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fithltr SJterg 

This Volume is for 





Secretary Washington Office and General Committee on Army and 

Navy Chaplains of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 

in America 

$1.50 IN CLOTH 



105 East 22nd Street, New York City 

937 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 



FOREWORD , .. 5 

Section I. Directory of Religious Bodies with Synopsis of 

History, Doctrine and Polity 7 

Section II. Directory of Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America with Affiliated, Coopera- 
tive and Consultative Bodies ... . ..... 253 

Section III. Directory of Inter-Church, National and Inter- 
national Organizations ... ... 298 

Section IV. Directory of Chaplains in the Army and Navy 
of the United States, with Summary of Relig- 
ious Work in both branches of the Service ... 375 

Section V. Religious Statistics and Information 391 

Section VI. Bibliography of the Federal Council of the 

Churches of Christ in America , . 439 






















































All titles other than "Rev./' "Rt. Rev.," or "Bishop" have been, 
avoided. These are used simply to distinguish clergy from laymen. 


The 1921-22 Year Book of the Churches, greatly enlarged in 
scope and materially changed in plan and arrangement of mat- 
ter, met with hearty approval. This edition for 1923 retains ail 
features of the 1922 edition adding much valuable information 
under Section Y, Statistics and General Information- All mat- 
ter has been carefully revised The Directory of the Churches, 
including office headquarters, officials, boards, members of 
boards and other denominational agencies has been brought up to 
date. Special care has been taken to get correct lists of schools 
and colleges in part or wholly under control or direction of the 
Churches, and to make the lists of church periodicals and their 
editors accurate. The matter is arranged in six distinct sections. 

Section I is a Directory of the Eeligious Bodies. In addi- 
tion to the Directory there is in this section a synopsis of 
History, Doctrine and Polity of each religious body. The 
Directory has been carefully revised and brought up to date 
through conference with officials of each body. The synopsis 
of History, Doctrine and Polity was in most instances con- 
densed from that published in the Religious Census of 1916, 
but after such condensation and revision was submitted to 
some representative, in most cases, the recognized historian of 
each body, and changes suggested by such representative were 
made A few of the synopses were entirely rewritten. The 
statement of History, Doctrine, and Polity is therefore, from 
the standpoint, practically, of each denomination. 

Section II is a Directory of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, and bodies holding an affiliated 
cooperative or consultative relationship with the Federal 
Council. Some oi the commissions and committees of the 
Federal Council and some of the affiliated bodies are also listed 
under other sections with cross reference to the other section in 
which listed. The statistics of each of these bodies will be found 
in the Special Eeligious Statistics section. 

Section III is a Directory of Interchurch, National, and 
International organizations for service. This section of the 
Year Book, in addition to distinctly church and interchurch 
agencies, presents a directory, with statement of purpose, of the 
major organizations in the United States that are national or 
international in scope, and which, while not distinctively of the 
church, arc manifestly in accord with the spirit and purpose of 
Christ in the work for which they have been organized. The 
matter for this section has been carefully gathered from repre- 
sentatives of the organizations listed, and revised to February 
3, 1923. Especial attention is called to the number and char- 
acter of governmental agencies listed m this section. 

Section IV is a Directory of Chaplains in the Army and 
Navy of the United States, with a summary of religious work 
and miscellaneous facts concerning both branches of service. 

Section V contains tables of Keligious Statistics and Gen- 
eral Information. 

Section VI is a Bibliography of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ. 

We seek to make the Year Book invaluable as a handbook of 
ready reference for facts to be found nowhere else in such form. 
Our aim is to make each edition more valuable than its pred- 
ecessor. We believe it will not only be useful to church leaders, 
but that it should have a place 011 the table of every one inter- 
ested in what is doing and who is doing it for the betterment of 
mankind. Certainly, it should find a place in all libraries, and 
newspaper and business offices, secular as well as religious. One 
Seminary made the 1922 edition a text book for the study of the 
Church in America. The Dean of the Theological Department 
of one of the large universities recommended that it be pur- 
chased by each student m the senior class. It supplies a need 
otherwise unfilled for all seminary students. 

We would acknowledge here our great indebtedness to the 
representatives of the church bodies, and other organizations, 
who have aided us by critical review of the matter and by fur- 
nishing data relating to their organizations. 




"With Synopsis of History, Doctrine and Polity 



The " Advent Movement" originated with William Miller; 
born 1782, died 1849. Mr. Miller became convinced that the com- 
ing of Christ in person, power and glory must be premillennial ; 
and that not only was the Advent at hand, but its date might be 
fixed with some defimteness. He confidently expected it to occur 
some time between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. The 
first general gathering of those interested was held in Boston, 
October, 1840. 

In its beginning, the Adventist Movement was wholly within 
the existing Churches. In 1845, however, there was a general 
organization of the adherents of the Adventist doctrine. At a 
Conference, held in Albany, New York, in April, 1845, a dec- 
laration of principles was adopted embodying the views of Mr. 
Miller respecting the personal and premillennial character of 
the second advent of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and 
the renewal of the earth as the abode of the redeemed, together 
with kindred points of doctrine The organization then formed 
continued for ten years to include practically all the Adventists 
Growing out of the original Adventist movement the Advent 
Christian Church was organized in 1855, the Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventists in I860; Life and Advent Union in 1864; the Church of 
God (Adventist) in 1866; and the Churches of God in Christ 
Jesus in 1888. 


General Conference, biennial. 

Fifty-two subordinate conferences, four publication associa- 
tions, two foreign missionary societies. 

Officers- Pres., Eev. I. F, Barnes, 22 Grant Street, Bansror, 
Maine ; Sec., Eev C. H. Hewitt, South Vernon, Mass ; Treas , Mr. 
I. C. Triplett, Charlotte, N. C.; General Director, Rev L F. 
Reynolds, 160 Warren St , Boston, Mass. ; Regiona 1 Directors, 
Rev H. W. Hewitt, 42 Dexter Street, Providence, R I ; Rev A 
P Ferrell, Palmer, 111 ; Rev. G. A, Osman, 2819 North Johnson 
Street, Los Angeles, Calif. , Rev. B. A. L. Bixler, Live Oak, Fla. 

Mass. Pres, Rev. Henry Stone; Sec -Treas., Eev. Charles F. King. 
Organ: Advent Christian Missions, Editor, Rev. Charles F. King. 

Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey; Clerk, Mrs. Nellie E. 
Fellows; Treas., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey. Organ: Advent Christian 
Missions, Editor for W. H. and F. M., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey, 



The "Advent Movement" originated with William Miller; 
horn 1782, died 1849. Mr Miller became convinced that the com- 
ing of Christ in person, power and glory must be premillenmal ; 
and that not only was the Advent at hand, but its date might be 
iixed with some defimteness. He confidently expected it to occur 
some time between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844 The 
first general gathering of those interested was held in Boston, 
October, 1840. 

In its beginning, the Adventist Movement was wholly within 
the existing Churches In 1845, however, there was a general 
'Organization of the adherents of the Adventist doctrine. At a 
Conference, held in Albany, New York, in April, 1845, a dec- 
laration of principles was adopted embodying the views of Mr. 
Miller respecting the personal and premillennial character of 
the second advent of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and 
the renewal of the earth as the abode of the redeemed, together 
with kindred points of doctrine. The organization then formed 
continued for ten years to include practically all the Adventists. 
Growing out of the original Adventist movement the Advent 
Christian Church was organized in 1855, the Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventists in 1860, Life and Advent Union in 1864; the Church of 
God (Adventist) in 1866; and the Churches of God in Christ 
Jesus in 1888. 


General Conference, biennial. 

Fifty-two subordinate conferences, four publication associa- 
tions, two foreign missionary societies 

Officers - Pres , Rev. I. F. Barnes, 22 Grant Street, Bans:or, 
Maine ; Sec., Rev C H Hewitt, South Vernon, Mass ; Treas., Mr 
I C. Triplett, Charlotte, N. C.; General Director, Rev L. F 
Reynolds, 160 Warren St , Boston, Mass. , Regional Directors, 
Rev H. W. Hewitt, 42 Dexter Street, Providence, R I. ; Rev A. 
P. Ferrell, Palmer, 111. ; Rev. G. A. Osman, 2819 North Johnson 
Street, Los Angeles, Calif. ; Rev. B. A. L. Bixler, Live Oak, Fla. 

Mass. Pies., Rev. Henry Stone; Sec -Treas., Rev. Charles P. King. 
Organ: Advent Christian Missions, Editor, Rev. Charles F. King. 

Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey; Clerk, Mrs. Nellie E. 
Fellows; Treas., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey. Organ: Advent Christian 
Missions, Editor for W, H. and F. M., Rev. Maude M. Chadsey. 

10 Year Book of the Churches 

Denton, 708 State St., Portsmouth, N. H.; Cor. Sec., Miss Lillian 
F. Welch, 160 Warren St., Boston, Mass. 

Aurora. College 


. Aurora, III 

Orrm R Jenks 

New England School 
Sanderhn Academy 

of Theology . . 

.Boston, Mass 
. White, Tenn. 

Guy L Vannah 
A. J Sanderlm 

Periodicals (Weekly) 

World's Crisis, Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. H. E. Thompson; Our 
Hope, Mendota, 111., Editor, Rev. Fim Murra; Messiah's Advocate, 
Oakland, California, Editor, Rev. J. J. Schaumburg; Present Truth 
Messenger, Live Oak, Fla., Editor, Rev. B. A. L. Bixler. 


This branch of the Adventists holds simply to the general im- 
minence of Christ's return, but takes the position that "no man 
knoweth the day nor the hour wherein the Son of Man cometh." They 
also emphasize that side of their faith which deals with the nature 
of man, and hold that through sin man forfeited immortality and can 
only become immortal through faith in Christ. 

The only ordinances recognized are baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, immersion being considered the only true baptism. Admission 
to the church is by vote of the majority, after baptism and profession 
of faith. Open communion is practiced and the invitation to the 
Lord's Supper is general, participation being left to the individual. 
The first day of the week is held to be the proper Christian Sabbath. 
An arrangement has been made with the Life and Advent Union f or 
a mutual exchange of voting representation in the general meetings 
of each body. 


The Advent Christian Church is congregational in church gov- 
ernment. For fellowship and the better conduct of such work as be- 
longs to them in common, the churches are associated in annual con- 
ferences, which are grouped m four districts, and the Advent Chris- 
tian General Conference represents the entire denomination. 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Twelve union conferences in the United States and Canada. 

Officers: Pres., "W. A. Spieerj Sec., A. d Daniells; Treas., 
J. L. Shaw. 

Headquarters: Takoma Park, Washington, D. C 

Publishing, educational, medical, and other general activities 
are under the charge of a General Conference Committee, with 
a secretary for each department. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 
Name Location President 

Broadview Theological Seminary Xagrange, 111 H. 0. Olson. 

Clinton Theological Seminary Clinton, Mo W. B. Ochs. 

Hutchmson Theological Seminary ^utohmson, Minn H. M Johnson. 

Emmanuel Missionary College ,, Berrien Springs, Mich, ., F Griggs. 

Loma Linda Medical College Lorn a Linda Col . N G Evans. 

Pacific Union College , . St Helena, Cal . ..W. E Nelson. 

Union College College View, Neb. 0. M. John, 

Walla Walla College . - . College Place, Wash, W. I. Smith. 

Washington Missionary College Takoma Park, Wash., D. C, H. A. Mori ison. 

Directory of Religious Bodies II 


Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, Washington, D. C., Editor, 
F. M. Wilcox; Signs of the Times, Mountain View, Calif., Editor, 
A. 0. Tait; Watchman, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, L. E. Froom. 


A few persons in New England, formerly of the First-Day Ad- 
ventists, began in 1844 to observe the seventh day of the week, and 
to preach the doctrines which now constitute the distinctive tenets of 
the Seventh-Day Adventists. At a Conference, held in Battle Creek in 
1860, these were organized under the name "Seventh-Day Adventist 
Denomination," and three years later a General Conference was or- 


The Seventh-Day Adventists have no formal or written creed, 
but take the Bible as their rule of faith and practice. They hold that 
the seventh day of the week, from sunset on Friday to sunset on 
Saturday, is the Sabbath established by God's law and should be ob- 
served as such; that immersion is the only proper form of baptism; 
that man is not by nature immortal, but receives eternal life only 
by faith in Christ; that the state to which man is reduced at death 
is one of unconsciousness; that the personal, visible coming of Christ 
is near at hand, and is to precede the millennium ; that at the close of 
the millennium Christ with His people will return to the earth, the 
resurrection of the wicked will occur, and Satan, the originator of 
all sm, will, with his followers, meet final destruction; that the earth 
will then be made the fit abode of the people of God throughout the 
ages, where the righteous shall dwell forever, and sin will never 
again mar the universe of God. The service of washing one another's 
feet is observed at the quarterly meetings, the men and women meet- 
ing separately for this purpose, previous to the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper, during which they meet together. 

With regard to the time of the Advent, they have never set a 
definite date, believing that it is near, but that the day and hour 
have not been revealed. 


The local church is congregational in its government, although 
under the general supervision of the conference of which it is a 


General Conference. Last meeting August, 1919, Stan- 
berry, Mo. 

Officers : Pres., S. W. Mentzer, Kobins, la. ; Vice-Pres., G. T. 
Rodgers, Stanberry, Mo.; Sec., Chester "Walker, Albany, Mo.; 
Treas. y A. N. Bugger, Stanberry, Mo. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Chmn., L. L. Presler, Orafino, Nebr. 

Bible Advocate (weekly), Stanberry, Mo., Editor, A. N. Bugger; 
Sabbath School Missionary (semi-weekly), Stanberry, Mo., Editor, 
Mrs. Alice Lippincott. 


In 1865 a number of Seventh-Day Adventists in Michigan with- 
drew from the mam body and a year later were organized under the 
name "Church of God." 

12 Year Book of the Churches 

Doctrine and Polity 

The fundamental doctrines of the Church of God are the same 
as those of the Seventh-Day Adventists, with variance in their views 
of prophecy and its application. The polity of the denomination is 
essentially congregational. 



Herald of Life, Editor, H. L Babcock, 47 Orange St., New Haven, 

Organized in 1864. 


In matters of doctrine the members of this organization are in 
accord with the earlier Adventists except in regard to the resur- 
rection and the millennium. They hold that the righteous dead only 
will be raised, and that eternal life is bestowed solely at the second 
coming of Christ; that the millennium, the one thousand years of 
Revelation, had its fulfillment in the past, and instead of being a time 
of peace and happiness, was a period of religious persecution and 
suffering; that this earth, purified by fire and renewed in beauty, will 
be the eternal inheritance and dwelling place of God's people, m 
which the wicked dead shall have no place. 


In polity the Life and Advent Union is distinctly congregational; 
associations are for fellowship, and have no ecclesiastical authority. 


No general organization; 9 state conferences, annual. 


^ Restitution, Editor, William H. Brown, Elizabeth, N. J.; Resti- 
tution Herald, Oregon, 111., Editor, S. J. Lindsay; Gospel T-rumpet, 
Pans, Ark., Editor, J. H, Shelton. 

Organized in 1888, 


In general accord with the Adventist bodies, and classed with 
them, although the term "Adventist" does not appear m its title. 
The Bible is recognized as the only creed. 



The National Synod, triennially at call of Exarch ; last meet- 
Ing of the Synod: April 10 and 11, 1920. American Catholic 
Consistory send-annually. 


His Eminence, J. R. Vilatte (Mar Timotheus I), Exarch, 4427 
North Mulligan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Primate of the Old Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 13 

The Most Rev. F. E. J. Lloyd. Mus. D., Archbishop, Box 406, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 

The Rt Rev. Carl A. Nybladh, Seattle, Wash, Bishop of the 
Swedish Orthodox Church. 

The Rt. Rev. G. Alex. McGuire, 224 West 135th Street, New York 
City, N. Y., Bishop of the African Orthodox Church 


Name Location Dean 

American Catholic Seminary . . . Chicago J R Vilatte 


The Most Rev. F. E. J. Lloyd, Mus. D., Archbishop, Box 406, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, published by the American Catholic Consistory. 

American Catholic Quarterly, Box 406, Chicago, Illinois; Editor, 
The Most Rev. F. E. J. Lloyd. 

Chancellor of the Church 
Dr. E. J. Sneed, 338 North Lorel Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 


Organized in the year 1885, and incorporated under the Laws 
of Illinois in 1915 for the purpose of bringing together Catholics 
of America interested in the Old Catholic Movement. It brings 
together in visible bonds of unity other bodies while each remains 
independent and carries on its work in its own sphere. It re- 
ceived the Episcopate from the Syrian Church of Antioch, and 
it has transmitted it to the Swedish Orthodox Church and the 
African Orthodox Church. Its first Bishop and present Exarch 
organized the Old Roman Catholic Church. The bishops of all 
these Churches are members of the Conclave of the National 
Synod of the American Catholic Church. 

In doctrine all these churches are in full accord with the Orth- 
odox Churches of the East and the Old Catholic Churches of 
Europe. They accept the Seven Oecumenical Councils of the, 
Undivided Church prior to 1054 ; they reject the filioque clause, 
the papal supremacy and infallibility, the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, and denounce all union of Church and State. 



Board of the Old Roman Catholic Church ; semiannually. 


The Most Rev. J. R. Vilatte, D. C., Metropolitan and Primate, 
4427 North Mulligan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 


Ex Onente Lux, published by the Board, 4427 North Mulligan 
Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

14 Year Book of the Churches 


Organized and Incorporated in 1904 for the purpose of work 
among Catholics of foreign language holding to the Orthodox 
faith. It is m communion and cooperates with the American 
Catholic Church. 

Swedish Orthodox Synod meets semi-annually. 

The Rt. Rev. Carl A. Nybladh, Seattle, Washington. 


Organized in 1920 with the help of the American Catholic 
Consistory It is in communion with the American Catholic 
Church. Its work is restricted to persons speaking the Swedish 


General Synod, annually, last meeting September, 1922 
African Orthodox Consistory at call of Primate. 


The Rt. Rev. G. Alex. McGuire, Primate, 224 West 135th Street, 
New York, N. Y. 


The Negro Churchman, published monthly by the Consistory, 224 
West 135th Street, New York, N. Y. 


Organized September 2, 1921, It admits to membership and 
other privileges persons of all races, but seeks particularly to 
reach out to those of African descent, and declares itself to be 
perpetually autonomous and controlled by Negroes Its faith is 
Orthodox. It is in communion with the American Catholic 
Church. Its missionary work has extended to Canada, Cuba 
and Haiti. 


Rt. Eev. Bishop Tirayre, Primate of Church of Armenia in 
America; P. Selian, Secretary, 401 Old South Bldg., Boston, 


CENTRAL COMMITTEE ON RELIGION. Sec., Father Atik Tzotzigian. 

There are fourteen general parishes in America, each including 
the parishes adjacent to the city giving name, as follows: Worcester, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 15 

Boston, Lowell, Providence, Connecticut, New York, Chicago, Detroit, 
California, Fresno, Fawler, Los Angeles, Yettem, Richmond, Cleve- 
land, St. Louis, Canada and South America. 


For many years Armenians have been coming to this country, 
driven here by political disturbances and the disappointment of po- 
litical hopes. Some of these belonging to the Protestant Armenian 
Church, on coming to America identified themselves with the Con- 
gregational or Presbyterian denominations. The greater number, 
however, belong to the national church in Armenia and adhere to that 


The doctrinal system is founded on the Nicene Creed without the 
addition made by the Western Church in regard to the Procession of 
the Holy Ghost from the Son, as well as from the Father. Their 
creed is explicit in teaching that Christ was perfect God and perfect 
man. The authorized version of the Scriptures is the translation 
made 412 A. D., by St. Samake and other fathers of the Armenian 
Church. Seven sacraments are accepted. Baptism is invariably 
administered by immersion, generally eight days after birth, and is 
followed immediately by the sacrament which is administered by the 
anointing with chrism or sacred oil, and by the laying on of hands 
by the officiating priest. Holy Communion is administered in both 
kinds, even to infants, so that practically every baptized Armenian 
is also a communicant. Auricular confession is practiced and priestly 
absolution is given. Every communicant is required to present him- 
self to the priest, even if he has no sins to confess, and receive indi- 
vidual absolution before he can receive the Holy Communion. Prayers 
for the dead are offered. The saints and the Blessed Virgin are vener- 
ated, but the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is not a part of 
the creed. 


The government of the Armenian Church is both democratic and 
at the same time hierarchical, every officer being chosen by the people, 
but every minister having to be ordained by a Bishop who can trace 
his own commission to the Apostles through bishops in apostolic suc- 
cession. The Cathohcos of Etchmiadzine is the supreme head of all 
the Armenian churches throughout the world, to whom are subordin- 
ated the Armenian patriarchs of Jerusalem and Constantinople, with 
their Archbishops, Bishops, and prelates. 


(Formerly American Salvation Army) 

Council, annual. 

National headquarters: 2827 Frankford Ave., Philadelphia. 

Officers: Pres., Gen. James William Duffin; Vice-Pres. and 
s.j Brig. Gen. George A. Crider. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Chmn., Brig. Gen. Geo. A. Crider. 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE. Ckrnn., Brig. Gen. Geo. A. Crider. 

Rescue Herald (quarterly), Editor, George A. Crider. 

16 Year Book of the Churches 


. In 1882 Thomas E, Moore, connected with the Salvation Army,, 
with a number of the American officers of that organization with- 
drew because of controversy in regard to financial administration. 
These headed a movement of independent work which was incor- 
porated in 1884, and in 1885 was granted an amended charter under 
the name of the "Salvation Army of America." In 1913 the name 
was changed to "American Rescue Workers." 

Doctrine and Polity 

American Rescue Workers recognize the sacraments of baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, and are both an evangelistic and philanthropic 
organization. Their doctrines may be briefly stated as follows : The 
Bible is the inspired word of God, and is the rule of faith and guide 
to action, Jesus Christ was God manifest m the flesh; all who truly 
accept Christ as a personal Savior may be saved. The board of 
directors is elected to represent the corporation, the majority of them 
being laymen. Titles to property are vested in the board and not 
in the general. Corps having real estate have their own local boards. 
Should a corps cease to exist, the board of directors is qualified to 
become the custodian of the property for purposes of the organization. 


General Council, annual 

Headquarters . 336 W. Pacific Street, Springfield, Mo. 
Officers : Chmn. 9 Bev. B N. Bell, Springfield, Mo. ; See,, Rev. 
J. W Welch, Springfield, Mo. 

Rev. E. N. Bell. 


Nntne. Location. PrvncipctL 

Central Bible Institute Springfield, Mo Elder D, W Ken. 

Ehm Bible School. . . Rochestei, N Y Eldci V S Mumbulo. 

Southern California Bible School , Los Angeles, Cal Elder Harold K Needham. 
Glad Tidings Bible School. . San Francisco, Cal, Elder R J Craig 

Bethel Bible School Newark, N J. Elder Frank W Boyd 

The Gospel School . . Fmdlay, . .Elder T K Leonard 

Beulah Heights B.ble Training School Bergen, N J... Elder Wm. M, Faux. 


Pentecostal Evangel (weekly), Sunday School Helps, Spring- 
field, Mo , Editor, S. H. Fradsham. 


Following -upon the great revival in 1907, a number of churches, 
missions, or assemblies m the United States and Canada entered upon 
an individual and distinctly -evangelistic type of mission work. This 
was at first purely independent and voluntary, but some associa- 
tion and mutual fellowship became recognized as valuable and in 
1914 a call was made for all interested in Bible order, system and 
united doctrine to meet at Hot Springs, Arkansas. About 100 dele- 
gates came to this meeting, representing a variety of denominations, 
some of them never having belonged to any denomination. An or- 
ganization was agreed upon and incorporated in Arkansas in Oc- 
tober, 1914, and in Missouri m November, 1916, under the name of 
"Assemblies of God, General Council." 

Directory of Religious Bodies 17 


The Assemblies of God are mostly Armenian in doctrine. Dis- 
tinctive tenets appear to be special emphasis upon the baptism of the 
Holy Ghost; sanctification as the goal for all believers; divine heal- 
ing; the premillennial and imminent coming of Jesus to judge the 
world in righteousness, while reigning on earth for a thousand years; 
everlasting punishment for the wicked, and a new heaven and a new 
earth for the believers. "The Assemblies of God" are conscientiously 
opposed to participation in war. 


The polity of the denomination is a combination of the congre- 
gational and presbyterial systems. The local churches are congre- 
gational in the conduct of their affairs. They act, however, under 
the advice and suggestions of elders or presbyters. 

There are state bodies called district councils, and there is a 
General Council, for the consideration of affairs belonging to the 
church at large. 


Priest : Hanna Koorie, 930 Broadway, Woodcliff, N. J. 

Congregations are in the New England states, New York, New 
Jersey and Pacific states. Very Keverend Hanna Koorie is the 
only priest in America. He preaches in the Assyrian Language 
in the Protestant Episcopal churches in the cities and cooperates 
with them. 


Beth Nahrin (Mesopotamia), 307 Sussex St., Paterson, N. J., 
Editor, N. E. Palak. 


The Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church traces its origin to the 
first twelve apostles of Christ, particularly to St. Peter, who was 
the first Patriarch of Antioch. 

The Assyrian fathers were the first Christian missionaries. 
From the beginning of Christianity, they went to Gaul, Persia, India, 
China and Africa, where under extreme persecutions they succeeded 
in establishing numerous schools and monasteries. From the dawn 
of Christianity the Assyrians have been constantly persecuted by the 
various Roman, Greek, Persian and Turkish rulers. Judging from 
the continuous numerous outrages, it seems that the Turks and the 
Arabs aimed to exterminate all the Assyrian Christians. In the face 
of all these persecutions, the Assyrians gallantly faced death and to 
this day ably uphold their Christian faith. 

On account of the contact with American missionaries who had 
established schools in various localities, the attention of the Assyrians 
was turned to America. The people fled from the rule of the bar- 
barous Turk and sought shelter under the American flag. Soon 
there were several large Assyrian communities. Some of these were 
members of the Assyrian Roman Catholic Church, others belonged to 
the Assyrian Protestant Church, while still others belonged to the 
Assyrian Nestorian Church or the Chaldean Church. On coming 
here all except the Nestorians identified themselves with their respec- 
tive American denominations. As the number of the immigrants 
continued to increase the national Church services were in great de- 
mand, for the majority of the people were members of the Assyrian 
Jacobite Apostolic faith. 

18 Year Book of the Churches 

In April, 1907, the Assyrian Americans sent Deacon Hanna 
Koorie, then of Paterson, N. J., to Jerusalem. There he was or- 
dained priest and later a koone (cvhoorie). He returned to this 
country on September 28th of the same year. Immediately after 
returning to America, he assembled the wandering Assyrians, for 
the first time, to worship in St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Paterson, 
N. J. His people are mostly scattered in various states throughout 
the continent, particularly in the New England, the Middle Atlantic, 
the East-North Central and the Pacific states. 

In 1919 the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church was built in 
West Hoboken, N. J. In other localities, arrangements are frequently 
made with the rectors of different churches for the weekly services of 
the Assyrian congregation whenever the priest makes his regular 
calls. In some places halls are rented for Church services. 


The doctrine of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church is based 
on the Nicene Creed. It varies, however, from the Western Church 
concerning the "Procession of the Holy Ghost" and uses "The Holy 
Ghost proceeded from the Father and is with the Son." It accepts 
the canons of the first three General Councils of the Church, namely, 
the Nicene, Constantinople and Ephesus, as well as the writings of 
the recognized fathers of the Church of the period of these councils. 
It teaches that Christ was perfect God and perfect man. The inter- 
pretation of the Bible, the ecclesiastical ordinances, as well as the 
tradition of the Church, are held equally important. The seven sacra- 
ments, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, 
Orders and Matrimony, are accepted. Baptism is administered by 
pouring or immersion, chieflv the latter, usually several days after 
birth and is followed immediately by confirmation which the officiating 
priest administers by anointing with the sacred oil or chrism in 
the form of a cross and by laying on of the hands. The minister also 
breathes on the child and the water. Auricular confession is ac- 
cepted. Holy commanion is the sacrament which contains the body 
and blood of Christ under appearance of bread and wine. It is re- 
ceived fasting and is given to the laity in one kind, the form of 
bread. Saints and the Blessed Virgin are venerated, and prayers 
arc offered for the dead. 


The organization of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church cen- 
ters on the Patriarch who resides at Mardm, Dair el Zahfaran, and 
his authority is supreme in faith and all Church matters. Next in 
rank is the Mif rian who resides in Mosul and who alone can become 
Patriarch. Then follow the Iskiffs and the Mitrans, who, together 
with the Mifrian, act as the advisers of the Patriarch and as heads 
of various commissions or congregations which have charge of the 
Church administration. Only a Mifrian can become a Patriarch. The 
Mifrian is chosen from the Mitrans, all of whom are celibates. The 
Iskiffs can not rise higher in rank because they are widowed. Then 
follow the office of Koorie (Cvhoorie), Rhahib, priest and deacon, 
respectively. A deacon who is tinder thirty years of age can not 
be ordained to the office of priesthood, A celibate deacon can be or- 
dained to the office of Ehahib, Mitran, Mifrian and Patriarch* A 
married deacon can become a Priest, a Koorie (Cvhoorie), and Iskiff. 

The government of the Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church is 
democratic because every officer of the Church from the lowest to 
the highest is chosen by the people. It is also in a sense hierarchical, 
for every minister must be ordained by a bishop whose commission 
is traced to the Apostles through the apostolic succession of bishops. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 19 


"For universal religion, brotherhood and peace." 

Annual Convention. 

Officers : Pres., Mountf ord Mills, 2211 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. ; 8ec., Alfred E. Lunt, 89 State St., Boston, Mass. ; Chmn. 
Library Com., Mr. Chas. Mason Remey, P. 0. Box 1319, "Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Star of the West, Box 283, Chicago, III.; Reality, 415 Madison 
Ave., New York City; Teaching Bulletin, Sec., Marian Haney, The 
Mendota, Washington, D. C. 


Parallel with the prophecies of different religions relating to the 
establishment of a divine dispensation or kingdom among men have 
been prophecies relative to the coming of a great divine teacher, or 
divinely manifested "One," who would reform religion, restore its 
pristine purity, secure its wider adoption, and establish spiritual 
unity among the peoples of all the different nations, races, and re- 
ligions. In Persia in 1844 a young man named Ah Mohammed de- 
clared himself to be such, calling himself the Bab (Arabic for door 
or gate), forerunner of the Promised Divine One whom he heralded 
as "He Whom God Would Manifest." 


The general principles of the Bahais founded by teachings of 
the "Bab" are: The oneness of the religions of the world; the one- 
ness of all humanity; the universal brotherhood of man; universal 
peace ; and the perfect harmony of religion and science. Bahaism has 
no clergy, no religious ceremonial, no public prayers. Its only dogma 
is belief in God and His manifestations. In international relations 
the Bahais urge the necessity of a universal language to bring men 
into closer fellowship and mutual understanding, emphasize the in- 
cumbency of a Parliament of Man a universal tribunal of justice 
or arbitration for the adjustment of international affairs and teach 
the power of the Holy Spirit in the life of humanity. 


There is no regular organization of Bahais. One may be a 
Bahai and still retain active membership in another religious body. 



The Baptist bodies of today trace their origin as distinct com- 
munities to the Protestant Reformation. 

As soon as the Reformation gave men opportunity to inter- 
pret the teachings of the Scriptures for themselves, and to em- 
body their convictions in speech and act, persons holding 
Baptist doctrines began to appear. In the first quarter of the 
sixteenth century they were found in Germany and Switzerland, 
and were called Anabaptists (Re-Baptizers), because they in- 
sisted that persons baptized in infancy must, upon profession of 

20 Year Book of the Churches 

conversion, and in order to gain admission into church fellow- 
ship, be baptized again, although they do not appear to have 
insisted always on immersion. 

The first Calvinistic or Particular Baptist church was formed 
in London in 1638, its members seceding peaceably from an older 
Separatist congregation. In 1641 a further secession from the 
same Separatist church occurred, and the new group became 
convinced from study of the New Testament that the apostolic 
baptism was immersion. They sent one of their number to Hol- 
land, where he was immersed by a minister of the Collegiate 
church at Ehynsberg, where the practice of immersion had been 
introduced, and on his return the rest of the church were 

The first Baptist church in America was probably established 
by Roger Williams in Providence, E. I., in 1639, although this 
is disputed by the First Baptist Church of Newport, E. I., 
organized, it is claimed, with John Clarke as its pastor, the same 
year or shortly after. Eoger Williams baptized Ezekiel Holli- 
man, who in turn baptized him. Williams then baptized ten 
others, and this company of Baptist believers organized them- 
selves into a church. 

