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YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY 



COMPEISIXG 



ABSTEACTS OF PAPEES 

RELATING TO 

PHARMACY, MATERIA MEDICA, AND CHEMISTRY 

CONTRIBUTED TO BRITISH AND FOREIGN JOURNALS, 
FROM JULY 1, 1886, TO JUNE 30, 



1887. p On/^ 

^0^ /o 






'To 



WITH THE 0/\y>- ' • ^ 



TEANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

BEITISH PHARMACEUTICAL 
CONFEEENCE 

AT THE 

TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 

HELD AT 

AUGUST, 1887. 



LONDON: 
J. & A. CHURCHILL, 11, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 

MDCCCLXXXVII. 



YEAE-BOOK OF PHARMACY AND TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

BntisI) ^3l)armarfutiral Confercnrf. 

1886-87. 



Committee of Publication. 

F. B. BENGER, F.C.S. 

President of the Conference, 1887-88. 

S. R. ATKINS, J.P. 
MICHAEL CARTEIGHE, F.I.C., F.C.S. 
THOMAS B. GROVES, F.C.S. 
RICHARD REYNOLDS, F.C.S. 

SIDNEY PLOWMAN, F.R.C.S. 
Secretary to the Committee. 



Editor of the Y'ear-Book, 
LOUIS SIEBOLD, F.I.C., F.C.S. 




BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



OFFICERS FOR 1887-88. 

President. 
F. B. BENGER, F.C.S., Manchester. 

Vice-Presidents, 
WIm have filled the office of President. 
Pkof. BENTLEY, F.L.S., M.R.C.S., London. 
H. B. BRADY, F.R.S., etc., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
THOMAS B. GROYES, F.C.S., Weymouth. 
Prof. REDWOOD, Ph.D., F.I.C, F.C.S., London. 
G. F. SCHACHT, F.C.S., Clifton, Bristol. 
RICHARD REYNOLDS, F.C.S., Leeds. 
Prof. ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.C, F.C.S., Londo 
JOHN WILLIAMS, F.I.C, F.CS., London. 
J. B. STEPHENSON, Edinburgh. 
THOMAS GREENISH, F.C.S., F.R.M.S., London. 
S. R. ATKINS, J.P., Salisbury. 

Vice-Presidents. 
M. CARTEIGHE, F.I.C, F.CS., London. 
S. PLOWMAN, F.R.CS., London. 
C SYMES, Ph.D., Liverpool. 
W. MARTINDALE, F.CS., London. 

Treasurer. 

C UMNEY, F.I.C, F.CS., London. 

Honorary General Secretaries. 

JOHN C THRESH, D.Sc, F.C.S., Buxton. 

W. A. H. NAYLOR, F.I.C, F.CS., London. 

Other Members of Executive Committee. 



T. MABEN, Hawick. 
N. H. MARTIN, F.L.S., Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

F. RANSOM, Hitchin. 

G. S. WOOLLEY, Manchester. 
Three retire 



W. N. ALLEN, Dublin. 

M. CONROY, F.CS., Liverpool. 

R. H. DAVIES, F.I.C, F.CS., London 

D. B. DOTT, F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. 

A. W. GERRARD, F.CS., London. 

These Officers collectively constitute the Executive Committee. 
annually, being eligible for re-election. 

Assistant Secretary. 
J. C NIGHTINGALE, London. 

Auditors. 
W. WILKINSON, Manchester. 

Honorary Colonial Secretaries. 



For Bengal .... 
Bombay .... 
Canada .... 
Cape Colony and Natal 
Madras .... 
New South Walks 
New Zealand . 
South Australia . 
Tasmania 

Victoria .... 
West Indies . 



C N. KERNOT, M.D., etc., Calcutta. 

E. BEYNON, Bombay. 

A. H. MASON, F.CS., Montreal. 

A. WALSH, Port Elizabeth. 

D. HOOPER, F.CS., Ootacamund. 



T. M. WILKINSON, Dunedin. 
J. PARKER, Adelaide. 
A. P. MILLER, Hobart. 



W. C. ROSS, Port of Spain. 



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S.O 



THE 

BRITISE PHARMACEUTICAL COiNFERENCE. 

AN ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 18G3 FOR THE ENCOURAGE- 
MENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH. AND THE PROMOTION OF 
FRIENDLY INTERCOURSE AND UNION AMONGST PHARMACISTS. 



The most important ways in which a member can aid the objects of 
the Conference are by suggesting subjects for investigation, working 
upon subjects suggested by himself or by others, contributing infor- 
mation tending to throw light on questions relating to adulterations 
and impurities, or collecting and forwarding specimens whose exa- 
mination would afford similar information. Personal attendance at 
the yearly gatherings, or the mere payment of the annual subscrip- 
tion, will also greatly strengthen the hands of the executive. 

A list of subjects suggested for research is sent to members early 
in the year. Resulting papers are read at the annual meeting of the 
members ; but new facts that are discovered during an investigation 
may be at once published by an author at a meeting of a scientific 
society, or in a scientifie journal, or in any other way he may desire ; 
in that case, he is expected to send a short report on the subject to 
the Conference. 

The annual meetings are usually held in the provinces, at the 
time and place of the visit of the British Association ; that for 
1888 will be held at Bath. 

Gentlemen desiring to join the Conference can be nominated at 
any time on applying to the Secretary, or any other officer or 
member. The yearly subscription is payable in advance, on July 
1st. The amount, which includes free delivery of the Year-Book, 
is 7s. 6d. for members residing in any European country, Canada, 
or the United States of America. For those resident in other 
countries, if the Year-Book be mailed direct to members, it is as 
follows : — Australasian Colonies, 10s. ; South Africa, India, China, 
and Japan, 9s. 6d. ; West Indies and Mauritius, 8s. lOJ. Further 
information may be obtained from 

The Asst. Secretart ; Brit. Pharm. Conf., 

17, Bloomsbury Squai'e, London, W.C. 



THE YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 
The Conference annually presents to members a volume of about 
600 pages, containing the proceedings at the yearly meeting, and an 
Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacy, or Year-Book, which 
includes notices of all pharmaceutical papers, new processes, prepa- 
rations, and formulae published throughout the world. The neces- 
sary fund for accomplishing this object consists solely of the sub- 
scriptions of members. The Executive Committee, therefore, call 
on every pharmacist — principal, assistant, or pupil — to offer his 
name for election, and on every member to make an effort to obtain 
more members. The price of the Year-Book to non-members is 
ten shillings. The constitution and rules of the Conference, and a 
convenient form of nomination, will be found at page 339. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

Introduction 1 

Chemistry ............. 19 

Materia Medica and Pharmacy ......... 147 

Notes and Formulae 281 

Bibliography 321 

Constitution and Rules of the British Pharmaceutical Conference . . 839 

Honorary Members of the Conference ....... 340 

Foreign and Colonial Members ......... 341 

Home Members ............ 350 

Societies and Associations invited to send Delegates to the Annual Meeting 384 

Presentation Copies of the Year-Book, to whom forwarded . . . 386 

List of Journals presented to the Conference ...... 386 

Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference .... 387 

Unofficial Formulary 583 

General Index ............ 599 



INTEODUCTIOX. 

The pages of tlii.s volume furnisli evidence tliat the steady growth 
of the various sciences bearing on pharmacy has been more than 
maintained during the past year, both as regards the niimber and 
importance of the contributions to their literature. The reader 
who has watched the pi'Ogi'ess of organic chemistry -within the last 
decade, and has followed, step by step, the advance in the direc- 
tion of organic synthesis, is fully aware that the artificial produc- 
tion of vegetable alkaloids and similar active principles, which 
but a few years ago seemed little more than a fond dream, has 
now become a reality, and is the outcome, not of accidental dis- 
covery, but of close and systematic studies of the constitution of 
those bodies. As a striking success in this direction we refer to 
the complete synthesis of conine recently accomplished by A. 
Ladenburg. It will be remembered, from his previous reseai'ches, 
that the action of paraldehyde on a-picoline leads to the formation 
of a-allylpyridine, and that this bod}-, when treated with i-educing 
agents, yields a-propylpiperidine, a base agreeing in most of its 
properties with conine, but differing from it by its optical inac- 
tivity and the lower melting point of its hydrochloride. Subse- 
quently, however, this untiring investigator succeeded in splitting 
up the inactive product into a dextrorotatory and a laevorotatory 
base, the former of which proved to be identical in every respect 
Avith natural conine. This remarkable result acquires special 
significance from the fact that a-picoline can be synthetically 
built up by a series of reactions beginning with the formation of 
acetic acid from its elements, and that the preparation of conine 
from a-picoline therefore constitutes the first instance, in the 
strictest sense of the term, of the complete synthesis of an im- 
portant vegetable alkaloid. 

A. Ladenburg also publishes an account of methyl-, etliyl-, and 
isopropyl-pyridines, and of the corresponding piperidine bases 
produced from alcoholic solutions of the former by reduction with 
.sodium. Piperidine obtained in this way is stated to be identical 



2. INTIJODUCTION. 

with tlio alkaloid prepared from piporine. L. Storcli has effected 
the synthesis of a unmher of pyridine bases by heating glycerin 
with a strong solution of ammoniiiin sulphate and sulphuric acid, 
and a similar result has been obtained by J. Plochl with am- 
monium chloride by the action of aldehydes at a high temperature. 
The transformation of citric acid into pyridiue-derivatives is 
reported upon by S. Ruiiemann. 

In order to throw further light on the alleged presence in 
strychnine of a phenylpyridine- as well as a quinoline-group, C. 
Stoehr has distilled this base with alkali, and has thus obtained, in 
addition to a hydride of pyridine, y-picoline, identified as such by 
its crystalline form and melting point, as well as by the composition 
of its auro- and mercuro-chlorides. A crystalline dihydrate of 
strychnine is described by AV. F. Loebisch and P. Schoop, who 
also give an account of a fiuoi-escent derivative of this alkaloid 
prepared by distilling str^^chnine with zinc-dust. The constitu- 
tion of brucine has been further investigated by A. Hanssen, who 
arrives at tlie conclusion that this base contains dimethoxyphenyl- 
pyridine in addition to a quinoline-group. 

A recent report on morphine by D. B. Dott and R. Stockman 
deals with the methyl-, ethyl-, and acetyl-derivatives of this base, 
and shows that metliylmorphine (codeine), prepared from mor- 
phine, agrees as perfectly with codeine from opium in its physio- 
logical properties as it does in its chemical and physical characters. 
The same physiological properties are shared by ethylmorphine ; 
l»ut dimethyl morphine is found to be quite dis.'^iniilar in its action 
from the morphine group ; while in the acetyl-derivative the diffei-- 
ence from morphine consists merely in a slight increase of the 
narcotic and tetanizing effects. In another paper, D. B. Dott 
refers to the meconatcs of morphine, and records the result of 
experiments rendering the existence of an acid meconate veiy 
doubtful. F. Ditzler has investigated the behaviour of morphine 
towards potassium chromate, and finds that solutions of salts 
of this alkaloid, when shaken with excess of potassium chromate, 
give a precipitate of morphine; whilst morphine clu'omate is 
precipitated when only very small quantities of the reagent are 
gradually added. The British Medical Jourual publishes an obser- 
vation to the effect that a solution of morphine hydrochlorate, 
whicli had been employed subcutaneously, was found, eleven 
months later, to produce violent emetic effects, due to the spon- 
tiiTieous formation of apomorphinc. No such change, however, has 
been noticed by other observers ; and in the absence of confirma- 



INTKODUCTION. O 

tory evidence on this point, the statement in question shoaki be 
received with due reservation. The conversion of morphine into 
pseudomorphine may be readily effected, according to 0. Hesse, 
1)y addino- a solution of potassium hydrate and potassium ferri- 
eyanide, containing two molecular weights of the former to one of 
the latter, to a solution of pure morphine hydrochlorate in forty 
parts of wat<}r. The same author now accepts Polstorff's formula 
for pseudomorphine in the place of the one previously proposed 
by himself. G. Goldschmiedt defends the formula CogH^iNO^, 
against Co^ Ho^ N 0^, as found by other chemists, and is supported 
in this view by R. Jahoda. Recent researches on tliebaine, by W. 
C. Howai'd and W. Roser, confirm the conclusion that this body is 
a tertiary base, and that it may be regarded as the dimethyl ether 
of morphothebaine. Additional information respecting the alka- 
hiid cryptopine is furnished by E. Kauder in a communication 
I'cad before the British Pharmaceutical Conference. A paper by 
P. C. Plugge deals with the opium alkaloids in general and with 
the classifica-tion and arrangement of tliese bases in accordance 
with their properties and reactions. 

It will be remembered that the substance Avhich, under the 
name of " hopeine," was brought to the notice of the profession 
(Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 188G, 57), as a crystallizable narcotic 
alkaloid obtained from wild American hops, was subsequently 
])roved to consist of morphine and a variable proportion of another 
l)ase. W. Williamson now applies this name to the alkaloid 
tlistinct from morphine, and gives a description of its properties ; 
but the subject still remains in an unsatisfactory condition calling 
foi' further investigation. 

Continuing his experiments on the preparation of aconitine, 
J. Williams has elaboi-ated a new process consisting in the exhaus- 
tion of the ground i^oot of Aconituia Napellns with amyl alcohol, 
the removal of the alkaloid from the solution thus obtained by 
shaking with acidulated water, its subsequent precipitation from 
tlie acid liquid by means of sodium carbonate, and final purification 
of the product by crystallization from ether. 

A careful investigation of emetine leads H. Kunz to tlie con- 
clusion that this substance is a biacid base and a tertiary diamine^ 
like quinine. He considers that its elementary composition is 
represented by the foi-mula CgoHjoNo O5, which differs by Co from 
that attributed to the alkaloid by Lefort and Wurtz. It is thought 
]n'obable that emetine, like quinine, is a quinoline derivative. 

In a contribution to the lecent meeting of the British Pharma- 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

ceiitieal Conference, J. Williams recommends a new process for 
the purification of cocaine liydroclilorate, Avhicli is based on the 
insolubility of this salt in ether. The so-called amorphous cocaine, 
the true nature of which seems to have escaped the observation of 
previous investigatoi'S, has been re-examined by R. Stockman, and 
shown to be a solution of ordinary crystalline cocaine in liygrin, 
the liquid alkaloid which is also present in coca leaves. This 
body is extracted from the leaves in greater or less amount, along 
with the cocaine, by the processes which are now used by manufac- 
turers, and its presence is stated to account for the disagreeable 
properties and effects which have been observed in many samples 
of the liydroclilorate. 

The chemistry of coffee and its alkaloid caffeine has engaged the 
attention of B. H. Paul and A. J. Cownley, whose researches prove 
that the discordant statements hitherto published in reference to 
the amount of this principle present in coffee must be ascribed to 
defective methods of analysis. So far from this propoi'tion being 
subject to much variation, it shows a most remai'kable constancy ; 
so much so, indeed, that it may be relied on as tiie basis of a 
method for the direct determination of the percentage of pure 
coffee in any sample of ground coffee, whether sold as such or as a 
mixture. 

The alkaloids of lierljen's vulgaris have been re-investigated by 
0. Hesse, wlio considers that the root of this plant contains at least 
four sucli bodies beside berberine. Of these he describes especially 
oxyacanthine, and a new base obtained by him fi"om the mother- 
liquors of oxyacanthine, which he proposes to name herhamine. 
A report on berberine by E. Schmidt and C. Schilbach deals with 
products obtained from this base by oxidation with potassium 
permanganate in alkaline solution. The formula of hydi-astine is 
corrected to C^i H^^ N Og by ]M. Freund and W. Will, avIio also 
give a description of the decomposition-products hydrastiuine, 
hydro-hydrastinine, and hydrastinic acid. Gelscmium root is found 
by F. A. Thompson to contain two distinct alkaloids, one of which 
is crystalline and forms an insoluble hj'drochlorate, while the 
other is amorphous and yields a hydrochlorate soluble in its own 
weight of water. The former of these, for which the name 
'• gelseniinc" is retained, corresponds to the formula CVtHg^N^Oj^. 
Conessine, the base recently extracted from East Indian Holarrhena, 
is believed b}^ K. Polstorft' to be identical with that obtained by 
Haines from Wrighiia. Pilocarpine, pilocai-pidine, and jaborine 
have been fu)-ther investigated by F. Hardy and G. Calmcls ; and 



IXTiiUUL'CTlOX. O 

the same service lias been performed for colclucino bj S. Zeisel. 
Many other vegetable alkaloids discussed or isolated during the 
past year must be left iinnoticed in this place for want of space. 

The literature of ptomaines never fails to receive fresh contri- 
butions. C. Gram has studied the transformation of choline into 
the trimethylvinylammonium base, a poisonous product, which, 
according to Brieger is a frequent constituent of putrid matter, 
and is foi'med from choline by the action of putrefactive micro- 
phytes. It is found that the same change can also be effected by 
purely chemical means. Cadaverine is shown by A. Ladenburg 
to be identical with pentamethylenediamine, with which it agrees 
in its boiling-point, odour, solubility, and its general reactions, as 
well as in the composition of the respective niercuriochlorides. A 
poisonous ptomaine, to which the name lactotoxine is given, is de- 
scribed by E. H. Firth and others as a product of the decomposition 
of milli:. The importance of ptomaines in forensic investigations 
has induced H. Beckurts to deal with the entire subject in a 
valuable essay reviewing the Avork of the last few years in con- 
nection with this subject. 

In a report on snake poison, R. N. Wolfenden states that the 
venom of the Indian cobra does not owe its toxicity to any alkaloid, 
ptomaine, or living organisms, and that the crystalline constituent 
which has been described under the name of cobric acid is nothing 
but calcium sulphate. He attributes the poisonous properties of 
the vemon to its prote'id constituents, and more especially to 
globulin and syntonin. Gr. Haberlandt believes that the poison of 
the stinging nettle is also due to an albuminoid, and disposes of 
the fallacy of attributing the irritating effects of the sting of this 
plant to formic acid. 

Glycyphyllin, the sweet principle extracted from the leaves of 
Smilax glycypliylla, has been fui'ther investigated by E. H. Rennie, 
who reports that the formula previously published for this substance 
should be replaced by Cj H^^ Og. Rottlerin, extracted from karaala 
by means of carbon bisulphide or benzene, is stated by L. Jawein 
to agree in its general characters, but not in its composition, with 
the principle described by Anderson. The wood of Fterocarpus 
Santalinus has yielded to P. Cazeneuve and L. Hugounenq two 
new crystalline principles, for which the names pterocarpine and 
homopterocarpine are proposed respectively. The ripe berries of 
the mountain ash are found by C. Vincent and M. Delachanal to 
contain, in addition to soi-bine and glucose, an astinngent principle 
having a very acid reaction and approximating closely to caffeo- 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

tannic acid, ami in some i-cspocts also to niorintainiic acid. Tlic 
tannin of oalc bark is considered by C. Bottinger as a methyl salt 
of digallic acid. 

H. Bungener supplies some fni-ther information respecting 
]ii])nlic acid, the bitter principle isolated by him from hops, from 
which it may be readily obtained by extracting with light petro- 
leum, and purifying by repeated recrystallization. This acid is 
rapidly oxidized by the air, being converted into an amorphous, 
yellow, resinous compound which forms a very bitter yellow solu- 
tion ; and it is to this compound, rather than to unaltered lupulic 
acid, that the bitterness of beer is asci'ibed. This resinous oxida- 
tion product of lupulic acid is also found to have an antiseptic 
action on the lactic ferment, though it is said to be without effect 
on alcoholic and acetic fermentations. In an article on jervic 
and chelidoninic acids, by E. Schmidt, the former is stated lo 
be identical with chelidonic, and the latter Avith succinic acid. 
Aconitic acid may be conveniently prepared, according to AV. 
Hcntschel, by heating two parts of citric acid with an equal 
Aveight of sulphuric acid and one part of water in a reflux appa- 
ratus from four to six hours. 

Anacardic acid, which was originally obtained by Staedler 
i'rom the oil contained in the shell of tlie fruit of Auacariliinn 
occidentah, is found by S. Ruhemann and S. Skinner to have a 
composition answering to the formula Coj Hgo Og. The acid ex- 
tracted from hemp oil by saponification is i-egarded by A. Bauer 
and K. Haznra, as identical with linoleic acid. The formula for 
linoleic acid, Cjg H^gOo, according to which this body would be the 
jsologue of palmitic acid, aud convertible into the latter by hydnj- 
genising agents, is called in question by K. Peters, who obtained 
stearic instead of palmitic acid on heating the acid with such 
agents. His analytical numbers agree better with the formula 
CjyHogOo, than with the one before mentioned. Erucic and brassic 
acids, and their glyceryl compounds, form the subject of a paper 
published by C. L. Heimer and W. Will. 

,1. F. Eykman calls attention to the occuri-encc of cinnamic aciil 
in plants belonging to Ihe order Ericacerr, fi-om a member of 
which he has succeeded in extracting this acid by means of chloro 
form. Benzoic acid is shown to be convertible into salicylic acid 
liy a suitable treatment with hydi-ogen peroxide. A report on 
substitu<ion-])roducts of salicylic acid deals with chloro-, iodo-, and 
nitro-derivatives of this acid. Phenyl salicylate, which a short 
time ago was bi-onglit to the notice of the medical profession 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

under the uamc of salol, is shown by C. Kolbe to be obtained by 
heating together equivalent quantities of salieyhate and carbohxte 
of sodium in the presence of phosphorus pentachloride, the end 
products of the reaction being sodium chloride, phosphoric anhy- 
dride, and salol. Attention is directed by F. H. Alcock to the 
variable nature, both as regards composition and charactei'S, of 
salicylate of zinc as met with in commerce. 

Further researches respecting the constitution of safrole, the 
main constituent of oil of sassafras, have induced T. Poleck to 
adopt Eykman's formula, Co H-. Cg H5 (0 H). O Me, in place of the 
one previously proposed by himself. The substance known as 
terpinol proved to be a mixture consisting chiefly of a compound 
which is either identical or isomorphous with caoutchine raono- 
hydi-ate, and is provisionally named terpol. 

The oxidizing effects of oil of turpentine in the presence of air 
have been studied with respect to alcohol by C. E. Steedman, and 
shown to result in the conversion of the latter into acetic acid 
after long exposure. 

fjr. Michaelis and W. T. Mayer publi.sli a process for the prepa- 
ration of chloroform, Avhich consists in subjecting crude acetates 
to dry distillation at temperatures vai'ying between 300° and 500°, 
treating the products with hypochlorites, separating the chloro- 
form thus formed by distillation, and purifying by rectification. 

An exaggerated estimate seems to have been formed hitherto of 
the volatility of glycerin during the evaporation of its aqueous 
solutions. 0. Hehner, who has recently investigated this subject, 
finds that not the slightest loss occurs under such circumstances 
from solutions containing less than 50 per cent, of glycerin. 

The conversion of glucose into dextrin is effected by E. Grimaux 
and L. Lefevi-e, by evaporating a solution of the former in hydio- 
chloric acid of 1"026 sp. gr. in vacuo to the consistence of a syrup, 
then precipitating by alcohol, and repeatedly purifying the pro- 
duct. The dextrin thus obtained is not coloured by iodine, is left 
unaffected by infusion of malt, and undergoes hydration somewhat 
slowly when boiled with dilute acids. The glucose formed from 
it by the action of acids is readily fermentable. The oxidation of 
glucose by means of potassium permanganate is found to be com- 
plete if the latter be used in excess and the .solution boiled, the 
product of the reaction being carbonic anhydride, Avater, and 
potassium hydromanganite, KHsMn^OiQ. With smaller propor- 
tions of permanganate, and at lower temperatures, oxalic and 
formic acids are formed, and a portion of the glucose may remain 



O INTRODUCTION. 

unaltcveil. The so-called soluble starch contained in vegetable 
tissues does not appear to be a carbohydrate analogous to ordinaiy 
starch ; but whether it is an albuminoid, as suggested by Niigeli, 
or a tannin, as believed b}' Kraus, remains as yet undecided. 
Inositc, the erystallizable carbohydrate contained in Avalnut leaves, 
forms the subject of a paper by L. Maquenne, who attributes to it 
the formula Cg H^.i O^, + 2HoO. A new carbohydrate, described 
under the name of irisin, has been extracted by 0. Wallach from 
the rhizome of the Avater-lily. It corresponds to the formula 
Cg H^y O5 + Ho 0, and closely resembles inulin, from Avhich it 
differs, however, by its more powerful action on polarised light. 

Saccharin, the coal-tar derivative, whicli a short time ago 
attracted much attention on account of its intense sweetness, is 
stated by Aducco and Mosso to possess antifermentative i^roperties 
equal to those of benzoic or boracic acid. The conclusions arrived 
at by Stutzer concerning the innocuousness of this substance when 
taken into the human body are fully confirmed by E. Salkowski ; 
and it is further stated to cause no increase in tlie quantity of 
urine or sugar passed Avhen given to diabetic patients. 

The individuality of the new element, "germanium," may now 
be considered as conclusively established ; and a complete descrip- 
tion of its properties and its compounds with oxygon, sulphur, 
chlorine, and iodine, will be fouiul in this volume. It is stated to 
occupy a position between gallium and arsenic in the periodic 
arrangement of the elements. 

H. Sclnvarz points out that pure hydrogen may be conA-enientlj' 
prepared by heating a mixture of 20 parts of zinc dust with 22*8 
parts of calcium hydrate in a combustion tube. By substituting 
for the latter 80 parts of calcium carbonate, pure carbonic oxide 
may be obtained. The i-emoval of organic impurity from water 
by means of alum has been tested in a further seines of expei'i- 
ments by P. T. Austin, who ari-ivcs at the conclusion that this 
method of pui-ification deserves to be strongly recommended. The 
observation that soft waters containing mere traces of silica have 
a marked solvent action on lead, Avhile those containing silica in 
the proportion of half a grain or more per gallon do not dissolve 
this metal, has led to the recommendation of a ]>i"ocess of artificial 
silication, by Avhich the action of tlie water on lead pipes is 
I'cdnced to a minimum. 

The, reaction between potassium jiermanganate and sodium hypo- 
sulphite is shown by ^T. Glaser to result in the formation of a stable 
compound of the formula KH3Mn|0i,j, which is not decomposed 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

l)y cold or hot water. It Avill be seen that this body, to which he 
applies the name potassium nianganite, is the same as the potas- 
sium hydromanganite referred to by A. Smolka, in connection with 
the oxidation of glucose by permanganate. Sodium hypophosj)hite 
is stated by A. Cavazzi to form a highly explosive mixture with 
an equal quantity of sodiu.m nitrate, the products of the explosion 
being trisodium phosphate, water, nitrogen peroxide, and nitric 
oxide. H. Beckurts directs attention to the almost constant occur- 
rence of traces of potassium chlorate or perchlorate in commercial 
potassium niti'ate, and deduces the quantity of this impurity from 
the difference in the weight of silver chloi'ide pi'ecipitatcd before 
and after ignition of the nitrate. S. B. Newbury has continued his 
research on the so-called subchloride of silver, and arrives at the 
conclusion that there is no satisfactory evidence of the existence of 
such a compound. Fi-om all that has been published concerning 
the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on acidified solutions of 
arsenic acid, it is evident that the composition of the precipitate 
varies with the conditions under which precij^itation takes place. 
L. W. McCay supplies some further information on this subject by 
showing that when a solution of ai'senic acid or an alkaline arsen- 
ate, strongly acidified with hydrochloric acid and saturated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, is heated in a closed vessel at 100° for one 
hour, the arsenic is completely converted into pentasulphide, the 
precipitate thus formed containing neither trisulphide nor free 
sulphur. 

We conclude our references to chemical subjects in this place 
with a brief notice of some of the analytical methods published 
during the past year. Dealing with Reinsch's test for arsenic, H. 
Hager recommends the use of brass foil in the place of copper, and 
gives full directions as to the manner in which it is best employed. 
He also shows that copper foil intended for this test need not be 
rejected on account of the presence in it of a trace of arsenic in the 
form of an alloy, since this is not attacked by hydrochloric acid. 
Zambelli and Li;zzato effect the separation of arsenic and anti- 
mony by heating the freshly pi"ecipitated sulphides Avith hydrogen 
peroxide, which converts the ai-senic into a solution of arsenic acid, 
and the antimony into an insoluble oxide. For the determination 
of arsenic in forensic investigations, F. Reich and T. Richter 
recommend a process based on the conversion of the arsenic into 
silver arsenate after previous destruction of the organic matter 
by evaporation with nitric acid and fusion of the residue with 
potassium nitrate and sodium carbonate. The disturbing effect of 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

cai-bolic acid and of salts of mercury iu the detection of phos- 
phorus by Mitscherlich's method is pointed out by M. ^Mankiewicz 
and K. Polstorif. For the purpose of separating phenol from 
organic substances in eases of suspected poisoning, G. Dragendorff 
prepares an extract by maceration with alcohol and evaporation 
at a low temperatui'C and under reduced pressure. From the 
residue he removes fatty matters with petroleum benzin, and then 
extracts the phenol by repeated shaking with benzol, Avhich 
solvent is finally allowed to evaporate in watch glasses. An 
analogous process is recommended by the same author for the 
separation of chloral, ether being employed in this case in the 
place of benzol. C. Ludeking shows that chloroform may be 
detected in the lungs of poisoned animals by the Ragsky method 
four weeks after death, and that the method gives trustworthy 
results. A new mode of detecting traces of hydrocyanic acid, 
suggested by G. Vortmann, is based on the formation of nitroprus- 
sides. New colour reactions for the detection of atropine, mor- 
])hinc, pseudomoi'phine, strychnine, strophanthin, kairine, anti- 
])yrin, and antifebi'in have also been desci-ibed, and are recorded 
in this volume. The well-known thalleioquin test for quinine is 
modified b\' E. ]\[ylius by the substitution of potassium chlorate 
and sulphuric acid for chlorine water. , Xew methods for the assay 
of quinine sulphate are never wanting, and each year furnishes its 
(piota to the copious literature of this subject. L. Schafer pub- 
lishes a process which depends on the insolubility of quinine 
oxalate and the comparative solubility of the corresponding salt 
of cinchonidine. In 0. Hesse's opinion this method is not less 
defective than the optical test in giving too high an indication of 
the amount of cinchonidine. l)e Vrij proposes to determine the 
(]uinine as chromatc by precipitation with potassium chromatc, 
and to estimate the cinchonidine in the filtrate with soda ; but this 
y)rocess, too, is adversely criticised both by O. Hesse and B. H. Paul. 
The Avholc subject of quinine testing is dealt with in valuable con- 
tributions by the two last-named chemisls. giving a critical review 
of all the jirincipal tests in use. A test for the purity of chloral 
hydrate, recommended by A. Kremel, consists in the treatment of 
a weighed quantity of this substance with a knoAvn excess of a 
standard solution of sodium hydrate, and the subsequent titration 
with normal hydrochloric acid. The liberation of iodine from 
solution of potassium iodide by impure ether is traced by W. R. 
Dunstan and T. S. Dymond to the presence of hydrogen peroxide 
iu the ethiM-. Two new tests for sufrar, foi- Avhich exti-aordinarv 



IXTRODCCIION. 1 1 

tlelicacy is claimed, arc described by II. ^loliscli, the reagents 
being alcoholic solutions of alpha-naphthol and of thymol respec- 
tively. It is stated that by means of these reactions the question 
of the normal occurrence of sugar in healthy urine has been un- 
mistakably decided in the afiirniative. H. Prunier criticises the 
nitric acid test for albumen, and shows that it cannot be relied 
on in cases where the other well-known tests fail to indicate the 
presence of this substance. Xew pi'ocesses for the detection of 
blood and mercury in urine, and for the determination in the 
same liquid of uric and oxalic acids, have also been recommended. 
Among the contributions to the literature of food analysis which 
have found a place in tliis volume, we may mention reports on the 
detection of adulterations in butter, milk, sugar, flour, beer, Avines, 
and alcoholic liquoi's. 

As usual, a considerable number of new remedies have been 
proposed and old ones revived during the year. The root of the 
melon is reported by Heberger to possess emetic and purgative 
properties, which are attributed by Torosicviez to the presence of 
a powerful pi-inciple soluble in alcohol. In an article on the root 
bark of Enpharhiacece, E. Schmidt, referring more particularly to 
the species indigenous to France, states that the root bark of E. 
Lnihyris is used as a purgative in doses of 1^ gi'f^m ; that E. Esula 
is a hydragogue cathartic, and E. Cyparissias acts as an emeto- 
cathartic in doses of OGO to 1 gram. Euphorbia Peplis is recom- 
mended by Afonsky as a preventive of hydrophobia, the drug 
being given in the form of powder after cauterizing the wound 
with h^'drochloric acid. The same therapeutic properties are 
claimed for the bark of Spircea Filipendula, the roots of which 
were already used for the treatment of hydrophobia more than 
tifty years ago. The fresh root of Echinacea angustifolia is stated 
to produce an excessive flow of saliva and perspiration, and to be 
used by the Sioux Indians as a remedy for snake-bite. Sti-ong 
stimulating properties are attributed by Pinet and Duprat to the 
i-oot of licmijia ferrvginra, the extract of which is found to cause 
a considerable inci'case of I'espiratory movements and of cardiac 
])ulsation. The rhizome and rootlets of Aletris farinosa, a South 
American plant belonging to the order Hjemodoraceoe, are described 
as a tonic bitter, and recommended also in uterine disorders. 
Eupatorium Aynpana, the leaves of which were used in the early 
part of the present century in the treatment of indigestion, cholera, 
and pectoral complaints, is now again lecommended for similar 
purposes. Attention is called by L. Naudin to the leaves of 



12 INTliODUCTION. 

Midisia viciccfolia, a compositous plant indigenous to tlic Avestei-n 
part of South America, on account of its local reputation as a 
reraefly in phthisis and pulmonary diseases in general. Several 
species of Heuchcra are recommended as valuable astringents, 
particularly in cases of diarrhoea. The alleged value of Hama- 
melis Virginica, as a styptic in cases of hjemoptysis, receives 
support frona R. Pollock, who attributes its effect to a volatile 
oleo-resin combined with gallic acid. The horse-chestnut, ^scidus 
Hippocastannm, is again i-evived as a therapeutic agent, its leaves 
being recommended for the relief of whooping-cough, and its seeds 
for hemori-hoids. The galactagogue properties of jaborandi are 
confirmed by Cheron, who states that in order to produce this 
action the di'ug must be given in smaller doses than are necessary 
to cause salivation and diaphoresis. G. Foy repoi'ts that Carduus 
Marianus is now being received with professional favour in France, 
where the tincture and alcoholic extract are pi-escribcd on account 
of their cholagogue properties. Similar properties are also 
ascribed by G. Armstrong Atkinson to the pulp of the fruit of 
Gucumis Myriocarpns, Avhen given in non-emetic doses. Z. T. 
Emery directs attention to the toxic effects of the bark of Hohinia 
Pseudacacia, and relates a case of the accidental poisoning of a 
number of boys who had chewed the bark, and were all seized 
with violent vomiting, followed by great depression. Since no 
constituent is known accounting for such action, a chemical 
examination of this bark appeai-s A'ery desirable. Levcanthemum 
vulgare, the common moon daisy, is stated to be capable of pro- 
ducing very irritating effects on the skin of certain individuals, 
chiefly those who suffer similarly from the poison of Bluis Toxi- 
codendron. Fuhatilla is highly recommended by G. Smith as a 
valuable remedy in acute orchitis; and both Thuja occidentalis and 
Ancliieta salutaris are favourably reported upon as antisyphilitics. 
The reputation enjoyed in India by the leaves of Cassia alata as a 
local remedy for the relief and cure of ringworm appears to be 
justified, since good results have recently been obtained with this 
plant in Paris by M. Conillebault. 

F. S. Halsey gives a very favourable account of the value of 
Piscidia Bnjihri)ia as a hy])notic and anod3-ne, and states that it is 
free from the unpleasant aftei'-effects so often induced by opium. 
The leaves of Bnhus Chammmoriis have proved very iiseful as a 
diuretic in dropsy, while the value of Equisetum hyemale for the 
same purpose is called in question. Agariais albus has been used 
with success for relieving the sweating of consiimjitive patients. 



INTRODCCTIOX. 13 

and the same result lias been obtained with minute doses of agaric 
acid. The seeds of Enfjenia jamholana are credited ■with the power 
of I'elieviug thii'st and exhaustion in diabetes. The cultivation of 
Anacharis Canadensis is stated by ^I. Brandes to have caused the 
disappeai'ance of malaria and diarrhoea in a marshy district where 
these diseases formerly appeared 3'eai-ly in a spoi*adic or epidemic 
form. Parthenium Uijsterophorus is attracting increased attention 
as a febrifuge ; and its alkaloid, parthenine, has also been tried 
Avith much success. 

Two more synthetically prepared compounds, have been added 
to the list of antipyretics. One of these, to which the name 
" antifebrin " is given, is acetanilid or phenylacetamide, a well- 
known chemical compound ; while the other, introduced under 
the name of " antithermin." is phenylhydrazinlevulinic acid, or a 
compound of phenylhydrazin with acetopropionic (levulinic) acid. 

A new adulteration of senega is described by C. Patrouillard. 
and shown to consist of the rootlets of Jiuscus aculeatns. In an 
ai'ticle on quillaia bark, F. B. Power supports the view, recently 
expi-essed by Kobert, that the valuable medicinal projierties of this 
bark render it a desirable substitute for senega in affections for 
which the latter is indicated. Prof. Schrenk gives a description 
of some of the microscopic characters of the bark of lihamnus 
Pv.rshiana, by which this drug may be readily distinguished from 
the bark of lihammis Frangida. A spurious chii-etta is i-eported 
upon by W. Elborne, and referred to Ophelia alata. A sample of 
saffron adulterated with tiny splinters of sandal wood is described 
by Niederstadt, who also mentions honey, glycerin, and salt as 
occasional adulterants of this drug. Italian aniseed is found bv 
C. L. Lochman to contain an admixture of conium fraits, amount- 
ing on an average to 2"5 per cent. E. Heckel and F. Schlagden- 
hauifen call attention to a false kola nut, consisting of the kernel 
of the seed of Uerifiera Utforalis. They believe this to be an 
intentional adulteration due to the increasing demand for kola 
nuts. Under the name of " cali nuts," seeds have recently been 
met with in commerce which, according to E. Merck, present a 
great similarity to calabar beans. The}- may be distinguished 
from the latter by being rounder, their length but slightly, if at all, 
exceeding the breadth. The adulteration of ^^fl^per forms the 
subject of papers by C. Heisch, J. Campbell Brown, and N. 
Wender. Another spurious cubeb is described by W. Kirkby in a 
communication to the recent meeting of the British Phai-ma- 
ceutical Conference. A report by J. 0. Braithwaite, read at the 



14 INTUODUCTION. 

.same meeting, tleals with two species of vesicating beetles from 
South Africa, one of whieli is poorer and the other much richer in 
cantliaridin than Cantharis vesicatoria. In another place the same 
author, in conjunction with E. H. Farr, describes a suspicious 
sample of cantliaiides which, upon examination, proved to liave 
been exhausted. 

A recent chemical investigation of Lobelia inflata by J. U. and 
C. G. Lloyd confirms the statement of von Eosen, as to the pre- 
sence of two alkaloids in the seed; but the properties of the bases 
isolated by them differ somewhat from those previously described. 
E. Jahns reports that he has separated from Indian hemp a base 
wliich he has identified as choline, and points out that this result 
corresponds fairly well with the statements of some previous 
workers. The pharmacognosy and chemistry of Strophanthns is 
dealt with in two papers by W. Elborne, the contents of which, 
however, cannot be intelligibly summarized in the short space at 
our disposal in this place. Physiological experiments with various 
pre])arations of this drug lead H. D. Rolleston to the conclusion 
that the ethereal extracts contain some of the active principle 
upon which the potency of the alcoholic tincture depends. Attempts 
made by B. H. Paul to detect caffeine in the leaves of Catha edulis 
have proved unsuccessful; and the nature of the constituent to 
which this plant owes its stimulating properties remains still an 
open question. A further contradiction is given by C. J. Rade- 
maker to the statement by H. Trimble and H. J. Schuchard, that 
the principle isolated by him from Polygoniim hydropipei; and 
described under the name of polygonic acid, was a mixture of 
tannic and gallic acids. E. Schmidt shows that sumbul root does 
not contain angelic acid, as hitherto a.ssumed, but that this acid is 
a decomjjosition-product of another substance pre-existing in the 
root. A preliminary investigation of Mackay beans, the seed of 
Enfada scandcus, by J. Moss, leads to the inference that they 
probably contain saponin. A recent examination of asafoetida 
by E. Schmidt I'cveals the curious fact that vanillin is one of the 
normal constituents of this gum-resin. 

The assay of ipecacuanha root forms the subject cf a com- 
munication to the British Pharmaceutical Conference by F. 
Ransom, and has for its leading feature the use of ammoniated 
chloroform as a menstruum for percolation. Further reports on 
the assay of opium are published by Hraitliwaite and FaiT, C. ISl. 
Stillweli, V. Venturini, O. Schlickuni, 11. Adiian and K. Gallois, 
E. Dieterich and C. Bullock. 



INTPiODDCTION. 15 

The idea of stundardizing pharmaceutical preparations contain- 
ing powerful alkaloids has been extended bj W. R. Dunstan and 
¥. Ransom to the preparations of Atropa Belladonna. They re- 
commend a process for the assay of these preparations, and give 
directions for prepai'ing an extract containing two per cent., a 
liniment containing 0'2, and a tincture containing 0034 per cent, 
of total alkaloids. A. C. Abraham has critically examined the 
official process for the preparation of fluid extract of cinchona 
bark, and arrives at the conclusion that, in order to obtain an 
extract representing as far as possible the bark from which it is 
made in an unaltered state, the latter should first be fully ex- 
hausted with water, and the residue then extracted with the acid 
menstruum. He considers boiling water preferable to cold, and 
states that the acid menstruum should be at least double the 
strength of that ordered by the Pharmacopoeia. A report on 
medicinal extracts in general, by F. J. Lammer, gives the average 
yield of the finished products pi-epared in accordance with the 
directions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. R. A. Cripps deals with 
the infusions of the British Pharmacopoeia, and publishes tables 
showing the alterations in the present mode of theii- preparation 
as comjjared with the directions of the Pharmacopceia of 1S67, as 
well as the influence of these alterations on the pi-oducts. A good 
deal of attention has recently been devoted to the preparation of 
tincture of strophanthus. W. Martindale pleads in favour of a 
weaker tincture (1 in 20) than that obtained by Prof. Erasers 
formula, and thinks that the seeds alone should be used, and should 
be first freed from their oil. These views are concurred in by 
J. Moss, and have also been adopted by Prof. Fraser himself, who 
has altered his original directions accordingly. Another modifica- 
tion of the formula for this tincture is suggested by W. Elborne, 
in his paper on strophanthus and strophanthiu already referred to. 
H. Helbing calls attention to the difficulty of effecting a complete 
exhaustion of the seeds in the preparation of this tincture, and 
observes that the white strophanthus seeds 3-ield a tincture simi- 
lar in nature and colour to that from Kombe seeds. 

The results of an examination of a number of samples of aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia lead A. C.Abraham to infer that, although 
the official process is capable of giving very constant results, such 
results are not attained by first-class houses, from which most of 
the samples examined had been obtained. The use of Allen's 
nitrometer in the estimation of carbonate of ammonia in thi.s 
spirit is advocated by I'L D. CJravill. 



] (3 INTRODUCTION. 

Tn a note on Liquor Strychiw', B. P., E. H. Fan- draws atten- 
tion to the liability of tins preparation to deposit crystals of 
hydrocldorate of stiyclmine, if exposed to a low temperature, and 
thus to lose in strength. 

Further suggestions respecting the mode of preparing Blaud's 
pills are pu1)lishcd by W. Duncan, T. Thompson, P. Boa, and 
T. Maben. The foi'mula recommended by the latter is practically 
identical with the one adopted in tlie Unofficial Formulary. 
Simple syrup is recommended by C. W. Holmes as the best 
excipient for making quinine pills, and simple cerate as a pill 
excipient adapted for readily decomposable or deliquescent sub- 
stances. The subject of pill coating is dealt with by W. (Jilmour 
and T. Thompson. 

Linimeutum terebinthinoi is stated by G. E. Perry to be obtained 
in a more satisfactory condition by using more soap and less 
Avater than the Pharmacopa'ia directs. T. Redwood, on the other 
hand, finds that the official formula yields a thick, permanent 
emulsion, -well suited for its intended use, if prepared Avith a 
neutral or nearly neutral soap. M. Conroy also defends the 
official formula, but lays sti-ess on the thoroughly perfect in- 
corporation of the soap and water, and the very slow addition of 
the oil of turpentine, -with constant ti'ituration. 

Dealing with the use of antiseptics for the preservation of 
solutions of alkaloids, R. Cf. p]cclcs arrives at the conclusion that 
boric acid is generally better suited for this purpose than salicylic 
acid, but that benzoic acid is preferable to both. 

Nitrite of amyl and bromide of potassium are both I'ccom- 
mended as antidotes to cocaine ; urethane is stated to be an 
efficient antidote to strychnine, picrotoxiu, and resorciu ; and oil 
of turpentine is favourably reported upon as an antidote to 
phos])liorus. The effects of chloral hydrate and butylchloral 
hydrate ai-e found to be elfectuall3- counteracted by picrotoxin. 

A new and, as we venture to anticipate, most Avelcome addition 
to the usual contents of this book has been made in the shape 
of an " Unofficial Formulary," compiled by a special committee 
appointed for this purpose by the British Pharmaceatieal Con- 
ference. 



CHEMISTRY. 



ir 



YEAE-BOOK OF PHAEMACY. 



PART I. 

CHEMISTRY. 



Preparation of Hydrogen and of Carbonic Oxide by means of 
Zinc-Dust. H. Schwarz. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 
1140.) Pure hydrogen may be conveniently obtained by heating 
a mixture of 20 grams of zinc-dust with 228 grams of calcium 
hydrate in a combustion tube. If in the place of the calcium 
hydrate 30 grams of calcium carbonate are used, the resulting gas 
is carbonic oxide. 

Combustion of Carbonic Oxide. L. Meyer. (Ber. der dentsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 1099.) The author confii-ms Dixon's observation 
that a well dried mixture of carbonic oxide and oxygen requires a 
powei-f ul spark and a tolerably high gas pressure for its explosion. 

The Purification of Water by Alum. P. T. Austin. (Chemical 
News, July 23, 1886.) The author has further extended his 
experiments with this method of purification, and feels justified 
in very strongly recommending it. On an average two grains of 
alum to each gallon of water will efiiciently clarify it by allowing 
the water thus treated to stand for forty-eight hours. The pro- 
portion of alum and the time for standing vaiy, however, with 
different waters, but may be easily determined for any particular 
case which may arise. 

Action of Water on Lead. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
269.) In a report on the action of drinking water on lead, pre- 
sented by Messrs. Crookes, Odling, and Tidy, to the Chemical 
Section of the British Association, it is stated that of a large 
number of first-class soft waters, all those which took up lead 
in passing through the service pipes contained less than two-tenths 
of a grain of silica per gallon, while those containing half a grain 

19 



20 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

or more per giillon did not take up any lead. TliLs observation 
agrees with results obtained with soft water to which dialysed 
silica had been added. The reporters therefore believe that artifi- 
cial silication would minimise to the utmost, and practically pre- 
vent, the action of the water on lead pipes, and thus effect a real 
hygienic imj^rovement. The plan adopted in the Huddersfield 
works is to pass the water through tanks containing crushed 
flint, sand, and limestone, the surface of these materials being 
equal to one foot for every fifty-four gallons of water passing 
through per hour. Examination shows that considerable solvent 
action is exercised upon the flint, w^hilst the undesired action of 
the Avater upon the lead service pipes is prevented. 

Occurrence of Free Iodine in a Mineral Water. J. A. Wank- 
lyn. (('hoii.ical Neics, liv. 300.) It has been known for many years 
that the water of tlie Woodhall Spa, near Lincoln, is exceptionally 
rich in bromides and iodides. In the course of an investigation, 
the author has made the observation that there is free iodine in 
this water sufficient to impai-t to it a brown colour of consider- 
able depth of tint. 

Upon shaking this water with bisulphide of carbon, the latter 
assumes the characteristic deep violet coloration. 

The Woodhall Spa is known as a remedy in skin diseases. 

Periodates. C. W. Kimrains. (Proc. Chem. Soc, February 
17, 1887.) The author, at the suggestion of Mr. Pattison Muir, 
has re-examined certain periodates of potassium, silver, and 
sodium, with the object of explaining the discordant results of 
various observers. 

Besides the salt, Na H.j I 0,;, described by Langlois, he has 
obtained a sodium periodate of the formula Na-, Ho I Og ; he also 
describes a potassium periodate K.^ H L Og. He has pi-epared and 
analysed the following silver salts : — 



Ag2 H I Oj, dark brown. 
Ago H.{ I Og, dark red . 
Ag3 Ho I 0(5, slate-coloured. 
Ag I 0,^ "Ho O, orange. 



Ag I 0^, bright yellow. 
Ag^ Tj Og, .3 Ho 0, light yellow. 
Ag^ lo Og, Ho 0, claret-coloured. 
Ag^ To Og, chocolate-coloured. 



Presence of Potassium Chlorate in Commercial Potassium 
Nitrate. H. Beckurts. (Arch, der Fharm. [I}], xxiv. 333-337.) 
The author has noticed the presence of traces of potassium 
chloi-ate or perchloratc in nearlv all samples of nitrate examined 
by him. The quantity of this impurity may be tleduced from the 
difference in weight of silver chloride precipitated before and after 
ifjnition of the nitrate. 



CHEMISTRY. ' 21 

Potassium Mangauite. M. Gliiser. (Monatsli. Chem., vii. 
651-654.) The authoi- has stadied the action of potassium per- 
manganate on sodium hyposulphite, and states that the potassium 
manganite formed in , this reaction is a stable compound, wliich is 
not decomposed by cold or hot water. Numerous analyses con- 
firm the correctness of the formula K H^ Mn^ Ojo- 

Compounds of Sodium and Potassium Hydrates witli Water. 
C. Gottig. (Z?er. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xx. 543, 544, and 1094- 
1096.) The author describas compounds of the formulae, ISTa H + 
2HoO; 2KHO-f9IL,0; and2KHO + 5H20, which he has 
obtained from concentrated alcoholic solutions of the alkaline 
hydrates. For particulars as to -their formation and properties, 
reference should be made to the above sources. 

Explosive Properties of Sodium Hypophosphite. A. Cavazzi. 
(Gazzetta chivi. Ital., xvi. 172.) Sodium hypophosphite, when 
mixed with an equal quantity of sodium nitrate, forms a highly 
explosive mixture. The reaction probably takes place in accord- 
ance with the following equation: Na Ho P Oo + 2 Na N" 0.^ = 
Na^POi + HoO + NOo + NO. 

Sodium Ferrocyanide. L. Pebal. (Liehig's Annalen, ccxxxiii. 
165.) The author finds that this salt contains 10 molecules of 
water of crystallization, and not 12 as hitherto supposed. 

Solubility of Lithium Carbonate. M. Bevade. {Bull. Soc. 
CMm., xliii. 123.) The author gives the following table, showing 
the solubility of lithium carbonate in 100 parts of water at dif- 
ferent temperatures : — 

0° C 1-539 parts. 

10° C 1-406 „ 

20° C 1-329 „ 

50° C 1-181 „ 

75° C 0-8GR „ 

100° C 0-728 „ 

Action of Sulphur upon Solution of Ammonia. J. B. Scnderens. 
(Compteti liendns, January 3, 1887.) Pure sulphur Avas digested 
with solution of ammonia in a closed vessel at about 12^ C After 
three weeks the liquid began to show a slight yellow tint, which 
passed gradually into a reddish yellow, and finally to a decided 
i-ed. This liquid contained an ammoniacal polysulphide and a 
hyposulphite. On exposure to the air sulphur Avas deposited. 

Ammonium Vanadates. A. Ditte. (Comptes Bendus, cii. 918- 
921.) In aldition to the normal salt, (NH,,)2V2 0g, the author 
fully desci-ibes the sesquivanadate, 3 Y^ O^, 2 (N H,^)2 0, the bivana- 



22 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

date, (XHi). 0, 2VoO.., and the trivanadate, (NHJoO, SY.Oy 
For details, reference should be made to the original paper. 

Compounds of Permanganates with Ammonia. T. Klobb. 
(Comptes Eendns, ciii. 384, 385.) Metallic permanganates form 
combinations Avith ammonia, from which the latter cannot be ' 
liberated by boiling with alkalies, owing to the formation of 
nitrites, unless the permanganate be first reduced by sulphurous 
acid. The silver salt, Ag Mn 0^, 2 N Hg, is obtained by saturating 
a solution of potassium permanganate with ammonia, and then 
precipitating with silver nitrate. It is a crystalline powder, which 
explodes when struck, and is decomposed on heating. Copper, 
cadmium, nickel, zinc, and magnesium form similar double salts. 

Note on Lime-Water. J. I. Eraser. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
-Kvii. 782.) The author obtained different results of estimations 
of lime in liq. calcis, prepared strictly according to the B. P. (by 
shaking the lime in a bottle, allowing it to subside, and siphoning 
off the clear liquid), and in that prepared in a jar by repeatedly 
stirring up the slaked lime with water, allowing it to subside, 
and filtering. The former showed an equivalent of 6"16 grains of 
Ca O in ten fluid ounces ; the other, which had been filtered, 5'26 
grains. 

An examination of eighteen samples of lime-water, bought in 
the ordinary Avay, showed that 50 per cent, of them were below 
the standard of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Remarkable Feature in the Specific Gravity of Lime-Water. 
J. A. Wanklyn. {Chemical News, May 13, 1887.) The author 
has recently had occasion to take the specific gravity of lime- 
water, and has noticed an interesting peculiarity. According to 
determinations in his laboi-atory, a litre of lime-water contains 
1344 grams of Ca 0, and the specific gravity of the lime-water 
reaches the extraordinary figure, 1002'35, compared with distilled 
water at the same temperature (13*^ C), reckoned as 1000"00. 

It follows from these observations that in the formation of lime- 
water a most oxtraordinaiy contraction takes place. 

Before solution : — 

CaO . . . 0'5 c.c. = 1-811 grams. 

ILO . . . 1001-0 c.c. = 10010 

which contract so as to occupy one litre. 

The ctmtraction is, therefore, equal to three times the volume of 
the lime passing into solution. 

The purity of the lime-water was ascertained by exactly pre- 



CHEMISTRY. 23 

cipitating the lime by means of its equivalent of oxalic acid, filter- 
ing, and evaporating the filtrate to dryness; the I'esidae was so 
small as to be insignificant. 

Action of Dry Carbonic Anhydride on the Alkaline Earths and 
their Hydrates. C. Scheibler. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 
1973-1982.) Dry carbonic anhydride is without action on the 
dry oxides and monohydi-ates of the metals of the alkaline earths. 

When dry carbonic anhydride is passed over the normal hy- 
drates of these metals at 100°C. in the presence of moisture 
the excess of water present will be removed, and the gas thus 
moistened will act on the hydrate, with formation of cai'bonate. 
The hydrate is, however, not completely converted into carbonate, 
even when 8 molecules of Ho O are present ; and for this reason 
the use of the dry gas in removing water from alkaline earths and 
converting the latter into carbonates cannot be employed as an 
analytical method. 

Ammonio-Ferrocyanides of Calcium and Magnesium. T. Salzer. 
(Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1697.) Strong solutions of 
calcium chloride, containing a large proportion of ammonium 
chloride, form with potassium ferrocyanide a crystalline precipi- 
tate corresponding to the formula (N" H^)oCaFeCyg. Magnesium 
salts, under the same conditions, behave in a similar manner. 

The Composition of Prussian Blue and TurnhuU's Blue. E . F . 
Reynolds. (Proc. Ghent. Soc, June 2, 1887.) These compounds 
are generally represented by the formulas Fe^ Cy^g and Fcj Cy^j ; 
but Reindel and others have conjectured that they ai-e identical 
in composition. The author has carefully prepared Prussian blue 
from hydrogen ferrocyanide and ferric chloride, and Turnbull's 
blue from hydrogen ferricyanide and ferrous sulphate; his analyses 
of the products show that the above formulee are coi'rect expres- 
sions of their composition. 

Chromates. A. Stanley. (Chemical Neivs, liv. 194-196.) The 
salts described in this paper are sodium bichromate, sodium tri- 
chromate, magnesium sodium chromate, and a copper salt of the 
formula N"a. Cr 0^, Cu Cr. O7, 2 Cu O + 4 H. 0. 

Solubility of Silver Chromate in Alkaline Nitrates. R. F. Car- 
penter. (Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., v. 286.) The subjoined table 
gives the results of some experiments made to determine the 
relative solubility of silver chromate in cold and hot strong solu- 
tions of the nitrates of potassium, sodium, ammonium, and mag- 
nesium : — 



24 



YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 





One-tenth Normal Silver 


Grains of Silver 




Nitrate added. 


Chromate dissolved 












10°C. 


100°C. 




Pure Water 


005 c.c. 


0-25 c.c. 


0-064 


Sodium Nitrate .... 


005 „ 


. 025 „ 


0064 


Potassium Nitrate . . . 


010 „ 


. 0-75 „ 


0-192 


Ammonium Nitrate . . . 


0-07 „ 


1-25 „ 


0-320 


Magnesium Nitrate . . . 


0-35 „ 


1-00 „ 


0-256 



50 grains of each of the above salts were dissolved in 100 c.c. of 
water, and the amount of decinormal silver nitrate solution taken 
to obtain the reaction with potassium chromate is given in the table. 
In the last three cases the author has deducted the amount of silver 
chromate dissolved by the water alone, and has given the amount 
due to the solvent action of the respective nitrates. From all these 
solutions the silver chromate crystallized out again on cooling. 

Silver containing Bismuth. W. Go w land. (Froc. Chem. Soc, 
March 17, 1887.) An account is given of assays and metallurgical 
experiments made with the object of determining the effects 
produced by the presence of small quantities of bismuth on the 
ductility of silver, and on the uniformity of composition of silver 
bullion when in ingots of the form and size ordinarily met with in 
commerce. It Avas found : a That when silver is obtained from 
copper containing bismuth by the liquation process, with subse- 
sequent cupellation of the argentiferous lead, it contains pai't of 
the bismuth which Avas present in the copper ; /? that this silver 
is brittle, even when containing bismuth in but small amounts ; 
y that ingots of such silver are not uniform in composition 
throughout their mass, the parts which have solidified last being 
richer in silver than the others ; and 8 that when coinage bars 
of 900° millesimal fineness are prepared from it, they cannot be 
I'olled without special treatment, and even then are hard and un- 
sintal)lo for mintage. 

Silver Subchloride. S. B. NcAvbury. (Amer. Chem. Journ., viii. 
196.) The author has continued his research on the so-called 
subchloride of silver (compare abstract, Year-Book of Fharmacy, 
1886, p. 35), and arrives at the conclusion that there is no satis- 
factory evidence of the existence of such a compound. 

Silver Carbonate. G. S. Johnson. (Chemical News, liv. 75.) 
Silver hydroxide suspended in Avater and exposed to the air 
in a loosely covered vessel was found after tAvo months to have 
deposited large, glistening, yelloAv, prismatic crystals of sih'er 



CHEMISTRY. . 25 

carbonate. These melt at a low red heat, and soon afterwards 
decompose rapidly, with the evolution of abundance of gas. Silver 
carbonate precipitated from solutions bj means of sodium car- 
bonate is amorphous, but resembles the crystalline form in other 
properties. 1 litre of water saturated with carbonic anhydride at 
16°C. dissolves 0'846 gram of pure precipitated silver carbonate, 
and Avhen this solution is exposed to the air for twelve hours, a 
yellow precipitate of crystalline silver carbonate separates. 

Silver Phosphates and Arsenates. A. Joly. (Coviptes Bendus, 
ciii. 1071-1074. From Joiirn. Chem. Soc.) Precipitated and amor- 
phous silver phcsphate dissolve in phosphoric acid solution, the 
solubility increasing with the concentration of the acid and the 
temperature. If a liqiiid containing less tban .38 parts of phos- 
phoric anhydride to 100 parts of water is saturated Avith silver 
phosphate at 80°, and allowed to cool, it deposits tri-silver phos- 
phate in pale yellow rhombic dodecahedrons modified by faces of 
the icositetrahedron. The mother-liquor deposits no more crystals 
on standing, but will dissolve a further quantity of amoi'phous 
silver phosphate if heated, and thus the same solution of phos- 
phoric acid can be used for the crystallization of an unlimited 
quantity of silver phosphate. 

If the solution contains 40 parts of phosphoric anhydride to 
100 parts of water, it deposits di-silver hydrogen phosphate, 
Ago H P O4., in colourless crystals derived from an hexagonal prism. 
They generally form long prisms with rhombohedral terminations. 
In contact with water or alcohol they become yellow, and decom- 
pose into tri-silver phosphate and phosphoric acid, but they are not 
affected by ether. If the concentration of the phosphoric acid 
solution differs much from the strength given, the product is a 
mixture of crystals very difficult to pui'ify. 

When the crystals of di-silver hydi"ogen phosphate are heated to 
110-150°, they yield silver pyrophosphate, Ag^PoOy, which can 
also be obtained by heating the syrupy solution of the silver phos- 
phate to the same temperature. Hurtzig and Geuther obtained 
the same compound by adding ether to the solution which had 
been heated. The pyrophosphate is not, however, formed in the 
wet way, as these authors supposed, since under the given con- 
ditions of concentration, the fused acid salt, and not its solution, 
is decomposed. The exjieriment simply shows that di-silver 
hydrogen phosphate yields the pyrophosphate at a lower tempera- 
ture than that at which phosphoric acid is converted into pyi'O- 
phosphoric acid. 



26 ■ YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Silver arsenate is much less soluble than the phosphate in the free 
acid. If the solution contains less than 70 parts of ai-senic anhy- 
dride to 100 parts of water, the solution saturated with amorphous 
silver arsenate at 80° deposits very brilliant, black, opaque crystals 
of tri-silver arsenate, which are unmodified rhombic dodecahedra. 

A solution of arsenic acid of the composition Hg As O^ + H, O, 
when saturated with silver arsenate, yields white monoclinic crys- 
tals of silver dihydrogen arsenate, a compound which is very 
readily prepared. It is decomposed into tri-silver arsenate and 
arsenic acid by a trace of water, and if heated to 100° yields silver 
metarsenate in the form of a white powder, which absorbs water 
•very slowly. Before losing water, the crystals of the acid salt 
become red, probably owing to the formation of arsenic acid and 
di-silver hydrogen arsenate, Ag.j H As O^. In fact, if a solution 
from which silver dihydrogen arsenate will crystallize is saturated 
with silver arsenate at a temperature a little below 100°, it de- 
posits orange-red hexagonal prisms with rhombohedral termina- 
tions. Their form agrees with that of di-silver hydrogen phosphate, 
and indicates that they are di-silver arsenate, but they could not 
be purified. 

When a syrupy solution of silver arsenate in arsenic acid is 
heated above 100°, it yields a white granular powder similar in 
appearance to the compound Ago 0, 2 Aso O5, described by Hurtzig 
and Gcuther. 

Arsenic Pentasulphide. L. W. McCay. (Chemical Neios, liv, 
287.) When a solution of an alkaline arsenate, strongly acidified 
Avith hydrochloric acid and saturated with sulphuretted hj-drogen, 
is heated in a closed vessel at 100° for one hour, the arsenate is com- 
pletely converted into pentasulphide. It contains no trisulpbide, 
and, if due precautions have been taken to exclude air, no free 
sulphur. Pure arsenic pentasulphide is lemon-yellow in colour, 
does not yield any sulphur to carbon bisulphide, and dissolves in 
ammonia without separation of sulphur. When the ammouiacal 
solution is agitated with silver nitrate, and filtered, a clear filtrate 
is obtained, from which nitric acid precipitates silver arsenate. 
The formation of arsenic pentasulphide in this manner confirms 
Bunsen's results, he having obtained it by the action of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen on hot solutions of arsenic compounds. 

Combination of Stannic Chloride with Hydrochloric Acid. R. 
Engel. (Comptcs IioiiIks, Ju]y l'.\ IS.'^G.) The compound obtained 
by the author is a chlorostannic acid, corresponding in its com. 
position to chloroplatinic acid. 



CHEMISTRY. 27 

Preparation of Cuprous Chloride. A. Cavazzi. (Gazz. chim. 
Ital., xvi. 167.) This salt may be very readily obtained by heat- 
ing 4 grams of copper sulphate with 2 grams of sodium hypo- 
phosphite, and about 50 c.c. of water acidified with 30 drops of 
filming hydrochloric acid. Copper hypophosphite is first formed, 
which is then acted upon by the hydrochloric acid, yielding 
cuprous chloride and phosphorous acid. The product thus de- 
posited may be purified in the usual way. 

Higher Oxides of Copper. T. B. Osborne. (Amer. Jo^im. So. 
[3], xxxii. 333.) The hydrated oxides of copper which have been 
described as resulting from the action of hydrogen peroxide on 
cupric hydrate, are found by the author to be mere mixtures, in 
different proportions, of cupric hydrate with the brown dioxide, 
Cu02,H2 0. 

Mercurous Sulphate. G. Buchner. (Chem. Zeit., x. 759, 
760, and 790, 791; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 852.) Mercurous 
sulphate was exposed under various conditions to air, light, mois- 
ture, and darkness : numerical data are given from observations 
extending over three years, and it is shown that light acts to a 
certain extent on this salt, but nevertheless when exposed under 
the most adverse conditions, the change produced — the decom- 
position extending only in one case to 14 per cent, of the mer- 
curous sulphate — was never so great as to justify the classification 
of this salt amongst the very unstable compounds. It is best 
preserved in a moist state in presence of metallic mercury ; or if 
dry it should fill a well-stopperd bottle and should be kept in the 
dark. The change into mei'cury and mercuric sulphate is reversed 
by the action of water, therefore for electrical purposes the slight 
decomposition of mercurous sulphate is of no consequence. For 
analysis, the mixture of mercuroiis and mercuric sulphates is 
digested with dilute hydrochloric acid ; the mercuric salt remains 
in solution whilst the mercurous salt is precipitated as chloride. 
In the presence of mercury, the mercuric sulphate is also changed 
into mercurous chloride ; therefore when such a change would bo 
detrimental to the results required, titration with iodine and 
potassium iodide is resorted to. Treating the mixture with water, 
and observing the formation of yellow Hg S 0^, 2 Hg 0, does not 
answer with less than 10 per cent, of mercuric salt present. 

Ammonio-Mercuric Chroinates. C. Hensgen. (Bee. Trav. 
Chim., V. 187-198.) On dissolving mercuric oxide in ammonium 
dichromate, Hirzel obtained a compound to which the formula 
(N Hgo, Ho 0)o, 4 Hg Cr O^, was ascribed, although based only on 



28 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

determinsiiions of tlie mercury and chromium. In this paper, it 
is shown that mercuric oxide dissolves readily in a saturated 
solution of ammonium dichromate ; golden, crystalline leaflets or 
needles separate out ; these are insoluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether, very soluble in hydrochloric acid, but only sparingly soluble 
in dilute nitric or sulphuric acid. Analytical results, showed the 
atomic ratio, Hg : N : Cr=l : 2 : 2 ; and that three-fourths of the 
total nitrogen was in the foi-m of ammonium, and the remainder 
in an amido-group, results which point to the composition (N Hgo, 
Hj 0)o, Crg Oy 3 (N H^)o Cr^ O7. These crystals Avhen treated 
with excess of ammonia yield a canary-yellow powder, which no 
longer contains nitrogen in the form of ammonium, and to which 
the formula (N Hgj, Ho 0)3 Cr 0^ is ascribed. If mercury chro- 
mate be digested with a warm, concentrated solution of ammonium 
dichromate, a brown solution is obtained, from which, on pouring 
into an excess of cold water, a yellow powder is deposited ; the 
composition of the sixbstance is (N Hgo, HoO)oCr04, the analogue 
of the sclenate, (N Kg^, Hg O), Se O4. " 

Platinum Salts. E. Prost. (Bull, de la Soc. Chim., xlvi. 15G- 
160.) An acid solution of platinic sulphate, absolutely free from 
nitric acid, after standing for several days, yields an abundant 
brick-red precipitate, having the composition Pt S O4. (0 H)o, 4 Pt 
(0 H)^, 3 H3 0, the liquid becoming almost colourless ; if, how- 
ever, the solution of the sulphate is boiled, a precipitate having 
the composition Ptg S 0^ Oj3, 10 H, 0, is formed. 

Double sulphates of platinum and the alkali-metals were 
prepared by mixing cold concentrated aqueous solutions of the 
alkaline and platinic sulphates, the latter being in excess ; they 
ai'C all pulverulent brown substances, the ammonium and-rubi- 
dium compounds being soluble in water, whilst those of potassium 
are insoluble. The salts prepared were : 

2 (N H,)o S 0„ Ptg (S 0,)3-|-25 H, O ; Pt^ Rb,, (S OJ,-f 17 H., O ; 

3 Ko S O4, PtioOio(S 0,)o + 34 H, ; 

5 kg S O4 Ptjs Ooo S O.i-1-34 Ho O. 

Germanium, the New Element. C. Winkler. {Journ. pract. 
Chem., [2] xxxiv. 177-229 ; from Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 985 ; 
compare also Year-Book of rharmacy, 1886, 19.) Germanium is 
obtained by heating finely powdered argyrodite with calcined 
sodium carbonate and flowers of sulphur at a moderate red heat. 
The product is extracted with Avater, and the solution treated Avith 
the exact amount of sulphuric acid necessary to decompose the 



CHEMISTRT. 29 

whole of the sodium sulphide present. After being left for a day, 
the solution is separated from the precipitate consisting of sulphur, 
and arsenic and antimony sulphides, and treated with hydro- 
chloric acid so long as a precipitate is formed. The whole is then 
saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen, filtered, and the white volu- 
minous precipitate of germanium sulphide washed Avith 90 per 
cent, alcohol saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen. The sulphide 
is roasted at a low temperature, warmed with strong nitric acid, 
and the oxide so obtained ignited ; it is then reduced. 

Germanium melts at about 900^, and volatilises at a temperature 
slightly above its melting point. On cooling, it crystallizes in 
octahedra. It is very brittle, and can be readily powdered. It 
has a metallic lustre, and is whiter than zirconium. Sp. gr.=: 
5-469 at 20-4°. When a drop of the fused metal is allowed to fall 
on to paper, it divides itself into several globules, which move 
continually over the surface of the paper. The metal is converted 
by nitric acid into a white oxide ; it is soluble in sulphuric, but 
not in hydrochloric acid. The atomic weight of germanium is 
72'32 ; the number 72'28 was obtained from measurements of the 
wave-lengths of the most brilliant lines of the spectrum. Deter- 
minations of the specific heat of gei'manium made by Xilson and 
Petterson, at temperatures from 100 to 440°, point to the number 
0'0758 ; the atomic heat is 5'48. The specific heat of germanium 
dioxide is 0-1293. 

Germanious oxide, Ge 0, is obtained by boiling germ anions 
chloride with caustic potash ; a hydroxide, pi'obably Ge (H 0)3, is 
first formed, and this is converted into the oxide by heating it in 
a current of carbonic anhydride. It forms a gi-eyish black powder, 
readily soluble in hydrochloric acid ; the solution so obtained 
yields a yellow precipitate when treated with alkali, and white 
and reddish brown precipitates with potassium ferrocj-anide and 
with sulphurettc?d hydi^ogen respectively. It reduces permanga- 
nates to manganates, and precipitates gold and mercury from 
solutions of their salts. 

Germanium dioxide, Ge O^, is formed when germanium is burned 
in oxygen, and may be obtained in the pure state by decomposing 
the chloride with water. It is a dense white gHtty powder ; sp. 
gr.=:4-703 at 18°. It dissolves in 247-1 parts of water at 20° and 
in 95-3 parts at 100°, and separates in microscopic rhombic or 
rhombohedric crystals. The aqueous solution has an acid taste. 
It dissolves readily in alkaline hydrates and carbonates when 
fused with them. 



30 TEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Germanious sulphide, Ge S, is obtained in splendid thin plates 
by beating the disnlphide in a slow current of hydrogen. The 
crystals are greyish-black, and have .an almost metallic lustre, 
but are quite transparent, and are red in transmitted light. When 
heated in presence of air, it is convei'ted into the dioxide. It 
dissolves readily in warm potash, leaving a residue of metallic 
germanium as a microscopic crj'stalline powder. When the solu- 
tion is treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, the sulphide separates 
as a reddish brown amorphous precipitate. 

Germanium disulphide, Ge S,, is best prepared by pi'ecipitating 
a solution of the dioxide with sulphuretted hydrogen in presence 
of much free mineral acid, and washing the white precipitate so 
obtained with alcohol saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen ; it is 
then washed with ether, and dried in a vacuum. If the sulphide 
is washed with water until free from acid, and then put into 
water, it yields an emulsion which requires several weeks to 
become clear ; the liquid appears then to contain the sulphide in 
a colloidal state, and after repeated filtration contained one part 
in 221'9 parts of water. The solution in water decomposes 
quickly, with evolution of sulphuretted hj^drogen. The disulphide 
dissolves readily in alkaline hydrosulphides, probably with forma- 
tion of sulpho-salts. 

Germanious cJiloride, Ge Clo, is obtained by passing hydrochloric 
acid over heated germanium or its sulphide. It forms a colour- 
less thin liquid, boiling at about 72°. The low boiling point 
indicates the possibility of the substance being a compound, 
Ge H CI3, corresponding with silicium chloroform, the compound 
not yet having been analysed. 

Germanic chloride, Ge Cl^, is prepared by the direct combination 
of germanium and chlorine ; the product of the reaction is shaken 
with mercury and distilled. It may also be pi'epared by heating 
germanium with eight times its weight of dry mercuric chloride. 
It forms a thin, colourless liquid boiling at 86°; sp. gr. = l"887 at 
18°. When exposed to air, it fumes considerably, but less than 
the dichloride. Water decomposes it with formation of an oxide ; 
the reaction gives rise to considerable development of heat. When 
a mixture of germanium chloride with hydrogen is passed through 
a red hot tube, germanium is deposited on the wall of the tube ; 
the reduction is, however, only partial. 

Germanic iodide, Ge I4, is best prepared by heating germanium 
in a current of carbonic anhj'dride containing iodine vapour. The 
reaction takes place with much ^less ease than in the case of the 



CHEMISTRT. 31 

chloride, and the .product always contains free iodine, even when 
an excess o£ the metal is present. It is an orange-coloured 
substance, which melts at 144°, and boils between 350° and 400° ; 
the vapour is yellow, and is inflammable ; when mixed with air 
and ignited it detonates feebly. It is very hygroscopic. In 
determining the vapour-density, it was found that this compound 
does not dissociate at 440°, but that it does so considerably at 658°. 

Germanium is most readily identified by the formation of the 
white sulphide when its alkaline solution is treated with am- 
monium sulphide, and subsequently with a large excess of hydro- 
chloric acid. The quantitative estimation is also carried out by 
means of the sulphide, which is then converted into the oxide. 

The atomic weight and the properties of germanium show that 
it is identical with Mendeleeff's ekasilicon, occupying the position 
between gallium and arsenic in the periodic arrangement of the 
elements. 

Action of Acids and Bases on Solutions of Tartar Emetic. M. 
Guntz. (Coviptes Rendus, cii. 1472-1474. From Journ. Ghem. 
Soc.) When a dilute solution of tartar emetic is mixed with an 
equivalent quantity of hydrochloric acid, the whole of the anti- 
mony is not precipitated, and the pi*ecipitate is not antimony 
hydrate. With one equivalent of hydrochloric acid, 10"5 per cent, 
of the total antimony is precipitated, and the amount increases 
with the proportion of acid until sixteen equivalents precipitate 58 
per cent. Precipitation is diminished by diluting the solution of 
tartar emetic, and is increased by a rise of temperature. The 
precipitate contains tartaric acid, chlorine, and antimony oxide in 
proportions which vary with the conditions of precipitation and 
washing. The quantity of antimony precipitated by sulphuric 
acid is even less than by hydrochloric acid. 

It is most probable that when tartar emetic is mixed with 
hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and antimony hydrogen tar- 
trate are formed. The latter is decomposed by water into tartaric 
acid and basic antimony tartrate, which is acted on by the excess 
of hydrochloric acid, with formation of the oxychloride, Sb^ O5 
Clo- This view is confirmed by the behaviour of barium antimony 
tartrate. If this salt is treated with an equivalent quantity of 
sulphuric acid, pure barium sulphate is precipitated, and pure 
antimony hydrogen tartrate remains in solution. If now this 
solution is mixed with hydrochloric acid, basic antimony tartrate, 
containing chlorine, is precipitated ; if, on the other hand, dilute 
sulphuric acid is mixed with a corresponding quantity of solid 



32 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

barium antimony tartrate, the barium sulphate which is formed 
always contains tartaric acid and antimony oxide, in proportions 
which vary with the dilution and the temperature. 

When a solution of tartar emetic is mixed with two equivalents 
of potassium hydrate, 96 per cent, of the antimony is precipitated, 
and any variation from this proportion of j^otasli is accompanied 
by a diminution in the amount of antimony thrown down. With 
one-fourth equivalent, only 23 per cent, of the antimony is preci- 
pitated, whilst with sixteen equivalents the precipitate is com- 
pletely re-dissolved. The potassium hydrate forms normal 
potassium tai^trate and antimony oxide, and the latter combines 
with the excess of alkali, forming a soluble antimonite. 

Aromatic Antimony Compounds. A. Miichaelis and A. 
Reese. {Liehig's Anualen, ccxxxiii. 39-60. From Journ. Chem. 
Soc.) After referring to the various researches on organic anti- 
mony compounds by Loewig and Schweitzer (Annalen, Ixxv. 315) > 
Hofmann (Ibid., cviii. 357), Landolt (Ibid., Ixxviii. 91, Ixxxiv. 44), 
Buckton (Journ. Chem. Soc, 1860, 15), and others, the authors 
describe the preparation of ti-ipheuylstibine by the action of 
sodium on a solution of antimony trichloride and chlorobenzene 
in benzene. The product of the reaction is filtered, the residue 
repeatedly extracted with benzene, and the extract added to the 
original filti'ate ; on evaporation, triphcnylstibine, mixed with 
triphenylstibine chloride, is deposited. The product is purified by 
treatment with alcohol mixed with strong hydrochloric acid, the 
residue being washed with alcohol, dried and transferred to a 
flask containing light petroleum. Chlorine is passed over the 
surface of the solution until no further precipitate is produced, 
and the precipitate is then washed with petroleum, and recrys- 
tallized from boiling alcohol. The chloride thus obtained is 
dissolved in alcoholic ammonia, treated with suljdiurctted hydro- 
gen, and the precipitated stibine dried and recrystallizcd from a 
mixture of alcohol and ether. 

Triphenylstibine, Sb Phg, forms colourless triclinic plates, which 
are highly refractive ; a : b : c = 069695 : 1 : 088938 ; a = 100° 
37' 50" ; (3 = 103° 30' 50" ; y = 75° 25' 0" ; sp. gr. = 1-4498 at 12°. 
It is freely soluble in ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid, light 
petroleum, carbon bisulphide, and chloroform. It melts at 48°, 
and boils at .360° with slight decomposition. Triphenylstibine 
unites directly witli chlorine, bromine, and certain metallic 
chlorides, for instance cupric chloi-ide. It decomposes mercuric 
chloride, forming antimony trichloride and mercuric phenyl 



CHEMISTRY. 



33 



chloride. Triplienylstibine readily dissolves in strong nitric acid, 
and the solution deposits crystals of triplienylstibine nitrate, 
PhgSbCNOa), (m.p. 156=). 

The dichloride, Phy Sb Clo, forms long slender needles, melts at 
143°, and is soluble in benzene and carbon bisulphide. It is not 
decomposed by water, and is slowly acted on by aqueous solutions 
of alkalies. Alcoholic potash converts it into the hydroxide. 

The dibromide is prepared by adding bromide to a solution of 
ti'iphenylstibine in glacial acetic acid. It melts at 216", and dis- 
solves freely in benzene, carbon bisulphide, and hot acetic acid. 
The iodide, Ph3 Sb lo, crystallizes in glistening tables ; it melts at 
153°, and dissolves freely in benzene. The hydroxide, Phg Sb 
(0H)2, melts at 212°; it is soluble in alcohol. 

When a mixture of triphenylstibine and methyl iodide is 
heated at 200°, a brick-red powder is produced, which appears to 
be identical with the polymeric modification of trimethylstibine 
iodide observed by Landolt (J. pr. Chem., Ixxxiv. 336). Attempts 
to prepare zinc phenyl by the action of pure zinc methyl on 
triphenylstibine were unsuccessful. 

In the preparation of triphenylstibine, diplienylstihine chloride, 
Ph, Sb CI3, is obtained as a by-pi"oduct. The yield may be in- 
creased by diminishing the quantity of sodium used in the reaction. 
The crude product is extracted with alcohol mixed with hydro- 
chloric acid, and the residue left on evaporating this extract is 
repeatedly boiled in dilute hydrochloric acid ; on cooling, the 
solution deposits needle-shaped crystals of the chloride contain- 
ing 1 mol. Hg O. Dipheuylstibine chloride melts at 180° ; it is 
insoluble in water. 

Diphenylstibic acid, Ph, SbO'OH, is obtained as a white pre- 
cipitate when ammonia is added to an alcoholic solution of the 
chloride. The acid dissolves in acetic acid, and in sodium 
hydroxide solution. 

Influence of Heat on the Decomposition of Oxalic Acid by 
Ferric Chloride. G. Lemoine, (IhiU. de la Sor. Chiui., xlvi. 
289-294.) The author has studied the action of heat on the 
progress of the reaction Fcg Clg + H^ Cg O4 = 2 Fe Clo -f 2 H CI 
+ 2 C Oj, employing for his experiments equal volumes of solu- 
tions containing the two substances named in equivalent pro- 
portions. Little or no action took place on heating this mixture 
in the dark to below 50° C ; but at higher temperatures the action 
was very marked. At 100° C, the evolution of C Oo was very 
rapid at the beginning, decreasing gradually afterwards ; the 

D 



34 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

decrease being proportional to the decrease of undecomposed 
"oxalic acid in the mixtui-e. The evolution of gas was much in- 
creased by dilution with water. Dilution with normal oxalic acid 
greatly increased the rate of reaction until sufficient of the acid 
bad been added to form an acid ferric oxalate, but further 
addition of the acid decreased the speed of the action. On the 
wliole the influence of heat seemed to be similar to that of light. 

Zinc Salicylate. F. H. Alcock. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 226). The author's examination of samples tends to show 
that this salt, as met with in commerce, is not of constant com- 
position, and also diifei's much with regard to solubility and 
general characters. 

Substitution-Products of Salicylic Acid. E. F. Smith and 
E. B. Knerr. (Amer. Chem. Journ., viii. 95-101.) The com- 
pounds described by the authors are dichlorosalicylic acid, nieta- 
chloriodosalicylic acid, and two metanitrosalicylic acids. For 
particulars the reader is referred to the original paper. 

Preparation of Salol. C. Kolbe. {Pharm. Zeltung, 1886, 
544.) Salol is prepared by heating together equivalent quantities 
of sodium salicylate and sodium carbolate in the presence of 
phosphorus pentachloride, the end products being sodium chloride, 
pliosphoric anhydride, and salol. 

Action of Hydrogen Peroxide on Benzoic Acid. M. Hunriot. 
(Co7nptes Rendas, cii. 1250-1251. From Journ. Chem. Sac.) When 
benzoic acid is dissolved in 5-10 times its weight of sulphuric acid, 
and gradually mixed with 3 times its weight of a 200 vol. solution 
of hydrogen peroxide aLso dissolved in sulphuric acid, an energetic 
reaction takes place. When the product is diluted with water and 
distilled in a cui'rent of steam, unaltered benzoic acid first passes 
over, and then a mixture of benzoic and salicylic acids. These 
two acids are separated by neutralizing with bai-ium carbonate, 
filtering, and boiling the filtrate with an excess of baryta solution, 
when the salicylic acid is precipitated in the form of a basic barium 
salicylate. A small quantity of another acid is produced, which is 
more soluble in water than salicylic acid, gives a wine-red colora- 
tion with ferric cliloride, is turned brown by alkalies and even by 
ammonium carbonate in presence of air, and dis.solves in concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, forming a red solution. 

When weaker hydrogen peroxide solution acts on a sulphuric 
acid solution of benzoic acid at 200°, the liquid contains a certain 
quantity of phenol, but no salicylic acid. It would seem, there- 
fore, that at a high temperature parahydroxybenzoic acid is 



CHEMISTRY. 35 

produced, but it is also possible that the pbenol is a product of 
the alteration of salicylic acid at the high temperature. 

Presence of Cinnamic Acid in Plants belonging to the Order 
Ericaceae. J. F. Eykman. {Bee. Trav. Ghim., v. 297, 298.) 
From the leaves of the EnJciantJius Japonicus, an ornamental plant 
in Japanese gardens, the author has extracted by means of chloro- 
form a crystalline substance, proved by analysis and physical 
properties to be cinnamic acid. 

Benzylamine. T. Curtius and G.Lederer'. (Ber. der deutsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 2462, 2463.) When benzaldehyde and amidoacetic 
acid are heated together at 130°, carbonic anhydride is evolved 
and benzylamine formed. 

The Reduction of Nitrites to Hydroxylamine by Sulphuretted 
Hydrogen. E. Divers and T. Haga. {Broc. Chem. Soc, 1886, 
No. 28.) On decomposing silver nitrite with sulphuretted hydrogen 
hydroxylamine is formed as the chief product. Mercurous nitrite, 
supposed hitherto not to exist, has been prepared by the authors, 
and will be described in a future communication ; it also yields 
hydroxylamine on treatment with sulphuretted hydrogen. In a 
preliminary note reference was made to the production of yellow 
crystals of unknown nature, together with metallic mercury and 
hydroxylamine, on treating mercurous nitrate with nitric oxide. 
Having since prepared mercurous nitrite, the authors have now 
learned that these yellow crystals were this salt ; and having 
ascertained that sulphuretted hydrogen converts it partly into hy- 
droxylamine, they further recognised that the apparent formation 
of this base from mercurous nitrate and nitric oxide had really 
been its formation from mercurous nitrite and the hydrogen sul- 
phide used to remove the mercury from the solution, as mercurous 
nitrate is soluble in nitric acid with but partial decomposition. 
The green solution prepared by mixing an alkaline nitrite with 
copper sulphate also yields hydroxylamine when treated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen. Alkaline nitrites alone, treated with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen and then acidified, yield no hydroxylamine. 
The formation, here described, of hydroxylamine from the nitrites 
of the silver-mercury group of metals, is the only indisputable 
evidence there yet is of the conversion of an inorganic nitrite into 
hydroxylamine. 

Derivatives of Thymol. G. Mazzara and G. Uiscalzo. (Gaz- 
zetta chim. Ital., xvi. 195-197.) The derivatives dealt with by the 
authors ai'e bromonitrothymol, bromonitrosothymol, and bromami- 
dothymol. For particulars the original paper must be referred to. 



36 TEAE-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Derivatives of C3rmene. G. Mazzara. {Gazzetta chtm.Ital., xvi. 
191-195.) A description is given in this paper of amidobromo- 
cymene, bromhydroxycymene, and several nitrobromo-derivatives 
of cymene. These compounds were prepared by the author in the 
course of some experiments made with the object of transforming 
derivatives of thymol into those of carvacrol. 

Constittition of Safrole. T. Poleck. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. 
Ges., xix. 1094-1098.) Further researches respecting the constitu- 
tion of this body have induced the author to adopt Eykman's 
formula, Cg Hg. CgH^ (0 H). O Me, in place of the one previously 
proposed by himself (see Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1885, 209). 

Terpinol. G. Bouchardat and R. Voiry. (Comptes Rendus, 
April 4th, 1887.) The authors conclude that the substance known 
as terpinol is a mixture. They have separated from it a compound 
which they name terpol ; this forms five-sixths of the whole, and 
is either identical or isomorphous with caoutchine monohydrate. 
The second product requires further examination. 

Menthol Derivatives. G. Arth. (Ann. Ghim. Phys. [6], vii. 
433-499.) The derivatives described in this paper are oxymen- 
thylic acid and some of its compounds, ^-pimelic acid, menthol- 
urethane, menthyl urethane, methyl carbonate, menthyl benzoate, 
normal and acid methyl succinate, and the normal and acid 
menthyl orthophthalate. For particulars reference should be made 
to the original paper, which is not suited for useful abridgment. 

Cinchol. O. Hesse. (Liehig's Annalen, ccxxxiv. 375-379.) 
A further comparison of the properties of cinchol and Liebermann's 
oxyquinoterpene, or cholestole, confirms the author's previously 
expressed opinion (abstract, Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1886, 173), 
that these two substances are identical. 

Terebenthene Derivatives. L. Pesci and N. Bettelli. 
(ArcMv dor Pharm. [3J, xxiv. 1037.) The preparation of the 
hydrocarbon phellandrene, of nitro-phellandrene, phellandrendia- 
mine, and amidophellandrene, from Oleum pheUandrii has been 
recently described by one of the authors. Subsequently, by simi- 
lar treatment with nitrous acid, hrvorotatory terebenthene has 
yielded a dextrorotatory nitrotcrebenthene, CjqHjj'NOo, from 
which nascent hydrogen produces the primary base amidotere- 
bentlu'uo, Cj,, IT,- • X H^, whicli again is Ijevorotatory. 

Carveol, Borneol, and Menthol. R. Leuckart. (Ber. der 
deutsch. chem. Ges., xx. 114-116; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 376.) 
The author gives the name carveol to an alcohol, Cjo Hjj O H, 
which he has obtained by reducing carvole with sodium and 



CHEMISTRY. 37 

alcohol. It is a thick liquid, has a characteristic odour quite 
different from that of carvole, and boils at 218-220°. The acetate 
and benzoate are liquid. With phenyl cyanate, even in the cold, 
it yields carvyl phenylamidoformate, N H Ph •COO* Ciq H15. This 
compound forms small needles, easily soluble in alcohol, spainngly 
so in ether, and melts at 84°. Borneol similarly forms bornyl 
phenylamidoformate, N H Ph • C 00 ' C^^^ Hjy, crystallizing in needles 
soluble in boiling alcohol and melting at 133°. Menthol, under 
similar circumstances, yields menthyl phenyli^midoformate, 'N H Ph" 
COO' Cjo Hjg, which crystallizes in silky needles soluble in boil- 
ing alcohol and melting at 111°. No corresponding compounds 
are obtainable from carvole, camphor, or bromo-camphor, which 
seems to point to the absence of an hydroxyl-group in the latter 
substances. At higher temperatures, reaction takes place between 
carvole and phenyl isocyanate ; carbonic anhydride is evolved, and 
diphenylcarbamide is among the products of the reaction. 

Camphol from "Valerian. A. Haller. (Oompfes Bend us, c'ni. 
151-153. From. Joiirn. Chem. Soc.) Oil of valerian boiling at 220- 
250° was heated for several hours with alcoholic potash, and the 
product poured into water. The precipitated camphol was washed 
with water, sublimed from lime, and repeatedly crystallized from 
light petroleum. The product crystallizes in very friable trans- 
parent, hexagonal tables, with a pungent, eamphoraceous odour. 
It melts at 208'8°, and its solution in toluene has a rotatory power 
[a]£)= - 37'77°. The corresponding camphor melts at 178*2°, 
rotatory power [a]^ = — 42"96° ; the monobromocamphor melts 
at 75'2°, rotatory power [aju = — 127'57°, and the camphoric acid 
melts at 186'2°, rotatory power [a]D= - 46'16°. These values 
are identical with those obtained for camphol of N'gai and its 
derivatives, and it follows that the two substances are identical. 

Derivatives of Camphor. L. Balbiano. (Gazz.chim. Ital., ycvi. 
132-139. From Journ. Chem. Soc.) In a former paper the 
author has shown by means of the phenylhydrazine reaction that 
camphor contains a carbonyl-group. Camphophenylhydrazine is 
an oil readily decomposed, even when boiled under reduced pres- 
sure. In ethereal solution it is converted by hydrochloric acid 
into aniline hydrochloride and the nitrile of campholenic acid, 
thus : Cio H16 -^2 H Ph + H CI = Cg Hi5 C N + N H^ Ph, H CI. 
When distilled with concentrated hydrochloric acid, it yields the 
same products together with camphor and phenylhydrazine hydi-o- 
chloride, thus : 



38 YEAR-BOOR OF PHARMACY. 

2 Cg Hi6 No H Ph + 2 H CI + Ho O = 
Cg Hi6 C 4- Cg Hi5 -C N + N H2 N H Ph, H CI + N H2 Ph, H CI. 

The reaction between bromocamphor and phenylhydrazine is very 
violent ; to modify it the temperature must be lowered and the 
solvents perfectly dried. Under these conditions phenylhydrazine 
hydrobromide is formed, together with a derivative of dihydrazine, 
which it is proposed to designate campliylpJienyldihydrazine. This 
compound, Ng Hj Ph • C^q H^s '■ No H Ph, is a solid, amorphous 
substance, melting at 55°, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble 
in water. The reaction leading to its formation is as follows : 

Cjo Hi5 Br + 3 Ph H No H^ = 
No H3 Ph -Cjo Hi5 : N2 H Ph + Ph N2 H3, H Br + Ho O. 

Cyano-Camphor. A. Haller. (Comptes Bendus, ccii. 1477- 
1479.) The author describes the preparation of ethyl campho- 
carbonate, C^qH^s 'C Et, and shows that cyano-camphor 
may be regarded as the nitrile of camphocarbonic acid. 

The formation and properties of sodium and potassium campho- 
cyanates, C^q H^^ Na C N O and Cjq H^ K C N 0, are described in 
the same paper. 

Combinations of Nitro-Camphor. P. Cazeneuve. (Comptes 
Rendus, July 26, 1886.) On treating normal chloronitrous camphor 
with zinc, copper, iron, or alkalies in presence of dilute alcohol, 
it is decomposed with formation of a metallic chloride and oxide 
or an alkaline chloride or chlorate, whilst a compound of nitro- 
camphor with the metal in question is produced. 

Thiopten. A. Biedermann and P. Jacobsen. (Ber. der 
dentsch. chem. Ges., xix. 2444-2447 ; Jonrn. Chem. Soc, 1886, 1032.) 
On theoretical grounds the existence of a compound, Cg H^ Sg, is 
probable, which bears to thiophen the same relation as that of 
naphthalene to benzene, and whose constitution is expressible by 

.CHCCH^^ 
the formula, C H^ >C H. 

\_s -c -s— ^ 

Such a compound (thiopten) is obtained in small quantities by 
the distillation of citric or tricarballylic acid with piiosphorus 
sulphide, and can be purified by means of its crystalline com- 
pound with picric acid. It is an oil boiling at 224-226°, of faint, 
pleasant odour ; it gives the indophenine reaction. The picrate, 
CgH^So, Cg H3 (N02)3, crystallizes in golden needles, melting 
at 133°, and the tetrabromoderivative, Cg Br^ Sg, in long white 



CHEMISTRY. 39 

needles, melting at 172^, soluble in benzene, sparingly soluble in 
alcohol. 

Derivatives of Tribromophenol. A. Purgotti. (Gazzetta chim. 
Ital., xvi. 526-531.) Tlie caZcMMJt-derivative of tribi-omoplienol 
crystallizes in white, silky needles ; the awimowMim-derivative 
forms minute crystals, more soluble in cold water than in hot ; 
the siYt'er-derivative is a red, insoluble powder darkening rapidly 
on exposure ; the lead and zwic-derivatives are white precipitates, 
and the copper- derivative a violet powder, insoluble in water but 
soluble in ammonia. The e^/i?/Z-derivative crystallizes in brilliant 
prisms meltiiig at 69°. As an antiseptic tribromophenol seems to 
be superior to phenol and thymol. 

Derivatives of Umbelliferone. W. Will and P. Eeck. {Ber. 
der deufsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1777-1786.) In this paper the 
authors describe bromo-derivatives of umbelliferone ethyl and 
methyl ethers, and arrive at the conclusion that these ethers are 
true coumarins, and, like the latter, yield two isomeric alkyloxy- 
acids. 

Formation of Quinol from Cliiinone. G. Ciamician. (Gazz. 
cMm. Ital., xvi. Ill, 112.) When an alcoholic solution of quinono 
is exposed to bright sunlight for a few days it yields quinol and 
ethaldehyde, in accordance with the following equation : — 

CfiH.Oo+C.HyO = CeHfiO. + aH.Oo. 

Preparation of Cluinone and duinol. R. N"ietzki. {Ber. der 
deufsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1467-1469.) The author points out 
several objectionable points in Seyda's modifications of his own 
processes for the preparation of these substances. He now re- 
commends the following procedure : — A concentrated solution of 
sodium bichromate (one part of salt in two to three parts of 
water) is slowly added to a mixture of one part of aniline, twenty- 
five parts of water, and eight parts of sulphuric acid, the liquid 
being well cooled ; the addition of the chromate solution is 
continued until any quinhydrone formed has been oxidized to 
quinone. Instead of extracting the quinone with ether and then 
i-educing it to quinol, it is best to reduce at once with sulphurous 
anhydride, filter oif the insoluble impurities, and extract the 
quinol with ether. Operating in this way, a yield of 85 per cent, 
of crude quinol (on the aniline employed) has been obtained. 

QpUinol and Formic Acid. F. Mylius. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. 
Ges., xix. 999-1009; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 706). Quinolformic 
acid, Cos -^26 ^10' is formed when quinol (4 mols.) is dissolved in 



40 YEAU-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

hot formic acid, and separates on cooling in colourless, pointed 
crystals ; it melts at abont 60° with evolution of formic acid. 
When dissolved in water, it is decomposed into its constituents. 

When quinol is heated with twice its weight of crjstallizable 
formic acid for three or four hours at 250^, a product is obtained 
consisting of glassy needles ; a large quantity of carbonic oxide 
is formed. The new compound cannot be purified by crystalliza- 
tion, as all solvents, water, alcohol, etc., decompose it into quinol 
and carbonic oxide, and a small quantity of formic acid. It melts 
at 170° with evolution of carbonic oxide, and leaves a residue of 
quinol. It is probably formed by the elimination of water 
(1 mol.) from quinolformic acid (2 mols.), and would thus be 
quinolformic anhydride (C^j Hg Oo)8» t)o H^ 0;j. Concordant analy- 
tical results could not be obtained, but the results of quantitative 
experiments, in w^hich the carbonic oxide and the formic acid were 
estimated, support this view. 

Quinolhydrocyanic acid (Cj; Hg Oo)o, H C N, is obtained by heat- 
ing quinol with anhydrous hydrocyanic acid at 100° ; it forms 
coloui'less, lustrous needles, and decomposes into its constituents 
when h(>:ited, or by contact with water. 

Saccharin. (Jonrn. Soc. CTiem. Iml., July, 1886, 422. From Pharm. 
Journ.) The conclusions arrived at by Stutzer concerning the 
innocuousness of saccharin when taken into the human body have 
recently been confirmed by Professor E. Salkowski {Virchow's 
Archiv, cv. 46), and Professor Dreschfeld has ascertained that 
when given in diabetes it does not affect either the quantity of 
uiino or of sugar passed. It has scarcely any retarding effect on 
the digestion of either proteids or carbohydrates, and in two cases 
of acid dyspepsia, it was found to relieve some of the troublesome 
symptoms. It has also been found that added in small quantities 
it increases the diastatic action of malt in presence of sugar. 

Antifennentative Properties of Saccharin. MM. Aducco 
and JNlosso. (Chem. Zeitiinfj, Oct. 10, 1886. From Pharm. Jonr7i.) 
It was found that in the proportion of 016 per cent, saccharin 
distinctly and persistently diminished the activity of beer yeast 
at a temperature both of 16° and 30° C. In a mixture of equal 
parts of a 032 per cent, saccharin solution and urine, kept at a 
temperatui-e of 16° to 17° C, ammoniacal fermentation had not 
commenced at the end of seven days, when a mixture containing 
the same proportion of salicylic acid had broken down. A 
saccliarin solution retarded the lactic fermentation in milk, and 
the action of a preparation of pancreas was also considerably 



CHEMISTRY. 41 

slackened by it. Added to a pepsin liquor in the proportion of 
0'16 to 0'032 per cent., saccharin retarded the peptonizing of 
coagulated albumen, though without stopping it ; but upon reduc- 
tion of the saccharin to 0"0064 per cent., the gastric juice was then 
scarcely affected. Comparative experiments showed benzoic acid 
to be equally powerful in this respect, and salicylic acid a little 
more so. In the proportion of 0'16 to 0"32 per cent, in acid 
and neutral solutions, saccharin proved capable of affecting the 
amylotic action of saliva, the effect being least in the neutral 
solution. Salicylic acid proved rather more powerful in similar 
solutions, and boric acid had about the same effect as saccharin. 

So-called Soluble Starch. J. Kraus. (A7i7i. Agronom., xii. 
540, 541. From Jcurn. Chem. Soc.) Janis and Schenk have 
found in the epidermis of Ornithogalum and of Gagea a substance 
dissolved in the cell sap which strikes a blue colour with iodine. 
Nageli has shown that it is not starch, and believes it to be an 
albuminoid. The author, having met with this same substance in 
the epidermis of some Arums, has come to the conclusion that it is 
allied to the tannins. Chloriodide of zinc colour's it rose, ferric 
chloride and ferrous sulphate strike a brownish green ; on the 
other hand, potassium dichromate and Gardiner's reagent give no 
reactions. The substance behaves like a tannin in being developed 
under the influence of light, and in persisting without alteration 
in dead or dying leaves. That iodine should strike a blue colour 
with a tannin is not surprising, since Giessmayer has shown that 
a solution of tannin gives with a weak solution of iodine, in feebly 
alkaline water, a bright red colour, and Nasser has recognised that 
tannic and gallic acids and pyrogallol, in the presence of neutral 
salts or acids, are coloured red-purple by iodine. 

The so-called Soluble Starch contained in Vegetable Tissues. J. 
Dufour. (Ann. Agronom., xii. 297, 298; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 
903.) The so-called " soluble starch " found in the cell contents 
of the epidermis of certain plants is considered by Kraus to be 
really a tannin. The author's observations tend to show that at 
any rate it is not a carbohydrate analogous to ordinaiy starch. It 
may be a glucoside, but it gives none of the reactions of tannin 
with ammonium molybdate, ferric chloride, potassium bichromate, 
and gelatin. The autlior does not concur in Niigeli's suggestion 
that it is an albuminoid. 

The plants containing most of this substance are Saponaria 
officinalis and Gypsophila perfoliata, Arum Italictim., Bryonia dio'ica; 
several species of Hordeum, Ornithogahmi umbellatum^ and Gagea 



42 YEAR-BOOK OF PflAEMACY. 

lutea also contain it. In all these plants it occurs in tlie epider- 
mis, but Ntigeli believes that a similar body exists in various seeds 
(Ajiagyris foctida, Peganum harniala, etc) . A fragment of the epider- 
mis of Saponaria qficinalis is speedily coloured an intense violet 
when immersed in iodised potassium iodide. An alcoholic tinc- 
ture of iodine produces the same effect only after evaporation of the 
alcohol, when the blue compound is deposited in crystalline needles. 
The alcoholic extract of the leaves of S. officinalis, treated with 
ether to dissolve out chlorophyll, etc., and then with water to 
dissolve out the "soluble starch," yields a yellowish neutral solu- 
tion. A drop of this evaporated on a glass slide deposits yellowish 
spheroidal crystals, with radial lines, but no trace of concentric 
striae. These crystals do not swell out in hot water like starch 
gi-anules. 

Inosite. L. Maquenne. {Comptes Bendus, civ. 225-227; 
Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 355.) Walnut leaves are extracted me- 
thodically with about four times their Aveight of water, and the 
boiling solution is precipitated first with milk of lime, then with 
lead acetate, and finally with basic lead acetate, which forms an 
insoluble compound with the inosite. The last precipitate is 
washed with water, decomposed by sulphui'etted hydrogen, and the 
solution concentrated to a syrup. The boiling liquid is then mixed 
with 7 or 8 per cent, of concentrated nitric acid, which destroys 
nearly all the foreign matter without attacking the inosite, and, 
after cooling, a mixture of 4-5 vols, of alcohol with 1 vol. of 
ether is gradually added to the nearly colourless liquid. Inosite 
is thus separated as a colourless flocculent precipitate, which is 
recrystallized from dilute acetic acid, dissolved in water, again 
treated with nitric acid, and again precipitated with alcohol and 
ether. A small quantity of calcium sulphate, which always occiirs 
in the product, is decomposed by adding barium hydrate, and 
the barium is removed by means of ammonium carbonate, the pro- 
duct being finally recrystallized fi-om water. The yield is about 
294 grams per kilo, of leaves. 

Anhydrous inosite has the composition* Cg Hjo Og , Avhilst the 
crystals have the composition Cg Hjo Og -I- 2 Ho O ; they lose all 
their water at 110°. Inosite does not volatilise without decora- 
jiosition, but its molecular weight can be determined by Raoult's 
ciyoscopic method ; that is, by determining the freezing point of 
its aqueous solution. The freezing point of a solution of 25 grams 
of inosite in 100 grams of water is - 029°, whilst the calculated 
value for Cg Hj., Og is - 0-27°. 



CHEMISTRY. 43 

Inosite is only slightly soluble in cold, but very soluble in warm 
water. It is insoluble in alcohol, ether, and glacial acetic acid, but 
dissolves readily in dilute acetic acid, from which it can be easily 
crystallized. It melts at 217° without carbonisation, and boils 
with slight decomposition in a vacuum at 319°. When heated in 
the air, it burns readily. Solutions of inosite are optically inactive, 
both when freshly prepared and after they have been in contact 
with Penicilliurn glaticum for six weeks. Inosite is not attacked 
by boiling dilute acids or alkalies, does not reduce copper solutions, 
and is not acted on by ammoniacal silver nitrate alone, but in 
presence of sodium hydi-ate it yields a mirror of metallic silver. 
It does not combine with sodium hydrogen sulphite, is not reduced 
by sodium amalgam, and is not sensibly affected by halogens in 
the cold. When heated with bromine and water at 100°, it yields 
brown products precipitable by salts of barium, and similar to 
those obtained in Scherer's reaction. These compounds contain 
no bromine, and are oxidation-products which can be more readily 
prepared by the action of nitric acid. 

A New Compound of Saccharose. A. Herzfeld. (Chem. Centr., 
1886, 271.) The combination described by the author is obtained 
by suspending saccharates of alkaline earths in alcohol and treat- 
ing with hydrochloric acid. A solution is thus obtained from 
which a calcium chloride compound of an ethyl ether of the sugar 
is slowly precipitated. 

Oxidation-Products of Levulose. A. Herzfeld and E. Born- 
stein. {Chem. Centr., 1886, 187.) In order to study the action 
of weak oxidizing agents, the authors operated with mercuric oxide 
in presence of barium hydrate upon a boiling aqueous solution of 
levulose. The products obtained were glycollic acid and normal 
trihydroxybutyric acid. 

Oxidation-Products of Levulose. A. Herzfeld and H. Winter. 
{Chem. Centr., 1886, 271-273.) The oxidation of solutions of levu- 
lose by the gradual addition of bromine, continued over a period 
of several weeks, yielded (after removal of the bromine by treat- 
ment with lead and silver oxides) glycollic and trihydroxybutyric 
acids, the same products as were obtained by oxidation with mer- 
curic oxide and barium hydrate (see preceding abstract). 

Irisin. O. Wallach. (Liebig's Annalen, ccxxxiv. 364-375.) 
The rhizome of the water lily, Iris pseudacorus, contains a peculiar 
carbohydrate, called "irisin" by the author. Irisin, CgH^oO;-!- 
Hj 0, closely resembles inulin, but is distinguished from the latter 
by its more powerful action on polarised light ; [aju = — 49° 9' 



44 TEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

for a 2 per cent, solution of irisin, and [a]D= - 37° 27' for a solu- 
tion of inulin of the same strength. Fehling's solution is not 
reduced by irisin, but the carbohydrate is easily attacked by dilute 
acids, yielding levulose as the chief product. Irisin is four times 
as soluble as inulin in water at 22°. Under the microscope the 
globules of irisin resemble the minute globules of inulin in size, 
but they do not exhil)it double refraction. 

Action of Potassium Permanganate on Glucose. A. Smolka. 
(Monatsh. Chem., viii. 1-26.) In the presence of an excess of 
permanganate the oxidation of the glucose is complete, especially 
on boiling ; the products of the reaction being water, carbonic 
anhydride, and potassium hydroraanganite, K H3 Mn^ O^q. With 
smaller proportions of permanganate, and at ordinary temperatures, 
oxalic and formic acids are formed, along with water and carbonic 
anhydride, and a portion of the glucose may remain unaltered. 

Conversion of Glucose into Dextrins. E. Grimaux and L. 
Lefevre. {Comptes Rendtcs, ciii. 146-149. From Journ. Chem. 
Soc.) Pure glucose was dissolved in eight times its weight of 
hydrochloi'ic acid of sp. gr. 1026, the solution distilled in a vacuum 
on the water-bath, and the syrupy amber-coloured residue dis- 
solved in water and precipitated by alcohol, solution and pre- 
cipitation being repeated several times. The product was then 
dissolved in water, decolorised by animal charcoal, the solution 
concentrated by evaporation in a vacuum on the water-bath, and 
then allowed to evaporate in a vacuum at the ordinary temperature. 
The product thus obtained is a white powder which resembles 
ordinary white dextrin, is very hygroscopic, and forms gummy 
solutions. Its reducing and rotatory power vary with the number 
of times the substance has been redissolved and reprecipitatcd. 
When prepared by the method just described, the dextrin contains 
a small proportion of fermentable sugar, which can be removed by 
treatment with yeast. After purification in this way, one product 
had a reducing power of 178 per cent., whilst its rotatory power 
for [a]D= -f- 97-48. 

The dextrin obtained in this way has the composition 3 Cg HjQOg 
+ H, O, and belongs to the class of achroodextrins. Its general 
properties resemble those of the dextrin obtained by Musculus by 
the action of sulphuric acid on glucose in presence of alcohol, but 
it has a lower rotatory and reducing power. It is not coloured 
by iodine, is unaffected by infusion of malt, and undergoes hydra- 
tion somewliat slowly when boiled with dilute acids. The glucose 
formed from it by the action of acids is readily fermentable. 



CHEMISTRY. 45 

The alcoholic liquid from which the dextrin has been precipi- 
tated contains other dextrins with higher reducing powers, to- 
gether with a fermentable sugar, which is found by Fischer's 
reaction with phenylhjdrazine and sodium acetate to be a mixture 
of glucose and maltose. 

Galactose from milk-sugar behaves like dextrose, and yields a 
galactodextrin which resembles glucodextrin. Its reducing power 
in tei-ms of glucose is 10 per cent., and its rotatory power for 
[a]D=+80. 

Acid Fermentation of Glucose. M. Boutroux. (Comptes 
Bendus, cii. 924-927 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 682.) The acid 
fermentation of glucose takes place under the influence of a 
micrococcus resembling that to which the author has previously 
given the name M. ohlongus. If this ferment is sown in a solution 
of glucose in yeast- water containing an excess of chalk, and kept 
at 35°, crystals of the calcium salt of an acid separate, and before 
long the surface of the liquid is covered with a crystalline crust. 
If the zymo-gluconic acid obtained by the action of M. ohlongus 
on glucose is mixed with yeast-water and the ferment under the 
same conditions, it yields the same product. In order to obtain 
the free acid, the calcium salt is converted into the cadmium salt, 
which is purified by recrystallization, and then decomposed by 
sulphuretted hydrogen. The free acid is an almost colourless 
syrup, with a distinctly acid reaction, very soluble in water and 
alcohol, but only slightly soluble in ether. It is turned brown by 
a slight elevation of temperature, or by the addition of a slight 
excess of alkali, especially ammonia. 

The calcium, strontium, and cadmium salts are crystallizable, 
but show great tendency to form supersaturated solutions ; the 
potassium, sodium, ammonium, and thallium salts have only been 
obtained in the form of syrups. The calcium salt crystallizes in 
prisms with a rhombic base, which seem to belong to the mono- 
clinic .system ; it is only slightly soluble in cold water, but dissolves 
much more readily in boiling water ; the hydrochloric acid solu- 
tion is distinctly Igevogyrate. The strontium salt forms microscopic 
crystals, which seem to be derived from a prism with a rhombic 
base ; it is only slightly soluble in cold water, but is much more 
soluble in boiling water. The cadmiura salt forms very brilliant 
crystals, which seem to belong to the monoclinic system ; it dis- 
solves in about 65 parts of water at 15°, and is very soluble in 
boiling water. Concenti^ated solutions of the salt are gradually 
decomposed by ebullition. 



46 YKAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

With normal or basic lead acetate, or with bismuth nitrate, 
solutions of the salts give white amorphous precipitate, soluble in 
acetic acid. Concentrated solutions also give crystalline pi'ecipi- 
tates, which form slowly with salts of calcium and strontium, but 
they give no precipitate with salts of barium, magnesium, cerium, 
zinc, iron, or copper. The solutions of the acid and its salts have 
considerable reducing power. They decolorise alkaline potassium 
permanganate ; reduce silver nitrate slowl}' in the cold, instantly 
on boiling, and with ammonical silver nitrate they form a silver 
mirror. Boiling solutions also reduce Fehling's solution, mer- 
curous nitrate, bismuth nitrate, and mercuric chloride. 

Analysis of the cadmium and calcium salts shows that the acid 
has the formula Cg lljo Og. It is probably not identical with 
Maumene's hexepic acid, and the author gives to it the name 
" oxy gluconic acid." 

Saccharose yields no acid under the same conditions. 

The Action of Potassium Hydrate upon Alcohol. R. En gel. 
(Comptes Eendus, ciii. 155-157.) Potassium hydrate was sus- 
pended in a platinum basket in alcohol until the latter was 
saturated. Under these conditions the liquid separates into two 
layers, the lower being an aqueous and the upper an alcoholic solu- 
tion of potassium hydrate. If the alcoholic solution is kept at 0° 
for twenty-four hours, it deposits unctuous, white, crystalline plates, 
which have the composition K H + 2 Et H 0, and alter rapidly 
when exposed to air. This alcoholate of potassium hj^drate may 
be kept in closed vessels at 0° Avithout undergoing alteration, but 
at 30° it gradually decomposes. At 60° the crystals melt, and after 
some hours the liquid separates into two layers; this decomposition 
is very rapid at 100-120°. The alcoholate decom])oses in accord- 
ance with the equation, K H 0, 2 Et H = Et K + Et O H -h Ho O. 
The liberated water is saturated with potassium hydrate, and 
forms the lower layer of liquid. The upper alcoholic layer when 
cooled deposits slender needles which seem to have the composi- 
tion EtO K-4-EtOH. 

The formation of potassium ethoxide by the action of heat on 
alcoholic potash, explains the action of the latter on certain organic 
compounds. 

The Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol in the Presence of Turpentine. 
C. VI. tStoodiuan. {Pfor. Chcm. Soc, June 2, 1887.) The 
author finds that dilute ethyl alcohol in the presence of air and 
turpentine becomes oxidised to acetic acid. The experiment was 
made by placing in a clear glass 16-oz. bottle a mixture of 2 drams 



CHEMISTRY. 47 

of alcohol, 1 dram of turpentine, and 1 oz. of water ; the bottle 
was securely corked and left exposed to a varying temperatui'e, 
averaging about 80° F., for three months ; at the end of that time 
the liquid was strongly acid from the presence of acetic acid. 

One curious fact appears to have light thrown ujDon it by this 
observation. Mr. McAlpine, Professor of Biology at Ormond 
College, Melboui^ne University, has a method of preserving biolo- 
logical specimens by abstracting their moisture with alcohol after 
hardening in chromic acid, and then placing the specimen in 
turpentine for some time ; great discrepancies arise, however, 
according as the alcohol is allowed or not to evaporate from the 
specimen before dijiping it into turpentine. 

Preparation of Chloroform. G. Michaelis and W. T. Mayer. 
(I)ingl. polyt. Journ., cclxi. 496.) The authors' process of px'e- 
paring chloroform consists in subjecting crude acetates to dry 
distillation at temperatures varying between 300° and 500°, treat- 
ing the products with hypochlorites, condensing the chloroform 
therefrom by distillation, and purifying by rectification. 

Non- Volatility of Glycerin with Aqueous Vapour. O. Hehner. 
{Ayialyst, April, 1887, 65.) The experiments recorded by the 
author show that glycerin is not volatilized with aqueous vapour 
from any solution containing less than 50 per cent, of glycerin. 

Lactates. H. Meyer. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 2454- 
2456.) Barium lactate, with two or one mol. Ho O, crystallizes 
in rectangular needles, soluble in water and glycerin, insoluble 
in alcohol, the last molecule of water of crystallization is not 
removed without decomposition. Aluminium lactate crystal- 
lizes in anhydrous triclinic octahedra ; sodium, aluminium lactate, 
Alg (C3H- 0.5)3, (C3 H,i N'*- 03)3 + 0^2' crystallizes in rectangular 
pi'isms or tables. 

Preparation of Phenylacetic Acid. W. Staedel. (Ber. der 
deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1949-1952.) 100 grams of benzyl cyanide, 
boiling at 210-235° (prepared from the chloride by Mann's 
method) are added to 300 grams of dilate sulphuric acid (3 vols. 
acid to 2 vols, water), and the whole heated over a flame until 
a reaction begins; the flame is then removed, and in a few seconds 
the reaction becomes very violent. To avoid loss, the flask con- 
taining the substance is provided with a tube bent twice at i-iglit 
angles, the end of which is fitted into a double-necked flask 
containing water. A funnel is fitted into the second neck of the 
'flask, so that it dips under the water. To avoid water being 
ejected through the funnel, a dish is placed at the opening. When 



48 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the first violence of the reaction ceases, the whole is heated for 
some time ; the product is then mixed with water, and washed to 
remove sulphuric acid. The best results are obtained when the 
reaction is very violent ; care should therefore be taken that the 
mixture is sufficiently heated at first. The yield was 71'5 per 
cent, of the theoretical amount. 

Gluconic Acids. F. Volpert. (Ber. tier deutsch. chem. Ges., 
xix. 2()"21-'2()28.) The author's experiments lead to the inference 
that Iloenig''s paragluconic acid is identical Avith gluconic acid. 

A Peculiar Reaction of MalonicAcid. S. Klumann. (Joum. 
Chem. Soc, 1886, 935.) Malonic acid dissolves readily in cold 
acetic anhj'dride, but on heating the solution, carbonic anhydride 
is evolved, and the liquid becomes of a yellowish red colour with 
a strong yellowish green fluorescence ; the latter is especially 
marked on adding glacial acetic acid. The reaction is very sensi- 
tive, being produced with a milligi-am of malonic acid. Metallic 
malonates show the reaction slightly, but the ethyl salt does not 
do so at all. 

In preparing the new compound, it is best to heat a mixtui-e of 
one part of malonic acid, one part of anhydrous sodium acetate, 
and three parts of acetic anhydride gently on a Avater-bath. The 
yield is small, much of the malonic acid being decomposed into 
acetic acid and carbonic anhydride. The sodium compound, 
Cj^ H3 Og Na, forms a brownish yellow powder. Hydrochloric 
acid precipitates the free acid from its aqueous solution in pale 
yellow flocks, having the composition Cj^H^Og. 

A solution in dilute acetic acid evolves carbonic anhydride, 
and the remaining liquid appears to contain resinous matter only. 
When the sodium compound in acetic solution is boiled with 
phenylliydrazinc, carbonic anhydride is evolved, and an orange- 
yellow compound, of the formula C^o Hjq N^ 0^, is formed. The re- 
action appears to take place according to the equation, — 

C„ H3 0^ Na + 2 N H PhN H., + Co H.^ 0.-, = 
CioH^O^ (NN H Ph)o + C O. + 2X 0"+ Na^Co H3O0. 

This hydrazine is soluble in alcohol, glacial acetic acid, alkalies, 
and strong hydrochloric acid; insoluble in water and ether. Strong 
sulphuric acid dissolves it, yielding a green solution, from which 
it is again preci])Itated on the addition of Avater. It melts with 
decomposition at 180°. 

Cholic Acid. F. Mylius. (Bcr. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix.' 
2000 -2u09.) When a solution of cholic acid in acetic acid is 



CHEMISTKr. 49 

saturated with hydrochloric acid, a compound, Coj H^^ O5, H CI, 
separates in slender needles. It is decomposed \>j water into its 
components ; and when kept for some hours in contact ^vith the 
solution from which it is prepared, it gradually dissolves, with 
formation of monacetylchoUc acid, Co^ H39 Ac O5. When exposed 
to the air, it deliquesces, and yields a resinous mass. The diacetyl 
compound, C^^ Hgg Ac^ O5, is prepared by treating cholic acid with 
twice its weight of acetic anhydride in the cold. It is a feeble 
acid, and dissolves very readily in alcohol, ether, and benzene, 
etc. ; it is almost insoluble in Avater. Its solutions have an in- 
tensely bitter taste. The salts are more sparingly soluble than 
those of cholic acid ; the barium salt is quite insoluble in water. 

Dehydi'ocholic acid, prepared by oxidising cholic acid, was found 
to have the formula C04 H3J, O5, and not Cos -^ne ^5- 

The trialdoxime of dehydrocholic acid, C^i H37 Ng O5, is obtained 
by the action of free hydroxylamine on dehydi'ocholic acid. It 
crystallizes from alcohol in microscopic plates, which decompose 
at 270^. It is almost insoluble in water and ether, sparingly 
soluble in hot alcohol. When warmed with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, it is decomposed into its constituents. 

The results of the experiments described above show that cholic 
acid contains three alcoholic hydroxyl-groups, of which two are 
primary alcohol-groups ; also that dehydrocholic acid contains 
three atoms of oxygen, which react with hydroxylamine, of wliich 
at least two are aldehydic. 

It is probable that bilianic acid, which is formed by further 
oxidizing dehydrocholic acid, has the formula Coj Hg^ Og, and that 
it is formed by the conversion of two aldehyde-groups of dehydro- 
cholic acid into carboxyl-groups. 

Solubility of Choleic Acid. P. LatschinofE. (Bej-. der deutsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 1140.) This acid is soluble at 20^ C. in 22,000 
parts of water, 750 parts of ether, 14"1 parts of 98"5 per cent, 
alcohol, and 25 parts of 75 per cent, alcohol. Its barium salt dis- 
solves in 1200 parts of water, the solubility i-apidly increasing 
with rise of temperature. 

Linoleic Acid. A. Bauer and K. Hazura. (Monatsh. Chem., 
vii. 21G-229.) The crude acid from hemp oil, prepared by saponi- 
fying the oil with soda and decomposing the sodium salt with 
sulphuric acid, is further j^urified by solution in spirit, saponifica- 
tion with ammonia, and precipitation of the barium salt, with 
subsequent saponification and extraction with ether. The pure 
acid gave numbers agreeing with the formula C^q Hog Oo, and 

K 



50 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

proved to be identical -with linoleic acid. When fused with potash, 
it yields myristic, acetic, and formic acids, together with a small 
quantity of azelaic acid. 

"When oxidized with potassium permanganate, both in the 
presence and absence of water, with manganese dioxide and 
sulphuric acid, and with hydrogen peroxide, linoleic acid yields 
azelaic acid. With a large excess of alkaline permanganate, it 
yields sativic acid, C33 Hg, 0^, together with a small quantity of 
another substance. Both these products are described in the 
paper. 

Linoleic Acid. K. Peters. (Monatsh. Chevi., vii. 552-555.) 
The author questions the accuracy of the formula C^g H„g Og, 
according to which this body would be the isologue of palmitic 
acid, and convertible into the latter by hydrogenising agents. 
He finds that upon heating with phosphorus and hydriodic acid, 
it yields stearic instead of palmitic acid ; and the numbers ob- 
tained by him in the combustion of pure linoleic acid harmonise 
better with the formula Cjg H32 Oo, than with the one above men- 
tioned. 

Oxidation-Product of Linoleic Acid. K. Hazura. (Monatsh. 
Chem., vii. 037, 638.) When linoleic acid is oxidised with potas- 
sium permanganate in alkaline solution, linusic acid, C]8H3g O7, is 
formed. It crystallizes in lustrous needles very sparingly soluble 
in water, and melts at 188°. 

Action of Nitric Acid on Myristic Acid. H. Noerdlinger. 
{Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1893-1899.) 100 grams of 
myristic acid were distilled with 700-800 grams of nitric acid (sp. 
gr. 1'3), until the liquid was homogeneous ; hydrocyanic acid and 
carbonic anhydride were evolved. The product in the retort was 
found to consist chiefly of succinic and adipic acids, with a small 
quantity of glutaric and less of pimelic, rubric, and oxalic acids. 

Non-Acid Constituents of Beeswax. F. Schwalb. (Chemical 
Neiv.>-, liv. 2"2ti.) Beeswax, in addition to the higher fatty acids 
and alcohols, contains several hydrocarbons, two of which, having 
the melting-points G0"5° and 68°, have been isolated by the author, 
and are probably identical with Krafft's normal heptacosan and 
hentriacontan. The alcohol of wax having the highest melting- 
point, to which Brodie ascribes the formula C3oHgoO, is more 
probably Cj^ Hg^ 0, whilst Brodie's formula seems to suit the 
alcohol of carnauba wax. In addition to myi-ic^-lalcohol there 
exists in beeswax ccryl alcohol, and a third alcohol, Cj^Hsy 0. 



