attack. Kinderg. and First Grade, 

2:200, May, 1917. 

167. Wolford, B. W. Individual and group play. Kinderg. and First Grade, 

1:380-84, Nov. 1916. 

— See also the preceding section, Elementary Education, and entry No. 
78 (Cook, Play way). 

9. Library Correlation 

168. Kerr, W. H. Problem method and its library correlation, a librarian's 

reaction. Libr. J., 42:686-87, Sep. 1917. — The writer approves the 
problem method of study and plans generously to adapt library 
methods to the needs of children who use the method. (Herring). — 
Written as discussion of Lull 's paper, entry No. 170, below. 

169. Lauler, L. F. A practical project in library work. Fop. Educator, 

38:196-98, Dec. 1920. 

170. Lull, H. G. Problem method of instruction and its probable correlations 

in library service and administration. N. E. A. Proe. t 1917:562-66. 
Discussion, pp. 566-72. Same article, abridged, Libr. J., 42:683-5, 
Sept. 1917. — Problem instruction requires the pupil to seek informa- 
tion from a variety of sources, of which the library is one of the most 
important. Writer discusses how the necessary library facilities may 
best be supplied. (U. 8. Educ. Bur.) 



204 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

10. Measurements and Tests 

171. Herring, J. P. Measurements of some abilities in scientific thinking. 

Journ. of Educ. Psych., 9:535-58, 1918, and 10:417-32, 1919.— Inti- 
mate relation of project method and scientific method; definition of 
certain phases of scientific method; a test composed of 33 problems 
designed as measures of defined aspects of scientific ability; aim, 
history, and limitations of the test. The text of the test is presented, 
and a scale is developed. (Herring) 

172. Lull, H. G. Observation and Score Card, Project Method of Learning. 

Revised 1920. Kansas State Normal School, Bur. of Educ. Meas. 
and Tests, Emporia, Kansas. — Three excellent cards presenting an 
elaborate analysis of project-problem abilities in five parts: I A and 
IB, Pupil activities and teacher activities in the recitation period; 
IIA and IIB, Pupil activities and teacher activities in the supervised 
study period; III, Drill projects. (Herring). — See also, Lull's hand- 
book to accompany these score cards, entry No. 62, above. 

173. McCall, W. A. Measuring the Horace Mann Elementary School. Teach. 

Coll. Becord, 19:472-84, 1918. — Beports measurements in an experi- 
mental school where the project method is used in several rooms. 
(Herring) 

174. McCall, W. A., and others. Experimental measurements. (Horace Mann 

studies in elementary education.) Teach. Coll. Becord, 20:218-28, 
May 1919. — The measurement of experimental groups using the project 
method and of control groups not using it justified the conclusion that 
the project method secured the conventional " intelligences " of the 
primary grades almost as well as the older methods. The project 
method, being new, it is suggested, may or may not later outstrip the 
more formal methods in the intellectual requirements of minimum 
essentials, and may or may not outstrip them in certain as-yet im- 
measurable qualities. (Herring) 

175. Thompson, C. J. Study of the socialized versus the academic method of 

teaching written composition. Sch. Bev., 27:110-133, 1919. — An ex- 
perimental and a control group are compared through measurements, 
with the conclusion that the method which utilizes the social elements 
of the composition and group stimuli gives decidedly better results. 
Recommendations as to procedure are included. (Herring) 

— See also entry No. 271. 

11. Socialisation 

176. Burks, J. D. Environment of the school. Teach. Coll. Becord, 3:273-91, 

1902. — The environment is that of the Speyer School. This article 
admirably illustrates one kind of knowledge needed in education 
through projects. (Herring) 

177. Burns, H. P. Group socialized recitation. Education, 39:176-81, 1918.— 

Develops somewhat elaborately a plan of discussion in small groups 
as preparation for recitation. The plan is reported as having been 
warmly approved by certain high-school pupils, who say that it is 
broadening, it is interesting, it develops coherent expression and co- 
operation, and that it provokes thought. (Herring) 

178. Chicago Normal College students. Suggestive outline for project-problem 

teaching. Chicago Schools J., 2:17-20, 1919. — Questions to stimulate 
interest and bring out the suggestion by the group that a club be 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 

formed to study Chicago's achievements and needs. The plans made 
by the group are presented, including the organization of a dramatic 
club. 

1. Dewey, E. New Schools for Old: the 'Regeneration of the Porter School, 

337pp. 1919. Dutton, N. Y. — A solution of difficulties typical of 
rural education through means typically accessible in the country. The 
things done in the school were done with an eye to the education of 
the community. School and community interest were made one. 
(Herring) 

). Dewey, E., and Dewey J. Schools of Tomorrow. 316pp. 1915. Dutton 
N. Y. — A contemporary source of current thought on purposeful 
activity in education, as related to natural development, freedom, 
individuality, play, education through industry, and democratic edu- 
cation. Certain " schools of tomorrow," now famous, are here 
described. (Herring) 

L. Fell, E. E. Socializing the school and the community. Moderator Topics, 
38:453-55, 469-71, 1918. — Describes the organization, subsequent man- 
agement, and benefits of clubs for parents and teachers. (Herring) 

2. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. Morning exercise as a socializing 

influence. 198pp. (Francis W. Parker School Yearbook, v.2, 1913.) 

5. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. Social motive in school work. 139pp, 
(Francis W. Parker School Yearbook, v.l, 1912.) 

L Lull, H. G. Socializing school procedure. Amer. J. of Sooiol., 24:681-91, 
May 1919. — The free-play ways of children utilized in teaching. Two 
assignments are presented, one that hampers the free purposeful attack 
of pupils and one that furthers that attack. Stenographic report of 
class conversation. Application of the project way to discipline and 
planning. (Herring) 

5. Newby, M. I. The socialized recitation. Sierra Educ. News, 15:70-2, 

1919. — A school magazine published by pupils, debating clubs for oral 
language, imaginary ownership of real estate, and oil prospecting are 
used to socialize the curriculum. Suggestive of projects possible in 
most communities. (Herring) 

6. Quick, H. Brown Mouse. 310pp. 1915. Bobbs, Merrill, Indianapolis. — 

Fascinating fiction of a farmer lad with a country education, who 
was inveigled to teach the country school and who quasi-instinctively 
based his procedure upon an informal survey of community needs. 
A book that makes its own educational appeal on a basis of common 
sense and plain humor. The ways of the novice here strikingly sug- 
gest the project method. (Herring) 

7. Roberts, A. C. An experiment in socialization. Sch, Rev., 26:25-34, 

1918. — Details an experiment in the adaptation of high-school 
education to certain purposeful community demands. (Herring) 

8. Scott, C. A. Social Education. 298pp. 1908. Ginn, Boston. — Describes 

certain atypical schools, such as the George Junior Republic and the 
Dewey School. Discusses self -organized group work. (Herring) 

9. Scott, C. A. Social significance of self -organized group work. In King, 

I., ed., Social Aspects of Education, pp. 377-93. 1912. Macmillan, 
N. Y. — Presents a method of initiating the project plan in a school 
room to which it is new, and describes a number of projects. Socializa- 
tion is seen intimately related with project. A most interesting, vivid, 
and frank narrative concerning certain difficulties and solutions in 
socialization. (Herring) 



206 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

It. Study, Thinking, Learning 

200. Dearborn, G. V. N. How to Learn Easily. 221pp. 1916. Little-Brown, 

Boston. — One of the how-to-study books from which one may take 
helpful suggestions for his own method in its general aspects. 
(Herring) 

201. Dewey, J. How We Think. 224pp. 1910. Heath, Boston. — A main 

source of the philosophy and psychology of education through prob- 
lems, with much specific advice as to procedure in the school. (Herring) 

202. Dewey, J. Reasoning in early childhood. Teach. Coll. Record, 15:9-15, 

1914. — The improvement of reasoning power is perhaps impossible 
through teaching, but the conditions which permit its development may 
be provided. Three constant conditions of thinking: end, means, dis- 
covery. A writing of importance as showing through what means 
reasoning capacity may grow and through what means it will not 
(Herring) 

203. Earhart, L. B. Experiment in teaching children to study. Education, 

30:236-44, 1909. — Can fourth-grade pupils be taught to study a read- 
ing lesson independently f The question is answered affirmatively, and 
a detailed account of the method of investigation is presented. Very 
useful on the problem side of the project method (Herring) 

204. Earhart, L. B. Systematic Study in the Elementary Schools. 97pp. 1908. 

Teachers College, Columbia Univ., N. Y. — Treats of the usual lack of 
effective study by children and of its possibility, of the recognition 
of problems, collecting data, scientific doubt, verification, memorizing, 
and of recognizing individuality. Illustrative material is included. 
An excellent analysis of the educational situation as to children's 
study, and of valid methods. (Herring) 

205. Earhart, L. B. Teaching Children to Study. 181pp. 1909. Houghton 

Mifflin, Boston. — Treats of the inductive and deductive methods of 
study, of the textbook in study, of children 's abilities for study, and 
of present attainments. Very useful on the problem side of the 
problem-project method. (Herring) 

206. Earhart, L. B. Types of Teaching. 277pp. 1915. Houghton Mifflin, 

Boston.— See especially ch. 14, Training children to study. Treats of 
finding the aim, judging of hypotheses, collecting and evaluating 
data, organizing data, suspending judgment, testing conclusions, and 
thoughtful memorizing. Valuable for the problem aspect of the 
problem-project method. (Herring) 

207. Jones, W. H. 8. How We Learn, 64pp. 1916. Putnam, N. Y. — The 

psychology and practice of scientific method as employed by boys. 
Induction, deduction, examples of scientific discoveries, the method of 
discovery, analogy, fallacies, learning, and authority. The illustrative 
material is well developed. (Herring) 

208. Kitson, H. D. How to Use Your Mind. 217pp. 1916. Lippincott, 

Philadelphia. — One of the how-to-study books from which one may 
take helpful suggestions for his own method in its general aspect 
(Herring) 

209. Lull, H. G. University how-to-study class. Sch. and 8oc, 4:961, 1916. — 

How the author in co-operation with instructors in the engineering de- 
partment of a university taught engineering students how to study. 
Suggests a type of work probably much needed in many schools. 
(Herring) 



BIBLIOGBAPHT 207 

210. McLaughlin, K. How to study. El Sch. J., 15:22-24, 1915.-— Three 

common difficulties are presented and remedies proposed. (Herring) 

211. McMurry, F. M. How to Study and Teaching How to Study. 324pp. 

1909. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. — Nature of study; provision for 
specific purposes; supplementing thought; organizing ideas; judging 
soundness and worth; memorizing; using ideas; tentative attitudes; 
individuality. An important early contribution to the project method, 
with special emphasis on the problem. (Herring) 

212. McMurry, F. M., and others. Symposium on study in the elementary 

school. Education, 30:242-44, 311-15, 1909-1910.— Opinions of a score 
of educators in response to pertinent questions. (Herring) 

213. Merriman, E. D. Technique of supervised study. Sch. Bev., 18:35-38, 

1918. — Very helpful, detailed, concrete outline for this phase of 
problem study. (Herring) 

214. Miller, I. E. Psychology of Thinking. 298pp. 1910. Macmillan, N. Y.— 

Useful as an analysis of the physiological and psychological bases of 
thinking. Includes many specific suggestions as to procedure in guid- 
ing children in their thinking. (Herring) 

215. Borem, S. O. Supervised study as a school project. Junior High School 

Clearing House Bull, 1:23-24, April 1920. 

216. Sandwick, B. L. How to Study and What to Study. 170pp. 1915. 

Heath, Boston. — A how-to-study book that repays reading. Discussion ; 
pithy summary ; positive recommendation ; analysis of process, aspects, 
types, and factors of study. Good for junior- and senior-high-school 
students and for adults who feel the need of help on the technique of 
their study habits. (Herring) 

217. Whipple, G. M. How to Study Effectively. 44pp. 1916. Public Sch. 

Pub. Co., Bloomington, HI. — Clear, sound, detailed directions for 
guidance of study in the elementary school, high school, and college. 
Contains much that will help many an adult. (Herring) 

IS. Teacher Training 

218. Kelly, F. J. The problem method applied to teachers' institutes. 

Teaching, No. 39, Oct 15, 1917, pp. 5-10. 

219. Miller, H. L. University of Wisconsin plan for the preparation of high 

school teachers. 18th Yearbook, Pt. 1, pp. 7-165. — A vigorous, sug- 
gestive presentation of the plan of preparation through participation, 
in which the project method is central, and from which one may learn 
much of the actual working of the method in one school and almost 
sense how it feels to learn to teach well. The earnest daily reports of 
the college seniors who are preparing to teach are illuminating. 
(Herring) 

220. Nolan, A. W. Project methods in teacher training in vocational agri- 

culture. In N. E. A. Proc, 1918:276. 

221. Taylor, W. S. Project methods in teacher-training courses. Sch. and 

Soc, 8:487-90, Oct. 26, 1918. Same N. E. A. Proc, 1918:276-78.— 
Instruction in agriculture in the secondary school was lifeless until 
projects were used. The beneficial results and the criteria of the 
method in agriculture are discussed. (Herring) 



208 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

TEL SUBJECTS OF INSTRUCTION 

14. Agriculture 

222. Association of Land Grant Colleges. Teaching by the problem method 

was the theme of the 34th annual meeting of the association, at 
Springfield, Mass., Oct. 19-22, 1920. Secretary, J. L. Hills, Burling- 
ton, Vt 

223. Bawden, W. T. Agricultural education through home projects: the 

Massachusetts plan. Voc. Educ., 3:86-105, Not. 1913. 

224. Bennett, C. B. Study of the wheat industry in the fifth grade. Teach. 

Coll. Record, 12:50-54, Jan. 1911. 

225. Benson, O. H. Project demonstration. J. of Educ., 82:125,129, Aug. 

19, 1915. 

226. Bricker, G. A. Home projects. In his Agricultural Education for Teach- 

ers, pp. 147-53. 1914. Am. Bk. Co., N. Y. 

227. Carris, L. H. Vegetable gardening as a school project. Atlantic Educ. /* 

12:146-51, Nov. 1915. 

228. Cook County, Illinois. Public instruction dept. Achievement course. 

(School-home project outline 1918, Cook County schools.) 19pp. 
1918. Chicago. 

229. French, W. H. Home projects in agriculture for Michigan schools and 

school credits. (Bulletin No. 17, Michigan Agricultural Coll., East 
Lansing.) 15pp. 1916. 

230. Gibson, H. H. Relating the work in agriculture to home and community 

problems. Midland Schools, 31:146-48, Jan. 1917. — Poultry work, 
home project work. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) 

231. Hawkins, L. S. Plans and records of home project instruction. In Nat. 

8oc. for the Promotion of Indue. Educ., Proc., 1916:312-24. 

232. Heald, F. E. Lessons in Poultry for Sural Schools. (Bulletin 464. 

U. S. Agric Dept) 34pp. 1918. Govt. Printing Office, Washington. 

233. Heald, F. E. The project in agricultural education. Gen. Science Q., 

1:166-69, March, 1917. 

234. Heald, F. E. School Credit for Home Practice in Agriculture. (Bulletin 

385, U. S. Agric. Dept.) 27pp. 1916. Govt Pr. Office, Wash. 

235. Indiana. Public instruction dept. Supervised home project and clnb 

work. (Indiana. State Board of Education. Educational Bulletin 
No. 39, Vocational Series No. 19.) 61pp. 1919. Indianapolis. 

236. Indiana. Public instruction dept. Supervised home project work. 

(Indiana. State Board of Education. Educational Bulletin No. 19, 
Vocational Series No. 15, Jan. 1917.) 12pp. 1917. Indianapolis. 

237. Indiana. Public instruction dept., Vocational division. Courses in agri- 

culture on the home basis. (Indiana. State Board of Education. 
Educational Bulletin No. 27.) 395pp. 1917. Indianapolis. 

238. Lane, C. H., and Heald, F. E. Correlating Agriculture with the Publie 

Schools in the Northern States. (U. 8. Agric Dept Bulletin 28L) 
42pp. 1915. Govt. Pr. Office, Washington. 

239. Massachusetts. Education board. Agricultural Project Study. (Agri- 

cultural education service, Bulletin, 1912, No. 4.) 38pp. 1912. 

240. Massachusetts. Education board. The part-time and project method 

necessary to an effective system of agricultural schools for Massa- 



B1BL100BAPHY 209 

chusetts. In its Beport on Agricultural Education. January 1911, 
pp. 41-61. Boston. 

241. Massachusetts. Education board. Project Study Outlines for Vegetable 

Gardening. (Agricultural Education Service, Bulletin, 1912, No. 5.) 
30pp. 1912. 

242. New Hampshire. Public instruction dept., Division of institutes. Home 

projects in horticulture and field crops. Requirements for standard 
(N. H.) schools. (New Hampshire. Department of Public Instruc- 
tion. Institute circular, series 1917-18, No. 83.) 18pp. 1917. Con- 
cord, N. H. 

243. New York (State). Education dept. Home project work in agriculture. 

In its Schools of Agriculture, Mechanic Arts, and Homemaking. 
(University of the State of New York, Bulletin 543, May 15, 1913.) 
pp. 11-16. 1913. Albany, N. Y. 

244. Nolan, A. W. Home Projects for School Agriculture. 37pp. 1913. 

Agricultural College, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 

245. Selvig, C. G. The home project as the center vs. the home project as the 

outgrowth of agricultural instruction. School Education, 35:4-5, 
Feb. 1916. 

246. Spanton, W. T. The home project method of instruction in vocational 

agriculture. Ohio Teacher, 41:12-15, Sept. 1920. 

247. Stimson, B. W. Effect of rural continuation school on agricultural 

efficiency. In N. E. A. Proc, 1918 :291-93. 

248. Stimson, B. W. Massachusetts Home-Project Plan of Agricultural Edu- 

cation. (U. S. Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1914, No. 8.) 104pp. 
1914. Govt. Pr. Office, Washington. 

249. Stimson, B. W. Vocational Agricultural Education by Home Projects. 

468pp. 1919. Macmillan, N. Y. 

250. U. S. Vocational Education, Federal board for. The home project as 

a phase of vocational agricultural education. (Bulletin 21, Agricultural 
Series, No. 3.) 43pp. 1918. 

251. Use of the home farm in agricultural teaching. Sch. Science and Math., 

16:584-94, Oct 1916. 

252. Watson, C. W. School home-garden project. Nebraska Teacher, 

20:293-97, 1918. — Presents the organization and results of a project 
involving the co-operation of boys and girls of a state. (Herring) 

253. Welles, W. S. Home-project work too small; something bigger needed; 

a substitute in operation. N. E. A. Proc., 1918: 283-5. 

254. Wilson, G. M. Home project work in agriculture. Midland Schools, 

30:14-17, Sept 1915. 

15. Agriculture — High Schools 

255. Barrows, H. P. Home Projects in Secondary Courses in Agriculture, 

(U. 8. Agric. Dept., Bulletin 346.) 20pp. 1916. Govt. Pr. Office, 
Washington. 

256. Dennis, L. H. Home project work in secondary-school agriculture. 

N. E. A. Proc, 1916:622-26. 

257. Doughty, W. F., and others. Project work. In their Courses in Agricul- 

ture for Secondary Schools of Texas. (Joint bulletin of the Texas 
State Department of Education, University of Texas, and Agricultural 



210 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

and Mechanical College of Texas, No. 1, Oct. 1, 1914.) pp. 24-5. 
1914. Austin, Texas. 

258. Hummel, W. G. Utilization of land by high schools teaching agriculture, 

pt. 2, Home projects. Univ. of Calif. Chronicle, 17:309-19, July, 1915. 

259. Lane, C. H. Aims and methods of project work in secondary agriculture. 

8ch. Science and Math., 17:805-10, Dec. 1917. 

260. New York (State) Education dept. Home projects. In its Agriculture 

in the High School. Univ. of the State of N. Y., Bulletin 563, March 
15, 1914.) pp. 7-21. 1914. Albany, N. Y. 

261. Selvig, C. G. Home project work vs. laboratory and school garden plat 

work for high school students. In Agricultural Teaching: Papers pre- 
sented at the fourth annual meeting of the American association for 
the advancement of agricultural teaching. (U. S. Bureau of Educ, 
Bulletin, 1914, No. 27.) pp. 8-17. 1914. Govt. Pr. Office, Wash- 
ington. — Discussion by W. R. Hart, pp. 17-29. 

262. Sneddon, D. New type of school for farming. 8ch. and Soc. t 10:281-84, 

Sept. 6, 1919. 

263. Snedden, D. Two important current problems of agricultural education. 

Sch. and Soc, 9:347-51, March 29, 1919. 

16.— Citizenship, Civics, Ethics, and Religion 

264. Davidson, P. E. Educational reform and the manly virtues. Sch. and 

Soc, 8:361-67, 1918. — Discusses Flexner's Modern School, raising 
questions regarding modern education, particularly regarding the rela- 
tion of interest and effort to preparation for life. The author feels 
the need of a legitimate compromise between interest and effort. 
(Herring) 

265. Jilek, Annie L. Project method in teaching civics. El 8ch. J. f 21 : 216-19, 

Nov. 1920. 

266. Kilpatrick, W. H. Education of adolescents for democracy: a general 

view and evaluation of present methods. Relig. Education, 14:123-35, 
1919. — A contribution of the very first importance as proposing that 
we agree upon criteria and proceed to evaluate the organizations in 
which our adolescents are educated. Phases of educational psychology 
are related; criteria are proposed; a long list of institutions such as 
the Boy Scouts, high schools, technical schools, Y. M. C. A., and school 
fraternities are evaluated and ranked. (Herring) 

267. Shnte, M. C. Practice of democracy in the kindergarten. Kinder g. and 

First Grade, 3:89-94, 1918. — Usefully suggestive discussion of the 
problems of democratic education, e. g., that of the individual and 
society. (Herring) 

268. Simpson, J. H. Adventure in Education. 207pp. 1917. Sidgwick, Lon- 

don. — An interestingly written and carefully analytic description of 
an experiment in the educative effect of self-government in one of 
the lower forms of Rugby School, England. (Herring) 

269. Smith, G. C. Citizenship pageant as a school project. Normal Instrue. 

and Prim. Plans, 29:28-9, Nov. 1920. 

270. Tallman, L. New types of class teaching. Relig. Education, 12:271-80, 

1917. — Discussion of project method. Illustrative material. Emphasis 
on real life situations, and upon natural method and socialized activity. 
Bearing of project method upon religious education. (Herring) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 211 

271. Upton, 8. M., and Chassell, 0. F. Scale for measuring the importance of 

habits of good citizenship. Teach. Coll Becord, 20:36-65, 1919. — A 
scale in which certain virtues important in project method find prom- 
inent place. (Herring) 

272. Valentine, P. P. How can we teach citizenship! Sierra Educ. News, 

14:129-32, March 1918. — School project plan and the importance of 
motivation in the teaching of citizenship. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) 

273. Young, J. T. Problem method in the teaching of social science. Penn- 

sylvania, Univ. of, Schoolmen's week, 1916, pp. 271-73. 

17. English 

274. Clark, A. B. Problem method in teaching English. Education, 40:371-78, 

Feb. 1920. 

275. Gaston, C. B. Social procedure in the English classroom. English J., 

8:2-7, 1919. — Beports work done by a socially active group, the ad- 
vantages for teacher and pupil, and a number of questions to be used 
as criteria for this type of work. (Herring) 

276. Green, J. L. An English project motivated by history. English J., 

9:557-69, Dec. 1920. 

277. Ziegler, C. W. Problem-project method in English teaching. Penn 

sylvania 8ch. J., 65:520-24, May 1917. 

18. English — Elementary Schools 

278. Bolenius, E. M. Elementary Lessons in Everyday English. 1920. Amer. 

Bk. Co., N. Y. — A systematic application of the project. 

279. Johnson, A. Written composition in the fourth grade. Central Normal 

Bulletin, 15:7-8, 1919. — Through group criticism and incidental teach- 
ing of minimum essentials in composition, high standards in para- 
graphing are attained. (Herring) 

280. Parker, E. P. A sixth-grade English unit. El Seh. J., 15:82-90, Oct. 

1914. — Excellent practical example of project method of organizing 
subject matter. Description of pupils' work. Topic, "Ships and 
shipbuilding." 

281. Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. Motivation of language and com- 

position. Motivation of School Work, pp. 71-100. 1916. Houghton 
Mifflin, Boston. 

19. English— Junior High Schools 

282. Johansen, F. O. Projects in Action English; Socialised Becitations in 

Composition and Grammar. 207pp. 1920. Badger, Boston. — In this 
original method of teaching English grammar, pupils singly or in 
groups present some action, usually a very simple one, before the class. 
Then the pupils make original sentences of various types based upon 
this action, and readily learn the principles of grammar and compo- 
sition. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) 

283. Wilson, J. H. Eighth-grade English. Teaching No. 45, pp. 15-18, Feb- 

ruary 1919. 

1 0. English— High Schools 

284. Clark, A. B. Another experiment in problem teaching. English J., 

8:218-28, April 1919.— Third-year high-school English. See also entry 
No. 77. 



212 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

285. Ffa<fl»™»«, W. S. Beading clubs instead of literature classes. Sch. and 

8oc, 4:417, 1916. — Each boy reports upon a book he has read from 
time to time, the report being followed by class discussion. The fact 
that the teacher is never quite prepared is one of the educative features 
of the plan. Boys are found to read about two and one-half times as 
much under this scheme as before its use. (Herring) 

286. Lasher, G. S. English and the project method. Journal of the Michigan 

School Masters 1 Club, 53 : 61-67, 1918.— Describes the writing of a book 
about Chicago by a freshman high-school class, and other projects. 
(Herring) 

287. Mclntyre, H. I. Giving purpose to students of high-school English, Eng- 

lish J., 6:539-41, 1917. — Describes the beginning of an attempt to 
increase the interest of freshman and junior English students by sur- 
veying their needs and organizing the course to meet the needs ex- 
pressed. (Herring) 

288. Stratton, E. Project method of teaching oral composition. High 8ch. J., 

3:35-38, Feb. 1920. 

289. Struble, M. C. A big business-English project. English J., 9:463-66, 

Oct. 1920. — A class in EUensburg, Wash., high school. 

290. Ziegler, C. W. Laboratory method in English teaching. English J., 8:3, 

1919. — Describes, as in a friendly interview, aspects of a new method 
in high-school English: lengthened school day; supervised study; 
equipment; relations in the curriculum; content; spirit of industry; 
responses in educative activities beyond school requirement; aim and 
method in poetry; difficulties; textbooks. (Herring) 

tl. Geography 

291. Allen, N. B. Teaching geography by the problem method. Normal 

Instruc. and Prim. Plans, 29:43, 66-67, Nov. 1919. 

292. Branom, M. E. Problem method of teaching geography. Jn. of Geog., 

19:233-42, Sept. 1920. — Nature, development, and practice of the prob- 
lem method. 

293. Branom, M. E. Project-problem method in the teaching of geography. 

Jn. of Geog. t 16:333-38, 1918. — A general discussion of the nature of 
solutions, the advantages, the difficulties, and the dangers of the 
method, with a number of illustrations. (Herring) 

294. Hausman, L. A. Making relief maps. Jn. of Geog., 16:97-100, 1918. — 

A method by which pupils who are developing projects in geography 
or history may build contour or relief maps. (Herring) 

295. Lockwood, I. Problem method in geography. School Education, 

39:34-35, Nov. 1919. 

296. Minor, B. Problem teaching : how to plan for it. Jn. of Geog ^ 19:61-69, 

Feb. 1920. — Formulates a plan based upon an illustration drawn from 
experience, a study of Japan. Gives references to books on Japan 
suitable for children. (U. S. Educ Bur.) 

297. Semple, E. C. Influences of Geographic Environment. 683pp. 1911. 

Holt, N. Y. — An invaluable source of problems and their solutions, for 
the teacher who realizes the necessity of being, upon her own level, a 
student, if she is to guide students. (Herring) 

298. Weisend, W. T. Problem method applied to geography. Education, 

41:166-70, Nov. 1920. 



BIBLIOGBAPHY 213 

299. Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. Motivation of geography. In their 

Motivation of School Work, pp. 133-57. 1916. Houghton Mifflin, 
Boston. 

300. Write, B. Socialized recitation. Atlantic Educ. J., 13:175-81, 1917.— 

A socialized recitation in geography. (Herring) 

tt. Geography — Elementary Schools 

301. Johnson, M. T. Chile and other South American countries by the prob- 

lem method. Pop. Educator, 38:218-19, Dec 1920. 

302. Knight, E. B. Collecting and making use of local geography material. 

El. Sch. J., 20:459-65, Feb. 1920. 

tS. Geography — Junior High Schools 

303. Goodwin, E. C. A geography project. Pop. Educator, 38:78-79, Oct 

1920. 

304. O'Neil, W. J. Teaching geography through the problem method. Pop. 

Educator, 37:22-23, Sep. 1919. 

305. Parker, E. P. Partition of Africa, a seventh-grade geography unit. 

El. Sch. J., 20:188-202, 1917.— Nine periods of sixty minutes each 
sufficed to develop this project. Each child chose his own part. Vivid 
narrative of how problems lead to solutions and solutions to problems. 
(Herring) 

306. Williams, J. Project-problem instruction in eighth-grade geography. 

Teaching, No. 45, February 1919, pp. 11-15. 

U. History 

307. Birdwell, A. W. Problem method of teaching history. Texas History 

Teachers' Bulletin, 5:5-8, Nov. 15, 1916. (Univ. of Texas, Bulletin, 
1916, No. 64.) 1916. Austin, Texas. 

308. Branom, M. E. Project-problem method in history. Historical Outlook, 

11:107-10, 1920. — Information projects, enjoyment projects, and 
problem projects. Effect-to-cause and cause-to-effect problems in his- 
tory. Illustrations. The initiation of projects. Steps in the project 
process. (Herring) 

309. Branom, M. E. Project-problem method in the teaching of the history 

of Missouri. Missouri Sch. J., 35:61-63, Feb. 1918. 

310. Hatch, B. W. Project-problem as a method for teaching history. His- 

torical Outlook, 11:237-40, June 1920. 

311. Keatinge, M. W. Studies in the Teaching of History. 232pp. 1910. 

MacmUlan, N. Y. — A most suggestive work on the use of problems in 
teaching history. A masterly discussion of the difficulties inherent in 
historical problems. Many illustrations of the quality of criticism of 
which students are capable. (Herring) 

312. Levin, S. M. Use of the problem method in history teaching. Educa- 

tion, 40:111-20, Oct. 1919. — Emphasizes the importance of history 
teaching and advocates the problem method as " an instrumentality of 
inestimable worth." (U. 8. Educ Bur.) 

313. O'Neil, W. J. Problem idea in the teaching of history. Normal Instruc 

and Prim. Plans, 26:50, 68, March 1917. 



214 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

314. Roberts, E. M. Problem method in history teaching, an argument. Pop. 

Educator, 35:132-33, Nov. 1917. 

315. Rosenberger, W. E. Problem method in teaching history. Normal 

Instruc. and Prim. Plans, 26:33-34, 74, Nov. 1916. — Shows how the 
problem method may be applied to the study of political history, 
economic and industrial history, and social history. (U. S. Edue. Bur.) 

316. Traner, F. W. Socializing the study of history. Sch. Bev., 25:714-21, 

1917. — Presents criteria for the selection of content. Favors the 
''topical or problem method.'' The aim of education is stated to be 
adjustment to social environment. (Herring) 

317. Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. Motivation of history. In their 

Motivation of School Work, pp. 101-32. 1916. Houghton Mifflin, 
Boston. 

t5. History — Junior High Schools 

318. Wilson, G. M. Motivation of seventh and eight-grade history work. 

El. Sch. Teacher, 13:11-16, 1912. — A very interesting suggestion. An 
8B class in United States history used Madison 's Journal of the Con- 
stitutional Convention and organized itself into such a convention, 
the teacher being elected to play the role of Washington. Other 
members of the group played other roles. The dramatic treatment 
aroused undoubted interest. (Herring) 

te. History— High Schools 

319. dark, L. A. Good way to teach history. Sch. Bev., 17:255-66, 1909.— 

A record of events in a high school with evidence of keen interest and 
successful outcomes. ' ' No teacher is equal to the dynamic force of the 
class before her." (Herring) 

320. Johnson, B. T. Problem method of teaching history in the high school. 

(Missouri, First district normal school, Kirksville, Bulletin, 16:14-22, 
Jan. 1916.) 

27. Home Economics 

321. Adams, M. G. Home project work in vocational home economics in 

secondary schools. Jn. of Home Econ., 10:358-62, 1918. — Suggests 
projects in food, textiles, and clothing, giving general directions, steps 
of preparation for the teacher, projects for different years of the 
course, and pupil outlines. (Herring) 

322. Charters, W. W. Project in home economics teaching. Jn. of Home 

Econ., 10:114-19, March 1918. — Definition, relation to curriculum, 
advantages, and limitations of projects. (Herring) 

323. Heyle, E. M. School lunch as a project in teaching cookery in the 

elementary schools. Jn. of Home Econ., 9:205-10, 1917. — Describes 
and evaluates a method in which the preparation of the school lunch 
is at once educative and efficient. (Herring) 

324. Home project work in Utah. Jn. of Home Econ., 12:67-8, Feb. 1920. 

325. Snedden D. Project method of teaching homemaking. Educ. Admin. 

and Superv., 5:94-6, Feb. 1919. — Notes of an address suggestive as 
to method and containing a list of relevant projects. (Herring) 

326. Texas. Agriculture dept., Home economics division. Home Projects for 

Agriculture and Home Economics, by Mrs. E. M. Barrett. . . (Texas, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 

Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 47, January-February.) 32pp. 
1916 f Austin, Texas. 

tS. Hygiene and Physical Training 

327. Case-System Corporation, Trenton, N. J. Case-system of teaching 

hygiene . . . 28pp. 1916. 

328. Haight, H. W. Case system of teaching hygiene and preventive medicine 

in the upper grades. Educ. Eev. t 49:503-9, May 1915. 

329. Haight, H. W. Case system of teaching hygiene in graded schools. 

Educ. Bev., 52:385-91, Nov. 1916. 

330. McCloy, C. H. Project method of teaching. Physical Training, 17:53-62, 

Dec. 1919. 

331. Stocking, K. Health chores, a hygiene project. Prim. Educ., 28 : 552-53, 

Nov. 1920. 

— See also entry No. 92, Good Health project. 

29. Industrial Education 

332. Burton, M. G. Eight thousand desks refinished in the schools of Kansaft 

City, Missouri. Indus. Arts Mag., 9:16-17, Feb. 1920. 

333. Burton, M. G. Shop Projects Based on Community Problems. 135pp. 

1916. Ginn, Boston. 

334. Carman, K. V. Basing work in industrial arts on the construction of a 

new building. Teach. Coll. Record, 17:247-62, 1916.— "In basing 
the larger portion of a year 's work in industrial arts upon the erection 
of a new high-school building, he has given a practical demonstration 
in the enrichment of school work by deriving its motives from com- 
munity activities . . . Cooperation of the teachers came as the 
most natural thing . . . Mr. Carman's successful experiment should 
stimulate other teachers to similar effort." F. G. Bonser. (Herring) 

335. Craigo, B. T. New idea in trade training. Artisan, 1:6-7, 1919.— At 

Dunwoody Institute interest in learning is said to be created by a 
little participation in actual industry at the outset. Students about 
to study framing, rafter-cutting, and flooring, first build a small 
building. (Herring) 

336. Foulkes, T. B., and Diamond, T. Argument for larger projects suggestive 

of community activity. Manual Training Mag., 21:5-8, 1919. — Study 
of projects, made and used by 1532 pupils in Wisconsin, showed that 
many articles made are not used. Such projects as the summer cottage, 
the garage, the highboy, are suggested. (Herring) 

337. Industrial Arts Magazine. Problems and projects. A department which 

presents each month class and shop projects in the industrial arts. 
Directions and diagrams. 

338. Jackson, L. L. Project — sinning and sinned against. Indus. Arts Mag., 

7:138-9, 1918. — An application of certain criteria of project educa- 
tion to a typical industrial arts project. (Herring) 

339. Skinner, B. Practical problem for the drawing class. Indus. Arts Mag., 

9:70-72, Feb. 1920. 

340. Whitcomb, F. C. General project method of teaching the industrial arts. 

Indus. Arts Mag., 9:131-35, Apr. 1920. 



216 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

341. Whitney, H. J. Project method of manual training. Manual Tr. Mag., 

22:57-61, Sep. 1920. 

342. Woellner, B. Project analysis. Manual Tr. Mag., 21:159-61, Jan. 1920. 

SO. Industrial Education— Elementary Schools 

343. Bonser, F. G. Industrial arts. In Bapeer, L. W., ed. Teaching Ele- 

mentary School Subjects, pp. 281-98. 1917. Scribner, N. Y. — The 
need, values, organization, and content of a curriculum in industrial 
arts, with provision for projects. Will repay analysis by any one pur- 
posing to make curricula. (Herring) 

344. Dopp, K. E. Place of Industries in Elementary Education. 270pp. 1913. 

Univ. of Chicago Pr., Chicago. — Suggestive in many parts, but 
especially in ch. 5, which treats of the problem of the teacher who is 
not furnished with the equipment needed for industrial projects. 
(Herring) 

345. Payne, £. G. Experiment in motivation. El Sch. J., 17:727-33, 1917.— 

An experiment undertaken with boys. The plan was of two parts: 
visits to factories, and study and discussion growing out of the visits. 
Contains a general outline for the study of any industry. (Herring) 

346. Towne, M. E. Developing a class project. Indus. Arts Mag., 9:442-44, 

Nov. 1920. — Development of a project on rope, suggested in a sixth- 
grade history class. 

347. Trybom, J. H. An application of the project method; elementary 

manual training, fifth grade. Manual Tr. Mag., 22:129-33, Nov. 1920. 

348. Vaughn, S. J. Assignment and planning of projects. Indus. Arts Mag* 

8:392-96, Oct. 1919.— Woodworking in the elementary schools. (U. 8. 
Educ Bur.) 

349. Wiecking, A. Some suggestions for primary industrial projects. School 

Progress, 1:3-6, 1919. 

SI. Industrial Education — High Schools 

350. Blackburn, S. A. Boy Activity Projects. 143pp. 1918. Manual Arts 

Press, Peoria, HI. 

351. Blackburn, S. A. Problems in Farm Woodwork for Agricultural Schools, 

High Schools, Industrial Schools, and Country Schools. 128pp. 1915. 
Manual Arts Press, Peoria, HI. 

352. Illinois, University. High school conference, 1918. Beports on projects 

by Smith-Hughes teachers. Proceedings of High School Conference, 
University of Illinois, Nov. 21-23, 1918, pp. 106-110. Urbana, HI. 

St. Mathematics 

353. Breckenridge, W. E. Applied problems. N. E. A. Proc, 1910:515-19. 

354. Central Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers. Mathematics 

section. Beport of committee on real applied problems in algebra and 
geometry, by J. F. Millis and others. Sch. Science and Math., 
9:788-98, Nov. 1909. — Analysis of problem method. Method and 
results of the investigation of the committee. Illustrative problems. 
Bibliography of sources of problems. (Herring) 

355. Miller, G. A. Case method of teaching mathematics. Sch. Science and 

Math., 19:344-49, Apr. 1919. 



BIBLIOGBAPHT 217 

33. Mathematics— Elementary Schools 

356. Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. Motivation of arithmetic In their 

Motivation of School Work, pp. 152-82. 1916. Houghton Mifflin, 
Boston. 

357. Wright, A. Project-problem instruction in arithmetic Teaching, No. 

45, February 1919, pp. 18-21. 

34. Mathematics — Junior High Schools 

358. Breslich, E. B. Junior-high-school mathematics. ScK Bev., 28:368-78, 

May 1920. — Says that the algebra and geometry of the junior high 
school should deal with concrete problems of the classroom, home, field, 
and park. (U. 8. Educ. Bur.) 

359. Lindquist, T. L. Up-to-date problems in junior-high-school mathematics. 

Sch. Science and Math., 20:305-11, Apr. 1920. — Advocates project 
problems, the formation of the problems by the pupils themselves. 

360. Beavis, W. C. Social motive in the teaching of arithmetic. El. Sch. J. t 

18:264-67, 1917. — Describes a plan of teaching stocks and bonds to 
an eighth-grade class. A mock bank was organized, in which each 
member of the class became a stockholder. (Herring) 

35. Mathematics — High Schools 

361. Eaton, E. S. Some applications of the project method in high school 

mathematics. Sch. Science and Math., 20:443-47, May 1920.— Con- 
tends that projects give comparatively little training in true mathe- 
matical thinking; the pupil acquires mathematical facts but not 
mathematical reasons. But says that the project method can be made 
a valuable supplement to instruction in mathematics. (TJ. S. Educ 
Bur.) 

362. Bich, F. M. A few live projects in high-school mathematics. Sch. Science 

and Math., 20:34-45, Jan. 1920. 

36. Science 

363. Clute, W. N. Some objections to project teaching. Oen. Science Quar- 

terly, 2:379-80, March 1918. 

364. Dewey, J. Method in science teaching. Gen. Science Q., 1:3-9. Nov. 

1916. Same art., N.E.A. Proc., 1916:729-34. — Stages of the educational 
development of science. The dynamic point of view contrasted with 
the merely informational. The extremes of memorizing for task- 
masters and of aimless freedom are to be avoided. (Herring) 

365. Hofe, G. D. von, Jr. Giving the project method a trial. Sch. Science 

and Math., 16:763-67, Dec 1916. — Abstract of an address given to the 
Physics Club of New York, January 1916. (U. S. Educ. Bur.) — Cer- 
tain aims are erected and cautions suggested. (Herring) 

366. Kilpatrick, W. H. Project teaching. Gen. Science <j., 1:67-72, Jan. 

1917. 

367. Lott, D. W. Twenty minute project. Gen. Science Q., 1:122-26, 1917.— 

Contains the quoted conversation of the classroom, illustrating one 
project which left the pupils with drives toward other projects. 
(Herring) 



218 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

368. Mann, C. B. Project teaching. Gen. Science Q., 1:13-14, Nov. 1916. 

369. Meister, M. Method of the scientists. Sch. Science and Math., 18:743, 

1918. — The method of scientists is essentially like that of the project. 
An analysis of the processes of scientific investigation and discussion 
of the methods used by many scientists. (Herring) 

370. Moore, J. C. Project science, progressive. Sch. Science and Math,, 

16:686-90, 1916. — "The results of science teaching do not measure up 
to reasonable expectancy." Project method is analyzed and dis- 
cussed. (Herring) 

371. Moore, J. C. Projects. Gen. Science Q., 1:14-16, Nov. 1916. — Proposes 

for teachers of science a card catalog system of projects in outline, 
accompanied by references to literature. One illustration is given. 
(Herring.) 

372. Pearson, K. Grammar of Science. 548pp. 1900. Macmillan, N. Y. — 

A work of the first rank dealing with the facts, conditions, concepts, 
and conclusions of science, and with the relations of the sciences. Per- 
tinent because of the intimate relation of scientific method with 
problem-project method. (Herring) 

373. Stevenson, J. A. Project in science teaching. Sch. Science and Math. t 

19:50-63, 1919. Same art., Sch. and Home Educ., 38:110-14, 1919. 
Same art., Gen. Science Q. t 3:195, 209, 1919. Same art., University 
of Illinois, Proceedings of High-School Conference, Nov. 21-23, 1918, 
pp. 57. — Concept, implications, and description of the project; stand- 
ards; related concepts in common use, including that of scientific 
method. A sound, comprehensive, suggestive study, in which Dewey's 
philosophy of purpose is central. (Herring) 

374. Twiss, G. B. Outlook for the application of scientific method to the 

problem of science teaching. N. E. A., Proc, 1914:723-28. — Contains 
a series of theses bearing upon the project method. (Herring) 

375. Twiss, G. B. Textbook in the Principles of Science Teaching. 458pp. 

1917. Macmillan, N. Y. — A thorough-going text on scientific method 
as fundamental in the progress of the race and of the child's educa- 
tion ; replete with excellent suggestions of method in teaching and of 
the materials of equipment. Many principles of scientific method 
and subjects of the curriculum are treated. Problem-project method 
is in the last analysis scientific method. (Herring) — See especially 
pp. 419-28, The project and problem method. 

376. Woodhull, J. F. Aims and methods of science teaching. Gen. Science Q. y 

2:249-50, 1917. — An analysis of the project method as that used by 
the masters of investigation of all time. Its advantages as against 
topical methods. A convincing presentation. (Herring) 

377. Woodhull, J. F. Natural method. Sch. and Soc, 3:64-65, 1916.— We 

can teach concepts only through experiences. Intimate relation of 
projects in physics with life. The presentation is suggestive and 
forceful. (Herring) 

878. Woodhull, J. F. Project method in the teaching of science. Sch. and 
Soc, 8:41-44, 1918. — What the method is and is not. The method is 
that of the masters of all time. It must be thoroughly acquired by 
teachers and used habitually by them; then we may expect results 
from their pupils. Sound and suggestive. (Herring) 

379. Woodhull, J. F. Science teaching by projects. Sch. Science and Math., 
15:225-32, 1915. — Project method is presented as research, scientific 



BIBLIOGEAPHT 219 

method, the method of the masters, and the method of everyday 
effective living. There is considerable range of pertinent quotation. 
The absurdities of certain commonly used methods are rehearsed. 
A widely suggestive and important reading. (Herring) 

380. Woodhull, J. F. Studies of the masters: l)Lyell. Gen. Science Q. t 

3:141-46, 1919. 2) Scientific orthodoxy, Gen. Science Q. 9 3:216-18, 
1919. 3) Darwin. Gen. Science Q., 4:275-82, 1919. — Evidence is here 
adduced to prove that the method of work of certain masters of 
investigation is that since called project method. (Herring) 

381. Woodhull, J. F. Teaching of Science. 249pp. 1918. Macmillan, N. Y. 

— ch. 13, Science teaching by projects. A sound view and a wealth of 
pertinent quotation. Ch. 14, Projects in science. Ch. 15, Natural 
method. (Herring) 

Science— Chemistry and Physics 

382. Lunt, J. B. Illuminating gas projects. Gen. Science Q., 1:213-15, 1917. 

— A detailed account of a project. (Herring) 

383. Phipps, C. F. Value of project study in the teaching of physics. Uni- 

versity of Illinois, Proceedings of High-School Conference, Nov. 21-23, 
1918, pp. 285-89. 

384. Busk, B. D. Project science and the physics method. Education, 

41:58-63, Sept. 1920. 

385. Shepherd, J. W. Project studies in high-school physics and chemistry. 

University of Illinois, Proceedings of High-School Conference, Nov. 
21-23, 1918, pp. 289-98. 

386. Smith, E. L. Project of everyday machines. Gen. Science Q., 3:31-33, 

1919. — An introduction to physics through everyday machines, like 
door-knobs, crowbars, and egg-beaters. Complex machines are finally 
analyzed into the simple machines of which they are composed. 
(Herring) 

387. Stone, C. H. Making a match, a project. Gen. Science Q., 3:89-90, 

1919. — The process of making a match and its meaning in education. 
(Herring) 

388. Stone, C. H. Optional project work in chemistry. Gen. Science Q. 9 

1:233-36, May, 1917. 

389. Williams, B. H. Introductory fire lesson. Gen. Science Q., 1:216-21, 

1917. — Detailed account of a project and of class conversation con- 
nected with it. (Herring) 

390. Workman, L. L. Project in ventilation. Gen. Science Q., 3:33-34, 1919. 

— An interesting project described. (Herring) 

S8. Science — Elementary and "General" 

391. Billig, F. Project-problem instruction in elementary science. Teaching, 

No. 45, February 1919, pp. 21-32. 

392. Billig, F. Study in lawn planning, a project in general science. Teach- 

ing, No. 50, January 1920, pp. 23-29. 

393. Briggs, T. H. General Science in Secondary Schools. 21pp. 1916. N. Y. 

—-Contents: General science in secondary schools, T. H. Briggs; Pro- 
jects in science, J. F. Woodhull; The mill-pond, a project, W. G. 
Whitman; Cutting off a limb, a project, L. D. Higgins. The articles 



220 THS TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

by T. H. Briggs and J. F. Woodhull are reprinted from Teachert 
College Record, January 1916. (U. S. Edue. Bur.) 

394. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. The Course in Science. 168pp. 

(Francis W. Parker School Yearbook, v.5, 1918.) 

395. Hofe, G. D. von, Jr. Development of a project. Teach. CoXL Record, 

17:240-46, May 1916. — "The sixth grade in the Horace Mann School 
are studying science regardless of every artificial division. The class 
chooses a project . . . the teacher then presents the information to 
follow ... the trend of the thought of the pupils." One project is 
presented. (Herring) 

396. Hofe, G. D. von., Jr. General science is project science. 8ch. Science 

and Math., 15:751-57, Dec 1915. 

397. Howe, O. M. What eighty teachers think as to the aim and subject 

matter of general science. Gen. Science Q„ 2:445-58, 1918. — An 
analysis of responses to a questionnaire. (Herring) 

398. Meister, M. Science work in the Speyer school. Gen. Science Q., 

2:429-45, 1918. — Thoughtful, detailed outline of the projeet method 
with concrete suggestion on certain methods in class work in the high 
school. (Herring) 

399. Parker, E. P. Sixth-grade science projects. El Sch. J., 20:297-307, 

1919. — Describes the making of telegraph instruments and magnetic 
toys, and the wiring of a toy theatre for electric lights. (Herring) 

400. Van Buskirk, E. F., and Smith, E. L. Science of Everyday Life. 416pp. 

1919. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. — A book of projects for the junior 
high school: air, fire, breathing, health, water, soil, foods, control of 
nature, homes, clothing, lighting, heating, machines, transportation, 
and the origin and betterment of life. A goodly wealth of the matter 
and spirit of projects in general science, with many and excellent illus- 
trations. Of undoubted value for the courses in general science in 
junior high schools. (Herring) 

401. Wake, W. S. Project in general science. Sch. Science and Math., 

19:643-50, 1919. — A stimulating, well-organised article dealing with 
aspects of the project method as follows: need of the method; 
laboratory; definitions by nine authors with the author's criticisms; 
approaching, beginning, developing, culminating, and closing projects; 
attitude; twelve types of projects; induction and deduction; the 
textbook. (Herring) 

402. Woodhull, J. F. General science. Sch. Science and Math., 13:499-500, 

1913.— -Correspondence is invited with reference to suggestions as to 
a survey of children's interests, the ignorances of adults, etc 
(Herring) 

403. Woodhull, J. F. General science, — Summary of opinion under revision. 

Sch. Science and Math., 14:600-602, 1914. Same art., Edue. Rev., 
48:298-300, 1914. — Some unusually significant conclusions regarding 
children's interests, with implications regarding method. A drastic, 
but sound arraignment of ' ' preparatory science. ' ' (Herring) 

404. Woodhull, J. F. Project of a frozen water-pipe. Gen. Science Q. 

3:107, 1919. — Edited from a boy's note-book- A piece of education 
in a natural setting. (Herring) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY J#l 

IV. PERIODICALS INDEXED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY 

American Journal of Sociology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
Artisan. Artisan Publishing Co., Holyoke, Mass. 
Atlantic Educational Journal. Baltimore, Md. (Ceased publication.) 
Chicago Schools Journal. Chicago Normal College, Chicago. 
Education. 120 Boylston St., Boston. 

Educational Administration and Supervision. Warwick and York, Inc., Balti- 
more, Md. 
Educational Review. Geo. H. Doran Co., New York. 
Elementary School Journal. Geo. Banta Pub. Co., Menasha, Wis. 
Elementary School Teacher. Now Elementary school journal. 
English Journal. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
General Science Quarterly. Salem, Mass. 
High School Journal. Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Historical Outlook. McKinley Pub. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Industrial Arts Magazine. Bruce Pub. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Journal of Education. 6 Beacon St., Boston. 

Journal of Educational Psychology. Warwick and York, Inc., Baltimore, Md. 
Journal of Geography. Appleton, Wis. 

Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 
Journal of the Michigan School Masters ' Club. Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Junior High School Clearing House Bulletin. Sioux City, Iowa. 
Kindergarten and First Grade. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. 
Library Journal. B. R. Bowker Co., 62 West 45th St., N. Y. 
Library Leaflet. Library, U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 
Manual Training Magazine. Manual Arts Press, Peoria, HI. 
Midland Schools. Des Moines, Iowa. 
Missouri School Journal. Jefferson City, Mo. 
Moderator-Topics. Lansing, Mich. 
Nebraska Teacher. Lincoln, Neb. 

Normal Instructor and Primary Plans. Dansville, N. Y. 
Ohio Educational Monthly. Columbus, Ohio. 
Ohio Teacher. Columbus, Ohio. 
Pennsylvania School Journal. Lancaster, Pa. 
Popular Educator. 50 Bromfield St., Boston. 
Primary Education. 50 Bromfield St., Boston. 
Psychological Review. Princeton, N. J. 
Religious Education. 1440 East 57th St., Chicago, HI. 
School and Home Education. Public School Pub. Co., Bloomington, 111. 
School and Society. The Science Press, Substation 84, New York, N. Y., and 

Garrison-on-Hudson, N. Y. 
School Education. Now National School Digest. 1401 University Ave., S. E., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
School Progress. State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 
School Review. Geo. Banta Pub. Co., Menasha, Wis. 
School Science and Mathematics. 2059 East 72nd Place, Chicago, III 
Sierra Educational News. Monadnock Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 
Teachers College Record. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia 

University, N. Y. 
Teaching. Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. 
University of California Chronicle. Berkeley, Calif. 
Vocational Education. Now Manual Training Magazine. Manual Arts 

Peoria, HL 



CONSTITUTION OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOB THE STUDY 

OF EDUCATION 

Abtich I 

Name. — The name of this Society shall be "National Society for the Studj 
of Education." 

Article II 

Object. — Its purposes are to carry on the investigation and to promote the 
discussion of educational problems. 

Article m 

Membership. — Section 1. There shall be three classes of members — active, 
associate, and honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person who is desirous of promoting the purposes of this 
Society is eligible to active membership and shall become a member on approval 
of the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 3. Active members shall be entitled to hold office, to vote, and to 
participate in discussion. 

Sec. 4. Associate members shall receive the publications of the Society, 
and may attend its meetings, but shall not be entitled to hold office, or to vote, 
or to take part in the discussion. 

Sec. 5. Honorary members shall be entitled to all the privileges of active 
members, with the exception of voting and holding office, and shall be exempt 
from the payment of dues. 

A person may be elected to honorary membership by vote of the Society 
on nomination by the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 6. The names of the active and honorary members shall be printed 
in the Yearbook. 

Sec. 7. The annual dues for active members shall be $2.00 and for asso- 
ciate members $1.00. The election fee for active and for associate members 
shall be $1.00. 

Abticle IV 

Officers and Committees. — Section 1. The officers of this Society shall be 
a president, a vice-president, a secretary-treasurer, an executive committee, and 
a board of trustees. 

Sec. 2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the president and four 
other members of the Society. 

Sec. 3. The president and vice-president shall serve for a term of one 
year, the secretary-treasurer for a term of three years. The other members of 
the Executive Committee shall serve for four years, one to be elected by the 
Society each year. 

Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall have general charge of the work 
of the Society, shall appoint the secretary-treasurer, and may, at its discretion, 
appoint an editor of the Yearbook. 

Sec. 5. A board of trustees consisting of three members shall be elected 
by the Society for a term of three years, one to be elected each year. 

222 



CONSTITUTION 223 

The Board of Trusees shall be the custodian of the property of the Society, 
shall have power to make contracts, and shall audit all accounts of the Society, 
and make an annual financial report. 

