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Full text of "Year-Book of Pharmacy, comprising abstracts of papers relating to pharmacy, materia medica and chemistry contributed to British and foreign journals with Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference"



i •!■ 



An\ EBTISEMEXTS 



An Important 
Branch 



of a CHEMIST'S BUSINESS is the Mineral 
Water Department. 



M i rijc_ r»n/\rixiL4 nj r 




Library 



1 Ontario College 



OF 



Pharmacy 



fflffiel: 






c*. "> ' 



ex 



1 ^-/Jivxv" \i> -^\j',f 

Pratt St., Camden Town, N.W. 

Purvfvors of Tabh- Waters to B..M. Thk King. 

Branches— 
LIVERPOOL, SOUTHAMPTON, CANTERBURY and TEDDINGTON. 



ONTARIO 

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 

^^ GERRApr-^ ^-^ 
ADVESTfSBMEXTS ' ^ '^ '^ rX LJ S/ . ^ 

#r iS IMPERATIVE , . . ^' 

THAT CHEMISTS AND OTHEES EEQUIRIXG 

Essential Oils 

FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES SHOULD EMPLOY GENUINE 
OILS OF THE FINEST QUALITY ONLY. 

These en n be obtained from W. J. Bush & Co., Ltd.. who euarantee the 
following to be absolutely pure, and to pass the characters and tests of the British Pharma- 
copoeia, IhHS. 



OL. A 



OL. 


A 


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OL. CO 
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RULES REGARDING BOOKS. 



Each student on taking a book from 
the Library becomes responsible for the loss 
or damage of the same. 

The Librarian shall examine evepy book 
returned, and if the same be found marked, 
or spotted with ink, with leaves turned down, 
or in any way injured, the borrower shall 
have the loss deducted from his deposit. 

Through the day, books must be re- 
turned on leaving the reading room. 

From 3.30 to 4 p.m. a book may be 
obtained for home reading, but must be re- 
turned by n. ,m' th, " ,\ving morning. 
For longer detention a fine of 5 cents per 
hour will be imposed. 



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VIS. 

H/E PIP. 
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^ ANG. 



Head 



.-., ^v..,^w., N.E. 



ADVERTI8KMENT8 




CV*^ united, ''i;^ 

V Established 200 Years. ^ 

Mbolesale ^ lEyport IDruooists, 

anal\?tical ant) /IDanufacturino Cbcinists. 

. . MAKERS OF . . 

COMPRESSED TABLETS , . . 
GELATINE CAP SULES, 

. . . AND PERLES. 



Medicated J^ ^^\ ^V Hypodermic 

Bougies, / ^^>y \ Tablets, 

Pessaries, i M|^ A Granular 

*"** vteto^ n^%il^ Effervescing 

Suppositories, ^^^^s^^^ Preparations. 

GELATINE COATED PILLS, round or oval. 

$ $ 
Samples, Quotations and Price Lists, from 

38 & 40, Southwark Street, 
London, S.E. 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY 

COIITKISING 

AB8TEACTS OF PAPERS 



RELATING TO 



PHARMACY, MATERIA MEDICA, AND CHEMISTRY 

CONTRIBUTED TO BRITISH AND FOREIGN JOURNAT-S 

FROM JULY 1, 1904, TO JUNE SO, 1905, 
WITH THE 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

BEITISH PHAEMAGEUTICAL 
CONFERENCE 

AT THE 

FORTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING 



BRIGHTON,^ ONTARIO 

COLLEGE OF PHARMap 

JULY, 1905 44 Gr^o.^ ^^ 
TORONTO 



Editor of the Year-Book, 
J. 0. BRAITHWAITE. 

Editors; of the Transactions, 

E. SAVILLE PECK, MA. 
EDMUND WHITE, B.Sc, F.I.C. 



LONDON 
X & A (CHURCHILL, 7, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STRP]ET, 

1905. 



butler & tanner, 
The selwood printing Works, 

FROME. and LONDON. 







BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



OFFICERS FOR 1905-1906. 

President. 
W. A. H. NAYLOR, F.I.C., F.O.S., London. 

Vice-Presidents, 
TF7(.o have filled the office of President. 

JOHN ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.C., F.C.S., Watford. 

S. R. ATKINS, J. P., Salisbury. 

CHAS. UMNEY, F.I.C., F.C.S., Lorulon. 

OCTAVIUS CORDER, Norwich. 

N. H. MARTIN, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

C. SYMES, Ph.D., Pn.C, F.C.S., Liverpool. 

J. C. C. PAYNE, ,I.P., M.P.S.I., Belfast. 

E. M. HOLMES, F.L.S., Ph.C, London. 

G. C. DRUCE, M.A., F.L.S., Oxford. 

T. H. W. IDRIS, L.C.C., P.C.S., London. 

Vice-Presidents. 
R. A. ROBINSON, L.C.C., J.P., London. 

D. B. DOTT, F.R.S.B., F.I.C., Edinburgh. 
W. F. WELLS, Dublin. 

THOS. BARCLAY, Birmingham. 

F. RANSOM, F.C.S., Hitohin. 

HENRY G. GREENISH, F.I.C., F.L.S., London. 

Honorary Treasurer. 
J. C. UMNEY, F.C.S., London. 

Honorary General Secretaries. 

E. SAVILLE PECK, M.A., Cambridge. 
EDMUND WHITE, B.Sc, F.I.C., London. 

Honorary Local Secretary. 
CHAS. THOMPSON, Birmingham. 

Other Members of the Executive Committee. 
F. H. ALCOCK, Birmingham. | W. H. MARTINDALE, London. 

F. C. J. BIRD, London. | W. W. SAVAGE, Brighton. 

H. W. GADD, Exeter. 
A. W. GERRARD, Birmingham. 
D. LLOYD HOWARD, London. 



J. F. TOCHBR, Peterhead. 
R. WRIGHT, Baxtoi 



These Officers collectively constitute the Executive Committee. Three retire 
annually, being eligible for re-election. 

Assistant Secretary. 
JOHN HEARN, London. 

Auditors. 
J. W. BOWEN, London, and W. P. ROBINSON, London. 

Honorary Cor.oMAL Srcretaries. 

For Bengal W. T. GRICE, F.C.S., Calcutta. 

„ Bombay J. STANLEY SMITH, Bombay. 

„ Canada J. BEMROSE, F.C.S., Montreal. 

,, Cape Colony anh Natal . . A. WALSH, Port Elizabeth. 

„ Madras W. E. SMITH, Madras. 

,, New Zealand R. WILKINSON, Dunedin. 

,, Queensland STILES W. G. RICH, Brisbane. 

„ Tasmania A. P. MILLER, Hobart. 

„ Victoria H. SHILLINGLAW, Melbourne. 

„ West Indies A. JAMES TAITT, Port of Spain. 

a* 



BRITISH I'llARMAOEUTICAL CONFERENCE 



I'lacei u) 
Aleetinff. 



iNAlilfKAL .MEKTINO HELD AT NEWCASTLE-ON-TTNE IN 1863 

I'residentt. 



1804 



Bnth . . 

Uirniingliani 

NottiuRliain 



ISO" Diindpe 



1808 



1809 



1870 



1871 



Norwich 



Exeter . 



Liverpool 
Edinburgli 
1872 Brigliton 



1873 



1874 



1875 



London . 



Bristol 



] 
1H70 , (ilasRow 

1877 Plymouth . 

I 

1878 Dublin . . 

1870 ; Sliemeid . 



1<880 



1881 



Swansea 



Yorlc 



Hknky Deane, F.L.S. 
Henry Deane, F.L.S. 
Prof. Bentley, F.L.S. 
Prof. Bestley', F.L.S. 



Daniel IIanbury, 
F.R.s. 



Daniel Hanbuky, 
F.ll.S. 



W. W. Stoddart, 
F.C.S. 



W. W. Stoddart, 
F.C.S. 



H. B. Brady, F.R.S. 



Bradford If. 15. Brady, F.R.S. 



Thcs. b. Groves, 
F.C.S. 



Tugs. b. Groves, 
F.C.S. 



Prof. Redwood, F.C.S. 
I'rof. Redwood, F.C.S. 
G. F. SrrrAfHT, F.C.S. 
G. F. ScHAraT, F.C.S. 
W. Southall, F.L.S. 
R. Reynold."?, F.C.S. 



Vice-Presidents. 



Prof. Bentley. F.L.S. 
Dr. EDWARD.S, F.C.S. 
R. W. Giles, F.C.S. 
Prof. Redwood, F.C.S. 

Prof. BENTLEY, F.L.S. 
Dr. EDWARD.S, F.C.S. 

\V. S01TH.\LL. 

J. P. Tylee. 

Dr. EDWARD.S, F.C.S. 

D. Hanhury, F.R.S. 

Samuel Parr. 

\V. W. Stoddart, F.G.S. 

D. Hankury, F.R.S. 

.T. INCE, F.L.S. 

D. RrssELL. 

\V. W. Stoddart, F.G.S. 

R. Fitch, F.G.S. 

J. iNCE, F.L.S. 

W. W. Stoddart, F.G.S 

J. R. Young. 

G. Cooper. 

H. S. Evans, F.C.S. 

J. INCE, F.L.S. 

W. W. Stoddart, F.G.S. 

J. Abraham. 

n. C. Baildon. 

H. s. Evans, F.C.S. 

.r. iNCE, F.L.S. 

J. .\braham. 

H. C. Baildon. 

J. iNCE, F.L.S. 

J. Williams, F.C.S. 

.T. iNCE, F.L.S. 

R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 

w. D. Savage. 

J. Williams, F.C.S. 

T. II. Hills, F.C.S. 

R. itEYNOLDS, F.C.S. 

F. M. RIMMINOTON, 

J. WILLIAMS, F.C.S. 

T. H. Hills, F.C.S. 
R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 
Chas. h. Savory. 
J. Williams, F.C.S. 
T. H. Hills, F.C.S. 
R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 
Chas. Boorne. 
Peter Squire, F.L.S. 
T. H. Hills, F.C.S. 
R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 
E. C. C. Stanford, F.C.S. 
D. Frazer. 
T. H. Hills, F.C.S. 
R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 
A. P. Balkwill. 
J. Williams, F.C.S 
Prof.TlcHliOKNE, F.C.S. 
R. Rkvnoliis, F.C.S. 
R. W. I'KiNii, L.A.H.D. 
.1. Williams, F.C.S. 
Prof. Tichhorne. F.C.S. 
R. 1{EYN0LDS, F.C.S. 

W. Ward, F.C.S. 
.1. Williams, F.C.S. 
R. Reynolds, F.C.S. 

G. W. Sandford. 
W. Ward, F.C.S. 
N. M. Grose. 

Prof. Attheld, F.R.S. 
R. Davison. j 

N. M. Grose. 
C. Umney, F.C.S. 



Local Secretaries. 



J. C. I'OOLEY. 



W. Southall, 
Jun. 



J. H. Atherton, 
F.C.S. 



F. Sutton, F.C.S 



M. Husband. 



E. Da VIES, F.C.S. 
J. DUTTON (Bir- 
Icenhcad). 

J. M.iCKAY, F.C.S 



T. Glaisyer. 



R. Parkinson, 
Pli.D. 



M. Carteiohe, 
F.C.S. 



A. Kinnin.mont. 



R. J. Clark. 



W. Hayes. 



H. .Maleham. 



J. HUOHES. 



J. SOWRAY. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE 



Tears. 


Places of 
Meeting. 


Presidents. 


Vice-Presidents. 


Local Secretaries. 


1882 


Southampton 


Prof. Attfield, F.R.S. 


R. Chipperfield. 
T. Greenish, F.C.S. 
Prof. Tichborne, LL.D. 
J. R. Young. 


0. R. Dawson. 


1883 


Southport . 


Prof. Attfield, F.R.S. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
\V. V. Radley. 
C. Umney, F.C.S. 
J. R. Young. 


Wm. Ashton. 


1884 


Hastings 


J. Williams, F.C.S. 


S. R. Atkins. 

J. Bell. 

M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 

J. R. Young. 


P. Rossiter. 


1885 


Aberdeen . 


J. B. Stephenson. 


F. B. Benger, F.C.S. 
M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
C. Ekin, F.C.S. 
J. P. Kay. 


A. Strachan. 


1886 


Birmingham 


T. Greenish, F.C.S. 


T. Barclay. 
F. B. Benger, F.C.S. 
M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
C. Ekin, F.C.S. 


Chas. Thompson. 


1887 


Manchester 


S. R. Atkins, J.P. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
S. Plowman, F.R.C.S. 
C. Symes, Ph.D. 

G. S. WOOLLEY. 


F. B. Benger, 
F.C.S. 


1888 


Bath . . 


F. B. Benger, F.C.S. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
S. Plowman, F.R.C.S. 
C. SYiMES, Ph.D. 
W. Martindale, F.C.S. 


H. Hutton. 


1889 


Newcastle- 


C. Umnet, f.i.c, 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 


T. M. Claque. 




on-Tyne 


F.C.S. 


S. Plowman, F.R.C.S. 

C. Symes, Ph.D. 

N. H. Martin, F.L.S. 




1890 


Leeds . . 


c. umney, f.i.c. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 


F. W. Branson, 






F.C.S. 


S. Plowman, F.R.C.S. 

A. KINNINMONT, F.C.S. 

W. Smeeton. 


F.C.S. 


1891 


Cardiff . . 


W. Martindale, 
F.C.S. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
A. Kinninmont, F.C.S. 
J. C. Thresh, M.B.,D.Sc. 

J. MUNDAY. 


Alfred Coleman. 


1892 


Edinburgh . 


E. C. C. Stanford, 
F.C.S. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
W. GiLMOUR, F.R.S. B. 
J. C. Thresh, M.B.,D.Sc. 

J. R. YOUNG, J.P. 


Peter Boa. 


1893 


Nottingham 


OCTAVItrS CORDER. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
J. Laidlaw Ewing. 
W. Hayes. 
R. FiTZ Hugh. 


C A. Bolton. 


1894 


Oxford . . 


N. H. MARTIN, F.L.S., 
F.R.M.S. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 
R. H. D.\viES, F.C.S. 
W. Hayes. 
G. T. Prior. 


H. Mathew.^. 


1895 


Bourne- 


N. H. MARTIN, F.L.S.. 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 


Stewart Hard- 




mouth 


F.R.M.S. 


J. Laidlaw Ewing. 
W. Hayes. 

J. A. TOONE. 


wick. 


1896 


Liverpool . 


W. MARTINDALE, 


M. Carteighe, F.C.S. 


T. H. Wardle- 






F.C.S. 


J. Laidlaw Ewing. 

M. CONROY, F.C.S. 

W. Hayes. 


WORTH. 
H. 0. DUTTON 

(Birkenliead). 


1897 


Glasgow 


Dr. C. Symes, Ph.C. 


Walter Hills. 
J. Laidlaw Ewing. 
W. F. Wells. 
R. McAdam. 


J. A. Russell. 


1898 


Belfast . . 


Dr. C. Symes, Ph.C. 


Walter Hills. 
J. Laidlaw Ewing. 
J. C. C. Payne, J.P. 
W. F. Wells. 


R. W. Mcknight 
W. J. Rankin. 


1899 


Plymouth 


J. C. C. PAYNE, J.P., 

Ph.C. 


Walter Hills, F.C.S. 

R. J. DOWNES. 

John Moss, F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 
C J. Park. 


J. Davy Turney. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE 



year$ 


Places of 
Meeting. 


Presidents. 


Vice-Presidents. 


Local Secretaries. 


1900 


London 


E. M. HOLHKS, F.L.S. 


B,. J. DOWNES, Pll.C. 


W. Warren. 






Pli.C. 


Walter Hills, F.C.S. 
John Moss, F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 
J. F. Harrisoton. Pll.C. 


Herbert Crack- 

NELL. 


1901 


Dublin . . 


G. C. Dbucb, M.A., 
F.L.S. 


G. T. W. Newsholme, 

F.C.S. 
G. D. limas, M.P.S.L 
Peteh Boa, F.C.S. 
Prof. Tichhorne, Pli.D. 


J. I. Bernard. 


1902 


Dundee 


G. C. Drucb, M.A., 
F.L.S. 


(i. T. W. Newsholme, 

F.C.S. 
G. D. Beggs, M.P.S.I. 
Chas. Kerr. 
W. A. H. Naylor, F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 


W. Cpmminqs. 


1903 


Bristol . . 


T. n. W. InRis, F.C.S. 


G. T. W. Newsholme, 

F C S 
G. b.' BEGOS, M.P.S.I. 
Peter Boa. 
W. A. H. Naylor, F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 
J. W. White. 


IT. E. BOORNE 


1004 


Slu'ffleld . 


T. H. W. IDRIS, F.C.S. 


G. I>. Beggs, M.P.S.I. 
D. B. Dott, F.R.S.B., 

■p« T p 

W. A.H. Naylor.F.I.C, 

F.C.S. 
G. T. W. Newsholme, 

F.C.S. 
F. Ransom, F.C.S. 


n. Antolifpe. 


1005 


Brigliton . 


W. A. H. NAYLOR, 


R. A. ROBIN.'^ON. 


W. W. Savage. 






F.I.C., F.C.S. 


D. B. dott. 
J. Montgomery. 

W. H. GIB-^ON. 

F. Ransom. 

H. G. Greenish. 


C. G. Y.\tes. 


1906 


Birmingham 


W. A. H. NAYIOR, 
P.I C, F.C.S. 


R. A. Robinson. 
D. a. Dott. 
W. F. Wells. 
F. Ransom. 
H. G. Greenish. 
T. Barclay. 


C. Thompson. 



nsea to 1870, H. B. Beady, 
F.R.S. 
1870 to 1877, GEOKOE F. 
I Schacht, F.C.S. 
1877 to 1884, C. Ekin, F.C.S. 
Treasurers 1884 to 1888, C. Umney, F.I.C, 
(One). I F.C.S. 

1888 to 1890, W. Martindale, 

F C S 
1890 to 1893, R. H. Davies, 

F.I.C, F.C.S. 
1803 to 1808, John Mo.ss, 

F.I.C, F.C.S. 
1898 to 1906, John C Umney, 
V Pll.C, F.C.S. 



jionorary 
General 

Secke- 
taries 
(Two,. 



1863 to 1880, Prof. Attfield, 

Pli.D., F.R.S. 
1863 to 1871, Richard Rey- 
nolds, F.C.S. 
1871 to 1884, F. Baden Benger, 

F.C.S. 
1880 to 1882, M. Carteighe, 

F.C.S. 
1882 to 1886, Sidney Plowman, 

F.R.C.S. 
1884 to 1890, John C Thresh, 

M.B., D.Sc. 
1886 to 1901, W. A. H. NAYLOR, 

F.I.C, F.C.S. 
1890 to 1903, F. Ransom, F.C.S. 
1901 to 1906, E. Saville Peck, 

M.A. 
1903 to 1900, Edmund Whttb, 

B.Sc, F.I.C. 



LOCAL CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. 



Listricl. 



yame. 



District. 



Same. 



Aljerdeen . 

Bacup 

Bainet 

Belfast . . 

Birmingliam . 

Blackburn 

Bournenioutli 



W. Giles. 

W. J. SUTCLIFFE. 

R. F. Young. 
W. J. Rankin. 
C. Thompson. 
R. Lord Ciffokd. 
Stewart Hard- 

V.ICK. 

J. Jackson. 

J. Bain. 

R. .A. Cripps. 

H. E. BOORNE. 

G. Wright. 
R. Wright. 

E. S.wiLLE Peck. 

J. MUNDAY. 

J. Hallaway. 

F. J. Palmer. 

H. F. J. Shepheard. 
J. G. Prebble. 
T. R. Lester. 
H. W. Jones. 
S. Taylor. 
M. H. Stiles. 
W. F. Wells. 
Wm. Cummings. 
H. R. Cheney. 

S. GiBBS. 

Peter Boa. 

H. WippELL Gadd. 

W. L. CURRIE. 

J. H. Mather. 

J. H. \\"lLSON. 

F. ROSSITER. 

G. R. DURRANT. 

F. Ransom. 

G. W. WORFOLK. 

E. C. Sayer. 

G. VOGT. 



Bradford 
Bridge <if 

Allan . . 
Brighton and 

Hove 
Bristol 
Burton - on - 

Trent . . 
Buxton 
Cambridge 
Cardiff 
Carlisle 
Cheltenham . 
Chester and 

Wrexham . 
Chislehurst 
Cork . . . 
Coventry . 
Derby 
Doncaster 
Dublin 
Dundee 
Dursley 
Eastbourne . 
Edinburgh 
Exeter 
Glasgow . 
Godalming 
Harrogate 
Hastings and 

St. Leonards 
Hertford . . 
Hitehin 
Ilkley . . 
Ipswieli 
Kendal 

The duties the Local Corresponding Secretaries have undertaken to 
discharge ai"e briefly as follows: — 

(a) To bring under the notice of pharmacists, i^rincipals, and their 
assistants, in their districts, who are unassociated with the Conference, 
the advantage of membership with it, and b^^ personal effort to try and 
induce them to join. 

(6) To assist in stimulating research by asking pharmacists, who have 
the time, ability, and disposition, to contribute from time to time a paper 
or useful note to the annual meetings. 

(c) To endeavour to induce defaulters to continue their membership. 

(<^) To take generally a watchful and S3nnpathetic interest in the 
afiairs of the Conference. 

To render those services voluntarily at times convenient to themselves 
and as opportunity offers. 



Kettering 

Ivihnarnock . 

I\lrkcaldy 

Leamington . 

Leeds . 

Leicester . 

Liverpool . 

Louth 

Malvern . 

^Manchester . 

Alontrose . 

Morpeth . 

Newcastle-on- 
Tyne 

Newport 
(Mon. ). . 

Nottingham . 

Nuneaton 

Oxford 

Paisley 

Peterhead 

Plymouth 

Ross (Here- 
ford) . . 

Salisbury . 

Sheffield . . 

Shrewsbury . 

Southampton 

Southport 

Spalding . 

Stockport 

Stockton 

Smiderland 

Swansea . 

Taimton . 

Torquay . 

Tunbridge 
Wells . , 

Warrington . 

Windsor . 

Wol verba mjj- 
ton 

Worcester 



W. HiTCHMAN. 

G. F. ^Ierson. 
David Storrar. 

H. HUTTON. 

F. P. Sargeaxt. 
Lewis Ough. 
R. C. Cowley. 
H. D. Simpson. 
A. Mander. 
C. A. Johnstone. 
A. Davidson. 
.J. Whittle. 

T. Maltby' Clague. 

E. Davis. 

G. J. R. Parkes. 
G. Iliffe. 

G. Claridge Druce 
A. Eraser. 
J. F. Tocher. 
.J. Davy Turney. 

T. Matthews. 
S. R. Atkins. 
G.T.W.Newsholme. 
W. G. Cross. 
H. Wilson. 

J. RiGHTON. 

E. WiGHTMAN Bell. 
J. C. Arnfield. 
W. J. Clarke. 
C. Ranken. 
N. I\I. Grose. 
W. A. Wrenn. 

E. Quant. 

A. E. Hobbs. 

J. Rymer Young. 

J. G. Everett. 

F. J. Ctibson. 
C. W. Turner. 



THE 

BRiriSlI PllAKilACELTTICAL CONFERENCE. 

AN ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 1863 FOR THE ENCOURAGE- 
MENTOF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH. AND THE PROMOTION OF 
KKIRNDLY INTERCOUIISR AND UNION AMONGST PHARMACISTS. 



Thk mo.st important ways in which a member can aid the objects of 
the Conffrenee are by suggesting subjects for investigation, working 
upon subjects suggested by himself or by otliers, contributing infor- 
mation tending to throw light on questions relating to adulterations 
and impurities, or collecting and forwarding specin)ens whose exa- 
mination would afif'ord similar information. Personal attendance at 
the yearly gatherings, or the mere payment of the annual subscrip- 
tion, will also greatly strengthen the hands of the executive. 

A list of subjects suggested for research is published early in 
the year (see page 359). Resulting papers are read at the annual 
meeting of the members ; but new facts that are discovered duiing 
an investigation may be at once published by an author at a meeting 
of a scientific society, or in a scientific journal, or in any other way 
he may desire; in that case, he is expected to send a short report on 
the subject to the Conference. 

The annual meeting for 1904 will be held at Birmingham. 

Gentlemen desiring to join the Conference can be nominated at 
any time on applying to the Secretaries, or any otlier officer or 
member. The yearly subscription is payable in advance, on July 
1st. The amount, which includes free delivery of the Year-Book, 
is 7s. 6d. for members residing within the Postal Union. Further 
information may be obtained from 

The Asst. Secretary, Brit. Pharm. Conf., 

17, Bloomsbury Squai'e, London, W.C. 



THE YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

The Conference annually presents to members a volume of about 
6CK!) pages, containing the proceedings at the yearly meeting, and an 
Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacy, or Year-Book, which 
includes notices of all pharmaceutical papers, new processes, prepa- 
rations, and formulae published throughout the world. The neces- 
sary fund for accomplishing this object consists solely of the sub- 
scriptions of members. The Executive Committee, therefore, call 
on every pharmacist — principal, assistant, or pupil — to offer his 
name for election, and on every member to make an effort to obtain 
more members. The price of the Year-Book to non-members is 
ten shillings. The constitution and rules of the Conference, and a 
oonvenient form of nomination, will bo found at page 364. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 



Introduction 
Chemistry 
Materia Medica . 
Pharmacy 

Notes and Formula . 
Research List- 
Constitution and Rules of the Br 
Honorary Members of the Conference 
Foreign and Colonial Members . 
Home Members ..... 
Progi-amme of the British Pharmaceutical Conference 
General Index . 



itish Pharmaceutical Conference 



PACE 

1 
15 
171 
225 
293 
323 
328 
329 
329 
332 
351 
507 



INTRODUCTION 



As the horizon of chemical knowledge has opened out with the 
advance of the army of investigators, and as the number of 
recruits to this army has grown immeasurably greater year by 
year, the necessity of specializing the work of these has become 
imperative. To the pharmacist, this advance and specialization 
is well brought home by a glance at the matter contained in 
the Year-Book, by comparing the contents of the volumes of 
earlier years with those of more recent date. It will thus be 
evident that, even in our own sphere of pharmaceutical 
chemistry, there is the same tendency to specialization, and to 
the concentration of the work of individuals in certain definite 
directions. 

In consequence, it is no longer possible to usefully review the 
general chemical work of the current year in the space at our 
disposal. It has been necessary, therefore, to limit the ab- 
stracts in the chemical section of the book to those papers which 
deal more or less directly with subjects cognate to pharma- 
ceutical work, to the exclusion of matter of j)urely scientific or 
academic interest. By so doing, it is lioped that this section 
will be rendered more valuable to practical pharmacists, and 
that the survey therein given may prove more thorough, by 
Ijeing limited to those subjects with which it is essential for 
them to ])e acquainted. 

As in several previous years, the subject of the arsenical 
contamination of drugs has attracted much attention. An 
important Report on the Detection of Arsenic in Official Drugs, 
presented to the Pharmacopoeia Committee of the General 
Medical Council by W . R. Dunstan and H. H. Robinson, has 
received the careful attention it deserves. D. L. Howard has 
voiced the opinion of the manufacturers, that certain of the 
requirements may be too stringent, in which he is supported 
Ijy E. W. Mann, who considers, liowever, that in the majority 
of cases the limit required of 3 parts per million is not excessive 

1 B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

or unattainable. IK. A. II. Naylor and E. J. Chappel concur 
tliat the limit suggested by Dunstan and Robinson for minera 
acids and for liquid ammonia is too rigid, but consider that, in 
the main, the standards aic acceptable. C. A. Hill and J. C. 
Uviney are of opinion tliat in the case of Ferrum redacium the 
limit of 60 parts per million is not a practicable one. F. H. 
Alcock, however, has met with specimens containing but little 
arsenic, but tliese have proved to be contaminated with much 
siliceous impurity. R. C. Coidcy and J. P. Catford suggest the 
use of a modification of Remsen's metliod for tlic detection of 
arsenic, and H. Cardoni, in a suggestive note, advocates its 
volatilization at normal temperatures as methyl arsenious ether. 
The presence of arsenic in objectionable quantity is noted by 
E. Bonjean in sodium phosphate, and in hydrogen peroxide by 
L. Grimbert. 

F. H. Alcock suggests a simple volumetric method for titrating 
barium chloride ; L. Robin employs his sensitive Mimosa flower 
indicator for the detection of traces of boric acid. A simple 
expedient for the rapid solution of refractory colcothars is given 
by E. Pozzi Estcot. E. J. Millard draws attention to the adul- 
teration of cream of tartar with starch ; L. and J. Gadais treat 
of the detection and determination of lead in the same. Moreau 
publishes a volumetric method for titrating ferric chloride with 
salicylic acid as indicator. P. Planes has a simple colorimetric 
method for the approximate assay of hydrogen peroxide. D. B. 
Dott draws attention to the inaccuracy of the official description 
and formula for tlie hydration of lithium citrate. W. C. Ander- 
son deals witli the different properties of magnesia from various 
sources. The detection of mercury in %irine is discussed by 
Sonnie-Moret and by Zenghelis. A method for determining 
potassium as jncramate is given by A. Fribault, wliile E. P. 
Alvarez finds tliat iconogene is a useful reagent for that metal. 
J. Bovgault advocates the use of a modified Fremy's reagent to 
detect sodium. 

Among tlie metaUic salts which have been prepared, and 
are likely to be of interest, are those of bismuth with benzoic 
and ."ialicylic acids, hy P. Thibault ; ferrous ?a\d ferric arsenate, by 
W . Duncan ; the perborates, and specially sodium perborate, by 
J. Bruhat and H. Dubois. The organic salts of thorium have been 
described by G. T. Morgan. P. Lami indicates potassium 
pcrcarbonate as source of oxygen ov of hydrogen peroxide, and 
E. Iloldemcmn gives a formula for the preparation of zinc borate. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

The occurrence in beryl of a new element allied to glucinum is 
foreshadowed by J. H. Pollok. A note of great practical value 
on the application of copper sulphate for the destruction of 
freshwater Algee and Confervce has been made by G. T. Moore. 
J . Wadmore has prepared sodium alum, and O. Silherrad has 
delinitely settled the disputed formula for " nitrogen iodide.''' 

In the chemistry of vegetable drugs, a notable event is the 
completion of the systematic examination of the Elemis by A. 
Tschirch and collaborators, the summary of which is now pub- 
lished, together with the result of the examination of Tacamakaca 
ele.mi and resin, by the same author and 0. Saal. With 0. 
Mueller, Tschirch is now submitting guttaperchas to a similar 
systematic examination, and has published important work on 
New Guinea and Sumatra gutta, perchas. Copaiba hcdsam re- 
ceives its perennial share of attention from the hands, this year, 
of Schimmels ; while van Italie publishes a note on Surinam 
copaiba. E. G. Wilcox records experiments on the influence of 
metals and other bodies on the oxidation of guaiacum resin. 
Oregon Balsam is the subject of notes from F. Rabak ; H. Thorns 
and A. Biltz put on record the constituents of white Peruvian 
balsam,. C. Ahrens and P. Hett give a simple test for tlie purity 
of storax. 

An addition to the number of sugars, in the form of aloinose, 
has been effected by E. Leger ; and G. Bertrand announces the 
occurrence of a new hexose, sorbierite, in the berries of the 
mountain ash. M. Harlay by the action of ferments, reveals 
the presence of saccharose in a large number of plants. Brisson 
gives the characters of maple sugar ; E. Bourquelot describes 
the constituents of the sugars of Cocos nucifera and of Borassus 
ffabelliformis ; E. Senft shows that sugars may be detected by 
a microchemical reaction as osazones. A. Brachin, working in 
the light of the researches of Bourquelot and Herissey, estab- 
lishes the widespread presence of the ferment lactase in the 
vegetable kingdom, and E. Bourquelot and H. Herissey find 
trehalase almost universally in the Fungi. 

G. Guerin gives a series of distinctive colour reactions for 
alcohols ; P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens afford a method 
of distinguishing primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. 
Discussing the method of Burgess for the determination of 
aldehydes and ketones, Schimmels state that it is not so widely 
applicable as that author claims. S. P. Sadtler modifies the 
process of Mulliken and Scudder for the detection of methyl 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

ahohol ill ethyl alcohol, and E. P. Alvarez employs sodium 
dioxide a> a reagent to distinguish polyphenols. 

The Essential Oils eontinue to attract much attention. 
MacCamlless gives a method for the detection of adulteration 
witii ltirp(nli)ic. Schijnmels note the admixture of castor oil 
and West Indian samlal oil with sandal oil sold in capsules. 
They also call attention to the prevalent adulteration of Canamja 
oil with coconut fat ; of hop oil with (jiirjun balsam ; of French 
lavoultr oil with ethyl succinate and so-called Spanish lavender 
oil ; also to the presence on the market of lignaloe oil which lias 
heen deprived of the greater part of its linalol. E. J. Parry 
hits found lemowjrass oil to bo fraudulently mixed with citronella 
oil ; C. T. Bennett has met with castor oil in eucalyptus oil. 

Many new essential oils have been examined, among whicll that 
of Barkhousia citriodora, reported on by Schimniels and the 
Chemical Department of the Imperial Institute, is notable for 
its high percentage of citral. Haensel gives characters of Cochin 
and African ginger oils. Schimmels have identified the new 
alcoliol in (jin/jergrass oil as dehydrocuminol, and have isolated 
numerous constituents from lemon-pctitgrain oil. B. T. Baker 
and H. Smith have published a useful summary of their long 
investigation of the Eucalyptus oils. J. C. Umney and C. T. 
Bennett report on the oil of Eucalyptus polybracteata. E. M. 
Holmes endorses the opinion of others that probably cineol is 
not the active therapeutic constituent of these oils. J. C. 
Umney and C. T. Bennett record the characters of Sicilian 
peppermint oil ; Schimmels those of the French product, and P. 
van den Wieleti of Javan oil. 

Among the pine oils and their congeners, Troeger and Beutin 
give the characters of that of Pinus strobus ; Haensel, of Pinus 
silvestris buds ; Schindelmeiser, of Siberian fir oil ; E. Sundivick, 
of Finnish pine tar oil ; and E. F. Ziegel records some practical 
results in the distillation of savin oiL calling attention to the 
varying official descriptions of this product. Etz has examined 
Greek turpentine oil from* Pinus halapensis. 

W. H. Simmons has continued his study of the iodine 
absorption of rose oil. P. Jeancard and C. Satie give characters 
of authentic specimens of varieties of French otto and of the 
genuine Bidgarian product ; Schimmels also publish standard 
figures for the latter. Attention is drawn by the same firm 
to the use of Spanish rosemary oil as an adulterant. They 
again complain of the unsatisfactory nature of the characters 



INTRODUCTION. O 

and tests of the British Pharmacopoeia for nutmeg oil. They 
give a detailed description of tlie manipulation of the test for 
chlorine in hitter alniond oil, and comment on tlie unsatisfactory^ 
nature of Bomber's test for citronella oil now officially enforced 
in Ceylon. E. Berti returns to the vexed question of the deter- 
mination of aldehydes in lemon oil, and gives details of his pro- 
cess. J. Lothian contributes to the methods for the determina- 
tion of camphor in oily solutions. H. W. Simmons suggests that 
the refractive index of clove oil may be taken as an indication of 
its eugenol content. H. Thorns has established the similarities 
and differences of dill- and parsley-apiols. E. Charabot and G. 
Laloue have continued their bio-chemical researches on the 
formation of essential oils, and their constituents, in the living 
plant, having observed the production of neroli oil in Citrus 
higaradia, the formation of volatile acids in plants, and of essen- 
tial oils in annuals. New constituents have been detected 
in caraway oil by Schimmels, also in pahnn rosa, patclioidi, 
opopanax. and cypress oils. H. Thorns finds tliat the so-called 
matico etlicr of matico-oil is a mixture of dill- and parsley-apiols. 
P. von Bomburgh has isolated a new terpene, ocimene. from 
Ocimuni basilicuni oil. 

D. Hooper contributes an interesting note on Indian beesivax, 
Schwarz deals with the analytical factor of the saponification of 
bees-wax, and P. Lemaire shows that, in some instances, adultera- 
tion may be detected by the examination of the fictitious colour- 
ing matter. Fixed oil of Calophyllum inophylhim has been 
examined by G. Fendler, and also that of the fruit of Garthamus 
tinctorius. F. B. Power and WI. Barroivcliff communicate an 
important investigation on the oil of Gynocardia odorata, showing 
its total difference from the semi-solid chaulmoogra oil. They 
have also examined the fatty oil of Hydnocarpus ivighiiana and 
of H. anihelminiica . Amendments of the official characters and 
tests for castor oil emanate from Myddleion Nash ; while strong 
adverse criticism on the obsolete reactions and tests given for 
cod liver oil in the official work, which were responsible for legal 
proceedings in this country, have been passed by J. C. Umney 
and C. T. Bennett ; also by E. J. Parry, who all suggest amend- 
ments to the official monogi^aph. Contributions to the same 
subject have been made by J. F. Liverseege, Schamelhout, and 
E. H. Gone. E. J. Parry shows that Japan wax has undergone 
an alteration in character. E. Fulmer, by direct experiment, 
finds that the lard of hogs fed on cotton-seed meal will long give 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

analytical reactions wliich miglit lead to the inference of adul- 
teration with cottonseed oil. J. Bellier indicates a method for 
detecting nut oil in olive and other oils ; C. A. Crampton and 
F. D. Simon, for tlie presence of palm oil in other fats. A. L. 
Dohme treats of the fixed oil of Podophyllum peltatum. F. 
Wiedermann gives a reaction for the detection of rmicidity in 
fats. F. Telle indicates how definite results of great analytical 
value may be obtained by the observation of the bromine absorp- 
tion of fats. 

H. A. D. Joioett and C. E. Potter do not agree with E. Leger's 
statements as to the formula of barbaloin, but confirm that of 
Tilden. E. Leger has further elucidated his theories as to the 
constitution of methyl-nat(do-emodin and natalo-emodin. A 
Tschirc/i and Iloffhauer deal with the constituents of commercial 
varieties of aloes. D. H. Braus finds the glucoside of capers to 
be a rhamnoside allied to rutin, which he has named caper-rutin ; 
he has also isolated another rhamnoside, sophorin, from the 
flowers of Sophora japonica. and has established the disputed 
formula of qurreitrin. E. Bourquelot and //. Herissey find that 
a specific ferment, gease, accompanies the glucoside gein in the 
roots of Geum urbanum. F. B. Poiver and F. H. Lees have 
continued their investigation of the cyanogenetic glucoside 
gynocardin ; M. Greslioff also communicates a note on the sub- 
ject, confirming the results obtained by the first-named authors. 
J. 8. Hills and IF. P. Wynne have conducted an arduous re- 
search on Linum cartharticum, establishing the formula for linin, 
and showing that it is not the purgative principle of the plant. 
Chri-stofohtti applies the colorimetric method of Tschirch to the 
determination of the active constituents of buckthorn bark, 
cascara bark, senna, and the aloes. A. Tschirch, with Christo- 
foletti and also Hoffbatier, have been engaged in similar investiga- 
tions on aloes and rhubarb. J. Warin has devised an ingenious 
colorimetric process for the determination of emodin in drugs 
containing it. H. A. D. Jowett has published an exhaustive 
research on the chemistry of cascara bark. N. A. Valiashko has 
further investigated robinin. Brieger and Kratise have obtained 
from the spear poison of the Cameroons a large amount of 
strophanthin. 

The number of new alkaloids recorded during the year is not 
great, and of these two have been found by T. Gadamer and 0. 
Haars in the herbs Corydalis cai'a and C. solido, thus further 
increasing the number of Corydalis alkaloids. A new base, 



INTRODUCTION. / 

Oxylupanine, has also been found by G. F. Bergh in the seeds of 
Lupinus polyphyllus. l^yrosine has been detected in the berries 
of Samhucus niger by J . Sack and B. Tollens. Alboni records 
the occurrence of two bases, cecropidine and cecropine, in Cecropia 
peltata, and /. Honda gives a definite formula and characters for 
skim'inianine from Skimmia, japonica. The poisonous alkaloids 
of Zygadernus veno7iosus are found by //. B. Blade to belong to 
the veratrine group. H. Thorns suggests a general method for 
determination of alkaloids by precipitation with potassium 
bismuth iodide. P. Lemaire shows that a^itipyrine may be 
quantitatively precipitated and determined with picric acid. 
W. C. Forsherg gives a method for the determination of alkaloid 
in belladonna leaves. The two Petits give the outline of a 
process for the morphinometric determination of opium. D. B. 
Dott again reverts to the same subject, and criticises the official 
statements concerning morphine hydrochloride, acetate, and 
apomorphine hydrochloride. The increasing use of nicotine as an 
agricultural poison renders useful a method for its determination 
in the presence of pyridine, as outlined by J. A. Emery. C. 
Beichard publishes a series of reactions for distinguishing nico- 
tine, Conine, and sparteine. The same author gives new reactions 
to differentiate quinine from cinchonidine ; Battandier gives a 
reaction for separating quinine and quinidine. Vigneron details 
a method for determining quinine in the total alkaloids of cm- 
chona barks. H. Carette describes the two quinine hydrochlorides, 
but C. Erba does not agree with all his statements relative 
thereto. W . Duncan deals with the solubility of quinine in 
ammonia, and gives a method for the valuation of quinine 
sulphate. B. H . Patd speaks with authority on the value, under 
projier manii^ulation, of the " ether test " for cinchonidine in 
quinine sulphate. One of the most important papers recently 
published on the subject of the alkaloids is that by E. Schmidt, 
in which Datura metel is found to be the best source of scopola- 
mine, and in which the nature of the mydriatic alkaloids in other 
Solanaceous plants is discussed. B. Wright has found distinct 
traces of the presence of a mydriatic alkaloid in Lactuca muralis. 
H. M . Gordin has furtlier examined the alkaloid calycanthine. 
Q. E. Caspari publishes a method for the determination of 
codeine in opium. C. Beichard, gives some new reactions for 
Conine and nicotine and for cocaine and morphine ; E. Alvarez 
the same for aconitine. H. A. D. Jowett has succeeded in con- 
verting isopilocarpine into pilocarpine, these bases being con- 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

sidered to l)e stereoisomers. The same vvorkei' describes some 
synthetic bases obtained in the attempt to prepare bases resembling 
pilocarpine. A. Astruc has prepared two (jlyccrophosphafrs of 
piperazine. 

D. Hooper reports on the chemistry of OipnnostacJ/ymn jehri- 
fugiitn, and on the leaves of Melin nzadirnchta. E. M . Holmes 
affords interesting information on " mallet hark " ; A. E. Leach 
gives results of tlie analysis of tliree commercial varieties of 
turmeric. 

In the records of organic analytical work, tests for formaldehyde 
are again prominent, processes for its deter minatio7i being given 
by C. E. Male, W. Fresenius and Gruenhut, and by F. Bonnet ; 
while A. Trillat has made the suggestive discovery that it is gen- 
erated in sufficient quantity by tlie comliustion of certain organic 
bodies to render these serviceable disinfectants when burned, 
and that formaldehyde is present in marked ciuantity in the air 
of large towns. E. J. Parry has contributed another note on 
the adulteration of civet. J. Thompson warns against the pre- 
sence of the toxic body paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes, and 
gives a method for its detection. E. Payet avails himself of 
the presence of oxydase in gum acacia to detect that gum when 
fraudulently mixed with powdered tragacanth. Villiers, Ma^jnier 
de la Source, Rocques and Fayolle collaborate on a method for the 
detection of saccharin in beverages. Pasteureau has discovered 
acetyl-methyl-carbinol as a constituent in certain vinegars. A. 
Trillat and Turchet employ potassium iodide and a hypochlorite 
to detect ammonia in waters, but Cavalier and Artus point out 
that the sensibility of the reaction is not comparable with that 
of the familiar Nessler reagent. 

The section devoted to Materia Medica has this year been 
more strictly set aside for the consideration of therapeutic notes 
and of processes and drugs which cannot be strictly classed as 
chemical. F. Rabak attributes Oregon balsam to Abies amabilis 
and A. nobilis, the oleoresins of which he describes. E. M. 
Holmes considers that a so-called false calumba which has occa- 
sionally appeared in the drug market is merely a portion of the 
woody root-stock of the true plant. The same authority 
describes the fruits of Hibiscus sahdarilla, and again communi; 
cates a note on commercial jaborandi leaves, also a short note on 
poisonous West Australian plants. Among the interesting papers 
on Indian Materia Medica liublished by D. Hooper may l)e noted 
those on Acorus calamus root, on Burmese dj-ugs. on Rusot, and 



INTRODTJCTION. V 

on Trombidium grandissimvm. P. Lemeland describes the gum 
of CocMospermum gossypiutn and of Feronia dephantum, and 
H. Jumelh that of Stereospcnmim euphorioides. Schimmels 
quote fi'om a foreign source a description of the collection of 
Clurjun hnlsani. H. Thorns giv-es an interesting note on opnim 
from Gernmn grown poppies. J. JSchindebneiser deals with 
Persian opium, and V. Masson throws light on the fabrication 
of the so-called " manipulated " Smyrna opium of low morphine 
value. A. Tschirch does much to trace commercial rhuharb to 
its true botanical sources. P. S. Boncey has written a thesis 
containing much information on Orchil. The commercial and 
botanical varieties of mustard seeds have been dealt with very 
thoroughly by C. Hartwicli and A. Vuillemin. W. Busse 
enumerates many medicinal plants of German East Africa. C, 
Mannich and W . Brandt describe an ipecacuanha axhdterant, and 
P. Planes distinguishes between true and false Aya Pana. 
H . Furness gives a picturesque account of the collection of the 
valuable Borneo camphor. J. Herzog deals with a false Yohimbi 
harJc. E. Andre describes very fully the method of collecting 
and curing Tonka beans. E. Drebble and F. A. Upsher Smith 
trace Derbyshire valerian root as the product of Valeriana 
mikanii. 

Among new remedies no introduction of first importance 
seems to have been made. E. Pochard has called attention to 
the danger in prescribing naphthol camphor ; Fucol is stated by 
G. Fcndler to by no means replace cod liver oil, as claimed. 
Exodin is found by F. Zcrnik not to be the compound stated by 
its patentees. D. B. Doti shows that diacetylmorphine hydro- 
chloride was first prepared by Alder Wright and Becket, years 
before its claimed discovery in Germany, where it was graced 
with the name " heroin.^'' The same authority considers that 
ethylmorphine hydrochloride, known as " dionine,'''' has no special 
virtues, being almost identical with codeine in its action. P. 
Zepf. apparently unaware of the work of Wild, and even that of 
his compatriot, Lewen, on the pharmacology of the alkaloids of 
ipecacuanha, has obtained results which confirm those of the 
prior investigators. 

Useful summaries of the therapeutics of adrenaline, also of 
atropine methyl bromide, are published in llercFs Report, a work 
from which many abstracts of value to pharmacists have been 
obtained. Among the more striking novelties may be noted 
isopJiysostigmine, stated by Ogui to be preferable to physostig- 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

mine for ophthalmic work ; hydroxyl- propane di-iodide, or 
iothion, used for the absorptive administration of iodine ; iso- 
form, an iodoform substitute ; isopral, trichlor-iso-propyl 
alcohol, a chloral substitute ; digalene, a soluble digitoxin ; 
euporp/iinc\ apomorphine bromethylate ; and perhydrol, a con- 
centrated neutral solution of hydrogen peroxide, wliich appears 
to be of undoubted value as a non-irritant antiseptic. A. Robin 
and Barbier give an interesting note on a new treatment of 
pneumonia by means of so-called " metallic ferments.'^ F. W. 
Gamble ably summarizes the distinctive characters and pro- 
perties of the various tuberctdins at present supplied. 

Many papers of exceptional practical value are available for 
abstraction in the section of Pharmacy. It is hoped therefore 
that this section will prove of real service to the practising 
pharmacist. In the important subject of incompatibility, 
attention is drawn by G. Denirjes to the combination taking 
place between nirvanine and mercuric cyanide ; Robert reverts 
to the time-worn subject of the incompatibility of antipyrine 
with cinchona, extracts ; A. B. Lyons treats of the behaviour of 
the cinchona alkaloids with ammonium acetate solution ; Crouzel 
deals with similar cases with ammonium acetate and cinchona 
extract ; Barille of the precipitate formed with cherry laurel 
ivater and alkaloidal solutions. 

The approaching publication of the new edition of the Codex 
has stimulated investigation on the part of French pharmacists, 
and induced the publication of many useful notes. Prominent 
among these workers is L. Grimbert, who gives processes for 
tannin pessaries and suppositories, sterilized catgut, saline solution 
of gelatin for hypodermic injection, podophyllin and belladonna 
pills, extract and syrup of maize stigmata, for the assay of iodo- 
form gauze, for extract of hyoscyamus, gelatin ovides, liquid and 
solid extract of ergot, creosote ivine, and belladonna extract. The 
same author deals with iodotan^iic syrup, for whicli formuhe are 
also given by L. Martin and Vigneron, and, in England, by //. 
Wyatt. Farr and Wright, continuing their work on standardized 
poivdered alcoholic extracts, treat of belladonna leaves and root in 
tliat form. Elsie S. Hooper also contributes a note on the 
extraction of belladonna root with alcohol and on the preparation 
of liquid extract of cinchona. W. H. Lenton has communications 
on confection of senna and on conium ointment. H. G. Greenish 
contributes to the pharmacy of the liquid extract of pareira, iron 
pill, carbolic acid ointment, liniment of mercury, and suggests 



nSTTRODtrCTION. 11 

alterations in the forniul;B of syrups of balsam of Tolu, rhubarb, 
and Virginian prune. E. W. Lucas deals with the official test 
for pepsin ; with A. D. Dick gives the results obtained in the 
manufacture of official tinctures extending over a period of six 
years ; and with H. B. Stevens publishes a note on compound 
tincture of cardamoms. H. Wyatt deals with citrate of iron and 
quinine in prescriptions, with the manipulation of bark mixtures, 
ijisoluble powders, tlie use of hypopkosphorous acid in dispensing, 
and with copaiba mixtures. M. D. Hodges and F. E. Niece con- 
tribute yet more formulae for cold cream ; the latter also gives 
recipes for ca^siCT^m petroleum liniment, benzoinated paraffin, and 
for petroleum emulsion. Formula? for the last preparation are also 
given by the Formulary Committee of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, S. A. MacDonnell, and E. F. Cook. G. 
Pinchbeck gives a method for producing ferment-free acacia 
mucilage. A. E. S. Dohme comments on acetic extracts. T. 
Fawsett publishes a test for the kind of Aloes in compound 
rhubarb pills. E. A. Ruddiman gives practical notes on the 
behaviour of cacao butter with certain bodies. P. van der Wieler 
advocates the use of a soap prepared from this fat for use in 
dentifrices. A. Boyd shows how camphor liniment may be 
prepared without loss of camphor. A. W. Gerrard gives a useful 
note on mustard p)aper. E. Wild-Borbeck recommends an oily 
sterilized solution of eserine for ophthalmic use, under the name 
of eserinol. Baroni directs attention to the importance of 
employing perfectly neidral glass for storing alkaloidal solutions. 
J. Lothian and also F. Merson criticise the official process for 
solution of lead subacetate, and the former gives an improved 
formula. The subject of infusions receives attention from A. 
Currie, who gives methods for preparing these in an aseptic 
condition. H. Deane and G. E. Pearson deal with concentrated 
infusions. J. Etmns gives analj^^tical figures for comjjound- 
licorice powder. Liniment of potassium iodide with soap, that 
fruitful source of trouble to dispensers, is the subject of com- 
munications from J. H. Shuttleworth and P. Boa. W. H. Lenton 
would amend the official directions for the preparation of liquid 
extract of taraxacum. Mercuric nitrate ointment is the subject 
of a note by C. O. Suavely. E. A. Ruddiman discusses the 
dispensing of tincture of myrrh in aqueous solutions. E. Bourque- 
lot suggests a formula for 7iux vomica extract. H. W. and S. C. 
Gadd summarize the results of observations of five years' work 
on galenicals. Marpmann, in a suggestive note, calls attention 



1 2 INTRODUCTION . 

to the presence of bacteria in gelatin jylnster -masses. Pill 
excipients for special cases are dealt with, among others, by W. 
Duncan, J. W. Pemlerleith, and A. Joirssen. H. C. T. Gardner 
reopens the often discussed question of water displacement in the 
preparation of tinctures. W . S. Scoville finds spermaceti to ])e 
valuable for hardening suppositories. D. A. Young criticizes the 
official directions for preparing compouwl pill of galhanum. Lastly, 
the useful notes by A. Kremel on the assay of medicated dressings 
are worthy of attention. 

Among the " Notes," attention may be directed to the very 
practical hints on the cultivation of medicinal plants, by E. M. 
Holmes, which will be welcome to most pharmacists. An im- 
portant recommendation for the dealing with sheep scab emanates 
from the Board of Agriculture. C. N. Choplin enumerates a. 
number of coaltar colours which are unsuited for use either for 
textile dyeing or for dietetic purposes. Microscopists will note 
with interest 0. liicJder's experiments on the cultivation of 
diatoms. 

The formulae, as previously, have been mainly selected for 
their evident practical value or possible suggestiveness. 



CHEMISTRY 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY 



PART I 

CHEMISTRY. 

Acid Formic, New Reaction for. E. C o m a n d u c c i. 
(Jouni. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 320.) Dilute solutions of formic 
acid give a pale yellow colour in the cold with strong aqueous 
solution of NaHSOa, which becomes orange on boiling, the tint 
ultimately disappearing. This test will detect from 1 to 1-5 
per cent, of formic acid in formaldehyde : the liquid to be tested 
should first be diluted with an equal volume of water, and each 2-5 
c.c. treated with 15 drops of a 1:1 solution of NaHSOa, then 
cautiously warmed. 

Aconitine, New Reaction for. E. P. Alvarez. [Comptes 
rend., 140, 1540.) A minute quantity of the alkaloid (from 
0-0005 to 0-002 Gm.) is treated in a small porcelain capsule with a 
few drops of bromme and gently warmed on the water bath ; 1 to 
2 c.c. of fuming HNO3 is then added and the mixture evaporated 
to dryness. The yellow residue is then treated with 0-5 to 1 c.c. 
of saturated alcoholic solution of pure KOH, and again evajDO- 
rated to dryness and cooled. To the cold residue is then added 
a few drops of 10 per cent. CUSO4 solution, which is run over 
the surface of the residue ; an intense green colour is rapidly 
developed. 

Albumin in Urine, Detection and Determination of. H. 

Bellocq. {Annales de Chim. Analyst., 9, 384.) 100 c.c. of 
perfectly bright urine is treated in a 300 c.c. flask with an excess 
of a soluble Hme salt, such as 1 Gm. of calcium acetate. The 



16 Year-book of pharmacy. 

mixture is tlien made distinctly alkaline with ammonia and 
gently boiled, until the froth formed is clear and hght, breaking 
up quickly when the flask is withdrawn from the gas flame. The 
precipitate, consisting of urate and oxalate of lime, with any al- 
bumin present, is then coUected, and transferred while moist to 
a test tube. It is then treated with .'K-.c-. of HNO3, which at once 
dissolves the oxalate and slowly decomposes the urate, which 
effervesces, but does not attack the albumin. When all trace of 
evolution of gas has ceased the tube is filled with strong alcohol, 
and shaken up. A greater or less opacity will be evident, accord- 
ing to the amount of albumin present. On standing, aflocculcnt 
precipitate is formed which may be collected, dried in the air on 
.a moderately warm tile, and weighed. 

Alcohols, Colour Reactions for. G. G u e r i n . (Journ. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 14.) The following colour reactions are 
distinctive of the alcohols named, and colours are given by all 
alcohols except ethyl and methyl alcohol, and by all bodies 
possessing an alcoholic or hydroxyl function. One c.c. of the 
alcohol, or, if solid, a solution of the substance in strong HoSO^, 
is mixed in a test-tube with 5 or 6 drops of saturated aqueous 
solution of furfural, followed by an equal volume of strong 
sulphuric acid ; on mixing, the c-haracteristic colour is developed. 
If only small quantities are available, the test may be performed 
with drops, on a porcelain surface, mixing with a glass rod. 
Under these conditions normal propyl alcohol gives a deep violet 
colour ; secondary propyl alcohol, reddish violet ; isohuiyl alcohol, 
blue violet ; active amyl alcohol, violet ; nmyl alcohol of fer- 
mentation, violet ; caprylic alcohol, violet red ; glycol, reddish 
violet ; propylglycol, purple violet, rapidly changing to brown ; 
glycerol, reddish violet ; allyl alcohol, reddish broAvn, with im- 
mediate decomposition ; menthol, in alcohohc solution, blue ; 
man7iite in H2SO4 solution, dull greenisli bro\An, in alcoholic 
solution, brownish violet ; glucose in HoSOj solution, brownish 
violet ; lactose in H2SO4 solution, brownish ; malic acid in alco- 
hohc solution, brownish violet ; tartaric acid in alcoholic solu- 
tion, brownish violet ; citric acid, in alcoholic solution, reddish 
violet ; iactic acid, reddish violet ; cholesterol, blue ; phenol, 
reddish violet ; thymol and gtiaiacol in alcoholic solution, violet , 
orcine, blue ; hydroquinone, dull blue ; pyrocatechin, deep violet ; 
resorcin and phloroglucin, violet ; pyrogallol, reddish violet. 
All these are tested in alcoholic solution. 



CHEMISTRY. 17 

Alcohols, Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary, New Method of 
Distinguishing. P. Saba tier and J. B. S e n d e r e n s . 
{Bidl. 8oc. Chini., 33, 263.) By passing the vapour of alcohols 
in a very fine stream delivered from a capillary tube over a train 
of freshly pre2)ared reduced copper laid in a glass tube and 
heated over a gauze, the extremity of this reducing tube being 
fitted to a cooled receiver, the nature of the alcohol may be de- 
termined by its reduction products. In the case of a primary 
alcohol, hydrogen and the aldehj^de corresponding to the alcohol 
are formed. With a secondary alcohol, hydrogen and the re- 
spective ketone is produced. Tertiary alcohols are split up into 
water and an ethylene carbide, which is usually liquid. On 
adding Caro's reagent (solution of fuchsine exactly decolorized 
with SOo) to the product, the production of a red tint indicates 
the presence of an aldehyde, and that the original alcohol is 
primary. If no colour be given, semicarbazide hydrochloride 
1 Gm., potassium acetate 1 Gm., and water 6 c.c. are added, 
when the formation of a precipitate indicates the existence of a 
ketone, from a secondary alcohol. If neither of these reactions 
are obtained, the alcohol must be tertiary, and the distillate will 
immcdiatel}^ decolorize a drop of bromine. 

Aldehydes and Ketones, Determination of, by Neutral Sulphite 
Method. {Schimmcrs lie port, :\Iay, 1905, 103.) Discussing the 
method of Burge.ss [Year-Bool:, 1904, 17), it is stated that the 
method cannot be so generally applied as the author claims. It 
is found to give good results in the determination of carvone, but 
a correction is necessary for the expression of results in weight, 
since the volume determination is necessarily loAver on account 
of the sp. gr. of the ketone ; it is also useful for pulegone deter- 
miiiation, for citral, and for cinnamic aldehyde, although no very 
marked superiority over the bisulphite method was apparent 
\v\i\\ the two last. With citronellal, the neutral sulpliite method 
was not found to give good results. 

Alkaline Fluorides, Detection of, in Meat Foods. J. P. 
F r o i d e V a u x. [Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 11.) Alka- 
line fluorides appear to be used widely as preservatives for meat, 
sausage meat and similar comestibles hable to putridity. The 
following method of detecting these objectionable preservatives 
is simple and rapid. Thirty Gm. of the finely-cliopped material, 
treated with 2 c.c. of 50 per cent. NaoCOa solution, is ashed to a 
dull red heat in a platinum dish. When the organic matter is 

c 



18 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

destroyed, the carbonaceous residue is powdered and boiled with 
5 or 6 c.c. of distilled water in the same capsule, and filtered. The 
cold filtrate is rendered slightly acid with pure HC'l, and a few 
drops of helianthin is added ; then a saturated solution of am- 
monium acetate is added until a yellow colour is evident. The 
HCl is thus neutrahzed, and the free HC2H3O2 prevents the pre- 
cipitation of i^hosphates. One or 2 c.c. of a 1:5 solution of 
CaCl2 is then added. A turbidity or precipitate indicates the 
presence of fluorides. This may be confirmed by Sangle Ferri- 
eres' method after boiling the hquid, coUecting the jDrecipitate, 
drying and mixing with sand and H2SO4. 

Alkaliverdin, Colouring Matter of Sarracenia Purpurea. G. 

M. Meyer and W. J. G i e s. {Ainer. Jotirn. Physiol., through 
Journ. Pharm. Chini. [6], 21, 411.) Sarracenia purpurea, which 
is employed in the United States as a popular remedy for dy- 
spepsia, contains a proteolytic ferment which acts at a relatively 
low temperature, and a colouring matter, alkahverdin. Alcohol 
extracts chlorophyll, alkaliverdin and a brown colouring body. 
Water extracts only the two latter. The brown matter is elimi- 
nated by evaporating the aqueous extract almost to dryness in 
vacuo, and extracting the residue with absolute alcohol, which 
dissolves only alkaliverdin ; this is obtained as a syrupy liquid 
by evaporation in vacuo. It has a bitter taste and an odour 
resembling that of caramel, being accompanied by saccharine 
impurities. These are removed by fermentation, which has no 
effect on the pigment. The aqueous solutions of this syrup are 
reddish, and become green in the presence of a trace of alkali, 
reverting to red when this is neutralized ; excess of acid gives a 
rose red tint quite distinct from the shade of the neutral solution. 
These changes of colour are very sharp, with extreme dilutions 
of the colouring matter. It is useful as an mdicator in alkali- 
metry. 

Alkaloids, Determination of, with Potassium Bismuth Iodide. 
H. T h o m s. [Berichte Pharm., 15. 85.) The precipitathig 
reagent is prepared by dissolving bismutli subnitrate 80 Gm. in 
HNO3 sp. gr. 1-18, 200 Gm., and pouring this solution into a 
strong solution of KI^272 Gm. in water. The greater part of the 
KNO3 formed crystalhzes out. This is removed and the liquid 
evaporated to 1 litre. 

Extract of belladonna is taken as a typical substance to illus- 
trate the method. Two Gm. is dissolved m 50 c.c. of water acidi- 



CHEMISTRY. 



19 



fied with lU c.c. of 10 per cent. H2SO4. To this sohxtiou 5 c.c. 
of tlie above reagent is added, drop by drop, with constant 
stirring. Tlie precipitate formed is collected at once, and washed 
twice with 5 c.c. of 10 percent. HsSOi. The drained filter con- 
taining the precipitate is transferred to a stoppered flask, and 
treated with 0-30 Gm. of NaiSOy and 30 c.c. of 15 per cent. NaOH. 
After thorough and prolonged agitation to liberate the alkaloids , 
15 Gm of XaCl and 100 c.c. of ether are added, the whole being 
thoroughly shaken up. After separation of the ether, exactly 
50 c.c. is pipetted off and the amount of alkaloid determined 
therein by titration with N/100 HCl with iodeosin indicator. 
The number of c.c. used up x by 0-289 gives the amount of total 
alkaloids present, calculated into atropine. 

Aloes, Valuation of. A. T s c h i r c h and — Hoffbauer. 
{Schweiz Woch. jilr. Chem und Pharm., 42, 12.) Since the resin 
of aloes is the only inactive constituent, a fair apjiroximation of 
the value of the drug may be made by determining the non- 
resinous portion as follows. Five Gm. of aloes is macerated for 
2 hours in a 50 c.c. flask with 5 c.c. of methyl alcohol ; 30 c.c. 
of chloroform is then heated to 50-60^ C. and added gradually 
with thorough agitation to the methyl alcohol and aloes 
mixture. After allowing to stand for half an hour for the resin 
to deposit, the chloroform solution is transferred through a filter 
to a small tared Erlenmeyer's flask and the chloroform distilled 
off. The distillate is put back on the resinoid residue and the 
extraction and distillation repeated therewith four times. After 
the final extraction the non-resinoid residue is dried and weighed. 
Good Cape aloes should contain at least 80 joer cent, of non- 
resinous constituents. 

The following are the chief constituents of commercial aloes. 







other 
C'lirysaminic 


Substances 
not yielding 




Variety. 


Aloin. 


Acid yielding 
bodies soluble 
in CH3HO 


Chrysaniinic 
acid soluble 
in CH3HO 


Kesin. 






and CUCI3 


and CUCI3 






per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


Cape Aloes, soft . 


■-'(» 


55 


11-8 


13-2 


Cape Aloes, hard . 


1() 


59 


6-2 


18-8 


Uganda ,, 


10 


34 


30-4 


19-6 


Barbados ,, 


JS 


32 


22-4 


27-6 


Curasao ,, 


18 


32 


16-6 


33-4 


Socotrine ,, 


8 


25 


3-6 


63-4 



20 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

This continiis tho fact that Cape aloes coiitam the largest 
quantity of active constituents. 

Recoijiiition uf Cap-aloiii. A 1 : lOOU aqueous solution of the 
aloes gives a green fluorescence on the addition of 5 })cr cent, of 
powdered borax. 

Becoynition of Aloe-emodin. Ten c.c. of an aqueous 1 1000 
solution of aloes is shaken for a minute with 10 c.c. of benzol. 
The separated benzol is withdrawn, and shaken with 5 e.c. of 
strong solution of ammonia. A rose colour is developed. 

Distinclioii of Cape Aloes from Barbados Aloes. Ten e.c. of a 
1 : 1000 aqueous solution of aloes is treated with a drop of 5 per 
cent. CuSOi solution. An intense yellow colour is developed 
by Cape aloes, which, after the addition of a trace of NaCl and 
a little alcohol, does not change to red. 

Distinction of Cape Aloes from Natal Aloes. A spot of the 
yellov/ solution obtained by the action of strong HvSOi on the aloes, 
placed in porcelain capsule, should not develop a green colour 
with a trace of fuming nitric acid. 

Anthraqui-none Reaction of Aloes. One Cm. of the aloes is 
treated in a porcelain capsule with 20 c.c. of concentrated HNO3 
and heated on the water-bath for two hours, the evaporiitcd acid 
being made up from time to time ; evaporation is then carried 
to dryness, and the residue, treated with water, leaves an insoluble 
brown powder. This dissolves in water containing ammonia, 
giving a violet-red colour. 

Aloinose, the Sugar of Aloins. E. L e ge r . [Journ. Pliarm. 
Chim. [6], 20, 145.) When barbaloin or isobarbaloin are moist- 
ened Avith alcohol 90 per cent., and kept in a closed vessel for a 
long time, altliough the aspect of either aloin does not materially 
change, except by becoming reddish brown, both undergo pro- 
found modification. After the lapse of two years the mixtures 
entirely lost their bitter taste, and the mass contained numerous 
acicular crystals. This product was warmed with a little alcohol, 
then freely diluted with water, and the orange precijiitate fil- 
tered out. The aqueous orange red filtrate was easily decolorized 
with animal charcoal. When evaporated at a low temperature, 
or over H2SO4, it affords a pale yellow syrup which gives the 
following reactions. When heated witli HoSOi it gives off fumes 
which redden aniline acetate paper ; when heated with fuming 
HCl and a small quantity of orcin, it gives a red colour, (juickly 
turning green, and on continuing the boiling forms a dull green 



CHEMISTRY. 21 

precipitate, which, when cold, redissolves in ether, giving a fine 
green solution, passing after several days to a bluish shade. 
With phenylhydrazine acetate the sugar forms a cr3^stalline 
osazone composed of yellow lamellae grouped in rosettes. Aloins 
iiave been shown not to afford any sugar by the action of dilute 
acids, nor are they hydrolized by emulsin or the ferment of 
Aspergillus niger. 

Amonium mala. Essential Oil of Fruit of. {SchimmeV s Report, 
May, 1905, 84.) Tlie oil distilled at Amani from the fruit of this 
East African Zingiberaceous plant is bi'ownish j^^ellow in colour 
and closely resembles oil of cardamoms. B.p. (under 7 Mm.) 51° 
to 100°C. ": sp. gr. 0-9016 at 15°C. ; [a]„-10° 54' ; acid value, 3-5 ; 
ester value, 1-7 ; acetyl value, 67-05 ; solubility in 80 per cent, 
alcohol 1 : 1 to 1 : 1-5 with turbidity. It contains much cineol. 

Amorpha fnictuosa, Essentia! Oil of. V. P a v e s i . {Es- 
trat. (lair Ami. drUa Soc. Ch'tm. di Milano, through SchimmeV s 
Report, Oct., 1904, 9.) Esscitial Oil of the leaves. When freshly 
distilled this has the [j;]„ 1,590928 ; and [??];, 1,50892 at 18-5°C. on 
keeping. The yield is 0-5 to 0-8 per cent, of a bright yellow 
bitter oil. The portion boiling between 150°-220'T*. under 
750 Mm. pressure contains an unidentified terpene ; cadinene 
was isolated from the fraction boiling between 250°-265°C., as 
well as a se !;quiterpene resembling clovene, for which the name 
atnorphene is suggested. 

Essential Oil of the Fruit. The yield is 1-5 to 3-5 per cent. 
That from immature fruit has the sp. gr. 0-9019 ; [•/;]„ at 
17-5°C., 1,49951 ; the ripe fruits yield an oil with thesp. gr. 0-9055 
and the [.;]„ at 17-5° C, 1,50036. Both are feebly laevorotatory. 

Amount of Neon and Helium in the Atmosphere. W. R a m- 

s a y. {Chem. News, 91, 203.) The method of absorbing gases 
by means of cooled coconut cliarcoal discovered by Dewar has 
enabled the author to determine the amoinits of neon and helium 
in the atmosphere ; since, although the other atmospheric gases 
are readily absorl^ed by the cold charcoal at — 100°C., neon and 
helium are not appreciably occluded. The required temperature 
of the charcoal was obtained by means of solid ether. After 
removing the remaining traces of oxygen and nitrogen in the 
residual gases by sparking, they were again treated with charcoal 
cooled with liquid air. At this temperature, most of the neon is 
absorbed, leaving only helium in the gaseous state. It is esti- 



22 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

mated from these experiments that the proportion of neon in the 
atmospliere is 1 in 80,790, and of helium 1 in 245.300 by volume. 

Anethol, Polymerization of, by keeping exposed to Light and 
Air. [ScJiimmeV s Report, October, 1904, 42.) Wlicu anethol and 
the essential oils containing it are kept for a long period exposed 
to the action of light and air, the anethol becomes polymerized, 
lo.sing its crystalhzing power, and greatly increasing in density. 
Thus, a specimen of anethol which originally had the sp. gr. 
0-9846 at 25°C., [77],, 1,56079, solidifying point 21-3=C., solubility in 
alcohol 90 per cent. 1 : 2, after keeping exposed for two years 
had the sp. gr. M245 at 25°C., [7?],, 1,54906 ; not .solid at-20°C., 
soluble in 70 per cent, alcohol 1 : 2 and more. The optical inac- 
tivity remained unaffected. The changed oil had acquired a 
yellow colour, and was less mobile than normal anethol ; its 
taste was quite altered, being bitter and disagreeable. It con- 
tained anisic aldehyde but no anisic acid. A similar increase in 
sp. gr. has been observed in improperly kept fennel oil. 

Aniline Colours and Salicylic Acid, Detection of, in Foods. 
C. H. L a W a 1 1. {Amer. J own. Pharin., 76, 477.) Liquids arc 
diluted with an equal quantity of water ; solids dissolved in four 
times their weight of water. About 100 c.c. of the solution is 
acidified with 4 c.c. of HCI and boiled for 5 minutes with a shred 
fat-free cotton wool. The wool is then withdrawn, washed, and 
boiled for 5 minutes in water acidified with HCI. If no foreign 
colour be present, the wool will be either colourless or merely 
tinted faintly red or brownish ; with aniline dyes present it is 
distinctly coloured. If it be now well washed, then treated with 
a little ammonia, any vegetable colour is not dissolved but 
is changed in tint ; aniline colours do not change in shade but 
are soluble, especially when the solution is warmed, and after 
acidifying the solution with HCI another piece of wool may be 
dyed with it. 

To detect salicylic acid, the solution of the substance is acidified 
with H2SO4 and shaken out with ether. On evaporating a por- 
tion of the ethereal extract, the residue will give the cliaracteristic 
reaction with FcoCI,;. Any tannin present nuist first be removed 
from the original solution by treatment with lead acetate. 

Antipyrine, Determination of, by means of Picric Acid. P. 

L e m a i r e. {Bulk Soc. Pharm. de Bordeaux, through Beper- 



CHEMISTRY. 23 

toire [3], 16, 493.) Advantage is taken of the fact that antipy- 
rine combines with picric acid, molecule for molecule, and that 
the picrate formed is insoluble in excess of the acid, although it 
is slightly soluble in water alone. A N/20 solution of picric acid 
is prepai'ed by dissolving 1145 Gm. in water, with heat, and 
making up to 1 litre. This is set against N/10 NaOH solution, 
using phenolphthalein indicator. A 5 per cent, solution of the 
antipyrine to be tested is made ; 5 c.c. of this, corresponding to 
0-25 Gm., is taken, well shaken up with 50 c.c. of the N/20 picric 
acid solution, and filtered. Twenty-five c.c. of the filtrate is then 
measured off and the excess of free picric acid titrated with N/10 
NaOH and phenolphthalein indicator. 

Each c.c. of N/20 picric acid used up is equivalent to 0-0094 
Gm. of antipyrine. Therefore when 77 = the number of c.c. of 
N/10 NaOH required to neutralize the free acid, the amount of 
antipyrine in 1 (Jm. of the substance taken = (50— ?; x 4-4) x 
00094 X 4. The precipitated picrate formed sliould be collected, 
dried, and its m.p. taken, which should be 187°C. This will de- 
tect the presence of the more highly toxic iso-antipyrine, which 
lias the same m.p. and general reactions of antipyrine, but the 
picrate of which melts at 168°C. An approximate determina- 
tion of the antipyrine may be made colori metrically with the 
above filtrate from the precipitated picrate comparing the tint 
thereof with that of a standard solution of picric acid. 

Apiol, Dill- and Parsley-, Constitution of. H. T h o m s. 

[Archiv. der Pharm., 242, 344.) The author has shown that 
parsley apiol is a (1) allyl- (2, 5) dimethoxy- (3, 4) methylene- 
dioxybenzene. 

CH,-CH = CH, 



/\ 



CH.O 



OCH, 



O 



O— iCH, 

while dill apiol is proved to be a (1) allyl- (5, 6) dimethoxy - 
(3, 4) methylenedioxybenzene, JH '|j i ■, 

CHo-CH = CHo 



CH3O/ 
CH3O 







0— 'CH2. 



24 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY 

Apricot-tree Gum, French. P. L e m e 1 a n d. (Jonni. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 443.) French apricot gum is found to 
contain 161 to 16-5 per cent, of water, 2-85 per cent, of ash ; 
galaotanes equivalent to 19-8 per cent, of galactose ; pentosanes 
equivalent to 40-75 per cent of arabinose. The aqueous solution 
of tlie gum, 76-614 per cent, of which was soluble in water, had 
the ttD — 1° 93'. The insoluble portion swelled up, giving a 
mucilage without viscosity and easily separated by filtration. 

Arctium Lappa, Essential Oil of. {HaenseVs Report, Jvly. 
1904, through A])oth. ZeiL. 19, 558, 854.) Burdock root yielded 
0-176per cent, of brownish-yellow fluid e.s.sential oil with an acid 
reaction ; sp. gr. 0-9695 at 25T. ; a„ + 1-24° at 30° ; acid value. 
13-5 ; saponification value, 236-8. It is soluble in alcohol (SO 
per cent.). 

Burdock leaves, air-dried, yielded 00285 per cent, of a dark 
brown oil, fluid at 30°C., having the sp. gr. 0-9562 at 20T. ; acid 
value, 76 ; saponification value, 91-5. The oil has a similar 
odour to that distilled from burdock root. On rectifying only 
39 per cent, of the crude oil is distilled. The rectified oil is 
faintly acid in reaction ; freely soluble in alcohol (96 per cent.) ; 
the solution in 80 per cent, alcohol is slightly cloudy ; sp. gr. 
0-9407 at 20°C., acid value, 18 ; saponification value, 70 ; [<-;„] 
+ 0-28° in 20 per cent, alcohohc solution. 

Aristol, Adulterated. — Waldmann. (Apoth. Zeit.. 19, 
422.) A low priced Swiss aristol has been met with containing 
only 50 per cent, of dithymol di-iodide ; the other 50 per 
cent, consisting of 30 per cent, of salts soluble in water, calcium 
chloride and iodide, and 20 per cent, of insoluble matter, chiefly 
calcium carbonate. Another Swiss sample consisted of 15 per 
cent, of aristol and 85 per cent, of red argillaceous earth. A 
German specimen was found to contain 30 per cent, of aristol, 
13 per cent, of water and soluble impurities, and 57 per cent, of 
insoluble added matter. 

Aromatic Compounds, Differentiation of Allyl and Propenyl 
Groups. G. Bruni and E. T o r n a n i. {Alti R. Accad. del 
Line. Rom. through SchimmeVs Report. May, 1905, 86.) Aro- 
matic bodies containing an allyl group in the side-chain, such as 
methyleugenol, safrol,or dill apiol, do not combine with picric acid. 
Those containing a propenyl group, however, give definite picro- 



CHEMISTRY. 25 

compounds when their ether or benzol sohitions are mixed. The 
picrate of methyl iso-engenol, C17H17O9N3 tlius obtained has the 
m.p. 40-45° ; asarone picrate CtsHigDyNa m.p. 81-82°C. ; iso- 
safrol picrate CV;Ni30f,N3 m.p. 73° ; isoapiol picrate CigHtTOn.Na 
m.p. 81°C. 

Arrow Poison of the Lukarets of the Lado Territory. A. S a p i n . 
{Jouni. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 397.) The fresh juice of a plant 
with which the Lukarets poison their arrows is found to be the 
rouglily-prepared gum resin of a Euphorbium. It gives 47 per 
cent, of resin soluble in chloroform ; the insoluble residue con- 
sists of vegetable matter and earthy impurity. In general 
characters the chloroform extract is identical with those of 
euphorbium gum. 

Arsenic, Detection of, in OfTicial Drugs. W. R. D u n s t a n 

and H. H. Robinson. {Report presented to the Pharma- 
copoeia Committee of the General Medical Council, May, 1904, 
published September, 1904.) As most convenient and suitable 
for general use, the Mayengon and Bergeret test (generally 
known as Gutzeit's test) has been adopted, with modifications 
for the detection of arsenium in drugs. The standard for 
reference is given in terms of arsenium (As.), and as a general 
rule 3 parts per million is taken as the limit for those drugs 
which are given in small doses. In addition to those which are 
at present required to give no characteristic reaction for ar- 
senium, the following are recommended to be added : — 

Acidum Boricum, Acidum Citricum,, Acidum Salicylicum, 
Alumen, Ammonii Bromidutn, Ammonii Carbonas, Calcii Car- 
bonas Prcecipitatus, Calcii Chloridum, Calcii Hydras, Calx, Ferri 
Sulphas, Ferrum, Ferrum Redactum, Gelatinum, Glusidum, 
lodum. Liquor Hydrogenii Peroxidi, Magnesia Levis, Magnesia 
Ponderosa, Magnesii Carbonas Levis, Magnesii Carbonas Pon- 
derosus, Magnesii Sulphas, Pheyiacetinum, Phenazonuin, PotassH 
Carbonas, Potassii Chloras, PotassU Citras, Potassii Tartras, 
Potassii Tartras Acidus, Quinince Hydrochloridum,, Quinince 
Hydrochloridum Acidum, Quinince SulpJias, Sapo Animalis, 
Sapo Durus, Soda Tartarata, Sodii Bicarbonas, Sodii Carbonas, 
Sodii Hypophosphis, Sodii Phosphas, Sodii Sulphas, Sulphonal, 
Sulphur Precipitatum, Sulphur Sublimatum, Syrupus Glucosi. '.'*, 

The tests for arsenium described on pp. 418 and 419 of the 



26 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

British Pharmacopceia, 1898, should l)e omitted, and the follow- 
ing sliould rejilace them : — 

Those drugs which are directed to yield no characteristic 
reaction for arsenium should be proved to contain less than 
three parts of arsenium in one million parts of the drug (three 
parts of arsenium are equivalent to four parts of arsenious 
anliydride), except in the cases of Acidum Citricum and Acidum 
Tartaricum, which should be proved to contain less than one 
part in one million ; and in the case> of Aciduyyi HydrocMoricum, 
Acidum Nitricum. and Acidum Sulphuricum, which should be 
proved to contain less than 0-3 part per million ; and in the case 
of Liquor Ammonice Fortis, which sliould be proved to contain 
less than 0-1 part per million. 

The freedom of tlie drug from these quantities of arsenium 
is to be proved by comparing the stain it yields, when submitted 
to one of the following tests suited to its nature, with the stain 
yielded by Liquor Arsenici HydrocMoricus suitably diluted and 
submitted to the same test. 

Each reagent employed must contain less arsenium than the 
limit prescribed for it ; allowance can be made, on the one 
hand, for an increase in the stain due to any minute quantities 
of arsenium (below these limits) contained in the reagents, and, 
on the other hand, for any diminution in the stain due to the 
process, by employing the same reagents in a similar manner 
when preparing the stain used as a standard for comparison. 
The following are the tests proposed : — 

Test A. — An aqueous solution of 4 Gm. or the prescribed 
quantity, of the drug to wliich 5 c.c. or more of HC'l have been 
added, is diluted to 25 c.c. with water and introduced into a 
test-tube having a diameter of about 18 Mm. and a length of 
18 to 20 Cm. Granulated zinc, sufficient to reach about two- 
thirds of the height of the liquid is then added. Immediately a 
small plug of cotton wool, and then another plug of cotton wool 
which has been soaked in lead acetate solution and dried, are 
inserted, so as to leave a short space between the two plugs ; a 
closely fitting cap formed of two pieces of filter-paper which 
hav^e been soaked in HgCL solution and dried is then fitted over 
the mouth of the test tube. The test must be allowed to con- 
tinue for 2 hours at least ; the test paper is then examined, in 
daylight, for a yellow stain. The test should be performed in 
a place protected from strong light. Ten c.c. of the Liquor 
Arsenici HydrocMoricus are diluted to 75 c.c. Avhen 1 c.c. of the 



CHEMISTRY. 27 

solution contains 0-001 Gm. of arsenium. Four c.c. of this 
solution diluted to 1000 c.c. afford the standard solution, each 
c.c. of which contains 0-004 Mgni. of arsenium, and is equivalent, 
for purposes of comparison, with 4 Gm. of the drug, to 1 part 
per 1,000,000. Therefore the yellow stain from 4 Gm. of the 
drug should be paler than the yellow stain from 3 c.c. of this 
solution mixed with water and with 5 c.c. or a suitable quantity 
of hydrochloric acid diluted to 25 c.c. and tested in a similar 
manner and at the same time. The dilute arsenical standard 
solution should be freshly prepared. 

When the drug cannot be conveniently dissolved in 25 c.c. of 
liquid, or when frothing occurs, the test may be conducted in a 
small flask, the stain being compared with the standard stain 
obtained under similar conditions. 

The yellow stain due to sulphur is soluble in less than 10 
minutes in a few c.c. of hydrochloric acid, whereas that due to 
ar:ieniuin changes to an orange colour and persists for 1 or 2 
hours. The zinc employed should first be washed for a few 
seconds with hydrochloric acid, and then with water, shortly 
before use, to remove any adherent sulphur compounds. 

Test B. — Four Gm. of the drug are introduced into a 60 c.c. 
distillation flask, with 2 Gm. of potassium metasulphite and 
22 c.c. of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and water in such pro- 
portions that, after reaction, " tliere sliall be hydrochloric acid 
solution approximately of the constant boiling strength, that is, 
20 parts of free hydrochloric acid to 80 parts of water." The 
flask is then attached to a condenser, the internal tube of w4iich 
should not exceed 8 Mm. in diameter, and heated gently for 1 hour, 
to reduce any arsenic compounds. It is then distilled until tliree- 
fourths have passed over ; the distillate is partially neutralized 
with strong solution of ammonia, so as to leave unsaturated about 
4 c.c. of the 20 per cent, hydrochloric acid (1 c.c. of strong solution 
of ammonia neutralizes 2-8 c.c. of 20 per cent, hydrochloric 
acid). Some distillates, especially those from antimony and 
bismuth compounds, effervesce with zinc more violently than 
the solutions of other substances, so that in these less than 4 c.c. 
of acid should be left unneutralized. The sulphur dioxide in 
the distillate is then removed by means of bromine solution 
[bromine 10 c.c, KBr 30 Gm., water to 100 c.c] untfl the red 
colour is permanent on warming for a minute or two. Excess 
of bromine is then removed with solution of hydroxylamine 
hydrochloride 2 per cent, until the liquid is colourless. The 



28 YEAR-BOOK OV rHARMACY. 

liquid is then diluted to 25 c.c. with water, and the process 
completed as described under Test A. When effervescence has 
ceased, a further addition of hydrochloric acid should be made 
to ensure that all the arsenium has been evolved. The stain 
obtained is compared with that from 3 c.c. of the dilute standard 
solution submitted to the same process. 

In the following cases slight modifications of procedure are 
recommended : — 

Acidum AceMcum, Acidiim Hydrohrominim Dilvtum, Acidum 
Lacticum, Acidum Phosphoricum Concent ralum, Alumen, Am- 
monii Bromidum, Ammonii Chloridum, Ammonii Phosphas, 
Calcii Chloridum, Glycerinum, Lvjuor Zinci Chloridi, Liihii 
Citras, Magnesii Sulphas, Phenazonum, Potassii Acdas, Potassii 
Bromidum,, Potassii Citras, Potassii Tartras, Soda Tartarata,, 
Sodii Bromidum, Sodii Sulphas, Zinci Acetas, Zinci Chloridum, 
Zinci Sulphas, Zinci Sulphocarbolas. 

4 Gm. are dissolved in nearly 20 c.c. of water, and the solution 
is mixed with 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HCI, diluted to 
25 c.c. with water, and tested as described in Test A. 

Potassii Sidphas, Sodii Phosphors. 4 Gm. are dissolved in the 
smallest convenient quantity of water, and the solution is mixed 
with 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HCi. and tested in a 
small flask as described in Test A. 

Potassii lodidum, Sodii lodidum. 4 Gm. are dissolved in 5 c.c. 
of water and are tested by Test A modified in the following 
manner : 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HCI are to be mixed 
with 14 c.c. of water in the test tube. The zinc is then added 
and the effervescence is allowed to proceed for 2 minutes, then 
the above solution of the iodide is poured in and the plugs and 
cap are at once put into position. 

Syrupus Glucosi. 4 Gm. are dissolved in 10 c.c. of water. In 
order to oxidize any SOo that may be present, 3 c.c. of strong 
solution of bromine are added, and then 5 c.c. of HCI, and the 
mixture is warmed for a few minutes, care being taken to stop 
whilst a distinct amount of free bromine is still present. Wlien 
cold the free bromine is removed by adding a little solution of 
hydroxylamine hydrochloride ; 3 c.c. or other suitable quantity 
of HCI are added, and the liquid is diluted to 25 c.c. with water 
and tested as described in Test A. In presence of glucose the 
stain ol>tained from 3 c.c. of the diluted Liqtior Arsenici Hydro- 
chloricus is only about three-fourths of its proper intensity, and 
for til is diminution allowance must be made Ijy means of a 



CHEMiSTKY. 29 

couipaiative experiment made with the iSyrupuj:> Glucosi and the 
arseniinn sohition. The effervescence should be prolonged by a 
second addition of HCl. 

Acidum Boricum, Borax. 4 Gm. are mixed with 8 Gm. of 
citric acid and dissolved in 55 c.c. of water, and the solution is 
mixed with 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HCl, and tested 
in a small ilask as described in Test A. 

Acidum Citriciim, Acidum Tartaricum. 12 Gm. are dissolved 
in 40 c.c. of water, and the solution is mixed with 15 c.c. or other 
suitable quantity of HGl, and tested in a small flask as described 
in Test A. The stain should be less than that given by 3 c.c. 
of the diluted Liquor Arsenici H ydrochloricus similarly treated, 
tiius proving that the drugs contain less than 1 part of arsenium 
in one million parts of the drug. 

Acidum Hydrochloricum. 40 Gm., or 34-5 c.c, are placed in a 
porcelain basin and mixed with 2 c.c. of strong solution of 
bromine. The mixture is gently evaporated on a sand bath, an 
excess of bromine being maintained by addition of more solution 
as required. When the volume is reduced to about 15 c.c., the 
acid is partially neutralized with AmOH (1 c.c. of which :^ 2-8 c.c. 
of HCl), so as to leave unneutralized 5 c.c. or other suitable 
c[uantity of HCl solution of the constant boiling strength. The 
excess of bromine is removed by adding a little solution of 
hydroxylamine hydrochloride ; the liquid is then diluted to 25 
CO. with water, and tested by Test A. The stain should be less 
than that given by 3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici H ydro- 
chloricus, thus proving that the drug contains less than 0-3 part 
of arsenium in one million parts of the drug. 

Acidum Nitricum. 40 Gm., or 28-2 c.c, are mixed with 2 c.c. 
of H2SO4 and with 0-1 Gm. of NaHCOa, and the liquid is evapo- 
rated in a porcelain basin on a sand bath until all the HNO3 is 
expelled and fumes of H2SO4 are given off. The residual liquid 
is cooled and mixed with about 15 c.c of water, and then with 
3 c.c or other suitable quantity of HCl. The mixture is diluted 
to 25 c.c with water, and tested by Test A. The stain should 
be less than that given by 3 c.c of the diluted Liquor Arsenici 
H ydrochloricus, thus proving that the drug contains less than 
0-3 part of arsenium in one million parts of the drug. 

Acidum Sulphuricum. 40 Gm., or 21-7 c.c, are mixed with 
5 c.c of HNO3 and with 0-1 Gm. of NaHCOa, and evaporated in 
a porcelain basin on a sand bath until only about 2 c.c. remain. 
The residual liquid is cooled, and is then mixed with about 15 c.c. 



30 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of water, and then with 3 c.c. or otlier suitable quantity of HCl. 
The mixture is diluted to 25 c.c. with water, and tested by 
Test A. The stain should be less than that given by 3 c.c. of 
the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus, thus proving tluit 
the drug contains less than 0-3 part of arsenium in one million 
parts of the drug. 

Liquor Ammonice Fortis. 120 Gni., or 135 c.c, arc mixed with 
0-1 Gm. of NaHCOa, and the solution is evaporated to dryness, 
or nearly to dryness, on a water bath. The residue, when cold, 
is dissolved with a mixture of 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity 
of HCl, and about 20 c.c. of water, avoiding heating except for 
a minute or two. The solution is diluted to 25 c.c. with water, 
and tested by Test A. The stain should be less than that given 
by 3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus, thus, 
proving that the drug contains less than one-tenth of one part 
of arsenium in one million parts of the drug. 
• Ammonii Carhonas, Calcii Carbonas Prcecipitalus, Calcii 
Hydras, Lithii Carbonas, Magnesia Levis, Magnesia Ponderosa, 
Magnesii Carbonas Levis, Magnesii Carbonas Ponderosus, Potassa 
Caustica, Potassii Bicarbonas, Calcii Phosphas, Calx, Liquor 
Potassce, Potassii Carbonas, Potassii Tartras Acidus, Sodii 
Bicarbonas, Sodii Carbonas, Zinci Carbonas, Zinci Oxidum, 
Zinci Vcderianas. 

4 Gm. are dissolved in HCl and water, using enough HCl to 
acidify and dissolve the 4 Gm. of drug taken, and to produce a 
suitable effervescence with the zinc. 

Care must be taken not to warm HCl and drug together except 
for a minute or two, and with only a small area of surface, so as 
to avoid loss of arsenium. If necessary, loss of arsenium can be 
avoided by adding a little strong solution of bromine with the 
HCl ; when solution is effected the excess of bromine is removed 
by the addition of a little solution of hydroxylamine hydro- 
chloride. 

The solution is diluted if necessary and tested in a test tube 
or flask as described in Test A. 

If a drug contains any iron, it must be tested as described in 
Test B. 

CeriiOxalas. 4Gm. are added to a small flask containing a hot 
mixture of 15 c.c. of HCl, 10 c.c. of water, and 1 c.c. of strong 
solution of l)r()mine. Tlie mixture is lieated for about a minute ; 
as soon as solution has occurred the flask is removed from tlie 
flame and the acid is partiaUy neutralized by the addition of 



CHEMISTRY. 31 

about 7-25 c.c. of AmOH, and the free bromine is removed by 
tlie addition of a little strong solution of hj^di-oxlyamine hydro- 
chloride. The mixture is then tested in the flask as described 
in Test A, shaking it occasionally to promote the circulation of 
the Hquid, which is checked by the presence of the precipitate. 

lodum. 4 Gm. are mixed with 0-1 Gm. of NaHCOa, and then 
with 3 c.c. of water and 4 c.c. of H2SO4 in a porcelain basin, 
and the mixture is heated with stirring until all the iodine is 
driven off. The residue of H2SO4 is diluted with about 15 c.c. 
of water, and then mixed with 2 c.c. or other suitable quantity 
of HCl, and then diluted to 25 c.c. with water and tested as 
described in Test A. 

Liquor Hydrogenii Peroxidi. 4 Gm. are mixed with 4 c.c. of 
water and with 2 c.c. of H2SO4. KMnOi is then added in small 
quantities at a time until the H2O2 is all decomposed and a slight 
permanent coloration is produced. The solution is mixed with 
7 c.c. of water, and the coloration is destroyed by the addition 
of a httle solution of hydroxy lamine hydrocliloride. 3 c.c. or 
other suitable quantity of HCl are to be added, and the soJution 
is diluted to 25 c.c. with water, and tested as described in Test A. 

Potassii Chloras. 6 c.c. of H2SO4 are mixed with 3 c.c. of 
water and the mixture is heated. 4 Gm. of the KCIO3 are added 
cautiously, in small portions at a time, to the above hquid whilst 
hot. When effervescence has ceased the hquid is evaporated in 
a porcelain basin until only about 2 c.c. is left. The residue is 
then dissolved in about 15 c.c. of water and mixed with 2 c.c. 
or other suitable quantity of HCl and diluted to 25 c.c. with 
water, and then tested by Test A. 

Potassii Nitras. 4 Gm. are added to 4 c.c. of H2SO4 in a 
porcelain basin, and heated until all the HNO3 is driven off and 
fumes of H2SO4 escape. The residue is then dissolved in about 
15 c.c. of water, 3 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HCl are 
added, and the solution is diluted to 25 c.c. with water, and 
tested by Test A. 

Potassii Permanganas. 4 Gm. are added in small quan- 
tities at a time to 30 c.c. of HCl. When dissolved, 2 c.c. of 
solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride are added in order to 
decolorize the hquid, and then about 4 c.c. of AmOH in order 
partiallj^ to neutralize the HCl. 1 c.c. of solution of hydroxyl- 
amine hydrochloride is then added to remove the last traces 
of free chlorine, and the liquid is tested in a flask by Test A. 

Calcii Hypophosphis, Sodii HypophospMs. A mixture of 12 



32 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

c.c. of HNO3 and 12 c.c. of water is warmed, and 4 Gm. of either 
bait added in small quantities at a time. When all is added, 
the li(|ui(l is evaporated to dryness on a sand Ijath and the 
residue gently heated until tlie HNOj has been driven off. Wlien 
cold it is dissolved in 5 c.c. or other suitable quantity of HC'l 
mixed with water, avoiding loss by warming, or using the bromine 
and hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment. The solution is 
then diluted to 25 c.c. v,ith water, and tested by Test A. 

Phosphorus. 0-6 Gm. is dissolved by heating cautiousl\' in a 
flask of about 100 c.c. capacity, having a small funnel placed in 
its mouth, with a mixture of 5 c.c. of HNO3 and 5 c.c. of water. 
The solution is then transferred to a porcelain basin, and in order 
to oxidise any phosphorous acid 5 c.c. of HXOyare added, and 
the mixture is concentrated to about half its volume. To re- 
move HNO-, 01 Gm. of NaHCOa is then added and 3 c.c. of 
HoSOi, and after mixing the liquid is evaporated to about 3 c.c., 
then cooled and mixed with 10 c.c. of water, evaporated luitil 
fumes of H2SO4 escape ; when cold the residue is diluted with 
about 10 c.c. of water and mixed with 5 c.c. or other suitable 
quantity of HCl, diluted to a volume of 25 c.c. with water, and 
tested by Test A. The stain shouJd be less than that given by 
3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus, thus proving 
that the drug contains less than 0-02 per cent, of arsenium. 

Sulphur Prcecipitatum, Sulphur Sublimatum. 4 Gm. are dis- 
solved by heating them in a large flask having a small funnel 
placed in its mouth, v\ith 25 c.c. of fuming nitric acid, and acid 
when necessary (about 60 or 70 c.c. will be required). When 
the sulphur has all dissolved, 0-1 Gm. of NaHCOa is added, 
and the liquid is evaporated in a porcelain basin on a sand bath 
until all HNO3 is expelled and fumes of H2SO4 are given ofl^, and 
the volume reduced to about 2 c.c. ; it is then diluted with 
about 15 c.c. of water, mixed Avith 2 c.c. or other suitable quan- 
tity of HCl, diluted to a volume of 25 c.c. with water, and tested 
by Test A. The amovmt of arsenium in the fuming nitric acid 
used can be determined l)y the method described for Acidum 
Nitricum and allowed for. It should be less than 0-1 of arsenium 
in one miUion parts of the acid, and the acid should be free from 
the impurities mentioned in the case of Acidum Nitricum, 
especially iron. 

Acidum Salici/licum: Adeps Lance, Glusidum, Phenacetinum, 
Sapo Auinudis, Sapo Durus, SulphouaL 

4 Gm. are mixed with 2 Gm. of magnesia and 2 Gm. of 



CHEMISTRY. 33 

exsiccated sodium carbonate ; the mixture is made into a thin 
])aste by warming with a small quantity of water and stirring. 
This is tlien dried and ignited in a porcelain basin or in a 
porcelain crucible until the volatile organic matter is driven off 
and the residue is greyisli white. The temperature must not 
approach a wliite heat. 15 c.c. of water are mixed with 21 c.c. 
of HCl and 3 c.c. of strong solution of "bromine. The ignited 
residue is added to this mixture, previously cooled, in small 
portions at a time. When solution is effected (some carbona- 
aceous particles will remain undissolved) the excess of bromine 
is removed by adding a little solution of hydroxylamuie hydro- 
chloride, and the liquid is tested in a flask by Test A. The plug 
of plumbized cotton wool must be used, as the treatment with 
bromine does not altogether prevent the evolution of SH^. For 
the purpose of obtaining a stain for comparison, 3 c.c. of the 
diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus should be submitted to 
tlie same process. 

Cupri Sulphas, Ferri Phosphas, Ferri Sulphas, Gelatinum, 
Plumbi Acetas, Quinince Hydrochloridum, Quinince Hydrochlori- 
dum Acidum, Quinince Sidphas. 

4 Gm. are tested as described in Test B. 

Antimonii Oxidivm, Antimonium Tartaralum. 4 Gm. are 
tested as described in Test B, but as tlie distillate will still con- 
tain a little antimony chloride, the condenser is washed, and the 
distillate is to be re-distilled until about three-fourths of it have 
collected in the receiver ; this distillate is then treated as directed 
ill Test B. With Antimonii Oxidum, 23 c.c. of H('l and no 
water are to be used, and a mixture of 20 c.c. of HCl and 3 c.c. of 
water witli Antimonium, Tartaratum. 

Antimonium Nigrum Purificatum, Aniimo7iium Sulphuratum. 
0-4 Gm. are heated in a flask of about 100 c.c. capacity, having 
a small funnel placed in its mouth, with 10 c.c. of fuming HNOj. 
until all sulphur or black sulphide has been oxidized. A white 
precipitate will be formed in the liquid, but the absence of free 
sulphur or of black sulphide can be easily seen. The mixture is 
then transferred to a porcelain basin, and mixed with 0-1 Gm. 
of NaKCOa and with 3 c.c. of H.SOj. All the HNO3 is removed 
by evaporating down to about 3 c.c. and then mixing the residue 
when cold with 10 c.c. of water, and evaporating again, until 
fumes of strong H2SO4 escape. When cold the residue is trans- 
ferred to a flask of about 60 c.c. capacity, by means of a mixture 
of 15 c.c. of HCl and 7 c.c. of water. 2 Gm. of potassium meta- 



34 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

sulphite are added, and tlie fiask is immediately attached to a 
condenser and treated as described in Test B, but as the distillate 
will still contain a little antimony cliloride, the condenser is 
washed and the distillate is redistilled until about three-fourths 
of it have collected in the receiver ; this distillate is treated as 
directed in Test B. The stain should be less than that given by 

3 CO. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus, thus proving 
that the drug contains less than 03 per cent, of arsenium. 

Bismulhi Oxidum. 4 Gm. are tested as described in Test B, 
using 20 c.c. of HCl and 2 c.c. of water ; but if the oxide contains 
any nitrate it must be tested in the same mamier as Bismuthi 
Garbonas. 

Bismuthi Carbonas, Bismuthi Subnitras. 4 Gm. are mixed 
with 5 c.c. of HNOs in order to oxidize any arsenious compounds 
to arsenic acid, and then with 8 c.c. of HaSO^, and heated m a 
porcelain basin on a sand bath until all the HNO3 is expelled 
and a considerable proportion of the H2SO4 has been driven 
off in fumes. When evaporating off sulphuric acid, in order to 
avoid loss of arsenium, the latter should be present as arsenic 
acid and not as arsenious compomids. The residue is cooled, 
and then 6 c.c. of water are added. The mixtm'e is again cooled, 
and is then to be transferred to a flask of about 60 c.c. capacity, 
together with 17 c.c. of HCl ; 4 Gm. of FeSOj and 2 Gm. of 
potassium metasulphite are added, and the rest of the test is 
conducted as described in Test B. 

Bismuthi Salicylas, Liquor Bismuthi et Ammonii Citratis. 

4 Gm. are mixed with 2 Gm. of MgO and 2 Gm. of dried Na^COs, 
and the mixture is made into a thin paste by warming with a 
small quantity of water. It is then dried and ignited in a 
porcelain basin or in a porcelain crucible until the volatile 
organic matter is diiven off and the residue is greyish. 15 c.c. 
of water are mixed mth 21 c.c. of HCl and 3 c.c. of strong solution 
of bromine in a flask of about 60 c.c. capacity. The ignited 
residue is added to this mixture, previously cooled, in small 
proportions at a time. When solution is effected (some carbon- 
aceous particles will remain undissolved), the flask is attached 
to a condenser as described in Test B, and distilled until about 
half the volume of the liquid has passed over. This distillate 
will contain the free bromine and no arsenium ; but for greater 
security it may be tested for arsenium. A fresh receiver is 
placed in position, and 20 c.c. of HCl are added to the residue 
in the distilling flask and then 2 Gm. of potassium metasulphite, 



CHEMISTRY. 35 

and the mixture is heated gently for about one hour in order 
to reduce arsenic compounds. It is then distilled until about 
three-fourths of it have passed over, and the distillate is treated 
in the same manner as the distillate described in Test B, but as 
the volume will exceed 25 c.c, it must be tested in a small flask. 

Ferrum. 4 Cgm. are dissolved in a mixture of 3 c.c. of HNO3 
and 3 c.c. of water, and evaporated to dryness in a small porce- 
lain basin ; the residue is ignited until the ferric nitrate is con- 
verted into ferric oxide. It is then transferred to a flask of 
about 60 c.c. capacitj^ together with 10 c.c. of HCl and 6-5 c.c. 
of water, scraping out a,s much as possible, and treating the 
remainder with, the mixed acid and water, but not warming 
except very slightly and only for a minute or two. The flask is 
attached to a condenser, as described in Test B. The mixture 
is warmed until the Fe203 has all dissolved, and then 4 Gm. of 
FeS04 and 2 Gm. of potassium metasulphite and 7 c.c. of HCl 
are added, and the rest of the operation is conducted as de- 
scribed in Test B. At the end of the distillation the residue in 
the distilling flask should be tested, and some ferrous iron should 
be found to be present. The stain should be less than that given bj^ 
3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsfmci Hydrochloric us, thus proving 
that the drug contains less than 003 per cent, of arsenium. 

Ferrum Redactum. 0-2 Gm. are heated in a flask having a 
small funnel placed in its mouth, with a mixture of 10 c.c. of 
HNO3 and 10 c.c. of water. When action has ceased, if an 
insoluble residue is left, it is dissolved by adding 3 c.c. 
of HC'l and continuing the warming. The solution is then 
transferred to a small porcelain basin, and 5 c.c. of HNO3 are 
mixed with it ; the liquid is then evaporated to dryness and 
ignited until the ferric nitrate is converted into FcoOs. The 
ignited residue is then treated in the same way as the ignited 
residue obtained in testing Ferrum. The stain should be less 
than that given by 3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydro- 
chloricus, thus proving that the drug contains less than 60 parts 
of arsenium in one million parts of the drug. 

Liquor Ferri Acetatis. 4 Gm. are placed in a flask of about 
60 c.c. capacity, together with 4 Gm. of FeS04. A mixture of 
15 c.c. of HCl and 2 c.c. of water is added, and then 2 Gm. of 
potassium metasulphite. The flask is then attached to a con- 
denser, and the mixture is treated as described in Test B. At 
the end of the distillation the residue in the distiUing flask should 
be tested, and some ferrous iron should be found to be present. 



36 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Li(juor Ferrl Perchloridi Fortis. 0-25 Ciiii. are put in a flask 
of about (50 c.c. capacity, together witli 4 Gm. of FeSO^. A 
mixture of 15 c.c. of HCl and 6 c.c. of water i.s added, and then 
2 Gm. of potassium metasulphite. The flask is then attached 
to a coudeaser, and the mixture is treated as described in 
Test B. At the end of the distillation, the residue in the dis- 
tilUng flask should be tested, and some ferious iron should be 
found to be present. The stain should be less than that given 
by 3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus, thus 
proving that the drug contains less than 48 parts of arsenium in 
one million parts of the drug. 

Liquor Ferri Pernitratis. 1 Gm. is treated in the same manner 
as that described above for Liquor Ferri Perchloridi Fortis. The 
stain should be less than that given by 3 c.c. of the diluted Liquor 
Arsenici //?/f//-ocMor«cu.s, thus proving that the drug contains less 
than 12 parts of arsenium in one million parts of the drug. 

Arsenic, Detection of. F. C'.J. Bird {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 
424). commenting on the preceding Report, notes that 
Dunstan and Roljinson have taken the proportion of arsenium 
as their standard of arsenical impurity. It has been, uj) to 
the present, more generally the custom to express the arsenic 
in terms of arsenious oxide. It is considered desirable to con- 
tinue tlie practice in order to avoid confusion. 

The method of fastening on the cap of mercurialized paper is 
left open to the judgment of the operator. The authoi-'s ex- 
perience indicates that it should be tied tightly over the mouth 
of the test-tube or flask, so that the evolved gas is obliged to 
force its way through the pores of the mercurialized paper. 

With regard to the intensity of the stain, it is remarked that 
it is diminished by dampness. This should be emphasized, for a 
given stain, having naturally absorbed moisture by contact with 
the evolved gas charged witli aqueous vapour, will often nearly 
double its depth of colour on exposure to the temperature of a 
water oven for a minute or two. It would, therefore, appear to 
be a desirable addition to tlie directions that the stain from the 
material under examination and that from the standard arsenical 
solution, for comparison, should be placed in a water oven for 
a few minutes, in order to ensure equal conditions and guard 
against a stain being damper, and, therefore, misleadingly 
fainter than the other. Drying in a water oven will also some- 
times render evident a stain otherwise indistinguishable. 



CHEMISTRY. 37 

The use of pluinbized cotton wool as a means of arresting 
sulphuretted liydrogen is, if the yellow colour of tlie stain is 
the only factor to be relied upon, open to some risk. It is 
difficult to control the evolution of gas in a test-tube, and a 
too-powerful rush is quite likely to drive traces of sulphuretted 
hydrogen past the plumbized wool, and so increase the apparent 
intensity of the stain. Solution of lead acetate is distinctly 
preferable. 

The orange colour j)roduced b}- treatment of an arsenical 
stain by HCl affords a valuable confirmation of the presence of 
arsenic, but it is not properly developed in the cold. For 
example, the yellow stain from 3 c.c. of the dilute solution of 
arsenium recommended by the authors (equivalent to 12/1000 
Mgm. of arsenium), treated witli a few c.c. of pure HCl in the 
cold became, after some time, of a moderately deep orange- 
yellow colour, which did not increase in intensity. A similar 
stain placed in a watch glass with a few c.c. of pure HCl (free 
from chlorine) and heated on sheet asliestos over a Biuisen 
burner until the acid just boiled, changed at once to the charac- 
teristic deep l)rick-red colour indicative of arsenium, and 
possessed nearly double the iiitensity of the similar stain whi(^h 
had been treated with HCl in tlie cold. Any yellow colour due 
to possible traces of SH, would, by the action of boiling HCl. 
disappear, whilst that due to arsenic would be intensified and 
changed to a characteristic tint. Rather, therefore, than rely 
on the yellow stain alone, which may be deceptive from traces 
of SHo or PH3, it would be preferable to carry the test a step 
further, and make a comparison of the stains after treatment 
with pure HCl at a boiling temperature. There must be no 
uncertainty about the future B.P. tests for arsenic, and the 
acceptance of tlie indications of the yellow stain alone appears 
to admit the possibility of error. 

The limits of arsenical impurity suggested by the autliors 
will doubtless call forth a good deal of criticism. Generally 
they seem reasonable, excepting in the case of the mineral acids 
and ammonia, the limits for which, in view of their use in 
medicinal doses, appear unnecessarily stringent. Granting that 
these acids are used in the preparation of other substances, the 
absence of more than the limit of arsenic in the finished products 
is sufficiently guarded against by the respective tests, and the 
acids themselves sliould be considered merely in relation to their 
medicinal use. 



38 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Arsenic, Detection of, in OfRcial Drugs. D. L. Howard. 
{P/i(inn. Journ. [4|, 19, 417.) It is coiitomied that the standard 
for inii\eral acids required by Dunstan and Robinson is wliolly 
unreasonable and utterly unnecessary for acids intended for 
ordinary work, and the oidy results of such fancy standards M'ill 
b(* to cause them to be entirely ignored. Even oru^ part of arsenic 
in a million parts of nitric acid can by no conceivalile chance do 
any harm in medicine ; and it i-s questioned whether it is 
criminal to lack the skill to discover such a proportion as one 
part in three millions. Then, again, it is almost impossible to 
find glass l)ottles that do not contain enough arsenic to contami- 
nate perfectly pure acids to that extent. With regard to the 
method j^roposed for arsenic testing, the opinion is expressed that 
the Marsh-Berzelius test is very superior to that proposed. 

Arsenic, Detection of, in OfTicial Drugs. E. W. Mann. [Pharm . 
Journ. |4|. 19, 80(3.) Tlic o])iiii()n is (expressed that the standard 
suggested by Dunstan and Uobinsf)n for the greater part of the 
B.P. chemicals, three per million, is one that is commercially 
obtainable. There are a few instances where the proposed stan- 
dard is more rigid. 

In the case of the three mineral acids, HCl, H.,SO^ and HNO3, 
alone do the requirements that they should contain less than 0-3 
of arsenium per million seem too stringent. It is a difficult 
matter to obtain acids of such purity, and any reasonable need 
would be met by the practicable standard of one per million. 
Much adverse criticism has been passed upon the question of 
Ferrnm redactum. The standard proposed was admittedly one 
whicli a large proportion of the Fernim redact, on the market 
at the time of publication failed to attain. A reduced iron con- 
taining less than 100 parts per million is now easily obtainable. 
The tests suggested in Dunstan and Robinson's report are 
considered to be well adapted for pharmaceutical use, and the 
standards fixed do not appear to be too stringent, with one or 
two exceptions. 

Arsenic, Detection of, in Official Drugs. W. A. H. N a y 1 o r 

and E. J. C h a p p e 1. [Fhann. Journ. [4], 20, 33.) ' The 
elaborate report of Dunstan and Robinson on the official 
tests for arsenium deserves the most careful attention of phar- 
macists and others who are engaged in the examination of drugs. 



CHEMISTRY. 39 

Test A commends itseK on account of its simplicity, and the 
i-eadiness with which it can be appHed. By it the authors have 
detected 0-004 Mgm. of arsenium in 4 Gm. of a drug, equivalent 
to one part p?r million. Tlie test will be generally acknowledged 
as sufficiently sensitive for ordinary pharmaceutical testing. It 
would be simplified by substituting for the test-tube a graduated 
tube of the same dimensions. By comparison Test B is not so 
simple, but for its execution no elaborate apparatus is required, 
and, assuming that the Gutzeit test be selected as the official one, 
it is not easy to conceive how it could be applied by means of a 
less complex apparatus. The authors agree with Bird that 
further investigations may lessen the number of drugs to which 
Test B is directed to be applied, probably by the substitution of 
some other of sufficient delicacy. 

Among special tests recommended for particular drugs, atten- 
tion is called to the monograph dealing with sublimed and pre- 
cipitated sulphur. The analyst is directed to heat the sulphur 
in a large flask with fuming HNO.,. In performing this test, 
action not infrequently begins in the cold, and proceeds vigor- 
ously, thereby necessitating an inconveniently large flask. It is 
advisable that attention be called to this point, or that the mix- 
ture be directed to be heated after the action in the cold has 
subsided. With regard to the limits of arsenium suggested for 
final adoption, considerable diversity of opinion exists. In the 
main, the opinions expressed are to the effect that the limits are 
too stringent, although the results of the examination of a large 
number of drugs by Mann show that in many cases they are 
obtainable. 

If the drugs contain only traces of sulphur, the plugs of plum- 
bized cotton wool recommended in the Report act as an efficient 
absorbent of hydrogen sulphide. The statement that the 
plumbized wool can only be relied on to remove traces of sulphur, 
and, that where more exists, the drugs should be first subjected 
to the bromine and hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment, is 
confirmed by the author's experiments. If the sulphur is care- 
full}^ oxidized as described, only the lower portion of the plug, 
if it be a fair size, will be darkened. 

If the amount of sulphur is comparatively large, recourse should 
be had to the triple bulb apparatus as recommended by other 
experimenters. Further, the statement is confirmed that the 
bromine and hydroxylamine treatment does not completely 
prevent the evolution of SH,, but the quantity of sulphur left 



40 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

imoxidized is scarcely a measurable quantity. The i-esults ob- 
tained with a number of samples are summarized as follows :- 

Drugs which gave no perceptible Stain. Acetic acid, ammonium 
bromide, ammonium carbonate, ammonium phosphate. ]u)v\r 
acid, calcium chloride, calcium hydrate, calcium phosphate. 
ferrous sulphate, lactic acid, lime, lithium carbonate, litliium 
citrate, magnesia calcined light, magnesia calcined heaYy. 
magnesium sulphate, nitric acid (1-5), plienacetin. phenazone, 
potassium bicai'bonate, potassium citrate, potassium hydrate, 
potassium iodide, potassium sodium tartrate, potassium tar- 
trate, potassium tartrate acid, potassium permanganate, 
quinine hydrochloride acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium car- 
bonate, sodium iodide, sodium phosphate, sodium sulphate, 
solution of hydrogen peroxide, solution of zinc chloride, zinc 
acetate, zinc sulphocarbolate. zinc oxide. 

Drugs which contain Arsenium hvt readily pass the Proposed 
Limits. Alum, ammonium chloride, bismuth oxide, bismuth 
subnitrate. calcium carbonate precipitated, calcium hypophos- 
phite, cerium oxalate, citric acid, copper sulphate, glycerin, 
dilute hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, iron phosphate, 
heavy magnesium carbonate, light magnesium carbonate, nitric 
acid, concentrated phosphoric acid, potassium bromide, potas- 
sium iodide, potassium metasulphite, potassium nitrate, potas- 
sium sulphate, cpiinine hydrochloride, reduced iron, saccharin, 
soap (hard), sodium bromide, sulphurated antimony, sulphuric 
acid, sulphur sublimed, sulphur precipitated, sodium hypophos- 
phite, syrup of glucose, wool fat, zinc carbonate, zinc chloride, 
zinc sulphate, zinc valerianate. 

Drugs which Approximate to or contain the Full Amount of 
Arsenium allowed by the Proposed Limits. Borax, bismuth salicy- 
late, iodine, lead acetate, potassium acetate, quinine sulphate, 
soap (animal) solution of ferric nitrate, strong solution of 
ammonia, solution of ferric acetate, solution of ferric chloride, 
solution of potash. 

Drugs which contain more Arsenium than the Proposed Limits 
allow. Parts of Arsenium per million, antimony oxide. l.OfM"); 
bismuth carbonate, 5 ; glycerin, 4 ; iron, 500 : potassium car- 
bonate. 4 ; reduced iron, 100 ; sulphonal, fi ; tartarated anti- 
mony. 500. 

An inspection of the above results shows that a large proportion 
of the articles pass the prescribed limits with ease. It would 
not, however, be just to infer in respect of tliose whit-h exceed the 



CHElvnSTRY. 41 

assigned limit that they are not commercially obtainable on 
demand, since at the time of their purchase freedom from ai-senie 
was not specified. 

The inference to be drawn from a consideration of the results 
here recorded is that the recommendations as to arsenic limit, in 
the majority of drugs, are capable of practical fulfilment. A 
limit of three parts per million in antimony oxide is considered 
to be too stringent. Ha\-ing regard to the small dose of the oxide 
(1 to 2 grains), a hmit of 300 parts per million, the proportion 
recommended by Dunstan and Robinson for black and sulphur- 
ated antimony respectively, is advocated. For reduced iron the 
limit of 100 parts per milHon is put forward, although at the 
present time it is iiot difficult to obtain it containing not more 
than 60 parts per million. After making allowance for the large 
dose in which sulphonal is frequently administered, 6 parts of 
arsenium per million cannot be considered other than a negligible 
quantity. The autliors concur in thinking that the arsenic limit 
for mineral acids might well be fixed at 1 per million, nor should 
strong solution of ammonia be required to conform to a higher 
standard. 

Arsenic, Determination of, in Minute Quantity. R. C. Coav- 
ley and J. P. Cat ford. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 897.) 
The following modification of Remsen's method for the isolation 
of minute quantities of arsenic is described. 

A few inches of fine copper wire, coiled into a helix by twisting 
it around a glass tube, is immersed in 10 c.c. of the liquid to be 
tested, to which one-fifth of its volume of pure HCl has been 
added. The liquid and acid are contained in a test tube, which 
is supported upright in a brine bath by means of a loop of wire 
resting on tlie edges of the bath. The coil of copper wire is 
arranged so that it shall reach from the bottom of the arsenical 
liquid to above its surface. The test-tube must be immersed in 
the brine bath so that the liquid it contains shall be below the 
level of tlie liquid in the bath ; the bath is to be kept simmering 
without, however, reaching the boiling point, for about an hour. 
The projecting extremity of the copper is now to be pressed down 
below the surface of the liquid, and if it remains bright after 
continuing the application of heat for another fifteen minutes 
the arsenic will be all removed from the liquid, and the wire may 
be removed to a small dish, rinsed without touching it witli the 
fingers, and the deposit then dissolved off by a cubic centimetre 



42 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of bromine water contaiiiing a little hydrobromic acid. The 
clean wire is lifted out. rinsed with water, and if thought necessary- 
may be returned to the acid liquid to make sure that aU the 
arsenic lias been deposited from it. The bromine solution now 
contains the arsenic as arsenious acid. To it 1 c.c. of solution 
of potash is added, and the liquid is boiled until the light green 
copper compounds are broken up. An ahquot part of the filtrate 
may be reserved and tested for arsenic acid by the molyl)date 
reagent aft«r evaporation ; the remainder is reduced again to 
arseniteand titrated with N/100, or other suitably weak solution 
of iodine. A solution of iodine of convenient strength is made 
by diluting 10 c.c. of N 10 solution to about 150 c.c, and com- 
paring it with a standard arsenical solution. 

For a burette a pipette graduated in hundredths of a cubic 
centimetre is used. To control the flow, a piece of rubber tubing 
is slipped on the upper end and compressed by a screw clamp. 
One-hundredth part of a c.c. of the iodine solution gives a 
blue colour, with starch, in a volume of liquid not exceeding 10 
c.c. 

Arsenic in Hydrogen Peroxide Solution. L. Grimbert. 
{Jouni. Pharm. Chim. [6]. 21, 385.) A specimen of commercial 
hj^drogen peroxide solution is reported on which contained 
arsenic equivalent to 0-56 Gm. of sodium arsenate per htre. 
Although no previous published record of this impurity has ap- 
peared, its occurrence is not unknown, samples of arsenical 
hydrogen peroxide having been met with among those submitted 
to analysis at the central pharmacy of the French Military hos- 
pitals. 

Arsenic in Reduced Iron, Detection of and Limit for. C. A. 
Hill and J. C. U m n e y. [Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 500.) 
For the accurate determination of arsenic in reduced iron use 
may be made of both the German Pharmacopoeia and Dunstan 
and Robinson's recommendatioas. The following process based 
thereon is recommended : — 

To 01 Gm. of the reduced iron are added 0-1 Gm. potassium 
chlorate and 1 c.c. of hydrocliloric acid, the mixture being 
warmed until the chlorine, etc., has been dispelled. Eleven c.c. 
hydrochloric acid, 7 c.c. of water, 2 Gm. potassium metabisul- 
pliite, and 4 Gm. ferrous sulphate are next added, and the whole 
is heated on a water-bath under a reflux condenser for one hour. 



CHEMISTRY. 43 

The liquid is then distilled, 17 cc. of distillate being collected, 
and to the latter bromine is added until the coloration is dis- 
tinct and permanent. Lastly, the liquid is decolorized with a 
solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and it now contains 
the arsenic as arsenious acid. The amount of arsenic is of course 
determined in the usual way. either by a suitable modification of 
the " Gutzeit " test or, if the case be one of importance, by the 
Marsli-Berzelius method. 

Opinion is expressed tliat the limit suggested for arsenic in 
reduced iron by Dunstan and Robinson, 60 parts per million, is 
not a practicable one. 

Arsenic In Sodium Phosphate. E. B o n j e a n. {Rev. In- 
tan. faUific. 17, 171, through Chem. Centralb., 78, 1274.) Of 
100 samples of medicinal sodium phosphate examined for the 
presence of arsenic, 16 were entirely free from arsenic, 41 con- 
tained about 1 Mgm. in 100 Gm. ; "22, 1 to 5 Mgm. ; 9, 5 to 10 
Mgm. ; 6. 10 to 15 Mgm. : and 5, 30 to 52 Mgm. 

Arsenic, New Method of Separation. H. C a n t o n i and J. 

C h a u t e r u s. {Annales de Chim. Analyt., 10, 213.) Advan- 
tage is taken of the volatility of methyl arsenious ether at ordi- 
nary temperatures to eliminate arsenic from a mixture. 

A solution of As.O^ in HCl is treated in a distilhng flask with 
pure methyl alcohol. The delivery tube of the flask is connected 
to a condenser the other extremity of which, drawn out and bent, 
dips beneath the surface of a tubulated Erlenmeyer flask, con- 
nected with a pump. Tlie cork closing the distilling flask, 
carries a long tube, which dips well below the surface of the 
methyl alcohol, in such a manner that when the connexion to 
the pump is made, air is aspirated through the liquid and the 
ci.rsenic carried over into the alkaline liquid. After allowing the 
current of air to run for some time, at normal temperatures, the 
whole of the arsenic is found to be removed from the Uquid in the 
flask. Since there is no boiling, no trace of impurity ip carried 
over mechanically. A similar experiment performed with anti- 
mony proved that ho volatihzation of that metal took place 
under these conditions. The further application of the method 
is being investigated. 

Artemisia annua, Essential Oil of. [SchimmeVs Report, May, 
1905, 85.) The herb cultivated at Miltitz yielded 0-29 per cent. 



44 yt;ar-book of pharmacy. 

of a Icinoii-ycllow ossontial oil willi a pksasant odour resembling 
that of swoot basil. The sp. gr. was 0-8912 at 15''('. [a] „-l° 18' ; 
acid miinbfu', 3-8 ; ester number. 19-2 ; acetyl number, 44-5 : 
solubility in alcohol, 80 per cent. 1 : 1 to 1 : 1-5. with tuil)i(lity 
on adding more acid to separation of paraffin. 

Artemisia herba alba, Essential Oil of. E. (i r i m al. {Bull. 
Soc. Chim. [3j, 32, 694.) Tlie lierb, which is widely distributed 
in Algeria, yields 0-3 per cent, of a very fragrant greenish yellow 
oil ; .sp. gr. 0-9456 ; [7;],, 20° 1,47274 ; [a] „ 20° -15" 38'^; acid 
v^alue. 6-46 ; ester value, 89-32, equivalent to 31 per cent, of 
acetyl ester of the alcoliol CiqH,j^O. Acetyl value 135-38 equal 
to 12-65 of free alcohol. The oil is readily soluble, 1 : 2 to 1 : 2-5 
of alcohol 70 per cent. ; it does not congeal at — 12°C. A 
small quantity of an unidentified alcohol is present in the higher 
boiling fractions ; the lower fractions contain la?vocamphene, 
cineol and camphor. ('a]3rinic or caprylic acids are present as 
esters. 

Backhoiisia citriodora. Essential Oil of. {SchhnmeVs Feport. 
Mdij. 1905, 83.) This yellow oil. d(^rivc(l from the Myrtaceoiis 
Australian plant, has a very fine lemon giass aroma. Sp. gr. 
0-8972 at 15''('. : optically inactive; aldehyde content 95 per 
cent., probal)ly all citral; solubility, 1:1-8 or more in alcohol 
70 per cent. 

Backhousia citriodora, of Queensland, Essential Oil of. (Bnllet. 
Imper. In.stU., 3, 11.) Tlie oil of Backhousia citriodnra. distilled 
in Queensland, was greenish yellow and had a strong odour of 
citral. It was soluble in all proportions in alcohol 80 per cent., 
and 1 : 2-25 in alcohol 70 per cent. ; sp. gr. at 21°C. 0-8903 ; 
optically inactive ; [j/Jj, 22° 1-4940. Citral by bisulphate method 
93-5 per cent. This yield of citral is greater than any recorded 
from an essential oil ; consequently the oil should be worth dis- 
tilling locally to compete with East Indian lemon-grass oi'. for 
which there is a considerable demand. 

Baobab Kernels. — B a 1 1 a n d. {Journ. Pharm. Chrm. 
[6], 20, 529.) Baobab seeds yield 63-3 per cent, of kernels which 
have the following percentage composition. Water, 5-4 ; albu- 
minoids, 17; fat, 63-2; extractive, 9-72; cellulose, 1-05; ash, 
3-55 ; and PjOg 1-34 per cent. The extractive contains no 



CHEMISTRY. 45 

starcii. The fat is solid at normal temjjeratures, forming a 
whitish mass : it begins to soften at 25°C., and is fluid at 34X'., 
when it resembles olive oil in appearance ; its odour is pleasant 
and taste bland ; it does not readily become rancid. 

Barbaloin, Constitution of. H. A. I). J o w e 1 1 and C. E. 
E. Potter. {Proc. Chem. Soc, 21, 181.) The authors are 
unable to agree Avith the formula for barbaloin, C,^H.-,QOg, or the 
structure of its molecule as suggested by Leger [Year Book, 1903, 
28], nor can they confirm that author's statements respecting 
the decomposition of barbaloin by Na,0^. The results of their 
investigations tend to prove the correctness of Tilden's formula, 
CjgHiyO. [Year Book, 1875,545]. Tetra-acetyl-tribromobarhaloin, 
C^Ji^^O^^^v.^, was obtained in well-defined yellow needles, m.p. 
135^0. Tribromobarbaloin, and probably barbaloin also, there- 
fore contains four hydroxyl groups. 

Barium Chloride, Volumetric Determination of. F. H. A 1- 

coek. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 173.) Pure Na,SOj is added in 
sHght excess to the solution of BaCl., to be examined ; the 
amount of NaCl is then titrated m the usual manner, with N/10 
AgNOg solution and K,,CrO^ as indicator. The precipitated 
BaSOj need not be removed since it in no way interferes with the 
reaction. 

Beeswax, Detection of Adulteration of, by Examination of the 
Colouring Matter. P. L e m a i r e. {Bull. Soc. Pharm. de Bor- 
deaux, through Journ. Pharm. Chun. [6], 20, 128.) (1) A small 
fragment of the wax is dissolved in CHC'l^ and treated with 
2 or 3 drops of HCl. If the colour changes to rose red, it is 
artificial. 

(2) Another fragment is placed in a test-tube 0-5 c.c. of 
strong NaOH solution and 5 or 6 c.c. of water. If on boiling, 
and adding excess of HCl, a rose red colour is formed, turning 
pale green on the addition of ammonia, the wax is adulterated. 

(3) A piece of the wax is carefully warmed in a porcelain cap- 
sule with 1 c.c. of saturated solution of borax. On stirring and 
evaporating to dryness, a rose-red residue will be obtained with 
artificially tinted wax. 

Beeswax, Indian. D. Hooper. {Agricult. Ledger (7), 1904, 
73. ) Indian beeswax is derived from three species of indigenous 



46 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

bees, Apis dorsata, A. indica and A. florca. The average in. p. 
of the wax of Apis florea is 64-2°C., the liighest being 68°C., and the 
lowest 63°C. The acid value ranges from 6-1 to 8-9 ; ester value 
from 80-8 to 123-8; Huebl number, 60 to 114. The product 
of Apis dorsata, which forms the bulk of Indian beeswax, melts 
between 60°C. and 67°C. ; acid value, 4-4 to 10-2 ; ester value, 
69-5 to 97-8 ; Huebl value, 4-4 to 9-9. Apis indica yields a wax 
melting between 62° and 64°C. ; acid value, 5-0 to 8-8 ; ester 
value, 840 to 95-9 ; Huebl value, 5-3 to 9-2. Indian beeswax 
therefore differs slightly from the European product in having a 
lower acid value. It could be produced in large quantities, and 
is met with in commerce free from sophistication. Besides 
beeswax, another wax, produced by a species closely allied to the 
true bees, the so-called stingless bees, Melipona [Trigoiui) sp., 
has been examined. This is totally different in character from 
beeswax, and is viscid and dark coloured. It has the m.p. 
70-5°C. ; acid value, 20-8 ; ester value, 89-6 ; Huebl value, 42-2. 
The natives attribute medicinal virtues to the honey of this 
species, which has a peculiar flavour. 