The history of the early Baptist churches in New England is 
one of constant struggle for existence. The Puritan govern- 
ment of Massachusetts was so bitter in its opposition that nearly 
a century after Eoger Williams there were but eight Baptist 
churches in that colony. Conditions elsewhere were similar, 
although farther south there was less persecution. 

With the general emancipation from ecclesiastical rule that 
followed the Eevolutionary War, all disabilities were removed 
from the Baptists in the different states, and the new Federal 
Constitution effaced the last vestige of religious inequality. 

In 1792 the Baptists of England organized a missionary so- 
ciety to send William Carey to India, and many of the Baptist- 
churches in the United States became interested in the movement 
and contributed toward its support. The first foreign mission- 
ary society in America was the American Board, organized in 
1810, in which Congregational, Presbyterian, "Reformed, and 
other churches united, and among its first missionaries were 
Adoniram Judson, Ms wife, and Luther Bice. Knowing that in 
India they were to meet Baptists, they made special study of 
Baptist doctrine, and before landing came to the conclusion that 
believers' baptism by immersion was the true method. Judson 
immediately sent word of their change of view, and Eice soon 
after returned to America to present the cause of Baptist mis- 
sions, and succeeded in arousing much interest in the churches. 
To meet the new conditions it became evident that some organi- 
zation was essential, and in 1814 The General Missionary Con- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 21 

vention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of 
America for Foreign Missions was formed. 

The missionary work of this organization, however, repre- 
sented only a part of its scope or achievement. It was, indeed, 
the first step toward bringing the various local churches to- 
gether, overcoming the disintegrating tendencies of extreme 
independence, and arousing denominational consciousness. A 
home missionary society was organized in 1832. A tract society 
had been formed in 1824, which in 1840 was renamed the " Amer- 
ican Baptist Publication Society." 

As the discussion in regard to slavery became acute, there 
arose the differences which resulted in the present three conven- 
tions Northern, Southern, and National. The southern 
churches withdrew in 1845 and formed the Southern Baptist 
Convention, whose purpose was to do for the southern Baptist 
churches just what the general convention had hitherto done for 
the entire Baptist denomination. It was not a new denomina- 
tion; simply a new organization for the direction of the mis- 
sionary and general evangelistic work of the churches of the 
Southern states. 

The development of the National Baptist Convention, repre- 
senting the Negro churches, was necessarily slow, and was not 
complete until many years after the organization of the Southern 
Baptist convention. 

These early American Baptist churches belonged to the Par- 
ticular, or Calvinistie branch. Later, Arminian views became 
widely spread for a time, but ultimately the Calvinistie view of 
the atonement was generally accepted by the main body of 
Baptists in the Colonies. The divisions which now exist began 
to make their appearance at a relatively early date, In 1652, the 
church at Providence divided, one party organizing a church 
which marked the beginning of the General Six Principle Bap- 
tists. The Seventh Day Baptist body organized its first church 
at Newport in 1671. Arminianism practically disappeared from 
the Baptist churches of New England about the, middle of the 
eighteenth century, but General Baptists were found in Virginia 
before 1714, and this branch gained a permanent foothold in the 
South. As a result of the revival movement, which followed 
Whitefield's visit to New England in 1740, the Separate Bap- 
tists came into existence and at one time were very numerous. 
The Free Baptists, in 1779, once more gave a general and widely 
accepted expression in New England to the Arminian view of 
the atonement. 

Soon after the Revolutionary War the question of the evan- 
gelization of the Negro race assumed importance, and a Colored 
Baptist church was organized in 1788. "With the general revival 
movement at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the 
nineteenth centuries, to which the Free Baptists owed no small 

22 Year Book of the Churches 

part of their growth, there developed, especially in the moun- 
tain sections of the Middle West and in the Southern states, a 
reaction toward a sterner Calvinism, which, combined with the 
natural Baptist emphasis upon individualism, produced a num- 
ber of associations strictly, even rigidly, Calvimstic, some of 
them going to the extent of dualism, as in the doctrine of the 
Two-Seed-m-the-Spirit Predestinanan Baptists. 

About the same time, as missionary work became organized 
into societies, many of these associations opposed, not so much 
mission work itself, as its organization, through fear of a de- 
veloping ecclesiasticism These were variously termed "Old 
School, " " Anti-Mission, " " Hard Shell, ' ' and ' ' Primitive ' ' Bap- 
tists; hut gradually the term " Primitive " became the most 
widely known and adopted. In contradistinction to these, the 
associations, or churches, which approved of missionary socie- 
ties, came to be designated Missionary Baptists, though there was 
no definite denominational organization under that name. 

The denominations mentioned, however, do not represent all 
who hold Baptist views, for during the revival period just re- 
ferred to, the Disciples of Christ, or Churches of Christ, arose, 
who in practice are essentially Baptists, although they differ 
from the other bodies in some interpretations. "With them also 
may be classed the Adventists, the Brethren (Dunker, Plymouth, 
and River), Mennonitcs, and certain other bodies. The Arme- 
nian and Eastern Orthodox Churches practice baptism by im- 
mersion, but do not limit it to those of mature years. 

By far the largest body of Baptists, not only in the. United 
States, but in the world, is that popularly known as "Baptists," 
though frequently referred to, and listed in the census of 1890, 
as "Regular Baptists." Other Baptist bodies prefix some de- 
scriptive adjective, such as "Primitive," "United," "General," 
"Free," etc., but this, which is virtually the parent body, com- 
monly has no such qualification. Its churches, however, are ordi- 
narily spoken of as "Northern," "Southern," and "National," 
or "Colored." This does not imply any radical divergence in 
doctrine or ecclesiastical order. All are essentially one in these 
respects, and the division into the three major groups is largely 
for administrative purposes. 


The cardinal principle of Baptists is implicit obedience to the 
plain teachings of the Word of God. Under this principle, while 
maintaining with other evangelical bodies the great truths of 
the Christian religion, they hold: (1) That the churches are 
independent in their local affairs; (2) that there should be an 
entire separation of church and state; (3) that religious liberty 
or freedom in matters of religion is an inherent right of the 
human soul; (4) that a church is a body of regenerated people 

Directory of Religious Bodies 23 

who have been baptized on profession of personal faith in 
Christ, and have associated themselves in the fellowship of the 
gospel; (5) that infant baptism is not only not taught in the 
Scriptures, but is fatal to the spirituality of the church; (6) 
that from the meaning of the word used in the Greek text of the 
Scriptures, the symbolism of the ordinance, and the practice of 
the early church, immersion in water is the only proper mode of 
baptism; (7) that the scriptural officers of a church are pastors 
and deacons; and (8) that the Lord's Supper is an ordinance 
of the church observed in commemoration of the sufferings and 
death of Christ. 

The beliefs of Baptists have been incorporated in confessions 
of faith. Of these, the Philadelphia Confession, originally issued 
by the London Baptist churches in 1689 and adopted with some 
enlargements by the Philadelphia Association in 1742, and the 
New Hampshire Confession, adopted by the New Hampshire 
State Convention in 1832, are recognized as the most important. 
The Philadelphia Confession is strongly Oalvinistic. The New 
Hampshire Confession modifies some of the statements of the 
earlier documents, and may be characterized as moderately Cal- 
vinistic. But while these confessions are recognized as fair ex- 
pressions of the faith of Baptists, there is nothing binding in 
them, and they are not regarded as having any special authority. 
The final court of appeal for Baptists is the "Word of God. 
Within limits, considerable differences in doctrine are allowed, 
and thus opportunity is given to modify beliefs as new light may 
break from or upon the ' 'Word." Among Baptists, heresy trials 
are rare. 


Baptist church polity is congregational or independent. Each 
church is sovereign so far as its own discipline and worship are 
concerned, calls or dismisses its own pastor, elects its own dea- 
cons or other officers, and attends to its own affairs. Admission 
to church membership is by vote of the church, usually after 
examination of the candidate by the church committee. There 
is no specific age limit, although the admission of very young 
children is discouraged. All members have equal voting rights 
in church matters, except that in some churches they are re- 
stricted to those over a certain age. The officers are the pastor 
and deacons, who, with such other persons as the church may 
elect, constitute a church committee, usually called the standing 
committee, and have general care of the affairs of the church, 
but no authority, except as it is specifically delegated to them 
by the church Church property is held sometimes by a board of 
trustees, sometimes by the entire society, and sometimes by a 
special committee of the church. 

For missionary and educational or other purposes, Baptist 

24 Year Book of the Churches 

churches usually group themselves into associations. The oldest 
is the Philadelphia Association, organized in 1707, which stood 
alone until 1751, when the Charleston Association was formed 
in South Carolina. These associations meet annually and are 
composed of messengers sent by the churches. They elect their' 
own officers, receive reports from the churches, and make recom- 
mendations with regard to work or other matters in which the 
churches are interested. They have, however, no authority to 
legislate for the churches, and no power to enforce any action 
they may take. 

Applicants for the ministry are licensed to preach by the 
church in which they hold membership. If after a period of 
service as licentiate, ordination is desired, a council of sister 
churches is called by the church in which membership is held, 
and on the recommendation of this council the church arranges 
for ordination. In both cases the right to license and the right 
to ordain are held by the individual church. Previous to ordi- 
nation there is always an examination of the candidate on mat- 
ters of religious experience, call to the ministry, and views on 
scriptural doctrine. During his ministry a pastor is usually a 
member of the church which he serves, and is amenable to its 
discipline. "When a question of dismissal from the ministry 
arises, the individual church calls a council of sister churches 
for the examination of charges, and on the recommendation of 
this council, the church usually bases its decision. 

Besides local associations, Baptists have also organized state 
conventions or state mission societies, state educational societies, 
city mission societies, etc. These larger bodies attend to mis- 
sionary or educational work in the various states or districts, and 
are supported by the churches. 


Convention, annual ; next meeting, Atlantic City, N. J., May 
23-29, 1923. 

Thirty-seven state conventions and about 1,200 associations. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Frederick E. Taylor, 1935 N. Meridian 
St., Indianapolis, Ind.; Exec. Sec., Kev. W. C. Bitting, 5109 
Waterman Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. ; Treas., Frank L. Miner, 1000 
Valley National Bank Bldg., Des Moines, la. 

GENERAL BOAED OP PROMOTION. Gen. Direc. t Kev. J. Y. Aitchi- 
son, 276 Fifth Avenue, New York City; Ex. Sees., Eev. F. W. Padel- 
ford, Rev. Hugh A. Heath; Treas., James C. Colgate; Bus. Manager, 
H. R. Greaves. 

N. Y. C. Pres., Kev. W. S. Abernethy, Chastelton Apt., Wash., B. C. ; 
Sees., Eev. James H. Franklin, Eev. J. C. Eobbins; Associate and 
Rec. Secy., W. B. Lipphard; Treas., George B. Huntington; Foreign 
and Candidate Sec., Eev. P. H. J. Lerrigo. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 25 

Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., L. S. Chapman, N. Y. C.; Gen. Sec., Eev. 
Gilbert N. Brink; Treas., George L. Estabrook; Bus. Mgr., H. E. 
Cressman; Book Editor, Rev. D. G. Stevens; Editor-in-Chief, Sunday 
School Publications, Eev. W. E. Raffety; Religious Educ. Sec., Rev. 
W. E. Chalmers; Social Education Sec. 9 Rev. S. Z. Batten; Bible and 
Field Sec., Rev. S. G. Neil. 

York City, Pres., F. W'. Freeman; Exec. Sec, Rev. C. L. White; 
Sec. English-Speaking Missions and Indian Work, Rev. L. C. Barnes; 
Supt. of Work in Latin N. A., Rev. C. S. Detweiler; Sec. of Educa- 
tion, Rev. G. R. Hovey; Sec. City and Foreign-Speaking Missions, 
Rev. C. A. Brooks; Architect Sec., George E. Merrill; Sec. Social 
Service and Rural Community Work, Rev. C. A. Brooks; Dept. of 
Evangelism, Rev. H. F. Stilwell; Treas., Samuel Bryant, New York. 

Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres., Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, Roches- 
ter, N. Y.; Foreign Vice-Pres, Mrs. Nathan R. Wood, Mass.; Home 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. H. E. Goodman, Illinois; Treas., Miss Alice M. Hud- 
son; Foreign Sec., Miss Nellie G. Prescott; Acting Home See., Miss 
Helen Hudson. 

Ave., New York City. Pres., Mrs. G. W. Coleman, Boston; Exec. Sec., 
Mrs. Katherine S. Westfall; Missionary Correspondence Sec., Clara 

E. Norcutt; Treas., Mrs. Mary C. Bloomer; Org. Sec., Ina E. Burton; 
Christian Americanization Sec., Alice W. S. Brimson, Chicago, 111.; 
Candidate Sec., Jessie Dodge White. 

Noble, 218 Lancaster Ave., Buffalo, N. Y.; Field Sec. t Miss Helen 

Mary L. Noble, 218 Lancaster Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. Sec., Rev. 

F. W. Padelford; Asst. Sec., Rev. Geo. R. Baker. 

New York City. Pres., E. H. Haskell, 176 Federal St., Boston, Mass.; 
Exec. Sec., Rev. E. T. Tomlinson; Associate Sec., Rev. Peter C, 
Wright; Treas., A. M. Harris. 

Ave., Chicago, 111. Pres., Rev. C. W. Atwater, Cincinnati, 0.; Gen, 
Sec., Rev. J. A. White; Treas., 0. 0. Montague, Chicago, 111. 

Theological Seminaries 
Name Location President or Dean 

Berkeley Divinity School . . . .Berkeley, Calif C. M. Hill. 

Divinity School, University of Chi- 
cago . . Chicago, 111 . . Shailer Mathews. 

Colgate Theological Seminary.. . Hamilton, N. Y . J. F. Vichert. 

Crozer Theological Seminary. . . Upland, Pa... Milton G. Evans. 

Kansas City Baptist Theological 

Seminary Kansas City, Kans P. W. Crannell. 

Newton Theological Institution Newton Centre, Mass George E. Horn 

Northern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary Chicago, 111 G. W. Taft. 

Rochester Theological Seminary. ..Rochester, N. Y.. . .C. A. Barbour. 

Training Schools 

Baptist Missionary Training School . Chicago, 111.. Mrs. Clara D. Pinkham, 

Kansas City Training School .Kansas City, Kans P. W. Crannell. 

Baptist Institute for Christian 
Workers Philadelphia, Pa. J. M. Wilbur. 

Danish Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary . . . .... .... Des Moines, Iowa . N. S. Lawdahl. 

Hungarian Trainmar School . Cleveland, Ohio . . . Stephen Orosz. 

Norwegian Baptist Divinity House.. Chicago, 111 . . . H. Gundersen. 

Russian Training School New York City . John Bokmelder. 

Slovak Training School . Chicago, 111 ... V. Kralicek. 

Swedish Training: School St. Paul, Minn . . . G. A. Hagstrom, 


Year Book of the Churches 

Colleges and Universities 

*Bates College 
Brown University 
Bucknell University 
Carleton College 
University of Chicago , 

, , . .Lewiston, Me 
. Providence, R. I 
. . . Lewisburg, Pa 
.Northfield, Minn . 
. . Chicago 111 

President or Dean 
C D Gray 
W. H. P. Faunce 
, Emory W. Hunt. 
Donald J. Cowling. 
Ki most I) Button \cting 

Colby College 

. , . Watervillc, Me. 

Arthur J Roberts, 

Colgate University 
Denison, Univeisity . 

.Hamilton, N Y 
. .Granville Ohio 

Geoige B. Cutton 
Clark W Chamberlain. 

Des Homes University . . 
Franklin College 
Grand Island College . . . 
Hillsdale College , . . 
Kalamazoo College 
Keuka College 
McMmnville College . . . , 
Ottawa University . , .. 
Rio Grande College . 
University of Redlands 
University of Rochester 
Shurtleff College 
Sioux Falls College 
Temple University . 
Vassar College , . 
William Jewell College 

. . Des Moines, Iowa 
, Franklin, Ind, 
.Grand Island, Neb. 
, ,, Hillsdale, Mich 
.Kalamazoo, Mich 
..Keuka Park, N. Y . 
.McMmnville, Oreg 
, . Ottawa, Kans . 
. , Rio Grande, Ohio 
. . Redlands, Calif , . . 
.. ..Rochester, N. Y 
Alton, 111 . 
. . Sioux Falls, S D 
Philadelphia, Pa 
. .Poughkeepsie, N, Y 
. . Liberty, Mo, , , 

John W, Million 
.C. E. Goodell 
Rev. John Mason Wells. 
Win. SptMH'ci Gem. 
Rev Allen T Ilohcn 
.Arthur II. Norton 
.Leonard W. Riley. 
. S. E. Puce. 
Simeon H. Bing. 
Victor L Duke. 
.Rush Rhees. 
Geoige M. Potter. 
. .Fred G Bought on. 
R. H. Conwell, 
Henry N. MacCracken. 

Alderson Baptist Academy. 
Broaddus Co-liege . , . . 
Cedar Valley College 
Colorado "Woman's College 
FrancevS Shinier School . 

Hardm College 

Lagrange College 

Stephens College .. 

Bethel! Academy 
Cobum Classical Institute 
Colby Academy . 
Cook Academy , 
Doane Academy .... 
Hebron Academy . . . 
Higgins Classical Institute 
Keystone Acaderny . ... 
Maine Central Institute . 
Peddie Institute .... 
Pillsburg Academy 
Ricker Classical Institute 
Southwest Academy . . . . , 

Suffield School 

Vermont Academy .... 
Wayland Academy . , 
Will Mayfleld Academy , . 
Worcester Academy ... , 

Junior Colleges 

. . . Alderson, W. Va 
.Phihppi, W. Va 
. Osage, Iowa .... 

... . Denver, Colo 
.Mt. Carroll, 111. 
. . Mexico, Mo 

, . .Lagrange, Mo . 
.Columbia, Mo 

M F. Fotbdl 
Rev. Klkaiwh Hnlley. 
.W. R. Barbour. 
. J. W. Bailey, 
.William P. McKee. 
.S J. Vaughn, 
D. J. Scott 
. .James M. Wood. 


.St. Paul, Minn. ... 
..Waterville, Me. . 
New London, N. H . 

Montour Falls, N. Y 

.Granville, Ohio . . 

.Hebron, Me. 
Charleston, Me 
. . Factoryville, Pa 

.Pittsfield, Me.. 

.Hightstown, N. J. . 
Owatonna, Minn 
..Houlton, Me . . 

.Bolivar, Mo 
..Suffield, Conn , 

Saxtona River, Vh, 
..Beaver Dam, Wis 
..Marble Hill, Mo 
. . Worcester, Mass . 

..A. J. Wingblade 

D. T. Harthorn. 
..Gams H. Bairett. 
. B. C. Cate. 
..H. R. Hundley. 
. Jas 1) Howlott 

William A. Tracy. 

Curtis P Coe. 
. Rhnei R. Vemll. 

R W S wetland. 
. Milo B. Price. 
. E. H. Stover. 

John Cavlin Pike, 
. H. G. Truesdell 

Raymond McFarland. 

B. P. Brown 

A. F. Hendrick. 
.S F. Holmes. 

* Founded by Free Baptists. 

Official Periodicals 

The BrtphKl, 417 So. Dearborn St., Chicago III, Editor, Edgar 
L. Killam; Missions, 276 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 3 Editor, Rev 
H. B. Grose, 

Other Periodicals 

Chrestinul (Rumanian) (semi-monthly), Detroit, Mich., Editor, 
Key. J. B. Socaciu; Jugend-Herold (German) (monthly), Cleveland, 
0., Editor, Rev. F. W. C. Meyer; Muntere Saeman (monthly). Cleve- 
land, 0., Editor, Rev, Gottlob Fetzer; Sendbote (weekly), Cleveland 
0., Editor, Bev. Gottlob Fetzer; Wegweiser (monthly), Cleveland, 0., 

Directory of Religious Bodies 27 

Editor, Rev. Gottlob Fetzer; Evangehsta (Spanish) (monthly), San 
Juan, P. R., Editor, H. W. Vodra; II Cnstiano (Italian) (weekly), 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Editor, A. Mangano; Nya Vecko-Posten (Swedish) 
(weekly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Bev. E. Wingren; Sondagsskolan och 
H emmet (Swedish) (quarterly), Chicago, 111., and Svenska Standaret 
(weekly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Waldemar Skoglam; Vaegteren (Dan- 
ish-Norwegian) (weekly), Harlan, la., Editor, Rev. J. Lunn; Watch- 
man-Examiner (weekly), New York, N. Y., Editor, Rev. Curtis Lee 
Laws; Wawr (Welsh) (monthly), Utica, N. Y., Editor, G. Griffith; 
Baptist Observer (weekly) , Indianapolis, Ind., Editor, Rev. T. J. Par- 
sons; Baptist Record (weekly), Pella, la., Editor, Rev. J. A. Lapham. 


After the withdrawal of the Southern churches, 1845, the Bap- 
tist churches of the North continued to grow. The intense contro- 
versies of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth 
century were no longer manifest. Educational institutions developed 
and there came to be a general unity of purpose and of life. T.he 
individualism which distinguished earlier times gradually gave place 
to a closer associationalism. Various organizations which had al- 
ready proved their value elsewhere were adopted into the denomina- 
tional life, all tending toward mutual church action. The Young 
People's Union rallied the forces of the young people, both for church 
life and general denominational activity. The Baptist Congress was 
formed for the consideration of matters affecting the general welfare 
of the churches. The American Baptist Missionary Union, which had 
fallen heir to the foreign work of the general convention, the Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Mission Society, the American Baptist Publica- 
tion Society, and other organizations, were carried on with energy. 

The chief change in denominational methods of late years was the 
organization of the Northern Baptist Convention, at Washington, 
D. C., in 1907, as a strictly delegated body from the Baptist churches 
of the North and West. The three great denominational societies, 
including the separate societies of women, have placed themselves 
under its direction, and report each year to the convention. A single 
committee prepares a budget for the following year, based on. the 
estimates of the societies, which is apportioned according to states, 
associations, and churches. Organic union of the societies is beset 
with legal difficulties, but this method secures the chief advantages of 
organic union. The result has been to consolidate agencies, eliminate 
useless expenditures, prevent overlapping of missionary work, and in 
general to secure a unity, economy, and efficiency that was before 
sadly lacking. Increasingly satisfactory results along these lines have 
been observable from year to year, especially in the line of compact- 
ness of organization. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine and polity of the Northern Baptist churches have 
been set forth in the general statement on Baptists. In general, the 
Northern churches are held to be less rigidly Calvinistic in their doc- 
trine than the Southern churches. Membership and ministry are in- 
terchanged on terms of perfect equality. In the Northern Conven- 
tion, the dividing line between the white and negro churches is not 
as sharply drawn as in the Southern. There are Negro members of 
white churches, and Negro churches in white associations, while white 
and Negro associations mingle more freely. 

28 Year Book of the Churches 


Annual next session held in Kansas City, Mo., May 16-21, 

There is in each state a State Convention or General Asso- 
ciation. The Southern Baptist Convention, the State Conven- 
tions, and the district associations are composed of ministerial 
and lay members. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. Edgar Young Mullins, Louisville, Ky. ; 
Sees., Rev. Hight C. Moore, Nashville, Tenn , J. Henry Burnett, 
Murf reesboro, Tenn. ; Treas., George W. Norton, Louisville, Ky. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Chmn., Rev. Edgar Young Mullins, 
Louisville, Ky.; Sec,, Eev. Eight C. Moore, Nashville, Tenn. 

FOREIGN MISSION BOAKD, P. 0. Box 1595, Kichmond, Va. Pres., 
R. E. Gaines; Cor. Sec., Rev. J. F. Love; Asst. Sec. t Rev. T. B. Ray; 
Treas., George N. Sanders. 

Home Mission Board, 1004 Healey Bldg., Atlanta,* Ga. Pres., 
Rev. John F Purser; Cor. Sec., Rev. B. D. Gray; Treas., C. S. Games; 
Enlistment Sec., Rev. 0. E. Bryan. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD, 161 8th Ave., North Nashville, Tenn. 
Pres., Rev. W. F. Powell ; Cor. Sec. and Treas., Rev. I. J. Van Ness. 

RELIEF AND ANNUITY BOARD, 1608-9 Kirby Bldg., Dallas, Tex. 
Pres., Rev. Wallace Bassett; Cor. Sec. f Wm. Lunsford; Treas., Stew- 
art D. Beckley. 

EDUCATION BOARD, 1214 Jefferson Co. Bank Bldg., Birmingham, 
Ala. Pres. Frank S. White; Cor? Sec., Rev. W. C. James; Treas. W. 
H. Manly. 

LAYMEN'S MOVEMENT, Knoxville, Tenn. Chmn. Exec. Com., J. H. 
Anderson; Gen. Sec.. 3. T. Henderson. 

WOMAN'S MISSIONARY UNION (auxiliary to Southern Baptist 
Convention), Jefferson Co. Bank Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. Pres., Mrs 
W. C. James, Birmingham, Ala.; Cor. Sec., Miss Kathleen Mallory; 
Treas., Mrs. W. C. Lowndes, 2114 Mt. Royal Terrace, Baltimore, Md. 
Organ: Royal Service (monthly), Miss Kathleen Mallory. 

Colleges and Universities 

Name Location President or Secretary 

Alabama Central College. . .Tuscaloosa, Ala. .. , .J H. Poster. 

Anderson College Anderson, S. C John E. White, 

Averett College Danville, Va. IP. Craft 

Baptist Bible Institute New Orleans, La . . . B. H. DeMent. 

Baylor Female College Beilon, Tex . . .J. C. Hardy. 

Baylor University Waco, "Tex. . .... Samuel P. Brooks, 

Bessie Tift College Forsyth, Ga A. Chamlee. 

Bethel College . . . ... Russellville, Ky George F. Dasher. 

Bethel Female College . Hopkinsville, Ky . . . . . J. W. Gaines. 
Blue Mountain College . -S^e Mountain, Miss. .. . W, T. Lowrey. 
Burleson College ~ 

Carson-Newman College 

.Greenville, Tex. . F. M McConnell 

. Jefferson City, Tenn ... . Oscar E. Sams. 

Central College Conway, Ark Doak S. Campbell 

Chowan College Murf reesboro, N. C.. .Preston S. Vann. 

Clark Memorial College . . . Newton, Miss John F. Carter. 

Coker College Hartsville, S. C E. W. Sikes. 

College of Marshall . .Marshall, Tex M. E. Hudson, 

Cumberland College Williamsburg, Ky C. W. Ellsey. 

Decatur College Decatur, Tex J, L. Ward. 

Doyle Institute . Doyle, Tenn . , J. L Mu^kelly. 

Ewmg College .. . Ewmg, 111 . August Gnesel. 

Furman University Greenville, S. C ... . . . W. J. McGlothlin. 

Georgetown College Georgetown, Ky M.B.Adams. 

Greenville Female College. . , .Greenville, S. C D. M. Ramsay. 

Hardin College Mexico* Ma S. J. Vaughn. 

Hillman College Clinton, Miss W. T, Lowrey. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 

AV/ M e 
Hollms College . . . . 
Howard College 

Howard Payne College ... . 
Jacksonville College 
John B. Stetson University... 
Judson College for Youi 
Lagrange College . . ... 

.Hollms, Va 
.East Lake, Birmingham, 
Ala . ... 
. Brownwood, Tex . . , 
..Jacksonville, Tex 
.De Land, Fla 

Ptesident ot Scoetaiy 
. . . Miss Matty L. Cocke. 

, . . . John C, Dawson 
. ...W. R. Hornburg 
. . .B. J. Albritton. 
. . Lincoln Hulley. 

.Marion, Ala 

. . . . .Paul V. Bomar. 

, . Lagrange, Mo 

...John W. Crouch. 
. . , C. Cottmgham. 

Limestone College , . 
Louisiana College . . 
Mars Hill College ... 
Mercer University 
Meredith College 

..Gaffney, S. C 
, . Pineville, La 

.Mars Hill, N, C . . . 
.Macon, Ga. , . . . 
..Raleigh, N. C. 

. .R. L, Moore. 
...Ruf us Weaver. 
, . .C. E. Brewer. 

Mississippi College ...... , 
Mississippi Woman's College. 
Montezurna Baptist College. 
Newton College . . 
Oklahoma University . 
Ouashita College . 
Oxford College, 
Shorter College 
Simmons College ... 
Southern Female College .... 
Southwest Baptist College. . 
Stephens College . . . . . , 

, . Clinton, Miss 
Hattiesburg, Miss 

, . . .J. W. Provme. 
. J. L. Johnson. 
. Layton Maddox, 
J. A. Lowry. 
. . . . J. B. Lawrence. 

. East Las Vegas, N Mex 
Newton, Ala . . . 
.Shawnee, Okla 

, . Arkadelphia, Ark. 
. Oxford, N. C . . 
, . Rome, Ga. . . . 
Abilene, Tex .. 

. . . C. E. Dicken 
. F. P. Hobgood. 
... W. D. Furry. 
J. D. San defer. 

.Lagrange, Ga. . . . 
Bolivar, Mo>. . ... 
..Columbia, Mo 
, . Murf reesboro, Tenn . . . 
.Jackson, Tenn 
..Bristol, Va 
.Wake Forest, N. C, . 
Plamview, Tex. 
.Richmond College, Va 
.Liberty, Mo. . .. . 
..Marble Hill, Mo ... 

. . . C. W. Minor. 
. J. C. Pike. 
. . James M. Wood 
..George J. Burnett. 
. .H. E. Waiters. 
.H. G. Noffsmger. 
. W. L. Poteat. 
E. B. Atwood 
.F. W. Boatwright. 
. . D. J. Evans. 
A. F. Hendncks. 

Tennessee College for Women , 
Union University 
Virginia Intermont College. . . 
Wake Forest College ... . 
Wayland College 
Westhampton College . 
William Jewell College . 
Will Mavfield College 

Theological Seminaries 

Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary Louisville, Ky ... E. Y. Mullms, 

Southwestern Baptist Theologi- 
cal Seminary * , . .Fort Worth, Tex L. R. Scarborough. 


Alabama Baptist (weekly), Birmingham, Ala., Editor, Rev. L. L. 
Gwaltn-ey; Baptist Advance (weekly), Little Bock, Ark., Editor, Rev. 
J. S. Compere; Kind Words, Boys' Weekly, Girls' Weekly, and Child's 
Gem (Weekly), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. Eight C. Moore; Bap- 
tist and Reflector (weekly), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. D. 
Moore; Baptist Chronicle (weekly), Alexandria, La., Editor, F. W. 
Tennm; Baptist Courier (weekly), Greenville, S. C., Editor, Rev. Z. 
T. Cody; Baptist Flag (weekly, Fulton, Ky., Editor, Rev. T. F. Moore; 
Baptist Messenger (weekly), Oklahoma City, Okla., Editor, Rev, 
C. P. Stealey; Baptist Record (weekly), Jackson, Miss., Editor, Rev. 
P. I. Lipsey; Baptist Review and Expositor (quarterly), Louisville, 
Ky., Editor, Rev. E. Y. Mullins; Baptist Standard (weekly), Dallas, 
Tex., Editor, Rev. E. C. Routh; Biblical Recorder (weekly), Raleigh, 
N. C., Editor, Rev. Livingston Johnson; Charity and Children, Thomas- 
ville, N. C., Editor, Archibald Johnson; Christion Index (weekly), 
Atlanta, Ga., Editor, Louie D. Newton; Convention, Southern Publica- 
tions (quarterly and monthly), Nashville, Tenn., Editors, Rev. E. C. 
Bargain and Rev. Hight C. Moore; Home and Foreign Fields 
(monthly), Editor, Rev. G. S. Dobbins, Nashville, Tenn; News and 
Truths (weekly), Murray, Ky., Editor, Rev. H. B. Taylor; Religious 
Herald (weekly), Richmond, Va., Editor, Rev. R. H. Pitt; South- 
western Journal of Theology, Seminary Hill, Texas, Editor, Rev. L. 
R. Scarborough; Western Recorder (weekly), Louisville, Ky., Editor 
Rev. V. I. Masters; Word and Way (weekly), Kansas City, Mo., 
Editor, Rev. S. M. Brown; Florida Baptist Witness, Jacksonville, Fla., 
Editor, Rev. J. W. Mitchell; Church Life (monthly), Baltimore, Md., 
Editor, John Kasbendike. 