Sec. 6. The method of electing officers shall be determined by the Society. 

Abticle V 

Publications. — The Society shall publish The Yearbook of the National 
Society for the Study of Education and such supplements aa the Executive Com- 
mittee may provide for. 

Article VI 

Meetings. — The Society shall hold its annual meetings at the time and 
place of the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Asso- 
ciation. Other meetings may be held when authorized by the Society or by the 

Executive Committee. 

Article VII 

Amendments. — This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting 
by a vote of two-thirds of voting members present. 



MINUTES OF THE 1920 MEETING 

of the 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOB THE STUDY OF EDUCATION 

AT CLEVELAND, OHIO 

The annual meeting of the National Society for the Study of 
Education was held in the ball room of the Hotel Hollenden, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Monday evening, February 23rd, President J. C. Brown 
presiding. Some 1200 persons listened to the following program : 

I. The Education of Gifted Children 

1. The 'Yearbook 9 on Gifted Children (15 min.) 

Theodore 8. Henry, Professor of Psychology, Western State Normal 
School, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

2. Detroit's Experiment with Gifted Pupils (12 min.) 

Elizabeth Cleveland, Supervisor of Special Activities, Detroit Pub- 
lic Schools. 

3. Some Features of the Educational Development of Gifted Chil- 

dren (12 min.) 

Guy M. Whipple, Professor of Experimental Education, University 
of Michigan. 

II. Plans for 1921 

The Proposed ' Yearbook 9 on " The Content of Courses for the Train- 

ing of Teachers in Normal Schools" (10 min.) 

H. A. Brown, President of the State Normal 8chool, Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin. 

111. New Materials of Instruction 

1. The 'Yearbook 9 on New Material of Instruction (15 min.) 

Charles H. Judd, Dean of the College of Education, University of 
Chicago, and Chairman of the Society's Committee on New Ma- 
terials of Instruction. 

2. The Organization of Lessons in English for Americanization 

Classes (10 min.) 

Charles F. Towns, Associate Principal, Lasell Seminary, Auburn- 
dale, Massachusetts. 

224 



MINUTES 225 

S. Projects for Grades IV to VI to Afford Training in School 
Skills (15 min.) 

Frederick J. Kelly, Dean of the School of Education, University of 
Kansas. 

The discussion, which was led by Superintendent Jesse H. 
Newlon, of Lincoln, Nebraska, was participated in by various mem- 
bers of the Society. 

Particular interest was manifested in the first section of the pro- 
gram dealing with problems arising in the education of gifted 
children. 

At the business meeting which followed, there were reported the 
following items from the meeting of the Society's Executive Com- 
mittee earlier in the day : 

1. At the request of the Secretary-Treasurer, the annual finan- 
cial report was audited by representatives of the Board of Trustees. 

2. The Secretary-Treasurer was re-elected for a period of three 
years. 

3. It was voted by the Executive Committee, that, while no 
criticism has been made of the practice that has heretofore prevailed, 
it would be desirable that hereafter nominations for officers should 
be presented from the floor by a nominating committee appointed 
by the president rather than by the Executive Committee itself. 

4. The Executive Committee formally approved the election of 
various persons who had applied for active or associate member- 
ship during the year. 

5. The Secretary presented a letter from Dr. W. V. Bingham 
inviting the Society to appoint representatives to cooperate with 
the Division of Psychology and Anthropology of the National Re- 
search Council in the furtherance of investigations of mutual con- 
cern to the two organizations. 

6. The Executive Committee voted that Professor Ernest Horn 
be made the chairman of an informal committee to prepare a Tear- 
book on Silent Beading, and that Messrs. H. A. Brown, B. R. Buck- 
ingham, S. A. Courtis, W. S. Gray, M. E. Haggerty, D. Starch, 
E. L. Thorndike, Q. M. Whipple, and others of the active members 
who might be interested in this topic should be invited to become 
members of this committee. Professor Horn was requested to speak 



226 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

briefly concerning the plans for this Yearbook at the evening 
meeting. 

7. The resignation of Professor Charles H. Judd, as chairman 
of the Society's Committee on New Materials of Instruction was 
accepted and Professor Frederick J. Kelly was appointed to the 
chairmanship of the Committee. 

After this report of the activities of the Executive Committee, 
the following nominations were made by this Committee for officers 
for the ensuing year, and the persons thus nominated were unani- 
mously elected: 

For President, Harry B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools, 
Berkeley, California ; for Vice-President, David Felmley, President 
of the Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois ; for mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee, Stephen S. Colvin, Brown Univer- 
sity, Providence, Rhode Island; for member of the Board of 
Trustees, Frank W. Ballou, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Secretary, in accordance with the vote of the Society at 
the preceding annual meeting, reported briefly concerning the de- 
sirability of continuing the two classes of membership, active and 
associate, and on motion, it was voted that no change be made in 
the prevailing classification. 

The secretary presented the following resolutions, which, after 
brief discussion, were carried with a single dissenting vote : 

Whereas, Mr. Charles E. Chadsey, one of the former presidents of this 
Society, a man of national repute, of unquestioned integrity and sincerity of 
purpose, who has stood conspicuously for the scientific investigation of educa- 
tional problems, has, as shown by the decision of the Appellate Court, been 
subjected by a political board, to indignities that constitute a scandal in the 
teaching profession ; and 

Whereas, This Society desires to go on record in support of the mainte- 
nance of the highest ideals in the professional relations between the schoolmen 
of our country and the public that they serve; 

Therefore, Be It Besolved, That this Society conveys to Charles E. Chadsey 
this expression of its heartiest good will and this assurance that he has the 
full confidence of its members; and 

Be It Further Besolved, That these resolutions be incorporated in the 
minutes of this meeting, and that a copy of them be transmitted to Mr. Chadsey. 

The Society then adjourned. 

Guy M. Whipple, 
J. C. Brown, Secretary-Treasurer. 

President 



HONORARY AND ACTIVE MEMBERS OF THE 
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF 

EDUCATION 

(Corrected to January 31, 1921) 



HONOBARY MEMBEES 

Cook, John W., 5644 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111. 
DeGarmo, Charles, Cocoanut Grove, Fla. 
Dewey, John, Columbia University, New York City. 
Hanus, Paul H., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS 

Abel, Benj. L., Prin. School No. 45, Auburn Ave. & Baynes St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Adams, Bay H., Dearborn, Mich. 

Alexander, Carter, State Dept. of Education, Madison, Wis. 

Alexander, Thomas, Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. 

Alger, John L., Normal School, Providence, R. I. 

Alleman, S. A., Supt. of Schools, Napoleon, La. 

Allen, Fiske, State Normal School, Charleston, 111. 

Allison, Samuel B., Prin. Lewis-Champlin School, Chicago, HL 

Andrew, Wm. W., 27 Holyoke St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Ankeney, J. V., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Arbaugh, W. B., 503 County Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Ashley, Myron L., 7113 Normal Blvd., Chicago, HI. 

Bacon, Miss G. M., Buffalo Normal School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Badanes, Saul, P. S. No. 84, Glen More, Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bagley, Wm. C, Teachers College, New York City. 

Baldwin, Bird T., Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Ball, Stewart F., Dept. of Public Instr., Supt 's Office, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Ballou, Frank W., Supt. of Public Schools, Franklin School Bldg., District of 

Columbia, Washington, D. C. 
Bamberger, Miss Florence E., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 
Banes, L. A., Prin. Mark Twain School, 1226 S. Quaker, Tulsa, Okla. 
Barnes, Harold, Girard College, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Barnes, Percival S., Supt. of Schools, East Hartford, Conn. 
Bell, J. Carlton, Brooklyn Tr. School, 1032 A. Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bender, John F^ Box 625, Pittsburg, Kas. 
Benedict, Ezra w., Prin. High School, West Coxsackie, N. Y. 
Bennett, Mrs. V. B., Moorhead School, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Benson, C. E., Apt. 212, 509 W. 121st St., New York, N. Y. 
Benton, G. W., 100 Washington Square, New York City, N. Y. 
Berry, Frances M., Dept. of Education, Baltimore, Md. 
Beveridge, J. H., Supt. of Schools, 508 City Hall, Omaha, Neb. 
Bjornson, J. S., Supt. of Schools, Vermillion, S. Dak. 
Bobbitt, Franklin, The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Bolenius, Miss Emma Miller, 46 S. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 
Bolton, Frederick E., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Boyden, Wallace C, Boston Normal School, Boston, Mass. 
Boyer, Supt. Chas., Atlantic City, N. J. 
Boyer, Philip A., 6320 Lawnton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

227 



226 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

briefly concerning the plans for this Yearbook at the evening 
meeting. 

7. The resignation of Professor Charles H. Judd, as chairman 
of the Society's Committee on New Materials of Instruction was 
accepted and Professor Frederick J. Kelly was appointed to the 
chairmanship of the Committee. 

After this report of the activities of the Executive Committee, 
the following nominations were made by this Committee for officers 
for the ensuing year, and the persons thus nominated were unani- 
mously elected: 

For President, Harry B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools, 
Berkeley, California ; for Vice-President, David Felmley, President 
of the Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois ; for mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee, Stephen S. Colvin, Brown Univer- 
sity, Providence, Rhode Island; for member of the Board of 
Trustees, Frank W. Ballon, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Secretary, in accordance with the vote of the Society at 
the preceding annual meeting, reported briefly concerning the de- 
sirability of continuing the two classes of membership, active and 
associate, and on motion, it was voted that no change be made in 
the prevailing classification. 

The secretary presented the following resolutions, which, after 
brief discussion, were carried with a single dissenting vote : 

Whereas, Mr. Charles E. Chadsey, one of the former presidents of this 
Society, a man of national repute, of unquestioned integrity and sincerity of 
purpose, who has stood conspicuously for the scientific investigation of educa- 
tional problems, has, as shown by the decision of the Appellate Court, been 
subjected by a political board, to indignities that constitute a scandal in the 
teaching profession ; and 

Whereas, This Society desires to go on record in support of the mainte- 
nance of the highest ideals in the professional relations between the schoolmen 
of our country and the public that they serve; 

Therefore, Be It Resolved, That this Society conveys to Charles E. Chadsey 
this expression of its heartiest good will and this assurance that he has the 
full confidence of its members; and 

Be It Further Resolved, That these resolutions be incorporated in the 
minutes of this meeting, and that a copy of them be transmitted to Mr. Chadsey. 

The Society then adjourned. 

Guy M. Whipple, 
J. C. Brown, Secretary-Treasurer. 

President. 



HONORARY AND ACTIVE MEMBERS OF THE 
NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF 

EDUCATION 

(Corrected to January 31, 1921) 



HONOBABY MEMBERS 

Cook, John W., 5644 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111. 
DeGarmo, Charles, Cocoanut Grove, Fla. 
Dewey, John, Columbia University, New York City. 
Hanua, Paul H., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

ACTIVE MEMBEBS 

Abel, Benj. L. f Prin. School No. 45, Auburn Ave. & Baynes St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Adams, Bay H., Dearborn, Mich. 

Alexander, Carter, Slate Dept. of Education, Madison, Wis. 

Alexander, Thomas, Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. 

Alger, John L., Normal School, Providence, B. I. 

Alleman, S. A., Supt. of Schools, Napoleon, La. 

Allen, Fiske, State Normal School, Charleston, 111. 

Allison, Samuel B., Prin. Lewis-Champlin School, Chicago, I1L 

Andrew, Wm. W., 27 Holyoke St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Ankeney, J. V., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Arbaugh, W. B., 503 County Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Ashley, Myron L., 7113 Normal Blvd., Chicago, HI. 

Bacon, Miss G. M., Buffalo Normal School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Badanes, Saul, P. S. No. 84, Glen More, Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bagley, Wm. C, Teachers College, New York City. 

Baldwin, Bird T., Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Ball, Stewart F., Dept. of Public Instr., Supt 's Office, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Ballou, Frank W., Supt. of Public Schools, Franklin School Bldg., District of 

Columbia, Washington, D. C. 
Bamberger, Miss Florence E., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 
Banes, L. A., Prin. Mark Twain School, 1226 S. Quaker, Tulsa, Okla. 
Barnes, Harold, Girard College, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Barnes, Percival S., Supt. of Schools, East Hartford, Conn. 
Bell, J. Carlton, Brooklyn Tr. School, 1032 A. Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bender, John F., Box 625, Pittsburg, Eas. 
Benedict, Ezra W., Prin. High School, West Coxsackie, N. Y. 
Bennett, Mrs. V. B., Moorhead School, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Benson, C. E., Apt. 212, 509 W. 121st St., New York, N. Y. 
Benton, G. W., 100 Washington Square, New York City, N. Y. 
Berry, Frances M., Dept. of Education, Baltimore, Md. 
Beveridge, J. H., Supt. of Schools, 508 City Hall, Omaha, Neb. 
Bjornson, J. S., Supt. of Schools, Vermillion, 8. Dak. 
Bobbitt, Franklin, The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Bolenius, Miss Emma Miller, 46 S. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 
Bolton, Frederick E., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Boyden, Wallace C, Boston Normal School, Boston, Mass. 
Boyer, Supt. Chas., Atlantic City, N. J. 
Boyer, Philip A., 6320 Lawnton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

227 



228 IE* TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Boyett, Rev. B. W., 8upt of Schools, Charleston, 

Breed, F. 8., 5476 Univ. Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Brigg** Thos. H.. Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York City, N. Y. 

Brown, Gilbert L., Marquette, Mich. 

Brown, Geo. E., City Schools, Greeley, Colo. 

Brown, J. C, Pres. State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Brown, J. H., 1242 Quaker, Tulsa, Okla. 

Brown, J. Stanley, Pres. State Normal School, DeKalb, HL 

Bruner, Dr. F. G., 812 Tribune Bldg., Chicago, Dl. 

Bryan, W. J. S., Asst. Supt. of Schools, 6060 Berlin Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Buchanon, Wm. D., Dozier School, 5749 Maple Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Buckingham, B. B., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Buchner, Edward F., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

Buckner, Chester A., Univ. of Pittsburgh, School of Education, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Burnham, Ernest, State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Buthod, Charles, Prin., 924 Galveston, Tulsa, Okla. 

Butterworth, Julian E., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Byrd, C. E., Supt. Shreveport, La. 

Byrne, Lee, 916 N. Haskell Ave., Dallas, Texas. 

Calmerton, Gail, 601 W. Wayne, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Cammack, I. I., Supt. of Schools, Kansas City, Mo. 

Camp, Frederic S., Supt. of Schools, 52 Hoyt St., Stanford, Conn. 

Carmichael, Perry, Prm. Central Grade Sch., 1136 8. Frankfort, Tulsa, Okla, 

Cavan, Jordan, Butler College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Chace, S. Howard, 19 Thorndike St., Beverley, Mass. 

Chadsey, Charles E., University of Illinois, Urbana, HL 

Chadwick, B. D., Morgan Park School, Duluth, Minn. 

Chambers, Will G., Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chandler, J. A. C, Pres. William & Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. 

Chapman, Ira T., Supt. of Schools, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Charters, W. W., Carnegie Inst, of Tech., Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Chew, Samuel L. f Supr. Diet. No. 9, 6th St. & Erie Ave., Philadelphia, Pa, 

Clarahan, Miss Elizabeth, Board of Education, 800 Central Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Clark, Will Mosher, Prin. School 22, Huntington Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Clement, J. A., Northwestern Univ., 2665 Orrington Ave., Evanston, HL 

Cleveland, Elizabeth 909 Empire Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Cobb, Margaret V., Falls Church, Va. 

Cochran, T. E., Crozer Seminary, Chester, Pa. 

Cody, Supt. Frank, 1354 Broadway, Detroit, Mich. 

Coffman, Lotus D., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Colvin, Prof. S. 8., Brown Univ Providence, B. I. 

Condon, Randall J., Supt. of Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Connor, William L., Longwood H. S. of Commerce, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cook, Albert 8., St. Supt. of Schools, Station A., Towson, Md. 

Cooke, Flora J., Francis W. Parker School, 350 Webster Ave., Chicago, HL 

Cooley, Dr. H. C., Lawrence College, 690 Lawrence St., Appleton, Wis. 

Cooper, Homer E., 342 W. Craig, St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Coppers, A. E., Lowell School, 1029 E. Davenport, Tulsa, Okla. 

Courtis, S. A., 246 Eliot St., Detroit, Mich. 

Cox, Supt. H. S., Covington, Ky. 

Cox, P. W. L., Headmaster, The Washington School of New York, 17 East 

60th St, New York City, N. Y. 
Coxe, Warren W., 1347 Paxton Road, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cram, Fred D., 2272 Clay St., Cedar Falls, Iowa. 
Crane, J. E., Prin. Summer Ave. School, Newark, N. J. 



MBMBBB8 229 

Crew, Miss Amy C, 300 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Crowley, James A., John Winthrop School, Brookford St., Dorchester, Mass. 

Crow, C. S., 32 Grant Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Cubberley, Ellwood P.. Palo Alto, Calif. 

Cummins, Robert A., State Normal School, Dept. of Education, Natchitoches, La. 

Cunningham, Besdon J., Bozeman, Mont. 

Davidson, Percy E., Leland Stanford Jr. University, Stanford Univ., Calif. 

Davis, S. B., Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Davis, S. E., State Normal College, Dillon, Mont. 

Davis, Solon P., Henry Barnard School, Hartford, Conn. 

Deahl, Jasper N., Univ. of W. Va., Morgantown, W. Va. 

Dean, W. A., Prin. Springdale School, 2823 East 4th St., Tulsa, Okla. 

Dearmont, Washington S., Pres. Southeast Missouri State Teachers College, 

Cape Girardeau, Mo. 
Deerwester, Frank, State Normal School, Pittsburg, Kan. 
Dickson, Geo. A., Oceanside, Calif. 

Didcoct, J. J., 1501 Compton St, care of Geo. Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. 
Doyle, Mary E., Mount Angela, Great Falls, Mont. 
Dunkelberger, Geo. F., Vice Pres., California, Pa. 
Dyke, Charles B., Supt. of Schools, Millburn, N. J. 
Earhart, Lida B., Teachers College, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 
Eby, Frederick, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
Eby, Harvey L„ 1726 Walnut St., Berkeley, Calif. 
Ehler, H. F., Hughes High School, Cincinnati, O. 
Elliot, C. M, 250 Moss Ave., Highland Park, Mich. 
Elliot, E. A., 426 N. 10th St., Fredonia, Kan. • 
Elliot, Edward C, Chancellor, Univ. of Montana, Helena, Mont. 
Elliott, C. H., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Ellis, A. Caswell, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
Ebon, William H., 633 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 
Emmons, Supt. Frederick E., Elizabeth, N. J. 
Emmons, P. C, Supt. of Schools, Kendallville, Ind. 

Englehardt, N. L., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York City, N. Y. 
Ernst, Miss L. B., Board of Education, St. Louis, Mo. 
Evans, Albert W., Farragut School, 2336 S. Spaulding Ave., Chicago, HI. 
Evans, Edna S., 33 Walter St., Salem, Mass. 

Evenden, E. S., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York City, N. Y. 
Fagan, Charles, Cascade School, Seattle, Wash. 
Farrington, Frederic E., Chevy Chase Schools, Chevy Chase, Md. 
Feeney, T. L., Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio. 

Felmley, David, Pres. Illinois State Normal University, Normal, HL 
Fitzgibbon, T. F., Muncie, Ind. 

Flanders, J. K., Prof, of Edu. & Psy., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, T. H. 
Flemming, Mrs. Cecile White, Dept. of Public Instr., Superv. Educational 

Measurements, Madison, Wis. 
Fletcher, W. H., Normal School, Oshkosh, Wis. 
Foreman, W. 0., Whittier School, 24 N. Zunis, Tulsa, Okla. 
Foster, F. M., University of Wyo., Laramie, Wyo. 
Foster, H. H„ University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 
Foster, J. M., Supt. of Schools, Corning, N. Y. 
Frantz, Supt. A. L., Hartford City, Ind. 
French, W. C, Drumright, Okla. 
Froelicher, C. Mitchell, Headmaster, The Country Day School, Kansas City, 

Mo. 
Frost, Norman, Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 



230 ™^ TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

Qambrill, Bessie, Lee State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. 

Gard, Willis L., Obio University, Athens, Ohio. 

Gaylord, J. S., Winona, Minn. 

Germane, G. E., 219 L. A. Bldg., Iowa City, Iowa. 

Gift, Elmer B., Manhattan, Eans. 

Gosling, Thoraaa Warrington , Superv. of Secondary Education, care of State 
Dept. of Education, Madison, Wis. 

Grape, Jacob, 333 E. 22nd St., Baltimore, Md. 

Gray, Miss Olive, Dept. of Education, Montgomery, Ala. 

Gray, Wm. S., University of Chicago, School of Education, Chicago, HL 

Greene, C. A., 405 N. Pa. Ave., Webb City, Mo. 

GreesoiL Wm. A., Supt. of Schools, Grand Rapids, Mich, 

Griffin, Margery, 4045 McPherson, St. Louis, Mo. 

Griggs, O. C, 312 S. Victor, Tulsa, Okla. 

Groves, J. W., 309 El Morada Court, Ontario, Calif. 

Gruenberg, Benj. C, 418 Central Park West, New York City. 

Gullette, Albert, Prin. Holmes School, 2522 Fillmore St., N. E., Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Gwinn, J. M., Supt. of Schools, New Orleans, La. 

Hackendorf, W. M., Biverview School, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hake, Miss Anna M., High School, Gettysburg, Pa, 

Hall, John W., Dean of School of Edu., Univ. of Nevada, Beno, Nevada. 

Hall, Madison, Supt. of Schools, Van Alstyne, Texas. 

Halleck, Beuben P., 1154 S. Third Ave., Louisville, Ey. 

Hamilton, Miss Cora M., State Normal School, Macomb, HI. 

Hamilton, Eatherine, Dept. of Education, 715 Commerce Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

Hanifan, L. J., State Supt. Rural Schools, Charleston, W. Va. 

Harris, Miss Ada VanStone, 4506 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Harvey, Nathan H., 1029 Ellis St., Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Hatfield, W. R., 6030 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, HL 

Heckert, J. W., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

Hendrix, Supt. H. E., Mesa, Arizona. 

Henry, T. S., State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Herron, Miss Helen, 1933 Elysian Fields Ave., New Orleans, La, 

Hill, A. B., 3508 High St., Little Bock, Ark. 

Hobson, Miss Elsie G., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Hoke, Eremer J., Dean of Education, College of William & Mary, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

Holmes, Prof. Henry W., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Horn, Ernest, 934 Eirkwood Ave., Iowa City, Iowa. 

Horn, John Lewis, School of Education, Mills College, Oakland, Calif. 

Horn Paul W., Supt. of Schools, Houston, Texas. 

Hornbaker, Mrs. Esther P., 1710 West 104th St, Chicago, HI. 

Hosic, James F., Chicago Normal College, Chicago, HI. 

Hudelson, Earl, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Imboden, Miss Sarah Mark, Super. Elem. Grades, P. S., Decatur, HI. 

Ingler, Francis M., 674 Durkee St., Appleton, Wis. 

Inglis, Prof. Alexander J., Harvard Univtrsity, Cambridge, Mass. 

Israel, Miss Selma, Box 894, Helena, Mont. 

Jeffers, Fred A., Supt. of Schools, Painesdale, Mich. 

Johnson, Franklin W., 60 Edgecliff Terrace, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Johnson, S., Box 1073, Orlando, Florida. 

Johnson, Willis E., Pres. State College, Brookings, S. Dak. 

Johnston, B. H., Prin. Kendall School, Tulsa, Okla. 

Johnston, Miss Kathryn, Box 738, Helena, Mont. 



MEMBEB8 231 

Jones, Arthur J., University of Pa., Philadelphia, Pa, 
Jones, Elmer £., 1115 Church St., Evanston, 111. 
Jordan, B. H., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 
Judd, Charles H., University of Chicago, Chicago, HL 
Keeling, A., Prin. Jefferson School, Tulsa, Okla. 
Keith, Allen P., 20 Locust St., New Bedford, Mass. 
Keith, Edna, Elementary Supervisor, Joliet, Illinois. 
Kelley, Boy B„ Supt. of Schools, Solvey, N. Y. 

Kelley, Truman L., Prof. Stanford Univ., Stanford University, Calif. 
Kellicott, Gertrude, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
Kelly, F. J., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 
Kent, Harry L., Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas. 
Kent, Baymond A., Supt. Schools, Duluth, Minn. 
Kemp, W. W., Pres, Normal School, San Jose, Calif. 
Kerr, W. H., State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. 
King, LeBoy A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kirby, Thomas J., University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 
Kirk, John B., Pres. State Normal School, Kirksville, Mo. 
Kirk ham, Louisa, Super, of Elementary Schools, Fort Smith, Ark. 
Knapp, E. F., Super, of Grades, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Koch, C. D., Dept. of Public Instr., Harrisburg, Pa. 
Kohs, Samuel C, 748 Irving St., Portland, Oregon. 
Kolbe, Miss Julia, Harris Bldg., Norwood, Ohio. 
Konold, Arthur W., Elwood, Ind. 
Koonce, B. E., Prin. Lee School, Tulsa, Okla. 
Koontz, Norman C, Supt. of Schools, Jamestown, N. Dak, 
Koos, L. V., University of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Lappin, J. C., Phillips University, East Enid, Okla. 
Latham, B. H., Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Lawrence, Isabel, State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn. 
Layton, S. H., Supt. of Schools, ^ltoona, Pa. 
Light, N. 3., Hartford, Conn. 

Logan, Anna E., Asst. Supt. of Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Longshore, W. T., 520 West 40th Street, Kansas City, Mo. 
Lord, Dr. L. C, State Normal School, Charleston, HI. 
Lowry, Charles D., 1643 Kenilworth Ave., Chicago, HI. 
Luckey, G. W. A., 1439 B. Street, Lincoln, Neb. 
Lukens, Herman T., 330 Webster Ave., Chicago, HI. 
Lull, H. G., Univ. of Lima, Lima, Peru. 
McAllister, Cloyd N., Berca, Ky. 
McCabe, E. M. S., Supt. of Schools, Copan, Okla. 
McCarthy, J. C., 789 Orange St., New Haven, Conn. 
McDonald, Bobert A. F., Bates College, Lewiston, Maine. 
McFarland, Geo. A., State Normal School, Williston, N. Dak. 
McKenny, Charles, Pres. State Normal, Ypsilanti, Mich. 
McLeod, J. A., 1225 Quaker, Tulsa, Okla. 
McMurry, Frank M., 9 Hillside Drive, Yonkers, N. Y. 
MacMillan, D. P., Suite 806 Tribune Bldg., Chicago, HI. 

McMullin, Walter G., Oliver Wendell Holmes Junior High School, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
Magee, M., Prin., Osage St., Tulsa, Okla. 
Maguire, Alice G., 34 Sherman St., Boxbury, Mass. 
Maguire, Anna A., 34 Sherman St., Boxbury, Mass. 
Manahan, J. L., Univ. of Virginia, University, Va. 
Mangun, Vernon L., Pres. Forestry S. N. S., Bottineau, N. Dak. 



232 IE* TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Marguerita, Sister, St. Ursula's Academy, Toledo, Ohio. 

Marrs, 8. M. N., Chief High School Super., Austin, Texas, 

Marsh, Arthur L., Toppenisb, Wash. 

Martin, J. W., 4428 W. Belle Place, St.. Louis, Mo. 

Maybcrry, Lawrence W., City Hall, Wichita, Kan. 

Maynard, M. M., Dept. of Edu., Monmouth College, Monmouth, HL 

Mead, Arthur, Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, Ohio. 

Mead, Cyrus D., Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Meek, Chas. S., Supt. of Schools, Madison, Wis. 

Melcher, George, Library Building, Kansas City, Kansas. 

Mellyn, Mary C, care of School Com., Mason St., Boston, Mass. 

Merriam, J. L., 204 Edgewood St., Columbia, Mo. 

Miller, Irving E., State Normal School, Bellingham, Wash. 

Miller, J. A., Prin. Washington School, Tulsa, Okla* 

Miller, Harriette M., New York University, Washington Square, New York (Sty 

Miner, Dr. James B., Carnegie Inst, of Tech., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Minnich, H. C, State Normal School, Oxford, Ohio. 

Monroe, Edwin S., Supt. of Schools, Hammond, Ind. 

Monroe, Walter S., Asst. Dir. Bureau of Educational Research, Urbana, JJL 

Morey, Chas. C, Prin. School No. 59, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Morris, Fannie M., Plummer School, East Boston, Mass. 

Morrison, H. C, The University of Chicago, Chicago, HL 

Morton, B. L., 18 Maplewood Drive, Athens, Ohio. 

Morton, Wm. M., 330 East 22nd St., Chicago, HI. 

Muerman, J. C, U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C 

Munson, O. F., Supt. of Schools, Fort Morgan Colo. 

Murphy, Frederick J., 574 Eighth St., South Boston, Mass. 

Neuharth, John J., Athol, S. Dak. 

Neverman, P. F., Supt. of Schools, Marinette, Wis. 

Newlon, Jesse H., Denver, Colo. 

Newman, Hugo, 538 W. 150th St., New York City. 

Newton, George A., Trinity University, Waxahachie, Texas. 

Nichols, C. A., Southers Meth. Univ., Dallas, Texas. 

Nifenecker, Eugene A., 390 Wadsworth Ave., New York City. 

Noble, Stuart G., Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss. 

Oberholtzer, E. E., Supt. of Schools, Tulsa, Okla. 

Olson, Miss Nellie B., 612 W. Second St., Faribault, Minn. 

O'Neal, Joseph A. F., John Winthrop School, Boston, Mass. 

Orman, Clarence, 2719 East 9th, Tulsa, Okla. 

Osburn, W. J., Dept. of Pub. Instr., Madison. 

O 'Shea, M. V., Univ. of Wisconsin; Madison, Wis. 

Otterman, Charles, 3301 Observatory Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Outcalt, Mrs. Adele M., 4201 Bandolph St., San Diego, Calif. 

Parker, Edward A., 6822 Mitchell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Parker, Samuel C, University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Partridge, Mrs. Clara Martin, 2413 Milvia St., Berkeley, Calif. 

Penfold, Arthur, 332 Beard Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Perkins, Geo. W., 71 Broadway, New York City. 

Perrine, C. H., Parker High School, Chicago, HL 

Phelan, W. W., 536 Chautauqua St., Norman, Okla. 

Philhower, Chas. A., Westfield, N. J. 

Phillips, Edna K., N. Y. Training Sch. for Teachers, 220 West 120th St., New 

York City. 
Pillsbury, W. H., Board of Education, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Pittenger, B. F., University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 



MEMBERS 233 

Porter, David C, Bridgeton, N. J. 

Powers, Boger A., Oliver Wendell Holmes School, Dorchester, Mass. 

Powers, 8. B., Univ. of Ark., College of Edu., Fayetteville, Ark. 

Pratt, O. C, Supt. of Schools, Administration Building, Spokane, Wash* 

Price, £. D., Enid, Okla. 

Prunty, M. C, Central High School, 313 N. Tacoma, Tulsa, Okla. 

Pryor, Hugh C., Northern Normal & Indus., Aberdeen, S. Dak. 

Rail, E. E., Pres., Northwestern College, Naperville, 111. 

Bawland, Albert, Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisbnrg, Pa. 

Beam, C. H., Supt. of Schools, Clear Lake, Iowa. 

Beeve, Wm. D., Univ. High School, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Beinoehl, Chas. M., Dept. Public Instruction, Helena, Mont. 

RhotoD, Prof. A. L., Pcnn. State College, Box 282, State College, Pa. 

Richards, J. P., Sequoyah School, 921 So. Cheyenne, Tulsa, Okla. 

Bobbins, Chas. L., Prof, of Education, 1049 Woodlawn, Iowa City, la. 

Roberts, George L., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Boot, Chas. C, Ltate Normal School, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Bosier, Joseph, Normal School, Fairmont, W. Va. 

Bounds, C. B., Supt. of Schools, Ft. Thomas, Ky. 

Boy, Victor Leander, Natchitoches, La. 

Buediger, W. C, Geo. Washington Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Bugg, Harold O., Lincoln School, 640 Park Street, New York City. 

Bynearson, Edw., Prin. Fifth Ave., High School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sachs, Dr. Julius, Columbia University, New York City. 

Sailer, T. H. P., Englewood, N. J. 

Sanger, Wm. T., Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Va. 

Schenck, Mrs. Kate S., 320 North Street, San Antonio, Tex. 

Scott, Thomas, Horace Mann School, 605 N. Cheyenne, Tulsa, Okla. 

Scott, Z. E., Supt. of Schools, Louisville, Ky. 

8enour, Alfred C, 1714 136th St., Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

Sexson, J. A., Sterling, Colo. 

8hankland, Sherwood D., Andrews Institute, Willoughby, Ohio. 

Shepherd, H. P., Junior High School, Kansas City, Kan. 

Slauson, Herbert M., 433 So. Fifth Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Slutz, Frank D., Moraine Park School, Dayton, Ohio. 

Smart, Frank L., Supt. of Schools, Davenport, Iowa. 

Smiley, Wm. H., Asst. Supt. Schools, Commonwealth Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Smith, Eugene B., Headmaster, Park Sen., Baltimore, Md. 

8mith, H. L., Dean, School of Edu., University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. 

Smith, Jesse L., Supt. of Schools, 141 So. 2nd St^ Highland Park, HI. 

Smith, Leon O., Asst. Supt. Schools, Boom 602, City Hall, Omaha, Neb. 

Smith, Mrs. Margaret M., Prin., Maria Mitchell Sen., Denver, Colo. 

Smith, Marion C, 2524 Beveridge Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

Smith, Wm. F., 316 N. West St., Tipton, Ind. 

Smoot, Lucy J., 4011 Baltimore, Kansas City, Mo. 

8nedden, David S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

Spencer, W. L., State Dept. Education, Montgomery, Ala. 

Sprague, H. A., 16 Laurel Ave., Summit, N. J. 

Starch, Daniel, 89 Trowbridge, Cambridge, Mass. 

Stark, William E., Supr. Prin. of Schools, Hackensack, N. J. 

Stilwell, W. E., Headmaster, Univ. Sch. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Stockinger, W. A., Supt. of Schools, Noblesville, Ind. 

Stone, Cliff, W., 603 Linden St., Pullman, Wash. 

8toutemyer, D. Howard, 1930 8th Ave., Kearney, Neb. 

Stowe, A. Monroe, Toledo Univ., Toledo, Ohio. 



234 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Strayer, G. D., Teachers College, New York City. 

Strecker, John K., Baylor University Library, Waco, Texas. 

Strong, B. Norman, Arsenal School, Hartford, Conn. 

Stuart, Josephine B., 87 Mill St., New Bedford, Mass. 

Study, Harry P., 309 B. St., Atchison, Kan. 

Sutherland, Dr. A. H., Board of Education, Security Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Suzzallo, Henry, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Swan, £. Q., Ironton, Ohio. 

Swift, Dr. W. B., 110 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass. 

Tall, Lida Lee, The Lincoln School, 646 Park Ave., New York City. 

Tanger, Landis, Supt. of Schools, Homestead, Pa. 

Taylor, J. S., 2275 Loring Place, Bronx, New York City. 

Terry, Paul W., University of Chicago, School of Education, Chicago, HI. 

Theisen, W. W., Dir. Board of Edu., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Thompson, Clement O., Prof, of Education, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 

Thompson, Frank E., University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Thorndike, E. L., Columbia University, New York City. 

Thurber, C. H., Editor, Ginn & Co., Boston, Mass. 

Tibbets, Anna Fargo College, Fargo, N. Dak. 

Tippett, Jas. S., Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. 

Tirapegui, Luis A., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., Box 154, New York 

City 
Toaz, Bobert K., Huntington, L. I., N. Y. 

Tompkins, Jonas M., Dist. Supt. Schools, 587 Windsor Ave., Hartford, Conn. 
Towne, Chas. F., Lasell Seminary, Auburndale, Mass. 
Trabue, M. B., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 
Traner, F. W., University of Nevada, Beno, Nev. 
Truesdell, Benj. W., 412 N. Emporia Ave., Wichita, Kan. 
Trumper, May, Helena, Mont. 

Updegraff, Harlan, University of Penna., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Vanderslice, H. B., Supt. of Schools, Coatesville, Pa. 
Vandewalker, Mrs. Nina C, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 
VanSickle, Jas. H., Supt. of Schools, 16 Buckingham St., Springfield, Mass. 
Van 't Boer, Cecelia, Statistician, Bd. Educ, Fort Smith, Ark. 
Verplanck, Fred A., So. Manchester, Conn. 

Vincent, H. D., Prin., Pub. Sch. No. 3, Cor. 5th Ave. & J. St., Troy, New York. 
Volker, Wm., Main, 2nd and 3rd Sts., Kansas City, Mo. 
Wagg, Alvin P., Oliver Wendell Holmes Sch., Dorchester, Mass. 
Waldo, Dwight B., State Normal Sch., Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Walls, W. A., Supt. of Schools, Kent, Ohio. 
Walker, Prof. E. T., El Paso Public Schools, El Paso, Texas. 
Walters, B. J., Supt. of Schools, Bocky Ford, Colo. 
Washburne, Carleton W., Supt. of 8chools, Winnetka, HI. 
Watkins, C. B., Prin. Emerson Sch., 17 E. Independence, Tulsa, Okla, 
Watts, Rowland, 3315 Powhatan Ave., Baltimore, Md. 
Weber, A. W., Normal Training School, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Weber, O. F., Supt. of Schools, Belleville, HI. 
Weber, S. E., Supt. of Schools, Scranton, Pa. 
Weglein, David E., Western High School, Baltimore, Md. 
Welsh, Wm. Henry, 17th & Pine Sts., Grant Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
West, Henry S., Supt. Public Instruction, Towson, Md. 
Whipple, G. M., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Whitney, Prof. A. 8., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Whitney, F. L., 715 University Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Wilber, Flora, Normal School, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



MEMBEB8 235 

Wilde, Arthur H., 125 Fair Oaks Park, Needham, Mass. 

Williams, £. I. F., 42 Circular St., Tiffin, Ohio. 

Williston, Arthur L., Prin. Wentworth Inst., Boston, Mass. 

Wills, Benj. G., Estancia, New Mex. 

Wilson, H. B., Supt. of Schools, Berkeley, Calif. 

Wilson, G. M., Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

Wilson, Mrs. L. L. W., Southern H. S. for Girls, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Witham, Ernest C, Supt. of Schools, Southington, Conn. 

Wood, £. B., Model High School, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 

Wood, O. A., 4213 E. 58th St., Kansas City, Mo. 

Woody, Clifford, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Yocum, A. D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Young, Leonard, Prin. High School, Duluth, Minn. 

Ziegler, J. W., care of John C. Winston Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Information Concerning the National Society for the 

Study of Education 



1. Pubpobb. The purpose of the National Society U to promote the 
end discussion of educational questions. To this end it holds en annual 
publishes a aeries of Yearbooks. 

3. Eligibility to Mbmbbbship. Any person who is interested In reeervine; 
publications may become a member upon application to the Secretary and ml 
approval by the Executive Committee. Membership may not be had by libraries 
institutions. 



•r* 



Item*. 



8. Period of Membership. Applicants for membership may not 
entrance back of the current calendar year, and all memberships terminate autotSBAlealy 
on December 81st, unless the dues for the ensuing year are paid as indicated in 

4. Classes 07 Mbmbkb8. Application may be made for either actiTe or 
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publication, are entitled to vote, to hold office and to participate in discussion, 
members pay one dollar dues annually, receive one copy of each publication, may 
the meetings of the Society, but may not vote, hold office or participate in discussion, 
names of active members only are printed in Part I of each Yearbook. There 
1920 about 250 active and 800 associate members. 



5. Elbotion Fbb. New active and new associate members are required the 
year to pay, in addition to the dues, an election fee of one dollar. 

6. Payment or Dubs. Statements of dues are rendered In October tor the reOov* 
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tive work by committees of the 8ociety. 

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membership, 82.00 for new associate membership). 



L ' 



;r 



GUY It WHIPPLE, Seo^tary-Treasurer. 



University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan. 



PUB 



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U5T OF TSAABOOE0 FVBIMBSO Hi 

(AU QaxUw YntatMtaa in Ar«ll*Ue &Uir,) 



i niaiii. 



The 

'wentieth Yearbook 



NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE 
OF EDUCATION 



PART II 

REPORT OF THE SOCIETY'S COMM' 
SILENT READING 






THE 

Twentieth Yearbook 

OF THE 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY 

OF EDUCATION 

PART II 

REPORT OF THE SOCIETY'S COMMITTEE ON 

SILENT READING 

Prepared by the Committee from Material Submitted 

BY 

J. A. O'Brien, Mat Aybes Burgess, S. A. Coubtis, G. E. Germane, 

W. S. Gray, H. A. Greene, Reginia B. Helleb, J. H. Hoover, 

J. L. Packer, D. Starch, W. W. Thbisen, G. A. Yoakum, 

and 

Representatives of the School Systems of Cedar Bapids, 
Denver, Iowa City, and Racine 



Edited by Guy Montrose Whipple 



THIS YEARBOOK WILL BE DISCUSSED AT THE ATLANTIC CITT 

MEETING OP THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, SATURDAY 

PEBRUARY 26, 1921, 8:00 P. M. 

PUBLIC 8CHOOL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

BLOOMINGTON, ILLINOIS 

1921 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
for the Atlantic City Meeting 



President 

Harry B. Wilson 
Superintendent of Schools, Berkeley, California 

Vice-President 

David Felmley 
Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Guy Montrose Whipple 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Executive Committee 

(The Year Indicates Date of Expiration of Term) 

Ernest Horn (1921) 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Frederick James Kelly (1922) 
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 

Paul Whitfield Horn (1923) 
Superintendent of Schools, Houston, Texas 

Stephen S. Colvin (1924) 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 

Board of Trustees 

Daniel Starch (1921) 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

W. W. Kemp (1922) 
State Normal School, San Jose, California 

Frank W. Ballou (1923) 
Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction vn 

Ernest Horn, Chairman of the Committee 

SECTION 1 

CHAP. 

I. Factors Affecting Results in Primary Reading .... 1 

W. W. Theisen, Director of the Division of Reference 
and Research, Cleveland Public Schools 

II. Controlling Factors in the Measurement of Silent 

Reading 25 

May Ayres Burgess, Department of Education, Busaell 
Sage Foundation 

III. Individual Difficulties in Silent Reading in the 

Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades 39 

William S. Gray, The University of Chicago 

IV. The Development of Speed in Silent Reading 54 

John A. O'Brien 

V. Motivated Drill Work in Third-Grade Silent 

Reading 77 

J. H. Hoover, Cape Girardeau, Missouri 

VI. The Effect of a Single Reading 90 

G. A. Yoakum, Director of Teacher Training, Nebraska 
State Normal School, Kearney, Nebraska 

VII. Outlining and Summarizing Compared with Re- 
reading as Methods of Studying 103 

Charles E. Germane, Department of Education, Des 
Moines University 

VIII. Measuring Comprehension of Content Material... 114 

Harry A. Greene, State University of Iowa 

IX. The Vocabularies of Ten First Readers 127 

J. L. Packer 

X. The Contents of Readers 145 

Daniel Starch, Harvard University 

SECTION 2 

I. Exercises Developed at Detroit for Making Reading 

Function 158 

Beoinia R. nELLER and S. A. Courtis, Detroit Public 
Schools 

II. Silent Reading Exercises Developed at Denver, 

Cedar Rapids, Racine, and Iowa City 162 

Information Concerning the National Society for the Study 

of Education 173 



INTRODUCTION 

As stated in the introduction to the Eighteenth Yearbook, 
Part II, of this Society, it was hoped by those who contributed 
that the book would serve to stimulate further investigation in the 
various fields of work which were reported. This hope has been so 
well realized for the subject of reading, that at the Cleveland meet- 
ing the Executive Committee of the Society decided that it was very 
important to collect and publish the results of such studies as have 
been completed since Dean Oray made his report two years ago. 
This work was assigned to the committee whose names are signed to 
this report. These members were asked to suggest others who had 
something to contribute. Dr. Thorndike and Dean Haggerty found 
it impossible to finish their manuscripts in time to have them in- 
cluded in the Yearbook. Dr. O'Brien's study was submitted 
through Dr. Buckingham, under whose direction the investigation 
was made. Other contributors are indicated in the table of contents. 

After considerable correspondence among members of the com- 
mittee it seemed best to arrange the Yearbook in two sections, the 
first part dealing with investigations which presented data bearing 
on the problem of reading, the second part containing examples of 
concrete exercises which have been actually tried in the classroom. 
It was hoped to give a large proportion of the space to these class* 
room exercises, but the difficulty of gathering and editing them was 
so great that it has seemed necessary to include at this time only a 
few samples of lessons which were submitted, and to suggest that 
an entire Yearbook be later given to this work. 

It is very essential that such studies as are described in the first 
part of this report be made. Teachers are particularly ready just 
now to undertake any new method which goes under the name of 
"silent reading." No doubt, the teaching which results from this 
interest will, in general, be superior to that which we have had in 
the past. On the other hand, many mistakes will be made, some of 
them perhaps quite serious. This is particularly likely to be true 
in the case of certain types of speed exercises. In a way, it is un- 

vn 



vin 

fortunate that changes in methods cannot be delayed until we have 
more assurance as to the efficiency of the methods which are being 
recommended. 

The problems which need investigation are almost without limit 
Most of them, however, may be grouped under five heads : first, the 
thorough-going analysis of the various types of reading abilities 
required in life outside the school; second, the construction of a 
course of study which would show the proper relation, on the one 
hand, between oral and silent reading, and, on the other hand, be- 
tween reading and literature; third, a study of the problems of 
reading in the area where reading overlaps study ; fourth, the dis- 
covery of exercises for the development of each of the major types 
of reading abilities; fifth, an investigation of the diagnosis and 
treatment of individual cases. These problems naturally overlap ; 
each is a center of focus rather than an isolated problem. 

In attacking any of these groups of problems it is important 
to distinguish among four qualities and to study the relation 
existing among them. These are speed (including skimming), com- 
prehension, organization, and remembrance. There are, in addition 
to these, certain technical skills, such as the use of reference ma- 
terial in libraries, the use of encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc. There 
are also the various abilities involved in the proper use of indexes 
and tables of contents. Each of these abilities needs to be studied, 
moreover, in relation to the various types of materials which are 
commonly read and in relation to the various purposes for which 
these types of material are read. 

The exercises which are given in Section II represent but a 
small sampling of a great number which were submitted. Since it 
was impossible to print all of the really excellent lessons which 
were reported, it seemed wise to include only exercises for the 
first three grades. Even with these limitations there was space but 
for a small part of the lessons which were submitted. The effort of 
the Chairman has been to select lessons which represent a wide 
range of types of exercises. 

These lessons embody attempts to work out methods of teaching 
under the guidance of the data which have been disclosed by such 
investigations as were summarized by Dr. Gray in the Eighteenth 



IX 

Yearbook, Part II, and as are also reported in the first section of 
this Yearbook. In this sense they represent experimental work. 
They are for the most part in the stage where the technique of 
practical method is being worked out. So far, little has been done 
to isolate and test the effect of any one exercise, but we have evi- 
dence that satisfactory results can be obtained from certain com- 
binations of exercises. Studies like those of O'Brien and of Hoover 
in this Yearbook, for instance, lead to just such conclusions. The 
conclusions seem to be substantiated also by the superior scores made 
on the standard tests by schools which have featured such work, and 
by the rapid improvement which has resulted when such exercises 
have been introduced. 

It is the opinion of the Committee that this or some similarly 
constituted committee should continue the study of these problems. 
As rapidly as possible the efficiency of each type of exercise should 
be scientifically determined. Investigation must of necessity be 
slow. Meanwhile, an exhaustive search should be made for all types 
of silent reading exercises which seem to give good results. These 
may be subjected by the Committee to a critical examination made 
in the light of present knowledge, and printed with explanatory 
notes as a future Yearbook. 

Committee on Silent Beading, 
H. A. Brown, 
B. B. Buckingham, 
S. A. Courtis, 
W. S. Gray, 
M. E. Haggertt, 

D. Starch, 

E. L. Thorndike, 
G. M. Whipple, 
Ernest Horn, Chairman. 



SECTION 1 
CHAPTER I 

FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PRIMARY BEADING 



W. W. Theisbn 

Director of the Division of Reference and Research 

Cleveland Public Schools 



INTRODUCTldR' 

Reading instruction may be said to be in a process of transition 
as regards aims, methods and content. If one examines the older 
literature, one frequently encounters such terms as "expression," 
"enunciation," "articulation," "pitch," "inflection," and "em- 
phasis," while today "silent reading," "thought," "content 
value, " " rate, ' ' and ' ' individual differences f ' are terms which chal- 
lenge the attention of the student. It is not difficult to locate the 
cause. The development of a more scientific attitude toward edu- 
cation has tended to make educators more critical. Studies of 
failures (16)\ the development of standard educational and intelli- 
gence tests and the use of methods of classroom experimentation 
have served to point out some of the shortcomings of the old sys- 
tem and to indicate some of the possibilities of the new. Even so, 
there has been far too little actual testing of results and too little 
experimentation to discover possible achievements. When we con- 
sider the time that is ordinarily given to primary reading and the 
bearing of reading achievement upon the future success of the 
child, it is important that we bring together such evidence as we 
have, concerning the effect of various factors in producing results. 
This article is offered as a brief summary of experimental evidences 
and current thought concerning factors affecting results in primary 
reading. 

FACTORS 

1. Attendance. For a group of children just learning to read, 
attendance is a factor that may be important. It is a matter of 

1 Numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of this 
chapter. 

1 



2 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

observation that normal children sometimes fail to acquire satis- 
factory proficiency in primary reading, because of excessive absence. 
However, absences that aggregate less than two months in the course 
of a year probably have little effect upon attainment in primary 
reading as compared with such other factors as intelligence, quality 
of teaching and amount of reading done. The writer found the 
correlation between attendance and attainment on the Haggerty 
Achievement Beading Tests to be negligible for the children who 
had had kindergarten training, and who had attended school for 
130 days or more at the time of the test in May.* The Pearson 
correlation between attendance and score for 210 first-grade chil- 
dren, selected at random, was .017 for Test I, — .003 for Test II, and 
.008 for the two tests combined. For 190 second-grade children, 
similarly selected, the corresponding figure in the case of Test I 
was .073 (31). 

Long periods of interruption would probably interfere materi- 
ally with progress. Packer and Anderson found in the case of rate 
of reading that summer vacation lowered it materially. Children 
in 1 B, who read 50 words per minute in May, read but 44 in Sep- 
tember. Corresponding figures were : for 1 A, 84 and 49 ; for 2 B, 
125 and 68; and for 2 A, 145 and 125, respectively (21). 

2. Time Devoted to Reading. At first thought, many persons 
would probably say that results in primary reading vary directly 
with the time given to reading on the daily program. If all other 
factors were equal, this would probably be true within limits. 
Under present ways of teaching, other factors apparently over- 
shadow it. The Pearson correlations obtained in our own study 
between total time (including recitation, study and phonics) and 
score on the Haggerty tests for 200 first-grade children, selected at 
random from a group of nearly 600, were slightly negative, being 
—.035 for Test I, —.153 for Test II, and —.102 for both tests com- 



1 Figures recently given us by Miss Engel, of the Psychological Clinic at 
Detroit, indicate that a percentage of absence greater than 15, or a lesser 
amount of continuous absence, is causally related in a definite way to first- 
grade failure. The operation of this factor might not be revealed by the method 
of correlation, but it is revealed when differences in intelligence are first allowed 
for and the pupils then classified into those who are promoted and those who axe 
not promoted. — Editor. 



FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PBIMABY BEADING 3 

bined (31). The Spearman correlation obtained by Woody for 
Grades III, IV, and V between the number of minutes per week de- 
voted to reading recitation (actual reading, phonics and word drills, 
exclusive of study) and the scores attained in the Monroe reading 
test were those of Table 1. 

table 1 

OOBULATIOHS BlTWUX TlMl DEVOTED TO READING AND SCOEBS IK MONBOl READING 

Tl8T (WOODV) 



Grade 


Number of 
Teachers 
Reporting 


Correlation 
between time 
and comprehen- 
sion scores 


Correlation 

between time 

and rata 

scores 


rn 

IV 
V 


51 
52 
60 


.18 
.06 
.06 


.17 
.20 
.06 



This lack of correlation, he concludes, seems to indicate that 
other factors are more influential in determining the score attained 
than the time element (33). While these two studies are by no 
means conclusive, they indicate how completely other factors may 
submerge the time factor. It is entirely possible, e. g., that many 
children may gain more from ten minutes spent in independent 
silent reading than they would in a twenty-minute oral-reading 
recitation period of the conventional type. Similarly, a class pos- 
sessing a high average intelligence may make greater progress in 
half the time taken by one of low intelligence. Again, one teacher 
will use the entire period profitably while another squanders two- 
thirds of it. The teacher should endeavor constantly to have each 
child spend his reading time in ways that will be the most profitable 
to him. 

3. Kindergarten Training. Does kindergarten training influ- 
ence the character of the reading work done by children in the 
primary grades t No comprehensive studies of this problem have 
been made. Our own results with the Haggerty tests in the first 
grade showed that the group that had attended kindergarten ex- 
ceeded the group that had not, even though their median ages were 
the same. The median score for the kindergarten group was 7.5 in 
Test I, and 4.2 in Test II, and for the non-kindergarten group 6.0 
and 3.6, respectively. In the second grade, the kindergarten group 



4 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

scored 13.8 in Test I, and 9.6 in Test II, while the non-kindergarten 
group scored 12.6 and 7.4, respectively. In the third grade the 
non-kindergarten group excelled. The number of pupils, however, 
was less in this grade, as the figures in Table 2 will show. The 
average difference between the kindergarten and non-kindergarten 
groups is roughly equal to one-fourth of the interval between the 
first and second grades (31). 



TABLE 2 



liBDIAH SCOUS OH 


THE HAGG1BTY ACHUVHflNT READING Tl8T FOB KnTDKBGABTlV 
AND NON-KlNDIBOABTBN GBOUP8 




Grade I 


Grade II 


Grade III 




Test I 


Teat II 


Teat I 


Test II 


Test I 


Test II 


Kindergarten 

Group 
Non-k i ndergarten 

Group 


7.5 (526) 
6.0 (92) 


4.2 (516) 
8.6 (91) 


18.8 (878) 
12.6 (77) 


9.6 (878) 
7.4 (70) 


17.8 (106) 

18.9 (70) 


15.6 (106) 
16.8 (59) 



Figures in parenthesis indicate number of children. 

4. Intelligence and Mental Age. Dickson had children of the 
low first grade segregated on the basis of intelligence quotient and 
mental age. After an experiment covering a year and a half, he 
concluded that "mental age and I. Q. are important factors in re- 
vealing a child's chances for success in his school work." Children 
who tested low were very slow to learn to read. They had little 
initiative. What they appeared to learn one day was not retained 
to the next. Much repetition was necessary. Their reading was 
marked by a tendency to name words without thought of their 
meaning. In a group of "borderzone" children (I. Q. 85 or below) 
only 6 could read in an easy primer after nearly a year and a half 
of effort under a strong primary teacher. Of 42 pupils who tested 
normal or above, "all but five passed the work of the first grade 
at the end of the term. The teacher attributed the failure of four 
of these to irregular attendance, and of one to excessive timidity." 