Beeswax, Saponification Value of. — S c h w a r z. Zeits. 
fiir Oeffenf. Ckerii. through Pharm. Centralh., 46, 260.) Cohn has 
stated that with wax adulterated with paraffin, by saponifying 
only for | to 1 hour, with semi-normal NaOH solution too low 
results are obtained, equivalent to 16 less than those obtained 
by 3 hours' boihng. Schwarz is unable to confirm this state- 
ment, and finds that one hour's boiling is sufficient to completely 
saponify even these adulterated waxes. In order to obviate any 
error when titrating back with semi-normal HCl solution, due 
to dissociation of the soap, he advises the addition of 30 c.c. 
of absolute alcohol to the soap solution before titration, or the 
employment of alcohohc ratlier than aqueous semi-normal HC'l 
for the purpose. This precaution is specially needful when the 
cold saponification process in benzol solution is performed. 

Belladonna Leaves, Determination of Alkaloid in. W. ('. 

Forsberg. {Pharm. Post, 38, 2.) Twenty Gm. of bella- 
donna leaves dried at 100° and finely powdered is treated with 
20 c.c. of 20 per cent, solution of Na^COg and evaporated to dry- 
ness on the waterbath, with frequent stirring. The dry mixture 
is then traitsferred to a stoppered bottle and macerated with a 
mixture of ether 90 Gm. and chloroform 30 Gm. After thorough 



CHEMISTRY. 4< 

agitation and subsequent maceration for half an hour 10 c.c. of 
NaOH solution, previously diluted mth 5 c.c. of water, is added, 
agitation and maceration being continued for 2 hours. Water 
20 c.c. is then added, to cause the powdered leaves to aggregate. 
After standing for an hour 60 Gm. of the ether chloroform .solu- 
tion, equivalent to 10 Gm. of the original powder, is decanted, 
distilled down to one-fourth its volume, transferred to a stop- 
pered separator, the distilling flask being washed out mth three 
successive 5 c.c. of ether ; 20 c.c. of N/HCl solution is then 
added, followed by sufficient ether to give a distinct layer. After 
thorough agitation, the excess of acid is titrated back, with 
N/100 KOH solution and iodeosin as mdicator. 

By this method commercial Ijelladonna leaves are found to 
give from 0-31 to 0-44 per cent, of alkaloids. 

Bergamot and other Citrus Oils. H. E. Burgess and T. H. 
Page. [Proc. Chem. Soc, 20, 181.) Acetic acid, octylene, 
pinene. camphene and hniene have been identified in pure ber- 
yainot oil. The pmigency of the first fractions on distillation is 
attributed to the presence of acetic acid, wliich is also found in 
smaller quantities in lemon oil. The octj^lene in le^iion and 
bergamot oil is identical ; it gives butyric acid on oxidation with 
K]Mn04. 

The terpineol fraction of distilled lime oil has given a phenyl- 
urethane m.p. 132°C'.. differing from that obtained from ordi- 
nary terpineol, l^eing more soluble and crystallizing in tufts of 
needles. On hydrolysis it yields an oil with an intense odour of 
distilled lime oil. 

Bermudan Bay-berries, Essential Oil of. {SchivimeVs Report, 
May, 1905, 85.) The odour of tlie oil is quite distinct from that 
of Myrcia acris. The yield is 3-66 per cent. ; sp. gr. 1-0170 at 
15°C. ; [a] —7° 3' ; phenols, 73 per cent. ; solubihty in alcohol, 
70 per cent. 1:1-5 with turbidity with more than 4 volumes ; in 
80 per cent, alcohol 2 : 1 and more. Eugenol is the chief con- 
stituent of the phenols. The non-phenols contain Isevo-phellan- 
drene but no myrcene. 

Beryl, Presence of a New Element in. J. H. P o 1 1 o k. [Proc. 
Chem. Soc, 20, 189.) The glucina extracted from Limoges beryl 
was fractionated by crystaUization of the sulphate, by solution 
in ammonicum carbonate, and by precipitation from HF solution 



48 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

by potassiiun li^-drogea fluoride. The glucina of tlie variou-s 
frartions, converted into anlij^drous chloride, was found in some 
instances to sliow a jirogressive rise in the equivalent of the base ; 
the same was observed on distilling the chloride ; the most vola- 
tile portions had a markedly higher equivalent. A spectro- 
scopic examination of tlie fractions with high equivalents 
showed that certain lines, only faintly visible in ordinary glucina, 
became steadily stronger as the equivalent increased, and the 
known lines of glucinum became fainter. It appears, therefore, 
that beryl contains a new element allied to glucinum, but having 
a much higher equivalent and a more volatile and more readily 
formed chloride. 

Birch Buds, Essential Oil of. H. v o n S o d e n and F. E 1 z o. 

{Berichte, 38, 1636.) Birch buds yield about 4-3 per cent, of a 
viscous yellowish oil ; sp. gr. 0-975 ; [aJ^,-2° ; b.p. 265 to 295"('., 
with partial decomposition ; acid value, 2-1 ; ester value, 67-2 ; 
acetyl value, 177-8. On cooling a few crystals of a body, m.p. 
50°C. separates, which is j)robably a paraffin. The oil consists 
chiefly of a sesquiterpene alcohol, betulol, Ci.;H240, and its 
acetic ester ; it contains 47-4 per cent, of the free alcohol and 
31-4 of the acetate. Betulol liberated from the phthalic ester 
has the sp. gr. 0-975 [a]j,-35°, b.p. 284-288°C.with partial decom- 
position. It has a fragrant odour and a bitter taste. It appears 
to be closely allied to amyrol. 

Bismuth, Salts of Organic Acids. P. T h i b a u 1 1. {Btdl. 
Soc. Chim., 31, 36.) See also Year Boots, 1901, 42 : 1902, 44, 45 : 
1904, 41. A series of bismuth salts of the benzoic acids and their 
congeners has been prepared, hj treating crystalline anhydrous 
bismuth oxide with a hot saturated aqueous solution of the acid, 
filtering off at once, evaporating to dryness, and washing the dry 
residue with absolutely anhydrous ether. In this manner i?/.s- 
muth para-oxybenzate, Bi3(C7H503). is obtained in the form of 
white transparent needles decomposed by the least trace of 
moisture, and also by most solvents, except perfectly anhydrous 
ether. Bismuth meta-oxybenzoate is obtained in a similar manner. 
Bismuth ^-resorcylate, BiCyHsOr,, in the form of insoluble needles, 
which decompose at 208°C., without melting, results by digesting 
the anhydrous oxide for several hours with excess of the acid, 
filtering, evaporating, and extracting the residue with alcohol. 
Its constitution may be represented by the formula — 



CHEMISTRY. 49 

yOHG) 

C6H3^0H(3) 

^CO-0-BiO(4) 

Bismuth oxy salicylate, siiuilarl}'' prepared, and also having the 
formula BiCtHsOs, may be represented as — 

/OH(0 

C6H3^0H(4) 

\CO-0-BiO(fi) 

Bitter Almonds, Essential Oil of, IVIanipulation of the Chlorine 
Test for. {SchimmeV s Report, Oct., 1904, 8.) A spill made with 
a jHece of filter paper 2 x 2| inches folded several times is satu- 
rated with the oil, excess of oil shaken off, then placed in a small 
porcelain dish, ignited, and immediately covered with a beaker 
moistened inside, the beaker being left in position for one minute 
after the flame is extinguished. It is then rinsed out with 10 c.c. 
of distilled water and tested with silver nitrate in the usual man- 
ner ; any turbidity obtained should persist on boiling before 
it can be attributed to the presence of chlorine. It sometimes 
occurs that a slight precipitate of AgCN is obtained, due to 
volatilization of some of the HCN present in the oil ; but this 
precipitate disappears when heated. 

Bitter Orange Flowers, Formation of Essential Oil of. E, 

C h a r a b o t and G. L a 1 o u c. {Bull. Soc. Chini. [3j, 31, 
937.) In the course of their investigations on the formation of 
essential oils in the living plant, the authors have now studied 
the production of neroli oil in the flowers of Citrus higaradia. 
During the period of flowering the amount of essential oil in- 
creases sensibly in the flower ; dry flowers are found to yield a 
higher percentage of oil than fresh. Contrary to what has been 
shown to occur in the leaves, the formation and accumulation of 
oil takes place more actively when the flower is fully developed 
than at an earlier period. The amount of esters in the oil dis- 
tinctly but slowly increases. The amount of geraniol increases, 
while that of linalol slightly diminishes. No marked difference 
is observed in the constitution of the oil derived from the petals 
alone and that of the other floral oi'gans. but the petal oil always 
contains slightly more methyl anthranilate. The oil from the 
flower buds, in May, 1903, contained 11-8 per cent, of total esters, 
10-1 per cent, of terpenic esters, 1-3 per cent, of methyl anthrani- 

E 



50 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

late, 29-3 per cent, of free alcohols, and. 8 per cent, of alcohols as 
esters. In the following June the amount of total esters was 
151 per cent. ; terpenic esters, 13-8 per cent. ; methyl anthrani- 
late, 1-0 per cent. ; free alcohols. 33- 1 per cent. ; alcohols as 
esters, 10-8 per cent. ; total geraniol, 10 per cent. ; total Unalol, 
34 per cent. The whole expanded flowers gave, in May, an oil 
containing total esters, 171 per cent. ; terpenic esters, 13-3 per 
cent. ; metliyl anthranilate, 2-9 per cent. ; free alcohols, 34-9 
per cent. ; alcohols as esters, 10-8 per cent. In June, the oil 
from entire full-blown flowers gave total esters, 19-2 per cent. ; 
terpenic esters, 16-0 per cent. ; methyl anthranilate, 1-9 per 
cent. ; free alcohols, 31-9 per cent. ; alcohols as esters, 13-4 per 
cent. ; total geraniol, 15-2 per cent. ; and total linalol, 30- 1 per 
cent. It is calculated that in each flower the petals yield 0-308 
Mgm. of oil, and the other organs 0-245 Mgm. ; giving a total of 
0-553 Mgm. 

Boric Acid, Detection of, with Tincture of Mimosa Flowers. 
L. Robin. {Annates de Chim. Anahjt., 9, 336.) Tincture of 
mimosa flowers has already been used by the author as a sen- 
sitive indicator in alkahmetry. It is now stated to form an ex- 
tremely delicate reagent for the detection of boric acid. The tinc- 
ture is thus prepared. Ten Gm. of the flowers are heated to boiling 
with 200 c.c. of distilled water ; after cooling, 50 c.c. of alcohol 
95 per cent, is added and the mixture allowed to stand for 1 
hour. It is then filtered into a non-actinic glass bottle [Annales 
de Chim. Aiudyf., 8, 130). Boric acid in a mixture of satis is thus 
detected. The solution rendered alkaline with sodium carbonate 
is boiled and filtered. One drop of the mimosa tincture is placed 
on the bottom of a small white capsule, together with a few drops 
of the filtrate, and just sufficient HCl cautiously added to discharge 
the yellow tint. On evaporating to dryness on the water-bath 
a yellow residue is obtained, which turns red when moistened 
with a few drops of 10 per cent. Na^COg solution if boric acid be 
present ; in its absence the residue is greyish, turning yellow with 
the carbonate. If only traces of boric acid are sought a more 
delicate apphcation of the test maj' be made with test paper 
prepared by saturating white filter paper with the tmcture pre- 
viously diluted with 25 per cent, of distilled water, and di-jang. 
The alkaline filtrate, rendered faintly acid with HCl, is evapor- 
ated to a small volume on the water-bath ; a strip of the test- 
paper 1-5 cm. wide and 2 to 3 cm. long is then soaked in the liquid 



CHEMISTRY. 51 

and the whole evaporated to dryness. The dry paper will then 
be coloured and react as described above, in presence of boric 
acid. In wines, riders, and similar liquids as little as 10 or 15 c.c. 
is sufficient to test. This (piantity is evaporated to dryness, 
ashed, the residue taken up with a little water, filtered, and treated 
as above. Milk is first coagulated by means of acetic acid, and 
tlie serum from about 15 c.c. filtered off : this is rendered neutral 
Avith Na.CO.,, using mimosa tincture as indicator, boiled, filtered, 
and evaporated, the residue ashed, then treated as described 
previously. 

Boucheria griffithiana Bark, Lupeol in. T o 1 1 e n s and 

Sack. [Berichie, 37, 4105.) Lupeol C2,.Hj,0, identical with 
the lupeol found in lupin pods by E. Schulze and Likiernik, is 
extracted with alcohol from the bark of Boucheria gri/fitJiiana. 
When crvstallized from dilute alcohol, the needles formed melt 
at 209°C. 

Bromine Absorption Equivalent of Fatty Bodies, New Method 
for Determining. F. Telle. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6J, 21, 
111, 183.) It is claimed that by the followhig modus operandi a 
definite bromine equivalent is obtained with fats, the results 
bemg solely those of bromo-addition, and not vitiated by sub- 
stitution reactions. At the same time loss of bromine, such as 
occurs in other methods, is avoided. The following solutions 
are requisite. (1) X/TO As^O^ solution obtamed by dissolving 
4-95 Gm. of As^Og in 10 c.c. of strong XaOH solution, transferring 
to a graduated litre flask, acidifying wntli 100 c.c. of pm'e HCl 
and adjusting to 1 litre. (2) Solution of chlorinated soda, 
approximately decinormal. obtained by diluting 35 to 40 c.c. of 
the commercial solution to 1 litre. This is set against the arseni- 
cal solution thus : 20 c.c. of the N/10 ASgOg solution is treated 
with 5 c.c. of 10 per cent. KBr solution and sufficient of the 
chlorinated soda solution run in from a burette to exactly dis- 
charge the colour of the free bromine. The equivalents of the 
two solutions being established, exactly 1-25 Gm. of the oil (or 
0-625 for drying oils) is weighed out, and dissolved in pure 
CHClg or CCl^ and made up to 50 c.c. with the solvent ; 10 c.c, 
of this solution, equivalent to 0-25 Gm. of the fat or 0-125 Gm, 
of drying oil, is introduced into a glass stoppered 300 c.c. Erlen- 
mcyer flask ; to it are added 5 c.c. of 10 per cent. KBr solution, 
1 c.c. of pure HCl, then slowly and with constant agitation a 



52 YP:At?-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

known volume of tlie .standard liypochlijrile solutioii, avoiding 
too great excess of bromine and loss by volatilization ; thu.^ for 
cod-liver oil and almond oil 30 c.c. should be added, for most 
other oils 25 c.c, for lard and margarines 20 c.c, butter and suets 
15 c.c, and coconut butter 10 c.c. In this way no vapour of 
bromine is seen in the air of the flask, and almost all is in solution 
in tlie CC'l,. The whole is then set aside in tlie dark, without 
agitation, for 20 minutes. The unabsorbed bromine is then 
determined ; 20 c.c of the standard As.jOy is run in, and the 
whole well siiaken so as to divide the CCl^ thoroughly in the 
liquid, which is then titrated with the standard h\Tiochlorite 
solution until the aqueous solution acquires a yellow tint, which 
on agitation passes into the CCl^. The end-reaction is very sharp, 
one drop causing the change. The number of c.c. of clilorinated 
soda solution u.sed is read off, and the equivalent of the 20 c.c. of 
N/10 As.,0.j added, deducted from the total volume of the 
chlorinated soda used. The remainder will be the equivalent of 
the bromine absorbed by 0-25 Gm. of the oil, or by 0-125 of a 
drying oil. Thus, supposing 18 c.c. of the chlorinated soda solu- 
tion is equivalent to 20 c.c. of the N/10 As.jOy solution. 1 c.c. of 

this solution liberates -^ = 0-0088 Gm. of Br. Then for 
18 

0-25. Gm. of oil there has first been used 25 c.c. of chlorinated 

soda, 20 c.c of N/10 As.^Og, and finally 7-7 c.c. of the former ; 

so 25 + 7-7-18=14-7. 100 Gm. of the oil will therefore fix 

0-0088x1-47x100 _^ ,, ^. , , i • i - .i .. 
^r-^- =i>2-21 Gm. or bromuie, which is therefore 

the bromine value. 

The following values have been obtained. Oils of sweet 
almonds : 69-87 and 74-37 ; arachis oil, 53-24 ; cotton seed oil, 
64-25 ; poppy seed oU, 76-28 and 78-69 ; olive oH, 51-20, 52-24, 
and 5400 ; sesame oil, 66-00 and 65-70 ; lard, 35-5, 38-30, and 
40-3. Butter from Reims, 24-38 ; from Aisne, 23-23 ; from 
Ardennes, 25-32 ; oleomargarine, 28-96 ; coconut butter, 5-13 ; 
cold-drawn castor-oil, 52-24 ; pale cod-liver oil, 83-44 ; dark 
cod-liver oil, 83-10 ; cacao butter, 23-69 ; hnseed oil, 96-15 and 
95-07; Colza oil, 64-32; neatsfoot oil, 56-03; taUow, 54-41 
and 23-86. 

Bromo-methyl hepty Ketone. H. A. D. Jowett. {Proc. 
Chem. Soc, 21, 117.) By treating methyl heptyl ketone in 
CHCI3 with Br, and subsequently fractionating bromomethyl 



CHEMISTRY. 53 

heptyl ketone, CgHj.OBr was oljtaiued as a pale yellow liquid, 
b.p. 122° under 15 mm. It has a characteristic odour and 
its vapours cause profuse lachrymation. 

Buffalo Milk, Lactose in. C. P o r c h e r. {Btill. Soc. Chim. 
[3], 29.) The sugar of buffalo milk is found to be lactose, and 
not a specific sugar, as stated by Pappel and Richmond, which 
they named tewfikose. 

Cajuput Oil, Green Colour of. H. C. P r i n s e n G e e r 1 i n g, 

{Pharm. Weekblad, 41, 1081, through Schim7neVs Report, May, 
1895, 12.) That the green colour of cajuput oil, due to traces 
of copper, cannot be removed by shaking out with water is 
attributed to the fact that oil contains small quantities of 
butyric and valerianic acids, free and as esters, which retain the 
copper in solution. Samples of copper-free cajuput oil, from 
which free acids and esters have been removed, and to which 
various organic acids have then been added, are found to be 
coloured green when brought into contact with metallic copper. 
But only those to wliieh butyric or valerianic acid had been 
added failed to give up the copper salt when shaken with water. 
Valerian oil also acquires a green colour on contact with copper, 
which is not removed by shaking out with water. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, Fixed Oil of Seeds of. G. Fen d- 

1 e r. {Apoth. Zeit., 20, 6.) The seeds of Calophyllum inophyl- 
lum give 50-55 per cent, of a yellowish green acrid oil wlien ex- 
tracted with ether. It has a faint odour, resembling that of 
fenugreek. It is insoluble in absolute alcohol and in glacial 
acetic acid, but dissolves in other fat solvents. The sp. gr. at 
15°C. is 0-9428 ; Reichert-Meissl number, 0-13 ; acid number, 
2845 ; saponification number, 196 ; iodine number. 92-8. It 
absorbs oxygen to the extent of 1-84 per cent, of its weight 
in 136 hours. When shaken out with 5 per cent. NaOH solu- 
tion a green resin is removed, leaving the oil yellowish in colour. 
H. Kleist has found that the oil, and especially the resin, has 
a toxic action on frogs. 

Calycanthine. H. M. G o r d i n. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
52, 345.) The alkaloid calycanthine, first isolated by Eccles 
(Year Book, 1888, 162) from the seeds of Calycanthusglaucus, has 



54 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

been re-examined. The fat-free seeds were found to yield a 
little over 2 per cent, of the base by extraction with Prollius' 
fluid, but to obtain it in conjunction "wdth the acid present in the 
drug extraction with hot alcohol was resorted to, by which 
means a yield of 75 ])er cent, of the total alkaloid present was 
obtained. After distilling off the solvent, the residue was taken 
up with faintly acidified water, filtered, and the filtrate precipi- 
tated with KOH. The crude calycanthine thus obtained was 
collected, washed, redissolved in H,,SO^, and reprecipitated. It 
was then dried at 40-50'^C. and dissolved in 10 times its weight 
of acetone. After filtering off from the non-alkaloidal insoluble 
matter, a previously prepared and cooled mixture of one part of 
H.,SO, and 5 parts of EtOH is added, drop by drop, until no fur- 
ther precipitate is formed. The crystalline alkaloidal sulphate 
thus obtained is quite white, and is insoluble in the alcohol-acetone 
mixture. After washing the precipitate with acetone, it is 
dissolved in water, and the base liberated with Am OH. This is 
further purified by resolution in acid and reprecipitation, being 
ultimately converted into the hydrochloride and digested with 
animal charcoal. The base liberated from this salt is recrys- 
tallized from acetone and water until a constant m.p. is attained. 
It crystallizes from alcohol in large glassy prisms, from acetone 
and water in smaller crystals of the same form : m.p. 243-244°C. 
It forms crystalline salts, the sulphate, hydrochloride, and acetate 
being very soluble in water, the hydriodide and nitrate are less 
soluble. The aqueous solutions of the sulphate and hydro- 
chloride are acid to litmus, the basicity of the alkaloid being 
feeble. The hydrochloride crystallizes from hot alcohol in large, 
heavy, vitreous prisms which soon become white and fall to a 
white powder on the slightest touch when dried over H^SO^. 
It forms a beautiful platinochloride, beginning to darken at 221^0. 
and ultimately black at 250°C'., without showing a definite m.p. 
In alkaline solution a minute trace of calycanthine reduces AuClg. 
The reaction may be obtained with a 1 : 1,000,000 solution of the 
base ; with Mandellin's reagent it gives a fine red colour, and 
HNO, a green colour, with H,SO. and K,,Cr,,07 a rose-red tint. 

.', o ' 2 4 2 2' 

fhishny finds that when injected hypodermically into cats and 
rabbits it had no distinct effect in 5 Mgm. doses per kilo of body 
weight, but 20 Mgm. doses per kilo gave rise to violent tetanic 
spasms, similar to those produced by strychnine. It acts as a 
spinal stimulant and a heart depressant, produciiig symptoms 
similar to those found in cattle poisoned with Calycanthus. 



CHEMISTRY. 55 

Camphor, Determination of, in Liniment of Camphor. J. 
Lothian. [Pharm. J own. [4], 20, 582.) Simple heating on 
the waterbath in a flat-bottomed dish is sufficient to drive off 
all the camphor in about an hour, and no corrections are neces- 
sary, as when the oil is heated at a higher temperature. It is 
suggested that the followdng test should be included in the 
official test : " Five Gm. heated in a flat-bottomed dish for one 
hour on the waterbath should lose not less than 1 Gm." 

Camphorated oil when exposed to the air at the ordinary- 
temperature loses camphor fairly rapidly. An oil which con- 
tained 21-88 per cent, of camphor exposed in an evaporating 
basin for 4 days then contained 19-53 per cent, of camphor. 
Camphor is dextrorotatory in solution, and the strength of a 
camphorated oil can be cpiickly determined by the polarimeter. 

(See also Y ear-Book, 1903, 48.) 

Cananga Oil Adulterated with Coconut Oil and Resin. 

{SchimmeVs Report, May, 1905, 19.) Two sophisticated speci- 
mens of Cananga oil are reported on, one containing 50 per cent, 
of coconut oil, the other 20 per cent, of resin. The former had 
the sp. gr. 0-9256 at 15°C. ; [a]D -3° 50', and saponification 
number 200-4 ; pure Cananga oil has the sp. gr. 0-910 to 0-950 
[ajD — 17°to —55° and saponification number 10 to 36. This 
adulterated oil solidified at moderately low temperatures. The 
resin-containing oil had the sp. gr. 0-9716 ; [a]D — 11° 40', and 
saponification number 43-11. On steam distiUing only 75 per 
cent, was volatilized, the residue being a brittle resin. Pure 
Cananga oil does not leave more than 5 jDer cent, of non-volatile 
residue by steam distillation. 

Capparis spinosa, Caper-rutin in. D. H. B r a u n s. (Archiv 
der Pharm.. 242, 556.) The flower buds of Capparis spinosa 
preserved in vinegar, the famihar pickle knoAvn as " capers," 
are found to contain 0-32 per cent, of a rhamnoside caper-rutin, 
CorHaoOie'sHyO, closely allied to rutin from Ruta graveolens. 
When dried in the water-oven or desiccator it loses 1 mol. 
H2O, and becomes anhydrous at 100°C. in vacuo, or at ordinary 
pressure at 110°C. Like rutin and sophorin, it yields on 
hydrolysis quercitin, rhamnose, and glucose. 

Caraway Oil, Constituents of. {SchimmeVs Report, May, 
1905, 20. ) In addition to carvone and carvene, a small quantity 



56 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of a base with a narcotic odour, dihydro-carvone, and dihydro- 
carveol have been isolated from caraway oil. 

Carthamus tinctorius Fruit, Fixed Oil of. G. F e n d 1 e r. 

{Apoth. Zeit., 19, 721.) Tlie fruit of Carthamus tinctorius from 
German East Africa yields 25-82 per cent, of fixed oil ; the 
separated kernels of the seeds give 50-37 per cent. It has the 
following characters : Sp. gr. at 15X'., 0-9266 ; m.p. 5°C. ; it 
begins to cloud at — 13°C.. and is not wholly solid at — 18°C. 
Reichert-Meisl value, ; acid value, 11-63 ; saponification 
value, 191 ; iodine value, 142-2; refraction index at 40° = 65. 
It is a slow drying oil. The fatty acids of the oil have the sp. gr. 
0-9135 at 15°, m.p. 17°C., freezing point 12°C. ; acid value, 199 ; 
mean molecular weight, 281-8 ; acetyl number, 52-9 ; iodine 
value, 148-2. The liquid fatty acids have the iodine number 
150-8, and the mean molecular weight 293-1. 

Cascara Sagrada, Chemical Examination of the Bark. H. A. D. 
J o w e 1 1. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 288. ) The presence of 
emodin first demonstrated by Schwabe ( Year -Book, 1889, 140) was 
confirmed, also that of a small amount of a substance isomeric 
with emodin. but insoluble in ammonia ; m.p. 183°C. Glucose was 
detected, and also a body which yielded syringic acid when 
treated with acid. This acid does not exist, as such, in the 
bark. No indication of the presence of chrysophanic acid or of 
chrysarobin was obtained. Probably previous investigators 
have mistaken emodin for one or both of these bodies. Although 
emodin is insoluble in water, it is soluble in the aqueous extract 
of the bark, and is shaken out with difficulty from such solutions 
by means of immiscible solvents. After treatment with acids, 
however, the emodin present is readily removed by such solvents. 
This might lead to the inference that the emodin was the product 
of hydrolysis of a glucoside ; but if the greater part be first 
removed from the aqueous bark extract by repeated shaking out, 
only a trace more is obtained after hydrolysis with acid. 
Schwabe's conclusions as to the absence of a glucoside yielding 
emodin on hydrolysis were thus confirmed. No pure substance 
analogous to the cascarin of Le Prince {Year-Book, 1893, 131) 
or the purshianin of Dohme and Englehardt could be detected 
{Year-Book, 1899, 134), nor was the crystalline principle de- 
scribed by Prescott obtained. The bark was found to contain 
about 2 per cent, of fat, consisting of rhamnol arachidate, free 



CHEMISTRY. 57 

arachidic acid, and substances, probably glycerides, which yield 
linolic and myristic acid on hydrolysis. Rhamnol, C20H3JO, 
an alcohol, m.p. 135°-136°C., is identical with the alcohol 
obtained by Power and Lees from K6-Sam seeds {Y ear-Book, 
1903, 503). The bitter principle and its derivatives were not 
obtained in a crystalline form. No chemical difference could be 
detected between bark one year and three years old. Beyond 
slight differences in the amount of extractive, the examination 
of the bark of RJmmnus purshianus and of R. calijornicus gave 
identical results. A hydrolytic enzyme which hydrolized 
amygdalin was isolated ; but this had no griping action in 1 Gm. 
doses. Emodin was found not to be the active principle ; it 
exerts but little if any influence on the aperient action of the 
drug. This purging principle is contained in that portion of 
the lead subacetate precipitate which is extracted by acetic 
ether, and is soluble in water. No crystalline body could be 
obtained from this. 

Castor Oil, Suggested Official Characters and Tests for. L. 

Myddelton Nash. {Chem. and Drugg., 65, 1023.) The 
monograph of the British Pharmacopoeia requires revision. The 
only physical constant given in the B.P. is the sp. gr., tlie 
range of which (0-950-0-970) is considerably too wide. 

It is suggested that the following characters and tests should 
be given : Sp. gr. at 15-5, 0-958 to 0-966. 

Acidity. — Not over 1-5 per cent, expressed as oleic acid. 

The optical rotation and refractive index of this oil are very 
constant, the following figures being typical : — 

Sample No. 1. Sample No. 2 

Rotation in lOO-mm. tube 4^30' 430' 

Refractive index [77],, at 20"C 1-4785 l-478t) 

These tests might therefore also be included in the next edition 
of the B.P. 

Catechin and Acacateehin. A. G. P e r k i n. {Proc. Chem. 
Soc, 21, 89.) The statement of Clauser that anhydrous Gambler 
catechin melts at 210°C. could not be substantiated. The m.p. 
previously found by the author, 175-177°C., is confirmed. 
Acacateehin, C15H14O6 + 3H2O, dried over H2SO4, loses 1 H2O 
and differs from catechin, CisH^Oe + 4H2O, which under these 
conditions loses 3H^0. Acacateehin tetramethyl ester yields 



58 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the acetyl compound CisHg06{CH3)4-C2H30 in colourless needles, 
m.p. 135-137"C.. and on oxidation with KMnOi gives veratric 
acid and probably j)liloroglucinol dimethyl ester. With H2SO4 
or HCl in the presence of HC2H3O2 both catechin and acacate- 
chin give an orange red anlwdride, insoluble in alkaline solution, 
but which is not identical with the catechuretin of Krauft and 
Delden or of Etti. When oxidized with KoFcoCyia in the pre- 
sence of an alkali acetate, both catechins yield a new colouring 
matter which dyes mordanted fabrics orange brown. (See 
Year-Book, 1902, 85; 1903, 53.) 

Cecropia peltata, Active Principles of. — A 1 b o n i. (i?e- 
pertoire [3], 17, 17.) Cecropia peltata is an Urticaceous tree in- 
digenous to the Antilles. By extracting the crushed leaves with 
water, evaporating to a syrupy consistence, adding just enough 
alcohol to precipitate the albuminous matter, filtering this off, 
and distilling off the alcohol from the aqueous filtrate, then 
decolorizing it with animal charcoal and concentrating and 
treating the syrupy liquid with alcohol 95 per cent., a precipi- 
tate of cecropidine was obtained, which when redissolved in 
water and reprecipitated with methyhc alcohol, crystaUized in 
white microscopic lamellee. On concentrating in vacuo the 
mother liquor from which the cecropidine was precipitated, and 
precipitating it with absolute alcohol, a viscous mass of cecropine 
was obtained, which crystalhzed from alcohol 90 per cent, 
in long needles, m.p. 59°C., Isevorotatory, [a]o—5°77 in aqueous 
solution. It has an acid reaction and forms an unstable com- 
pound. It precipitates with alkaloidal reagents and gives off an 
ammonia compound when heated with lime. It also reduces 
alkaline cupric tartrate solution. Cecropidine is neutral to 
litmus and is optically inactive, and has a slight reducing action 
on Fehhng's solution. Like cecropine, it contains nitrogen and 
gives off ainmoniacal vapour when heated with hme. 

The roots of Cecropia contain the same constituents as the 
leaves, also a complex oleoresin composed of a crystalline acid, 
cecropic acid, and an essential oil which has an odour resembling 
that of rum. The leaves of Cecropia are employed in Cuba as 
a remedy for asthma, and the root is considered to be diuretic 
and alterative ; it is also given as a substitute for digitalis. 
Gilbert and Carnot have found that extract of Cecropia has a 
distinct diuretic action and affects the arterial system and the 
heart. One per cent, solution of cecropine administered by 



CHEMISTRY. 59 

hypodermic injection to dogs increased tlie heart beats, but had 
not the same diuretic action as the extract of the leaves. 

Cinnamomum loureirii, Essentia! Oil of ; Oil of Nikkei. 

{ScJiimmeVs Report, Oct., 1904, 96.) The oil, distilled in Japan 
from the leaves and young twigs of Cinnamomum lourdrii, is 
bright yellow and has a pleasant odour of citral and cinnamon. 
The yield is 0-2 per cent. Sp. gr. 0-9005 at 15°C., [a]„-8°45' ; 
acid value, 3-01 ; ester value, 18-6 ; solubility in alcohol 70 per 
cent., 1 : 2 to 1 : 2-5 with opalescence. It contains 27 per cent, 
of aldehydes, chiefly citral, with 40 per cent, of linalol and some 
cineol in the nonaldehydic portion of the oil. No cinnamic 
aldehyde was detected, although Shimoyana has recorded its 
presence in the oil of the root-bark of the tree. 

Citronella, Essential Oil of, OfTicial Testing of, in Ceylon. 

{Ceylon Observer, August 16, 1904, through SchimmeVs 
Report, Oct., 1904, 19.) In order to check the extensive 
adulteration now prevalent with citronella oil, the Government 
of ('eylon intend to supervise the quality of the oil exported. 
Bam];)er's test [see Year-Book, 1904, 62] has been officially 
selected for the purpose. Oils which do not indicate more than 
1 per cent, foreign matter will bear an official red seal and v.'ill 
be classed as " pure " oil. Oils found to be adulterated beyond 
this up to 10 per cent, of admixtvire will bear a green seal and 
be known as "90 per cent, purity " oils. Oils indicating more 
than 10 per cent, of impurity by Bamber's test will not be 
passed for export. The opinion is expressed that, althougli 
Bamber's test may be useful for obtaining qualitative results, it 
is not reliable as a quantitative method. Preference is given for 
the modified Schimmel's test [Year-Book. 1904, 61]. Instances 
are given in which citronella oil of exceptionally fine quality, 
assaying 60 per cent, of " total geraniol," and passing the 
" modified Schimmel " test, was indicated by Bamber's method 
to contain 5 per cent, of impurity. These oils are nevertheless 
considered to be pure. 

Citroptene, the Stearoptene of Essential Oil of Lemon. E. 

Schmidt. {Archiv. der Pharm.. 247, 288.) Citroptene is 
obtained by treating the distillation-residue of lemon oil with 
ether, in which it is but sparingly soluble, and purifying by re- 
crystallization, first from a mixture of acetone and methyl alcohol, 
then from dilute alcohol, decolorizing the solution, if necessary 



60 VEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

with animal charcoal. Tlius obtained, it forms colourless 
brilliant needles, m.p. 146-147°C., subliming at a higher tem- 
perature. Its alcoholic solution has a fine violet fluorescence. 
Schmidt confirms the statements of Tilden and Burrows, with 
whose limettin lemon oil citroptene is identical [ Year-Boohs, 
1892, 71 ; 1902, 106), and of Kostanecki and Ruyter, that 
citroptene is a dimethyloxycoumarin, and has prepared the 
body synthetically. 

Civet, Adulterated. E. J. Parry. (Chem. and Drucjg., 
65, 1G8.) At the present moment (July, 1904) it is liard to find 
much genuine civet on tlie market ; practically all samples 
recently examined are adulterated with vegetable carbohydrate 
matter. The presence of this adulterant is best shown by 
exhausting the civet with light petroleum ether, when a more 
or less translucent jelly-like mass remains undissolved. After 
well washing on a filter-pump with petroleum ether, the residue 
is dried, and will be found to be very largely soluble in water. 
It either does not reduce Fehling's solution, or. if so. only 
slightly, and then no doubt on account of a slight hydrolysis 
that has been brought about by the presence of free acid in the 
civet. On boiling the residue with a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid, and neutralizing, a copious reduction of Fehling's solution 
takes place. The amount may be approximately determined 
by weighing the well-washed residue allowing for the hairy 
debris, etc., and checking by the amount of sugar obtained on 
hydrolysis. Several samples have been met with which con- 
tained petroleum, coconut fat, and the vegetable matter above 
described. The petroleum was separated almost quantitatively 
by exhausting witli acetone, and then extracting the petroleum 
from this solution with petroleum ether. It is obtained as an 
odourless jelly of the ordinary type. The coconut oil was 
suspected by the smell, and confirmed by the steam-distillation 
of characteristic fatty acids after hydrolysis. (3n keeping for a 
few weeks in the hot weather, the peculiar rancidity of coconut 
fat was well developed. 

Cloves, Essential Oil of. Refractive Index of. H. W. S i m- 

m o n s. [Chem. News, 90, 146.) Pure eugenol has a high 
refractive index, [7;]d^°° 1-5412, and the refractive index of pure 
clove oil is directly proportional to its eugenol content, as shown 
by the following figures. With samples whose genuineness 
cannot be guaranteed, however, it is not safe to base an opinion 



CHEMISTRY 



61 



on the refractive index only, as is sliown l)y No. 9 of the accom- 
panying table, which is e^ndently grossly adulterated, judged by 
the high specific gravity compared with its low proportion of 
eugenol, though from its refractive index it might be expected 
to contain about 86 to 88 per cent, of phenols. 



No. 



Specific Giavitv, 
157 15" 



•0(306 
•0509 
•050) 
•0475 
•04 55 
•0560 
•054'.i 
•0507 
•0617 



Rotation. 



-0° 44' 
-0° 53' 
-I°0' 
-0° 23' 
-0° 35' 
-0° 40' 
-0° 54' 
-0° 20' 



Refractive Index. 


Phenols. 


m, 20° 


Per cent. 


153;2 


93 


15318 


88 


1-5304 


86 


15304 


86 


r5297 


So-5 


15340 


92 


15340 


91-5 


1-5336 


87 


r5327 


82 



Cobalt, New Reaction for. E. P o z z i - E s c o t. {Annoles 
de Ckiin. Anahjt., 10, 147.) If to a very dilute solution of a 
cobaltic salt a few drops of alcoholic solution of /3-naphthyl- 
thiohydatoic acid be added, then a drop of ammonia, an intense 
crimson colour is obtained. Nickel, under similar conditions, 
gives a yellow ochre colour or a dirty grey precipitate, which 
may completely mask the cobalt reaction. But the latter may 
be rendered evident in the presence of nickel by employing an 
excess of ammonia, which precipitates the nickel ; the cobalt salt 
is, however, sufficiently soluble to afford the colour reaction. 

Cocaine and Morphine, New Reactions of. C. R e i c h a r d. 
{Pharm. Zeit., 49, 855.) Uranium nitrate gives a yellow pre- 
cipitate with cocaine hydrochloride. On adding a few drops of 
potassium thiocyanide to a 1 per cent, uranium nitrate solution, 
a deep yellow solution is formed. On adding a very dilute 
solution of cocaine hydrochloride to this, a deep yellow precipi- 
tate is formed. Both cocaine and morphine give a red brown 
colour when added to a mixture of potassium feiricyanide and 
uranium nitrate. With a small quantity of a mixture of 
potassium ferricyanide 6-48 Gm. and uranium nitrate 5-04 Gm. 
in the presence of a very little water and solid cocaine hydro- 
cliloride, the reaction is immediate ; in dilute solutions the 
reaction only takes place slowl}'^, and on evaporation with 
morphine an immediate reaction is obtained even with dilute 
solutions. On mixing 2-5 Gm. of CuSO, and 6-6 Gm. of 
KfiFe2Cyi2, the reddish yellow poAvd'^r formed gives a yellowish 



62 YEAR-BOOK OF f'HARMACY. 

IJrecipitate on tlio addition of water, but the presence of a trace 
of morphine converts this at once into the characteristic led 
brown of copper ferrocyanide. No such reaction occurs with 
cocaine. On adding a few crystals of a cocaiiie salt to a few 
drops of copper aninionio-sulphate and allowing the mixture to 
evaporate spontaneously, a green coloiation is obtained. Mor- 
phine salts give no such reaction. But if a copper salt in powder 
be mixed with a morphine salt and the mixture be treated with 
a few di'ops of H2SO4 and warmed, a fine violet colour is de- 
veloped. No reaction occurs in the cold. Both cocaine and 
morphine may be detected by copper ammonio-sulphate reagent. 
The cocaine is first detected by the formation of the green colour 
as described above ; the liquid is then cautiously evaporated to 
dryness, treated with a few drops of H2SO4 and warmed, when 
the characteristic violet colour of morphine becomes evident. 

Cod-Liver Oil. E. H. G a n e. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
52, 357.) Contmued experience has proved the value of the 
nitric acid test described by the author last year [Y ear-Book, 
1904, 200). The use of nitro-sulphuric acid recommended by 
some analysts does not give such good results, the change from 
rose red to lemon j^ellow being less definitely shown. Two drops 
of HNO3 to 15 of oil is now recommended as gi\ing the best 
reaction ; a fuie rose-red colour is given by pure oil, changing 
to lemon yellow in half an hour ; adulterated oil will give a dirty 
brown or blackish mixture. 

It is suggested tliat there should be an official test for free fatty 
acids, since oil containing much of these is less suitable for 
medicinal use, as it causes eructation. This may be determined 
as follows : Weigh off '2b to 50 Gm. of the oil into a small flask, 
and add 100 c.c. of perfectly neutral alcohol ; shake well and 
heat to boiling point (of the alcohol ? ) on the water-bath ; add 
a few drops of phenolphthalin and run in N/i NaOH solution 
until a pink tint is evident. The number of c.c. of alkah u.sed 
X 0-141 will give the amount of free acid hi the oil calculated as 
oleic acid. The best Norwegian and Newfoundland oils are found 
to give less than 1 per cent, of free acid ; of 10 samples examined, 
the lowest contained 0-06 per cent., the highest 4-52 per cent. 

Cod-Liver and other Fish Oils. J. F. L i v e r s e e g e. [Pharm. 
Journ. [4j, 19, 143, after Analyst.) The following tables give 
the results of the examination of a series of cod hver and fish 
and vegetable oils : — 



CHEMISTRY. 



63 



d 

s 
•a 

.3 

■c 
o 


^ 


00 t^ 1 -^ "O 


W 




6 


00 t-- 1 -^ "C 




^ 


qj o o o § CI t- § 1 CO 

odioo-^ocb «o 


c 
3 

o 

1 


w 


to 

^ «?>>"? iS -T^ =? o r ^ 

oor-o-iOQO — fS 


ft 


00 

q>OW>S5^(Nt7-^ 1 i-- 

odsoo-^oob m 




d 


00 

O5i>coog(>it7§q-i 17- 

00500— <oob .^ «c 

t- 1^ 1 —J 10 


a 
2 

1 
o 

12; 


P5 


00 ! 

odsoo-Hoob' CO, 
i> t- 1 ^ i« 




-< 


00 

§00 0g-Ht7-g| 

oo^o-^oob t^ 
00 1- 1 ^ iC 






Specific gravity, 15'5°C. 
Zeiss butyro-refractometer at 25°C. . 
Zeiss butyro-refractometer at 40°C. . 
Rotation (200-millimetre tube) . 

Huebl, iodine per cent 

KHO required per cent, for free acid 

KHO total per cent 

Valent a test (°C.) 

Unsaponifiable matter per cent. . 

Fatty Acids. 
Zeiss butjo-o-refractometer at 40°C. . 




64 YEAR-BOOK OK PHARMACY. 

The " brusmer " and " hoi " oils were obtained from Norway 
for the author by the late J. Barclay. " Brusnier " oil is pro- 
bably derived from Brosmhis broma, one of the Gadidcc. " Hoi " 
might po.ssibly Ix; from the common piked dogfish, which is 
known as " hoe " in the Orkneys. 

Cod-Liver Oil, Kremel's Reaction for. 8 c h a m e 1 h o u t . 

{IjiiU. Six-. Jioj/. (Ic Brux.. througii Repertoire [31, 17, IIG.) 
From ])ul)]isliod records it is evident tliat different woikers 
variously modify the details of manipulation in applying Kremel's 
HNO3 test to cod liver oil. Some place 10 drops of the oil in a 
watch glass standing on white paper and add 3 drops of the 
acid, to the edge of the oil. When pure it is said to assume a 
rose-red tint. Otliers employ 20 drops of oil and 2 drops of 
acid, and agitate, when a rose-red colour passing to reddish 
yellow, then to lemon yellow, is obtained ; with 15 drops of oil 
and 3 drops of acid agitated together, a fire-red, then lemon- 
yellow colour is obtained. Yet another method consists of 
putting 10 or 15 di'ops of the oil in a capsule, then adding 3 to 
5 drops of acid, when the red colour appears at the zone of con- 
tact and spreads through the bulk of the oil, on agitation the 
final tint l)eing lemon yellow. Schamelhout finds that the final 
tint may be brown, and that the whole series of colours may be 
greatly modified by the conditions of the test, the temperature 
and tlie depth of the oily layer. Even wdth the same oil and 
acid different shades of colour are obtained. Not only so, but 
the substance which gives the colour reaction is influenced by 
light, so that oil which has been exposed to sunlight loses its 
properties of giving the rose-red tint. Also oil which answers 
the test may, according to Schneider, contain as much as 20 per 
cent, of fish oil, 15 per cent, of skate liver oil, 30 per cent, of 
vaseline, and 30 per cent, of sesame oil, and yet give a good 
reaction with HNO3. 

Cod Liver Oil, Suggested Official Character and Tests for. 
J. C. U m n e y and C. T. B e n n e 1 1. {Chem. and Druijy., 66, 
129.) After reviewing the published physical and chemical 
" constants " for this oil, the following monograph is suggested 
to replace that at present in the Pharmacopoeia : — 

Oleum Morrhuce Purificatum {Refined Cod Liver Oil). The oil 
extracted from the fresh liver of the cod, Gadus morrhua, Linn., 
by the application of a temperature not exceeding 180°r. (82-3^C.) 



CHEMISTRY. 65 

and from which sohd fat has been separated by filtration at about 
23°F. (-5=C.). 

Characters and Tests. Pale yellow, with a slight fishy but not 
rancid odour and a bland fishy taste. Sp. gr., 0-925 to 0-931. 
No solid fat should separate on exposure of the oil for 2 hours 
to a temperature of 32°F. (0°C.). Readily soluble in ether, 
chloroform, and carbon bisulphide, and slightly soluble in 
alcohol (90 per cent.). Refractive index (at 20°C.) not below 
1-4790. Saponification value, 179 to 198 ; iodine value (18 
liours' absorption), 154 to 170. Free fatty acids (calculated as 
oleic) should not exceed 1-5 per cent. M.p. of fatty acids, 23° to 
26°C. Unsaponifiable matter not exceeding 1-5 per cent. One 
c.c. of the oil dissolved in 10 c.c. of carbon bisulphide should 
give a violet-blue colour with 1 drop of sulphuric acid. 

Cod Liver Oil, Suggested Official Characters and Tests for. 

E. J. P a r r y. {Chem. and Drugg., 66, 491.) Figures for forty 
typical oils are given, representative of a large number of samples. 
From the consideration of the results, the sp. gr. of Umney and 
Bennett (s2i25ra) 0-925 or 0-924 to 0-931 is accepted. For acidity 
Umney's figure of 1-0 per cent, is considered to be quite high 
enough, since many fall below 0-5 per cent., and anything above 
1-0 per cent, usually means a very rancid odour. 

Saponification value is stated to be of little value except 
in cases of gross adulteration. Unsaponifiable matter is con- 
sidered to be of great moment. Mann's figures {SouthaJVs 
Report, 13, 9), 4-12 to 6-21 per cent., are stated to be quite 
erroneous and misleading. This figure should not exceed 1-5 
or 1-6 per cent. ; only oils from putrid livers would show from 
2-4 to 4-6 per cent., with correspondingly high acid values. 
The Iodine value should lie between 155 and 170, and the 
Reichert value not exceed 0-7 for good medicinal oils, although 
pure oils may exceed 1-0. 

Codeine, Determination of, in Opium. C. E. C a s p a r i. 

Apoth. Zeit., 19, 874.) 50 Gm. of opium are extracted with 500 
of water and the extraction method of the U.S. P. process for 
the determination of morphine followed. The aqueous extract 
thus obtained is evaporated to about 250 c.c. on the water-bath. 
To this barium acetate 5 Gm. is added and the liquid diluted to 
700 c.c. The solution is then filtered, the precipitate washed 

F 



66 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

with cold water, the filtrate and washings are again concen- 
trated and treated with another 5 Gm. of barium acetate. The 
filtration, concentration and addition of the barium salt are 
continued as long as any precipitate is formed on dilution. The 
liquid is again concentrated and a slight excess of NaOH solution, 
10 per cent., added. This precipitates thebaine, papaverine and 
narcotine, which are filtered out and washed. The filtrate and 
washing are acidified with dilute HCl and again concentrated. 
The cold liquid is then treated with excess of AmOH solution 
12 per cent., which precipitates most of the morphine. This is 
removed by filtration and washed ; the process of acidifying, 
concentrating and precipitating with AmOH being repeated. 
After again acidifying, the liquid is concentrated to 75 c.c. and 
shaken out with successive portions of benzol, which removes 
codeine but not narcotine ; after evaporating off the solvent, 
the coloured amorphous residue is treated with a knowTi volume 
of N/10H0SO4 in excess ; and this excess titrated back with 
N/ioNaOH, cochineal being used as indicated. By this method 
1-12 and 1-33 per cent, of codeine has been found in two samples 
of opium. (See also Y ear-Book, 1903, 122.) 

Colcothars, Analysis of. H. C o r m i b oe u f. {Annales de 
Chim. Annlyt., 10, 95.) Different varieties of colcothar, forms 
of iron sesquioxide, are liable to adulteration. Many sample:^, 
especially those which have been prepared at a high tempera- 
ture, are with difficulty soluble in HCl. The following method 
is recommended for their examination. 0-5 Gm. of the sample 
is heated in a beaker with excess of HCl, and a few crystals of 
KI are added ; the iron is rapidly dissolved, forming a solution 
of FcoClfl with a little FeCL ; the liquid is diluted with water 
and oxidized with bromine or HXO3. The cooled liquid is then 
filtered [through a tared filter], the collected insoluble matter 
washed, dried and weighed. The iron in the bulked filtrate and 
wasliings is precipitated with ammonia, collected, ignited and 
weighed as FcoOs in the usual manner. In the filtrate, lime is 
then determined as oxalate, after the removal of which, and 
acidifying with HCl, the sulphuric acid present is precipitated 
and weighed as BaS04. Any carbonate present may be de- 
tected by the effervescence it occasions with acid. In addition 
to the above impurities, the loss on heating a portion of the 
sample should be determined, due to possible presence of HaO 
and CO3. 



CHEMISTRY. 67 

Conine and Nicotine, Distinctive Reactions of. C. R e i- 
chard. {Pharm. Gentralh., 46, 252.) A few drops of palla- 
dium chloride solution are spread out over the surface of a 
porcelain capsule and allowed to dry spontaneously. On adding 
a trace of nicotine or conine to the brown spot thus produced, 
no change is observed ; but if the further addition of a trace of 
hydrochloric acid be made, in the presence of conine, a white tur- 
bidity at once appears and a crystalline mass is speedily formed. 
A pale green colour appears on the edges of the spot, which 
persists for some hours. The whole spot becomes lighter. If 
allowed to stand in a damp atmosphere, the green edge becomes 
yellowish aiid the crystals of palladium chloride reappear. 
N^icotine gives no such turbidity on first adding it to the palla- 
dium chloride solution ; and no formation of a crystalline mass 
takes place. On standing in a moist atmosphere a pale green 
liquid is formed, which forms a marked contrast to the 
colour of the rest of the palladium residue. If the bases 
or their anhydrous salts be added to a few particles of 
finely powdered anhydrous copper sulphate, the whole mass is 
coloured deep blue by conine, while with nicotine the whitish 
powder remains unaltered. If the salts of the alkaloids contain 
water, the colour takes longer to develop with conine. The 
tint given by conine resembles that of ammoniocupric sulpliate, 
and the base is entirely absorbed, forming a dark blue crystalline 
mass. With nicotine, the copper sulphate powder shows no 
change, even after standing for 24 hours. 

Conium maculatum, Essential Oil of. {HaenseVs Report, July, 
1904, through Apoth. Zeit., 19, 558.) Essential Oil of Conium 
Herb.— The herb, without flowers, yielded 00765 to 0-0783 per 
cent, of dark brown, unpleasant smelling oil, with an acid re- 
action ; sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-9502 ; acid value about 60 ; saponifi- 
cation value about 70. It deposits a solid stearoptene at low 
temperatures. When rectified with steam, only about 25 per 
cent, distils ; the blackisli residue solidifies on cooling. The 
rectified oil is brownish, acid in reaction, and has nearly the 
same odour as the crude product. Its sp. gr. at 20°C. is 0-9310 ; 
it dissolves readily in alcohol (90 per cent.), and in about 70 parts 
of alcohol (80 per cent.). It contains free palmitic acid. 

Essential Oil of Conium Fruits. The fruits only yield 0-0179 
per cent, of blackish-brown evil-smelling oil of neutral reaction. 
Sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-8949 ; saponification value, 34. On rectifying 



68 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

with steam 51 per cent, distils over as a greenish-yellow oil ; 
sp. gr. at lo'C, 0-8313 ; [a]„-216°. 

Copaiba Balsam, Surinam. L. van Itallie. {Journ. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 337.) Seven authentic specimens of 
Surinam copaiba " balsam " varied in colour from pale yellow 
to yellowish Ijrown ; one had a greenish tinge ; two had no 
fluorescence, the rest showed this character in a sliglit degree. 
In consistence they varied from syrupy to liquid. The sp. gr. 
ranged from 0-9535 to 0-9611 ; acid value, from 14-65 to 5919; 
saponification value, from 25-2 to 75-8 ; percentage of essential 
oil, from 41 to 71-6 per cent. The " balsams " evidently be- 
longed to two types, one thick, tlie other verj' fluid. 

Surinam copaiba is distinguished from Para and Maracaibo 
" balsam " by its relative insolubility in alcohol 90 per cent. A 
characteristic blue colour reaction is obtained on adding a small 
drop of H2SO4 to a solution of one drop of the copaiba in 1 c.c. 
of anhydrous acetic acid. 

The essential oil was found to contain a sesquiterpene alcohol, 
which crystallized in the condenser towards the end of the 
distillation of the oleoresin with steam. This had the m.p. 
1 13-5-1 15'C. and the formula C,5H250H. It begins to sublime 
at 80°, and is optically inactive. This body is evidently closety 
related to the metacopaivic acid of Keto and the metacholestol 
of Mach, Tschirch and Weil. It is only partially acetj^ized 
when heated in pyridine solution with acetic anhydride. The 
liquid portion of the oil was found to contain a little cadinene 
and at least two sesquiterpenes. 

Copaiba Balsams. {SchimmeVs Bejxyrt, May, 1905, 24.) 
Twenty-four authentic specimens of Para, Bahia and Angostura 
copaiba were found to have the following characters : — 

Para Balsam. Sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-9692 ; [aj^ -41° 20' ; [7;],^ 
1-51425 ; acid value, 60-75 ; saponification number, 64-72. 

Bahia Balsam. Sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-9603; [n]D -f0°18'; [7;]^ 
1-50693 ; acid number, 57-9 ; saponification number. 67-4. 

Angostura Balsam. Sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-9882 ; [a]^, + 26 ° 15' ; 
[t;],, 1-51603; acid number, 86-54 ; saponification number, 96-41. 
The above saponification values were obtained by the Dieterich 
(cold) titration method. With hot saponification as official in 
the Ph. G. IV. test, slightly lower figures were obtained. 



CHEMISTRY. 69 

Essential Oils. The Para Balsam yielded 62-5 per cent of oil ; 
sp. gr. 0-918 ; [«J„ —78° 48'. Bakia BalsamgSive 61-9 percent, of 
oil; sp. gr. 0-8982; [o]^ — 9°37'. Afigostura Balsam yielded 
52-3 per cent, of faintly greenish oil ; sp. gr. 0-9161 ; [«]i,— 
2°20'. 



Copper Sulphate for the Purification of Water Supplies. 

G. T. Moore. {A7ncr. Journ. Pharm., 76, 553, 579.) Copper 
sulphate in the pro^^ortion of 1 : 5,000,000 or even 1 : S, 500,000 
has been found practically efficient on the large scale for destroy- 
ing algae and confervoid growth, which frequently impart a 
disgusting taste and odour to the water in reservoirs during the hot 
weather of summer. In the United States the frequency of 
this growth has proved a serious matter in the case of many 
public water supplies. The algae appear suddenly, develop with 
great rapidity, and impart to the water so marked a taste and 
odour that it becomes unfit for use. The bluish-green forms are 
stated to be specially troublesome in this respect, since they 
secrete what is considered to be a volatile oil, a very minute 
trace of which is sufficient to taint an immense volume of water. 
Instances are given in which reservoirs of water rendered un- 
drinkable by the presence of these algse were completely cleared 
in four clays by treatment with copper sulphate in the proportion 
indicated, and the water was rendered pure and drinkable. Not 
only does the treatment destroy the algse and prevent their 
reajDpearance, but it also greatly lessens the number of other 
micro-organisms in the water. It is claimed that, in this jno- 
portion, copper sulphate is absolutely harmless to the consumers 
of the water, an opinion which is supported by prominent 
therapeutists. 

[This method has proved most serviceable in destroying an 
abundant and troublesome confervoid growth which forms 
during hot weather in the large water reservoirs of a chemical 
factory in London. Its efficacy in this direction renders it 
worthy of adoption for the removal of vegetable growths in such 
situations, especially where the water is merely used solely for 
condensers or coolers. — Editor, Year-Book.~\ 

Corydalis cava and C. solida Herb, New Alkaloids from. J. 
G a d a m e r and 0. H a a r s. [Archiv der Pharm., 243, 154.) 
In addition to the bases of the corydaline group and bulbo- 



70 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

capuine, previously found in the roots or riiizonies of Corydalis, 
the aerial portions of the herb are found to contain two new 
bases. One, C.-iH^iNOg, forms small white crystals, m.p. 230°C. ; 
it is lavorotatory [a] •^' — 112-8 ^ whereas all the other corydalis 
alkaloids hitherto isolated have been dextrorotatory. The other 
new base, C21H23NO7, was isolated from the mother hquors of 
the preceding base; it has the [a],-« +115-5°. The authors 
could not detect protopine m the aerial portions of Corydalis cava. 



Cream of Tartar, Adulterated. E. J. M i 1 1 a r d . {Chcm. 
arid Drugg., 65, 399.) The sample of cream of tartar examined 
was not perfectly soluble in water even when heated, and was 
found to contain a considerable proportion of maize starch, 
readily recognizable by the usual tests. One Gm. requu-ed 
only 4-1 c.c. of the volumetric solution of caustic soda for 
neutralization, and a corresponding reduction occurred in the 
quantity of acid required to neutralize the soluble ash. A 
minute quantity with a drop of iodine water on a glass slide 
showed the starch grains very distinctly under the micro- 
scope. 

Cupric Sulphate, Detection of Ferrous Sulphate in. — C r o u - 

z e 1. {Aimales de Chim. Analyt., 9, 422.) On mixing equal 
volumes of 10 per cent, solutions of the cupric sulphate to be 
tested, and of sodium thiosulphata, if the copper salt be pure, 
a bright green precipitate slightly tinted with yellow is obtamed, 
in 24 hours this will have become bright yellow, and the sides of 
the tub3 will be dotted with crystals of cupric-sodium hyposulphite 
or Lenz's salt. If iron be present as an impurity, the precipitate 
wiU be partly ochre yellow. By adding the thiosulphate in 
excess to the copper solution, so that the precipitate is redissolved 
and a colourless liquid obtained, and then adding KiFeCye 
solution, an immediate pale blue precipitate results in the 
presence of iron, while if zinc be present a white flocculent 
precipitate is formed. 



Cypress, Essential Oil of. Constituents of. {SchimmeV s Ee- 
port, October, 1904, 22.) German distilled cypress oil is found to 
contain furfural, dextropinene ; dextro-camphene ; dextro- 
sylvestrene ; cymene ; a ketone ; possibly sabinol ; a terpene 



CHEMISTRY. 71 

alcohol (0 dextroterpineol ; an ester, probably an acetate; 
valerianic acid ; laevocadinene ; a sesquiterpene alcohol, cypress 
camphor, and a body with an odour resembling ladanum. The 
original oil had the sp. gr. 0-8916 at 15°C. ; [a]y + 16° 27' ; acid 
value, 1-88 ; ester value, 19-53 ; acetyl value, 48-48 ; solubility 
in alcohol 90 per cent., 1 : 2-5. A French distilled oil was found 
to have the sp.gr. 0-8680 at 15-5°C. ; [a]„ +26° 13' ; ester value, 
5-31 ; acetyl value, 10-25 ; solubility in alcohol 90 per cent., 
1 : 5-5 and more. The value of the oil as a remedy for whooping 
cough is confirmed. (See also Y ear-Book, 1904, 76, 201.) 

Diphenylcarbacide as a Reagent for Molybdenum. E. L e- 

c o c q. {Bidl. Assoc. Beige de Chim., through Merck's Report, 
18, 59.) By the addition of 1 or 2 drops of an alcoholic solution 
of diphenylcarbacide to a solution of ammonium molybdate 
acidified with HCl a fine indigo violet colour reaction is produced, 
and, with more of the reagent, a precipitate of the same colour. 
By this means the presence of 0-00007 per ceut. of ammonium 
molybdate is said to be detectable. 

The reaction is not obtained with aqueous solution of diphenyl 
carbacide, nor does it occur with a benzol solution, but the 
latter reacts with copper. Tungsten, titanium and vanadium 
give no colour reaction. 

Elder Flowers, Stearoptene of the Essential Oil of. {HaenseVs 
Report, April, 1905, 7.) The odourless stearoptene of elder- 
flower oil, which is sparingly soluble in absolute alcohol, consists 
of a mixture of palmitic acid and hydrocarbons ; the latter 
consist chiefly of tricosan, C23H48. 

Elemis, Summary of the Investigation of. A. T s c h i r c h 

and 0. S a a 1. {Archiv der Pharm., 242, 066.) The authors 
thus summarize in tabular form the constituents isolated in the 
investigation of the various elemis : — 



C CO 
to I 

^i 

Mo 

go 



© <B I S 













^,o 


;^° 


^? 


•V? 




So 


go 


« U3 




© lO 


S"* 


S"* 


an 






U 






e 1 

9g 


?- M 


"a! 






^o 


i:0 






i:l4 









d 






I 



>-.q 






-a o^" -a b^ 



S-.P "O 



o I 

s -? 

£ O 

1 ° 

40 



Ti 


0"^ 















C} 








m 








ho 











u 


K 


t ; 






u 


-a 


•vP 





00 



"o O 
•o S 



0--0 



¥ I 



so 



Sq 

00 



sq 

-2 ^ 
S S 



Is 

6 g 






to 



So 



i I 



_o O 



c3 ff-l 






oq 
s s 



??q 



^o 





•c-^' 


.5 m 


■:^^ 


c-^' 


.s« 


.g 


S (M 


Cm 


Cec 






















'Z^ 






>.o 
g"^ 





>. 


>i 


-•S 




>.o 


■5 




(SO 

la 





^q 

«= 






iq 

"o S 
ow 


50 





























































•^ 






'S 


g 




















(D 


S 

a 


5 
^£ 

a 

5 


g 

d J 
s 


c 


3 


5'= 
- 
._ & 




s 

? 

5 


C 








f^ 


>^ 




^ 





O 


c 







CHEMISTRY. 



73 



Of the acids, a-manelemisic acid and tacelemisic acid have 
the formula CavHcoOi and the m.p. 215°C. Caricleminic acid, 
coleleminic acid, and careleniinic acid have the same m.p. 215°C. 
as this, but the formula C39H5GO4. 

The following all have the formula C37H^i>04 and the m.p. 
l20-122°C. : a-iso-colelemic, /3-iso-colelemisic, a-iso-tacelemisic, 
y8-iso-tacelemisic, carelemisic and carielemisic acids. 

Afelemisic acid stainds alone with the formula C44H90O4 and 
the m.p. 97-98°C. 

The following melt at about 75°C. : /?-manelemic acid, 
C44H80O4 ; also isocarieleminic and isoearelemic acids, with the 
common formula C3c,H5604. 

Eucalyptus, Essential Oil of, adulterated with Castor Oil. C. 

T. Bennett. {Cliem. and Drwjg., 66, 33.) Specimens of 
oil, which answered the official characters and tests, were sus- 
pected on account of their high sp. gr., 0-917 to 0-919, and 
low cineol content, 38 to 45 per cent. When submitted to 
fractional distillation under reduced pressure, an oily residue 
was obtained which was identified as castor oil. One sample 
of the oil contained nearly 20 per cent., others from 12 to 15 
per cent. 

Eucalyptus, Oils of [Constituents of Essential Oils of Various 
Species]. R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith. {SchimmeVs Iteport, 
Oct., 1904, 31-37. ) The authors have summarized in tabular form 
the results of their investigation of the essential oils of various 
species of Eucalyptus : — 



Botanical 
Name. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Geograplural 
Origin. 


Average 

percentage 

of Oil. 


Principal Chemical 
Constituents. 


E. tessellaris 
F. V. M. 


Moreton Bay, 
Ash 


Narrabri, 

N.S.W. 


0-151 


Pinene, 
pene. 


sesquiter- 


E. trachyphloia 
F. V. M. 


Bloodwood 


Murrumbo 
N.S.W. 


0-199 


Pinene, 
pene. 


sesquiter- 


E. exirnia 
R. T. B. 


White Blood- 
wood 


Sprmgwood 
N.S.W. 


0-462 


Pinene. 




E. hotryoides 
Sm. 


Bastard Ma- 
hogany 


Milton, 

■ N.S.W. 


0-086 


d-Pinone. 




E. rohusta Sm. 


Swamp Ma- 
hogany 


La Perouse, 
N.S.W. 


0-161 


Pinene. 





74 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Botanical 
Name. 



Vernacular Geographical I^Jt^^t^m. Principal Chemical 

Name. Origin. ^^JS vlri Constitiipnts. 



E. aaligna Sm. Blue Gum 

E.nova-anglica BlackPepper- 

D. & M. mint 

E. umbra A Stringy- 

R. T. B. bark 

E .dextropinea Stringybark 
R. T. B. 1 



E. wilkinsoni- Small Leaved 
ana R. T. B. Stringybark 

E. laevopinea I Silver Top 
R. T. B. Stringybark. 

E. Bduerleni 
F. V. M. 



E. propinqua 
D. &M. 

E. affinis 
D. & M. 

E. paludosa 
R. T. B. 



E. lactea 
R. T. B. 

E. intertexta 
R. T. B. 

E. maculata 
Hook 

E.quadrangu- 
lata D. & M. 

E. conica 
D. & M. 

E. bosistoana 
F. V. M. 

E.eugenioides 
Sieb 

E. resinifera 
Sm. 

E .polyanthemd Red Box 
Sieb 

E. hehriuna Mallee Gum 
F. V. M. 



Brown Gum 
Grey Gum 
Black Box 
Swamp Gum 

Spotted Gum 

Gum or Red 
Gum 

Spotted Gum 

Grey Box 

Box 

Box 

White 

Stringybark 

Mahogany 



Origin 

Gosford, 
N.S.VV. 

Walcha, 
N.S.W. 

Lismore, 
N.S.W. 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Rylstone, 
N.S.W. 

Monga, 
N.S.W. 

Woodbum, 
N.S.W. 

Grenfell, 
N.S.W. 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N. S.W. 

Ilford, 
N.S.W. 

Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 

Currawang 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Milton, 
N.S.W. 

Parkes, 
N.S.W. 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Canterbiu'y, 
N.S.W. 

Gosford, 
N.S.W. 

Pambula, I 
N.S.W. 

Wyalon.', 
N.S.W. 



of Oil. 
0-241 
0-51 
0-1615 
0-798 

101 



0-684 
0-587 
0-968 

0-742 
0-302 
0-825 
0-614 



Pinene. 

Terpenes. 

Pinene, al.so an acetic 
acid ester. 

d-Pinene. 
1-Pinene. 
1-Pinene. 



Terpenes, cineol, 
chiefly the former. 



Terpenes. 

Pmene, cineol. 

Pinene, cineol, 
chiefly the former. 

Pinene, cineol. 

Pinene, cineol. 

Pinene, cineol, 
cliiefly the former. 

Terpenes, cineol. 



Pinene, cineol. 



CHEMISTRY. 



16 



Botanical 

Xanie. 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Geographical ' 
Origin. ' 


Average | 

jercentage 

of Oil. 


Prinoipal Chemical 
Const itueuts. 


E.rossi R.T.B. 
and H. G. S. 


White or 
Brittle Gum 


Bathurst, 
N.S.W. 


0-65 


Pinene, eineol, also 
piperitone.i 


E. pendula 
A. Cunn. 


Red Box 


Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 


0-67 


Pinene, cineol,chiefly 
the latter. 


E. dealbata 
A. Cunn. 


Cabbage or 
MountainGum 


Condobolin, 

N.S.W. 


0-856 


Pinene, eineol, chiefly 
the latter. 


E.rostrata Sohl. 
var. borealis 
R. T. B. and 
H. G. S. 


River Red 

Gum 


Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 


1-OGI 


Pinene, eineol. 


E. maculosa 
R. T. B. 


Spotted Gum 


Bungen- 
dore, 

N.S.W. 


0-846 


Pinene, eineol. 


E. camphora 
R. T. B. 


Sallow 


Delegate, 
N.S.W. 


0-836 


Cineol. 


E. punctata 
D. C. 


Grey Gum 


Canterbiu-y, 
N.S.W. 


0-781 


Pinene, cineol. 


E. squamosa, 
D. & M. 


Ironwood 


National 
Park, 
N.S.W. 


O-GiS 




E.bridgesiana 
R. T. B. 


Apple or 
Woollybutt. 


Ilford, 
N.S.W. 


0-619 


■ Cineol. 


E. goniocalyx 
F. V. M. 


Mountain 
Gum 


Monga, 
N.S.W. 


0-881 




^. bicolur 
A. Cunn. 


Bastard Box 


St. Mary's, 
N.S.W. 


0-52 

i 




E. viminalis, 
var. (a) 


— 


Crook well, 
N.S.W. 


0-701 1 


Pinene, cineol, ben- 
zaldehyde?) 


E. populifolia 
F. V. M. 


Poplar Leaved 
Box 


Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 


0-758 


\ 


E. longifolia 
Fink ■ 


Woollybutt 


Canterbui-y, 
N.S.W. 


0-535 




£. niaideni 
F. V. M. 


Blue Gum 


Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 


1-304 


, Cineol. 


Z?. globulus 


Blue Gum 


Jenolan, 
N.S.W. 


0-745 




E. pulverulentu 
Sims 


-■ 


Bathurst, 
N.S.W. 


2-22 




E. cinerea 
F. V. M. 


Argyle Apple 


Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 


1-20 


Cineol, some valeric 
ester. 


E. cordata 
Labill 


— 


Tasmania 


2-32 


Cineol. 



1 With the name " piperitone ' Baker and Smith designate a con- 
stituent with a peppermint-like odour, which is present in various 
eucalyptus oils. 



76 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Botanical 
Name 


Vernacular 
Name. 


Geographical 
Origin. 


Average 

percentage 

of oil. 


Principal Chemical 
Constituents. 


E. morriaii 
R. T. B. 

A', smithii 
R. T. B. 

E. sideroxylon 
A. Cunn. 


Grey Mallee 

Giillv Ash or 
White Top 

Red Flower- 
ing Iron 
Bark 


Gerilam- 
bonet, 
N.S.W. 

JMonga, 
N.S.W. 

Liverpool, 
N.S.W. 


1-60 

1-434 
0-537 


" Cineol. 
Pinene, cineol. 


E. cambagei 
D. & M. 


Bastard Box 
or Bundy 


Bathurst, 
N.S.W. 


0-735 


Cineol, some aroma- 
dendral. 


E. polyhractea 
R. T. B. 


Blue Mallee 


Wyalong, 
N.S.W. 


0-135 


Pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendral. 


E. dumosa 
A. Ciinn. 


Wliite Mallee 


Coolabah, 
N.S.W. 


I-OO 


Terpenes, ciiieol, 
aromadendral. 


E. oloesa 
F. V. M. 


Red or Water 
Mallee 


Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 


0-97 


Pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendral. 


E. cneorifolia 
D. C. 


— 


Kangaroo 
Island 


— 


Pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendrol. 


E. stricta 
Sieb. 


Mountain 
Mallee 


Blue 
Moimtains 
N.S.W. 


0-494 


Cineol. 


E. meUiodora 
A. Cunn. 


Yellow Box 


Rylston, 
N.S.W. 


0-676 


Pinene, cineol, fre- 
quently phellan- 
drene. 


E. ovalifolia 
var. lanceo- 
lata R. T. B. 


Red Box 


Camboon, 
N.S.W. 


0-579 


Pinene, cineol, phel- 
landreue. 


E. risdoni 
Hook f. 


Risdon or 
Drooping 
Gum 


Tasmania 


1-348 


Cineol, phellandrene, 
piperitone. 


E. punctata 
D. C. var. 
didyina 
R. T. B. & 
H. G. S. 




Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 


0-428 


Pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendral. 


E. gracilis 
F. V. M. 


A Mallee 


Gunbar, 
N.S.W. 


1-06 


Terpenes, a small qty. 
aromadendral. 


E. viridis 
R. T. B. 


Green Mallee 


Gerilam- 
bone and 
Nyngan, 
N.S.W. 


0-449 


' Aromadendral. 


E. albens, Mig. 


White Box 


Rylston, 
N.S.W. 


0-101 




E. hemiphloia 
F. V. M. 


Box 


Behnore, 
N.S.W. 


0-554 


Pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendral. 


E. viminalis 
Labill 


Manna Gum 


Cadia, 
N.S.W. 


0-354 


Phellandrene, cineol . 



CHEMISTRY. 



77 



Botanical 
Name. 



Vernacular 
Name. 



Geograpliical 
Origin. 



Average 
percentage 
of Oil. i 



E. rostrata 
Sch. 



E. oraUfolia 
R. T. B. 

E. daivsoni 
R. T. B. 

E. nngophoroi- 
des "R. T. B. 

E. fastigata 
D. & M. 

E. 7nacrorhyn- 
cha F. V. M. 

E. capitellata 
Sm. 

E. nigra 
R. T. B. 

E. pilularis 
Sm. 



E. acmenoides 
Sch. 

E. fraxinoides 
H. D. & 
J. H. M. 

E. fletcheri 
R. T. B. 

E. microtheca 
F. V. M. 

E. hcemastoma 
Sm. 

E. crebra 
F. V. M. 



E. piperita 
Sm. 



Murray Red 
Gum 



Slaty Gum 

Apple Topped 
Box 

Cut Tail 



Red Stringy- 
bark 

Brown 

Stringj^bark 

Black 
Stringybark 

Blaekbutt 



AVhite Maho- 
gany 

White Ash 



Lignum Vitae 
or Box 

Coolybah or 
Tangoon 

White or 
Scribbly 
Gum 

Narrow 
Leaved Tron- 
bark 

The Sydnej^ 
Peppermint 



E. amygdalina JMessmate 
Labill. 



E. vitrea 
R. T. B. 

E. luehman- 
niana F. v. M. 



White Top 
Messmate 



Alvurv, 
N.S.W 



Rylstone, 
X.S.W. 

Bvlong, 
X.S.W. 

TowTang, 
N.S.W. 

Monga, 
N.S.W. 

Rvlstone, 
N.S.W. 

Canterbury, 
N.S.W. ■ 

Woodburn, 
N.S.W. 

Belmore, 
I N.S.W. 

1 
Lismore, 
N.S.W. 

^Monga, 
I N.S.W. 

j Thirlmere, 
N.S.W. 

Narrabri, 
N.S.W 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Rylstone, 
N.S.W. 

Gosford, 
N.S.W. 

! 

Moss Vale, 
j N.S.W. 

Crook well, 
N.S.W. 

National 
Park, 
N.S.W. 



Principal Chemical 
Constituents. 



2'H) 

0-210 

0-172 

0-185 

0-203 

0-272 

0-103 

0-0295 

0-13 

0-358 
0-985 

0-352 
0-150 
0-241 

0159 

0-627 

3393 

1-48 

0-289 



Cliiefly terpenes; also 
cineol and aroma- 
dendral, sometimas 
phellandrene. 

Pinene, cineol, phel- 
landrene. 

Phellandrene, sesqui- 
terpene. 

Terpenes, among 
which phellandrene. 

Pinene, phellandrene 
eudesmol. 

Terpenes, cineol, 

eudesmol. 

Terpenes, small quan- 
tities of cineol. 

Phellandrene. 

Terpenes, also an as 
yet unknown alco- 
hol. 

Terpenes, among 
which phellandrene. 



\ Terepenes, chiefly 
phellandrene. 



Phellandrene, sesqui- 
terpene. 

Pinene, phellandrene 
cineol. 

Pinene, phellandrene, 
cineol, eudesmol 
and piperitone. 

Phellandrene, cineol 
and piperitone. 

Phellandrene, cineol. 
"Phellandrene. 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



Botanical 
Name. 



E. coriacea 
A. Cunn. 

E. sieberiana 
F. V. M. 

E. oreades 
R. T. B. 

E. dives Sch. 



E. radiata 
Sieh. 

E. delegatensis 
R. T. B. 



Vernacular 
Name. 



Geographical 
Origin. 



Average ! 

percentage! 

ofOU. 



Principal Chemical 
C!onstituents. 



E. ohliqua 
L'Her. 

E. stellitlata 
Sieb. 

E. rtiacarthuri 
H. D. and 
J. H. M. 

E. virgnta 
Sieb. 

E.patentinervis 
R. T. B. 

E. apiculata 
R. T. B. and 
H. G. S. 

E. citriodora 
Hook. 



Cabbage Gum 
Mountain Ash 



I 
A Mountain 

Ash 

Broad Leaved j 
Peppermint 

White Top 
Peppermint 

White Ash, 
Silver Top 
Mountain, 

Ash 

Stringvbark 



Ilford, 
N.S.W. 

Barber's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Lawson, 
N.S.W. 

Pagan's 
Creek, 
N.S.W. 

Monga, 
N.S.W. 

Delegate, 
Mountain 
N.S.W. 

Monga, 
N.S.W. 

Rylstone, 
I N.S.W. 

Paddy River Wingello, 
Box N.S.W. 



0-4.'52 Phellandrene, piperi- 
tone. 



Lead Gum 



Mahogany 



Citron 
Scented 
Gum 



Springwood, 
N.S.W. 

Belmore, 
N.S.W. 

Berrima, 
N.S.W. 

Sydney 
N.S.\V. 



0-421 


lie, 


2-233 


1-641 
l-7<i 


0-677 P 



Phellandrene, 
piperitone. 



quantity aromaden- 
dral. 

0-293 Phellandrene. 
0-112 Geranjl acetate. 

0-283 Eudesmol. 

0-254 Terpenes, citral and 
an as yet unknown 
alcohol. 

0-296 Terpenes, piperitone. 
0-586 Citronellal. 



Eucalyptus occidentalis Bark (Mallet Bark). E. M. H o 1 m e s. 

[Pharm. Journ. [4J. 20, 141.) Specimens of this bark and of the 
powdered form in whicli it is prepared for commercial use have 
recently been presented to the Museum of the Pharmaceutical 
Society by P. Appleyard, of Albany, W. Australia. During 
the last few years this bark has attracted considerable attention 
as a tannins mater'al. which it is believed will rival " mimosa " 
bark in utility, whilst it may be produced at a cheaper rate. 



CHEMISTRY. 79 

There seems to have been some ignorance concerning its botanical 
source, since in Der Gerber, xxx. 349 it is referred to the Jasmi- 
num samhac, N.O. Oleacese, an error which has probably arisen 
from the assumption that the Australian name is a corruption 
of the name given to that climber in the Straits Settlements, viz., 
" Malati " or " Melati," and from an imperfect acquaintance 
with the microscopical characteis of the barks of different natu- 
ral orders of plants. Appleyard has set any doubts at rest, 
since he has sent dried flowering specimens of the jDlant from 
which the bark is derived, for the Herbarium of the Society. 
These certainly belong, as he points out, to the Eucalyptus occi- 
dentaUs, Endl., the local or vernacular name of which, in Albany, 
is the mallet tree. 

The bark has hitherto been chiefly exported from Fremantle, 
W. Australia, and previously to the present year to the extent of 
about 500 to 600 tons per annum. During the present year, 
according to Der Gerber, the export has reached 4,000 to 5,000 
tons. Appleyard states that during the present year about 
50,000 tons have been collected and dried. The bark is 
in quilled pieces several inches long, dark greyish-brown exter- 
nally, but of a pale buff brown tint where bi'oken. The fracture 
is very short, slightly laminated, and the taste astringent. The 
thin grey periderm easily scales off. The periderm is in many 
pieces abundantly covered with small circular depressed warts 
mostly perforated in tlie centre, which appear to have been 
formed by some insect. The bark, judging from its thickness, 
which is on the average about 5 to 6 mm., is probably derived 
from comparatively young trunks. From some specimens of 
mallet bark received from H. R. Procter, of Leeds, it is 
evident that some of the bark hitherto imported under this 
name has been derived from other species of Eucalyptus, his 
specimen being much more fibrous in character, of a darker 
])rown colour, and not having a defoliating periderm. A West 
Australian bark, named morrelbark, containing, according to 
Procter's analysis, 44 per cent, of tanning matter, approaches 
sufficiently near in character to the mallet bark to indicate 
that it belongs to a nearly allied species of Eucalyptus. 

The analyses of the bark given in Der Gerber indicate the 
following percentages of tannin available for leather manufacture, 
viz. young bark, 35 per cent. ; medium bark, 40 to 50 per cent. ; 
old bark, 39 to 70 per cent. ; giving an average of about 38 
per cent. Appleyard, however, gives 30 per cent, only as the 



80 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

average of the bark sent by him. A specimen of the powdered 
bark sent by him and anatysed by H. R. Procter gave tanning 
matter absorbed by hide, 54-5 per cent. ; soluble nontanning 
matter, 80 ; matter insoluble in water at 15°C., 25-3 per cent., 
and 11-6 per cent, water. The tintometer colour measurement 
of solution containing 0-5 per cent, of tanning matter in 1 cm. 
cell is given as red 30, yellow 8-6. Procter adds that tliere 
is no question that "it is one of the strongest natural tamiing 
materials we liave had through our hands." 

The tanning matter when extracted has a cinnamon-brown 
colour. It is said to act quickly and easily, and to tan fully. 
But there appears to be some doubt as to the best method of 
using it, since one Australian tanner states that it requires to be 
used like valonia in conjunction with other tanning materials, 
for if used alone it makes a hard thin leather that becomes very 
brittle. The fact, however, that the demand for the bark has in- 
creased so rapidly since its introduction indicates that if used in 
proper propartions and under suitable conditions it is a valuabla 
tanning material. As the bark is easily powdered and the powder 
easily exhausted of its tannin by cold water and the leather pro- 
duced by it is of a pale colour, it evidently possesses considerable 
advantages, and if it can be produced at a cheaper rate than 
mimosa bark, may become a strong competitor of that widely- 
used tanning material. 

Eucalyptus polybractea, Essential Oil of. J. C. U m n e y and 

C. T. B e n n e 1 1. {Phann. Journ. [4], 20, 143.) An authentic 
specimen of the oil from New South Wales had the following 
characters. Sp. gr. 0-929 ; Cineol percentage as determined by 
Scammell's process, 79 to 80; [a] +0. The oil was absolutely 
free from any irritating odour, due to the absence of aldehydes, 
and is very rich in cineol. 

As a rule, with oils of very high eucalyptol value there is an 
association of cuminic aldehyde, but in this particular case there 
is practically none present, as indicated by odour and behaviour 
of the oil with sodium acid sulphite, although a shght reaction for 
an aldehyde was obtained with Schiff's reagent. Judged by 
its cineol content, the oil of this species appears to be of very 
highest medicinal value — not even second to the oil of 
Eucalyptus globulus. 

Fagara octandra, Essential Oil of. [SchimmeVs Report, May, 
1905, 82.) The oil from the wood of this Mexican tree is bright 



CHEMISTRY. 81 

yellow in colour and has the odour of linalol. Sp. gr. at 15°C., 
0-922 [a] + 2° 30' ; ester value, 6-09 ; solubility in alcohol, 
90 per cent., 2 : 1 cloudy on adding more solvent. 

Ferric Chloride Solution, Volumetric Titration of.— M o i e a u 
(Bidl. 8oc. Pharm., through Annales de Chim. Anahjt., 9, 264.) 
The method is based on the equation — 

Fe.'Cle + 2NaoSo03 = NaoS406 + 2NaCl + 2FeCl2, 

and the fact that only ferric salts give a violet colour with salicy- 
lates. The above reaction does not occur on simple admixture 
except on boiling, but in the presence of a few drops of CuSOi 
the reduction takes place at once, in the cold. 

Five Gm. of the solution to be tested is weighed off, treated 
with about 2 c.c. of pure HCl, and made up to exactly 80 c.c. 
with distilled water. Ten c.c. of this is taken, diluted with 20 
to 30 c.c. of distilled water, 0-10 Gm. of sodium sahcylate dis- 
solved in a little water is added, then 10 drops of 10 per cent. 
CUSO4 solution. The mixture is then titrated with N/10 
NagSoOa until the violet colour disappears, and the blue of the 
CuSOi is evident. Each 0-1 c.c. of N/ 10 NaoSoOs used indicates 
the amount per cent, of FeoCle present in the original solution. 

Ferrous and Ferric Arsenates. W. D u n c a n. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 71.) In view of the unstable nature of the official 
ferrous arsenate it is proposed to substitute for it the more stable 
ferric salt, since the compound is generally prescribed, not for its 
iron content, but as a means of administering arsenic. 

Ferric arsenate was prepared from ferric sulphate. The 
freshly precipitated salt is dull white, insoluble, and becomes 
greyish on drying in a water-bath, but if heated above 100°C. 
tends to redden. 

Analysis of the air-dried salt gave the formula FeAs04H20. 
of the water-bath dried salt FeAsO^. The hydrated salt is 
readily soluble in ammonia, the anhydrous slowly, but, in time, 
completely. Both effervesce with alkali bicarbonate and form 
water-soluble compounds, from whicli ferric arsenate can be re- 
precipitated by the addition of acids. Hydrated ferric arsenate 
is therefore an acid, which explains the effervesence that follows 
when oxidized ferrous arsenate is added to a bicarbonate. 

To determine its basicity a weighed quantity was dissolved in 
excess of ammonia, and the excess determined by N/10 H2SO4. 

G 



82 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

0-25 Gm. ferric arsenate combined with 0045 Gm. NH3. An 
acid corresponding to the formula HoFeOAsO^ would require 
0-040 NH3 to form the salt {NH4),FeOAs04. 2-0 Gm. combined 
with 0-33 NH3. An acid corresponding to the above formula 
would require 0-33 NH3 for saturation. The alkali combinations 
are not very stable, and decompose on largely dilutmg with 
water. If a strong neutral solution of the ammonia salt be 
added to ferrous sulphate an insoluble salt very similar in colour 
to commercial ferrous arsenate is produced, but it does not cause 
effervescence with potassium bicarbonate, and when added to 
alkali hydroxides decomposes and precipitates ferrous hydroxide. 
It is apparently ferrous ferri-arsenate FeFeOAsOi- Hydrated 
ferric arsenate is analogous to ferric citrate — a dibasic acid, or 
tribasic arsenic acid with one of the hydrogens replaced by 
ferryl FeO. That is As02FeO(OH)2. 

The properties of ferric arsenate throw some hght on the de- 
composition of ferrous arsenate. It is probable that the com- 
bined action of air, moisture, and heat causes a partial change 
into ferrous ferric arsenate and ferric arsenate which might be 
expressed by the following equation : — 

Fe32As04 + + HoO = FeFeOAsOi + FeAs04HoO. 

The ferrous ferric arsenate further undergoes hydrolysis into 
ferrous hydi'oxide and ferric arsenate, the hydroxide finally pass- 
ing into ferric oxide. 

The present quantitative test for ferrous arsenate — percentage 
of ferrous iron — has been repeatedly condemned. Records for 
the past twenty years show variations from 4-5 to 14 per cent, of 
ferrous arsenate, the average lying between 10 and 12 per cent. 
One (a twenty-year-old sample) contained merely traces of fer- 
rous iron, while another recent sample contained over 25 per cent. 
Nieholls {Year-Booh, 1903, 572) found in twenty-eight samples 
a range from 5-78 to 32-84 per cent., and total arsenic 25-39 to 
30-85 per cent. 

It has been suggested to make the arsenic content the standard 
for the salt. This merely shifts the difficulty, for the arsenic 
content must be a variable quantity, though not to the same ex- 
tent as the ferrous iron. Experiments are being conducted with 
ferrous-ammonium arsenate. 

Ferrum redactum. F. H. A 1 c o c k. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 
19, 852.) Since the demand for reduced iron fiee from heavy 



CHEMISTRY. 83 

arsenical contamination has arisen, commercial specimens have 
been met with containing but little arsenic, but these have left 
an insoluble residue when treated with HCl, one specimen giving 
2-75 and another 7-5 per cent, of apparently siliceous matter 
insoluble in the acid. 



Fir Oil, Siberian. J. S c h i n d e 1 m e i s e r. {Apoth. Zeit., 
19, 815.) Essential Oil of Siberian. Fir. — The following con- 
stants are given for pure essential oil of Siberian fir : [a]p, at 17°C. 
not under— 39° — 40°, sp. gr. at 17°C. not under 0-918. Ester 
value 35-42 per cent, as bornyl acetate. Examination of com- 
mercial samples showed them to range in sp. gr. from 0-911 to 
0-915 at 17°C. ; [«],,-29° 18' to 34° 30'; they gave from 22 to 
30 per cent, of a fraction boilmg between 170°-190°C., and in the 
higher boiling fraction 22-30 per cent, of bornyl acetate. The 
rotation of the 170°-190°C. fraction was not over -34° at r7°C. 
From this fraction a portion boiling between 174°-180°C. was 
isolated, having the low rotation — 18° 28' at 17°C. It is evident, 
therefore, that the commercial samples are adulterated with the 
cheaper pine needle oil or oil of turpentine. The ester content 
of pure Siberian fir oil never falls below the ec[uivalent of 35 per 
cent, of bornyl acetate. 

Flowers of Sulphur and Sublimed Sulphur. A. D o m e r g u e. 

{Aunales de Chim. Analyt., 9, 445.) Both in works of reference 
and in commerce the terms flowers of sulphur and sublimed sul- 
phur appear to be very loosely applied. The author proposes to 
limit the term " flowers of sulphur " to the product of sublim- 
ation, which contains not less than 33 per cent, of the utricular 
modification which is insoluble in CSo, whereas the crystalline 
modification is readily soluble. During the process of sublima- 
tion the product at first formed hy the sudden condensation of 
the sulphur vapour in the cold air of the sublimation chamber 
is the utricular, amorphous, insoluble sulphur. But as the tem- 
perature rises, more and more crystalline sublimate is formed ; 
and near the aperture of the retort this is even melted, to recon- 
geal later. In consecjuence the contents of the chamber when 
the process is completed is far from being homogeneous, consist- 
iiig of amorphous sulphur mixed with fine crystals, spongy crys- 
talline masses, and heavy compact blocks of fused sulphur. 
Since for certain technical purposes the amorphous insoluble 



84 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

form is more valuable, sulphur, which contains the higher per- 
centage, commands a higlier price. The standard and nomen- 
clature suggested would seem, therefore, to be desirable. 

Formaldehyde, a Product of Combustion of Organic Matter 
and Its Presence in the Atmosphere of Towns. A. T r i 1 1 a t. 
{Bull. Soc. C'/iim. [3], 33, 386 and 393.) It has previously been 
shown that formaldeliyde is a constant constituent of the pro- 
ducts of combustion of organic matter {Year-Book, 1904, 91). 
It is now found that the amount produced from any given fuel is 
greatly modified by the nature of the furnace, the temperature 
of burning, and other conditions. When the walls of the furnace 
are composed of metal, the amount of formaldehyde formed is 
much greater than when this is not the case. Soot is found to 
contain notable quantities from 0-28 to 0-35 per cent. ; cigar 
smoke yielded from 0-063 to 0-118 per cent, on the weight of 
tobacco burnt, and tobacco smokesimilar quantities; but intobacco 
smoke it does not occur in a free state, so that it does not cause 
irritation when inhaled. In other smoke, on the contrary, it occurs 
uncombined. Sugar and vegetable tissue rich in saccharine matter, 
also incense, yield very large quantities of formaldehyde when 
burned, from 4-5 to 5-76 per cent, on the weight of the material. 
It is suggested, therefore, that burning sugar might under certain 
circumstances form a useful method of disinfection, and indicated 
that the ancient method of purifying the air by means of fires 
and burning aromatic spices was not without sound justification. 
In the same manner the preserving and hardening effect of wood 
smoke on the familiar smoked meats is explained. In conse- 
quence it was to be expected that the atmosphere of towns 
would be found to contain formaldehyde. In Paris, this was 
found to be so, 100 cubic metres of air taken on the roof of a house 
yielding 17 to 24 Mgm. ; that taken from the upper floors 25 to 
31 Mgm. ; and a sample from the industrial suburb of Courljevoie 
25 to 55 Mgm. A. Levy and Henriet have found that pure air 
taken at the seaside is free from a trace of formaldehyde. It is 
evident, therefore, that its presence is due to the products of 
combustion in the air. It is calculated that, presuming 3,000,000 
tons of combustible matter is consumed per annum in Paris, no 
less than 1,000,000 kilos of formaldehyde is produced ; but, when 
once the smoke produced is dispersed in the air, the formalde- 
hyde becomes so diluted that its presence can have no appreci- 
able physiological result. A ready test of the presence of for- 



CHEMISTRY. 85 

maldehyde in the atmosphere is afforded by filter paper impreg- 
nated with aqueous sohition of neutral rosanilino hydi'ochloride, 
and dried. When such test paper is exposed to air containing 
formaldehyde the violet red colour ultimately changes to blue. 
In the air of Paris this takes place in a few hours. 

Formaldehyde, Colorimetric Method for the Detection and 
Estimation of. F. Bonnet, jr. {Jurtni. Amer. Chcm. Soc, 
27, 601.) If a substance containing formaldehyde is placed in 
an evaporating dish, and 1 c.c. of a freshly-prepared sulphuric 
acid solution of morphine in a watch-glass, or a small porcelain 
crucible is floated upon it, the morphine solution becomes 
more or less coloured, varying from pink to dark blue, 
according to the amount of formaldehyde present. The colora- 
tion is due to the vapour of the formaldehyde, which reacts with 
the morphine. By this method so small an amount as 4 parts 
of formaldehyde in 1,000,000 can be detected. 

The morphine sulphate solution is made by dissolving 0-35 
Gm. of white crystalline morphine sulphate in 100 c.c. of cold, 
strong, chemically pure sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1-84). Unfor- 
tunately, this solution does not keep any great length of time, as 
the sulphuric acid slowly decomposes the morphine, even at 
ordinary temperatures. The following tests should be made, 
therefore, with fresh solutions. 

Quantitative Estimation. Experiments to determine whether 
the foregomg test could be applied quantitatively were made as 
follows : — 

A standard solution of milk was made by dissolving 11 c.c. of 
a Kahlbaum solution containing 34 per cent, by weight of for- 
maldehyde in 100 c.c. of milk, giving a solution of 4 : 100. From 
this, solutions containmg 8 : 1,000, 4 : 1,000 ; 8 : 10,000, 4 : 10,000 ; 
8 : 100,000, 4 : 100,000 ; 8 : 1,000,000, and 4 : 1,000,000 were 
made by adding the required amount of milk. 

Samples of milk containing varying amounts of formaldehyde 
were then prepared, the amount in each being unknown, for the 
time being, to the experimenter. Sixty c.c. of each of these 
samples were placed in evaporating dishes and tested as in the 
qualitative trials. The approximate time of the first ring or 
colour formation gave an idea of the amount of formaldehyde 
present. Knowing approximately the amount of formaldehyde 
in solution, fresh portions of the unknown milk were compared 
with the corresponding standard solutions, care being taken that 



86 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the tests were started at the same time and were made under like 
conditions. 

In each of the above prepared unknown samples the amount of 
formaldehyde found was essentially the same as that which had 
been put into the solution. Over a range extending from 8 : 1,000 
to 8 : 1,000,000, solutions containing the same amounts of for- 
maldehyde gave the same characteristic coloration in the same 
period of time. It is necessary for accurate work that equal 
amounts of the unknown and known solutions be taken, and that 
the amounts of the morphine solution used should be the same ; 
also the evaporating dishes and the watch-glasses should be alike 
both in size and shape. 

Formaldehyde, Determination of. W. F r e s e n i u s and 

L. G r u e n h u t. {Zeits. jur Analyf. Chem., through Annales 
deChim. Analyt., 10, 162.) The two following methods, the first 
a modification of that of Blank and Finkenbeiner, the second that 
of Romyn, are selected as being most suitable for assaying com- 
mercial formalin. 

Hydrogen peroxide method. The process depends on the re- 
actions — 

(a) HCOH + NaOH + HoO^ = HCOONa + 2H2O, 
(&) 2HC0H + 2NaOH + HoOo = 2HC00Na + 2H2O. 

Three Gm. of the formalin are weighed ofi^ m a closed weighing 
tube, and added to 25 to 30 c.c. of twice normal NaOH solution 
in a flask ; after mixmg 50 c.c. of hydrogen peroxide gradually, 
through a funnel, so that the addition takes 2 or 3 minutes, the 
mixture is left to stand for 10 minutes, the funnel is washed 
through with water free from COo, and the excess of NaOH 
titrated back with N/H2SO4 solution, using htmus as indicator. 
If the formahn and hydrogen peroxide be sUghtly acid, the 
amount of free acid they contain must be determined with N/10 
NaOH and deducted from the above. Care must be exercised 
not to add the peroxide too rapidly, or the results will be too low. 
Paraformaldehyde is determmed simultaneously by this method, 
but not trioxy methylene. 

lodometric Method. Twenty-five Gni. of formalin are weighed 
off m a closed weighing bottle, transferred to a graduated 500 c.c. 
flask and made up to that volume with water. Five c.c. of this 
solution is transferred to a stoppered bottle, 30 c.c. of N/NaOH 
solution is quicldy added, the whole well shaken and 50 c.c. or 



CHEMISTRY. 87 

more N/5 iodine solution run in bo as produce a distinctly j^elk.w 
solution, after shaking and allowing to stand for 30 seconds. 
The licjuid is then acidified with 40 c.c. N/H2SO4, and the excess 
of iodine titrated in the usual manner with H/10 NaaSaOa. Tmo 
equivalents of iodine ecjual 1 molecule of formaldehyde according 
to the equation — 

21 + 2NaOH = NaOI + Nal + H^O 

HCOH + NaOI + NaOH = HCOONa + Nal + H.O. 

This method cannot be used when the formalin contains ace- 
tone or ethyl alcohol, the presence of which is revea]ed by the 
formation of iodoform. 

Formaldehyde Solution as a Reagent. C. G 1 u c k s m a n n. 
[Pharm. Post., 37, 413.) Formalin affords a ready means of 
identifying many substances. A small cjuantity of the article 
to be identified is dissolved in 1 c.c. of HCl, and 1 c.c. of formalin 
is added. Reaction often commences at once and is completed 
on boiling the mixture. Phenol under these conditions gives a 
white precipitate ; (jallic and salicylic acids give no reaction. 
Pyrogallol gives a red colour and precipitate ; a-7iapthol a white 
precipitate, j3-naphthol a reddish colour ; resorcin a red violet 
precipitate ; tannin a yellow precipitate. None of the alkaloids 
examined give any reaction. Hydroquinone forms a white pre- 
cipitate, pyrocatechol a dull violet one. 

Formaldehyde Solution, Commercial, Valuation of. C. E. 

Male. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 844.) The following modifica- 
tion of Schiff's method is recommended. Introduce 2 Gm. 
neutral AmCl, dissolved in 20 c.c. of water, into a flask or bottle 
of about 200 c.c. capacity, having a well-fitting stopper. Dilute 
10 c.c. of the formaldehyde solution to 100 c.c. with water, and 
neutralize with NaOH solution, as the formaldehyde solution 
generally contains varying quantities of formic acid. Add 20 c.c. 
of this neutralized solution to the AmCl solution, then 25 c.c. of 
N/NaOH, and immediately stopper the flask and Iccive for one 
hour. Afterwards determine the excess of alkali with N/2 
H2SO4, using rosalic acid or litmus solution as indicator, both of 
which give a sharp end reaction. A correction must be made for 
the density of the formoJdehyde solution, which generally has a 
specific gravity somewhere about 1-08. 1 c.c. of N/NaOH = 



88 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

0-045 Gm. of formaldehyde, according to the following equa- 
tion : — 

2NH4CI + 3CH2 O + 2K0H = N2 (CH2 )3 + 2KC] + 5H2O. 

Galbanic Acid. K. (J. v^o n Kuelenstierna. [Archiv 
der Fhann., 242, 533.) Galbanic acid, obtained by Hirschsohn 
from galbaiunn {Year-Book, 1894, 172), purified by crystaDiza- 
tion or sublimation, crystallizes from dilute alcohol in fine, 
colourless, odourless and tasteless needles, 1 to 2 cm. long, m.p. 
1 55-156^^0. It is very soluble in organic solvents, sparingly 
dissolved by boiling water and insoluble in cold water. It has a 
feeble acid reaction on litmus, and is displaced from combination 
with bases by CO2. It has no phenohc function, however, and 
contains no crystal-water. Its empirical formula may be either 
CeHgO ; U13H20O2 ; or C20H.30O3, or multiples of these ; no data are 
yet available to indicate which of these three is correct. 

Gein and Gease, Glucoside and Ferment in the Root of Geum 
urbanum. E. Bourquelot and H. Herissey. {Comptes 
rend. 140, 870.) The clove-like odour developed by the root 
of Geum urbanum is shown to be due to the action of a specific 
ferment, gease, on a glucoside, gein. The glucoside is only pre- 
sent in small quantities ; it is extracted by treatmg the fresh 
root with alcohol 95 per cent., and precipitating the alcohohc 
extract with ether ; on again redissoJving this precipitate, and 
throwing it down with ether, repeating the process several times, 
and finally floating ether on the alcoholic solution, gein crystal- 
lizes out in spherocrystals. The ferment gease remains in the 
residue of the treatment with alcohol. The fresh root crushed 
with sand is extracted with alcohol 90 per cent. ; the residue 
dried at 30° forms the fermentative j)owder. When a little of 
this powder is added to a solution of the alcohohc extract of the 
root, or to a solution of gein, a strong clove-like odour is pro- 
duced, together with a reducing sugar, jjrobably dextrose. 
Other ferments, emuLsin, Aspergillus ferments, the fresh leaves 
of Cinnamomum cassia, of Caryophyllus aromaticus, and of 
Illicium anisatum are without the least action on solutions con- 
taining gein, even after prolonged contact, but on adding a little 
of the fermentative powder of the root to them, they at once 
develop the odour of cloves. Geum rivale, however, contains a 
ferment wliich behaves exactly like gease of G. urbanum, and its 
root also gives oil" a clove-hke odour when bruised, so that it pro- 



CHEMISTRY. 80 

bably contains gein as well. Gease is completely insoluble in 
water, and aqueous macerations of the root have no fermentative 
action, nor can it be extracted with glycerin. The only method 
of obtainmg fermentation is to use the fermentative powder of 
the root as described above. The yield of essential oil from the 
hydrolization of gein is very small, equivalent to about 1 per 
mille of the fresh root. The chief constituent is eugenol. Dried 
commercial roots were found to yield no essential oil. 

Ginger, Essential Oil of. {HaenseVs Report, April, 1905,^9.) 
Cochin Ginger Oil. The yield from this ginger was only 1-5 per 
cent., consequently this variety did not prove to be a remuner- 
ative source of the oil. The product had the following characters. 
Sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-8826; [aji,— 8-6° ; saponification value, 17 ; 
solubility in alcohol, 80 per cent. 1 : 65. 

African Ginger OH. Sp. gr. 0-8795 ; [ajj^— 8-28° ; saponification 
value, 13-5 ; solubility in alcohol, 80 per cent. 1 : 65, not quite 
clear. 

Gingergrass Oil, Constituents of. {SchimmeV s Report, May, 
1905. ) The new alcohol isolated last year from gingergrass oil 
{Y ear-Book, 1904, 93) is now identified as dihydrocuminol, 
C'loHieO. It boils at226-227°C. under 767 mm. ; has the sp.gr. 
0-9510 at 15° ; [a]i,-13° 18' [7/] 1-49629. Various products of 
this alcohol are described. In addition to this, iso-carvone was 
isolated from a fraction boiling at 80-83-5° under 5 mm. pressure. 
This boils at 230-231°C. under 760 mm. [a] -10° 43'; sp.gr. 
0-9645. Although it was optically active, the bulk of the ketone 
consisted of inactive carvone, as shown by the m.p. of the 
semicarbazone and the oxime. The list of constituents now 
recorded as occurring m gingergrass oil now comprises : dextro- 
phellandrene dextrolimonene. dipentene, an aldehyde CioHirO ; 
dihydrocuminol ; geraniol and iso-carvone. It is evident that 
guigergrass oil is not, as hitherto supposed, an uiferior pal- 
marosa oil. It is probably produced by a grass quite distinct 
from Andropogon schoeiianthus. 

Globulin from the Seed of Castanea vesea. W. E. Barlow. 
{Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 27, 274.) Tiie Spanish chestnut is 
found to contain a globulin, castanin, which in most reactions 
closely resembles corylin, the globulin of the hazel-nut, but which 
has a different coagulating point and is precipitated by means 
of ammonium sulphate. 



90 YEAR-BOOK 01 PHARMACY. 

Guaiacuni, Influence of Certain Salts and Organic Substances 
on the Oxidation of. E. G. Wilcox. {Proc. Chem. iSoc, 20, 
197.) Tlio iuliueuce of various salts on the oxidation of guaia- 
cum with H2O2 has been investigated by determining the time 
necessary to produce a standard blue tint, under similar con- 
ditions of concentration of the guaiacum, of the peroxide, and 
of the salt, at the same temperature. AmCi, LiCl, KCl, BaCl), 
the chlorides of iron and aluminium ; NaBi, KBr, KI, NaF and 
KNO3 accelerate the oxidation. AmNOa, KNO3, Ba2N03 ; Na^ 
SO4, K2SO4 and MgSOi exert no appreciable influence. Of all 
the salts examined the halogens alone showed a true acceleration ; 
for although KNOo increases the rate of oxidation of guaiacum 
in the presence of H2O2, that salt alone oxidizes the resin ; the 
same is the case with Fe2Cl6. Among the halogens the iodides 
have the greatest action, the effect of the others diminishing in 
the following order : bromides, chlorides, fluorides. Salts which 
form acid solutions have relatively feeble action. Ordinaiy 
" pure " aluminium chloride readily oxidizes guaiacum, without 
H2O2, but a specially purified sample had no independent oxidi- 
zing action. The activity of the commercial salt is probably due 
to a trace of Fe2Cl6. The acids of the acetic series have no 
action, but the metallic salts of the lower membeis of the series 
are slightly active. Carbohydrates and proteids have no action. 
Formaldehyde is commonly described as oxidizing guaiacum, 
but the action is p. obably due to impurities, the commercial pro- 
duct being very active, but pure formaldehydeis without auction. 
The same is the case with glycerin ; when freshly distilled under 
diminished pressure it has no action, although, like methyl and 
ethyl alcohols, it accelerates the action of the haloids at normal 
temperatures, but at 50-70°C. all these substances have a con- 
trary oifect, retarding oxidation. Commercial glycerin is an 
active oxidizer of guaiacum. The carbohydi-ates, dextrose, 
levulose, sucrose, maltose, dextrin, starch and glycogen retard the 
action, so does mastic and proteid globulin, probably because 
they are themselves oxidizable. The alcohols increase the action, 
probably by increasing the solubility of the guaiacum resin. 

Gum Tragacanth, Powdered, Detection of Powdered Acacia in. 
E. Payet. {Annales dc Chim. Analyl., 10, {)3.) A 1 in :5(> 
solution of the gum is treated with an equal volume of a 1 : 1,000 
aqueous solution of guaiacol ; a drop of H2O2 is then added, and 
the mixture agitated. In the presence of gum acacia the liquid 



CHEMISTRY. 91 

rapidly turns brown, but if the tragacantli be pure it remains 
colourless. 

Guttaperchas from German New Guinea and from Sumatra. 

A. T s c h i r c li and 0. Mueller. (Archiv de Pharm., 
243, 114 and 133.) The two guttaperchas from New Guinea 
and Sumatra have been compared. The study of the bodies 
isolated has suggested the systematic classification of the con- 
stituents under the names of gutta, alban, fiuavil, and albanan, 
bodies which have been previously isolated and named, but which 
appear to be generic rather than specific substances. The albans 
are soluble in boiling alcohol, the fluavils in cold alcohol, and the 
albanans are insoluble. Nev/ Guinea guttapercha yielded 28 
per cent, of mixed albans and 8 per cent, of fluavils. Albanans 
were isolated by dissolving the alcohol insoluble residue in 
CHCI3 and precipitating the gutta with alcohol : on standing, 
the albanans were slowly deposited in crystalline forms. The 
mixed fluavils were separable by alcohol 80 per cent, into 
a-guinifluavil and d-guinafiuavil ; a-guinafluavil, CojHsgO, is in- 
soluble in alcohol of this strength. It is an amorphous yellow 
powder m.p. 83°C. /i-guinafluavil is lighter in colour than the 
a body, and is soluble in 80 per cent, alcohol. Its formula is 
CisH^iO ; m.p. 78. By the action of alcoholic KOH crude 
guinafluavil is split up into cinnamic acid and a crystalline 
resinol, guinafluavil-resinol, in peculiar crystals resembling starch 
granules (or oyster shells, Ed. Year-Book) with eccentric layers. 
Whon the separated a- and iS- guinafluavils are thus treated, 
they give respectively a-guinafluavilresinol, m.p. 136^0. and 
/S-guinafluavilresinol m.p. 143°, bo h crystallizing in needles from 
acetone. 

Crude crystalline guinalban was separable into three distinct 
albans by fractional solution and crystallization with aicohol 
96 per cent. The first fraction separated in spheroidal crystals 
and is therefore classed as 7-guinalban or sphceritalban, C22H32O, 
m.p. 111°C. The second fraction formed prisms of /f-guinalban 
or crystalalban Ca^HyoO, m.p. 136°; the third fraction occurred 
in fine needles of a-guina'ban or needle-alban, C4:.H^yO, m.p. 
171°. /3-guinalban and 7-guinalban. when saponified with 
alcoholic potash, give cinnamic acid and /^-guinalbaresinol, 
m.p. 107 and 7-guinalbaresinol m.p. 168°C. respectively. Guin- 
albanan, C48Hs-,0, m.p. 62°, when freshly piepared, but falling to 
52°C. after keeping 3 months, was also crystallized, but only 



92 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



occurred to the extent of 0-7 per cent. Guinagutta, when 
freshly precipitated, is seen under tlie microscope in pecuhar 
curved needles. Ijut these quickly aggregate to form asohd mass. 
Sumatra guttapercha, examined in a similar manner, gave 
albans and fluavils of a similar nature, as shown by the following 
table : — 



Guinea Guttapercha. 


Sumatra Guttapercha. 


C'onstitiipnt. 


bt^ 


Fnriiiula. 


Constituent. 


60 . 


Formula. 


Guinaguttii 


_ 


^10^11; 


Sumagiitta 








Guinalbanan . 


62° 


^48^8^,0 


Siimalbanan 


,61° 


C30H44O 


a-Guinalban . 


nr 


C42H70O 








(Needlealban) 












tf-Guinalban . 


136° 


^22^32^) 


a-Sumalban 


228° 


GfioH8o03 


( Crystal-alban) 






( rvstal-alban)j 


C40H52O2 


7-Guinalban . 


111° 


C22H32O 


3-Sumklban . . |l.52° 


C30H44O2 


(Spha^ritalban) 






(Spha-ritalban) 












7-Sumalban. 


142° 


C30H44O2 








( Isosphseritalban) 






a-Guinafluavil 


83° 


(C22H360)3 








/i-Guin a flnavil . 


72° 


C15H24O 








/:J-Guinaroaresinol 


104' 




a-,Sumalbaresinol 


207° 


C50H80O2 


-) -Guinalbaresinol 


168° 


^26-^4 10 


;j-Sumalbaresinol 


151° 


^.50-"-80^2 








■, -Sumalbaresinol 


171° 


^^40^6 4 O2 


ci-Giiinafluavilo- 


136° 


^28-"-48^2 


Sumafluavilo- 


— 





resinol 






resinol 







Gymnostachyum febrifugum. D. Hooper. {Pharm.Joiirv. i 
[4], 19,4.) The roots of this Acanthaceous plant have a repu- ! 
tation among the natives as a febrifuge ; also when ground in . 
lime juice as a remedy for biliousness, sore mouth and foul 
tongue. 

The small rhizomes, from 1;^ to 2 in. in length, -f^ in. in 
diameter, are curved or slightly contorted, brown in colour, and 
bitter in taste. Numerous long rootlets give a bearded appear- 
ance to the fresh drug, but are easily broken off in handhng. j 
The scars of fallen leaves remain as tooth-like swellings on the ! 
rhizome, which sometimes give it a moniliform appearance. 
The roots are woody, and a section presents a brown or reddish - 
brown e])idc;nial layer, a thick blackish-coloured cortex, and a 
liglit-co'oured wood with a hollow centre. The black cortical 
portion contains the active principle of the root. 

The bitter principle was found to be of a resinoid nature, partly | 



CHEMISTRY. 93 

soluble in ether and water, entirely soluble in alcohol. It was 
of an acid nature, and dissolved in alkalis with a yellow coiour. 
Small port'ons evaporated to dryness dissolved in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with a brown coloration, gradually developing to 
a rich plum-coloured solution. An aqueous solution o" the alco- 
holic extract of the root gave slight precipit?.tes Avith mercury- 
potassium iodide, and iodine in potassium iodide, but no alkaloidal 
substance was removed from the extract when shaken out with 
ammonia and immiscible solvents. In addition to the bitter 
principle which was apparently the chief active constituent, 
tannin and a substance readily reducing Fehling's solution were 
detected. During the concentration of the alcoholic extract 
small masses of acicular crystals of a cholesterol m.p. 162°C. 
separated out. 

Gynoeardia odorata. Fixed Oil from the Seeds of. F. B. 
Power and M. B a r r o w c 1 i ft" . [Proc. Clitm. Soc, 21, 
176.) Prior to 1900 the seeds of Gynoeardia odorata were re- 
garded as the botanical source of chaulmoogra oil. Prain and 
Holmes have shown, however, that this is erroneous, and that 
Taraktogenos kurzii is the true botanical source of the oil. Power 
and Gornall {Year- Book, 1904, 48, 49) have also shown that com- 
mercial chaulmoogra oil is identical with the oil obtained by them 
from authentic specimens of Taraktogenos seeds. 

It is now shown that the so-called " chaulmoogra oil " or 
" gynoeardia oil " could not have been obtained from Gynoeardia 
seeds, since the oil from these seeds is liquid at ordinary temper- 
atures and is optically inactive. 

The authentic seeds of Gynoeardia odorata used were collected 
in Assam. They yielded 19-5 per cent, of oil en expression, and 
27-2 per cent, on extraction with ether. The oil was fluid, 
yellow in colour, and resembled linseed oil in odour ; sp. gr. 
0-925 at 25°C. ; acid value, 4-9 ; saponification value, 197 ; iodine 
value, 152-8. It consisted chiefly of the glyceryl esters of linolic 
acid or its isomers, wi h a considerable amount of palmitic acid ; 
linolenic and isolinolenic acids, the latter preponderating ; and 
a relatively small amount of oleic acid. The seeds also contain 
5 per cent, of the glucoside gynocardin. (See Year-Book, 1904, 99. ) 

Gynoeardia odorata Seeds, Amount of Prussic Acid in. M. 

G r e s h o ff. {Apoth. Zcit.. 20, 365.) The author confirms the 
existence of crystalline gynocardin {Year-Book, 1904, 99) in 



04 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

chauluioogra seeds. The amount of HCX found by distillation 
from the press cake after extraction of the oil was 0-92 per cent. 
Whole seeds, cut under water, crushed and allowed to macerate 
in a closed vessel for 24 hours before distilling, gave 0-98 per cent, 
of HCN. Neither benzaldehyde nor acetone were detected in 
the distillate. 

Gynocardin, Further Notes on, F. B. Power and F. H. 
Lees. {Proc. Chem. Soc, 21, 88. See also Year-Book, 1904, 
99.) The seeds of Gynocardin odorata, on contact with water, 
yield 0-44 per cent, of HCN calculated on the entire seed, or 0-63 
per cent, on the kernels only. The yield of crystalline gj^no- 
cardin is about 5 per cent. The crystals separating from aqueous 
solution have the formula (Ci3Hi909N)2 + 3H20. The crystal 
water is given up at llo°C., when the anhydrous glucoside melts 
at 162-163°C., and has the [a]j, 21° + 72-5 in aqueous solution. 
When a,cetylized-hepta-acetylgynocardin, Ci3Hi209(C2H30)7N, is 
formed in needles ; m.p. 118-119°C. The seeds contain a 
specific ferment gynocardase, which readily hydrolizes the glu- 
coside at the ordinary temperature ; but it is not easily hydro- 
lyzed by boiling with 5 per cent. HoSOj or HCl. according to the 
equation — 

C13H19O9N + H2O = CfiHi20fi + CfiHgO* + HCN. 

Of these products only dextrose and HCN could be isolated, the 
body CfiHs04 readily undergoing .secondary decomposition with 
the formation of amorphous matter. Gynocardin is distinguished 
from other cyanogenetic glucosides by its relatively greater re- 
sistance to hydrolyzing agents. It is readily hydrolyzed by 
Ba(0H)2, forming barium gynocardinaie (Ci2Hi90g-C02)2Ba and 
ammonia, according to the equation — 

C13H19O9N + 2H2O = Ci2H,909COOH +NH3. 

Gynocardinic acid, Ci2Hi909-COOH, forms a syrup which does not 
reduce Fehling's solution and is dextrorotatory. It is hydro- 
lyzed by acids, thus — 

C12H19O9COOH -f H2O = CoH.oOfi + CvHtoO«. 
Dextrose and an acid are thus formed. The latter was 
isolated as the quinine salt C2oH24N202i,C7Hio06, which crystal- 
lized in needles, m.p. 225^C. with decomposition. I' wa; only 
to be isolated in small quantity. Gynocardin is either the 
(Jextrose ester of the cyanhydrin of a trihydroxy aldehyde 



CHEMISTRY. 95 

C5H4(OH)3-CHO, or of a ketone CfiH,, (OH )3 : CO, and its formula 
may be expressed as either C5H4(OH)3-CH(CN)-OCoH,i05 or 
C5H,,(0H)3 : C(CN)-0-CfiH,^05. Gynocardin is devoid of appre- 
ciable physiological action. 

Hardwickia binata, Oleoresin of. {ScJiimmeVs Report, May, 
1905, 85.) The oleoresin of the Leguminous tree which is a 
native of British India, known in the vernacular as " oil of 
ennaikulavo," is red brown in colour with a greenish fluorescence. 
The odour is peculiar ; sp. gr. 1-002 ; acid value, 96-15 ; ester 
value, 12-31 : insoluble in 1 : 10 in alcohol 80 per cent. It yields 
44 per cent, of colourless essential oil on steam distillation, the 
residual resin being green and brittle. The essential oil had the 
sp. gr. 0-9062 ; [a]„ = 7° 42' ; acid value, 0-85 ; ester value, 2-88 ; 
solubility in alcohol. 95 per cent. 1 : 5 and more. 

Hops, Essential Oil of, Adulterated with Gurjun Balsam. 

{Schimnier s Report, May, 1905, 49. ) A sophistication of hop oil 
witli gurjun balsam is recorded. The adulterated oil had the 
sp. gr. 0-9189 at 15°, and the [a],, -40° 40' ; the sp. gr. of puie oil 
is 0-855 to 880° at 15°C. ; [«]„ almost 0. The adulterated oil 
yielded fractions with rotation as high as —86° 50'. It also had 
a distinct but faint greenish fluorescence. 

Hydnocarpus wightiana and H. anthelmintiea, Constituents 

of. F. B. Power and M. BarrowT-liff. {Proc. Ckem. Soc, 
21, 175.) The seeds of //. wightiana gave on expression 32-4 per 
cent, of fatty oil, and 41-2 per cent, by extraction with ether. 
The expressed oil had the following characters : — M.p. 22-23°C. ; 
sp. gr. 0-958 at 25°C. ; [a]„ + 57-7° in CHCl,, ; acid value. 3-8 ; 
saponification value, 207 ; iodine value, 101-3. 

The seeds of H. anthelmintiea yielded 16-3 per cent, of fixed oil 
on expression and 17-6 wdth ether. The expressed oil had the 
m.p. 24-25°C., sp.gr. 0-953 at 25°C. ; [a]„ + 52-5 in CHCI3. ; acid 
value, 7-5 ; saponification value, 212 ; iodine value. 86-4. 

These oils very closely resembled chaulmoogra oil from Tarak- 
tof/enos kurzii both in characters and composition, consisting 
chiefly of the glyceryl esters of chaulmoogric acid Ci,sH3202, and 
a lower homolo'^ue of the same series which was isolated, both 
from these oils, and from chaulmoogra oil. This new acid, 
hy Inocarpic acid Cif;H2802, crystallizes from alcohol in glistening 
baflets, m.p. 60°; [a]u + 68 in CHCI3. Methyl hydnocarpate, 



96 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Ci-.HorCOOMe, was obtained as a colourless oil ; b.p. 200-203°C. 
under 19 mm.; m.p. 8°C. ; [a] +62-4' in CHCI3. Ethyl 
hydnocarpate CinHoyCOOEt, has the b.p. 211° under 19 mm. ; 
[a„] + 51-6° in OHCI3. Hi/dnorarpnmuh CisHo^-CO-NH. forms 
needles from alcoliol ; m.p. 112-113° [al,;'"'° + 70-2° in CHCI3. 

The oil of //. wightiana contains also a small proportion of an 
acid or acids belonging to the linolic or linoleic series ; that of 
H. anthelmintica a small amount of oleic and palmitic acids. 
These oils have long been used in Western India and in China for 
the same medicinal purposes for whic;]! cliaulmoogra oil is em- 
ployed. (See also Year-Books. 1891, 187 : 1900. 138, 139.) 

Hydrazine Sulphate as a Reagent for Haemoglobin. E. 

R i e g 1 e r. (Zeits. fur Analyt. Ghcm., 1904, 96.) H3^dra- 
zine sulphate, 5 Gm., is dissolved in NaOH solution, 10 per cent., 
100 c.c, and alcohol, 96 per cent., 100 c.c. are added. The mixture 
is set aside for a few hours, then filtered. In the case of solids, 
a small particle is thoroughly shaken up in a stoppered tube with 
5 or 10 c.c. of the reagent. In the presence of hsemaglobin the 
liquid acquires a colour varying from pink to red, and its spec- 
trum shows two characteristic absorption bands between D, 
E and b. When only a trace of hsemaglobin is present, the mixture 
is barely coloured, and there is only one band at D. The reagent 
is useful to demonstrate the presence of hsemaglobin and its de- 
composition products in urine and other fluids, also on lineri. 

Hydrochloric Acid in the Gastric Secretion. A. F r o u i n. 
(Bull. Soc. Chim. [3], 33, 256.) In the pure gastric secretion, un- 
contaminated by alimentary contents of the stomach, the HCl 
is entirely free, so that on evaporating the juice m vaciio, at 
normal temperatures, the whole of the acid is removed. The 
author therefore refutes the statement of other investigators that 
HCl forms an integral part of the pepsin molecule, and claims 
that the pepsin with which these results were obtained, preci- 
pitated by the action of low temperatures on the gastric juice, 
was largely contaminated with esophagal secretions. Pure 
gastric juice does not afford a precipitate when exposed to low 
temperatures. On the other hand, it is well known that the acid 
forms organic compounds with the products of digestion and 
the alimentary substances in the stomach. • 

Hydrogen Peroxide, Colorimetric Determination of. P. 

P lane s. [Jonrn. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 538). The sample 



CHEMISTRY. 97 

of H.,U., solution is first diluted with 9 volumes of water ; 5 c.c. 
of this dilution is introduced into one of two graduated 20 c.c. 
twin tubes and treated with 3 c.c. of 10 per cent. KI solution and 
1 c.c. of 8 Y>ev cent. H2SO4. In the other tube the colour is 
matched with N/10 iodine solution, 1-8 c.c. of which is ecjuiva- 
lent to 1 c.c. of oxygen. 

Hyoscyamus muticus and Datura stramonium, Indian. {Bull. 
Imp. Inst., 2, 222-224.) Two specimens of Hyoscyamus muticus 
from th3 Punjab and Larkana contained respectively 0-38 and 
0-28 per cent, of hyoscyamine. The Datura stramonium seeds 
from Bushahr gave only 0-26 of hyoscyamine. Both these 
drugs are of lower alkaloidal value than the Egyj)tian variety of 
H. muticus and the Euroj^ean form of D. stramonium. (See 
Year-Books, 1899, 143 ; 1901, 70 ; 1903, 560). 

Incineration, Coarsely Powdered Pumice-Stone as an Aid to. 

— D u y k. [Annales de Chim. Analyt., 9, 252.) The solid or 
extractive matter to be ashed is mixed with an equal weight of 
recently calcined coarsely powdered j^umice stone, then burnt off 
in the usual maiuier ui the nmffle or over the gas, with a moderate 
flame. By this method of manipulation the most refractory 
substances such as albumin, wool, and yeast are readily reduced 
to a perfect ash. The residue thus obtained is in an excellent 
condition for subsequent treatment with solvents. 

Inula graveolens, Essential Oil of. [SchimmeVs Report, May, 
1905, 82.) This widely^listributed Mediterranean composite 
yields a brownish yellow oil with a green fluorescence. From 
its odour, it probably contains bornyl acetate. Sj). gr. at 15*^0. 
0-9754 ; [a]p— 36° 40' ; acid number, 8-45 ; ester number, 161-3 ; 
acetyl number, 239-38 ; solubility in alcohol, 70 per cent., 1 : 3 
to 1 : 3-5, with separation of a paraffin. 

Iodoform, Determination of. — U t z. {Pharm. Centralh., 45, 
985.) Assay of Iodoform. The present qualitative tests given 
in the Ph. G. (and the B.P.) are stated to be insufficient ; the 
following quantitative method of assay of Lehmann is recom- 
mended. Ten Cgm. of the iodoform is weighed off, and dissolved 
in 10 c.c. of ether alcohol ; one drop of HNO3, followed by 10 c.c. 
of N/10 AgNOa are then added and the mixture slowly warmed 
up on the water-bath ; when neither the odour of CHI3 nor of 

H 



98 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

HNO3 are perceived, tlie lifjuifl is allowed to cool. When cold 
the uncombined AgNOa is titrated with N/10 AmC'NS. using 
iron alum as the indicator. Each c.c. of N 10 AgNOa thus 
found to be used up, x 0-0131 gives the amount of iodoform 
present. The above quantity of absolutely pure iodoform will 
require 7-3 c.c. of N/10 AgNOs ; but the presence of 1 per cent, 
of moisture and slight traces of alkali chlorides may be tolerat<?d, 
so that a sample assaying 98 to 99 per cent, may be considered 
as satisfactory. 

Assay of Iodoform Dressing. The method of Lehmann, wliich 
consists of extracting 5 Gm. of the material with ether-alcohol, 
by agitation, making up to 100 c.c. and taking 20 c.c. of the 
solution for assay as above, is found to be most satisfactory. 
The process of extraction in a Soxhlet, as proposed for the new 
Codex, is stated to be valueless. 

Isopilocarpine, Conversion of, Into Pilocarpine. H. A. D. 

Jowett. [Proc. Chem. Soc, 21, 172.) Isopilocarpine and 
pilocarpine are considered to be stereoisomeric and not to differ 
structurally. By heating pure isopilocarpine with alcoholic 
potash, a small quantity of pilocarpine, giving the hydrochloride, 
with the m.p. 201 and [cj^ 4-92-8° and the nitrate, m.p. 177- 
178° C. was obtained. 

The formula of pilocarpine may therefore be written — 



+ + 
CHg -CH-6'H-CH, -C-NCCHa ) 

i I !l 
CO CH2 HC N 



CH 





and that of isopilocarpine- 



— + 
C2H5-(7H-(7H-CH2-C-N(CH3 ) 

I ^ li ;cH 

CO CH. HC N^ 

\/ 




Japan Wax. E. J. P a r r y. {Chem. and Drugg., 66, 34.) 
Specimens of Japan wax examined some years back were found 
to have iodine-absorption values about 6 to 7 per cent., usually 



CHEMISTRY. 



99 



not higher than 4 per cent. These results were in accordance with 
those pubhshed by Huebl (4-2), Lewkowitsch (4-9 to 6-6), Zeitel 
and Van der Want (8-3 to 8-5), and Allen (4-9 to 6). Quite re- 
cently, however, Bernheimer and Schiff have published figures 
from 10-6 to 11-3, and Ahrens and Hett give from 13'1 to 15-1 
per cent. Such a rise in this very constant figure would 
at once suggest a change m the composition of the commercial 
article. 

Specimens recently examined by the author gave the following 
figures : — 



- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Melting-point . 


50°-51" 


50°-52° 


52°-54° 


49°-53° 


49°-54° 


Saponification 












value 


21-8% 


22-0% 


22-2% 


21-9% 


22-1% 


Iodine -value 


11-9% 


13-8% 


13-7% 


12-5% 


13% 


Heliner-value . 


89% 


90% 


90-5% 


89-5% 


90% 


Sp. gr. at 15°C. 


0-979 


980 


0-981 


0-977 


0-978 


M.P. of fatty acids . 