30 Year Book of the Churches 


At the time of the formation of the Triennial Convention in 1814, 
the Baptist population was chiefly in New England and the Middle 
and Southern seaboard states, and the center of executive adminis- 
tration was located first at Philadelphia and subsequently at Boston. 
With the growth of migration to the South and Southwest, the num- 
ber of churches in those sections of the country greatly increased, 
and it became difficult to associate in a single advisory council more 
than a small percentage of the Baptist churches in the United States, 
especially as means of transportation were deficient and expensive. 
At the same time the question of slavery occasioned much discusssion 
between the two sections. 

This led to formal withdrawal of the various Southern state con- 
ventions and auxiliary foreign mission societies, and to the organi- 
zation at Augusta, Ga., in May, 1845, of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention. About 300 churches were represented. In all the discussions 
and m the final act of organization, there was very little bitterness, 
the prevalent conviction being that those of kindred thought would 
work more 'effectively together. The specific purpose of the conven- 
tion, as plainly set forth, was to carry out the benevolent purposes 
of the churches composing it; to elicit, combine, and direct their 
energies for the propagation of the gospel, and to cooperate for the 
promotion of foreign and domestic missions and other important ob- 
jects, while respecting the independence and equal rights of the 
churches themselves. 

Previous to the Civil War the convention met biennially; since 
that time it has met annually. Two boards were organized, both of 
which were appointed by and reported to the convention a foreign 
mission board, located at Richmond, Va., and a domestic or home mis- 
sion board, located first at Marion, Ala., afterwards at Atlanta, Ga, 
Subsequently boards were added to administer funds contributed for 
Bible distribution and to carry on Sunday school work. The Bible 
Board was afterwards consolidated with the Home Mission Board. 
The Sunday School Board failed through financial difficulties, but in 
1891 a new board of the same nature was established at Nashville, 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Southern Baptist churches are in general har- 
mony with those of the North, although as a rule they are more 
strictly Calvinistic, and the Philadelphia Confession of Faith is more 
firmly held than in the northern churches. In polity, likewise, there is 
no essential difference. The northern and southern churches inter- 
change membership and ministry on terms of perfect equality, and 
their separation is administrative in character, not doctrinal or ec- 


Convention, annual; next meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., Sep- 
tember, 1921 

Officers : Pres., Eev. L. K. Williams, Chicago, 111. ; 8ec.> Prof- 
K. B Hudson, Selma, Ala. ; Treas., Rev. A. J. Stokes, Montgom- 
ery, Ala. ; Statistician, Eev. C. H. Parrish, Louisville, Ky. 

FOREIGN MISSION BOARD, Philadelphia, Pa, Sec., Rev. J, E. East. 
Organ: The Mission Herald. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 81 

HOME MISSION BOARD, Wynne, Ark. See., Rev. W. F. Lovelace. 
Organ: Baptist Vanguard. 

A. M. Townsend. 

EDUCATIONAL BOARD, Memphis, Tenn. Sec., Rev. S. E. Gnggs. 

BAPTIST YOUNG PEOPLE'S BOARD, Nashville, Tenn. Sec., Rev. 
E. W. D. Isaac, 

CHURCH EXTENSION BOARD, Memphis, Tenn. See., Rev. W. M. S. 

E. G. Mason. 

WOMAN'S AUXILIARY BOARD, Washington, D. C. Sec,, Miss N. H. 


Name Locatwn President or Dean 

National Baptist Training Seminary, Nashville, Tenn ,H Owens. 

Training: School for Women and Girls. Washington, D. C. Miss N. H. Burroughs. 


National Baptist Voice (official organ), Nashville, Tenn., Editor, 
J. D. Crenshaw. 

group of National Baptists, organized 1874, covering the states from 
Maine to the District of Columbia. President, Rev. J. C. Jackson, 
3837 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 


The early history of the Negro Baptists in the United States is 
closely interwoven with that of the white Baptists, and yet from the 
period prior to the War of the American Revolution until the present 
day there have been distinctive Negro Baptist churches that is, 
churches whose members, officers, and pastors were of the Negro race. 
The first organization of this kind of which there is any record was 
at Silver Bluff, in Aiken County, S. C. It was formed by eight slaves 
on the plantation of George Galpin in a settlement on the Savannah 
River, near Augusta, Georgia, and appears to have dated from some 
years previous to 1778. In 1805 the Joy Street Baptist Church, the 
first in New England, was organized in Boston; in 1808 the Abys- 
sinian Church in New York City; in 1809 the First African Baptist 
Church in Philadelphia. These three were the first Negro Baptist 
churches in the North. 

The first Baptist Church of Washington, D. C., was organized 
in 1802, including in its membership many Negro people. In 1833, 
when the congregation moved to a new edifice, the Negro members 
were encouraged to continue in the old building. In 1839 they or- 
ganized as the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church and the building 
passed into their hands. This experience in Washington was re- 
peated in many places in the South where the Negro members wor- 
shipped with white organizations, until it seemed wise for them to 
have their own churches. 

The first effort at ecclesiastical organization of Negro Baptists 
appears to have been the formation of the Wood River Association of 
Illinois in 1838. An association was also established in Louisiana in 
the same year. The first state convention was organized in North 
Carolina in 1866 and in 1867 the second, third and fourth, in Alabama, 
Arkansas, and Virginia, and in 1869 the fifth in Kentucky. In 1886 
the National Baptist Convention was organized in St. Louis, Mo. 
In 1893 the National Educational Convention was organized in Wash- 
, ington, D. C. In September, 1895, the Foreign Missionary Convention 
of the United States of America, the National Baptist Convention^ 

32 Year Book of the Churches 

and the National Baptist Educational Convention met in Atlanta, 
Georgia, and all united in the present National Baptist Convention. 
The preamble to the constitution adopted at that meeting says: "It 
is the sense of the colored Baptists of the United States of America, 
convening in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, September 28, 1895, in 
several organizations known as the Baptist Foreign Missionary Con- 
vention of the United States of America, engaged in missionary work 
on the west coast of Africa, the National Baptist Convention, which 
has been engaged in missionary work in the United States, and the 
National Baptist Educational Convention, which, has sought to look 
after the educational interests, that the interest of the Kingdom of 
God requires that these several bodies above named should unite in 
one body. The object of this convention shall be to do missionary 
work in the United States of America, in Africa and elsewhere, and 
to foster the cause of education." 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the Negro Baptists are in close accord with 
the Northern and Southern Conventions. They represent the more 
strictly Calvinistic type in doctrine, and in polity refer the settlement 
of any difficulties that may arise to an ecclesiastical council. Their 
churches unite in associations, generally along state lines, for the 
discussion of topics relating to church life, the regulation of diffi- 
culties, the collection of statistics, and the presentation of annual re- 
ports. These meetings are consultative and advisory rather than 

In addition to the associations there are conventions which are 
held for the consideration of the distinctly missionary side of church 
life and not infrequently extend beyond state lines. 


(The International Old Baptist Union) 

Two annual conferences in the United States. 

Officers: Presiding Bishop of International Old Baptist 
Union, Eev. T. H. Squire, Allisonville, Ontario, Can, Pres. 
Rhode Island Conf., Eev. Warren Dawley, West Kingston, R, I. ; 
Pres., Pa. Conf., J. H. Billings, Nicholson, Pa. 

Divine Light and Truth (monthly) , London, Eng. 


In 1653 a number of mejnbers of the Baptist Church at Provi- 
dence, E. I., withdrew and organized the General Six Principle Bap- 
tist Church, the six principles being those mentioned in Hebrews 
vi, 1-2 repentance, faith, baptism, laying on of hands, resurrection 
of the dead, and eternal judgment. Other churches were organized 
on the same basis and in time two conferences were formed, one in 
Ehode Island and Massachusetts and one in Pennsylvania. These 
conferences are members of an international body, entitled "The Old 
Baptist Union in All the World," which is represented by an inter- 
national council, consisting of a bishop of the union, an international 
secretary, a treasurer, and representatives elected by the churches 
in the different countries. This council has authority to act in all 
"matters relating to the world-wide union or extension minutes/* 

Directory of Religious Bodies 33 

but the churches in each country or state manage their own internal 
affairs without interference from the international council or from 
the churches of any other country or state. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine these churches are in sympathy with the Arminian 
rather than the Calvinistic Baptists. Their distinctive feature is 
still the laying on of hands when members are received into the 
church. The general ecclesiastical organization corresponds to that 
of other Baptist bodies. 


General Conference, annual; next meeting, North Loup, Neb , 
August 1923. 

Officers : Prcs , Esle Fitz Kandolph, Great Kills, Staten Is- 
land, N. Y. ; Cor Sec., "Rev. Edwin Shaw, Milton, Wis ; Treas , 
Kev. "William C. Whitford, Alfred, N. Y. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Pres., Rev. Clayton A. Burdick, Westerly, 
R. I.; Cor. Sec., Rev. Wm. L. Burdick, Ashaway, R. I., Treas., Samuel 
H. Davis, Westerly, R, L 

EDUCATION SOCIETY. Pres., Rev. William C. Whitford, Alfred, 
N. Y.: Cor. Sec., Paul E. Titsworth, Alfred, N. Y.; Treas., Earl P. 
Saunders, Alfred, N. Y. 

dolph, Newark, N. J.; Cor. Sec. f Rev. Willard D. Burdick, Dunellen, 
N. J.; Treas., F. J. Hubbard, Plainfield, N. J. 

SABBATH SCHOOL BOARD. Pres., Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, 
Wis.; Sec., A. L. Burdick, Janesville, Wis.; Treas., L. A. Babcock, 
Milton, Wis. 

WOMAN'S EXECUTIVE BOARD. Pres., Mrs. Allen B. West, Milton 
Jet., Wis.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. J. H. Babcock, Milton, Wis.; Treas., Mrs. 
Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, Wis. 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S BOARD. Pres., Ben F. Johnson, Battle Creek, 
Mich,; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Frances F. Babcock, Battle Creek, Mich.; 
Treas., E. H. Clarke, Battle Creek, Mich. 

TRUSTEES OF MEMORIAL FUND. Pres., Henry M. Maxson, Plam- 
field, N. J.; Sec., William C. Hubbard, Plainfield, N. J.; Treas., Frank 
J. Hubbard, Plainfield, N. J. 

Randolph, Great Kills, S. I., N. Y.; Sec., Rev. Edwin Shaw, Milton 
Wis.; Fonuard Movement Director, Rev. Ahva J. C. Bond, Plamfield, 
N. J. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Pres., C. F. Randolph, Newark, N. J.; 
Sec., A. F. Randolph, Plainfield, N. J.; Treas., F. J. Hubbard, Plain- 
field, N. J. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Alfred College . , .. Alfred, N. Y. .. .Boothe C. Davis. 

Milton College . Milton, Wis . . .Alfred E. Whitford. 

Salem College . , . .Salem, West Va. . .S. Orestes Bond. 

Theological Seminary 

Alfred Theological Semi- 
nary Alfred, N. Y. , t ,,,,,,. , tt Arthur E. Main. 

34 Year Book of the Churches 


Sabbath Recorder (weekly), Plainfield, N. J., Editor, Rev. Theo, 
L. Gardiner; Sabbath Visitor (weekly), children's paper, Plainfield, 
N. J., Editor, Miss Evalois St. John; Helping Hand (quarterly), Sab- 
bath school help, Plainfield, N. J., Editor, Eev. William C. Whitford; 
Seventh Day Baptist Year Book (annual), Plainfield, N. J. 


From the earliest periods of the Christian Church there have 
been those who claimed, in respect to the Sabbath, that Christ by 
his example and teaching preserved in its full significance the Sab- 
bath, while removing from it the formal burdens and restrictions 
which had been imposed upon it by the Pharisees. Accordingly, they 
have held that loyalty to the law of God and to the teachings oi 
Christ and the Apostles, as recorded in the Bible, required continu- 
ance of the observance of the seventh day as the Sabbath. 

At the time of the English Reformation the question of the Sab- 
bath came to the front, and a considerable number forsook the ob- 
servance of Sunday and accepted the seventh day as the Sabbath, 
Fourteen Seventh Day Baptist churches were soon established in dif- 
ferent parts of England, the earliest being the Mill Yard and Pin- 
ner's Hall Churches in London; the former, dating its origin in 1617 : 
is still in existence. 

The first Seventh Day Baptist Church in America was established 
at Newport, R, I., in 1671. Other organizations were effected, at 
Philadelphia, Pa., as early as 1700, and at Piscataway, Middlesex 
County, N. J. From these three centers Seventh Day Baptist 
churches have been established in almost every part of the United 
States. It was from one of these communities that the impulse 
came for the founding of the Ephrata Community of German Bap- 
tist Brethren, resulting in the organization of German Seventh Day 
Baptists in 1728. 


In doctrine the Seventh Day Baptists are evangelical. They be- 
long to the regular group of Baptists, being distinguished by then 
observance of the seventh dav instead of the first day as the Sabbath, 

Originally the Seventh Day Baptists were restricted communion- 
ists; but at present, although no concerted official action has been 
taken, the matter of partaking of the communion in their own or in 
other churches is left to the private judgment of each individual 
Church membership, however, is granted only to those who have been 
immersed for baptism. 


In polity the Seventh Day Baptists have always been strictly 
independent congregationalists. Each local church is independent 
in its own affairs, and all union for denominational work is volun- 
tary. For administrative purposes chiefly, the churches are organized 
into a General Conference, including all the churches of the world, 
This is a delegated body, with only advisory powers. It exerciseSj 
however, the prerogative of determining what churches shall con- 
stitute its membership; also the right of recognizing, or refusing tc 
recognize, as ministers of the denomination, those who have been or- 
dained by the local churches. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 35 


Free Baptists are in the process of merging their national 
organizations with those of the Northern Baptist Convention, 
and of blending their local associations and societies with simi- 
lar bodies connected with the Northern Baptist Convention. 
Foreign missionary and home missionary interests have already 
been consolidated. The majority of Free Baptist ministers, 
churches, and members are now included in the enumeration of 
the Northern Baptist Convention. 

The General Conference of Free Baptists, quadrennial, will 
meet only as called. It maintains its separate existence as a 
legal corporation for the administration of funds and interests 
which await final settlement and transfer. 

Officers : Pres., Joseph W. Mauck, Hillsdale, Mich. ; Cor. Sec.- 
Treas., Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony, 156 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. 


Address E. T. Phillips, Ayden, N. C. 


The first organization in Wales, 1701; in America at Perquimans, 
N. C., in 1727. In early history no distinctive name. Afterwards 
called "Free Will Baptists," and later "Original Free Will Baptists/ 1 
later still dropped the term "Original" and are called simply "Free 
Will Baptists." In 1836 they were represented by delegates in a 
General Conference of Free Will Baptists throughout the United 
States, but after the Civil War they held their own conferences. In 
recent years they have drawn to themselves a number of churches of 
similar faith throughout the southern states, and have increased 
greatly in strength. They hold essentially the same doctrines as the 
Free Baptist churches of the north, have the same form of ecclesi- 
astical polity, and are to some degree identified with the same inter- 
ests, missionary and educational. 

As the movement for the union of the Free Baptist churches with 
the Northern ' Baptist Convention has extended, some who did not 
care to join in that movement nave affiliated with the Free Will 
Baptists, though as yet there nas been little formal action in that 


The Free Will Baptists accept the five points of Arminianism 
as opposed to the five points of Calvinism, and in a confession of faith 
of eighteen articles, declare that Christ "freely gave Himself a ran- 
som for all, tasting death for every man'"; that "God wants all to 
come to repentance" ; and that "all men, at one time or another, are 
found m such capacity as that, through the grace of God, they may 
be eternally saved." Believers' baptism is considered the only true 
principle, and immersion the only correct form; but no distinction 
is made in the invitation to the Lord's Supper, and Free Will Bap- 
tists uniformly practice open communion. They further believe in 
foot-washing and anointing the sick with oil. 

In polity the Free Will Baptists are congregational. 

36 Year Book of the Churches 

(Formerly United American J?ree Will Baptists) 

General Conference, triennial; next meeting at Hyden, N 
C., December 5, 1923. 

Officers : Gen. Mod., Kev. E. Becton, Dover, N. C. ; Gen. Sec., 
Eev. N. A. Harrington, Dunn, N. C,; Gen. Treas., Kev. B. M 
Hill; Gen. Ed. Treas., Kev. W. T. Barney; Gen. Fin. Sec., Eev, 
W. B. Edmondson. 

PUBLISHING HOUSE, Kinston, N. C. Trects., Rev. K. W. Artis. 


Name Location President 

Kinston College Kinston, N. C . L. E. Rosbury. 


Free Will Baptist Advocate (weekly), Kinston, N. C., Editor and 
Manager, J. W. C. Smith. 


For some years after the Civil War the lines between the white 
and Negro Free Will Baptist churches in the southern states seem 
not to have been drawn very sharply. As, however, the latter in- 
creased in number and in activity, tbere arose among them a desire 
for a separate organization. Their ministers and evangelists, to- 
gether with others, had gathered a number of churches in North 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Florida and had met with such 
success that in 1901 they were organized as a separate denomination. 
While ecclesiastically distinct, these negro Baptists are in close re- 
lation with the white Free Will Baptist churches of the southern 
states, and trace their origin to the early Arminian Baptist churches 
of the Carolinas and Virginia and the Free Baptist movement in New 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Colored Free Will Baptists are in substantial 
agreement with the white churches of the same faith. In polity the 
local churches are not as completely autonomous as is the case in the 
other Free Will Baptist bodies. The denomination has a system of 
quarterly, annual and general conferences, with a graded authority. 


Officers: Clerk of Quarterly Meeting, J. F. Cotton, Hollis 
Center, Me. ; Clerk and Sec. of Society, Harry L. Cotton. 

All Christian and missionary work is done through other 


The movement started by Benjamin Randall in New Hamp- 
shire in 1780, which resulted in the organization of the body known 
as "Free Baptists," spread in Maine, where a considerable number of 
churches were formed. In 1835 there was a division, and some of the 
ministers, including John Buzzell, Charles Bean, Jeremiah Bullock 
and others, with their churches, withdrew from the Free Baptists. 
These again separated under the leadership of Jeremiah Bullock and 

Directory of Religious Bodies 37 

John Buzzell, and their followers were frequently nicknamed "Bul- 
lockites" and "Buzzellites." The latter have practically disappeared 
as a distinct body, though a few remain in Maine under the name 
"General Provision Baptists," their leading minister being Keverend 
George Stevens, South Windham, Maine. The former continue to 
exist in Maine, retaining the earlier name "Free Will Baptists." 
They have, however, no denominational connection with the churches 
of the same name in the southern states. 


General Association, annual; 35 district associations. 
Sec.-Treas., J. P. Cox, Owensville, Ind. 


Name Location President 

Oakland College Oakland City, Ind . . W. P. Bearing-. 

The Messenger (weekly), Owensville, Ind. 


The General, or Arminian, Baptists trace their origin as a dis- 
tinct denomination to the early part of the seventeenth century. Their 
first church is believed to have been founded in Holland in 1607 or 
1610 and their first church in England in 1611. Organizing in Vir- 
ginia in 1714, spreading to North Carolina and other colonies south. 

The historical origin of those Baptist bodies in the United States 
now bearing appellation "General Baptists" is somewhat uncertain, 
but it seems probable that they represent colonies sent to the Cum- 
berland region by the early General Baptist churches of North Caro- 
lina. The first very definite information concerning them is that in 
1823 a General Baptist church was organized in Vanderburg County, 
Indiana, by Benoni Stmson and others. The following year Liberty 
Association was organized with four churches. The movement grad- 
ually extended to Kentucky, Illinois, Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas 
and Nebraska. More recently churches have been established in Okla- 
homa. In 1915 the General Association of the General Baptists 
formed a cooperative union with the Northern Baptist Convention. 


The confession of faith of the General Baptists consists of eleven 
articles, which, with but two slight changes, are identical with those 
formulated by Benoni Stmson in 1823. The distinctive feature of 
this confession is the doctrine of a general atonement (whence the 
name "General Baptist") which is that Christ died for all men, not 
merely for the elect, and that any failure of Salvation rests purely 
with the individual; that it is possible for a Christian to fall from 
grace and be lost; baptism of believers by immersion; and the Lord's 
Supper open to all believers. Some of the churches practice "foot- 


Congregational. In accord with other Baptist bodies. 

38 Year Book of the Churches 

Address Elder Morgan. Scott, Edmburg, Ind. 

His tory 

The term " Separate" as applied to church bodies had its origin 
in what is known as the "Separatist Movement" in England toward 
the close of the sixteenth century and early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It indicated primarily a withdrawing from the Anglican 
Church, without implying any specific doctrinal or ecclesiastical char- 
acter. Among* the churches which thus withdrew were some dis- 
tinctively Baptist churches, though the first definite date appears to 
be that of 1662, when a church called the "English Puritan Separate 
Baptist Church" is said to have been organized. This in common 
with some of the other independent churches was compelled to emi- 
grate to the colonies, and came to America in 1695. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century a somewhat similar condition existed 
in New England. The revival movement in which Whitefield took 
so prominent a part, and which culminated in the Great Awakening, 
caused sharp discussion and resulted in the withdrawal or "Sepa- 
ration" of a number of churches. In all of these "separate" churches 
there were Baptists. These Separate Baptist Churches were distin- 
guished from the regular Baptist Churches by their milder Calvinism 
and their willingness to receive those who practiced infant baptism, 
even though they themselves preferred the form of immersion. 

In 1787 the Regular and Separate Baptists m Virginia formed a 
union, adopting the name "United Baptist Churches of Christ in 
Virginia." In course of time similar unions were formed in most 
of the other states in which the southern branch of the Separate Bap- 
tists had organizations. A few Separate Baptist Churches, however, 
refused to join m this movement, and have maintained distinct or- 
ganizations until the present time. Owing largely to difficulty of 
communication, some practically kindred associations, such as the 
Duck River Association and others of similar character have not 
identified themselves with the distinctive Separate Baptist body. In- 
dividual members of these associations have expressed their willing- 
ness to be classed with the Separate Baptists, but no official action 
in that direction has been taken. 

Doctrine and Polity 

Separate Baptists reject all creeds and confessions of faith, but 
the various associations publish, in the minutes of their yearly meet- 
ings, articles of belief. These are not always worded exactly alike, 
but in the main are in substantial agreement with the doctrinal be- 
lief of Baptists generally. They recognize three ordinances: baptism, 
by immersion only; the Lord's Supper and foot-washing. 

The strict Calvinistic doctrines of election, reprobation, and fatal- 
ity have never been accepted by the Separate Baptist churches, the 
special points of emphasis in their preaching being the general atone- 
ment of Jesus Christ and the freedom of salvation for all who will 
come to Him on the terms laid down in His Word. The Lord's Sup- 
per is observed in the evening and is regarded, not as a church table, 
but the Lord's table. Strictly congregational in polity. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 39 


Address Joseph P. Adams, Asheville, N. C. 


Sword and Shield (monthly), Dry Creek, Ky., Editor, Elder 
Joseph Hall; Regular Baptist (monthly), 1608 Holly St., Nashville, 
Term., Editor, W. W. Mullens; Western Regular Baptist (monthly), 
Moberly, Mo., Editor, Elder William Huff; Baptist Chronicle 
(monthly), Paintsville, Ky., Editor, Elder E. J. Harris. 


Regular Baptists represent the original English Baptists before 
the distinction between Calvinistic or Particular and Armmian or 
General became prominent. They are thus distinguished from the 
Primitive Baptists, representing the extreme of Calvinism, and the 
General, Free Will, and other Baptists, inclining more to the Armm- 
ian doctrine; but are in general sympathy with the' United Bap- 
tists and Duck River and Kindred Associations of Baptists. Some 
use the term "Regular" alone, and some the term "Regular Primi- 
tive." They are to be found chiefly in North Carolina, Virginia, 
Tennessee, Kentucky and the adjoining states. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Regular Baptists are essentially at one with the 
United Baptists and hold that God gives no command without giving 
the individual corresponding ability to comply; that all for whom 
Christ died may comply with the requirements and conditions neces- 
sary to eternal salvation; and that, therefore, since Christ tasted 
death for every man and all men are commanded to repent, the 
eternal salvation of all men is possible and those who are lost might 
have complied with the gospel command and been saved. 

The different confessions of faith adopted by other Baptists, such 
as the London Confession, the Philadelphia Confession, and the New 
Hampshire Confession, are not in use. They are strict in admission 
to the Lord's Supper, practicing close communion, and for the most 
part observing the ceremony of foot-washing. 

In polity the Regular Baptists are distinctly congregational. 


Address Joseph P. Adams, 75 Park Ave., Asheville, N. C. 


With the immigration of Baptists from the New England and 
Middle states into Virginia, the Carplinas, Tennessee, and . Ken- 
tucky, and the more intimate fellowship that grew up in those iso- 
lated communities, the distinction between the different Baptist 
bodies, Calvanistic or Particular, and Armmian or General, became 
in many cases less marked, and a tendency toward union was appar- 
ent. In Virginia and the Carolinas, particularly, and also in Ken- 
tucky, during the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the 
nineteenth centuries, a considerable number of the Separate Baptists 
and those who were known as "Regular Baptists," claiming to repre- 
sent the original English Baptists before the distinction between 
Particular and General became prominent, combined under the name 
of "United Baptists.'* The Separate Baptists emphasized less 

40 Year Book of the Churches 

strongly the Arminian characteristics of their belief, while the Regu- 
lar Baptists were more ready to allow special customs, particularly 
foot-washing, wherever they were desired. This movement, which 
took definite form in Richmond, Va., in 1794, and in Kentucky in 
1804, for a time gained strength and the associations kept their 
identity; but gradually, as thev came into closer relations with the 
larger Baptist bodies of the North and South, many United Bap- 
tists churches ceased to be distinct and became enrolled with other 
Baptist bodies. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the United Baptists hold beliefs in common with 
other branches of Baptists. They observe the ceremony of foot- 
washing, and are strict in their practice of close communion. In 
polity they are strictly congregational. 


(See also "Regular Baptists") 
Address Samuel F. Shelton, Beeehgrove, Tenn. 


Baptist principles gained a particularly strong foothold in the 
mountain regions of Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and Alabama. 
One of the earliest associations to be organized m this section was 
the Elk River Association, founded in 1808, which was strongly 
Calvinistic in doctrine and thoroughly independent in polity. With 
the growth of the more liberal influences of the revival movement of 
that time and the introduction of Methodism there grew up a counter 
movement, emphasizing a stricter theology and making for a more 
rigid rule in the church. This manifested itself especially in the 
growth of the Two-Seed-m-the- Spirit Predestinarian Baptists. In this 
controversy the Elk Kiver Association was divided. A minority, hold- 
ing to the milder form of doctrine, organized the Duck River Asso- 
ciation, and this furnished the nucleus for a number of churches 
holding essentially the same general doctrines as the Separate Bap- 
tists, but not identifying themselves with the latter, largely because 
of local conditions. Later, the discussion arose as to the legitimacy 
of missionary societies, and there came another division, some with- 
drawing and identifying themselves with the churches that became 
known as the Missionary Baptists, leaving the others bound still 
more closely together. This fellowship included in 1906 seven asso- 
ciations, located in Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. 



In doctrine the Duck River and its kindred associations are Cal- 
vinistic, though liberal. 


In polity they are congregational, in accord with other Baptist 


No regular organization. Address Elder 0. H. CUyce, For- 
dyco, Ark. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 41 

His tor/ 

Primitive Baptist Churches in strict interpretation of Scriptural 
institutions oppose all benevolent, missionary, Sunday school and 
similar organizations on the ground that such did not exist in Apo- 
stolic days and that there is no Scriptural warrant for them now. 
Apparently the first official announcement of this position was made 
by the Kehukee Baptist Association of North Carolina, in 1827, soon 
after their introduction among Baptists, unanimously condemning all 
1 modern, money-based, so-called benevolent societies" as contraiy to 
the teaching and practice of Christ and His Apostles, and announcing 
that it could no longer fellowship with churches which indorsed such 
societies. ^ Other Baptist associations in the north, south, east and 
west, during the next ten years, took similar action. 


f In matters of doctrine the Primitive Baptists are strongly Cal- 
vinistic. Immersion of believers is held to be the only form of bap- 
tism, and is a prerequisite to the Lord's Supper. In some sections 
the Primitive Baptists believe that washing the saints' feet should be 
practiced in the church, usually in connection with the ordinance of 
the Lord's Supper. Most of the churches are earnestly opposed to 
the use of instrumental music of any kind in church services. Sun- 
day schools and secret societies are claimed not to be in accordance 
with the teachings of the Bible. 


The various Primitive Baptist associations have never organized 
as a denomination. There are no state conventions or general bodies 
of any kind. Strictly congregational in polity. 


Has salaried ministry, missions and Bible study. 
Address Elder Wm. H. Grouse, Cordele, Ga., or Elder E. W. 
Thomas, Danville, Tnd. 

The Banner-Herald, Cordele, Ga. 


Calvinistic in doctrine, holding the doctrines of eternal, particular 
and unconditional election, substitutionary atonement for the elect 
only, effectual calling or regeneration by the Holy Spirit, preserva- 
tion of ^the saints, resurrection of the dead, the eternal happiness 
of the righteous and the everlasting punishment of the wicked. 

Evangelistic in spirit. Ministry supported by free-will offerings. 
Use musical instruments in their song service. Have Bible study, 
but opposed to modern system of Sunday schools. Have chartered 
organization for the relief of the poor and needy, publication of 
literature, and spread of the Gospel. 


Annual conference, meets in June. 
Headquarters : Britt, la. 

Officers : Pres. y Eev. John Edgren, L. Box 325, Britt, Iowa ; 
Sec., David Johnson, Warren, Minn. 

42 Year Book of the Churches 

MISSIONS BOARD. Cfow??,*John Forslvom, Sec , 0. A. Johnwon, 
R. No. 2, Kennedy, Minn. 


Vittnet, Editor, Rev. John Edgren; Scmmngrens Van, Editor, 
Rev. N. P. Truedson. Both monthly. 


Address Rev J. E Christopher, Athens, Ala, 


The Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestmarian Baptists as a distinct 
body arose early in the nineteenth century, by a protest of the more 
rigid Calvinists against what some considered a general laxity of 
doctrine and looseness of church discipline consequent upon the 
prevalence of Arminian doctrines as set forth by Methodism. This 
protest found its fullest expression in the mountain regions of Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky, but extended throughout the entire south and 
west. Its great leader was Elder Daniel Parker, a native of Virginia, 
who was ordained in Tennessee in 1806, and labored in that state, and 
in Illinois and Texas until his death. Intensely Calvinistic in doctrine 
and equally independent in polity, these Baptists formed scattered 
churches rather than an organized denomination, and developed only 
in a minor degree an associational character. They differed from the 
Primitive Baptists chiefly in the degree to which they carried their 
theological opinions and ecclesiastical principles, and were frequently 
called by the same names, "Primitive," "Old School," and "Hard 
Shell," though the special feature of their belief was gradually recog- 
nized and they became popularly known as the "Two-Seed Baptists." 

, Doctrine 

Their doctrine is as follows: 

The phrase "Two- Seed" indicates one seed of evil and one of 
good, emanating from two different sources (as positive and nega- 
tive), the earthly generation (or mankind) being the field through 
which both are manifested, the field yet being no part of either. 
Neither has it (the field) any power of its own to resist, but must, 
and does, develop or manifest what is sown m it, as in the parable of 
the wheat and tares; neither can one change from one to the other, 
but each produces after its kind. We do not divide the Adamic race 
neither do we change the decrees of God, but as He declared the 
origin and destiny of the parent or progenitor in the beginning, we 
claim that, as He can not change, neither does it change either the 
origin or destiny of any one of His generation. This being the visible 
or representative character, then we also claim that both the good 
and the evil being set forth as seed-fathers and progenitors, we can 
not use the term father, mother or child except as the other also is 
implied or understood; in both of these spiritual generators He also 
gives origin and destiny, and that can not be changed. Thus, it is 
the crop which grows m the field that we gather in our barn; we 
do not gather the field, nor has the field any power of resistance, 
but has to develop whatever is sown in it; and the atonement, or 
offering, being for the redemption of something, must necessarily 
mean that something was' once possessed and then lost. We also 
claim the price demanded was paid, the debt of divine justice satis- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 43 

fied, nothing more charged against them; but as the sufferings of the 
Saviour were visible, then we suffer temptations while in the flesh, 
or, in other words, both grow together m the field, but when the 
harvest is come then the crop is gathered, not the field it grew on. 