In another school, thirty of the pupils, who tested below six 
years mentally, and who classified in the "dull normal" group, or 
below, were placed in a special first-grade division. Ten were re- 
peating the work of the grade. At the end of two terms, under the 
experiment, two pupils out of the thirty were promoted into the 
high first" grade, regular class. Near the end of the third term, 



t< 



FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PEIMARY BEADING 5 

five more were ready (7). While this is but one experiment, the 
results are exceedingly significant for primary education. Hag- 
gerty has found that there is a significant correlation between 
intelligence and ability to perform the exercises of his primary 
reading tests (12) . He correlated teachers' estimates of intelligence 
when weighted according to grade location, with scores on his read- 
ing tests. In the case of 200 pupils in Grades I to III the Pearson 
coefficients were .71 for Test I, .69 for Test II, and .76 for the two 
tests combined. Similar figures for 144 eight-year-old pupils were 
.67, .67, and .71, respectively. Using the scores obtained with his 
intelligence test, the figures were .65, .67, and .70 for the same 
group. For 200 pupils of Grades I and II the intelligence and 
reading tests yielded a correlation of .84. Terman reports five third 
grades tested by Dickson in the results shown in Table 3. 



TABLE 8 

DltTBIBUTIOW OV IKTBLLIGSNOI IN FlYB THIBD-OEADB ROOM8 (ATTBB DlOXSOH) 


Boom 


Median 

Mental 

Age 


Median 
I. Q. 


Percent 

below 
5.5 men- 
tal Age 


Percent 

a bore 

7 mental 

Age 


A 
B 
O 
D 

B 


6-0 
5-7 
6-0 
7-2 
7-8 


87 

76 

85 

108 

112 


81 
46 
20 
14 



10 
6 

20 
60 
71 



He points out the average mental age of Room E was fully two 
years above that in Room B, and the median I. Q. 36 points higher. 
"One third of the pupils in Room A, and half of those in Room B 
were incapable of doing standard first-grade work." The lack of 
progress in Room B was so evident that the teacher was in despair 
and the superintendent doubted her efficiency (28). 

Of all the factors which make for progress in primary reading, 
intelligence is probably the most significant. It has not, however, 
been sufficiently recognized in dealing with children. 

5. Chronological Age. Chronological age at any stage of school 
life is less indicative of probable success than mental age, or mental 
maturity. The younger children of a grade on the whole excel the 
older in reading (e. g. 9 see 9, 30). Their superior intelligence 
enables them to do so. The six- and seven-year-old first-grade pupils 



6 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

in St. Louis read better orally than the eight- and nine-year-olds. 
Similarly, in the second grade the seven- and eight-year-olds aver- 
aged better than the nine- and ten-year-olds. The average rate of 
silent reading in the second grade was found to decrease with 
age (9). 

It is not surprising that our results showed no correlation be- 
tween score on the Haggerty tests and age. For 210 first-grade 
pupils, and 190 second-grade pupils, selected at random, the corre- 
lations between age and score were zero, except one correlation of 
0.13 between Test I and age in the second grade These figures 
are too small to be of significance. If age were one of the strong 
factors in producing results in primary reading, we should expect 
to find a decided positive correlation between it and reading per- 
formance. Such a condition would mean, in general, that the older 
the child in a given grade, the better his reading. This, however, 
is not the case. Only in the event that we selected children of about 
the same intelligence quotient should we expect to find a positive 
correlation between chronological age and reading achievement. 

6. Nationality and Home Influence. Foreign language spoken 
in the home is a distinct handicap to a child's reading development. 
This agrees with common observation. It is difficult, however, to 
determine the influence of nationality. Intelligence, rather than 
nationality per se, probably accounts for a large part of the differ- 
ences in attainments of different language groups. The Rochester 
studies tend to show that Hebrew children can be expected to read 
better than foreign children of other nationalities, and that Italian 
children do not read as well. 'Hern concluded from the Rochester 
studies that foreign children made relatively better showings in 
oral than in silent reading. But even in oral reading tests "the 
children seemed to labor under a distinct language handicap. This 

TABLE 4 

Oral Riadinq Sooris in thi Gray Test bt Pbkdomhutuo Natxovautt 

(Arm Judd) 



Cleveland Polish and 

Grade Average American Italian Bohemian Jewish 

I 81 87 21 21 82 

H 42 44 25 40 48 

XII 46 47 28 44 60 



FACT0B8 AFFECTING RESULTS IN PRIMARY BEADING 7 

was decidedly noticeable in the case of Italian children. The differ- 
ences due to nationality were more marked in the silent reading 
scores than in oral reading scores" (20). In Cleveland, as Table 4 
shows, the oral reading of Jewish children was distinctly above 
that of the average, and that of Italian children much below. Poles 
and Bohemians were reported as making slow progress during the 
first year but approximating the average in the next four grades 
(16). In St. Louis, English-speaking and German-speaking chil- 
dren represent average achievement. "Jewish children rank above 
the average, and Italian pupils rank distinctly below the average. 
With the exception of German and Jewish children, practically all 
foreign-speaking children are seriously retarded by language handi- 
caps." In quality of silent reading "foreign children made lower 
scores than did English-speaking children. Jewish children formed 
an exception to this rule. There seemed to be little correlation be- 
tween rate of silent reading and nationality." The exact figures 
are not shown. In the case of oral reading, the report recommends 
that selections "be provided which are simple in construction and 
phraseology, and that will enable the pupil to develop gradually in 
the mastery of language forms as well as in the recognition of 
symbols." With reference to silent reading it recommends the 
extensive reading of simple selections which relate to familiar ex- 
periences (9). 

7. Oral Versus Silent Reading. For many years, oral reading 
has played a lone part in our schools, particularly in the primary 
grades. The growing dissatisfaction with reading progress and 
the evident superior merit of practice in silent reading is now result- 
ing in a movement to introduce a larger proportion of the latter 
into all grades. To what extent silent reading can be profitably 
substituted for oral in the primary grades is a matter that should 
be determined by careful experimentation. In the light of the evi- 
dence we now possess, there is nothing that would justify the 
amount of oral reading commonly found. It is becoming more and 
more evident that mechanical accuracy does not imply an under- 
standing of the thought. Comprehension is less than in silent 
reading and rate is slower. Individual needs are not well satisfied. 



8 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Experimental evidence sufficient to establish the greater effect- 
iveness of training in silent reading is not yet available. What we 
have is confined largely to the intermediate grades and has not 
always been produced under carefully controlled conditions. Woody 
correlated the estimated proportion of recitation time devoted to 
silent reading and class scores on the Monroe tests. Using the 
Spearman method, he obtained correlations of only — 21, .00, and 
.01 in Grades III, VII, and VIII, respectively, when based upon 
comprehension scores, and .00, .10, and — .13, when based upon rate 
scores (33). 

Pintner and Gilliland concluded that oral and silent reading 
were about equally effective in the third and fourth grades, but 
neglected some important factors (22). Both Mead and Pintner 
(cited by Gray) secured better reproduction in the intermediate 
grades from silent reading (10, 18, 24). These experiments pre- 
sumably were performed on children who had been reared largely 
on an oral reading diet. Had these children had equal amounts of 
training in silent and oral reading, the results would probably have 
been more strongly in favor of silent reading. The greater facility 
with which thought may be acquired in silent reading results from 
the fact that attention need not be directed to mechanics. Among 
older children and adults, at least, eye pauses in oral reading com- 
monly occur at short intervals. In silent reading, pupils are free 
to take in longer units, and this permits a better organization of 
the thought (17). Of 26 persons ranging from fourth grade to 
college, tested by C. T. Gray, 21 made fewer pauses per line silently 
than orally (8). Schmidt found the average number of pauses per 
line for 45 adults to be 6.5 in silent reading and 8.2 in oral 
reading (27). 

The tenacity with which primary teachers have clung to oral 
reading is probably due to two causes. They know of no way to 
bring about improvement in oral reading except through oral read- 
ing, and they have not known how to conduct silent reading exer- 
cises. We firmly believe that experiments will prove that, even in 
the primary grades, oral reading ability can be developed through 
training in silent reading. Hawley secured marked gain in silent 
reading performances in the sixth grade through the use of daily 



FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PRIMARY BEADING Q 

thought drill exercises and weekly thought tests. Without being 
emphasized, oral reading improved at the same time (13). 

In the matter of reading rates in primary grades, the bulk of 
the evidence favors silent reading. W. S. Gray found that "the 
rate of silent reading for the second and third grades was less 
rapid than that of oral reading, when using selections of about 
equal difficulty" (10). He accounts for it by the fact that, "when 
a pupil is asked to read a selection for the content, he may read it 
more slowly than if he were reading it orally without directing 
special attention to content." It was probably due also to the fact 
that previous training had been chiefly in oral reading. He does 
not compare thought mastery in the two cases. Of the experi- 
menters cited by him, Oberholtzer found the rate of silent reading 
in the third grade, as well as that of higher grades to be higher 
than that for oral. He obtained an oral rate of 2.1 words per 
second in the third grade and 2.2 words in the fourth. The silent 
reading rates in these grades are 2.3 and 2.6, respectively (19). 
Hendricks found that first-grade children read faster silently than 
orally (14). Judd's results showed that a greater number of lines 
per minute were read silently than orally in all grades. The sec- 
ond grade read thirteen lines orally and sixteen lines silently per 
minute from the Jones Reader (16). Unfortunately, much of the 
material used in making rate comparisons was not standardized. 
Lines, and even words, as Courtis has pointed out (5), are far from 
uniform in length. 

The average variation in rate is much less in oral reading. This 
means that when children in a grade read orally their rates are 
more nearly alike than when they read silently, unhampered by the 
physiological mechanism of the voice. This may be seen from the 
figures of Table 5, which have been computed from those of the 
Cleveland Survey (16). 

TABLE 5 
Average Variation nr Rates or Oral and Silent Reading 





Grade II 


Grade III 


Average of Ave schools having lowest moan 


Oral Silent 
1.5 5.8 
2.8 10.8 


Oral Silent 
1.4 4.8 


Average of five schools having highest mean 


2.0 12.5 



12 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

later when it is necessary to keep the word units dear. At any 
rate, phonic analysis is probably, best taught outside of the regular 
reading period. This matter was treated in the Eighteenth Year- 
book, from which we quote: "If such studies are made during the 
regular reading period, there is danger that attention will shift 
from the content of what is read to the study of individual words. 
If the basic training in the analysis of words is given during drill 
periods, the information and skill thus secured can be applied 
quickly and effectively during reading exercises without withdraw- 
ing attention from the content of what is read" (11). 

The question of phonics or no phonics is perhaps of less im- 
portance than those of just what, how much, and for whom. Pres- 
ent practice is exceedingly wasteful. It is not uncommon to see an 
entire class spend several minutes daily in studying phonics with 
but scant thought of individual needs. Let those who need train- 
ing on particular elements be given that training, but excuse those 
already familiar with them. The phonic content taught should 
have a direct bearing upon the reading in hand. Time is frequently 
wasted on material for which there will be no use except in the 
remote future. Whatever time is spent upon phonics should be 
spent profitably. That it is so spent can scarcely be said when 
classes that spend 15 or 20 minutes daily on phonics do no better 
than others that spend only five and ten, or when the correlations 
between the time devoted to phonics and the results of reading tests 
are zero or negative. The Pearson correlation coefficients obtained 
in our own study between time devoted to phonics and scores on 
the Haggerty tests for 200 first-grade children, selected at random, 
were —.148 for Test I, —.173 for Test II, and —.178 for the two 
combined (31). The correlation obtained by Woody in the third 
grade between the estimated proportion of time devoted to phonics, 
as reported by 47 teachers, and scores on the Monroe test was 
slightly positive. The Spearman correlation between time devoted 
to phonics and comprehension score was .31, and that between time 
devoted to phonics and rate score .23 (33). While these figures 
are by no means conclusive, they make it doubtful whether the 
teaching of phonics, as now practiced, has much bearing upon suc- 
cess in silent reading in primary grades. 



FACT0B8 AFFECTING BE8ULT3 IN PBIMABY BEADING 13 

11. What Phonic System Is Most Effective in Teaching Pri- 
mary Reading? This question has often been raised, but never 
satisfactorily answered. Most publishers of systems in current use 
could probably be persuaded, with little difficulty, that their own 
system is second to none. The investigations made previous to 1919 
were reviewed, and their limitations pointed out in this Society's 
Yearbook for that year (11) . For the most part, these studies have 
been very narrow in scope ; usually they have been limited to a few 
classes, and often to a single school system. Only a few phonic 
systems were considered in any one investigation. In some of these 
studies the attendance factor has been controlled and efforts have 
sometimes been made to control the teacher factor, but in no case 
has the factor of intelligence been taken into account. The latter 
two factors are probably of much greater importance than any 
particular phonic system itself. 

In May, 1920, the writer secured results with the Haggerty 
reading tests from 15 school systems. The records of classes and 
schools using different phonic systems were compared. Records of 
those individuals who had been present less than 130 days, who 
were transferred from other schools, or who had not had the advan- 



tablb 7 

ifrotAw Class Soobis fob Test I or thc Haggxbty Reading Test, Olasufhd 

ACCOBDIKO TO THE PHONIC SYSTEM USBD 



M 


• 

•0* 

3 


a 
8 

m 



g 

H 






O 
O 


1 

m 


•3 




a 

i 


is 




— p 

OS 


• 


8.4 


6.0 


2.8 


6.8f 


0.8 


6.8 


6.1 


8.3 


5.3 


10.5 


•0 


0.0 


6.5 


4.8 


7.5 


1.5 


8.5 






6.5 


12.0 


»4 




8.0 


4.5 


8.0 


4.8 


9.2 






10.5 


18.2 


O 




10.8 


4.8 

6.0 

6.5 

16.8 




5.0* 
5.0 
5.4 
7.0 


9.8 
0.5 
0.8 

10.0 

10.1 
18.8 






11.7 






10.8 


M ttW> 


11.8 


mmmmmmmmmnm9m 


8.0 1 


11.5 


12.5 


.,,. m 


0.5 


12.01 




12.3 




12.8 




9.5 


13.0 






17.0 


12.8 


B 


16.5 




13.0 




11.8 


15.2 










i 


17.0 




18.8 




11.8 


15.5 










18.8 




15.8 




14.4 


15.8 














17.5* 




16.0* 


17.2 










O 












18,8 











tTwo pupils (kipped to 2nd Grade in half a year. 

'Class did not haYe kindergarten training. 

tOlass had 4 different teachers during lit semester of Grade II. 



14 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

tage of kindergarten training were excluded. Although reports 
were received from 41 first-grade and 29 second-grade classes, the 
numbers were insufficient to warrant final conclusions. Not all of 
the good, nor all of the poor records were confined to classes trained 
in any one of the phonic systems, as Table 7 shows. 

The system which produced the best class record in the first 
grade produced another that was among the poorest three. Two 
of the four best records were made by classes not reared by any 
of the commercialized systems, but on adaptations arranged by the 
teacher or the supervisor in charge (31). 

12. Eye Habits. Most of the efforts to study eye habits have 
been confined to older children. C. T. Gray and Judd have noted 
that good readers tend to have fewer pauses per line in silent 
reading than poor readers of the same grade (8, 17). Gray's data 
show that the average number of eye pauses for 8 elementary-school 
pupils rated as good readers was 6.1 per line, while that of 9 poor 
readers observed in the same grades was 10.8. The good reader 
exhibits a tendency to group his words into phrases as the adult 
does. The records of the poor readers indicate a tendency to pause 
on every word or even oftener. Sapid readers commonly make 
only a few pauses within each line. Huey cites evidence showing 
that slow readers read a word at a time, while rapid readers take 
in longer units. Some rapid readers, however, were found by C. T. 
Gray to make large numbers of short pauses per line. The slow 
reader makes frequent regressive movements. The most efficient 
reading was done by those who made few pauses and used longer 
periods of assimilation. Gray's results show that the eye- voice span 
in oral is longer in the case of good readers. Phrasing practice, 
particularly of the flash type, will probably tend to reduce the 
number of eye pauses per line and increase both comprehension and 
rate. The writer has found repeatedly through informal flash test- 
ing in primary and intermediate grades that the quantity of repro- 
duction is decidedly larger in the case of pupils who are in the 
habit of phrasing. Practice in the type of work probably tends to 
decrease the number of eye pauses per line and consequently to 
facilitate thought mastery. C. T. Gray's study shows that prac- 
tice in rapid silent reading decreased the number of eye pauses 



FACTOBS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PRIMABY BEADING 15 

per line. Twenty days' practice in the case of one poor reader 
reduced the average number from 15.5 to 6.1 without decreasing 
comprehension in any material way (8). s 

13. Vocalization. Vocalization during silent reading is com- 
mon among primary children. The origin in most cases can prob- 
ably be traced to oral reading. Having become accustomed to the 
process of oral reading, many children employ the same laborious 
process in silent reading, though not allowing the oral expression 
to become audible. Instead of proceeding directly from the symbol 
to the idea expressed, they tend to give it oral expression first. 

The effect of vocalization, as far as evidence goes, is to retard 
rate. Its effect on comprehension is less clear. Of the investigators 
referred to by W. S. Gray, Hendricks found that among first-grade 
children there was no appreciable difference between lip movers 
and non-lip movers, but among fourth-grade and eighth-grade chil- 
dren, the non-lip movers read faster. The ten slowest adult readers 
studied by Quantz showed nearly twice as much lip movement as 
the most rapid (10, 14, 23). Pintner, also experimenting with 
adults, found that "practice in reading without articulation in- 
creases the ordinary rate of reading ;" that "articulation during 
the reading process is a habit which is not necessary for that pro- 
cess ; that practice in reading without articulation can make such 
reading as good as the ordinary reading of the same individual ; 
that practice in reading without articulation tends to aid ordi- 
nary reading most probably by shortening the habitual practice of 
articulation" (25). 

C. T. Gray found that twenty days of practice in reading with- 
out vocalization decreased the amount of motor accompaniment of 
reading and increased rate. While more of his pupils lost than 
gained in comprehension, it is not a fair assumption that vocaliza- 
tion increases comprehension (8). It is both conceivable and prob- 
able that children who have been trained primarily in oral reading 
may lose in comprehension when first asked to read without vocal- 
izing. But that they will continue to suffer in comprehension, we 

*Sce the chapter by W. S.Gray in thisT>ar&oofc for further Ulustrations. — 
Editor. 



16 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

have no evidence, nor have we any that they would do so at all, if 
trained to read silently from the beginning. 

14. Amount of Reading. "Learn to read by reading" is a 
familiar maxim. We have not yet witnessed a sufficient amount of 
experimentation under controlled conditions to enable us to say 
just what influence the quantity of material read has. It is con- 
ceivable that children may read large quantities of material in 
a slipshod fashion and gain but little as a result. On the other hand, 
it is also conceivable that a smaller amount of careful reading may 
produce a good reader. The general trend of teachers ' opinions 
seems to be that good readers are produced by a large amount of 
reading. This contention is not without merit. Schools in which 
a large number of books is read in primary grades as a rule pro- 
duce strong readers, in comparison with those where little is read, 
e. g., city vs. rural schools. In the St. Louis survey a large pro- 
portion of the pupils were found to be reading many books silently 
during the second and third grades. In some classes the children 
read as many as one book a week. The tests showed that these 
children were markedly superior to those who did not have such 
opportunity (9, p. 179). The extensive reader acquires a wide 
field of experience, secures much practice in silent reading for the 
thought, the thread of the story, or the points of interest. He be- 
comes practiced in phrasing. His vocabulary is increased through 
acquisition of words whose meaning is gathered from the context. 

There is also to be considered the question of the relation of 
amount read to the rate of reading. We luay well ask whether 
children read more because they read rapidly, or whether they can 
read fast because they read much. We know that, other factors 
being equal, the child possessing the higher rate reads more in a 
given period, but we are not at present able to say how much a 
child's rate will be improved as a result of a given amount of 
reading. It is very likely true that for many children extended 
reading improves rate materially. 

Correlations between quantity of reading and reading test scores 
have been computed in only a few instances. Miss Zirbes' data 
for fourth-grade children show an average Spearman correlation for 
three separate measurements of .53 between rate and number of 



FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS IN PBMABY BEADING tf 

books read at home (32). Woody asked teachers in Grades III, IV, 
and V to estimate the number of pages their classes read (both 
regular and supplementary reading) during a current semester. 
He then correlated this figure with comprehension and with rate 
on the Monroe test (33). His figures, by the Spearman method, 
are embodied in Table 8, where it will be seen that the third-grade 







TABLE 8 




Grade 


No. of Teachers 
Reporting 


Amount and Com- 
prehension 


Amount and 
Rate 


in 

IV 
V 


81 
84 
88 


.46 
.02 
.16 


.85 
.02 
.04 



correlation is rather marked but that of the other grades is not. 
Our own Pearson correlations (31) between score on the Haggerty 
reading tests and books read by each individual during the year, as 
reported by teachers for Grades I and II are shown in Table 9, 



TABLE 8 

OOttBLATIONS BXTWHK AMOUNT RlAD AND 8 COR* 8 IN READING TlSTS (THEISM*) 


Grade 


No. Pupila 


Amount and 
Score on Teat I 


Amount and 
Score on Teat II 


I 
II 


210 
180 


.47 
.14 


.44 
.08 



where, again, the figures are significant in one grade and not in the 
other. A more refined method of recording the amounts read would 
probably have raised the correlation, since the good reader in the 
primary grades is likely to choose longer selections. 

For the relatively unskilled teacher, at least, quantitative silent 
reading should undoubtedly be urged, even though well-trained 
teachers may secure very good results with a much smaller quan- 
tity. Each schoolroom should have a library of its own, with single 
copies of many books and arrangements for frequent exchange with 
other schools. 

15. Difficulty of Reading Materials. The reaction of the aver- 
age adult toward a selection that presents any considerable number 
of new and difficult words, or that is difficult to comprehend, is 
usually to lay it aside in disgust. The reaction of the beginner 



18 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

would probably be much the same, were he less naive and sub- 
missive. Material in which the vocabulary offers numerous obstacles 
necessitates constant shifting of attention from the thought, and 
consequently from story interest, to mechanics. The vocabulary is 
likely to be so far in advance of the reader's that he cannot appre- 
ciate the thought. Easy material is conducive to organization into 
longer thought units. This in turn stimulates rate. For the aver- 
age primary teacher, more satisfactory results will be obtained by 
the use of easy reading materials. Brinkerhoff concluded as a re- 
sult of his study that "probably an extensive use of easy reading 
books throughout the primary grades will produce rapidity. The 
present practice of having pupils read difficult books in the lower 
grades is vicious, because it prevents the establishment of proper 
reading habits" (3). 

16. Trovisian jor individual Differences. To our knowledge 
no one has yet attempted to measure the advantage to be had from 
careful ^VoVfs'iln for fr^a^ilal abilities and needs^as against the 
conventional form of class teaching. Primary children differ not 
only in intelligence, maturity, experience and interest, but in their 
proficiency in each of the various elements that go to make up pri- 
mary reading ability. They differ materially in breadth of vocabu- 
lary, in knowledge of phonics, in eye habits, in amount of vocaliza- 
tion, in fluency and correctness of oral reading, in type of material 
they can comprehend and in rate of reading. In the usual class- 
room procedure, few of these facts are taken into consideration. 
Were primary children to be placed, when occasion demands, with 
others whose acquirements and abilities were similar, and treated 
accordingly, it is not improbable that we should need to establish 
newer and higher standards of accomplishment for them. 

A recent inquiry (29) brought out, among others, these valuable 
suggestions for adapting primary reading instruction to individual 
differences: (a) voluntary reading in free periods, (b) arranging 
pupils into small groups on the basis of ability, (c) testing of 
reading ability and intelligence to determine what may be expected 
of each pupil, (d) independent silent reading, (e) permitting the 
rapid reader to cover longer portions, (f ) specific help and treat- 
ment of individual defects, (g) individual word, phonic and phrase 




CT0B3 AFFECTING RESULTS IN PEIMABY READING jg 

^> *5 x fhich do not require children to spend time on what they 
/ ]^ > If * know well for the sake of the few who have such difficulties, 
jght drills, (i) grading of materials to fit individual ability, 
with easy material placed in the hands of the weaker, and more 
advanced in the hands of the stronger, (j) home reading, (k) choice 
of materials on the basis of individual interests, (1) stimulation of 
individual efforts through motivation, and (m) rate drills. The 
justification for such measures is obvious. To this list should be 
added such provisions as can be made for promotion and for proper 
attention to physical needs. 

We have pointed out elsewhere what may be expected where 
provision is made for differences in intelligence. Just what to ex- 
pect when adequate provisions are made for individual differences 
in other respects is still a matter of conjecture that needs to be 
determined experimentally. 

17. Diagnostic Study and Treatment of Individual Needs. As 
Anderson and Mcrton have expressed it, "Much of the weakness in 
our methods of teaching reading is due to our system of mass in- 
struction, which does not attempt to discover the sources of the 
reading ailments of individuals, but which prescribes a patent nos- 
trum that, it is hoped, will cure all reading ills" (1). Uhl diag- 
nosed the reading of the third-grade children along with higher 
grades. He found the accuracy of diagnosis such that no poor 
reader made good records in all tests, while the specific defects of 
poor readers could be detected. He concludes that for many who 
fail to profit by class instruction, carefully planned individual 
treatment will produce as rapid growth as is produced in the case 

TABLE 10 

Distribution of 009 Errors in the Oral Reading of 01 Pupil* 

(Anderson and Mxrton) 

Types of Error No. Percent Types of Errors No. Percent 

Repetitions 138 15 Additions not changing 

Insertions 125 14 meaning 21 2 

Omissions 71 8 Vowel sounds 15 2 

Substitutions 220 24 Confusing letters not goT- 

Mispronunciation 30 8 erned by rule 1 

Accent 83 4 Wrong syllables 24 8 

Portions omitted 65 7 Repetition to correct errors 25 8 

Portions inserted 90 10 Not attempted 6 1 

Omissions not changing 

meaning 88 4 



20 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

of many apparently brighter pupils by class instruction (32). 
Anderson and Mcrton found that 909 oral reading errors of 91 
pupils were distributed as in Table 10. 

Such studies of the frequency of different types of error in both 
silent and oral reading form a definite part of the reading instruc- 
tion in the schools at Stoughton, Wisconsin. Treatment is given 
poor readers in accord with the diagnosis of their cases. They 
report what was accomplished with a second-grade pupil demoted 
after a trial in the third grade. He could not read primer material 
satisfactorily. His case was diagnosed as "lack of familiarity with 
the printed words and an utter lack of phonetic power." He was 
given instruction in phonics for one month, and from then on, a 
combination of phonics, oral reading, and silent reading for rate 
and quality, with the emphasis upon oral reading for quality. In 
all, he received 36 special lessons. His record on the Gray Reading 
Test at the beginning and at the end showed: "(1) Rate almost 
doubled; (2) quality more than doubled and 4 points above the 
standard for his grade; (3) lip movement eliminated." In this 
school system, where special efforts were made to study and to treat 
individual needs, "the median rate of the second grade increased 
from 74 words per minute in November to 193 in May. The third 
grade increased from 113 to 200." "Before a teacher can do 
efficient work with a reading class, she needs to know what prob- 
lems she is meeting, what defects must be remedied. Her work 
must bo with small groups of three or four pupils, rather than with 
masses. She should work with these groups to overcome reading 
defects" (1). 

18. Interest. Interest is a factor the exact effect of which is 
still undetermined. It is a commonly accepted principle of psy- 
chology that effort is proportional to interest. Motive conditions 
results. Writers of primary reading materials have not always 
been careful to provide for the item of interest. Some of the books 
to be had for primary children are particularly lacking in this ele- 
ment. Of those purporting to be interesting, many are based only 
upon shallow, superficial interests. In their earnest desire to have 
beginning children master a particular phonic system, teachers are 
in grave danger of overlooking the factor of interest. Most teachers 



Not 
Mi 

C **WACTOBS AFFECTING BESULTS IN PBJMABY BEADING 21 

Firm 

I .bly do not make sufficient attempt to discover the particular 
muss and dislikes of each child, and to build accordingly. In re- 
sponse to an inquiry on provisions for individual differences sent 
to a group of successful teachers, it was found that " only 15 percent 
of the primary teachers apparently made serious efforts to fathom 
the interests of the individual child." In grammar grades, where 
teachers are forced by circumstances to study interests, the percent 
was more than twice that in the primary grades (29). 

The interests of primary children differ with age, maturity, 
home surroundings, experience, school training and previous read- 
ing. Differences are frequently exhibited by the members of a 
class. The teacher's problem is to discover each child's interests, 
and to develop and broaden them. Some teachers make progress 
in this direction by observing each child carefully, discussing with 
him his likes and dislikes, and noting his home and out-of-door 
interests, or what he reads when free to choose from a large variety 
of material. 

19. Supervision. Very few figures are available on the effects 
of supervision, but the few that are available tend to show that a 
small amount of supervision is likely to produce large gains. Miss 
Reichert, at Madison, by six weeks 1 supervision secured a compre- 
hension score of 11.3 on the Monroe reading test, Form II, for 
the supervised class, where the two control classes scored 8.5 and 
8.1. At the beginning of the experiment the classes had scored 
5.5, 5.3, and 5.3, respectively, on Form I. In the supervised class, 
a diagnostic study of individual needs was made. Pupils were 
grouped on the basis of ability, and training in thought-getting 
was given. The proportion of silent reading was increased. Ma- 
terial varying from difficult first-grade to difficult fourth-grade 
was used, depending upon the ability of the child. Phonic training 
and phrase drill were given to those needing it. Home reading was 
encouraged (26). In many schoolrooms, a supervisor would prob- 
ably need but to show the teacher how to put the most obvious steps 
into operation to produce marked gains. There is so much sheer 
wasting of pupils' time on the part of unskilled teachers that im- 
provement is easily possible. The presence of a reading supervisor 
properly equipped for the task is to be welcomed. 



22 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

20. The Quality of the Teaching. Aside from intelligence, 
none of the factors affecting results in primary reading is more 
important than the quality of the teaching. Just how much influ- 
ence a given quality of teaching has, when spread over a given 
interval of time, has unfortunately never been accurately deter- 
mined. This is due in part to the difficulty of securing reliable 
measures of the quality of the teaching, and in part to the fact 
that until recently we have lacked standardized tests of primary 
reading achievements. The improvement secured by Miss Reichert, 
previously cited, is indicative of what may be expected when 
superior teaching is secured (26). 

While all of the various factors we have discussed do evidently 
enter into the teaching, their sum does not make the teacher. The 
quality of the teaching will be improved, it is true, by a due regard 
for the importance of each of these factors, but their sum, we repeat, 
does not make the teacher. The additional elements of judgment, 
regard for values, encouragement, ability to stimulate children, 
executive skill and classroom management must be supplied by her. 
Unless she is a master of the technique of instruction, knows the 
tendencies of her children, and is familiar with the subject matter, 
she will not achieve the best results. It is not at all improbable 
that when a school obtains a highly favorable condition with refer- 
ence to all of these factors, we shall reach new and unheard-of 
standards of achievement in primary reading. 

REFERENGU 

1. Anderson and Merton. Remedial work in reading. El. Sch. 

Jour., May and June, 1920. 

2. Boggs, Lucinda. How children learn to read. Ped. Sent., 

12: 1905. 

3. Brinkerhoff, Geo. I. Aims in primary reading. Education, 

38: Sept. 17th. 

4. Cattell, J. M., Mind, 1886. 

5. Courtis, S. A. The Measurement of Classroom Products. 

Gary Survey, 1919. 

6. Currier and Duguid. Phonics or no phonics. EL Sch. Jour. 

17 : December, 1916. 



FACTOBS AFFECTING BESULT8 IN PRIMARY READING 23 

7. Dickson, V. E. What first-grade children can do in school as 

related to what is shown by mental tests. Jour, of Educ. 
Research, 2 : June, 1920. 

8. Gray, C. T. Types of Reading Ability as Exhibited Through 

Tests and Laboratory Experiments. University of Chi- 
cago, Sup. Educ. Monograph, Vol. I, No. 5. 

9. Gray, W. S. Reading, in the Survey of the St. Louis Schools, 

Vol. V. 

10. Gray, W. S. Studies of Elementary School Reading Through 

Standardized Tests. University of Chicago, Sup. Educ. 
Monograph, Vol. I, No. 1. 

11. Gray, W. S. Principles of method in teaching reading. 

Eighteenth Yearbook, Part II, 1919. 

12. Haggerty, M. E. Discriminative Capacity of Reading Exam- 

ination Sigma 1. (An unpublished study, Univ. of Minne- 
sota.) 

13. Hawley, W. E. The Effect of Clear Objectives on the Teach- 

ing of Reading. (An unpublished study at Rochester, 
N. Y.) 

14. Hendricks, E. L. A Study in Reading. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

1911. 

15. Huey, E. B. The Psychology & Pedagogy of Reading. New 

York. 1908. 

16. Judd, C. H. Measuring the Work of the Public Schools. 

Cleveland Survey Report, 1916. 

17. Judd, C. H. Reading, Its Nature and Development. Chicago 

Univ. Educ. Monograph, Vol. II, No. 4. 

18. Mead, C. D. Silent reading versus oral reading with one 

hundred sixth-grade pupils. Jour. Educ. Psych., 6 : 1915. 

19. Oberholtzcr, E. E. Testing the efficiency of reading in the 

grades. Elem. Sch. J., 15 : Feb., 1915. 

20. O'Hern, J. P. The reading problem in the public schools as 

affected by actual measurements. Jour. N. Y. State 
Teachers Ass'n., April, 1916. 

21. Packer, P. C, and Anderson, H. W. The loss in reading ability 

during the summer vacation. Midland Schools, 30 : No- 
vember, 1915. 

22. Pintner, R. a/tid Gilliland. Oral and silent reading. Jour. 

Educ. Psych., 7 : April, 1916, 201-212. 

23. Pintner, R. Inner speech during silent reading. Psych. Rev., 

20 : March, 1913. 

24. Pintner, R. Oral reading of fourth-grade pupils. Jour. Educ. 

Psych., 4: 1913. 



24 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

25. Quantz, J. A. Problems in the psychology of reading. Psych. 

Rev. Hon. Supplement, Vol. II, No. 1, 1897. 

26. Reichert, C. Lorena. Paper read before the Educational 

Measurements Section of the Wisconsin State Teachers 
Association, Milwaukee, Nov. 1919. 

27. Schmidt, W. A. An Experimental Study in the Psychology of 

Reading, Univ. of Chicago, Sup. Educ. Monograph, Vol. 
1, No. 2. 

28. Tcrman, L. M. The use of intelligence tests in the grading of 

school children. Jour. Educ. Research, 1 : January, 1920. 

29. Theiscn, W. W. Provisions for individual differences in teach- 

ing reading. Jour. Educ. Research, 2 : September, 1920. 

30. Theisen, W. W. Reading, Some Standard Test Results and 

Teaching Observations. Studies in Educational Measure- 
ment No. 2. Wis. State Dept. of Instruction (un- 
published). 

31. Theisen, W. W. Some Factors Affecting Results in Primary 

Reading as Measured by the Haggerty Achievement Read- 
ing Test (an unpublished study, State Dept. of Public 
Instr., Madison, Wis.) 

32. Uhl, W. L. The use of results of reading tests as bases for 

planning remedial work. Elem. Sch. Jour., Vol. 17. 

33. Woody, C. Some Factors Affecting Reading Achievements 

(an unpublished study, Univ. of Washington, Seattle). 

34. Zirbes, Laura. Diagnostic measurement as a basis for pro- 

cedure. Elem. Sch. Jour., 18 : March, 1918. 

35. Zornow, T. A. The use of the Gray oral reading test in a 

Rochester school and some deductions from the results. 
Jour. N. Y. State Teachers Ass'n., April, 1919. 



CHAPTER H 

CONTROLLING FACTORS IN THE MEASUREMENT OP 

SILENT READING 



May Ayees Burgess 
Department of Education, Buasell Sage Foundation 



During the past year the Department of Education of the 
Russell Sage Foundation has conducted a scries of studies in the 
measurement of silent reading. This work has produced a scale 
for measuring the silent reading of children in grades three to 
eight. The scale itself consists of a large sheet of paper on which 
are printed 20 little pictures with a paragraph under each one, 
telling the pupil to make a line or mark with his pencil to sup- 
plement the picture. The number of paragraphs that he can read 
and mark correctly within the time limit of five minutes is taken 
as the measure of his ability, in this particular sort of careful 
silent reading. The scale is designated as Picture Supplement 
Scale 1, or PS-1. 

It should be noted that the testing material of this new silent 
reading scale is of uniform difficulty throughout, and that a defi- 
nite time limit has been set. That is, difficulty and time have been 
held constant, and the variable which has been measured is the 
amount which the child can do. These characteristics of Picture 
Supplement Scale 1 were not found in all of the earlier testing 
material used by the Foundation in its silent reading experi- 
ments. They are the results of many changes which have been 
carried on in the effort of the Department to make the test con- 
form to the fundamental principle of measurement, "the law 
of the single variable." It is with some of the problems arising 
in the endeavor to apply this principle to the measurement of 
silent reading that this article is intended to deal. 

25 



26 THB TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

THE LAW OF THE SINGLE VARIABLE 

A few months ago, newspapers in different parts of the coun- 
try were filled with humorous references to the troubles of the 
Mayor of Providence, Rhode Island, who had come in conflict 
with the law of the single variable. According to the newspaper 
accounts, an Italian, who had formerly lived in Providence, and 
wished to show his affection for the city, left in his will a sum 
of money which was to be awarded by the mayor to the most 
beautiful and virtuous girl in the city. The mayor devoted con- 
siderable thought to his problem. It might be possible to measure 
the beauty of the young women of Providence. It might be pos- 
sible, although the difficulties involved were rather staggering, 
to arrive at some measure of womanly virtue; but to contrive 
a measure which would successfully discover the girl possessing 
the most perfect combination of beauty and virtue was too dif- 
ficult a task for even the courageous mayor, and the newspapers 
say that he refused to accept the trust. He could not measure 
two variables in combination. 

Measurement is the process of comparing a given sample with 
a standard sample, and stating the proportion it bears to the 
standard, in terms of the standard unit. Length is measured in 
feet, time in seconds, weight in pounds; always the results of 
measurement are given as specified amounts of a single standard 
unit. Tests may furnish simultaneously several different kinds 
of results, and each of these results may be measured in terms 
of its relation to the standard unit of its kind. It is clear, how- 
ever, that if different results are to be compared with each other, 
they must be of the same sort; they must be expressed in com- 
mon terms. The law of the single variable is to the effect that, 
in the measurement of comparative attainments, only one ele- 
ment can be measured at a time ; and when one element has been 
chosen as the variable to be measured, every other conditioning 
element which might affect the result shall be held constant. 

The principle of the single variable is accepted, not only by 
the Mayor of Providence, but by chemists, physicist*, and biolo- 
gists ; by carpenters and clerks, by schoolboys, and milkmen, and 
professional pugilists. It is the universally accepted principle 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT BEADING 27 

of measurement in the affairs of everyday life. We measure, for 
example, "How far this man can run in a given time," and "How 
fast he can run a given distance," but we do not even attempt 
to measure "How far he can run how fast." Whether we have 
clearly formulated it for ourselves or not, in practice we obey 
the law of the single variable. In comparative measurement, we 
try to measure only one thing at a time. 

SCALES MEASURE QUALITY, DIFFICULTY, AND AMOUNT 

As part of the experimental work in connection with the silent 
reading study, a careful examination and tabulation was made 
of the principal existing scales for the measurement of ability in 
classroom subjects. It was found that without exception every 
scale seeks to measure one of three elements. It seeks to answer 
one of three questions: "How well can he dof" "How hard 
can he do V 9 or "How much can he dof" It measures quality of 
product, difficulty reached, or amount done. If the term amount be 
taken to include its companion term, time — and it must be so treated, 
since the two are mutually dependent; time implies amount, and 
amount implies time — then every careful comparative measure that 
we make will be found upon close examination to be primarily con- 
cerned with one of these three elements. In dancing we compare 
quality ; in jumping we compare difficulty ; in swimming we com- 
pare time or amount. 

Moreover, we successf uly compare only one sort of measure at 
a time; and when we try to compare measures in combination 
we open the way for endless arguments and misunderstandings. 
In diving contests, for example, where the difficulty is set, so that 
contestants all make the same sorts of dives, it is easy to judge 
them on the basis of comparative quality. Where, however, each 
contestant is allowed three dives of his own choosing, and the 
judges try to decide who made the most difficult dive best, de- 
cisions are continually questioned and become matters of hot 
controversy with little hope of satisfactory settlement. Such 
judgments are of the crudest sort and do not pretend to scientific 
accuracy. Scales which seriously attempt comparative measure- 



28 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

mente always chose one of three elements — difficulty, quality, or 
amount — and only one, as the variable they seek to measure. 

In any scheme of scientific measurement, after the variable 
has been chosen, the two remaining factors must be carefully 
studied. Either methods must be devised to hold them constant 
or it must be shown that they are without power to affect the 
scores in the particular field where the measurements are to be 
made. That is, where one of the three factors of quality, diffi- 
culty, and amount is chosen as the variable, the results of which 
are to be noted, the remaining two factors must be restrained 
from influencing those results. In some cases it can be shown 
that no special restraints are required, since variations of one 
factor have no influence upon the other; but such mutual inde- 
pendence cannot be taken for granted. It must be definitely 
proved, and the burden of proof rests upon the person who is 
responsible for making the scale. 

READING NOT MEASURED BT SCALES FOR QUALITY OF PRODUCT 

The first problem in studying silent reading is to decide which 
of the three factors — quality, difficulty, or time — shall be chosen 
as the variable to be measured. In the study here described the 
conclusion was reached that reading is a classroom activity which 
does not readily lend itself to measurement by means of scales for 
quality of product. Quality in reading is an elusive thing which 
varies not only with different people, but with the same person from 
moment to moment as he reads. There are as many different re- 
actions which children get out of reading as there are children, 
and as there are times that children read. The reading process 
awakens in consciousness thoughts and memories of the most 
varied character. In re-reading even a simple passage, the same 
individual gets new meanings from the page, new and different 
mental reactions from the same stimuli. 

Moreover, outside of the psychologist 's laboratory, the shades 
of quality of reading are not of great import. For practical pur- 
poses, the problem of measuring reading involves finding out how 
rapidly the subject reads the material with a sufficient degree 
of comprehension to get from it the essentials of its meaning. 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT BEAD1N0 20 

As the material increases in difficulty, the ability to read it is 
rarer; but the important question is not "How full and varied 
is the meaning the reader draws from itf" but rather "Is he 
able to grasp the gist of the material V The quality element is 
reduced to the very simple one of, "Well enough to get the es- 
sential thought." 

BEADING NOT MEASURED BY SCALES FOR DIFFICULTY REACHED 

There are several well recognized tests which consist of graded 
series of progressively difficult tasks, where the hardest task 
successfully completed is taken to measure the degree of accom- 
plishment shown. No time limit is set, since it is assumed that 
the results achieved in the test are independent of the time 
needed. These are scales for difficulty reached. 

In the early experimental work of the Foundation, a tenta- 
tive reading scale of this kind was devised, which was similar 
to the present Picture Supplement Scale 1 in that it consisted 
of little pictures with paragraphs of instructions about them. 
In the former scale, however, instructions were graded in read- 
ing difficulty, so that in the earlier paragraphs sentences were 
short and the words were those most commonly used, while para- 
graphs towards the end of the scale consisted of longer sentences 
and words so rarely used that they do not enter inty the speaking 
vocabularies of most high-school or college students. Children 
were allowed to work as long as they wished, and it was as- 
sumed that the hardest paragraph attempted and read success- 
fully would mark the limit of the child's reading ability. 

To the embarrassment of those conducting the experiments, 
it was found that under these conditions, almost every child was 
able to read everything. That is, if the thought and style were 
easy to grasp, and there was no time limit, even the littlest chil- 
dren showed an amazing ability to puzzle out the meaning of 
the hardest words. For example, a picture of the cross used in 
the anti-tuberculosis campaign was accompanied by the following 
instructions : 

"Since TB is the usual abbreviation for tuberculosis, print the two initials 
closely eontinguous to this celebrated emblem of the American Tuberculosis 



30 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Association. In doing so, be careful to select snch locations as will result in 
the separation of the initials by the intervention of the emblem between them." 

Third-grade children, Italians, on the lower east-side of New 
York City, who were counted by their teachers as exceptionally 
poor in reading, and were not themselves able to use English flu- 
ently, read that paragraph, re-read it, and finally with shining 
eyes grasped their pencils and printed T on one side and B on 
the other side, closely crowded against the central cross. They 
could not have defined the words, but they could discover what the 
paragraph meant if given long enough time to puzzle it out. The 
same result occurred over and over, with other forms of test ma- 
terial, even such as, under the picture of the veiled lady, requested 
the children to "perpetrate an incision in the facial vesture im- 
mediately anterior to the buccal orifice through which the fas- 
tidious female may procure aliment." 

In these early silent reading experiments, the three funda- 
mental factors of quality, difficulty, and time had been recog- 
nized. The quality requirement had been held constant, at the 
low level of "well enough to get the gist," and it had been as- 
sumed that where the reading material was difficult, the time 
consumed was of no great importance. It was thought that a 
child either could, or could not, read so as to understand a given 
selection, and that no amount of additional time would materially 
improve his performance. The experiments established that, far 
from being unimportant, time is in reality very nearly the most 
powerful controlling factor in silent reading. It must either be 
measured or controlled. 

An easy solution of the problem thus confronting the investi- 
gators would have been to keep the test material as it stood in 
gradually increasing steps of difficulty, and set a time limit. It 
seemed clear, however, that this solution would not be satis- 
factory, because it would violate the fundamental law of measure- 
ment, which declares that only one variable can be measured at 
a time. The difficulty of equating time and accomplishment is as 
great as the difficulty confronting the Mayor of Providence of 
equating beauty and virtue. Girls of equal virtue might be ar- 
ranged in order of beauty, or girls of equal beauty according to 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT READING 31 

their relative virtue ; but the two attributes could not be mixed 
in unknown and varying proportions and the results compared 
or interpreted. Similarly, in measuring reading there seemed to 
be no statistically valid way of equating "Difficulty 10 reached 
and three paragraphs wrong," with "Difficulty 6 reached and 
none wrong," or "Difficulty 12 reached in four minutes" with 
"Difficulty 16 reached in five minutes." The results are not com- 
parable because they are the sums of two variables, in unknown 
proportions. 

If difficulty was to be measured, the time element must be re- 
strained from influencing the result. It might be possible to allow 
the difficulty of each paragraph to vary, and to record the rate 
of each child on each paragraph. This would, in effect, be the 
same as giving the children a series of tests, one at each level of 
difficulty, and measuring the amount done at each level in a given 
time. Such a measurement would be defensible from the purely 
scientific standpoint, but would entail a number of practical dif- 
ficulties of administration, with which the classroom teacher is 
hardly able to cope. 

Another alternative was to increase the difficulty by means of 
abstruse thought, unusual style, catches, puzzles, and technical 
phraseology, to such a degree that no amount of increased time 
would assist in interpreting the meaning. This second method 
raised the serious question whether material so hard that the child 
cannot understand it, either when reading to himself or when 
listening to some one else reading or repeating it aloud, can prop- 
erly be used to measure reading. Such material would appear 
to test general intelligence rather than ability to secure meaning 
from the printed symbol. In the experiments here described, 
the conclusion was definitely reached that reading ability cannot 
legitimately be measured by exercises in which difficulty has been 
created artificially through complicating the thought, confusing 
the style, or inserting puzzles or catches intended to trip the 
reader. 

The experience of the investigators in trying to construct 
scales for difficulty in reading, suggests that there will probably 
be found very few classroom subjects in which difficulty can be 



32 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

measured directly, without reference to time. It will be noted 
that most of those who have devised scales for difficulty have 
been obliged to set time limits, even while declaring that time is 
not a conditioning factor. Where such a time limit is set for the 
scale as a whole, but none is set for individual paragraphs or 
problems of varying difficulties, the scores made must necessarily 
be affected by the rate at which the child works. He may have 
stopped at a certain point because he could not do work any 
harder or because he could not work any faster. Nothing in the 
score enables the examiner to tell what portion of it is attributable 
to ability, and what to speed. The most that such a test can tell 
is "Who reached the highest difficulty first." It cannot tell 
"Who would have gone highest had enough time been given," 
or ' ' Who is the fastest worker. ' ' 

If scales are to be of help to the classroom teacher, they must 
furnish more definite information than that. She already knows 
that some of her children can do harder work than others. What 
she needs to know, and what the scales that are given her should 
be designed to tell, is which children should be warned to go 
more slowly and which encouraged to work faster; who needs to 
be scolded for careless work, and who should be taught the dif- 
ficult art of neglecting unimportant details. Then, in addition to, 
and separated from, these diagnostic facts of rate and accuracy, 
she must know at what points children are failing to understand 
her teaching. Scales which are to be of diagnostic help, must 
result in simple scores, which can be relied on, and readily in- 
terpreted. There is reason to believe that, in the future, scales 
to measure comparative ability in classroom subjects will gen- 
erally fall into the two groups of scales for quality and scales 
for amount ; and it is probable, also, that difficulty will eventually 
be measured indirectly, by means of series of carefully graded 
scales for amount. 

READING MEASURED BY SCALES FOR AMOUNT DONE 

Having decided that reading cannot readily be measured 
either by scales for quality or by scales for difficulty, it was nec- 
essary to ascertain whether it could be measured by the third 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT BEADING 33 

remaining method, that of scales for amount done. Scales which seek 
to measure amount must be so constructed that quality, difficulty, 
and time, and their subsidiary elements, are all held constant, and 
the variable which is to be measured and compared is the amount 
of work which the child can do under such standard conditions. 
In the measurement of silent reading, therefore, the measurement 
by scales for amount demanded that quality, difficulty, and time 
be maintained constant. It was decided to adopt as the standard 
of quality, the ability to secure the fundamental meaning of a 
paragraph well enough to act in accordance with it. The child 
must read well enough to get the gist of the material ; his read- 
ing must be of the quality necessary in the ordinary reading of 
everyday life. Through the most careful sort of writing, testing, 
and re-writing, the difficulty of each paragraph must be main- 
tained at a given level throughout the test; and a time limit, 
during which the children should be allowed to work, must be 
determined. With these general considerations well in mind, the 
measurement of silent reading through scales for amount was 
finally undertaken. 

FACTORS INVOLVED IN TIME AND DIFFICULTY 

The decision to treat amount as the variable and to hold 
quality, difficulty, and time constant, immediately brought into 
question all those subsidiary elements which also must be con- 
trolled and held constant if the scores resulting from measure- 
ment are to be purely in terms of quantity done, under uniform 
testing conditions. It is clear, for example, that if a paragraph 
is constructed in such an involved style that the child has to stop 
to puzzle out its meaning, his score will be lowered, not because 
the child is a poor reader, but because the author of the test is a 
poor writer. So again, a paragraph calling upon the child to 
compute the age of Uncle's Father may give the child a poor 
reading score which should really be charged to lack of skill in 
arithmetic. 

Accordingly, having decided that the required quality should 
be the passing mark of "well enough to get the gist," and that 
time and difficulty should be maintained at constant levels 



34 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

throughout the testing material, three further steps were neces- 
sary before the material itself could be used as a basis for con- 
structing the final scale. The first step was to identify and list 
as many as possible of the elements which tend to affect either the 
difficulty of the reading material or the time required to read it. 
The list actually used in preparing Scale PS-1 is here presented : 

Controlling Factors in Silent Beading 

(Subsidiary elements of time and difficulty which must be eliminated or 
held constant.) 

To Be Eliminated 
Complex thought 
Abstract thought 
Technical thought and language 
Catches, puzzles, accidental leads 
Demands for spatial imagination 
Irrelevant dramatic appeal 
Ability to reproduce 
Ability to remember 
Ability to reason, or infer 
Involved style 

To Be Held Constant Throughout Test 

Memory span requirements 

Attention span, multiple strains 

Difficulty of action demanded 

Time required for complying with instructions 

Vocabulary difficulty 

Sentence structure 

Word arrangement 

Amount of material to be read 

Uniformity of print 

Uniformity of space relations between pictures and print 

Ease of finding place on paper 

Interest and corresponding eliort on part of child 

The second step was to eliminate as many as possible of these 
dangerous subsidiary factors; and the third step, to contrive 
methods by which the remaining factors could be rendered harm- 
less by equalizing their influence in all the sections of the test. 

After the list of controlling factors had been compiled, certain 
of them were chosen as those which might, or clearly should, be 
eliminated. It was decided, for example, that the thought should 
always be simple. The child should not be called upon to reason 
or to infer. He should not be expected to grasp abstractions, or 
complexities of thought. Technical language should be avoided, 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT BEAD1NQ 35 

and there should be no demand for special technical knowledge. 

Puzzle questions were ruled out, and so, more difficult to avoid, 

but equally dangerous, were the accidental catches or leads, in 

which unwisely emphasized words tricked the child into wrong 

responses. 

In the particular scale under discussion, one of the extraneous 

factors most difficult to rule out was that of irrelevant dramatic 

appeal. There was the picture of the dog, for instance, which 

still appears at the top of the first column in the present scale. 

As originally written, the paragraph underneath the dog read 

as follows: 

This dog sees a cat in the street. He does not like eats, and he hates 
this one. He will watch her and if she comes too near he will bark at her 
and chase her up a tree. We do not want him to chase the cat. Take youi 
pencil and draw a strong rope about bis neck so that he can not run after her. 

That was an easy paragraph to read, but it proved to have 
more catches than any other in the entire collection. In the first 
place, while most of the children drew the "strong rope about 
his neck" in a single rapid stroke, there were one or two extra 
bright children who did not intend to be caught that way. In 
each set of papers there were always a few in which "strong 
rope" was represented by a cable of huge size, with every twist- 
ing strand carefully drawn and shaded, to prove to the teacher 
that the child taking the test knew exactly what a rope looks 
like, as contrasted with the possible string or chain. 

Then again, when the "strong rope" had been deleted, the 
paragraph still made trouble because of its dramatic appeal. It 
practically always made the children laugh. They looked up 
at the teacher to see if she enjoyed the joke as well as they 
did. They smiled across the aisles and pointed to the picture to 
show their neighbors that it was the first picture, the one with 
the dog, which struck them as particularly funny. After they 
settled down, the dramatic possibilities worked havoc, for the 
brighter children could not resist the temptation to make draw- 
ings with fences — picket fences — to keep the dog in, a sturdy 
tree for the cat to climb, and even the cat herself, half way up 
the tree, with fluffed out tail, and claws digging desperately into 



36 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

the wood. It was an excellent exercise for the imagination, but 
disastrous in a carefully timed reading test. In his latest form, 
the dog has stolen two bones and forgotten about the cat. The 
children do not like him so well, but he is much better material 
for testing! 

Demands upon the ability to reproduce, to remember, and to 
answer questions were carefully excluded, because of the danger, 
as in arithmetical tasks, of unintentionally testing qualities com- 
monly associated with reading, but not genuine elements in read- 
ing ability. The responses called for were made so simple that 
even very young children, far below the grades for which the 
scale is intended, were readily able to comply with them. The 
number of main ideas in each paragraph was carefully restricted 
to well within the attention span and memory span of the younger 
children, and these ideas were distributed through the paragraph 
in such a way as to make guessing difficult. Length of paragraph, 
size of print, size of picture, and relation of picture to print were 
kept uniform throughout the test, so that differences in style and 
make-up would not be responsible for differences in scores. 