CHEMISTRY. 51 

Cantharidin and Cautharic Acid. B. Homolka. (Ber. der 
deutsch. cheni. Ges., xix. 1082-1089. Fi-om Journ. Chem. Soc.) 
Although, this substance has .been the subject of very many 
investigations, and the determination of its vapour- density by 
Piccard proved its molecule to have the formula C|q H^, 0^, little 
is known as to its constitution. Dragendoi-ff and Masing showed 
that when boiled with alkalies, it gradually dissolved, and formed 
a salt, CiQ Hj^, O5 M2, but stated that on the addition of acids can- 
tharidin was reprecipitated unchanged in the form of needles. 
The author finds that, although this latter statement is true "when 
an acid is added to the hot alkaline solution, no precipitate is 
formed in a cold weak solution. "When this clear solution is heated 
to 60-70°, however, cantharidin is at once precipitated. There is 
thus little doubt that the free cantharidic acid, C^q H^oO^, was 
present in the cold solution, but, owing to the readiness with which 
it gives up water, and forms its anhydride, cantharidin, the author 
was unable to isolate the acid. Silver cantharidate forms a pre- 
cipitate, CjoHi2 O-Ag^ + H2 0; methyl cantharidate, C^qH^o O^Mco, 
prepared from the silver salt, crystallizes in flat prisms easily 
soluble in alcohol, boiling ether, and water ; it melts at 91^. 
With hydroxylamine, cantharidin yields cantharidoxime, CjoH^oOs 
(N'O H), crystallizing in stellate needles or prisms soluble in 
ether, alcohol, and warm water ; it melts at 166°. "When heated 
with hydrochloric acid at 150°, it is resolved into its constituents. 
The author also, by the action of free hydroxylamine on sodium 
cantharidate, obtained the sodium and lead salts of a canthari- 
doximic acid, but was unable to obtain the free acid, as this is 
at once converted into its anhydride, cantharidoxime. Canthari- 
do.xime dissolves unchanged in soda, but on boiling the solution 
ammonia is evolved. The silver-derivative, CiqJIioO^I:!^ Ag, ctjh- 
tallizes in quadratic prisms ; the methyl ether forms large, colour- 
less prisms melting at 134°. 

Cantharic acid yields a white silver salt, and a methyl salt boiling 
at 210-220° under 50mm. pressure. With hydroxylamine, this 
acid forms cantharoximic acid, Cjq Iljg O4 N (isomeric with can- 
tharidoxime), crystallizing in colourless, quadi-atic scales, Avhich 
melt with decomposition between 175 and 180°. When heated 
with hydrochloric acid at 150°, cantharic acid and hydroxylamine 
are re-formed, together with a small quantity of an oily product 
having the properties of an aldehyde. 

When cantharic acid is heated at 140-150° with dimethylaniline 
and zinc chloride, carbonic anhydride is evolved, and a leuco-base 



52 YEAR- BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

obtained, -wliicli forms a colourless crystalline mass having basic 
properties, and becoming green on contact with the air. Its 
platinochloride, Cg^ H33 O No, Hj Pt Clg, forms orange crystals. 
When oxidized, the base forms colouring matters, the colour vary- 
ing with the oxidizing agent employed. Thus, braunite and dilute 
sulphuric acid produce a green, chloranil or arsenic acid in acid 
solutions a violet colour. Such a condensation of an aromatic 
carboxylic acid with dimethylaniline, accompanied by the evolu- 
tion of carbonic anhydride, only takes place when the acid contains 
the a-kctone-group, C O • C H. 

From the results of his experiments, the author concludes that 
both cantharidic and cantharic acids must contain this group, 
and their formula; must therefore be Cg Hjg 0^ ' C " C O H and 
CgHiiO-CO-COOH respectively. 

Anacardic Acid. S. Ruhemann and S. Skinner. (Proc. 
Chem. Soc, Juno 1(3, 1887). Anacardic acid was originally ob- 
tained by Staedler from the oil contained in the shell of the 
fruit of Anacardium occidentale ; he assigned to it the formula 
C^^HynOy (C =: 6). The authors find that it is an hydroxy-car- 
bolic acid of the formula Coo H30 O3. They describe several salts, 
and give the results of their analyses. 

Lupulic Acid. H. Bungener. {Bull, de la Sue. Chim., xlv. 
487-496.) The bitter principle which the author has designated 
luptdic acid, Cjq H^g Oy (Year-lhoh of Pharmacij, 1886, 193), may 
be obtained frora hops by extracting Avith light petroleum and 
purifying by repeated rocrystallization. It forms colourless, pris- 
matic crystals, melts at 92-93°, and is readily soluble in the usual 
solvents witli the exception of water; on treating its ethereal 
solution with an aqueous solution of copper acetate, copper hipti- 
late, C-„H(S Oj,Cu, is precipitated as a green, crystalline powder. 
The author was unable to obtain the salts of potassium, sodium, 
calcium, and barium in the crystalline form ; the salts of the 
alkalies are very solublr in water, wliilst those of calcium and 
barium are insoluble iu water but dissolve in alcohol. Lupulic 
acid reduces ammoniacal silver solutions, it is also rapidly oxidized 
by the air, being converted into an amorphous, yellow, resinous 
compound, very similar in its properties to the uiialtered acid, 
a small amount of valeric acid and aldehyde being formed at the 
same time; it is probable that the unpleasant odour of old hops 
is due to this. The oxidised resinous product is soluble iu water 
(03 gram per litre), forming a ver}- bitter yellow solution, from 
which it is precipitated on the addition of sulj^huric acid. It is 



CHEMISTRY. 53 

to this resinous compoTind tliat the bitterness of beer is due ; in 
aqueous infusions of hops, however, a considerable amount of tlie 
unaltered lupulic acid is present, dissolved in minute floating 
globules of oil. 

The resinous oxidation-product of lupulic acid has an anti- 
septic action on the lactic acid fei'ment, but the various saechai'o- 
mjces and the acetic acid ferment are unaffected by it. 

Angelic Acid. E. Schmidt. (ArcMv der Pliann. [3], xxiv. 
528-531 ; Journ. Gheni. Soc, 1880, 867.) This acid Avas obtained 
from sumbul root by Reinsch in 1884. O. Sasse, at the instance 
of the author, has investigated the occurrence of the acid in this 
root, and finds that the acid is a decomposition-product, and does 
not occur as such in sumbul root. The root was extracted with 
light petroleum, and the solution was distilled until a pale yellow 
balsam-like residue was obtained. This was digested for an hour 
with an alcoholic potash solution, the alcohol removed, and the 
residue digested with watei- ; a brownish mass cr3'stallized out, 
and a considei^able amount of angelic acid went into solution. To 
obtain the acid, the liquid was neutralized with sulphuric acid, 
evaporated to dryness, supersaturated with sulphuric acid, and 
extracted with ether. Finally, after removing water, there re- 
sulted from 1 kilo, of the root about 4 grams of a liquid boiling 
at 180-190°, and an equal quantity boiling at 190-200°. Both 
distillates gave a crop of colourless crystals when placed in a 
cooling mixture. Those from the 180-190° liquid fused at 45°, 
agreed in properties with angelic acid; whilst those from the 190- 
200° fraction fused at 64°, and agreed with the properties of 
methylcrotonic acid, an isomeride of angelic acid. The two acids 
wei-e produced in nearly equal amounts, and they appear to be 
formed simultaneously, although angelic acid is gradually con- 
verted into methylcrotonic acid by long boiling. 

Erucic and Brassic Acids. C. L. Reimer and W. Will. 
(Ber. der deutsch. chevi. Ges., xix. 3320-3327; Journ. Cheni. Soc, 
1887, 233.) Erucic acid is best obtained by saponifying rape oil 
with alcoholic potash, distilling off the alcohol, and dissolving the 
acid liberated on addition of sulphuric acid in three times its 
volume of 9') per cent, alcohol ; on cooling to 0° crystals of erucic 
acid separate in an almost pure condition. The melting point of 
the acid was found to be 34°. Ethyl erucate, Cio H.^ Oj Et, is a 
colourless, odourless oil, boiling above 360° without decomposition; 
its vapour-density, however, could not be determined. The 
anhydride, C^ Hgj O3, is prepared by heating erucic acid and 



54 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

I)Ii()sphonis trichloride in molecular proportions. It is an oil 
crystallizing' in a freezing mixture to a mass of scales, and is very 
readily soluble in ethei", benzene, and chloroform, spai-ingly soluble 
in alcohol. The amide, C.ij H^j (NHo), crystallizes in colour- 
less needles, melts at 84°, and is i-eadily soluble in ether and 
benzene, sparingly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water. The 
anilide is crystalline, melts at 55°, and is readily soluble in ether 
and benzene, sparingly soluble in alcohol. 

Dierucin, Cg H5 H (G.^t, H^^ Oo)o. — When rape oil is allowed to 
stand for a long time, a yellowish, tallow-like deposit is frequently 
found in the casks ; this, by repeated solution in ether and sub- 
sequent addition of alcohol, can be obtained in silky needles. 
Dierucin melts at 47°, and is readily soluble in ether and light 
petroleum, insoluble in cold, but soluble in hot alcohol. A trieruciu 
could not be separated from rape oil. 

Brassic acid is best prepared by warming erucic acid with dilute 
nitric acid to the melting point, and then adding sodium nitrite ; 
the product is quite pure after two crystallizations fx'om alcohol. 
The ethyl salt is obtained directly from the acid, or by the action 
of nitrous acid on ethyl erucate ; it crystallizes in laminae showing 
a vitreous lustre, melts at 29-30°, and boils above 360° without 
decomposition; the vapour-density could not, however, be deter- 
mined. The anhydride, C^^ Hgo O3, formed by heating the acid 
with phosphorus trichloride, crystallizes in lustrous tables, melts 
at 28-29°, and is insoluble in water and alcohol, readily soluble in 
ether and benzene. The amide melts at 90°, and resembles in its 
properties the amide of erucic acid ; both amides can be obtained 
by heating the corresponding ethyl salts to 230° with ammonia. 

Trihrassidin is formed Avhcn i-ape oil (100 parts) is treated with 
nitric acid of sp. gr. = 1"2 (5 parts) and sodium nitrite (1 part); 
after some time, the resulting crystalline mass is washed, dis- 
solved in ether, and from the solution cooled to 0° a lustreless, 
crystalline powder is obtained. Trihrassidin melts at 47°, but 
when heated above its melting point and allowed to cool, the melt- 
ing point is subsequently found to be 36° ; it is insoluble in alcohol, 
readily soluble in ether and chlorofoi-m. Pihrassidin, C3 H5 II 
(C22 H.jj O^)^, is formed when dierucin is treated with nitrous 
a.;id ; it forms feebly lustrous crystals, melts at 65°, and is less 
soluble iu ether than trihrassidin. 

By distilling the calcium salts of erucic and brassic acids, two 
ketones are obtained which seem to be different; they are both 
vei'y sparingly soluble in alcohol. 



CHEMISTRY. 55 

Jervic and Chelidoninic Acids. ^E. Schmidt. (ArcJiiv der 
Fharm. [3], xxiv. 513-522, and 531-534.) The authoi- finds that 
jervic acid, a constitnent of white hellebore, has the formula 
C5 Ho O3 (COO H)2, and is identical with chelidonic acid. 

Chelidoninic acid, described by C. Zwenger a long time ago, is 
found by the author to be identical with succinic acid. 

Aconitic Acids. W. Hentschel. (Joiirn. praht. Chem., xxxv. 
205, 206.) Aconitic acid is readily obtained when crystallized 
citric acid (2 parts) is heated with sulphuric acid (2 parts) and 
water (1 part) for from four to six hours in a reflux apparatus ; 
the yield amounts to from 35 to 45 per cent, of the citric acid 
employed. Acetone is also formed in the reaction, and gas is 
evolved consisting of 2 vols, of carbonic anhydride and 1 vol. of 
carbonic oxide. 

Transformation of Maleic and Fumaric Acids into Aspartic 
Acid by Ammonia. M. En gel. {Comptes Bendus, June 20, 
1887.) Maleic and fumaric acid take up directly the elements of 
ammonia, and are thus converted into inactive aspartic acid. If 
the transformation is not total it is because aspartic acid is 
partially decomposed by water at 140^^ to 150°. 

Rottlerin. L. Jawein. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xx. 182, 
183.) Rottlerin was obtained fi'om kamala by Anderson, who 
attributed to it the formula C^ H^q O3. By extracting the drug 
with carbon bisulphide or benzene, the author obtained a yellow 
ci'ystalline substance melting at 200°. It i-esembles Anderson's 
compound in its solubility and in giving a red liquid with alkali ; 
but the analytical results do not agree with the formula suggested 
by Anderson. 

Morindin and Morindon. T. E. Thorpe and T. H. Greenall. 
(ProG. Chem. Soc, December 2, 188G.) Morindin was discovered 
by Anderson in the Surangi, the roots of Morinda citrifolia, which 
are extensively used in India as a dye-stuff, more especially for 
dyeing reds, purples, and chocolates. The substance occurs 
mainly in the root bark, and can be extracted by treatment with 
dilute alcohol, from which it crystallizes in lustrous sulphui'-yellow 
prisms. According to Anderson it has the formula Cog H3Q O^j. 

On heating in closed tubes it is decomposed, and yields a subli- 
mate of morindon, crystallizing in long, red, needle-shaped crystals, 
to which Anderson assigned the formula Cog H^o^io- 

According to Rochleder and Stenhouse, morindin is identical 
with ruberythric acid, Cog Hog Oj^, and hence morindon is alizarin. 
Stein (Jourii. p-akt. Chem., xcvii. 234), has, however, pointed out 



56 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

several facts which are inconsistent with this supposition. Morin- 
din, like ruherjthric acid, is a glucoside, but the product which 
it yiekls on liydroljsis, in addition to glucose, is not alizarin. 

The authors have examined this question, and in the main their 
results agree with those of Stein. They extracted morindin from 
the roots of Morinda citrifoUa, for a sample of which they are 
indebted to the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, and have 
compared its properties with those of ruberj^thric acid, obtained 
through the kindness of Dr. Schunck. The two substances are 
not identical, and they behave very differently on hydrolysis. 
^Morindin gives, with sulphuric acid, ferric chloride, and on treat- 
ment with nitric acid perfectly different reactions from those 
afforded by alizarin. The analytical numbers obtained for morin- 
din agree closely with those of Anderson ; those obtained for 
morindon indicate that it is probably trihydroxymethylanthra- 
qninone. The quantity of the two products at the disposal of 
the authors was insufficient to definitely settle the constitution of 
the substances. Through the kindness of Mr. Wardle, of Leek, 
they have obtained a large supply of M. citrifoUa, and also of 
M. tincforia, and a further communication on the subject is 
promised. 

Carrotene. A. Arnaud. (Comptes Bendus, cii. 1119-1122. 
From Journ. Chem. Soc.) The author has previously shown that 
carrotene is identical with the orange-red crystalline substance 
which can be obtained from leaves, and which also exists in many 
fruits, especially the tomato. 

In order to prepare carrotene, cairots arc rasped and pressed, 
and the juice mixed with lead acetate, Avhich precipitates the 
caiTotene in the form of a lake. The precipitate is dried in a 
vacuum and extracted with carbon bisulphide, which is then 
evaporated, and the residue ti-eated systematically with cold light 
peti'olenm. The pressed pulp is also treated with the same 
solvents, and the crude carrotene is dissolved in carbon bisulphide, 
precipitated by adding alcohol, and recrystallized from benzene. 

Cai'rotene has the composition Co6H38(C88"67, H10"63 per cent.), 
and crystallizes in rhombic plates with a metallic lustre, blue by 
reflected light, and orange-rod by transmitted light. It decomposes 
above 300° in a vacuum, and forms a colourless, viscous liquid. 
It combines readily with oxygen, chlorine, and bromine. If car- 
rotene is dissolved in dry benzene and mixed with iodine, the 
di-iodide. Cog Hgg L, is obtained in deep green crystals Avith a 
cop})ery lustre. Carrotene oxidizes in the air even at the ordinary 



CBEMISTRT. 5< 

temperature, oxidation taking place very rapidly if the carrotene 
is in solution or if it is heated to 70^. The product is soluble in 
cold alcohol, but only- slightly soluble in carbon bisulphide, and 
does not crystallize from its alcoholic solution. It melts at 125°, 
and has the composition C 70' 10, H 857, 21-42. 

It follows from these results that carrotene is not an oxygen 
compound, but an unsaturated hydrocarbon ; and the author pro- 
poses to change the name carrotine previously assigned to it. It 
dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with formation of an 
intense indigo-blue solution. 

The carrotene analysed by Husemann must have undergone con- 
siderable oxidation. Husemann's hydrocarrotene is really vege- 
table cholesterin, C.^g H^^ 0, Ho 0. 

The Blue Colouring Matter of Decaying Birch Wood. S. 
Rideal. (Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 810.) The blue colouring 
matter formed in decaying birch wood {Behda alba) is soluble in 
chloroform and glacial acetic acid to a fine blue solution ; potash 
changes it to brown, but on acidifying the blue colour returns. 
On evaporating the chloroform solution, a blue, amorphous mass 
is left, soluble in glacial acetic acid but turned brown by concen- 
trated hydi'ochloric acid. The acetic solution loses its blue colour 
after a time or on wanning; hence, on partial evaporation, a brown 
residue is obtained. This residue gives a brown precipitate in 
"water, insoluble in chloroform or carbon bisulphide, but soluble in 
glacial acetic acid, potash or ammonia yielding a yellowish brown 
solution. When acidified with hydrochloric acid, the alkaline 
solutions give a bright blue precipitate. The colouring matter 
is non-nitrogenous, and is destitute of mineral matter, the blue 
colour is destroyed by reducing agents, but may be restored by 
careful treatment with nitric acid. The chloroform solution 
exhibits a faint but distinct absoi-ption-band in the spectrum, 
situated between the C and D lines. Coniferin has not been 
detected in birch wood. Moreover, comparative experiments 
establish the distinction of this blue colouring matter from that 
found in decaying Canadian balsam pine-wood (Abies balsamea), 
and from that produced by the action of sulphuric acid on coni- 
ferin. It is suggested that its origin may probably be traced back 
to the action of an organism. 

Fisetin, the Colouring Matter of Young Fustic (Rhus Cotinus). 
J. Schmid. (Ber. der deutsch. eJiem. Ges., xix. 1734-1749.) The 
author has reinvestigated this substance. He finds that it occurs 
in the wood of Rhus cotinus in the form oi a glucoside (to which 



58 YEAU-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the author gives the name fustin) combined with tannin. This 
componnd is readilj broken up into its constituents by either 
alkalies or acids, and the supposed red and brown colouring 
matters of former investigators were probably only the coloured 
oxidation-products of this tannin. The fustin-tannide (the com- 
pound of the glucoside with tannin) was extracted with water, 
impurities precipitated by lead acetate in acetic solution, and the 
tannide extracted from the aqueous solution with ethyl acetate. 
Thus obtained, it formed long yellowish white needles, easily 
soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. The aqueous solution gives 
with ammonia a brown, with potash a brownish red coloration. 
It reduces Fehling's solution. The substance is decomposed 
when heated above 200°. When dissolved in a little warm glacial 
acetic acid, and the solution diluted with water, the tannide 
yields yellowish white lustrous needles of the glucoside fustin, 
(Cos ^u Ofl) Cg Hjj Og)o. This substance begins to blacken at 200°, 
and melts with decomposition at 218-219^. It is easily soluble in 
boiling water, in alcohol, and in alkalies, sparingly in ether. With 
lead acetate or stannous chloride, it gives a yellow, with copper 
acetate a brown precipitate, all of which are soluble in acetic acid. 
Ferric chloride gives a green coloration, Avhich, on the addition of 
dilute soda, changes through violet-blue to red. When warmed 
with dilute sulphuric acid, this glucoside is gradually decomposed 
into a sugar and fisetin. Cog H^ O3 (0 H)g. The tisetin thus 
obtained was identical with that obtained from cotinin, a com- 
mercial extract of young fustic, prepared by extracting the wood 
with dilute soda. Pure fisetin crystallizes fi'om dilute alcohol or 
from acetic acid in small yelloAv prisms, which are readily soluble 
in alcohol, but sparingly soluble in boiling water, ether, and 
chloi'oform, and contain six molecules of water of crystallization, 
which they lose at 110°. Fisetin is stated to be very similar in 
properties to quercetin, from which it differs in composition by 
C Oo. A full description of its properties and of some of its 
derivatives will be found in the original paper. 

Pterocarpiiie and Homopterocarpiiie : two Crystalline Principles 
obtained from Eed Santal-Wood. P. Cazeneuve and L. 
HugouneiK]. (Coinj^tcs liendus, June 13, 1887. From Chemical 
News.) From the wood of red santal (Pterocarpiis Santalinus) 
there have been already isolated santalinc, the colouring-matter, 
and a crystalline compound, santal, isomeric with piperonal. 
Pterocarpine is a white crystalline body, insoluble in water and in 
cold alcohol, slightly soluble in boiling alcohol and in ether. It 



CHEMISTRY. 59 

dissolves in chloroform, from "wliicli it separates in splendid 
clinorhombic prisms. It softens and melts at 152°, taking a 
yellow colour. Tliis compound is insoluble in acids and potash 
lye, even at a boil. Homopterocarpine is a white crystalline 
substance, soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, and carbon 
disulphide. From ether it crystallizes in fine needles. 

Glucosides from Japanese Oleaceae. J. F. Eykman. {Rec. Trav. 
Chim., V. 127-140; Jouni. Chevi. Soc, 1886, 1040.) Several 
species of the Oleaceae are used as febrifuges, not only in Jjurope, 
but also in Asia. In this paper, the extraction and properties of 
a glucoside obtaine4 from Japanese species are described. The 
glucosides from the Olea fragrans and Forsythia sus-pensa are found 
to be identical with one another, and also in general properties, 
with exception of the melting point, with the glucoside philyrine, 
C27 Hg^ Oji, obtained from the Philyria. The compound, CogHgo O^^, 
thus obtained, crystallizes in colourless, silky needles, sparingly 
soluble in cold, more readily in hot water, insoluble in ether and 
petroleum ; its aqueous solution is not pi-ecipitated by lead acetate 
and other mineral salts. It is decomposed by acids into glucose 
and another substance of phenolic properties ; this melts under 
water at 70°, is readily soluble in alcohol and ether, sparingly 
soluble in water, insoluble in petroleum. Its product of oxidation 
by chromic acid has the odour of vanillin, but has not been 
further examined. 

The Tannin of Mountain Ash Berries. C. Vincent and M. 
Delachanal. {Bull, de la Soc. Chim., April 5, 1887; Chemical 
News, Ivi. 24.) The juice of ripe mountain-ash berries contains, 
besides sorbine and glucose, an astringent principle having a very 
acid reaction. Caustic alkalies and ammonia turn it an intense 
gold-yellow, which disappears on acidification. It does not pre- 
cipitate solutions of alum ; it reduces salts of silver on heating, 
precipitates copper acetate olive-green, and turns a very intense 
dark green with ferric salts, which alkalies and ammonia alter 
to a reddish brown. With neutral lead acetate it gives a light 
yellow precipitate ; with the sub-acetate a very pure lemon-yellow. 
It does not precipitate gelatin. On distillation it give.s a thick 
brown liquid, rich in pryocatechin, and leaves a voluminous 
charcoal. This tannin approximates closely to morintannic acid, 
and especially to caffeotannic acid, but differs from them in 
several respects. The authors propose to name it sorbitannic 
acid. 



60 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Oak TanniD. C. Bottinger. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xx. 
761-766.) The author arrives at the conclusion that oak tannin 
is a methyl salt of digallic acid. 

Vernine. MM. Schnlze and Boschard. (Jonrn. de Pliarm. 
et de Chim., July 15, 1886.) Vernine is a nitrogenous crystalline 
substance occurring in Vicia sativa, Pinus sylvestris and other 
species of Pinus. It is sparingly soluble in cold Avater, readily 
soluble in boiling water, ammonia, and dilute acids, and insoluble 
in alcohol. A solution in dilute nitric acid, when evaporated in 
a poi'celain dish, leaves a yellow residue, which changes to an 
intense red on being touched with ammonia. 

Formation of Asparagin. K. 0. Miiller. {Pliarm. Jonm., 3rd 
scries, xvii. 1016.) The author has investigated the mode of 
formation of albuminoids, especially of asparagin, in a vai'iety of 
plants, and lias arrived at the following conclusions. Asparagin 
is formed in the dark, and disappears again in the light, but has 
no pathogenic properties. Its formation does not appear to depend 
on the absence of carbohydrates. Its formation commences as 
soon as the process of assimilation is suspended ; it is a secondary 
product of assimilation, being formed out of the carbohydrates, 
and the nitrogenous inorganic constituents of plants. 

A New Asparagine. A. Piutti. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., 
xix. l(;91-16l)5 ; Joiirn. Chem. Soc, 1886, 870.) A new form of 
asparagine was found in the mother-liquor from crude asparagine 
from vetch buds. The amount obtained was- 100 grams of jiure 
product from 20 kilos, of crude asparagine, which had been 
extracted from 6,500 kilos, of vetch buds. The results of crystal- 
lographic measurements show it to have the reverse form to 
ordinai-y asjjaragine ; its aqueous solution has the same power of 
rotation as a solution of ordinary asparagine of equal sti*ength, but 
it is dextrorotatory. It is only slightly more soluble in water 
than ordinary asparagine. Both forms of asparagine yield com- 
pounds having the same chemical propei'ties ; when optically active 
products are formed, they have the same rotatory power, but in 
different directions. Dextrorotatory asparagine has an intensely 
sweet taste. Both asparagines, when heated above 200°, yield the 
same product (polyfumaric acid?). When heated with 2 mols. 
of dilute hydrochloric acid at 170-180°, they both yield inactive 
aspartic acid, identical with the acid obtained by Dessaignes from 
ammonium malate. Inactive aspai-tic acid is also formed when 
aqueous solutions of dextro- and lasvo-rotatory aspartic acids are 



CHEMISTRY. 61 

mixed and allowed to crystallize slowly. The inactive acid thus 
obtained differs in appearance from both active acids. 

Lactucerin. G. Kassner. (Liebig's Amialen^ ccxxxviii. 220- 
228 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 605.) Lactucerin can be obtained 
in a pure state by treating the ethereal solution with an aqueous 
solution of potassium hydrate. Alcohol is then added to the 
ethereal extract, until a small precipitate forms. On the addition 
of water to the filtrate, lactucerin is deposited in white, microscopic, 
needle-shaped crystals. Lactucerin, purified in this manner, melts 
at 200°; but after it is purified by sublimation in an atmosphere of 
carbonic anhydride, it melts at 210°. The results of analyses agree 
with the formula C^g ^u ^2 niore closely than they do with Hesse's 
formula, Cogii^oO.y On fusion with potash hydrogen is evolved, 
and lactuGol C^g H^(, O, is formed according to the equation. 
Cog H^i Oo + 2 H, = C. H.t Oo + 2 C^g H^g -0 H + 2 H.. Lactucol 
melts at 160-162°, and crystallizes in needles. The acetate 
melts at 198-200°. Solutions of the alcohol and of the acetate in 
ether, chloroform, and carbon bisulphide are dextrogyrate. These 
results differ in some important respects from those of Hesse. 

Glycyphyllin, the Sweet Principle of Smilax Glycyphylla. 
E. H. Rennie. (Froc. Chem. Soc, 1886, No. 27.) Sviilax 
glycyphylla is a plant which grows in abundance on the shores of 
Port Jackson, and is common on the coast of the noi-thern parts 
of New South Wales and the southern parts of Queensland ; the 
sweet principle extracted from its leaves has already been partially 
examined by Dr. Wright and the author. The author now 
corx'ects the formula previously given to Co^ Ho j Og ; glycyphyllin 
separates from aqueous ether with three, and from water with 
four and a half molecules of water of crystallization. On hydroly- 
sis, it yields phloretin and isodulcite, Cj^ Ho^ O9 + 2 H, = Cj.- Hj^ O5 
+ CgHj^Oe, and is therefore closely allied to phlorizin, with which 
it is proposed to carefully compare it. 

Alkaloids of Gelsemium. F. A. Thompson. (Pharm. J(mni., 
3rd series, xvii. 606.) The author describes two alkaloids obtained 
by him from gelsemium root, thus confirming so far Messrs. 
Ringer and Murrell's hypothesis that the root contained two 
alkaloids, one of them exercising a paraly.sing and the other a 
tctaiiising influence. The alkaloids Avere obtained by percolating 
the finely powdered root mixed witli freshly slacked lime with 
alcohol, shaking the percolate with chloroform, and then ti-eating 
the chloroform solution with water acidulated with sulphuric acid. 
The separation of the alkaloids is effected by the addition of 



62 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

hydrochloric acid, the hydrochlorate of one of them, which is 
crystalline, being insoluble, and that of the other, which is 
amorphous, being soluble in its own weight of water. The 
crystalline alkaloid, for which the author proposes to retain the 
name " gelsemine," gave upon analysis results corresponding with 
the formula C54 Hgg N^ O^g, differing, therefore, considerably from 
that attributed by Mr. Gerrard to the alkaloid analysed by him. 
The amorphous alkaloid has not yet been obtained sufficiently pure 
for analysis. 

Hopeine. W. Williamson. (Chem. Zeit. x. 491.) The sub- 
stance now described by the author under this name is the base, 
distinct from morphine, referred to by Ladenburg (abstract, 
Year-Booh of Tharmacy, 1886, 57). It crystallizes from weak 
alcohol in needles, fuses below 100° C, and sublimes partially 
below 160°. It is slightly lajvorotatory. Solutions of its salts 
form precipitates with the usual alkaloidal reagents. 

The Bitter Principle of Hops. F. Davis. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii. 20.) The author made an ethereal extract from the 
green strobiles, and obtained from this a mass of minute white 
acicular crystals, soluble in water, ether, and bisulphide of carbon. 
Three grains of the cry.stals dissolved in water, and injected hypo- 
dex-mically into the jugular vein of a medium sized cat, caused 
the death of the animal in seven minutes. The cat appeared in 
no pain, but showed a peculiar twitching of the muscles. 

Note on the Solubilities of Morphine Hydrochloride, Salicin, and 
Gallic Acid. D. B. Dott. (Fharm. Jouni., .'>rd series, xvii. 9-il.) 
The mean results of the author's experiments are as follows : — 

Soluhilihj of Morphine Hydrochloride in Rectijied Spirit. — One 
part is soluble in 40 parts at 16° C. 

Soluhillty of Saliciti in Rectijied Spirit. — One part is soluble in 
66 parts at 16° C. 

Solubility of Gallic Acid in Water. — One part is soluble in 118 
parts at IG" C. 

The Evidence for the Existence of Acid Morphine Meconate. 
D. B. Dott. (Pharyn. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 690.) The author's 
experiments render the existence of such a compound very doubt- 
ful. Morphine and meconic acid, in various proportions, dissolved 
in anhydrous alcohol and evaporated, leave an amorphous hygro- 
scopic residue which is extremely .soluble in water and quickly 
combines with its water of hydration, when the neutral meconate 
witli 5 Ho O crystallizes out, even in the presence of sufficient acid 
to form the bimeconate. 



CHEMISTRY. 63 

Behaviour of Morphine towards Potassium Chromate. F. 
Ditzler. (Archiv der Pharni. [8], xxiv. 701-705.) Morpliine 
salts in solutiou, when shaken with excess of potassium chromate 
solution, give a pi-ecipitate of morphine ; whilst morphine chro- 
mate is precipitated when only very small quantities of potassium 
chromate are gradually added. Morphine chromate attaches 
itself to the walls of the precipitating vessel in the form of light 
yellow needles of the formula (Cjy HjgX Og),, Ho Cr O4.. 

Spontaneous Transformation of Morphine into Apomorphine. 
(^Amer. Pharm. Jourii., xs'ovember 1886.) A solution of morphine 
hydrochlorate, which had been employed subcutaneously, was 
found, eleven months later, to be violently emetic, and was ascer- 
tained to contain apomorphine. This observation points to the 
necessity of keeping such solutions for a short period only. 

Pseudomorphine. 0. Hesse. (Liebig's Annalen, ccxxxv. 229- 
232.) When two molecules of potassium hydrate and one mole- 
cule of potassium ferricyanide are added to a solution of pure 
morphine hydrochloride dissolved in 40 parts of water, pseudo- 
morphine is deposited ; 100 parts by weight of morphine yield 
88'4 parts of pseudomorphine. 

The author finds that the formula for pseudomorphine is 
0^7 Hj8 N Og" Ci7 Hjg I^ O3, as proposed by Polstorff, instead of 
Cjy HjjN O3, as formerly proposed by himself. 

Papaverine and Papaveraldine. Gr. Goldschmiedt. (JMonatsJi. 
Chem., vii. 485-505.) In this paper derivatives of papaveraldine, 
and the most convenient method of its preparation, ai'e described. 

In an additional note, the author defends the formula, CgQ Hj^ 
N O4, for papaveHne, as against Coi H^i '^ ^4' ^^^^ proposed by 
Hesse, Beckett, Wright, and others ; exception is also taken to a 
statement of Hesse relative to the existence of an alkaloid, p.seudo- 
papaverine. 

Papaverine and its Salts. R. Jahoda. (Monatsh. Chem., vii. 
506-516.) As a further effort to arrive at a correct formula for 
papaverine, the author has pi-epared and analysed a number of 
its salts. The results obtained afford confirmatory evidence of 
the correctness of the formula Cjo Ho^ jST O4. (See preceding ab- 
stract.) 

Thehaine. W. C. Howard and W. Roser. (Ber. der deutsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 159G-1604. From Journ. Chem. Soc.) Former 
experiments by one of the authors (abstract, Year-Booh of Fhar- 
macy, 1885, 53), have shown that thebaine is a tertiary base, and 
that when heated with hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid, it yields 



64 YKAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

morphothebaine, together with either methyl or ethyl chloride. 
By repeating' the experiment with hydriodic acid it is shown that 
methyl iodide is formed, thus : 

CigH2iN03 + 2HI = Ci7Hj7N03 + 2Me I. 

Theba'inc, Cjy Hjj N (0 Me)2, is therefore the dimethyl ether 
of morphothebaine, C^~ H^ N 6 (O H)^. 

Morphothebaine is also characterised as a tertiary base by its 
combining directly with the halogen-derivatives of the hydro- 
carbons ; its methiodide crystallizes in quadratic tables, the ethio- 
dide in the rhombic form, and the benzochloride in small needles. 

Among the products of the decomposition of thebaine-meth}^- 
hydi'oxide are trimethylamine, and a substance of the composition 
0^4 H^2 O3, Avhich is probably an oxy-derivative of phenanthrene. 

Ophim Alkaloids. P. C. Plugge. (Archiv der Pharm. [3], 
xxiv. 1)93-1014 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 280.) Morphine, codeine, 
theba'ine, papaverine, narcotine, and narce'ine are the most im- 
portant opium alkaloids. Their physiological action varies from 
strongly narcotic or sleep-inducing, to strongly exciting or cramp- 
producing ; but different observers are not agreed as to the exact 
order of the membei-s of the series. In the arrangement of the 
bases according to their poisonous nature, different observers are 
more nearly in accoixl. The author examined the reactions of 
salts of these alkaloids Avith alkaline salts of organic acids. 
Moi'phine, codeine, and thebaine, in neutral liquids, react strongly 
alkaline to litmus, and afford stable salts. Narcotine, papaverine, 
and narceine, on the contrary, do not affect litmus paper, and 
combine only feebly with acids. Thus narceine sulphate and 
chloride ax-e slowly decomposed by cold water, more quickly by 
hot water. It appeared probable from this that solutions of 
salts of the stronger bases would give no precipitate with alka- 
line salts of organic acids, whilst in the case of the weak bases, 
the alkaloid would be precipitated as such. The following salts 
were employed : sodium and ammonium acetate, ammonium 
oxalate, sodium salicylate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium 
benzoate and hydrogen sodium carbonate. 

Besides the six opium bases, many other alkaloids were ex- 
amined in the course of the investigation, such as caffeine, 
cocaine, atropine, pilocarpine, coniine, strychnine, brucine, quinine, 
cinchonine, and cinchonidine ; the latter, however, only with 
sodium acetate. None of these bases were liberated and precipi- 
tated ; in the case of the cinchona bases, however, it was necessary 



CHEMISTRY. 65 

to carefully neutralize the sodium acetate with acetic acid, or 
precipitation took place. With a perfectly neutral solution of 
sodium acetate, the only alkaloids precijDitated are the three weak 
opium bases, papaverine, nai-cotine and narce'ine. These three 
bases are also precipitated both by slightly acid and by slightly 
alkaline acetate solution. Neither of the two solutions exerts 
any influence on the strong opiunr bases, consequently the ordi- 
nary non-neutralized acetate solution can be used for the separa- 
tion of the bases with advantage in point of time, and perhaps 
completeness. Narcotine, papaverine, and narce'ine were precipi- 
tated as pure bases by all the alkaline salts mentioned previously. 
Thebaine was precipitated by sodium salicylate as salicylate, and 
by hydrogen sodium carbonate. Morphine and codeine were not 
precipitated by any of the salts. Arranging the alkaloids iu 
series, according to their molecular weights, it will be seen that 
the first three are sti'ong bases, and the last thi'ee feeble ones : mor- 
phine, Ci7 H21 N O3 ; codeine, Cjg H^i N O3 ; thebaine, C^g Ho^ N O3; 
papaverine, Cg^ H,^ N 0^ ; narcotine. Coo H03 N Or. ; narce'ine, 
CooHogXOg. Slightly acidified sodium acetate solution will 
indicate as little as 1 : 40,000 of narcotine in solution. "With 
p^ipaverine, the limit is 1 : 30,000. Narce'ine is not nearly so 
sensitive, the limit being about 1 : GOO. The precipitation of 
thebaine as salicylate gave a limit of about 1 : 2,000. For 
quantitative estimation, narcotine is best precipitated by ammonia, 
where it is the only substance thrown down by this reagent ; 
sodium acetate has, however, the advantage of precipitating it for 
qualitative pui-poses from faintly acid solutions in which all other 
alkalo'ids, excepting papaverine and narce'ine, remain in solution. 
Papaverine and narce'ine are also best precipitated quantitatively 
by ammonia. 

Decomposition-Products of Strychnine. C. Stochr. (Ber. 
der deutiich. cheni. Ges., xx. 810-814.) In order to obtain evidence 
on the view of Hanssen that strychnine contains a phenylpyridine- 
group as well as a quinoliue-group, the author has distilled 
strychnine with alkali, and obtained, in addition to a hydride of 
pyridine, not fully examined, y-picoline, identified by analyses of 
its auro- and raercuro-chlorides, and crystalline form, as also by 
the melting point of the latter. Experiments to obtain methyl 
chloride as a product of the decomposition of strychnine were 
unsuccessful. It is shown that strychnine does not contain a 
hydroxyl-group, in that by treatment with phosphorus penta- 
chloride the atoms of oxygen remain intact, whilst three hydro- 

F 



66 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

gen-atoms are displaced by chlorine to form a trichloi'o-deTiva- 
tive, Cgi Hjg CI3 Ng Oo, tlic b jdrocliloride and sulpbate of which 
crystallize in leaflets. 

A Derivative of Strychnine. W. F. Loebisch and P. Schoop. 
(McnataJi. Clicrii., \n. 609-GlO.) The products obtained on dis- 
tilling strychnine with zinc-dust vary according to the temperature; 
at a lower temperature, one atom of oxygen is removed from the 
molecule with formation of a compound, Cnj Hoo N, 0, a solid 
substance, soluble in alcohol with a blue fluorescence, sparingly 
soluble in dilute acids, insoluble in water. It does not give the 
strychnine reaction with potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. 
At a higher temperature the strychnine molecule is completely 
decomposed ; hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene, and ammonia are 
evolved, whilst carbazole distils over. 

Specific Gravity of Crystalline Strychnine. T. P. Blunt. 
(Fharm. Journ., JJrd series, xvii. 62.) The gravity was detei'mined 
in the following manner: — A solution of subacetate of lead was 
prepared, of such strength that a crystal of strj-chnine was 
.suspended indifferently in any part of the fluid ; the specific 
gravity of the liquid was found to be 113, which was therefore 
that of the crystal. 

Strychnol. W. F. Loebisch and P. Schoop. (Phann. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 352, from Monatshefte far Chemie.) 

Strychnol or strychnine hydrate, Co^ Hjo Ng 02 + 2 Ho 0, is prepared 
by boiling strychnine with a mixture of sodium ethoxide and ab- 
solute alcohol. The strychnine dissolves with a yellow coloration. 
On evaporating the mixture to expel the alcohol, a brown oil 
remains, which in time becomes solid. On dissolving this in 
water and passing a stream of carbonic anhydride, strychnol sepa- 
rates as a slightly yellow precipitate, which can be further purified 
l>y solution in ammonia and reprecipitation. It then forms a 
white, crystalline mass, consisting of microscopic, wedge-.shaped 
needles ; it does not give the strychnine reaction with potassium 
dichromate and sulphuric acid, but is coloured an intense caj*mine- 
red with sulphuric and nitric acids. At 150" the greater part of 
tiio water is lost, but decomposition takes place, and strychnine 
cannot be obtained from the residue. Strychnol is precipitated 
from acetic acid solution by the usual alkaloidal reagents ; it is 
vory sparingly soluble in cold water, easily in hot. Boiled with 
dilute acids, or allowed to remain for some time with strong acids, 
it is dehydrated, and strychnine is formed. Strychnol differs 



CHEMISTRY. 67 

from stryclinine in being very readily oxidized, it even reduces an 
ammoniacal solution of silver oxide. 

The authors point out the close relation between the colour 
reaction of strychnine and brucine, and also the identity of their 
respective actions with bromine. Strychnol gives no compounds 
"with ammonia, trimethylamine, or aniline ; it dissolves in all 
these, but any compound formed is dissociated on evaporation. 

Strychnine, when heated with aqueous potash, does not yield 
strychnol in the same way that nitrostrychnine yields xantho- 
strychnol, but a substance is formed which is probably identical 
with Gal and Etard's diJiydrostrychyiine . 

The authors have also repeated Goldschmidt's experiments, and 
have confirmed the formation of indole by fusing strychnine with 
potassium hydroxide. They also obtained evidence of the presence 
of butyric acid in the fused mass. 

When an alcoholic solution of strychnine is reduced with 
metallic sodium, an additive pi'oduct — strychnine hydride — is 
apparently formed. 

Constitution of Bnicine. A. Hanssen. {Ber. der dentsch. chem. 
Ges., 4.51-460; Journ. Chem. Sac, 1887, 505.) With the view of 
throwing further light upon the constitution of brucine, the pre- 
paration and composition of kakotheline, originally obtained by 
Strecker, have been further investigated. To this substance is 
ascribed the formula Coj Hoo N^ Og, instead of Coq H^o Nj Og, 
hitherto accepted. When reduced, it yields a base, the analysis 
of whose hydrochloride pointed to a formula Cji H25 N3 O5, derived 
from kakotheline by the reduction of one nitro-group and elimina- 
tion of another. With bromine, kakotheline yields an acid sub- 
stance, CjgHj^NoO^, the platinochloi'ide of which crystallizes in 
orange-yellow needles, its silver salt in glistening needles ; its 
methyl salt could not, however, be obtained, but the crude product 
treated ^vith ammonium chloride yielded a base, C^g Hoo Me^ Ng 0^, 
crystallizing in yellow, sparingly soluble prisms. In this reaction, 
the acid seems to be analogous to nicotinic acid ; and thus it would 
appear that in kakotheline, as also in brucine, a pyridine grouping 
is present. The above acid when oxidized with chromic acid yields 
the base, Cjg H^g No 0^, obtained formerly as a product of decom- 
position of brucine. According to the author there is present in 
brucine, besides a quinoline-gi'oup, also a dimethoxyphenylpyridine, 
and in strychnine, a phenylpyridine residue ; the stability of brucine 
seems to indicate a ring-arrangement. 



68 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Colchicine. S. Zeis el. Monatsh. Chem., vii. 557-597; Jour7i. 
Chem. Soc, 1887, 284.) Previous observations on the composition 
and properties of colchicine have, for the most part, been very 
discordant ; in this paper a long summary is given. The prin- 
cipal results obtained by the author are as follows : the compo- 
sition of colchicine is expressed by the formula Cgo H25 N Oq ; it 
combines with chloroform to form a crystalline compound, 
Coo H05 N Og, 2 C H CI3, readily decomposed by water into its com- 
ponents. Colchicine is slightly basic, but its salts, with the 
exception of an aurochloride. Coo H05N Og, H Au Cl^, cannot be 
obtained from their aqueous solutions. Colchiceine, formed from 
colchinino, when heated with a trace of hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid, has the composition 2 C.21 H03 N" Og, Ho 0. As the difference 
between the two compounds is one C H, or methylene group, and 
as methyl alcohol is pi-oduced in the decomposition, it follows that 
colchiceine is a demethylated colchicine. 

Colchiceine possesses at once the properties of a base, as evi- 
denced by the formation of an aurochloride, Coj H03 N Og, H An Cl^. 
and also those of a monobasic acid, or more probably of a phenol, 
as shown by the formation of a copper derivative (Coj Hgo N 05)0 Cu, 
and by the readiness with which it dissolves in alkalies. As 
colchicine has no acidic properties, it is probably a methoxy- 
derivative of a compound, of which colchiceine is the corresponding 
hydroxy-derivative. 

It is suggested that the molecular formula of each of the above 
substances is the dou.blc of that given; owing to the complex 
composition of the substances, the number of hydrogen-atoms is 
given with a certain reserve. 

Sparteine. E. Bamberger. (Liebig's Annalen, ccxxxv. 368- 
376.) The author has re-examined the sulphate, hydriodide, 
ethiodide, and methiodide of this alkaloid, and has obtained 
results differing in many instances from those obtained by Mills. 
Fuller information will be found in the original article. 

Ecgoniue. C. E. Merck. (Ber. der deiitsch. chem. Ges., xix. 
3002, 3003.) The author has repeated an experiment made by 
Calmels and Gossin (abstract, Ycar-Boolc of Pharmacy, 1886, 53), 
and finds that ecgonine, when distilled with almost dry barium 
hydrate, yields methylamine and not ethylamine as one of the 
products : this corresponds with the behaviour of tropine under 
like conditions. 

Amorphous Cocaine. R. Stockman. (Phann. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii., 861-863.) In isolating cocaine from coca leaves there 



CHEMISTRY. 69 

is found in the mother liquors a varying quantity of a body 
generally known as " amorphous cocaine." The names " cocaicine " 
and " cocainoidine " have also been proposed for it, but have not 
met with much acceptance. A short description of this body has 
been given by Lyons (Amer. Journ. of Phann., Oct., 1885) and by 
Bender (Tear-Book of Pharmacy 1886, 182), but neither of them 
have appreciated its true nature. 

The samples examined by the author were practically similar 
but differed slightly in outward appearance. The colour varied 
from dark yellow to dark brown, and the consistence from that of 
treacle to a sticky, tenacious solid. The smell was peculiar, re- 
calling that of nicotine, but more aromatic and less pungent ; while 
the taste was bitter and aromatic. It is alkaline in reaction, and 
soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic ether, chloroform, benzol, amylic 
alcohol, and petroleum ether. Its solubility in water varies with 
its consistence. The solid specimens are nearly quite insoluble, 
while on adding water to the more fluid specimens, a dense whitish 
precipitate is at first formed, Avhich becomes dissolved upoiL 
agitation. It therefore, in this case, dissolves the water, rather 
than vice versa. 

On gently heating it becomes quite fluid. It is very soluble 
in dilute acids, with which it forms non-crystalline salts, all of 
which dissolve readily in water. If it be dissolved in rectified 
spii-it, and treated with animal charcoal, or with acetate of lead 
in the usual way, to get rid of the colouring matter, the body 
ultimately obtained is pale yellow in colour, sticky in consistence, 
and non-crystalline, nor do crystals form in it even after standing 
for months. By repeated solution in alcohol, and repeated pre- 
cipitation with ammonia, a nearly white non-crystalline, flocculent 
body is obtained. The original odour and taste remain, no matter 
how often the purifying process is repeated. It can be dried {)i, 
vacuo over sulphuric acid, but on exposure to the air rapidly absorbs 
moisture again. The purified hydrochlorate of amorphous cocaine 
is also pale yellow in colour, and retains the characteristic dis- 
agreeable smell and taste. It is hygroscopic, but if tolerably pure 
and thoroughly dried shows sometimes a tendency to form im- 
perfect crystals. It is very soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, 
acetic ether, and amylic alcohol ; insoluble in ether, petroleum 
ether, and benzol. From a study of the physiological action and 
chemical relations of this body, the author has been led to the 
conclusion that it is a solution of ordinary crystalline cocaine in 
hygrin, the liquid alkaloid which is also present in the coca leaves. 



70 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

This body is extracted from the leaves in greater or less amount, 
along with the cocaine, by the processes which are now used by 
manufacturers, and its presence accounts for the disagreeable 
properties and effects which have been observed in many samples 
of the hydrochlorate. 

Cocaine is extremely soluble in hygrin, and when once solution 
has occurred, it is practically impossible to separate the two 
bodies, as they are both soluble in the same menstrua, and are 
both precipitated by the same reagents. The same holds good 
for their salts, but to the same extent. These facts account as 
ordinarily fully for the presence of hygrin in the hydrochlorate 
of cocaine sold, and it is the admixture of hydrochlorate of 
hygrin which makes the salt hygroscopic, and imparts to it the 
peculiar odour. 

The great solubility of cocaine in hygrin also accounts for the 
peculiar behaviour of fluid amorphous cocaine when water is 
added to it. The addition of a small quantity of water pre- 
cipitates the cocaine from its solution, and it is not until the water 
lias become thoroughly incorporated with the hygrin that the 
precipitate is dissolved up. The addition of more water than the 
hygrin can dissolve precipitates the cocaine permanently ; the 
latter, as is well known, being only slightly soluble in water. 

As regards the physiological action, the author found that 
amoi'phous cocaine and its hydrochloi-ate produced the same effects 
as the pure substances, the activity being proportionately detracted 
fi-om by the amount of hygrin present. 

There is, however, one very important difference. In using 
amorphous hydrochlorate of cocaine to cause ansesthesia of the 
conjunctiva, it was observed that considerable irritation followed, 
this being without doubt due to the hygrin. 

The Amount of Caffeine in Various Kinds of Coffee. B. H. 
Paul and A. J. Cownloy. (Fharm. Jouni., ord series, xvii. 
565 and 648.) The method adopted and recommended by the 
authors for estimating the proportion of caffeine in coffee beans is 
as follows : — 

The finely powdered coffee is mixed with moist lime, and per- 
colated with alcohol. The residue loft on evaporating the percolate 
is treated with water and a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid, 
filtered, and the filtrate exhausted with chloroform, which on 
evapoi'ation leaves the caffeine fit for weighing. By this method 
the following results have been obtained with different kinds o 
unroasted coffee : — 



CHEMISTRY. 



71 





Moisture 
per cent. 


Caffeine. 


Kinds of Coffee. 


Berries dried 
at 212° P. 
iser cent. 


Air dried 
Berries, 
per cent. 


Coorg 

Guatemala 

Travancore 

Liberian 


8-0 
8-6 
10-0 
8-0 
80 
9-1 
9-0 
6-6 
6-2 
7-3 
7-2 
8-7 
80 
9-0 


1-20 
1-29 
1-29 
1-30 
1-39 
1-20 
1-29 
1-20 
1-24 
1-22 
1-24 
1-21 
1-28 
1-28 


1-10 
1-18 
116 
1-20 


Liberian 

Rio 

Santos, Brazil 

Manilla 

Ceylon 


1-28 


Perak 

Costa Rica 

Pale Jamaica 

Mysore ......... 


— 


Jamaica 


— 



Roasted coffee contains about 1'3 per cent, of caffeine, but this 
amount varies slightly. 

It is evident from the results quoted in this table that the dis- 
cordant statements hitherto published in reference to the amount 
of caffeine in coffee must be ascribed to defective methods of 
analysis ; and that, in reality, the determination of the amount of 
caffeine in a samjile of coffee by the method described would be 
one of the most conclusive data to rely upon in any question as to 
the adulteration of coffee. 

In some further notes on the chemistry of coffee (ihid, 821, 822, 
and 921, 922) the authors describe experiments proving that there 
is no appreciable loss of caffeine by volatilization in the roasting 
operation, when it is carefully carried out ; also confirming their 
previous observation that the amount of caffeine in moderately 
roasted coffee may be fixed at 1"3 per cent. 

The practical advantages of the pioposed method of analysis, 
as applied to the detection of adulterants in coffee, are that the 
i-esults obtained by it give at one and the same time an indication 
of the actual amount of coffee present in the sample examined, and 
also an indication of the amount of admixture independently of its 
actual nature, which is, for the purpose in view, a matter of com- 
paratively little importance. By the application of this method of 
testing there is no difficulty in ascertaining the amount of real 
coffee present in any sample. 



72 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Caffeine Methhydroxide. E. Schmidt. (ArcMv der Pharm. 
[3], xxiv. 522-528.) T)io body described in this paper was ob- 
tained by the action of moist silver oxide on caffeine niethiodide. 
It appears to differ from the analogous quaternary ammonium 
bases in yielding, not methylcaffeine, but caffeine, on dry distillation. 

Guanine. E. v. Briicke. (Monatsh. Chem., vii. 617-620.) It 
has long been known that guanine, when evaporated with nitric 
acid, gives a yellow residue, soluble in potash with yellow colora- 
tion ; the solution thus obtained, on evaporation to dryness, gives 
at first a purple then a violet 'coloration ; on exposure to air the 
original colour returns. In this paper, it is shown that these 
changes arc due to the proportion of water present ; thus there 
exist two compounds : the one, golden-red, with the greater, the 
other, indigo-blue, with the less proportion of Avater. It is not 
improbable that an intermediate purple-red compound is also 
formed. Experiments confirmatory of this view are described, in 
which the coloured solutions are exposed to conditions of the 
presence and absence of water respectively. 

Cinchonine Derivatives. W. J. Comstock and "W. Koenigs. 
(Be)-, der deutscJi. chem. Ge<., xix. 2853-2859.) From considerations 
based on its chemical behaviour, the authors have adopted the 
formula 0^9X123 BrgNoO for cinchonine dibromide, instead of that 
given in their previous paper. A crystalline sulphate is obtained 
by allowing a solution of cinchonine dibi-omide in 7 to 8 parts of 
concentrated sulphuric acid to remain for several hours. It is 
soluble in hot water and dilute alkalies, excess of alkali throwing 
out the salt, but dilute acids dissolve it with difficulty. When 
heated at 130'' in a sealed tube with hydj-ogen bromide, it is 
decomposed into cinchonine dibromide and sulj)huric acid. 

Dehydrocinchonine, Cjg Hog No O, is obtained in practically colour- 
less needles by heating cinchonine dibromide with alcoholic potash 
in a reflux apparatus for sixteen to twenty hours, distilling off 
three-fourths of the alcohol, and adding water to the residue. It 
is purified by precipitating its hydrochloride with ammonia, and 
crystallizing from alcohol. The base melts at 202—203°, and sub- 
limes without decomposition if the temperature be carefully 
raised. It dissolves easily in alcohol, acetone, and chloroform, 
less easily in ethei- and hot benzene, and is practically insoluble 
in Avater. The hydrohromide, Cjg H^q N^ 0, HBr, crystallizes from 
water in colourless, transparent prisms, the hydrochloi'ide in long, 
silky needles. 

Dehydrocinchonine chloride, C^g HjgN^ CI, is prepared by treating 



CHEMISTRY. 73 

dehjdrocinchonine livdrocliloride with phosphorus pentachloride 
and phosphox'ic oxjchloride, adding ammonia, and crystallizing 
fi'om benzene. It melts at 148-149'^, and is readily soluble in 
benzene, alcohol, acetone, chloroform, and ether, but insoluble in 
light petroleum. 

Dehydrocinchene, CjgH^gNo, is obtained by boiling dehydrocin- 
chonine chloride "with alcoholic potash for sixteen hours, and is 
purified bj reciystallizing its hydrogen tartrate. The free base 
crystallizes from dilute alcohol, forms long colourless needles, 
which melt at about 60°, and contain at least 3 mols. Ho 0. The 
hydrohromide, Cjg H^g N",, 2 H Br, is obtained in small, broad, trans- 
parent, concentrically-grouped prisms, which dissolye readily in 
water, but only sparingly in alcohol and ether. The platinoMo- 
ride, CjgHjgNo, H, Pt Cl^, a yery sparingly soluble salt, is obtained 
in bright red tables from the solution of the base in concentrated 
hydrochloric acid. 

Cinchene dibromide, Cjg H^q Bro No' ^^ ^Q^^ prepared by gradually 
adding bromine to a solution of cinchene in chloroform until the 
yellow perbromide begins to separate, sodium hydi'ogen sulphite 
and hydrochloric acid are added, and the base, precipitated from 
the separated aqueous layer by ammonia, is purified by conyersion 
into the hydrohromide, etc. From its ethereal solution it is 
obtained in beautiful colourless crystals, which begin to fuse at 
110° and melt at 113°. The hydrohromide crystallizes in concen- 
trically-grouped colourless needles ; the nitrate and zincochloride 
also crystallize well. Boiling for twenty hours with alcoholic 
potash converts cinchene dibromide into dehydrocinchene. 

GlycyrrMzate of Quinidine. H. Hager. (Pharvi. Zeitung, 
xxxi. 641.) The author prepares this compound as follows: — 
1000 grams of coarsely powdered peeled licorice root are mace- 
rated in 1'5 litres of distilled water at about 40° C. for twelve 
hours ; it is then displaced with a mixture of lo litres of distilled 
water, 70 c.c. of ammonia water (10 per cent.), and 15 grams of 
bicarbonate of ammonium ; and lastly with distilled water until 
the liquid has a pale yellow colour and a scarcely percejjtible sweet 
taste. The mixed liquids, if turbid (owing to the presence of 
carbonate of calcium), must be filtered. To the filtrate is. added 
by agitation a solution of 75 grams of sulphate of quinidine in 
500 c. c. of luke-warm distilled water and 300 grams of hj-drochloric 
acid, sp. gr. 1124. If, after the lapse of one hour, the solution 
should have a strong alkaline reaction, it must be neutralized with 
dilute acetic acid. It must be stirred frequently, and then put 



74 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

aside for several hours. The precipitate is collected on a wetted 
linen strainer, and washed with cold distilled water, gently ex- 
pressed, and spread on porcelain plates in layers about 1'5 cm. 
thick, and only covering one-half of the plate. The plates are 
placed in a slanting position, so that the liquid can drain off. 
When dry it is powdered in a cold porcelain mortar. The yield 
is about 200 grams. Thus prepared, glycyrrhizate of quinidine is 
a grey-yellow powder, of a bitter-sweet taste, insoluble in water, 
and .sparingly soluble in alcohol. Acids and alkalies decompose 
it. Its composition corresponds to the formula, CooHo^NoOg. 
C.i4 Hg3 N Oj8 + 2 Ho = 1577. It contains 41-09 per cent, of quini- 
dine. 

Cluinoline. A. Glaus and F. Collischonn. (Ber. der deutsch. 
chem. (res., xix. 2502-2508.) In this 2:)aper the authors describe 
a number of halogen additive products of the propio-haloid com- 
pounds of quinoline. These products were obtained by treating a 
chloroform solution of the propio-haloid salt with the halogen. 

Phenyl-Derivatives of Piperidine. E. Lellmann. {Ber. der 
deutsch. chcni. Ges., xx. 080, 081.) Tlie compounds described by 
the author are : phenylpiperidine, dinitroplienylpijperidine, para- 
nitrojjhenylpipcridine, and amidoplicnijlpiperidine. For details 
refei'once must be made to the original article. 

Pyridine Bases. A. Ladenburg. (Comptes Bendus, ciii. 092- 
695.) Several methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl-pyridines are described 
in this paper, along with their platinochlorides and other com.- 
ponnds. For particulars the reader is referred to the original 
article. 

Piperidine Bases. A. Ladenburg. (Ccrtnptes Bendus, ciii. 
747-749.) The bases dealt with in this paper were obtained by 
treating boiling alcoholic solutions of the corresponding pyridine 
bases mentioned in the preceding abstract with a large excess of 
sodium. Piperidine obtained in this way is identical with the 
alkaloid prepared from piperine. 

Action of Chlorine on Pyridine. E. H. Keiser. {Avier. Chem. 
Journ., viii. .')U8 i) 15 ; Joiini. (.'hem. Soc, 1887, 277.) Anderson 
has worked on this subject (Annalen, cv. 340). When anh3drous 
pyridine is treated with dry chlorine, it iinally solidifies, and by 
distillation a white crystalline solid boiling at 130°, and a yellow 
solid boiling at 218°, are obtained. The first is purified by crystal- 
lization from alcohol ; it melts at 72°, is very stable, and with 
platinum chloride gives a precipitate having the composition 
(C5H3Cl2N)o, HoPtClg. The second substance cannot be dis- 



CHEMISTRY. 75 

tilled without partial decomposition ; it is very deliquescent, and 
is soluble in water; with, platinum chloride, the solution gives a 
precipitate of pyridine platinochloride ; the yellow compound 
itself has the composition Cj Hj NCI, and is evidently an unstable 
additive product. 

When chlorine is passed into pyridine diluted with its own bulk 
of water, nitrogen and carbonic anhydride are evolved, and on 
further dilution a white precipitate is thrown down, which when 
dry smells like bleaching powder, and with platinum chloride 
gives a precipitate of pyi-idine jilatinochloride ; it is therefore an 
additive product of pyridine, probably the hypochlorite, and the 
carbonic anhydi'ide and nitrogen ai-e derived from the decomposi- 
tion of this substance. When chloi'ine is passed into a pyridine 
solution containing free alkali, nitrogen is evolved with explosive 
violence ; but if the contents of the flask be kept cool the action is 
more gentle, and chloroform and dichloracetic acid are to be found 
in the distillate. This decompos'ition of pyridine by chlorine is 
far more readily explained by Riedel's formula than by Korner's. 

The Transformation of Citric Acid into Pyridine-Dei'ivatives, 
and the Constitution of Pyridine. S. Ruhemann. (Proc. Chem. 
Soc, March 17, 1887.) Hofmann and Behrmann have shown 
that citramide is converted by heating with sulphuric acid into 
citrazinic acid, the dihydroxypyridinecai^boxylic acid in which 
both hydroxyls are in ortho-positions to the nitrogen-atom, the 
carboxyl being in the para-position. The author finds that the 
formation of the pyridine-derivative takes place even at ordinary 
temperatures if ethylic aceto-citrate be mixed with strong aqueous 
ammonia, and the mixture allowed to stand several days ; dilute 
chlorhydric acid then precipitates citrazinamide. The production 
of a pyridine-dei'ivative in this manner is a strong argument, he 
thinks, in favour of Riedel's contention that the nitrogen-atom in 
pyridine is in connection with the carbon-atom, which relatively to 
it is in the para-position ; and ia further support of this view he 
states that no condensation takes place if methylamine be sub- 
stituted for ammonia,^ there being in this case no available hydro- 
gen-atom associated with the nitrogen-atom to separate with the 
hydroxyl and thus permit of the union of the nitrogen-atom with 
the para-carbon-atom. Incidentally it is mentioned as an indica- 
tion of the mobility of the acetyl-group, that if ethylic aceto-citrate 
be treated with phenyl hydrazine, the acetyl-derivative of the 
latter is foz-med ; ethylic acetomalate and diacetotai'trate behave 
similarly. 



76 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Synthesis of Pyridine Bases. J. Ploclil. (Ber. dcr deutsch,. 
chem. Ges., xx. 722, 723.) Pyridines are formed by tlic action of 
aldehydes on concentrated solutions of ammonium, chloride at a 
high temperature. Collidine was obtained from paraldehyde, and 
parvoline from propaldehyde. Tlie reactions are analogous to 
those by means of which quinolinc-derivatives are obtained from 
the li^'ilroclilorides of primary amines and aldehydes, ketones, etc. 

Preparation of Pyridine Bases by the Action of Ammonium 
Salts on Glycerin. L. S torch. (JJer. der deutsch. chevi. Ges., xix. 
2456-2459.) The close affinity of the pyridine with the quinoline 
bases would lead to the supposition that the former Avould be 
obtained from glycerin and ammonia or its derivatives by Skraup's 
synthetic method. It is here shown that if glycerin is heated 
with a 30-40 per cent, solution of ammonium sulphate and concen- 
trated sulphuric acid at 200-230°, the resultant distillate contains 
pyridine, /3-picoline, and lutidine, together with higher homologues. 
With ammonium phosphate, a precisely similar result was obtained; 
but expei'iments with alcoholic ammonia, ammonium oxalate, and 
ammonium chloride wci-e unsuccessful. 

Synthesis of Active Conine. A. Ladenburg. {Ber. der de^dsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 257S-25S3 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 160.) Further 
experiments on a larger scale, and with pure materials, have con- 
firmed the author's previous results. a-AUylpyridine boils at 
187"5-192"5°, and is a strongly refracting liquid of sp. gr. 0"9595 
at 0°, sparingly soluble in water, and having a distinct conyrine- 
like odour. The platinochloride, (Cg Hj'Cj H^ N),, Ho Pt Clg, melts 
at 185-186°, and crystallizes in needles sparingly soluble in water. 
The anrochloride melts at 135-136°; the mei'curiochloride and 
cadmio-iodide are also described. By the action of sodium on an 
alcoholic solution at the boiling ]x)int, a-all3'lpyridine is reduced 
almost quantitatively to a-propylpiperidine. This base has a sp. 
gr. 0-8626 at 0°, and boils at 166-167°; its hydrochloride crystal- 
lizes in white, silky needles, melting at 203-205°. In smell, 
solubility, specific gravity, and physiological action, a-propylpi- 
peridine resembles conine, and not only are the platinochlorides, 
aurochlorides, and cadmio-iodides similar, but Avhen a-propylpi- 
pei'idine is converted into conyrine by llofmann's method, a blue 
fluorescence is obtained just as with conine. This fluorescence is 
due to an accompanying pi'oduct, for if the fluorescent base after 
separation from unaltei-ed conine be convert-ed into the platino- 
chloridc, the conyrine regenerated from it is no longer fluorescent. 
Conyrine platinochloride from conine crystallizes in monoclini-j 



CHEMISTRY. 77 

forms: a : 6 : c = 1-0G14 : 1 : 1-5374 ; ^ = 87° 8'; and the crystals 
from the synthetical base give practically the same value on 
measurement. 

a-Propylpipei'idine, however, in addition to the lowei- melting 
point of its hydrochloride, is optically inactive, and must be re- 
garded as a physical isomeride of conine. To effect a separation 
into two optically active bases, a sterilised nutritive solution con- 
taining 0'5 per cent, of the tartrate was seeded with Peyiicilliwm 
glaucum, but without result. The active base, however, was 
obtained by introducing a crystal of the salt into a very concen- 
trated solution of a-propylpiperidine hydrogen tartrate ; a slow 
separation of ciystals took place, which yielded a dextrorotatoiy 
base, whose specific rotation Avas [a]u=13° 87', compared with 
[a]i, = 13°79' for conine. The hydrochloride of the synthetical 
active base melts at 217-5°, that of conine at 2l7-5-2185°. 

From the mother-liquor a Isevorotatory base was obtained, but 
it contained a large proportion of the dextrorotatory modification, 
which could not be further separated by the crystallization method. 
However, on converting this Isevorotatory mixture into the cadmio- 
iodide, it was found that after crystallization, the ciystallized salt 
yielded a base which was less Itevorotatory than before, whilst 
from the mother-liquor a base was obtained which in a 50 per 
cent, alcoholic solution gave a rotation of — 3° 30' in a decimetre 
tube, compared with 3° 10' for conine under the same conditions. 

Conyrine Platinochloride. T. Liweh. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. 
Ges., XX. 07, 08.) The author has submitted synthetical conyrine 
platinochloride to a crystallographic examination, and gives results 
which show that the crystals are precisely similar in form to those 
of the conyrine platinochloride obtained from natural conine. 

Action of Ethyl Iodide on Nicotine. 0. de Coninck. (Gomptes 
Fendus, civ. 513-515.) Nicotine reacts readily with ethyl iodide, 
and yields a yellow, translucent solid which dissolves in warm, 
absolute alcohol, forming a deep brown solution. If this is mixed 
with potash of 45°, and heated on a water -bath for ten hours, a 
garnet-red coloration is produced, which afterwards changes to 
carmine. When the solution is mixed with an excess of hydro- 
chloric acid, and is poured into acidified watei', there is no change 
of colour and no fluorescence, but after twenty-four hours the 
liquid becomes j^ellow. 

Derivatives of Picolinic and Nicotinic Acids. E. Seyfferth. 
(Jouru. prakt. Chem. [2], xxxiv. 241-2G3.) The researches re- 
corded in this paper deal with the following compounds: chloro- 



78 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

picoHiiic acid, clilorohydroxypicoHnic acid, trichloropjridine, and 
dichloronicotinic acid. For details reference must be made to the 
orig'inal article. 

Synthesis of Pyrroline. Gr. Ciamician and P. Silber. (Ber. 
der deutsch. cliem. Gcf!., xix. 3027.) The authors stowed previously 
that succinimide may be readily converted into tetrachlox'opyrro- 
line, but were unable to completely reduce tbe latter to pyrroline. 
This can be readily effected by boiling the chloride with the cor- 
responding amount of potassium iodide in a I'eflex apparatus. The 
iodide so obtained is very readily reduced to pyi-roline by warming 
with potash solution in presence of zinc-dust. 

The Alkaloids of Berberis Vulgaris. O. Hesse. (Ber. der 
deiitsch. clinn. Ges., xix. 3190-3194 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 283.) 
The author has reinvestigated the alkaloids in the root of this 
plant. He believes that there are therein at least four alkaloids 
besides berberine, and describes especially oxyacanthine (Wacker, 
Chem. Centr., 1861, 321), and a new alkaloid he has obtained 
from the mother-liquors of oxyacanthine, and which he names 
bei-bamine . 

He finds the true formula of oxyacanthine to be C^g Hjg N O3, 
and not Cja Ho^ N O3, as he has previously given. "When crystal- 
lized from water and dried at 100°, this alkaloid melts at 138- 
150° ; but when crystallized from alcohol or ether, it forms needles 
melting at 208-214°. It is easily soluble in chloroform, and then 
gives [a]„ = + 131-6° (j9 = 4, f = 15°). In light petroleum and 
alkalies, it is only slightly soluble, and ether extracts it 
completely from the alkaline solutions. The hydrochloride, 
CigHjgNOg, HCl + 2 HoO, forms small colourless needles which 
in aqueous solutions give [«]„= + 1636° (p = 2, f = 15°.) The 
platinochloride is a yellow, flocculent precipitate. The nitrate and 
sulphate are both crystalline. "When heated with potash and a 
little water, the base melts to a brown mass which floats on the 
surface of the fused potash. This brown mass is the potassium 
compound of ^-oxyacantJiine . This conversion into a /?-modifica- 
tiou also takes place very readily, even at ordinary temperatures, 
when the alkaloid is acted on by alkalies or barium hydroxide in 
the presence of alcohol. Ether now no longer extracts the 
alkaloid from the alkaline solution. Hydrochloric acid precipi- 
tates ^-oxyacanthine, which is soluble both in alkalies and in 
excess of acid. If, however, the alkaline solution of the (3-com- 
pound is supersaturated with hydrochloric acid, a-oxyacanthine 
hydrochloride crystallizes out. The author believes the ^-modifi- 



CHEMISTRY. 79 

cation is due to the alkaloid taking up an additional molecnle 
of water. Oxjacauthine very closely resembles narcotine in pro- 
perties. 

Berhamine crystallizes in small scales of the composition 
Ci8 Hjg N O3 + 2 H^ O. It is easily soluble in ether. When 
anhydrous, it melts at 156°. The hydrochloride crystallizes in 
scales, the nitrate in needles ; the platinochloride forms a yellow 
crystalline precipitate. 

Action of Potassium Permanganate on Berherine. E. Schmidt 
and C. Schilbach. (xh-chio der Fharm. [3], xxv. 164-170; 
Journ. Chem. Sac, 1887, 604.) Berberine, under the action of 
concentrated nitric acid, yields a tribasic nitrogenous acid, ber- 
beronic acid, C5 Hg N (C O • O H)g, as has been shown by Weidel 
and again by Fiirth. It is remarkable that the principal effect of 
the action of potassium permanganate on berbei'ine should be the 
production of non-nitrogenous acid analogous to hemipinic acid, 
as J. Court has shown in an investigation instigated by one of the 
authors. The authors, in supplementing this investigation, con- 
ducted the oxidation in an alkaline solution, and in general 
followed the course taken by Court. A hot dilute solution of 
berberine was treated with aqueoiTS potash and then with hot 
potassium permanganate solution. The slight excess of perman- 
ganate was decomposed by a few drops of alcohol. Pi-eliminary 
tests indicated the formation of ,only very minute quantities of 
oxalic acid. On the contrary, carbonic anhydride was freely 
evolved on adding excess of sulphuric acid, and a strong odour of 
nitric acid was perceptible. The filtrate from the manganese oxide 
was neutralized with sulphuric acid, evaporated to dryness, pow- 
dered, well shaken with ether, and treated with excess of moder- 
ately dilute sulphuric acid. On distilling off the ether, a brown 
liquid remained which deposited a considerable quantity of 
crystals when placed over sulphuric acid. To avoid loss, the 
brown liquid was dissolved in water and the contained acids were 
precipitated by means of a slight excess of lead acetate. The 
well-washed precipitate was treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
the lead sulphide and excess of sulphuretted hydrogen removed, 
and the liquid evaporated and set to crystallize over sulphuric acid. 
The filtrate from the lead precipitate was freed from acetic acid 
by repeated evaporation, and again treated with lead acetate, when 
a further crop of crystals was obtained. The lead acetate treat- 
ment gave crystals much purer than those obtained by direct 
crystallization of the ether extract. These crystals, dried at 100° 



80 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

have a constant melting point of 160-162°, and amount to about 
30 per cent, of the original bcrberine. A small quantity of 
nitrogenous, nodular crystals was obtained by treating the mother- 
liquor of the ether extract with water, dissolving the precipitate 
obtained in hot water, and purifying with the aid of lead acetate. 
No other well characterised compounds were isolated. A con- 
siderable poi'tion of the nitrogen of berberine was evidently 
converted into nitric acid dui-ing the oxidation. Another portion 
appeared in the form mentioned above. A further portion Avas 
converted into ammonia, or at least into compounds which gave 
ammonia on distillation with potash. The copious oxidation pro- 
duct melting at 160-162°, obtained as above, Avas compared Avith 
hemipinic acid, specially prepared by Schilbach from narcotine, 
and the two compounds wei-e shown to be identical. 

Hydrastine and Hydrastinine. M. Freund and "\V. Will. 
(Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xx. 88-95.) The authors substitute 
the formula Co^ Ho^ N Og for that prcAuously ascribed to hydras- 
tine. They have examined the base Itrjdrastinine, C^^ H^j N Oo + 
Ho 0, obtained together with opianic acid Avhen hydrastine is 
ti'eated with oxidizing agents. Hydrastinine forms white ciystals, 
melts at 116-117°, fusion, hoAvever, occurring if it be kept at 
100° for some time, and is soluble in benzene, ethyl acetate (these 
solvents produce a partial decomposition), light petroleum, ether, 
and Avater ; the aqueous solution is strongly alkaline and intensely 
bitter. Like cotarnine, of Avhich it is the next lower homologue, 
hydrastinine crj'stallizes from all solvents Avitli 1 mol. Ho ; this, 
however, is not present in its salts. The hydrochloride, Giilii^l^ Oo, 
H CI, ciystallizes in feebly coloured needles, melts at about 212° 
Avith decomposition, and is readily soluble in alcohol and Avater; 
the aqueous solution shows a feeble fluorescence, and is optically 
inactive. The sidphatc, Cj^ H^^ N Oo, Ho S O^, forms yelloAV crystals 
showing a green fluorescence, and is soluble in alcohol. The 
dichromate, Cj] H^j N Oo, Ho Gv^ ^7' crystallizes in slender, golden- 
yelloAV needles, and is soluble in water. The methiodide, 
Cj] Hjj N Oo, ^le I, crystallizes in slender, yelloAv needles showing 
a vitreous lustre, and is soluble in alcohol and Avater. The plat ino- 
chloride, Cji H^ N Oo, Ho Pt Clg, and the aurochloride form yellow 
crystals, Avhilst Avith potassium feri'icyanidc a compound crystal- 
lizing in reddish brown needles is obtained. 

Tlie authors also giA'e a descrii^tion of hudrohydrastinine, 
Cjj Hj.j N Oo, a crystalline base obtained from h^-drastinine by 
reduction with zinc and hydrochloric acid; and of hydrastinic acid, 



CHEMISTRY. 81 

Cg H- N O4, whicli is obtained bj boiling liydvastine with dilute 
nitric acid until potassium hydrate ceases to precipitate the 
product. 

Pilocarpine. E. Hardy and G. Calmels. (Comptes Bendus, 
cii. 1116-1119. From Journ. Chem. Soc.) The authors have 
analysed the following compounds of pilocarpine : the nitrate, 
Cii Hjg No On. H N O3, which forms rhombic lamellse, very 
soluble in water but less soluble in alcohol ; the platinochloride, 
(Cu Hjg No 0.2).2, Ho Pt Clg, which forms somewhat soluble 
quadratic prisms and lamellse ; the modified platinochloride, 
(Cjj HjgNo 03)2 Pt CI4, a very soluble, crystalline, yellow powder; 
the aurochloride, Cj^ HjgNo Oo Au CI3, formed in slender needles 
when the pilocarpine is in excess ; the aurochloride, C^ Hjg Nj Oo, 
2 Au CI3, obtained in microscopic needles Avhen the auric chloride 
is in excess. Both these compounds form viscous oils when heated 
in presence of water, and combine with only one equivalent of 
hydrochloric acid. The acid aurochloride, Cj^ Hjg No Oo, 
H Au CI4, obtained in needles by adding a limited quantity of 
auric chloride to a solution containing free hydrochloric acid ; the 
acid diaurochloride, C^ Hjg No Oo, 2 H Au CI4, obtained in needles 
or right rectangular prisms by adding excess of auric chloride 
in presence of hydi'ochloric acid ; the mercurochlorides, which 
crystallize in slender needles and are very soluble in acids ; and 
the hydrochloride, which forms a gummy mass. Pilocarpine 
itself is a viscous substance, very soluble in alcohol and water, 
slightly soluble in cold ether or chloroform, more soluble on 
heating, and readily soluble in ether or chloroform mixed with 
alcohol. Pilocarpine does not act on carbonates, but with alkaline 
hydrates it forms compounds which are decomposed by carbonic 
acid. These facts point to the presence of an internal anhydride. 
Pilocarpic acid does not exist in the free state. The copper salt, 
(Cji Hi7N2 03)2Cu, is a sbghtly soluble green powder, and the 
silver salt forms a curdy precipitate. Free pilocarpine forms witli 
silver nitrate two compounds, 

AgN03,Ci,HigN2 02, 

and (AgN03)2, Ci^HigNjOo, which crystallizes in needles. The 
constitution of pilocarpine is represented by the formula 

-co-. 

Pilocarpidhie . — The substance produced by the action of nitric 



82 YEAR-liOOK OF PHARMACT. 

or hydrochloric acid on pilocarpine or by boiling pilocarpine or its 
salts "with water in presence of air, is pilocarpidine, 

Cs H4 N/3.C Me (N Meo)C H. 
Its salts are similar to those of pilocarpine ; they are gummy 
substances decomposed by carbonic anhydride, soluble in water and 
alcohol of 90°, but insoluble in absolute alcohol if they are dry. 
The copper salt is green, the silver salt crystallizes in a mass of 
small needles. The hydi-ochloride is soluble in Avater and crystal- 
lizes badly from an acid solution ; it is a guramy substancd which 
crystallizes slowly from alcohol in scales with a prismatic struc- 
ture. The aurochloride, C^q Hi^No O,, H Au Cl.^, is obtained in 
right rectangular prisms by adding pilocai-pidine hydrochloride 
gradually to an acid solution of auric chloride, and allowing the 
liquid to evaporate spontaneously. In solutions containing no 
free acid, the aurochloride, Cjg Hjj No Oo, Au CI3, is foi'med. The 
plutinochloride, (Cm H^j^No Oo)o, H, Pt Clg + 2 H, O, is formed in 
lamellte by adding the hydrochloride to an excess of platinum 
chloi-ide solution. If these crystals are dissolved in a large 
quantity of cold water and allowed to recrystallize in the cold, 
the platinochloride separates in large, yellow lamellae similar to 
those of naphthalene. If crystallization takes place in a warm 
solution, small red prismatic crystals, of the composition 
(Cio Hjj Ng Oo)o, Hi Pt Clg + Ho O, separate. This second modifi- 
cation is also obtained by heating the dihydrated salt. 

Jaborine. E. Hardy and G. Calmels. {Gomptes Rejuliis, 
eii. 1251-1254. From Journ. Chem. Soc.) Pure dry pilocarpine 
does not yield jaborine when heated at 100° for six hours, neither 
can this substance be obtained by the action of alcoholic iodides on 
argento-pilocarpidiue. If, however, carefully dried pilocarpine is 
heated rapidly to 175°, kept at this temperature for about half an 
hour, and the product extracted Avith water made alkaline with 
baryta, and shaken with ether, the ether contains jaborine, and the 
aqueous solution contains pilocarijidine and jaboric acid. Jaborine 
separates from alcohol or ether in a brown mass, which changes to 
a brittle, resinous solid. It is insoluble in water, but dissolves 
I'cadily in ether, and is also soluble in jaboric acid. From solutions 
of the hydrocliloride it is thrown down by potash as a cui-dy pre- 
cipitate, which readily agglomei-ates under warm water. When 
boiled Avith coucentx'ated aqueous potash it is converted into 
pilocarpidine. 

Jaborine hydrochloride is extremely soluble in water and alcohol. 
When boiled with excess of hydrochloric acid, it is converted into 



CHEMISTRY. 83 

pilocarpidine hydrochloride. Solutions of jaborine are brown witli 
a greenish fluorescence, which is not completely removed by animal 
charcoal. An alcoholic solution of free jabox-ine yields Avith a 
limited quantity of platinic chloride, a dirty v/hite, gelatinous pre- 
•:cipitate of the composition (Cog H32N^04^)o, Pt Cl^ ; with platinic 
■chloride in excess, a yellowish-white precipitate of the composition 
Coo H30 N^ Oj, Pt Cl^, and with auric chloride a precipitate of the 
composition Coo HgoN^ O4, 2 Au CI3 In presence of a slight excess 
of hydrochloric acid, platinic chloride, whether in excess or other- 
wise, precipitates the compound 

CosHgoN^O^HoPtClg. 
Jaboric acid is separated from pilocarpidine by precipitating 
with excess of silver niti'ate, which forms a curdy precipitate of the 
composition C^g Ho|. Ng O5 Ag, Ag N O3. Jaboric acid resembles 
jaborine in appearance, but is very soluble in water, and is not 
removed from its aqueous solution by ether. With alkalies it 
forms gummy salts which dissolve in water and alcohol, and are 
not decomposed by carbonic anhydride. With silver nitrate in 
limited quantity it forms the compound Cjg Ho^ N3 O5 Ag, which is 
precipitated by alcohol in the form of a brown powder. Hot con- 
centrated potash or boiling hydrochloric acid converts jaboric acid 
into pilocarpidine and yS-pyridine-a-lactic acid. Alcoholic solutions 
of jaboric acid give with platinic chloride in limited quantity a 
viscous pi'ecipitate of the compound 

(Ci9Ho,N3 0,)o,PtCl,; 
with platinic chloride in excess, a yellow pi-ecipitate of a hemi- 
platino-chloride, 

(Ci9 H05 N3 0.,)o, Pt Cl, + 2 C,,, Ho, N3 O, Pt CI,. 
With auric chloride a diaurochloride, Cjg H05 No 0-, 2 Au CI3, is 
formed. The hydrochloride and nitrate of jaboric acid are viscous 
substances : an aqueous solution of the former gives a viscous 
precipitate of the composition (C^y Ho- Ng 65)0, H2 Pt Cl^, Avith a 
limited quantity of platinic chloiide. 

Jaborine and jaboric acid are products of the condensation of 
pilocarpine, this condensation talcing place on the betain nucleus, 
and may be thus represented (Py = p.yi"idyl) : — 

J-^ ^viGs^ -C O C Mo Py/3X ^' 

Jaborine. 

H- C Me Pyi3 • C • • N ilcg C Me Py/3- C H. 

Jaboric acid. 



S^ YEAIi-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

A New Synthesis of Acridine, R. Mohlau. (Ber. der deutsch. 
chem. Ges., xix. 2451-2453.) The constitutional formula of 
acridine has been confirmed by its synthesis from diplienylamine 
and formic acid or chloroform, as also from the condensation of 
orthotolylanih'ne. In this paper, a synthesis from aniline and 
salicylic aldehyde, in presence of zinc chloride, is described, the 
reaction being as follows : 

Ph N Ho + H • Ce H^ • C O H = C^g Hg N + 2 H2 O. 

The product was identical in chemical and physical properties 
with the acridine originally obtained from crude anthracene by 
Gracbe and Caro. It is also shown that parahydroxybenzaldehyde, 
as also benzaldehyde, form acridine with diphenylamine, probably 
from an intermediate decomposition of the aldehyde into phenol 
or benzene on the one hand, and formic acid on the other, and this 
latter substance I'cacts in accordance with the above-mentioned 
synthesis. 

Emetine. H. Kunz. (Archiv der Pharyn., 1S87, 461 ; Fharm. 
Journ , 3rd series, xvii. 1049.) A careful investigation has led the 
author to the conclusion that emetine is a biacid base and a tertiary 
diamine, like quinine. He considers that its elementary composi- 
tion is represented by the formula CgQ H^q Nj O5, which difPers by 
Co from that attributed to the alkaloid by Lefort and Wurtz. The 
introduction of a methyl group yielded a new base which Avas 
obtained as a hydrate, — " methylemetonium hydrate," — to which 
the formula C^q H.^q (^ H3) No O5 is attributed. This compound 
was amorphous and very hygroscopic, and the sulphate was 
the only crystalline salt prepai'ed from it. "Methylemetonium" 
differs sharply from emetine in its physiological action, in which 
it resembles cui'are, 0'0037 gi*am injected subcutaneously into a 
frog producing total paralysis of the motor system in two minutes. 
It is thought very probable that emetine, like quinine, is a quinoline 
derivative. Besides emetine, ipecacuanha root contains choline. 

Conessine. K. PolstorfF. (Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 
1682-1685 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 901.) Conessine (gee ab- 
stract, Year -Book of Pharmacy, 1886, 75) was found to be present 
in East Indian llolarrhena to the extent of 0'08 per cent. It was 
purified by dissolving it in very dilute acetic acid, almost neutraliz- 
ing with ammonia, treating with lead acetate, and removing the 
lead by means of sulphuretted hydrogen. After repeating this 
treatment four or five times an almost colourless solution is ob- 
tained. The nitrate, C^ Hog N, H N O3, forms small needles ; the 



CHEMISTRY. 85 

picrate (with 1 mol. Ho 0) crystallizes from alcohol in broad, 
lustrous, gold-coloured needles, which explode violently when 
heated. 

The author considers the substance to be identicul Avith that 
obtained by Haines from Wrightia (Jonrn. de Phann. [2], vi. 432). 
The results of analyses of Haines' compound, made by Warnecke 
agree with the formula C^o H^q N, as well as with Cj^ Hjg X. Also 
the reaction given by Warnecke for Haines' compound holds good 
with conessine from Holarrhena. 

Piliganine, a New Alkaloid. H. Adrian. {Comptes Eendus, 
cii. 1322, 1323. From Journ. Chem. Soc.) The Piligan is a 
Brazilian lycopod, which resembles L. Selago, and is probably the 
variety L. Saicssuriis. 

Piliganine forms a soft, yellowish, transparent mass, with an 
odour recalling that of pelletierine. It has an alkaline reaction, 
and gives white fumes with hydi'ochloric acid. It dissolves in 
water, alcohol, and chloroform, but is only slightly soluble in 
ether. The hydrochloride forms highly deliquescent, microscopic 
crystals. Solutions of piliganine give the following reactions : — 
Sodium phosphomolybdate, yellowish white precipitate ; iodine 
solution, pale brown precipitate ; tannin, white precipitate ; 
mercuric potassium iodide, bulky white curdy precipitate ; mer- 
curic chloride and platinum chloride, no reaction ; picric acid, 
yellowish, crystalline precipitate after some time. 

Piliganine is very poisonous, and has a distinct emeto-cathartic 
action. 

A New Constituent of the Germinated Seeds of Liipimis Liiteus. 
E. Schulze and E. Steiger. (Per. der deutscli. chem. Ges., xix. 
1177-1180.) The body described by the authors under the name 
of arginine is a nitrogenous base somewhat similar in its properties 
to creatinine. It is obtained from the germinated cotyledons by 
precipitating the aqueous extract with tannin and lead acetate, 
acidifying the filtrate with sulphuric acid, filtering again, then 
adding phosphotungstic acid, treating the jirecipitate thus formed 
with milk of lime, and removing the excess of lime from the filtered 
solution by a current of C Oo. The clear liquid, when neutralized 
with nitric acid and concentrated to a syrup, yields needle-shaped 
crystals of the nitrate corresponding to the formula, C,;Hj^X^Oo, 
HN0, + iH2 0. 

Asiminine. T. U. Lloyd. (Ayner. Journ. Pharm., December, 
1886.) 

Process for obtaining the Alkaloid. — Extract the seeds of Asimina 



88 YEAR-COOK OF PHARltACy. 

triloha (papaw) with alcohol ; evaporate the alcohol, addincr 
towards the last water cnnngh to precipitate the oils ; acidulate 
with acetic acid, stir well, and after twenty-four hours filter. 
Ammonia water is cautiously added to the filtrate until in 
slight excess, care being taken to avoid a strong alkaline reaction. 
The precipitate is collected and, while moist, agitated with sul- 
phuric etlier in successive portions ; the ethereal layers are decanted, 
mixed, evaporated, and the residue is dissolved in a little alcohol. 
To this solution, hydrochloric acid in slight excess is added, Avhen, 
if concentrated, a magma of ci-ystals of the hydrochlorate of the 
alkaloid will be produced. If the solution is dilute, evaporation 
will be necessary. These crystals are purified by crystallization 
from hot alcohol, then dissolved in water, precipitated with 
ammonia, and the amorphous alkaloid is dried. The yield is small, 
but a considerable quantity of the alkaloid is lost in the process 
of purification. In working large amounts, an increased yield 
would result after the first batch. 

Properties. — This alkaloid is white, odourless, tastele.ss, and 
practically insoluble in water. It dissolves freely in ether and 
alcohol, less freely in chloroform and benzol. Upon evaporation 
of the solvents, it sepai-ates in an amorphous condition. The 
soluble salts are bitter, and produce copious precipitates with the 
usual alkaloidal reagents. Salts of asiminine and the usual acids 
employed in the commercial production of alkaloidal salts, dissolve 
freely in water (excepting the hydi-ochlorate, which is less soluble), 
produeiTig bitter liquids, from which dilute alkalies precipitate the 
alkaloid. The author did- not succeed in crystallizing either the 
nitrate or the acetate, but the hydrochlorate crystallizes easily 
from alcohol, forming beautiful squares, and the sulphate in 
lamina; of crystalline natui-e. The principal salt, owing to its ea-sy 
production in a pure crj'stalline condition, will be the hydrochlo- 
rate if this alkaloid should come into demand as a medicinal 
agent. 

ITydrochlorafc of asinrinine is white, odourless, and to the taste 
at first sweetish and then bitter, leaving a bitter after-taste. It 
crystallizes from alcohol in transparent square plates or in groups 
of crystals composed mainly of the interlocked sections of cubes. 
Even if the alkaloid be in minute amount, it forms, with nitric 
acid, at once a carmine red, which quickly changes to a deep dark 
purple colour. This reaction is vei-y delicate, and is similar to 
that of concentrated nitric acid on morj)hine salts, excepting that 
the colour is not hlood red, and instead of becoming lighter, darkens 



CHEMISTRY. 87 

for a time to purple, and then changes to deep red, but not yellow. 
Without due care one might possiblj confuse asirainine with 
morphine by this test. With sulphuric acid it effervesces, dis- 
solves, turns greenish yellow slowly, afterwards yellowish red, 
then dark red, and the liquid remains this colour. Hydrochloric 
acid does not affect it ; but the addition of a little sulphuric acid 
and a gentle heat produces a purple colour similar to the morphine 
reaction with the same reagent. Mercuric chloride causes a pre- 
cipitate in solutions of this salt. Chlorine water does not affect the 
alkaloid, but the solution of its hydrochloride is precipitated white. 
Antithermin. (Pharm. Jonm., from Nouv. Eeniedes, March, 
1887, 102.) "Antithermin" is the name proposed for a new 
synthetically prepared compound which has just been added to 
the army of antipyretics. The systematic name of the compound 
is " phenylhydrazinle\Tilinic acid," from which it is evident that 
it has a near chemical relationship with " antipyrin." One of the 
intermediate products in the formation of this widely used anti- 
pyretic is phenylhydrazin, the composition of which is represented 
by the formula : — 

fCeH, 

VH 

This componnd has the property of combining with other com- 
pounds to a remarkable extent ; as, for instance, with aldehydes, 
ketones, sugars, and ketone acids ; antipyrin being, in fact, a methy- 
lated derivative from a compound of phenylhydrazin with aceto- 
acetic acid. The new antipyi-etic is a compound of phenylhydrazin 
with acetopropionic acid, a homologue of acetoacetic acid, to which 
the name levulinic acid also has been applied, because it can be 
prepared by oxidizing levulose. Phenylhydrazinlevnlinic acid, or 
antithermin, is said to be obtained by dissolving phenylhydrazin 
in dilute acetic acid, and adding to it a solution of levulinic acid, 
which gives rise to a yellow precipitate that yields well-formed 
crystals upon recrystallization from alcohol. 

Tyrotoxicon : its Presence in Poisonous Ice Cream ; its Develop- 
ment in Milk ; and its Probable Relation to Cholera Infantum and 
Kindred Diseases. V. C. Vaughan. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 18SG, 
452, 1887, 291 ; also Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 147.) This 
paper is full of interest and importance ; but as it is not suited 
for absti-action, we can only recommend it to the reader's atten- 
tion, and refer him to either of the sources above mentioned. 



88 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Poisonous Ptomaine in Milk. R. H. Firth. (Lancet, i., 1887, 
213, 214.) An epidemic of attacks of violent purging and vomit- 
ing among the soldiers in the Punjab was traced to the use of 
certain milk. The residue of the suspected milk was found to be 
of sp.gr. 1'025; casein, 4"1 ; fat, 39; and sugar, 5"04 per cent. 
The dairy pans were found to be unwashed, and some emitted a 
re])ulsive odour ; the Aveather at the same time was very hot. The 
milk was coagulated, filtered ; the filtrate was neutralized and 
made feebly alkaline by potassium h3'drate, and shaken with ethier. 
On evaporating- the ethei-eal extract, a crystalline residue of sickly 
odour and pungent taste was obtained. Given to men in small 
quantities, it produced nausea and. headache. Given to dogs, in 
fifteen minutes it produced violent purging and vomiting. 

First, milk tested in a similar way gave negative results. Eight 
samples of milk were allowed to stand, and tested every twenty 
days. After two months, three of the samples yielded the same 
crystalline substance which produced the same symptoms when 
given to animals. This substance — which seems to be a ptomaine 
— is evidently the result of decomposition. No specific organisms 
on which to fasten it — beyond some common forms of oidium and 
penicillium — were found. The name proposed for it is lactotoxine. 

Formation of a Poisonous Alkaloid from Choline. C. Gram. 
(Cheni. C'viUr., 1880,647.) The author has studied the transforma- 
tion of choline into the trimethylvinj-lanimoniuni base. According 
to Brieger, the latter poisonous product is a frequent constituent 
of putrid matter, and arises from the action of putrefactive micro- 
phytes on choline. 

This same change can be effected by purely chemical means. 
The lactate of choline when heated gives rise to a poisonous sub- 
stance with muscarine-like action. Inasmxich as many researches 
have shown that choline is widely distnbuted throughout animal 
and vegetable organisms, and as it is moreover capable of being 
converted into a poisonous substance by simple chemical action, the 
author considers it necessary to conduct researches on ptomaines 
with more caution, and perhaps to regard with mistrust ptomaines 
posisessing a. muscarine-like action. 

Cadaverine. A. Ladenburg. (Ber. der deiifsch. cliem. Ges., 
xix. 2585, 2586.) The author shows this alkaloid to be identical 
with pentamethylenediamine, with which it agrees in its boiling 
point, solubilit}', odour, in its general reactions, and in the com- 
position of the respective mercui-iochlorides. The iminc obtained 
from either base is the same, and is identical with piperidine. 



CHEMISTRY. 89 

Ptomaines. H. Beckurts. (ArcMv der Fliarm. [3], xxiv. 
1041-1065; Jotcrn. Ghem. Soc, 1887, 385.) The importance of 
ptomaines in forensic investigations Las induced the author to 
review the recent literature of this subject. Until ver}- recently 
only ptomaines of unknown composition had been isolated, and in 
all cases by the methods of Stas-Otto and Dragendorff. It is 
mainly to Brieger's investigations during the past four years that 
we are indebted for a more accurate knowledge of the composition 
of these compounds. From decomposing flesh, Brieger obtained 
neuridine, C5 Hj^ Nn, and neurine, C5 Hjg N 0. From decompo.sing 
fish he obtained a poisonous isomeride of ethylendiamine, possibly 
ethylidencdiamine, Co H^ (N H2)o, muscarine, CgH^^NOg, and the 
physiologically inactive gadinine, CgHj^JSTOo. Fully decomposed 
cheese yielded neuridine. Decomposing glue gave neuridine, 
dimethylamine, and a muscarine-like base ; whilst rotten yeast 
gave dimethylamine only. As these compounds result from the 
action of bacteria on animal tissues, so Brieger showed that the 
same or analogous compounds were similarly formed in the human 
subject. In the earlier stages of decomposition, only choline was 
found. After three days, neuridine appeared in increasing amounts, 
whilst choline gradually disappeared, being replaced by ti-irae- 
thylamine. After fourteen days neuridine had also disappeared. 
Later, there most commonly appeared cadaverine, C5 H^g IST,, and 
putrescine, C,^ 11^2 '^2- With cadaverine is also found a substance 
of the same composition, called saprine, but differing considerably 
in its reactions. The bases choline, neuridine, cadaverine, piitres- 
cine, and saprine, are physiologically indifferent ; but after fourteen 
days' decomposition a new poisonous base, mydaleine, was obtained, 
which seems to be a diamine. In human remains (heart, lung, 
liver, etc ), maintained at — 9 to 5° C. during four months, a new 
base, mydine, Cg Hj^ N" 0, Avas found, a strongly reducing agent, 
and a poisonous base, mydatoxine, Cg H^f. N Oo, also the poisonous 
methyl-guanidine was isolated. 0. Bocklisch, employing Brieger's 
method, obtained a large number of bases from decomposing fish. 
The bases so obtained were not poisonous, and attempts to separate 
the injurious compounds were unsuccessful. Tlie fact that 
decomposition bacteria induce the formation of numerous basic 
substances from albuminoid compounds, makes it higlily probable 
tliat pathogenic bacteria possess similar properties. Thus, Koch, 
Nicati, and Rietsch have found poisonous j^tomaines in cholera. 
In cultivations of typhus bacilla, a strongly basic poison, typho- 
toxine, Cy Hjj N Oo, was obtained ; and from tetanus cultivations a 



90 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

strong base, totanine, Cj^ H30 No 0^^, ^vas obtained. The bases 
obtained by Brieger are either liquids of definite boiling-point, or 
solid crystalline substances. The salts show the so-called general 
alkaloid reactions, so that as a group the ptomaines cannot be 
separated from the alkaloids. The non-poisonous ptomaines readily 
give rise to poisonous compounds ;. thus, cadaverine, which has 
been shown by Ladenburg to be pentamethylenediamine, is con- 
verted by rapid distillation of the hydrochloride into the poisonous 
piperidine. Whilst the constitution of cadaverine has just been 
indicated, putrescine is either a diraethylethylendiamine or methyl- 
ethyl-methyl-endiamine ; which of the two, further investigation 
must decide. The present methods of isolating the alkaloids do 
not yield absolutely certain results, and further extended investi- 
gation is required. 

Tetanine, a New Ptomaine. L. Brieger. (Ber. der deutsch. 
cJicvi. Ges., xix. 3119-3121.) The beef extract in whicli Rosen- 
bach's microbe had been cultivated for four to six weeks, was 
acidified with hydrochloric acid, boiled, and filtered ; the filtrate 
evaporated and treated with lead acetate and alcohol, filtered, and 
the lead removed as far as possible as chloride, and finally as 
sulphide. The strongly alkaline filtrate was distilled with steam, 
acidified with hydrochloric acid, evaporated to dryness, and 
ti-eated with alcoliol to remove ammonium chloride. After re- 
moving the alcohol, the new base was separated as its auro- 
chloride. 

The free base, C5 Hji N, is volatile, boils about 100°, but was 
not obtained free from water. The hydrochloride is crystalline, 
melts at 205°, and is very readily soluble in water and absolute 
alcohol. The aui-ochloride, C5 ll^ N, H Au CI4, ciystallizes in 
plates, and melts at 130° The platinochloride, (C5HjjN)o, 
H.^PtClf;, crystallizes in jilates, is decomposed at 240°, and is 
sparingly soluble in water. The picrnte crystallizes in readily 
soluble needles. The base gives a yellow precipitate witli phos- 
phomolybdic acid, a Avhito precipitate with phosphotungstic acid, 
and a red crystalline precipitate with potassium bismuth iodide. 
Injected hypodermically in a comparatively large dose, it produces 
ihe symptoms of tetanus. 

Snake Poison. R. N. Wolfenden. (J". P%9('o?., vii. 327-370; 
Journ. Chcm. Soc, 1886, 1057.) With regard to the venom of the 
Indian cobra {Naja tripndinns) , it is found that its toxicity is Jiot 
due to any bacterium or living organism, nor to any alkaloid — 
alkaloids and ptomaines arc entirelj' absent from the venom — nor 



CHEMISTRY. 



91 



is it due to any cobric acid sucli as was described by Bljtli 
(Analyst i. 204). The autbor finds that the crystals to which the 
name cobric acid was given are in reality composed of calcium 
sulphate. The venom, however, is sometimes faintly acid, some- 
times neutral. The poisonous properties of the venom are due to 
its proteid constituents, which are as follows : — (1) Globulin, 
which is always present, and kills by causing asphyxia. (2) Syn- 
tonin, which is precipitated with magnesium sulphate with the 
globulin. It dialyses through parchment paper to some extent. 
The poisonous property of the acid dialysates is due to this 
proteid, not to cobric acid. Its action is similar to that of the 
globulin, but less intense. (3) Serum albumen; this is also 
toxic, producing paralysis. (4) Traces in some specimens of 
hemialbumose, and questionable traces of peptone are regarded 
as accidental. 

The venom of the Indian viper (Dahoia Eugsellii) has the same 
reaction as that of the cobra; but here again there is no toxic acid,: 
alkaloid, or living organism, but the proteids are the poisonous 
constituents; these are three in number: — (I) Globulin, which 
greatly prepondei-ates, as in cobra venom ; (2) Serum albumen 
in small amount ; (3) A proteid which possesses many of thei 
properties of an albumose. True peptones do not occur, and it 
is probable that the substances described by Weir, Mitchell, and 
Reichart in crotalus, copperhead, and mocassin venoms as peptones, 
are in reality albumoses. 

Snake Poison. C. J. H. Warden. {Chemical Netvs, liv. 197- 
199; 209-211.) Two samples of air-dried snake-venom contained 
respectively 16'26 and 15"43 per cent, of water. Fresh venom 
yields 25-50 per cent, of solid residue. For the author's experi- 
ments, the solution of the dried venom in distilled water was 
injected under the skin of the back of white or piebald China 
mice. A dose of 0'012 gram of anhydi'ous venom was fatal in four 
minates, and the rapidity of action decreases as the quantity of 
poison administered is diminished ; with 0"000016 gram, the ani- 
mal may live three hours, whilst O'OOOOOS gram is not fatal. Very 
large and very small doses cause convulsions, intermediate ones do 
not. In the case of white mice, the fatal I'atio of poison to body 
weight appears to be about 1 : 10,000,000. Heating the solution of 
the venom soon produces marked coagulation, but it is only after 
heating for some time that the toxic activity is reduced, hence 
prolonged heating at a moderate temperature is more effective 
for such a purpose than short periods at higher temperatures. 



92 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Similar remarks apply to the action of picric acid, ■\vhicli causes 
an abundant precipitate in solution of the poison, and in some 
experiments a marked reduction in the toxic action -when the 
filtered solution was employed. 

The Poison of the Stinging Nettle. G. Habcrlandt. {Pharm. 
Journ., 3r(l series, xvii. G25.) The author disposes of the theory 
that the presence of formic acid is the cause of the iiTitating 
effect produced by the sting of nettles, showing that formic acid 
has no such virulent properties in the minute quantities in which 
alone it could be present in the stinging glands of the nettle ; and 
that the irritation must be produced by a fixed substance, since 
the dried contents of the gland will cause the ordinary effects of a 
nettle-sting if introduced beneath the skin ; while formic acid is, 
of course, volatile. The author finds, on the other hand, invari- 
ably in the fluid a substance which possesses all the properties of 
an albuminoid ; it is destroyed by boiling water. The substance 
which produces the irritation is probably, he considers, of the 
nature of an unformed ferment. 

Vegetable Ferments. A. Hansen. {Bot. Zeit., 1886, 137; 
Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 1059.) The author has examined the 
latex of different species of plants for the presence of ferments. 
He finds none in the Euphorbiacese, in Ficus elastica, Scorzonera, 
Taraxacum, or the juice of the opium poppy. The latex of Ficus 
Carica, on the otlier hand, contains principles capable of effecting 
four fermentative changes; they peptonize albuminoids in the 
presence of either alkalies or acids, act like diastase on starch, and 
coagulate the casein of milk. 20-100 grams of fibrin previously 
caused to swell by immersion in hydrochloric acid of 0'2 per cent, 
strength, are completely dissolved in ten to thirty mintites when 
treated at 40° with 2-3 c.c. of this latex. The products of this 
digestion arc the same as with })epsin, yet the two ferments are 
not identical, since the ficus latex peptonizes in the presence of 
alkalies as well as acids, although more slowly. Probably there 
are two peptic ferments present — one acting in acid, the other in 
alkaline solutions. By digestion with hydrochloric acid, the latex 
entirely loses its peptonizing properties ; digested with sodium 
carbonate (which destroj^s the activity of pepsin), it retains them 
intact. If a few drops of the latex be added to milk, which is then 
raised to the boiling temperature, the casein is at once precipi- 
tated. Incipient ebullition therefore does not destroy the curdling 
power of this latex, although prolonged ebullition does, and even 
a temperature of 65° if continued for two hours. The diastatic 



CHEMISTRY. 93 

action of this latex is demonstrated by the partial transformation 
of starch-paste and glycogen into sugar. When the latex is pre- 
cipitated by alcohol, and the precipitate taken up with water, the 
action on milk and on starch is found to persist, whilst that on 
fibrin disappears. 

The latex of Carica papaya peptonize.s, precipitates casein, and 
transforms starch into sugar. 

The author does not consider that these yegetable ferments play- 
any role in the nutrition of the plant. 

Prevention of Secondary Fermentations. U. Gay on and G. 
Dupetit. (Comptes Eendns, ciii. 8S3-885.) Salts of bismuth, 
even in small quantities, completely prevent secondary fermenta- 
tions. Tannin, in quantities of 0'5-l"0 gram per litre gives good 
results, but does not prevent the development of Mycoderma aceti. 
The addition of O'l gram of subnitrate of bismuth per litre of 
distiller's wort almost entirely prevents any increase in the acidity 
of the latter, and indirectly jDroduces an appreciable increase in 
the yield of alcohol. 

Acetous Fermentation. A. Romegialli. (Gazzetta chim. 
Ital., xvi. 73-101.) This fermentation is favoured by the pre- 
sence of glycerin, and of succinic and malic acids. It is more 
effectually prevented by sulphurous than by salicylic acid. 

Lactic Fermentation. G. Marpmann. (Archiv der Pharm. [3], 
xxiv. 24^3-256.) The author remarks on the very contradictory 
views still prevailing as to the nature of lactic fermentation. 
During the summer of 1885 he has investigated the micro- 
organisms of cow's milk in the neighbourhood of Gottingen, and 
has detected five seemingly new and different species, which more 
or less strongly induce lactic fermentation in cane-sugar as well 
as in milk. Coagulated milk filtered, mixed with 10 per cent, of 
pure gelatin, and carefully sterilised by means of heat, was em- 
ployed for the cultivation, and the solution to be tested was 
brought into contact with it on glass plates. As the different 
organisms developed, they were employed to commence fresh 
growths, and by this process of selection pure cultivations wei-e 
at length obtained. The action of these organisms on milk was 
then investigated quantitatively, but the results are not given. 
The author is still engaged on the subject. 

A Diastatic Ferment in Leaves. L. Brasse. (Ann. Agwnom., 
xii. 200-203.) A diastatic ferment can be extracted from green 
leaves in the following way: — The leaves are bruised in a mortar 
and covered with cold water ; after twenty-four hours they are 



94 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARilACY. 

pressed, and 1| volumes of 90° alcoliol added to the juice, ^vhich 
is then filtered. The same quantity of alcohol is again added to 
the filtrate, and after a few minutes the clear liquid is siphoned 
off, and the precipitate thrown on a filter, and i-apidly washed 
once or twice with alcohol of 65° G.L. The diastase is obtained 
in solution by dissolving the washed pi-ecipitate in water, and 
filtering ; 10 c.c. of such a solution is added to 0'5 gram of starch 
made into paste, and kept at 63°, and the formation of sugar is 
shown by comparison with a similar flask to which a few drops 
of chloroform have been added. The leaves of the potato, dahlia, 
artichoke, maize, beet, castoi^-oil plant, and the uni'ipe seeds of 
the opium poppy, sunflower, and castor-oil plant have all yielded 
positive results. Microbes have not been found in the solution, 
and the starch was in all cases transformed into a mixture of 
reducing sugar and dextrin. To connect this with the formation 
of sugar in the growing plant, the autlior shows by a series of 
experiments that although diastase will only act on starch-paste 
and not on crude starch at 60°, 57°, and 50°, yet at 42° and at 
34° it always transforms a little crude starch into sugar. The 
quantity of sugar produced reaches a limit in twenty-four or 
thirty-six hours ; but if it be dialysed out of the solution as fast 
as it is formed, the formation is rendered continuous. The same 
result is produced by diluting the solution, so that it seems to 
be the accumulation of sugar which puts an end to the diasta- 
tic action. Cuboni's experiment, therefore, in which the disappear- 
ance of starch from a vine leaf placed in the dark Avas prevented 
by an annular incision in the stem above and below the leaf, does 
not negative the idea that starch is transformed into sugar by a 
diastatic ferment in the leaf ; arrest of sugar formation would 
under these cii'cumstances be bi'ought about by accumulation of 
sugar in the isolated leaf. 

Diastase. 0. Locw. {Ber. der dentsch. chem. Gcs., xx. 58.) 
In reply to adverse criticism, the author reaflirms the utility of 
the method of purifying ferments with lead salts, provided due 
precautions are taken. 

The Physiology of Digestion. C. A. Ewald and J. Boas. 
(Bied. Cent/:, 188G, 354; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 727.) The 
authors found on examination of the contents of the stomach of 
a person subject to vomiting, that after a mixed meal of meat 
and carbohydrates, lactic acid was found for the first 10 to 100 
minutes, but that when pure boiled albumen Avas eaten, no lactic 
acid was found. Then followed a period when both lactic and 



CHEMISTRY. 95 

hydrocliloric acids were present ; afterwards a third period in 
which the latter only was observed. 

The lactic acid is either a product of the fermentation of the 
carbohydrates, or is dissolved out of the meat. The hydrochloric 
acid can only be considered as a product of the secretions of the 
glands of the stomach. 

The peptonising commences immediately after taking food, 
and appears to be commenced by the lactic acid when the diet is 
a mixed one ; the curves of the peptone and hydrochloi-ic acid ai'S 
identical, and reach their highest point about the middle of the 
digestive process, and a considerable time previous to the dis- 
appearance of the contents of the stomach. 

The Physiology of Digestion. F. Hofmeister. (Bied. Centr., 
1886, 354<.) The author's experiments on digestion have led him 
to the conclusion that the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
intestines contains larger quantities of peptone than the blood, 
it having been found after four houi\s' digestion ; the lining of 
the intestinal canal has not only the power of seci-eting peptone, 
but of decomposing it, so that it no longer responds to the usual 
reactions. The part so changed passes at once into the tissues of 
the body, the unaltered portion passes into the blood, Avhere it 
does not exist in a free state, but in combination with the cells. 

Pancreatic Digestion. A. Hirschler. {Zeit. ■p^'V^ii-ol. Chem., 
X. 302-305.) The author finds that in addition to the known 
px'oducts of the digestion of fibrin, a small quantity of ammonia 
is formed, which may be detected and estimated in the distillate, 
provided no putrefaction has yet occurred. 

A Study of Peptonization. R. G. Eccles. (Avier. Journ. 
Pharni., October, 188G ; from Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1886.) 
This is a lengthy inquiiy into the nature of peptones, and the 
conditions of digestion in the presence of various acids and other 
compounds, and at different temperatures. While many salts 
throw down a portion of the peptones, the best precipitants are 
the sodiohydric and disodic molybdates, causing white precipitates 
which are partly soluble in ammonia with a light blue colour ; 
but in the presence of potassium citrate or acetate, which salts 
throw down a portion of the peptone, the molybdate fails to 
produce a precipitate. Many samples of pepsin yield similar 
precipitates with the molybdate, but it has not yet been ascer- 
tained whether pui-e pepsin is thus affected. True peptone is the 
product of true digestion, and is soluble in alkaline, acid, and 
neutral liquids ; while parapeptone, an injui-ious product of semi- 



96 YKAR-BOOK OF THARMACY. 

digestion, is precipitated by salts in neutral solutions, and in some 
cases also from acid liquids. The best results for the peptoniza- 
tion of ground albumen at a temperature of 38-40° C, were 
obtained with "3 and "2 per cent, of H CI in ninety minutes, and 
with 2 per cent, in thirty nflnutes, while the peptonizing power 
decreased if less than 1 per cent, of phosphoric, citric, or tartaric 
acid was used. The eft'ects of other acids differed from these. 
For the purpose of testing the peptonizing power, the tempera- 
ture of 55° C. (130° F.), applied for thii-ty minutes, was found to 
be the best. Pills containing pepsin and reduced iron, had been 
found to have no digestive power, and it was ascertained to be 
due to the disappearance of the free acid. Alcohol scarcely inter- 
feres with artiticial digestion until the strength of the mixture 
exceeds 8 or 10 per cent. The cinchona alkaloids have a retarding 
effect, but less in the presence of excess of acid. Marked retai-d- 
iug effects wei-e also observed with all salicylates, bismuth citrate, 
alkalies, alkaline salts, oils of cinnamon and cloves, excess of 
glycerin, etc. 

Preparation of Peptone. E. Merck. (Dingl. polyt. Joiiru., 
cclxi. 31G.) Tlie author calls " nucleo-proteids" substances which, 
when boiled with water under pressure or treated with acids, 
alkalies, or ferments, are resolved into nuclein and albumen ; for 
instance, the vitellin of the yolk of eggs or the casein of milk. 
To prepare peptone from these substances, 100 grams of casein are 
treated witli 1 litre of distilled water at 150-170° for about ten 
hours. The mixture is then filtered, and the solution containing 
the peptone again heated with water in order to separate addi- 
tional quantities of unaltered albumen remaining in the solution. 
The final filtrate contains casein-peptone, which is separated in the 
usual manner. Another process consists in treating the nucleo- 
proteids with a 0"1 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate at 
80-90° for about eight hours, neutralizing with acid, tiltering, and 
separating the peptone. 

Peptones. W. Kiilmc and R. H. Chittenden. {Zeit. Biol., 
xxii. 423-4-58.) Ammonium sulphate precipitates from a solution 
all proteids but peptones. Peptones can in this way be obtained 
free from albumoses, with which they have in previous researches 
always been mixed. It was therefore necessary to repeat many 
previous experiments concerning the composition and properties 
of peptones. Amphopeptone (the mixture of peptones obtained 
in gastric digestion) and antipeptone (from tryptic digestion) were 
thus examined. The result of digestion was acidified with acetic 



CHEMISTRY. 



97 



acid, saturated Avith ammonium sulphate, filtered, the filtrate 
evaporated to a small bulk, and filtered from the crystals of the 
salt which separated ; the i-emainder of the salt was removed by 
aqueous baryta, and the last traces by barium carbonate ; dilute 
sulphuric acid was added to remove the baryta, and the barium 
sulphate filtered off. From the filtrate the pej^tones were pre- 
cipitated by alcohol, redissolved, again precipitated by phospho- 
tungstic acid, and dried. In the case of amphopeptone, the first 
analyses were invalidated by adherent pepsin and a substance 
designated mucin-peptone, apparently derived from the mucous 
membrane of the stomach ; it forms a sticky, elastic precipitate 
with alcohol, but was not further investigated. The error due to 
these admixtures was obviated by saturating concentrated artificial 
gastric juice with ammonium sulphate ; this precipitates the mucin 
and pepsin, of which the latter alone redissolves in dilute hydi'o- 
chloric acid ; this solution was used as a digestive fluid ; from it 
no mucinpeptone was obtained. The remains of the pepsin were 
subsequently removed by the ammonium sulj^hate with the albu- 
moses. 

Antipeptone was prepared both from fibrin and by the pancreas 
being allowed to digest itself. 

The following table gives some of the results obtained in the 
analyses of those substances. In each case the samples had been 
purified by means of phosphotungstic acid. I. Amphopeptone 
from fibrin ; II. Antipeptone from fibrin ; III. Antipeptone from 
the pancreas : — 





c. 


H. 


N. 


S. 


0. 


Ash. 


I. . . . 
II. . 
III. . 


48-75 
46-59 
44-47 


7-21 
6-69 
7-15 


16 26 
18-28 
17-94 


0-77 
0-67 
0-57 


27-01 

27-77 
29-87 


.3-2-2 
3-67 
2-07 



Contrasted with previous analyses, the numbers obtained show 
about 1 per cent, less carbon, 1 per cent, more nitrogen, and 3 
to 0-4 per cent, less sulphur. The percentage of nitrogen is 
greater in antipeptone, especially in that obtained from the glaud, 
than in amphopeptone. 

The following are the chief pi-operties of pure peptone : When 
dissolved in water, it hisses and froths in the same way that 
phosphoric anhydride does ; heat is at the same time evolved. Its 
solution in water is brown, which prevents its laevorotary power 
being estimated. Its taste is somewhat cheesy, but not un- 



98 



YEAT^-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



pleasant. The hitter taste of artificially digested food must 
tlierefore be due to some product not jet separated, native pi"o- 
teids and albumosos being almost tasteless. Peptones are not 
precipitated by sodium chloride In acid solutions, nor by ammonium 
sulphate ; they ai-e completely precipitated by tannin, iodo-mer- 
'curic iodide, phosphomolybdic acid, phosphotungstic acid, and 
picric acid. A 5 per cent, solution rendered faintly alkaline by 
soda shows the foUowinar additional reactions : — 



Fibrin-antipeptone. 



Fibrin-amphopeptone. 



Acetic acid and ferro- 

C3'anide of potassium 

Normal lead acetate . 

Bassic load acetate . . 
Mercuric chloride . . 

Copper sulphate (5 i^er 
cent.) 

Platinic chloride (5 per 

cent.) 

Chromic acid . . . 
Ferric chloride . . . 

Ferric acetate and con- 
centrated HjS O4 . 

Nitric acid .... 

Boiling with concen- 
trated II CI . , . 

Millon's reagent . . 



Biuret reaction 



At first clear ; later a trace of 
opalescence. 

First drop nothing ; more, 
■well-marked opalescence. 

Dense opalescence. 

First drop nothing ; more, 
dense opalescence. 

At first clear; later, a feehle 
opalescence, disappearing 
with excess of reagent. 

Feeble ojDalescence with ex- 
cess. 

Nothing. 

Opalescence disappearing on 
small excess. 

Brown-red colour. 
Yellow colour. 

Colour darkens a little. 
A white precipitate turning to 
a dirty yellow on heating. 

Well marked. 



Opalescence less 

marked. 
Opalescence less dense. 
Opalescence denser. 

Nothing. 



Nothing. 

Nothing. 
Nothing. 



Brown-red colour. 
Yellow colour. 

Colour darkens a little. 
A white precipitate 

turning to bright red 

on heating. 
Well marked. 



The most noteworthy difference in the above table is the be- 
haviour to Millon's I'cagent ; antipeptone never forms leucine and 
tyrosine in pancreatic digestion; whilst amphopeptono, which 
contains hemipcrptone, docs. Antipeptone, moreover, after being 
subjected to the action of trypsin, yields no products which are 
coloured red or violet by bromine or chlorine watei', as hemi- 
pcptonc does. Moreover, when treated with sulphuric acid, anti- 
peptone did not yield crystals of tyrosine ; and no proof could be 
obtained of its presence by Hoffmann's nor by Piria's reaction. 
From antialbumid, similarly, no tyrosine could be "obtained ; 
whoHier this Avill prove to be a general rale for the anti-group of 
digesilon-prodncts, the authors intend to investigate. 



CHEMISTKT. 99 

Casein-peptone. H. Thierfelder. {Zeit. physiol. Chem., x. 
577-588; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 1051.) Casein prepared from 
milk by the author, and pure casein prepared by Merck, were 
subjected to gastric digestion. The ultimate product, peptone, 
and the intermediate products, were submitted to elementary 
analysis. The intermediate products, two in number, are desig- 
nated propeptone I. and II. Propeptone I., precipitated by sodium 
chloride from the neutralized products of digestion, contains three 
substances, which correspond with the proto-, hetero-, and dys- 
albumose of Kiihne and Chittenden. From the filtrate, propep- 
tone II. is precipitated by hydrochloric acid ; this appears to be a 
single substance, its solution is rendered cloudy by acetic acid and 
ferrocyanide of potassium, is not coloured by nitric acid, and gives 
the biuret reaction. After the separation of the propeptones, 
peptone remains in solution and can be precipitated therefrom by 
phosphotungstic acid. 

Wheat Gluten as an Article of Diet. A. Constautinidi. 
{Zeit. Biol., xxiii. 433-455.) The author quotes a number of 
experiments proving the gluten of wheat to be exceedingly valu- 
able as a food. 

Albuminoids of Wheat Flour. S. H. C. Martin. (Brit. Med, 
Journ., 1886, ii. 104, 105.) Gluten does not exist in flour as such, 
but is formed by the action of water (perhaps also by a ferment 
action) on the proteids pre-existent in the flour. The doctrine of 
ferment action is supported by the fact that washing flour with 
water at a low temperature (2°) does not lead to the formation of 
gluten. Flour itself contains two proteids : (1) globulin of the 
myosin type, coagulating between 55° and 60°, precipitated hv 
sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate ; (2) soluble albumose. 
Both these proteids can be extracted from flour by means of a lO 
to 15 per cent, sodium chloi-ide solution. 

Free Hydrochloric Acid of the Gastric Juice. H. A. L a n d w e h v. 
(Che7n. Centr., 1886, 484; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 287.) The 
author has previously shown, in conjunction with Fick, that the 
action of this acid on diastase is inverted in the presence of 
peptones, in the sense that its activity is increased rather thaa 
suspended ; the cause probably lying in its combination Avith 
amido-acid groups of the peptones. Calm has recently shown 
(Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med., xxiii. J that in certain pathological 
conditions the gastric juice has the reactions rather of an organic 
acid than of dilute hydi'ochloric acid. 

It is well known that lactic acid decomposes sodium chloride 



100 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

That tliis takes place in cold dilute solution is readily seen by 
comparative observations of the acidity (methyl-violet being used 
as indicator) of a lactic acid solution before and after addition of 
sodium chloride. The author applies these observations to a dis- 
cussion of the origin and nature of the acidity of gastric juice, 
arriving at the following hypothesis : — -Lactic acid is formed by 
fermentation from the mucus of the stomach, and acting on 
alkaline chlorides, liberates hydrochloric acid, which is forthwith 
taken up in combination by the albuminoids of the food. The 
sodium lactate is simultaneously assimilated. With the gradual 
peptonising of the albuminoids, the hydi'ochloric acid is liberated. 

Physiological Note on Digitalin. P. Lafon. (Archives de 
Pharm., 1887, 32.) The author states that digitalin is not altered 
by diastase, pepsin, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile, j^east, 
emulsin, or in contact Avith putrefying substances, and therefore 
cannot be altered in the digestive canal ; but after it has entered 
the circulation it appears to be oxidized. Alkalies and mineral 
acids, with the exception of nitric acid, do not interfere with the 
detection of digitalin ; but it is destroyed by nitric acid. 

Bacteria in Drinking Water. M. Bolton. (PJiarm. Journ., 3rd 
sei'ies, xvii. 593.) The author has contributed an important paper 
on this subject to Koch and Pfliiger's Zeitschrift fiir Hygiene. He 
tinds tliat in oi'dinary spi-ing water certain bacteria are always 
present and are capable of multiplying in it. Among these may 
be specially mentioned Micrococcus aq^iatilis, occui-ring as cocci 
collected into small irregular heaps, and Bacillus erythrospoi-ics, dis- 
tinguished by its spores having a reddish brown sheen, and the 
presence of a greenish pigment without any deliquescence of the 
gehatin in which it was cultivated. Both these bacteria multiply 
with extraordinary )-apidity in water, the quality of the water and 
the amount of organic and inorgannic substances contained in it 
appearing to have no effect on the reproduction of microbes, Avhich 
is, however, materially promoted by a rise of temperature. It 
took place considerably quicker at 35° than at 20°. These bacteria 
ai*e not pathogenic. 

On the other hand, the author fouiul that pathogenic bacteria, 
when introduced into spring water, never multiply, but disappear 
after a time varying in length according to the species and the 
temperature, and according as to whether the species produces 
resting-sporcs or not. The spores of Bacillus anthracis had not 
lost their vitality after the lapse of a year ; those of typhus fever 



CHEMISTRY. 101 

were still active after a month, but not after ten and a half 
montlis. The quality of the water appears to have no influence 
in prolonging the life of pathogenic bacteria. 

The genei"al conclusions drawn, by the author are that the quantity 
of bacteria present in spring water is no guide whatever in deter- 
mining the wholesomeness or otherwise of the water for drinking 
purposes, since most of them are entirely harmless ; and that it 
is impossible by chemical analysis to determine the presence of 
bacteria in larger or smaller numbers. The presence of the specific 
pathogenic bacteria can only be determined by direct micro- 
chemical observation. 