Foot-washing is observed in the churches of this religious body, 
and many of the denomination are strongly opposed to a paid min- 
istry. They do not believe that the help of a minister is needed to 
reach and save sinners. Christ carries on the work of salvation with- 
out the help of man. 


In their church government the Two-Seed Baptists are thor- 
oughly independent, each church standing by itself. Associations 
are formed, but for spiritual fellowship rather than for church man 



(Conservative Dunkers) 

General Conference, annual. 

Fifty-three district conferences 

Officers : Mod; I. "W. Taylor, Bphrata, Pa. ; Reading Clerk, 
J. J. Yodcr, McPlierson, Kans ; Writing Clerk, J. A. Dove, 
Gloverdale, Va. 

GENERAL MISSION BOARD. Chmn., H. C Early, Flora, Ind.; Vice- 
Chmn., Otho Winger, North Manchester, Ind.; Acting Gen. Sec,> Chas. 
D. Bonsack, Elgin, 111.; J. J. Yoder, McPherson, Kans., A. P. Blough, 
1315 Grant Ave., Waterloo, Iowa. Missionary Educational Sec., H. 
Spencer Minnich, Elgin, 111.; Home Mission Sec., M. K. Zigler, Elgin, 
111.; Treas., Clyde M. Gulp, Elgin, 111. 

GENERAL SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD. Chmn., H. K. Ober, Elizabeth- 
town, Pa.; Vice-Chmn., C. S. Ikenberry, Daleville, Va.; Secretary and 
Field Director, Ezra Flory, Elgin, 111.; Treas., Jas. M. Mohler, Leeton, 
Mo.; J. W. Clme, 1823 Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL BOARD. Pres., D. W. Kurtz, McPherson, 
Kans.; Vice-Pres., D. M. Garver, Trotwood, Ohio; Sec.-Treas., J. S. 
Noffsinger, 206 W. 103 St., New York City; J. S. Flory, Bridgewater, 
Va.; J. W. Lear, 3435 W. Van Buren Street, Chicago,, 111. Asst.-Sec., 
for the Board, H. Spencer Minnich, Elgin, 111. 

burgh, La Verne, Cal.; Vice-Chmn., Eva Lichty Whisler, Milledge- 
ville, 111.; Sec.-Treas., W. 0. Tannreuther, Waterloo, Iowa. Gen.-Sec., 
for the Board, C. H* Shamberger, Elgin, 111. 

GENERAL MINISTERIAL BOARD. Pres., W. S. Long, 510 Fifth St., 
Altoona, Pa,; Vice-Pres,, D. H. Zigler, Broadway, Va.; Sec., S. S. 
Blough, 328 Central Ave., Decatur, 111.; Treas., David Metzler, Pay- 
ette, Ida., S. J. Miller, La Verne, Calif. 

West Milton, Ohio; Sec., H. S. Replogle, Oaks, Pa.; Treas., J. Carson 
Miller, Moores Store, Va. 

PEACE COMMITTEE. Chmn., W. J. Swigart, Huntingdon, Pa.; 
Sec., J. M. Henry, New Windsor, Md. ; Treas., Jacob Funk, Pomona, 
Calif. Advisory Member, I. W. Taylor, Ephrata, Pa. 

44 Year Book of the Churches 

Martlnsburg, Pa.; Sec , P. S. Thomas, Harnsonburg, Va.; Treas., E. 
E. John, McPherson, Kans. 

DRESS EEFORM COMMITTEE Chnm , E. M. Studebaker, McPher- 
son, Kans.; Vice-Chmn., J. J. John, New Windsor, Md.; Se c.-Trcas , 
Lydia E. Taylor, Mt. Morris, 111.; Eva Trostle, 3435 Van Buren St., 
Chicago; Mary Polk Ellenberger, R. I). 1, Skidmore, Mo. 

don, Pa.; Sec.-Trects., James M, Moore, 230 S. Church St., Waynesboro, 
Pa.; J. P. Dickey, La Verne, Calif.; Edgar Rothrock, Holmesville, 
Nebr.; E. B. Hoff, 1306 S. Seventeenth Ave., Maywood, 111. 

Music COMMITTEE. Chwn. f Cora M. Stalily, Nappanee, Ind , 
Sec., William Beery, Elgin, 111.; Treas., J. B. Miller, Curryville, Pa. 

Pherson, Kans,; Sec., L. W. Shultz, North Manchester, Ind.; J. A. 
Dove, Cloverdale, Va. 

6611 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Geo. L. 
Studebaker, Muncie, Ind.; Sec.-Trcas., Mrs. Levi Minnich, Greenville, 
Ohio. i 

AUDITING COMMITTEE. E. M. Butterbaugh, 525 E. Indiana Ave., 
South Bend., Ind.; J. J. Oiler, Waynesboro, Pa. 

C. Wieand, 832 S. Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

ANNUAL MEETING TREASURER. E. J. Stauffer, Mullberry Grove, 

Schools and Colleges 

Bethany Bible School . 3435 Van Buren St., Chicago A. C Wieand. 

Blue Ridge College . New Windsor, Md J. M. Henry, 

Daleville College Daleville, Va C. S. Ikeubei ry. 

Elizabethtown College . Rhzabethtown, Pa J. G. Meyer. 

Jimiata College, . , Huntingdon, Pa. . I, Harvey Brumbaugh 

La Verne College . .La Verne, Calif. . . . . I. V. Fundei burgh. 

Manchester College North Manchester, Ind, , . . Otho Winger. 

McPherson College . . McPherson, Kans, , , . D, W. Kui tz. 
Mt. Morris College , . . ,Mt. Morns, 111. . A. J. Brumbaugh. 

Bridgewater College .... Bridgewater, Va, . . . .Paul Bowman 
Hebron Seminary . . . Nokesville, Va W. II. Sangei. 


The Gospel Messenger, Editor, Rev. Edward Prantz; Our Young 
People, Editor, Kev. J. E. Miller; The Missionary Visitor, Editor, 
Kev. H. Spenser Minnich. All, Elgin, 111. 


Among the various communities which arose toward the close 
of the seventeenth century for the purpose of emphasizing the inner 
life of the Christian above creed and dogma, ritual and form, and 
ceremony and church polity, one of the most influential, though not 
widely known, was that of the Pietists of Germany. They did not 
arise as Protestants against Catholicism, but rather as Protestants 
against what they considered the barrenness of Protestantism itself. 
An organization was effected at Schwarzenau in 1708. The mem- 
bers waived the question of apostolic succession, subscribed to no 
written creed, differed from other Pietists in that they were not ad- 
verse to church organization, did not abandon the ordinances which 
Christianity, as a whole, held to be necessary for salvation. Grad- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 45 

ually they worked out their doctrine, polity and practice, following 
m many respects the same general line as the Quakers, Mennonites 
and similar bodies, though they had no association with them, and 
are to be held as entirely distinct. 

The "Brethren" fled from Schwarzenau to America in 1719 and 
1720, settling in Germantown, Pennsylvania. After the Brethren 
came to America the details of the organization were developed and 
individual congregations increased in number first in the immediate 
vicinity of Philadelphia; then in New Jersey, southern Pennsylvania, 
northern Maryland, Virginia and the Carolmas; then reaching west- 
ward over the old Braddqck road, immediately after the Eevolu- 
tion, to western Pennsylvania, and from the Carolines into Kentucky, 
they were among the first to enter the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, 
and from 1790 to 1825 the great central plain was rapidly populated 
bv Brethren. The Brethren of Colonial times (then known generally 
as Bunkers) were for the most part German or Dutch farmers. They 
retained their own language. As conditions changed they developed 
different practices and to some extent different conceptions, which re- 
sulted in the formation of separate communities. The first to with- 
draw were John Conrad Beissel and his followers, who founded, in 
1728, the famous monastic community at Ephrata, Pa. From that 
time there was no further division until 1881, when a comparatively 
small company withdrew in protest against certain modifications 
which they felt to be inconsistent with their early history. The next 
year another division took place, based chiefly upon objection to the 
form of government which had gradually developed within the larger 


The Church of the Brethren in general terms is classed as Ortho- 
dox Trinitarian. 

Bar>tism is by trine forward immersion, the person baptized being 
confirmed while kneeling in the water. The rite of foot-washing and 
the love feast or agape immediately precede the communion or 
eucharist, the entire service being observed m the evening. Sisters 
are expected to be veiled during prayer, and especially at communion 
services. In case of illness anointing with oil in the name of the 
Lord is administered. The rule of the eighteenth chapter of Matthew 
with respect to differences between members is observed. Plain at- 
tire, excluding jewelry, is advocated. The civil law is resorted to but 
little. Taking an oath is forbidden, all affidavits being made by af- 
firmation. Nonresistance is taught, and all communicants are asked 
to be noncombatants. Any connection, direct or indirect, with the 
liquor business is prohibited, and there is a corresponding insistence 
upon total abstinence. The ideal in all these ceremonies and beliefs 
is the reproduction and perpetuation of the life and activities of the 
primitive Christians, and, while its effect is manifest in a somewhat 
stern and legal type of relgious life, mysticism or the Pietistic temper 
has modified it in the direction of a quiet moderation in all things. 


The polity of the church corresponds more nearly to the Presby- 
terian than to any other specific ecclesiastical form. The local con- 
gregation, usually presided over by the bishop of that body, is gov- 
erned by the council of all the members. The power of discipline, 
including trial and excommunication, rests with the local congrega- 
tion. The individual congregation elects delegates, lay and clerical, 
to a state district meeting, connected with which there is also an 
elders' meeting, composed of the bishops of the respective congrega- 
tions. Above the state district meeting is the General Conference of 
all the brotherhood. 

4<(> Your Book of the Churches 


Yearly meeting; next meeting in Ohio. 

Officers: Foreman, Elder Michael Montgomery, Fairview 
Mo.; Beading Clerk, J. J. Stitely; Writing Clerk, E. M Sen- 


Vindicator (monthly), Brookville, Ohio, Publishing Agent, J. M. 


As social customs developed along more modern lines during the 
latter part of the nineteenth century, certain influences were mani- 
fested among the Bunker communities which tended^ to lessen the 
emphasis upon many of the special customs of the earlier times. Ac- 
cordingly, some of the members, fearful lest the traditions of the 
founders of the denomination should be overborne, and "the Scriptures 
suffer violence/ 7 and desirous of perpetuating the type of life, as 
well as of belief, observed by the early Brethren, withdrew in 1881 
and formed the organization known as the "Old Order German 
Baptist Brethren." 

Doctrine and Polity ' 

In certain matters of doctrine and also in some features of 
church organization the Old Order Brethren are in essential agree- 
ment with the other branches. They accept the literal teaching of the 
Scriptures in regard to the Lord's Supper and foot-washing; hold 
close communion ; practice nonconformity to the world in war, politics, 
secret societies, dress and amusements; refuse to swear or take oath 
under any circumstances; reject a salaried ministry; anoint with oil 
those who are sick, not so much for the healing of the natural body 
as for spiritual healing; strictly enjoin temperance upon all their 
members and allow none to traffic in alcoholic or malt liquors. They 
believe that nothing but death can break the marriage vow, and re- 
fuse to perform a marriage ceremony for any divorced person. 


General Conference, annual. 

Offices,: Mod., Kev. Edward L. Miller, Napancc, Tnd. ; Sec , 
Rev. 0. C Starn, Ahlaiid, 0. 

liam A. Gearhart, Dayton, 0. 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION. Chmn,, Pres, E. E. Jacobs, Ash- 
land, Ohio. 

COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL SERVICE. Chnm., Kev. C. E. Kolb, Allen- 
town, Pa. 

South Bend, Ind.; Sec.-Treas., Rev. W. E. Bonk, Brookville, 0. 

Watson, Beaver City, Nebr.; Sec., H. H. Wolford, Ashland, 0. 

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR UNION. Pres., J. A. Garber, Ashland, 0.; 
Gen. Sec,. Rev. G. C. Carnenter. Peru* Ind, 

Bame, Plymouth, Ind. 

COMMITTEE ON TEMPERANCE. Chmn., Sylvester Lowman, Oak- 
villa, Ind. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 47 


Name Location President 

College and Seminary Ashland, 0. . . Edwin E. Jacobs. 


Brethren Evangelist (weekly), Editor, Geo. S. Baer; Woman's 
Outlook (monthly), Editor, Miss Mane Lichty, Milford, Ind.; Sunday 
School Helps, Editor, A. D. Gnagey, Ashland, Ohio. All publications 
issued by the Brethren Publishing Company, Ashland, Ohio. 


A division in 1882 when those who preferred the simple con- 
gregational form of government organized under the name of "The 
Brethren Church," though generally known as "Progressive Bunkers." 
Of late years there has been a movement toward the reunion of the 
two bodies. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrinal matters the Brethren Church is in general accord 
with the Church of the Brethren. In polity, however, the Brethren 
Church is firm in its insistence upon the rights of the individual be- 
liever, denying that any ecclesiastical body has the right to bind the 
conduct or the conscience of any believer in Christ. 


Conference, annual; next meeting, New Castle, Ind., Sep- 
tember, 1923. Mod, Eev. J. M. Fross, Montieello, Ind ; Asst. 
Mod., Rev. Alvin Hall, Montieello, Ind.;/8ec., Marie Johnston, 
Millville, Ind.; Treas., J. B. Hoover, Hagerstown, Ind. 

MISSION BOARD. Chmn., Rev. C. H. Holaday, Newcastle, Ind.; 
Sec., Albert Kugler; Treas., J. E. Hoover. 

Church Neivs, Monon, Ind., Editor, Rev. Geo. Elmore. 


The Church of God (New Bunkers) was organized in 1848 by 
George Patton, Peter Eyman and others, who withdrew from the 
German Baptist Brethren. The church claims that "Bible things 
should be called by Bible names" and that the Bible name for the 
church foretold by prophecy as the new name, is "The Church of 
God." It refuses to adopt a human creed or confession of faith, as 
the Scriptures are given to this end and are infallibly right. Baptism 
(a burial or birth of water) is administered to those who profess 
faith in Christ and experience sorrow for sin, that they may receive 
the remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost. The observance 
of the communion, the literal washing of the saints' feet, the saluta- 
tion of the kiss, and the anointing of the sick are held to be essen- 
tial; and the second Advent of the Lord, and the future rewards and 
punishments are taught. 

An annual conference is held. Home missionary work is under the 
care of the mission board. There is no educational or philanthropic 

$8 Year Book of the Churches 


Annual meeting. 

Officers; Pres. 9 G. L. King, New Enterprise, Pa.; Sec., Emma 
Monn, Quinoy, Pa. 

MISSIONARY BOARD. Sec., Rev. J. A. Peutz, Waynesboro ? Pa. 

Among the earlier members of the Bunker community in the 
United States was John Conrad Beissel, who, with others, landed at 
Boston m 1720, the year after Peter Becker settled in Germantown, 
Pa. Beissel had not been identified with the Schwarzenau community, 
although he had sojourned there for a short time, but had acquired 
strong mystical tendencies as a result of his acquaintance with the 
writings of Gottfried Arnold and the teachings of Jacob Boehnie and 
other Inspiratiomsts, and his association with the Rosicrucians at 
Heidelberg. After his arrival in America, Beissel spent a short time 
in Germantown and then removed with three companions to Cones- 
toga, Pa., at that time almost a wilderness, where they lived as 
hermits. In 1724 they were visited by Peter Becker, of the Bunkers ; 
Beissel was chosen pastor. It was not long, however, before his 
ascetic and mystical tendencies, together with outside influences to 
which he was subjected, led him to embrace and teach doctrines such 
as celibacy and the observances of the seventh day as the Sabbath, 
which were widely at variance with the tenets of the Bunkers, and 
finally, m 1728, he and his followers formally withdrew from the 
Dunker Church, and organized as the German Seventh-Day Baptists. 

In 1732 Beissel left his congregation and removed to Ephrata, 
Pa., a few miles distant, there again to live as a hermit. Here he 
was joined from time to time by others of both sexes who shared his 
mystic and ascetic ideas and whom he organized into the "Ephrata 
Society." Celibacy was enjoined upon the members, and separate 
houses were built for the two sexes, each of which was organized in 
monastic fashion, the "Brothers' House" having its prior and the 
"Sisters' House" its prioress. The society grew rapidly, and its ac- 
tivities were entered into with enthusiasm. Industries were organized 
on the communistic plan, which flourished for a time; but under the 
influence of Beissel, who thought them out of harmony with the 
spiritual purposes for which the community was organized, they were 
soon greatly curtailed and were kept subordinate to the religious idea. 
Ephrata had, however, one of the first schools (1735) in that part 
of the country, and its printing establishment (1750) was one of 
the earliest and best. 

With the advancing tide of civilization and the disappearance of 
the wilderness the most characteristic features of the community 
lost their prominence. The celibate membership diminished. In 1764 
there were 21 males and 25 females, while in 1769 there were but 
14 celibate males in the brotherhood, and this is the last record of the 
exact number of celibates. By 1830 the community was so scattered 
that it was agreed that members might cast their votes in business 
meetings by proxy, and some years later celibacy as a feature of 
the society had disappeared entirely. The only trace of the com- 
munistic feature remaining is the ownership of the property by the 
society, under control of a board of trustees. At the present time the 
denomination affiliates regularly with the Seven thDay Baptist Gen- 
eral Conference. 

Directoiy of Religious Bodies 49 


These bodies have no ecclesiastical organizations, but are 
divided by the TL S. Bureau of the Census into six groups, as 
follows : 

I. Address P. D. Loizeaux, 1 E. Thirteenth St., New York 

II. Address D. T. Bass, 420 W. Fifth Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

III. Address H. B. Whelpley, 68 William St., New York 

IV. Address H. M. Bailey, care Gospel Book and Tract Depot, 
Bible House, New York City. 

V. Address J. T. Armet, 4431 Garfield Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

VI. Address William Magowan, 349 Genesee St.. Rochester, 
N. Y. 


Early in the nineteenth century there appeared in England and 
Ireland, especially in the Anglican Church, considerable restiveness 
occasioned largely by dissatisfaction with the close connection between 
church and state, with the stereotyped forms of worship, and with the 
church organizations by which believers were separated from each 
other and were gathered into so many different sects. As a result a 
number of independent gatherings sprang up spontaneously, both in 
England and Ireland, in which men and women who were desirous of 
a "spiritual communion based on New Testament religious princi- 
ples" met together for the "breaking of bread" and for prayer. Of 
such gatherings, the most important, from an historical standpoint, 
was one at Dublin, Ireland, in the spring of 1827. There were also 
meetings of importance at Plymouth and Bristol, England, and the 
fact that the meeting at Plymouth at the first had some prominence 
in members and teachers, eventually gave rise to the name "Plymouth 
Brethren," which has come to be their popular designation, though 
it has never been adopted by the different communities, who speak of 
themselves simply as "Believers," "Christians," "Saints" or "Breth- 

In the absence of any ecclesiastical organization, and the presence 
of an intense individualism and sense of personal responsibility, divi- 
sions naturally arose, and the congregations gathered around different 
leaders. The movement first came to America as a result of the emi- 
gration of a number of Brethern to the United States and Canada 
about the middle of the nineteenth century. As in England, so in the 
United States, divisions have arisen, but no exact classification is 
recognized. Some meetings are called "exclusive" and others "open," 
but there is no one term that applies accuratelv to any single divi- 
sion. The various divisions are I, II, III, IV, V, VI. 


In doctrine the different bodies of Brethren are in substantial 
accord. They acknowledge no creed, but look upon the Scriptures 
as their only guide. 


The view of the Church held by the Brethren is that it is one 
and indivisible "Christ is the head of it, the Holy Spirit the bond 
of union, and every believer a member. It was begun at Pentecost 
and will be completed before the second Advent." They acknowledge 

50 Year Book of the Churches 

no ritual or definite ecclesiastical organization, and do not believe in 
human ordination of the ministry. They have no presiding officers 
in their assembly meetings, but anyone who has the gift is privileged 
to exercise it. Women take no part in the public ministry. They 
observe the ordinance of baptism, usually by immersion, meet every 
Sunday to "break bread" (which is the term they use to designate 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper), and have meetings for prayer 
and Bible study, and gospel meetings for the unconverted. They own 
few church edifices, but meet in halls and private houses. 


In the latter part of 1750 about thirty Mennonite families 
in Canton Basel, Switzerland, after a long period of persecu- 
tion, went first to England and, in the fall of 1751, set sail 
for America. One company settled near the Susquehanna River 
in the southwestern part of Lancaster County, Pa , in the spring 
of 1752. As time passed and the communities increased they 
were designated as brotherhoods. There was thus the Brother- 
hood down by the River, meaning in the southern part of Lan- 
caster County ; also the Brotherhood in the North ; the Brother- 
hood in Dauphin; the Brotherhood in Lebanon; the Brother- 
hood in Bucks and Montgomery, etc. The outlying brotherhoods 
looked to the brotherhood in the southern part of Lancaster 
County as the home of the organization, and it was probably due 
to this fact that the general term "River Brethren" was given 
to the entire body. 


(Known as Tunkers in Canada) 

General Conference, annual; next meeting in Ontario, Can- 
ada in June, 1923. 

Officers. Mod, Bishop C. N. Hostetter, Washington Boro, 
Pa. ; Sec. { C. N. Hostetter, Jr., Washington Boro, Pa ; Reading 
Clerk, William Page, Detroit, Kans. 


Chas. Baker, Batteaux, Ont. 

Jacob K. Bowers, Trappe, Pa. 

C. C. Burkholder, Upland, Calif., Box 294. 

J. N. Engle, Abilene, Kans., R. D. 6. 

M. G. Engle, Abilene, Kans., R. R. 

David E. Eyster, Thomas, Okla., R. D. Box 4. 

Fred Hahn, Kindersley, Sask. 

B. F. Hoover, Mansfield, Ohio, R. D. 4. 
J. N. Hoover, West Milton, Ohio, R. D. 1. 

C. N. Hostetter, Washington Boro, Pa., R. D. 1. 
H. K. Kreider, Campbell stown, Pa. 

Jonathan Lyons, Elsie, Mich., R. D. 1. 
Levi 0. Musser, Florin, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 51 

John B. Nioely, Allen, Pa. 

William H. Boyer, Dayton, Ohio, 601 Taylor St. 

Jacob M. Myers, Greencastle, Pa., R. D. 2. 

Martin H. Oberholser, Chambersburg, Pa., R. 2. 

John Reichard, Fordwich, Ont. 

H. C. Shank, Waynesboro, Pa. 

John Sider, Marshville, Ont., R. D. 1. 

J. H. Smith, Weilersville, Ohio. 

Wilbur Snider, 3423 N. 2d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Peter Steckley, Gormley, Ont. 

H. P. Steigerwald, Bulawayo, South Africa. 

Isaac Stern, Roaring Sprines, Pa. 

S. B. Stoner, Grantham, Pa. 

John A. Stump, New Paris, Ind. 

Henry L. Trump, Polo, 111. 

Orville Ulery, 1325 Maiden Lane, Springfield, Ohio. 

J. H. Wagaman, Waukena, Calif. 

J. D. Wingert, Fayetteville, Pa., R. D. 2. 

GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD. Chmn., Bishop H. L. Trump, Polo, 
111. ; Sec., Bishop Henry K. Kreider, Campbellstown, Pa. ; Treas., Amos 
Wolgemuth, Mt. Joy, Pa. 

FOREIGN MISSION BOARD. Chmn., Bishop C. N. Hostetter, Wash- 
ington Boro, Pa.; Sec., Rev. Irwin W. Musser, Mt. Joy, Pa.; Treas., 
Rev. S. G. Engle, 4014 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOME MISSION BOARD. Chmn., Bishop M. G. Engle, Abilene, 
Kans., Sec, Jesse Brechbill, Detroit, Kans.; Treas., Abner Martin, 
Elizabethtown, Pa. 

EXAMINING BOARD. Chmn. f Bishop C. C. Burkholder, Upland, 
Calif. ; Sec.-Treas , Bishop L. 0. Musser, Florin, Pa. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD. Chmn., Benton Eavey, Grantham, Pa.; 
Sec.-Treas , Rev. Wm. Page, Detroit, Kans. 

PUBLICATION BOARD. Chmn., Bishop 0. B. Ulery, Springfield, 
Ohio ; Sec., Enos N. Engle, Thomas, Okla. ; Treas., Jesse Gulp, Goshen, 

BENEFICIARY BOARD. Chmn., Bishop John A. Stump, New Paris, 
Ind.; Sec. f Rev. J. B. Funk, Cleona, Pa.; Treas., Bishop D. R. Eyster, 
Thomas, Okla. 

Theological Seminary 

Name. Location President 

Messiah Bible School and Mis- 
sionary Training; Home . Grantham, Pa. ... , Enos H Hess 

Evangelical Visitor, Nappanee, Ind., Editor, Rev. V. L. Stump. 


At first the organization of the River Brethern was simple, but 
as their numbers increased a more permanent form became necessary, 
and about 1820 the present ecclesiastical organization was adopted. 
During the Civil War some of the members, although proclaiming 
the doctrine of nonresi stance, were drafted for military service, and 
it became evident that the denomination must secure legal recogni- 
tion as a religious organization holding that doctrine. Steps to se- 
cure such recognition were taken at a private council held in Lan- 
caster, Pa., as early as 1862, at which time those who remained 
after the separation of the other two branches, and who constituted 
the great majority of the Brethren, 'decided to adopt the name 
"Brethren in Christ" instead of "River Brethren," which was done 
the following year. In 1904 the organization was incorporated ac- 
cording to the laws of the state of Pennsylvania as "a religious body 
for the worship of Almighty God," with headquarters at Harrisburg. 

52 Year Book of the Churches 


The Brethren in Christ have not accepted any historical creed or 
confession, but adhere to the generally recognized Christian doc- 
trines. They hold that trine immersion is the only proper form of 
baptism, practice confession of sins to God and man, and observe 
tbe sacrament of the Eucharist, accompanying it by the ceremony of 
foot-washing. The doctrine of nonresistance is a prominent feature 
of their belief. 


The ecclesiastical organization of the denomination includes the 
local church, a system of district councils, and a General Conference. 
The officers of the church are bishops, ministers and deacons. 


Address, Samuel D. Conley, Etters, Pa. 


In 1843 a number of River Brethren withdrew from the main 
body, claiming that the original doctrines of the founders were being 
departed from, particularly in regard to nonresistance and noncon- 
formity to the world. Most of those who withdrew resided in York 
County, Pa., whence they received the name of "Yorkers," or "Yorker 
Brethren." They are also known as the "Old Order Brethren," and 
thus are sometimes confused with the Old Order German Baptist 
Brethren. They have no church edifices and the services are fre- 
quently held in large barns. 


Address, Henry C. Light, Cleona, Pa. 


Questions of administration or ceremonial detail, particularly in 
connection with a church building, arose among the River Brethren 
in 1852. The next year about fifty persons m Dauphin County, Pa., 
withdrew and organized under the leadership of Matthias Brinser 
as their first bishop. They were thus generally called "Brinsers," but 
later adopted the name "United Zion's Children." They are found 
principally in Dauphin, Lancaster and Lebanon Counties, Pennsyl- 

Their doctrine is essentially the same as that of the Brethren 
in Christ, and their confession of faith is essentially the same. Com- 
mittees have been appointed 'to consider a merger with the Brethren 
in Christ. 


Address Rev. S. R. Rintoul, 417 W, 57th St., New York City. 


This communion does not claim exclusive right to the name of 
Catholic Apostolic Church, but maintains that the one Catholic and 
Apostolic Church includes everyone who believes in the Lord Jesus 
and is baptized according to His commandment, whether by sprink- 
ling or immersion, by layman or priest, no matter in what sect or 

Directory of Religious Bodies 53 

denomination he may be found. The movement had its inception ap- 
proximately at the beginning of the second quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Their leaders claimed manifestations of the presence and 
power of the Holy Ghost, similar to those of the apostolic age, and in 
1832 as result of "prophetic revelations," certain men were regarded 
as called to the office of apostle. In 1835 twelve such had been chosen. 
Their mission was to testify to the personal return of the Lord and 
to minister to the whole church the full apostolic measure of the Holy 
Ghost and the apostolic gifts and blessings so that corporate unity 
may be manifested and the church prepared to receive their Lord. 

The first church in the United States was organized at Potsdam, 
New York, and the second in New York City in 1851. 


The standard of doctrine is found in the three historic Catholic 
creeds the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian. The church 
also includes among its tenets the unquestionable authority and in- 
spiration iof the canon of the Holy Scripture; the "sacramental na- 
ture" of the ordinances of baptism, the Lord's Supper, and ordina- 
tion to the ministry, as recognized by the different denominations of 
the Christian Church ; the indissolubility, except by death, of the sac- 
ramental union in marriasre; the restoration of the ordinance of the 
laying on of hands by the apostles for the imparting of the fullness 
of the gift of the Holy Ghost; the necessity of the gifts of the Spirit, 
tongues, phophecy, and other gifts, for the perfecting of the Church ; 
the payment of the tithe as due to Christ, the High Priest, in addi- 
tion to the making of voluntary offerings; and the hope of the Lord's 
speedy personal coming to raise the dead, translate the living mem- 
bers of His Church, and bring in His reign of peace on the earth, 
commonly spoken of as the Millennium. 


The principle upon which the organization of the Catholic Apos- 
tolic Church is based is that a twelvefold apostleship, as in the first 
days of the Church, is the Lord's only ordinance for supreme rule over 
the whole Church and for revealing His mind. Local churches are 
each under the charge of a bishop, designated angel, with a staff of 
priests and deacons, whose call, consecration, appointment, and rule 
are subject to the apostles. There is no election of ministers by the 
clergy or laity, except that deacons, to the number of seven in any 
one church, may by permission of the apostles be chosen by the 
people. A call from the Lord by word of the Holy Ghost through 
prophets is a prerequisite to admission to the office of priest or 


flgc., Paul E. Reinick, 588 Seneca Ave., Ridgewood, N. Y. 


The New Apostolic Church claims the same historical origin as 
the Catholic Apostolic Church. 

The Rev. Edward Mierau is the head of the churches in the United 
States, under the head apostle in Europe, the Rev. Herman Niehaus, 
who resides in Steinhagen, near Bielefeld, Westphalia, Germany, and 
who has under his general supervision all New Apostolic churches 
throughout the world. 

54 Year Book of the Churches 


The New Apostolic Church accepts the Apostles' Creed, and em- 
phasizes the inspiration and authority of the Bible, the sacramental 
nature of baptism and the Lord's Supper, the restoration of the ordi- 
nance of the laying on of hands by the apostles, the necessity of the 
gifts of the Spirit, the payment of the tithe, and the belief in the 
speedy personal premillennial coming of Christ. 


Each apostle is placed in charge of a particular district, known 
as an "apostle district." These apostle districts are subdivided into 
local districts, which are made up of groups of local churches, the 
leader of each of which is a bishop or elder. Each church has, ac- 
cording to its size, one or more priests, one of whom is the head. 
All the ministers are selected by the apostleship according to their 
ability, knowledge, and inspiration of God. Candidates for admis- 
sion to the church are required first to make application to the 
bishop or apostle. 


Chnstadelphian Advocate f 6718 Oxford Ave., Chicago, 111.; The 
Faith, 626 Eureka, St., Waterloo, la., Editor, A. H. Zilmer. 


Among those who identified themselves with the Disciples of 
Christ in their early history was John Thomas, M. D., an English- 
man, who came to the United States in 1832. As he pursued the 
study of the Bible, his views changed, and he became convinced that 
the cardinal doctrines of the existing churches corresponded with 
those of the apostate church predicted in Scripture; that the only 
authoritative creed was the Bible, the originals of which were in- 
spired of God in such a manner and to such an extent as to secure 
absolute truthfulness; and that the churches should strive for a 
return to primitive Christianity in doctrine, precept, and practice. 
He soon began to publish his views, and organized a number of so- 
cieties in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain, the cen- 
tral thought in his mind being not so much the immediate conver- 
sion of the world as the "taking out of the Gentiles a people for His 
name." No name was adopted for the societies until the breaking 
out of the Civil War, when the members applied to the Government 
to be relieved from military duty in consequence of conscientious 
scruples. It then appeared that they must have a distinctive name, 
and accordingly that of "Christadelphians," or "Brothers of Christ," 
was adopted. 