It was found that close attention had to be paid to the chil- 
dren's own reactions towards what they read. One illustration 
showed an open book, and the instructions were to make a small 
cross upon the right-hand page, so that the reader would be able 
to find his place again. This was a mistake. In school, children 
are taught never to mark their books, and they were obedient, 
even at the cost of failing in the reading test. The paragraph 
was re-worded, so that the children were told to draw a line rep- 
resenting a ruler lying straight across the book to hold the pages 
open. This wording proved to have an unforeseen catch, because 
the idea of one line was not sufficiently emphasized, and many 
children carefully drew rulers, with all the inches marked and 
numbered. The final wording runs "Draw a single straight line, 
to represent a ruler," and the paragraph now seems to be in 
satisfactory shape. 

The children wanted the examiners to be reasonable and logi- 
cal. If the tasks required offended them, they worked slowly 
or carelessly. To keep interest and effort high enough, but not 



MEASUREMENT OF SILENT BEADING 37 

too high, and to keep them uniformly at the same pitch through 
the entire duration of the test, was one of the most difficult of 
all the problems met in the preparation of the testing material. 

TEST MAKING IS A TWO-FOLD PROCESS 

It will be seen from the foregoing illustrations, that the 
process of preparing test material was an alternating one of 
painstaking scrutiny and analysis within the office, and careful 
testing of the new material in the classroom. It seemed clear that 
neither part of the process could be dispensed with. Testing 
alone left undiscovered many alien factors which tended to per- 
vert the results. One of the paragraphs showed a football player, 
and asked the children to draw the football soaring through the 
air. Classroom trials seemed to indicate that the paragraph was 
too easy to read, since few children failed on it. Office consul- 
tation, however, with critical scrutiny of paragraph and picture, 
showed that the paragraph had never really been tested. Given 
that picture, with no print at all, if told to make a mark the 
children would always draw a soaring football. The perfect 
scores represented, not reading ability, but familiarity with the 
game. Most extraneous elements fail to show in classroom test- 
ing. They can be detected only by the most painstaking exami- 
nation and scrutiny of the testing material. Testing must fol- 
low upon preliminary critical revision, and further revision must 
be verified and stimulated by testing. Neither process can be 
effectively carried on without the other. 

SUMMARY 

1. The law of the single variable declared that, in the com- 
parison of relative attainments, one element, and only one, shall 
be chosen as the variable to be measured, and other conditioning 
elements, which might affect the result, shall be held constant. 
This is a universally accepted principle, which applies to every 
sort of careful scientific measurement of comparative attainment. 

2. Scales for comparative attainment measure quality, diffi- 
culty, or amount. These are the three fundamental factors. One 
of them may be chosen as the variable to be measured. The other 



38 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

two must be restrained from affecting the results secured. Where 
it is assumed that one of these three factors is non-operative, the 
burden of proof rests upon the person making the scale. 

3. Heading is a classroom activity which is not readily meas- 
urable by scales for quality, or scales for difficulty. It is measur- 
able by scales for amount. 

4. There is reason to believe that most classroom subjects 
may best be measured by scales for quality or for amount. Be- 
cause of the influence of time and rate, which are not easily 
controlled, difficulty rarely can be measured directly. It is prob- 
able that difficulty will eventually be indirectly measured through 
series of carefully graded scales for amount. 

5. If difficulty and time are to be maintained as constants, 
the subsidiary elements of difficulty and time must also be main- 
tained as constants. This means that, in the preliminary prepa- 
ration of testing material, far greater care is necessary than has 
usually been exercised. In reading, for example, the practice of 
hastily compiling heterogeneous masses of paragraphs of differ- 
ent lengths and arrangements, indiscriminately calling upon the 
child's ability to do arithmetic, solve puzzles, reason, remember, 
reproduce, moralize, and imagine, should not be tolerated in the 
field of educational measurements. The common practice has 
been to assume that paragraphs on which equal per cents of 
failures occurred were of equal reading difficulty. Such an as- 
sumption is clearly unsafe, unless it can be shown that care has 
been taken to keep all the difficulties measured genuine reading 
difficulties. Unless extraneous, non-reading elements have been 
weeded out, paragraphs of equal reading difficulty may result in 
totally different percentages of failures; and so, conversely, 
paragraphs of different reading difficulties may result in iden- 
tical percentages of failures. Equal difficulty cannot be secured 
merely by testing and computation. It can be arrived at only 
through keen inspection, merciless criticism, and the rigid de- 
termination to eliminate every alien influence which might per- 
vert the findings, and result in mongrel scores. The law of the 
single variable must be conscientiously followed in the writing 
of every sentence, and the formulation of every paragraph. 



CHAPTER in 

INDIVIDUAL DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT READING IN THE 
FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADES 



William S. Gbat 
The University of Chicago 



Two years ago a boy who now ranks slightly above the average 
of his age-group in general intelligence began his public-school 
career. He advanced rapidly through the primary grades until 
the autumn of 1920. At that time it became necessary for him to 
discontinue regular school work because he was unable to read. In 
class discussions, in ability to solve problems, and in all phases 
of school work which did not involve reading he equalled or ex- 
celled his classmates. 

A careful analysis revealed the fact that the boy had not 
established the habit of moving his eyes regularly from left to 
right along a line. At times the first fixation was near the end of 
the line ; frequently it was near the middle of the line ; and some- 
times it was near the beginning. The remaining fixations were 
irregular and followed no definite order. Drill exercises were 
organized which consisted of series of short words typewritten 
with half -inch horizontal spacing. The boy was required to read 
these words for five minutes each day in order to cultivate regu- 
lar habits of eye-movement. That there was rapid reorganization 
of his method of procedure was clearly evident in his reading. 
After considerable progress had been made, a simple story was 
typewritten, again with a half -inch space between words. After 
a few exercises of this type, the words were grouped in thought 
units with a half-inch space between each unit. Finally, stories 
were read, still during the drill periods, directly from books. The 
facility and accuracy with which he soon read indicated that 
one of his major difficulties had been corrected. Other prob- 

39 



40 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

lems, such as increasing the span of recognition, were then at- 
tacked. At the present time the boy is making very rapid progress 
and will doubtless be able to resume work with his class at the 
end of the first half of the school year. 

This case has been cited as an illustration of the failure of 
regular instruction to meet individual needs. There are doubtless 
thousands of boys and girls who fail each year and are unable to 
continue with their classmates because of peculiar defects which 
could be readily remedied. The results are discouragement, 
retardation, and elimination in far too many cases. 

Progressive schools are taking definite steps to provide facili- 
ties for discovering and remedying these defects. The work of 
Superintendent C. J. Anderson and Elda Merton in the public 
schools of Stoughton, Wisconsin, is described in the Elementary 
School Journal, May and June, 1920. The work which has been 
carried on in the Elementary School of the University of Chicago 
is described in Reading: Its Nature and Development, by 
Charles H. Judd. The valuable results which have been secured 
in public-school systems such as Stoughton, Wisconsin, and Roches- 
ter, New York, thoroughly justify these recommendations: that 
Bureaus of Educational Research give special attention to the prob- 
lem of diagnosis ; that a special teacher be provided for each large 
elementary school to devote her entire time to the problem of test- 
ing and instructing pupils who encounter fundamental difficulties 
in reading and other subjects; and that classroom teachers be in- 
structed in the technique of recording facts in order that special 
difficulties may be discovered and corrected as early in the child's 
school career as possible. 

The cases which are described in the sections which follow illus- 
trate in a limited way the wide variety of difficulties which pupils 
encounter in silent reading in the middle grades. Each of these 
pupils was retarded in reading because of a peculiar difficulty. 
When appropriate remedial devices were employed, each responded 
satisfactorily to treatment. The purpose of the discussion which 
follows is to present a limited number of interesting cases, to de- 
scribe the methods of treatment, and to stimulate supervisors and 
teachers to cooperate actively in similar studies. Improved meth- 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 41 

ods of group instruction will do much toward increasing the abil- 
ity of most boys and girls to read and to study independently and 
effectively. We shall learn how to meet the needs of pupils who 
encounter unusual difficulties only through detailed, accurate 
studies of individual difficulties and application of appropriate 
remedial devices. Progressive teachers and supervisors can make 
studies of very great value in this connection. 

A FLUENT ORAL READER IN THE FOURTH GRADE WHO COMPREHENDED 

VERY LITTLE READ SILENTLY 1 

This pupil was a fourth-grade girl who was described by her 
teacher as slow and indifferent. When given the Gray Oral Read- 
ing Test in December she made a score of 41.25, which is 5.75 
below the standard for her grade. In the silent-reading test she 
made unusually slow progress and was unable to reproduce what 
she had read or to answer questions. Evidence that she read all 
of the words was secured from noting her lip movements. 

Tests were next given to determine the ability of this girl to 
read the materials ordinarily assigned in the reading class. A 
passage from page 57 of the Merrill Fourth Reader was used in 
this connection. The girl was instructed to read the selection 
silently for the purpose of getting the thought well enough to re- 
produce it later. She read at the rate of 1.05 words per second. 
She reproduced more or less inaccurately only a very small per- 
centage of what she had read. Her lip movements were very pro- 
nounced. She answered only one of the eight questions asked and 
that inaccurately. 

To discover if mechanics of reading was causing the difficulty, 
she was asked to read the same material orally. She read fluently 
and with expression at the rate of 1.01 yrords per second, making 
only four errors. After studying carefully all the data which had 
been secured, the following conclusion was reached in regard to her 
difficulties: "Knowledge of the rudimentary mechanics permitted 
her to read material far beyond her comprehension. She read 



* Reproduced in part from "Remedial Work in Reading, Part I." By 0. J. Anderson 
and Ella Morton. Ths fftanentory 8ehool Journal, May, 1020: pp. 687-602. 



42 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



words as names and not as symbols of ideas. The problem was 
plainly that of training her to read for content.' ' 

The remedial exercises consisted of passages cut from second- 
and third-grade readers. The first passage was very short and 
contained few ideas. Each succeeding passage was somewhat longer 
and made increasing demands on the reader in order to get the 
meaning. When exercises were assigned, the attention of the sub- 
ject was directed to meanings rather than pronunciations. "After 
she had given a reproduction of the 'story' and had answered a 
number of specific questions about it, she was asked to re-read the 
selection in search of any thoughts she had overlooked during the 
first reading. She then gave a second reproduction. This last re- 
production was, no doubt largely a result of the specific questions. 
Nevertheless, it was valuable in training the pupil to see the rich- 
ness of content in the selection." 

The training period lasted for six weeks. One thirty-five-min- 
ute lesson was given each week with the exception of one week in 
which two lessons were given. From five to seven paragraphs were 
assigned at each lesson in accordance with the methods described 
in the preceding paragraph. In May the oral- and silent-reading 
tests were given again. A comparison of the December and May 
records led to some interesting observations. It is to be noted that 
there is no change in the rate, but the quality shows a decided im- 
provement. Her score in this test rose to 50, which is 3 points above 
the standard for her grade. This improvement is significant when 
it is remembered that no instruction was given in oral reading in 
these special-help periods. 



TABLE 1 
Progress in Rati and Quality or Stlint Reading 





Words 
per See. 

Before 
Practice 


Words 
per Sec. 

After 
Practice 


Quality 

Before 

Practice 


Quality After Practice 


Selection 


Repro- 
duction 


Questions 


Quality 


•Tiny Tad" 

"The Grasshoppers" 


1.11 
1.05 


1.81 
1.21 






82 
7 


60 
80 


46 
18 



Table 1 gives the silent-reading records for December and May. 
It shows a decided increase in silent reading rate and in quality. 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 43 

In December she was unable to reproduce a single thought or to 
answer a single question. In May she showed marked improve- 
ment along both lines and had become fairly efficient 

A FIFTH-GRADE PUPIL WHO READ SLOWLY BECAUSE OF WORD 

DIFFICULTIES 2 

Pupil G was a fifth-grade girl who read very slowly and in- 
effectively. Her fourth-grade teacher described her as "a slow 
reader who reads hesitatingly and haltingly, repeating words and 
phrases." In the preliminary study of her difficulties photographic 
records were made of her eye-movements while reading. Oral- and 
silent-reading tests were also given. In the oral reading test the 
pronunciation of unfamiliar words caused much difficulty. The 
rate of silent reading was unusually slow, being six-tenths of a 
word slower per second than her oral-reading rate. The photo- 
graphic records showed clearly that she "could not unravel the in- 
tricacies of the printed lines which proved easy to her classmates." 
A careful analysis of all of these facts made it evident "that her 
difficulties were due to a lack of familiarity with printed words and 
a lack of method of working out new or unknown word forms." 

"In an effort to help her overcome this handicap she was given 
various types of training during eighteen weeks. The first six 
weeks were devoted to a great deal of oral reading. The second 
six weeks were spent on drills in phonics and in word analysis. 
During the last six weeks silent reading was emphasized. While 
each period of six weeks thus stressed some one phase of reading, 
all three types of work were carried along throughout the eighteen 
weeks. For example, oral reading was continued with less em- 
phasis during the last twelve weeks." 

During the first six weeks the oral-reading exercises were con- 
ducted in ways familiar to most teachers. The selections for read- 
ing were made along the line of the pupil's school interests in 
history and geography. Records of rate and accuracy were secured 
at frequent intervals for purposes of comparison. The improve- 
ment made by the girl in rate and accuracy of oral reading during 
the eighteen weeks is shown in Table 2. 



"'Reading, Its Nature and Development." by Charles H. Judd. SuppUmanimrp 
Educational Monographs, Vol. II. No. 4 (July, 1918), pp. 83-91. 



42 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



words as names and not as symbols of ideas. The problem was 
plainly that of training her to read for content.' ' 

The remedial exercises consisted of passages cat from second- 
and third-grade readers. The first passage was very short and 
contained few ideas. Each succeeding passage was somewhat longer 
and made increasing demands on the reader in order to get the 
meaning. When exercises were assigned, the attention of the sub- 
ject was directed to meanings rather than pronunciations. "After 
she had given a reproduction of the 'story* and had answered a 
number of specific questions about it, she was asked to re-read the 
selection in search of any thoughts she had overlooked during the 
first reading. She then gave a second reproduction. This last re- 
production was, no doubt largely a result of the specific questions. 
Nevertheless, it was valuable in training the pupil to see the rich- 
ness of content in the selection." 

The training period lasted for six weeks. One thirty-five-min- 
ute lesson was given each week with the exception of one week in 
which two lessons were given. From five to seven paragraphs were 
assigned at each lesson in accordance with the methods described 
in the preceding paragraph. In May the oral- and silent-reading 
tests were given again. A comparison of the December and May 
records led to some interesting observations. It is to be noted that 
there is no change in the rate, but the quality shows a decided im- 
provement. Her score in this test rose to 50, which is 3 points above 
the standard for her grade. This improvement is significant when 
it is remembered that no instruction was given in oral reading in 
these special-help periods. 



TABLE 1 
Progress in Rati and Quality or Sndiirr Rbadtjto 





Words 
per See. 

Before 
Practice 


Words 

per Sec. 

After 

Practice 


Quality 

Before 

Practice 


Quality After Practice 


Selection 


Repro- 
duction 


Questions 


Quality 


•Tiny Tad" 

•The Grasshoppers" 

Grades IV, V, VI 


1.11 

1.05 


1.81 
1.21 






89 

7 


60 

80 


46 
18 



Table 1 gives the silent-reading records for December and May. 
It shows a decided increase in silent reading rate and in quality. 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 43 

In December she was unable to reproduce a single thought or to 
answer a single question. In May she showed marked improve- 
ment along both lines and had become fairly efficient 

A FIFTH-GRADE PUPIL WHO READ SLOWLY BECAUSE OF WORD 

DIFFICULTIES 2 

Pupil G was a fifth-grade girl who read very slowly and in- 
effectively. Her fourth-grade teacher described her as "a slow 
reader who reads hesitatingly and haltingly, repeating words and 
phrases." In the preliminary study of her difficulties photographic 
records were made of her eye-movements while reading. Oral- and 
silent-reading tests were also given. In the oral reading test the 
pronunciation of unfamiliar words caused much difficulty. The 
rate of silent reading was unusually slow, being six-tenths of a 
word slower per second than her oral-reading rate. The photo- 
graphic records showed clearly that she "could not unravel the in- 
tricacies of the printed lines which proved easy to her classmates." 
A careful analysis of all of these facts made it evident "that her 
difficulties were due to a lack of familiarity with printed words and 
a lack of method of working out new or unknown word forms." 

"In an effort to help her overcome this handicap she was given 
various types of training during eighteen weeks. The first six 
weeks were devoted to a great deal of oral reading. The second 
six weeks were spent on drills in phonics and in word analysis. 
During the last six weeks silent reading was emphasized. While 
each period of six weeks thus stressed some one phase of reading, 
all three types of work were carried along throughout the eighteen 
weeks. For example, oral reading was continued with less em- 
phasis during the last twelve weeks." 

During the first six weeks the oral-reading exercises were con- 
ducted in ways familiar to most teachers. The selections for read- 
ing were made along the line of the pupil's school interests in 
history and geography. Records of rate and accuracy were secured 
at frequent intervals for purposes of comparison. The improve- 
ment made by the girl in rate and accuracy of oral reading during 
the eighteen weeks is shown in Table 2. 



•"Reading, Its Nature and Development." by Charlea H. Judd. 8uppUm*nUry 
Educmtionml Monographs, Vol. II. No. 4 (July, 1918), pp. 83-91. 



44 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

TABLE 2 

Pbogbzbs in Rats and Accuracy in Obal Rjudino 

Errors por 
Period Words per 8ee. 100 words 

First six weeks 2.4 4.5 

Second six weeks 2.5 2.1 

Third six weeks 2.7 1.1 

"Phonics and word analysis were emphasized during the sec- 
ond six weeks. Various systems of phonics, wtih some modifica- 
tions to suit the particular needs, were used. Words mispro- 
nounced in oral-reading lessons were worked out phonetically, and 
lists of words similarly pronounced were built up and reviewed 
from time to time. There seemed to be a gradual growth in abil- 
ity to attack an unfamiliar word. In the earlier period the pupil 
frequently looked at the word helplessly or pronounced a known 
syllable, but was unable to attack it at all phonetically. She usually 
asked the instructor to pronounce it. Later, she began immedi- 
ately to sound the new word phonetically, and though sometimes 
making a mistake in the length of the vowel or in the position of 
the accent, her manner of attack indicated that she had confidence 
in her own ability to work it out." The records which were se- 
cured from time to time showed clearly that there was a reduction 
in the number of mispronunciations, even though the selections 
which were used gradually increased in difficulty. 

"Silent reading was emphasized during the last six weeks, after 
some training in silent reading had been given throughout the first 
twelve weeks. For special training, paragraphs or selections deal- 
ing with topics of particular interest to the pupil were used. In 
many instances, the original selections were edited, and the words 
which had been used in the phonic exercises were woven into the 
text. Frequently, before the silent reading began, a question was 
raised the answer to which was to be found in the text. Oral or 
written reproduction or a discussion of the thought of the selection 
usually followed the reading. It is interesting to note in passing 
that, though no effort was made to reduce the vocalization so per- 
ceptible at first, it entirely disappeared except when an unusually 
difficult passage was encountered." The records for rate and com- 
prehension in silent reading which are summarized in Table 3 in- 
dicate clearly the value of the special training. 



DIFFICULTIES IN 81LENT BEADING 45 

TABLE 8. 

Pboobbis nr Rati and Compbihinsiow nr Silbnt Reading 
Period Words per Sec. Comprehension. 

First six weeks 2.4 22 percent. 

Second six weeks 8.4 60 percent. 

Third six weeks 8.6 74 percent. 

At the end of eighteen weeks the oral- and silent-reading tests 
given before the practice period began were repeated. A second 
pupil who had received no special instruction also took the same 
tests both before and after the training period. "By comparing 
the records of the two pupils, it is seen that the special Pupil G 
made a net gain of .63 in oral rate and 2.5 in silent rate. Further- 
more, she is beginning to establish a silent-reading rate, while the 
second pupil continues to read silently at the same rate as she does 
orally. The gain made by Pupil O in rate of silent reading is even 
more significant when it is remembered that her silent rate was less 
than her oral rate of reading before practice began. The gain in 
comprehension, while not striking, places Pupil G at a normal level 
for the grade, while the other student is still below average." 

A FOURTH-GRADE PUPIL WHO READ SLOWLY AND INEFFECTIVELY BE- 
CAUSE OF WORD-BLINDNESS 3 

The subject of this study was a fourth-grade girl nine and one- 
half years old. At the time the study began she was unable to read 
and could not carry her school work without the aid of a tutor. 
* ' The child had been in the University Elementary School for two 
years, including the first grade, and had therefore received the 
ordinary instruction in reading, which included a considerable 
amount of sight reading in which phonetic analysis is also em- 
phasized. In addition to this, the child had been instructed for 
a year by a tutor, and this instruction had included a very largo 
emphasis on phonetic drill. Moreover, in her second year she had 
been given special help in reading by her teacher. In spite of all 
this intensive training, the child, when first seen, was unable to 
read a primer as well as is a first-grade child before the end of 
the year." 



•"Clinical Study m a Method in Experimental Education," by Frank N. 
Journal •/ App#*d Psychology. Vol. IV, 1020; pp. 126141. 



46 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Before the child was brought to the laboratory she had been 
tested with the Gray Oral Reading Test and the Courtis Silent 
Beading Test, No. 2, and had failed to score in each test. At the 
time of the examination she was tested with the Gray Silent Bead- 
ing Test for second- and third-grade children. She read at a rate 
of 0.5 words per second, and her comprehension score was 23. 
The average rate for the second grade is 1.96 words per second, 
and the comprehension score is 25. In order to equal the compre- 
hension standard of second-grade pupils, the girl had to read at 
one-fourth the standard rate. 

Photographic records of the eye-movements of the girl were then 
secured and analyzed. A highly irregular and unusual condition 
was discovered. "Instead of going forward step by step, it [atten- 
tion] skips about, sometimes jumping to a point ahead of where 
it should be and at other times moving backward over the part 
which has already been read. This irregularity is in all probabil- 
ity due to the child's failure to grasp the meaning of the words 
which were fixated by the eye. Failure to grasp the meaning re- 
sults in the return of the eye to the parts already fixated and in 
a slow wandering movement or a succession of movements made 
at short intervals rather than a series of clear-cut movements just 
long enough to cover the space which can be fixated at a single 
pause." 

In addition to the tests just described a general mental test was 
given and also other tests which related more or less closely to 
reading and to speech processes. Among these tests was a test of 
the recognition of visual symbols, the Binet Picture Test, and tests 
which included the matching of geometrical forms, the pronuncia- 
tion of nonsense syllables, and the spelling of simple words. As 
a result of the diagnosis it was concluded that there was no de- 
ficiency in general intelligence, that the child's vision was entirely 
normal, and that there was no general motor deficiency or language 
disturbance. The data showed that the difficulty was a highly 
specialized one and consisted in an inability to make the associa- 
tion between the visual symbols and the sounds of the words. Fur- 
thermore, the conclusion was reached that "for this child, at least, 
phonic drill had been carried beyond the point where it was use- 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 47 

ful. Instead of being the means to the recognition of word mean- 
ing, it had become an end in itself, and really blocked the recogni- 
tion of the meaning. The treatment, therefore, had as its first 
object the short-circuiting of this round-about association and the 
attempt to develop a more direct association between the sight of 
the words and their meaning." 

Early in the training, easy reading material was selected and 
the child was encouraged to read the passages for their meaning. 
In this connection, however, difficulty was encountered because the 
child had not developed coordinated eye-movements or a regular 
progression of attention. It became necessary, therefore, to re- 
strict her reading of larger units for some time and to direct her 
attention specifically to each part that she read. Various devices 
were employed in this connection. (1) Passages were broken up 
into sentences, and the child read these one at a time from slips 
of paper on which the sentences had been typewritten. (2) A card 
was sometimes placed on a page and moved forward across the 
line as rapidly as the child read. (3) Flash card exercises were 
given and some use was made of printed directions to which the 
child responded by appropriate action. 

"In addition to these drill devices the child was given continu- 
ous reading material which at the beginning was very easy. This 
was for the purpose of encouraging fluency without the loss of 
meaning. The difficulty of material was advanced as rapidly as 
the child could go, and a certain amount of work was also given 
with still more difficult material because of its inherent interest to 
the child. Comparatively brief periods of intensive work with 
difficult material were found to be stimulating and to be helpful in 
carrying her to a higher level of recognition than was habitual." 
Parallel with this specific instruction there was practice in spelling 
and in writing words and sentences. Furthermore, a great deal 
was done to direct the child's attention to the meaning of what 
was read. Before assigning a passage, the topic was discussed and 
the child's curiosity in it was aroused. Difficult words were also 
written on the board and studied in order to avoid the habit of 
slurring over unknown words or of pausing too long to study them. 



48 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

After about eight weeks of training the pupil was tested again. 
In the Oray Oral Reading Test she made a score of 36.25 as com- 
pared with complete failure at the beginning of the training period. 
This represents the equivalent of a year and one-half of progress. 
In the Courtis Silent Reading Test she read 3.2 words per sec- 
ond. This is six times as rapid as the rate of reading at the be- 
ginning and equals the standard for the sixth grade. The num- 
ber of questions answered in the time allowed was 34, which is 
half way between the standard for the fourth and and fifth grades. 
The index of comprehension was 62, which is between the stand- 
ards for the second and third grades. After the results had been 
carefully analyzed, it was evident that specific training for one- 
half hour each day had resulted in progress "equivalent to per- 
haps three years 1 ordinary progress in school." 

A FIFTH-GRADE PUPIL WHO BEAD SLOWLY BECAUSE HE RECOGNIZED A 

VERY SMALL UNIT AT EACH FIXATION 4 

Frequent tests and observations revealed the fact that this pupil 
read very slowly. An analysis of his difficulties showed clearly 
that he did not recognize words in groups or thought units. In 
order to provide training in the rapid recognition of groups of 
words, eight phrase books were prepared in which a phrase was 
pasted on each page. The first book contained ten very simple 
phrases cut from a primer. Each succeeding book in the series 
contained a similar number of longer and more difficult phrases. 
The eighth book contained phrases from a sixth reader. In con- 
ducting drill exercises the teacher flashed each page so quickly 
that the pupil had time for only one fixation. As soon as a phrase 
had been exposed, the pupil immediately told what he had seen. 
A grade of ten was given for each entirely correct response. Since 
each book contained ten phrases, the scoring was very simple. 

The record of the progress through six books in fourteen les- 
sons is shown in the following table. As a rule thirty phrases 
were presented each day; occasionally, the drill was limited to 



The record of thii case wm supplied by Miss Eld* Merton, Stockton, Wisconsin. 
It wm secured from the progress book of Miss Edna Burull, teacher of mfth and 
sixth grades, Central School. 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 



40 



TABLE 4 
PmoGHff nr Phbasb Ricoonitiov 



Book I 


Book II 


Book III 


Book 


. IV 


Book V 


Book VI 


Lesson Score 


Leuon Score 


Lesson Score 


Leseon Score 


Leuon Score 


Leuon Score 


X 


90 


II 


60 


V 


60 


VIII 


60 


XI 


60 


XIV 


60 




100 




60 
70 




70 




80 
80 




80 




70 
90 


II 


100 






VI 


80 






XII 


80 










ni 


80 
80 




90 
90 


IX 


80 

90 

100 


XIII 


90 

70 

100 










IV 


90 

100 


VII 


90 
100 


X 


100 
90 


XIV 


100 










V 


100 


VIII 


100 






















1 


XI 


100 











twenty ; sometimes it included forty. A given book of phrases was 
not discontinued until the boy had scored 100 in two successive 
lessons. For illustration, Table 4 shows that a score of 100 was 
made the second time the phrases of Book I were presented. Drill 
was discontinued until the next day. On repeating the exercise 
a score of 100 was again made. Book II was then begun and the 
exercise was repeated seven times before a perfect score was made. 
At the conclusion of an exercise the pupil was shown his score. 
(A score of 90 means that 9 out of 10 phrases were correct.) 









TABLE 6 
Pbogbiss nr Rats of BiAonro 












I 

60 


II 
69" 


III 
70 


IV 
79 


V 
80 


VI 
86 


vn 


VIII 


IX 


IX IXI 


XII 


XIII 
"100 


XIV 


Words per min 


86 


70 


80 


f"06 1 90 


98 


105 



At the close of each lesson the boy was given a selection from 
his reader and allowed to read for one minute. His rate for each 
lesson is shown in Table 5. The entries in the table indicate clearly 
that the drill exercises proved effective in increasing his rate of 
reading. 



A SEVENTH-GRADE PUPIL WHO RANKED LOW IN COMPREHENSION BE- 
CAUSE OF A SMALL VOCABULARY OF MEANINGS 5 

This seventh-grade boy was fourteen years, ten months, old 
when the training began. In the report of his case he is described 
as follows: "In general school standing he is rated as a poor 



•"Reading, Its Nature and Development," by Charles H. Jndd. Ittppfonsntery 
BduomtUnul Monofraphs, VoL II, No. 4, July, 1018, pp. 100-118. 



50 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

student, although he is given a grade of good (B) in the manual 
arts, music, and physical training. In all other subjects he is poor. 
During the past two and a half years he has received no grade 
higher than C in history, geography, science, literature, composi- 
tion, and grammar. In this connection it is interesting to note 
that progress in these subjects after the fourth grade is dependent 
to a large degree on ability to get thought from the printed page. 

"His teachers report him as a shy, timid boy, easily embar- 
rassed, lacking in self-confidence and initiative in the classroom, 
though very energetic and responsive on the athletic field. He 
rarely takes part voluntarily in class discussions, and when called 
on to do so, responds in a few brief fragmentary sentences, badly 
expressed, but usually containing a thought or an idea on the topic 
being considered. His English teacher finds great difficulty in get- 
ting him to read with any degree of expression, for he makes no 
attempt to group words into thought units. He reads in a dull, 
monotonous tone, slurring words and phrases. When asked to tell 
what he has read, he reproduces a few ideas in short, scrappy sen- 
tences, for apparently he makes few associations as he reads. His 
teachers in history and geography explain his poor standing in 
their subjects as attributable to an inability to get ideas from the 
text. He apparently reads as rapidly silently as any in the class 
but gets and retains less of the thought.' ' 

Tests in oral and silent reading were given which revealed 
other very interesting facts. He read aloud fairly rapidly, pro- 
nouncing the words mechanically and enunciating poorly. Periods 
were disregarded and adjoining sentences were read as a single 
unit of thought. The test in silent reading showed that this boy 
ranked below the poorest readers in the two preceding grades in 
comprehension. This result supported the judgments of his teach- 
ers of history and geography. A review of all the facts which were 
secured led to the conclusion that he had acquired ability to pro- 
nounce words which exceeded very much his ability to understand 
their meanings. 

This diagnosis emphasized the importance of taking steps, at 
once to develop a background of meaning as a basis for intelligent 
interpretation. " Because of his interest in animal stories and tales 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 51 

of camp and pioneer life emphasis was laid throughout the eighteen 
weeks on literature dealing with these topics. The Boy Scouts 9 
Manual, Custer's Boots and Saddles, Roosevelt's Winning of the 
West, Southworth 's Builders of Our Country, Book II, the Merrill 
and the Horace Mann Fourth Reader and Fifth Reader, Burroughs 
Stickeen, Coffin's Boys of '76, and Seton Thompson and Sapling 
stories, and similar literature were drawn upon freely. Silent read- 
ing was continued throughout the eighteen weeks, but was especially 
emphasized during the first six weeks and again during the last 
six weeks. After reading a selection the pupil reproduced it orally 
or in writing. These reproductions at first were so meager and 
inadequate that he frequently had to re-read several times before 
he could answer the questions raised. Many selections were read 
in this way, paragraph by paragraph, and the main points jotted 
down to assist in the organization of the thought 

"Before the work had progressed very far it became apparent 
that definite word study was necessary in order to build up a back- 
ground of meaning. Words were studied in the context for mean- 
ing, and certain ones were chosen for detailed analysis of prefix, 
suffix, and stem. A stem word analyzed in this manner became the 
nucleus for grouping together other closely related words more 
or less familiar to the pupil. The word 'traction' encountered in 
an article on the 'Lincoln Highway' brought out a discussion of 
traction engines, their use in plowing, road-building, and trench 
warfare, why so called, etc. This centered attention upon the 
stem 'tract.' As its meaning became clear the following list was 
elaborated : 



subtract 


distract 


attraction 


contract 


extract 


distraction 


detract 


retract 


subtraction 


attract 


contraction 


extraction 



"A study of the prefixes in these words gave a point of leverage 
for attacking the meaning of words containing them. In this type 
of prefix study only those words were listed whose stems were 
familiar to the pupil, as, for example: 



recall 


rebound 


retake 


reclaim 


retain 


reinforce 


rearrange 


reform 


return 


regain 


remake 


reframe, etc 



indomitable 


fearless 


brave 


heroic 


courageous 


bold 


resolute 


daring 


maul/ 


plucky 



52 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

In a similar manner an acquaintance was made with the most 
common suffixes. 

"The meaning of some words was approached by the study of 

synonyms and equivalent idiomatic phrases. These were, as far 

as possible, studied in the context and discussed at length to bring 

out shades of difference in meaning." An "indomitable hero" 

met in the pioneer tales brought forth the following synonyms and 

idiomatic phrases : 

stout-hearted 

intrepid 

audacious 

defiant 

undismayed 

to look dinger in the face 

to screw one's courage to the sticking-point 

to take the bull by the horns 

to beard the lion in his den 

to put on a bold front. 

The type of training which has been described continued 
throughout the first six weeks. It was supplemented by incidental 
word study during the remaining twelve weeks of the training 
period. Oral reading was given special emphasis during the sec- 
ond six weeks and continued during the following six weeks. In- 
asmuch as this type of training is not directly relevant to the 
special problem under consideration, it will not be discussed here in 
detail. Suffice it to say that the special training given in this con- 
nection, resulted in a 50 percent reduction in error and a gain in 
rate. * 

In order to determine somewhat accurately the result of the 
special training given to this seventh-grade pupil his progress in 
both oral and silent reading was compared with that of another 
poor reader in the same grade who did not receive special training. 
Both pupils made more progress in silent reading than in oral 
reading. The boy who received special training developed a higher 
rate in silent reading than in oral reading, while the check pupil 
maintained practically the same rate in both types of reading. In 
comprehension the subject of the experiment made far greater 
progress than the check pupil, although at the close of the experi- 
ment he was still behind the standard for his class. 



DIFFICULTIES IN SILENT BEADING 53 

In conclusion the following interesting and significant judg- 
ment was expressed in regard to the value of this type of training: 
' ' The training of this pupil has apparently affected the mechanical 
side of his reading very little. His improvement has been rather 
in the comprehension of what he reads. It seems proper to infer 
that training in the upper grades, at least training of the type given 
in this case, is unlikely to be effective in changing the mechanical 
habits of pupils.' 9 



CHAPTER IV 

THE DEVELOPMENT OP SPEED IN SILENT READING 

John A. O'Brien 



This article will briefly sketch some of the results obtained from 
an investigation of factors conditioning the development of speed 
in silent reading. 1 The investigation was conducted by the writer 
under the auspices of the Bureau of Educational Research at the 
University of Illinois. 

Hucy, Dearborn, Schmidt, Judd, C. T. Gray and others have 
demonstrated the superiority of silent over oral reading as a 
thought-getting instrument. They have also pointed out the un- 
mistakable advantages of ability to read rapidly and yet with good 
comprehension ; but how the teacher was to develop in her pupils 
this desirable habit of rapid silent reading remained for the most 
part unanswered. Accordingly, this investigation was undertaken 
primarily to secure an answer to the practical school question: 
How can speed in silent reading be increased without decreasing 
comprehension? 

Among the other queries on which the investigator endeavored 
to secure data for the formulation of at least tentative answers 
were the following : Can training to accelerate silent reading rate 
be developed into methods adapted to pupils under the ordinary 
conditions of the classroom? How does an increase in speed of 
reading affect comprehension? In other words, is comprehension 
thereby decreased, unaffected, or increased ? What grades show the 
greatest susceptibility to improvement in rate ? To what extent can 
the rate be increased by training without causing the reading to 
degenerate into skimming? What are tentative grade norms for 
pupils who have been trained in rapid, silent reading? How do 
such norms compare with the present standards for rate? Is in- 



1 For a complete statement of the method of procedure, the types of train- 
ing, the interpretation of results, see: O 'Brien, John A. Silent Beading. New 
York: Macmillan Co., 1920. 268 pp. 

54 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 55 

creased speed effected physiologically chiefly by a decrease in the 
duration of the fixation-pauses, or by a lessening of their number T 
A survey was made of the studies of reading, including both 
laboratory and classroom investigations, in which any light was 
thrown, directly or indirectly, upon the factors affecting the rajfe. 
The evidence concerning these factors is summarized next 

FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OP SPEED 

1. Practice in rapid silent reading. The investigations of 
Peters (12), % of C. T. Gray (7), of Miss Bowden (2), of Oberholtzer 
(11), clearly demonstrate that practice in rapid reading has a 
marked effect in increasing the reading rate. 

2. The decrease of vocalization in silent reading. The experi- 
ment of C. T. Gray (7), and the observations of Miss Abell (1), of 
Huey (9), and of Dodge (5), reinforce the conclusion reached by 
Quantz (13) as a result of his investigation: "the motor tendency 
(as manifested by lip movement) in any degree has an influence 
detrimental to rapidity of reading." 

3. Training in perception by means of short exposure exer- 
cises, combined with practice in rapid reading. The experiment 
reported by C. T. Gray shows the effectiveness of this two-fold 
type of training. 

4. Familiarity with subject matter. Dearborn's investigation 
(4) offers experimental corroboration of the favorable influence of 
this factor upon the rate — a factor which has obvious a priori 
grounds of plausibility. 

5. Habits of regular, uniform, rhythmical eye-movements. 
Fordyce (6) reports the doubling of his speed by replacing his 
defective motor habits with those "of a regular, rhythmical na- 
ture." TW observations of Huey (9) and of Dearborn (4) like- 
wise emphasize the influence of these habits of regular, rhythmical 
eye-movements. 



'Numberi in parentheses refer to the bibliography at the close of this 
article. 



56 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

6. Purpose for which the subject matter is read. The investi- 
gations of Whipple and Curtis (16), of C. T. Gray (7), and of 
W. S. Gray (8), show that the mental 'set,' the mode of attack, 
the amount of reflective thought, and logical association — all of 
which influence the rate — depend very largely upon the end for 
which the reading is done. 

7. Concentration of attention. The results of the present ex- 
periment strongly support the conclusion of Quantz (13) that 
rapid reading is characterized by an absence of 'day-dreaming 1 
and 'wool-gathering.' 

8. Ability to grasp the meaning of contents. The observation 
of Ruediger (14) and the positive correlation generally found to 
exist between rate and comprehension point to the influence of 
the central factor of assimilation. 

9. Recognition of the value of the habit of rapid, silent, read- 
ing, combined with the determination to acquire this habit. The 
cases of Huey, of Fordyce, and of others, show that this factor is 
of fundamental importance in any attempt to accelerate the reading 
rate. 

10. The pressure of a time-control. Preliminary experimenta- 
tion in this investigation demonstrated that the awareness of a 
clock accurately measuring the rate, induces a mental 'set' which 
militates directly against lackadaisical poring and leisurely dawd- 
ling and for increased speed in reading. 

11. Individual graph and class chart. The graphical represen- 
tation of the individual daily performance, enabling the pupil to see 
at a glance how his rate compared with yesterday, proved instru- 
mental in arousing in the pupil the strong determination to "make 
the line go up, ' ' to surpass yesterday 's record. It stimulated rivalry 
among the pupils and especially that more wholesome type of rivalry 
between the pupil and his own previous record. The class chart 
portraying the median rate of the class for each day, proved a 
valuable supplement to the individual chart. It enlisted the interest 
of the class as a whole in the effort to develop speed, and made the 
pupils enthusiastic to see the class median rise above the record for 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 57 

yesterday. This earnestness and enthusiasm radiated to all the 
members of the clans, even to the less ambitious, appealed to their 
class pride and loyalty, and created an esprit de corps that was 
favorable to the success of the experiment. The individual graph 
and the class chart are devices for motivation. They are applicable, 
of course, not only to training in speed, but also to other types if 
work as well. They are included in this enumeration of the factors 
merely because of their pronounced influence in evoking the type 
of effort necessary to overcome habits of slow dead-level poring and 
to build up the opposite type of habits of rapid, effective reading. 

12. There are other factors which investigations have shown to 
have some effect upon the reading rate, such as the size and kind of 
type, character of paper, and similar typographical considerations. 
But as factors of this nature are obviously not susceptible to 
incorporation into types of training to develop speed, they are 
not considered further. 

TYPES OP TRAINING 

Three types of training were developed. In Type I, practice in 
rapid, silent reading was made the basic factor; in Type II, the 
stress was placed coordinately upon the decrease of vocalization 
and practice in rapid, silent reading; while in Type III emphasis 
was directed upon training in perception by means of short exposure 
exercises, supplemented with practice in rapid reading. In Type I 
all the eleven foregoing factors except Nos. 2 and 3 were incor- 
porated ; in Type II, all except No. 3 ; and in Type III, all except 
No. 2. All three types of training have much in common — the 
same auxiliary devices, the same technique. They differ chiefly in 
the factor which has been made the basic one in each method. 

Type I — Training in rapid, silent reading — will be outlined 
briefly, as it is typical of the general procedure in the other two 
methods. 

The teacher was instructed first to point out to the pupils the 
advantages of a rapid, effective rate of reading, and to enlist their 
whole-hearted effort in the attempt to develop such a habit. The 
method consisted essentially of alternate reading and reproduc- 



58 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

tion. The reading period was broken into several reading stretches, 
consisting of 2, 3, or 4 minutes. During each stretch the pupils 
were instructed to read as rapidly as possible — consistent, of 
course, with an understanding of what was read. The periods were 
made quite brief, in order to evoke the greatest possible speed by an 
intensity of effort which could not be sustained over a longer period. 
The idea was to break up the old order of eye-movement habits as 
quickly as possible, and to build into a habit an ocular-motor re- 
action of a more advantageous type. The short period safeguarded 
against fatigue, as well as against a relapse into the customary 
leisurely reading rate. In short, speed was the dominant note in 
the entire set of directions. 

The amount read was quickly determined and marked. The 
pupil then reproduced what was read — sometimes by free para- 
phrase, orally or in writing, and sometimes by answers to specific 
questions based on the text. The reproduction was usually brief. 
Its function was merely to show both the teacher and the pupil 
whether the matter was properly grasped. The aim was to devote 
about two-thirds of the time to actual rapid reading. Interesting, 
familiar material was preferred. Difficult words were explained 
beforehand. Whenever thought preparation was deemed neces- 
sary, the teacher was instructed to give it briefly. At the end of 
the total reading period the pupil immediately entered upon the 
chart his average rate of speed as the record for the day. 

In Type II the conscious effort to decrease vocalization was 
added to the above group of factors. To secure uniformity in 
the application of the training and in the method of control, a 
representative from each of the schools was brought to the Uni- 
versity of Illinois to witness a demonstration of the method by a 
teacher and her class from a Champaign public school. 

STATEMENT OP PROCEDURE 

To test the efficacy of the first two types of training, they were 
applied to the pupils in 40 classes and 18 elementary schools in 9 
cities in Illinois. One was a parochial, the rest were public schools. 
In these classes there was a total of approximately 1200 pupils. 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 59 

Because of the lack of a tachistoscope suitable for class use, Type 
III — short exposure exercises — was not applied to the subjects in 
this particular experiment. The methods were used in Grades III 
to VIII, inclusive. 

The length of the reading period for all the grades was 30 min- 
utes. Each class was divided into two groups whose aggregate 
scores in rate, as determined by the Courtis Silent Reading Test, 
No. 2, Form I, were approximately equal. One group received the 
experimental training and was called the Experimental, or A 
Group ; the other continued the conventional work in reading and 
was called the Control, or B Group. 

Besides this group control, an effort was made in the present 
investigation to secure a more refined type of control. Accord- 
ingly, each class was further subdivided into pairs of pupils of 
approximately equal speed in reading. One member of each of 
the pairs was placed in the experimental, the other in the control 
group. This afforded a control not only for the experimental group 
as a whole, but also for each individual member in the group. This 
enables a comparison to be instituted, not only between the final 
aggregate scores of the experimental and the control groups, but 
also between the final achievements of each of the members in the 
series of pairs. It thus enables one to penetrate behind the group 
totals to determine the number of pupils in each group who surpass 
their corresponding control mates. This method of individual con- 
trol necessitated the elimination from the final statement of results, 
of the records of the pupils who could not be properly matched. 
The total period of training extended from April 8, 1919, to May 
29, 1919, a period of 39 school days. At the middle and at the end 
of the training period, the Courtis Silent Reading Tests No. 2, 
Forms 2 and 3, respectively, were administered to all the classes to 
determine how much improvement in speed and comprehension 
had been effected in the first half of the training period and how 
much in the latter half. The tests were also given to the control 
groups at the same times in order to secure a check for each half 
of the training period. 



60 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



STATEMENT OF RESULTS 

The development of speed effected by the experimental training 
in Grades IV to VIII, as compared with the progress made by the 
control pupils, is shown in Table 1. Because of the comparatively 
small number of third-grade pupils — there were but 32 — their rec- 
ords are not included in this table. In this grade, however, the 
average gain in rate of the experimental pupils is slightly more than 
twice the average gain of the control pupils. 

Table 1 shows that the amount of gain increases as the grade 
advances. At the end of the training the average for the experi- 
mental groups rises from 236.4 words per minute in the fourth 
grade until it reaches 393.0 in the eighth grade. Reducing the 
average gains in number of words read per minute to a percentage 
basis, it becomes possible to express the amount of improvement 
for the experimental pupils in all the grades in a single quantity, 
56 percent. The average gain for the control pupils in all the 
grades is 25 percent. - This shows a final average superiority in 



TABLE 1 

Average Rate ot Reading fob Experimental (A) and Control (B) Pupils at 

Beginning, Middle and End or Training Period, as Determined bt 

Courtis Silent Reading Test fob Grades IV-VIII 















A'a Superior* 




Test I 


Test II 


Test III 


Gain 


ity in Gain 




No. of 


















In 


In 


Grade 


Pupils 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


Words 


Pet, 


IV 


236 


155.7 


155.1 


241.9 


189.5 


230.4 


188.2 


80.7 


33.1 


47.6 


31% 


V 


154 


190.7 


191.9 


265.4 


225.6 


277.8 


222.1 


87.1 


80.2 


56.9 


80% 


VI 


128 


197.8 


204.4 


284.7 


235.4 


292.6 


235.0 


94.8 


80.6 


64.2 


83 ft 


VII 


206 


205.6 


202.5 


298.5 


287.2 


821.6 


249.7 


116.0 


47.2 


68.8 


83% 


VIII 


92 


220.8 


211.7 


361.2 


290.5 


393.0 


801.8 


172.2 


90.1 


82.1 


35% 



Average gain of A for all grades = 56% ; of B = 25% ; A's superiority over B = 81%. 

Table 1 is to be read thus: In Grade IV there was a total of 286 pnpila. At the 
beginning of the training period, the Experimental, or A, pupils averaged 155.7 words 
per minute, the Control, or B, pupils 155.1; at the middle of the training period, the A 
pupils averaged 241.9, the B pupils 189.5; at the end of the training period, the A 
pupils averaged 236.4, the B pupils 188.2 ; the A pupils gained 80.7, the B pupils 83.1. 
The superiority in gain of the A pupils over the B pupils was 47.6 words per minute* 
or 81%. 

gain for the experimental pupils over their control mates of 31 
percent. In terms of the number of words read per minute the 
average gain of the A Group is 110.2 as against 46.2 for the B 
Group — an average superiority in gain of 64 words per minute in 
favor of the Experimental, or A Group. 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 



61 



As determined by the method of individual control, the effect of 
the training upon the rate may be seen from the following com- 
parison of the scores of the experimental and control pupils. At 



table a 

Atiiaoi Oompmhinsion in Reading fob Experimental (A) and Contbol (B) 
Pupils at Beginning, Middle, and End op Training Period, am Determined 

by Coprtis Silent Reading Test 





Test I 


Test II 


Test III 


Gain 


A's Su- 
periority 
in Gain 


Grade 


No. of 
Pupils 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 




IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 


236 
154 
128 
206 
92 


77.4 
82.5 
91.0 
91.2 
95.8 


78.6 
86.8 
92.0 
91.8 
90.5 


81.2 
87.0 
90.8 
94.1 
94.8 


78.0 
89.9 
90.4 
98.5 
96.8 


81.6 
85.6 
88.2 
92.8 
94.8 


79.1 
88.6 
88.5 
91.4 
94.1 


4.2 

2.9 
-2.8 

1.1 
-1.0 


0.5 
2.8 

-4.1 
0.1 

-2.4 


8.7 
0.6 
1.8 
1.0 
1.4 



Average gain of A for all grades — 0.9% ; of B = — 0.7% ; A's superiority over B = 1.6%. 
Table 2 is to be read in the same manner aa Table 1. 

the end of the training period the results for all grades combined 
were: One pair of pupils had scores identically equal; 86 controls 
were superior to their correspondents in the experimental group, 
but 314 experimental were superior to their controls — a final net 
superiority of 228 pairs for the cxpcrimcntals. Subtracting from 
this total the amount of A's initial superiority of 48 pupils, the 
results show a final superiority in gain of the experimental over 
the control group of 108 pupils, or 45 percent 

The effect of the training in speed upon comprehension, as de- 
termined by the Courtis Index, is presented in Table 2; as 
measured by the number of questions correctly answered, the effect 
upon comprehension is shown in Table 3. In regard to the effect of 
the training in speed upon comprehension, the result of the applica- 
tion of the method of individual control shows a final superiority in 
comprehension of 32 pairs, or 8 percent, for the experimental pupils 
over their controls. 

The results of the method of individual control, it will be seen, 
serve as a powerful reinforcement of a refined type of the con- 
clusions issuing from a comparison of the aggregate scores of the 
two groups. This method of control shows furthermore that the 
superiority in rate of the experimental group over the control 



62 



TEE TWENTIETH YBABBOOK 



group is not due simply to a very marked superiority of a com- 
paratively small number of pupils, but that the superiority is spread 
very largely throughout the whole group. 



INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 

A. The Effect of the Training Upon the Rate of Beading 

The data contained in Table 1 are shown graphically in Fig. 1. 
The latter clearly shows the differences in amount of improve- 





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Fio. 1. Average Rath of Reading for Experimental (A) and Control (B) 

Groups by Grades at Beginning, Middle, and End of TRAiNura Prriod, 

as Measured by tub Courtis Silrnt Rradivq Trst. 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT READING 



63 



ment in reading rate achieved by the experimental pupils and the 
controls. While in every grade the two groups start at practically 
the same level of reading rate, yet in every grade the experimental 
pupils far outstrip the controls. The bulk of improvement, it will 
be noticed, is effected in the first month of the training. With 
the exception, however, of the fourth grade, in which there occurs 
a very slight decrease, improvement of a lesser character continues 
during the second month. It is to be noted that the increases in 
speed are very marked. Thus, the pupils iu the seventh grade are 
able to increase their rate 116 words per minute, while the eighth* 
grade pupils succeed in almost doubling their rate — reaching the 
high average of 393 words per minute. 

These quantitative results would seem to justify three con- 
clusions: 

1. The present average rates in silent reading in Grades III 
to Till are needlessly slow and inefficient. 





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84 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

2. These rates can be greatly increased by systematic training 
extending over a period of two months. 

3. The improvement effected in the first month is considerably 
greater than that effected in the second month of training. 

Besides the Courtis Test, the growth in speed of reading was 
also measured by the daily class chart, which shows the median rate 
of reading for each day. The fact that the class chart records the 
progress for each day causes it to reflect the character of the growth 
in speed, gradual or otherwise, which the three Courtis Tests 
naturally could not show. Fig 2 reveals the character of the growth 
in speed as shown by the daily medians of the experimental pupils, 
totaling 67, in four fifth-grade classes. The dots in the graph 
represent the actual medians, the line shows the smoothed median 
increase in speed. The daily class charts reveal an increase in speed 
greater even than that reflected by the Courtis Test. They serve, on 
the whole, to corroborate the conclusions based on the scores in the 
Courtis Test. The growth in speed, it will be noted, is fairly regu- 
lar, though the bulk of the improvement occurs in the first half of 
the training period. 

B. The Effect of the Training Upon Comprehension, as Deter- 
mined by the Courtis Index 

The Courtis index is so computed that it reflects only the accur- 
acy of the response. It does not reflect the efficiency of compre- 
hension as measured by the number of questions correctly answered 
in a given amount of time. As determined by the Courtis index, the 
accuracy of the comprehension was not greatly affected, either 
favorably or adversely (see Fig. 3). It remained constant to a 
large extent in both the experimental and control groups. The 
slight superiority in gain that does exist, however, is, in each grade, 
in favor of the experimental pupils. The conclusions that would 
seem to follow from the performances of the pupils in accuracy of 
comprehension in this study are : 

1. Marked increases in speed of reading may be effected with- 
out any impairment of comprehension. 

2. The setting up of habits of rapid reading does not per se 
increase the accuracy of comprehension. 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 



66 



3. To secure marked improvement in accuracy of comprehen- 
sion, special stress must be placed upon training designed spe- 
cifically to secure that effect. 

While the experimental training outlined in this study succeeded 
in safeguarding and even slightly improving the accuracy of com- 



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FlO. 8. ATDtAOl OOMPBIHINSION IN RBADIXO FOB EXPIHIMENTAL (A) AMD COVTBOL 

(B) Pupils at Beginning, Middle, and End of Training Pzbiod, as 

DlTOMINKD BY COUBTIS SlLZNT BBADINO TBST 

prehension, yet its predominant effect was the marked augmenta- 
tion of the reading rate. To produce such an effect upon the rate 
was precisely the end for which the training was devised. 



C. The Effect of the Training Upon Comprehension, as Determined 
by the Number of Questions Correctly Answered 

Efficiency in comprehension is reflected not only by the pro- 
portionate accuracy of the response, but also by the number of re- 
sponses correctly made in a limited period of time. To measure 
this latter phase of comprehension, the number of questions cor- 
rectly answered was employed as a supplementary measuring device. 
The increase in the number of correct answers reflects, furthermore, 
the increase in the rate of reading of a passage in which the com- 



66 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



prehension is required and upon which it is tested. This device 
makes it possible, moreover, to determine whether or not the in- 
creased speed of reading effected by the training persisted in differ- 
ent situations. For the mental attitude assumed in reading a 
passage to answer questions on it immediately, is considerably dif- 
ferent from that assumed in reading a passage rapidly simply to 'get 
the gist' of it. It is thought that the employment of this device in 
the present study obviates the one serious weakness inherent in the 
Courtis Reading test. The performances of 274 experimental 
pupils collected at random from different grades were subjected to 
this sort of analysis. The results are presented in Table 3. 

TABLE 8 



Gain in Comprehension of the Experimental Pupils, as Determined bt the 
Number of Questions in Courtis Tests Correctly Answered 


Grade 


Number of Pupils 


Beginning 


End 


Gain 


IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 


97 
47 
57 
50 
46 


23.9 
29.6 
88.7 
45.8 
47.1 


84.8 
42.1 
48.4 
58.0 
57.8 


10.9 
12.5 
14.5 
12.7 
10.7 



A very marked increase is shown in the number of questions 
correctly answered by the experimental pupils in all the grades. 
In fact, the number of questions correctly answered by the pupils 
after receiving the training in rapid reading, is greater than the 
norms, or the average number of questions attempted, as reported 
by Courtis. The average number of correct answers for the fourth 
grade, as shown in Table 3, is 34.8 as against Courtis' norm of 30 
questions attempted ; for the fifth grade, it is 42.1 as against 37 ; 
for the sixth grade, 48.4 as against 40. No norms have been sug- 
gested by Courtis for the seventh and eighth grades. The average 
number of questions correctly answered by the different experi- 
mental classes at the beginning and end of the training are com- 
pared in Fig. 4 with the norms reported by Courtis for the num- 
ber of questions attempted, whether answered correctly or not. 