Changes Introduced in Water by the Development of Bacteria. 
T. Leone. (Gazzetta Chim. Ital., xvi. 505-511 ; Journ. Chein. Soc, 
1887, 615.) The author has already demonstrated that the number 
of micro-organisms, in a typically pure water, such as the Maug- 
£all near Munich, although at first small, yet on standing gradually 
increase to a maximum, and afterwards rapidly decrease. The de- 
velopment of bacteria induce certain chemical changes in the water; 
thus the quantity of oxidizable organic matter gradually decreases, 
whilst the proportion of ammonia increases to a maximum, and 
then decreases owing to its oxidation into nitrites and nitrates ; 
on this account, the time which elapses between the taking of a 
sample and its analysis is an important factor. The consequent 
changes are divisible roughly into two distinct periods : the first, 
in which the oi'ganic matter is decomposed with production of 
ammonia ; and the second, in which this is subsequently oxidized. 
It is further shown, on the other hand, that certain micro-organ- 
isms seem to act as reducing agents, reconverting the nitrates into 
ammonia, and even the same organisms, according to the conditions, 
may have either an oxidizing or a reducing function. In the first 
phase, when the nutritive matter is readily oxidizable and assimi- 
lated, the micro-organisms thi-ive at its expense, the process of 
nitrification being materially assisted by atmospheric oxygen ; in 
the second phase, on the other hand, the necessary oxygen is 
dei'ived from the nitrates ; thus a change, seemingly of reduction, 
is induced. 

Eflfect of Carbon Dioxide on Micro-organisms in "Water. J. 
Sohnke. {Chem. Centr., 1886, 699.) The author confirms the 
observation that water impregnated with carbonic acid gas suffers 
a constant diminution of living organisms, as may be readily seen 
from the examination of artificial mineral waters. In spring 
waters containing a number of organisms more than half were 



102 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

i-endered incapable of reproduction after the water liad been 
chai'g-ed ■with the gas. 

Bacterial Life in Relation to Oxygen. P. Liborius. (Chcm. 
Centr., 1886, 579; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 291.) The author 
chxssifies bacteria as follows : — 

(1) Exclusively anaerobic : amongst these there are many 
which multiply without attendant fermentation. 

(2) Exclusively aerobic : reduced to inactivity by deprivation of 
oxygen. This class includes: — B. Jlnorescens liquifaciens, B. aero- 
phihis, B. cyaiiogenus, B. fuscus, B. arpuitilia fuscus, B. snltilis. 
With exception of the first-named, which appears to determine a 
special fermentation of albuminoids with formation of volatile fatty 
acids, the bacteria of this group have not been closely studied in 
relation to feimentation. 

(3) Optionally anaerobic : activity lowered, but not suspended, 
by deprivation of oxygen. This class includes all the pathogenic 
organisms : B. anthracis, B. typhi ahdom. From this general view 
of the conditions of bacterial life, and from his own special in^-esti- 
gations, the autlior concludes that an attendant fermentation is 
not an essential condition of anaerobic activity in the sense in 
which it has been so stated by Pasteur and Nageli. 

Note on the Cellulose formed by Bacterium Xylinum. A. J. 
Brown. {Proc. Chem. Soc, June 2, 1887.) The author showed 
in a previous paper (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1886, 432), that the acetic 
ferment, B. mjlinum, is able to convert lajvulose into cellulose. On 
treating this cellulose with strong sulphuric acid, it is found to be 
converted into a dextrorotary sugar, and in this respect to resemble 
ordinary cellulose. 

The Action of Tin on the Animal Organism. T. P. White. 
(Fharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 1(3G-1G8.) The author describes 
a number of experiments which lead to the conclusion that tin, 
though possessing decidedly toxic properties Avhen introduced into 
the blood, is entii-ely devoid of danger when taken internally in 
any form that could arise from being in contact with fruit or 
vegetables, lie does not believe that the metal would at all be 
influenced by long contact ; but even if it were, it would not be 
absorbed, but pass off with the excretions without producing an 
effect. The cases of accidental poisoning reported he attributes to 
the solder employed in closing the can, or to impurities — arsenic, 
copper, and lead — used in the composition of the metal, and not 
to tin itself. 



CUEMISIRY. 103 

Presence of Iron in the Liver. S. S. Z ale ski. (Zciticlir. fiir 
] hysiol. Ghem., x. 453-502.) The iron found in the liver is not to 
be attributed to the blood present in that organ, hut is pi'oved to 
he a constant constituent of the organ itself after all the blood 
has been removed from it by thoroughly washing it out from the 
vessels by means of a 2| per cent, solution of cane-sugar. The 
quantity of the iron, however, varies within wide limits. 

Presence of Diastatic Ferment in Urine. E. Holovotschiner. 
{Chem. Centr., 1886, 327.) The author has observed the presence 
of ptyalin and similar ferments in urine. The proportion reaches 
a maximum four to six hours after eating. 

Occurrence of Pepsin and Trypsin in Normal Urine. Dr. Sahli. 
(Amer. Jonrn. Pharm., August, 188G.) Tlie investigation of the 
amount of pepsin in urine is based on the facts given by V. 
Wittich, that blood fibrin, both in neutral and acid solutions, 
absorbs pepsin with great eagerness, and that the amount which a 
flake of fibrin absorbs depends on the proportion of fibrin present in 
the fluid. To compare the amount present in two perfectly fresh 
urines, equal quantities of well-washed fibrin are introduced into 
them, and left in them for equal periods. The urine is poured off, 
and the flakes washed with distilled water, after which they are 
placed in equal quantities of '1 solution of hydrochloric acid. The 
time required to efl:'ect the disappearance of the fibrin allows an 
estimate of the amount of ferment present. In this way the author 
found that human urine invariably contains pepsin, and that the 
amount present undergoes very great variations in the course of 
twenty-four hours. The morning urine contains the greatest 
proportion; next in order conies the urine before dinner, and then 
that dii'ectly before supper. The first minimum occurs two hours 
after breakfast ; the second, more marked, one and a half to two 
and a half hours after the midday maximum. A comparison of 
the curve exhibiting these variations with that which shows the 
secretion of the fundus of the stomach, leads to the conclusion 
that the pepsin in the urine is derived, not from the pepsinogenic 
substance of the gastric glands, but that it is the completed secre- 
tion of the stomach, resorbed along the digestive tract, and cui-ried 
by the blood current to the kidneys, by which it is partially 
eliminated. 

Urine also contains trypsin, which, liowevei', cannot be isolated 
by fibrin. Still, the author convinced himself that the amount 
of this ferment also varies, being regularly diminished after dinner, 
and cri-eatest after breakfast. 



104 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Notes on the Fermentation of Urine. A. M tiller. (Biecler- 
manns Centralb., xv. Part 5.) The author has investigated the 
influence of certain chemicals on the spontaneous fermentation of 
urine. Potassium permanganate appears to accelerate this fermen- 
tation, while potassium chlorate delays it. 

Influence of Glycerin, Sugar, and Fat on the Secretion of Uric 
Acid in Man. J. Horbaczewski and F. Kanera. {MonaUh. 
Chem., vii. 105-120.) A series of experiments were conducted on 
one of the authors during a period of seventy days, when the daily 
rations aiid mode of living Avere the same, with the exception of 
periods during which varying daily amounts of glycerin, sugar, 
and fat respectively were taken in addition to the normal food. 
For particulars as to the quality and quantity of food consumed 
and detailed analyses of the excreta, the original paper must be 
consulted. The general results were as follows: — 

When glycerin is taken with the daily food, a marked increase 
in the amount of uric acid secreted takes place; this, however, is 
only the case when free glycerin is taken ; if it is taken combined 
Avith the fatty acids as neutral fats, it exerts no influence on the 
formation of uric acid. 

Cane-sugar, and pn)l)ablv other carbohydrates, exert no dii'ect 
influence on the formation of uric acid ; it causes, however, a 
marked decrease of the seci-eted uric acid, due to the "albumen- 
retarding" action of the carbohydrates, and proportional to itj 
This lowered secretion only continues as long as cane-sugar is 
taken. 

The neutral fats have a simihir influence on the formation of 
uric acid to that of carbohydrates, but the after effects are dif- 
ferent. The decrease in the amount of acid is proportional to the 
" albuincn-retarding" action of the fat, but when the addition of 
fat to the diet is stopped, the secretion of uric acid returns at once 
to tlie normal amount. 

Glycerin causes an incirase in the amount of ;ill>uinrn formed 
in man, as it was known to do in the dog. 

A New Crystalline Acid in Urine. J. ^larshall. (Amer. 
Journ. Fharvi., 1887, 131 ; Med. News, 1887, p. 35.) The author 
has isolated from urine a new crystalline acid possessing more 
powei'ful reducing properties than glucose. Pending further in- 
vestigations of this substance, he proposes for it, provisionally, the 
name glyocosuric acid. 

Behaviour of Clninol with Urine. A. N. Anraeff. (Vrach, 
1887, "i.SO '2'-V2.) Tho author iinds that quinol pi'events the 



CHEMISTRY. 105 

fermentation of nrine, an addition of 2 per cent, keeping urine 
without apparent change either to the eye or to test-paper for 
twenty-five days. 

The Precipitate produced by Picric Acid in Normal Urine. 
!M. Jaffe. (Zeit. Fkysiol. Chem. , x. S\)l-4:00 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 
1886, 1056.) With human urine, the addition of a concentrated 
solution of picric acid produces in the coui".se of an hour a small 
amount of crystalline sediment. On treating this precii:)itate 
with hot water, two substances can be separated fi'om it : one 
insoluble in hot water, uric acid ; the other, compi'ising the greater 
part of the sediment, soluble in hot water ; the latter is a double 
salt of creatinine picrate witli potassium picrate, having the 
formula C^H^Xo 0, Cg H3O (N 03)3 + K Cg Ho (X O.Og- It cry- 
stallizes in lemon-coloured needles or thin prisms, is readily soluble 
in hot alcohol, sparingly in cold alcohol, and almost insoluble in 
ether. It contains no water of crystallization, and detonates when 
heated. Besides these two substances, there are others present in 
smaller quantities which have not yet been investigated. With 
dog's urine, the precipitate obtained with picric acid contains little 
or no uric acitl. The kynurenic acid of dog's urine is not 
pi'ecipitated. 

Creatinine picrate, 04117X3 0, CgHj (N Oo) 3, is formed when 
solutions of picric acid and creatinine are mixed ; after being recrj-s- 
tallized from hot water, it forms thin, yellow, lustrous needles ; it 
is free from water of crystallization, and detonates on heating. It 
is more ea.sily soluble in water than the double salt above mentioned. 
Creatinine Jcynurenate, formed by adding powdered kynurenic acid 
to a hot dilute solution of pure creatinine, crystallizes in bundles 
of colourless thin prisms, which are easily soluble in water, but 
decompose when the water is heated, with formation of kynurenic 
acid . 

When a solution of picric acid is added to a solution of creatinine 
A^th a drop of dilute potash or soda, a deep red colour is produced 
even when the dilutioTi of the creatinine is I'oOOO. This is a 
delicate test, and by it the presence of creatinine can be shown in 
the urine of man, dog, and rabbit. Acetone gives a similar l)ut 
not so intense a colour in the cold ; dextrose gives the colour only 
after heating. 

Distinction between the Colorations of Urine by Chrysophanic 
Acid and by Santonin. JM. Hoppe-Seyler. (Journ. de Phann. 
et de Chim., xv. No. 1.) These colorations may be distinguished 
by adding to the urine caustic soda, and then agitating with amylic 



lOf) YKAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

alcohol. If tliu coloration is due to santonin, tlie colouring-matter 
passes almost entirely into the solvent, and the ui-ine is decolorized. 
If it is derived from chrjsophanie acid, the amjlic alcohol takes up 
mere traces, and the urine remains red. But if the urine is acidu- 
lated, the chrjsophanie acid may he removed by amy lie alcohol, 
and if the solvent is then shaken up with ammonia, the aqueous 
stratum is reddened. Under the same circumstances the colouring- 
matter of santonin is not removed. The absorption spectrum of 
the two colours likewise differs. 

Detection of Albumen in Urine. H. Prunier. (Jonrn. de 
Phann. [5], xiii. 501, 502.) The author criticises the nitric acid test 
for albumen, and shows that it cannot be relied on in cases where 
the other well-known tests fail to indicate the presence of this 
substance. The method in question should always be controlled 
by boiling another sample of the urine with sodium sulphate and 
a few drops of acetic acid, as otherwise jieptone may be mistaken 
for albumen. 

Detection of Blood in Urine. C. Rosenthal. (Chem. Centr., 
1886, 251. From Journ. Chcm. Soc.) The author has investigated 
Heller's and Struve's tests for the presence of the blood colouring 
mattei- in urine ; the former consists in warming with aqneous 
soda, when the precipitate shows a I'ed coloration. This test gave 
definite results Avith a dilution of 1 c.c. of blood in 1000 c.c. of 
normal urine ; with a dilution twice as great the test failed. 
Struve's test, consisting in the isolation of hajmin from the precipi- 
tate occasioned in urine by tannin, is uncertain in its results : the 
presence of iron, however, in the ash from the ignition of this 
preci])itate is satisfactory evidence of the presence of haemoglobin 
in tlie urine. 

Detection of Mercury in Urine. A. Almen. (ArcMv iler 
I'hanii. [o], xxiv. 10.'»1.) The urine to be tested is mixed Avith 
about y^o of its weight of hydrochloric acid, and heated gently for 
one and a half hours Avith a coil of brass wii'e. The Avire is then 
dried on paper and placed in a small glass tube, Avhich is sealed 
off a few m.ra. above the Avire. The coil is now carefully heated 
and the sublimate examined Avith a lens. A i-eddish brown non- 
A'olatile incrustation Avill be found close to tlic Aviie ; beyond this 
beads of mercury, then yellow oil drops, and finally some moisture. 
It is generally useful to heat a large quantity of the urine Avith 
solution of caustic soda and glucose, then allowing to settle, and 
submittinsr the sediment to the test. 



CHKMISTRY. 107 

A New Method for the Determination of Uric Acid in Urine. 
J. B. Haycraft. {Zeitschr. fiir Anahjt. CJtem., xxv. 165-169.) 
The urine, after being freed from any albumen present, is mixed 
with sodium bicarbonate and then with ammonia and ammonia- 
nitrate of silver. A gelatinous precipitate of silver urate is thus 
obtained which is very insoluble in ammoniacal liquids. This 
precipitate is collected and thoroughly washed, then dissolved in 
nitric acid, and the silver determined in the solution by Volhard's 
sulphocyanide method (abstract, Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1874, 
253). Each c. c. of centinormal sulphocyanide solution used cor- 
responds to 0'00168 gram of uric acid. 

Quantitative Estimation of Oxalic Acid in Urine. 0. Xickel. 
(Zeitschr. fiir phydol. Chem., xi. 186-200.) The methods proposed 
by Xeubauer and Schultzen are criticised by the author, who finds 
both processes open to the objection of giving variable results, 
owing to the apjireciable solubility of calcium oxalate in the liquid 
in presence of acetic acid, and to its imperfect separation from 
calcium pho.sphate. 

Phenylhydrazine as a Test for Sugar in Urine. R. v. Jaksch. 

(Zeits. KUh. Med., xi. 20-25 ; Jouru. Chem. Soc, 1886, 744.) The 
compound of phenylhydrazine and sugar described by Fischer 
(Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xvii. 579) furnishes a delicate test for 
dextrose in clinical work. When a solution of phenylhydrazine 
hydrochloride, containing also sodium acetate, is added to a solu- 
tion of sugar, a yellow precipitate of needles of phenylglucazone, 
occurring both singly and in bundles, forms in a few minutes. 
The formation of crystals takes longer in a dilute solution of 
dextrose : the sediment should be examined microscopically, and 
for certainty its melting-point (204-205°) ascertained. By this 
test, sugar is never found in normal urine; it can be detected in 
the urine of diabetic patients when it is present in too small a 
quantity to give the ordinary tests ; it possesses an advantage 
over the copper test, as it is not affected by other reducing sub- 
stances occurring in urine besides sugar. In the urine of persons 
poisoned by arsenic, sulphuric acid, or by potash, there are re- 
ducing substances present, and no sugar is indicated by this test; 
but in that of persons poisoned by carbonic oxide or by other 
iri'espirable gases, the occurrence of sugar seems constant. When 
the urine is strongly albuminous, the proteid must be first separ- 
ated by heat. A small quantity of albumen, hov.-ever, does not 
interfere with the test. In blood and dropsical fluids, sugar can 



108 YEAR-BOOK OF THARMACY. 

always be detected by this test : it is necessary to precipitate 
and filter off the proteids before applying the test. 

Two New Tests for Sugar. H. Molisch. (Ainer. Journ. Pharm., 
September, 1886.) The two reactions described are common to 
cane-sngar, milk-sugar, glucose, levulose, and maltose, and to 
the carbo-hydrates and glucosides capable of yielding glucose by 
the action of sulphuric acid. They do not, however, produce any 
result with inosite, mannite, or quercite. 

1. From one-half to two cubic centimetres of the suspected 
liquid are treated with two drops of a 15 or 20 per cent, alcoholic 
solution of alpha-naphthol, and the mixture is shaken. A slight 
turbidity results from the precipitation of a little naphthol ; 
sulphuric acid is then added in quantity equal to or even double 
the volume of the fluid, and the whole is bi-iskly shaken. In the 
presence of sugar a deep violet colour is developed, and dilution 
with Avater throws down a violet-blue precipitate, soluble in 
alcohol and ether with a yellow colour, or in caustic potash with 
a golden-yellow colour. In order that the reaction may occur as 
described, the test must be performed exactly as stated. 

This test will permit the detection of O'OOOOL per cent, of sugar, 
and, with the exception of vanillin, anethol, methyl salicylate, and 
a few similar substances, gives no reaction when sugar is not 
present. These substances, howevei", either produce the colour 
with sulphuric acid alone, or the precipitate formed Avhen the 
violet solution is diluted with Avater, differs totally in character 
fi-om that produced in saccharine liquids. The limit of sensibility 
of Fell ling's test is O'OOOS per cent., and that of Trommer's test 
is 000'25 per cent. 

2. If, instead of the alpha-naphthol in the preceding test, an 
alcoholic solution of thymol of similar concentration be employed, 
the remaining manipulations being the same as before, a deep red, 
A-arying from cinnabar to carmine, is produced ; dilution with 
water brings the colour to carmine, and after a time there sepa- 
rates a flocculent precipitate, Avhich dissolves Avith a pale yellow 
colour in alcohol, ether, and caustic potash, but Avith a bright 
yellow in ammonia. 

The delicacy of this reaction is about ilie same as of that with 
alpha-naphthol. 

After many experiments had shown the trustworthiness of the 
results giA^en by these tests, they Avere applied to the solution of 
the disjnited question Avhether normal human urine does or does 
not contain sugar. The results of the first attempts were so 



CHEMISTRY. 109 

decided that the urine examined appeared to be diabetic. The 
urine of a number of perfectly healthy individuals was therefore 
examined, bu.t with precisely the same results. The tests were 
made with alcoholic solutions of alpha-naphthol and thymol, 
exactly as has been described, and the extraordinary delicacy of 
the reactions can be better understood by the statement that 
normal urine diluted to from one hundred to three hundred times 
its volume with water still gives a recognisable reaction. When 
the urine is diluted to four hundred times its volume, the test 
shows no result. 

In oi'der that there might be no question as to sugar being 
the actual cause of the reaction, the following substances Avere 
examined and gave negative results with both alpha-naphthol and 
thymol : urea, creatine, xanthine, uric acid, allantoine, hippuric 
acid, succinic acid, phenol, pyrocatechin, and indican. 

These results confirm the opinion advanced by Briicke, and 
supported by many other obsei-vers, that normal urine constantly 
contains sugar. 

A New Test for Picric Acid. K. Fleck. {Analyst, 1887, 16.) 
If a solution of picric acid is concentrated in a small porcelain 
dish, and mixed Avith a few c. c. of 10 per cent, hydrochloric acid, 
the colour is at once destroyed. Biuitrocresol is also decolorized 
after a few minutes. If now a piece of zinc is introduced, and 
allowed to act for one or two hours, the picric acid turns a fine 
blue ; but biuitrocresol turns blood red. To apply the reaction to 
foods, they must be powdered and extracted with alcohol. The 
residue obtained after evaporating the spirit must be carefully 
tasted for bitterness, and then treated with hydrochloric acid and 
zinc as described. 

Estimatioa of Boric Acid. T. Rosenbladt. {Zeitschr. fitr 
analyt. Chem., xxvi. 18-28). The author's process is based on 
the observation that boric acid can be completely volatilised by 
repeated distillation with diy methyl alcohol. In the case of a 
borate, sulphuric acid is to be used along with the alcohol in order 
to liberate the acid. The distillate is mixed with ammonium 
carbonate and evaporated in a platinum basin, in which about 
3 parts of magnesia for 1 of boric acid have been strongly ignited 
and weighed. The increase of weight gives the amount of Bj O.^. 
Insoluble borates require to be fused with alkaline carbonates. 
Any chlorides present must be removed with silver sulphate 
before the distillation. 



110 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Separation and Estimation of Boric Acid. F. A. GoocTi. 
(Chemical Neus, \x. 7-10.) Tlie author confirms the practical value 
of methyl alcohol as a means of volatilising boric acid, and finds 
it superior in this respect to etliyl alcohol and water. He recom- 
mends the following modus operandi for the separation and 
estimation of this acid: — The substance, dissolved in Avater and 
nitric acid, or acetic acid, or in the acids alone, is run into a retort 
connected Avith a condenser and receiver and heated by means of a 
paraffin bath, and distilled to dryness. The residue is treated six 
times successively with 10 c.c. of methyl alcohol, being evaporated 
to dryness after each addition ; wlien niti'ic acid is used, a little 
water is added from time to time to break up the cake of nitrate ; 
Avlien acetic acid has been used, a few drops of acetic acid are 
added with the fourth portion of metliyl alcohol. In all cases the 
receiver contains a quantity of lime ignited and weighed before 
and after the distillation ; any increase in the latter weighing is 
due to boric acid. Chlorides, if present in the original substance, 
must be removed from the nitric acid solution by silver nitrate 
before distillation. 

Characteristic Reaction of Citric Acid. M. Mean. (Joum. de 
I'harm. et de Chim., xiii. 477.) The author cautiously heats 

1 gram of citric acid and 0"7 grani of glycerin in a porcelain 
capsule. The mass begins to bubble up and emit vapours of 
acrolein. On adding a small quantity of ammonia and about 

2 drops of fuming nitric acid, or a 10 per cent, solution of 
hydrogen peroxide, a bright green coloration is produced, Avhich 
gradually turns blue if the heat is continued. 

Detection of Atropine. E. Beckmann. (Archiv der Pharm. 
[,3], xxiv. 4S1-484 ; Joum. Chem. Sac, 1886, 955.) Vitali's re- 
action for atropine depends on its oxidation Avith concentrated 
nitric acid, and subsequent formation of an intense violet colora- 
tion on the addition of alcoholic potash solution, followed by a 
cherry-red, and final disappeai-ance of the coloration. Veratrine 
\inder the same conditions gives similar colour changes. These 
reactions do not take place Avith aqueous potash. To di.stinguish 
between the two alkaloids, the following reactions may be em- 
ployed : — With nitrons acid instead of nitric acid, and an aqueous 
potash solution instead of an alcoholic solution, atropine gives 
a reddish Aaolet coloration, whilst veratrine gives a yellow one. 
Atropine when boiled for a short time with a mixture of equal 
A'olumes of glacial acetic and sulphuric acids gives a broAvnish 
green fluorescent liquid; the solution remains colourless until 



CHEMISTRY. Ill 

the brown co]our appears. Yeratrine gives the same brown- 
coloured liquid finally, but during the heating passes from 
colourless through an intense cherry-red colour to the final 
brown. The fragrant odour produced on heating atropine 
with sulphuric acid, or with sulphui'ic acid and potassium 
dichromate, is not produced by veratrine ; but on the addition of 
the dichromate, the latter gives an odour of acid caoutchouc gum. 
The new atropine reactions depending on its stronger basic natui'e, 
as compared with most of the other alkaloids, are not shared by 
veratrine. Atropine when heated with hydrochloric acid does 
not give the red solution yielded by veratrine ; and a mixture 
of atropine and sugar gives yellow and brown, whilst veratrine 
gives green and blue colours. 

Reactions of Pilocarpine, E. Hardy and G. Calmels. 
(ComjJtes Ren'his., ciii. 277-2S0.) If the barium-derivative of pilo- 
carpine or pilocarpidine is distilled, it yields a liquid which has 
a peculiar odour, and forms a very deliquescent crystalline hydro- 
chloride and nitrate. When gold chloride and platinum chloride are 
added to the aqueous solution of this liquid, they yield respectively 
the compounds Au CI3, Cg H^^ Is^o ;' Au CI3, H CI, C.j Hi^N. ; Pt CI,,, 
(CgHj^Xj),, and Hj Pt Clg, (Cg Hj^^ No):,, amorphous precipitates 
which aggolomerate in warm water or aqueous alcohol, and are 
very soluble in alcohol. 

New Test for Morphine. G. Yulpius. (Analy.^t, 1887,142.) 
The author substitutes sodium phosphate for potas.sium arseniate. 
If a little morphine, not less than •00025 gram., is first moistened 
with six drops of sulphuric acid, then mixed with a few centi- 
grammes of .sodium phosphate, and now heated, until white fumes 
appear, the colour first becomes violet, afterwards brown. If after 
cooling a few drops of water are added, the colour turns a fine 
red, but the addition of about 5 c.c. of water makes it dirty green. 
If the liquid is now put into a test tube, and shaken with an equal 
volume of chloroform, the latter will, after subsiding, be found to 
l)e of a fine blue colour. The blue colour obtained in the well 
known test with morphine and neutral ferric chloride is not soluble 
in chloroform. 

Reactions of Morphine and Pssudomorphine (Dehydromorpliine). 
J. Donath. (Jonrn. prakt. Chem. xxxiii. 559-562 and 5G3, 5G4.) 
^^ hen an intimate mixture of morphine, potassium arsenate, 
an.l sulpliui-ic acid is heated, a blue-violet coloration is produced, 
turning a dark brown-red on further' warming. On moderate 
dilation wdth water, a red colour is formed, but if chloroform is 



112 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

added it gives a violet dye. Pseudomorpliine (oxydimorphine), 
for which the author prefers the name dehydromorphine, under 
the same conditions gives a green coloration, but no dye with 
chloroform. j\Iorphine heated with potassium chlorate and con- 
centrated sulphuric acid gives a grass-green coloration. 

A good test for dehydromorphine (pseudomorpliine) consists in 
heating it with sulphuric acid (two parts of acid to one of water) 
until the vapours of sulphuric anhydride are evolved; the liquid 
is of a blue-green colour, turning rose-red on moderate dilution, 
and a deep violet on addition of an oxidizing agent. 

Dehydromorphine resembles morphine in its reactions with 
ferric chloride, concentrated nitric acid, Frohde's reagent, and 
iodic acid ; but it is more spai'ingly soluble in most solvents than 
morphine. It is not reduced to morphine by sodium amalgam or 
bv liydrocliloric acid with zinc oi- tin. 

Characteristic Eeaction of Pseudomorphine. O. Hesse. (Lie- 
big's Annaleu, ccxxxiv. 253-256.) If pseudomorpliine be mixed 
with an equal weight of cane-sugar, and dissolved in pure sul- 
phuric acid, a dark green coloration is produced, Avhich gradually 
turns brown. If the acid contains a minute quantity of a ferric 
salt, a blue coloration turning dark green is produced. The re- 
action is shared by diacetopseudomorphine. Morphine, under the 
same cdnditions, gives a violet-red coloration. 

The Thalleioquin Test for duinine. K. Mylius. (Chem. Centr., 
1886, 602, 603.) This delicate and well known test is worked by 
the author in the following manner : — About 001 gram of the salt 
to be tested for quinine is treated on a watch-glass with about the 
same volume of potassium chlorate and a drop of strong sulphuric 
acid; ammonia is then added in excess, and the whole stirred, 
when the solution assumes a dark gi'een colour. Less than a 
milligram of quinine can be easily detected by this reaction. 

New Test for Coniferin. H. Molisch. (Chem. Centr., 1887, 
366.) An alcoholic 20 per cent, solution of thymol is diluted with 
Avater as long as it remains clear; an excess of solid potassium 
chlorate is added, and after some hours the mixture is filtered. 
Coniferin, treated with a drop of this solution and two drops of 
strong sulphuric acid, acquires a fine blue colour when evaporated 
in direct sunlight. A wood section, or wood-pulp paper moistened 
with ihis solution, and a drop of hydrochloric acid, rapidly becomes 
bliu' v\vn in the dark. Since coniferin is only present in lignefied 
cell-walls, thymol may probably be of use in the microscopic 
detection of wood-fibre. 



CHEMISTRY. 



113 



Reaction of Alkaloids with Mercuric Chloride. ^I. Schweis- 
singer. (Zeitschr. fur Aiialyt. Chem., xxv. Part 3.) The author 
has applied Gerrard's test for atropine (abstract, Year-Book of 
Pharmacy, 1884, 158), to a number of different alkaloids. 
Arbutine, condurangine, and sparteine, when gently heated with 
alcoholic solution of mercuric ohloi'ide, gave no precipitates ; 
cocaine yielded a white precipitate, but only in very concentrated 
solutions. Scoparine gave a yellow precipitate. The behaviour ot 
hyoscyamine and homatropine is particularly interesting. If 1 mg. 
of the former is covered with 2 c.c. of the 5 per cent, alcoholic 
solution of mercui-ic chloride, no precipitate appears ; but if only 
2 drops of the solution are used, the precipitate comes up on 
gently warming, just as with atropine, and does not disappear on 
the addition of more of the mercuric solution. Homatropine, whicli 
with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrite behaves exactly like 
atropine, yields with alcoholic mercuric chloride no precipitate at 
all, is produced if the solution is dilute, but in a concentrated 
solution a white precipitate, which disappears on the addition of a 
further quantity of mercuric chloride ; no red precipitate appears. 
The reaction is suitable for quantitative determinations ; it 
applies only to the alkaloid itself, and not to its salts. The caution 
is given that inorganic basic bodies, such as calcium and mag- 
nesium hydroxides, produce the very same precipitates. 

Colour Tests for Strychnine and other Alkaloids. C. L. 
Bloxam. {Chemical Neivs, April 7, 1887.) The author recom- 
mends the following as a characteristic and delicate test for strych- 
nine : — 

The alkaloid, on a glass slide or a porcelain crucible lid, is dis- 
solved in a drop of dilute nitric acid, and gently heated ; to the 
warm solution a very minute quantity of powdered potassium 
chlorate is added, which will produce an intense scarlet colour ; 
one or two drops of ammonia will change this to a brownish colour, 
giving a brownish pi-ecipitate ; the mixture is then evaporated to 
di-yness, when it leaves a dark green residue, dissolved by a drop 
of water to a green solution, changed to orange-broAvn by potash, 
and becoming green again with nitric acid; these last changes of 
colour may be repeated any number of times. 

The green colouring-matter is evidently a product of the action 
of ammonia upon the scarlet body, for if this be bleaclied by heat- 
ing or by excess of chlorate, before the ammonia is added, the 
residue on evaporation is light bi'own, and yields with potash a 
bright yellow solution which is nearly bleached by nitric acid. 

I 



114 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



No other of the commonly occurring alkaloids tried by the 
author could be mistaken for strychnine by the above test, but 
each of them exhibits some peculiarity when treated in the same 
way, which would give a cbie to its identity. This will be seen in 
the subjoined table, in which the tests are supposed to be applied 
to the same jDortion of the alkaloid, as described above : — 





HNO 


J. 

Heated. 


KCIO,. 


NH3. 


Residue. 


KHO. 


HNO,. 




'' Cold. 




Strychnine 


- 


Pink. 


Scarlet. 


Brownish 
precipitate. 


Green. 


Orange. 


Green. 


Brucine . 


Violet ; 


Yellow. 


Yellow. 


Bright 


Green. 


Dark 


Gieen; 




scarlet. 






yellow. 




brown. 


brown. 


Narcotine . 


— . 


Bright 


Yellow. 


Dark 


Dark 


Dark 


Reddish 






Vellow. 




brown. 


brown. 


brown. 


vellow. 


Morphine . 


Orange-ied. 


Yellow. 


Yellow. 


Red-brown. 


Light 
brown. 


Light 
brown. 


'Light 
brown. 


Quinine 




— 


— 


Green 


Light 


Light 


Light 










precipitate. 


brown. 


brown. 


brown. 


CincVionine 


— 


— 


— 


White 
precipitate. 


Light 
brown. 


— 


— 


Caffeine . 






Palo 
yellow. 


Bleached. 


Hed; 
yellow. 







Some time ago the author dreAv attention to the use of bromine- 
water in the detection of alkaloids. He finds that a more con- 
venient reagent can be made by mixing a weak solution of potas- 
sium chlorate with enough strong hydrochloric acid to turn it 
bright yellow, and enough water to make it very pale yellow. 
This euchlorine solution is added by degrees to the solution of the 
alkaloid in H CI, which is boiled after each addition. 

Strychnine gives a fine red colour, bleached by excess and 
by returning when boiled. 

Brm-iiie produces a violet colour in the cold, which is bleached 
by excess and restored by boiling. 

Narcotine gives a bright yellow colour in the cold, which be- 
comes pink on boiling and adding more of the euchlorine solution. 

Quinine gives a faint yellowish pink on boiling. 

After cooling the solution, weak ammonia is gradually added. 

Strychnine gives a yellow colour unchanged by boiling. 

Brucine gives the same. 

Narcotine produces a dingy green, becoming brown on lioiling. 

Quinine yields a bright green, becoming yellow on boiling. 

Morphine gives no reaction ; but if, after boiling with the 
euchlorine solution, the liquid be cooled and allowed to remain in 
contact with zinc for a minute or tsvo, it will give the character- 
istic pink reaction with ammonia. 



CHEMISTRY. 115 

Separation of Strychnine and Morphine from Fatty Matters. M. 
Focke. (Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., October 15, 1886.) The 
suspected matter is exhausted by heating with alcohol acidified with 
tartaric acid. The liquid -when cold is filtered, and evaporated on 
the water-bath. The residue is taken up with ten times its weight 
of water, and the solution mixed with an excess of baryta water. 
After the lapse of some hours a slight excess of sulphuric acid is 
added ; the mixture is allowed to settle for some time, filtered, and 
the acid precipitated with barium chloride. It is filtered afresh, 
and evaporated on the water-bath until the hydi'ochloric acid of 
the barium salt is completely eliminated. The residue is taken up 
in absolute alcohol, and the solution is evaporated to dryness on 
the water-bath. The new residue, which is slightly acid, is dis- 
solved in water, and exhausted with ether, which takes up the 
fatty matters still contained in the liquid. The aqueous solution 
is rendered alkaline, again taken up with ether, and, after the 
evaporation of this solvent, the residue is treated with water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, which dissolves merely the 
alkaloids. 

Reactions of Kairine, Antipyrine,'and Antifebrine. C. A. Kohn. 
(Jonrn. de Pharm. et de Chim., April 1, 1887. From Chemical News.) 
In a dilute aqueous solution of kairine, a drop of ferric chloride 
gives immediately a violet colour, w^hich quickly changes to brown. 
An excess of ferric chloride produces in a strong solution of kairine 
a blackish brown precipitate. Potassium dichromate gives, in a 
neutral solution of kairine, an intense coloration, and a violet 
precipitate is shortly deposited. Antipyrine yields a red colour 
with ferric chloride, even in very dilute solutions ; with nitrous 
acid a greenish blue colour is produced. Antifebrine gives no 
reactions with the above-named reagents. 

Determination of Small ftuantities of Cinchonidine in Quinine 
Sulphate. L. Schafer. (Archiv der Pharm. [3], xxv. 64-72.) 2 
grams of quinine sulphate are dissolved in a small tared flask in 
55 c.c. of boiling water, and 0"5 gram of neutral, crystallized 
potassium oxalate in 5 c.c. of water is added. The liquid is made 
up to 625 grams, and cooled for half an hour in water at 20"^, with 
occasional agitation, and then filtered. If on the addition of one 
drop of officinal aqueous soda to the filtrate no turbidity appears, 
the quinine sulphate contains less than 1 per cent, of cinchonidine 
sulphate. In the presence of 1 per cent, of the latter salt, a tur- 
bidity or a precipitate of cinchonidine appears. For quantitative 
estimations, 5 grams of quinine sulphate are taken, and an aliquot 



116 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

part of the filtrate is treated with aqueonssoda; the precipitated 
cinchonidine is collected and weighed. Since a certain amount of 
cinchonidine remains in solution, and a little also goes down with 
the quinine oxalate, it is necessary to apply a slight correction to 
the amount found. This collection should be 0"04 gram cinchoni- 
dine for each 100 c.c. of solution originally taken. If more than 4 
per cent, of cinchonidine is present, a more dilute solution should 
be employed, as the process is expressly intended for small quanti- 
ties only. The test also indicates small quantities of quinidine and 
cinchonine sulphate when present; indeed, the conditions are more 
favourable in the case of these compounds, as they are not carried 
down by the oxalate precipitate. 

Assay of Quinine Sulphate by Means of Neutral Potassium 
Chromate. J. E. de Vrij. (Arch. Pharm. [3], xxiv. 1073.) In 
order to estimate the proportion of pure quinine in the sulphate, 
2 grams of the sample are dissolved in 200 c.c. of boiling water ; 
the solution is mixed with 0"5 gram of potassium chromate pre- 
viously dissolved in a small quantity of water, the mixture well 
stirred and allowed to stand in a cool place for twelve hours. 
The whole of the quinine will then be found to hare separated as 
chromate in the form of anhydrous crystals of the composition 
(Coo -^24 •'^s ^2)2' -^2 C^' ^i- The precipitated chromate is Aveighed, 
and its weight increased by "05 gram for every 100^ c.c. of mother- 
liquor and wash water, to allow for the slight solubility of the salt. 
From the total thus obtained the percentage of pure quinine is 
readily calculated. 

The amount of cinchonidine in a sample of quinine sulphate may 
be estimated by dissolving 5 grams of the sulphate in 500 c.c. of 
boiling water, adding a strong solution of 1"2 grams of potassium 
chromate, and allowing the mixture to remain in a eool place for 
twelve hours, after which the quinine chromate is collected on a 
filter and washed. The mother-liquor and washings are heated 
with soda on a water-bath for some time, whereby the cinchonidine 
separates out in a crystalline form, and is collected, dried at 160°, 
and weighed. The author found in 5 grams each of three com- 
mercial samples, 0"ir»7, 0"205, and 0'2-lri gram of cinchonidine 
respectively. 

Assay of Quinine Sulphate by Means of Neutral Potassium 
Chromate. O. Hesse. (I']iarm. Jouni.., 3rd series, xvii. 58.") and 
()()5.) The author criticises De Vrij's method of assaying quinine 
sulphate by means of potassium chromate (preceding abstract), 
showing that the precipitated and air-dried chromate is not anhy- 



CHEMISTRY. 117 

clrous but contains 2 molecules of water, which it loses at 80^ C. 
and absorbs again on exposure. Cinchonidine and hydroquinine, 
when present in quinine sulphate, cannot be correctly determined 
by De Vrij's chromate method, for although the neutral chromates 
of these two substances are more readily soluble than quinine 
chromate, they cannot be separated from the latter by crystalliza- 
tion, as they crystallize out with the chromate. In fact, where 
quinine sulphate contains 8 per cent, or less of hydroquinine, the 
latter behaves exactly like quinine ; whilst in the presence of 0'3 
per cent, of cinchonidine, the mother-liquor from the quinine 
chromate yields a precipitate consisting not wholly of cinchonidine, 
as is supposed by De Vrij, but for the most part of a compound of 
seven molecules of cinchonidine with one molecule of quinine ; 
also when the percentage of cinchonidine exceeds 0'3, the mother- 
liquor not only behaves in the same way, but a varying quantity 
of cinchonidine chromate crystallizes with the quinine chromate. 
The mixture of chromates obtained on treatment with ammonia and 
ether yields the compound Co,, Ho j No Oo, 2 Cjg Hoo N^ 0, which by 
crystallization from hot dilute alcohol can be converted into large, 
brilliant, rhombohedrons of the formula, 

Coo H.i No Oo, 7 Cig Ho2 N2 0.. 

The Chromate Test for Clainine. B.H.Paul. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 585.) In a note appended to Hesse's paper on 
this process of quinine testing (see jjreceding abstract), the author 
points out that the consequence of taking the chromate to be an 
anhydrous salt in the calculation of the results of analysis would 
be to bring the amount of quinine sulphate as between 4 and 5 
per cent, higher than it would be if the correct formula of the 
chromate were made the basis of the calculation. He also shows 
that the addition recommended to be made for quinine chromate 
dissolved, amounts to no less than 5 per cent, of the total quantity 
of quinine sulphate operated upon, and is equal to the average 
amount of impurity to be tested for. 

The Testing of ftuinine Sulphate. 0. Schlickum. (Archiv der 
Pkarin. [3], xxv. 128.) Employing De Vrij's chromate method 
(p. 116), the author finds that not only quinine but also cinchonine 
forms a chromate soluble in 2,000 parts of water at moderate 
temperatures, whilst quinidine and cinchonidine chromates are 
much more soluble in water. On precipitating a quinine so- 
lution by means of normal 2:)otassium chi-omate, and allowing it 
to remain four or more hours, the filtrate remains unchanged on 



118 YEAR-BOOK OF THAEMACY. 

the addition of soda if the quinine salt is pure. If the quinine 
salt contains cinchonine, quinidine, or cinchonidine in not too 
minute traces, the soda produces a turbidity either at once or after 
some time. The method is capable of detecting ^ per cent, of 
cinchonine sulphate, and 1 per cent, of cinchonidine or quinidine 
sulphate. In testing other neutral qiiinine salts it is not necessary 
to convert them into sulphates. Acid quinine salts require con- 
ve.'sion into neutral ones by evaporation to dryness Avith ammonia. 

The Tests for the Purity of duinine Sulphate. B. H. Paul. 
(Phaj-m. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 645.) This paper furnishes an 
interesting review of the literature of this subject, the perusal of 
■which, and also of a leading article on the same subject in the 
same paper, pp. 554 and 555, we strongly recommend to the reader. 
Dealing Avith the official tests of different pharmacopoeias, he con- 
siders that of the British Pharmacopoeia, as it now stands, to be 
decidedly in advance of the others. He deems it unfortunate, 
however, that the addition of acid should ha\'e been dii-ected in 
making the solution, for except in so far as perfect neutralization 
is concerned, every drop of acid added proportionately invalidates 
the result by introducing into the mother liquor so much the more 
quinine, and thus reducing the delicacy of the test for cinchoni- 
dine. As another objectionable feature, he considers the treatment 
of such a large volume of liquid with ether and ammonia. Five 
ounces of the solution Avill dissolve at least half an ounce of ether 
before there is any separation of ether to dissolve the alkaloid, 
and in that Avay a liquid will be produced Avhich is itself a solvent 
of cinchonidine to such an extent as to interfei'e with the indi- 
cations of its presence. The proper mode of operating Avould be 
to evaporate the mother liquor of the cr^-stallization to a small 
bulk before treating it Avith ether and ammonia, and then the 
result of the test would be much more distinct and accurate. 

Gninine Testing. O. Hesse. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
974—977.) Tlie author shoAvs that Schiifer's oxalate test (p. 115) 
is not less defective than the optical test in giving too high an in- 
dication of the amount of cinchonidine. 

The bisulphate test recommended by De ^'rij is stated to giA-e 
A'ery good results when it is carried out with the modifications 
suggested by the author. In order to conduct that method of 
testing most successfully, it is desirable to operate Avith 5 grams 
of the sulphate in question, to dissolve this quantity in 12 c. c. 
of normal sulphuric acid in a small porcelain basin Avith the aid of 



CHEMISTUY. 119 

heat, then to pour the solution into a funnel closed at the bottom, 
and rinsing the basin out with a few di'ops of water. The crystal- 
lization of the bisulphate soon commences, and is complete after 
two hours. By then removing the stopper of the funnel the 
mother liquor may be drained away, and an}^ residue removed 
by a suction pump. The upper portion of the crystals should 
be pressed down with a glass rod and washed with 3 c. c. of cold 
water, added drop by drop, while the suction is kept up. The 
whole solution is mixed with 16 c.c. of ether from 0"721 to 0'728 
specific gravity, and shaken up, then 3 c. c. of ammonia solution 
of 0"960 specific gravity added, and the whole well shaken again. 
After standing for one day the ether is removed with a pipette, 
the crystals which have separated are collected upon a filter 
and washed with water saturated with ether. After this the 
filter is placed on an absorbent surface and the crystals again 
washed with some ether before being dried at 100° C. These 
crystals have a composition represented by the formula, 
CogHo^Ng Og, 2 CjgHojjN^o 0' ^^^ thcrc is generally some quinine 
adhering to them, especially when the amount of cinchonidine 
in the quinine sulphate tested is very small. In order to ascer- 
tain from the weight of the crystalline mass the amount of 
cinchonidine with the greatest accuracy, it is necessary, for the 
reason above stated, not to multiply by 0-6-45 in accordance with 
the formula of the compound, but with 0'62, this number being 
the mean result of all determinations the author has made in 
reference to this mode of testing. 

This paper also contains a critical review of other well-known 
methods of quinine testing, for which Ave refer the reader to the 
original source. 

New Reaction of Sparteine. A. Grandval and M. Valser. 
(Jouni. de Pharm. et de Chun., July 15, 1886.) When a drop of 
ammonium sulphydi'ate is placed on a watch glass, and a trace of 
sparteine or one of its salts is added to it, a permanent orange- 
red coloration is produced immediately. 

Reaction of Stroplianthin. H. Hell:»ing. {Vharm. Joum., 3rd 
series, xvii. 924.) The author proposes the following charac- 
teristic reaction : — A trace of strophanthin is dissolved in a drop 
of water, and a minute quantity of solution of ferric chloride 
added, followed by a little concentrated sulphuric acid. A reddish 
brown precipitate is thus formed, which, after a while, sometimes 
not before one or two hours, turns to an emerald-green, and 



120 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

then I'omains unchanged for a long time. Very minute traces of 
stroplianthiu may be detected in tliis manner. 

Detection of Thalline and Antipyrine. M .Blumeubach. (Amer. 
Jourji. I'har)ii., December, 188G, from Phann. Zeitschr.fiir jRussland.) 
The author found that thalline is not, or only in traces, taken 
up by agitating acidulated aqueous solutions with benzin, benzol, 
chloroform, or ether, bat is dissolved from ammoniacal liquids, 
by these solvents, though only spai'ingly by petroleum benzin. 
Distinct reactions could be obtained by this treatment with O'OOl 
gm. of thalline in 100 ccm. of urine ; from a similar amount of 
blood or food mixture the reactions were faint, but with 0"005 gm. 
they were distinct. The green colour produced by ferric chloride 
is unmistakable in solutions, 1 : 10,000, and still recognisable in 
dilutions, 1 : 100,000. A green colour is also produced by gold 
chloride, silver nitrate, chromic acid, chlorine w^ater, and mercuric 
nitrate, and in acid solutions also by chlorinated lime and potas- 
sium ferrocyanide. Iodine colours dark brown, then dingy green ; 
platinic chloride yellowish green ; and a i-ed colour is produced by 
warm fuming nitric acid, by sulphuric and nitric acids, and by 
sugar and sulphuric acid. The solutions of thalline, if not too 
dilute, yield precipitates with the usual reagents for alkaloids. 

Given to animals by the stomach or subcutaneously, thalline 
caused a dark coloration of the urine, which contained very little 
unaltered thalline, but after acidulation yielded to benzin, benzol, 
etc., a derivative coloured green by ferric chloride ; after precipita- 
ting the phosphoric acid with a few drops of ferric chloride, the 
filtrate yielded with more ferric chloride the red colour observed 
by Jaksch. 

Defection of Aiitipyriue. — The author recommends treating the 
aqueous solutions with petroleum benzin, and, after the addition 
of ammonia, with benzol, chloroform, or amylic alcohol, Avhen very 
distinct reactions will be obtained with 0001 or 0005 gm., and 
faint reactions with O'OOl gm. of untijiyrine in 100 ccm. of organic 
mi.vturcs. 

The alkaloidal reagents produce ])roci[)itates in not too diluted 
solutions of antipyrine, and ferric chloi-ide gives in neutral solution, 
1 : 1,000, a dark brown colour ; with 1 : 10,000 a light brown, and 
with 1 : 50,000 a light yellow colour. Fuming nitric acid colours 
dry antipyrine dark red, and in liquids green, recognisable in 
solutions containing 1 : 10,000. The solution, mixed with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, and warmed with a little fuming nitric 
acid, becomes deep I'ed. 



CHEMISTRY. 



121 



Observations with animals prove that antipyiine is rapidly 
resorbed, and for the next eighteen or twenty hours may be 
detected in the urine ; but only for a few hours in the different 
organs. On the other hand, antipyrine was found, after putrefac- 
tion had proceeded for a fortnight, in all organs of animals killed 
about two hours after swallowing the chemical or receiving it by 
hypodermic injection. 

A Study of the Use of Mayer's Reagent in the Estimations 
of Alkaloids. A. B. Lyons. (From a paper read before the 
Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association, October, 1886, and 
printed in the Amer. Pharm. Journ., Dec, 1886, 579-587, and 
January, 1887, 1-7.) The author's researches respecting the 
volumetric estimation of alkaloids by ]\Iayer's reagent lead to the 
following inferences : — ■ 

1. Results of titrations with this reagent are influenced by 
various conditions to such an extent that their indications have 
at best only an approximate value. 

2. In dilute solutions the results of titration are always high. 
Either a stated correction must be made, or a second experiment 
carried out, in which the solution is brought to a standard strength, 
say of 1 : 200 or 1 : 300. 

3. The influence of alcohol and of iodides (the same is true to a 
certain extent also of bromides and chlorides) is to interfere with 
the precipitation, and yet the effect of their presence may be bene- 
ficial rather than otherwise, the end of the reaction being more 
sharply defined with them than without. This is especially true 
where a modified reagent is employed, containing an excess of 
potassium iodide. Such a reagent gives more uniform results with 
certain alkaloids than the usual solution, but with many alkaloids 
is not to be preferred, and is not to be recommended for general 
use. 

The author also deals with the question Avhether or not Mayer's 
reagent may be depended upon for the purpose of gravimetric 
estimations. He finds that a few only of the precipitates produced 
by it approximate in composition corresponding with the formula 
assigned to them by Prof. Mayer, but that the inconstancy in com- 
position is not such as to render the process unfit for use in cases 
where approximate results only are contemplated. The following- 
table gives the results of experiments made with rcfei'ence to the 
composition of the precipitates : — • 



122 



YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



NiME OF Alkaloid. 



Aconitine 
Atropine . . 
Berberiue 
Brucinc . . 
Cinehonidine 
Ciiicbonine . 
Cocaine . . 
Colcliicine . 
Emetine . . 
Gelsemine . 
Hydra Rtine . 
Hyoscyamiuc 
Morphine 
Pilocarpine . 
Quinine . . 
Strychnine . 



«) 



C.5 3 



179-188 

216-245 

200 

190-214 

348-370 

324-348 

240-270 

155-180 

240-256 

185-200 

200-210 

222-250 

100-204 

295-310 

310-335 

258-274 



CS 5 O 



54-8 
54-4 
65-0 
48-9 
28-5 
30-0 
40-7 

40-8 
52-4 
47-6 
43-5 
48-6 

30-8 
37-9 







o-d 






P. 


N 


c 


t-i 




CJ 


u 


S 


M 





182-5 


27-5 


220 


51 


— 


25 


205 


30 


352 


60 


339 


62-5 


246 


50 


159 


34 


245 


44 


— 


50 


210 


37 


228 


46 


202 


42 


308 


81 


325 


64 


2G4 


57 





'6 
















bo 


>> 




W 


a 


p-i 


fl 




GO 

a 






o 








<i 




< 


0-73 


65 


2-35 


0-73 


69 


106 


042 


75 


2-06 


0-59 


75 


2 33 


0-92 


192 


4-65 


0-96 


176-5 


4-28 


0-76 


94 


2-25 


0-58 


25? 


? 


1-09 


105 


4-10 


1-02 


50 


1-61 


073 


73 


2-28 


0-66 


82 


1-87 


0-60 


60 


135 


0-84 


127? 


2-08 


T'H 


161 


4-11 


0-95 


107 


2-81 






954-1002 
62+-708 
670 

749-843 
11172-1140 
983-1073 

491-571 
1190-1270 

816 

834 

642-703 ? 

541-5821 

614-707 
10t>4-10S5 

860-913 



Further experiments are needed to determine tlie conditions 
under wliicli the best results can be obtained. 

Detection of Arsenic by means of Brass. H. Hager. (Chem. 
Centr., 18SG, G80, 681.) The liquid to be tested is mixed with i-| 
its volume of pure hydrochloric acid, and allowed to act upon a 
plate of brass for one and a half hour; if the brass remains bright, 
arsenic is absent. In the presence of arsenic, a grey film is formed 
on the brass. The larger the quantity of arsenic pi'csent, the 
quicker is the deposit produced. Heav}^ metals, including iron, 
must be absent. If antimony is suspected, the liquid should either 
be warmed with the strip of brass, or set aside for some hours at 
ordinary temperatures. Arsenic gives a steel-grey to black film, 
antimony a light grey. Held in a spirit-lamp flame, an arsenic 
film becomes steel-blue and volatilises ; antimony remains un- 
changed. If the deposit can be scraped oli into a diy test-tube, 
add to it two drops of water and then 10 of nitric acid (30 per 
cent.). Arsenic will dissolve, antimony remain undissolved. 

Note on Reinsch's Test for Arsenic. H. Hager. {Chem. Centr., 
1886, 772, 773.) According to the author, the presence of traces 
of arsenic in the copper employed docs not interfere Avith its use 
for this test, since the impurity consists in the form of an alloy, 
which is not attacked by hydrochloric acid. Copper foil may 
safely be used if it stands the following test : — A piece of perfectly 
bright foil is immersed in perfectly pure hydrochloric acid of 10 to 
125 per cent., and allowed to remain for two houi-s ; if at the end 



CHEMISTEY. 123 

of that time it is still quite bright, it may be used for the detection 
of arsenic ; if the surface has become dimmed, the foil is of course 
rejected. The foil may contain traces of arsenic and still give no 
coloration with acid ; in that case, it can be used both for the de- 
arsenification of acid and for the qualitative detection of arsenic. 

Determination of Arsenic. F. Reich and T. Richter. (Zeit- 
schr. fiir analyt. Chem., xxv. 411, 412.) One part of the substance 
Tinder examination is warmed with strong nitric acid nntil the 
greater part of the latter is evaporated ; the residue is mixed 
with 8 parts of sodium carbonate and 8 parts of potassium nitrate, 
the dried mass fused for ten minutes, then dissolved in water, the 
solution slightly acidified Avith pure nitric acid, and mixed with 
solution of silver nitrate (equal to 2 parts of metallic silver), and 
finally with sufficient ammonia to insure perfect neutrality. The 
precipitate is collected, washed, and dried, and the silver deter- 
mined in it in the usual way. The quantity of silver thus found 
corresponds to 23-15 per cent, of its weight of arsenic. 

Separation of Arsenic and Antimony. MM. Zambelli and 
Luzzato. (ArcMv der Pharm. [3], xxiv. 772.) These metals 
may be readily separated by treating the freshly precipitated 
sulphides, while still moist, with hydrogen peroxide at 40° C. for 
some hours, then raising the temperature gradually to near the 
boiling point, and filtering. The sulphide of arsenic is thus con- 
verted into arsenic acid, and passes into the filtrate, whereas the 
antimony is left on the filter as an insoluble oxide. The results 
are stated to be very satisfactory. 

Detection of Phosphorus by Mitscherlich's Method. 'M. Man- 
kiewicz. (Archiv der Fharm. [3], xxv. 32.) The test was found 
to fail with one and also with two milligrams of phosphorus in 
200 c. c. of water containing 3 per cent, of cai'bolic acid ; but it 
succeeded with five milligrams of phosphorus under the same 
conditions. 

Note on the Separation and Detection of Phosphorus by Mit- 
scherlich's Method. K. Polstorff and J. Menschiug. {Ber. der 
deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1763, 1764.) The authors find that the 
disturbing effect produced by mercuric chloride in this test, ob- 
served by Lecco {Ber. der deutsch. chem. Ges., xix. 1175), is also 
shared by other salts of merciuy. Cupric salts do not produce 
this effect. 

Detection of Phenol in Poisoning Cases. G. Dragendorff. 
(Amer. Journ. Pharm., December, 1886, from Pharm. Zeltschr. fiir 
Rtissland.) Experiments were made by Dr. Woldcmar Jacobson 



124 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

for the purpose of isolating and recog-nizing phenol. The organic 
mixtures, 100 ccm., were macerated for a day with 400 ccm. of 
alcohol, the filtrate was freed from alcohol by distillation at a low 
tempei'ature and under reduced pressure, the aqueous residue 
filtered, agitated with a little petroleum benzin for the separation 
of fat, and then i-epcatedly shaken witli benzol, wliich solvent was 
evaporated in watch-glasses. The following reactions wei^e em- 
ployed : — 

The authors 'method: The residue was left in contact at or- 
dinary temperatures with solution of mercuric nitrate, containing 
a little nitrous acid ; the red colour appears in lialf an hour with 
1 phenol in 100,000 mixture. 

Jacquemins method : Dissolve 3 drops of colourless aniline in 
50 ccm. of water. Dilute 5 or 10 drops of 4his solution with 5 
ccm. of water, and add sufficient solution of sodium hypochlorite 
(1 sodium carbonate ; 1 chlorinated lime ; 10 water; filter), until 
a distinct violet or brown colour is produced. Add of this freshly 
prepared mixtui-e to the phenol, previously mixed Avith ammonia, 
until the liquid is coloured violet or brownish, when in a short 
time in the presence of phenol (1 : 50,000) the colour will change 
to blue, or with less phenol (1 : 100,000) to green. 

Landolfs reaction : Cloetta and Schaer have shown that the 
crystalline precipitate with bromine is still obtained in solutions 
of phenol diluted to the proportion 1 : 100,000. In separating 
small quantities of phenol from animal matter, Jacobson obtained 
amorphous precipitates with bi-omine, which, after drying, dis- 
solving in alcohol, and evaporating slowly, yielded the character- 
istic groups of needles. Minute quantities of phenol are best 
dissolved in little water, and then ex})osed to bromine vapours. 

Detection of Traces of Hydrocyanic Acid. G. Vortmann. 
(MouaisJi. Chc))i., vii. 416, 417.) The liquid to be examined is 
mixed with a few drops of potassium nitrite, three drops of ferric 
chloride, and so much dilute sulphuric acid as will suffice to dis- 
solve the yellowish brown basic ferrous salt at first formed to a 
yellowi.sh solution. The mixture is heated to boiling, cooled, the 
excess of ii-on removed by a few drops of ammonia, filtered, and 
the filtrate tested with a few drops of very dilute colourless 
ammonium sulphide solution. The formation of a violet colora- 
tion, turning successively blue, green, and violet, indicates the 
presence of a cyanide. The test is based on the formation of 
nitroprussides. 



CHEMISTRY. 125 

The Post-Mortem Detection of Chloroform, C. Ludeking. 
{Chemical News, April 1, 1887.) The manner of experimenting 
adopted was as follows : — Dogs of from fifteen to twenty pounds 
weight were destroyed gradually by the administration of chloro- 
form through the liangs in from five to ten minutes. Then the 
carcases were allowed to stand in summer's heat or the temperature 
of the room for different periods of time, and finally the lungs 
removed and tested for chloroform, by the Ragsky method. 
{Tjrdmanns Journ., xlvi. 170.) The lungs, after having been 
finely minced and rendered slightly alkaline by means of sodium 
carbonate, were heated over a water-bath in a flask through 
which a current of air was slowly passing. The escaping gases 
were sent through a Bohemian glass tube, which was heated to 
bright redness over a space of two inches. The iodised starch 
paper was five inches distant from this heated portion of the tube, 
and throughout the experiment remained perfectly cool. 

A very strong blueing of the paper was observed, and the nitrate 
of silver solution was strongly precipitated. 

Numerous similar experiments", are described, from which the 
following conclusions are drawn : — 

1. By the process of decomposition no substances are generated 
which could vitiate the tests for chloroform by the Ragsky method. 

2. Chloroform, when it has caused death by inhalation, can with 
certainty be detected in the body four weeks after death, and, 
notwithstanding its volatility, it is certainly retained in the viscera 
in large amount during this time. 

Detection of Chloral in Forensic Investigations. G. Dragen- 
dorff. (^Amer. Journ. Pliarm., December, 188G, from Pharm. 
Zeitschr. fiir Russland.) Having previously shown that chloral 
hydrate may be abstracted from aqueous solutions by agitation 
with ether and acetic ether, the author recommends, based upon 
the researches of Tiesenhausen (see next abstract), the treat- 
ment of urine first with petroleum benzin, then with ether, Avhen, 
on evaporation of the latter solvent, the chloral liydrate is left 
behind. Other organic mixtures, such as the contents of the 
stomach, require to be acidulated with diluted sulphuric acid, and 
macerated for a day with three volumes of strong alcohol ; the 
filti'a.te is evaporated spontaneously until the alcohol has been 
volatilized, when the aqueous residue will yield fat, etc., to petro- 
leum benzin, and subsequently chloral hydrate to ether. Blood, 
and organs containing much blood, retain the chloral within the 
coagulum, in which it is best recognised by the production of 



126 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY, 

chloroform on distilling with sodium hydrate. 0005 gm. chloral 
hydrate may, by these processes, be readily recognised in from 
75 to 100 ccm. of mixture. 

The most suitable reactions for the recognition of chloral hydrate 
are the following : — 

The dry chloral hydrate is warmed with alcoholic soda solution 
and a little pure aniline ; the odour of isonitril is still distinct, 
though faint, with m^„m_, gm. of chloral hydrate. 

Heat to 50° C. the hydrate, with one or two drops of concentrated 
aqueous potash soltition, and a little naphthol ; the blue colour, 
produced also with chloroform, is recognised with ^^Iqo gm. of 
chloral hydrate. 

Experiments with animals show that chloral hydrate is rapidly 
resorbed and transformed into products which, like urochloi-alic 
acid, do not show the reactions of chloral hydrate. 

Detection of Chloral Hydrate in Animal Fluids. H. Tiesen- 
hausen. {Zeitschr. fur Analyt. Chem., xxv. Part 4.) The author 
applies the " shaking out " method used in searching for alkaloids. 
Absolute ether is the best agent, acetic ether is almost as good, 
whilst petroleum ether, chloroform, and benzene are not applic- 
able. 

Test for the Purity of Chloral Hydrate. A. Kremel. (Pharm. 
Post, 1886, 738.) A weighed quantity of the chloral to be ex- 
amined is dissolved in water and treated with an excess of standard 
solution of sodium hydrate. After a few minutes, the excess of 
soda left is determined with normal hydrochloric acid, litmus being 
used as an indicator. One gram of chloral hydrate requires for 
decomposition into chloroform and sodium foi^mate 6"04 c.c. of 
normal soda solution, whilst chloral alcoholate requires only 
517 c.c. 

The Pharmacopoeial Test for the Purity of Ether. W. R. 
Dunstau and T. S. Dymond. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
841.) The pi'esent British Pharmacopoeia directs that ether shaken 
with solution of potassium iodide and staixh paste should produce 
little or no blue colour. The authors have investigated this test 
and found that ether prepared from sodium ethoxide and ethyl 
iodide docs not liberate iodine from potassium iodide until after 
about three hours, and then only traces of it are set free ; but 
hydriodic acid at once causes the liberation of iodine. Etlier 
pi'cpared from sulphuric acid and alcohol liberates iodine from 
strong solutions of potassium iodide, and veiy slowly from dilute 
solutions, the reaction being accelerated by the presence of acid. 



CHEMISTRY. 127 

The reaction is not clue to ozone, for on agitating the ether with 
mercury or silver, the filtrate showed the same behaviour as before. 
On warming the ether with solution of sodium carbonate, neither 
the escaping gas nor the remaining ether had any effect upon 
potassium iodide. The presence of hydrogen peroxide, thus indi- 
cated, was sho-^vn by shaking the ether with a very dilute solution 
of potassium chromate acidulated with sulphuric acid, when the 
ether separated with a deep blue colour, due to perchromic acid. 
Some commercial ethers, particularly if made fi'om methylated 
spirit, contain an impurity which forms Hn Og after a short time, 
and this may then be detected by the perchromate test. The 
quantity of Hj Oo, determined from the iodine liberated, amounted 
to only -04 per cent. The impurity may be removed by treating 
the ether with excess of lime and washing the distillate with 
alkaline water. 

The Purity of Ether. G. Vulpius. (Dingl. polyt. Joimi., 
cclxi. 96.) The author calls attention to the fact that a specific 
gravity of less than 0'735 affords no proof that a sample of ether 
is free from heavy oil of wine. He detected over 1 per cent, of 
this impurity in a sample of 0'722 sp. gr., by allowing the ether to 
evaporate. The residue consisted of the oil, with mere traces of 
acetic acid and water. 

A New Test for Tannic Acid. J. E. Saul. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii. 387.) Agitate about O'Ol gm. of the sample with 3 c.c. 
of Hg 0; add three drops of 20 per cent, alcoholic thymol solution, 
and then 3 c.c. of strong H^ S 0^^. Tannin under these conditions 
yields a turbid rose-coloured solution. Gallic acid, on the other 
hand, remains untinted ; or only develops the faintest possible pink 
coloration, visible chiefly in the sulphuric acid layer at the bot- 
tom of the test-tube. This cannot, however, be mistaken for the 
deep rose tint produced with tannic acid. 

Pyrogallol, similarly treated, yields a dull violet solution. 

Estimation of Tannin. (Zeitschr. fiir anahjt. Chnn., xxv. 527, 
528.) The author employs a solution containing 48-2 grams of 
iron alum, 25 grams of sodium acetate, and 40 c.c. of acetic acid 
(of 50 per cent, strength) per litre. Of this he adds an excess to 
the tannin solution, and then determines the excess of iron in the 
filtrate with permanganate in the usual way. 

Determination of Tannin in Sumach. J. ]\[acagno. (Chem. 
Centr., 1887, 125.). The author has compared Lowcnthal's method 
for the determination of tannin with those of Davy and Gerland. 



128 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

He finds that Davy's method, which consists in precipitating the 
tannin with gelatin, drying, and weighing the precipitate, and 
multiplying the weight by the factor 0"4, gives results, both with 
pure tannin and also with sumach, which stand in the ratio to 
results obtained by Lowenthal's method as 53'34 : 100 ; whilst 
Gerland's method (precipitation of the tannin with tartar emetic 
solution in the presence of ammonium chloride ; the reagent is 
prepared by dissolving 2"611 grams dry tartar emetic in a litre of 
water, 1 c.c. equals O'OOS gram tannin) gives results which, when 
compared with Lowenthal's method, stand in the ratio of 2 : 3. 

Process for the Determination of Tannin. M. Villon. (Bull, 
de la Sue. (Jhini., xlvii. 97 ; Chemical Neics, April 15, 1(38.) Liebig 
and Strecker first remarked that a solution of lead acetate gives 
a yellow precipitate with tannic acid. Stein, in 1857, devised a 
method for determining tannin by precipitation with a boiling 
solution of lead acetate in excess. The precipitate was collected 
and ignited, and the lead oxide weighed, which formed 64 per 
cent., whence the tannin was readily calculated. 

The author states that the precipitate of lead tannate varies in 
its com})osition according to the terapei'atui-e and the concentration 
of the solutions. He finds, however, that in a liquid containing 
a weight of lead acetate equal to three to five times that of the 
tannin, the precipitate formed has a constant composition. The 
addition of a small quantity of sodium acetate promotes the 
formation of the precipitate, which is of a constant composition 
and is not dissociated l)y water. Upon these facts he founds 
the following process : — 

Prepare the tannin liquor so that 100 c. c. may contain about 2 
grams of tannin. Prepare a lead liquor by dissolving in heat 100 
gj'ams neutral lead acetate and 20 grams sodium acetate in 500 
grams Avater, and making up the solution to exactly 1 litre. Mix 
in a precipitating glass 100 c.c. of the tannin liquid, 100 c.c. of the 
lead solution, leave them in contact for five minutes, and filter. 
Take the sp. gr. D of the lead acetate, the sp. gr. D' of the tannin 
liquor, and the sp. gr. 8 of the filtered mixture, all at the same 
temperature. The proportion of tannin in the liquid under 
examination is then calculated as follows: — If the two liquids 
mixed without precijiitation or alteration in volume, the sp. gr. 
of the mixture would be — 

D + D' 
2 ' 



CHEMISTRY. 129 

but as the lead tannate disappears from, tlie liquid, the sp. gr. is 
diminished, and we find a difference — 

^ ^- 

Let 2 be the difference of sp. gr. produced in an aqueous solution, 
of a volume equal to 100 c.c. by the disappearance of the same 
weight of tannin as that precipitated as lead tannate ; probably — 

D + D' „ 

will be propox'tional to 2, whence — 

This equation permits us to calculate 2, if A is detei-mined once 
for all, and from 2 to deduce p, the weight of tannin in grams 
contained in 100 c.c. of the solution in question, by means of 
Hammer's table. This table may be summed up in the following 
formula : — 

^ 0-00405" 

The constant A is not the same for all the tannins : for gallotannic 
acid it is 50 per cent. ; for quercitannic acid, 45'3 ; castaneotannic 
acid, 44'8 ; aspidospertannic acid, 42-5 ; abietannic acid, 40 ; and 
catechutannic acid, 52 per cent. 

Detection of Tannin in Vegetable Tissues. J.M.Moll. (Joum. 
de Pharm. et de Ghim., Dec. 15, 1886.) Sections of the vegetable 
tissues are steeped in a saturated solution of copper acetate for 
about a week, and are then transferred to a dilute solution of 
ferrous acetate and kept in contact with it for several minutes, 
after which they are washed in water. The presence of even 
traces of tannin will thus manifest itself. 

Estimation of Cellulose. W. H o f f m e i s t e r. (Landiv. Vermchs- 
Stut., xxxiii. 153-159.) The author recommends the following 
modification of Schultze's method as applicable in cases where 
large quantities of materials can be operated upon :■ — The fat and 
resins are first removed by any suitnble means, the sample is then 
reduced to the finest possible state of division, a portion treated in 
a flask with hydrochloric acid of 1'05 sp. gr., and as much potassium 
chlorate added as is dissolved at 17'5-20°; the flask is then closed 
and well shaken from time to time. At the end of about twenty- 
four hours the reaction is complete, and the substance has become 

K 



130 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

yellow tlirougliout. It s tlien diluted with water, and carefully 
washed on a filter with hot water ; again transferred to a flask, 
digested for one to two hours on a water-bath, again filtered, and 
washed successively with water, alcohol, and ether. The residue 
is nearly pure cellulose. 

Application of Sodium Hyposulphite in place of Sulphuretted 
Hydrogen in Uualitative Analysis. G. Vortmann. {Monatsh. 
Chem., vii. 418-428.) After precipitation of the hydrochloric acid 
group of metals, and subsequent j)i*ecipitation of lead, barium, 
strontium, and calcium in part as sulphates, copper, mercuric, 
bismuth, arsenic, antimony and tin salts can be removed from the 
filtrate by boiling with a strong solution (one part in five) of 
sodium hyposulphite, which should be added in small quantities at 
a time and not in excess. Before its addition, the liquid should 
not contain too much free acid and not any nitric acid. The 
reagent answers as well as sulphuretted hydrogen, and is less 
offensive. 

Simplification of the Molyhdate Method for Determining Phos- 
phoric Acid. M. A. V. Reis. (Chcm. Centr., 188G, 437.) The 
process recommended by the author consists in the reduction of 
the molybdic acid contained in the precipitate by means of zinc in 
the presence of sulphuric acid, and subsequent titration of the 
resulting liquid with potassium permanganate. 0'8381 gram of 
Mo 0.. has the same reducing power as 1 gram of oxalic acid. 

Effect of Ammouium Citrate on Phosphoric Acid Estimations 
by means of Magnesia Mixture. C. Mohr. {Chem. Zeit., x. 675.) 
Ill the presence of auimouium citrate the result of determinations 
of phosphoric acid as ammonio-magnesium phosphate are invariably 
too low, owing to the appreciable solubility of the precipitate in 
the citrate. 

Estimation of Manganese. R. W. Atkinson. (Journ. Soc. 
Chem. lud., v. 3G5-3G7, aiul 467, 468.) Owing to the length of 
time occupied in the gravimetric method of estimating manganese, 
the use of Pattinson's volumetric process is strongly recommended 
by the author, although it is said to give results which are slightly 
below the truth, the difference being attributed to the incomplete 
oxidation of the manganese. " Where accuracy is required, the 
gravimetric method, in which the manganese is twice precipitated 
by bromine and ammonia, however tedious, is the only practical 
process. 

Direct Separation of Manganese from Iron. L.Blum. (Zeitschr. 
far analtjt. Chem., xxv, ollK) The author's process is based upon 



CHEMISTRY. 131 

the precipitation of manganese from ammoniacal solutions by 
potassium ferrocjanide and the non-precipitation of iron under the 
same conditions. The separation is can-ied out as follows : — A 
hydrochloric acid solution containing ferric chloride and manganous 
chloride is mixed with tartaric acid in excess, and is then rendered 
strongly alkaline by ammonia. From the clear ammoniacal solution 
the Avhole of the manganese is precipitated as Mn^ Fe Cy^ on 
the addition of potassium ferrocyanide, while the iron remains 
in sohition. Nickel, cobalt, and zinc, if present, would also 
be precipitated along with the manganese. A clear filtrate can 
be obtained after boiling ; but since the precipitate cannot be 
washed, this method of separation is only applicable for quali- 
tative purposes. 

Volumetric Estimation of Nitrous Acid. A. G. Green and 
F. Evershed. (Journ. Soc. Chevi. Ind., v. 633, 634.) The authoi's 
confix'm the accuracy of the method of estimating nitrous acid by 
means of aniline published by Green and Rideal about three years 
ago, but propose as a modification the substitution of normal for 
decinormal solutions, Avhich simplifies and accelerates the process. 
The method has the advantage of being applicable in the presence 
of other oxidizable substances. 

A Simple Nitrometer. T. P. Blunt. .(Pharm. Journ.. 3rd 
series, xvii. 763.) Two glass syringe tubes, of \ oz. and 1 oz. 
capacity respectively, have their points connected by a piece of 
black india-rubber tube, on which is placed a pinch-cock, such as 
is used for burettes. This is the nitrometer. It is graduated by 
pouring into the shorter tube half a drachm of water, the upper 
surface of which is then marked with an india-rubber band, or 
better by a file mark ; another drachm of water is then poured 
in, and the surface similarly marked. The longer tube is now 
graduated in the same Avay, by pouring in successive draclims of 
water, up to eleven drachms. * 

To use the instrument the longer tube is placed in a vessel of 
brine deep enough to reach the neck ; the form of the vessel, 
beaker, measure, or pot, is of little importance. The clip is relaxed, 
and the lower tube completely filled by sucking the upper one, any 
drops drawn into the latter being turned out, after again clipping 
tight. The upper tube is now tilled to the \\ drachm mark with 
the spirit of nitre to be tested, the clip is released, and the whole 
lifted out of the vessel of brine until the spirit of nitre has reached 
the lower mark, which means that the lower tube now contains 
one drachm of it. The excess is poured away, the tube rinsed, 



132 YEAR-BOOK OF PHAUMACY. 

and tlio solution of potassium iodide and the dilute sulphuric acid 
introduced in the same way, the half drachm being rejected in 
each case, the object of this being to insure the absence of air. 
After moving the lower tube gentlj up and down once or twice, it 
is raised until the level of the fluid within and without it is equal, 
and the volume of gas is read off. 

Estimation of Chromate in the Presence of Bichromate. N. 
McCulloch. (Chemical News, \y. 2,3.) The substance, dis.solved 
in a little water, is mixed with a few c.c. of hydrogen peroxide 
solution and covered with a laj'er of ether, standard sulphuric acid 
is run in gradually until, after agitation, the ether assumes a blue 
colour. From the quantity of acid used the amount of chromate 
pre.sent is easily calculated, since the blue colour is not produced 
until acid has been added in excess of that required to convert the 
chromate into bichromate. 

Volumetric Estimation of Sulphides. C. Friedheim. (Ber. 
der (Jrutsch. cheiii. Ges., xx. 59-(32.) The author has critically 
examined Weil's method, which he finds to be untrustworthy and 
liable to error from two sources. The copper sulphide pi'ecipitated 
from ammoniacal solutions always carries down copper oxide, and 
has a tendency, moreover, to oxidize and rodissolve. 

Detection of Hyposulphite in Sodium Bicarbonate. M. Bren- 
stein and T. Salzer. (Archiv der Pharm. [3], xxiv. 761.) On 
adding to a 5 per cent, solution of sodium bicarbonate a few drops of 
silver nitrate solution, then excess of nitric acid, and heating to the 
boiling point, even minute traces of hyposulphite give an immediate 
dark precipitate of silver sulphide. The absence of hyposulphite 
is easily ascertained by adding a few drops of iodine solution to 
about 20 c.c. of a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate ; the 
solution must have a yellowish tint. Decoloi-ization of the iodine 
solution does not necessarily imply the presence of hyposulphite, 
since normal carbonate, the most commonly occurring impurity, 
produces this effect. 

Assay of Chlorinated Lime by Means of Hydrogen Peroxide. G. 
Lunge. (7)V/-. der dritt.^ch. du in. Ct'.<:., xix 8t)S~871.) 5 c.c. of a 
turbitl solution of chloride of lime (10 grams in 250 c.c. of water) 
are put into the decomposing flask of a nitrometer. An excess of 
hydrogen peroxide (about 2 c.c. of the commercial product) is put 
into the inner tube ; the flask is then fitted on to the indiarubber 
stopper, and the tap turned so that the flask communicates with 
the measuring tube, the mercury being at zero. The flask is 
inclined so that the liquids mix; in one to two minutes the reaction 



CHEMISTRY. 



133 



is complete, and the oxygen is measured according' to Winkler's 
method (Ber., xviii. 2533). The volume of oxygen corresponds 
with that of the active chlorine in the bleaching powder. 

This method has the advantage of being independent of any 
normal solution, and also of being quicker than any other. It 
gives as sharp results as Penot's method. 

Volumetric Estimation of Sulphates. H. Wilsing. (Zeit. 
analyt. Chem., xxv. 500, 561.) A measured excess of barium 
chloride is added to the neutral solution, and the excess is then, 
determined by titration with sodium carbonate, using phenol- 
phthalein as indicator. The liquid is to be boiled while titrating. 
Substances precipitated by soda must fir.st be removed. 

Estimation of Tartaric Acid in Tartar. A. Bomtrager. 
(Zeit. fiir analyt. Chem., xxv. 327-359 ; Jo^trn. Chem. Soc, 1886, 
1082.) The author has submitted every detail of the methods of 
Warington and of Grosjean to an exhaustive experimental in- 
vestigation. 

1. Solubility of Hydrogen Potassium Tartrate. — Pure water at 
29° dissolves 0-8536 per cent. ; at 12-5°, 0-498 per cent. A 10 per 
cent, solution of potas.sium chloride at 29^ dissolves 0-0583 gram; 
at 12-5°, 0-0376 gram in 100 c.c. (Grosjean at 12° found 00227). 
The solubility in potassium chloride is therefore not only much 
lower, but varies less with varying temperature. Both in potassium 
citrate and in citric acid solutions, it is more soluble than in water, 
but in a mixture of the two it is less soluble than in. water. In 
a dilute solution (2-7 per cent.) of potassium oxalate, it is less 
soluble than in water, but on increasing the strength of the 
oxalate solution the solubility rises, so that with 9 per cent, it is 
gi-eater than in water. A mixture of citric acid and of potassium 
oxalate dissolves less than either separately ; but here also the 
solubility rises with increase in the strength of the oxalate solu- 
tion. 

2. Warimjton s Process. — The quantity of material prescribed 
by Warington (2-2-5 grams of tartaric acid) is not sufficiently 
precise. For 2-5 grams of tartaric acid 2 grams of citric acid 
is insufficient ; 2-5 grams of citric acid gave better results, but 
the percentage obtained varied with the amount of tartaric acid 
present, and this variation became still greater when 3 grams 
of citric acid were u.sed. The best result (9902 per cent), was 
obtained by using 3 grams of citric acid when 35 grams of 
hydrogen potassium tai^trate (2-7926 of tartaric acid) were present; 
but working in the same way, only 97- 76 per cent, was obtained 



13 t YEAR-BOOK OF THARMACY. 

from 2"o grams of tartrate (r0947 grams of tartaric acid). The 
preliminary approximate determination cannot be dispensed -with. 
3. Grosjeans Method. — The addition of 5 grams of potassium 
chloride (to 50 c.c.) at once raises the results 2-2"5 per cent., and 
reduces the effect of variations of temperature (10*^) to an 
insignificant amount (0'2 per cent). Although, in the absence of 
potassium citrate and citiic acid, oxalate greatly inci'eases the 
solubility of the tartrate in potassium chloride, yet when precipita- 
ting with citric acid fi-om a neutral solution of the tartrate in 10 
per cent, potassium chloride, the presence of 1"5 to 3'0 grams of 
oxalate is beneficial, raising the yield to 99"5 per cent, of the tar- 
taric acid employed. A larger quantity of oxalate again depresses it. 
But the greatest advantage of the presence of potassium chloride 
is that when the quantity of citric acid used is increased to 3 grams, 
widely varying amounts of tartrate (1'5 to 4'0 grams) can be 
employed with practically identical percentage results (99"3 to 
99-7 per cent.) The preliminary approximate determination 
therefore becomes unnecessary, since by using 7'5 grams of lees, or 
3"75 grams of tartar, the amount of tartrate present will in almost 
all cases fall within the above limits. Using these quantities, the 
number of cubic centimetres of normal alkali required by the 
precipitate gives at once (when multiplied by 2 for 7'5 grams, 
or by 4 for 3' 75 grams) the percentage of tartaric acid present. 
For Avashing, it is better to use Klein's 10 per cent, solution of 
potassium chloi-ide saturated with acid tai-trate than Grosjean's 5 
per cent, solution, and it is convenient after heating with oxalate 
(for half an hour) to dilute with 100 c.c. of hot water before 
neut)-alising, and to concentrate to 50 c.c. after filtering. 

Application of the Ferric Chloride Test to Organic Substances. 
\V. 11. liice. (/7/rfr?». ./f»7/r»., .'Jrd series, xvii. 4U1.) The author's 
method of applying this test depends on the change of a ferrous 
salt to a ferric salt by the addition of bromine. The substance 
to be analysed is placed in a test tube, and a perfectly neutral 
solution of ferrous chloride added, then bromine vapour is care- 
fully poured in, and the. characteristic action of the substance 
analysed is observed. The ferrous salt should be slightly in 
excess at the end of the operation, as excess of bromine often 
leads to further decomposition. The value of this reagent con- 
sists in the fact that both the ferrous and feriic reactions can be 
shown on the same portion of the substance to be analysed. 

A few reactions are shown in the followinQf table : — 



CHEMISTRY. 



135 



Substance to be Analysed. 



Trihydroxybenzoic Acid 
(Gallic Acid) .... 

Gallo-tannic Acid . . . 



Trihydroxybenzene (Pyro- 
gallol) 

Benzoic Acid (Ammonium 
Salt) 

Hydroxybenzoic Acid (Am- 
monium Salt) .... 

Cinnamic Acid .... 

Acetic Acid (Na salt) . . 
Morphine 

Phenol 



No. 1. Reaction 

with Ferrous 

Chloride. 




No. 2. Addition 
of Bromine. . 



Faint blue. 
Colourless. 

Rose. 

Colourless. 

Colourless. 
Colourless. 

Colourless. 



Indigo. 
Blue-black. 

Euby. 

Eeddish 

precijjitate. 

Violet. 

Yellow- orange 

precipitate. 

Euby. 
Dirty blue. 

White ppt. 



Excess of 
Bromine. 



Bleached. 
Green to red. 

Euby. 

No change. 

Brown-red. 
No change. 

No change. 

Yellow-white 

precipitate. 

No change. 



Apparatus for the Examination of Water "by Dr. Koch's Process. 

C. W. Folkard. (Chemical Netvs, March 18, 1887.) Test-tubes, 
about 7 inches long and ~ inch in diameter, are used to receive the 
nutrient jelly. They are closed by a plug of cotton- wool, which is 
tied by thread round a piece of glass tube bent at right angles and 
drawn off at one end. The bent tube has a capacity of 1 c.c, 
and serves for the introduction of the measured quantity of water 
for experiment. The whole is sterilised in the usual way. 

The water, of which a sample is required to be examined, is 
allowed to run through a piece of ^-incli india-i'ubber tube (pierced 
with a small hole in the middle, and furnished with a glass jet at 
the end) till all germs in the tube have been washed away. 

The capillary end is passed through the hole in the india-rubber 
tube, and sufficient time allowed for any germs on it to be washed 
away. The capillary end is then broken off by the fingers, or by 
a pair of pliers, while it is inside the india-rubber tube. 

The water (which is running all the time) fills the bent tube, 
being assisted if necessary by partially stopping the glass jet for 
an instant. The bent tube is then withdi'awn, the capillary end 
sealed in the flame, and the 1 c.c. of water transferred to tlie 
test-tube by shaking. 

By allowing the gelatin to set when the test-tube is in a hori- 
zontal position, the "centres" can be easily counted and examined, 
being spread over an area of 4 or 5 square inches. 



136 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

The above is merely a simplified form of the well-known Aitken's 
test-tube, modified so as to enable the operator to dispense with, 
all but the ordinary laboratory apparatus. The transfer of the 
solution from the test-tube to a glass plate, Avith the attendant 
ris'c of aerial contamination, is also avoided. 

The advantage of taking the tube to the water supply, instead 
of bringing a sample of water to- the laboratory, is obvious. 

Volumetric Determination of the Total Organic Carbon and 
Nitrogen in Waters. C. A. Burghardt. (Ghem. Neics, March, 
i8th, 1887.) 

1st. Preparation of the Standard Solutions. — 1st. Ordinary deci- 
normal permanganate of potassium solution (3'16 grms. to 1 litre). 

2nd. A solution of pure chromic acid in pure distilled Avater 
(about 25 grms. to the litre). 

.3rd. A solution of ferrous sulphate-in pure distilled water (about 
25 grms. to the litre). 

The author titrates the ferrous sulphate solution by means of 
the decinormal permanganate solution, and finds in this way how 
much permanganate is equal to the ferrous sulphate solution ; 
and, knowing the " oxygen value " of the permanganate solution, 
it at once furnishes him with the "oxygen value " of the ferroiis 
sulphate solution. 

He next takes a known volume of the chromic acid solution, 
and titrates it Avitli the standard solution of ferrous sulphate, 
until all the chromic acid is reduced — a point easily seen with a 
little practice, as the slightly yellowish green colour at the final 
stage of the titration changes sharply to a bluish green on the 
addition of one drop in excess ; at this point, using a solution of 
ferricyanide of potassium as an indicatoi-, it is seen that there is 
a veiy slight indication of excess of ferrous sulphate present, 
whereas, before the addition of this drop, there was no such in- 
dication. This operation furnishes the value of the chromic acid 
solution expressed as ferrous sulphate solution. The chromic acid 
solution will keep a very long time, biit it is advisable to prepare 
the ferrous sulphate solution freshly at least once a week. 

Having prepared the standard solutions, the process of analysis 
is as folloAvs ; viz. — 

Beteriyiination of the Organic Carbon. — Place 250 c.c. of the AA^ater 
sample in the " boiling flask," of 16 oz. capacity, add 100 c.c. of 
the chromic acid solution, and 10 c.c. of strong sulphuric acid, and 
boil for about thirty minutes, when the oxidation of the organic 
matter is complete, the Avater in tlie " boiling flask " having be- 



CHK3IISTEY. 137 

come perfectly clear. The contents of the flask are then diluted 
to 1 litre, and 100 c.c. of this solntion are tritrated with the 
standard ferix)us sulphate solution until there is a very slight 
excess of the latter. By calculation it is found how much carhon 
the oxygen thus indicated is equal to. 

Determination of the Organic Nitrogen. — Contrary to expectation, 
the author found that the nitrogen in organic compounds is con- 
verted into ammonia, and not into nitric acid or nitrous acid, by 
the action of chi'omic acid. A similar fact was discovered hy 
Kjeldahl (Zeits. Anal. Chem., xxii. 366), who describes the con- 
version into ammonia of niti'Ogenous matter, by boiling it with 
strong sulphuric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, and powdered man- 
ganate of potassium. 

Marker tested this method thoroughly (Zeits. Anal. Chem., xxiii. 
553-557) against the well-known method of Yarrentrapp and 
Will, and found the results by Kjeldahl's method sufficiently 
correct. 

To determine the organic nitrogen in the water, the author takes 
250 c.c. or more of the solution obtained by the previous organic 
carbon j^rocess (the solution made up to 1 litre), places it in the 
" boiling flask," pours down the funnel' tube a perfectly ammonia- 
free caustic soda soliition in excess, and attaches the exit tube of 
the "boiling flask" to the Liebig's condenser and flask as used 
in the org"anic carbon determination, placing however, in this case, 
about 50 c.c. of ammonia-free water and a few drops of pure 
hydrochloric acid into the " receiving flask." It is better to 
take the necessary precautions to prevent the sucking of the water 
from the " receiving flask " back into the "boiling flask." The 
author boils the contents of the flask for about thirty minutes 
(keeping the condenser cool) ; then makes up the condensed 
water in the "recei^ang flask ".to one litre, takes out 100 c.c, and 
determines the amount of ammonia present in it in the usual way 
Avith Nessler's reagent, and calculates how much nitrogen it cor- 
responds to. 

No nitrogen is lost by this method, because all the ammonia 
evolved from the " boiling flask " is passed into cold, acidulated 
water; whereas by the old " ammonia-method," the violent bump- 
ing in the retort often drives steam and ammonia through the 
long condensers used in that process, consequently there must 
be a loss of ammonia. 

Assay of Carbolic Soap. A. H. Allen. (Analyst, xi. 103-106.) 
In the method recommended, the hydrocarbons are removed by 



138 YEAR-BOOK Oy PHARMACY. 

agitating the soap, dissolved in soda and -water, with etlier, and 
the fatty acids are precipitated by means of brine. An aliquot 
part of the resulting solution is acidified with sulphuric acid, and 
titrated with bromine-water until the solution is permanently 
tinged of a faint yellow colour; the bromine-Avatcr is standardised 
immediately before or after use by a solution of phenol or cresol. 
The remainder of the solution may be used for preparing a larger 
quantity of the bromine-derivative for qualitative purposes. 

Estimation of Colophony in Soaps. A. Grittner and J. Szilasi. 
{Chem. Zeit., x. 325.) About a gram or two of soap is dissolved 
by warming with 80 per cent, alcohol, and when necessary the 
solution is neutralized with ammonia ; it is then treated with a 
10 per cent, alcoholic solution of calcium nitrate, by which stearic, 
palmetic, and part of the oleic acids are precipitated and removed 
by filtration. The clear filtrate is treated with excess of silver 
nitrate and diluted ; silver resinate and oleate are precipitated. 
The precipitate is washed, dried at 70-80°, and extracted with 
ether, which dissolves the resinate readily, but the oleate only 
sparingly. The ethereal solution is run into a graduated vessel, 
the silver salt decomposed with hydrochloric acid, an aliquot part 
of the clear solution evaporated, and the residue (the resin) 
weighed. A deduction of 00016 gram per 10 c.c. of ether solution 
must bo allowed for oleic acid. 

Report on BecM's Test for Cotton-Seed Oil in Olive Oil. Abridged 
from the Report of the Commission of Florence appointed to 
examine Bechi's Test. (L'Ornsi, Feb., 1887, 37. From Avier. 
Journ. Pharm.) To examine olive oil for admixed cotton oil, with 
Bechi's method, the Commission recommend the division of the 
suspected sample into three parts, as follows : 

No. 1. Tube of the suspected oil and reagents. 

No. 2. Tube of the suspected oil and 20 per cent, of cotton oil, 
and the reagents. 

No. 3. Tube of the suspected oil and reagents. 

Now expose tubes No. 1 and No. 2 to the heat of boiling water 
for five or ten minutes, but do not heat tube No. 3 ; use it simply 
as a guide to see if No. 1 remains unaffected by heat or becomes 
coloured. If the sample is j)ure, the oil will remain unchanged, 
that is the same in appeai'ancc as No. 3, while No. 2 acquires the 
characteristic colour. If the oil in tube No. 1 has been sophisti- 
cated with cotton oil the brownish coloration will soon appear, 
while tube No. 2 will be a much deeper brown; evidently showing 
that the brownish colour is duo, in part, to the quantity of cotton- 



CHEMISTRY. 139 

seed oil present, as well as the pi'oportion of silver niti-ate and 
oil of rape. 

Estimation of Glycerin in Fats. 0. Helmer. (Analyst, 1887, 
44.) Saponify about 3 grms. of the fat with alcoholic potash ; do 
not drive oif all the alcohol, lest g'lycerin should volatilize from 
the concentrated solution, but dilute to about 200 c.c. ; decompose 
the soap with dilute sulphuric acid, filter off, and estimate insoluble 
fatty acids as usual. Vigorously boil the filtrate and washings 
(amounting to about 500 c.c.) in a covered beaker or basin, down 
to one-half, add 25 c.c. strong sulphuric acid (suitably diluted), 
and 50 c.c. standaiTl bichromate. Heat to near boiling for two 
hours, and titrate back the excess of bichromate with excess of 
ferrous sulphate, and ultimately the latter with decinoi'mal 
chromate, using ferricyanide as indicator. Calculate from the 
chromate consumed the amount and percentage of glycerin. 

The standard solution is made by dissolving 80 grams of 
bichromate of potash, and 150 c.c. of strong sulphuric acid in a 
sufficient quantity of water to make one litre. The exact value 
of the solution should be ascertained by titration with solutions 
of known weights of iron wire. 

Butter Testing. H. Hager. (Chem. Cenfr., 1886, 495 ; Jonrn. 
Chem. Soc, 1887, 309.) The author recommends the Reichert- 
Meissl method of examining butter, the chief feature of Avhich is 
a determination of the volatile fatty acids. The method is simpler 
and more expeditious than Hehner's. The butter is filtered and 
5 grams are saponified with pux^e sodium hydroxide (2 grams) in 
presence of alcohol (80 per cent.). The volatile fatty acids are 
separated by decomposition with sulphuric acid and distillation, 
and estimated by titrating the distillate with decinormal alkali. 
The following table gives the number of c.c. of the latter required 
to neutralize the distillate in the case of certain typical fats : 

Normal Butter . . . . 2G to 31 c.c. 
Oleomargarine . . . . l-l) ,, 

Cocoa Butter ..... 7"-i ,, 

Pig's Fat 0-(5 

Rancid Butter. E. Duclaux. (Com23ies rendns, cu. 1022-1024, 
1077-1079 ; Jotirn. Ghem. Soc, 1886, 685.) It is generally supposed 
that the rancidity of butter is due to a butyric fermentation 
resulting from the action of microbes derived from the air on the 
albuminoids present in the butter. Some very old and salt butters 
imported from Brazil were found, however, to contain casein in 



1 iO YKAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

its oidginal coiKlitioii, and Avliea tlio Luttcr was "washed the water 
was free ffom microbes. The free acid in the butter had, however, 
increased to ten or twenty times its original amount. It follows 
that the rancidity of bntter is not due to microbes, but is the 
result of a spontaneous decomposition of the glycerides analogous 
to that which Berthelot has observed in the case of other ethereal 
salts. This decomposition is accelerated by the presence of water 
and free acid, but is more or less retarded by salt and borax. Of 
the different ethereal salts present in butter, butyrin is the least 
stable, capi'oin more stable, and the glycerides of the non-volatile 
acids still more stable. 

This spontaneous decomposition is complicated by the action of 
air, microbes, and light. The action of air and light results in an 
absorption of oxygen with formation of carbonic anhydride, the 
quantity of which is always less than that which corresponds Avith 
the amount of oxygen absorbed. The products of oxidation are 
various, but the most important is formic acid. Oxidation, how- 
ever feeble, first attacks those substances to Avhich the butter owes 
its flavour and odour. As oxidation progresses, an odour of tallow 
is developed, this action being especially rapid in direct sunlight. 

In addition to the action of air and light, there is the action of 
microbes, and especially of cryptogamic vegetations, which cover 
the mass of the butter with their loose, almost invisible mycelia. 
This action accelerates the decomposition of the glycerides, and 
at the same time brings about tlie alteration of the nitrogenous 
compounds present in the butter. If the albuminoids are present 
in small quantity, butyric acid is formed, and its presence accele- 
rates the decomposition of the glycerides, more free acid being 
liberated up to a certain point, beyond whicli the acid is only set 
free in quantity equal to that which is oxidised or evaporates. 
The butter remains colourless, except where it is in contact with 
mycelial tubes. AVhen the quantity of albuminoids is large, the 
mass becomes .ilkaline, and the fatty matter darkens in colour, 
owing to its gradual conversion into a black resin, completely 
soluble in alcoliol and in alkaline soluti<ms. The resin is also 
formed in sunlight in presence of an alkali. These facts explain 
the grov oi- black colour of old choose. 

Nitrites and Nitrates in Milk as an Indication of Adulteration. 
M. Schrodt. (Bied. Gentr., 1886, 629.) Nitrites or nitrates 
never occur in normal milk, not even if the cows be fed with 
fodder to which these salts have been added. Their presence in 
milk, which may be readily detected by Soxhlet's diphenylamine 



CHEMISTRY. 141 

test, may therefore be regarded as a jjroof of adulteration with 
water. 

Detection of Saccharine as an Admixture in Sugar. H. Rei- 
schauer. (^Biedermanns Centralh., xv. part 7; Chemical News, 
Jan. 7, 1887.) One hundred grams of sugar are allowed to stand 
for some hours in a closed vessel with 150 to 200 c.e. of ether, 
shaking frequently. If a sample of sugar has an alkaline reaction 
a strong aqueous solution is used instead of solid sugar; it is 
slightly acidified, with jjhosphoric acid, and then shaken out with 
ether. The ethereal solution is then drawn off with a syphon and 
filtered. In both cases the ether takes up a large part of the 
saccharine, which is obtained in the residue, after distilling off 
the ether, almost free from sugar. The presence of saccharine is 
best demonstrated by cautiously heating the residue in a platinuni 
crucible with a mixture of six parts of pure sodium carbonate and 
nitre, and finally igniting, not too strongly. Saccharine contains 
sulphur, which is thus completely converted into sulphuric acid. 

Detection of Alum in Flour by the Logwood Test. J. Herz. 
{Dingl. 'pnlyt. Jonrn., cclxii. 96.) A glass cylinder is filled one- 
fourth with the flour under examination, the latter then moistened 
with water and a few cubic centimetres of alcohol and a few di-ops 
of a five per cent, tincture of logwood. The mixture is now well 
agitated, and the cylinder then filled up with a saturated solution 
of sodium chloride. An equal quantity of flour known to be pure 
is treated in exactly the same manner side by side with the other. 
If alum was present in the sample, the salt solution will be violet- 
red to blue, according to the proportion of alum. 001 per cent, of 
alum may thus be detected. 

An Improved Method for Detecting duassia in Beer. A. H. 
Allen. (^Analyst, 1887, 107.) The presence of quassia could be 
readily detected by the author as follows : The liquid was con- 
centrated, precipitated witli neutral lead acetate, the filtrate 
treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, and the refiltered liquid 
further concentrated and agitated with chloi'oform. On evaporat- 
ing the chloroform a residue was obtained, which had an intensely 
bitter taste, and yielded a solution which gave a white precipitate 
with tannin, but did not reduce ammonio-nitrate of silver. The 
residue gave no colour on wai-ming with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, but gave a well-developed mahogany-brown colour Avith 
ferric chloride. By the bromine and ammonia test it gave a 
strong yellow coloration. 

The author also deals in the same paper with the detection of 



142 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

other hop substitutes. For partlcuhxrs as regards these processes 
the reader is referred to the original article. 

Detection of Liquorice in Beer. H. Hager. (Journ. Soc. Chem. 
Iiul., 1886, 508.) The constituents of liquorice extract are pai'tly 
precipitated from their solution by organic acids, such as acetic, 
succinic, benzoic, salicylic, etc., acids. A small qiiantitj of 
liquorice added to beer during the process of brewing therefore 
escapes detection after fermentation, as by the acids invariably 
formed during the latter process it is converted into an insoluble 
form, and collects at the bottom of the fermenting vat. Beer to 
which salicylic acid has been added, or which has turned sour, 
would likewise appear free from liquorice. The presence of this 
substance might, however, be proved in the sediment formed in 
the cask. In order to detect glycyrrhizin, the chief constituent of 
liquoi'ice juice, in beer, the latter is evaporated to one-fourth its 
original volume, and the sediment formed mixed with plaster of 
paris, and after drying extracted with 90 per cent, alcohol. The 
hop constituents may be separated by mixing this extract with 
calcium hydroxide, evaporating to dryness, and again extracting 
with alcohol. Calcium glycyri-hizinate is left undissolved, from 
which, b}^ means of acetic acid, the glycyri-hizin is separated. 

Detection of Adulteration in Wines. M. Samuelson. (Chem. 
Zeit., X. 998.) When mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium 
nitrate, white Avine remains clear, but the colour becomes darker. 
In genuine red wines, a precipitate forms and the supernatant 
liquid becomes yellow, sometimes only after some time. This is 
not the case with artificially coloured wines. In a mixture of red 
and white wines, the amount of precipitate formed is inversely 
proportional to the quantity of white wine present. White wines 
coloured red with bilberry, mallow, i"ed poppy, or orseille coloui'ing 
matter do not give any precipitate. Red wines mixed with 
coloured white wines yield, in addition to the precipitate, the fol- 
lowing reactions : with bilberry or malloiv colours, a violet liquid ; 
with orseille, a cherry-red liquid; Avith red poppy, a bright red 
liquid. The addition of cider to Avhite Avine can be detected by 
sodium nitrate, as cider is coloured dark-brown by this reagent, 
and after some tiiiie gives a slight precipitate. 

Method for Distinguishing the Natural Colouring Matters of 
Wine from added Coal-tar Colours. C. Blarez and G: Deniges. 
{Hull, de la Soc. Chini., xU'i. 14:8-151 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1886, 
1084.) 10 c.c. of the Avine is treated Avith 10 drops of glacial 
acetic acid, heated to 100, and 0"2 gram of poAvdei-ed mercuric 



CHEMISTRY. 143 

acetate added, the mixture shaken rapidly, cooled, and filtered ; 
any coal-tar colouring matters then pass through into the filtrate, 
whilst all the natural wine colouiing matters remain on the filter 
as a lake. When only a mere trace of the artificial colouring 
matter is present, it may not he readily seen in the filtrate and 
may be partly held by the precipitate. In this case the precipitate 
is drained, and then washed by pouring 5 or 6 c.c. of alcohol, con- 
taining some di'ops of acetic acid, through the filter several times, 
by which means any coal-tar colours are exi:racted ; the artificial 
colouring matters in the solutions may then be examined, the 
reactions of about 20 being described in the paper. 

Determination of Fusel Oil in Alcoholic Liquors. J. Traube. 
(Biederman)i's Centralhl., vol. xv. part 8.) The author I'ejects the 
methods now in use, and describes a new capillarimetric process, 
by which fusel oil can be determined to about 1-50 per cent. 
It depends on the fact that the rise of the aqueous solutions of 
organic bodies of a homologous series at the same percentage 
often decreases very considerably with an increasing molecular 
weight of the dissolved body. Hence, especially on proper dilu- 
tion, a very small proportion of fusel oil in brandy, etc., may be re- 
cognised by the decrease in the capillary ascent. The compounds 
pi'esent in fusel oil, the propylic and butylic alcohols, and the various 
aldehyds, including furf arol, reduce the ascent more than ethylic 
alcohol, but less than amylic alcohol. The author's apparatus 
consists essentially of a very thin capillary tube, as narrow as 
possible, secured to a very fine scale, gradtiated in half millimetres. 
It terminates at its zero in two points, which may be fixed exactly 
at the level of the liquid by means of sci-ews. The capillary tube 
may easily be kept clean if it is rinsed after eveiy exjDerimeut 
with water, and alcohol, and a current of dry air, free from dust, is 
drawn through it. The liquid is sucked up in the capillary two 
or three times, and the position of the lower meniscus -is read off 
a few houi-s after the liquid has come to rest. This can be done 
to 1-lOth of a m.m., even without a lens. Liqueurs, in which the 
specific gravity of the distillate differs considerably from that of 
the original liquid, are first distilled and then diluted with water 
to a specific gravity corresponding to a 20 per cent, (by volume) 
dilution of alcohol. The capillai-y rise, compared with that of a 
pure 20 per cent, alcohol, shows] the proportion of fusel oil. Dif- 
ferences of temperature require a very small correction. 

Effect of Sulphocyanides on Vegetation. E. Meusel. (Bied. 
Centr., 1887, GG-G9.) The experiments described by the author 



144 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

tend to confirm the observation that ammonium sulphocjanide, 
which often occufs as an impurity in commercial ammonium 
sulphate, is injurious to vegetation, owing to its physical and 
chemical action on the seeds and some of their constituents. 

Chili Saltpetre as Manure. A. Stutzer. (Bied. Centr., 1886, 
585-597 ; Juurn. Chem. Soc, 1887, 77.) The author was awarded 
the first pi-ize offered by the union of nitrate firms on the western 
coasts of South America for his essay on the value of Chili salt- 
petre as a manure. Wagner has condensed the contents of this 
essay and that of Damseaux, which obtained the second prize, into 
a compact form of questions and answers, which are of value in 
agricultural science. Some of the answers follow : Plants cannot 
grow under normal conditions unless a supply of nitrogen is 
available for their roots, and a satisfactory crop cannot be obtained 
without the use of nitrogenous manures. Stable manure, in the 
quantities prodiTced on a farm, does not provide sufficient nitrogen 
to produce good results ; high farming requires that nitrogen be 
procured as artificial manure. Manures containing nitrogen in the 
form of animal matter take a long time to alter into nitrates, 
whilst the Chili saltpetre is at once available. 

The inci^ease in weight of various crops tried was greater when 
the saltpetre was used than when amnioniura. sulphate was the 
manure. The application of phosphates and potassium salts 
increase materially the activity of the saltpetre. This manure 
does not unduly exhaust the soil ; it renders the ra.ineral plant 
foods more assimilable, but no more of them is removed than is 
accounted for in the inci^ease of the crop. The crops which are 
most benefited by Chili saltpetre are all straw-growing plants ; 
next rape, mustard, etc. ; fodder, sngar-beets, and potatoes come in 
the second rank, meadow grasses in the third ; the least effect is 
produced on pease, vetches, lupines, clover, and linseed. Chili 
saltpetre should be applied as top-di-essing only on sandy or porous 
soils, just before vegetation begins ; the time of application should 
be in early spring. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



l4ft 



PART II. 
MATERIA MEDICA AXD PHARMACY. 

Melon Root. (Pharm. Journ., .3rd series, xvii. 687.) The root 
of the melon is said bj Dr. Heberger to possess emetic and purga- 
tive properties, and Dr. Torosicviez has obtained from the roots 
a crude emetic principle by treating the aqueous extract with 
alcohol. It has a slightly acrid and bitter taste, and is precipitated 
by acetate of lead and infusion of nut galls. It is easily soluble 
in caustic potash, and is precipitated again by acids as a greyish 
brown precipitate difl&cultly soluble in water. From experiments 
made with this substance in the military hospital of Lemberg, it 
would seem that a solution of nine centigrams of it is sufficient to 
cause vomiting. The powdered root of the wild plant acts, accord- 
ing to Dr. Langewicz, as an emetic in doses of 50 to 75 centigrams. 

Sumbul Root. E. Scbmidt. (Archiv der Pharm., 1886, 528.) 
The author shows that angelic acid does not pre-exist in this root, 
since it is not extracted by boiling with a weak solution of sodium 
carbonate. But on treating the balsam obtained with hot petro- 
leum-benzin, with an alcoholic solution of potash, angelic acid is 
formed, together with the isomeric methylcrotonic acid, probably 
by the decomposition of one of the constituents of the root. 

Bryony Root. C. F. Heller. (Amer. Journ. Pharvi., February, 
1887.) The author made the following determinations with a 
specimen of the root containing 7' 5 per cent, of moisture. It 
yielded 5"5 per cent, of ash, consisting of sulphate, chloride, and 
carbonate of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and alu- 
minium. The benzol extract amounted to 0'746 per cent., and 
consisted of fixed oil, waxy substance, and colouring matter. The 
alcoholic extract weighed 15"494 per cent., and from it the glucc- 
side bryonin was prepared by the process of Walz. The aqueous 
extraction contained 9".360 per cent, of solid matter, consisting 
mainly of sugar, gum, and albumen. On continued boiling Avith 
diluted sulphuric acid, starch was the chief principle taken up, 

147 



148 YKAK-BOOK OF THARMACY. 

the extract Aveigliing 49'024 per cent. Caustic soda now dissolved 
61 per cent., and the residuary cellulose, after bleaching and 
drying, weighed 6506 per cent. 

Veratrum Viride and Veratrum Album. H. C. Schrenk. 
(Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 609.) The rhizome of Veratrum 
viride is so like that of V. album that f liickiger states that it is 
quite impossible to distinguish the root-stocks of the two species. 
The author remarks that those of V. viride have often a decidedly 
loose and spongy structui'e, but he is not certain whether this is 
characteristic of this species or depends upon the time at which the 
rhizomes were collected. The only structural difference he has 
noticed is that the cells of the endoderm, when cut transversely, 
present a lumen (or empty space), which has the form of a U in 
V. viride and of a V in Veratrum album. 

Constituents of the Root of Hydrastis Canadensis. M. Freund 
and W. Will. {IJer. der deutsch. chcm. Ges., xix. 2797-2803.) 
Perrins (Pharm. Journ., 2nd series, iii. 546) obtained from the root 
of Hydrastis, berberine and another alkaloid, to which he ascribed 
the name hydrastine. The authors found that the latter is best 
obtained by extracting the finely powdered roots with ether. 
Their analyses confirm the formula Co, H23 N Og ascribed to it by 
Malila. When hydrastine is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and 
treated with potassium permanganate, it is converted into opianic 
acid. Nitric acid acts on hydrastine, yielding a base melting at 
115°, very readily soluble in chloroform, alcohol, and ether. Hydras- 
tine is not changed when fused with potash. These experiments 
show that great analogy exists between hydrastine and narcotine. 

The root also yielded a crystalline non-nitrogenous constituent, 
possessing the properties of a lactone. 

A New Adulteration of Senega. C. Patrouillard. (Journ. 
de Pharm., April, 1887, 864.) The adulterant described by the 
author consists of the rootlets of Jiuscus acideatus. These differ 
from senega root in the paler colour of their external surface, and 
in being cylindrical and of nearly uniform thickness throughout. 
The transverse section also has a nearly uniform white colour, 
whilst in senega the cortical portion is darker than the nieditul- 
liuni, especially in the layer immediately surrounding the latter. 
The senega root examined by the author contained about a quarter 
of its weight of the adulterant. 

The Active Principle of Calumba Root. H. Duquesnel. 
(Chemist and Prugyist, April 23, 1887.) The author proposes a 
new method for the preparation of calumbin, the ijeculiar principle 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 149 

of calumba root. The powdered root is exhausted with 95 per 
cent, alcohol ; the tincture is evaporated to a syrupy consistence, 
and treated with chloroform ; the chloroform solution filtered, 
evaporated, and treated with 60 per cent, alcohol, which dissolves 
most of the colouring matter. The residue (which contains the 
calumbin) is dissolved in strong alcohol, finally decolorised with 
animal charcoal, and crystallized. The yield of the principle is 
from 0"35 to 0-4 per cent. 

Remijia Ferruginea. MM. Pi net and Duprat. (Brit. Med. 
Journ., June 4, 1887, 1230.) The authors state that this drug acts 
chiefly on the medulla oblongata, and that it causes a considerable 
increase of respiratory movements and of cardiac pulsation. The 
preparations used were an aqueous and a spirituous extract of the 
root, the aqueous being the most active. Both extracts were acid 
to litmus paper. 

Echinacea Angustifolia, a Remedy for Snake-Bite, (riiarm. 
Journ.., 3rd series, xvii. 803.) This plant is used under the name 
of " black Samson," as a remedy for snake-bite by the Sioux 
Indians. The fresh root is used, being scraped and administered 
to the person bitten. It produces an excessive flow of saliva and 
perspiration. The pungency of the root is said to resemble that 
of prickly ash bark, and it therefore probably may be classed 
among the active sialogogues. 

The Active Principle of Anacyclus Pyrethrum. C. J. G. 
Thompson. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 567). The root 
of the Anacyclus pyrethrum., or pellitory of Spain, has long been 
used in medicine for its well-known properties as a sialogogue and 
local irritant. Its fusiform root, that breaks with a resinous frac- 
ture, with its radiated structure and black spots, cannot easily 
be mistaken. 

In earlier times it was officinal in the majoi-ity of the pharma- 
copoeias of Europe, in which it formed an. active ingredient, in 
numerous stimulating powders, tinctures, and gargles. 

The root owes its irritating properties to its active princi])le 
pyrethrin, or pyrethric acid, a very acrid, resinous substance, which 
resides mostly in the cortical portion. A good sample of pellitory 
will yield about 5 per cent, of pyrethrin. On analysis, the root 
is found to contain, besides pyrethrin, an acrid resin, volatile oil, 
yellow colouring matter, tannin, gum, and inulin. Pyrethrin is a 
soft, dark brown, resinous, substance, having an unpleasant odour, 
and extremely hot and pungent to the taste. A very minute 
quantity placed on the tongue causes a strong burning sensation, 



150 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

which shortly increases, and remains for a considerable time, 
inducing a copious flow of saliva. A strong solution painted on 
the skin causes a sharp, prickling sensation, and reddens the part 
where it has been a])plicd. If the part is kept covered, a blister 
will be produced. Pji^ethrin may be obtained by evaporating a 
washed ethereal extract, or the following more satisfactory method 
may be employed. Reduce the root to a coarse powder, and 
exhaust it by means of percolation with alcohol. Acidulate the 
percolated powder Avith acetic acid, boil with a further quantity 
of alcohol, and filter; mix the liquids and evaporate. 

It is soluble in ether and alcohol, and readily soluble in oils or 
acetic acid. Pyrethrin is composed of an acrid, brown, resinous 
substance, which is soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in water and 
strong alkaline solutions ; and a dark yellow oil, which is soluble 
in alkaline solutions. This oil is not nearly so acrid as the brown 
resinous matter, and it is probable that what burning taste it pos- 
sesses is due to a small quantity of the resin being mixed with it. 

Active Constituents of Asclepias Currassavica, A. Incarnata, 
and Vincetoxicum Officinale. C. Gram. (Chem. Centr., 1886, 
735 ; Jonrn. Chem. Soc, 1887, 377.) These three asclepiadeje 
contain a glucoside which the avithor calls asclepiadin. In the 
aerial parts of Asclepias currassavica the easily decomposed ascle- 
piadin of Harnack was found ; this appears to be identical with 
the asclepin of Feneulle. The asclepiadin isolated by the author 
is easily soluble in Avater, sparingly soluble in alcohol ; it is easily 
conA'erted into the less active asclepin. Only asclepidin, and no 
asclepin, could be obtained from the I'oot of Vincetoxicum officinale. 
The asclepin Avhich is prepai-ed from Asclepias tuherosa by Keith 
& Co., consists of a mixture of asclepiadin, asclepin, and ascle- 
pion ; the lattei- has the composition Coo ^34 ^3 > ^^ melts at 104°, 
and is contained in Asclepias syriaca and in Viyicetoxicitni. The 
asclepiadin which is prepared by Parke, Davis & Co., from Ascle- 
pias tuherosa, contains asclepin and a small quantity of a substance 
Avhich has a tetanic action. 

Leptandra Vii-ginica. G. Stein mann. (Amer. Journ. Phai-m., 
May, 1887.) Tu obtain the bitter pnnciple, the author poured 
the concenti'uted tincture into Avater, and agitated the acidu- 
lated aqueous solution Avith petroleum benzin, benzol, and chloro- 
form ; only the benzol liquid yielded a residue Avhich Avas 
crystalline. 500 gm. of the drug yielded only 0"5 gm. of the 
crystals, Avhich after reciyst alii zing from ethci", AA'ere of a pale 



MATERIA MEDTCA AJ^D PHARMACY. 151 

lemon-jellow colour, of a peculiar agreeable odour, and of a very 
bitter taste. They were found to be insoluble in petroleum benzin, 
soluble in aleobol, ether, and benzol, less freely soluble in cold 
water, not precipitated by Mayer's solution or by tannin, and not 
yielding glucose on being boiled with dilute sulphuric acid. The 
resinous matter precipitated by water fi*om the alcoholic extract 
loses the bitter taste almost completely by repeated solution and 
precipitation. 

Aletris Farinosa. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 122, 123.) 
The i"hizome and rootlets of this South American plant have re- 
cently been brought before the medical profession of this country. 
Amongst the other names by which the drug is known may be 
mentioned true unicorn, cordial, colic root, star grass, blazing star, 
mealy star-wort, etc. It belongs to the natural order Haemo- 
doraceas, although it has been ascribed by others to the order 
Liliacere (the former order has, however, an inferior ovary, while 
the ovary of the latter is superior). It was formerly placed in 
the secondary list of the U.S. P. (1870). 

General Characters of the Plant. — A perennial, with radical leaves 
arranged in a star-like manner, which contributes to one or more 
of its many names. Being a monocotyledonous plant the leaves 
have parallel venation, with margins entire, a non-articulated 
stalk, and are about four inches long. The flower stalk is about 
eighteen to twenty-four inches high, and is, except for a few 
scales, naked. The inflorescence is a spiked raceme, composed of 
mealy white flowers, each having a six-partite perianth. Flowers 
appear in June and July. 

The rhizome and rootlets are chiefly used. 

Characters. — A horizontal rhizome one to two or three inches 
long, and about one-eighth to two-fifths of an inch thick, being 
flattish or concave on the upper surface, and densely tufted with 
light-grey fibrous or scaly remnants of leaves. From the under 
surface, which is convex, there are given off numerous simple 
rootlets from two to three inches long, some (the older) being 
wiry, and of a glossy black colour externally, and if more recent, 
brown or whitish and soft. Internally the rhizome is white, 
iind has a mealy fracture with scattered wood bundles protruding. 
It has no odour, and the taste is amylaceous, followed by much 
bitterness. 

Chemistry. — The bitter principle is not very soluble in water, 
(a decoction is therefore not very bitter), but is removed by proof 
or stronger spirit. Tannin is not indicated in this tincture by the 



152 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

usual tests, siicli as persalts of iron, etc. There is macK starch 
pi'esent, Lence its specific name. 

Uses. — This drugf is described as a "tonic bitter" and is also 
highly recommended in " uterine disorders." 

Dose and Mode of Administration. — A decoction 1 oz. to 1 pint 
prepared, secundttm artem, dose h an ounce ; a tincture 2| ozs. to 
1 pint, S. Y. T., dose 1-2 fluid drachms ; in powder, 10 grains. A 
cordial is also sold. 

Anchieta Salutaris. (Chem. Zeitung, 1886, 619. From Pharm. 
Journ.) The root of Anchieta salutaris, a violaceous plant, having 
a popular reputation in Brazil as a remedy in skin diseases, has 
been recommended as useful in syphilis. The dose is O'l to 0'35 
gram of the powdered root dail^^, and the drug is also administered 
in the form of a syrup prepared fi-oni a tinctiire of the root. The 
root is met with in pieces 0'3 to 2"0 centimetres thick, the outer 
bark being greyish-white, with flushes of brown, in which occur 
white points, whilst the inner bark is brown, and the wood light 
yellow, witli large vessels. In consequence of the drug being used 
for syphilis and provoking a flow of saliva, it shares with some 
other substances the name of " vegetable mercury." Some years 
since Dr. Peckholt called attention to the usefulness of the drug 
in skin affections. He administered the powdered root, com- 
mencing with 035 to 0"70 gram three times a day, and gradually 
increasing the dose. The first effects are drastic, but these pass off 
after a day or two. ]3r. Peckholt isolated from the root bark an 
alkaloid, which he considered to be the active principle, and named 
" ancheitinc." 

Ginseng. ]\r. Foulk. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 163.) 
Thist contribution io tlie literature of this diitg is from the pen 
of the United States consul in the Corea, from which countiy 
the most A^alued varieties are derived. The author says that the 
plant is cultivated in the Corea, and that the ginseng is of two 
kinds, Uic rod ginseng" (Jieng-lum) and white ginseng (pak-lum). 
Both kinds, howevei-, are from the same plant, the white gin.seng 
being the root simply washed and dried, and the red the root 
after having been submitted to a process of curing. This process 
consists in prolonged steaming and d^-eing, cold water being 
dashed over it at the end of the operation, which solidifies the 
roof, the fracture becoming glossy and brittle, Avhile its colour is 
changed to a fleshy pink. The curing is a monopol}' of the 
government, red ginseng not being an article of ordinary trade. 
Wliitc ginseng is used enormously in the Corea as a strengthening 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. ] 53 

and blood-purifying medicine, the natives preferring it to the red, 
which thej say loses strength in the cui'ing. The most esteemed 
ginseng should consist of the roots of wild plants at least thirty 
years old, and commands fabulous prices. The author saj-s that 
from personal experience and observation he is satisfied that 
ginseng is an active, strongly heating medicine, but caution is 
required in its use, as sometimes it causes boils and eruptions, 
sleeplessness, and flushing of the body. It is most commonly 
taken in the form of a concentrated infusion, but sometimes the 
sliced fresh root is eaten with honey. Notwithstanding the general 
impression among western nations that the virtues attributed 
to this drug are imaginary, the author thinks the evidence is in 
favour of the mystic value having been attached to it after its 
virtues had been practically ascertained. Some yellowish speci- 
mens that are met with occasionally appear to be imperfectly 
cured red gfinseno:. 

Astringent Properties of Heuchera and Mitella. F . W . A n d e r- 
son. (Botanical Gazette, 1887, 65.) The author reports that 
the roots of Heiichera hispida, H. cylindrica, and H. parvifolia, 
are much used in the west by hunters, prospectors, and others as 
astringents, particularly in cases of troublesome diarrhoea caused 
by the drinking of water in alkali regions. H. parvifolia is the 
com.monest species in northern Montana. Of milder and some- 
what slower action is the root of Mitella pentandra, which contains 
also a bitter principle, and is not likely to cause sudden constipation 
like the heucheras. 

Pastinaca Sativa. J. T. Bennett. (Contrib. Dep. Pharm. 
Univ. IFf'.s-., 1886, from Amer. Journ. Pharm.) The fresh and dried 
root were analysed by the author, who found them to contain 
volatile oil, traces of tannin, colouring matter, sugai', hard tasteless 
resin, soft re.sin (having a somewhat burning taste and soluble in 
petroleum benzin), and gum, but no starch ; an alkaloid could not 
be detected. Several of the products administered to cats pro- 
duced no synaptoms of poisoning. 

Prof. Power considers the wild-grown parsnip root to be not 
poisonous, and refers to communications from Dr. J. J. Brown, of 
Sheboygarn, Wis., and Dr. Vasey, of Washington, D.C., in con- 
firmation of this view. The popular belief that wild parsnip root 
is poisonous may have originated from mistaking for it the roots 
of the cow-parsnip (Ileracleum lanatum, Mich.), water-parsnip 
(^Sium), and other tall, umbelliferous plants. 



154 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Analysis of the Underground Portion of Phlox Carolina. H, 
Trimble. (Amer.Journ. Pliarm., October, 1886.) The results of 
the author's examination are summarised in the followino: table : 





Per Cent. 


Moisture 


7-82 




Ash 


16-70 




Camphor with red colouring 


1-00 


Sol. in iDetroleum spirit. 


Kesin 


•44 


„ ,, stronger ether. 


Tannin .... 


1-82 \ 
•27 




Glucose .... 


Soluble in absolute alco- 


Saccharose .... 


•78 
7-09^ 


hol, 9-96 per cent. 


Undetermined . 




Gum 


. 2-34 ^ 




Glucose .... 


•33 




Allied Sugars 


. 1^49 


- Soluble in water, 8-68 


Albuminoids 


4-52 


per cent. 


Albuminoids sol. in dilute Alkal 


I -99 




Calcium Oxalate 


2-90 


Sol. in dilute hj'dro- 


Gum 


•36 


chloric acid, 10-86 




. 7-Go) 


per cent. 


Volatile Acid, Butyric 


trace. 




Lignin .... 


5-53 




Cellulose and allied substances 


. 36-65 




Total 


98-63 




Less Calcium Oxide in 1 
Calcium Oxalate) * 


1^19 








97-44 




Loss .... 


2-56 





Total 



100-00 



The most interesting of these constituents is the camphor 
extracted by petroleum spirit, a full description of which, with 
woodcut illusti-ation, is given in the paper. 

Smilax Rotundifolia. A. H. Cohn. {Amer. Jouni. riiarm., 
September, 1886.) This plant has a creeping pale yellowish 
rhizome many feet long, about j inch thick, with internodes 4 to 
6 inches in length, the nodes considei-ably thickened, and each 
marked by a prominent brownish triangular leaf scale, and beset 
with some fine light-coloui'ed rootlets. Tlie rootlets are more 
numerous near the growing end and are of a brown colour. The 
dried rhizome is brittle, has little or no odour, and has a somewhat 
bitter and slightly acrid taste. The author collected the rhizome 
for investigation, and obtained from the air-dry powder 23 per 
cent, of ash, and by treatment with bcnzin "05 per cent, of wax ; 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 155 

with ether "5 per cent, of resin, and with alcohol 2'8 per cent, of 
extract, the latter probably containing a glucoside, as indicated 
by the reactions. More of this principle was shown to be in the 
aqueous infusion, but it was not isolated. The presence of gummy 
matter, sugar, pectin, starch, etc., was ascertained ; also the 
absence of calcium oxalate. 