54° 


55° 


55° 


54" 


56° 



With regard to the melting-point, it is to be noted that Japan 
wax has a double melting-point, and if rapidly cooled after melt- 
ing this will be found to be about 40° to 42°. In the samples 
now exammed the melting-point was not sharp, but gradual over 
several degrees. 

The samples were not so soluble in absolute alcohol (boiling) 
as the old samples were previously found to be. This 
systematic increase in the iodine-value of Japan wax is to be 
explained by the following extract from Lewkowitsch's Fats 
and Oils. Under Japan wax, which, strictly, should be the 
product of the berries of several sumach-trees, chiefly Rhus 
succedanea, R. aciiminata, R. veniicifera, and R. sylvestris, he 
says (p. 755) : — 

" With the growing demand for Japan wax, the aim has been 
to increase the output ; this is reached by mixing the press 
residue or even the ground berries with a certain proportion 
(usually 10 per cent.) of perilla oil. This practice has been on 
the increase during the last ten years ; therefore the discrepan- 
cies in the iodine-values recorded in the table of constants are 
readily explained." 

It is therefore most probable — is, in fact, practically certain — 
that the Japan wax of to-day contains a little perilla oil. 



100 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Juglans regia, Saccharose in. — S a 1 v o n i. {Repertoire, 
[.'JJ, 17, 127.) The kernels of walnuts are found, like hazel, 
to contain saccharose. 

Juniper Berries, Russian, Essential Oil oi. {SchimmeVs 
Report, Oct., 1904, 50.) Specimens of Russian oil of juniper 
examined, otherwise normal, had a dextro-rotation, [(/]j^, + 7° 
to + 8°. 

Lactase in the Vegetable Kingdom, A. Brae hi n. (Journ. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 300.) Continuing the work of Bourquelot 
and Herissey ( Year-Boole, 1904, 105), the author finds that lactase 
is widely distributed in plants ; its presence was demonstrated 
in the following Rosaceous seeds ; Prunus spinosus ; cultivated 
plum ; Cerasus lusitanica ; cultivated cherry ; Cydonia vulgaris ; 
Sorhus latifolia ; Cratcegus oxycantJm ; Eryohothrya japonica ; 
Ainelanchier vulgaris. In Crucijerce the seeds of Sina pis alba and 
of S. nigra contained the ferment, and the fresh crushed leaves 
of Cochlearia armoracia when introduced direct mto the test 
solution, but macerations of the same were inactive. Lactase 
is shown to be without action on potassium myronate contained 
in these seeds. A number of representative plants were then 
examined, and lactase detected in all ; the only instances in 
which it was not found were in the seeds of Enonymus europceus, 
Capparis spinosa, and Berberis vulgaris. Among the lower or- 
ganisms, Aspergillus niger contams no lactase ; Bacillus coli 
communis and j^easts consume lactase^ but no hydrolized lactase 
is found in the culture media. It would appear that these lower 
organisms secrete lactase according to their needs. 

The fact that lactase is a specific ferment, distmct from emul- 
sin, is showii by the fact that its action is arrested between 
75-80°C., or 10° lower than emulsin. Also the presence of 0-24 
per cent, of acetic acid inhibits its action ; emulsin is only 
affected by five times as much, 1-20 per cent. 

Lactose, New Reaction for. A. W o e h 1 k. {Zeits fiir Analyt. 
Chem.. tlirough Pharm. Centralh., 46, 274.) Half a Gm. of milk 
sugar is cautiously heated on the water-bath with 10 c.c. of 
10 per cent. AmOH solution, avoiding boiling. In 15 to 20 
minutes a madder-red colour is produced. Other sugars, when 
thus treated with ammonia, give, at the most, a straw-yellow 



CHEMISTRY, 



101 



colour. The reaction, owing to the nature of the colours i^ro- 
duced, is not available for the detection of the presence of cane 
sugar in milk sugar. The spectroscopic behaviour of the milk 
sugar colour in solution is sharply differentiated from that of 
other sugar. 

Lactuca muralis. Occurrence of, and Distribution of. Mydriatic 
Alkaloid in. R. W r i g h t. [Pharm. Journ. (4). 20, 548.) The 
discovery by Dyraond of a mydriatic alkaloid in Lactuca virosa, 
which was subsequently confirmed by the author and Farr, led 
to the examination of Lactuca muralis, to ascertain whether 
or not it contained a similar principle. 

To avoid loss of the minute amount of alkaloid probably 
present, the foUoiving method was adopted : The dried 
material was reduced to powder and exhausted by percolation 
with 70 per cent, alcohol, containing 5 per cent, acetic 
acid, B.P. The percolate was evaporated over a waterbath 
until all the alcohol had been dissipated, the aqueous liquid 
filtered, the filter washed with hot water and the filtrate and 
washings transferred to a stoppered glass separator. A slight 
excess of ammonia was added, and the alkaline Kquid shaken 
up with four successive 5 c.c. chloroform. The latter were 
drawn off in turn and bulked and then shaken up with 
three successive 5 c.c. distilled water containing 1 per cent, 
dilute sulphuric acid. The mixed acid solutions were treated 
with a slight excess of ammonia, and the alkaloid shaken out 
with chloroform. This process of purification was carried out 
three times in all, the alkaloid being finally obtained in a per- 
fectly colourless solution in chloroform. This was transferred to 
a tared glass dish and the chloroform allowed to evaporate at a 
low temperature. 

By this process, which absolutely precludes loss of alkaloid in 
any stage, minute quantities of such were obtained from each 
part of the plant. All the residues when dissolved in a little very 
shghtly acidulated water gave characteristic precipitates with 
Thresh's and Maj'-er's reagents, and each solution when instilled 
into the eye produced distinct mydriasis. The following figures 
represent the yield of alkaloid by the different parts of the 
dried herb : Root, 9 Gm. =00014 Gm. =0-15 per 'mille ; Stem, 
90 Gm. -0-0019 Gm. =0-02 per mille ; Leaves, 40 Gm. =0-0023 
Gm. =0-06 per ?mille; Flowering tops, 13 Gm. =0-0006 Gm. 
= 0-046 per mille. 



102 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Lard from Cottonseed Meal-fed Hogs, Reaction of, with 
Halphen's Test. E. F u 1 m e r. {Jouni. Amer. Chem. Soc, 
26, 837.) An investigation was undertaken with the view of 
determininsj to what extent the lard from cottonseed meal-fed 
hogs would give a coloration with Haljihen's reagent. 

Lard was rendered from samples of fat taken from hogs fed on 
cottonseed meal from kidney, jowl, back and intestines, and in 
many cases also from the belly. 

All lard samples gave a distinct and, in some cases, a verv 
strong coloration when treated with Halphen's reagent. The 
coloration-equivalent, expressed in percentages of cottonseed 
oil, ranged from 04 to 15 per cent. 

In general, the greatest degree of coloration was found in 
kidney-fat lard, and the least in intestinal-fat lard. In a majority 
of samples back-fat lard gave a greater intensity of colour than 
that from jowl-fat. The colour-producing principle of cotton- 
seed oil is transmitted to all parts of the animal, although in un- 
equal amounts. 

When the colour-producing substance is once deposited in the 
fat of hogs, it is exceedingly persistent, as illustrated in the case 
of an animal being killed three months after it had received its 
last ration of cottonseed meal, lard rendered from its fat 
showing a coloration equivalent to 4 per cent, of cottonseed 
oil ; and another hog, killed after having eaten no cotton 
meal for five months, a composite sample of its fat yielding 
lard which showed a coloration equivalent to 3 per cent, of 
oil. 

Laurus camphora Leaves, French, Essential Oil of. {Schim- 
meVs Report, May, 1905, 83.) The leaves of the Camphor tree 
grown at Camies have yielded 0-52 per cent, of essential oil, 
which entirely differs in characters from any oil from a 
similar source previously recorded. In characters it closely 
approaches cardamom oil ; the odour is similar to this ; sp. gr. 
0-9058 at 15°C. ; [a.]p-26° 12'; acid value. 0-34: ester value, 
8-82 ; acetyl value, 46-9 ; solubility. 1 : 1 and more in 80 
per cent, alcohol ; b.p. (under 4 mm.) 35-95°C. It contains 
pinene, probably camphene, eineol in quantity and kevoter- 
pineol. 

Lavender, Essential Oil of, Adulterated with Ethyl Succinate 
and Spanish Lavender Oil. (Schimmcrs Iiei)ort, May, 1905, 51.) 



CHEMISTRY. 103 

The hiofh price reached by lavender oil during the past season has 
rendered sophistication very prevalent. Among the substances 
used for this purpose, French and American turpentme oil, spike 
oil, Spanish lavender oil and rosemary oil are enumerated. In 
some instances the lowering of the ester value, occasioned by the 
use of Spanish lavender oil as an adulterant, was covered by the 
introduction of ethyl succinate. 

Lavender Oil. French, Adulteration of. [SchimmeV s Report, 
Oct., 1904, 51.) The prevailing scarcity and consequent high 
price of lavender oil has induced much adulteration. Spike oil 
is the chief adulterant, either by direct admixture or by distilling 
the two kinds of flowers together ; to increase the solubility of 
this oil Spanish sage oil is added, together with a trace of amyl 
acetate, to impart aroma. Generally speaking, French lavender- 
oil with less than 33 per cent, of esters must be regarded as im- 
pure ; bat there are some districts in France where the normal 
oil falls below this figure. For instance, the oils produced on the 
banks of the Var, which are highly esteemed, contain only 28 to 
30 per cent, of ester. These oils have a low sp. gr. and a fairty 
high Isevorotation. Petroleum has been met with in two samples 
of lavender oil examined. 

Lead, Detection and Determination of, in Cream of Tartar or 
Tartaric Acid. L. and J. G a d a i s. {Aimales de Chim. Analyt., 
10, 98.) 100 Gm. of the cream of tartar is introduced into a 
conical litre flask, with 80 c.c. of distilled water and 60 c.c. of 
pure HCl, sp. gr. 1-17, and gently heated until dissolved ; 
60 c.c. of distilled water is then added, with pure copper 
nitrate free from lead, equivalent to 0-15 Gm. of Cu. The mix- 
ture is heated to 60°C. and SHo passed through it for a consider- 
able time. The flask is then well corked and set aside for 12 
hours. The precipitated sulphides are then collected, washed 
witli SHo solution, and the filter containing them treated, in a 
small conical flask, with 8 c.c. of HNO3 free from Pb., heatii\g to 
dissolve the sulphides ; then diluted with water, boiled for one 
minute, filtered into a 150 c.c. porcelain capsule, the flask and 
filter, washed, and the bulked filtrate and washings concentrated 
to 25 c.c. on the water-bath. This solution is transferred to a 
platinum capsule, washing with not more than 25 c.c. in so doing. 
The 50 c.c. of liquid thus obtained is submitted to the electric cur- 
rent, connecting tlie"platinum capsule to the positive pole. After 



104 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

allowing::; the current to run for 12 liours, the liquid is siphoned 
off, without interrupting the current, and the capsule waslied four 
times w^ith water. It is then removed from the current, washed 
first with alcohol, then with ether, 4 or 5 drops of solution of 
tetramethyldiamidophenylmethane in acetic acid are added. 
Tins solution is allowed to flow over all parts of the capsule, 
when, if lead be present, a fine blue colour will be developed. 
For the quantitative determination of the lead 500 Gm. of the 
cream of tartar is dissolved as before, using 5 times the amount 
of acid and water. This solution is then treated with cupric 
nitrate equivalent to 0-15 Gm. of Cu and tlie proce* continued 
as above, but the platinum capsule is first tared, and after the 
electrolysis and washing, dried at 100°C. and weighed. The 
increase of weight noted, x 0-17322, gives the amount of Pb. in 
the cream of tartar taken. 

This method, with slight modifications, is available for the 
determination of Pb. in tartaric acid and other tartrates. 



Lecithins, Commercial, Examination of. G. F e n d 1 e r. 

(Apoth. Zeit.. 20, 22.) The author finds that by extraction with 
boiling absolute alcohol, the whole of the lecithin present is not 
dissolved ; by treating the residue insoluble in alcoliol with etlier, 
a substance is obtained which contains phosphorus and nitrogen 
in similar proportions to di-stearyl-lecithin. In valuing com- 
mercial lecithins, therefore, the material should first be extracted 
witli boiling alcohol, then wnth ether, and the two liquids mixed 
The solvents are then to be distilled off and the amount of 
nitrogen andj phosphorus determined in the residue. Direct 
determination of these constituents in the original gives erron- 
eous results. The amount of these calculated on pure 
di-stearyl-lecithin, C44H90NPO9, are P 3-837 per cent, and N 
1-738 per cent. 

Ledum palustre, Stearoptene of the Essential Oil of. — 
L o m i d s e. [Pharm. Centralh., 45, 590.) The flowering plant 
gathered in 1901 yielded 1-5 per cent, of essential oil, and 0-5 per 
cent, in 1902. The oil is a thick fluid at normal temperatures, 
whicii deposits crystals on standing. Tlie stearoptene was iso- 
lated by cooling a 1 : 2 solution of?the oil in 90 jier cent, alcohol 
to — 10°C., separating the crystals, and distilling off the adhering 
portion of oil at 80°C. under 20 mm. pressure. The residue thus 



CHEMISTRY. 105 

obtained, reerystallized from alcohol, gave the pure stearoptene 
ia long, needle-shaped, colourless crystals, havmg the formula, 
Cir.HogO ; m.p. 104°C. ; b.p., 281°C. in an atmosphere of COg 
since it is readily oxidized in the air. 

Lemon, Essential Oil of, New Indirect Process for Determina- 
tion of the Aldehydic Contents. E. B e r t i. {Chem. and 
Drwjg., 66, 682.) To 10 c.c. of the oil add 50 c.c. of a saturated 
solution of potassium bisulphite in an Erlenmeyer flask, capa- 
city about 250 c.c. Close it with a stopper in which is inserted a 
glass tube about 40 to 45 cm. long. Shake the mixture until 
emulsified, and heat to boiling at 5 mm. pressure for ten minutes, 
agitating frequently, and taking care not to overheat. Then 
allow to cool completely, after which heat again for another 
five minutes, agitating vigorously during the whole operation. 
Allow to cool to the temperature of the surrounding air. The 
mass should then be put quickly into a tapped funnel of the 
capacity of about 100 c.c, and some time afterwards the 
floating stratum of oil is to be separated from the underlying 
solution of bisulphite pn which the combined aldehydes are 
found. The terpene is to be washed twice with a little 
distilled water and filtered with tlie addition of a little anhy- 
drous sodium sulphate. Wiien it is quite clear, examine it 
with the polariscope. 

The difference between the deviations of the essence and of the 
terpene taken (of coarse under the same conditions of tempera- 
ture) will give indirectly the quantity of aldehydes that the oil 
contains according to the following formula : — 

100 (A -a) 
^ - A 

in which a represents the rotation of the original essence, A the 
rotation of the essence liberated from the aldehyde, and C the 
percentage of aldehydes. 

Nvimerous analytical data of results obtained with genuine 
lemon oils, which showed an aldehyde content of 6-85 to 7-4 per 
cent, v/ith tliese genuine oils mixed with lemon terpene, and with 
limonene and citral, have given the author concordant results. 
In conclusion, the author expresses the hope that a reason will be 
found for the low yields of terpeneless oil obtained on the manu- 
facturing scale, compared with the amount of non-terpenic con- 
stituents indicated by these methods. 



106 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Lemongrass Oil, Adulterated with Citronella Oil. E. J. 
Parry- {Chem. and Drugg., 66, 140.) Specimens of lemon- 
grass oil adulterated with citronella oil have been met with. 
One such had a specific gravity of 0-901 and the [a]f, — 5° (calcu- 
lated from a solution in alcohol, as the oil was too dark for a 
direct observation). The refractive index at 20° was 14835. 
On absorption by sodium bisulphite the apymrent citral value 
was 62 per cent., but this included the absorbed aldehydes from 
the citronella oil as well as the citral. The unabsorbed portion 
was examined, and compared with the unabsorbed portion of a 
pure oil. The chief difference to be noticed here was that the 
residue from the pure oil had a characteristic sweet odour, re- 
calling the geraniol esters, while that from the adulterated oil 
was of a more t\^ical geraniol odour. The physical characters 
gave no information, but an acet3'lation and saponification 
showed that the adulterated oiF contained much more free 
alcohols than the pure oil. I 

The aldehydes were separated from 30 c.c. of the oil and 
recovered by decomposing the bisulphite compound and steam- 
distilling. The specific gravity of the aldehydes was only 
0-886, and the refractive index 1-4789. The figiu-es for citronellal 
and citral are as follows : — 

Citral 0-897 1-4861 

Citronellal . . . .0-854 1-4481 

This oil probably contained 30 per cent, of citronella oil ; other 
consignments, similarly adulterated, but to a less degree, have 
been met with. 

Lemon Petitgrain OIL {SchimmeVs Report, May, 1905.) A speci- 
men of the essential oil of tlie leaves and twigs of Citriis limonvm 
was found to have the following characters : Sp. gr. 0-8824 at 15°C. ; 
[a]]) -1-21° 81' ; [77 j^ ,30 1-4725 ; it contained 24 per cent, of citral, 
no citronellal ; 10-5 per cent, of esters calculated as acetates ; 
total alcohols, 19-4 per cent., of which 11-6 was geranio] as well 
as camphene and limonene. It greatly resembles orange petit- 
grain in constituents. 

Lignaloe Oil. {SchimmeVs Report , Oct., 1904, 55.) Now that 
linalol is largely extracted for use in " synthetic " perfumery, 
the residual oil, after the extraction of this alcohol, finds its way 
into conmierce. The partial removal of linalol affects the rota- 



CHElVnSTRY. 107 

tion of the oil, wnich normally siiould not be less than —5'^ ; such 
oils may show a dextro-rotation. The saponification value of 
the normal oil lies between 1 and 25 ; with oils from which the 
linalol has been partly removed it rises to 30-45. Fractional 
distillation, in vacuo, will also serve to differentiate those oils 
which are poor in linalol. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that dextrorotatory oil may result from inefficient bulking of 
the fractions during the distillation of normal oil. A lignaloe oil 
of unknown source has been met with which had the sp. gr. 
0-8793 at 15T. ; [a\, + T 31' ; acid number, 1-02 ; ester number, 
3-88 ; solubility, 1:1-7 of alcohol 70 per cent. Fractional dis- 
tillation mider reduced pressure showed the presence of 65 per 
cent, of dextro-linalol. 

Lime Oil from Barbados. {ScMmmeVs Beport, Oct., 1904, 54.) 
Authentic specimens of distilled and hand-pressed hme oils re- 
ceived from the Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture had the 
following characters. 

HaM-pressed Lime Oil : Sp. gr. at 15°C. 09008; [a]„ + 36° 17'; 
[a]^ of the first 10 per cent, of the distillate -i- 39°30' ; acid num- 
ber 6-05 ; ester number, 29-55 ; residue on evaporation, 17-8 per 
cent. ; soluble in 4 and more vol. 90 per cent, alcohol, wdth shght 
cloudiness in consequence of separation of parafiin. The dilute 
alcoholic solution shows a famt blue fluorescence, which renders 
the presence of anthranilic ester probable. The oil has a golden 
yellow colour, and possesses a pleasant refreshing odour which 
greatly resembles that of lemon oil. 

Distilled Lime Oil. The bright-yellow oil, which possesses a 
disagreeable odour like turpentine or pine tar oil, had the follow- 
ing constants : Sp. gr. at \h°(\ 0-8656 ; \ci\, + 46° 36' ; [a\ of the 
first 10 per cent, of the distillate -t- 53° 8'; acid number, 1-8; 
ester number, 4-05 ; residue on evaporation. 3-16 per cent. : 
soluble with slight cloudiness in 4-5 and more vol. 90 per cent, 
alcohol. 

Linin. J. S. Hills and W. P. Wynne. {Proc. CJum. 
Soc, 21, 74, also Pharm. Jonrn. [4]. 20, 401. 436.) Linin, 
C'oaHoiOg, is apparently a glucoside ; on hydrotysis with dilute 
acids or with lime, it is split up into glucose and a bcdy which 
appears to be identical with the linin of Schrceder. The yield of 
the crude glucoside is only 0-13 per cent, of the drug. It crys- 
tallizes from alcohol in needles, m.p. about 203°C., the exact 



108 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

111. p. depending on the mode of lieating. It is insoluble in water, 
sparingly soluble in organic solvents. With concentrated 
HjS04, it gives a deep pui-ple coloration. It contains four 
methoxyl groups ; attempts to prepare acetyl and benzoyl de- 
rivatives were unsuccessful. Oxahc acid was the only oxidation 
product which could be identified. Linin has no purgative 
action. 

In many of its jDroperties it resembles Podwyssotski's picro- 
podophyllin {Year-Book, 1882, 159, 163), which was re-examined 
in 1898 by Dunstan and Henry in the course of their investigation 
of the constituents of Indian and American podophyllum ( Year- 
Book, 1898, 135). Henry, who has compared the two sub- 
stances, is of opinion that they are not identical, as picro- 
podophyUin melts at 227°C., and a mixture of it with linin (m.p. 
205°C.) at 184°C. The recognition of very similar purgative 
principles in Podophyllum and Linum, and the failure to isolate 
the active principle from, each, lends a .special interest to the 
present investigation, and it is hoped that a furtiier study of the 
proximate principles of the two drugs wiD, in the hands of Dun- 
stan and Henry, lead to fre.sh light being throwni on the nature 
of the purgative agent in each. 

Lithium Citrate. D. B. Dot t. {Pharm. J own. [4], 20, 
440.) It has previously been pointed out that the British 
Pharmacopoeia is inaccurate in describing this salt as deliques- 
cent, and in regard to tlie temperature at which it loses the whole 
of its water. It does not appear to have been noted that the 
official statement as to the proportion of water lost, just under 
100°C.,is quite incorrect. The formula with four molecules of 
water is generally accepted as accurate. It has repeatedh* been 
observed that well-defined crystals, which were apparently quite 
dry, lose considerably more than the B.P. 19 per cent Some large 
crystals were powdered, the powder spread on paper, and exposed 
for two da3's in the air of the laboratory. This powder lost in 
the water-bath under 100°C. 24-8 per cent. On transferring to 
the air-bath and exposing to a temperature of 150-160''C., 
the loss was increased to 27-6 per cent. These numbers agree 
very well with the formula (Li3C)2,9H20. which requires 24-7 
per cent, for eight molecules of water, and 27-8 per cent, for 
nine molecules. Further experiments are needed to determine 
whether the salt contains more tlian four molecules of water, 
and, if so, to what amount the excess extends. 



CHEMISTRY . 109 

Lupin Alkaloids. {Berichte, 37, 2351.) The so-called lupini- 
diiie of Liebscher is now found to be identical with sparteine, and 
to have the formula C15H26N2 ; this base, and lupinine C10H19ON, 
are found in the seeds oi Lupinus luteus a,nd L. niger. Luyanine, 
C15H24ON2, occurs in Lupinus alhus and L. anyudifolius. (See 
also Year-Books, 1891, 112 ; 1892, 51 ; 1897, 60 ; 1898, G3.) 

Lupinus polyphyllus Seeds, New Alkaloid from. G. F. B e r g h. 

{Archiv der Pharm., 242, 416.) The seeds of the familiar garden 
plant, Lupinus polyphyllus, have yielded a. new alkaloid, oxy- 
lupanine, C15H24N2O2 + 2H2O, which crystallizes from aqueous 
acetone in large colourless rhombic prisms. It is very soluble 
in water, soluble in CHCI3, and sparingly soluble in ether. 
The air-dry base melts at 76-77°C., when anhydrous after 
drying in vacuo it melts at 172-174*^0. When dried in the 
air at 100 it turns brown. Its [a]oio = + 64-12 ; the hydri- 
odide Ci,H24N20.,-HI-2H20, m.p. ' 91-93°C. ; sulphocyanide 
Ci5H,2N202.HCNS".H,0, m.p. 125°; ami chloride, C.^H.^N^O^ 
HAuCU, m.p. 205-266°C. ; and the platinochloride Ci^HLNoOa 
•HoPtCl,; + H2O, dried to constant weight at 100°C., m.p. 
235-236°C., were prepared. When acetylized it forms a 
monoacetyl ester, Ci5H23(C2H302)N202, also takes up one 
methoxyl group on methylating. Dextrolupanine, Ci5H,^N20, 
which has previoush' been found in the seeds of other species 
of lupin, was also present. 

Magnesia, Formation of, from Magnesium Carbonate by Heat, 
and the Effect of Temperature on the Properties of the Product. 

W. C. Anderson. {Proc. Chem. Soc, 21, 11.) Magnesia, 
prepared from different substances and by different methods, 
varies greatly in its properties. Experiments have been con- 
ducted with magnesite (native magnesium carbonate) and the three 
forms of artificial carbonate, to determine the lowest tempera- 
ture at which the evolution of CO2 could be distinctly recognized, 
the rates at which the evolution of the gas takes place at higher 
temperatures, and the relative solubility in water of the MgO 
produced. Native magnesite yielded 0-4 per cent, of its weight 
of CO2 ill 20 hours at 350°C., and the rate of evolution increased 
rapidly with rise of temperature. With two of the artificial 
carbonates complete expulsion was reached at about 750°C., but 
with " heavy " carbonate only above 810°C. The MgO obtained 
from " heavy " carbonate was found to be more rapidly soluble 



110 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

in water tliau that obtained fiom " light " and " crystal " car- 
bonate, .s(j long as the lieating did not greatly exceed the tem- 
perature needed for complete decomposition. As the temperature 
of preparation was increased, the solubility of the MgO formed 
decreased, but much more so in the case of "heavy" carbonate 
than in tlie other two. It is inferred that polymerization occurs 
in heating MgO, which takes place more rapidly with the pro- 
duct of " heavy " carbonate. The rate of solution is considered 
to be a measure of the rate of hydration which is most rapid in 
the molecule (MgO)„, obtained by heating the heavy carbonate 
at 810°C. 

Manganese Dioxide, Detection of Traces of Iron in. H. 

C o r m i m b o e u f. {Annales de Chim. AnaUjt., 10, 51.) Two 
Gm. of the oxide is heated to redness in a platinum crucible, then 
dissolved in 25 to 30 c.c. of strong HCl ; solution is complete after 
a few minutes' boiling ; when the black colour has changed to 
yellowish, the liquid is diluted with water, and filtered. After 
washing the insoluble residue, the filtrate is partially neutralized 
with NaOH or KOH, but left distinctly acid. Neutralization is 
completed with ZnO free from iron, an excess of about 5 Gm. 
of this being added. When the supernatant licpiid has become 
quite colourless the precipitate of ZnO and FcoOa is collected, 
washed, and dissolved in excess of dilute H2SO4. Pure zinc is 
then added to the acid liquid to reduce the iron to the feiTous 
state. After liaK an hour's action, the liquid is strained through 
a plug of cotton wool and titrated with standard Iv]\InO, solu- 
tion, each c.c. of which is equivalent to 0-001 Gm. Fe^Oa. 

Maple Sugar. — B u i s s o n. {Bull. Assoc, des Chim. de Sue. 
et Dist. Ind., through Chem. Centralhlatt, 76, 459.) ]\Iaple sugar 
from North America is golden yellow in colour and has slight 
honey-like aroma. It contains 85-4 per cent, of cane sugar ; 509 
per cent, of reducing sugars ; 0-75 per cent, of soluble, and 001 
per cent, of insoluble ash ; with 8-75 per cent, of water and 
organic matter. The reducing sugars contain more dextrose 
than levulose, their specific rotation being [a]*^ — 20-62°. 

Matico Oil. H. T h o m s. {Archiv der Pharm., 242, 328.) 

The so-called matico ether of Fromm and van Emster {Year- 

Book, 1903, 117) is found to consist of a mixture of jaarsley-ajsiol 

and dill-apiol, the latter predominating. It also contains a 

ij hydrocarbon, m.p. — 1S°C., and another phenol ester. 



CHEMISTRY, ' 111 

Matrine, the Active Principle of Sophora angustifolia. 

— 1 s h i z a k a. [Apoth. Zeit., 19, 855.) The author has ni- 
vestigated the physiological action of matrine, CisHo-iN^O, iso- 
lated by^Nagai from the roots of the plant {Y ear-Book, 1896, 
106). The alkaloid is toxic, the lethal dose for dogs and rabbits 
bemg 0-3 Gm. for each kilo of bodyweight. It slows and even 
arrests respiration, deadens the motor centres, occasions con- 
vulsions, and increases the arterial pressure. The root is used 
in China for dysentery and tjrphus. 

Melia azadiraehta Leaves, Constituents of. D. Hooper. 
{Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 576.) Among the plants said to be use- 
ful for keeping away mosquitos, a correspondent in the British 
Medical Journal quoted the Nim {Melia azadiraehta) as being 
poisonous to these insects. The fresh leaves were tested by 
distilling them with water, when it was found that a distinct 
allyl- or onion-smelling compound was present in the distillate. 
The powdered leaf, when burnt, also gave off a disagreeable 
odour, and the smoke was fatal to some insects. The extract of 
the leaves was intensely bitter, and gave evidence of the presence 
of an alkaloid. 

Mercury, Detection of Traces of, in Urine. — Z e n g h e 1 i s. 

[Zeits. fiir Analyt. Chem., through Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 
371. ) A spiral composed of two very fine wires, one of copper, the 
other of platuium, about 20 cm. long, is immersed in the urine, 
rendered faintly acid with HCl, for 24 hours. The spiral is then 
withdrawn, cautiously washed first with very dilute NaOH solu- 
tion, then successively with ^water, alcohol and pure ether ; it is 
then carefully wiped on tissue paper and dried for an hour, over 
H2SO4. It is then pressed to the bottom of an absolutely dry 
test-tube 7 or 8 cm. high. Meanwhile iodine, 1 Gm., is dissolved 
in absolute ether 4 c.c, and by means of a fine feather a small 
ring of the solution is painted round the inner side of the tube, 
about 1-5 or 2 cm. above the wire spiral. A piece of wet filter 
paper is placed over this on the outside of the tube, to act as a 
condenser. The tube is then plugged with a loose pledget of 
wool, and the portion containing the spiral gently heated, while 
the tube is held in a horizontal position. A ring of Hgl or Hgl2 
will then be formed, if mercury be present where the ring of 
iodine has been painted. This becomes very evident when the 
tube is held over a black background. If a large volume of 



112 YEAK-liOOK OK rilARMACV. 

urine lias to be examined, it is rendered alkaline with NaOH. a 
little glucose or invert sugar is added, and the whole boiled for 
15 minutes. The whole of the mercvuy is then precipitated with 
the phosphates. These are collected, dissolved in HCl, and 
treated as described above. 

To determine the amount of mercury in the urine the preci- 
pitated pho.sphates are to be dissolved in dilute HNOy, the solu- 
tion made up to 25 c.c. is then submitted to electrolysis, em- 
ploying as the cathode a small sheet of Pt. previously tared. 
After electrolysis, this is detached, washed with water, then with 
alcohol, and finally with absolute ether, dried over H2SO4 and 
weighed. 

Mercury in Urine, Detection of. — 8 o n n i c - M o r e t. {Bull, 
des Sciences Pharmacol., through Annales de Chim. Analyt., 10, 
151.) To destroy the organic matter 1,700 to 1,800 c.c. of urine 
is placed m a capacious flask fitted with a rubber cork bearing 
two tubes similar to those of a wash bottle : to the one which 
dips beneath the surface of the liquid, which should be of fairly 
wide diameter, a small glass capsule, filled with coarsely-pow- 
dered KCIO3, is attached to the outer extreniit}^. b}- means of an 
inch or two of rubber tubing, so that the capsule hangs loosely, 
and on being raised will allow a few particles of chlorate to fall 
into the liquid. The other tube is fitted to an upright condenser. 
From 20 to 22 Gm. of chlorate is filled into the capsule, and the 
urine is acidified with 90 or 100 c.c. of HCL, sp. gr. 1-17 (or more 
if the sp. gr. of the urine exceed 1-018). The flask is then im- 
mersed in the water-bath ; and as soon as the liquid is thoroughly 
heated, the glass capsule is raised and a few granules of chlorate 
allowed to fall into the liquid. This is so managed that it takes 
about an hour for the whole of the KCIO3 to be used up. The 
heating is continued for 7 or 8 hours ; then the glass capsule is 
taken oflf and the flask connected up with a COo generator, by 
the same tube, a current of that gas being passed through the 
liquid until all the CI has been washed out. When cold, the 
liquid is neutralized with soda. 

Meanwhile a rectangle of fine copper gauze, 11 cm. x 4 cm., is 
rolled into a cylinder, washed with alcohol and ether, to remove 
greEkse, then in dilute HCl, and fixed in the beak of a capacious 
tapped fumiel just below the tap. The neutralized urine is then 
introduced into the funnel and the tap slightly turned over, so 
that the liquid drips out slo\vly drop by drop. After it has all 



CHEMISTRY. 113 

passed through the funnel and over the copper once, it is re- 
turned, and the operation is repeated. The copper cyUnder 
is then washed in tepid distilled water, which is allowed to flow 
over it through the tap, as before, drained on filter paper and 
dried over H2SO4. It is then transferred to a subliming tube 
and heated, when an}^ mercury present is sublimed in the usual 
manner. The nature of the sublimate may be conformed, if 
necessary, by submitting it to the vapour of a crystal of iodine, 
when it ^vill speedily assume a red colour. By this method the 
presence of 0-0004 Gm. of Hg maybe detected in 1,800 c.c. of 
urine. Possibly, by using gold or platinum gauze, more com- 
plete precipitation of the mercury might be effected. 

Methyl Alcohol, Detection of, in Liquids containing Ethyl 
Alcohol. S. P. S a d 1 1 e r. {Amer. J. Pharm., 77, 106.) The 
following modification of the method of MuUiken and Sc udder 
has been adopted by the U.S. P. Revision Committee for the ready 
and convenient detection of methyl alcohol in alcoholic pre- 
parations. Into a test-tube 1 c.c. of the preparation to be 
tested is introduced, and, if undiluted, made up to 10 c.c. 
The proportion of alcohol present should not exceed 10 
per cent, by volume. A copper wire spiral is made by winding 
1 metre of No. 18 copper wire closely round a glass rod 7 mm. 
thick, making a coil 3 cm. long, the rest of the wire being used 
for a handle. The coil is heated to redness in a smokeless flame, 
then immersed steadily quite to the bottom of the alcohohc fluid . 
This treatment is repeated 5 or 6 times, immersing the tube 
meanwhile in cold water to keep down the temperature of the 
liquid. The spirit is now filtered into a wide test-tube and 
boiled very gently. If any odour of acetaldehyde is perceptible, 
boilmg is continued until this has been dissijDated. The Hquid 
is then cooled and 1 drop of a 1 : 200 solution of resorcinol added 
to it. A portion of this mixture is then floated on H2SO.1 in 
another tube and allowed to stand for 3 minutes, then slowly 
rotated. No rose-red ring should be evident at the zone of con- 
tact of the two liquids, indicating the absence of more than 2 per 
cent, of methyl alcohol. 

Methyl Fluoride. J. N. Collie. {Proc. Chem. Soc, 20, 
180.) Methyl fluoride, when sparked from an induction coil, in 
a vacuum tul3e with alummium electrodes, at 2 mm. pressure 
gives a bluish green colour. The sijectrum, however, rapidly 

I 



114 YEAR-BOOK OF rHARMACY. 

changes, and the characteristic lines of liydiogen appear. When 
sparkc^d under ordinary ])ressure the gas is almost immediately 
decomposed thus, 4CH3F = 4C, +4H2 + 2H0F0. In glass tubes 
a secondary change occurs, the silicon fluoride formed by the acid 
of the hydrogen fluoride on the glass is reduced by the hydrogen, 
and silicon is deposited, thus : — 

SiF4 + 2Ho = 2H.,F., + Si. 



Methyl-Nataloemodln and Nataloemodin. E. L e g e r. (Comptes 
rend., 140, 1464.) Having obtained a supply of authentic 
material from H. G. Greenish, the author has been able to 
prepare nataloemodin in sufficient quantity to continue his 
investigation on the subject. 

The methyl ester of nataloemodin, obtained by the action of 
sodium dioxide on nataloin, which was originally described as 
occurring in pale orange yellow crystals, is now found to be orange 
red, the tint varying with the manner of crystallization. When 
heated for 15 to 18 hours, at about 300°C., with a large 
excess of KOH, nataloemodin methyl ester is decomposed, and 
among the products is an acid, probably a-oxiso-jDhthalic acid. 
With fuming HNO3, which reacts with great violence, no nitro 
derivatives, but only oxalic acid is formed. With bromine the 
action is much slower, a pentabromide. CtoHiyBrsOs, is obtained 
in mahogany red needles, m.p. 293-295°. When acetylized the 
diacetyl-methylnataloin — 

(CeHg )C2H302 / > CgH-CaHoO,, (OCH3 ) f CH3 ) 

— crystaUizing in long, anhydrous, brilliant needles, m.p. 169°C. 
is obtained. Nataloemodin — 

CO 

CcHalOH) / ^/C6H(OH)o(CH3) + H.O 

— is obtained by heating methyl-nataloemodin in sea,led tubes 
with fuming HCl. It melts at 21 4T., when dried at 130T. Its 
solution in alkali is cherry red, changing to violet in presence of 
a great excess of alkali. This distinguishes it from the two other 
emodins, whose alkaline solutions are not so affected. When 
acetylized this gives triacetyl nataloemodin — 



CHEMISTRY. 115 

C«H3 (C2H3O, ) / CeH (CHaO, ). (CH3 ) 

— crystallizing in yellow needles, m.p. 203-7°C. 

Monarda didyma, Essential Oil of. {SchimmeVs Report, Oct.^ 
1904, 97.) Half-dried plants cultivated at Miltitz yielded 0-04 
per cent, of golden yellow oil with a pleasant aromatic, ambergris- 
like odour. Sp. gr. 0-8786 at 15°C., [a]^~2A° 36', solubility in 
alcohol 70 per cent. 1 : 1-5 or 1 : 2. (See also Y ear-Book, 1904, 
117.) 

Mydriatic Solanaceous Alkaloids, Occurrence of, in Different 
Plants. E. S c h m i d t. {Archiv der Pharm., 243, 4.) The 
comparative study of the different plants of the Solanacece 
systematically continued at Cassel has had some important 
results. It is found that Datura metel contains laevoscopo- 
lamine (hyoscine) alone, in all parts, the leaves jaelding 0-55 per 
cent, and the seeds 0-5 per cent., unaccomj^anied by am^ notable 
quantity of other mydriatic bases. In this respect the plant 
will probably prove a more useful source of scopolamine, which, 
under the name of hyoscine, has found an important place in 
medicine, chiefly for ophthalmic use. But the scopolamine now 
used, chiefly derived from Scopola, is the inactive form, and often 
contains an impurity that is not easily detected, and which gives 
rise to irritation. The author suggests that only Isevoscopolamine 
should be employed for medicinal purposes, since its absolute 
purity can easily be established by the observation of its ojDtical 
activity. Since this base is readily obtained pure from Datura 
metel, and the plant is easily cultivated, it should become the 
commercial source of the alkaloid. Datura arhorea, contains 
scopolamine also in all parts, but it is accompanied by a small 
quantity of hyoscj^amine. Datura quercifolia yields a mixture 
of approximately equal jDarts of scopolamine and In'oscyamine, 
and therefore takes a place between D. metel and D. stramonium. 
The last-named contains practically nothing but hyoscyamine. 
Atropa helladonmi, in all parts, yielded chiefly hyoscyamine ; 
the leaves of the wild plants gave 0-4 per cent, of total alkaloids, 
those of cultivated plants 0-26 per cent. ; green unripe fruit gave 
0-797 per cent, and ripe berries 0-831 per cent. The bases were 
isolated as follows. The coarsely powdered drug was extracted 
with alcohol, to which a few drops of acetic acid had been added. 



116 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY 

the resulting tincture freed from alcohol and the residue diluted 
with water containing a little hydrochloric acid. After liltration 
the alkaloids were hberated by sodium bicarbonate and shaken 
out with ether-chloroform, the last traces being removed by 
potassium carbonate and a large volume of the same solvent. 
From the ether-chloroform solution the alkaloids were extracted 
by dilute hydrochloric acid and converted into the aurichlorides. 
Hyoscyamine gold chloride crystallizes in lamellae melting at 
160-161°C. and containing 31-24 per cent, of gold. The 
last mother liquors yielded, as a rule, a little atropine auri- 
chloride (m.p. 134°C.), and also amorphous aurichlorides difficult 
to crystallize, but traces of such products which probably do 
not exist in the plant are found in all typical hyoscyamine- 
yielding drugs. 

Nicotine, Conine, and Sparteine, Tests to Differentiate. C. R e i - 
chard [Pharm. Centralh., 46, 309, 387.) Cuprous oxychloride 
is a reagent which serves to distinguish nicotine and sparteine. 
The reagent is easily prepared by moistening CuaCL with a little 
water, and heating until the mass acquires a bright green colour. 
A small particle of the CuoCkO thus obtained is placed on a 
porcelain surface with a drop of either of the above alkaloids and 
a drop of HCl. With nicotine an immediate formation of a fine 
violet blue colour occurs, wliich is permanent ; with canine the 
tint is bright green, slowly fading and finally disappearing ; 
sparteine gives no immediate reaction. Another reagent is «-ni- 
troso-yS-naphthol, a few drops of a solution of which is evaporated 
on a porcelain surface and treated with a trace of the alkaloids. 
Conine gives a fine deep green colour, nicotine a j'ellowish brown 
tint. Solution of ammonium molybdate in HoSO^ gives a green 
colour with nicotine, and no reaction with conine or sparteine ; 
the addition of a little ammonium persulphate to these mixtures 
causes that with nicotine to give a fine purple-violet tint, Mith 
sparteine and conine a deep yellow. Nicotine gives at first a 
yellow, then a reddish colour, with a mixture of potassium sul- 
phovinate and HoSO^ ; sparteine and conine give no reaction. 
Nicotine gives a red colour with sodium picrate ; its colour is un- 
changed by sparteine or conine ; on adding HsSO^ the red colour of 
the nicotine mixture becomes yellow. On adding a little ammo- 
nium persulphate and adropof strong solution of potassium sulpho- 
cyanide to either of the three s^Vk^dloiAs, sparteine gives a fine orange 
colour, nicotine affords no reaction ; with conine a slight orange 



\ 



CHEMISTRY. 117 

tint quite distinct from that of sparteine is formed. Ferric 
sulphocyanide. emploj-cd as follows, also serves to distinguish 
the alkaloids. A few drops of solutions of FeaCL, and of KCNS are 
mixed on a porcelain surface, and the deep red liquid is spread 
out in a thin layer and allowed to evaporate. A small quantity 
of nicotine or conine added, with a very little water, to this 
residue gives a green colour ; sparteine a very deep bluish or 
reddish violet. By substituting K4FeCy6 for the KCNS and 
treating the blue liquid in the same way, the dry residue gives 
with conine a greenish brown spot ; with nicotine the spot is at 
first blue, then slowly changes to bright green ; \^ith sparteine 
the spot immediately assumes a pale violet colour. If a little 
KCNS be now added to the dry spots, no change occurs with 
conine or nicotine, but the sparteine spot becomes pale blue, 
passing to deep blue on drying. 



Nicotine, Determination of, in Presence of Pyridine. J. A. 

E m e r y. {Journ. Amer. Chcm. Soc, 26, 111.3.) Since nicotine 
and toijacco products are frequently adulterated with pyridine, 
tlie following method has been devised for the determination of 
the former in presence of the latter. Five Gm. of the tobacco 
extract is treated with 10 c.c. of 10 per cent, alcoholic solution 
of soda and 40 c.c. of water ; sufficient ca,lcium carbonate is then 
worked in to produce a.n almost dry mass, w^hich is then extracted 
with ether for 5 hours in a Soxhlet apparatus. The ethereal 
extract is distilled at a low temperature, the residue treated with 
50 c.c. of N/10 NaOH solution, transferred to a distilling flask, 
and distilled with a current of steam until from 400 to 450 c.c. of 
distillate has been collected. This is then adjusted to 500 c.c. 
with water ; an aliquot part is taken and titrated, in the usual 
manner, with acid, using methyl orange as indicator. The result 
gives the total bases, nicotine and pyridine. To determine the 
nicotine, a standard 1 per cent, solution of pure nicotine is pre- 
pared and standardized by titration. The optical rotation of 
this is then determined. Using a saccharometer Avith a 400 mm. 
tube one degree of deviation is found to be equivalent to 0-112 
Gn. of nicotine in 100 c.c. of liquid. The optical deviation of a 
1 per cent, solution thus being knowai. the amount of nicotine in 
a portion of the above distillate is readily determined polari- 
metrically. The difference between the amount of total bases 
and nicotine gives the pyridine. 



118 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Nitrogen Iodide. 0. S i 1 b e r r a d. (Proc. Chem. Soc, 20, 
193.) From the action of zinc-ethyl with nitrogen iodide, 
by which volatile paraffins, together with a white amorphous 
compound, from which ammonia and triethylamine were ob- 
tained on treatment with dilute acid and subsequent distillation 
with KOH. it is concluded that the formula for nitrogen iodide 
is NHj : XI3, and that the action of zinc-ethyl proceeds according 
to the equation — 

(1) XH, :Xl3-f-3Zn(aH5). = 3Zn(C,H,)I + NH3+N(CoH5)3. 
(2) 2XH3 + Zn(CoH5 )2 = Zn (XH, ), + 2C,Hfi. 
(See also Year-Books. 1894, 24 ; 1895, 24 ; 1897, 30 ; 1899, 21, 
22: 1900, 20.) 

Nitrogen, Presence of, and the Amount of Ash, in certain 
Medicinal Plants. L. F. K e b 1 e r. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
52, 367.) It has been noticed that dried stramonium leaves 
contain a large amount of nitrogenous matter ; in American- 
grown leaves this did not occur as nitrates, while imported leaves 
showed the presence of nitrates by the diphenylamine reaction. 
On the other hand, nitrates were present in American digitalis 
leaves, but not in the imported drug. In four samples of Jabor- 
andi examined the total nitrogen ranged from 2-17 to 2-58 jiei 
cent. ; in only one of these were nitrates present ; the ash of 
these samples ranged from 5-15 to 10-41 per cent. In 26 samples 
of Stramonium leaves the nitrogen ranged from 3-60 to 5-98, and 
the ash from 9-26 to 22-72 per cent. Stramonium seeds gave 
2-77 to 3-00 per cent, of nitrogen and 2-42 to 2-92 per cent, of 
ash. Belladonna leaves, in seven samples, gave from 1-03 to 
5-42 per cent, of nitrogen and from 6-01 to 16-53 per cent, of ash. 
Digitalis leaves, from 2-70 to 2-83 per cent, of nitrogen, and from 
11-13 to 25-31 per cent, of ash. Nux vomica.irom 1-26 to 1-46 
per cent, of nitrogen, and 1-29 to 1-94 per cent, of ash. Coca 
leaves, 2-57 to 3-26 per cent, of nitrogen, and 9-24 to 12-46 per cent, 
of ash. Calabar bean, 2-90 to 3-24 per cent, of nitrogen, and 3-75 
to 4-24 per cent, of ash. Ipecacuanha, from 1-56 to 1-78 per cent, 
of nitrogen, and 1-73 to 303 per cent, of ash. (For previous 
records of ash of drugs, see Year-Books, 1900, 403 : 1902, 176; 
1903, 244.) 

Nut Oil, Detection of other Oils in. J. B e 1 1 i e r. (Annales de 
Chim. Atidlyt.. 10, 55.) The adulterant most difficult to detect in 
nut oil is poppyseed oil ; but since the fatty acids of the latter 



CHEMISTRY. 119 

are much less soluble in alcohol at a low temperature than those 
of the former, sophistication may be detected as follows. A 
solution of glacial acetic acid, 1 volume, in water, 3 volumes is 
prepared ; also a solution of pure KOH 16 Gm. in alcohol, 90 per 
cent. 100 c.c. The acid solution is set against the alcoholic alkali, 
using phenolphthalein as indicator, and the equivalents noted. 
Exactly 1 c.c. of the oil to be tested is carefully run into a test- 
tube and 5 c.c. of the alcoholic KOH solution is added to it. A 
control test is performed, side by side with pure nut oil. The 
two tubes are then heated to near boiling, but avoiding absolute 
ebullition until the oils are dissolved. They are then corked and 
kept at 70°C. in the water- bath for half an hour ; each is then 
treated with exactly that quantity of acetic acid solution which 
is equivalent to the 5 c.c. of alcoholic KHO taken. The tubes 
are again corked, stood in water at about 25*^0., and when they 
are uniform in temperature placed side by side in water main- 
tained at 17-19^0. Pure nut oil under these conditions requh-es 
a considerable time to show a scanty separation ; poppy oil, on 
the contrary, rapidly forms a precipitate which will be suspended 
in the whole liquid ; other oils give an almost immediate separa- 
tion of fatty acids, and with some the liquid in the tube is quite 
solidified. This test will detect all other oils mixed with nut oil 
except poppy oil in the proportion of a few percentages : it is 
less sensitive for poppy oil ; with practice 10 per cent, may be 
detected, but above 15 or 20 per cent, the evidence it affords is 
unmistakable. 

Nutmeg, Essential Oil of, the B.P. Characters for. {Schim- 

meVs Report, Oct., 1904, 66.) Attention is directed to the fact 
that the B.P. limits of sp. gr. for nutmeg oil, " 0-870 to 0-910 at 
15°C.," excludes from use oil distilled from the best nutmegs, 
since it is only wormy low-grade nuts which yield an oil of this 
character. It is remarked that " a radical elimination of such 
contradiction, which, unfortunately, does not stand alone, is 
greatly to be desired." The nominal characters of the oil are 
sp. gr."^ at 15X'. 0-870 to 0-920 ; [a],, + 11° to +30° ; solubility in 
alcohol, 90 per cent. 1 : 1 to 1 : 3. An oil from specially good 
nutmegs was found to have the sp. gr. 0-922 at 15°C. [a] + 
7° 52' ; solubility in alcohol, 90 per cent. 2:1. 

Ocimum basilicum, Essential Oil of. P. v o n R o m b u r g h, 

and C. J. E n k 1 a a r. {SchimmeVs Report, Oct. 1904, U.) P. 



120 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

von Romburgh lias detected a new terpene, CioHie, ocimene 
which resembles myrcene in obsorbing oxygen with readiness 
and becoming converted into a colourless viscid body ; but it 
differs from myrcene in physical characters. Enklaar finds that 
by reduction with sodium, in alcoholic solution, a dihydro- 
ocimene is obtained, which forms a crystalline bromo additive 
product distinct from that of myrcene. 

Op'.um Alkaloids, Certain, Criticism of the Official Monographs 
on. D. B. D o 1 1. {Phnrm. Journ. [4], 20, 230.) Ajxymorphine 
Hi/flrochloride. The solubiHty in water is more fairly described 
as 1 in 53. The solubility in 90 per cent, alcohol might be given 
as 1 in 48. 

Morphine Acetate. Better described as soluble 1 in 3 parts of 
water. The sentence about recrystallizing from liot water 
might be deleted. 

Morphinr Hydrochloride. This is better described as soluble 
in 25 'parts of water, and 1 in 70 of alcohol (90 per cent.). It is 
impossible to obtain 1-51 Gm. of anhydrous morphine by pre- 
cipitating with ammonia from 2 Gm. of salt, because the alkaloid 
is more soluble in ammonia solution and in solution of ammon- 
ium salts than it is in water. 

Opium, and Tincture of Opium, Morphinometric Assay of. 
D. B. Dott. {Pharm. Journ. \4:\ 20, 230.) The follow ing 
modification of the official method is suggested : — 

Take 8 Gm. of opium, digest with 20 c.c. of warm water, 
transfer to a small calico filter, wash with successive portions of 
water, finally pressing the filter with its contents, so as practical!}' 
to exhaust in 80 c.c. ; add 3 Gm. slaked lime, allow to mix and 
make up volume to 82 c.c. After thorough mixing, allow to 
stand half an hour, filter, collect 50 c.c. in a flask, add to the 
filtrate 5 c.c. alcohol and 30 c.c. of ether ; shake the mixture, 
add 2 Gm. ammonium chloride, shake frequently during half an 
hour, set aside for eighteen hours, then decant the ether througli 
two counterpoised filters, transfer the precipitate to the same, 
using water saturated with ether for this purpose, wash the filter 
twice or thrice with ether-water, press in bibulous paper, dry at 
about 70° to 80°C., and weigh the precipitate. Titrate a weighed 
portion of the precipitate with decinormal acid, and calculate 
the equivalent of the whole precipitate to anhydrous morjihino. 
To the number so obtained add 004, and multiply the sum 



CHEMISTRY. 1 21 

by 2. The product will represent the percentage of anhydrous 
morphine in the opium. 

In the case of tincture, evaporate 80 c.c. to 30 c.c, dilute 
(adding 3 Gm. slaked lime) to 82 c.c, and proceed further in the 
same manner as described under opium. The number finally 
obtained will represent the proportion in grammes of anhydrous 
morphine present in 100 c.c. of tincture. 

Opium. Suggested Process for the Morphinometric Assay of, 
for the Future French Codex. A. and Albert Petit. {Jovrn . 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 107.) Fifteen Gm. of opium is weighed 
otf from an average sample and triturated in a mortar with 
6 Gm. of slaked lime until evenly mixed ; it is then thoroughly 
rubbed down with water 150 c.c, and left in contact for 2 hours 
with occasional stirring. The mixture is then thrown on a 
filter and 106 c.c. of filtrate collected, which will correspond 
to 10 Gm. of the original opium. To this liquid 30 c.c of 
ether is added and the mixture thoroughly shaken to saturate 
the aqueous portion ; AmCl, 2 Gm. free from carbonate is then 
added, with thorough agitation, until a distinct precipitate is 
formed. The mixture is then set aside for 24 hours in a pre- 
cipitating flask, well closed with a piece of ground glass, to pre- 
vent the volatilization of the ether. The ether layer is then 
decanted on to 2 small counterpoised filters, and the aqueous 
liciuid again agitated with another 30 c.c. of ether, which 
is passed through the same filter, followed by the aqueous 
mother liquor, all crystals adherent to the sides of the flask 
being detached and transferred to the filter by means of this 
mother liquor. The precipitate and filters are then washed with 
20 to 30 c.c. of morphine-saturated water by means of a fine 
pointed pipette. Then dry the filters for 2 hours at 100°C., and 
wasli when cold with about 20 c.c. of pure CHOI.,, previously 
deprived of alcohol by sliaking out with water. Finally dry 
again at 100°C., and weigh. The weight obtained is the amount of 
monohydrated morphine contained in 10 Gm. of opium. 

Opoponax Oil. {SchimmeVs Report, Oct., 1904, 67.) The 
essential oil obtained by steam distilling the gum resin of 
Balsamodendron kajal had the sp. gr. 0-895 ; [ajp— 12°35'; 
saponification value, 14-5 ; solubility in alcohol 90 per cent., 
1:1, not quite clear with 1 : 8. When acetylized the increase 
in the saponification value was observed, indicating the presence 



122 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of an alcohol. On distillation in vacuo the portion which did 
not distil between 45-130^C. under 3 mm. gave a phthalic acid 
ester, which, when saponified, liberated a colourless alcohol 
extremely difficult to volatilize with steam. This appeared to 
be a mixture of sesquiterpene alcohols. It had a marked odour 
of opoponax. The volatile fraction of the above gives a ses- 
quiterpene, the crystalline hydrochloride of which melted at 
80°C. and had the composition C'lsHoi-SHCl. The sesquitei-pene 
regenerated from this hydrochloride had the sp. gr. 0-8708 at 
15°C. ; was optically inactive ; b.p. with decomposition, 260- 
285°C. at normal pressure ; [n\, oeo 1,48873. 

Oregon Balsam, from Pseudotsuga mucronata, Essential Oil 
of. F. R a b a k. {Pharm. Review, 22, 293.) The balsam ex- 
amined, derived from the above source, yielded on steam distil- 
lation 25 per cent, of an essential oil, the bulk of which distilled 
over below 160°C. The oil has a pleasant tmpentine-like odour. 
The sp. gr. fluctuated in different distillations between 0-822 and 
0-873, whilst the difference in the angles of rotation was but slight 
{[«]„ -34° 37' to -39° 55'). In fractionating the essential oil. 
71-8 to 83-4 per cent, passed over up to IGO^C. ; from this portion 
relatively pure 1-pinene was obtained by a second fractional 
distillation. The 1-pinene was identified as such by conversion 
into pinene nitrosochloride, nitrosopinene, and pinene nitiol 
benzylamine. (See also Y ear-Book. 1904, 197.) 

Oregon Balsam from Abies amabilis. F. K a b a k. {Pharm. 
Review, 23, 46.) This oleoresin, resembling Canada balsam in 
appearance, is a thinnish fluid with a marked limonene-like 
odour. Sp. gr. 0-969 at 22°C. ; acid value, 44 ; opticallj- in- 
active. It yields 40-3 per cent, of a colourless oil ; sp. gr. 0-852 
at 22°C. ; [a]y,~l2° 17'; it contains hi?vo-pinene and probably 
laivo-limonene. 

Oxalic Acid, New Synthesis of. H. M o i s s a n. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 1209.) Wlien dry carbonic acid gas is passed over 
potassium liydride at 54C., potassium formate has been shown 
to be formed {Year-Book, 1902, 84). It is now found that when 
the combination takes place at 80°C. potassium oxalate is pro- 
duced according to the formula — 

2KH + 200^ = K.C^O, + H^ . 



CHEMISTRY. 123 

This reaction has been proved, not only by the characteristic 
reactions of the acid hberated, but also by measuring the volume 
of hydrogen produced. 

Oxymethyl-anthraquinone Constituents in Purgative Drugs, 
Determination of. — C h r i s t o f o 1 e t t i. [Pharm. Cen- 
tralh.. 45, 725.) Applying the colorimetric method of Tschirch 
(p. 145) to drugs other than rhubarb, the following results were 
obtained : — 

Cort. Rhamni Francj., 4-5-5 per cent. ; Cort. Rhamni Frang. 
(in fine powder), 5 per cent. ; Cort. Rhamni Pershian., 1-4-2 per 
cent. ; Cort. Rhamni Purshian. (in fine powder). 1-6 per cent. ; 
Fruct. Rhamni Cathart., 0-76 per cent. ; Fol. Sennce AlexancL, 
1 per cent. ; Fol. Sennce Indicce, 1-2 per cent. ; FoUicidi Sennce, 
1-33 per cent. 

In the examination of aloes the following modified process was 
used : 5 Gm. of the aloes was dissolved in 50 c.e. of alcohol, 30 
per cent., without warming. This solution was shaken out with 
benzol, successive portions, until the benzol solution separated 
colourless. The bulked benzol extract was then shaken out with 
successive washings of AmOH solution, 10 per cent., until these 
showed no more red colour. The bulked ammonia solution was 
then diluted with distilled water to 1 litre and tested colori- 
nietrically against the standard emodin solution. In order to 
obtain a bright red colour for comparison the diluted solution 
should be treated with 10 c.c. of AmOH. The different varieties 
of aloes examined gave the following figures : — 

Aloe lucida cap., hard, 0-08 per cent. ; Aloe lucida cap., soft, 
0-2 per cent. ; Uganda Aloes (new method), 0-5 per cent. ; 
Barbados Aloes, 1-0 per cent. ; Barbados Aloes (new method). 
0-33 per cent. : Curayao Aloes, 0-8 per cent. 

Palm Oil, Detection of, in other Oils. C. A. C r a m p t o n 

and F. D. Simons. [Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 27, 270.) 
Palm oil is often used as a colouring material for other fats or 
oils ; its presence may be detected by either of the two following 
reactions : — 

First Method. One hundred c.c. of the fat is dissolved in 
300 c.c. petroleum ether, and shaken out with 50 c.c. of 0-5 per 
cent, potassium hydroxide. The watery layer is dra\\7i off, 
made distinctly acid with h3'drochloric acid, and shaken out 
with 10 c.e. of carbon tetrachloride. The carbon tetrachloride 



124 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

solution is separated and part of it tested with the following 
reagent : Two c.c. of a mixture of 1 part crystallized phenol in 
2 parts carbon tetrachloride is added to it in a porcelain crucible, 
then 5 drops of hydrobromic acid (sp. gr. 119), and the contents 
mixed by gently agitating the dish. The almost immediate 
development of a bluish green colour is indicative of palm oil. 

Second Method. Ten c.c. of the melted and filtered fat is 
shaken with an equal volume of acetic anhydride (chemically 
pure and colourless), then 1 drop of sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1-58) 
is added, and the mixture shaken a few seconds. If palm oil be 
present, the lower layers on settling out will be found to ho 
coloured blue with a tint of green. 

The test was applied to all tlie oils and fats ordinarily used for 
edible purt)oses, and none were found to give the characteristic 
colour, except that sesame oil and mustard oil gave colours which 
might be confused with the colour obtained from palm oil. 
Fortunately, these are not oils having a high natural colour, 
consequentlj' they would be present, if at all, in some consider- 
able quantity, and their presence may easily be demonstrated 
by characteristic tests; the sesame oil by the furfural reaction, 
and the mustard oil by the high refractive index of the fatty 
acids extracted by the alkali solution. 

The colouring matter in sesame oil, which is the cause of this 
colour reaction, may also be separated by repeated extractions 
with alcohol, when the oil left will not give the blue colour. A 
similar number of extractions of cotton oil containing 1 per cent, 
of palm oil had no effect on the formation of the colour. 

Bleached palm oil does not respond to either reaction. 

Palmarosa Oil, Occurrence of Methyl-he ptenone in. [Schim- 
meVs Report, May. 1905, 47.) The presence of methylhoptenone 
in palmarosa oil susj)ected by Gildemeister and Stephan is con- 
firmed. The first 5 kilos derived from distilling 350 kilos of 
oil was fractionated at normal pressure. Methylheptenone was 
found in the fraction boiling between 170°-180"C. 

Paraphenylenediamine in Hair Dyes, Detection of. J. Tho- 
rn a n n. {Schweiz. Woch. 42, 680.) It has been found that the 
use of iiair dye containing paraphenylenediamine is most in- 
jurious, producing a troublesome eczema of tlie scalp. It may 
be isolated by shaking out with ether, but thus olitaincd.it is 
contaminated by oxidation products. These may be obviated by 



CHEMISTRY. 125 

the addition of ammonium sulphydrate. On evaporating the 
etiier the parai^henylenediamine occurs in long needles, m.p. 
about 14:0°. Its solution in HCl, treated with excess of NaClO, 
gives a white flocculent precipitate crystallizing from dilute 
alcohol in long needles, m.p. 124°C'. When gently heated with 
solution of SHo and Fe^jClc a violet colour is produced. A very 
dilute solution, treated with aniline and FesCle, gives a blue 
colour. 

Patchouli Oil, Constituents of. [ScMmmel' s Report, May, 
1905, 60.) One of the bases previously recorded {Y ear-Book, 
1904, 132) as occurring in patchouli is now found to have the 
formula C14H23NO, forming by long standing a crystalline 
hydrochloride, m.p. 147-5 to 148-5°C. It forms a crystalline 
platinochloride (Ci4H23NO.HCl)2PtCl4, m.p. 175°C. H. von 
Soden and W. Rojalin {Berichte, 37, 3354) have isolated by 
repeated fractionation two sesquiterpenes. One of these, 
CisHoi ; b.p. 264-265^C. under 750° mm. ; [a]i,2o-58° 45' ; 
sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-9335. The second sesquiterpene boiled at 
273-274°C. under 750 mm. ; it had the sp. gr. 0-930 at 15X!. and 
the [a]|, + 0° 45'. Neither gave a crystalline hydrochloride. 
They were unable to find the cadinene reported by Wallach as 
occurring in the oil. 

Peppermint Oil, French. {Schimmel' s Report, May, 1905, 02.) 
Although French oil of peppermint is not exported, considerable 
quantities are produced and consumed in France. Three 
specimens examined difi'ered very widely in character, as shown 
by the following figures : No. 1. Sp. gr. 0-9249 ; [a] i,— 
5° 20' ; menthol as esters, 9-95 ; total menthol, 45-75 per cent. 
Insoluble in 10 vols, of 70 per cent, alcohol ; soluble 1:1-1 vol. 
of 80 per cent, alcohol. No. 2. Sp. gr. 0-9108 ; Va\-IT 46' ; 
menthol as esters, 10-32 ; total menthol, 50-82 ; insoluble in 
10 vols, of 70 per cent, alcohol ; soluble 1 : 1-2 in 80 per cent. ; 
opalescent with more than 4 vols. No. 3. Sp. gr. 0-912 ; 
[a][, — 35° 18' ; menthol as esters, 20-8 ; total menthol, 69-26 ; 
soluble, 1 : 3-5 and more of alcohol 70 per cent., with faint 
opalescence. 

Peppermint Oil, Javan. P. van d e r W i e 1 e n. {Apoth. 
Zcit., 19, 930.) The oil is distilled from Mentha javcmica. Bl. 
{Mentha lanceolata Benth.), is green in colour and has a pleasant 



126 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

odour not resembling peppermint, and a bitter taste. It con- 
tains much pulegone and little or no menthol or menthone. 

Peppermint Oil, Sicilian. J. C. U m n e y and C. T. Ben- 
nett. (Chctn. and iJrugg., 66, 945.) The oil examined was 
derived from black Mitcham peppermint plants, cultivated in 
Sicily. The jDeppermint plant appears to grow luxuriantly in 
Messina, and blossoms early. In this country the oil is usually 
distilled from the plant before it reaches that stage, and 
it rarely flowers in England. Two distillations have been 
made in Messina from the fresh herb. The sample of oil 
No. 1 was distilled in July, when the plants were in full 
bloom, while No. 2 was a second distillation from herb which 
had by no means reached the full development of its second 
growth (the growth of the herb in the autumn being very slow), 
when there was no indication of flower-buds. The yield of oil 
from the second crop was only one-third of that obtained from 
the first. This low yield was partly due to the effects of an early 
winter. 

Sample No. 1, distilled in July, 1904 (yield 0-4 per cent.), had 
the following characters : Sp. gr., 0-908 ; optical rotation, —14'^ ; 
total menthol, 40-0 per cent. ; free menthol, 36-2 per cent. ; 
esters calculated as mentlwl acetate, 4-8 per cent. 

The oil was soluble in 4 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, 
although it had not been rectified, but did not solidify when 
immersed in a freezing-mixture, even after the addition of a 
crystal of menthol and stirring. 

It will be seen that the percentage of menthol in the oil is very 
low, the proportion of esters of menthol being small also, but in 
fair ratio to the total amount of menthol present. 

Sample No. 2, distilled from the second crop of peppermint in 
December, 1904, had the following characters : Sp. gr. 0-920 ; 
optical rotation, —23° ; total menthol, 70-5 per cent. ; free 
menthol, 47-4 per cent. ; esters calculated as menthyl acetate, 
29-4 per cent. 

The oil was not soluble in 70 per cent, alcohol, although it 
had been rectified, but was soluble in 2 volumes and upwards of 
80 per cent, alcohol. The unusual amount of esters probal)ly 
accounts for the insolubility in 70 per cent, alcohol. The pro- 
portion of esters recorded is extremely high — higher than in any 
sample of peppermint oil previously examined, and even 
more than double that of the white peppermint oil 



CHEMISTRY. 127 

examined in 1896 {Year-Booh, 1896, 148). As might be inferred, 
tlie high proportion of esters appears to jjrevent the separation 
of menthol (notwithstanding its apparently high percentage) 
when immersed in freezing-mixture. 

The oil possesses a markedly pleasant taste, and agrees very 
much in character with the finest white peppermint oiL Of 
course, the low yield would make it a comparatively expensive 
product, but, as it seems to have been a cold season, better 
results may be looked for this year. 

Incidentally, it is noted that a specimen of white peppermint 
oil which has been kept for 6 years now contains 19-4 per cent, 
of esters. 

Perborates. J. B r u h a t and H. Dubois. { Annates 
de Chim. Analyt., 10, 135.) Perborates differ from borates in 
containing an additional molecule of oxygen. Although this 
oxygen is very stable in crystalline perborates containing several 
mols. of crystal water, it is immediately evolved on warming, or 
in the presence of an excess of water, also in the presence of 
free acid. The nascent oxygen thus liberated combines with 
the water, forming hydrogen peroxide. In a neutral or alkaline 
solution only the dissolved perborate parts with its oxygen ; 
that which remains insoluble is not decomposed ; but if Mn02 
be added to the mixture the whole of the perborate, both in 
solution and undissolved, is decomposed. The same reaction 
takes place with certain organic ferments, such as the oxydases. 
When treated with cold strong H2SO4 the perborates give a very 
strong solution of H2O2, which decomposes spontaneously, 
forming ozone. They liberate iodine from KI, although they are 
alkaline in reaction, and decompose KMn04 like H202- They 
readily convert protoxides into the higher state, but do not 
always form perborates of the metals. Ferrous salts are con- 
verted into ferric, and, in alkaline solution, precipitate Fe203. 
Mercurous salts give yellow HgO ; Pb2H0 forms red hydrated 
plumbic plumbate. With nickel, basic perborates of a fine green 
colour are obtained ; zinc, calcium, magnesium, barium and 
strontium give white perborates more or less insoluble, of varying 
composition according to the conditions under which they are 
formed. 

When a solution of potassium biborate in H2O0 is cautiously 
precipitated with alcohol, crystals of biperborate of j)otassium, 
KB2O5.2H2O, are formed ; 1 Gm. of this salt dissolved in water 



128 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

gives 12-6 c.c. of solution HoOo of 10 volumes. When dried 
over P0O5 it loses 1 mol. H^O. 

With ammonia, several perborates are formed, of whicli 
NH4BO3.H2O contains 16-84 per cent, of active oxygen. 

Sodium perborate, NaB03.4H20, may be obtained either by 
the electrolysis of a solution of orthoborate, by precipitating the 
same with H2O2, or by saturating a solution of sodium peroxide 
with boric acid. When cautiously dried it gradually loses water 
and finally forms the very stable monohydrated salt NaBOa.HQO, 
which contains 16 per cent, of active oxygen, and 1 Gm. gives 
with water 11-13 c.c. of hydrogen peroxide of 10 volume strength. 
It is not very soluble in water, about 1 : 40 at 20°C. The solubility 
is increased by the presence of boric, citric, and tartaric acids. 
It is more soluble in glycerin. It becomes anhydrous when dried 
over P2O5, and then contains 45-158 per cent, of active oxygen. 

Peruvian Balsam, White. H. T h o m s and A. B i 1 1 z. 

{Oesterr. Zeits. filr. Pharm. 58, 943, through SchimmeVs 
Report, May, 1905.) The so-called " white Peru balsam " affords 
by precipitation from alcohol an amorphous body melting at 
120°-130°, myroxocerin. By extraction with 5 per cent, soda 
solution, cinnamic acid (m.p. 133°), and a compound insoluble 
in alkalies, which crystallized in white needles but was not further 
identified, and which melts at 270° with decomposition, were 
isolated. After these bodies had been separated from the ethereal 
solution, myroxol was removed by means of KOH, the residue 
saponified after distilling off the ether, and the volatile con- 
stituents then steam distilled. The yellow distillate thus ob- 
tained was split up by fractionating in vacuo (100 mm.) into an 
oil and a residue solidifying in crystalline form (55 per cent.) which 
was found to be cinnamic alcohol (m.p. 33°). The oil purified 
by repeated fractionating passed over constant at 112° (10 mm. 
pressure) as a colourless, strongly refractive liquid with a jJeasant 
odour. Phenyl-propyl alcohol and a hydrocarbon with an odour 
like cedarwood were also detected. Benzyl alcohol and peruviol, 
important constituents of the ordinary Peruvian balsam, were 
not found in the white balsam. 

Phellandrium Aquaticum, Essential Oil of. {SchimmeVs Im- 
port, Oct., 1904, 88.) In addition to phellandrene, this oil i 
found to contain a new aldehyde, piicllandral, C'loHieO, isomeric 
with citral, having an odour similar to that of cuminal. 



CHEMISTRY. 129 

It boils at 89°C. under 5 mm. ; sp. gr. 0-9445 at 15° ; [a]^- 
36° 30'; [7;],, 1,4911; m.p. of semicaibazone, 204°C. When 
exposed to the air pheHandral readily oxidizes into a crystalline 
acid, CioHi602, m.p. 144-145°C. With permanganate another 
dibasic crystalline acid, C9H10O4, m.p. 70-72°C., is obtained. 
From the non-aldehydic portion of the oil a new alcohol, androl, 
C10H20O, was isolated by refractionation in vacuo. This appears to 
be the chief odorous constituent of tlie oil. The higher boiling 
fractions contain another alcohol in minute quantity, which has 
a rose-like odour. 



Phosphorescent Zinc Sulphide. H. G r u e n e. {Berichte, 
37, 3076.) — Absolutely pure ZnS does not exhibit phosphores- 
cence, but it is developed bj^ traces of other metals, such as Cu, 
Ag, Mn, Pb, Bi, Sn, U, and Cd. The presence of less than 
0-0001 of Cu gives rise to a magnificent green glow ; with Mn 
the light is orange. This is produced by crushing or friction. 

Phosphoric Acid, Determination of, in Alimentary Substances. 

E. F 1 e u r e n t. AiDudes de Chim. Anali/f. 10. 1. Garola lia-s shown 
that the usual method of determining the amount of phosphates 
in food stuffs from the quantity of P2O5 in the ash gives results 
which are notably below the truth. He has proposed a method 
analogous to that of Kjeldahl, with subsequent precipitation and 
weighing as phosphomolybdate. The author advocates the use 
of the following process as being more accurate and convenient. 
If the substance contain much moisture it is first dried ; 10 or 20 
Gm. is introduced into a conical 300 c.c. flask and covered with 
50 or 100 c.c. of HNO3 ; sp. gr. 1-48. The mixture is gently 
heated, with agitation to break up the frothing ; when action 
moderates, evaporation is allowed to proceed, and finally the 
whole is carried to dryness at 110-120°C. in a dr^nng oven. The 
residue is then treated with 15 to 20 c.c. of H2SO4 (2 volumes of 
acid, sp. gr. 1-767. and 1 volume of fuming acid), 1 Gm. of Hg, 
and then heated as in Kjeldahl's method. When all the organic 
matter has been destroyed, the residue is cautiously diluted, 
neutralized with ammonia, and transferred to a precipitating 
flask, using the following solution to wash out the flask : Solution 
of ammonia, 50 ; AmCl, 20 ; distilled water to 100. The liquid 
is then precipitated in the ordinary way with magnesium mix- 
ture and the P0O5 weight as Mg2P207. 

K 



130 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Picramic Acid, New Process for Preparation of, and Determin- 
ation of Potassium by Means of. A. F r e 1) a u 1 1 and J. A 1 o y. 
{Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 245.) Tlie method hitherto em- 
ployed for producing picramic acid, or dintraminophenol, con- 
sists in tlie reduction of picric acid in alcoholic solution by means 
of AnioS. The following method is more convenient and gives 
better results. An aqueous or methjdic alcohol solution of picric 
acid is treated with zinc dust, and made alkaline with AmOH ; 
the mixture is then boiled for an hour, the excess of AmOH being 
maintained. The deep red liquid is then concentrated on the 
water-bath, to drive off the excess of AmOH, a slight excess of 
acetic acid is added, and evaporation continued to dryness. The 
residue is taken, redissolved in boiling water, filtered and crystal- 
lized, when it forms fine pomegranate-red crystals, m.p. 165°C. 
Picramic acid when suddenly heated burns quickly without 
detonation ; it precipitates neither peptones, albumoses, albumin, 
nor alkaloids, reactions which differ widely from those of picric 
acid. Like picric acid, it gives bromopicrin, CBr3(N02), when 
treated with sodium hypobromate. With alkali bases it 
forms salts of a fine red colour, which turn to pale greenish 
yellow in the presence of free acids. These salts may, therefore, 
be used as indicators for alkalimetry. Potassium may be deter- 
mined colorimetrically in the form of potassium picramate. A 
few c.c. of solution of the salt to be tested is treated with an 
equal volume of alcohol and precipitated by means of sodium 
picrate in excess. The precipitate is collected, washed with 
strong alcohol, dissolved in boiling water, and converted into 
picramate by means of glucose in the presence of ammonium 
carbonate. The tint of the red solution thus obtained is then 
matched with that of previously prepared standard solutions 
containing from knowm quantities of KCl. The therapeutic 
properties of the compound are under investigation. 

Pilocarpine, Substances having Analogous Constitution to. 
H. A. 1). J o w e t t. [Proc. Chem. Sac. 21, 1 Ki.) In aUemi)t- 
ing to prepare substances having an analogous constitution to 
pilocarpine the following compounds were isolated : — 

4 : 5-Dimethylglyoxali7ie, CsH^No, previously prepared bj^ 
Kuenne ; b.p. 165°C. under 10 mm. Its 7iilrat'e melts at 180°C. 
and its picrate at 196-197X'. 

1:4: 5-Trimethylglyoxaline, C6H10N2 ; b.p. 117^ under 20 mm. 



CHEMISTRY. 131 

crystallizing in needles ; m.p. 46°C. The nitrate, CgHioNoHNOo, 
H2O forms long needles ; m.p. 46'^C. The hydrochloride, 
C6HioNoHCl,H20, in needles which become anhydrous at 
110°C. or over H2SO4, then melts at 199X'. The aurichloridc 
occurs in yellow needles, m.p. 202^ ; the platinochloride has the 
m.p. 224-225°C., the jncrate m.p. 218°C., and the methiodide 
m.p. 158°. 

2-Bromo-l : 4 : 5-Trimethylglyoxaline, C6H9N2Br,2H20, ob- 
tained by the bromination of trimethylglyoxaline, crystallizes 
from hot water in long silky needles, m.p. 49''C. When anhy- 
drous it melts at 83^C. Its hydrobromide in cubical crj'stals 
melts at 208^^0., the aurichloride at 191^0., and the picrote at 
173°C. 

Pine-tar Oil, Finnish. E. L u n d-w i k. (Pharm. Centrolh., 
45, 859.) What is known in Finland as " crude oil of turpentine " 
is not, strictly speaking, turpentine oil at all, but crude tar oil, 
since it is a by-product in the destructive distillation of the wood 
of Pinus sylvestris. It is widely used in Finland both for medi- 
cinal and technical purposes. It differs from true turpentine oil 
in its dark colour, empyreumatic odour and greater toxic action, 
so that it is less suitable for internal administration for in- 
stance, as an antidote for phosphorus. It has but slight affinity 
for chlorine or iodine, does not absorb much oxj^gen, and contains 
only a small amount of pinene. It is chiefly used in medicine 
as a popular remedy for catarrhal and rheumatic affections ; 
also as a vermifuge, but for the latter purpose is not to be recom- 
mended, since closes of a dessertspoonful may occasion severe 
renal irritation. 

Pinus Sylvestris Buds, Essential Oil of. {HaenseVs Beport. 
April, 1905, 19.) The fresh male and female inflorescences of 
Pinus sylvestris gives oil of a different character according to the 
method of distillation. The oil obtained by direct steam distilla- 
tion liad the following characters : Sp. gr. 0-8839 ; [a]j) — 22° ; 
saponification value, 19-5 ; acetyl value, 58 ; solubility in 
alcohol 80 per cent., 1 : 20. The oil obtained by cohobation is 
darker in colour than the above, and has the following charac- 
ters : Sp. gr. 0-9588; [a]p — 5-44 ; saponification value, 33; 
acetyl value, 145 ; solubility in alcohol 80 per cent., 1 : 15. 
These figures are eciuivalent to 6-8 per cent, of bornyl acetate 



132 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARIVIACY. 

and 16-68 per cent, of boineol in the directly distilled oil ; and 
to 11-55 per cent, of bornyl acetate and 44-74 per cent, of borneol 
in the cohobation oil. 

Pinus strobus, Essential Oil of. T r o e g e r and B e n t i n. 
{/^r/n/nnt('l\s Hcpoit, May, 1905, 60.) The essential oil from the 
young shoots of Pinus strobus has the sp. gr. 0-9012 ; [t?];, 
1-48274; [a]p-19-8°; ester content. 8-4 to 8-9 per cent.; 
acetyl value. 15-25 per cent. 

Piperazine Glycerophosphates. A. A s t r u c. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 727.) Piperazine acid glycerophosphate is obtained 
by evaporating on the water-bath 2 molecular equivalents of 
glycerophosphoric acid and 1 equivalent of piperazine. The 
product is a syrupy transparent paste, slowly soluble in water 
in all proportions. Its solutions are neutral to helianthin and 
acid to plienolplithalein. 

Neutral piperazine glycerophosphate is obtained in a similar 
manner with equal equivalents of acid and base, by precipitating 
the aqueous solution of the acid glycerophospliate mth alcohol, 
or by mixing alcoholic solutions of acid and base in equimole- 
cular equivalents. The first two methods give an amorphous 
l^roduct in the form of a white powder ; the third yields the 
salt in crystalline scales which are stable at 100^ and melt at 
155°C. with decomposition The acid glycerophosphate has the 
formula — 

OH, CHioNo, HO 

PO— OH HO- OP. H.O. 

\OC3H5(OH)o {R0).2H,C,0^ 

The neutral salt may be expressed as — 

OH, CHioN^ 
POf-OH 

The latter is acid to phenolphthalein and alkaline to methyl 
orange. 

Podophyllum, peltatum. Fatty Oil of. A. R. L. Dohme 
and H. En^elhardt. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 52, 
340.) The fatty oil obtained in the course of the manufacture 
of podophj'llum resin has the following characters after heating 



CHEMISTRY. 133 

on the water-bath to drive off water and solvent : Sp. gr., 
0-9753 ; acid vahie. 40-6 to 41 ; saponification vahie, 182-7 to 
185-4; iodine vahie, 99-6 to 101. When treated with about 4 
volumes of fight petroleum spirit a heavy flocculent precipitate 
was obtained ; but it was soluble in alcohol and in other organic 
solvents. To separate the insoluble portion, the chloroformic 
solution was nnxed with a large volume of petroleum ether ; 
the flocculent precipitate formed aggregated to a yellow resinous 
mass, which was not crystallizable, nor could it be further 
purified ; it appears to be an indifferent body, becoming darker 
in colour on heating or exposure to the air. After the removal 
of this substance tlie oil had the sp. gr. 0-952 ; acid value, 39-9 
to 40-2 ; saponification value, 159 to 160-5 ; and iodine number, 
106-8 to 107-4. Among the non-saponifiable constituents, 
phytosterin, CobH^.O + HoO, m.p. 131°C., and a body giving 
colour reactions similar to cholesterol, crystallizing in prisms 
m.p. IIS'^C, were obtained. Oleic and oxyoleic acid were 
found to be present in the saponifiable portion ; but although 
the original oil showed marked drying properties, no linoleic was 
isolated. The lead soap insoluble in benzene yielded a crystalline 
fatty acid, m.p. 52-55°C., which has not been identified. The 
acid liquid after removal of the fatty acids contained glycerin 
and acid, possibly valerianic acid. 

Polyphenols, New Colour Reaction for. E. P. A 1 v a r e z. 

{Chem. News, 91, 124.) Hydrate of sodium dioxide, Na^iOoSH.O, 
is the reagent used for polyphenols, their isomers and higher 
organic conqjounds. It is produced by the action of cold water 
on pure sodium dioxide in the presence of alcohol or ether. The 
test is thus aj)i3lied. 0-2 Gm. of pure NaoOo is placed in a small 
porcelain capsule, with 0-04 or 0-05 Gm. of the polyphenol to be 
tested, and then 5 c.c. of absolute alcohol ; after gently rotating 
the liquid for 4 or 5 minutes 15 c.c. of cold water is added. The 
water must not be added before the alcohol, or the mixture will 
ignite. Pyrocatechin thus treated gives a transitory pale pink, 
changing to green, then brown. Resorcin gives a pale yellow 
colour, becoming greenish ; the green colour deepens and be- 
comes permanent. Hydroquinonc forms, at once, an intense 
reddish yellow colour ; a thin film of the yellow mixture when 
blown upon shows a transitory blue colour at the edges. On 
adding more water a persistent orange tint is produced. Pyro- 
gallol at once assumes a reddish brown or dull red colour, be- 



134 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

coming intense red with yellow edges and finally orange in two 
hours. Oxyhydroqui)iotie forms a reddish violet shade and a 
black deposit with brown liquid. Phlororjlucin gives a blue 
violet colour, increased by adding water. Orcin at once gives 
an intense pink shade, and after adding water the colour re- 
sembles that of infusion of roses. Ilomopyroratcchin produces a 
blue violet tint changing to red ; on adding water the liquid 
becomes reddish bro^vn with yellow edges. Thymohydroquinone 
at once forms an intense orange colour, becoming Avine red on 
addition of water. 

Potassium, New Reagent for. E. P. A 1 v a r e z. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 1186.) A freshly prepared 5 per cent, aqueous 
solution of icononogene or sodium amidonaphthol sulphonate — 

NH2 
C10H5 — OH 

S03Na 

is employed as a precipitant for potassium. The alkah should 
first be converted into chloride. The reagent may be employed 
in the presence of ammonium salts, and also in those of mag- 
nesium, if these be not in sufficient quantity to precipitate with 
ammonium carbonate. It is at least as delicate a reagent as 
platinic chloride, and is available in many cases where that and 
other potassium precipitants cannot be applied. Since the 
crystals of potassium amidonaphthol sulphonate form large 
characteristic or thorhombic pearly lamellae, the reagent is 
valuable for the microchemical detection of the metal. With 
dilute solutions the reaction is not very rapid ; thus 1 c.c. of a 
1 per cent, solution of HCl will only show the formation of the 
white precipitate of amidonaphthol sulphonate after standing 
for several hours. Ferric and manganous salts are not precipi- 
tated by the new reagent, but nickel, cobalt and bismuth are 
thi'own down, so is copper, but the precipitate is redissolved in 
an excess of the reagent. 

Potassium Perearbonate as a Source of Oxgyen and of Hydro- 
gen Peroxide. P. La mi. {Apoth. Zeit., through Journ. 
Phann. C'him. [6], 20, 65.) Potassium perearbonate is jirepared 
by the electrolysis of a saturated solution of potassium carbonate. 
The solution, at first clear, becomes milky, and finally deposits 
the perearbonate. Potassium perearbonate, when perfectly 



CHEMISTRY. 135 

dry, is stable at ordinary temperatures ; when heated to about 
200° it decomposes according to the equation — 

KoCOs^KaCOa + COa + O. 

When dissolved in water it is decomposed even at low tempera- 
tures into bicarbonate and oxygen — 

2KoC,0e + 2H2O = 2KHCO3 + 0,. 
This reaction is useful for the preparation of pure oxygen. On 
warming a solution of percarbonate a steady evolution of that 
gas occurs. When an aqueous solution of percarbonate is 
treated with HoSOj, H2O2 is formed, thus — 

KoC.Oe + H0SO4 = K2SO4 + 2CO2 + H2O2. 

Commerical potassium percarbonate invariably contains car- 
bonate and bicarbonate. It may be purified by treating it with 
a solution of potassium hydrate, in which the percarbonate is 
insoluble, then washing with alcohol to remove the alkali. In 
this manner a product containing 90 per cent, of percarbonate 
may be obtained. 

Primula Camphor. H. B runner. {Schiveiz. Woch. fur 
Chem. und Pharm., 42, 305.) The so-called primula camphor is 
shown to be chiefly the methyl ester of metamethoxysalicylic 
acid, aHg.COOCHa.OH.OCH,. 300 kilos of Primula veris 
roots, from about 20,000 primrose plants, gave 170 Gm. of crude 
liquid camphor; the rectified product had the sp. gr. 1-2155; 
b.p. 255°C. It is a colourless liquid when first distilled, but 
turns yellow on keeping. 

Propane, Physical Properties of. P. L e b e a u. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 1455.) Having prepared a considerable quantity of 
pure propane, the author finds that its physical properties differ 
materially from those given in works of reference. Its b.p. is 
found to be — 44-5'^C., and it remains fluid below — 195°C., its 
critical temperature 97-5°, and its critical pressure 45 atmo- 
spheres. 

Pyramidon, Detection of Antipyrine in, as an Adulterant. P. 

B o u r c e t. (Bull. Soc. Ghim., 33, 572.) From 1 to 2 C'gni. of 
the sample is dissolved in 4 or 5 c.c. of cold water ; 2 drops of 
H2SO4 66 per cent, are added, and 2 drops of a saturated solution 
of NaNOo or a few minute crystals of the salt. On shaking, pure 



136 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

pyramidon gives a bluish violet evanescent shade which in excess 
of NaXO., quickly disappears, leaving a colourless solution. If 
antipyrine be present, the violet colour of the pyramidon is suc- 
ceeded by a persistent bluish green colour, the depth of which is 
directly according to the amount of antipyrine present. Since 
antip\'rine is much cheaper than pyramidon. commercial samples 
of the latter are often adulterated therewith, sometimes to the 
extent of 33 per cent. 

Quercitrin. D. H. Brauns. {Archiv der Pharm.. 242, 
561.) Although quercitrin has long been known, some little 
doubt exists as to the formula of the rhamnoside. Air dried 
quercitrin is found to have the formula CoiH2f,0u + 2H2O. It 
loses 1 mol. H2O at lOO'C, and becomes anhydrous at 105^C. 

Quinine and Cinchonidine, New Reactions for. ('. R e i- 
chard. {Pharm. Zeit., 50, 314.) Advantage may be taken 
of the marked reducing action of quinine and cinchonidine for 
their identification. If a trace of HgXOs solution be allowed to 
evaporate on a porcelain surface, so as to form a small spot, 
and a crystal of the sulphate of either alkaloid be brought in con- 
tact therewith with a drop of water, a black colour is soon 
developed, wliich ultimately spreads over the whole spot. The 
reaction is much more rapid and sharp with cinchonidine than 
with quinine. The two alkaloids may be differentiated as 
follows. When a few crystals of quinine sulphate are intimately 
mixed with ammonium persulphate, and a few drops of H2SO4 
are added to the mixture, an intense yellow colour is produced, 
which gradually fades. Cinchonidine does not give any reaction. 
If quinine be mixed with HoSOi containing ammonium molyb- 
date a light blue colour is formed, gradually becoming dark blue. 
With cinchonidine the dark blue tint is developed at once, 
without any preliminary light blue shade. If a few crystals of 
ammonium persulphate be added to these blue solutions, they 
effervesce and assume a deep yellow colour ; on adding formalin 
to this, followed by a few drops of AmCNS in concentrated 
solution, the cinchonidine gives a deep red brown colour, while 
quinine shows only a faint rose tint. 

Quinine and Quinidine, Colour Reactions for. J. B. B a 1 1 a n- 
d i e r. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [0]. 20, 151.) Upon a few c.c. 
of a moderately acid solution of quinine or quinidine, in a test 



CHEMISTRY. 137 

tube, the vapour of bromine is allowed to fall and the whole 
well shaken up. The liquid loses its fluorescence and acquires 
a slight yellowish tint. One drop of solution of CUSO4 is then 
added, then AmOH drop by drop, shaking after each addition. 
After the first drop of AmOH has been added the liquid assumes 
a peach-rose tint, increasing in depth with the second drop,. 
then becoming violet and finally green. The addition of mineral 
acid to the green liquid turns it blue or violet, to which alkalies 
restore the green colour. If the acids be added to the peach 
coloured or violet solutions, these become green. These reac- 
tions are similar to those described by Hirsclisohn in 1902, 
obtained with HoOo and CuS04,but are obtained in the cold, and 
under quite different conditions. 

Quinine, Determination of, in Cinchona Barks. — Vigneron. 
{Journ. Pharm. Cnim., 21, 180.) The total alkaloids of 25 Gm. 
of bark are treated with 20 times their Aveight of pure ether and 
shaken well m ith 5 or 6 small pieces of pumice stone the size of 
a pea, previously moistened with alcohol 98 per cent. The 
small amount of alcohol thus introduced facilitates the separation 
of the quinine from the other alkaloids. The mixture is allowed 
to macerate for 6 hours at about 15*^0., with occasional agitation, 
then filtered mto a porcelain capsule, from which the ether is 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. The residual alkaloids 
insoluble in ether are again macerated with a similar quantity 
of ether for 12 hours ; the ethereal liquid is filtered into the 
same capsule and gently evaporated at about 15°C. To the 
residue 5 c.c. of alcohol and 100 Gm. of a saturated aqueous 
solution of quinine sulphate are added, followed by 10 drops of 
1 per cent, aqueous haemotoxylin solution. The capsule is then 
placed on the boiling water-bath to drive off the ether and alcohol. 
Meanwhile 2 or 3 c.c. of 10 per cent, sulphuric acid is added, 
then gradually a little 5 per cent, acid until the liquid assumes 
a lemon-yellow tint. If the faint acidity requisite be exceeded, 
a few drops of dilute ammonia are added until only a faint 
yellow colour is visible. The solution is then set aside in a cool 
place for 24 hours, and the crystals which have formed are 
collected on a tared filter, washed first with saturated quinine 
sulphate solution, then witli a few c.c. of distilled water used in 
portions. The mixed sulphates of quinine and cinchonidine 
are then dried and weighed; 0-75 Gm. of these sulphates is 
then weighed off, dissolved by boiling in 85 c.c. of saturated 



138 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

solution of pure quinine chromate, and treated with 0-20 Gm. of 
pure KaCrOi dissolved in a little water, allowed to cool, and the 
precipitated c|uinine chromate collected on a small tared filter, and 
washed with saturated solution of quinine chromate to bring the 
volume of the filtrate to 100 c.c. This filtrate may be tested 
for cinchouidine by tlic addition of NaOH solution. The crystals 
are then slowly washed with another 100 c.c. of saturated solution 
of quinine chromate, drained, dried at 100°C., and weighed as 
(C2oH2iNo02)oCrO,. Since 0-746 Gra. of pure quinine sulphate 
gives under these conditions 0-764 Gm. of chromate, the equiva- 
lents may be taken as practically 75 and 76. If the first filtrate 
from the precipitated chromate gives no precipitate wdth NaOH, 
the amount of free chromate in the liquid may be determined 
volumetrically by means of KI and thiosulphate. In this case, 
a solution of 0-20 Gm. of K2Cr04 in 154 c.c. of water may be 
conveniently used as the precipitant ; each c.c. of this will be 
equivalent to 0005 Gm. of anhydrous quinine sulphate. At the 
same time the amount of hyjiosulphite used up by the iodine 
liberated by 100 c.c. of saturated solution of quinine chromate 
is noted ; this number will be /3. Operating on the above quan- 
tities, the first 100 c.c. of chromate filtrate collected will contain 
the equivalent of 4 c.c. of the titrated solution of KoCrO^. If this 
filtrate requires x c.c. of thiosulphate to titrate the iodine it 
liberates, the amount of quinine sulplia,te present in the mixed 

X —B+ 4 
sulphates may be found from the formula 75 = the 

number of Cgms. present in the 0-75 Gm. of sulphates taken. 

Quinine Hydrochlorides. H. Carette. {Journ. Phann. 
C/iim. [()], 20, :}47.) Neutral Hydrochloride ivith 2| mols. IhO. 
This was obtained by dissolving 1 molecular weight of quinia in 
2 molecidar equivalents of HCl in dilute aqueous solution, con- 
centrating on the water-bath and cooling slowly. The crystals 
formed, when drained, responded to the formula ConHo2N202. 
2HC1.22H20. Although hygroscopic, they liquefy onlj'^ in very 
damp air. In dry air and at 20°C. they lose a little of their 
crystal-water, at 102°C. the whole of it, becoming yellowish in 
colour while hot, but colourless on cooling. The hydrated salt 
has no definite melting point ; it begins to melt at 80°, and 
remains half melted at 215'^C. 

Neutral Quinine hydrochloride icith 1| mols. CoH^OH. When 
neutral quinine hydrochloride is crystallized from alcoholic 



CHElVnSTRY. 139 

mother liquors, the crystals formed are more bulky than those 
obtained from aqueous solutions. The solutions in 95 or 100 
per cent, alcohol often remain in supersaturation ; on sowing 
these with a crystal of the salt, fine, well-formed crystals are 
obtained, having the formula aoH24N202.2HCl.l|CoH50H. 
They keep well in sealed tubes. The same crystals may be 
obtained by rapidly evaporating, m vacuo, alcoholic solutions of 
the salt. They lose their alcohol of crystallization on warming, 
and almost all of it at normal temperatures, in vacuo. The 
same crystals are obtained from 55 per cent, alcohol. If the 
crystals be exposed to the light during drjnng they become 
yellow, and these yellow crystals are much more hygroscoj)ic 
than those which have been dried in the dark, which are 
white. On exposing the salt with 1| mols. C2H5.OH to the air, 
it first loses its alcohol, then absorbs water from the atmosphere, 
and becomes converted into the salt containing 2J mols. H2O. 
Exposed in the dark to a temperature of 35-50°C. it loses all 
its alcohol and reabsorbs half a mol. H2O, forming the salt 
C2,H24N20o2HCUH20, which is perfectly white and stable at 
that temperature, and is much less hygroscopic than the salt 
with 2i mols. HoO. 

Anhydrous Neutral Quinine Hydrochloride. The anhydrous 
salt, whether obtained from the alcohol- or water-containing 
cr^'stals, by drying at 102°C. is very hygroscopic, c^uickly absorb- 
ing water to form the salt with 2| mols. H2O. If the air be 
very damp, it takes up another h mol. H2O, forming the salt 
C20H24N2O2.2HCI. + 3H2O. The anhydrous hydrochloride has 
the [a].,-233^ 

Quinine Hydrochlorides. C. E r b a. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. 
[6]. 20, 550.) The author controverts the statements of Carette 
that neutral quinine hydrochloride crystallized from alcohol 95 
per cent, contains 1^ mols. alcohol. He has previously found, 
and now confirms, that the salt contains a molecule of both 
water and alcohol having the formula — 

C22H24N2O2.2HCI. + C2H5OH + H2O, 

as shown by the amount of alcohol recoverable by distillation 
and by the products of combustion. The salt dried at 35-50°, 
which Carette considered had first lost its alcohol and then 
reabsorbed half a mol. HoO, had therefore, in fact, merely lost 
half of its original water of crystallization and all its alcohol. 



140 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Quinine, Solubility of, in Ammonia, and Method of Testing 
Quinine Sulphate. W. Dune a n. {Phann. Jouni. [-4]. 20^ 
438.) Exporiments show that quinine i.s not, as generally 
stated, more soluble in AmOH than in water, but less so. It is 
well known, however, that loss of quinine frequently follows 
when AmOH is used to precipitate it from its solutions, and the 
advice to avoid large excess of alkali is usually given, for excess 
increases the risk of supersaturation ; but the chief cause of 
loss is not this, but hydrolysis of the ammonium salt when the 
precipitated alkaloid is being washed. 

If c[uinine or its sulphate be added to an aqueous solution of 
AmCl, solution takes place. On adding AmOH to this solution 
quinine is precipitated, which redissolves on diluting the solution 
or on adding a little more AmCl. Similar results are obtained 
with Am2S04, though not to the same extent. If solutions of 
KCl or NaCl be used, an increase in solubility of quinine sulphate 
is found, the more soluble quinine chloride being produced, but 
with quinine hydrate the increase is infinitesimal. Increase in 
solubility in solutions of ammonium salts must then be due to 
hydrolysis of the latter, the liberated acid again combining with 
the alkaloid when the washing is proceeded with. The greatest 
loss does not take place in the first washing, as it is usually 
strongly ammoniacal, but in the subsequent washings, as the 
free AmOH diminishes. AmOH is about the most unsatisfac- 
tory precipitant that can be used for any alkaloid if the 
alkaloid has to be collected and washed, and rarely gives theo- 
retical yields. With the fixed alkalies there is not the same 
Joss, hydrolytic dissociation being almost nil in their solutions. 

The foregoing experience suggested that the AmOH test for 
the purity of sulphate of quinine might be made more reliable 
by replacing the AmOH Avith a more basic hydroxide. The 
test, which appears to be really a water test, is based on the 
differences existing between the solubilities of the sulphates of 
the alkaloids in water and the solubilities of the alkaloids in 
solution of AmOH. Kerner's test has been much criticized and 
often condemned, but the ease with which it can be applied is 
greatly in its favour, and accounts for its adoption, in one form 
or another, by most pharmacopoeias. Using the Codex modifi- 
cation, it is not found to pass a sulphate that is over-contami- 
nated, but the German modification may condemn a quinine 
sulphate that is practically pure. The success of the test is 
partly based on the assumption that cinchonidine is less soluble 



CHEMISTRY. 141 

in AmOH than quinine. This may or may not be, but if aqueous 
solutions of quinine and cinchonidine sulpliates of the same 
strength (1 in 1,000) be made, they behave somewhat differently 
to AmOH. On adding AmOH to the quinine solution precipita- 
tion at once takes place, the cloud disappearing on adding excess 
of the AmOH. On adding AmOH to the cinchonidine solution, 
no precipitation takes place at once as Avith the cpxinine. If 
this solution be allowed to stand for 30 minutes precipitation is 
apparent, or if the solution be vigorously stirred, a haziness 
becomes evident in from 2 to 5 minutes, and finally precipitation 
in the course of 2 hours. The success of the AmOH test, then, 
must lie more in the differences in quantities of the alkaloids 
present, from the differences in solubility of the sulphates, than 
from the differences in solubility of the alkaloids themselves in 
AmOH. Strength, temperature, method of mixing, all affect 
Kerner's test. Merely stirring the AmOH into the alkaloidal 
solution may cause a rise of from 2° to 5"C. The composition 
may also vary in the course of the experiment, for AmOH liquor 
is not a solution of NH4OH ; it is a solution of NH3 and NHjOH, 
the proportions of which vary with variations in tempera|:ure 
and pressure. All these are disturbing factors which should be 
eliminated by using a solution of a fixed hydroxide, and there 
would also probably be less likelihood of super-saturation. 

Soda and potash were tried, and, though with success, B.P. 
lime water was finally chosen, for the following reasons : It is 
easily made of constant strength, is less liable to impurity, and 
any decomposition is evident to the eye. 

The following were then carried out : To 10 c.c. of a saturated 
aqueous solution of purified quinine sulphate lime water was 
added till tlie precipitated quinine was dissolved and a water-clear 
solution obtained ; 20 c.c. of lime water were required. The 
solution, on keeping, neither precipitated quinine nor calcium 
sulphate. Super-saturation was evidently absent. 

To 10 c.c. of a similar cinchonidine solution lime water was 
added, and 120 c.c. were required, but the solution does not 
become clear like the quinine. There is an opalescence due to 
calcium sulphate which eventually precipitates. Solubility in 
lime water, however, has one of the faults of the ammonia test, 
a fault common to all eye determinations of solubility. The 
quantities required may vary from 1 to 5, or even 10 per cent., 
according as the solvent is added rapidly or slowly, stirred or 
shaken. To overcome this difficulty, determination of the sul- 



142 YEAR-BOaK OF PHARIVIACY. 

phuric radicle suggested itself, making use of phenol-phtlialein 
as an indicator (seeing it is neutral to alkaloids), and thus serving 
as a check on the solubility. 

To 20 c.c. of the saturated aqueous solution of the purified 
quinine sulphate 3 drops of phenol-phthalein solution were added, 
and lime water run in from a burette till the permanent pink 
colour was obtained ; 2 c.c. lime water were required. The test, 
repeated with 20 c.c. of a cinclionidine sidpliate solution, took 
13-7 c.c. We liave thus a double method of testing tiie purity 
of quinine suli^hate, the solubility of the alkaloids, and the 
quantity of sulphuric radicle in the aqueous solution. 

To test the value of the methods, 5 GJm. of a commercial 
quinine sulphate were finely powdered and digested with 100 c.c. 
of water in a stoppered flask on a water-bath at 60C. for 1 hour, 
the flask being frequently shaken. The solution was then 
allowed to cool to 15°C., and maintained at this temperature for 
2 hours, frequently stirring, and finally filtered. 

20 c.c. required 41 c.c. of lime water to form clear solution ; 
20 c.c. wdth phenol-j^hthalein required 2-8 c.c. of lime water to 
show alkalinity. 

This sample was then mixed witli a 1 per cent. (A), 3 per 
cent. (B), and 5 per cent. (C) of cinclionidine sulphate, and the 
three subjected to the tests. 20 c.c. of A required 45 c.c. of 
lime water to form a clear solution, 20 c.c. of A with phenol- 
phthalein required 3-3 c.c. of hme water to show alkalinity. 
20 c.c. of B required 55 c.c. of lime water to form a clear solutirn. 
20 c.c. of B with phenol-phthalein required 3-8 of lime water to 
show alkalinity. 20 c.c. of C required 71 c.c. of lime water to 
form a clear solution. 20 c.c. of C with phenol-phthalein re- 
quired 4-7 c.c. of lime water to show alkalinity. 

Saturation of the H2SO4 with calcium appears preferable to 
the solul)ility test, and might be made more delicate by using 
a weaker lime water. By using both, however, one checks tlie 
other, and a convenient, yet sufficiently exact, method of deter- 
mining the purity of quinine sulphate is apparently obtained. 

Quinine Sulphate, Testing of, for Cinchonidine. B. H. P a u 1 
{Chem. and Driu/(j.. 65, 428.) After discussing the question of 
the solubility of quinine and cinchonidine in ether, and th.e 
influence of the piesence of the latter on the solubility of the 
former in that solvent, the following method of applying the 
test is given : — 



CHEMISTRY. 143 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of the quinine sulphate to be examined in 
100 c.c. of boiling distilled water. After cooling, filter the 
solution from the crystallized quinine salt and concentrate the 
filtrate to 30 c.c. ; separate the further crystals that are thus 
formed by passing the cooled solution through a loose plug of 
cotton wool fitted in the neck of a funnel and make up the 
volume to 30 c.c, if necessary, by washing the crystals with a 
few drops of water. Shake up 5 c.c. of that solution with 1 c.c. 
of ether, in a corked tube, after adding 5 drops of ammonia 
solution, and leave the tube in a cool place for one hour. If at 
the end of that time no crystals are formed in the solution, the 
quantity of cinchonidine in the 5 c.c. of solution would be less 
than 004 Gm. and the corresponding quantity of sulpliate in 
1 Gm. of the salt under examination would not be more than 

0-0324 (= 0-004 X 1-35 Gm.) or 3-24 per cent. 

In the more probable case of crystals being formed in aj)preci- 
able quantity within a shorter time than one hour, the amount 
of cinchonidine sulf)liate in the salt under the examination will 
be more than 3-24 per cent. To ascertain liow much more it 
may be, shake out a volume of the solution less than 5 c.c. with 
1 c.c. of ether, repeating that operation until a difference, 
amounting to 0-5 c.c. of solution, between two experiments also 
corresponds to entire absence of crystals in the one instance and 
a very slight formation of crystals in the other, after 12 hours ; 
then take the mean of those two quantities of solution as con- 
taining 0-004 Gm. of cinchonidine, and calculate the percentage 
of sulphate on that basis. Thus, for example, if 4 c.c. of solution 
gave no crystals and 4-5 c.c. only a verj^ small quantity after 
12 hours, 4-25 c.c. is to be taken as the quantity containing 
004 Gm. of cinchonidine in the calculation, as follows : — 

4-25 c.c. : 0-004-30 c.c. : 0-0282 x 1-35=0-038 in 1 Gm. or 3-8 
per cent, of cinchonidine sulphate in the sa,mple under exami- 
nation. 

The operations requisite in applying the ether-test are ex- 
tremely simple, and, while they admit of being carried out with 
ease, the results obtainable are not deficient in accuracy. 

Rancid Fats, Detection of, in Alimentary Substances. F. 
W i e d m a n n. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], [20], 564, after 
Zeits. unters. Nahr. unci Germsmitt.) It is known that the 
rancidity of fats has no relation to the free iaXij acids which 



144 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY, 

may be present in them, for an oil containing much free acid 
may be pleasant in flavour, and one which is rancid may show 
but little acidity. Rancidity is due to products of an aldelwdic 
nature which may be thus detected. Five c.c, of the melted 
fat is mixed with 5 c.c. of a 1 per cent, solution of i^hloroglucin 
in acetone ; 2 or 3 drops of H0SO4 are added. A red colour 
will be produced in the presence of 1 per cent, of rancid fat. and 
will vary in intensity as the rancidity is more marked. Other 
reagents, such as paraphenylenediamine, and guaiacum resin ir 
presence of acetic anhydride, also give colour reactions. But no 
reaction is obtained with any of the above if the rancid fat has 
previously been heated iibove 200^0. 

Raspberry, Essential Oil of. [HaenseVs Report, through 
Apoth. Zeit.. 1904, 19, 854.) Distillation of raspberry press- 
marc affords a small quantity of a greenish essential oil with an 
intense odour of raspberries ; sp. gr. at 15°, 0-8833 ; [aljj -i-2-8° ; 
saponification value, 193 ; saponification value after acetyHzing, 
215 ; solubility in alcohol, 80 per cent.. 1 : 30. 

Red Colouring Matter of the Tomato. C. M o n t a n a r i. 
{Chem. Centralb., 76, 544, after Staz. sperim. Agar. ItaJ., 37, 909.) 
The red colouring matter of the tomato, considered by Arnaud 
to be carotin, CocHss, is found by the author to be dicarotin, 
C02H74, It crystallizes from benzol as deep red crystalline mass 
of needles and lamellae ; m.p. 170°, It forms a green amor- 
phous iodo-additive compound, C52H74I2. 

Rhamnus frangula Bark, Determination of Active Principles 
in. J. War in. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 253.) The 
following color imetric method is based on the fact that the 
green tint of a solution of nickel chloride will neutralize the rose 
colour of dilute alkaline emodin solution. The standard solution 
of nickel is jDrepared by dissolving on the water-bath 1 Gm. of 
the metal in 5 c.c. of a mixture of HNO3 1 part, and HCl 3 parts. 
If necessary, add a little more acid and a little water to dis- 
solve the salt formed. \\'hen the metal has completely dissolved 
dilute to 100 (!.c. with distilled water. This solution will exactly 
neutralize the rose tmt of 1 ^Igm. of emodin dissolved in 100 c.c. 
of faintly alkaline water. The nickel solution should be 
standardized against a solution of pure emodin of the above 



CHEMISTRY. 



145 



strengtli in the following manner : Two twin tubes of about 
40 c.c. caf)acity, one of vvliich is graduated in 0-1 c.c., are taken 
and are covered with black paper, in which two longitudinal 
slits are cut which are directty opposite each other, on either 
side of the tubes, so that the tint of the liquid maj^ be readily 
observed through them, when the tubes are placed on a white 
surface. When one tube filled with the nickel solution and the 
other with the emodin solution are placed one in front of the 
other and the light is observed through the coinciding slits, if 
the nickel solution is of the correct strength it will be absolutely 
colourless. It sometimes happens that from impurity in the 
metal it is slightly weak. Its strength should then be adjusted. 
Having thus obtained a standard colour solution, the determi- 
nation of the emodin in Rhaimms frangnla bark is thus per- 
formed : — 

Half a C4m. of the powdered bark is macerated for 24 hours 
with 50 c.c. of a 0-5 per cent, .solution of NaOH, with occasional 
vigorous shaking. Filter, pipette off exactly 10 c.c. of the 
filtrate, and dilut-e it to 100 c.c. Fill the ungraduated tube with 
the nickel solution, and place 10 c.c. of the above diluted buck- 
thorn solution in the graduated one. Place the tubes in front 
of each other ; as the liark generally contains more than 1 per 
cent, of emodin the rose colour will predominate. Then 
cautiously dilute the buckthorn solution with distilled water, 
thoroughly mixing, until this rose tint disappears and a per- 
fectly colourless liglit is obtained. On now reading oif the 
number of c.c. of liquid in the rose-coloured tube, the weight in 
Gm. of emodin in 1 kilo of the drug will be obtained. If on the 
first reading the green tint should predominate, the drug will 
cojitain less than 1 jjer cent, of emodin ; in that case another 
alkaline maceration nuist be made, using a larger cpiantity of 
the original substance. Sometimes the rose tint obtained is 
accompanied by a slight yellow shade ; but this does not inter- 
fere with the result ; the final reading is then made with a faint 
yellow tint instead of a colourless light ; this is easily done, for 
on exceeding the limit, tlie green shade of the nickel solution is 
very sharply evident. 

Rhubarb and Aloes, Assay of. A. T s c h i r c h and — 
C li r i s t o f o 1 e t t i. (Pharm. Post. 37, 233, 249. 265. ) Dettr- 
mlnation of Emodin in Rhubarb. The method is colorimetrie, 
the standard colour being that given by 0-001 Gm. of pure aloe- 



146 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

emodin dissolved in 1 litre of distilled water rendered slightly 
alkaline with KOH. This has a pale rose colour. 0-5 Gm. of 
the rhubarb, in very fine powder, is boiled for 15 minutes, under 
a reflux condeaser, with 50 c.c. of H2S04 50 per cent. ; the 
anthra-glucosides are thus hydrolized and antliraquinone 
derivatives set free. When cold, the liquid, witliout filtration, 
is shaken out with successive 50 c.c. of ether until that solvent 
is no longer coloured and does not give a rose colour when a 
portion is tested whh KOH. The separated aqueous liquid is 
again boiled for 15 minutes, cooled, aiid again shaken out with 
ether. The bulked ether extracts are then shaken out with 
successive washings of 5 per cent. KOH solution until a rose 
tint is no longer obtained. The bulked alkaline liquid is then 
made up to 500 c.c. 100 c.c. of this solution is diluted to 1 
litre ; the colour is then matched against that of the standard 
emodin solution, on a white surface, in the usual manner. The 
tint of the rhubarb solution will generalty be too dark ; it must 
therefore be diluted with a known volume of water. A good 
rhubarb should give from 2-8 to 4 per cent, of emodin ; Bheum 
rhaponticiim only yields about 1-2 per cent. 

Valuation of Aloes. Since the active principals, chiefly 
aloins, are soluble in CHCI3, while the inert resins are insoluble, 
the determination of the CHCI3 soluble constituents suffices for 
the assay. 5 Gm. of aloes are macerated for 12 hours with 5 c.c. 
of methyl alcohol, then warmed to 50-60°C. and treated with 
30 c.c. of CHCI3. After thorough agitation the mixture is set 
aside and the chloroform separated and filtered into a tared 
flask. The insoluble residue is again treated ^nth another 
portion of CHCI3, the solution added to that first obtained, the 
solvent distilled ofif, and the residue, dried at 100°C., weighed. 
Cape and Uganda aloes yield 80 to 85 per cent, of CHCI3 extract, 
Socotrine aloes but 36-6 per cent. The aloin in the chloroform 
residue may, if desired, be determined colorimetrically by 
Schouten's reaction, the production of a yellow colour and 
strong green fluorescence with a saturated solution of borax. A 
standard solution of 0-004 ]\Igm. of aloin in borax solution is 
prepared ; this shows a just visible green fluorescence when 
observed through a depth of 12 mm. in a vessel placed on black 
paper. A known weight of the above CHCI3 residue is treated 
with a saturated aqueous solution of borax, and diluted imtil its 
degree of fluorescence is identical with that of the standard. 
A simple calculation then gives the amount of aloin piesent. 



CHEMISTRY. 



147 



Uganda aloes gives about 16 per cent. The remaining 64 per 
cent, of CHCI3 extract consists mainly of anthraquinones. 

Robinin. N. A. V a 1 i a s c h k o. {Journ. Soc. Phys. Chim., 
through Bull. Soc. Chim., 34, 348.) Robinin has been con- 
sidered to be a glucoside closely related to rutin and quercitrin, 
and to give quei-cetin on hydrolysis. Tlie author states that 
this resemblance is only apparent, and that quercetin is not one 
of its products. The glucoside is obtained as a yellowish, 
odourless crystalline powder by extracting the fresh flowers of 
Robinia pseudo-acacia with water and concentrating the aqueous 
solution. The glucoside crystallizes out on cooling and is puri- 
fied by recrystallization. It has the formula C.!3H4oOi97t2H20 ; 
dried in vacuo or at 100° it retains 5 mols. H2O ; it is only 
obtained anhydrous after exposure to 110°C. It commences 
to melt, when dried, at 1%8T'., but is not completely melted 
below 195°. It is sparingly soluble in cold water (1 : 3000), 
and the solution is nearly colourless. Hot saturated solutions 
are yellow in colour. It is hydrolized by boiling with dilute 
acids and by ferments forming robigenin, CisHiqOc, 2 mols. 
of rhamnose and 1 mol. galactose according to the equation — 

CasH.oO.a + 3H.0 = C15H, oO„ + 2C,H^,05 + CsH^aOe. 

Robigenin, recrystallized from alcohol, forms small odoin-less 
and tasteless yellow crystals, brighter in colour tlian fjuercetin ; 
m.p. 270°C. The sugar of robinin may be identical with rham- 
nose, which also splits up into 2 mols. of rhamnose and I mol. 
of jzalactose. 



Rose, Essential Oil of, Bulgarian, Characters of. [SchimmeVs 

Report, Oct., 1904, 81.) The following characters are based on 

30 
observations extending over a number of years. Sj). gi^'-~^^ 

0-849 to 0-862, rarely up to 0-863; [a]o-r30' to -3°; 
[77 Jij 1,452 to 1,464; congealing point, +19 to +23-5°; acid 
number, 0-5 to 3 ; ester number, 8 to 16 ; total geraniol (geraniol 
plus citronellol), 66 to 74 per cent., rarely 76 per cent. ; citronellol, 
26 to 37 per cent., generally 30 to 33 per cent. Citronellol is 
determined by formylating ; 1 volume of the oil is heated with 
2 volumes of absolute formic acid for an hour under a reflux 
condenser ; the determination is then conducted as in acetylating. 



148 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Rose, Essential Oil of, French and Bulgarian. P. Jean card 
and C. S a t i e. [Bull. Soc. Chim. [3], 31, 934). Non-pefaloid 
portions of French roses grown in the Cannes district, composed 
of the calices, stamens, etc., when distilled gave 50 Gm. per 
1,000 kilo, of a green essential oil having the following charac- 
ters : Congealing point, S'^C. ; sttvaroptene, 51-13 per cent. ; 
sp. gr. at 15°C., 0-8704 ; [a]„ -41 ; acid value, 6-12 ; saponifi- 
cation value, 22-4 ; total alcohols, 13-99 per cent. ; citronellol, 
13-55 per cent. The stearoptene consisted mainly of a body 
congealing at 14°C. Practically all the alcohol present was 
citronellol, which accounts for the high tevo-rotation of the oil. 

French Otto of Rose, obtained by cohobation and distillation, 
had the following characters : Congealing point, 25-5°C. ; 
stearoptene, 33-2 per cent. After removing this stearoptene the 
residual oil had the sp. gr. 0-8790 at 15X'. ; [a]„ —3" ; solu- 
bility in alcohol, 70 per cent. 1:2^ total alcohols, 88-55 per 
cent. ; citronellol, 22-4 per cent. When distillation was per- 
formed without cohobation, and the distillate was collected 
weight for weight with the roses emplo3'ecl (as is done in making 
rose water) the yield of oil was very small. This otto had the 
congealing point 25-9°C. ; stearoptene. 58-88 per cent. ; acid 
value, 2-24 per cent. ; saponification value, 14-7 per cent. ; 
total alcohols, 32 per cent. ; citronellol, 15-10 per cent. (See 
also Year-Boole, 1897, 190.) 

Otto of Tea Rose was found to contain 72 to 74 per cent, of 
stearoptene ; congealing point, 23-5'^C. This stearoptene. like 
that of the oil from the green floral envelopes, consisted mainly 
of the body melting at 14^C., and another melting at 40^C. 
These facts demonstrate the fallacy of basing any opinion on 
the value of an otto by its congealing point. The amount of 
stearoptene should be determined gravimetrically, and that of 
the citronellol in the stearoptene-free residue. 10 Gm. of otto 
is treated with 50 c.c. of acetone and frozen to — 10°C. without 
stirring ; the separated stearoptene is then collected on a tared 
filter in a funnel surrounded by freezing mixture, washed with 
chilled acetone, drained, dried in vacno over sulphuric acid and 
weighed. The acetone is then distilled oil" the filtrate in vanio, 
and the residue employed for the determination of the citronellol. 

Bulgarian Otto of good quality is found to have the following 
characters : Congealing point, 19° to 21 °C. ; stearoptene. 18 to 
23 per cent. ; the stearoptene free oil has the sp. gr. 0-886 to 
0-888 at 15^. ; {a]^ -\° to -3° ; solubility in alcohol, 70 per 



CHEMISTRY. 



149 



cent., 1 : 1-5 ; acid value, 1 to 2 ; saponification value, 10 to 12; 
total alcohol, 84 to 88 per cent. ; citronellol, 30 to 40 per cent. 
Standards. French otto of rose should contain from 30 to 
35 per cent, of stearoptene ; the stearoptene-free oil should 
yield 20 to 23 per cent, of citronellol ; the same from Bulgarian 
otto should contain 30 to 40 per cent, of citronellol ; while the 
percentage of stearoptene should be from 18 to 23. 

Rose, Essential Oil of, Iodine Absorption Value of. W. H. 

S i m m o n s. {C/iem. and Dnujg., 65, 703.) The value of the 
iodine absorption figure for otto of rose {Year-Book, 1904, 158) 
has been confirmed by extended observation. The following are 
some of the results obtained, from which it will be seen that 
those oils which from their other constants and odour appear 
to be genuine have iodine-absorj^tions well within tlie limits 
187-194 previously given, while those which from analysis 
and odour may be classed as suspicious or adulterated have 
iodine-numbers ranging from 199 to 210 : — 



No. 


Sp.gr. 
IS""-- 


Rotation, 

100 mm. 

tube, at 

30° C. 


Refractive 

Index, 
TjD at 20°C. 


Saponifi- 
cation 
Number. 


Setting- 
point. 


Iodine 
Number. 




f 1 
2 


0-8560 


-2° 25' 


1-4613 


9-6 


20-4°C. 


191 




0-8516 


-1° 50' 


1-4636 


8-3 


21-6°C. 


192 


Genuine 


' 3 


0-8547 


-3° 0' 


1-4646 


7-7 


19-9°C. 


191 




1 -^ 


0-8535 


-2° 40' 


1-4626 


9-9 


20-7^C. 


191 




I 5 


0So42 


-3" 10' 


1-4627 


8-0 


20-3°C. 


189 


Suspicious 


f '' 


0-8600 


-r 53' 


1-4640 


99 


20-0"C. 


200 


7 


0-8565 


-2° 0' 


1-4628 


130 


19-8°C. 


204 


Adulter- 
ated 


1 8 
9 


0-8607 
0-8559 


-2° 16' 
-2° 20' 


1-4654 
1-4636 


16-2 

8-7 


19-4°C. 
20-9°C. 


210 
199 


1 10 


0-8554 


-1° 34' 


1-4647 


11-0 


21-6°C. 


209 



A noteworthy point in the above table is the wide variations 
in the refractive index, a figure which has been much recom- 
mended of late by Parry and others in the examination of otto 
samples. To test the value of this constant, it has been deter- 
mined for some 36 samples, 23 of which there is every reason to 
believe are genuine, the other 13 being of doubtful quality. 
The satisfactory samples gave an average refractive index of 
1-4626, a maximum of 1-4654, and a minimum of 1-4592, while 
the others varied from 1-4615 to 1-4770. The following table 
shows the results for those samples of which the iodine-absorption 
is also known, togetlier with the other analytical data (Nos. 1 to 
7 are genuine, the others are suspicious or adulterated) : — 



150 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 





No. 




Sp.gr. 


a I) 


V" 


Saponifi- 
cation 
Number. 


Setting- 
point. 


Iodine 
Number. 


i . . 






0-8504 


- 2° 28' 


1-4598 


8-7 


21-3°C. 


188 


2 








0-8531 


- 2° 40' 


1-4629 


7-5 


20-4°C. 


187 


:} 








0-8541 


- 2° 7' 


1-4640 


81 


20-8°C. 


192 


4 








0-8526 


- 2° 0' 


1-4618 


7-7 


20-5°C. 


192 


a 








0-8512 


- 2° 35' 


1-4634 


8-3 


21-0°C. 


191 


(> 








0-8534 


- 2= 45' 


1-4647 


11-7 


20- 6=0. 


lit:} 


7 








— 


- 2° 40' 


1-4654 


7-4 


20-8°C. 


190 


8 








0-8570 


- 2= 30' 


1-4638 


8-0 


19-9-C. 


208 


9 








0-8561 


- 2° 47' 


1-4658 


8-4 


19-2X. 


212 


10 








0-8581 


- 1°24' 


1-4664 


10-3 


21-3°C. 


234 


11 








0-8797 


-19° 50' 


1-4690 


40-8 


28-4°C. 


142 


12 








0-8554 


- 2° 42' 


1-4652 


8-1 


19-8°C. 


206 


13 








0-8550 


- 2° 2' 


1-4655 


9-8 


20-6°C. 


215 


14 








0-8554 


- 1°30' 


1-4612 


11-2 


19-8°C. 


205 



The last two samples in the above table were purposely 
adulterated in the laboratory, No. 13 containing 25 per cent, of 
a standard brand of artificial otto, while to No. 14 had been 
added 15 per cent, of palmarosa oil. These results show that 
the generally accepted limits, 1-4600 to 1-4650 or even 1-4670, 
are too wide for the figure to have much value, as they cover 
many adulterated samjiles, and in cases where the refractive 
index is beyond the limit, such as No. 11, the other figures 
would also be abnormal. On the other hand, the iodine-absorp- 
tion readily reveals such adulteration as exists in the last two 
samples, and is, indeed, the only figure which does so. 

Rosemary Oil. {SchimmeVs Report, Oct., 1904, 82.) English 
Rosemary Oil. An authentic specimen of the oil distiUed by 
Sawer at Brighton had the sp. gr. 0-9042 at 15° ; [ ]r,-2° 49' ; 
\a]Q of first 10 per cent. —6° 10' ; ester value, 9-7 ; solubility 
in alcohol 80 per cent., 1 : 5 and more with slight turbidity. 

Spanish Rosemary Oil. Two kinds of rosemary oil are dis- 
tilled in Spain ; the ordinary, which agrees in characters with 
the French and Dalmatian distillate, and what is known as 
rosemary oil " courant," which is distilled from a mixture of 
rosemary and sage. This " courant " oil is distinguished by 
its high ester value up to 37, whereas the figure for normal oil 
does not exceed 12. A specimen of " courant " rosemary oil 
recently examined had the sp. gr. 0-9258; [a]i,-l-14° 35' ; [a\ 
of first 10 j)er cent. -hO° 40' ; acid number, 0-9 ; ester number, 
35-7 ; solubility in alcohol 80 per cent., 1 : 1 and more. 

Roucheria griffithiana Bark, Lupeol from. J. Sack and 
B. T o 11 c n s. {Bcrkldt, 37, 1U04.) Kouchcria bark, which is 
used by the natives of Malacca as a constituent of arrow poison, 



CHEMISTRY. 151 

has been investigated by the authors who have isolated from 
it, in addition to glucose, a crj^stalline body belonging to 
the cholesterin group, which is j:)ossibly identical with the 
lupeol of Schulze and Likiernik (Ycar-Book, 1891, 61) and 
that found by Runiburgh (Berichte, 37, 3,440), occurring in 
the form of a cinnamic acid ester in guttapercha. The 
alcoholic extract of the baik after evaporation in vacuo left 
a sticky residue which soon solidified. After repeated crystal- 
lization from dilute alcohol it was obtained in the form of slender 
colourless needles, m.p. 213°C. It is insoluble in water, in 
dilute acids and alkalies^ and is readily soluble in most organic 
solvents, but less so in glacial acetic acid, ligroin, and acetone ; 
[a]o + 27-04. Treated with acetic acid and a couple of drops 
of concentrated sulphuric acid it develops a violet colour on 
standing. It gives a benzoyl derivative, which crystallizes from 
ether in prisms melting at 262° ; Schulze and Likiernik {Zeitschr. 
Physiol. Ghem.,U, 475)give 265-266° as the m.p. Unlike the lupeol 
described by these authors, however, the body under notice gives 
a dibromide instead of a monobromide and no acetyl derivative. 

Saccharin, Detection of, in Beverages. — V i 1 1 i e r s, M a y- 

n i e r d e la 8 o u r c e, R o c q u e s and F a y o 1 1 e. {Annales 
de Chim. Analyt., 9, 418.) The liquid, deprived of any alcohol 
by evaporation, is precipitated with neutral lead acetate in the 
presence of a slight amount of free acid, obtained, if necesary, 
by adding 1 per cent, of acetic acid. Excess of lead is removed 
by means of sodium phosphate and the precipitate filtered out. 
The filtrate is extracted by shaking out three times with half 
its volume of pure benzol. A greater part of the benzol is then 
distilled off, and the residue is shaken with a 1 : 1000 solution 
of FcaCle to determine the presence or absence of free salicylic 
acid. The rest of the benzol is then distilled off, without re- 
moving the Fe2Cl6 solution. The aqueous residue is treated 
with 10 c.c. of 10 per cent. HjSOt solution warmed on the water- 
bath, when solution of KMn04 is gradually run in until its colour 
s no longer discharged. The liquid thus obtained is again 
extracted three times with half its volume of benzol. The 
bulked benzol extracts are distilled to dryness, the residue is 
taken up with 2 c.c. of warm water, and a drop of this solution 
taken, to determine if it has the sweet taste of saccharin. If 
this be present, the rest of the liquid is treated witli 2 c.c. of 
NaOH solution, sp. gr. 1-334, and evaporated to dryness in a 
test-tube. This is then attached to a thermometer, plunged into 



152 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



a fusible metal bath at 270''C., kept at that temperature for 
3 minutes. The residue is then dissolved in 10 per cent. H2SO4, 
the solution again shaken out with benzol, and the benzol solution 
tested for the presence of salicylic acid by shaking with 10 per cent. 
FeoClo solution. Any violet colour reaction then obtained indi- 
cates the presence of saccharin. (See also Year-Bvok. 1904, 159.) 

Saccharose in Officinal Roots, Rhizomes and Bulbs. M. 
Harlay. {Journ. Pharm. Ckiin. [6|, 21, 49.) Saccharose 
may be considered to be universally distrilnited in the subter- 
ranean organs of plants, as shown by the following table : — 



Species. 