The conclusions that would seem to follow from this phase of 
the investigation are: 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 



67 



1. Marked improvement in comprehension, as measured by the 
number of questions correctly answered, resulted from training in 
rapid silent reading. 

2. This phase of the efficiency of comprehension is measured in 
no way by Courtis' 'Index of Comprehension,' which is, more 
strictly speaking, an index of accuracy. 



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THE TWENTIETH TEAB800K 



3. The marked gain in the number of questions correctly an- 
swered demonstrates the persistence of the improvement in reading 
rate in a changed situation involving a different mental attitude, 
i. t., in careful reading, and reading to answer written questions. 

D. The Relative Amount of Gain Made by Different Grades 
A comparison of the amount of gain in rate, as determined by 
the Courtis Teat, made by the experimental and control pupils in 
each of the grades is shown in Fi^,. 5. This graph brings out 
clearly the fact that the amount of gain increases as the grade ad- 
vances. In the experimental groups the gain made by the higher 
grade is in every case superior to that made by the lower. With 
the single exception of the sixth grade, this is true likewise of the 
control group. 



Gttfnf (Pre 




r Buona MB Gum* IV TO VIII, it D» 



The gains in rate made by the different grades were also meas- 
ured by the daily class charts. The rates of all the grades at the 
beginning and at the end of the experimental training, as recorded 
on the class charts, are shown in Fig. 6. The shaded blocks in the 
figure call attention to the amount of gain made by the different 
grades. The records of the daily charts, it will be noted, offer a 



DEVELOPMENT OF 8PEEP IN SILENT LEAVING 69 

striking corroboration of the results obtained from the Courtis test. 
They serve to reinforce powerfully the conclusion illustrated in 
Fig. 5 that, on the whole, "the amount of gain increases as the 
grade advances." 

This superiority in gain in rate by the upper grades over the 
lower is quite the opposite of what has usually been reported con- 
cerning the relative gains made by the different grades. The third 
and fourth grades have been of late generally regarded as corre- 




pcpir, Birrai Aire Arm Tmur- 
it t»» Individual Obaitb 

Bponding to the crucial school periods during which any appre- 
ciable increases in rate are to be effected. The results reported by 
W. S. Gray (8), Judd (10), Courtis (3), and Waldo (15), show 
that, from the fourth grade on, the rate is practically at a stand- 
still. Thus Waldo reports that, after a year's work in reading, 



70 TEE TWENTIETH TEABBOOK 

gains of 2.1 and 11.7 words per minute were effected in the sixth 
and eighth grades respectively — gains so meager as to be scarcely 
perceptible. 

This difference between the amount of gains in the various 
grades as reported by the previous investigators and those reported 
in the present study is due to the fact that the gains previously re- 
ported were the results of the conventional type of instruction in 
reading with almost the entire emphasis upon the oral phase; 
whereas, in the present study the development of speed was made 
a conscious problem in the upper as well as in the lower grades. 
This is in marked contrast to the conventional type of instruction in 
reading in the upper grades where rate in silent reading is generally 
completely ignored. From the quantitative results of this phase of 
the investigation four conclusions would seem to follow : 

1. Marked increases in rate can be effected in the upper grades 
when speed in reading is set as a definite problem for the pupils. 

2. When training in rapid silent reading is given to pupils not 
previously trained therein, the increase in rate tends in a general 
way to advance pari passu with the advance in the grade; the 
higher the grade, the greater is the increase in rate. 

3. As compared with the gains which can be readily effected 
by systematic training in rapid silent reading, the increases ordi- 
narily obtained in rate in the upper grades are so small as to indicate 
a condition almost pathological in character. They constitute a 
serious indictment of the present school regime in the teaching of 
reading, with its grotesquely misplaced emphasis on oral reading 
and its utter neglect of reading in the true sense of the term — the 
silent interpretation of the printed symbols. 

B. The Average Rates Attained by Pupils After Training, 

Compared with Existing Norms 

A comparison of the averages of the experimental pupils in 
Grades IV to VIII, with the results reported by Courtis, Brown, 
Gray, Starch, and Oberholtzer, and by Courtis in the Gary Survey, 
is presented in Table 4. There is a common basis of comparison 
between the averages of the experimental pupils and the norms 



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DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 



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72 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

reported by Courtis. Both were based on the Courtis test and the 
directions to the pupils were in both cases identical. The norms 
reported by Courtis represent the smoothed averages; the norms 
presented by the writer are the actual averages. A comparison of 
these two norms is shown in Fig. 7. This figure brings out strik- 
ingly the superiority in reading rate of pupils who have received 
training in rapid, effective silent reading and pupils who have been 
nurtured on the conventional pabulum, drill in oral reading. The 
superiority of the experimental pupils in every grade is very 
marked. Not less noticeable is the superiority over the norms re- 
ported by W. S. Gray and by Oberholtzer, as also shown in Table 4. 
The norms reported by W. S. Gray for the three different selections 
in his reading test have been adjusted here to the basis of the easiest 
selection, "Tiny Tad." 

The highest norms reported are those by Brown. They repre- 
sent, however, not the averages of all the pupils tested in the differ- 
ent grades, as in the case of the other investigators, but the highest 
averages reached by various single classes tested by Brown. Con- 
sequently, they are offered as norms or standards to be striven after, 

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DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 



73 



rather than indices of the present average attainment of the dif- 
ferent grades. These standards mentioned by Brown come closer 
to the averages actually reached by the experimental classes than 
those of any of the other investigators. They are still, however, very 
considerably below them, as shown in Table 4. 

TABLE 4 

Avibagm iv Rati Attained bt Pupils Aftbb Training (O'Bbun) Compabxd with 

Norms of Previous Investigators 



Grade 


rv 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


O'Brien 


286 


278 


293 


822 


898 


Oberboltier 


156 


186 


234 


282 


288 


Courtis 


160 


180 


220 


250 


280 


Gary 


140 


166 


185 


198 


204 


Starch 


144 


168 


192 


216 


240 


Brown 


218 


269 


272 


279 


290 


Gray 


180 


204 


216 


228 


284 



The previous norms for reading rate have all been derived from 
the performances of pupils who have been trained in the conven- 
tional type of oral reading. In the vast majority of cases they have 
received no training in rapid silent reading. What the norms will 
be after the schools begin to train in rapid silent reading is an 



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z indicate* that it waa impoeaibla to determine with accuracy the duration of the 
flxation-panee. 



74 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

interesting question which the future alone can answer. As a result 
of a pioneering effort in a virgin field, the actual averages attained 
by the experimental pupils in the different grades in the present 
investigation are suggested as tentative norms. The degree of re- 
liability of the averages for the different grades has been com- 
puted in terms of the P. E. which are presented in Table 5. It is 



TlNTATIVl NOBMS 


TABLE 5 
worn Pupils Tbainbd nr Rapid Silxkt RBAonra 


Grade 


Average 


P. E. 


IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 


236.4 
277.8 
292.6 
821.6 
898.0 


12.18 
8.87 
8.71 
7.01 

12.77 



noted that the P. E. is relatively small, which indicates a good 
degree of reliability for the averages. 

F. Physiological Basis of Development of Speed 

Photographic records of the eye-movements of ten pupils in 
Grades III to VIII were taken before and after the training in rapid 
silent reading. In each case the pupil developed habits of rapid 
silent reading. A study of the records showed that the improve- 
ment on the physiological side was effected chiefly by a lessening of 
the number of the fixation pauses rather than by a decrease in the 
duration of these pauses. Plates 1 and 2 are presented in illustra- 
tion of this modification of the eye-movement habits. The lines 
indicate the places of fixation; the numbers at the top show the 
order of the pauses and those at the bottom, the duration of the 
pauses in fiftieths of a second. The development of speed was also 
accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of regressive 
movements and by the setting up of habits of regular rhythmical 
eye-movement 



DEVELOPMENT OF SPEED IN SILENT BEADING 75 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(This bibliography includes only those studies referred to in 
the article.) 

1. Abell, Adelaide M. "Rapid reading: advantages and meth- 

ods," Educational Review, 8: October, 1894: 283-86. 

2. Bowden, Josephine. Learning to Read. (Master's thesis, Uni- 

versity of Chicago, 1911.) 

3. Courtis, S. A. "Standards in rates of reading." Fourteenth 

Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Educa- 
tion, Part I, 1915 ; pp. 44-59. 

4. Dearborn, W. F. The psychology of reading. (Columbia 

Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology, v. 14, no. 1.) 
New York : Columbia University. 1906. 

5. Dodge, Raymond. Die Motorischen Wortvorstellungen. Halle: 

N. Niemeyer, 1896. 78 pp. (p. 65.) 

6. Pordyce, Charles. "Testing the efficiency in reading." Ad- 

dresses and Proceedings of the National Education Asso- 
ciation, 55 : 818-21, July 7-14, 1917. (p. 821) 

7. Gray, Clarence T. Types of Reading Ability as Exhibited 

through Tests and Laboratory Experiments. (Supple- 
mentary Educational monograph, v. 1, no. 5, August, 
1917.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1917. 
196 pp. 

8. Gray, William S. Reading, Survey of the St. Louis Public 

Schools, v. 2. St. Louis : Board of Education, 1917. 

9. Huey, Edmund B. The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. 

New York : Macmillan, 1913. 469 pp. 

10. Judd, Charles H. Measuring the Work of the Public Schools. 

Cleveland, Ohio : 1916. 

11. Oberholtzer, E. E. "Testing the efficiency of reading in the 

grades," Elementary School Journal, 15: February, 1915; 
313-22. 



76 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

12. Peters, Charles C. "The influence of speed drills upon the 

rate and effectiveness of silent reading. ' ' Journal of Edu- 
cational Psychology, 8 : June, 1917 : 350-366. 

13. Quantz, J. 0. "Problems in the psychology of reading," 

Psychological Review, Monograph Supplement, v. 2, no. 1, 
December, 1897. 

14. Ruediger, William C. "Field of distinct vision," Columbia 

Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology, v. 16, no. 1, 
1907. 

15. Waldo, Karl D. "Tests in reading in Sycamore schools," 

Elementary School Journal, 15 ; January, 1915 : 251-268. 

16. Whipple, Q. M., and Curtis, Josephine N. "Preliminary in- 

vestigation of skimming in reading." Journal of Educa- 
tional Psychology, 8 ; June, 1917 : 333-349. 



CHAPTER V 

MOTIVATED DRILL WORK IN THIRD-GRADE 

SILENT READING 1 



J. H. Hoovze 
Cape Girardeau, Missouri 



The general problem toward the solution of which this study is 
directed is : what is the value of games and devices in providing 
motivated drill in the fundamental process of silent reading f Be- 
fore describing the material and the methods that were employed in 
this particular experiment with pupils in the third grade we shall 
discuss some of the theoretical considerations that, in our opinion, 
bear upon the efficiency of drill work in general. 

NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE DRILL 

Drill is the name given to that kind of repeated activity which 
has for its purpose the increasing of one's physical skill or dex- 
terity or the permanent fixing in memory of certain useful asso- 
ciations. Stated in another way, drill is an activity which has for 
its purpose the reducing of certain mental or physical operations to 
an automatic basis. 

If drill is to be made effective and economical, it must be freed 
from some of its monotonous and unattractive aspects. Instead, it 
must be made attractive, profitable, and varied. Unless this con- 
dition is realized to a greater or less degree, drill periods can be 
scarcely more than periods of drudgery for both teacher and pupils. 
A feeling of satisfaction should accompany every drill period and 
a feeling of discontent should follow every unsuccessful effort. It 
must be quite generally conceded that responses, or reactions, in 
order to be often repeated, must be pleasant to the performer, and 
it is equally true that unsuccessful or unpleasant responses tend to 



1 The study from which this material is drawn was made at the University 
of Kansas with the co-operation of Dean F. J. Kelly. 

77 



78 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

be duffed off or eliminated. One of the chief characteristics of 
successful drill work is repetition, not meaningless, thoughtless 
repetition but clear cut, vivid, and interesting repetition. If a feel- 
ing of dissatisfaction or annoyance accompanies a series of efforts, 
it will not be often repeated. Now if this repeated activity is to be 
voluntarily realized, which, of course, should be the case, only one 
alternative remains open for the educator ; namely, make drill work 
interesting in itself. Let the results of the activity be an incentive 
to further effort. Let the process of the development of skill be 
inviting to the learner. Pleasure brings success, and success spurs 
the learner on to greater effort, while unpleasant duties or activities 
have a depressing, retarding effect. 

Interest, as used above, does not imply mere fun or entertain- 
ment It does not imply 'taking things easy.' In fact, when teach- 
ing deteriorates to this level, interest invariably dies out. Students 
should be led to see a distinct need for making a process automatic. 
Once seeing this need, it should serve as an impelling force, being 
responsible for the expenditure of effort even when the attitude of 
mind and body is not entirely favorable. If possible, drill lessons 
should occur when the children see that, without these fundamental, 
automatic abilities in their school subjects, future progress will be 
materially handicapped, if not finally arrested. Let the nature of 
the material presented to children be such that they will really care 
to master it. Let them enjoy it, let it be a game for them. 

riay may be used in school in a very useful way. A child's 
play interests may be used as a means of bringing about the repeti- 
tion of those acts which need to be fixed in the mind as habits of 
thought. In other words, play could be profitably used as a means 
of making drill interesting. Numerous repetitions of a single 
activity must of necessity become monotonous to the child unless a 
motive, like winning the game, for carrying on this activity is 
provided. Play can with profit enter more thoroughly into the edu- 
cation of children and if we mistake not, the natural play activities 
of children are capable of furnishing numerous suggestions that 
can profitably be employed within school walls. Organized games, 
making use of the child's instinct for play and based on play mo- 
tives, should form a part of the regular curriculum, especially 



MOTIVATED DRILL WORK IN SILENT READING 79 

during drill periods. Since young children play much, play should 
be included in their school activities. Much of the unattractive, 
toil attitude which young children have towards their school tasks 
could thus be eliminated. 

Dramatization is another form of play activity that can be suc- 
cessfully used in the drill work of the lower grades. This fact is 
especially true in the teaching of reading. Children love to make 
a situation real by going through the motions it suggests. Abstract 
ideas are often not comprehended, and the child is not sure of his 
understanding of the passage read. Allow him to act out or 
dramatize the idea and it becomes real to him. If it is not thus 
made real to him, his lack of understanding is shown by his actions, 
and the teacher has a rather definite means of knowing the abilities 
and inabilities of her pupils. This means of diagnosis should be 
useful to the teacher in planning individual assignments and tasks 
for the future. Let action be the test of comprehension. In other 
words, learning by doing is a more efficient way of learning than is 
learning by passive listening. 

Again, one is safe in saying that drill is futile when it relies 
on the device of formal external repetition to achieve results. In- 
stead, there must be repetition with attention. Careless, blunder- 
ing repetition is valueless from the standpoint of improvement in 
the desired activity and is a hindrance to the introduction of cor- 
rect, economical methods of procedure. The teacher should strive 
to focus the attention of the student on what he is doing and how 
he is doing it. Exceptions to right methods must be positively dis- 
couraged at every opportunity. A child learns to read his lesson 
intelligently not by fifty or a hundred inattentive readings ; rather 
the most economical method of learning to read requires that the 
maximum of focalized attention be given during the reading 
process. 

Drill, to be most efficient, must be individual in character. Mass 
drilling of pupils does not meet the individual needs of the different 
class members. Class drilling of pupils often gives practice to 
certain pupils when in fact they do not need it, hence it is often 
worthless. To be effective in its highest degree, drill should be 
conducted for each pupil in the light of his particular abilities and 



80 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

according to his needs. Much group drill work shows little atten- 
tion given by many of the class members, except as it is necessary, 
in a parrot-like fashion, to follow the leaders in the work. Such 
work is doubtless beneficial to the leaders, but it is of little benefit 
to the others who take part. 

READING MATERIALS 

The fundamental aim in devising reading materials for this 
study was to have drill work in reading assume the form of a game 
in which the elements of comprehension of what is read and speed 
of reading would play a prominent part 

Since the love for activity, or motion, is one of the characteristics 
of childhood, it was decided to make use of this fact in developing 
the reading materials for this study. Printed cards containing 
'action' sentences which lend themselves readily to dramatization in 
the schoolroom were devised. 

We believe the psychological principles stated in the foregoing 
paragraphs are fundamental in the teaching of reading in the lower 
grades of the elementary schools, and the materials, to be described 
presently, have consequently aimed to bring these principles into 
the foreground. In determining the content of the sentences which 
should appear upon these reading cards, the environment, interests, 
and every-day activities of children as a whole were kept constantly 
in mind. In order to appeal to the needs and interests of various 
types of children in the matter of the response to be given, four 
different kinds, or sets, of cards were devised, which, for con- 
venience, we will call Set A, Set B, Set C, and Set D. These dif- 
ferent sets of cards are described in the "Rules for Reading Game," 
which are given later. 

The A, B, G, or D, as the case may be, which appears in the upper left- 
hand corner of each card indicates to which set this particular card belongs. 
There are 150 AN, 150 B's, 250 C's, and 100 D's. The cards are arranged 
serially in order of difficulty (least difficult first, most difficult last), and the 
number which appears in the upper right-hand corner of each card indicates 
the position in the series to which this card belongs. For instance, A 125 
means that the card belongs to Set A and is the one hundred and twenty-fifth 
card (based upon the author's judgment) in Set A, in order of difficulty. 



MOTIVATED DBILL WORK IN SILENT BEADING 



81 



A sample card from each of the 4 sets of reading cards is shown 
below. Each card is 2 inches wide and 4 inches long. 



A 125 

School closes at four 
o'clock in the afternoon. 
Show how the face of a 
clock looks at that time. 



B 67 

A donkey was loaded 
with salt. He lay down in 
the water. What happened 
to the salt T 



C 239 

Shetland ponies are lit- 
tle horses which children 
like to ride. Show how tall 
a Shetland pony is. 



D 


87 


Mosquitoes are larger 


than elephants. 


Their 


wings are made 


of brass 


and copper. 





In order that the reader may gain an accurate knowledge of the 
content of the reading materials devised for this study the first 
10 cards and the last 10 cards of each set will now be given. 

Sit A 

1. Face tho rising fan. 

2. Lay your book in the nearest window. 

3. Place your right foot in front of you. 

4. Cover your eyes with your hands. 

5. Place your left elbow on a piece of wood. 

6. Take three long steps towards the door. 

7. Handle your arm as if it were broken and very sore. 

8. Stretch both arms out as far as possible. 

0. Ask your mother for a piece of bread and butter. 
10. Place your right hand on the left knee. 

141. Our President is a very good man. It is his duty to see that people 
obey the laws of the United States. Write his name on the blackboard. 

142. Fall asleep and snore loudly. Bemain asleep until you think one 
minute has passed. 



82 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

143. Act as if you were tired and sleepy by leaning against the wall and 
nodding your head. 

144. Put your left hand against the blackboard. Now take a piece of 
chalk and mark around your hand so as to make a picture of it on the black- 
board. 

145. Sit down in your seat, then lean backward until the back of your 
head strikes the desk behind you. 

146. Take a piece of chalk in each hand. Now make two marks on the 
blackboard just as far apart as you can reach. 

147. "Paul Piper picked a peck of purple peppers." Write this sentence 
on the blackboard. Cross out the letter "p M every time it appears. 

148. The vowels of the alphabet are: A, E, I, O, and U. Write "In- 
dianapolis ' ' on the blackboard, then draw a mark through each of the vowels. 

149. Snakes crawl on the ground. They haven 't any feet. Some snakes 
catch mice and are useful to the farmers. Draw a picture of a snake on the 
blackboard. 

150. The children played tag on the lawn. They soon felt tired and 
went to sleep. There were eleven children in the group. Make the figure 
"eleven" on your paper. 

SrB 

1. Name some good winter games. 

2. Tell how many boys there are in the classroom. 

3. Repeat the names of two pupils that you know. 

4. What are shoes and boots made off 

5. Spell the word "rabbit" three times. 

6. Name four articles that can be seen in the classroom. 

7. Name three things used in cooking our food and heating our houses. 

8. Are cows useful to us in any wayf If so, howf 

9. Name different kinds of animals that may be seen at a circus. 
10. Whisper the names of two animals raised on the farm. 

141. Clyde went to the barn to gather the eggs. He put them in his cap. 
He dropped his cap on the hard ground. You tell the rest. 

142. Suppose you are lost and cannot find your way to the school-house. 
Inquire of Mr. Jones which way to go. 

143. Mamma had a good dinner. I was playing in the yard under the big 
tree when she called me. Dinner is eaten about the middle of the day. What 
is the morning meal called f 

144. Milk is sold by the pint and by the quart. A quart of milk is bigger 
than a pint How many pints does it take to make a quart! 



MOTIVATED DRILL WORK IN SILENT BEADING 83 

145. The little girl is pretty. Her hair is black and curly. She is now 
thirteen yean old. How old was she four years ago? 

146. The boys went to the woods on Wednesday. They gathered sticks for 
the fire and cooked their own dinner. What day comes just before Wednesday I 

147. Make a sentence out of the words that follow: "eat grass cows." 

148. My grandmother lives on a farm. I am going to visit her. I 
shall see ducks, geese and chickens on the farm. In what way are ducks and 
geese alike? 

149. Hiawatha was a little Indian boy. He lived in the woods with wild 
animals all around him. Name some wild animals that lived in the woods with 
Hiawatha, 

150. Last year I bought some roses for twenty cents a dozen. How many 
things does it take to make a dozen? 

SktO 

1. Show how mother rocks the baby's cradle. 

2. Lay the football on the floor, then kick it. 

3. Act as if you are buttoning your coat. 

4. Baby has some sand in his shoe. Loosen the string and pour it out. 

5. Act as if you were cutting a piece of cloth with the scissors. 

6. Pretend that you are trimming your finger-nails. 

7. Aid Mary who is trying to read her lesson. 

8. Go through the motions of splitting wood with an ax. 

9. Catch the basket-ball. Now toss it back to Henry. 
10. Light the lantern and set it on the table. 

241. The hoe was left out in the rain and it is now rusty. Papa scoured 
the rust off with sand-paper. Act as if you were rubbing the hoe with a piece 
of sand-paper. 

242. The wheat was threshed last Saturday. Now it is in a bin in the 
granary. Charles likes to wade in the wheat. Show how he walks when wading 
in the wheat. 

243. Daniel's new coat fell from the hook on to the floor. When he 
picked it up, the sleeves were covered with dust. He brushed the dust off with 
a clothes brush. 8how how he did it. 

244. A hickory nut or a walnut has a hard, thick, shell. We have to crack 
them with a hammer. Act as if you were cracking a walnut. 

245. The dog can dig a hole in the ground with his fore-paws.' He 
makes a hole in the ground and hides away a bone until he wants it. Show 
how a dog digB a hole with his fore-paws. 



84 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

246. You have seen a cat waiting patiently at the hole for a mouse to 
eome out. When Mr. Mouse comes out, the cat springs upon him and eats 
him. Show how a cat springs upon a mouse. 

247. The dog is a swift runner. After he has been running, his tongue 
hangs from his mouth and he breathes very rapidly. Show how a dog breathes 
when he is warm and tired. 

248. The cat has very sharp claws. 8he is very active and strong. She 
can walk so quietly that the mice cannot hear her coming. See if you can 
walk across the room without making any noise. 

249. When papa gets up from the supper table, he gets a toothpick and 
begins picking his teeth. Pretend that you are picking your teeth. 

250. Mr. Wilson is digging potatoes to-day. He plows them out with a 
big team of mules and a plow. He then puts them in a sack and carries them 
to the cellar. Act as if you were picking up potatoes. 

SetD 

1. Apples and peaches grow on the ground. 

2. Do you like to climb high up in a treef 

3. Do farmers cut oats and wheat in the winter? 

4. Does a baker make shoes, boots and slippers I 

5. The moon is just ten feet from the ground. 

6. Do we know whether kittens have the head-ache f 

7. Mamma sews the buttons on my clothes with binder-twine. 

8. My hair is green and my eyes and teeth are yellow. 

9. The sun is no bigger than the palm of my hand. 
10. When it rains the sun is always shining brightly. 

91. Horses can gallop very fast. Their hoofs make a noise when they 
hit the ground. Can you ride in a gallop? 

92. Dreams are queer things. They come to us in the night while we 
are sleeping. Did you ever dream of falling from some high placet 

93. Clarence went to bed and his mother blew out the light. The room 
was then dark and still. Are you afraid in the dark? 

94. The grocer sells soap, sugar, and beans. I think he is fair and 
honest. Would you ask for a dozen beans and a bushel of soapf 

95. It is interesting to read story-books. Stories about animals some- 
times make us afraid. Did you ever read the story about ' ' Little Bed Biding 
Hood?" 

96. Frost makes the leaves turn red and brown. They soon fall to the 
ground. Are the leaves red and brown now? 



MOTIVATED DRILL WORK IN SILENT BEADING 85 

97. Houses used to be made of logs. Mud was placed between the logB 
to keep out the wind and rain. Are houses still built in this way? 

98. Harkl I hear the school bell ringing. I must hurry or I shall be 
late. I do not want to get a tardy mark. School begins a little while before 
sunrise. 

99. A neat-looking boy came to school to-day. His hair was combed 
and his shoes were polished. Do you think his hands and face were clean? 

100. We went to church last Sunday. Uncle John and Aunt Lena came 
home with us. They took us out riding in the afternoon. Do you enjoy 
riding in a cart 

METHOD OF PROCEDURE 

The general plan of procedure was as follows: The experiment 
was carried out with 1,139 children (571 in non-drill sections and 
568 in drill sections) in thirty different third-grade rooms. Only 
third-grade children were used, as the materials were developed 
with this idea in mind. 

1. At the beginning of the study, December 29, 1919, stand- 
ardized tests in reading (Monroe's Standardized Silent Reading 
Tests) were given to all the children. These tests revealed the 
standings or abilities of the children at the beginning of the study. 
The methods of scoring provided by the authors of the tests were 
strictly adhered to in every case, both at the beginning and at the 
end of the study. 

2. After these tests were given, the attempt was made to divide 
the pupils of the thirty different rooms into two groups of equal 
size and mental attainments. In making this division the advice 
and assistance of the superintendent of schools was sought. This 
method of division seemed advisable, as it was desirable to begin 
the study without delay rather than to wait until all of the papers 
had been scored and to make the division then upon the basis of the 
results thus found. The superintendent's judgment in this matter 
was exceedingly accurate, as will be noted by referring to data in 
Table 1. A better division of the children into groups of equal 
size and mental ability could not have been realized even if the 
division had been based upon the results of the tests. 

The division into groups accomplished, fifteen of the rooms 
were provided with the materials and the teachers were given in- 



86 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

structions in their use. This was done both by demonstration and 
by a set of printed rules with which each teacher was provided. 

The teachers of drill classes were requested to use the materials 
10 minutes a day on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

Since the aim was to compare the improvement made by the 
drill section upon its previous record and the improvement made 
by the non-drill section upon its previous record, it was quite 
essential that the same amount of time be spent by each section in 
improving reading. Therefore, the time spent in the extra drill 
work by the drill section was deducted from the regular amount 
of time given to reading improvement. In other words, the time 
element in the two groups was identical; the only difference was 
the way in which this time was utilized. In order to leave the work- 
ing conditions of the drill group as nearly normal as possible, the 
extra drill work was given during the regular lesson period. The 
drill classes were to cover the same daily textbook assignments as 
the non-drill section. 

The experiment was in operation from January 1 to April 1, 
1920. At the end of the study, as at the beginning, the tests in read- 
ing were given to all children. The improvement in rate and com- 
prehension was then determined. 

For the purpose of making clear just how the work was actually 
conducted during the drill period, the rules for playing the read- 
ing games are reproduced. 

RULES FOB THE READING GAME 

The reading cards are divided into four main divisions, or sets. Set A 
is a group of 'Action Cards. 9 These cards are primarily, simple commands or 
requests. The child works with things actually present. No pretense is in- 
volved. ("Place your right hand on your left knee.") Bodily activity is re- 
quired in each case. 

Set B is a group of 'Language Response Cards. 1 Response to these cards 
is made wholly through the medium of spoken or written words. ("Name 
some good winter games.") Bodily activity is not required. Language 
responses may be written or oral, depending upon the teacher's judgment as 
to the needs of the particular group of children in question. 

Set C is a group of 'Pretense Cards. 1 Here the children are asked to 
pretend that they are doing this or that particular thing. They work or pre- 
tend to work with things not actually present. ("Act as if you were hoeing in 
the garden.' 1 ) Muscular activity is required in all cases. 



MOTIVATED DRILL WOBK IN SILENT BEADING 87 

Bet D is a group of 'One Word Response Cards.' Response to these cards 
may be made by using one of the four following words: Yes, No, Bight, or 
Wrong. ("Is ten greater than nine?") (" Horses have two feet.") 

The cards in each of the four sets have been arranged in order of difficulty, 
least difficult first. The teacher will do well to keep this in mind in giving out 
the cards. If a group of children need exercise in giving correct oral or written 
language responses, they should be given cards from Set B. If children need 
exercise in accurately getting the thought from the passage read, so that they 
can with accuracy perform the desired activity, thus giving visible evidence as 
to their understanding or misunderstanding of the passage read, they should be 
given cards from Set A or Set C. If children need practice in selecting the 
correct answer where other answers are possible, they should be given cards 
from Set D. 

PLATING RULES (BET A) 

The children are arranged in pairs according to some convenient plan. 
Each child is given a sufficient number of cards to occupy his time for the 
entire reading period. If the time allotted to a reading period is fifteen min- 
utes, ten cards given to each child will probably be enough. 

For convenience, let us say that Ruth and James are playing together. 
Each is given (say) ten cards from Set A. Each has a pencil and paper 
on which to keep the score or his or her opponent. James picks up one of 
his cards, reads it silently, hands it to Ruth who reads it carefully, then pro- 
ceeds to perform the required activity. By his performance, Ruth judges 
whether or not James has gotten the thought of the passage which he has just 
read. She now gives him a score of "1" if he has performed his task cor- 
rectly, and "0" if he has failed. 

The teacher will do well to be in the midst of the children while the 
game is in process, to watch the performances of the children being judged 
and the scoring of the ones doing the judging. Fairness, accuracy, and speed 
are things to be encouraged. 

Ruth now reads one of her cards and James becomes judge. Thus the 
game proceeds until the twenty cards are exhausted or until the reading period 
has been consumed. The one having the greatest number of perfect scores 
tones) at the end of the play period wins the game. 

The rules for playing with cards from Sets B, G, and D are the same 
as the above directions which are based upon Set A, the only difference being 
in the nature of the responses given, and these varied responses do not effect 
the rules for playing. 

RESULTS 

The accompanying table summarizes the results for the fifteen 
classes of the non-drill section (A to 0) and the fifteen classes of 
the drill section (a to o). The table indicates the scores both for 



88 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



comprehension and for rate — in each case in such a way as to con- 
trast the January scores and the April scores. 

Improvement may be indicated in two ways; increase in the 
median performance and decrease in the absolute or the relative 
variability of the class. The table is arranged to show the altera- 
tions that appeared in both these respects and for every one of the 
thirty classes under test. 

Disregarding the individual classes and referring now only to 
the average performance of the drill and the non-drill sections, the 
following facts appear. Between January and April the non-drill 
section increased its median comprehension score from 3.9 to 7.0, 
while its average deviation increased only 3.3 to 3.7 (the coefficient 
of variability, or relative degree of variation, accordingly, decreased 
from .84 to .53). Correspondingly, between January and April the 
drill sections increased their median comprehension score from 4.0 
to 9.0, while their average deviation increased from 3.1 to 4.5 (the 



TABLE 1 

Scores in Comprehension and Rati of Reading of 15 Non-Drill and 15 Drill 

Classes in January and tn April 







Comprehension 


Kate 






January 


April 


January 


April 


fc 


Class 


Med. A. D. 


Med. A. D. 


Med. 


A. D. 


Med. 


A. D. 


o 


A 


4.3 2.7 


8.0 4.4 


87.5 


21.4 


57.8 


17.2 


s 


B 


3.9 8.0 


6.9 8.8 


42.1 


21.8 


60.0 


15.4 


C 


3.8 4.0 


7.0 8.8 


88.8 


24.2 


46.4 


17.6 


w 


D 


82 2.6 


5.7 4.2 


27.8 


17.8 


40.0 


24.0 


00 


E 


8.9 4.7 


9.8 5.0 


86.9 


22.9 


57.0 


28.0 


J 

^ 


P 


2.1 2.6 


6.5 8.6 


22.5 


16.6 


47.7 


16.4 


•J 


O 


6.5 8.7 


4.1 3.2 


51.6 


18.0 


42.5 


21.0 


tf 


H 


1.7 2.8 


11.0 3.2 


20.0 


17.8 


56.8 


17.2 


Q 


I 


4.1 8.4 


5.9 2.8 


81.8 


189 


83.5 


12.6 


• 


J 


3.3 3.8 


7.2 40 


27.0 


16.2 


46.0 


21.0 


O 


K 


3.7 37 


6.5 3.2 


85.5 


17.0 


42.5 


22.0 


25 


L 


3 3 3 3 


6.0 3.4 


80.8 


18.2 


44.5 


15.6 




M 


4.0 3 7 


5.4 8.2 


85.0 


22.2 


44.4 


17.6 




N 


60 31 


8.9 8.4 


88.7 


20.0 


51.7 


14.2 




O 


5.1 2 5 


5 « 4ft 


40.8 


19.0 


45.0 


21.0 




A*. 


3.9 A :\ 


TO 3 7 

7,1 J U 


34.7 


194 


46.7 


190 




a 


8.9 3« 


85.6 


19.4 


55.0 


21.0 




b 


2.8 2.1 


9.0 4.4 


82.5 


15.8 


65.0 


16.6 


» 


e 


4.0 8.2 


8.5 .5 


87.7 


21.8 


55.0 


24.0 


O 


d 


4.4 3.0 


9.0 4.8 


85.0 


17.4 


58.6 


28.0 


C 


6 


5.3 3 3 


12.4 38 


88.3 


19.4 


68.3 


12.0 


o 


f 


8.8 3 1 


120 5.2 


84.4 


12.2 


71.0 


20.0 


00 


* 


1.7 2 4 


5.9 4.4 


21.0 


16.7 


45.0 


22.0 


h 


4.0 3 


H.3 8.2 


88.7 


15.8 


48.0 


20.0 


* * 


i 


4.5 2.2 


8.9 4.0 


859 


13.6 


68.8 


16.6 


i 


5.5 4.1 


10.0 5.8 


50.0 


21.8 


68.5 


22.0 




3.0 2.8 


7.7 5.8 


33.6 


18.2 


49.5 


22.0 


Q 


1 


4.8 2.4 


9.6 4.0 


84.1 


14.8 


57.7 


16.8 




m 


3.6 2.9 


8.7 5.4 


83.0 


18.8 


57.7 


26.0 




n 


5.6 4.1 


9.0 6.4 


46.2 


21.8 


650 


26.0 







8.7 8.5 


9.0 40 
9.0 45 


84.3 


18.2 


57.0 


22.0 




At. 


4.0 3.1 


85.7 


17.7 


56.9 


21.0 



MOTIVATED DRILL WORK IN SILENT BEADING 89 

coefficient of variability, accordingly, decreased from .78 to .50). 
In brief, then, the drill section increased its comprehension 5 units 
as against 3.1 units of the non-drill section and at the same time re- 
duced its class variability to a slightly lower point than that of the 
non-drill section. 

Turning to rate of reading, the following facts appear. Between 
January and April the non-drill section increased its median score 
from 34.7 to 46.7, or 12 points, whereas the drill section increased 
its score from 35.7 to 56.9, or 21.2 words per minute. The reduction 
in the coefficient of variability was, for the non-drill section, from 56 
to 41 percent ; in the drill section from 50 to 37 percent. 

It follows from this studj r of over 1100 third-grade pupils in 
thirty classrooms of Kansas City, Kansas, that in every phase of 
reading considered in this study the improvement made by the 
classes that were drilled in reading by the games devised by the 
writer was more pronounced than the improvement made during a 
corresponding period by the classes that devoted the same amount of 
time to other forms of reading exercises. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The following generalizations are definitely indicated by this 
investigation : 

1. Uneconomical methods of drill are now being employed in 
the lower grades of our public school system. 

2. Greater use must be made of the doctrine of "Interest in 
Education," especially as it applies to drill work. Drill work 
should be motivated or vitalized by being connected with some 
dynamic purpose. 

3. Bodily activity (dramatizations, handling of objects, etc.) 
can be profitably connected with exercises in silent reading. 

4. Drill, to be efficient, must be made individual in character. 
Drill should be conducted as nearly as possible according to each 
child's needs and particular abilities. 

5. Intensive focalization, in connection with attentive repeti- 
tion, is an essential characteristic of efficient drill work and by 
appealing to the play instincts of children this desired character- 
istic is effectively provided. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE EFFECT OF A SINGLE BEADING 



G. A YOAKAM 

Director of Teacher Training, 
Nebraska State Normal School, Kearney, Nebraska 



It is curious that in the studies of silent reading no attention 
has been given directly to the determination of the effect of a 
single reading of different types of reading matter, because this 
would seem to be the first step in experimental work in reading. 

It is true, however, that there is some indirect evidence on 
the matter. Ebbinghaus and others experimented with the ef- 
fect of learning periods of different lengths on the retention of 
meaningless material. Later experimenters used logical materials 
in their efforts to learn about memory; and from their studies 
and those of the earlier experimenters, certain valuable laws of 
memory were formulated. But none of these studies gives an 
adequate idea of the extent of the memory of logical materials 
as the result of a single contact. Nor do the reports of Brown, 
Gray, Starch, Waldo, Pintner, and others bear directly on this 
point. 

The problem is a particularly important and fundamental one. 
No one will deny that many children consider the lesson learned 
if they have read it through once. Indeed, the ordinary teacher 
in the elementary or the high school may consider herself fortu- 
nate if the child has read understandingly through the assignment 
a single time. How much has been learned as a result of this 
single reading! We have not fully adequate answers to this 
question. And so far as we know at present, the economy of 
re-reading a lesson again and again until, as in the early district 
school, it is "learned by heart" is wholly problematical. The 
logical procedure is to begin at the bottom by determining the 
effect of a single contact with different types of reading ma- 
tt) 



EFFECT OF A 8IN0LE BEADING Ql 

terials. The problem opens up a very significant field of experi- 
mentation which, no doubt, will be followed through by succeed- 
ing experimenters until the economy of various re-readings has 
been determined. The present study is only a partially success- 
ful attempt to supply some data which have been lacking and 
to call attention to the importance of measurement in this field. 

MATERIALS 

The materials used in this series of experiments are, with one 
exception, almost exclusively factual selections of varying lengths, 
taken from school textbooks or adapted from other sources for 
use in the elementary school. The selections include materials 
from geography, history, agriculture, civics, economics, language, 
and literature. This last selection was used merely for the pur- 
pose of comparing the results of reading narrative material with 
the results of reading factual material particularly adapted to 
silent reading. There follows a list of the selections with their 
approximate lengths : 

1. On the Use of Abbreviations. Language material taken from the 
intermediate book of a language series by Jean Sherwood Bankin; length, 
1200 words. 

2. Peanuts. Adapted for experimental purposes from Farmers' Bulle- 
tin No. 431, United States Department of Agriculture; length, 1900 words; 
similar to textbook material in geography or agriculture. Prepared by C. E. 
Germane and used by him in connection with his doctor's thesis, "The Value 
of Summarizing as Compared with Re-reading of the Same Article. ' n 

3. The Government of Switzerland. Prepared by O. H. Alderman for 
experimental purposes and borrowed by the writer; civics material; length, 
1200 words.* 

4. Medieval Castles. Adapted by the writer from Robinson and Breasted, 
Outlines of European History, pp. 387-392; length, 600 words. 

5. Chasing a Rainbow. Adapted from an old Harper's Fifth Reader; 
narrative material; length, 1000 words. 

6. Tuberculosis. Adapted by C. E. Germane from a pamphlet, "What we 
Should Know about Tuberculosis, ' ' by New York State Department of Health ; 
length, 1900 words. 



*State University of Iowa, 1920. Unpublished. 

'Used In doctor's thesis, "The Lecture Method of Teaching Versus the Question and 
Answer Method." Bute University of Iowa, 1020. Unpublished. 



92 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

7. Pyramid Age. Adapted by the writer from Robinson and Breasted, 
Outlines of European History, Part I. pp. 27-31; length 600 words. This 
article was rewritten in order to make it as nearly like article number four 
as possible. 

8. The Admiralty Islanders. Adapted from The Living Races of Man- 
kind, by H. N. Hutchinson; geographical material; length, 1000 words. 

It is seen that these materials are representative of those 
studied in the elementary school, that they are sufficiently varied 
in length, and that they so differ in character as to give an op- 
portunity to investigate the manner in which pupils will retain 
different types of material, an aspect of the problem which is, 
however, only touched upon in this series of experiments. 

Articles 2 and 6 were printed pamphlets; the others were 
typewritten or mimeographed, with care to provide clear copy. 

Two main types of tests were used for measuring the reten- 
tion of these materials after a single reading: (1) controlled 
completion tests; and (2) tests consisting of short questions re- 
quiring a short written answer. These tests were mimeographed. 
Sample questions from each of these tests are given herewith: 

Test I 
They were first visited by (Columbus, De Soto, Narveycz, Balboa, Carteret, 
John Cabot) in (1121, 1776, 1850, 1767, 1492.) 

Test II 

In what two ways did the armed followers help the master of the castle f 

1 

2 

It will be understood that in the first test, the child was re- 
quired to cross out the words in the parentheses which correctly 
completed the meaning of the sentence as he remembered it, while 
in the second test he was required to write his answer which 
might consist of a word, a phrase, or a sentence. The first type 
of test is very detailed, requires no writing, and tests the pupil's 
power of choosing the right word to complete the true state- 
ment of the original fact as he remembers it. The second test 
is not so detailed and makes a greater demand upon the power 
of recall. Both tests have the advantage of being objective in 
scoring, of requiring little or no writing, and of actually serving 



EFFECT OF A SINGLE READING 93 

as a measure of the retention of the ideas in the original selec- 
tion. The first test probably is a greater stimulus to recall ; the 
second is more difficult to answer correctly. The results of the 
two tests are, of course, not directly comparable numerically. 

The tests were scored by giving one point for each correct 
answer, adding the total points earned, and expressing the final 
score as a percent of the total possible score. Thus, a score of 
50 means that the pupil has answered correctly 50 percent of 
the total possible score, or has reproduced approximately 50 
percent of the total ideas in the article as a result of a single 
reading. It is acknowledged that there are some objections to 
this method, on the ground that it does not consider the effect 
of the relative difficulty of questions. It is thought, however, 
that, for the purpose of this study, the method of scoring is suf- 
ficiently accurate to give a fairly reliable idea of the amount 
gained as the result of a single reading. 

METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION 

The series of experiments with the foregoing materials were 
conducted according to two methods: (1) a rough method in 
which no attempt was made to measure accurately the effect of 
motivation produced by an initial test previous to reading or the 
effect of an immediate recall upon a delayed recall; and (2) a 
more refined method in which an attempt was made to measure 
the effect of these factors. In all the experiments the pupils 
were allowed to take as much time as was necessary to complete 
the reading and the tests. Each pupil was allowed to proceed at 
his own rate. The elapsed time between reading and testing was 
in most cases merely long enough to allow a pupil to lay aside 
the reading and take up the test paper. Thus, inequalities in 
rate of reading were offset and the time elapsing between read- 
ing and immediate recall was approximately the same in all cases. 

The general procedure in the first series of experiments was 
to give a test to measure the amount of previous knowledge of 
the material and then to follow this test by a single reading and 
an immediate recall. In this series, the initial test and the im- 
mediate recall test were the same. Later on, a delayed recall in 



Q4 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

the form of the same test was given. Pupils were not told what 
the test was to be, but it is easily seen that the effect of this test 
was to motivate the reading in the first place and to furnish 
practice in taking the test in the immediate and delayed recall 
exercises. 

In the later series of experiments the classes were divided into 
three groups by a chance selection of pupils and a different 
method of procedure was used with each group. The scores of 
each group were then used interchangeably to compute correc- 
tions for the effect of previous knowledge of the material, the effect 
of giving the initial test, and the effect of repetition of the test 
upon power of subsequent recall. In this series of tests every 
effort was made to keep the conditions of the experiment con- 
stant and to eliminate the effect of all uncontrolled variables. 
The pupils were encouraged to do their best work, not to guess 
at the answers, and to regard the experiments in the light of 
interesting exercises not affecting their class standing. The ex- 
perimenter feels that in the large majority of cases the experi- 
ments successfully measured the effect of a single reading and 
that the pupils gave their best efforts to the experiments. 

RESULTS OP THE EXPERIMENTS 

The results of the experiments as conducted in four schools 
and involving in all 417 pupils are summed up in this section. 
Experiments with several of the articles, namely, Peanuts, Ab- 
breviations, and Admiralty IslandSk, involved pupils in Grades IV 
to VIII, inclusive, in four schools. Experiments with the other 
articles were conducted in a single school. Three of the schools 
were typical Iowa public schools, and the fourth was the Obser- 
vational School, State University of Iowa, Grades IV to VII, 
inclusive. 

The following tables will give a general idea of the results of 
the experiments. Table 1 gives the. distribution of scores made 
by Grades IV, V, and VI on the article Peanuts, after a single 
reading. 

It is seen from Table 1 that the ability to reproduce the ideas 
in this article after a single reading preceded by an initial test 



EFFECT OF A SINGLE BEADING 



95 



TABLE 1 

DllTKIBUnOH OF SCORES MADE Airs* A SINGLE READING OF THS ARTICLE OH PlAJTUTt 



Interval* 


Grade IV 


Grade V 


Grade VI 




85-80.0 





1 


1 




80-84.0 








4 




75-70.0 





1 


2 




70-74.0 


1 





1 




65-60.0 





4 


2 




60-64.0 


2 





1 




55-50.0 


2 


1 


4 




50-54.0 


1 


8 


2 




45-40.0 





2 


7 




40-44.0 


4 


1 


8 




85-80.0 


1 


8 


4 




80-84.0 


1 


4 


2 




25-20.0 


4 


6 


8 




20-24.0 


8 


8 


2 




15-10.0 


11 


8 


2 




10-14.0 


4 


4 


2 




5- 0.0 


6 


1 







0- 4.0 


8 


1 


1 




Total 


48 


87 


48 




Average 


24.5 


86.2 


47.6 




Median 


18.0 


81.8 


46.2 




Quartile Deviation 


14. 


15.5 


14.0 





•The intervale are in terms of percent* of the total possible score. Thus, the score 
85-80.0 inidicates that the pupil who made this score performed correctly 86 to 80.0 
percent of the total possible answers in this test. 

varies widely among individuals in the same grade, that there 
is marked over-lapping of grades, and that distinct progress is 
shown from grade to grade. This distribution is typical of those 
obtained. 

Table 2 gives a summary of the average initial scores and the 
immediate and delayed recall scores made by the different grades 



TABLE 2 
Effbot of a Single Reading as Measured bt Immediate and Delated Recall 



Selection 



Grade No Initial Range 
Pupils Test 



Immediate 
Recall 



Range 



Delayed 
Recall 



Range 



1. Peanuts 4 

2. Peanuts 5 

8. Peanuts 6 



43 10.5 
87 15.8 
48 21.0 



4. Adm'ty Islanders.. 8 22 17.0 

5. Adm'ty Islanders. . 7 10 18.7 

6. Adm'ty Islanders. . 6 24 11.4 

7. Adm'ty Islanders.. 5 24 11.0 

8. Adm'ty Islanders. .4 8 6.0 

9. Abbreviations 8 8 28.0 



0-29.0 
0-44.9 
0-54.9 

0-39.9 
10-29.9 
0-29.9 
0-29.9 
0-19.9 



47.5 
86.2 
24.5 

53.8 
54.1 
40.4 
81.2 
19.0 



0-74.9 
0-89.9 
0-89.9 

0-89.9 

80-79.9 

10-79.9 

0-79.9 

0-89.9 



49.7 
41.0 
80.8 
19.0 
17.5 



20-69.9 

80-59.9 

10-59.9 

0-89.9 

0-89.9 



16-42.0 46.0 28-70.0 47.0 28-66.0 



With the first eight of these selections the controlled completion test was used, with 
the ninth a yes-and-no test, with paired answers to test recull. The time between im- 
mediate and delayed recall, in the experiment with Admiralty lelandere was 20 days; 
in the experiment with Abbreviation*, 6 days. 

Initial test is the test given to measure previous knowledge; immediate recall Is 
the test given immediately following a single reading; delayed recall the test given after 
t> lapse of 20 or 6 days. 



96 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



(one group in each grade) in four schools on three different arti- 
cles. The scores are typical of those found in all the experiments. 

Table 2 shows that the amount retained after a single reading 
of the articles, uncorrected for the effect of motivation due to 
the initial test, ranges from roughly one-fifth of the total ideas 
in Grade IV to one-half in Grade VIII on the material Admiralty 
Islanders; on the article Peanuts, the range is from one-fourth in 
Grade IV to one-half in Grade VI ; on Abbreviations, the amount 
is roughly one-half in Grade VIII. The effect of previous knowl- 
edge ranges from 6 percent in Grade IV to 30 percent in Grade 
VIII. The effect of the lapse of time on the retention of the facts 
in the article Admiralty Islanders represents a loss ranging from 
4 percent in Grade IV to 12 percent in Grade VIII after 20 days. 
After 6 days the pupils in Grade VIII reproduced better than on 
immediate recall. 

Table 3 summarizes the results of a series of tests in a sixth 
grade on various articles of different lengths. Two types of tests 
were used in measuring the effect of reading. The results are 
therefore only roughly comparable, but they are suggestive of 
differences due to the character and length of the materials. 



TABLE 8 

EFTIOT OV A SlNGLI RXADING ON VARIOUS TYPlS OF MATERIAL XV A SIXTH GSADl 

_ , Af Initial Immediate Delayed Teat Day* 

Selection Scoro Rccal i R^all xJaed Elapsing 

1. Gov't of Switzerland 10.0 43.9 25.0 A 54 

2. Medieval Gaslles 16.3 87.4 27.3 B 81 

8. Chasing a Rainbow 84.8 78.0 70.8 A 89 

4. Tuberculosis 14.8 31.6 21.1 B 88 

5. Peanuts 21.9 47.5 ... A 

A indicates a controlled completion test, B a teat of short questions. The scores 
are in every case percent* of the total possible score. 

Assuming equality of tests, differences in the difficulty of the 
various materials are clearly indicated in the above table. The 
amount which pupils were able to score correctly before reading 
the article a single time ranges from 10 percent to 34.8 percent. 
It is possible that this amount is due partly to their ability to 
answer the completion test questions without reading the original 
article and that this ability is the direct result of native intelli- 
gence. It is probable, however, that the score made on the test 



EFFECT OF A SINGLE BEADING 97 

of short questions, Test B, is the result of previous knowledge, 
since in this test no chance was given to guess the answer; the 
form of the question required a knowledge of the fact. The range 
of correct answers after a single reading shows that either the 
ability to reproduce the ideas is not so great on factual material 
as on narrative material, or that the tests were very unequal in 
difficulty. It is true, of course, that the difference shown here may 
be due entirely to differences in the difficulty of the tests, rather 
than to differences in the difficulty of the reading matter. 

The foregoing scores are representative of the gross average 
scores made by pupils in the series of experiments in which no 
attempt was made to measure any variable other than the effect 
of previous knowledge possessed by the pupil and the effect of a 
single reading preceded by an initial test. When the pupil read 
the article under such conditions, the reading was strongly moti- 
vated by the initial test. The result is a measure of a single read- 
ing under extremely advantageous conditions. The writer felt 
that in order to get at the effect of a single unmotivated reading, 
he ought to make an attempt to measure the effect of the repeti- 
tion of the test on subsequent recall and the probable influence 
of the motivation on the single reading. This demanded another 
series of experiments, the results of which are set forth in the 
following tables. 

The method of isolating the variables in these experiments 
was to divide the grade into three groups, A, B, and C. The 
teacher furnished a list of the pupils in each grade divided into 
three parts, good, medium, and poor pupils, according to their 
ability in reading. The experimenter then grouped these pupils 
into three divisions, one-fourth in Group A, one-half in Group B, 
and one-fourth in Group C, endeavoring to have an equal pro- 
portion of good, medium, and poor pupils in each group. Pupils 
were drawn at random by the experimenter from each group. 
When the divisions had been made, Group A was given an in- 
itial test, allowed to read the article once and then given an im- 
mediate recall. Group B was not given an initial test, but read 
the article once and then took an immediate recall test. Group C 
read the article once, but performed no test of previous knowl- 



gg THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

edge nor of immediate recall. Then, after a lapse of some day* 
or weeks, all three groups were given a delayed recall. The 
scores of Group B were then corrected for the effect of previous 
knowledge by subtracting the initial scores of Group A from the 
immediate recall scores of Group B. In a like manner, the scores 
made by Group C were used for purposes of correction. The 
results of these corrections are given in the following paragraphs 
and tables. 

The validity of this procedure rests, of course, upon the 
method of dividing the groups and upon the assumption that the 
groups when divided are equal in ability. The writer had to rely 
upon the judgment of the teacher in dividing the grade into good, 
medium, and poor pupils, and then upon random placing of these 
pupils into three representative groups. It would have been bet- 
ter to have divided the grades on the basis of their standard 
scores in silent reading, perhaps, but these were not available. 
As a means of making the resulting averages, obtained from 
the three different groups, somewhat more reliable, the writer 
smoothed them according to the following formula given by Rugg 
in his Statistical Methods Applied to Education, page 184. 

The effect of this smoothing upon the original measures is 
shown below. The original grade averages on immediate recall, 
selection Admiralty Islanders, were: 

Grade VIII Vn VI V IV 

53.8 54.1 40.4 31.2 19.0 

The result of the first and second smoothings was to reduce 
the inequalities between the scores of the different grades as 
follows : 

Grade VIII 

1st Smoothing 53.4 

2nd Smoothing 52.4 

The averages, after the second smoothing, were used in com- 
puting the corrections and in estimating the effects of various 
factors in the experiment 8 . 



vn 


VT 


V 


IV 


49.4 


41.9 


26.8 


23.0 


48.2 


39.3 


30.5 


24.2 



•The writer believes that these smoothed •▼erases represent more nearly what the 
actual average* would have been, had more pupils been measured. It is recognised that 
such a procedure is rather arbitrary and perhaps of dubious value, but the results ob- 
tained are at least suggestive that there are many factors operating In reading which 
are ordinarily not considered and which deserve careful study. 



EFFECT OF A SINGLE BEADING QQ 

Table 4 gives the scores of Grades IV to VIII, inclusive, in 
three schools on the article Admiralty Islanders, after these aver- 
ages have been smoothed in accordance with the method just men- 
tioned. The general effect of this smoothing has been to reduce 
the irregularities in the grade averages which were probably due 
to faulty selection of the different groups within the grade and 
to differences in ability among the several schools. That is to 
say, in the long run, one would naturally expect Qrade VIII to 
read better than Grade VII and Grade VII to read better than 
Grade VI. 