Valeriana Hardwickii. J. Lindenberg. (Pharm. Zeitschr. fiir 
Riissland, 18S6.) An analysis has been made of the rhizome of 
this East Indian plant by the author, and the results compared 
with those obtained with Val. officinalis. They are summai"ised in 
the following table : 

V. Hardw. T. Officin. 

Moisture 10--46 11-57 

Ash 4-04 4-31 

Fat and Eesin, soluble in Petroleum-Benzia . 0-56 36 

Volatile Oil and Valeric Acid, sol. in Benzin . 100.5 0-90 

Volatile Acid, soluble in Ether .... 0-335 31 

Eesin and Wax, soluble in Ether . . . 0-56 0-85 

Eesin, soluble in Alcohol 105 975 

Tannin 3-13 1-64 

Citric, Tartaric, and other Acids , . . 0-335 OoG5 

Glucose G-03 5.3-2 

Other substances, sol. in Water, insol. in Alcohol 14-96 14-39 

Mucilage and Albumen, soluble in Water . . 4-16 2-97 

Albuminoids extracted by Soda .... 9-72 7-83 

Metarabic Acid, Phlobaphene, and Albuminoids 19*10 16 70 

Starch , 14-05 12 87 

Cellulose 10-36 11-65 

Lignin and other Compounds .... 10-015 1680 

Inula Helenium. G. Marpmann. (Pharm. Centralhalle, 
March 10, 1887, 123. From Pharm. Journ.) Helenin, the 
stearoptene obtained from elecampane root (Inula helenium), has 
been recommended in the treatment of tuberculosis and diphtheria 
and credited with being a powerful antiseptic {Pharm. Journ. [3], 
XV. 890; xvi. 919). Bat according to the author the root yields 
two other compounds, both of which are more powerful antiseptics 
than helenin ; these he has named alantol and alantic acid, 
apparently from the German populai- name of the root, " Alant- 
wurzel." They are obtained by the distillation of the root, which 
yields a mixture of helenin, alantic anhydride, and alantol. 
Alantic acid (C^- Hgo O3) is described as crystallizing frona alcohol 
in white crystals, melting at 91° C., and subliming as the 
anhydride (^u^io^^)- Bo^'h the acid and the anhydi'ide are 
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and fixed oils, and form 



156 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



with alkalies readily soluble salts. Alautol (C^q H30 0) is an 
aromatic Isevogyre liquid which boils at 200° C, combines after 
a time with water, and possesses " ozonising " properties. It is 
probably formed during the distillation from some other con- 
stituent of the root. Alantic acid and alantol were always 
obtained as a mixture, and this mixture is said to have given 
better results than helenin in the treatment of tuberculosis, whilst 
its use can be continued a long time Avithout inconvenience. The 
author states that only fresh roots sliould be used for distillation, 
as the roots appear to lose their active constituents with age. Dr. 
Dono reports (Noiw. Bern., 1887, p. 142) that he has employed 
helenin with favourable results in three cases of chorea, in doses 
of 2 centigrams three or four times a day. It is also reported to 
have been given with success in bronchitis and spasmodic cough. 

Spiraea Filipendula. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
February, 1887.) This drug is a perennial herb, the tuberous 
roots of which were formerly used in excessive secretion of 
mucous glands, and over fifty years ago were recommended in 
hydrophobia. Recently a Polish physician, Dr, F. I. Jagell, 
stated that he had successfully used the bark of this plant in the 
form of infusion, in 88 cases where persons had been bitten by 
rabid dogs or wolves, 26 of the patients having already exhibited 
the early symptoms of hydrophobia. 

The root has not been fully analysed, but is known to contain 
tannin, sugar, and starch, and in the fresh state also a volatile 
oil, probably identical with that of the stem and leaves, Avhich 
consists of salicylic aldehyde. 

The Mineral Constitiients of Ipecacuanha Root. H. E. Munns. 
(rjiarm. Jo7ini., 8rd series, xvii. 898, 899.) The author found this 
root to yield 3" 22 per cent, of ash, which had the following 
composition : 











Per cent. 


Silica 31-98 


Irou and Alumina 








3-53 


Lime .... 








15-!)8 


Magnesia . 








4-57 


Phosphoric aubyJride . 








C-19 


Alkalies .... 








13-80 


Sulphuric anhydride . 








4-84 


Chlorine 








l-5fi 


Carbonic anhydride 








15-2,5 


Undetermined, including tri 


ice of 


Man 


ganes 


e 2-30 



10000 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 157 

Magnolia Bark. J. U. and C. G. Lloyd. (Phann. Rundschau, 
iv. 266.) Commercial Cortex magnoUce comes from, the mountains 
of North Carolina, and is collected from Magnolia glauca, umbrella 
and macrophylla. The bark was extracted with alcohol, the latter 
evaporated, resinous matters being left behind, which apparently 
were a mixture of three different resins. The residue was taken 
tip with water, which after a few days gave colourless crystals, 
which were recrystallized from alcohol. They were then dissolved 
and boUed with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution neutralized with 
barium carbonate, and filtered. The filtrate reduced Fehling's 
solution, and it is therefore very likely that the crystals represented 
the magnolia glucoside. Experiments for obtaining an alkaloid 
from the resinous residue were unsuccessful, although the usual 
reagents for alkaloids pointed to the presence of an alkaloid. 

Ash of Cinchona Bark. D. Hooper. {Pharm. Jouni., 3rd 
series, xvii. 545.) The author's experience with regard to cul- 
tivated barks is that they yield over 3 per cent, of ash, the average 
of three hundred estimations being 3 4i2 per cent. Renewed and 
old natural barks are the poorer in mineral constituents, but they 
never fall below 2 per cent. On the other hand, young and branch 
bark gives as much as 4 per cent., and it is interresting to notice 
that the leaves afford as much as five and sometimes six per cent. 
With regard to the species of cinchona, there is a marked difference 
in the amount of ash yielded by each, provided that natural bark 
is operated upon. The crown bark is richer in ash than that of 
the red, and the red richer than that of the Ledger ; and knowing 
that crown bark grows at an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 ft., the 
red at 5,000 to 6,000 ft., and the Ledger at 3,000 to 5,000 ft., the 
altitude may have something to do with this gradation of ash in 
the different species. 

When gently incinerated at a low red heat, cinchona bark should 
always leave a greyish white ash. If it is at all reddish, it points 
to the presence of dust or dirt adhering mechanically to the sample: 
if weighed, it will be found much in excess of that obtained from 
clean bark. 

A complete analysis was made of the ashes of the two .species of 
cinchona grown on the Nilgiris, the C. officinalis growing in the 
Dodabetta plantation, and the C. succirubra from the lower elevation 
at Naduvatam. Notwithstanding the barks were from different 
species and localities, the result of the examination shows that 
there is a great similarity in the composition of the ash. 



158 



YEAR-BOOK OF I'HARMACY. 



Soluble in Water 
Soluble in Acid 
Residue 



Insoluble Silica 
Soluble Silica 
Alumina 
Iron Oxide . 
Manganese . 
Lime . 
Magnesia 
Potash . 
Soda 

Carbonic Acid 
Sulphuric Acid 
Phosphoric Acid 
Chlorine 



C. Officinalis. 


C. Succirubra 


27-33 


24-46 


66-92 


69-94 


5-75 


5-60 


100-00 


100-00 


C. Officinalis. 


C. Succirubra 


5-75 


5-60 


1-42 


4-40 


2-70 


4-24 


2-85 


3-21 


trace 


— 


32-70 


32-80 


2-07 


2-52 


16-35 


12-49 


3-40 


2-28 


27-22 


27-77 


1-16 


108 


3-93 


3-19 


•45 


•42 



100-00 



10000 



The ('liief constituent is the lime, which forms nearly one-third 
of the whole, and exists in the ash in the form of carbonate. The 
next element of importance is the potash, which amounts to one- 
sixth and one-eighth of the whole ash respectively. 

Eoot Bark of Euphorhiaceae. E.Schmidt. (Bepert.de Pharm., 
1887, 73 and •237.) The author describes the microscopic struc- 
ture of the i-oot barks of Eupliorhia coroUata and E. Ipecacuanha. 
He remai-ks concerning the species indigenous to France, that 
the dose of the root bark of IE. Lathyns as a pui'ge is 1| gram; 
that E. Esula is a hydragogue cathartic, and E. Cyparissias acts 
as an cmeto-cathai-tic in doses of 0"60 to 1 gram. The bark of 
E. Esula is distinguishable from that of the nearly allied E. 
Cyparissias by the charactei-s aiforded by the woody zone. In the 
former it is formed of four large fibrovascular bundles separated 
by wide medullary rays. In E. Cyparissias the fibrovascular bundles 
are narrower and more numerous, and the number of medullary 
rays is conse(|neu<l3- greater. 

Cortex Adstringens Brasiliensis. V. W i 1 b u s z e w i t c z. {Pharm. 
Zeitschr. fiir liussland, 1886 ; Amer. Joiirn. Pharm., September, 
1886.) This is the bark of Stryphiiodendnm Barbatimas, one of 
the Brazilian Mimosea?. The author's analysis shows the presence 
of a considerable proportion of phlobaphcne and a small quantity 
of tannin, the latter being obtained by the process of J. Lowe, by 



MATERIA MEDIC A AND PHARMACY. 159 

precipitating Avith sodium chloride, redissolving in water, and 
agitating with acetic acid. By dialysis a small quantity of gallic 
acid was obtained. The phlobaphene is readily soluble in am- 
moniacal water, nearly insoluble in cold water, and is not 
precipitated by gelatin. Three tannins, differing in composition, 
one of them being slightly soluble in cold water, wex-e obtained ; 
their reactions were similar : brown-black with ferric salts ; light 
brown with copper acetate ; red-brown with copper sulphate ; 
yellow with lead acetate ; blue-green with ammonium vanadate ; 
tartar emetic, no precipitate, etc., 1 gm. potassium permanganate 
oxidized 1"329 gm. of one tannin, and 1"305 gm. of another variety. 
Decomposed with potash, protocatechuic acid was obtained, but 
phloroglucin could not be observed. On heating with diluted 
sulphuric acid in a sealed tube, the tannin was decomposed, 
yielding phlobaphene, gallic acid, and traces of ellagic acid, but no 
sugar. 

Condurango. Dr. Riegel. (Munich, med. Wochenschr., Feb. 
8, 1887.) The author states that in his hands no agent has proved 
a better stomachic than condurango bark, which can be adminis- 
tered most suitably in the form of condurango wine. The " cortex 
condnrango " of the Pharmacopoeia Germanica is the bark of 
Gonolobus Condurango, which acquired a temporary notoriety some 
years since through being recommended as a specific against 
cancer. 

Quillaia Bark as a Substitute for Senega-Root. F. B. Power. 
(Pharni. liundschau, September, 1886 ; Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 350.) At a meeting of the Society of German Naturalists, 
held at Strassburg about a year since. Dr. Kobert directed atten- 
tion to the valuable medicinal properties of quillaia bai-k, and 
proposed it as a substitute for senega in affections for which the 
latter is indicated. Its advantages over the latter are stated to 
consist in the fact that the glucoside to which it owes its activity 
is present in about five times the amount of that contained in 
senega, and by containing a considerable amount of sugar its 
decoction possesses a sweet taste, while another and not unim- 
portant consideration is its relative cheapness. The experiments 
of Dr. Kobert are stated, moreover, to have proved that patients 
bear quillaia better than senega, that it rarely produces vomiting 
or diarrha3a, and is readily taken by children, while its expectorant 
action is beyond all question. 

After giving a resiiviS of the chemical litei-ature of the subject, 
the author states that, from a pharmaceutical point of view, the 



160 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

absence of pectin bodies in quillaia renders the ordinary lic|uid 
preparations of this drug pei-manent and elegant, and the use of 
ammonia, as was recommended by Kennedy (Proc. Amer. Phartn. 
Assoc, 1879, 721) in the preparation of the fluid extract and syrup 
of senega, and adopted by the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, becomes 
entirely unneccssaiy. The author has prepared a fluid exti-act of 
quillaia by the following process, which affords as handsome a 
preparation as could be desired, and appears to thoroughly repre- 
sent the activity of the crude drug : 100 grams of quillaia, in No. 
40 powder, Avere moistened with 40 grams of dilute alcohol, packed 
firmly in a cylindrical percolator, and enough dilute alcohol 
subsequently added to saturate the powder and leave a stratum 
above it. It was then allowed to macerate for forty-eight hours, 
after which period the percolation was allowed to proceed, with 
the use of dilute alcohol as the menstruum. The first 90 cubic 
centimetres of the percolate were reserved, the percolation con- 
tinued with dilute alcohol until the drug was exhausted, and this 
second percolate evaporated to the measure of 10 cubic centimetres 
and mixed with the resei-ved portion. 

The finished fluid exti-act is of a deep reddish brown colour, and 
by simple admixture with syrup, in proportions coi-responding to 
those of the ofiicinal syrup of senega, namely, 4 parts of fluid 
extract and syrup to make 25 parts, a perfectly transparent and 
handsome syrup of quillaia is obtained. The preparation with 
which experiments were instituted in Germany as reported in the 
Aerztl. Lit. Blatt., 1885, No. 48, was a decoction made from 5 parts 
of the bark for adults, and 3 parts for children, with 180 parts of 
water and the addition of 10 parts of syrup ; the dose being a 
tablespoonful every hour. 

The use of quillaia is stated to be contra-indicated in inflam- 
mation of the intestines or stomach, or in ulcerated states of 
the mucous membranes. 

In conclusion, the author strongly recommends quillaia to the 
attention of medical practitioners, and also to the Committee 
of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, with a view to the adoption of 
suitable ])rc'parati(His of the same. 

Extract of Pomegranate Bark. L. J. von Schroeder. 
(Pharm. Zeit., Sept. 18, 556. From Pharm. Journ.) The official 
preparation of pomegranate bark is open to objection on account 
of its nauseousness, and some yeai-s since L. Siebold (see abstract, 
Ycar-Pook of Pharmacy, 1883, 562), in order to obviate this, 
suggested a process for removing the astringent principles. With 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 101 

a similai' object the author has recommended the use of an extract 
free from tannic acid, but containing all the alkaloid of the bark. 
The extract is pi^epared by treating a decoction of the bark with 
milk of lime to remove the tannic acid, filtering, neutralizing- the 
filtrate exactly with sulphui-ic acid, evaporating it on a water-bath 
almost to dryness, treating the residue with 70 per cent, alcohol, 
and then driving oS the alcohol from the extract obtained. The 
product is described as nearly entirely crystalline, and solable in 
water with a slight turbidity. The yield is about one gram of 
extract from twenty grams of bark. In order to retard as much 
as possible the absorption of the pelletierine, which is present in 
the extract as a sulphate, it is recommended to add to this quantity 
one or two grams of tannic acid to convert the alkaloid into the 
difficultly soluble tannate. 

The Alleged Toxic Effects of Pelletierine, the Active Principle of 
Pomegranate. Dr. Meplain. (ArcJdves de Phana., September, 
1886, 409. From Pharm. Journ.) It has been stated occasionally, 
that the administration of pelletierine to adults has been followed 
by symptoms of poisoning', though not very serious ones, and this 
has caused hesitation in administering it to children. Some 
recently reported cases appear, however, to indicate that the 
physiological action of this ttenifuge is relatively less energetic in 
infants than in adults. The author administei-ed six centigrams of 
pelletiei'ine to a child two and a half years old, and Dr. Betences 
the same quantity to a child five years old, without the least 
symptom of poisoning, but with the removal of the worm in both 
cases. In another case a dose of ten centigrams was successfully 
administered to a child ten years of age. 

Poisoning by the Bark of Robinia Pseudacacia. Z. T. Emery. 
(Neiv York Med. Journ., January 22, 1887.) The author reports on 
the poisoning of thirty-two bcrys at the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum 
from chewing the inner bark of the locust tree, which they had 
obtained from the yard where fence-posts had been stripped. In 
the mildest cases vomiting of ropy mucus was observed, together 
with flushed face, dryness of throat, and dilated pupils. In the 
severest cases large quantities of ropy mucus mixed witli blood 
were vomited ; the other symptoms were retching, pain in the 
epigastrium, debility, stupor, extremities cold and pulseless, heart's 
action feeble and intermittent, pupils dilated, faces of a dusky 
pallor. These patients were given bismuth subcarbonate and 
brandy by the mouth, and morphine hypodermically ; sinapisms 
were applied over the stomach, and bottles with hot water along 

M 



162 TEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the extremities. The patients were discharged from the hospital 
in two days. 

The stem bark has never been examined chemically. Asparagin 
has been found in the root, and the flowers contain the glucoside 
robinin, which yields quercetin. The bark deserves investigation 
in view of the fact that a number of woody leguminous plants are 
known to contain poisonous alkaloids, and other more or less 
active principles. 

China Bicolor. 0. Hesse. (Liehig's Annalen, ccxxxiv. 380-384.) 
The author is of opinion that the small quantities of quinine and 
other alkaloids which Hodgkin (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xv. 
217) found in the bark of China bicolor, are probably due to the 
presence of a small quantity of the bark of Bemijia pedunculata in 
the China bicolor bark. 

Xanthoxylum Fraxineum. E. T. Moff it. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
September, 188().) The author examined this bark, and found the 
air-dry powder to retain 8 per cent, of moisture, and to yield 11 '08 
per cent, of ash, one-fifth of which was soluble in water, and three- 
fourths soluble in hydrochloric acid, a little silica being left 
undissolved. Treatment with benzin yielded 32 per cent, of 
greenish fixed oil, mixed with a crystalline resin, the latter being 
doubtless identical with that previously observed by Lloyd and 
by Colton. Ether now extracted from the powder 4".34 per cent, 
of green acrid resin, and absolute alcohol gave 270 per cent, of 
extract, consisting of resin, a little sugar, tannin, colouring matter 
precipitated by basic lead acetate, and an alkaloid which was 
isolated by adding ammonia, agitating with chloroform, and evapo- 
rating the latter, Avhen yellowish ciystals were left. These were 
soluble in alcohol and chloroform, insoluble in benzin, ether, and 
benzol, had a slightly bitter taste, produced with nitric acid a 
yellow solution, with sulphuric acid a brown colour changing to 
dai-k red, and precipitates with the following reagents : potassio- 
mercuric iodide, white flocculent ; auric chloi-ide, reddish brown and 
red; platinic chloride, brownish yellow; picric acid, yellowish; 
tannic acid, greyish yellow. The alkaloid is doubtless identical 
with that obtained by Colton from Xaii. caroliniaiium ; but this is 
stated to be insoluble in chloi-oform. 

Further treatment of tlio ]iowder showed the presence of sugar, 
gum, bitter extractive, and albuminoids, and the absence of starch. 

Hamamelis Virginica. W.B.Cheney. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
September, 188G.) Witch-hazel bark has been subjected to an 
analysis by the author, with the following results: the yield of 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 163 

ash was 6" 16 per cent., and it consisted of sulphate, chloi'ide, phos- 
phate, and carbonate of potassium, sodium, and m.agnesium, man- 
ganese and silica. The air-diy powder contained 9" 75 per cent, of 
moisture, and yielded 115 per cent, of benzin extract, which was 
also soluble in ether, absolute alcohol, benzol, chloroform, and oil 
of turpentine, and consisted mainly of wax saponifiable by alcoholic 
solution of soda. The powdered bark now gave with ether 7 65 
per cent, of hard greenish extract, of which neai'ly two-thirds was 
soluble in water, this portion containing tannin, but no alkaloid or 
glucoside ; the remaining resin was soluble in alcohol. Absolute 
alcohol extracted from the remaining powder 6'4 per cent, of 
soluble matter, fully two-thirds of which was soluble in water, 
and the remainder in ammonia ; tannin and a little sugar were 
found to be present, but no indication of the presence of an alkaloid 
or other crystalline principle was obtained. The aqueous extract 
amounted to 574 per cent., of which 12 per cent, was glucose, 
besides mucilage and other principles. Soda solution extracted 
1"75 per cent., including "25 per cent, of albuminoids, and dilute 
acid took up 4 per cent., leaving half its weight of ash. The 
bleached cellulose weighed 57"61 per cent. The total amount of 
sugar, determined by Fehling's solution, was 1'4 per cent., and the 
tannin, weighed as gelatin precipitate, was 6" 75 per cent. The 
search for an alkaloid or glucoside gave negative results. 

Hamamelis Virginica as a Styptic. R. Pollock. (Practitioner, 
1886, 138. From Fharm. Jourti.) The author reports favourably 
on the styptic action of a distilled preparation of hamamelis, stat- 
ing that in several cases of heemoptysis it speedily checked the 
hoemorrhagic tendejacy, and in a case of cystitis with profuse 
haematuria, a 25 per cent, injection of the liquid in warm water 
speedily checked the bleeding. He atti-ibutes the good effect to .a 
"volatile oleo-resin combined with gallic acid." This testimony 
as to the value of hamamelis conflicts somewhat with previous 
statements by other writers (abstract, Year-Book of Pharmacy, 
1886, 162), but tends to show that there is in it a volatile oil 
which probably acts like that of turpentine, Solidago odura, etc., 
as an astringent to the blood vessels. 

Wistaria Chinensis. M. Ottow. (Nieuw. Tijdschr., 1886, 207. 
From Amcr. Junru. Pharm.) A poisonous glucoside has been 
isolated from the bark of this ornamental climber by the author 
and has been named wistarin. It is freely soluble in alcoholic 
liquids, sparingly soluble in ether, chloroform, and cold water ; is 
coloured violet and green brown by ferric chloride, and dissolves 



164 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

ill alkalies and alkaline carbonates with a yellow colour, and in sul- 
phui'ic acid with, a yellow colour changing to cherry red. Wistarin 
has a bitter and astringent taste, melts at 204° C, is not precipi- 
tated by tannin, yields a white precipitate with basic lead acetate, 
and a green one with copper sulphate, and on being boiled with 
dilute sulphuric acid is decomposed into sugar, a crystalline resin, 
and a volatile oil having the odour of menyanthol ; this oil, when 
treated with warm potash solution, is converted into a white com- 
pound of a coumarin-like odour. 

The bark contains also a resin having apparently toxic pro- 
perties. 

Chemical Investigation of the Bark of Fraxinus Americana, G. 
W. J. Hoffman and D. W. Cahill. (Amer. Journ. Fharm., 
August, 188G.) In 1882 H. M. Edwards reported having obtained 
evidence of the presence of an alkaloid in the bark of the American 
>vhite ash (abstract, Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1882, 178). The 
authors have i*einvestigated this subject, and give a description 
of their experiments, which render the existence of an alkaloid in 
white ash bark more than doubtful, without throwing much light 
upon the bitter pi'inciple. Kremer's results (ibid., 372), indicate 
a probable relation of at least one constituent to fraxin and 
fraxetin ; but these principles, as obtained from the barks of the 
European ash and of the horse-chestnut, are still very imperfectly 
known. 

Wild Cherry Bark. K. Rot her. (Amer. Journ. rharm., 1887, 
286.) The author undertook the examination of this bark, with 
the object of obtaining some knowledge of its fluorescent con- 
stituent, which he succeeded in isolating from it in a crystalline 
form. 

The proportional quantity of this crystalline constituent of 
wild cherry bark is exceedingly small. Without the fluorescing 
property, as a guide, it would have been practically impossible to 
detect and isolate it. Judging from its ci'ystalline form, it does not 
appear to be mandelic acid, a decomposition product of amygda- 
lin. It may, however, be an analogue, or a substituted derivative 
ot" it. This conjecture leads to the question, Avhether or not 
it is aniygdalin as such, from which the benzoic aldehyde and 
hydrocyanic acid of syrup of wild chciry results. 

St. If^natius' Bark. W. E. Crow. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. '■ 70.) The author shows that the presence of strychnine 
antl Iniicine in Strychno.-i Ignatii is not confined to the seeds but 
a,lso extends to the bark. The tree does not appear to be indi- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 165 

genons to China proper, though its seeds are a well-known ai'ticle 
of materia medica. The material examined hj the author was 
obtained from the Pliilippines. 

Rhamnus Purshiana. Prof. Schrenk. (Amer. Druggist, 1887, 
61.) The author points out that the bark of Rhamnus Purshiana 
may be distinguished fi-om that of R. FranguJa bj the presence 
of sclerenchymatous cells of most irregular angular shape, wedged 
together so as to form large compact groups, which increase in 
size and number toward the surface ; to these the short fracture 
of the outer bark is due. The sclerenchjmatous cells are absent 
from the bark of B. Franguhi. 

Constituents of Red Sandal Wood (Pterocarpns Santalinns). 
P. Cazeneuve. (Comptes Eendus, civ., 1725.) Besides " san- 
talin," the crjstallizable colouring matter described bj Pelletier, 
and " santal," a crystalline body isomeric with piperonal isolated 
by Weidel, the author has previously shown that this wood con- 
tains another crystalline substance, to which he gave the name 
" pterocarpin." He now announces the isolation of another body, 
homologous to the latter, which he proposes to name " homoptero- 
carpin." These compounds were obtained by digesting powdered 
Sanders wood with milk of lime, di'ying, exhausting the cake with 
ether, distilling the yellow ethereal liqvior to dryness, and treating 
the residue with boiling alcohol, which deposited on cooling a cry- 
stalline mixture of pterocai'pin and homoptez'ocarpin, separable by 
treatment with bisulphide of carbon, in which the latter is soluble 
and the former is not. Pterocarpin melts at 152^ C, and has a com- 
position agreeing with the formula C^q Hg O3. Homopterocarpin 
melts at 82^ C, and is represented by the formula Cjo Hjo O3. 
Both compounds, when fused with pota.sh, give off an odour 
resembling that of coumarin, and probably belong to that group. 

Quality of Belladonna Leajfes and Root. A.B.Lyons. (Proc. 
Anier. Pharra. Assoc, 18SG.) In a lai'ge number of assays of the 
leaves, the author obtained as high as 0'87 per cent, of alkaloid, 
and as low as 0'23 per cent. ; the average was about 0'44 Twelve 
assays of belladonna root yielded between 42 and 086 per cent, 
of alkaloid; average, 0'618 per cent. The average yield of ex- 
tract with 66 per cent, alcohol was for the root 26'27, and for the 
leaves 22"5 per cent. The amount of alkaloid does not appear to 
decrease in pressed leaves kept for several ycai's. 

Examination of the Leaves of Gymnenia Sylvestre. D. Hooper. 
{Pharvi. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 867, 868.) The author's analysis 
of this drug gave the following results : — 



1G6 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Ether Extract (Chlorophyll and Resins). . 5-51 

Alcoholic Extract (Gyninemic Acid, Tartaric 

Acid, Glucose, neutral bitter priuciplc, etc.) 19'50 

Aqueous Extract (Gum, 1-45 per cent.), Glu- 
cose, Carbohydrate and extractive . . 16-87 

Alkaline Extract, by difference (albuminous 

and colouring matters) .... 8-15 

A -J CI 1 i- C Calcium Oxalate . . . 7'64 
Acid Solution ^ 

tPararabin .... 2-74 

Ash (balance of) 5-69 

Cellulose 27-86 

Moisture 6-04 

100-00 

Note on Henna Leaves. C. J. S. Tliompson. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 845.) 

Lawsonia alba, or L. inermis, belongs to the natural order I/y- 
fhracecf, and is a shrub that grows abundantly in the countries of 
the East. It does not appear to possess many medicinal proper- 
ties beyond the astringency of the leaves due to the amount of 
tannin and gum they contain. It is stated that the powdered 
leaves, formed into a paste with oil, and applied externally, give 
relief to headache. The'leaves are small, and somewhat leatheiy 
in texture ; are OA^al in fomi, with entire margins. The dried leaf 
when broken has a brittle fracture, and a section examined by the 
microscope exhibits the cells crowded with the brown colouring 
matter. This colouring matter may be very easily extracted, it 
being almost entirely soluble in hot water. 

The leaves should first be reduced to a coarse powder, then 
macerated for two or three hours in boiling water, and strained. 
Boil the residue in two or three successive quantities of water, till 
thoroughly exhausted, mix, and evaporate the sti-ained liquors. 

They will be found to yield froni 12 to lo ])er cent, of a dark 
brown gum. 

This brown gum is readily soluble in hot water, glycerine, 
strong solutions of potash and ammonia, and dilute acids; but 
very slightly in ethei", chloroform, or alcohol. 

The colour of the aqueous solution is intensified by alkalies and 
diminished by strong acids. It turns black on addition of ferric 
salts. The leaves also yield 2 per cent, of an olive-green resin 
which is soluble in ether and alcohol. 

The following rough method is employed by the Arabs in pre- 
pai'ing henna for their use : — 

The leaves and young twigs ai-e dried and powdered, then 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARiMACY. 167 

allowed to stand for some days moistened with water. The mass 
is afterwards boiled with more water some hours, and this de- 
coction is diluted or not, according to the shade of colour it may 
be desired to produce. 

Examination of the Leaves of Chimaphila Umbellata. E. S. 
Beshore. (Amer. Jouni. riiarni., March, 1887.) 

Chimaphila umbellata, natural order Ericacece, Pyrolece, is indi- 
genous to North America, northern Asia, and northern and central 
Europe; it is found in dry woods, and flowers in June and July. 

The leaves contain 7"83 per cent, of moisture, and yield 404! per 
cent, of ash. Petroleum spirit extracts from them a crystalline 
principle which, after purification, proved to have a composition 
corresponding to the formula C^ijHjgO. 

Examination of the Leaves of the Horse-Chestnnt (.SEsculus 
Hippocastanum. E. 0. Ray. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 3vd series, 
xvii. 108.) The extended consideration which for some months 
past has been accorded to the alkaloid cocaine, and its acknow- 
ledged importance and intrinsic value, has led to the expression 
of the hope that in the order of Sapindacece, which is botanically 
so closely related to the Erythroxylacece, the same alkaloid, or at 
least one having analogous properties, might possibly be found. 

The young leaves of the horse-chestnut were collected early in 
June, and were very carefully dried without the aid of artificial 
heat, and afterwards preserved in a dry place. Portions of the 
finely powdered leaves were treated according to the improved 
process of Dr. Squibb for the assay of coca leaves, and also 
according to the process recommended by Dr. A. B. Lyons, but 
without obtaining any decided reactions for an alkaloid. A por- 
tion of the fresh leaves was distilled with water made alkaline 
with caustic potash ; the liquid fi'othed strongly upon heating, 
but a small amount of distillate was obtained, which was colourless 
and possessed a strong odour, but afforded no indication of the 
presence of a volatile alkaloid. Another portion of the leaves, 
distilled with dilute sulphuric acid, afforded a distillate possessing 
a peculiar odour, probably due to traces of a volatile oil, but no 
volatile oil was obtained. A portion of the leaves was now ex- 
tracted successively by petroleum benzin and alcohol, but only 
oily and i-esinous matters containing much chlorophyll, together 
with tannin and sugar, were found, without establishing the pre- 
sence of any special principle of further interest. 

Since at least one product of the natural order Sapindacece, 
namely, the seeds of Paullinia sorhilis, is known to afford con- 



168 YEAR-BOOK OF PIIARMACY. 

siderable amounts of the alkaloid caffeine, it was considered of 
interest to determine whether the same or an analogous principle 
might not also be contained in the leaves of the horse-chestnut. 
For this purpose 200 grams of the leaves were digested with water, 
with the aid of a gentle heat. The filtrate, which was of a deep 
brown colour and very mucilaginous, was precipitated by a solu- 
tion of lead acetate, and again filtered. The latter filtrate showed 
no fluorescence, indicating the total absence of cesculin. It was 
now made slightly alkaline with ammonia water, again filtered 
and tested with basic lead acetate, which, however, produced no 
further precipitate. The lead salt was now completely removed by 
sulphuretted hydrogen, the liquid filtered and evaporated to a small 
volume on a water- bath, but no crj'stallinc product was foi'med. 
The aqueous solution was subsequently shaken with chloroform, 
which, upon spontaneous evaporation, left a small amount of oily 
residue, having a strong, peculiar, and rather unpleasant odour. 
This residue, when taken up with acidulated water, afforded slight 
reactions with alkaloidal i-eagents, but did not give the char- 
acteristic reaction foi- caffeine. 

From the results of these experiments it will be seen that the 
leaves of the horse-chestnut contain neither cocaine, caffeine, or 
other principles of special interest; also that ajsculin, which is 
so abundantly contained in the bark of the horse-chestnut, is 
apparently entirely wanting in the leaves. 

iEsculus Hippocastanum. J. M. Maisch. {Amer. Journ. 
Pkarm., March, 1887.) In medical Avorks, including those on 
medical botany, in which the horse-chestnut tix)e is mentioned, the 
discussion of the therapeutic properties is usually confined to the 
use of the bark as an antiperiodic, and of the fixed oil as a topical 
remedy in rheumatic complaints. Occasionally the sternutatory 
properties of the powdoi'ed seeds are mentioned, and in works 
from the beginning of the present century it is stated that a 
paste made from the seeds is useful in chilblains, and a decoction 
of the roasted seeds has been recommended in atonic uterine 
hemorrhages. In only one of the modern works consulted (National 
Dispensatory, 3rd and 4th edit., p. 765) occurs a reference to the 
popular use of the leaves in whooping cough, and of the seeds in 
hemorrhoids. 

That this popular use has not been forgotten was pointed out 
by Geo. AY. Stoeckel, at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association in 1886. He states that the use of the 
leaves and seeds is not uncommon in the south-eastern counties of 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 169 

Pennsylvania. A decoction of the leaves is regarded as a remedy 
in whooping cough, and is given in small doses frequently re- 
peated, while the bruised fresh leaves, sometimes mixed with 
lard, are at the same time employed externally. The entire seed 
is carried in the pocket as a kind of charm against piles, aud the 
powdered white kernel is thoroughly triturated with lard into an 
ointment, which is said to be successfully applied against piles. 

Erythroxylon Pulchrum, a New Source of Cocaine. T. Peckolt. 
(Pharm. Joiirn., 3rd series, xvii. 507.) The extensive occui-rence 
of numerous species of the genus Erythroxijlon, in Brazil, has 
induced the author to investigate the presence or absence of the 
alkaloid cocaine in some of the species. The first examined was 
the bark and leaves of Erythroxylon pulchrum, which grows toler- 
ably abundantly near Rio, and is known popularly as " subrasil " 
or " arco de pipa." It is a tree thirty or forty feet high, with 
large ovate leaves, abruptly tapering at the base, shining dark 
green above, and dull green below. The bark gave only negative 
results. From the leaves cocaine was separated, but as the yield 
was only equal to O'OOS per cent., this species will hardly prove 
a profitable material for the manufacture of that alkaloid. 

Constituents of the Leaves of Gaultheria Procumbens. F. W. 
Droelle. (Abstract of an inaugural essay. Amer. Joiirn. Pharm.^ 
June, 1887.) A proximate analysis was made of the finely ground 
leaves, after they had been separated from the stems, with the 
followino- results : — 



Volatile Oil 


•50 per cent. 


Eesin and Wax 


2-50 ,, 


Eesin soluble in Ether 


2-15 ,, 


Chlorophyll, with small amoimts of 




Arbutiu, Urson aud Tannin . 


2-75 „ 


Tannin ...... 


5-45 ,, 


Chlorophyll, Arbutin, and Ericolin . 


.3-80 „ 


Mucilage ...... 


2-90 ,, 


Glucose aud Dextrin .... 


3-56 „ 


Organic Acids 


3-25 ,, 


Albuminoids 


4-54 „ 


Pararabin and allied substances . 


2-20 ,, 


Loss by treatment with Chlorine 


635 ,, 


Moisture 


8-60 „ 


Ash 


4-20 „ 



Total 98-18 



1 70 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Constituents of the Leaves of Podophyllum Peltatum. B. F. 
Carter. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., September, 1886.) The leaves, 
collected soon after flowering, have been analysed by the author, 
vrho determined the presence of acetic acid, colouring matter, 
probably a kind of tannin, and uncrystallizable sugar. Alkaloids 
are absent. The resin amounted to 6 per cent., was greenish 
black, of an oily appearance, soluble in alkalies, and completely 
precipitated by acids; also freely soluble in alcohol ; 90 percent, 
soluble in ether, 86 per cent, in chloi'oform, 72 per cent, in carbon 
disulphide, 67 per cent, in benzol, and 40 per cent, in petroleum 
benzene; it also dissolves to a considerable extent in boiling water. 
Ethei" dissolves the soft resin, the hard resin remaining behind. 
Fused with potash, a very small amount of protocatechuic acid 
appears to be formed. The resin has a bitter taste and a very 
much milder action than that of the rhizome. 

The leaves had been previously examined by T. J. Husband and 
by Dr. S. P. Duffield; the latter did not obtain any resin from the 
leaves collected in May, and only "03 per cent, of resin from leaves 
collected late in autumn. 

Bearberry Leaves and Arbutin. (Med. Chronicle, March, 1887.) 
Uva ursi leaves contain, in addition to tannic and gallic acids, a 
bitter glucoside, arbutin, which is white, crystalline, and soluble in 
water. During the past four years several observer's have tried to 
determine whether arbutin might not, with advantage, be substi- 
tuted for the various preparations of uva ursi now in use. Lewin, 
in 1883 (Virchow's Archiv, xcii. 517), showed that arbutin splits up, 
when boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, into hydroquinone, methyl 
hydro(piinone, and sugar; and stated that when administered it is 
in part decomposed, so that the urine contains besides arbutin a 
certain amount of hydroquinone. Now hydroquinone is itself an 
antiseptic and antipyretic, and has been found useful by Brieger 
as an injection in gonorrhoea. Lewin recommended the substi- 
tution of arbutin, in 15 grain doses, for the ordinary preparations 
of uva ursi. Uva ursi is a reputed diuretic as well as a specific 
in vesical catari-h. Menche published a paper in 1883 (Cent. f. KI. 
Med., xxvii. 413), on arbutin as a diuretic, and recorded some 
cases which served to illustrate its value in cardiac dropsy. Sub- 
sequent observations have not confirmed Menche's views on this 
point. In a few cases of cardiac dropsy, in which the drug was 
given at the Manchester Infirmary, it proved wholly inefficacious 
as a diuretic. 

Paschkis (Wien. Med. Fresse, 1884, No. 13) obtained no good 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 171 

results from the use of arbutin in sevei-al cases of cystitis and 
gonorrhoea, though he found these ailments markedly improved by 
uva ursi itself. Either arbutin is not the active curative principle, 
at least in the doses employed by Paschkis (30 grains daily), or 
the preparation he used was not arbutin. 

Schmiz (Cent.f. Kl. Med., No. 49, 1884) found arbutin very use- 
ful in some cases of bladder catarrh. He did not see good results 
follow its use in all cases, but recommends its use in preference 
to uva ursi itself. Very recently Kunkel (JMilnch. med. Woch., De- 
cember 7, 1886) published his investigations upon the absorption 
and excretion of arbutin, and has arrived at the conclusion that 
the greater part is excreted unchanged ; a little is decomposed in 
the intestine, but it is not decomposed, as Menche thought, in its 
passage through the system. At the present time, then, the value 
of arbutin must be regarded as doubtful ; and though it may be 
tried, in doses of 10 grains, where ordinary remedies have failed 
to relieve bladder catarrh, it cannot be used as a reliable remedy. 

Buchu and Oil of Buchu. R. Spica. {American Journal of 
Pharmacy, October, 1886.) 

Extraction of Volatile Oil. — The leaves, in a finely powdered 
state, were distilled until no more oil passed over. The oil was 
lighter than water, and left, while floating upon the surface of 
the liquid, prismatic crystals. The aqueous distillate contained 
a feeble acid, whose chemical nature, together with that of 
the residual, strongly acid, brown liquid remaining in the retort, 
will be further examined. In order to obtain a larger quantity 
of volatile oil, the process of extraction was modified and rej^eated 
upon more material. The powdered leaves were macerated with 
ether for three days, when the liquid became green in colour 
from dissolved chlorophyll. The larger quantity of ether was 
then distilled off, while the remainder was evaporated spontane- 
ously, and the oily residue distilled with steam, until no further 
oil passed over. Every 1000 parts of leaves yielded about 6"5 
parts of a greenish yellow oil, having a grateful odour, similar to 
peppermint and bergamot, and lighter than Avater. Separated 
from the water and desiccated over fused calcium chloride, a por- 
tion was fractionally distilled. The greater part passed over 
between from 200° to 235° C, and the last portions were manifestly 
decomposed, and gave a different and rather more phenol-like 
odour than the first. In order to ascertain if the first fractions 
contained substances soluble in potassium hydrate, a small quantity 
of the mixed fractions was agitated with K H 0, in strong solu- 



172 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

tion, after wliich separation into two parts took place. Using a 
second quantity, with a more dilute solution of K H 0, it became 
evident that the K H solution was not as sensibly coloured as 
in tlie fii-st instance. Tlie insoluble part (elaeopten) was then 
separated, washed with water, and desiccated over fused calcium 
chloride, Avhile the aqueous washings were added to the K H 
solution, and the remaining elceopten was removed by agitation 
with ether. The alkaline solution was then treated with hydro- 
chloric acid until slightly acid, when a precipitate formed which, 
after several minutes, assumed a crystalline aspect. The super- 
natant liquid was removed, and the residue agitated with ether, 
the ethereal solution evaporated at a low tempei'ature, when the 
stearoptcn crystallized in the form of long flat needles, slightly 
impure from adhering brown oil. 

^Examination of the Elceopten (Diosmelceopten). — It is a greenish 
yellow oil of grateful odour, and constitutes about two-thirds 
of the volatile oil. It has a pungent, cool, aromatic, and finally 
sweetish taste. Desiccated over fused calcium chloride, and then 
distilled, it fractions very irregularly. The first fraction (a), very 
small in quantity, came over at from 180° to 200° C, the second 
(h) at from 200° to 203° C, the third (c), the largest in quantity, 
at from 20.3° to 206° C, the fourth {d) at from 206° to 209° C, the 
fifth (e) at fi-om 209° to 211° C, leaving in the retort a small 
yellowish brown residue. Repeating the distillation, after having 
reunited the more abundant fractions, there was obtained a portion 
boiling at from 204° to 206° C. (not corrected). This fraction con- 
stitutes a perfectly colourless, mobile liquid, lighter than water, 
having the odour and taste before mentioned, and when subjected 
to ultimate anah'sis, gave H 12"00 and C 7766 ; while the portion 
boiling at from 209° to 211° C. yielded H 1219 and C 7748. This 
points to the elementary formula CjoHjg O, isomeric with borneol, 
which, in 100 parts contains H 1168 and C 7792. The portion 
boiling at from 204° to 206° C. corresponds better, in its results, 
with this formula, while the higher boiling fractions probably 
contain compounds less carburetted, and inversely. 

The vapour density was determined by Meyer's method, of the 
portion boiling at from 204° to 206° C, and conformed to the for- 
mula Cjo Hjg 0, but the substance decomposed at the temperature 
at which the vapour density was taken. 

The Actio7i of Sodium upon ihe Eloiopten (Diosm elceopten) resulted 
in the formation of a brownish decomposition product. The 
addition of sodium was continued until decomposition ceased, and 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 173 

water was then added. The brown semi-solid decomposition pro- 
duct was separated from the liquid by filtration through wetted 
paper. The filtrate was agitated with ether, then treated with 
more sodium, and acidulated with hydrochloric acid, which separ- 
ated an oil having a thymol-like odour. It was extracted with 
ether, and the solvent evaporated spontaneously ; the residual oil 
distilled at from 225° to 238° C, and on fractioning the greater 
part boiled at from 230° to 232° C. This portion constitutes a 
light yellowish liquid, very dense, of the odour and taste of thymol, 
and the aqueous solution of which (it is slightly soluble in watei") 
does not become coloured on the addition of ferric salts. A com- 
bustion of this substance gave H 962 and C 77'54, which points to 
the formula Cg H^o 0, having in 100 parts H 9 67 and C 77-42. 
The determination of the vapour density by Meyer's process led 
to the same formula. 

The composition of this liquid, which has phenol-like qualities, 
would seem to indicate that it is a homologue inferior to ordinary 
camphor, and, until its true chemical character is better under- 
stood, it is proposed to name it dioscamphor. 

Examination of Stearopten (Diosphenol of Fliickiger). — The 
crude stearopten, as previou.sly obtained, was depurated from 
adhering brown oil by compression between dry papei-, and then 
crystallized repeatedly by dis.solving in the smallest possible 
quantity of alcohol, then lightly heating, adding water, slowly, 
until a slight turbidity ensued, and cooling, when long, white, 
needle-shaped crystals are formed, having a camphoraceous odour. 
Heated at 82° C. they sublime, partially, and commence to boil 
at 220° C, when decomposition ensues. The diostearopten is 
slightly soluble in water, very soluble in alcohol or ether, and m 
neutral solution has a mint-like, camphoraceous odour. The alco- 
holic solution treated Avith ferric chloride was tinged an apple- 
green, and then, on addition of more of the reagent, deepened into 
a bottle-green colour. The hydrates of potassium and sodium 
dissolve it well, and from their solutions hydrochloric acid pre- 
cipitates it in minute crystals. Carbonate of ammonium does not 
dissolve it. It acts, then, like a compound of phenol origin. 

The analyses made give different results from those obtained by 
Fliickiger, viz. : — 

Obtained. Theoiy. 

H 9-79 9-85 . . 924 9-52 

C 71-6.5 71-44 . . 76-58 7144 



174 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Apparently, then, the buchu camphoi* is much more simple in 
its chemical structure than the results of Fliickiger would seem to 
indicate ; it appears to be nothing more than an oxjcamphor, 
Cjo Hjg Oo. This product is perfectly identical in all the character- 
istics published concerning the diosphenol of Fliickiger. 

The determination of the vapour density does not tend to 
establish the formula, Cjo Hjg Oo, as the substance was decomposed 
during evaporation. 

Historical Researches on Lobelia Inflata. J. U. and C. G. 
Lloyd. (Druggvits' Circular, January, 1887.) The authors' 
conclusions are embodied in the following summary: — 

1. Lobelia injlata Avas not used by the Indians as a medicine. 

2. It was employed in domestic practice and by botanists in 
New England before Samuel Thomson's day. 

3. Samuel Thomson introduced Lobelia inflata to the public, and 
there is no evidence to show that he did not discover its emetic 
properties independently of all other persons. 

4. The assertion that Cutler and Drury discovered the medicinal 
uses of Lobelia inflata, and introduced the plant, is not supported 
by evidence, 

Lobelia Inflata. J. U. and C. G. Lloyd. (Pharm. Bundschau, 
Februarj', 1887, 32. From Pharm. Journ.) The authors confirm 
the statement of v. Rosen as to the presence of two alkaloids in 
lobelia seed (abstract, Year-Boak of Pharmacy, 1886, 179), but they 
describe them somewhat differently. One of these alkaloids, for 
which they appropriate the name " lobeline," was obtained as a 
colourless and odourless amorphous substance, non-hygroscopic, 
and apparently not affected by air ; slightly soluble in Avater, and 
readily soluble in alcohol, chloi-oform, ether, benzol, and cai-bon 
bisulphide. Lobeline salts, which, like the base, have hitherto 
resisted crystallization, are readily soluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether. They are described as being most powerful emetics, one 
drop of a tolerably strong solution being sufficient to produce 
immediate emesis without disagreeable after-symptoms. L^pon 
trituration, the dust is powerfully irritant to the nose and air- 
passages, more so probably than veratrine. The other alkaloid, 
which the aiithors name " inflatine," has been obtained in large 
colourless, odourless, and tasteless crystals, insoluble in water 
or glycerin, but soluble in carbon bisulphide, benzol, chloroform 
ether, and alcohol. Therapeutically inflatine has no apparent 
importance. In spite of the statements of previous workers, no 
volatile or li((uid base was met with by the authors in lobelia 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 175 

seeds, and it would seem probable that the supposed liquid 
alkaloid previously observed was a mixture of lobeline, inflatine, 
and oil. All parts of the fresh plant contain an essential oil 
having a strong smell and little taste, and the seeds contain nearly 
30 per cent, of their weight of a fat oil. 

Jaborandi as a Galactagogne. M. C heron. (Pharm. Joum., 
3rd series, xvii. 608.) Some careful experiments made by the 
author have proved that the galactagogae properties ascribed to 
jaborandi are well founded, and that in order to produce this 
action the drug must be given in smaller doses than are necessary 
to cause salivation and diaphoresis. The dose used with success 
was 5 centigi'ams of nitrate of pilocarpine, injected subcutaneously 
as soon as the milk became scanty, and i-epeated eveiy day. From 
three to twelve injections proved successful, according to the time 
that the scantiness of secretion had lasted. No ill effects, either 
to the nurse or to the child, followed its use. 

Piper Betle. (Pharvi. Joum., 3rd series, xvii. 268.) According to 
Handelsherichte a supply of the leaves of the Piper Betle, which are 
used in India for chewing with areca nut, has recently been im- 
ported for the first time into Germany. An essential oil, obtained 
from the leaves by distillation, at Samarang, by Schmitz, has been 
credited by him with having given good results in the treatment 
of catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic, and the claim has been 
confirmed in the experience of Dr. Kleinstiick. The oil, which 
seems to be of an aldehyd nature, is said to oxidize with extreme 
rapidity, losing at the same time its characteristic ethereal odour 
and therapeutic properties. Great care will therefore be required 
in the transit of the leaves, if the oil is to be distilled in Europe. 

Cassia Alata. M. Conillebault. (Ame): Joum. Pharm. jMslj, 
1887.) The leaves are recommended by the author (These, Paris, 
1886) for giving prompt relief in ringworm ; they are moistened 
with water, and the affected parts are then rubbed ; or an acetic 
extract of the leaves m.ay be used. 

In India the plant is regarded as a cure for poisonous bites and 
for venereal eruptions, and the leaves have long been used for 
curing ringworm. Lindley describes the leaves as being 2 feet 
long, abruptly pinnate. Leaflets opposite, from 8 to 14 pairs, the 
exterior largest, linear-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, with a point, 
smooth, entire, veined ; 3 to 6 inches long, 2 to 2| inches broad ; 
the lower pair somewhat distant, nearly round and reflexed back on 
the stem or branches. Petioles channelled, the channels large and 
formed by two thin, firm, yellow borders. There is a cross-bar 



176 YEAR-BOOK OF PnARMACY. 

between each pair of leaflets, covered with small dark-coloured 
bristles, and tliere is no other gland. Stipules auriculate, rigid, 
pointed, persistent, appearing like prickles. 

The plant is shrubby, like Cassia Sophora, the leaves of which 
are similai-ly employed. Cassia Tora, an annual of Southern Asia, 
is reputed to have similar antiherpetic properties ; likewise Cassia 
occidentalis, Avliich is common throughout the tropics, has been 
naturalized in the Southern United States as far north as Vir- 
ginia, and is known in some localities as styptic weed. 

Ilex Opaca. W. A. Smith. (Aiyier. Jonrn. Pharm., May, 1887.) 
On treating the leaves with benzin, the author obtained 1"2 per cent, 
extract, of which "088 Avas volatile and had an acrid mustard- 
like odour; the remainder consisted of fat and 'lo'i wax. Ether 
extracted 45 per cent., '5 of which was soluble in water, the 
i-emainder being I'esin soluble in alcohol ; the aqueous solution had 
a bitter taste, and from its behaviour to Fehling's solution appears 
to contain a glucoside. Tannin and chlorophyll were found in the 
alcoholic tincture. The leaves yielded 4*5 per cent, of ash. 

Some Constituents of Yerba Santa. R. Rot her. (Amer. Jonrn. 
Pharm., May, 1887.) A syrup pi-epared from Eriodictyon leaves 
is extensively used for the administration of quinine in a palatable 
form. In order to disguise the bitterness of quinine Avhen given 
in a fluid state, it has been variously exhibited in the condition of 
insoluble salts. The objection to this mode of procedure is that 
these quinine compounds remain partially insoluble, and hence 
inoperative, and that some of these combinations, notwithstanding 
their insolubility, are by no means destitute of the nauseous bitter 
taste. 

The important advantage possessed by Yerha Santa consists not 
only in the pei-fect masking of the bitterness of quinine, but also 
in its administration in a readily assimilable state. 

A certain resinous component of Eriodictyon leaves is charac- 
terised by the property of forming, in contact with some bases, 
very soluble combinations. These, when treated with quinine 
salts, generate by double decomposition an ordinarily insoluble 
quinine-resin .salt. This compound is promptly decomposed by 
the stronger acids, and is peculiarly soluble in ammonia. 

When coarsely ground Eriodictyon leaves are percolated with 
water, a moderately dai'k brown coloured and somewhat bitter 
pei*colate is obtained. On evaporating this to a syrupy consistence, 
and treating this residue with alcohol, a light brown liquor and 
dark brown pasty residue results. The alcoholic solution has 



MATERIA MEDKA AND PHARMACY. 177 

acquired all of the peculiar bitterness of the percolate, whilst 
the pasty mass is practically tasteless. On treating this residue, 
or the original one resulting from the percolate, with potassium 
carbonate, an ammoniacal odour becomes quite pronounced. The 
addition of an acid to the dai-k brown mass, separated by alcohol, 
yields a profuse precipitate which is wholly but slowly dissolved 
to a dark brown solution by a large volume of water. 

When the residuary leaves in the percolator are treated with 
water rendered strongly alkaline with ammonia, the first portion 
of the new percolate is very turbid, but becomes clear as the free 
ammonia descends into the precipitate. A considerable proportion 
of alkaline menstruum is needed to extract the colour-giving sub- 
stance wholly. Evaporation of the percolate to a syrupy residue, 
and treatment of this with alcohol, yields a brown-red, bitter 
solution, and a copious dark brown precipitate. The solution and 
precipitate are in all respects identical with those obtained in 
the first percolation. The alcoholic solution contains the quinine 
precipitant in union with ammonia as an acid salt. The 
addition of water causes a dense milkiness, and acidulation with 
a strong acid precipitates the acid resin in curdy flakes. Excess 
of ammonia added to the alcoholic solution causes no precipitate, 
but the colour is very perceptibly deepened. On exposure of 
this mixture the excess of ammonia and much of the alcohol 
is dissipated, whilst a red-brown tarry acid ammonium salt de- 
posits. 

The precipitate given by alcohol appears to be an acid ammonium 
salt of the tasteless and non-quinine pi-ecipitating acid component 
of the leaves. When treated with water an inconsiderable pro- 
portion dissolves, leaving a large residue. Addition of ammonium 
or potassium carbonate and much water dissolves this wholly to 
a deep red-brown solution. The tinctorial power of this body is 
its most remarkable property. In its natural condition it is very 
probably in great part an acid anhydride, which is dissolved by 
aqueous solutions of alkalies and their carbonates. Under the.se 
circumstances no perceptible effervescence occurs when carbonates 
are employed. With the use of monocarbonates the solution 
contains bicarbonate, showing that the reaction is similar to that 
resulting in similar cases with analogous matter from other plants. 
On adding ferric chloride to such a solution, no precipitate at first 
appears. The continued addition of it however causes an abundant 
brown-black precipitate, soluble to a great extent in an excess of 
the reagent. It is also partially soluble in ammonia with a deep 

N 



178 YEAU-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

led-brown colour. The addition of ammonia to a mixture contain- 
ing excess of ferric chloride gives a precipitate utterly insoluble in 
ammonia. These results show that the various proportions of the 
tinctorial body appended to basic radicles determine the degree 
of solubility and insolubility of the compound. As ali-eady stated 
strong acids occasion a precipitate when added to alkaline solutions 
of this substance. Boiling of the mixture with dilute sulphuric 
acid appears to generate a new insoluble substance, readily soluble 
in alcohol and in ammonia, with intense red-bi"0wn colour. The 
solutions are charactei-istically tasteless. 

The tarry acid ammonium salt of the quinine precipitant is 
i-eadily and perfectly soluble in a sufficiency of alcohol. It is also 
readily and completely soluble in excess of ammonia. When 
treated Avitli ether, a portion of the acid component is dissolved. 
A correspondingly less acid salt, however, remains undissolved. 
The action of chloroform is precisely similar in tbis respect. 
The acid resin thus separated is freely soluble in these menstrua. 
It remains as a green-yellow transparent mass after the spontaneous 
volatilization of the respective solvents. It reacts with monad 
monocarbonates, converting them into bicarbonates. It is readily 
soluble in bicarbonates, evolving no carbonic anhydi"ide except on 
heating. When the solution obtained with sodium bicarbonate, 
for instance, is evaporated, a portion of the resin separates and 
is readily taken up by ether or chloroform. Alcohol, however, dis- 
solves an acid sodium salt of the resin; 

Treatment of Eriodictyon leaves with alcohol, dilute or strong, 
wholly removes the quinine precipitant. But this method of 
isolating it is neither economical nor practical. 

A fluid extract of Yerha Santa thoroughly miscible with simple 
syrup is a desideratum. The author has heretofore employed 
ammonia as a part menstruum in j)reparing syi-up of Yerha Santa. 
In order to secure a complete extraction an excess of ammonia is 
essential. It is difficult, however, to adjust a proper propoition, 
and hence the ammonia may preponderate in the finished syrup. 
The author would suggest a fluid exti"act of Yerha Santa for pre- 
paring the syrup to be used in the proportion of one fluid ounce 
for one pint of the syrup. This fluid extract is merely an alcoholic 
solution of normal potassium eriodictyonate uncontaminated by 
the dark coloured non-quinine precipitant. The following is the 
process recommended : — 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 179 

Yerba Santa leaves, coarsely ground . 16 troy ounces. 

Potassium Carbonate . . . . 3 ,, 

Ammonia Water, 

Alcohol, 

Water . . of each sufficient to make one pint. 

Mix the ammonia water and water in the proportion of one measui-o 
of the first and seven measures of the second. Mix the Yerha 
Santa with 8 fluid ounces of this mixture, and pack it firmly into 
a cylindrical glass percolator. After due maceration pour on the 
menstruum until 3 pints of percolate has slowly passed. To this 
add the potassium carbonate, and evaporate it until a pasty residue 
is left. Stir this well with 8 fluid ounces of alcohol, gradually 
added ; let the pasty precipitate subside, and decant the supernatant 
liquor. To the residue gradually add 8 fluid oiinces of alcohol, as 
before ; pour this mixture upon a strainer, and foi'ce the liquid out. 
Should this second extraction measure more than is needed to 
complete the intended volume of fluid extract, dissipate the excess 
of alcohol by appropriate means ; unite the residue with the first 
exti'action, set the mixture aside for twenty -four hours, and decant 
the clear fluid extract from the scanty crystalline deposit mean- 
while formed. 

Kalmia Angustifolia. T. I. Deibert. (Amer. Jouni. Pharm., 
September, 1886.) This small shrub is known as dwai-f-laurel or 
lambkill, and is reputed to be poisonous to sheep. The author 
collected several pounds of the leaves which, on drying by exposure 
to the air, lost 64 per cent, in weight ; the loss of air-dried leaves 
at an elevated temperature was 10 per cent. They were coarsely 
powdered, boiled with water, the decoction precipitated with basic 
lead acetate, the filtrate treated with H, S, again filtered and 
evaporated; the soft extract was treated with alcohol, and t!ic 
filtrate on evaporation yielded an cxti-act-like mass in whicli 
minute crystals could be seen with a magnifying glass, and which, 
dissolved in water, yielded with ammonia and phosphomolylidic 
acid a beautiful blue colour. The mass probably contained 
arbutin. 

Exhausted with benzin, the leaves yielded a soft, sticky extract, 
containing wax, resin, and fixed oil ; it did not give a blue colour 
with ammonia and phosphomolybdic acid.. The leaves, previously- 
treated with benzin, gave an alcoholic tincture containing a con- 
siderable amount of tannin, and subsequently yielded an infusion 
in which gummy matters were present. The air-dried leaves 
yielded 3| per cent, of ash. 



180 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

PlantagO Major. D. Rosenbanm. (Amer. Joiirn. Pharm., 
September, 1886.) Petroleum benzin extracted 4 per cent, of wax 
and chlorophyll, the extract fusing at 83° C. Ether dissolved 4*4 
per cent, of resin and chloi-ophjdl. The alcoholic extract weighed 
10 per cent., 6 per cent, being sokxble in water, this portion contained 
a large amount of sugar ; the remaining 4 parts were dissolved 
bj ammonia. The soluble matter taken up by water weighed 1 8 
per cent., 7'2 of which was insoluble in 66 per cent, alcohol. Soda 
solution dissolved 6 per cent., and diluted acid 10 per cent., the 
hitter containing a notable quantity of calcium oxalate. The 
bleached lignin weighed 35'5 per cent. The powdered leaves con- 
tained 8 per cent, of moisture and yielded 12'85 per cent, of ash, 
2-85 of which was soluble in water and 9'50 soluble in hydi-ochloric 
acid. Tannin, saponin, alkaloid, etc., were not found. 

Damian!?. F. W. Pantzer. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., February, 
1887.) The leaves of Turnera aj^hrodisiaca, Ward, have been sub- 
jected to a chemical analysis by the author. The air-dried leaves 
lost in a drying chamber 11 per cent, of moisture and volatile oil, 
and yielded 9"68 per cent, of ash. Petroleum benzin extracted 7 
pel- cent, of volatile oil, fat, Avax, and resinous matter. Alcohol of 
80 per cent, yielded 20 per cent, of dark green extract, containing 
tannin, two tasteless resins, and extractive. Water dissolved 
10 per cent, of mucilaginous and extractive principles, and by 
distillation with water, \ per cent, of an amber-coloured volatile 
oil was obtained, having an aromatic odour and a warm, cam- 
phoi'aceous, and bitter taste. Alkaloids and glucosides were not 
observed. 

Orthosiphon Staminens, s. Ocynmm Grandiflonini. Dr. van 
Itallie. (Pharm. ZeilMinj, 1886, o76.) Tliis plant is indigenous 
to India, Java, and the Nicobar and Philippine Islands. The pale 
green leaves have purplish petioles and veins, and on both sides 
of the blade prominent oil-glands. The author obtained from the 
(liied leaves a small quantity of volatile oil and of a crystalline 
glucoside. This orthnsipho)iin has a bitter and afterward sweet 
taste, is freely soluble in absolute alcohol, less soluble in weak 
alroliol and in clilni'ordnn. almost insoluble in absolute ether, and 
is precipitated l)y plumbic snbacetate, but not by the acetate or 
by tiinnin. It does not contain nitrogen. 

Eupatorium Ayapana, and other Species. J. M. Maisch. 
(Amvr. Junru. Pharm., ^larch, 1887.) 

Eupatoriuin ayapana is at preseiit met with in European com- 
merce (Pharm. Zeiischrift. fUr Jiussland, 1886, 707). The drug 



MATERIA MEDICA AND THAUMACY. 131 

consists of dried, leaves, about 8 cm. long aud 15 mm. (^ inch) 
broad; brown, smooth, oblong-lanceolate, the margin somewhat 
revolute. Two prominent latei'al veins branch oS from the midrib 
near the base, and extend parallel with the margin to the apex. 
The odour is slight coumarin-like, and the taste mildly astringent 
and aromatic. The leaves are recommended against indigestion, 
pectoral complaints, and in cholera, and were used for similar 
purposes in Europe in the early part of the present century. 

The shrub is indigenous to Brazil, but is now found throughout 
tropical America and in India. L'Heritier and ]\lartius reported 
also its efficient use in Brazil against snake bites, the leaves being 
employed externally and internally. 

Eupatorium villosum is indigenous to Jamaica and the Bahamas, 
■«-here it is largely used as a tonic ; also as a substitute for hops 
in beer. Eup. aviarissimum is mentioned as being employed in a 
similar way; the Mexican Pharmacopoeia mentions Eup. coUitium. 

Note on Catha Edulis. B. H. Paul. {Pharm. Jouru., 3rd series, 
xvii. 1009.) The author's attempts to detect caffeine in the leaves 
of this plant prov^ed unsuccessful. The leaves contain a form of 
tannic acid analogous to that met with in tea, coffee, mate, and 
coca leaves. The author is inclined to attribute the stimulating 
effect produced by the leaves when chewed to ethereal oil or some 
other aromatic and volatile constituent; but to determine this 
point a larger supply of the leaves would be required. 

Application of the Microscope in the Examination of Mate and 
Tea. E. Collin. {Pharm. Jourii., 3rd series, xvii. 1(33; from 
Jouni. de Pharmacie d'Anvers.) This paper describes the means of 
detecting by the microscope the adulteration of tea and mate, and 
also points out the features by which coca leaves may be recog- 
nised under the microscope. The most frequent adulterants of 
tea leaves, according to the author, are the leaves of Epilohium 
angustifoUum^ Fraxluus excelsior^ Sambucus nigra, Laurus nohilis^ 
Primus spiuosa, Salix alha, and Populus nigra, none of which, how- 
ever, present the numerous sclei-enchymatous phytocysts which 
are present in the tea leaf. The leaves of mate are said to be 
often adulterated with those of Myrcia acrii, which are easily 
I'ecognised by the preseuce of pellucid oil-clots in the leaves. 

Note on a Spurious Chiretta. W. Elbome. (Pharm. Joarn., 
3rd series, xviL 903.) A portion of the false chiretta examined 
by the author proved identical with that described by Prof. 
Bentley (Ophelia angustlfolia) ; the remainder, however, presented 
a marked difference, inasmuch as it contained a well-developed 



182 YEAR-BOOK OF i'HARllAC'i'. 

pith, similar to tlie official variety, although from its want of 
bitterness it was evidently spuinous. The British Museum autho- 
rities have refei'i-ed it to Ophelia alata. 

Mutisia Viciaefolia. L. Naudin. (Journ. d^ Hygiene, 1886.) 
This plant is stated by the author, on the authority of Dr. Sace, of 
Cochabaraba, Bolivia, to enjoy the reputation of curing phthisis 
and pulmonary diseases in general. The plant is indigenous to 
the western part of South America, fi'om Chili to Peru, and 
belongs to the lahiatijloral Compositce, which are confined chiefly 
to South America, and the leaves of which are usually mucilagi- 
nous, somewhat bitter, and occasionally more or less aromatic. \ 
number of species are locally used as expectoi-ants. 

Leucantliemum Vulgare. J. S. Howe. (Boston Med. and Siirg. 
Jonrn , March lU, 1887, 227. From Fharm. Journ.') Attention is 
directed by the author to the poisonous effects of the common 
moon daisy (LeucanthemuDi vulgare) upon certain individuals, 
chiefly those who suffer similai'ly from the poison of Bhtis 
Toxicodendron. The symptoms produced are those included 
in the description of dermatitis venenata, and consist in the 
troublesome heat and itching and the formation of vesicles, fol- 
lowed by desquamation of the cuticle. It is curious that this 
action does not appear to have been noticed in this country, where 
the plant is so common, although Antheinis Cokda is known to 
cause! soniewliat similar symptoms. 

Therapeutic Properties of Pulsatilla. G. Sinith. (Phai-m. 
Journ., 3i"d series, xvii. GOG.) Pulsatilla is highly recommended 
by the author as a valuable remedy in acute oi'chitis and epidi- 
dymitis, the relief given in .such cases being so rapid that it is 
unnecessary to employ moi'j)hine to subdue the j^ain, the heat and 
swelling subsiding* more ra])idly than under any other drng. 

Acacia Fistula. Di. Sch weinf mt h. (Fliarm. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii. 411.) Accoidiiig to tlie author the Acacia Jistula, 
whicli grows in dense groves in Nubia, is known among the natives 
as the " whistling tree." It owes its name to the fact that a gall 
in.sect selects iov the site of its operations the ivory-white shoots, 
which the developnuMit of the larva distorts and causes to swell 
at the base into a bladder-like gall, about one inch in diameter. 
The insect upon emerging leaves a circular hole, and the wind 
plaviiig u[)i)n tlie shoot is said then to produce a t1ute-Iike sound. 

The Structure and Functions of Lathraea Squamaria. G. 
Massee. (PJiarm. Jonrn.. 3rd series, xvii. 2G8.) The author 
considers this plant to be a snpropliytc rather than a parasite, 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 183 

especially when old, since the discs upon which its parasitism 
depends are frequently very rare, their presence or absence de- 
pending upon the position in which the plant finds itself. A 
liquid of an acid character appears to he secreted by the stipulate 
glands of the scale-like leaves, and is found in the curious inter- 
cellular spaces of the leaves. By this or some other secretion, the 
roots of other plants with which the scales of the Latlircea come 
into contact are softened to a pulp, and evidently utilized as food 
by the plant. The author attributes the darkening of the plant 
during drying to the combination of the tannin present in the 
plant with iron, which also exists in the plant in the ferrous state. 
That it is due in some degree to oxidation appears evident from 
the fact that if immersed in sulphiii'ous acid the plant retains its 
white appearance. According to the author, if immersed in con- 
centrated solution of ammonia, it changes to a bright yellow. 

Composition of Bokhara Clover (Melilottis leucantha.) J. M. 
H. Munro. (Ke/(Z, 1886.) The plants from which the samples 
were cut were about five feet high and in full flower ; the 
flowering branches and the upper portions of the leafy branches 
were selected for analysis : — 



Fresh Plant. 


Dry Matter. 


Water. .... 


79-i8 


— - 


Ash ..... 


i-oa 


.7-96 


Light Petroleum Extract 






(Essential Oil, Fatty Oil, 






and altered Chlorophyll). 


0-43 


^•07 


Ether Extract (Chlorophyll 






and Resin) 


0-35 


.1-70 


Absolute Alcohol Extract . 


2-8'2 


13-55 


True Albuminoids 


2-85 


13-G7 


Digestible Cellulose . 


5-53 


20-58 


Liguiu and Incrustiug sub- 






stances .... 


0-22 ■) Mucle 
5-28 i 5- 


, fibre, 1-07 \ 


Indigestible Cellulose. 


50 25-35 > 


Sugar, Dextrin, and other 






soluble Carbohydrates ; 






Amides, Nitrates, and 






other non-albumiuoid ni- 






trogenous substances 


1-68 


8-05 




100-00 


100-00 


Total Nitrogen . 


0-50 


2-71 


Albuminoid Nitrogen 


0-i5 


2*19 


Non-albuminoid Nitrogen . 


Oil 


0-62 



crude fibre, 
2()-4-2 



181- 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Tlie three extracts mentioned in tlie analysis were prepared 
hy using the solvents in succession ; the light petroleum extract 
deposited crv.stals, probably of coumai-in. 

Thuja Occideutalis. M. Houde. (Repertoire de Fharm., 
August, 1886, 374.) Attention is called to the properties of 
Thuja occidentalis, which has long been used by homa?opaths in 
the treatment of syphilitic growths and warts. The author states 
that it is now given in France Avith equal success by allopaths, in 
doses of thirty drops of the fluid extract, night and morning. 

Composition of Goat's Rue (Galega officinalis). J. M. H. 
Mnnro. (Field, 1886.) This leguiuinous plant has been recently 
i-ecommonded as a forage crop. A sample, cut in full flowei", was 
analysed with the following result :— 



7-09 



210 



Dry Matter, 
Water ....... — 

Ash iusoluble iu water .... 

,, containing sand . . . 0-48 

„ ,, Calcium Carbonate. 4'97 

„ „ „ Pliosphate 0-86 

Ash soluble in water .... 

„ containing Potash (KoO) . . 0-70 
Light Petroleum Extract (Oil and altered 

Chlorophyll) 

Ether Extract {Resin and Chlorophyll) . 
Absolute Alcohol Extract 
True Albuminoids ..... 
Digestible Fibre . . , • . 
Liguin and incrusting substances . 
Indigestible Cellulose .... 
Starch, Mucilage, Dextrin, Sugar, Vege- 
table Acids, Gum, non-albuminoid 
nitrogenous substances, etc. . . 32-05 



Fresh 
72' 



Plant. 
48 



9- 19 



1-95 



0-58 



^2•53 



20'2 


0-56 


3-43 


0-94 


10-94 


3-01 


11-94 


3-28 


12-78 


3-52 


3-761 crude fibre, 
13-89J 17-65 


103 


3-82 



4-85 



Total Nitrogen . 
Albuminoid Nitrogen 

Non-albumiuoid Nitrogen 



10000 



2-42 
1-91 



0-51 



8-82 

100 00 

0-666 
0-626 

0-140 



Treated with various solvents in succession, the dried rue 
yielded the following percentages of extracts : light petroleum, 
202; ether, 3'-i3 ; absolute alcohol, 10"94 ; water, 21'56 ; sodium 
hydrate, of 01 per cent., followed by h3-di'Ochloric acid of 1 per 
cent., 30"43, undissolved, including digestible cellulose and woody 
fibre, 31-62 : 10000. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 185 

Piscidia Erychrina. Y. S. Halsey. (Therapeutic Gazette, 
August, 1886, 442.) Tlie author describes several cases in which 
he has used this drug with success. He remarks : "I have found 
it to be an excellent hypnotic and anodyne, and no one case in 
which 1 employed it has it failed to relieve pain and induce 
sleep. One great advantage connected with it is that patients 
after taking it awake with none of the unpleasant after-effects 
which opium induces." 

Vitis Vinifera. A. Hilger and L. Gross. {Landw. Vers. Stat., 
18S6, 170-196. From Amer. Jourii. Pharm.) The authors have 
examined the organic constituents of different parts of the grape 
vine. The sap exuding fi"om cut vines contains sugar, iuosit, 
a mucilaginous body, succinic acid, tartrates, and citrates. The 
young shoots and leaves contain potassium bitartrate, ^Iciuni 
tartrate, tartaric and malic acids, quercetin, tannin, starch, gum, 
glucose, saccharose, inosit, oxalic and glycolic acids, an ether- 
soluble substance, ammonium salts, and calcium sulphate and 
phosphate ; in autumn malic acid and inosit are absent. The 
tendi'ils contain, besides much pectin compound, sugar, potassium 
bitartrate and calcium oxalate. The fruit contains tartaric and 
malic acid, free and combined with potassium and calcium, tannic, 
succinic, glyoxylic, and glycolic acids, inosit, dextrose, levulo.se, 
albuminoids, and traces of quercitrin and quercetin. 

Parthenium Hysterophorns. (Ainer. Journ. Pharm., September, 
1886.) This tall annual, which grows as a weed in the West 
Indian Islands, the Bahamas, and southward to Northern Patagonia, 
has recently attracted attention as a febrifuge. Dr. J. R. Tovar, 
of Havana, reported the successful treatment of neuralgia and of 
intermittent fever with an alkaloid, parthenine, given in doses of 
O'l gm. Dr. Ulrici {Deutsch Med. Wochenschr.) .states that the plant 
is known in Cuba as escoba amarga or confitilla, and contains un- 
cvj&tst\\izBh\e parthenic acid, the crystallizable alkaloid _pari/iewi«e, 
and four other alkaloids ; parthenine is the active principle. Dr. 
Guyet {Gaz. Med.) states that parthenine is a complex substance, 
amorphous, in black shining scales, freely soluble in water, and is 
efficacious against neuralgia, but useless as an antipyretic. 

The plant belongs to the order Compositce. The stem is two to 
four feet high, stiff-hairy, furrowed and branched ; the leaves 
are alternate, bipinnatifid, with the lobes obtuse, and the petiole 
winged ; the upper leaves are pinnatifid or entire ; the flower 
heads are in spreading panicles, hemispherical, about ^-inch bi'oad; 
the akenes are compressed and have a pappus, consisting of two 



18G YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

oblong, blunt scales. The entiro plant is more or loss covered 
with short hairs. It is known in Jamaica as tft'ZfZ ivonmvood, white- 
head, Duigu'orf, and hroovihnah. 

Cannabis Indica. F. Roux. (Jonm. de Pharm. et de Chim., 
Februarj 1, 1887.) The author finds that the active part of 
Indian hemp is the resin. The alcoholic extract produces exciting 
properties, Avhilst the ethereal extract is inert. 

A New Constituent of Indian Hemp. E. Jahns. (Archiv 
rhann., 1887, ■i79.) The author reports that he has separated 
from Indian hemp a base which he has identified as choline, and 
points out that this result corresponds fairly well with the state- 
ments of previous workers, except in respect to the crystalliz- 
ability of Dr. Hay's alkaloid and its solubility in ether. The 
(|uantity of choline obtained by the author from different samples 
of Indian hemp vai'icd considerably, but amounted at the most to 
one-tenth per cent. ; it was al.so found to be present to a less 
extent in commercial " cannabinum tannicum." 

Mitchella Repens. E. Breneiser. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
May, 1887.) An analysis of this jilant was made by the author 
with the following results : Volatile oil was found to be absent. 
Petroleum benzin dissolved 1*180 per cent., consisting of chloro- 
phyll and wax, the latter saponifiablo by alcoholic potash solution. 
Ether took up 1"400, of which "240 was soluble in water, and 
'940 soluble in alcohol. The aqueous solution contained a pi'in- 
ciple precipitated by tannin and by picric acid, but neither alka- 
loid nor glucoside. The resin taken up by alcohol was soluble 
in potash, and this .solution yielded nothing to benzin, benzol, or 
chloroform ; the liquid obtained on treating the resin with acidu- 
lated water gave pi-ecipitates with tannin and picric acid, but 
yielded nothing to benzin, benzol, or chloroform. The alcoholic 
extract of the plant amounted to 3"800 per cent., of which 3"440 
was solulile in water, and this contained 1630 of gluco.se, estimated 
by Fehling's solution. Water now dissolved from the plant 
20r)09 per cent., from which alcohol precipitated 5440 of muci- 
laginous matter and "536 of inorganic compounds ; the further 
addition of alcohol preciiTitated 3"679 per cent, of dextrin and 
allied carbohydrates; (rOOO per cent of glucose was found; also 
a saponin-like principle (precipitated by baryta, andfrothing in 
aqueous solution). Dilute soda solution dissolved 2360 albumen, 
1840 other organic matter, and '120 inorganic matter; total, 
4'320 per cent. Dilute hydrochloric acid took up 4'418 organic 
and 2"820 inornfanic matter, total. 7'238. Treatment with chlorine 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 187 

occasioned a loss of 11'784 per cent. ; the residue now weighed 
33"460, and after deducting 11 •240 for moisture in the drug, the 
loss not accounted for by the analysis amounts to 4"879 per cent. 
The ash of the air-dry plant weighed 5"440 per cent., only •360 of 
which v\-as soluble in water ; the ash consisted of carbonates, 
chlorides, sulphates, and phosphates of sodium, potassium, 
calcium, magnesium, and iron. 

Eupatorium Perfoliatiim. O. F. Dana. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
^lay, 1887.) The percentages of extract obtained from this plant 
by the successive treatment with different solvents has been 
ascertained by the autlior. The results are as follows : moisture, 
lO'oO ; extract by petroleum benzin 3"80, by ether 4"60, by alcohol 
33^80, by water 24-80, by alkali 5-80, cellulin 11-70 ; loss by treat- 
ment with clilorine, etc., 5'00. The ash amounted to 8'3 per cent. 
Crystals were observed in the benzin extract, and were prepared 
in larger quantity, by exhausting the plant witli alcohol, treating 
this extract with ether and the ethereal exti'act with benzin. 

The editor of the above paper adds that these crystals were 
isolated in the same manner by G. Latin (abstract, Year-Book of 
Pharmacy, 1881, 145), who succeeded in obtaining them in a pure 
state, and showed them to be wax or possibly resin. The bitter 
|)rinciple has been obtained by Latin in a pixre or nearly pure 
condition, and found to be a glucoside ; )ie states it to be soluble 
iu ether, while according to- Parsons {Amer. Jonrn. Pharm., 1879, 
342), it is insoluble in the menstruum named. 

Euphorbia Driimmondi, J. Reid. {Austral. Med. Gaz., Oct., 
18S(J. From Amer. Journ. Pharm.) Eicphorhia Driimviondi, a 
native of West Australia, is stated to possess valuable anassthetic 
properties, and to contain an alkaloid which the author called 
drumine. A tincture is pi'epared of the plant or milk juice with 
alcohol containing hydrochloric acid, then concentrated by distilla- 
tion, precipitated by ammonia, and filtered ; the residue is dissolved 
in dilute hydrochloric acid, decolorized by animal charcoal, and 
evaporated, when boat-.shaped, colourless crystals are obtained. 
The alkaloid is stated to be almost insoluble in ether, but freely 
soluble in chloroform; also in water. A four per cent, solution 
of the alkaloid dropped into the eye produced local insensibility 
without appreciably dilating the pupil. A subcutaneous injection 
of three grains showed no effect in a cat beyond local anfesthesia; 
but a larger dose by the moutli caused paralysis of the limbs and 
difficult breathing, and strychnine failed to produce muscular 
contraction. Applied to the tongue or nosti'ils, loss of taste was 



188 YEAR-BOOK OF rHAKilACY. 

observed, but small dosL;s swallowed were not followed by any 
perceptible constitutional symptoms. The author recommends 
the alkaloid more particularly in small operations, sprains, and 
local ii-ritation. 

J. M. Maisch adds to this paper that recent experiments made 
by I)i-. A. Ogston (Brit. Med. Journ., Feb. 26, 1887) demonstrate 
that di'umine has little -if any effect as an anaesthetic. Instilled 
into the conjunctiva it produced no antcsthesia and had no 
perceptible effect on the pupil. Used hypodermically on four 
persons in doses of four and six minims of a four per cent, solution, 
a sharp and aching pain, followed by swelling and tenderness of 
the spot, was produced, but no anaesthesia. The material employed 
was received directly from the author. 

Euphorbia Helioscopia. Dr. Baudry. (Bull. Med. du Nord. 
From Amer. Journ. Bharm.) A case of severe ulceration is reported 
by the author resulting from the application of a poultice of the 
bruised plant. The milk juice is stated to be employed by peasants 
as a cure for warts. 

This annual, which belongs to the group of Tithymalus, is 
indigenous to Europe and naturalized in some parts of the United 
States, in fields and waste places, and is characterized by its 
terminal umbel-like inflorescence, its obovate, finely serrated, and 
more or less wedge-shaped leaves, and its smooth, almost three- 
lobed fruit, containing coarsely reticulated, brownish seeds. With 
some botanically allied species it was formerly employed as a 
hydragogue cathartic, and is rcgai'ded as being less acrid than many 
other s))ecies of the same genus. 

Euphorbia Peplis. Dr. Afonsky. (Bussk. Meditz.,1886. From 
Amer. Journ. Bharm.) This ])lant is said to be used as a domestic 
remedy in hydrophobia, and has been used successfully by the 
author as a preventive, the drug being given in the form of powder 
after cauterizing the wound with hydrochloric acid, and using also 
pilocarpine hypodermically. 

Equisetum Hyemale. F. J. Young. (Amer. Journ. Bharm., 
September, 188(,).) This plant is employed as a remedy in dropsical 
affections. The author has known it to be prescribed in infusion 
together Avith digitalis and potassium acetate ; but from the 
results of his analysis he comes to the conclusion that the effects 
of the medicine would have been the same if the equisetum had 
been omitted. The air-dry drug yielded 182 per cent, of ash, 
consisting mostly of silica. Petroleum beuziu exhausted from 
the powder T4 per cent, of a broAvnish-green, semi-liquid fixed oil, 



MATERIA MEDIC A AND PHARMACY. 189 

which was readily saponifieJ, and was soluble in ether, chloroform, 
and carbon bisulphide. Ether now took up 5'33 per cent, of a 
green, semi-solid resin, soluble in chloroform, benzol, and absolute 
alcohol, and imparting to Avater, or acidulated water, a greenish 
colour, but no decided taste. Alcohol dissolved from the residuary 
powder 1'60 per cent, of resinous extract, free from tannin, 
alkaloid, and glucoside. The powder gave to water 4'84 per cent, 
of extract, of which 2'25 per cent, was shown to be sugar bj 
Fehling's solution, and 0-60 per cent, of mucilaginous matter was 
left undissolved by alcohol of 66 per cent. 

Anacharis Canadensis. M. Brandes. (Med. News, Aug. 28, 
1886.) The cultivation of this plant is stated by the author to 
have caused the disappearance of malaria and diarrhoea in a 
marshy district where these diseases formerly appeared yearly in 
a sporadic or epidemic form. 

Polygonum Hydropiper. C. J. Rademaker. (Avier. Jonni. 
Phann., August, 1886.) A further contradiction is given by the 
author to the statement by H. Trimble and H. J. Schuchard, that 
the principle isolated by him from Polygonum hydropiper, and 
described by him under the name of polygonic acid, was a mixture 
of tannic and gallic acids (see abstract, Year-Book of Pharmacy, 
1886, 210). 

Anona Muricata. (Chemist and Druggist, August 14, 1886.) 
Almost all parts of the plant have a medicinal value. A decoction 
of the root is used as an antidote for fish-poisoning, and the bark 
serves as an astringent. The leaves are useful in softening 
abscesses, and as the seeds in the fruit contain tannin, they are 
employed as an astringent, or a wine can be prepared from them 
by fermentation, which is said to be beneficial in cases of diarrhoea. 
Several kinds of anona, such as polyalthia, scylopia, artobotrys, are 
also highly prized as medicines. Most of these plants have a sharp 
aromatic odour and taste. The flavour of the fruit resembles that 
of oil of turpentine. 

Fahiana Irabricata. C. Ochsenius. (Chemist and Druggist, 
March 19, 1887. From Archiv der Pharm.) The author gives 
particulars concerning the new Chilian drug Fabiana imhricata, 
which has recently been introduced into Europe and the United 
States. The plant yielding the drug is a woody shrub, flourishing 
in the dry mountain regions of the Chilian Republic, especially 
in the central and southern provinces. The i)lant belongs to the 
tamarisks, and, during the flowering period, has the appearance 
of an erica. It does not generally attain over three and a half 



190 YEAR-EOOK OF PHARMACY. 

feet in lieight ; but in some cases — for instance, in the neiglibour- 
hood of Elqui, in Coquimbo^it has been found to grow fourteen 
feet high. The wood is much used for manufacturing small 
articles, sucli as spoons. In Chili the leaves and twigs of the 
shrub have long been employed in distoma hepatic um zedev, a 
liver disease to which cattle grazing on moist meadows are greatly 
subject. For the same disease the leaves of the Boldoa fragrans, 
are frequently administered. These leaves are much esteemed in 
Chili as a remedy for syphilis, hydrophobia, etc., and have recently 
been recommended by Chilian doctors for affections of the human 
liver. 

Hydrangea Arborescens. C. S. 13ondurant. (Amer. Jonm. 
Fharm., March, 1887.) The following is a summary of the results 
of the author's analysis : 

Extracted by — Per cent. 

Petroleum Spirit : Fixed aud Yol. Oil . . . 2-28 

Etber: Glucoside and Kesin ..... l-o7 

Absolute Alcohol : Glucoside and two Eesins . . 2"31 

Distilled Water : Mucilage, Saponin, and Sugar . 9"52 

Dilute Soda : Mucilage and Albuminoids . . 8*37 

Dilute Hydrochloric Acid ; Calcium Oxalate . . I'^O 

Starch 7-28 

Lignin 4'83 

Ash 3-41 

Cellulose Moisture, etc., undetermined .... 09-03 

Total, 100-00 

No tannin was found to be present 'in the drug, contrary to 
statement made by Mr. Baur. 

The author proposes the name lujdrangin for the crystallizable 
srlucoside he obtained from both the alcoholic and ethereal extracts. 
It somewhat i-escmbles a)sculin, but differs from it by its ready 
solubility in ether, its insolubility in strong hydrochloric acid, 
and by its not being precipitated by silver nitrate, mercuric 
chloride, nor neutral lead acetate. A characteristic reaction for 
hydrangin is obtained on dissoKang it in sulphuric acid, and 
adding a small crystal of potassium bichromate, when a dark 
purple colour is produced, which, after some minutes, fades to 
violet ; and on addition of a few drops of water an olive green 
is produced, which gradually fades. 

New Adulterants of Saffron. Dr. Xiederstadt. (Pharm. 
Journ., 3rd series, xvii., G88.) The author reports on a sample of 
saffron which he found to be adulterated with tiny splinters of 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 191 

sandal wood. If tlie sopliisticated saffron be ix'peatedly washed 
with water, and the washings allowed to stand, the minute 
splinters of sandal wood that separate out may be identified under 
the microscope. His examination of Barcelona and Orleans saf- 
fron shows that the latter is considerably superior to the former. 
From the best Orleans saffron he obtained only 5 "84 per cent, of 
mineral matter and 14 per cent, of water. In three samples of 
Barcelona saffron he found moi-e than 14 per cent, of mineral 
matter and from 15 to 17 per cent of water. He also found the 
saffron adulterated with chloride of sodium and glycerin, probably 
added to prevent the saffron losing weight by drying. The 
glycerin may be recognised by pressing the saffron on bibulous 
paper or by the greasy feel of the saffron when rubbed between 
the fingers. Honey, which is also used as an adulterant, is less 
easily recognised, since the best safi'ron has been found to con- 
tain as much as 13 per cent, of a sugar resembling or identical 
with glucose. 

Constituents of Stigmata Maydis. C. J. Bade maker and 
J. L. Fischer. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., August, 1886.) The 
following shows the amount of the most important constituents of 
this drug : 

Per cent. 

Fixed Oil 5-25 Petroleum Spirit Extract. 

Kesiu, Crystalline principle and 

Chlorophyll . 
Resin, Crystalline principle and 

Chlorophyll .... 
Sugar, Gum and Extractive 
Albuminoids, Phlobapheue, etc. 
Salts and Extractive 

Cellulose 

Water 

9G-25 

Estimation of Santonin in Wormseed. F. A. Fliickiger, 
(Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii., 449.) The estimation was con- 
ducted as follows : 

Five parts of the raw material and one part of milk of lime 
were boiled for two hours in a considerable quantity of dilute 
alcohol, and the liquid poured off after cooling ; this treatment 
was repeated at least twice more, and the alcohol was then 
distilled off fi-om the united extracts. The residual liquid was 
then saturated in the cold with carbonic acid, filtered off from 



. 2-25 


Ether Extract. 


I 

. 3-25 


Alcohol Extract. 


, 19-50 


Water Extract. 


3-50 


From Alkaline Solution 


, 5 -50 


From Acid Solution. 


37-00 




20-00 





102 YEAR-BOOK OF rilARMACY. 

the precipitato after standing some houvs, and tlie fdtrate evapo- 
rated to dryness. The residue was triturated with animal charcoal 
and alcohol of specific gravity 0"935, and the paste rinsed into a 
retort, where it was digested with a measured quantity of alcohol. 
After boiling, the contents of the retort were thrown on a filter, 
washed with hot alcohol, and the alcohol driven off from the 
filtrate, from which, after some hours, crystals of santonin 
separated. 

The results obtained confirm the obseiwation that the drug 
attains its greatest richness in satonin in the latter half of July 
and in August, immediately before flowering. After flowering 
it disappears. It appears also that the santonin only occurs in the 
parts above the soil, and not in the compact, sapless roots. It 
remains yet to be ascertained whether the small radical leafy 
shoots beai'ing no fruit, which the plant produces in addition 
to the flowering stems, contain any santonin. 

Dalmatian Insect Powder. H. Semler. (Amer. Druggist, 
January, 1887.) The Dalmatian insect powder, Chrysanthe'nuivi 
cineraricvfoliuni, B. et H , known also by its Dalmatian name 
Imhach, has been cultivated for several years past on a large scale 
in certain portions of California, the cultivators being Dalmatians 
who have settled there. 

The best soil for this plant is loam with a large proportion of 
sand. This kind of soil is particularly suitable for sowing, but 
it should be well mixed with old dung. The seed itself is mixed 
with sand and distributed over the soil as uniformlj- as possible, 
after which the soil is raked to the depth of about half an inch, 
and then gently pi'essed by passing a roller over it. Until the 
plants spring up, the beds must be irrigated every evening, unless 
it rains. But gi^eat care must be taken not to overdo it, as the 
plant is very sensitive, throughout its Avhole life, towards undue 
moisture of the soil. After the jjlants have sprung up, they need 
not be watered more than twice a week. Weeds must be kept 
away until transplantation takes place, which occurs when the 
])lant is about six inches high. It is then set oiit precisely like 
cabbage, about twenty inches distant from every neighbour, and 
afterwards needs no further attention. 

Buhacli is a biennial [?] plant, therefore it flowers in the year 
subsequent to that of sowing. The flowers must be cut off just 
when they are about to open, as they contain the largest amount 
of essential oil in this condition. The cut flowers must be care- 
fully guarded against dampness, and must be dried in the shade, 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 193 

never by exposure to the sun or to artificial heat. After the period 
of flowering is over, the plants are cut off four inches over the 
ground, reduced to powder, and this powder mixed with that of 
the flowers, in a proportion not exceeding 1 pai-t of the foi-mer to 
2 parts of the latter. The finer the mixed powder of herb and 
flower is, the more effective will it prove to be. If any one wishes 
to prepare the powder himself, and does not possess a suitable mill, 
he may use a mortar covered with leather. The quantity thus 
Avorked in a mortar should, however, not exceed about one pound, 
to avoid heating the powder. When the substance appears to be 
comminuted, it is transferred to a tine hair-sieve, and the refuse 
remaining on it put back in the mortar. It is very difficult to 
reduce the stems to powder in this manner, which is not a serious 
disadvantage, as the flowers are the most valuable portion of the 
plant. Insect powder should be preserved in glass or metallic 
vessels, which should be closed air-tight. 

Insect powder may be used either in the form of dry powder, by 
fumigation, in the form of alcoholic extract, mixed with water, 
or in the form of infusion. 

Carduus Marianus. G. Foy. (Medical Press, 1887, 492. From 
Fharni. Jourii.) The author states that this plant is now being 
received with professional favour in France, where the tinctui-e 
and alcoholic extract are both being presci-ibed. He remarks that 
the extract is a useful adjunct to aloes, since it possesses chola- 
gogue properties. 

The Pharmacognosy and Chemistiy of Calabar Beans. P. Map 
Ewan. (FJiarm. Jouru., 3rd series, xvii. G41.) The author states 
that the cylindrical seed noticed by Mr. Holmes among commer- 
cial calabar bean in 1879, does not appear to have occurred in the 
market since that time. The commercial drug varies in colour 
between violet-black and coffee-brown, the former being the fully 
ripe seeds, and the latter probably immature. For assaying the 
seed it is best ground in a mill. The two varieties were found to 
contain 7'2 percent, of moisture; tlie black yielded 3"1, and the 
brown seed 3"4 per cent, of ash. Petroleum ether extracted from 
the brown 0'2, and from the black 1'068 per cent, of a golden 
yellow thick oil, containing crystals of physosterin. Ether now 
extracted 0"36 per cent, of a yellow oil of agreeable odour, and 
containing a granular substance apparently different fi-om physos- 
terin. For estimating the alkaloid, the volumotric process, Avith 
Mayer's solution, failed to give reliable results, but the gravimetric 
method was more satisfactory. The author recommends the fol- 





19 i YKAR-B JOK OF PHARMACY. 

lowing process : exhaust the powdered bean, bj digestion and 
j)erco]ation, Avith a mixture of alcohol 3 parts and water 1 part, 
evaporate the spirit, precipitate Avith lead acetate, remove excess 
of lead from the filtrate, render alkaline by ammonium carbonate, 
and dissolve the alkaloid with chloroform. The alkaloidal residue 
should be of a pale amber colour, and wholly soluble in dilute acid. 
Thus obtained, the alkaloid was found to be soluble in ether, and 
its iodohjdrargyrate to be quite soluble in alcohol ; for these 
reasons the author is inclined to doubt the existence, in calabar 
bean, of calabarine, announced by Harnack and Witkowski. 

A Contribution to the Pharmacognosy of Strophanthus. AV. 
Elborne. (Fliarm. Jotirn., 8rd series, xvii. 743.) The seeds of 
strophanthus at present occurring in commerce (supposed to be 
yielded by Strophanthus KomhS, the Kombe arrow poison) have 
i-ecently been examined and reported upon in a paper constituting 
a valuable contribution to the phai-raacognosy of this poisonous 
drug, Avhich latter has recently come into extensive use as a valu- 
able remedy in afFections of the heart. The plant is a native of 
tropical Africa, and belongs to the natural order Apocynaceoi ; it is 
a Avoody climber gi-owing in the forest, both of the Aalley and the 
hills, and found at A'arious places between the coast and the centre 
of the continent above the Victoria Falls and the Zambesi; the 
fruits, consisting of follicles from 8 to 10 inches in length, contain 
about two hundred greenish brown seeds, to Avhieh latter are 
attached plumose, hairy appendages presenting a A'ei'y beautiful 
and characteristic appeaiance ; the ripe seeds, freed from the 
comose hair, haAC been used by the native tribes from a i-emote 
period foi- the preparation of an arroAV poison, the latter being 
prepared by bruising the seeds in a mortar and mixing into a 
]>aste Avith Avater, Avith Avhich the arrows are smeared and the 
})oison allowed to dry on. Game Avounded Avith an arrow thus 
])oisoned dies at once, seldom being able to escape more than a 
hundred yards ; the flesh, except in the immediate proximity of 
the Avound, may be eaten Avithout evil effects. 

Tl>e seeds and hairs of strophanthus hispidus Avere examined in 
France by E. Hardy and N. Gallois, Avho found in the seeds a 
crystalline active ])rinciple, neither of a glucosidal nor alkaloidal 
natuie, Avhich they named " strophantine," soluble in Avater and in 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether, chloroform, and benzol : and in the 
hairs they found a crystalline alkaloid, which they termed "ineine," 
not possessing the same physiological action as strophantine. 
I*rof. Fraser stated (hat he has isolated from the seed of Strc- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 195 

phanthus Komhe 8-10 per cent, of a crystalline glucoside, which 
he has termed " sti'ophanthin." 

The author in his investigation of the seed failed to obtain more 
than 4 per cent, of an amorphous glacosidal active bitter principle, 
soluble in water and in alcohol, insoluble in ether, chloroform, and 
petroleum ether. Furthermore, the haii's of the seed which he 
examined contained no trace of alkaloid, a fact which has been 
subsequently confirmed. The following is a resuvii of the analysis 
of the dried seed : — 



I. Petroleum Ether extracted Fixed Oil 
II. Ether extracted Chlorophyll and Fat 

III. Absolute Alcohol extracted Bitter Glucoside 

IV. Water extracted Bitter Glucoside 

(1 ia "O.OOOof water imparts a decided bitternees.) 
Albuminous matters .... 
Insoluble residue 



Per cent 
. 20-8 
•9 
1-5) 

. 19-G 
. 54-3 



100-J 

Stroplianthus seeds contain an extremely bitter glucosidal active 
principle, intimately combined with an excessively large quantity 
of albumen, which latter is of such a nature that from aqaeous 
solution basic acetate of lead, tannin, mercaric chloride, or the 
addition of two volu«ies of absolute alcohol, only partially pre- 
cipitate it. Amylic alcohol is capable of removing the glucoside 
from aqueous extracts by agitation, but owing to the emulsion it 
forms with the albumen, the process of separation is very tedious. 
In reference to the rectified spirit tincture, that made by Fraser's 
revised process of 1 in 20 is a great improvement upon the original 
1 in 8 strength, which latter left the marc in a very unexhausted 
state. 

From experiments made upon the tincture by the revised pro- 
cess, th.e author found that the rectified spirit exhausted the seed 
of, about 7"0 per cent, of extractive of an albuminous nature, 
leaving about 1"5 per cent, of the bitter pinnciple in the marc; and 
farther, that the loss of the latter would not be remedied by in- 
creasing the quantity of the menstruum, due to the coagulating 
effect the spirit exerted over a certain portion of the albumen Avith 
which that portion of the bitter principle was associated. By 
lowering the alcoholic strength of the menstruum it could readily 
be effected, yet not without the extraction of a corresponding 
large quantity of albuminous matter, which would prove highly 
objectionable, however, since the latter, by over-dilution, is, on 



196 YEAK-BOOK OF PHAKMACT. 

escape of tlie alcohol, very prone to decompose and develop a very 
foetid odour. 

The author is still engaged upon an extended investigation of 
this drug. The tincture of the seed at present used in pharmacy 
is prepared according to the following revised process (Fraser) : — 
Reduce the seeds, freed from stalks and hairs, to a moderately fine 
powder, and dry the powder for twelve hours at a temperature 
of from 100° to 120° F. One ounce or one part of the powder is 
then jiacked in a percolator, and dry ether (free from alcohol and 
water) is added until the powder is saturated and the ether begins 
to drop into the receiver, when the percolation is arrested for 
twenty-four hours, after which it is allowed to proceed slowly 
until ten 6uid ounces or ten fluid parts have been collected; the 
powder is then removed from the percolator and exposed to the air, 
or heated to 100° F. if necessary, to drive off the ether, any lumps 
being broken up, and the resulting dry powder is re-packed in the 
percolator, and allowed to macerate in contact with sufficient recti- 
fied spirit for forty-eight houi'S ; after which rectified spirit is 
added until 20 fluid parts of the percolated tinctui'e have been 
obtained. 

Note on the Pharmacology of Strophanthus. H. D. Rolleston. 
(Phann. Juiirn., 3rd series, xvii. 701.) In trying physiological 
experiments with the various prepai-ations of the drug, it Avas 
found that the ethereal extracts contained an active principle 
resembling that found in the alcoholic tinctures. 

In all experiments with the ethereal extracts, the ether was got 
rid of, so as to avoid the faUacy and interference in results from 
the action of the solvent on the heart, for though acting in an 
opposite direction, viz., killing the heart in diastole, the presence 
of ether would render valueless, if not completely vitiate, any 
experiment. 

The ethereal extract of the seeds was mixed with (distilled) 
water, and the mixture concentrated on a warm bath (temperature 
30° C.) ; by this means the ether was got rid of, and drops of oil, 
coloured green with chlorophyll, were precipitated. On filtering, 
the bitter taste characteristic of stroplianthin (Fraser, Brit. Med. 
Juurn., November 14, 1885) was present in the filtrate. The 
aqueous solution of the ethereal extract thus obtained, when given 
in small doses to frogs produced a slowing of the heart's beat with 
increased force, followed by a condition of sj'stolic contraction with 
beats at intervals, supei-imposcd singly, or in groups of two or 
three. In stronger doses the heart became tonically contracted. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 197 

"witli beats at intervals, passing into a condition of systolic rigonr, 
with the ventricles pale and contracted, the auricle being usnallj 
contracted, but in some cases distended. 

Given to dogs, it produced a marked increase in the force of the 
heart's beat and of the pulse, then slowing of heart's rhythm, with 
some evidence of increased arterial tension, then irregularity of 
the beat, a very constant form after a comparatively large dose 
being one large wave, followed directly by a small one, then a 
pause, in some cases groups of beats being seen. The heart 
eventually stopped in diastole, sometimes greatly dilated. 

The ethereal extracts of the pericarps and hairs were also found 
to be active, though not to such an extent as the ethereal extract 
of the seeds ; of the two former the pericarps were rather more 
active, i.e., contained more of the active principle. The alcoholic 
tinctures of the seeds, pericarps, and hairs were found to be active. 

At Professor Dunstan's suggestion experiments were tried with 
ethereal extracts prepared from anhydrous seeds with anhydrous 
ether. The same positive result was obtained as in the case of the 
ethereal extracts previously examined. 

Specimens of the oils of white and green strophanthus, prepared 
by Helbing, were examined, and also found to be active. 

It therefore appears that strophanthin is soluble in ether, at any 
rate when the oil is present, and that the ethereal extract is there- 
fore of value ; but the author refrains from expressing any opinion 
on the purely pharmaceutical question of whether or not ether 
should be used in preparing the tincture. 

Note on False Strophanthus Seed. E. M. Holmes. (Pharm. 
Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 903.) The seeds reported upon are 
referred by the author to a species of Kickxia, probably K. 
africana. The seeds present an appearance as if the hairs of the 
awn Avere bent backwards. On careful examination, however, 
under a lens, it became evident that the seed itself was entire, and 
presented no point of attachment. On examining the end of the 
apparent awn, it was observed to present the appearance of having 
been broken off. It was obvious, therefore, that the apparent awn 
was really the hairy pedicel or funiculus of the seed. This 
curious feature is alluded to in Bentiiam's description of the genus 
in the words, " Semina elongata apice ecomosa, hasi aristam longissi- 
mam longissime retrorsiim pliimosam comam, simulantem producfa. 
On cutting the seeds across, the cotyledons were found to be 
irregularly folded or contortuplicate. 



108 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Strophanthus Seed. T. F. Hanansek. (Fharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii. 972, from Fharm. Post.) The author publishes an 
account of the aBatomical structure of this seed. Although by 
the aid of the microscope strophanthus seeds may be distinguished 
from seeds of other genera, it is somewhat doubtful, according to 
jNfr. Kirkby, who has examined several kinds of the seeds, whether 
any markedly distinctive microscopical characters occur by which 
the seeds of one species might be readily distinguished from another. 
The hairs of the seeds are swollen at the base, something like 
those of the nux vomica seed. The author considers that the 
reactions given with the seed by liquoi* potassse and sulphuric acid 
are charactei-istic. With the former a transverse section of the 
seed shows the testa as a golden-brown line, the albumen colour- 
less, and the embryo of a gi^eenish canary-yellow. With con- 
centrated sulphuric acid a fresh section of the seed shows the testa 
and hairs of a golden-brown colour, the albumen verdigris-green, 
then emerald- gi^en, and the embryo fii^t yellow, then greenish 
bronze coloured, then copper coloured, and finally, after one or tw'o 
minutes, garnet-red or even blood-red. These observations refer 
to the Kombe seed of commerce, or greenish brown seed. It is 
stated by Mr. Lindsay, the curator of the Botanical Garden at 
Edinburgh, that this seed has produced plants identical in appear- 
ance with those obtained from the seed used by Prof. Fraser, but 
there is reason to suppose that this seed is derived from two species. 
"Mr. Christy, in a very useful resiime of the available information 
concerning strophanthus in " New Commercial Plants," No 10, 
mentions that from three seeds sown, and apparently of the same 
species, two plants came up, one having smooth and the other hairy 
leaves. Mr. Lindsay also states that two different seedlings came 
up from some of the gieenish brown seed recently sown by him. 

A New Species of Sti'ophanthus, J. M. Maisch. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 972.) The author directR attention to a new 
species of strophanthus, discovered near the Congo river, and 
which is now being cultivated in the Botanical Gardens at Breslau. 
The seeds are furnished with an awn which is feathery from base 
to apex. The seeds are poisonous, but it has not been ascertained 
Avhether the active principle is strophanthin. The flowers are 
much larger than those of Strophanthus his2)idiis, and the corolla 
lobes arc much longer. 

Adulterated Aniseed. C. L. Loch num. (American Pmggisf, 
^lay, 1887.) The author states that in every case in which he has 
planted Italian aniseed conium has come up mixed with it, although 



ilATERIA MEDICA AND TFTARMACY. 190 

sncli has not been the case where German aniseed was planted. 
He concludes from his examination that Italian aniseed contains as 
a rule 2"5 per cent., if not moi-e, of conium fruits. He Ijelievcs 
that the admixture pi-obably arises from the fact that conium, like 
henbane, sometimes flowers and fruits the first year, and is thus 
overlooked. Under a good lens conium fruit, which closely re- 
sembles aniseed in colour, may be easily recognised by being 
glabi'ous and covered between the ridges with minute wrinkles. 
Aniseed, on the contrary, is covered with minute hairs. 

The Soja Bean. J. Stingl and T. Mora w ski. (Muuatsh. 
Chem., vii. 176-190.) A very active diastatic ferment is present 
in the soja bean; this when acting on starch converts about two- 
thirds of it into sugar, about one-third into dextrin. 

The soja bean contains only a very small quantity of dextrin ; 
the extractive substance mistaken for dextrin consists of a mixture 
of sugars. These occur to the extent of about 12 per cent. 

False Kola Nuts. E. Heck el and F. Schlagdenhauffen. 
(Nouv. Bemedes, March and April, 1887 ; Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 802 and 88-1.) The authors describe a false kola nut, which 
they consider to be an intentional adulteration due to the increasing 
demand for kola nuts. It consists of the kernels of the seeds of 
Heritiera littoralis, a tree belonging to the same family as the kola, 
and extending from Australia and the Philippines to the east coast 
of Africa. Under the microscope the adulteration can be detected 
by the sirialler size of the polygonal starch grains, which are only 
half the size of those of the true kola nut. In the entire state 
the kernel is easily distinguished by the fact that one of the 
(Hjtyledons is hardly half the size of the other, fitting into the sub- 
stance of the larger one, and that the shape of the seed is orbicular 
and flattened. It did not afford any trace of caffeine. The seeds 
contained about 5 per cent, of tannin, analogous to that of kola 
nuts, in which it is present in only half that quantity. The pro- 
portion of fatty matter in the false kola nuts is ten times as much 
as that in the true kola nut. 

Examination of Pepper. C. Heisch. (Anahjst, xi. 186-190.) 
This paper gives the i-esults of analyses, including the deter- 
mination of moisture, ash, starch, alcoholic extract, piperin, etc. 
The starch is estimated by boiling with 10 per cent, hydrochloric 
acid for three hours, and determining the amount of the sugar 
formed with the polarimetcr. The organic matter in pepper should 
consist of not less than 50 per cent of starch, which is characterised 



200 TEAR- BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

by the smallncss of the srrannlcs. The presence of sand in ground 
pepper should be regarded as an adulteration. 

Poivrette. J. Campbell Brown. (Analyst, February, 1887.) 
The substance known in the pepper trade as " poivrette," or 
' pepperette," is now frequently used for the purpose of fraudu- 
lently increasing the weight and bulk of commercial pepper. It 
made its first appearance in Liverpool last summer, and now quite 
recently the author has met with it in between twenty and thirty 
retail samples of pepper. 

Poivrette is a pale, slightly buff, or cream-coloured powder, 
resembling in the bulk the principal middle layers of the pepper- 
berry, when ground; and when mixed with pepper cannot be dis- 
tinguished by the eye, nor even by the hand lens, from particles 
of pepper. In the earlier samples the coarser particles could be 
isolated by spreading the pepper on a stiff sheet of paper held in 
a nearly but not qiiite horizontal position ; on tapping this with 
the finger tips, so as to make the larger particles jump gradually 
to the lower edge of the sheet, the poivrette particles could then 
be picked out, and easily distinguished from pepper by crushing 
them between the teeth. Recently, however, it has been so finely 
gi'ound and sifted that it cannot always be partly separated in 
this way, althongh the toughness and hardness of the particles 
can always be distinguished by the teeth in a mixture. 

^Microscopic examination with a l-6th or l-8th objective, shows 
that it consists of pale, dense ligneous cells, some entire and 
marked with linear air spaces, some torn and indistinct. 

Poivrette comes from Italy. The author's microscopical and 
chemical examination establishes the closest resemblance between 
this substance and olive stones. 

Fictitious Pepper. N. Wender. (Zcitschr. Oesf. Apoth. Ver., 
1887, 147.) A fictitious pepper has made its appeai*ance in the 
Austrian market, and is manufactured in Buda-Pest. The author 
describes it as resembling a ribbed pill, and states that it is sold 
at about two-fifths of the wholesale price of Singapore pepper, 
and that it has been used for adulteratiucr unground pepper to 
the extent of 75 per cent. Examined by Dr. Hauansek, this arti- 
ficial ]u-o(luct w:is found to be manufactm'od of wlieat flour, most 
likely mixed Avith alcoholic extract of pop]HU\ and coloured with 
lampblack. It was free from capsicum. 

Composition of Sinapis Alba during Growth. M. Troschke. 
(Irifd. Coiir., 188(>, 3'.*."'-.'5l>7.) The periods when examination of 
the composition of white mustard plants Avas made, were (I.) 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARilACY. 



201 



before bloominc, Til.) at commencement of bloom, (HI.) full of 
bloom, and (IV.) at end of bloom. 

The composition of the air-diy plant was as follows : — 



Period. 





I. 


ir. 


III. 


IV. 


Water 


lC-0 


16-0 


16-0 


160 


Ash . 


8-9 


7-1 


6-1 


5-5 


Fibre . 


201 


26-9 


31-3 


37-2 


Fat . 


3-0 


2-5 


2-9 


2-7 


Crude Protein . 


14-0 


10-2 


8-7 


6-8 


Pure Albuminoids 


10 2 


7-9 


7-4 


6-5 


Extractives 


380 


37-3 


350 


31-8 



Composition and Application of the Seeds of Holcus Sorgho. 
M. Bordas. (Comptes Iievdns, January 31, l!^87.) Tbe.se seeds 
contain 42 per cent, of starch, and, according to the author's experi- 
ments, yield, per 100 kilos., 26 litres of alcohol of a good quality. 

Bntea Frondosa. N . Wa e b e r . (Pharm. Zeitschr. filr Eusslancl, 
1886.) The seeds are flat, about ^ inch long, 1 inch broad ; testa 
dark reddi.sh brown, veined ; hilum projecting ; cotyledons broad, 
leafy, veined; radicle small; taste somewhat bitter. Alkaloids and 
glucosides were not found. The results of the author's analysis 
were : — 



Moisture 6-62 per cent. 

Ash ....... 5-14 

Fat 18-20 

Wax soluble in Ether . . . 02.5 „ 

Albuminoids soluble in Water . .9-12 ,, 

Soluble in Soda 1-9.5 

Insoluble in Water and Soda . . 8'49 ,, 
Substance apparently nitrogenated, 

soluble in Alcohol .... 0'82 „ 

Mucilage 2 28 „ 

Glucose 6-87 

Organic Acids 4-00 ,, 

Other substances soluble in Water . 2 10 „ 

Metarabic Acid and Phlobapbene . 10- 10 ,, 

Cellulose 3-80 ,, 

Other insoluble substances . . 22-20 ,, 



Constitnents of lUicium Religiosnm. J. F. Eykman. (Fee. 
Trav. Chun., v. 299-30-1.) The fruit of this plant has yielded to 
the author an acid of the formula CyHjoOj, soluble in alcohol 
and ether, insoluble in chloroform and benzene. It is proposed to 
designate this substance shihimic acid. On distillation, it is for 



202 YEAR-BOOK OF rflARMACY. 

the most part decomposed into phenol and carbonic anhj'dride, 
hut small quantiiie-; of protocatechuic acid are obtained; this acid 
is also present in the above-mentioned plants. 

Bablah. V. Wilbuszewitcz. (Pharm. ZeitscJir. fiir Ettssl., 
188G ; Amer. Jourii. Pharm., September, 188G.) This is the fruit 
of Acacia Bambolah, indigenous to India. The author estimated 
the tannin present with potassium permanganate, which indicated 
12'1242 per cent., the amount agreeing nearly with the weight of 
the tannin isolated. One of the tannins was sparingly soluble in 
cold water. The reactions of the four varieties of tannin Avere 
similar: blue-black with ferric salts; black-green with ammonium 
vanadate ; copper acetate, bi'own ; copper sulphate, yellowish to 
brown ; tartar emetic, yellowish ; acetate of lead, yellowish, etc. 
Gallic acid was also obtained in notable quantities. For oxidatioi^, 
r20125 to 1"27127 gm. of the four varieties of tannin required 1 
gm. of potassium permanganate. By decomposition with alkalies 
the tannin yielded protocatechuic acid, and by treatment with 
dilute sulphuric acid phlobaphene, ellagic and gallic acids were 
obtained. 

Sophora Speciosa, ]M. Kalteyer and W. E. K'cil. (Amer, 
Journ. I'/ianii., October, 1886.) This evergreen shrub is a native 
of Texas and New Mexico, flourishing on rough, rocky hill-sides, 
and avoiding the rich black soil of the prairie. Near jNlatagorda 
Bay it is a small tree about thirty feet in height ; near San Antonio 
it attains the height of six or eight feet, and grows in patches, in- 
termingled with the mezquite, often clinging to the edge of a ledge 
of rock, with lai-ge portions of the I'oots bare and exposed to the 
heat and cold of many summers and winters, and by its long tap- 
root enabled to witlistand tlie frequent droughts. The trunk is 
tough, ci-ooked, and I'ough, with a grey-brown thin bark, and with 
hard and heavy yellow wood, which in some localities is called 
lignum vifa?. The leaves are impari-pinnate ; the leaflets in 3 to 
5 pairs, about H inch long, obovate of oblanceolate, obtuse or 
emarginate, entire, reticulate, dark green and glossy above, and 
paler beneath. The show}- flowers appear in February and March, 
grow in i-acemes, and have a blue-purple papilionaceoiis corolla, 
ten distinct stamens, and a strong, fragrant odour. The fruit is 
indehiscent, more or less moniliform, often curved, greyish-pube- 
scent, and contains from 1 to 8 seeds. The seeds are roundish- 
ovate, about ^ inch long and g- inch thick; the testa is hard, brittle, 
somewhat granular, dark red or sometimes yellowish, and marked 
from the slightly flattened liilum by a longitudinal ridge. It con- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



20] 



tains a tliin layer of firm, wliitish albumen, and an embryo of the 
shape of the seed, with two white, rather concavo-convex, cotyle- 
dons, and a short radicle bent at a right angle. The average weight 
of the seed is 20 grains, that of the kernel about 12 grains, and 
of the integuments 8 grains. The seed is inodorous, and the tasto 
bean-like and somewhat bitter. Though known to be poisonous, 
and hence called poiso7i-hean, it is largely used by boys in the 
place of marbles. 

Some time ago (see abstract, Year-Booh of Pharmacu, 1S7<S, 219) 
the seeds attracted attention through the investigation of Dr. 
H. C. Wood, who isolated a poisonous alkaloid, sophorine. The 
authors found the alkaloid both in the testa and in the kernel. 

For proximate analysis the integuments and kernel were used 
separately. The results are tabulated as follows : — 

Percentag-e from 



Testa. 
Extracted by Petroleum Spirit : 
Saponifiable fixed Oil, sp. 

gr. -912 .... 1-3C0 
Extracted by Ether : 

(Resin or Wax) . . . -100 
Extracted by Alcohol : 

Phlobapheno .... 1-000 
Alkaloid, Organic Acids 
(Taunin in Testa), and 
other organic substances . 2-3;jO 
Extracted by Water: 
Inorganic Salts 
Mucilage .... 

Albumen. .... 
Dextrin ..... 
Organic Acid and Colouring 
Matter. .... 
Soluble Arabic Acid f?) . 
Extracted by Caustic Soda : 

Mucilage and Albuminoids . 1200 
Not Precipitated by Acetic 

Acid and Alcohol . . 3-700 

Extracted by Hydrochloric Acid : 

Pararabin .... 3-7i/0 
Insoluble : 

Lignin 0-876 

Residue ..... .5.5-084 

Moisture .... 9-575 



Kernel. 



21 050 



trace. 



2-GlO 



7-510 



1-000 


2 -.300 


4-150 


1-500 


— 


1-750 


1-900 


2-200 


6-900 


6000 


1-050 


C-573 



9-073 

4-2.50 

6-450 

4-380 

14-945 

7-500 



The alkaloid seems to be present in larger proportion in the 
testa than in the kernel. Its aqueous solution gave with potassio- 



204 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

mercuric Iodide a bulky white, and with gold chloride a crystalline 
yellow, precipitate. Sulphuric acid and potassium chromate pro- 
duced at once a muddy brown colour, rapidly changing to light 
green, which slowly faded. Sulphuric acid gave a light, flesh- 
coloured solution ; ferric chloride only a perceptible darkening. 

Catalpa Bignonioides. F. K. Brown. (Amer. Jonrn. Pharm., 
May, 1887.) The seeds were examined by the author, who demon- 
strated the presence of resin, fixed oil, tannin, and sugar, and on 
distilling with water obtained a distillate having somewhat of a 
rancid odour. Two crystalline bodies were obtained by treating 
the powdered seeds with a mixture of ether, alcohol, and ammonia, 
acidulating the concentrated filtrate, removing oil and other im- 
purities with ether, neutralizing with ammonia, and agitating 
"with a mixture of ether and chloroform; on evaporating the 
ethereal solution, needles were left, which w^ere soluble in alcohol, 
ether, and chloroform, insoluble in water, almost tasteless, and 
after boiling with dilute sulphuric acid did not reduce Fehling's 
solution. The aqueous liquid left after treatment with ether 
and chloroform yielded ciystals, which must have contained 
ammonium sulphate, and possibly also a glucoside, since after 
boiling Avith sulphuric acid a reaction with Fehling's solution 
was obtained. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis. S. S. Mell. {Amer. Journ. Pharvi., 
May, 1887.) The author observed that the seeds weigh on an 
average 30 grains, contain 85 per cent, of moisture, and yield 
2"75 per cent, of ash. Petroleum benzin extracts about 10 per 
cent, of fixed oil, which is yellowish, saponifiable, and of the 
sp. gr. 'OIB. Ether extracts a little wax, fat, and ivsin. The 
alcoholic extract amounts to .S"25 per cent., and contains a little 
tannin and a small quantity of glucoside, which can be removed 
from the aqueous solution by chloroform, and which appears to be 
present also in the immatui'c fruit; it has a peculiar odour and 
an acrid, l)urning taste. Tlie seeds contain also mucilage, starch, 
and albuminoids. 

Guilandina Bonduc. F. Heckel and F. Schlagdenhauffen. 
(Compfes Jipudns, ciii. 89.) Fj'om the cotyledons of the yellow 
seeds of this tree the authors have isolated the bitter principle in 
the form of a white powder, which is nearly insoluble in water 
and petroleum benzin, spai'ingly soluble in ether and carbon bi- 
sulphide, and freolv snlul)le in alcohol, acetone, chloroform, and 
glacial acetic acid. Sulphuric acid colours it brown, and after- 
wards purplish red; hydrochloric acid produces a rose colour, and 



MATERIA MKDICA AND PUARMACY. 205 

nitric acid forms witli it a red resin. It has been found efficient 
by Dr. Isnard in intermittent fever, in doses of O'l to 0"2 gm. 

Cucumis Myriocarpus. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. Journ. PJiarm., 
December, 1886.) 

Cucumis Myriocarpus is known iu Southern Africa as cacur. 
The medicinal portion of the plant is the fruit, Avhich is yellow, 
sub-globose, about the size of a large gooseberry, somewhat soft, 
prickly, weighs from 60 to 100 grains, and contains numerous 
seeds. The pulp has a faint cucumber-like odonr and a decidedly 
bitter taste, is soft and viscid, and becomes moi-e fluid on being 
warmed. The Kaffirs use the green fruit as an emetic, heating it 
first, and then squirting the pulp of two fruits into the month, 
when emesis occui's in about fifteen minutes. The rind of the 
fruit and the testa of the seed are slightly bitter ; the embryo is 
tasteless. Dr. G. Armstrong Atkinson (Edinb. Med. Journ., 1886) 
found the pulp to act as a cholagogue purgative when given in 
non-emetic doses. Its emetic action appears to be local, and to be 
followed by purgation in case a sufficient amount of the pulp had 
been retained. 

Constituents of Pumpkin Seed. J. G. Marbourg. {Amer. 
Journ. Pliarm., February, 1887.) The seeds were found to be free 
from starch, and yielded 35 per cent, of a reddish fixed oil, ex- 
tracted by benzol, and 3"05 per cent, of alcoholic extract. 

The ash amounts to 37 per cent, of the air-dry material. 
Water dissolved from the ash 5703 per cent., diluted hydrochloi-ic 
acid 39"59 per cent., and caustic soda 2*03 per cent., leaving 135 
per cent, of insoluble residue. The ash consisted of carbonate, 
phosphate and chloride of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium 
and iron, and silica. 

Phytolacca. W. F. Wagner. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., February, 
1887.) The author found tannin in the berries, but not iu the 
root. The active constituent was not isolated. 

Pharbitis Triloba. M. Schutze. (Pharm. Centralh., June 2, 
1887, 270.) The author has examined the fruit of Pharhitis 
triloba, a convolvulaceous plant indigenous to Japan, and used 
medicinally in that country. He has made the interesting observa- 
tion that this drug contains convolvulin. A preliminary treatment 
of the finely-divided fruit with ether remov^ed a quantity of 
greenish brown extract, consisting principally of fixed oil. The 
residue was then exhausted with alcohol, and from the alcoholic 
extract were obtained, by suitable treatment, a tannin giving 
a green precipitate with salts of iron, a crystalline acid, and a 



206 YEAH-UOOK OF PHARMACY. 

brown resin. This resin, after purification hy precipitation from 
alcoliol and treatment with animal charcoal, was obtained as a 
yellowisli white amorphous mass, yielding on trituration an 
almost odourless, Avhitish powder, which had acid properties, 
iri'itatcd the mucous membrane, and provoked sneezing. The 
resin had a melting-point about 140° C, but first became trans- 
parent at 148° to 150° C, and decomposed at a higher tempera- 
ture. It was freely soluble in alcohol and acetic acid, and almost 
insoluble in water, but in hot water it became softened without 
notable solution. It was dissolved by alkalies, and with heat by 
alkaline carbonates, separating upon the addition of acids as a 
white precipitate. It was insoluble in ether, chloroform, light 
petroleum spirit, benzol, and carbon bisulphide. The resin did 
not reduce Fehling's solution, but exhibited glucosidal properties 
upon boiling it with dilute hydrochloric acid ; it was reddened 
by concentrated sulphuric acid, and when treated "with nitric 
acid it yielded sebacic acid as a decomposition product. In 
these and other characters, as well as in elementally composition, 
it corresponded with convolvulin from jalap root, with which 
body the author considei'S it to be identical. 

Parkia Biglobosa. E. Heckel and F. Schlagdenhauf fen. 
i^Journ. de I'harm. et de Chiin., 1887, 601. From Pharm. Journ.) 
The authors have made an analysis of the fruit of Farkia biglobosa 
i^Legnminoste), which they state is known, in common with kola 
nuts, under the name of " cafe du Soudan." By the natives of 
diffei-ent parts of equatorial Africa, the tree passes under the 
names of " liouUe," "nere," " neretou," " doroa," and " rounuo." 
The pods appear to contain a large quantity of sugnr, yielding to 
boiling alcohol as much as 596 of soluble matter, of which 3925 
is glucose, and 15"65 inverted sugar. 

T:ie Seeds of Abnis Precatorius. S. Martin. {Nature, May 
19, 1887, 70.) Jequii-ity seeds (Abrics pi-ecatorius) have recently 
been examined by the author, who states that he found the saline 
extract of the seeds to contain a globulin identical with that 
occurring in papaw juice, aud belonging to the group of vegetable 
paraglobulins ; also an albumose identical with the a-phyt- 
albumose of the papaw juice, described by the author. He also 
points out that the vegetable paraglobulins differ from the 
myosins in the fact that the latter readily become changed into 
albuminate Avheu the sodium chloride holding them in solution 
has been dialysed away. 



MATEUIA MEDICA AND I'UARMACY. 207 

Rubus Chamaemorus. I. Troitzky. (RussJc. Med., 1886; from 
Ainer. Journ. Phann.). Biibiis cliamcpinorus, known as cloudberry, 
is indigenous to Canada and the White Mountains, to northern 
Asia and northern Europe. The amber-coloured fruit has a 
pleasant acidulous taste. The pubescent and wrinkled leaves 
are about \\ inch long and 2 inches broad, renifoi-m in shaj^e, 
roundish five-lobed, and erenatelj dentate, have an unpleasant 
sweet, afterwards bitter, taste, and are popularly used in Siberia 
in various urinary complaints. Recently the leaves have been 
recommended by the author as an excellent diuretic in dropsies, 
in the form of infusion prepared from a di'achm of the bruised 
leaves by digestion with a cupful of boiling water ; this quantity 
is taken morning and evening for about a month ; the taste is 
stated to be not very unpleasant, and the patient to become 
habituated to this tea. 