The Christadelphians do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity, 
but hold that Christ was Son of God and Son of Man, manifesting 
divine power, wisdom, and goodness in working out man's salVation, 
of which He is the only medium, and that He attained unto power 
and glory by His resurrection. They believe that the Holy Spirit is 
an "effluence" of divine power; that man is by nature mortal, and 
that eternal life is given by God only to the righteous; that Christ 
will shortly come personally to the earth to raise and judge His 
saints, who will reign with Him a thousand years, and to set up 
the Kingdom of God in place of human governments; that this king- 
dom will be established in Palestine, where the twelve tribes of 
Israel will be gathered; and that at the end of a thousand years judg- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 55 

ment wil] be pronounced upon all men, the just receiving eternal 
life and the unjust, eternal death. 

Admission to membership is contingent upon profession of faith 
in the doctrines of the Bible, and baptism by immersion in the name 
of Jesus for the remission of sins. Participation in the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper is restricted to members of the church. 


In polity the Christadelphians are thoroughly congregational. 
They do not accept the name "church" for the local organization, but 
call it an "Ecclesia." 


Annual Council; next meeting, Chicago., Ill, May 17-23, 

Headquarters : 690 Eighth Ave., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Kev. Paul Kader; Vice-Pres., Bev. F. H 
Senft , Gen. Sec. and Asst. Treas , "W S Poling ; Treas , David 

FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. Acting Sec., Rev. A. C. Snead. 
HOME DEPARTMENT. Sec., Rev. E. J. Richards. 


Name Location Dean 

Missionary Training Institute Nyack, NY. C E Eiclier 

Toccoa Falls Institute . Toccoa Falls, Ga. R. A. Forrest 

Boydton Institute. Boydton, Va. Chas. S Morns 

Alliance Training Home St. Paul, Minn. J. D. Williams 

Simpson Bible Institute Seattle, Wash W. W. Newberry. 

Mary B. Mullin School. Uree, N. C.. I. Gamble. 

Boston Bible Training School Boston, Mass . ,E R. Hooper. 

Alliance Weekly. 


The Christian and Missionary Alliance originated in a movement 
started by Rev. A. B. Simpson, in the year 1881. Dr. Simpson severed 
his connection with a pastorate of the Presbyterian Church in New 
York City and withdrew from the presbytery to engage in evan- 
gelistic work among 1 the unchurched masses. Two societies were or- 
ganized for Home and Foreign Missionary work, one known as the 
Christian Alliance for home work; the other the Missionary Alliance 
for the neglected communities in non-Christian lands. In 1895 the 
two societies were united in the Christian and Missionary Alliance 
and since then have labored in the double function of home and for- 
eign evangelism. 

The local organizations have been reported among the inde- 
pendent churches, but in 1916 were combined to form one body. 


The Christian and Missionary Alliance is strictly evangelistic 
in its doctrine. It stands firmly for the inspiration of the Scriptures, 
the atonement of Christ, the supernaturalism of religious experi- 
ence, and a life of separation and practical holiness. It has no strict 

56 Year Book of the Churches 

creed, but expresses the great essential features of its testimony in a 
simple formula known as the fourfold gospel of Christ, as Savior, 
Sanctifier, Healer and Coming Lord. It is not a sectarian body, but 
allows liberty in the matter of baptism and church government, and 
is in fraternal union with evangelical Christians of all denominations, 
accepting missionaries from the various churches, provided they are 
in full sympathy with the evangelical standards of the Alliance. 


There is no close ecclesiastical organization, though the society 
has in the United States and Canada about a dozen organized dis- 
tricts with between two and three hundred regular branches. Only 
a small proportion of these are organized churches, as the society 
seeks to avoid a sectarian aspect and is averse to the establishment 
of independent churches. Each local branch is entirely self -directing, 
and in most cases is primarily evangelistic in character and a center 
of missionary conference. An annual council meets in the spring, to 
which reports are submitted from all branches and fields, and which 
passes such legislation as may be needed concerning the government 
and administration of the work. Many of the most liberal and^ ac- 
tive supporters of this work are still in active membership in various 
Protestant churches, giving their support to the Alliance in its evan- 
gelistic work. 


General Convention of the Christion Church, quadrennial; 
next meeting, October, 1926. Biennial district conventions of 
grouped states,, annual conferences within the states and in Can- 
ada ; district conferences of contiguous churches. 

Headquarters: Dayton, Ohio. 

Officers : Pr es., Eev. Frank G-. Coffin, Albany, Mo. ; Sec., Rev. 
Jolm F. Burnett, Dayton, Ohio. 

officers of the Convention, Boards of Home Missions, Foreign Mis- 
sions, Christian Education, Publications and Evangelism, the presi- 
dents of the colleges and two members at large. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. Composed of the officers of the Convention 
and the secretaries of the five departments. They meet annually 
and compose the Board of Trustees of the Convention. With the 
trustees of the Christian Publishing Association they constitute a 
Board of Church Polity. 

HOME MISSION BOARD. Sec., Rev. Omer S. Thomas, Dayton, 

FOREIGN MISSION BOARD. Sec., Rev. W, P. Minton, Dayton, Ohio. 

lege, N. C.; Field Sec., Mr. Harmon Eldredge, Erie, Pa.; Committee on 
Colleges, W. G. Sargent, Providence, R. I.; Committee on Christian 
Endeavor, A. B. Kendall, Springfield, Ohio; Committee on Sunday 
Schools, Mrs. F. E. Bullock, Dayton, Ohio; S. Q. Helfenstein, Dayton, 

stein, Dover, Delaware; Field Sec., McD. Howsare, Dayton, Ohio. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATIONS. Sec., 0. W. Wihitelock, Huntmgton, Ind. 

sare, Dayton, Ohio. 

Morrill, Defiance, Ohio. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 57 

Dayton, 0.; Mgr. John H. Stewart. 

fin, Albany, Mo. 

BUREAU OP SOCIAL SERVICE, Rev. E. A. Watkins, Lima, Ohio. 


son, Dayton, Ohio. 


Name Location President 

Defiance College Defiance, 0. . A. G Cans. 

Elon College Elon College, N. C W. A. Harper. 

Franklmton Christian College Franklmton, N. C S. A. Howell. 

Palmer Institute and Starkey 

Seminary . . Lakemont, N. Y . Martyn Summerbell. 

Jireh College . Jireh, Wyo.. . . D. B. Atkinson. 

Palmer College . Albany, Mo. . F. G Coffin 

Union Christian College Merom, Ind. . . . W S Alexander 

Bethlehem College Wadlev, Ala. R. F. Brown, 


Herald of Gospel Liberty (weekly), Dayton, Ohio, Editor, Rev. 
Alva M. Kerr; Christian Missionary, Dayton, Ohio (monthly), Edi- 
tors, Rev. Omer S. Thomas and Rev. W. P. Minton; The Christian 
Sun (weekly), Richmond, Va.; Editor, J. P. Barrett,- The Christian 
Vanguard (monthly), Drayton, Ont., Editor, J. N. Dales; Christian 
Annual, Editor, Rev. J. F. Burnett; Journal of Christian Education, 
(monthly), Dr. W. A. Harper, Editor. 


Following the War of the Revolution, the Rev. James O'Kelley, 
a Methodist minister in Virginia, opposed very earnestly the develop- 
ment of the authority of the episcopacy, especially so far as it gave 
the bishops absolute power in the matter of appointments of pas- 
tors. He, with a number of others, plead for the right of appeal to 
the General Conference from any mandate of the bishop. When this 
was denied, they withdrew from the conference in 1792, and later 
organized under the name of "Republican Methodists." In 1794 they 
resolved to be known as "Christians" only, taking the Bible as their 
guide and discipline, accepting no test of church fellowship other 
than Christian character, and making the government of the church 
absolutely congregational. O'Kelley and his associates carried their 
evangelistic campaigns over much of Virginia and North Carolina, 
and adjacent territory, establishing many congregations which shared 
their faith. 

A similar movement arose among the Baptists in New England, 
led by Dr. Abner Jones, who organized a Christian church at Lyndon, 
Vermont, in 1801. The central idea of this movement was that minor 
matters of opinion should not constrict Christian fraternity. From 
this source spread the Christian Church movement over New Eng- 
land, New York, and other -portions of the east. 

A third and like movement sprang up in Kentucky following 
the great Cane Ridge revival in 1804, when a number of ministers, 
without friction with their denominations, formed a group to be 
known simply as "Christians" with the Bible as their only creed, and 
Christian character alone as a basis of fellowship. Leading names in 
this movement were Robert Marshall, John Dunlavy, Richard Mc- 
Nemar, Barton W. Stone, John Thompson, and David Purviance. 
Their peculiar message was carried over much of the central west, 
resulting in a number of organizations of people who indorsed their 

58 Year Book of the Churches 

These three movements, O'Kelley in the south, Jones in New Eng- 
land, and Stone in Kentucky, were in the beginning independent and 
unrelated; in fact, each was ignorant of the existence of the others. 
Later, as they learned of the other movements, identical in kind and 
purpose, they became coordinated and unified into the organization 
known only as "The Christian Church," the official designation of 
which, by action of the General Convention of 1922, is "The General 
Convention of the Christian Church." The Christian Church is not 
infrequently confused with the Disciples of Christ, founded by Alex- 
ander Campbell, though their histories and identities are distinct 


The various elements out of which this organization has resulted 
accept the Bible as their sole guide m faith, and have no other creed 
or statement of doctrine. Their interDretation of the teachings of the 
Bible is in accord with that of most evangelical organizations. They 
do not bar any follower of Christ from membership because of dif- 
ferences in theological belief. A like liberty extends to the ordinances 
of the church. Baptism is not made a requisite to membership. 
While immersion is generally practiced, no one mode is required. 
The churches practice open communion and labor to promote the 
spirit of unity among all Christians. 


The p-eneral polity of the denomination is congregational. Each 
local church is independent in its organization, but ^at a very early 
period conferences were organized, which admitted ministers to mem- 
bership, and in which the churches were represented by lay delegates. 
These conferences were at first advisory only, but have largely de- 
veloped into administrative bodies. 

The General Christian Convention, with two incorporated de- 
partments, the Mission Board of the Christian Church, and the Chris- 
tian Publishing Association, is primarily the agent of the churches, 
for the conduct of their general work. It meets quadrennially for the 
consideration of topics affecting the general church life and the 
formation of plans of work. 


General Council, quadrennial ; next meeting, May, 1926. 

Eleven state councils, meeting annually. 

Officers Pres , Kev. C. T. Payne, Craigville, Ind ; V. Pres., 
Rev. A. F. Dorrell, Lawson, Mo. ; Sec., Rev. J. W. Hyder, Excel- 
sior Springs, Mo. ; Cor. Sec , Eev. P. 0. Ortt, Coshocton, Ohio ; 
Treas. f J. N. Goode, Milo, Ind. 

GENERAL MISSION BOARD. Pres., Miss Rosetta B. Lucas, Hillsboro, 
Ohio; Sec., Eev. J. C. Cupp, Thornville, Ohio; Treas., Mrs. Edna 
Thomas, Connersville, Ind., and J. N. Goode, Milo, Iowa, J. C. Briley, 
Rev. H. S. Smith, J. U. Fair. 

Christian Union Witness, Excelsior Springs, Mo. 


The Christian Union traces its origin to the movement in the 
first half of the nineteenth century, for a larger liberty in religious 
thought, a greater freedom from ecclesiastical domination, and a 

Directory of Religious Bodies 59 

closer affiliation of men and women of different creeds and lines of 

A convention of those interested gathered at Columbus, Ohio, 
February 3, 1864, and adopted a declaration of principles. 

The next year, 1865, a general convention was held in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, reaffirming the action of the previous convention and adopt- 
ing a summary of principles as follows: (1) The oneness of the 
Church of Christ; (2) Christ the only head; (3) the Bible the only 
rule of faith and practice; (4) good fruits the only condition of fel- 
lowship; (5) Christian union without controversy; (6) each local 
church self-governing; (Y) political preaching discountenanced. 

Doctrine and Polity 

Apart from the brief summary already given, the Christian 
Union can scarcely be said to have a system of doctrine. The local 
church or congregation is absolutely self-governing. 


Address Bishop W. H. Plummer, 15 Arnold St., Boston, 



In the latter part of the year 1896 William S. Crpwdy, a Negro 
man employed on the Sante Fe railroad as a cook, claimed to have a 
vision from God, calling him to lead his people to the true religion, 
and giving him prophetic endowment. He immediately* gave up his 
employment, went into Kansas, commenced preaching, and soon after 
organized the Church of God and Saints of Christ, at Lawrence. At 
first only a few persons joined him, but the numbers increased 
rapidly, and the headquarters were removed to Philadelphia, He was 
appointed bishop of the new body, and two white men who were as- 
sociated with him were subsequently raised to the same office. 


Believing that the Negro race is descended from the ten lost 
tribes of Israel, Crowdy taught that the Ten Commandments and a 
literal adherence to the teachings of the Bible, including both the Old 
and New Testaments, are man's positive guides to salvation. In or- 
der, however, that the faithful may make no mistake as to the com- 
mandments which they are to follow, a pamphlet has been published 
by the church called the "Seven Keys," which includes Bible refer- 
ences giving the authoritv for the various customs and orders of 
the church. Among these customs are the observance of the Jewish 
calendar and feast-days, especially the Jewish Sabbath, and the use 
of the corresponding Hebrew names. 

Admission to the church follows repentance for sin, baptism by 
immersion, confession of faith in Christ, the reception of unleavened 
bread and water at the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the wash- 
ing of the feet by an elder, and the pledge of the holy kiss. The last 
mentioned is also a general form of greeting, but, having been criti- 
sized severely, it is frequently omitted. 


The organization of the church centers in an executive board or 
council, called a "presbytery," consisting of 12 ordained elders and 
evangelists, whose duty it is to look after the general business of the 
church. The prophet, who is presiding officer both of the executive 
board and of the church, is not elected, but holds his position by virtue 

60 Year Book of the Churches 

of a divine call. He is believed by his followers to be in direct com- 
munication with the Deity, to utter prophecies by the will of God, 
and to perform miracles. On his death, the prophetic office lapses 
until a new vision appears. 

There are district annual and general assemblies, composed of 
the different orders of the ministry, and including delegates from 
each local church or tabernacle. The ministerial order includes min- 
isters not in full ordination, elders fully ordained, evangelists (elders 
engaged in general missionary work), and bishops, the last mentioned 
not exceeding four in number. The ministers hold office during good 
behavior. The temporal affairs of the church ^ are cared for by 
deacons under general supervision of the assemblies. 


General Assembly, quadrennial; next session, Kansas City, 
Mo., Sept. 27-Oct 9, 1923. 

Forty-one district assemblies. 

Headquarters: 2905 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Officers : Gen. Supts., Rev. H. F. Reynolds, 2905 Troost Ave., 
Kansas City, Mo. ; Rev. J. W. Goodwin, 1850 N. Sierra Bonita 
Ave., Pasadena, Calif; Rev. R. T. Williams, 208 N. Rosemont 
Ave, Dallas, Texas; Gen. Sec., Rev. B. J Fleming, 2905 Troost 
Ave., Kansas City, Mo. ; Gen. Statistical Sec., Rev. C. A. Kinder, 
2905 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. ; Gen Railroad Sec., Rev. 
De Lance Wallace, 308 12th Ave , N , Seattle, Wash. ; Gen. 
Treas., Rev. E. G. Anderson, 2905 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

nolds; Sec.-Treas., Rev. E. G. Anderson. 

Rev. L. Milton Williams; Sec.-Treas., Rev. N. B. Herrell. 

J. F. Sanders. 

GENERAL BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. Jas. B. Chapman; 
Sec.-Treas., Rev. H. Orton Wiley. 

Burke; Sec., Rev. Jos. N, Speakes. 

Sec., Miss Lue Miller. 

GENERAL ORPHANGE BOARD. Pres., Rev. Theodore E. Ludwig; 
Sec., Rev. Oscar Hudson. 

senger; Sec~Treas., Rev. E. J. Fleming. 

senger; Sec.-Treas., Rev. E. J. Fleming. 

GENERAL COLPORTAGE BOARD. Pres., Rev. C. E. Cornell: Sec., 
Rev. C. A. Kinder. 

Address for the Boards, 2905 Troost Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Name Location President 

Bethany-Pemel College Bethany, Okla A. K. .Bracken. 

Eastern Nazarene College, .. . Wollaston, Mass. ,. F. J. Shields. 

Olivet University Olivet, 111 J. E. L. Moore. 

Northwest Nazarene College Nampa, Idaho H. Orton Wiley. 

Pasadena University Pasadena, Calif A Hendncks. 

Trevecca College Nashville, Tenn C. E, Haidy. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 61 

Junior Colleges 
Name Location President 

Central Nazarene College Hamlm, Tex E. D. Cornish, 

Nazarene Bible School and Acad- 
emy Hutchmson, Kans . , , E P Ellyson, 


Herald of Holiness (weekly), Editor, J. B. Chapman; Youth's 
Comrade (weekly), Editor, Miss Mabel Hanson; The Other Sheep 
(monthly) , Editor, E. G. Anderson. Address for all periodicals, 2109 
Troost Avenue, Kansas City, Mo. 


Toward the close of the nineteenth century a movement for the 
spread and conservation of Scriptural holiness, corresponding some- 
what to that historically known as the Wesleyan Revival of the prev- 
ious century, developed almost simultaneously in various parts of the 
United States, everywhere with a spontaneous drawing in the unity 
of the spirit toward closer affiliation of those of like precious faith, 
and finally culminating in the organization of the Pentecostal Church 
of the Nazarene. 

The great impulse of this movement has been the emphasis placed 
by the Scriptures upon the fact that in the atonement Jesus has made 
provision not only to save men from their sins, but also to cleanse 
from all sin and perfect them in love. The immediate occasion was 
the feeling that full liberty to emphasize the Wesleyan Doctrine of 
entire sanctification, which came to be called the "Full Gospel," was 
not allowed in the then existing churches. 

Four movements, one in New England, one in New York City, one 
in California, and one in the Middle Southern States, were organized 
almost simultaneously about 1894 to carry out these principles. 

In 18^6 the Eastern movements were united as the Association of 
Pentecostal Churches of America. In October, 1907, the bodies known 
as the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America in the eastern 
part of the United States, and the Church of the Nazarene m the 
western part held a joint meeting at Chicago, Illinois, when they 
united in the organization of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. 
In October, 1908, the Southern body known as the Holiness Church 
of Christ, joined this union; in February 1915, another body, known 
as the Pentecostal Mission Churches of the Southeastern States 
united; and in November, 1915, the Pentecostal Church of Scotland 
and England also united with the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. 
At the General Assembly in 1919 the word "Pentecostal" was dropped 
and the official name became "The Church of the Nazarene." 


In doctrine the Church of the Nazarene is essentially m accord 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. It stands for apostolic purity 
of doctrine, primitive simplicity of worship and pentecostal power in 
experience. The dispensational truth being, that Jesus Christ bap- 
tizes believers with the Holy Ghost, cleansing them from all sin, and 
empowering them to witness the grace of God to men, this church 
stands especially for this truth and this experience. It recognizes 
that the right and privilege of men to church membership rests upon 
the fact of their being regenerate ; and would require only such state- 

62 Year Book of the Churches 

ments of belief as are essential to Christian experience, and the main- 
tenance of that condition. Whatever is not essential to life in Jesus 
Christ may be left to individual liberty of Christian thought. That 
which is essential to Christian life lies at the very basis of their 
associated life and fellowship m the church, and there can be no 
failure to believe this without forfeiting Christian life itself, and thus 
the right of all church affiliation. 

While emphasizing the baptism with the Holy Ghost as a second 
experience of divine grace, it does not set aside, but emphasizes the 
great cardinal doctrines of Christianity. The Church of the Nazarene 
believes : 

1. In one God, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 

2. In the divine inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scrip- 
tures, and that they contain all truth necessary to faith and Christian 

3. That man is born with a fallen nature, and is, therefore, in- 
clined to evil, and that continually. 

4. That the finally impenitent are hopelessly and eternally lost. 

5. That the atonement through Christ is for the whole human 
race; and that whosoever repents and believes on the Lord Jesus 
Christ is justified and regenerated and saved from the dominion of 

6. That believers are to be sanctified wholly subsequent to con- 
version, through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. 

7. That the Holy Spirit bears witness to the new birth and also 
to the entire sanctification of believers. 

8. In the return of our Lord, in the resurrection of the dead, and 
in the final judgment. 

This church regards that its work is more especially to preach 
the gospel to the poor and to organize people into church life, where 
holiness unto the Lord shall have full right of way. With malice 
toward none and love for all, it lifts the cross in the full meaning 
of the words: "If we walk in the light as he is the light, we have 
fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son, 
cleanseth us from all sin." "This is the will of God even your sancti- 


The ecclesiastical organization is representative, thus avoiding 
the extremes of Episcopacy on the one hand and unlimited Congre- 
gationalism on the other. It is symmetrically organized, having a 
General Assembly which meets every four years and elects general 
superintendents and general boards,* forty-one districts which hold 
annual assemblies and elect district superintendents and district 
boards, license and ordain ministers, and commission evangelists. The 
local congregation is in charge of regularly electing pastors. 

The Church is intensely evangelistic at home and missionary 


No general organization, but numerous independent churches. 
Address J. W. Shepherd, 430 Grand Boulevard W.. Detroit, 


In their early history, in the United States, the churches which 
gathered under the leadership of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, 
Barton W. Stone, and others, emphasized the distinctly apos- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 63 

tolic character of the individual church, not merely as a 
worshiping congregation and a working force, but as an autonomous 
ecclesiastical body. As set forth in the "declaration and address," by 
Thomas Campbell, they deplored human creeds and systems and 
protested against considering anything as a matter of faith and duty 
for which there could not be produced a "Thus saith the Lord," either 
in expressed terms or from approved precedent, and held that they 
should follow "after the example of the primitive church exhibited 
in the New Testament without any additions whatever of human opin- 
ions or inventions of men." With this basis of action they adopted 
as the keynote of the movement, "Where the Scriptures speak, we 
speak; where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent." 

As the churches increased in membership and wealth, however, 
there arose what seemed to some to be a desire for popularity and 
for such "human inventions" as had been deplored in the beginning 
of the movement. Chief among these "inventions" were a general 
organization of the churches into a missionary society with a "money 
basis" of membership and the use of instrumental music in church 
worship. The agitation for the organization of a missionary society 
began soon after 1840, and continued until the American Christian 
Missionary Society was formed in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1849. Al- 
though this ^ received Mr. Campbell's approval, many of his brethren 
were dissatisfied and held firmly to the earlier position, quoting his 
own language in speaking of the apostolic Christians. 

A society with a "money basis" and a delegated membership, it 
was urged, was the beginning of apostasy from New Testament 

There was also decided opposition to instrumental music in the 
services of the Church and controversy over pastors and unscriptural 
methods of raising money. 

This church in the census of 1890 and of 1906 was confused with 
the Disciples of Christ, and its membership, in some cashes, reported in 
statistics of that body. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the Churches of Christ are, in some re- 
spects, in accord with the Disciples of Christ. They reject all human 
creeds and confessions of faith, consider the Scriptures a sufficient 
rule of faith and practice, emphasize the "divine sonship of Jesus" 
and the "divine personality of the Holy Spirit," and regard the Lord's 
Supper as a memorial service rather than as a sacrament, to be ob- 
served each Lord's Day. The church, with such officers as belonged 
to it in apostolic times, is considered a divine institution. Each local 
church is independent; elects its own officers, calls its own ministers, 
and conducts its own affairs. Membership is on the general basis of 
faith in Christ, repentance, and baptism (immersion). The minis- 
terial office is not emphasized, and there are no ministerial associa- 
tions. Each elder is a member of the church which he serves, and is 
subject to its discipline. In general, a doctrine of nonresistance is 


General Assembly, annual; next meeting, November, 1923. 
Officers: Gen. Overseer, A. J. Tomlinson, 2525 Gaut St., 
Cleveland, Tenn. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. Sec.~Treas. f J. S. Llewellyn, Cleveland, Tenn. 
HOME MISSIONS. Treas., J. S. Llewellyn, Cleveland, Tenn. 

64 Year Book of the Churches 


Name Location Superintendent 

Bible Training School . . Cleveland, Tcnn . F. J. Lee. 

Church of God Evangel, Cleveland, Tenn., Editor, J. S. Llewellyn. 


The denomination known as the General Assembly of the Church 
of God had its origin in the conviction of a number of people, in 
different denominations in Tennessee, that existing bodies with which 
they were acquainted were not strictly in accord with their views of 
Scripture, and in the belief that their wishes for a body conform- 
ing to their own views must be satisfied. The first organization was 
formed in August, 1886, in Monroe County, Tennessee, under the 
name "Christian Union." In 1902 there was a reorganization under 
the name, "Holiness Church," and in January, 1907, a third meeting, 
at Union Grove, Bradley County, Tennessee, adopted the name, 
"Church of God," with a membership of 150, representing five local 
churches in North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. From that time 
the body has grown until it is represented in 22 states and has 
churches in the British West Indies. 


In doctrine this body is Arminian and in accord with the Meth- 
odist bodies. It recognizes no creed as authoritative, but relies upon 
the Bible "as a whole rightly divided" as the final court of appeal. 
It emphasizes sanctification as a second definite experience subse- 
quent to regeneration. Conditions of membership are profession of 
faith in Christ, experience of being "born again," bearing the fruits 
of a Christian life, and recognition of the obligation to accept and 
practice all the teachings of the church. The sacraments observed 
are: The Lord's Supper, feet-washing, and water baptism by im- 


The ecclesiastical organization is described as "a blending of Con- 
gregational and Episcopal, ending in theocratical, by which is meant 
that every question is to be decided by God's Word." 

The officers of the churches are bishops, deacons, and evangelists. 
Bishops and deacons must be at least 24 years of age, have experi- 
enced sanctification and baptism of the Holy Ghost, evidenced by 
speaking with other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance, and must 
prove themselves to have lived 'what they profess. There is no age 
limit for evangelists. All are required to have a fair general edu- 
cation, good judgment, wisdom, and ability to speak. 


General Eldership, quadrennial. 

Headquarters: Hamsburg, Pa. 

Officers : Pres. 3 Rev, J, L, Updegraph, Fiadlay, Ohio , Clerk, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 65 

Ecv. S. Fulmer, Mt. Pleasant, Pa.; Treas., C. E. Miller, Pen- 
brook, Pa. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. Pres., Rev. F. W. McGuire, Rohrerstown, Pa. 
BOARD OF MISSIONS. Sec., Rev. J. L. Updegraph, Fmdlay, Ohio. 
PUBLISHING HOUSE. Pres., Rev. S. G. Yahn, Harrisburg, Pa. 


Name Location President 

Fmdlay College Fmdlay, W. H. Guyer. 

Church Advocate (weekly), Harrisburg, Pa., Editor, S. G. Yahn. 


The founder of this denomination was John Winebrenner, who 
in 1820 as a minister of the German Reformed Church, now the Re- 
formed Church in the United States, entered upon the pastorate in 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. His preaching was of a distinctly revival 
character and awakened strong opposition, resulting in severing Mr. 
Winebrenner's connection with the German Reformed Church in 1828. 
In 1829 he organized an independent church, calling it simply the 
"Church of God." The movement was more fully organized in 1845 
and m 1896 changed to the present name and organization. 


In doctrine the Churches of God are evangelical and orthodox, 
and Arminian rather than Calvinistic. They hold as distinctive views, 
that sectarianism is antiscriptural ; that each local church is a church 
of God, and should be so called; that in general, Bible things, as 
church offices and customs, should be known by Bible names, and a 
Bible name should not be applied to anything not mentioned in the 
Bible; and that there are not two, but three, ordinances that are 
perpetually obligatory, namely, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and the 
religious washing of the saints' feet. The last two they regard as 
conrpanion ordinances, which are always to be observed together, and 
in the evening. The only form of baptism recognized is the immer- 
sion of believers. They have no written creed, but accept the Word 
of God as their only rule of faith and practice. They insist strongly 
on the doctrines of the Trinity, human depravity, atonement through 
the sacrifice of Christ, the office and work of the Holy Spirit, man's 
moral agency, justification by faith, repentance and regeneration, 
practical piety, the observance of the Lord's Day, the resurrection of 
the dead, the eternal being of the soul, and future and eternal rewards 
and punishments. 


The polity of the churches is presbyterian. Each local church 
votes for a pastor, but the annual elderships make the appointments 
within their own boundaries. The church elects its own elders and 
deacons, who, with the pastor, constitute the church council, and 
are the governing power, having charge of the admission of mem- 
bers and the general care of the church work. The ministers within 
a certain territory, and an equal number of laymen elected by the 
various churches (or charges), constitute annual elderships, corre- 
sponding to presbyteries, which have the exclusive right to ordain 
ministers. The different annual elderships combine to form the Gen- 

66 Year Book of the Churches 

eral Eldership, which meets once in four years, and is composed of 
an equal number of ministerial and lay representatives, men and 
women as nearly as possible in equal numbers. 


Under this head are included three bodies of Negro Churches, 
similar in general type, though differing in many details. 

No directory obtainable. 


This is a group of Negro churches in Texas, organized about 
1908 as a separate body, in protest against what they deem the wrong 
subservience of the regular denominations to class and race preju- 
dice. They hold that not only the white but Negro denominations 
have erred greatly in their interpretation of the Bible; and that as 
the Negro race had advanced since 1865 most rapidly in its spiritual 
life, notwithstanding the iniquities and prejudices of very many, they 
should seek the union for which Christ prayed in an organization 
based distinctly on His Word. 

(Christian Workers for Fellowship) 

Synod, annual. General Assembly meets annually in No- 

Officers: Chief, Rev. William Christian, 1126 Woodlawn St., 
Memphis, Term.; Vice-Chief, Rev. C. L. Bryant, 3316 Colby 
St , Dallas, Tex. ; Sec., Mrs. E. L. Christian. 

Chief's cabinet: Rev. William Christian, Rev. C L Bryant, 
Rev. George Williams, Rev. A. W. Thompson, Rev. I. J. Big- 
gers, Rev. B. M. Campbell, Rev. W. E. Bowen, Rev. J. J 
Palmer, Rev. M. L Gibson, Rev. R. J. Bryant, Rev. E. T. Webb. 

ELECT SISTERS' WORK. Gen. Sec., Mrs. Mary E. M. Caldwell, 
Texarkana, Ark. 

SISTERS' HOME MISSION. Gen. See., Mrs. Mary Burton, R. No. 4, 
Box 11, Dallas, Tex. 

College and Seminary 

Name Location President 

Church of the Living God Seminary Ponta, Tex . C. L. Bryant. 


The Brotherhood Reporter, Editor, E. L. Christian, 1126 Wood- 
lawn St., Memphis, Tenn. 


The Church of the Living God "Christian Workers for Friend- 
ship" was organized at Wrightsville, Arkansas, in 1889, by Rev. Wil- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 67 

Ham Christian. In 1915 the name was changed to Christian Workers 
for Fellowship. There have been two secessions from this church: 
The Church of the Living God (Apostolic Church), now known as the 
Church of the Living God, General Assembly; and the Church of 
Christ in God, which more recently has consolidated with the parent 

The distinctive characteristics of the church are believers' bap- 
tism by immersion, the washing of the saints* feet, and the use of 
water and unleavened bread in the Lord's Supper. The local organi- 
zations are known as "temples" rather than as "churches," and are 
subject to the authority of a general assembly. The presiding officer 
is styled the "chief," or "bishop," and the ministry includes evangel- 
ists, pastors, and local preachers. 

A considerable number of ministers are engaged in general mis- 
sionary work for the extension of the church; Sunday schools occupy 
a prominent place in the church life; and there is a gospel extension 
club -engaged in works of mercy, particularly along the lines followed 
by fraternal societies, rendering assistance in the care of the sick and 
the burying of the dead. 


General Assembly, biennial ; next meeting August 3, 1923. 
Headquarters: Louisville, Ky. 

Officers: Bishop, J. A. Edmondson; Cor. Sec. and Treas., 
Kev. C. Davis, Houston, Tenn. ; Sec., Chas. Chase. 

CHURCH EXTENSION BOAKD. Nat. Sec., Rt. Rev. E. J. Cain, 
Louisville, Ky. 


Guiding Star of Truth, Houston, Tex., Editor, Rev. James 


The Apostolic Chuch, also called the "Christian Fellowship 
Workers," withdrew from the Church of the Living God, Christian 
Workers for Fellowship, in 1902, partly because of opposition to the 
head of that body and partly because of a different conception of 
certain articles of faith and church government. For several years 
the churches composing it were in a somewhat unsettled and disor- 
ganized state, with no stable form of government, name, or perma- 
nent leadership. In 1908 the presiding officer, Apostle Chas. W. 
Harris, called together the ministers and representatives from the 
different local churches, who then organized themselves into one 
association known as the General Assembly, Church of the Living God. 