TABLE 4 
Avbbaob Scobss or Gboup A with this Abtiolb oh Admibaltt Islahdvm 



Grade 


Cases 


Initial 


Immediate 


Recall 






Test 


Recall 


After 20 Days 


8 


9 


10.0 


52.4 


48.7 


7 


10 


15.6 


48.2 


48.1 


6 


8 


18.2 


80.8 


81.7 


5 


8 


10.1 


80.5 


28.5 


4 


8 


8.5 


24.2 


22.8 



Table 4 shows that the power to handle the various tests in- 
creased from grade to grade. 

Table 5 shows the scores for Group B for immediate and de- 
layed recall, but no initial test. 

TABLE 5 
Avbbaob Soobbs or Gboup B with thi Abtioli oh Admibaltt Islahdvm 



Grade 


Cases 


Immediate 


Delayed 






Recall 


Beeall 


8 


17 


87.8 


82.5 


7 


21 


84.6 


80.1 


8 


20 


20.8 


26.0 


5 


16 


24.7 


10.0 


4 


16 


17.0 


16.1 



The scores of Group C for the same selection, as measured by 
delayed recall only, are shown in Table 6. 

TABLE 6 

AYHBAQB SOOBBS OF GBOUP 0. WITH THB ABTICLB OH ADMIBALTT ISLAHDVM 

Grade Oases Delayed Beeall Only 

8 10 18.2 

7 8 16.8 

6 10 15.0 

5 18.0 

4 8 18.8 



100 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

By using the averages in the previous tables a correction of 
the various scores for the effect of different variables is attempted 
as shown in the tables that follow. Thus, in Table 7 it is argued 

TABLE 7 

Effect or Various Factors as Measured by Initial Test and Immediate Repaid 
(Using Scores of Groups A, B, and on The Admiralty Itlanderg 

Interchangeably for Correction) 



Grades 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


Effect of a Single Reading 


. . . 20.9 


15 6 
19.0 
13.6 


13.2 

16.6 

9.5 


10.1 

14.6 

5.8 


8.5 

7.5 






7.7 



that in our experiments there are three large factors that effect 
the retention of material read; namely, previous knowledge, 
motivation due to the initial test, and a single reading of the arti- 
cle. Now the effect of previous knowledge in the above table is 
indicated by the scores of Group A. This amount subtracted from 
the scores of Group B made on immediate recall, gives the effect 
of a single reading by Group B, or the figures under the caption 
"Effect of a Single Reading." But when there is subtracted from 
the immediate recall score of Group A, this effect of previous 
knowledge, there is still a remainder, as given under caption "Ef- 
fect of Motivation." This may or may not be due to motiva- 
tion. Probably it could be due to superior ability on the part of 
Group A, but there is a likelihood that motivation is a primary 
constituent in it, since it is found quite consistently in all the 
grades. 

TABLE 8 

Effect of Various Factors as Miasurkd by Delayed Recall 
(Scores on The Admiralty Itlandtrt) 

Grades VIII VII VI V IV 

Effect of a Single Reading on Delayed Recall. . 1.8 0.7 2.7 8.8 5.1 

Effect of Immediate Recall 14.5 18.0 10.1 6.0 0.5 

Effect of Reading and Two Tests 82.8 25.4 17.6 0.9 0.0 

Effect of Reading and One Test 15.8 14.5 12.8 0.8 7.6 

Effect of Two Tests 80.5 28.7 14.9 6.1 4.0 

Effect of One Test 14.9 18.0 10.1 6.0 2.6 

The effect of these various factors when measured by delayed 
recall is even more striking. By using the scores of Groups A, 
B, and C interchangeably to correct for the effect of motivation, 
repetition of the test, and previous knowledge as measured by 
delayed recall, we obtain the material embodied in Table 8. In 



EFFECT OF A SINGLE BEADING 101 

that table, to be more specific, the scores are obtained by sub- 
tracting from the scores of Group B on delayed recall, the 
amounts due to the effect of a previous knowledge, as shown by 
the initial score of Group A, and due to repetition of the test, 
as shown by the difference between the delayed recall scores of 
Oroups B and C. In a like manner, by manipulating the various 
scores, corrections for the variable factors have been computed. 
It appears that, after the variable factors have been considered, 
the effect of a single reading upon power of delayed recall is very 
slight. The writer docs not claim a high degree of precision 
for these statistical manipulations, but the general significance 
of the table is clear. The motivation due to the initial test and 
the effect of the repetition of the tests apparently far outweigh 
in importance the brief, though indispensable, contact with the 
material. This bears out the general laws of memory very clearly. 
Strongly motivated repetition is necessary if ideas of this kind 
are to be retained for any length of time, at least with children 
of the elementary grades. 

CONCLUSIONS 

There are no startling novel conclusions to be drawn from 
these data, but the conclusions of other experimenters who have 
been working along this line are made more secure through the 
addition of numerical evidence. Broadly speaking, the result of 
the experiments is to show how inadequate a single reading really 
is when taken alone and to suggest that in seeking for means to 
improve our methods of study we need to determine experi- 
mentally the relative efficiency of various devices for improving 
methods of studying. For instance, it is hoped that later ex- 
perimenters will investigate the efficiency of various re-readings. 

Some particular conclusions that have a direct bearing on our 
educational problems and which may be directly applied to the 
pedagogy of reading are enumerated below. 

1. As far as the elementary school child is concerned, from 
a single reading of factual material like that we employed only 
a small proportion will be retained. 



102 THE TWENTIETH YEAEBOOK 

2. Giving an initial test that shall determine the amount of 
existing knowledge brings about better retention of the material 
subsequently read. 

3. Repeated testing is an efficient method of securing perma- 
nent retention of material; whether more efficient or less efficient 
than other methods remains to be seen. 

4. Ability to reproduce one type of material after a single 
reading does not imply equal ability to reproduce another type 
of material in equal amount. There are differences in the dif- 
ficulty of reading due to the length of the material, its charac- 
ter, the number of facts it contains, and the interest it has for 
pupils, which deserve careful consideration. 

5. A single reading without immediate recall, or review, of the 
ideas probably leaves little effect on the mind of an elementary- 
school pupil after a lapse of 20 or 30 days, unless the material 
is highly motivated or strikingly interesting. 

6. The ability of pupils in the elementary school to reproduce 
ideas after a single reading increases from grade to grade, but 
cannot be regarded as highly developed even in the eighth grade. 

7. There are wide individual differences in this ability, as in 
others. There are a few gifted individuals who can read material 
like ours once and retain 80 percent of its entire content (see 
Table 1), but the average child is far from this efficiency. The 
educational implication is therefore obvious. 

8. Teachers will do well to investigate what takes place be- 
tween the assignment of the new lesson and the recitation that 
follows in order to insure that more than a single reading of the 
new material takes place; particularly in schools where exten- 
sive reading occurs, must the reading and study habits of the 
pupils during the study periods be investigated. 



CHAPTER VH 

OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING COMPARED WITH RE- 
READING AS METHODS OP STUDYING 1 



Charles E. Germans 
Department of Education, Dee Moines University 



Much has been said and written by those working in the field 
of education concerning the value of outlining and summarizing 
as methods of studying. Nevertheless, there are so few scientific 
data on the subject that it seemed worth while to try to determine 
by direct experimentation in the classroom the comparative values 
of certain forms, at least, of summarizing. 

I. THE VALUE OF THE SELF-MADE SUMMARY 

The Problem 

Stated briefly, the problem which we first set ourselves was: 
What is the value of making a "corrected summary-outline' ' of an 
article as compared with re-reading the same article for the same 
length of timet 

The procedure in making what we may term a "corrected sum- 
mary-outline,' ' or a "self-made summary," involves the follow- 
ing steps : 

1. The article is read once through as a whole. 

2. A brief summary-outline is written from memory. 

3. The article is glanced over to discover what points of im- 

portance have been forgotten or overlooked in making 
the summary. 

4. The summary is corrected by adding points omitted or by 

altering incorrect statements. 



1 This study was completed at the University of Iowa under the direction of 
Professor Ernest Horn and embodied in Dr. Germane 's doctorate dissertation. 

103 



104 TEE TWENTIETH YBABBOOK 

Method of Experimentation 

1. Selection of Material. After considerable preliminary ex- 
perimenting, an eight-page article on "What We Should Know 
About Tuberculosis" was selected as being suitable for the pur- 
poses of this study. This article was adapted from a pamphlet is- 
sued by the New York State Department of Health. It was found 
not to be too difficult for the grades in which the study was con- 
ducted, nor did it contain material that was covered in the usual 
class work. 

2. Division of the Class. In order to measure the efficiency 
of the corrected summary as a method of studying, it was neces- 
sary to divide the pupils taking part in this experiment into two 
groups as nearly equal as possible in comprehension ability in 
silent reading. This was done by having the teachers of the vari- 
ous classes rank their students according to their ability to com- 
prehend what they read. The pupil who ranked 1 was placed in 
the first group, 2 and 3 in the second group, 4 and 5 in the first, etc. 

The ranking of the teachers was compared with the pupils 1 
ranks according to their intelligence quotients and the following 
Spearman correlations found: Grade V, .62; Grade VI, .71; 
Grade VII, .68 ; Grade VIII, .65 ; and Grade IX, .72. 

3. Method of Measuring Comprehension. Two rigorous tests 
were used to measure the comprehension. The first was a ques- 
tion-and-answer test covering the material read and involving 
points of major and minor importance. The second was a recog- 
nition test. Four answers were suggested for each question, of 
which only one was correct, and the pupils were asked to under- 
line the correct answer. This form of test was used in con- 
junction with the first because of the possibility of children being 
able to recognize an answer they could not recall and also because 
of the possibility of measuring finer differences. 

4. Method of Scoring. One point was given for each correct 
answer. The questions were all worded in such a way as to admit 
of but one possible answer. All the papers were graded by the 
writer and a graduate student who had worked through the 
material and helped in the administration of the experiment. 



OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING 105 

5. Administration of ihe Experiment. This experiment was 
conducted in Grades V to IX, inclusive, of the Elementary and 
Junior High Schools of the State University of Iowa. The Sum- 
marizing Group was called Group A and the Re-Reading Group, 
Group B. Both groups worked at the same time but in different 
rooms. 

The instructions to Group A were as follows : 

"1. In the pamphlet is an article on 'Tuberculosis.' Bead it through 
once as rapidly and carefully as you can, asking yourself as you read, 'What 
is it all about and what are the main points in it that I should know and 
remember f f 

' ' 2. Turn the article face downward and on the paper provided make a 
summary of what you have just read. That is, write down all the main points 
or ideas that you think this article contains. At the same time, try to organize 
the main points under headings. 

' '3. Take up the article on 'Tuberculosis' and again look it over care- 
fully and as you read write down the main points omitted or correct those 
already written if they are wrong.' ' 

In order that the pupils in Group A might know exactly the 
method of procedure in the experiment, ten minutes were spent in 
class in summarizing three short paragraphs just as the whole 
article was to be summarized. In this preliminary the experimenter 
emphasized the necessity of speed and brevity. Thirty minutes 
were then allowed for reading and summarizing, and at the end of 
that time the two tests were given. 

The method of procedure in Group B was as follows : The class 
was given the article on "Tuberculosis" and asked to read it as 
many times as possible in the thirty-minute period. At the end of 
that time, Group B was subjected to the same two tests as Group A. 

Results 
In Table 1 a summary of the results is presented. 

TABLE 1 

Total Scorns Madb by thb Summabiuno Group (A) and thi Rr- Reading Group (B) 
nr thi Frvi Different Grades on thi Reading Material "Tuberculosis" 



Grade V VI VII VIII IX 



Group B 167 145 177 247 227 

Group A 160 _128 _147 _21« 19% 

7 17 SO 81 20 

Percent B Excels A 4.4 18.8 20.4 14.8 14.7 



106 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

An examination of this table shows that in every grade the group 
that merely re-read the article retained more than the group that 
read and summarized. 

Conclusions 

Since this experiment was conducted in only one school and 
since only one type of reading material was used, too much 
emphasis should not be placed on the results. However, taken in 
conjunction with analyses of the summaries made by the pupils, 
they would seem to indicate that, given such summarizing ability 
as these students possessed at the time of the experiment, the fol- 
lowing statements are warranted : 

1. The Re-Reading Group (B) shows a consistent superiority 
ranging from 4.4 to 20.4 percent. 

2. Since the Re-Reading Group excels in every grade tested, 
the relative value of a corrected summary as a method of study is 
distinctly questionable. 

3. An analysis of the corrected summaries of many of the 
pupils indicates that much of the thirty minutes was spent in indis- 
criminate note-taking. 

4. It is possible that the advantage of the Re-Reading Group 
lay in the fact that the pupils in it used the entire period re-reading 
the article in its entirety and perhaps also mentally summarizing it 

II. THE VALUE OF THE SUMMARY WHEN STIMULATED AND DIRECTED 

BY SPECIFIC PROBLEMS 

As just indicated, the work of the pupils who participated in the 
first experiment led the writer to believe that some form of con- 
trolled summary would give better results. Consequently, the fol- 
lowing study was undertaken. 

The Problem 

What is the value of attempting to interest pupils in an article 
and placing in their hands a set of questions on that article before 
reading it as compared with the re-reading of the same article f 



OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING 107 

Probably the problem would be better understood if at this point 
we anticipate our discussion of method by inserting an original set 
of instructions to the pupils. By reading these instructions, it will 
be seen how we sought to interest the pupils in their reading 
about peanuts by introducing two paragraphs of general informa- 
tion on the peanut industry. It was thought that by reading two 
such paragraphs in concert twice, a ' problem attitude/ or mental 
'warming up' would be produced. 

PEANUTS 

Instructions, to the Pupil fob Summarizing Through thi Use of 

Specific Problems 

To the Pupil: 

The peanut industry in the United States has grown by leaps and bounds 
during the last 10 years. Last year's crop alone was valued at $12,000,000, 
which was greater than the value of the entire peach and onion crop in the 
United States for the same year. The increased interest in peanut raising is 
due to many causes, the chief of which is the use of the peanut as a food, 
especially as a meat substitute. 

Suppose that a number of Iowa fanners interested in growing peanuts 
came to you for advice, and raised the following 12 questions or problems listed 
below. WHAT WOULD YOU SAY IN ANSWEB TO EACH OF THESE 
TWELVE PROBLEMS! 

1. WHAT ARE YOUR REASONS FOB SAYING THAT THE RAIS- 
ING OF PEANUTS IS PROFITABLE! 

2. WHAT KIND OF SOIL IS BEST! WHY! 

3. IN WHAT STATES DO YOU THINK WE COULD MOST SUC- 
CESSFULLY RAISE PEANUTS! 

4. WHAT EFFECT HAS BARNYARD MANURE ON THE PEANUT 
CROP! HOW SHOULD WE USE IT! 

5. OF WHAT USE IS LIME AS A FERTILIZER! HOW SHOULD 
WE USE IT! 

6. IN THE SELECTION OF PEANUTS FOR PLANTING, WHAT 
ARE THE QUALITIES WE SHOULD LOOK FOR! 

7. WHICH SHALL WE PLANT, THE SHELLED OB UNSHELLED 
PEANUTS! WHY! 

8. HOW CAN WE TELL WHEN THE PEANUTS ARE READY TO 
DIG! 

9. WHAT METHODS ARE USED IN DIGGING PEANUTS! WHICH 
WOULD YOU ADVISE AS THE BEST! 

10. WOULD YOU ADVISE STAKING OUR PEANUTS! WHY! 

11. WHAT METHODS DO THEY EMPLOY IN PICKING PEA- 
NUTS! WHAT, IN YOUR OPINION, IS THE BEST METHOD! 

12. WHAT PRECAUTIONS SHOULD WE TAKE IF WE WISH TO 
USE THE PEANUT VINES FOB FEEDING STOCK! 



108 TSB TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

DIBECTION8 FOE BEADING: 

In the booklet 70a will find an article on ' ' Peanuts ' ' which is taken from 
a bulletin of the United States Department of Agriculture. Bead it through 
once rapidly and carefully. As you read, keep in mind these 12 PROBLEMS, 
OB QUESTIONS, of the fanners. 

When you have finished reading the article through once, write down in 
the space marked "Time" the last number that you see on the blackboard. 
Then on the paper provided, write down the answers to these 12 problems. 
Befer to the article as often as you wish in writing down these answers. 

BE SURE THAT YOU ANSWEB VEBY BBIEFLY AND YET VEBY 
ACCUBATELY THE 12 PBOBLEMS. 



NAME CITY 

DATE SCHOOL 

GBADE TIME 

GBOUP 

Method of Experimentation 

1. Selection of Material. After considerable preliminary ex- 
perimenting in the Elementary and Junior High Schools of the 
State University of Iowa, the following two selections were chosen 
as being suitable for the purposes of this experiment: (1) the 
article on " Peanuts' ' just mentioned, and (2) an article on 
" Immigration,' ' adapted from Beard and Bagley's American 
History. These articles were both about 9 pages in length and were 
of such a nature that it was not difficult to give them the 'problem 
setting.' 

2. Division of the Class. To conduct this experiment success- 
fully it was necessary to divide the pupils into two groups of as 
nearly equal comprehension ability in silent reading as possible. 
An article on the "Sweating System," adapted from Towne's 
Social Problems, was used for this purpose. This article was chosen 
because the pupils in the grades in which the experiment was con- 
ducted were almost totally unfamiliar with the subject matter. 

To validate and justify this method of dividing the class into 
two groups all three articles were given to a group of 20 students 
under similar conditions. The instructions for the tests were 
identical, to read the article twice and then answer a list of ques- 
tions. The following Pearson correlations were obtained : 
Sweating System ' ' and ' ' Peanuts ' ' .64 

Sweating System" and "Immigration" .90 






OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING 109 

These rather high positive correlations indicate that ability to 
comprehend one article is closely correlated with ability to com- 
prehend the other articles. 

3. Method. The experiment proper was conducted in Grades 
VI to IX, inclusive, of a representative public school in Iowa. The 
Summarizing Group was called Oroup A and the Re-Beading 
Group, Group B. 

After the instructions to the Summarizing Group had been 
carefully read in concert twice and any questions answered con- 
cerning them (three minutes allowed for the reading and ques- 
tioning) , the signal to start was given. A period of 27 minutes was 
allowed for reading the article and answering the questions. At the 
end of that time the pupils were submitted to a rigorous 15-minute 
test 

The Re-Reading Group was told to read the article through 
carefully as many times as possible in the 30-minute period. The 
same 15-minute test was given to the pupils in this group at the 
end of their reading period. 

It will be noted that the Be-Beading Group was given three 
minutes longer than the Summarizing Group. This addition of 
time seems justifiable, since the Summarizing Group, as we have 
seen, spent three minutes in 'warming up' by reading the two para- 
graphs of general information about the peanut industry. 

Results 
In Table 2 a summary of the results is presented. 

TABLE 2 

800RB8 OF TH1 SUMMABIUNQ GROUP (A) AND THI Rl-RlADINQ GROUP (B) WITH THI 

Two Typis of Material, "Peanuts" and "Immigration" 









Peanuts 


Immigration 


Grade 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


VIII IX 


Oroup A 
Group B 


Excels 


B 


311 
296 


4C2 
461 


511 

480 


587 
547 


868 441 
810 415 


Difference 
Percent A 


15 
5 


1 



81 

7 


40 
8 


58 26 
17 6 



Conclusions 

1. The data of Table 2 seem to indicate that controlling the 
summary by presenting to the pupils a list of questions before read- 



HO TUB TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

ing the article and trying to arouse their interest in it is a some- 
what more efficient method than the re-reading of the article. 

2. The Summarizing Oroup would have made a higher score, 
had the pupils known how to skim an article for answers to 
questions. 

This statement is verified, first, by the fact that "time" was 
called before the pupils had finished answering all the questions, 
and second, by the fact that more or less confusion prevailed in the 
Summarizing Group during the study period. The method of look- 
ing up answers to questions rapidly and writing them was a new 
method of studying and an undue amount of time was wasted in 
turning from the questions to the reading material too frequently. 

III. THE VALUE OF THE DIRECTED SUMMARY WHEN WRITING 

IS ELIMINATED 

In the second experiment it was found that the pupils in the 
Summarizing Oroup were unable to finish answering all the ques- 
tions on the summarizing forms given them because they lacked 
ability to express the answers briefly, and hence gave too much 
time to writing ; and because the continuity of reading was broken 
by having to stop frequently to write the answers to the questions. 

Accordingly, it was thought that a controlled summary in which 
writing was eliminated would be worth trying. To this end two 
experiments were conducted by the writer upon two quite different 
classes of students and with two specimens of reading material 
quite different in content and style. 

A. Experiment with College Students 

The Problem 

What is the value of reading an article through once and devot- 
ing the rest of a given period to finding, but not recording, the 
answers to the test questions already placed in the hands of the 
students as compared with the re-reading of the article for the 
same length of timet 



OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING 



111 



Method of Experimentation 

1. Material. The selection used was a nine-page article on the 
Government of Germany, by Hazen. The subjects were 88 stu- 
dents, mostly sophomores, in two classes in Principles of Education 
in one of the colleges of Iowa. 

2. Division of the Class. Monroe's Reading Test, No. Ill, was 
used for the purpose of dividing the class into two groups of equal 
reading comprehension ability. Thirty-five pairs who made prac- 
tically identical scores on this test were selected out of the 88 
students. In no case was there a pair whose difference in score 
was over two points. 

3. Administration of the Experiment. The time allowed was 
20 minutes. The Summarizing Group was told to read the article 
through once rapidly and carefully, then to take up the list of 
questions and answer them mentally, being sure to skim through 
the article for answers to any questions they might not be able to 
recall. 

The Re-Reading Group was told to read the article through 
as many times as possible in the 20 minutes. 

Only 20 minutes were allowed for reading the article, because 
only a few students could finish reading it twice in that time. This 
was judged to be the optimal time for the Re-Reading Group in 
view of the interest in the article and of its difficulty. 

At the end of this period, each section was given a rigorous 
10-minute test upon the material just read. This test comprised 
the same questions that the Summarizing Group had been mentally 
attempting to answer. 

Results 
In Table 3 the results are presented. It will be seen that Group 

TABLE 8 

Scobks or thi Summarizing Group (A) and the Re-Reading Group (B) with thi 

Material "The Government of Germany" 



Aggregate 
Score 



Range 



Median 



Third 
Quartile 



Pint 
Quartile 



Group A 
Group B 



732 
561 



9-32 
5-24 



21 
17 



'24 
20 



17 
11 



A scores, in the aggregate, 171 points, or 30.5 percent, more than 
Group B, and that its curve shows superiority throughout 



112 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

Conclusions 

1. These data seem to indicate that the use by the students of 
specific questions on the assignment is much more efficient than 
undirected reading occupying the same amount of time. 

2. The Summarizing Group, we feel sure, worked more effect- 
ively because it did not waste time in writing. 

B. Experiment with School Children 

The problem here is identical with that of the preceding experi- 
ment with college students. 

Method of Experimentation 

1. Material. The material used in this experiment was the 
article on " Tuberculosis.' ' It lends itself readily to this method 
of asking questions. The three big problems discussed in it are: 
(1) sources of tuberculosis, (2) symptoms of the disease, (3) pre- 
ventatives. 

2. Division of the Class. The subjects were pupils in Grades 
VI, VII and VIII of a representative public school of Iowa. Mon- 
roe's Silent Reading Test, No. II, was used for the purpose of 
dividing them into two groups of equal comprehension ability in 
silent reading. 

3. Administration of the Experiment. The Summarizing 
Group (A) was asked to read the article through once and then 
quickly to take up the list of questions on their desks and answer 
them mentally. The pupils were told to refer to the article freely 
in their work. At the end of 25 minutes, they were given a rigorous 
15-minute test. This test was made up of the same questions that 
they had been attempting to answer mentally. 

The Re-Reading Group was told to read the article through 
as often as possible in the 25-minute period. At the end of that 
time, the pupils were given the same test as was given to those in 
Group A. 



OUTLINING AND SUMMARIZING H3 

The Results 

The results are, in summary, an aggregate score of 617 for Group 
A and 401 for Group B. The difference, 216, in favor of the Sum- 
marizing Group, is a 53.8 percent superiority. 

Conclusion 

The figures for the school children confirm and intensify the 
findings with the college students. They show that the use by the 
pupils of specific questions on the assignment is a much more 
efficient method of studying than the expenditure of the same 
amount of time in undirected reading. 



CHAPTER VIII 

MEASURING COMPREHENSION OF CONTENT MATERIAL 



Harry A. Greens 
State University of Iowa 



INTRODUCTORY 



Teachers have long complained that pupils do not know how to 
study. Particularly has this complaint been directed to the study- 
ing of those sources of information and knowledge commonly called 
the content subjects. It has remained for the recent change in 
emphasis which has taken place in the field of reading to bring out 
the fact that, after all, the difficulty is chiefly one of reading. 
Pupils who glibly read a paragraph orally fail miserably when 
confronted with an exact check on the meaning of what they have 
read. If we are to judge from the parrot-like precision with which 
they orally reproduce the printed page, we are almost convinced 
that they comprehend. However, when we carefully investigate 
their real understanding of what they read, we begin to have serious 
doubts as to the efficiency of our reading instruction. 

The material described on the following pages was originally pre- 
pared for the purpose of determining something of the extent to 
which pupils in certain of the elementary school grades do com- 
prehend easy, straightforward, factual material, when measured by 
a rather exacting test. The chief purpose in presenting it here 
is to show that it is perfectly possible and practicable for any 
teacher to reproduce these tests or devise other similar tests, 
superior to these, for the purpose of measuring the ability of her 
pupils in reading this type of material, or of training them in this 
kind of reading. The material presented is merely typical of what 
may be done. It does not represent a finished product. It is not a 
standardized test. 

It should be pointed out at the outset that the measurement of 
silent reading represents a rather complex problem. There has 

114 



MEASURING COMPREHENSION 115 

been a tendency to break up silent reading into a number of dis- 
tinct abilities, chief among which are rate of reading and compre- 
hension of material read. Other factors contributing to these two 
and often listed with them are : the ability to re-organize the ma- 
terial, the ability to recall the essentials at a later date, and the 
ability to read the proper kind of material with enjoyment. Stated 
briefly, these factors become, in order: organization, memory, and 
appreciation. 

The objective measurement of rate of reading, while sufficiently 
complicated, has been more successfully accomplished than has the 
measurement of comprehension. In the data presented here the 
emphasis is placed on the factor of comprehension as measured by 
a distinct device, very objective and exacting in its character. 

In general, the measurement of comprehension in silent read- 
ing follows one of three lines. In the first the subject is asked 
to read the selection and then to indicate his understanding of it 
by his ability to reproduce either verbatim or idea for idea, as much 
as possible of the material read. This plan is used in the test 
devised by Starch and by Gray. 

The second type of test checks the comprehension by means 
of questions, either of the controlled or uncontrolled answer sort. 
The Thorndike Scale Alpha 2 is an example of the first of these, 
and the Courtis Series B, Test 2, of the second type. 

The third type of test used has been called a "directions test." 
In tests of this character the subject is asked to indicate the under- 
standing of the material read by the completion of some act, by the 
giving of some definite objective response which leaves a record. 
This idea was utilized in the original Kelly Silent Heading Tests, 
and followed again in Monroe's more recently developed tests. It 
is this third type of comprehension exercise which is utilized in 
the tests herein described, though with the difference that the 
material upon which the comprehension exercises are based is 
logical, factual, and related throughout. The understanding of 
the selection is indicated by certain definite responses to exercises 
covering the material. These responses are obtained in such a way 
that an objective record is obtained. 



116 THE TWENT1ETR YEARBOOK 

FIRST EXPERIMENT: THE ' WHEAT TEST* 

The first of these tests 1 with which experiments were made by 
the writer is known as the "Wheat Test" 

The following is an exact duplication of the directions, map 
terial, and exercises as presented to the pupils for testing. 

I want to see how carefully you can read a short paragraph. After yon 
have read it, you will be asked to answer some questions about it. In answer- 
ing these questions there are three things you should be sure to remember. 
They are: 

1. Give just the information needed to answer each question, but make 
sure that the answer you give is to be found in the paragraph. 

2. If any question is asked for which you think there is no answer given 
in the paragraph, write on your paper "the paragraph does not tell." 

3. You may read the paragraph as often as you wish to make sure that 
your answers are correct. 

Now that you know exactly what to do, read the following paragraph and 
answer the questions just as you have been told, remembering that you may 
have all the time you need. 

The chief wheat belts extend through the valleys of the Missouri, the 
Ohio, and the upper Mississippi. Of aU the states in this region Minnesota 
raises the most wheat. There is another belt along the Pacific coast. The 
present center of wheat production is about 100 miles west of Des Moines, 
Iowa; since 1850 it has moved westward nearly seven hundred miles, and 
northward about one hundred miles. 

Answer these questions. 

1. Mark on the accompanying map the chief wheat belts of the United States 
by using a large letter ' ' W ' ' in the proper places. 

2. Place a number one (1) in the state raising the most wheat, on the map. 

3. Place a small cross (x) where the present center of wheat production is 
located. 

4. Show by an arrow ( ^s^H^ ) the direction on the map in which the 
center of wheat production has moved 700 miles since 1850. 

5. Show by a star (*) on the map about where the center of wheat produc- 
tion previous to 1850 was located. 

The map to which reference is made in the directions was 
merely an outline map of United States. Names of states and 
cities were not shown, but the names of the river valleys mentioned 



1 The writer desires to acknowledge the guidance and co-operation of Dr. 
Ernest Horn in the development of these test devices. 



MEASURING COMPREHENSION H7 

in the paragraph were printed in with a small rubber stamp outfit 
(see Figs. 1 and 2). The paragraph itself was selected from a 
commonly used geographical reader which is judged to be easy 
enough to be read by children of the lowest grade in which the test 
was given. 

The test was given to a number of children in Grades IV, V, and 
VI. The responses were scored by the writer on an arbitrary, but 
consistent basis, by allowing zero, one, two, and three points for 
a question, depending upon the exactness of the answer. Follow- 
ing is the key used for scoring the tests : 

Basis 

"W" marking the valleys of the Mississippi, Missouri, 

and Ohio riveis. and Pacific coast. 

"WV marking the thrco river valleys. 

" W" marking one of the three valleys. 

No ' ' W ' correctly placed, or ' ' paragraph does not tell." 

A number one (1) in Minnesota. 

(x) in western Iowa. 

(x) in Nebraska. 

(x) in South Dakota, or Kansas, or further west, or 

"paragraph does not tell." 

Arrow in Ohio pointing toward Iowa. 

Arrow elsewhere to east of Iowa pointing westward. 

Arrow elsewhere on innp pointing westward. 

No arrow, or arrow not pointing westward, or northwest, 

or "paragraph does not tell." 

A star (*) in Ohio. 

A star in Illinois, Indiana, Penn., or Ky. 
1 A star anywhere east of present center (100 miles west 

of Dcs Moines, Iowa). 

On this basis the results presented in Table 1 were obtained. 
The table shows the percentage of pupils in each grade that earned 
the various scores for each question. Eiprht and three-tenths per- 
cent of the 24 fourth-grade children tested received the highest 
possible score of three points on the first question. Twenty-five 
percent of these 24 children scored two points, etc. These data 
show some very interesting variations in the difficulty of the exer- 
cises for the three grades under test. Clearly Exercises IV and V 
are the most difficult, when it is remembered that every child was 
given an opportunity to complete the test. 



Question 


Score 


I 


3 




2 




1 







II 


3 


in 


3 




2 




1 


IV 


3 




o 

*m 




1 







V 


3 




o 



118 THE TWENTIETH YEABBOOK 

TABLE 1 
Pbbcihtaoe or Pupils Maxinq Various Scores on Each of thi Fiyi Exercises 

Uff THI 'WHEAT T18T* 

Grade IV V vF 

EzerelM Score Pupila 24 11 22 



n 



in 



IT 



8 


8.8 


9.1 


41.0 


2 


25.0 


54.5 


81.7 


1 


50.0 


86.4 


27.3 





16.7 


0.0 


0.0 


8 


20.8 


72.7 


68.7 


2 


4.1 


0.0 


9.1 


1 


8.4 


0.0 


0.0 





68.7 


27.8 


27.2 


8 


87.5 


45.4 


63.7 


2 


0.0 


27.8 


9.1 


1 


16.8 


27.8 


4.5 





45.7 


0.0 


22.7 


8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2 


8.4 


9.1 


00 


1 


45.7 


72.7 


77.2 





45.8 


18.2 


22.8 


8 


0.0 


0.0 


4.5 


2 


8.4 


18.2 


0.0 


1 


20.8 


27.8 


13.7 





70.8 


54.5 


81.8 



Table 2 shows the average score made per exercise by pupils 
of the three grades tested, and the total average score made on the 
test by each grade. The percent of possible score reported shows 
that the third-grade children scored 31.6 per cent of what it was 
possible for them to score on the test, etc. The fifth grade scored 
only slightly over one-half of what it might have made in the test 
These results may be taken as an indication that in spite of the 
apparent simplicity of the reading matter, and evident definiteness 
of the comprehension test, this test is to be considered rather diffi- 
cult, or else it must be admitted that the pupils tested are not able 
to read understanding^ content material of this sort. 



TABLE 2 

average scores per pupil, tor each exercise uk the 'wheat ts8t f * 

Arranged by Grades 


Exercise 






Grade IV V VI 


I 1.25 1.86 2.14 
II .79 2.19 2.10 

III 1.80 2.19 2.14 

IV .54 .91 .78 

«,y t * c * 87 - 6 * -M 
Total Average Score 4.75 7.29 7 64 

Percent of Possible Score 81.60 48.50 6L00 



MEASURING COMPREHENSION H9 

A compilation of types of responses given the different exercises 
shows some astonishing variability. The outline map (Figure 1) 
shows the types of answers given by fourth-grade children in re- 
sponse to Exercise V. Figure 2, which embodies the results to the 
same question of sixth-grade pupils, shows considerable improve- 
ment. In these figures a star is placed wherever a pupil placed it in 
attempting to answer the exercise. The numbers appearing by 
the side of the stars indicate the number of children in addition to 
the one first placing the star in the location shown who gave the 
same answer. 

SECOND EXPERIMENT: THE 'INDIANS TEST' 

A second attempt at checking the silent reading comprehension 
of elementary school pupils was made. The material selected for 
this test was taken from Iowa Stories, a compilation of local history 
written by Dr. Aurner, of the State University of Iowa. This ma- 
terial is written in an easy, interesting style, and is read with much 
interest and enjoyment by children in the third grade. However, 
it was felt that the rigorous comprehension test was too difficult for 
children of this grade so the test was used in Grades IV, V, and VI. 

In addition to the two paragraphs comprising the reading mat- 
ter, the test consisted of a page of ten exercises asking for specific 
things to be recorded on the outline map of the state of Iowa which 
accompanied the other material. The children were then given the 
same directions as were used in the "Wheat Test." All pupils 
were given time enough in which to complete the test. The two 
paragraphs selected and the exercises based on it are here repro- 
duced. They were also given outline maps like those shown on a 
reduced scale in Figs. 3 and 4. 

"Pushing thb Indians Out op Iowa" 

The Indians loved their hunting grounds along the eastern side of the 
Mississippi Biver and Chief Black Hawk wished to stay in the land where he 
was born. But the white people kept coming over the line between their land 
and the land which the redmen still claimed in Illinois. On the Illinois side 
of the big river were the corn fields of the Indian tribes and there the men 
and women and children had been allowed to live until trouble arose. Then the 
great war broke out which is known in history as Black Hawk's War, because 
thai chief led the Indian warriors. 



THE TWENTIETH YBAXBOOX 




Tra. 1. BUPOHUI OM SUU-GKADl FDfOI 



MEA8UBIN0 COMPREHENSION 121 

When the bitter fight was ended, the Indians were defeated and, of course, 
the government of the United States made them give up some more of their 
land. At that time a strip about fifty miles wide along the west side of the 
Mississippi Biver, except for a narrow strip along the Iowa River near its 
mouth, was sold to the United States for about fourteen cents an acre. The 
narrow piece of land which the Indians kept en both sides of the Iowa Biver 
was the hunting ground of a part of the tribes. Within this land and about 
twelve miles from the mouth of the Iowa Biver, was the village of Chief 
Keokuk, who was one of the great leaders of his people. In 1836 the narrow 
strip along the Iowa Biver which had protected the village of Chief Keokuk 
was sold to the United States government for about eight cents an acre. 
Keokuk and his people moved away to other Indian lands further west. 

"Pushing thb Indians Out op Iowa" 

1. Show the location of the favorite hunting grounds of the Indians by 
putting the letter ' ' H ' ' in the proper places on the map. 

2. If Chief Black Hawk loved his land along the Mississippi Biver, write 
the word * ' Yes ' ' along the bottom of the map. 

3. Show the location of the corn lands of the Indians along the 
Mississippi Biver by putting the letter "C" in the proper places. 

4. Enclose with a line the strip of land which the Indians first sold to the 
white people. 

5. Anywhere within the first strip of land sold by the Indians to the 
white people, write the figures showing what price the Indians were paid for 
each acre. 

6. Mark with crosses (xxxxxx) the land along the Iowa Biver where the 
Indians kept their hunting grounds after Black Hawk 's War. 

7. Place a star (*) about where the village of Chief Keokuk was located. 

8. Write near the village of Chief Keokuk the date when he sold the re- 
maining strip of land along the Iowa Biver to the white people. 

9. If Chief Keokuk received ten cents an acre for the last strip of land 
sold to the white people, put a circle around the date just written. If he 
received about eight cents an acre, put a line under the date. 

10. Show by an arrow the direction Chief Keokuk and his tribes moved 
when forced to leave their village. 

This test was given in two schools, the University Elementary 
School and a public elementary school. The papers were scored by 
the writer by the following key : 

Exercise Score Basis 

I 3 One or more "HV along the eastern side of the 

Mississippi Biver. 
No "H" properly located, no reply. 



122 TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



n 


3 
2 
1 



in 


3 







IV 


3 




2 




1 







V 


3 







VI 


3 
2 

1 



vn 


3 




2 

1 



vni 


3 




IX 


3 




X 


3 
2 




1 




"Yes" along the bottom of the map. 
"Yes" along either side of map. 
"Yes" along top of map. 
No response, "paragraph does not tell." 

One or more "C's" along Illinois side of Mississippi 
Biver. 

No "C" properly located. 

Line not cutting Iowa Biver inclosing area along Miss. 
Biver above and below Iowa Biver 
Line parallel to and west of Mississippi Biver cutting 
Iowa Biver ' 

Line parallel to Miss. Biver cutting Iowa Biver, but 
inclosing one-third or more of area of state between 
river and the line 
No response; line east of Miss. Biver, etc 

Number 14 within area inclosed by line and the Missis- 
sippi Biver 

No figure; or figure outside area; "paragraph does 
not tell" 

x 's along both sides of Iowa Biver near its mouth 
x's along both sides of Iowa Biver, but not near mouth 
x's along one side Iowa Biver; not near mouth 
No x's; or along another river, etc. 

Star on Iowa Biver near its mouth within area marked 

as hunting grounds of Indians 

Star on Iowa Biver but outside this area 

Star near headwaters of Iowa Biver 

No star; or away from Iowa Biver; etc 

Date 1836 near star above 

Date not near star as in above; no date given 

A line under the date 1836 

A circle around the date 1836; no answer; etc 

Arrow starting near star pointing westward 
Arrow starting near star pointing southwest or north- 
west 

Arrow pointing north or south 
Arrow pointing east; no answer; etc 

TABLE 8 



AvnAas Sooris pxb Pupil nr Schools A and B fob thi Twr Exbboxsbs 

IN THI 'INDIANS TlST' 





Grade 


Fourth 




Fifth 




Sixth 


Exercise 


School 


▲ 


▲ 


B 


▲ 


B 


I 




1.4 


2.8 


2.85 


2.6 


2.07 


II 




8.0 


2.9 


2.64 


2.9 


2.66 


rn 




2.8 


2.7 


2.50 


2.5 


2.72 


rv 




1.1 


1.0 


.70 


1.6 


1.16 


V 




2.1 


2.7 


1.46 


2.4 


2.00 


VI 




1.4 


2.1 


1.26 


2.1 


2.16 


vn 




1.8 


1.6 


1.28 


1.9 


2.67 


VIII 




2.8 


8.0 


2.70 


2.8 


8.00 


IX 




2.5 


2.8 


1.80 


2.8 


2.90 


X 




1.0 


2.2 


1.60 


2.5 


2.28 


Total 




19.8 


28.8 


18.74 


24.1 


28.62 


Percent of 


Possible Score 


66.0 


78.0 


62.50 


80.5 


78.80 



UKA8UK1HG COMFKEHKJSHW^ 123 

Table 3 shows that a score of 1.4 was made on the first exercise 
on the average by fourth-grade pupils tested. This average score 
was increased to 2.3 by the fifth-grade pupils, and to 2.6 points by 
the sixth-grade pupils, etc. The average total score made by the 
fourth grade was 19.8 points, or 66.0 percent of what it was possible 
for the pupils to score. The fifth grade of School A made an aver- 
age of 23.3 points, or 78.0 percent of the total possible score. 

In this test, as in the former test, there are some interesting 
variations in difficulty of the exercises in the different grades. For 
example, the average score per pupil for the third exercise seems 
to indicate that it becomes more and more difficult as it advances 
through the grades tested. The final averages, however, show some- 
thing of the expected grade growth. 

In order to show something of the variation in the type of 
response given by fifth and sixth-grade children to this material 
Figures 3 and 4 are presented. In each case the map is an exact 
duplicate of the map used in the test. Figure 3 shows the types 
of answers given to Exercises VII and X by 35 fifth-grade pupils 
in School B. 

If one may interpret these results somewhat freely, it may be 
said that the responses of the children tested by this type of test 
of comprehension literally do "scatter all over the map." In the 
light of these data, is it not logical to raise these two questions: 
Do children vary as widely in their comprehension of content ma- 
terial read silently as their responses to these tests seem to indicate f 
If such is the case, is it any wonder that we find the ignorance we 
do in certain of the content subjects f 

To bring together the results of these tests, Table 4 is pre- 
sented. The object of this table is to show at a glance how far the 
actual scores were from the highest possible score (100) in both 
tests, both schools, and in all three grades. 







TABLE 4 








Grade 


IV 


V 


VI 


Wheat Teat (School A) 
Indian! Teat (School B) 
Indiana Teat (School B) 




81.6 
66.0 

. • • 


48.6 
78.0 
62.6 


61.0 
80.6 
78.8 



124 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 





i o A 




w A 



Fig. 8. Responses of 85 Fifth-Grade Pupil* in School B to ExerdM VH (asterisks) 
and Exercise X (arrows) in the 'Indian' Test. (No answer to Exercise Til by one 
pupil, none to Exercise X bj six pupils. Numbers beside stars or arrows indicate 
number of pupils, in addition to the first one recorded, who made that response.) 





Iowa 



Fig. 4. Responses of 82 Sixth-Grade Pupils in School B to Exercise VII (asterisks) 
and Exercise X (arrows) in the 'Indiana' Teat. (No answer to Exercise X by four 
pupils. Numbers used as in Fig. 8.) 



MEASURING COMPREHENSION 126 

SUMMARY 

In summary, it seems that the work with these tests warrants 
certain conclusions, though these, because the data are too limited 
in number of cases and scope of material, are confessedly tentative 
conclusions. Further experimentation with this type of material 
is going forward. 

1. Children read and glibly discuss certain content material 
placed in their hands, but when they are held strictly to account 
by an objective indication of comprehension, the scores made are 
startlingly low. Among the factors which may affect the results : 
(a) silent reading ability; (b) geographical knowledge; (c) 
mechanical features of the tests; (d) lack of motive on the part 
of the pupils. 

In respect to the second factor, it may be said that, so far as it 
was possible, lack of geographical knowledge was discounted by 
placing on the map itself labels indicating most of the geographical 
knowledge required. There is no comment on the third factor, 
except to say that the same mechanical difficulties were presented 
to all grades and to all pupils tested. The question of motive needs 
no discussion. The children were interested, and practically with- 
out exception took special delight in undertaking the tests. 

2. By the use of material such as is described in this study, an 
objective determination of the ability of school children to read and 
to understand certain selected content material may be made. 

3. Material of a similar nature covering a large range of sub- 
ject matter may be selected and prepared by teachers and super- 
visors with the aid of limited school equipment. Outline maps of 
the type used in these tests may be purchased in quantities from 
publishers or may be made by the teachers with a hektograph. The 
manifolding of all sorts of testing and teaching material is made 
possible through the use of it and similar devices. 

4. Information of the sort revealed by these tests should be of 
great importance to teachers in connection with their regular class 
work. Assignments can be adjusted to the ability of the class, and 
a better understanding of the difficulties of the individual pupils 
of the class will result. 



126 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

5. In view of the apparent inability on the part of our school 
pupils to read and comprehend accurately, material of the type 
which constantly confronts them in their daily lesson assignments, 
it is evident that we need much more emphasis on drill on content 
material for the purpose of developing this ability. Suitable ma- 
terial is easily found. Straightforward, factual material that per- 
mits close checking is best. Map and diagram material is excellent 
for drill purposes. Charts, graphs, and tabular presentations of 
facts are excellent, and certainly we encounter material of that 
type frequently enough to warrant special emphasis on it at the 
present time. Much use of unstandardized material for drill pur- 
poses is to be recommended 



CHAPTER IX 

THE VOCABULARIES OP TEN FIRST READERS 1 



J. L. Packjcb 



In the Seventeenth Yearbook, Part 7, of this Society Mr. E. T. 
Housh, Superintendent of Schools, Carroll, Iowa, published a sum- 
mary and analysis of the vocabularies of ten second-year readers. 
The present study is a similar investigation of the vocabularies 
of ten first readers from the following well-known series: 

1. Aldine 6. Heath 

2. Beacon 7. New Education 

3. Brooks 8. New National 

4. Carroll and Brooks 9. Riverside 

5. Cyr 10. Wheeler 

Tyro tables are presented. The first is really a summary of 
the second ; it indicates the total number of different words that 
appear in the ten readers with the frequency specified. This 
table will be useful in showing the number of words that need 
to be known in order to read various proportions of these read- 
ers as one proceeds from the words most commonly used toward 
the words that are least commonly used. It may be noted that 
of the 3,541 different words, 2,048 appear four times or less. 

The second table specifies the words themselves in alphabetical 
order within descending frequency groups. It is to be interpreted 
thus: the word the is used 5,246 times in these ten first readers 
and is found in all ten of them, etc. 



"This study was undertaken by Mr. Packer when Superintendent of Schools 
at West Liberty, Iowa, and a graduate student in the State University of 
Iowa and was nearly completed when he died, January 19, 1918. In view 
of the many requests for the summarized lists which Mr. Packer was known 
to be preparing, the Graduate College made an appropriation for clerical 
assistance to complete the work, which was done by Dr. and Mrs, Harry 
Greene. The lists with a few words of explanation are transmitted for pub- 
lication by Professor Ernest Horn. — Editor. 

127 



128 



THE TWENTIETH TBABBOOK 



SUMMARY 


OF THE ] 


Number 


Frequenc; 


Wordi 




15 


7WW250 


6 


600-690 


7 


500-690 


5 


400-499 


9 


850-899 


10 


800-849 



TABLE 1 

numbxe of different wobd8 occurring with certain 
Frequencies in Ten First Re a per 8 



Number 


Frequen 


Wordi 




10 


250-299 


18 


200-249 


84 


150-149 


40 


100-149 


85 


76-99 


94 


50-74 


TABLE 8 



Frequency 

40-49 
30-39 
20-29 
10-19 
5-0 



Number 

Word* 

60 

96 

164 

882 

514 

2048 



Words Used in Ten First Readers, Arranged Alphabetically by Frequency 

Groups to Show the Number of Times Each Word Appears and the 

Number of Readers in Which It Appears 



Word Frequency Readers 

700-5250 

the 5246 10 

end 8875 10 

I 1020 10 

* 1860 10 

to 1856 10 

you 1850 10 

is 1457 10 

it 1470 10 

bo 1015 10 

in 1058 10 

little 1087 10 

she 804 10 

wiU 855 10 

not 782 10 

of 707 10 

600-609 

•re 667 10 

do 608 10 

for 688 10 

uid 600 10 

see 674 10 

they 680 

600— 500 

can 562 10 

here 568 10 

her 520 10 

mo 520 10 

on 561 10 

we 565 10 

what 564 10 

400 - 400 

like 450 10 

my 420 10 

that 470 10 

wu 408 10 

with 427 10 

850-800 

all 880 10 

bat 858 10 

oome 876 10 



Word 

hM 

hit 

ono 

so 

there 

this 



st 

be 

fo 

rood 

how 

some 

them 

then 



your 



hsd 

hero 

him 

mother 

no 

now 

out 

plsy 

too 



birds 

bey 

day 

did 

make 

must 

old 

protty 

think 

when 
would 



sm 



Frequency Readers 

850 
885 
875 
855 
871 
881 

800-840 
848 

816 
804 
804 
884 
885 
812 
817 
811 
811 

250-200 
264 
278 
252 
281 
276 
258 
208 
251 
270 
258 

200-240 
205 
282 
285 
210 
206 
211 
281 
206 
207 
240 
248 
282 

150-100 
106 
157 



Word Frequency Readers 



10 


away 


186 


10 


10 


baby 


182 





10 


bit 


104 


10 


10 


bird 


150 


10 


10 


Dan 


174 





10 


152 


8 




down 


176 







eat 


188 


10 


10 


from 


188 


10 


10 
10 

A 4k 


home 


181 
162 






10 

A 4k 


house 


178 


10 


10 


into 


178 


10 


10 

4k 


know 


108 


10 


8 

A 4k 


man 


158 





10 
10 

4k 


many 


158 





mamma 


158 


4 





may 


155 







nest 


178 


10 




10 

10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 


oh 


170 


8 


our 


161 





put 


150 


10 


red 


184 


10 


run 


101 


10 


■hall 


168 





sing 


156 





take 


164 


10 


us 


182 





Tery 


177 


8 


want 


151 


7 




where 


165 


10 





yea 


167 






10 
10 
10 




100-140 




again 
blue 


106 
128 




8 


o 


came 


188 





o 


eat 


148 


8 


8 


could 


118 


10 


o 


dear 


105 


8 


10 


does 


120 


10 


10 


dog 


188 


7 


o 


don't 


184 


6 


w 


find 


108 







fly 


184 


8 


10 


Fred 


117 


6 


10 


firl 


182 






VOCABULARIES OF TEN FIE8T BEADEB8 



129 



Weird 

King 
ar 
if 
Jack 

fi? 

let 

I25f 



Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 



neve 
orer 
ran 



143 
188 
125 
148 
118 
106 
116 
181 
101 
140 
104 
116 
149 
141 
140 



10 
8 
9 
9 
8 
8 
8 

10 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 



a 


101 

189 


v 
10 


time 


140 


9 


trees 


107 


9 


water 


186 


9 


wen 


101 
185 


9 
10 


went 


126 


8 


were 


149 


9 


white 


120 


10 


who 


110 


10 


wind 


185 
75-99 


10 


about 


91 


7 


Allen 


88 


1 


any 


76 


9 


apples 


80 


6 


back 


83 


9 


ball 


99 


4 


boys 


96 


8 


catch 


87 


8 


children 


79 


8 


eow 


85 


8 


every 


78 


10 


Fannie 


90 


2 


fast 


86 


8 


father 


ft7 


8 


flag 


90 


5 


flowers . 


77 


8 


found 


81 


9 


green 
hand 


85 
94 


10 
6 


ite 


80 


9 


likes 


87 


9 


milk 


96 


8 


more 


87 


7 


morning 


85 


9 


or 


88 


9 


rain 


86 


9 


says 


87 


8 


should 


82 


7 


snow 


92 


9 


soon 


98 


9 


sun 


94 


9 


three 


80 


10 


told 


76 


6 


two 


87 


8 


under 


96 
60-74 


10 


apple 
asleep 


68 
51 


7 
8 


beautiful 


58 


7 


bed 


55 


8 


been 


54 


7 



Bessie 58 2 

blow 52 8 

book 67 6 

bread 55 8 

bright 50 7 

brook 61 6 

brown 66 8 

call 66 8 

cold 72 10 

corn 71 7 

doU 61 6 

drink 56 8 

drive 50 7 

eggs 54 10 

ever 51 9 

eyes 74 10 

fall 65 10 

fine 58 7 

fire 78 6 

gingerbread 50 8 

girls 69 9 

Grace 51 4 

grass 54 8 

great 58 4 

ground 51 9 

prow 72 9 

Hans 58 1 

happy 50 7 

hat 51 7 

head 55 8 

help 66 7 

hen 74 6 

high 52 7 

hill 51 8 

horse 69 9 

I'll 56 5 

Kate 68 5 

keep 68 8 

kind 58 5 

large 51 7 

live 60 9 

looked 59 8 

love 68 8 

mot 58 2 

mill 65 5 

Mr. 70 5 

much 66 7 

name 56 7 

Nat 66 2 

near 62 7 

new 60 8 

night 78 8 

off 55 7 

only 58 7 

papa 62 4 

pig 64 6 

please 66 7 

poor 58 6 

rabbit 54 7 

ride 58 7 

right 52 9 

round 62 9 

school 58 6 

seeds 65 6 

sit 52 9 

sky 64 9 

small 57 9 

sometimes 50 8 

spring 50 9 

still 56 8 

stop 74 10 

such 51 5 



tall 


52 


6 


ten 


50 


7 


their 


74 


6 


theae 


51 


7 


things 


68 


7 


Tom 


61 


4 


top 


52 


8 


upon 


54 


8 


wants 


62 


T 


why 


72 


8 


window 


68 


8 


wings 


56 


9 


winter 


62 


T 


wish 


56 


T 


won't 


70 


8 


work 


68 


8 


yellow 


56 


6 


40- 


-49 




acroea 


46 


4 


after 


40 


7 


afraid 


45 


6 


always 


40 


7 


barn 


40 


4 


bee 


49 


8 


before 


46 


7 


best 


42 


6 


better 


44 


7 


bring 


48 


8 


cake 


49 


7 


called 


45 


8 


cannot 


48 


8 


can't 


48 


6 


coat 


42 


5 


comes 


41 


10 


coming 


45 


6 


cried 


41 


8 


daisy 
dead 


48 


6 


46 


5 


duck 


40 


6 


each 


44 


7 


fan 


45 


8 


field 


42 


7 


four 


41 


8 


fun 


40 


7 


garden 


47 


7 


gave 


48 


8 


glad 


44 


6 


grandma 
nanda 


42 


6 


40 


8 


heard 


45 


8 


I'm 


49 


4 


Mrs. 