Nuphar luteum ... 
Cochlearia armoracia 
Astragalus glycyphyllos L. 

Petroselinum sativum Hoffm 
Conium maculatum L. 
Levisticum officinale Koch 



Foeniculum dulce D. C. 
Eryngium campestre L. 
Valeriana officinalis L. 

Symphytum officinale L. 

Cynoglossum officinale L. 

Solanum Dulcamara L. 
Hyoscyamus niger L. 

Verbascmn thapsus L. 



Digitalis purpurea L. 
Digitalis lutea L 
Scilla maritima L. 
Orchis purpurea Huds. 
Arum maculatum, L. 



Agropyrum repens P. B. 
Saponaria offtcinalis . 
Spirea ulmaria 
Echium vulgare . 
Riisctts aculeatus . 



Orgau and time of Gathering. 

Rhizome. April 

Root. May .... 

Root bark. May . 

Root, central portion . 

Root. October 

Root. 3\\\\ .... 

Root bark. October . 

Root, central portion . 

Root bark. October . 

Root, central portion . 

Root. August 

Root. October 

First year's root. October 

Second year's root. July 

,, ,, ,, October 

Root bark. I\Iay 
Root, central portion . 
Root bark. April 
Root, central portion . 
Root, ilarch 
Root bark. May 
Root, central portion . 
Root bark. April . 
Root, central portion . 
Root bark. December 
Root, central portion 
Root. January . 
Root. October 

Bulb 

Tubercule. May . 
Yoiuig tubers. JNIarch 
Young tubers. July . 
Old tubers. March . 
Rhizome. Jlarch 
Root bark. JNIay 
Central column. ^laj- 
Central column. February 
Root. November 



Reduc- 


Saccha- 


ing sugar 


ro.-;e 


per cent. 
019 


per cent. 


0-08 





118 


0-40 


0-72 


0-34 


0-68; 





0-60 


0-23 


1-20 


015 


2-45 





2-71 





1-49 





2-37 





4-95 





3-65 


0-77 


0-G9 


.0-68 


0-30 


0-46 


005 


0-7-2 


1-50 


0-85 


1-42 


1-62 


0-54 


1-42 


101 





0-96 


018 


0-35 





0-61 


0-21 


0-69 


0-24 


0-73 


0-85 


0-32 


0-24 


0-21 


0-85 


1-22 





0-04 


2-54 


0-27 


0-50 


0-40 





0-36 


0-44 


0-81 


1-08 


064 


0-63 


0-99 





0-64 


0-23 


0-3 


0-21 


6-75 


0-52 


0-24 



All these were examined in the fresh state, except squill. 



CHEansTRY. 153 

Sanibucus niger Berries, Presence of Tyrosine in. J. Sac k 
and B. T o 1 1 e n s. (Bcrichle, 37, 4115.) Tyrosine lias been 
isolated from fresh elderberries by extracting them with boiling 
water, precipitating with lead acetate, removing the lead pre- 
cipitate, eliminating excess of lead acetate with SH,, evaporating 
and crystallizing. 

Sandal Oil, East Indian, in Capsules, Adulterated with Castor 
Oil and West Indian Sandal Oil. (Sckimmers Report, May, 
1905, 73.) Two sophisticated samples of East Indian sandal 
wood oil from capsules are reported on. In one of these the 
adulterant was castor oil ; in the other, an admixture of West 
Indian sandal oil and castor oil was present. 

Sandarach Wood, Essential Oil of. E. G r i m a 1. {Comptes 
rend., 139, 927.) Sandarach sawdust, from the wood of Thuja 
articniafa (CaUitris quadrivalis), yields, on distillation with 
steam, 2 per cent, of a dark reddish-brown Isevorotatory essential 
oil with a phenolic odour ; sp. gr. 0-991 ; soluble in all proportions 
in alcohol 80 per cent. It contains about 5 per cent, of phenols 
removable by alkali, consisting of carvacrol and thymohydro- 
(juincine. Thymoquinone is present in the alkali-insoluble non- 
phenol portion. 

Saponarin. G. Barger. {Chem. News, 90, 183.) Sapon- 
arin. the glucoside, C21H04O12, from Saponaria officinalis, cr^^stal- 
lizes from aqueous pyridine in small needles, m.p. 231*^0. with 
decomposition. It is insoluble in water and organic solvents, 
but dissolves in Aveak alkalies and in pyridine. The alkaline 
solutions are yellow ; when these are acidified the saponarin 
remains in pseudo-solution in which condition it gives an 
intense blue coloration with solution of I in KI. ■ It is very 
hygroscopic, and is hydrolized by diluted acids, forming glucose 
and saponaretin. 

Savin, Essential Oil of. E. F. Z i e g e 1 m a n n. {Pharm. 
Revie-o, through Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 280.) The U.S.P. 
states that savin oil is derived from the ends of the shoots 
of Juniperus sahina. In Belgium the fresh leaves are distilled, 
in Greece the fresh twigs ; in Spain the leaves and fruits, while 
the " Arzneimittel " and the Portuguese Pharmacopa^ia de- 
scribe it as the product of distilling the whole plant. The yield 



154 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of oil is stated to be from 4 to 5 per cent. The author, distiUing 
the whole plant, only obtained 0-0154 per cent., separating on 
distillation, and another 0-038 per cent, recovered from the 
aqueous distillate by shaking out with i)etroleum ether ; a total 
yield of 0-0568 j)er cent. The oil sejiarating spontaneously from 
tlie distillation water was amber coloured, and had a pleasant 
terebinthinous odour ; sp. gr. at 25X'. 0-91329 ; that recovered 
by shaking out was darker in colour and had the sp. gr. 0-9133 at 
25°C. The oil was optically inactive ; it is generallj^ described 
as being dextrorotatory + 42 to 60°. It was soluble 1 : 1 in 
absolute alcohol ; 1 : 16 in 80 per cent, alcohol ; but insoluble 
1 : 20 in 70 per cent, alcohol ; acid value, 7-33 to 7-53 : ester 
value, 109-1 to 111-9, the latter correspondhig to 37-8 or 38-95 
per cent, of sabinyl acetate. The oil recovered bj'- petroleum 
ether is amber coloured when rectified, and has a j)leasant odour. 
Its sp. gr. is then 0-9146 at 25"^, and it also is devoid of optical 
activity. 

Skimmianine, a Poisonous Alkaloid from Skimmia japonlca. 
J. Honda. (Apoth. Zeit., 19, 881, after Archiv. fiir exper. 
Path.) Skimmia japonica, which is widely spread in J«pan in 
the wild state, as well as being cultivated for the beauty of its 
flowers and fruits, is found to contain, in all its parts, a poisonous 
alkaloid, skimmianine, C,i2H29N309, which crystallizes from 
alcohol in fine prismatic erystals, m.p. 175-5°C. It occurs in the 
greatest quantity in the leaves, from which it is extracted by means 
of alcohol, purified by shaking out witli cliloroform in the usual 
manner, and finally recr3''stallized from alcohol. It is a feeble 
base, and does not reduce alkaline cupric solutions either before 
or after treatment with acids. In frogs it causes muscular 
rigidity and increases reflex excitability. 

Soap, Detection of Sodium Silicate in, A h m e d - H u s s e i n. 
{.Jourti. Pharm. C/iini., 21, 496.) A known Aveight of rasped soap 
is dissolved in liot alcohol and filtered through a tared filter, the 
insoluble matter being well washed on the filter, dried, and 
weighed. A poition of this residue is then treated in a test-tube 
with a few c.c. of distilled water and gently warmed. If the 
liquid then shows an alkaline reaction, silicate is probably pre- 
sent. A little NaOH is then added, the mixture warmed, 
filtered, rendered acid with HCl, and the silica precipitated with 
AmOH. The author finds that the statement generally made 



CHEMISTRY. 155 

in text books, that the siHca precipitate may be obtained by 
treating the in.sohible residue with water and HC'l, is incorrect, 
since the dried sihcate becomes, by the treatment it has under- 
gone, ahnost insoluble in water alone, and requires the addition 
of alkali to dissolve it. 

Sodium Alum. J. M. W a d m o r e. {Proc. Chem. Soc, 21, 
150.) The existence of sodium alum, first affirmed by Zellner in 
1816, and by Auge in 1890, has been denied by Ostwald. The 
autlior has succeeded in preparing it by mixing solutions of the 
respective molecular weights of NaoiSOi andAl23S04. It crys- 
tallizes in octahedra, having the formula NaoS04,Al23S0424H20. 
It is very soluble in water 1-0711 : 1 at 10-6°C. A hot concen- 
trated solution deposits on cooling, a pasty or oily substance, 
which is slowly transformed into crystalline sodium alum. This 
paste may be a mixture of anhydrous, or partly hydrated alum, 
and water. Sodium alum does not effloresce appreciably under 
ordinary conditions, but rapidly loses about half its crystal-water 
at 50° ; a higher temperature is requisite to obtain the anhy- 
drous salt. 

Sodium Salts, Detection of, by Modified Fremy's Reagent. J. 

B o u g a u 1 t. {Journ. rharm. Chim. [6], 21, 4o7.) The pre- 
paration of the potassium pyroantimonate reagent of Fremy is 
tedious, and the commercial salt is far from pure. The author 
therefore modifies the original metliod as follows. Antimonous 
chloi'ide, 1 Gm., is added to a mixture of solution of pure KoCOn 
10 c.c. and HoOo solution, 10 volumes, 45 c.c, and gently warmed. 
The precipitate at first formed slowly redissolves, and an abun- 
dant evolution of oxygen occurs. Solution is complete in 5 to 10 
minutes, but a slight insoluble deposit remains, which is liltered 
out after cooling. In employing this reagent to detect sodium 
salts the following precautions are necessary. (1) Only to use 
a very small c{uantity of the reagent ; 0-5 c.c. is always enough, 
since the precipitate formed is not soluble in excess of sodium 
salt. (2) The sodium solution should be reduced to the smallest 
possible volume ; it should be either alkaline or neutral : acids 
precipitate the reagent. (3) After adding the reagent the mix- 
ture should be boiled for half a minute. (4) When the boiled 
liquid has cooled, the sides of the tube should be scratched in one 
or two places beneath the liquid with a glass rod, carrying at the 
end a trace of sodium pyroantimonate, to start crystallization. 



156 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Under these conditions the reagent will give an ini mediate and 
evident precipitate with 0-0004 Gin. of NaCl. 

Detection of Na in presence of K. When much K is present the 
greater excess must be eliminated as KH(',H40,; ; after filtration 
the Na must be converted into NaiCOa or NaiSOa. In the case 
of sulphates the mixture is precipitated by Ba2C2H302 and 
filtered, the filtrate is evaporated, calcined, the residue redis- 
solved, filtered, treated with KoOMiOt^ ; the KHC'jHiOr, 
filtered out, the filtrate again evaporated and calcined, the 
residue taken up with 1 e.c. of water and tested with the reagent. 
With chlorides, iodides and bromides, the solution is j)recipitated 
with AgNOa. Nitrates are merely calcined and treated with 
H2C4H40fi. In this maimer 000(33 NaaCOa is readily detected 
in 4 Gm. of K2CO3 ; 0004 Gm. of NaBr in 2 Gm. of KBr ; 0-005 
Gm. of Na2Sd4 in 2 Gm. of K^SO,. 

Lithium salts themselves give a precipitate with the pyro- 
antimoniate reagent, but this is much more soluble than the 
sodium salt. It differs also in crj^stalline form, as shown by 
microscopical examination of the precipitate. Lithium p3'ro- 
antimoniate forms hexagonal scales, like iodoform, while the 
sodium salt, when slowly formed, is in almost cubical prisms, 
when quickly crystallized in fasiicles of needles or small long 
prisms quite distinct from the litiiiuin crystals. The reagent is 
fairly stable. 

Sophora japonica, Sophorin from. D. H. Brauns. {Archiv 
der P/iarm., 24:2, 547.) Tlie dried Hower heads of the Chinese 
plant Sophora japonica yield to extraction with hot water a 
crystalline rhamnoside, sophorin. Co^HaoOtfi. When dried in the 
air it retains 3 mols. H^O of crystallization, and 2 mols. when 
dried in a desiccator or in the water-oven, but becomes anhy- 
drous at 110°C., or if dried in vacuo. When hydrolized with 
dilute H2SO4 it is split up into rhamnose, glucose, and sophoretin, 
CirJIioOv ; this crystallizes with 2 mols. H2O, which are drawn 
off in the water-oven, and by prolonged exposure in the vacuum 
drier. 

Spear Poison from the Cameroons. L. B r i e g e r and M. 

K r a u s e. {Zeits. filr exp. path., through Chem. Centrnlhlat, 
76, 1171.) The sj^earhead poison used by the natives of the 
Cameroons on their weapons for elephant hunting, and obtained 
from the powdered wood of a species of Strophanthus known as 



CHEMISTRY. 157 

Obo or Nscliom, j'ields 8^ per cent, of cr^-stalline strophanthin. 
Tliis strophanthin, erystallized from alcohol, and air-dried, 
has the ni.p. m'C. ; after drying at 103 it melts at 186-187°C. Its 
ultimate analysis gives figures similar to the stroj^hanthin of 
Strophanthus hispidus, S. kombe, S. gratus, and other plants, 
which it also resembles in pliysiological action. 

Storax, Tests for. C. Ahrens and P. H e 1 1. {Pharm. 
Centralh., 45, 571.) Pure storax is almost insoluble in cold 
petroleum ether, while the resinous matter used as an adulterant 
is readily soluble. The storax is rubbed down with sand and 
petroleum ether ; the solvent, when evaporated, leaves, with a 
pure sample, a thick fluid residue, having the acid value 40 to 
55, and the saponification value 180 to 197. If resin be present, 
this residue is resinous, and has a turpentine odour. Its acid 
V'alue is 116 to 121, and the saponification value 172 to 178. 
(See also Year-Boohs, 1901, 110 ; 1903, 253.) 

Sugar, Microehemical Detection of. E. S e n f t. [Journ. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 320.) A glycerin solution of phenjd- 
hydrazine acetate is prepared by mixing 10 per cent, glycerin 
solutions of sodium acetate and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. 
The solution suspected to contain sugar is heated with this re- 
agent for 30 minutes on the water-bath. If the osazone does 
not separate in distinct crystals, it is dissolved in alcohol and 
evaporated. Distinctive crystals of the various sugars will be 
thus obtained. 

Sugar, New, in Mountain Ash Berries. G. B e r t r a n d. 
{Comptes rend., 139, 802.) Besides sorbite, the berries of the 
mountain ash contain another sugar, a hexose, C6H]406, which 
has been named sorbierite, which is isomeric with mannite and 
sorbite. It is isolated from the mother liquors of sorbite, which 
are diluted, fermented first with yeast, then, after sterilization, 
with the specific soi'bose ferment, which converts much of the 
remaining sorbose into sorbite. After purification with lead 
subacetate, the remaining sorbite is crystallized out in the pre- 
sence of a little alcohol ; the new sugar is removed from the 
mother liquor by treatment with benzoic and sulphuric acid. The 
sugar liberated from the acetal thus obtained is pure sorbierite. 
It crystallizes in very soluble clinorrhombic prisms ; m.p. 
75"C.[a];5 -3° 35'. 



158 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Sugar of Cocos nucifera and of Borassus flabelliformis. E. 
Bourquolot. {Jouni. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 193.) These 
Indian sugars are met with in tlie foiin of lenticular' cakes of 
small agglomerated crystals. That from Cocos imcijera is ob- 
tained from the milk of the nut, and has the following percentage 
composition: reducing sugar, 1-99; saccharose, 74-95 ; moisture, 
8-03 ; ash, 4-73. When hydrolized it gives 76-49 per cent, of 
reducing sugars. The sugar of Bora.sstt.s fhihcUiforims, ihc palm 
fnmi which the fermented " palm wine " is obtained, is prepared 
from the sap ; its percentage composition is : reducing sugars, 
2-4 ; saccharose, 79-12 ; moisture, 9-15 ; ash, 3-2 ; reducing 
sugars after hydrolysis, 80-15 per cent. In both cases the action 
of invertin gives a figure for reducing sugars slightly lower than 
that obtained above by hydrolysis with dilute HoSO^. Possibh' 
a carbohydrate, other than saccharose, is present in traces, which 
is hydrolized by H2SO4. The chief constitnent of both sugars 
is, however, cane-sugar. 

Tacamahaca Elemi. A. T s c h i r c h and 0. S a a 1. {Ar- 
chiv der Pharm., 242, 352.) Continuing their researches on the 
elemis, the authors have investigated tacamahaca elemi. As it 
occurs in commerce tacamahaca elemi is met with in two forms : 
one with a crystalline structure, the other amorphous. The crj-s- 
talline form investigated came from the Philippine Islands. It 
was firm in consistence and contained bark, sand and earthy 
impurities. The odour recalled a mixture of fennel, dill and 
lemon. It had the following percentage composition : Taca- 
m^a-in, 30 to 35 ; a-isotacelemisic acid, 5 ; tacelemisic acid, 2 ; 
/3-iso-tacelemisic acid, 3 ; essential oil, 2 ; bitter principle, 0-5 ; 
resene, 30 to 35 per cent., besides impurities. 

Ammonium carbonate solution removes the a-isotacelemisic 
acid, Cn7H5fi04, which is amorphous and melts at 120^0. Tace- 
lemisic acid and /3-iso-tacelemisic acid are then removed by 
means of NaOH solution ; the former gives well-formed crystals, 
m.p. 215° ; the latter is amorphous, m.p. 120. Tacamyrin is 
separable into «-amyrin, m.p. 181, and ^-amyrin, m.p. 192, 
although the mixture of the two melts at 170°C. Both have the 
formula C30H50O. The resene is amorphous, and melts at 75°C. 

Tacamahac Resin, Commercial. A. T s c Ji i r c h and O. 
S a a 1. {Archiv der Pharm., 242, 395.) The amorphous 
fragrant resin, of undetermined botanical origin, occurs in 



CHEMISTRY. 159 

yellowish brown pieces the size of a hazelnut. Its percentage 
composition is : gum, 3 ; tacamahinic acid, 0-5 ; tacamaholic 
acid, 0-5 ; essential oil, 3 ; a-takoresene, 50 ; /3-takoresene, 
30 ; bitter principle, 0-5 per cent. ; and impurities. Tacama- 
hinic acid, CJ3H72O2, m.p. 95°C., is amorphous, and is removed 
by shaking out the ethereal solution of the resin with ammon- 
ium carbonate solution. Tacamaholic acid, C15H25O2, m.p. 
104—105^0., was then removed by shaking out with Na^COa 
solution. The two resenes are separable bj^ alcohol, sp. gr. 
0-892. in which «-takoresene is insoluble, and /:;-takoresene 
soluble. The former has the formula CoiH^sO, m.p. 93-95°C., 
the latter C'lsHo-jO, m.p. about 82°C. It will be seen that this 
substance differs materially in constituents from crystalline 
tacamahaca elemi, containing much rescue and no amyrin. 

Tanacetum boreale, Essential Oil of. {Schimmers Report, 
Oct., 1904, 97.) The half-dried plants cultivated at Miltitz 
yielded 0-12 per cent, of yellowish oil with a powerful odour of 
thujone. Sp. gr. 0-9218 at 15°C. ; [a]i, + 48° 25'; solubihty in 
alcohol 70 per cent. 1 : 8, T\'itli abundant separation of paraffin. 
The oil resembles ordinary tansy oil in properties. 

Tartarated Antimony, Detection of Potassium Acid Tartrate 

in. — Schwartz. [Repertoire [3], 17, 127.) An acpieous 
solution of pure tartarated antimony is without action on 
sodium thiosulphate, but KHC^HiOfi liberates sulphur. Conse- 
quently a saturated aqueous solution of the salt should give, 
when mixed with an equal volume of N/10 thiosulphate solution, 
a liquid which remains clear for at least 5 minutes. 

Tetranthera polyantha var. citrata, Essential Oil of Bark and 
Leaves of. [SchimmeVs Report, May, 1905, 85.) Bark Oil. 
Yield, 0-81 per cent, of lemon yellow oil ; sp. gr., 0-8904 ; [ft]i)-l- 
10° 11' ; solubility, 1 : 1 and more with alcohol 80 per cent. It 
contains a mixture of aldehydes, probably citral and citronellal. 

Leaf oil. Yield, 5-42 of bright yellow essential oil ; sp. gr., 
0-9042 ; [a]i,-15° 41' ; solubihty ,*^ 1 : 2-5 to 1 : 3 in alcohor70 
per cent. Citral appears to be the only aldehyde present, to the 
amount of nearly 30 per cent. Cineol is present in the non- 
aldehydic portion. 

Thalassine in Prawns. C. R i c h e t. [Journ PJmrm. Chim. 
[6], 20, 94.) Thalassine is obtained in quantity from prawns, 
5 kilos, of those crustaceans yielding 5 Gm. This thalassine 



160 



YEAR-BOOK OF niARMACY, 



possesses all the physiological properties of that obtained from 
Actinia ; when injected into dogs in very small doses of 01 Mgni. 
per kilo, of body weight, it provokes a general excitement, with 
intense itching and sneezing. It appears to be widely distri- 
buted, and is probably the cause of tlie toxic pruritus observed 
under various conditions. 

Thorium Salts of Organic Acids for Medicinal Use. G. T. 

Morgan. {PItarm. Joiirn. [4], 19, 472.) In view of the 
therapeutic application of radioactive salts, the following is of 
interest. Thorium salts of many of the carboxylic acids are in- 
soluble substances, and may be produced by the interaction of 
their soluble alkali salts with thorium nitrate in aqueous solution, 
the products being washed with warm water until free from any 
excess of their generators. 

Thorium salicyJaie, when prepared in this way and dried on 
porous tile at the ordinary temperature, is obtained in the foim 
of an insoluble pulverulent substance ; it is a basic salt, thoria 
estimations indicating that two molecular proportions of the 
organic acid have comliined with one molecular proportion of the 
base ; the air-dried product contains about 48 per cent, of ThOo. 

Thorium cinnnmate is likewise an insoluble powder, containing 
about 38 per cent, of thoria. 

Insoluble thorium salts of a similar nature have also been 
Ijroduced from the three isomeric eoumaric acids. 

Thorium oleate is prepared by mixing together equivalent 
quantities of Iwdrated thoria and oleic acid, the combination 
being facilitated by the addition of pure redistilled ether : the 
product, which at first is a perfectly homogeneous paste, gradu- 
ally acquires the consistence of lard ; it is compatible with the 
ordinary ointment " bases." 

An investigation of these compounds from the therapeutic 
standpoint is being conducted by Lovell Drage, ^\ho has 
employed the oleate rubbed down Adth olive oil as an ointment 
in cases of skin trouble of a cancerous or eczematous nature. 
The other insoluble thorium derivatives have been applied in the 
form of dusting powders. 

Thorium phenol compounds. Similar insoluble compounds 
are j^roduced on combining thoria with phenol and its homo- 
logues. The compounds with phenol, 2:4: 6-tribromophenol, 
and p-cresol are stable substances permanent in tlie air, but 



CHEMISTRY. 161 

tlio analogous products obtained from resorcinol, pyrogallol, 
a- and /:?-naphtbols, and gallic and tannic acids show a dis- 
position to darken on exposure to the atmosphere. Phthalic 
and cami^horic acids form sparingly soluble thorium salts which 
are obtained as white amorphous powders. 

Thorium lactate, Th[CH3-CH{OH)-C02]4,2H20. Lactic acid 
wlieu combined with tlioria furnishes a soluble salt whicih separ- 
ated from its concentrated aqueous solutions in opaque white 
tabular crystals which are somewhat deliquescent. Thoriinii 
lactate yields 41-80 per cent, of thoria. 

Witli tlie exception of the preceding compound the foregonig 
thorium derivatives are insoluble amorphous substances, to 
which it is sometimes difficult to assign any definite chemical 
formula. Well-defined crystallizable salts are obtained, how- 
ever, by combining thoria with the organic sulphonic acids. 

The thorium salts of the sulphonated aromatic hydrocarbons 
are extremely soluble in water. Thorium bcnzenesulpkonate 
prepared by dissolving the Cvjuivalent amount of thoria in an 
aqueous solution of bcnzenesulphonic acid, separates in small 
colourless crystals on evaporating the solution nearly to dry- 
ness ; when dried at ]20°C. it corresponds with tlie formula Th 
(CeHg'SO.,)^. Thorium naphthalene- a-sulphonate Th(CioH^-SO:,)4 
is also very readily soluble in water, and becomes anhydrous 
when dried at 120° ; the corresponding compound from naph- 
thaleno-/:?-sulphonic acid is somewhat less soluble. 

Thorium phenol-p-sulphonate [thorium sulphocarholate) obtained 
by dissolving thoria in an aqueous solution of phenol-^J-sulj)honic 
acid and concentrating the liquid to the crystallizing point, 
separates in well-defined, j^alo pink, transparent prisms, often of 
considerable size. The analytical data (Th02 = 24-33, 8 = 11-08, 
11^0 = 14-74 per cent.) indicate that the air-dried salt has the 
formula Th(0H-C6Hi -803)4, 9HoO, the calculated percentages 
being TI1O2- 24-32, S- 11-78, "h,0 = 14-91. Tliis salt has a 
slightly astringent taste, and is quite permanent under the 
ordinary atmospheric conditions. 

Lewis Jones has made a comparative experiment on the 
radioactivity of the sulphocarholate and oleate of thorium. A 
gelatino-bromide plate was exposed to these compounds for 
five days, when both were found to have exercised some photo- 
graphic action, but the sulphocarholate produced by far the 
greater effect. The soluble sulphocarholate obtained by crystal- 

M 



162 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

lization from aqueous solution was thus shown to be much more 
radioactive than the insoluble oleate prepared by precipitation. 
Analogous soluble compounds may be obtained frtmi the sul- 
phonic acids of /)-cresol and a- and /£-naplithols. Thorium 
iS-tiaphthol-Q-suljphonate Th(HO-CioH6-S03)4, OHoO, is a colour- 
less crystalline salt ; foUowmg analytical data : — 

Thornimcam'phorsul'phonate,T)i{Qi^QHir^O-^0:i)i, 9H2O, prepared 
from Rej'chler's camphorsulphonic acid and hydrated thoria, 
is a well-defined salt crystallizing from aqueous solutions 
in colourless transparent lustrous prisms. 

Thujone. 0. Wallach. [Liehicfs Annalen, 336, 247, 
through SchimmeVs Eeport, May, 1905, 111.) The chemically 
identical thujones of various essential oils are found to be phy- 
sical isomers. That of thuja oil is a-thujone ; tansy oil contains 
/3-thujone ; wormwood oil contains much /S-thujone, as well as 
some a-thujone ; artemisia and sage oils give mixtures of the 
two. The two thujones were separated by the fractional crys- 
tallization of their semicarbazones from methyl alcohol. 

AlpJm-thujone is leevorotatory, and forms two semi-carbazones, 
both dextrorotatory, one crystalline and the other amorphous. 
The ketone separated from the crystalline compound by means 
of phthalic anhydride had the following properties : b.p. 200- 
20 rC. ; sp. gr. 0-912 ; [;/] d22° 14503 ; [a ]d- 10-23°. «-thujone is 
partially converted into /3-thujone when heated with alcoholic 
potash liquor, formic acid, or alcoholic sulphuric acid. The 
latter effects a furtlier conversion into isothujone. The oxime, 
produced witliout an excess of alkali, remains liquid, and is laevo- 
rotatory ; when an excess of alkali is used, a dextrorotatory' oxime 
is obtained, due to the isomerization of thujone. If a-thujone 
is converted by reduction into thujyl alcohol, and the latter again 
oxidized, y6^-thujone is formed. Beta-thujone is dextrorotatory, 
but is not the optical antipode of a-thujone. The semicarbazone 
occurs in a hexagonal dextrorotatory form, m.p. 174-176X'., 
which readily passes into a rhombic-hemihedral form, m.p. 170- 
172°C. When mixtures of the semicarbazones of /S-thujone 
or of a-thujone, or of both, are present, they give rise to compli- 
cations which are even more pronounced owing to the fact that 
mixture-crystals of uniform appearance are formed which can 
only be split up by frequent recrystaUization. The ketone 
liberated from the semicarbazone by means of phthalic anhydride 
has the |a]u + 76-16°. Its oxime melts at 54-55^C., and is 



CHEMISTRY. 



163 



dextrorotatory. /t^-thujone is converted into the isomeric 
a-thujone by boiling with alcohohc potash. 

Thymomenthol. L.Brunei. {Bull. Soc. Chim., 3Z, 500.) 
Thymol is readily converted into the hexahydro- aromatic 
alcohol, thymomenthol, C14H20O, by Sabatier and Senderens' 
reaction ; this is best conducted at a temperature of 160°C., to 
avoid the simultaneous production of acetone. Thymomenthol 
is a colourless syrupy liquid, with a powerful peppermint odour ; 
sp. gr. 0-913 at 0°C. ; crystaUizing at low temperatures to a solid 
mass which melts at —5° to 0°C. ; b.p. 215-5°C. at norma) 
pressure. When dehydrated with P2O5 or KHSO, it gives a 
tetrahydrocymene or thymomenthene, which closely resembles 
menthene. Thymomenthol readily esterifies with acids, the 
alcohol being isomerized during the process, so that when liber- 
ated from combination with the acid radicle it is a stereoisomer 
of the original alcohol. The former has therefore been named 
a-thymomenthol, the latter ^-thymomenthol ; it crystalhzes in 
long needles resembling menthol in appearance and odour ; 
m.p. 28°C. ; b.p. 21 7T. at normal pressure. It volatihzes less 
readily at normal temperatures than its a-isomer, so that a mix- 
ture of the two alcohols may be separated by simple exposure, 
the ultimate residue consisting solely of crystals of y6-thymo- 
menthol. Both a- and /3-thymomenthol give the same ketone 
thymomenthone CioHisO. demonstrating that the alcoholic 
radicle alone is isomerized. Several esters of y6-thymomenthol 
are described in detail. 

Trehalase, General Presence of, in Fungi. E. B o u r q u e 1 o t 

and H. H e r i s s e y. {Bull. Soc. Mycol., through Journ. Pharm. 
Chim., 21, 504.) Having previously shown the hexobiose, tre- 
halose to be present in 142 out of 212 species of Fungi examined, 
and bearing in mind the readiness with which that sugar dis- 
appears from various causes during ripening, preservation, 
or drying, it may be generally inferred that it is universally 
distributed in these plants. The same is found to be the case, 
as might be anticipated, witli trehalase, the specific ferment 
which hydrolizes trehalose, affording assimilable products. 
Trehalase has been found in those Fungi which contain, in the 
young state only, trehalose and no mannite, such as Boletus 
edulis, B. aurantiacus, and Cortinarius elatior ; in those contain- 
ing both mannite and trehalose, such as Boletus hadinus ; and in 



164 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 



those which contain only mannite and no trehalose, Paxillus 
involutus and Ru.'isula delka. 

Tungsten, Colour Reaction for. C. Frabot. { Annates de 
Chim. Analyt.. 9, 371.) On adding uric acid to a solution of 
tuagstic salt in the presence of an excess of caustic soda a mag- 
nificent blue colour is produced similar to the reaction of phospho- 
molybdic acid described by Riegler. The latter has suggested 
the phosphomolybdic test to detect uric acid or urine in water 
and other liquids. In a similar manner, uric acid may be used 
as described above to detect tungsten in minerals in the absence 
of molybdenum. 

Turmeric, Composition of. A. E. Leach. (Joiim. Amer. 
Chem. Soc, 26, 1210.) The following table gives the results of 
the analyses of the three varieties of turmeric most frequently 
met with in American commerce : — 









1 


3 

W 


B 




-s 


. 1 


-■& 


rsby 
1 of 

tase 






. 


t? 


d 


& 




■s 


M '^ 


g S 


Jo's. 


> 


303 


"3 
o 

6-72 


1 
o 

JO 

■s 

■< 

5-20 


1 

o 

1 

■s 

< 
on 


1 

1-73 


.g 

10-81 


1086 


Bo 
201 


|1 

1 

8-84 


S j ^ 

.a , 3 

< 1 


Reducing Mat 

Acid Convera 

Starcli 

Starch by D 
Method 


China . 


9-22 4 45 48-69, 40-05 


Pubna . 


908 


8.52 


614 


— 


0-97 


606 


1201 


4 42 7-60 


7 28 5-84 50-08 29-56 


Alleppi 


807 5-99 


4-74 


— 


1-56 


9-75 


10-66 


316 7-51 


4 37 5-83 50 44 33-03 


Average 


8-73 707 

1 


6-36 


— 


1-42 


8-88 


11 17 


3 19 


7-98 


6-96 5-37 49-73 34-21 

1 .1 1 



Turpentine Oil, Detection of Adulteration in. M a c C a n d- 

1 e s s. [Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 26, 981), and H e r z- 
feldt. (Zeits. fuer Ofjent. C/um., 10, 382.) Detection of 
Petroleum. 100 c.c. of the oil is gradually mixed with agitation 
and cooling with 50 c.c. of H2SO4. When action is complete, 
25 c.c. of water is added and the mixture distilled. When the 
total distillate amounts to 100 c.c. the distillation is stopped. 
The quantity and refractometer number of the oil is ascertained, 
and it is again treated, as before, with strong fuming H2SO4. 
The mixture is poured into water and the sej^arated oil again 
distilled. The process of treatment with acid and distillation 
is repeated a third time with double the volume of fuming 
HoSOj. In the case of pure turpentine and pine oil the refracto- 
meter number at 2o°C with a Zeiss butyrorefractometer never 



CHEMISTRY. 165 

falls below 30. The presence of petroleum influences this figure 
very markedly, one per cent, of that adulterant lowering the 
refractometer value of the third polymerization to 25. 

Detection of Pine-tar Oil. When petroleum is proved absent, 
100 c.c. of the oil is carefully distilled, and the refraction 
of the first 0-5 c.c. of distiUate determined. In the case of pure 
turpentine it is 60 to 63 at 2o°C. When pine oil is present it is 
below 60. On continuing the fractionation, the 97th and 98th 
c.c. are again tested by the refractometer; with genuine tur- 
pentine, this will not exceed 77° ; but with wood spirit may 
reach 90°. 

Turpentine Oil, Greek, from Pinus halepensis. — U t z. 

{Apotheker Zeit., 19, 678.) The fresh turpentine of Pinus Jiala- 
pensis yields from 20 to 22 per cent, of oil and 70 per cent, of 
colophony. As a rule the turpentine is not distilled direct, but 
the oil is obtained from the residues of the Greek terebinthinous 
red wines, to which the fresh turpentine is added as a preservative 
and to impart the peculiar resinous flavour which is distinctive of 
these wines. Consequently the turpentine oil thus prepared 
has an agreeable resinous aroma. It has the sp. gr. 0-8634 at 
15°C. ; [a]„ 38° 47' ; solubihty in 90 per cent, alcohol, 1 : 12 ; 
b.p. 150-155T. 

Umbelliferone Test, Modification of. F. H. A 1 c o c k. {Pharm. 
Joiirn. [4]. 19, 112.) Instead of boiling the gum resin to be 
tested with strong HC'l, gentle boiling with equal volumes of 
HCl and water is recommended as giving less inconvenience from 
the evolution of fumes : on diluting, filtering and adding am- 
monia the fluorescent umbelliferone reaction is obtained as 
definitely as when strong acid is used. 

Vanillin, Adulteration of, with Terpin Hydrate. [ScMmmeV s 
Report, May, 1905, 120.) A sample of vanillin from a Swiss 
source recently offered has been found to be adulterated with 
50 per cent, of terpin hj^lrate ; it had no definite melting point, 
and developed the odour of terpineol when heated with dilute 
H0SO4. 

Vanillin and Hydrochloric Acid as a Reagent. L. Rosen- 
thaler. {Zeits. fiir Anaiyt. Chem., 44, 292.) A 1 per cent, 
solution of vanillin in HCl gives characteristic colours with 



166 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

phenols, ketones, terpenes and other bodies. A few drops or 
particles of a solid are added to the reagent, and the colour noted 
in 15 minutes ; it is then heated to boiling, when another tint 
may bo developed. A green colour is given by essential oils 
containing pinene, or limonene ; sesquiterpenes give no reaction. 
Essential oils containing linalol or geraniol give a violet colour ; 
those which contain cineol give a blue tint on heating. Clove oil, 
when pui-e, gives no reaction. Morphine and codeine give a 
violet red colour on heating : acetone and its homologues a pale 
pink colour in the cold, becoming green on heating. 

Vinegar, Commercial, Presence of Acetylmethylcarbinol in. 

— Past u r e a u. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 593.) Seve- 
ral specimens of commercial vinegar have been met with which 
gave more or less precipitate Avith alcohol 95 per cent., and 
showe'd a powerful reducing action, in the cold, on alkaline 
cuprio tartrate. When neutralized with NaoCOa and distilled 
the reducing body passed over in the distillate, giving an abun- 
dant precipitate of CHI3 when treated with iodine, and a crys- 
talline osazone, m.p. 243°, with phenylhradrine acetate. By 
this osazone it was recognized as that of methylacetol, or acetyl- 
methylcarbinol CH3.GO.CHOH.CH3. The solution of the osazone 
in ether-alcohol gave a blood- red colour with a trace of Fe2Cl6, and, 
on evaporation, red crystals of the corresponding osotetrazone. 
No furfural was detected in the distillate from the neutralized 
vinegar. To determine the amount of methylacetol present, 
50 c.c. of the vinegar was neutralized with NasCOs and distilled 
to dryness, avoiding overheating. The distillate received in a 
graduated 100 c.c. flask was rendered alkaline with NaOH and 
AmOH, then treated with 10 c.c. of N/10 AgNOg. After stand- 
ing for 24 hours, the volume was made up to 100 c.c, the liquid 
filtered, and the silver remaining determined by the cyanomctric 
method. The amount of methylacetol present was then calcu- 
lated from the quantity of AgNOa found to be reduced according 
to the equation : — 

3(CH3.CO.CHOH.CH3 + AgNOa =3(CH3.CO.CO.CH3) + 
3H20 + N + Ag. 

In one case this was fomid to be equivalent to 3-256 Cm. per litre. 

Volatile Acids, Distribution and Formation of, in Plants. E. 

C h a r a b o t and A. H e b e r t. {Bull. JSoc. Chim. 1904, [3], 



CHEMISTRY. 167 

31, 1107.) The greatest amount of free volatile acids is invari- 
ably found in the leaves of various plants, such as peppermint, 
basil, various oranges, and other species yielding volatile oils ; 
the least occurs in the inflorescences until drying up of the plant 
commences, then free volatile acid is found in the lowest amount 
in the stem. Tlie relative proportion in the different organs 
increases and decreases simultaneously, becoming less at the 
period of the formation of the inflorescence, particularly in the 
leaves, and increasing as the flowers expand, to finally diminish 
when the plant dries up. Etiolated plants show a decidedly 
greater proportion of volatile acid, calculated on the dry material, 
in all their organs than similar plants grown exposed to light. 
The proportion of combined acids is also greater in the leaves than 
in the stem. In examining'the^ash of various organs it is found 
that soluble carbonates, and especially that derived from organic 
salts of potassium, are chiefly found in the ash of the stem. The 
least proportion of soluble carbonates exists in the inflorescence 
ash. The ash of the leaves affords the highest proportion of 
insoluble carbonates derived from organic salts of magnesium 
and calcium. Etiolated plants show an exaggerated amount of 
combined acids, but the suppression of the inflorescences reduces 
the amount. 

Water, New Reaction for the Detection of Ammonia in. A. 

Trill at and T u r c h e t. {Comptes rend., 140, 374.) The 
reaction is based on the formation of a black colour due to 
nitrogen iodide, when KI and an alkali hypochlorite is added to 
a solution containing ammonia. The reaction is distinctly 
visible with 1 part of NH3 in 500,000. It is claimed that it^ias 
the advantage over Nessler's reaction in not being affected by 
the presence of bicarbonates, lime salts, sulphides, and albumin- 
oids. The reaction is given only by ammonia, and not by nitrites, 
nitrates, amines or other nitrogenous compounds. The test is 
thus applied. Twenty to 30 c.c. of the water in a'^Nessler glass 
is treated with 3 drops of 10 per cent. KI solution, and 2 drops of 
strong alkali hypochlorite (solution of chlorinated soda answers 
well). The black colour is at once formed in the presence of 
NH3, and is sufficiently permanent to allow the depth of tint to 
be matched, with a standard solution of ammonia, as in " Ness- 
lerizing." Only one precaution is essential, to avoid adding an 
excess of the reagent, in which the nitrogen iodide formed is 
redissolved. 



168 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Water, New Reaction for Determining Ammonia in. — Cava- 
lier and A r t h u s. {Btdl. Soc. Chim..S3, 14:5.) Commenting 
on tlie procediiifi, the authors state tliat the reaction is mucli less 
dehcate than the familiar Nessler test, and that the dai'k colour 
is not permanent, diminishing sensibly in a minute and almost 
disappearing when not very intense, in about 3 minutes. 

Zinc Borate or Oxyborate. E. H o 1 d e r m a n n. {Archiv 
der PJiarm.. 242, 567.) This salt, the formula of which may be 
written Zn3(B.,07)2(OH)2, is prepared by dissolving zinc sulphate 
500 Gm. in 5 to 10 litres of water, to which a solution of borax, 
443'6 Gm.. containing caustic soda solution, 15 per cent., 309 Gm. 
is added with constant stirring. The precipitate is then washed, 
collected and dried. It forms an excellent dusting powder for 
medicinal use. 

Zygadernus venonosus Bulbs, Alkaloids of, H. B. S 1 a d e. 
{Amer. Journ. Pharm., 11.) The bulbs of death camas of the 
Nez Perce Indians, Zygadernus venonosus. have been found to 
contain at least three alkaloids, sabadine, sabadinine and vera- 
tralbine. showing the close relation of the plant in chemical con- 
stituents to Veratrum album. Sabadine was extracted from the 
air-dry powdered bulbs by etiier, and purified by precipitation 
with phosphotungstic acid, from which it was liberated with 
sodium carbonate, then crystallized with ether. Sabadinine was 
isolated from the ether extract after the removal of sabadine. 
Veratralbine was extracted from the drug, after treatment with 
ether, by means of 80 per cent, alcohol containing tartaric acid. 



MATERIA MEDTCA 



PART II 

MATERIA MEDICA 

Abies amabilis, Oleoresin of. F. R a b a k. {Pharm. Re- 
view, 23, 46.) According to the author, Oregon balsam is fur- 
nished by Abies concolor, A. amabilis, and A. nobilis. An 
authentic specimen of the oleoresin of A. amabilis was pale 
yellow in colour and had an odour recalling that of limonene. 
It was faintly turbid ; its 10 per cent, solutions in alcohol and 
in ether were devoid of optical activity. It yielded 40*3 per 
cent, of essential oil on distillation. This had the sp. gr. 0-852 
at 22°C., and the [a] 1,-14° 24'. Its chief constituents are 
pinene, with a little limonene. The characters of the oleoresin 
of P. amahilis differ both from C'anada balsam and from com- 
merical Oregon balsam. 

Acetopyrine. {Merck's Be port, 18,1.) J. Reichelt has success- 
fully employed acetopyrine in rheumatism, influenza, sciatica, lum- 
bago, intercostal neuralgia, coxalgia, migraine, and cephalgia of 
a rheumatic origin, bronchitis, pneumonia, angina, herpes zoster 
and tuberculosis of the lungs. He finds it especially valuable 
in rheumatism, where doses of 8 grs. were taken with ease and 
did not produce secondary effects upon the heart. Also it 
alleviated the pains and induced quiet sleep. 

Very good results were likewise obtained by G. Spuller in the 
treatment of articular rheumatism. 

J. Winterberg and R. Braun have employed acetopyrine not 
only in chronic articular rheumatism, but also in typhoid, 
meningitis cerebrospinalis, and pleuritis,. and secured favourable 
results. They emphasize the fact that the use of acetoi^yrine 
was not attended with prejudicial effects upon the stomach. 



172 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Acorus calamus Root in India. D. Hooper. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 20G.) The rliizome of the sweet flag is sold in 
nearly every bazaar in India, and has been known from the 
earliest times as a favourite medicine with the natives of Eastern 
countries. It is administered for such divers complaints that it 
is difficult to discover its peculiar action. In small doses it is 
stomachic and carminative, in larger doses it is considered 
emetic. It is a simple and useful i-emedy for flatulence, colic, 
or dyspepsia, and a pleasant adjunct to tonic or purgative 
medicines. It is considered efficacious in remittent fevers and 
ague. From the opinions of medical officers collected in India, 
acorus root has been pronounced to be good for dysentery of 
children, as an expectorant in bronchitis, as a fumigatory in 
painful piles, and as a counter-irritant to the chest in catarrh. 
It is administered in the form of an infusion, decoction, or 
tincture. In Ceylon, the rhizome is used as an anthelmintic for 
children. 

Sweet flag root is held in high esteem as an insectifuge, 
especially for fleas. For this purpose the dried plant is placed 
with elotlies in drawers and almirahs and under beds. It is 
generally supposed that the smell is disliked by the cobra, on 
which it produces a narcotic effect. In the Ratnagiri district, 
Bombay, it is cultivated for this purpose near dwelling-houses, 
and is chewed by snake-charmers. 

Clinical experiments witli the essential oil distilled from fresh 
and dried roots at Ootacamund, and with a strong tincture of 
the root, have failed to indicate that it has any appreciable 
therapeutic action. 

Adrenaline, Therapeutics of. {Merck's Beporf, 18, 13.) The 
application of adrenaline in conjunction with cocaine has now 
become general for simultaneously lessening hemorrhage and 
producing anaesthesia during operation. The 1 : 1000 solution 
has been given internally with success by A. C. Bird and Gray 
Duncanson for the arrest of pulmonary haemorrhage, the dose 
being 5 to 20 ill ; and A. S. Myrthe has given it in the same 
way for cardiac attacks in neurasthenia. Cosma, however, 
regards it as a feeble haemostatic when it has passed through the 
system, since it is so readily oxidized. Its action, according to 
him, is doubtful in haemoptysis, metrorrhagia and intestinal 
haemorrhage, but good results were obtained in epistaxis and 
haematuria. Ichard and Martin have employed it with success 



MATERIA MEDICA. 173 

as a local application for carcinoma. To obviate decomposition 
Li von suggests the addition of 6 per cent, of HCl to the 1 : 1000 
adrenaline solution, and states that this enables it to retain its 
activity unimpaired for a year. Grandclement has found the 
1 : 5000 solution to be a vahiable remedy for acute glaucoma ; 
by keeping the eye constantly under the influence of adrenaline 
for three daj^s, by half-hourly application, iridectomy may be 
avoided. It has also been used with good effect for rhinitis and 
other nasal affections. Hecht prescribes the following snuff for 
the purpose : Zinc sozoiodolate, 5 to 15 grs. ; menthol, 3 to 
8 grs. ; adrenaline (crystalline), ^L- to ^V gr. ; powdered milk 
sugar, 145 grs. In dental operations Luniatscheck uses the 
following solution : Adrenaline solution, 1 : 1000, 3 ui ; solution 
of cocaine hj^drochloride, 0*5 per cent., 16 ill. An ointment for 
deep-seated haemorrhoids is composed of adrenaline solution 
(1 : 1000), 30 1)1 ; cocaine hydrocldoride, J gr. ; vasehne, | oz. 
Many authors sound a note of warning against the indiscriminate 
use of adrenaline. Greve refers to dental cases in which severe 
secondary haemorrhage has followed its use. Kantz regards it 
as a cardiac poison, and insists on the importance of examining 
the patient's heart before its administration. Oppenheimer 
records a case of severe reactionary hsemorrhage in a case of 
advanced iritis, and recommends care in its use in cases of high 
inflammation or with the aged. In the latter he is confirmed 
by Aronheim and Neugebauer. It is contra-indicated in ad- 
vanced cases of Addison's disease, in which Boinet records two 
fatal cases following its use, but it may be employed with benefit 
in the initial stages of the affection, but even then the dose 
should not exceed ^J - of a gr. Mengelberg finds that, when 
combined with atropine sulphate in ophthalmic surgery, adrena- 
line is liable to exert a toxic action, and should be administered 
with extreme caution. These results show that, although 
adrenaline is luidoubtedly a most valuable remedy, its use 
demands circumspection and a close regard to the condition, or 
idiosyncrasy, of the patient. 

Airol as a Diagnostic in Carious Aural Inflammation. {Merck's 
Report, 18, 18.) Kutvirt describes airol as a good diagnostic 
medium in carious inflammations of the ear. It is found that 
as soon as this disease extends to the bones several species of 
bacteria contribute to the evolution of SHo, which does not 
occur under normal conditions. This 8Ho blackens bismuth 



174 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY, 

iodo^allate or nirol. When airol gauze is black<!ued on being 
introduced into a suppurating ear, it is a veiy strong indication 
that the inflammation extends to tlie bone. 

Almatenia. L. B e r t i n i. {Clinic Mod., through Reper- 
toire [3], 17, 78.) Almatenia is a condensation product of 
haematoxylin and formaldehyde, which occurs as a very light, 
odourless, tasteless, brick-red powder with a metallic reflection. 
It is employed as a surgical antiseptic dressing, as one of the 
many substitute, for iodoform. 

Anesthesine, Application of, for Mouth Diseases. H o e n i g - 
s c h m e i d. {Heilkundc, through MercFs Report, 18, 22.) 
The following application is recommended for various mouth 
affections of children, such as catarrhal stomatitis, thrush, and 
buccal ulcers. It is applied with a brush. Oil of sweet almonds, 
mucilage of acacia, rectified spirit of each, | oz. ; emulsify and 
add, anaesthesine, 15 grs. ; simple syrup, ^ oz. 

Antipyrine and Pyramidon, Separation of. — P a t e i n. {Journ. 
Pharm. CIiwi. [6], 21, 611.) On treating a mixture of pyra- 
midon and antipA'rine V/ith HCl and formaldehyde, the former 
is not affected, but the latter gives a compound which is pre- 
cipitated by ammonia. This may be collected and weighed, 
when the pyramidon may be dissolved out of the liquid hy 
shaking out with CHCI3 and obtained as a weighable residue on 
evaporating off the solvent. 

Atoxyl. J. ]M o 1 1 e r. {Berlin Klin-Therap. Woch., through 
Merck's Report, 18, 33.) Atoxyl, metarsenic anilide, has been 
employed with excellent results as endovenous injections for 
the treatment of the first and second stages of phthisis. A 
series of cases is recorded m which such good results have 
been obtained that the treatment is regarded as a specific. 
From |- to 1 syringeful (1 Gm.) was injected every alternate 
day for 5 or 6 days, the succeeding 5 or 6 doses being given 
every third day, then every fourth day, and, finally, once a 
week. In small doses it has also proved beneficial in valvular 
affectioiLS of the heart and in myocarditis. It has also l^een 
successfully employed in other affections. (See also Year- 
Book, 1902, 162; 1903, 194.) 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 175 

Atropine Methyl Bromide, Therapeutics of. {Merck's Report, 
18, 34.) Ill addition to the cases ah'eady described {Year- 
Rook. 1904, 193) Aronheim gives tlie following prescriptions, and 
indicates their respective applications. 

In cystitis good results were invariably obtained with 2 daily 
doses of -At gr. each of methylatropine bromide and 15 grs. of 
urotropin ; in insomnia by the administration of a poAvder of 
J.T gr. of methylatropine bromide and 8-15 grs. of veronal ; in 
feverish and catarrhous affections and in neuralgia, with J^, gr. 
of methylatropine bromide in conjunction with 8-12 grs. of 
phenacetin. The following prescription relieves spasmodic night- 
cough : Methylatropine bromide, 4 gr. ; cocaine hydrochlor., 
3 grs. ; cherry laurel water, 150, grs. 15 to 20 drops to be 
taken in the evening in a cup of a suitable pectoral. 

In dyspepsia with heartburn : Methylatropine bromide, ^ gr. ; 
sodium bicar])onate, bismuth salicylate, aa 75 grs. ; Peppermint 
oil, gtt. 10 ; milk sugar to 1 oz. As much as will lie on 
knife-point to be taken in water 4 times daily after meals. 

In epilepsy he prescribes : Methylatropine bromide, 1^ gr. ; 
antipyrine, 24 grs. ; amnion, bromide to 3 oz. As much as 
will lie on a knife-point to be taken in water 3 to 4 times per day. 

Hypodermic injections of ^ gr. of atropine methyl bromide in 
150 111 of cherry laurel water may be given in doses of J to 1 
syringeful according to age, and has given good results in re- 
lieving jaain in various cases. Bolgar has also obtained good 
results with the drug, especially in intestinal affections, in which 
its influence on the peristaltic action surpasses that of atropine. 

Aya-Pana, True and False. P. Planes. {Journ. Pharm. 
Chim. [6], 21, 534.) Although the leaves alone of Ewpatorium 
friplinerve form the true drug, as met with in commerce Aya- 
Pana frequently contains 40 to 50 per cent, of fragments of 
stems, which are valueless. Nor does sophistication end at 
this ; a specimen has lately been met with which contained a 
considerable admixture of the stems of E. cannabium. Since the 
deeply trilobed dentate leaves of the latter are quite distinct 
from the single-lobed lanceolate leaves of the geniune article, 
these had been carefulty removed, the remaining stems being 
sufficiently similar to those of true Aya-Pana to pass a super- 
ficial examination. The market value of the leaves of 
E. triplinerve is about twelve times greater than that of those of 
E. cannabium, so the fiaud is very remunerative. The micro- 



176 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

scopical examination of the stems at once distinguishes them. 
The transverse section shows that the epidermis of E. cannabium 
is covered witli liairs, which are absent in E. triplinerve ; the 
subadjacent cortical tissue is collenchymatous ; the endoderm 
has two receptacles of secretion opposite each fibrovascular 
bundle. These are very regularly arranged in th(^ pcricycle and 
are 25 in number, and quite distinct in sha])e and structure from 
those of Aya-Pana. This has a parenchymatous cortical tissue, 
the fibrovascular bundles are not so numerous nor so regular, 
and are flattened. Figures illustrating the marked difference of 
structure of the two leaf stems are given. 

/5-eucaine Lactate. F. Z e r n i c k. {Bcrichte Pharm., 15, 
6.) Since /j'-eucaine Jij^drochloride is but sparingly soluble in 
water, Langaard has proposed to substitute the lactate, the 
solubility of which is 1 : 4*4 in water, for pharmaceutical 
preparations. 

/5-Naphthol as a Vermifuge. (Merck's Report, 18, 128.) 
yS-naphthol is stated to be a harmless and effective remedy in 
anchylostomiasis and other affections due to intestinal worms. 
After a purgative, 15 grs. of /S-naphthol is given, and repeated 
after a few hours, the patient meanwhile being kept on fluid diet. 

Borneo Camphor, Collection of, by the Malays^ E. K r e m e r s. 
[Pharm. Review, 23, 7.) H. Furness thus describes the collection 
of Borneo camphor by the Malays : — 

When the " Kayans " are about to undertake a search for the 
trees which are to supply the valued camphor, they first 
of all make very careful observations of certain external occur- 
rences which they consider as good or evil omens for the result 
of their undertaking. It is especially the flight of certain birds, 
such as the spider-hunter, the red hawk, or the rainbird, on 
which the result of the search depends. If they see one of these 
birds cross their path from right to left, there is but small prospect 
of a good haul ; but if they see the birds fly in tlie opposite 
direction, they consider it a portent of a good result of their 
expedition, and only when the omens are satisfactory do they 
proceed on their way. But before the work can be commenced 
they must hear the troat of a stag, and finally must kill a certain 
kind of snake. Only when all this has taken place they may 
hope to find a rich harvest. Next they place a rattan across a 



MATERIA MEDICA. 177 

stream near whicli the camphor trees are found which they 
intend to fell, and suspend from that rattan wooden images, 
weapons, and wooden wedges, of whicli the latter are intended 
to be used in the subsequent work of splitting up the tree. 
For other camphor hunters or strangers this is meant to be a 
sign that the stream is barred. They next put up their hut in 
the vicinity of the trees to be felled. Now, if at the first blows 
of the axe one of the above-named ominous birds is heard to 
call, tlie}^ immediately leave off working until the next day, 
spending the time meanwhile in their hut in idleness. When 
all the signs are favourable for the camphor hunters, and if the 
tree is found to contain a sufficient quantity of camphor, a post 
is erected which is clothed with chips and brushwood (the chips 
are possibly intended to represent the sinuous tongues of fire 
which are connected with the invisible powers). During the 
gathering of the camphor the " Kayans " are allowed to take 
food and to sjaeak to people whom they meet, but no stranger 
is allowed to enter their hut. When the tree is felled, it is cut 
up in small pieces by the hunters, who for this purpose dress 
themselves in fine clothes and put on arms. They therefore 
consider it as a fallen enemy, of whose hidden treasures they 
can only possess themselves by means of sword and spear. 
The search for crystals is extremely troublesome, as every piece 
of wood has to be cut up small and tested with the greatest 
care. The trees which contain crystals are usually hollow. 
Up to a height of 20 feet above the roots small crystals are 
found. In addition to these, much oil is always present. The 
flowers possess a powerful odour of camphor. Many tribes of 
Borneo are in the habit, when searching for camphor, of em- 
ploying a special " camphor-language," to which the " Malanau " 
pay special attention, as they believe that the crystals will 
immediately disappear when another language is spoken. With 
regard to tliis camphor dialect, one is inclined to consider this 
an interesting remnant of an old language. This peculiar habit 
prevails throughout Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. With 
some tribes the names of the chiefs and influential persons are 
not allowed to be mentioned as long as the search for camphor 
continues. If anybody should violate this rule, no camphor 
would ever be discovered in the trees. During this period the 
women do not dare to touch their combs. The men are able 
to discover from certain knots in the tree whether their wives 
are faithful, and it is said that, in olden times, jealous husbands 

N 



178 YEAR-BOOK OF I'HARMACY. 

have killed their wives in consequence of the signs which they 
had read from these knots. Except during the day or at night- 
fall no one is allowed to bathe ; no venison must be eaten during 
this period. The finest camphor is considered to be that which 
is found in large transparent crystals .^ inch long, and for which 
40 to 50 dollars per pound is paid at the upland markets. The 
' Punans " are said to be the principal gatherers of camphor. 
They either hire themselves out to the Kayans, Kenyahs, Sibops 
or Ibans as guides and servants, or they collect the camphor 
themselves, and exchange it with the neighbouring tribes, who in 
turn sell it to the Chinese. The yield from a single tree varies 
considerably. It is said to be between 3 and 11 pounds. The 
gathered camphor is carefully selected and sold in three kinds 
of which the largest and purest crystals are the best ; the 
smallest are grey and as fine as dust. In view of the high 
price which is paid for this drug, it stands to reason that it 
does not come under consideration for European trade. The 
enormous price paid in the Orient is, of course, explained by 
the use of Borneo camphor for religious purposes. 

On the Chinese market there is a brisk demand for camphor, 
but some of it finds its way to Japan and other countries. The 
quantity imported in Canton in 1872 amounted to about 27,7 
piculs, or 3,159 lbs., representing a value of 42,326 taels {80s. 
per lb.). 

BornylyValerianate (Bornyval) as a Nervous Sedative. 0. 

E n g e 1 s. (Therap. Monats., 18, 235.) Bornyl valerianate is 
a useful sedative in traumatic neuroses, hysteria, neurasthenia, 
epileps}^ and is specially suitable for administration to cliildren. 
It increases the appetite, and is free from any unpleasant second 
ary effects. 

Burmese Drugs. D. Hooper. {Ph.arm. J own. (4), 19, 
956.) Since the annexation of Upper Burma in 1885, very few 
new drugs have been brought to light. Among these may be 
mentioned " Thansa," the extract of Terminalis oliveri, used as 
a substitute for cutch, which may be considered one of the most 
important drugs of Burma {Ycar-Book, 1901, 120) ; the second 
" A kyau " wood, Aquilaria agallocha, from the Mergui 
Archipelago {Year-Book, 1904, 190); and the third the 
balsam of Aliivgia excelsa, or Burmese storax, from Tenasserim 
[Year-Book, 1902, 30). 



MATERIA MEDICA. 179 

The most recent contril>utiou to our knowledge of Burmese 
drugs lias appeared in a paper on " The Vegetation of the Dis- 
trict of Minbu in Upper Burma," by Captain A. T. Gage, I.M.S. , 
curator of the herbarium, Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

Taraktogenos kurzii, King, " Kalawbin " of the Burmese, the 
tree yielding commercial chaulmocgra seeds, was met with in 
the Arracan Yomahs, and it was ascertained that the oil is used 
for leprosy in conjunction with that obtained from the seeds of 
Semecarpus albescens, Kurz, the " Chithee " trees. It is also 
found in Assam, Chittagong, and the Malay Peninsula. 

Tliere are numerous cosmetics sold in the bazaars which are 
used by women to improve the complexion. One of the powders 
used in Minbu is that of the bark of Limonia acidissima (Thanaka), 
wiiich is powdered and made into a paste, and applied to the 
face. Lest women should become too attractive at a certain 
age it is the custom in some parts of the country to use powders 
with an opposite effect. Under Cinnamomum tamala, Gage 
states that : " The Chin women undergo about the age of four- 
teen the ordeal of having the whole face closely tattooed black, 
which gives them a grotesquely hideous appearance. The 
legend runs that this curious practice originated m the desire 
to render the Chin women repulsive to the Burmese officials, who 
were wont to carry off the more comely amongst the maidens 
to adorn their harems. Formerly the leaves of Cinnamomum 
tamala were pounded down, and a solution made with water, 
which was employed to produce this most uncosmetic effect. 
Nowadays the more prosaic lampblack is used." 

The presence of saponin in the fruits of Acacia concinna and 
Gardenia turgida render them useful, as in South India, for 
washing the hair and clothes. The tubers of Gloriosa superba 
are a violent poison, and are partaken of by Burmese women as 
a means of committing suicide under stress of blighted affections. 

Other drugs met with were : — 

A erva javanica, J uss. ("On-bwe"). A paste of the root is 
used as an apphcation in acne-like conditions of the face. 

Ardisia humilis, Vabl. ("Shadwe"). All parts of the plant 
are used in the treatment of menstrual disorders. 

Arundo donax, L. Root used as a diuretic. 

Buddleia asiatica, Lour. A paste of the root is taken in rice 
water by the Chins as a tonic. 

Capparis flaviccms, Wall. Leaves are used as a galacto- 
gogue. 



180 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Capparis Jmstujera, Hance (" Namanee-thanyet-gyi "). A 
paste of the root is used as an ap)ilication to sores. 

Chenopodium album, L. (" ilyu "). A paste of the root used 
in treating tlie diarrhoea of children. 

Chrozophora plicata, A. Juss. (" Gya-sagauk "). A decoction 
of the whole plant used in treating gonorrhoea. 

Cissampelos pareira, L. (" Kywet-nabaung "). A paste is 
made from all parts of the plant and used as a local application 
in inflammatory conditions of the eye. 

Croton oblongifolius, Roxb. (" Thetyin-gyi "). Leaves used in 
hot fomentations to allay inflammation, either .strained in a cloth 
or first made into a paste. 

Dioscorea hulhifera, L. (" Khadu "). Used as a galactogogue. 

Elephantopus scaher, L. A decoction of the stem and leaves 
is used in menstrual disorders. 

Euphorbia nntiqtiorum, L. (" Teinganeik-tazaung "). The 
branches are sliced, dried and powdered, and administered to 
check profuse lochia! discharge. 

Heliotropium indicum, L. (" Hsin-hnamaung-bin "'). A decoc- 
tion of the M'hole plant used in treating gonorrhoea. 

Leuccena glauca, Benth. (" Aseik-hpye-bin "). A paste of the 
leaves is applied for poisonous bites or stings. 

Polyyonum tomentosum, Willd. {" Wetkyien ''). A decoction 
of the root is used in children's stomachic troubles. 

Premna latifolia, Roxb. (" Seiknan-gyi "). A paste of the root 
is used as a local application after parturition. 

Rosa involucrata, Roxb. (' Myit-king "). A decoction of the 
root is used as a mouth- wash in dental caries. 

Sphceranthus imlicus, L. A decoction of tlie whole plant 
pounded down is employed as a tonic drink. 

Sphmranthus peyuensis, Kurz. (" Kodu-bin "). A paste of the 
leaves is used as a styptic, and in hot fomentations. 

Streblus asper, Lour. (" On-hne-hin "). A decoction of the 
dried leaves is administered in dysentery. 

Vcntikujo cabjcu/afa, Tul. ("' Thwe det "). A paste of the root 
is applied locally to excite granulation in wounds. 

Viscum orientale, Willd. (" Kyibaung."). A paste of the 
powdered leaves is used as a local antiphlogistic. 

Cattle medicines are represented in the three remaining 
drugs. A paste of the root of Acacia farnesiana ("'Xaulong- 
yaing ") is applied to the hoofs of cattle as a parasiticide, or as 
a preventive of the attacks of parasites. The plant, Ocimum 



MATERIA MEDICA. 181 

camim (" Pin-zein "), is used as a diuretic medicine for horses. 
A decoction of the plant, Xantliium strumarium, (" Si-hne "). is 
given as a tonic drink. 

Calcium Chloride for Bleeding Haemorrhoids. — Boas. 
{Therap. der Gegenwart., tlirough Merck's Be port. 18, 39.) The 
rectal injection of 3 drs. of a 10 per cent, solution of pure crystal- 
line calcium chloride administered in the morning, after 
evacuation, has given excellent results ; in grave cases a second 
injection may be given in the evening. The treatment should 
be continued for some time after haemorrhages have ceased. 

Calumba Root, so called False. E. M. Holme s. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 892.) The supposed adulterant of calumba 
noticed by Wardleworth, attributed by him to Tinospora hakis, 
and which was found by Alcock to yield an abnormally high 
percentage of ash ( Y ear-Book. 1902, ) is considered to be merely 
the woody root-stock or upper j^ortion of the root from which 
spring the fasciated tuberous roots forming the drug. This is 
borne out by Perredes from the microscopic structure of the 
supposed adulterant. 

Carbolic Acid in Hypodermic Injections. {Merck's Bcport. 
18, 3.) Carbolic acid is now extensively used in the form of 
subcutaneous injections for the treatment of tetanus, and 
numerous favourable results justify this mode of treatment. 
G. Leone reports on a very grave case of tetanus which subsided 
after ti'eatment for 21 days, involving the use of a total of 104 grs. 
of phenol administered in the form of a 3 per cent, solution. 
Similar successes are recorded in mild as well as grave cases by 
F. A. Corte, C. Boehm, A. Bertelh, and A. Rabitti. The last 
named administered during the first 2 days 3 injections of 3 grs. 
of carbolic acid and subsequently only li gr. in the form of an 
oily solution, so as to render tlie absorjition less violent. Mastri 
injected subcutaneously quantities not exceeding 11 grs. per 
day and administered sodiuni sulphate subcutaneously for the 
purpose of inducing the formation of phenol sulphate, but he 
abstained from the use of sedatives, such as morphine. In 
veterinary medicine subcutaneous injections of phenol have 
likewise proved useful in tetanus. 

For the treatment of otitis interna A. Hartmann recommends 
a solution of 145 grs. of carbolic acid in 3 oz. of glycerine, which 



182 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

in a short time after its instillation removes the most violent 
pains without affecting the tympanum or giving rise to other 
unpleasant symptoms. 

C. Mauro has prescribed it with success in chorea as follows : 
Acidi carbolici cryst., 1*5 Gm. (24 grs.) ; glycerini, 5*0 Cm. 
(75 grs. ; Aq. dest. steril., 45*0 Gm. (1| oz.). 

This solution is injected into the gluteal region in doses of 
1 c.c. oi' 10 111 2 or 3 times daily. A case is cited in which 
articular pains disappeared in 3 days, the spasmodic movements 
were lessened in 8 days, and a complete cure effected in 3 weeks. 

Cephalophine. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6J, 20, 359.) Cepha- 
lophine is the name given to an oily extract of fresh nerve- 
substance. It is not toxic, and may be administered by hypo- 
dermic injection, and even in large doses does not provoke any 
local reaction. It is a powerful antitoxin to strychnine, and 
differs from ordinary extracts of nerve substance in that it acts 
in 80 per cent, of the cases in which it has been tried, in pre- 
venting a fatal result when injected in the neighbourhood of 
the strychnine injection, whereas the former must be injected 
into the same spot to exercise inhibitory effect. Animals which 
have been treated with cephalophine are immune to a lethal dose 
of strychnine for 5 days. Cephalophine has been employed with 
success in a number of nervous diseases, such as neurasthenia, 
hysteria, neuralgia and chorea. 

Chlorethoform. Finnemore and W a d e. (Bejierioire 
[3], 17, 124, after Pharyn. Rundschau.) This name is given to 
chloroform from ethyl alcohol to which 0'25 per cent, of ethyl 
cliloride has been added. It is claimed that chloroform prepared 
from ethyl alcohol contains a trace of ethyl chloride, which 
renders its anaesthetic action more certain and safer than that of 
chloroform prepared from acetone. 

Chloroform as a Tsenifuge. [MercFs Report, 18, 44.) Atten- 
tion is again directed by Lcger to the value of chloroform as a 
vermifuge for tapeworm, being as efficacious as any other drug 
for the purpose. The patient is plgiced on a milk diet, and, in 
the evening, a piu'ging enema is administered ; the next morning 
the following mixture is taken in 4 doses at intervals of 45 
minutes : Chloroform, 60 grs. ; simple syrup, 1 fl. oz. ; distilled 



MATERIA MEDICA. 183 

water, 4 fl. oz. Between the third and fourth dose an ounce of 
castor oil should be given. 

[The same treatment was prescribed by Thompson, Y ear-Book, 
1887, 282.] 

Chloroform as an Antidote to Poisoning from Nitrous Oxide. 

Weisskopf. [Merck's Report, 18, 45.) Chloroform in doses 
of 3 to 5 drops in water every 10 minutes, but not exceeding a 
total dose of 24 grains in 24 hours, is recommended as an antidote 
against the toxic action of nitrous oxide and the spasms of the 
motor sensory system which it provokes. 

Cochlospermum gossypium. Gum of. P. L e m e 1 a n d. 
[Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 253.) This Indian gum appears 
in commerce as Kutera or Kutira gum. It occurs in bright- 
coloured, very hard tears, with but little foreign admixture. 
Some pieces are brilliant and quite transparent, others dull and 
opaque ; the smaller weigh about 15 Gm., the larger about 
50 Gm. Sometimes bright and dull portions are seen in the 
same piece. All have numerous circular or elliptical striae on 
the surface ; the fracture is dull. It contains 22'7 per cent, of 
moisture, consequently it cannot be reduced to fine powder. It 
is but little soluble in water, but the insoluble portion swells to 
form a dense mucilage, which settles to the bottom of the vessel. 
This mass has but little cohesion, and the supernatant liquid no 
appreciable viscosity. The soluble portion only amounts to 
2-039 per cent. This has the [a] j, + 77° 152'. The gum con- 
tains no ferments. On hydrolysis it yields 25'636 per cent, of 
pentoses and 34*995 of dextro-galactose. 

Convallaria, Therapeutics of. — L a i g r e. {Repertoire, 16, 
508.) The juice of the fresh plant of Convallaria majalis is 
stated to possess greater activity than the extract usually 
prescribed in France. It is found to contain 0*225 per cent, of 
convallamarin and 0*12 per cent, of convallarin. It differs in 
action from convallamarin ; although its tonic action on the 
heart is the same, it possesses greater diuretic properties. It is 
given in doses of 8 to 24 grs. per'diem. 

Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride. D. B. D o 1 1. {Pharm. Journ. 
[4]. 20, 440.) The acetyl derivatives of morphine were first pre- 
pared by Beckett and Alder Wright — that is to say, in London ; 



184 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

not in Germany, as has been asserted. Wliatever may be its 
therapeutic value, the diacetyl coini)ound enjoys at present a 
certain amount of favour, being probal>ly best known among 
medical men as " heroin." Should this derivative obtain a 
place in the Pharmacopoeia, it will doubtless be entered under 
its proper chemical name, or otlierwise have a new name coined 
for it, after the manner of phenazone and gluside. 

The hydrochloride is the salt in general use, but it by no 
means follows that it will be officially adopted. This salt melts 
at 117°C. (or near it). It is readily soluble in water, about 1 in 
10. 0-4 Gm. dissolved in 4 c.c. water and 0-1 Gm. sodium 
bicarbonate added yields after several hours a precipitate which, 
when collected on a small filter, washed with 6 c.c. water, and 
dried in water-bath, weighs 0*3 Gm. This precipitate is easily 
soluble in chloroform. It melts at (or near) 169°C. The 
hydrochloride seems to contain two molecules of water, of 
which one is lost under 100°C., the remaining portion at 120°C. 

It has not been sufficiently noted that the base and its salts 
are very easily decomposed. The muriate is not seldom pre- 
scribed in mixtures which favour decomposition. Diacetyl- 
morphine is decomposed by excess of alkali and by access of 
acid ; not only by the fixed alkalies, but also by ammonia. 
When a solution containing free ammonia is left for a day or 
two a precipitate has formed which is insoluble in chloroform 
and gives the characteristic reactions of morphine. If a little 
of one of the salts is warmed with diluted hydrochloric acid the 
odour of acetic acid is quickly detected, and on precipitation of 
the base, it is found to consist largely of morphine. The same 
change takes place more slowly in the cold, wherefore it is 
manifest that this acetyl derivative ought not to be prescribed 
along with such things as carbonate of ammonium or dilute 
hydrochloric acid unless the prescriber desires an admixture of 
morphine. 

Digalene, Soluble Digitoxin. — C 1 o e 1 1 a. {Apoth. Zeit. 
19, G58.) This new digitalis glucoside is stated to have the 
same chemical constitution as digitoxin, but to differ from it in 
being amorphous and readily soluble in water. In consequence 
of this solubility, it acts more piomptly than digitoxin. It is 
prepared in the form of a solution in glycerin 1, and water 3, 
which contains 0-3 Mgm. in each c.c, 5 per cent, of alcohol or 
1 per cent, of acetone being added as a preservative ; 1 c.c. of 



MATERIA MEDICA. 185 

this solution is the physiological equivalent of 0'15 Gm. of dried 
digitalis leaves. It may be given either by hypodermic injection 
or by the mouth. It is claimed that the intolerance manifested 
in some cases towards digitoxin is not shown with digalene. 

Dionine in Whooping Cough. A. G. F j e 1 1 a n d e r. 
{Merck's Report, 18, 56.) Dionine is stated to be superior to 
all other drugs for the treatment of pertussis. It is given in 
aqueous solution with syrup of senega. Infants up to 6 months 
are given one teaspoonful of a mixture containing i gr. of dionine 
in 5 fl. oz. ; with children of 2 years, i gr. in 3^- fl. oz ; for 2 to 
4 years, I- gr. in the same volume ; and. above 4 years, 1| gr. 
in 6J fl. oz. The dose in each case is a teaspoonful. It has 
also been found useful in asthma, emphysema, acute catarrh, 
and other affections of the respiratory organs. 

Emetine and Cephaeline Hydrochloride, Therapeutic Action of. 

P. Z e p f . {Archives internat. de Phannacodynavi. et de Therap., 
through Merck's Report, 18, 61.) The hydrochlorides of both 
bases have a similar effect, but cephaeline is a more powerful 
emetic than emetine. They both stimulate the digestive tract. 
The appetite is never improved, but occasionally impaired by 
both alkaloids, and their internal administration has been found 
to cause general digestive disturbance, at the same time having 
a marked expectorant action. The general internal administra- 
tion of ipecacuanha and its preparations for tuberculosis is 
condemned, and local applications, as in the form of inlialations 
or gargles, is recommended. 

Enesol ; Mercury Salicylarsenate. — C o i g n e t. {Lyon 
med., through Repertoire [3], 16, 303.) Enesol is obtained by 
the interaction of a molecular weight of methylarsenic acid with 
one equivalent of basic mercuric salicylate. It forms a white 
amorphous salt soluble in water 1 : 25. Its aqueous solutions 
may be sterilized by heating with undergoing decomposition. 
It gives, unless the molecule be broken up, no reactions for 
arsenates or for mercury. Its toxicity is relatively slight. The 
dose wliich may be given to adults amounts to 2 grs. in 24 hours, 
and is administered in all cases where mercurial treatment is 
indicated, preferably by hypodermic injection, which is painless. 
For this purpose a 3 per cent, aqueous solution is employed, of 
which 2 c.c. is injected at a time. Twenty such mjections may 



186 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

be made consecutively, when an interval of 10 days should be 
allowed before recommencing the treatment, if necessary. 

Equisetum arvense as a Diuretic. A. B r i e t e n s t ei n. 
(Therap. Monats., through Merck's Report, 18, 209.) The 
popular reputation of this plant as a diuretic is well founded. 
In healthy persons the administration of a dialysate of the 
herb every 2 hours increased the excretion of urine by 30 
per cent., and in a case of hepatic scirrhosis and dropsy, by as 
much as 80 jier cent. This action is attributed to the large 
amount of sihcic acid present. Schulze has directed attention 
to the powerful therapeutic action of silica, which points to its 
useful employment in medicine. 

Ervlop, a Pepper Adulterant. E. Collin. {Journ. Pharm. 
Chim. [6], 20, 241.) Both black and white pepper, whole and 
ground, are adulterated on the Continent by admixture with a 
Leguminous seed, suitably tinted and coated, and given a ficti- 
tious acridity by means of caj)sicine or tincture of capsicum. 
Although readily detectable, the admixture is stated to be widely 
prevalent. A mere section of the whole fruit wdth a penknife is 
sufficient to detect the presence of the leguminous seeds, and the 
histological characters of the powder, as seen by the microscope, 
render the detection easy ; the size and character of the starch 
grains alone, as well as other structural differences, being suffi- 
cient to distinguish the adulteration. The seeds employed re- 
semble those of a Pisum or Lathyrus ; but the process they 
undergo kills them, so that they cannot be growii for identifica- 
tion. 

Ethylmorphine Hydrochloride. D. B. Dot t. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 440.) This compound is believed by some to 
possess some special value of its owai, although its therapeutic 
efficiency, like its pharmacological action, is probably almost 
identical with that of codeine. Professor Stockman considers the 
two compounds to be practically equivalent. Medical men have 
had the name " dionine " a good deal brought under their notice, 
but that name would not, of course, be apphed to the official salt 
should it obtain a place in our Pharmacopoeia. Ethyl-morphine 
differs entirely from the diacetyl compound in being a perfectly 
stable body. The hydrochloride melts at (or near) 124°C. 
The formula indicates two molecules of water, of which amount 



MATERIA MEDICA. 187 

one-fourth is lost under 100°C., and the remainder at 120°C.. 
Tliis salt is soluble 1 part in 14 of water ; 1 Gm. in 29 c.c. of 
alcohol, 90 per cent. 

Eucalyptus Oils, Therapeutic Properties of. E. M. H o 1 m e s, 
{Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 80.) Attention has been fre- 
quently directed to the possibility that eucalyptol (cineol) is not 
the only constituent to which eucalyptus oils owe their thera- 
peutic value. This opinion is founded on the fact that the oil 
first introduced, and that which is still preferred in Australia, 
is that of E. amygdaJina. Phellandrene is a prominent con- 
stituent in this oil. 

Experiments made with samples of various eucalyptus oils, 
prepared by Baker and Smith during their research on eucalyptus, 
show that phellandrene is one of the most important constituents, 
and that piperitone and aromadendral are also active bodies from 
a bactericidal and physiological point of view. These experi- 
ments have been undertaken in the physiological laboratory of 
the University of Sydney, under the supervision of Professor 
D. A. Walsh, b}^ Mr. Cuthbert Hall, and are embodied m 
a pamphlet of thirty-eight pages, recently pubhshed at Parra- 
matta. Hall points out that of the twenty-two distinct con- 
stituents that have hitherto been detected in various eucalyptus 
oils, cineol is the one to which the therapeutic value has been 
erroneously attributed. 

Some of the constituents occur only in small cjuantity or only 
in one or two of the oils, and so far seem to have no special 
therapeutic value. Others are removed in the process of recti- 
fication, as they boil at low temperatures or they are of so 
irritating a quality that they could not well be administered 
medicmalty. To the foregoing categories belong various alco- 
hols, such as methyl, ethyl, isobutyl, and amyl alcohols and 
geraniol, the aldehydes citral and citronellal, cymene, geranyl 
acetate, amyl eudesmate, and valeric and acetic acid esters. 
Two of the aldehydes, butaldehyde and valeraldehyde, have 
an intensely irritating effect when inhaled. The other consti- 
tuents, besides cineol, which may be considered most worthy of 
examination concerning their antiseptic and therapeutical effects 
are eudesmol, aromadendral, piperitone, and aromadendrene, 
dextropinene, Isevopinene, and phellandrene. 

For the bactericidal experiments two species were selected. 
Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus as the more resistant type. 



188 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

and Bacillus coli communis as a less resistant one. As a control, 
and to have a standard of comparison of his results with those of 
other observers, a 2| per cent, solution of carbolic acid in water 
was used. In this solution the Staphylococcus was killed in five 
minutes and the Bacillus in half an hour. 

The following table shows the relative bactericidal properties 
of the principal constituents : — 



H/iri/hif: Cdli fiinii til Kill' 



Aromadendral 
Piperitone .... 
Eudesmol in 10 per cent, 
piperitone .... 
Phellandrene .... 
Dextropinene 
Lacvopinene .... 
Aroniadendene 
Cineol 



Hours. 


Minutes. 




10 


— 


40 


— 


no 


1 .\ 
2 ' 


— 


5 

8 


— 



staphylococcus pyogenen 
aureus. 



15 



2.V 
4" 
H 
6' 



Eudesmol, being insoluble in water and alkaline solution, was 
dissolved in piperitone or eucalyptol, and was found to increase 
the activity of these, but not to any marked extent. To the 
author's great surprise, pure cineol containing but a trace of 
pinene and ozone (prepared from E. smithii) was found to possess 
very feeble antiseptic properties, less than the other constituents. 
Further experiments showed that different specimens of cineol 
varied exceedingly in bactericidal power, and that the variation 
depended upon the quantity of ozone present in them. Experi- 
ments with the crude oils also showed great variation in bacteri- 
cidal power, and this was determined to be due largely to the 
presence of acetic acid, aided to some extent by the iron and 
copper dissolved from the stills by the acid present in the oils. 
The crude oils of the following species were all markedly acid, 
E. globulus, E. cneorifolia, E. smithii, E. cinerea, E. cam- 
phora, E. apiculata, E. macarthuri, E. punctata, E. eugenioides, 
E. odorata, and E. amycjdalina. On the other hand those of E. 
citriodora, E. dives, E. dawsoni, E. hemiphloia, E . macrorhyncha , 
E. piperita, and E. dumosa were either neutral or very faintly 
acid. When the acid is neutralized by soda solution without any 
other rectification a great difference is manifested. Thus, the 
crude oil of E. smithii destroys the Staphylococcus in thirty 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 189 

minutes, but after neutralizing it takes three and a half hours to 
destroy it. But for medicinal use the oils are always rendered 
neutral, so that the acetic acid may be left out of consideration 
so far as its bactericidal action in the rectified oils of commerce 
is concerned. 

From the above table it is evident that apart from the presence 
of acid and ozone, oils containing aromadendral, like that of E. 
hemiphloia, may be considered the most jDowerful bactericides, 
but it is not certain whether they could be used medicinally. 

Next in order come those containing piperitone, eudesmol, 
and phellandrene. Aromadendral, cineol, and piperitone only 
develop ozone in the very slightest degree, and then probably 
only because it is almost impossible to free them from traces of 
the terpenes. 

Hall's experiments show that the ozone is due to the terpenes 
present in the oils. When phellandrene and aromadendrene are 
exposed to the air on a piece of paper they do not at first turn 
starch potassium iodide blue, but this reaction begins to appear 
after about twenty to thirty minutes, and the terpenes then 
resinify. Phellandrene and aromadendrene ozonize more 
quickly than dextropinene, and the latter more quickly than 
l^vopinene. He accounts for the presence of varying amounts 
of ozone in cineol and rectified oils by the amount of exposure 
they have undergone to sunlight and to the varying amount of 
pinenes contained in the original oils. He points out that as 
ozone is not decomposed into oxygen until a temperature of 250- 
300°C. is reached, and cineol is often prepared by distilling off 
the portion boiling at 170-175°, most of the ozone would come 
over -vvith the eucatyptol. Cineol readily parts with its ozone to 
water. Thus, if equal parts of cineol (containing ozone) be 
mixed with water, shaken for several minutes in a test-tube, and 
allowed to separate, the water, on testing with iodide of potassium 
and starch, gives as blue a coloration as the eucalyptol. The 
results obtained are evidently of considerable practical import- 
ance, and may be briefly summarized as follows :- — (1) Cineol, 
except when acting as a carrier of ozone, is the weakest bacteri- 
cide of all the constituents of the oils. (2) The ozone is the most 
important constituent. (3) The pinenes are the source of the 
ozone, and those which most readily ozonize are phellandrene 
and aromadendrene. (4) Cineol is therefore best prepared from 
oils containing these pinenes. (5) Rectified oils sold in com- 
merce should be tested for the presence of ozone. (6) It is de- 



100 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

sirable tluit a test for tlie presence of ozone in cineol sliould be 
introduced into the Pharmacopcjeia. (7) It is open to question 
wliether an oil containing phellandrene such as E. odorata, or one 
containing aromadendral, such as E. cneorifolia, or definitely 
ozonized oil, should not be substituted for one containing a 
uniform percentage of cineol and no phellandrene. (8) Piperi- 
tone seems likely to prove a valuable constituent, and is well 
worth further trial. 

It is recommended that eucalyptus oil after rectification 
should be stored for at least two montlis in vessels, the mouths 
of which are closed with a plug of cotton wool, and that they 
should be shaken every day or two so as to expose a fresh layer 
of the oil to the influence of the atmosphere. The action of sun- 
light seems also to be important in the formation of the ozone. 

The known action of eucalyptus in malaria and in contracting 
the spleen, obtained by the use of powdered eucalyptus leaves 
infusion and tincture, cannot be attributed to any known con- 
stituent. The difference in results when diabetic patients have 
been treated with an infusion of the leaves of E. punctata and E. 
globulus indicate that the substance which prevents the glyco- 
suria exists in much larger quantity in the leaves of the latter 
species. The author is at present investigating this interesting 
subject. 

Euporphine ; Apomorphine Bromethylate. Bergell and 
P s c h o r r. {Apoth. Zeit., 19, 423.) The authors have shown 
that the emetic properties of apomorphine depend on the pre- 
sence of the two phenolic OH groups which it contains, and that 
its dimethyl esters are no longer emetic. If, however, the tertiary 
base is converted into a quaternary one by fixing an alkyl 
radicle the physiological action is not suppressed, nunierous such 
bodies being found to possess marked emetic action. Some of 
these derivatives promise to be of therapeutic value, notably 
apomorphine bromethylate, which, in conjunction with minute 
doses of morj)hine, has given excellent results in the treatment of 
chronic and acute bronchitis. The dose given has been -;?^ to J gr. 
It is more soluble than apomorpliine, and since it exerts no 
action on the heart, it may be administered for a prolonged 
period without occasioning inconvenience. 

Exodin. [Merck' -^ Report, 18, 07.) Diacetyl-ivf tallic fet?a- 
metliyl ester, chemically closely allied to emodin and pergatin, 



MATERIA MEDICA. 191 

has been introduced into commerce under the name exodin. It 
is a yellow, odourless, tasteless powder, insoluble in water, 
sparingly soluble in alcohol ; m.p. 180-190°C. It is given as an 
aperient in chronic constipation in doses of 8 grs., either suspended 
in water or in tablet form. Evacuation of the bowels generally 
follows in 8 to 12 hours after the dose, and is unaccompanied by 
pain or other unpleasant symptoms. [The name exodin should 
not be mistaken for Exodyne, one of the earlier analgesic mix- 
tures. See Y ear-Book, 1892, 231.] 

Exodin. F. Z e r n i k. {ApotJi. Zeit., 19, 598.) Exodin i.s 
not, as claimed by the patentees, only the tetramethyl ester of 
diacetyl-rufigallic acid, but a mixture of hexamethyl ester of 
rufigallic acid, witli pentamethyl ester of acetyl-rufigallic acid 
and tetra-methyl ester of diacetyl-rufigallic acid. Of these the 
liexamethyl ester alone is the purgative principle, the other 
two constituents being inert. By recrystallizing the residue 
of the chloroform extract of commercial exodin tablets from 
benzol, and saponifying the product in the cold with 5 per cent, 
alcoholic potash, this hexamethyl ester of rufigallic acid is left 
undecomposed. It crystallizes from acetic ether in yellow 
needles, Co H20O8, m.p. 245°C. ; rufigallic acid tetramethyl 
ester, CigHieOg, and rufigallic acid pentamethyl ester, CigHigOg, 
are found in the mother liquor ; the former crystallizing from 
acetic ether or chloroform in yellow prismatic leaflets, m.p. 
235-237°C., the latter in yellow needles from acetic ether or 
hot alcohol, m.p. 192-194^0. Rufigallic acid tetra- and penta- 
methyl esters and their acetyl derivatives give Borntraeger's 
aloin reaction, but the hexamethyl ester does not. 

False Yohimbi Bark. J. H e r z o g. (Berichte PJiarm., 15, 
4.) The false yohimbi bark, Corynanthe macroceros, contains 
but little of the physiologically active base yohimbine and larger 
quantities of totally inert closely allied alkaloids. 

Feronia elephantum Gum. P. L e m e 1 a n d. {Journ. 
Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 289.) This gum, known as " Wood apple 
gum," " Vilampishin " and " Kapithamapiscum," is met with 
in the Indian bazaars, where it is substituted for gum acacia ; the 
close resemblance of the Tamil name " Vilampishin " to that of 
acacia gum, " velampishin," often serves as an excuse for the 
substitution. It occurs in various forms and sizes ; the par- 



192 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

ticular specimen examined was composed of pieces ranging in 
size from that of a pea to a pin's head, tlie average that of a 
grain of buckwheat. The colour is very variable ; mostly the 
grains are colourless, but range in tint up to a reddish amber. 
The surface is shining and the fracture conchoidal. It contains 
17*752 per cent, of moisture, 75'33 per cent, of gum solul)le in 
water, and 6*9 per cent, of insoluble matter. Although Wiesner 
has stated that the mucilage is dextrorotatory, the specimen 
examined by the author was Isevogyre, [ajp — 6° 41'. Like 
acacia, it contains an indirect oxidizing ferment. On hydrolysis 
it yields 35«5 per cent, of pentoses and 42'66 per cent, of dextro- 
galactose. It resembles Cochlospennum gum in its composition. 

Ferric Vanadate : Ferrozon. (Merck's Report, 18, 12.) B. 
Roliden has introduced ferric vanadate into commerce under the 
name of Ferrozon. It forms a greyish-brown powder insoluble 
in water, but dissolved by acids. It is prescribed in the nervous 
affections resulting from anaemia, and in cases showing a ten- 
dency to tuberculosis, in doses of yV gi'- every second day in the 
form of a pill. 

Fibrolysin. [Merck's Report, 18, 189.) Fibrolysin is a solu- 
tion of thiosinamine with sodium salicylate which is claimed to . 
afford painless injections which have the full therapeutic effect 
of thiosinamine alone. Since it does not keep when exposed to 
light and air, it is put on the market in vials containing a single 
dose of 2*3 c.c. of the solution, equivalent to 3 grs. of thiosina- 
mine. 

Filmaron. J a q u e t. {Merck's Report, 18, 73.) Filmaron 
is stated to be free from toxic action, and may be given to chil- 
dren in doses of 5 to 10 grs. Since it readily aggregates wlicn in 
the powdered state, it should be dispensed in oily solution, 
preferably castor oil, a 10 per cent, solution in castor oil being 
supplied commercially for convenience in compounding, and 
known as filmaron oil. 

Formane for Coryza. (Bull. Gen. de Therapeut., 148, 512.) 
Formane, a combination of formaldehyde and menthol, is stated 
to be a useful remedy for " cold in the head." The following 
inhalation may be prescribed. Menthol, 120 grs. ; formalin, 
75 grs. ; oil of geranium, 10 drops. To be used frequently as a 
smelling bottle. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 193 

Formic Acid for Muscular Trembling. E. C 1 e m e n t. 
(Comptes rend.. 140, 1198.) Continuing his researches on the 
tlierapeutie action of formic acid ( Year-Book, 1904, 213), the 
author has found it to give great relief in the treatment of two 
(iases of hand trembling due to muscular atony. In each case 
the patient, before treatment, was unable to lift a glass of liquid 
with one hand without spilling half tlie contents. After two 
days' treatment with formic acid, however, both could drink with 
one hand with comfort, but the shaking had not absolutely dis- 
appeared after several days. The weakness in each case was of 
long duration, having existed for 10 or 18 ^^ears. The success 
attained suggests that possil)ly the same remedy might be useful 
for chorea. 

Fucol not an Efficient Substitute for Cod-Liver Oil. G. F e n d- 

1 e r. [Apoth. Zeit.. 20, 542.) The claim put forward by 
Aufrecht {Year-Book, 1904, 213) that fucol forms a complete 
substitute for cod-liver oil is denied. Fucol is found to contain 
only an infinitesimal trace of iodine, from 0-00005 to 0-0001 per 
cent., and very little extractive matter of Fucus vcsicvlosus, not 
more than 0-3G per cent., so that any physiological action it may 
exert must be attributed to the sesame oil of which it is virtually 
composed, and which was suggested many years ago as a sub- 
stitute for cod-liver oil. Fucol has inferior emulsifying power 
to cod-liver oil; representing that at 100, the emulsifying figure 
for fucol is only 37-5. 

Glycosol in Acute Rheumatism. C. S c h o b e r. {3IercFs 
Report, 18, 81.) Since glycosol is hisoluble in the acid gastric 
juice, it possesses the great advantage over other salicylates of 
being non-irritant, while it is an extremely active anti-rheumatic. 
It gives excellent results in acute febrile rheumatism in doses of 
30 grs. 3 to 4 times a day. and is also valuable in subacute and 
chronic rheumatism. It is devoid of any secondary reactions. 

Golden Seal. {Chem. and Dntgg., 66, 178.) In view of the in- 
creasing scarcity of Hydrastis canadensis, a pamphlet on the drug 
has been issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The 
paper was undertaken to meet the demand for information about 
the plant. The greatest golden-seal producing States have been 
Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Formerly the 
plant was so abundant in Ohio that it was considered a pest, but, 

o 



194 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

owing to a steadily increasing shortage, to-day it is worth Si 50 
per lb. in the wliolesale market, and is eagerly hunted for by drug- 
plant collectors. This dimmution of sup]3ly is of course due to 
the advance of civilization and increase in population, along with 
which came a growing demand for medicinal plants and a corre- 
sponding decrease in the sources of supply. In Ohio, especially, 
it gradually disappeared with the advance of the early settlers, 
as it will not thrive on cultivated land. The diggers also did 
their share towards exterminating this useful plant, which they 
collected regardless of the seasons. Prior to 1900 no one had 
ever attempted to cultivate golden seal for the market, but the 
scarcity has now led several growers in different parts of the 
country to undertake the cultivation on a commercial scale. 
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has carried on experiments 
at Washington, D.C., since the spring of 1899, and the results so 
far obtained, " while not as complete in some respects as would 
be desirable, seem to justify the conclusion that golden seal can 
be successfully cultivated." A full description of the best 
methods of cultivation is given. Golden seal grows easily in rich, 
loose garden soil. The plants are put in rows six inches apart, 
with a foot between the rows. It takes about three years from 
planting before harvesting, and after that an annual supph^ of 
roots should be had. In two seasons the original plants should 
increase four times by dividing the rhizomes, which can be cut 
up in the fall. The yield of roots from the small plot grown by 
the Department was at the rate of 5,120 lbs. per acre, which when 
dried yielded about 1,500 lbs. of marketable roots. 

In times past the price of golden seal has fluctuated widely. 
High prices will cause the diggers to gather the root in abundance, 
thus overstocking the market, while the next season results in 
lower prices, at which diggers refuse to collect the root, thus 
again causing a shortage in the supply. The arrival of spring- 
dug root has a weakening effect on the market, although the fall- 
dug root is always preferred. For the past few j^ears, however, 
high prices have been steadily maintained. It is impossible to 
ascertain the exact annual consumption of golden seal, but esti- 
mates furnished by dealers place these figures at from 200.000 
lbs. to 300,000 lbs., about one-tenth of which is probably ex- 
ported. It must not be forgotten, however, that if the plant 
was successfully cultivated on a large scale the point of over- 
production would easily be reached. 

Although golden seal is only one of the minor drugs on the 



MATERIA MEDICA. 195 

London market, the position of the drug created a considerable 
amount of interest here last year on account of the above- 
mentioned causes, and even at the present time (January, 1905) 
it would be difficult to find five hundredweight in first-hands on 
offer. Its value has more than doubled during the past twelve 
months, and the demand has been correspondingly light. 

Griserin. — Z e r n i k. {Apoth. Zeit., after Journ. Phann. 
Chim. [0], 21, 273.) This is a mixture of loretin {Y ear-Book, 1894, 
222) with sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, which has been 
introduced as an internal antiseptic for tuberculosis in doses of 
3 to 7 grs. in cachets. Loretin, although somewhat neglected, is 
an excellent antiseptic. 

Gurjun Balsam, Collection of, in Cochin China. {Schimmers Be- 
port, May, 1905, 48, after Revue de la Droquerie.) A deep incision 
at an angle of 45° is made in the tree in the spring with a wide 
cavity in which the collecting vessel is placed. A few hot coals are 
placed in the incision to start the flow of oil which then continues 
for about 6 months. That obtained during the dry season is 
considered to be the best. The average yield is 80 litres of 
balsam per tree ; but some trees give more than 200 litres. The 
colour varies from bright yellow to blackish brown, according to 
the species of Dipterocarpus tapped. It is much used locally as 
a waterproof varnish for boats. A white variety known as 
" shondrau " is exported in large quantities to China for the 
manufacture of lacquers. In France the balsam is finding con- 
siderable use in medicine as a substitute for Copaiba balsam, 
which it resembles in therapeutic action. 

Hibiscus sabdariffa. E. M. Holmes. (Pharm. Journ. 
[4], 19, 892.) The red succulent calyces of a variety of this 
Malvaceous plant occasionally appear in commerce. 

The plant yielding the calyces is a small shrub, commonly 
cultivated in most tropical and sub-tropical regions. There are 
two forms of the plant, one with green stems and calyces, and the 
other with red stems and red calyces. The latter is more gener- 
ally cultivated, as having the more acid calcyes of the two. In 
the West Indies this variety is known as the Rozelle, or red 
sorrel. Lunan, in Hortus Jamaicensis, I, p. 419, says : " They 
make agreeable tarts, and a decoction of them sweetened is 
commonly called sorrel cool drink, which is reckoned refrigerant 



196 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

and diuretic. In tlic Mexican Pharmacopoeia an infusion of the 
drug is official as a refrigerant. 

The acidity is due to the presence of tartaric acid, of which 
9-9 per cent, was found to be present by Lyon, the remaining free 
acid. totalUng 15 per cent., being malic acid. The calyces give 
of insoluble ash 3'88 per cent., of soluble ash 2*24, the alkalinity 
of the soluble ash, as potash, 0*75 per cent. 

Besides the acid, there is the mucilage common to plants of the 
Malvaceae. In the East Indies, therefore, it is found useful in 
dyspepsia, dysuria, and strangury. 

Other parts of the plant are also useful. The root in doses of 
2 drachms forms " an easy pu^ge," according to Hernandez. 
In India the leaves are used in salads and curries, and the seeds 
as cattle food, whilst the stems yield a strong fibre known as 
Rozelle hemp. 

Hippol. A. N i c o 1 a i c z. {Apotk. Zeif.. 20, 23.) Under 

this name methylene-hippuric acid, C6H5CO.N<^_, "^C'0.0, 

has been introduced as a remedy in infectious diseases of the 
genito-urinary organs. It occurs in white, odourless and taste- 
less cr3'stals, m.p. about 151°C., spaidnglj" soluble in water to the 
extent of 1 : 460 at 23°C. ; this aqueous solution is neutral. It 
liberates formaldehyde in the presence of alkalies, ammonia, and 
alkali carbonates. The dose prescribed is 90 grs. in 24 hours. 
It is an active bactericide. 

Hirudin. A. B o d o n g. (Chem. Centralhlat, 76, 620. after 
Arr/iiv fiir exp. Path.) The yield and activity of hirudin from 
Hirudo medicinalis is very variable in quantity and activity. 
The yield from starved leeches is very small ; autumn leeches 
give the l)est product, spring leeches the worst. The 
horse leech does not form any hirudin. The leeches' heads are 
crushed with sand and extracted with salt and water or with 
distilled water. 

Ichthyol for Scarlet Fever. M. S. N a s a r o w. {3Icrck''s 
Report, 18, 100.) Ichthyol, in capsules or in solution of ichthyol 
3, water 1, given internally, is stated to cut short the course of 
the disease, to eliminate complications, and to lessen the power 
of infection. Of the aqueous mixture the dose for children 12 



MATERIA MEDICA. 197 

to 8 years of age is 35 ill three times daily ; from 8 to 10, 25 'H ; 
from" 5 to 8, 15 to 20 1U. x\dults may take 50 to 60 ill. 

Indoform. {Pharm. Centralh., 46, 316.) This is a white 
powder, m.p. 108-109°C., obtained by the action of formalde- 
hyde on acetylsalicylic acid. It is sparingly soluble in cold 
water and has an acid, astringent taste. It is decomposed in the 
alkaline secretion of the intestines first into methylene glycol, 
which is slowly split up, yielding formaldehyde. It has been 
given for gout, rheumatism and neuralgia in doses of 7| to 22 
grs. in the form of tablets, each containing 7i grs., which are 
taken in water during or after a meal. 

lothion. G. W e s e m b e r g. {Therap. Monats., through 
Apoth. Zeit., 20, 199.) Hydroxypropane di-iodide, under the 
name of iothion, has been employed for the percutaneous ad- 
ministration of iodine. It occurs as a yellowish oily liquid, sp. 
gr. 2-4 to 2-5. It is sparingly soluble in water, but readily dis- 
solved by fatty bodies. It is very stable in neutral aqueous 
solution, but the presence of even a trace of alkali causes saponi- 
fication. With some individuals, the application of undiluted 
iothion occasions a slight burning, but this is not noticeable when 
it is diluted with oil or lanoline. Iothion may be applied for a 
prolonged period without disturbing the digestion. (See also 
Y ear-Book, 1904, 223.) 

Ipecacuanha Root substituted by Heteropteris pauciflora Root. 

C. M a n n i c h and W. Bran d t. {Berkhte Pharm., 14, 297. ) 
The root of Heteropteris pauciflora, which has some resemblance 
in appearance to true ipecacuanha, has been met with as a sub- 
stitute for that drug. Since the root contains no alkaloid, starch, 
nor calcium oxalate crystals, the fraud is readily detected ; 
the microscopical structure of the root is also quite different, 
since it contains cells secreting a special brown colouring matter 
which turns black with Fe2Cl6. It contains a Isevorotatory 
carbohydrate, [dJi, —40° 98', which has no reducing action on 
Fehling's solution before hydrolysis, but which then furnishes 
levulose. This has been named hepteropterin, and has the for- 
mula CrHioOs -f- gHoO. It is closely allied to inulin and graminin. 

Isoform. A. L i e b r e c h t. {Pharm. Zeit., 49, 842.) Iso- 
form, CQH4.OCH3.IO3, is an oxidation product of para-iodo- 



198 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

anisol occurring in brilliant white scales spai'ingly soluble in cold 
water, deconijjosing at 225°C. It is stated to be a powei-ful 
antiseptic, which may be usefully employed as a dressing for 
wounds and as an iodoform substitute. It is not used undiluted. 
The following preparations are suggested. Isoform dusting 
powder, equal parts of isoform and calcium phosphate. Isoform 
'paste, equal parts of glycerin and isoform. Isoform gauze, 1, 3, 
and 10 per cent., prepared with the jiowder. Isoform capsules 
are also prepared. Isoform may be readily determined in mix- 
tures or gauze by treating a known quantity with KI solu- 
tion, then adding acetic acid ; iodine is liberated, and is titrated 
in the usual manner with N/10 thiosulphate solution, 1 c.e. 
of which under these conditions equals 0-00665 Gm. of isoform. 

Isophysostigmine. — Ogui. {Apoth. Zeit., 19, 891.) E. 
Merck has shown that when the liberated alkaloids of Calabar 
bean are shaken out with ether, physostigmine is dissolved, but 
another base, isophysostigmine, Avhich has the same empirical 
formula, remains insoluble. The author has examined this base, 
and finds that its sulphate melts at 202°C., while physostigmine 
sulphate has the m.p. 140-142. It also gives a crystalline 
platinochloride, whereas phj^sostigmine gives none. Iodine 
produces an immediate precipitate with 1 per mille solutions of 
physostigmine sulphate, but the same salt of isophysostigmine 
gives no precipitate even in 1 per cent, solutions. The point of 
difference of the greatest practical importance is observed in the 
physiological action ; salts of isophysostigmine have a more 
rapid, more poM^erful, and more lasting effect than those of 
physostigmine, the relative value being as 3 : 4. On the other 
hand, atropine more readily counteracts the effects of isophy- 
sostigmine than those of physostigmine. Solutions of isophy- 
sostigmine intended for therapeutic use should be prepared and 
stored witli the same precautions as those of physostigmine ; if 
they are to be kept, this should be done in amber-coloured 
bottles, and the solutions should be preserved with boric 
acid. 

Isoprai. F. Zernik. {Apoth. Zeit., 20, 'SOO.) Trichloriso- 
propyl alcohol has been introduced as a hypnotic, with the claim 
that it is twice as active as chloral when given in doses of 12 to 
15 grs. This dose is generally ample, but, if necessary, as much 
as 45 grs. may be given without harm. The hypnotic action 



MATERIA MEDICA. 199 

ensues about 15 to 30 minutes after tlie administration of the 
dose. Isopral occurs in transparent prisms, m.p. 49°C., with a 
camphoraceous odour. Its sokibihties are : in water at 15°C. 
1 : 50, at 19°C. 3 : 100 ; more soluble in alcohol, ether and fats. 
The aqueous solution is neutral ; its taste is sharp, theji burning, 
followed by a brief anaesthetic action on the tongue. When 
heated with H2SO4 containing 1 per cent, of ;t?-naphthol, it gives 
a yellowish brown solution with a strong fluorescence. 
Under like conditions, resorcin gives a deep-brown liquid, but 
only a slight fluorescence. Alkalies decompose isopral slowly 
in the cold, evolving gas and forming resinous decomposition 
products ; at 40°C. the reaction is more marked, and an alde- 
hyde is formed, together with chloride, and a formate of the 
alkali. Isopral is a powerful reducing agent. It gives iodoform 
when warmed with solution of KI and I. 

Jaborandi Leaves of Commerce. E. M. Hoi m e s. 
{Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 891.) For some years past there has 
been great difficulty in obtaining the jaborandi leaves official in 
the Pharmacopoeia, so that it has not been possible for more than 
a few of the wholesale houses to procure a supply. This scarcity 
doubtless arose from the fact that, when last imported in quan- 
tity, there was on the market at the same time a considerable 
quantity of the leaves of the Rio and Maranham jaborandis, and 
that these being cheaper were largely purchased in preference, 
the former for galenical purposes and the latter chiefly for the 
preparation of the alkaloid in Germany. In consequence, the 
genuine leaves, after adding to the expenses of the importer by 
warehousing, had to be sold at a loss, and subsequently, as might 
be expected, shippers were shy of exporting more. But the fact 
remains that although the price of genuine leaves has now risen 
to a figure which should well repay the exporter, it is practically 
impossible to procure them in any quantity at present, whilst 
there is no difficulty in obtaining the Rio and Maranham kinds. 

Under these circumstances it seems desirable to inquire 
whether these leaves might be substituted officially for those now 
recognized. There is no doubt that the leaves of P. microphyllus 
(Maranham jaborandi) usually come into the market in good 
condition, whilst those of P. pennatifolius (Rio jaborandi) vary 
much, being often badly preserved and of inferior quality. As 
regards their alkaloidal contents, the following were the records 
up to 1895 : — Pilocar'pus jaborandi, 0*5 to 0*8 per cent, pilocarpine 



200 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

nitrate ; P. pennatif alius. 0-18, 0'19, and 0*3 per cent. ; P. micro- 
phyllus, O'lii, 0'19, and 0-8 per cent. 

Since that date the alkaloids of jaborandi have been carefully 
examined by Jowett, with the result that commerical pilocarpine 
is often found to contain isopilocarpiue, and tliat the loaves of 
Piloairpus jdhorandi contain besides these two alkaloids a small 
quantity of pilocari)idine, wliich is practically inert. 

Paul and Cownley reported that the leaves of P. microphyllus 
yielded 0*84 per cent, of a crystalline nitrate, but this apx)eared 
to consist of two nitrates, one of which had a higher melting-point 
than the other. The one with the higher melting, regarded in 
the light of Jowett's researches, is apparently isopilocarpine 
nitrate, that salt having a m.p. of 159°, as against the correspond- 
ing one of pilocarpine, which melts at 146°. Jowett has informed 
the author that the amount of isopilocarpine in both the P. jabor- 
andi and the P. microphyllus leaves is practically the same, viz. 
about 10 per cent, of the alkaloidal contents, so that the leaves 
of these two differ only in the presence of the inactive pilocar- 
pidine in the one and not in the other. Petit, however, states 
that the leaves of P. microphyllus contain pilocarpidine 
to the extent of jV^-h of the alkaloid present, as well as 0*6 
to 0'8 per cent, of pilocarpine nitrate. With respect to the Rio 
jaborandi, the late J. Williams informed the author that only 
half as much alkaloid could be obtained from them as the Per- 
nambuco kind yielded, and for this reason, as well as that the 
leaves of P. pennatifolius are often of bad quality, and that 
they are not easily recognized by the unpractised eye, whilst 
those of P. viicrophyllus are very easily recognized, it seems 
that the latter are more suitable as a substitute for the official 
drug. Dr. H. H. Rusby states that where a tincture of the 
Maranham jaborandi has been tried it is preferred by prescribers 
in the United States to that of the official kind. Further, it is 
probable that the leaves of P. microphyllus will be made official 
in the next U.S. Pharmacopojia and in the new French Codex. 
The subject is, therefore, well worth consideration in this country. 

Kava-kava Resin, Antiseptic Action of. — M a r p m a n n. 

{Zeits. fiir angcw Mikros., through Phdrm. Ccntralh., 46, 264.) 
Experiments show that kava-kava resin has a marked bacteri- 
cidal action on the micro-organisms of the urine, and that 
Gonococcus is more susceptible to its influence than other bac- 
teria. No fresh growth of this coccus was obtained after treating 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 201 

cultivations of it with a 1 per cent, solution of kava-kava pastilles. 
Cultures of gonococci and urine bacteria were completely steri- 
lized in 4 hours by a 1 per cent, solution, in 1 hour with a 2 per 
cent, solution, and in 7 minutes with a 3 per cent, solution. The 
administration of kava-kava resin to healthy and morbid sub- 
jects gave confirmatory results. 

Llnum catharticum, Physiological Action of. J. S. Hills. 
(Fharm. Joinn. [4]. 20, 401.) In the course of the investigation 
of tlie nature and properties of linin (p. 107) that body was 
found not to be the active principle of the plant. The infusion 
and the alcoholic extract of the drug were found to be very 
strongly aperient ; but the decoction, the evaporated infusion, 
the hydrolized alcoholic extract, and linin itself are inactive. It 
would seem, therefore, that the active substance existing in the 
drug is destroyed by hydrolysis, and that simultaneously linin 
makes its appearance. Moreover, comparative experiments 
with the varnish-like residue before and after treatment with 
liydrochloric acid show that hydrolysis is always accompanied 
by the production of sugar, which reduces Feliling's solution, and 
from which the osazone (m.p. about 205°) has been prepared. 
The puigative principle, therefore, may be a glucoside, but all 
attempts to isolate it have been unsuccessful. 

Lycopodium, Powdered Amber as Adulterant of. L. v a n 

Italic. (Pharm. Weekblad.. through Chem. Centralblat., IQ, 
110.) Very finely powdered amber, tinted with a coal-tar 
colour, is stated to be employed as an adulterant of lycopodium. 

Magnesium Peroxide for Diarrhoea. — B e r t h e r a n d 

and — R. G a u 1 1 i e r. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 47.) 
Magnesium peroxide, administered in doses of 8 to 16 grs. per 
diem in the form of keratin coated pills, so that they traverse the 
stomach without disintegration, is stated to be an efficient 
remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea of adults due to acid fer- 
mentation. The nascent oxygen and hydrogen peroxide thus 
liberated in the intestines have a powerful disinfecting action. 

Medicinal Plants of German East Africa. W. B u s s e. [Ber- 
icJite Pharm.. 14, 187. ) Coffea arabica, var. stuhlmanii, is employed 
in the colony ; two other species, C. sanguebarice and C. schu- 
m«n?i ma, occur wild, but are not used. Amomum mala is very 



202 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

widespread, and its scarlet fruits are much sought after by the 
natives, wlio, after opening the hard envelope, consume the 
interior pulp, taking care not to crush with the teeth the seeds, 
which are rich in aromatic principles. In times of scarcity the 
fruits of Dialopsis africaiia and the tubercles of a species of 
CyanaMrum are eaten, but since they are poisonous in the raw 
state, they are first prepared before being consumed. Under 
similar conditions, the fruits of Flagellaria indica, the seeds of a 
Mucuna and the tubercles of a Gloriosa are occasionally used. 
The genus Strychnos is very strongly represented in the flora of 
the colony, no less than 20 species, 14 of which are new to science, 
having been recorded. They differ extremely in general charac- 
ters, as for instance in the size of the fruit ; in some plants this 
is as small as a pea, in others as large as a child's head. Some 
of the genus have edible fruits ; these are Strychnos quaqua, S. 
leiocarpa, S. suberifera, S. hehrensiana, S. goetzii, S. radiosperma, 
S. melonicarpa, S. cardiophylla, and S. harmsii. Among those 
which possess poisonous fruits or seeds are S. pungens, S. engleri, 
S. euryphyUa, and S. omphalocarpa. Strychnos cardiophylla and 
*S^. procera a,re employed by the natives as drugs. Thoms has ex- 
amined the latter and has isolated strychnine and brucine from 
the bark, but none from the leaves, wliich however have a bitter 
taste. Erythroplceum guiniense occurs, and the wood is used for 
veneering ; it is known over oriental Africa as " muavi " ; but 
the term has no specific meaning, being appUed to all trees 
having a poisonous bark which is used for ordeal purposes. 
Thus Parkia bussei and Stuhlmannia moavi are both known as 
" muavi." A toxic Indigofera, I. garckeana, occurs. Among the 
poisonous Apocynacece, Strophanthus kombe, S. eminii, and 
Acokanthera abyssinica are enumerated. Dregia ruhicunda, 
N. 0. Asclepiadacese, yields poisonous seeds. Two leguminous 
plants, Tephrosia vogelii and Dolichos pseudopachyrrhiziis, are 
used as fish poisons. Among the barks rich in tannin the follow- 
ing have been identified : Rhizophora mucromtta, Bruguiera 
gymnorhiza, Ceriops cadolleana, and Xylocarpus granatiim. 
Among the gum-producing trees. Acacia verek, A. kirkii, A. 
seyal, A. spirocarpa, A. arabica, A. stenocarpa, A. usambarensis, 
A. stuhlmanii, and A. verugea are recorded, while Berlinia enimii 
yields a kind of tragacanth, which from its colour and astrin- 
gency approaches kino in character. True kinos are produced 
in the colony by Pterocarpus bussei and Derris stuhlrnannii. A 
Guttifer, Haronga thaniculata, yields a yellow latex which, when 



MATERIA MEDICA. 203 

dry, has all the j)roperties of gamboge ; two species of guru- 
yielding Garcinice, G. livirujstonei and G. hussei are found in the 
south of the colony. Fats may be obtained from Allanblackia 
stuJdmannii, Telfairia pedata and Trichilia emetica. Fragrant 
essential oils and products may be obtainable from many plants. 
Numerous species of the genus Ocimum occur, notably 0. canum. 
Among the plants affording a heliotrope odour are Pledronia 
hcliotropiodora, N. 0. Ruhiacece, Clausina anisata, N. 0. Rutacece ; 
and Eupatorium africanum develops when dried a very powerful 
odour of coumarin. Two Labiates, of undetermined species, 
yield eugenol . 

Menthyl Valerianate for Sea-sickness. K. K o e p k e. {Themp. 
Monats., 18, 296.) Menthyl valerianate, in doses of 10 to 15 
drops on sugar, is stated to be an excellent preventative against 
sea-sickness, and to ward off an attack if taken in the early 
stages. 

Mesotan, Precautions in Prescribing and Dispensing. L. 
Weil. {Merck's Report, 18, 124.) Mesotan should never be 
applied to the skin undiluted ; the most suitable application is 
a mixture with equal parts of olive oil. Two or three drachms of 
this should be applied very gently, preferably with a brush. As 
soon as the spot treated shows any reddening the application 
should be intermitted for a few days. Impervious bandages 
should never be placed over mesotan applications. Since meso- 
tan is readily decomposed by moisture, it should be kept in well- 
stoppered bottles. If these precautions are observed, applications 
of mesotan will not give rise to irritation. 

Metallic " Ferments " and Colloidal Metals for Pneumonia. 

A. R o b i n, also — B a r b i e r. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [G], 
21, 125.) Injection of 10 c.c. of solution of metallic ferments 
produces a prompt effect on the course of the disease in pneu- 
monia, and a speedy convalescence results. In other infectious 
diseases the results are very variable ; good results have followed 
its employment in broncho-pneumonia, but in tj^phoid and in 
meningitis its effect is less marked and less durable. In acute 
articular rheumatism the injection of 10 c.c. of solution of gold 
or palladium is without much effect on the local affection, but the 
general condition of the patient is improved. When sodium 
salicylate is given as well, a marked relief of pain is followed by 



204 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

rapid convalescence. In infants, doses of 5 c.c. of colloidal ^rold, 
platinum and silver have given excellent results in i)neuinonia, 
but in digestive intoxication, and in di])htheria. the results ob- 
tained have been uncertain. 

Mustard Seeds, Commercial. C. H a r t w i c h and A. V u i 1- 
1 c III i n. {Apoth. Zelt.. 20, 162, 175, 199.) The authors have 
made an exhaustive study of the various mustard seeds met with 
in commerce. Although Brassica nigra, B. juncea, and Sinapis 
alba are the chief sources of mustard seeds used in European 
pharmacy, other varieties are met with in commerce. Seeds of 
Brassica rapa are found mixed with other seeds ; with Brassica 
nigra in Italian and German brown mustard, with Sinapis 
arvensis in Russian and Roumanian brown mustard, with B. 
juncea in Sarepta mustard, and witii B. nigra and S. arvensis in 
Puglia black mustard. Brassica napus, mixed with B. juncea 
and B. nigra, forms Indian brown mustard. Sinapis glauca is 
found in commerce as " white Indian mustard," " yellow rape 
seed," " Guzerat rape," " Sommeani rape," and a Java variety 
as " Sada rape." Sinapis cernua is official in Japan, and con- 
stitutes Japanese and Chinese mustard. Sinapis dichotoma is 
found m Indian mustards, the variety known as " brown Indian 
rape," and mixed Avith S. glauca, as " Cawnpore rape." Brassica 
nigra alone comprises Turkish, Dutch, Sicilian, and Italian brown 
mustard ; mixed with B. rapa it occurs in second quality Italian 
and in German brown mustard ; with B. rapa and S. arvensis in 
Puglia black mustard ; with B. juncea in Bombay mustard ; 
with B. juncea and B. napus in Indiari brown mustard. Brassica 
juncea forms an important part of the mustard of trade, and next 
to B. nigra is most widely cultivated. It occurs in two varieties, 
yellow and brown, and is known as " Sarepta " mustard. When 
ground it forms a very bright-coloured yellow powder, especially 
when deprived of its seed coats. The bulk comes into commerce 
as Russian mustard ; it also forms Bombay mustard of first 
grade, and mixed with B. rapa second grade Bombay ; and 
occurs with B. nigra and B. 7iapus in Indian mustard. Sinapis 
alba forms German, Dutch, Russian, Argentine and English 
white mustard. Sinapis dissecta is found in commerce as " Gar- 
dal mustard " ; it is indigenous to Southern Eurojie and culti- 
vated in Russia. Sinapis arvensis alone is found as second grade 
brown mustard, also when mixed with B. rapa ; and with B. rapa 
and B. nigra, in Puglia black nmstard. As it contains but little 



MATERIA MEDICA. 205 

trace of essential oil, it is of small value. Eruca sativa alone 
comprises Persian mustard. Detailed descriptions of the 
macro- and microscopic characters of each of these is given, also 
a list of 104 seeds of different species of plants found as admix- 
tures or adulterants, among the most objectionable of which 
Agrostemma ijithago, Conium maculatum, Hyoscyarmis niger, 
Nigella arvensis, N. orientalis, and Ricmus communis may be 
noted. A table is given, showing the average size and weight of 
the seeds of 36 commercial varieties of seeds, with the amount of 
essential and fixed oil found in each. Gardal niustard, from 
Sinapis dissecfa, gave the lowest yield of volatile oil, only 0*06 
per cent. ; Turkish l)roAvn mustard, from Brassica nigra, the 
highest yield, 1-17 to 1*18 per cent. 

The essential oil was determined as follows. Five Gm. of the 
seeds rubbed to fine powder is macerated in a 200 c.c. round- 
bottom flask witli 100 c.c. of water, with frequent agitation at 
20-25"^ ('. fcir an hour. Twenty c.c. cf alcohol is then added, and 
the flask attached to a condenser, to which an Erlenmeyer flask 
containing 30 c.c. of solution of ammonia and 10 c.c. of alcohol 
is fitted as a receiver, so that the delivery tube of the condenser 
dips below the surface of the liquid. This receiver is connected 
with a second similar flask, also containing ammonia and alcohol, 
to prevent any loss. Distillation is carried on until half the 
liquid has distilled over. The condenser is then disconnected 
and washed out with a little water, and the washings bulked with 
the distiUate ; to this 4 c.c. of 10 per cent. AgNOa is added, and 
the whole warmed on th_e water-bath to aggregate the Ag2S 
formed. This is then collected, dried and weiglied ; the weight 
obtained x 8-002 gives the percentage of essential oil in tlie seed. 
The fatty oil is determined in the usual manner by extraction 
with etlier in Soxhlet's apparatus. The lowest yield was 21*42 
per cent., from Thurirg'an brown mustard. Sina pis arvensis ; the 
liighest 46*1, from Javan " Sada sarsapa." Sina pis glauca. 

The original paper should he referred to for detailed anato- 
mical characters of the various seeds. 

Naphthol Camphor a Dangerous Drug. E. Roc hard. 
(Bull. gen. de Thcrap.. 148, 725.) In consequence of several 
fatal accidents having followed the hypodermic injection of 
naphthol camphor in the course of French medical practice, its 
abandonment as a drug is strongly urged by the author, sup- 
ported by Guinard. Bajdac has shown that it is markedly more 



206 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

toxic than camphorated alcohol, camphorated oil, or simple 
naplitliolated alcohol when administered singly. The toxic 
effects have supervened within a few minutes of the administra- 
tion of the dose, assuming the form of epileptic convulsions, 
which, in some cases, have terminated in death by asphyxia. 
The consensus of opinion is that naphtliol camphor, possessing a 
marked toxicity of its own, is a dangerous drug, which should 
not be prescribed. 

Opium, German. H. Thorns. {Ajioih. Zeit., 19, 773.) 
One hundred poppy capsules grown in Germany from the white 
seeded variety of Papaver somnifemm, yielded 1'27 Gm. of " air 
dry " opium. When completely dried this gave 6*7 per cent, 
of morphine, 8*4 per cent, of crude narcotine, and 0'3 per cent, of 
crude codeine. The cultivation of an experimental crop of the 
dark seed variety of Papaver somniferum is contemplated. 

Opium, Persian. J. S c h i n d e 1 m e i s e r. {Apoih. Zeit., 
1904, 19, 836.) Three specimens of Mesched opium have 
been examined, four of Ispahan opium, and a specimen of tscha- 
kida, a so-called cooked or prepared opium, which is employed 
for eating or smoking, and mixed with hemp. Mesched opium 
occurs in greyish-brown shining sticks, wrapped in paper. It 
contains from 10 to 12 per cent, of moisture and from 5-9 to 8*7 1 
per cent, of morphine, calculated on the dry material. No starch 
could be detected by the microscope. Ispahan opium also occurs 
in paper- wrapped shining sticks, which are brown in colour. It 
is softer than Mesched opium, and contains 18 per cent, of mois- 
ture. The drj^ material gave from 11 "9 to 19-05 per cent, of 
morphine. This opium was also free from starch. Tschakida, 
or prepared opium, is in cakes weighing about 60 Gm. : it is dark 
brown, almost black, in colour, and appears to be oiled. It con- 
tains 22 per cent, of moisture and only 0-38 per cent, of morphine. 
The practice of adulterating opium witli inspissated fruit juices, 
sucli as peach and apricot juice, is said to be wide-spread in the 
Caucasus. Two such specimens of Caucasian opium are met 
with, whicli contained only 1*58 and 1*74 per cent, of morphine. 

Opium, Smyrna, "Manipulated." V. Mas son. {Journ. 
Pharm. Chini. [6], 21, 529.) Tlie general acceptance of a stan- 
dard of 10 per cent, of morphine for commercial Smyrna opium 
has not proved an unmixed advantage, since there are now to be 



MATiERIA MEDICA. 207 

met with in commerce numerous grades of the drug, which 
although containing a fairly close approximation to that amount 
of morphine, differ widely from the unsophisticated opium in 
the ratio of water and soluble extractive, so that galenical 
1^ reparations, and especially extract of opium, prepared from 
them, differ widely from those obtained with the natural article. 
One such sample offered as natural Smyrna opium, occurring in 
uniform small spherical cakes, composed of a greyish, earthy, 
firm, homogeneous mixture, yielded 14-5 per cent, of moisture, 
10-2 per cent, of morphine, calculated on the dry opium, and 
only 20 per cent, of extract calculated on the opium containing 
10 per cent, of moisture. Moreover this extract only contained 
5*9 per cent, of morphine ; whereas with normal opium it would, 
with this small amount of extractive, have amounted to about 
35 per cent. The " exhausted " marc was found to retain no 
less than 5-32 per cent, of that alkaloid. The opium was alkaline 
in reaction, instead of showing the normal acidity. On inciner- 
ation, it gave 23*2 per cent, of ash consisting of carbonates, 
silica, and argillaceous earth. The opium was evidently com- 
pounded either \vith natural opium rich in morphine, and earthy 
matter, or with a mixture of inorganic matter and opium marc, 
brought up to the required morphine standard by direct addition 
of alkaloid. 

Two other samples, occurring in regular spherical cakes, 
slightly larger than the above, of a firm granular consistence, 
were found mixed with natural opium. The one, slightly alka- 
line in reaction, gave 13 per cent, of morphine, 20-2 per cent, of 
extract, and 9*24 per cent, of moisture ; the other, slightly acid, 
contained 12'19 per cent, of morphine, 27-8 per cent, of extract, 
and 8'31 per cent, of moisture. The marc of both was composed 
of the elements of natural opium. Both are notable for the low 
yield of extract. 

A fourth sample, sold as " manipulated " opium without 
guarantee as to the extract content, standardized to 10 per cent . 
of morphine, occurred in small soft cakes each wrapped in a 
poppy leaf. The consistence was soft, the mass having a dark 
colour and a homogeneous pilular consistence with a fine grain. 
It contained 10-66 per cent, of morphine and 44-52 per cent, of 
extract, a normal amount. The reaction was acid. 

The fifth sample, guaranteed to contain 45 per cent, of extract 
and 10 per cent, of morphine, sold as " special opium for extract," 
gave 10-12 per cent, of morphine and 57-3 per cent, of exti'act ; 



208 YEAR-BOOK OF phar:macy 

but this extract only yielded 12 per cent, of morphine ; it con- 
tained no less than 21*5 per cent, of gum ; it presented a peculiar 
appearance, having a gummy and elastic consistence, and was of 
a deep chestnut colour. The gum isolated therefrom was vis- 
cous, precipitated by alcohol, and without action on polarized 
light. It was readily hydrolized. 

Concurrently with the abov^e exjieriments natural unsophisti- 
cated opiums were examined. All these were acid in reaction, 
and gave the following results. Yerli opium : moisture, 26*1 ; 
extract, 5'J-95 : morphine. 13'51 per cent. Salonica opium : 
moisture. 24-97 and 17*62; extract, 49'17 and 46'35 per cent. ; 
morjihine, 1248 and ]()'58 per cent. Smyrna opium : moisture, 
20'93 ; extract, 44-3 : morphine, 10*82 per cent. The extracts 
from these contained a mean of 26 per cent, of morphine. 

Orchil. P. S. Ronceray. {Phann. Journ. [4|. 19. 734.) 
The name " orseille " is given in France to those lichens which. 
on exposure to air and ammonia, develop a purplish-red colour. 
The use of orseille was introduced into Europe from the East by 
a Florentine named Federigo about a.d. 1300. From his suc- 
cessors, who were named Orcellari, Ruccellari, and Ruccellai, 
the name of one of the chief genera of lichens used, viz. 'Roccella. 
is apparently derived. In France two commercial groups of 
orseille are recognized, viz. the " orseille de terre " and the 
" orseille de mer," the former being collected inland ni hilh' dis- 
tricts, and the latter on the sea-coast. The former includes the 
orseille of the Pyrenees, Alps, and Cevennes, obtained from 
Pertusaria dealbata, and the " orseille d'Auvergne," of which 
Lecanora pareUa, Ach., is the source. The " orseille de Suede " 
is obtained horn Lecanora tartarca, and the " orseille de Nor- 
vege " from various species of Umbilicaria or Gyrophora, especi- 
ally U. pusiulata, D.C. Of those obtained on the sea-coast. 
Roccella tinctoria. D.C, yields the orseille of the Canaries, Madeira, 
Tenerifife, Cape Verd, and Mogador, that of the last-named being 
often mixed with Ramulina scopulorum, Ach. Roccella porten- 
tosa, Mtg., affords the large orseille of Valparaiso and Manilla, 
and R. phycopsis. mixed with some R. tinctoria. that of Sardinia. 