In this body the presiding apostle is styled officer instead of chief 
or bishop, and it has eight orders among its ministers apostles, lead- 
ers, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. 

The General Assembly of synods meets annually in the month of 
November at Waco, Texas, and this place of meeting is spoken of 
among the worshipers as Jerusalem. 

In doctrine and general organization the church corresponds 
closely to the Methodist churches. 

68 Year Book of the Churches 



The churches of the New Jerusalem, popularly called Swe- 
denborgian, are two in number. The early history of both is 
given in the statement of the General Convention of the New 
Jerusalem, the older body ; while the movement which resulted 
in the organization of a second body, and the points on which it 
differs from the General Convention, are set forth in the state- 
ment of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. 


General Convention, annual; next meeting May, 1923, in 
Washington, D 0. 

Ten associations, meeting annually or semi-annually (also 
two others in Canada). 

Officers : Pres., Kev. Wm. L. Worcester, 5 Bryant St., Cam- 
bridge 38, Mass. ; Rec. Sec., Benjamin A. Whittemore, 134 Bow- 
doiii St, Boston 9, Mass.; Treas., Albert P. Carter, 511 Barris- 
ter's Hall, Boston 9, Mass. 

General Pastors 

Rev. George H. Dole, 1116 Broome St., Wilmington, Del. 

Kev. John Goddard, 52 Brookside Ave., Newtonville, Mass. 

Rev. Norman 0. Goddard, Pretty Prairie, Kans. 

Rev. Charles W. Harvey, 315 N. 35th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Louis G. Hoeck, 2822 Highland Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. Louis G. Landenberger, 3741 Windsor Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. John F. Potts, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

Rev. Wm. L. Worcester, 5 Bryant St., Cambridge, Mass. 

1223 Commercial Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. Paul 
Sperry, 1437 Q St., N. W., Washington, D, C.j Treas., Lloyd A. Frost, 
39 Guaranty Trust Co., Cambridge, Mass. 

AUGMENTATION FUND. Chmn,, Geo. C. Warren, 9 Cambridge St., 
Boston, Mass.; Sec.-Treas,, Albert P. Carter, 511 Barrister's Hall, 
Boston, Mass.. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION, 108 Clark St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Pres., 
Robert Alfred Shaw; See., Charles D. Allen; Treas., John F. Seekamp. 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, Chmn., Rev. Lewis F. Kite, 42 
Arlington St., Cambridge 40, Mass. 

Rev. John D aboil, 84 Walker St., Newtonville, Mass.; Sec.-Treas., 
John V. Horr, 1880 Brightwood St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 69 

AMERICAN NEW-CHURCH LEAGUE. Pres., Philip M. Alden, 334 
So. 43d St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Miss Pearl A. Sawyer, 12 Fenelon 
St., Dorchester, Mass.; Treas., Eliot L. Bedloe, Newtonville, Mass. 

Edwin A. Munyer, 830 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago, 111.; Sec., Mrs. E. 0. 
Woodward, 48 Harvard St., Newtonville 60, Mass.; Treas., Mrs. Carle- 
ton M. Moody, The Wallingford, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter B. Murray, 510 Steinway Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

SOCIAL SERVICE COMMISSION. Chmn., Eev. C. W. Harvey, 315 
N. 35th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Exec. Sec., Eev. John W. Stockwell, 
2129 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

New Church Theological School . Cambridge, Mass . .W. L. Worcester. 


Urbnna Univeisity School Urbana, Miss Louis G Hoeck. 

Waltham School for Girls , .Waltham, Mass Martha Mason. 


New-Church Review (quarterly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. 
Lewis F. Kite; New Church Messenger (weekly), Brooklyn, N, Y., 
Editor, Eev. E. M. L. Gould; The Helper (weekly), American New- 
Church Tract and Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. ; New-Church 
League Journal (monthly), Chicago, 111.; Sunday Afternoons 
(weekly), Boston 9, Mass. 


The Church of the New Jerusalem, known also as the "New 
Church," was first organized in London m 1787. It is based upon 
the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, 1688-1772. 

The first New Church society in America was founded at Balti- 
more in 1792, and in 1817 the General Convention of the New Jeru- 
salem in the United States of America was organized. In 1890 a 
considerable number withdrew and later organized the General Church 
of the New Jerusalem. 


The general doctrines of the New Church teach that there is one 
God, even the Lord God, the Saviour, Jesus Christ; that there is in 
Him a Trinity, not of persons, but of essence, Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit; that the Father is the inmost Divine Essence, or Love, from 
which all things are; that the Son is the Divine Wisdom and Word, 
by which the Divine Love is manifested and acts; and the Holy 
Spirit is the Divine Proceeding and Operation; and that these three 
are related to each other in God, as are soul, body, and operation, in 
man. Thus they teach that the Lord Jesus Christ, as the one Divine 
Person, in whom is the Father, and from whom is the Holy Spirit, is, 
in His glorified humanity, the one God of heaven and of earth, and 
the supreme and sole object of worship for angels and men. 

With regard to revelation, they teach that the Word of God con- 
tained in the Bible is not written like any other book, and can not be 
subjected to the same methods of criticism; that it is plenanly in- 
spired by the Lord Himself, and like Nature, is a divine symbol; that 
besides the literal sense adapted to men, it contains a spiritual sense 
adapted to angels; that these senses are connected with each other 
by the great law of correspondence, in accordance with which the 
universe is created; and it contains the rule of life for angels and 

70 Year Book of the Churches 

With regard to redemption, they teach that the one God, Jehovah, 
the Creator of the universe, came down upon earth in the assumption, 
by birth from a virgin, of a human nature in order that He might live 
a human life, and, by purging it, redeem it; that in doing so He met 
and overcame in His temptations all the enemies of the human race, 
and reduced them to eternal subjection; and that He continues to hold 
them in subjection m the mind and heart of every man who will co- 
operate with Him by faith and obedience ; and that the application of 
this redeeming work in those who believe in Him and keep His com- 
mandments is salvation. 

With regard to death and the spiritual world, they teach that 
when a man dies he is raised up in his spiritual body in the spiritual 
world, and there lives forever, in heaven or in hell, his state being 
determined by the spiritual character he had formed for himself by 
his life in this world; the judgment occurs immediately after death, 
in the world of spirits, which is intermediate between heaven and 
hell, and it consists in a man's coming to know himself in the light 
of the eternal realities of the Word of God. 

Besides these cardinal points, the doctrines of the New Church 
have much to say about the laws of divine order and of divine provi- 
dence; about faith and charity; about free will and imputation, re- 
pentance and regeneration; about marriage; about mental develop- 
ment in childhood and age; about the successive churches or divine 
dispensations that have existed on this earth, and the judgments ter- 
minating each; all of which teachings, based on the Word of the 
Lord, the believers hold to be in complete harmony with each other, 
and with the deductions of sound reason and the analogies of nature. 

Baptism is administered in the scriptural formula, "in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," to children as 
well as to adults who come on confession of their faith. Infant bap- 
tism is followed by the rite of confirmation or ratification m maturer 
years, which is usually identified with the first communion, and this 
profession of faith in the essential doctrines of the church is re- 
garded as the appropriate gate of admission to the sacrament of the 
Lord's table. 


The polity of the church is a modified episcopacy, but the socie- 
ties and associated bodies are left the utmost freedom in the adminis- 
tration of their local affairs. 

The General Convention is held annually, and every church mem- 
ber has a right to take part in the deliberations, be appointed on com- 
mittees, and be elected to office, but the right to vote is limited to min- 
isters whose official acts are reported to the convention, and to 
delegates of associations. In some cases women are sent as delegates. 

The convention is an ecclesiastical, a legislative, and a judicial 

A council of ministers, which consists of all the ministers belong- 
ing to the convention, has charge of matters pertaining to the 

The ministry includes ministers, pastors, and general pastors. 

The worship of the church is generally liturgical, chants being 
extensively used, but great latitude is observed in different societies 
and localities. 

Consistory; meets weekly. 
Headquarters . Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

Officers Sec , Kev. W. B. Caldwdl, Bryn Athyn, Pa. ; Trcas , 
H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 71 


N. D. Pendleton, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 
W. F. Pendleton (Emeritus), Bryn, Athyn, Pa. 
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Pres., Dr. F. A. Boericke; Vice-Pres., 
Raymond Pitcairn; Sec., Paul Carpenter; Treas., H. Hyatt. 


Name Location President 

Academy of the New Church . Bryn Athyn, Pa N, D. Pendleton. 


New Church Life (monthly), Editor, Bev. W. B. Caldwell; 
Bulletin (monthly) , Rev. Wm. Whitehead. 


The General Church of the New Jerusalem traces its origin as an 
independent ecclesiastical body to the development, at the very begin- 
ning of the New Church in England and America, of a movement 
"toward a strict adherence to the doctrines and principles revealed in 
the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and toward distinctiveness of 
teaching, worship, and life, in the Church of the New Jerusalem." 
This separate organization, beginning in 1876, through various 
changes, was reorganized in 1897 under the name "The General 
Church of the New Jerusalem." 


In doctrine the General Church of the New Jerusalem differs from 
other branches of the organized New Church simply in its attitude 
toward the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, which it 
regards as being "Divinely inspired and thus the very Word of the 
Lord, revealed at His second coming.'* 


The polity of the General Church is based upon the principle 
of "practical unanimity/' to be secured through deliberation and free 
cooperation in "council and assembly." 


(Called also The Community of True Inspiration) 

Communistic. The affairs of the community are managed 
by a board of 13 trustees who meet monthly. 

.Officers : Pres., George Heineman, S. Amana, la ; Vice-Pres., 
Jacob F. Moershel, Homestead, la. ; Sec., William F. Moershel, 
Amana, la. 


About the time that the Dunkers in Germany were developing 
under the influence of Pietism there arose a community more thor- 
oughly representative of the mysticism of the period, the members 
of which were convinced that the days of direct inspiration by God 
had not passed, but that persons then living were endowed with the 
same divine power. Gradually they gathered strength, and in 1714 a 
small company of them under the leadership of Johann Frederick 

72 Year Book of the Churches 

Rock and Eberhard Ludwig Gruber met m Himbach, Hesse, and gave 
expression to their belief by a somewhat loose organization. They in- 
creased in numbers and in influence, but suffered severely at the hands 
of the government. On the death of Johann Frederick Rock, m 1749, 
"the gift of inspiration ceased." 

His successors continued the work along the lines of the founders, 
but the congregations diminished in number until 1817, when a new 
impulse was given by Michael Kraussert and a peasant girl of Alsace, 
Barbara Heinemann, both of whom were recognized by a number of 
the older members as inspired and endowed with the gift of prophecy. 
With them, later, was associated Christian Metz, and these leaders 
traveled considerably and gradually strengthened the scattered organi- 
zations. By 1826 it became apparent that the Inspirationists, of 
whom there were many m Wurtemberg and other provinces, would 
have to renounce their faith and return to the fold of the state 
church, or leave their homes and seek refuge where they could follow 
their religious customs unmolested. A large estate at Marienborn, 
Hesse, was leased, to which other properties were added, and by 1835 
the community was quite prosperous. Difficulties with the govern- 
ment, however, arose again. The authorities would not accept affirma- 
tion as the equivalent of the oath, which the members of the society 
refused to take. Already a revelation had come to Metz that they 
should be led out to a land of peace, and in 1842 it was decided thai 
he and some other members should come to America. 

They arrived in New York on the 26th of October of that year, 
and learning that the Seneca Indian reservation, near Buffalo, was 
available, secured 9 the property. Little by little the entire commu- 
nity, numbering some 800 people, came over from Germany, and the 
society was organized in 1843 under the name of the Ebenezer So- 
ciety, and houses were arranged in four villages, Lower, Middle, 
Upper, and New Ebenezer. Each village had its store, meetinghouse 
or place of worship, and school, and its own local government con- 
sisting of a board of elders. As the numbers increased, the quar- 
ters became too narrow and another change was suggested, which re- 
sulted, in 1855, in removal to the present location in Iowa County, 
Iowa, where the villages of Amana, East, Middle, High, West, and 
South Amana, and Homestead were established. 

In 1859 the society was incorporated as a religious and benevo- 
lent society under the name of the "Amana Society," although the 
term "Community of True Inspiration" is also used. The purpose of 
this association is declared to be an entirely religious one, for the 
service of God, the salvation of souls, and the demonstration in the 
community of faithfulness in inward and outward service. In order 
to accomplish this in full for all members, the entire property remains 
as a common estate, with all improvements and additions. Every 
member at the time of joining the society, is in duty bound to give his 
or her personal or real property to the trustees for the common fund. 
For such payments each member is entitled to a credit on the books 
of the society and to a receipt signed by the president and secretary, 
and is secured by a pledge of the common property of the society. All 
claims for wages, interest, and sharing income .are released and each 
member is entitled to support through life. All children and minors, 
after the death of parents or relatives, are under the special guardi- 
anship of the trustees, and credits not disposed of by will, or debts 
left by parents, are assumed by their children. Persons leaving the 
society either by their own choice or by expulsion, receive the amount 
paid by them into the common fund, without interest or allowance for 
services during the time of their membership. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 73 


The confession of faith is founded on the revealed Word of God 
manifest in the Scriptures and in the words of the instruments of 
true inspiration. Since the death of Christian Metz, in 1867, and of ( 
Barbara Heinemann, in 1883, no one is believed to have had the gift 
of inspiration. 


The general government of the society is in the hands of a board 
of 13 trustees, who were elected annually out of the board of elders. 

Religious meetings are held in the meeting houses twice on Sun- 
day and sometimes on week days. A short prayer meeting is held 
every evening. 


(Commonly called Shakers) 

A society of celibate Christian Communists. 
The Ministry : Composed of two Brothers and two Sisters 
Official meetings are held as circumstances require. 
Headquarters : Mount Lebanon, N. Y. 


Elder Walter Shepherd, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 
Elder Arthur Bruce, East Canterbury, N. H. 
Eldress Sarah Burger, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 
Eldress M. Catherine Allen, Mt. Lebanon, N. Y. 


The movement of which this society was the outcome originated 
in England about the middle of the eighteenth century. In their meet- 
ings a spiritual power was experienced, so strong that their bodies 
were exercised in various ways, and they were called in derision, 
"Shaking Quakers." Ann Lee, who later became their leader, after 
being greatly concerned for many years over human depravity, came 
to the conviction that the root of evil in the world was the uncon- 
trolled, undirected use of the sexual relation, and that the way to 
purity of life lay in abstinence and control of passion. The plain 
preaching and fervent exercises of her company became so offensive 
that a severe persecution broke out, and several times she narrowly 
escaped death. While imprisoned, in Manchester in 1770, she received 
a further vision, and taught that the Christ Spirit which had anointed 
and inspired Jesus now rested upon and spoke through her; that it 
was necessary that Christ should come a second time, through a 
woman, to complete the perfect way of salvation; and that the Holy 
or Mother Spirit was manifested through a woman, as the Father 
Spirit had been manifested through Jesus. 

Persecution ceased, but the new doctrines, accepted by the little 
company, were not widely adopted, and, after two years of quiet Ann 
Lee, with eight followers, conceived the idea of emigrating to Amer- 
ica. The little party landed at New York on August 6, 1774. Only one 
of the number, John Hocknell, had means, and he paid the fare of the 
party and afterwards purchased a tract of land in the woods of 
Niskeyuna, or Watervliet, where, in 1776, they built their first rude 
log cabin and made preparation for the increase in numbers which 
Mother Ann, as she was known, firmly believed would follow. 

The period of greatest missionary activity was from 1805 in 
1835, during which time societies were planted in Kentucky, Ohio, 

74 Year Book of the Churches 

Indiana, and the Eastern States, and the membership came to number 
fully 5,000. 

From the beginning Ann Lee and her followers were practical 
believers in the intercouse of spirits within and without the body, 
anticipating thus by many years the advent of modern spiritualism 
The period from 1837 to 1848 is known as the time of "Spirit Mani- 
festation/' or "Mother Ann's Second Coming," and during this time 
remarkable spirit phenomena are said to have been observed in all of 
the societies. 

Since 1860 there has been a steady decline in numbers. They 
believe that a new revival of true Shaker living is certain to come in 
due time. They are not greatly concerned whether the revival is to 
find expression in a resuscitation of the existing communities, or 
whether it shall build for itself new forms, better adapted to the 
needs of the new day. 


Shakerism is claimed to be "a kind of Christian Socialism, whose 
basis is the spiritual family, founded on the type of the natural 
family." The duality of Deity is recognized, man having been made 
in the image of God. Hence, father and mother are coequal, and the 
spiritual parents, at the head of the order and of each family, are 
equal in power and authority, and this equality of the sexes extends 
through the entire membership and all departments of life. Of the 
principles that are the foundation of Shakerism the ones most em- 
phasized are "virgin purity, peace or nonresistance, brotherhood, and 
community of goods." 


The organizations include the family or local society, consisting 
of one or more families, and a central ministry, or bishopric, presiding 
over all subordinate bishoprics and societies. 


National Council, biennial j next session at Springfield, Mass., 
October, 1923. 

Officers: Mod., Eev. "William E. Barton, Oak Park, 111.; Sec., 
Rev. Charles E. Burton, 289 Fourth Ave., New York City; 
Treas , Frank P. Moore, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Edward C. Moore; Cor. Sees., 
Rev. James L, Barton, Rev. Cornelius H. Patton; Editorial Sec., E. F. 
Bell; Asso. Sees., D. B. Eddy, Rev. Ernest W. Riggs; Treas., F. A. 

City. Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton; Cor. Sees., Rev. George L. 
Cady, Rev. Fred L. Brownlee; Sec. of Bureau of Woman's Work, Mrs. 
F. W. Wilcox; Treas, Irving C. Gaylord. 

New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec. f Rev. 
Ernest M. Halhday; Sec. of Missions, Rev. Frank L. Moore; Sec. of 
Woman's Dept., Miss Miriam L. Woodberry; Treas., Charles H. Baker 

Mass. Pres., Rev. Charles R. Brown; Sec., Rev. F. M. Sheldon; Sec. 
for Social Service, Rev. A. E. Holt; Treas., H. M, Nelson. 

New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec., Rev. 
Ernest M. Halliday; Sec. of Church Bldg., Rev. Jas. Robt. Smith; 
Treas., Charles H. Baker. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 75 

Ave., New York City. Pres., Rev. J. Percival Huget; Gen. Sec., Rev. 
Ernest M. Halliday; Extension Sec., Rev, W. Knighton Bloom; Treas , 
Charles H. Baker. 

Ave., New York City. Pres., Rev. Henry A. Stimson; Sec., Rev. 
Charles S. Mills; Treas., B. H. Fancher. 

Ave., New York City. Sec., Rev. Charles S. Mills; Treas., B. H. Fan- 
cher. Administers income of the $5,000,000 Pilgrim Memorial Fund. 

WOMAN'S BOARD OF MISSIONS, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Pres., Mrs. Franklin H. Warner; Foreign Sec., Miss Kate G. Lamson; 
Home Sec., Miss Helen B. Calder; Editorial Sec., Miss Alice M. Kyle; 
Treas., Mrs. Frank G. Cook. Organ: The Missionary Herald. 

Chicago, 111. Pres., Mrs. George M. Clark; Foreign Sec., Mrs. Lucius 
0. Lee; Home Sec., Miss Mary D. Uline; Editorial Sec., Miss Dorothy 
R. Swift; Treas., Mrs. S. E. Hurlbut. Organ: The Missionary Herald. 

San Francisco, Calif. Pres., Mrs. R. C. Kirkwood; Home Sec., Mrs. 
Helen Street Ranney; Foreign Sec, Mrs. E. R. Wagner; Editorial 
Sec., Miss Elizabeth S. Benton; Treas., Mrs. W. W. Ferrier. Organ: 
The Missionary Herald. 

Herring; Gen. Sec., Mrs. John J. Pearsall, 289 Fourth Ave., New York 
City; Treas., Mrs. P. S. Suffern. 

tional House, Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. E. M. Noyes; Cor. and Eec. 
Sec., Thomas Todd, Jr.; Treas., Phineas Hubbard; Librarian, Rev. 
William H. Cobb. 

ton, Mass. Chmn., Rev. Watson L. Phillips; Sec., Rev. Arthur J. 

Colleges and Universities 

Name Location Ptesideiit o) Dc<ni 

American International College. ..Springfield, Mass C S. McGown. 

Amherst College Amherst, Mass. Alexander Meiklejohn 

Atlanta University . Atlanta, Ga Myi on W. Adams, Actg 

Beloit College Beloit, Wis M. A Brannon. 

Bowdom College . .. Brunswick, Me Kenneth Sills. 

Carleton College 
Colorado College 
Dartmouth College 
Doane College . . . 
Drury College 

. Nortkfield, Minn. . .D. J. Cowling. 
. Colorado Springs, Colo. .C. A. Duniway. 

. Hanover, N. H Ernest M, Hopkins. 

.Crete, Neb J. N. Bennett. 

.Springfield, Mo. . . .T. W. Nadal. 

Fairmount College .. .. ...Wichita, Kans. .. . .John D. Fmlayson 

Fargo College Fargo, N. D R A Beard, Acting 

Fisk University Nashville, Tenn F. A. MacKenzie. 

Grmnell College Grinnell, Iowa . .J. H. T. Mam. 

Illinois College Jacksonville, 111. . . C. H. Rammelkamp. 

Kingfisher College . .Kingfisher, Okla. 

Knox College Galesburg, 111 . James L. McConaughy 

Marietta College Marietta, Ohio . . . E. S. Parsons. 

Middlebury College Middlebury, Vt. . . .Paul D. Moody 

Milwaukee-Downer College Milwaukee, W*s Lucia R. Bnags 

Mount Holyoke College ... . South Hadley, Mass . Mary E. Woolley. 
Northland College .. . . .Ashland, Wis J. D Brownell. 

Oberlm College ... ... . Oberlm, Ohio .... 

Olivet College Olivet, Mich, . 

Pacific University Forest Grove, Ore. 

Piedmont College Demorest, Ga 

..H. C. King. 
..Paul F Voelker. 
.Robert P. Clark. 
..F E. Jenkins 

Pomona College . Claremont, Calif. J. A. Blaisdell. 

Redfield College Redfield, S. D . ..O J Tiede 

Ripon College . . Ripon, Wis . Silas Evans 

Rollins College . . . . . Winter Park, Fla . . . .R. J. Sr>rague, Acting 

Smith College . . Northampton, Mass, . .W. A. Neilson 

Year Book of the Churches 

Name Location 

Straight University New Orleans, La. 

Tabor College 
Talladega College 
Tillotson College . 
Tougaloo College 
Wa-shburn College 
Wellesley College 
Wheaton College . 
Whitman, College 
Williams College . 
Yale College . 
Yankton College . 

. . Tabor, Iowa 
..Talledega, Ala. 
. . Austin, Tex, . , 
Tougaloo, Miss. 
. , Topeka, Kans , 
. WellevSley, Mass, . 
..Wheaton, 111 
. . Walla Walla, Wash. 
. . Wilhamstown, Mass. 
. . New Haven, Conn. 
, , Yankton, S. D, . 

Ptesirtevt ot Duni 

..J. P O'Bnen, 

..S. E. Lvncl 
,,F A Sumner. 
..P. W Fletchei 

.W. T. Holmes. 
..Parley P. Womer. 
Ellen F Pendleton, 
. C. A. Blanchard. 

.S B. L Penrose. 
..H, A. Garfield 
A. T Hadley 

.H. K. Warren 

.W. L. Speiry 
. F R. Shipniftn 
.W. J. Moulton. 

S. Davis. 
.W. D Mackenzie. 

Henry Churchill King. 
,H. F. Swutz 

F. A. Sumner. 
*J A Jenkins 
Charles R Brown. 

Theological Seminaries 

Andover Theological Seminary . . . Cambridge, Mass. . . . 
Atlanta Theological Seminary . Atlanta, Ga ... . 
Bangor Theological Seminary . Bangor, Me 
Chicago Theological Seminary ...Chicago, 111. 
Hartford Theological Seminary . . Hartford, Conn . . 
Qberlm Theological Seminary Oberlm, Ohio 
Pacific Theological Seminary . Berkeley, Calif. 
Talladega College Theological De- 
partment Talladega, Ala, . . 

Union Theological Semman Chicago 111 

Yale School of Religion ... . New Haven, Conn. . 


Congregationalist (weekly) , Boston, Mass., Editor, Rev. W. E. 
Gilroy; Missionary Herald, Editor, Rev. E. F. Bell, 14 Beacon St., 
Boston Mass.; Pacific, San Francisco, Calif.; American Missionary, 
287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 


The Reformation in England developed along three lines : Angli- 
canism, Puritanism, and Separatism. The Anglicans held to the old 
English Church, minus the papacy and the distinctively papal fea- 
tures. The Puritans held to the National Church, but called for a 
world reformation recognizing the right of the members to a voice 
in the selection of ministers, in the management of the local church 
and the adoption of creed. The Separatists held that the whole sys- 
tem of the Establishment was an anti-Christian imitation of the true 
church and could not be reformed and that the only thing to do was 
to withdraw. Naturally the Separatists suffered even greater perse- 
cution than the Puritans, especially after the passage of the Act of 
Uniformity m 1559. The movement, however, could not be sup- 
pressed and under John Robinson began the development of the Sep- 
aratists into Congregationahsts in 1604. Robinson and a number of 
friends and followers went into exile, first to Amsterdam and then to 
Leyden. After a few years they decided to move to America. The 
first band of Pilgrim Separatists, 102 persons under the leadership 
of Brewster, Bradford, and Winslow, landed at Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1620 and founded there the first Congregational Church 
upon American soil, Robinson remaining in Leyden. They were fol- 
lowed after a few years by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay. So 
long as they were in England the differences between the Puritans 
and Separatists were accentuated, but after their arrival in America 
the many points on which they agreed became more apparent, and the 
essential elements of both Separatism and Puritanism were combined 
into Congregationalism. By 1640 all but two of the churches in New 
England were Congregational, and Congregationalism became prac- 
tically the State church. The withdrawal of the Massachusetts char- 
ter in 1684, replaced Congregationalism by Episcopacy, but a new 
charter in 1691 restored the former condition to a considerable degree. 
With the organization later of other denominations Congregationalism 
gradually ceased to be the State religion. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 77 


The principle of autonomy in the Congregational churches in- 
volves the right of each church to frame its own statement of doc- 
trinal belief, a right which has always been asserted by all. The 
equally important principle of fellowship of the churches assumes that 
a general consensus of such beliefs is both possible and essential to 
mutual cooperation in such work as may belong to the churches as a 
body. As a result, while there is no authoritative Congregational 
creed, acceptance of which is a condition of ecclesiastical fellowship, 
there have been several statements of this consensus, culminating in a 
creedal statement which, while it has no formal ecclesiastical endorse- 
ment, is widely accepted as a fair statement of the doctrinal position 
of the Congregational churches. The first of these statements, called 
the "Cambridge Platform," drawn up by a synod summoned by the 
Massachusetts legislature, 1648, simply registered general approval 
of the Westminster Confession. Certain phraseology in that confes- 
sion, however, proved unacceptable to many churches, and the Massa- 
chusetts revision, in 1680, of the Savoy Confession, and the Saybrook 
Platform of 1708, embodied the most necessary modifications, but still 
approved the general doctrinal features of the Westminster Confes- 
sion. The First National Council in 1865 adopted the "Burial Hill 
Declaration," expressing "our adherence to the faith and order of the 
apostolic and primitive churches held by our fathers, and substan- 
tially as embodied in the confessions and platforms which our synods 
of 1648 and 1680 set forth or reaffirmed." At the same time it held 
forth the right hand of fellowship to all believers "on the basis of 
those great fundamental truths in which all Christians should agree." 
In the changing conditions this was not entirely satisfactory, and in 
1880 the national council appointed a commission to prepare "a for- 
mula that shall not be mainly a reaffirmation of former confessions, 
but that shall state in precise terms in our living tongue the doc- 
trines that we hold today." 

The commission, composed of 25 representative men, finished its 
work in 1883. The statement, or creed, was not presented as a report 
to the council, but was issued to the world "to carry such weight of 
authority as the character of the commission and the intrinsic merit 
of its exposition of truth might command." While there has been no 
official adoption of this creed by any general body, either the national 
council or the state associations, as binding upon the churches, it has 
furnished the doctrinal basis for a great many of the churches, and in 
the main has represented their general belief. 

Thirty years later in revising the constitution of the National 
Council a "Statement of Faith" was embodied in that instrument, 
which does not thereby become binding on the churches but which 
has been accepted by many of them as their creed, either with or 
without modification. After affirming "the steadfast allegiance of 
the churches composing the Council to the faith which our fathers 
confessed, which from age to age has found its expression in the 
historic creeds of the Church Universal and of this communion" there 
follows a brief statement of the fundamental evangelical doctrines, 
and the document concludes, "Depending as did our fathers upon 
the continued guidance of the Holy Spirit to lead us into all truth, 
we work and pray for the transformation of the world into the king- 
dom of God; and we look with faith for the triumph of righteousness 
and the life everlasting." 


The polity of the Congregational churches represents adaptation 
to conditions rather than accord to a theory of church government. 
The local church is the unit, and every church member, regardless lof 

78 Year Book of the Churches 

age, sex, or position, has an equal voice in its conduct, and is equally 
subject to its control. For orderly worship and effective administra- 
tion certain persons are set apart or ordained to particular services, 
but such ordination or appointment carries with it no ecclesiastical 
authority. The church officers are the pastor, a board of deacons, 
usually a board of trustees, and heads of various departments of 
church work. In raost cases there is a church committee which con- 
siders various topics relating to the conduct of the church, meets 
persons desiring to unite with it, and presents these matters in defi- 
nite form of action by the church as a whole. Early in Congrega- 
tional history there was. a distinction between elders and deacons cor- 
responding very closely to that in the Presbyterian Church. That dis- 
tinction has disappeared, and the offices of elders, or spiritual guides, 
and of deacons, or persons having charge of the temporalities of the 
church, have been united in the diaconate. 

For fellowship and mutual assistance the churches gather in 
local associations or conferences, and in state conferences, in which 
each church is represented by pastor and lay delegates. Membership 
in the national council includes ministerial and lay delegates elected 
by the state conferences, and also delegates from the local associa- 
tions. Membership in an association is generally regarded as essen- 
tial ^ to good and regular standing m the denomination. No asso- 
ciation of conference, or national council, however, has any ec- 
clesiastical authority. That is vested solely in the council called 
by the local church for a specific case, whose existence terminates 
with the accomplishment of its immediate purpose. The result is 
that there is no appeal from one court to another, although an ag- 
grieved party may call a new council, which, however, has no more 
authority than its predecessor 

Since the reorganization of the National Council in 1913 there 
has been a large degree of administrative unity provided through 
making each member of the National Council a voting member of each 
of the missionary societies so that organizations which grew up as 
close corporations with the hearty cooperation of the churches are 
now^ officially controlled by the churches associated togethei in the 
National Council. 

The Lord's Supper is free to all followers of Christ. Infant 
baptism is customary, and the form is optional, although sprinkling 
is the form commonly used. 


International Convention, meets annually in October. 
There are also annual conventions in most of the states. 
Officers : Pr es , Rev. T. "W. Grafton, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Sec , 
Rev. Robert Graham Frank, Dallas, Tex. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. J. H. Atkinson, Fulton, Mo., Rev. J. T. 
Boone, Jacksonville, Fla., Rev. W. N. Brmey, Louisville, Ky., Rev 
E. W. Cole, Huntington, Ind., Rev. H. H. Harmon, Lincoln, Nebr , 
Rev. Claude E. Hill, Chattanooga, Tenn., Rev. C. G. Kindred, 6625 
Stewart Ave., Chicago, 111., Mrs. H. B. McCormick, Detroit, Mich., 
Wi. J. McGill, Shelbyville, Tenn., Mrs. C. S. Medbury, Des Momes, 
Iowa, C. M. Rodefer, Belle Aire, Ohio, Miss Lucile D. Smith, Wichita, 
Kans., Miss Mary A. Stewart, Cape Girardeau, Mo., S. H. Thompson, 
St. Louis, Mo., Mrs. F. M. Wright, St. Louis, Mo. 

the American Christian Missionary Society, Board of Church Exten- 
sion, Board of Ministerial Relief, Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sitns, Foreign Christian Missionary Society and the National Benevo- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 79 

lent Association. Headquarters, 1501 Locust Street, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri. Officers: Pres., Rev. F. W. Burnham; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Anna 
E. Atwater; Vice-Pres., Rev. Stephen J. Corey; Recorder, Lela E. 
Taylor; Treas., C. W. Plopper. Administrative Division: Rev. Grant 
K. Lewis, Mrs. Effie L. Cunningham, W. F. Turner, Mrs. Anna At- 
water (Advisory), G. W. Muckley (Advisory), F. E. Smith (Ad- 
visory), Jesse M. Bader, Supt. of Evangelism. 