44 


6 





42 


5 


once 


46 


7 


other 


45 


6 


pail 


46 


5 


rat 


41 


8 


read 


41 


6 


rest 


42 


4 


rose 


49 


6 


sand 


40 


6 


sat 


46 


8 


seen 


42 


8 


sheep 


49 


6 


show 


44 


7 


sleep 


49 


7 


something 


49 


8 


summer 


47 


6 


swing 


42 


6 


than 


47 


6 


today 


44 


8 



130 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word 

walk 

warm 

watch 

wheat 

woods 



•long 
•round 



bear 
because 

bell 

black 

blows 

box 

butter 

buy 

bun 

calls 

care 

carry 

chickens 

Christmas 

clock 

ery 

dogs 

door 



face 
fat 

feed 

feel 

feet 

fell 
fish 
five 
flower 

&& 

friends 

fruit 

full 

fires 

foat 

foats 

grandpa 

fray 

frew 

gruff 

hard 

hawks 

ho 

hold 

horses 

hungry 

kittens 

left 

lily 

lion 

lived 

lire* 

looks 

makes 

nies 

nuts 

oak 

often 

open 



Frequency Headers 

41 5 

46 8 

40 

41 

45 

SO -89 

80 

80 

80 

82 

88 

86 

80 

85 

86 

86 

88 

81 

88 

80 

88 

84 

87 

88 

80 

85 

80 

84 

88 

80 

80 

88 

80 

88 

86 

86 

81 

86 

84 

80 

80 

83 

88 

80 

84 

88 

86 

82 

88 

82 

85 

80 

80 

81 

80 

86 

82 

80 

85 

88 

85 

84 

80 

85 

88 

82 

80 

80 

81 5 

87 6 



Word Frequency Readers 

pan 

party 

picture 

place 

plant 

ring 

roses 



sell 

sick 

side 

singing 

sits 

stay 

supper 

took 

(own 

train 

try 

▼iolet 

wanted 

which 

while 

without 

write 



Alice 

another 

ask 

basket 

beat 

bees 

Beunie 

Billy 

birdie 

birthday 

bite 

blew 

boat 

books 

bough 

bow-wow 

bridge 

brings 

built 

buttercup 

butterfly 

cap 

cart 

cats 

cheese 

chick 

chicken 

chicks 

close 

cook 

country 

cows 

cradle 

creep 

cross 

crows 

crying 

days 

didn't 

dolls 

donkey 

drum 

dwarf 



88 
80 
80 
87 
81 
88 
88 
80 
86 
81 
86 
85 
82 
80 
80 
84 
81 
81 
88 
88 
B0 
87 
88 
82 
87 

20-20 

28 
22 
27 
24 
21 
24 
21 
28 
22 
20 
26 
21 
24 
28 
21 
22 
22 
28 
21 
20 
28 
20 
24 
28 
22 
21 
28 
20 
21 
26 
26 
28 
25 
27 
20 
27 
20 
20 
28 
24 
24 
24 
21 
28 



Word 

eight 
Elsie 
far 

farmer 

faster 

feathers 

All 

first 

flew 

flower's 

food 

funny 

George 



gone 
grandmother 

Helen 

helped 

hide 

honey 

horn 

hurt 

ice 

01 

isn't 

Jamie 

keeps 

kite 

kitten 

kitty 

knew 

knows 

lake 

»7 
leaf 

legs 

light 

liked 

looking 

Marion 

Mark 

Mary 

meadows 

meadow 

mean 

might 

mine 

minute 

Miss 

most 

Muffet 

Nan 

Ned 

Nell 



nine 

north 

outside 

pads 

pan-cakes 

P«t 

people 

pet 

pick 

pie 

pink 

played 

playing 

plays 

pussy 



Frequency Readers 

27 
28 
29 
26 
21 
28 
24 
28 
29 
27 
28 
25 
26 
28 
26 
27 
22 
28 
20 
26 
28 

21 5 

22 5 
28 5 
20 
27 
25 
21 
26 
25 
25 
26 
28 
20 
25 
28 
24 
24 
20 
22 
25 
26 
20 
20 
27 
20 
24 
24 
21 
27 
28 
21 
24 
28 
29 
28 
21 
28 
28 
28 
21 
28 
28 
21 
21 
21 
22 
28 
27 
25 
27 



V0CABVLABIE8 OF TEN FIRST BBADEBS 



131 



Word 


Frequency Headers 


Word Frequency 


Headers 


Word FreqtJ 


lency Beadc 


ready 


25 


5 


beside 


17 




dry- 


18 9 


river 


20 


6 


bit 


10 




ducks 


19 6 


robin 


27 


5 


black-smith 


10 




ear 


14 5 


room 


28 


7 


blocks 


14 




east 


16 8 


roots 


20 


5 


blossoms 


18 




eaten 


10 2 


Boy 


20 


1 


blue-bird 


17 




eating 


11 5 


running 


22 


7 


board 


18 




eats 


18 7 


runs 


27 


7 


body 


11 




Edith 


10 1 


sail 


20 


6 


both 


12 




eicg 


12 4 


sang 


22 


6 


boughs 


18 




else 


18 8 


seven 


28 


8 


bow 


12 




engine 


18 8 


sharp 


26 


4 


bowl 


15 




•▼en 


18 8 


shining 


24 


6 


breakfast 


12 




evening 


18 4 


ship 


21 


8 


breezes 


11 




Esther 


14 1 


short 


20 


8 


broom 


10 




eye 


19 6 


silver 


22 


4 


brother 


19 




fairy 


10 9 


singer 


27 


1 


brought 


18 




falling 


12 4 


sings 


29 


5 


build 


14 




farm 


18 6 


sister 


28 


8 


burn 


12 


8 


farmers 


16 9 


six 


28 


7 


busy 


18 


5 


fear 


18 4 


•ly 


20 


8 


calf 


10 


2 


fed 


11 6 


smell 


20 


2 


candy 


14 


4 


fellow 


10 8 


soft 


29 


6 


caps 


10 


4 


Fido 


14 1 


south 


20 


5 


captain 


14 


4 


filled 


10 8 


spin 


25 


5 


car 


18 


2 


fir 


11 2 


squirrel 


21 


2 


careful 


10 


2 


flies 


14 5 


equirrela 


25 


4 


carried 


12 


4 


floor 


18 4 


stand 


27 


6 


cam 


11 


8 


flour 


18 4 


stores 


25 


2 


caterpillar 


14 


8 


flow 


18 4 


story 


25 


6 


caught 


15 


7 


foot 


10 8 


swim 
table 


20 
25 


8 

4 


cents 
chair 


11 
19 


2 

4 
6 
4 
2 
8 
4 
4 
2 
2 

5 

8 


fond 
forest 


11 8 
18 8 


Uil 

takes 

talk 

Tatty 

Ted 

thank 

throw 

through 

tired 

tramp 


21 
22 
26 
20 
28 
24 
20 
22 
27 
20 


5 
7 
6 
1 
2 
7 
4 
5 
5 
9 


child 

city 

clang 

claws 

clear 

clouds 

cluck 

coal 

coats 

cock 


ASF 

18 
10 
17 
12 
18 
18 
16 
18 
10 
19 


Fred's 

fresh 

friend 

frost 

fur 

gather 

geese 

geu 

gold 

golden 


12 4 
18 7 

18 8 
14 4 
10 8 
17 5 

19 2 
14 6 
14 6 
14 8 

^ A SB) 


wait 

wake 

wail 

wee 

west 

wet 

wood 

woodman 


26 
26 
21 
24 
28 
27 
29 
21 


7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
4 
7 
2 


colt 

cookies 

corner 

cotton 

couldn't 

count 

crab 

cream 


A SF 

19 
10 
18 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 


49 

2 
1 
4 
2 
2 
8 
1 
4 


goose 

got 

grain 

grand-mothers 

grand-pa's 

growing 

grown 

grows 

guess 

Gyp 

hair 


14 8 
18 4 
14 4 
16 1 
11 8 
18 5 
10 8 
18 4 
18 4 




A A. aA 




creeps 


10 


8 


15 1 




10- 20 




cries 


15 


8 


18 6 


air 


19 




cuddle 


16 


2 


half 


11 9 


almost 


18 




cup 


14 


5 


half-chick 


10 1 


anything 


12 




cut 


10 


4 


Harry 


18 4 


arm 


13 




daisies 


10 


8 


haU 


18 9 


arms 


11 




dance 


11 


8 


having 


11 6 


arrows 


11 




dandelion 


16 


8 


hears 


10 4 


aaked 


16 




dark 


18 


7 


herself 


10 8 


autumn 


13 




dash 


10 


1 


holds 


16 6 


awake 


18 




deep 


17 


6 


hole 


10 6 


baby's 
bark 


10 




den 


12 


8 


hood 


14 1 


19 




diamond 


12 


4 


Hood 


15 1 


barked 


14 




dinner 


11 


4 


hop 


18 6 


bat* 


16 




doctor 


10 


9 


hoppity-skip 


10 1 


bear's 


15 




doing 


12 


5 


hot 


12 4 


beauty 


12 




dolly 


17 


9 


hour 


18 8 


begins 


10 




done 


16 


7 


houses 


10 6 


behind 


10 




drake 


11 


1 


Indian 


16 9 


bench 


12 




draw 


14 


4 


ink 


11 9 


berries 


18 


2 


dream 


14 


4 


iron 


10 9 



132 



THE TWENT1BTK YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 



Jenny 


10 


1 


penny 


11 


8 


J 111 


16 


8 


peep 


14 


6 


Sump 


16 


8 


pictures 


18 


4 


jumped 


12 


5 


pies 


10 


2 


IX 


16 


5 


plants 


10 


8 


15 


4 


plum 


15 


4 


killed 


12 


2 


plums 


12 


4 


kinc 
knife 


15 


9 


pocket 


18 


8 


10 


9 


pole 


10 


9 


lamb 


12 


8 


poles 


11 


1 


lambs 


10 


5 


porridge 


15 


2 


land 


18 


5 


pot 


17 


8 


wet 


15 


6 


pull 


11 


4 


laugh 


12 


8 


puts 


18 


5 


learn 


11 


9 


queer 


14 


1 


leere 


10 


6 


rabbits 


19 


4 


Lee 


18 


1 


race 


11 


8 


Leon 


18 


1 


reach 


10 


8 


letter 


12 


8 


rice 


10 


2 


lichen 


17 


1 


Riding 


17 


1 


life 


14 


8 


rill 


16 


8 


listen 


16 


4 


ripe 


18 


5 


load 


10 


4 


road 


11 


8 


toads 


10 


8 


robins 


10 


4 


loaf 


10 


8 


rock 


16 


4 


lock 


18 


2 


rock-a-bys 


15 


8 


London 


10 


2 


rocks 


15 


5 


longer 


12 


6 


roll 


10 


2 


loose 


11 


1 


rolled 


10 


2 


lost 


18 


6 


rope 


16 


8 


loud 


15 


5 


Rose 


11 


1 


lores 


10 


4 


row 


11 


4 


tow 


18 


4 


rub-a-dub-dub 


10 


2 


luck 


14 


1 


Ruth 


15 


8 


Lucy 
making 


12 


1 


safe 


10 


4 


16 


7 


safely 


12 


8 


malt 


10 


1 


sailing 


11 


8 


March 


18 


2 


sailor 


12 


2 


market 


11 


2 


sails 


18 


6 


mat 


18 


2 


Santa 


11 


9 


May 


17 


1 


Santa Clans 


10 


1 


men 


19 


4 


Saturday 


12 


8 


merry 


12 


6 


saying 


11 


8 


mew 


11 


8 


season 


10 


2 


nice 


19 


8 


seat 


17 


2 


middle-si sed 


15 


1 


second 


14 


5 


mind 


19 


5 


seed 


18 


4 


moon 


14 


4 


seem 


16 


5 


mothers 


16 


4 


sees 


19 


6 


mud 


18 


4 


seemed 


12 


4 


myself 


16 


4 


seems 


19 


6 


names 


11 


4 


sells 


10 


8 


naughty 


17 


2 


send 


11 


5 


nearly 


11 


8 


sent 


15 


4 


neat 


14 


8 


set 


16 


8 


neck 


11 


8 


shine 


16 


7 


need 


10 


4 


shines 


14 


5 


next 


17 


4 


shoes 


17 


5 


nibble 


11 


2 


shoot 


14 


8 


none 


10 


4 


. tight 


18 


4 


nose 


15 


4 


sir 


10 


2 


nothing 


18 


6 


sitting 


12 


4 


ones 


16 


5 


skate 


11 


8 


opened 


11 


6 


skins 


15 


2 


ought 


12 


8 


sled 


14 


8 


own 


19 


4 


sleeping 


11 


4 


owl 


11 


2 


sold 


11 


8 


ox 


14 


1 


soldier 


12 


2 


paint 
Paul 


12 


2 


soldiers 


14 


8 


12 


1 


song 


18 


7 


pat* 


11 


2 


sow 


14 


2 


paper 


14 


8 


speak 


16 


9 



spider 


16 




spin 


14 




spun 


10 




stands 


18 




•tar 


16 




stars 


15 




stem 


16 




stick 


17 




sticks 


11 




stile 


10 




stone 


16 




stool 


16 




stopped 


12 




stones 


15 




street 


10 




string 


19 




stripes 


19 




strong 


15 




sugar 


15 




summers 


10 




sunshine 


12 




suppose 


12 




sure 


18 




tea 


11 




teach 


16 




teeth 


15 




tells 


19 




that's 


12 




thin 


10 




thing 


18 




thinks 


19 




those 


11 




thought 


18 




sick 


19 




till 


16 




times 


19 




tiny 


15 




tip-top 


10 




titty 
tock 


15 

10 




together 


11 




tonight 
touch 


10 




12 




traveler 


10 




tried 


16 




turn 


18 




turned 


12 




turtle 


13 




uncle 


12 


2 


used 


12 


8 


risit 


19 


5 


wagon 
wafting 


16 
10 




web 


14 




whooping 


11 




wicked 


11 




willows 


10 




win 


11 




windows 


10 




winds 


15 




Winnie 


10 




wise 


10 




wished 


11 




wolf 


18 




woman 


11 




women 


18 




wonder 


11 




wool 


11 




wow 


12 




wore 


10 




world 


11 




wouldn't 


10 





F0CABULASIB8 OF TBN FIS8T BSADBBS 



133 



Word Frequency 


Reader 


sJIWord freque 

flcattle 
EjCharley 
J chestnut 
- chestnuts 


ncy Readers 


Word Frequency Bands 


yard 


15 


4 


5 8 


felt 8 8 


year 


16 


4 


8 1 


fence 9 8 


years 


15 


4 


7 2 


ferry 5 l 








5 1 


fields 9 8 


5- 


-9 




k chief 


5 1 


fireman 5 8 


above 


5 




chin 


5 2 


firemen 5 1 


act 


5 




choose 


9 9 


fisher 9 t 


eh 


6 




churn 


5 1 


flat 7 2 


ails 


7 




Clark 


5 1 


Flossie 9 1 


Allen's 


5 




Glaus 


6 1 


forget 8 9 
forlorn 5 1 


•lone 


9 




clean 


8 2 


among 


8 




climb 


9 8 


form 5 § 


animals 


9 




climbs 


7 2 


forty 8 8 


Anna 


8 




cloak 


8 1 


fort 6 1 


answer 


6 




clocks 


6 2 


frolic 8 1 


ant 


7 




cloud 


9 8 


April 


6 




clover 


9 4 


front 6 2 


apron 


7 




clovers 


9 1 


fruits 5 8 


a- riddle 


6 




clucker 


7 1 


8*7 6 4 


attic 


5 




coast 


6 2 


gentle 5 % 


awoke 


9 




coek-a-doodle-do 


7 2 


gentleman 6 1 


ax 


7 




colors 


7 2 


rills 6 2 


babies 


5 




coop 


5 1 


given 6 8 


bad 


8 




course 


5 1 


golden-rod 6 8 


bag 


5 




cover 


5 8 


good-bye 7 8 


bake 


9 




covered 


6 8 


goodnight 5 9 


baker 


8 




crack 


5 2 


grains 6 8 


baker's 


7 




creek 


5 1 


frapes 6 i 


band 


6 




creeping 


6 1 


grind 7 1 


bare 


5 




crept 


5 4 


gun 6 1 
hail 7 2 


barrel 


5 




crown 


8 8 


beech 


6 




crumpled 


6 1 


hammer 7 1 


beans 


6 




curds 


7 2 


handle 6 4 


became 


6 




daisy's 


6 4 


handsome 9 8 


beef 


5 




dare 


5 2 


Hal 6 1 


begin 
bells 


8 




Dan's 


8 2 


hark 7 8 


8 




dates 


5 1 


harm 9 4 


bellows 


6 




doesn't 


7 2 


Harold 5 1 


Ben 


8 




Don 


8 1 


Harry's 8 2 


bill 


6 


2 


Dotty 


5 1 


harvest 5 1 


birdies 


9 


8 


dove 


6 2 


hasn't 6 2 


black-board 


7 


2 


dressed 


9 4 


hatch 5 1 


blades 


6 


2 


drill 


5 1 


hats 5 8 


block 


8 


8 


drinks 


5 8 


haven't 5 2 


blossom 


8 


8 


drives 


8 4 


hawk 8 2 


Bo-peep 


7 


1 


drop 


7 5 


hay-cock 7 1 


bowls 


7 


2 


dropped 


6 8 


heads 6 4 


branch 


5 


8 


drops 


8 8 


heart 6 4 


branches 


7 


8 


drove 


5 8 


heat 9 6 


brave 


9 


2 


drowned 


5 4 


heavy 7 4 


brayed 


5 


1 


drowses 


8 1 


heaven 7 4 


breaks 


8 


4 


Duke 


7 1 


held 7 8 


breast 


8 


8 


dust 


6 8 


helping 6 8 


breathe 


6 


1 


earth 


7 8 


helps 7 4 


W 


6 


2 


Edna 


7 1 


hens 7 8 


7 


8 


elm 


8 2 


hid 5 8 


brooks 


8 


4 


end 


7 4 


hills 6 4 


bods 


7 


8 


enough 


7 2 


himself 8 4 


bugs 
building 


5 


2 


everywhere 


6 4 


hind 7 1 


6 


8 


everything 


8 4 


hive 7 9 


Banting 


6 


1 


faces 


7 8 


homes 7 6 


burrs 


6 


1 


fair 


7 2 


hoo 5 1 


bash 


8 


2 


fairies 


7 2 


hope 7 1 


bushes 


6 


2 


fallen 


5 2 


hops 8 9 


bushy 


7 


8 


falls 


8 6 


horns 7 8 


cage 

carres 


6 


8 


Fan 


9 1 


Horner ' 7 1 


6 


1 


Fannie's 


5 1 


huge 9 1 


candles 


5 


2 


Fanny 


5 1 


hum 6 1 


carriage 


5 


2 


farther 


9 1 


humming 6 8 


Carl 


6 


1 


farmer's 


5 2 


hung 9 9 


carpenter 


8 


1 


fasten 


8 9 


hunting 6 9 


catches 


9 


2 


feelers 


5 9 


hurrah 8 9 



134 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Freqmeaey 


Readara 


Word Frequency Readara 


Word sVequeney B 


•ssdi 


hurry 


5 


2 


napkina 


7 




Robert 8 




I'd 


9 




needle 


7 




rolls 9 




indeed 


8 




Nick 


7 




roof 8 




Indiana 


8 




nights 
noise 


5 




rooms 7 




inaeeta 


8 




9 




rooster 8 




it'l 


8 




nowhere 


5 




rows 6 




Jack-on-a-atiek 


6 




oata 


5 




sad 8 




Jaek'a 


6 




o'clock 







Sadie 9 




Jane 


6 




October 


6 




Sally 9 




Jena 


7 




o'er 


5 




8am 7 




&, 


5 




older 


6 




aap 7 




5 




orange 


7 




saved 7 




Jumps 
June 


5 




orangea 


7 




scales 7 




6 




orchard 


8 




scold 6 




Kate'a 


5 




others 


8 




scratch 6 




kid 


5 




Otto 


7 




seek 6 




kindneaa 


6 




oven 


8 




selfish 6 




kinda 


7 




overhead 


5 




seller 7 




king* 


5 




owner 


5 




seta 6 




kiaa 


8 




pails 


9 




sew 5 




klased 


6 




paints 


5 




shade 6 




kitchen 


8 




pasture 


5 




shake 9 




lad 


8 




pawa 


7 




shan't 9 




laid 


5 




pay 


9 




shaven 9 




lap 


7 




peach 


9 




shell 9 




lark 


7 




peaches 


6 


2 


■he's 5 




lata 


9 




pear 


6 


2 


shoe 8 




learned 


5 




pears 


7 


2 


shone 7 




led 


7 




pans 


6 


2 


shook 9 




leaa 


5 




papoose 


5 




shop 6 




lettera 


6 




pens 


6 




showed 7 




leU 


7 




peeped 


7 




shower 5 




let's 


7 




picked 


8 




shut 8 




lie 


6 




picnic 


8 




silk 8 




lift 


5 




piece 


6 




skates 6 


8 


lifted 


5 




piga 


7 




slate 8 


2 


lights 
uRea 


8 




piggy 


8 




slatea 5 


2 


6 




pit-a-pat 


8 




sleda 8 




limba 


6 




plain 


8 




sleigh 7 




limp 


6 




plate 


6 




sleepy 7 




lips 


7 




plates 


8 




slowly 7 




locket 


5 




playmate 


6 




smells 8 




locka 


8 


2 


playmatea 


5 




smiled 5 




log 


7 


2 


pleasant 


8 




smiles 9 




lonely 


7 


2 


pleaaed 


5 




smiling 7 




longed 


5 


2 


pool 






smooth 8 




loaa 


8 


4 


pond 






softly 8 




louder 


5 


2 


pony 






somebody 5 




Louie 


8 


1 


pop-corn 






sometime 9 




lurkey 


6 


1 


pour* 






aonga 8 




mag-pie 
maiden 


7 


1 


porch 






sorry 9 




6 


2 


presents 






sound 8 




maple 


7 


2 


proud 






speckle 7 




maplea 


8 


8 


pruned 






sped 5 




march 


5 


1 


pudding 






spina 5 




mat* 


6 


2 


puff 






snot 5 




matea 


8 


8 


pulled 






Spot 8 




matter 


8 


8 


puppies 






squeak 9 




meana 


9 


2 


push 






stairs 8 




meat 


7 


2 


quickly 






star-fish 7 




meet 


7 


5 


quick 






stayed 6 




mend 


8 


2 


quiet 






stems 6 




milked 


6 


2 


rains 






step 8 




Miller 


8 


1 


reached 






stir 5 




minutea 


8 


8 


reap 






stocking 8 




mother'e 


8 


2 


redbreast 






stockings 6 




month 


7 


8 


reindeer 






stolen 7 




mouths 


5 


2 


ribbon 






stood 7 




motor 


6 


1 


Richie 






store 9 




muddy 


6 


2 


rides 






stout 8 




Muff 


7 


1 


roar 






store 8 




naila 


7 


2 


Rob 






straight 9 





V0CABULABIB8 OF TEN FIB8T BBADBB8 



135 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 



stranger 

stream 

stronger 

struck 

stock 

sun-beam 

sweeps 

sweets 

swimming 

swinging 

swings 

taking 

talking 

teacher 

thanksgiving 

that's 

thee 

themselves 

there's 

thick 

thinking 

third 

thistle 

thumb 

shrew 

throne 

ticket 

tick-tock 

tight 

tin 

tip 

toes 

tomorrow 

tools 

toot 

tops 

torn 

tossed 

tracks 

trap 

tree- top 

trot 

true 

trunks 

trying 

tuffet 

turkey 

turnips 

turns 

tweet 

twinkle 

use 

valentine 

▼aientines 

riolets 

voice 

walked 

walking 



Washington's 
wasn't 
watched 
ware 



weather 

weep 

well 

whey 

whistle 

whitefaot 

whole 

wide 



5 
6 
6 
6 
7 
9 
8 
6 
8 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
8 
7 
7 

8 
8 
6 
7 
7 
8 
6 
6 
7 
8 
7 
5 
5 
8 
6 



8 
2 

a 

3 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
8 
2 
6 
8 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
8 
8 
2 
2 
8 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
8 
8 
2 
8 
1 
5 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
8 
8 
2 
8 
2 
1 
1 
8 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
8 
8 
1 
5 
2 
1 
8 
2 
4 
2 
2 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
5 
4 



wig 
wild 
Willie 
wing 



6 

9 
9 
5 



2 

2 
2 



August 
aunt 
autumns 
awhile 



wishes 


1 


t axes 


worked 


9 4 


k baa 


worried 


5 1 


L babe 


wrap 


9 1 


L backs 


wraps 


5 3 


L backward 


yesterday 


6 1 


L badly 


£©rk 


8 I 


f bag-pipe 


6 3 


I bags 
L baked 


young 


7 3 


you're 


7 1 


I bakes 


yourself 


7 1 


I baking 
balls 
Ball's 


1 — 4 




bananas 


aboard 


8 


L bang 


able 
ache 




L bangs 
L bank 


acorn 




1 barns 


acorns 




\ barnyard 


active 




L barrels 


acts 




L basin 


ado 




L bashful 


added 




L baskets 


admired 




L bat 


against 




I bathing 


ago 
ahead 




1 bay 




L bays 


ahoy 




L beads 


ail 




L beak 


alarm 




i beaks 


Alice's 




1 beam 


already 




L bean-stalk 


also 




L bears 


amethyst 




L beard 


anchored 




L beast 


anew 




L beaten 


angels 
animal 




L beats 




L beating 


Annie 




1 beasts 


Annie's 




L beautifully 


answered 




1 become 


answering 




L becomes 


answers 




L beds 


ants 




[ bH«Me 


anvil 




L bedtime 


anyhow 




[ bcef&ieak 


anyway 




L beetle 


anywhere 




1 beets 


ape 




L bedroom 


apes 




L be* 


appear 




1 bestrar 


applesauce 




L beginning 


apple-tree 




L begone 


aren't 




L begun 


a-riddle-ma-re 




L behave 


ark 




L hfhaved 


arrow 




L believe 


a-ruba-dum-dum 




L bellowed 


a-saiiing 
ashamed 




L below 




L bend 


ashore 




\ bends 


aside 




L Bun h 


asks 




1 bending 


assist 




L beneath 


aster 




L bent 


asters 




I besides 


attend 




L Bess 


attended 




L Bessie's 



8 
2 

1 
1 
8 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
2 
1 
8 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
8 
4 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
8 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
8 
4 
2 
4 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 



136 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Beaden 


i Word Frequency B 


«ad< 


between 


8 2 bubbles 


2 


1 


chanee 2 


1 


bicycle 


1 1 


L bubbled 


2 


2 


change 4 


2 


bigger 


1 1 


. bubbling 


1 




chase 2 




bin 


8 1 


l buckles 


1 




chases 1 




biscuit 


2 1 


L buckwheat 


1 




chased 1 




bites 


2 \ 


1 bud 


2 




chat 4 




biting 


2 1 


L buffalo 


2 




chatter 1 




bitter 


1 3 


L bug 


2 




chattering 1 




black-birds 


2 1 


L buggy 






chats 1 




blacksmith's 


1 1 


L builds 






cheat 8 




blank 


1 1 


L bumped 






cheeks 8 




blankets 


2 J 


L bump 






cheerful 1 




blast 


8 J 


I bun eh 






cherries 4 




blase 


2 1 


t bunny 






cherry 1 




biasing 


2 1 


t buns 






cheer 2 




bleat 


2 1 


L Bunting's 






children's 8 




bleated 


1 1 


L bureau 






chill 8 




bleates 


2 1 


1. buried 






chills 1 




bleeding 


i : 


L burned 






chimney 1 




blink 


l 1 


L burning 






chimneys 8 




blinked 


l ] 


• burst 






chin 1 




blinks 


l i 


L busily 






chins 1 




bloom 


l i 


L business 






chip 1 




bloomed 


l i 


> buttercups 






chocolates 1 




blossoming 


l 1 


> butterflies 






choke 1 




blowing 


4 1 


1 buttered 






chooses 2 




blown 


2 \ 


1 buttermilk 






chopped 1 




blue-birds 


2 1 


L butts 






Christmastide 1 




Bluebirds 


2 1 


> button 






chuck 4 




boar 


1 1 


!• buzzing 






chuckled 1 




boards 


1 1 


> buss-s-s 






circus 8 




boasted 


1 1 


> cabin 






citron 1 




boatman 


4 1 


> cske 




2 


clam 1 




boats 


4 I 


1 caller 




2 


clams 4 




Bobby 


4 1 


1 calling 




2 


clambered 1 




bob-o-link 


4 1 


[ camp 




2 


clap 1 




bobs 


1 1 


L camping 






clapped 1 




boil 


2 1 


 cane 






claps 1 




boiled 


2 1 


cans 






Clark's 1 




boiling 


4 : 


L canvas 






clay 8 




bold 


4 ] 


• cannon 






cleaned 1 




bolt 


i : 


cape 






cleared 1 




bone 


1 1 


capes 






clears 1 




boo 


8 1 


capless 






elick 8 




bore 


i : 


capers 






clicked 1 




born 


l i 


l capering 






climate 1 




bother 


i i 


L caravan 






climbing 1 




bottom 


8 i 


t caraway 






cling 2 




bought 


8 1 


L capture 






dinging 1 




bounding 


2 2 


1 captured 






clings 1 
doaks 2 




bow'rs 


1 1 


. carefully 








bows 


2 : 


! cares 






closer 1 




bow-wow-wow 


l : 


L Carlo 






doset 1 




bran 


8 ] 


L carries 






dosed 8 




brand 


l i 


L camel 






cloth 2 




bray 


2 ] 


L ramols 






dothes 4 




braying 


l : 


L case 






clothing 2 




break 


4 4 


I castle 






dosing 2 




breathed 


1 J 


> cat-bird 






cloudless * 1 




bride 


l : 


L caterpillars 






clucked 1 




brighteyed 


2 1 


t cat-tails 






clump 2 




brink 


2 1 


L caw 






elumpity 1 




bringing 


1 ] 


L caws 






clumsy 2 




broad 


1 ] 


L cease 






coachman 1 




broadcast 


1 ] 


L ceased 






cobblers 1 




broken 


2 3 


I Cecil 






cocoon 1 




broth 


8 ] 


L cent 






coffee 1 




brothers 


2 J 


L chain 






colder 2 




brow 


1 J 


L chains 






colts 2 




brunette 


1 1 


L chained 






commence 1 




brush 


2 ] 


L chairs 




2 


comic 1 




brushed 


1 1 


L chamber 




1 


common 1 





VOCABULABIBS OF TEN FIRST BBADEB8 



137 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 


company 


4 3 


dandelion's 


2 3 


dreamed 


2 1 


cone 


8 3 


danger 


2 3 


dreamland 




cones 


1 3 


darkuess 


1 3 


dreams 




cooked 


1 3 


darting 


2 3 


drearer 




cooky 


8 3 


dashed 


2 3 


drearr 
drenched 




cool 


4 S 


1 date 


8 3 




cooling 

coopers 

cord 


2 2 


1 daughter 


2 3 


dresses 




1 1 


dawn 


2 3 


L drew 




1 3 


L days 


2 a 


K dried 




cords 


2 1 


daytime 


1 3 


L drifting 




core 


1 3 


L deafness 


1 3 


L drifts 




corners 


2 3 


L deal 


4 J 


1 drills 




corn-popper 


1 3 


L dearly 


1 3 


drinking 




cost 


1 3 


death 


1 3 


dripping 




cottage 


2 3 


December 


8 3 


driven 




eottongin 


1 1 


decided 


1 3 


driving 




eonple 


1 1 


deeds 


8 J 


1 driveway 




cousin 


4 1 


deeper 


2 3 


dropping 




counting 


1 1 


L deer 


8 3 


droop 




countries 


1 3 


L delight 


1 3 


drooped 




country's 


8 3 


L dells 


2 3 


droopeth 




country-side 


2 5 


1 desert 


1 3 


drooping 


2 1 


courage 


• 1 3 


L depths 


1 3 


drown 


2 1 


covering 


1 3 


desk 


4 3 


drummer 


2 1 


cosy 


1 3 


dew 


8 1 


\ drums 


8 2 


cracked 


1 3 


L dews 


1 3 


dug 


8 1 


crackled 


1 3 


Dick 


2 3 


L Dukes 


1 1 


cramp 


1 3 


L dickory 


8 3 


L dull 


4 2 


crane 


2 3 


die 


8 2 


1 dumb 


4 1 


crane's 


1 3 


L digging 


1 3 


L during 


1 1 


crash 


1 3 


L digs 


8 3 


L dustpan 


8 1 


crate 


1 3 


I died 


1 3 


dusty 


2 2 


crates 


2 3 


dimple 


8 3 


Dunstan 


1 1 


crawl 


8 5 


1 dimpled 


1 3 


L Dutch 


1 1 


crawled 


2 ] 


L dining 


8 3 


L dwell 


8 2 


crawling 


1 1 


L dine 


1 3 


L dying 


1 1 


creak 


8 3 


I ding-dong 


2 3 


L eager 


1 1 


creaked 


8 3 


L din 


1 3 


eagerly 


1 1 


creaks 


4 3 


L dip 


1 3 


early 


4 1 


crimson 


8 3 


L dirty 


1 3 


earned 


1 1 


cripple 


2 1 


L disappear 


1 3 


L earnestly 


1 1 


crisp 


2 3 


L dish 


i : 


L ease 


2 1 


croak 


1 1 


L dishes 


1 2 


L easily 


8 2 


croaks 


8 2 


1 displayed 


1 3 


L Easter 


2 1 


crock 


2 3 


L distance 


1 1 


L easy 


8 2 


crossed 


1 3 


L dire 


2 1 


L eastern 


1 1 


crossing 


1 3 


L dived 


1 J 


L eaters 


1 1 


crow 


2 2 


1 divide 


1 3 


L echoed 


1 1 


crowed 


1 3 


L disry 


1 1 


L Eden 


2 2 


crowded 


1 1 


l dock 


8 : 


L edge 


1 1 


crowned 


2 1 


l dotr's 


4 ] 


L either 


1 1 


crowns 


2 1 


L dollars 


8 ] 


L eighteen 


1 1 


crumbs 


4 J 


L dollie 


1 ] 


L eighty 


1 1 


Crusoe 


1 1 


L doll's 


4 


1 elephant 


1 1 


crushed 


i : 


L dolly's 
L donkey's 


2 2 


1 elephants 


1 1 


crutch 


8 1 


i : 


L elbows 


1 1 


cuff 


l i 


L doors 


4 1 


! Elsie's 


8 1 


cuffed 


l i 


L doorway 


1 1 


I emblem 


1 1 


canning 


2 : 


L doth 


2 : 


L Ellen 


4 1 


cups 


8 2 


1 doubt 


8 


I Emma 


8 1 


currant 


1 3 


L dough 


i : 


L ended 


2 2 


current 


i : 


L downstairs 


l : 


L engage 


1 1 


curled 


l ] 


L downy 


2 : 


L engines 


2 1 


curtains 


2 ] 


I Dr. 


4 : 


L engineer 
L ends 


4 1 


curtsy 
daffodils 


1 ] 


L drag 


l i 


1 1 


1 ] 


L dragged 


l : 


L enjoy 


2 1 


dainty 


8 2 


1 dragging 
L drank 


l i 


L Eva 


8 1 


dame 


2 ] 


4 1 


1 evenings 


2 2 


damp 


1 ] 


L drawing 


i : 


L ever-green 


2 2 


danced 


8 ] 


L draws 


8 : 


L everyone 


1 1 


dancing 


2 2 


1 dreadful 


l ] 


L everybody 


2 2 


dandelions 


8 1 


1 dreadfully 


l i 


L evU 


1 X 



13S 



t HE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Readers 

Eskimo 

Eskimos 

expected 

eyed 

eggshell 

fabuloUS 

fail 

faint 

fairest 

families 

family 

fans 

fare 

farthest 

fashion 

fastens 

fastest 

fathers 

fatter 

fault 

fearless 

feat 

feared 

feather 

February 

feeding 

feeds 

feelings 

ferry-boat 

fetch 

fetched 

fever 

fierce 

fife 

fifth 

filling 

fills 

finds 

finger 

fingers 

finished 

fins 

finding 

finer 

fires 

firefly 

fireside 

fished 

fishes 2 

fisherman 2 

fishing 2 

fit 2 

flu 1 

flags 2 

flakes 2 

flap 

flash 

fiats 

fleece 

flesh 

flip-flap 

flit 

flits 

floating 

flock 

floated 

flog 

floss 

flower-bud 

flow*rs 

flowing 4 2 

flows X 1 



Word 

flown 

fluffy 

flutter 

fodder 

fold 

folding 

follow 

followed 

following 

follows 

folks 

foolish 

foot-stool 

fonder 

forehead 

forests 

forget 

forgets 

forks 

forms 

forts 

fought 

fours 

forward 

fowl 

fowls 

fox's 

foxes 

fragrant 

frail 

Frank's 

frame 

Freddie 

Freddie's 

free 

freedom 

frees* 

French 

freshness 

Friday 

friendly 

frighten 

fright 

frightened 

frill 

frills 

frisked 

frisky 

fritters 

fro 

frosting 

froth 

frowned 

frowns 

froxen 

furry 

gabbling 

gaily 

gales 

game 

games 

gate 

gates 

gathered 

gathers 

gathering 

gaudy 

general 

generous 

gently 

George's 

getting 



Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 



2 
8 
2 
2 
2 



2 

8 



giant 

giants 

giant's 

giddy 

gifts 

giggled 

gill 

filded 

gin 

giraffe 

girl's 

glee 

glistening 

glorious 

glory 

glow 

gnawed 

gobble 

God 

gone 

good-by 

good-looking 

goosey 

gooseberry 

gorgeous 

gown 

gnats 

grand-ma's 

grand-father 



8 
2 

2 



grassy 

grate 

grateful 

grary 

greatest 

green's 

greenhouse 

griddle 

groceries 

grinds 

growl 

growled 

grunt 

grudged 

guide 

guns 

hairs 

hall 

ham 

hams 

hammers 

handful 

handed 

handled 

hang 

hanging 

hangs 

hall 

halls 

Hal's 

happen 

happened 

happiness 

happily 

harder 

hardly 

harness 

hash 

hath 

hatched 

haul 

hay-field 



VOCABULARIES OF TEN FIRST BEADEB8 



139 



Word 

heal* 

healthy 

heap* 

hearing 

heart* 

heel* 

Helen's 

heigh 

hello 

he'll 

helper 

helpers 

Henry 



Frequency Readers 



her** 

he's 

hey 

hiding 

higher 

highest 

hillside 

hiUsides 

hire 

bit 

hire* 

holding 

holdeth 

hollow 

homely 

homelike 

homeless 

homemade 

honey-bee 

honey-bees 

hong 

honk 

Hood's 

hook 

hoop 

hoops 

hopping 

Homers 

horrid 

horse-ear 

horse-shoe 

hospital 

hotter 

honrs 

house-keeper 

howl 

howled 

however 

hoy 

Hubbard 

hnmble 

hum-in 

humming-bird 

hunter 

hunts 

hunt-the-slipper 

hush 

hut 

hymns 

Iekory 

improved 

immense 

indigo 

Indoors 

insect 

inside 

intend 

instead 



2 
8 
8 
8 
2 
2 
8 
8 
8 



2 
2 

2 
2 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency R es dcii 

invite 1 1 lamp 

Irish 1 1 lamps 

island 1 1 landlord 

itself 8 2 landa 

I've 4 % lane 

Jack-daw 1 1 lantern 

Ja 4 1 lanterns 

jam 2 1 language 

James 1 1 lapped 

Jamie's 8 1 larger 

January 1 1 latch 

ar 8 1 later 

arred 1 1 laughing 

are 4 1 lasy 

ay 11 leader 

Jean's 1 1 leading 

ally 2 1 Lee's 

ennle 1 1 leafy 

Jenny's 1 1 leafless 

Jessie 4 1 lesk 

Jessie's 1 1 leaking 

ig 11 leaked 

immte 4 1 lean 

Jimmy 1 1 leap 

Jippy 1 1 leaps 

Joe 2 1 learning 

John 1 1 learns 

okes 1 1 lease 

oily 8 2 leased 

oke 2 1 leaving 

leaped 

leg's 

lend 

length 

lesson 

lessons 



s 



5 



nice 

nicy 

umping 

ewels 

ewelry 
Jewish 
kangaroos 
Katy 
keeping 
kennel 
kernel 
kettle 
key 
ki-l 

kicked 
kilt 
kindly 
kill* 
kiUing 
kisses 
kites 
kitten's 
Knapp 
knee 
knits 
knitting 
knives 
knelt 
knock 
knoeked 
knocking 
knowledge 
known 
labor 
ladder 
lady 

lady-bug 
lady's 
lain 

lambskin 
lame 



liberty 

lick 

licked 

licking 

lid 

lifts 

lightened 

lighthouse 

limping 

line 

Line's 

lingered 

lions 

lion's 

lip 

lisps 

listened 

listening 

list 

listing 

litter 

litters 

lit 

living 

lively 

liveliest 

loaded 

loaves 

lobster 

logs 

loosened 

lot 

loved 

lovely 

loving 



2 
1 



140 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Headers 


Word Frequency Headers Word Frequency B 


•esdt 


loreth 


t 1 


mocks 


2 


1 Nichols 


1 




lower 


2 2 


mocking 


1 


L nleer 


1 




loz 


4 1 


modest 


1 


L nicest 


1 




lullabies 


1 1 


mold 


8 


L night-cap 


8 




lullaby 


2 1 


Molly 


8 


1 ninety 


1 




lumber 


8 1 


Molly's 


1 


1 night-gown 


1 




lunch 


4 2 


moment 


1 


1 ninth 


1 




lungs 


8 1 


money 


1 


L nips 
L nobody 


2 




lying 


8 1 


moo 


2 


1 




Mabel 


8 1 


month 


1 


L nod 


2 




Mack 


4 1 


months 


2 


L nodded 


8 




Mack's 


2 1 


monster 


1 


L nodding 


2 




main 


2 1 


moonlight 


2 


1 nods 


1 




managed 


1 1 


Moore 


8 


L nook 


1 




man's 


2 1 


Moore's 


2 


L nor 


1 




mamma's 


8 2 


mop 


2 


L noses 


8 




manners 


1 1 


morn 


8 


3 noses's 


2 




marble 


1 1 


morning-glories 


2 


L note 


1 




marbles 


4 2 


mornings 


8 


i notion 


1 




marched 


1 1 


moss 


8 1 


I November 


4 




marching 


1 1 


mosquito 


2 


L numb 


1 




Mark's 


8 1 


mosquitos 


8 


L numbness 


1 




marrow 


1 1 


mosses 


1 


L nursery 


1 




married 


8 1 


mound 


1 


L nut 


8 




Mary's 


1 1 


mourned 


2 \ 


I nutting 


1 




mask 


4 1 


mouse 


i : 


L oaks 


2 




mast 


1 1 


mountain 


l : 


L oatmeal 


1 




mats 


4 2 


more 


4 : 


L obey 


4 




Mayflower 


1 1 


moved 


l : 


L object 


1 




May's 


2 2 


mowing 


2 \ 


L ocean 


1 




meal 


4 1 


mows 


8 : 


L odd 


8 




meals 


2 2 


muffin 


l : 


L oddly 


2 




meaning 


1 1 


munching 


l i 


L offer 


2 




meant 


4 2 


musio 


2 : 


L oft 


2 




mechanic 


8 1 


musk 


l 1 


L oho 


2 




medal 


8 1 


mustn't 


l : 


L omit 


1 




meeting 


1 1 


muscles 


l ] 


L omelet 


1 




meets 


2 2 


mutton 


2 : 


L oe-oo 


8 




melt 


8 1 


nail 


2 1 


\ Oh 


1 




melted 


8 2 


nailed 


8 3 


L o-oh 


1 




melting 


2 1 


named 


8 J 


1 opens 


4 




mending 


2 1 


namesnks 


2 3 


L orchards 


8 




mends 


1 1 


Nanny 


i : 


L ore 


1 




merrily 


1 1 


Nan's 


2 3 


L organ 


8 




merry-go-round 

mewing 

middle 


4 1 


nap 


8 1 


L orphans 


2 




1 1 
4 2 


napkin 
narrow 


2 3 

4 3 


. ostrich 

L ounce 


1 
1 




mighty 
mile 
miles 
mild 

9m * 


2 2 


Nat's 


1 3 


L outer 


1 




8 1 


native 


2 3 


1 out-of-doors 


1 




4 2 


nearer 


1 1 


outdoors 


1 




2 2 


nearest 


1 J 


overboard 


1 




milk- can 


1 1 


neatest 


1 3 


owls 


4 




milk-man 


1 1 


neatly 


8 3 


owned 


1 




milks 

milkweed 

milkpail 

Milton 

miner 

miners 

mischief 

mischievous 

missed 

misses 

mis-firings 

mistaken 

Mister 


2 1 
1 1 
1 1 


necks 
Ned's 
needed 


2 1 
1 3 
1 1 


owners 
owning 
owns 


1 
1 
1 




2 1 


needlecasa 


1 1 


overflowed 


1 




8 1 
2 1 
8 1 

1 1 

2 2 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 

1 1 

2 1 
2 1 
2 1 
8 1 
8 2 
2 1 


needs 

negro 

n egress 

neither 

Nell's 

Nelly 

Nero 

nestle 


8 2 
1 1 

1 ] 
1 3 
1 ] 
1 ] 
4 3 
1 ] 


i pace 
pack 
package 
pad 
I PMCe 
L pages 
pain 
painted 


2 
2 
1 
1 
8 
1 
4 
2 




mistress 

mirrors 

mite 

Minnie 

mittens 

moans 


net 

new-mown 

news 

nibbles 

nibbling 

Nick's 

nickle 


8 3 

1 ] 

2 1 

1 1 

2 1 
1 ] 
1 3 


painter 
palace 

1 pale 
pair 
pairs 

L parrot 
psss 


1 
8 
2 

2 
1 
1 
2 


2 



VOCABULARIES OF TEN FIS8T BEADEB8 



141 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequency Readers 



passing 

past 

pata-cake 

patch 

patted 

pattering 

path 

Paul's 

pauper 

paveless 

Payne 

Payne's 

peace 

peaceful 

pecked 

peel 

pains 

papa's 

park 

parlor 

part 

parts 

pan 

peeping 

peeps 

peevish 

pelt 

perhaps 

petals 

? sited 
eter 
pick-ax 
pick-axes 
picking 
-pickles 
picks 
pieces 
pigeon 
pile 
piled 
pillow 
pills 
piled-np 
pilgrims 
pimple 
pin 
pine 
pinks 
pins 
pippins 
pitcher 

Pity , 

placed 

places 

plainly 

plan 

piano 

planes 

plank 

planning 

plans 

planted 

planting 

playful 

playplaos 

plaything 

playthings 

pleasantost 

pleases 

plenty 



2 


1 


plucked 


1 




2 


1 


poke 


1 




1 


1 


poker 


2 




1 


1 


pokers 


1 




4 


2 


pockets 


2 




2 


2 


pod 


2 




2 


2 


pods 


8 




1 




polite 


1 




1 




pollen 


4 




2 




poll 


1 




2 




pondered 


1 




1 




ponies 


1 




2 




popped 


8 




1 




popper 


1 




2 




pops 


2 




2 




poppies 


1 




2 




poppy 


8 




2 




pork 


8 




1 




post 


1 




4 




post-master 


8 




4 




potter 


2 




2 




potatoes 


1 




8 




pour 


4 


2 


2 




pound 


2 


2 


4 




pout 


2 


2 


8 




pots 


2 




1 




powder 


8 




1 




power 


1 




1 




powerful 


1 




8 




praise 


1 




1 




praised 


8 




1 




prank 


1 




4 




pranks 


1 




1 




Pratt 


2 




1 




pray 


8 




4 




prayeth 


1 




1 




preach 


2 




1 




present 


8 




1 




presses 


1 




1 




prettiest 


1 




8 




price 


8 




2 




prick 


4 




2 




pricked 


1 




8 




pride 

priest 

primmer 

problem 

prowling 

provoked 


1 
8 
2 

1 
1 








1 








puddles 


1 








pulling 


1 








pulls 


2 








pump 


2 








pup 


2 






2 


puppy 


8 






2 


puppy's 


1 






31 


pure 


1 






2 


purr 

purse 

pushed 

pushes 

putting 

quack 

queen 

quietly 

quill 

quite 


1 
8 

4 
1 
1 
4 
1 
4 
4 
8 




8 




racers 


1 




8 




races 


2 




8 


2 


racing 


2 




2 


2 


rack 


1 




t 


1 


rails 


1 





Word 

railing 

rail 

rainbow 

raindrop 

raindrops 

raining 

rainy 

rains 

raises 

rake 

raked 

rakes 

rank 

ranks 

rapped 

raps 

rare 

rather 

rats 

raw 

Ray 

rays 

reader 

reading 

reads 

real 

really 

reaped 

rear 

reared 

reason 

reckon 

redden 

red-hot 

reins 

relish 

remedy 

remained 

removed 

rend 

replied 

resting 

rested 

rests 

refresh 

rice-bird 

rich 

riding "/ 

Rid i ng hood 

Ri din* hood's 

riddle 

riddles 

rills 

rim 

ringing 

rings 

ring-tag 

rinsed 

ripen 

ripening 

rise 

rivers 

river's 

roars 

roared 

roaring 

roadside 

roast 

roasted 

Robert's 

Rob's 



Frequency Readers 



2 
8 

2 
2 
2 



2 
2 
2 



142 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Readers 


Word Frequency Readers 


robe 


1 1 


Scotch 


2 1 


robin's 


4 2 


Scotchman 


8 1 


rocked 


4 2 


Scotland 


8 1 


rocker 


2 1 


Scotland's 


1 1 


rocking 


8 2 


Scott 


2 1 


rockmghorses 


1 1 


scour 




Robinson 


1 1 


scoured 




rode 


4 • 1 


scout 




rogue 
rolling 


1 1 

2 2 


scouts 
scraps 




romp 


8 1 


scratched 




romping 


1 1 


scream 




rompe 
rooting 


2 1 


screeched 




1 1 


seabird 




ropes 


2 1 


seahorse 




rosy 


2 1 


seals 




roughly 


1 1 


search 




rounded 


2 1 


searching 




Rover 


8 8 


sea-song 




rowboat 


1 1 


seashore 




rowed 


8 2 


seashells 




rowing 


1 1 


seated 




Roy's 


2 1 


seats 




rubies 


1 1 


sea-worms 




rubbed 


1 1 


seedling 




rubber 


2 1 


seeing 




rude 


1 1 


see-ssw 




rudely 


1 1 


selling 




rush 


2 2 


sends 




rushes 


1 1 


sense 




rushing 


4 2 


September 




Russel 


1 1 


servant 




rustling 


8 1 


setter 




Ruth's 


1 1 


settle 




rhyme 


1 1 


several 




seek 


1 1 


sewing 




sscks 


8 1 


8 ha f to 




safest 


1 1 


Shafto's 




sago 

sailboat 


1 1 


shakes 




1 1 


shaking 




sailboats 


1 1 


shades 




sailed 


1 1 


shallow 




salad 


1 1 


shsm 




Sally's 


1 1 


shams 




salt 


8 1 


shape 




salute 


1 1 


shaped 




saint 


1 1 

0h 4fc 


shapes 




same 


8 2 


sheer 




Sanders 


2 1 


shears 




Sammy's 


1 1 


sheds 




sank 


1 1 


shelter 




sash 


1 1 


she'll 




satins 


1 1 


sheep's 




sauos 


1 1 


sheets 




ssto 


1 1 


shepherd 




saws 


1 1 


shepherds 




sayings 


1 1 


shin 




scale 


1 1 


shined 




scamp 


1 1 


ships 




scamper 


1 1 


shivering 




scampered 


1 1 


shock 




scampering 


1 1 


shod 




scared 


2 2 


shoots 




scat 


8 1 


shorn 




scatter 


2 2 


shoulder 




scattered 


1 1 


shoulders 




scatters 


1 1 


shout 




scent 


2 1 


shouted 




scepter 
scolded 


2 1 


shouts 




1 1 


show-case 




scolds 


1 1 


phowors 


4 8 


score 


1 1 


showery 


1 1 



Word Frequency 

showman 

shows 

shouldn't 

shrill 

shunted 

shuts 

sicken 

sickness 

sides 

side- walk 

sift 

sifter 

sigh 

sighed 

sighs 

silky 

sill 

silly 

simmering 

Sim 

8immons 

simple 

since 

sink 

sinking 

•ip 

sisters 

sister's 

sixty 

skating 

skies 

skim 

skimmed 

skimmer 

skin 

skip 

skipping 

slap 

slaps 

slats 

•1*T 
soak 

soaked 

sob 

sod 

soldiers 

solid 

somebody's 

someone 

somewhere 

sore 

sorrowful 

sold 

sole 

soundly 

sour 

sowed 

sowing 

spsce 

Spain 

Spanish 

spark 

sparks 

speaking 

speaks 

spear 

spears 

sped 

speed 

spend 

spends 

spent 



Read 

1 
8 

2 



VOCABULARIES OF TEN FIBST SSADSSB 



143 



Word Frequency Readers 



■pica 


t a 


spiders 


2 1 


spied 


1 1 


spike 


1 1 


spilled 


4 2 


spills 


1 1 


spines 


4 1 


spinning 


2 1 


spirits 


1 1 


spit 


2 1 


splash 


1 1 


spoons 


4 1 


sport 


8 1 


spots 


8 1 


spout 


8 2 


spread 


2 1 


springs 


2 2 


springtime 


1 1 


springtimes 


1 1 


spruce 


2 1 


•P7 


4 2 


squaw 


8 1 


stable 


1 1 


staid 


1 1 


stalks 


1 1 


stall 


8 2 


stalls 


1 1 


stamped 
standing 


1 1 
8 8 


suit 


2 1 


started 


1 1 


state 


4 2 


states 


2 1 


station 


8 1 


staying 


1 1 


stays 


8 8 


steady 


1 1 


steal 


2 1 


steamers 


2 1 


steamships 


1 1 


steed 


1 1 


steel 


2 1 


steep 


2 1 


steeple 


1 1 


stepped 


1 1 


steps 


1 1 


sticking 


1 1 


stiff 


8 1 


stingy 


1 1 


sting 
stitching 


4 2 
1 1 


stock 


2 1 


stones 


8 8 


stoop 


1 1 


stopping 


8 2 


stops 


8 8 


stored 


1 1 


storekeeper 


8 1 


storm 


1 1 


strangest 


1 1 


stray 


1 1 


streams 


1 1 


stretched 


1 1 


strike 


1 1 


strings 


4 2 


stripe 


1 1 


stroU 


1 1 


stump 




•tang 




suddenly 


1 1 


suffer 


1 1 


suffered 


1 1 



Word Frequency Readers 


Word Frequency Readers 


sulkily 


1 


l 


though 


2 2 


sum 


1 


l 


thouaand 


1 1 


sun -beams 


8 


a 


thumbs 


2 1 


Sunday 


1 


l 


three-legged 


1 1 


sung 


2 


l 


throat 


1 1 


sunlight 


4 


a 


throwing 


2 1 


sunning 


1 


l 


thrushes 


1 1 


sunny 


4 


2 


thrust 


1 1 


surely 


2 


2 


thunder 


1 1 


surprise 


8 


2 


thundered 


1 1 


swam 


2 


2 


thus 


8 t 


swarm 


1 




thumped 


1 1 


swsy 


1 




thy 


8 a 


swaying 


1 




thyme 


1 1 


sweet 


4 




ticked 


1 1 


sweeter 


2 




tickets 


1 1 


sweetly 


2 


2 


ticks 


8 a 


swell 


2 


2 


tide 


a l 


swept 
swift 


8 


2 


tied 


i i 






ttrhtly 


l l 


swiftly 






tilt 


l l 


swims 






Tim 


2 1 


swords 






timid 


2 1 


Kbby 






tinkling 
ting 


1 1 

2 a 


table-cloth 






ting-ling-a-ling 


1 1 


tables 






tins 


8 1 


tacks 






tipped 


1 1 


tadpole 






tiptoed 


1 1 


tag 






tire 


2 1 


tailor 






tires 


1 1 


tailors 






'tis 


8 1 


taken 






toad 


2 1 


tale 






toe 


1 1 


tales 






toiled 


1 1 


talked 






toilers 


2 1 


tn'ks 






toiling 


1 1 


taller 






Tommy 


2 1 


tallow 






Tom's 


4 8 


tsrae 






tones 


1 1 


tanrle 






tool 


1 1 


tapping 






tore 


2 1 


task 






toss 


8 1 


tame 






toward 


4 a 


tattered 


8 




towel 


1 1 


tastes 


2 




toy 


1 1 


<n too 


2 




toys 


4 2 


taught 


8 




track 


8 a 


teaching 


2 




trail 


2 1 


teapot 


1 




trails 


1 1 


tears 


1 




trsy 


1 1 


t*n»e 


8 




treat 


2 1 


Teds 


1 




treats 


1 1 


telling 


4 




treasure 


2 1 


tend 


2 




tree-tops 
tricked 


2 a 


tended 


1 




l l 


tender 


2 




tricks 


4 1 


tends 


2 




tries 


4 1 


tent 


1 




trill 


2 1 


tents 


1 




trills 


1 1 


thank 


1 




trimmed 


1 1 


thanks 


2 




trims 


1 1 


thaw 


8 




trip 


8 1 


thaws 


1 




tripping 
tropical 


1 1 


theater 


1 




2 1 


their's 


1 




trotted 


2 1 


they'll 


1 




trots 


8 a 


they're 


1 




trousers 


1 1 


thimble 


a 




tug 


2 1 


thinty 


8 




tumbled 


1 1 


thirteen 


a 




tumblers 


1 1 


thistles 


t 




tumbling 


1 1 



144 



TEE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



Word Frequency Readers Word Frequ 


tency E 


teadc 


Turkey 


1 1 walla 


4 


8 


turning 


8 8 walnut 


8 


2 


turnip 


2 1 


wander 


1 




twelve 


1 1 


wanders 


2 




twig 


8 1 


\ warmed 


8 




twill 


1 1 


warmer 


2 




twilling 


1 1 


warms 


8 




twin 


1 1 


L warmth 


1 




twine 


1 1 


L warp 
L washes 


1 




twin* 


2 1 


1 




twists 


1 3 


I waste 


1 




'twould 


1 1 


L watches 


2 




ugly 
umbrella 


1 3 


L watching 


8 




2 1 


L water-cresses 


1 




uncles 


1 1 


L watered 


2 




underneath 


1 1 


L waters 


4 




understand 


1 1 


L water-melon 


1 




unfairly 


1 1 


L watermill 


1 




un kindness 


1 ] 


[ water-pail 


1 




upper 


2 2 


\ waved 


1 




upset 


2 1 


L waving 


1 




upsetting 


i 3 


L wax 


2 




upsiairs 


4 3 


1 ways 


2 




upside 


1 ] 


L weak 


2 




upward 


1 3 


. weary 


2 




urchin 


2 3 


I weave 


2 




urchins 


2 1 


L web-feet 






unto 


1 1 


L webs 






useful 


1 1 


L we'd 






uses 


1 ] 


i. weed 






utensils 


1 ] 


L weeds 






▼ain 


1 1 


L wee-haw 


2 




▼alley 


1 ] 


L week 


8 




▼an 


2 ] 


L weeks 


8 




▼ase 


2 1 


. welcome 


2 




vegetables 
veins 


8 1 


L welcomed 


1 




2 ] 


L wells 


1 




velvet 


1 3 


L wend 


1 




▼est 


8 ] 


L wept 
L we're 


4 




▼iewed 


1 ] 


1 




▼ines 


1 1 


L wetter 


2 




▼isited 


1 ] 


L wetting 


1 




visit* 


2 2 


1 wets 


2 




▼easel 


1 3 


L whatever 


1 




vessels 


i : 


L whats 


8 




wade 


l : 


L wheel 


1 




waded 


8 2 


1 wheelbarrow 


2 




wages 


2 : 


L wheels 


2 




wagging 


i ] 


L whenever 


2 




wagons 


l ] 


L wherever 


1 




waist 


l ] 


L where's 


1 




waited 


8 I 


\ whichever 


8 




waiter 


4 ] 


L whined 


1 




waits 


2 : 


L whipped 


1 




waked 


i ; 


L whisper 


1 




wakened 


2 \ 


1 whispered 


1 




wakea 


2 


L whistled 


1 




walka 


4 1 


1 







Word Frequency Readers 



whittled 


1 1 


whiteness 


2 1 


whose 


1 1 


wick 


1 1 


wife 


8 2 


wigwam 
wildly 


8 1 
1 1 


wildwood 


1 1 


willing 


4 8 


willingly 


1 1 


willow 


1 1 


Wtlle 


1 1 


willy 


1 1 


windmill 


8 1 


window-pane 


1 1 


windy 


2 2 


Winkie 


4 1 


Winnie's 


2 1 


winters 


2 2 


wipe 


8 1 


wisest 


1 1 


witch 


2 1 


withdrew 


1 1 


wither 


1 1 


withered 


1 1 


within 


1 1 


woke 


8 1 


won 


2 1 


wonderful 


8 2 


wooden 


4 2 


woodland 


1 1 


woodman's 


1 1 


woodmen 


8 1 


woodmice 


8 1 


words 


4 8 


worker 


8 1 


working 


4 8 


works 


4 4 


worm 


8 1 


worms 


2 1 


worn 


1 1 


wreath 


8 2 


wound 


2 1 


wreea 


1 1 


wrecks 


1 1 


wren 


1 1 


wren's 


1 1 


wrestled 


1 1 


wrists 


1 1 


writing 


1 1 


written 


2 1 


wrong 


1 1 


yarn 


8 1 


you'll 


2 2 


yours 


t 2 


you've 


2 2 


seal 


1 1 



CHAPTER X 

THE CONTENTS OF READERS 



Daniel Starch 
Harvard University 



THE PROBLEM 



The problem of this investigation was to determine, first, to what 
extent current textbooks in reading agreed or differed (a) with 
regard to the nature of the material included and (b) with regard 
to specific pieces or selections; and second, to what extent there 
are changes or differences in the nature of the material from the 
first grade to the eighth grade. This problem is important in con- 
nection with the larger problem of determining what the content 
of readers should be. A considerable amount of work has been 
done on similar problems in other fields, notably in spelling and 
arithmetic. Little has been done in the field of reading. The prob- 
lem also has an important bearing on the choice of readers for 
schools. 