Call Nuts. E. Merck., (^Fhann. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 686.) 
Under the name of " cali nuts," seeds have been recently met 
with in commerce which, according to the author, pi-esent a great 
similarity to the calabar bean. The external appearance and the 
anatomical structure leave no doubt that they are derived from a 
papilionaceous plant, belonging to the tribe Phaseolecv, but nothing 
m.ore definite is known as to their origin, except that, like calabar 
beans, they come from the West African coast. The only super- 
ficial distinction between the cali nut and the calabar bean is said 
to be that, whilst the length of the latter is always greater than 
the breadth, the former is rounder. It has been ascertained that 
the cali nut contains an alkaloid which chemically and physio- 
logically behaves like physostigmine, and coi'responds with it in 
composition. 

Californian Buckthorns used in Medicine. J. G. Steele. (Phar- 
maceutical Record, February 1, 1887, and Pharrn. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 823.) T le. paper contains notices of Rharnnus alnifoUa, R. 
Purshiana, R. crocea, and R. californica. For pai'ticulai's refei-ence 
must be made to the original article. 

Eugenia Jambolana. G. C. Kingsbury. {Brit. Med. Journ., 
March 19, 1887, 617.) The seeds of this plant have been tried 
by the author as a I'emedy for diabetes, with s jme degree of 
success. In a case which had lasted for six months, and in which 
the patient was quite prostrate and suifering from great thirst, 
the administi^ation of 5 grains six times in twenty-four hours for 
a fortnight removed the abnormal tliirst and hunger, and enabled 
the patient to get up and walk for an hour at a time. 



208 YEAK-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Constituents of Cacao Shells. P. S. Clarkson. (Amer. Journ. 
Fhanii., Juue, 18S7.) The author's analysis shows the following 
composition : — 

Per cent. 

Ash 9-07 

Moisture 6G-0 

Petroleum Extract, Cacao Butter . . . 5-32 

Ether Extract, Resin -93 

Alcohol (absolute) Extract : Alkaloid, "90, 

colouring matter, 4'70 .... 5'GO 
Distilled Water Extract : Mucilage, 5-CO, Al- 
buminoids, -70 6-30 

Dilute Soda Extract, Albuminoids. . . 7"90 

Total Albuminoids by combustion 10-92 

Dilute Acid Extract, Calcium Oxalate, etc. . G-00 

Loss by Chlorine, Lignin, etc. . . . 12"60 

Hydrocellulose, etc. ..... I-4'IO 

Cellulose 20-92 



95-34 
Undetermined matter and loss . . . 4-66 



10000 



The Ash of some Pharmaceutically Important Seeds, Fruits, etc. 

H. Wai'neoke. (Fhartnaceutische Zet'/Mnr/, September 8, 1886; 
Fharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 330.) The following figures refer 
to the air-dried substance, and give the average of several closely 
concordant analytical results : — 

Per cent. 

Semen Colcbici ...... 2-66 

Sabadillas 3-45 

Myristicaj* 2-00 

Macis . 1-39 

,, after removal of 3U-13 per cent, of Eat 2-74 

Semen Stapbisagria) ..... 9-88 

Nigclkt 3-67 

,, Siuapis alba) 4-63 

,, llapte 4-36 

„ Gossypii arborei 4-49 

Cotton Seed Flour 6-85 

Pasta Guarana ...... 1-36 

Semen CydouiiB ...... 3-55 

,, Abri precatorii 2-79 

* By boiling pulv. sem. myristicie with benzol for two hours in a return con- 
denser, 41-25 per cent, of fat was removed. The dried residual powder gave 
3-77 per cent, of ash. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



209 



the 



Semen Tonco . 
,, Hyoscyami . 
,, Belladonna . 
„ Strycliui 
,, Ignatii . 
,, Cucurbitae 
Fructus Cardamomi 
Cubebfp .... 
Fructus Cannabis 

Cocculi 

Anisi stellati 

Anisi religiosi 

Colffi . 

Aurantii immaturi 
Flavedo Fructus Aurantii 
Cortex Fructus Aurantii, with 

tissue removed . 
Cortex Fructus citri 

„ Fructus BelaB Indicse 
Pulpa Fructus Belaj Indicje 
Fructus Anacardii occidentalis 

Anacardii orientalis 

Khamni cathartici maturi 

Rhamni cathartici immatur 

Petroselini . 

Carui . 

Ajowan 

Anisi . 

Fcenieuli 

Dauci silvestris . 

Cumini 

Conii . 

Coriandri 

Pimentaj 

Capsici 
Piper Cayenneuse . 



hite 



Per ceut. 

. 3-57 

. 4-51 

. 2-22 

. 1-14 

. 2-34 

, 2-88 

. 0-12 

. 5-45 

. 4-83 

, 5-20 

. 2-16 

, 2-02 

. 2-53 

. 5-85 

. 3-90 

. 5-28 

. 3o5 

. 2 08 

. 3-72 

, 1-64 

. 2-14 

. 2-80 

, 3-67 

, 7 04 

, 5-27 

10-45 

6-70 

7-25 

596 

809 

G-69 

5-21 

4-00 

, 4-66 

4-54 



GlanduVe LujouU are required by the Pharmacopoea Germanica 
to contain less than 10 per cent, of ash, but the author has not 
met with any sample that answered to this requirement.* All 
the samples were contaminated with sand, which upon shaking- 
with chloroform sank to the bottom, the glands floating above. A 
sample from Wiggers's collection left upon combustion 15-33 per 
cent, of residue, whilst other samples, from various pharmacists 
and drag houses, gave 18'14, 236, and even 44"76 per cent.; of the 
last mentioned, 4 to 5 per cent, dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the 
* The British Pharmacopoeia allows 15 per cent. 



2J0 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

remainder being admixed sand. In order to ascertain the true ash 
content of hop glands, the author tried to free a quantity from sand 
by washing it with water six times in a large beaker. After 
drying over sulphui'ic acid, the lupulin gave upon incineration an 
average of 1081 per cent, of residue, which still contained some 
sand adherent to the sticky glands. Fliickiger found in a good 
sample, dried in a water-bath, 7'7 per cent, of ash. 

In conclusion, the author estimates the ash in ipecacuanha root 
at 198 per cent. ; the wood giving 1'37 per cent., and the bark 
2'25 per cent. 

Proportion of Ash in Some Drugs. H. Trimble. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., 1887, 278.) J. A. Ferguson determined the amount of 
ash in three sample of Ceylon cinnamon with the following results : — 
No. 1, 4-00 per cent. ; No. 2, 4-00 per cent. ; No. 3, 5-00 per cent 

Four samples of powdered cassia yielded respectively : No. 1, 
2-8 per cent. ; No. 2, 2'5 per cent. ; No. 8, 4'6 per cent. ; No. 4, 
5"00 per cent. 

In the first series No. 1 was certainly, and No. 2 pi'obably, pure, 
while No. 3 was regarded as adulterated. Of the cassia samples, 
Nos. 3 and 4 were certainly adulterated. No. 1 pure, and No. 2 
pi'obably pure. Nos. 1 in either case may be taken as standards. 

R. C. Werner examined five samples of ground mustard {Sinapis 
alba). No. 1, which was ascertained to be quite pure, yielded 
6'00 per cent, of ash ; No. 2, 500 per cent. ; No. 3, 4-50 per cent. ; 
No. 4, 4 25 per cent. ; No. 5, 525 per cent, of ash. J]ach of the 
last four gave abundant evidence of starch. This was the only 
adulterant present. 

G. Steiumann examined seven samples of poivdered squill. The 
ash amounted from No. 1, to SSO per cent. ; No. 2, to 8'20 per 
cent. ; No. 3, to 2-70 per cent. ; No. 4, to 3"95 per cent. ; No. 5, to 
3-65 per cent. ; No. 6, to 330 per cent. ; No. 7, to 4*00 per cent. 
No. 1 was known to be pure. The ash of No. 2 consisted largely 
of calcium sulphate, which ]ioints to an admixture of about five per 
cent, of gypsum, added, no doubt, to prevent the " caking," as well 
as to cheapen. No. 3 contained starch, and Nos. 4, 5, and 6 were 
probably pure, a difference in the amount of moisture would 
account for the variation in ash. No. 7 contaijied starch, and 
probably some other impurity, or the ash would have been less 
from the presence of starch, instead of liigher than the average. 

Some Plants of Afghanistan, and their Medicinal Products. 
J. E. T. Aitchison. {I'harin. Jonrn., 3rd series, xvii. 4G5.) This 
paper contains notices of the following plants : — Ferula foetida syn. 



^ MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 211 

F. Scorodosma and Scorodosma f(jetidurii ; JDorenia Ammoniacum ; 
Ferula Galhaniflna; Ferula suaveolens ; Tracliydium Lehmanii sjii. 
Freynodaucus Lehmanii, and Alhertia tnargaritifera ; Psammogeton 
setifoliuvi ; Cotoneaster nummularia ; Alhagi Camelorum ; Tamarix 
gallica, var. mannifera ; Salsola fcetida ; Glycyrrhiza glabra and 

G. glanduUfera ; Astragalus heratensis and A. strohiliferus ; Bheum 
songaricum ; Orchis laxiflora and 0. latifoUa; Microrhynchus spinosus; 
Delphinium Zalil ; Papaver somniferum; Merendera Persica ; and 
Colchicum luteum. For particulars, reference slionld be made to 
the original article, wliicli is not suited for condensation. 

Drugs of Mauritius. (Ghem. and Drug., from Jonrn. Soc. Arts.) 
Medicinal plants have been but little studied in Mauritius. A 
remedy for dysentery is sought in the ipica sauvage or ijyica du p)ays 
(Tylopiho7-a asthmatica) . A decoction of the slender thread-like 
stem of the parasitic tsihitrafototra (Cassytha Jiliformis) is given for 
intestinal derangement, and as a tonic for scrofulous and rachitic 
infants. An oleoresin, resembling elemi, probably produced by 
Ganarium Colophania, is employed in the form of plaster as a 
detersive. The yellow juice which flows from the incised stems of 
the guava {Psidium piomiferum) is used as an application to ring- 
worm, and a skin disease called tampa.ne. The wood of the shrub 
liayie poilly (Fmhelia micrantha') is administered as a tonic, and 
given in decoction for nephritis. The leaves and seed of the sogar 
gota or cadoque {^Gcesalinnia Bonducella) are used for certain diseases, 
and the seeds, powdered and mixed with pepper, constitute a 
febrifuge. Small senna (Cassia occidentalis) is used in asthma, 
and as a fomentation in some skin diseases. A decoction of the 
root possesses diuretic properties, and the leaves are used by the 
negroes, when smeared with a little candle-grease, as a substitute 
for adhesive plaster. 

Indian Drugs. E. Bgasse. {Journ. Soc. Ghem. Ind., 1887, 49.) 
Ghasviantera cordifolia (Goccuhis GordifoUus). — Under the names 
of gulaucha, guloe, and giloe, this plant flouiishes in India, the drug 
being sold extensively in the bazaars as a tonic and antiperiodic, 
in the form of cylindrical pieces, 2-.5 cm. long and 1-5 cm. in 
diameter. It is a perennial creeper, climbing to the summit of the 
highest trees, its branches putting forth roots which, reaching 
to the ground, initiate a fresh growth ; roots, stem, and leaves are 
equally in demand as a drug. The Indian pharmacopoeia commends 
its use as a tincture (4-8 c.c. in die) ; as an extract (O'G gm. to 
1 gm. per diem, in the form of pills) ; and as an infusion (1 : 10), 
of which 60 c.c. to 90 c.c. are to be taken thrice a day. The stems 



212 YEAR-ROOK OP PHARMACV. 

contain berberine, an nncrystallizable bitter substance changed by 
dilute sulphuric acid into a glucoside, and a bitter kind of starch 
meal, known as " palo." 

Toddalia aculeata (Patdlinia aculeata), one of the family of 
Rntaceo', flourishes on the coast of Coromandel, in southern China, 
Ceylon, Java, and the isles of Maui'itius and Bourbon. All parts 
of the plant possess an acrid flavour when fresh ; the leaves are 
employed to relieve pains in the bowels ; and the fruit, when ripe, 
is used as a substitute for pepper, w^hilst after drying it is made 
into vinegar by the natives. The root has long been used as a 
stimulant and febrifuge, the Indian pharmacopoeia recommending 
a tincture and an infusion, in doses of 10 c.c. of the former, or 
3 grams to 60 grams of the latter, twice or thrice in the day. 
Notable quantities of a resinous body, an ethei^eal oil, in flavour 
recalling oil of cinnamon, and a bitter substance, are found in the 
outer portions of the roots. 

Agaricus Albus. A.Peter. (Amcr. Journ. Pharm., Fehmary, 
1887, from Medical Neivs.) Agaricus albus has been successfully 
used by the author for relieving the sweating of consumptives. 
Ten grains given at bed-time had a cathartic effect ; but given in 
live-grain doses no such effect was observed, and in about a week 
all sweating ceased. When a return of the night sweats is 
threatened, relief is again afforded by the remedy, w'hich has no 
effect upon the cough. 

Agaric acid, in doses of yVth to ^th grain, has been similarly 
employed. 

The Chief Constituents of Polyporus Officinalis. J. Schmieder. 
(Pharm. Journ., 3rd scries, xvii. 1&2.) The chief constituents 
detected in larch agaric (white agaric) are agaricol, Cjq Hjj H ; 
cholesterin, cetylic alcohol, an acid isomeric Avith ricinolic acid, 
and having the formula CjgH.^jOg-, several resins, an aromatic 
alcohol, having the formula Cg Hjg O, a nitrogenous body, pro- 
bably an albuminoid, succinic acid, and malic acid. 

Bovista Gigantsea. F. Nettlefold, (Chemical Netcs, April 
29, 1887.) The reputation as a styptic of the dried fungus in 
rural pharmacy induced the author to make an mvestigation of 
the ash. 

These are dome-shaped, stalkle.ss fungi, growing close to the 
ground in masses of the more luxuriant grass, which it is possible 
the mineral matter they collect from the soil may help to flourish. 

Their size is about 12-16" diameter. They are invested in a 
tough membranous integument, containing chiefly cellular tissue. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACT. 213 

Dry substance at 100 . . . 8-35 per cent. 

Water 91-65 

Ash 0-571 „ 

,, on the dry substance. . . 6-36 „ 

Analysis of the Ash. 

Calculated on Plant. Calculated on Residue. 

Insoluble residue in H CI, 00 . — 



Alumina . 




0107 . 


15-66 per cent. 


Magnesia . 


. 


0-020 , 


2-93 „ 


H., S O4 . 


. 


0-060 , 


8-79 „ 


SiOo 




0-003 . 


0-41 „ 


Ca 0, mere 


traces 


— 


— 


Phosphate of Soda . 


0-381 , 


. 72-18 „ 



It is noticeable that pliosphate of soda is used to stop heinor- 
rhage ; and it may be owing to this substance that its reputation 
is due. 

The solution is 6f an orange colour, and exhales the odour of 
urea when heated. 

Irish Moss as an Emulsifier. A. Tscheppe. {Pharm. Record, 
March 15, 1887. From Pharm. Journ.) The author calls atten- 
tion to the advantages presented by decoction of Irish moss 
for preparing an emulsion of cod-liver oil. He uses a decoction 
made at a water-bath temperature, and strained, with the moss 
in the proportion of one drachm to iive fluid ounces of water, 
with which he says an emulsification can hardly fail. The formula 
recommended is : — Decoction of moss, five parts ; glycerine, two 
parts ; alcohol, one part ; flavour with oil of winter-green and oil 
of bitter almonds, and when cold add cod-liver oil, eight parts, 
in three portions, shaking vigorously after each addition. The 
glycerine and alcohol are introduced for preserving and sweeten- 
ing only, and play no pai't in the emulsification. 

Irish Moss as a Substitute for Gum Acacia in Pharmacy. P. 
Boa. {Pharm. Jotirn., 3rd series, xvii. 942, 943.) The author 
recommends a mucilage made from Irish moss either by boiling 
or by cold maceration. Such a mucilage he finds useful for many 
purposes for which gum acacia is used at pi-esent, and especially 
for making emulsions with cod-liver oil, confirming in this respect 
the observations made by A. Tscheppe (see preceding absti-act) . 

Gelosin. M. Guerin. (Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., xiv. 318.) 
Gelosin is a mucilaginous substance extracted from Gelidium 
cornetim, an alga of Japan, and is found in commerce as dry, 
whitish fragments, extremely flexible. Gelosin forms an excellent 



214 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



vehicle for the administration of soluble medicaments or for 
making suppositories, cataplasms, bougies, etc. The author has 
presented to the Societe de therapeutique, of Paris, some speci- 
mens of gelosin m.edicated with camphor, creasote, sulphate of 
zinc, turpeth mineral, cocaine, extract of belladonna, iodoform, 
corrosive sublimate, carbolic acid, coal tar, etc. To manipulate 
this substance, all that is required is to add an equal weight of 
warm water to dissolve it, and then to incorporate with it the 
m.edicament. Conveniently sterilized gelosin might be advan- 
tageously employed in bacteriological researches. 

Kava Resin. L. Lew in. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
508.) The author reports some further experiments with kava 
resin, or lewinin. He finds that the injection of six or seven 
minims of a solution produces a complete loss of sensibility in the 
surrounding area, which does not pass off for five days. The 
anaesthesia thus obtained is so extreme, that even strong induced 
currents fail to produce more than a slight pricking sensation. 
When a small quantity of the resin is placed on the tip of the 
tongue, the bittei^est medicine cannot be tasted. 

Notes on the Pharmacy of Chian Turpentine. H. Campbell. 
(Pliarm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. -ii-").) Cliian turpentine has been 
exhibited in the form of pills, and of an emulsion. The finely 
divided state in which it exists in the emulsion renders it more 
likely to be absorbed (when swallowed) than if it is given in the 
pilular form. 

The emulsion should contain an invariable proportion of the 
purified oleo-resin, and must be freed from the ether used in the 
process. 

To do this the author prepares an ethereal tincture, ascertains 
the strength of it, converts it into an emulsion, and exposes in an 
open vessel, with frequent stirring, until all the ether has gone off. 

To make the ethereal tinctui-e : — 

Put any convenient quantity of the tm-pcntine into a Avide- 
mouthed bottle, with an equal bulk of ether, cork tightly and 
shake frequently, until all soluble matter has dissolved, set aside 
until the ethereal liquid has become bright, dccnnt it, and evapo- 
rate half a fluid ounce in a tared evaporating dish — at first in a 
cui-rent of air; finally exposing to a very gentle heat for a minute 
or two (the heat of warm water is suflicicnt if the dish be rotated). 

When the ether has gone off, weigh the dish and its contents, 
deduct the weight of the former, and thus ascertain the quantity 
of pui'e oleo-resin in each half-ounce of tincture. 



MATERIA- MEDICA AND PHAEMACY. 215 

Tlie standaixltzed tincture may of course be kept for any length 
of time, and the emulsion made from it as required. 

To prepare the emulsion : — 

Place in a large mortar, 240 grains of pulv. acaciae and 50 grains 
of pulv. tragacanth., add as much ethereal solution as contains 
240 grains of the turpentine, mix, and add all at once a fluid ounce 
of water ; triturate until an emulsion is formed, then dilute gradu- 
ally to eight fluid ounces. Two drachms will contain seven and a 
half grains of the pure drug, the iTSual initial dose. 

Remove all traces of ether by exposure, with frequent stii'ring, 
in an open vessel, preferably in the cold. 

The removal of all the ether is important, because the dose of 
emulsion is gradually increased, and the treatment continued for 
a considerable time. 

Examination of the so-called Spruce-Gum. A. F. Menges. 
{Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 6.5, QC)?) The so-called spruce- 
gum of commerce is the balsamic exudation of Ahies nigra, the 
black or double spruce, which, according to Gray, occiirs in swamps 
and cold mountain woods from New England to Wisconsin and 
northward, and southward along the mountains. The source of 
this commercial article was traced by Prof. E. L. Patch a few 
years since {New Bemedies, January, 1882, 23), and was then 
definitely referred to the above tree, although it was also stated 
that a much smaller quantity is produced by Ahies alba, the so- 
called white spruce, but none from Ahies Canadensis, or the hemlock 
spruce, which afl^ords the U. S. officinal Canada pitch or hemlock 
pitch. The method of collecting spruce-gum has already been 
fully described (abstract, Year-Boole of Pharmacy, 1886, 218). 

In the present paper a full description is given by the au'hcr 
of a number of experiments, the results of which show that the 
so-called spruce-gum differs in many respects from the other bal- 
samic exudations of the Coniferse which have as yet been chemi- 
cally examined. For particulars reference should be made to the 
source above quoted, as the paper does not admit of abstraction. 

A New Constituent of Asafcetida. E. Schmidt. {ArcMv d-er 
Pharm. [3], xxiv. 534, 535.) The constituent referred to is 
vanillin, which was extracted in small quantities by the following 
process : — The powdered asafcetida was repeatedly exhausted with 
ether, the filtrate shaken up with concentrated hydrogen sodium 
sulphite solution, and the liquid thus obtained supersaturated with 
dilute sulphuric acid. After expelling sulphurous anhydride, the 
extraction with ether and subsequent treatment was repeated, and 



216 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

a third extraction made. After removing the ether by distillation, 
the resulting vanillin was dissolved in water, and the filtered solu- 
tion allowed to evaporate over sulphuric acid. Well-formed 
crystals were thus obtained. 

The Testing of Balsams, Resins, and Gum Resins. (Phann. 
Zeitung, August II, 1880, 4:77. From Fharm. Journ.) Dieterich, 
and, more recently, A. Kremel have attempted to extend the 
Kottstorfer method of examining fats and oils to the testing of 
substances included in the groups of balsams, resins, and gum 
resins. The leading idea in Kottstorfer's method, it will be re- 
membered, is that in fats and oils, besides fi-ee fat acids, there are 
present glycerine ethers of fat acids. By titration it is ascertained 
how much potassium hydrate is required by a unit of the fat or 
oil to combine with the free acid, and, further, how much is used 
up in the saponification of the gljxerine ether. The former 
quantity is distinguished as the acid number, the latter as the ether 
number, and the sum of the two as the saponification number. 
Quite similar data are yielded by balsams, resins, and gum resins, 
as all these substances contain free acids mixed with varieties of 
ethers. 

The determination of these bodies may, therefore, be carried out 
in a manner quite analogous to the Kottstorfer method. About one 
gram of the substance to be examined is dissolved in alcohol free 
from acid reaction, some drops of phenolphthalein added, and then 
titrated with half-normal potash solution until there is a permanent 
red coloration. The quantity of caustic potash used for one gram 
of the substance is taken in milligrams, and this is called the acid 
number. In those substances whore ether is present in addition to 
acid, a definite portion of the liquid is heated Avith excess of half- 
uoi-mal potash solution, and then titrated back with hydrochloric 
acid. The quantity of alkali used is calculated to one gi-am of the 
substance, and the number of the milligi-ams similarly taken as 
the ether number. The sum of the two gives the saponification 
number. 

In the examination of substances not completely soluble in 
alcohol, they aix; dissolved with the aid of ether-alcohol or ether- 
chloroform, (lum resins are first exhausted in a Soxhlet ap- 
paratus with alcohol, and the alcoholic cxti*act, after drying and 
weighing, is estimated ; the numbers obtained are not calculated 
in respect to the whole of the substance originally taken, but only 
for the quantity of resin soluble in alcohol. In the determination 
of light coloured substances, the use of phenolphthalein presents no 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



217 



difficulty ; with dark-coloured substances, such as peru balsam, 
guaiacum resin, etc., the difficulty is overcome by adding water to 
the alcoholic solution up to the point of milky turbidit}^, and then 
dropping in alternately potash solution and, after shaking, phenol- 
phthalein, the end reaction being easily recognised by the formation 
of a red ring upon the surface of the milky liquid. In some cases 
(copal and sandarac) there is a formation of precipitate after the 
addition of pota.sh solution, due to the potassium salts of the par- 
ticular resin acids being difficultly soluble in alcohol ; when this 
occurs, the addition of water will redissolve the precipitate. 

The following table, giving the results of the examination of 
different balsams, shows that a conclusion could be very well 
di^awn from numbers obtained as to the nature of a sample. For 
instance, an addition of gurjun balsam to copaiba balsam would 
very considerably lower the acid number of the latter. 





1 gi-am 


Substance = mg 


.KOH. 


Balsams. 










Acid 


Ether 


Saponification 




Number. 


Number. 


Number. 


Balsamum Canadense 


83 




_ 


,, ,, 


81-3 


— 


— 


,, CopaivjE Maracaibo . . . 


73-75 


— 


— 


). 1, n ... 


76 


— 


— 


,, Cop. Mar. from Capaifera 








iiitida 


78-7 


— 


— 


,, Copaivffi Maturiu .... 


77-1 


— 


— 


,, ,, Para 


29-6 


— - 


— 


„(?)..•. 


78-2 


— 


— 


,, Dipterocarpi (Gurjun Bals.) 


20 


— 


— 


»i )i )) )) 


19-8 


— 


— 


•1 )> i> .. 


14-2 


— 


— 


M 


5-8 


— 


— 


,, Mecca 


4o-l 


— ■ 


— 


,j ij 


51-8 


— 


— 


,, Peruvianum 


40-4 


189-8 


230-2 


,, 


40-8 


199-2 


240-0 




49-4 


181-1 


230-5 


,, ,, from Mj'roxylon 








Peruiferum 


36-7 


104-9 


141-6 


„ Tolu 


127-2 


26-7 


153-9 


,j ,, 


100-6 


58-7 


159-3 


Terebinthiu. coram 


128-7 


— 


— 


„ ,, 


124-4 


— 


— 


,, Tenet 


68-4 


— 


— 


,, ,, 


70-3 


— 


— 


,, Chia 


47-8 


— 


— 


j^ ,, 


53-4 


— 


— 


Styrax \h{xih\ 


47-6 


31-9 


79-0 


,, Alcohol, depur 


61-0 


7C-0 


137-0 



218 



YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 



The important kinds of resins are also distinguishable from one 
another bj considerable differences in the figures, as will be seen 
from the followinof table : — 





1 gram 


Substance = mg 


KHO. 


Resins. 










Acid 


Ether 


Saponification 




Number. 


Kumber. 


Number. 


Benzoin, Siam 


141-4 


55-4 


196-5 


,, Penang 


122-2 


57-0 


179-2 


,, Sumatra 


;)60 


60 9 


156-9 


Colophoninm, light 


163-2 


— 


— 


,, dark 


1.51-1 


— 


— 


,, auicric 


178-0 


— 


— 


„ anglic 


100 1 


— 


— 


Copal . ■ 


182 


— 


— 


„ afric 


147-8 


— 


— 


,, indie 


140-2 


— 


— 


,, brasil 


127-4 


— 


— 


,, from Guibourtia copalifcra . 


128-9 


— 


— 


,, Zanzibar 


85-3 


— 


— 


ij ,1 


80-0 


. — 


— 


Damar 


810 
34 3 
34 2 


— 









,, from Damara orient. . , . 





,, blanc from Yateri;i indica . 


15-4 


— 


— 


Elemi, Manilla 


8-0 


24-2 


27-2 


Elemi 


17-6 
13-4 


7-8 
64-6 


25-4 


Enpborbiuni 


78-0 


Guaiaciim 


23-28 


— 


— 


^j 


44-0 





— 


Jalapin 


14-7 


172-9 


187-6 


Jalap resin 


12-9 


119-8 


132-7 


,j J, 


121 


120-7 


132-8 


Lacca in granis (ale. dcpnr.) . . . 


— 


— 


174-8 


Shellac, white 


73-7 


102-8 


176-5 


,, vellow 


(55-5 


50-2 


115-7 


Mastic 


(U-8 

90-9 

142-2 


— 









Fix burgund 


— 


Kesina I'ini 


77-8 


— 


— 


,, ,, (alcoh. dcp.) .... 


102-6 


— 


— 


Sandarac 


144-2 


— 


— 


Scammonium e radice 


14-6 


1710 


185-6 


,, Aleppo 


8-2 


1720 


180-2 


Succinum 


34-4 


74-5 


108-9 


" 


33-4 


91-1 


124-5 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 
'With srum resins tlie indications are not so useful : — 



219 







1 gram 


Resin = mg. 


KHO. 




Per cenD. 

of 

Resin. 








Gum Resin. 


Acid 
Number. 


Ether 
Number. 


Saponification 
Number. 


Ammoniacum, afric. . . . 


77-6 


59 


123-0 


182-0 


,, persic . . . 


67-7 


1120 


30-6 


142-6 


» ), • • • 


67-1 


110-0 


500 


160-0 




70-7 


100-0 


50-6 


150-6 


Asafoetida 


721 


26-8 


145-2 


172-0 





3o-6 


54-8 


182-1 


236-9 


Bdellium 


48-6 


26-0 


34-7 


607 


Galbanum 


74-3 


28-3 


119-3 


147-6 




74-2 


28-0 


132-2 


100-2 


Gamboge 

Myrrha, indica 


79-6 
30-7 


100-0 
421 


56-7 
130-8 


156-7 
172-9 


Myrrha 


39-5 


64-0 
60-2 


95-0 
116-5 


1590 
176-7 




— 


70-3 


145-8 


216-1 


Olibanum 


_ 


69-3 


6-6 


65-9 




7-21 


46-8 


410 


87-8 


„ indicum .... 


670 


50-3 


60-5 


110-8 



The titration of a gum resin is best effected by mixing- one gram 
of the substance with some indifferent body (powdered gypsum 
by preference), and extracting it with 95 per cent, alcohol. The 
residue from evaporation of the alcoholic extract, which gives the 
percentage of resin, is then redissolved in 50 c.c. of alcohol ; half 
of the solution is used in the acid determination, and the remain- 
der in the other determination, the quantity of potash used being 
calculated to the gi^am of pure resin. The numbers obtained with 
gum resins were not very concordant, whilst the differences be- 
tween the different kinds are not so great as with the resins. At 
present, therefore, it seems that titration will only have a limited 
application to the determination of gum resins. 

Commercial Jalapin and Jalap Resin. E. White. (Pharm. 
Journ., 3rd series, 1887, 650.) Seven samples of commercial jalapin 
were found by the author to contain between 3"5 and IZ per cent, of 
ether-soluble resin, while an eighth sample was completely soluble 
in ether, and was probably derived from Tampico jalap. The 
moisture present in the samples, which were in powder and nearly 
white, amounted to between 2 and 5 per cent., and the alcohol- 
solable resin, between 87'8 and 94<'8 per cent. 

Commercial jalap resin was likewise examined, six samples 
yielding the following results : — 



220 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Sol. in Ether. Sol. in Alcohol. Sol. in "Water. 

7-8 . . 88-2 . . trace. 

7-2 . . 89-2 . . none. 

8-4 . . 72--4 . . 16-6 

77-8 . . 16-6 . . 31 

25-6 . . 72-0 . . trace. 

46-0 . . 50-4 . . none. 

The ether-soluble resins Avere in all cases plastic and tenacious. 
Only two of the six resins correspond to the requirements of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Guaiacum as an Emmenagogue. J. Sawyer. (Chemist and 
Druggist. From Birmingham Med. Eev.) The author states that 
he has given guaiacum in a large number of cases, and regards the 
drug as aii active remedy in promoting the menstrual secretion in 
amenorrhoea. It appears most efficient, when given alone, in those 
cases in which the cause of the complaint is obscure. He gives 10 
gi'ains of powdered guaiacum, in a wineglassful of milk, every 
morning before breakfast. The remedy may thus be given safely 
for some weeks. In a few cases the drug causes a little abdominal 
pain and purging, which disappeared on the remedy being stopped 
for a short time. In some cases of dysmenorrhoea guaiacum has 
been found to possess considerable curative efficacy. The ammo- 
niated tincture of guaiacum is a reliable remedy when given 
dui-ing the painful period. From half a drachm to a drachm may 
be given as a dose in a wineglassful of water every two or three 
hours until the pain is relieved. 

Curapoa Aloin. W. S too dor. (Nicnw. Tijdschrift v. de Pharvi. 
Neder, 1887, 98. From Fharm. Journ.) The aloin of Cura9oa aloes 
has been examined by the author. It was obtained by Tilden's 
method ; 250 grams of the aloes were dissolved in 2 litres of water, 
containing 1 per cent, of sulphuric acid, and the solution after 
twenty-four hours was decanted fi^om the resinous deposit which had 
formed, and was evaporated on a water-bath to half its volume. 
In a few days a crystalline crust had formed, which, drained, 
pressed between blotting paper, and re-ci-ystallized from spirit of 
92 per cent., afforded sulphur-yellow, microscopic, obtuse needles. 
The yield of aloin thus obtained was 5"5 per cent. It is odourless, 
has a bitter taste, melts when heated, becoming black and diffusing 
an odour of caramel, and then burns, leaving no ash. It is 
moderately soluble in water, very soluble in spirit, and in pure 
ether and chloroform almost insoluble. The solution in water is 
of a light yellow colour ; ammonia makes it darker and then red. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 221 

When the aqueous solution is heated, the upper layer becomes 
red, and this colour spreads quickly throupfh the solution, turning 
to Tvine-red, indicating oxidation to aloetin. It quickly reduces 
Fehling's solution when warmed. Sulphuric and nitric acids 
colour it a pure red, but on stirring the mixture it becomes yellow. 
If then the vapour of fuming nitric acid be passed over it, a 
greyish blue colour is produced, which, however, quickly dis- 
appears. Bromo-bromide of potassium gives an abundant pre- 
cipitate in an aqueous solution of Cura^oa aloin. Solution of 
tannin gives no precipitate. It thus resembles nataloin in the 
effect produced on it by fuming nitric acid, and is like bai'balion 
and socaloin in the formation of a bromo- derivative, but differs 
from barbaloin in not givins' a precipitate with tannin. 

Note on a Sample of Galbanum from Ferula Galbaniflua. E. G. 
Baker. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 468.) The gum-resin 
reported upon consisted of agglutinated tears of a white or reddish 
brown colour, usually compact and hard, but softening if held in 
the hand. 

When broken it presents a dull, white, waxy fracture resembling 
ordinary ammoniacum; in fact, judging fi'om external appearances, 
it might easily be mistaken for a sample of that drug. 

The odour is peculiar, but not unpleasant. Mixed with the 
gum-resin portions of the stem from which it was obtained were 
found. 

The analysis gives the following results : — 



Volatile Oil . . . 

Ether extractive "^ t, ■ 
.1,1 . > Resin. 

Alconol extractive J 

Water extractive, Gum 

Insoluble matter 



Grams. Per cent. 
•1554 = 3 108 

3-0600 = 61-200- 
•3788 = 7-576 
•8514 = 17-028 
•5-280 = 10-560 



4-9736 



Note on the Estimation of Morphine in Opium. J. O. Braith- 
waite and E. H. Farr. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 398.) 
The author's experiments justify the conclusion that the official 
process of the Pharmacopoeia for assaying opium may be much 
accelerated, without impaii-ing its accuracy in the slightest degree, 
by reducing the time for standing from twelve hours to two hours. 

Assay of Opium. C. M. Stillwell. {Amer. Cliem. Journ., viii. 295- 
308.) The author's method differs from those of Fliickiger and 
Squibb in a number of details. The sampling must be very care- 



222 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

fullj conducted, and the whole made homogeneous by rolling with 
the hands on a slab of glass, in case the opium is soft ; but by 
grinding with or without additional drying if it be hard. About 
10 grams of the sample is broken up with 100 c.c. of water in a 
beaker, and when completely disintegrated allowed to remain some 
hours ; a few drops of sulphuric acid may be added. The solution 
is filtered and the residue washed with about 20 c.c. of water, then 
returned to the beaker, digested for some minutes with 30 c.c. of 
water, again filtered, and this process repeated twice more. The 
washings are first concentrated at a gentle heat on a water-bath, 
then the stronger solution is added, and the whole evaporated to 
about 25 c.c. When cold, 5 c.c. of alcohol (sp. gr. 0'82) is added, 
and the whole ti-ansferred to an Erlenmeyer's fiask, using 5 to 10 
c.c. of wash water ; 5 c.c. of alcohol, and finally 30 c.c. of ether, arei 
added with gentle shaking ; any precipitate that may form is to be 
disregarded, as it is removed afterwards, 4 c.c. of ammonia solution 
(sp. gr. 0'960) is added, the flask closed Avith a cork moistened 
with ether, and at once shaken until the morphine separates, when 
it is allowed to remain twelve hours. 

The ethereal layer is decanted on to a small filter, the flask 
rinsed several times with 10 c.c. of water without shaking, and 
these rinsings also decanted on to the filter; the aqueous portion 
is then filtei*ed, the ciystals removed from the flask, and the whole 
washed with morphiated spirit (1 part of strong ammonia and 20 
parts of alcohol, the whole saturated with morphine, namely, 0'33 
per cent.) ; secondly, with morphiated water (containing O'O-i per 
cent.) ; again with morphiated spirit, and finally twice with 10 c.c. 
of ether to remove all narcotine. The paper is dried at 100°. The 
mother-liquor and the first washings of ether and morphiated spirit 
are treated with 3 c.c. of ammonia in a closed flask, and again 
allowed to remain to make sure of the precipitation being complete. 
The chief impurity in the morphine so obtained is calcium 
meconate, and some organic matters insoluble in water and alcohol ; 
the purification i.s effected by treating the dried and weigheel pre- 
cipitate with hot alcohol of 95 per cent. ; after removing the bulk 
of it to a beaker, the paper and residue, after thorough extraction 
with hot alcohol, are dried and weighed, thus giving the weight of 
the pure morphine. 

Assay of Opium. V. Venturini. (Gazzetta chim. Ital., xvi. 
239-246.) The author has critically examined and compared the 
various methods in use for the morphine assay of opium. Of the 
gravimetric methods, he gives preference to those of Fliickiger and 



MATEKIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 223 

of Conroy ; and of the volumetric processes, lie decides in favour of 
the one recommended by Kieffer, which consists in the reduction 
of a solution of potassium ferricyanide, standardized by a solution 
of sodium hyposulphite. 

Assay of Opium. H. Adrian and E. G alio is. (Journ. de 
Pharvi. et de Chim. [5], xv. 193-197 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 622.) 
In 1867, Guilbermond proposed to estimate the morphine in an 
aliquot part of the extract obtained from the opium. More re- 
cently Doux proposed to modify Regnault's process in the same 
direction. He treats 50 g-rams of opium with 200 c.c. of alcohol 
at 70°, and takes 105 c.c. of the filtrate as representing accurately 
25 grams of opium. The authors hold that to arrive at accurate 
and comparable results, it is indispensable to take into account, in 
every case, the amount of water and of soluble constituents con- 
tained in the opium. They consider the opium as being composed 
of water, material soluble in alcohol at 70°, and insoluble residue. 
The sample for assay is pounded in a mortar ; 5 grams is extracted 
with 50 c.c. of alcohol at 70°, with which it is kept in contact for 
twelve houi's ; the residue is then filtered off, dried, and Aveighed 
on a tared filter. The loss gives the amount of water and soluble 
matter, and the amount contained in the portion taken for the 
morphine estimation is of course deduced. 50 gi'ams of the sample 
is placed in a tared and stoppered flask with a wide neck, treated 
with 200 grams of alcohol at 70°, placed in a bath of 25-30°, and 
fi-equently agitated. When the estimation of water and soluble 
• constituents is finished, the flask is carefully weighed, and alcohol 
is added to make up the liquid contents of the flask exactly to 
250 grams. After filtering, 200 gi^ams of this liquid exactly con- 
tain the morphine from 40 grams of opium; this morphine is pre- 
cipitated by ammonia, washed with alcohol at 40°, dried, treated 
with chloroform, and dried again as in Regnault's process, but 
taking care to wait thirty-six hours before collecting the deposit. 
The method requii-es somewhat more time than Regnault's, but it 
has the advantage of being applicable to all opiums, whatever their 
composition, and it gives exact results. 

Assay of Opium. 0. Schlickum. (ArcMv der Pharm. [3], 
XXV. 13-32.) The method recommended is founded on that pro- 
posed by Dieterich, and depends on the fact that if a not too con- 
centrated solution of morphine salts is mixed with a slight excess 
of ammonia and half its weight of alcohol, and is boiled down to 
one-half the volume of the mixture, no preci2:)itation of morphine 
follows when the oi'iginal volume of solution is made up by adding 



22 }• YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

"vvater. The perfectly neutral solution thus obtained remains quite 
clear and free from morphine crystals. For opium, 3 grams is 
frequently shaken Avith a mixture of 15 grams dilute alcohol and 
15 grams water, and digested during twelve hours. The filtrate 
is made faintly alkaline with ammonia, and evaporated to. half its 
voliime. The solution is made up to its original weight and fil- 
tered. 21 "25 grams of this filtrate is ti'cated with 6 grams of ether 
and 0"4 gram of ammonia, and shaken round occasionally dui'ing 
five or six hours. The ethereal layer is taken off with a pipette, 
and passed through two equal filters, on which the morphine is 
collected, and washed twice with 2 c.c. of water each time. After 
drying at 100°, the morphine is weighed, one paper serving as 
tare. Of opium extract, 1"5 gram is treated with 10'5 grams of 
dilute alcohol, and 10"5 grams of water Avithout heat, and filtered. 
The weighed filtrate rendei-ed slightly alkaline by ammonia is 
boiled down to one-half, made up to its original weight with water, 
and filtered. 15 grams of the filtrate are treated with ether and 
ammonia as above. Of tinctni'e 25 grams are taken, made slightly 
alkaline with ammonia, and treated as above. 

Contribution to the Assay of Opium. E. Dieterich. (Jouni. 
Soc. Cliem. lud., 1887, 148.) Knowing that all processes in com- 
mon use for testing opium give unreliable results, the author has 
examined the method employed by Fliickiger with a vieAv to 
its perfection. The chief objections to this process are : — The 
addition of alcohol hinders the precipitation of the morphia, and, 
on the other hand, promotes the separation of calcium salts. The 
deposition of the alkaloid is influenced by the duration and intensity 
of the sliaking (Ghevi. Zeit., x. 1224). And finally, the author 
finds that on adding the ammonia slowly, a flocculent precipitate 
of nai'cotine at first separates (the whole of this body being separ- 
able by accurate neutralisation), and is afterwards masked by 
the crystalline morphia precipitate. He therefore recommends the 
adoption of the following methods, Avhich are expeditious and 
accurate : — 

For Opium Powder. — 6 grams of the dried substance are ex- 
tracted with 60 grams of water, with occasional shaking, dui-ing 
Iwelve hours. Aftei- filtration, 2 c.c. of noi'mal ammonia are added 
to 50 grams of the solution, and the narcotine is removed by pass- 
ing through a 10 cm. filter. 44*4 grams of this second filtrate 
( = 4 grams opium) are then mixed in a weighed Erlenmeyer's 
flask, Avith 10 gi'ams of ether, and thoroughly shaken for one minute, 
then with 4 c.c. of normal ammonia, and again shaken ; after stand- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARilACT. I'lo 

ing for six hours the ether layer is poured off through an 8 cm. 
filter, a further quantity of 10 grains of ether is then agitated with 
the liquid, and after separation filtered, and finally the aqueous 
solution is passed through the same filter, the crystals clinging to 
the walls of the glass vessel being disregarded. The flask and 
filter are each washed twice with 5 c.c. of ether-saturated water, 
and di'ied at 100° C. The crystals of morphine may then be trans- 
ferred without loss by means of a camel-hair brush fi^om the filter 
to the flask, where they are heated at 100° until the weight is 
constant. 

For Opium Extract. — 3 grams are dissolved in 42 grams of water, 
and after one hour treated with 2 c.c. of ammonia and filtered 
as above; 31 "7 grams of the filtrate ( = 2 grams extract) are then 
used for the subsequent stages of the process, which are con- 
ducted as in the case of the powder. 

For Opium Tincture. — 50 grams are evaporated to one half their 
bulk ; the original volume is made up with distilled water, and 
the assay completed as already described, 44'4 grams ( = 4 grams 
tincture) of the filtrate from the narcotine being employed. 

Assay of Laudanum. C. Bullock. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
March, 1887.) The resinous matter taken up by dilute alcohol 
from opium presents an obstacle in the determination of the 
morphia contained in the tinctui-e. The following simple process 
Avas found to work well, and to give satisfactory results. 

The tincture is evaporated on a water bath at a low heat to 
about one-fourth of its volume ; to the fluid extract thus obtained 
pure kaolin is stirred in until a thick paste is formed ; water is 
then added gradually with constant stirring, to make an homo- 
geneous mixture ; this is transferred to a wet filter, and after the 
liquid has drained through, the contents of the filter are washed 
with water until the filtrate is clear and without bitterness. 

The solution first draining through the filter is set aside, and 
the washings are evaporated on a water bath, and added to the 
reserved portion. The separation of the morphia is then effected 
after the process of Dr. E. R. Squibb. 

The kaolin separates the resinous matter in a finely divided 
condition, and permits the soluble salts to be washed out w^ithout 
difficult}-. 

The Discovery of the Mydriatic Action of the Solanaceag. R. 
Kobert. (Therapeutic Gazette, July 15, 188G.) This is an elabo- 
rate and interesting sketch of the history of the subject which, 
however, is not suited for abstraction. We recommend it to the 

Q 



226 



YEAE-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



reader's attention, and refer him to the original article, or to a 
rejjrint of it in the Phnrmncentical Journal, August 21, 1886, p. 144. 

Plants containing Oxalic Acid. MM. Berthelot and Andre. 
(Gomptes Bendtis, cii. 995-1001, 1043-1049.) The plants selected 
and examined at various stages of their growth were Ruviex acetosa, 
Amarantus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa, and Mesemhrianthemimi 
cristallinum. The juice of the first is always acid, that of the 
second and third neutral, or feebly acid, while that of the last is 
neutral in the early stages of growth, bu.t becomes acid as the plant 
develops. The plants also differ very considerablj^ in the ratio 
between the soUible and insoluble oxalates which they contain. 

Chlorosis in Plants. J. v. Sachs. (Bied. Gentr., 1886, 602- 
604 ; Journ. Ghem. Soc, 1887, 76.) When attacked by this disease, 
the leaves pale and turn perfectly white ; weak plants saccumb 
quickly. Stronger ones are attacked year after year, until theii* 
reserve material is exhausted ; they then die. The touching of a 
diseased leaf with a dilute solution of a ii^on salt often causes the 
production of chlorophyll and cures the disease. However, fi'om 
extended observations, the author does not think that it is al- 
together the absence of iron that causes the disease, as plants 
growing on the same soil are irregularly attacked, some escaping 
altogether. His experience leads him to think that the roots or 
leading vessels suffer some alteration which prevents the minute 
(piantities of iron contained in the sap from reaching the leaves. 
A too rapid and luxuriant growth favours the disease. In the 
winters of certain years, thousands of trees and shrubs were 
heavily pruned ; the energy divided between numerous growths 
was concentrated on a much less number; they grew rapidly and 
luxuriantly ; the first leaves were green, but the later were quite 
white. Trenches 20 to 30 cm. deep and wide were dug round the 
diseased trees at a distance of 80 to 100 cm. ; in these trenches 
ferrous sulphate in lumps was placed, in quantities varying from 
1 to 5 kilos., according to the size of the tree. Water was then 
freely admitted, and the trenches filled up with earth. Within 
three to six days the smaller bashes commenced to gi*een, within 
fourteen days no sign of chlorosis was visible, and in the following 
spring all the growths were normal. 

An experiment of the author's has, he considei's, an important 
bearing on vegetable physiology. Certain acacia trees showed 
symptoms of chlorosis, in particular the thick branches of a twenty- 
year old tree. The author caused holes to be bored in the main 
stem, just beneath the bifiu-cation of the branch with the core 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



227 



of the tree. In these holes he phiced corks fitted with fannels 
charged afterwards with ferrous sulphate or ferric chloride in 
dilute solution. In dry weather the tree absorbed the solution so 
readily that the funnels had to be frequently refilled. The leaves 
in line of each funnel became quite green in ten to foarteen days, 
but those not in the line remained white. This the author thinks 
a proof that each branch and twig has its o^\^l sap-ducts. 

Exhausted Cantharides. J. 0. Braithwaite and B. H. Farr. 
(Pharm. Jouru., 3rd series, xvii. 399.) A suspicious sample of 
cantharides examined by the authors was of the usual appearance, 
but weaker in odour and also lighter and more brittle than the 
unsophisticated insects. It yielded but 2 per cent, of dry ethj-.-eal 
extract, against 10 per cent, obtained from genuine insects. The 
extractive from the latter was fatty and greenish yellow, showing 
numerous crystals of cantharidin ; whilst that from the other was 
brownish yellow, and showed no trace of any crystalline body. 
The extractive fi-om the suspected sample had but a very slight 
blistering effect compared with that from the genuine. 

Chinese Cantharides. (Pharm. Joum., 3rd series, xvii. 608 and 
688.) Two Chinese insects have lately been met with in the 
London market as cantharides; one of them is Lytta Gorhami, 
which is likely to contain some cantharidin, and is at present under 
investigation, and the other belongs to a group of insects which 
are not remarkable for vesicating properties. It is the Huechys 
sanguineus, of the family Cicadidce, of the order Hemiptera. This 
insect, which is remarkable for its vermilion-coloured body, has 
the odour of cantharides, but it is not known whether it really 
possesses any vesicating property, although it is said to possess in 
China a i^eputation as a blistering agent. 

Hiiechys San^nea: Does it Vesicate? J. Moss. (Pharm. 
Joum., 3rd series, xvii. 845.) Tlie vermilion-coloured '" can- 
tharides," refen^ed to in the preceding abstract, have been ex- 
amined by the author, who finds that although they possess a mild 
rubefacient property, this is not sufficiently strong enough to pro- 
duce a blister, and that therefore Huechys sangitinea will not be a 
useful addition to the materia medica. 

Bahama Sponges. E. M. Holmes. (Pharm. Joum., 3rd 
series, xvii. 761-763.) Until the discovery of sponges in the 
Bahamas and in the vicinity of Florida, all the sponges of com- 
merce were derived from the eastern half of the MediteiTanean 
sea, which still supplies the finest qualities. A great number of 



228 YEATl-BOOK OF rHAEMACY. 

Tarieties, both in form and relative degi-ees of softness or hardness, 
are recognised ; one London sponge merchant even asserting that 
there are as many as four hundi^ed Mediterranean kinds. These 
varieties, whether of European or American origin, are referred by 
zoologists to thi'ee principal types : — 

1. Spongia officinalis, which is the source of the Turkey cup 
sponge. 

2. Spongia agaricina, affording a cup sponge of harder and more 
unyielding texture than the Turkey cup, and known as the 
Zimocca sponge. 

3. Spongia equina, yielding the bath or honeycomb sponge. 
The first, according to Saville Kent, is distinguished by its 

usually cup-shaped contour, by the exceedingly fine elastic and 
densely interwoven fibres of which it is composed, and by the 
oscules being moi'e crowded towards the centre of the cup. 

The second, or Zimocca sponge, is recognised at sight from the 
Turkey cup sponge — which it closely resembles in shape, although 
the cups arc flattui- and more saucer- shaped as a rule — by the fact 
tliat the larger openings, instead of being crowded towards the 
centre of the cup, are uniformly scattered at nearly regular dis- 
tances over its whole upper sui-face, and by being much harder 
and more unyielding to the touch. The fibres are closely inter- 
woven, as in the Turkey kind, but are coarser and less elastic. It 
is only one-third the value of Turkey sponge. 

The third, or honeycomb sponge, has a more spheroidal or 
I'ounded form, flattened above, and the larger or excurrent open- 
ings are ii'regularly scattered over the upper surface. In this kind 
the erect or primary fibres are not visible. 

The Bahama sponges correspond closely with the typical forms 
above described in geneial characters, and by A. Hyatt, the 
American expert, are considered to be varieties of these species. 
He expresses the opinion, however, that the coarser vai'ieties 
of the European sponges are finer, firmer, and more elastic 
than the finest of the corresponding American sub-species, the 
inferiority of the latter being attributed to the larger amount 
of foreign matter included in their primary fibres, the looser mesh 
of the fibres, which are comparatively coarse, and the larger and 
more numerous canals. 

The Bahama sponges are referable, according to Mi*. Hyatt, to 
the following sub-species : — 

Reef, or glove sponge, to Spongia officinalis, var. tuhulifera. 

Sheep's wool sponge, to Spongia equina, var. gossypina. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 229 

Abaco velvet and cay velvet sponge, to Spongia equina, var. 
memidriniformis. 

Grass sponge, to Spongia equina, var. cerehriformis, and Spongia 
graminea. 

Hardhead sponge, to Spongia agaricina, var. typica. 

Yellow sponge, to Spongia agaricina, vars. corlosia, dura, and 
punctata. 

A full description of each of these species will be found in the 
original paper. 

Essential Oils. MM. Schimmel. (Pliarm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 927.) 

Asarum Oil. — A distillate from the root of Asarum Europoium. 
Three hundred and fifty-two kilos, gave S'S kilos, of essential oil, 
containing a considerable quantity of asarum camphor (asaron), 
which partially separated at the ordinary temperature. It has 
recently been investigated by Professor Poleck, of Breslau 
{Pharm Jotirn. [3], xv. 82). 

Poplar-huds Oil (01. gemmcE populi). — A distillate from dried 
poplar buds. Yield of oil about one-half per cent. A light yellow 
ethereal oil, having a beautiful odour, somewhat recalling that of 
chamomiles. It boils almost constant between 255° and 265° C, 
and has a sp. gr. at 15° C. of 0900. 

Southermvood Oil (01. Artemisice). — Distillate from the hei-b of 
Artemisia Ahrotanuni. 

Cloveroot Oil (01. Bad. CaryophyUativ) . — Distillate from the root 
of Geum urhanum. This is desci-ibed as an oil having an extremely 
fine and agreeable cinnamon-like odonr, and a spicy taste, from 
which crystalline constituents separate. It is thought that if it 
can be prepared at a low price, it would prove practically useful. 

Pimpinella Oil (01. Bad. PimpineUfe) . — Distillate from the root 
of Pimpinella Saxifraga. Has the taste and odour of the root. 

Interesting notices of a number of other essential oils, by the 
same authors, will also be found in Pharmaceutical Journal, 
pp. 869, 870. 

Specific Gravity of the Principal Essential Oils, etc., of Com- 
merce, according to Examination of Normal Pnre Qualities. 

(Pharm. Journ., from MM. Schimmel and Co.'s Spring Ueporty 
Leipzig.) 



2;j0 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Name of Essential Oil. 



Anise 

Anise, extra pure anethol . . 

Angelica root 

Valerian 

Bergamott, I^ Reg 

Bitter Almond 

Cajeput (green) 

Calamus 

Carvol 

Cassia (cinnamon flowers) . . 

Cassia (rect.) 

Cedar-wood 

Cardamom (Ceyl.) 

Citronella (E. I.), melissa . . 

Lemon 

Cumin 

Cubeb 

Coriander 

Eucalyptol p. alb 

Eucalyptus (glob.) 

Dill 

Fennel seed, rect 

Ginger 

Spearmint, German rect. . . . 

Caraway, double rect., from Ger- 
man field caraways . . . 

Caraway, double rectified, from 
Dutch caraways . . . . 

Mace 

Mil bane 

Clcve stalks 

Cloves 

I'ejpermint, F. S. and Co. . . 

Tcppermint, Mitcbam . . . . 

Safrol 

Sassafras 

Mustard, gen. ess 

Mustard, artificial 

Sandal-wood (super. E. I.) . . 

Star-anise 

Juniper (double rect.) . . . . 

Wintergreen (nat.) 

Wintcrgreen (art.) 

('innamon, Ceyl 



Temperature. 



10° C. 



0-8G0 
0-9-17 
0-887 
1-063 
0-927 
0-9C1 
0-967 
1-073 
1-058 
0-948 
0-902 
0-900 
0-856 
0-925 
0-918 
872 
0-935 
0-925 
0-905 
0-975 
0-885 
0-930 

0-905 

0-911 
0-858 

1-065 
1-065 
0-906 
0-905 
1-109 
1-068 
1030 
1-025 
0-978 
0-990 
0-863 
1-189 
1-192 
1-035 



15' C. 



0-985 

0-858 
0-945 
0-883 
1-060 
0-925 
0-959 
0-963 
1-068 
1-055 
0-945 
0-900 
0-896 
0-854 
0-922 
0-915 
867 
0-931 
0-922 
0-900 
0970 
0-882 
0-925 

0-900 

0-908 
0-855 

1-061 
1-062 
0-903 
900 
1104 
1-065 
1025 
1-020 
0-975 
0-985 
0-858 
1-185 
1-187 
1-030 



20' C. 



0-980 
0-985 
0-853 
0-940 
0-880 
1-055 
0-922 
0-957 
0-958 
1-063 
1-052 
0-940 
0-897 
0-893 
0-851 
0-918 
0-912 
0864 
0-928 
0-918 
0-896 
0-965 
0-878 
0-922 

0-896 

0-905 
0-852 
1-200 
1057 
1-059 
0-901 
0-898 
1-100 
1-060 
1-020 
1016 
0-973 
0-980 
0-855 
1-182 
1183 
1-027 



Remarks. 



/ At 25° (m.p. 
\ 21-22=). 

Av. 1-060 

„ 0-962-0 965 
„ 1-05-1-06 



„ 0-860-0-870 



„ 0-965-0-975 



1-060-1065 
1-060-1-065 
0-900-0-910 
0-900-0-905 

1-05-1-07 



„ 1-03-1-035 



Vai'iations in the aboA^e figures may occur in the third place of 
decimals, without suspicion of sophistication being justified on that 
account, but gi-eatcr deficiencies are excluded. 

Essential Oils. E. Weber. (L{eln(fs Annaleii, ccxxxviii. 89- 
108 ; Journ. Chevi. Soc, 1887, 596.) Oil of rosemary not only 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 231 

contains caniplior, borneol, and a terpene, but also cjneol, C^g Hjg 0, 
which was discovered by Wallach and Bi'ass in Oleiwt cyme. 

Oil of cardamoms begins to boil at 164°, and the temperature 
gradually rises to 220°. A small quantity of a crystalline com- 
pound, which melts at 60-61°, is left in the retort. The liquid 
distilling over below 170° consists of water, acetic and formic acids. 

The oil contains terpinene, boiling at 179-182°, and another ter- 
pene, which boils at 180-183° (probably limonene or dipentene), 
and yields a hydrochloride which melts at 52°. The portion of the 
distillate coming over between 205° and 220° contains the com- 
pound CjqHjsO, which is probably identical with Wallach's 
terpineol. 

Essential Oils. 0. Wallach. {LiehUfs A^inalen, ccxxxviii. 78- 
89.) Schmidt and Oglialoro have pointed out that oil of cubebs 
contains two sesquiterpenes, C^j Ho_t, one of which yields a crystal- 
line hydrochloride, C15 Ho^ 2 H CI, melting at 117-118°. The author 
has succeeded in obtaining this hydrochloride from oil of cubebs, 
patchouli (h. p. 270-280°), oil of galbanum. Oleum cadinnm, and 
Oletcm sabince. It is best obtained by distilling Oleum cadinnm in 
a current of steam, and treating the distillate with potash to re- 
move phenols. The purified oil is distilled over potash, and the 
portion boiling between 260° and 280° is diluted with ether and 
saturated with hydrogen chloride. The hydrochloi-ide can be 
recrystallized from ethyl acetate. 

The solution is laivogyrate. The terpene is easily obtained by 
heating the hydrochloride with anhydrous sodium acetate and 
acetic acid. The sesquiterpene boils at 274-275°. Its sp. gr. at 
16° = 0'921. It has a great tendency to resinify. 

The Essential Oils of Lemon, Bergamot, and Orange Peel. P. 
Soltsien. (Ghem. Centr., 1886, 936, 937.) The author prepared 
these oils specially to be certain of their purity, and examined 
them together with some turpentines by means of Heppe's copper 
butyrate reaction (see abstract, Year-Book of Tharmacy, 1886, 
229). He finds that the action depends upon the age of the oil, 
and is therefore of little value as a test. 

The Essential Oil of Phellandrium Aquaticum. L. Pesci. 
(^Gazzetfa Ghim. Ital., xvi. 225-231.) The seeds of I'liellandriu'm 
aquaticum contain about 2'5 per cent, of a terpene, C^q H^q, named 
by the author pheUandr en e. It is a liquid resembling geraniums 
in odour, soluble in alcohol, ether, and benzene. It boils at 171° 
under a pressure of 766 mm. ; its sp. gr. at 10° is 0"856, and its 
specific rotatory power [«.]d= +17"64°. It combines with hydro- 



232 YEAR-BOOK OP PBARMACY. 

cliloric acid to form a mixture of a monolijdrochloride and a 
di-hydrocliloride ; heated for some time at its boiling point, it is 
converted into a polymeric modification, diphellandrene, CgoHgo, 
an amorphous, white substance, soluble in ether and chloroform ; 
this melts at 86° and is la^vorotatory. 

The Oils of Erigeron and Fire weed. A. M. Todd. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., June, 1887.) The oil of erigeron (oleum erigerontts 
canadensis) and the oil of true fireweed (oleum erechthitis hieraci- 
folia') ai-e distilled from plants of the most distinct types possible, 
and seem to be almost as distinct in therapeutic action ; both are 
highly valuable in medicine when pure, but their usefulness has 
been nearly destroyed and their value little understood since they 
have been almost universally confounded with each other, both in 
science and commerce, and even when not so confounded ai^e rarely 
met with in a state of purity. 

From the author's experiments, the following comparisons be- 
tween the two oils may be made, and the following conclusions 
drawn : — 

1. Polarization. — Pure oil of erigeron in the natural state should 
not polarize nearer the zero point than —26, nor farther than —60; 
rectified oil, freed from resin, may polarize somewhat nearer the 
zei-o point than the limit given, and the first fractions should be 
dextrogyre. Pure fireweed, if la^vogyre, should not polarize farther 
than —4, and if dextrogyi^e, farther than +4. 

2. Specific Gravity. — Pure natui-al oil of fireweed, unless resinous 
(which may be noted by its leaving a stain upon paper when 
evaporated), should not possess a sp. gr. above "855 nor below 
"845 ; and ei-igeron, under like circumstances, not above '865 nor 
below "855. The diiference in sp. gr. being about "010. 

3. Boiliuf) Point. — The temperature of the vapour being taken 
fireweed should not vaporize to any marked extent below 355° ; nor 
should this temperature be increased more than 10° F., until five 
per cent, of the oil has been evaporated. Ei-igeron should not boil 
vigorously below 342° F., nor above 347° F., until five per cent, has 
been volatilized. 

4. Pesinoid. — When distilled with water or steam, the resinous 
product of erigeron is a deep reddish brown, that of fireweed a 
light straw colour. The effect of rectification by steam with both 
is to produce a brilliant and colourless oil. Both oils possess 
characteristic odours. 

Detection of Spermaceti as an Adulterant in Oil of Kose. M. 
Hoppe. (Cheviist and Druggist, March, 19, 1887.) The sus-o 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHAEMACY. 283 

pected oil is agitated, -with from one and one half to twice its 
weight of melted glacial acetic acid, the resulting crystalline mass 
transferred to a filter, and washed with vinegar to remove the oil, 
then with water nntil the odour of rose has quite disappeared, 
and finally washed with solution of soda, and again with water. 
Should any residue result, its identity with spennaceti is evidenced 
by the odour produced, similar to bnming oil when charred, and 
may be reproduced after some time by again beating the substance. 

Oil of Sandal Wood. C. Mehu. (Journ. de Pharm., September, 
1886, 209. From Pharm. Jonm.') The internal administration of 
oil of sandal wood is followed by the apperance in the urine of a 
resin having the sandal wood odour, which is apparently kept in 
solution by sodium phosphate, and plays the part of a weak acid. 
It can be separated by acidulating the urine with phosphoric or 
tai^taric acid, and shaking it with ether. The ether on evaporation 
leaves a resinoid matter having a light brown tint and the odour 
of sandal wood, and which gives with concentrated sulphuric acid 
the same yellow, brown, and red coloi-ations as the oil. The author 
adds that pure oil of sandal wood, unsophisticated with oil of 
copaiba or oil of turpentine, does not impart the odour of violets 
to the urine. 

Croton Oil. K. Kobert. {Chemiher Zeit, 1887, 416.) The 
author reports the results of researches made at his suggestion by 
Ernst von Hirschheydt, which show that the oil contains Buchheim's 
crotonoleic acid, partly in the free state and partly as glyceride. 
The latter is not poisonous, but the free acid is very irritating and 
drastic. The glyceride being decomposed by the pancreatic fer- 
ment, thereby becomes purgative when taken internally ; but the 
same effect may be produced by giving crotonoleic acid in pills 
covered with keratin with the view of preventing irritation of the 
stomach ; but obviously irritation of the intestines will be pro- 
duced by both compounds. 

For the preparation of crotonoleic acid the author recommends 
digestion in a water-bath of the alcohol-soluble portion of croton 
oil with an excess of concentrated baryta solution ; the thick white 
mass is thoroughly mixed and washed with cold distilled water, 
whereby colouring matter and barium acetate, butyrate, and 
tiglinate are removed ; the residue is drained, dried, and exhausted 
by ether, which leaves behind the barium salts of stearic, palmitic, 
and lauric acids. On evaporating the ethereal solution, a mixture 
of barium oleate and crotonoleate is obtained, of which the latter 
only is dissolved by alcohol ; this solution is decomposed by the 



234 YEAR-BOOK OF PFIAKMACY. 

careful addition of Ho S 0.^, and after filtering' evaporated. The 
main difficulty for the preparation of free crotonoleic acid lies in 
the readiness of its being decomposed by baryta water under the 
inflnence of too high a heat. 

Method for Distinguishing Castor Oil from Other Fatty Oils. 
Dr. Finkener. {Analyst, 1887, 58.) The author's experiments 
were carried out with the object of finding a suitable method for 
customs purposes. A 100 c.c. glass cylinder of 25 ram. diameter, 
is pi'ovided with a 10 or 60 c.c. mark (measured from the bottom). 
The oil is run in to the 10 c.c. mark, and the tube is then filled 
up to the 00 c.c. mark with spirits of wine ('829 sp. gr.). Absolute 
alcohol cannot be employed ; at 17'5° C. spii'its of wine of '829 sp. 
gr. dissolves castor oil in almost every proportion, but the other 
oils only slightly. The tube is clo.sed, well-shaken, and the mixture 
examined after standing two or three minutes. Pui'e castor oil 
gives a clear solution. But even with 10 per cent, of other oils 
(olive, se.same, linseed, cotton-seed, rapeseed oils) a turbidity is 
obtained, at the normal temperature, which does not disappear 
even above 20° C. Another test tried was the following : — On 
treating pure castor oil Avith sulphuric acid, a product (a sulpho- 
acid) is obtained, wliich gives an almost perfectly clear solution 
with 40 times the quantity of water. On treating other fatty oils 
(such as sesame or olive oil) similarly, very milky precipitates are 
obtained. The method is, however, of no good, as mixtures of 80 
per cent, of castor oil and 20 per cent, of olive or sesame oil, 
treated similarh', also give almost perfectly clear solutions. 

Adulteration of Olive Oil. (Phann. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
64.) A recent number of the trade report of E. Dieterich gives 
an account of a comprehensive series of experiments made with 
the object of obtaining satisfactory tests for the presence of diffei'- 
ent adulterants of olive oil, Avhich is used largely in his estab- 
lishment in the manufacture of plasters. Some of the published 
methods were thoroughly tried with the following results : — 

Equal volumes of oil and nitric acid, of sp. gr. 1400, shaken 
together are said to assume, if cotton-seed oil be present, a more 
or loss brown colour. This was confirmed, the test allowing the 
detection of an addition of 10 per cent. 

The presence of sesame oil has been stated to be recognisable 
l)y shaking together equal volumes of oil and hydrochloi-ic acid, 
sp. gr. 1190, in the latter of which some fragments of cane-sugar 
have been dissolved, the sophistication being indicated by a 
reddening of the acid layer. It was found that the coloration 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



235 



of the acid also takes place with, pure olive oil after about three- 
quarters of an hour ; on the other hand, upon the addition of 
sesame oil, a rose-coloured zone is formed very quickly, even 
dmnng the separation of the two layers. If this be not very 
distinct, a control experiment with pure oil, placed by the side of 
it for better comparison, will readily show the diiference. 

The statements as to the melting and solidification points of the 
fat acids of the different oils vary very much ; according to Bach, 
those of cotton-seed oil are 38^ and 35° C, and according to 
Hiibl, 30"5° and 27"5° C. In order to form a judgment upon this 
point, the fat acids of olive oil and of the other oils used as 
adulterants were experimented with, as well as those of mixtures 
containing 25 per cent, of the foreign oils. The precaution was 
adopted, before taking the melting and solidifying points, to 
allow the fat acids to solidify during at least twenty-four hours at 
15^ C. ; the melting point was taken when the fat acids had melted 
quite clear, and the solidifying point when the mass began to show 
turbidity. In all cases care was taken to raise the temperature as 
slowly as possible. The following were the results obtained : — 

A. — Ptcre Oils. 



01. Oliv. prov. No. 00) 

01. Oliv. prov. Xo. ^ 

01. Oliv. comm. flav. j 

01. Arachis 

01. Arachis (so-called Crown Oil, water white) 
01. Arachis (so-called Crown Oil, yellow) . . 

01. Gossypii 

01. Heliantbi 

01. Sesami 

01. Lini . . ) 

01. Kaparum > still fluid at 13' 

01. Kiciui . ) 



Melting 






3oli']ifyin? 


Point. 






Point. 


26-5° to 28 


5° 


23 


5^ to 24-6= 


Average 


of 


19 


samples. 


33-5° 






31° 


31-5° 






29° 


32° 






29-5° 


38-5° 






3fi° 


23° 






18° 


31-5° 






28-5° 



B. — Mixtures of Olive Oil. 



With 


Melting 
Point. 


Solidifying 
Point. 


25 per cent, of 01. Aracliis 

25 per cent, of 01. Gossjpii 

25 per cent, of 01. Heliantbi 

25 per cent, of 01. Sesami 

25 per cent, of 01. Lini 

25 per cent, of 01. llaparum 


29° 

30° 

25° 

28° 

24-5° 

23° 


26° 

27-3° 

20-5° 

25° 

19-5° 

19° 



,236 TEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

It appears, therefore, that additions of 25 per cent, cannot be 
detected with great certainty, whilst lower percentages cannot be 
recognised. The detei'niinations would, consequently, have value 
at most only as additional evidence in doubtful cases ; but they 
would even then be superfluous, since with a high jid'ceutage of 
adulteration there is scarcely any doubt. 

Attempts to base a method of examination upon the elaidin 
formed tlirough the treatment of the oil with nitric acid and 
copper filings failed entirely, both because the differences between 
the elaidin obtained from pure oil and from mixtures were too 
small, and because the elaidin prepared from one and the same 
oil had not always the same chai-acter. The saponifying power 
of the oil before and after the formation of elaidin was also taken 
as a starting point, but equally without result. 

Considei'able attention was paid also to the iodine addition 
method, published by Hiibl. This is based upon the assumption 
that almost all fats contain acids of the acetic, acrylic, and tetrolic 
acid series, and that the quantity of these acids in any particular 
fat is a definite one, and is different in different fats. These three 
groups of fat acids show a very characteristic distinction in their 
behaviour to ware"' s the halogens, the first series under ordinary 
conditions remaining indifferent, whilst the second series readily 
take up two, and the third four atoms of halogen The quantity 
of added halogen will therefore vary with the composition of the 
fat, and constant figures will be obtained which will be dependent 
upon the kind and relative quantities of the unsaturated acids, 
and consequently standing in intimate relation with the consti- 
tution of the respective fats. The problem, therefoi^e, is to effect 
the addition of the halogen under conditions that will exclude 
substitution, and then to estimate with certainty the amount of 
added halogen. 

Iodine is more suitable for the purpose than chlorine or liromine. 
But since iodine acts at ordinary temperatures too sluggishly on 
fats, Avhilst at higher temperatures the results are unequal, an 
alcoholic solution of iodine in presence of mercuric chloride is 
used ; and as only few oils are soluble in alcohol, chloroform is taken 
as a solvent. The mixture of iodine and mercuric chloride solution, 
called by the author " iodine solution," reacts at ordinary tcmper- 
atui'es upon the unsaturated fat acids, forming chlorine and iodine 
addition products, whilst the saturated acids present remain un- 
attacked. The amoiint of iodine thus taken up is then ascertained 
and calculated into percentage, the result being the " iodine 
number." 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



237 



111 order to test this method, the "iodine number" of unmixed 
fats was first obtained, and then of mixtures containing various 
percentages of adulterant. These expei-iments confirmed essen- 
tially Hiibl's statement, and with twenty-three samples of olive 
oil, especially, numbers were obtained which agreed with tkose 
given by him. In the following table the numbers obtained by 
Dieterich and by Hilbl are given side by side for comparison : — 

A. — Pure Oils. 



01. Oliv. prov. No. 00' 
01. Oliv. prov. No. 
01. Oliv. comm. flav. . 
01. Aracbis .... 
01. Gossypii .... 
01. Helianthi . . . 

01. Liui 

01. Eaparum . . . 
01. Sesami .... 



Iodine Number. 



Dieterich. 



81-6-84-4 
23 samples 

91 

108-5 

132-25 

154 

99-8-100-5 

110 



Hubl. 



81 •6-81-5 



101-105 
105-108 

154-160 

97-105 
105-108 



The only essential difference in the two series of figures is in 
respect to oleum arachis, which notwithstanding repetition of the 
experiment gave to Dieterich only 91, and came nearest to olive 
oil. This is the more unfortunate, since it is arachis oil that is 
at the present time most used as an adulterant. 

B. — Iodine Numbers of Mixtures of Olive Oil. 



With. 


25 p. c. 


15 p. c. 


10 p. c. 


5 p. c. 


01. Arachis 


85-53 


85-10 


84-10 


82-9 


01. Gossypii 


89-50 


87-10 


86-10 


83-4 


01. Heliauthi 


96-24 


90-30 


87-0 


84 6 


01. Lini 


102-20 


93-80 


88-70 


85-9 


01. Eaparv;m 


87-20 


85-30 


82-70 


82-2 


01. Sesami 


90-55 


87-90 


85-90 


83-4 



As adulterations with 5 to 10 ^ev cent, are seldom met with, 
whilst admixtures of 20 per cent, and upwards much more fre- 
quently occur, Hiibl's iodine addition method gives tolerably 
certain indications, except in the case of arachis oil. At any rate 



238 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Herr Dietericli believes it to be the most trustworthy method that 
at present exists. 

Some experiments were also made as to the solubility of iodine 

in different fat oils, Avith the following results : — 
• 

01. Amygclalarum took up 57 per cent, of Iodine. 

01. Arachis „ 45 

01. Gossypii „ 38 

01. Heliauthi „ 23 

01. Lini „ 19 

01. Olivarum „ 44 

01. Ilaparum ,, 41 

01. Riciui ,, 51 

01. Sesami „ 39 

The iodine was rubbed up with the oil in successive percentage 
quantities, each addition being allowed to stand, with frequent 
stirring, until dissolved, before another one was made. Finally 
the iodine was shaken out from the saturated oil with spirit, and 
estimated volumetrically. Herr Dietevich thinks that a recom- 
mendation which has been made as to the addition of castor oil to 
tincture of iodine, based upon the solvent power as shown above, 
is worthy of attention. It would prevent the too rapid volati- 
lization of the iodine when painted upon the skin, and would 
possibly modify its action. 

Properties of Olive, Sesame, and Cotton Oils. T. Leone and 
A. Longi. {Gazzetta Ghim. Ital., xvi. 893-398; Jonrn. Chem. 
Soc, 1887, 536.) The authoi's, with a view to the recognition of 
the presence of sesame and cotton oils in cases of sophistication of 
olive oil, have examined the physical and chemical properties of 
these oils, such as the proportion of solid acids obtained on saponi- 
fication, the quantity of alkali required to complete this process, 
the specific gravities at 100° of the oils and the resultant acids, 
the points of fusion and solidification of the acids, and the indices 
of refraction of the oils. As a result of their examination, it 
follows that the quantities of solid acids and of alkali required 
for saponification are appreciably equal for all three oils, but the 
sp. gr. of olive oil at 100° is less than that of sesame and cotton 
oils by about 0"005, the index of refraction of the former is also 
somewhat less than those of the latter. But the most marked 
diffci-ence is observed in the points of fusion and solidification of 
the resultant acids, for those from olive oil melt at 24-27°, and 
begin to solidify at 17"50°, whilst those from cotton and sesame 
oils melt at 36-40°, and solidify at 34-30° and 34-32° respectively. 



MATERIA AIEDICA AND PHARilACY. 2S9 

Characteristics of Olive Oil. A. Levallois. (Comptes Eendus, 
civ. 371-373 ; Journ. CJiem. Soc, 1887, 535.) The author has 
examined a large number of genuine samples of olive oil from the 
olive yards of the south-east of France. 

The colour of the oil was determined by means of a Duboscq 
colorimeter. The colour at the commencement of a crop is 70 
times as intense as at the end. The sp. gr. at 15° varies from 
0'9167 to 0"9177, and the differences observed with different 
species are only very slight. The sp. gr. of olive oil at 24° is 
0"911, whilst that of the other oils at the same teraperature is as 
follows : — 

Sesame 0-917 

Cotton-seed ....... 0-91(j5 

Earth-uut 0912 

Poppy 0-9205 

Colza 0-910 

Cameliiia 0-920 

Liuseed 0-928 

The sp. gr. of colza and earth-nut oil are somewhat near that 
of olive, but their other properties make it easy to distinguish 
between them. Cailletet's reagent (nitric acid saturated with 
nitrogen oxides) usually gives a green coloration, inclining occa- 
sionally to yellowish green. 

Audoynaud's reaction (addition of nitrosulphuric acid and ether 
to a mixture of the oil with potassium dichromate) gives also a 
greenish or yellowish green coloration. 

The determination of the non-saturated fatty acids by treating 
the non-saponified oil with bromine or iodine gave no concordant 
results. The following method is satisfactory : — 5 grams of the 
oil are weighed into a test-tube about 15 cm. long and 15 mm. 
diameter, mixed with 10 c.c. of a 20 per cent, solution of potassium 
hydrate in alcohol of 93°, and agitated, when the oil dissolves. 
The liquid is then heated on a water-bath to a temperatui-e suffi- 
cient to produce gentle ebullition, and after about 15 minutes 
saponification is complete. The volume of the liquid is then made 
up to 50 c.c. by adding alcohol, and 5 c.c. of the solution is 
placed in a tube provided with a glass stopper, acidified with 
hydrochloric acid, and then mixed with a concentrated aqueous 
solution of bromine from a burette, with vigorous agitation, until 
the liquid acquires a persistent pale yellow tint. About 01 c.c. 
of solution is required to produce the end reaction, and this should 
be sabtracted from the total volume added. The bromine is 



240 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

standardised by means of a decinormal solution of arsenious acid, 
mixed with hydrochloric acid. Different samples of oil from the 
same species of olive absorbed from 0'512 to 0'522 gram of bromine 
per gram of oil. The absorption by oil from different species of 
olive varied from 0'500 to 0'544, the last result being obtained 
with oil from Blanquetier which also has an exceptionally high 
sp. gr. The amount of bromine absorbed by 1 gram of other oils 
is as follows : — 

Cottou-seed 0*645 

Sesame 0'695 

Earth-nut 0-530 

Poppy 0-835 

Colza 0-640 

Cameliua 0-817 

Liuseed 1-000 

The alcoholic solution of soap from oil of earth-nut becomes 
solid as soon as the temperature falls to 15°, but the corresponding 
solution of olive-oil soap remains liquid. 

The most constant characteristic of olive oil is its sp. gi\, but 
the determination of the bromine absorbed is also very useful. 

Oil of Male Fern. G. Daccomo. {Annali di Chim. Med. 
Farm., 1886 ; Avier. Journ. Pharm., Angus*, 1886.) The author 
has subjected to fresh chemical study the ethereal extract from 
the rhizome of Aajyidmm Filix-mas. Thirty kilograms of material 
were exhausted with ether, in a percolator, and after sponta- 
neous evaporation, left 1750 grams of ethereal extractive. This 
extract, after treatment with a mixture of alcohol and ether, 
left as a remainder a brown pulverulent residue of 70 grams in 
weight. The insoluble residue so obtained was agitated with a 
solution of caustic potash (1-100), and from the filtered liquid, on 
the addition of acetic acid, gave a voluminous precipitate of filicic 
acid (filicin of Trommsdorff). The portion that was not dissolved 
by the potash, and that remained upon the filter, was then ex- 
hausted Avith boiling alcohol, Avhich deposited, on cooling, a white, 
flocculent material, Avax-like in appearance, which after repeated 
crystallizations from alcohol, was used for the ultimate analysis. 
The figures obtained led to the formula Cj., Hog 0. 

This substance is insoluble in water, very little soluble in ether 
or in cold alcohol. It is not saponified on prolonged ebullition 
with caustic potash in concentrated alcoholic solution. The 
residue, left on the filter, after the boiling alcohol treatment, was 
merely extractive. 



MATERIA. MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 241 

The more soluble portion of tlie ethereal extract, that is, that 
dissolved in the mixture of alcohol and ether, "vvas, after reduction 
to the consistence of an extract, exhausted first with cold water. 
This aqueous solution, treated with acetate of lead to precipitate 
the tannin (filitannic acid ?), washed and subjected to a current 
of sulphuretted hydrogen, to remove excess of lead, left a sac- 
charine residue. 

The residue from the aqueous exhaustion was then treated with 
alcohol at 85° C, which, evaporated, left, as residue, a large quan- 
tity of a black exti'active, soluble in caustic potash. The small 
residue left consisted of a wax-like fatty material soluble in 
alcohol, especially in the cold. From the alcoholic treatment, 
there did not remain as residue more than a small quantity of 
green fixed oil. 

Galenic Pharmacy. T. Redwood. (Amer. Joum. Pharm., 'Srd 
series, xvii. 43.) This paper concludes a very interesting repoi-t, 
commenced in Pharm. Joum., Srd series, xvi., on a great number 
of preparations of the British Pharmacopoeia. As it is not suited 
for dealing with in the form of an abstract, we cannot do more 
in this place than draw the reader's attention to the paper, and 
refer him to the sources above quoted. 

The Pharmaceutical Preparations of Atropa Belladonna. Part 
III. : Suggestions for Standard Galenical Preparations. W. R. 
Dunstan and F. Ransom. (Pharm. Joum., ord series, xvii. 843.) 
The authors give the following directions for preparing a 

Standard Extract of Belladonna. 

Belladonna Root in No. 20 powder . 1 pound. 

Eectified Spirit 48 fl. ounces. 

Distilled Water 12 „ 

Mix the spirit with the water. Macerate the belladonna in two 
pints of this mixture for foi-ty-eight hours, agitating occasionally ; 
then transfer to a percolator, and when the fluid ceases to pass, 
continue the percolation with the remainder of the diluted spirit. 
Afterwards subject the contents of the percolator to pressure, filter 
the product, mix the liquids, and measure the exact volume of the 
mixture (a). Estimate the alkaloidal natui'C of this solution by 
the following method : — 

Evaporate fifty cubic centimetres of the liquid over a water- 
bath with a gentle heat, until all the alcohol is dispelled. Dissolve 
the extract thus obtained in about five cubic centimetres of warm 
distilled water, acidulated with a few dro^js of diluted hydrochloric 

B 



242 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACT. 

ucid ; filter, if necessary, tlu-ousi^li a small fragment of cotton wool ; 
])our into a stoppered glass separator, and add ammonia until the 
solution is distinctly alkaline. Agitate for a few minutes Avith 
five cubic centimetres of cliloroforra, separate, and again wash the 
aqueous liquid with three cubic centimetres of chloroform. Agitate 
the mixed chloroform solutions with five cubic centimetres of 
diluted hydrochloric acid, separate, again wash with three cubic 
centimetres of the diluted acid, mix the acid solutions, render 
alkaline with ammonia, and agitate with five cubic centimetres 
of chloroform. After separation wash the alkaline solution with 
three cubic centimetres of chloroform, mix the chloroform solu- 
tions, evaporate in a dish of known weight, and dry the residue, 
which should be neai-ly colourless, at a temperature of 200° F. 
(93° C). The weight of the residue thus obtained multiplied by 
two will give the parts by weight of the alkaloids in 100 fluid parts 
of the liquid. The exact volume of this liquid being known, and 
the strength liaving been thus ascertained, calculate the total 
amount of alkaloid present therein. 

Evaporate to dryness over a water-bath, and add sufficient sugar 
of milk to make the mixed product exactly fifty times the weight 
of the total alkaloid found to have been present in the liquid (a), 
allowing for that quantity which was used for the estimation. 
Mix intimately, powder as quickly as possible in a dry atmosphere, 
and transfer at once to a well-stoppered bottle. This extract will 
contain two per cent, of total alkaloid. 

Liniment of Belladonna. 

Standard Extract of Belladonna . . 3 ounces. 

Camphor ...... 1 ounce. 

liectilicd Spirit . . . . . 24 fl. ounces. 

Distilled Water 6 „ 

Dissolve the camphor in the spirit and the extract in the slightly 
warmed water. When cold mix the two solutions, allow any 
undissolved sugar of milk present to subside, and pour off the clear 
liquor, which should measui-e thirty fluid ounces. One hundred 
fluid grains of this liniment contain Jth grain of total alkaloid, that 
is '2 per cent, of atropine and hyoscyamine. 

Tincture of Belladonna. 

Standard Extract of Belladonna . . l-tS grains. 
Distilled Water . . . . . 4 fl. ounces. 
Kectiiied Spirit a sufficiency. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



243 



Dissolve the extract in the warmed water, and then add sufficient 
spirit to produce twenty fluid ounces. Allow any undissolved 
sugar of milk to subside, and decant the clear solution. One fluid 
ounce of this tincture contains g-Vth grain of total alkaloid. One 
hundred cubic centimetres evaporated to dryness in the water-bath 
will leave a residue containing "OS-l grain of atropine and hyoscy- 
amine, these alkaloids to be isolated by the process we have 
previously described. 

Officinal Extracts. F. J. Lammer. (Amer. Joum. Fharm., 
November, 1886.) The author prepared the following extracts 
according to the directions of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, and deter- 
mined the percentage yield of the finished products. 



179-187.) 



Extr. Aconiti 




12-766 per cent. 




, Aloes aquosum 




91-54 




, Arnica3 radicis 




19-53 




, Belladonnas alcoh. 




32-23 




, Cannabis indict . 




16-56 




, Cinchonae 




26-4 




, Colchici radicis . 




23-2 




, Colchici seminis . 




. 9-63 




, Colocynthidis 




. 15-135 „ 




, ,, comp. 




95-77 




, Conii alcohol 




10-73 




, Digitalis 




25-5 




, Euonymi 




18-31 




, GentianiB 




44-6 




, Glycyrrhizio ijurum 




25-32 




, Haematoxyli 




5-3 




, Hyoscyami alcoh. 




16-64 




, Iridis . 




8-9 




, Juglandis 




16-82 




, Krameriffi 




8-4 




, Leptandraj . 




15-97 




, Malti . 




44-72 




, Mezerei 




7-1 




, Nucis vomica3 




6-17 




, Opii . 




49-6 




, Physostigmatis . 




6-2 




, Podophylli . 




8-31 




, Quassiaj 




2-24 




, Ehei . . . . 




25-66 




, Stramonii 




14-02 




, Taraxaci 




11-3 


on of Alkaloids in Narcotic Extracts. E. Dieterich. 


it. 


Centralhalle, 1887 ; Ai 


ler. 


Tourn. Fharm., Arjril, 1887 



244 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Examination of Extracts of Belladoyma, Aconite, Conitim, and 
llyoscyamus. — Titrate 0"2 gram of powdered lime, prepared from 
marble, with 8 grams of water; add 2 grams of extract, and when 
this is dissolved, careftilly add 10 grams of powdered lime. The 
mixture is then placed in a closed continuoiis displacement ap- 
pai^atus, the receiving bottle, containing about 30 grams of ether, 
is suspended over a water-bath (not too hot) and the process of 
extraction is regulated by bringing the ether bottle nearer or 
farther from the water-bath. With extracts of belladonna, aconite, 
and hyoscyamus, extraction is carried on for thirty or forty-five 
minutes at the highest ; coniuin extract requires at least two 
hours. It is advisable to exhaust a second time with ether. The 
ethereal solution of the alkaloids is transferred to a tared porcelain 
capsule, and the receiving bottle rinsed two or three times with 
small portions of ether ; 1 c.c. of distilled water is added, and the 
ether cai'cfully evapoi'ated over a water-bath at a temperature not 
exceeding 30° C, care being taken not to work near hydrochloi'ic, 
nitric, acetic, or other volatile acid. The residue, weighing 1"5 
grams, is dissolved in O'^ c.c. of alcohol, sp. gr. "892, the solution 
diluted with 10 c.c. of distilled water, and after adding one or two 
drops of rosolic acid solution (1: 100 alcohol), titrated with 100th 
normal sulphuric acid, each cubic centimetre of which neutralizes 
0"00289 gram of atropine or hyoscyamine, 0'00523 gram of aconi- 
tine, and 0'00127 of conine. 

The following results were obtained : 

Extract of hdladonna (thirteen experiments) : I'lVO, 1'184, 1'163, 
1 170, 115(3, 1U2, 115G, 1142, 115(>, 1170, 1-184, 1170, 1-170, 
j)or cent. 

Extract of aconite root (six experiments) : 1-305, 1-252, 1279, 
1-252, 1-279, 1-279 percent. 

Extract of hyoscyamus (six experiments) : -780, '766, '766, -751, 
■751, -766 per cent. 

Extract of conium (six experiments) : -G09, -597, -022, -022, -597, 
-589 per cent. 

Examination of Extract vf Nux Vomica. — 0-2 gram of powdered 
lime and 1 gram of extract of nux vomica are intimately mixed, 
3 c.c. of distilled water added and evenly mixed with 10 grams of 
powdered lime, then exhausted in the same manner as before for 
H or Ij hours. The receiving bottle is rinsed with alcohol twice, 
and then with ether, and after adding 1 c.c. of distilled water, the 
])ercolate is evaporated in a tared porcelain capsule (at the same 
temperature, and with the same caution as stated above) to I'S 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 245 

gram; then add 0'5 c.c. of alcohol, sp.gr. "892, 10 c.c. of distilled 
water, and 2 drops of rosolic acid solution, and titi'ate with l-20th 
normal sulphui-ic acid. Towards the end it is advisable to use 
delicate blue litmus paper, conveying the solution on the paper 
by means of platinum wire ; 1 c.c. of l-20th normal sulphui-ic acid 
corresponds to 00182 gram of alkaloid. 

The method may be modified by triturating 1 gram of extr. nux 
vomica with 3 c.c. of normal ammonia, and adding 10 grams of 
powdered lime. The first process yielded the following results in 
a number of experiments : 1874, 18'92, 18'74, 18-56, 18'65 per 
cent, alkaloid. 

Extracts. V. Coblentz. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1886. 
From Amer. Journ. Pharm.) This paper is a continuation of pi-e- 
vious researches. For assaying extractum, ignatice, the alkaloids 
were isolated by the method of Dunstan and Short, but it was 
found necessai-y to agitate the acid solution repeatedly with ether 
and chloroform, in order to remove all colouring matter and extrac- 
tive ; agitation with ammonia and absolute ether containing 
chloroform then yielded the alkaloids white. For the estimation 
of the alkaloids, strychnine and brucine, Mayer's solution gives 
variable results, as has been shown also by Dr. A. B. Lyons 
{Drug. Circ, June, 1886). Dunstan and Short's method with 
potassium ferrocyanide gives correct results, but requires close 
attention, and does not permit of rapid woi'k. Dr. Schweissinger's 
alkalimetric method is rapidly executed and exact. 1 c.c. y^ n 
HCl neutralizes 0'00394 gram of brucine, and 0'0034 gram of 
strychnine. The weighed mixed alkaloids are dissolved in a slight 
excess of measured y^ « H CI ; the excess of acid, determined by 
yV ^ alkali, is deducted ; the total weight of alkaloid is divided 
by the number of c.c. required for neutralizing it ; the quotient is 
subtracted from 394 ; the remainder is divided by six, when the 
quotient, after removing the decimal point three places to the 
right, indicates the weight of strychnine, that of brucine being 
found by diffei-ence. When the amount of alkaloid is small, 
weighing of the solutions gives the most accurate results ; with 
more than O'l gram measuring is practically accurate. The total 
alkaloids from 5 grams of the extract varied in five samples 
between "194 and -237 gram; the strychnine between "1068 and 
•1813 gram. 

Extractum PodophylU. — Five samples were examined by treating 
with alcohol, concentrating and precipitating with acidulated 
water; the amount of resin thus obtained varied between 65 and 



246 YEAR-BOOK OP PIIAHMACY. 

11"5 per cent., equivalent to from 32 to 59 per cent, of the 
.drug. 

Extractatn Valeriance. — The amount soluble in strong alcohol 
from 5 grams of five samples varied between 0'93 and 1'17 gi-am. 

Extractum Senegce. — The extract was exhausted with a mixture 
of two parts of alcohol and one of water, the liquid concentrated, 
freed from colouring matter by ether, and precipitated hj alcohol 
and ether. The yield from 5 grams of six samples varied between 
"340 and "503 gram. Proctor obtained 5| per cent, of polygallic 
acid from senega root. 

Extractum Belladonnc^. — The alkaloid was estimated by the 
method of Dunstan and Ransom (abstract, Year-Book of Pharviacy, 
1885, 391), and Avas foi;nd to vary in five samples between '41 and 
'68 per cent, of belladonna root. 

Note on Fluid Extract of Cinchona Bark. A. C. Abraham. 
(Fharm. Junrn., 3rd series, xvii. 897.) The author draws the 
following conclusions from his experimental observations : — 

In order to obtain a fluid extract representing as far as possible 
the bark from which it is made in an unaltered state, the latter 
should first bo fully exhausted with water, and the residue then 
extracted with the acid menstruum. Boiling water is preferable 
to cold. The acid menstruum should be at least double the 
strength of that ordered by the riiarmacojMX'ia. 

Improved Formula for Extractum Pruni Virginianae Fluidum. 
C. M. Boger. (Amer. Jour 71. P harm., May, 1887.) The following 
formula has yielded good results, and develops all the prussic acid ; 
there is no precipitate, nor does any form on standing : — 

Take of Ground Wild Clierry Bark . . .^xvj. 

Water aud Alcohol, each . . . . f ^x. 
Glycerin ....... ^i\. 

Moisten the bark with icn ounces of water, and put loosely in 
the percolator, close tightly and allow it to macerate sixty hours ; 
then pack A-ery firmly, mix the ten fluid ounces of alcohol and four 
drachms of glycerin, and pour it upon the bark, now cork up the 
percolator tightly, and macerate twenty-four hours longer ; at the 
expiration of this time remove the cork, and about twelve fluid 
ounces of percolate will come through ; water should now be 
poured on to force the other four fluid ounces out, when the 
percolation should be stopped, and the product will be finished. 
The author arrives at the conclusion that to continue the perco- 
lation beyond this point is worse than useless, as it necessitates 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 247 

subsequent evaporation ; nor does it add any medicinal strength 
to the preparation. It does add quite a considerable quantity of 
tannin and gallic acid, which latter results from the conversion 
of the tannin by heat. 

Note on Fluid Extract of Scutellaria. E. Pen nock. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., 1887, 334.) This extract, as met with in commerce, 
usually contains a certain amount of precipitate. The author 
states that the formation of this precipitate may be prevented, or 
considerably lessened, by using a menstruum containing 5 per 
cent, of glycerin ; the percentage of alcohol is not stated. 

Pancreatic Extract. M. Stutzer. (Zeitschr. filr physiol. Chem., 
xi. 209.) A very active pancreatic extract may be prepared by 
chopping up fiiiely a bullock's pancreas, previously freed from fat, 
triturating it with sand, and exposing it to the air for twenty-four 
to thirty-six liours. It is next rubbed up with lime water and 
glycerin (sp. gr. 1'23), in the proportion of two litres of each for 
every kilogram of minced pancreas, and allowed to macerate from 
four to six days with occasional stii-i-ing, next pressed, and the 
liquor run rapidly through a loose filtering medium. An extract 
prepared in this way gave maximum results upou the addition of 
three times its volume of water containing sodium chloride equal 
to 0"25 per cent, of the weight of the extract. 

Haschiscli and Cannabinon. (Pharm. Journ., from Pharm. 
Rundschau, February, 1887.) Haschiscli is said to be prepared 
by treating alcoholic extract of Indian hemp with caustic alkali. 
which combines with all the ingredients of acid character, and 
brings them into solution. The residue is the " pure haschiscli," 
and consists essentially of a mixture of the soft resin cannabinon. 
and the alkaloid tetanine. It forms a brown, soft, resinoid sub- 
stance, insoluble in water, but forming golden yellow solutions in 
alcohol, ether, and chloroform. A small dose, one-third of a grain, 
of "haschiscli puruni " is said to act as a stimulant, and a larger 
dose to produce the hemp effects completely, with subsequent 
sleep ; but in determining the dose, the characteristics of tlie 
patient should be borne in mind. The full effect is only produced 
when the drug is in a fine state of division. It is, therefore, 
recommended to be administered in the pastille form, with pow- 
dered cacao or powdered roasted coffee as a vehicle. 

If from the foregoing preparation the poisonous tetanine be 
removed by means of tannic acid, the remaining cannabinon has 
no stimulant action, but only the narcotic property. It forms a 
soft brown resin, Avith physical properties resembling those of 



218 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

" hascliiscli," and for gi'eater convenience in dispensing it is 
nsually supplied as a ten per cent, trituration with milk sugar. 
Made up in the pastille form, with cocoa or coffee, it is admin- 
istered in doses of from one-half to one and a half grains as a 
hypnotic, especially for hysterical or insane patients, but is contra- 
indicated where heart disease exists. 

Concentrated Liquid Preparations for Dilution. J. L. Lem- 
berger. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1886. From A.mer. Pharm. 
Journ.) The author considers it quite feasible to prepare concen- 
trated liquid preparations of some drugs which may be diluted so 
as to bring them to the pharmacopcBial strength. The concentrated 
liquor of gentian, for preparing the compound infusion of gentian, 
is cited as an example ; and from honestly pi^epared fluid extracts 
of ergot, aconite root, or nux vomica, a wine or tincture can be 
prepared, fulfilling all the requirements of the corresponding phai'- 
macopceial preparations. 

The Infusions of the British Pharmacopoeia. R. A. Cripps. 
(Phnrm. Journ., :h-d series, xvii. I}8.5-;^S7.) This paper contains 
tables showing the alterations in the mode of prepai'ing the 
official infusions according to the new Pharmacopoeia as compared 
with tlie directions of the Pharmacopoeia of 1867 ; and showing 
also the influence of tliese alterations on the products. 

Of the total number of twenty-nine infusions, no fewer than 
seventeen have been more or less altered, that of dulcamara has 
been omitted, and one new one (jaborandi) introduced. In those 
cases in which the time has been reduced, without any modifi- 
cation, there has been, except in the case of beai-bcrry, a decrease 
in the solid residue, in some instances a considerable one ; there 
has, however, been no great difference in physical properties. 

The infusions of digitalis and gentian show a diminution about 
equivalent to the decrease in the proportion of di-ugs ordered in 
the new formula^. 

The influence of the finer division of the drugs, howevei', is to 
considerably increase the activity of the resulting preparations, 
some of these infusions calling for special remarks. 

Gasrarilla. — A coarse powder is ordered by the old Pharma- 
coptt'ia ; a sieve of eight meshes to the linear inch was employed 
as fairly representing a coarse powder. The infusions prepared 
accoi'ding to the 188.5 Pharmacopoeia was fully one-third stronger 
than that of the 1867 edition. 

CincJiojin. — The great variation in the yellow and red barks 
rendered a strict compai'ison of the old and new infusions impos- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 249 

sible ; however, the influence of the other changes was observed, 
using the same sample of the bark in each case ; four infusions 
were made. 

No. 1. — No. 8 powder, two^ 
Lonrs, without acid (1867). Influence 



No. 2. — No. 40 powder, two | of powder. \ 



Influ- 
henceof 



hours, without acid. 

No. 3. — No. 40 powder, one"\ . 

hour, without acid. [ Influence ) 

No. 4. — No. 40 powder, one j of acid, 
hour, with acid. I 

The effect of a finer powder is not really so marked as in most 
cases, showing an increase of only about 3 per cent, of the total 
alkaloids. 

When the infusion is made in one hour, cceteris pnrihus, the 
resulting preparation is distinctly stronger than that made in two 
hours ; this anomaly is explained by the fact that the cincho- 
tannates of the alkaloids are much less soluble in cold than in 
hot water, a larger amount is thei'efore deposited before straining. 

The greatest difference is caused, however, by the acid, the 
infusion containing which is fully half as strong again (in alka- 
loids) as the strongest of the others. 

In estimating the solid residue, it was necessary to neutralize 
the sulphuric acid by soda, correcting the weight of residue for 
sulphate of sodium. 

Krameria. — In this case the effect of the finer di\Tsion of the 
root is very marked, but a No. 20 powder would have been more 
suitable on account of the great difficulty in obtaining rhatany in 
No. 40 powder, the operation of powdering an ounce occupying as 
long as the preparation of the infusion. 

Linseed. — The great difference is due to the increased amount of 
liquorice. 

For other particulars the tables in the original paper should be 
consulted. 

Tincture of Strophanthiis. (Phann. Jouini., .3rd series, xvii. 304.) 
Messrs Burroughs, Wellcome & Co. report upon the following 
process, for which they are indebted to Prof. Fraser : — Two and a 
half ounces of the prime seeds are deprived of fat by means of 
ether, and^ then percolated with rectified spirit until one pint of 
tincture is obtained. The solution of fat in ether is rejected, as so 
far it has not been found of any use, and naturally interferes with 
making a clear solution of the tincture in water. All unripe, 



250 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

imperfect seeds, and all bat, full-g-rown pods, should be rejected, 
as they are very deficient in active principle. 

Tincture of Strophanthus. W. Martindale. (Pharvi. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 411 and 503.) The author describes a number of 
experiments, the results of which lead him to the conclusion that, 
as a provisional formula for the tincture, a 1 in 20 strength should 
be adopted, and that the seeds alone should be used, and be first 
freed from their oil. The process would be as follows : — • 

K. Strophanthus Seeds, deprived of hairs . 1 part. 

Reduce to powder — this is easiest done by pounding with broken 
glass — pack, and percolate with 

Ether, specific gravity 0-720 . . G fluid parts. 

Then expose the marc to the air to dry, and again pack, and 
percolate with 

Rectified Spirit, q.s. to produce . 20 fluid parts. 

Dose, 4 to 10 minims. 

This tincture will be one-half the strength of a 1 in 8 tincture, 
as, although two and a half times the quantity of product is 
obtained, the drug is more nearly exhausted than by the less 
quantity of menstruum. It is important also that the preparation 
should not be so concentrated that a small dose cannot be easily 
and correctly appoi-tioned. 

Tincture of Strophanthus. J. Moss. (Fharm. Journ., 3rd series, 
xvii. 524.) The author concurs in W. Martindale's recommenda- 
tion of a formula yielding a tincture of less potency than that 
proposed by Dr. Fraser. He also records the results of experi- 
ments proving that the prelirainai'y percolation of the seeds with 
ether causes no appreciable loss of active principle. 

Tincture of Strophanthus. Prof. Fraser. (Pharm. Jonni. 
from Jlrit. Med. Journ., January 22, 1S87, 151.) The author 
formally adopts the suggestions made in favour of a tincture more 
dilute than that originally used by him, the strength now chosen 
being 1 in 20, as i-ecommended by ^lartindalc (see above). The 
method of preparation now given by the author is to reduce the 
seeds, freed from stalks and hairs, to a modei'ately fine powder, 
and dry the powder for twelve hours at a temperature of from 
100-120° F. One ounce or one part of the powder is then packed 
in a percolator', and ether, fi"ce from alcohol or water, is added 
until the powder is saturated and the ether begins to drop, when 



MATEiaA MEDICA AXD PHARMACY. 251 

the percolation is stopped for twentj-four hours, after which it is 
allowed to go on slowly until 10 fluid ounces, or 10 fluid parts of 
ether, have been used ; if the last running of tlie ether is not almost 
colourless more should be used. The powder is then removed 
from the percolator and exposed to the air, or heated to 100° F. if 
necessary, to drive olf the ether, any lumps being broken up, and 
the unifoi-m, nearly white, dry powder is repacked in the percolator 
and allowed to macerate in contact with sufiicient rectified spirit 
for forty-eight hours ; after which rectified spirit is passed slowly 
through until twenty fluid parts of percolate have been obtained. 
The author gives the dose of this tincture as from five to ten 
minims ; it may also be used in doses of half a minim to two 
minims frequently repeated. He describes it as nearly colour- 
less, having a very pale yellow tinge, being neutral in reaction, 
and intensely and rather persistently bitter to the taste. It mixes 
unchanged with water, and is not precipitated by tannin ; the 
solution becomes opalescent on the addition of ether. Solution of 
perchloride of iron also produces a slight haziness and intensifies 
the colour, which after some houi's becomes greenish yellow. 

Tincture of Strophanthus. H. Helbing. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, xvii. 747-750.) The author calls attention to the diversity 
in the percentage of extract obtained from the tincture of commerce 
which seems to necessitate an attempt at nniformity and the fixing 
of a standard for the tincture. He believes that even with the 
greatest accuracy it is impossible to exhaust completely the seeds 
in the process of preparing the tincture. 

The white strophanthus seeds, if treated in the same manner 
as the Kombe seed, show a loss during drying of 5 per cent.; the 
percentage of oil is somewhat less, being 28'33 per cent. ; the oil 
is also of a green colour, but a little paler. If the two oils are 
heated on a water-bath, they lose their emerald-green colour, and 
change it for an opalescent brownish-red. The tinctui^e derived 
from these seeds is found by the author to be of the same nature 
and colour as that from Kombe seeds. 

Tincture of Rhatany. J. 0. Braithwaite and E. H. Farr. 
{Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 399.) Following a suggestion of 
Mr. Holmes, the authors have studied the two oflicial kinds of 
rhatany with reference to their comparative suitability for phar- 
maceutical purposes. The experiments were made on rhatany 
selected from bulk, as forming a fair sample of the whole, and 
were conducted in each case under conditions as nearly as possible 
uniform. 



252 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

T!ie amount of extractive was as follows : — 

Krameria triandm. Krameria argentea. 

1. 27-12 1. 21-52 

2. 24-96 

3. 25-04 

4. 27-60 2. 26-72 

The experiments Nos. 1 and 2, with K. argentea correspond with 
Nos. 1 and 4 respectively of those with K. triandra having been 
conducted under precisely the same conditions of tempei'ature, etc. 

The tincture made from Para Savanilla rhatany forms a bright 
mixture with water in all proportions, whilst that made from 
Peruvian rhatany becomes turbid on adding water. The taste of 
the Para, as might be expected, is a ti'iHe more astringent, but in 
other respects thei-e is little difference. 

One other point might be mentioned in this connection, which is 
about the method of prej^aring the tincture. The authors find 
that by maceration for a longer period than forty-eight hours, a 
better tincture is produced than if the exact time be adhered to ; 
this being more marked in the case of Para rhatany. 

The temperature also has marked influence on the product; this, 
too, being greater Avith the Para variety. 

Tinctiira Ferri Acetatis, B.P. 1885. T. Steplienson. (Fharm. 
Joiirn., 3rd scries, xvii. 41)5.) The author shows that this tincture, 
and also the oiHcial liquoi', are liable to form a deposit of ferric 
hydi'ate after some time, a defect similar to that well known as 
regards the tincture of the 18G7 Pliarmacopceia. He finds that as 
regards the liquor, the most practical way of meeting the difhculty 
is to keep the strong liquor and dilute it when required. He also 
considers it very desirable that the liquor should be as free as 
possible from ammonia. The tincture he considers, at best, a very 
unsatisfactory preparation. 

Soluble Essence of Ginger. L. F. Stevens. (Froc. Amer. 
Pharm. Assoc, 1886. From Anwr. Fharm. Journ.) After a critical 
review of the various methods which have been recommended, the 
author finds the following process yielding a liquid containing 
everything desired without having the flavour and aroma im- 
paired, as is the case Avith the employment of heat, alkalies, or 
carbonates. Shake I pint of fluid extract of Jamaica ginger with 
4 ounces of powdered pumice stone, and .S pints of water, adding 
it slowly and allowing intervals for rest and subsidence. The 
water precipitates the hot resin and some colouring mattei% the 
formation of clots being prevented by the pumice stone. The 



MATEPJA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 2-53 

filtered product is of a light straw or amber colour, of an agreeable 
odour and flavour, and therapeutically is a prompt, diffusible 
stimulant, without irritating properties. The hot resin may be 
obtained from the filter by drying and Avashing with alcohol. 

Note on Vinum Ipecacuanhse. F. C. J. Bird. (Chemist and 
Druggist, April 2, 1887.) The author records some experiments 
made both with coarse powdered ipecacuanhas and also with the 
Avhole root, and arrives at the conclusion that the Pharmacopoeia is 
correct in directing coarse powder to be used. He suggests, how- 
ever, that much less percolate should be collected. 

Loss of Alcohol in making Tinctures and Fluid Extracts. J . 
G. Feil. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1886. From Amer. Pharm. 
Journ.) Working with from 5 to 50 pounds of drugs, the loss of 
alcohol averaged 9'8 per cent. ; working with smaller quantities, 
it is estimated to exceed 25 per cent, in some cases. 

A Simple Mode for Percolation under Pressure. T. Maben. 
{Pharm. Jouni., 3rd series, xvii. 941.) A description is given in 
this paper of a simple and very useful form of apparatus for 
percolation with the aid of a vacuum pump. The reader is re- 
ferred to the original article, which is illustrated by a woodcut 
illustration. 

A New Process for the Preparation of Syrup of Tolu. F. 
Stephenson. (Pharm. Jotirn., 3rd series, xA^ii. 785.) In the 
prepai'ation of this syrup it occurred to the author that the balsam 
might be sufficiently exhausted by cold maceration, if the tolu was 
in a fine state of division, and the syrup completed without the 
application of heat. The following formula is the result of his 
experiments in this direction : — 

Balsam of Tolu 1^ ounce. 

Finest Loaf Sugar ..... 2 pound^. 
Water 16 ounces. 

Reduce the balsam to powder by trituration with 8ozs. of the 
sugar. Place the mixture in a bottle with water, and macerate for 
forty-eight hours with occasional agitation. Then filter through 
paper till bright, and dissolve the remainder of the sugar in the 
filtrate. This is best done by crushing (not powdering) the sugar, 
placing it in a percolator, and passing the filtrate through. The 
result is a clear and very full flavoured syrup, which the author 
thinks compares favourably Avith the product of any other published 
formula. With so large a proportion of sugar (Avhicli might 



254 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

perhaps be lessened without disadvantage), the percolation is 
rather slow. It is found somewhat difficult to completely clarify 
the syrup. 

Note on Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia. A. C. Abraham. 
(Fkarm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 512.) The author's examination 
of a number of samples of this preparation shows that, although 
the official process is capable of giving very constant results, such 
results are not attained by first-class houses, from which most of 
the samples examined had been obtained. 

Estimation of Carbonate of Ammonia in Spiritus Ammoniae 
Aromaticus, B. P., by means of Allen's Nitrometer. E. D. 
Gravill. (Pharm. Journ. 3rd series, xvii. 445.) For the pur- 
pose suggested in the title, the nitrometer is filled with mercury, 
5 c.c. of spiritus ammonisB ai-omaticus admitted, then gradually 
5 c.c. of hydrochloric acid, and the volume of carbonic anhydride 
liberated is measured with the necessary precautions. 

Spirit of Nitrous Ether. E. Painter. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc, 1886. From Amer. Pharm. Journ.) This preparation is 
recommended to be made from pure nitrous ether, and this to be 
prepared by the action of nitrous acid gas upon alcohol. The gas 
is generated from a mixture of sulphui'ic acid, 2 lbs., arsenious 
acid, in lumps, 2j lbs., and nitric acid, 2| lbs., and is conducted 
through an empty bottle, successively through two bottles con- 
taining alcohol, and a third bottle containing water and sodium 
bicarbonate, for the retention of any free acid, into the condensing 
vessel surrounded by ice, where pure nitrous ether is obtained. 
This should then be mixed with three times its weight of alcohol, 
in which condition it may be preserved. One part of this mixture, 
with four parts of alcohol, makes spii'it of nitrous ether of the 
pharmaeop(rial strength. 

Spirit of Nitrous Ether. H. Frickhinger. {ArcMv der 
Pharm. [3], x.xiv. 1UG5-10G8.) By taking alcohol of 0812 sp. gr. 
instead of 0832, as given in the German Pharmacopoeia, almost 
the whole of the li([uid may be distilled over, and there is much 
less free acid to contend with in the distillate. The niti-ic acid is 
not sufficient in amount to completely oxidize all the products of 
the reaction. The residue from the first distillation, amounting to 
about 2 per cent, of the original charge, is wine-yellow, strongly 
acid, and has a specific gravity of 110. It contains no nitric acid, 
but, on the contrary, a large quantity of oxalic acid, which can be 
economically converted into ammonium oxalate. If this residue 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 255 

is poured into nitric acid of 1'35 sp. gr., and allowed to stand for 
some weeks, crystals of oxalic acid separate out from tlie grass- 
green liquid obtained. The mother-liquor becomes again colour- 
less on warming for some time. The rectified ether is perfectly- 
neutral in reaction ; at first the sp. gr. of the distillate is 0'835, 
then 0'840, 0"84)5, and 0"850, at which point it remains until the 
rectification suddenly ceases. 

The Pharmacognosy of the Nitrites. G. A. Atkinson. 
(Pharm. Journ., 'Svd series, xvii. 1-4.) The importance with which 
the compounds of nitrous acid are reg-arded in therapeutics, 
especially in the treatment of certain diseases of the circulatory, 
respiratory, nervous, and urinary systems, and the pharmacological 
knowledge regarding the nitrites as a class, are referred to as 
rendering their pharmacognosy worthy of careful consideration. 

The author's observations tend to show that of the nitrite group 
(including nitro-glycerine) there are but three compounds which 
according to present knowledge ai-e worthy of a permanent place 
in therapeutics ; nitrite of amyl for inhalation, nitrite of sodium 
and nitro-glycerine for administration by the stomach. For sub- 
cutaneous injection any one of the three may be used, but he 
prefers nitrite of sodium. Nitro-glycerine, being practically stable 
in all conditions of the stomach, would be more suited than nitrite 
of sodium for exhibition through this viscus, were it not for the 
intense headache it is so apt to produce. The aiithor adds that 
the decomposition of such a body as nitrite of sodium by the 
gastric juice can be largely or entirely obviated by prescribing 
it with bicarbonate of sodium. 

Note on Liquor Strychniae, B. P. E. H. Farr. (Pharm. Jozirn., 
3rd series, xvii. 580.) Attention is drawn in this paper to the 
fact that liquor strychuite, B. P., 1885, if exposed to a low tem- 
peratui^e, is liable to deposit crystals of hydrochlorateof strychnine, 
and thus to lose in strength. This observation is confirmed by 
several correspondents in subsequent numbers of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Jourywil. 

Note on Confection of Sulphur. A. R. Robbie. {Pharvi. 
Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 759.) This confection, obtained by the 
directions of the Pharmacopoeia, is open to the objection that 
when it is kept for some time, especially under circumstances 
favourable to evaporation, it becomes dry and hard. 

The following formula gives a product which appears to leave 
nothing to be desired : — 



256 YEAK-liOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Sulphur. Sublimat ^iv. 

P. G. Tragacanth gr. xviij. 

Tinct. Auraiitii .;..... gss. 

Potass. Bitart. ....... 31. 

Glycerin! . . . . . . . • S^j. 

Syr. Simpl 5ii. 5vj. 

Misce. 

A Siample made by the above process, which had been kept for 
three months in a pot loosely cov^ered with a piece of pai'chment 
paper laid on, but not tied down, and occasionally i-emoved, Avas 
Btill in perfect condition. 

Ctuinine Pills. C. W. Holmes. {Pharm. Joum., 3rd series, 
xvii. 454.) Simple syrup is recommended by the author as the 
best excipient for making these pills. 

Blaud's Pills. W. Duncan. (Pharm. Joum., 3rd series, xvii. 
775.) The author examined nine samples of these pills, and found 
them to vary in the proportion of ferrous iron present from 9"9 
to 22 per cent., all calculated for ferrous carbonate. He also 
prepared these pills himself by various published processes, in 
order to test their relative keeping properties. The results of his 
experiments lead him to the conclusion that Martindale's formula 
is the one that should be adopted by all who regard these pills 
as a preparation of ferrous carbonate, and not as a preparation 
of ferrous sulphate intended to form carbonate in the stomach. 
Martindale's formula, as recommended in the " Extra Pharma- 
copoeia," is as follows : — 

P> Ferri Sulpb 2^ graius. 

Potass. Carb 1^ m 

Saccliar. . . . . . . . 1 ,, 

Piilv. Trag i „ 

Note on Blaud's Pill Mass. T. Thompson. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, xvii. 864.) The following formula is recommended by 
the author : — 



Dried Sulphate of Iron . 
Anhydrous Carbonate of Potassium 

Sin^ar of Milii 

Pulv. Tragacanth .... 
01. Eiciui 



36 grains. 
30 „ 
25 „ 
10 „ 
q.s. 



To make twenty-four 5-grain pills. 

The author also suggests the use of gelatin capsules, the two 
desiccated salts to be incorporated separately with almond oil, then 
mixed and i)ut into the capsules. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 257 

Notes on Bland's Pills. P. Boa. (Pharm. Jonrn., 3rd series, 
xvii. 80.5.) The author finds the following formnla to give a 
constant and satisfactory result : — 

Grauulated Ferrous Sulphate, B.P. . 30 grains. 

Potassium Carbonate (15 to 16 p.c. H., 0) 20 ,, 

Powdered Sugar . . . . . 10 ,, 
Powdered Tragacanth . . . . 3 ,, 

Rnb the iron and sugar together, then add the potash, and after 
trituration add the tragacanth and beat into a mass for twelve 
pills. The beating required is considei-able, but nothing else is 
needed to make a mass which rolls easily if not allowed to lie. 
Each pill theoretically contains a little over one grain of ferrous 
carbonate. 

These pills are found to keep for any reasonable time with only 
a trifling loss of ferrous salt ; it is unnecessary to coat them. 

Pill Excipient. G. W. Sloan. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
1886. From Amer. Pharm. Journ.) Simple cerate is recom- 
mended as being well adapted for readily decomposable or deli- 
quescent substances, such as silver nitrate, silver oxide, gold 
chloride, potassium permanganate, ammonium chloride, zinc 
bromide, and many others. The quantity required is small, and 
the mass produced is smooth, plastic, firm, and readily soluble in 
the stomach. Powdered talc is used as a diluent if necessary, 
and as the powder for the pill machine. 

Practical Remarks on Pearl-coating of Pills. W. Gilmour. 
(^Phann. Jotirn., 3rd series, xvii. 781.) We recommend this useful 
paper to the attention of the reader, but refrain from giving any 
details here, as the substance of the paper cannot be adequately 
represented by an abstract. 

Solubility of Gelatin as Compared with other Pill Coatings. 
T. Thompson. {Pharm. Journ., urd series, xvii. 8G3.) The 
results of the author's experiments tend to prove that the gelatin- 
coated pill has the advantage in every respect over those coated 
in any other Avay, and that factory-made coated pills are not 
desirable adjuncts to a chemist's business. 

Note on Linimentum Terebinthinse and Sapo Mollis. T. Red- 
wood. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 741, 7-42.) The author 
has found that those samples of soft soap which contained the 
largest proportions of carbonate of potassium, as well as samples 
of his own preparation which contained much free caustic alkali, 
have yielded this liniment in a thicker, more pasty condition than 

s 



258 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHAKMACY. 



it has been in when a neutral oi' nearly a neutral soap lias been 
used. The result, however, largely depends on manipulation. If 
carefully and well prepared with neutral or nearly neutral soap, the 
product will be too thick to admit of its being easily put into a 
bottle with a narrow neck ; it should be put into an open-mouthed 
bottle, because after standing for some days it usually becomes more 
liquid, and too much, so to admit of its being conveniently kept in 
a covered pot. He arrives at the conclusion that the official 
formula for Linimentum terebinthince yields a thick, permanent 
emulsion, well suited for its intended use, if prepared with a soap 
that is neutral or nearly free from alkalinity ; but that the defini- 
tion of Sapo mollis, as given in the Pharmacopoeia, requires cor- 
rection, and otherwise admits of improvement. 

Linimentum TerebintMnae. M. Conroy. (Chemist and Drug- 
gist, November 20, 188(3.) The author's experiments lead him to 
the conclusion that a fine jelly-like liniment can be made from the 
Pharmacopoeia formula, provided the soap and water be well in- 
corporated and the oil of turpentine added very sloivly, with con- 
stant trituration ; and secondly, that the quality of the soap and 
oil of turpentine does not affect the result. 

Linimentum TerebintMnae. Gr. E. Perry. (Pharvi. Jouni., 
Hrd series, xvii. 8*.)9.) A satisfactory liniment is obtained, accord- 
ing to the author, by using more .soap and less water than the 
Pharmacopoeia directs, and manipulating as follows : — Dissolve in 
a bottle, cainphor one ounce, in oil of tui-pentine sixteen fluid 
ounces ; add soft soap four ounces, and water one ounce, shake. 
Thus made, it is an elegant, creamy emulsion, remaining suf- 
ficiently liquid, and though a slight separation will take place 
after a time, it is practically ])ermanent. 

Cerates and Ointments. J.E. Puckley. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
November, 188G.) The author suggests that the composition of 
ointments should be so regulated that their fusing points be merely 
a little higher than the tempei-ature of the body, both in health 
aiul disease. The following fusing points were ascertained by 
introducing the preparation into a glass tube of one-eighth inch 
bore, suspending this with a thermometer in Avater, and applying 
heat until the plug changed its position in the tube ; and by heat- 
ing the preparation in a cup placed in a water-bath, and stirring 
with a thermometer until entii'ely liquefied, the fluid point was 
determined. The prepai-ations were all made strictly in accordance 
with the U.S. Phai-macopoDiaof 1880. The results were as folloAvs, 
the temperature being given in degrees Centigrade : — 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



259 





Fused. 


Fluid. 


Congealed. 


Ceratum 


56-6 


60 


55"5 


,, Camphorc-e 






57-7 


62-7 


53-8 


,, Cantharidis 






61-1 


71-2 


544 


,, Cetacei . 






57-7 


61-1 


54-4 


,, Estr. Canthar. 






70 


721 


61-2 


,, Plumbi Subacet. 






60 


62-2 


54-4 


,, Eesiiiae . 






51-1 


54-4 


48-8 


,, Sabinffi . 






52-7 


58-5 


51-6 


Unguentum .... 






52-9 


o3-9 


51-1 


,, Acidi Carbol. 






51-9 


o4-4 


50 


,, „ Gallici 






3i-4 


40-5 


23-9 


,, Taun. 






34-4 


38-3 


23-8 


,, Aquse Eosae 






51-1 


54-4 


48- S 


,, Belladonuffi 






34-4 


38-8 


23-8 


,, Clirysarob. 






34-4 


38-8 


23-8 


,, Diachylon 






51-6 


58-6 


44-4 


,, Gallffi 






34-4 


405 


23-8 


Hydrargyri 






45-0 


51-6 1 


44-4 
29-4 


,, Hydrar. Amm. . 






33-8 


38-8 


23-8 


,, „ Nitrat. 






47-2 


50 


31-1 


Oxid. fl. 






52-7 


60 


46-6 


„ ,, ,, rub. 






50-5 


54-4 


42-2 


lodi . . 






.33-8 


37-7 


23-3 


,, lodiformi . 






35-5 


39-4 


23-8 


,, Mezerei 






50 


52-2 


48-3 


,, Picis liq. . 






41-6 


47-2 


40-6 


,, Plumbi Garb. 






33-8 


40 


23-8 


„ lod. 






33-8 


40 


23-8 


,, Potas. lod. 






42-2 


44-4 


31-1 


,, Stramonii 






411 


44-3 


28-3 


,, Sulphuris. 






45-5 


50-5 


28-3 


Sulph. Alkal. . 






38-8 


49-4 


261 


,, Veratrinaj 






39-4 


46-5 


34-4 


,, Zinci Oxid. 






40 


44-2 


34-4 



Linimentum Potasii lodidi cam Sapone. A. L. Dor an. (Chemist 
ajid Drugrjist, August 28, 1886.) The following formula is pro- 
posed by the author : — 



Sapo Mollis (transparent) 


. . . . Si. 


Potassium Iodide . 


. 5iss. 


Glycerin 


• 3J- 


S. V. K. . 


• . • 3h 


Oil of Lemons . 


. 5ss. 


Distilled Water 


. 3X. 



Dissolve the soap in 8 ozs. of water and the glycerine by the aid 
of heat, and strain while hot on to the potassium iodide, previously 
dissolved in the remaining 2 ozs. of water ; mix, cool slightly, and 
add the oil dissolved in the spirit. Shake, and set aside to cool 
and clear. ... 



260 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

This liniment, in addition to its other advantages, is not much 
affected by cold. The sapo mollis used was slightly alkaline, but, 
in this respect, compared favourably "vvith commercial samples of 
both curd and castile soaps, which, though supplied as B.P., gave 
decided alkaline reactions. 

Formation of Oleates during the Preparation of Ointments. C. 
T. George. (Proc. Pennsyh-ania Pharm. Assoc, 1S86.) Su.spect- 
iiig that oleates are formed in the preparation of ointments made 
with lard or simple cei'ate, and containing metals or the metallic 
oxides, and that the use of petroleum compounds as a base may 
thus be less advisable, the author has carried out a series of ex- 
periments with ointments of mercury, red oxide of mercury, yellow 
oxide of mercury, nitrate of mercury, oxide of zinc, and nutgalls. 
From the results of the experiments, the author arrives at the 
conclusion that the use of lard, or lard oil, and tallows, are to be 
recommended for the preparation of all ointments containing 
metals or their oxides, or vegetable powders, or extracts of any 
kind. Petrolatum as a base is only to be recommended for the 
preparation of such ointments as are used for the purpose of pro- 
tecting an abraded surface of the skin, or a hacked or chapped or 
chafed surface, acting rather in a mechanical manner, than for any 
medicinal virtues they may contain. 