BOARD OP EDUCATION, Indianapolis, Ind. Pres., A. D. Harmon, 
222 Downey Ave., Lexington, Ky.; Sec., H. O. Pritchard, Indianapolis, 

House, Baltimore, Md. Pres., Rev. Peter Ainslie; Sec., Rev. H. C. 
Armstrong, 504 N. Fulton Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Indianapolis, Ind. Pres., Edward Jackson; Sec., Alva W. Taylor; 
Sec., Milo J. Smith. 

MEN AND MILLIONS MOVEMENT, 1501 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo.; 
Sec., Henry G. Bowden; Treas., Miss Helen Mohorter. 

William P. Shelton. 

Colleges, Universities and Schools 

President, Dean or 

Name Location Principal 

Atlantic Christian College Wilson, N. C. H. S. Hilley. 

Bethany College . ... Bethany, W. Va. 

The Bible College of Missouri . . . Columbia, Mo. 
Butler College . Indianapolis, Ind 

California School of Christianity .Los Angeles, Calif. 
Cari-Burdette College Sherman, Texas . . 

Christian College . . Columbia, Mo. 

College of Missions . Indianapolis, Ind. . 

,Cloyd Goodnight. 
Granville D. Edwards. 
Robert J. Aley. 
, Arthur Broden 
. Cephus Shelburne. 
.Edgar D Lee 
.Charles T. Paul. 
.Chailes E Cobbey 

Cotner College . ... .Bethany, Neb. _ 

Culver-Stockton College ... . Canton, Mo . John H Wood. 
Disciples' Divinity House of the 

University of Chicago Chicago, 111. . . W. E Garrison. 

Drake University . . . Des Momes, Iowa 

Drury School of the Bible . .Springfield, Mo. . . Carl B Swift. 

Eureka College Eureka, 111. . L O. Lehman. 

Hiram College . . . Hiram, Ohio . Miner Lee Bates. 

Illinois Disciple Foundaion Champaign, 111 Stephen E Fisher. - 
Indiana School of Religion Bloomington, Ind. . ., Jos. C. Todd 

Lynchburg College Lynchburg, Va. J. J. T Hundley. 

Missouri Christian College ... .Camden Point, Mo. . ..I. O Foss 

Phillips University East Enid, Okla. I. N. McCash. 

Southern Christian College .West Point, Miss 

Spokane University Spokane, Wash A. M. Meldrum. 

Texas Christian University . Fort Worth, Texas . .EM. Waits 

Tiansylvama and College of the 1 

Bible . . Lexington, Ky. .A. D. Harmon 

William Woods College . .Fulton, Mo R H. Crossfield 


Alabama Christian, Editor, 0. P. Spiegel, Montgomery, Ala ; 
Arkansas Christian, Editor, John S. Zeran, Little Rock, Ark ; The 
Christian Messenger, Editor, George W. Brewster, Jr., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif.; Christian Messenger, Auburn, Ga.; The Christian Cen- 
tury, Editor, Charles C. Morrison, Chicago, 111.; Mission Leaves, 
Editor, Mrs. Lulu C. Hunter, Chicago, 111.; Indiana Woman's Christ- 
ian, Editor, Mrs. 0. H. Greist, Winchester, Ind. ; The Indiana Worker, 
Editor, C. W. Cauble, Indianapolis, Ind.; Northwester, Editor, Roy 
K. Roadruck, Spokane, Wash.; The Iowa Tidings, Editor, Miss An- 
nette Newcomer, Des Moines, Iowa; The Christian News, Editor, W. 
M. Baker, Des Moines, Iowa; The Kansas Messenger, Editor, John 

D. Zimmerman, Topeka, Kans.; The Missionary Counsel, Editor, Alma 

E. Moore, Topeka, Kans.; The Weekly Bulletin, Editor, N. K. Mc- 
Gowan, Louisville, Ky.; The Kentucky Quarterly, Editor, Mrs. W. R. 

80 Year Book of the Churches 

Humphrey, Lexington, Ky.; The Louisiana Christian, Editor, Melvin 
Menges, Jennings, La,; The Christian Union Quarterly, Editor, Peter 
Amslie, Baltimore, Md.; The Christian Banner, Editor, J. Frank 
Green, Owosso, Mich.; Northern Christian, Editor, M. M. Moses, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Gospel Plea, Editor, J. B. Lehman, Edwards, 
Miss.; Southern Christian Courier. Editor, D. H. Starns, Jackson, 
Miss.; King's Builders, Editor, Nora E. Darnall, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Missouri Movement Bulletin, Editor, W. D. Endres, Kansas City, 
Mo.; Our Task, Editor, J. H. Stidham, Vandalia, Mo,; The Missionary 
Advance, Editor, Mrs. Laura M. White, Kansas City, Mo.; The 
Christian Evangelist, Editor, B. A. Abbott, St. Louis, Mo.; The Front 
Rank, Editor, Roy K. Roadruck, St. Louis, Mo.; World Call, Editor, 
W. R. Warren, St. Louis, Mo.; The Christian Worker, Editor, A. L 
Chapman, Bozeman, Mont.; The Christian Reporter, Editor, R. P. 
Smith, Bethany, Nebr.; The Nebraska Tidings, Editor, Cora E. 
Hemry, Lincoln, Nebr,; Our Messenger, Editor, Frank A. Higgms, 
Albany, N. Y. ; North Carolina Christian, Editor, C. C. Ware, Wilson, 
N C.; The Watch Tower, Editor, W. H. Mizelle, Robersonville, N. C.; 
The Christian Standard, Editor, George P. Rutledge, Cincinnati, ; 
The Lookout, Editor, J. DeForest Murch, Cincinnati, 0.; The Ohio 
Counsellor, Editor, Miss Mary E. Lyons, Cleveland, 0.; The Ohio 
Work, Editor, I. J. Cahill, Cleveland, 0.; The Christian Leader, 
Editor, F. L. Rowe, Cincinnati, 0.; The State Serwce, Editor, D. Y. 
Donaldson, Enid, Okla.;T/ie Christian Journal, Editor, Harry Benton, 
Eugene, Ore.; South Carolina Christian, Editor, D. S. MacDonald, 
Sumter, S. C.; The Tennessee Christian, Editor, S. R. Hawkins, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; The Christian Courier, Editor, W. M. Williams, Dallas, 
Tex.; The Chesapeake Christian, Editor, G. Hubert Steed, Richmond, 
Va.; The West Virginia Worker, Editor, John Ray Clark, West 
Union, W. Va.; The All Canada Christian, Editor, Reuben Butchart, 
Toronto, Canada; The Christian, Editor, W. H. Harding, Milton, 
Queen County, Nova Scotia; The Christian Messenger, Editor, J. P. 
McLeod, Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada; Tokyo Christian, Editor, W. 
D. Cunningham, Tokyo, Japan. 


The Churches of Christ (Disciples) trace their origin to the re- 
vival movement in the early part of the nineteenth century, when a 
number of leaders arose who pleaded for Christian Union and the 
Bible alone, without human addition in the form of creeds and for- 
mulas. They emphasized particularly the independence of the local 
church, without reference to any ecclesiastical system. They sought to 
restore the union of the churches through a "return, in doctrine, 
ordinance, and life, to the religion definitely outlined in the New 

In 1807 the Rev, Thomas Campbell, a member of the Secession 
branch of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, came to the United 
States, was received cordially, and found employment in western 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Campbell was censured by his presbytery on ac- 
count of informalities in his proceedings and finally it became evident 
that his views were widely different from those of his presbytery. He 
formally withdrew. In 1809 he was joined by his son Alexander 
Campbell and they formed an organization called "Christian Asso- 
ciation of Washington, Pennsylvania," issuing an address that became 
historic. Its main purpose as expressed was to set forth the essen- 
tial unity of the Church of Christ. The Campbells did not appear to 
have desired to develop their association into a distinct denomina- 
tion. Overtures were made for joining with the Presbyterian Synod 
of Pittsburg. This, however, could not be adjusted. The same diffi- 
culty was found in relation to Baptist Associations. An organization 

Directory of Religious Bodies 81 

was made with a part of other forces under Barton W. Stone at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, in 1832. When the question arose as to the name to 
be adopted, Mr. Stone favored Christians, while Mr. Campbell and his 
friends preferred the name Disciples. The result was that no definite 
action was taken and both names were used, resulting still in some 
confusion. The international Convention has, however, adopted the 
name "Disciples of Christ." The growth of the new organization has 
been very rapid, especially in the Middle West. Throughout Ohio, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri it gathered numerous congrega- 
tions, though there was evident a strong objection to any such asso- 
ciation, even for fellowship, as would appear to involve ecclesiastical 
organization. This manifested itself in various ways, especially in 
opposition to the use of societies for carrying on missionary work. 
The use of instrumental music in the churches also occasioned dis- 

During the Civil War the movement suffered from the general 
disorganization of the sections in which it had gained in strength, and 
the death of Alexander Campbell in 1866 was a severe blow. From 
the effect of these discouragements, however, it soon recovered, and 
the period since the war has been one of rapid expansion. (It appears 
that dating from the same origin there has come to be two parties, 
one known as "Progressives/* the other as "Conservatives." The 
"Progressives" are those set forth here, "Disciples of Christ," while 
the "Conservatives" are included under the head of the "Churches of 
Christ." The line* of demarcation between the two bodies, however, 
is not always clear. 


In addition to beliefs, in which they are in general accord with 
other Protestant churches, the Disciples hold certain positions which 
they regard as distinctive: 

1. Feeling that "to believe and to do none other things than those 
enjoined by our Lord and His Apostles must be infallibly safe," they 
aim "to restore in faith and spirit and practice the Christianity *of 
Christ and His Apostles as found in the pages of the New Testa- 

2. Affirming that "the sacred Scriptures as given of God answer 
all purposes of a rule of faith and practice, and a law for the gov- 
ernment of the church, and that human creeds and confessions of 
faith spring out of controversy and, instead of being bonds of union, 
tend to division and strife," they reject all such creeds and con- 

3. They place especial emphasis upon "the Divine Sonship of 
Jesus," as the fundamental fact of Holy Scripture, the essential creed 
of Christianity, and one article of faith in order to baptism and 
church membership." 

4. Believing that in the Scriptures "a clear distinction is made 
between the law and the gospel," they "do not regard the Old and 
New Testament as of equally binding authority upon Christians," but 
that "the New Testament is as perfect a constitution for the worship, 
government, and discipline of the New Testament church as the Old 
was for the Old Testament church." 

5. While claiming for themselves the New Testament names of 
"Christians," or "Disciples," "they do not deny that others are Chris- 
tians or that other churches are Churches of Christ." 

6. Accepting the divine personality of the Holy Spirit, through 
whose agency regeneration is begun, they hold that man "must hear, 
believe, repent, and obey the gospel to be saved." 

7. Repudiating any doctrine of "baptismal regeneration," and in- 
sisting that there is no other prerequisite to regeneration than con- 
fession of faith with the whole heart in the personal living Christ, 

82 Year Book of the Churches 

they regard baptism by immersion "as one of the items of the original 
Divine system," and as "commanded in order to the remission of 

8. Following the apostolic model, the Disciples celebrate the 
Lord's Supper on each Lord's Day "not as a sacrament, but as a 
memorial feast," from which no sincere follower of Christ of whatever 
creed or church connection is excluded. 

9. The Lord's Day with the Disciples is not the Sabbath, but a 
New Testament Institution, consecrated by apostolic example. 

10. The Church of Christ is a divine institution; sects are un- 
scriptural and unapostolic, and the sect name, spirit, and life should 
ive place to the union and cooperation that distinguish the church of 
the New Testament. 


In polity the Disciples churches are congregational. The officers 
of the church are the pastor, elders, and deacons. The elders have 
special care of the spiritual interests of the congregation, and the 
deacons of its financial affairs and benevolences, although this dis- 
tinction between elders and deacons is not always observed. Appli- 
cants for the ministry are ordained by authority of the local church. 
The minister is a member of the church where he is located, whether 
as pastor or as evangelist, and is amenable to its discipline. 

There is an "International Convention of Disciples of Christ," 
composed of individual members of the churches. The convention as 
such has no authority over the action of the churches, which are at 
liberty to accept or reject its recommendations. 

In accordance with the principles that have been emphasized in 
their history, the Disciples of Christ, individually, in their local 
church organization, in their organized societies, and in their denomi- 
national relations, have constantly sought to overcome denominational 
distinction, and to secure the unity of the church in its broadest sense. 



The Eastern Orthodox Churches, known historically as the 
"Eastern Church," and in modern times as the "Greek Orthodox 
Church," the "Eastern Catholic Church," the "Holy Orthodox Catholic 
Apostolic Eastern Church," and popularly as the "Greek Church," are 
the modern representatives of the Church of the Byzantine Empire. 
As a distinction between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires 
developed, there also grew up a distinction between the Eastern and 
Western Churches, appearing both in their ritual and in their doc- 
trinal position. Toward the ninth century this became still more evi- 
dent, and culminated in 1054 in complete separation between the 
patriarch or bishop of Rome and the four Eastern patriarchs. The 
Eastern Church at that time included four ecclesiastical divisions, the 
Patriarchates of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, 
coordinate in authority, though honorary precedence was accorded to 
the patriarch of Constantinople. 

With the development of different nationalities and metropolitan 
sees there has been the establishment of independent organizations 
bearing national names. 

These different organizations, although independent of each other 
ecclesiastically, agree in doctrine and, essentially, in form of worship, 
and together constitute what are called the "Eastern Orthodox 

Of these churches, seven are represented in the United States 
by regular church organizations. These are the Russian Orthodox, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 83 

the Greek Orthodox (Hellenic), the Serbian Orthodox, the Syrian Or- 
thodox, the Albanian Orthodox, the Bulgarian Orthodox, and the Ru- 
manian Orthodox. Only one of these, the Russian Orthodox Church, 
has a general ecclesiastical organization. The Greek Orthodox (Hel- 
lenic) churches are looking forward to such an organization, but it 
is not as yet completed, and the situation in regard to the Bulgarian 
Orthodox churches is essentially the same. The Serbian, Syrian, Al- 
banian, and Rumanian Orthodox churches are under the general su- 
pervision of the Russian Orthodox Church, although reported sep- 


The Eastern Orthodox Churches found their doctrine on the Holy 
Scriptures, the Holy Traditions, and the Niceo-Constantinopohtan 
Creed in its original wording, without the "Filioque" and hold that the 
Holy Scriptures should be interpreted strictly in accordance with the 
teachings of the seven Ecumenical Councils and the Holy Fathers. 
Recognizing Christ as the only head of the earthly as well as of the 
heavenly church, they do not accept the dogma of the Pope as visible 
head of His earthly church. According to their teaching, infallibility 
belongs alone to the whole assembly of true believers, to the "Ec- 
clesia" or the Church, represented by their council legally called to- 

They believe in the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father 
alone; honor Mary as the Mother of God, and honor the Nine Orders 
of Angels and the Saints ; do not accept the doctrine of the Immacu- 
late Conception of the Virgin Mary, and reject the doctrine of the 
surplus merits of saints and the doctrine of indulgences. They respect 
relics of the saints, pictures of holy subjects, and the cross, but forbid 
the use of carved images. They accept seven sacraments baptism, 
anointing (confirmation or chrismation) , communion, penance, holy 
orders, marriage, and holy unction. Baptism, of infants or adults, is 
by threefold immersion. The sacrament of anointing is administered 
at the same time as that of baptism, with "Chrism" or holy oil. 

The doctrine of transubstantiation is accepted. In the Eucharist, 
leavened bread is used, being soaked in wine and offered, after con- 
fession and absolution, to all members of the Eastern Orthodox 
Churches. Children under 7 years of age, however, receive the sac- 
rament without confession. Holy unction is administered to the sick, 
and not alone to those in danger of death. The^ church rejects the 
doctrine of purgatory, but believes in the beneficial effect of prayer 
for the dead by the living, and for the living by the dead. It rejects 
the doctrine of predestination, and considers that for justification both 
faith and works are necessary. 

There are three orders of the ministry deacons, priests, and 
bishops. The deacons assist in the work of the parish and in the serv- 
ice of the sacraments. Priests and deacons are of two orders, secular 
and monastic. Marriage is allowed to candidates for the diaconate 
and the priesthood, but is forbidden after ordination. The espisco- 
pate is, as a rule, confined to members of the monastic order. A 
married priest, should his wife die or enter a convent, may enter a 
monastery and take monastic vows, and then be eligible to the episco- 
pate. The parishes are, as a rule, in the care of the secular priests, 

Monks are gathered in monasteries; in some of these they live 
in communities, while in others they lead a secluded, hermitical life, 
each in his own cell. There is but one order, and the vows for all are 
the same, obedience, chastity, prayer, fasting, and poverty, 

The organization for the general government of the different 
Eastern Orthodox Churches varies in different countries. In general, 

84 Year Book of the Churches 

there is a council at the head of which, as president, is a bishop 
elected usually by the people. Historically, and at present in some 
cases, this presiding- bishop is called patriarch, and has special col- 
legiates and officers for the purpose of governing his flock. The 
largest or most important of the bishoprics connected with the patri- 
archate or synod are called "metropolitan sees," though the title 
carries with it no special ecclesiastical authority. In early times, both 
the clergy and the laity of the local churches had a voice in the elec- 
tion of bishops, priests, and deacons, but of late that right has been 
much restricted, and at present the priests and deacons are usually 
appointed by the bishops, and the bishops are subject to the approval 
of the civil authorities. 

The service of the Eastern Orthodox Churches is solemn and 
elaborate. It is essentially that of the earlier centuries of Christi- 
anity, and is most fully and completely observed in the monasteries. 
The most important service is the liturgy, the chief part of which is 
the celebration of the Eucharist. There are three liturgies, those of 
St. John Chrysostom, St. Basil the Great, and St. Gregory, the last 
called the liturgy of the "presanctified gifts/' for which the holy 
erifts or emblems are prepared at a preceding service, generally that 
of St. Basil. There are no so-called "silent liturgies," and two htur- 
eries are not allowed to be performed in the same church simulta- 
neously, nor can a liturgy be performed by the same priest, or on the 
same table, twice a day. A "corporal," otherwise known as "anti- 
mins," a table cover with a particle of the holy remains of some saint 
sewn into it, and especially blessed by a bishop for every church, is 
necessary to the performance of the liturgy. Moreover, a priest may 
nerform it only when he is fasting-. Besides the liturgy, the church 
has vespers, vigils, matins, hours, and special prayers for various 
occasions and needs. The several services named consist of reading 
from the Old and New Testaments, supplicatory prayers, thanks- 
giving, glorifying, hymns, etc. 


Address Eev. Peter I. Popoff, 15 B. 97th St., New York City. 


The churches of this communion represent in America what is 
held to be the oldest existing race in Europe, the descendants of the 
Macedonians, Illyrians, and Epirotes, who were the offspring of the 
Pelasgians. The varied invasions by Romans, Goths, Huns, Serbs, 
Bulgars, Normans, and Turks have made little change in social cus- 
toms, language, or traditions, and the present day Albanians repre- 
sent their early ancestors more exactly, probably, than does any 
nation in Europe, 

The early religion of the Albanians had many features older even 
than the earliest traces of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Christi- 
anity reached them in the first century, but made little progress until 
the fourth. 

Albanian emigration to America is of recent origin, but it is 
estimated that there are about 100,000 in the United States who have 
come from Albania, aside from those of Albanian origin who have 
come from the settlements in Greece and Italy. 


Address Eev. N Pavloff, 226 N. Blackford St., Indianapolis, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 85 


Prior to the Macedonian insurrection of 1903 there was very- 
little Bulgarian immigration to the United States. Those who did 
come, however, sent back such attractive stories of the situation and 
the opportunities in this country that, when the conditions in Mace- 
donia became intolerable, large numbers from that section found 
homes in the United States. These in turn were followed by consid- 
erable immigration from Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia. No figures 
are available, as the immigration report gives all these as coming 
from European Turkey, but it has been claimed that as many as 
20,000 a year came over, until the total exceeded 100,000. For some 
time there was very little done for their spiritual or ecclesiastical 
care, but a few churches have been organized, with priests from Bul- 
garia belonging to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. 


(Hellenic Eastern Christian Orthodox Church) 

Bishop: Most Eeverend Archbishop Alexander, of North and 
South America, 140 E. 72d St , New York City. 

Theological Seminary 

Greek Seminary of Saint Atlianasius, 273 Elm St , Astoria 
L I ? Rev. Philaretos Johannides, Dean. 


Church Herald, 273 Elm St., Astoria, L. L, Editor, Michael 


Since the census of 1890 the number of Greeks immigrating to 
the United States has increased greatly. Some have come from 
Greece, some from the Greek islands of the Aegean, and others from 
Constantinople, Smyrna, and other parts of Asia Minor. They have 
been largely unmarried men, or, if married, they have left their fam- 
ilies behind them and have scattered over the country, those from the 
same section usually keeping together. As they have become to a 
certain extent permanent residents, and especially as they have been 
ioined by their families, they have felt the need of religious services, 
particularly in case of marriage, or sickness and death. Accordingly, 
application has been made by the communities to the ecclesiastical au- 
thorities of their own sections, and priests have been sent to this 
country, sometimes by the Holy Synod of Greece and sometimes by 
the Patriarchate of Constantinople. These priests have formed 
churches in the larger centers and also congregations in places within 
easy reach, which they visit more or less regularly as convenient. 

The Greek Orthodox Churches in America recognize the spiritual 
jurisdiction and supervision of the Oecumenical Patriarchate in Con- 
stantinople, while practically independent in matters of administra- 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Greek churches are in entire accord with other 
Eastern Orthodox Churches. Their polity and worship, however, while 
in principle the same, vary somewhat in form to meet the pecu- 
liar needs. With a more complete organization these divergencies 
will either disappear or be definitely established. 

86 Year Book of the Churches 


Archimandrite, Rev. Prof. Lazar Gherman, 206 B. 18th St., 
New York City. 


The great majority of the people of Roumania belong to the Rou- 
manian Orthodox Church, in communion with the Greek, Russian, 
Serbian, and other Eastern Orthodox Churches. Until the compara- 
tively recent political disturbances there was very little immigration 
to this country from that section of the Balkan Peninsula, but of late 
a number of communities have been gathered into churches under the 
general supervision of the Russian Orthodox Church, through its 
headquarters in New York City. 


North. American Ecclesiastical Consistory. Sec., Rev. Peter 
A. Kiikulevsky, 15 E. 97th St , New York City. 

Six districts, including 1 in Canada and 1 in Alaska. 

Bishop: Most Rev. Archbishop Alexander, 140 E. 72d St., 
New York City; Rt. Rev. Bishop Stephen, 231 E. 17th St., New 
York City. 

Theological Seminary : Tenafly, N. J. 


Russia first came into definite relations with Christianity on the 
visit of Princess Olga to Constantinople, where she was baptized 
about A. D. 957. Subsequently her grandson, Vladimir the Great, sent 
emissaries to the different churches, Eastern and Western, to learn 
of their doctrines and rituals, with a view of adopting those which 
they liked best. The emissaries returned and reported in favor of the 
Greek Church, whose ceremonial in the Cathedral of St. Sophia at 
Constantinople seemed to them to excel all others. Thereupon Vladi- 
mir was baptized, and the Greek Church became the Church of State. 

From the time of the Holy Council in Moscow, 1917-18, the Rus- 
sian Church is governed again by the Patriarch (Tikhon) as the head, 
assisted by the Sacred Synod and Supreme Church Council. The 
jurisdiction of the Russian church is expanding in proportion to the 
expansion of the Russian state. As fast as new territories are added 
to the state the church sends missionaries, builds schools and temples, 
spreads religious books, etc. The orthodox Christians in the eastern 
part of Europe, in Siberia, in Caucasus, and in middle Asia all belong 
to the Russian church. 

The Russian Church has undertaken foreign missionary enter- 
prise. It has developed quite a mission in Japan, but its great work 
has been the care of the churches in America. This was first through 
missionary work in Alaska, and the final transfer, in 1872, of the 
headquarters of such work from Sitka to San Francisco. 

With the more recent development of immigration, large num- 
bers have come from Austria-Hungary, especially from Galicia and 
Poland, who belong to what are known as the Uniat churches. When 
those sections, once a part of Russian territory, came under the con- 
trol of Poland, and later of Austria-Hungary, and thus under the 
general influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an arrangement was 
effected, called the Unia, by which those recognizing the supremacy 
of the Pope, were permitted to retain most of their liturgy and have 
their own special bishops. These provisions, however, did not hold 

Directory of Religious Bodies 87 

outside of Austria-Hungary, and on coming to America the mem- 
bers of these churches found themselves compelled to use the liturgy 
of the Roman Catholic Church and be under the jurisdiction of local 
bishops, who, in general, either knew nothing about the Unia or did 
not take it into account. 

In seeking relief from this position, one of the Uniat parishes in 
Minneapolis became aware of the existence in the United States of 
a see of the Russian Orthodox Church, and in 1891, under the lead- 
ership of the Rev. Alexis G. Toth, petitioned the Russian Bishop 
Vladimir to take them all under his jurisdiction within the pale of 
the Russian Church. Bishop Vladimir willingly complied with the 
request and, during the time of Bishop Nicholas, who succeeded him, 
the example of the parish in Minneapolis was followed by a number 
of Uniat parishes. 

About the same time the immigration from Russia proper in- 
creased, and soon purely Russian parishes were formed in New York 
and Chicago, although in the former city there was an Orthodox Rus- 
sian church in existence as far back as 1876. In 1905 the episcopal 
see was transferred from San Francisco to Ne^ York City* 

Doctrine and Polity 

The general doctrine and polity of the Russian Orthodox Church 
have already been fully stated. 


Archimandrite, Kt. Rev. Sebastian Dabovitch, 348 W. 20th 
St., New York City. 

History 3 

The churches of this body represent the immigration into the 
United States, not merely from Serbia proper, but from Macedonia 
and the Slavic communities of the Balkan Peninsula antecedent to 
the coming of the Bulgarians; and from the southern part of Aus- 
tria-Hungary. They use the Slavic liturgy in their services, and are 
under the general supervision of the archbishop of the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church in the United States. In doctrine and polity they are in 
harmony with the Russian Orthodox Church, and their history is in- 
cluded in that of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Russian 
Orthodox Church. 


Archbishop: Aftimios Ofeish; Archpriest: Basil M. Ker- 
bawy, Dean, 345 State St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


The Churches of this body arose from the immigration of Syrian 
people formerly connected with the Orthodox Patriarchates of Antioch 
or Jerusalem. They have priests and a Hierarchy of their own lan- 
guage and racial group but their Archbishop is a Coadjutor Vicar in 
the Russian Archdiocese and the whole body is a part of the Russian 
Orthodox Jurisdiction in North America. They differ from the Rus- 
sian and other branches of the Holy Eastern Orthodox-Catholic 
Church only in their ancestral language. Their history is included in 
that of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Russian Church. 

88 Year Book of o the Churches 


General Conference, quadrennial, next meeting', October, 

Thirty-two annual conferences 

BOARD OF BISHOPS, S. C. Breyfogel, 836 Centre Ave., Reading, 
Pa.; S. P. Spreng, 106 Columbia Ave., Naperville, 111.; *G Heinmil- 
ler; L. H. Seager, Naperville, 111.; M. T. Maze, Le Mars, Iowa; J. F 
Dunlap, Lewisburg, Pa. * Deceased 

PUBLISHING HOUSES, 1903 Woodland Ave., Cleveland, Ohio ; Third 
and Reilly Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. Publishers, C. Hauser, Cleveland, 
Ohio; R. H. Stetler, Harrisburg, Pa.; Pres , Board of Publication, 
Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Reading, Pa.; Sec, Rev. J. H. Shirey, 1336 
North 56th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PEEIODICALS AND EDITORS. The Evangelical Messenger, Editor, 
Rev. E. G. Frye, Cleveland, Ohio; Associate Editor, Rev. A. E. Han- 
gen, Cleveland, Ohio; Sunday School Literature, English Editor, Rev. 
W. E. Peffley, Harrfsburg, Pa., Associate Editor, Rev. G. L. Shaller, 
Harrisburg, Pa., German, Rev. C. Staebler, Cleveland, Ohio; Evan- 
gelical Endeavor er t Rev. H. C. Hallwachs, Cleveland, Ohio; ^Evan- 
gelisches Magazin, Rev. C. Staebler, Cleveland, Ohio; Der Christhche 
Botschafter, Editor, Rev. T. C. Meckel, Assistant Editor, Rev. G. 
Berstecber, Cleveland, Ohio; Baby's Mother, Editor, Mrs. W. E. 
Peffley, Lemoyne, Pa.; Evangelical Missionary World and Missionan/ 
Gem, Miss Emma Messenger, Harrisburg, Pa.; Der Evangelische 
Missionabote,, Editor, T. C. Meckel, Cleveland, Ohio. 

BOARD OF MISSIONS. Pres., Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Reading, Pa. ; 
First Vice-Pres., Bishop M. T. Maze, Harrisburg, Pa.; Second Vice- 
Pres., Bishop L. H Seager, Le Mars, Iowa; Third Vice-Pres., J. H 
Keagle, Highland ?ark, 111.; Executive Sec.-Treas. and Cor, Sec., 
G. E. Epp, Cleveland, Ohio; Exec. Sec. and Rec. Sec. and Asst. Treas., 
B. H. Niebel, Cleveland, Ohio; Field Sec., B. R. Wiener, Cleveland, 

BOARD OP CHURCH EXTENSION. Pres., Bishop M. T. Maze, Har- 
risburg, Pa ; Vice-Pres,, Bishop S. P. Spreng and Mr. W. C. Nuhn; 
Exec. Sec.-Treas., Rev. H. F. Schlegel, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Cleveland, Ohio; Vice-Pres., Rev W. E. Peffley, Harrisburg, Pa ; 
Treas., R. G. Munday, 108 North LaSalle St., Chicago, 111.; General 
Sec., Rev. E. W. Praetorius, Cleveland, Ohio. 

DEAVOR. Pres., Rev. W. C. Hallwachs, Cleveland, Ohio; Vice-Pres , 
Rev. J. F. Cross, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Treas., Charles J. Theu<er; Gen. 
Sec., Rev. E. W. Praetorms, Cleveland, Ohio. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Bishop S. P. Spreng, Naperville, 
111.; Sec., Dr. E. E. Rail, Naperville, 111 ; Rev. W, L. Bollman, Rev. 
H. H. Thoren, D. A. Goldspohn, A. L. Breithauph, George Garnet; 
(terms expire 1930) ; Rev. C. A. Hirschman, Rev. E. W. Praetorms, 
Rev. N. W. Saeger, H. E. Bohner, J. L. Pandel (terms expire in 1926) ; 
Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Rev. W. F. Teel, Mr. E. E Rail, Rev. G. B. 
Kimmel, Rev. Charles Mock and Rev. L. L. Hunt. 

BOARD OF FORWARD MOVEMENTS. Chair., F. W. Ramsey, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Vice-Chair., W. B. Cox, Baltimore, Ohio, L. R. Herbst, 
Findlay, Ohio; Rec. Sec, J. W. Heininger, Cleveland, Ohio; Treas., 
Forward Movement, J. W. Hema, Cleveland, Ohio; Treas., Forward 
Campaign, E S. Hengst, York, Pa.; Exec. Sees., Rev. J. W. Hein- 
inger, 1903 Woodland Ave., S. E., Cleveland, Ohio; Rev. C. H. Stauf- 
facher, 368 Seventh Ave., West, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

COMMISSION ON EVANGELISM. Chairman, Bishop S. P. Spreng, 
Naperville, 111. ; Vice-Chairmen, W. L. Bollman, Allentown, Pa., H. V. 
Summers, Louisville, R. R v Ohio; Sec., Rev. J. W. Heininger, Cleve- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 89 

land, Ohio; Field Sees., J. W. Hemmger and C. H. Stauffacher, 368 
Seventh Ave, West, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Kimmel, Dayton, Ohio; Vice-Pres., J. C. Winter, Williamsport, Pa.; 
Gen. Sec., Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Beading, Pa.; Sec.-Treas., Rev. 
J. R. Niergarth, Cleveland, Ohio; Solicitor, Rev. J. H. Shirey, 1336 
North 56th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

D. Shortess, Lewisburg, Pa.; Vice-Pres., L. M. Dice, Jersey Shore, 
Pa.; Sec., Rev. E. C. Basom, Williamsport, Pa.; Cor. Sec., Rev. A. D. 
Gramley, Williamsport, Pa.; Treas., Rev. A. E. Gobble, Myerstown, 
Pa.; Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Reading, Pa. 