MATERIALS AND METHOD 

The present investigation 1 was carried out by making an analysis 
of the contents of ten textbooks used in each of the eight grades. 

In the following list of readers analyzed, the numbers in paren- 
theses are the dates of publication, and the numbers following the 
parentheses are the grades of which the texts were analyzed : 

Aldine (1916), 1,2, 3. 
American Literary, 8 
Baldwin and Bender (1911), 1 to 8. 
Blodgett (1910), 2 to 7. 

*This work was carried out with the co-operation of Miss Elizabeth A. 
Garrity, Miss Eatherine T. Larkin, Mr. H. A. Boyle, Miss Margarita E. Burns, 
Miss Helen L. Button, Miss Anne Green, and Miss Faith D. Thayer, members 
of the writer's course in the Psychology of School Subjects in the summer 
session of Harvard University, 1920. 

145 



148 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Brooks (1906), 3 to 8. 

Carroll and Brooks (1911), 2 to 8. 

Child Life (1900), 1, 3. 

Cyr (1904), 2. 

Edson-Laing (1913), 1, 2. 

Elson (1909, 1913), 1 to 8. 

Golden Rule (1912), 4 to 8. 

Golden Treasury (1909, 1912), 1, 2. 

Graded Literature (1900), 3 to 8. 

Halburton (1912), 8. 

Heath (1903), 3, 6. 

Holton-Curry (1912), Primer and First Reader. 

Horace Mann (1915), 4, 5. 

Jones (1904), 2 to 8. 

Progressive Road (1913), 3. 

Riverside (1911), 7, 8. 

Standard Classics, 1. 

Stepping Stones (1897), 4 to 8. 

Wide Awake (1908), 2, 3. 

These textbooks are not necessarily the most widely used nor 
the best books. They were chosen because they were available for 
the investigation and are probably fairly representative of current 
and recent books. 

The analysis was made by classifying all of the material in each 
book into seventeen classes as indicated in the table. At the same 
time, the number of pages devoted to each class of material and 
the percentage of these pages to the total number of pages in each 
book was calculated. 

The classification of the content material here adopted is very 
similar to that used by Woody' in his study of second-grade readers. 
The chief difference consists in combining all material relating to 
animals, such as pets, fowls, birds, and insects, into one class and in 
adding some additional topics, such as classics, adventure, geography 
and travel, which are either absent or very insignificant in second- 
grade books but which occupy considerable space in upper-grade 
books. 



•Woody, C. "The Overlapping in the Content of Fifteen Second Head- 
ers. Journal of Educational Research, II, 1920, 465-474. 



CONTENTS OF BEADEBS 



147 



RESULTS 

Table 1 gives a summary of the results of the classification of 
the material. The content of each reader was analyzed and the 
percentage of the number of pages devoted to each type of material 
was computed. The numbers in the table are average percentages 
of the ten readers used in each grade. Thus the table states that 
the ten first-grade readers devote 28.8 percent of their pages to 
" animals," 16.8 percent to "boys and girls," 15.4 percent to 
4 'folklore," etc. 

TABLE 1 



Average Percentage of Each Class of Material nr 

of Each Grade 


THE 


T«c READlBJ 


1 




Grade 


Class of Content 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 




28.8 

10.8 

15.4 

3.4 

5.8 
2.4 
1.9 
1.9 

07 
0.6 
0.3 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
15.4 
6.7 


21.5 

18.5 

13.3 

5.4 

4.1 

1.2 

13.8 

0.1 

0.5 
0.1 
1.0 
0.0 

0.2 
2.1 
0.0 
17.4 
0.8 


10.0 

13.1 

2.1 

8.4 

7.1 

4.7 

15.4 

2.7 

2.2 

4.6 

10.1 

0.8 

1.2 
1.1 
1.2 
13.4 
2.2 


9.2 

10.5 

1.7 

2.7 

0.5 

1.8 

12.4 

0.3 

10.7 
1.9 
7.0 
5.7 

7.2 
4.5 
2.1 
15.5 
0.0 


7.9 
9.6 
4.1 
0.4 

0.4 
0.4 
4.1 
0.7 

15.8 
8.0 

12.4 
1.2 

0.5 
2.5 
9.4 
21.8 
6.4 


3.6 
5.8 
0.1 
0.1 

1.7 
1.0 
1.8 
1.6 

24.4 
4.7 

17.4 
0.1 

4.1 
2.7 
1.2 
20.5 
2.5 


1.8 
1.4 
0.7 
1.4 

0.0 
6.2 
8.5 
2.0 

8.2 

5.8 

20.4 

1.2 

0.4 

5.2 

11.7 

25.8 

9.2 


2.5 




0.0 




1.2 


Fables 


0.0 




0.2 




1.4 





0.0 




84.1 




8 8 




9 8 




0.5 




2.0 




9.4 




1.5 




28.4 




4.4 



It is evident that the contents of the lower-grade readers are very 
different from that of the upper-grade books. Aside from poetry, 
the three leading classes in the first grade are "animals," "boys and 
girls," and "folklore." These three groups, together with poetry, 
constitute over three-fourths (76.4 percent) of all the material. On 
the other hand, the four chief classes in the eighth grade are 
"classics," "history and patriotism," "biography," and "poetry." 
These four groups constitute over four-fifths (81.7 percent) of all 
the material, aside from poetry. 

The three leading classes in the first grade gradually drop off 
from grade to grade to almost zero in the eighth grade. The lead- 
ing classes in the eighth grade begin with practically no space in 



148 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



the first grade and gradually increase to the maximum in the seventh 
and eighth grades. Poetry begins as a large item in the first grade 
and increases steadily up to the eighth grade to substantially double 
its space in the first grade. These points become clearer in the 
graphs of Fig. 1. 

Two classes of material, namely "fables" and "fairy tales," 
occupy a slightly larger place in the intermediate grades than in 



£0% -QCHfJ 




#0% 




z Aradzs 

t— mII * ™..A Ue, ?r, 0,, • in !"• *»•«"*» *» the Readers of Various Grades, of the Three 
la theliStTGrade, Fim Gr * d * * nd *** Pour Leadin * Olaasea of Ooatent 



CONTENTS OF BEADEBS 149 

either the lower or higher grades. "Adventure" has its largest 
share in grades five to seven. All the other classes occupy very 
small space in practically all grades. 

The reliability of these figures obviously depends to some extent 
upon the judgment of the persons analyzing the material. The 
lines of division between the various classes cannot be clearly drawn 
in every case. However, the fundamental facts are probably repre- 
sented fairly accurately. 

It is interesting to note, in the next place, the wide range of 
difference in the proportion of the various classes of material in the 
various readers for a given grade. The table for all readers in all 
grades here analyzed would be too long to reproduce. The table 
for the fourth grade, here reproduced as Table 2, is typical. 

TABLE 2 

PSBOHNTAOS OF EACH Ol*A88 OF MATERIAL XX EACH BOOK (FOUBTH GlAOl) 

h» 0« PQ OtJ 0000 OP* 

Animals 0.1 13.5 6.6 11.1 19.5 14.8 6.4 1.7 6.1 0.0 0.0 -19.5 

Boy* and Girls 30.8 22.0 6.8 1.4 15.2 0.0 15.5 11.2 1.4 0.0 0.0-80.8 

Folklore 2.2 8.6 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.0 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - 7.5 

Fables 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 4.5 0.0 0.0 14.2 0.0 -14.2 

Plants 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - 2.9 

Elements 7.1 1.6 4.2 0.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - 7.1 

Fairy Tales 7.4 7.1 13.9 8.1 14.2 0.0 18.6 27.8 19.9 14.1 0.0-27.8 

Plays and Games 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - 1.8 

Glassies 41.8 1.8 7.5 18.5 8.4 12.9 0.4 4.8 9.7 7.4 0.4 -41.8 

Geography and Travel... 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.1 5.7 1.8 1.5 6.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 - 6.2 

History and Patriotism.. 2.5 9.0 24.6 1.4 2.2 8.1 2.9 4.7 9.1 4.6 1.4 -24.6 

Myths 1.8 0.0 0.0 4.1 8.9 6.5 10.6 7.2 6.6 12.6 0.0-12.6 

Conduct 0.0 9.5 0.0 8.5 0.0 4.4 6.1 4.5 10.0 28.7 0.0 -28.7 

Biography 1.5 2.9 8.4 7.7 8.2 7.7 5.3 11.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 -11.0 

Adventure 00 0.0 8.8 8.3 0.0 9.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0- 9.7 

Poetry 8.0 22.6 17.5 15.5 8.5 12.7 18.7 16.5 26.9 18.8 0.0 -26.9 

Miscellaneous 0.0 8.6 5.5 15.9 9.4 8.5 5.1 4.5 7.1 5.0 0.0 -18.9 




The range in amount of material of a given category is very 
wide. In other words, there is little uniformity among the different 
readers in the amount of space devoted to a given subject. For 
example, "classics" varies from 0.4 percent in one text to 41.3 



160 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

percent in another; "fairy tales" range from zero to 27.8 percent, 
"history and patriotism' ' from 1.4 to 24.6 percent, etc. 

The next problem was to determine the amount of specific ma- 
terial common to the readers for a given grade. Here, again, the 
complete table for all eight grades would be too long to reproduce 
here. Table 3 shows the data for the sixth grade. 

TABLE 8 
8psoivxc Seubotions, Stobiib ob Poems Common to the Tin SixthGbads Rgsngia 

| „ „ « ! j 

Horatius at the Bridge x x x x x x 6 

Chambered Nautilus x x x x 4 

The Daffodils x x x x 4 

Rip Van Winkle x x x S 

Washington Irving x x x 3 

The Flag x x x 3 




To a Waterfowl. 



3 



Pied Piper of Hamelin x x x 3 

Mr. Winkle on Skates x x S 

Mia* Barker's Tea Party xx 2 

A Voyage to Lilliput x x 3 

Christmas at the Cratchots xx 2 

Little Daffydawndilly x x 2 

Ralph W. Emerson x x 2 

James R. Lowell x x 2 

Lexington x x 2 

Hail Columbia x x 2 

Arnold Winkleried x x 2 



Sir Galahad. 



2 



Rime of the Ancient Mariner x x 2 

Abou Ben Adhem x x 2 

Dying in Harness x x2 

Lochinvar x x 2 

For A* That and A* That x x 2 

xx 2 

x x 2 



The Humblebee. 
The Rhodria. 



This table is typical of the amount of overlapping of the various 
readers. One poem was found in six of the ten readers. Two 
selections were in four readers, five in three readers and eighteen in 
two readers. All the other selections appeared in one reader only. 

SUMMARY 

1. Pour classes of material — "animals," "boys and girls," 
"folklore," and "poetry" — constitute three-fourths of the content 
of lower-grade readers. 



^n_ 



C0NTSNT8 OF BEADEBS 151 

2. Likewise, four classes of material — "classics," "history and 
patriotism," "biography," and "poetry"— institute four-fifths 
of the content of upper-grade readers. 

3. The differences in relative proportions of the various classes 
of material in the readers for a given grade are very great. There 
is no approximation to an accepted amount of material of a given 
class which authors agree should be in a book. For example, the 
division of "boys and girls," which constitutes one of the chief 
items in the fourth grade, varies from no space in one reader to 
over thirty percent of the space in another. If material of cer- 
tain types is more interesting or appropriate or valuable than ma- 
terial of other types, then there ought to be greater uniformity in 
the proportions of the different classes of content. 

4. The amount of specific content, such as selections, stories, 
poems, etc., common to three or more of ten books for a given grade 
is very smalL 



SECTION 2 

EXERCISES FOR DEVELOPING ABILITY IN 

SILENT READING 

It is the object in this section of the Yearbook on Silent Reading 
to present a few only of the many interesting practical exercises 
that have been actually employed in the classroom to develop skill 
in reading. 

The contribution from Miss Heller and Mr. Courtis recounts 
efforts made at Detroit to train primary-grade pupils and embodies 
also suggestions for a simple scale of reading ability. 

The contributions from Denver, Cedar Rapids, Racine, and 
Iowa City, being less elaborate, have been assembled in one group. 

Readers who find the material of Section 2 of interest will get 
further suggestions from the first report of the Society's Committee 
on New Materials of Instruction, which was published as the Nine- 
teenth Yearbook, Part J. Chapters I and II are particularly 
pertinent. 



±82 



EXERCISES DEVELOPED AT DETROIT FOR MAKING 

READING FUNCTION 



Regixia R. Heller and S. A. Coubtis 
Detroit Public Schools 



THE PURPOSES OP PRIMARY READING 

Reading is carried on primarily for the purpose of controlling 
behavior. A citizen reads the campaign statements of the various 
candidates in order to cast his vote intelligently, or the advertise- 
ments in his daily paper to find out where to go to buy the articles 
he desires. To be sure, in poetry and other forms of artistic expres- 
sion, aesthetic appreciation seems at first sight far removed from 
action ; but in the last analysis, all reading of whatever type or kind 
modifies the behavior of the reader. 

In attempting to train children to read, schoolmen have usually 
made the mistake of beginning with the type of reading whose effect 
is most difficult to trace ; namely, reading involving aesthetic appre- 
ciation. The coming of exact measurement, however, has revealed 
the inefficiency of past training and led to a desire for lesson ma- 
terial which shall both emphasize the need for comprehension of 
what is read and furnish the teacher a measure of the success or 
failure of the child to comprehend. 

The belief is steadily growing that a large part of children's 
reading in the early grades should be reading for a more direct and 
simple purpose than interest or appreciation; that, important as 
these elements are, they themselves must be considered as the direct 
products of comprehension of meaning, and that all meaning comes 
from experience, action. The first reading a child does must, from 
this point of view, serve in a direct and easily recognized way to 
modify or guide the child's behavior. To read incorrectly must 
be seen by the child to result in defective action. To know one has 

153 



X64 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

read correctly must give immediate satisfaction, and in case of 
failure one must be able to tell for oneself whether or not the fault 
lies in the reading. Self-directed, purposeful reading of directions 
that call for action satisfies these requirements when a group of 
children are able to compare the objective consequences of their 
actions with objective standards and to determine themselves the 
causes of their differences. 

Of the various types of reactions employed to improve the 
ability to comprehend what is read, drawing, cutting, and construc- 
tion work were especially stressed for some months last year in the 
primary grades of the Detroit schools. 

The children '8 natural love for drawing and the desire to pro- 
duce a picture, furnished a motive for careful reading. To take 
advantage of this interest a series of exercises were planned, the 
products of which gave the child and the teacher objective evidence 
of the accuracy and efficiency with which the pupil read. 

EXERCISES IN READING 

At the outset types of exercises such as the following were used 
with first-grade children. The selections were written on the board 
and the teacher directed the children to read silently, then draw a 
picture or make a cutting to illustrate what they had read. 

Up in the tree 
A little bird sings, 
Under the tree 
A little girl swings. 

The Easter Bunny is sitting in the grass. 
He has a new spring coat as white as snow. 
He has beautiful pink eyes. 
He is carrying a basket of Easter eggs 
for the children. 

For the second grade a variety of exercises were given in which 
the directions to draw or cut were included as part of the reading. 
A sufficient number of exercises were printed to supply each child 
with a different selection. In this way the child remained uninflu- 
enced by the work of his neighbor. 



SZEECI8E8 IN SILBSI BBAD1N6 



The examples listed below show eight different types of the 
exercises used: 

1. Directions for Illustrating Nursery Bhymea 
(a) "There nu an old woman who lived in a shoe, 

She had to many children the didn't know what to do." 
Cut out a large shoe. 
Put a little window in the shoe. 
Color the shoe black. 
Cat out six children. 

Hake two of the children peeking over the top of the shoe. 
Make three children pecking out of the window. 
Make one pocking over the toe. 




ILLUITUTIOX BY * S»OOHD-G»lB» PUPIL, Ann XlADIVS T 

Ciaaonovi r* la. 



156 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

(b) "Little Miss Muffett sat on a tuffet, 
Eating her curds and whey, 
Along came a spider and sat down beside her, 
And frightened Miss Muffett away." 

Make two pictures of this rhyme. 

In the first, draw Miss Muffett sitting on a tuffet. 

Draw her bowl of curds and whey. 

Draw a spoon in her hand. 

In the second picture, draw a big spider. 

Make him black with yellow stripes. 

Put six legs on him. 

Draw Miss Muffett running away. 

Draw her bowl fallen to the ground. 

(e) "Hickory, dickory, dock, 

The mouse ran up the clock, 
The clock struck one, 
The mouse ran down, 
Hickory, dickory, dock." 

Draw a big clock. 

On the face put the numbers from one to twelve. 

Draw the big hand at twelve. 

Draw the little hand at one. 

Draw a pendulum hanging down from the clock* 

Draw the mouse running down the clock. 

2. Directions for Illustrating Stories 
Bead over the story — 

(a) "The North Wind at Play." 

in Elson One, page 100. 

Draw the apple tree before the North Wind came. 
Draw it after the North Wind had come. 

Draw the corn field before the North Wind came. 
Draw it after the North Wind had come. 

Draw the little white lily before the North Wind came. 
Draw it after the North Wind had come. 

(b) "The Three Little Pigs." 

Draw the pigs' house. 

Draw the mother pig at the door. 

Make the three little pigs going away. 

Draw the first little pig when he met the man with some straw. 

Draw the house of straw. 

Make the pig looking out of the window. 

Draw the wolf at the door. 

Draw the second little pig when he met the man with the wood. 

Draw the house of wood. 

Make the pig looking out of the window. 

Draw the wolf at the door. 



EXERCISES IN SILENT BEADING 157 

8. Directions for Constructing Toys 

(a) "How to Make A-B-C Block*." 

Fold your paper into sixteen squares. 

Cut off one row of squares. 

Make three cuts on ouch siue like this: 

In square one, print a capital A. 

In square three, print a small a. 

In square two draw a picture of an apple. 

In square four draw a picture of an acorn. 

Fold like a box and paste. 

(b) "How to Make a Bed-Riding-Rood DoU." 

Cut out a little girl dolL 
Paste it on cardboard. 
Make a little red hood. 
Paste it on your dolL 
Make a little red cape. 
Paste the cape on your doll, too. 
Cut a basket and color it brown. 
Put it on your doll's arm. 

4. Directions for Illustrating Social Studies 
(a) "Wash Day" 

We shall hang out our washing today. 

Draw a clothes line across the top of your brown paper. 

Cut out a towel and paste it on the line. 

Cut out a pair of stockings. 

Hang them on the line, too. 

Cut out a shirt and paste it on the line. 

Cut out a little dress. 

Paste it on the line. 

(b) "Gardening Tool*" 

Fold your paper into four squares. 

Cut out a watering-can. 

Paste it in the first square. 

Cut out a rake. 

Paste it in the third square. 

Cut out a shovel. 

Paste it in the second square. 

Cut out a hoe. 

Paste it in the fourth square. 

(o) "Object* for an Indian Sand Table: an Indian Wigwam" 

Get three sticks about six inches long. Tie them together at the top with 
string. Spread them out at the bottom so they will stand. This will make the 
framework of the wigwam. 

Take a piece of brown paper nine by twelve inches. Cut a half circle 
from it. Make it as large as you can. This is the skin covering for your 
wigwam. Draw some Indian pictures on the skin. Fasten the skin covering 
around the frame work. Fold back the flaps for a door. 



158 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

(d) "An Indian Brave" 

You will need a clothespin, some clay, some bright colored cloth and some 
small feathers. 

Make a ball of day over the head of the clothespin. Put in the eyes and 
nose and mouth. Try to make it look like an Indian face. Put two feathers 
in the top of the head. Make a square block of clay and press the bottom of 
the clothespin in it so the Indian will stand. Make a blanket of the bright 
colored cloth and sew it on your Indian. Whey dry, paint the Indian's face 
reddish brown. Paint his eyes and hair black. Make an Indian squaw in 
the same way, but do not put any feathers in her 



5. Directions for Drawing, Picking out a Portion of the Text, and Writing 

it in a Specified Place 

(a) "The Three Little Kitten*" 

1 ' The three little kittens washed their mittens, 
And hung them out to dry. 
'Oh! mother dear, look here, look here, 
See! we have washed our mittens.' " 

Draw two clothespoles and color them black. 
Draw the clothes line between them. 
Draw the three pairs of mittens on the line. 
Draw the mother cat and the three little kittens standing near. 
Under your picture write just what the little kittens are saying to their 
mother. 

(e) "The Bluebird" 

(This exercise is complicated by requiring the children to search for an 
appropriate selection in their readers.) 

Draw a branch of an apple tree. 

Draw some little pink blossoms and green leaves on it. 

Draw a bluebird perched on the branch. 

Make his cap deep blue. 

Make his vest a reddish brown. 

Make his coat and tail deep blue. 

Make his bill and feet dark brown. 

Make his eye black. 

Look for a bluebird poem in your book. 

Copy one stanza of it on your spelling paper. 

Put your picture and your poem together to make a little book. 

6. Type Demanding the Beading of a Short Description to Carry Out the 

Directions 

"The Goldfinch" 

In the summer, father goldfinch wears a bright lemon-yellow suit. He has 
a black cap, black wings, and a black tail. His little wife's dress is a dull 
green or olive yellow. 

Mr. and Mrs. Goldfinch build a tiny little nest shaped like a cup. It is 

ff^w ^&**X*? d m088, -T he 7 m ver 7 fond ot ™rttoi and dandelion. 

itl l7£ n *T ? eir 1 _ B f Bti ^^ **• fluff bo* theae little weeds. Then they 
can eat the seeds for their dinner. ^^ J 



EXERCISES IN SILENT BEADING 159 

Draw a father goldfinch. 

Make him perch on the branch of a little thorn bush. 
Color his feathers to show the way he looks in the summer time. 
In the crotch of the thorn bush, draw his nest. 
Under the thorn bush, draw two weeds that he is very fond of. 
Under your picture write a title for the drawing. 

There are many possibilities of developing lessons of increasing difficulty 
along these lines. 

7. Type Based upon Geography for Fourth-Grade Children and Necessitating 

Accurate Placing of the Drawing 

Trace a map of the United States. 

Put a star on the place where the greatest lake port in the world is located. 

Color brown that part of Michigan in which copper is found. 

Draw a ship at the greatest lake port in the west. 

Draw a bale of cotton at the largest cotton port in the world. 

Draw a mill in the greatest milling center of the world. 

Draw some fish in the river from which we obtain great quantities of 
salmon. 

Color blue the longest river in the world. 

Draw an automobile at the place in Michigan where most automobiles are 
manufactured. 

Draw a tree in the state in which the largest trees in the world are found. 

8. Illustrating the Compositions of Other Children and a Sample Scale of 

Beading Ability 

Third-grade and fourth-grade children enjoyed illustrating each other's 
compositions. Original riddles or stories were exchanged. The child receiving 
the composition, after reading it thoughtfully, illustrated the ideas. The papers 
were then returned to the writers, who, knowing the number of ideas they sought 
to express, were able to check the efficiency of the other child's reading, as 
shown by his illustration. Whether or no the reader gleaned all the ideas de- 
pended upon his ability to get the thought, and the ability of the writer to 
express his thought clearly. The following is typical: 

"One day I was playing with another boy in some weeds. A 
snake ran in front of me. We each took a club and killed it" 

The examination of the results from each class disclosed very definitely the 
number of ideas which were gleaned by the young readers. While some 
readers represented every idea, there were others who could represent only a 
few or perhaps just one of them. For example, in the directions, which are 
given below, for making the pot of tulips, some drawings showed that the reader 
had not understood how many tulips were to be drawn, that both buds and 
flowers were to be shown, or that small leaves as well as large leaves were 
to be made. 

Cut out a flower pot. 

Color it brown. 

Cut out four tulips. 

Make two look like buds. 

Make two wide open. 

Color them yellow. 

Make some green leaves, big ones and little ones. 

Paste them in the flower pot. 

Put a back on the flower pot so that it will stand. 



TEE TWENTIETH YEAEBOOE 



A. SCALE OT READING ABILITY 

A study of these results suggested the possibility of constructing 
s scale to measure the development from the first through the fourth 
grades of the ability to read silently and reproduce the ideas 
through drawing. It was also expected that these results would 
throw some light on problems in free-hand drawing. 

The following scale was constructed and administered by the 
primary supervisors throughout the first four grades in five repre- 
sentative schools : 

Draw a bird house 

Hake it blue. 

Put it In the top -of a little tree. 

Make a bluebird flying over the bird house. 

Make another bluebird standing on top of the bird house. 

Put a little red worm in bis mouth. 

The bird house is in » garden so draw a round flower bed near the bird 
house. 

Draw some yellow tulips in the middle of the bed and some red tulips 
around the outside. 

Draw some low bashes with red blossoms on them in the garden, too. 

Now think of a name for tout picture and print it with black crayon at 
the top of jour paper. 

Draw a little square in the lower left-hand corner of jour paper. 

In tho upper half of this square print the initial of your first name In 



BXEBCI8E8 IN SILENT BEADING 161 

The scale gradually increases in difficulty; the first directions 
are simple enough in vocabulary, sentence structure, and thought 
for first-grade children to understand. It was intended that the last 
directions be difficult enough to tax the ability of fourth-grade chil- 
dren. When administered, it was found that only 36 percent of 
them were able to reproduce all of the forty-four ideas or items it 
contains. 

The benefits derived from exercises of the type indicated seemed 
to be very marked, not only from the point of the development of 
reading ability, but in terms of those other educational products of 
even greater importance, self-direction, self-appraisal, self-control. 
As the work was wholly experimental, no exact measurement of 
results was attempted. 

During the coming year, however, the experiment will be con- 
tinued and an effort made to construct formal tests and scales which 
may be used to furnish exact measures of the effect of this type of 
training. 



n 

SILENT READING EXERCISES DEVELOPED AT DENVER, 
CEDAR RAPIDS, RACINE, AND IOWA CITY 



Comprehension is for the most part insured by the very nature 
of the responses to such exercises as follow. The teacher must 
guard, however, against mere formalized responses. Exercises 
which require every child to respond each time a card is 'flashed 1 
are superior from the standpoint of class administration. For 
example, the entire class may react in concert to the card — "Point 
to the north.' 9 The teacher can easily detect any pupil who does 
not carry out such directions accurately. 

I. THREE SILENT READING DEVICES FROM DENVER, COLORADO 

(Reported by Helen R. Gumlick, Colfax School) 

The questions or sentences are printed upon strips of heavy 
manila paper, 4% inches wide and as long as necessary. The type 
used makes the small letters 1 inch high and the capitals 1% inches 
high. The ink is black. The words can easily be seen from any 
part of the room. 

The questions are flashed before the child. He does not say 
what is on the card but gives an oral answer to what appears there. 
The exercises have been used in 1A and 2B. 

1. Silent Beading Exercise Based upon the Flag 

Whose flag is thief Child's oral answer, "Ours." 

For what country does it stand f Child's oral answer, "The United 

States." 

How many colors f Child's answer, "Three." 

What is the blue forf 

What is the red forf 

What is the white forf 

How many stripes f 

How many red stripes f 

How nmny white stripes f 

What do tho stripes represent f 

How many stars f 

What do the stars represent f 

162 



Card 


1. 


Card 


2. 


Card 


3. 


Card 


4. 


Card 


5. 


Card 


6. 


Card 


7. 


Card 


8. 


Card 


9. 


Card 10. 


Card 


11. 


Card 12. 



EXERCISES IN SILENT READING 163 

Card 13. Who made the first flag? 

Card 14. Who asked her to make itf 

Card 15. What is another name for our flag! 

2. Silent Beading Device Based upon Local Directions 

Point to the north. 

Point to the south. 

Show me the east. 

Show me the west. 

Stand in the northeast corner. 

Go to the northwest corner. 

Name something on the east wall. 

What part of Denver is this! 

What is the main street on this side of the city! 

On what street is our school f 

How many blocks is By era School from Broadway? 

Name three streets east of Broadway. 

Name throe streets west of Byers School. 

Which direction from here do you live! 

Which direction from Broadway do you live! 

What direction do we go to get to town! 

3. Silent Beading Device Based upon Table Etiquette 

The plate belongs Child's oral answer, "Directly in front of 

you. * * 

The napkin belong! 
The knife is placed- 
The fork is placed- 
The glass belongs — 

The host sits 

The hostess sits 



Card 


1. 


Card 


2. 


Card 


3. 


Card 


4. 


Card 


5. 


Card 


6. 


Card 


7. 


Card 


8. 


Card 


9. 


Card 


10. 


Card 


11. 


Card 


12. 


Card 


13. 


Card 


14. 


Card 


15. 


Card 16. 


Card 


1. 


Card 


2. 


Card 


3. 


Card 


4. 


Card 


5. 


Card 


6. 


Card 


7. 


Card 


8. 


Card 


9. 


Card 


10. 


Card 


11. 


Card 


12. 


Card 


13. 


Card 


14. 


Card 


15. 


Card 16. 


Card 


17. 


Card 18. 



The guest of honor sits 

Elbows are not 

Tho knife is not put 

Lips must not 

Chairs must not be left in- 
Spoon must not be left in— 

Serve people to the 

Remove dishes from the— 



If you wish something passed, say- 

If asked to have more, say 

If you wish to leave the table, say- 



II. READING LESSONS BASED ON PROJECTS, FROM CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA 

The following lessons were developed by various teachers under 
the direction of Miss Grace Shields, Primary Supervisor, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. Lack of space prevents the printing of other similar 
exercises, which were uniformly excellent; the lessons given, how- 
ever, are sufficiently representative. Other types of exercises based 
on the same material may be readily constructed. 



164 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

There are two great advantages in this type of work. First, 
being based on actual experiences, they tend to guarantee more 
adequate comprehension on the part of the child. Second, they are 
based on factual material and accordingly may be caref uUy tested. 

While these lessons may be regarded as primarily dealing with 
the development of comprehension, they involve also organization 
and remembrance. They could be made into speed exercises by hav- 
ing the pupils work under time pressure. 

1. ' ' Making Tallow Candles ' 9 
(Reported by Ella Flynn, Grade II, Harrison School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa) 

8ubject — The Pilgrim home in America. 

Problem — How was the Pilgrim home lighted at night f 

Project — To make a tallow candle. 

Method of Approach 

Interesting phases of our November work bronght about the discussion of 
the Pilgrim home in America. The children were interested in the primitive 
method of living, and especially in the process of candle making. 

Method of Procedure 

We procured a tin candle mold which would hold twelve candles. This 
mold was ten inches high. We purchased one ball of candle wi eking and two 
pounds of tallow. The wicking was twisted and put through the molds double, 
being held in place at the top by a short stick. The tallow, sufficient for six 
candles, was then melted, poured into the molds, and allowed to cool until the 
next day. The mold was then immersed in warm water two or three times. The 
children pulled upward on the stick at the top of the mold and the candles were 
easily released. 

The following day, one of these candles was placed in a candle stick and 
it burned readily. The candles will be used for our Christmas party. 

The following questions may be duplicated in order that each child may 
have them before him, or they may be written on the blackboard or flashed on 
cards. The child's comprehension is indicated by his answers to the questions. 
Such exercises serve not only as lessons in reading, but also as an excellent type 
of review work. 

Questions to Be Used for Silent Beading 

1. What did the Pilgrims use for light f 

2. Where did they get candles f 

3. What did we use in making candles? 

4. Where do we get tallow t 
6". Why do we use a wickf 

6. How did you place the wick in the mold? 

7. What did you do nextf 

8. Of what use is the moldf 

9. How long did you leave the candles in the moldf 

10. How did we remove the candles from the moldf 

11. How many candles did we make! 

12. When are we going to use the candles f 



EXERCISES IN SILENT BEADING 165 

2. "Drying Corn" 

(Reported by Miss Byrd Snyder, Grade I, Taylor School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa) 

The first step in this exercise was a discussion of the preparation of food 
for winter use. The second step was a project in drying corn. The project 
served as a basis for Lesson 1, which was developed with the pupils. The ques- 
tions in Lesson 2 were read silently from the blackboard, and answered orally 
by the pupils. 

Lesson 1 

Miss Snyder brought some corn to school. 

It was sweet corn. 

We dried the sweet corn. 

First we took the husks and silk off. 

Sometimes thore was a worm on the corn. 

We shook the worm in the waste basket. 

Then we cut the bad places out of the corn. 

We cut the corn from the cob. 

We found milk in the corn. 

We put the corn in the pans. 

We put the pans in the oven. 

It took two days to dry the corn. 

The corn is brown and hard when it is dry. 

We have put it into a bag until we have our Thanksgiving party. 

Lesson $. Silent Reading 

1. Why did we dry the corn! 

2. Could we have kept it any other wayf 

3. How did we get the corn ready for drying? 

4. What did we sometimes find on the earsf 

5. How did we dry this corn! 

6. Could we dry it any other wayf 

7. How long did it take to dry it in the ovenf 

8. When shall we use itf 

3. "Our Visit to the Fire Station" 

(Reported by Miss Byrd Snyder, Grade I, Taylor 8chool, Cedar Rapids, Iowa) 

After a story and talk about fires and how they can be prevented, the 
following questions were given as a silent reading lesson. 

1. What day is to-morrow f 

2. Why do we have Fire Prevention Day! 
8. Who helps us when we have a firef 

4. Who pays the firemen? 

5. How do the firemen know when we need themf 

6. Why do we have a fire drill at school f 

7. How can boys and girls help prevent firef 

8. Tell some rules we should obey. 

9. Would you like to visit a fire station to-morrow f 

The following lesson was developed with the children as a summary of 
their trip. 

Our Visit to the Fire Station 

On "Fire Prevention Day" we went to the fire station. 
When we got there, the fireman invited us in. 



100 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

We all went around on one aide of the truck. 

We saw the tank of chemicals. 

They use chemicals whenever they can, instead of water. 

Water spoils the furniture. 

In the back of the truck we saw a big hose. 

Then the fireman showed us the engine. 

Laurence turned the crank and we heard the siren. 

Euby rang the bell. 

These tell the people to get out of the way. 

While we were still looking at the truck, there was a real fire. 

After they had gone, we went outside a little while. 

Then we went upstairs and saw their boots and the beds where 

they sleep. 
Soon the firemen came back. 
The fire was out. 
Then the firemen let Paul and Albert go down the pole. 

The following questions were given as a silent reading lesson after the 
visit to the fire station: 

1. What did we see on the side of the truck? 

2. Why do they use chemicals? 

8. What did we see in the back of the truck? 

4. Who turned the crank? 

5. Who rang the bell? 

6. Why did they have these? 

7. What happened while we were looking at the engine? 

8. Where do the firemen sleep? 

9. Why do they stay at the station all night? 

4. "The Making of a Johnny Cake" 

(Beported by Carolyn Pangburn and Lucile Pogge, Grade 111, 

Cedar Eapids, Iowa) 

Problem and Project 
Problem: How did the early settlers prepare corn and use it for food? 

Discussion: 

a. Where settlers first got the corn 

b. Indian method of growing corn 

c. Indians taught the settlers to plant corn 

d. How corn was cultivated 

e. Present day methods of milling 

f . Uses of corn as food 

Project: 

a, Grinding or pounding corn into meal 

b. Making of corn bread 

Materials: 

a. Mortar and pestle to pound corn into meal 

b. Corn, either white or yellow 
e. Materials for corn bread 

Method of Procedure: 

a. Pupils shell corn 

b. Pupils place the corn in the mortar and, working in groups, pound 

corn into meal 



EXEBCI8E8 IN SILENT BEADING 167 

e. Pupils arrange a table with materials and utensils for making 
corn bread, using the following recipe: 
1 pint of corn meal 
% pint of flour 

1 teaspoon of salt 

2 tablespoons of molasses or sugar 

1 scant teaspoon of soda dissolved in a little hot water 

2 tablespoons of melted shortening 
2 eggs 

Sour milk enough to make a soft dough 

d. Mix, turn into greased baking pan 

e. Bake in moderate oven thirty minutes. 

f . Pupils eat corn bread for lunch 

Silent Beading 

1. Did the early settlers know anything about corn before coming 

to America f 

2. Where did they first find corn! 

3. Who taught them how to use corn for food? 

4. How did the Indian plant corn! 

5. Why did the Indian put fish in each hill of corn! 

6. How did the Indian use green corn? 

7. How was corn prepared for mealt 

8. What things were needed to make corn mealt 

9. Is corn meal made in the same way to-day f 

10. Of what use is corn meal to usf 

11. Why is the germ removed from corn in making corn meal to-day I 

12. Why is our meal better? 

13. What materials are needed to make corn bread f 

14. What utenBils are needed f 

15. How did the settlers bake their bread? 

16. How long should corn bread be baked? 

17. Why do we use less corn bread than the settlers did? 

5. "Bird Observation' ' 

(Reported by Miss Ella Flyun, Grade II, Harrison School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa) 

Subject: Bird observation. 

Problem: To provide shelter and protection for a bird. 

Project: Building a bird house. 

Method of Approach 

During the month of April we discussed the return of the birds from the 
south. The children reported from time to time the arrival of different birds. 
We became interested in the Junior Audubon Bird Club in which we might hold 
membership by paying an annual fee of ten cents. The object of this club is to 
attain a greater knowledge of our wild feathered friends and to protect them 
from being wantonly killed. 

The Audubon Society furnished leaflets describing ten of the best-knows 
Iowa birds, together with information about food, nests, and eggs and a small 
pocket guide for each child. 

The children thought they could better observe and protect the birds by 
building bird houses and having the birds live near their homes. 



168 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

Suggestions Brought Out in Discussion 

1. The roof must extend beyond back of house for drainage. 

2. A small rest for the bird before entering house. 

8. Sandpapering windows would prevent the birds 9 plumage from 
being torn or lost. 

4. The construction should be snug and secure, because it may serve 

as a home for some winter bird. 

5. Perches were suggested. 

6. Dimensions: 

Pieces Dimensions Use 

1 6 x 10 Bottom 

2 4x8 Bides 
2 4%x 6 Ends 
1 4 x 10 Boof 
1 4%x 10 Boof 

Procedure 

After considering the bird houses from the standpoint of comfort, the 
children constructed them. They were brought to school and the children told 
which were most practical for the different birds. The houses were then 
placed in trees or on posts near the homes of the children. 

Excursion 

One afternoon early in May we went to Ellis Park to observe the birds. 
We took with us our Junior Audubon pocket guides and checked the different 
birds observed. We also discovered a number of nests containing eggs. 

Several phases of our bird work formed a language basis. Celia Thaxter's 
poem, "The Robin," took on an added meaning after the pupib had actually 
heard a robin singing during a spring shower. 

Questions for a Silent Beading Lesson 

1. What is the name of the bird club to which you belong? 

2. What did you promise when you joined this clubf 

3. How did you think you could help the birds near your hornet 

4. What material did you use in your bird house? 

5. How high and how long did you build itf 

6. How many doors and windows has itf 

7. What kind of roof does your bird house have? 

8. Where did you place the house when finished f 

9. What birds came to live in the home you built t 

10. How do you think you have helped any bird this year? 

11. How do you think the birds have helped usf 

Reference: National Association of Audubon Societies, New York, N. T. 
III. SILENT READING EXERCISES FROM RACINE, WISCONSIN 

The following exercises were developed under the direction of 
Miss Myrtle Farnham, Supervisor, Racine, Wisconsin. Special 
credit for the pre-primer and first grade exercises is due to Miss 
Jessie Jensen, Lincoln School; Miss Christie Mainland, Knapp 



BXB&CISBS IN SILENT HEADING jgg 

School; Miss Mayme Fdhey, Miss Catherine Fahey, Washington 
School; Miss Alice Williams, Miss Vera Graham, Franklin School; 
Miss Ruth Reid, Fratt School; Miss Ellen Murphy, Winslow 
School. 

The practicability of each exercise has been assured by haying 
it taught by a large number of teachers. 

A. The Kindergarten 

Beginnings are made in the kindergarten which train the child to find out 
for himself the meanings of the printed or written word and to use ideas given 
in phrase, word, or sentence. Four illustrations are here presented. 

1. Assignment* to 'Committees* 

One problem centers about finding out who are to be the committees for the 
day or week. . A card is illustrated by the teacher for the bulletin board which 
indicates by name who will look after the tables, chairs, plants, blocks, etc. 
Each child in the room is responsible for finding out whether he is on one of 
these committees and who are his associates in the work. That part of the 
bulletin board is a popular place, and much discussion over names and pictures 
takes place, together with good planning by the committees. The assignments 
are made by a card bearing pictures and the names of pupils, like this: 



Table 
(Picture of table) 


David 
Mary 


Chair 
(Picture of chair) 


Charles 
Harry 


Sand table 
(Picture of sand table) 


Lueile 
John 


Cupboard 
(Picture of cupboard) 


Helen 
Jennie 


Floor 
(Line for floor) 


Jack 
James 



f . Phrase Cards in Drawing Work 

Giving parts of a story or ideas suggested by a phrase or a group of 
phrases in rapid drawing, we find, makes for concentration and quick interpre- 
tation. The phrase cards are distributed about the room. A number of 
children with their chairs, drawing boards, paper and pencil, move from one 
to another, illustrating rapidly. The teacher observes, suggests, corrects. Such 
phrases as The big bear's chair, The little bear's chair, The middle-sized bear '* 
chair, The big bowl, The middle-sized bowl, The big bed, The little bed, The 
middle-sized bed are used with the story of "The Three Bears." At first the 
phrases are with the pictures, then they are taken away, one by one. 

S. Phrase Cards in Dramatisation 

In dramatization some stories lend themselves to the indications of char- 
acters or articles necessary by means of word or phrase cards, thus: Garden, 



170 THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 

where the little red hen lived; -Santa Claus Land or A Christmas Stare, where 
the labels read "A Walking Doll," "A Talking Doll," "A Singing Doll." 
A Mother Goose Village carried many signs to be correctly interpreted in finding 
places and assuming characters for the dramatisation; "Mary Contrary" 
must find her watering can and the places in the room designated " Garden" 
and ' ' Flowerbeds. ' ' Jack and Jill must get their pail and find the place desig- 
nated "HilL" 

4. Labels in Games and Plays 

Games and plays lend themselves to attaching meanings to printed words 
in one of the most natural and necessary forms: Goals are marked One, Two, 
Three, etc., and are called in races; Captains' names are placed on the black- 
board for score keeping; their companies' names are also placed there, and 
each child is held responsible for knowing in that way where his place is in the 
company. 

B. Pre-Primer, Primer, and First Reader 

Good silent reading habits were developed in connection with reading 
units based on nature study. The special subject was "Birds in the spring" 
(February to June). The problems in Nature study used as a basis were: 
"What do birds do in the world!" and "How may we attract them!" 

In this work the following were some of the phases of development: 

1. Observation and personal acquaintance with the birds; asso- 
ciated with near-by trees in gardens, yards, and fields. 

2. Arrival and identification of a few for all of the class. This 
is not to be limited for those children who can learn of more. 

3. Watching, recording, reporting and solving problems con- 
nected with the study of nesting and care of young. 

4. Birds in picture, song, and story. 

For pre-primer and primer classes words and phrases were quickly visual- 
ised to increase span of recognition. There was also silent reading in the 
class of individual record cards. The children read other cards than their own 
and told results of the other pupil's observations. 

Three cardboards, each 6 by 9 inches, and ruled to answer the two ques- 
tions "What!" and "Whent " were given each child to take home the first 
of March and to be kept until they had a record of one bird on each card, then 
returned and used in silent reading in class work. At first, there were individual 
reports; then all were fastened to tho bulletin board and grouped by the pupils 
through silent reading of content. This was worked out by groups. Through 
silent reading all of the reports on the robin were arranged together, all of those 
on the bluebird together, and so on. A study of food calendars followed this 
work. The home work, the class silent reading, the reproduction and the 
bulletin grouping were carried out as with the charts of arrival. 

The charts of arrival and the food calendars were developed like these 
samples: 

Chart of Arrival 

What! When? 

Robin March 8th 

Woodpecker March 9th 
Wren March 15th 



EXEBCI8ES IN SILENT BEADING 171 

Food Calendar 

Food of Bobins 

Worms 
Food of Hairy Woodpecker 

Cocoons 

Eggs of Beetles 

The foregoing represent beginnings which were added to during the term. 

We also use in silent reading descriptive cards of the birds. These are 
worked oat with the teacher in class composition. After they are finished, one 
child holds the card for the class to read silently. Another child finds that 
picture of the bird on the bulletin board which answers the card description. 

Cards 12 by 14 inches, like the following, were used: 

I make a nest in the trees. 
I make it of sticks 

mud 

dry grass. 
I live in a bird house. 
It is in a tree. 
It is small. 

The same idea is carried out in individual records contributed by children 
and written by the teacher on the blackboard. This is one illustration: 

In the orchard there is a bird's nest. 
It is a robin's nest. 

Hectographed slips or printed slips, the content taken from primers and 
library books, are mounted on cardboard and are read silently to get informa- 
tion needed in carrying on the nature study work. 

Two of the card lessons were derivod as follows: 

a. How to help the wrens. 

b. How to help the robins. 

(From "Little Kingdom Primer," by 
Sawyer. Publishers, Rand-McNalry Co.) 

c Up to the sky. 

(From "Character Building Series" 
Part I, Book I, by Kenyon and Werner. 
Publishers, Hinds, Noble, and Eldridge.) 

IV. A LESSON TO TEST AND DEVELOP THE ABILITY TO COMPREHEND 

CERTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES 

(Submitted by Emma Watkins, First-Grade Teacher, University 
Elementary School, State University of Iowa) 

The calendar used for these exercises is of the ordinary sort distributed 
as advertising by commercial houses. It was mounted on a large sheet of card* 
board in order to give the required stiffness. The words, phrases, and sentences 
were printed on pieces of cardboard, care being taken to print the entire phrase 
or sentence in one line. After seating the pupils as close to the calendar as 
convenient, the lesson is begun by telling the pupils that they are to be shown 
flash cards upon which are printed words which will tell them what to point 



172 



THE TWENTIETH YEARBOOK 



to on the calendar. Pupils are directed to stand as soon as they understand 
the meaning of the first phrase which is flashed. The pupil who finishes first is 
allowed to stand before the calendar and point to the appropriate place 
indicated by the flash card. This pupil continues the exercise, reading addi- 
tional cards, until he makes an error, when his place is taken by some other 
pupil who can read that exercise. The lesson as described here is given under 
time pressure. It presupposes that the words and phrases which are used 
have boon already developed with the class. The class is an advanced first- 
grade class. 

1. Phrases 



yesterday 

today 

tomorrow 

next week 

this week 

the month 

the year 

the date 

week after next 

a week from tomorrow 

two weeks from tomorrow 

a week ago yesterday 

day after tomorrow 

day before yesterday 

in two days 

the first day of the month 

the first day of the week 

next Saturday 

last Thursday, ete. 



the last day of the month 

the first quarter of the moon 

new moon 

full moon 

last quarter of the moon 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

the day before the last day 

of the month 
the sixteenth 
the fifteenth, ete. 
next Monday, ete. 
next month 
last Monday 



2. Sentences 

On what day do you go to Sunday-school f 
What will be the last day of school this weekf 
(Other similar sentences.) 



Information Concerning the National Society for the 

Study of Education 

1. Purpose. The purpose of the National Society Is to promote the investigation 
and discussion of educational questions. To this end It holds an annual meeting and 
publishes a series of Yearbooks. 

2. Eligibility to Membership. Any person who is Interested in receiving its 
publications may become a member upon application to the Secretary and subsequent 
approval by the Executive Committee. Membership may not be had by libraries or by 
institutions. 

8. Psbiod of Membership. Applicants for membership may not date their 
entrance back of the current calendar year, and all memberships terminate automatically 
on December 31st, unless the dues for the ensuing year are paid as indicated in Item 6. 

4. Classes of Mbmbebs. Application may be made for either active or associate 
membership. Active members pay two dollars dues annually, receive two copies of each 
publication, are entitled to vote, to hold office and to participate in discussion. Associate 
members pay one dollar dues annually, receive one copy of each publication, may attend 
the meetings of the Society, but may not vote, hold office or participate in discussion. The 
names of active members only sre printed In Part I of each Yearbook. There were in 
1920 about 250 active and 800 associate members. 

6. Election Fee. New active and new associate members are required the first 
year to pay, in addition to the dues, an election fee of one dollar. 

6. Payment of Dues. Statements of dues are rendered in October for the follow- 
ing calendar year. By vote of the Society at the 1919 meeting, "any member so notified 
whose dues remain unpaid on January 1st, thereby loses his membership and ean be rein- 
stated only by paying the election fee of one dollar required of new members." 

7. Distribution of Yearbooks to Members. The Yearbooks, ready each Febru- 
ary, will be mailed only to members whose dues for that year have been paid. Members 
who desire Yearbooks prior to the current year must purchase them directly from the 
publishers (see Item 8). 

8. Commercial Sales. The distribution of all Yearbooks prior to the current 
sear and also of those of the current year not regularly mailed to members in exchange 
for their dues is in the hands of the publishers, not of the secretary. For such commercial 
sales, communicate directly with the Public School Publishing Company, Bloomlngton, 
Illinois, who will gladly send a price list covering all the publications of this Society 
and of its predecessor, the Kstional Herbert Society. 

9. Yearbooks. The Yearbooks are Issued in parte (usually two) every February. 
They comprise from 250 to 500 pages annually. Unusual effort has been made to make 
them on the one hand of immediate practical value and on the other hand representative 
of sound scholarship and scientific investigation. Many of them are the fruit of coopera- 
tive work by committees of the 8ociety. 

10. Meetings. The annua] meeting, at which the Yearbooks are discussed, is held 
in February at the same time and place as the meeting of the Department of Superin- 
tendence of the National Education Association. 

Applications for membership will be handled promptly at any time on receipt of 
name and address, together with check for the sppropriate amount ($8.00 for new active 
membership, $2.00 for new associate membership). 



GUY M. WHIPPLE, Secretary-Treasurer. 



University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan* 



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