Vaselin. C. Engler and M. Boehm. (Bingl. polyt. Journ., 
cclxii. 468-475 and 524-530; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 456.) The 
authors call vaselin the substance extracted from petroleum 
residues, whilst the mixture of heavy mineral oil (Paraffinuvi 
Hquidum) with ceresine (Paraffinum soUdum) is regarded as "arti- 
(icial vaselin." For the preparation of the natural product, two 
(Jalician oils were used. Jioth oils were highl}- dichro'ic, had a 
green colour by reflected light, and a colour varying from yellow- 
ish to brownish red by transmitted light, and exhibited the follow- 
ing properties when subjected to distillation : — 





Fraction below 150°. 


150° to 200' 




SPifrr. percent, percent, 
at 15'. by vol. by weight. 


per cent, per cent, 
by vol. hy weight. 


Oil I. . 


. 0-812 . . :U>2 . 26-7 . 


. 85-9 . 35-5 


„ n. . 


. 0-820 . . 21-8 . •_' 


0-0 . 


. 51-7 . 51-2 




290° to 310'. 




Above 310°. 




per cent. per cent, 
by vol. by weight. 




per cent. per cent, 
by vol. by weight. 


Oil I. , 


, . . . 5-3 . . G'o . 




. 27-7 . . 31-1 


„ II. . 


, . . . 8-8 . . 9-4 . 


. 


. 17-0 . . 18-9 



MATEKIA MEDICA AXD PHARMACY. 261 

For the production of vaselin from these oils, two methods 
■were employed, the first consisting in dissolving the residues in 
petroleum spirit, bleaching the solution by filtration through 
animal charcoal, and expelling the solvent by distillation with 
steam, whilst the second method involved bleaching the oil and 
subjecting it to distillation in a vacuum (mercury column = 10-15 
mm.) to 250°. The product obtained according to the first process 
formed a colourless, translucent, pasty mass melting at 32° and 
exhibiting no crystalline structure, even on application of cold. 
The vaselin extracted from the bleached oils was colourless, trans- 
lucent, and free from odour. It had the following properties : — 





Yield. 


Sp. trr. 


Melting point. 


Oil I. . 


. 13-8 . , 


, . 0-8S09 . 


. . 30-31^ 


„ II. . 


. lb-2 . . 


, . 0-8785 . 


. . 30-31=. 



The composition of the different vaselins is illustrated in the 
subjoined table : — 

From 
From residues. From Petroleum Oil I. Petroleum^ Oil II. 

. 86-30 86-54 86-55 . 86-14: 86-17 
13-99 13-73 13-74 . 13-50 13-72 

These results show that vaselin is conijDOsed exclusively of 
hydrocarbons. The oils obtained by subjecting the bleached 
petroleum to fractional distillation were also found to contain only 
carbon and hydrogen, both oxygen and sulphur being absent. The 
bleaching process appears to remove all oxygenated constituents 
and increase the amount of saturated hydrocarbons, the charcoal 
retaining the less highly hydrogemzed hydrocarbons. Attempts 
Avere made to increase the melting-point of vaselin by subjecting it 
to partial redistillation. It was not, howevei', possible to raise the 
melting-point more than two or three degrees, whilst prolonged 
distillation resulted in reducing the melting-point, probably owing 
to decomposition of the vaselin. By dissolving vaselin in ether, 
and subjecting the ethereal solution to fi-actional precipitation 
with alcohol, the authors succeeded in separating a solid and liquid 
substance from vaselin. 100 grams gave 40'8 grams of solid 
vaselin of 0-8836 sp. gr., melting at 40°, and 59'2 grams of liquid 
vaselin of 0-8809 sp. gr., solidifying at - 10°. Both products had 
the same constitution, and approximately the same boiling-points. 
American vaselin melting at 32-33° yielded 14 per cent, of solid 
vaselin, melting at 49-50'^, and 86 per cent, of liquid vaselin. It 
is possible to sepai'ate " artificial vaselin " into a solid and liquid 



202 TEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

substance, but the chemical and physical properties of the com- 
))onent ]iarts are essentially different. 

Thapsia Plaster. J. R. Crook. (Pharm. Jotirn., 3rd series, 
xvii. 266.) Thapsia plaster has been in nse for some time in 
France, and is now being tried in the United States, but cannot be 
said to have come into use in this country. The author considers 
it to be one of the most vigorous of counter-iiTitants, since it 
causes an active determination of blood from the deeper structures 
to the surface. There are, however, two objections to its use. 
These are the remarkable tendency of the eruption to spread, and 
the occasional severe and painful character of its local action. A 
tolerance of its action appears, however, to be acquired after 
I'cpeatcd use of the plaster. 

Antidotes to Cocaine. {Lancet, 1887, 587.) The use of nitinte 
of amyl as an antidote in cases of poisoning by cocaine is recom- 
mended for relieving the cerebral anasmia, and that of bromide of 
potassium, and the application of cold, for the convulsions "which 
appear to be the main cause of death in fatal cases. 

Chloral Hydrate and Butylchloral Hydrate as Antidotes for 
Strychnine and Picrotoxin. E. Koch. (Chem. Centr., 1886, 
811.) Butylchloi'al hydi'ate fails entirely as an antidote for 
strychnine, and — like chloral hydrate — is moderately efficient in 
picrotoxin poisoning. On the other hand, the effects of chloral 
hydrate and butylchloral hydrate can be effectually counteracted 
by picrotoxin. 

Urethane as an Antidote to Strychnine, Picrotoxin, and Ke- 
sorcin. M. Aurep. {Vliarm. Tost, xix. 72t).) The author 
experimented on animals Avith urethane, and found it to be an- 
tagonistic to and a counter-poison for strj'chnine, picrotoxin, and 
resorcin. Urethane is equally as good as chloral, and is not 
dangerous, as large doses can be taken without affecting the 
circulation or respiration. To judge ironx the effect on dogs, it 
would requii-e from 8 to 12 grams of urethane to overcome strych- 
nine poisoning in a human being. 

Turpentine as an Antidote to Phosphorus. E. Ron dot. 
(Chemist and Druggist, September 18, 1886.) As the result of 
clinical observation and oxpcrinxents, the author maintains the 
efficacy of turpontiiu^ in the treatment of poisoning by phosphorus, 
when taken either immediately or even some hours after the 
poison has been swallowed. The turpentine and phosphorus 
combine, and are eliminated without causing any other morbid 
phenomena than a local reaction on the alimentary and urinary 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 



263 



organs. It is important to administer the turpentine at the outset, 
so as to neutralise the gi'eatest quantity possible of tlie poison, 
Even if it be not completely neutralised, the oil of turpentine 
renders the symptoms milder, and favours recoveiy. Turpentine 
diminishes haemorrhage and the nervous symptoms which follow 
poisoning by phosphorus. 

Commercial Pepsins. G. A. Grierson. {Chemist and Druggist, 
January 1, 1887.) The author has made comparative examinatiors 
of a number of commercial samples of pepsin. His results are 
embodied in the following: table : — 



9 
10 

11 



Quantity dis- 
solve 1 from 

10 grains 
macerated in 



Acidu- 
lated 
Water. 



grains 

7 



4 

8 
7i 

8 

5 

10 



Water. 



grains 
3 



10 
3 


4 

2 

3^ 
10 



Differ- 
ence. 



grains. 
4 



Albumen 

Dissolved 

by 

3 grains. 



Chemical and Microscopical 
Examination. 



4 
4 
1 

6 




grains. 
500 



340 



370 
100 



130 



400 



80 



500 



380 



120 



140 



Maceration in ether removes 10 per 
cent, of fatty matter ; microscopical 
examination reveals presence of 
columnar epitlieliunr in quantity; 
no starch ; no milk-sugar. 

Blue with iodine ; microscopical ex- 
amination shows starch in small 
quantity and columnar epithelium ; 
no milk sugar. 

Fehliug's solution and microscopical 
examination show milk-sugar. 

Blue with iodine; microscopical ex- 
amination shows starch ; no milk- 
sugar. 

Blue with iodine ; microscope shows 
starch in large quantity. 

Microscope shows starch in small 
quantity, and epithelium. 

No starch ; Fehling's solution and 
microscopical examination show 
milk-sugar. 

No starch ; no milk-sugar ; micro- 
scopical examination of residue 
from acid shows epithelium. 

No milk-sugar; blue with iodine; 
microscopical examination shows 
starch. 

No starch ; Fehling's solution shows 
milk-sugar ; microscopical exami- 
nation shows this to be present in 
quantity. 

No starch ; no milk-sugar ; micro- 
scopical examination shows it to 
be almost entirely composed of 
nucleated cells. 



264 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

It Avill be seen tliat in all cases in which the proteolytic power 
is hiofh, the diiference between the solubility in water and in 
acid is comparatively great, and this may be attributed to the 
greater solubility of pure pepsin in acidulated than in ordinary 
water. 

The tests were performed as follows : — Two grains of each 
sample were placed in a 12-ounce earthenware jar with 8 ounces of 
water, 1 drachm of acid, hydrochlor., P. B., and 500 grains of hard- 
boiled white of egg, Avhich had previously been passed through a 
hair sieve. Before the pepsin was added, however, the jars with 
the water, acid, and white of egg wei-e all raised to a temperature 
of 110° Fahr. by means of a water-bath. After adding the pepsin 
the temperature Avas gradually raised to 180° Fahr., the mixture 
being constantly stirred. This part of the process took half an 
hour, and the temperatiu^e was maintained at 130° for another 
half-hour, so that the whole process lasted one hour. The undis- 
solved albumen was then thi^own on muslin, and allowed to dry in 
the air for about twenty-four hours, and its weight, subtracted 
from 500 grains, gave approximately the amount dissolved. It is 
always advisable to use a larger quantity of albumen than the 
sample is expected to dissolve, as in the initial stages of the pro- 
cess the pepsin is more active than in the later — that is to say, 
that a pepsin which, when allowed 500 grains of albumen, dis- 
solved 200, might not dissolve 100 if only started with that 
amount. 

Nine samples of liquid pepsins of commerce were also examined 
by the same method, 1 drachm of the fluid being used in the place 
of 2 grains of the solid ])cj)sin. The following shows the rcsidt : — 

No. of Albumen Dissolved. 

Sample. Grains. 

1 500 

2 500 

8 500 

4 300 

5 70 

6 1-40 

7 70 

8 110 

9 100 

Nos. 1 to 4 were evidently acidulated glycerin extracts, the last 
of them being sold as a mixture of pepsin and pancreatin. No. 
5 was sold as a compound wine containing pancreatin as well 
as pepsin and the natural acids of the stomach. Its action on 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 265 

albumen does not say mucli for the activity of ferments in their 
natui-al condition. It also contained iron as an impurity. No. 6 
was also an acidulated glycerin extract, and considering the 
menstruum used appears to be of very poor quality. Nos. 7, 8, 
and 9 were ordinary wines, No. 9 being a foreign make of some 
repute. It appears from these data that wines are much inferior 
to glycerin preparations in digestive power. It should be boi-ne 
in mind, however, that they are given in large doses. 

Alleged Incompatibility of Pepsin and Bismuth. H. K. Kroh. 
(Amer. Journ. Pharvi., November, 1886.) With the view of testing 
the asserted incompatibility of pepsin and bismuth salts, the 
author made a number of experiments regarding the digestive 
action of pepsin in the presence of bismuth salts. The ammonio- 
citrate of bismuth is unsuited for preparing clear solutions with 
pepsin. Bismuth subnitrate was found to somewhat retard, but 
not otherwise interfere with, the digestion of albumen in the 
presence of hydrochloric acid, added in the usual proportions. 
Mixtures of 1 part of pepsin, 10 parts of bismuth subnitrate, 50 
of hard-boiled albumen, 500 of water, and 8 of hydrochloric acid, 
left only 3 parts of the albumen undissolved at the time when, in 
the control experiment without the bismuth salt, the albumen had 
been completely dissolved. The best method of administering 
the two remedies is in the form of mixtures, using the subnitrate 
of bismuth and directing the mixture to be shaken. 

Antifehrin, a New Antipyretic. A. Cahn and P. Hepp, 
{Centralb. filr klin. Med., August 14, 1886; Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
November, 1886.) The body to which this name has been given 
is a well-known chemical raaterial, acetanilid or phenylacetamide, 
with the formula C^; H- N H Cg H3 0. It is a pure white, crystal- 
line, odourless powder, Avith a slight burning sensation on the 
tongue, is almost insoluble in cold but more readily in hot water, 
abundantly soluble in alcohol and alcoholic fluids. It melts at 
113° C, and boils unchanged at 292° C. It has neither acid nor 
basic properties, and is very resistent to most reagents. 

By experiments on dogs and rabbits, the authors convinced 
themselves that even in relatively high doses it produces no 
poisonous effects. The temperature of normal animals is not 
affected by it. 

The clinical observations wei-e mide on twenty-four patients 
with fever, as follows : typhoid fever 8, erysipelas 5, acute rheu- 
matism 2, pulmonary phthisis 4, abscess of the lung 1, fever in 



266 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

leucaemia 1, pypeniic fever in consequence of cystitis and decubitus 
1, septicajmia 1, creeping pneumonia 1. 

The drug was given in individual doses of "25 to 1 gram, stirred 
up in water, or in wafers, or mixed with wine. The maximum 
dose hitherto given has been 2 grams in twenty-four hours. The 
appropriate dose varies with the nature of the illness ; but the 
authors lay down the rule that the dose required to pi'oduce the 
equivalent effect is about one-quarter the corresponding dose of 
antipyrine. They also find that distinct apyi'exia is easier at- 
tained by single large doses than by repeated smaller ones. They 
then give some examples of the action of antifebrin. 

The authors call attention to this being the first indifferent 
body which has been found to possess antipyretic properties, 
previously discovered antipyretics being either phenols (carbolic 
acid, hydi'oquinone, resorcin, salicylic acid), or bases belonging 
to the quinoline series (quinoline, kairine, antipyrine, thalline, 
quinine). 

Antifebrin. P. Yvon. (Joum. de Phann., January, 1887, 22; 
Fharni. Jimrn., 3rd series, xvii. 685.) Antifebrin (acetanilid), if 
not carefully purified, may retain traces of aniline that would 
impai't to it a toxic action. A delicate test for this contamination 
is to triturate an excess of acetanilid in water and add a little 
solution of sodium hypobromite. If the compound has been Avell 
purified, the mixture will remain limpid and yellow, but if it con- 
tain only traces of aniline, a plentiful orange-red precipitate will 
be produced, the liquid taking the same colour. For medical use 
the author recommends the rejection of any antifebrin that is not 
free from odour, white, or scarcely rose tinted, converted into a 
coloui'less liquid when heated on platinum foil, completely vola- 
tilizable, and capable of standing the above test with sodium 
hypobromite. Pleated in a capsule with mercurous niti'ate, acet- 
anilid assumes an intense gi-een colour; the green substance is 
soluble in alcohol, and this reaction may be used for recognising 
the presence of acetanilid in urine. The urine should be shaken 
with chloroform, and after the evaporation of the solvent, the 
residue, upon being heated with mercurous nitrate, will give the 
green coloration if the ui-ine contained traces of the compound. 

Toxic Action of Colchicine. A. .Mairet and M. Combemale. 
(Comptcs Bcndns, civ. 439-441; Jonrn. Ghem. Soc, 1887, 515.) 
Experiments with dogs and cats show that colchicine behaves as 
an irritant poison and attacks all the organs, but especially the 
digestive canal and the kidneys. The action is more rapid when 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 267 

the drug is injected liypoderniically, tlian when it is introduced 
into the stomach. In the first case the minimum fatal dose is 
0-000571 gram per kilo, of body-weight ; in the second case, 
0'0012o per kilo. Details of the symptoms are given in the 
original paper. 

Colchicine is eliminated by various secretions and chiefly with 
the urine, but the elimination is very slow, and therefore colchicine 
may behave as a cumulative poison if administered in miniTte 
quantities at not too great intervals. 

Therapeutic Action of Colchicine. A. ]\Iairet and M. Com- 
bemale. {Comjptes Eendus, civ. .!>1.3-.5l7.) Experiments on men, 
dogs, and cats show that colchicine acts either as a diuretic or a 
purgative, according to the dose administered, and acts by irri- 
tating the kidneys and digestive canal. The eifects are the same 
whether the di^ug is administered hypodermically or by ingestion, 
but the action is more rapid in the former case, and the effects arc 
produced by smaller doses. Man is three times more sensitive 
to its action than are cats and dogs. A dose of 2 to 3 mgrms. is 
sufficient to produce the diui-etic, and 5 mgrms. to produce the 
pni'gative action. Colchicine increases the excretions and produces 
congestion at th.e articulations and in the bony cartilage. Its 
tendency to accumulate in the organism, and its great toxic power, 
make it essential to use the greatest care in administering it. 

Physiological Action of Paraldehyde. A. Bockai. (Chem. 
Centr., 1886, 622 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1887, 391.) In oppo.sition to 
Cervello, the author has found that paraldehyde acts as a stimulant 
before it acts as a hypnotic ; the magnitude and duration of this 
stimulating action being in inverse ratio to the dose. Diiring the 
period of excitation, the reflexes are increased, but they gradually 
subside with larger doses, until they are altogether completely lost. 

With toxic doses, the power of reflex action is lost so rapidly 
that the stimulating action, as well as the original increase of 
reflex action, pass unobserved. 

Applied locally, paraldehyde acts similarly to chloroform and 
ether. Death is caused by paralysis of respiration, which may to 
a certain extent be counteracted by artificial respiration. In con- 
sequence of its vasomotor action, paraldehyde causes an increased 
secretion of urine. It is a powerful antidote to strychnine, for ten 
times the fatal dose of strychnine may be administered to dogs 
that have previously received paraldehyde, without any toxic 
effect. Strychnine, on the other hand, is not an antidote to 
paraldehyde. 



268 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Physiological Action of Methylal. A. Mairet and Combe- 
male. (Comptes Bendus, civ. 248-250; Journ. Chem. Soc. ,1887, 
391.) The experiments were made on gninea-pigs, cats, dogs, and 
monkeys. The results show that sleep is produced more rapidly 
by hypodermic injection, or by inspiration of the vapour, than by 
injection ; but in the last case it is more persistent. The higher 
the animal in the scale, the more sensitive is it to the hypnotic 
action of the methylal. In large doses, methylal exerts a toxic 
action, and may cause death by producing inflammatory lesions 
of the difterent organs ; but in doses of 0'25-0"5 gram per kilo, of 
body-weight, the only symptom observed is deep sleep preceded 
by somewhat increased salivation ; and if the slumber is very 
prolonged, the temperature is slightly reduced. The methylal is 
rapidly eliminated from the system, and the heaviness which is 
apparent immediately on awakening rapidly passes away. 

Physiological Study of Digitaline. P. Lafon. (Journ. de 
Pliann. d de Chiin., January 15, 1887.) The author does not 
admit that tliis poison accumulates in the animal economy. It 
seems to undergo a considerable transformation in the circulation. 
Digitaline presents a relatively great resistance to physical and 
chemical agents, to ferments, and to jiutrefuction. 

Boldoglucin. Dr. R. Juranvillc. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
18S-i, 580.) The author records his experiments with this gluco- 
side. On account of its strong odour, boldoglucin cannot readily 
be given in the form of mixtures ; but it is best administered 
enclosed in gelatin capsules or by means of clysters. In doses of 
1"5 to 4"0 gm. it produced a decided hypnotic effect, and occa- 
sionally cessation of the hallucinations ; but these, as well as 
sleeplessness, returned on discontinuing the use of the remedy. 
Though it cannot supplant other reliable hypnotics, it appears to 
be useful in certain forms of insomnia. 

Physiological Action of Convolvuliu and Jalapin. G. Dragen- 
dorff. (Chem. C'e?^/?•., 188(3, 589 ; Jouni. Chem. iS^oc, 1887, 291.) 
The question of the excretion of these glucosides after being taken 
into the human stomach has been investigated by liernatzik ; 
traces only were found in the faeces, none in the urine. This 
result was confirmed by Kohler and Zincke ; who, however, suc- 
ceeded in isolating these purgatives from the stomach and intes- 
tines. The author has repeated these investigations, adopting a 
simplified method of examination of the parts for the glucosides 
aud products of decomposition (convolvulic and jalapic acids), 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 269 

based on extraction with cliloroform. O'o gram of the e:lucosides 
was the quantity given, cats being taken as the subjects of the 
experiments. 

The author confirined the previous results in regaixl to the 
non-excretion of the drugs in the freces and urine. The animals 
were killed after the lapse of four hours, and the organs examined; 
appreciable quantities of the drugs were found in the stomach 
and small intestines, less in the duodenum, traces only in the 
lungs and pancreas. No evidence was obtained that the glvicosides 
are converted into the derived acids. 

Therapeutic Value of Scopoleine. H. P. Dunn. (Brit. Med. 
Journ., January 8, 1887. From Pharm. Journ.) The new mydri- 
atic, scopoleine, obtained from Japanese belladonna root, is 
spoken highly of by the author. He prefers it to atropine in 
the treatment of keratitis, corneal ulcers, and iritis. When both 
atropine and eserine have failed in troublesome corneal ulcers, 
the use of scopoleine has been attended with success. Although 
he has used it in many cases, he has not in any one of them seen 
irritation resulting from its use. He believes that in addition to 
its mydriatic action, it possesses some contj'ol over the vascular 
supply of the eyes. The strength of the solution used by the 
author is one grain to the ounce. 

Physiological Action of Solanine. M. Geneuil. {Med. Becord, 
fi'ora Bull. gen. Ther.) The author has given the hydrochlorate 
of solanine in closes of one half a grain, repeated three or four 
times a day, in cases of neuralgia, rheumatism, obstinate vomiting", 
spasmodic nervous affections, asthma, and bronchitis, and believes 
that the remedy will prove to be of great value in the treatment 
of these and similar affections. The following are his conclusions : 
(1) Solanine is a poison to the terminal motor plates. It narco- 
tizes the medulla and spinal cord, causing a paralysis of the ter- 
minal, sensory, and motor nerves. By reason of this action 
solanine is to be classed among the best of the analgelsics. (2) 
The drug may be prescribed in large doses without danger, and 
presents none of the inconveniences of morphine or atropine. 
There is no danger of a cumulative action. (3) Solanine does not 
cause congestion of the brain, even in the aged, and probably a 
like freedom from this danger exists in the case of children. (4) 
In all cases where it is necessary to calm excitement, relieve pain, 
or overcome spasm, solanine promises excellent results. It may 
be given with advantage in the place of morphine for the relief of 
any of these conditions. 



270 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

The Diuretic Effects of Caffeine. L. J. v. Schroeder. (Arch, 
f. Path. u. Fhannak., Oct., 1886; Amer. Jonrn. Fharm., March, 
1887.) The diuretic effects of caffeine, wliich have been pre- 
viously observed by Zwenger, Gubler, Shapter, and others, have 
I'ecently again been the subject of investigation. The result of 
the author's experiments points to two opposite effects of caffeine : 
(1) in stimulating the nervous system, similar to strychnine, and 
tending to decrease the flow of urine through the contraction of 
the renal vessels ; and (2) in stimulating the kidney itself, and thus 
greatly increasing the amount of urine. That the diuretic action 
varies considerably in intensity was observed by Bronne {Disser- 
tation, Strasburg, 1886). He administered the alkaloid in divided 
doses every tAvo hours, 0'5 to 1'5 gm. being the total amount given 
in the morning only, so as to prevent it from causing sleeplessness; 
and if its employment must be prolonged, he advises its occasional 
discontinuance for a few days, when the remedy will act as 
pi-omptly as before. 

Physiological Action of Caffeine and Theine. T. J. Mays. 
{Therdpeniic Udzcitc, September, 1886.) Levcn, in 1868, showed 
that theine produced convulsions in frogs, while caffeine did not ; 
and that the lethal dose of theine was larger than that of caffeine. 
This is confirmed by the author's expei-iments on frogs, from 
which the following conclusions are drawn : — 
.Theine and caffeine agree in the following — 

1. They first affect the anterior extremities. 

2. They diminish respiration. 

3. They produce hypera3sthesia during the latter stage of the 
poisoning process. 

They differ in the following — 

1. Theine principally influences sensation, while caffeine does 
not. 

2. Theine produces spontaneous spasms and convulsions, while 
caffeine does not. 

3. Theine impairs the nasal reflex early in the poisoning pro- 
ce.ss, while caffeine does not, if at all, until in the A'ei'y last stage. 

4. The lethal doses of theiTie is lai-ger than that of caffeine. 
Therapeutic Properties of Tribromide of Allyl. G. de Fleury. 

{Archives de Fharm., August, 18Si:>, 352. i'rom Fharm. Joiirn.) 
Tribromide of allyl was first prepared by ^Vurtz, in 1857 {Aim. de 
Chimie, li. 91), by the reaction of iodide of allyl on one and a half 
times its Aveight of bromine, and is a colourless liquid, soluble in 
ether, boiling at 217° C, and having a specific gravity of 2436. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 271 

According to the author this conapound has been employed with 
good effects in hysteria, asthma, angina pectoris, and infantile 
convulsions. It was administered in capsules each containing five 
drops, two to four capsules being given daily, or subcutaneously in 
doses of two to four drops dissolved in one or two cubic centi- 
metres of ether. 

Eucalyptol in Phthisis. {Chemist and Druggist, March 19, 
1887. From the Lancet.) Bouveret has employed hypodermic 
injections of eucalyptol in the treatment of phthisis. The daily 
dose of the antiseptic has varied from 1^ gram to 2^ grams. 
The duration of the treatment has been from fourteen to sixteen 
days. Sixteen cases of phthisis were treated by this method; six 
of the number had fever, and the remaining ten were without 
fever. There was rarely any local disturbance at the site of in- 
jection. It was certain that the antiseptic was absorbed ; it 
could be detected in the breath, but not in the urine. Albuminuria 
was not observed as the result of the treatment. It is very doubt- 
ful whether the number of bacilli was altered in any way by the 
method of treatment. Sweating, as a rule, was diminished. Its 
chief effect is as a balsamic preparation on the bronchial secretion, 
which it influences favourably. MM. Ferret and Chabbannes have 
made experiments with the five per cent, solution of eucalyptol, 
injecting a mixture of it with tuberculous matter under the skin 
of guinea-pigs. The general conclusion at which they have arrived 
is to the effect that the antiseptic is utterly insufficient to prevent 
the activity of the micro-organism that causes artificial tuber- 
culosis. 

Notes on the Pharmacy of Hydronaphthol. T. D. McElhenie. 
(Phann. Jouni., onl series, xvii. 352.) Hydronaphthol was intro- 
duced in 1885 by Rigney and Wolff, of New York. The principal 
literature on the subject is a series of articles by G. R. Fowler, on 
its uses in surgery. 

The term hydronaphthol, although slightly vague in a scientific 
sense, indicates the origin and chemical kinship, and is a con- 
venient term for commercial use. It is found to be about twelve 
times as strong as phenol in antiseptic power, and possesses 
several other advantages over that substance. It is non-irritant, 
and non-corrosive, and non-poisonous. The latter point was 
definitely ascertained by Dr. Wolff, of Philadelphia, by physio- 
logical experiments conducted at Jefferson Medical College. It is 
soluble in 1000 parts of water at 60° F., and 100 parts at 212° F., 
from which the excess separates on cooling in beautiful brown, 



272 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



feathery crystals. The saturated sohition (1 in 1000) has a slight 
aromatic odour, but it is practically tasteless. In somewhat 
stronger warm solutions it has a bitterish, pungent taste. It 
sublimes at 90" C. It occurs in silvery white pulverulent laminae, 
and dissolves in four parts of alcohol, three parts of ether, and 
about ten parts of cotton-seed oil. The latter requires the heat of 
a water-bath, but remains permanent on cooling. All these solu- 
tions show a black sediment on standing, probably some tarry 
impurity, which will be got rid of as the pi^ocess of manufacture 
is improved. Hydronaphthol dissolves in ten parts of glycei'in at 
the heat of a water-bath, but almost entirely separates out on 
cooling, and remains suspended for days. It is freely soluble also 
in chloroform and benzol. Hydronaphthol is not germicidal, at 
least in the proportion of 0'5 in 100 parts, or five times the strength 
of a saturated aqueous solution, but it is reliably anti.septic in 
proportion of 01 to 0"05 per cent., preserving solutions of beef, 
glue, gelatin, starch, gums, and fresh wine, etc. The author has 
noted the following behaviour to reagents. In all cases the 
saturated aqueous solution was employed. This solution exposed 
to sunlight soon begins to darken, passing through various shades 
of opalescence, becoming brown after a month or so, and depositing 
a film on the entire inner surface of the bottle. 



With Tinct. Cblor. Iron 
With Tinct. Iodine 



With Ammonia 



Sol. Potash . 

Acid. Tannic . 
,, SalicyHc. 
,, Acetic. . 
,, Sulphnric. cone. 
,, HydrochL „ 
,, Phosphoric. ,, 
,, Nitric. ,, 



Acid. Nitro-hydrochL cone, 
dil. 
„ Nitric. ,, 



No change resulted. 

Discharged colour of first two 
or three drops, but became 
opaque on further addition. 

Light pur2)lish tinge, chang- 
ing to sti-a\v colour after 
some hours. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

No change. 

An orangc-Tcllow colour, 
changing in a moment to a 
dense turbid olive-green by 
transmitted light, and dull 
purple by reflected light. 

Same as nitric. 

No change. 

No change. 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 273 

The use of hydronaplitliol will enable pharmacists to prepare 
fresh beef juice bj sprinkling on the finely chopped beef a little 
of the powder, say ten grains to the pound ; warm over a fire to 
about 130° F., and press quickly. The product would contain all 
the albumen, and be infinitely better than the commercial meat 
extracts. 

Pharmacy of Terebene. (Therapeutic Gazette, July 15, 1886.) 
Terebene is stated to be best administered in the form of lozenges, 
for which the following formula is recommended : — 

Terebene 5iiiss. 

Acacia . 5iij. 

Water ^i]. 

Powdered Sugar gvj. 

Powdered Tragacanth Jij. 

Make 100 lozenges. 

With the terebene, acacia, and water, make an emulsion, which 
add to the powdered sugar and tragacanth, previously mixed 
together. Beat into a mass, and make into lozenges. The emul- 
sion form, for administration, meets almost every requirement. 

The following proportions are recommended as yielding a very 
good emulsion : — 

Terebene . . jiv. 

Powdered Acacia ^iij. 

Water, to make . . . . . • o^J- . 

Syrup of Ginger 5J. 

First rub thoroughly together the acacia and terebene in a dry 
mortar, add all at once the water, rubbing rapidly until the crack- 
ling sound appears, then add the remaining water and the syrup 
of ginger. This emulsion is not perfectly white, owing to the 
syrup of ginger, which is added preferably to simple syrup because 
of its flavour and pungency, which somewhat mitigate the taste 
of the terebene. 

Bromide of Arsenic as a Remedy in Diabetes. J. M. Maisch. 
{Amer. Jvnrn. Pharm., Novom])er, ISSO.) Bromide of arsenic is 
given by Dr. Davis to diabetic patients in doses of from three 
to five drops, the diet being strictly reg■^^Tatcd at the same time. 
Under this treatment the sugar disappears rapidly from the urine; 
but it is recommended that the administration of the remedy be 
afterwards continued for several weeks. Dr. Moock, has used 
this ai'senic preparation with success in similar cases. 

Medicinal Application of Nickel Bromide. A. D. Drew. (Amer. 
Journ. Fharm., December, 1880.) This .salt may be prepared by 

T 



274 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACT. 

ti'eating- tlie granulated metal with bromine under water, and care- 
fully evapoi'ating' tlie dark green solution, when deliquescent, deep 
green needles ai'e obtained, which dissolve freely in water, but are 
much less soluble in alcohol. The action of hydrobromic acid 
upon the metal, aided by heat, is very slow. Powdered nickel, 
heated to redness, absorbs bromine vapour, yielding bright yellow 
scales of the anhydrous salt, which are deliquescent, and dissolve 
in water with a green colour. The salt has been employed medi- 
cinally as a hypnotic and sedative, and is conveniently adminis- 
tered in the form of a syrup prepared as follows : — 

Synip of Nickel Bromide. — Put into a pint flask 12 ounces of 
water, add 377 grains of bromine and 187 grains of granulated 
nickel, digest at a gentle heat until reaction ceases, filter, and 
add sugar 24 ounces and sufficient water to make 32 fluid ounces. 
The syrup has a beautiful green colour, and contains 5 grains of 
crystallized nickel sulphate to the fluid drachm, which is an aver- 
age dose. 

Iodoform as an Antiseptic. C. Heyn and T. Rosving. 
(Forisch. der Med., Januar}^, 1(3, 1887.) The authors maintain 
that the antiseptic powers of iodoform have been assumed but not 
proved, and record a series of experiments which have led them 
to the conclusion that iodoform is not an nntiseptic. They affirm 
that micro-organisms, even when covered with powdered iodoform, 
grow freely. The results of their experiments are summarized in 
the following conclusions : — 

1. That iodofoi'm is valueless in surgery as an antiseptic, even 
though it may possess other useful properties. 

2. That as iodoform preparations themselves may contain patho- 
genous micro-organisms, thoy cannot be used without some danger. 

3. That even though iodoform be pure there is danger in using 
it, unless care be taken that the apparatus (brushes, sprays, etc.), 
by which it is apjilied, are free from infective germs, for the 
iodoform will not kill these. In support of this view they bring 
forward a case recorded by Lesser, where a brush, Avitli which a 
soft sore had been paintetl with iodoform, Avas applied next day to 
dust with iodoform a granulating wound, and a soft sore formed 
on the wound in conscqnoncc. 

Antiseptic and Antipyretic Properties of Eugenol. G. H. Ochse. 
(Phnrm. Zeitschr. fur lii(.'<shx)id, xxv. 723; Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
March, 1887.) Eugenol, Cj^ Hjo Oo, the principal component of 
oil of cloves, is found also in Myrtns Pimenta {Pimenta officinalis), 
Amomis acris {Myrcia acris), Canella alha, Dicypelliiim caryophyl- 



MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 275 

latum, and in Ravensara aromatica. It is a phenol-like compound, 
insoluble in glycerin and water, and is obtained as a residue when 
oil of cloves is subjected to distillation with strong caustic alkalies. 
After the so-called light oil of cloves is distilled off, sulphuric or 
phosphoric acid is added, and by continuing the distillation without 
access of air, eugenol is obtained. Eugenol is an oilj, colourless 
liquid, possessing the odour and taste of oil of cloves in the highest 
degree. In contact with air and light it soon acquires a brown 
colour; it boils at 247'5° C, and has a specific gravity 1'078 at 
and 1"063 at 18'5° C. Like phenol, which it I'esembles very much, 
it has no acid reaction, does not contain the group C H and 
also forms crystallizable compounds with alkalies. When heated 
with hydriodic acid it evolves methyl-iodide, and when fused 
with potassium hydrate, it forms protocatechuic acid, Cg Hg (O H)^ 
C O H, with baryta and tin- dust it forms about ten per cent, of 
methyl-eugenol. When taken internally, the greater part of it is 
eliminated by the urine, in which however it cannot be detected 
by its odour. Eugenol has been given in doses of three grams per 
day dissolved in alcohol and diluted with water. As an antiseptic, 
it is superior to phenol ; as a febrifuge, it is not as efficacious as 
quinine, salicylic acid, antip\-rine or thalline. 

The Use of Salicylic and Boric Acids for Preserving Solutions of 
Alkaloids. R. G. Eccles. {Bragg. Circular, July, 1886; Pharrn. 
Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 62.) The author points out that though 
salicylic acid possesses the power of preventing the development 
and propagation of fungoid germs, in solutions of the salts of 
alkaloids, it does not kill the germs ; and their growth might 
begin again should a solution protected bj salicylic acid become 
neutral. Among the drawbacks of a too extensive use of this acid 
for such purposes, he refers to its power of destroying the action 
of the digestive ferments which have now become such valuable 
medicines, and may often have to be administered to patients who 
are also taking alkaloids dispensed in the form of solutions pre- 
served by salicylic acid. He also calls attention to the irritating 
effects of salicylic acid on the kidneys, and to its irritant action 
when applied locally in collyria. As between salicylic and boric 
acids, he considers that the latter must be acknowledged the 
preferable in collyria. It is much more soothing, notwithstanding 
the fact that it requires nearly forty times the amount to do the 
same work. All who have tried the two upon the conjunctiva 
never hesitate in giving the preference to boric acid. Dr. Squibb 
now prefei's it to everything else, and thinks that a better ai-ticle 



276 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

for the purpose is iinnscessary. Certainly its almost negative 
medical properties would seem to commend it here. It is soothing 
to inflamed tissues, and is not likely to be physiologically contra- 
indicated in many cases. The author's choice, however, after a 
trial of many kinds is benzoic acid. Applied to the eyes in 
solution of more than double the strength necessary to protect, it 
does not produce the least irritation. One grain has about the 
same antiseptic power as a drachm of boric acid. In fruit juices 
the flavour is not in the least impaired by it, and in alkaloidal 
solutions no nauseous taste is superimposed on that of the active 
ingredient. Like all others, it is sometimes contra-indicated, but 
less frequently than salicylic acid, and no oftener than boric. It 
is excreted as hippuric acid, a nominal constituent of urine, thus 
indicating that it adds force to the body. Salicylic acid steals 
force away, by being excreted as salicylui-ic acid, a combination of 
itself and glycol. 

The Decomposition of Ergotin Solutions. M. Engelmann. 
(Deutsche Medicinische Wochensclirift, Sept. 30, 1886. From Med. 
News.) As a result of elaborate bacteriological studies, the author 
presents the following conclusions : 

1. Pure ergotin, unmixed, and dispensed in sterilized glass, may 
be preserved almost indefinitely. 

2. Aqueous solutions of ergotin undergo a more or less speedy 
decomposition. This is due to the action of micro-organisms. 

3. Such solutions, when introduced subcutaneously, induce 
varying degrees of inflammation. 

4. The addition of antiseptic agents to such solutions, as 
ordinarily practised, only delays the decomposition. 

5. In order completely to prevent the development of living 
ferments, the antiseptic must be added in quantities which arc 
directly irritating, and are not indiffei'cnt in their action upon the 
organism of the patient. 

6. Ergotin solutions may be quite far advanced in decomposition 
before the eye can detect such change. 

7. Ergotin may be most advantageously administered subcu- 
taneously, when dissolved in watci- ])reviously .sterilized by a half 
hour's boiling. 

8. The solution may be best effected in the syringe itself. 

9. The distilled water in general use often contains bacteria, 
often to such an extent that from a single drop there may be 
cultivated upon the gelatin plate many thousands of colonies. 

10. In all solutions of drugs to be used subcutaneouslv, it is 



MATE EI A MEDICA AND PHAEilACY. 



277 



therefore advisable that the water should be sterilized by prolonged 
boiling jnst previous to its use. 

11. The decomposition of pure ergotin has been found to be due 
to bacterial imparities on the glass vessels used. A large number 
of micro-organisms cause decomposition in the solutions ; the 
ordinary bacteria of decomposition, however, are the most active. 

Liquid Paraffin as an Excipient for Hypodermic Injections. 
M. Lyon. (Pharm. Post, xx. 207. From Amer. Journ. Pharm.) 
The author has discovered that sevei"al substances which, owing 
to their irritating properties, could not be used hypodermically, 
lose this disagreeable property when dissolved in liquid paraffin, 
which to be suitable for hypodermic use must be neutral to litmus- 
paper ; heated to 180^ C. no vapours should be evolved, sp. gr. at 
150° C. = 0-870— 0-895; it should be odourless and tasteless. If 
corresponding with the aforesaid properties a slight fluorescence 
does not impair its efiicacy, although the German Pharmacopoeia 
condemns it. Liquid paraffin dissolves only a limited number of 
oxygenated compounds, but readily dissolves hydrocarbons, ether, 
chloroform, fats and fatty oils ; menthol, thymol, terjiinol, etc., are 
soluble in all proportions. Large quantities of iodine, bromine, 
phosphorus, and iodoform are also soluble in liquid paraffin. 
According to Bocquillon, it dissolves four times its volume of 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, i.e., more than water is capable of 
dissolving. Oil of eucalyptus produces abscesses when injected 
subcutaneously, hence eucalyptol (so-called absolute eucalyptol, 
■obtained by distilling oil of eucalyptus at a temperature of 170- 
180° C.) only should be used. 1 part of eucalyptol is mixed with 
4 parts of liquid paraffin. 5 grams of this mixture are injected 
twice daily. The same proportions are used for myrtol. For 
iodoform the following method is used : 1 gram of iodoform is 
dissolved in 20 grams of eucalyptol and 100 grams of liquid 
paraffin. Of this mixture 5 grams are injected twice daily. 
Carbon, bisulphide, 2 to 100 of paraffin oil, is used in like doses. 

Liquid paraffin will not dissolve water, strong or diluted alcohol, 
glycerin, methylic alcohol, amylic alcohol, salicylic acid, salts of 
mercury, terpin, chloral, naphthol, alkaloids, glucosides, and iodol. 
It dissolves but a small quantity of carbolic acid. 

Sterilising Hypodermic Solutions. R. N. Girling. (New 
Orleans Med. and Surg. Journ, Oct., 1886.) A. Poehl in a recent 
article published in the Pharm. Zeitung, comments on the desira- 
bility of preparing solutions of the alkaloidal salts, for hypodermic 
use, which shall remain free from bacteria or ferment bodies, and 



278 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

remarks that solutions for subcutaneous injections are generally 
made without any antiseptic precautions. 

A process whiclf has given good results, and which is not open 
to the objection of introducing foreign substances, such as salicylic 
or boric acid, is described by the author as follows : — 

Water, which has been re-distilled from a mixture of about 
2 per cent, of caustic soda and permanganate of potash (the first 
poi'tions of the distillate, if showing traces of ammonia when 
tested by Nessler's reagent, having been rejected), is mixed with 
about 1 per cent, of pure chloroform. The alkaloidal salt is 
to be added, and the solution heated in a flask, furnished with a 
thermometer, to a temperature of 60-62° C, until all traces of 
chloroform have been dissipated. The resulting solution is to be 
filtered through paper which has been folded ready for use, and 
afterwards been sterilized by heating to a temperature of 125- 
130° C. in an air-chamber or drying oven for at least one hour. 
Sufficient of the re-distilled water is to be poured through the 
filter to make the filtrate either weigh or measure accurately the 
desired quantity. Last, but by no means least, the solution is to 
be preserved in vials which have been washed with some of the 
same water and di-ied at a temperature of 125-130° C. or over. 
The cork used should also be washed in the re-distilled water, and 
dried in the same manner as the vials. 

Solutions thus prepared have been kept for months without 
showinLT sicfus of change. 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 



S79 



PART III. 

NOTES AND FORMULA. 

Hydrogen Peroxide as a Remedy for Whooping Cough. B . W . 

Rich ai'fl son. (PJiarm. Jonrn., irora Asclepiad, February, 1887.) 
The author speaks very highly of peroxide of hydrogen as a 
remedy in whooping cough. In his opinion it acts in a manner 
very similar to dilute nitric acid, but with more effect, subduing 
the spasmodic paroxysm, checking the secretion in the throat, and 
shortening the duration of the malady. His formula for prescrib- 
it is : — Hydi-ogen peroxide (10 vols.), 5vj. ; glycerin, 5iv. ; water 
to ^iij- Dose, half a fluid ounce in a wineglassful of water five or 
six times a day. 

Hydrogen Peroxide in Catarrhal Affections. J. N. Mac- 
kenzie. (Phil. Med. Times., 1887, 268.) The author directs 
attention to the use of hydrogen peroxide in 4 per cent, solution 
for catarrhal affections attended by profuse muco-purulent dis- 
charge, used in doses of a fourth to half an ounce three, four, or 
even six times a day ; for topical use he prefers a 6 per cent, 
solution. By some persons even weaker solutions cannot be used, 
on account of their irritating effect upon the air passages. A 
marked improvement in the gastric functions was incidentally 
observed during its administration. Indeed, so stinking has been 
its effects in this regard that it is worthy of more extended trial in 
obstinate stomachic derangement. 

Ethereal Oxygen. B. W. Richardson. (Chemist and Drug- 
gist, February 12, 1887.) The author places in a Wolff's bottle, with 
an inhaling mouthpiece attached to one neck, 2 ounces or more 
of ozonic ether, the ethereal solution of peroxide of hydi-ogen. To 
this he adds, gradually, a solution of permanganate of potash — 8 
grains to 1 ounce of water — by the other neck of the bottle, and then 
corks that neck. As the fluids commingle, oxygen gas and ether 
vapour are given off fi'eely, and can be inhaled from the mouth- 
piece. The compound of gas and vapour, anaesthetic, antispas- 

291 



282 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

inodic, and respirating, is applicable to a large class of cases of 
disease, such as pertussis, asthma, and phthisis. 

Terpine in Neuralgia. M. Ducronx. (Brit. Med. Journ., 
January 8, 1887, 79.) The author recommends the use of terpine 
in some forms of neuralgia. He has given it in doses of 60 centi- 
grams in three pills, to be taken between meals. 

Cannabis Indica in Headache. S. Mackenzie. (Brit. Med. 
Journ., January 15, 1887.) Indian hemp is recommended by the 
author as being very useful in headaches of a continuous or 
chronic character. He has used the extract with success in doses 
of half a grain night and morning, gradually increased to two 
grains at night and one and half in the morning. 

Diuretic Effects of Calomel. Dr. Jendrafsik. (Therapeutic 
Gazette, 188(3, 471.) The author states that he accidentally dis- 
covered that calomel produced a powerfully diuretic effect in a 
case of dropsy, and that he has since then tried it in a number of 
cases, and always with success. He gives 3 grains three or four 
times in twenty-four houi-s. 

Cocaine in Dysentery. R. L. Hinton. (Therapeutic Gazette, 
August, 1886, 489.) The author directs attention to the value of 
cocaine hydi-ochlorate to relieve pain and tenesmus in dysentery. 
He administered it in the form of an injection of 2 or 3 drachms 
of a 4 per cent, solution, with the most successful results. 

Chloroform as a Styptic, Dr. Ipaak. (Pharm. Journ., from 
Brit. Journ. Dental Science, Aug. 1886, 704.) The author recom- 
mends the use of chlorofoi-m as a haemostatic in dentistry. The 
solution used consists of 2 parts of chloi-oform in 100 parts of 
water. The use of chloroform applied to the crown of the tooth 
on cotton-wool, to deaden the pain caused by the pressui'e of the 
forceps on the sensitive dentine, has therefoi-e the double advan- 
tage, since a hn'-mostaiie action will also be obtained. 

Chloroform as a Tapeworm Remedy. (Chemist and Druggist, 
Feb. 19, 1887.) Chloroform has been found very efficient against 
tapeworms. Doses of 30 grains have been given, repeated after 
twenty or thirty minutes ; but troublesome cardiac symptoms 
may be avoided by giving smaller doses (a few drops) every five 
minutes for a few times. Thompson successfully prescribed 
chloroform, 3j. (by weight), simple syrup to 5J., to be given in 
thi'ce doses, at intervals of two hours, in the morning, fasting, 
with castor oil to follow. 

Application of Boric Acid in Throat Diseases. A. D. Mac- 
gregor. (Fharni. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 46.) The author 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 283 

recommends a gargle containing boric acid and glycerin, witli 
either tannic acid or alum in addition, in pharyngitis and relaxed 
conditions of the throat. 

Application of Guinine as Oleate. R. Rother. {Druggists'' 
Circidar, July, 1886.) The method of administering quinine by 
inunction is coming into practice. For this purpose it is usually 
exhibited in the form of an ointment prepared by mixing some salt 
of quinine, usually the sulphate, witrh a fatty medium. Since the 
oleate presents superior advantages in this manner of application, 
such an article has of late appeared in the market. As the quality 
of the commercial article is variable, and frequently not of good 
quality, the author recommends the following i^rocess for its 
preparation : — 

Quinine, Anhydrous . ' . . . . 324 parts. 

Oleic Acid 282 „ 

Acohol, 

Water of each sufficient. 

Mix the oleic acid with its volume of alcohol, and gi'adually add 
the quinine, finally warming the mixture, if necessary to eifect 
complete combination, and filter if desii'able. Expel the alcohol 
with a gentle heat, and incorporate a little water with the residue. 
Set it aside in the open air, occasionally stirring it, until the salt 
has become firm and perfectly dry. 

Piperine in Ague. C.S.Taylor. (Pharm. Journ., from Brit. 
Med. Journ., September 4, 1886, 449.) Some cases of refractory 
intermittent fever, in which, after the failure of quinine, piperine 
has been administered with advantage, are reported by the author. 
In one case, immediately on the appearance of an attack, three 
grains of piperine were given eveiy hour until eighteen grains had 
been taken, and on the following day, when the intermission was 
complete, the same dose was given every three hours. The author 
remarks also that piperine does not produce the unpleasant 
symptoms in the head which sometimes follow the use of quinine. 

Cantharides as a Preventive of Hydrophobia. J. M. Maisch. 

(Amer. Journ. Fharni., March, 1887.) Accoi'ding to the B^-it. Med. 
Journ., a Russian physician. Dr. Karchewski, has treated three 
persons, who had been bitten by a rabid wolf, with cantharides 
plaster applied to the wounds, giving at the same time one grain 
of powdered cantharides daily for one week. After seven months 
no symptoms of rabies had appeared. 

This method of treatment was recommended as being always 



284 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

successful by Dr. J. N. Rust, of Berlin, in the early part of tliis 
century ; for internal use he ordered, — 

CantbariJ. ....... gr. xij. 

Lapid. Cancror., 

Saccbari aa3Jsg. 

M. ft. pulv. xij. 

One powder to be taken twice or thrice daily. 

Cocaine as a Remedy for Hydrophobia. Dr. Keegan. (Les 
Nouveaux licmedes, 188G, 525.) The author reports from India 
that he has successfully treated several cases of hydrophobia by 
the local application of a four per cent, solution of cocaine to the 
back part of the throat. 

Heliotropin as an Antiseptic. M. Fraggani. (Pharm. Cen- 
tralhalh, xxviii. 258.) Heliotropin, also known by the term 
piperonal, is recommended by the author as an antiseptic and 
antipyretic. It is given in doses of I'O gram every two or three 
hours, or four times a day, or even in larger doses. It may be 
prepared by the oxidation of piperic acid with potassium perman- 
ganate in alkaline solution. 

Menthiodol. {Pharm. Bundschan, 1886, 308.) This remedy 
has been recommended in neuralgia. It is prepared by carefully 
heating 4 parts of menthol in a small glass or porcelain vessel, 
adding 1 part of finely powdered iodol, and triturating well until 
a homogeneous mass is "produced, which is converted into cones 
or pencils of suitable size. Should the mass become too hard for 
certain purposes, it is remelted, with the addition of a minute 
quantity of cam])hor. 

Anaesthetic Properties of Hydroclilorate of Caffeine. Dr. 
Terrier. (From Journ. de Med. de Paris.) Hydroclilorate of 
caffeine has been observed by the author to possess an anaesthetic 
action almost idenliral with that of cocaine. 

Orcin, a New Dermatological Remedy, (Pliarm. liundschau, xii. 
955. From Amer. Journ. Pharm.) Orcin is a white, stable powder 
having a mild, aromatic odour and a sweet-bitter taste, dissolves 
readily in the ordinary solvents and crystallizes easil}' from 
aqueous solutions. Orcin is a dihydroxyltoluol, and is closely 
related to resorcin. It is prepared synthetically by fusing 
hydroxylate of potassium with chlorocresylsulphonic acid. Like 
resoi'cin and ichthj-ol, it is a keratoplastic remedy. In buriis it 
eases pain quicker than resorcin or cocaine, and is worthy of 
further dermatological experiments. 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 285 

Antipyrine, as a Haemostatic. M. C heron. (From Revue d. 
Mai. d. Femmes.) Antipyrine is stated to be a most valuable 
haemostatic, and to be preferable to iron solutions and to ergot as 
a local application in uterine hemorrhages, a 4 per cent, solution 
being usually of sufficient strength. 

Calcium Santonate. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. Jonr7i. Pharm., 
November, 1886.) This salt is prepared, according to Heldt, by 
digesting calcium hydrate with santonin in alcoholic solution until 
the red colour has disappeared, evaporating the filtrate at a 
moderate tempei'ature, exhausting the dry residue with water, and 
concentrating. The salt forms white satiny, crystalline crusts, 
is permanent in the air and sunlight, has an alkaline taste and 
reaction, and is soluble in water and in alcohol. The compound 
has recently been recommended as possessing anthelmintic 
propei"ties without being absorbed in the digestive tract. The 
dose is 1 grain. 

Oil of Erigeron. R. Bartholow. (Physic, and Surg., April, 
1887.) This oil has been observed by the author to check the 
waste of albumen, to lessen the irritability of the bladder in 
cystitis, and to afford considerable relief in bronchial catarrh and 
similar affections. It was usually given in doses of five drops 
every three or four hours. 

Eulyptol. Dr. Schmeltz. {P,ull. Gen. de Therap., 188G.) 
Eulyptol is a mixture of 6 parts of salicylic acid, 1 part of carbolic 
acid, and 1 part of oil of eucalyptus, which the author believes 
to be preferable to most other antiseptics. Since carbolic acid 
cannot be detected by the usual tests in this mixture, the formation 
of a chemical compound seems to be indicated. It has a strong, 
aromatic odour, and an acrid, burning taste, dissolves readily in 
alcohol, ether, chloroform, and a mixture of equal parts of alcohol 
and glycerin, also in alkalies, but is sparingly soluble in water. 
Urine to which a small quantity of eulyptol has been added 
remains unchanged for fully a month. 

Hypodermic Injection of Cocaine and Mercury. Dr. Mandel- 
baum. (Monatsh. fur pralct. Dermat.) This injection, which is 
useful in syphilitic disorders, is recommended by the author to be 
prepared as follows : — 

Cocaiue Hydrochlorate . . 0*050 gm. (gr. f). 
Mercuric Cyanide . . . 0010 ,, (gr. ^). 
Distilled Water .... 15 drops. 



286 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Application of Iodoform Collodion for Neuralgia. (Noiw. 
Eemedes, 188(3, 525.) Iodoform collodion has been successfully 
used for the relief of neuralgia, and is usually prepared by 
dissolving 1 part of iodoform in 15 parts of collodion. Occa- 
sionally 10 per cent., and even 25 per cent, solutions have been 
employed. An older formula consists of 5 parts of iodoform, 
5 of balsam of Peru, 5 of powdered soap, and 85 of collodion. 

Naphthalin as a Vermifuge. M. Koriander. (Pharm. 
Zeitschr. fiir UussL, xxv. 786.) The author gives children from 
one to three years old 0"15 to 2'0 grams twice daily ; to adults 
he gives from 1'25 to 6'0 grams per day, in poAvders with sugar. 
He has frequently noticed excellent results from naphthalin when 
given for tapeworm. 

Therapeutic Application of Bismuth Suhiodide. A. S. Rey- 
nolds. (Medical News, Octohev 9, ISSG.) This salt is regarded 
by the author as being very valuable in the treatment of chronic 
ulceration ; he states that the salt will control inflammation, allay 
irritation, suppress suppuration, promote granulation, and induce 
cicatrization. He has also employed it internally in doses of five 
and ten grains. The salt may be prepared by diluting an acid 
solution of bismuth subnitrate with water as far as it is possible 
without causing reprecipitation, and then adding this solution 
gradually to a solution of potassium iodide. The brown precipi- 
tate of subiodide thus formed may be purified by dissolving it in 
hydriodic acid and reprocipitating with water. 

Use of Subnitrate of Bismuth for Antiseptic Dressings. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., March, 1887.) Subnitrate of bismuth possesses 
antiseptic properties at least equal to those of iodoform. No 
poisonous effects are to be apprehended, as in the employment 
of the latter. The subnitrate of bismuth, being a chemically 
indifferent substance, does not irritate the wounds ; secretion is 
diminished. Its action is very prolonged, although not vigorous, 
so that the dressings do not need to be frequently changed, and 
rest is insured for the wounds. It does not afford protection 
against erysipelas and other Avound diseases, at least no more 
than iodoform. It is no disinfectant, but as an antiseptic it 
keeps the wounds pure. It also represents an excellent material 
for forming scabs under which epidermis can grow over the 
wound. Its use on granulating wounds has not, however, been 
suflicitMitl}' studied as yet. 

Boro-Plienol. {Quart. The.rap. Pev., 1887, 3.) This new disin- 
fectant is a combination of borax and carbolic acid, and is intended 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 287 

for antiseptic and disinfecting' purposes. It has a more agreeable 
odour than the ordinary carbolic acid preparations, and has the 
further advantage of being completely soluble in water, and that 
it forms a soliitioa -which may be used for all the purposes for 
which the ordinary carbolic acid disinfectants are applicable. The 
new combination has, however, to be used in very much smaller 
quantities than the carbolic acid disinfecting powder. 

Tannin as a Remedy in Consumption. MM. Raymond and 
Arthaud. (Quart. Themp. Rev., 1887, 9.) The authors have 
made some comparative researches on the action of tannic acid in 
tuberculous patients. Having found that when tannin had been 
administered to animals for a month, they were more refractory 
to the effects of the tubercular virus, it was used in more than 
fifty cases of tuberculosis, in doses of from two to four grams 
daily. In less than a fortnight half of the patients showed an 
increased weight, which continued during the treatment. In 
acute tuberculosis, both of the child and the adult, the symptoms 
amended, and the disease retrograded in some cases which had 
been looked on as hopeless. 

Physiological Action of Vanillin. J. Gr asset. {Arch, de 
Pharm., August, 1886.) The author has found vanillin fatal to 
frogs in doses of from three-quarters to nine-tenths of a grain, 
but has not ascertained that there is a toxic dose for the 
higher animals. In frogs it acts chiefly on the spinal cord, its 
action being like that of strychnine, but much milder. It seems 
to delay putrefactive fermentation. It is counteracted by chloral. 
Therapeutically, it may be used in doses of thi'ee-quarters of a 
grain, as an aid to digestion, especially in atonic and putrefactive 
dyspepsia, or as a corrigent of drugs which, like chloral, are not 
well borne by the stomach ; also, in doses of from three to four 
grains, in mucilage, as an excito-motor. 

Antifungin. (Pharm. Centralh., June 2, 1887, 281.) A white 
sweet-tasting powder, said to consist of a soluble borate of 
magnesia, prepared by a special process, has been introduced 
under the name of "antifungin," as possessing extraordinarily 
powerful disinfecting properties, and as being a specific against 
diphtheritis. It is said to be soluble in four parts of boiling 
water, and it is used as a 15 per cent, solution. From five to 
twenty drops, according to age, are adininistered every one or 
two hours, and about a teaspoonful is sprayed hourly in the sick- 
chamber. Further, the diphtheritic growth is painted with the 
solution every one or two hours until it disappears. 



288 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Snuffs for Coryza. {Chemist and Druggist, August 14, 1886.) 
Rabow (Deutsch. Med. Wochenschrift, 5, 1886) has repeatedly seen 
benefit from the following powders, used like ordinary snuff, 
which also they resemble in appearance, and appear to be more 
pleasant to use than Ferriei^'s white bismuth snuff : — (1) Menthol, 
2 parts ; roasted coffee, 50 parts ; white sugar, 50 parts. Mix. 
(2) Cocaine hydrochlorate, 1 part ; roasted coffee and white 
sugar, of each 50 parts. Mix. 

Pulvis Pepsini Compositus (Pulvis Digestivus.) (Chemist and 
Druggist, January 29, 1887.) 



Saccharated Pepsin . 
Pancreatin (undiluted) 
Diastase (ptyalin) 
Lactic Acid (U.S. Ph.) 
Hydrochloric Acid . 
Sugar of Milk , 



15 parts. 
15 

1 

1 

65 i 



To the sugar of milk add the acid gradually, and triturate until 
a uniform mixture is produced. After having mixed the diastase 
with the pepsin and pancreatin, incorporate them with the aid of 
sugar of milk. Finally, rub the mixture through a sieve, and 
preserve the powder in bottles. 

Chloral Hydrate as a Vesicant. (Chemist and Druggist, 
January 29, 1887.) A blistering plaster, in which the well- 
known hypnotic is the active ingi'edient, may be made as follows : 
— Cut a piece of adhesive plaster of the desired size and sprinkle 
it freely with powdered chloral, leaving the edges free. Then 
■warm the back of the adhesive plaster gently, until the chloral 
liquefies. The strip is then applied to the skin, previously well 
oiled. After ten to fifteen minutes a large blister is formed, and 
the plaster should be removed, else ulceration may follow. The 
vesication is attended with little pain. 

Osmic Acid as a Remedy for Neuralgia. Dr. Schapiro. 
(Journ. de L'liarm. ct de Chim., xiv. 519.) The author uses the 
following solution : — 

Osmic Acid ....... 0-455 

Glyceriu 14 20 

Distilled Water 24-60 

This solution should be kept in a black bottle, and if carefully 
sealed will keep for two or three weeks. 

For neuralgic affections five drops of the above solution are 



NOTES AND FORMUL-E. 289 

injected hypodermically near the seat of pain. In some cases the 
injection must be renewed, but does not produce any dangerous 
results. 

Osmic Acid as a Remedy in Epilepsy and Sciatica. (Chemist 
and Druggist, February 19, 1887.) Osmic acid has been success- 
fully used in these cases. Administered in pill form, made up 
with American bole. The dose is 1| grain, which may be repeated 
several times a day. 

Salol in Sciatica. Dr. V. Aschenbach. {Chemist and Drug- 
gist, March 19, 1887.) The author reports that, suffering from 
sciatica, for which all known remedies had been ti'ied in vain, he 
at last resolved to try salol. In the evening he took a dose of 
half a gram, and at midnight one gi"am, after which he fell 
asleep, and remained perfectly free from pain. 

Tetanic Effects of Sodium Sulphocyanide. H. Paschkis. 
(Schmidfs Jahrhilclier, April, 1886.) This salt has been found by 
the author to have an action similar to that of strychnine, but less 
rapid, producing in frogs prolonged tetanic convulsions, with inhi- 
bition of the respiratory and cardiac movements. Injected into 
the arteries of mammals, a marked increase in the blood pressure 
is produced. 

Antiseptic Cottons. J. W. England. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
April, 1887.) 

Borated Cotton. — This is best made as follows : — 

Boric Acid 80 grams. 

Boiling Water 1,814 „ 

Absorbent Cotton .... 453'5 ,, 

Dissolve the acid in the boiling water, impregnate the cotton, 
express and dry by exposure to the air or slight heat. Borated 
cotton thus made contains exactly, in the finished pi-oduct, 15 per 
cent of its weight of acid. The use of a Troemner solution balance 
will greatly facilitate the weighing of quantities in this as well as 
in all the remaining formula?. 

Benzoated Cotton. — The following formula yields a preparation 
containing 15 per cent, of acid : — 

Benzoic Acid 90 grams. 

Boiling Water 1,814 „ 

Glycerin . . . . . . 57 „ 

Absorbent Cotton .... 453-5 ,, 

Proceed as before. 



290 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Salicylated Cotton. — This is generally made 10 per cent, in 
strength, with water, alcohol, and a small proportion of glycerin 
to prevent the shaking out, after drying, of the ciystals contained 
in the interstices of the fibres. The following is the formula used : — 

Salicylic Acid 57 grams. 

Alcohol 453-5 „ 

Hot Water 2,268 „ 

Glycerin 57 ,, 

Absorbent Cotton .... 453"5 ,, 

Mix the acid, in a porcelain or wedgewood mortar, with the 
glycerin, dissolve with the addition of alcohol, place the solution in 
a large, flat, open vessel, and lay upon the surface of the liquid the 
cotton in thin layers. After standing for ten minutes in this liquid, 
and absorption is completed, remove, express, and lay aside to dry 
upon a frame. Pilcher observes that the antiseptic qualities of 
the cotton may be still further enhanced if, before using, a thin 
layer of it be dipped in a 10 per cent, solution of the acid, with 
glycerin, applying this to the wound first, and then covering with 
a thick layer of dry salicylated cotton, sufficiently wide to extend 
beyond the outer limits of the wound on all sides. 

Naphthalinated Cotton is made by soaking absorbent cotton, in 
thin layers, in a saturated solution of naphthalin in petroleum 
benzin, expressing and drying. The following is the formula : — 

Naphthalin 453-5 grams. 

Petroleum Benzin .... 2,732 ,, 
Absorbent Cotton .... 453-5 „ 

lodoformized Cotton. — Lister accords little value to the antiseptic 
qualities of iodoform in this shape. It may be made, however, by 
this formula : — 

Iodoform 24 grams. 

Ether 250 „ 

Alcohol 750 „ 

Absorbent Cotton .... 453-5 ,, 

Dissolve the iodoform in the ether, add the alcohol, and proceed in 
the usual way ; or, if desii-ed, the cotton may be prepared, extem- 
poraneously, by rubbing the iodoform thoroughly into it, and 
shaking out any excess. As made above, it contains 5 per cent., 
but can be increased to a much greater strength if required. 

Carholized Cotton. — Cheyne states that this can best be made by 
soaking sufficient absorbent cotton in a one per cent, solution of 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 291 

carbolic acid in ether, drying at once and using immediately. 
Any value that it may possess at first, which is questioned, is 
almost nil after keeping for a time, from the volatility of its active 
constituent, and it is seldom, if ever, employed, especially in view 
of the great superiority of the carbolized gauze. 

Sublimated Cotton. — This cotton is readily made by the following 
modification of Riimmel's formula, and contains one-half per 
cent, of the poisonous mercuric chloride : — 

Corrosive Sublimate . . . .2-5 grams. 

Alcohol 57 „ 

Water 1,814 „ 

Glycerin 57 ,, 

Absorbent Cotton .... 453-5 ,, 

Dissolve the sublimate in the alcohol, add the water and glycerin, 
impregnate the cotton, and proceed in the usual way. 

Antiseptic Gauzes. J. W. England. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
April, 1887.) Carbolized Gauze. — The formula employed by the 
author is based to a certain extent upon that of Von Brun's (car- 
bolic acid, 10 pai'ts ; resin, 40 parts ; castor oil, 8 parts ; and alcohol, 
200 parts), but it varies in containing glycerin in the place of 
the oil, and, in addition, petroleum benzin. The finished product 
contains 10 per cent, of its weight of carbolic acid. 

Carbolic Acid 2.S9 grams. 

Alcohol 1,200 

Glycerin 150 

Eesin 300 

Benzin 1,400 

Gauze 1,700 

Tritui'ate the resin in a mortar with the benzin, add the alcohol, 
in which has been dissolved the carbolic acid, and then add the 
glycerin. Lastly, soak the gauze, in three or six-yard pieces, in 
this mixture, kneading well, to secui'e uniform diffusion ; express 
and hang the gauze on fi'ames to dry. It dries very quickly, after 
which fold in rolls and wrap up in parafiin paper. In order to 
increase the efficiency of the gauze, it has been recommended that 
the layers of gauze, prior to application, be dipped in a 1 to 40 
aqueous solution of carbolic acid. The i-esin is used to prevent 
the washing away of the acid by the discharges from the wound, 
while the glycerin in employed to make the resin less brittle, and 
assist also the i^etention of the acid in a more than oi'dinary 
soluble form. 

Sublimated Gauze. — This dressing is occasionally employed, but 



292 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



not nearly to tlie same extent as cai'bolized ganze. It contains 
1 part in 2,000 or -^V P^^' cent, of its active constituent. 

Corrosive Sublimr.te .... 0-85 grams. 

Alcohol 28-5 „ 

Water 2,268 „ 

Gauze 1,700 „ 

Dissolve the sublimate in tlie alcohol, dilute with water, and treat 
the gauze, in layers, with the liquid. Hang up to dry. 

Medicated Tablets. CI. H. Dubelle. {Druggists' Circular, 
March, 1887.) 

Preparaiion of tlie Tablets. — Make a " bay " with the prepared 
sugar (medicated, fruit, conserve) on a mai'ble slab, into which 
pour the mucilage by degrees, and mix thoroughly into a paste, 
flavouring the mass with the flavouring extract. Roll out the 
paste on a marble slab until it has the required thickness, using 
starch powder to dust it with to prevent the sticking to the slab 
and pin. Before pressing them out, strew or dash over the 
surface with starch powder mixed with sifted sugar, and rub it 
over with the heel of the hand, which gives it a smooth face. 
This operation is tenned " facing up." Brush this off, and again 
dust the surface with starch powder, cut out square tablets of 
15 grains, and place in wooden trays. Put them in the hot closet 
to dry. All tablets are finished in the same manner. 



Asthma Tablets. 
Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Extract of Grindelia Robusta . 
Extract of Yerba Santa 

Mucilage 

Tincture of Tolu 



BroiicJiine Tablets. 
Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Extract of Liquorice 
Powdered Cubebs .... 

Mucilage ...... 

Tincture of Tolu .... 



Parts. 

r,oo 

150 

150 

70 

30 



600 

220 

80 

70 

10 



Catarrh 2'ablets. 
Powdered double-r^-tined Sugar 
Extract of Liquorice 
Mucilage . 

Powdei-ed Senna Leaves 
Powdered Anise Seed 
Flowers of Sulphur . 
Essence of Fennel 




NOTES AND FOEMULJ;:. 



293 



Catechu Tablets. 







Parts 


Powdered double-refined 


Sugar 


. 700 


Powdered Catechu . 




. 120 


Mucilage . 




. 70 


Powdered Orris Eoot 




. 60 


Powdered Vanilla 




. 20 


Triple Extract of Roses 




. 10 



Cachous'n Tablets 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Powdered Vanilla Chocolate 
Powdered WiUow Charcoal 

Mucilage 

Tinctui"e of Cinnamon 



400 
400 
100 

70 
20 



Constipation Tablets. 



Powdered double-refint 


-d Sugar 


. 300 


Powdered Vanilla Chocolate 


. 300 


Calcined Magnesia . 




. 300 


Mucilage . 




. 70 


Tincture of Vanilla . 




. 20 


Essence of Cinnamon 




. 10 



Digestive Tablets 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 

Subnitrate of Bismuth 

Saccharated Pepsin . 

Pancreatin 

Mucilage .... 

Essence of Aromatic Spice 

Dyspepsia Tablets 

Powdered double refined Sugar 
Powdered Fennel Seed 
Powdered Calamus Pioot . 
Mucilage ..... 
Essence of Peppermint 



600 
120 
90 
90 
70 
30 



600 

200 

100 

70 

30 



Eucalyptine Tablets. 



Powdered double-refined Sugar 


. 700 


Extract of Eucalyptus 


. 120 


Eose Conserve 


. 80 


Mucilage 


. 70 


Triple Extract of Rose 


. 20 


Tincture of Eucalyptus . 


. 10 



294 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 
Gingerine Tablets. 



Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Powdered Jamaica Ginger 
Mucilage .... 
Grated fresh Lemon Peel . 
Tincture of Vanilla . 
Essence of Cinnamon 



Ginger-Malt Tablets. 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 

Extract of Malt 

Powdered Ginger 

Mucilage . 

Grated fresh Lemon Peel 

Essence of Lemon . 

Triple Extract of Hoses 



Indian Tamar Tablets. 



Powdered double-refined Sugar 
PuliJ of Tamai'inds . 
Powdered Senna Leaves 
Mucilage . 
Essence of Coriander 
Essence of Lemon 



Japanese Cinnamon Tablets. 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Powdered Cinnamon 

Mucilage 

Powdered Vanilla . . . 
Triple Extract of Roses . 

Pancreatine Tablets. 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Extract of Malt 
Pancreatin .... 
Mucilage ..... 
Essence of Aromatic Spice 



Pepsin-Bismuth Tablets. 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Powdered Vanilla Chocolate 
Subnitrate of Bismuth 
Mucilage .... 
Saccharatcd Pepsin . 
Essence of Cinnamon 



Parts. 

800 
80 
70 
20 
20 
10 



600 
200 
70 
70 
30 
20 
10 



GOO 

200 

100 

70 

20 

10 



800 
80 
70 
20 
20 



600 

loO 

150 

70 

30 



600 

120 

120 

70 

60 

30 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 



295 



Pepsin-Malt Tablets. 

Povrdered double-refined Sugar 
Extract of Malt 
Saceharated Pepsin . 

Mucilage 

Essence of Aromatic Spice 



Tonic Malt Tablets. 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 

Extract of Malt 

Mucilage . 

Extract of Cinchona 

Grated fresh Orange Peel 

Citrate of Iron . 

Compound Tincture of Cinnamon 



Vanilla-Malt Tablets 

Powdered double-refined Sugar 
Extract of Malt .... 

Mucilage 

Powdered Vanilla .... 
Powdered Cinnamon 



Parts. 

600 

180 

120 

70 

30 



600 
150 
70 
60 
60 
30 
30 



600 

200 

70 

70 

30 



Terebene Tablets. (Pharm. Zeitschr. fiir Bussland, xxvi. 191.) 

Terebene 15 grams. 

Powdered Gum Arabic . . . , 12 ,, 

Distilled Water 60 ,, 

Pulverised Sugar 180 „ 

Powdered Tragacanth . . . . 80 ,, 

Make 100 tablets. The terebene is emulsified witb gum and 
watei', and then the mixture of sugar and tragacanth added. 

Tablets of Aconite. P. Vigier. (Amer. Joum. Pharm., Sep- 
tember, lb86, from Gaz. Hebdom. Med.) These tablets are re- 
commended bj the author as a convenient form for administering 
aconite, and to be made of 

Tragacanth 0-5 gram. 

Orange-flower Water .... 5'0 grams. 

Sugar ....... 50 „ 

Tincture of Aconite Eoot (French Codex) 200 drops. 

To be divided into 100 tablets, of which five to ten maj be taken 
in twenty-fonr hours. 

Drops for Earache. (Chemist and Pruggist, August 28, 1886.) 
Pavesi recommends a mixture of camphor chloral, 2| parts ; 
glycei'in, 16| parts; and oil of almonds, 10 parts. This is to be well 



296 TEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

mixed and kept in a well-closed bottle. A pledget of absorbent 
cotton is to bo soaked with the drops, and then introduced as far 
as possible into the afPected ear ; two applications being made 
daily. Applications may also be made each day with the prepar- 
ation behind the ear. The pain is almost immediately relieved. 

Ricinus Communis as an Insect Powder. (Chemist and Drug- 
gist, September 25, 1886.) Castor-oil plants have been found 
efficacious in freeing' rooms from insect life, the leaves of the plant 
containing a substance which is fatal to flies and other insects. 
The leaves should be dried and powdered, and the powder used as 
an insect-powder. A decoction of the leaves would be serviceable 
for destroying insects. 

Salicylated Plastermulls and Salvemulls. H. Unna. (Lancet, 
September 25, 188G, 574. From Pharvi. Journ.) The local appli- 
cation of strong salicjdic acid " plastermulls " in the treatment of 
lupus is strongly recommended by the author. The name " plaster- 
mull " has been given to a dressing consisting of a very thin sheet 
of gutta-percha, coated on one side with an adhesive substance 
containing one or more medical compounds, and backed on the 
other side with mull or undressed muslin. The name of " salve- 
mull " also has been given to a similar kind of dressing, in which 
the medicaments are of a moi'e soothing character, consisting of 
ointments, having a basis of suet and bird, spread upon mull. In 
experimenting with a strong salicylic acid plastermull to remove 
the cuticle and prepare lupoid tissue for other more destructive 
agents, the autlior observed that salicj'lic acid itself exercises a 
most beneficial influence upon the new growth. The chief draw- 
back is the great and lasting pain caused by salicylic acid when 
applied to a thin epidermis or raw surface. In order to obviate 
this various combinations were tried ; but cocaine failed to give 
relief, while opium and cannabis indica required an hour or two 
to develop their anodyne effect. The best results were obtained 
when genuine beech-wood crcasote was combined with salicylic 
acid, in the proportion of two parts of creasote to one of acid. 
Even then there is a painful stage lasting from ten to fifteen 
minutes, but a previous application of cocaine is sufficientl}'^ lasting 
in its effect to cover this period. The plastermulls are prepared in 
sti'ipa one metre long and twenty centimetres wide, the superficial 
area equalling one-fifth of a square metre. The salicylic acid 
])lastcrmulls used by the author are of five different strengtlis, 
containing respectively, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 grams of salicylic 
acid, and 20, 40, 50, 40, and 50 grams of creasote to each strip. 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 297 

Syrupns Ferri Snperpliosphatis Oxygenatns. B. W. Ric hard- 
son. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 970.) This sjrup consists 
o£ a mixture in equal parts of " syrup of superphosphate of iron," 
solution of peroxide of hydrogen (10 volume strength), and pure 
glycerin, and the dose for an adult is from one to two fluid 
drachms, two or three times a day, in three ounces of water. It 
is mentioned that it has been observed by M. Robbins that if the 
peroxide of hydrogen be added in excess to the syrup, and glycerin 
be not used, the product is of a beautiful red colour, which, how- 
ever, is unstable. Made according to the improved formula, it is 
described' as very stable, of an agreeable taste, and as capable of 
being prescribed -with tincture of nux vomica, strychnine, mor- 
phine, codeine, quinine, salicin, or any other compound that does 
not liberate the oxygen fi'om the peroxide. 

Syrup of Lactophosphate of Calcium and Iron. M. Thyssen. 
(Pharm. Bundschau, 1HS6, .517.) Syrup of lactophosphate of iron 
is first made as follows : — ^Dissolve 5 parts of lactate of iron in 40 
parts of phosphoric acid. Add simple syrup, 160 parts; oleo-sac- 
charate of lemon, 4 parts ; and simple syrup enough to make 1,000 
parts. To this syrup is added the syrup of lactophosphate of 
calcium made as follows : calcium lactophosphate, 3 parts ; citric 
acid, 1"2 part; simple syrup to make 1,200 parts. Flavour with 
oil of lemon. 

lodol Ointment and Lotion. ]\I. Trousseau. (From L'Union 
Med., 1886.) The ointment may be made of 2 grams of iodol, 
and 10 grams of soft paraffin. 

The lotion is prepared with 3 grams of iodol, 32 grams of 
alcohol, and 65 grams of glycerin. 

Confectio Copaibae. {Chemist and Druggist, August 7, 1886.) 
The followinsr formula is recommended : — 



Copaiba 


. 1 ounce. 


Milk, Condensed 


. . h „ 


Oleo-resin Cubeb . 


. 1 drachm. 


Licorice Root Powder 


. 4 drachms 


Tincture of Vanilla 


. ^ drachm. 


Sugar 


. 1 ounce. 



Emulsify the copaiba with the milk, mix the oleo-resin and the 
other ingredients, and finally add the vanilla. 

Chlorodyne. B. L. Maltbie. (Chemist and Brtiggist, January 
29, 1887.) The author recommends the following formula as 
yielding a transparent and inseparable preparation of elegant 
appearance : — 



298 



YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 



Morphina3 Hydrochlor. . 
Spirit. Rectificat. . 
Tinct. Caiauabis ludicaj 
01. Meuthas Piperitas 
Tincturie Capsici . 
Chloroform . 
Acid. Hydrocyanic, dil. 
Glycerini ad . 



gr. 16 

iiivj 
in. XX 
jivss 

3J 

^iv. 3iss 



Dissolve the morphine in the alcohol, and the tinct. cannabis 
indicEe and other ingredients in their order. 

Salol Mouth Wash. (Amer. Joum. Pharm., April, 1887.) The 
following formula is recommended : — 



Salol 

Alcohol . 

Tincture of Cochineal 

Oil of Eose 

Oil of Peppermint . 



1 gram. 
100 grams. 
3 to 5 „ 

. 1 drop. 

2 drops. 



Mix. One teaspoonful to be mixed with a glass of water for 
use as a mouth'wash. 

Toothache Drops. (L' Union Medicale and Amer. Joum. Pharvi.) 

Camphor 1 gram. 

Balsam of Peru 1 ,. 

Alcohohc Extract of Opium . . . 1 ,, 

Mastic 2 grams. 

Chloroform 20 „ 

A pellet of cotton moistened with this liquid is introduced into 
the cavity of the tooth. 

Dr. Gaudet recommends the followinsr formula : — 



Mastic 

Balsam of Peru 
Chloroform 



8 parts. 
5 „ 
U „ 



To be applied in tlie same manner. 

Notes on the Administration of Thalline. M. Mayrhofer. 
(Med. and Surg. lieporter, August 7, 1886.) The author, during 
an epidemic of enteric fever occurring in a Bavarian regiment, 
employed thalline in three different forms, — namely, the sulphate, 
the tannate, and the tartrate, — and obtained highly satisfactory 
results from them all. He gave the drug according to Ehrlich's 
continuous system, the doses being generally 0'2 gram, repeated 
when the temperature rose. From 10 to 2'0 grams were given 
per diem. The total quantity required varied from 8 grams in 



NOTES AND FORMULJi:. 299 

mild cases to 26 grains in severe cases with relapses. After 
taking the medicine, a profuse perspiration occurred, which invari- 
ably appeared to improve the patient's condition. No unpleasant 
effects were ever observed. There were altogether eighty-eight 
cases, of which three (that is, 3-4 per cent.) died. It is not 
possible to say that one of the three preparations presented any 
marked difference in its action from the other two. 

Remedy for Frost-bite. M. Ziiboff. (N. Y. Med. Journ., Oct. 
2, 1886.) Potassium permanganate has been found very service- 
able by the author as a local application for frost-bite, a solution 
of 1 or 2 grains to the ounce of water being used ; it relieves pain, 
allays inflammation, and prevents suppuration in blisters. For 
burns a half-gi*ain has been employed. 

Superiority of Sodium Iodide over Potassium Iodide as a 
Therapeutic Agent. (From Brit. Med. Journ.) The following 
advantages are claimed for the sodium salt : — 

(1) It can be used therapeutically for almost all, certainly the 
chief, purposes for which potassium iodide is used, and with 
similar beneficial results. 

(2) Sodium iodide is more assimilable than the iodide of potas- 
sium, both locally, as to the digestive organs, and to the general 
system. 

(3) Many of the local and general undesirable effects which 
are produced by potassium iodide do not follow the use of sodium 
iodide. 

Stannous Chloride as a Disinfectant. D. Abbott. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., September, 1886.) Stannous chloride may be used 
as a disinfectant, instead of corrosive sublimate ; it is com- 
pai'atively safe, does not corrode lead pipes, and is cheap. A 
solution containing 1 per cent, kills spores after an exposure of 
two hours. It is considerably more active than zinc chloride, 
copper sulphate, and sulphate of iron. When intended to be kept 
for use, it should be mixed with an equal weight of ammonium 
chloride, which prevents the formation of the insoluble oxychloride 
of tin. 

Beeswax as a Pill Excipient. G. H. Ochse. (From Pharm. 
Centralhalle, xxviii. 75.) Powdered beeswax is a good excipient 
for pill masses containing balsams or ethereal oils. Beeswax is 
readily powdered by triturating with an equal quantity of granu- 
lated sugar, adding several drops of alcohol. Two parts of this 
mixture and a small quantity of starch, etc., yield with one part 
of oil or balsam a good, non- voluminous mass. 



300 YEAE-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Permanent Solution of Mercuric Chloride. A. C. Bcrnays. 

{Weekly Med. liev., May 1-i, 1887, 558.) The author states that 
the addition of 7^ grains of citric acid to each quart of water used 
in making solution of mercuric chloride will effectually prevent 
any reduction and also the formation of precipitates in the pre- 
paration of an alhuminated solution. 

Removal of Iodine Irritation. P. Carles. (Joum. de Pharm., 

1886, 315.) The author points out that the irritation caused by 
the external application of prepai'ations containing free iodine may 
be readily removed by the application of alkalies and alkaline salts ; 
dilute ammonia or soda ci'ystals being permissible Avhere the 
epidermis is robust, as on the hands, whilst alkaline sulphites, 
bisulphites, or hyposulphites are preferable for more delicate skin. 
But the best agent, in the author's opinion, is sodium sulphydrate, 
an aqueous solution containing one to ten per cent., according to 
circumstances, giving relief in a few minutes. It may also be used 
for removing iodine stains. 

Casein as an Emulsifier. M. Leger. (U Union Pharm., May 16, 

1887, 193. From Pharm. Joum.) Considering that natural emul- 
sions, such as vegetable juices, milk, etc., owe their peculiar 
condition to the influence of albuminoid substances, the author 
inferred that these substances might be utilized in preparing 
artificial emulsions if they could be separated in a form convenient 
for manipiihition and preservation. Casein, which so perfectly 
emulsifies butter in milk, was chosen for the exjjerimcnt. It was 
separated by adding 60 grams of ammonia to 4 litres of milk, and 
after twenty-foui- hours' contact removing the soapy layer that 
collected at the top, and then precipitating the serum with acetic 
acid. The magma of casein, after being strongly pressed, was 
mixed with 10 grams of sodium bicarbonate and sufficient sugar so 
that the product should contain 10 per cent, of its weight of casein. 
This " saccharide of casein," when ])owdered, is said to be easily 
soluble in water, and capable of being emploj-ed in the same 
pi'oportion as gum in making almost any emulsion, without requir- 
ing the use of a mortar. The sole defect admitted b}* the author 
is that the " saccharide " gives off a slight animal odour. 

Charcoal and Camphor. M. Barbocci. (Brit. Med. Joum.) A 
mixture of equal })arts of camphor and animal chai'coal is recom- 
mended by the author for preventing the offensive odour and 
removing the pain of old excavated ulcers. The camphor is stated 
to act as a disinfectant, and the charcoal absorbs the offensive 
odours. 



NOTSS AND FORMULiE. 



301 



Sedative Cough Mixture. 

1886.) 

Potassi Citratis 
Succi Limonis . 
Viu Ipecac 
Syr. Simplicis . 
Aq. Cbloroformi 
Aq. ad. 
Fiat mistura. 



(Chemist and Druggist, November 27, 



5J- 
5ij. 
3ij. 

5iss. 

5^1- 



A tablespoonful four to six times a day. 

Koumiss. H. W. Wiley. (Amer. Gliem. Journ., viii. 200-200.) 
For the manufacture of koumiss, cow's milk may be used in place 
of mare's milk, if the greater proportion of the cream is first 
removed. As mare's milk contains 5"3-7-26 per cent, of milk- 
sugar, and cow's milk only 4'8 per cent., it is sometimes advisable 
to add some milk-sugar to the latter. 

Unguentum Cretae Praeparatae. D. Duckworth. (Practit., 
Jan., 1887.) This ointment is recommended by the author as an 
application in erysipelas. It is prepared from equal parts of pre- 
pared chalk and lard, and to each ounce of the ointment is added 
30 grains of carbolic acid. An equally serviceable ointment is 
obtained with precipitated calcium carbonate, and this is of a pure 
Avhite colour. 

Ointment for Skin Diseases. Dr. Behrend. (Amer. Jonm. 
Fharm., November, 188G.) This ointment, recommended by the 
author, and employed by him with success in the Berlin Hospital 
for .skin diseases, is prepared according to the followino- 
formula : — 



Sublimed Sulphur 

Liquid Tar 

Soft Soap . 

Lanolin 

Powdered Pumice Stone 



8 parts. 

8 „ 
IG „ 
16 „ 

5 „ 



Ointment Pencils and Paste Pencils. H. C. Brooke. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm,., November, 1880.) Dr. P. G. Unna describes in the 
Monatshefte fiir praJct. Dermat., two forms of application to the 
skin by means of ointment pencils and paste pencils, which have 
the advantage of being more convenient and more economical than 
those ordinarily in use. The ointment pencils are based on the 
model of the ordinary lip-salve pencils, and may, when suitably 
medicated (with zinc oxide, tar, chrysarobin, etc.), be rubbed 
quickly into any limited dry eruption of the skin, which thus 



302 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



becomes covered with a coating of hard ointment. The paste 
pencils were made after the idea of the nitrate of silver sticks, and 
are intended for use in those cases in which the epidermis is bi-oken 
or destroyed, as in eczema, chancre, or the various forms of ulcer ; 
also in such cases as condylomata, where the horny layer is thin 
and fatless, or where the surface is moist, as is the case with the 
mouth, anus, conjunctiva, and urethra. By moistening the pencil 
and stroking it over the surface of the lesion, a thin paste layer of 
the medicament is left behind. 

The following formulaa are selected as examples : — 



Stilus acidi salicylici dilubilis. 



Precipitated Salicylic Acid 
Powdered Tragacanth 
Powdered Starch 
Powdered Dextrin 
Powdered White Sugar 



Parts. 
10 per cent. 40 per cent. 



10 
5 
30 
35 
20 



40 
5 
10 
25 
20 



Stilus arsenico-suhlimatus dilubilis. 

Powdered Arsenious Acid .... 

Corrosive Sublimate 

Powdered Tragacanth .... 

Powdered Starch 

Powdered Dextrin 



Stilus iodoformi dilubilis. 

Iodoform 40 

Powdered Tragacanth 5 

Powdered Starch 10 

Powdered Dextrin 30 

Powdered White Sugar 15 



Stihts icMliyoli dilubilis. 



Sodium Sulpho-iclithyolate 
Powdered Tragacanth 
Powdered Starch 
Powdered Dextrin 
Powdered White Sugar , 



20 
5 
30 
35 
10 



Stilus saponatus kalinus dihihilis. 

Anhydrous Potash Soap CO 

Powdered White Bole 40 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 



;03 



10 


30 


20 


20 


40 


50 


30 


— 



Stilus acidi carholici tinguens. 

Parts. 

10 per cent. 30 per cent. 

Carbolic Acid . 

Powdered Olibanum 

Yellow Wax 

Olive OU . 

Stilus acidi horici unguens. 

Parts. 

Boric Acid 10 

Yellow Wax 40 

Beuzoated Olive Oil 35 

Colophony 5 

Stilus cantJiaridini unguens. 

Cantharidin 0-5 

Colophony 10 

Yellow Wax 45 

Benzoated Olive Oil 45 

Stilus creasoti. 

Creasote 40 

Powdered Olibanum 20 

Yellow Wax 40 

Stilus iodoformi tmguens. 

Iodoform 40 

Colophony 5 

Yellow Wax 30 

Olive Oil 25 

Stilus iodi ungtcens. 

Pure Iodine 20 

Colophony 6 

Yellow Wax . . . . . . .40 

OUve Oil 35 

Stilus jplumbi oleatis et acidi salicylici tmguens. 

Precipitated SalicyUc Acid 20 

Lead Plaster 40 

Yellow Wax 20 

Olive Oil 20 



Stilus saponis, picis et ichthyoli unguens 

Anhydrous Potash Soap 
Liquid Tar . 
Sodium Thioichthyolate 
Colophony . 
Yellow Wax 
Benzoated Olive Oil . 



10 
10 
5 
5 
40 
30 



304 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Stilus zinci suljpJiocarholatis ungiiens. 

Parts. 

Snlphocarbolate of Zinc 5 

Powdered Castile Soap 15 

Colophony 5 

Yellow Wax 40 

Olive Oil 35 

Arnica Opodeldoc. (Chemist and Druggist, August 28, 1886.) 



Sapon. Mollis 
Camphor 
Menthol 
AqujE Destillat. 
Tiuct. Arnica) ad. 



20 grains. 
8 
2 

2 drachms. 
1 ounce. 



Digest for a day, and tilter. 

Ceratum Camphor 8b Compositum (Camphor Ice). (Chemist and 
Druggist, January 1, 1887.) 

Camphor 3 parts. 

Benzoated Lard . . . . . 15 ,, 

White Wax 10 „ 

Spermaceti ...... 4 „ 

Alcohol .... a sufficient quantity. 

Triturate the camphor with a sufficient quantity of alcohol to 
dissolve it. Then, having melted the white wax and spermaceti 
on a water-bath, gradually add the solution of camphor, and con- 
tinue stirring until the alcohol has evaporated. Then withdraw 
the heat, and having stirred the mixture occasionally until it has 
somewhat cooled, mix it, while still liquid, intimately with the 
benzoated lard (which should have been prepared from purified 
and Avashcd lard), and pour it into suitable moulds. 

Boroglyceride Ointment. C. E. Downes. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., November, 1886.) Such an ointment is made by heating 
one part of boroglyceride, containing 50 per cent, of boric acid, 
and while hot adding it slowly to three parts of petrolatum, the 
stirring being continued until the mixture has thorouglily cooled, 
in order to avoid separation of the ingredients. The ointment is 
a very convenient vehicle for atropine, physostigmine, chloride of 
zinc, and other remtMlies. 

MoUin. Dr. 1\ A. Kirsten. (Monatsh. fiir prakt. Dermat., 
August, 1886.) Mollin is a soft soap containing 17 ])er cent, of 
uncombined fat, and is stated to be prepared by saponifying with- 
out heat 100 parts of cocoa nut oil or of fresh fat with 40 parts 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 305 

of solution of caiTstic potash (sp. gr. 1"145, containing 15 per 
cent, of K H 0), mixing intimately with 30 parts of glycerin, and 
heating carefully. If properly made, mollin is yellowish white, 
and of a smooth and soft consistence, not readily altered by ex- 
posure, free from rancidity and from irritating properties, and 
easily removed from the skin by warm or cold water. 

Mollin is highly recommended by the author as a vehicle for 
the application of mercury and its compounds, balsam of Peru, 
storax, phenol, thymol, naphthol, naphthalin, chrysarobin, iodo- 
form, salicylic acid, and other substances used for inunction. 

Preparation of Lanolin. F. Fialkowski. (Amer. Joum. Fhann., 
I^ovember, 188G, from Wiad. Farmac.) The author recommends 
soaking sheep's wool in cold water for twenty-four hoiu-s, and 
afterwards washing it well until the water remains clear. The 
wool is then boiled twice with water, and pressed while hot, when 
the lanolin is obtained of a whitish colour, much lighter than the 
commercial article. Twelve pounds of wool yielded 18 ounces of 
lanolin, or about 11 per cent. 

Antineuralgic Liniment. G. de Mussy. (Amer. Pharm. Journ., 
November, 18H6.) The author recommends a mixture of 4 parts 
of oil of peppermint, 2 parts of tincture of aconite i-oot, and 1 part 
of chloroform. 

Gelatin Bougies, Suppositories, etc. {Pharm. llirndsch., 1887. 
101. From Amer. Journ. Pharm.) The proportions of gelatin, 
glyceiun, and water cannot be the same for all such preparations, 
because the action of the medicament on the mass, deliquescence 
or coagulation, must be taken into consideration. 

Where gelatin preparations arc frequently dispensed, it is best 
to have a definite mass in stock. This is made in large quantities. 
After removing the scum from the solution, it is poured into 
suitable bottles, and when thoroughly cooled covered with alcohol, 
to prevent it from becoming mouldy. When wanted for use, the 
bottle is placed in a water-bath, and the requii^ed quantity is 
poured off. The mass is made as follows : — The accurately- 
weighed gelatin is allowed to macerate over night in distilled 
water, and strained through a sieve. The gelatin adhering to the 
sieve is collected, the whole placed in a tared porcelain capsule, 
and sufficient water added to make the weight four or five times 
as much as the original quantity of gelatin used. The capsule is 
placed on the upper ring of a retort-stand, and heated over wire- 
gauze with a gas or spirit-lamj) flame, care being taken not to 

X 



806 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



bum the gelatin. The glycerin is added, and the whole evaporated 
to the consistence mentioned in the following table : — 



• 


I. 

Evaporated 
to 60 parts. 


11. 

Evaporated 
to 25 parts. 


HI. 

Evaporated 
to SO parts. 


IV. 

Evaporated 
to 60 parts. 


V. 

Evaporated 
to IM parts. 


Gelatin .... 
Water .... 
Glycerin . . , 


20 
80 
40 


10 
40 
15 


10 
40 
20 


10 
40 
30 


30 

120 

15 



The anhydrons mass No. 1 is intended for preparations kept in 
stock, and for those which are to retain their transparency ; mass 
No. 2, for hygroscopic di-ugs ; No. 8, for suppositories ; No. 4, for 
vaginal balls, ear-almonds, and bougies ; No. 5, for crayons or 
bougies containing a lai-ge percentage of iodoform. 

Jjougies. — Bougies containing sulphate of zinc, sulphate of cop- 
per, nitrate of silver, extract of opium, hydrochlorate of morphine, 
bichloride of mercury, etc., ai-e made as follows :— One part of 
sulphate of zinc, or any of the above-mentioned medicaments, is 
first dissolved in a little water and then added to 99 parts of mass 
No. IV., and poured into moulds. If it is desired to make a large 
quantity of sulphate of copper bougies, it is best to mix not more 
than the mould will hold at a time, because by frequently heating 
the mass the bougies acquire a yellowish green colour instead of a 
blue-green. 

Bovgies of carbolic acid (5 per cent.) and similar medicaments, 
soluble in a small quantity of alcohol, are made by adding 3 parts 
of carbolic acid, previously dissolved in alcohol, to 7 parts of 
glycerin and 50 parts of mass No. III. 

Bougies of iodoform (50 per cent.), and of similar medicaments 
insoluble in water and alcohol, are made by adding 27 parts of 
powdered iodoform to 54 pai'ts of mass No. V. When taken from 
the mould, the bougies are placed in a drying closet until they 
weigh about two-thii'ds of their original weight. 

Bougies of ferric chloride (b pe^- cent .) , and of similar hygroscopic 
drugs, are made by dissolving 1 part of seequichloride of iron in 
9 parts of water, and adding to 19 parts of mass No. II. 

Alum hongies (2 per cctit.), 25 parts of mass No. III. and 10 
parts of distilled water are liquefied in a water-bath. To this is 
added a hot solution of 7 parts of alum, 10 of glycerin, and 5 of 
distilled water. The whole is then evaporated with slight agita- 
tion to 35 parts. The mixture becomes thick and turbid on adding 



NOTES AND FORMULAE. 



307 



the solution of ainra, but on laeating over a water-bath and stirring 
carefully, the mixture soon becomes clear and transparent. HA 
water must be added from time to time to replace that lost by 
evaporation. 

Bougies containing tannin (0'2 per cent.}, 0'66 of tannin is dis- 
solved in 8 parts of glycerin, and the hot solution added to 39 
parts of mass No. II., the whole evaporated to 33 parts. The 
mass will coagulate on the addition of the tannin solution, but 
becomes clear when slowly stirred for five or ten minutes on a 
water-bath. By this process, 2 grams of tannin may be in- 
corporated with 5 grams of gelatin. This formula is a v,^ry 
good one, and yields bougies which are very soluble. Schrelber 
states that he has met with tannin bougies which on boiling with 
water for half an hour did not dissolve. 

Bougies of extract of Jcrameria are not made with gelatin, but 
with white glue. The requisite quantity of extract is dissolved in 
40 parts of glycerin, and added to the hot solution of 15 parts of 
glae in 20 parts of water, stirring constantly until the mass is 
evenly distributed. 

Bougies of salicylate and chloride of sodium are made by adding 
the finely triturated chemicals to 30 parts of gelatin mass No. II. 

For rectal suppositories mass No. III. is used, excepting for 
hygroscopic drugs, which require where possible an anhydrous 
mass, either No. I. or No. II. 

For vaginal halls use about the same mass as is used for bougies. 
Suppositories or balls containing iodide or bromide of potassium, 
bromide, chloride, or salicylate of sodium or ergotin, require mass 
No. II. 

Sujjposttories of chloral hydrate are made with gelatin mass 
No. II., the chloral being added dissolved in a little water. 

A Substitute for Gum Arabic. (American Druggist, May, 1887, 
94.) The following process is stated to produce a good substitute 
for gum arable for technical purposes: — 20 parts of powdered 
sugar are boiled with 7 pai'ts of fresh milk, and this is then mixed 
with 50 parts of a 36 per cent, solution of silicate of sodium, the 
mixture being then cooled to 122° F. and poured into tin boxes, 
where granular masses will grsidually separate out which look very 
much like pieces of gum arabic. This artificial gum inskintly 
reduces Fehling's solution, so that if mixed with powdered gum 
arabic as an adulterant, its presence could be easily detected. 

The presence of silicate of sodium in the ash would also confiirm 
the presence of adulteration. 



308 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Note on Piilvis Camphorae. (Chemist and Druggist, October 23, 
188G.) According- to the Leutsch-Amerikanisch-Apotheker Zeitting, 
powdered camphor may be prevented from lumping by the addition 
of 20 per cent, of sugar of milk. 

Hair Tonic. (Coll. and Clin. Rec, May, 1887, and 3Ied. Neivs, 
January 8, 1887.) The following local application has been re- 
commended by Bartholow : — 

Fluid Extract of Pilocarpus, 

Tincture of Cantharides . . .of each ^ss. 

Glycerin, 

Petrolatum ...,■.. of each 3i. 

T. Fox uses in incipient baldness a wash composed of, — 



Tincture of Kux Vomica 
Tincture of Cantharides 
Lanolin 



51V. 

Siiss. 
xiiss. 



Acetic Acid ....... 5iv. 

Kose Water 



3V] • 



Crystal Pomade. (Chemist and Druggist, Januaiy 1, 1887.) A 
very good pomade is, according to the Deutsch-Amerikanisch- 
Apoth. Zeit., made from the following formula : — 

01. Eicini 
01. Olivffi . 
Spermaceti . 
01. Jasmini . 
01. Kosa) 
01. Bergamott 
01. Neroli . 
01. Geranii Gal. 
01. Iiidis . 
Cumarini 
Heliotropini 

Melt the first three ingredients over a water-bath, add the 
perfumes, then pour into bottles Avhich are standing in hot Avater, 
and allow to cool slowly. 

Hair Lotion. (Chemist and Druggist, January 29, 1887.) 
Bouchard recommends the following lotion to stop falling of the 
hair after ty]thoid fever : — 

01. Eicini ...... 7 gi'ams. 

Tar 2 „ 

Tinct. Bcuzoini (simpl.) ... 20 ,, 

Cbloroformi . . . . . 30 „ 

Alcohol 1,000 „ 

Add a little perfume. 



500 


grams 


380 


11 


120 


,, 


20 


,, 


0-5 


,, 


0-5 


,, 


5 


drops. 


2 


,, 


1 


drop. 


0-02 


gram. 


0-1 


J, 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 



309 



Talc Tooth Powder. (Chemist and Druggist, August 7, 1886.) 



Powdered Talc .... 


. 12 drachms 


,, Cochineal . 


. 2 


,, Cream of Tartar . 


1 drachm. 


,, Alum .... 


1—1 


Oil of Peppermiut 


15 drops. 



Mix tliorouglily. 

Antiseptic Tooth Powder. Dr. A. D. Macgregor. (Brit. 
Med. Journ., July 10, 1886.) A good antiseptic tooth powder is 
made by mixing the following ingredients : — 



Boric Acid ..... 


4 parts 


Potassium Chlorate .... 


. 3 „ 


Guaiacum Eesiu .... 


. 2 „ 


Prepared Chalk .... 


. 6 „ 


Magnesium Carbonate 


. 33 „ 



New Formulae for Perfumes. (^Amer. Journ. Pharm., April, 
1887.) The following arc recommended by Soxhlet : — 





Eau de Cologne. 




Oil of Neroli . 




5 parts 


Oil of Bergamot 


. 


45 „ 


Oil of Lemon . 




20 „ 


Oil of Lavender 


. . . • 


1 „ 


Oil of Kosemary 




1 ,. 


Benzoin 




. 0-50 „ 


Deodorized Alcohol .... 


. 1,250 „ 




Court Botiqiiet. 




Oil of Bergamot 


... 


, 10 parts. 


Oil of Neroli 


• 


1-50 „ 


Alcohol, Deodorized .... 


. 150 „ 


Orris Root 


.... 


30 „ 


Storax 




. 0-50 „ 


Musk 


Ess. Bouquet. 


. 0-20 „ 


Ext. Jasmin 




50 parts. 


Ext. Reseda 


• . • 


50 „ 


Ext. Violets 




50 „ 


Orris Root. . 


■ • 


30 „ 


Liquid Storax . 




. 0-50 „ 


Ambergris. 




. 0-50 „ 


Oil of Cura^oa . 


• • « . 


5 .. 







YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 



New Formulae for Perfumes. 
Ixntdand, xxvi. 240.) 



H. Sox li let. {FJiarm. Zeit. fiir 



JEactract of New Moicn Hay. 



Cut Tonka Beans 
Orris Eoot , 
Vanillin . 
Oil of Bergamot 
Oil of Neroli . 
Oil of Kose 
Oil of Lavender 
Oil of Cloves . 
Patchouly Leaves 
Benzoic Acid . 
Herb Urticaria 
Cologne Spirit . 



Digest for fourteen daj 
Millefleurs Oil for 



Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 
Oil of 



Cinnamon 

Neroli 

Eoso 

Cloves 

Orange 

Calamus. 

Geranium 

Lemon . 

Bergamot 

Verbena. 



E. 



Cut Tonka Beans 

Liquid Styrax . 

Orris Hoot 

Oil of Neroli . 

Oil of Bose 

Oil of Bitter Almonds 

Oil of Bergamot 

Ambergris 

Musk 

Herb of Urticaria 

Cologne Spirit'. 



o'O grams. 
10-0 „ 
0-05 „ 
30 drops. 

2 „ 
2 

2 ,, 

1 drop. 

0'20 grams. 

0-50 „ 

2-0 „ 

207-0 „ 



and filter. 



Ferfuming Hair Oil and Pomade. 



liract of Jxeseda. 



Digest from eight to fourteen days, and filter 



Preservation of Flowers. {Fha 
iritllt.) It is stated in this paper 



10 drops. 


20 „ 


20 „ 


2 grams. 
2 „ 


20 drops. 


10 grams. 


15 „ 


15 „ 


5 „ 


2-0 grams. 
1-0 „ 


50-0 „ 


10 drops. 
10 „ 


2 


20 ',[ 


1 -0 gram. 
•50 „ 


2 -00 grams 
50-00 „ 



m. Jouni., from Chroiiiqtce Indus- 
that flowers may be preserved, 



■with all their brilliancy and freshness, in the following way : — 



NOTES AND FORMULA, 311 

In a well-corked bottle dissolve sis drachms of coarsely powdered, 
clear gum copal, mixed with the same weight of broken glass, in 
15| ounces (by weight) of pure rectified ether. Soak the flowers 
in this mixture, take them out slowly, and expose them to the air 
for ten minutes ; then immerse them anew, and again expose 
them to the action of the air. Repeat this operation four or five 
times. The flowers thus treated will keep for a long time if care 
be taken not to handle them too much. 

Odontalgic Essence. (Chemist and Druggist, August 28, 1886.) 

Camphor gr. 20 

Chloroformi "l 10 

01. CaryophyUi ni 5 

OL Cajeputi in. 5 

Spt. Vini Eect in. 20 

Solve. 

Chartreuse Liquor. (From Pharm. Rundschau.) To prepare 
this liquor none but spirit free from fusel oil should be used. 
Angelica seed, 125 gi-ams ; angelica root, 30 gi^ams ; arnica flowers, 
15 grams ; coriander, 250 grams ; hyssop, 125 grams ; melissa, 500 
grams; wormwood, 125 grams; cardamom, 15 grams ; Ceylon cinna- 
mon, 15 grams; mace, 20 grams ; and cloves, 15 grams; are digested 
for twenty-four hours in 36 litres of 95 per cent, alcohol and 20 
litres of water, and then distilled. To the distillate are added 25 
kilograms of sugar previously boiled w^ith watei', 2 litres of finest 
cognac, 25 grams of citric acid previously dissolved in water, and 
sufiicient water to make 100 liti-es. Chartreuse is coloured golden 
yellow with tincture of saffron, and should be two years old before 
using. 

Preservation of Honey. C. S. Commings. {Aruer. Joum. 
Pharm., November, 1886.) Honey may be kept from crystallizing 
or candying by suspending the vessel containing it in water, 
applying heat, and stirring the honey constantly until the water 
is heated to the boiling point, when the vessel is taken from, the 
fire, the scum removed, and, after cooling, the honey is placed in 
jars or other suitable vessels, tightly covered and kept in a cool 
cellar. Treated in this manner, the author has kept honey fi-om 
twelve to sixteen months without crystallizing. 

Sumach Ink, 0. J. Lac he. {Amer. Joum. Pharm., 1887, 335.) 
The author states that a good ink may be prepared from sumach 
leaves. A decoction is made by boiling 1 oz. of the bruised leaves 
for half an hour in 1 pint of water, and straining ; 90 grains of 
sulphate of iron and 60 grains of gum arable ai'e added. The ink 



312 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACr. 

has nt first a brownisli cast, wliicli disappeai-s in a few days ; after 
about two weeks it can scarcely be distingaiished from ink made 
from nutgalls. 

Bleaching Liquid. (Chem. Tech. Centr. Anzeiger, iv. 839.) The 
addition of a small quantity of glycerin to a bleaching mixture of 
chlorinated lime and soda makes the fabric whiter, does not affect 
the fibres, and does not require the use of acid to remove the 
chlorinated lime. 

Polishing Paste, (Pharm. Eundschau, 1886, 435.) The follow- 
ing- formula is said to 3neld a good product : — Oxalic acid, 1 part; 
ferric oxide, 25 parts ; tripoli, 20 parts ; palm oil, 60 parts ; soft 
jjaraffin, 4 parts. 

Sticky Fly-Paper. (Chemist and Druggist, August 28, 1886.) 

Eesiu ill clean pieces ... .4 troy ozs. 
Castor Oil 2 fl. ozs. 

Melt together by means of a water-bath, and spread on sized 
paper. Sized paper must be used, or the oil will produce the 
characteristic tiunsparent stain of fixed oils. If glucose, mixed 
with dextrine, is added, to attract the flies, the paper should be 
jiaraffined. The following- has also been highly recommended : — 

Eesiu 10 parts. 

Gum Thus 5 ,, 

Linseed Oil 7 ,, 

Dissolve by a gentle heat, and apply as directed above. 

Violet- Phosphorent Calcium Sulphide. (Chemisch Technischer 
Centr. Anzeiger, iv. 845.) The following formula is recommended 
as yielding the best product : — 20 grams of lime prepared from 
the shells of Hypopus vidgaris are finely powdered and intimately 
mixed with 6 grams of roll sulphur and 2 grams of starch. About 
8 c.c. of a solution prepared by mixing 100 c.c. of absolute alcohol, 
05 gram of subnitrate of bismuth, and several drops of hydro- 
chloric acid, are dropped on the mixture, and, the alcohol having 
been allowed to evaporate spontaneously, it is then heated in a 
crucible to bright cherry redness for twenty minutes. The 
crucible is allowed to cool, the thin layer of calcium sulphate 
removed, and the contents of the crucible powdered and again 
heated for about half an hour. If the heat was not too intense, 
the mass will be granular, breaking readily on slight pressure. 
When ]iowdcrcd again it loses considerably in phosphorescence. 

Luminous Paper. (Pharm. Zeifschr. fiir liussland, xxv. 712.) 
The following formula yields a paper which is impervious to wate»- 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 313 

and luminous in the dark. Water, 100 parts ; paper, 40 ; phos- 
phorescent powder, 10 ; gelatin, 1 ; bichromate of potassium, 1 part. 
The bichromate of potassium makes the paper impervious. 

Impervious Shoe Blacking. (Pharm. Zeitschr.f'dr Bussland, sxv. 
792.) Wax, 10 ; spermaceti, G ; oil of turpentine, 66 ; asphalt varnish, 
5 ; pulverized borax, 1 ; nitrobenzol, 1 ; grape-vine charcoal, 5 ; Prus- 
sian blue, 2. Melt the wax, add the borax, and stir until a jelly is 
formed. In another vessel melt the spermaceti, add the asphalt 
varnish previously mixed with the turpentine, stir well, and add 
to the wax ; lastly, add the colouring previously mixed with a 
small quantity of the mass ; perfume with nitrobenzol, and fill in 
boxes. Apply a small quantity with a rag and brush. To be 
used onl}' once a week. 

Liquid Glue. (Pharm. Bundschati, December, 1886.) A very 
good preparation is obtained as follows : — 1 part of sugar is dis- 
solved in 3 parts of water ; to this solution is added one-fourth as 
much slaked lime as sugar used, and the whole heated to 75° C. 
The mixture is frequently agitated for several days, or until the 
greater portion of the lime is dissolved. The thick solution is then 
poured oif, and is ready for use. If 3 parts of gi'ound ghae are 
allowed to swell in 13 pai'ts of the sugar solution, and then 
warmed, the glue soon liquefies, and remains liquid without im- 
paii'ing its adhesiveness. A thicker or thinner consistency is 
obtained by adding more or less glue to the solution. Concen- 
trated liquid glue remains turbid, thin solutions become clear 
on standing. The adhesive properties of this liquid glue are 
excellent. 

Paste for Labels. L. Eliel. (Pharm Journ., 3rd series, xvii. 
469.) 

1. 

Gum Tragacantb ..... 1 ounce. 
,, Arabic . . . . . .4 ounces. 

Dissolve in — 

Water 1 pint. 

Strain, and add — 

Thymol 14 gi'ains. 

Suspended in — 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Finally add — 

Water ..... to make 2 pints. 



314 



YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 



This makes a thin paste suitable for labelling bottles, wooden or 
tin boxes, or for any other purpose paste is ordinarily called for. It 
makes a good excipient for pill masses, and does nicely for emul- 
sions. The very small percentage of thymol present is not of any 
consequence. This paste will keep sweet indefinitely, the thymol 
preventing fermentation. It will separate on standing, but a 
single shake will mix it siafficiently for use. 



2. 



Eye Flour 
Powd. Acacia 



4 ounces. 
h ounce. 



Rub to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water, strain 
through a cheese cloth, and pour into 1 pint of boiling water. 
Continue the heat until thickened to suit. When nearly cold add — 

Glycerin . 1 ounce. 

Oil of Cloves 20 drops. 

This is suitable for tin or wooden boxes or bottles, and keeps 
sweet for a Ions: time. 



Eye Flour 


4 ounces. 


Water 


1 pint. 


Nitric Acid ..... 


1 drachm. 


Carbolic Acid .... 


. 10 minims. 


Oil of Cloves 


. 10 


Glycerin 

{IniiT Avitli fho -iv-ntnr sffnin fhi 


1 ounce. 

•nnrrh ;i, flippsr 



add nitric acid. Apply heat until thickened to suit, and add the 
other ingredients when cooling. This is suitable for bottles, tin 
or wooden boxes, and will not spoil. 



Dextrin 
Acetic Acid 
Alcohol 
Water 



8 parts 



10 



]\lix the dextrin, water, and acetic acid to a smooth paste, then 
add the alcohol. This makes a thin paste, and is well suited for 
labelling bottles and wooden boxes, but is not suitable for tin 
boxes. 

Determination of Indigo in Dyed Woollens. M. Taverne. 
(Zeihchr. fiir Analyt. CJwin., xxv. Part 4.) The author exhausts 
a given square surface of the material Avith chloroform in Soxhlet's 



NOTES AND FOEMUL^. 315 

extraction apparatus, evaporates the extract to dryness, weiglis 
the residue, dissolves it in sulphuric acid, and determines colori- 
metrically or by titration with solution of chloride of lime. 

The Drying of Oils. A. Livache. (Comptes Bendas, cii. 1167- 
1170.) The best method of accelerating the drying of oils is to 
agitate the oil Avith a mixture of finely divided lead (precipitated 
on sheets of zinc or iron from solutions of lead salts) and man- 
ganese niti'ate, and then to decant and agitate with lead oxide to 
decompose the manganese salt. When treated in this way, a thin 
layer of linseed oil dries completely in less than foar honi-s at the 
ordinaiy temperature. 

Clarification of Fruit Juices. (^Chemist and Druggist, April 2, 
1887.) To clarify fruit juices which are difficult of filtration, add 
to them while warm a little skimmed milk. The acid of the juice 
coagulates the casein of the milk, which quickly tines the liquor. 
This may be afterwards easily filtered. 

Sugar as a Cattle Food Condiment. M. Holdefleiss. (Bled. 
Centr., 1886, 303-305.) The low piice of sugar has caused many 
experiments to be made as to its value in cattle feeding ; in 
previous experiments its theoretical nutritive value was calculated, 
and it was mixed with the food in regular proportions ; in the 
present experiment it was given as an extra ration or condiment. 

Thirteen oxen were the animals chosen for experiment, they 
were all fed in the same way, except that two of them daily 
received a ration of one kilo, of sugar extra ; these animals showed 
a considerably larger increase of live-weight than the other 
eleven — amongst the latter there were great differences in fatten- 
ing capacity. The sugar-fed oxen received each, during the whole 
period, 1125 kilos, of raw sugar, from which the author calcu- 
lates that 50 kilos, of sugar is capable of producing an increase 
of 15"75 kilos, live-weight, leaving a large money profit. The 
butchers who slaughtered the animals pronounced the meat of all 
equally good. 

With young cattle, the results were not so satisfactory ; they 
did not eat freely, and suffered so much from scour that the 
supply of sugar had to be stopped. 

Manufacture of Artificial Oil of Gaultheria. C. Bullock. 
(Amer. Journ. Pharm., January, 1887.) This oil is prepared by 
G. M. Berringer, in accordance with the following formula : — 

Salicylic Acid § ounce. 

Methylic Alcohol absolute . . 2 fl. ounces. 
Sulphuric Acid . . . , 1 fl. ounce. 



316 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol, then add gradually 
the sul2)hnric acid ; warm gently during twenty- four hours ; then 
distil from a retort into which a current of steam is introduced. 

The distillate is to be well washed and separated by decanta- 
tio:i. The odour of the product improves by keeping'. 

New Method of Distinguishing Vegetable from Animal Fibre. 

H. Molisch. {Bingl. polyt. Journ., cclxi. 135-138.) The follow- 
ing process depends on the application of two new reactions for 
sugar lately discovered by the author (see this volume, p. 108) : — 
About O'Ol gram of the sample, previously well boiled and washed 
with water, is mixed first with 1 c.c. of water, then with 2 
drops of an alcoholic solution of a-naphthol (15 to 20 per cent.), 
and finally with an equal volume of concentrated sulphuric acid. 
In the case of vegetable fibre, the solution assumes, immediately 
after shaking, a deep violet colour, the fibre being dissolved. If, 
however, the fibre is of animal origin, the liquid assumes a colour 
varying from yellow to reddish brown. By substituting a solution 
of thymol for a-naphthol, a fine carmine colour is obtained in the 
place of the violet. 

The author has successfully applied this test to diiferent vege- 
table fibres, such as cotton, hemp, jute, china-grass, etc. ; also to 
the cellular tissues of wood, cork, and fungi. 

Moreover, in the case of dyed fabrics, the colouring matters 
present do not appear to interfere with the success of the reaction. 

Polishing Powder for Metals. {Chemist and Druggist, January 
1, 1887.) A powder very suitable for cleaning gold, silver, and 
other metals, is prepared as follows : — 

Chalk 1v,0 parts. 

White Bole 100 „ 

Carbonate of Lead .... 125 ,, 

Magnesia . . . . . . 20 ,, 

Oxide of Iron 20 „ 

The mixture must be absolutely free from gritty particles. 

Bronzing of Metals. {Amer. Journ. Fharm., February, 1887.) 
Very handsome colours may be imparted to metals by the use 
of cold solutions of the sulphides of arsenic or antimony. The 
articles are thoroughly cleaned and dried ; a thin layer of a 
dilute solution of polj^sulphide of ammonium is applied with a 
soft brush, allowed to dry, and after brushing off the separated 
sulphur, a dilute ammouiacal solution of sulphide of arsenic is 
applied. The colour thus produced resembles that of mosaic gold, 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 317 

and becomes deeper, and ultimately dark brown, by i^epeating 
the application of the arsenic solution. A solution of sulphide of 
antimony produces a rose-coloured tint, which may be deepened 
to dark red. 

By polishing-, the coating acquires a bright metallic lustre, and 
by the use of mordants the colour is altered. Brass or bronze 
left for a long time in contact with the mordant becomes super- 
ficially greenish grey, and quite glossy on being polished with 
cloth; if now treated with the above solutions, a dull yellow 
colour is produced. 

The bronzing layer may be re-dissolved by ammonia or sulphide 
of ammonium, and the sulphides of antimony and arsenic may be 
dissolved in hydrate or sulphide of potassium or sodium. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



COMPRISING TITLES OF BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, ETC., 

ON CHEMISTRY, BOTAXY, MATERIA MEDICA, 

PHARMACY, AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 

Published between Jclt 1st, 1886, and Juxe 30th, 1887. 



m 



PART IV. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



CHEMISTRY. 

A Treatise on Chemistry. By Sir H. E. Eoscoe, F.B.S., and C. Schor- 
lemmer, F.B.S., Professors of Chemistry in the Victoria University, 
Owens College, Manchester. Vol. III. : The Ghemistry of the 
Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives ; or, Organic Chemistry . Part 
III. London and New York : Macmillan & Co. 1886. 

Gmelin-Kraufs Handluchder Chemie. Anorganische Chemie. Sechste 
umgearbeitete Auflage. Zweiter Band, erste Abtheilung. Heidel- 
berg : Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung. 1886. 

Traite elementaire de chimie organique. Par MM. Berthelot et Jung- 
fleisch. Troisieme edition, en deux volumes. Paris : Librairic 
Dunod, 49, qnai des Augustins. 1887. 

Cours de cMmie. Par le Prof. Armand Gautier. Paris : Librairie F. 
Savy. 3 volumes in 8vo. 

Ausfiihrliches Lehrhuch der pharmaceutischen Chemie. Bearbeitet von 
Prof. Dr. E. Schmidt. Zweite vermehrte Auflage. Erster Band : 
Anorganische Ckemie. Erste Abtheilung : Metalloide. Braun- 
schweig : P. Vieweg u. Sohn. 1887. 

A Text-Booh of Inorganic Chemistry. By Professor Victor von Bichter. 
Translated from the fourth German edition by Edgar F. Smith. 
London : Triibner & Co. 

Die Chemie in ihrer Gesammtheit his zur Gegenwart rmd die chemische 
Technologic der Neuzeit. Bearbeitet nach System Kleyer voii 
Wilh. Steffen, Chemiker in Homburg v. d. Hohe. Verlag von Jul. 
Maier in Stuttgart. 

321 Y 



322 YEAK-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Chemistry for Beginners. Adapted for the Elementary Stage of the 
Science and Art Department's Examination in Inorganic Chemis- 
try. By B. L. Taylor, F.LC, F.C.S., Teacher in Chemistry and 
Physics in the Central Higher Grade Board School, Manchester. 
London : Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, Crown 
Buildings, 188, Fleet Street. 

The Owens College Course of Practical Organic Chemistry. By Jiiliiis 
B. Cohen, Ph.D., F.C. 8., Assifitant Lecturer on Chemistry, Owens 
College, Manchester, etc. London and New York : Macmillan & 
Co. 1887. 

Methodischer Lehrgang der Chemie. Durch eine Reihe zusammenhan- 
gender Lehrproben dargestellt von Prof. Dr. Rudolf Arendt. Halle 
a S. : Verlag der Buchhandlung dcs Waisenhauses. 1887. 

ScalcJIa Chemica. A Series of Aids for Beginners in Chemistry. By 
llushisson Adrian, M.A. Part I. — Analysis of Simple Salts. Lon- 
don : H. K. Lewis. 1887. 

Lexilcon der angewandten Chemie. Yon Dr. Otto Damvier. Die chemis- 
chen Elemente und Verbindungen im Haushalt der Natur und im 
taglichen Leben, in der Medizin und Technik, Zusammensetzung 
der Nahrungsmittel, Industrieproduktc, etc. Mit 48 Abbildungen. 
Leipzig : Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts. 

Kurzes Lehrhuch der organischen Chemie. Von Dr. A. Bernthsen, Pro- 
fessor an der Universitat zu Heidelberg. Braunschweig : Druck 
und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn. 1887. 

Chimie vegetale. La Bamie. Fur E. Frcmy. In-8°. Paris : Dunod. 

Anleitung zur Darstelhing organischcr Prdparate. Von Dr. S. Levy, 
Privatdozent der Chemie an der Universitat Genf. Mit 40 in den 
Text gedrucktcn Holzschnitten. Stuttgart: Verlag von Ferdinand 
Enke, 1887. 

Prinziinen der organischen Synthese. Von Dr. Eugen Lelhnann. Berlin : 

A'crlag von Robert Oppenheim. 1887. 

Descriplire List of E.f.pcri limits on the Fundameyital Principles of 
Chemistry. By J. Parsons Cooke. Cambridge : Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Grundziige der iheoretischen Chemie fiir Studirende. Yon Dr. J. Polls. 
Aachen : Barth. 

A Keiv Basis for Chemistry : a Chemical Philosofhy. By Thomas Sterry 
Hunt, M.A. , LLD. Boston: Cassiuo. Loudon: Triibner & Co. 



BIBLIOGKAPHY. * 323 

Les Theories modernes de la cJiimie, et leur application a la mecanique 
cliimique. Par Lotliar Meyer. Ouvrage traduit de I'allemaud, sur 
la cinquieme edition, par M. Albert Block- Premier volume, grand 
in-8° de VIII-452 pages. Georges Carre, editeiir. 

Vortrdge ilher die Entwichelungsgescliichte der Chemie in den letzten 
Imndert Jahren. Von Prof. Dr. A. Ladenhiirg. 2 verb. u. verm. 
Aufl. Braunschweig : Vieweg u. Sohn. 

Die Alchemic in cllferer und neuerer Zeit. Eiu Beitrag ziir Cultur- 
geschichte, von Hermann Kopp. Heidelberg : Carl Winters' Uni- 
versitats-Buchhandlung. 1886. Svo. 2 vol., pp. 260 und 425. 

Old and Neiv Chemistry : Which is Fittest for Survival ? And other 
Essays in Chemical Philosophy. By S. E. Phillips, F. G.S. London : 
Wertheimer, Lea & Co. 

Die StruJcturformeln, Geschichte, Wesen und Beurtheilung des Werthes 
derselben. Bearbeitet von B>. Bonn. Frankfurt a. O. : Druck und 
Verlag der konigl. Hofbuchdruckerei Trowitsch u. Sohn. 1887. 

The G^-aphical Representation of the Relation between Valence and 
Atomic Weight By C. J. Reed. 1886. 

Der Atombau in den chemischen Verbindnngen und sein Einfluss auf die 
Erscheinungen ; von L. Mann. Mit einer Tafel. Berlin : Verlag 
von F. Heinicke. 

Das penodische Gesefz der Atom-Gewichte und das natarlich.e System 
der Elemente. Von Dr. E. Hiith. Berlin : F. Friedlandor u. Sohn. 

Memoire sur les Volumes Moleculaires des Liquids. Par Hermann 
Kopp. Heidelberg. C. Winter. 1886. 8vo. Pp. 47. 

Vber die Zustandsbedingungen der FliissigJceiten und Gase, sowie ilber 
den Aether. Von /. Kelling. Karlsruhe : Braun. 

On the Spectra of the Gases and Vapours Evolved on Heating Iron 
and other Metals. By John Parry, F.G.S. Pontypool : Hughes 
& Sons. Printed for private circulation. 

Chemische TJntersuchungen znr wissenschaftliclien Medicin. Von Prof. 
Dr. C. F. W. Krukenberg. Jena : Fisclier. 