The chief botanical sources of the orseille at present used are 
Roccella montagnei, which comes from Mozambitjue, Madagascar, 
and Angola ; and Dendrographa leucophoea, Darb.. which is im- 
ported from California. Occasionally under the name of " or- 
seille des Colonies." Usnea plicata. Fr., and U. angulata. Ach., 



MATERIA MEDICA. 209 

are offered in the French markets. Lecanora glaucoma, Hoffm., 
and Eveniia prunastri, L., are also sources of orseille. Erythrin 
is the chief constituent of Roccella montagnei and Dendrographa 
leucophcea, lecanoric acid of Roccella tinctoria, and orcin of 
Pertusaria dealbata. Orcin, however, occurs also in the three 
species first mentioned, although its presence appears to have 
been overlooked in them by previous observers. It can be 
detected in situ by the sulphovanillic reagent, made by mixing 
one part of concentrated H2SO4 with one of water and adding 
vanillin in excess, i.e. until none remains undissolved. Made in 
these proportions it reddens orcin, but not erythrin, nor leca- 
norin ; made stronger with sulphuric acid it reddens the others 
also. 

The presence of other " chromogenous ethers " is ascertained 
by soaking the lichen in water acidulated with one-fifth of HCl 
for half an hour, to remove calcium oxalates, and then, after 
washing with distilled water, taking a section and treating it 
with solution of 1 part of calcium hypochlorite in 40 parts of 
water under the microscope, when a red coloration indicates 
their presence. These chromogenous ethers are soluble in 
methyl and ethyl alcohols, in acetone, boiling water, and solu- 
tions of NaOH and AmOH. The distribution of these sub- 
stances can also be determined in lichens deprived of oxalates by 
examination of microscopic sections, in which the crystals can 
be seen by aid of a polarizer, since they are insoluble in the dilute 
HCI. They are usually found in crystals outside the hyphae, 
but their distribution varies with the different lichens. In 
Roccella tinctoria the cortex and centre are free from lecanoric 
acid, which is present in quantity in the gonidial portion, as well 
as in the soredia, and on the external part of the apothecia and 
the tips of the paraphyses, but never in the asci nor in the central 
layer (Moeller). In R. portentosa, on the contrary, lecanoric 
acid is abundant in the cortex, and occurs in the central layer, 
but there is very little in the gonidial layer and none in the 
soredia. In Roccella montagnei erythrin is abundant in the 
cortex and interhyphic spaces, and it occurs also in the gonidial 
layer and near the cortex, and between the apices of the para- 
physes, but not in the asci nor below them, nor in the medullary 
layer, the spermogones, or soredia. 

In Dendrographa leucophoea erythrin is abundant in the 
cortex, and in the subcortical portion of the gonidial layer and 
in the soredia, but not in the medullary layer nor in the thala- 

p 



210 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY 

mium or epithecium, although it is present in the apices of the 
paraphyses. In Pertusaria dealhata erythrin is found through- 
out the thallus, especially in the cortex. In Usnea dasypoga, 
Fr., var. plicaki, Fr., usnic acid is absent from tlie cortex 
and central axis, but occurs in the lacunose zone and in 
the gonidial layer. The distribution is similar in Usnea arujulata. 
In Umbilicaria pustulata, gyrophoric acid is present in abundance 
in the medulla below the gonidial layer, but not in tlie cortex and 
not in tlie apothecium, although present in its pedicel. In 
Lecanora tartar ea, gyrophoric acid occurs everywhere in the 
thallus, but to render it evident, lecanoric acid has to be first 
dissolved out by alcohol, in which the gyrophoric acid is very spar- 
ingly soluble. In Lecanora parella, imveUiG acid occurs through- 
out the thallus, but is most plentiful in the cortex. In Usnea and 
Umbilicaria it is generally difficult to moisten the section with 
the reagent, but if first wetted with alcohol it takes up the acid 
reagent much more readily. The licliens R. montafjnei, R. 
tinctoria, and Dendrographa leucophoea contain a diastase, with- 
out which the purple colour is not developed. The lichens do 
not contain either an oxydase or an anaer-oxydase. The use of 
urine is not necessary in the manufacture, since ammonia is the 
active ingredient in it ; but ammonia, in the absence of the 
diastase, cannot develop the colouring matter. 

Passiflora incarnata as a Sedative. W. S. S t a p 1 e t o n. 

[Apoth. Zeit., 19, 931.) Tincture of Passiflora incarnata, in doses 
of 20 to 25 111 every 3 hours, is a useful remedy in insomnia 
from hysteria, neurasthenia, neuralgia, and other nervous affec- 
tions. It does not act as a narcotic, but as a nervine sedative, 
and is stated to have no bad after effects. 

Perhydrol. F. Z e r n i k. (Berichte Pharm., 51, 6, and 
Merck's Report, 18, 146.) This name has been given to a con- 
centrated 30 per cent, solution of HoOo, which liberates 100 
volumes of oxygen. Wliereas ordinary commeicial liydrogen 
peroxide generally contains free acid, and is unstable, ])erhydrol 
is perfectly neutral and stable. It is prepared ])y adding NaoOo 
to a 20 per cent, solution of H2SO4 immersed in a freezing mix- 
ture ; a greater part of tlie Na.,S04 formed crystallizes out, the 
rest is removed by distilling the solution vnider reduced pressure. 

The imi)ortance of employing pure neutral liydrogen peroxide 
in the treatment of ear disease is insisted on, since the acid j)re- 



MATERIA MEDICA. 2ll 

parations met with in commerce are liable to cause marked 
irritation. Perhydrol is free from this defect, and when diluted 
1 : 14 with distilled water forms an antiseptic lotion which may 
be instilled into the ear, when mixed with tepid water, by the 
patient. Dilutions of perhydrol have found general acceptance 
and wide application as antipurulent washes. 

Potassium Sulphoguaiacolate. G. and R. Fritz. {Apoth. 
Zeif.. 19, 953.) The pure salt forms a crystaUine odourless 
powder with a bitter taste, which afterwards becomes sweetish. 
Solubility in cold water, 1 : 3-5 ; very soluble in hot water, spar- 
ingly soluble in absolute alcohol, insoluble in ether and in chloro- 
form. It gives a crystalline precipitate with a 5 per cent, 
solution of tartaric acid. Dilute solutions give a deep blue 
colour, which disappears on heating with one drop of FeoClo 
solution. Strong solutions give it a blood-red colour with the 
same reagent, which changes to blue on adding more FcaCle 
solution. Strong H2SO4 gives a colourless solution, which be- 
comes brown on heating. AgNOa gives no immediate precipi- 
tate, but ultimately a grey deposit. A trace of KOH gives a 
reddish yellow colour, which disappears on acidifying. A 5 
per cent, solution of the salt is faintly alkaline in reaction ; it 
shows no turbidity with BaClo or with H2SO4. 

Pyramidon, Nature of the Red Colouring Matter in the Urine 
after Administration of. — A p p e r t and — J a ff e. [Reper- 
toire de Pharm. [3], 16, 538.) By shaking out with acetic ether 
the red-coloured urine of patients under treatment with pyra- 
midon, Jalie has isolated a new crystalline acid, rubazonic acid, 
C20H17N5O2 in needles, m.p. 184°C. ; insoluble in water, spar- 
ingly dissolved by boiling alcohol, and soluble in chloroform, 
acetic ether, acetone benzol and alkaline solutions. Appert 
finds that, though frequent, the production of this red colour after 
a dose of pyramidon is not invariable. Its appearance, however, 
is quite devoid of any significance, since it does not in any way 
indicate toxic action of the drug, nor, as far as can be traced, 
an abnormal condition of the patient. 

Rhubarb and the Plants producing it. A. Tsc birch. 
{Schweiz. Woch., 42, 512, 521.) Almost every consignment of 
fresh roots or seeds reputed to be those of the plant furnishing 
rhubarb of commerce have given, when cultivated, distinct 



2l2 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

species. After eliminating tliose which certainly could not be 
the botanical source of the drug, three species. Rheum palma- 
tum : a.nd its var. tanguticum, R. officinale and R. collinianum, 
remained. In the rhizomes of those cultivated at Berne, the 
following distinctive characters were observed. Rheum palma- 
tum, the stellate systems were arrayed distinctly in an irregular 
circle, forming an evident ring, on either side of which isolated 
and scattered star-shaped marks occurred. R. officinale : the 
stellate systems were sparse, less numerous, and arrayed in an 
irregular zone ratlier than in a ring. R. collinianum in appear- 
ance is intermediate between the two above-named species, 
resembling more R. palmaiiim. R. officinale and R. colliniaymm 
had but a slight odour of rhubarb when dried ; but that of R. 
palmatum was very powerful, sufficiently so to serve as a dis- 
tinctive feature. 

Commercial rhubarb falls into two distinct types — those within 
indistinct star-shaped markings, which are replaced by dark 
confused luidulating lines, and those with evident star markings 
or circular lines, often large ; these alw^ays have a darker hne 
between the inner and outer parts. Chinese rhubarb belongs to 
the palmatum type ; that resembling officinale is rare. The 
confused type is often found in Shensi, both round and fiat, but 
rarely in Shanghai rhubarb. An unknown species occurs in 
Shensi rhubarb ; and Chinese rhubarb, as a whole, is evidently the 
product of several species. Shensi and Shanghai rhubarbs gave 
2'8 per cent, of emodin ; Canton rhubarb 4 per cent. European 
rhubarb gives but little emodin ; R. palmatum cultivated at 
Berne gave 2-8 per cent. ; R. officinale gave 2 per cent., and 
R. collinianum 1*8 per cent. R. palmatum should therefore be 
the species cultivated for the production of the European drug. 

Rusot, an Ancient Eastern Medicine. D. Hooper. {Journ. j 
Asiatic *S'oc. of Bengal, 73 [2], No. 4.) Rusot is shown to be ! 
identical with the " lycium " use in medicine by the ancient i 
Greeks ; small vases bearing the name of the drug in Greek | 
characters are found in archaeological museums. At the present 
day rusot is met with in the Indian bazaars, in the form of an 1 
extract obtained from thiee species of Indian barberry, Berheris \ 
aristata, B. lycium and B. asiatica. It is used as a pigment and 
a dye as well as medicinally. 

The extract is obtained by digesting in water slices of tlie bark, 
root, and twigs for a few hours, then boiling, straining, and 



MATERIA MEDICA. 



213 



evaporating to a soft' consistence. It is a dark brown extract of 
the consistence of opium, having a bitter and astringent taste. 
It dissolves almost entirely in distilled water, and partly in 
rectified spirit, forming a rich yellowish-brown solution, which 
becomes bright yellow when diluted. The intense bitterness is 
due to the alkaloid berberine, which pervades the root, bark, 
blossoms, berries, and lea\'es of the plants. Four samples of 
this preparation are exhibited in the Indian Museum, one from 
United Provinces, one from Bashahr, one from Hazard, and 
the other from Lahore, in the Punjab. These were ex- 
amined as regards the amount of moisture, extractive matter, 
ash and the alkaloid, berberine. The sample from the United 
Provinces was j^repared in 1893, and was a dark-brown 
extract with a shining fracture. The second sample was 
forwarded to the Indian Museum by the Forest Ranger of the 
Nogli and Pahor Ranges, Bashahr Division, Punjab, in April, 
1901. It was a soft extract, prej^ared by boihng the chips of the 
root of Berberis lycium, a shrub locally called " Chochar." In 
this division an extract is also made from the roots of B. aristata, 
which is known in this district " Kashmal." The third sample 
was from the Hazara Division, Punjab. TJiis was a blackish, 
brittle extract, having the odour of liquorice. It occurred in 
square packets enveloped in leaves. The fourth sample was 
from Lahore. It consisted of triangular cakes, about one inch 
thick, and three inches along the side, and each enveloped in the 
green leaves of Bauhinia vahlii. The extract was of the con- 
sistence of opium, dark brown in colour, and not very homo- 
geneous in the interior. 

The following are the results of the examination : — 



1. 

— United 

Provinces. 


2. 
Basliahr. 


3 

Hazara. 


4. 
Lahore. 


Water 

Spirit extract .... 
Water extract 
Fibre and starcli . 
Ash 


6-70 
25-85 
36-25 
15-50 
15-70 


40-31 
27-15 
17-43 
10-00 
5-11 


4-00 
38-25 
29-32 
19-23 

9-20 


20-98 
40-16 
20-85 
7-65 
10-36 


Bei'berine 


100-00 

7-75 


10000 
2-9 


100-00 
3-46 


100-00 
4-22 



The results indicate a variable amount of berberine in the 
samples of rusot maniifactured in different districts. There is, 



214 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

likewise, little uniformity in the aniount of extracts, insoluble 
material and ash, and the composition is found to differ very 
considerably in various portions of the same cake. 

The alcoholic extract is the most valuable part of the drug, 
as it contains all the alkaloidal active principles ; tiie aqueous 
extract, insoluble matter, and ash may be regarded as impurities. 
Instead of the watery extract at present made in the jungles, and 
which varies so consideralily in composition, a preparation made 
with alcohol would have many advantages, as it would be more 
concentrated and uniform, and could be readily standaidized in 
regard to the alkaloidal strength measured as berberine. 

Salicylic Acid as a Buccal Disinfectant. {MercFn Reijort, 
18, 12.) iSalicylic acid is tlie least objectionable of any of the 
powerful bactericidal poisons, and as much as 15 grs. may, 
according to Mueller, be taken internally without harm. He 
specially recommends it as a disinfectant for the mouth and 
throat. For this purpose a solution of salicylic acid, 15 grs.. in 
a few drachms of alcohol, is made up to 1 oz. by weight with 
glycerin. This, when applied to the gums and the buccal mucous 
membrane, has marked penetrating properties which bring the 
antiseptic into close contact with bacterial growths. It is 
specially serviceable in thrush and aphthous stomatitis, and has 
even acted as a palliative in mild cases of diphtheria, preventing 
the membrane from spreading. It may be applied with a brush 
to the affected parts. 

Senecio vulgaris, Fluid Extract of, in Dyspepsia. D a 1 c h e. 
[Jouni. Pharm. Chim., 20, 523.) Thirty drops of fluid extract 
of common groundsel taken in a little sweetened water before 
meals has proved to be an excellent remedy in gastralgia, cramp 
of the stomach, in pain due to an irritated condition of the 
mucous membrane, and in flatulent dyspepsia. The treatment 
is quite harmless, but in the case of female patients should be 
intermitted before the menstrual period, which otherwise may 
be retarded or checked. 

Sodium Glycocholate for Hepatic Colic. [Merck's Report, 18, 
131.) Sodium glycocliolate, in doses of 5 to 10 grs. per diem, 
administered in capsules, is stated to be useful as a gall-stone 
soh^ent for l)iliary calculi. It is also given in enlargement of the 
liver following chronic malaria. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 215 

Stagnin. (Merck's Report, 18, 176.) Stagnin is an aseptic 
saline solution of the spleen of horses, and is exhibited by intra- 
muscular injection to counteract haemorrhages, also in myoma, 
liyperj)lasia uteri, and in menorrhagia and haemophilia. It is 
injected into the gluteal region. 

Stereos permum euphorioides Gum. H. Jumelle. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 172.) This gum, which is only very slightly 
soluble in water, is produced by a tree of the N.O. Bignoniacese 
indigenous to Madagascar. It occurs in bright, brown brittle 
masses with a bright fracture ; it is soluble to some extent in 
alcohol 90 per cent., and in acetone, but not in other solvents. 
It precipitates with lead salts, and gives a green colour reaction 
with FcoCle- Its slight solubihty will probably preclude its use 
in the arts. 

Styracol. [Merck's Report, 18, 181.) Styracol, the cinnamic 
ester of guaiacol, is suggested as a substitute for the latter in 
phthisis and other affections for wliich guaiacol is prescribed. 
Styracol, in the intestines, is split up into guaiacol and cinnamic 
acid, and has been found efficient as an intestinal disinfectant. 
It is given as a powder or in cachets in doses of 15 grs. from 3 to 
6 times a day for adults ; children may take 8 grs., and infants 
4 grs. 

Tincture of Immature Oranges for Diarrhcea. V. N. V o r o n t- 

z o y. {Semaine Med., through Nouveaux Remedes., 20, 502.) 
A maceration in brandy of the small immature oranges which 
fall from the trees and are known as " orangettes " or " petits 
grains," is an excellent remedy for diarrhcTea. As soon as the 
liquid is the colour of strong tea, it is ready for use. A liqueur- 
glassful may be taken by adults twice to four times a day, and 
it may be given to infants in doses of 10 to 15 ^\\ twice or thrice 
daily. 

Tonka Beans, Collection and Curing of. {Pharm. Journ. 
[4], 20, 104.) The Tonka bean tree is found in different parts 
of tropical America, but the product imported from Para appears 
to be inferior to that which comes from the regions in the vicinity 
of the Canra and C'uchivero rivers. Although met with in 
patches, the tree is not by any means gregarious, so that the 
collection of the fruit is arduous work. In an interesting book 



216 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

by E. Andre, entitled A Naturalist in the Guianas, an account 
., of the collection of the seeds is given. The crops, it would seem, 

I are so irregular that it is almost impossible to forecast the yield 

of any particular year. It may, however, be taken as a general 
rule that for one or two years after a plentiful harvest the pro- 
duction is so scanty that it does not pay to collect the beans. In 
Venezuela the tree is known as " Sarrapia," and the men engaged 
in the collection of the seed are called " Sarrapieros." These 
men begin to arrive on the Caura early in February, some of 
them coming a considerable distance. During the months of 
October and November, while the fruit is still quite small and 
green, the large macaws and several other members of the parrot 
family commit great havoc upon the young crop. Hence the 
destruction before maturity of enormous quantities of this valu- 
able product. 

The fruit of the " Sarrapia " is much Uke a mango in appear- 
ance, and is largely eaten by the natives. It has but little pulp, 
which is sticky and of insipid taste, the seed (endocarp) being 
covered with a hard fur-like substance. After the " Sarrapiero " 
has got together a sufficient quantity of fruit, he takes his find 
to some open spot where he can get the benefit of strong sun- 
light. The hard shell is then carefvilly broken between two 
stones and the single dark brown seed extracted. The seeds are 
then spread out to dry, generally upon the large open masses 
of granite called lajas, which form so peculiar a feature of the 
forest of tliis region. The dried beans are sold by the " Sarra- 
pieros " to the merchants of Ciudad Bolivar, where the process 
of crystallization, as it is called, is sometimes carried out. This 
operation, however, costs very much less if it can be performed 
in Trinidad, where the strong rum required for the process can 
be obtained at a cheaper rate. By the end of May or the be- 
ginning of June, the last beans have been taken, and the crop 
may be said to be over. 

The beans are never shipped in the raw state, but are treated 
with strong rum, the process being called crystallizing. This is 
carried out as follows : — 

Puncheons open at one end, placed in a row, are filled with 
beans to within a foot or eighteen inches of the top. Strong 
runi is then poured into the puncheons until they are quite full, 
when they are covered over with layers of bagging. At the end 
of 24 hours the rum not absorbed is run off the beans, 
and they are spread out to dry in a current of air. When first 



MATERIA MEDICA. 217 

taken out of the puncheons the beans are of a dull black colour, 
and are soft and swollen, but in drying, shitty white crystals 
appear on their surface, and by the time they are ready for 
packing they look as if they had been sprinkled over with jiow- 
dered sugar. They have shrunk a good deal ; are wrinkled in 
appearance. The}^ are then put into wine casks, or rum pun- 
cheons, and are ready for shipment. A tax of 25 centimes per 
kilogram is levied at Venezuela on exports of Tonka beans. 

Trombidium grandissimum. A Medicinal Mite. D. H o o p e r. 

{Pharm. Jouni. [4J. 20, 650.) Among the few specimens of animal 
materia medica used in India is a small acarid resembling a spider, 
the oil of which is expressed and applied in various disorders. It is 
known as " Bhir-buti," " Birbhoti," or " Bir bahoti " in North- 
ern India, and occurs more frequently in the Punjab. United 
Provinces, and Behar. It appears on the ground in the rainy 
season, and is on this account called the " rain's insect." 

The mite is about half an inch long, and from a cjuarter to 
three-eighths of an inch in its widest part. It is covered with a 
scarlet velvety down, and appears on the ground at tlie beginning 
of the rainy season in July. It is only to be found for a few 
weeks in the year, when it is collected and kept for sale in the 
bazaars. The mite and the expressed oil have a great reputa- 
tion among Mahomedans as an aphrodisiac. The oil is also used 
as an external application for various complaints. In Bengal 
it is considered to act as a nervine tonic. 

A chemical examination of this interesting oil has been made 
by E. G. Hill. The mites, purchased in Allahabad, had been 
kept for several months, but showed no signs of putrefaction. 
On pressure they jaelded a deep red oil, and this was separated 
for purjjoses of analysis by extraction with ether in a cohobating 
apparatus. The sp. gr. of the red oil at 15°C. was 0-907 ; it 
ultimately set into a semi-solid mass, melting at 18-19°. It had 
a peculiar odour. With strong II2SO4 it gave a vivid blue 
colour, gradually turning green. With HNO3 the red colour 
was destroyed. With nitrous acid it gave a buttery elaidin in a 
few hours. The following constants were determined : — Acid 
value, 62-3 ; saponification value, 194'7 ; ester value, 132*4 ; 
unsaponifiable, 3-7 ; Reichert-Meissl value, 0*55 ; Hehner value, 
94 ; iodine value, 65. 

The constants of the free fatty acids, consisting chiefly of the 
myristic and oleic acid, were found to be : — Saponification value, 



218 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

199 ; iodine value, 06*0 ; ni.p., 31-32°. The principal con- 
stituents were niyristodiolein, with small quantities of stearin, 
cholesterol, colouring matter, and butyric acid. From these 
results the author concluded that the oil did not ])ossess the 
pro])('rties of a counter-irritant which had been ascribed to it by 
older writers, and that its efficacy as a medicine is purely imagi- 
nary, and due to its colour. 

Tuberculin. F. W. G a m b I e. {Pharm. Journ. [i], 19, 
924. ) Two kinds of tuberculin are found in pharmacy : — 

(1) Tuberculinum Kochii, Koch's "old" or original tuber- 
culin, official in the German Pharmacopoeia. 

(2) Koch's " new " tuberculin, known also as tuberv^'ulin R., 
tuberculin T.R., and tuberculin riickstand. 

Other modifications have been prepared, but they are not in 
use and are of no interest. 

Tuberculinum Kochii. This is described in the Go-man Phar- 
macopoeia as a clear, brown, characteristically aromatic-smelling 
fluid, which, according to the formula of R. Koch, is prepared 
from glycerin-containing meat-broth cultures of the tubercle 
bacillus by evaporation to one-tenth and subsequent filtration. 

This tuberculin is subjected, in Germany, to Government test 
with reference to the uniform presence of the specific toxin, and 
it is sold in officially sealed bottles. The German Pharmacopoeia 
directs that it should be stored only in the undiluted state, re- 
quired dilutions being freshly prepared with sterilized water, or 
better, with O-o per cent, phenol solution. 

Tuberculin is prepared by several firms in this country accord- 
ing to Koch's original directions, and it is also imported from 
Germany in small phials bearing the Government leaden seal. 

" Old " tuberculin was originally introduced for the curative 
treatment of all kinds of tuberculosis. Its chief use now, how- 
ever, is as a diagnostic agent for the detection of tuberculosis in 
man and animals. Injected into the healthy no effect is produced, 
but in the tubercular minute doses give rise to considerable re- 
action ; the temperature rises, more or less severe constitutional 
symptoms ensue, and the local lesions become swollen and 
inflamed. The usual chagnostic dose in man is 0*001 c.c. ; if this 
produces no result, 0-002 c.c. may be injected after two days, and 
finally 0-005 c.c. after a like interval. Absence of reaction to 
these doses indicates that the individual is non-tubercular. 

Koch's " old " tuberculin is still occasionally used as a cura- 



MATEKIA MEDICA. 219 

tive agent, generally in succession to a course of " new " tuber- 
culin. Modern nietliods of estimating the reaction of the blood 
to " old " and " new " tubercuhn indicate that the curative 
doses originally recommended by Koch were much too large and 
too frequently administered. 

Tlie two kinds of tuberculin should be carefully distinguished ; 
having been confused in this country, and pubUshed descrip- 
tions of the one given for the other. The dosage of the " old " 
tuberculin is expressed in terms of the original strong solution. 

Koch's " New " Tuberculin. Tubercuhn R. or T.R. is an 
opalescent liquid similar in appearance to a mixture of 5 or 6 
drops of milk with half an ounce of water. It is prepared from 
a virulent culture of tubercle bacilli. The latter are dried, 
broken up by trituration, and emulsified with cUstilled water. 
The liquid is centrifugalized and the residue again dried, tritu- 
rated, emulsified, and centrifugalized. The second supernatant 
hquid, suitably prepared to contain 10 Mgm. of solid bacterial 
substance in 1 c.c. becomes " new " tuberculin. 

The dose is reckoned in milligrammes, of solid substance, not, as 
in the case of " old " tuberculin, in cubic centimetres of concen- 
trated liquid. Tuberculin R. is diluted for use with sterilized 
20 per cent, glycerin solution in distilled water, the usual 
initial dose being 1/500 Mgm. of solid substance, equal 
to 0-2 c.c. of 1 : 1000 dilution of the concentrated fluid. 
This dose is very gradually increased to 1/10, J, J, or even f 
Mgm. As " new " tuberculin has been reported sometimes to 
contain active tubercle bacilli, it is necessary to sterilize the 
dilutions or the concentrated fluid at 60°C. for one hour. At this 
temperature any bacilli present will be killed, whilst the active 
toxins remain unaftected. 

Tuberculin R. is used as a curative agent in tuberculous con- 
ditions, especially in tuberculosis of the bladder and of the lungs. 
It is not of use for diagnostic purposes. The present tendency 
is to avoid the use of doses large enough to produce external 
symptoms of reaction. The frequency with which the doses 
should be injected and rate of increase of the dose have, until 
recently, been judged by the external signs of reaction or their 
absence. Recently, a method of measuring the reaction in the 
blood itself has been devised. This depends upon the fact that 
injection of tuberculin causes the formation in the blood of tuber- 
culotropic substances called opsonins, whose function is to pre- 
pare the bacilli foi" pliagocytosis. The opsonic power of a 



220 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

specimen of bluud serum is ascertained by mixing it witli au active 
culture of tubercle bacilli and some washed blood corpuscles. 
After incul)ati()n a count is made of the number of bacilli ingested 
by a certain numl)er of white blood corpuscles, the average for 
each corpuscle forming the opsonic index. 

Turiclne. {Schiveiz. Woch., through Journ. Pharm. Chim. 
[()]. 20, 275.) This new antidiarrluoic is a combination of 
tannin and gluten casein ; it is a tasteless and odourless flesh- 
coloured powder, insoluble in water but soluble in dilute alkahes 
and in ammonia. As it is very resistant to the gastric secretions, 
it does not derange the stomach. A special form of turicine is 
prepared for infants containing 20 per cent, of turicine with 
vegetable protein, a little starcli and aromatics. 

Valerian Juice, Physiological Action of. — P o u c h e t and 
C li e V a 1 i e r. {Journ. Pharm. Chim., 21, 127.) Freshly ex- 
pressed juice of valerian root has a distinct sedative action on 
the heart, and acts markedly as an antispasmodic, yet chemical 
valerianates and galenical preparations of diy valerian have an 
opposite action, being distinctly excitants of the central nervous 
system . 

Valerian Root, Derbyshire, Botanical Source of the Drug. 
E. Drabble and F. A. U p s h e r S m i t h. {Pharm. Journ. 
[4], 19, 701.) The drug has hitherto been officially referred to V. 
o/ficinaUs, Linn. This name, however, was considered by the 
j^ounger INIikan to include two distinct species. He separated 
from the aggregate species a form wdth fewer, broader leaflets, 
usually toothed on both edges, describing it under the name V. 
sambucifolia, retaining for the plant with more numerous leaflets 
(six and more pairs), usually toothed on the posterior margin 
only, the name V. officinalis. This, however, could no longer be 
considered as F. officinalis, Linn. Syme later proposed the name 
V. mikanii for the plant remaining after separation of I', sam- 
bucifolia, Mikan fits, and this name has been generally adopted. 

In Derbyshire both V. sambucifolia and V. mikanii occur. 
The former is plentiful on the coal measures, but according to the 
Rev. W. R. Linton {Flora of Derbyshire) it avoids the limestone — 
a conclusion fully borne out by our own observations. On the 
limestone V. sambucifolia is replaced by T'. mikanii. 

It is the custom in Derbysliire for cultivators of valerian to 



MATERIA MEDICA. 221 

gather the wild plants in woods in early spring, the collecting 
grounds being the hmestone dales, particularly Darley Dale. 
This plant is proved to be V. mikoMii. 

It is noted that cats have a marked predilection for V. mikanii, 
but that they are not attracted by growing plants of V. sambuci- 
folia. Full botanical descriptions of the two species are given. 

Validol for Sea-Sickness. {Nouveaux Bemedes, 21, 175.) Scog- 
namiglio records a case in which severe sea-sickness Avas regularh^ 
warded off by doses of 15 to 20 drops of validol taken at the time 
of embarking. Brenning, from experience gained in the Nord 
Deutscher Lloyd serA^ce, confirms the statement, a,nd has found 
validol the best of all remedies for sea-sickness. Mos favourable 
results have been obtained in hundreds of cases by the adminis- 
tration of 8 to 15 drops of vahdol on sugar, repeated several times 
a day. 

West Australian Poisonous Plants. E. M. Holme s. 
{Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 140.) Three specimens of plants sup- 
posed to be poisonous to cattle in West Australia, received 
through H. A. Schlesinger, and sent to the Museum of tlie 
Pharmaceutical Society for identification, proved to belong to 
the following species, viz.: — (1) Gasterolohium bidens, Meissn. ; 
(2) Gasterolobinm polystachytim, Meissn. ; (3) Mirbelia 
racemosa, Turcz. 

J. H. Maiden, in The Useful Native Plants of Australia (1889), 
p. 129, mentions the following species as commonly known as 
Poison Bushes, viz. : — Gasterolobinm bilobum, R. Br. ; G. calli- 
stachys, Meissn. ; G. calycmum, Benth. ; G. obovatum, Benth. ; 
G. oxylobioides, Benth. ; G. Spinosum, Benth ; G. hilohum, 
Benth. Of these species of Ga sterol obium. G. calycinum is stated 
to be most dangerous ; and it is equally fatal to sheep and cattle. 
Dogs eating the offal of the dead animals are also poisoned. 
The plants of the genus require chemicaJ investigation to deter- 
mine the nature of the poison, and a reliable antidote would be 
of the greatest value. Tlie poison appears to be of a narcotic 
and not of an irritant nature. 



PHARMACY 



PART I I 1 

PHARMACY 

Acacia Mucilage. G. P i n c li b e c k. {Pharm. Journ. [4]. 
20, &2{).) In (ho light of the researches of E. Bourquelot {Year- 
Book, 1904, 282) the author has made comparative experiments 
with mucilage of acacia containing oxydase, made in the ordinary 
way, and mucilage prepared from the same gum in which the 
oxydase was destroyed by heating in a sterilizer to 100°C. The 
only effect of this heating was to render the mucilage more fluid. 

It is found that the elimination of the oxydase (which eilsures 
the retention of the full physiological activity of the drug emulsi- 
lied) does not impair the emulsif3dng power of the mucilage, 
and that the heating has a marked improvement on its preserva- 
tion. It is therefore suggested that mucilage of acacia should be 
officially directed to be heated to 100°C. to eliminate the oxydase. 







Comparative effects with : — 


No. of 


Name 

of Note. 




E.xperi- 






ment. 


Preparation. 


/„\ Mucilage. 
(,"■/ With Oxydase. 


,i\ Mucilage. 
V') Oxydase Free. 




Ext. Filicis Liq. 1 


1 


Emulsion exhibits ' No sediment under 




• 


sediment to stand- the same condi- 






ing overnight. j tions. 


2 


01. Morrhuaj 


Oxidation evident No oxidation evi- 






on standing. 


dent after some 
time (14 days). 


3 . 

4 . 


Paraflfinum Liq. \ 
01. Santal . . 1 .;> 




TEmulsion slightly 


5 . 


01. Terebinth • 1 " 




\ more opalescent 


G . 


Bals. Copaiba; . J 




[ than A. 


7 . 


Tr.Giiaiaci Anini. i „ 
Ext. Cinch. Liq. ' "^ 


U^niformly eimdsi- 


i' Uniformly suspen- 


8 . 


fied, oxidation on 


\ ded ; no oxidation 
(. after some time. 






standing some 




i 


time. 




9 . 


Aspirin Acetyl- i 




, Rate of fall of par- 




salicylic Acid) 1 . 




ticles proportion- 




Bismuth Carb. . J 


1 


ately equal to A. 


lu . 


Compact deposit on 


■ Deposit aggluti- 






standing ; difficult 


nates less, and is 






to diffu.se. 


readily diffusible 
^ on shaking. 


11 . 


Hydrarg. Sub. , ) 


/Oxidation of the 




— chlor. + Aq. -5 


1 merciu'ou.s oxide 




Calcis ... * 


j to mercuric oxide 
I (yellow) retarded 







226 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Note 1. 3 Gm. of the liquid extract was intimately mixed 
with 6 c.c. mucilage in a mortar, and distilled water added to 
produce 30 c.c. 

Note 2. 1'5 c.c. Avas added by degrees to ll-S c.c. mucilage, 
and water added to produce 30 c.c. 

Note 3. 4 c.c. of the preparation was added by degrees to 
2 c.c. of mucilage, constantly triturating until an emulsion was 
formed, then adding distilled water to produce 30 c.c. 

Note 4. 1 Gm, of the solid was rubbed down in a mortar 
with 2 c.c. of mucilage, and water added to produce 30 c.c. 

Note 5. 0*2 Gm. mercurous chloride was triturated with 
4 c.c. mucilage, 8 c.c. solution of lime added gradually, trans- 
ferred to a bottle and well shaken ; then sufficient lime solution 
to produce 30 c.c. 

Acetic Extracts. A. R. S. D o h m e. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc, 52, 337.) Belladonna Leaf. 100 Gm. of belladonna leaf, 
assaying 0"57 per cent, of total alkaloids, was extracted with 850 
c.c. of 10 per cent, acetic acid. The valoid fluid extract obtained 
was a dark brown liquid, sp.gr. 1-13. It yielded 0-54 per cent, 
of total alkaloids, therefore showing practically no loss ; 100 Gm. 
of the same fluid extracted gave, when evaporated on the water- 
bath, 35 Gm. of solid extract, which assayed 1*47 per cent, of 
total alkaloid, or 0*52 per cent, on the drug. The official (U.S. P.) 
alcoholic menstruum, alcohol 9'5 per cent., or 54-5 per cent, by 
volume, does not yield more than 25 per cent, of extract. 

Colchicum Seeds. The fluid extract obtained with 10 per 
cent, acetic acid had the sp. gr. 1-098. It assayed 0*41 per cent, 
of colchicine, the same as the seeds employed, and therefore 
showed no loss. It gave 23 per cent, of solid extract, assaying 
1-65 per cent, of colchicine, equivalent to 0*38 per cent, calcu- 
lated on the drug. The U.S. P. alcoholic menstruum, 54-5 per 
cent., gives only 15 per cent, of solid extract. 

Digitalis. The fluid extract obtained with 10 per cent, acetic 
acid had the sp. gr. 1*176 and assayed 0*35 per cent, of digitoxin, 
compared with 0*42 per cent, in the original leaves, or a loss of 
17 per cent, of the total digitoxin press. When evaporated this 
gave no less than 47 per cent, of extractive, whereas tlie official 
U.S. P. menstruum, alcohol 54*5 per cent., gives but 25 per cent. 
This extract assayed 0-52 per cent, of digitoxin, which is equiva- 
lent to 0*24 per cent, calculated on the drug, showing a loss of 
42 per cent, of the digitoxin originally present. This indicates 



PHARMACY. 227 

that acetic acid hydrolyses digitoxin, and therefore is not a 
suitable menstruum for pharmaceutical preparations of digitalis. 
Lobelia. Lobelia herb assaying 0*45 per cent, of lobeline gave 
a fluid extract with 10 per cent, acetic acid, yielding 0'39 per 
cent, of that alkaloid, or a loss of 0-06 per cent, on the drug, 
equivalent to 14 per cent, of the alkaloid present. This gave 
on evaporation 30 per cent, of extract assaying 1-03 per cent, of 
loljeline, or 0*310 per cent, on the drug, showing a loss of 34 per 
cent, of the total alkaloid present. Here again acetic acid is 
not as suitable a menstruum as the 15 under proof (48*6 per 
cent.) alcohol of the U.S. P. 

Adrenaline Ointment. — M i g n o n. {Bull. gen. de Thera- 
peut., 1904, 148, 639.) The following ointment is specially useful 
for the application of adrenaline in cases of affections of the nose 
or larynx : x^drenaline, 3 Cgm. ; white liquid paraffin, 3 Gm. ; 
white vaseline, 12 Gm. ; oil of geranium, 3 drops ; lanoline, 
15 Gm. It is also of great service in the treatment of ha3morr- 
hoids. 

Alkaline Antiseptic Solution N.F. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
52, 198.) The following new formula has been devised : Potas- 
slum bicarbonate, 32 Gm. ; sodium benzoate, 32 Gm. ; borax, 
8 Gm. ; thymol, 0*20 Gm. ; eucalyptol, 0-2 c.c. ; peppermint 
oil, 0*2 c.c. ; wintergreen oil, 0*2 c.c. ; tincture of cudbear, 
15 c.c. ; alcohol 91 per cent., GO c.c. ; glycerin, 250 c.c. ; water 
q.s. to make 1000 c.c. Dissolve the salts in 600 c.c. of water, the 
thymol and essential oils in the alcohol ; mix the latter solution 
with the glycerin and add the aqueous liquid, then the cudbear 
tincture, and lastly enough water to make up to 1,000 c.c. 
Allow to stand for a few days, then filter, adding a little mag- 
nesium carbonate on the filter if necessary. 

Aloes, Detection and Differentiation of, in Compound Rhubarb 
Pills. T. Fawsett. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 401.) The 
nature of the aloes present in compound rhubarb pills may be 
determined as follows : — 

Remove the coating and rub the pill to fine powder (drying 
if necessary). Of this take 3 grs., mix it thoroughly with | gr. 
of powdered K6Fe2Cyi2, and of the mixture place a quantity 
about equal in size to a coriander fruit upon a microscopic slip ; 
add enough distilled water to form a thin paste, which spread 



228 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

out into a spot about fl in. in diameter and allow it to dry 
tlioroughl}'. 

Upon oxamiiiing this spot under the microscopti by transniitt<.d 
lamplight, using a low power, the aloes in the pill will Ijo ff)und 
to present the following appearances : — 

Socofrine. Rounded pieces of a yellow colour {sometimes 
brown or green) ; often looking somewhat like potatoes. 

Barbados. Rounded pieces of a decidedlj^ red colour, and 
similar in shape to Socotrine. Tliis kind of aloes stains the 
ferricyanide red beyond the margin of the aloes itself. 

Cape. Irregularly shaped glassy pieces of a pale green colour. 

If the ferricyanide at the edges of the spot is coloured even 
slightly red, either Barbados or Curasao aloes is probably pre- 
sent. AU tlie other ingredients of Pil. Rhei Co. appear to be 
unaffected by ferricyanide of potassium of the strength used. 

Ten samples of compound rhubarb pills, obtained from 
various sources, when subjected to the test gave the following 
results : — 



No. of. Sample. 


Kind of Aloes found. 


1 . . . . 


Socotrine, Barbados and Cape. 


•? 


Socotrine and Barbados. 


3 .... 


Socotrine and Barbados. 


*4 ... 


Barbados in excess. 


5 . . . . 


Barbados. 


6 . . . . 


Socotrine and Barbados. 


7 . . . . 


Socotrine and Barbados in deficient quantity. 


*S .... 


Barbados in excess. 


9 .... 


Socotrine and Barbados. 


10 .... 


Socotrine. 



The three kinds before-named are probably those most hkely 
to be used in pill-making at the present moment, but the follow- 
ing colour reactions with ferricyanide may be observed with 
some varieties of aloes not in such general demand,'viz. : Cura9ao 
" Liverj^," greenish-brown ; Curasao, " Capey," greenish -l)rown, 
turning slowly crimson ; Natal, pale greenish-brown ; Zanzibar, 
pale brown. 

If the still moist spots of the above experiments have the 
vajDour of ammonia passed over them, " livery " Curasao, Natal, 
Zanzibar, Socotrine and Cape all change to various shades of 
brown, but Barbados and " Capey " Cura9ao turn purple. 

^ * Nos. 4 and 8, although clearly labelled " Compoimd Rhubarb Pills," 
weie apparently Pil. Aloes Barb. 



PHABMACY. 229 

Ammonium Acetate and Extract of Cinchona, Incompatibility 
of. E. Crouzel. {Eepertoire [3], 16, 301.) Prescriptions 
are often met with in Continental pharmacy which call for the 
combination of solution of ammonium acetate and extract of 
cinchona. When these ingredients are mixed, a more or less 
copious precipitate is formed, according to the amount of 
cinchona extract present. Moreover, a greater precipitate is 
given with a preparation rich in quinine than with one which 
contains a smaller quantity. Ammonium acetate is not incom- 
patible with extracts of coca, kola, or opium. [See also p. 
243]. 

Antiseptic Solution N.F. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 
199.) The following new formula has been suggested : Thymol, 
0'5 Gm. ; eucalyptol, 0-5 c.c. ; Mitcham peppermint, 1 c.c. ; 
wintergreen oil, 1 c.c. ; fluid extract of wild indigo, 16 c.c. ; 
natural benzoic acid, 16 Gm. ; boric acid, 16 Gm. ; talcum 
10 Gm. ; alcohol 91 per cent., 375 c.c. ; water, 625 c.c. Dissolve 
the thymol, eucalyptol and essential oils in the alcohol, add the 
fluid extract and tlie benzoic acid ; dissolve the boric acid in 
the water wdtli heat, and add to the alcohohc solution ; then 
add the talcum, allow to stand for a few hours, cool to 15°, and 
filter. 

Assay of Medicated Dressings. A. K r e m e 1. {Pharm. 
Post, 38, 264.) Boric Acid Dressings. Five to 6 Gm. of wool 
or 25 Cm. of gauze are treated in a beaker with 200 c.c. of 20 per 
cent, aqueous solution of glycerin. After thorough and pro- 
longed working of the material in the liquid with a glass rod, 
100 c.c. of the liquid is poured off and titrated with N/lONaOH 
solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator. Each c.c. of 
solution used =0-0062 Gm. H3BO3. The result x2 gives the 
HBO3 in the quantity of material taken. 

Ferric Chloride Dressings. From 5 to 6 Grm. of the material 
is treated in a beaker with 10 c.c. of dilute HCl and 190 c.c. of 
water. After well kneading with a glass rod, 100 c.c. of the 
liquid is decanted into a stoppered flask and 2 Gm. of KI are 
added. After standing for an hour the free iodine is titrated in 
the usual manner with N/lONajS^Os solution, each c.c. of which 
used up is equiva.lent to 0-01625 Gm. Fe2Cl6. The result x 2 
gives the quantity present in the material. 

; Iodoform Dressings. From 5 to 6 Gm. of wool or 25 Cm. of 
gauze are treated in a stoppered flask with 150 c.c, of ether- 



230 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

alcohol, with frequent sliaking, for 2 hours. Fifty e.c. of the 
solution is measured ofif into a flask, 50 e.c. of NlO/AgNOs 
solution is added, with 5 e.c. of dilute HNO3 and the mixture is 
heated on the water-bath under a reflux condenser for 20 
minutes. After cooling, 20 drops of iron alum solution are added 
and the uncombined AgNOa titrated in the usual manner with 
NlO/AmCNS solution. The number of e.c. of this solution used 
to give a red tint is subtracted from 50, and the remainder 
xO'0131 x3 gives the amount of iodoform in the quantity of 
material taken. 

Carbolic Acid Dressings. From 5 to 6 Gm. of wool or 25 Cm. 
of gauze are macerated in a beaker with a mixture of 5 e.c. of 
caustic soda solution and 245 e.c. of water. After thorough and 
prolonged kneading with a glass rod, 25 e.c. of the solution is 
transferred to a stoppered flask and treated with 50 c.e. of 
KBrOa solution (1-667 KBrOg in 1 litre), 50 e.c. of KBr solution 
(5-94 KBr in 1 litre), and 5 e.c. of strong H0SO4. After 
standing well stoppered for 15 minutes, 1 Gm. of KI is added, 
and the free iodine titrated with X/lONaaSjOs solution. The 
number of e.c. of NlO/NaoSoOa solution used up subtracted from 
30, the remainder x 0-00156x10 gives the amount of phenol 
in the quantity of material taken. 

Sublimate Dressings. Since these dressings usually contain 
but 1 per mille of HgQa, a larger quantity must be taken for 
assay ; 1 metre of gauze or 20 Gm. of wool. This is macerated 
in a capacious beaker with 500 e.c. of 1 per cent. NaCl solution. 
After thorough kneading with a glass rod, 250 e.c. of the solution 
is withdrawn, acidified wdth HCl, and treated with 50 to 100 c.e. 
of freshly prepared SHo solution. After standing, the precipi- 
tated HgS is collected on a tared filter, washed with water con- 
taining SH2, and dried at 100°C. The dry precipitate is then 
washed with a few e.c. of CS2, again dried, and weighed. The 
weight found x 2x1-168 gives the amount of HgCL in the 
quantity of material taken. 

Salicylic Acid Dressings. 250 Cm. of gauze or 5 to 10 Gm. of 
wool are macerated with 200 e.c. of alcohol ; after thorough 
kneading with a glass rod, 100 c.e. of the solution is taken, 
diluted with water, and titrated with N/lONaOH solution, with 
litmus as indicator. Tlie number of e.c. used x 0-0138 x 2 gives 
tlie weight of acid in the material as taken. Tliis may be calcu- 
lated into percentage by drying and weighing the residual 
dressing after the treatment with alcohol. 



PHARMACY. 231 

Basic Bismuth Gallate Dressing. From 5 to 6 Gin. of wool or 
25 cm. of gauze are macerated, as above, with 10 c.c. of N/NaOH 
solution and 190 c.c. of water. 100 c.c. of the Hquid is then 
decanted and treated with 5 c.c. of N/HCl solution. The pre- 
cipitate formed is collected, washed and dried. It is then 
ignited, the residue dissolved in HNO3, evaporated to diyncss, 
and again ashed. The weight of BioOy thus obtained x 2 x 1*88 
gives the amount of basic bismuth gallate in the quantity of 
material taken. 

Balsam of Peru in Ointments. — B i s c h o ff. {Apoth. Zeit.) 
Peruvian balsam does not give a satisfactory ointment with any 
form of paraffin basis, or when soft paraffin is added to a lard 
basis already combined with the balsam. Issleib has attributed 
the separation observed when the balsam is mixed Avith boric 
acid ointment to the acid, but Bischoff states that this is not so, 
since it is perfectly miscible with the ointment prepared with 
lard ; according to Lister's original formula, Issleib finds that a 
perfect ointment may be obtained by the use of carnauba wax. 
Tlie incompatibility may be overcome by first rubbing down 
the boric acid, or any other medication, such as iodoform, with 
a little castor oil. This is then mixed with the petrolatum and 
the balsam added afterwards. 

Bark Mixtures, Manipulation of. H. W y a 1 1. [Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 898.) Acid. nit. mur. dil., 5iss ; spt. chlorof., 
5iss ; Ext. cinchon. liq., 5iss ; aquam., ad 5VJ. M. ft. mist. 
Mix tlie acid, spt. chlorof. and extract together and pour into 
the water. Any other way gives a flaky deposit. 

This is further shown in the following mixture : Tinct. cin- 
clionse, 5ij- ; acid, sulpli. dU., 5ij. ; Aq. chloroform, ad jiv. M. 
ft. mist. 

Mix the tincture with the acid and pour into the water. If 
the order be reversed, and tlie tincture added to the acid and 
water, a precipitate of a much darker colour and much more 
bulky comes dowai. 

Belladonna, Extract of ; Formula of the New French Codex 
(International Formula). L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. 
Chim. [6], 20, 211.) Coarsely powdered belladonna leaves, 
1 kilo. ; alcohol 70 per cent., 6 kilos. Moisten the powder with 
a portion of the 2 kilos, of alcohol, and pack in a percolator, add 



232 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the rest of tlie 2 kilos, and allow to macerate for 24 hour.s ; then 
percolate and continue the extraction with the remaining 4 kilos, 
of alcoliol. Distil the percolate to recover the alcohol, and 
evaporate to the consistence of a thick fluid extract. Charac- 
ters. — A brown extract with a peculiar odour, entirely soluble 
in alcohol 70 per cent. It should not contain more than 10 per 
cent, of water. Determination of alkaloids. — Dissolve 2 Gm. of 
tlie extract in 10 Gm. of alcohol 60 per cent, in a 125 c.c. flask. 
Add to the solution ether 50 Gm., and chloroform 20 Gm., 
then, after thorough agitation, 10 c.c. of a 25 per cent, solution 
of NaoCOa ; set aside for 1 hour with frequent agitation. Then 
filter through a dry, well-covered filter into a small flask 50 Gm. 
of the ether chloroform, representing | of the original extract, 
and distil the filtrate to one half its volume ; transfer this to 
a separator, washing out the distillation flask with separate 5 
c.c.'s of ether. Shake up the bulked liquid with 30 c.c. of 
N/100 H2SO4, adding, if necessary, a little more ether to make 
the ethereal layer float on the 'surface of the acid hquid ; after 
complete separation, filter the aqueous layer through a small 
filter, wash the ether cliloroform again with 3 separate 10 c.c. 
of water, pass this through the same filter, and make up the 
volume to 100 c.c. Add to this enough ether to give, after 
agitation, a layer 1 cm. deep, and then titrate back the free acid 
with N/100 NaOH solution, using iodeosin as indicator. The 
number of c.c. used up subtracted from 30, the remainder 
divided by 2, multiplied by 3 and then by 0*00289, will give the 
quantity of alkaloid in 2 Gm. of extract. 

Belladonna Leaves, Standardized, Powdered Alcoholic Extract 

of. E. H. r a r r and R. W r i g li t. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 
398.) Continuing their work on powdered standardized 
alcohoUc extracts (see Y ear-Book, 1904, 404), attention has been 
directed to belladomia leaves. The investigation includes : — 

(1) Determination of the average amount of alkaloid in the 
commercial dried leaves. 

(2) The determination of the alkaloid in a number of samples 
of the official extract which it is proposed to displace. 

(3) The treatment of several samples of the drug by j^ercola- 
tion under varying conditions with alcoholic menstrua of different 
strengths, and the estimation of the alkaloid aiid thy extract 
and the proportitm of the former in the latter in the various 
percolates. 



PHARMACY. 233 

(4) The consideration of the proper standard for the powdered 
extract. 

(5) The observ^ation of the effect of exposure to air upon the 
stability of the finished product. 

(1 ) Assay of the Drug. As the result of the assay of 19 samples 
of the dried leaves the mean alkaloidal content was found to be 
0*547 per cent., with 1-32 for a maximum and O'H for a minimum. 

(2) Amount of Alkaloid in Extract. The proportion of alkaloid 
in the official green extract of belladonna varies enormously, as 
shown by the following figures by different workers : — 

Barclay . . . Min. 0-77 . Max. 1-24 . Average 7 samples 1-0 
Farr and Wright . jMin. 0-52 . Max. 1-33 . Average 6 samples 0-93 
Naylor and Bryant Min. 0-55 . Max. 1-80 . Average 10 samples 1-07 
J. C. Umney . . Min. 0-94 . Max. 1-26 . Average 3 samples! -13 
1880. 1881. 1884. 1885. 1892. 

Squire . . . (1) 1-22 . (1) 1-16 . 1-21 . (1) 0-73 . 1-7 

(2) 1-26 . (2) 1-21 . — , (2) 0-94 . — 

(3j MI . — 

(4) M7 . — 

Southall's Laboratory 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 

Reports . . . MO . 1-38 . 1-50 . 0-87 . 1-08 

(3) Method of Preparation. As the result of a large number 
of experiments described in detail, alcohol 70 per cent, was found 
to be the best menstruum for the preparation of the dry extract. 

The general process for the preparation of the standa.rdized 
extract is as follows : — 

Take any convenient quantity of the drug in No. 40 powder, 
moisten it with one-fourth its bulk of 70 per cent, alcohol, pack 
firmly in a percolator, add more menstruum and allow percola- 
tion to proceed until a volume of percolate equal to 4 times the 
bulk of the drug w/v has been collected. Press the marc, mix 
the liquids, filter. Determine the amount of dry extract yielded 
by tlie percolate and the proportion of alkaloid contained 
therein. Take any convenient quantity of the percolate, mix 
with it an amount of the diluent (powdered belladonna leaf of 
known alkaloidal strength) somewhat less than calculation has 
shown wiU be necessary to bring down the dry extract to the 
required standard, recover the alcohol by distillation and dry 
the residue in a shallow, fiat, tared dish, first over a water-bath 
and finally in a current of warm air at a temperature of from 
60°-80°C. until the weight is fairly constant. Take the weight 
of the dish with its contents, calculate the additional amount of 
the diluent which will i^e required, add this to the product of 
evaporation, transfer the whole to a dry, slightly warmed mortar, 



234 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

and triturate carefully until thoroughly mixed. Finally, pass 
the powdered extract through a No. 20 sieve, transfer to a well 
corked or glass stoppered bottle, and preserve in a cool, dry 
place. 

The addition of the powder to the liquid before evaporation is 
reconiniended, because we have found by experience that evapor- 
ation is thereby greatly facilitated, the formation of lumps is 
prevented, the amalgamation of the particles of extract and 
diluent is rendered much more intimate, and the removal of the 
product from the dish is rendered easier of accomplishment. 
Tlie standardized extract may be assayed by Bird's process for 
belladonna leaves or by the following method : — 

Take of— 

Powdered extract of belladonna leaf ... 5 Gm. 
... ~ r Acetic acid, B. P., 1 volume ) re ■ j. x-^ 

A mixture of ^70 per cent, alcohol, 9 volumes) a sufficient quantity. 

Slightly damp the powder with a little of the menstruum, pack 
tightly in a small tube to which an air-pressure ball has been 
attached, and percolate under pressure until 50 c.c. percolate 
has been collected. Determine the alkaloid in the percolate by 
the oflticial assay process. The amount of alkaloid thus indicated, 
multiplied by 20, gives the required percentage. 

(4) Alkaloidal Standard. In deciding upon a standard for the 
extract, several matters have to be taken into consideration. It 
is evident, for instance, that to fix upon a standard for general 
use which could only be attained by the employment of special 
menstrua or secret methods would not be a commendable pro- 
ceeding. 

There is almost as great an objection to taking, as the basis 
of calculation, the results obtained from the best samples of 
English drug. 

A standard of 2 per cent, or upwards can be easily attained. 

Viewed in the abstract, the proper method would be to take 
a fair average, based upon the results obtained from a number 
of samples of genuine leaves, some British and some foreign. 

When the subject is viewed from an official standpoint, how- 
ever, other questions have to be taken into consideration. 

For example, there are two solid extracts of belladonna at 
present official, and it is quite possible that both may be retained 
in the next Pharmacopoeia. These are largely prescribed with- 
out discrimination by medical men, and often dispensed indis- 



PHARMACY. 235 

criminately by pharmacists, so that it is a matter of no shght 
importance that the standards shall be, if not identical, at any 
rate approximately the same in each case. 

Maben has proposed {Y ear-Book, 1904, 263) that the standard 
for the root extract shall be raised to something over 1-5 per 
cent., and that an alcoholic extract of tlie leaf of the same 
standard of strength shall be officialized. 

This suggestion brings other considerations into view, all of 
which need to be stated before a sound conclusion can be 
arrived at. 

The standardization of galenicals, and more especially ex- 
tracts, must be carried out, in view of the fact that there is a 
point beyond which a high standard may become an element of 
danger to the patient. In the case of an extract of belladonna, 
whether from leaf or root, a 1 per cent, standard means that 
each grain of the extract contains 1/100-grain of alkaloid, and as 
this represents the maximum dose of atropine or hyoscyamine, 
it is evident that the proportion of alkaloid in the extract could 
not safely be increased much beyond that point. 

In deciding upon an alkaloidal standard for an extract, regard 
must be had to the permanence and stability of the finished 
product. Most dry extracts have a tendency to absorb moisture, 
and manifestly the greater the proportion of such an extract in 
the resulting preparation, the greater the danger from this 
source. In order to secure permanency and to prevent clogging, 
it is essential that the dry extract shall be well diluted. The 
abstracts of the United States Pharmacopoeia were discarded 
mainly because their excessive concentration precluded the 
fulfilment of this condition. 

Changes (and, above all, frequent changes) in the strength of 
official preparations of great potency are to be deprecated unless 
showia to be absolutely necessary. To vary the standards fre- 
quently or unnecessarily involves difficulty to both prescriber 
and dispenser, and danger to the patient. 

(5) Eiject of Free Exposure to Air upon the Standardized 
Powdered, Extract. Six samples of the powdered extract pre- 
pared with alcohol of various strength were exposed to the air ; 
all were found to be more or less hygroscopic. 

Belladonna Root, Exhaustion of, with Alcohol. Elsie S. 
Hooper. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 140.) An exhavistive 
communication on the extraction of belladonna root with 



236 YEAR-BOOK OF niARMACY. 

alcohol, as in the preparation of the official liquid extract, is thus 
summarized : — 

Exhaustion is most rapid when the drug is moistened with 
25 c.c. for every 100 Gm. weight of the drug. 

The B.P. method is defective in two respects : (a) The 
quantity of menstruum to moisten is too large ; (h) It is 
inexpedient to pour on liquid till it drops through, and then 
close and macerate. 

Practically the w^hole of the alkaloid of 800 Gm. of root is 
contained in the first 300 c.c. of percolate obtained by repercola- 
tion in four quantities under proper conditions. 

Assays of the root by Keller's, Panchaud's, Duastan's, and 
Bird's processes are practically identicial. On account of rapidity 
and simplicity, Keller's or Panchaud's processes deserve 
preference. 

Belladonna Root, Standardized Powdered Alcoholic Extract. 
E. H. F a r r and R. Wright. {PMrm. Journ. [4], 20, 546. ) 
In the present edition of the Pharmacopoeia the standardized 
liquid extract was made the basis of the other preparations of 
the root ; the sohd extract being retained, but its strength being 
reduced to 1 per cent. 

By an unfortunate oversight the characters of the preparation 
were omitted from the Pharmacopoeia, with the result that 
manufacturers continued to send out as a semi-sohd extract a 
preparation which should have had the characters of a powdered 
extract. 

The experiments which have been made on the subject have 
not been carried out with the idea of displacing the present 
oflftcial root extract, but rather with the oliject of providing 
future workers on the pharmacy of belladonna root with facts 
and figures for their guidance. This has been carried out on the 
same lines as in the case of the extract of belladonna leaf, and 
includes : — 

(1) The examination of samples of the crude drug, in order 
to ascertain the average amount of alkaloids therein con- 
tained. 

(2) The treatment of several samples of the powdered drug 
by percolation under varying conditions with alcoholic menstrua 
of different strengths, and the determination of the alkaloids 
and dry extract, and the proportion of the former in tlie latter 
in the various percolates. 



PHARMACY. 237 

(3) Suggestions for alkaloidal standards for the powdered 
extract. 

(4) Tlie mic'roscopi(! recognition of the extract. 

(5) Effect of exposure to air upon the stability of the finished 
product. 

(1 ) Proporiioii of A Ikaloids in Bdladomia Root. Seven samples 
of belladonna root were examined, and yielded as an average 
0'438. Minimum, 0'31 per cent. ; maximum, 0'64 per cent. 
All the samples examined, with two exceptions, contained 
over 0*4 per cent, alkaloids. This has been suggested by Cripps 
(0-4 to 0-0). 

(2) The Meustruum for the Extraction Process. After ninnerous 
experiments, alcohol 70 per cent., as in the case of belladonna 
leaf, was found to be the most suitable menstruum. 

(3) Alkaloidal Standard for the Powdered Extract. There would 
be no difficulty in preparing a standard of anything from 1 to 
5 per cent., as might be deemed advisable. The method of 
preparation and standardization are the same as for powdered 
belladonna leaf extract {supra). The diluent employed 
should be powdered belladonna root of known alkaloidal 
strength. 

(4) Microscopical Recognition. It is found that the histologi- 
cal elements of both the powdered root and powdered leaf 
undergo very little change in the process of evaporating and 
drying the extract, even the starch grains being in most cases 
unaffected. For microscopical examination, the extractive and 
colouring matter should first be removed by extraction with 
warm 70 per cent, alcohol ; the residue is then cleared in chloral 
hydrate solution ; a little KOH may sometimes be necessary, 
but this dissolves starch and cell contents. 

The following are the special features of powdered belladonna 
leaf : {a) Striated cuticle ; {h) Epidermal cells with ridges on 
surface and irregular sinuous margins ; (c) Stomata connected 
with 3 or rai-ely 4 epidermal cells, of which one is nmcli smaller 
than the others ; {d) Sandy crystals of calcium oxalate in most 
fiagments of leaf of any size ; (e) Fragments of glandular hairs 
are occasionally met with. 

In the case of the root, attention maj^ be drawn to the following 
features : (a) Characteristic sandy crystals of calcium oxalate ; 
{h) Starch grains. These are either simple or compound, the 
former being round or oval, and the latter more or less irregular. 
Most of the grains are furnished with a well-marked hiluin, but 



238 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

the concentric markings are not very evident. The other 
characters are chiefly negative. 

(5) Absorption of Moisture on Exposure to Air. A\[ the pow- 
dered extracts showed a shglit liygroscopic tendency, and should 
therefore be carefully stored. 

Benzoinated Paraffin. F. E. Niece. {Drug. Circ, 49, 
223.) Liquid paraffin, 16; gum benzoin, 1. Digest on the 
sand-bath for half an hour, and filter. This preparation is a 
neutral, bland menstruum suitable for applying various anti- 
septics by means of a spray or atomizer. 

Blood Acid-Albumin Preparations. {Pharm. CentrfM., 45, 610.) 
Blood acid-albumen is placed on the market as a nutritive in the 
form of a coarse dark powder with whitish particles and a faint 
cinnamon odour. It is also prepared in an odourless form as a 
fine powder. One part is stated to be equivalent to about 6 
parts of fresh defibrinated blood. It is soluble in warm water, 
giving a solution with an acid reaction which does not coagulate 
on boiUng. (1) Elixir of Blood Acid- Albumin. — Blood acid- 
albumin, 30 Gm. ; simple syrup, 200 Gm. ; alcohol 90 per cent., 
125 Gm. ; tincture of fresh orange-peel, 2 Gm. ; aromatic tincture, 
10 Gm. ; tincture of vanilla, 4 Gm. ; tincture of cinnamon, 4 
Gm. ; acetic ether, 10 drops ; distilled water to 1,000 Gm. The 
albumin is dissolved in water on the water-bath at 50-60°C., 
and mixed, when cold, with the other ingredients. (2) Strong 
Elixir of Blood Acid-Albumin. — Blood acid-albumin, 60 to 
80 Gm. ; alcohol 90 per cent., 50 Gm. ; glycerin, 250 Gm. ; 
flavours as above (formula 1) ; distilled wafer to 1,000 Gm. 
Dissolve the acid-albumin on the water-bath in a mixture of 
the glycerin and water ; proceed as in formula 1. (3) Elixir of 
Blood Acid-Albumin with CincJwna or Cotulurango. — Elixir of 
blood acid-albumin. No. 1, 98 ; liquid extract of cinchona, 2 ; 
or Hquid extract of condurango, 2. Mix. (4) Wine of Blood 
Acid- Albumin. — Blood acid-albumin, 3 ; glycerin, 6 ; distilled 
water, 21 ; alcohol 90 per cent., 5 ; prepared Malaga wine to 
100. Proceed as above. The organic salts in any wine employed 
should first be converted into chlorides by the addition of hydro- 
chloric acid, 1, to wine, 200 ; the mixture should be allowed to 
stand for 24 hours before adding it to the acid-albumin solution. 
(5) 31alt Extract with Blood Acid-Albumin.— B\ood ack\-a\humm, 
in fine powder. 1 ; glycerin, or simple syrup, 2 ; extract of malt 



PHARMACY. 239 

to 20. Rub douai the acid-albumin with the syrup or glycerin, 
heat gently on the water-bath, mix with the malt extract and 
heat for a short time, not exceeding 60°C. (6) Malt Extract and 
Cod Liver Oil with Blood Acid- Albumin. — Blood acid-albumin in 
fine powder, 1 ; glycerin, 2 ; malt extract, 10. Proceed as in 
formula No. 5 ; finally add cod liver oil, 8 to 10, incorporating 
the oil gradually. 

Bone and Malt Mixture. E. and N. Seltzer. [Proc. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 247.) Powdered bone, 100; phos- 
phoric acid, 100 ; lactic acid, 160 ; pepsin, 20 ; pancreatin, 5 ; 
wat^r sufficient to make 2,000 ; malt extract, 2,000. Mix. 

Cacao Butter, Behaviour of, with Certain Compounds. E. A. 
Ruddiman. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 222.) Other 
compounds besides chloral hydrate soften cacao butter when 
rubl^ed with it. With one-half its weight of camphor, eupliorin, 
menthol, naphthalin, thymol, or salol, oil of theobroma gives a 
soft mass or liquid. The addition of beeswax or of spermaceti 
is recommended, but, although these bodies raise the melting 
point, they do not render the consistence of the mass suitable 
for suppositories. Probably the addition of a little hardening 
agent and an absorbent powder may give the requisite firmness. 

Cacao-butter Soap for Dentifrices, P. van d e r W i e 1 e n 
{Pharm. Weekblad., through Apoth. Zeit., 20, 14.) From its 
agreeable taste and odour, cacao-butter soap is specially suitable 
for the preparation of tooth pastes and powders. It may be 
prepared as follows : 100 parts of melted cacao butter is added 
to a warm 50 per cent, solution of caustic soda, sp. gr. 1-54, well 
stirred, and allowed to stand for 48 hours. The mixture is then 
warmed on the water-bath until a clear solution results ; 1,000 
parts of water is. then added and the soap salted out from the 
hot solution by the addition of 100 parts of salt. The mixture 
is boiled until the soap has completely separated ; after cooling, 
the solid soap layer is removed, strongly pressed, washed with 
50 parts of water, again pressed, broken up into small pieces, 
and dried at a gentle heat. When dry it is rubbed to a fine 
powder. The soap thus obtained is light yellow, has a slight 
odour of cacao, and gives a clear solution in water. It gives no 
alkaline reaction in solution with 90 per cent, alcohol, with 



240 YEAR-BOOK OF PIIAUiMACY 

plieuolplithalein. PJven wlien unmixed with otlier ingredients 
it forms a good tooth powder. 

Caffeine, Hypodermic Injection of. F. M e n d e 1. {Merck's 
Beport, 18, 50.) The addition of sodium saUcylate as a solvent 
of caffeine is stated to have no ill effects on the activity of the 
latter, and obviates the discomfort and pain usually following 
the administration of caffeine injection. The injection is thus 
prescribed : Sodium salicylate, 17*5 ; cati'oine, 2-5 ; distilled 
water to 100. The dose is 2 c.c. of this solution for adults, with 
correspondingly less for children. 

Calomelol Ointment and Dusting Powder. [Merck's Jicport, 
18, 114, and Apoth. Zeit., 19, 1002.) Calomelol is described as 
colloidal mercurous chloride containing 25 per cent, of albu- 
minoids. It is soluble in about 50 parts of water, and also in 
saUne solutions. 

A dusting powder for syphyHtic sores consists of calomelol, 2 ; 
zinc oxide, 1 ; starch, 1. Calomelol Ointment, known as " Hey- 
den's Ointment," is a soft, greyish- wliite preparation, containing 
45 per cent, of calomelol. It is intended for mercurial treatment 
by inunction, injection, oi simple application. The activity of 
the ointment is increased by the addition of 2 per cent, of killed 
mercury, and the later calomelol ointment of commerce contains 
the addition. The daily dose is up to 95 grains. 

Camphor Liniment, Preparation of. A. B o y d. {Pfiarm. Journ. 
[4], 20, 266.) Measure the oil into a bottle with a fairly wide neck, 
and dipping it into hot water and shaking occasionally. When 
fairly warm introduce the camphor, first put through a No. 20 
sieve to break up all masses ; cork up tight, and shake vigorously, 
when it will all cUssolve. Made this wa}', theie should be no loss 
of camphor. 

The stock of camphorated oil should be kept well stoppered, 
and in the coolest part of the shop — the cellar preferably. The 
shop bottle, used for sales, should be kept on a low shelf, and 
away from direct sunlight. To test the preparation at any 
time, weigh 100 grs. into a small dish and evaporate with the 
heat of the water-bath, when it should lose in weight 21*44 grs., 
which- represents the camphor ; if it falls under 21 grs., the 
original stock should be made up to the right strength by adding 
more camphor to the oil being tested. 



PHARMACY. 



241 



Camphor Milk. M. I. W i 1 b e r t. {Amer. Journ. Fharm., 
77, 130.) Alcoholic solution of ammonia (10 per cent.), 5 ; oleic 
acid, 10 ; cotton-seed oil, 20 ; camphor, 1 ; water to make 150. 
To the cotton-seed oil, in a dry bottle, add the oleic acid, followed 
by the alcoholic ammonia ; in this mixture dissolve the camphor. 
Then add the water in quantities of 5 to 10 fluid parts at a time, 
and shake or stir until a uniform smooth emulsion has been 
obtained. Any other perfume may be substituted, as desired, 
for the camplior, and mineral oil or oil of sweet almonds used 
instead of cotton-seed oil. 

Camphor Snow. M. I. Wilbert. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
77, 128.) Agar-agar, 3 ; water, 150 ; stearic acid, 15 ; sodium 
carbonate, 10 ; cacao butter, 15 ; water, 100 ; alcohol 94 per 
cent., 10 ; camphor, 5. Dissolve the agar- agar in the water, 
150, by heating, and strain. Add the stearic acid to 100 c.c. of 
water heated on the water bath, then the sodium carbonate. 
When effervescence ceases and all the gas has been driven off, add 
the cacao butter and the agar-agar mucilage ; mix thoroughly 
with an egg whisk, remove from the water-bath, and continue the 
beating until a uniform lather results of about three times the 
volume of the original liquid. 

Capsicum Counter-irritant. F. E. N i e c e. {Drmj. Circ, 49, 
224.) Yellow petrolatum, 4 ozs. ; capsicum powder, 1 oz. 
Digest on a sand bath for a feM' hours, let it stand, and while hot 
filter or strain. Pour into jars or tubes while still hot. An ex- 
cellent counter-irritant for use as a substitute for mustard plaster 
which does not vesicate. 

Capsicum Paraffin Liniment. F. E. N i e c e. [Drugg. Circ, 
49, 223.) Paraffin oil, 8 ; powdered capsicums, 1. Digest on a 
sand-bath and filter. Camphor, oil of winter green, thymol, 
menthol, or any other soluble ingredient may be added. It is 
stated to be an excellent stimulating liniment for appUcation 
where there are no exposed surfaces. 

Catgut, Sterilization of, by Means of Benzol. — B e s 1 i e r. 
{Journ. Pharm. Chim., 21, 497.) The catgut, wound on glass 
reels, is placed in a copper bomb containing pure crystallizable 
benzol. The bomb is closed with a screw cap, placed in an 

E 



242 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

autoclave and boiled for 20 to 25 minutes. The reels are then 
withdrawn and placed in open flasks, which are immersed in a 
fresh bath of benzol in another screw-capped bomb. This is 
then heated in the autoclave to a pressure of 2 atmospheres, when 
the temperature is allowed to fall slowly, the process taking from 
75 to 90 minutes. The screw-cap is then removed and replaced 
by a plug of cotton wool, through which a syphon is passed. The 
greater part of the benzol is syphoned off and the rest evaporated 
on the water- bath, without removing the plug of cotton. Wlien 
all the benzol has been driven off, alcohol 70 per cent, is syphoned 
into the bomb, in which the catgut recovers its pliability. 
The flasks containing tlie reels are then taken out with sterilized 
pliers and corked. The breaking strain of the catgut is un- 
affected by this process. 

Charta sinapis. A. W. G e r r a r d. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 
19, 805.) After criticizing official and pubhshed formula for 
this preparation, the following improvements in detail and 
manipulation are suggested. Take equal parts of black and 
white mustard, deprived of its fixed oil, in No. GO powder, 1 part ; 
solution of india-rubber in benzol (1 in 40), 4 fluid parts, jlix 
well until uniform. Spread the mixture evenly over suitable 
paper in a thin layer, either by means of a plaster-spreading 
machine or by passing the paper over the mixture contained in 
a shallow vessel. Expose in a warm place for a short time to 
dry. Preserve the paper in well-closed tins or boxes. 

Mustard paper must not be long exposed to light or air in the 
drying process, as it is found by so doing the mustard bleaches 
and the india-rubber perishes. Beyond this, mustard i^aper is 
hygroscopic, so that if hung too long in a moist atmo.sphere it is 
easily ruined. For these reasons it must be dried quickly, and 
preserved securely from light and air. 

Chaulmoogra Oil, Pharmacy of. [Pharm. Ccniralh., 1S04, 45, 
633.) ^SlJint of Chaulmoogra. — Alcoliol (90 per cent.), 3 ; chaul- 
moogra oil, 4. Mix. Ointm,ent of Chatdmoogra. — Chaulmoogra 
oil, 2 ; vaseline, 5 ; hard paraffin, 1. Melt together. Liniment 
of Chaulmoogra. — Chaulmoogra oil, 20 ; methyl salicylate, 10, 
or chaulmoogra oil, 30; alcohol (90 per cent.), 4. Plaster of 
Chaulmoogra. — Lead plaster, 2 ; yellow wax, 1 ; chaulmoogra 
oil, 1. Pills of Gynocar die Acid. — Gynocardic acid, 1 ; gentian 
extract, 3 ; hop extract, 3. 



PHARMACY. 243 

Cherry Laurel Water and Alkaloidal Solutions, Incompatibility 
of. — Barille. (Joum. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 337.) The 
use of cherry laurel water with alkaloidal salts in solution, 
such as hypodermic injections, in which it is often prescribed 
on the Continent, should be abandoned. It is found that, unless 
quite freshly prepared, it occasions a precipitate with most 
alkaloids. The substance causing this precipitate has not been 
isolated ; it is not HCN, and is not present in freshly distilled 
cherry laurel water, but is gradually formed under the influence 
of air and light. Hypodermic injections, which have been steri- 
lized by heating in the autoclave, require no addition to keep 
them, so that the addition of cherry laurel water is quite unneces- 
sary. Another objection to its use is that injections containing 
it are invariably more painful than those in which it is not an 
ingredient. The reaction noted between cherry laurel water 
which has been kept, and certain alkaloids, specially cocaine, is 
so definite that these bases may be employed as reagents to 
determine if the water has been recently distilled. (See also 
Y ear-Book, 1891, 264.) 

Chrysarobin, Compound Ointment of, for Psoriasis. D r e u w. 
{Merck's Report, 18, 48.) Chrysarobin. 01. rusci. aa, 300; 
acid, salicyl., 150 ; Sapo mollis, vaselini aa, 375. To be applied 
with a shaving brush, night and morning. 

Cinchona Alkaloids, Behaviour of, with Solutions of Ammonium 
Acetate and Citrate. A. B. L y o n s. [Pharm. Review, 22, 365, 
through Joum. Pharm. Chhn. [6], 21, 65. ) Solution of Ammonium 
Acetate. A 2 per cent, aqueous solution of quinine sulphate, the 
salt being dissolved by means of 5 per cent, by volume of H2SO4, 
5 pel cent, was employed. One c.c. of strong solution of am- 
monium acetate gave with 1 c.c. of this solution an almost 
immediate formation of crystals, and also with the same am- 
monia solution previously diluted with 1 c.c. of water. The 
precipitate formed dissolves at once in 1 c.c. of alcohol. Under 
similar conditions cinchonidine sulphate solution only forms a 
few crystals after energetic agitation ; more rapid crystallization 
results with 2 c.c. of the ammonia solution. Quinidine and 
cinchonine sulphates give no crystals. These results show the 
important part played by alcohol in certain elixirs, in preventing 
the precipitation of the quinine. 

Ammonium Citrate. The ammonium citrate solution used 



244 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

contained 10 per cent, of the salt, with a shght excess of acid. 
One c.c. of it was previously mixed with 1, 3, 5 and 8 c.c. of water. 
With the first of these solutions 1 c.c. of the quinine sulphate 
solution gave an immediate abundant precipitate, which 1 c.c. 
of alcohol only partially, but 2 c.c. completely, redissolved. 
With the second dilution, the precipitate formed more slowly. 
The dilution with 5 c.c. of water formed crystals only after vigor- 
ous agitation, and the addition of alcohol rendered it almost 
clear. The dilution with 8 c.c. of water only gave a precipitate 
after prolonged agitation ; but on standing the amount formed 
was considerable. The other cinchona alkaloids showed no in- 
compatibility with ammonium citrate, except cinchonidine, 
which slowly formed a crystalline precipitate, which was readily 
dissolved by 1 c.c. of alcohol. These results show that a marked 
incompatibility exists between quinine sulphate and alkaline 
citrate, and that this is evident in the presence of a notable 
quantity of alcohol. 

It was noted that the fluorescence of any acid solution of 
quinine was destroyed by adding the solution of any salt. 

Cinchona Extracts, Incompatibility of, with Antipyretics. — 

Robert. {Bull. Phann. dti Sud. Est., through Repertoire, 60, 
440.) Antipyrine, pyramidon and its camphorate, exalgine and 
kairine all give unsightl}^ precipitates with extracts of cinchona. 
This precipitate is soluble in alcohol, in glycerin, in organic 
acids such as citric and tartaric acids, and in HGl. It is caused 
by the tannin present in the extract ; with preparations contain- 
ing but little astringent matter, such as Huanaco bark, it is 
scarcely evident. When it occurs, it should not be filtered out ; 
if it be but slight, it may be redissolved with a httle alcohol, 
glycerin or citric acid. 

Cinchona, Liquid Extract of. E 1 s i e S. H o o p e r. {Pharm. 
J own. [4 J, 19, 324.) The adoi^tion of Wobbe's method is advo- 
cated in preference to the present official process. 

200 Gm. of the bark were moistened with 100 Gm. of a mix- 
ture of glycerin 50 Gm. ; alcohol 90 per cent., 50 Gm. ; HCl 25 
per cent., 15 Gm. ; water, 35 Gm., and allowed to stand over- 
night ; the drug, which had become very lumpy, was passed 
through a coarse sieve and packed in a percolator ; 70 per cent, 
alcohol was then added in portions of 30 c.c. every two hours 
until the whole column of dru2 was moistened ; a reservoir of 



PHARMACY. 245 

alcohol was then inverted over the top of the percolator, and 
percolation allowed to proceed slowly. The first 130 c.c. of per- 
colate was reserved, and percolation continued until the drug 
was exhausted, when 5 c.c. of the weak percolate gave no pre- 
cipitate after evaporating off the alcohol, acidulating, filtering 
if necessary, and adding Mayer's reagent. Exhaustion was 
reached when 2,500 c.c. of percolate had been collected. The 
weak percolates were distilled under reduced pressure, the 
residue evaporated to 70 c.c. and added to the reserve, 
making 200 c.c. in all. The resulting liquid extract was then 
assayed. 

Assay of the Liquid Extract. 5 c.c. of the liquid extract were 
diluted with 15 c.o-. of water ; 5 c.c. of NaOH, 10 per cent., and 
20 c.c. of benzolated amyhc alcohol were added, and the whole 
well shaken in a separator ; the alcoholic solution was separated, 
washed, and the washings added to the original solution, which 
was again shaken out. This process was repeated five times. 
The united alcoholic solutions were then shaken out five times 
with 15 c.c. of dilute HCl, and the alkaloid finally transferred 
from these acidulated solutions to chloroform, the cliloroform 
evaporated off, and the residue weighed. No emulsions were 
produced during the assays, and the liquids separated easily the 
one from the other. The results of two assays were : — -(a) 5'26 
per cent., (6) 5-28 per cent. As the bark contained 5-6 per cent, 
of alkaloid, the loss of alkaloid in the extraction amounts to 
about 6 ]:)er cent, of the whole, which is small compared with the 
loss when this preparation is made by other methods. 

This method for tlie preparation of liquid extract of cin- 
chona appears to be superior to the official method in the follow- 
ing respects : — Practically the whole of the alkaloid is removed 
from the bark. The length of time required for the percolation 
is shorter, and the quantity of menstruum used is much less. 
The liquid extract is rich in constituents of the bark other than 
alkaloids. It possesses, in common with other processes based 
on a similar method of extraction, the disadvantage of precipi- 
tating considerably when mixed with water, and it yet remains 
to be seen whether it will keep well. 

Citrate of Iron and Quinine in Mixtures. H. W y a 1 1. 

{Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 899.) These mixtures form a trouble- 
some class, where incompatibles are prescribed with the scale 
preparation : — ^Ferri et quin. cit., 5j ; li^l- strych., 5j ; ac. phosph. 



246 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

dil., ^isa ; syr. zingib., 5iij ; i^pt. chlorof., 3ij ; aq. raenth. pip., 
ad §vj. M. ft. mist. 

Dilute the acid with half the aq. menth. pip. and add the 
other ingredients dissolved and mixed with the remainder of 
that menstruum. 

When the acid is added to the scale compound only slightly 
diluted a white precipitate of ferric phosphate comes dowTi. 

Ferri et quin. cit., 3j ; ^'P'- aurant, gj ; spt. chlorof., 3ij ; 
dec. aloes co., ad gvj. M. ft. mist. 

The precipitate which one would expect in this mixture is so 
finely divided, and so well suspended by the myrrh and aloin 
soaps in the decoction, that it gives no trouble and is not notice- 
able. 

Ext. cocae hq., gij ; ferri et quin. cit., 5iij ; tr. gent. CO., giss ; 
tr. nucis vom., min. 300 ; aquae, §ss. M. ft. mist. 

Instead of the tincture of nux vomica an equivalent amount 
of the hq. extract was emploj'ed to avoid the excess of alcohol 
precipitating the ferri et quin. cit. 

Spt. ammon. arom., 11\. 120 ; ferri et quin. cit., Vi[. 24 ; 
aq. menth. pip., ad §vj. M. ft. mist. 

With the consent of the prescriber a fluid ounce of infusion of 
senega was used in tliis to suspend the precipitate, the patient 
objecting to a tliick gummy or sweet mixture. 

Cold Cream, A New Formula for. M. D. Hodges. {Amer. 
Drugg., 45, 42.) To jarepare a light cold cream success hes in 
two essentials, viz. : a good egg-beater and plenty of elbow grease. 
Liquid albolene or wliite (odourless) paraffin oil, 16 fl. oz. ; 
paraffin, giv ; white wax, gij ; perfume to suit. 

Melt the paraffin and white wax on a water-bath, then remove 
from the fire and add the liquid albolene. beating the mixture 
briskly until nearly cold. Add perfume and transfer to suitable 
jars. Generally oil of rose or oil of rose geranium are most suitable. 

Compound Mixture of Chloral and Potassium Bromide. W. 
F. J a c k m a n. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 148.) Chloral, 
25 Gm. ; potassium bromide, 25 Gm. ; extract of Indian hemp, 
0*2 Gm. ; extract of hyoscyamus, 0*2 Gm. ; clarified honey, 
60 c.c. ; water to make 100 c.c. Triturate the chloral and the 
extracts with sufficient honey to form a solution ; dissolve the 
bromide in the water, add tlic remainder of the honey and then 
the chloral solution. Adjust to 100 c.c. wnth water. The above 



PHARMACY. 



247 



is similar to the N.F. formula, substituting honey for the tincture 
of quillaia therein prescribed. 

Compound Tincture of Cardamoms. E. W. L u c a s and H. 

B. Stevens. {Chem. and Dnigg., 66, 490.) The presence of 
raisins in this tincture is regarded as unnecessary and to be the 
cause of the var>;ing character of the commercial preparation. 
The following formula is suggested : Cardamom seeds, bruised, 
J oz. ; caraway fruit, bruised, j oz. ; cimiamon bark, bruised, 
^ oz. ; cochineal, in powder, 55 grs. ; glycerin, 1 fl. oz. ; alcohol, 
60 per cent., q.s. 

Macerate the cardamoms, caraways, cinnamon, and cochineal 
in 18 fl. oz. of the alcohol. Press, filter, and make up to one pint 
with the menstruum. 

A standard sample of the tincture, strictly following the 
official ingredients and directions, was compared with commer- 
cial specimens as shown in the following table : — 



No. 



A 
B 

C 
D 
E 
F 

G 
H 
I 

Stan- 
dard 
Sample 



Sp. Gr. 
at 60°P. 



0-9495 

0-947 

0-945 

0-950 

0-9485 

0-9545 

0-9395 

0-948 

0-945 



0-949 



Extractive 
dried at 
212°F. 


Alcohol 
(vol.). 


Colour. 
1-4 


6-43 


54-10 


5 36 


53-70 


1-4 


5-85 


55-75 


1-8 


6-85 


51-50 


1-0 


6-70 


53-70 


1-5 


6-72 


51-50 


1-4 


5-77 


56-58 


1-0 


6-58 


55-50 


1-9 


6-23 


53-70 


1-2 


6-95 


55-1 


— 



Polarimeter Readings. 



Direct. 



-2-4 
-2-6 
-2-6 
-2-4 
-2-4 
-2-2 
+ 19-4 
-2-6 
-2-4 



-2-4 



Invert. 



THichanged 



-3-9 
unchanged 



The abnormal polarimetric readings given by sample " G " 
can only be explained by the presence of cane sugar, probably 
added as a sul^stitute for the raisins. 



Confection of Senna. W. H. Lent on. {Phann. Journ. 
[4], 20, 650.) In order to avoid grittiness, the substitution of oil 
of coriander for the powdered fruits is recommended. The last 
portion of the official monograph might, with advantage, be 
slightly modified. The directions are to adjust the final " weight 
to 75 oz." irrespective of consistence. It would be preferable 



248 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

to produce a conserve of tlie right consistence, and then work in 
as much senna in fine powder as will give a confection containing 
one part in eleven, to keep it approximately the same strength 
as at present. It is impossible to give exact details as to weight 
or consistence, as varying products are obtained according to tlie 
conditions and quahty of tlie fruits used ; but to the practical 
pharmacist this will present no difficulty whatever. 

Conium Ointment. W. H. L e n t o n. {Pharm. Journ. [4J, 
20, 652.) A better ointment than that given by the official for- 
mula is obtained by the following method : Conium juice, 2 fl. 
oz. ; wool fat (anhydrous), J oz. 

Evaporate the conium juice to | oz. by weight and incorporate 
with the wool fat in a sHghtly warmed mortar. Tliis yields an 
elegant and satisfactory ointment. 

Copaiba Mixtures, Manipulation of. H. W y a 1 1. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 899.) The order of mixing causes a marked 
variation in the foDowing case : — Copaibas, '^'\y ; Mq. potassae, 
3iij ; succi liyoscyam., 3iv ; mucil. tragac, §j ; syr. aurant, 
3vj ; aq. chlorof., ad gvj. M. ft. mist. 

Make the mucilage in the bottle, add half the chloroform water, 
and shake with the copaiba until emulsified, then add the other 
ingredients, make up, and finally add the liq. potassae. This 
gives a fine, even, white emulsion. 

If the Hq. potassae be added to the copaiba the emulsion is not 
so good, and is yellower in colour. 

Copper Citrate, or Cuprocitrol Rods for Ophthalmic Use. 
Virotow. {Merck's Re'port,\S, ^2.) Copper citrate, 20 ; powdered 
acacia, 5 ; starch, 20 ; dextrin, 35 ; sugar, 20 ; distilled water 
and glycerin sufficient to mass. Mass and roll into rods. Copper 
citrate is also employed as a 5 or 10 per cent, powder, with 
sugar as the diluent ; or as 5 or 20 per cent, ointment or a weak 
1 : 9000 aqueous solution as a lotion. 

Creosotal Pills, Massing with Glycerin. {Pharm. Ccntralh., 
46, 230.) It has been noticed that wlien glycerin is added to the 
crumljly mass produced by mixing creosotal with Hcorice extract 
and powdered licorice, and the mass is worked, a strong acetous 
pyroligneous odour is developed ; on standing, the consistence 
of the mass, instead of improving, becomes worse, sweating an 



PHARMACY. 249 

oily inflammable substance. Experiments showed that creosotal 
undergoes decomposition when mixed with powdered hcorice 
extract alone. It is found that when creosotal or creosote are 
intimate^ mixed Avith the proper proportion of glycerin first, and 
then massed Avith powdered licorice, a good pilular consistence 
is attained and the pills keep well. When the other order of 
mixing is followed, the particles of Hcorice powder become coated 
with creosotal or creosote, and resist the even penetration of the 
glycerin. 

Creosote Wine. L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. Chim., 
20, 156.) The following formula has been submitted for in- 
clusion in the new Codex : Creosote, 10 ; alcohol 90 per cent., 
90 ; simple syrup, 100 ; Malaga wine, 800 parts by weight. 
Mix. Twenty Gm. of the wine contains 20 Cgm. of creosote. 

Delphinium Seeds, Tincture of. H. M. O'Neil. {Proc. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 251.) Delphinium seeds, 100 Gm. ; 
potassium carbonate, 10 Gm. ; alcohol 91 per cent., 500 c.c. ; 
water to make 1,000 c.c. Mix the seeds with 500 c.c. of water, 
add the potassium carbonate and boil for 5 minutes. When cold, 
add the alcohol, mix and strain, passing sufficient water through 
the strainer to make up to 1,000 c.c. If requisite, filter through 
paper. The tincture thus prepared is stated to be superior for 
killing pediculi to that obtained with strong alcohol, in addition 
to being more economical and more rapidly prepared. 

Elixir of Carica papaya ; Elixir of Papain. W. C. K i r c h- 

g e s s n e r. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 213.) Solution 
of potash (5 per cent. KOH), 5*5 c.c. ; alcohol 91 per cent., 
120 c.c. ; simple syrup, 120 c.c. ; papaw juice, 17 c.c. ; com- 
pound spirit of orange, 6 c.c. ; water, 240 c.c. Mix the alcohol, 
spirit and syrup. Dissolve the papaw juice in hot, not boiling, 
water, to which the solution of potash has been added. When 
cool, mix with the alcoholic solution. Dose, 4 c.c. This pre- 
paration is superior to pepsin, since it is equally active in alkaline 
solution, and to pancreatin, since it is also effective in an acid 
medium. The papaw juice used is the commercial West Indian 
product. 

Endermol. {Apoth. Zeit., 20, 75.) Endermol, which should 
be distinguished from eudermol ( Year-Books, 1899, 225 ; 1902, 



250 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

193), is a new ointment basis composed of a mixture of paraffin 
hydrocarboiLs and stearic acid. It forms a non-viscous white 
mass, of the consistence of lard, perfectly neutral, and melting 
at 78-80°C. It does not become rancid, will combine with 15 
per cent, of water, and is stated to be readily absorbed by the 
skin. 

Ergot, Acid Tincture of. L. S t e r n b e r g. {Pharm. Cen- 
tralh., 45, 872.) Freshly powdered ergot, 10, is macerated with 
warm water, 80, for 24 hours in a closed vessel, with frequent 
shaking ; dilute hydrochloric acid, 2, and alcohol (96 per cent.), 
20, are added, and the mixture allowed to macerate for another 
24 hours. After straining, the liquid is made up to 100 with 
water, and filtered. The product should be kept from the light. 
Maximum dose, 155 grs. 

Ergot, Extract of ; Formula for the New French Codex. (In- 
ternational Formula.) L. G r i m b e r t. (Journ. Pharm. Chim. 
[6]. 20, 209.) Ground ergot, 1 kilo. ; distilled water, 5 litres ; 
alcohol 95 per cent., 500 Gm. Place the ergot in a percolator 
with 2 Utres of water and allow to macerate for 12 hours. Then 
percolate and continue the extraction vdth the rest of the water. 
Evaporate the aqueous hquid in a tared dish on the water-bath 
until the weight reaches 500 Gm. ; cool, tiaasfer to a bottle, and 
add the alcohol ; shake well and set aside for 24 hours, filter and 
evaporate to a soft extract. Characters. — A reddish-brown ex- 
tract with the odour of roast meat, giving a clear, acid solution 
with water. When this solution is rendered alkaline with 
NaOH and warmed, it gives off vapovirs which give a blue colour 
to red litmus-paper, and which have the odour of methylamine. 
When acidified with HCl it gives a precipitate with potassium 
mercuric iodide reagent. 

Ergot, Liquid Extract of ; Formula of the New French Codex. 
L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 210.) Crushed 
ergot, 1 kilo. ; cherry-laurel water, 300 Gm. ; alcohol 95 per cent., 
500 Gm. ; tartaric acid, 1 Gm. ; calcium carbonate, 2 Gm. ; 
salicylic acid, 1*5 Gm. ; distilled water, q.s. Dissolve the tar- 
taric acid in 2 litres of distilled water. Moisten the ergot there- 
with, place in a percolator and set aside for 12 hours, then perco- 
late and continue the extraction with another 3 litres of water. 
Evajjorate the aqueous percolate in a tared disli on the water 



PHARMACY. 251 

bath to 500 Gm. ; cool and transfer to a bottle. Add the 
calcium carbonate and the alcoliol ; shake well and set aside for 
24 hours. Filter and evaporate off the alcohol on the water bath 
at a low temperature. Transfer the residue to a tared vessel, 
add the cherry-laurel water, and sufficient distilled water to 
make the weight up to 1,000 Gm. Dissolve the salicylic acid in 
the product, and filter. 

Eserino!, Oily Collyrium of Eserine for Ophthalmic Use. E. 
Wild -B or beck. {Pharm. Zeit., 50, 399.) To obtain an 
oily preparation of eserine in olive oil, which is painless when 
instilled into the eye, the following process must be followed. 
Eserine, 20Cgm., is rubbed down in a small mortar and dried at 
100° ; the dried alkaloid is then introduced into a small perfectly 
dry flask with 40 Gm. of olive oil, and thoroughly agitated to 
suspend it evenly in the oil. The oily mixture thus obtained is 
tlien heated to 150-15S°C. At the higher temperature the 
alkaloid, after two or three shakiiigs, enters into complete solu- 
tion in about 20 minutes. The temperature should never exceed 
160°C., or the alkaloid wdll be decomposed. The solution is then 
cooled, a slight opalescence appearing at about 30°C. It is then 
quickly cooled to 10°C. with constant and thorough agitation ; 
a portion of the eserine separates out in minute crystals, but this 
does not interfere with the efficacy of the preparation. The 0-5 
per cent, oily solution of eserine thus obtained is a cloudy liquid 
which must be well shaken up before use. It should be stored in 
small, amber-coloured, glass-stoppered bottles, which have been 
previously washed out with ether and scrupulously dried. The 
solution retains its physiological action unimpaired for months, 
and is absolutely sterile. 

Euguform Paint. {Merck's Report, 18, 66.) Joseph recom- 
mends the following paint for the treatment of strophulus in- 
fantum. Soluble euguform, 1 ; zinc oxide, 2 ; starch powder, 
2 ; glycerin, 3 ; distilled water to make up to 10. To be well 
shaken and applied with a brush three times a day. 

Euquinine in Mixtures. — V i d a 1. {Repertoire [3], 16, 
341.) Euquinine is sometimes prescribed in mixtures in a 
greater quantity than its solubility allows to be dispensed in 
perfect solution ; a clear mixture may be obtained by using 
citric acid in the proportion of one-fom"th of the weight of the 



252 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

euquiaiiie ordered, or by using any acid fruit sj'^rup as a sweeten- 
ing agent. 

Filling Two-part Gelatine Capsules with Liquids. H. P. 
H y n s o n. {Proc. Atner. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 196.) The fol- 
lowing method of filling and sealing two-part gelatine capsules 
is suggested. The caps are placed, rim down, on filter paper 
saturated with water. The liquid is introduced into the shell 
of the capsule in such a manner that no portion touches the rim. 
The cap is then carefully laid on, and the cajisule left standing 
upright for a few minutes, when a perfectly hermetic seal is 
secured. 

Formalin Gauze and other Formalin Dressings. P. Z e I i s. 
{Pharm. Zeit., 49, 617.) Formalin, 75; alcohol (methylated), 
1,300 ; glycerin, 125, are mixed and absorbent gauze, 1,200, is 
impregnated with the mixture. It is then spread out and dried 
in the dark at the ordinary temperature, until it no longer feels 
damp to the fingers. The antiseptic is tlien fixed by plunging 
the gauze into a solution of lanoline, 100, in benzol, 1,400, or in 
ether-alcohol ; excess of the liquid is wrung out and the gauze 
dried in a well-ventilated chamber. It contains approximately 
2 per cent, of formaldehyde. 

Formalin cotton is prepared in a similar manner, absorbent 
cotton, 1,000, being impregnated with a mixture of alcohol 
(methylated), 1,600 ; glycerin, 60 ; and formalin, 35. This is 
fixed by immersion in a solution of lanoline, 60, in ether, 300. 
Castor oil may be used instead of lanolin as the fixing agent ; 
it is then added to the first mixture in place of the glycerin 
prescribed above. Although the second dipping is thus avoided, 
the use of oil instead of lanoline is not to be recommended, for 
it turns rancid and acquires an unpleasant odour on keepitig. 

Frothing Powder to Facilitate the Taking of Nauseous Medi- 
cines. — B o i s s e 1. {Bull. gen. de Thcrap., 148, 631.) Some 
time ago beer which carries a good head was recommended as a 
vehicle for the administration of castor oil. But beer is open 
to considerable objection, and is not an ideal vehicle for frequent 
use by young children. Equally satisfactory if not better results 
may be obtained by shaking up with water a powder containing 
gum acacia, liquorice, marshmallow. and milk sugar flavom-ed 
with vanilla, anise, or other aromatic flavour. A pinch of this 



PHARMACY. 253 

is shaken up with a httle water in a covered ointment pot, or 
beaten to a froth with a spoon. The froth produced is very 
persistent. By its aid tlie patient may take any nauseous or 
oily liquid without jDerceiving the taste. Sandal oil, castor oil, 
methj'l salicylate, and similar liquids may be administered in 
this wa3^ 

Galbanum Pill, Compound. D. A. Y o u n g. {Pharm. 
Jojirn. [4], 19, 852.) The official process of heating the gum 
resins is condemned, so is the use of glucose as an excipient. 
By using the official quantities of galbanum, asafetida and 
myrrh, powdering the last, and substituting kaolin for glucose, 
mixing this with the galbanum and asafetida before adding the 
powdered myrrh, and then working to a mass in the mortar, a 
satisfactory pill mass may be obtained, which will roll into pills 
which keep their shape. If a large mass has to be made, the 
mortar may be previously warmed. 

Gelatine Ovules. L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. Chim., 
20, 157.) Soak washed and dried gelatin, 1, in water, 3, until 
the latter is completely absorbed ; warm gh^cerin, 6, and add 
the softened gelatin to it. When dissolved, strain through a 
cloth and run into moulds previously oiled with a very little 
vaseline oil. Undue heat should be avoided when dissolving the 
gelatin, or the basis loses its firm consistence. Substances 
soluble in water may be added to the liquid prescribed for 
softening the gelatin. The above method is that suggested for 
inclusion in the new Codex. 

Gentian, Glycerinated Elixir of, N.F. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc, 52, 199.) The following new formula is suggested : 
Gentian in No. 50 powder, 10 ; taraxacum in No. 50 powder, 
15 ; sugar, 200 parts ; acetic ether, 5 ; phosphoric acid, 5 ; 
tincture of fresh orange peel, 15 ; compound tincture of carda- 
moms, 60 ; solution of saccharm, 30 ; glycerin, 400 ; white wine 
sufficient to make 1.000 fluid parts Macerate the drugs and 
flavours with 350 fluid parts of wine for 3 days, with frequent 
shaking. Then filter and pass enough wine through the filter to 
make 600 c.c. of filtrate. To this add the glycerin. 

Glass Bottles, Test for Neutrality of. — B a r o n i, {Aj^oth. 
Zcit., 20, 510.) Jena glass bottles of perfect neutrality are 
distinguished by a red band ; but bottles so marked are met 



254 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

with, of dilTerent make, which are not perfectly neutral. These 
bottles are not suitable for the storage of certain delicate pharm- 
aceutical preparations, such as alkaloidal and mercurial in- 
jections, which have to be sterilized at 112°C., since, when used, 
they cause a precipitate of the active ingredient. Freedom 
from this harmful alkalinity may be eixsured by submitting the 
bottles to the following tests : Solutions of mori^hine hydro- 
chloride, 1 or 2 per cent., strychnine nitrate, 0-5 per cent., and 
of HgCla, 1 per cent., are placed in separate bottles to be tested, 
and heated to 112°C. under pressure in the autoclave for 30 
minutes. If the glass be neutral, the solutions will be unaltered. 
But if a trace of alkali be dissolved tlie morphine solution be- 
comes discoloured, and deposits crystals of morpliine hydrate on 
the sides of the bottle ; the same occurs with the strychnine 
solution ; while the HgCL solution will show a yellow or red 
precipita.te of HgO. The importance of employing neutral 
bottles for storing these potent preparations cannot be too 
stiongly emphasized. 

Glycerin Jelly. M. I. W i 1 b e r t. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
77, 129.) Irish moss, 15 ; distilled water to make 420 ; glycerite 
of boroglycerin, 80. Boil the Irish moss with sufficient water 
to make 420 fluid parts of jelly, and strain. While warm add 
the glycerite, and later, when nearly cold, any desired perfume. 
Agar-agar, gelatin, tragacanth, starch or quince seed may be 
substituted for the Irish moss, and the glycerite may be re- 
placed, wholly or in part, by glycerin. 

Glycerin of Lead Acetate. J. Lothian. {Pharm. Jomn. 
[4j, 20.) The B.P. process for the above is unsatisfactory. 
The water wliich is evaporated in boiling the ingredients together 
is not directed to be replaced, as in tlic case of the strong solution 
of lead subacetate. The resulting fluid is therefore so viscid 
that it is not possible to filter it without a hot water funnel, 
besides, in the preparation of small quantities, where the loss by 
evaporation is proportionately greater, decomposition of the 
glycerin is apt to take place, with discoloration of the product. 
The following cold process is recommended as a substitute : 
Lead acetate, 25 Gm. ; lead oxide (sifted), 17'5 Gm. ; glycerin, 
126 Gm. ; distilled water, 60 c.c. 

Rub the lead acetate and lead oxide with 5 c.c. of the distilled 
water into a paste, and allow to stand, with occasional tritura- 



PHARMACY. 



255 



lion, for 12 hours, add the remainder of the water and the 
glycerin, and allow to stand, with frequent agitation, for 24 
hours. Filter. The filtrate has a sp. gr. of ai^proximately 1-33, 
and is concentrated on a water-bath to the sp. gr. 1'48. 

(133 Gms. of the above filtrate placed in a tared dish and 
evaporated on a water-bath to 102 Gm., has approximately the 
sp. gr. 1-48.) 

It will be seen from the table below that such a solution is 
almost as strong as that prepared by boiling. The filtrate is 
bright and comes through rapidly, and the glycerin is not sub- 
jected to a higher temperature than that of the water- bath. 

Glycerin of Lead Sub acetate. 



Process. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Total Pb. 

0-1299 
0-1243 


Eacli Gramme 
Yielded 


Pb as Pb Pb as 
(CoH^^OJ, Pb (0H)2 


B.P. (water evaporated, replaced) 
Cold, twenty-four-hours 


1-3415 
1-3309 


0-0673 
0-0634 


0-0626 

0-0609 

■ 



Above results are the mean of several determinations. 
The method of determination adopted was that of Cowley and 
Catford {Y ear-Book, 1902, 493). 

Glycerin Suppositories, Development of Red Colour in. {Pkarm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 142.) The orange or rose-red tint wliich is some- 
times observed to be produced in glycerin suppositories on long 
keeping, especially in warm climates, has been traced to a 
pigment formed l>y a chromogenic bacterium. Micrococcus roseus. 
They are non-pathogenic and harmless to life. They require an 
alkaline medium for their successful growth, and a somewhat 
lengthy time before the pigment formed becomes noticeable. 

Glycerophosphates, Elixir N.F. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
52, 199.) Two formulae have been suggested for this : — 

Fornmla A. Sodium glycerophosphate (75 per cent.), 23*3 
Gm. ; calcium glycerophosphate, 8-75 Gm. ; pliosphoric acid, 
8 Gm. ; glycerin, 300 c.c. ; aromatic elixir, 300 c.c. ; distilled 
water sufficient to make 1,000 c.c. Dissolve the salts and acid 
in 300 c.c. of distilled water, add the glycerin and elixir and 
enough water to make up to 1,000 c.c. 



256 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Formula B. Sodium glyceroplioypliate (75 per cent.), 233 
Gm. ; calcium glycerophospliate, 8'75 Cm. ; syrup, 100 c.e. ; 
brandy, 100 c.c. ; white wine, 200 c.c. ; acetic ether, 2 c.c. ; 
glycerin, 500 c.c. ; phosphoric acid, 8 c.c. ; distilled water 
sufficient to make 1,000 c.c. Mix and dissolve. 

Guaiacum Lozenges for Tonsilitis. W. Z e u n e r. (Thcrap. 
Monats., 18, 659.) The following lozenges are prescrilxd with 
success for the treatment of tonsilitis : Guaiacum resin, 30 grs. ; 
sugar, 30 grs. ; to make 1 lozenge. One to be taken every 2 
hours. They may be also prepared in the form of smaller 
pastilles, of which one may be sucked every lialf-hour. Not only 
are these lozenges useful for tonsilitis, but they form an excellent 
prophylactic for those predisposed to throat troubles, and are 
also useful voice lozenges. 

Hydriodic Acid, Glyeerole of. W. C. K i r c h g e s s n e r. 
(Proc. Amer. Pkarm. Assoc, 52, 227.) The following glyeerole, 
containing 2 per cent, of HI, is claimed to be superior to the 
syrup of the same strength in keeping properties : Potassium 
iodide, 208 Gm. ; potassium hypophosphite, 16 Gm. ; tartaric 
acid, 192 Gm. ; water, 240 c.c. ; diluted alcohol, 48-6 per cent., 
q.s. ; glycerin 50 per cent., q.s. Dissolve the potassium salts 
in the water ; dissolve the acid in 400 c.c. of dilute alcohol, 
mix the two solutions, and stand the mixture on ice for 3 hours, 
with occasional agitation. Filter. Two volumes of the filtrate 
added to 14 volumes of 50 per cent, glycerin will give a 2 per 
cent, glyeerole. 

Hyoscyamus Extract of ; Formula of the New French Codex. 
(International Formulary.) L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Fharm. 
Chim. [6], 20, 212.) The coarsely powdered hyoscyamus leaves 
are to be extracted with 70 per cent, alcohol, as described under 
"Extract of- Belladonna" (p. 231). The assay of alkaloids 
is conducted in the manner there described, but using 20 c.c. 
of N/100 H2SO4 for the titration. 

Hypodermic Injection of Iron. E. Baroni. {Boll. Chim. j arm., 
through Nouvtatix Remedes,2i^ 136.) Dissolve pure NaOH in a 
little water and dilute it until 10 c.c. of the solution exactly 
neutralizes 25 c.c. of N/H2SO4. Take 37*3 c.c. of this soda 
solution and add to it in a flask 19-6 Gm. of citric acid, 5*55 Gm. 
of very fine, pure iron wire, and 150 c.c. of water. Heat gently 



PHARMACY. 257 

until reaction is complete. Filter the solution into a graduated 
250 e.c. flask, and make up to that volume with boiled and 
cooled distilled water. Put up in suitable small bottles, sterilize, 
and seal. The solution is grass green in colour, rapidly becoming 
brown on exposure to air. 

Hypophosphoroiis Acid, Uses of, in Dispensing. H. 

Wyatt. {Pharin. Journ. [4], 19, 899.) There are many 
cases where a few drops of hjrpophosphorous acid will work 
wonders in the prevention of iodine liberation in certain mix- 
tures, and prescribers vnll generally sanction its use. 

Where quinine, an acid, and iodide of potassium are pre- 
scribed together, decomposition will result, as in the following 
mixture : Quin. sulph., 36 grs. ; acid hydrobrom. dil., ^W. ; 
potass, iodid., 3j- ; tr. aurant, 3vj. ; Spt. chlorof., 3iij. ; aqura, 
ad 5vj. M. mist. ft. 

By adding to this 24 drops of Acid. Hypophosph., B.P.C., 
coloration is prevented entirely. 

Where Syr. ferri iodidi has become coloured, as it will do, 
particularly in winter, when the actinic power of daj^Ught is not 
sufficiently active to reduce the ferric oxyiodide gradually 
formed by the action of the air, warming gently, and dropping 
in sufficient hypophospliorous acid, will soon bring it back to its 
sea-green colour. 

Ichthyol Compound Application for Anal Fissure. M. K a t- 

z e n s t e i n. {Merck's Re pari, 18, 99. ) Cocaine hydrochloride, 
1 ; extract of belladonna, 10 ; ichthyol to 120. This mixture 
is introduced into the anus, near the fissure, whence the ichthyol 
permeates into all the mucous folds and into the fissure itself. 
It is claimed that the affection may be healed in 8 to 10 days 
by repeated use of the application. 

Incompatibility of Nirvanine and Mercuric Cyanide. G. 

D e n i g e s. [Bull. Soc. Pharm. de Bordeaux, 43, 162. ) A nasal 
douche, for which nirvanine, sodium cliloride and mercuric 
cyanide were prescribed as an antiseptic, was found to throw out 
a crystaUine deposit. This was found to be a crystalline double 
salt — 

>C0'0CH3 
ClH-CcHa^OH 

\NH-CO-CH2N(C2Hg)2-Hg(CN)2. 



258 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

The compound results when strong aqueous solutions of 
nirvanine and mercuiic cyanide are mixed, but the presence of 
NaCl favours its formation in more dilute solutions. With 
1 Gm. of nirvanine and salt, dissolved in 5 c.c. of water, 0*20 Gm. 
of mercuric cyanide dissolved in a similar quantity of water and 
mixed, gives a crystalline precipitate in an hour. Witli 10 per 
cent, solution of the two compounds, the crystalline precipitate 
is formed at once. The crystals are stable, and do not lose 
weight wlien dried at 100°C. They are readily soluble in warm 
water, but only to the extent of about 1 : 100 in cold. The 
formation of the crystalline compound is sufficiently delicate in 
the presence of sodium chloride solution to serve as a micro- 
chemical reaction for the detection, on the one hand, of nirvanine, 
on the other, of mercuric cyanide. In the first case a reagent of 
mercuric cyanide and sodium chloride may be employed ; in 
the second, one of nirvanine and sodium chloride. 

Infusions, Aseptic. A. C u r r i e. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 
584.) Take bottles of convenient size (8 oz. upright steriHzing 
feeding bottles answer admirably), rinse with a mixture of 1 
part of nitric acid and 3 parts of sulphuric acid, so as to destroy 
all highly resistant spores, then wash with sterile or boiled water. 
Then fill up to the shoulder with the filtered fresh infusion, plug 
the neck with cotton-wool, and place over it a single-hole teat. 
Place the bottles so prepared and filled in a steamer (a large- 
sized potato steamer serves well), and steam at 100°C. for 15 
minutes ; allow to cool, and next day again steam for 15 minutes. 
The object of the double sterilization at an interval of 24 hours 
is that any resistant spores which may not be killed by the first 
may have time to develop into bacteria or mould, and may then 
be easily killed by the second sterilization. The teat over the 
bottle prevents undue evaporation, while allowing of the equah- 
zation of pressure. . So treated, infusions will keep indefinitely, 
and if tested at intervals will be found completely sterile. The 
aroma and flavour are indistinguishable from a recently prepared 
infusion if they be kept in the dark, and tlierapeutic properties 
are not impaired. If it be necessary to use part of the contents 
of a bottle when dispensing, all that is necessary is to pass the 
plug of cotton-wool through the flame to sterilize it, remove with 
the left hand, pour out what is desired, avoiding contact with 
the vessel into which it is being poured, and replace the plug 
and cap. 



PHARMACY. 



259 



The objection to White's method {Year-Book, 1894, 202) is 
the placing of the sterile plug of wool in the bottle after sterilizing, 
thereby increasing the risk of infection. It is also umiecessary 
to sterilize infusions of quassia and calumba in the cold by 
filtration, as they show no alteration on heating, if removed 
from the drug. Quassia, calumba, buchu, gentianj senna, and 
senega infusions sterilized by above process, all over three 
months old, have kept perfectly. 

Infusions, Concentrated. H. D e a n e. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 
20^ 435.) Many chemists who have had occasion to use " con- 
centrated infusions " have noticed that, when diluted so as to 
be " equivalent to the B.P. infusion," the products of different 
firms are very different in colour. The following figures, obtained 
from the examination of samples made by five manufacturers, 
show that there is a correspondingly large difference in the 
amount of solid residue. In each case 1 fluid pa,rt of the con- 
centrated preparation when diluted with 7 fluid parts of Avater 
was stated to represent the official infusion. The figures given 
for " residue " represent the weight of solid residue left on the 
evaporation of 100 c.c. to dryness on a water-bath. The figures 
given for alcohol show the percentage of absolute alcohol by 
volume. The figures in column 6 represent 8 times the residue 
found by Bascombe {P.J., 62, 228; P.J. [4]. 8, 228) to be 
present in samples of infusion prepared in the official mamier : — 

Infusum Calumb.e. 



- 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Specific G^a^'ity 
Residue .... 
Alcohol 


0-974 
2-96 
22-09 


0-985 
2-37 
20-71 


0-989 
3-61 
2319 


1011 
10-35 
19-18 


0-989 
3-42 
22-30 


4-79 



The residue in Sample No. 4 appeared to consist largely of glycerin. 
Infusum Gentians Compositum. 



Specific Grav-ity 
Residue 
Alcohol . 



1. 
0-986 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


1-005 


1-050 


0-997 


0-087 


2-57 


6-86 


6-06 


5-30 


8-07 


19-87 


19-18 


15-12 


19-96 


19-7 



8-64 



260 



yeak-book of pharmacy. 
Infusum Quassle. 



- 


1. 


'I. 


3. 

0-973 
0-264 
24-08 


4. 

0-980 
0-328 
18-03 


5. 


6. 


Specific Gravity 
Residue .... 
Alcohol 


0-973 
0-332 
20-43 


0-981 

0-890 
19-59 


0-978 
0-480 
20-24 


0-376 




Infusum Senega. 








- 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Specific GraA'ity 
Residue .... 
Alcohol 


1-006 
9-76 
•24-98 


0-993 
362 
20-24 


1010 
10-46 
22-73 


1-090 
8-82 
20-06 


1-2-48 


Infusum Senn^. 


— 


1. 


2. 


'A. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Specific Gravity 
Residue .... 
Alcohol 


1-034 
14-30 
20-43 


1013 
7-37 
15-58 


1-046 
14-58 
20-99 


1-053 

17-86 
19-87 


1-176 
10-09 
1 20-71 


27-84 



Decoctum Scoparii. 

Although this prexDaration has been replaced in the 1898 
Pharmacopoeia by an infusion of the same strength (1 to 20), 
prepared from the bruised instead of the whole root, doctors 
more frequently prescribe the decoction, and therefore this 
was examined ; but probably Inf. Scoparii Cone, and Dec. 



Scoparii Cone, come 


out of the same bottle. 






- 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Specific Gravity 
Re^siduo .... 
Alcohol 


0-990 
3-95 
21-29 


0-990 
371 
22-55 


1010 
8-00 
19-87 


0-990 
3-71 
21-59 


0-996 
3-02 
14-64 


2-011 



The general conclusion to be drawn from these figures is that, 
as may be expected, the soluble matter in the drug is not, as a 
rule, extracted by the small quantity of Mquid used in making 
the concentrated preparation as completely as by t)ae quantity 



1 Tiiis is taken from a paper by Martindale {PJ-, 55, 416). His 
figure for the infusion from the bruised drug is 4-(), while Bascombe's is 4-2. 



PHARMACY. 



261 



used in making the official preparation. Also that there is a 
greater difference between the products of different manufac- 
turers than can be explained by the use of varying samples of 
drug, so that there must be considerable differences in the mode 
of manufacture, and presumably in whatever therapeutic value 
these preparations have. 

Infusions, Concentrated. G. E. P e a r s o n. {Pharm. Journ. 
[4], 20, 474.) The inference drawn by Deane (supra) that the 
low yield of extractive in these preparations is due to inefficient 
extraction is controverted. The less amount is attributed to the 
precipitation of inert albuminous matter by the alcoholic men- 
struum employed. 

The results of examination of commercial specimens of these 
preparations is given below : — 



- 


Sp. Gr. 
at 1.5° 

1-012 


Extractive 

Gm. per 

100 c.c. 

Dried at 100°. 

8-63 


Alcoliol 
I)er cent, 
by Vol. 


Inf. Aiirant Cone. ( 1 ) 


20-2 


„ (2) 












1-003 


6-59 


23-5 


Inf. Buclui Cone. ( 1 ) 












0-991 


3-50 


21-5 


„ (2) 












0-9985 


5-44 


22-6 


Inf. Calunib. Cone. (I) 












0-99S5 


4-76 


22-6 


„ (2) 












0-993 


3-62 


16-5 


„ (3) 












0-994 


4- 16 


22- G 


„ (4) 












0-990 


3-10 


22-6 


Inf. Carvoph. Cone. ( 1 ) 










0-9905 


3-43 


— 


„ (2) 










0-990 


3-36 


— 


Inf. Case;irillHe Cone. (1) 










0-995 


3-83 


— 


„ (2) 










0-9905 


3-54 


— 


Inf. Digitalis Cone. ( 1 ) 










0-980 


1-28 


24-9 


(2) 










0-983 


1-74 


24-0 


Inf. Gentian. Co. Cone. (1) 








1-006 


7-97 


22-3 


„ (2) 








0-992 


4-50 


23- 1 


„ (3) 








1-001 


5-68 


18-4 


„ (4) 








1-010 


8-68 


21-7 


Inf. Rliei Cone. ( 1 ) . . . 








1-023 


11-80 


22-5 


„ „ (2) . 












0-999 


.5-40 


21-4 


,. „ (3) . 












1-026 


11-99 


20-2 


„ .„ (4) . 












1-032 


13-03 


20-1 


Inf. Seoparii Cone. (1) 












0-998 


4-44 


21-2 


„ (2) 












1-013 


7-80 


19-7 


Inf. Senegas Cone. ( 1 ) 












1-003 


6-99 


22-3 


„ (2) 












1-007 


8-90 


— 


„ (3) 












1-012 


10-37 


— 


Inf. Sennaj Cone. { 1 ) 












1-028 


12 .34 


22-6 


„ „ „ (2) 












1-023 


10-99 


23-1 


„ „ „ (3) 












1-030 


12-75 


21-4 


Inf. Uv;td Ursi Cone. 












1-030 


14-50 


19-0 



202 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Insoluble Powders in Mixtures, Manipulation of. H. W y a 1 1. 

{PJtann. Journ. [4], 19, 899.) BiHmuih Salts. With bismuth 
subnitrate, jnucilage is better mixed in the bottle with half 
the menstruum, and the bismuth levigated witli the rest of the 
menstruum, a small amount at a time, and poured into the 
mucilage. 

Bismuth Carbonate does not really require mucilage to suspend 
it, if it be kept freshly precipitated under water in tlie proportion 
of 60 grs. to the fluid oz. 

Bismuth Salicylate is best compounded i^y rubbing fine in a 
mortar, moistening with the tinctures so as to drive out the air 
its particles contain, mixing with the water and then pouring 
into the bottle on to the mucilage. 

Magnesice Carb. and Magnesia make much smoother mixture.s 
if rubbed through a muslin strainer in a thin cream. This 
applies to nearly all insoluble powders, for the amount of 
foreign bodies, sieve-hairs, etc., removed from them when they 
are strained is rather surprising. 

Boric Acid, though not exactly an insoluble body, gives some 
trouble when in fairly large amounts, owing to its tendency to 
float on the liquid. This can always be prevented by damping 
it with the tinctures before adding the water. 

Salts in excess of solubility give frequent trouble, the greatest 
sinner in this respect being potassium chlorate. This would not 
be so if prescribers had the advantages of sodium chlorate 
pointed out to tliem. Its solubility is such that it should com- 
mend itself on that score alone, not to mention that its percentage 
of the chlorate radical is considerably higher than in the potassium 
salt. 

Iodoform Gauze, Assay of. L. G r i m b e r t. [Journ. Pharm. 
Chim. [6], 20, 252.) No method of manufacture will be given 
in the new French Codex for the preparation of iodoform gauze ; 
it will be required to contain 10 per cent, of iodoform when 
assayed by the following method, which is due to rran9ois : 
About 20 Gm. of the gauze is weighed off and extracted with 
ether in a small extraction tube. The ethereal extract is then 
made up to exactly 100 c.c. ; 10 c.c. of this is placed in a 250 c.c. 
conical flask, and the solvent evaporated by a current of dry 
air. The residue is then treated with 10 c.c. of 1 : 5 AgNOa 
solution. The flask is then placed on a cold water-bath, and 
heat applied so that the temperature is slowly raised, then boiled 



PHARMACY. 263 

for an hour ; the flask in then filled up with distiUed water, 
allowed to stand for 24 hours, and the Agl collected on a tared 
filter ; it is then dried at 100"C., washed with ether, agaui dried 
at 100°C. and weighed. The weight obtained x 0-559 x 50 will 
give the percentage of iodoform in the gauze. 

lodotannic Syrup. L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pkarm. Chim. [6], 
20, 156, and [6], 21, 437. ) Iodine, 2 ; tannin, 4 ; syrup of rhatany, 
100 ; simple syrup, 880 parts by weight. Dissolve the iodine and 
the tannin in 60 c.c. of distiUed water on the water-bath ; cool 
and filter. jMix the .filtrate i>\dth the S3^rup of rhatany in a tared 
dish and evaporate to 120 Gm. Add the simi^le syrup, and mix. 
Twenty Gm. of tliis syruj) is equivalent to 0-04 Gm. of iodine. 

In consequence of the unfavourable criticism of tliis formula, it 
was subsequently modified as follows : Iodine, 2 ; tannin, 4 ; 
distilled water, 360 ; wliite sugar, 640. Powder the iodine and 
introduce it with the water and tannin into a glass or earthenware 
vessel. Warm on the water-bath to about 60°C. with occasional 
agitation until the solution gives no blue colour with starch 
paper. Then dissolve the sugar in the liquid. Twenty Gm. of 
the syrup contains approximately 4 Cgm. of iodine. 

lodotannic Syrup. — V i g n e r o n. {Journ. Pharrti. Chim. 
[6], 21, 538. ) The following method is claimed to give a pleasant 
tasting product, and to be easy of preparation : Iodine, 2 ; 
tannm, 4 ; distilled water, 180 ; sugar, 355 ; simple syrup, qs., 
to produce 1,000. Rub down the iodine with a httle of the 
sugar in a small glass mortar. Transfer the poAvder, with the 
water and tannin, to a stoppered flask, and warm on the water- 
bath to 70-80°C. for an hovu-. The cloudy solution thus ob- 
tained is set aside for 36 hours in a warm place, when a clear 
liquid and a spongy deposit are obtamed. The former is tested 
for free iodine with starch paper, and if a reaction be obtained, 
heating on the water-bath is again performed until the whole of 
the iodine has combined. The Hquid is then filtered on to the 
sugar in a tared porcelain dish, and heated on the water-bath. 
The weight of the product is then made up to 1,000 with simple 
syrup. The syrup thus obtained is yellowish green by trans- 
mitted, slightly red by reflected light. The slight astringent 
taste may be covered by the substitution of 100 parts of syrup 
of orange peel for a hke weight of the simple syrup. The em- 
ployment of rhatany, both on account of its taste and utilitj''. 



264 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

is not reconimeiKl(Kl. The above syrup may bo prej^ared. witliout 
heat, but it then has an unpleasant taste. (See also Year-Books, 
1904, 285 ; 1902, 242 ; 1896, 189.) 

lodotannic Syrup. H. Wyatt. {Pharm. Journ. (4), 19, 
898.) The following formulae is stated to give a syrup in wliieh 
the unpleasant flavour is well masked : Iodine, 320 grs. ; tannin, 
320 grs. ; sugar, 12 oz. ; tincture of vanilla (1:40), 80 ii| ; freshly 
roasted coffee, 2 oz. ; water, to 20 fl. oz. 

Make a strong infusion of the coffee by percolation with 
boiling water until 4 oz. of liquid have passed. Set this aside 
and continue the percolation until 4 more oz. are obtained. 
Rub the iodine fine and put it and the tannin in a fla,sk with 
percolate No. 2 and 1 oz. of the sugar, and heat until the iodine 
is absorbed. Finally, dissolve the rest of the sugar in this and 
percolate No. 1, adjust to 1 pint, and add the tincture of vanilla 
last. 

This makes a thin, dark syrup of pleasant odour and taste. 
The proportion of sugar may be increased if a denser and sweeter 
syrup be desired. 

It is worthy of note that the Continental syrups are almost 
invariably weaker than those used in Englisli and American 
pharmacy, which are too frequently over-medicated, with the 
result that they are unpalatable to the patient and in many cases 
are badly borne by the stomach, whilst their keeping properties 
are sadly impaired. 

lodotannic Syrups, Concentrated lodo-syrup for the Prepara- 
tion of. L. Martin. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [G], 21, 295.) 
A strong iodo-syrup, containing 2 per cent, of iodine, is prepared 
thus by means of gallic acid : Iodine, 40 Gm. ; gallic acid, 
40 Gm. ; distilled water, 740 Gm. ; and sugar, 200 Gm., are 
placed in a 2 litre flask. This is then fitted to a reflux condenser 
and heated until the body of the flask is filled with violet vapours. 
As soon as crystals of iodine begin to be deposited on the inner 
tube of the condenser, about 20 c.c. of alcohol 95 per cent, is 
passed down it by means of a small funnel. This washes down 
the iodine, and its vapour, condensing and falling back, con- 
tinues to carry back the iodine to the liquid. Heating is con- 
tinued until all the iodine has combined and no more violet 
vapours are evident. The flask is then detached, another 
1,000 Gm. of sugar and enough water are added to dissolve 



PHARMACY. 265 

the sugar with heat, during which the alcohol will be driven off. 
When cold the volume is adjusted to 2 litres, and the syrup 
filtered. The product keeps well, and serves for dilution to 
form syrups or Avines of any required iodine standard. Gallic 
acid is used instead of tannin, as the product is pleasanter 
in taste, but tannin may be used, in the same quantity, if 
desired. 

Isopral Mixture. (Merck's Report , 18, 104.) Isoj^ral may be 
thus dispensed as a mixture : Isopral, 3 ; proof spirit, 10 ; 
sim.ple syrup, 70 ; peppermint oil, sufficient to flavour. Dose, 
1 tablespoonful. 

Kola Granules. M. G e m a 3^ e 1. {Journ. Pharm. Chim., 
21, 192.) Soft extract of kola, free from glycerine, 75 ; castor 
sugar, 1,000 ; alcohol 60 pei cent., q.s. Place the extract in a 
porcelain capsule, add to it a little of the alcohol, warm, and 
stir until the mass becomes fluid and homogeneous. Then 
transfer to a mortar and wash out the capsule with two washings 
of alcohol, warming gently each time, and add these to the 
alcohoHc solution ; add the sugar quickly in small quantities at 
a time, working well in so as to produce a homogeneous mass. 
Pass tliis through a fine wire sieve, and dry in thin layers on 
paper in the stove at 60°C. Again sift, allow to cool, sift a 
third time, and preserve in well stoppered bottles. Granules of 
coca, cinchona, calumha, condurango and other extracts soluble 
in alcohol may be prepared in a similar manner. Glycero- 
phosj)hites and other water-soluble salts may be prepared by 
using cold water instead of alcohol, mixing the medicating 
ingredients directly with the sugar in the mortar. By com- 
bining the two processes, such preparations as kola-cinchona- 
glycerophosphates in granular form may be prepared. (See also 
Year-Book, 1904, 276.) 

Lead Subacetate, Strong Solution of. G. F. M e r s o n. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 70.) The author agrees with the statement of 
others that the solution may be satisfactorily prepared in the 
cold, but he does not find the long standing mentioned by Squire 
to be necessary. 

A series of experiments made, working on 100 c.c. quantities 
of finished solution, showed that, by rubbing the salts to fine 
powder and mixing in a mortar with sufficient distiUed water 



266 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

to form a smooth cream (2 or 3 c.c. only is required for 100 c.c. 
lot of the solution), allowing to stand for a few minutes with 
occasional stirring, then transferring to a bottle and shaking 
from time to time, the full B.P. strength of solution was obtained 
in very much less time than a week. 

Made as above, and allowed to stand for 1 hour before filtra- 
tion, the sp. gr. was 1*2213, and the yield of PbSOi when esti- 
mated gravimetrically 0*2o3. A similar experiment with fresh 
materials continued for 3 hours gave sp. gr. 1-2234 and 0*307 
PbSO^. Anotlier lot, continued for 6 liours, yielded sp. gr. 
1-2345 and PbSO^ 0-318. StiU another, after 12 hours, gave 
sp. gr. 1-2418 and PbS04 0-323, whilst a final experiment, ex- 
tending over 3 days, showed practically the same results as at 
the end of 12 hours, as did also a lot made byboiUng as the 
B.P. directs. 

The above figures were obtained working on an oxide which 
was afterwards ascertained to fall short of B.P. requirements, 
but the comparative results illustrate the point. Later experi- 
ments conducted with pure materials gave concordant results, 
and, of course, showed correct gra\aty and yield of lead sulpliate. 