Select Methods in Chemical Analysis (chiefly Inorganic). By William 
Croolces, F.B.S., V.P.C.S. Second Edition, re-written and greatly 
enlarged. London : Longmans, Green & Co. 

Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse. Von Prof. Dr. F. Beil- 
stein. 6 umgearbeitete Auflage. Leipzig : Quandt u. Handel. 



324 « TEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Traits de Chimie generale annliiiique ct appliqiiee. Par I?. Jagnaux. 
Avec 160 figures ct 12 planches. Paris : Doiji. 4 vols. 

Outlines of Quantitative Analysis. Bj A. Ilumholdt Sexton. London : 
C. Griffin & Co. 1886. 

Kurze Anleitung zur Oewichtsanah/se. Uebnngsbeispiele zum Gebrauche 
beim Unterricht in chemischen Laboratorien, bearbeitet von Dr. 
Ludivig Medicus, a. o. H.-Professor an der Universitat AViirzburg. 
Tubingen. 1887. Verlag der Lauppsclien Buchliandlung. 

Handhnnk of Volnvietric Anah/sis—tip-pMed to Liquids, Solids, and Gases 
— adapted for Chemical Research, Pathological Chemistry, Phar- 
macy, Metallurgy, Manufacturing Chemistry, Photography, and 
Technical Purposes. By Fra^icis Sutton, F.C.S., F.I.C., etc. Fifth 
Edition. London : J. & A. Churchill. 1886. 

Lehrhuch der cliemi sdi-anaigt i selien Tilrirmctli,ode. Von Fr. Mohr. Neu 
bearbeitet Ton Prof. Dr. A. Classen. 6 umgearb. und verm. Aufl. 
Braunschweig : Vieweg u. Sohn. 1886. 

Commercial Organic Analysis. By Alfred II. Allen, F.I.C., F.C.S. 
Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Vol. II. : Fixed Oils and 
Fats, Hydrocarbons, Phenols, etc. London : J. & A. Churchill. 

1886. 

Clioix de methodcs analytiques des suhstances qui se rencontrent le plus 
frequemment dans Vindnsfrie. Par Georges Krechel, chimiste. Un 
volume de 476 pages avec figures. Georges Carre, Boulevard 
Saint- Germain, 112, editeur. 

Manual of Assaying Gold, Silver, Copper, and Lead Ores. By Walter 
Lee Broivn, B.Sc. Second edition, thoroughly revised, corrected, 
and augmented. Chicago : Sargent & Co. 

Practical and Analytical Chemistry; being a Complete Course in 
Chemical Analysis. By Henry Trimble, Ph.G., Professor of Anal. 
Chem. in the Philadelphia Coll. of Pharm. Second Edition, re- 
vised, enlarged, and illustrated. 8vo. Philadclphi;> : P. Blakiston, 
Son & Co. 1886. 

Aids to Practical Chemistry. By J. Ilurd Gordon. London: Bailliere, 
Tindall & Cox. 1887. 12mo, pp. ()6. 

Manipulations de eliniic ; Guide pour les travaux pratiques de chimie. 
Par E. Junr/fleisch. Paris: Chez MM. J. B. Bailliere et Fils, 
Miteurs. 1886. 1 volume grand in-8°, en deux parties, 1,240 pages, 
372 figures dans le texte. 

Manuel de Manipulations Chimiques, ou de Chimie Operatoire. Par 
Fr. deWalque. Louvaiu: Aug. Peetei's-Ruelens. Paris: Gauthier- 
Villars. Troisieme edition. 1887. 



BIBLIOGtJAPHY. 



325 



Tabellen zur Berechnung der organischen Elementaranalgse. Von 71. 
Wolff wndL J. Bamnann. Berlin: Verlag von Julius Springer. 1886. 

Laboratory Calculations and Specific Gravity Tables^ By John 8. 
Adriance, A.B., F.G.S. New York : John Wiley & Sous. 

Analysis Table for Chemical Students. By R. L. Taylor, F.C.S., F.I.C., 
Teacher of Chemistry and Physics in the Central Higher Grade 
Board School, Manchester. London : Sampson Low, Marston & 
Co. 

Easy Methods for the Examination of Milk. By Dr. Paul Vieth. The 
Aylesbury Dairy Co. 1887. 

Die Analyse der Milch. Anleitung zur qualitativen und quantitativeu 
Untersuchung dieses Secretes, fiir Chemiker, Pharmazeuten und 
Aerzte. Von Dr. E. Pfeiffer. Wiesbaden : Bergmann. 1887. 

Le Lait, etudes chijniques et microbiolog igues. Par Duclaux, professeur 
a la Faculte des sciences de Paris, et a I'lnstitut agronomique. 
Un vol. in-18 de la Bibliotheque scientifique contemporaine, de 336 
pages avec figures dans le texte. J. B. Baillicre et Fils, editeurs. 

Foods and Food Adulterants. Part I. Dairy Products. Washington : 
Government Printing Office. 1887. 8vo. Pp. 132. 

Vierteljahrsschrift ilber die Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Chemie der 
Nahrungs und Genussmittel, der Gebrauchsgegenstdnde, sowie der 
hierher gehorenden Industrie. Erster Jahrgaug. 1886. Berlin : 
Julius Springer. 

Sanitary Examinations of Water, Air, and Food: a Vade Mecum for the 
Medical Officer of Health. By Cornelius B. Fox, M.D., F.E.G.P., 
etc. Second edition. London : J. & A. Churchill. 1886. 

La Coloration des vins 2>ar les couleurs de la loouille. Methodc analytique. 
Par P. Cazenneuve. Paris : J. B. Bailliere. 

The Chemistry of Wheat, Flour, and Bread, and the Technology of 
Bread-mahing. By William Jago, F.C.S., F.I. C. Brighton : Wil- 
liam Jago, 138, Springfield Koad. 1886. 

Methods of Analysis nf Commercial Fertilizers. Proceedings of the third 
annual convention of the Association of Official Agricultural 
Chemists, August 26 and 27, 1886. 8vo. Pp. 59. Issued by the 
Dei)artraent of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, U.S.A., as 
Bulletin No. 12. 

Guide frati que iiour V analyse chimique et microscopique de V urine, des 
sediments et des calculs xirinaires. Par le Dr. L. Gautier. Un vol. 
in-18° de 250 p. avec. 90 fig. dans le texte. F. Savy, cditeur. 



326 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

A Lahoratory Guide in Urinalysis and Toxicology. By R. A. Wifthaus, 
A.M.,M.D. New York: William Wood & Co. 1886. Pp. 75. 

Manuel de Toxicologie. Par le Prof. Dragendorff. Traduit par le Dr. 
L. Gautier. Paris : Cliez M. Savy. 

La Toxicologic du cuivre. Recueil des discours prononces devaut 
I'Academie royale de medecine de Belgique. Par le Dr. N. du 
Moulin. In 8°. CaiTC. 

Etude pliarmacologique et tuxicologique de la digitaline. Par M. Ph. 
La/on. Chez MM. J. B. Bailliere et fils. Paris. 1886. 

Die Glycoside. Von Dr. 0. Jacohsen, Prof, der Chemie an der Uni- 
versitat, Bostock. 1887. Breslau : Verlag von Eduard Trewendt. 
London : H. Grevel & Co., 33, King Street, Co vent Garden. 

Alcaloides, liistoire, proprietes chimiques et physiques, extraction, action 
pliysiologique, effets therapeutiques, toxicologie, observations, 
usages en medecine, formules, etc. Par B. Dupuy. Paris : a la 
librairie, passage de la Main-d'Or, 15. Bruxelles : 2t, rue de la 
Prevoyance. 

Des Alcaloides des strychnees. Par Ic Dr. Tliihaut. Paris : Asselin et 
Houzeau. 

Les Alcaloides d'Origine Animale. Par le Prof. Dr. L. Hugouneng. 
Paris : Bailliere et Fils. 

Untersuclnuigen iiher Ptomaine. Yon Prof. Dr. L. Brieger. 3 Thl. 
Berlin : Hirschwald. 

Organische Farhstojfe. Yon Dr. P. Nietzhi. Breslau : Eduard Trewendt. 

Die kilnstlichcn organischen Farhstojfe. Unter Zugruudelegung von 
sechs Yorlesungen, gehalteu von Prof. Dr. E. Noelting, Direktor 
der " Ecole do cliimie " in Miilhausen, bearbeitet von Dr. Paul 
Julius. Berlin. 1887. R. Gacrtner's Yerlagsbuchhandlung. 
Hermann Heyfelder. 

Die Chemie des Steinkohlentheers mit besondei'er Beruclcsichtigung der 
kimsilichen organischen Farhstojfe. Von Dr. Gicstav Schultz, 
ZAveite vollstandig umgearbeitete Auflage. Erster Band. Die 
Rohmatcrialicn. Dritte Licferung. Braunschweig, Druck und 
Vorlag, von Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn. 1886. London: H. Grevel 
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Etude chimique sur la betterave a sncre (1882-1885). Par II. Lcplay. 
Compiegne : Michelet. 

On the Comparative Value of Nitrogen and Ammonia Salts. By Thos. 
Brown. 1886. (A Paper read before the Chemical Manure Manu- 
facturers' Association.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 327 

The Econoiiiical Aspects of Agricultural Chemistry. An Address read 
before the American Association'for the Advancement of Science. 
By Harvey W. Wiley. Cambridge : J. Wilson & Son, University 
Press. 1886. 

Nouveau Dictionnaire de Chimie, illustre de figures intercalees dans le 
texte ; comprcnant les applications aux sciences, aux arts, a Tagri- 
culture et a I'industrie. Par Emile Bouanf, agrcge des sciences 
physiques. Cet ouvrage paraitra en cinq fascicules grand in-8° 
sur deux colonnes, de 240 pages chacun. Paris : J. B. Bailliere et 
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Ttchiisch-Chemisches Jahrhuch,188o~86. Ein Bericht iiber die Fort- 
schritte auf dem Gebiete der Chemischen Technologie vom Juli, 
188.5, bis April, 1886. Herausgegel:)en von Br. Rudolf Bledermann. 
Achter Jahrgang. Mit 26-3 in den Text gedruckten Illustrationen. 
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Co., 33, King Street, Covent Garden. 

Chemisch-technisches Eepertoriuin. Herausgegeben von Br. Emit 
Jacobsen. 1885. Zweites Halbjahr. 1886. Erstes Halbjahr. 
Berlin : R. Gaertner's Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1887. 

Techno-Cliemical Receipt Booh ; Covering the Latest, Most Important 
and Most Useful Discoveries in Chemical Technology. Edited 
chiefly from the German of Drs. Winckler, Eisner, Heintze, Mier- 
zinski, Jacobsen, KoUer, and Heiuzerling, with Additions, by 
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Ghemiker-Kalender fur 1887. Von Br. Rudolf Biedermann. Berlin : 
Verlag von Julius Springer. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 

A Text-Booh of Organic Materia Medica. By Robert Bentley, M.R.C.H., 
F.L.S. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1887. Small 8vo, pp. 
i.-xxviii. 1-416. 

The Princiiiles of Pharmacognosy, an Introduction to the Study of the 
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vo, pp. 310. 



328 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Tlie Organic Materia Medica of the British PJiarmacopoeia, v:ith Brief 
Notices of the Remedies contained in the Indian and United States 
Pharmacopwias. By W. Southall, F.L.S. Fourth edition. London : 
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Nouveaux elements de matiere medicale. Par D. Cauvet. Avec 800 
figures intercalees dans le texte. Librairie J. B. Bailliere et Fils, 
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Lehrhiich der Pharmahognosie. Mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die 
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historischen Untersuchung vegetabilischer Rohstoffe. Von Albert 
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A Manual of Vegetable Materia Medica. By G. S. V. Wills, F.L.S. 
Ninth edition. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co. 1886. Crown 
8vo, 408 pages. Coloured plates and map. 

Handbuch der allgemeinen und speziellen Arzneiverordnungslehre. Auf 
Grundlage ner neuesten Pharmacopoeen bearbeitet Ton Prof. Dr. 
C. A. Ewald. 11 Auflage. Berlin : Hirschwald. 

Griffltlis Materia Medica and Pharmacy. Third Edition. Edited and 
in part written by Alfred S. Gubb, L.B.G.P., M.B.C.S., etc. London : 
Bailliere, Tindall & Cox. 1887. 

Materia Medica Tables and Notes on Dispensing. By James Henri/ 
Allen, F.G.8., etc. Second Edition. London: Bailliere, Tindall 
& Cox. 1886. Pp. 8k 

Handbook of Materia Medica, Pharmacy, and Therapeutics, including 
the physiological action of drugs, the special therapeutics of dis- 
ease, official and extemporaneous pharmacy, and minute directions 
for prescription writing. By S. 0- L. Potter, M.A., M.D., Professor 
of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Cooper Medical 
College of San Francisco, etc. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son 
& Co. 1887. 8vo, pp. 828. 

Die wichtigsten Heihnittel in ihrer ivechselnden chemischen Zusammen- 
setzung ^md pharmakodynamischen Wirkiing. Von Dr. P. G. 
Plugge, Pi'ofessor an der Reichsuniversitat in Groningen. Mit 
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Ziirich. Jena : A'^erlag von Gustav Fischer. 1886. 

A Gompcndium of Domestic Medicine, and Companion to the Medicine 
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1886. 

Anatomischer Atlas zur Pharmakognosie. 60 Tafclu in Holzschnitt von 
Dr. A. E. Vogl. Wien und Leipzig : Urban u. Schwarzenberg. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 329 

The National Dispensatory, containing the natural history, chemistry, 
pharmacy, actions, and use of medicines ; inchiding those recog- 
nised in the Pharmacopoeias of the United States, Great Britain, 
and Germany, with numerous references to the French Codex. By 
Alfred SfilU, M.D., LL.D., etc., and Jolm 31. Maisch, Pharvi.D., etc. 
Fourth Edition. Philadelphia : Henry C. Lea's Son & Co. 1886 
Large 8vo, pp. 1,781. 

Information on Neioer Materia Medica, Standard Medicinal Products, 
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Epitomized for the use of the Busy Practitioner. Fourth Edition, 
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8vo. 

A Companion to the United States Tharmacopoiia. Being a Coinmentary 
on the Latest Edition of the Pharmacopoeia, and containing the 
descriptions, properties, uses, and doses of all official and numerous 
unofficial drugs and preparations in current use in the United 
States, etc. With over 650 original illustrations. By Oscar 
Oldberg, Pharm.D., and Otto A. Wall, M.D.,Ph.G. Second Revised 
Edition. New York : William Wood & Co. 1887. Pp. 1,216, 8vo. 

Die neuren Arzneimittel. Fiir Apotheker, Aerzte und Drogisten bear- 
beitet von Dr. B. Fischer. Berlin : Julius Springer. 

Formulaire des noihveaxix remedes. Par le Dr. G. Bardet et E. Egasse. 
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tiler den Zustand der Arzneikunde vor 18 Jalirhimderten. Antritts- 
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Drugs and Medicines of North America. By J. U. and G. G. Lloyd. 
Volume II., Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Cincinnati : Published by the 
Authors. 1886. 32 pp., 4 pi. 

Chinarinden und Cinchona von A. Tschircli. Separatabdruck aus der 
Eeal-Encyklopadie der gesammtcn Pharmacie von Geissler und 
Moeller. Wien und Leipzig : Urban u. Schwarzenberg. 1887. 
59 S. mit 8 Holzschnitten. 

Untersuchungen ilher Cacao und dessen Prdparate. Preisgekronte 
Schrift von Dr. Paul Zippcrer. Hamburg und Leipzig : Leopold 
Voss, 



PHARMACY. 

A Compend of Pharmacy. By F. E. Stewart, M.D., Ph.G., etc. Second 
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Co. 1887. 12mo, pp. 184. 



330 YEAR-BOOK OP PHARMACY. 

Elements of Pharmacy. By G. S. V. Wills. Sixth Edition. London : 
Simpkin. 

Frinciples of General Pharmacy, with special references to systems of 
weights and measures, specific gravity and its uses, pharmaceutical 
manipulations ; compiled by Ch. T. P. Fennel, Ph.G., Professor of 
Practical Pharmacy and Instructor in the Pharmaceutical Labo- 
ratory in the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. Cincinnati : 
McDonald & Eick. 1886. 8vo, pp. 124. 

Manuel des Etudiants en Phcirmacie. Par Ludovic Jammes, pharmacien 
de Ire classe, medecin. Paris : J. B. Bailliere et Fils. 1886. 12mo, 
pp. 47o and 768. 

Handbuch der prahtischen Pharmacie fiir Apotheker, Drogisten, Aerzte 
und Medizinalbeamte. Bcarbeitet von Vr. Ileinrich BecTcurts und 
l)r. Bruno llirsch. Stuttgart : Verlag von Ferdinand Enke. 1887. 

Compendium der Arzneiverordnung. " Medicinisches Recept-Taschen- 
buch." 2 Auflage. Von Dr. 0. Liebrcich und l)r. A. Langgaard. 
Berlin : Fischer's Medizin-Buchhaiidhmg. 

Manual of Practical Pharmaceutical Assaying, including details of the 
sim])lcst and best methods of determining the strength of crude 
drugs and galenical preparations. Designed especially for the use 
of the student and of the practical pharmacist. By A. B.Lyons, 
A.M., M.D. Detroit : D. O. Haynes & Co. 1886. 

Neues pharmaceutisches Manual. Von Eugen Bietcrich. Berlin : Verlag 
von Julius Springer. 1887. 

A Plea for Legitimate Pharmacy versus Proprietary Articles paiiaJcing 
of the Character of Nostrums ; with a compilation of formulae for 
remedies prescribed by physicians and lists of simple remedies- 
By Emlen Painter, Ph.G. 8vo, pp. 35. 

Formularium of TJnoffi,cial Preparations of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association: 

Report of Analyses of Drugs. Willis G. Tucker, M.D., Analyst to the 
State Board of Health of New York. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Thirty- 
fourth Annual Meeting, held at Providence, R.I., September, 1886. 
Also the Constitution, By-laws, and Roll of Members. Phila- 
delphia : American Pharmaceutical Association. 1886. 8vo, 
pp. i.-xx., l-7o3. 

Pharmaceutischer-Kalcndcr, 1887. Herausgegeben von Br. E. Geissler. 
16 Jahrgang. Berlin : Verlag von Julius Springer. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 331 



BOTANY. 

A Manual of Botany, including the Structure, Classification, Properties, 
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Elements of Botany, including organography, vegetable histology, vege- 
table physiology, and vegetable taxonomy, and a glossary of botani- 
cal terms. Illustrated by nearly 600 engravings from drawings 
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Gray's Botanical Text-booh. Sixth Edition. Yol. ii. Physiological 
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lllustrirtes Bepetitoriiim der fharmaceutlsch-mediziniscJien Botanih ti)id 
Pharmakognosie, mit 477 Holzschnitten. Von H. Karsten. Berlin : 
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Naturgeschiclde des Pfianzenreichs. Grosser Pflanzenatlas mit Text fiir 
Schule und Haus. 80 fein kolorirte Doppeltafeln mit iiber 2,000 
naturgetreuen Abbildungen mit 40 Bogen begleitendem Text nebst 
vielen Holzschnitten. Herausgegeben von Dr. M. FiinfstucJc, 
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Hanselmanns Yerlag in Stuttgart. 

Lehrbuch der gesammten Pflanzenhunde von Prof. Dr. M. Se alert. Bear- 
beitet von Prof. W. v. Allies. 7. Auflage. Leipzig : C. F. Winter. 

The Floioering Plants of Great Britain. By Anne Pratt. New Edition. 
3 vols. 8vo. London : Warne. 

Botany Notes. — Part I. Histology and Physiology. Part II. Systematic 
Morphology. By Alexander Johnstone, F.G.S. Third Edition. 
Edinburgh: E. & G. Livingstone. 1887. 

Maniindaiions de Botanique. Par le Prof. P. Girod. Paris : Librairic 
J. B. Bailliere et Fils. 

Botanisches Taschenhuch, enthaltcnd die in Deutschlaiul, Deutsch- 
Oesterreich uud der Schweiz wild wachsendcn und im Frcicn 
kultivirten Gefasspfianzen nach dem natiirlichcn System einheit- 
lich geordnet und auf Grund dcrsclben zum Bestimmen einge- 
richtet. Vou Dr. F. Kruse. Berlin : Hermann Paetel. 1887. 

Nie natiirlichen Pflanzenfamillen nebst ihren Galtimgen und ivichtigeren 
Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen. Von Prof Dir. A. Kngler und 
Prof. K. Prantl. Leipzig: Engolraann. 



332 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Lectures on the Physiology of Plants. By S. H. Vines. Cambridge 
Warehouse. 8vo, pp. 706. 

Beitrlige zar Biologie der PJlanzen. Herausgegeben von Dr. F. Cohn. 
Breslau : Kern's Verlag. 

Manuel technique d'anatomie vegefale ; Guide pour I'etude de la bota- 
nique microscopique. Par le Prof. E. Strashurger. Traduit par le 
Prof. Godfrin. Paris : clicz M. Saxy. 

Dns Pjlavzenlehen des Meeres. Yon Dr. Ernst Voges. Leipzig: Froh- 
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British Fungi, Lichens and Mosses, including Scale Mosses and Liverworts. 
By E. M. Holmes and P. Gray. London : Sonneuschcin. Post 8vo, 
pp. 58. 

Saccardo (P.A.). Fungi italici, autograpbice dclineati, fasc. 37, 38 (cum 
iudiee al])habetico totius ojjeris). Patavii. in-i. pag. 14. 

Die Mikroslcopische Pflanzen imd Thierioelt des Siisswassers. Von Prof. 
Dr. 0. Kirchner und Dr. F. Blochmann. Bevorwortet von Prof. Dr. 
0. BiltscliU. Braunschweig : Gebr. Haering. 

Die Stellung der Honighehcdter xmd der Befruchtungswerkzeuge in den 
Bhimen. Von Karl Friedr. Jordan. (Flora, Eegeusburg. 188(5. 
56 Seiten. 2 Tafeln.) 

A Monograiih of the Genus Crocus. By George Maiv. London: Dulau. 

Select extra.tro]>ical plants, readily eligible for industrial culture or natu- 
ralization, with indications of their native countries and some of 
their uses. By Baron Ferd. von Midler, K.G.M.G., etc. Govern- 
ment Botanist for Victoria. New Victorian Edition, revised and 
enlarged. Melbourne. 1886. 

Die Alpeniiflanzen nach der Natur gcmalt von Jos. Seboth uiid Jenny 
Schermaid. Mit Text von Ferd. Graf und cine Anleitung zur 
Kultur der Alpenpflanzen von Joh. Petrasch. 1. Bd. 2 verb. 
Aufl. Mit 101 Chromolith. Prag : Tempsky. Leipzig : Freytag. 

Botanikcr-Kalcndcr, 1887. ilerausgcgeben von P. Sydoiv and C. Mylius. 
Berlin : Julius Springer. 



MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS. 

Joint Scicniijic Papers. By James Prescott Joule, D.C.L., F.B.S., etc. 
Published by the Physical Society of London. London : Taylor 
& Francis. 1887. Vol. II. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 333 

Methodischcr Leitfaden der Physik und Chcmie. Fiir hohere Tochter- 
schulen, Lelirerinnenseminarien und Fortljildungsanstalten bear, 
beitet von Dr. Karl Jansen, Oberlehrer am Realgymnasium zu 
Diisscldorf. Mit 200 in den Text gedruckten Aljbildungen. 
Freiburg i. B., Herder'sche Verlagsbuclihandlung. 1887. 

Anleitung zum exiierimentellen Studium der Physik. 1 TJd. GalvaniscJie 
Elehtricitdt. Von Meiser xmd Mertig. Dresden und Leipzig : Bal- 
damus. 

Miiller-PouUlet's Lehrhuch der PhysiJc und Meteorologie. 9 umgearb. 
und verm. Aufl. Von Prof. Dr. Leap. Pfaimdler. [In 3 Bdn.] Mit 
gegen 2,000 Holzst., Taf. zum Thl. in Farbendr., u. 1 Photogr. 1 
Bd. gr. 8. (XXI. 888 S.) Braunschweig : Viewcg u. Sohn. 

LexiJcon der Physik und Meteorologie in volksthiimlicher Darstellung 
von Dr. E. Lommel, Prof, der Physik in Erlangen. Mit 392 Ah- 
bildungen und einer Karte der Meei'esstromungen. Leipzig : 
Verlag des Bibhographischen Instituts. 

Lehrhuch der angeivandten Optik in der Chemie. Von Dr. C. Gdnge. 
Braunschweig : Vieweg u. Sohn. 

Taschenhuch fiir Mineralogen. Von Dr. Carl Eiemami. Berlin : Julius 
Springer. 1887. 

L'annee scievtifique et {ndustrieUe. Par Louis Figuier (trentieme 
annee). 1886. 1 vol. in-16° broche. Librairie Hachette et Cie., 
Paris. 

Manuel de technique micro seopiqtie, applicable a rhistologie, 1' anatomie 
comparee, I'embryologie, et la botanique. Par M. le docteiir P. 
Francotte. Paris : chez M. J. Lebegue. 

Die Mikroskopie der technisch venoendeten Faserstoffe. Ein Lehr- und 
Handbuch der mikroskopischen Untersuchung der Faserstoffe, 
Gewebe und Papiere. Bearbeitet von Dr. Franz Bitter von Hohnel. 
Mit 69 in den Text gedruckten Holzschnitten. Wien, Pest, 
Leipzig : A. Hartleben's Verlag. 1887. VIII. und 163 S. gr. 8°. 

Atlas de microscopie cUnique, par le Dr. Alexandre Peyer. Traduit sur 
la deuxieme edition allemande par le Dr. Eugene de la Harpe. 
Paris : chez O. Berthier, editeur, lOt, boulevard Saint Germain. 
1887. 

Considerations gnierales et pratiques stir Vetude microscopique des cham- 
pignons. Par E. Boudier. Gr. in 8. Paul Klincksicck. 

Traits pratiqite de Micrograp]iie,t\:p\)\iqn6e a la Botanique, a la Zoologie, 
a rHygiene, et aux recherchcs cliniques. Par le Prof. It, Gerard. 
Chez M. 0. Doin, editeur, Paris. 1880. 



334 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Die Mikroorr/anismcn der Gdlirungs-Industrie. Yon A. Jorgensen. 
Berlin : Parey. 

Trinconi (E.). I microrganismi della suppurazione. Napoli : iu-8. 
pag. 104 e 3 tavole. 

Microszymas et microbes. Theorie generale de la nutrition et origine 
des ferments ;i propos de la discussion sur les ptomaines, les 
leucomaines, et leur role pathologique. Par A. Bechamp. Paris : 
J. B. Bailliere. 

Die Mikroorgnnismcn. Mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Aetiologie 
der Infcktionskrankheit bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. G. Fliigge. 2 
vollig umgearb. Aufl. der " Fermente u. Mikro-parasiten." Mit 
144 Abl)ild. Leipzig : F. C. W. Vogel. 

Etudes d'hygiene piMique. Par A. Olivier. In 8. Steinheil. 

Manuel d'hygiene inihlique. Par M. J. Vidal. Chez MM. Asselin et 
Houzeau, libraires, place de I'Ecole-de-Medecine, Paris. 1886. 

What to do in Cases of Poisoning. By William Murrell, M.D. Fifth 
Edition. London: H.K.Lewis. 

The Equine Hospital Prescriber. By James B. and A. Gresswell. London : 
Bailliere, Tindall & Cox. 1886. 

The Bovine Prescriber, drawn up for the use of Veterinary Practitioners 
and Stiadents. By James B. and Albert Gresswell. London : 
Bailliere, Tindall & Cox. 1886. 

The Mineral Water Malcers" Manual for 1887. London : J. G. Smith, 
165, Queen Victoria Street. 

Practical Guide to Photography. By Marion ^~ Co. London : Marion 
& Co., 23, Soho Square, W. 1886. Crown 8vo, pp. 237, and 
catalogue. 

Practical Amateur Photography. By C. C. Vevers. Leeds : Published 
by the Author. 

The ABC of Modern {Dry Plate) Photography. By the London Ste- 
reoscopic Comi)any, Limited. London. 1887. (Twenty-second 
Edition.) 

The Methods of Glass-blowing. By W. A. Shcnsfone. London : lliving- 
tons, Waterloo Place. 1886. Crown 8vo, pp. 86. 

Handbuch der Seifenfabrihation. Unter Mitwirkung von L. Borchert, 
F. Eichbaum, E. Noak, Th. Weichold und andcrcn Fachmannern, 
hcrausgegcben von Dr. G. Deite, Kedakteur des Seifenfabrikant. 
JMit zablreichen in den Text godruckteu Holzschuitteu. Berlin: 
Verlag von Julius Sjiringcr. 1887. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 335 

A Manual of Weights and Measures, including principles of metrology ; 
the freights and measures now in use ; weight and volume, and 
their reciprocal relations ; weighing and measuring ; l^alances 
(scales) and weights ; measures of capacity ; sjjecific weight and 
specific volume, etc., with rules and tables. By Oscar Oldberg, 
Pharm.D., Professor of Pharmacy and Director of the Pharma- 
ceutical Laboratory in the Illinois College of Phannacy. Second 
edition, revised. Chicago : Chas. J. Johnson. 1887. 8vo, pp. 240. 

Druggists' Frice-BooJcs. Published by H. Silverlock, 92, Blackfriars 
Koad, S.E. 1886. 

John Bell & Co.'s Price-Book of Drugs, Chemicals, and Pharmaceutical 
Preparations. Pp. 140. 

Glaisyer & Kemp's Price-Booh of Drugs, Chemicals, Pharmaceutical 
Preparations and Sundries. Pp. 188. 

The Wholesale and Retail Druggists' Price-Book. By D. Elliot. Sixth 
Edition. 

The Chemists and Druggists' Diary for 1887. London: Office of the 
Chemist and Druggist. 

Sixieme Congres International Pharmaceut!qu,e sous le hard protectorat 
de sa Majeste Leopold II., Pol des Beiges, et sous le patronage du 
Gouvernement. Tenu a, Bruxelles, du 31 Aout au 6 Septembre, 
1885. Compte-Rendu, par E. van de Vyvere, Secretaire-General. 
Brussels : H. Lamertin, 33, Rue du Marche-aux-Bois. 

Proceedings of the Chemists' Assistants' Association. Containing Papers 
and Abstracts of Papers read at its Meetings during the Session 
1885-86. London. 1886. 8vo, pp. 14i. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

§ritislj ^Ijctrmiiccutkiil €mkxma 

AT THE 

TWENTY-FOUPJH ANNUAL MEETING 

AT 

JWCA-lSrCIIESTER-, 

1887. 



337 



CONTENTS. 

Constitution and Rules of the Conference. 
Alphabetical List of Members' Names and Addresses. 
Programme of Transactions of the Conference at Manchester, 

1887, including Titles of Papers. 
The Transactions of the Conference, including the Papers read 

AND Discussions thereon. 
General Index to the Year-Book and Transactions. 



I'liitisb yburnuucutical (Tonfcvciuc. 



CONSTITUTION. 

Art. I.— This Association shall be called The British Pharmaceutical Conference, and its 
objects shall be the foUowin? : — 

1. To hold an annual Conference of those engaged in the practice, or interested in the 

advancement, of Pharmacy, with the view of promoting their friendly reunion, and 
increasing their facilities for the cultivation of Pharmaceutical Science. 

2. To determine what questions in Pharmaceutical Science require investigation, and 

when practicable, to allot them to individuals or committees to report thereon. 

3. To maintain uncompromisingly the principle of purity in Medicine. 

4. To form a bond of union amongst the various associations established for the advance- 
'~ ment of Pharmacy, by receiving from them delegates to the annual Conference. 
Art. n.— Membership in the Conference shall not be considered as conferring any 

guarantee of professional competency. 

RULES. 

1. Any person desiring to become a member of the Conference shall be nominated in 
writing by a member, and be balloted for at a general meeting of the members, t.wo-thirds 
of the votes given being needful for his election. If the application Ije made during the 
recess, the Executive Committee may elect the candidate by a unanimous vote. 

2. The subscription shall be 7s. 6d. annually, which shall be due in advance upon July 1. 

3. Any member whose subscription shall be more than two years in arrear, after written 
application, shall be liable to be removed from the list by the Executive Committee. Members 
may be expelled for improper conduct l)y a majority of three-fourths of those voting at a 
general meeting, provided that fourteen days' notice of such intention of expulsion has 
been sent by the Secretaries to each member of the Conference. 

4. Every association established for the advancement of Pharmacy s'lall, during its 
recognition by the Conference, be entitled to send delegates to the annual meeting. 

.5. The Officers of the Conference shall be a President, four Vice-presidents by election, 
the past Presidents (who shall be Vice-presidents), a Treasurer, two General Secretaries, one 
local Secretary, and nine other members, who shall collectively constitute the Execntive 
Committee, i'hree members of the Executive Committee to retire annually by ballot, the 
remainder being eligible for re-election. They shall be elected at each annual meeting, by 
ballot of those present. 

6. At each Conference it shall be determined at what place and time to hold that of the 
next year. 

7. Two members shall be elected by the Conference to audit the Treasurer's accounts, 
such audited accounts to be presented annually. 

8. The Executive Committee shall present a report of proceedings annually. 

9. These rules shall not be altered except at an annual meeting of the members. 

10. Reports on subjects entrusted to individuals or committees for investigation shall be 
presented to a future meeting of the Conference, whose property they shall become. All 
reports shall be presented to the Executive Committee at least fourteen days before the 
annual meeting. 

•»* j4 uf ?iors are specially requested to send the titles of their Papers to The Hon. Gen. Sees. Brit. 
Pharm. Conf., 17, Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C, two or three xveeks before the Annial 
yieeting. The subjects vcill then be extensively advertised, and thusfull interest vcill be secured. 



FOE 31 OF NOMINATIOX. 

I Nominate 

{Name) 

(Address) 

as a Member of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 

Member. 

Date 

This or any similar form must be filled up legibly, and forwarded to Tlie Asst. Secretary, 
Brit. Pharm. Conf, 17, Bloomsbury Square, London, AV.C, who will obtain the nec:!SSary 
signature to the paper. 

Pupils and Assistants, as well as Principals, are invited to become members. 

330 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Bedford, Professor, P. W., 02, Temple Court, 5, Beekman Street, 
New York, U.S.A. 

Bdchner, L. a., Ph.D., M.D., Professor of Pharmacy, University, 
Munich, Germany. 

Dragendorff, G. Ph.D., M.D., Professor of Phamiacy, University, 
Dorpat, Eussia. 

Ebert, a. E., 42G, State Street, Chicago, IlHnois, United States. 

Edwards, J. B. Ph.D., F.C.S., Box 398^, Post Office, Montreal, Canada. 

Fluckiger, F. a., Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacy, University, 

Strassburg, Germany. 

Maisch, J. M., Professor of Materia Mcdica and Botany, College of 
Pharmacy, 143, North Tenth Street, Philadelphia, United States. 

Markoe, .G. F. H., Professor of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 
Boston, Massachusetts, United States. 

Mello, J. C. de, Campinas, Brazil. 

Saunders, W., London, Ontario, Canada. 

ScHACHT, C, Ph.D., 56, Mittelstrasse, Berlin, Germany. 

SouBEiRAN, J. L., M.D., Professor of Pharmacy, Ecole de Pharmacie, 
Montpellier, France. 

Squibb, Dr. E. R., 56, Doughty Street, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 

VuiJ, J. E. do, Ph.D., C.I.E., 54, Heercngracht, The Hague, Holland. 



340 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 341 



FOREIGN AND COLONIAL MEMBERS. 



Aickin, Mr. G., The Pharmacy, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Alcazar, Mr. L. J., Central Dispensary, Corner Upper Prince and 
Henry Streets, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Allen, Mr. W. H., Corner 25th Street and Baker Street, Detroit, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

Ambrosse, Mr. J. D. L., Corner of McGill and Notre Dame Streets, 
Montreal, Canada. 

Ancell, Mr. W. C, Trafalgar Street, Nelson, New Zealand. 

Appleby, Mr. J., Bareilly, India (Year-Book to Messrs. Burgoyne, 
Burbidges, Cyriax & Farries, 16, Coleman Street, E.G.). 

Appoo, Mr. Hirjibhoy Jamsetjee, L.M.&S., 51, Nizampoora Street, 
Bhendy Bazaar, Bombay. 

Armstrong, Mr. H. C, J. P., Wilcannia, New South Wales. (Year- 
Book to Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges, Cyriax & Farries, 16, Cole- 
man Street, B.C.) 

Aruott, J., M.D., Professor of Midwifery, Grant Medical College, 
Bombay. 

Aubin, Mr. J., Alexandra, Waipa County, New Zealand. 

Baker Ali Khan, Poorana Avelly, Hydrabad, Deccan, India. 

Baker, Mr. E. H., South Melbourne. 

Balchundra Kiishna, L.M.dS., Chief Medical Officer, Baroda, India. 

Barnard, Mr. F., Kew, Victoria. 

Barnett, Mr. Joel, Inverell, New South Wales. 

Bamsley, Mr. J. E., Du Toits Pan, Diamond Fields, South Africa. 

Bassett, Dr., Bathurst, New South Wales. 

Bateman, Mr. J. M., Villa de la Favorite, Resina, Naples, Italy. 

Bathgate, Mr., 17, 18, and 19, Old Court House Street, Calcutta, 

India (Year-Book to Messrs. A, Lawrie & Co., 14, St. Mary Axe, 

E.G.). 
Beach, ^Ir. Wesley, Botica del Sol Sucre, Bolivia. 
Bell, Mr. C. R. , Grahamstown, South Africa (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Burgoyne, Burbidges, Cyriax & Farries. 16, Coleman Street, E.C.). 
Berkley, Mr. Robert, Brisbane, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Homer & Sous, Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.G.). 
Beynon, Mr. E., Messrs. Phillips & Co., Bombay (Year-Book and 

Letters to Messrs. Idris & Co., Ascham Street, Kentish Town, 

N.W.). 
Bickford, Mr. A. M., Adelaide, South Australia. 
Biram, Mr. J., W^arragul, Victoria. 
Birks, Mr. G. N., 59, Bundle Street, Adelaide (Year-Book and 

Letters to F. Newbery & Sons, 1 King Edward Street, Newgate 

Street, E.G. 
Blaekie, Mr. J., Albury, New South Wales. 
Blackburn, Mr. T. F., Nhill, Victoria. 

Blackett, Mr. C. R., 1'2G, Gertrude Street, Fitzroy, Victoria. 
Bliss, Mr. F., Messrs. E. Plomor & Co., Simla, India (Y tar-Book to 

Messrs. Rivers & Co., 46, Gresham Street, E.C.). 
Boland, Mr. A. E., Venezuelan Dispensary, Frederick Street, Port of 

Spain, Trinidad. 
Borcher, Mr. Gottfried, Kimberley, South Africa. 



342 BRITISH PHAKMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Bosisto, Mr. J., Ricbmond, Melbourne (Year-Book and Letters to 
Messrs. Griiuwade, Kidley & Co., Mildmay Chambers, Bishoj^s- 
gate Street, E.G.). 

Boully, Mr. J., Albert Park, South Melbourne, Victoria. 

Bourgeois, Mr. J. C, Coffee Street Dispensary, Sanferaando, Trinidad. 

Bowen, Mr. W., 45, Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Braddock, Mr. C. H., Hurtle Square, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Brian, Mr. W. H., Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Brismead, Mr. J., High Street, St. Kilda, Victoria. 

Bristed, Mr. J., Messrs. Kemp & Co., Bombay, India. 

Brown, Mr. M., Geelong, Victoria. 

Brownscombe, Mr. W. J., Bridge Boad, Eichmond, Melbourne (Year- 
Book to Messrs. Grimwade, Eidley & Co., Mildmay Chambers, 
Bishopsgate Street, E.C.). 

Burjorjee Framjee. G.G.M.C, Soopari Bagh Eoad, Paril, Bombay. 

Burkhill, Mr. J., Menindie, New South Wales. 

Butters, Mr. E., Bloemfontein, South Africa (Year-Book to Messrs. 
Evans, Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew Close, E.G.). 

Chamberlin, Mr. G. F., 8.S, Commercial Eoad, Prahran, Victoria. 

Chatu Kutti, K.V.. Charitable Dispensary, Calicut, India. 

Clarke, Mr. D., Maryborougli, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. Davy, 

Y'ates & Eoutledge, 64, Park Street, Southwark, S.E.). 
Clemes, Mr. A. B., Stawell, Victoria. 
Clowes, Mr. J., One-Mile Creek, Gympie, Queensland. 
Coaker, Mr. N., Jagersfontein, Orange Free State. 
Colcord, Mr. J. W., Lynn, U.S.A. 
Connelly, Mr. J., Bega, New South Wales. 
Cook, Mr. G. E. , Downing Street, King William's Town, South Africa. 

(Year-Book to Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew 

Close, E.C.). 
Cooper, J. A., M.D., F.E G.S., Hissar, Punjab, India. 
Cooper, Mr. J., Sturt Street, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Costin, Mr. W. J., (^ueen Street, Petine's Bight, Brisbane, Queensland. 
Coudon, J. H., M.D., L.S.A., Brigade Surgeon, I. M.D., Civil Surgeon, 

Cawnpore, India. 
Couve, Sir. Noel, Port IjOuis, Mauritius. 
Cowell, Mr. S. G., c/o Messr--. Berkley, Tavlor <fe Co., Brisbane (Y'ear- 

Book to Messrs. Horner & Sons, Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.G.). 
Cox, Mr. S., West-End Dispensary, Capo Town. 
Craig, Mr. E., Cairns, North Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Horner & Sons, Mitre Sijuare, Aldgate, E.C. 
Cranwell, Mr. AV. A., Buenos Ayres (Year-Book care of Messrs. Symes 

<fc Co., 14, Hardman Street, Liverpool). 
Cripps, Mr. T. H., Madras Medical Hall, 51, Poonamalles Eoad, 

Madras. 
Cross, Mr. C, Gawler, South Australia. 
Crossley, Dr. E., Hushiarpur, Punjab, India, 
Crow, IVI'-. W. E., Crovernmcnt Civil Hospital, Hong Kong. 
Cunynghame, Mr. G. F., Government Dispensary, District of Parra- 

matta, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Curtis, Mr. C, Melbourne HosjntahlMelbourtie, Victoria (Letters to G. 

S. Taylor, F.C.S., IB, Queen's Terrace, St. John's Wood, N.W.). 

Dale, Mr. W., Corner of Clark and Madison Streets, Chicago, Illinois, 

United States. 
Dalton, Mr. S. M., 70, Chapel Street, Prahran, Victoria. 
Darroll, Mr. E. G., near Railway Station, Wyubcrg, South Africa 

(Year-Book to Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges & Co., 16, Coleman 

Street, E.C). 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 34-3 

Davenport, B. F., M.D., 161, Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Davies, Mr. E. C. J., c/o Messrs. Eocke, Tompsitt & Co., 3, Flinders 

Street, Melbourne (Letters to above, Year-Book to Messrs. Kocke, 

Tompsitt & Co., 120, London Wall, E.C.). 
D'Crastos, Mr., P. A., Civil Hospital, Muskat, India. 
De Silva, Mr. N. A., Bombay Medical Service, Lower Mahim, Dadar, 

Bombay. 
Dey, Mr. Preo Lall, 4, Beadon Street, Calcutta, India. 
Dittu, Sahib, Civil Surgeon, Shabpur, Punjab, India. 
Donaldson, Mr. D. D., Du Toits Pan, Diamond Fields, South Africa. 
Donaldson, Mr. J. E., Brisbane, Queensland. 
Drummond, Mr. D., King William's Town, South Africa. 
Dunne, Mr. L. C, Cunnamulla, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Horner & Sous, Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.C.). 
Dyer, Mr. S., Medical Hall, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Dymock, W., M.D., Bombay, India. 

Eagles, Mr. F. T., 342, Brunswick Street, Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Eastes, Mr. C, Manly Beach, Sydney, New South Wales (Year-Book 

to Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, GO, Bartholomew Close, E.G. 
Eastes, Mr. C. W., Boweal, N.S.W. (Year-Book to Messrs. Evans, 

Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C.). 
Eccles, Mr. A., Hastings Street, Napier, New Zealand. 
Edinborough, Mr. H. D., San Fernando, Trinidad. 
Edson, Mr. J., Medical Hall, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand 

(Year-Book to Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew 

Close, E.C.). 
Eduljee Nesserwanjee, G.G.M.C, Bombay, India. 
Edwards, Mr. H. D., care of Mr. Rutherford, Charters Towers, 

Queensland. 
Elworthy, Mr. G. T., Mining DisjDensary, Mount Parry, Queensland. 
English, Mr. J., Messrs. Kempthorue, Prosser & Co., Dunedin, New 

Zealand. 
Evans, IMr. P. J., Parade, Norwood, South Australia. 
Eyre, F. .J., Molesworth Street, N. Adelaide, South Australia. 

Fatzea, Mr. Spiro, British Pharmacy, Smyrna. 

Fawcett, Mr. B., 630, Harris Street, Ultimo, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Fernandes, Mr. D. , 25, Meadow Street, Fort, Bombay. 

Finch, Mr. C. C, 216, Paramatta Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Fleischer, Mr. E. T., Humansdorp, Cape Colony (Year-Book to 
Messrs. B. G. Lenuon & Co., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate Street, 
E.C.). 

Flint, Mr. C. B. , Mount Gambler, South Australia. 

Forrest, Mr. J. K., Jeifcott Street, West Melbourne, Victoria. 

Forster, Mr. C. C. (Messrs. Forster & Co.), Main Street, Stawell, 
Victoria. 

Forster, Mr. W. M., Mackay, Northern Queensland. 

Fox, Mr. F. J., High Street, Armadale, Victoria. 

Francis, Mr. H., 31, Bourke Street East, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Francis, Mr. It. P., 31 Bourke Street East, Melbourne, Australia (Year- 
Book and Letters to 5, Coleman Street, E.C.). 

Fyvie, Mr. E., Tarraville, South Gippsland, Victoria. 

Gabriel, Mr. A. W., Qucanbeyan, New South Wales. 
Gabriel, Mr. K., Chapel Street, South Yarra, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Gardner, Mr. C. E., Colesberg, Cape Colony (Year-Book to Mess* 
B. G. Lennon & Co., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate Street, E '^ . 
Given, Mr. H. B., Milparinka, New South Wales. 



3i4 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Godambe, Y. P., L.M., Medical Officer, Sangli State, B.P., India. 

Godbier, Mr. H., Rangoon (Year-Book and Letters care of Messrs. 
Evans, Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew Close, E.G.). 

Gokhle, Vithal Vishnoo, M.A., L.M.&S., Kandavadi Hall, Bombay, 
India. 

Goodwin, Mr. D. R., Tamworth, New South Wales. 

Gordon, Mr. J. C, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

GransauU, Mr. A., Henry Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Gray, Mr. P., 243, Strada Reale, Valletta, Malta. 

Grogan, Mr. W. E., Bridgetown, Barbadoes. 

Groves, Mr. H., F.L.S., 15, Via Borgognissanti, Florence, Italy (Year- 
Book and Letters care of T. B. Groves, F.C.S., Weymouth). 

Guest, Mr. H. W. W., Moonta, South Australia. 

Gutheil, Mr. E., West Mellowene, Victoria. 

Hallawell, Mr. J., Porto Aligre, Brazil (Year-Book to Messrs. Symes 

& Co., 63, Wood Street, Liveriwol). 
Hallawell, Mr. T., Eio Grande de Sul, Brazil (Year-Book and Letters 

to 63, Wood Street, Liverpool). 
Hansby, Mr. W. M. J., Eeefton, New Zealand. 
Harrison, Mr. C, 53, Chapel Street, Prahran, Victoria. 
Headding, Mr. C, Port Adelaide, South Australia. 
Heald, Mr. S. H., Numurkah, Victoria. (Year-Book to Messrs. Eocke, 

Tompsitt & Co., 119 and 120, London Wall, E.C.) 
Heinrich, Mr. Gustav, Dispensary at Eganstown, Victoria. 
Helmore, Mr. O., Medical Hall, Kimberley, South Africa. 
Heron, Mr. A. B., Townsville Dispensary, Townsville, Queensland. 
Hicks, Mr. J. A. , Bay Street, Brighton, Victoria. 
Higgins, Mr. J. M., Fitzroy Street, St. Kilda, Victoria. 
Hill, Mr. T. B., 150, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand. 
Hirst, Mr. C. E., 96, Spencer Sti-eet West, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Hocking, Mr. W. R., Messrs. Smith & Osborne, North Adelaide, South 

Australia. 
Hodgetts, Mr. G.. 305, Y'onge Street, Toronto, Canada. 
Holdsworth, Mr. J., Pall Mall, Sandhurst, Victoria. 
Hood, Mr. E. W., St. George's, Grenada. 
Hooper, D., F.C.S., Ootacamund, Nilgiris, Madras, India. 
Hooper, Mr. E. G., Church Street, Hawthorn, Victoria. 
Hornemann, Mr. L., Stellenboseh, South Afnca. 

Horton, Mr. E., 769, George Street South, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Hosking, Mr. J. W., Crown Street, Wollongong, New South Wales. 
Hughes, Mr. A. E., 61, Elizabeth Street North, isrelbonrnc, Victoria. 
Hughes, Mr. C. H., Mai-yborougb, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Gordon &, Gotch, Stationers, Bride Street, E.C. ; favour of Mr. W. 

Dawson, Maryborough). 
Hughes, Mr. E., Wangaratta, Victoria. 

Huntsman, IMr. T., 250, Nicholson Street, Fitzroy, Victoria. 
Hustler, :\Ir. F. F., Port Adelaide, South Australia. 
Hustwick, Mr. T. H., Blenheim, New Zealand. 
Hutchinson, Mr. F. P., New Brighton Dispensary, Woodstock, Near 

Cape Town. 

Ingham, Mr. Thomas, Rockhampton, Queensland (Year-Book to 
Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges & Co., Coleman Street, E.G.). 

Jamsetji, Dr. P., Limbdi, Kattywar, India. 

Jackson, A. II., B.Sc, F.C.S., Coll. of Pharmacy, Melbourne, Australia. 

Jackson, ^Ir. J. W., Balgowlah, o^Ianly, Australia. 

Jayakar, Wishmarao Bulajei, L.M.&S., 28, Candd Wari, Bombay. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 345 

Jefferson, Mr. A. B., Deniliquin, New South Wales. 
Jones, Mr. H. L., Victoria, British Columbia. 
Jones, Mr. J. C, 181, Bridge Road, Richmond, Victoria. 
Joerning, Mr. L., Cape Town, South Africa. 
Joerning, Mr. L., Stellenbosch, South Africa. 

Kempthorne, Mr. 0. J., Dunedin, New Zealand (Year-Book to 

Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co., Mildmay Chambers, Bishopsgate 

Street, E.C.). 
Kennedy, Mr. R. Frank, Warrnanibool, Victoria. 
Kernot,'C. N., M.D., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., L.M., etc., Dalhousie Square, 

Calcutta (Year-Book aud Letters care of Messrs. Evans, Lescher & 

Webb, 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C.). 
Kunte, A. M., B.A., M.D., Demonstrator of Anatomy, Grant Medical 

College, Bombay. 

Laing, Mr. A. S., Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Landell, J., M.D., Rio Grande (Year-Book and Letters care of Messrs. 

Symes & Co., 14, Hardmau Street, Liverpool). 
Lane, Mr. C. B., Inverell, New South Wales. 
Levey, G. J., L.S.A. , Ermelo, Transvaal. 
Levien, Mr. G. E., Takaka, Nelson, New Zealaud. 
Ley, Mr. D., East Maitlaud, New South Wales. 
Lloyd, Surgeon-Major, M.D., Sitapur, Oudh, India. 
Lower, Mr. S. W., King William Street, Adelaide, South Austrtilia. 

Macgowan, Mr. J. T., Lygeu Street, North Carlton, Victoria. 
Maclachlau, Mr. H. F., Winburg, Orange Free State (Year-Book care 

of Messrs. Hamilton, Adams & Co., 32, Paternoster Row, E.G.). 
Makin, Mr. G. E., Market Square, Berrima, New South Wales. 
Marchant, C. G., Octacamuud, Madras. 
Marquis, Manoel Vicente Chryzanto, K.S., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., L.M., 

L.F.P.S., F.S.Sc, Verla, Bardez, Goa, India. 
Marshal, Mr. A., Heyfield, Victoria. 

Marshall, C. W., Royal Navy Hosijital, Port Royal, Jamaica. 
Marshall, Mr. M., Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Marston, Mr. C, Smith Street, Collingwood, Victoria. 
Martin, Mr. R. R., 23, Front Street West, Toronto, Canada. 
Mason, A. H., F.C. S., 48, St. Jean Baptiste Street, Montreal, Canada. 
Matthews, Mr. R., Adelong, New South Wales. 
j\Iayne, Mr. J., 203, Oxford Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 
McBain, Mr. J. R., Sherbrooke, P. Q., Canada. 
McLachlan, Mr. H. F., Winburg, Orange Free State. 
McLean, Mr. J. E., Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland. 
Melhuisli, Mr. T. B., 131, William Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Mepta, Butukram Soobaram, L.M.&S., Medical Storekeeper, Baroda, 

India. 
Mercer, Mr. Wm., Daylosford, Victoria. 
Miller, Mr. A. P., Murray Street, Ilobart, Tasmania (Year-Book to 

Messrs. Evans, Lescher A Webb, GO, Bartholomew Close, E.C.). 
Miller, Mr. C. B., Graaf Reinet, Cape Colony (Year-Book to Messrs. 

B. G. Lennon & Co., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate Street, 

E.C.). 
Millington, Mr. R. S., Byron Street, Inverell, New South Wales. 
Mills, Mr. W. H. , Co-operative Dispensary, Henry Street, Port of 

Spain, Trinidad. 
Moore, Mr. J., 31, Oxford Street, Sydney, New South Wales (Year- 
Book to Messrs. Maw, Son & Thompson, Aldersgate Street, E.C.). 
Moore, Mr. T. F., Waipawa, Hawke's Bay, New Zealaud. 



345 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Morg.au, Mr. R. S. D., Woodspoint, Victoria, Australia. (Year-Book 
to Messrs. Grimwade, Eidley & Co., Mildmay Chambers, 82, 
Bishopsgate Street, E.C.). 

Mutlow, Mr. W. H., I3eardy Street, Armidale, New South Wales. 

Nanavata, Jumnadass Premahund, L.M.&S., 159, Bhooleshwur, Bom- 
bay, India. 
Narayen Vinayeck, Eowpoora, Veniram's Temjile, Baroda City, India. 
Noakes, Mr. E. T., Lonsdale Street, Dandeuoug, Victoria. 

O'Brien, Mr. J., Eoekley, New South Wales. 
Ogburn, Mr. J., Charlton, Victoria. 
Ogle, Mr. M. F., Maryborough, Victoria. 

Owen, Mr. A. .1., Geelong (Year-Book and Letters to Mcssi-s. J. 
Eichardson & Co., Friar Lane, Leicester). 

Park, Mr. S., Timor Street, Warrnambool, Victoria. 

Parker, Mr. G. A., Port Eoad, Hindmarsh, South Australia. (Year- 
Book to Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, 60, Bartholomew Close, 
E.C.). 

Parker, Mr. J., Bathurst, New South Wales. 

Parker, Mr. J., King William Street, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Parsons, Mr. A. B. W., Lytteltou, New Zealand. 

Partridge, Mr. T., Messrs. Maxwell & Co , Darjeeling, Bengal. 

Petit, Monsieur A., Eue Favart, 8, Paris, France. 

Petit, Mr. W., Waimate, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

Phillips, Mr. B., Poona, India (Year-Book and Letters to Messrs. 
Idris & Co., Ascham Street, Kentish Town, N.W.). 

Phillips, Mr. T., Inglewood, Victoria. 

I'hipps, Mr. W., The Pharmacy, Arouca, Triuidad. 

Pincus, Mr. Max, Castlemaine, Victoria. 

Plunket, Mr. C. T., 33, Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Pollard, Mr. W. H., Messrs. Symes & Co., Simla, India. 

Pollard, Mr. T. J., Punjab Medical Hall, Lahore, Punjab, India. 

Pond, Mr. J. A., 03, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand (Year- 
Book and Letters care of Messrs. H. B. Sleeman & Co., 37, Lime 
Street, E.C.). 

Poole, Mr. H. J., 34, King William Street, Adelaide, South Australia 
(Year-Book to Messrs. Maw, Son & Thompson, Aldersgate Street, 
E.C.). 

Porter, Mr. H., Lithgow, Sydney, New South Wales. (Year-Book to 
Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, (50, Bartholomew Close, E.G.). 

Potts, Mr. W. H., ()9, Bourks Street. W., Melbourne. 

Preshaw, Mr. D. 0., Ileefton, New Zealand. 

Princep, Mr. P., care of Mr. II. S. Brothwood, Pharm. Chemist, 
Summerhill, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Pulis, Mr. G. A., 213, Ida Eeale, Valletta, Malta. 

Eammell, Mr. E., Bombay, India (Year-Book and Letters care of 
Messrs. Treacher & Co., 38a, King William Street, E.C.). 

Eamsey, Mr. P. A., Colonial Dispensary, Frederick Street, Port of 
Spain, Triuidad. 

Eaud, Mr. E., Wayga Wayga, N.S.W. 

llawlius, Mr. S. A., Medical Hall, Park Street, Port of Spain, Triuidad. 

Eeay, ]\Ir. F. W., Hamilton, Newcastle, New South Wales. 

Eeeil, Mr. F., Durban, Natal, South Africa. 

Eeeve, Mr. F. W., Thorgomindah, Queensland. 

Eeunard, Mr. M., Messrs. E. Plomer & Co., Lahore, India. 

Ehodes, Mr. G. H., Du Toits Pan Eoad, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 347 

Eicliards, Mr. A., Colouial Dispensary, Frederick Street, Port of 

Spain, Trinidad. 
Koberts, Mr. E., 17, Via Toruaboiini, Florence, Italy. 
Roberts, Mr. W. P., 77, Church Street, G-ibraltar. 
Eobinson, Mr. J. W., Bultfontein Dispensary, Biiltfonteiu, Diamond 

Fields, South Africa (Year-Book to Messrs. Eobinson & Son, 

172, Eegent Street, W.). 
Eobinson, Mr. W., Tungamah, Victoria. 
Eocke, Mr. H., 3, Flinders Street, Melbourne, Victoria (and 119 & 120, 

London Wall, London, E.G.). 
Eogers, Mr. H., Messrs. llogers & Co., Bombay, India (Year-Book and 

Letters care of Mr. P. Harrower, 134, Bath Street, Glasgow). 
Eohrssen, Mr. A. B. N. Otto, Kimberley, South Africa. 
Eoss, Mr. W. C, Frederick Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 
Eotsou, Mr. G., Te Arolia, Auckland, New Zealand. 
Eow, Mr. W. E., Balmain, Sydney, New South Wales (Year-Book 

and Letters care of Messrs. Saddington & Co., 30, Lime Street, 

E.G.). 
Eowley, Mr. W. M., 10, Bourke Street East, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Eutherford, Mr. H. E., Charters Towers, Queensland. 
Euttonjee, Mr. H., Bombay, India (Year-Book care of Messrs. Walter 

Nutter & Co., 84, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C.). 



Salmon, Mr. J., Messrs. Salmon & Walker, Central Jones Street, 
Kimberley, South Africa. 

Samuel, Mr. J. B., Mussoorie, India (Year-Book and Letters care of 
Messrs. A. Lawrie & Co., 14, St. Mary Axe, E.G.). 

Sanders, Mr. H. C, Fauresmitb, Orange Free State. 

Sanders, Mr. E. F., Hamilton, Waikato, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Sanders, Mr. W. B., Stayuer, Ontario, Canada. 

Scott, Mr. Samuel, Singai:)ore. 

Schaer, Prof. E., Neumiinster-Ziirich, Switzerland 

Selke, Dr. Dada Nathajee, Assistant Surgeon, Hubli, India. 

Sewell, Mr. J. E., Thames Street, Oamaru, New Zealand. 

Shah Narayandas DAmoderdas, Student in the G.M.C., Third 
Bhoiwada, No. 7, Bombay. 

Sharland, Mr. J. C. , Victoria Street East, Auckland, New Zealand 
(Year-Book to Messrs. Fletcher, Fletcher & Stevenson, North Lou- 
don Chemical Works, Holloway, N.). 

Shillinglaw, Mr. H., Swauston Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Sloper, Mr. F. E., Oxford Street, Sydney. 

Smith, Mr. G., Grafton Eoad, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Smith, Dr. J., Paramatta, New South Wales (Year-Book and Letters 
care of Messrs. Longmans, Green, Eyder & Co., Foreign Depart- 
ment, 39, Paternoster Eow, E.C.). 

Smith, Mr. J. G., Elgin Street, Carlton, Victoria. 

Smith, Mr. J. H., Dandenong, Victoria. 

Smith, Mr. J. L., Port Augusta, South Australia, 

Smith, Mr. W. E., Madras. 

Spettigue, Mr. J. T., Ladysmith. Natal. 

Speechly, Mr. E., Kurachi, Scinde, India (Year-Book and Letters care 
of Messrs. A. Lawrie & Co., 14, St. Mary Axe, E.C.). 

Spencer, Mr. R., Mangakahia, Auckland, Now Zealand. 

Seiuire, Mr. F. E., San Eemo, Italy. 

Stoddart, Mr. A. L., Burwood Eoad, Hawthorn, Victoria. 

Swift, Mr. G. , 07, Swanston Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 

Sykes, Mr. A. E., care of Mr. A. Eccles, Hastings Street, Napier, Ne\y 
Zealand. 

Symes, Mr. T. E., Bundle Street, Adelaide, S. Australia. 



348 BRITISH rHARMACEUTlCAL CONFERENCE. 

Taitt, Jlr. A. J., Colonial Dispensary, Frederick Street, Port of Spain, 

Trinidad. 
Takemura, K., F.C.S., 16, Motozonochio Ichi chi o me, Kondimaclii, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Taylor, Mr. Edward, Brisbane, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Horner & Sons, Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.G.). 
Taylor, Mr. Gr. 0., Lawrence, Otago, New Zealand (Year-Book to 

Messrs. Evans, Lescher & Webb, GO, Bartholomew Close, E.G.). 
Taylor, Mr. W. C, Bombay, India (Year-Book and Letters care of 

Messrs. Aldridge & Co., 4 East India Avenue, E.G.). 
Tebb, Mr. H., 2, George Street, Cape Town (Year-Book and Letters 

to Messrs. B. G. Lennon & Co., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate 

Street, E.G.). 
Thomas, Mr. H., Normanton, Queensland. 

Thompson, Mr. J. D., 1'22, Bourke Street East, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Thompson, Mr. T. W., The South Brisbane Pharmacy, Queensland. 
Timmins, Mr. W. P., 51, Glebe lload, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book to 

Messrs. Grimwade, Eidley & Co., Mildmay Chambers, Bishopsgate 

Street, E.G.). 
Tompsitt, Mr. H. T., 3, Flinders Street, Melbourne, Victoria (and 

liy & 120, London Wall, London, E.G.). 
TurnbuU, Mr. J., care of Mr. A. P. Miller, Hobart, Tasmania. 
Turner, Mr. W. 0., Messrs. Akcrmau, Turner & Co., Pietermaritzburg, 

Natal (Year-Book to Messrs. A. Durant & Co., S'J, Gresbam Street, 

E.G.). 

Uren, Mr. Frank, Warrnambool, Victoria. 

Vale, Mr. J. F., 45, Collins Street West, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Venkatswamy Naidoo, Chikhli, India. 

Waller, Mr. J., Mitchell Street, Sandhurst, Victoria. 

Walsh, Mr. A., Port Elizabeth, South Africa (Year-Book and Letters 

to Messrs. B. G. Lennon & Co., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate 

Street, E.G.). 
Walsh, Mr. W., care of Messrs. Ormond A Walsh, Peterborough, 

Ontario, Canada. 
Warbreck, Mr. W. F., Murtoa, Victoria. 
Ward. Mr. F. W., Messrs. E. Morrison & Co., Naini Tal, East 

Indies. 
Wardroj), Mr. W., Main Road, S. Duncdiu, N.Z. 
Waring, Mr. 11. J., Balranald, New South Wales. 
Watt, Mr. A. J., 52S, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book and 

Letters to Messrs. Burgoync, Burbidges, Cj'riax & Farries, IC, Cole- 
man Street, EC). 
Weaver, Mr. B. J. G., Beardy Street, Armidale, N.S.W. 
West, Mr. J., Bangalore, India. 

Wetzel, Mr. H. A., Box 470, Detroit, Michigan, United States. 
Wheeler, Mr. F., Grant Street, Alexandra, Victoria. 
Whitlield, Mr. A , Longford, Tasmania. 
Wigg, Mr. W. J., Maryborough, Victoria. 
Wilkinson, Mr. J., llcrbertong, Queensland (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Horner A Sons, Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.G.). 
Wilkinson, Mr. T. M., Medical Hall, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Williamson, Mr. H. B., Wanganai, New Zealand. 
Winch, Mr. P. J., Tavlor Street, Kadina, South Australia. 
Woodcock, R. G., F.LC, F.C.S., C3G to (il2. West 55th Street, New 

York, U. S.A. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 349 

Woodman, Mr. C. J., Kensington, S. Australica. 
Wooluough, Mr. H. A., Hong-Kong Dispensary, Hong-Kong. 
Wragge, Mr. G. S., Boulia, Queensland. 



NOTICE. 

Members are requested to report anij inaccuracies in these 
lists hy letter, addressed as follows : — 

The Asst. Secretary, 

Brit. Pharm. Conf., 
17, Bloomshury Square, London, W.C. 



350 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



HOME MEMBERS. 

Abbott, Mr. J., 145, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 

Abraham, Mr. Alfred C, 87, Bold Street, Liverpool. 

Abraham, Mr. T. F., 87, Bold Street, Liverpool. 

Adam, Mr. B,, Marketplace, Mansfield. 

Adams, Mr. F., Stoke-on-Trent. 

Adams, Mr. W., 30, High Street, Shrewsbury. 

Adcock, Mr. H. Dickson. 

Adlington, Mr. W. B,, 6, Weymouth Street, Portland Place, W. 

Agar, Mr. W., Westgate, Mansfield. 

Aiuslie, Mr. W., 58, George Street, Edinburgh. 

Aitken, Mr. J., 3, Pitt Street, Edinburgh. 

Aitken, Mr. 11., 73, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

Alcock, F. H., F.C.S., 104, Varna Road, Birmingham. 

Alexander, Mr. G., 40, William Henry Street, Liverpool. 

Alexander, Mr. J., Marsh Lane, Bootle, Liverpool. 

Allan, Mr. J. H., F.C.S., The Royal Infirmary, Liverpool. 

AUden, Mr. J., 156, Cromwell Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

Allen, A. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 1, Surrey Street, Sheffield. 

Allen, Mr. B., Hampton Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Allen, Mr. C. B., 20, High Road, Kilburn, N.W. 

Allen, Mr. J., George Street, Plymouth. 

Allen, Mr. Thos., Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Allen, Mr. W. N., 48, Henry Street, Dublin. 

Allenby, Mr. W., Castlegate, Helmsley, Yorkshire. 

Allis, Mr., F., Kingswood, Wottonunder-Edge, Gloucester. 

Allison, Mr. E., 13, Blanket Row, Hull. 

AUwork, Mr. F., 8fi, St. James Road, Holloway, N. 

Amoore, Mr. A. S., 173. Sloane Street, S.W. 

Amvot, T. E., F.R.C.S , Diss. 

Anchiuleck, H.A., F.R.C.S.I., etc., 35, York Street, Dublin. 

Anderson, Mr. A. B., 38, Princes Street, Dundee. 

Anderson, Mr. D. S., Musselburgh, N.B. 

Anderson, Mr. E. H., Denny, Stirlingshire. 

Andrews, Mr. E. A., North-West London Hospital, Kentish Town 

Road, N.W. 
Andrews, Mr. G. B., St. George's, Norwich. 
Anthony, Mr. D., 39, St. Mary Street, Cardiff. 
Anthony, Mr. J. L., 24, Kimbolton Road, Bedford. 
Appleby, Mr. C, Market Place, East Retford. 
Arblastcr, Mr. C. J., 123, New Street, Birmingham. 
Archer, Mr. J. S., Guiseley, Leeds. 
Argue, Mr. J., Lower Marlocs, Hemcl Hempstead. 
Arkiustall, Mr., 35, Gloucester Road. South Kensington, S.W. 
Armitago, Mr. G., 30, Hamilton Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Arnfield, Mr. J. C., 241, Stamford Street, Ashton-under-Lyue 
Arnold, Mr. S., 42, Mount Ephraiui, Tunhritlgc Wells. 
Arrandale, Mr. W., UV.), Manchester Road. Denton, Lancashire. 
Arundel, Mr. M. H., Cy-2, Poet's Road. Highburv. N. 
Ashton, Mr. W. , 3(5, Sloane Square, Cliclsea, S.W. 
Ashtou, Mr. W., 23, Lord Street, Southport, Lancashire. 
Asten, ]\rr. W., 118, New Street, Birmingham. 
yi.stley, Mr. J., 4, Broad Gate, Coventry. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 351 

Aston, Mr. W., Tarporley, Cheshu-e. 

Atkins, Ml'. .J., 1, Lansdowne Crescent, Bournemouth. 

Atkins, Mr, S. E., Market Place, Salisbury. 

Atkins, Mr. W. E., Market Place, Salisbury. 

Atkins, Mr. W. S., 106, Broad Street, Birmingham. 

Atkinson, Mr. J., Tynemouth, Northumberland. 

Atkinson, Mr. J. G., 19G, Belsize Eoad, N.W. 

Atkinson, Mr. L., 285, Brockley Eoad, S.E. 

Atkinson, Mr. E., Bassenthwaite, Keswick. 

Atmore, Mr. G.. High Street, Lynn. 

Attfield, Prof. J., Ph.D., F.E.S., etc., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C, 

Attwood, Mr. A., 14, Miles Lane, Cannon Street, E.G. 

Ault, Mr. J., Fernilee, Near Whaley Bridge, by Stockport. 

Austin, Mr. H. P., 126, Bermondsey Street, S.E. 

Austin, Mr. J., Nechells House, Nechells, Birmingham. 

Ayre, Mr. G., Thirsk. 

Babb, Mr. J., 7, High Street, Upper Sydenham. 

Babtie, Mr. J., 30, High Street, Dumbarton. 

Backhouse, Mr. H. N., 76, New Bond Street, W. 

Bagshaw, Mr. H. B., 77, Werneth Hall Eoad, Oldham. 

Bagshaw, Mr. "W., 37, Terrace Buildings, Yorkshire Street, Oldham. 

Bainbridge, Mr. J., Hartshill, Bouham Eoad, Brixton, S.W. 

Baildon, H. B., B.A., 73, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

Bailey, Mr. W., The Terrace, Oaken, Wolverhampton. 

Baily, Mr. J., 26, Ethelle.t Eoad, Margate. 

Baine, Mr. J. A., 3, Grey Place, Greenock. 

Baker, Mr. A. P., 33, Norfolk Terrace, Westbourne Grove, W. 

Baker, Mr. F., Harnet Street, Sandwich. 

Baker, Mr. P. C, 8, Stockbridge Terrace, Grosvenor Square, W. 

Baker, Mr. T. B., Cosham, Hants. 

Balcomb, Mr. .J., 10, Suffolk Parade, Cheltenham. 

Baldock, J. H., F.L.S., F.C.S., 3, High Street, South Norwood, S.E. 

Balkwill, Mr. A. P., 106, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

Balmforth, Mr. A., Grange Ville, Mauley "Park, Whalley Eaoge, 

Manchester. 
Bamford, Mr. J. W., 37, Cronkeyshaw Eoad, Eochdale. 
Bannister, E., F.I.C., F.C.S., The Government Laboratory, Somerset 

House, W.C. 
Bannister, Mr. W., 108, Patrick Street, Cork. 
Barber, Mr. J. S., Eoyal Free Hospital, Gray's Inn Eoad, W.C. 
Barclay, Mr. T., 17, IBull Street, Birmingham. 
Barclay, Mr. John, 17, Bull Street, Birmingham. 
Barker, Mr. A. W., 98, Queen's Eoad, Dalston. 
Barker, Mr. W. E., 143, New Bond Street, W. 
Barlow, Mr. F., 117, Balsall Heath Eoad, Birmingham. 
Barnard, Mr. J., 22.j, Oxford Street, W. 
Barnes, J. B., F.C.S., 1, Trevor Terrace, Princes Gate, S.W. 
Barnitt, Mr. J., 86, The Parade, Leamington. 
Barr, Mr. E., Gourock, N.B. 

Barraclough, Mr. T., Eoscoe Terrace, Chapeltown Eoad, Leeds. 
Barrett, Mr. A. A., 46, New Street, Birmingham. 
Barrett, Mr. .7. T., 30, Eegent Street West, Leamington. 
Barritt, Mr. E. H., 1, High Street, Colchester. 
Barron, Mr. F., 117, Bush Lane, E.C. 
Barron, Mr. W., 37. Winchcomb Street, Cheltenham. 
Barton, Mr. A. F. G., 387, Edge Lane, Liverpool. 
Barton, Mr. H., Bridge Street, St. Ives, Hunts. 
Barton, Mr. H., 77, King's Eoad, Brighton. 
Barton, Mr. H. E., High Street, Kenilworth. 



352 BRITISH PHARMACEDTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Barton, Mr. T. J., 1, Ford Street, Coventry. 

Bascombe, F., F.I.C., 3, Grand Promenade, Brixton, S.W. 

Batchelor, Mr. A. E., 'JO, West Street, Fareham, Hants. 

Bates, Mr. F. W., Brooks Bar, Manchester. 

Bates, Mr. J., Wellington, Salop. 

Bates, Mr. W. I., 116, MOl Street, Macclesfield. 

Bates, Mr. W., 50, Oxford Street, Southampton. 

Bateson, Mr. T., 23, Stricklandgate, Kendal. 

Bathe, Mr. B. S., 7, Lower Terrace, Netting Hill, W. 

Batting, Mr. T. G., 98, The New Parade, Calverley lload, Timbridge 

Wells. 
Batty, Mr. T., 154, Walmgate, York. 
Baxter, Mr. G., 19, Foregate Street, Chester. 
Baxter, Mr. W. J., Church Street, Coleraine. 
Bayley, Mr. G. H., 12, Victoria Road, Saltaire, near Leeds, 
Bayley, Mr. W., 3, Earle Street, Crewe. 
Baynes, J., F.I.C., F.C.S., F.Il.M.S., Laboratory, Royal Chambers, 

Scale Lane, Hull. 
Beach, Mr. J., Bridjiort. 

Beacock, Mr. J. H,, 20, Uj^perhead Row, Leeds. 
Beale, Mr. J. H. , Circular House, Bournemouth. 
Beal, Mr. E. J., Ilford. 

Beauland, Mr. S., 11, Arctic Parade, Great Horton, Bradford, Yorks. 
Bearpark, Mr. C. F. , West Bank, Seamer Road, Scar-borough. 
Beckett, Mr. W. , Heywood, Manchester. 
Beck, Mr. A. N., 11, York Building, Hastings. 
Beggs, Mr. G. D., Medical Hall, Dalkey, Co. Dublin, Ireland. 
Bellield, Mr. W., 267, Stamford Street, Ashton-uuder-Lyne. 
Bell, Mr. C. B., 6, Spring Bank, Hull. 

Bell, Mr. F. E., 38 & 40, Scotswood Road, South Benwell, Newcastle. 
Bell, Mr. J. A. , Robertson Street, Hastings. 
Bell, Mr. W. H., 96, Albany Street, N.W. 
Bell, Mr. W. H. , Messrs. Clarke, Bleasdale, Bell S: Co. , York. 
Benger, F. B., F.C.S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 
Bennett, Mr. G., 15, Penley's Grove Street, York. 
Bennett, H., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S.E., L.A.H., 6, Clarendon Place, 

Maidstone. 
Bently, Mr. W. J., High Court, Tottenham, N. [S.W. 

Bentley, Prof. R., M.R.C.S., F.L.S., 38, Penywcrn Road, Earl's Court, 
Bernays, A. J., Ph.D., F.C.S., St. Thomas's Hospital, S.E. 
Berry, Mr. E., The Cross, Gloucester. 
Berry, Mr. T., 189, Henshaw Street, Oldham. 
Berry, Mr. W., 4, Hampton Terrace, Redland, Bristol. 
Bertie, Mr. J., Auchcnblae, N.B. 
Best, T. F., F.LC, F.C.S., Lawn Wharf, Uxbridge. 
Bevan, Mr. C. F., Church Street, Harwich. 
Bienvenu, Mr. J., 27, High Street, Andovcr. 
Biffin, Mr. T., 56, North Street, Taunton. 
Biggs, Mr. F. W., 50, King Street, Penrith, Cumberland. 
Billing, Mr. T., 86, King's Road, Brighton. 
Billinge, Mr. Murk, Hyde, Manchester. 
Billington, Mr. F., 169, Wavcrtree Road, Liverpool. 
Bindloss, Mr. G. F., 97, Leighton Road, N.W. 
Binglev, Mr. J., Northampton. 
Binnie', Mr. R., 

Birch, Mr. H. C, 7, Church Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Bird, Mr. F. C. J., 49, Bcrners Strept, W. 
Bird, Mr. G., Topsfield Place, Crouch End, N. 
Bird, II. M., F.C.S., St. Mary's Hospital, Paddiugton, W. 
Bird, Mr. W. L., 10, Alexandra Villas, Uxbridge Road, W, 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 353 

Birkett, Mr. J., 16, The Crescent, Morecambe, Lanes. 

Bishop, Mr. R. , Broad Street, Eye, Suffolk. 

Bishop, Mr. E. J., Osmaston Eoad, Derbv. 

Bishop, xMr. W. M., 785, Old Kent Eoad, S.E. 

Blabey, Mr. J. J., Allertou Road, Woolton, near Liverpool. 

Blackburn, Mr. H. J., il3. West Derby Road, Tue Brook, Liverpool. 

Blackshaw, Mr. T., 35, Market Place, Burslem 

Blackwell, Mr. J., Bull Street, Birmingham. 

Blain, Mr. W., Market Street, Bolton. 

Blain, Mr. W. Rushton, 25, Market Street, Bolton. 

Blake, Mr. C. A., 47, Piccadilly, W. 

Bland, F. S., F.C.S., 75, High Street, Stourbridge. 

Blatchley, Mr. T., Yeadon, Yorks. 

Blayney, Mr. R. B., 58, Bold Street, Livei-pool. 

Bletsoe, Mr. J., 1, HiU Street, Richmond, Sun'ey. 

Blissett, Mr. W., Romsey, Hants. 

Blood, IsLr. C, Formbv, Lancashire. 

Blunt, T. P., M.A., F'C.S., Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury. 

Blyth, Mr. U. Address unknown. 

Blyton, Mr. J., Lane Villa, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Bolam, Mr. J., 38, Northumberland Street, Xewcastle-on-Tvne. 

Bolton, Mr. C. A., Carlton Street, Nottingham. 

Booth, JLr. J., Heckmondwike. 

Borland, J., F.L.S., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 7, King Street, Kilmarnock. 

Borthwick, Mr. A. J., Market Place, Selkirk. 

Bostock, Mr. W., Sylvester House, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Botham, Mr. J., 1-80, Bury New Road, Manchester. 

Bottle, A., F.C.S., Townwall Street, Dover. 

Boucher, Mr. J., 4, Union Street, Bristol. 

Bourdas, Mr. I., 48, Belgrave Road, S.W., 

Boutall, Mr. G. S., 52, Marchmont Street, Russell Square, W.C. 

Bowden, Mr. T. L., High Street, Keynsham, Bristol. 

Bowden, Mr. W., 291, Liverpool Road. Patricroft, Lancashue. 

Bowen, Mr. J. W., 13, Curzon Street, W. 

Bowie, Mr. G. D., 

Bowker, Mr. Ellis, Bury, Lancashire. 

Bowles, Mr. W. J., 3, Newland Terrace, Kensington, W. 

Bowling, Mr. J. H., 1, Dimond Street, Pembroke Dock. 

Boyce, Mr. G., Chertsey. 

Boyce, Mr. J. P., Peascod Street, Windsor. 

Brabazon, Mr. J. T. P., Oxford Buildings Pharmacy, Belfast. 

Braby, F., F.C.S., F.G.S., M.R I., Bushey Lodge, Teddington. 

Bradbury, Mr. T. , 1, High Street, Glossop. 

Bradley, Mr. C, 46, Market Place, Reading. 

Bradley, Mr. T. D. , Dunstall House, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

Brady, H. B., F.R.S., care of Messrs' Brady & Martin, 29, Mcsiey 
Street, Newcastle-on-T_vne. 

Branson, F. W. , F. C. S. , 14, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Bray-shay, Mr. T., 38, High Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Breadner. Mr. C. G., Cheetham, Manchester. 

Brearey, Mr. A. W. , Prospect Hill, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

Bremridge, Mr. R., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Brevitt, Mr. W. J., Somerset Road, Handsworth Wood, near Birming- 
ham. 

Brewster, Mr. W. , Market Place, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Brierley, Mr. J., 23, Bridge Street, Burton-on-Trent. 

Briggs, Mr. G , 221, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 

Bright, Mr. R., 29, Broad Bridge Street, Peterborough. 

Brightmore, Mr. W., 237, Maida Yale, W. 

Broad, Mr. J. M., 510, Hornsey Road, N. 

A A 



lioi BRITISH rHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Brockett, Mr. E. H. , 41, Northumberland Street, Neweastle-on-Tyne^ 

Brodie, Mr. R., 253, Crown Street, Glasgow. 

Brooke, Mr. T., Brambope, Leeds. 

Brookes, Mr. Josh., Shude Hill, Manchester. 

Broomhead, Mr. G. E., 15, Union Place, Aberdeen. 

Brown, Mr. D., 93, Abbey Hill, Edinburgh. 

Brown, Mr. J., 187, Mill Street, Great Ancoats, Manchester. 

Brown, Mr. J., Chester-le-Street. 

Brown, Mr. R., 45, Washington Street, Glasgow. 

Brown, Mr. W. S., 113, IVLxrket Street, Manchester. 

]5rowuon, G., F.C.S., 15, Althorp Eoad, Upper Tooting, S.W 

Bruuker, J. E., M.A., 68, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Buchanan, Mr. D., Kirriemuir, N.B. 

Buchanan, Blr. J., 52, North Bridge, Edinburgh. 

Buchanan, T. D., M.D., 24, Westminster Terrace, West Glasgow. 

Buchner, Mr. Max, 124, High Street, Whitechapel, E. 

Buck, Mr. li. C, 1!)2, Breck Eoad, Liverpool. 

Buckett, Mr. A. H., 22. Market I'lace, Penzance, Cornwall. 

]3uckle, Mr. C. F., 77, (iray's Inn Eoad, W.C. 

Buckle, Mr. J., Market Place, Malton, Yorks. 

Buckley, IMr. J. J., Ill, Earl's Court Eoad, South Kensington, S.W. 

Bull, Mr. John, .317, Lavender Hill, Clapham Junction, S.W. 

Bullen, Mr. T., 24, Church Eoad, Hove, Brighton. 

Bullock, J. L., F.I.C., F.C.S., 3, Hanover Street, W. 

Bullus, Mr. J., 262, High Street, West Bromwich, Birmingham. 

Banker, Mr. J., 64, Greenwood Eoad, Dalston, E. 

Burden, Mr. E. M., 37, Duke Street, W. 

Burdwood, Mr. J., 30, Frankfort Street, Plymouth. 

Burford, S. F., F.C.S., Halford Street, Leicester. 

Burge, Mr. J. A., Surrey Place, Alexandria, N.B. 

Burlinson, Mr. T., 2, John Street, Sunderland. 

Burn, Mr. D. H., High Street, Ai-broath. 

Burn, Mr. Thos., 512, Eochdale Eoad, Manchester. 

Burn, Mr. W., li), Market Street, Durham. 

Burnett, Mr. G. T., Stogumbor, Taunton. 

Burnett, J. F., F.C.S., 294, U.xbridge Eoad, W. 

Burnett, Mr. E., Fraserburgh, N.B. 

Burns, Mr. W., 142, High Street, Ayr, N.B. 

Burrell, Mr. G., 116, High Street, Montrose. 

Burroughs, Mr. G. H., Christ Church Eoad, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

Burroughs, Mr. S. M., 7, Snow Hill. Holborn Viaduct, E.C. 

Burt, Mr. J., 89, Montague Street, Worthing. 

Burton, Mr. J., Llandudno, North Wales. 

Burton, Mr. J. I)., 397, Cambridge Eoad, E. 

Busby, Mr. J., Harpeuden, Herts. 

Buscall, Mr. H. J., 126, High Street, Burtou-on-Trent. 

Butcher, Mr. G. S., 329. Chapel Street, Salford, Manchester. 

Butcher, Mr. T., 418, High Street, Cheltenham. 

Butler, Mr. E. H., 93, Humberstone Gate, Leicester. 

Butt, E. N., F.C.S., 13, Curzon Street. W. 

Butterwortii, Mr. A., 37, Wakelield Eoad. Bradford, Yorks. 

Byass, T. H., M.D., F.E.C.S., Cuckrteld, Sussex. 

Caley, Mr. A. J., Cliapcl Field, Norwich. 

Callawiiv, Mr. L., 10, Victoria Street, Clifton, Bristol. 

Calvert,"Mr. J., King Street, Belper. 

Calvert, Mr. E., Market Cross. Stokesloy, Yorks. 

Cameron, J., F.I.C., Laboratorv, Somerset House, W.C. 

Candy, Mr. J. W. G., Market Place, Wantage, Berks. 

Canuell, Mr. W., Queen's Square, Wolverhampton. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Carciwell, Mr. E., 64, Minster Street, Reading. 

Cardwell, Mr. S., Brighonse. 

Carlton, Mr. E. P., 8, High Street, Horncastle. 

Carr, Mr. W., 170, Wliarf Street, Leicester. 

Carr, Mr. W. P., Berwick-ou-Tweed. 

Carteighe, J., F.C.S., 3, Hereford Square, South Kensington, S.W. 

Carteighe, M., F.I.C , F.C.S., 180, New Bond Street, W. 

Carter, Mr. E., York Glass Comj^any, York. 

Carter, Mr. F., High Street, Carshalton, Surrey. 

Carter, Mr. R. W., Naas, Co. Kildare, Ireland. 

Carter, Mr. W., 2, Union Terrace, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Cartwright, Mr. W., Ironmarket, Newcastle, Staffs. 

Cave, Mr. J. R., Fernhill Cottage, Mortimer, near Reading. 

Caw, Mr. J., Cupar, Fife, N.B. 

Cawdell, Mr. G., 12, London Street, Hyde Park, W. 

Chamberlain, Mr. A. G., 3, Market Place, Rugby. 

Chaplin, Mr. J. L., Corumarket, Wakefield, Yorks. 

Chapman, Mr. H., 52, Newborough Street, Scarborough. 

Chapman, Mr. T. W., 199, Bristol Street, Birmingham. 

Chapman, Mr. J. J., 20, Boundary Road, N.W. 

Charity, Mr. W., 101, Leadenhali Street, E.C. 

Chase, Mr. T., Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

Chater, Mr. E. M., 129, High Street, Watford. 

Cheetham, Mr. G., High Street, Hope, Derbyshire. 

Chessall, Mr. R., Fore Street, Sidmouth. 

Cheverton, G., F.C.S., The Broadway, Tuubridge Wells. 

Chipperfield, Mr. R., Southampton. 

Chislett, Mr. C, Lanark, N.B. 

Church, Prof. A. H., M.A., F.I.C, F.C.S., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 

Church, Mr. H. J., Cambridge. 

Churchouse, Mr. W. B., Chard. 

Clapham, Mr. J., Oak House, Meanwood Road, Leeds. 

Clapham, Mr. J. W., 1, Oakdale Terrace, Meanwood Road, Leeds. 

Clapp, Mr. E. F., 35, Church Street. Stoke Newington, N. 

Clark, IMr. J., Melbourne Terrace, York. 

Clark, Mr. J. A., 48, The Broadway, London Fields, Hackney, E. 

Clark, Mr. J. W., Belvoir Street, Leicester. 

Clark, W. L, D.Sc, A.I.C., 104 & 106, South Cannougate, Edinburgh. 

Clarke, Mr. C. G., 75, Weston Road, S.E. 

Cla-ke, Mr. F., 40, Mount Pleasant, Norwich. 

Clarke, Miss I. S., 

Clarke, Mr. G. B., 3, Higb Street, Woburn. 

Clarke, Mr. J., 88, George Street, Croydon. 

Clarke, Mr. J. A , 148, Gallowgate, Glasgow. 

Clarke, Mr. W. H., 51, Plumstead Road, Plum stead. 

Clarke, Mr. W. L., The Pavement, Forest Hill, S.E. 

Clayton, Mr. F. C, 18, St. James's Road, Birmingham. 

Clayton, Mr. J. W., Market Place, Blackburn. 

Clayton, Mr. W., 41, Wicker, Shetlield. 

Cleave, Mr. S. W. Address unknown. 

Cleave, Mr. W., Chudleigb. 

Cleaver, E. L., F.I.C, F.C.S. Address unknown. 

Clements, Mr. A., Market Street, Coateliill, Co. Cavan. 

Clifford, Mr. T. A., 13, Chaucer Road, Acton, Middlesex. 

Clift, Mr. H., 4, Beresford Street, Jersey. 

Clifton, Mr. E. S., Corn Hill, Ipswich. 

Clifton, Mr. F., 34, Corn Market, Derby. 

Clough, Mr. J., 11, High Street, Northwich. 

Clower, Mr. J., 22, Bridge Street, Nortbamiiton. 

Coates, Mr. E., 21, Duke Street, Edinburgh. 



356 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Coates, Mr. J. M., 53, Clayton Street East, Newcastle- on-Tvne. ■ 

Coats, Mr, J. T., 20, James Street, Pilrig, Edinburgh. 

Cocker Mr. J. J., 8, Carlisle Terrace, Bradford. 

Cocksedge, Mr. H. B. Amhurst, St. John's Park, Hyde, I. of W. 

Cockshott, Mr. W., '62, Westgate, Bradford. 

Cocktou, Mr. J., High Street, Maryj^ort. 

Codd, Dr. F., 51, Duke Street, Devonport. 

Colchester, Mr. W. M., junr., 53. Coronet Street, Old Street, N. 

Coldwell, Mr. D. B., 20, Sussex Street, Warwick Square, S.W. 

Cole, F. A., F.C.S., 33, Saint Botolph's Street, Colchester. 

Coleman, Mr. A., 65, St. Mary Street, Cardiff. 

Coleman, Mr. E. F., Chapel Ash, Wolverhampton. 

Coley, Mr. S. J., 57, High Street, Stroud. 

Colleuette, A., F.C.S.,F.R.Met.Soc., 11, Commercial Arcade, Guernsey. 

Collett, Mr. C. B., West Green lioad, South Tottenham, N. 

Colley, Mr. B., Owen Street, Tipton. 

Collier, Mr. H., The Disijeusary, Guy's Hospital, S.E. 

Collins, Mr. H. G. (Mr. liussell's). High Street, Windsor. 

Congreve, Mr. G. T., Coombe Lodge, Rye Lane, Peckham, S.E. 

Connor, S., L.R.C.S.E., L.A.H.D., Hill Street, Newry, Ireland. 

Couroy, M., F.C.S., 29, Fleet Street, Liverpool. 

Constance, Mr. E., 65, Charing Cross, S.W. 

Cook, Dr. E. A., F.C.S., 79, Sheen Park, Richmond, Surrey. 

Cooke, Mr. P., Church Row, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Cooke, P. M., L.A.H., L.M., Enniscorthy. 

Cooke, Mr. W., Hodnet, Market Drayton, Salop. 

Coolcy, Mr. W. B., Dudley Street, Wolverhampton. 

Cooper, Mr. A., 80, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

Cooper, Mr. F. R. , 124, Market Street, Manchester. 

Cooper, Mr. G., Branscombe, Devon. 

Cooper, Mr. H., 24, Greek Street, Soho Square, W.C. 

Cooper, Mr. H., 151, Lillie Road, Fulham, S.W. 

Cooper, H. P., F.C.S., 15, Haringey Road, Hornsey, N. 

Corder, Mr. 0., London Street, Norwich. 

Corder, Mr. W. S., 83, Tyne Street, North Shields. 

Corfield, Mr. C, Church Street, St. Day, Cornwall. 

Corfield, Mr. E., 166, Broad Street, Birmingham. 

Cornish, Mr. H. R., 24, Market Place, Penzance. 

Cortis, A. B., F.C.S., 12, South Street, Worthing. 

Cosbie, Mr. C. L., The Medical Hall, High Street, Holywood, Co. 

Down. 
Cossey, Mr. J., St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich. 
Cotton, Mr. J., Church Street, St. Helen's, Lanes. 
Cotton, Mr. J. M., 1, Waterloo Road, Bui-slem. 
Cottrill, Mr. G. J., Shepton Mallet. 
Cottrill, Mr. J. W., 29, Upper Gloucester Place, N.W. 
Coulter, Mr. G., Wetherby, I'orks. 
Coupland, Mr. J., 20, Regent Parade, High Harrogate. 
Coutts, Mr. A., Path-head, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
Coutts, Mr. C, 26, Broad Street, Aberdeen. 
Cowgill, Mr. B. H., 48, Mauchester Road, Burnley. 
Cowlev, Mr. W., Peel, Isle of Jlau. 
Cox, Mr. A., Old Hill, near Dudley. 
Cox. Mr. A. IL, St. Martin's Place, Brighton. 
Crackle, Mr. W. H., General Hospital, Nottingliam. 
Cranijiton, Mr. J., Post Ollice, Sawstou, Cambridge. 
Cranidge, Mr. J., Denaby, Mcxbro'. 

Crawshaw, E., F.P.S., 80, Fann Street, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 
Cridland, Mr. F. E. J., 192, Palmerston Buildings, Old Broad Street, 

E.C. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 357 

Crispe, Mr. J., 4, Cheapside, E.G. 

Critchley, Mr. T., King William Street, Blackburn. 

Croly, T. H., L.Il.C.P., L.M., Doogort, Achill, Westport, Co. Mayo. 

Cronshaw, Mr. C, 198, Manchester Koad East, Little Hiilton, nr. Bolton. 

Crook, Mr. C, East Thorpe, Mirfield, Yorks. 

Crook, Mr. W. Ci., Public Analyst, Norwich. 

Crooke, Mr. Chas. G. , New Meeting Street, Birmingham. 

Cross, Mr. G. , Wintertou, Lincolnshire. 

Cross, Mr. W. G. , junr. , Mardol, Shrewsbury. 

Croyden, Mr. C, 4.5, Wigmore Street, W. 

Croydeu, Mr. E. H., Newcastle, Staffs. 

Crozier, Mr. E., Clifton Square, Lytham. 

Cruickshank, Mr. G. L., Fyrie. 

Cruickshank, Mr. G. P., 218, George Street, Aberdeeu. 

Cruickshank, Mr. J., 5, Union Road, Macduff, N.B. 

Cruse, Mr. T. H., Palmerston Koad, Southsea. 

Cubitt, Mr. C, 17, Market Place, Norwich. 

Cubley, Mr. G. A., 4, High Street, Sheffield. 

Cuff, Mr. J. H., junr., St. Mildreds, Station Eoad, New Barnet. 

Cuff, Mr. E. C, 25, College Green, Bristol. 

Cullen, Mr. H. H., 20.5, Holloway Eoad, London, N. 

Cullinan, Mr. E., 155, King Street, Hammersmith, W. 

Cullingford, Mr. L. J., 85, Pevensey Eoad, Eastbourne. 

Cupiss, Mr. F. , The Wilderness, Diss. 

Curfew, Mr. J., Flowery Field, Hyde. 

Curtis, Mr. H., 178, High Street, Lewes. 

Cussons, Mr. T. T., Ossett, E. S. 0. 

Cutchffe, Mr. G. J., 7, Strand, Dawlish. 

Cuthbert, Mr. E., 27, Westgate, Huddersfield. 

Cutting, Mr. T. J., Finkle Street, Selby. 

Dadley, Mr. E., 21, Carter Gate, Nottingham. 

Dalby, Mr. E. E., 21, Howick Street, Monkwearmouth Shore. 

Dale, Mr. J., Ivy Cottage, Cornbrook, Hulme, Manchester. 

Dalwood, Mr. J. H., Cheap Street, Sherborne, Dorset. 

Dampney, Mr. E. S., 87, Abingdon Eoad, Kensington, W. 

Diiniel, Mr. S., 30, Harbour Street, Eamsgate. 

Darby, S., F.I.C., F.C.S. Address unknown. 

Darling, W. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 126, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Darling, Mr. W., 12G, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

DarroU, Mr. W. , Clun, Salop. 

Davenport, Mr. H., 33, Great Eussell Street, W.C. 

Davenport, Mr. J. T., 33, Great Eussell Street, W.C. 

Davidson, Mr. A., High Street, Montrose, N.B. 

Davidson, Mr. C, 205, Union Street, Aberdeen, N.B. 

Davidson, Mr. J. N., Dundee. 

Davidson, Mr. W., 54, Castle Street, Aberdeen, N.B. 

Davies, Mr. D. J., 28. Great Darkgate Street, Aberystwith. 

Davies, E., F.I.C., F.C.S., 88, Seel Street, Liverpool. 

Davies, Mr. F. H., Bridge Terrace, Thornton Heath, Surrey. 

Davies, Mr. J. L., Hay, Breconshire. 

Davies, Mr. .J. T., Walter's Eoad, Swansea. 

Davies, E. H., F.I.C., F.G.S., Apothecaries' Hall, Blackfriavs, E.G. 

Davis, Mr. D. F., 2, High Street, Leominster. 

Davis, Mr. H., 19, Warwick Street, Leamington. 

Davis, E. H., P.C.S., High Harrogate. 

Davison, Mr. W. H., High Street, Hastings. 

Dawson, Mr. O. E., 15elle Vue Eoad, Southampton, 

Day, Mr. J., Chapeltown Eoad, Leeds. 

Day, Mr. J. C. T., 130, George Street, Limerick. 



358 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Dechan, M., F.C.S., 5, Oliver Place, Hawick. 

Deck, A., F.C.S., 9, King's Parade, Cambridge. 

Deering, INIr. A., 30, Lanvanor Koad, Hollydale Eoad, Peckham, S.E. 

Dennis, Mr. J. W., 77, Eastgate, Louth, Lincolnshire. 

Dickie, Mr. J., 91, Victoria Road, Glasgow. 

Dickinson, Mr. D. , 9, Abbey Street, Derby. 

Dickinson, Mr. F., 13, St. Mary Street, Stamford. 

Dickinson, Mr. John G., Ledbury Terrace, South End, Croydon. 

Diver, Mr. 13., Islehara, Cambridgeshire. 

Dixon, Mr. H., 1, Eussell Gardens, Kensington, W. 

Dixon, Mr. J., North Kelsey, near Brigg, Lincolnshire. 

Dixon, Mr. J., 84, Crosby Street, Maryport. 

Dixon, Mr. W. H., East Grinstead. 

Dobbin, Mr. W., Belfast. 

Dobinson, Mr. T., 125, Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland. 

Dobson, Mr. J., 2, Side, Newcastle-on-Tync. 

Dodge, Mr. W., Heaton Norris, Stockport. 

Doig, j^Ir. W., 1, Castle Street, Dundee. 

Donald, Mr. D., 29, George Street, Perth. 

Douaghey, Mr. J. J., 193, Overgate, Dundee. 

Donovan, Mr. E., 22, Main Street, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Dott, D. B., F.R.S.E., F.I.C., 24, Castle Street, Edinburgh. 

Downes, Mr. R. J., 13(), Lower Baggott Street, Dublin. 

Downie, Mr. H , 43 & 44, Snndhill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Downing, Mr. J. G., 55, High Street, Braintree. 

Drake, Mr. W., Wyke, near Bradford. 

Drane, Mr. W., 5, West Parade, West Norwood, S.E. 

Draper, H. C, F.C.S., 2, Orwell Park, Rathgar, Dublin. 

Draper, H. N., F.C.S., M.R.I.A., 23, Mary Street, Dublin. 

Dresser, Mr. R., 14, Pavement, York. 

Drew, Mr. B., 91, Blackman Street, Southwark, S.E. 

Driver, Mr. T., Woolton, Liverpool. 

Druco, Mr. G. C, 118, High Street, Oxford. 

Duck, Mr. W. B., Hazeldean House, Warnborough Road, Oxford. 

Duncan, Mr. S., 19, West ]51ackhall Street, Greenock, N.B. 

Duncan, Mr. W., 13, East Princes Street, Rothesay, N.B. 

Duncan, Mr. W., Royal Dispensary, Richmond Street, Edinburgh. 

Duncan, Mr. W., 74^ Shore, Leith". 

Dunkley. Mr. E., 57, High Street, Tunbridge Wells. 

Dunlop, Mr. J., 70, Osborne Street, Hull. 

Dunn, Mr. II., 31, Otley Road, Shipley, Leeds. 

Dunn, Mr. J., 3()0, Sootswood Road, Ncwcastle-on-Tyne. 

Dunn, Mr. S., Fore Street, St. Austell. 

Dunn, Mr. T., High Street. Selkirk. 

Dunstan, Prof. Wyndham, F.C.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Dun woody, Mr. J., .30. Market Street, Sligo. 

Durdcn, Mr. H., 13, Coruhill, Dorchester, Dorset. 

Durrant, Mr. Ci. R., Old Cross, Hertford. 

Dutton, Mr. F., 19, Bradshawgate, Bolton. 

Dutton, Mr. J., Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. 

Dyer, Mr. W., Corn Market, Halifax. 

Dymond, Mr. T. S., Bycullah Park, Enfield, :NriddIcsex. 

Dyson, Mr. A., 55, Langdale Street, Elland, Yorks. 

Dyson, Mr. W. B., 35, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, S.W. 



Earee, Mr. T., High Street. Staines. 

Earle, Mr. F., 22, Market Place, Hull. 

Bastes, E. G., A.I C, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Eddeu, Mr. T. L., Woolmer Tower, The Grove, Hammersmith, W. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL COXFERENCE. 359 

Edgar, Mr. Alexander, The Laurels, DolpLin Eoad, Spark Hill, 

Birmingliam. 
Edgeler, Mr. W. B., Higli Street, Petei-sfield, Hants. 
Edisbury, Mr. J. F., 3, High Street, Wrexham. 
Edwards, Mr. G., Stockport Eoad, Manchester. 
Edwards, Mr. H., Medical Hall, Caterham Valley. 
Edwards, Mr. H., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Ekins, A. E., F.O.S., Market Place, St. Albans. 
Elborue, Mr. W., Owen's College, Manchester. 
Eldridge, Mr. J. H., Earlham Eoad, Norwich. 
EUinor, Mr. G., Wicker Pharmacy, Spital Hill, Sheffield. 
Elhot, R. J., Ph.D., 69, Church Street, Liverpool. 
Elliot, Mr. W. T. Paradise Street, Birmingham. 

Elliott, Mr. J. D., 3, Orchard Place, Woolwich Eoad, Gi^ienwicli, S.E. 
Elliott, Mr. J. G., 196, Gibraltar Street, Sheffield. 
Elliott, Mr. E., 279, High Street, Gateshead. 

Ellis, Mr. C. S., 7, St. Augustine's Eoad, Edgebastou, Birmingham. 
EUis, Mr. R., Terrace Eoad, Abervstwith. 
ElUs, Mr. T. W., 2, Carr Lane, Hull. 
Ellis, Mr. W., Burnham, Essex. 

Ellwood, Mr. T. A., 60, Grove Eoad, St. John's Wood. 
Emson, Mr. W. N., 102, Lothian Eoad, Brixton, S.W. 
English, Mr. T. J., 146, Great Britain Street, DubUm 
Ereaut, Mr. G., 10, Bath Street, Jersey. 
Evans, Mr. A. B., .56, Hanover Street, LiverpooL 
Evans, Mr. C. E., Moreton Hampstead, Devon. 
Evans, Mr. C. J. Address unknown. 
Evans, Mr. D. C, Maidstone. 
Evans, ^Mr. E., .56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. E., junr., .56, Hanover Street, LiverpooL 
Evans, G., F.C.S., 7, Stepney Street, Llanelly. 
Evans, Mr. I. H., Medical Hall, Market Cross, Lymm. 
Evans, Mr. J., 1, Church Street, Oswestiy. 
Evans, J., M.D., 19, Dawson Street, Dublin. 
Evans, Mr. J. J., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. J. J. 0., 1, Orchard Gardens, Teignmouth. 
Evans, Mx. W. P., 56, Hanover Street, Liv€rpool. 
Exley, Mr. J., 34, Hunslet Lane, Leeds. 
Eynon, Mr. D. J., 87, Eegent Street, Leamington. 
Eyre, Mr. J. S. , High Street, Lauuceston, CornwalL 

Fairburn, Mr. J., Northallerton. 

Fairelougli, Mr. E. A., 11, Edmund Place, Aldersgate Street, E.C- 

Fairgi-ieve, Mr. T., Clerk Street, Edinburgh. 

Fairley, Mr. T., F.E.S.E., 16, East Parade, Leeds. 

Farnworth, Mr. Walter, Blackburn. 

Farnworth, Mr. Wni., 49, King William Street, Blackburn. 

Farr, Mr. J., Crowu Street, Halifax. 

Farrage, Mr. E., Rothbury, Moiijeth. 

Farries, T., F.I.C., F.C.S., 16, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Farthing, Mr. T. W. , 4, Park Cottage, Stoke, Devonport 

Faulkner, Mr. H., PillKwenllv, Newport, Monmoiithshire. 

Faulkner, Mr. J. E„ 3U Lad'broke Grove Road, W. 

Faull, Mr. J., Westgate, Bradford, Yorks. 

Featherstone, Mr., Showell Hurst, Moseley, Birmingham. 

Feaver, Mr. J., 71, Bohemia Eoad, near Hastings. 

Fell, Mr. J. C, MiddlescK Hospital, W. 

Fenwick, Mr. J., 17, Bute Terrace, Queen's Park, Glasgow. 

F^erguson, Mr. W. K., 53, Great George Street, Leeds. 

Ferneley, Mr. C, 61, Ty thing, Worcester. 



330 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFP^^RENCEi 

ForriJay, Mr. E. J. P., Market Street, Oakengates, Salop. 

Ferrier, Mr. D. H., 2, Hilltown, Dundee. 

Fewtroll, Mr. J., 19, Main Street, Turriff, N.B. 

Field, Mr. W. C, 9, North Street, Taunton. 

Fielden, Mr. V. (i. L., 2, Tliornton Villas, Holderness Road, Hull. 

Fiudlay, Mr. J. D., (V.), Dundas Street, Glasgow. 

Fiugland, Mr. J., Tliornhill, Dumfries. 

Fiulay, Mr. J., Hadden's Medical Hall, Skibbereen, Co. Cork. 

Fisher, Mr. F. D., 1, Market Place, Grrautham. 

Fisher, Mr. H. A., 3-5, High Street, Ramsgate. 

Fisher, Mr. J. J., 29, Bank Street, Cai-lisle. 

Fisher, Mr. T., 97, Roxburgh Street, Greenock, N.B. 

Fitch, R., F.G.S., F.S.A., Market Place, Norwich. 

Fitt, Mr. F. E., Barking, Essex. 

Fitzgerald, Mr. A. H., care of Messrs. Johnson & Sons, 23, Cross 

Street, Finsbury, E.G. 
Fleemiug, Mr. W. , Queen Square, Wolverhampton. 
Fletcher, F. W., F.C.S., 56, Hamilton Road, Highbury, N. 
Fletcher, Mr. J., 23, King Street, Dudley. 
Fletcher, Mr. J., Montpellier Avenue, Cheltenham. 
Flint, Mr. J., Ranelagh Place, Liverpool. 
FUntan, F. R., F.R.M.S., Guildford Street, Chertsey, Surrey. 
Floyd, Mr. J., Bury St. Edmunds. 
Flux, Mr. W., 3, East India Avenue, E.C. 
Forbes, Mr. J. W., 65, Newport Street, Bolton, Lanes. 
Ford, Mr. E. B., 3, George Street, Poutypool. 
Ford, Mr. J., High Street, Kirriemuir. 
Forrest, Mr. R. W., 319, Crown Street, Glasgow. 
Forster, Mr. R. H., Castle Street, Dover. 
Forth, Mr. W., 397, High Street, Cheltenham. 
Foster, Mr. A. J., The Banks, Rochester. 
Foster, Mr. F., 29, St. Nicholas Street, Scar-borough. 
Foster, Mr. F. H., 2, Bank of England Place, Plymouth. 
Foster, Mr. J., Collurapton. 
Foster, Mr. J., 38, Corporation Road, Carlisle. 

Foster, Mr. R. Le Neve, Messrs. Calvert & Co., Bradford, Manchester. 
Foster, W., M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S., Middlesex Hospital, W. 
Foulkes, Mr. W. H., 20, Hi-h Street, Rhyl, Flints. 
Foulkes, Mr. W. J., Birkenhead. 
Fowler, Mr. W. R., 122, Queen Street, Portsea. 
Fowler, W., F.C.S., 8, Alexandra Tenace, Sunderland. 
Fox, Mr. A. R., 56, Snig Hill. Sheffield. 
Fox, Mr. C. J., 35, Addington Street, Ramsgate. 
Fox, Mr. W., 109, Bethnal Green Road, E. 
Francis, Mr. G. B., 5, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Francis, G. Bult, F.C.S., 5, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Francis,' IMr. J. B. Wrexham. 
Francis, Mr. T. H., 101. High Holboru, W.C. 
Francis, Mr. W. H. , 5, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Franklin, Mr. A., 60, West Street, Fareham. 
Fraser, Mr. A., 58, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Eraser, Mr. A., Medical Hall, Largs, N.B. 
Frazer, Mr. D,, 127, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Freeman. Mr. E., Ledbury, Hei-efordshire. 
Frizell, IMr. W. A., Waterloo Place, Londonderry. 
Froggatt. Mr. T. W., Eyam, ria Shellield. 
Froom, Mr. W. H., 75, Aldei-sgate Street, E.C. 
Frost, Mr. G., 7, Corn Market, Derbv. 
Fudge, Mr. C. W., Sheptou Mallet. " 
Fuller, Mr. J., Rookwood, Chapter Road, Willesden Park, N.W. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 3G1 

Furness, Mr. J. M., 7, Westbar, Sheffield. 

Furniss, Mr. T., Ill, Kocky Lane, Newsham Park, Liverpool. 

Fyvie, Mr. J. G., 9, Diamoud, Coleraine. 

Gadd, Mr. H., 97, Fore Street, Exeter. 

Gadd, Mr. E., 1, Harleyford Road, Vauxball, S.E. 

Gadd, Mr. W. F., Granville House, Queen Street, Eamsgate. 

Gaitskell, Mr. J., Gosforth, via Carnforth. 

Gale, S., F.I.C., F.C S., '225, Oxford Street, W. 

Galloway, Mr. G. E. , 13, Castle Street, Inverness. 

Gamble, Mr. A. G. , Avenue Eoad, Grantham. 

Gamley. Mr. D., 2, Grange Eoad, Edinburgh. 

Garduei", Mr. W., King's College Hospital, W.C. 

Garibaldi, Mr. J. A., 44, Geraldine Eoad, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Garner, Mr. J., 119, High Street, Kensington, W. 

Garrett, Mr. T. P., 171, Commercial Street, Newport, Mon. 

Garside, Mr. S. A., 6, Aughton Street, Ormskirk. 

Gascoigue, Mr. C, 18, High Street, Kidderminster. 

Gater, Mr. J., Victoria Eoad, Peckham, S.E. 

Gedge, Mr. W. S., 90, St. John Street, Clerkenwell, E.G. 

Geddes, Mr. G., Main Street, Aberchirder, Banffshire. 

Geddes, Mr. W., Werneth, Oldham. 

Gee, Mr. G., High Street, Sandbach, Cheshire. 

George, Mr. H., 68, Broad Street, AVorcester. 

George, Mr. J. E., Hirwaiu, near Aberdare. 

George, Mr. J. I., West Street, Wigton, Cumberland. 

Gerard, Mr. G. E., Great Bedwin, Wilts. 

Gerrard, A. W., F C.S. , University College Hospital, W.C. 

Gerrard, Mr. J., Edge Fold, Middle Hulton, Bolton. 

Gibb, Mr. E., New Byth, Turriff. 

Gibbons, Mr. G., 24, West Street, Weston-super-Mare. 

Gibbons, Mr. T. G., 41, Market Street, Manchester. 

Gibbons, Mr. W., 41, Market Street, Manchester. 

Gibbs, Mr. J., 53d, Terminus Eoad, Eastbourne. 

Gibbs, Mr. E. D., Smethwick, Birmingham. 

Gibson, A., F.C.S., Leven, Fife. 

Gibson, Mr. B. W., Barnard Castle, Durham. 

Gibson, Mr. F. J., 93, Darlington Street, W^olverharapton. 

Gibson, Mr. F. T., 93, Gooch Street, Birmingham. 

Gibson, Mr. J., 102, Upper Brook Street, Manchester. 

Gibson, Mr. J. P., Hexham. 

Gibson, Mr. E , Erskine Street, Hulme, Manchester 

Gibson, Mr. W. H., 107, King's Eoad, Brighton. 

Giles, Mr. W. , 123, Crown Street, Aberdeen. 

Gill, Mr. G., Chapel Lane, Bingley. 

Gill, Mr. H , Boston Spa, Yorkshire. 

Gill, Mr. J., 43, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

Giil, Mr. J. W., 57, Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Gill, Mr. W., 183, Eadford Eoad, Hyson Green, Nottingham. 

Gill, Mr. W., 1, West Street, Tavistock. 

Gillett, Mr. J., 10, NeviJl Street, Southport. 

Gilmour, Mr. G., 15, Morrison Street, Kingston, Glasgow. 

Gilmour, Mr. W., 11, Elm Eow, Edinburgh. 

Gimblett, Mr. W., 73, Union Street, Eyde, Isle of Wight. 

Glaisyer, Mr. T., 12, North Street, Brighton. 

Glazier, W. H., F.C.S., Courtlands, East Molesey. 

Glegg, Mr. J., Park House, Lochhead, Aberdeen. 

Glover, Mr. J. S., 282, Manchester Street, Werneth, Oldham. 

Glover, Mr. W. K., 205, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Goldfinch, Mr. G., 7, Brent Terrace, Hendon, N.W. 



362 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Gokling, Mr. J. F., 172, Albany Street, N.W. 

Gooch, Mr. S. L. , Bouudary House, High Street, High Baruet, N. 

Good, Mr. T., 31, High Street, Lowestoft. 

Goodliffe, Mr. G., 17, Rendezvous Street, Folkestone. 

Goodwin, Mr. J., Lower Clapton, E. 

Gordelier, Mr. W. G., 39, High Street, Sittingbourne. 

Gordon, Mr. W., 7G, King Street, Aberdeen. 

Goskar, Mr. J. J., 1, Carlisle Circus, Belfast. 

Gossop, Mr. G. K., 88, Church Street, Great Grimsby. 

Gostliug, Mr. T. P., Diss. 

Gorild, Mr. J., Bed Lion Square, Newcastle, Staffs. 

Gowaus, Mr. J., 21, High Street, Perth, N.B. 

Granger, Mr. E. J., Upper Clapton, E. 

Grant, Mr. T., Malvern House, Clevedon. 

Grant, Mr. W., High Street, Blairgowrie. 

Gravill, E. D., F.B.M.S., F.C.S., 300, High Holborn, W.C. 

Gray, Mr. C, Swan Bank, Bilston, Staffordshire. 

Greaves, Mr. A., Chesterfield. 

Greaves, Mr. J., Oxford Terrace, Canton, Cardiff. 

Greaves, Mr. W. S., Ironville, Alfreton. 

Green, Mr. H. S., 10, Belgrave Terrace, Miitley, Plymouth. 

Green, Mr. J., 19, Wood Street, Swindon. 

Green, Mr. S., 2, York Place, Nunhead, S.E. 

Greenall, Mr. A., 10, South Boad, Waterloo, near Liverpool. 

Greenish, H. G., F.I.C., 20, New Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 

Greenish, T., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 20, New Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 

Greenish, Mr. T, E., 5, Bathurst Street, Sussex Square, W. 

Greeusill, Mr. H. W., Fishponds. 

Greenwell, Mr. E. H., Chester-le-Street. 

Gi'eig, Mr. W., 59, Glassford Street, Glasgow. 

Griffin, Mr. T., High Street, Weybridge, Surrey. 

Griffith, Mr. B., High Street, Slough. 

Gritliths, Mr. E. H., Market Street, Kidsgrove. 

Grimwade, Mr. E. W., Mildmay Chambirs, 82, Bishopsgate Street, E.G. 

Grindley, Mr. G. H., Westland Bow, Dublin. 

Grisbrook, Mr. E., Windsor, Berks. 

Grisbrook, Mr. S., 12, The Promenade, Bromley, Kent. 

Grose, Mr. N. M., 5, Castle Street, Swansea. 

Groves, Mr. B. H., Blandford. 

Groves, T. B., F.C.S., Weymouth. 

Gud^on, Mr. F. G., G, Albert Place, High Road, Chiswick, Middlesex. 

Guil(>r, Mr. J., 20, Ujiper Baggot Street, Dublin. 

Gulliver, Mr. W., 6, Lower Belgrave Street, Pimlico, S.W. 

Gunn, Mr. W., Market Place, Duns, N.B. 

Guyer, J. B., F.C.S., 11, Strand, Torquay. 

Gwinnell, Mr. E., 73, Powis Street, Woolwich, Kent. 

Hackman, Mr. L. L., Fratton Road, Landport, Hants. 
Haddock, Mr. J., 27, Chapol Street, Leigh, Lanes. 
Hadfield, Mr. J., 20, Cheetham Street, Rochdale. 
Hall, Mr. A. L., The Cross, Winchcombe. 
Hall, F., M.R.C.S., 1, Jermyn Street, S.W. 
Hall, Mr. F., Redcar. 

Hall, Mr. H. S., Stretford Road, Manchester. 
Hall, Mr. P., 118, Grey Street, Ncwcastle-on-Tyne. 
Hall, Mr. S., Jjittleborough, near Manchester. 
Hall, Mr. T. H., MO, Drayton Park. N. 
Hall, Mr. W., Market Street, Lancaster. 
Hallawav, Mr. J., 52. Castle Street, Carlisle. 
Haller, Mr. F. W., 79, High Street, Boston. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFEREXCE. 363 

Hamilton, J. T., M.D., 3, Lo-n-er Sackville Street, DuLlin. 

Hamilton, Mr. W., Barrow-on-Humber. 

Hammerton, Mr. E., 28, High Street, Colchester. 

Hammond, Mr. W. H., 1, Caroline Street, Hull. 

Hamp, Mr. .J., Worcester Street, Wolverhampton. 

Hampson, Mr. R., 20.5, St. John-street Road, E.G. 

Hanbur}', C, F.I.C., F.C.S., Plough Court, Lombard Street, E.G. 

Hanbury, F.J., F.L.S., Plough Court, Lombard Street, E.C. 

Hardeman, Mr. J., 55, Buiy New Road, Manchester. 

Hardie, Mr. G. H., 362, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Hardie, Mr. J., 68, High Street, Dundee. 

Harding, Mr. J., 36, King's Head Street, Hai-wich. 

Hardwick, Mr. S., 21, Commercial Road, Bournemouth. 

Hardwicke, Mr. J. E., i, Meat Market, Bury St. Edmunds, 

Hardy, Mr. J., North Street, Bishops Stortford. 

Hardy, Mr. S. C, 177, Regent Street, W. 

Hargraves, Mr. H. L., 30, High Street, Oldham. 

Hargreaves, M., 108, Fylde Road, Preston, Lanes. 

Harland, R. H., F.I.C,, F.C.S., 37, Lombard Street, E.C. 

Harland, Mr. R. T., Wellington Road, Eccles. 

Harlev, Mr. J., 3, James's Square, CrieiJ, N.B. 

Harold, Mr. J. P., 15, East Street, W.C. 

Harpley, Mr. R. B., 34, Church Street, West Hartlepool. 

Han-ington, Mr. A., Needliam Market, Suffolk. 

Harrington, Mr. A., jun., Walsham-le-Willows, Suffolk. 

Harrington, Mr. J. F., 45, Kensington High Street, W. 

HaiTington, W., L.A.H.D., 80, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Han-is, Mr. E. W., 128, High Street, Merthyr Tydhl. 

Harris, Mr. S. , High Street, Droitwich, Cheshire. 

Han-ison, Mr. J., .33, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 

Harrison, Mr. J., 2, Market Street, St. Helen's, Lanes. 

Hanuson, Mr. R., Farnworth, near Bolton. 

Han-ison, Mr. T. E., North Street, Sleaford. 

Harrison, Mr. W., Headingley. 

Harrison, Mr. W. B., 6, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 

Harrop, Mr. J. H., 239, Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Harrop, Mr. W. H., Hightown, Crewe. 

narrower, Mr. P., 136, Cowcaddens Street, Glasgow. 

Hart, Mr. J., 131, Embden Street, Hulme, Manchester. 

Hart, Mr. J., 130, Newport Street, Bolton. 

Hart, Mr. T., 2, Armadale Street, Dennistown, Glasgow. 

Hart, Mr. T., F.C.S., 72, Lancashire Hill, Stockport. 

Hartley, Mr. John, 1, Church Road, Lytham. 

Hai"tley, Mr. S., High Street, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

Harvey, Mr. E., 6, Giltspur Street, E.C. 

Har%-ey, S., F.C.S., South Eastern Laboratory, Canterbury. 

Harvey, Mr. W. B., Frome, Somerset. 

Harvey, Mr. W. R., 98, Humberstone Road, Leicester. 

Harvie, Mr. G., Princes Street, Helensburgh. 

Harvie, Mr. J., 68, Stirling Street, Airdrie, N.B. 

Hai-wood, Mr. E. G., 92, Clarence Street, Bolton. 

Haslett, Mr. J. H., 18, North Street, Belfast. 

Hasselby, Mr. E. H., 1, Eversfield Plaee, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Hasselby, Mr. T. J., 1, Baxtergate, Doncaster, Yorkshire. 

Hatch, Mr. R. M., 84, Whiteladies' Road, Clifton. 

Hatrick, Mr. J. B., 18, Gilmour Street, Paisley. 

Havill, Mr. P. W., 15, Fore Street, Tiverton, Devon. 

Hawkins, Mr. L. W., 18, Burr Street, E. 

Hawkins, Mr. T., 32, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 

Haydon, W. F., F.C.S., The Exchange, Birmingham. 



3G4 BKITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Hayes, Mr. J., Great Warley, Essex. 

Hayes, Mr. W., 12, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Hayhoe, Mr. W., G7, Stratford Koad, Plaistow, E. 

Hayles, Mr. B. H., Broadway, Ealing, Middlesex. 

Hearder, Mr. H. P., 24, Westwell Street, Plymouth. 

Heath, Mr. A., 114, Ebury Street, S.W. 

Heathcote, Mr. H. C, Winster, Derbyshire. 

Heaton, Prof. C. W., F.I.C., F.C.S., Charing Cross Hospital, W.C. 

Hedley, Mr. Thos., Eamsbottom, Manchester. 

Hemingway, Mr. A., 20, Poi'tman Street, W. 

Hemingway, Mr. E., 20, Portmau Street, W. 

Hemingway, Mr. W., 20, Portman Street, W. 

Henderson, Mr. C, Wibsey, near Bradford. 

Henry, Mr. J. P., 97, Donegall Street, Belfast. 

Henry, Mr. S. R., Oxford Buildings Pharmacy, Belfast. 

Herbert, Mr. H. S., 29, High St., Wavertree. 

Herring, Mr. W. C, 40, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Heslop, Mr. H. H., Ivingswinford, near Dudley. 

Hewlett, Mr. C. J., 40, 41, & 42, Charlotte St.i Great Eastern St.. E.C. 

Heywood, J. S.C.,F.C.S., 19, Inverness Terrace, Hyde Park Gardens, 

W. 
Hick, Mr. A., High Street, Wath-on-Dearne. 
Hiekcy, Mr. E. L., 199, King's Koad, Chelsea, S.W. 
Hickin, Mr. H., Mardol Head, Shrewsbury. 
Higgins, Mr. W., Borough, Farnham, Surrey. 
Hill, Mr. A., 27, Oxford Street, South Heigham, Norwich 
Hill, Mr. A. B., 101, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Hill, Mr. J. R., 8G, York Place, Edinburgh. 

Hillhouse, Prof. M. A. ,F.L.S., The Mason Science College, Birmingham. 
Hillier, Mr. H., 15, Old Bond Street, Bath. 
Hills, T. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 225, Oxford Street, W. 
Hills, W., F.C.S., 225, Oxford Street, W. 
Hind, Mr. T. W. L., Kendal. 
Hiudle, Mr. J., 70, Copy Nook, Blackburn. 
Hinds, Mr. J., 127, Goslord Street, Coventry. 
Histed, Mr. E., 2, Upper St. James Street, Brighton. 
Hitchman, Mr. H., Market Place, Kettering. 
Hobson, Mr. C, Market Place, Beverley. 
Hockcu, Mr. J., 31, Old Hall Street, Liverpool. 
Hodges, Mr. W., Eastgate liow, Chester. 

Hodgkin, J., F.I.C., F.C.S., Messrs. Howard & Sons, Stratford, E. 
Hodgkiuson, Mr. C, 198, Ui>per Whitecross Street, E.C. 
Hodgkinson, Mr. J. S., Matlock Bridge. 
Hodgkiuson, Mr. W., 198, Upper Whitecross Street, E.C. 
Hodgson, Mr. A., 8, Millbrook Place, Harrington Square, N.W. 
Hodkinson, Mr. J., Mill Street, Macclesfield. 
Hodsoll, Mr. T. W. H., 11. Start Street, Shepherdess Walk, N. 
Hogg, Mr. B., 1, Southwick Street, Hyde Park, W. 
Holgate, Mr. S. V., 29, Long Bow, Nottingham. 
Hollick, Mr. B., 
Holliday, Mr. John, Warwick. 
HoUiday, Mr. T., 5, High Street, West Bromwich. 
Holmes, Mr. C. J., 16, Cambridge Street. Hyde Park, W. 
Holmes, E. M., F.L.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Holmes, Mr. F. G., Brill. 
Holmes, Mr. P., 11, Strand, Torquay. 