It is advisable to allow the mixture to stand in the mortar 
for somxO Httle time before traixsferring to the bottle, in order 
that the " cake " which forms at first may be thoroughlj^ broken 
up and powdered, thus allowing tl\e solvent free access to the 
mixed sohds. If transferred too' soon to the bottle tliis cake 
forms, and is only wath difficulty, if, indeed, at all, thoroughly 
broken up by subsequent shaking. 

Gravimetric assay is preferable to the official volumetric 
process of estimation. 

The following is the process adopted : To 50 c.c. of distilled 
water add 5 c.c. of dilute sulphuric acid and heat in a small 
flask to about 90X., and add 1 c.c. of the lead subacetate solution 
from a pipette. Counterpoise two small filters and moisten 
them with warm water. Carefully decant the contents of the 
flask portion by portion upon the filters, well rinsing the flask 
with water. Wash the precipitate with warm water till free 
from acid, dry in a water oven and weigh. It is to be noted tliat 
a measm'ed quantity was used simply for convenience in the 
experimental stages — ^for comparison with the official require- 
ments, 1 Gm. or other convenient weight must be taken. 

A number of commerical samples examined gave varying 
results, both in sp. gr. and in lead content A number 



PHARMACY. 



267 



of samples of litharge from various wholesale sources were 
examined, and it was found that several of these when used in 
the official proportion failed to produce a solution coming up to 
the official sp. gr. Moderate traces of red lead existed in these, 
as also other impurities, indicating that they were not stricitly 
official. 



Lenigallol Paste. — Kromayer. {Merck's Report, 18, 
120.) Lenigallol, 1 ; zinc oxide, 1 ; starch, 1 ; yellow vase- 
line, 2. 

Licorice Powder, Compound. J. E v a n s. {PJiarm. Journ. 
[4], 20, 303.) The following table gives the result of the exami- 
nation of samples of the powder, full details of the methods 
employed being given in the original paper : — 











Extract 

by 

Acohol 

70 per 

cent. 

60-52 




Alcohol 




Mois- 
ture. 


Total 
Ash. 


Insol. 
Ash. 


Sohible 
Ash. 


Sugar. 


Extract, 

less 
Sugar. 


Sulphur 


3-86 


5-12 


2- 20 


2-86 


50-0 


10-52 


8-92 


4-20 


6-54 


3-98 


2-56 


60-16 


47-7 


12-46 


8-49 


3-98 


4-84 


2-30 


2-48 


60-08 


49-2 


10-88 


8-91 


3-68 


4-88 


2-00 


2-88 


63-44 


50-0 


13-44 


8-90 


3-84 


4-66 


1 68 


2-98 


63-10 


49-6 


13-50 


8-78 



Samples 4 and 5 were prepared })y the author, 
are commercial samples. 



The remainder 



Liniment of Potassium Iodide with Soap. J. H. Shuttle- 
worth. {Phann. Journ. [4], 19, 376.) The limited use of 
this liniment is attributed to the unsatisfactory consistence of 
the preparation as made according to the official directions. It 
is regarded as one of the best liniments from the therapeutic 
point of view, being rapidly absorbed by the skin. The omission 
of lemon oil, and substitution of soft for curd soap, as follows, 
is advocated : — 

Sapo. mollis, B.P., 51. ; pot. iodidi, =iss. ; glycerini, =1. ; aq. 
destillatfe, '=x. 

This yields a faintly opalescent jelly when freshly made, which 
gradually clears itself on keeping ; it is not quite liquid enougli 
to be placed into narrow-mouthed bottles, but is very readily 
absorbed by the skin. If a more hquid preparation be desired, 
half the quantity of soft soap might be used. 



268 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Tliis yields a more liquid preparation, which can be easily 
poured from narrow-moutlied bottles. The mode of preparation 
is simplicity itself. Place the soft soap in the mortar, add tlie 
glycerin, triturate well, and when thoroughly mixed gradually 
add the distilled water, in which the potassium iodide has been 
previously dissolved, tlioroughly mixing after each addition. 

Liniment of Potassium Iodide with Soap. I*. B o a. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 69.) If fuller details were given with the official 
directions for the prejoaration of this liniment, a satisfactory and 
uniform preparation would result. The directions for preparing 
it should read : — 

IVIix the soap, distilled water, and glycerin in a porcelain dish ; 
weigh the dish and contents, and note the weight ; heat on a 
water-bath, with occasional stirring, till the soap be dissolved ; 
make up with hot distilled water to the weight noted ; pour tlie 
liquid gradually into a mortar in which is the iodide of potassium 
reduced to powder, mixing briskly by trituration during the 
addition of the liquid ; continue trituration until a white and 
creamy product be obtained ; set aside in the mortar till cold ; 
then add the oil, and mix thoroughly by trituration. 

Linimentum Hydrargyri. H. G. G r e e n i s h. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 737.) The formulae of Finnemore {Y ear-Book, 
1904, 292) are approved, that containing one-sixth the official 
amount of ammonia being recommended, since, on standing for 
3 months, it showed only a very slight separation. The liniment 
prepared simultaneously by the official process had completely 
separated in 1 week. 

Liquid Extract of Taraxacum. W. H. L e n t o n. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 650.) The varying characters of the commercial 
liquid extract is attributed to the indefinite instructions in the 
official directions. Repercolation with alcohol 30 per cent., to 
obtain a " valoid " preparation, is found to give a satisfactory 
product. 

Maize Stigmata, Extract and Syrup of. L. G r i ni b e r t 
{Journ. Pharm. Chitn. [6], 20, 155.) Infuse 1 kilo, of cut maize 
stigmata for two hours, in sufficient boiling water to cover them, 
then press and strain. Repeat the process with a second portion 
of boiling water. Evaporate the bulked liquids on the water- 



PHARMACY. 



269 



bath to 400 Gm. Cool and add water, 300 Gm. Allow to stand, 
filter, and evaporate to a soft extract. One part of tins extract 
gives a bright solution with 10 parts of water. The object of 
adding water to the partly evaj)orated syrup is to throw out 
those bodies which would render the final product turbid on 
dilution. Thus obtained, the extract is suitable for the pre- 
paration of the syrup by mere solution in simple syrup, thus : — 
Syrup of Maize Stigmata. The above extract of maize stig- 
mata, 12'5 Gm. ; simple syrup, 990 Gm. Dissolve. 

Mercuric Nitrate Ointment. C. 0. Suavely. {Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., 77, 233.) The official process of the U.S. P. is 
thus modified : Heat lard oil, 760 Gm., to 100°C. ; withdraw 
from the heat and add nitric acid, 100 Gm. ; when reaction 
moderates, again heat until effervescence ceases ; at this point 
the liquid should not be disturbed by stirring. Further increase 
the heat to boiling point ; maintain at that temperature for 
10 or 15 minutes, then allow to cool to about 40°C. Meanwhile 
dissolve red mercuric oxide, 75'5 Gm., in nitric acid, 75 Gm., 
without heat, and pour tlie solution into the cooled fatty mix- 
ture. Raise the temperature to 60°C., and maintain at that 
temperature until no further evolution of gas occurs, then 
remove from the heat. When the mass has become quite cold, 
mix intimately by the use of a glass rod. The product will be 
an ointment of true mercuric nitrate, and not a mixture of 
mercuroso-mercuric nitrates (as in the B.P.) ; it will also have 
a less pronounced odour than the official preparation. 

Mercuric Oxide, Yellow, Ointment of. F. S c h a n z. {Merck's 
Report, 18, 95.) The following formula is recommended for the 
preparation of an ointment devoid of grittiness, suitable for 
ophthalmic use : Freshly precipitated j'ellow mercuric oxide, 
1 to 10 ; anhydrous lanoline, 10 ; wliite vaseline to make 100. 

Mercury Cyanide as a Disinfectant. A. R i c h a u d. {Jourii. 
Pharm. Chim. [G], 20, 97.) Altliougli cyanide and oxy cyanide 
of mercury may be employed indifferently as sterilizing agents, 
especially for surgical instruments, as a matter of fact much of 
the so-called oxyc3'^anide of mercury of commerce is simply true 
cyanide. True oxycyanide of mercury is not a commercial 
article ; it is about 5 times less soluble than true cyanide, and, 
moreover, takes much longer to dissolve. The oxycyanide is 



270 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

not a stable body, its solutions decomposing and blackening at 
80°C. It is suggested, therefore, tliat the use of tlie so-called 
oxycyanide should be abandoned, and the definite, more soluble, 
and more stable cyanide substituted for it, the more so since 
the latter salt is not more toxic. Mercury cyanide has been 
tried in hospital surgical practice as a disinfectant with perfectly 
satisfactory results. 

Myrrh Tincture, Dispensing, in Aqueous or Saline Solutions. 
E. A. R u d d i m a n. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 223.) 
Honey, in the proportion of 1 dr. to 7 drs. of the solution, is 
recommended to prevent the agglutination of the resin when 
tincture of myrrh is required to be diluted with water or saline 
solutions. This addition will generally keep the myrrh resin 
suspended for some time. 

New Dressings. — Zelis. {Pharm. Zeit., 49, 998.) Sub- 
stitutes FOR Ferric Chloride. Stypticine is cotarnine hydro- 
chloride ; it forms a yellow powder readily soluble in water, 
may be used as a most efficient ha3mostatic in the form of gauze, 
lint, or wool. Stypticine gauze 33 per cent, is prepared wth a 
solution of stypticine, 100 Gm. ; glycerin, 25 Gm. ; distilled 
water, 375 Gm., to moisten 303 Gm. of gauze. Stypticine wool 
20 per cent, is made with stypticine, 200 Gm. ; glycerin, 30 
Gm. ; distilled water, 1,900 Gm. for 1,000 Gm. of absorbent 
cotton. Stypticine lint 25 per cent, may be prepared with 
stypticine, 75 Gm. ; glycerin, 15 Gm. ; distilled water, 400 Gm. 
for 300 Gm. of lint. The dressings are impregnated with the 
solutions in tlie usual manner and dried at a low temperature 
in the dark, for the salt is easily decomposed. The great objec- 
tion to stypticine is its high price. (See also Year -Book, 1899, 
199.) 

Styptol. This is neutral phthalate of cotarnine, which occurs 
in yellow soluble crystals. Dressings made from it should be 
prepared in the cold. The quantities used are the same as for 
stypticine. (See also Y ear-Book, 1904, 247.) 

Cotargite is a combination of cotarnine hydrochloride and 
FeaClc occurring in orange, readily soluble scales. In preparing 
dressings, half the water in the above formula? may be replaced 
by alcohol, in which cotargite is soluble. The dressings may 
thus be prepared at a lower temperature, for the compound is 
very unstable. 



PHARMACY. 271 

Substitutes for Iodoform. lodoterpin is a syrupy brown 
liquid obtained by the action of iodine on terpin. It is niiscible 
with water, giving red brown solutions. Dressings are prepared 
vnih. it containing 10 and 20 per cent. ; they should be dried at 
the lowest possible temperature in the dark. 

Isoform in its commercial form is a paste consisting of equal 
parts of glycerin and para-iodo-anisol. It is soluble in warm 
water, so that dressings of absorbent gauze, 2, 5 or 10 per cent., 
may be prepared by impregnating 1,200 Gm. of the material 
with a solution of 48, 120, or 240 Gm. of the paste in solution in 
tepid water and drying at a low temperature. Cotton, 5 or 10 
per cent., is prepared with powdered isoform, not with the 
glycerin paste. 

Eugujorm. or acetyl-methylene-di-guaiacol, is obtained by the 
condensation of acetyl-guaiacol and formaldehyde. It is a pale 
yellow powder, insoluble in water, so that the gauze is prepared 
with a suspension in alcohol and glycerin. Five per cent, gauze : 
Euguform, 60 Gm. ; alcohol, 400 Gm. ; glycerin, 60 Gm. ; 
water, 1,200 Gm. for 1,200 Gm. of gauze. Ten per cent, gauze : 
Euguform, 120 Gm. ; alcohol, 600 Gm. ; glycerin, 90 Gm. ; 
water, 900 Gm. for 1,200 Gm. of gauze. The wool is prepared 
with the powder. (See also Year-Book, 1901, 146; 1904, 212.) 
Vioform, oxyquinoline cliloro-iodide, is also insoluble in water ; 
the 5 and 10 per cent, gauzes are prepared in a similar manner 
to those of euguform. (See also Year-Book, 1902, 211.) 

Quinine lygosinate being soluble in alcohol, that menstruum 
is employed for preparing the 5 or 10 per cent, gauze, 120 Gm, 
being dissolved in 1,400 Gm. of alcohol for the former, and 
240 Gm. for the latter, for 2,400 Gm. of gauze. The wool is 
similarly prepared. 

lodeugenol di'essings require to be dried at a low temperature, 
for it is decomposed at 80°C. Five and 10 per cent, gauze are 
made by dissolving 60 or 120 Gm. of iodeugenol in 400 or 800 Gm. 
of ether, then adding, in a stoppered bottle 1,200 or 1,000 Gm. of 
alcohol, and 50 or 75 Gm. of glycerin. This quantity of solution 
is sufficient for 2,400 Gm. of gauze. For stronger gauzes, from 
20 to 30 per cent., a little colophony is added to the impregnating 
solution. The wool is prepared with the powder. 

Nux Vomica Extract of the New Codex. E. B o u r q u e 1 o t. 
{Journ. Fharm. CJivm. [6], 20, 289.) Coarsely powdered nux 
vomica, 1,000 ; alcohol 70 i3er cent., 6,000 ; ether, q.s. ; sugar 



272 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of milk, q.s. Moisten the drug with alcohol, 800, and pack in a 
percolator. Let stand for 24 hours, add more alcohol, again 
macerate for 24 hours, then percolate with the remaining men- 
struum. Distil off the alcohol on the water-bath, evaporate the 
residue in a tared capsule to about 150 Gm. Pour this into a 
half-litre tlask, wash the capsule with 50 c.c. of boiling water, 
and add this washing to the rest. Cool the bulked liquid and 
add to it ether, 50 c.c. Shake cautiously, avoiding the formation 
of an emulsion ; allow to separate, and remove the ethereal layer ; 
repeat the ether washing twice more. Cautiously evaporate the 
bulked ethereal liquid and wash the oily residue with 15 c.c. of 
boiling water, adding acetic acid drop by drop until a distinct 
excess is present. Then filter the mixture through a moistened 
filter, wash the filter mth a little water, and add the filtrate 
to the ether-washed aqueous j)ortion. Evaporate the bulked 
aqueous extract in a tared capsule to about 200 Gm., and when 
cold weigh again exactly. Weigh off 5 Gm. of the hquid extract, 
and drj^ to constant weight at 100, and note the percentage of 
dry extract obtained. Weigh off 4 Gm. of the liquid extract, 
and mix in a separator ^\-ith 20 c.c. of the following menstruum : 
Alcohol 95 per cent., 2 volumes ; solution of ammonia (sp. gr. 
0'960), 1 volume ; distilled water, 1 volume. After thorough 
mixing, shake for 5 minutes with CHCI3, 20 c.c, allow to separate, 
and remove the CHCI3 layer. Repeat the shaking out twice 
more with 15 c.c. of CHCI3 each time, and bulk the cliloroformic 
solutions in a flask ; distil off the whole of the CHCI3, and add 
to the dry residue 20 c.c. of N/IOH2SO4 with 50 c.c. of distilled 
water. Leave on the water-bath for 15 minutes, then filter, wash 
the flask and filter wdth water, bulk the filtrate and washings, 
and when cold make up the volume to exactly 200 c.c. Intro- 
duce 50 c.c. of this solution (corresponding to 1 Gm. of fluid 
extract) into a 125 c.c. flask ; add ether, 20 c.c, and iodeosin 
solution (0'2 per cent.), 5 drops. Then titrate the excess of acid 
with N/lOONaOH solution, with constant agitation, until the 
aqueous layer acquires a permanent rose tint. Divide the num- 
ber of c.c. of N/lOONaOH solution used up by 10, subtract the 
number found from 5, multiply tlie remainder by 0-0364 (the 
mean molecular equivalent of strychnine and brucine) and the 
product by 100. The result is the percentage of total alkaloids 
in the liquid extract. When p = the percentage of dry extract 
in the liquid, A the percentage of total alkaloids, P the weight 
of the liquid extract, the quantity of milk sugar, [q, to be added 



PHARMACY. 



273 



to yield a cliy extract, containing 16 per cent, of total alkaloids 
may be found by the equation — 

_ AP pF 
^ 16~~l00~ 
This quantity of milk sugar is then added to the Hquid extract, 
and the whole is evaporated to dryness, powdered, and preserved 
in a well-closed vessel. The powdered extract gives a cloudy 
solution -ttdth water. To determine the Cotal alkaloids in the 
powdered extract, operate as above on 2 Gm. 

Official Galenicals, Commercial Samples of. By H. W. and 

S. C. Gadd. {Phann. Jourri. [4], 20, 435.) The following 
figures are the summary of observatioas of wholesale products 
extending over 5 years : — 





1 


Extractive, Detennined 




! Speciflc Gravity at 


by Drying iu a Water- 




IS'S^C. 


oven for Two Hours. 


Name. 








1 
Maxi- Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 




mum, mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


Ext. Cascar. Sagrad. Liq. 


1064 1-045 


1-05 


27-5 


20-0 


22-5 


Ext. Ergot. Liq 


1-022 1-000 1-012 


14-49 


9-08 


11-92 


Ext. Glycyrrh. Liq. 






1-150 1-127 1-141 


50-08 


39-4 


45-81 


Ext. Tarax. Liq. . 






1-061 1-015 1040 


28-96 


20-65 


24-20 


Liq. Calumb. Cone. 






0-995 0-937 0-985 


6-3 


3-52 


4-7 


Liq. Cliiratje Cone. 






1-000 0-933 0-979 


5-49 


3-20 


411 


Liq. Caspar. Cone. 






1-011 1-001 1-007 


9-9 


7-0 


8-7 


Liq. Quassias Cone. 






0-991 0-976 0-970 


0-79 


0-28 


0-45 


Liq. Rhei Cone. 






1-045 j 0-995 1-025 


15-92 


9-84 


13-14 


Liq. Senegse Cone. 






1-020 1-004 1-015 


16-09 


8-46 


12-74 


Liq. Sennse Cone. . 






1-076 0-994 1052 


22-44 


15-44 


19-3 


Liq. Serpentar. Cone. 






1-004 0-997 1-00 


5-5 


5-3 


5-4 


Tinct. Aeoniti . 






0-900 0-898 0-899 


1-85 


1-51 


1-7 


Tinct. Aloes 






0-982 0-979 0-981 


9- 13 


8-06 


8-55 


Tinct. Arnicae . 






0-897 , 0-893 0-895 


0-97 


0-52 


0-75 


Tinct. Avirantii 






0-881 


0-872 0-878 


2-3 


11 


1-87 


*Tinct. Benz. Co. . 






0-903 


0-844 0-893 


21-28 


15-7 


18-1 


Tinct. Buchu . 






0-934 


0-927 0-930 


4-4 


3-27 


3-87 


Tinct. Calumb. 






1-08 0-916 0-932 


1-15 


0-83 


1-01 


Tinct. Camph. Co. 






0-923 


0-913 0-916 


0-52 


0-23 


0-33 


Tinct. Cannab. Ind. 






0-844 


0-842 0-842 


406 


3-12 


3-56 


Tinct. Canthar. 






0-836 


0-832 0-834 


0-27 


0-17 


0-22 


Tinct. Capsici . 






0-898 


0-889 i 0-892 


1-14 


0-66 


0-81 


Tinct. Card. Co. . . 


'. . 0-949 


0-941 0-944 , 

) ! 


7.S 


6-1 


6-9 



Determination of aromatic acids as suggested by Barclay — 

Average of a few samples. 

Free acid as benzoic 2-01 per cent. 

Combined acid as benzoic .... 2-85 „ „ 

T 



274 



YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 





Specific Gravity at 
15-5°C. 


Extmctive, Determined 
by Drying in a Water- 




over 


for Two Hours. 


Name. 












Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 




mum. 


mum. 


age. 
0-972 


mum. 


mum. 

1 


age. 


Tinct. Catechu .... 


0-981 


0-968 


16-37 


13-6 


15-58 


Tinct. Chiratse . 






0-930 


0-917 


0-921 


1-1 


0-84 


100 


Tinct. Ciinicifugse . 






1-02 


0-918 


0-933 


1-29 


0-97 


105 


Tinct. Cinchonai Co. 






0-917 


0-904 


0-910 


6-9 


3-07 


4-51 


Tinct. Cinnam. 






0-904 


0-901 


0-902 


2-2 


1-9 


2-05 


Tinct. Cocci 






0-954 


0-952 


0-953 


2-35 


1-8 


2-01 


Tinct. Colchici Sem. 






0-962 


0-956 


0-956 


3-35 


2-6 


3-14 


Tinct. Croci 






0-926 


0-923 


0-924 


2-2 


1-9 


2-0 


Tinct. Cubebaj . 






0-845 


0-843 


0-844 


2-53 


1-61 


2-08 


Tinct. Digitalis 






0-932 


0-923 


0-929 


4-36 


3-5 


3-83 


Tinct. Gelseinii 






0-925 


0-916 


0-919 


1-75 


0-9 


1-30 


Tinct. Gent. Co. . 






0-969 


0-960 


0-904 


6- 13 


3-76 


5-33 


Tinct. Guaiaci Amnioi 






0-910 


0-899 


0-904 


19-5 


15-16 


17-27 


Tinct. Hamamel. . 






0-960 


0-943 


0-951 


2-12 


1-83 


2-10 


Tinct. Hydrastis . 






0-925 


0-920 


0-922 


2-66 


2-05 


2-33 


Tinct. Hyoscyam. . 






0-959 


0-951 


0-955 


3-44 


2-27 


3- 10 


Tinct. Jaborandi . 






0-964 


0-9.56 


0-959 


4-86 


2-36 


3-87 


Tinct. Jalapte . 






0-910 


0-905 


0-908 


— 


— 


— 


Tinct. Kramer. 






0-949 


0-933 


0-940 


7-76 


4-40 


6-22 


Tinct. Lavand. Co. 






0-840 


0-834 


0-835 


0-60 


0-32 


0-49 


Tinct. Limonis 






0-877 


0-873 


0-875 


21 


1-24 


1-61 


Tinct. Lobel. ^ther 






0-829 


0-814 


0-817 


2-10 


1-45 


1-74 


Tinct. Lupuli . 






0-932 


0-927 


0-929 


4-4 


3-42 


4-03 


Tinct. Myrrhaj . 






0-857 


0-846 


0-851 


8-0 


4-40 


5-91 


Tinct. Podophylli . 






0-847 


0-840 


0-843 


3-04 


2-9 


2-95 


Tinct. Primi Virg. . 






0-935 


0-930 


0-933 


3-90 


3-10 


3-36 


Tinct. Pyrethi . 






0-908 


0-893 


0-896 


3-77 


0-56 


1-8 


Tinct. Quassias 






0-945 


0-941 


0-943 


0-54 


0-33 


0-39 


Tinct. Quillaiaj 






0-922 


0-917 


0-919 


1-45 


M6 


1-25 


Tinct. Rhei Co. . . 






0-975 


0-963 


0-969 


*5-76 


4-24 


5-13 


Tinct. Scilla; . . . 






0-909 


0-957 


0-963 


13-36 


10-89 


12-05 


Tinct. Senegas . 






0-944 


0-932 


0-938 


6-47 


5-4j 


5-04 


Tinct. Stramonii . 






0-962 


0-953 


0-958 


3-9 


3-25 


3-53 


Tinct. Strophanthi 






0-895 


0-890 


0-891 


0-7 


0-39 


0-55 


Tinct. Sumbul. 






0-901 


0-894 


0-898 


2-75 


2-25 


2-49 


Tinct. Tolutana . . 






0-868 


0-864 


0-866 


9-94 


9-06 


9-38 


Tinct. Valer. Ammon. 




0-937 


0-932 


0-934 


4-76 


2-98 


3-75 



Ointment for Psoriasis, Unna-Dreuw's. {Pharm. Centralh., 
45, 737.) Clirysarobin, 20; cade oil, 20; salicylic acid, 10; 
vaseline, 25 ; soft soap, 25. Mix. 

Ointments in Collapsible Tubes, Method of Filling. J. W. 

F 1 e u d e r 1 c i t h. [Pharm. Joiuii. [4J, 20, 81.) Take a piece 

* These were determined on the unfinislied tinctures before the addition 
of the glycerin.J 



PHARMACY. 275 

of parchment paper just large enough to hold the ointment 
comfortably, and roll the ointment in it into a cylinder narrower 
than the internal diameter of the metal tube. Push it into the 
tube, leaxang some of the paper sticking out. Press the tube 
together, and, holding it down firmly with the edge of a spatula, 
pull out the parchment paper, which slips out quite clean, leaving 
the ointment in the tube. If a stiffish paste is to be thus filled 
into a tube the paper may be smaller, and be allowed to remain 
in, as it does not readily slip out. 

Orthoform, Precautions in the Compounding of. — B a r d e t. 
{Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 48.) Although the application of 
orthoform as an anaesthetic for mucous inflammatory affections 
is undoubtedly useful, and gives excellent results, the drug re- 
(juires to be kept and dispensed with care. If not carefully stored 
in non-actinic bottles and free from access of air, it is easily de- 
composed, and then instead of exerting a sedative and anaesthetic 
action, it becomes a decided irritant, causing vesicles with ery- 
thema and pruritus. This is particularly the case when it is 
mixed with excipients. Orthoform should never, therefore, be 
prescribed in the form of ointment. Either the powdered drug 
alone should be used or its alcohoHc solution. The latter keeps 
well, and has never been found to cause ill effects. If it be 
desired to prescribe a compound application, ansesthesine should 
be employed instead of orthoform. 

Pareira, Liquid Extract of. H. G. Greenish. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 698.) As the result of a prolonged investigation 
of the pharmacy of the drug the following process is suggested 
for the preparation of the liquid extract. Pareira root in No. 10 
powder, 100 ; alcohol (90 per cent.) ; glycerin ; water ; alcohol 
(20 per cent.), of each a sufficient quantity. 

Mix 20 of alcohol with 20 of glycerin and 60 of water ; moisten 
the root with 40 of this mixture, pack in a percolator, and perco- 
late with the remainder, continuing the percolation with 20 per 
cent, alcohol until exhausted. Reserve the first 75, concentrate 
the subsequent percolates to a soft extract, and dissolve in the 
reserve, adding sufficient 20 per cent, alcohol to make 100. 
Stand for 14 days and filter. (SoUds by weight, liquids by 
measure.) 

Pepsin, Determination of the Digestive Power of. E. W. 

Lucas. (Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 376.) Examination of com- 



276 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

mercial pepsins shows that none meet the official requirements, 
wliich is attributed to the unsatisfactory nature of the phar- 
macopreial test. 

The sources of error in applying the official test are two. In 
the first place, coagulated white of egg rubbed through a twelve- 
hole sieve does not appear in the fine shreds intended, but in more 
or less compacted masses. These masses offer but little surface 
to the pepsin, and cannot be separated even by the most vigorous 
shaking. In the second, it is not practicable to weigh so small 
a quantity as 0*005 Gm. of a hygroscopic substance like pepsin. 
It is therefore suggested to modify the official monograph some- 
what as follows : — 

Tested in tlie manner described one part should dissolve 
2,500 times its weight of freshly coagulated white of egg 
in six hours, the resulting solution being only faintly opalescent. 

Into a stoppered bottle or flask of about 250 c.c. capacity in- 
troduce 20 c.c. of the pepsin solution (containing 0-005 Gm. 
pepsin). Place 12*5 Gm. of the freshly coagulated white of egg 
in a small mortar with 50 c.c. of acidulated water and triturate 
until reduced to uniform granules. Transfer to the flask, wash- 
ing out the last traces of solid matter with another 50 c.c. of the 
acidulated water. Place the flask in a water-bath, so that the 
water is higher up the flask outside than the mixture inside, and 
digest at a temperature of 105° F. (40'5°C.) for 6 hours, shaking 
vigorously at intervals of 15 minutes. The " white of egg " 
should be prepared as directed at present. 

To make the pepsin solution, triturate 0*25 Gm. pepsin and 
1 Gm. sodium chloride in a small mortar until evenly mixed ; 
add acidulated water very carefully at first, mix well, and trans- 
fer to 1,000 c.c. flask ; wash the mortar weU with more of the 
acidulated water to make the solution up to 1,000 c.c. Pre- 
serve for 24 hours, shaking at intervals and immediately before 
use. Every 20 c.c. of this solution wiU contain 0-005 Gm. 
pepsin. 

Pepsin Elixir Compound. W. F. J a c k m a n. {Proc. Amer. 
Pharm. Assoc, 52, 248. ) Pepsin and pancreatin, of each 15 Gm. ; 
diastase, 1 Gm. ; lactic acid, 1 c.c. ; hydrochloric acid, 2 c.c. ; 
glycerin, 250 c.c. ; powdered pumice, 20 Gm. ; compound spirit 
of orange, 5 c.c. ; compound tincture of cardamom, syrup of 
raspberries, white wine, of each 100 c.c. ; colour q.s., water to 
make 1,000 c.c. 



PHARMACY. 277 

Pepsin, Essence of. H. P. H y n s o n. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc, 52, 195.) The following formula for the preparation of 
a pepsin essence, resembling certain commercial American 
brands, is suggested by W. S. Scoville. Pepsin, 22-5 Gm. ; 
rennin, 16*4 Gm. ; lactic acid, 2 c.c. ; tincture of fresh orange 
peel, 10 c.c. ; sugar, 35 Gm. ; glycerin, 125 c.c. ; white wine, 
350 c.c. ; water q.s. to make 100 c.c. 

Pepsin Mixture. G. E d 1 e f s e n. {Merck's Report, 18, 145.) 
Tlie usual small dose of pepsin is considered to be insufficient, 
and the following stronger mixture should be prescribed. Pure 
pepsin, 10 ; dilute hydrochloric acid, 8 ; distilled water, 120 ; 
syrup of orange peel, 30. One teaspoonful to be taken three 
times daily in half a wine-glassful of water. 

Permanganate Crayons, Disodic Ortho phosphate as a Basis for. 

P. Lemaire. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 308.) The 
crystals of non-eflfloresced official sodium phosphate melted on 
the water-bath in their own water of crystallization form an 
excellent basis for permanganate crayons. The finely powdered 
permanganate is added, in the prescribed proportion, to the 
fusion liquid, the whole is mixed and run into moulds lubricated 
with a trace of vaseline oil. As soon as they have set, they 
should be removed and stored in an airtight vessel ; preferably, 
each crayon is enclosed separately in a small well-corked tube. 

Petroleum Cold Cream. F. E. Niece. (Drugg. Circ, 49, 
224.) White wax, ^ lb. ; spermaceti, 1 lb. ; lanolin (anhydrous), 
^ lb. ; white petrola,tum, 2^ lbs. ; distilled water, 1 pint ; borax, 
^ oz. ; tincture of vanilla, 2 drs. ; oil of rose, 1 drop ; oil of 
bitter almonds, 3 drops ; oil of lemon, 10 drops. 

Melt the first four and strain. Heat the water to boiling, 
dissolve in this the borax and add to the grease. Stir until the 
mixture sets, then add the tincture and oils. 

For witch hazel cream add extract of witch hazel instead of the 
water. For cucumber cream add cucumber juice. 

For arnicated cream add one pint of a mixture consisting of 
4 oz. of tincture of arnica fiowers to 12 oz. of water. 

Petroleum Emulsion. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circular, 
49, 223.) Lic^uid amber petrolatum, 4 oz. ; powdered gum 
acacia, 4 oz. ; essential oil of almonds, 3 drops ; oil of cloves, 



278 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

3 drops ; glycerin, 1 oz. ; calcium hypophospliitc, 45 grs. ; 
sodium hypophosphite, 85 grs. ; potassium hypophosphite, 85 
grs. ; acid hypophosphorous, 30 iix ; saccharin, 5 grs. ; water to 
make 16 fl. oz. Place the petroleum and oils in a dry mortar, 
add the powdered gum and rub down smooth, then thoroughly 
emulsify with 4 fl. oz. of water. Dissolve the salts and acid in 

4 fl. oz. of warm water and incorporate tlie solution with the 
emulsion ; add the glycerin and the saccharin, dissolved in a 
little water ; finally gradually incorporate enough water to 
make 16 fl. oz. 

Petroleum Emulsion, N.F. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 
200.) The following formula is suggested : Petrolatum, 50 Gm. ; 
expressed oil of almonds, 250 Gm. ; powdered acacia, 50 Gm. ; 
powdered tragacanth, 25 Gm. ; syrup, 100 c.c. ; tincture of 
fresh lemon peel, 15 c.c. ; water sufficient to make to 1,000 c.c. 
Make an emulsion. 

Petroleum Emulsions. {Amer. Drugg., 45, 7.) Simple Petro- 
letim Emulsion (S. A. MacDonnell's formula) : — Liquid petro- 
latum, 16 fl. oz. ; powdered acacia, 8 oz. ; glycerin, 4 fl. oz. ; 
calcium hypophosphite, 288 grs. ; sodium hypophosphite, 288 
grs. ; water, sufficient to make 48 fl. oz. 

Triturate the oil with the acacia in a large mortar, and add 
16 fl. oz. of water all at once, triturating rapidly to emulsify. 
Dissolve the hypophosphites in 8 oz. of water and add this. 
Then add the glycerin and sufficient water to make to 48 fl. oz. 

E. F. Cook's formula : — Liquid petrolatum, ■^w. ; acacia, 
powdered, ^ij. ; oil of wintergreen, IT^xxxij. ; water, sufficient to 
make 16 fl. oz. 

Mix the liquid petrolatum with the powdered acacia in a dry 
mortar, add 4 fl. oz. of water all at once, and triturate the mix- 
ture until a perfect emulsion is formed ; then add the oil of 
wintergreen and finally enough water to make the finished pro- 
duct measure 1 pint. 

Emulsion of Petroleum, with Hypoph^osphites. — Liquid petro- 
latum, 5iv. ; acacia, powdered, gij. ; calcium hypophosphite, 330 
grs. ; potassium hypophosphite, 110 grs. ; sodium h\q)()pho!s- 
phite, 110 grs. ; oil of wintergreen, n\xxxij. ; water, sufficient to 
make 16 fl. oz. 

Mix the liquid petrolatum with the powdered acacia in a dry 
mortar, add 4 fl. oz. of water all at once, and triturate the mix- 



PHARMACY. 279 

ture until a perfect emulsion is formed ; then add the oil of 
wintergreen. Dissolve the hj^ophosphites in 6 fl. oz. of water 
and add this solution to the emulsion, finally adding enough 
water to make the finished product measure 16 fl. oz. 

Petroleum Products, Petroleum Ether, Vaseline Oil and Vase- 
line. P. A d a m. {Bull. Soc. Chim., 23, 274.) Petroleum ethers. 
Until the introduction of the automobile, there was no great indus- 
trial demand for light, low-boiling j)etroleum spirit, but since 
about 1897 the demand for these products has enormously in- 
creased. Previous to this, had the fractionation and " crack- 
ing " of the oils been carried to the extent that now prevails, the 
output of petroleum ether would have greatly exceeded the 
demand. The oils produced by destructive distillation (or 
cracking) invariably contain considerable proportions of ethy- 
lenic carbides, and until purified have an extremely disagreeable 
odour. These ethylene compounds are removed by agitation 
with sulphuric acid. Gazoline is the lightest fraction of petro- 
leum which has not been subjected to destructive distillation, 
but merely to fractionation, and subsequent purification with 
H2SO4 and NaOH. The wdnter-produced article has the sp. gr. 
0'640, and distils between 30-85°C. That made in the summer 
does not begin to boil below 40°C., and has the sp. gr. 0'650. 
Bromine has no immediate action on it in the cold ; it is not 
affected by mercury acid sulphate, and H2SO4 only shghtly 
colours it. Vaseline oil is chiefly derived from Caucasian petro- 
leums. It has the sp. gr. 0*875, and distils entirely without 
alteration between 335-340°C. It contains no nitrogen ; H2SO4 
does not lessen its volume, but gradually colours it ; bromine has 
no action in the cold. Vaseline is derived from American petro- 
leum residues. It should have been treated neither with acid 
nor alkali. That most suitable for pharmaceutical pui^poses 
should melt between 35° and 39°C. On distilling, pure vaseline 
is split up into a distinctly crystalline body and an oil, whereas 
paraffin is unaltered by distillation. Vaseline should be neutral 
to litmus ; when heated in an open dish it should be entirely 
volatilized without giving off acrid fumes. It should yield no 
saponifiable matter when treated with alkali. When heated 
with H2SO4, sp. gr. 1'5, it should give no colour. Fifteen Gm. 
mixed with 10 c.c. of HNO3, sp. gr. 1*45, should not show a 
greater elevation of temperature than 2°C. Mixtures of paraffin 
and vasehne oil show a greater rise of temperature. The deter- 



280 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

niination of the viscosity also servos to distinguisli pure vaseline 
from mixtures of paraffins. This may be performed in tlie 
following manner, without the use of a viscosimeter, by means 
of a drop-counter (or short graduated pipette). A large test- 
tube of sufficient size to hold the drop-counter and a thermometer 
is filled with pure vaseline and kept at 60°C. in the water-bath, 
which is also furnished with a thermometer. A spiral of copper 
wire made to support the drop-counter, so that the point does not 
touch the bottom, is then introduced. Wlien the temperature 
registered b}'' the two thermometers lias been maintained steadily 
at 60° for at least 20 minutes, the drop-counter is introduced 
into the melted vasehne, and the time taken for the liquid to 
reach a given mark is noted. The experiment is then repeated 
with the vaseline to be tested. 

Phosphated lodotannic Syrup and Wine. L. G r i ra b e r t. 
{Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 155.) Phosphated lodotannic 
syrup. lodotannic syrup [p. 263 ante], 980 Gm. ; mono-calcic 
phosphate, 20 Gm. Dissolve. Twenty Gm. of this syrup 
contains 0*04 Gm. of iodine and 0*40 Gm. of monocalcic 
phosphate. 

Phosphated lodotannic Wine. Iodine, 2 Gm. ; tannin, 4 Gm. ; 
syrup of rhatan}^ 100 Gm. ; mono-calcic phosphate, 20 Gm. ; 
Malaga wine, 860 Gm. Dissolve the tannin and the iodine in 
water, 60 Gm., on the water-bath ; cool and filter. Mix the 
filtrate with the syrup of rhatany in a tared dish and evaporate 
to 120 Gm. Pour this into the wine, mix and dissolve the mono- 
calcic phosphate. Let the mixture stand for 24 hours, then 
filter. Fifteen Gm. of this wine contains 0'03 Gm. of iodine and 
0*30 Gm. of monocalcic phosphate. 

Pill Excipient for Dried Ferrous Sulphate. W.Duncan. 

{Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 167.) The use of any excipient contain- 
ing moisture may cause pills of dried ferrous sulphate to crack 
on keeping, due to expansion. Woolfat used as the excipient 
prevents this. 

^Pill Excipient for Ferrous Chloride and Potassium Perman- 
ganate. J. W. P 1 e n d e r 1 e i t h. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 
81.) Woolfat, 9; yellow beeswax, 1, melted together, forms 
an excipient which allows ferrous chloride or potassium per- 
manganate to be massed and rolled into pills without the addition 



PHARMACY. 281 

of any inert powder. The pills thus made will keep for 3 months. 
The pi'oportion of the excipient to be used is one-fourth of the 
weight of the salt to be massed. 

Pilula Ferri. H. G. Greenish. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 
737. ) The adoption of the modification of the formula suggested 
by Lucas and Stevens [Y ear-Book, 1904, 297) is recommended 
as giving pill mass less prone to oxidation than the official pre- 
paration. 

Plasters, Bacteria in. — M a r p m a n n. {Zeitsch. fiir. 
cmgciv. J///i7-o.s" vnd Klin. Chcm.., through Journ. Pharm. Chim. 
[6], 20, 311.) The author finds that the surfaces of plasters are 
infected by all lands of bacteria. Plasters with a gelatin basis, 
such as court plaster, are specially liable to be loaded with 
microbes, since the plaster basis is a perfect culture medium ; 
and the method of exposing the spread plaster in sheets to dry 
in the gently heated stove is an effective method of collecting 
air-borne germs and incubating them. Even if these plasters 
were germ-free when manufactured, they soon become contami- 
nated when carried in the pocket or purse according to the pre- 
vailing custom. Even with specially-prepared specimens, 
macerations of 1 square cm. in sterilized distilled water gave, 
when cultivated, numerous colonies of bacteria which liquefied 
gelatin. The number of germs in this area of plaster was found 
to vary from 36 to 726. Another source of infection is the saliva 
with which it is customary to moisten the surface of these plas- 
ters, by licking them before applying them to the abraded sur- 
face. The avithor advocates the use of collodions instead of 
these possibly septic appHcations. 

Podophyllin and Belladonna Pills (Codex). L. G r i m b e r t. 

{Journ. Pharm. Chim., 20, 160.) Podophyllin, 30 Cgm. ; extract 
of belladonna, 10 Cgm. ; hard soap, 30 Cgm. Mass and divide 
into 10 pills. 

Potassium Permanganate Pills. A. J o r i s s e n. {Reper- 
toire [3], 16, 511.) Pills massed with the following excipient are 
found to keep well for 3 months : — Potassium permanganate, 
2 Gm. ; anhydrous woolfat, 2 Gm. ; washed kaolin, 6 Gm. Mass 
and divide into 100 pills. 



282 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Quinine Pills. J. B 1 o m b e r g, jun. {Apoth. Zeit., 1904, 
19, 907.) Quinine sulphate may be readily massed as follows : — 
Quinine sulphate, 10 ; compound gum powder, 1 ; sugar, 2 ; 
simple syrup, q.s. to mass. [The compound gum powder of the 
Ph.G. IV. consists of powdered gum acacia, 3 ; powdered 
licorice root, 2 ; powdered sugar, 1 . ] 

Quinine Wine, Thalleioquin Reaction of, prevented by Pre- 
sence of Bitter Orange. P. G u i g u e s. {Journ. Pharm. 
Chim. [6J, 20, 55.) Commenting on the criticism of E. Leger 
{Y ear-Book, 1904, 150), on the thalleioquin test for quinine, the 
author states that on applying the reaction to the ether residue 
of a quinine wine which also contained bitter orange, no thallei- 
oquin colour was produced. But if the interfering substances were 
first removed by wasliing the acid solution with ether, rejecting 
this ether extract, then rendering the aqueous solution alkaline 
and again shaking out again with ether, the thus purified base 
gave the characteristic colour. In testing quinine wines, there- 
fore, it is necessary first to remove, by shaking out the acid 
solution with ether, any substances wliich may mask the re- 
action. 

Ricin Soap. F. T. Gordon. {Merck'' s Report, 14,74.) 
Ricin soap is made by dissolving caustic soda, 75 Gm. in water, 
100 c.c, boiling, and adding to this castor oil, 100 Gm. Boil 
until saponification is complete, then pour into moulds, and 
allow the soap to set. This soap is an excellent one for toilet 
use ; is used as an emulsifier ; for making solutions of carbolic 
acid in water varying in strength between 1 and 50 per 
cent.; for making glycerin suppositories, and for manj^ other 
purposes. 

As an emulsifier its taste is not objectionable, and, though the 
emulsion may separate in some cases, it is easily re-emulsified 
upon shaking. To make glycerin suppositories, dissolve 10 parts 
of the dry soap in 90 parts of glycerin, and pour into moulds. 
For surgeons' use, dissolve 1 part of the dry soap in 4 parts of 
phenol. By dissolving proper quantities of tliis " Carbolic 
Mixture " in water, solutions of any desired strength may be 
obtained. A 2 per cent, ricin soap solution of phenol has been 
found to be an excellent wash for wounds, which have become 
soiled with grease and dirt, and for sterilizing surgical instru- 
ments. 



PHARMACY. 283 

Saline Solution of Gelatin. L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. 
Chhn. 20, 158.) The following formula has been adopted by the 
Codex Sub-committee for the preparation of sterilized gelatin 
solution for hypodermic injection : — White gelatin, 10 ; sodium 
chloride, 7 ; distilled water, q.s. Dissolve the gelatin and salt 
in a flat-bottom 1,500 c.c. flask, on the water-bath. Test the 
solution with litmus paper, and if acid, neutralize with N/IO 
NaOH solution and make up to 1,000 c.c. with distilled water. 
Place the flask in an autoclave and heat to 110°C. for 10 minutes, 
filter the hot liquid and fill doses of 150 c.c. into suitable flasks, 
previously sterilized. Then heat these in the autoclave for 15 
minutes at 110°C. 

Salol-coated Pills of Ipecacuanha for Dysentery. W. Rob- 
erts. {La Semaine mcdicale, through L^Union Pharm., 44, 
410.) The emetic effects of ipecacuanha may be entirely obvi- 
ated by administering it in the form of pills coated with salol. 
This renders them impervious to the gastric secretion, so that 
they do not disintegrate until the intestine is reached. The dry 
pills are either dipped in melted salol or coated with an ethereal 
solution thereof. 

Sapophthalum ; Neutral Coconut Soap. P. van der 

W i e 1 e n. (Apoth. Zeit., 19, 1014.) Superfatted soaps pre- 
pared in the usual manner cause much pain when introduced 
into the eyes, and the higher the molecular weight of the fatty 
acids combined the more alkaline is the liquid resulting from 
the dissociation of the soap. A fat was therefore sought 
with a high saponification equivalent, and therefore with 
fatty acids of low molecular weight. Such is coconut fat, 
which has the saponification value 250 to 268-4. The follow- 
ing formula is found to give a perfectly neutral soap : Sixty 
Gm. of coconut fat is mixed with 36'7 Gm. of NaOH solu- 
tion, sp. gr. 1-539 ; after standing in contact for 24 hours, the 
mixture is warmed on the water-bath to complete saponification ; 
glycerin, 70 Gm., is then added to the mass, and the heating con- 
tinued until a homogeneous mass results ; coconut oil fatty acids, 
60 Gm., are then added, and heat again applied until 0-5 Gm. of 
the soap dissolved in 20 c.c. of water, in which it will give a 
turbid solution, no longer shows an alkaline reaction with 
phenolphthalein. This soap solution sets to a jelly when cold ; 
its 1 : 12 solution forms a thick liquid, which is easily pourable 



284 YEAR-BOOK OF THARMACY. 

wlien slightly warmed. It is turl)id at ordinary temperatures, 
but becomes clear ou warming ; it is perfectly neutral, and 
remains so in a 1 : 50 solution ; beyond that it gives an alkaline 
reaction with pjienolphthalein. Like all superfatted soaps, it 
does not lather well. If a 1 : 50 solution be introduced into the 
eye, it causes a slight pricking sensation, which is removed by 
washing out. It is useful in dermatological practice, since it 
may be readily incorporated with active drugs by warming, but 
it is of special service for ophthalmic work, hence its name, 
sapoplithalum, an abbreviation of sapo ophthalmicus neutralis. 
Iir collyria it may be prescribed as follows : Sapoplithalum, 
12*5 ; dissolve in rose water, 300 ; distilled water, 87*5 ; diluted 
alcohol, 100. 

Sterilized Catgut. L. G r i m b e r t. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. 
20, 159.) The following directions for sterilizing surgical catgut 
have been adopted by the Codex Sub-committee. Remove all 
fat from the eatguts by extraction with ether in an extractor. 
Dry the fat-free gut at 85°C.,and allow to cool under a bell jar 
over H2SO4. Introduce them into strong glass flasks containing 
absolute alcohol and seal with the blowpipe ; place these in an 
autoclave and heat them to 120°C. for 45 minutes ; then cool. 
Before use the gut should be plunged in sterilized distilled water 
for 15 minutes to render it supple. 

Suppositories for Internal Haemorrhoids. {Apoth. Zeit., 19, 
679.) Powdered extract of hamameUs, 1 gr. ; orthoform, 5 grs. ; 
cocaine hydrochloride, | gr. ; extract of belladonna, \ gr. ; 
extract of opium, \ gr. ; cacao butter, 60 grs. Make one supposi- 
tory ; to be used night and morning. 

Suppositories, Spermaceti in Place of Beeswax for Hardening. 

W. S. Scoville. {Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 219). 
After numerous experiments the conclusions arriv^ed at are that 
spermaceti is to be preferred to beeswax for raising the m.p. 
of suppositories. Spermaceti may be used in equal weights with 
chloral, phenols, or essential oils, and the suppositories may be 
depended upon to melt at the body temperature. With cliloral 
or phenol one-quarter to one-half the weight is sufficient ; with 
volatile oils an equal weight may be safely used. White bees- 
wax raises the m.p. of softer fats much more tlian an equal 
weight of spermaceti. If used at all it should be employed with 



PHARMACY. 285 

caution and in small quantities, never exceeding 10 per cent. 
It sets more slowly than spermaceti. Suppositories containing 
as much as 25 per cent, of chloral may be made with pure cacao 
butter alone by either the hot or cold process, but in the former 
case the moulds must be cliiUed with a freezing mixture of ice 
and salt before filling. 

Suppositories of Witch-hazel and Extract of Hydrastis, {Proc. 
Amer. Phann. Assoc, 52, 253.) The following base will give a 
suppository of witch-hazel and hydrastis, without separation : 
Castor oil, 10 ; beeswax, 15 ; cacao butter, 90. This base 
readily melts at the body temperature. 

Syrup of Calcium Lacto phosphate, Improved. F. H e m m. 

{Amer. Drugg., 46, 142.) Precipitated calcium carbonate, 2-5 
Gm. ; lactic acid, 6'0 c.c. ; phosphoric acid, 3-6 c.c. ; orange flower 
water, 2*5 c.c. ; simple syrup, q.s. ; distilled water, 20*0 c.c. 

Mix the acids with the distilled water and orange flower water 
in a mortar ; add the calcium carbonate and triturate until 
complete^ dissolved and effervescence ceases ; filter or strain 
through cotton and add about 67 c.c. of syrup or sufficient to 
make 100 c.c. 

Syrups, Official, Suggested Improvements in the Preparation 
of Certain. H. G. G r e e n i s h. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 19, 701, 
734.) After full pliarmaceutical investigation, the following 
processes are recommended to be substituted for those at present 
official. 

Syru'piis Tolutanus. The process of Farr and Wright {Y ear- 
Book, 1899. 366) is adopted. 

Syrupus Bhci. — Rhubarb root (cut small), 2 oz. ; oil of coriander, 
5 111 ; alcohol, 60 HI ; water, 15 fl. oz. ; sugar, 24 oz. 

Macerate the rhubarb with the water for 12 hours, strain and 
press ; filter the hquid, raise the filtrate to the b.p. for a minute 
and cool ; for every 12 fl. oz. of filtered liquid add 24 oz. of sugar, 
and dissolve wdth the aid of a gentle heat. Finally add the oil 
of coriander dissolved in the alcohol. 

This preparation does not represent the full activity of the 
root. An ehxir, in which a mixture of alcohol, glycerin, and 
water would be the menstruum, might doubtless be devised, 
and upon this experiments are at present in progress. 

Syrupus Pruni Virginiance. The processes suggested by 
Lucas {Year-Book, 1899, 212) and by Flett {Y ear-Book, 1902) 



286 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

have been tried, but arc not considered to offer any material 
advantages over tlie method at present official. 

Tannin Ovules, Suppositories, or Pessaries. L. G r i m b e r t. 
{Journ. Pharm. Chiin., 20, 158.) Wiislied and dried gelatin, 
10 ; tannin, 3 ; distilled water, 15 ; glycerin, 60 parts by weight. 
Dissolve the tannin in the cold ; add the gelatin and leave it in 
contact until all the liquor has been absorbed ; gently warm the 
glycerin and add the softened gelatin to it ; when dissolved strain 
through a cloth and run into suitab'e moulds of about 15 Gm. 
capacity. Each suppository contains approximately 50 Cgm. 
This is the formula suggested for the new Codex. 

Tinctures, Displacement by Water in the Preparation of. H. 

C. T. Gardner. {Pharm. Journ. [4 J, 20, 548.) Tiie mode 
of preparation advocated is as follows : The powdered drugs 
are moistened and set aside in the manner officially directed, 
to be later transferred to a percolator, packed therein, and 
percolation allowed to proceed. After an amount of menstruum 
had been added, which, together with that portion used for 
moistening the powders, equalled the required volume of tincture, 
and after it had ceased to pass, a small piece of ordinary white 
paper was placed upon. the top of the marc, and a volume of 
water carefully poured thereon equal to twice the deficient 
quantity of percolate. 

It was foreseen that some loss in alcohol would take place, yet 
it aj)peared that the volume of retained alcohol (or menstruum) 
might not be so great as to prevent the finished tincture from 
comparing favourably in alcoholic strength with the same 
tincture officially i:)repared. From the results obtained with the 
limited number of tinctures experimented on, the method gives 
quite as satisfactory results, under certain conditions, as the 
pharmacopoeial mode. The process of displacement was stopped 
when the required quantity of percolate was obtained — that is 
to say, when the tincture was made up to the required bulk. 
Of the tinctures so prepared the strengths of the menstrua were 
variously 45, 60, and 70 per cent, alcohol ; the weights of the 
marcs ranged from 2 oz. to over 3 lb. The weight of marc is 
important, as it is very doubtful whether a very small marc can 
give a satisfactory result. 

The following table gives the results obtained, which may be 
compared with those for the same tinctures given by Lucas and 
Dick [injra) and by Brunlcer {Y ear-Book, 1904, 568): — 



PHARMACY. 



287 



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288 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Tinctures, Official. E. W. L u c a s and A. D. D i c k. {Fhann. 
Journ. [4 J, 20, 362.) The table on i^age 289 gives the result of six 
years' observations of the laboratory manufacture of tinctures. 

Unguentum Acidi Carbolici. H. G. Greenish. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 19, 737.) The following formula, due to Taylor, 
gives an ointment distinctly superior to that produced l)y the 
official formula : Phenol, 1 ; hard paraffin, 6 ; soft paraffin, 
18. Melt the paraffins and dissolve the phenol in the liquid. 

Vasenol. A. K o p p. {Apolh. Zeit., 19, 786.) Vasenol is 
obtain(3d by adding to vaseline or liquid vaseline certain fatty 
alcohols of high molecular weight, such as those of lanolin or of 
spermaceti. These enable the paraffins to be mixed and to form 
permanent emulsions with considerable quantities of aqueous 
solutions, and the absorption of the vaseline by the skin is also 
stated to be increased. Ordinary vasenol is an emulsion of 
yellow vaseline with 25 per cent, of water ; it has an unctuous 
consistence and a yellow colour. It may be mixed with several 
times its weight of water, and forms an excellent ointment basis 
for general use. Liquid vasenol is a similar preparation obtained 
with white vaseline oil, and contains 33 per cent, of water. It 
may be used either in liniments or as a vehicle for dressings and 
applications, since it may be combined with aqueous Uquids in 
considerable quantities. Vasenol powder contains 10 per cent, 
of vasenol with an absolvent powder. It is useful in certain 
skin affections. 

Vasenol. — Aufrecht. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 
275. ) This new ointment basis, according to the patents, is a mix- 
ture of mineral fats with fatty alcohols of high molecular weight. 
A mixture of yellow vaseline, 4 ; lanoline, 1 ; water, 1, gives a 
product closely resembling it. 

Vitose. — Aufrecht. {Pharm. Zeit., 50, 227.) Vitose 
is a new neutral odourless ointment basis, readily miscil)le witli 
glycerin, oils, fats, and water. It melts at about 28°C., and has 
the following percentage composition : water, 2-77 ; albumin, 
1-86 ; fat, 71-53 ; glycerin, 23-82 ; ash, 0-02 per cent. 

Xeroform Dusting Powder. E. T o f f . {Apoth. Zeit., 20, 23.) 
Xeroform, 1 ; French chalk, 9, mixed, forms an excellent dusting 





Spec. Grav. at 15-5°C. 


Extract! 
Maxi- 


ve(Gm. ] 


jerlOOC.e.) 

Average. 


% Alcohol (by Vol.) 


— 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Mini- 


Maxi- Mini- 


Aver- 




mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


mum, mum. 


age. 


Tr. Aconiti . 


0903 


0-895 


0-900 


1-70 


1-20 


1-50 


68-0 65-8 


66-0 


Tr. Aloes . . 


0-980 


0-972 


0-976 


7-6 


6-6 


7-4 


41-8 38-0 


39-0 


Tr. Aruicse . 


0-900 


0-894 


0-896 


0-79 


0-65 


0-71 


69-5 660 


67-6 


Tr. Asafetidae . 


0-919 


0-914 


0-916 


10-0 


9-0 


9-7 


63-0 60-0 


62-0 


Tr. .\uraatii 


0-885 


0-879 


0-882 


1-86 


1-57 


1-69 


75-S 720 


73-6 


Tr. Benzoin. Co. 


0-901 


0-890 


0-895 


17-0 


15-0 


16-1 


75-9 1 71-6 


74-4 


Tr. Buchu . . 


0-935 


0-928 


0-932 


3-8 


2-8 


37 


58-0 I 55-0 


56-0 


Tr. Calumbse . 


0-926 


0-918 


0-920 


1-1 


0-80 


0-86 


58-0 ■ 55-5 


57-0 


Tr. Camph. Co. 


0-923 


0-916 


0-920 


0-35 


0-30 


0-31 


59-0 56-5 


57-0 


Tr. Cannal). Ind. 


0-850 


0-846 


0-847 


4-1 


34 


3-7 


87-0 


84-8 


86-0 


Tr. Cantharidis 


0-839 


0-835 


0-836 


0-18 


0-14 


017 


89-6 


88-5 


89-1 


Tr. Caosici . 


0-898 


0-892 


0-895 


1-2 


0-96 


0-98 


69-0 


670 


68-0 


Tr. Cardain. Co. 


0-955 


0-949 


0-952 


71 


61 


6-6 


54- 1 


52-2 


53 3 


Tr. Cascarillse . 


0-903 


0-898 


0-900 


2-5 


1-99 


2-3 


67-0 


64-6 


66-0 


Tr. Catechu 


0-985 


0-980 


0-982 


15-6 


13-8 


14-5 


52-7 


60-0 


51-4 


Tr. Chiratse 


0-925 


0-921 


0-923 


1 13 


105 


1-10 


57 9 


66-9 


67-2 


Tr. CimicifugaB . 


0-925 


0-922 


0-923 


1-44 


1-25 


1-33 


58-0 


66-5 


57-1 


Tr. Cinchonje . 


0-925 


0917 


0-920 


5-8 


4-8 


5-4 


67-0 


62-4 


64-6 


Tr. Cinchon. Co. 


0-918 


0-914 


0-916 


4-8 


4 1 


4-5 


65-5 


62-8 


64-7 


Tr. Cinnamonii 


0-904 


0-900 


0-901 


21 


1-45 


1-8 


66-5 


65-5 


66-0 


Tr. Cocci . . 


0-960 


0949 


0-950 


2-49 


2-0 


2-3 


43-0 42-0 


42-5 


Tr. Colchici Sem. 


0-956 


0-950 


0-951 


2-10 


1-90 


20 


43-6 420 


43-0 


Tr. Conii . . 


0-902 


0-895 


0-899 


1-40 


1-27 


1-30 


68-0 


66-0 


66-5 


Tr. Croci . . 


0-92& 


0-924 


0-926 


30 


2-25 


2-5 


58-4 


56-0 


57-5 


Tr. Cubebae . . 


0-845 


0-840 


0842 


1-43 


1-25 


1-35 


86-2 


820 


840 


Tr. Digitalis . 


0-935 


0-932 


0-933 


3-60 


2-86 


3-36 


56-5 


64-6 


56-8 


Tr. Ergot. Am. 


0-942 


0-936 


0-938 


3-90 


2-72 


3-29 


51-2 


60-1 


50-8 


Tr. Gekeinii 


0-927 


0-920 


0-924 


1-30 


1-20 


1-26 


67-0 


66-5 


56-8 


Tr. Gentian Co. 


0-967 


0-961 


0-965 


4-9 


3-5 


4-2 


43-0 


41-8 


42-3 


Tr. Guaiaci Am. 


0-907 


0-899 


0-902 


17-2 


14-0 


15-5 


71-5 


69-2 


70-0 


Tr. Hamamelidis 


0-955 


0-949 


0-953 


1-95 


1-41 


1-68 


44-7 


43-6 


440 


Tr. Hydrastis . 


0-930 


0-929 


0-929 


2-55 


1-97 


2-30 


56-0 


66-6 


55-8 


Tr. Hyoscyami 


0-959 


0-950 


0-954 


3 1 


2-7 


2-9 


43-0 


41-6 


42-0 


Tr. lodi . . 


0-881 


0-878 


0-880 





. — . 


2-52%l. 


86-5 


84-0 


85-0 


Tr. Jaborandi . 


0-959 


0-957 


0-958 


2-90 


2-45 


2-68 


43-0 


42-0 


42-4 


Tr. Jalapae . 


0-914 


0-910 


0-912 


4-6 


3-5 


37 


67-0 


64-1 


66-0 


Tr. Kino . . 


0-998 


0-990 


0-997 


23-6 


20-0 


22-0 


52-7 


48-0 


50-0 


Tr. Kramerise . 


0-941 


0-938 


0-940 


4-9 


4-6 


4-8 


56-0 


63-6 


55-0 


Tr. Lavand. Co. 


0-840 


0-839 


0-840 


0-52 


0-46 


0-50 


88-6 


88-0 


88-3 


Tr. Limonis 


0-880 


0-879 


0-879 


1-44 


1-40 


1-41 


76-5 


75-8 


761 


Tr. Lobel .i]tli. 


0-816 


0-812 


0-814 


1-48 


0-80 


1-40 


— 


— 


— 


Tr. Lupuli . . 


0944 


0-938 


0-940 


4-0 


36 


3-8 


54-1 


49-8 


54-0 


Tr. Jlyrrhce 


0-857 


0-849 


0-853 


4-8 


3-9 


4-4 


84-8 


83-4 


84-1 


Tr. Opii . . 


0-959 


0-955 


0-957 


3-6 


2-8 


3-3 


44-7 


43-6 


44-1 


Tr. Podophylli 


0-848 


0-844 


0-847 


3-6 


2-96 


3-4 


87-6 i 85-5 


86-5 


Tr. Pnmi Virg. 


0-932 


0-931 


0-931 


2-7 


2-3 


2-4 


54-1 ; 53-7 


54-0 


Tr. Pyrethri . 


0-903 


0-901 


0-902 


1-85 


1-50 


1-66 


69-1 67-5 


68-1 


Tr. Quassias 


0-948 


0-944 


0-946 


0-47 


0-16 


0-38 


44-7 42-0 


43-5 


Tr. Qiiillaise 


0-927 


0-921 


0-922 


1-38 


0-93 


1-20 


57-9 55-5 


57-0 


Tr. Rhei Co. . 


0-975 


0-971 


0-973 


12-7 


12-0 


125 


50-1 i 48-6 


49-4 


Tr. Scillaj . . 


0-971 


0-965 


0-968 


12-3 


10-4 


11-0 


52-1 51-2 


51-8 


Tr. Senegas . 


0-945 


0938 


0-941 


5-0 


43 


4-6 


55-1 


54-6 


54-7 


Tr. Sennse Co. . 


0-991 


0-985 


0-987 


9-0 


8-1 


8-3 


40-0 


38-5 


39-2 


Tr. SerpentarifD 


0-901 


0-896 


0-898 


2-0 


1-28 


1-5 


68 


66-1 


67-0 


Tr. Stramonii . 


0-962 


0-952 


0-958 


3-6 


32 


34 


43 9 


42- 1 


43-0 


Tr. Strophanthi 


0-897 


0-894 


0-895 


0-68 


0-42 


0-51 


69-0 


68-3 


68-6 


Tr. Sumbul 


0-906 


0-901 


0-903 


2-70 


219 


2-41 


67-0 


64-5 


66-1 


Tr. Tolutana . 


0-868 


0-864 


0-866 


8-3 


6-8 


7-9 


83-7 


81-0 


82-0 


Tr. Valer. Am. . 


0-944 


0-939 


0-941 


3-68 


251 


2-98 


50-7 


49-1 


50-2 


Tr. Zingiberis . 


0-844 


0-839 


0-840 


0-37 


030 


0-35 


88-6 1 87-0 880 



[Compare Y ear-Books, 1901, 211 ; 1903, 250 and ante 273, 274.] 

289 jj 



290 YEAR-BOOK OF PHAEMACY. 

powder for infants. It in also useful in many apj)licationK for 
adults, for excoriations, perspiring feet and other similar ajffec- 
tions. 

Zinc Chloride and Iodide Solutions. E. A. R u d d i m a n. 
{Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52,221.) In dissolving a mixture of 
ZnCl2 and Znl2 in water a precipitate frequently occurs, due to the 
alkahnity of the salt. Commercial ZnCla and Znl2 are frequently 
insoluble in water or give solutions which are distinctly alkaline. 
These should be carefully neutrahzed with HCl or HI before 
dispensing. 

Zinc Chloride Pencils. {Pharm. Centralh., 1904, 45, 867.) 
Zinc chloride may be rolled into pencils by means of rye flour. 
Just sufficient water is added to the salt to liquefy it, sufficient 
rye flour being added to make a workable paste, which is then 
roUed out into suitable sticks, and dusted over with lycopodium. 



NOTES AND FORMULAE. 



PART IV. 
NOTES AND FORMULAE. 

Acacia farnesiana in Cuba. {ScJmmneVs Report, Mmj, 1905, 
21, after Journal (V Agriculture tropicale.) Acacia farnesiana, 
known in Cuba as " Aroma francesa," has spread to such an 
extent in the island as to become a troublesome weed. It is 
suggested that, besides using the blooms for the extraction of 
the volatile oil, the wood, which is suitable for wheelwrights' 
work and for furniture making, might l)e utilized. 

Acetic Acid for Skin Application. — Leredde. {Nou- 
veauxRemedes, 21, 213.) Acetic acid is often prescribed in Ger- 
many for local application in the form of an ointment, as 
Acetic ointment : Acetic acid, 5 ; lanoline, 10 ; vaseline, 60. 
Acetic paste is also used, and thus prescribed : Acetic acid, 2 to 
10 ; vaseline, 8 ; lanoline, 12 ; starch, 10. 

Almond Meal. {Nat. Drugg., 34, 454.) Blanched sweet 
almonds, 20 ; blanched bitter almonds, 20 ; rice flour, 2 ; 
powdered borax, 1 ; powdered orris root, 1 ; perfume, q.s. 
Reduce the almonds to a paste with the borax, then work in the 
flour and the orris. Finally add the perfume. 

Aniline Colours, Toxicity of. C. W. C h 1 o p i n. {Zeits. 
filr Untersuch. der Nahr. u. Genussmitt., through Pharm. 
Centralh., 45, 935.) An extended examination of coal tar 
colours has shown the following to be poisonous when taken 
internally : Aurantia, mandarin orange II.. metanil orange 
(methyl orange), butter yellow, auramine 0, brilliant green, 
sodium aurine, pure blue for cotton, ursol D, thiocatechin, 
1, 2, 3, and T, autogenic black, and Vidal's black. The 
following are classed as doubtful, having more or less effect 
on the digestive or excretory organs : Metanil yellow, aniline 



294 YEAK-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

orange T, pyrotin RR, ponceau RR, bcnzo-purpurin, erica B, 
lemon yellow (?), iodo-green, acid green, Bavarian blue DBF and 
DSF, cerise DN, iodeosin, rhodamine B and G, chrysanilino 
benzoflavin II., methylene green, primulin and quinoline yellow. 
Toxicity on the human skin was determined by applying wool 
dyed with tlie colours to the hands and feet for 10 to 18 days ; 
only two of tlie above, auramine and ursol D, were found to have 
a harmful effect. The most toxic colours are found among the 
yellows, succeeded by the blues, the browns, and the blacks ; 
very slight toxicity is found among the green or violet colours, 
and not a single poisonous red was met with, and only one of 
doubtful toxicity. 

Animal Charcoal an Antidote to Naphthols. J. L e s a g e. 

[Journ. Pharm. Chim. [G]. 20, 143.) Animal cliarcoal adminis- 
tered in large doses is a certain antidote to the toxic action of 
naphthols ; it minimizes the effects, and enables an animal which 
has been treated with a lethal dose to recover. Wood charcoal 
has similar properties, but is much less active than animal 
charcoal ui neutralizing the toxic effects of naphthols. 

Antipest, a Domestic Insecticide. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. 
Circ 49, 223.) Kerosene oil, 12 pints, 16 fl. oz. ; mercury 
oleate, 2 oz. ; nitrobenzol, 2 oz. ; alkanet root, crushed, 1 oz. 
Mix the oleate and the nitrobenzol, add the kerosene, and 
macerate the alkanet in the mixture for 2 days, then decant. 
To be applied by painting or spraying to the localities infested 
with insects. To be kept from proximity to fire. 

Antiseptic Vapour. {Nouveaux Remedes, 21.) Phenol, 5 ; 
thymol, 2 ; eucal\"]itol, 1 ; alcohol 90 per cent.. 10. Mix a 
tablespoonful in a large open dish full of water, and Ijoil over a 
spirit stove. 

Ants at the Syrup Jars, To Get Rid of. — T a z w e 1 1. 

{Nat. Bnigg.. 35, 42.) Tlie following may be useful to phar- 
macists abroad : — 

Take 2 or 3 (or more) turns of twine around the bottle, and 
tie there ; then, turning the bottle sideways, saturate the twine 
with oil of cloves. The bottle will be ant -proof for at least a 
month, and can be kept so perpetually by renewing the oil of 
cloves from time to time, or whenever necessary Another plan. 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 295 

or rather a modification of the same plan, is to cut out, for each 
syrup jar, a disc of cardboard a trifle larger in diameter than the 
jar, saturate the edge of the disc with oil of clove, and stand the 
jars on the same. Of course, the oil will have to be renewed 
from time to time. 

Application for Perspiring Hands. {Nouveaux Remedes For- 
mulary, 21.) Eau de Cologne, 6; tincture of belladonna, 1. 
Mix. Rub the hands twice or thrice daily with half a teaspoonful 
of the mixture. 

Application for Warts. — M a n t e 1 i n. {Journ. des Practs., 
through Repertoire [3], 16, 406.) The following mixture is to 
be applied daily : Chloral hydi-ate, 1 ; acetic acid, glacial, 1 ; 
sahcylic acid, 4 ; ether, 4 ; collodion, 15. Warts treated with 
this disappeared in a month without leaving a trace. Simul- 
taneously 10 grs. of magnesia were given internally daily. 

Artificial Musk Solution. H. Man n. {Seifens^eder Zeit., 
32, 234.) For toilet soap cinnamein ma}?- be used as a solvent 
for artifical musk ; for perfumery, benzyl benzoate is the best 
solvent ; 200 Cm. of synthetic musk is dissolved in 1 kilo, of 
this ester, warmed to about 40°C., and remains in solution on 
cooUng. It is not thrown out when the solution is mixed with 
essences and floral extracts in compounding bouquets. 

Asthma Cures. [Pharm. Zeit., 49, 978.) Asthma Papers. — 
(1) Impiegnate bibulous paper with the following, then dry 
Extract of stramonium, 10 ; potassium nitrate, 17 ; sugar, 20 
warm water, 200. Dry. (2) Blotting or grey filter paper, 120 
potassium nitrate, 60 ; powdered belladonna leaves, 5 ; pow- 
dered stramonium leaves, 5 ; powdered digitalis leaves, 5 ; 
powdered lobelia, 5 ; myrrh, 10 ; olibanum, 10 ; phellandrium 
fruits, 5. Make a strong infusion of the drugs, moisten the 
paper therewith and dry. Stramonium Candle. — Powdered stra- 
monium leaves, 120 ; potassium nitrate, 72 ; Peruvian balsam 
3 ; powdered sugar, 1 ; powdered tragacanth, 4. Water, q.s. 
to mass ; roll into suitable shapes and dry. Asthma Fumi- 
gating Powders. — (1) Powdered stramonium leaves, 4; 
powdered aniseed, 2 ; potassium nitrate, 2. (2) Powdered 
stramonium, 30 ; potassium nitrate, 5 ; powdered tea, 15 ; 
powdered eucalyptus leaves, 15 ; powdered Indian hemp, 15 ; 



296 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

powdered lobelia, 15 ; powdered aniseed, 2 ; distilled water, 45. 
deary's Asthma Fumigathuj Powder. — Powdered stramonium. 
15 ; powdered belladonna leaves, 15 ; powdered opium, 2 ; 
potassium nitrate, 5. Schiffmann's Asthma Powder. — Potassium 
nitrate, 25 ; stramonium, 70 ; belladonna leaves, 5. Neumeyer's 
Asthma Powder. — Potassium nitrate, 6 ; sugar, 4 ; stramonium, 
6; powdered lobelia, 1. Fischer's Asthma. Powder. — Stramonium, 
5 ; potassium nitrate, 1 ; powdered Achillea millefolium leaves, 
1. Vorlaender's Asthma Powder. — Stramonium, 150 ; lobelia, 
80 ; arnica flowers, 80 ; potassium nitrate, 30 ; potassium 
iodide, 3 ; naphthoi, 1,100. 

[All the herbal ingredients in coarse powder ; moisten with 
the water in which the potassium nitrate has been previously 
dissolved, and dry.] 

Balm of Columbia. [Dnigg. Circ, 49, 241.) Borax, 1 oz. ; 
glycerin, 1^ oz. ; oil of rosemary, 15 ii| ; alcohol, 2 oz. ; water, 
14 oz. Dissolve the borax in the water, and the oil in the 
alcohol, and mix. 

Benzoin Lotion. {Nouveaux Remedes, 21, 47.) Simple tinc- 
ture of benzoin, 30 ; tincture of quillaia, 30 ; glj'cerin, 30 ; 
terpinol, 2 ; oil of rose geranium, 2 ; saHcyhc acid, 2 ; water, 
250. One, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls added to 3| pints of water forms 
an efficient and pleasant antiseptic lotion or douche. 

Calcium Nitrate as a Manure. E, S. B e 1 1 e n o u x. {Comptes 
rend., 140, 1190.) Calcium nitrate is stated to give better re- 
sults as a manure than sodium nitrate. Potatoes and sugar 
beets treated with the lime salt gave more starch and sugar 
repectively than control crops treated with sodium nitrate. 
The nitrate is prepared by treating calcium chloride with sodium 
nitrate ; on concentrating, the sodium chloride, being less soluble, 
separates first and is removed. 

Camphor Application for Itching in Skin Diseases. {Nou- 
veaux h'emedes, 21, 215.) (1) Lanolin, 90; camphorated oil, 
10 ; chloral hydrate, 1. (2) Zinc oxide, prepared chalk, cam- 
pliorated oil, lime water, a.a., equal paits to make a paste. 

Carbolic Salve, Improved. S. B a y n e. {Amer. Drugg., 
45, 4.) f'aibolic acid. ^iiss. ; camphor, 5iv. ; Lanohn, =1. ; oil 
of sassafras, iilxv. ; white wax, 5vi. ; white petrolatum (refined), 



NOTES AND FORMIJLiE. 297 

gviij. Melt tlie carbolic acid and camphor, and while warm add 
the oil of sassafras. Melt the wax, petrolatum and lanoHn 
together, add the solution of camphor, and stir occasionally 
while cooHng. The caustic properties of the acid are neutralized 
by the camphor. 

Chap-salve. (Chem. and Drugg., 65, 1050.) Lanolin, 2 ; 
white petrolatum, G ; glycerin, 8 ; camphor flowers, 1. Melt 
the first two and add the camphor ; when dissolved, place in a 
mortar, and while stirring add the glycerin. 

Chemical Plant Foods. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 116.) I. — Sodium 
phosphate, 4 oz. ; sodium nitrate, 4 oz. ; ammonium sulphate, 
2 oz. ; sugar, 1 oz. Use 2 teaspoonfuls to a gallon of water. 

II. Ammonium phosphate. 30 Gm. ; sodium nitrate, 25 Gm. ; 
potassium nitrate, 25 Gm. ; ammonium sulphate, 20 Gm. ; 
water, 100 litres. One application of this a week is enough for 
the slower growing plants, and tw^o for the more rapid growing 
herbaceous ones. 

III. Calcium phosphate, 4 oz. ; potassium nitrate, 1 oz. ; 
potassium phosphate, 1 oz. ; magnesium sulphate, 1 oz. ; iron 
(ferric) phosphate, 100 grs. 

Choline the Toxin of Epilepsy. {Merck's Eeport, 18, 45.) 
Formanek has found that choline has a marked toxic effect when 
injected into animals, and J. Donath attributes the convulsions 
of epilepsy to the presence of the base in the cerebrospinal 
fluid. He lias demonstrated that it occurs in that fluid from 
epileptics, and Wilson finds it in the cerebrospinal fluid in cases of 
nervous degeneration such as paraplegia and cerebral tumour, 
but it is not present in hysteria or in secondary syphilis. Choline 
as well as neurine are far more poisonous than is supposed, and 
exercise a violent irritant effect on the cerebral cortex. 

Cider Must, Preparation of, from Sterilized Apples. G. 
Perrier. {Comptes rend., 140, 324.) The author communi- 
cates some results which will have considerable interest to cider 
makers. It is found that if apples be first washed in water, and 
then soaked for 10 minutes in a 8 per mille solution of formalde- 
In^de, and again washed with water and drained, they are ren- 
dered practically sterile, so that when crushed the pulp will 
keep indefinitely, and will not ferment until sown with fresh must. 



208 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

When fermentation then takes place as usual, the cider formed 
is of excellent quality. This method of procedure prevents the 
introduction of undesirable " wild " ferments which are always 
found on the skins of apples, and thereby greatly improves 
the quality of the cider produced. It also enables the cider 
maker to ferment at any desired period, and to supply new 
cider at any season of the year. The cider mills and vessels 
employed should be washed with a 4 per mille solution of for- 
maldehyde before the process of crushing. Apple must thus 
prepared has withstood a journey from France to Buenos Ayres 
and back without showing any signs of fermentation. 

Creme de Cacao for the Hair. {Nat. Drugg., 34, 454.) Cacao 
butter, melted, 5 ; castor oil, 30 ; bergamot oil, 1 ; eau de 
Cologne, 20. Mix. 

Diazo-reaction of Ehrlich to Diagnose Typhoid. G. G i e s e. 
{Pharm. Prax., through Repertoire [3], 17, 7.) The author thus 
applies Ehrlich's diazo-test to urine. (A) Ehrlich's reagent. 
Sulphanilic acid, 0-5 Gm. ; HCl 25 per cent., 5 Gm. ; water, q.s., 
to make 100 c.c. (B) Nitrous solution. Sodium nitrite, 0'5 
Gm. ; water, 100 c.c. At the time of testing, 50 c.c. of A is 
mixed with 5 c.c. of B. Ten c.c. of urine is added to 10 c.c. of 
the mixture, followed by 2 c.c. of AmOH solution 10 per cent. 
Normal urines give a dark yellow colour, which soon passes to 
red. The deposit of phosphates thrown down is rose coloured. 
In the case of typhoid or of pulmonary tuberculosis, the urine is 
coloured carmine red, passing to scarlet, and the deposit is 
violet or green. 

Dips for Sheep-scab. {Pharm. Journ. [4], 20, 140.) The 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has recently issued an order, 
called " The Sheep-Scab Order of 1905," in exercise of the 
powers vested in the Board by the Diseases of Animals Acts, 
1894 to 1903. The order requires the use of sheep-dips approved 
by the Board, and contains three prescriptions for dips, Avhich 
have received such approval after experimental trials. These 
three prescriptions are as follow (quantities for 100 gallons of 
bath) :— 

(1) Lime and Sulphur. Mix 25 lb. of flowers of sulphur with 
12^ lb. of good quick-lime. Triturate the mixture with water 
until a smooth cream without lumps is obtained. Transfer this 



NOTES AND FORMULAE. 299 

to a boiler capable of Ijoiling 20 gallons, bring the volume of 
the cream to 20 gallons by the addition of water, boil and stir 
dui'ing half an lioui*. The liquid should now be of a dark red 
colour ; if yellowish, continue the boiling until the dark red 
colour is obtained, keeping the volume at 20 gallons. After the 
liquid has cooled, decant it from any small quantity of insoluble 
residue, and make up tlie volume to 100 gallons with water. 

(2) Carbolic Acid and Soft Soap. Dissolve 5 lb. of good soft 
soap, with gentle warming, in 3 quarts of liquid carboHc acid 
(containing not less than 97 per cent, of real tar acid). Mix the 
liquid with enough water to make 100 gallons. 

(3) Tobacco and Sulphur. Steep 35 lb. of finely ground tobacco 
(offal tobacco) m 21 gallons of water for 4 days. Strain off the 
liquid and remove the last portions of the extract by pressing 
the residual tobacco. ^lix the whole extract, and to it add 
10 lb. of flowers of sulphur. Stir the mixture well to secure an 
even admixture, and make up the total bulk to 100 gallons with 
water. 

Note. — The period of immersion in these dips should not be 
less than liaK a minute. 

Eau de Beaute Cosmetic. {Les Corps gras Industrielle, through 
Nat. Drugg., 34, 257.) The following is an excellent formula for 
a " skin beautifier " : Lanolin. 100 ; glycerin, 100 ; rose water, 
150 ; simple tincture of benzoin, 30 ; mucilage of gum 
arable, 30 ; terpineol, 4 ; hyacynthine, 1 ; oil of bergamot, 2 
parts. Melt the lanohn and add the glycerin and rosewater 
under constant agitation. Next stir in, vigorously, the tincture 
of benzoin and mucilage, and finally incorporate the perfumes. 

Emollient Skin Balm. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 237.) Quince seed, 
I oz. ; water. 7 oz. ; glycerin. IJ oz. ; alcohol 90 per cent., 4J 
oz. ; sahcylic acid, 6 grs. ; carbolic acid, 10 grs. ; oil of bay, 
10 drops ; oil of cloves, 5 drops ; oil of orange peel, 10 drops ; 
oil of wintergreen, 8 drops ; oil of rose, 2 drops. Digest the 
quince seed in the water for 24 hours, and then press through'a 
cloth ; dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol ; add the carbolic 
acid to the glycerin ; put all together, shake well, and bottle. 

Fat, Formation of, from Albumin by Bacilli. S. P. B e e b e 
and B. H. Buxton. {Amer. Journ. Physiol., through Chem. 
Centralblat., 76, 461.) The aggregated needle-shaped crystals 



300 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

formed by cultures of Bacillus pyocyaneus in bouillon are found 
to consist of higher fatty acids. 

Foot-Powder. {Medical Record, through Chem. and Drugg., 
65, 1050.) Potassium permanganate, 13 ; alum, 1 ; French 
chalk. 50 ; zinc oxide, 18 ; calcium hydrate, 18 parts. This 
powder is used in cases of sweating feet. Each night a warm 
foot-bath of a 1 per cent, solution of potassium permanganate 
is used. 

Formalin and Geranium Oil for Dental Caries. {Merck's 
Report. 18, 74.) Formalin, 2 ; alcoliol 90 per cent., 2 ; geranium 
oil, 1. Mix. 

Formalin Dentifrice Elixir. — M a t h i s. {Nouveaux 
Remedes, 21, 44. ) Formaldehyde solution. 2 ; tincture of cin- 
chona, 60 ; glycerin, 60 ; oil of peppermint, 2 ; oil of star anise, 
1*50 ; oil of cloves, 1 ; oil of cinnamon, 1 ; alcohol. 100 parts by 
weight. The tincture of cinchona is a tonic and astringent, the 
effects of which on the gums is very prompt. The glycerin 
modifies the effect of the formaldehyde, which at times is a little 
too strong, and serves as a vehicle. The essential oils are purely 
flavouring. 

Formation and Distribution of Essential Oil in an Annual 
Plant. E. Charabot and G. L a 1 o u e. {Bull. Soc. Chim. 
[3], 33, 236, and Comptes rend., 140, 667.) Continuing the 
investigation of the formation and distriI)ution of essential oil 
in plants (see also Year-BooJc, 1901, 66 ; 1902, 76 ; 1904, 340), 
attention has been directed to the cycle of phenomena which 
occurs with an annual plant. Ocymum basilicum was selected 
for the purpose, since its oil, consisting mainly of methylchavicol 
and terpenes, renders it suitable for the purpose. Before the 
inflorescences appear essential oil is formed in the green organs 
of the plant, this formation being most active in the youngest 
parts. The proportion of oil in the leaves gradually increases 
until inflorescence connnences. This oil is relatively poor in 
methylchavicol and rich in more soluble terpene compounds. 
As soon as blooming commences, the amount of oil in the leaves 
diminishes and that in the flowering tops increases, and at the 
same time the proportion of methylchavicol increases. When 
flowering is over and the seeds are ripe, the amount of oil again 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 301 

becomes greater and more soluble in the leaves, while the solu- 
bihty of the oil of the inflorescence remains the same. At this 
period a biochemical action seems to affect the methylchavicol, 
converting it into more soluble terpene compounds, which are 
then transferred back to the leaves. 

Fruit Vinegars. {Nat. Drugg., 35, 174, after Neueste Erfin- 
diuigen und Erfahrungen.) 

Strawberry Vinegar. Ripe strawberries, stemmed, 1 ; pure 
vinegar, 15 parts. Mash the berries up to a pulp and pour over 
them the vinegar. Pour the mixture into bottles, which should 
be fitted with good tight corks. Put in a warm place for from 
6 to 8 days, shaking them from time to time. At the end of this 
time filter off and preserve the filtrate in small bottles filled to 
the very top, and keep in a cool place. 

Lemon Vinegar. Peel 12 lemons, press out the juice, and set 
in a cool place to clarify. Pound up the peehngs and pour over 
the mass 15 litres of best vinegar. Xow add the lemon juice and 
filter the whole. Preserve the filtrate in well-filled and corked 
bottles, in a cool place. 

Orange Vinegar. Peel 2 oranges, squeeze out the juice, and 
put in a bottle to clear. Rub up the peelings and pour over the 
mass 15 litres of good vinegar, add the clarified juice, and filter. 
Preserve in well-filled and well-corked bottles. 

Raspberry Vinegar. Prepare in the same way as for straw- 
berry vinegar. 

Herb Vinegar. Marjoram, fresh, 25 ; thyme, fresh, 25 ; 
anchovies, cut fine, 7 ; curled mint, fresh, 7 ; sweet basil, fresh, 
5 ; shallots, 3 ; good vinegar, 1,500 parts. Cut the lierbs, etc., 
up fine, mix in a jar of sufficient capacit3% and pour the vinegar 
over them. Let macerate 8 or 10 daj^s, then filter off. 

Glycerin-Camphor Ice. F. E. N i e c e. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 
224.) Powdered camphor, 2 drs. ; liquid paraffin, 2 drs. ; solid 
paraffin, 5 drs. ; white petrolatum, 8 drs. ; glycerin, 2 drs. ; 
alkanet root, 1 dr. Digest the camphor and alkanet with the 
paraffin (solid and Hquid) and petrolatum on a sand bath, add 
the glycerin, strain, stir tiU cool, then cut into blocks. 

Gonococci, Stain for. A. von W a h 1 {Pharm. Centralh., 
45, 677, after Ceniralb. fiir Bacteriol.) employs the following stain 
for the detection of gonococci : Saturated alcohohc solution of 



302 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

auramine, 4 ; alcohol 95 per cent., 3 ; saturated alcoliolic 
solution of thionin, 4 ; saturated aqueous solution of methyl 
green, 6 ; distilled water, 12. Gonococci are coloured dark red 
violet to almost black, whereas other cocci and bacteria take 
the stain but shghtly or not at all. Staining does not take 
longer than 10 seconds, and the whole process of examination 
not more than 5 or 10 minutes. 

Hydrogen Peroxide as a Dentifrice. — M a t h i s. (Nouv. 
Eevicdes, 21, 46.) Hydrogen peroxide is the best of all denti- 
frices, since when used in solution to rinse the mouth it oxidizes 
all organic matter inaccessible to the brush in the interdental 
spaces and in carious cavities. Its unpleasant taste requires 
that it should be used with an aromatic water. It strengthens 
the gums, whitens the teeth, and prevents buccal infection. It 
should, however, be used with caution by men who have mous- 
taches, on account of bleaching effects. It may be used by 
women as a weak depilatory to prevent the growth of hair on 
the face. 

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Etching Fluid for Copper. {Nat. 
Drugg., 35, 111.) A new etching fluid for copper plate is H2O2, 
to which a little dilute ammonia water is added. It is said to 
bite in very rapidly and with great regularity and uniformity. 

Ink for Typewriter Ribbon. {Apoth. Zeit., 19, 932). Trans- 
parent soap, 1 ; glycerin, 4 ; water, 12 ; alcohol (methylated) 
94 per cent., 24 ; spirit-soluble anihne colour, q.s. Dissolve the 
soap in the mixed glycerin and water, dissolve the aniline colour 
(nigrosin for black) in the spirit. Mix. 

Ink Formulae. {Amer. Drugg., 45, 303.) Indestructible Ink. 
Graphite, in impalpable powder, 400 ; gum copal, 720 ; iron sul- 
pliate, 35 ; tinct. galls, 35 ; indigo sulphate, 140 parts. Mix the 
materials and boil them in sufficient water to make a fluid of the 
desired consistency. After boiling for a few minutes let it stand 
a while for the grosser particles to settle. Then decant and 
bottle. 

Black Ink for Brass Stamps. Ordinary printers' ink tliinned 
with olive oil ; or — Aniline black, E., 3 drs. ; distilled water, 10 
drs. ; wood vinegar, 10 di's. ; alcohol, 10 drs. ; Glycerin, 7 oz. 
Mix and dissolve. 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 303 

Ink for labelling Porcelain Jars. Rosin, 20 ; borax, 35 ; al- 
cohol, 150 ; water, 250 parts ; nigrosin, a sufficient quantity. 
Dissolve the rosin in the alcohol and the aniline colour in the 
solution. Dissolve the borax in the water. 

I7ik for Zinc Labels. Potassium chloride, 60 ; copper sulphate, 
120 ; anihne blue, 1 ; dilute acetic acid, 100 ; distilled water, 
1,800 parts. Dissolve the potassium chloride and the copper 
sulphate in 1,400 parts of water. Mix the acid with the rest of 
the water and dissolve the blue in the mixture. Mix the solu- 
tions. 

Green Copying Ink. In 1,000 parts of aqueous extract of gall 
apples dissolve : Iron sulphate, 30-0 ; copper sulphate, 0-5 ; 
sulphuric acid, 2-0 ; sugar, 8*0 ; wood vinegar, rect., 50-0 ; 
indigo carmine, 30*0 parts. 

Ink Poivder. The following is said to afford a powder which 
needs but maceration with 100 parts of water for a few days to 
make an excellent ink : — Gall nuts, powdered, 16 ; acacia, pow- 
dered, 8 ; cloves, powdered, 1 ; iron sulphate, powdered, 10 
parts. Put in an earthenware or glass vessel, cover with 100 
parts of distilled water, set aside and let stand for two weeks, 
givmg an occasional shake daily. Decant and bottle. 

Copper Laundry Ink. (a) Copper chloride, cryst., 85 ; 
sodium chlorate, 106 ; ammonium chloride, 53 ; water, distilled, 
600 ; (6) glycerin, 100 ; mucilage gum arable (gum, 1 part ; 
water, 2 parts), 200 ; aniline hj^drochlorate, 200 ; distilled water, 
300 parts. Make solutions (a) and (6) and preserve in separate 
bottles. When wanted for use, mix one part of solution [a) with 
four parts of solution (&). 

Iso-safrol, Toxicity of. {Muench Med. Woch., through Schim- 
meVs Report, May, 1905, 89.) An eczematicous urticaria was 
observed to occur on the body of a workman whose face, neck 
and arms had been splashed with iso-safrol, the eruption occurring 
on those jDarts which had not been touched by the liquid, and 
which were of long duration. Waldvogel has found that when 
iso-safrol is administered to rabbits by inhalation or subcutaneous 
injection it has an intense action on the nervous system and the 
vessels of the vital organs. It produces dilatation of the veins 
in man when merely applied to the skin. 

Keratin of the Eggs of the Ringed Snake. J. G a 1 i m a r d. 
(Journ. Fharm. Chim., 21, 499.) The eggs of the ringed snake, 



304 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

Tropidonottis natrix, yield 12-71 of crude keratin, which differs 
from similar bodies in containing but little sulpliur and tyrosine 
but much leucine. This keratin is not digested by pepsin, and 
is insoluble in all solvents. When hydrolized with 3 per cent. 
H2SO4 it gives small quantities of arginine, lysine, histidine, 
tyrosine, and 19-4 per cent, of leucine. 

Keroclean, a Non-inflammable Cleanser. F. E. Niece- 
{Drugg. Circular, 49, 223.) Kerosene, 1 oz. ; commercial carbon 
tetrachloride, 3 oz. ; oil of citronella, 2 drs. Mix and filter if 
necessary. 

Laundry Specialities. {Mineral Water Review, through Chern. 
and Drugg., 66, 154.) Liquid Laundry-blue. Oxalic acid, 8 
oz. ; Chinese blue, 16 oz. ; hot water, 6 gals. Strain. 

Paste Laundry-blue. Good ultramarine blue, 18 lb. ; carbon- 
ate of soda, crystals, 15 lb. ; liquid glucose, 3| lb. ; soluble blue, 
I lb. ; water, a sufficiency. Make into a mass, cut into cakes or 
squares, and dry at 70°F. Then wrap each cake of blue in a 
piece of flannel and tie at tlie neck. 

Liquid Cold-ivaier Starch. Sago flour, 10 lb. ; salt, 4 lb. ; 
white dextrin, 2 lb. ; glycerin, 2 lb. ; water, 13 pints. Put up in 
pint or quart bottles. 

Cold-water Starch and. Gloss. Sago flour, 22 lb. ; rice starch, 
9 lb. ; salt, dry, 6 lb. ; powdered borax, 6 lb. ; white dextrine, 
6 lb. The directions should read as follows : — Make sufficient 
of the starch powder into a stiff paste with cold water, then dilute 
to usual consistency with boiling water. Do not boil the mix- 
ture. 

Wax Polish. Stearin, 1 lb. ; white wax, 2 lb. ; spermaceti, 
4 lb. Melt together and cast into cakes. The linen is made hot 
by ironing the wax cake lightly rubbed over the hot linen, and a 
polishing-iron used to spread the wax over the surface. 

Starch-glaze Poivder. Powdered borax, 42 lb. ; potato starch, 
16 lb. ; common salt, 14 lb. ; white dextrin, 3 lb. One oz. of 
this powder is mixed with 2 pints of starch. 

Linoleum and Floor Wax. {Apoth. Zeit., 19, 679.) (1) Yellow 
wax, 3 ; carnauba wax, 6 ; oil of turpentine, 10 ; petrokuun 
benzene, 8. (2) Ceresin, 60 ; hard paraffin, 40 ; oil of turpen- 
tine, 200 ; wax orange, 2. (3) Carnauba wax, 2 ; ceresin, 1 ; 
raw palm oil, 1 ; oil of tuiiJentine, 6 ; petroleum benzine, 4 ; 



NOTES AND FOKMUL^. 305 

(4) Beeswax, 30 ; spermaceti, 10 ; water, 160 ; pearl ashes, 5 ; 
oil of turpentine, 40 ; wax orange, 2. 

Lipol Lip Salve. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 224.) 
Camphor, | oz. ; menthol, | oz. ; eucalyptol, 1 dr. ; petrolatum 
(white), 1 lb. ; paraffin, J lb. ; alkanet root, | oz. ; oil of bitter 
almonds, 15 drops ; oil of cloves, 10 drops ; oil of cassia, 5 drops. 
Digest the root in the melted paraffin and petrolatum, strain, 
add the other ingredients, and pour into jars while hot. To be 
applied night and morning, rubbing in well with the finger tips. 

Lithographic Transfer Ink. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 87.) White 
wax, 8 ; wliite soap, 2 ; shellac, 2 ; lampblack, enough. Melt 
together the wax and soap, and, before they become hot enough 
to take fire, stir m by degrees enough lampblack to make the 
mixture black ; then aUow the whole to burn for 30 seconds. 
When the flame is extinguished, add the shellac in small portions 
at a time, with constant stirring. Put the vessel on the fire 
again until the mass is kindled, put out the flame, aUow it to cool 
a little, and run it into moulds. 

Ink thus made will make as fine or coarse lines as are desired, 
and its traces will remain unchanged for years before being 
transferred. 

Malt Extract Soap. — S a r a s o n. {Bev. de Therap., through 
Xouveaux Bemedes, 21, 229.) By adding 10 per cent, of malt 
extract to perfectly neutral soap a product is obtained which 
gives an exceUent lather, and which does not irritate the most 
sensitive skias. The free acid of the malt extract neutrahzes 
the alkali formed by the dissociation of the alkali fatty salts by 
water. This soap keeps well, and does not undergo the decom- 
position to which superfatted soaps are liable. 

Medicinal Plants, Cultivation of. E. M. H o 1 m e s. {Pharm. 
Journ. [4], 20, 585, 690, 788. ) Directions are first given for the 
cultural treatment of the plants of which practical recognition 
is required in the " Minor " syllabus. 

Aconitum napelhis can be moved at any time between October, 
when the leaves disappear, and April. March is the best month, 
as the young leaves, which are then just starting, are very char- 
acteristic in their appearance, and this plant can then be easily 
distinguished by the green tint of the j^oung leaves from the 

X 



306 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

brownisii leaves of A. paniculatum, and the more broadly lobed 
leaves of A. variegatum, two species which are often met with in 
gardens. Aconite is not very particular as to soil, but succeeds 
best where it is slightly damp or retentive ; and, therefore, on 
a light soil does best on the shady side of the garden. The roots 
spread some distance, and starve less vigorous growers near it, 
so that 1 foot should be allowed on each side between it and 
other plants. The date of flowering of A. napellus is at the end 
of May. The plant takes two or three years to flower, if raised 
from seed, but the lower part of the stem, if earthed up, forms a 
root from each of the lowest leaf-buds. Buds are also produced 
on the roots, so that the plant is best propagated by these 
methods. The flowering tops are sometimes eaten by the cater- 
pillars of a rare moth, Plusia moneta, which appear in April. 
The larvae may be detected by the leaves being bent over to- 
wards the centre, and by the black spots where the flower buds 
are eaten. 

Papaver rhceas. There are several other species confounded 
with the Papaver rhozas, inasmuch as they have red flowers and 
somewhat similar leaves. The true Papaver rhoeas has a globose 
fruit, and the hairs on the peduncle are spreading, but there is a 
waxiety, strigosum, which has adpressed hairs on the j)eduncles. 
The allied species with red flowers are : Papaver hyhridum, L., 
which has a furrowed globose capsule with rigid hairs on it, and 
leaves \\dth narrow segments ; P. argemone, which has club- 
shaped capsules, furnished with rigid hairs ; P. diibium, which 
has an oblong capsule without hairs, but with adpressed hairs 
on the peduncles, and of this species there are two varieties, viz. : 
(a) P. lamoitei, with short leaf lobes, and a capsule broadest at top; 
and (b) P. lecoqui, with long leaf lobes, and the capsule broadest 
at about one-third from the apex. There is also occasionally 
found wild a plant having a purple patch at the base of each 
petal, the petals also being of a deeper red colour ; this is pro- 
bably a hybrid with the garden species P. iimbrosum, from which 
poUen has probably been carried by insects. The flowers of all 
these are probably collected for manufacturing Syrupus Rhoea- 
dos. 

Papaver rhceas does best in the sun, in a comparatively dry 
and light soil. The seeds should be sown where it is intended to 
grow, for the plant, like other poppies, does not readily recover 
after transplantation. The stem being weak and stragghng, it 
is best to sow the seed sparingly in patches. To obtain fine 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 307 

flowei\s a little manure water is very useful, for although the red 
po]:»P3" Ukes a liglit soil, moisture and manure vastly improve 
its vigour. 

Papaver somniferum. This species grows wild in chalky corn- 
fields in tliis country. The form so found, var. hispidum, has a 
lilac or pale mauve corolla, with a purplish spot at tlie base of the 
petals, and the peduncle has rigid spreading bristly hairs. But 
occasionally a glabrous form is met with, var. glahrum. The 
garden varieties, which are more or less hybridised and double- 
flowered, have usually greyish seeds (mawseed), whereas the 
white flowered variety {album.) has pure white flowers and white 
seeds. This is best raised from poppy seeds found in the poppy 
capsules of commerce. Occasionally, however, these white seeds 
produce coloured poppy flowers. In such case there is usually 
a reddish layer to be seen when the outer white coat of the seed 
is scraped. The white poppy, in order to grow freely, requires 
rich soil and plenty of moisture in dry weather. The poppy- 
heads, when fully formed, if collected for trade purposes, are 
generally bent in the middle of the peduncle, and allowed to 
hang downwards to dry. To produce them of large size it is 
necessary to remove the succeeding flowers, or to feed the plant 
weU. 

Brassica alba and B. nigra grow readily from seed. The for- 
mer prefers a calcareous soil ; the latter a damp, rather rich 
soil. 

Cochlearia armoracia also prefers a soil not too dry, but does 
not readily flower if grown in the shade ; it does best in a clayey 
sofl. It does not fruit in this country. 

Althoea officinalis grows naturally on the edge or sides of marsh 
ditches, where its roots are always in damp soil, and does weU in 
any damp soil. But it is liable to be attacked by the caterpillar 
of a moth, Xanthorhoe cervinata, which eats holes in the leaves, 
resting when not feeding in a short spiral position ; it falls off 
directly the j^lant is touched, coiling itself on the ground into a 
ring like the unripe fruit of the maUow. 

Bitta graveolens flourishes best where its roots are protected by 
rockery or in stiff calcareous clay, and where not exposed to the 
east or northerly winds. If grown in shade it is apt to grow too 
luxuriantly and succulent, and conseqiiently suffers more in 
winter than if grown in the sun. 

Cytisus scoparius grows best in poor sandy soil. In rich soil 
it grows very large, and a series of young plants should be kept 



308 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

SO as to cut down the old plant wlien it becomes large and un- 
sightly. 

Rosa canina is, of course, rarely grown, but like all roses prefers 
a rich loamy soil, and if much space camiot be spared for it, 
should be grown near a fence and pruned, so as to make only 
lateral growths, the weaker shoots being cut out and the old ones 
cut down in the autumn when large strong shoots have arisen 
from the base during the summer. These may be pruned in 
March, all the shoots that have produced leaves at the end of that 
month being cut away so far as the leaf-buds have opened. 

Prunus lauro-cerasus . Of this plant there are a number of 
varieties, var. caucasica being one of the hardiest, and var. 
colchica one of the least hardy ; var. schipkaetisis is a dwarf slow- 
growing variety, but does not show the glands at the back of the 
leaves so well as the larger varieties, but in another small-leaved 
but taller plant, var. camellioefolia, the glands are easily seen. 
In var. rotundifolia the leaves are rounded at the apex, and var. 
latifolia has the largest leaves. Like many rosaceous shrubs 
and trees some of the branches are apt to die off. This can be 
prevented to a great extent by keeping the plant clipped in 
spring before the new leaves appear, and in autumn at the end 
of September before the frost begins. The slirub flowers more 
readily if growing where its roots are restricted, and in a sunny 
aspect, and if the branches are thinned out so as to admit light 
and air between them. The fruit, like black cherries (whence its 
name of cherry-laurel), is rarely produced. 

Bryonia dioica. This plant grows only too rapidly in a sandy 
soil. It is easih'' raised from seed, and should be planted near a 
fence, as it grows with great rapidity and starves the roots of 
herbaceous plants near it, and climbs for a great distance. The 
plant being dioecious, a male and female plant are requu'ed to 
illustrate its character. The species used by homoeopaths, viz. 
Bryonia alba, is monoecious and has black berries, but it does not 
grow so readily as the B. dioica in this country. 

Conium maculatum is not particular as to soil. It is biennial, 
and does not, tlierefore, flower in the first year. In rich soil in 
the shade it will grow 6 or 8 feet high in the second year, when it 
flowers. 

Foe.nicv.lum capillaceum can be grown from the fruits of com- 
merce ; but, as it takes two years at least before it flowers, it is a 
saving of time to procure an established plant from a florist. It 
grows well in a ricli soil, but does not flourisii in tlie sliadc. A 



NOTES AND FORMUL.^. 309 

sunny bank with a somewliat stiff soil answers best. The seaside 
form has more succulent and rigid leaflets, and is an interesting 
plant to grow for comparison, as is also the Japanese plant with 
small fruit. 

(Enantlie crocata grows naturally on the banks of streams or 
ditches, and consequently will not flourish under ordinary garden 
conditions. A good plan for growing water plants is to saw a 
paraffin barrel in half and immerse it in the garden soil to within 
an inch or two of the surface, preferably near a tap, or roof -pipe, 
from which the rain-water can be diverted into the half -barrel. 
The (Enanthe can then be placed in stiff soil in a large pot, and the 
pot raised about half its height or more above the level of the 
water by placing bricks under it to raise it to the required level. 
In the summer it is necessary to protect the pot from the sun's 
heat, lest the roots become baked and withered. This can be 
done by placing the pot in a still larger one and filling up the 
space between the two with Sphagnum. Under these conditions 
the plant will grow and flower. It fruits late in August. 

Samhucus nigra is so common that, except for ornamental 
purposes, or for shade, or for the berries, it is hardly likely to be 
grown. Given a fairly damp soil it grows only too rapidly. 
The Canadian species, 8. cunadensis, of which the golden-leaved 
variety is commonly grown in shrubberies, will only develop the 
yellow colour well if severely cut back every year. The inflores- 
cence is not a corymbose cyme, as in the common elder, but a 
paniculate cyme. Of the common elder there are several varie- 
ties ; one with deeply cut leaflets, and another with leaflets 
variegated with white are of not infrequent occurrence in gar- 
dens, but a yellow-fruited variety is much more rare. The elder 
flowers in May. 

Valeriana officinalis. Like (Etianthe crocata, valerian grows 
well on the sides of ditches or in damp woods, but it does not 
require to be quite so near the water, and cannot be conveniently 
grown in a pot on account of its liabit of spreading by means of 
suckers. If the paraffin barrel be allowed to overflow, as it 
would do, now and then, if placed in connection with a roof 
pipe, the soil around it would be damp enough for valerian to 
grow and spread freely. There are two varieties of the plant, of 
which the one (sambucifolia), growing in damp copses, is the 
commoner. The other (mikanii), which is seen on chalky or 
stiff slaty or calcareous soil, is not easily distinguished when 
young from the sambucifolia, but when the stem has grown the 



310 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

number of leaflets is greater, usually eleven to nineteen, and they 
are narrower and longer. The only difficulty in growing the 
plant is that it is bruised or eaten by slugs, also cats will soon find 
it out and roll on it. This can only be prevented by putting 
pieces of furze or hawthorn on the soil between the stems, by 
using a little paraffin occasionally in the watering-pot, or, what 
is more satisfactory still, except to the cat or the cat's owner, by 
placing pieces of broken glass edge upwards in the soil. It 
flowers in August. The pappus at first forms a ring at the top of 
the ovary, expanding only when the corolla has fallen. 

Anthemis nohilis. Camomile prefers a damp peaty soil, and, 
in a wild state, usually protects its stolons by growing amongst 
grass. If planted in the open border, two or three pieces can be 
planted close together so as to make the leaves protect the 
stolons. It does not grow well in a light or sandy soil unless 
there is a bed of clay not far beneath so as to retain the moisture. 
In a shady spot it is apt to grow lanky, and the stem then rots in 
winter. It flowers in August. 

Matricaria chamomilla. This must be grown from seed, some 
of which can usually be found on the German camomile of com- 
merce. Near London it is a common ballast plant near railways 
or goods stations, flowering in May, and wild plants can then be 
easily procured for cultivation, but it is by no means a generally 
distributed plant. It flourishes best in sandy, well-manured 
soil, and in a sunny aspect. 

Taraxacum officinale. This plant is only interesting to grow 
on account of the great variation in the form of the leaves and 
for oft'ering an example of the Liguliflorse section of Compositge. 
Thus the variety erythrospennum has deeply cut leaves, with 
almost linear segments and linear recurved bracts ; var. palustre, 
growing in marshy places, has almost entire leaves, and var. 
Icevigatum has ovate-erect bracts and dull green leaves, the 
typical form having leaves of a bright green colour. It is also of 
botanical interest, as showing the power of the rootlets, and of 
the tap-root as it enlarges, to drag the upper part of the root 
into the soil. Thus, on examination, it will be found that the 
root is apparently often branched in its upper part, but the 
branched part will show numerous leaf-scars, indicating that it 
is the so-called upright rhizome, or, as it may preferably be 
termed, the root-stock, since it is continuous wath the true root, 
which has become drawn dowTiwards as the stem develops. 
This action is also easily seen in gentian root. 



NOTES AND FORMULiE. 311 

Menyanthes trifoliata, like (Enanthe crocata, can be grown in 
a pot immersed in water. In its native state it flourishes best in 
boggy ground, flowering in May. It is interesting among plants 
of the natural order Gentianacese on account of having trifoliate 
leaves, which are alternate instead of opposite, as is usual in 
that family. 

Atropa belladonna. " Deadly nightshade," as it is called, to 
distinguish it from the " woody nightshade " {Solatium dulca- 
mara), grows in the wild state on chalky hills under the shelter 
of woods or hedgerows. In places where rabbit dung is abun- 
dant and leaf soil present it may reach 8 ft. high or more, though 
the more usual height is 3 ft. or 4 ft. Under cultivation it is 
generally grown in the open, and will do well in a heavy or clayey 
soil, provided it contains lime ; nevertheless, it flourishes best 
under the shade of trees. The root occasionally sends out hori- 
zontal suckers, which produce plants around the parent, but the 
plants are easily grown from seed which lias been washed free of 
pulp on a sieve. There is a yellow-berried variety of this plant, 
but it is rarely seen in gardens. 

Solanum dulcamara. The " woody nightshade " is not par- 
ticular as to soil so long as there is a fair amount of moisture 
present, and it prefers shade whilst young. When growing wild, 
on a pebbly sea-shore, it remains very dwarf, and the same 
thing occurs on sumiy chalky banks. The only disadvantage of 
growing it in a garden is that, being a perennial, it is liable to 
carry the potato disease, the same fungus, Peronospora injestans, 
attacking it, and so proving a source of disease to potatoes in 
the garden. There is a yellow-berried variety of the plant, but 
it is rare. 

Datura stramonium is best grown from seed sown in mild rainy 
weather in April. Unless sown in very rich soil, the plants 
remain very dwarf. The plant luxuriates on old manure or 
rubbish heaps, then grows 2 to 3 ft. high, and 2 to 3 ft. across, 
and bears numerous flowers. It also requires a warm sunny 
spot, but where the soil does not become too dry. 

Hyoscijamus niger is best grown from seed obtained from wild 
plants. Commercial seed will not as a rule germinate. Even 
the seed of the wild plant is very uncertain. If buried too deep, 
or if it does not receive rain or moisture at the time it should 
naturally germinate (probably September), it is apt to remain 
dormant for a whole year until the conditions suit it. This is 
probably the reason why it often appears at a distance from 



312 YEAR-BOOK OF riTARMACY. 

where it was sown, the earth containing it liaving been moved, and 
tlie seed thus exposed a proper depth to be affected by rain and 
warmth. It grows equally well in either pure sand or chalk, 
provided there is plenty of manure or decaying vegetable matter. 
It is very difficult to transplant. This can only be safely done 
in the autumn when the leaves wither. If transplanted in the 
spring it rarely recovers. Slugs and caterpillars are very fond of 
the young leaves, and often in the autumn a grub will eat away 
the central bud to the core, and destroy the plant. A small 
beetle of the turnip-flea kind sometimes perforates the leaves 
very extensively, and its ravages are best met by planting be- 
tween the rows of henbane some other plant for which it has a 
still greater preference. The seeds in the capsules last formed 
are often deficient in vitahty, and the plants produced from them 
flower the first year, hence the occurrence of annual plants 
amongst the biennial. To secure strong biennial plants the first 
formed seed pods should be chosen. The uncertainty^ of ger- 
mination and the many enemies of henbane render the crop a 
very uncertain one, hence the high price of the leaves. There 
are two varieties which may sometimes be seen growing side by 
side. One of these has narrow leaves and an erect scarcely- 
branched stem which gives it at a distance a resemblance to a 
thistle. The other has broader leaves and a branched inflores- 
cence. 

Juniperus communis will grow on chalky or sandy soil, but 
requires it to be damp, and if sandy, plenty of leaf mould is 
necessary. 

Juniperus sabina is rather slow growing, it requires a sunny 
position, but should not be aDowed to get dry at the root. It 
is easily propagated by inserting a branch deeply in the soil in 
late autumn and pressing the soil firmly around it. 

Taxus baccata. The most convenient form to grow in a gar- 
den, as it fruits wliile only a few feet high, is the erect or Irish 
yew, Taxus baccata var. fastigiata. It is by no means particu- 
lar as to soil or aspect, although it is a chalk lover, and where 
chalk is not procurable a httle whiting mixed with the soil will 
be advantageous. 

Aspidium filix-mas is a very hardy fern, and will, like Poly- 
sticlium aculeatum and P. lohatum, flourish in drier situations 
tlian most ferns. But it is more luxuriant when there is a moist 
atmosphere and shelter from wind ; hence ferns are sometimes seen 
in a flourishing condition in the kitchen areas of London houses. 



NOTES AND FORMULiE. 313 

Metal Polishes. {Amer. Drugg., 264.) White Polishing Paste. 
A paste adapted for almost any kind of metallic surface is made 
by incorporating kieselguhr or precipitated silica with heavy 
petroleum oil, as in the following formula : Paraffin wax, 2 oz. ; 
liquid petrolatum, 6 oz. ; crude oleic acid, 4 oz. ; kieselguhr or 
precipitated silica, 8 oz. 

Liquid Metal Polish. A liquid polish well adapted for lieavy 
work is made as follows : Rotten stone, 5iv. ; ferric oxide, 5xij. ; 
liquid petrolatum, gxx. The powders should be in a fine state 
of subdivision and mixed intimately before the hquid petrolatum 
is added. 

Nail Bleach. {Amer. Drugg., 45, 408.) Tartaric acid, 1 dr. ; 
tincture of myrrh, 1 dr. ; eau de Cologne, 2 drs. ; distilled water, 
3 fl. oz. Dissolve the acid in the water, mix the tincture of 
myrrh and eau de Cologne and add to the acid solution. The 
nails are dipped in this solution and afterward wiped and polished 
with a chamois leather. 

Neutral Tooth Powders. — M a t li i s. {Nouv. Remedes, 21, 
45.) (1) Calcium carbonate, 60 Gm. ; quinine sulphate, 2 Gm. ; 
saponin, 0*20 Gm. ; oil of peppermint, 20 drops ; carmine, a 
sufficient quantity to colour. 

(2) Potassium chlorate, 20 Gm. ; powdered starch, 60 Gm. ; 
carmine, 4 Gm. ; saccharin, dissolved in alcohol, 0-10 Gm. ; 
vanillin, 0'15 Gm. The second powder is specially recommended 
for sore gums. 

Origin of the Potato. E. H e c k e 1 . {Comptes rend., 139, 
887.) Solamim commersoni is considered to be at least one of 
the parent plants from which the cultivated Solanum tuberosum 
lias been derived. Five small tubercles of S. commersoni re- 
ceived in 1896 from Uruguay, cultivated for 7 years in dry marly 
soil remained permanent to type, producing tubers covered with 
lenticels. attached to the end of long stolons, having a greenish, 
waxy, bitter pulp. But when some of these were planted out, 
in 1901, in damp soil they soon began to show signs of modifica- 
tion. In 1902 and 1903, three varieties were obtained from 
these ; one with violet tubers, the other rose coloured, and the 
third white. The cliaracter of the plants had also undergone a 
change ; tubers were no longer formed singly at the end of long 
stolons, but were aggregated at the base of the stem. The tubers 



314 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. • 

I 

had lost their lenticels ; thej^ contained a greater percentage of 
starch, and were hxrger. At the same time fruit had ceased to 
form abundantly. Further cultivation of these varieties in i 
moist soils, particularly the violet form, gave most satisfactory j 
results. The plants were very robust, growing haulm as long as i 
4 metres, while the flowers resembled those of the ordinary 
potato, and the fruits acquired the characteristic spheroid shape. 
Ultimately it was impossible to differentiate between the tubers \ 
obtained and those of the " North Star " or " Early Rose " ] 
potatoes of ordinary culture. The violet variety should prove I 
of exceptional value, especially for cultivation in marshy land, ! 
since it grows best in damp soils, Avhere it has given a crop of 
63,000 kilos to the hectare, about 25 tons 9 cwts. to the acre. 

I 
Paraffin and Walnut Hair Stimulant. F. E. N i e c e. {Drugg. { 
Circular, 49, 223.) Moisten half an ounce of dried green walnut | 
shells with alcohol, and then digest them on a sand bath, with 
30 grs. of powdered alum, in 2 oz. of liquid paraffin ; when cool, 
add 5 drops of essential oil of nutnieg. l 

Paraffin Furniture Polish. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circ, 
49, 224.) Solid paraffin, 3 J oz. ; amber petrolatum, 1 oz. ; 
solution of caustic potash 5 per cent., 2| drs. ; kerosene, 10 oz. ; j 
alkanet, 1 oz. Heat the potash with the paraffin and petro- j 
latum, add the alkanet root, digest, strain, and stir the kerosene i 
in until cool. Bottle in wide-mouthed bottles or in jars. 

Paraffin Hair Preparations. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circ, 
49, 224.) (1) Paraffin oil, 1 pint ; alkanet root, 1 dr. ; oil of 
cloves, 15 drops ; oil of rose, 2 drops ; oil of bergamot, 1 dr. 
Rub the alkanet into coarse powder, moisten with, alcohol, and 
digest on a sand bath for half an hour with the paraffin, filter, 
then add perfumes when cool. 

(2) Paraffin oil, 1 pint ; cottonseed oil, J pint ; oil of cloves, 
15 drops ; oil of cassia, 10 drops ; oil of nutmeg, 30 drops. 
Warm the paraffin and cottonseed oils on a bath, filter, and add 
the other oils after cooling. 

Brilliantol. A dressing for the moustache, eyebrows, and 
hair. Liquid paraffin, 6 oz. ; glycerin, 2 oz. ; oil of bitter ' 
almonds, 8 drops ; oil of rose, 1 drop. Mix the first two and 
add the others. Shake well before using. 



NOTES AND FORMUL.^. 315 

Paraffin Rouges. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 224.) 

(1) Natural Rouge. Solid paraffin, 1 oz. ; white petrolatum, 
1| oz. ; eosin dye, 1 dr. ; oil of bitter almonds, 5 drops. Heat 
the paraffin and petrolatum on a sand bath, digest the eosin, 
stirring for a half -hour, allow to settle, strain ; when cold, add 
the oil, mix, and pour into jars. 

Directions for Use. Apply v/ith the finger tips, thoroughly 
rubbing until desired tint is produced. Allow to remain a few 
minutes, then remove surplus of grease with a soft cloth. It 
lea^'es a tint not affected by moisture, water or perspiration. 

(2) Stronger Fouge. Solid paraffin, 1 oz. ; white petrolatum, 

1 oz. : glycerin, ^ oz. ; eosin, h dr. ; oil of rose, 2 drops. Melt 
the paraffin and petrolatum, add the glycerin and eosin and stir 
until cool ; add the oil and mix until hard. 

Used for tinting the lips a deep pink in theatrical " making 
up." 

Pastor Kneipp's Pills. (Amer. Drugg., 45, 117.) Extract of 
rhubarb. 16 grs. ; extract of Cape aloes, 64 grs. ; powdered 
rhubarb, 16 grs. ; powdered castile soap, 16 grs. ; powdered 
fenugi-eek, 5 grs. ; powdered dwarf elder root, 5 grs. ; powdered 
fennel, 5 grs. ; powdered juniper, 5 grs. Ma,ss and divide into 
60 pills. Three or four to be taken in the morning or evening. 

Perfumed Paraffin Cakes. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. Circ, 
49, 224.) Used by rubbing on cloth, clothes and handkerchief. 
Paraffin, 1 oz. ; white petrolatum, 2 oz. ; heUotropin, 10 grs. ; 
oil of bergamot, 5 drops ; oil of lavender, 5 drops ; oil of cloves, 

2 drops. Melt the first two substances, then add the next, the 
oils last, and stir all until cool, allowing to settle ; then cut into 
blocks and wrap in tin foil. (Obviously other essential oils may 
be used to reproduce any desired perfume.) 

Petrolatum Cosmetic Soap Paste. F. E. Niece. {Drugg. 
Circ., 49, 224.) A permanent soap combining the properties of 
cleansing and lubrication. It lathers well with water, and 
cleanses, whitens and softens the skin. Amber petrolatum, 
^ oz. ; powdered castile soap, 2| drs. ; sodium carbonate (dry), 
40 grs. ; stearic acid, 80 grs. Dissolve the carbonate in a little 
water, add to the acid on a sand bath, heat until reaction is 
complete, then add the soap and lastly the petrolatum, con- 
tinuing the heat and stirring until no more foam is produced. 
Cool and put into suitable containers. 



316 YEAR-ROOK OF PHARMACY. 

Phosphorescent Preparations and Masses. L. Vanino 
and .1. G a u s. {Joirrn. prakl. CkcDt., 71, I9G.) (1) LpnuarfPs 
Mass. Strontium carbonate, 100 Gm. ; sulphur, 100 Gm. ; 
potassium oliloride, 0-5 Gm. ; sodium chloride, 0*5 Gm. ; man- 
ganous chloride, 0-4 Gm. By heating the mixture for three- 
quarters of an hour at about 1,300°CJ. a product is obtained which 
emits a fine golden yellow light. 

(2) Mourelo's Mass. Strontium carbonate, 100 Gm. ; sul- 
phur, 30 Gm. ; sodium carbonate, 2 Gm. ; sodium chloride, 
0-5 Gm. ; manganous sulphate, 0*2 Gm. This mass emits a 
bright yellow light. 

(3) Vanino'' s Mass. Strontium thiosulphate, 60 Gm. ; bis- 
muth nitrate, 12 c.c. of a 0-5 per cent, solution in acidified 
alcohol ; uranium nitrate, 6 c.c. of a 0*5 per cent, alcoholic 
solution. By heating the mass for three-c{uarters of an hour at 
about 1,300°C., a product is obtained which emits an emerald- 
green Ught. 

(4) Balmain's Mass. Calcium oxide (iron-free), 20 Gm. ; 
sulphur, 6 Gm. ; starch, 2 Gm. ; bismuth nitrate, 1 c.c. of a 
0-5 per cent, solution ; potassium chloride, 0-15 Gm. ; sodium 
chloride. 0-1 5 Gm. The mass after being heated emits a violet 
light. 

Picric Acid for Chilblains. P. Lemaire. {Repertoire [3], 
16, 543.) Unbroken chilblains may be rapidly cured by the 
application of a 1 per cent, solution of picric acid ; Esbach's 
reagent, composed of picric acid, 1 ; citric acid, 2 ; water, 
100, answers the purpose admirably. Under this treatment the 
itching, swelling, and tenderness quickly disappear. 

Powdered Almond Shells as an Adulterant of Alimentary Sub- 
stances. E. Collin. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 101.) 
It would appear that the production of powdered almond shells 
for fraudulent admixture with various food stuffs is assuming 
the proportion of an important industry, the manufacturers of 
this substance going so far as to publish testimonials from 
so-called chemists attached to Hygienic Societies, and even 
from graduates of some Universities. This powder is ground 
to three degrees of fineness, according to the purpose for which 
it is to be used. The first, ground to pass a 180 hole sieve, is of 
bright colour, resembling powdered cinnamon ; the second, 
about 100 fineness, is in appearance very like the majority of 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 317 

poM'dered drugs. The third grade is darker and coarser, re- 
sembhng granulated powders in appearance. These powders are 
perfectly devoid of taste and odour. Figures of the distinctive 
histological elements, as shown by the microscope, of this serious 
adulterant are given. The chief use of the powder appears to 
be for the adulteration of cocoa, chocolate and biscuits. 

Pure Cultures of Diatoms. 0. R i c h t e r. {Nat. Drucjg., 
35, 119, after Deutsche Botanisch. Berichte.) The author has 
succeeded in obtaining pm-e cultures of diatoms {Nitzscia palea 
and Navicular ia minuscula) as follows : — 

The medium consists of jelly prepared from ordinary 
commerical agar-agar, kept from 2 to 3 days under run- 
ning water, and then for 1 day in distilled water, frequently 
renewed and then dissolved. It was rendered sterile to 
bacteria by the addition of the salts of Knop's nutrient medium 
(calcium sulphate, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate). 
The diatoms could be seen, even with tlie naked eye, after the 
tenth day, building colonies on the surface of this medium. 
Both of these diatoms have the property of liquifying not only 
gelatin, but agar-agar. Later experiments demonstrated that 
calcium sulphate miglit advantageously be left out of the culture 
medium. In gelatin cultures the sodium nitrate is found to be 
of little or no use, while magnesium nitrate was found indispens- 
able. It is hoped that this successful experiment will pave the 
way, and by changes of media, etc., the successful culture 
of all diatoms will be possible. 

Raspberry Shrub. {Drugg. Circular, 49, 241.) Vinegar, 1 
quart ; raspberries, 3 quarts. Place in a dish, and after they 
have stood a day, strain and add a pound of sugar to each pint 
of liquid. Boil for half an hour and skim. When it is cool, add 
1 ounce of brand^v^ to each fl. oz. of shrub. 

Sachet Pov/ders. {Drugg. Circ, 49, 187). Violet.— {\.) 
Orris root, 6 oz. ; red rose petals, 2 oz. ; benzoin, 2 oz. ; musk 
(Tonquin), 8 grs. ; bitter almond oil, 2 }\\. 

(2) Orris root, 6 oz. ; musk, 8 grs. ; vanillin, 30 grs. ; oil of 
rose, 25 drops ; oil of petit grain, 150 grs. ; Cologne water, 
3| oz. The materials should be fresh and the powder should be 
rather coarse, as, when fine, the fragrant portions escape too 
rapidly. 



318 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

To make a fine article, a few drops of ioiione may be added to 
the above. 

Heliotrope. (1) Rose leaves, 2 oz. ; orris root, 1 oz. ; lavender 
flowers, 1 oz. ; Tonka beans, 2 drs. ; benzoin, 1 dr. ; musk, 
5 grs. ; oil of bitter almond, 3 drops ; oil of sandal, 30 drops ; 
oil of neroli, 10 drops. 

! (2) Orris root, 10 oz. ; rose leaves, 1\ oz. ; Tonka beans, 
5 oz. ; vanilla beans, 1^ oz. ; musk, 24 grs. ; oil of bitter almond, 
50 iJi. ; alcohol, | oz. 

Carnation pink. Tonka beans, 2 drs. ; pimento, 1 dr. ; 
patchouly leaves, | oz. ; lavender flowers, 1 oz. ; orris root, 1 
oz. ; oil of cloves, 5 drops ; oil of rose, 10 drops ; oil of neroli, 
10 drops ; oil of sandalwood, 20 drops. 

[The substitution of isoeugenol for the clove oil gives the 
powder a truer "pink" odour. — Ed. Year-Book.] 

Saponin, Toxicity of, and its Employment as an Emulsifying 
Agent. N. G. Keirle, junr., and H. A. B. D u n n i n g. 
(Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 402.) Rabbits, dogs and 
guinea-pigs were experimented wath, both by oral and hyiJo- 
dermic treatment. Rabbits were found to be markedly less 
affected than the other animals. After doses ranging from \ to 
3 grs., the rabbits became at first excited, then dull, and the 
respiration was affected. Only one died, and that probably 
from other causes. Of five guinea-pigs treated with doses 
ranging from J gr. to 2 grs., all died ; and three dogs were killed 
by 4 gr. doses. In all these animals post-mortem examination 
showed an aedematous state of the brain and a peculiar toughen- 
ing and anaemic condition of the lungs. It is evident that 
saponin has a marked toxic action, and that it affects the organs 
of respiration. Saj)onin has been detected in certain commercial 
emulsions ; but it is a question as to how much may be present, 
and what would constitute a harmful dose. H2SO4 slightly 
coloured with KsCr^Oy gives a green colour with a very 
dilute solution of saponin, and H2SO4 containing 1 drop 
of N/10 KMn04, the solution being of a brownish red, 
gives a cherry red colour with the same. (See also Year-Book, 
1904, 241.) 

Stain Removing Soaps. {Nat. Drugg., 34, 253.) (1) Coconut 
or palm oil, 320 ; caustic soda solution (sp. gr. 1*36), 160 ; 
potassium carbonate solution (sp. gr. 1*16), 56 : oil of tuii^entine, 



NOTES AND FORMULA. 319 

9 ; finely powdered kieselguhr, 280 ; brilliant green, 2. Melt 
the oil, mix the d_ye with it. and sift in the kieselguhr, then add 
the soda and potash. When saponification commences, add the 
turpentine. (2) Resin soap, 1,000 ; talc made into a paste 
with weak potassium carbonate solution, 100 ; turpentine oil, 
4 ; benzine, 3. Melt the soap, and mix in the talc. When cool, 
add the benzine and turpentine, avoiding proximity to naked 
lights. (3) Coconut oil, 600 ; tallow, 400 ; caustic soda lye 
(sp. gr. 1'36), 500 ; ox-gall, 200 ; turpentine oil, 12 ; solution of 
ammonia (sp. gr. 0*910), 6 ; benzine, 5. Saponify with heat, 
cool, and add the other ingredients with the usual precautions. 

Substitute for Rubber Gloves, A. [Journ. Amer. Med. Assoc, 
through Nat. Drugg., 34, 449) Murphy has found that a 4, 6, or 8 per 
cent, solution of guttaj^ercha in benzine, when applied to the hands 
of the surgeon or the skin of the patient, will seal these surfaces 
with an insoluble, impervious, and practically imperceptible 
coating which will not allow the secretions of the skin to escape, 
and will not admit secretions, blood, or pus into the crevices of 
the skin. At the same time, it does not impair the sense of 
touch nor the pliability of the skin. A similar solution in acetone 
also meets most of the requirements. 