Holmes, Mr. T., 32, Seymour Boad, Sharpies, near Bolton. 
Holmes, Mr. W. M., 7, Belgravo Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, S.W. 
Holroyd, Mr. W., 31, Duke Street, St. James, S.W. 
Hooper, Mr. L., 43, King William Street, E.C. 



BRITISH PHAEMACEDTICAL COXFEREXCE. 365 

Hopkin, Mr. W. K., 1(5, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, E.G. 

Hopkiuson, Mr. T., 44 & 45, High Street, Grantham. 

Hornbj-, Mr. A., 50, George Street, Richmond, Surrey. 

Horncastle, Mr. J., 17, Craven Road, Westbourue Terrace, W. 

Horner, Mr. E., Mitre Square, Aldgate, E.G. 

Horton, Jlr. G. D., C3, Aston Road North, Birmingham. 

Horrell, Mr. A. C. J., Albion House, Broadstairs. 

Horsfall, Mr. J., Aughtou Road, Birkdale, Southport. 

Horsfiekl, Mr. J. N., Sweet Street, Leeds. 

Horsley, Mr. T. W., 274, Portobello Road, Notting Hill, W. 

Hothersall, Mr. J., 25, Staudishgate, Wigan. 

Houghton, Mr. T., 53, St. Clements, Oxford. 

Howard, D., F.I.C., F.C.S., Stratford, E. 

Howard, Mr. W. D., F.I.C., Lord's Meade, Tottenham, 

Howard, R., L.A.H., Arklow, Co. Wicklow. 

Howell, Mr. M., 61, High Street, Peckham, S.E. 

Howes, Mr. H., 238. Bristol Street, Birmingham. 

Howie, Mr. W. L., Cornbrook House, Eccles, Lanes. 

Howlett, Mr. H. J., 2, High Street, Crayford, Kent. 

Howorth, Mr. J., Market Place, Doncaster. 

Hucklebridge, Mr. J. M., 116, Ebury Street, S.W. 

Huddlestone, Mr. R. 0., 68, Lower Broughton Road, Manchester. 

Huggett, Mr. S., 

Hughes, Mr. E., 14, Market Place, Altrincham, Cheshire. 

Hughes, Mr. E. G., Victoria Street, Manchester. 

Hughes, Mr. J., 14, Wind Street, Swansea. 

Hughes, Mr. J. M., 48, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Hughes, Mr. L. S., Maple Road, Penge, S.E. 

Hugill, Mr. J., 14 & 15, Miles Lane, Cannon Street, E.G. 

Humble, Mr. J. M., 29, Horse Fair, Birmingham. 

Hume, Mr. A., 63, Northumberland Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hume, Mr. J. W. D., Alexander Terrace, Clapham Road, Lowestoft. 

Humphry, Mr. H., Dartmouth. , 

Hunt, Mr, A., Fore Street, Exeter. 

Hunt, Mr. C, 29, Chapel Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. 

Hunt, Mr. L., 2, Albert Bridge, Manchester. 

Hunt, Mr. R., 45, High Street, Winchester. 

Hunt, Mr. T., Workhouse, Liverpool. 

Hunter, Mr. F. W., 4, Westmoreland Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hunter, Mr. G., Withernsca, Yorks. 

Hunter, Mr. J. C, 99, Great Western Road, Glasgow. 

Hurley, Mr. E. W., 137, Lewisham High Road, S.E. 

Huski'sson, H. 0., F.I.C., F.C.S., F.L.S., Swinton Street, Gray's Inn 

Road. 
Hutcheon, Mr. W., 21, High Street, Bonnyrigg, Midlothian. 
Hutchins, Mr. C, Wind Street, Neath. 
Hutton Mr. H., 202, Broad Street, Birmingham. 
Hyslop, Mr. J. C, 39, Church Street, N.W. 

Illingworth, Mr. G. S., 5, Nithsdale Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
Ince, J., F.L.S., F.C.S., F.G.S., 11, St. Stephen's Avenue, Shepherd's 

Bush, W. 
Ince, W. H., A.I.C., 11, St. Stephen's Avenue, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Ingall, Mr. J., Ashford, Kent. 

Insull, Mr. E. S., 54 & 56, Lichfield Street, Hanley. 
Ismay, Mr. J. G., Groat Market, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Ive, Mr. W., 115, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, S.W. 
Izod, Mr. J., Church Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Jackson, Mr. BarnetE., Palace Buildings, Harpurhey, Manchester. 



366 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Jackson, Sir. C, 4, Church Road, Acton, W. 

Jackson, Mr. CI., 870, Rochdale Road, Harpurhey, Manchester. 

Jackson, Mr. J., Sun Bridge Buildings, Bradford. 

Jackson, Mr. R., 7, Smithy Row, Nottingham. 

Jackson, Mr. Urban Arthur, 43, Great Ducie Street, Strangeways, 

Manchester. 
Jackson, Mr. W., Crediton, Devon. 
James, Mr. A. W., Sketty, near Swansea. 
James, Mr. C, 80, Argyle Street, Birkenhead. 
James, Mr. K., North Bar Street, Beverley. 
Jamieson, Mr. S., 9, Crossgate, Cupar, Fife. 
Jarmaiu, G., F.I.C., F.C.S., 9, York Place, Huddersfield. 
Jefferson, Mr. P., 145, Meadow Lane, Leeds. 
Jeffery, Mr. H., 110, Cheltenham Road, Bristol. 
Jeffrey, Mr. T. A., Leamington House, Cheltenham. 
Jeffries, Mr. H., 23, High Street, Guildford. 
Jenkins, Mr. E. E., High Street, Beeston, near Nottingham. 
Jenkins, Mr. H., Eilerslie Park Road, Gloucester. 
Jenkins, Mr. J., Llysyfi'an, Haverfordwest. 
Jenkins, Mr. J. T., Dennian Street, New Radford, Nottingham. 
Jenner, Mr. H. A., Grand Parade, St. Leonards-ou-Sea. 
Jewell, Mr. J. R., 7, Vere Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
Jeyes, Mr. P., 6, Drapery, Northampton. 
Jinks, Mr. J., Iron Bridge, Shropshire. 
Job, Mr. A. T., Southleigh, Spencer Hill, Wimbledon. 
Jobsou, Mr. R., 125, Scotswood Road, Newcastle-ou-Tyne. 
Johnson, Mr. E. E., Liverpool Apothecaries' Company, Liverpool. 
Johnson, Mr. J., Address unknown. 
Johnson, Mr. J., Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Johnson, Mr. J. B., Uttoxeter. 
Johnson, Mr. T., 8, Market Place, Wigan. 
Johnson, Mr. W., 5, Stanley Street, Leek, Staffordshire. 
Johnston, Mr. J., 45, Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Johnstone, Mr. C. A., Glenolbyh, Whaley Bridge. 
Johnstone, Mr. W., Cromarty, N.B. 
Johnstone, W., Ph.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., F.G.S., 16, Alfred Place West, 

South Kensington, S.W. 
Jones, Mr. A. M., King Street, Brynmawr, Brecoushire. 
Jones, Mr. D. W., Commercial Place, Aberdare. 
Jones, Mr. E., 21, High Street, Hanley. 

Jones, E. W. T., F.C.S., 10, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton. 
Jones, Mr. F., 131, Prescot Road, Liverpool. 
Jones, Mr. H., Berwyn Street, Llangollen. 
Jones, Mr. H. S., 139, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Jones, H. W., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., Messrs. Wyleys & Co., Coventry. 
Jones, Mr. J., 20, Cliester Road, Hulme, Manchester. 
Jones, Mr. J., 04, Wednestield Road, Little London, Willenball. 
Jones, Mr. J. H., 121, Finsbnry Pavement, E.C. 
Jones, Mr. J. P., 2, Bridge Street, Aberayron. 
Jones, Mr. J. R., Vivian Arms Hotel, Swansea. 
Jones, Mr. M., Chester Street, Flint. 
Jones, Mr. M., 12, High Street, Swansea. 
Jones, Mr. 0., Market Place, Bangor. 
Jones, I\L-. R., Cavan Medical Hall, Cavan. 
Jones, Mr. T. P., 82, Seven Sisters' Road, N. 
Jones, Mr. T. P., Tiie Pharmacy, Llanidloes. 
Jones, Mr. W., 2 & 3, High Street, Bull Ring, Birmingham. 
Jones, Mr. W. C, 23, Bayswater Terrace, Bayswater, W. 
Jones, Mr. W. H., 4, Maclise Road, West Kensington Park, W. 
Joues, Mr. Wm. H., 50, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. oG7 

Jones, Mr. W. 0., 135, Ladbroke Grove, Netting Hill, W. 
Jones, Mr. W., 203 & 205, Old Cbristchurch Eoad, Bournemouth. 
Joseph, Mr. A. I., St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Kay, Mr. J. P., 205, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Kay, Mr. Samuel, 7, Lower Hillgate, Stockport. 

Kay, Mr. T., 7, Lower Hillgate, Stockport. 

Kave, Mr. H., Berry Brow, Huddersfield. 

Keall, Mr. F. P., 199, High Street, Swansea. 

Kearnes, Mr. R. H., Swan Bank, Bilstou. 

Keene, Mr. B., care of Mr. Adcock, Alcester, Eedditch. 

Keene, Mr. E., 143, New Bond Street, W. 

Keene, Mr. J., Paddock Wood, Kent. 

Kelley, Mr. R., The Coombe, Bowlish, Shepton Mallet. 

Kemble, Mr. J., Mevagissey, Cornwall. 

Kemp, Mr. D., 9i, High Street, Portobello, Mid-Lothian. 

Kemp, Mr. D. S., 21, Weighton Road, Auerley, S.E. 

Kemp, Mr. D. S., 27, Coverdale Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Kemp, Mr. H., 254, Stretford Eoad, Manchester. 

Kendall, Mr. J. H., 14, Blagdon Street, Blyth, Northumberland. 

Kendall, Mr. R. , Wharf Street, Sowerby Bridge. 

Kennedy, Mr. W., 59, Trougate, Glasgow. 

Ker, Mr. A., 92, Lower Moss Lane, Hulme, iLiuchester. 

Kerfoot, Mr. T., Medlock Vale Works, Berry Street, Manchester. 

Kermath, Mr. W. R., 78, Market Street, St". Andrews, Fife. 

Kermode, Mr. R. K., Castletown, Isle of Man. 

Kernot, G. C, Ph.D., L.R.C.S.. L.S. A., 9, Elphinstoue Road, Hastings. 

Kerr, Mr. C, 56, Nethergate, Dundee. 

Key, Mr. W. H., 89, Taff Street, Pontypridd. 

Keyworth, G. A., F.C.S., St. Hilary, Hastings. 

Kidd, Mr. James Cassie, 2, Union Terrace, Cheetham Hill, Man- 

Kimber, Mr. B. T., 16, Fonthill Road, Tollington Park, N. 

Kinch, Prof. Ed.,F.I.C.,F.C.S., Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

King, Mr. H. A., 38, Exchange Street, Norwich. 

King, Mr. W., 4, Market Place, Huddersfield. 

King, Mr. W. G., Market Drayton. 

Kingerlee, Mr. G., Castle Street, Buckingham. 

Kingsford, Mr. F., 54, Piccadilly. W. 

Kingzett, C. T., F.LC, F.C.S., Trevena, Amhurst Park, N. 

Kinninmout, A., F.C.S., 69, South Portland Street, Glasgow. 

Kirby, Mr. T. W., 24, Castle Street, Liyerpool. 

Kirk' Mr. S., 89, Upper North Street, Poplar, E. 

Kirkby, W., F.R.M.S., 36, Meadow Street, Sheffield. 

Kitchin, A., F.LC, F.C.S., 27, King Street, Wliitehaven. 

Kite, Mr. W. T., 1, Ormond Villas, Cheltenham. 

Knight, Mr. G. J., 452, Edgware Eoad, W. 

Knight, Mr. R., 281, Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Knights, J. W., F.LC, F.C.S., Cambridge. 

Laird, Mr. G. H., 40, Queensferry Street, Edinburgh. 

Lake, Mr. J. H., 41, High Street, Exeter. 

Lakeman, Mr. N., Post Office, Modbury. 

Lakin, Mr. W., 10, New Bond Street, Leicester. 

Lambert, Mr. J., Elvet Bridge, Durham. 

Lamplough, Mr. H., 113, Holboru Hill, E.C 

Lane, Mr. W., 69, Market Street, Manchester. 

Lascelles-Scott, W., 21, New Bridge Street, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

Latham, Mr. R. J., Market Place, Howden, Yorks. 

Laughlin, Mr. W., Ramsey, Isle of Man. 



368 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Laverack, Mr. W. H., P. 0. Corner, Malton. 

Lawrance, Mr. E., Welwyn, Herts. 

Laws, Mr. J., Ill, Church Street, N.W. 

Lear, Mr. G. H., 373, Coventry lload, Birmingham. 

Lee, Mr. S. W., G, Whitecliapel, Liverpool. 

Lee, Mr. W., Castle, Northwich, Cheshire. 

Lee, Mr. W., High Street, Honiton, Devon. 

Leete, Mr. S. F., Thrapston. 

Leigh, Mr. J. J., 5, Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland. 

Leigh, Mr. M., 4G, Dyke Eoad, Brighton. 

Leitch, Mr. W., 17, Picardy Place, Edinburgh. 

Lemmon, Mr. G. F., St. George's Road, Hastings. 

Lenfestey, Mr. W. G., 32, Mortimer Street, Heme Bay. 

Lescher, T. H., F.C.S., 00, Bartholomew Close, E.C. 

Leslie, Mr. J., Walkley, Sheffield. 

Lester, Mr. H., 1, Bridge Street, Nuneaton. 

Lester, Mr. T. R., 107, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Lewinton, Mr. A. B., IG, Cleveland Street, Fitzroy Square, W. 

Lincolne, Mr. W., Ely, Cambridgeshire. 

Lindsay, T., F.C.S., Maryfield Cottage, Marvhill, N.B. 

Liuford, J. S., F.C.S., IG, Gladstone Street, Hull. 

Ling, Mr. E., Esher, Surrey. 

Lister, Mr. S., 70, High Street, Great Horton, Bradford. 

Litchfield, Mr. J., 50, High Street, Lougton, Staffordshire. 

Littlewood, Mr. S., Sutton-in-Ashfield. 

Liverseege, Mr. J. F., 73, Soho Street, Smethwick, Birmingham. 

Llewellyn, Mr. R., 148, High Street, Merthyr. 

Lloyd, Mr. G., jun., 30, Church Street, Bilston. 

Lloyd, Mr. .7. AV., 34, Mount Pleasant, Liverpool. 

Lloyd, Mr. 11., High Street, Claycross. 

Lloyd, Mr. R., Penygraig, Rhondda Valley. 

Lloyd, Mr. T. H., 10, Friar Lane, Leicester. 

Loc'kyer, W. .J., F.C.S., 7, St. Julian's Farm Road, West Norwood, S.E. 

Lofthouse, Mr. J., Fleetwood. 

Long, I\rr. H., 139, Church Road, West Brighton. 

Long, Mr. H., 48, High Street, Notting Hill, W. 

Longbotham, Mr. J., Chester-le-Stix-et, Durham. 

Longman, Mr. J. II., The Norfolk Pharmacy, Littlehamptou. 

Lord, Mr. C, Todmorden, Lancashire. 

Lorimer, Mr. J., Junction Road, HoUoway Road, N. 

Lowe, A. J. G., F.I.C., F.C.S., 5, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Lowther, Mr. M. K., Langtoft, Ijowthorpe. 

Lucas, Mr. J. M. M., 1G2, Windmill Street, Gravesend. 

Luff, A. P., B.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S., St. Mary's Hospital, W. 

Luke, Mr. R. S., 30, Tavistock Road, Plymouth. 

Lumby, Mr. A., Tranmere, Liverjjool. 

Lunau, Mr. A., Banchory, N.B. 

Mabcn, Mr. T., 5, Oliver Place, Hawick. 
McAdam, Mr. R., 32, Virginia Street, (Glasgow. 

Macadam, S., Ph.D., F.R.S.E., F.I.C., F.C.S., Surgeons' Hall, Edin- 
burgh. 
Macadam, W. I., F.C.S., F.I.C., Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. 
Macanlav, Mr. J. J., Holywood, Co. Down. 
Macaulay, Mr. W. H., Wakefield. 

McCowan, Dr. W., F.C.S., 85, Raglan Road. Smethwick, Birmingham. 
Macdonald, Mr. A., 71, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Macdonald, Mr. J., 12, West Newington, Edinburgh. 
MacDermott, Mr. R. J., Thorne Terrace, West Worthing. 
M'Donald, Mr. K., Dunkeld. 



BlilTISa PHARMACEUTICAL CJNrEKENCE. 369 

MacEwan, Mr. P., 42, Cannon Street, E.G. 

Macfarlane, Mr. A. Y., 255, Cauongate, Edinburgh. 

MacFarlaue, Mr. P., A^^othecaries' Hall, Fort William, N.B. 

Macfarlane, Mr. T. B., 17, Main Street, Wishaw, N.B. 

McGlashau, Mr. J., 60, Dairy Koad, Edinburgh. 

McGregor, Mr. D., 23, Bernard Street, Leith. 

McGregor, Mr. G., Ellon, Aberdeen. 

Machin, Mr. W. G., Hartley Wmtney, AVinclifield. 

Machon, Mr. H., Market Place, Saffron Walden. 

McHugh, Mr. H. S., Bridge Street, Gastleford. 

Maciutodh, Mr. A., 21, Montague Street, Bothesay. 

Mackay, Mr. D., 47, Scouriugburu, Dundee. 

Mackay, Mr. G. D., Canning Street, Edinburgh. 

Mackenzie, Mr. C. A., Queen's Road, Hastings. 

Mackenzie, Mr. J., 45, Forrest Eoad, Edinburgh. 

McKeown, W. A., M.D., CM., 20, College Square East, Belfast. 

Mackey, Mr. J. B., 2, Bouverie Street, E.G. 

Mackill, Mr. B. C, Cadzow Street, Hamilton. 

MacLachlan, Mr. J. McC., 42, New North Koad, N. 

Maclagau, Sir D., M.D., F.K.S.E., 28, Heriot Row, Edinburgh. 

McLeod, Mr. T., 1-18, Broomielaw, Glasgow. 

M'Millau, Mr. J., 17, Great Western Road, Glasgow, 

McMullan, Mr. T., 54, Victoria Street, Belfast. 

McMurray, Mr. J., 13, Clyde Street West, Helensburgh, N.B. 

M'Naught, Mr. A., 4, West Blackhall Street, Greenock. 

McNicol, Mr. J., Apothecary Hall, Alva, Stirlingshire. 

Macpherson, Mr. A., Stornoway. 

Macpherson, Mr. C. A., 97, Dairy Road, Edinburgh. 

McSweeny, Mr. M. A., Prospect Place, Sundays Well, Cork. 

Madeley, Mr. E. S., 3, West Kensington Terrace, W. 

Maggs, Mr., Junr., St. Leonards-ou-Sea^ 

Maggs, Mr. F. R., Yeovil. 

Magor, Mr. Martin, Aston New Town, Birmingham. 

Maitland, Mr. P. C, 13(;, Great Portland Street, W. 

Maitland, Mr. W., Kemnay, Aberdeensliire. 

Maizey, Mr. E., 1!)4, Cassland Road, South Hackney, E. 

Makius, G. H., M.R.C.S., F.I.G., F.C.S., Danesiield, St. Albans, 

Herts. 
ManfuU, Mr. H. J., 88, Arkwright Street, Nottingham. 
Manning, Mr. R. J., Wells, Somerset. 
Maries, Mr. D. R., 16, Irlam Road, Bootlo, Liverpool. 
Marley, Mr. W., 124, Northumberland Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Marriott, Mr. T. E., Havelock Road, Hastings. 
Marris, Mr. T., 82, Bridge Street, Worksop, Notts. 
Marsden, Mr. T. B., 112, Wilmslem Road, Withington, Manchester. 
Marsh, Mr. J. H., 0, Milsom Street, Bath. 
Mursh, Mr. W. H., 92, ToUington Park, N. 
Marshall, Mr. Geo. T., Bridge Street, Morpeth. 
Marshall, Mr. T., Beverley. 

Marshall, W., F.B.S., 9, Duggan Place, Rathmines, Dublin. 
Marson, Mr. Wm., 53, Greengate Street, Stafford. 
Marstou, Mr. J. T., 105, London Wall, City, E.G. 
Martin, Mr. N. H., 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Martindale, W., F.C.S., 10, New Cavendish Street, W. 
Mason, Mr., Uhissendiue, Kew. 
Mason, Mr. A., 29, Yorkshire Street, Rochdale. 
Mason, Mr. H. C, 1, Australian Avenue, E.G. 
Mason, Mr. J., Medical Hall, Boyle, Go. Roscommon. 
Mason, Mr. W. B., 117, Derby Street, Bolton. 
Mason, Mr. W. R., Gunnersbury Station, Brentford Road, W. 

C B 



370 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCR. 

Mather, Mrs. Ellen, High Street, Haddington, N.B. 

Mather, Mr. J., 58, Kay Street, Bolton. 

Mather, Mr. J. H., 78, High Street, Godalming. 

Mathews, Mr. J. H., 1, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

Mathias, Mr. T., Saiindersfoot, Pembrokeshu'e. 

Matthews, Mr. E., High Street, Royston, Herts. 

Matthews, Mr. H., 7, Old King Street, Bristol. 

Matthews, Mr. T., Man of Ross House, Ross, Herefordshire. 

Matthews, Mr. W., 12, Wigmore Street, W. 

Maunder, Mr. R., 714, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Maurice, Mr. J., 31, Bedford Street, Plymouth. 

Maw, Mr. C, 11, Aldersgate Street, E.G. 

Maxey, Mr. W. H., 265, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 

Maxfield, Mr. J., 89, Bartholomew Street, Leicester. 

Mayger, Mr. W. I)., 6, Regent Square, Northampton. 

Mays, Mr. R. J. J., 3, St. Mary's Terrace, Ryton-ou-Tyne. 

Meadows, Mr. H., 15, Westgate Street, Gloucester. 

Meadows, Mr. J., 41, Humberstone Gate, Leicester. 

Medd, Mr. J., 47, Westgate Street, Gloucester. 

Mellin, Mr. G., 16, Tichborne Street, Regent Street, W. 

Mellin, Mr. J. P., 1, Belgrave Road, Dresden, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Mellor, Mr. J. G., Market Square, St. Neots, Hunts. 

Mercer, Mr. A., Prestwich, Maji Chester. 

Mercer, Mr. J., 53, Water Lane, Preston. 

Merrell, Mr. J., 181, York Road, N. 

Merrikin, Mr. J. B., 25, Milsom Street, Bath. 

Merson, Mr. W., The Dispensary, Paignton. 

Metcalfe, Mr. C. L., 13, Whitefriargate, Hull. 

Metcalfe, Mr. E. H., Malvern. 

Middleton, Mr. A., 18, Southwell Road, Nottingham. 

Midgley, Mr. C, St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 

Miles, Mr. G., 1, Belvedere. 

Miller, Mr. W. C, 107, Hockley Hill, Birmingham. 

Millhouse, l\Ir. H. H., 54, Piccadilly, London. 

Millidge, Mr. A., 117, High Street, Newport, Isle of Wight. 

Milligau, Mr. D. G., Haltwhistle. 

Milligau, Mr. W. M., Newton Stewart, N.B. 

Mills, M.IS. A. E., 2, Torwood Terrace, Torquay. 

Mills, Mr. J., Eastgate Row, Chester. 

Mills, Mr. R. M., Bourne, Lincolnshire. 

Mills, Mr. W. H., 1, Market Place, Hewood, Lans. 

Milne, Mr. W., 4, Fleet Street, Torquay. 

Minchin, Mr. F. J., Athy.Co. Kildare. 

Minshull, Mr., 42, Dudley Street, Wclverhnmpton. 

Miushull, Miss R. C, N. E. Hospital for Children, Hackney Road, E. 

Mitche.i, Mr. E. D., 325, Moss Lane East, Manchester. 

M tchell, Mr. J., 151, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Mitten, Mit-s F., Hurstpierpoiut, Sussex. 

Moir, Dr. M., 143, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Monkhouse, Mr. H., All Saint's, Derby. 

Moody, Mr. S. W., 6, Walkergato, Louth, Lines. 

Moore, Mr. J. W., 7, Market Square, Hnnley. 

Moorhouse, Mr. W., 40, Kirkgate, WakctieM. 

Morgan, Mr. J. D., Bridge End House, Bideford, Devon. 

Morgan, W., Ph.D., 10, Nelson Terrace, Swansea. 

Morison, Mr. (i.. High Street, Peebles, N.B. 

Morrell, Mr. T., 1, South Street, New North Road, Islington, N. 

Morris, Mr. J., 127, Gosford Street, Coventry. 

Morris, Mr. J. 0., Lichfield Street, Walsall. 

Morris, Mr. J. L., 81, Alexandra Road, Manchester. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 371 

Morris, Mr. T., 118, Market Street, Faru worth, Bolton. 

Morson, T., F.C.S., 33, Southampton Eow, W.C. 

Morson, Mr. T. P., 33, Southampton Row, W.C. 

Mortiboy. Mr. J., 119, Railton Road, Heme Hill, S.E. 

Mortimer, Mr. D. A., 141, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Mortimer, Mr. J., 20, The Mall, Clifton, Bristol. 

Morton, Mr. J., Ramsbottom. [S.E. 

Moss, J., F. I.e., F.C.S., Galen Works, Wilson Street, New Cross E -ad, 

Moulden, Mr. W., 49, King William Street, Blackburn. 

Moyle, Mr. J., 27, Broadway, Hacmiersmith, W. 

Muir, Mr. G., IGf), Cumberland Street, Glasgow. 

Mullock, Mr. E., Charing Cross, Birkenhead. 

Mumbray, Mr. R. G., Richmond, Surrey. 

Mumby, Mr. C, 47, High Street, Gosport. 

Munday, Mr. J., 1, High Street, Cardiff. 

Mundey, Mr. H., 233, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Murdoch, Mr. D., High Street, Falkirk, N.B. 

Murdoch, Mr. G., 249, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

Muskett, Mr. J., Harleston, Norfolk. 

Myers, Mr. G., 71, Coltmau Street, Hull. 

Naish, Mr. C. E., 18, Braithwaite Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

Naylor, W. A. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 5, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Neale, Mr. H., Biddings, near Alfreton, Derbyshire. 

Neale, Mr. J., 55, High Street, King's Lynn. 

Nesbit, Mr. J., 162, High Street, Portobello. 

Neve, Mr. F. C, Norman Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Newbigin, Mr. J. L., Alnwick. 

Newby, Mr. R. I., Lemon Street, Truro, Cornwall. 

Newcome, Mr. J., 71, High Street, Grantham. 

Newey, Mr. J. T., Address not known. 

Newman, Mr. W. F., 8, Market Street, Falmouth. 

Newsholme, Mr. G. T. W., 74, Market Place, Sheffield. 

Newton, Mr. T. A. C, 9, Carlton Terrace, Carlton Road, Kilburn, N.W. 

Nicholl, Mr. S. C, 37, High Street, Belfast. 

NichoUs, Mr. R. E., Fernleigh Lodge, Lee, Kent. 

Nicholson, Mr. A., Flat House, Tunbridge Wells. 

Nicholson, Mr. H., 38, Argyle Street, Birkenhead. 

Nicholson, Mr. J. H., 4, Glasgow Street, Maxwelltown, Dumfries. 

Nickolls, Mr. J. B., Swancote, Chaddesley Corbett, Kidderminster, 

Nickson, Mr. J., 56, Broad Street, Ludlow. 

Nicol, Mr. J., 4, Dowanhill Place, Partick, Glasgow. 

Nightingale, Mr. J. C, 15, Great Percy Street, W.C. 

Noble, Mr. A., 139, Princes Street, Ediinburgh. 

Noble, Mr. J., 55, King Street, South Shields. 

Norman, Mr. W. F., 37, Warwick Street, Leamington. 

Nuthall, Mr. E., Bank Plain, Norwich. 

Nutt, Mr. A. J., 133, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 

Odling, Prof. W., M.B., F.R.S., etc., 15, Norham Gardens, Oxford. 

Oglesby, Mr. .J., 31, Micklegate, York. 

Oldfield, Mr. H., 48, Market Street, Hyde. 

Oldham, Mr. J., 4, Albert Street, Mansfield, Notts. 

O'Neill, Mr. J. Address unknown. 

Orchard, Mr. E. J., Market Place, Salisbury. 

Orme, Mr. W. , Long Street, Atherstone. 

Ottey, Mr. T., Waterloo Street, Burton-on-Treut. 

Owen, Mr. J., Holloway Road, Islington, N. 

Padwick, Mr. J., 5, Preston Street, Brighton. 



3/2 Bl'JTISH rUAKMACEUTICAL COXPEKENCE. 

Padwick, Mr. T., Kedhill. 

Padwick, Mr. W. G., 05, St. James's Eoad, Croydon. 

Page, Mr. Chas., 10, Dale End, Eirmingham. 

Paine, Mr. C, 3, Commercial Street, Newport, Mon. 

Paiue, Mr. S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 

Palmer, Mr. F., 3, Auerley Eoad, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Palmer, Mr. F. W., liauisey, Hunt.s. 

Park, Mr. C. J.. 1, Mutley Plain, Plymouth. 

Park, Mr. W., 91, Brook Street, Broughty Feny, Dundee. 

Parker, Mr. A., High Street, Uttoxeter. 

Parker, E. H., F.C.S.. 85, Clifton Eoad, Maida Vale.W, 

Parker, Mr. S., 360, Leeds Eoad, Bradford, Yorks, 

Parker, Mr. T., 9 & 10. Bridge Street, York. 

I'arker, Mr. W. H., 177, Alfreton Eoad, Nottingham. 

Parkes, Mr. J. P., Leyton House, Albion Eoad, Stoke Newington, N. 

Parkin, Mr. J. B., Kirkgate, Eipou. 

Parkinson, Mr. F. W., Atherstonc, Warwickshire. 

Parkinson, Mr. E., 1, William Heni-y Sti'eet, Soho, Liverpool. 

Parkinson, 11., I'h.D., Sun Bridge Buildings, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Parkinson, Mr. T., 30, Market Place, Driffield. 

Parrott, Mr. W. S., 79, High Street, Watford. 

Parry, Mr. W. P., 43, King William Street, E.G. 

Pars, Mr. E. C, Market Place, Thrapstone. 

Passmore, Mr. F., 27, Kemiington Park Gardens, S.E. 

Pasmore, Mr. F. E., 2(), Cullum Street, Fenchurch Street, E.G. 

Patchitt, Mr. E. C, 1"28, Derby Eoad, Nottingham. 

Paterson, Mr. A., 133, Govan Eoad, Glasgow. 

Paterson, Mr. J., Helmsdale, Sutherlandshire. 

Paterson, Mr. J., 133, Gallowgate, Aberdeen. 

Paterson, Mr. S., Gallowgate, Aberdeen. 

Patman, Mr. F. T., 30, King Street, ^\^litehaven. 

Paton, J., F.L.S., Kelviugrove Museum, Glasgow. 

Patterson, Mr. D. J., West Hill, Mansfield, Notts. 

Pattiusou, J., F.I.C., F.C.S., 75, The Side, Ncwcastle-ou-Tyne. 

Pattisou, Mr. G., 139, St. John Street Eoad, E.G. 

Pattrick, Mr. W., High Street, Measham. 

Paul, Mr. E., 157, Kim; Edward's Eoad, Birmingham. 

Payne, Mr. H., Market Easen. 

Payne, Mr. J. C. C, Oxford Buildings, Belfast. 

Payne, Mr. S., Wallingford, Berkshire. 

Peake, Mr. A., Queen Street, Earlestown. 

Pearson, C.T., F.E.B.S., F.Z.S., 101, Stamford Street, Blackfriars, S.E. 

Peatsou, Mr. H. E., 102, Broughtou Eoad, Salford, Manchester. 

Pedley, E. D., M.E.C.S., L.D.S., 17, Eailway Approach, London 

Bridge, S.E. 
Pedley, Mr. G., 17, Eaiiwav Approach. London Bridge, S.E. 
Pedley, Mr. T., Mill Bank,' Triangle, Halifax. 
Penney, W., .\.L.S., Parkstone, Poole. 
Penrose, A. P., L.IXS., E.C.S., 5, AmwcU Street, W.C. 
Percy, Mr. T. B., Victoria Square, Triuo. 
Perfect, Mr. E., Biugley, Yorks. 
Perkins, Mr. J., 29, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton. 
Perry, Mr. E. C, Wote Street, Basingstoke. 
Perry, Mr. G. E., 171, Hagley Eoad, Birmingham. 
Perry, Mr. W. H., 18, Ledsam Street, Birmingham. 
Petrie, Mr. J. J., Aboyue, Aberdeensiiire. 
Pettigrcw, Mr. J. W., Lonzie, near Glasgow. 
Pettinger. Mr. E., 49, High Street, Hampstead, N.W. 
Phillips, Mr. C. L.. 13. Morgan Street, Tredegar. 
Phillips, Mr. J., 58, Wallgate, Wigan. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 373 

Phillips, Mr. J. J., Ryecroft, Ashton. 

Philp, Mr. J., Wadebridge, Cornwall. 

Pickard, Mr. W., 130, High Street, Netting Hill, W. 

Picken, Mr. T. W., Newport, Salop. 

Pickering, Mr. J., Market Place, Crowle, Doncaster. 

Pickering, Mr. T., John Street, Over Winsford, Cheshire. 

Pickup, Mr. W., 80, Bank Top, Blackburn. 

Picnot, Mr. C, 24, High Street, Strood. 

Pidd, Mr. A. J., 221, Chester Road, Hulme, Manchester. 

Pidgeon, J. D., 6, Lewisham High Road, New Cross, S. E. 

Pilcher, W. .J., F.R.C.S., High Street, Boston. 

Pilley, Mr. S., '.), Bargate, Boston. 

Pinkerton, Mr. W., 17, Greenside Place, Edinburgh. 

Pinyou, Mr. W., 49, Abbev Road, St. John's Wood. N.W. 

Pitchford, Mr. W., 54, Cotham Hill, Cotham, Bristol. 

Pitman, Mr. J., 50, RedcHff Hill, Bristol. 

Place, Mr. J., 23 and 24, King Street, Cambridge. 

Plant, Mr. W. E., Somerby, near Oakham. 

Piatt, Mr W., Matlock Bath. 

Plowman, S., F.R.C.S., F.I.C., L.R.C.P., L.S.A., 2 Residence, St. 

Thomas's Hospital, S.E. 
Pocklington, Mr. H., 20, Park Row, Leeds. 
Poingdestre, Mr. C. R.. 187, Newington Butts, S.E. 
Pond, Mr. B. C, 102, Brixton Hill, S.W. 
Pond, Mr. G. P., 68, Fleet Street, E.G. 
Ponsford, Mr. J., 24, Wolborough Street, Newton Abbot. 
Poole, Mr. J., .50, High Street, Newcastle, Staffs. 
Porter, W. E., F.C.S., 16, Tybridge Street, Worcester. 
Postans, Mr. A. W., 35, Baker Street, W. 
Pottage, Mr. J. C, 117, Prince's Street, Edinburgh. 
Pott, Mr. F. F., Post Office, Lower Tranmere, Birkenhead. 
Potter, Mr. H., 75, Weston Street, S.E. 
Potts, Mr. C, Market Place, Ilkestone. 
Powell, Mr. W., White Horse Street, Leeds. 
Powers, Mr. E., Priory Works, CoventiT. 
Powuall, Mr. T. R., 45, St. George's Road, Bolton. 
Pratt, Mr. G. W., 44, Stretford Road, Hulme, Manchester. 
Pratt, Mr. R. M., Cattle Market, Otley, Yorks. 
Prentice, Mr., J., 126, Nicholson Street, Edinburgh. 
Presley, Mr. E., 12, St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol. 
Presslie, Dr., 90, King Street, Aberdeen. 
Preston, Mr. J., 4, High Street, Sheffield. 
Preston, Mr. J. C, 81, Bishopsgate Street Without, E.G. 
Pretty, Mr. C, 285, North End Road, S.W. 
Prichard, Mr. E., 10, Vigo Street, Regent Street, W. 
Pridmore, Mr. W., Castle Street, Hinckley, Leicestershire. 
Prince, Mr. A. G., 2, Market Street, Longton, Staffs. 
Pring, R. W., L.A.H.D., 7, Plough Buildings, Belfast. 
Prior, Mr. G. T., 32, Broad Street, Oxford. 
Probyn, Mr. C, 55, Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 
Proctor, Mr. B. S., 11, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Proctor. Mr. W., 56, Dean Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Prosser, Mr. F. H., 112 & 114, Spring Hill, Birmingham. 
Prosser, Mr. J. A., Manchester Road, Walkden. 
Pugh, Mr. G., Dunster House, Mincing Lane, E.G. 
PuUin, Mr. W. H., 42, Parade, Leamington. 
Pumphrey, Mr. A., 5, Bristol Road, Weston-super-Mare. 
Purdue, Mr. T., Witnev, Oxon. 

Purefoy, R. D., F.R.C.S.I., 13, Mcrriou Square, N., Dublin. 
Purves, Mr. S., 70, Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh. 



374 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Quialan, Prof. F. J. B., M.D., M.E.I.A., F.C.P., 29, Lower Fitzwilliam 
Street, Dubliu. 

Eackham, Mr. G., Wenhaston, Halesworth, Suffolk, 

Kadley, Mr. W. V., 42, Hampton Eoad, Soutbport. 

Eae, Mr. J., 

Eaimes, Mr. K., BonuInRton Park, Edinburgh. 

Eainey, Mr. J. J., Pbcenix House, Spilsby. 

Eait, Mr. E. C, 362, Hamilton Place, Partick. 

Eamsden, Mr. W., Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Eandall, W. B., F.C.S., 146, High Street, Southampton. 

Eansom, Mr. F., Bancroft, Hitchin. 

Eausom, Mr. W., Hitchin. 

Eastrick, Mr. E. J., Chesterfield, Elm Grove, Southsea. 

Eay, Mr. G., 9, Stanley Street, Macclesfield. 

Eedferu, Mr. J., Cobham, Surrey. 

Eedfern, Mr. T., 50, King Street, Penrith. 

Eedwood, Prof. T., Ph.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Eees, Mr. W. H., Dartmouth. 

Eeid, Mr. N., 19, High Street, Montrose, N.B. 

Eeynolds, Mr. F., Station Eoad, Harrogate. 

Eeynolds, Mr. J. J., Prospect Place, Bungay, Suffolk. 

Eeynolds, K., F.C.S., 13, Briggate, Leeds. 

Eeynolds, Mr. E. F., 13, Briggate, Leeds. 

Eeynolds, Mr. T., Caerphilly. 

Eheeder, Mr. T., CO, Elswick Eoad, Newcastle-ou-Tyne. 

Ehind, Mr. W. W., 69, Gloucester Eoad, Eegeut's Park, N.W. 

Ehodes, G. W., M.E.C.S., Westbourne House, Huddersfield. 

Eich, S. W., F.LC, 34, Gloucester Eoad, Croydon. 

Eichards, Mr. J., 33, Castle Street, Swansea. 

Eichards, Mr. J. P., Lammas Street, Carmarthen. 

Eichardsou, B. W., M.D., F.K.S., etc., 25, Manchester Square, W. 

Eichardson, Mr. J., 448, Kingsland Eoad, E. 

Eicbardson, J. G. F., Ph.D., F.C.S., Elmfield, Knighton, Leicester. 

Eichardsou, Mr. E. T., Fern Grove, Hartiugton Eoad, Liverpool. 

Eichardson, Mr. J. H., Mresford. 

Eichardson, Mr. W. H., Dudley. 

Eicbes, Mr. T., 1, Victoria Parade, Torquay. 

Eichmond, Mr. E., Leighton Buzzard, Beds. 

Eiddell, H. B., F.C.S., Whitefield House, Eothbury, Morpeth. 

Eiddle, Mr. W. E., St. Cutbberts, Hexham. 

Eidge, Mr. J., 8, Lome Street, Wigan. 

Eidlcy, Mr. A. C, St. Clements, Ipswich. 

Eighton, Mr. J., '229, Lord Street, Soutbport. 

Eimmington, F. M., F.C.S., 9, Bridge Street, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Eitcbie, Mr. D., 39, Market Street, Aberdeen, N.B. 

Eoacb, Mr. P., 8, St. James's Street, S.W. 

Eobb, Mr. J., 133, Clifton Street. Eoatb. Cardiff. 

Bobbins, J., F.C.S.. 147, Oxford Street, W. 

Roberts, Mr. J., 247, Horsley Heath, Tipton. 

Eoberts, Mr. M., High Street, Bnngor. 

Eoberts, Mr. E., Llangunider, Crickhowell. 

Eoberts, Mr. W. C, Post Olfico, Llausilin. 

Eoberts, Mr. W. E., 20, Castle Street, Beaumaris. 

Eoberts, Mr. W. E., Eusliolnic, Manchester. 

Eobertsou, Mr. G., London Hospital, E. 

Eobeson, Mr. C, 148, Prescot Bond, Fairfield, Liverpool. 

Eobinson, A. E., F.C.S., 9, Bull Eing, Birmingham. 

Robinson, Mr. B., 1. Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Eobinson, Mr. G., New Lane, Patricroft, near Manchester. 



BRITISH PHARilACEDTICAL COXFEREXCE. 375 

Robinson, Mr. J., Orford Hill, Norwich. 

Robinson, Mr. J., Stanley, R.S.O., Durham. 

Robinson, Mr. J., 334:. Alfreton Road, Oldkuow Sh'eet, Nottingham. 

Robinson, Mr. J. S., 12, Macaulay Street, Great Grimsby. 

Robinson, Mr. J. S., Alfreton. 

Robinson, Mr. R,, 78, Yorkshire Street, Rochdale. 

Robinson, Mr. R. A., 195, Bromptou Road, S.W. 

Robinson, Mr. W., Main Street, Cockermouth. 

Robinson, Mr. W. P., 17, Pavement, Clapham Common, S.W. 

Robsou, Mr. T., 4, Victoria Road, Brighton. 

Roderick, Mr. T., Commercial Street, Pontypool, 

Rodman, Mr. J., 285, Duke Street, Glasgow. 

Rogers, Mr. F. A. , 29, Chapel Street Belgrave Square, S.W. 

Rogers, Mr. J., R., 82, Church Street, Stoke Xewington, N. 

Rogei-s, Mr. W., 53, Ben Jonson Road, Stepney, E. 

Ronchetti, Mr. T. A., 40, Mandale Road, South Stockton. 

Rookledge, Mr. F. E., Easingwold. 

Royse, Mr. A., Middleton, Lanes. \ 

Royse, Mr. Alfred, 27, Long Street, Middleton, Manchester. 

Rose, Mr. J. D., 18, Ormonde Street, Jarrow-on-Tyne, Durham. 

Ross, L. B., F.C.S., Great Driffield. 

Rossiter, Mr. F., 14, Grand Parade, St. Leonards-ou-Sea. 

Rotherham, Mr. C. J., 56, South Molten Street, W. 

Round, Mr. F,, 10, London Street, Southi^ort. 

Rouw, Mr. W. T., Market Place, Ruthin. 

Rowe, Mr. P. M., High Street, Marlborough. 

Rowe, Mr. R., 25, Ladv Margaret Road, N.W. 

Rowe, S. T.. M.A.. Ph"D., Public Analyst, Redruth. 

Rowell, R. H., L.S.A., etc., Houghtou-le-Spriug. 

Russell, Mr. C. J. L., 29, High Street, Windsor. 

Sainsburv, Mr. A. F., 176, Strand, W. C. 

Salmon, Mr. E. F., .80, Western Road, Hove, Brighton. 

Salter, Mr. B., Uckfield. 

Salter, Mr. J. B., Castle Street, Shrewsbury. 

Sambell, Mr. J., 33 Fore Street, Redruth. 

Samuel, A. H., F.C.S., 62, Dale Street, Liverpool. 

Sanderson, Mr. G. C, 40, Peter Street. Manchester. 

Sandford, Mr. G. W., 47, Piccadilly, W. 

Sandiland, Mr. R. B., Bicester, Oxfordshire. 

Sandwith, Mr. W. H., Bracknell, Berks. 

Sangster, Mr. A., 66, High Street, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Sangster, Mr. J., Aberdeen. 

Sangster, Mr. J. G., 2, Palmerston Road, Southsea. 

Sangster, Mr. W., Dufftown. 

Sansom, Mr. E., 75, Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness. 

Sansom, Mr. H., 71, Regent Street, Leamington. 

Sarsfield, Mr. W., 7, Market Place, Durham. 

Satchell, Mr. F., Crowthorne, Wokingham, Berks. 

Saunders, Mr. C, 4 & 6, North Road, Highgate, N. 

Saunders, Mr. D. P., Haverfordwest. 

Saunders, Mr. T. P., Blenheim House, West Cowes, I.W. 

Saunders, Mr. J. W., 6, Rochester Square, Camden Road, N.W. 

Savage, Mr. W. D., Park Road East, Brighton. 

Saunders, Mr. W. H., 153, Duke Street, Livei-pool. 

Savage, Mr. W. W., 65, Edward Street, Brighton. 

Saville, Mr. J., 4, Goodramgate, York. 

Savory, Mr. A. L., 143, New Bond Street, W. 

Savory, Mr. J. F., 143, New Bond Street, W. 

Sawyer, Mr. H., 37, Fisher Street, Carlisle. 



376 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Saver, Mr. E. C, 8fi, Berners Street, Ipswich. 

Scaife, Mr. S., 368, Stretford Road, Manchester. 

Scanlan, Mr. C, 71 & 73, Market Street, Droylsden. 

Schacht, F. T., B.A., M.R.C.S., West London Hospital, Hammer- 
smith, W. 

Schacht, G. F., F.C.S., 52, Eoyal York Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

Schacht, Mr. W., 26, Finsbury Pavement, E.G. 

Schmidt, Mr. A., 382, New City Road, Glasgow. 

Schorlemmer, Prof. C, Ph.D.,F.E.S., etc., Owen's College, Manchester. 

Seath, Mr. A. , Dunfermline. 

Seivwright, Mr. G., The Square, Cullen, N.B. 

Selkirk, Mr. J., 7, Pembroke Street, Cork. 

Senier, A., M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., Thornfield, Harold Road 
Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Senier, H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 88, Norwood Road, S.E. 

Severs, Mr. J., 23, Stricklandgate, Kendal. 

Seymour, j\Ir. F. S., The Square, Winiborne. 

Shackleton, Mr. G. W., 61, Frogmore Street, Abergavenny. 

Shapley, Mr. C, 11, Strand, Torquay. 

Sharman, Mr. C. R., Daventry Road, Towcester. 

Sharpc, Mr. L. G., 34, High Street, Netting Hill, W. 

Shaw, Mr. A., Riddings, Derbyshire. 

Shaw, Mr. J. W., 4, Edwardes" Terrace, Kensington, W. 

Shenstone, J. C, F.R.M.S., 13, High Street, Colchester. 

Shepheard, Mr. T., 12, Bridge Street Row, Chester. 

Shepherd, Mr. G. J., 76, College Street, A.berdeen. 

Shepherd, Mr. .J. W., Settle. 

Sherlock, JMr. T., Market Place, St. Helen's, Lanes. 

Sherriff, Mr. G., Paignton, South Devon. 

Shields, Mr. J., Alsager, Cheshire. 

Shillinglaw, Mr. W., L.D.S., 33, Hamilton Square, Birkenhead. 

Shirtlitf, Mr. W., 66, Goldhawk Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Siebold, L., F.I.C., F.C.S., Carr Bank, Walmersley, near Burv, Laucs. 

Sillitoe, Mr. F. S., Station Road, Redhill, Surrey. 

Silson, Mr. R. W., 113, Church Street, Manningham, Bradford. 

Silverlock, Mr. H. T., U2, Blackfriars Road, S.E. 

Silvers, Mr. F. T., 25, Camberwcll Green, Camberwell, S.E. 

Sim, J., F.C.S., 24, Bridge Street, Aberdeen. 

Simms, Mr, R. J., 3, Ramshill Road, South Cliff, Scarborough. 

Simpkins, Mr. J., Minchinhampton. 

Simpson, Mr. A., {), Melbourne Street, Stalybridge. 

Simjison, Mr. A. H., The Cross, Forfar. 

Simpson, Mr. D. O., Hoanor. 

Simpson, Mr. G., i\Iusic Hall Buildings, Peterhead. 

Simpson, Mr. H. D., 2, New Street, Louth. 

Simpson, Mr. -R., 16, Henry Street, Dublin. 

Simpson, Mr. R. G., Stowmarket. 

Simpson, Mr. T., Bloxham, Banbury, Oxon. 

Simpson, Mr. W., 431 & 433, New City Road, Glasgow. 

Sinclair, Mr. R., Invergordon, N. B. 

Skinner, Mr. M. H., Keelby, near Ulcoby, Lines. 

Slack, Mr. .Tno. L., 144, Stockport Road, Manchester. 

Sladc, Mr. J., Tonbury. 

Slater, Mr. A., South Street, New Wliittington, Dcrbyshh-e. 

Slater, Mr. J., 76, Bedford Street, Leicester. 

Slater, Mr. J., Sadler Street, Wells, Somerset. 

Slater, Mr. T.. Stone, Staffordshire. 

Smeeton, Mr. W., 26. Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Smiles, Mr. .7., 3, Brandon Terrace, rklinburgh. 

Smith, Mr. A., 60, Acres Lane, Stalybridge. 



BRITISH PHAKMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 377 

Smith, Jfr. Allen, Sale, Near Manchester. 

Smith, Mr. A. J., 47, North Street, Taunton. 

Smith, Mr. A. W., 9S, High Street, Eye, Sussex. 

Smith, Miss C. L., 3(55, Eglinton Street, Glasgow. 

Smith, Mr. D., Market Place, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 

Smith, E., F.C.S., 8, The Strand, Torquay. 

Smith, Mr. E., 283, Liveipool Koad, Islington, N. 

Smith, Mr. E. M., 34, St. Thomas Street, Weymouth. 

Smith, Mr. F. J , 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 

Smith, Mr. H., Leamington. 

Smith, Mr. J. D., Magdalen Street, Norwich. = 

Smith, Mr. J. J., 619, Rice Lane, Walton, Liverpool. 

Smith, Mr. J. S., Heriot Hill House, Edinburgh. 

Smith, Mr. J. S. T. W., 10, Alexandra Road, St. .John's Wood, N.W. 

Smith, Mr. J. T., 17, Blackburn Street, Radeliffe, Manchester. 

Smith, Mr. J. W., 1a, Denbigh Road, Westbourne Grove, W. 

Smith, Mr. N., 373, High Street, Cheltenham. 

Smith, Mr. N., Amersham. 

Smith, Mr. P. S., 

Smith, Mr. R. J., care of Wright, Layman & Umney, 50, Southwark 

Street, London, S.E. 
Smith, R., M. D., Durham County Asylum, Sedgefield, Ferry Hill. 
Smith, Mr. S. A., 102, Parade, Leamington. 
Smith, T., F.R.C.S.E., Heriot Hill House, Edinburgh. 
Smith, Mr. Tenison, Top of Union Street, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 
Smith, Mr. W., 48, Porcbester Road, W. 
Smith, Mr. W. F., 280, Walworth Road, S.E. 
Smith, Mr. W. H., 36, St. George's Road, Brighton. 
Smithson, Mr. J., 1, Preston Road, Brighton. 
Smithurst, Mr. J., 20, Robin Hood Street, Nottingham. 
Snape, Mr. G. J., 13, Great Hampstow Street, Birmingham. 
Sneath, Mr. T. D., 26, Stodman Street, Newark-on-Trent. 
Snoxell, Mr. S., 12, Haydou Place, Guildford. 
Soames, Mr. W., Wargrave, near Henley-on-Thames. 
Southall, A., F.C.S., Bull Street, Birmingham. 

Southall, Mr. Wilfred F., Sir Harry's Road, Edgebaston, Birmingham. 
Southwell, Mr. C. H., Boston. 
Sowray, Mr. J., Petergate, York. 
Sowray, Mr. R. D., 58, Sandy Lane, Skelmersdale. 
Spargo, Mr. H., 85, Osborne Road, Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyce. 
Spearing, Mr. J., 53, Above Bar, Southampton. 
Spence, Mr. J., 1, Mounthooly, Aberdeen, N.B. 
Spencer, Mr. T., London House, South Street, Sleaford, Lines. 
Spencer, Mr. T., Wokingham. 

Spilsbury, J., F.C.S., .S3, Bath Street, Leamington. 
Spinney, Mr. F., 14, Commercial Road, Bournemouth. 
Sprackett, Mr. W., 58, Quayside, Bristol. 
Spyer, Mr. N., 1, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, W. 
Squire, Mr. A., 1, Bush Lane, E.G. 
Squire, P. W., F.L.S., F.C.8., 413, Oxford Street, W 
Stable, Mr. R. H., 92, Drayton Park, Highbury, N. 
Stacey, H. G., F.C.S., 300, High Holborn, W.C. 
Stacey, Mr. S. LI., 300, High Holborn, W.C. 
Stafford, Mr. W., 10, Northgate Street, Gloucester. 
Stainer, Mr. J., 59, Sandgate Road, Folkestone. 
Stammwitz, Miss L., 2, Palace Avenue, Paignton, S. Devon. 
Stamp, Mr. E. B., High Street, Hampstead, N.W. 
Stanford, E. C. C, F.C.S., Gleuwood, Dalmuir, Glasgow. 
Stangroom, Mr. A., Wbissonsctt, near Dereliam, Norfolk. 
Stanley, Mr. H., 72, The Parade, Leamington. 



378 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Stanley, Mr. T., Wlialley Road, Accrington. 
Stansfield, Mr. E., 85, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 
Stanswood, Mr. J., 277, Commercial Road, Landport. 
Stauway, Mr. W. H., Kington, Herefordshire. 
Staples, Mr. E., West Street, Wilton. 
Stapleton, Mr. J., 3, Lower Sackville Street, Dublin. 
Starkie, Mr. R. S., 120, Strand, W.C. 
St. Dalmas, Mr. A., 40, Belgrave Gate, Leicester. 
Steedman, Mr. R. H., Holly Villa, Dalmuir, N.li. 
Stedmau, Mr. W., 7<5, High Street, Ashford, Kent. 
Stenson, Mr. J., 110, High Street, Camden Town, N.W. 
Stephen, Mr. J. W., 38, Duff Street, Macduff, Banfl'sLire. 
Stephenson, Mr. F., 10, Howe Street, Edinburgh. 
Stephenson, Mr. J. B., 48, Frederick Street, Edinburgh. 
Stephenson, Mr. J. N., High Street, Heckmoudwike. 
Stephenson, S., F.C.S , Llyn-y-mawn, Holywell, Flintshire. 
Stevens, Mr. P. A., 72, Mansfield Road, N.W. 
Stevenson, Mr. J. C, The Strand, Todmorden. 
Stevenson, Mr. J., 1, Baxtergate, Whitby. 
Stevenson, Mr. R. W., 19, Victoria Street, Derby. 
Stevenson, T., M.D., F.I.C., F.C.S. , 4.5, Gresham Road, S .W. 
Stewart, Mr. D., Albert Street, Kirkwall, N.B. 
Stewart, Mr. J., 8, Cadzow Street, Hamilton. 
Stewart, Mr. J., Watergate, Grantham. 
Stickland, Mr. W. H., 28, Cromwell Place, S.W. 
Stiles, Mr. M. H., 2, French Gate, Doncaster. 
Stiling, Mr. J. E., 4, Courtenay Street, Newton Abbot. 
Stoakes, Mr. B. M., 1(1, Whitefriargate, Hull. 
Stobbs, Mr. R., Alma Place, Cleveland Road, North Shields. 
Stockman, Mr. R., University, Edinburgh. 
Stoker, G. N., F.I.C., The Laboratory, Somerset House, W.C. 
Stones, Mr. W., 113, Market Street, Manchester. 
Storey, Mr. E. H., 42, Castle Street East, Oxford Street, W. 
Storie, Mr. R., Dalkeith, N.B. 
Storrar, Mr. D., 228, High Street, Kirkcaldy. 
Stott, W., Ph.D., D.Sc, Sowerby Bridge. 
Strachan, Mr. A., 138, Rosemount Place, Aberdeen. 
Strachan, Mr. J. E., 34, Upper Kirkgate, Aberdeen. 
Streater, Mr. J. H., 3, Sloane Street, S.AV. 
Strongitijarm, Mr. W. G., Loampit Hill, Lewisham, S.E. 
Stroud, ]\Ir. J., Chesterfield House, Ashley Hill, Bristol. 
Stuart, C. E., B.Sc, 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Stuart, Mr. J. E., Fair View, Arkwright Road, Hampstead, N.W. 
Sumner, Mr. J., High Street, Coleshill. 
Sumner, Mr. R., i)OA, Lord Street, Liverpool. 
Sutcliffo, Mr. G. H., 3, St. James Street, Bacnp. 
Sutton, F., F.I.C., F.C.S., Bank Plain, Norwich. 
Swan, J. W., F.I.C., F.C.S., Lauriston, Bromley. Kent. 
Swingburn, Mr. R. H., 33, Broad Street, South IMolton, Devon. 
Swinn, Mr. C, 125, Upper Moss Lane, Hulme, Manchester. 
Swinnerton, Mr. W., 07, High Street, Princes Eud, Tipton. 
Swire, I\Ir. J., King Cross, Halifax. 

Sykes, Mr. H., Commercial Square, Mold Green, Huddersfield. 
Sykes, Mr. T. H., Church Street, Southport. 
Symes, Dr. C, 14, Hardman Street, Liverpool. 
Symington, Mr. T., 13, Dundas Street, Edinburgh. 
Symous, W., F.C.S., 20, Joy Street, Barnstaple. 
Symons, W. H., F.R.M.S., F.C.S., 130, Fellow's Road, South 
Hampstead, N.W. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 379 

Talbot, Mr. T. H., 106, Fenchurcli Street, E.G. 
Tame, Mr. T., Queen's Square, High ^Yycombe. 
Tame, Mr. T. W., I'J, Moor Street, Chepstow. 
Tampliu, Mr. E. C, Kiugston-on-Thames. 

Tanuer, Mr. A. E., Tottenham High Cross, E. ' * 

Taphn, Mr. W. G., 91, Hampstead Iload, N.W. 
Taubman, Mr. E., 33, Southampton Row, W.C, 
Taylor, Mr. A., Loudon Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
Tavlor, Mr. E., 24, Yorkshire Street, Rochdale. 
Tavlor, G. S., F.C.S., 13, Queen's Terrace, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Taylor, Mr. J., 13, Baker Street, W. 
Tavlor, Mr. John, The Belgrave Pharmacy, Torquay. 
Taylor, Mr. J. B., I'J, High Street, Bedford. 

Taylor, Mr. J. W., Belvoir Pharmacy, 128, Dereham Road, Norwich. 
Taylor, Mr. R. E., 11, Gloucester Road, Birkdale Park, Southport. 
Taylor, Mr. S., 178, Dalton Road, Harrow-in-Furness. 
Taylor, Mr. S., 70, Great George Street, Leeds. 
Taylor, Mr. F. W., Newport Pagnell. 
Taylor, Mr. W. G., Charford Mill, Bromggrove. 
Telfer, Mr. H. V., High Street, Bruton, Somerset. 
Terrj% Mr. T., 1, Egerton Crescent, Withiugtou, Manchester. 
Thatcher, Mr. T., 257, Catherine Street, Ashtou-under-Lvne. 
Thomas, Mr. D., 43, 44, & 45, High Street, Ferndale, Pontypridd, 
Thomas, Mr. H., St Leonards-on-Sea. 
Thomas, Mr. H. J., Laudore, Swansea. 
Thomas, Mr. J., Bridge, Canterbury, Kent. 
Thomas, Mr. J. D. D., 144, Ashley Road, Bristol. 
Thomas, Mr. J. E., 2, Christina Street, Swansea. 
Thomas, Mr. J. P., 5, Great Dark Street, Aberystwyth. 
Thomas, Mr. R., 143, HighS treet, Merthyr. 
Thomas, Mr. T. E., Burry Port. 
Thomas, Mr. W., Builth, Breconshire. 
Thomas, Mr. W. J., 9, Commercial Place, Aberdare. 
Thompson, Mr. A., 51, English Street, Carlisle. 
Thompson, Mr. A., 146, Upper Richmond Road, Putney, S.W. 
Thompson, Mr. C, Stratford Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 
Thompson, Mr. C. T. S., Lodge Lane, Princes Park, Liverpool. 
Thompson, Mr. G., Alston. 
Thompson, Mr. H., 101, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Thompson, Mr. H. A., 22, Worship Street, Finsbury Square, E.G. 
Thompson, Mr. H. C, 153, Lodge Lane, Liverpool. 
Thompson, Mr. J., 11, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 
Thompson, Mr. J., 58, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Thompson, Mr. J., High Street, Knaresboro', Yorkshire. 
Thompson, Mr. J. S., Sutton Coldfield, near Birmingham. 
Thompson, Mr. L., Lisnaskea, Ireland. 
Thompson, Mr. M. F., 17, Gordon Street, Glasgow. 
Thompson, Mr. T., 35, George Street, Edinburgh. 
Thompson, Mr. T., Fiukle Street, Richmond, Yorks. 
Thomson, Mr. C, Elie, Fife. 

Thomson, W., F.I.C., F.R.S.E., Royal Institution, Manchester. 
Thorburu, Mr. H., 3, Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Thorn, Mr. J. J., 225, Oxford Street, W. 
Thornton, Mr. H., 136, Leeds Road, Bradford. 

Thorp, Mr. J., Heaton Moor Road, Heaton Chapel, near Stockport. 
Thorp, W., junr., B.Sc, F.I.C., 39, Sandringham Road, Kings- 
laud, E. 
Thresh, J. C, D.Sc. (Lond.), Buxton, Derbyshire. 
Thrower, Mr. E. A., Diss. 
Thurland, Mr. H., 41, St. Giles Road, Oxford. 



380 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFEIIENCE. 

Thurlby, Mr. G., High Street, Gorleston, Yarmouth. 

Thwaites, Mr. F., Albert Hill, Bishop Auckland. 

Tichborne, Prof. C. R. C, Ph.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., 15, North Great 

Georges Street, Dubliu. 
Tilsley, Mr. J., Bei'riew, Montgomeryshire, North Wales. 
Tilsley, Mr. 11., Caersws R.8.O., Montgomeiy. 
Tily, Mr. C. A., 45, Maida Vale, W. 

Tipping, Mr. T. J. W., 155, High Street, Stoke Newington, N. 
Tipton, Mr. St. J., St. George's, Wellington, Salop. 
Tirrell, Mr. J., Market Square, Hanley. 
Tocher, Mr. G., Helensburgh. 
Todd, Mr. J., 4, Annandale Street, Edinburgh. 
Tomlinson, Mr. J. G., 9, I'ark Terrace, Fulwood, near Preston. 
Toone, Mr. J. A., 27, Old Christchurch Road, Bournemouth. 
Towerzey, Mr. A., 51, Royal York Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
Townsend, Mr. C, 4, Union Street, Bristol. 
Townson, Mr. W., 2, Russell Street, Liverpool. 
Towther, Mr. T., The Manor House, Moseley, Birmingham. 
Trick, Mr. W. B., 92, Green Lanes, Stoke Newington, N. 
Trigg, Mr. J. W\, Barton Street, Gloucester. 
Troake, Mr. R. J., 126, White Ladies' Rdad, Chfton, Bristol. 
Troke, Mr. C, 82, City Road, E.C. 
Troughton, Mr. C, 72, Old Hall Street, Liverpool. 
Truman, Mr. H. V., Thames Street, Sunbury. 
Tucker, Mr. H. S., 139, Great Hamilton Row, Birmingham. 
Tucker, Mr. W. T. M., High Street, Glastonbury. 
Tudor, Mr. W. P., Priory Villa, Brecon. 

Tullett, Mr. T. W., 86, Main Street, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 
Tullv, Mr. J., senr., Glen Vue Works, East Grinstoad, Sussex. 
Tupiiohne, Mr. E. H., 394, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 
Tupliohuo, Mr. J. T., 1, Coleherne Terrace, West Brompton, S.W. 
Turnbull, Mr. H. J., Tavistock Place, Sunderland. 
Turner, Mr. A., 74, Loveburn Street, Dumfries, N.B. 
Turner, Mr. C. E., 20, Bury Street, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
Turner, H., M.R.C.S., 1, Spotland Road, Rochdale. 
Turner, Mr. J., Chemical Works, Queen's Ferry, Flintshire. 
Turner, Mr. J., 15, Fore Street, Hexham. 
Turner, iMr. J., IG, Market Square, Aylesbury. 
Turner, Mr. J., 118, Princess Buildings, The Moor, Sheffield. 
Turner, Mr. R. C, 7, Park Hall Place, East End, Finehley, N. 
Turner, Mr. R., Oundle, Northamptonshire. 
Turner, Mr. W. S., 225, Oxford Street, Manchester. 
Turton, Mr. Wni., 93 ife 95, St. Peter's Street, Leeds. 
Turney, Mr. S. B., 183, Union Street, Plymoutli. 
Tutton, Mr. .7., 7, Lower Hillgate, Stockport. 
Twemlow, Mr. R., 91, Upper Brook Street, Manchester. 
Twiss, Mr. W., Hunstanton, Norfolk. 
Tyler, Mr. T., Comberton Hill, Kidderminster. 
Tyrcr, Mr. P., 70, Long Lane, Borough, S.E. 
Tyrcr, T., F.I.C., F.C.S., Garden Wharf, Battersea, S.W. 

Umney, C, F.I.C., F.C.S., 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 

Umuev, Mr. J. C, Eardlov House, Laurie Park, Sydenham, S.E. 

Upton, Mr. E. J., Wallingford, Berks. 

Urwick, Mr. W. W., CO, St. George's Road, Pimlico, S.W. 

Vallanco, Mr. A. C, Cavendish House, Mansfield. 
Vennall, Mr. G., Cranlcigh, Guildford. 
Vincent, Mr. P., jun., Walliani Green, S.W. 
Vince, Mr. J., 37, Cheapside, Lancaster. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 331 

Virgo, Mr. C, The Foregate, Worcester. 

Voce, Mr. W. G., 52, Halesowen Koad, Netherton, near Dudley. 

Waddington, Mr. H., Market Street, Thornton, near Bradford. 

Wakefield, Mr. C. H., Blackmore House, Malvern Wells. 

Wakefield, Mr. T., Six Ways, Brookfields, Birmingham. 

Wakeham, Mr. C, Helston. 

Wales, Mr. J. C, Hemsworth, Yorkshire. 

Walker, Mr. C, 8, Cannon Street Road, E. 

Walker, J. F., M.A., F.l.C, F.C.S., 16, Gilligate, York. 

Wallace, Mr. W., 89, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

Wall work, Mr. J., 94, Elliott Street, Tyldesley, near Manchester. 

Walton, Mr. E., High Street, Maidenhead. 

Wand, Mr. S., Haymarket, Leicester. 

Ward, G., F.l.C. , F.C.S., 39, Aire Street, Leeds. 

Ward, Mr. J., 39, Eastgate Street, Gloucester. 

Ward, Mr. .J. S., 72, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Ward, W., F.C.S., Sheffield Moor, Sheffield. 

Warren, Mr. W., 24, Russell Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

Warrick, Mr. F. W., Old Swan Lane, E.G. 

Waterall, Mr. G. E., Chapel Bar, Nottingham. 

Watkinson, Mr. J. W., Market Street, Faruworth, Bolton. 

Watson, Mr. F. P., 31, Carholme Road, Lincoln. 

Watson, Mr. .J. E. H., Rose Corner, Norwich. 

Watson, Mr. M., 3, Summerhill Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Watson, Mr. S., 170, High Street, Hounslow. 

Watson, Mr. T. D., F.C.S., 23, Cross Street, Finsbiiry, E.G. 

Watts, Mr. J., Dudley Hill, Bradford, Yorks. 

Watts, Mr. W. M., 32, Lower Whitecross Street, E.G. 

Wand, Mr. T., 30, Layerthorpe, York. 

Wealthall, Mr. A., 15(5, Great Jackson Street, Hulrao, Manchester. 

Webb, Mr. E. A., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.G. 

Webb, Mr. R. C., Medical Hall, Wexford. 

Weld, Mr. C. G., Messrs. Burroughs, Willcome & Co., Snow Hill 

Buildings, Holborn Viaduct, E.G. 
Wellcome, Mr. H. S., 7, Snow Hill, Holborn Viaduct, E.G. 
Wellings, Mr. Wm., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Wells, Mr. J., 52, Upper Sackville Street, Dublin. 
Wells, Mr. W. F., junr., 20, Upper Baggot Street, Dubhn. 
West, Mr. E. R., 12, Strand, Dawlish. 
West, Mr. T., 61, Chester Road, Stretford, Manchester. 
West, Mr. W., 15, Hortou Lane, Bradford. 
Westlake, Mr. J., 4, High Street, Sutton. 
Weston, Mr. C, 2, High Street, Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 
Weston, Mr. S. J., 151, Westbourne Terrace, W. 
Westrup, Mr. J. B., 76, Kensington Park Road, W. 
Wheeldon, Mr. .J., 241, Stockport Road, Manchester. 
Wlieeldon, Mr. W. H., Hijh Street, Knighton, Radnorshire. 
Wheeler, Mr. C, 143, Hackney Road, E. 
Wheeler, Mr. J. W., K), New i3oud Street, W. 
White, Mr. K. A., Mavfield, Sussex. 
White, Mr. G., 115, Hall Street, Dudley. 
White, Mr. .T. F., 13, lUenheim Terrace, Leeds. 
Whitfield, Mr. C, Cross End, Cross Lane, Salford. 
Wbitfield, J., F.C.S., 113, Westborough, Scarborough. 
Whitla, Mr. M. R., Medical Hall, Monaglian. 
Whitla, W., 1\LD., L.A.H., College Square North, Belfast. 
Whitmore, Mr. W. T., 7, Arlington Street, Piccadilly, S.W. 
Whitrow, Mr. B., 15, St. John's Road, Tunbridge Wells. 
Whitaker, Mr. E., 32, Regent Road, Salford, Laucs. 



382 BRITISH PHARMACEDTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Whittle, Mr. S., Leigh, Lancashire. 

Whittles, Mr. H., 44, Wheeler Street, Lozells, Birmingham. 

Whitworth, Mr. J., 88, Portland Street, Southport. 

Whysall, Mr. W., Grantham. 

Whyte, Mr. J. S., 57, Guthrie Port, Arbroath, N.B. 

Wigg, Mr. H. J., 22.5, Oxford Street, W. 

Wiggins, Mr. H., 2.30, Southwark Park Road, Bermondsey, S.E. 

Wild, Mr. F., 285, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Wild, Mr. J., Clarendon Place, Hyde, Cheshire. 

Wild, Mr. John, 225, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Wilford, Mr. J., 31, Lower Parliament Street, Nottingham. 

Wilkes, Mr. G. W., 6, Spring Hill, Birmingham. 

Wilkinson, Mr. B. J., 1, Middletou Road, Kingsland, E. 

Wilkinson, Mr. G., 267, Waterloo Road, Manchester. 

Wilkinson, Mr. T., 270, Regent Street, W. 

Wilkinson, Mr. W., 51, Lambeth Walk, S.E. 

Wilkinson, Mr. W., 203, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Will, Mr. W. W., Ossory Villa, Ossory Road, London, S.E. 

Willan, Mr. R., 5, Market Street, Ulverston. 

Willan, Mr. W., 3, Friargate, Preston, Lanes. 

Willey, Mr. W., New Clee, Grimsby. 

WiUiams, Mr. C. E., 38, St. Peter's Road, Great Yarmouth. 

Williams, Mr. E., Cerrig-y-Druidion, Denbighshire. 

Williams, Mr. E., 10, Wrexham Street, Mold. 

WilUams, Mr. H., 9, Bull Ring, Birmingham. 

WiUiams, J., F.I.C., F.C.S., 10, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, E.G. 

WilUams, Mr. J., Victoria Road, Aldershot. 

Williams, Mr. J. D., Turret House, Bodmin, Cornwall. 

Williams, Mr. J. V., 95, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

WUliams, Mr. J. W., C, GUtspur Street, E.C. 

WUUams, M. Whitley, F.I.C., F.C.S., Quecnwood CoUege, Stockbridge, 

Hants. 
Williams, Mr. R., St. Clears, Carmarthenshire. 
WUUams, Mr. T., 11, Bute Street, Cardiff. 

WiUiams, Mr. T. H., 58, Lady Margaret Road, Kentish Town, N.W. 
Williams, Mr. W., 205, Crown Street, Liverpool. 
Williams, Mr. W., 80, Upper Street, Islington, N. 
Williams, Mr. W. J., 123, Cannon Street, E.C. 
WiUiamson, Mr. W. H., 54, Dantzic Street, Manchester. 
W'illis, Mr. C, 55, High Street, King's Lynn. 
Wilhnott, Mr. W., King's CoUege Hospital, W.C. 
Willmott, Mr. W. Address unknown. 
WUls, Mr. G. S. v.. Trinity Square, S.E. 
Wilson, Mr. C. F., 23, Liverpool Road, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Wilson, Mr. E., Silverdalo, Staffordshire. 
Wilson, Mr. J., General Infirmary, Derby. 
Wilson, Mr. J., Penrith, Cumberland. 
Wilson, !^[r. J., 11, George Street, Bath. 
Wilson, Mr. J. H., 6, West Park, Harrogate. 
Wilson, Mr. James MUton, 16, Leveu Street, Edinburgh. 
Wilson, Mr. T., Stowmarkct. 
Wilson, Mr. T. W., Bootham, York. 
Wilson. Mr. W., 09, Market Street, Manchester. 
Wing, INIr. G. N., Melton Mowbray. 
Wing, Mr. Lewis, Chislehurst, W. Kent. 

Wink, Mr. J. A., 2, Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 
Wise, Mr. J. N., 14 A 15, Claypath, Durham. 
Wood, Mr. A., New Brentford. 
Wood, Mr. A. W., 3, James Street, Harrogate. 
Wood, Mr. C. G. , 04, Coppice Street, Oldham. 



BRITISH rHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 383 

Wood, C. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 46, Lomine Eoad, HoUoway, N, 

Wood, Mr. R., 50, Hi^'h Street, Windsor. 

Wood, Mr. R., 25, Mill Street, Macclesfield. 

Woodland, J., F.L.«., F.C.S., etc., St. George's Hospital, S.W. 

Woodward, Mr. J. L., Bridgewater. 

Woolford, Mr. .J., 61, Kirkgate, Leeds. 

Woollcombe, R. L., M.A., LL.D., Howtli View, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

WooUey, Mr. CI., Sparkenhoe Street, Leicester. 

WooUey, Mr. G. S., 69, Market Street, Manchester. 

Woolley, Mr. Harold, 69, Market Street, Manchester. 

Woolley, Mr. Hermann, Knowsley Street, Cheetham, Manchester. 

Woolley, Mr. S. W., 146, High Street, Southampton. 

Woolrich, Mr. C. B., Uttoxeter, Staffs. 

Wootton, Mr. A. C, 42, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Wootton, Mr. P., Market Place, Luton, Beds. 

Worfolk, Mr. G. W., Brook Street, Ilkley. 

Worth, Mr. E., Town Hall, Bournemouth. 

Wright, A., A.K.C., 8, Bentinck Crescent, Elswick Eoad, Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 
Wright, C. R. A.,D.Sc., F.R.S., F.I.C., F.C.S., St. Mary's Hospital, W. 
Wright, Mr. G., 102, High Street, Burton-on-Treut. 
Wright, Mr. H. C, 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Wright, Mr. T. D., 26, Chapel Street, Southport. 
Wj'ass, Mr. W., 90, St. Leonard Gate, Lancaster. 
Wvatt, Mr., H., 20, Derby Road, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Wyborn, .J. M., F.C.S., 59, Moorgate Street, E.C. 
Wyles, Mr. W., 1, New Bridge, Dover. 
Wyley, Mr. W. F., Hertford Street, Coventry. 
Wylie, Mr. D. N., 1, South College Street, Edinburgh. 
Wyman, Mr. J., Charles Street, Farringdon Road, E.C. 
Wynne, Mr. E. P., 7, Pier Street, Aberystwith. 

Yates, Mr. D., 32, Darwen Street, Blackburn. 
Yates, Mr. F., 64, Park Street, Southwark, S.E. 
Yates, Mr. G. A., Birch Villa, Lees, via Oldham. 
Yates, Mr. R., 64, Park Street, Southwark, S.E. 
Yeomans, Mr. J., 22, Petty Cury, Cambridge. 
Yorath, Mr. T. V., Canton, Llandaff. 
Young, Mr. .J., 20, High Street, Newport, Mon. 
Young, Mr. J., Folds Road, Bolton. 
Young, Mr. J., Elgin. 

Y''oung, .J. R., F.C.S., Sankey Street, Warrington. 
Young, Mr. J. R., 17, North Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Young, Mr. R. F., New Barnet. 



NOTICE. 

Members are requested to report any inaccuracies in these lists 
hy letter, addressed as follows : — 

The Asst. Secretauy, 

Brit. Pjiarm. Coxf., 

17, Bloomsbury Square, 

London, W.C. 



SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS 

INVITED TO SEND DELEGATES TO THE ANNCAL MEETING. 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

The North British Brauch of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland. 

Aberdeen and North of Scotland. — Society of Chemists and Druggists (1839). 
Mr. A. Strachan, 138, Bosemount Place, Aberdeen. 

Birmingham. — Midland Counties Chemists' Association (1869). Messrs. Chas. 
Thompson and F. H. Alcock, F.C.S., 159, Stratford Koad, Birmingham, 

Chemists' Assistants' Association (18C8), Birmingham. 

Brighton.— Association of Pharmacy (1861). Mr. Marshall Leigh, 46, Dyke 
Koad, Brighton. 

Bristol. — Pharmaceutical Association (re-established 186U). G. F. Schacht, 
F.C.S.,7, liegeut Street, Clifton, Bristol. 

Colchester. — Association of Chemists and Druggists (1815). Mr. J. C. Sheu- 
stone, 13, High Street, Colchester. 

Coventry. — Coventry and Warwickshire Pharmaceutical Association (1877). 

Messrs. Wyleys & Co., Coventry. 
Dover. — Chemists' Association. Mr. R. M. Ewell, 37, Town Wall Street, Dover. 

Dundee. — Chemists and Druggists' Association (1868). Mr. J. Russell, 111, 

Nethergate, Dundee. 
Edinburgh. — Chemists' Assistants' Association. Mr. J. K. Hill. 

Exeter. — Exeter Pharmaceutical Society (1815). Mr. J. Hiotou Lake, 11, 
High Street, Exeter. 

Glasgow. — Chemists and Druggists' Association (1854). Mr. J. Arnot, 84, 
Virginia Street, Glasgow. 

Halifax. — Halifax and District Chemists and Druggists' Association (1868). Mr. 
J. B. Brierley, Halifax. 

Hastings. — Chemists' Association (1884). ^Ir. A. N. Beck, 11, York Buildings, 
Hastings. 

Hawick. — Pharmaceutical Association. Mr. Thomas Mabcn, 5, Oliver Place, 
Hawick. 

Hull.— Chemists' Association (1868). Mr. C. B. Bell, 6, Spring Bank, Hull. 

Leeds. — Chemists' Association (1862). Mr. F. \Y. Branson, 14, Commercial 
Street, Leeds. 

Leicester. — Leicester and Leicestershire t hemists' Association. ^Ir. J. J. 
Edwards, 43, The Newarke, Leicester. 

Liverpool. — Chemists' Association (1868). A. H. Samuel, F.C.S., 115, Upijer 
Parliament Street, Liverpool. 

London. — Chemists' Assistants' Association. Mr. E. J. Millard, 103, Great 
BusseU Street, W.C. 

881 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 385 

Manchester. — Chemists and Druggists' Association (1853). F. B. Beuger, 
F.C.S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 

NEWCASTLE-upoN-TyNE. — North of England Pharmaceutical Association. Chas. 
B. Ford, St. Nicholas' Chambers. 

Nottingham. — Nottingham and Notts Chemists' Association (1863). Mr. W. 
Widdowson, Sherwood Street North, Nottingham. 

Oldham. — Chemists' and Druggists' Assistants and Apprentices' Association 
(1870). Mr. C. Ct. Wood, Secretary, Church Institute, Uldham. 

Plymouth. — Association of Chemists for Plymouth, Devonport, and Stouehouse 
(1868). ]Mr. G. Breeze, Catherine Street, Devonport. 

ScAEBOROUGH. — Chemists' Association (1870). J. Whitfield, F.C.S., Scarborough. 

Sheffield. — Pharmaceutical and Chemical Society (1869). Mr. Jno. Humphrey, 
Sheffield. 

Sunderland. — Chemists' Association (1869). Mr. J. Harrison, 33, Bridge Street, 
Sunderland. 

York. — Chemists' Association (1865). Mr. Montague Folkard, 9, High Ousegate, 
York. 



C C 



Prksentation Copies of the Year-Book of Pharmacy are 
forwarded to the following : — 

Clje |l?onorarg fHcmbcrs. 

Eibrarics. 

American Pharmaceutical Association ; Chemical Society of London ; Ecole 
de Pharmacie, Moutpellier ; Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie, Paris ; Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy ; The Mason College, Birmingham ; Missouri 
College of Pharmacy; New Zealand Board of Pharmacy; North British 
Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society ; Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain ; Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland ; Pharmaceutical Society of 
New South Wales ; Ontario College of Pharmacy, Toronto ; Pharmaceutical 
Society of Australasia ; Royal Society of Loudon ; Societe de Pharmacie, 
Paris; State of Illinois Board of Pharmacy ; Yorkshire College of Science. 

|3rol)incial 'Associations (fjabing Hibrarirs). 

Aberdeen Society of Chemists and Druggists ; Brighton Chemists' Association ; 
Bristol Pharmaceutical Association ; Colchester Association of Chemists 
and Druggists ; Coventry and Warwickshire Pharmaceutical Association ; 
Dover Chemists' Association ; Dundee Chemists and Druggists' Association ; 
Edinburgh Chemists' Assistants' Association ; Glasgow Chemists and 
Druggists' Association ; Halifax and District Chemists and Druggists' 
Association ; Hastings Chemists' Association ; Hawick Chemists' Associa- 
tion ; Hull Chemists' Association ; Leeds Chemists' Association ; Leicester 
and Leicestershire Chemists' Association ; Liverpool Chemists' Association ; 
Londcm Chemists' Assistants' Association ; Manchester Chemists and 
Druggists' Association ; Midland Counties Chemists' Association ; North 
of England Pharmaceutical Association ; Nottingham and Notts Chemists' 
Association ; Oldham Chemists and Druggists' Assistants and Apprentices' 
Association ; Plymouth, Devonport, and Stonehouse Chemists' Association ; 
Scarborough Chemists' Association; Sheffield Pharmaceutical and Chemical 
Association ; Sunderland Chemists' Association ; York Chemists' Associa- 
tion. 

Souvnals. 

American Druggist ; American Journal of Pharmacy; Archiv der Pharmacie; 
]5iitish Medical Journal ; Canadian Pliarmaceutical Journal ; Cliomical 
News ; Chemist and Druggist ; Journal do Pharmacie d'Anvers; Journal de 
Pharmacie et de Cliimie ; Lancet ; Medical Press and Circular ; The Micro- 
scope ; Nature; Pharmaceutical Journal; Pharmaceutische Ceutralhalle ; 
Pharmacist ; Ecpertoire de Pharmacie ; llevista Earmaceutica. 

The FOLLOWING Journals are received from their respective 
Editors: — 

American Druggist ; American Journal of Pharmacy ; Archives de Pharaiacie ; 

Arcliiv der Pharmacie ; Australasian Journal of Pharmacy ; British Medical 
Journal ; Canadian Pliarmaceutical Journal ; ('hcmical News ; Chemist and 
Drug;;ist ; Journal de I'harmacie d'Anvers ; Journal de Pliarmacie et de 
Chimic ; National Druggist; Pimrniaccutical Journal; Pharmaceutical 
Record ; Pharmaceutische Centralhalle ; Pharmacist ; Proceedings of the 
Anitrican Pharmaceutical Association ; Repertoire do Pharmacie ; Bevista 
Farmaceutica. 

S86 



PROGRAMME OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE 

AT THE 

TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING, MANCHESTER, 1887. 



OFFICERS. 

Prcsiticnt. s. r. atkins, j.p. 
Firc^^rcsitirnts. 

[Who have filled the office of President.) 



Prof. BENTLEY, F.L.S., M.R.C.S., London. 
H. B. BRADY, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.C.S., New- 

castle-on-Tvne. 
TflOS. B. GROVES, F.C.S., Weymouth. 
Pk->f. RED WOOD,Ph.D.,F. I. C.F.C.S., London. 
G. F. SCHAGHT, F.C.S., Clifton, Bristol. 



R. REYNOLDS. F.C.S., Leeds. 

Pkof. ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.C., 

F.C.S., London. 
J. WILMAMS, F.I.O., F.C. 8., London. 
J. B. STEPHENSON, Edinburgh. 
T. GREENISH, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 



Ficc=i|rfsil>mts. 



C. SYMES, Ph.D., Liverpool. 
G. S. WOOLLEY, Manchester, 



M, CARTEIGHE, F.I.C., F.C.S., London. 
S. PLOWMAN, F.R.C.S., London. 

CrraSUrcr. C. UMNEY, P.I.C, F.C.S., London. 

f^onorarg fficiural Srrrctarics. 

. A. H. NAYLOR, F.I.C., F.C.S., London. | JOHN C. THRESH, D.Sc, F.C. S., Buxton. 
ILoral Srcrctarg. F. BADEN BENGER, F.C.S., Manchester. 

©tljrv fflcmbcrs of tijc ISircutibc Committee. 



Babclay, T., Birmingham. 
Brunkeb, J. E., M.A., Dublin, 
CoNEOT, M., F.C.S., Liverpool. 
Davies, R. H., F.I.O., London. 
DoTT, D. B., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. 



Er.BOHNE, W., F.C.S., Manchester. 
Gbekaed, a. W., F.C.S., London. 
Maben, T., Hawick. 
Simons, W. H., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., London. 



^utiitors. 

C. J. ARBLASTER, Birmingham. | "W. WILKINSON, Manchester. 

•assistant Sccrrtarg. EJitor of grar^Book. 

W. H. INCB, A.I.G\ LOUIS SIEBOLD, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

ILoral Committer. 



Absfield, J. C, Ashton. 
HA.HFOKD, .1. W., Rochd.ile. 
Bak.vaby. F., MiUichcBtcr. 
Bell, J. Carter. Higher Brcnighton. 
Bexger, F. B. (//oh. Lucal Secretary), 

Mauchester. 
BiLLiNcE. M., Hyde. 
Blain, W., Bolton. 
BvLToN, John, Manchester. 
Boor, F., FallowHeld. 
Booth, W. G., Mauchester. 
BoTHAJi, J., Maucliester. 
BosTocK. W,, Ashton. 
BowDEN, Vf , Patricroft. 
BowKER, E., Bury. 
Bkeaoner, C. G.. Manchester. 
Buow.v, W. S., Manchester. 
Burn, Thos . Manchester. 
Carter, W., Manchester. 
Clayton, E.. Mauchester. 
ECKER8LEV, F., Wigan. 
Elborne, W., Owens College. 
Kstc'OURT, C, .Manchester. 
Forbes, J. W., Bolton . 
Gibbons. T. G., Manchester. 
Gibbons, W., Manchester. 
Gibson, R , Manchester. 
Hall, H. S., Manchester. 
Hardie. G. H.. 31auchc6ter, 
Hart, J., Manchester. 



Hay, a., Salford Hospital. 
Hedley, T., Rauisliottom. 
Holt, J., Manchester. 
Hcdolestone, R. O., Manchester. 
Hih:hes, E. G., Manchester. 
Hint, L., M.auchester. 
Jackson, G., Manchester. 
Johnstone, C. A., Manchester. 
Kay, S., Stockport. 
Kay. T.. Stockport. 
Kemp, H , Manchester. 
Kerfoot, T., Manchester. 
Lateward, J. R., Manchester. 
Mi'C-ORMioK. F. H., Manchester. 
Mason, W. B., Bolton. 
Mather, W., Manchester. 
Malnder, Robt., Manchester. 
Mayor, D., Manchester. 
Miugley, C., Manchester. 
Morton, I., Ramsbottoin. 
Oldfield, a. C. M.-vuchester. 
OLDFiELn, H. , Hyde. 
Paine, S , Manchester. 
Peatson, H. R., Manchester. 
Phillips, J., Wigan. 
PoLLiTT, J. M., Radcliffe. 
Pratt, G. W.. Manchester. 
RA.MSDEN, W., FallowHeld. 
Robinson, B., Pendleton. 
ScAlFE, 8., Manchester. 



.Shaw, Thos., Manchester. 
SiEBOLD. L., Walinersley. 
Slack, J. L., M.anchester. 
Slugg, J. T., Chorlton. 
Smith, A., Sale. 
Smith, J. R., Radcliffe. 
Stevenson, J. C, Todmorden. 
Stones, W., Manchester. 
Swindles, T,. Manchester. 
SwiNN, , Manchester. 
Taylor, E. , Manchester. 
Thresh, Dr., Manchester. 
Turner, W. S., Manchester. 
TwE.Mj,ow, R., Manchester. 
Watkinson. J. W., FamwortU. 
Watekhouse, W. H., Ashton. 
Westmacott, G., Manchester. 
Wheeldon, J., Manchester. 
Wild, J., Hyde. 
Wild. J , Clayton-Ie-Moors. 
Wild, Jno., Manchester. 
Wilkinson, G., Manchester. 
Wilkinson, J. F.. Pendleton. 
Wilkinson, W., fliaiichester. 

WoOLLEV. G. S. (C/lUtriHOJI). 

Chester. 

WooLLEV, Herman [Trciisurer), Mau- 
chester. 

WooLLKv, Harold, Manchester. 

Young, J. K., Warringtou. 



M: n. 



The Sittings of the Confekknck wbhk hkld in thb 

CHEMICAL LECTURE THEATRE, OWENS COLLEGE, MANCHESTER, 

On TUESDAY & WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30th anu 31bt, 1887, 
Commenciny at Ten a.m. each day. 
867 



388 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



MONDAY, 29th AUGUST. 

The EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE met, according to notices from the Honorary 
General Secretaries, at 10 p m., at the Grand Hotel, Manchester. 



TUESDAY, 30th AUGUST. 

The CONFERENCE met at 10 o'clock a.m., adjourning at 1 p.m.; and at 
2 o'clock p.m., adjourning at 4 p.m. 



^"^rbcr of ^lusincss. 



Eecoption of Delegates. 

Report of Executive Committee. 

Financial Statement. 

Eeport of Treasurer of the " Bell and Hills Library Fund. 

President's Address. 

Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 



PAPERS. 

1. Report on Strophanthus and Stroplianthin. By W. Elborne, F.C.S. 

2. Contrihiition to our Knowledge of Catha Leaves. By Prof. Fluckiger and 

J. E. Gerock. 

3. A New Method of Preparing Aconitine. By John Wili-iams, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

4. Macluui Beans, the Seeds of Eutada Scandcns. By John Moss, F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 

5. Note on the Estimation of Ipecacuanha. By F. Ransom. 
G. Report on Bland's Pills. By T. Maben. 

7. Note on the Cuitivation of English Bhitbarb. By W. Elborne, F.C.S. 

8. On Two Species of Vesicating Beetles from South Africa. By J. 0. 

Braithwaitk. 

9. Oil (f Erodia, a New Deodorant for Iodoform. By H. Helbing. 
10. Cryptopine and it:i Salts. By Dr. E. Kacder. 



There was a mid-day adjournment between 1 and 2 p.m. for luncheon on 
the College premises. 

At 4 p.m. members were conveyed by omnibus to the Exhibition, Old 
Trafford. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONPERENCB. 389' 



WEDNESDAY, 31st AUGUST. 

The CONFEEENCE met at 10 o'clock a.m., adjourning from 1 p^m. till 
2 p.m. The whole of the business of the Conference was completed this day 
by about 4 p.m. 

(L)ii)cr of l^usiue-ss. 

Eeception of Delegates. 

Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

PAPERS. 

11. Tlie Relation of Pharmacy to Medicine. By Prof. Leech, F.R.C.P. 

12. A Method of Detecting and Estimating Salicylic Acid in Wines. By W. H. 

Ince, A.I.C. 

13. Note upon the Testing and Purification of Hydrochlorate of Cocaine. By 

John Williams, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

14. Pharmaceutical Notes on Some Synthetical Compounds Recently Introdnad 

into Medicine. By H. Helbing. 

15. Note on Camphor Oil. By Peteb MacEwas, F.CS, 

16. Some Fundamental Errors in th". Pharmacopeia. By C. R. C. Txchborne, 

LL.D., F.I.C, L.A.H.I. 

17. A Spurious Cuheh. By W. Kirkbt, F.R.M.S. 

18. On the Cliemistry and Pharmacy of some of the Morphine Dericativcs. By 

D. B. DoTT, F.E.S.E., and G. R. Stockman, M.D. 

19. Note on the Plmrmacy of Logwood. By Locis Siebold, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

20. Notes on the Application of Dyewoods in Chemical Analysis. By Lodis 

Siebold, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

21. Examination of Commercial Samples of Cocoa Butter. By E. J. Millard. 

22. Nitrites and Nitro-Glycerine. By G. A. Atkinson, M.D. 

23. Quiiwlogical Work in the Madras Cinchona Plantations. By David Hooper,. 

F.C.S. 

Place of Meeting for 1888. 
Election of Officers for 1887-88. 



There was a mid-day adjournment between 1 and 2 p.m. for luncheon on the 
College premises. 



THURSDAY, 1st SEPTEMBER. 

A large party of members and friends, accompanied by the Local Committee, 
travelled by special train to Matlock Bath. Here they inspected the caverns 
and petrifying wells, for which the place is famous, and ascended the High Tor 
and the Heights of Abraham. After luncheon at the Royal Hotel, they were 
taken for a drive round the neighbourhood. On their return they again re- 
freshed themselves, and afterwards paid flying visits to the Pavilion and 
Gardens. They were then conveyed by train back to Manchester. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE, 

MEETING AT MANCHESTER, 1887. 

The Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting of the British Phai-maceutical 
Conference commenced its sittings on Tuesday, August 30th, in 
the Chemical Theatre of the Owens College, Manchester. S. R. 
Atkins, Esq., J. P., in the chair. 

The folloiving viemhers and visitors were present during the 
meetings : — 

Aberdare — Thomas, W. J. 

Aberdeen — Belfield, W. ; Broomhead, G, E. ; Giles, W. ; John- 
son, J. 

Ashton-tmder-Lyne — Bostock, W. 

Barnet — Young, R. F. 

Barnsley — Lister, T. 

Barnstaple — Symons, Miss Sophie. 

Birmingham — Alcock, F. H. ; Haydon, W. F. ; Perry, G. E. ; 
Thompson, C. 

I?oZto?i— Mason, W. B. 

Bombay — Phillips, A. ; Phillips, B. 

Bournemouth — Spinney, F. 

Brighton — Kernot, C. F. ; Leigh, M. ; Savage, W. D. 

Bury — Siebold, L. 

Buxton — Thre.sh, J. C. 

Cambridge — Church, H. J. ; Deck, A. 

Carlisle — Thompson, A. 

Cheltenham — Barron, AV. 

Chester — Baxter, G. ; Hodges, W. ; Tupham, T. 

Clifton— Bevvy, W. ; Schacht, G. F. 

Coleraine — Baxter, AY. J. 

Corfc— Lester, T. R. 

Coventry — Hinds, J. ; Jones, H. J. ; Wyley, W. F. 

S90 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 391 

Crewe — Harrop, W. H. 

Dalkley (Ireland) — Begg, G. D. 

Denton — Arrandale, W. 

Droiticich — Harrj, S. 

Dziblin — Browne, Harriet E. ; Brunker, J. E. ; Simpson, R. ; 
Tichborne, C. R. C. ; Wells, Miss Mary A. ; Wells, W. F. 

Edinburgh — Dott, D. B. ; Purves, S. ; Symington, T. ; Young, 
J. R. 

Farnworth — Wilkinson, J. W. 

Glasgoiv — Nicoll, J. 

Gloucester — Jenkins, H. ; Stafford, W. ; Ward, J 

Halifax — Alexander, W. .' 1 

Hastings — Winter, H. 

Hawick — Maben, T. 

Heato7i-Morris — Williams, Miss. 

Hindley — Hart, A. M. 

Hold — Cheetham, G. 

Huddersjield — Bell, J. H. 

Hull—BeW, C. B. ; Metcalfe, C. S. 

Hurstpierpoint — Mitten, Miss F. ; Mitten, Miss R. E. 

Hyde — Billinge, M. 

JZ^%— Worfold, G. W. 

Leamington — Pullen, W. H. 

Leeds — Branson, F. W. ; Fairley, T. ; Jefferson, P. ; Reynolds, R. ; 
Ward, G. 

Leicester — Butter, E. H. ; Burford, S. F. ; Clark, J. W. ; 
Meadows, J.- 

Leighton — Richmond, R. 

Leven — Gibson, A. 

Liverpool — Abraham, A. C. ; Conroy, M. ; Eraser, A. ; Greenall, 
A. ; Lee, T. W. ; Neuman, J. ; Samuel, A. H. ; Symes, C. 

Llanelly — Evans, G. 

London — Baldock, J. H. ; Bindloss, G. F. ; Bird, F. C. J. ; 
Burroughs, S. M. ; Christy, T. ; Clarke, C. G. ; Collier, H. ; Craw- 
shaw, E. ; Davies, R. H. ; Dyson, W. B. ; Dymond, T. S. ; Eastes, 
E. G. ; Fowler, Mrs. ; Gerrard, A. W. ; Glazier, W. ; Gurnelle E. 
Hampson, R. ; Helbing, H. ; Holmes, E. M. ; Lascelles-Scott, W. 
Long, H. ; MacEwan, P. ; Maitland, P. C. ; Martindale, W. 
Mason, W. ; Moss, J. ; Naylor, W. A. H. ; Parry, W. P. ; Pass- 
more, F. ; Pedley R. U. ; Pretty, C. ; Robinson, R. ; Robinson, 
W. P. ; Roberts, W. P. ; Sangster, A. ; Saul, J. E. ; Smith, F. J. ; 
Symons, W. J. ; Taylor, G. S. ; Tingle, J. G. ; Tompsett, L. ; 



392 BRITISH PHARMACEOTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Watson, T. D. ; White, W. ; Williams, Mrs.; Williams, T. H. ; 
Williams, J. ; Wootton, A. C. ; Wright, T. R. ; Wright, C. R. A. 

Louth — Simpson, H. T. 

Lynn — Evans, J. H. 

Manchester — Benger, F. B. ; Butcher, C. G. ; Blyton, T.; Burn, 
T. ; Balmforth, A. ; Bowden, W. ; Cooper, F. R. ; Cornish, W 
Deacon, F. W. ; Dickson, R. J. ; Elborne, W. ; Le Neve Foster 
R. ; Gibbons, W. ; Hart, J. ; Huddleston, R. O. ; Hardy, G. H. 
Hughes, E. G. ; Johnstone, C. A. ; Johnston, E. S. ; Jackson 
G. ; Kemp, H. ; Kidd, J. C. ; Kirkby, W. ; Leech, D. J.; Lowe 
W. ; Marsden, W. ; Mayor, D. ; Morris, W. ; Needham, C. T. 
Owles, T. ; Pidd, A. J.; Pirin, J.; Pratt, G. W. ; Paine, S. 
Russell, W. M. J. ; Roberts, H. R. ; Robinson, B. ; Smith, J. L. 
Slugg, J. T. ; Stamp, A. K. ; Swinn, C. ; Slack, J. L. ; Scarfe, S. 
Tyson, J.; Turner, W. S. ; Tatham, M. D. ; Woolley, G. S. 
Wyatt, W. ; Wild, J. ; Wilkinson, G. ; Wild, G. F. ; Woolley, H. 
Wheeldon, J. ; Wishmark, G. H. 

Mansfield — Adams, B. 

Neiocastle-on-Tyne — Brady, H. B.; Martin, N. H. ; Spargo, H. A 

Newton Heath — Carr, W. 

Northampton — Hayger, W. D. 

Nottingham — Patchitt, E. 

Oldham — Geddes, W. 

Peterborough — Lipscomb, S. ; Lipscomb, Miss. 

Plymouth— BalkwiU, A. P. 

Preston — Hargreavcs, M. 

EadcUffe—Hmith, J. T. 

Liamshottom — Hulley, T. 

Rochdale — Bamford, J. W. ; Wilson, H. 

Rothesay — Duncan, E. 

Salishui-y — Atkins, S. R. 

Saltaire — Bayley, G. H. ; Bayle}-, Mrs. 

Scarborough — Whitfield, J. 

Sheffield — Allen, A. H. ; Furness, J. M. ; Newsholme, G. T. W. 

Shepton Mallett—CotivcU, G. J. 

Shreivsbury — Cross, W. 

Smethivick—Gibhs, R. D. 

Southampton — Chipperfield, J. 

Southport — Ashton, W. ; Radley, W. V. 

Stalybridge — Simpson, A. 

St. Leonards — Rossiter, F. 

Stockport— Hart, T. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 393 

Swansea — Davies, J. T. ; Grose, N. M. ; Morgan, W. 

Tarporley — Aston, W. 

Todmorden — Lord, B. ; Lord, C. 

Wantage — ^Candj, C. Gr. 

Warrington — Young-, J. R. 

Wigan — Johnstone, T. 

Withington — Terry, T. 

YurA;— Clark, J. 



Meeting of the Executive Committee. 

A meeting' of the Execntive Committee was hekl at the Grand 
Hotel, Manchester, on Monday, August 29, at 10 p.m. 

Present : — Mr. Atkins, President, in the chair ; Messrs. Benger, 
Brady, Brunker, Conroy, Davies, Dott, Elborne, Gerrard, Maben, 
Reynolds, Schacht, Symes, Symons, Williams, and Woolley, Dr. 
Thresh and Mr. W. A. H. Naylor, Hon. Gen. Sees., and Mr. W. 
H. Ince, Assist. Sec. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

A draft report, for presentation at the annual meeting, was 
submitted by the Hon. Gen. Sees., and after a slight alteration, 
was agreed to. 

The order in which papers should be read at the general meeting 
was discussed, and the programme arranged. 

The Treasurer's financial statement for the year 188G-7 was 
read and approved. 

A proposed list of officers for the ensuing year was discussed 
and adopted for recommendation to the general meeting for 
election. 

The, MS. of the Year-Book for 1887, so far as it could be 
completed, was laid on the table. 

The place of meeting for 1888 was considered. The Committee 
was of opinion that the Conference should adhere to its usual cus- 
tom in following the British Association, and go to Bath. 

A report of the Formulary Committee was presented through 
its Chairman, and read by Mr. Naylor. 

The report was accepted, and it was agreed to recommend to the 
General Meeting tlie reappointment of the Committee. 

A letter was then read from Messrs. Dott and Stockman, re- 
questing a gi"ant of £5 for the purchase of materials to carry out 
an investigation on morphine derivatives. 



394 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



Proposed by Mr. Naylor, seconded by Mr. Conroy, and carried 
unanimously, that the grant be accorded. 

Mr. J. C. Nightingale was elected Assistant Secretary in the 
room of Mr. W. H. Ince, who found it impracticable longer to 
fulfil the duties of this office. 

It was announced that Mr. Ryder Horton had resigned the 
office of Honorary Secretary for New South Wales, and that steps 
had been taken for appointing a suitable successor. 



The following sixty gentlemen were duly nominated and elected 
to membership : — 



Balmforth, Mr. Alfred, Man- 
chester. 

Bates, Mr. F. W. Brooks, Man- 
chester. 

Billinge, Mr. Mark, Hyde. 

Birks, Mr. G. N., Adelaide, 
South Austialia. 

Blain, Mr. W. Rushton, Bolton. 

Bowker, Mr. Ellis, Bury. 

Brookes, Mr. Josh., Manchester. 

Burn, Mr. Thos., Manchester. 

Butcher, Mr. G. S., Manchester. 

Candy, Mr. J. W. G., Wantage. 

Chipperfield, Mr. R., Southam- 
ton. 

Condon, J. H.; M.D. L.S.A., 
Cawnpore, India. 

Cripps, Mr. T. H., Madras, 
India. 

Cullinan, Mr. E., London. 

Cunynghame, Mr. G. F., Sydney, 

"n.s.w. 

Fairclough, Mr. R. A., London. 

Foster, Mv. R. Le Neve, Man- 
chester. 

Gibbons, Mr. Walter, Manches- 
ter. 

Hardie, ^Mr. G. H., Manchester. 

Harrington, Mr. J. F., London. 

Hedley, Mi'. Thos., Ramsbottom. 



Herbert, Mr. H. S., Wavertree. 

Huddlestone, Mr. R. 0., Man- 
chester. 

Jackson, Mr. Urban Arthur, 
Manchester. 

Johnston, Mr. J., Aberdeen. 

Johnstone, Mr. C. A., Whaley 
Bridge. 

Jones, Mr. William H., Liver- 
pool. 

Kay, Mr. Saml., Stockport. 

Kidd, Mr. James Cassie, Man- 
chcstej'. 

Knight, Mr. R., Manchester. 

Lee, Mr. S. W., Liverpool. 

!Mason, Mr., London. 

Midgley, Mr. C, Manchester. 

Mitchell, Mr. E. D., Manchester. 

Morgan, Mr. J. D., Bideford. 

^lorton, ]\Ir. J., Ramsbottom. 

^lundey, Mr. H., Manchester. 

Parry, Mr. W. P., London. 

Peatson, j\[r. H. R., Manchester. 

Pedley, Mr. G., London. 

Phillips, Mr. J. J., Ashton. 

Piatt, Mr. W., Matlock Bath. 

Pretty, Mr. C, London. 

Rand, Mr. E., Wayga Wayga, 
N.S.W. 

Roberts, Mr. W. R., Manchester. 



BRITISH PHAEMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 395 

Royse, Mr. Alfred, Manchester. West, Mr. J., Bangalore, India. 

Simpson, Mr. R., Dublin. Whitfield, Mr. C, Manchester. 

Slack, Mr. Jno. L., Manchester. Wild, Mr. John, Manchester. 

Smith, Mr. Allen, Sale. Williamson, Mr. H. B., Wan- 
Spargo, Mr. H., Newcastle-on- ganai, N. Z. 

Tyne. Wilson, Mr. W., Manchester. 

Wardrop, Mr. W. Dunedin, Woollcombe, Mr. Rd., Dublin. 

N. Z. Woolley, Mr. S. W., Southamp- 
Wellings, Mr. William, Liver- ton. 

pool. Wyass, Mr. W., Lancaster. 



At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on Thursday, 
September 1, it was agreed to offer for sale, through Messrs. J. 
and A. Churchill, the British Pharmaceutical Conference Unofficial 
Formulaiy, at a cost of 6d. per copy in paper covers, and Is. per 
copy bound in cloth. It was further agreed that the Is. copies 
should be interleaved. 



GENERAL MEETING. 

Tuesday, August 30th. 

Mr. G. S. WoOLLET opened the proceedings by offering, on be- 
half of the pharmacists of Manchester and the district, a cordial 
welcome to the Confei-ence on its first visit to Manchester. At 
the same time he expressed the hope that the meeting would 
prove to be, as it promised, a very successful one ; and that the 
arrangements made by the Local Committee would render the 
visit to Manchester both interesting and agreeable. His pleasure 
in standing forward on this occasion was somewhat marred by 
the thought that the gentleman whose place he occupied, Mr. 
William Scott Brown, was prevented by the state of his health 
from being present. Those who knew Mr. Brown best knew how 
delighted he would have been to have stood there and welcomed 
the Conference. The pharmacists of the district owed Mr. Bi-own 
a large debt of gratitude, for whenever any movement was on 
foot for the progress of pharmacy or the welfare of pharmacists, 
Mr. Brown had always been in front. After acknowledging the 
kindness of the authorities of Owens College, and of tlie Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, who had 
placed at the disposal of the Local Secretary a number of tickets 



396 BRITISH PHAEMACEDTICAL CONFERENCE. 

for the Convei'sazione on Thursday evening, he remarked that 
the Executive Committee had determined to avail themselves 
of the facilities for studying the industries of the district in 
the machinery annexe of the Exhibition rather than to seek for 
opportunities of visiting various works, and he believed that 
those who visited the Exhibition would be of opinion that 
the Committee had in this matter acted for the best. In con- 
clusion, he trusted that every member would carry away very 
pleasant recollections of the visit to Manchester. 

Professor Leech said he had great pleasure, on behalf of the 
authorities of Owens College, as well as his own, in welcoming the 
Conference. The authorities of the College had great pleasure 
in putting at their disposal all the accommodation required, and 
were wishful to do evei'ything which could increase the pleasure 
of the meeting. It was not the first time that they had shown an 
interest in the progress of phannacy, that being the first college 
of the kind to institute a system of pharmaceutical education. 
In that College were provided lectures and laboratories, giving an 
education which would fit pharmacists not only to pass examina- 
tions, but for the scientific work of their lives. On his own be- 
half, he need hardly say that as Professor of Materia Medica, he 
took a deep interest in the progress of pharmacy, and he trusted 
that the present meeting would be successful in every respect, 
and especially that it would advance the true interests of scientific 
pharmacy. 

The President, on behalf of the Conference, thanked Mr. Wool- 
ley and Pi'ofessor Leech for the welcome they had given. The 
Conference met under very favoui-able auspices, in every respect, 
and he felt sure that the meetings would be promotive of the great 
purposes for which the Conference existed. He was certain that 
those who were visitors to Manchester would gain much pleasure 
and no small intellectual profit, and if they could leave behind 
til em any pleasant recollections with their hosts, they would have 
largely accomplished the object of their visit. 

Reception of Delegates. 

Dr. Thresh (Hon. Gen. Sec.) then road the following list of 
delegates to the Conference : — 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — The President, Vice- 
1 'resident, and Messrs. S. R. Atkins, W. G. Cross, R. Hampson, 
G.T. W. Newsholme, W. V. Radley, W. D. Savage, G. F. Schacht, 
C Symes, and G. S. Woolley. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL COXFEIIENCE. 397 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (North British Branch).— 
Messrs. D. B. Dott, Daniel Frazer, Adam Gibson, and Alexandei' 
Kinninmont. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Irelatid. — Mr. J. E. Brunker, M.A., 
Messrs. G. D. Beggs, F. J. Minchin, R. Simpson, J. Wells, and 
Professor Tichborne. 

Aberdeen and North of Scotland Society of Chemists and Druggists. 
— Messrs. G. E. Broombead, "W. Giles, J. Jobnson, and D. Ritcbie. 

Brighton Association of Pharmacy. — Messrs. Marshall Leigb and 
W. D. Savage. 

Bristol Pharmaceutical Association. — Mr. G. F. Scbacbt. 

Hawick Pharmaceutical Association. — Mr. T. Maben. 

Hull Chemists' Association. — Messrs. C. B. Bell and W. H. Ham- 
mond. 

Leeds Chemists' Association. — Messrs. F. W. Branson, P. Jeffer- 
son, R. Reynolds, and G. Ward. 

Leicester and Leicestershire Chemists' Association. — Messrs. S. F. 
Bnrford, E. H. Butler, J. W. Clark, and J. G. F. Richardson. 

Liverpool Chemists' Association. — Messrs. A. C. Abraham, J. F. 
Abraham, M. Conroy, A. H. Samuel, and W. Wellings. 

London Chemists Assistants' Association. — Messrs. F. C. J. Bird, 
T. S. Dymond, and J. E. Saul. 

Manchester Pharmaceutical Association. — The members of the 
Council of the Manchester Pharmaceutical Association. 

Midland Counties Chemists' Association. — Messrs. Perry, Wyles, 
Thompson, Alcock, Haydon, Pullen, Hinds, and Jones. 

North of England Pharmaceutical Association. — Mes.srs. N. H. 
Martin and J. Harrison. 

Sheffield Pharmaceutical and Chemical Society. — Messrs. J. M. 
Fumess, G. T. W. Newsholme, and A. R. Fox. 

Dr. THEEsn also said that letters of apology for non-attendance, 
and expressing good wishes for the success of the Conference, had 
been received from Mr. Carteighe, President of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain, Professor Bentley, Professor Attfield, 
and Messrs. Greenish, Barclay (Birmingham), J. B. Stephenson 
(Edinburgh), A. Strachan (Aberdeen), and F. Ransom (Hitchin). 

The President said he had himself received similar letters from 
Professor Dunstan, ]\Ir. Plowman, and others. 

Mr. W. A. H. Natlor (Hon. Gen. Sec.) then read the report of 
the Executive Committee, as follows : — 



598 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



Report of the Executive Committee. 

Your Committee, in presenting its Annual Report of the business 
Avliich it has transacted during the past year, feels that it has not 
altogether been an uneventful period in the history of the Con- 
ference. Following closely upon the retirement of the senior 
Honorary General Seci-etary, Mr. Sidney Plowman, F.R.C.S., at 
the Biraiingham meeting, came the sudden resignation of the paid 
officer. At the meeting of the Executive in October last, it was 
announced that in consequence of failing health, Mr. Princep had 
applied to be immediately relieved of his duties as Secretary, and 
that in consideration of the urgent demand of his case, his appli- 
cation had been immediately granted. The acceptance of his 
resignation was marked by an entry in the record of the proceed- 
ings of that meeting of the following minute : — " That the Hono- 
rary General SecretaHes convey to Mr. Princep an expression of 
regret at the circumstances under which he was compelled to 
leave the service of the Conference, together with an appi-eciation 
of the satisfactory manner in which he had performed his duties 
as paid Secretary since February, 1881." 

In selecting an officer in succession to Mr. Princep, a favoui'able 
opportunity was afforded your Committee of considering the most 
suitable conditions under which the appointment should be made. 
The choice lay between one of two courses, either to proceed to 
the lines on which the late Secretary was appointed, or return 
to the system in vogue prior to 1880. Of those who had made 
application for the vacancy, two had declared their willingness to 
accept election in accordance with the latter alternative, a fact 
Avhich was lai-gely instrumental in eliciting for it a renewed trial. 
It was accordingly decided to adopt this line of procedure, and 
Mr. W. H. Ince was appointed Assistant Secretary for one year at 
a salary of £40. It was further agreed that a sum not exceeding 
£10 should be allowed him for expenses incurred in attending the 
annual meeting. Mr. Ince is now neaiing the close of his year of 
office, but will not be able to accept re-election in consequence of 
his leaving England at an early date to prosecute his studies at 
a Continental university. He requests that his services may 
terminate after the present meeting. 

Your Committee regret to have to announce the resignations of 
two Colonial Secretaries, that of Mr. H. Sliillinglaw, for Victoria, 
and of Mr. Ryder Horton, for New South Wales. During the 



BRITISH THARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 3('9 

three years and a half Avhich Mr. Shillinglaw has exercised his 
office, he has steadily and successfully laboured to promote the 
interests of the Conference. To -Mr. Horton, whose appointment 
is of recent date, is due the acknowledgment of having rendered 
heartj and useful service. 

Early in the present year a series of circulars, setting forth the 
objects of the Conference, and inviting to its membership, was 
posted to those unconnected with it, w^ho had registered as 
chemists and druggists in Great Britain and Ireland since Janu- 
ary, 1886. 

A moi'e numerous issue of a like kind has been circulated in 
India and the Colonies, the distribution having been effected 
severally by the Colonial Secretaries throughout the colonies in 
which they respectively reside. 

Although sufficient time has not elapsed to justify a numerical 
statement of the results of the home and foreign issue, there is 
already the prospect of an encouraging return. To those mem- 
bers who had promised to provide themselves with a copy of the 
General Index, and who up to the beginning of the year had 
neglected to do so, a circular note was addressed requesting them 
to fulfil their engagement as promptly as their convenience would 
allow. It is satisfactory to be able to announce that 188 of those 
addressed suitably responded to the appeal. 

The report last year included a fitting reference to a new feature 
which characterized the proceedings of the Conference at Bir- 
mingham. The departure there taken Avas expressly intended to 
farther the social objects of this association, and the results of 
the project were such as to leave no doubt of its success. 

Your Committee, in conference with the Local Committee, ar- 
ranged to repeat the experiment this year ; accordingly last even- 
ing there was a reception by the President and officers of the 
Conference at the Grand Hotel. 

Many members availed themselves of this opportunity of renew- 
ing friendships and forming new ones. The whole spirit of last 
night's gathering encourages the inference that a Conversazione 
will henceforth find a permanent place in the pi-oceedings of Con- 
ference. 

It is with great pleasure your Committee is able to report that 
two applications for grants in aid of research have been made. 
A sum of £10 has been handed over to Mr. E. M. Holmes for 
defraying the costs connected with the purchase and cultivation 
of authentic specimens of Aconitum Napellus, with a view subse- 



400 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



Financial Statement for the tear ending June 30th, 1887. 

The Hon. Treasurer in Account with the British Fharmaceuticnl 

Conference. 



1886. Dr. 

July 1. To Assets forward from last year — 
,, Balance in kand at Bank 
,, Balance in band of Secretary 
„ Messrs. J. and A. ChurchiU's Ac 
count .... 



1887. 
June 30. 



,, Sale of Year-Book by Publishers 
,, Sale of Year-Book by Secretary 

,, Advertisements 

,, Members' Subscriptions 

,, Surplus Cash left by late Secretary 

,, Index to Year-Book, sale by Sec 
retary .... 

,, Index to Year-Book, sale by Pub 
Ushers .... 

,, Outstanding Liabilities, W. I 

Richardson's Account unpaid 
„ McCorquodale & Co. 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 

219 7 
3 9 10 



337 7 4 



114 10 


6 


17 13 

7 


4 
6 


124 1 





611 13 
4 


9 

1 



18 10 
124 1 



611 17 10 



re 7 6 

1 10 4 



79 17 10 



11 5 6 
16 8 6 



— 27 14 
£1198 18 10 



1887. Cr. £ 8. d. 
Juno 30. By Expenses connected with Year-Book: — 

Printing, Binding, Publishing • 384 13 11 

Postages and Distributing . 42 10 
Advertising and Publishers' 

charges 34 7 3 

Foreign Journals . . . 5 15 6 

Editor's Salary . . . . 150 



£ g. d 



,, Expenses connected with Index to Year-Book : 



Postages and Distributing 
Preparing, etc. . 

Salary of Secretary 
Blue Lists : — 

Printing 

Postageg . . . , 



617 6 8 



1 10 
53 3 



5 15 
9 6 



54 13 
65 2 3 



15 1 



BEITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 401 

1887. Cr. £ .s. d. £ s. d. 
June 30. By Printiug and Stationery 39 8 6 

„ Postages -40 12 11 

,, Formulary Committee 10 

,, Expenses of Birmingham Meeting : — 

Mr. Princep . . . . 5 
Mr. Plowman . . . . 3 15 

Printing 9 13 6 

18 8 6 

„ Petty Cash 10 7 10 

,, Grant to Mr. Elborne, Manchester . . .500 

„ Bank Charges 10 

,, Outstanding Liabilities on last year — 

Messrs. Butler & Tanner's Account paid .137 2 

,, Outstanding Assets — Messrs. J. and A. 

Churchill's Account, since paid . . . 108 17 5 

„ Balance at Bank .... 03 14 8 

„ Balance with Secretary — 

Petty Cash . \ . . 3 2 

Postage 4 9 

70 17 o 



£1198 18 10 



The Bell caul Hills Fund. 

1886. Dr. 

July 1. To Balance (forward from last year) 

,, 6. ,, Di^•idend on Consols, £350 

1887. 
Jan. 6. ,, 



1886. Cb. 

Oct. 26. By Books for Birmingham 

1887. 

June 30. ,, Balance at Bank . 



1887. 
July 1. To Balance 



Examined and found correct, ( C. J. ARBLASTER, Birmingham, 
securities viewed. \A. WILKINSON, Manchester. 

D i) 



£ 
. 22 




s. 
4 
1 


5 
6 


5 


2 





£32 


7 


11 


£ 
. 10 


s. 
13 


d. 

7 


. 16 
1 July 20 5 


12 
2 


4 



£32 


7 


11 


£ s. d. 

16 12 4 
5 2 






£21 14 4 





402 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

quently to the extraction and chemical examination of its alka- 
loidal constituent. 

This undertaking is a practical outcome of a suggestion offered 
by Mr. T. B. Groves, when discussing the valuable paper on 
" Crystallized Aconitine," conti'ibuted by Mr. John Williams at 
the last General Meeting. 

The sum of £5 has been placed at the disposal of Mr. W. 
Klborne, for a further research on Strophanthus and Strophanthin. 
The results of his investigation will be embodied in a repoi-t, to be 
presented to this meeting. 

A year ago the Conference at its Annual Meeting appointed a 
Committee of ten of its members to ])repare a formulary of un- 
official remedies. 

This Committee, through its Chairman, has handed in the di-aft 
of what it recommends for publication as the first edition of an 
Unofficial Formulary. The Executive Committee -will now lay 
these results before the Conference. 

Your Committee advises the reappointment of the Sub- Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Siebold, F.I.C., F.C.S., was last December i-eappointed 
editor of the Year-Booh for 1887, and the manusci-ipt of the forth- 
coming volume, so far as it can be completed, is now on the table. 

The number of papers which have been received for the present 
meeting is a little in advance of last year, and it is believed that 
the several contributions will provide ample scope for pi'ofitable 
discussion. 



In the absence of Mr. Umney (Treasurer), ]Mr. W. A. H. Xaylor 
read the financial statement {see pp. 400, 401) : — 

Mr. Wilkinson, Auditor, testified to the correctness of the 
accounts, which he had examined, and the securities. 

The Presid1':nt moved the adoption of the report and the ac- 
counts. He remarked tliat, like all records of human laboui% the 
i-eport contained mingled experiences of sunshine and shadow ; 
that thei-e were shades in the form of resignations in the list of 
active workers could not be denied, but the impression produced 
on his mind was, that on the whole the Conference was in a 
tlioi-oughly sound, healthy, and flourishing condition. He believed 
he was only expressing the general opinion of the members, ladies 
as well as gentlemen, in saying that the idea of a preliminary 
conversazione, inaugui-ated last year at Birmingham, had proved a 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 403 

decided success. One of tlie purposes of the Conference was the 
promotion of social intercourse, and the advantage of meeting 
together before the business meetings commenced, and renewing 
old friendships and making new ones, could hardly be overesti- 
mated. With regard to the Unofficial Formulary, he would only 
say that the result of the Committee's work up to the present 
time had been printed, and he commended it to the careful exam- 
ination of the members. 

Mr. Kemp seconded the motion, which was at once carried 
unanimously. 

The German Apotheker-Verein. 

The President said it had been suggested that a telegram of 
congratulation should be sent to the German Apotheker-Verein, 
which was then sitting at Munich, and asked if it were the will 
of the meeting this should be done. 

The suggestion was unanimously agreed to. 

The President then delivered the followino^ address : — 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The honour you have conferred on me in electing me as your 
President is one that I most highly appreciate, although it entails 
responsibilities I shrink from trying to discharge. 

At any time I should have felt my inability worthily to intro- 
duce and conduct your deliberations, but in this year, so memorable 
in the history of our country, and in the city of Manchester, I am 
most deeply sensible of the difficulty of my position. 

Enough, and perhaps more than enough, has already been said 
respecting the Queen's Jubilee, and yet it would ill become me to 
omit all reference to it. Interested as we all are in the progress of 
science and in the development of the industries of our country, 
we cannot but be thankful that during fifty years stability has 
attached to the throne, and life and health have been continued to 
the monarch of these realms. 

Other and neighbouring lands have been agitated by revolutions, 
and have tried all possible varieties of government, but Great 
Britain has remained devoted to the House of Brunswick, and the 
recent celebrations have in a most remarkable manner brought to 
light the real depth of this devotion. 

There is another topic on which I feel bound to say a few words 



404 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

as in some measure preparatory to the remarks that follow. "We 
are assembled iu the city of Manchester, a city -whose histoiy is 
strikingly illustrative of the progress of our country during the 
last fifty years. 

As the railways converging hither carry us through the dense 
forest of chimneys ; as on our way through the streets we gaze on 
the long rows of warehouses, and at length stand before the 
majestic town hall, it is difficult for us wlio are comparative 
strangers to the place to imagine what ISIauchester must have 
been half a century since. 

The mail coach to London, first started in 1787, leaving Man- 
chester at 4 a.m., and professing to reach London " early next 
evening," had indeed been superseded by the railway, but Avho 
could have supposed that in the course of fiifty years the power 
of locomotion could have been so increased, and the trade and in- 
dustry of the nation have been so developed as to make it possible 
that in 1887 as many as fi.fteen or twenty express trains should 
be running up to the metropolis every day, and performing the 
journey in four and a quarter or four and a half hours ? 

This one fact speaks volumes. 

Again, fifty years ago, the amount of traffic between Manchester 
and Livei'pool was such as to tax to their utmost extent the cairy- 
ing powers of river, road, and rail ; but what must the trade have 
gi'own to, and what must be the energy inherent in this great 
manufacturing centre, when it has become possible to float an 
enterprise which is to convert Manchester into one of the sea-ports 
of the kingdom ? 

And while the magnitude of industries pursued in this district 
has become such as no one could have dreamt of in 18.37, it 
is gratifying to observe that intellectual has kept pace with 
material progress. Educational and scientitic institutions have 
been extended. ^lauchester has proved itself worthy of its Quaker 
citizen, John Ualton, who fifty years ago was Professor of Chemistry 
and Mathematics in the George Street Academy, and President of 
your Literary and Philosophical Society, but whom all the world 
now remembers as the discoverer of the Atomic Theory. 

Owens College has developed a taste for learning, and has led 
tt) the creation of the Victoria University, whose graduates will 
doubtless, as time advances, do their part towards extending the 
fame of Manchester as one of the great centres of thought in the 
United Kingdom. 

And as the patroness of Art, this city has taken a position not 



BRITISH PHARMACEDTICAL CONFERENCE, 405 

surpassed by another city in the kingdom, except the metropolis 
itself. 

Music and painting have abundant admirers here, while the 
Art Exhibitions of 1857 and 1887 show that admiration of all that 
is beautiful in design and execution is not a mere passing fashion 
among men whose marvellous success in business has made them 
ambitious of surrounding themselves with the works once found 
only in the mansions of the aristocracy ; but that there is a desire 
to promote the advancement of high art, and to give to all classes 
of the community an oppoi't unity of enjoying its pleasui^es. 

In one word, the history of Manchester during the past fifty 
years forces upon us the lesson, that in all department