Murphy's routine method of hand preparation is as follows : 
First, 5 to 7 minutes' scrubbing with spirit of soft soap and 
running hot water ; second, 3 minutes' washing with alcohol ; 
third, when the hands are thoroughly dried, the guttaj)ercha 
solution is poured over the hands and forearms, care being taken 
to fill in around and beneath the nails. The hands must be kept 
exposed to the air with the fingers separated until thoroughly 
dry. The coating is very thin, and can be recognized only by 
its glazed appearance. It will resist soap and water, but is 
easily removed by washing in benzine. The hands can be 
washed in bichloride or any of the antiseptic solutions without 
interfering with the coating or affecting the skin. If the opera- 
tions be many, or prolonged, the coating wears away from the 
tips of the fingers, but is easily renewed. For the remaining 
portion of the hands one apphcation is sufficient for a whole 
morning's work. 

The 4 per cent, benzine solution of rubber wears better on the 
tips of the fingers in handling instruments, sponges, and tissues 
than the acetone solution. 

For the abdomen the acetone solution has the advantage, as 



320 YEAR-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

it dries in 3 to 4 seconds after its application, wliile the benzine 
solution takes from 3 to 4| minutes to make a dry, firm coating. 

The preparation of the patient's skin consists in 5 minutes' 
scrubbing with spirit of soft soap, washing with ether, followed 
by alcohol. The surface is then swabbed over thoroughly with 
the benzine or acetone solution. 

The guttapercha solution is prepared by dissolving the pure 
guttapercha chips in sterile benzine or acetone. These solutions 
do not stand boiling, as this impairs the adhesiveness and elas- 
ticity of the coating. 

Synonyms of Magnesium Sulphate. M. T. W i 1 b e r t. {Proc, 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 52, 345.) The following English and 
Latin synonyms have been given to magnesium sulphate : 
Magnesia vitriolata, sal amarum, sal Seidlicense, sal Seidlitzense, 
sal Seidschuetzense, sal Aiiglicum, sal catharticum, sal Ebschaniense, 
sal Ehsomiense ; magnesium sulphate, bitter salt, bitter laxative 
salt, bitter purging salt, cathartic salt, English salt, Epsom salt, 
physical salt, laxative salt, sulphate of magnesia, and vitriolated 
magnesia. 

Tapeworm, Remedy for. {Pharm. Centralh., 45, 678, Re- 
medes.) Pumpkin seeds, 620 grs. ; freshly prepared extract of 
pomegranate root, 155 grs. Make a paste and divide into 20 
equal parts, which may be given in capsules if desired, and 
flavoured with peppermint or lemon oil. Every half-hour 5 of 
these portions are to be taken, in the morning, fasting, and 
half an hour after the last 5, a purge consisting of equal parts of 
syrup of buckthorn and brandy should be taken. Tea or broth 
may then be taken. For delicate patients or children the dose 
should be lessened. 

Thymol Dentifrice, Miller's. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 21, 
48.) Thymol, 3; benzoic acid, 30; tincture of eucalyptu.s, 
150 ; alcohol 90 per cent., 1,000 ; essential oil of peppermint, 7-5. 

Toad Venom, Action of Radium Emanations on. C. P h i s a- 

1 i X. [Joiirn. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 37 k>.) Although the venom 
of snakes is very sensitive to radium emanations, and rtipidly 
loses its toxicity under their iiifluence, the same is not the case 
with the venom of the toad or of the salamander. The active 
principle of these two venoms is not an albuminoid, so it is in- 
ferred that the chemical action of radium rays is only exerted on 



NOTES AND FORMULAE. 321 

albuminous bodies. Toad venom may be kept for several days 
in a radioactive atmosphere without showing the least diminu- 
tion of its \'iru]ence. 

Toilet Ammonia. {Amer. Drugg., 45, 48.) Solution of Am- 
monia, 250 c.c. ; soft soap, 120 Gm. ; oleic acid, 10 c.c. ; bay 
oil, 1 c.c. ; rosemary oil, 1 c.c. ; verbena oil, 5 c.c. ; water, suffi- 
cient to make 1,000 c.c. Dissolve the oleic acid in the ammonia 
water and the soap in 500 c.c. of warm water, to which add the 
oils. Mix both by agitation and add water to make 1,000 c.c. 

To Quickly Remove a Ring from a Swollen Finger. {Nat. 
Drugg., 35, 145.) If the ring is of gold, pull the folds of the 
swollen muscles apart, so that it can be seen, then drop on it a 
little absolute alcohol and place the finger in a bowl of metallic 
mercury. In a very few minutes the ring will snap apart. If 
the ring is of brass, scrtipe the surface slightly, or put on a few 
drops of a solution of oxalic acid, or even strong vinegar ; let 
remain in contact for a moment or two, then put into the mer- 
cury, and the result will be as before. 

Toxicity of Essential Oils and their Constituents on the Living 
Cell. A. J. J. V a n d e V e 1 d e. {Bull. Assoc. Beiges de Chim., 
through SchimmeVs Re/port, Oct., 1904, 102.) The toxicity of the 
substances examined was compared with that of alssolute 
alcoliol, as affectmg plasmolysis in the Hving cell. Phenols and 
aldehydes are found to be much more toxic than the alcohols, 
as shown by the following comparative figures : Thymol, 0-04 ; 
menthol, 0-18 ; cinnamic aldehyde, 0-20 ; cassia oU, 0-21 ; clove 
oil, 0-21 ; thyme oil (white), 0-36 ; Ceylon cinnamon oil, 0*44 ; 
thyme oil (red), 0-60 ; peppermint oil, 1*52 ; nutmeg oil, I'll ; 
star-anise oil, 1*81 ; carvone, 2*06 ; bitter almond oil, 2*26 ; 
benzaldehyde, 2-26 ; caraway oil, 5-40 ; lemon oil (terpeneless), 
6-45 ; neroh oil, 7*11 ; carvene, 7-71 ; angelica oil (root), 7-84 ; 
anise oil, 10-33 ; cognac oil (artificial), 13-83 ; anethol, 17-08 ; 
lemon oil, 18-55 ; cognac oil, 18-89 ; isobutyl alcohol, 21-20 ; 
propyl alcohol (normal), 45-50 ; ethyl alcohol, 100-00 ; methyl 
alcohol, 142-10. 

Toxicity of the Red Blood Corpuscles of Various Animals on 
the Rabbit. F. B a telle. {Journ. Pharm. Chim. [6], 20, 
143. ) The constituents of the red blood-corpuscles of the dog, cat, 
ox, and rabbit have no toxic effect when injected into the veins 

y 



322 YEAE-BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

of rabbits, and tliese blood-corpuscles are not haeniolyzed by the 
blood serum of the rabbit. But the contents of the blood 
corpuscles of tlie pig, sheep and rat are toxic when so given, and 
rabbit's-blood serum causes the hiemolysis of the red corpuscles 
of the blood of these animals! Of these, pig's blood is most toxic. 

Universal Healing Salve. {Amer. Dnigg., 46, 172.) Salicylic 
acid, 4 drs. ; ichthyol, 1 oz. ; precipitated sulphur, 5 oz. ; zinc 
oxide, 5 oz. ; pine tar, 5 oz. ; petrolatum, 10 oz. ; oil rosemary, 
2 fl. drs. IVIix. Any other flavouring oil may be substituted for 
the rosemary, which is only added to give the mixture an agree- 
able odour. 

Velvet Violet Powder. Orris root, 2 oz. ; corn starch, 12 oz. ; 
lycopodium, 1 oz. ; oil of orange flowers, | dr. ; oil of bergamot, 
^ dr. ; oil of lavender flowers, ^ dr. ; oil of cloves, 15 drops ; oil 
of cinnamon, 15 drops. IVIix all the powders and all the oils, 
then gradually add the oils to the powders. 

White Library Paste. (Dnigg. Circ, 34, 453.) Tragacanth, 
2 ; wliite dextrin, 1 ; wheat flour, 6 ; glycerin, 1 ; cold water, 
4 ; boiling water, 40 parts. Over tlie tragacanth pour 16 parts 
of water in active ebullition, stirring it in well, and set aside in 
a moderately warm place. Mix the wheat flour and dextrin 
with the cold water, and add the mixture to the tragacanth, 
stirring in thoroughly, and pour the batter thu.s formed into the 
boiling water (24 parts), stirring actively and constantly while 
this is being done. Now add to the glycerin sufficient salicyUc 
acid (say about a quarter of one part, or sufficient to constitute 
about the half of 1 per cent, of the entire batch of paste) to 
preserve the paste, and pour the mixture into the boiling mass. 
Let boil for 4 or 5 minutes under constant stirring, then remove 
from fire and pour into a stone jug or jar, cover with a piece of 
bladder, and tie tightly. Keep in a cool place, and when the 
paste is needed, after removing a portion, replace the cover, 
tightly tying down. The product is pure white and almost 
odourless, a faint pleasant smeU only remaining. As a sticker 
for paper or cloth this is unequalled. It is improved by the 
addition of 2 parts of gum arable and 3 additional parts of 
glycerin (making four in all), which converts it into an excellent 
label paste. The substitution of good glue for gum arable, and 
the addition of 8 parts of sugar, makes a good all-round paste 
for use on leather, wood, glass or metal, 



RESEARCH LIST, 1905. 

The following subjects a.re suggested for investigation, and the 
Executive Committee hopes that members of the B.P.C. will 
undertake to work on one or more of these questions. New 
subjects have been added to the list to replace those worked 
out. The Hon. Secretaries wish to call attention to the fact that 
a special fund has been raised to defray expenses connected 
with research work. The Executive Committee will be glad 
to receive applications from members for grants from the above 
fund. 

Plant Analysis. 

1. Arnica. What is the active principle, and what are the 
relative proportions of it in the root and flower ? (See Year- 
Book, 1904, 27.) 

2. Bay Berries. An examination of the bitter principle of the 
pericarps of bay berries is required. 

3. Cascara Sagrada. What is the nature of the various resins 
contained in the bark 1 The cascara sagrada of commerce 
apparently consists of two species, B. purshiana and B. califor- 
nica, the latter having a much paler fracture. It is desirable to 
ascertain how far these differ in activity, percentage of active 
principles, yield of extract, etc. (See Year-Book, 1893, 131 ; 
1899, 134; 1905, 56.) 

4. Castor Oil. A research having for its object the isolation of 
a purgative principle is required. (See Year-Book, 1898, 163 ; 
184 ; 1901, 125. Pharm. Journ. [4], 5, 84 ; 11, 152.) 

5. Chamomile. Research upon the bitter principle of Anthemis 
nohilis. (See Bull, de Soc. Chim. [2], 41, 483 ; Year-Book, 
1904, 266.) 

6. Cimicifuga racemosa {Actcea racemosa). Further inform- 
ation is needed on the chemical nature of the constituent or 
constituents to which the rhizome of tlie plant owes its activity, 
(See Year-Book, 1885, 149.) 

7. Damiana is reported to contain a bitter substance, resins^ 
a-nd volatile oil. The liquid extract of the leaves being ex. 



324 YEAE BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

tensively used, a thorough systematic examination of this drug 
is desirable. 

8. Determinations of the total quantity of alkaloids in certain 
plants, such as belladonna, at different stages of growth would be 
useful. 

9. Ewphorhia piluUfera. Required, a report upon the chemistry 
of this drug. 

10. Fucus vesicnlosus. The medicinal vii'tues have been 
attributed solely to the presence of iodine and bromine. It 
is not improbable that it may contain some organic constituent 
of importance. A complete chemical inv^estigation is required. 

11. Mezereon Bark. What is the chemical nature of the acrid 
principle of this bark ? 

12. Papaver rhceas. An examination of the red colouring 
matter of the petals is required. 

13. Simarouha Bark. A comparison of the constituents of this 
drug with those of quassia wood is desirable. 

14. Strophanthus. Information is desirable on the best methods 
of separating the different active principles obtained from stro- 
phanthus seeds. (See Year-Book, 1898, 54, 162 ; 1899, 59 ; 
1901, 167 ; also Pharm. Joiirn. [4], 6, 385, 506.) 

15. Taraxacum. To what constituents are the cholagogue and 
diuretic properties due ? To what extent do they vary in roots 
collected at different seasons of the year ? 

16. Verafrine. Should a pure veratrine be included in the 
British Pharmacopoeia rather than the mixture of alkaloids now 
official ? If so, suggest a process for its purification. 

17. Proximate Analyses of the following drugs are required : 
Cereus grandiflorus, Citrnllus colocynthis. Cassia fistula and 
Serenoa serrulata (Saw Palmetto). 

Chemistry. 

18. Adeps. A satisfactory test for the presence of cotton seed 
oil is needed. A good test for lard oil is required. 

19. Apomorphine. Do solutions of this alkaloid retain their 
potency after coloration has taken place ? 

20. Cinnamon Bark Oil. The official physical and chemical 
tests are stated to be unsatisfactory. Investigation of authentic 
specimens of oil from bark and " chips " suggested. (See Year- 
Book, 1904, 58.) 

21. Cotton Wools. How far do commercial samples conform 
to the tests of the British Pharmacopoeia ? 



JlESEAECH LIST, 191)5. 325 

22. Ferri Arsenas. The official tests supply only the means of 
determining the amount of ferrous iron present. It has been sug- 
gested tliat a method for the determination of the arsenic content 
should be ordered. (See Pharm. Jouni. [4], 7, 530 ; Year-Booh, 
1903, 572; 1905, 81.) 

23. Glycerin. Required a good method for determining this 
substance, applicable if possible to pharmaceutical preparations. 

24. Ipecacuanha. Experiments upon the method or methods 
for the separation of the alkaloids are needed. 

25. Sodium Arsenate. A better method of assay than that 
now official would be welcome. (See Year-Book, 1904, 166.) 

26. Tannins. The various methods employed for the estima- 
tion of tannm in astringent drugs and preparations give very 
discrepant results. Required, a thorough research into the 
comparative result of these processes. 

Pharmacopedy and Pharmacy. 

27. Botanical Sources of the following require investigation. 
The varieties of asafetida and galbanum ; the gum resin opoponax ; 
the co-called Syrian tragacanth ; the large licorice root im- 
ported from Bussorah (probably Glycyrrhiza echinata), and the 
varieties of copaibas of commerce. 

28. Cannabis indica. Preparations of uniform strength of this 
drug are needed. Experiments are required as to the best method 
of preparation. Experiments are also needed to determine the 
difference in yield of resin, cannabin, and cannabinol between 
the guaza of Bombay and the ganjah of Calcutta. 

29. Compressed Drugs and Coated Pills. Required, a report on 
the strength and quality of the compressed drugs and coated pills 
of commerce. 

30. E§ect of Cultivation, Soil, Climate, and Time of Collection 
on Medicinal Plants. Compare the proportions of active constit- 
uents of indigenous plants grown in different districts, and the 
effect upon those constituents by variations in the time of collec- 
tion. 

31. Ergot. The determination of the proportion of active prin- 
ciples extracted from ergot by the official j)rocesses for the various 
preparations. 

32. Extractum Taraxaci Liquichim. The specific gravity and 
proportion of solid residue appear to vary much in commercial 
specimens. To what is this variation due ? 

33. Galenicals. The action upon these of light and ordinary 
exposure in a pharmacy. 



3*2() YEAR BOOK OF PHARMACY. 

34. Hamamelin. Should this be prepared from the leaves 
or tlie bark ? Experiments on the relative efficacy of powdered 
extractives from the two parts of the plant are desirable. 

35. Jaborandi. The leaves as imported are much mixed with 
stalks. Should the leaves be completely separated from the stalks 
for the making of official preparations ? What is the alkaloidal 
strength of old leaves, young leaves, and stalks ? 

36. Licorice. An examination of commercial samples of 
" Block Juice " and " Stick Licorice," with reference to their 
])uiity and glycyrrhizin content would be of value. 

37. Liquor Sennce Concentratus. In this preparation the 
senna is exhausted by repercolation ; in the liquor for preparing 
syrupus sennae, B.P., a process of double maceration is employed. 
VVliich is the better method ? 

38. Olive Oil. It has been suggested that for galenical pre- 
parations purified cotton seed oil, arachis oil, or sesame oil might 
be substituted for olive oil. A series of plasters, liniments, 
ointments, etc., should be prepared with each of those oils, and 
the resulting products compared. 

39. Oxydase. The action of this and other ferments in inducing 
changes in galenical preparations such as liquid extracts, etc. 
requires investigation. 

40. Pepsin. A good method of assay — determining the pep- 
tonizing and not merely dissolving power of pepsin, suitable for 
inclusion in B.P., is wanted. (See Pharm. Journ. [4], 5, 
561 ; Year-Book, 1904, 138 ; also Mette's test in Schiifer's 
Physiology.) 

41. Powdered Drugs. The determination of the limits within 
which adulteration of powdered drugs can be determined under 
the microscope. 

42. Suppositories. A compilation or determination of the 
specific gravity of the medicaments more commonly prescribed in 
suppositories in order that correct allowance may be made for the 
volume of tlie same. (See Pharm. Journ. [4], 5, 437 ; [4], 6, 69.) 



TRAIN[SACTIONS 

OF THE 

hitisjj |H);irnT;iccutic;il Canfcrcnct 

AT THE 

TORTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING 

IN 

BRIGHTON, 
1905. 



CONTENTS. 

Constitution and Roles of tfie Conference. 
Alphabetical List of Mesieeks' Names and Addresses. 
Programme of Transactions of the Conference in Buighton, 

including Titles of Papers. 
The Transactions of the Conference, including the Papers read 

AND Discussions thereon. 
General Index to the Year-Book and Transactions. 



lUitislj Ipjjarniacfuticiil ^"onfcrouc. 



CONSTITUTION • 

Art. I. — This Association shall be called The British I'harmaceutical Conference, and its 
objects shall be the followins; : — 

1. To hold an annual Conference of those eni;a<?ed in the practice, or interested in the 

advancement, of Pharmacy, with the view of promoting their friendly reunion, and 
increasing- their facilities for the cultivation of Pharmaceutical Science. 

2. To determine what questions in Pharmaceutical Science require investigation, and 

when practicable, to allot them to individuals or committees to report thereon. 

3. To maintain uncompromisingly the principle of purity in Medicine. 

4. To form a bond of union amongst the various associations established for the advance- 

ment of Pharmacy, by receiving from them delegates to the annual Conference. 
Art. II. — Membership in the Conference shall not be considered as conferring any 
guarantee of prof essional competenci'. 

RULES. 

1. Any person desiring to become a member of the Conference sh.all be nominated in 
writing by a member, and be Vjalloted for at a general meeting of the members, two-thirds 
of the votes given being needful for his election. If the application be made during the 
recess, the Executive Committee m;iy elect the candidate by a unanimous vote. 

2. The subscription shall be 7s. 6d. annunlly, which shall be <iue in advance ui)on July 1. 

3. Any member whose subscription shall lie more than two years in aiTear, after written 
application, shall be liable to be removed from the list by the Executive Committee. Members 
may be e.xpelled for improper conduct by a majority of three-fourths of those voting at a 
general meeting, provided that fourteen days' notice of such intention of expulsion has 
been sent by the Secretaries to each member of the Conference. 

4. Every association established for the advancement of Pharmacy shall, during its 
recognition by the Conference, be entitled to send delegates to the annual meeting. 

5. The Officers of the Conference shall be a President, a number of Vice-presidents not 
exceeding six, by election, the past Presidents (win) shall be Vice-presidents), a Treasurer, 
two General Secretaries, one local Secretai-y, and nine other members, who shall collec- 
tively constitute the Executive Committee.' Three members of the Executive Committee 
to retire annually by ballot, the remainder being eligible for re-election. They shall be 
elected at each annual meeting, by ballot of those present. 

6. At each Conference it shall be determined at what place and time to hold that of the 
next year. 

7. Two members shall be elected by the Conference to audit the Treasurer's accounts, 
such audited accounts to be presented annually. 

8. The Executive Committee shall present a report of proceedings annually. 

9. These rules shall not be altered except at an annual meeting of the members. 

10. Reports on subjects entrusted to individuals or committees for investigation shall be 
presented to a future meeting of the Conference, whose property they shall become. All 
reports shall be presented to the Executive Committee at least fourteen days before the 
annual meeting. 

*,* Authors are specially requested to sendthe titles of their PapersfoThe Hon. Gen Sees. Bnt. 
Pharpi. Conf., 17, Bloomsbury Sqiiare_, London, W.C, two or three weeks before the Annual 
Meeting. The subjects will then be e.rte'nsively advertised, and thus full interest uill he secured. 



FORM OF NOMIXATTOX. 

I Nominate 

{Name) 

Address) 

as a M<'mher of the British Pharmaceutical Conference. 

Member 
Date 

This or any similar form must be filled up legibly, and forwarded to Tlie Assf. Secretary, 
Brit. Pharm. Conf., 17, Blooin-ibury Square, London, W.C, who will obtain the necessary 
signature to the paper. 

Pupils and Assistants, as well as Principals, are invited to become members. 

328 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Ebekt, a. E., 426, State Street, Cliicago, Illinois, United States. 

Ladenburg, Albeit, Hi.D , Hon. M.D., Professor of Pharmacy, 
University of Preplan, 103, Kaiser Wilhelm-Strasse, Berlin. 

Maiden, Josepli Henry, F.L.S., Director of Botanic Gardens and 

Government Botanist, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Mello, J. C. de, Campinas, Brazil. 

Petit, A., Rue Favart, 8, Paris. 

Prain, David, Major, I. M.S., M.A., M.B., LL.D. (honoris causa), 

Director of Botanical Survey, Royal Botanic Gardens, Shibpur, 

near Calcutta. 

Remington, J. P., Professor of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 
145, North Tenth Street, Philadelphia, United States. 

Sadnpers, W., London, Ontario, Canada. 

ScHACHT, C, Ph.D., 5(5, Mittelstrasse, Berlin, Germany. 

TscHiECH, Prof. Dr. A., Direktor des Pharmazeut. Institutes, Der 
Universitat, Berne, Switzerland. 



FOREIGN AND COLONrAL MEMBERS. 

Abbott, G. W. A., St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Aerstin, Edw. Chas., Colonial Dispensary, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 
W. I. 

Aickiu, G., The Pharmaicy, Queen Street, Aucldaud, N.Z. (Year- 
Book to Evans Sons, Lescher & Webb, Ltd., Bartholomew Close, 
E.C.). 

Backhouse, H. N., 5, Rue de la Paix, Paris. 

Baker, C. P., Smith, Stauistreet & Co., Calcutta. 

Barcham, J. N. , Allan Street, Kyabram, Victoria. 

Barrett, Arthur A., Pozzo Leone 31, Messina. 

Bay, A. H., Medical Hall, Rangoon, Buruiah. 

Bemrose, J., F.C.S., F.I.C., 56, St. Famille Street, Montreal (Year- 

Book to Horner & Sous, Mitre Square, E.C.). 
Boesinger, John, Nilgiri Pharmaceutical Co., Ootacamund, India. 
Branch, G. T., c/o Mr. Cleghorn, Hout Street, Cape Town. 
Brinsmead, J. T., High Street, Traralgon, Victoria. 
Brownscombe, W. J., Bridge Road, Richmond, Melbourne. 
Butcher, C, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Champion, G. A., Durban, Natal (Year-Book to Maw, Sou & Sons, 

11, Aldersgate Street, E.C.). 
Chapman, W. H., Corner of St. Catherine and Guy Streets, Montreal, 

care of Lyman & Co. (Year-Book to Horner & Sons, Mitre Square, 

E.C.V 



3.90 . BRITISH PHAliMACKUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Coakei', Noiwooil, Ladylji-and, Orange River Colony. 

Cocking, J. J., Prahran, Victoiia. 

Cook, (i. E., Downing Stre«;t, King William's Town, South Africa 

(Year-Book to Evans Sous, Lescher & Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew 

Close, E.G.). 
Criper, W. R., F.I.C., Konnagur, near Calcutta. 

Day, H. Bartlett, Northam, Western Australia (Year- Book to Evans 

Sons. Lescher & Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C.). 
Dey, Notendra Lall, 4, Boadou Street, Calcutta, India. 

Edson, J., Medical Hall, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand 
(Year-Book to Evans Sons, Lescher & Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew 
Close, E.G.). 

Elgie, Simon Kelsey, 17, Gardiner Street, Durban, Natal. 

Evans, Alfred B. , 32, St. Gabriel Street, Montreal. 

Flint, Charles Bruce, Mount Gambier, South Australia. 
Forrest, J. K., .Jeffcott Street, West Melbourne, Victoria. 
Fothergill, J., 10, Rue Keppler, Champs Elysees, Paris. 
Fritz.sche, Karl, care of Messrs. Schimmel & Co., Miltitz,near Leipzic, 
Saxony. 

Garibaldi, J. A., 21, Church Place, Gibraltar. 

Garner, W. W , Perth, S.A. (care of F. H. Fauldiug & Co., 54, Great 

Tower St., E.C.) 
Gasson, W., Kimberley, South Africa (Year-Book to Maw, Son & 

Sons, 11, Aldersgate Street. E.C). 
Gibb, Andrew, care of Bathgate & Co., 19, Old Court House Street, 

Calcutta. 
Glover, Henry, Mount Gambier, S. Australia. 
Gordon, J. C, 662, Main Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 
Grice, Walter T., F.C.S., Messrs. Smith, Stanistreet & Co., Calcutta. 
Grimwade, E. Norton, 342, Little Flinders Street, Melbourne (care of 

Grimwade, Ridley & Co., Muscovy House, Trinity Square, London, 

E.C). 

Harrison, J. B., M.A. , F.I.C, Government Analyst, Georgetown, 

British Guiana. 
Holmes, F., Charles and Brisbane Streets, Launceston, Tasmania. 
Hooper, D., F.I.C, F.C.S., Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
Hooper, E. G., Church Street, Hawthorn, Victoria. 
Hotop, Lewis, Queenstown, Otago, N.Z. 
Huggard, W. R., M.A., M.D., F.R.CP., British Vice-Consul, Davos 

Platz, Switzerland. 
Hughes, A. E., Elizabeth Street, N. Melbourne. 
Huntsman, T., 250, Nicholson Street, Fitzroy, Victoria. 

Ingram, Fred, 73, Srait Street, Johannesburg (Ye.ar-Book to Maw, 
Son & Sons, 11, Alder.sgate Street, E.C). 

Jones, J. W., care of Smith, Stanistreet & Co., 9, Dalhousie Square, 
Calcutta. 

Leslie, R. A. P., care of Smith, Stanistreet & Co., 9, Dalhousie Square, 

Calcutta. 
Ley, D., East Maitlaud, New South Wales (Year-Book to Evans 

Sons, Lescher & Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C). 
London, H., Warrnambool, Victoria. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFlJllENCE. 331 

Macfarlaue, Tiios., Inland Revenue Dept., Ottawa, Canada. 

Mac(iregor, James, 17, Old Court House Street, Calcutta. 

McGutfie, W. A., 116, Queen Street, Brisbane (Year-Book to Maw, 

Sou & Sons, 11, Aldersgate Street, E.C.). 
McJannet & Co., East London, Cape Colony. 
Mager, W. K., Queenstown, Cape Colony. 
Mather, Enoch, LL.D , F.R.M.S., 80, Park Place E., Detroit, 

Michigan, U.S.A. 
Meiriug, J., Worcester, Cape Colony, S. Africa (Year-Book to Evans 

Sous, Lescher & Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C.). 
Mewkill, Heury .Jas., St. Arnaud, Victoria. 
Miller, C. B., Graaf Reinet, Cape Colony (Year-Book to Lennon, 

Ltd., 53, Queen Elizabeth Street, S.E.). 
Moore, William, F.I.C., Dibrugarh, Upper Assam, India. 
MuiTay, Leonard E., Colonial Dispensary, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 

W.I. 
Murdock, J. W., 271, Dalhousie Street, Rangoon. 

Napper, E. H., care of Smith, Stanistreet, & Co., 9, Dalhousie Square, 
Calcutta. 

Ogburn, .J., Charlton, Victoria. 

Owen, .J. H., Wellington (Year-Book to Sharland & Co., 43, London 
Wall, E.C.). 

Paddock, M. V., St. .John, New Brunswick. 

Parr, W. J., 1, Hunter's Road, Vepery, Madras. 

Pincus, Max, Castleuiaine, Victoria. 

Plowman, Sidney, F.R.C.S., E.I.C., etc., The Tofts, Frankston, 

Victoria. 
Pond, J. A., Auckland, N.Z. 
Poynter, Robt. S., Coleraiue, Victoria. 

Quipp, .Joseph E. H., 95, Windsor Street, Montreal (Year-Book to 
Horner & Sons, Mitre Square, E.C., care of Lyman, Sons & Co.). 

Rainer, C. 0., Water Street, George Town, Demerara (Year-Book 
to S. Maw, Son & Sons, 11, Aldersgate Street, E.C.). 

Reaveley, R., Konnagur, Calcutta. 

Rich, Stiles W. G.,care of Thomason, Chater, Ltd., Brisbane, Queens- 
land. 

Richmond, D. S., care of Smith, Stanistreet, & Co., 9, Dalhousie 
Square, Calcutta. 

Row, W. Edward, George Street North, Sydney, New South Wales 
(Year-Book and Letters care of Saddington & Co., 30, Lime Street, 
E.C.). 

Ruttonjee, H., 27, Mody Khana Street, Fort, Bombay. 

Samuel, J. B., Mussoorie, India (Year-Book and Letters care of A. 

Lawrie & Co., 14, St. Mary Axe, E.G.). 
Say, S. V. B., Beualla, Victoria. 
Scammell,L. R., Adelaide (care of F. H. Faulding & Co., 54, Great 

Tower Street, E.C). 
Schaer, Prof. Ed., M.D., Pharmaceutisches Institut, Universitiit, 

Strassburg. 
Shillinglaw, H., Swauston Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Smale, F. T., Allahabad, India. 
Smith, H. x\. J., Smith & Sous, Ootacaraund, India. 
Smith, J. D., Smith & Sons, Ootacamund, India. 



3B2 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Smith, W. E., J.P., High Court, Madras, India. 

Smith, W. Fraser, care of W. E. Smith & Co., Mount Koad, Madras, 

India. 
Speechly, E., Kurachi, Scinde, India (Year-Book to Maw, Son & 

Sons, 11, Ahlersgate Street, E.G.). 
Spurge, E. C, 019, Buffah) Avenue, Niagara Falls, U.S A. 
Squire, F. K., San Kemo, Italy. 

Stoddart, A. L., 449, Burwood Eoad, Hawthorn, Victoria. 
Swinton, Ralph S., c/o W. J. Bush & Co., Linden, New Jersey, 

U.S.A. 
Symes, C. F., 298, Bourke Street, Melbourne (Year-Book, etc., to 

Symes & Co., 14, Hardman Street, Liverpool). 

Taitt, A. J., Colonial Dispensary, Frederick Street, Port of Spain, 

Trinidad. 
Tanner, .1. B. H., Nathalia, Victoria. 
Thomas, H., Croydon, Queensland. 
Thomas, H. W., care of Smith, Stanistreetife Co., 9, Dalhousie Square, 

Calcutta. 
Thomas, Lewis, Box 68, Johannesburg (Year-Book to Symes & Co., 

14, Hardman Street, Liverpool). 
Timmins, W. P., 51, Glebe Road, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book to 

Grimwade, Ridley & Co., Muscovy House, Trinity Square, E.C.) 
Towl, Chas. E., care of Chas. Ogg & Co., 76, Collins Street, 

Melbourne, Victoria. 
Tremble, J. E., Corner of Mountain and St. Catherine Street, 

Montreal (Year-Book to Horner & Sons, Mitre Square, E.G., care 

of Lyman, Sons & Co., Montreal). 

Varley, F., Wynberg, Cape Colony (Year-Book to Maw, Son & Sons, 
11, Aldersgate Street, E.G.). 

Walker, Geo., The Dispensary, Penang (Year-Book to Evans Sons, 
Lescher A- Webb, Ltd., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.G.). 

Walsh, A., Adderley Street, Cape Town. (Year-Book and Letter's to 
Lennou, Ltd., 53, Queen Elizabeth Street, S.E.). 

Watkins George, 206, Queen Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 

Wetzel, H. A., Detroit, Michigan, United States (care of Parke, Davis 
& Co., Ill, Queen Victoria Street, E.G.). 

Wheeler, F., Grant Street, Alexandra, Victoria. 

Wilkinson, R., Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Willet, J. A., Port Elizabeth, Gape Colony. 

Woolcott, J. N., Warracknabeal, Victoria. 



HOME MEMBERS. 



Abraham, Alfred C, F.I.G., F.C.S., 87, Bold Street, Liverpool. 

Abraham, T. F., 87, Bold Street, Liverpool. 

Adams, F., 20, High Street, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Aitken, R., 73, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

Alcock, F. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 9, Broad Street Corner, Birmingham. 

Alexander, J., 101, South Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. 

Alexander, W. G., 14, Portland Place, Leith, N.B. 

Allen, B., 125, Hampton Ro?'\ Redland, Bristol. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 333 

Allen, C. B., 20, High Koad, Kilburn, N.W. 

Allen, Edward R., 7, Cowper Street, Finsbury, E.G. 

Allen, K. C, 7, Cowper ^treet, Finsbury, E.G. 

Allen, W. C., 7, Gowper Street, Finsbury, E.G. 

Allen, W. N., 48, Henry Street, Dublin. 

Anderson, John, 14, Strathmartine Eoad, Dundee. 

Andrews, E. A., F.C.S., St. Mary's Hospital, Paddiugton, W. 

Antcliffe, Herbert, Union Offices, Sheffield. 

Arkinstall, W., Fernleigh, Market Drayton. 

Arntield, J. G., 7 & 9, Lower Hillgate, Stockport. 

Arnold, H. R., 16, Goleman Street, E.G. 

Arrowsmith, A. R., 3, Wontuer Road. Balham, S.W. 

Ashton, C. S., 46, Dyke Road, Brighton. 

AshtOD, F. W., 65, Lansdowne Road, Croydon. 

Aston, W., '27, Montague Street, Worthing. 

Atkins, S. R., J.P., The Mount, Elm Grove, Salisbury. 

Atkius, W. R., Market Place, Salisbury. 

Atkinson, J. G., 2.5, Westow Hill, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Atkinson, Leo, 285, Brockley Road, S.E. 

Attfield, Prof. J., Ph.D., F.R.S., " Ashlauds," Watford, Herts. 

Austen, .John, 20, Dover Road, Sheffield. 

Bailey, J. H., Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

Bain, John, 4, Quadrant, Lime Street, Liverpool. 

Bain, John, Penzance House, Bridge of Allan, N.B. 

Baker, Parson G., 174, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Balcomb, J., 10, Suffolk Parade, Gheltenham. 

Ball, A. W. , 179, Queen Victoria Street, E.G. 

Balmforth, A., Whalley Range, Manchester. 

Bannister, W., Victoria Lodge, Gork. 

Barfoot, W., Chesterfield. 

Barge, John, Belgrave House, Mutley, Plymouth. 

Barlow, Alfred H., Oak Avenue, Romillv, Stockport. 

Barnes, J. B., F.C.S., 225, Knightsbridge, S.W. 

Bari'ett, J. T., 30, Regent Street West, Leamington. 

Barron, Wm., Cheltenham. 

Bascombe, F., F.I.C., 17, St. Saviour's Road, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

Basker, J. A., F.C.S., 17, Fore Street, Bridgwater. 

Batchelor, A. E., 15, West Street, Fareham, Hants. 

Bates, J., Arran Lodge, Holly Walk, Leamington. 

Bateson, Thos., J. P., Bank House, Kendal. 

Batting, T. Gilbert, 16, Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

Baxter, John, Ballymoney. 

Baxter, W. J., J.P., M.G.P.S.I., Church Street, Goleraine. 

Bayley, G. H., Upper Nab House, Shij^ley, near Leeds. 

Bayne, Thomas, 21, Duke St., Edinburgh. 

Beach, W. B., 9, East Street, Bridport. 

Beacock, H., Upperhead Row, Leeds. 

Beggs, G. D., The Dalkey Medical Hall, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 

Bell, G. B., 6, Spring Bank, Hull. 

Bell, E. Wightman,F.C.S., County Agricultural Laboratory, Spalding. 

Bell, Peter, 60, Elswick Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Bell, W. M., 2, Malvern Road, Kilburn, N.W. 

Bellamy, Dr. J. H., Firvale Infirmary, Sheffield. 

Bennett, F. B., 37, Kmg St. , Whitehaven. 

Benuett, Fred. W. Moncrieff, 238, High Street, Arbroath, N.B. 

Bennett, Reginald R., 7, Maze Road, Kew, S.W. 

Bernard, J. I., 26, Clare Street, Dublin. 

Berry, W., F.C.S., F.I.Inst., General Hospital, Bristol. 



334 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Betty, R. B., 1, Park Street, Gloucester Gate, Regent's Park, 

N.W. 
Beviin, E. J , F.I.C., 4, New Court, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Billington, F., 201, Edge Lane, Liverpool. 
Bilsou, F. E., 1, Lansdown Crescent, Bournemouth. 
Bird, F. C. J., 15, Laurence Pountney Lane, E.C. 
Birkbeek, J. T., 5, Bailgate, Lincoln. 
Black, H. Milner, 81, St. James Street, Brighton. 
Blain, W., 25, Market Street, Bolton. 
Blamev, C. A., 77, King's Eoad, Brighton. 
Blake,' C. A., 49, Dover Street, W. 
Blake, E. F., F.I.C., F.C.S., Queen's College, Belfast. 
Boa, Peter, 119, George Street, Edinburgh. 
Boardman, F. J., 19, Market Street, Leigh, Lanes. 
Bolton, C. A., 40, Carlton Street, Nottingham. 
Bond, Cyrus H. B., 24, West Heath Road, Chiswell Road, Dudley 

Road, Birmingham. 
Boorne, H. E., 49, Woodstock Road, Redlaud Green, Bristol. 
Booth, S. v., 25, Grosvenor Road, Tunbridge Wells. 
Bostock, John, 84, High Street, West Cowes, I. W. 
Bostock, J. W., Burlington Street Mills, Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Bottle, A., F.C.S., 4, Godwyne Road, Dover. 
Bourdas, I., 48, Belgrave Road, S.W. 

Bourdas, Isaiah, junr., 6, Pont Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. ■ 
Boutall, G. S., 52, Marchmont Street, W.C. 
Bowen, J. W., 13, Curzon Street, W. 
Bowles, Bertram H., F.C.S., Cropstone, Dunsmore Road, Stamford 

Hill, N. 
Bowman, W. Powell, 7, White Horse Street, Leeds. 
Boyd, Alex., 453, Shields Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
Boyd, S. P., J. P., M.A. (T.C.D.), Dromana, Leeson Park, Dublin. 
Braby, F., F.C.S , F.G.S., M.R.I., Bushey Lodge, Upper Teddington, 

Middlesex. 
Bradley, C. , 46, Market Place, Reading. 
Bradley, S. W., 141, Morningtou Road, Leytonstone, E. 
Braithwaite, J. 0., Hilika, Warren Road, Cbingford, Essex. 
Branson, F. W., F.I.C., F.C.S., 14, Commercial Street, Leeds. 
Brazier, W. N., Brook Street, Stourbridge. 
Breadner, C. G., Cheetham, Manchester. 
Breeze, G., J.P., 10, College View, Ford Park, Plymoutb. 
Bremridge, R., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Brewis, E. T., F.I.C., 21, Belgrave Road, Levton, Essex. 
Bridge, G. E., 128, Old Christchurch Road, Bournemouth. 
Bright, R., 29, Broad Bridge Street, Peterborough. 
Brodie, R., 253, Crown Street, Glasgow. 
Brooks, J., 42, Shudehill, Manchester. 
Brown, D. Rainy, 9 & 11, Moor Lane, Fore Street, E.C. 
Brown, David, F.R.S.E., 93, Abbey Hill, Edinburgh. 
Brown, George, 20, Wexford Street, Dublin. 
Brown, J., " Glencoe," 20, Tower Road, Dartford, Kent. 
Browne, H. C., 1. Cornfield Road, Eastbourne. 
Brunker, J. E., M.A., F.C.S., 18, Grosvenor Place, Rathmjnes, 

Dublin. 
Brunt, G. H., 323, Coventry Road, Birmingham. 
Buchanan, D., Kirriemuir, N.B. 
Buchanan, J., 6, North Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Buck, Anthony S., 179, Bedford Street, Liverpool, 
Bush, Alfred W., Ash Grove Work.s, Hackney, E. 
Buckett, A. H., 22, Market Place, Penzance. 
Buckle, J., 20, Market Pla.ce, Malton, Yorks, 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL COXFEEEXCE. 335 

Burford, S. F., F.C.S., Halford Street, Leicester. 

Burkey, J. C, 3, Fitz-William Avenue, Ballynafeigh, Belfast. 

Burnell, Jno. S., 319, Glossop Eoad, Sheffield. 

Burnett, Jos. F., F.C.S., 8, River View, Ashton, Preston 

Bush, J. E., Melksham. 

Butler, E. H., New Haymarket, Leicester. 

Butterworth, A., 37, Wakefield Road, Bradford, Yorks 

Buxton, T., 82, Queen's Road, Clifton, Bri.stol. 

Canipkin, B. S., Mill Road, Cambridge. 

Candy, Hugh, B.A., B.Se. (Lond.), F.I.C., The College, Loudon 

Hospital, E. 
Care, H. Bristowe, 25, Esplanade Terrace, Portobello, Edinburgh. 
Carnaichael, M., 1103, Pollokshaws Road, Crossmyloof, Glasgow. 
Carr, Percy, 85-87, Ecclesall Road, Sheffield. 
Cart, John Trevor, 25, Mayflower Road, Clapham, S.W. 
Carteigiie, M., F.I.C., F.C.S., ISO, New Bond Street, W. 
Carter, W., 2, Union Terrace, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 
Catford, J. P., 6, Saudon Terrace, Upper Duke Street, Liverpool. 
Cave, J. R., 52, Nevill Street, Southport. 
Chalmers, W., 24, BramshiU Road, Harlesden, N.W. 
Chamberlain, A. G., F.C.S., 3, Market Place, Rugby. 
Chaplin, J. L., 60, Westgate, Wakefield, Yorks. 
Chapman, Alfd.. C, F.I.C., F.C.S., 8, Duke Street, Aldgate, E.C. 
Chapman, H., 52, Newborough, Scarborough. 
Chase, T., 151, Broad Street, Birmingham. 
Chaston, A. E., 45, High Street, Winchester. 
Chafer, E. M., 129, High Street, Watford. 
Cheney, Henry R., The Crescent, Dursley, Glos. 
Cholerton, Alf. F., 40^, Belgrave Gate, Leicester. 
Church, E. H., 18, St. Andrew's Street, Cambridge. 
Church, Prof. A. H., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A., Shelsley, Kew 

Gardens, Surrey. 
Clague, Thos. Maltby, 11, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Clare, Jno., 1, Harcourt Place, Scarborough. 

Clark, W. lughs, D.Sc, 104, 106 & 108, South Canongate, Edinburgh. 
Clark, J., 137a, Pilgrim Street, Newcastleon-Tyne. 
Clark, J. A., 57, Weston Park, Crouch End, N. 
Clark, J. W., " Houghton House," Victoria Road, Leicester. 
Clark, Richard, D.L., J.P., 17, Smith's Place, Leith Walk, Edinburgh. 
Clarke, C. Goddard, J.P., L.C.C., 60 to 64, Artillery Lane, E. 
Clarke, F., 101, Whitecross Street, E.C. 
Clarke, J., 38, George Street, Croydon. 
Clarke, R. Feaver, 21, High Street, Gravesend. 
Clarke, W. J., 40, Wilkinson Street, Albert Square, Clapham Road, 

S.W. 
Clarke, W. J., 153b, High Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 
Clayton, F. C, 18, St. James' Road, Birmingham. 
Clinton, Bridget Rose, 19, North Earl Street, Dublin. 
Close, T., 45, Corporation Road, Middlesboro'. 
Coats, J. T., " Gowanburn," Trinity Road, Edinburgh. 
Cockburn, B., Orrock Manse, Hawick, N.B. 
Cockbura, C. T., 130, Howard Street, Glasgow. 
Cofman, Joseph, 41, Hart Street, New Oxford Street, W.C. 
Colchester, W. M., 53, Coronet Street, Hoxton, N. 
Coleman, A., 55, Commercial Road, Newi:)ort, Mon. 
Coley, S. J., 57, High Street, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
Collen, Creswell, 78, St. Johns Road. Clapham. S.W. 
Collins, H. G., care of Mr. Hemingway, Hampstead, N.W. 
Collis, A. F., 11, Abbey Chmchyard, Bath. ' 



336 BRITISH PHAKMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



Connor, J. E., Ph. Ch., M.C.P.S., of Irelan.l, 79, Hill Street, 

Newry. 
Conyngbam, Hy., 32, Upper Baggot Street, Dublin. 
Cooley, W. B., F.C.S., 5, DiitUey Street, Wolverhampton. 
Cooper, A., F.C.S., 80, Gloucester lload, South Kensington, S.W. 
Cooper, A. J. Bullen, Griiustou Lawn, Ealing. 
Cooper, J., 4, Boulevard, Weston-super-Mare. 
Cooper, W. M., 110, South View Koad, Sharrow, Sheffield. 
Cope, John A.. 3 Market Place, Derby. 
Corder, Octavius, 31, London Street, Norwich. 
Cornwell, T. C, 14, Piccadilly, Hanley, Staffs. 
Cortis, A. B., F.C.S., 30, South Street, Worthing. 
Costertou, H. A., 140a, Western Road, Brighton. 
CouU, Dr. George, 23, Cambridge Gardens, Leith, Edinburgh. 
Coupland, H. S., 101, Whitecross Street, E.G. 
Cowie, William Beaverly, Principal, Edinburgh Central School of 

Pharmacy, 26, Clyde Street, Edinburgh. 
Cowley, R. C., 6, Sandon Terrace, Upper Du"ke Street, Liverpool. 
Crawshaw, E., F.R.G.S., F.R.M.S., 80, Fann St., Aldersgate St., 

E.G. 
Cripps, R. A., F.I.C., The Laboratory, d'Avigdor Road, Hove, Sussex. 
Cross, W. Gowen, J. P., 70, Mardol, Shrewsbury. 
Crossley. Prof. A. W., D.Sc. Ph.D., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Crouch, W. S., 283, Fulwood Road, Sheffield. 
Crowden, S. G., 120, Marchmont Road, Edinburgh. 
Cummings, Wm., 49, Reform Street, Dundee. 
Currie, Archibald, 162, Ferry Road, Leith. 
Currie, W. L., 223, Byres Road, Glasgow. 
Curry, Frank, Snow Hill Buildings, E.C. 
Curtis, M., 51, High Holborn, W.C. 
Cuthbert, R., 12, Westgate, Huddersfield. 
Cuxson, J. (Cuxson, Gerrard & Co.), Corporation Street, Birmingham. 



Dales, E., c/o Messrs. Munro & Co., 273, Regent Street, W. 
Darling, W. H., F.LC, F.C.S., 26, Dover Street, Oxford Road, 

Manchester, S.E. 
Darroll, W. , Clun, Salop. 
Davenport, H., 117, Union Street, S.E. 
Davidson, A., 172, High Street, Montrose, N.B. 
Davidson, P., 342, High Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 
Davies, Griffith, 382, Fulwood Road, Sheffield. 
Davies, J., 75, Oxford Street, Swansea. 
Davies, J. T., 13. Walter Road, Swansea. 
Davies, W. J., 101, Church Street, Brighton. 
Davis, E. , 29, Commercial Street, Newport, Mon. 
Davis, R. Hayton, F.C.S., 23, Rej^eut Parade, Harrogate. 
Deane, H., 34, Drakefield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 
Deverell, Louis C, F.C.S., 104, Upper Thames Street, E.C. 
Dickson, J. Scott, 1, St. Paul's Terrace, Kewcastle-on-Tyne. 
Dixon, Rowland, Hunter's Bar, Sheffield. 

Dixon, W. E., M.D., M.A., Pharmacological Laboratory, Cambridge. 
Dobbin, Leonard, Ph.D., Chemistry Department, The University, 

Edinburgh. 
Dobiuson, T., 125, Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Dodd, W. Ralph, F.C.S., " Frederwen," Village Road, Enfield, N. 
Doig. John L., 9, High Street, Dundee. 
Doig, William, 9, High Street, Dundee. 
Dolbear, John, 108, High Street, Oxford. 
Pouald, James J., 29, George Street, Perth. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE, 337 

Dott, D. B., F.R.S.E., F.I.C., 93, Abbeyhill, Edinburgh. 

Douglas, Robt. D., 283, Fulwood Road, Sheffield. 

Drayton, Ernest, William Street, Heme Bay. 

Druce, G. Claridge, M.A., F.L.S., 118, High Street, Oxford. 

Drysdale, J. W., 16, Creechurch Lane, E.G. 

Diidderidge, F. R., F.C.S., 55, Northumberland St., Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 
Duncan, S., 19, West Blackhall Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Duncan, W., F.C.S., Royal Dispensary, 21, West Richmond Street, 

Edinburgh. 
Dunlop, T., Albert Cross, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
Dunlop, T. W., 20, Beulah Hill, Norwood, S.K. 
Dunn, H., 31, Otley Road, Shipley, Leeds. 
Durrant, G. R., 1, Old Cross, Hertford. 
Dutton, H. 0., Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. 
Dyson, T. H., 6, Giltspur Street, E.G. 

Eardley, J. F., 265, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 
Edwards, Fred. W., 64, Coppice Side, Swadlincote. 
Elborue, W., M.A., F.L.S., F.C.S., School of Science and Art, Peter- 
borough. 
EUinor, G., The Pharmacy, 127, Spital Hill, Sheffield. 
Elliot, W. M. Bingham, Coldstream, N.B. 
Ellis, C. S., 114, Edmund St., Birmingham. 
Elhs, Fredk. R., F.C.S., 15, Shadwell Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 
English, Thomas J., 17, Rathgar Road, Dublin. 
Esam, Richard, The Infirmary, Leicester. 
Escritt, H. T., 102, High Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Evans, C, 49, Dawson Street, Dublin. 
Evans, E., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, E. J., North Parade, Aberystwith. 
Evans, J. H., Medical Hall, Market Cross, Lymm. 
Evans, J. H., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, J. J., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, J. N. E., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, John, A.I.C., City Analyst's Laboratory, Sheffield. 
Evans, Kenneth W., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, W. P., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Everett, J. G., 29, High Street, Windsor, 
Ewell, R. M , 37, Town Wall Street, Dover. 
Ewing, Jas. Laidlaw, J.P., 104, South Canongate, Edinburgh. 
Exley, J., 34, Hunslet Lane, Leeds. 

Fairclough, R. A., c/o Messrs. Lennon, Ltd., 54 to 58, Queen Elizabeth 

Street, S.E. 
Fairley, T., F.R.S.E., F.LC, F.C.S., 17, East Parade, Leeds. 
Fairweather, E. B., F.C.S., King's College Hospital, W.C. 
Farr, E. H., F.C.S., The Laboratory, Uckfield, Sussex. 
Farries, Thos., F.LC, F.C.S., 16, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Fell, J. C, F.C.S., Lansdowne Cottage, Ryde, I.W. 
Ferguson, John, 7, Scott Street, Perth. 
Ferrall, A. T., 67, Lower Mount Street, Dublin. 
Ferrier, D. H., 2, Hilltown, Dundee. 

Fielding, P. J. D., F.C.S., F.S.M.C, 66, Patrick Street, Cork. 
Finlay, J., The Pharmacy, Kilrush, Co. Clare. 
Finuemore, H., Guy's Hospital, S.E. 
Fisk, F. M., Ill, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
Fitt, F. E., 5, Peckham Rye, S.E. 
Fitzgerald, A. H., Corner of Birkbeek Road, Muswell Hill, N. 



338 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Fitz Hugh, R., J. P., The Park, Nottingham. 

Fletcher, F. W., F.C.S., Beaucbamp Lodge, Enfiehl, Middlesex. 

Foggau, George, Leadgate House, Bedliiigtou, Xortliumbei-laiul. 

Forbes, James, 6, Ocklynge Parade, Eastliourne. 

Forbes, John J., 9, Broad Street, Denny, N.B. 

Ford, J., High Street, Kirriemuir, N.B. 

Ford, Jessie, Clifton, Kirriemuir, N.B. 

Forret, J. A., 2(y, Brougham Place, Edinburgh. 

Forshaw, Chas. F., LL.D., ]).D.S., F.K.S.L., F.R.H.S., F.E.C.I., 

F.C.S. (Berlin), 48, Hanover Square, Bradford, Yorks. 
Forster, G. F., 52, Castle Street, Dover. 
Forster, \Vm. , 30, Church Street, Seaham Harbour. 
Foster, John, 479, Saucliiehall Street, Glasgow. 
Foster, Murray Toogood, Collumpton, Devon. 
Foster, Reginald Le Neve, J. P., F.C.S., BoUiudeue, W.lmslow, 

Cheshire. 
Fox, A. Russell, F.L.S., 8, Castle Street, Sheffield. 
Fox, C. E., 109, Bethnal Green Road, E. 
Francis, Alan, 38 and 40, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Francis, Geo. Bult, F.C.S. , 38 & 40, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Francis, Wm. Hy., "Cleveland," Thornton Road, Clapiiam Park, 

S.W. 
Franklin, A. J., 86, King's Road, Brighton. 
Franklin, J. H., 374, Bury New Road, Manchester. 
Eraser, Alexi-., 100, High Street, Paisley, N.B. 
Eraser, J. Innes, 9, Dundas Street, Edinburgh. 
Freeman, E., fi. Market Place, Ledbui-y, Herefordshire. 
Freeman, Thomas, 57, Manstield Road, Nottingham. 
Fudge, C. W., Shepton Mallet. 

Gadd, H., J P., 97, Fore Street, Exeter. 

Gadd, H. Wippell, F.C.S., 97, Fore Street, Exeter. 

Gadd, Sydney Chas., 97, Fore Street, Exeter. 

Galloway, P. H., 8, Baden Place, Crosby Row, Long Lane, Borough, 

S.E. 
Gamble, F. W., 7, Vere Street, W. 
Garsed, AVm., 18, Victoria Road, Elland, Yorks. 
Gerrard, A. W., F.C.S., 35, Queen's Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Gibbs, R. Darton, 18, Charlotte Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Gibbs, Sydney, 53d, Temiiuus Road, Eastbourne. 
Gibson, F. J., 93. Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 
Gibson, R., Erskine Street, Hulme, Manchester. 
Gibson, S., Summerhill, Dunmerry, Co. Antrim. 
Gibson, W. H., F.C.S., 122, King's Road, Brighton. 
Gibson, Wm. Jas., Montpelier House, Malone Road, Bt'lfast. 
Gifford, R. Lord, Blackburn. 

Gihlerdale, F., F.C.S., c/o John Ismay & Sous, Newcastle-on-Tyue. 
Giles, W. , 123, Crown Street, Aberdeen. 
Gill, Frank I., 16, Poolbeg Street, Dublin. 
Gill, Wm. S., 193, Sumatra Road, West Hampstead, N.W. 
Gdinour, J. P., 312, Cathcart Street, Glasgow. 
Glass, Wm. Stephen, 193, Morniugside Road, Edinburgh. 
Glyn- Jones, W. S., Endsleigh, Palmer's Green, London, N. 
Goldby, F., The Enlield Pharmacy, Enfield Town, N. 
Goldfinch, G., F.C.S , 7, Church Walk, Hendon, N.W. 
Goldon, H. v., M.C.P.S.L, Birr. 
Golds, Lewis G., 59, Church Road, Norwood, S.E. 
Goldthorpe, Arthur, 70, Herbert Road, Plumstead, S.E. 
Goodwin, F. A., 79, Mutley Plain, Plymouth. 
Gostling, T. P., Linden House, Diss. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 339 

Gough, J. H., F.C.S., 65, Grauge Avenue, Chapeltowu R )ad, Leeds. 

Gray, Johu, 1'28a, Nethergate, Dnmlee 

Green, S., 60, Nunhead Lane, Nuuliead, S.E. 

Greenish, Prof. H. G., F.I.C., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Greig, Wm., 59, Glassford Street, Glasgow. 

Grier, Jas , Pharmaceutieal Dept., The University, ^lanchester. 

Griffiths, Dr. .John S., 25, Redland Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Griffiths, E. H., Market Street, Kidsgrove, Staffs. 

Griffiths, \V., 134, Market Place, Cirencester. 

Grimes, H. C, Mary villa, Carysfoot, Avenue, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Grimwade, E. W., Muscovy House, Trinity Square, E.G. 

Grose, N. M., 8, Temple Street, Swansea. 

Groves, R. H., Blandford. 

Guiler, .J., 89, Ormeau Road, Belfast. 

Gulliver, W. F., 6, Lower Belgrave Street, Pimlico, S.W. 

Guy, Fredk., 12, Nortb Street, Brighton. 

Gwatkin, J. R., 49, Grand Parade, Brighton. 



Haddock, .Jas., Storth's Road, Barkby, Huddersfield. 

Hall, Albert T., 22, Palmerston Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

Hallaway, J., 5, Devonshire Street, Carhsle. 

Hallawell, J., Florenceville, Vincent Road, Croydon. 

Hamilton, Francis, Crieff, Perthshire. 

Hallett, Wm. J., 10, Stall Street, Bath. 

Hanbury, C, F.I.C. , F.C.S., etc.. Plough Court, Lombard Street, 

E.C. 
Hanbury, F. Capel, Stainforth House, Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Hanbury, F. J., F.L.S., Stainforth House, Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Hanson, A., '6, High Street, Queensbury, Bradford, Yorks. 
Hanson, A. W., High Street, Sidcup. 
Hardie, J. M., 68, High Street, Dundee. 
Hardwick, Stewart, 21, Commercial Road, Bournemouth. 
Hargraves, H. L., 101, Queen's Road, Alexandra Park, Oldham. 
Harland, R. H., F.I.C, F.C.S., 37, Lombard Street, E.C. 
Harmer, G. A., 47, South Street, Eastbourne. 
Harrington, .J. F., 45, Kensington High Street, W. 
Harrison, E. F., Langholm, Purley Oaks Road, S. Croydon. 
Harrison, J., 33, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 
Han-ison, R. Casswell, Grayshott, Hants. 
Harrison, W. B., 6, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 
Hart, Frank (.James Hart & Son), 130, Newport Street, Bolton. 
Hartridge, J. Hills, Holmwood, Hendon, N.W. 
Harvey, S., F.I.C, F.C.S., South Eastern Laboratory, Canterbury. 
Hatch, R. M., L.D.S., R.C.S., D.D.S., Claremont House, Whiteladies' 

Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Havill, P. W., 27, Fore Street, Tiverton, Devon. 
Hawkins, T., 56, Ludgate Hill, E.C 
Hayes, W., 12, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Hayhoe, W., 45, Cromwell Road, Pokesdown, Bournemouth. 
Hayles, B. H., Holm Hurst, Hadlev Road, New Barnet. 
Heap, J. H., 7, Avlward Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 
Hearder, H. P., 26, Westwell Street, Plymouth. 
Hearle, J., 33, Liveii^ool Road, Islington, N. 
Hearn, John, 38, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Henderson, David Jas., Dundee Street, Carnoustie, N.B. 
Henderson, H. J., King Street. Hitchin. 
Hendry, R. L., 27, Earl Grey Street, Edinburgh. 
Henley, Geo., Lyme Regis, Dorset. 
Henry, Claude F., 1, Brandon Terrace, Edinburgh. 



340 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL COXFEREXCE. 

Henry, H. Lee, 19, High Street, Lewisham, S.E. 

Heslop, Charles W. E., 3(5, The Gardens, East Dulwich, S.E. 

Hewlett, John C, F.C.S., 3.5-12, Charlotte Street, Great Eastern 

Street, E.G. 
Heywood, .7. S.C.,F.C.S., 11), Inverness Terrace, Hyde Park Gardens, 

W. 
Hicks, W. T., 28, Duke Street, Cardiff. 
Hill, C, A., 61, Park Street, S.E. 
Hill, E. W., 100, Earl's Court Road, S.W. 
Hill, J. Rutherford, 36, York Place, Edinburgh. 
Hills, Walter, F.C.S., 22.5, Oxford Street, W. 
Hirst, Benj., Millgarth Mills, Leeds. 
Hitchman, H., Market Place, Kettering. 
Hobbs, A. E., 33, Mount Pleasant, Tunbridge Wells. 
Hobson, G. W., St. Ann's Pharmacy, The Colonnade, Buxton. 
Hocken, J., 31, Old Hall Street, Liverpool. 
Hodgetou, David, St. .James' Park, Brechin. 
Hodgkinson, C, 101, W'hitecross Street, E.G. 
Hogg, R., 1, Southwick Street, Hyde Park, W. 
Holding, John, 169, Hemingford Road, Barnsburj', N. 
Holliday, Juo., 18, High Street, Warwick. 
Holmes, E. M., F.L.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Holmes, W. M., Sutton, Surrey. 
Holroyd, W. H., 31, Duke Street, St. James, S.W. 
Hopkinson, W^. J., 06, Southwark Bridge Road, S.E. 
Hopley, John H., 6, Northgate Street, Chester. 
Horsfield, F., Swanland House, Swanland Avenue, Bridlington. 
Howard, D., F.I.C., F.C.S., Devon House, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 
Howard, D. Lloyd, F.C.S., City Mills, Stratford, E. 
Howard, George, Ph.C, 81, Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells. 
Howard, W\ D., F.LC, 11, Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, 

N.W^ 
Howden, F. Clair, Campdale Terrace, Tufnell Park, N. 
Howell, M., Woodlands, County Grove, Camberwell, S.E. 
Howie, W. L., F.R.S.E., Hanover Lodge, W^est Hill, HaiTOw-on-the- 

Hill. 
Howlett, H. J., 40, Park Mansions, South Lambeth Road, HAY. 
Hughes, J., 14, Wind Street, Swansea. 
Hugill, J. H., 14 & 1.5, Miles Lane, Cannon Street, E.G. 
Hugill, Thos. P., 118, Cannon Street, E.G. 
Hull, John W., 47, Wentworth Road, Harborue, Birmingham. 
Hume, John W. D., Grove Pharmacy, Lowestoft. 
Humphrey, John, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Humphreys, G., Central Pharmacy, High Street, Xorthwich. 
Hunt, F. "Wm., 106, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 
Hunt, L., c/o Messrs. Goadsby & Co., 2, Albert Bridge, Manchester. 
Hunter, G., Witherusea, Yorks. 
Huskisson, H. 0., F.LC, F.C.S., F.L.S., Swinton Street, Gray's Inn 

Road, W.C. 
Hutcheon, W., 21, High Street, Bonnyrigg, Midlothian. 
Hutton, H., 42, Parade, Leamington. 
Hyslop, J. C, 39, Church Street, Marylebonc, N.W. 



Idris, H. W., 120, Pratt St., Camden Town, N.W^ 

Idris, T. H. Williams, J.P., F.C.S., 120, Pratt St., Camden Town, 

N.W. 
Idris, V7. H. W^, 120, Pratt St., Camden Town, N.W\ 
Idris, W. T. W., 120, Pratt Street, Camden Town, N.W. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 341 

Iliffe, (}., 29, Market Place, Nuneaton. 

Ince, J., F.L.S., F.C.S., F.G.S., " Gleubolme," 13, Alfred Road, 

Acton, AY. 
Innes, David, 47, Melbourne Street, Stalybridge. 

Jack, James, F.L.S., 102, Higb Street, Arbroath. 

Jackson, A., 870, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Jackson, G., 870, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Jackson, H., 47, Comely Bank Place, Edinburgh. 

.Jackson, H., King's College, W.C. 

Jackson, J., c 'o Messrs. Harrison, Parkinson & Co., Sun Bridge Road, 

Bradford, Yorks. 
Jackson, J. Gilbert, 338, Abbeydale Road, Sheffield. 
Jackson, Joseph John, 6, Broad Street, Hereford. 
Jac(|ues, S. P., 2, Fenchurch Buildings, E.G. 
James, H. P., 13, Briggate, Leeds. 
Jeans, T. R. , 1, Broad Street, Pendleton, ^Manchester. 
Jennings, J. A., London Hospital, E. 
John, William D., 104. Bute Docks, Cardiff. 
Johnson, T., 8, Market Place, Wigan. 
Johnston, Wm. Yincent, 9, Ranelagh, Dublin. 
Johnstone, C. A., c/o Messrs. Woolley, Sons & Co., Victoria Bridge, 

Manchester. 
Johnstone, Walter, Cromarty, N.B. 
Jones, A. M., 42, King Street, Brynmawr, Breconshire. 
Jones, Edwin, 108, Queen's Road, Bayswater, W. 
Jones, E. W. T., F.I.C., F.C.S., Public Analyst, 10, Yictoria Street, 

Wolverhampton. 
Jones, Humphrey, Canoldre, Llangollen. 
Jones, H. W., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., Spencer Park, Coventry. 
Jones, R. H., 88, Norwood Road, S.E. 
Jones, W., 2 & 3, Higli Street, Birmingham. 
Jones, W. A., .51, North John Street, Liverpool. 
Jones, W. Cadwalader, 4, Queen's Road, Bayswater, W. 
Jowett, H. A. D., D.Sc, Wansfell, Church Avenue, Sidcup, Kent. 

Kay, J. P., 205, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Kay, T., J. P., 45, St. Petersgate, Stockport. 

Kelly, Albert E., 12, Cambridge Gardens, Edinburgh. 

Kelly, Patrick, 16, South Richmond Street, Dublin. 

Kemp, D. S., 52, Coverdale Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Kemp, H., Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester. 

Kemp, W. H., 34, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 

Kennett, John Nasli, Church Street, Weybridge. 

Kent, B. J., Lindesmead, 32, Sj^ilsby Road, Boston. 

Kent, C, Phoenix Mills, Dartford, Kent. 

Kerfoot, T., Bardsley Yale Mills, Ashton-u.-Lyne. 

Kermath, W. R., Greyfriars Garden, St. Andrews, Fife. 

Kerr, C, 5G, Nethergate, Dundee. 

Kerse, Wm., c/o John Ismay & Sons, City Road, Newcastle-on-Tyue. 

Kidd, J. C, 551. Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester. 

Kiloh, James, lOS, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Kinch, Prof. Ed., F.I.C., F.C.S., Royal Agricultural College, Ciren- 
cester. 

Kirby, F. Benson, 128, Ashley Road, Bristol. 

Kirby, Cyril H., 21, Lime Street, E.C. 

Kirkby, W., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Winster House, Thornfield Road, 
Heaton Moor, Stockport. 



342 BEITISH PHAEMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Knight, (i. J., 45-2, Edgware Roa-l, W. 

KDiglit, W. T., 45, Westgate, Peterborough. 

Knights, J. West, I'M.C, F.C.S., County Laboratory, 67, Tenison 

Road, Cambridge. 
Knott, P., 1, Blackburn Pioad, Bolton. 
Kiilin, B., 16, Piood Lane, Eastcheap, E.G. 

Lake, J. H., 41, High Street, Exeter. 

Lambie, Hugh, 22, Nithsdale Road, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 

Lancaster, B., 68, Holme Lane, Shctfield. 

Lander, A., F. S.M.C., Medical Hall, Canterbury. 

Lane, W., 8, Albert Road, Wlialley Range, Manchester. 

Latchmore, A., The Avenue, Hitchiu. 

Latreille, A., -18, Baker Street, Fortman Square, W. 

Law, T. W. T., 380, Hamilton Place, Partick, Glasgow. 

Lawson, John, 256, Burley Road, Leeds. 

Layman, Chas. N., 48 and 5(t, Southwark Street, London, S.E. 

Layman, F. N., 48 ct 50, Southwark Street, London, S.E. 

Lee, S. ^Y right, 6, 8 & 10, Whitechapel, Liverpool. 

Lee, W., Castle Northwich, Cheshire. 

Leith, Peter, 43, Victoria Street, Rothesay, N.B. 

Lenton, W. H., Long Metford. 

Lescher, F. Harwood, F.C.S., 6", Bartholomew Close, E.C. 

Lescher, T. E., 60 Bartholomew Close, E.G. 

Lester, T. R., 107, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Lewis, D. L., The Parade, Ealing, W. 

Lewis, S. Judd, 122, Newington Causeway, S.E. 

Liverseegp, J. F., F.I.C., Council House, Birmingham. 

Lloyd, J. W., 30, Mount Pleasant, Liverpool. 

Lloyd, T. Howard, St. James Street, Humberston Road, Leicester. 

Loc'kyer, W. J., F.C.S., 7, St. Julian's Road, West Norwood, 

S.E. 
Long, F. C, 35, Otley Road, Headingley, nr. Leeds. 
Longstatf, W. L., 811, Fulham Road, S.W. 
Lorimer, J., Britannia Row, Islington, N. 
Lothian, John, Principal, Glasgow School of Pharmacy, 180, W^est 

Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Loxter, T. E., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.C. 
Lucas, E. W., F.C.S.. 225, Oxford Street, W. 
Lucas, Harry, 1, St. Agnes Place, Kennington Park, S.E. 
Luuan, G., 20, Queensferry Street, Edinburgh. 

Maben, T., F.C.S., CS, Stradella Road, Heme Hill, S.E. 

Maeawra, Gerald Joseph, M.D., CM., 4, Spring Bank, Bradford, 

^ Yorks. 

Macdonald, A., 9, Moor Lane, Fore Street, E.C. 

Macdonald, D. Daird, F.C.S., c/o E. H. Butler & Son, Humberstone 

Gate, Leicester. 
MacEwan, P., F.C S., 64, Southwood Lane, Highgate, N. 
Maefarlane, M., 19, East High Street, Forfar, 
Macfarlane, T. B., 17, Main Street, Wishaw, N.B. 
Macintsre, John, 34, High Street, North Berwick. 
Mackay, G. D., Canning Street, Edinburgh. 
Mackenzie, Donald, 54, Denton Road, Hornsey, London, N. 
Mackenzie, J., 45, Forrest Road, Edinburgh. 
Macpherson, Wm., 7, Fife Street, Dufftown, Banffshire, N.B. 
McAdara, R., 32, Virginia Street, Glasgow. 
McCorquodale, J. C, The Pharmacy, Markinch, Fife. 



BRITISH PHAEMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 343 

McDonald, Kenneth, Duukeld. 

McGregor, G., Ellon, Aberdeen, N.B. 

McLaren, David, 42, Soutli Clerk Street, Edinburgli. 

McMillan, J., 17, Great Western Road, Glasgow. 

McMurray, James, 37, West Clyde Street, Helensburgh. 

McWalter, J. C, M.A., M.D., D.P.H., F.F.P.S. (Glas.), 19, North Earl 
Street, Dublin. 

M'Naught, A., 4, West Blackhall Street, Greenock. 

Mair, Wm., F.C.S., 7, Comistou Road, Edinburgh. 

Maitlaud, F., .81, Chapel Street, Stonehouse, Devon. 

Mander, A., F.C.S., Belle Vue Pharmacy, Malvern. 

Mann, Ernest W., 17, Bull Street, Birmingham. 

Maun, Sydney A., Pathological Laboratory, Claybury Asylum, Wood- 
ford Bridge, Essex. 

Mansbridge, M. C, 373, High Street, Cheltenham. 

Marchant, D., Star Koad, Old Eastbourne. 

Marris, T., 83, Bridge Street, Worksop, Notts. 

Marsden, Prosper H., F.C.S., The University, Liverpool. 

Martin, Harrv, 14, Hardmau Street, Liverpool. 

Martin, N. H., J. P., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., F.C.S., Ravenswood, Low 
Fell, Gateshead-ou-Tyne. 

Martindale, W. H., Ph.D., 10, New Cavendish Street, W. 

Mason, T., c/o Messrs. Newball & Mason, Nottingham, 

Mather, J. H., Godalming. 

Matthews, Harold E., 30, The Mall, Clifton, Bristol. 

Matthews, H. R., 61, Charlotte St., Tottenham Court Road, W. 

Matthews, T., Man of Ross House, Ross, Herefordshire. 

Matthews, Wm., 67, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. 

Maurice, J., 34, Bedford Street, Plvmouth. 

Mawer, W. F., F.C.S., 3.32, Kennington Road, S.E. 

Maj'ger, W. D., 6, Regent Square, Northam^jton. 

Meldrum, Martin, 1.50, High Street, Irvine. 

Mellor, J. G., Market Place, Warwick. 

Mellor, R. J., Hemel Hempstead. 

Mercer, F. N., 101, Mostyn Street, Llandudno. 

Merson, Geo. F., F.C.S., 7, King Street, Kilmarnock. 

Metcalfe, C. L., 13, Whitefriargate, Hull. 

Middleton, A., 2-5, Lister Gate, Nottingham. 

Middleton, D., 85, Bruntsfield Place, Edinburgh. 

Miles, C. J., 165, Edgware Road, W. 

Millard, E. J., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 35-42, Charlotte Street, E.C. 

Miller, John, 4, Victoria Road, Brighton. 

Mills, R. M., Bourne, Lincolnshire. 

Milton, T. C, 265, High Street, Exeter. 

Moffitt. T. N. , 209, Crumb]! Road, Belfast. 

Moir, David, 4, Shawlands Cross, Shawlands, Glasgow. 

Montgomerv, Johnston. 147, Royal Avenue, Belfast. 

Moor, C. G.', M.A., F.I.C., Savoy House, Strand, W.C. 

Moore, J. E. Langford, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, E.C. 

Morgan, H. B., 31, Devonshire Road, Claughton, Birkenhead. 

Morley, C, 3, Bucklersburv, E.C. 

Morrison, Charles Orr, 137, West Street, Sheffield. 

Morson, Albert, 14, Ehn Street, Gray's Lin Road, W.C. 

Morson, T. Pierre, 14, Elm Street, Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 

Moylan- Jones, W. J., " Llanberis," SunningfieldsRoad, Hendou, N.W. 

Murray, Richard, c/o Messrs. Brotherton & Co., Ltd., Holmes Street, 
Dewsbury Road, Leeds. 

Muscott, R. W. , " Amington," Acock's Green, Birmingham. 

Muston, G. G,, 57, Western Road, Brighton. 



344 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. | 

I 

Muter, A. H. M., F.I.C., F.C.S., 325, Keunington Road, S.E. j 

Naylor, W. A. H., F.I.C., F.C.S., 38 & 40, Southwaik Street, S.E, \ 

Naysmith, A., 154, Higli Street, Arbroath. ! 

Neale, J., 55, High Street, Kiug'.s Lynn. ' 

Neil, John, 557, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

Nesbit, J., 162, High Street, Tortobello, N.B. i 

Nesbit, James, 32, Wellington Street, Portobello, N.B. \ 

Newcome, J., 71, High Street, Grantham. 

Newsholme, G. T. W., F.C.S., 27, High St., Sheffield. 

Newton, Alfd., Whalley Road, Accrington, Lancashire. 

Nichol, A., 90, Botchergate, Carlisle. 

Nicholl, L W., M.P.S.I., 25, High Street, Belfast. j 

NichoUs, Wm. W. S., B.Sc, F.C.S., 230, Brockley Road, S.E. 

Nidd, J. H., 714, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Noble, J., 55, King Street, South Shields. j 

Norman, Valentine, High Street, Godalming. \ 

Nuthall, E., Bank Plain, Norwich. I 

O'Connor, Hy., 54, Lower Sackville Street, Dublin. ' 

Odling, Prof.'W., M.B., F.R.S., etc., 15, Norham Gardens, Cxford. i 

Oldfield, Ashley C, 17, Todd Street, Manchester. I 

Otley, T., 82, Hagley Road, Birmingham. ^ 

Ough, Lewis, F.L.S., F.C.S., " Fernleigh," St. James' Rd., Leicester. i 

Oxen, D. H., 40, Bridge Street, Newcastle-under-Lyne. j 

Pack, F. J., 2, Whinbush Road, Hitchin. ' 

Pain, Percy, 13, Sidney Street, Cambridge. 

Pain, R., The Apolhnaris Co., Ltd., 4, Stratford Place, Oxford ' 

Street, W. ! 

Paine, Standen, The Firs, Devisdale, Bowdon, Cheshire. 1 

Palmer, F. J., 12, Montpellier Avenue, Cheltenham. j 

Park, C. J., 23, Mutley Plain, Plymouth. j 
Park, F., 52, CoUingwood Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Parker, R. H., F.C.S., 35, CUfton Road, Maida Vale, W. 

Parkes, G. J. R., Ferndale, 109, Musters Road, West Bridgford, j 

Nottingham. j 

Parkinson, F. W., Atherstone, Warwickshire. i 

Parkinson, R., Ph.D., F.I.C.,Tewbarrow House, Grange-over-Sands. ' 

Parry, E. J., B.Sc, F.LC, F.C.S., 208, Borough High Street, S.E. j 

Parsons, Wm., 54, Coper's Copse Road, Beckenham. j 

Partington, J. J., 2, Beaufort West, Grosvenor, Bath. • 

Pater, J. B., Broomfield, Sheffield. ; 
Paterson, James, Provost Jamieson's Quay, Aberdeen. 

Patey, W. J., 76, New Bond Street, W. i 

Patterson, Alderman, D. J., West Hill House, Mansfield, Notts. J 

Payne, J. C. C, J.P., Albion Place, 134, Dublin Road, Belfast. ] 

Peck, E. Saviile, M.A., 30, Trumpiugton Street, Cambridge. ; 
Peck, J. Wicliffe, Hospital for Sick Children, Gt. Ormond Street, 

W.C. I 
Peck, T. Whitmore, 270, Moseley Road, Birmingham. 
Pedley, G., 17, Railway Approach, London Bridge, S.E. 
Peebles, Thos. S., 103,' High Street, Lochee, Dundee. 
Perkins, J., 29, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton (Exors. of the 

late). , 

Perredes, P. E. F., B.Sc, Wellcome Research Laboratories, 6, King i 

Street, Snow Hill, E.G. | 

Perry. Sir Cooper, M.D., Superintendent's House, Guy's Hospital, i 

S.E. i 
Perry, G. E., F.C.S., 171, Hagley Road, Birmingham. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 345 

Pettinger, E., 30, Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

Phillips, A. J., 156, Croinwell Road, South Kensingtou, S.W. 

Phillips, H. S., 48, Wallgate, Wigan. 

Phillips, J., 48, Wallgate, Wigan. 

Phillips, Sidney, 8, Lichfield Street, Wolverhampton. 

Philp, W. .J. Ignatius, 34, High Street, Netting Hill. 

Pidd, A. J., Brookfield, Upper Chorltou Eoad, Manchester. 

Pitman, J., 42, Eedcliff Hill, Bristol. 

Pitt, Arthur E., F.C.S., 66, Abbott Road, Bromley, London, E. 

Pitt, Chas. Day, 101, Church Street, Brighton. 

Plumley, J.G., Bristol Bridge, Bristol. 

Pollard, Evelyn Wm., B.Sc, Lond., 168, High Street, Ryde, I.W. 

Pollard, Henry H., 168, High Street, Ryde, I.W. 

Poole, James, 47, High Sti'eet, Newcastle, Staffs. 

Poole, Jeffrey, 13, Great Hampton Street, Birmingham. 

Potter, H., F.S.S., 62 & 64, Artillery Lane, E. 

Power, Dr. F. B., 6, King Street, Snow Hill, E.G. 

Prebble, J. G. (Messrs. Wing, Aplin & Co.), Chislehurst. 

Presley, E., 12, St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol. 

Preston, Job, 105, Barker's Pool, Sheffield. 

Preston, J. C, 81, Bishopsgate Street Without, E.G. 

Preston, T. I., Roundhay, Leeds. 

Price, W., 30, Grove Road, Eastbourne. 

Probyu, Lt.-Col. Clifford, 55, Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 

Purse, Alfred D. , 15 and 16, Salem Street, Sixnderland. 

Quant, Ernest, 2, Park Crescent, Torquay. 
Quarrell, Wm. Henry, 3, East India Avenue, E.G. 

Radcliffe, L. G., F.CS., 6, Alma Terrace, Old Trafford, Manchester. 

Ranken, C, F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 11, Stockton Eoad, Sunderland. 

Rankin, W. J., 27, Newington Street, Belfast. 

Ransom, F., F.C.S., The Chilterns, Hitchiu. 

Ransom, W., F.L.S., F.S.A., Fairfield, Hitchin. 

Bedford, G. A., 30, Oxford Street, Liverpool. 

Eees, E. P., M.E.P.S., 177, High Street, Dowlais. 

Eemingtou, J. S., F.C.S., The Laboratory, " Aynsome," Grange-over- 
Sands. 

Eeynolds, Fred, 13, Briggate, Leeds. 

Reynolds, E. J., 38 & 40, Southwark Street, S.E. 

Eiehards, P. A. E., F.I.C., F.C.S., Charing Cross Hospital, W.C. 

Richardson, H. N. B., B.A., F.CS. , c/o Messrs. John Richardson & 

Co., 10, Friar Lane, Leicester. 
Richardson, E. T., 129, Ullet Eoad, Liverpool. 

Rideal, S., D.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S., F.G.S., 28, Victoria Street, West- 
minster, S.W. 
Riding, John, 69, Market Street, Manchester. 
Eighton, J., 293, Lord Street, Southport. 
Ringer, F. A., 23, St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 
Eoberts, E., 13, Church Street, Camberwell, S.E. 
Roberts, S., 9 & 11, Clerkenwell Eoad, E.C. 
Robertson, Dr. A. M., 27, Main Street, Anderston, Glasgow. 
Robertson, D. S.. 170, Main Street, Eutherglen, N.B. ; and 70, Cale- 
donia Eoad, Glasgow. 
Robertson, George, Partick, Glasgow. 
Eobertson, John, 19, West Port, Arbroath, N.B. 
Eobertsou, Dr. J. McGregor,M.A., M.B., etc., 26, Buckingham 

Terrace, Great Western Eoad, Glasgow. 
Eobiuson, C. E., 4, Victoria Terrace, Hove. 
Eobinson, J., Front St., Stanley, E.S.O., Durham. 



346 BKITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Robinson, R. A., J.P., 19',, Bronipton Road, S.W. 

Robinson, R. A., jiinr., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W. 

Kobinsou, Sir T. W., J. P., 112, Ui^per George's Street, Kingstown, 

Dublin. 
Robinson, W., H'S, Main Street, Cockermoutb. 
Robinson, W. P., 17, Pavement, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Rodman, .J. and R., 285, Dnke Street, Glasgow. 
Rodwell, Henry, St. Thomas' Hospital, S.E. 
Rogers, Frank A., 327, Oxford Street, W. 
Rogerson, W. J., 38 & 40, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Rose, J. D., 18, Ormonde Street, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
Ross, Andrew L.. 21, High Street, Montrose. 
Rossiter, F., 9, Grand Parade, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
Rowland, George Howard Charles, 117, Prince's Street, Edinbuigh. 
Russell, .James (of D. Russell & Son), 111, Nethergate, Dundee. 



Sage, C. E., F.C.S., 2, Charterhouse Street, E.C. 

Sainsbury, S., 136, Regent Street, W. 

Saugster, A., 141, Finchley Road, South Hampstead, N.W. 

Sargeaut, F. Pilkiugton, F.C.S., Leeds College of Pharmacy, Leeds. 

Saul, J. E., F.I.C., 63, Gondar Gardens, West Hampstead, N.W. 

Saunders, W. H., 34, Hauover Street, Liverpool. 

Savage, F. C, 13, Briggate, Leeds. 

Savage, W. W., 109, St. .James's Street, Brighton. 

Savory, A. L., 143, New Bond Street, W. 

Sayer, E. C, 7, Warrington Road, Ipswich. 

Scaife, S., 368, Stretford Road, Manchester. 

Schlesinger, H. A., 11, Warren Road, Chingford, Essex. 

Scott, W. Stanley (Messrs. Cooper Bros.), Cockermouth. 

Serutou, Saml. (Messrs. Raimes & Co.), Micklegate House, York. 
Selley, J., 142, Earl's Court Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

Senior, J., 2, Compton Street, Eastbourne. 

Seyler, Clarence A., B.Sc, F.I.C., The Technical Institute, Nelson 
Terrace, Swansea. 

Seymour, F. S., The Square, Wimborne. 

Shacklady, J., A.C.I.S., 24a, St. James' Road, Liverpool. 

Sbacklock, J. H., 239, Streatham High Road, S.W. 

Sharp, Gordon, M.D. , 3, St. George's Terrace, Camp Road, Leeds. 

Sharp, Wm., 24, Esplanade, Whitley Bay, Northumberland. 

Sharrah, Richard, 38 and 40, Southwark Street, S.E. 

Shaw, A., Biddings, Derbyshire. 

Shaw, J. W., 4, Edwardes Terrace, Kensington Road, W. 

Shenstone, J. C, F.L.S., 13, High Street, Colchester. 

Shepheard, W. F. J., F.C.S., 12, Bridge Street Row, Chester. 

Shepherd, J. W., Settle, Yorks. 

Shorthouse, Herbert S., F.C.S., 144, Edmuud Street, Birmingham. 

Shuttlewood, W. B., F.C.S., c/o A. S. Watson & Co., 64, 
Crutched Friars, E.C. 

Siebold, Alfred, F.I.C.,Eglinton Dyewood Mills, Alloa, N.B. 

Silson, R. W., 113, Church Street, Mauningham, Bradford, 
Yorks. 

Silverlock, H., 92, Blackfriars Road. S.E. 

Simpson, H. D., 2, New Street, Louth, Lines. 

Skyrme, Chas. Geo., 4, Norman Street, St. Leonard's-cn-Sea. 

Slann, LI., York House, 87, Dawes Road, Fulham, S.W. 

Smiles, J., Blanchfield Chemical Works, Canonmiils, Edinburgh. 

Smiley, .John A. R., 109, Eccles Old Road, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Smith, Arthur R., Owens College, Manchester. 

Smith, F. A. Upsher, Briarfield, Chatsworth Road, Chesterfield. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 347 

Smith, Fredk., 221, Soho Road, Handswortli, Birmingham. 

Smith, J., 22, Chapel Road, West Norwood, S.E. 

Smith, Johu, 3, Terenure Road, Dubliu. 

Smith, J. CoUett, 9, Boscombe Road, Oxbridge Road, London, W. 

Smith, J. H., 227, Commercial Road East, E. 

Smith, J. L., 180, High Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Smith, T. Connell, 22, City Road, E.C. 

Smith, Tenison, Top of Union Street, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

Sojithson, Johu, 1, Preston Road, Brighton. 

Solomon, Albert H., 75, Holland Road, Kensington, W. 

Southall, A., F.C.S., Richmond Hill, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

Sonthall, A. Win., Lower Priory, Birmingham. 

Spence, Alexander, 133, High Street, Linlithgow. 

Squire, G., 19, Haymarket, Sheffield. 

Squire, P. W., F.L.S., F.C.S., 413, Oxford Street, W. 

Stacey, H. G., F.L.S., F.C.S., 300, High Holborn, W.C. 

Stainer, .J., .J.P., 59, Sandgate Road, Folkestone. 

Stamp, E. B., 29, High Street, Hampstead, N.W. 

Stamp, F. U., 29, High Street, Hampstead, N.W. 

Starkie, R. S., 126, Strand, W.C. 

Stead, J. Christopher, F.C.S., -12, Grove Green Road, Leytonstone, 

N.E. 
Stevens, P. A., 72, Mansfield Road, Gospel Oak, N.W. 
Stevenson, H. E., 4, Jewry Street, E.C. 
Stevenson, Henry E., F.C.S., 155, Coventry Road, Ilford. 
Stevenson, Sir Thos., M.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., 160, Streatham High 

Road, S.W. 
Stewart, A. K., 1, Lynedoch Place, Edinburgh. 
Stickland, W. H., 23, Cromwell Place, South Kensington, S.W. 
Stiles, M. H., F.R.M.S.. 2, French Gate, Doneaster. 
Stockman, Prof. R., M.D., F.R.C.P.E., The University, Glasgow. 
Stoker, G. N., F.I.C., F.R.M.S., Fairfield, Lissur Avenue, Clapham 

Common, S.W. 
Stones, W., 7, Ardwick Green North, Manchester. 
Storey, E. H.. 42, Castle Street East, Oxford Street, W. 
Storrar, D., 228, High Street, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
Strongitharm, W. G., 112, Upper George's Street, Kingstown, Co. 

Dubhn. 
Stuart, C. E., B.Sc, 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Sturton, J. G., 42, Bridge Street, Peterborough. 
Sturton, R., 6, Park Terrace, Cambridge. 
Suddaby, J. E. S., 344, Hessle Road, Hull. 
Sudlow, R. C, Snow Hill Buildings, E.C. 
Sutcliffe, W. J., 3, St. James Street, Bacnp. 
Sutherland, J. W., 127, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Sutton, F., F.I.C., F.C.S., Norfolk and Suffolk County Laboratories, 

Norwich. 
Swinton, Thos Henry, 16, Irlam Road, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Swire, J., King Cross, Halifax. 
Symes, C, Ph.D., F.C.S., 14, Hardman Street, Liverpool. 



Tanner, A. E., F.C.S., Westminster Hospital, S.W. 

Taylor, A. L., The Dispensary, Royal Infirmary, Bristol. 

Tavlor, C. Sausom, 224, Evering Road, Upper Clapton, N.E. 

Taylor, F. W., 36, High Street, Newport Pagnell. 

Taylor, G. S., F.C.S., 13, Queen's Terrace, St. John's Wood, 

N.W. 
Taylor, John, J.P , F.L.S.. F.C.S., 15, Lucius Street, Torquay. 
Taylor, S., 70, Great George Street, Leeds. 



348 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 1 

i 
Taylor, Samuel, 3, Market Place, Derby. \ 

Thackray, C. F., 70, Great George Street, Leeds., * 

Thomas, J. Arleu, College Pharmacy, Batli lioail, Cheltenham. 
Thompson, C, 159, Stratford Koad, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. j 

Thompson, Edwin (Messrs. Thompson tt Capper), 4, Lord Street, i 

Liverpool. 
Thompson, H. A., -lO, Alder.sgate Street, E.G. 

Thomson, Isaac W., 19, Bellevue Crescent, Edinburgh. j 

Thomson, John H., 102, High Street, Locbee, Dundee. 

Thomson, W., F.I.C., F.E.S.E., iloyal Institution Laboratory, ; 

Manchester. i 

Thomson, W., 1.53, Byres Road, Glasgow. i 

Thorp, Walter, B.Sc. (Loud.), F.I.C., Analytical Laboratory, Lim- 

Thresh, John C, M.D., D.Sc, D.P.H., Chelmsford, Essex. 

Tickle, T., B.Sc, Public Analyst's Laboratory, Sylvan Koad, 
Exeter. 

Tirrell, J., Market Square, Hanley. I 

Tocher, J. F., F.I.C., F.C.S., 5, Chapel Street, Peterhead, N.B. 

Tocher, Eobt., F.S.M.C., D.B.O.A., 491, Victoria Row, Glasgow. 

Tollitt, W., Ill, Montague Street, Worthing. 

Tomlinson, G. M., Royal Hospital, ShefiSeld. 

Tompsett, Leightou S., 127, Anerley Road, London, S.E. - 

Toone, Arthur H., 17, Rolle Street, Exmouth. 

Toone, J. A., .50, Old Christchurch Road, Bournemouth. 

Townsend, Chas., J.P., St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Townsend, Wm., Little Queen Street, Exeter. ! 

Truman, Frank W., 71, Old Kent Road, S.E. j 

Truman, H. Vernon, 8, Parsonage Street, Dursley, Glos. l 

Tupman, H. Wyke, 6, Montague Street, Worthing. ; 

Turnbull, H. J., Tavistock Works, Sunderland. - , 

Turner, C. W., 12, Foregate, Worcester. ' 

Turner, G. T., " Lynne," Osborne Road, Clifton, Bristol. ' 

Turner, J. Scriven, 20, Burv Street, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

Turner, J. W. J., 118, The Moor, Sheffield. 

Turney, J. Davy, 15, Leigham Terrace, Plymouth. 

Turver, (}. H., 40, Market Street, Blackpool. 

Tweedy, S. C. G., St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, E.C. 

Twinberrow, John, Elbury House, Elbury, Worcester. 

Twiss, W., Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

Tyrer, Chas. T., Stirling Chemical Works, Abbey Lane, Strat- 
ford, E. 

Tyrer, Thos., F.I.C., F.C.S., Stirling Chemical Works, Abbey Lane, 
Stratford, E. 

Umney, C, F.I.C., F.C.S., 48 & 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 

Umney, E. A., 48 & 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 1 

Umney, John C, F.C.S., 48 & 50, Southwark Street, S.E. ^ 

i 

Vallance, A. C, Rowley Bank, Ecclesmere Park, Eceles. | 

Vallet, C. E. Franklin, 1, Victoria Villas, High Road, Gunners- ; 

bury, W. j 
Vinden, Fredk. W., Mount Radford, Exeter. 

Voce, W. G., 52, Halesowen Road, Netherton, near Dudley. i 
Vogt, Geo., 30, Highgate, Kendal. 

Wakeham, C, Helston, Cornwall. 

Walker, James, 51, Hudson Street, Tyne Dock, South Shields. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. B49 

Walker, James D., 5, Alvauley Terrace, Bruatsfield Links, Edin- 
burgh. 

Walker, .John, 32, Virginia Street, Glasgow. 

Walker, J. F., M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S., 45, Bootham, York. 

Walker, William, Downtiekl, by Dundee. 

Wallis, T. E., B.Sc. Lond., A.I.C., 29, Fiiisbury Park Road, N. 

Walmsley, S. E., 8, Surbitou Park Terrace, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Walsh, Dr. J. A., 30, Westmoreland Street, Dublin. 

Walton, E., 73, High Street, Maidenhead. 

Want, W. Phillip, 44, Bishopsgate Street Without, E.G. 

Ward, G., F.I.C., F.C.S., Millgarth Mills, Leeds. 

Ward, J., 39, Eastgate Street, Gloucester. 

Wardleworth, Theo. H., .56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 

Waring, A. W., 3, Bucklersbury, E.G. 

Warren, W., 24, Russell Street', Coveut Garden, W.C. 

Warrick, F. \V., 0, Nile Street, City Road, E.G. 

Watson, David, 41, Sinclair Drive, Langside, Glasgow. 

Watson, F. P., F.G.S., 6, Bailgate, Lincoln. 

Watson, J. E. H., Rose Corner, Norwich. 

Watt, Geo. A., 20, Lynn Street, West Hartlepool. 

Watts, Wm., 5, .James Street. Crieff. 

Weaver, A. C., 42, Dudley Road, Wolverhampton. 

Webb, E. A., 60, Bartholomew Close, E.G. 

Webb, E. F., Sun Street, Hitchin. 

Weddell, George, 20, West Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Weld, G. Corning, Snow Hill Buildings, Holborn Viaduct, 15. C. 

Wellcome, H. S., Snow Hill Buildings, Holborn Viaduct, E.G. 

Wellings, Wm., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 

Wells, W. F., Ph.C., 20, Upper Baggot Street, Dublin. 

Weston, S. J., 151, Westbourne Terrace, W. 

Whighara, R. L., 22, Brook Street, Bond Street, W. 

White, Arthur F., 61, Suubridge Road, Bradford, Yorks. 

White, Edmund, B.Sc, F.T.C., 16, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, E.G. 

White, Jas. W., F.L.S., Warnham, 18, Woodland Road, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

Wliite, Thomas, 8, Prince of Wales Terrace, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 

White, Thos. A., Elm Grove, Southsea. 

White, W. Carter, F.C.S.. 58, Bunhill Row, E.C. 

Whitfield, J., F.C.S., 113, Westborough, Scarborough. 

Whittle, Jas., F.C.S., 30, Bridge Street, Morpeth. 

Whyte, J. S., 57, Guthrie Port, Arbroath, N.B. 

Wiggins, H., 236, Southwark Park Road, S.E. 

Wigginton, A., 137, Sloane Street, S.W. 

Wild, .John, 307, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Wild, Sydney, 76, Mill Street, Macclesfield. 

Wilford, J., 52, Milton Street, Nottingham. 

Wilkinson, B. J., 7, Middleton Road, Ivingsland, N.E. 

Willcock, F. A., 71, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton. 

Will, W. Watson, F.G.S., 1, St. Agues Place, Kennington Park, 
S.E. 

Willan, R., 5, Market Street, Ulverstou. 

Williams, Jesse, Park Hall Buildings, Queen Street, Cardiff. 

Williams, H. G., 118, The Moor, Shefiield. 

Williams, T. R., Norton House, St. John's Road, Peuge, S.E. 

Williams, W. G., Old Colvvyu, Conway Bay. 

Williamson, F. A., Moor Park Pharmacy, Garstang Road, Preston, 
Lanes. 

Williamson, J., .55, Western Road, Hove, Sussex. 

Williamson, W. H., " Clovelly," Hawthorn Laue.Wilmslow, Manchester, 

Wills, G. S. v., Westminster College, Trinity Square, Boro', S.H). 



350 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Wilson, H., F.I.C., 146, HIkIi Street, Soutlianipton. 

Wilson, Harold, B.Sc, St. Thomas' Hospital, S.W. 

Wilson, J., 11, George Street, Bath. 

Wilson, J. H., J.P., C.C, The Knowle, Harrogate. 

Wilson. Wra. Potter, 36, High Street, Haildingtou, N.B. 

Wing, G. N., 29, Market Place, Melton Mowbray. 

Wokes, T. S., Grassendale, near Liverpool. 

Wolstenholme, Alfred, Woodhouse, Nr. Sheffield. 

Wood, A., New Brentford, Middlesex. 

Wood, Wm., 2, Tower lload, Dartford, Kent. 

Wooddisse, Frank B., Keuihvorth. 

Woodhead, S. A., B.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S., The College, Uckfield, Sussex. 

Woods, W. H., 50, Bedford Street, Plymouth. 

Woodward, H. K., 7, Bull Green, Halifax. 

Woodward, M. Mellor, 53, London Koad, Keigate. 

Woollcombe, Dr. Eobert Lloyd, M.A., LL.D. (Dublin Univ.), LL.D. 

(Royal Univ.), F.LList., F.S.S., M.E.LA., F. U.S.A. (Ireland), 

Medical Student (T.C.D.), Barrister-at-Law, 14, Waterloo Eoad, 

Dublin. 
Woolley, E. J., Victoria Bridge, Manchester. 
WooUey, G. S., Victoria Bridge, Manchester. 
Woollev, Hermann, Victoria Bridge, Manchester. 
Woolley, S. W., 91, Soutbwood Lane, Highgate, N. 
WooUons, C. H. F., 28, Kilburn Lane, W. 

Wootton, A. C, Barrymore, Fallow Corner, North Finchley, N. 
Wootton, H., B.Sc, London College of Pharmacy, 323, Clapham 

Road, S.W. 
Worfolk, G. W., 16, Brook Street, Ilkley. 

Worrall, J. H., F.LC, F.C.S., Howsley, Chapeltown, nr. Sheffield. 
Wrenn, W. A., F.C.S., 15, East Street, Taunton. 
Wright, A., A.K.C., 13, High Street, Yeovil, Somerset. 
Wright, G., 102, High Street, Burton-on-Trent. 
Wright, H. C, 48 & 50, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Wright, R., F.C.S., 11, Eagle Parade, Buxton, Derbyshire. 
Wyatt, Harold, 223, Stanley Road, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Wyborn, .J. M., F.C.S., 59, Moorgate Street, E.C. 
Wyley, W. F., Wheatley Street, Coventry. 
Wyman, J. S., 58, Bunhill Row, E.C. 
Wynne, E. P., 7, Pier Street, Aberystwith. 

Yates, C. G., 9, Upper Hamilton Road, Brighton. 

Yates, D., 32, Darwen Street, Blackburn. 

Young, E. F., 67, Wells Road, Bristol. 

Young, J. Rymer, F.C.S., 40, Sankey Street, Warrington. 

Young, .J. R., 38, Chalmers Street, Lauriston, Edinburgh. 

Young, J. R., Junr., 18, Comeragh Road, W. Kensington, W. 

Young, R. F., Lindum House, New Barnet. 



NOTICE. 
Members are requested to report any iiiaccuracies in these lists 
by letter, addressed as follows : — 

The Asst. Secretary, 

BiiiT. Pharm. Conf., 

17, Bloomshury Square, 

London, W.C- 



PROGRAMME OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCK 

AT THE 

FORTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING, BRIGHTON, 1905. 



OFFICERS. 

i3vrsilirnt. w. a. h. nayi.or. f.i.c, f.c.s., loikIoi 

Uirf=^rrsilirnts. 

(MHio have filled the office 0/ President.) 



JOH>f ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.T.C., 

F.C.S., Watford. 
S. R. ATKINS, J. P., Salisbury. 
CHAS. UMNEY, F.I.C, F.C.S., London. 
OCTAVIUS CORDER, Norwich. 
N. H. MARTIN, F.R.S.E., P.L.S., Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 



C. SYMES, Ph.D., Ph.C, F.C.S., Liverpool. 
J. C. C. PAYNE, J.P., M. P.S.I. . Belfast. 
E. M. HOLMES. F.L.S., Ph.C. London. 
G. C. DRUUE, M.A.. F.L.S., Oxford. 
T. H. W. IDRIS, L.C.C, J. P., F.C.S., Lon- 
don. 



Firf43vrsit)fnts. 



R. A. ROBINSON, L.C.C, J.P., London. 
D. B. DOTT, F.R.S.E., F.I.C, Edinburgh. 
JOHNSTON MONTGOMERY, Belfast. 



\V. H. GIBSON, F.CS., Briehtnn. 
F. RANSOM, F.CS., Hitcliiu. 
Prof. HENRY G. GREENISH, F.L.S., 
F.I.C., London. 



J^onorarg iTrrasurrr. john c u.mney, f.cs., London. 
JJjanorarg fficnrral Srrrrtarics. 

E. SAVILLE PECK, M.A., Cambridge. 1 EDMUND AVHITE, B.Sc, F.I.C, London. 



J^onorarg ILocal Sfcrrtartcs. 

W. \V. SAVAGE, C. G Y.\TES. 



'gisststant Sfcretarp. 

JOHN HEARN. 



H. Antcliffe, Sheffield. 

F. C J. BiKD, London. 

H. W. G.VDD, Exeter. 

D. Llotd How.iKD, F.C.S., London 



©tl)cr iBcmbcrs of tiir ?£.rfnititif Committer. 

' " " W. H. Maktindale, Ph.D., London. 

H. E. M(TTHEWS, Bristol. 
J. F. T0CH1.R, F.[.C, F.CS , Peterhead. 
Habold Wilson, B.Sc, London. 



R. Wuicnr, F.C.S., Buxton. 

autitors. 

J. W. BOWEN, London, and W. P. ROBINSON, London. 

EUitor of H)r ?3rar=Book. j. o. braithwaite. 



13rtgijtoa iloral (Committer. 



'Adams, F. 

•ASTOS. W. 

•ashtos, c. s. 
Barton, H. 
Bathe, R. .S. 
Bayxey, a. W. 
Beck, N. G. 
Bkckwith, C. 

BErKWITH. E. 

•Black. H. M. 
• Blamev C. a. 

Browk, R. E. 

Cameron, L. 

Cain, J. H. 

Chambers, H. 

Churchill. U. 

Cook, W. R. 



Cortis, a. B. 
costerton, h. a. 
Cox, a. H. 
•Cripps, B. a. 
CrpiT, A. H. 
Everett, H. 
Farr. E. H. 
Flatman. F. J. 

FOWLE."!, F. W. 

•Feankun, a. J. 

•(ilBSOK, W. H. 

Grkenlng B. C. 

Guy, F. 
*gwatkin, j. r. 
*Hall, a. 
*Hardcastle, S. B. 

Hayes. K. O. 



Heatu, R. p. 
Hellett, F. C 

HlSTED, E. 

Jketes. T. a. 
Leigh, Mrs. Marshall. 
Levett. H. 
Lloy'd, H. 
-Longman, J. H. 
Marten, J. R. 

M-\TTHEWS, J. H. 
3IERRETT, E. L. 
MlLLEK, J. 

Packer. F. R. E. 
•Padwick. J. 
Padwick, 1. K. 
Pears. K. 
Pears, H. W. K. 



Plowright. a 
•pi.owkight, j. 

•KOBINSO.s. C. E. 

Robinson, H. 

RoYLE, H. W. 

Sadler, F. W. 
•Savage, G. B. 
•Savage. W. W. 

Smith, T. H. 

Sjiith, W. H. 

Smithson, J. 

Wallis, E. 

Ward. C. T. 

White, W. E. 
•Yate-s, C. 6. 



' Local Execnti 



Co)i 



Met: 



Thb Sittings of the Confehexck weke held in 

THE CLARENCE ROOMS, HOTEL METROPOLE, BRIGHTON. 
On TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY, JULY 25 and 2fi, 1905. 



B52 BRITISH PHARMACPXTTICAL CONFEKENCE 

TUESDAY, JULY 25. 

The CONFERENCE met at 10 a.m., adjourning at 1 p.m. ; and at 
2 p.m., adjourning at 4 p.m. 



(ih i)rr of il^i isiiicss. 

Address of welcome by the Mayor of Brighton, Alderman F. Blaker. 

President's Address. 

Reception of Delegates. 

Report of Executive Committee. 

Financial Statement. 

Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 



PAPERS. 

1. The Composition of Dentrifices as affected by recent investigations in 

Dental Science, by Stanley Read, L.D.S.E. 

2. The Bio-Chemical Standardisation of Drugs, by W. E. Dixon, M.D. 

(Lond.), M.A. (Cantab.). 

3. Standardisation in the new United States Pharmacopoiia, by T. 

Maben, F.C.S. 

4. The Essential Oils of the new United States Pharmacopoeia, by J. C. 

Umney. F.C.S., and C. T. Bennett, F.C.S. 

5. Quinine Acid Hydrochloride, by W. Garsed. 

(j. Compound Tincture of Gentian, by F. H. Alcock, F.I.C. 

7. The Ash of Myrrh, by F. H. Alcock, F.I.C. 

8. The Flora of Sussex, by G. Claridge Druce, JNI.A. (Oxon.). 

!). Further Notes on Radio- Activity, by W. H. Martindale, Ph.D. 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 26. 

The CONFERENCE met at 9.45 a.m., adjourning at 1 p.m. ; and at 
2 p.m., adjourning at 3.30 p.m. 

(L)rt)cr of ilUisiiuss. 

PAPERS. 

10. The Examination of some Commercial Concentrated Infusions, by 

R. A. Cripps, F.I.C. 

11. Decoctum Aloes Co. Concentratum, by R. A. Cripps, F.I.C. 

12. The Pharmacy of Capsicum, by A. W. Gerrard,' F.C.S. 



BHlTlSll I'HAHMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 353 

13. The Assay of Compound Tincture of Camphor, by F. C. J. Bird. 

14. The Chemistry and Pharmacy of the Leaver of Viola Odorata, by H 

WipPELi, Gadd, F.C.S. 

15. Laboratory Notes : 

(a) Nux Vomica Seeds. 

(b) The Assay of Cinchona Bark. 

(c) The Manufacture of Ferrous Carbonate, by Svdney C. Gadd. 

16. Castor Oil, Part I, by H. Finnemokk, A.I.C, and Harold Deane, 

B.Sc. (Lond.), A.I.C. 

17. Amateur Laboratory Construction, by E. W. Pollard, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

18. Tragacanth and Acacia : Comparative Viscosity of the Simple and 

Mixed Mucilages, by Edmund White, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C. 

19. Mercuric Zinc Cyanide, by D. B. Dott, F.R.S.E., F.I.C. 

20. Arsenious Iodide, by R. C. Cowley and J. P. Catfokd. 

21. Report upon the results obtained from the Analysis of Pharmaceutical 

Preparations by the Union Analysts of the Poor Law Unions of 
Ireland in the year ended March 31, 1905, by J. E. Brunker, 
M.A. (Dubl.). 



GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Presentation from the " Bell and Hills Fund." 
Place of Meeting for 1900. 
Election of Officers for 1905-1900. 



THURSDAY, JULY 27 

..vcuraioii to Arundel. For particulars see pnge 506. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. H 
MEETING AT BRK J HTON, 1905. ] 

The utukuiiicntioiied visitor.s signed tlie Attendance Book : — j 

Aberdeen — Giles, W. ; Kay, J. P. . 1 

Altrmcham — Unswortli, A. ; Unswortli, J. VV. 
Barnet— Young, R. F. ; Hayles, B. H. 

Bath—Rsdlett, W. J. , 

Beckenham — Parsons, W. j 

Bedliwjton — Foggan, Mr. and Mrs. G. | 

Belfast — Gibson, W. J., and Miss (iibson; Nieholl, J. \V. | 

Birminjham — Alcock, F. H. ; Smith, F. ; Thompson, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. 

Blandford — Groves, R. H. . ; 

Boscombe — Rose, Mr. and Mrs. F. ' 

Bradford — Hanson, Mr. and Mrs. A. i 

Brightofi and Hove — Adams, F. ; Allen, H. M. ; Andrews, 
S. H. ; Andrews, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. ; Andrews, E. ; Ashton, j 
C. S. ; Beckwith, C. ; Beckwith, Ernest ; Beckenham, C. ; [ 
Black, H. M. ; Blaker, M. ; Blamey, Mr. and Mrs. G. A. ; j 
Bowu, Dr. J. Q. ; Gook, Mr. and Mrs. W. R. ; Gosterton, F. G. ; j 
Gripiis, R. A. ; Franklin, A. J. ; Gibson, W. H. ; Gibson, 1 
Ida ; Gibson, Edith G. ; Goodall, F. G. ; Griffiths, G. ; Guy, ' 
Mr. and Mrs. F. ; Gwatkin, Mrs. E. F. ; Gwatkin, Grace; Gwatkiii, 
H. R. ; Gwatkin, J. R; Hall, A. ; Hardcastle, Mr. and Mrs. S. B. ; j 
Heath, J. L. ; Miller , J. ; Padwick, J. ; Plowright, J. ; Ransom, ' 
Miss ; Read, Stanley ; Robinson, G. E. ; Savage, E. D. ; Savage, 
G. B. ; Savage, Mr. and Mrs. W. VV., and Misses Beatrice and i 
Marion Savage ; Smith, J. H. ; Wliittle, E. G. ; Yates, G. G. ; I 
Yates, E. 

Bristol—Boorno, H. E. ; Kirby, F. B. ; White, Mi', and Mrs. 
Jas. W. 

Cambridge — Dixon, Dr. VV. E. ; Peck, E. Saville. 

Cardiff — Hagon, Albert, and Miss R. Hagon. ; 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 355 

Cheltenham — Barron, W. ; Thomas, J. A. 

Chesterfield— Smith, F. A. Upslier. 

Croydon — Asliton, Mr. and Mrs. F. W. 

Dover — Ewell, R. M. 

Dowlais — Rees, R. P. 

Z)w6Zm— M'Walter, Dr. J. C. ; Watson, D. W. ; Wells, W. F. 

Dundee — Anderson, J. ; Russell, J., and Miss Russell. 

Eastbourne — Gibbs, S. ; Harmer, G. A. 

Edinburgh — Cowie, Mr. and Mrs. W. B. ; Duncan, W. ; Glass, 
Julia ; Hill, J. Rutherford ; Mair, W. 

Elland — Garsed, Gertrude. 

Enfield— Goldhy, F. 

Exeter — Gadd, H. Wippell ; Gadd, Sydney C. ; Lake, J. 
Hinton. 

Glasgow — Brodie, R. ; Gilmour, J. P. ; Sutherland, J. W. 

Godalming — Mather, J. H. ; Norman, V. 

Gravesend — Clarke, R. Feaver, and the Misses Clarke. 

Haddington — Wilson, W. P. 

Hitchin — Ransom, Mr. and Mrs. F. 

/Z/tZey— Worfolk, G. W. 

Kilmarnock — Merson, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. F. 

Kirriemuir — Ford, Jas. ; Ford, Jessie. 

Leeds — Beacock, H. ; Pilkington-Sargeant, Mr. and Mrs. F. 

Leyion — Brewis, E. Theo. 

Littlehampton — Longman, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. 

Liverpool — vSymes, Di'. and Mrs. 

Long Metford—Lenton, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. 

Louth — Simpson, H. D. 

London — Arrowsmith, A. R. ; Atkinson, Mr. and Mrs. Leo 
Bascombe, F. ; Bennett, R. R. ; Bird, F. C. J. ; Bremridge, R. 
Chalmers, W. ; Cooper, A. ; Crawshaw, E. ; Cresswell, F. ; Deane 
H. ; Finnemore, Mr. and Mrs. H. ; Francis, Alan ; Frost, S. T. 
Garsed, W. ; Gerrard, A. W., and Miss Gerrard ; Glyn- Jones 
Mr. and Mrs. "W. S. ; Goldfinch, G. ; Goodall, J. C. ; Gossop, Geo 
K. ; Harrington, J. F. ; Harrison, E. F. ; Hearn, J. ; Howie,W. L. 
Howard, D. L. ; Humphrey, J. ; Idris, Mr. and Mrs. T. H. W. 
Idris, W. J. W. ; Layman, C. N., and Miss Layman ; Lescher 
F. H. ; Lucas, E. W. ; Maben, L. M. ; Maben, T. ; Martindale 
Dr. and Mrs. W. H. ; Naylor, W. A. H. ; Robinson, R. A. 
Rogers, F. A. ; Sangster, A. ; Shacklock, J. H. ; Smith, Mr 
and Mrs. J. H. ; Solomon, Albert H. ; Tompsett, L. S. ; Umney 
Mr. and Mrs. John C. ; Want, W. P. ; Warren, W. ; Weston 



356 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

S. J. ; .White, Mr. and Mrs. Edmuud ; Widdowson, T. S. ; 
Woolley, S. W. ; Wootton, A. C. 

Luton — Chantler, Ethel. 

Manchester — Frankhn, J. H. ; Jolinstone, C. A. ; Kemp, 
Harry ; Pidd, A. J., and Miss Pidd ; Wild, J. 

Oxford — Druce, J. Claridge. 

Pee6/e.s— Lindsay, Mr. and Mrs. J. R. 

Preston — Plowright, A. 

Plymouth — Barge, Mr. and Mrs. J. 

Queenstown, iS. Africa — Mager, W. K. 

Hyde (/.If .)— Pollard, E. W. 

Salisbwy— Atkins, S. R. 

San Remo — Squire, Frank R. 

Scaford — Cameron, L. ; Cameron, L., jun. 

Sheffield— AntcMc, H.; Carr, Percy; Newsholme,Mr.,audMrs., 
and the Misses Newsliolme ; Williams, H. G., and Miss Williams. 

Shipley — Bayley, G. H. 

Shrewsbury — Cross, Mr. and Mrs. W. Gowen ; Cross, W. 
Gowen, jun. 

Tunbridge Wells— Kohhs, A. E. ; Howard, Mr. and Mrs. G. W. 

Uckfteld—Farr, E. H. 

Ventnor — Dunning, J. 

Watford— Attficld, Dr. J. 

IFif/fm— Phillips, Mrs. A. ; Philhps, J. 

Worcester — Twinberrow, J. 

Worthing — x4ston, Mr. and Mrs. W. 



GENERAL MEETING. 

Tuesday, July 25, 19U5. 

The Sessions of Conference began at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 
July 25, in the Clarence Rooms, Hotel Metrojiole. The Pre- 
sident, Mr. W. A. H. Naylor was supported by the Mayor of 
Brighton, Alderman Blaker, J. P. ; Mr. R. A. Robinson, Piesi- 
dent of the Pluiimaceutical Society ; Dr. Gervis, Brighton ; 
Dr. J. Attfield, Dr. Charles Sj'mes, and Messrs. S. R. Atkins, 
G. C. Druce, W. H. Gibson, J. C. Umney, E. Saville Peck, and 
E. WHiite. 

The President said : Ladies and gentlemen, we are favoured 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 857 

this morning witii the presence of the Mayor of the borough, 
Mr. Alderman F. Blaker, and he will address a few words of 
welcome to us. 

The Mayor : Mr. President, Vice-President, ladies and gentle- 
men, my duty is short and a very pleasant one — that is, to offer to 
you tlie most cordial welcome I possibly can in the name of 
l^rigliton to wliat we call " Tlie Queen of Watering Places." I 
need hardly say that I hope the weatlier will be all that. you 
can wisli yourselves, and I hope tliat the deliberations, which 
are the cardinal consideration of your coming here, will bear 
such fruit as your annual meetings have always done. This 
is the forty-second annual meeting that you have lield, and I 
have no doubt that your position is stronger to-day tlian when 
you started. In the name of Brighton I do lieartily welcome 
you to our town. 

The President : Mr. Mayor, in the first place will you allow 
me to discharge a duty of a retrospective character : to thank 
you most heartily for the magnificent I'eception which you gave 
us last evening, and for the hospitality which you were good 
enough to extend to us. The historic associations connected 
with the building in which it was our privilege to gather enhanced 
considerably the pleasure of the occasion and gave to it an added 
cliai'm. Will you allow mv to say that we regard it as a distinct 
honour that you should have come amongst us this morning, 
because we know that you must be a very busy man, and you 
nuist have done it at some amount of personal sacrifice. We, 
therefore, express to you our very sincere thanks for the wel- 
come which you have given to us, and I am sure you will not 
measure the extent of our gratitude bj^ the fewness of the words 
with which we express it. We appreciate very highly the kind 
office you have performed this morning, and we also thank you 
for your good wishes for a most successful meeting. 

J)r. Gervis, on behalf of the medical profession in Brighton, also 
welcomed the Conference to the town. He referred to the meet- 
ing of motorists the previous week, and said it was of pharma- 
ceutical interest to know that it was said the pace at which a 
large motor goes, especially when driven b^^ a lady, was a most 
effective depilatory, more efficacious than sulphuret of soda or 
electi-olysis. He then referred to the alliance between physician 
and pharmacist as pursuing separate branches of the healing 
art, and sjioke in highly appreciative terms of chemists of Brighton, 
\nAh as pharmacists and as public men. He concluded by re- 



358 BRITISH niARMACErTICAL CONFERENCE. 

feiring to tlie " three airs of Brigliton." and gave the following 
prescription : — 

Vc Aeris Brightonii, quantum sufficit. 
Misce secundeni artem. 
Fiat inhalatio. Ssepissinie utendum. 

Alderman R. A. Robinson thanked the Mayor and Dr. Gervis 
for their veiy cordial welcome to ]>righton, and said he was sure 
the- members of the Conference heartily reciprocated Iheii- good 
wishes. There were present to welcome the Conference, on 
behalf of the medical jirofession, not only Dr. Gervis, but also 
Dr. Whittle, Dr. Marcus Allen, and Dr. Bown. and it was very 
j)leasant to be met in this kind manner by the medical profession. 
Dr. Gervis had referred to the Brighton pharmacists as second 
to none in the kingdom — it might be that demand and supply 
went together, and it might be that the physicians of Brighton 
were second to none in the kingdom, and that it had been found 
desirable that there should be pharmacists able to fulfil the 
desires and wishes of their medical friends. As to the three airs 
in Brighton, they would bear in mind what Dr. Gervis had told 
them, and would take the ojiportunity of sampling the air in its 
native purity. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

THE STANDARDIZATION OF GALENICALS 

BY W. A. H. NAYLOR, F.I.C. 

After a lapse of thirty-three years the Conference, on the 
invitation of the Brighton Local Association, is privileged to 
revisit this popular and fashionable watering-place. As the visit- 
ing members will have the opportunity, before the present 
sessions close, of suitably expressing their feelings to those who 
have cheerfully charged themselves with the responsibility of 
providing for their comfort and pleasure, I will refrain from saying 
more than assuring our hosts that we are delighted to accept tlieir 
hospitality. It is not unnatural that the temptation to indulge 
in a series of reflections suggested by the long interval between 
the meeting of to-day and that of 1872 appeals powerfully tf) 
me, but, inasmuch as to yield to it would make it (litti( ult for 
me to avoid the discussing of burning questions of ])()li(V that 
lie outside the scope of our association, I forbear. 



BRITISH niARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 359 

Without exception, my predecessors in this chair have been 
singularly happy in their choice of a subject on which to base 
an address, and I shall count myself fortunate if I succeed in 
discharging my present duty with the same degree of appro- 
priateness and acceptability. A request reached me from a 
lepresentative source to select for this occasion a topic of general 
interest to pharmacists ; and as it is one whicli well accords with 
my sense of propriety and witli my feeling of personal fitness, 1 
gladly welcome it. Whether tlie motive whicli prompted the 
request was in part to safeguard me against essaying too ambitious 
a lliglit and from the disastrous result which inevitably follows 
I do not know, but if so, it was the more worthy of con- 
sideration. 

It may be aflirmed without fear of contradiction that tlie 
recognition of 

The Princirle of Standardization 

and its embodiment in daily practice marks the mcst im])ortant 
advance which pharmacy has witnessed within recent years. 
Standardization, as ap])lied to a ci'ude drug or a preparation, 
is understood to imply that by a method of apjiropriate treat- 
ment, ascertained by direct experiment, it has been made (o 
conform to a predetermined standard. The rec}uired standard 
)nay have a pliysical, chemical, or physiological basis and may 
have reference either to one or more definite principles or to a 
mixture of indefinable substances. The ol)ject of standardizafon 
is to secure uniformity of product, more especially in respect 
of medicinal activity. 

It is not necessary to hark back moi-e than a generation to see 
the ever-lengthening strides which pharmacy has taken in the 
direction of plant analysis and the isolation of definite principles. 
To this fact the text-books on materia medica and lectures of 
twenty-five years ago bear indisputable testimony. Then the 
maximum of knowledge of the constituents of even the best 
known and most potent drugs was sunimed up in the statement 
that they contained a crystalline principle, generally an alkaloid, 
and Or few remotely proximate and chemically unclassified sub- 
stances. Before standardization could be brought within the range 
of pharmaceutical possibility it was necessary to nuike a more 
thorough, systematic, and accurate investigation of ci'ude dings 
with a view of obtaining precise information as to the nature 
of their constituents. To this task the younger generation cf 



.'iCO BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

workers ia the field of pliarmaeeutieal research have iiiainlj' 
directed their efforts. Latterly they have occupied themselves 
more especially in seeking to devise trustworthy processes for 
the assay of crude drugs and their preparations, and to the extent 
to which they have succeeded they have contributed in their 
measure to the benefits conferred on suffering hutuanity by Ihe 
healing art. 

Its Application. 
The 18G7 Pharmacopeia gave detailed directions for the 
evaluation of cinchona bark and of opium, an innovation that 
constituted the first serious attempt " by authority " in this 
country to assay crude drugs. In the following Pharmacopoeia 
of 1885 tlie principle of standardization Avas extended to a small 
number of the ])reparations of official drugs comprising tlie liipiid 
extracts of cinchona and opium, the extracts of nux vomi(;a and 
opium and cherry-laurel water. As a beginning, the selection 
made was waiTanted alike on chemical and therapeutical grounds, 
but fh(^ ehoic(^ of the extractive form for nux vomica proved to 
be singularly unfortunate, as, owing piincipally to the relative 
variation in alkaloid content to extractive, it could not be 
obtained so as to fulfil at the same time the two required con- 
ditions of standard strength and pilular consistence. Experience 
sliowed that whatever' convenience aif aclied to it as a means of 
making the corresponding tincture it failed to yield the prepara- 
tion of the uniform strength of 1 grain of alkaloids in 1 fl. oz. 
In accordance with gei\eral expectation, the succeeding Pharma- 
copceia of 1898 witnessed a further advance of the j^rinciple of 
standardization. The list was exteiided so as to include a licprid 
extract of belladonna, from Avhich the alcoholic extract, lini- 
ment, plaster, and tincture are directed to be made ; simple and 
comj)ound tincture of cinchona, liqrnd extract, and tincture of mix 
vomica — from the former of which the firm extract is to be made 
— liquid extr-act of ipecacuanha — from which the wine and vinegar 
are to be made — and extract, liquid extract, and tincture of 
opium. 

Of the standardized drugs and prepai'ations common to the 
1885 and 1898 Pharmacopoeias, the processes given for each in 
the resiDective editions ar-e characterized for the most part 
by important alterations. The main difference in the present 
liquid extract of cinchona is an instruction to repeat the opera- 
tion of shaking out with benzolated amylic alcohol and to le- 
"over the alkaloids by agitation with hydrochloric acid and 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 361 

treatineat of the separated acid solution with ammonia and 
chloroform. In the case, however, of nux vomica, the stan- 
dardized preparation of which is a liquid extract, the strychnine 
alone is directed to be estimated, and not, as previously, the 
mixed alkaloids in the solid extract. In regard to opium, 
moi])liinated water is now substituted for distilled water for 
wasliing the separated alkaloid, the dried alkaloid is tihated, and 
an allowance made for the loss of alkaloid. 

The criticisms that have been made on the processes foi- stnn- 
dardization in the present Pharmacoptieia may be summed up 
in the statement : — (a) unnecessarity complex, (b) ii sufiicienlly 
accurate, (c) tedious of execution. And as regards opium, 
" clumsy " from an analytical point of view and objectionable 
on account of the difficulty of obtaining tlie required volume 
of filtrate. It is gratifying to be able to remark that those who 
have criticized adversely the processes for standardization given 
in the Pharmacopoeia have, as the result of much thought and 
investigation, made valuable suggestions for their improvement 
Pharmac}^ is greatly indebted to those workers in tliis held of 
inquiry, who have not only pointed out defects in processes, 
but who have concurrently contributed so large a volume of 
useful constructive criticism. For -some considerable time I 
have occupied myself with a comparative study of the official 
processes for standardization and certain of those publislied and 
recommended by researchers as improvements upon them. It 
is with diffidence that I offer my connnents, but as they are the 
outcome of a long series of experiments, I am persuaded that 
you will admit their claim to submission as justifiable. 



Belladonna. 

It is seldom tliat the process directed to be used for the hquid 
extract of belladonna can ])e carried out in its entirety. The 
choloroform produces with most samples an emulsion which defies 
all attempts to obtain a perfect separation of the immiscible 
alkaloidal solvent. In the majority of these cases a considerable 
economy of time and labour may be effected by subjecting the 
extract to a preliminary treatment for the removal of its fat. For 
this purpose Bird's modified B.P. process may be used with 
advantage. ^ The preliminary washing with chloroform in acid 
solution (and sulisequent recovery of traces of alkaloid from the 
chlunjfuiinic extract) efl'ects in most cases a complete removal of 



362 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

those substances whicli favour the formation of emulsions, and as 
a consequence throughout the whole assay the separations usually 
take place quickly and are sharply defined. Moreover, the i 
alkaloids ohtaitied by tlie spontaneous evaporation of tlie final 
chloroformic solution are fretiucntly beautifully crystalline i 
and almost colourless, and are found to have a high titration j 
value. I 

Bird's alternative process, in whicli the prior treatment v. ith j 
anid is not required, but a solvent composed of amylic alcoliol, ] 
etherand chloroform is recommended instead of cldoioform alone, I 
seems to demand for its successful conduct a liberal endowment of i 
the mechanical ingenuity and manipulative dexterity of its author. i 
This inference is suggested by the fact that of three assistants 
who in turn made trial of it, all of them experienced in this class i 
of work, each failed to obtain concordant results. Alcock's ' 
process — a leading feature of which is a provision for the removal 
of the fatty matter with ether and the precipitation of resinous j 
substances with chloroform — accomplishes, in a cleanly and ] 
satisfactory manner, the object desired, the alkaloids, generally, 
titrating close upon 100 per cent., being colourless and crystalline. 
A much-needed amendment of the present process for determining , 
the proportion of alkaloids would consist in including in the i 
description a preliminary treatment for the withdrawal of use- ; 
less and interfering oleaginous substances. I 

Cinchona. ' 

Liquid extract of cinchona, when assayed by the official j 
process, not infrequently gives rise to refractory emulsions, j 
which refuse to break up on long standing in a warm place accom- 1 
panied by gentle rotation of tlic separator or after filtering through 
a pledget of cotton wool. 

Here, again, Alcock's modification of the official process in its ( 
early stages, which consists chiefly in the substitution of an' 
alcoholic solution of potash for the aqueous one prescribed by the 1 
Pharnuxcopceia, results in a practical solution of the difficulty.] 
His assumption that dilution with water in the first instance I 
aids the formation of emulsions appears to be justified from the 
rapidity and sharpness that characterize the subsequent separa- 
tions. By this method the extract can be a.ssayed moie expedi- 
tiously and the lesults obtained are more accurate. Contrary 
to IJewhirst. Stenhouse's process has usually yiekh^d nic hi<jlior! 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 363 

and not lower results than the authoritative standard. Moreover, 
with certain types of liquid extract the resinous substances whicli 
are occasionally precipitated during the later ojoerations greatly 
delay the final separation. 

Ipecacuanha. 

To the process for the assay of liquid extract of ipecacuanha 
as described by the Pharmacopoeia the winnowing fan of criticism 
has been applied with greater vigour and freedom tlian to any 
other in connexion with the standardized preparations. The chief 
charges preferred against it have been loss of alkaloid, j)riucipally 
tlirough retention by the lead precipitate, an inordinate con- 
sumption of time required for its execution, and a degree of 
inqiurity in the final product which goes far to discount its 
claim to accuracy. By having recourse to the manipulative 
modifications suggested by Bird this process may be performed 
in a reasonable time and accordant results may be obtained. 

To Harold Wilson belongs the credit of being the first to point 
out the defects of the official process and to devise and publisli 
a better. His process is more expeditious and more accurate 
and, in general, more easy of execution, the exception being 
where the resinous constituents are thrown out of solution and 
prolong to tedious length the separation of the immiscible 
solvent. Alcock's process provides for the removal of in- 
terfering substances in the liquid extract before extracting the 
alkaloids with ether-chloroform ; nevertheless, the presence of 
a flocculeut precipitate occasionally makes the separation of the 
alkaloidal solvent one of considerable difficulty, unless the whole 
liquid is forced through cotton wool. Of the published methods 
of assay the only ones Avhich in my hands have yielded uniformly 
accurate results with every tj^De of liquid extract are those of 
Farr and Wright and of Naylor and Bryant. Moreover, my 
experience has shown that the results yielded by Fa,rr and 
Wright's and Naylor and Bryant's processes respectively are 
identical within the limits of experimental error. Fan- and 
Wright's statement that their rapid process gives results that 
are practically accurate is in the main confirmed by my experi- 
ments. The fact that the results are generally a little too low- 
is probably due to the retention of traces of alkaloid by the 
substances insoluble in the acid used for titration. What- 
ever process may be devised and adopted for inclusion in a 
future issue of the British Pharmacopeia there can be no 



364 BRiT[.Sir rir\RMAOEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

doubt tliat titration of the alkaloidal residue will hn insisted 
upon. 

Nux Vomica. 

The process for the assay of litjuid extract of nux vomica as 
set out in the Phannacopa'ia sliares llie defect common to the 
standardization of the prepaiations to wliicli n-fcn-ence has 1)C(mi 
made — that of the diflficulty of obtaining a speedy and sharp 
separation of the solvents employed. Bird's reconunendation 
to lomove the fat from the alcohol-free solution by acidifying 
with dilute suli)huric acid and shaking out with chloroform and 
subsequently recovering from the latter any traces of alkaloid 
that may have been retained greatly facilitates the progress of the 
estimation. The same author has also described a process which 
is more lapid of execution than that of the PharmacopaMa and 
which renders unnecessary a preliminary evaporation of the ex- 
tract, and, further, it includes a modification of the method for 
wasliing the alkaloidal ferrocyanides, which, manipulatively 
considered, is a distinct improvement. Alcock has proposed 
certain modifications in the earlier stages of the official process 
by the adoption of which the time ordinarily required for making 
a determination is materially shortened. This saving of time 
is an uiKiualitied gain, as it has not been secured at the sacrifice of 
tlie alkaloid. 

The difficulties attending that part of the official process wliich 
refers to the separation of the brucine and f^trychnine, even assum- 
ing the adoption of the minute precaiitiojis proposed by Farr and 
Wright, cannot confidently be affirmed to have been completely 
surmounted. It is imperative that attention to details of an 
unusually exacting character be carefully observed if results 
that claim to be concordant are to be obtained. For example, 
the solution during the addition of the ferrocj^anide must be 
well agitated, but not stirred, and must be maintained for a con- 
siderable time at an elevated and restricted temperature, other- 
wise portions of brucine will be precipitated with the stiychnine. 
The most serious drawback to the process is the loss of strychnine 
consequent on giving effect to the prescribed instructions to wash 
the precipitate until the washings are free from bitterness. On. 
drying the extracted strychnine further loss will occur unless the 
suggestion to moisten it with ethylic or amylic alcohol or other 
liquid answering the same ])urpose be acted on, or some other 
('(pially clftH'tive inetliod lie employed. Unless exactly similar con- 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 365 

ditionsartuonstanlly observed tlie loss of alkaloid is suffieieiitly 
variable to vitiate the results. To an analyst working under pre- 
cisely similar conditions on the same samj^le of extract a number of 
assays may j'ield him the same percentage product, while the 
«ame extract in the hands of several analysts each equally com- 
petent as the first, assayed by the process with due observance 
of its details, will generally yield a percentage product diflering 
within limits too wide to be credited with concordancy of 
result. 

Dowzard lias worked out a method for the assay of this liquid 
extract in which the separation of the isolated and mixed alka- 
loids is based on the ease with which the brucine and the difficulty 
with which the strychnine under well-defined conditions are 
acted upon by nitric acid. By a simple adaptation of the pro- 
cess the total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids can be conveni- 
ently and directly determined in the same sample. If the in- 
structions given are carefully followed accurate results are obtained 
and the strychnine extracted is free from brucine. A consider- 
able experience has convinced me that a satisfactory and more 
expeditious process for the assay of nux vomica preparations 
and one suited to the requirements of the iH'ofessional phar- 
macist could be easily devised by adopting either Alcock's or 
Bird's method of extracting and purifying the mixed alkaloids 
and subsequently separating the strychnine by nitric acid as 
described by Dowzard. 

Opium. 

The description given in the Pharmacopoeia of the mor- 
phimetric process for opium is, in my judgment, a model of clear- 
ness and of attention to detail. Occasionally the opportunity 
has been afforded me of placing the process in the hands of k 
trained pharmacist who has not had previous experience of it, 
and in each case he has obtained results agreeing with the known 
percentage of alkaloid to the second place of decimals. It may 
be concluded, therefore, that, assuming it to be accurate, it is 
well adapted for the professional pharmacist. To the wholesaler 
who may be required to examine a number of samples and to whom 
time is a monetary consideration, and its too liberal consumption 
may cause him to lose his market, it is too lengthy. On the 
score of economy of both time and material the process of Dowzard 
is to be preferred. The more recently pubhshed one of Dott, 
aitliough excellent in many respects, possesses the disadvan- 



366 BlvITISll J'llAU.MACEUTlCAL CONFERENCE. 

tago of requiring oigliteeii liours for l)ic precipitation of the 
morpliine. 

On comparing the percentage of morphine returned on a given i 
sample of opium by manufacturers of the alkaloid with that j 
found by me by the Pharmacopeia process, the inference to be i 
deduced is that the latter yields too low results by nearly one- ; 
fifth per cent., notwithstanding Dott's statement that the es- \ 
timated morphine is one-fiftieth more than it ought to be. The ] 
difficulty of obtaining the officially prescribed 104 c.c. of filtrate 
is a distinct and recognized drawback. The instruction to i 
measure the 104 c.c. in a wide-mouthed bottle of 300 c.c. capacity ; 
does not conduce to accuracy and is probably rarely followed. A I 
flask with a long, narrow neck, with a mark on it indicating the 
required volume, would enable the instruction to be carried out j 
witli t)ie needed exactitude. A further drawback, to which I 
attention does not seen to have been drawn, is that the mass of • 
precipitated morphine after drying is not of uniform composition 
throughout, and in consequence thei'e is a small but variable error 
in the percentage of morphine calculated on the result of the 
titration of an aliquot quantity. 

Since these statements were penned Lenton has placed on 
record the observation that " the crude morpliine precipitate ' 
after washing and drying is not altogetlier homogeneous." Re- 
ferring to the titration of the morj^hine from the tincture, he 
remarks that, " although, presumably, the 0-3 gm. taken for 
the titration of the morphine from the bulk, it is by no means ! 
certain that such is the case." It has been suggested by various i 
authorities that the morphine should be titrated in the moist ' 
state and the lengthy and tedious process of drying dispensed 
with. From experiments which I have made it appears I 
that if the morphine is washed until free from traces of ammonia | 
it can be safely titi'ated in the manner suggested b}' DoAvzard 1 
without i^revious drying. 



Storage of Galenicals. 

To what extent are the standardized preparations, the jjro- 
cesses for which have been passed under review, liable to loss of 
active principles by chemical change or precipitation when stored 
under proper conditions ? The question is pertinent, and the 
published data ])caring on the inquiry are scanty and barely 
sufficient to sujj^ily a completely satisfactory answer. My ex- 



BRITISH PHABMAC:fiUTlCAL CONFEREMCE. 367 

pci'ieii'jo has taught me tliat varyhig conditions of storage will 
produce varying changes in the preparations, a behaviour which 
is characteristic of the large class of galenicals to which they be- 
long. Under the same conditions of storage they are not equally 
affected. The preparations of nux vomica and belladonna aj)- 
pear to be the most stable, the cinchona preparations less so, 
and the liquid extract of ipecacuanha the least of all. This 
assumption is supported bj^ the figures showing percentage losses 
of alkaloids during the storage of the standardized preparations 
— belladonna excepted — given in a paper contributed by Huxtal)le 
and myself to the Dundee meeting of the Conference. Since then 
observations have been, continuously made, and examinations 
conducted at short intervals enable me to confirm the order in 
which I have placed the several preparations in respect of alka- 
loidal stability. There is small, if any, doubt that the loss referred 
to is in each case most largely due to precipitation. Whatever, 
therefore, is likely to have the effect of encouraging deposition 
should be carefully noted and avoided. Suffer me to weight the 
statement with all the emphasis it Avill bear that we, as pharmacists, 
cannot bestow too great thought and care upon the storage of im- 
portant preparations, w^hich, even when kept under the most 
favourable conditions, are not free from the liability of a reduction 
in strength and consequent medicinal value. 

From the favoural^le reception which has been accorded the 
series of standardized preparations, it is safe to assume that the 
question of increasing the number in the next edition of the 
British Pharmacopoeia will receive from the Medical Council 
the fullest consideration. Other drugs containing known and 
approved active principles will undoubtedly form the subject of 
experiment with the twofold object of embodying their remedial 
properties in preparations alike convenient and permanent and 
arriving at suitable processes for determining their therapeutic 
strengths. I make no apology and affect no originality for can- 
vassing the claims of the following to this form of recognition. 

Calabae, Bean. 

So long as a preparation of Calabar bean intended for internal 
use finds a place in the British Pharniacopu^ia it should, as far 
as present knowledge admits, be assayed in respect of its alka- 
loidal content. The most recent investigations indicate the 
presence of the three bases in the bean — eserine, eseridine, and 



308 BltlTlSU 1 JIAK.MAC'KUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

eserainiuo. The nou-existeiice of calabarine tlieioiii can no 
longer be a matter of doubt. Of these alkaloids eserine is supi)osed 
to represent the therapeutical properties on which the physician i 
depends when he prescribes the official extract. It has been j 
l)roved by a series of expei'inients that eseridine can claim no 
special advantage over eserine, and tliat if not identical in action 
witli it, in the main it is not distinguishable from it. The relative 
proportions in which the several alkaloids exist in the bean do not 
a[)pear to be known with any degree of precision. As commercial 
extracts of the bean made with rectified spirit have been shown 
by MacEwan to contain from 1 to 10 j)cr cent, of total alkaloid, 
this fact may be adduced as sufficient evidence for the necessity of 
standardizing, if only for total alkaloid, the extract of the Pharma- 
copoeia. 

CONIUM. 

It is generally understood that coniine, ethyl piperidinc, methyl 
coniine, conhydrine, and pseudo-conhydrine arc present in conium, 
and that to one or more of these alkaloids tlie drug owes its 
medicinal properties. From the experiments of Findlay we may . 
conclude that the fluid extract of conium and tlie mixed alkaloids 
act in a physiologically analagous manner to pure coniine. The 
same authority found that coniine is but sliglitly more active ; 
than the mixed hemlock alkaloids, whilst conhydiine and 
pseudo-conhydrine are much weaker. Coniine niay, tlierefore, 
be regarded as the active principle of conium, the other alkaloids 
not existing in large enough proportions to greatly modify its 
action. ' 

That conium preparations are subject to variations in strength 
has been shown by several pharmacists, and processes have been 
devised for the estimation of the mixed alkaloids therein. A 
standard for total alkaloids would satisfy all j)ractical purposes, 
and i^iobably further investigations will show that the process 
desciibcd in the " B. P. C. Foinuiiarv," 1901, under " Extiactum 
Conii Liquidum " needs little amendment to make it applicable 
to the official tincture. 

Henbane. 

Henbane leaves contain at least two bases — viz. hyoscyamine 
and hyoscine. Scopola root contains two bases — (a) scopola- 
mine, oj)tically active, which is identical with hyoscine, and {b) 



BRITISH PHARBIACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 3G9 

scopolamine, which is optically inactive and which is identical with 
Hesse's atroscine. 

According to Hesse, hyoscine (optically active scopolamine) 
in alcoholic solution containing a trace of alkali is quickly changed 
into atroscine (optically inactive scopolamine.) In devising a 
process for the estimation of the total basic content as it exists 
in the leaves of henbane it is advisable that regard should be 
had to the comparative ease with which hyoscine undergoes 
isomerisation. Whether a change in the molecular constitution 
of the alkaloid does or does not affect its therapeutic value, it is 
desirable from the cliemist's point of view that any such altera- 
tion should be guarded against and, as far as possible, provision 
made accordingly in any process recommended for the assay of 
the drug or its preparations. 

Jaborandi. 

Having regard to our present state of knowledge of the chemis- 
try and jihysiology of the active constituents of this drug, the 
question arises whether it is sufficient to justify a recommendation 
for the standardizing of its official preparations. From the 
latest investigations we are Avarranted in inferring that true jabo- 
randi {Pilocarpus jaborandi) contains at least two alkaloids — 
l)ilocarpine and isopilocarpine^and probably a third base — 
pilocarpidine. Merck has obtained pilocarpidine from Pilocarpus 
pcnnatifolius, while Jowett lias failed to isolate it from Pilocarpus 
micro pit ijll as. It may be affirmed, therefore, that the cliief 
alkaloidal constituents existing naturally in the jaborandi oi 
commerce are pilocarpine and isopilocarpine, which are isomeric 
bodies.^ Jowett states " that as regaixls the assay of jaborandi 
preparations it is possible to determine the amount of alkaloid 
contained therein with a fair degree of accuracy. The informa- 
tion, however, is of little value, for it gives no indication of the 
amount of pilocarpine contained in the total alkaloid, and it must 
be assumed that on the pilocarpine alone depends the tlierapeutic 
value of the preparation." 

From a summary of the physiological experiments published 
by Professor Marshall it is clear that while pilocarpine and iso- 
pilocarpine produce similar effects on the secretory activity of the 
sweat and salivary glands the former is by far the more powerful. 

1 According to a later research by Jowett, these two alkaloids are pro- 
bably stereoisoraerides. 

B B 



370 BRin-U I'HAUM.VCEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

l..,,,il.. • upiiic a/.t.s like a woak i.ilocaipiue. Pilocarpidiue acts 
like is.i.ilocarpine, but in much weaker. The inference to be 
drawn from Jowett's chemical investigation and Marshalls 
phy.siological experiments is that the preparations of jaborandi 
s!iould b^ assayed for pilocarpine and not for total alkaloid, and, 
further, that inasmuch as pilocarpine possesses acid properties the 
fixed alkalies should not be used in association with " shake-out 
solvents " Jowett has given a metliod by which pilocarpine can 
be separated from a mixture of isopilocarpine, and pilocarpidme, 
but no process known to me has been published which is capable 
of determining within 5 per cent, the amount of pilocarpine 
present in a preparation of jaborandi. 

Stramonium. 

It has been suggested that the tincture of stramonium leaf 
and the extract of stramonium seed should be standardized. 
As the mixed alkaloids in stramonium are understood to be the 
same as those contained in beliadcmna, there seems to be no 
good reason why a process should not be given in the Pharma- 
copccia for the assay of these preparations. In this connexion 
I may be permitted to state tliat in my judgment the time has 
arrived when the mixed alkaloids of stramonium might with 
advantage l)e subjected to a re-examination as complete as has 
taken place in the case of henbane.^ 

Strophanthus. 

That strophanthus is a drug of considerable value in heart 
affections is generally acknowledged, and that tlic tincture, the 
form in which its remedial properties are exhibited shows an 
enormous variation in strength is common knowledge to medi- 
cal men and to pharmacists. If, therefore, a process could 
be devised for assaying the tincture so that it could always 
be depended upon to contain a definite proportion of therapeuti- 
eally active constituent it would prove of inestimable value. 
There can be little doubt that its usefulness as a medicine is due 
to the glucosidal principle first isolated by Fraser from 'Sf^ro- 
yhanthus Kombe, and designated by him strophanthin. Different 

1 I am pleased to observe that Professor Ernst Schmidt of Marbiirg 
is now occupied on this work, and in a preliminary announcement states 
that the only mydriatic alkaloid in Datura stramonium is hyoscyamine.- 
Aroh. der Pharmazie, 1905, 306. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONrERENCE. 371 

species of strophantlius appear to yield similar gluccjsides that 
pass under the name of strophanthin, pseudo-strophanthin, 
and ouabain respectively, and that are reputed to vary in their 
degree of toxicity, chemical constitution, and physical characters. 
To add to the confusion, the seeds that come into the market 
are the product of not a single, but different, species of Stro- 
phanthus, and they resemble each other so closely that when 
mixed they cannot be distinguished macroscopically. What is re- 
quired is unmixed mature seeds from a species which yields uni- 
formly active crystalline strophanthin. That requirement, 
according to Gilg, Thoms, and Shedel, appears to be met by the 
use of the seeds of StropJianthus gralas, which " can be distin- 
guished from all other known African species by the eye alone." 
From this seed Thoms has extracted a crystalline strophanthin 
which, after a searching examination, he has shown to be 
identical with Arnaud's ouabain. 

The Aim of Standardization. 

A few jiointcd observations reflecting my personal opinion on 
certain aspects of the question of standardization may not, I trust, 
be considered inappropriate with which to conclude my address. 
In my estimation the aim should be to jDroduce preparations that 
will represent the sum total of therapeutic activity of the drugs 
operated upon, except in cases where it is desired to obtain the 
medicinal effects of certain definite jirinciples the physiological 
action of which is indisputable. As an illustration a preparation 
of opium may be cited where the presence of narcotine may 
be considered objectionable. Further, in respect of a given 
preparation it must be required of the pharmacist to devise 
suitable processes not only for the estimation of the chief medi- 
cinal constituent, but as far as possible the several medicinal 
constituents and the proportion in which they are present. I 
would go even further, and say that in the near future it may 
be necessary to determine certain principles hitherto disregarded 
which modify the therapeutic activity of the drug. The phar- 
macologist may be depended upon to point the way, and, de- 
spite the heavy tax this call for fuller investigation will put 
upon the resources of the pharmacist, I am encouraged to 
believe he will prove equal to the demand. Without reflect- 
ing on modern methods of standardization, which have un- 
doubtedly met with general acceptance, I cannot suppress the 



372 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

conviction that their tendency is not free from a suspicion <. 
narrowness. The besetting temptation consists in a disposition 
to restrict tlie medicinal properties of a drug to a potent principle, 
the therapeutics of wliich are universally recognized by clini- 
cians and, acting on this assumption, to proceed to produce a 
preparation, and to standardize it on the basis of the particular 
principle, and with little or no regard to other constituents that 
may directlv or indirectly, be of value. For instance, accord- 
inf^"^to present-dav knowledge, the chief active principle of the 
three drugs, belladonna, scopola, and henbane is hyoscyamine. 
If a tincture of each be prepared so as to contain the same 
percentage of alkaloid or alkaloidal content, will it be seriously 
contended that, therapeutically considered the three are inter- 
changeable, and. therefore it is a matter of indifference which of 
thenris selected for use ? If the physician finds it a distinct 
advantage to administer the belladonna tincture in one case 
and the henbane in another, surely it is because he is satisfied 
that the two preparations do not" produce identical results. 
May not this be taken as primd-facie evidence tliat there are in 
tlie tinctures constituents present other than hyoscyamine or 
alkaloidal content that claim to be reckoned with ? 

The statement has been made, and repeated with unimportant 
variations, that if standardized drugs were used for making the 
corresponding preparations there would be no necessity for 
standardizing the final products. 

That opium in coarse powder containing 10 per cent, of mor- 
phine is used for making tlie tincture is evidenced by the fact that 
it is in demand for that purpose. Wiiether it is customary to 
determine the morphine percentage in the finished product, or 
to rely upon its being correct, I am unable to say. In the absence 
of accompanving results, verifying the accuracy of the state- 
ment referred to, I desire to utter a word of caution to tliose who 
may deem it sufiicient to make their galenicals conscientiously 
from standardized drugs without introducing the check, pro- 
vided in eacli case, for determining their strength. 

Experiments made, notably with cinchona bark and opium, 
have convinced me that, except when the same preparation is 
made from the same sample and under precisely the same con- 
ditions, the resultant product falls outside the limit of standard 
strength. :\Ioreover, it is advisable that standardized pre- 
parations when made and passed into stock should be of the 
maximum strength, so as to allow of any reduction by precipi- 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 373 

tation during storage. A series of experiments made with differ- 
ent specimens of the various standardized drugs might sho\A- 
that by following the official jarocess a certain definite propor- 
tion of alkaloid is always extracted, but, luitil this has been 
proved beyond dispute, it is certainly unwise to rely on drugs 
of standard strength for the preparation of galenicals unless 
the final product is assayed. 

While it is an acknowledged fact that definite vegetable 
principles are in growing demand, yet, on the other hancl, there 
is no perceptible decline in the use of preparations of drugs ; 
those that are standardized being the most favoured. My be- 
lief is that the extractive form of galenicals, both solid and liquid, 
will be used increasingly by the medical profession if pharmp.- 
cists take pains to equip themselves for the successful investigation 
of problems connected with the chemistry of drugs. Pharmacy 
will continue to be largely what the pharmacist qualifies himself 
to make it. 

Obituary. 

Of those of our fellow- workers who during the year have 
passed to " where beyond these voices there is i:)eace," it will 
not be considered invidious if two be singled out for a brief 
reference. Dr. Albert B. Prescott was enrolled among us as an 
honorary member. Chief of the offices he filled during a long 
and useful life were those of Dean of the School of Pharmacy 
of the University of Michigan, President of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and President of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. His many years of 
fruitful service on the Committee of Revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, and his numerous and valuable investigations in 
connexion with the production of successive editions of tlso 
volume, would alone establish his claim to front rank among 
the pharmacists of his generation. He will long be remembered 
for his researches on the chemistry of drugs, especially in rela- 
tion to the isolation and purification of vegetable alkaloids. He 
was a high-souled man, an able investigator, a diligent worker, 
a keen observer, and a generous contributor to i^harmaceutical 
and chemical literature. The words of fraternal greeting he 
addressed to us at our annual gathering four years ago still 
linger gratefully in our memory. 

Professor Charles R. C. Tichtorne was a man variously dis- 
tinguished, and possessed of gifts that would have won for him 



374 BKITISH niARAIACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

success in other walks of life equal to that he attained in phar- 
macy. He was a licentiate of tlie Royal College of Surgeons, 
Ireland, a member of the General Medical Council, an Examiner 
to Dublin University, a public analyst, and tlie recipient of many 
honours, home and foreign. Three times he served the Con- 
ference as a Vice-President, and for five years he filled tlie 
higli office of President of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Ireland. For more than forty years lie was director of the 
laboratories of the Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, a sphere that 
provided the opportunity for research, of which he took full 
advantage. His papers read before the Conference, and his 
other scientific contributions, were many and important. He 
was an accompUshed pharmacist, a competent chemist, a 
successful teacher, a capable examiner, a hard worker, and 
through all his work ran the element of thoroughness. 

A study of tlie individual researches of these men has forcibly 
impressed me with the thought that they were distinctly of an 
order that the Conference exists to promote. May we not 
ap])ropiiately remind ourselves that a bare recital of their good 
work does not suffice for the discharge of our obligation to them, 
that a large balance of indebtedness still remains, and that we 
shall most^ acceptably honour their memory by pro.seeuting the 
tasks assigned to us\vith the same earnest purpose, scrupulous 
care, and devotion to duty that characterized them ? 



Dr. John Attfield, as the senior in the past-Presidentship of 
the Conference, moved that a hearty vote of thanks be accorded 
to the President for his extremely valuable and most practical 
address. It would have interested greatly the pharmacists 
and their ladies then present, though it might not lie quite so 
directly interesting to the public. He could support the Presi- 
dent respecting the importance of the subject of his address, 
not only to pharmacists and the medical profession, but to the 
public generally, for that medicines should have a fixity of 
potency so far as human agency could ensure it was a matter of 
life interest to everv member of the public in this country and 
in other countries. ' He had no doubt that when Mr. Naylor's 
address was read by those interested in such matters a very 
large number of his suggestions would be adopted, and his 
criticisms would certainly be taken advantage of in future 
issues of the British Pharmacopoeia, in the preparation of 



BRITISH rHARMACEUTICAL C'0^"rERENOE. 375 

which pharmacists are now more directly represented 
than when he (the speaker) became its Editor. In regard to 
tlie processes aUuded to by the President in the Pharmacopoeia 
as pubhshed seven years ago, lie might say that they were 
mainly the production of the pharmacists of that day ; and from 
what had been said by the President they might be quite sure 
that those working upon the next issue of the British Phainiaco- 
poeia would take advantage of what had been stated. For it 
must be recognized — and the President's address would enable 
it to be more recognized than ever — that whereas authoritative 
works like the pharmacopoeias of Europe and America have 
up till comparatively recent years been content with prescribino- 
genuine raw drugs and preparations of them which were made from 
a definite proportion of those drugs ; that such a condition of 
remedial agents was passing away, had largely passed away, and, 
in future, preparations having definite princij^les and definite 
percentages of those principles would be used instead by medical 
men — there would, inshort, be fixity of strength, or, in other words, 
special standardization. The President had brought some of 
the aspects of the question before the meeting and he had warned 
them that, like successful navigators or moinitaineers or travel- 
lers in unknown regions, not only must the}^ have published guides 
ill producing medicinal substances, but like the persons referred 
to, they must be certain as to where they were at the moment, 
otherwise the jiharmaceutical chai't and comjiass would be 
useless to them. He moved that the thanks of tiie Conference 
be given to the President for his address. 

Mr. S. R. Atkins seconded the motion. He referred to tlie 
meeting at Biighton thirty-three years ago, and said that, on 
looking back to the meeting of 1872, he found that scarcely a man 
who took a prominent part, except his friend. Dr. Attfield, was 
now living. It appealed to him very powerfully when he thought 
of the record of those men of the serious blank which their 
departure had created. He did not wish to mention names — 
that would be invidious, and the list would be a long one — he 
would mention three names,only, Groves, Schacht, and Reynolds, 
which would confirm the truth of his remark. He did not mean 
to infer that the olden times were better than the present — 
there were men on tlie platform and in the body of the hall who 
were quite able and were actually doing the work to-day, as 
efficiently and successfully as the past generation. Still, they 
ought not to forget the men who had honoured pharmacy. Mr. 



^70 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Atkins then referred to the liigli esteem in which lie held Mr. 
Xaylor, and the great services he had rendered to tlie Conference, 
not the least important service licing his latest contiil)ntion to 
pharmaceutical literature. 

Tlie vote of thanks was then ])iii, and caTiicd witli acclama- 
tion. 

Tlie President, in reply, said as one who was not a ])olitician 
(jr an educationist in the ranks of pharmacy, and who had not tlie 
great advantage that most present had of being a retail chemist, 
l)ut one who liad simply spent tlie greater part of his work- 
ing life within tlu^ confines of an analytic-al laboratorj^ and had 
been engaged in the manufacture of galenicals, he had foimd it a 
matter of some difficulty to make a choice of a subject which 
would be sufficiently appropriate to base an address ujion, and 
it was a great relief to him to listen to the kind words wliicli liad 
been spoken by the mover and seconder of the vote of thanks, 
and the response which had been given by those present. He 
could not sit down without saying that it was to him that morn- 
ing a j)eculiar pleasure that the vote of thanks should have been 
presented by Dr. Attfield, for under T)r. Attfield's tuition many 
years ago he received his systematic training in chemistry, and 
he might say that Dr. Attfield had always been to him a 
splendid friend. 

Letters of Apology for Absence. 

Mr. E. Saville Peck, Hon Secretary, said letters and tele- 
grams expressing regret at non-attendance had been received from 
Messrs. Charles Umney, M. Carteighe, N. H. Martin, E. M. Holmes, 
Walter Hills, Thomas Tyrer, Robert Wright, Peter MacEwan, 
J. F. Tocher, George Lunan, W. L. Currie, Fred. Reynolds, 
William' Kirkby and A. R. Fox. Mr. Wardleworth wrote from 
Montreal, and enclosed a photograph of a crystal of glycerin. 
Dr. Donald McAlister, President of the General Medical Council, 
and Chairman of the Pharmacopoeia Committee, wrote express- 
ing regret at inability to be present, but stating that he should 
read the report of the proceedings with great interest. Mr, 
David Hooper, of Calcutta, had also written, sending good 
wishes for a successful meeting. 

The President said he was sure everyone present would regret 
the cause of Mr. Carteighe's absence ; and, with their permission, 
he would like to read his letter, which was as follows : — 



british pharmaceutical conference. 37" 

" My dear Mr. President, — 

" I have this day only, on my return from abroad, received 
your gracious letter of July 13. I beg you to convey my 
warmest thanks to your colleagues for their sympathetic affec- 
tion, and thank you yourself especially for the graceful manner 
in which you have expressed the feelings of the Committee. 
You will not expect to see me at Brighton this week. I should 
have been glad to have been able to tell our Brighton friends 
how keenly and witli what pleasure I recall the good time we 
liad at the last meeting, somewhere about thirty-three years 
ago. Good luck to you all ! I hope your Presidential career 
will increase your well-earned reputation, and that you will be 
well su25ported by tlie leading sjiirits in the world of pltarmacy. 

" Bcheve me, 

" Yours sincerely, 

" M. Carteighe." 

Reception of Delegates. 

Mr. Edmund White, Hon. Secretary, read tlio list of 
delegates as printed lielow : — 

Pharmaceuliad Society of Great Britain. — Mr. R. A. Robinson 
(President), Mr. J. Rymer Young (Vice President), Messrs. 
Atkins, Carteighe, Cooper, Cross, Currie, Gibson, Gifford, Hagon, 
Harrington, Hobbs, Newsliolme, Park, Symes, and Wootton. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain [North British Branch). 
—Mr. D. B. Dott (Chairman). Mr. J. P. Gilmour (Vice-Chair- 
man), Messrs. Cowie, Fisher, Mitchell, and Wilson. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Preland. — Mr. W. F. Wells (Presi- 
dent, Dr. J. A. Walsh (Vice-President), Messrs. Beggs and 
Watson. 

Chemists'' and Druggists'' Society of Ireland. — Mr. W. J. 
Gibson. 

Aberdeen Pharmaceutical Association.— Messr?.. W. Giles, 
Patterson, and Kaye. 

Bradford and District Chemists'' Association. — Mr. Arthur 
Hanson. 

Midland Pharmaceutical Association. — Mr. A. W. Gerraid 
(President), Messrs. Alcock, Poole, Smith, and Tliompson. 

Bath Pharmaceutical Association. — Mr. W. J. Hallett. 

Brighton Association of Pharmacy. — Mr. W. H. Gibson (Presi- 
dent), Messrs, Ashton, Blamey, Cook, Costerton, Cripps, Fiank- 



378 BKTTTSTI PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

liii, J. Padwick, Flowriglit, RobiuHon, W. W. Savage, Yate.s, 
Williamson, J. K. Padwick, and G. B. Savage. 

Bristol and District Pharmaceutical Association. — Mes.sns. J. 
W. White, Kirby, Sleight, and Boorne. 

Bournemouth Pharmarcufical Association. — Messi\s. F. Hose 
and Pars. 

Cambridge Pharmaceutical Association. — Messrs. f'ook and 
Peek. 

Cheltenham and District Chemists' Association. — M(sssrs. W". 
Barron and J. A. Thomas. 

Dover Chemists'' Association. — Mr. R. M. Ewell. 

Exeter Association of Chemists and Druggists. — Messrs. E. F. 
Stone (President), H. Wippell Gadd, Lake, and Vinden. 

Edinburgh Chemists', Assistants', and Apprentices'' Association. 
— Miss CJlass, Messrs. Cowie, Duncan, and Rutherford Hill. 

Forfarshire and District Chemists'' Association.— MenHvu. Ander- 
son, Ford, and Russell. 

Glasgow and West of Scotland Pharmaceutical Association. — 
Messrs. Brodie, Gilmour, and Sutherland. 

Hull Chemists' Association.-— Mr. C. B. Bell. 

North Kent and District Chemists' Association. — Messrs. Gold- 
thorpe (President), Cook, and Feaver Clarke. 

Leeds Chemists' Association. — Messrs. Beacock, Branson, 
Castlerow, Preston, Pilkington, Sargeant, and G. W. Worfolk. 

Liverpool Chemists' Association. — Messrs. Edward Evans, J. 
Herbert Evans, Marsden, Symes, and Wyatt. 

London Chemists' Association. — Messrs. Holding, Idris, Glyn- 
Jones, R. H. Jones, Leo Atkinson, Pentncy, Pickering, Truman. 
and J. C. Umney. 

London Chemists' Assistants' Associaiion. — Messrs. Arro^v- 
smith, Garsed, and Piesant. 

London W estern Chemists' Association. — Mr. F. A. Rogers (Presi- 
dent), Messrs. Bowen, Barrett, T'ofman. A. Cooper, Harrington, 
and Mather. 

Manchester Pharmaceutical Association. — Mr. G. S. Woolley 
(President), Messrs. H. Kemp and Wm. Kirkby (Vice-Presidents), 
and Messrs. Grier, Kidd, Ringer, A. J. Pidd, Wild, and J. R. 
Young. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne and District Chemists' Association. — 
Messrs. Maltby Clague, Foggan, and Gilderdale. 

Nottingham and Notts Pharmaceutical As.<iociation. — Messrs. 
Kbeilin, iMiddleton, and I'aikes, 



BRITISH niARMACEUTICAL ("'O^FERENCE. 379 

Oxford and District Chemists'' Association. — Messrs. Clayton 
and Druce. 

Plymouth, Devonporf, Stonehouse and District Chemists'' As- 
sociation. — Messrs. Barge and Park. 

Sheffield Pharmaceutical and Chemical Society. — Mr. A. R. 
Fox (President), Messrs. Antcliffe, Carr. Dixon, Pater, Jackson, 
Squire, Williams, and Newsholme. 

Report of the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Peck, Hon. Secretary, presented the annual report as 
follows : — 

" Your Committee has pleasure in presenting the forty-second 
annual report of the work of the Conference carried out during 
the past year. 

" Sixty-one new members have l^een elected, whilst thirteen 
have resigned and nineteen have been removed by death. The 
Register now contains the names of 1,038 members, of whom, we 
regret to report that 725 onlyliave remitted their subscriptions 
for the current year. 

" Of those removed by death special mention must be made 
of Professor Prescott, of IMichigan University, Ann Arbor, 
U. S. A., an honorary member of the Conference ; Professor 
Tichborne, of Dublin, a frequent contributor of papers ; Mr. 
J. Lloyd Bullock, one of our oldest members, and Mr. H. Mathews, 
of Oxford, a member of longstanding, and Hon. Local Secretary 
when the Conference met at Oxford. 

" The arrangement with the Pharmaceutical Society for the 
taking over of the work of the Formulary Committee sanctioned 
by the annual general meeting at Shetfield has been completed. 

" During the year, with the view of increasing the member- 
ship of the Conference, efforts have been made to secure 
the appointment of Local Corresponding Secretaries in those 
districts hitherto unrepresented, and we are pleased to state 
that as a result forty-three additional appointments have been 
made, and your Committee have no doubt that the eighty 
Local Corresponding Secretaries now holding office will succeed 
in arousing an increased interest in the proceedings of the 
Conference. 

" The thanks of the Conference are due to these gentlemen 
for the readiness with which they have responded to the claims 
made upon their services, which include ; — 



3S0 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

(a) To bring under tlie notice of pharmacists, principals, 
and their assistants in their districts who are unassociated 
witli the Conference the advantage of membership with it, 
and by personal effort to induce them to join. 

{b) To assist in stimulating researcli by asking pharmacists 

who have tlie time, ability, and disposition to contribute from 

time to time a paper or useful note to the annual meetings. 

(c) To endeavour to induce defaulters to continue their 

membership. 

{(1) To take generally a watchful and sympathetic interest 

in the affairs of the C^onference. 

"At the meeting held on Wednesdaj^ July 12. 1905. your 

Committee appointed a Research Sub-Committ(^e to cany out 

Section II, Article I, of the Constitution. The duties of tlie 

Sub-Committee will be : — 

1. To keep the Research List revised by deciding wliat 
questions require investigation. 

2. To allot problems to individual members to work out. 

3. To advise the Executive in making grants towards 
the expenses of certain pieces of research woik out of the 
funds available for this purpose. 

4. To regulate the supply of papers for the yearly meet ings 
of the Conference. 

" The following members of the Executive have been elected 
CO serve upon this Sub-Committee : — The President (Mr. W. A. 
H. Naylor), Mr. J. C. Umney, Professor Greenish, Mr. E. M. 
Holmes, Mr. F. C. J. Bird, Mr. H. Wippell Gadd, Mr. F. Ransom, 
and Mr. E. S. Peck. 

'' This Sub-Committee will be glad to receive suggestions from 
members upon matters of research. 

" The General Index of the Year-Books of Pharmacy from 
1886 to 1903 inclusive is now completed. It has been compiled 
by the Editor — Mr. J. 0. Braithwaite. with his characteristic 
care and zeal. As announced last year, the price of the book 
has been fixed at 3s. 6d., post free, and for those who desire also 
a copy of the previous Index— 1864 to 1885 — the two volumes 
will be supplied at 5s. 6d. post free, until the stock is exhausted. 

" Your Committee feels sure that the meml)ers of the Con- 
ference will heartily welcome this work, which has been produced 
at considerable labour and expense, and will show their apprecia- 
tion by taking an early opportunity of ac(|uiring copies. 

" In conclusion, your Committee — to quote the words of the 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 381 

Annual Report of 1872 — the occasion of the last visit to Brighton 
— congratulates the Conference on the continued success of the 
annual meetings — a success which they attribute in a large 
measure to the excellent arrangements made b}^ the members of the 
Local Committees entertaining the Conference yesur after year." 



Financial Statement. 

Mr. J. C. Umney, Treasurer, in presenting the financial state- 
ment, said it was more satisfactory than for many years. He 
])ointed out that none of this year's subscriptions were included 
in the statement, as had been done sometimes when subscriptions 
were received before June 30. He regretted that there were 
about 300 subscriptions which had not been paid ; had they 
been paid there would have been a good balance in hand. He 
was sorry that the auditors, Mr. J. W. Bowen and W. Prior 
Robinson, were not present, but the thanks of the Conference were 
due to them, and they were glad that Mr. Bowen, whose health 
had not been satisfactory, was now better. 

Mr. Druce moved that the report of the Executive and the 
financial statement be adopted. He mentioned that it was his 
privilege to join the ranks of tlie British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference thirty-three years ago at the Brighton meeting. He 
remembered that during the discussion on Dr. Attfield's paper. 
Professor Michael Foster entered the Royal Pavilion, and added 
a word or two about " cram." With regard to the rei:)ort and 
financial statement, he would like to suggest that subscriptions, 
say of one or two guineas in advance might be asked for, which 
should cover 3 or 6 j^ears' membership ; it might help to decrease 
the number of members whose subscriptions remain unpaid. 
He was very pleased that the General Index to the Year-Book 
was now complete, and he hoped every member of tlie Conference 
would obtain a copy, which would be extremely useful to them. 

Mr. G. F. Merson seconded the motion, and exj^ressed his 
satisfaction that the General Index AvouJd soon be available. 

Mr. F. H. Lescher, as an old member of the Conference, su])- 
ported the motion, and said how gratified he was to see Mr. 
Naylor in the Presidential chair. 

Mr. H. E. Boorne suggested in regard to unpaid subscriptions 
that a list of subscribers should be supplied to local Corresponding 
Secretaries with the names of those who had not paid indicated. 

Mr. Peck thanked Mr. Boorne for the suggestion, which, how- 



434 15 



382 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED ^ 

JUNE 30, 1905. ; 

Tlu 1 1 oil. Tnaaurer in Account ivilh the Britl'^h Phanmiccutical \ 

Conference. 

l!K)4 Dr. £ s. d. £ s. d. [ 
July 1. To assets forward from last year — 

Casli at Bank L'/i 17 I 

,, in Secretary's hands . . . 10 11 U I 

,, in Hon. Treasurer's hands . . 3 15 ] 

40 3 0* 

li)05. 

July 1. To ]\Ioinh(!rs' Subscriptions . . . 3i)l 5 (1 

,, I'lU'cliaso of Formulary by Pliarm. Society 73 I0 <» 

„ Sales of Year-Book by Publisliers 
„ Siiles of Year-Book by Secretary 

,, Advertisements in Year-Book 

,, Amoiuit received for Index 

,, Sale of Formulary .... 

,, Liabilities on open Accounts — • 

Butler & Tanner .... 
McCorciuodale and Co. 

Due to Assistant Secretary for Salary 

and Rent for One Quarter ending 

June 30 

., Bell and Hills Fund .... 



The Bdl and IlUls Fund. 

1 904. 
Julj' 1. To Balanic from last year 

„ One Year's Di\idend on Consols' . 

Oct. By Kiinpton's Accoiuit for Books 



Assets — 

In Account with British Pharmaceutical 

Conference. 
£300 2.1 per cent. Consolidated Stock. 

Th". British Pharmaceutical Conference Research Fund. 

1904. £ a. d.; 

July 1. To Balance . . . . . . . . 38 o 



10 


13 


4 








1 




















— 


11 


13 


4 


79 


7 











2 


19 











1 


13 


9 








— 




— 


83 


19 


9 


I(i5 


12 


5 








•^ 


15 


(i 








13 


15 

















183 


2 


1 1 








20 


G 


4 






£780 





10 


£ 


■s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d.- 


•27 

8 


S 
11 


1 














— 


35 


19 


I 








9 


12 


i) 








2() 


6 


4 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



383 



l'J04. 
Jk'v I. Cr. 

By Bell and Hills Fmid, last year 

1905. 
By Expenses of Y ear-Book 1904 — 

Printing, Publishing, and Biiuling 

Posting and Distributing . . 

Advertising £1 8,s., Publi^sher's charges, 1.". 

Commission on advertisements . . . . 

„ Editor's Salary ...... 

Publisher's Commission on Sale of Formulary 
„ Sundry Expenses — 

Assistant Secretary — Annual General Meeting . 
Assistant Secretary — Salary for One Year to date 
Rent of Office . 
„• Room at Royal Victoria Hotel, Sheffield .' 
Postages, £12; Editor, 13.S. M. 



Printing and Stationery — 
McCorquodale & Co. 
tiall & Son, Cambridge 
Editor . . . . 

Petty Cash .... 

Foreign Jou.rnals for Editor 
Bank Charges .... 
Liabilities of Last Yciir, since paid- 

ButJer & Tanner 

McCorquodale & Co. 

Assistant Secretary's Salary 

Cash in Secretary's hands 
Balance at Bank 



£ A'. 


(/. 


£ 


A". 


d. 






27 


8 


1 


235 12 


5 








19 15 











1 9 











19 10 


9 











— 


270 


13 


8 






100 















3 


5 


10 











45 











10 











7 


6 








12 13 


8 










— 


78 


1 


2 


4 13 











10 


() 








9 


o 











— 


5 


12 


8 






5 


15 


3 






5 


2 












1 





171 13 


5 








5 13 











13 15 













— 


191 
3 


1 
15 


5 
9 






86 


5 


11 



£780 10 



Examined and found eurrect :— 
J. W. BOWEN ) 
W. P. Robinson J 



Auditors. 



384 KKI riSH I'HAKIMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

I'vcr. Ii;ul hct'ii toivstallod at the last inectiug of the Ext'cutive, 
wlu'ii it was resolved that what he suggested should be done. 

Ml'. Harky Kemp asked if members whose subscriptions were 
unpaid received copies of the Year-Book. 

The President : They only receive the Y car-Book when their 
subscriptions are paid. 

Mr. Alcock suggested that when Local Corresponding Secre- 
taries called upon members for their subscriptions a cojjy of 
the year-^ooA; should be taken round, and he thought that they 
would be satisfied that the book alone was well worth the 
subscription. 

The President said his experience confirmed what had been 
said as to the usefulness of the General Index. The Ycar-Book 
of Pharmacy was becoming increasingly useful to Pharmacists, 
and there was now more practical pharmacy in it than there 
used to be. 

3)r. Attfield suggested that the name of the compiler of the 
General Index, Mr. J. 0. Braitliwaite, be printed on the title- 
page, and that the thanks of the Conference should be given to 
him for his great labour. The compilation of the General Index 
had involved an enormous amount of work, which w^as not 
ade(piately represented by any small fee Mr. Braitliwaite might 
receive from the Conference for the technological and literary 
labour obvious to every one using the book. 

The report and financial statement were adopted, and the 
thanks of the Conference were given to Mr. Braitliwaite for his 
work in connexion with the General Index. 



A Visitor from the Cape. 

The pREsroENT said he saw before him a friend from the Cape 
— Mr. Mager, of Queenstown, South Africa, who was present at 
the meeting of the Conference at Nottingham some years ago. 
He invited Mr. Mager to come upon the platform, and, if he felt 
so disjiosed, to say a few words. 

Mr. Mager said he felt very much complimented on being 
asked to take a seat on the platform beside the President. He 
had been a member of the Conference for a great many years. 
He had always taken the deepest interest in the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference and in the pharmaceutical work done in 
England, and in the colony from which he came. He now^ had 
the honour to belong to the South African Pharmacy Board 



BRITISH PHAEIVL4CEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



385 



wliich was known to a great many jjresent, as a small board 
whose duty it is to control matters of pharmacy in regard to 
government, and as an examining body. He was referring to 
the old Cape Colony and not to the Transvaal or Orange River 
Colony, which had come so much before the public recently. He 
was not speaking that morning as a delegate, but simply in 
response to the honour which had been conferred upon him. 

The reading of papers communicated to the Conference was 
then proceeded with. 



THE COMPOSITION OF DENTIFRICES AS AFFECTED 
BY RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN DENTAL SCIENCE. 

By Stanley Read, l.d.s.e. 

As a foreword I desire to make it plain that I do not pretend 
to any knowledge of drugs, therefore I can only deal with this 
subject in a general way. From the textbooks I have taken 
as examples of tooth powder three j)i'escriptions, (1) an Enghsh, 
(2) an American, and (3) a German one : — 

(1.) K 



(2.) ]Ji 



Saponis hisp ..... 


5"- 


Pulv. iriclis ..... 


5m. 


Ossis sepise ..... 


5"- 


Cretce pra?cip. i 




Mag. carb. pond.-* ' ' ^^ 


5ii- 


01. eucalypti .... 


itiviii. 


Otto rosse ..... 


iTiviii. 


Cretae praeparatse .... 


5iv. 


Pulv. radicis iridis .... 


5iv. 


Pulv. ciimamon. .... 


5iv. 


Sodii carbonatis exsic. 


■^ss. 


Pulv. sacchari albi 


5i. 


Olei limonis ..... 


gtt. XV 


Olei rosse ..... 


gtt. ii. 


Precipitated carbonate of calcium . 


oiiif. 


Cinchona bark .... 


5XV. 


Prepared oyster shell 


5xv. 


Powdered myrrh .... 


5viii. 


Powdered cloves .... 


5iii|- 


Oil of cinnamon .... 


gtt. X. t 



3.) p 



to XV. 

As everyone knows, tooth powders are all somewhat like the 
above. Now, the task I have before me is to show how the 
latest dental knowledge bears on such dentifrices. 

Dr. Miller, of Berlin, undertook a long series of experiments 

CO 



386 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

upon himself and other people to discover the reason why yome 
people are immune to dental caries while others are particularly 
susceptible to it, and he came to the conclusion that there is a 
protective flora of the mouth, as is found in all cavities of the 
human body, which are lined with mucous membrane, and that 
the crux of the question is the survival of the fittest ; if the 
physical condition of the mouth is as it should be, this protective 
flora overcomes the bacterial intruders, but unless the beneficent 
bacteria are in sufficient numbers they succumb to the germs 
that cause decay. This would seem to be the only possible con- 
clusion that one could come to when one thinks of the unclean 
mouths one sees with no decay, or hardly any, and the scrupu- 
lously clean mouths with nearly every tooth decayed. 

Then quite recently it was stated in one of our journals that 
there had been discovered in the saliva a substance belonging to 
the group of enzymes having the power of setting free acids from 
certain compounds, and it is assumed that this new ferment is a 
leading agent in the destruction of the teeth. These two state- 
ments taken in conjunction must have a great effect on the con- 
stitution of a proper dentifrice. First, they render it necessary 
to remove the antiseptic agent from our prescription. This at 
first sight sounds heretical in these days of germicides, but on 
consideration it will be recognized that, as far as we know at 
present, any drug that will destroy the bacteria of decay will also 
destroy those which protect the mouth. Secondly, they reduce all 
dentifrices to the position of alkaline polishing agents. Thirdly, 
they seem to prove that all liquid dentrifices are inefficient, if 
not actually harmful, for they have none of the polishing qualities 
that are absolutely necessary in a dentifrice, and as they all claim 
to be disinfectants, or at least antiseptics, they may do harm. 
So the daily use of an antiseptic mouthwash, unless prescribed for 
a disease of the mucous membrane, would appear to do more 
harm than good ; for the antiseptic effect cannot last more than 
an hour, or at the most until the next meal, and owing to its 
having probably destroyed the flora of the mouth it leaves the 
oral cavity unguarded for the rest of tlie twenty-four hours 
against tlie entry of any bacteria that come along. 

Therefore, there seems to be only one condition of the mouth 
in which a dentifrice may exercise some protective power over the 
teeth : that of acidity. But it is not possible by the use of 
tooth powder even three times a day to keep the mouth entirely 
alkahne or neutral, so that we must end by regarding tooth 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE 3S7 

powders, even the best of them, as agents for removing the stains 

from the teeth merely for aesthetic reasons. 

The last prescription I gave for tooth powder was : — 

^ Sapon hisp. . . 5j- : to break up any greasy matter on the teeth. 
Cretse precip. . gj- = the usual pohshing agent. 

Ossis sepise . . 3j- : hi the case of poor teeth or for a woman 

I should not add this, but this man liad hard 
strong teeth and smoked many cigarettes 
3Iag. carb. pond. 5J. : antacid. 
Otto rosje . . "ij. 



]\Ir. Upsher Smith said that tliere seemed to be much common 
sense in the author's suggestions, and they were likely to be 
largely followed in the future. He wished to suggest that the 
peroxides might be useful as cleansing agents ; in particular 
magnesium peroxide might be used to partly replace the mag- 
nesium carbonate. 

Mr. Stanley Read replied that, as he said in his paper, he had 
no knowledge of drugs, and that he left their choice to those with 
better knowledge of their properties. He did not claim that 
his prescription was the best, but merely gave it as a suggestion of 
the lines to be followed. 



THE BIO-CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF DRUGS. 
By W. E. Dixon, M.D.(Lond.), M.A.(Cantab). 

Until comparatively recent times plants have been employed 
in the prej^aration of medicines without regard to variations in 
their activity. These variations may have little significance, 
in the bitters and group of drugs containing tannins, or it may 
be of the greatest importance, as in aconite and nux vomica. 
The British Pharmacopoeia has directed, therefore, that certain 
vegetable preparations, especially such as contain alkaloids, 
shall be subjected to a chemical assay. There are certain very 
important drugs which at the present time it is impossible to 
assay satisfactorily by any chemical means. Some of these, it 
is true, appear to have a fairly constant action, but others vary 
in activit}^ within the widest limits. It is at least as important 
that these should be properly standardized, as many other drugs 
often of a less poisonous nature which are assayed chemically. 
I therefore suggest that a fixed and definite bio-chemical 
standardization should be adopted for these remedies as far 
as possible. 

The chemist akeady employs animals as a test for certain drugs. 



388 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



For example, tlie Pliainiacopoeia suggests as one of the tests for 
atropine its instillation into the pupil. Or again, one of the most 
sensitive methods for the recognition of small quantities of 
aconitine is to place a little of the solution on the tongue, when 
there is a characteristic tingling followed by numbness. The 
standardization of the various sera is only possible by experi- 
ments on animals. It is first necessary to prepare a standard 
toxin, which is done by injecting guinea-pigs subcutaneously 
with different quantities of the poison and determining the 
minimal lethal dose. This is spoken of as the unit, and with 
this all degrees of toxicity and antitoxicity must be compared. So 
tliat bio-chemical testing is not so unusual as it may appear at first 
sight, and in many cases it gives us a standard for preparations 
which at present it is impossible to assay chemically, and which 
is sufficiently accurate for therapeutic purposes. 

The drugs which especially require standardizing are the 
members of the digitalis series, ergot, and Indian hemp. There 
are many others of less importance, such as filix-mas, which can 
be assayed by this method, and still others, especially those having 
purgative action, in which this method of testing is not suitable. 

The strength of a preparation from a drug cannot be standardized 
upon patients (1) on account of the great difficvilty of recognizing 
small effects, and (2) because it involves manj'' experiments, a great 
loss of time, and, in many cases, is dangerous, so that it is neces- 
sary to apply our tests to lower animals. The principal differ- 
ence in the action of drugs on man and animals occurs in those 
remedies which attack the central nervous system. Of course, 
this is what we should expect from our knowledge of the anatomy 
of the brain. I cannot better make the case clear than by refer- 
ence to the following table, which shows both the degree of 
development of the brain in different animals and the amount 
of cocaine, a drug which directly excites the brain, necessary 
in the case of each animal to produce convulsions : — 



Animal. 


Gm. of Brain 

Per Kilo, of 

Animal. 


Dose of Cocaine Per Kilo. 

of Animal Necessary to 

Produce Convulsions. 


Rabbit 

Guinea-pig 

Pigeon 

Dog 

Ape 


4 
7 
8 
9 
18 


0-18 
0-07 
.006 
0-02 
0-012 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 389 

But on other tissues this difference is not apparent. If a drug 
attacks the heart of a man in a certain way it attacks the heart 
of every mammal in precisely the same way ; or if the attack is 
upon glands the type of action is constant throughout mammalia. 
To take one example of this, secretin is a remedy prepared from 
the duodenum, which increases the flow of pancreatic juice 
as no other drug will, but secretin prepared from man or dog has 
precisely the same effect on every vertebrate pancreas through- 
out the animal kingdom, including that of the frog. The principal 
objection to this type of experiment is that the reagent, that is, 
the animal, is too sensitive, so that changes in the conditions 
under which the experiments are performed may lead to some 
error. However, if due precautions are taken to keep the con- 
ditions of experiment as constant as possible I have found this 
method of standardization wonderfully accurate. 

The drugs which are suitable for standardization by the bio- 
chemical method are digitalis, strophanthus, squill, and other 
drugs belonging to the same group ; ergot, Indian hemp, lobelia, 
grindelia, conium, and some others. 

Method of Standardization. 

The digitalis group can be assayed in the first place upon frogs. 
Frogs vary in their conditions very greatly during the year. 
They are most active and vigorous in the summer, and are least 
vigorous in the spring ; but in spite of these differences their 
sensitiveness to the digitalis poison does not vary very much — 
that is, the animal does not require 50 per cent, more digitalis 
at one time of the year than at anotl\er to kill it ; were such the 
case this method of standardization would be useless. The 
frogs should be males, free from all abnormal conditions and 
about 25 gm. weight. The drug is then standardized by in- 
jection into the dorsal lymph sac ; for this purpose the tinctures 
must be diluted with the same amount of water. Six minims 
of this diluted solution sliould kill the frog by stoppage of the 
heart within an hour. This I propose as a standard unit, 
and all tinctures of digitalis should bear a label stating how 
many minims go to the unit. Supposing it is found that 5 
minims of a diluted tincture is the maximum lethal dose, then 
this tincture can be diluted with water to bring it down to the 
standard. If, however, 8 minims of tincture form the maximum 
lethal dose, then the label should state that the unit corresponds 
to 4 minims instead of 3 minims. This does not necessarily mean 



390 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

that a prescription containing digitalis should differ in any way 
from a present-day prescription, but the quantities prescribed 
by the physician will refer to standardized tincture. If the 
chemist's tincture is not standard strength he can by a simjile 
proportion add the necessary amount of his tincture to correspond 
to that prescribed. 

Tincture of strophanthus is invariably more toxic than that of 
digitalis. In treatises of medicine it is stated that in certain cases 
of cardiac disease where digitalis fails to give relief, strojahanthus 
may succeed. An explanation of this is (1) that strophanthus 
preparations are more powerful than those of digitalis ; and 
(2) they are absorbed more quickly into the system. Still, as 
tincture of strophanthus has the same dosage as that of digitalis, 
obviously it should have an equal toxicity. It may be standardized 
in precisely the same way as the former drug. This will generally 
mean the dilution of the tincture as at present prepared to bring 
it down to the requisite standard. The last member of this 
group, tincture of squill, can be assayed also just like digitalis. 
It is usually a little less toxic than digitalis, but the difference 
between the two tinctures is not very marked. 

This method of assaying can be controlled still more accurately 
upon rabbits, and, indeed, it is generally advisable that such 
controls should be performed, but the details of these experiments 
I defer till later, as well as the standardization of the other 
preparations of this group. 

Ergot is another drug that varies enormously in its activity. 
Recently I obtained six specimens of the liquid extract from six 
different sources ; two of these were moderately active, two had a 
very feeble action, and the remaining two either had no action at 
all, or their effect was so feeble as to be absolutely worthless 
therapeutically. There is, therefore, a greater necessity for the 
standardization of preparations of ei'got than even for the members 
of the digitalis series, which rarely vary more than 100 per cent, 
between the extremes. At the present time the only method of 
standardization that has been adopted is the injection of the drug 
into roosters ; if the dose is sufficiently large they develop 
gangrene on tlie comb and wattles after the necessary interval of 
time. This method is open to several objections ; perhaps 
the most important being tlie great difficulty of determining 
the minimal dose that will produce gangrene. And, further, I 
do not believe that this gangrene production is in any way pro- 
portional to or indicative of the therapeutic action we require 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 391 

when we administer ergot. The gangrene is not due to simple 
constriction of the v^essels, but to a secondary degeneration of 
the vessels, which results in the complete blocking up of the 
smaller arterioles. I have found, however, that rise in blood- 
pressure in mammals is proportional to the effect of ergot upon 
the uterus. Now this rise is due mainly to the constriction of 
the vessels, so that if we can measure the increase of blood-pres- 
sure under fixed conditions we have a method of standardization 
at once quick, reliable, and proportional both to the vaso-con- 
striction and the effect on the uterus, which are the two conditions 
for which the drug is employed in therapeutics. The experi- 
ments should be performed on rabbits, conforming as nearly as 
possible to a standard weight, and anaesthetised with urethane, 
1^ gm. of urethane per kilo, body weight being necessary for 
complete anaesthesia. By this means we avoid all the disturbing 
influences of a volatile anaesthetic. The blood-pressure may be 
taken from the carotid artery, and the drug (liquid extract of 
ergot) injected into the femoral vein. The fluid should be at body 
temperature, and the injection should occupy a definite fixed 
time. Experiments performed in this way I have found to be a 
sure means of determining to a considerable degree of accuracy 
the relative activity of difl^erent specimens of ergot. The exact 
amount of ergot necessary to produce the standard rise in blood- 
pressure I defer to a fuller communication. 

Cannabis indica is another plant wliicli varies very greatly in 
its toxicity. When it is grown in India it develops the power 
of elaborating an oily substance which is utilized in the growth 
of its seeds, and which is toxic. If the plant is grown under 
other climatic conditions a resinous substance is still elaborated 
but it has lost its narcotic properties. It is, therefore, very 
evident that if this drug is to be used at all extensively it should 
be assayed. This cannot be done on animals with the same 
degree of accuracy as the drugs already mentioned, (1) because 
the action is on the central nervous sj^stem, and (2) because the 
degree of action must be gauged by the experimenter and can- 
not be recorded. The tincture should be diluted with an equal 
volume of water and 10 m. injected subcutaneously into a cat 
of about 2 J kilos, weight. In an ordinary active sample these 
animals soon begin to show phj'^sical signs of intoxication. The 
pupils dilate, the reflexes are increased, and the gait becomes 
exceedingly awkward, the animal rolling from side to side and 
showing other signs of incoordination. A tincture of average 



.392 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

strength produces moderate intoxication, but quite a number of 
tinctures on the market, even in four times this dosage, produc(> 
no effect at all, whilst a few others produce a greater degree of 
intoxication. 

Lobelia can be standardized very accurately by its effect upon 
blood-pressure and its subsequent paralytic action on certain nerve 
cells. LobeHne, like many of the so-called " active principles " 
taken from digitalis, I have found often to be quite inactive. 

It may occasionally be necessary to test opium for the presence 
of excessive amounts of alkaloids other than morphine. It is 
well known that certain specimens of opium when given to 
patients produce excitement and increased reflexes. I believe 
that in these cases a large amount of narcotine is present in the 
samples, and this makes it unsuitable for medicinal purposes. 
In such cases the injection of the opium into a frog leads to con- 
vulsions very quickly, and affords a test of the usefulness of the 
specimen. 

In conclusion, it is only necessary to point out that phar- 
macological standardization should only be resorted to when 
chemical methods are inadequate. In the examples I have given 
it is the only method available, and if it is essential to assay the 
various sera it is just as important in ergot, digitalis, and Indian 
hemp. 

The President said tliat all had listened with attention to, 
and could profit by, the address which Dr. Dixon had delivered. 
It was evident that if one had to standardize preparations in this 
way one would have to keep a small menagerie. All must have 
been confronted with the fact that they had not been able 
to deal adequately with the drugs referred to. Whether they 
would be able to apply the bio-chemical method remained to 
be seen, but it was a gain that they should know what the 
medical profession required. 

Mr. Lescher said the reason they welcomed this paper was 
that it brought them nearer to pure drugs, an end to which they 
had all worked. In the United States he had seen, in the works 
of several firms, a menagerie, as the President had said. Whole- 
salers saw the iniportance of these standards, and the methods 
alluded to had much to recommend them. The author had 
spoken against the use of crude drugs, but crude drugs had a 
power and use in medicine which often was not the same as that of 
their active principles. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 393 

Mr. BooRNE said that one remark to which he had taken 
exception was the suggestion that if a medical man ordered 10 
minims of tincture of digitahs and the chemist's tincture was 
not of the standard strength, that lie should use a corresponding 
c[uantity. He thought that all tinctures should be of standard 
strength. 

Dr. Symes said that he had seen at Liverpool experiments 
with suprarenal gland on a cat, and it was very interesting to 
see the rise in blood-pressure, but he wondered whether animals 
were sufficiently constant in their reaction for standardizing 
purposes. They also knew as a fact that, in the preparation of 
sera, the animal became immune to the action, and one could 
not help thinking that a cat might become immune or perhaps 
increasedly sensitive, and therefore, before bio-chemical super- 
sede chemical methods, they must be quite sure that the tests 
themselves " are capable of being standardized." His experience 
was that the medical profession did not sufficiently encourage 
the care taken by pharmacists, and that there was a tendency 
among medical men to repudiate the effects of drugs, and to 
give less attention to them. 

Mr. Maben said it was a matter for congratulation that 
the Conference should have a paper from a man of such 
eminence as Dr. Dixon. With the drugs Dr. Dixon had men- 
tioned — digitahs, strophanthus, and ergot^ — the tests were 
most accurate, animals kept under the same conditions always 
reacting in the same manner. In the testing of serum 
the guinea pigs were never used twice, so that they . could 
not become immune. He did not agree with Dr. Dixon that 
roosters were not good for the testing of ergot ; he under- 
stood that the haemostatic, blood-pressure raising, and uterus- 
contracting effects of ergot were all co-related, and that a 
drug wliich would produce gangrene in the comb of a rooster 
would also contract the uterus. 

Mr. Rutherford Hill said that the suggestion that physio- 
logical standards should be inserted in the Pharmacopoeia 
raised the question of the danger of causing a large amount of need- 
less suffering to animals. There ought to be a national institu- 
tion for standardizing preparations, to which all would have to 
be submitted for a certificate before being recognized as of^phar- 
macopoeial quahty. They would thus eliminate to a "great 
extent the personal equation in applying the tests. 

Mr. William Mair pointed out that the new U.S.P. had 



394 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

expressly avoided all physiological tests, notwithstanding that 
there are not tlie same restrictions upon vivisection as there are 
in this country. 

Mr. H. Finn EMORE asked if Dr. Dixon could say whether com- 
mercial ergotinine citrate was uniform in action. 

Dr. Attfield asked what should be the attitude of phar- 
macists to bio-chemistry. It would be of importance to the 
average pharmacist to learn this from such an authority as Dr. 
m[< Dixon. Was it contemplated that the chemist and druggist 

should become a bio-chemist ? 

Mr. J. C. Umney i^ointed out that there was a large amount 
of popular prejudice against physiological tests. 

Mr. R. A. Cripps asked if Dr. Dixon had any information as to 
the method of preparation of the extracts of ergot he used, as 
these are often made by non-official methods. 

Dr. Dixon, in replying, said he was very pleased at the re- 
ception of his paper. He did not propose that the chemist 
should perform these tests himself, as they must be done bj men 
having special training. It had been said in the discussion that 
he projDOsed to substitute bio-chemical for chemical methods, 
but that was not so ; he had only proposed to use bio-chemical 
methods where there were no good chemical methods. Dr. 
Symes was under a misunderstanding ; the action of adrenalin 
was the same on men and animals. The gangrene produced in 
the combs of roosters was not proportional to the action on the 
uterus or to its power of constricting the blood-vessels, and the 
measiwement of rise of blood-pressure was the best test. As 
for the attitude of the pharmacist, it should always be in favour 
of progression. If the compilers of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia did not include the best tests at present available, 
that was no good precedent for the compilers of the 
British Pharmacopoeia. The best physiologists in America 
have pressed the great advantage of this method on the com- 
pilers of the Pharmacopoeia. He hoped he would be able to 
give a further paper on this subject in another year. 



STANDARDIZATION IN THE NEW U.S.P. 

By Thomas Maben, F.CS. 

The eighth decennial revision of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia has just been issued and the members of the British 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 395 

Pharmaceutical Conference will no doubt be interested in the 
changes that have been made in official American pharmacy. 
These changes are both numerous and important. It is not my 
intention to go into a detailed consideration of the various 
alterations, but simply to confine myself to some account of the 
fairly extensive appHcation of the principle of standardization, 
as illustrated in the series of standards adopted for alkaloidal 
drugs and for the chief galenicals made from them. I do not 
propose to deal with the various processes for the estimation of 
alkaloids, leaving these to experts in that branch of pharmacy, 
nor to the essential oils, which are to be discussed by well-known 
authorities. 

The question of standardization has been often before the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference. We might, indeed, say 
it has reached its majority, for it is exactly twenty-one years 
since, at Hastings, in 1884, the first full-dress debate took place 
on the subject. In that debate many honoured men took part, 
some of whom, alas ! are no longer with us, amongst them being 
the President (Mr. Williams), Professor Redwood, Mr. Schacht, 
and Mr. Martindale. If we except opium, there was in those 
days very little official standardization either in this country 
or America, the only other approach to the principle being the 
requirement in the 1880 U.S. P. that tinctures of ignatia and 
nux vomica should contain extractive matter to the extent of 

1 per cent, and 2 per cent, respectively. The introduction, 
shortly thereafter, of an unofficial alkaloidal standard for 
tincture of nux vomica — namely, 0"3 per cent of total alkaloids, 
without reference to the extractive matter, led to a case being 
brought before the Courts, and so recently as 1891 it was decided 
by a legal judgment that tincture of nux vomica must contain 

2 per cent, of extractive matter whether it contained any alkaloid 
or not. Three years later, when the 1890 U.S. P. was published, 
this very figure of O'S per cent, total alkaloids was adopted 
as the standard. 

Other ten years have passed, and now, after nearly twenty- 
five years or thereby of unofficial standardization, the official 
mind has at last recognized the value of the principle, and 
upwards of fifty drugs and preparations are subjected to processes 
of standardization. This is surely a triumph for those phar- 
macists who have, in face of strenuous opposition and criticism, 
maintained that standardization was the only scientific basis 
in the preparation of galenicals. As it isquite likely tliat the next 



396 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



edition of tlie British Pharmacopoeia will follow the lead tliat 
the U.S. P. has given, a statement of the new standards should 
prove of more than passing interest. 

With regard to the drug strength of tinctures, the editors 
have made an attempt at uniformity, all tlie more potent tinctures 
being now made 1 in 10, these including aconite, belladonna, 
cannabis, cantharides, digitalis, hyoscyamus, strophanthus, 
etc., while the strength of the tinctures of the less 
potent drugs has been made 1 in 5. Generally speaking, the 
alkaloidal tinctures are 1 in 10, and the standard of alkaloid in 
the tincture is, in most cases, placed at a shade less than one- 
tenth, or one-fifth, as the case may be, that of the alkaloid in 
tlie drug. This uniformity in drug strength naturally involves 
a want of uniformity in dosage. 

It will be convenient to place in tabular form all the standar- 
dized drugs and the preparations made therefrom that are 
standardized. 



Standards of Drugs and Galenicals Adopted in the New 

U.S.P. 

(Weight percentage in drugs and soHd extracts : w/v per- 
centage in Fluid Extracts and Tinctures.) 







Minimum 


standard 


Standard 


standard 


Drugs. 


Chief Constituent. 


PrcntageJ 


in Solid 


in Fluid 


in 






in Drugs. 


Extract. 


Extract. 


Tincture. 


Aconite root 


Aconitine . 


0-6 




0.4 


0045 


Belladonna leaves , 


Mydriatic alkaloids 


0-35 


1-4 


— 


0035 


Belladonna root 


Mydriatic alkaloids 


0-5 




0-5 


— 


Cinchona . 


Ether-soluble alka- 
loids 


40 




40 


0-75 


Coca .... 


Ether-soluble alka- 
loids 


0-5 


— 


0-5 


— 


ColcMum corm 


Colchicine . 


0-35 


1-4 


— 


— 


Colchicuin seed 


Colchicine . 


0-55 


— 


0-5 


005 


Conium 


Coniine .... 


0-5 


— 


0-45 


— 


Guarana 


Alkaloids . 


3-5 


— 


3-5 


— 


Hydrastis . 


Hydrastine 


2-5 


— 


20 


0-4 


Hyoscyamus . 


Mydriatic alkaloids 


008 


0-3 


0075 


0007 


Ipecacuanha . 


Alkaloids . 


20 


— 


1-75 


— 


Jalap . . . . ( 


Total re^in . 


80 


— 


— 


— 


Nux vomica 


Strychnin? . 


1-25 


50 


10 


01 


Opium .... 


Morphine . 


12-12-5 


200 


— 


1-2-1-25 


Physostigma . 


Ether-soluble alka- 
loids 


016 


20 


— 


0014 


Pilocarpus ... 


Alkaloids 


0-6 


— 


0-4 


— 


Scopola ... 


Mydraitic alkaloids 


0-5 


20 


0-5 


— 


Stramonium . . | 


Mydriatic alkaloids 


0-35 


1-4 


0-35 


03, 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 397 

Before proceeding to criticize the new standards, we may re- 
fer to the few drugs that were standardized in the previous Phar- 
macopoeia. These consisted of cinchona, the standards of which 
were, for the bark and fluid extract 5 per cent, of total alkaloids, 
of which at last half should be quinine, the tincture not being 
standardized ; opium, 13 to 15 per cent. ; extract of opium, 
18 per cent, and tincture 1*3 to TS per cent, of morphine ; 
mix vomica extract, 15 per cent. ; fluid extract, 1*5 per cent., 
and tmcture 0"3 per cent, total alkaloids ; jalap, of which the 
standard was 12 per cent, alcohol-soluble resin, and not more 
than 12 per cent, soluble in ether, whereas the new standard 
is 8 per cent, total resin, and not more than 1*5 per cent, 
soluble in ether. 

The first feature that strikes one on looking over this table is 
the very apparent fact that the standards are what we may call 
natural rather than artificial, standards. Previous to the publi- 
cation of the present B.P. we used to look upon a licjuid extract 
as being a preparation of which one fluid ounce represented an 
ounce of the drug, and a solid extract as being approximately 
four or five times stronger than the drug from which it was 
made. But the 1898 B.P. upset these ideas to a considerable ex- 
tent, some very important preparations being made stronger, and 
others weaker, than what we have called the natural standard. 
The object of this is intelligible enough, namely to harmonize the 
dosage of potent j) reparations, but it docs not follow that it was 
the wisest thing to do. Obviously it will always be a difficult 
matter to carry out artifical rules of this kind to a logical con- 
clusion, and hence it is a debatable point whether it would not 
have been better for the question of dosage to adjust itself 
without introducing arbitraiy standards such as I refer to. 

A few notes on the more imj)ortant drugs and the standards 
adopted \\dll illustrate my remarks. 

Aconite Boot. — The standard adopted appears surprisingly high, 
and when the dose of aconitine and the dose of fluid extract of 
aconite are compared, the surprise is not lessened. The "average 
dose " of the alkaloid is -^-^ grain, and that of the fluid extract is 
1 minim, equal to -^r~ grain, which apparently is too high, in 
fact, according to notions of dosage in this country for aconite, 
it is excessive. The tincture is still farther out, the " average 
dose," 10 minims, being equal to -^j^-^ grain aconitine. If any 
departure from the natural standard should ever be legitimate, 
I think aconite would have' been a suitable case. 



308 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Belladonna Leaves aiid Root. — So much has been written on 
belladonna that it seems supererogatory to write more. The 
standard for belladonna leaves, namely 035 per cent., is in 
accordance with what has long been recognized by good authori- 
ties as a fair average ; and while the percentage of alkaloid was 
found in one sample to be as high as 1-32 per cent, bj^ Messrs. 
Farr and Wright, they also found it as low as 0-14 per cent., 
their average being 0-54 per cent. It has to be noted, however, 
that the term " dried " is not a constant one, and a good deal 
may depend on whether the drug is dried in warm air or is sim- 
ply air dried. It will be observed that there is only one extract, 
and it is an alcoholic extract made from the leaves. This is 
assayed to be exactly four times the strength of the leaves, that 
is 1-4 per cent, of alkaloid, sugar of milk being used if necessary 
as a diluent. The tincture is assayed to one-tenth the alkaioidal 
strength of the leaves. The standard for belladonna root is fixed 
at a minimum of 0-5 per cent., and the fluid extract must also 
contain a similar percentage. This strength compares favour- 
ably vnth that of the British Pharmacopoeia. The root assays 
from 0-14 to 0-8 per cent, of alkaloid, but very rarely is it found 
of the higher strength, or even of 0-75. White recommends 
the use of a root with a minimum of 0*4 per cent, of alkaloid for 
producing the B.P. preparations, but so long as the official re- 
quirement for the liquid extract is as high as it is, it Mill not be 
jiossible to get uniformly satisfactory results. 

Coca. — The standard adopted for coca has been long used 
unofficially, and it is also recommended hj sucli authorities as 
Mr. J. C. Umney, namely 0*5 per cent, of ether-soluble alkaloid. 

Colchicum Corm is used in the preparation of the extract, and 
the standards are respectively 0-35 and 1-4 per cent, of col- 
chicine. There are comparatively few published records of the 
alkaioidal strength of colchicum corm, but Schultze is reported 
as having found 0*6 per cent, of colchicine, and Parke, Davis, 
& Co.'s laboratory records show a variation of from 0-3 to 0-75. 
Colchicum Seeds, which are used for the tincture, must have a 
minimum of 0-55 per cent., and the fluid extract 0-5 per cent., 
the latter figure having been in constant unofficial use for 
many years. 

Conium Fruit must show, at least, 0-5 per cent, of coniine, and 
the fluid extract 0-45 per cent. Farr and Wright have found 
a mucli higher average than this in specially collected fruits, and 
apparently also in commercial samples. With reference to their 



feBITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 399 

figures we fear they must be ruled out as impracticable, for the 
reason that they were dealing with thoroughly dried material. 
It is evident that in using fruit dried in warm air they obtain a 
result relatively higher in alkaloid by just the proportion of water 
removed over and above that ordinarily present in the com- 
mercial drug. It is evident that standards should be based 
upon commercial drug of fair quality, such as is ordinarily 
obtainable on the market, and not on drug that has been sub- 
jected to special preparation, unless, of course, it be conceded 
that drug commercially obtainable is so deficient in activity as 
to demand a special concentration. Whether this is, or is not 
the case with conium may be arguable. The U.S. P., in common 
with the B.P., requires " full-grown but unripe fruit," and 
since it may be easier to harvest the ripe than the unripe fruit, 
the latter of which, Farr and Wright have shown, contains the 
greater proportion of alkaloid, it is perfectly possible that the 
commercial samples are inferior on that account. It may also 
be noted that Farr and Wright state their figures as percentages 
of coniine hydrochloride. The U.S. P. estimates the alkaloid as 
hydrochloride but reduces it by multiplying by the factor 0'777. 
Applying the same method to Farr and Wright's figures, their 
average for commercial conium works out at 0*52 per cent., and 
for hand-picked fruit at 1-65 per cent, while the difi^erence in 
diyness will still further reduce their percentage. 

Hydrastis has long been unofficially standardized on the basis 
of 2-5 per cent, of the white alkaloid, hydrastine ; but while the 
U.S. P. requires the drug to contain a minimum of 2-5 per cent., 
it specifies only 2 per cent, for the fluid extract, allowing for a 
loss of 20 per cent, of the alkaloid in manufacturing, which 
appears to be excessive. 

Hyoscyamus. — The consensus of opinion in this country is in 
favour of a standard for hyoscyamus approximating 0*08 per 
cent, of alkaloids, and it is quite satisfactory to find that this 
figure is also recognized in the United States as being a fair 
minimum, though one firm of manufacturers has always placed 
the standard at 0-1. For the solid extract the U.S. P. requires 
0-3, practically four times higher than the drug. It will be re- 
called that at the last Conference, Farr and Wright advocated 
0-2 per cent, of alkaloid and the present writer suggested 0-4 ; 
the U.S. P. has thus " split the difference " and made it 0-3. 

Ipecacuanha. — The reduction of the standard to 1-75 per cent, 
of alkaloid, as compared with 2 per cent, for the drug, appears. 



400 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

to be a mistake. The alkaloidal content of Rio ipecac, accord- 
ing to Parke, Davis & Co.'s records, varies from 1*7 to 2-7, 
and of Carthagena root from 1-8 to 3 per cent., so that it seems 
unwise to reduce the standard for tlie fluid extract to what is 
practically the lowest strength found in commerce. 

Jalap. — The curious fall in the resin-content of jalap has been 
experienced in the U.S. as well as in this country, and the 
U.S. P. committee have had to modify their standard accord- 
ingly. Various standards have been in use in different phar- 
macopoeias, as Mr. Umney has pomted out, 18 per cent., 16 per 
cent., 12 per cent., 9-11 per cent., 10 per cent., 9 per cent., 7 
per cent., and now the U.S. P. places the figure at 8 per cent., 
which has been unofficially used in America for some years. 

Physostigma. — The standard adopted, 0-15 per cent, of alkaloid 
comes between the figure recommended by Umney, 0-125, and 
that for many years adopted by Parke, Davis & Co., 0-2. The 
standard for the sohd extract, 2 per cent., indicates that the 
extract is tliirteen times stronger than the bean, but even so it 
is still much below the figure usually found in the extract as 
prepared, and recourse is had to the use of powdered liquorice 
to dilute it to the proper strength. The new U.S.P. extract 
is probably considerably stronger than the extract of the B.P. 

Pilocarpus {Jaborandi). — The U.S.P. recognizes both the 
nitrate and the hydrochloride of pilocarpine, and it seems a 
pity that this alkaloid should not also have been made the basis 
of the standard, in place of the " alkaloids (mainly pilocarpine)," 
the actual composition of which may vary to a greater or less 
degree. 

Scopola. — The only new alkaloidal drug introduced is scopola, 
the standard for wMch is said to be 0-5 per cent. " of its alka- 
loids," wliicli are spoken of in the description of the extract and 
fluid extract as " mydriatic alkaloids." No doubt the varia- 
tion is unintentional. Scopolamine hydrobromide is the alka- 
lodial salt that has been made official, and in view of the im- 
portance now attached to the drug, both on account of its use 
as a source of alkaloid and of the peculiar value of that alkaloid 
in medicine, there can be no doubt that its inclusion is amply 
justified. 

These notes are by no means intended to be exhaustive, but 
simply to draw attention to the extremely important steps now 
officially taken in the direction of standardization. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 401 

Mr. Bird asked, in regard to ipecacuanha, by what process 
the alkaloid was determined — whether by titration or not. In 
his experience the percentage varied from 1-2 to 2-3, which was 
considerably lower than the figures mentioned by Mr. Maben. 

Mr. H. WiPPELL Gadd said he had noticed that some of the 
standards were rather high. For instance, the strychnine in 
nux vomica was given as 125. One did sometimes get that 
strength, but not on the average. With regard to belladonna 
root, of ten samples examined by him the average was 0-32, with a 
maximum of 0"49. He hoped the British Pharmacopoeia authori- 
ties would not follow the United States Pharmacopoeia in 
those particulars. He was disappointed to find that the use of 
Carthagena ipecacuanha was now sanctioned in the U.S. P. 
With the exception of these minor criticisms he thought the 
new volume was a very great advance on former ones. 

Mr. J. C. Umney said it was interesting to those who had 
worked on the standardization of galenicals and alkaloidal stan- 
dards to note that the results of the workers in the United States 
closely agreed with theirs. Mr. Gadd had referred to the low- 
percentage of alkaloid in belladonna root. His observation 
was that the lower alkaloidal value had been only this last two 
years, and that was the reason why the 0-5 might be considered 
a little high — 0-45 would not be out of order. The reason the 
strength of jalap has been reduced was, he thought, due to the 
low figures obtained mth* the rejections of the United States 
markets sent here — that was the reason why a great deal had 
])een written about the standard of jalap. He did not think 
there was any real necessity for the reduction of the standard. 
With regard to j)reparations of pilocarpus, he had given a good 
deal of attention to jaborandi, and he must confess he hoped in 
the British Pharmacopoeia they would get away from the galenical 
preparations altogether, and that the alkaloid pilocarpine would 
be recognized. There were two varieties of pilocarpus which 
yielded pilocarpine, so that there would be no difficult}^ in getting 
the leaves ; while there was a difficulty in obtainiAg the official 
leaves. He was sorry Mr. E. M. Holmes was not present to tell 
them more about that point. The new U.S. P. would well 
repay careful study. 

Mr. F. H. Alcock rather regretted that Mr. Maben had con- 
fined his remarks to the standards of the U.S. P. He would like 
to emphasize what Mr. Umney said in regard to jalap. Some 
weeks ago he examined a very old sample of jalaj), and found 18 

DD 



402 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

per cent, of resin, but on examining present-day samples lie 
found they did not come up to the B.P. standard. Jalap wa.s 
very much like opium and cochineal — it was made to order 
according to the price paid. With regard to the general features 
of the U.S. P., he was very sorry, as a teacher of pharmacy, that 
the authorities had not decided as to which is better — to weigh 
or to measure. He thought wholesalers would agree that to 
weigh in making preparations was more likely to be accurate than 
to measure. In measuring so much depended upon temperature 
that he thought it would be better if the B.P. authorities would 
take the bull by the horns and insist that in making the prepara- 
tions they should be by weight. He was basing his criticism 
on the new U.S. P., and he noticed that with regard to prepara- 
tions containing turpentine, water, and glycerin the procedure 
was as varied as it was possible to be. In some cases the liquid 
was weighed, and in other cases measured. There seemed to 
be no definiteness. Take, for instance, " glycerin and water 
equal parts." Now, what was meant by " parts " ? That was 
always cropping up. Dr. Jolm Attfield found it to be a lot of 
trouble, and Mr. Bird would say he could not answer the question 
even in connexion mth his own formula for the official preparation 
of concentrated infusion of senega. Mr. Bird could only say it was 
an interesting question. He hoped in future the authorities 
would decide upon everything being by weight. Whether it 
would affect the dosage he did not know. He noticed the doses 
in the U.S. P. were in weight and also in measure, so that the 
question of weight or measure had nothing to do with dosage. 
Perhaps they would be told it would lead to the continental 
method of weighing medicines, but he did not think that neces- 
sarily followed, though in manufacturing he thought it ought to 
be by weight. 

Mr. R. A. Cripps agreed with ]Mr. Umney that it was only 
within the last two years that there had been any difficulty in ob- 
taining belladonna root assaying 0-5 per cent. He remembered as- 
saying a number of typical samples which yielded a good deal 
more total alkaloids. It rather showed that the old sources of 
belladonna root were becoming exhausted, and collectors had 
been going farther afield. With regard to ipecacuanha. Mr. 
Bird mentioned 2-3 per cent, of alkaloid. He had found in Rio 
ipecacuanha up to 3*0, but that was exceptional. He had found 
it varied between 20 and 2-6. He had never met \^ath a sample 
of Carthagena which j'ielded anything near 3-0 per cent. In 



British pharmaceutical conference. 403 

regard to jalap, years ago there were large quantities of jalap 
assaying something like from 5 per cent, up to 9 per cent., and he 
had had samples j'ielding from 15 to 17 per cent, of resin. 

Mr. E. F. Harrison asked if, in assaying aconite root, any effort 
was made to get the pure aconitine, as he knew of no satisfactory 
method of separating it quantitatively from the other alkaloids 
present. If it was the total alkaloid, ^4-^ of a grain might be very 
insignificant, but if it was pure aconitine it would be dangerous. 
With regard to assaying jalap, some years ago he got samples 
from various wholesalers, and he did not think one came within 
the B.P. limits of 9 to 11 per cent, of resin ; some gave as low 
as 6 per cent, and others as high as 18 per cent. There was one 
point about jalap he would hke to mention, and that was that 
in a given batch the percentage of resin appears to be governed 
by size of the tubers. A small tuber might yield 6 per cent, and 
the larger tubers of the same batch 14 or 15 per cent, of resin, 
and he thought that fact might account for the discrepancy in 
the results obtained in assaying jalap. 

Dr. Symes supported Mr. Umney's statement as to the ad- 
vantage of excluding galenical preparations of pilocarpus and 
making pilocarpine the standard, because of the difficulty of 
finding jaborandi which conformed with the B.P., while there 
was plenty available for pilocarpine, which seemed to reioresent 
the active principle of jaborandi. 

Dr. Attfield said that at page 29 of the new U.S. P. the 
strength of aconite was given in terms of " aconitine " and not 
in " total alkaloids." He recommended a careful study of the 
preface of the work before launching into criticism of the new 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Mr. Harrison said, in reply, that he saw by a copy of the U.S. P. 
just handed to him that the authorities considered the ether- 
soluble alkaloid as aconitine. 

Mr. Maben, in reply, said that the alkaloid in Rio ipecacuanha 
was estimated by titration, but he was not in a position to give 
the details of the process. As to the percentage of strj-chnine 
in nux vomica, it would be observed that the fluid extract only 
required 1 per cent, of strychnine. It was rather curious, perhaps 
anomalous, that with a considerable number of the galenical 
preparations the}^ allowed a certain amount of loss in manu- 
facture, while with others there was no loss allowed for, the 
amount in the fluid extract being the same as the standard for 
the drug. He agreed with Mr. Umney as to the extreme close- 



404 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

ness with which worker.-; in the United States agreed with the 
work done on this side. As to the remark about aconitine, the 
U.S. Pharmacopoeia gave an average dose of ^^^, of a grain, 
which was regarded as an average dose of pure crvstaUine aconi- 
tine, and he assumed it was pure aconitine ; but he quite accepted 
Mr. Harrison's remark tliat it might not be the case. He might 
say that he had intended to give a more general paper, but found 
it woukl be too extensive to deal with on this occasion. 



THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF THE UNITED STATES 
PHARMACOPCEIA. 

By John- C. Umney, F.C.S., and C. T. Bennett, F.C.S. 

New editions of pharmacopceias are invariably of interest to 
British pharmacists, and when the time comes round for the 
decennial revision and publication of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia we look forward with eager expectation to an up-to-date 
book in our own language. The last edition of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, although dated 1890, was not actually published 
until 1894, and in the interval, of course, there has been a new 
British Pharmacopoeia in 1898, and subsequently a revised 
German Pharmacopoeia (1900). During this interval in no 
department of research have greater strides been made than in 
the systematic study of essential oils, and the most modern 
research on the subject is reflected in the pages of the new L^nited 
States Pharmacopoeia. 

Specific Gravity. 

It should be noted first of all that a new temperature has been 
utilized as a standard for the taking of specific gravities. These 
are now taken at 25° C. (as compared with distilled water at the 
same tempei*ature) — no doubt a convenient temperature in parts 
of the L^nited States of America ; and althougli such a tempera- 
ture would i)erhaiis be very little more convenient to us in this 
country than the 15° C. at which we record our results, yet it 
would certainly possess some advantage in summer. Of course 
this makes a slight difference when compared with specific gravi- 
ties recorded at 15° C, in the majority of cases the difference being 
from four to six units in tlic third place of decimals, according 
to variation of the cubical co-efficient of expansion. 



british pharmaceutical conference. 405 

Optical Rotation. 

It will be noticed that in almost all the monographs limits of 
optical rotation are recorded, whereas in the previous United 
States Pharmacopceia these were included in only a very few 
instances. There is very little difference between the limits 
given for a temperature of 25° and those recorded at 15° or 20°, 
the variation being almost negligible for all practical purposes. 
There can be no c{uestion that, in the absence of actual quanti- 
tative methods for the determination of the important con- 
stituents of an oil, limits of optical rotation with other physical 
constants form an excellent criterion of purity. 

Solubility Tests. 

It will be noticed that there is almost complete abandonment 
of the solubility tests in such liquids as glacial acetic acid and 
bisulphide of carbon. In fact, we notice in going through the 
various monographs in the last United States Pharmacopoeia 
the solubilities in glacial acetic acid described under the following 
oils — orange, clove, cinnamon, coriander, erigeron, eucalyptus, 
fennel, pennyroyal, lavender, lemon, peppermint, spearmint, nut- 
meg, pimento, rosemary, savin, sassafras, turpentine, and thyme 
— and in bisulphide of carbon imder tlie following — eucalyptus, 
pennyroyal, juniper, lemon, peppermint, spearmint, nutmeg, 
pimento, sassafras, mustard, and thyme — are now omitted. 

Valuation of Important Constituents. 
The most imporlant feature is the extensive introduction of 
the valuation of essential oils by their important constituents, and 
processes are now included for the valuation of most oils where 
the medicinal or odour value depends on a single body. In 
criticizing the individual monographs we shall refer to the suit- 
ability or otherwise of the particular standards fixed. Suffice 
it to say, however, that the processes appear, on the whole, to 
be well selected, and doubtless the work will have a wider 
acceptance, perhaps, than the particular purpose for which, 
according to the preface, it is designed, namely : " The stan- 
dards of purity and strength prescribed in the text of this Pharma- 
copoeia are intended to apply to substances which are used 
solely for medicinal purposes, and when professedly bought, sold, 
or dispensed as such." 



40g british pharmaceutical conference. 

Omissions and Retentions. 
It will be noticed that in the new work tliree volatile oils are 
omitted — viz., bergamot, orange flower, and bay oils. The 
omission of these oils appears rather to be by definite purpose 
with a view to supporting the preceding statement. Although 
bergamot, orange flower, and bay oils are substances of large 
sale, extensively used for toilet preparations, yet in no instance 
are they of distinct medicinal value. It strikes us as curious that 
two oils practically unknown in Britisli pharmacy are still re- 
tained — the oils of chenopodium and erigeron. We are informed 
the latter is used to some extent in veterinary practice, and is 
distilled mostly by the leading peppermint growers, but the trade 
is, of course, a very unimportant one compared with that of 
other staple products. 

Additions. 
The new United States Pharmacopoeia includes monographs 
for certain products which have already become estabhshed as 
of considerable importance in medicine and perfumery. There 
can be no question that vanillin is a substance of the greatest 
importance, and we might almost go so far as to say that the 
low market prices of vanillas are, to some extent, due to their 
rej)lacement, especially for perfumery purposes, by sjmthetic 
vanillin. Benzoic aldehyde, now introduced, will be of value 
in replacing almond oil, now that it can be commercially obtained 
practically free from chlorine products. Safrol is of undoubted 
medicinal value, and, as it can be produced more cheaply from 
other oils than sassafras, we certainly favour its inclusion. The 
United States Pharmacopoeia does not follow the lead of the 
German Pharmacopoeia in the introduction of chemical consti- 
tuents from volatile oils under the name of tlie oils themselves. 
The last German Pharmacopoeia includes j^ure carvone as 01. 
Carvi, anethol as anise oil, and pure eugenol as oil of cloves. 

Materials for Distillation. 

It will be noticed that most precise instructions are given as 
to the material for distillation, etc. For example, oil of pepper- 
mint is required to be distilled from the fresh or partly dried 
leaves and flowering tops. 

Rectification of Oils. 
It is noticeable that in several instances the United States 
Pharmacopoeia for the first time recognizes the rectification of 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 407 

essential oils, and reference to the monographs of the oils of cara- 
way, eucalyptus, peppermint, spearmint, and others will show 
that in each instance the oils intended to be official are not the 
simple primary distillates, but oils rectified by steam distillation, 
and thus, to some extent, fractionated. 

Storage of Essential Oils. 

One of the features of the United States Pharmacopoeia has 
always been instructions as to storage, but these instructions in 
the present edition have been elaborated, and we think we can- 
not do better than quote those given for the storage and handling 
of anise oil and bitter orange oil to show how minute tliey are. 
Anise oil, it says, " sliould be kept in well-stoppered, amber- 
coloured bottles, protected from light, and, if it lias separated into 
a liquid and a solid portion, it should be completely liquefied 
by warming and then well shaken before being dispensed " ; 
while orange oil " should be kept in small, well-stoppered amber- 
coloured bottles, in a cool place, so as to avoid as far as possible 
the development of a terebinthinate odour. Oils that have 
developed such an odour should not be dispensed." Viewed all 
found, there can be no question that the monographs are in 
themselves models of what such monographs intended for 
guidance in medicine should be, and in our opinion they go very 
decidedly farther, fCnd are likely to be of great value to all manu- 
facturing pharmacists, and also to those who may handle essential 
oils, and record the principal features in a concise form for 
judging purity and value. 

Oleum Anisi. 

The new United States Pharmacopoeia includes as a source of 
this oil for the first time star anise as well as Pimpinella anise, 
both of which varieties have been official in the British Pharma- 
copoeia of 1898 and 1885. The oil of anise fruit alone is official in 
the last published German Pharmacopoeia, but that is a fraction- 
ated oil consisting almost entirely of anethol, with a melting point 
of 20° to 21° C, and a higher specific gravity than the normal 
oil now made official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. The 
range of specific gravity of the oil is certainly an excellent one, 
but the optical rotation should read leevo-gyrate up to— 2°, 
which is in accordance with our observations, based upon the 
examination of a very large number of samples. 

The observations of one of us (John C. Umney, Y.-B.P. 1889, 



408 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

p. 183) on the congealing point of oil of anise have been noted, 
and the monograph recognizes how anise oil may, if left undis- 
turbed, be cooled to a temperature of 6" ('. without soHdification, 
notwithstanding that the true congeahng point is about 15^ C. 
This monograpli is an excellent one, and contains all the neces- 
sary details. 

Oleum Amygdala Amar^. 

It will lie noted that volatile oil of bitter almonds may now be 
obtained from the bitter almond and other seeds containing 
amygdalin — that is to say, the volatile oil of apricot and peach 
kernels is also admissible. It is, however, required that the oil 
shall contain more than 85 per cent, of benzoic aldehyde and 
between 2 and 4 per cent, of hydrocyanic acid. The specific 
gravity has been lowered from 1-060-1 070 at 15° C, to 104.5- 
1-060 at 25^ C, which is a reduction more than proportionate to 
the different temperature at which the determination is now 
made. Under the tests it is particularly set out that the oil 
of bitter almond containing crystals of benzoic acid — that is to 
say. which had undergone oxidation — should not be dispensed. 

Benzaldehyde E.stimation. 
This is a modification of Sadtler's process as adopted for lemon 
oil. The estimation is one not likely to give identical results 
in the hands of different operators. The end reaction is not sliarj), 
and comparative results will only be obtained by practice (see 
notes on lemon oil). The object of mixing with kerosine is pre- 
sumably to diffuse the oil over a greater surface. The small 
(juantity of oil required to be used (12 drops) is rather disadvan- 
tageous, and up to the present our results rather lead to the belief 
that the ordinary aldehyde absorption process as used foi' the 
determination of cinnamic aldehyde in cassia oil is preferable. 

Hydrocyanic Acid Assay. 
The process included is that of Kremers and Schreiner. There 
is at the outset a difficulty in preparing magnesium hydroxide 
free from chloride ; a blank experiment is therefore necessary, 
and the proportion of chloride found in the magnesium salts must 
be deducted from the total reading. The process appears to yield 
lower results than those we have obtained on a manufacturing 
scale in the removal of hydrocyanic acid from bitter almond oil. but 
we have not, so far. had the opportunity of comparing the vaiious 
processes. Our records, extending over a great many years, would 



'/••-^z 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 409 

appear to indicate in the freshly prepared oil of bitter almond 
a higher proportion of hydrocyanic acid than 4 per cent. 

Oleum Aurantii Corticis. 
The oils of bitter and sweet orange peel were both official in the 
United States Pharmacopa?ia of 1890, whilst the oil from the 
peel of the sweet orange is now alone official. For flavouring 
elixirs and syrups the sweet variety is preferable, and hence the 
inclusion on the present occasion. The characters and tests are 
satisfactory, although the optical rotation of not less than + 95° 
is perhaps a little higher than necessary : over + 92° would pro- 
bably have been a sufficiently stringent test. The tests include 
one for the presence of pinene determined by the melting point 
of its nitroso compound. 

Oleum Betul^e. 
This oil is now directed to be prepared by maceration and 
distillation from the bark of Betula lenfa, and is stated to con- 
form to the reactions and tests of 01. Gaultherise, which oil is 
stated to have the same properties as methyl salicylate, 
althougli no references are made under oil of gaultheria to its 
similarity to 01. Betulae. At any rate, there is clear indication 
in the monographs referred to that the synthetic methyl salicylate, 
wlien chemically pure, is bound to rapidly replace the natural 
oil, wliether from gaultheria or sweet birch. 

Oleum Cajuputi. 

This oil is required to yield not less than 55 per cent, by volume 
of cineol, and to have a specific gravity of 0-915 to 0*925 at 25° 
( '. This is a lower range of specific gravity than that of the B.P., 
1S98 (922-930 at 15° C), but approximating to that suggested 
by one of us (see Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1904, p. 44) — namelv, 
a minimum specific gravity of 0*919 at 15°. A minimum of 50 
per cent, cineol Avould be more in accordance with this minimum 
specific gravity. It will be remembered that the British Pharma- 
copoeia, although requiring the oil to give a semi-solid mass with 
concentrated phosphoric acid, gives no actual percentage. The 
])Iiosphoric acid of the new United States Pharmacopoeia has a 
specific gravity of 1*707 at 25° C. 

There is one test which is not quite clear — viz., the test for the 
absence of copper as follows : " On shaking 5 c.c. of the oil 
with 5 c.c. of water containing one drop of dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, a reddish-brown colour should not be produced in 



410 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

the acid li(j^uid, when separated from tlie oil, if a drop of 
potassium ferrocyanide T.S. be added (absence of copper)." 
But should such test be insisted upon, then we assume that 
there is no necessity for the inclusion in the description of the 
words, " a greenish hquid," as the green colour of cajupiit 
oil is entirely removed by the shaking it with a solution of 
ferrocyanide of potassium, indicating that it is due to the 
presence of copper. 

Oleum Carl 
This oil is one required to be rectified by steam distillation, and 
the characters of the oil are really very close to those suggested 
by one of us (J. C. Umney, Y.-B.P., 1895, p. 165), including as 
they do a minimum specific gravity of 0*905 at 25° C. (practically 
equivalent to 0*910 at 15°), and an optical rotation between 
+ 70 and + 80. No process has been included for the determina- 
tion of carvone, but these physical characters are quite sufficient 
to ensure an oil containing over 50 per cent, of carvone. 

Oleum Caryophylli. 
We have already referred to the fact that the oil official in (ho 
German Pharmacopoeia is pure eugenol. The United States 
Pharmacopoeia, however, prefers to maintain the natural oil of 
cloves with a fair range of specific gravity, and yielding by the 
alkali absorption process recommended by one of us (Umney. 
Y.-B.P., 1895, p. 167) 80 per cent, by volume of eugenol. It 
has been shown that the strength of alkaline hydroxide solution 
used for absorption of the phenols makes some little difference 
in the percentage recorded (see Y.-B.P., 1903, p. 64), and our 
experience shows that the difference in absorption of phenol, 
using 5 and 10 per cent, solutions of caustic potash, is 84 per 
cent, in the former case and 89 per cent, in the latter, where the 
combined eugenol is entirely decomposed. The range of specific 
gravity is, in our opinion, a fair one. The most aromatic clove 
oils are those of comparatively low specific gravity, given, of 
course, that the eugenol content is sufficiently high. We find 
that an oil of specific gravity 1*040 at 25° C. contains from 82 to 84 
of eugenol by volume by the process of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia — namely, 5 per cent, solution of caustic potash. 

Oleum Cinnamomi (Cassia Oil). 
Under tlie Latin title of 01. Cinnamomi the oil of cassia cinna- 
mon is included, and, of course, this must not be confused with 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 411 

the oil of the British Pharmacopoeia derived from Cinnamomum 
zeylanicum. The title, however, is rather miisleading, especially 
as two cinnamon barks {O. saigonicum and C. zeylanicum) are 
official, but not the bark of C. cassia. That the oil from Cinna- 
momum zeylanicum is decidedly preferable in point of odour and 
taste (especially taste) there can be no question, but, of course, 
containing as it does a lower percentage of the medicinally 
valuable substance, cinnamic aldehyde, it has, no doubt, been 
thought wise to retain the oil of cassia rather than that of cinna- 
mon. 

The process included for the valuation of the cinnamic aldeliyde 
is the one in general use ; and we are of opinion that the limit 
fixed of not less than 75 per cent, is a fair one, although most 
pure oils contain 80-85 per cent, by volume of aldehydes. The 
test for the absence of petroleum and resin is valuable, more 
especially when the oil is at higher rates than are now ruling. 
Many oils containing only 75 per cent, of aldehydes contain added 
resin ; but so long as there is a demand for low-grade oils this 
sophistication will probably continue. Whether the oil will be 
replaced by cinnamic aldehyde at a later date remains to be seen. 
Our experience of cinnamic aldehyde is, so far, not favourable, 
as it appears always to possess a suspicion of the odour of benzoic 
aldehyde, which is not present in the natural cassia oil, and which 
is certainly a disadvantage. 

Oleum Copaiba. 

The monograph of the present Pharmacopoeia differs in two 
respects from that of the previous edition. The specific gravity 
is now 0-895 to 0-905 at 25° C, whilst formerly it was from 0-890 
to 0-910 at 15° C, which is practically equivalent. It is also 
now required to be soluble in two volumes of alcohol (95 per 
cent, by volume), whilst formerly ten volumes were required, and 
for the first time tliere is included the requirement that it should 
be la3vo-gyrate, although no limits are given. 

Oleum Coriandri. 

The monograph is in accordance with all our records for pure 
oils, and the solubihty in three volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, 
as well as the range of optical rotation which is now included 
for the first time, namely, from +70° to +14° are normal. It 
should be noted that there is no special warning against specific 
adulterations. 



412 british pharmaceutical conference. 

Oleum Cubeb^. 

The only new feature is tliat the optical rotation is included, 
ranging from —25" to —40". The statement, however, regarding 
specific gravities is somewhat altered, being now 0*905 to 0"925 
at 25° C, whilst formerly the requirement was " about 0'920 at 
15°." 

Oleum Erigerontis. 

We have little experience of this oil except from our casual 
examination of samples, principally from the American source. 
The oils we liave examined, however, correspond with the present 
official requirements, and it is curious that an oil of sufficient 
importance to include in the United States Pharmacopoeia 
should not be more utilized in this country. 

Oleum Eucalypti. 
The present Pharmacopoeia gives no particular specific source 
for the derivation of the oil. but requires simj^ly that it sliall be 
rectified by steam distillation and yield not less than 50 per cent, 
of cineol, the usual assay as cineol phosphate being given, using 
85 per cent, phosphoric acid and jaetroleum ether. In our opinion 
55 per cent, would be a better minimum for an oil for medicinal 
purposes. The B.P. gives no actual percentage, but the wording 
of tlie monograph makes the oil practically identical. Oil of tlie 
amygdalina class, especially those containing phellandrene. aie 
excluded by the usual nitrite test. 

Oleum Fceniculi. 
The same precise directions are given for the storing and dis- 
pensing of this oil as in the case of anise oil. and the higliest })()int 
reached during crystallization is also recorded as the corgealing 
point (see anise oil), which should rot be below 5° C. Tliere is 
usually some difficulty in starting crystallization unless a crystal 
of anetliol is available. The specific gravity is now stated as 
from 0-958 to 0973 at 25° C. The lower hmit practically coin- 
cides with that formerly official. We have not met with any oil 
of fennel sophisticated with volatile oils containing phenols for 
which a test is included. The detailed characters of the difFereiif 
varieties of fennel oil aje set out in the paper by one of us (John 
C. Umney, Y.-B.P.. 1897, p. 165). 

Oleum Gaultheri.^. 
The oil is now a rectified oil, and is described as colourless, or 
almost colourless, reference to its occasional reddish tint being 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 413 

omitted in the present edition. In several samples recently exam- 
ined this reddish tint was most pronoiuiced. The tests agree with 
those of the samiDles we have examined during the past ten years. 

Oleum Hedeoivle. 
The oil is now stated to be distilled from the leaves and flower- 
ing tops, whilst formerly the detailed description of source was 
not stated. The specific gravity has been somewhat lowered. 
It is now from 0-920 to 0-935 at 25°, formerly from 0-930 to 0-94 
at 15° C. Our experience of American pennyroyal is coniparatively 
limited, but examinations of European samples of Spanish, 
French, and Portuguese origin show that these, as a rule, have a 
specific gravity within the limits 0-935 to 0-945 at 15° C. 

Oleum Juniperi. 
The range of specific gravity has been very much reduced. 
Whilst formerly it was from 0-850 to 0-890 at 15° C, it is now 
from 0-860 to 0-880 at 25° C. We find, as a matter of fact, that 
the majority of samples of juniper oil. when freshly distilled, have 
a specific gravity of 0-862 to 0-867 at 15° C. The solubility test, 
viz. 1 in 10 volumes of 90 per cent, alcohol, is a little too stringent, 
as it will exclude some pure oils except when freshly distilled. 

Oleum Lavandula Florum 
is now described as distilled from the fresh flowering tops, whereas 
in the 1890 edition the word flowers alone is used. It is noticeable 
in the monograph for lavender oil there is no recognition of the 
determination of ester percentage, or, indeed, any method for its 
valuation, the only tests for purity in addition to specific gravity 
being its solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol — namely, one in three — 
and a test for added alcohol. As a means of valuing oils of cne 
class, say French oil, the determination of ester valuation is of 
importance, though the fragrance of many oils when the per- 
centage of ester is much over 39 is not enhanced (see C. and D. 
August 9, 1902, p. 248). 

On the other hand, there is a necessity to judge of the purity 
of English lavender oil by limit of esters, and therefore cne can 
see the difficulties of the compilers of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia in trjang to arrange a monograph that would include high- 
value French lavender oils, but which would exclude English oils, 
or vice versa. Perhaps it was the wisest way out of the difficulty. 
How it will be treated in a new British Pharmacopoeia remains 



414 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. • 

to be seen, perhaps by the inclusion of.Enghsli oils only, which | 

would give a much-needed impetus to the lavender cultivation ■ 

in this country. ; 
Oleum Limonis. 

The specific gravity limits— viz. 0-851 to 0-855 at 25° C— 
will include most commercial oils of good quahty. The minimum , 
tiguie for optical rotation— viz. + 60°— appears to be a little high 
as we have examined pure oils in some seasons with a rotation of , 
+ 59° A maximum of 64° might have been stated. For the , 
determination of citral Sadtler's method has been included. It i.s ; 
perhaps, the most satisfactory of published processes, but it still ■ 
leaves something to be desired. In the titration the end reaction , 
is not sharp, and it is likely to give good results only m experienced . 
hands. In Sadtler's origmal paper {Amer. Journal Pharm., 
February, 1904, p. 84) he recommends rosohc acid as indicator, ; 
and states that the end reaction must be taken when only a very I 
faint pink colour remains, which is not appreciably affected by ! 
a few drops more acid. Again, he recommends 25 to 50 c.c of i 
20 per cent, sodium sulpliite solution for 5 to 10 gm. of oit, while 
the new Pharmacopoeia directs only 25 c.c. to be used for about 
15 c c of oil. This seems to us an insufficient quantity, as , 
better' results are obtamed with double the quantity or the ; 
equivalent of a stronger solution of sodium sulphite. Our experi- 
ments with this process show from 3-8 to 4-4 per cent, as normal ^ 
limits for pure oils of commerce. i 

The minimum hmit for citral— namely, 4 per cent.— is, in our j 

opinion, quite high enough, as it has been recently proved by j 

Enghsh chemists and manufacturers that the percentage of j 

citral in lemon oil rarely exceeds 5 per cent., m spite of the | 

statements of Itahan chemists that 6 to 7 per cent, is a normal , 

figure. We prefer to rely on a careful examination of the differ- : 

ent fractions distilled under reduced pressure for the detection . 

of terpenes, etc., although this can hardly be described at length , 

in a pharmacopoeia. The requirement now included that the | 

first 10 per cent, distilled should not differ from the original oil j 

by more than 2° is the one official in the British Pharmacopoeia, | 

1898, though this requkes modification. j 

Oleum Mentha Piperita. ] 

The oil now described is one rectified by steam distillatioi), j 

and distilled in the first instance from the fresh or partly dried j 

leaves and flowering tops. It is required to contain net less \ 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 41 5 

than 8 per cent, of ester and not more than 50 per cent. 
of total menthol free and combined as ester. It will be 
seen that the tests are much modified, and several of 
the colour reactions, moreesi^ecially for determining the ab- 
sence of camphor oil, oil of sassafras, and to some extent 
sophistication with Japanese oil, have been omitted. No 
doubt the intention of the 8 per cent, ester requirement is to 
obviate tlie inclusion of Japanese oil and to obtain an oil of as 
good value as possible. In making this limitation, however, the 
United States Pharmacopoeia would appear to have gone very 
near precluding the use of some of the highest grade redistilled 
American peppermint oils. Certainly it will exclude some of 
the Mitcham and Cambridgeshire peppermint oils as normally 
distilled. We have records of very many samples of English 
peppermint oil of undoubted purity containing less than 8 per 
cent, of esters. We have recently referred in a paper on Sicilian 
peppermint oil to as high a percentage of esters as 29-4 per cent, 
contained in that oil, but in the majority of the finest American 
oils that we have examined the percentage of esters has varied 
between 7-2- and 11 per cent. The method of assay of the 
alcohols and esters is the usual one adopted. 

Oleum Myristicje. 
The limits of specific gravity are very little different to those 
which were formerly official, but a range of optical rotation has 
been included for the first time — viz., from +14° to +28° — 
which is in accordance with our experience, and the test detailed 
by one of us, which obviates the presence of fixed oil of nutmeg, 
as indicated by the oil leaving after evaporation a crystalline 
residue, is also included. The requirement seems to be in every 
way a necessary one when the oil is to be used in the making of 
sal volatile. 

Oleum Pimento. 

Tlie new United States Pharmacopoeia requires that this oil 
shall yield not less than 65 per cent, by volume of eugenol, 
assayed by the potassium hydroxide absorption method, and 
the requirement certainly is a fair one, and one with which 
practically all good trade samples comply. It will be noticed 
that a very curious anomaly in the old monograph is modified. 
It was formerly stated that oil of pimenta had a clove-like 
odour ; now it is stated that " it has a strong arom.atic odour 
of allspice." The range of specific gravity has been altered 



416 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

and is now from 1033 to 1 048 at 25"^ C— that is to say, apart 
from the difteience of temperature at which the specific gravity 
is taken, there is a lowering of the bottom limit. This is certainly 
an advantage, for the typical aromatic bodies are those with the 
lower specific gravity which are characteristic of the oil, al- 
though perhaps not adding to its medicinal value. All the tests, 
as in the case of clove oil, for the presence of other phenol bodies 
have been omitted. 

Oleum Ros^. 
The monograph for oil of rose is certainly a satisfacloiy one, 
and the inclusion for the first time in any pharmacopoeia of the 
saponification value is a point to be noticed. It is found that 
practically all samples of pure otto of rose of the highest odour 
value fall between the limits of 10 and 17, as set out in the de- 
tailed process for assay ; as a matter of fact, the majority fall 
from 14 to 16-5. The range of specific gravity has been altered. 
It was from 0-865 to 0-880 at 20° C. in the last edition ; now 
it is from 0-855 to 0-865 at 25° C— a considerable and advis- 
able lowering of the top margin. The point at which crystalhs- 
ation first appears in the otto of rose on cooling is taken as the 
congeahng point, and is required to be between 18° and 22° C. 
This is a httle wider range than the German Pharmacopoeia, 
which is between 18° and 21° C. Of course, given that the phy- 
sical and chemical characteristics indicate purity, then it is 
advantageous not to have a higher congealing point than 
20° C, as a higher congealing point indicates, naturally, a 
greater proportion of odourless stearoptene. 

Oleum Rosmarini. 
We are disposed to think that the nnnimum percentage of 
borneol— viz., 15 per cent.— fixed for rosemary oil is somewhat 
high. It is not an oil of very great medicinal value, although 
what medicinal value it has over and above that of the terjenes 
it contains is probably due to borneol. Our examinations of 
samples of rosemary oil obtained from different parts of Europe, 
etc., have shown the following percentages : — 

French. Spanisli. Italian. Dalmatian. 

18-2 .. 12-3 .. 10-8 .. 131 

14-3 .. 11« - 10-^ •• ^^'^ 

15-0 .. 12-4 .. 10-7 .. 12-4 

13-8 
18-7 
13-2 
15-2 
12-4 
12-4 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 417 

It Avill be seen, therefore, that although some of the finest 
French oils do contain a higher percentage of borneol than 15, 
yet one to our minds quite high enough for minimum would 
have been 12-5 per cent. We have never examined a sample 
of pure oil having a higher rotation than + 15° (the extreme 
limit fixed), that of some of the best oils that we have examined 
being as low as +3°. We have paid no great attention to the 
determination of the ester value of rosemary oil, but in the few 
determinations that we have made the minimum ester fixed 
would appear to be a satisfactory one, and one -^ath which the 
French and Spanish oils comply readily. 

Oleum Sabin.^. 

The oil is now required to be distilled from the fresh tops of 
sa\an, and this is a very important feature, as it practically 
means the elimination of a considerable proportion of the woody 
plants of savin, from which the oil has been in the past distilled 
in the south of France, and which has resulted in an oil being 
produced widely different to that official either in the present 
edition or the previous one. We are disposed to think, from the 
examination we have made of sa\Tin distillates, that there is a 
considerable difference in the product obtained in different 
countries, and there is, possibly, a sHght difference in the variety 
of the savin itself. We have now an investigation of the subject 
on hand, the results of which we hope to pubHsh at a little later 
date. 

Oleum Santali. 

The oil is required when assayed bj^ the usual acetylation 
process, to contain not less than 90 per cent, of alcohol, calcu- 
lated as santalol, which requirement has been accepted as a com- 
mercial basis for some time past. There is practical^ no alter- 
ation in the important features of the monograph, except that 
the specific gravity has been lowered proportionately with the 
temperatm-e at which it is taken, and the optical rotation of the 
oil is now required to fall between —16° and —20° in a 100 mm. 
tube. A special test is included for the absence of choloroform. 
This sopliistication has not been met with to our knowledge in 
this country, but it is interesting as showing how what one may 
call a local sophistication may result in the inclusion of a special 
test for the detection of that particular adulterant. 

EE 



418 british pharmaceutical conference. 

Oleum Sassafras. 
It is not in our province to discuss whether there is really 
ground for the inclusion of this oil, seeing that pure safrol is 
included, obtained from cheaper sources, and no doubt ha\4ng 
also similar properties to the natural oil of sassafras distilled from 
the root, or, as now set out, "espscially from root bark." The 
limits of specific gravity have been much narrowed ; formerly 
they were from 1070 to 1090, now they are from 1065 to 
1075 at 25° C, but within these narrower limits practically all 
pure samples fall. There is a decided difference between the 
odour of sassafras oil distilled from root bark and the oils blend- 
ed with safrol from other sources, and it would almost appear 
necessary to rely on the odour test, as, so far as we know, no 
chemical test is available for the purpose. 

Oleum Sin apis Volatile. 
The monograph now states that the oil is derived from black 
mustard, freed from its fatty oil, and is required to contain, by 
the new process now included, 92 per cent, of allyl-isothiocy- 
anate. The method adopted now is decided^ an advantage 
over that formerly official, being volumetric and not gravimetric, 
and being capable of easy apphcation. It is interesting to note 
in the characters and tests, under the description, followdng the 
words " having a very pungent and acrid odour," is the sentence, 
"great caution should be exercised when smelling this oil " — 
presumably a guide to the unwary apprentice. The oil is one 
that, for pharmaceutical purposes, appearst o be going out of 
favour, due, no doubt, to the difficulty of its use in liniment form 
and the more extended application of mustard-leaves, plasters, etc. 

Oleum Thymi. 
This is an oil which we think, might also find a place in a new 
British Pharmacopoeia. It is required to contain at least 20 per 
cent, by volume of phenols, and this requirement is a little lower 
than the limit suggested by us, \az., 25 per cent., distilling above 
220'' (see P.J. [3], 25 p. \046). The method of assay is the 
usual one of absorption of phenols by alkali, in this case 
sodium hydroxide being used and not potassium hydroxide, 
as in the case of eugenol-containing oils. The oil is certainly 
of pharmaceutical importance, and possesses some advantages 
over the use of pure thymol in having a pleasant fragrance, and 
being, of course, less caustic than the pure substance, to 
which, in part, at any rate, its medicinal activity is due. The 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 419 

proportion of thymol and carvacrol (the two phenols) vary, in 
our experience, considerably in different samples of the oil, and 
especially in the samples of the closely alhed origanum oils 
imported from Eastern Europe. 

Tlie President said Mr. Uraney was an authority on the 
subject, and it was therefore particularly fitting he should give 
the paper. The standards of the U.S. P. seemed to be readily 
obtainable in practice. 

yix. Theo. Brewis said he noticed that both eugenol and clove 
oil were admitted, and this was wise, since eugenol has, com- 
paratively, no clove odour. He thought it was a pity that the 
U.S. P. should have, like the P. G. IV inserted the stringent 
sodium hydroxide test, as a eugenol containing only 0-5 per cent, 
of terpenes would fail to pass ; and the removal of last traces 
of terpenes would considerably increase the cost of manufacture. 
The specific gravity of clove oil is to be not below 1040 at 25° C, 
which is equivalent to about 1048 at 15° C, a bottom limit 
more in accordance with distillers' figures obtained on some 
freshly drawn oils, than the " not below 1050 " of the B.P., and, 
indeed, the oil distilled from the fragrant and expensive Amboyna 
cloves seldom comes up to 1 050. Then there are many pimento 
oils, the specific gravity of which is below the B.P. and U.S. P. 
figures, yet these oils are the more fragrant and are in greater 
favour with perfumers. The amount of hydrocyanic acid in bitter 
oil of almonds was very variable, as every manufacturer of 01. 
Amygdal. Ess. s A. -P. knows, therefore the limitation of prussic 
acid content was advisable. He could confirm an observation 
of Ml". R. A. Cripps : that some absolutely genuine English oils 
of rosemary are laevo rather than dextro -rotary. The 
odour of oil of savin from fresh English plant, is much to be pre- 
ferred to that from the dried plants. 

The figures for other oils generally agreed with his experience. 



A NOTE ON QUININE ACID HYDROCHLORIDE. 
By William Garsed. 
Pharmaceutical Chemist. 
In a recent examination of this salt a noteworthy difference 
was found between the characters of different samples. Thes 
British Pharmacopoeia gives the formula — 
C,oH2,N302-2HCl,3H30, 



420 BRITISH PHABMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

J- f^ 11 Q» npr rent of water of crystallization, 
—corresponding to 11-98 per cent, oi wc J ^ ^ 

and requires that at 100° C. not more than 12 P^^ ^/^ ;^° ™ 

should be lost. No minimum figure is given, and thus any salt 

tmie anhydrous up to one containing three molecules of water, 

Nttl'wing table shows the loss per cent, m five samples 
on heating for an hour to a temperature of 103 to iUt> 
There was' no further los^n r^heatm^fo^^hal^anhou 



No. of Sample. 



Loss per cent. - • O'S | 



and it will 



5ne"^ole^le^or.^^e;te^rresponds to 4-34 per cent, 
be seen that in no case was this quantity present 

The Pharmacopoeia also gives a titration test m uluc i 
Gm should require for complete neutrahzation not more than 
2 "c c of N/ 1 soda solution ; the test is based upon the assump^ 
Ln that one of the molecules of J^ydrochloric acid beliave m 
solution as if it were in a free and uncombmed state, but this 
dtnd^ ::t;rely upon the indicator used to deternn^ 
reaction and the Pharmacopoeia mentions no indicator Witn 
phenlhthlin both molecules of acid can be completely and 

nninine acitl hydrochloride does not behave as a strong acia, 
and tire sn7deflnite end reaction, as the colo^u. change com- 
mences ^^h the first addition of soda solution and >s gradual y 
Tn'leteT during the titration. With litmus «- -sul s are 
more satisfactory, though by no means , deal, .™d 'l^e /om' at 
which one molecule of hydrochloric aod '^ "^'''^''l^'d c^n be 
observed fairly accurately ; it is necessary, however to titrate 
until no shade of red is left and a full blue colour is obtamed 
On gramme of salt containing three molecules of water won d 
require 22 c.c, and 1 Gm. of anhydrous salt 2-o c.c, of VI 
soda Here again, the absence of a minumum figure and e 
use of the words "not more than" admit any sat from the 
one conteining three molecules of water to the anhydrous The 
use of N/ sola is objectionable, the temporary precp.ta.on of 
a c. sMerle quantity of alkaloid tending to obscure te e d 

reaction ; by the use of N/10 or N/5 soda tins is avoided and 

more accurate readings can be obtained. 

In the following experiments the total percentage of HU in 

the anhydrl salt wL ascertained by titration m alcohoUc 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 



421 



solution witli X/10 soda, phenolphthalein being the indicator. 
The percentage of HCl indicated by Htmus was next ascertained, 
and from this the percentage of acid hydrochloride was calcu- 
lated. The percentage of HCl indicated by litmus was doubled 
and subtracted from the total percentage indicated by phenol- 
phthalein (in an absolutely pure sample, obviously the two 
figures should be identical). The difference was regarded as 
HCl present in the original substance in the form of neutral 
hydrochloride, and the percentage of the latter was calculated. 
The results are tabulated : — 



No. of Sample. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


Per cent. HCl in anhvclrous 








salt by phenolplithalein 


183 


18-5 


13-8 


IfiO 


10-3 


Per cent. HCl in anhydrous 












salt by litmus (doubled) 


181 


18-4 


91 


14-0 


14-4 


Per cent, differences between 












the tuo percentaaes of HCl 












(=HC1 of neutral salt) . 


0-2 


01 


4-7 


20 


1-9 


Per cent, anhydi'ous acid salt. 












calculated 


98-4 


1000 


49-4 


76-9 


78-2 


Per cent, anhydrous neutral 












salt, calculated .... 


2-0 


10 


46-5 


19-8 


18-8 


Total per cent, of neutral and 












acid hydrochlorides . 


100-4 


1010 


95-9 


96-7 


97-0 



Each sample on ignition yielded a negligible quantity of ash 
and, with the exception of No. 2, each contained appreciable 
traces of sulphates. 

Nos. 1 and 2 may be regarded as satisfactory, whilst Nos. 3 
and 5 appear to contain notable quantities of neutral hydro- 
chloride. The sum of the percentages of acid and neutral hydro- 
chlorides does not invariably add up to 100, and this may be 
attributed to the somewhat uncertain end reaction in the litmus 
titrations. 

These experiments go to show — (1) That the quinine acid 
hydrochloride of commerce is practically an anhydrous salt, 
and does not contain the three molecules of water given in the 
pharmacopceial formula. (2) That the pharmacopoeial tests for 
tlie presence of neutral hydrocliloride should be made more 
precise, both maximum and minimum figures being given, 
with particular instructions as to the indicator to be used. 



The President said that perluips manufacturers sent out the 
anhydrous salt because it was of more constant composition than 
the hydrated salt, and more uniform dosage was thereby obtained. 



422 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

Mr. Harrison said he had examined samples of most makers, 
both Enghsh and foreign, and in every case they were practically 
anhydrous, the highest percentage of water being about 2 per 
cent. A good method of determining the acid was to precipitate 
the alkaloid by the addition of excess of iodine, filter out an 
aliquot part, decolorise the filtrate with sodium thiosulphate, 
and titrate the free acid with standard alkali and methyl 
orange. Only one equivalent of acid was retained by the pre- 
cipitate, any excess remaining in the liquid. 

Mr. Alcock inquired if the percentage of anhydrous alkaloid 
in each of the samples had been determined, also if sample 
No. 3 had been tested for other cinchona alkaloids, because he 
could not reconcile the figures between the j)henolphthalein and 
litmus indicators, seeing the others were in practical agreement. 

Mr. D. Lloyd Howard said that some years ago there was on 
the market a salt containing three molecules of water ; it had, 
however, a yellowish colour, whereas a less fully hydrated salt 
was white. He thought that in the case of sample No. 3, con- 
taining 46 per cent, of neutral salt, the solubility would throw 
some hght on its nature. 

Mr. White thought it would have been advantageous if Mr. 
Garsed had confirmed his figures by a silver determination of 
the chloride instead of reljnng upon somewhat uncertain titration 
figures. 

Mr. Garsed, in reptying, acknowledged the value of Mr. 
Harrison's method for the determination of the acid. He had 
not determined the amount of alkaloid in any of the samples. 
Sample No. 2, containing most water, was more free from 
colour than any of the others ; No. 3 required about twenty parts 
of water at 20 to 25° C. for solution, thus giving some idea as to 
its nature. The other samples were all soluble 1 in 1. 



NOTE ON THE ASH OF MYRRH. 
By F. H. Alcock, F.I.C. 
The determination of the amount of the ash of drugs has 
gained some prominence in pharmacy in recent years, and many 
results have been recorded before the Conference and in the 
journals by numerous workers. While looking through the 
literature of myrrh for tlie purposes of a paper which was read 
before one of our local pharmaceutical associations, not much 
could be gathered concerning the composition of the ash of myrrh. 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 423 

Pereira in his classical work, states on the authority of Brands, 
and also Ruckholt, that " salts (benzoates, malates, phosphates, 
sulphates, and acetates of calcium and potassium) are present 
in the gum-resin myrrh to the extent of 1-36 per cent. (Brande) 
and 3-65 per cent. (Ruckholt)." Two other authorities Pereira 
quotes do not refer to the ash at all. Mr. Parker, in his paper 
on myrrh (1879), did not discuss this part of the subject, but 
alluded in a subsequent paper (1880), to the ash of " some spuri- 
ous gums imported with myrrh," and stated that the ash of 
these consisted chiefly of calcic carbonate. An Edgbaston 
pharmacist, having supplied me with a large quantity of the 
gum left after making the tincture of myrrh, an opportunity 
was afforded of examining the composition of its ash. It required 
a preliminary treatment to remove the last traces of resin, 
which was found to be present to the extent of 11 per cent. 

A qualitative examination showed that in addition to the 
calcium salts there was present a relatively large quantity of 
magnesium compounds. In order to determine the amount of 
the latter a quantitative examination was made, and, inci- 
dentally, the amount of a few of the other constituents was also 
determined. Twenty grammes of the resin-free and air-dried 
gum was incinerated, and yielded 1-263 Gm., or 6-315 per cent, 
of residue, which required for neutralization 23-7 c.c. N. hydro- 
chloric-acid. The quantity of the ash which was insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid was 095 Gm., or 7-52 per cent., and the filtrate 
yielded 0-928 Gm. of calcium carbonate, or 73*47 per cent., 
whilst the magnesium was represented by 0-257 gm. of mag- 
nesium pyrophosphate, or 15-4 per cent, of magnesium car- 
bonate. The remainder was made up of alkali, with the traces 
of other radicals. These results seem to show that the deter- 
mination of the amount of magnesium salts in the ash of myrrh 
gum might prove to be an important test for admixed gums in 
genuine myrrh, especially when in the form of powder, in which 
state the amount of ash has been known to vary from 3' 8 to 
17 per cent. (Moor and Priest). 



COMPOUND TINCTURE OF GENTIAN. 

By F. H. Alcock, F.I.C. 

Much has been written about this preparation, and whilst all 
workers are agreed upon the tests of gravity and alcohohc strength. 



424 BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 

there appears much diversity of opinion about the percentage 
of total sohds. Reference to pubUshed statements shows that, 
broadly speaking, the wholesaler's standard is somewhat higher 
tlian that of the retailer 

The late Mr. John Barclay in 1898 suggested a 5 per cent. 
w/v standard ; Messrs. Moor and Priest (1900) found 5*2 per 
cent. ; Mr. J. C. Umney (1902) gives oo per cent., and Mr. 
Wippell Gadd (1904) states an average of 5-33 per cent., the 
maximum being 613 per cent., and the minimum 3-76 percent. 
On the other side, Mr. P. Boa records 4*603 per cent., and another 
— but this after twenty-four hours' maceration only — 4-433 per 
cent. Mr. Perry, my fellow-townsman, has shown that when 
carefully prepared with good commercial specimens of. the 
ingredients, the percentage of solids did not exceed 4-5 ; and a 
sample of my neighbour's make gave 4-5.5. My own experience 
is equally varied ; at one time samples submitted to me for exami- 
nation gave 5-2 per cent., and at another fell as low as 4-6 per 
cent ; other figures being 4-82 per cent, and 4-78 per cent. 
AU these were prepared by retailers. To locate the cause, a few 
experiments were made, the results of which it was suggested 
might Interest the Conference. A quart batch was made in 
accordance with official instructions, and at the end of the pre- 
scribed period of maceration 10 c.c. w^as evaporated in a flat- 
bottomed platinum dish, and yielded 0-46 Gm. of solids. Eight 
days afterwards 10 c.c. gave 0-482 Gm. and the same batch, 
which had not been removed from the marc, and had been daily 
shaken, after standing in my laboratory three and a half months 
gave 0-478 Gm. from 10 c.c. A simple tincture of each ingredi- 
ent prepared of official strength was then made, these being 
taken from the same stock as those used in the above experiment, 
but with a difference in the method of disintegration. Each 
was passed through an ordinary household coffee-mill, the pro- 
duct resembhng in coarseness that of ordinary ground coffee. 
The simple tincture of cardamoms yielded 0*004 Gm. per 10 c.c. 
That of the orange, which was the English cut variety, although 
from Mr. Perry's experiment it would seem that whether the 
English or foreign cut article was used does not materially affect 
the product as far as the percentage of soUds is concerned — 10 c.c. 
gave 0-135 Gm. of solids. That of the gentian was 0-415 Gm. 
from 10 c.c. Each was examined again at the end of a month, 
and the same figures were again obtained. Assuming that 
when together the same quantity of soluble matters would 



BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE. 425 

have been taken up by the solvent, then 10 c.c. would have 
given 0-554 Gm., which accords more with what I have 
called the' wholesalei's' standard. The amount derived from 
the cardamoms may be neglected, and I find the orange is fairly 
concordant in the yi