COMMISSION ON FINANCE. Pres., Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Read- 
ing, Pa.; Sec., Rev. A. F. Weaver, York, Pa.; Finance Sec.-Treas., 
Mr. Charles R. Rail, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mrs. E. M. Spreng, Cleveland, Ohio; Rec. Sec., Mrs. Emma F. Divan, 
Peotone, 111.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. W. L. Naumann, Akron, Ohio; Treas, 
Mrs. J. G. Finkbemer, Shannon, 111.; Sec., and Publisher of Literature, 
Miss Lillian C. Graeff, Harrisburg, Pa.; Editor of Literature, Miss 
Emma D. Messenger, Harrisburg, Pa. 


Name Location President 
Noi thwestern College Naperville, III E. E RalL 
Albright College Myeistown, Pa L. C Hunt 
Schuylkill Seminary, Junior Col- 
lege Reading, Pa. W F Teel 
Western Union College Le Mciis, Iowa Charles A Mock 

Theological Seminaries 

Evangelical Theological Seminary Naperville, 111. G B Kimmel 

Evangelical School of Theology Reading, Pa S. C. Breyfogel. 

Theological Seminary . . Reutlmgen, Geimany G Schempp. 
Aoyama Gakum 
In affiliation with the Methodist 

Church .Tokyo, Japan 

Oregon Bible Training School Corvallis, Oreg. C P. Gates. 


Upon the instructions and advice of that godly minister of the 
Gospel, Jacob Albright, a number of persons in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, who had become deeply convinced of their sinful state, 
through his ministrations, and who earnestly groaned to be delivered 
from sin, united A. D. 1800, and agreed to pray with and for each 
other, that they might be saved from sin, and flee the wrath to come. 

In order to accomplish this work properly, they agreed mutually 
to spend each Sunday in prayer and in the exercise of godliness; 
also to meet each Wednesday evening for prayer ; diligently endeavor- 
ing to avoid every thing evil and sinful, and to do all manner of good 
as God should give them strength and ability. The number of those 
disposed to attend these meetings soon increased, and grew daily. 

Such was the origin of the Evangelical Association. And as 
Jacob Albright by the grace of God was the instrument of their solemn 
union and holy zeal in the exercise of godliness, they were at first 
frequently called "The Albrights." But in the year 1816, they form- 
ally adopted the name, The Evangelical Association, which is, there- 
fore, an ecclesiastical union of such persons as desire to have not 
merely the form of godliness, but strive to possess the substance and 
power thereof. 

After almost a century of denominational life and activity, dif- 
ferences arose in the Church which in 1891 culminated in a division, 
a considerable number of ministers and members organizing them- 

90 Year Book of the Churches 

selves (in 1892) into a denomination under the name of the United 
Evangelical Church, continued their activities side by side, both en- 
deavoring to carry on the work of the Lord with zeal and devotion. 
Both Churches grew in numbers and in missionary enterprises. 

At the end of the second decade of the separation the growing 
conviction, that the two Churches should be reunited, began to find 
articulate expression. The General Conference of the Evangelical 
Association of 1907 and that of the United Evangelical Church in 
1910 took definite steps toward a reapproachment by the appointment 
of Commissions on Church Union and Federation. These Commis- 
sions after a series of meetings agreed upon a partial Basis of Union 
in 1918, which basis was unanimously ratified by the General Con- 
ference of the United Evangelical Church m 1918 and by the Gen- 
eral Conference of the Evangelical Association in 1919. 

Commissions were again appointed which, m joint session in 
1921, completed the Basis of Union. This Basis of Union was sub- 
mitted to the Annual Conferences of both denominations, receiving 
the required constitutional majority in both Churches. The General 
Conference of the United Evangelical Church meeting in regular 
quadrennial session m October, 1922, first in Barrmgton, 111., and 
then adjourning to Detroit, Mich., adopted the Basis of Union; the 
General Conference of the Evangelical Association met in special 
session at same time m Detroit, Mich., and also adopted the Basis 
of Union. The two conferences met jointly on Saturday morning, 
Octobei 14, 1922, in the Mack Avenue (Evan. Assoc.) Church, and 
organized as the General Conference of the Evangelical Church. 


The Confession of Faith and Discipline was compiled, partly from 
the systems of other Christian denominations, and partly from the 
Sacred Scriptures, by several ministers of the Association appointed 
for this purpose by the first Conference in 1807, and reappointed 
at several succeeding sessions of the Conference. 

Whosoever will take the pains to examine the Confession of Faith 
and Church Discipline will perceive that the Evangelical Church 
has chosen to serve the Lord in the safe and simple way pointed out 
in the Word of God, and to be guided by these Scriptural rules in 
her labors, in cooperation with all true Christians, for the extension 
of the glorious kingdom of God on the earth, according to the grace 
which the Lord imparts. 


Though the Evangelical Church in her ecclesiastical organization, 
has copied freely from other well organized churches, especially as 
to her Episcopal form of government, yet she hesitates not to confess 
that she has not inherited nor otherwise received her ordination and 
ecclesiastical authority from others, but, after the manner of the 
primitive Christians, has herself introduced and established them, 
through the knowledge, grace, and authority given unto her of God, 
m order thus to administer the blessed and indispensable ordinances 
of the New Testament economy, conformably with the injunction of 
the great Head of the Church, and to build each other up in faith 
and love. The Basis of Union shows mutual concessions from the 
polity of the two Churches. The Church has Bishops, and there is 
equal lay representation in the Annual and General Conferences. The 
itinerant system of stationing preachers is provided for, and the 
pastoral term may last seven vears, although the law of the Church 
requires a ^appointment from year to year. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 91 


Annual meeting, in the spring. 
Two districts. 

Official Board : Pres., Eev. H. Haupt ; Sec. Kev. C G. Wag- 
ner; Treas., Rev. A. Nemenz; Adviser, Henry Brockhoff. 


Kirchenzeitung , Pittsburgh, Pa.; Year Book and Calendar, New- 
port, Ky. 


This denomination was formed in Cincinnati in the year 1911 
bv consolidating the German Evangelical Protestant Ministers' As- 
sociation and the German Evangelical Ministers' Conference, which 
were composed of ministers of independent German-American con- 
gregations of liberal faith. A year later the majority of the congre- 
gations joined their ministers and identified themselves with this 
organization, which seeks to promote sympathetic and united action 
on the part of its members without interfering with their independ- 
ence or local activities. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The church accepts as the foundation of faith and life the Gos- 
nel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of 
faith and conscience. It grants to every one the privilege of indi- 
vidual examination and research. The principle aim of the church is 
to spread practical Christianity and to promote religious sentiment 
and moral endeavor according to the example and teaching of Jesus. 
All this on a congregational basis. 


Synod, quadrennial; next session, 1925. 

Eighteen district conferences and one mission district. 

Office : Synod House, 2013 St. Louis Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Officers : Pr es., Eev. John Baltzer ; t Vice-Pres., Eev. A. H. 
Becker, New Orleans, La. ; Sec., Eev. Gustave Fischer, 671 Madi- 
son St., Milwaukee, Wis. ; Treas., Eev. Henry Bode, 1740 North 
Euclid Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

SEMINARY BOARD. Chmn., Rev. F. Frankenfeld, Rochester, N. Y.; 
Sec., Rev. G. A. Neumann, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Treas., Rev. Julius 
Kircher, Chicago, 111. 

851 Fourth St., Milwaukee, Wis.; Exec. Sec. and Treas., Rev. W. L. 
Bretz, Columbus, Ohio. 

106 East 32d St., Baltimore, Md.; Sec., Rev. F. Giese, 819 North 
Patterson Park Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Treas., Rev. F. C. Rueggeberg, 
2816 West Lombard St., Baltimore, Md. 

BOARD FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. Chmn., Rev. C. W. Locher, 1920 
G St., N. W., Washington, D. C.; Sec. Rev. S. Lindenmeyer, 646 6th 
St., Portsmouth, Ohio; Treas., Rev. Tim. Lehmann, 674 South High 
St., Columbus, Ohio; Exec. Sec., Rev. Paul A, Menzel, 2951 Tilden 
St., Washington, D. C. 

92 Year Book of the Churches 

Abele, R. R. 3, Cook, Nebr.; Sec., Rev. A. Dreusicke, Freebuig, 111., 


Seny Vieth Synod House, 2013 St. Louis Ave., St Loms Mo. 


Mo Pres., Evangelical women a ujuwi, .I.AO. * . **.. *~ -rr-- T? - 
AvV St. Louis, Mo ; Pm., Evangelical Brotherhood, Dr. E A. R 
Torsch, 718 Starks Bldg., Louisville, Ky. 

College and Seminary 
Name ' Location President 

Gf T miiQ TVfo t i * S 1} Jr 1 eSS 

Eden Seminary . . SmhnrS' 111 ' . . H. G. Schiek 

Elmhurst College w^o Texas * " H Spccht 

Robinson Academy Wiico ' iexas 


De<r Friedensbote (weekly), St Louis, Mo., Editor Rev. Otto 
Press; Evangelical Herald (weekly), St. Louis Mo., Bditoi, Rev 
JH. Horstmann; Evangelical < Tiding s (weekly) , St. Louis, Mo ^Edi- 
tor Rev A Ruecker; Evangelical Companion, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, 
Rev A Ruecker; Magazm fuer Theologie wuL I&rche Cleveland, 
Ohio Editor Rev. H. Kamphausen; Fiershinden and Chnsthche 
Kinderzeitung, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. K. Kisslmg. 


The Evangelical Synod of North America traces its origin to six 
ministers repfesentinl the union of the Lutheran and Reformed 
Churches who met and organized a synod at Gravo 1S Settlement 
Missouri in 1840. Four of these were missionaries two sent by 
the Rhenish Missionary Society and two by the Missionary 
Society of Basel; while two were independents-one commg from 
Bremen and one from Strassburg During subsequent years 
several similar organizations were effected, including the United 
Evangelical Synod of North America, the German Evangelical So- 
cllty of Ohio! 5 United Evangelical Society of the East and others; 
and in 1877 these organizations, holding, as they did, the same doc- 
trine and governed by the same ecclesiastical principles, united m the 
present organization, known first as the "German Evangelical Synod 
of North America," now as the Evangelical Synod of North America. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Synod accepts the Bible as the only rule of faith and prac- 
tice, and as correct interpretations of it uses the Augsburg Con- 
fession, Luther's Catechism, and the Heidelberg Catechism. Wherever 
these symbols do not agree, liberty is allowed in the interpretation 
of the Scripture passages in question. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 93 

The church is divided into districts, 19 in number, which, corre- 
spond closely to the self-governing states in the Federal government, 
and there is a general conference meeting once every four years, 
which represents the whole church. This conference is composed of 
the presidents of the districts, clerical delegates in the proportion of 
one for every twelve ministers, and lay delegates in the proportion of 
one for every twelve churches. 



Under this head are included various associations of churches 
which are more or less completely organized and have one gen- 
eral characteristic, namely, the conduct of evangelistic or mis- 
sionary work In a few cases they are practically denomina- 
tions, but for the most part, while distinct from other religious 
bodies, they are dominated by the evangelistic conception rather 
than by doctrinal or ecclesiastical distinctions. None of them is 
large, and some are very small and local in their character. 

The following bodies are included in the Evangelistic As- 
sociations : 

Apostolic Church, Apostolic Christian Church, Apostolic 
Faith Movement, Christian Congregation, Church of Daniel's 
Band, Church of God as Organized by Christ, Church Tran- 
scendent, Hephzibah Faith Missionary Association, Lumber 
River Mission, Metropolitan Church Association, Missionary 
Church Association, Peniel Missions, Pentecost Bands of the 
World, Pillar of Fire, Voluntary Missionary Society in America. 


No address obtainable. 


Council of Elders, meets irregularly. 
Sec., Barthol Rapp, Morton, 111. 


Address, Rev. Robert Gunther, 2415 Riverside Ave., Minne- 
apolis, Minn 


Conference, annual. 

Officers: Bishop, J. L. Puckett; Dist. Supt , Rev. Howard 
Dorsey, Kokomo, Ind.; Pres., Rev. Susie Magner; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. Mary Whortner ; Sec., Mrs. Edward McEndaw, Anderson, 
Ind. ; Treas., Mrs. Ella Swusher, Kokomo, Ind. 

94 Year Book of the Churches 


Animal Conference ; next meeting Midland, Midi , 1923. 

Officers Pres , Eev. Geo. Hoggard, Midland, Mich.; Vice- 
Pres , Eev. E. Booth, Marine City, Mich.; Sec. and Treas , Eev. 
F. J. Eeivere, Bay City, Mich. 

viere, Bay Caty, Mich.; Sec. and Treas., A. F. Beebe, Bay City, Mich.; 
Ehni Booth, George Havers, Horace Heath, D. W. Maxson. 



The Gospel Teacher (monthly), Wakarusa, Ind., Editor, P. J. 


Address Sec. Harry R. Marlow, 3iy 2 Street, Warren, Ohio 


Camp Meeting and Convention,- meet annually in August. 

Headquarters: Tabor, la. 

Trustees and Directors . Pres., Elder L. W. Worcester ; Vice- 
Pres. f Elder J. M. Zook ; Sec., Miss G. M. Haven , Treas , Fred 
C. Eosentrater, Mrs L. B. Worcester, Elder 0. W. Adams, 
Meeting first Thursday in December 

GENERAL MISSION BOARD. Pres., J. M. Zook; Sec., Miss G. M. 
Haven, Paul Worcester, C. C. Brown, D. S. DeVore, 0. E Morehead, 
0. W. Adams, Miss Emma Herr, Mrs. Nellie A. Williams, F. C. Rosen- 


Name Location President 

Missiormi y Bible School .. .. Taboi, Iowa Eldei L. B. Woicester. 


Good Tidings (semi-monthly), Editors, L. B. Worcester, Elder 
J. M. Zook, Miss Anna Dreyer, Miss Susan Beers, Miss Anna Chun- 
ing, Walter E. Wood, Irvm E. Dayhoff. John Three-Sixteen (weekly), 
Editor, L. B. Worcester. 


No report obtainable. 


Headquarters: "Waukesha, Wis. 

Officers and Trustees: Pres., Edwin L. Harvey; Sec, J. H. 
Barnes; Treas., G. F. Harvey. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location Dean 

Metropolitan Bible School. . , Waukesha, Wis Henry L. Harvey. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 95 


The Burning Bush (weekly), Editors, Edwin L. Harvey, Win. T. 
Pettengill, J. Howard Barnes. 


Address Rev. B. F. Leightner, 543 Organ Ave., Fort "Wayne, 


Headquarters : 227 S. Main St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Trustees- Rev. T. P. Ferguson, Mrs. M. P. Ferguson. 

Peniel Herald (monthly), Editors, T. P. and M. P. Ferguson. 


Annual conference. 

Headquarters : Room 14, Pembroke Arcade, Indianapolis, 

Officers: Pres , G-. E. Bula; Vice-Pres. and Sec. and Treas , 
A S. Crowley; Div. Leader, 0. H. Nater. 

BOARD OP FOREIGN MISSIONS. Officers as above. No schools. 


The Herald of Light (weekly), Indianapolis, Ind., Editor, G. E. 

PILLAR OF FIRE (The Pentecostal Union) 

Annual Conference, Eastern Division, August, 1923, at 
Zarephath, N. J. 

Annual Conference, Western Division, July, 1923, at 1845 
Champa St., Denver, Colo. 

Headquarters: Zarephath, N. J. 

Officers: Pres., Bev. Alma White; Vice-Pres., Eev. A. K. 
White; Treas., Eev. A. L. Wolfram. 

Alma White, Zarephath, N. J. 

Charles W. Bridwell, 1845 Champa St., Denver, Colo. 

Name Location President 01 Dean 

Alma College Zarephath, N. J Alma White. 

Zarephath Bible Institute Zarephath, N. J . . Ray B White. 

Zarephath Academy Zarephath, N. J. . . A. K. White. 

Westminster College Denver, Colo, ... . . ftay B White 


Pillar of Fire; The Good Citizen; Rocky Mountain Pillar of Fire; 
London Pillar of Fire; The British Sentinel; The Occidental Pillar of 
Fire; Pillwr of Fire, Jr.; all edited "by Eev. Alma White. 

96 Year Book of the Churches 

No report obtainable. 


General Assembly, annual meeting. 

Officers- Rev. W. M. Benson, Presiding Bishop, No Little 
Rock, Ark. 


E. D. Brown, No. Little Rock, Ark. 

W, M. Benson, No. Little Rock, Ark. 

M. E. Early, Peace, Ark. 

GENERAL BOARD. Sec , Rev. G. W. Anderson, Conway, Ark, R. 2 ; 
L. L. Grippen, Rixey, Ark; W. M. Parritt, New Madrida, Mo. 

GENERAL ZION BOARD. Chcdrman, Mrs. M, R. Kingsby, Magnolia, 
Ark.; Sec., Mrs. Dollia Henderson, Spnngdail, Tex.; Treas., Mrs. 
M. A. Jackson, Douglassville, Tex. 

GENERAL SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD. Gen. Supt, C. B. Richardson, 
Queen City, Tex; Sam Petterson, Linden, Tex. 

GENERAL TRUSTEES BOARD. Chmn., Bishop E. D. Brown; Sec., 
Bishop W. M. Benson, No. Little Rock, Ark.; L. Kingsby, No. Little 
Rock, Ark. 

GENERAL MISSIONARY BOARD. Chmn., Mrs. A. L. Benson, No. Lit- 
tle Rock, Ark.; Tim Dixon, Douglassville, Texas; M. H. L. Black- 
well, No. Little Rock Ark. 


Union Comfort, Editor, Bishop E. D. Brown. 


The Free Christian Zion Church of Christ was organized on July 
10, 1905, at Redemption, Arkansas, by a small company of negro 
ministers. The immediate occasion was a protest against any at- 
tempt to tax members of the church for the support of an ecclesi- 
astical system, and a feeling that the church itself should care for 
its poor and needy. The founder, E. D. Brown, was a conference 
missionary of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Others 
associated with him represented the Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and Negro Baptist churches. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity the church is in general accord with the 
Methodist bodies, except that it has chiefs or superintendents in place 
of bishops, and pastors and deacons are the officers in the local 
churdbu A chief pastor is chosen to preside over the whole denomi- 
nation, and all appointments to offices m the church, as well as to 
pastorates, are maide by him. The laity has from the beginning had 
a share in the conduct of the local church, and also in the general 


The different bodies of Friends in the United States may be 
classified as follows: The Society of Friends (Orthodox) consist- 

Directoiy of .Religions Bodies 97 

ing of the thirteen Yearly Meetings joined together in the Five 
Years Meeting and two other Yearly Meetings loosely affiliated 
with them, this group foiming the larger body of Friends; the 
religious Society of Friends (Hicksite or Liberal) ; the Society 
r>f Friends (Orthodox Conservative or Wilburite) ; and Friends 
(Primitive). The general history of these different bodies is 
presented in the statement for the larger body 


Five Years ' Meeting, quinquennial, composed of delegates 
from twelve of the fourteen yearly meetings in the United States 
and one in Canada. 

Officers- Presiding Clerk, John R. Gary, 205 Morris Bldg , 
Baltimore, Md , Gen Sec , Walter C Woodward, 101 South 
Jth St., Richmond, Ind. ; Treas., Edwip G. Crawford, Richmond, 
lud. ; CJimn. of Exec Com , Allen D Hole, Barlham College, 
Richmond, Ind 

FINANCE BOARD. Chmn., Miles White, Jr., 607 Keyser Bldg., 
Baltimore, Md. 

?ec., B. Willis Beede, Richmond, Ind. 

BOARD ON HOME MISSIONS. Exec. Sec., R'uthanna M. Sims, 101 
3. Eighth St., Richmond, Ind. 

BOARD ON EDUCATION. Chmn , Wm. Mendenhall, Wichita, 

Nicholson, 532 Seventeenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

BOARD ON PUBLICATION. Mgr. } David E Henley, 101 S. Eighth 
St., Richmond, Ind. 

BOARD ON RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. Ghrnn., Edward H. Stranahan, 
)skaloosa, Iowa. 

YOUNG FRIENDS BOARD. Sec., Helen E. Hawkins, 101 S. Eighth 
>t., Richmond, Ind, 

laverford, Pa. 

PEACE BOARD. Chmn., Allen D. Hole, Richmond, Ind. 

COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS. Chmn., Walter Smedley, 1226 
Stephen Girard Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Name Location President 

ebraska Central College . Central City, Neb Ora W. Carrell. 

arlham College .Richmond, Ind. .David M. Edwards, 

riends University Wichita, Kans. . , . .William 0. Mendenhall. 

uilf ord College ... . Guilf ord College, N, C Raymond Binf ord. 

averford College . . Haverford, Pa ... William W. Comfort, 

acific College Newberg, Ore. . ,Levi T Pennington. 

enn College . . . Oskaloosa, Iowa , . Edwin McGrew. 

Wittier, Calif. . . Whittier College Harry N. Wright, 

'ilmmgton College Wilmington, Ohio J. Edwin Jay. 


The American Friend (weekly), Richmond, Ind., Editor, Walter C. 
Woodward; Messenger of Peace (monthly), Richmond, Ind., Editor, 
lien D. Hole; Friend's Missionary Advocate (monthly), Blooming- 
ale, Ind., Editor, Lenora N. Hobbs. 

98 Year Book of the Churches 


George Fox, born 1624, was the founder of the Friends, at first 
called "Children of Truth" or "Children of Light," also "Friends of 
Truth." Finally the name given them was the "Religious Society 
of Friends," to which was frequently added "commonly called 
Quakers." This last name was applied to them by a justice m re- 
sponse to an address, in which George Fox called on him to "tremble 
at the Word of the Lord." They increased in numbers, until by the 
close of the seventeenth century, they were one of the most important 
bodies of dissenters m England. With the cessation of persecution, 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Friends relaxed 
their missionary zeal, paid more attention to the discipline of their 
members, and gradually settled down into a comparatively quiet ex- 
istence. About the middle of the nineteenth century a new movement 
began, and since that time the great majority of the Friends have 
either dropped or modified many of the old customs and external 

The first recorded visit of any Quakers to America was that of 
two women, Ann Austin and Marv Fisher, who arrived in Massa- 
chusetts from Barbados in 1656. They were immediately put under 
arrest, subjected to a brutal examination to see whether they were 
witches, and finally shipped back to Barbados. Two days after their 
departure a vessel arrived with eight more Quakers, and these were 
forcibly returned to England. Severe laws were enacted and heavy 
penalties provided for those who knowingly brought into the com- 
munity that "cursed sect of heretics lately risen up in the world which 
are commonly called ' Quakers/ " Nothwitstanding these laws, the 
Quakers continued to come, and at last the situation improved, al- 
though it was not until 1724 that their appeals to the Royal Privy 
Council in England were susained. A few years later laws were 
enacted in their favor. 

The Friends had almost as trying an experience in Virginia as 
in Massachusetts, and they suffered certain persecutions in Connecti- 
cut. In Rhode Island, however, they were received more cordially and 
were held in high regard, several of the early governors being mem- 
bers of the society. In New York, New Jersey and Maryland there 
were many Friends. The culmination of their influence was reached 
in Pennsylvania, under the charter given to William Penn in return 
for a debt due by the crown to his father, Admiral Penn. 

The early part of the nineteenth century was marked by divi- 
sions on doctrinal points, resulting in separation more or less seri- 
ous. The most important of these was that popularly known as 
"Hicksite" in 1827-28. This was followed by the "Wilburite" in 1845 
and the "Primitive" a little later. 

During the decade, chiefly as a result of the Five Years Meet- 
ing there has been a strong tendency toward greater unity of ef- 
fort in the fields of home and foreign missions, Bible schools, educa- 
tion, evangelistic work, philanthropy, and social reform. This is true 
of all branches of the society. The relations to other bodies of Chris- 
tians have become closer. In the World War the Friends simply re- 
affirmed their historic position in regard to all war, a position recog- 
nized by Congress in the selective-draft act, which provided for the 
assignment of those Friends drafted to noncombatant service. All 
branches of Friends united in the American Friends Service Com- 
mittee for the purpose of carrying on reconstruction work in France. 
Several hundred thousand dollars were contributed for this purpose. 
From 1919 to 1921 an important work was carried on by this com- 
mittee in child feeding in Germany and more recently an important 
service is being rendered in relief work in the famine districts of 

Directory of Religious Bodies 99 


The Orthodox Friends, who are by far the most numerous 
branch, have never adopted a formal creed. Their doctrine agrees 
in all essential points with the doctrine of the great body of the 
Christian. Church, but they differ from other denominations in the 
following important respects: (1) The great importance attached to 
the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or "Light With- 
in," or "Inner Light"; (2) the absence of all outward ordinances, in- 
cluding baptism and the Lord's Supper, on the ground that they are 
not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend 
to draw the soul away from the essential to the nonessential and 
formal; (3) the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; 
(4) the doctrine of peace or nonresistance, in accordance with which 
no Friend can fight or directly support war. 


The organization of the Society of Friends includes monthly, 
quarterly and yearly meetings, each being a purely business organi- 
zation. The monthly meeting is either a single congregation or in- 
cludes two or more congregations called variously, weekly, local, or 
preparative meetings. The monthly meetings in a certain district 
combine to form a quarterly meeting, and the quarterly meetings in 
a wider territory constitute a yearly meeting. 

Thirteen of the Yearly Meetings have united in forming the 
Five Years Meetings. These Yearly Meetings have a uniform book 
of discipline. Official delegates from these Yearly Meetings meet 
every five years for the transaction of such business as is of com- 
mon interest. Provision is made for carrying on the work of the 
denominational boards on missionary, philanthropic and educational 
lines. Woman is in a position of absolute equality with man in 
Friends' polity. 

The worship of a Friends' meetings is distinctly nonliturgical. 
Since the Friends believe that worship involves a direct communion 
of the soul with God it can be carried on with or without a minister. 
Meetings for worship can be held partly or even wholly in silence, 
and without any prearrangement of service, though some prearrange- 
ment is more common than formerly. There is no stated length for 
any sermon, prayer or exhortation, and- often several persons, not 
necessarily ministers take part during the same meeting. 


General Conference, biennial; next meeting in 1924. 

Seven Yearly Meetings. 

Officers: Chmn.y Arthur C. Jackson, 6445 Greene St., Ger- 
mantown, Pa. ; Gen. Sec., J. Barnard Walton, 140 N. 15th St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Rec. Sec., Miss Josephine H. Tilton, 120 So. 
Second Ave., Mount Vernon, N. Y. ; Treas., Harry A. Hawkins. 
57 Pierrepont Ave., W., Rutherford, N. J. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL COMMITTEE, Central Bureau of Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting, 154 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Sec., Miss Jane 
P. Rushmore. 


Name Location Director 

Friends' School for Religious and Social 
Education Swarthmore, Pa Elbert Russell. 

100 Year Book of the Churches 


Friends 9 Intelligencer (weekly), 140 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, 
Pa., Editor, Mrs. Sue C. Yerkes. 


Kansas Yearly Meeting held at Emporia, Kans. 
Address Alva J. Smith, 619 E. 6th St , Emporia, Kans. 

FRIENDS (Primitive) 

Address John C. Maule, Bristol, Pa. 


Assembly, semi-annual. 

Headquarters - Los Angeles, Calif 

Officers: Pres., W. N. Matness, Los Angeles, Calif.; Vice- 
Pres., J. EL Cressnill, 844 Monterey Road, South Pasadena, 
Calif. ; Recorder, Gladys L. Clark, 106 North Hidalgo Ave , Al- 
hambra, Calif.; Treas , T. A Smith, Azusa, Calif. 

MISSIONARY BOARD. Treas., J. E. Adams, 2638 Eagle St., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

PENTECOST PRINTING HOUSE, 131 N. Chicago St., Los Angeles, 


The Pentecost, 131 N. Chicago St., Los Angeles, Calif., Editors, 
G. E. Ramige, Hattie H. Ramige. 


About 1880 as a result of the preaching of ministers of the 
Methodist Episcopal and Free Methodist Church in Southern Cali- 
fornia and Arizona numerous bands were formed under the name 
"Holiness Band," the members retaining, however, their member- 
ship or identity with the churches of which they were already mem- 
bers. With the development of these bands and the acquisition of 
certain property for the conduct of their worship, certain legal 
difficulties arose and in 1896 they became incorporated under the 
laws of the state of California. From California the work extended 
into other states and was especially prominent m Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. The churches in Tennessee constitute a district assembly of 
the entire body, but the churches in Kentucky are included in the 
corporate body of California. 


The doctrine of the Holiness Church is Methodist or Wesleyan, 
following the principles laid down by John Wesley. It teaches re- 
repentance, restitution, confession, and the forsaking of sin as the 
part for the sinner; and the forgiveness of sin and the divine light 
received by the repentant sinner, as the part from God. The church 
teaches that it is the privilege, as well as the duty, of every believer 
to consecrate himself to God without reserve and that the result of 
such consecration will be sanctification, meaning by the term freedom 
from the "carnal mind" and the tendency to sin. Specific conditions 
of church membership are sanctification and baptism by water. The 
mode of baptism being settled by the candidate, although immer- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 101 

sion is for the most part practiced; and the belief in the second 
coming of the Lord, and in divine healing by faijh. The church also 
emphasizes belief in prohibition, abstinence from drugs and tobacco, 
and from all poisons that are "against the best for God." Divorce is 
allowed but for one cause, adultery; membership in secret societies 
is disapproved and forbidden; and plain dress, avoiding extravagance 
and jewelry, especially for show, is inculcated. 


A president is elected annually and acts as chairman of all gen- 
eral assemblies and of the Board of Elders. He also superintends the 
work in general. Local churches are self-directing, but there is a 
board of 12 elders who care for the spiritual welfare of the church 
and serve between the meetings of the assembly. There is, in addi- 
tion, a board of 9 trustees, whose office it is to look after the property 
of the church and who hold that property subject to the General 
Assembly, composed of representatives from the churches. District 
assemblies are formed under the care of superintendents who are 
members of the board of elders of the General Assembly. Ministers 
are selected on their qualifications of aptness to preach or teach the 
word. No fixed salaries are paid. Free will offerings are made for 
support of the work. Tithing is practiced. 


No directory. 


Under this head are included single churches which are not identi- 
fied with any ecclesiastical body and have not even such affiliation 
as would entitle them to inclusion under a special name. Certain dis- 
tinct types appear. There are churches which were originally mis- 
sions or Sunday schools established in newly settled or outlying 
districts bv Christian workers representing different denominations, 
and which have grown gradually into a definite church life, There 
are also churches variously called union, federated, community, etc., 
which represent the movement toward denominational fellowship, the 
elimination of weak churches, and the consolidation of church life 
for the purpose of securing more effective church work. The num- 
ber of churches reporting themselves as union churches is quite large, 
but, not infrequently, it is not clear just what is represented by the 
term. The federated and the community church is of recent growth. 
There is a third class, including churches which use a denomina- 
tional name, but for one reason or another are not included in de- 
nominational lists and are not reported by the denominational of- 
ficers. A fourth class includes churches which were organized by 
individuals independent of any denominational status, some that 
originally had denominational connection, and some which are the 
result of Holiness or evangelistic movements. 

Doctrine and Polity 

No special features of doctrine or polity can be definitely stated 
for these independent churches. Each organization included under 
this head draws up its own creed, adopts its own form of organiza- 
tion, chooses its own officers, makes it own conditions of membership, 
and conducts its own worship as it chooses, and no general statement 
is practicable, except that the union and federated churches accord 
more or less closelv to the customs of the denominations represented 
in their organizations. 

102 Year Book of the Churches 

JEWISH (Representative National Organizations) 

Council held in New York, January, 1923. Pres., Chas. M. Shohl; 
Sec., Eabbi George Zepin, 62 Duttenhofer Bldg-., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

UNITED SYNAGOGUE OP AMERICA (1913), 531 W. 123d St., New 
York City. Pres., Elias L. Soloman; Vice-Pres., Louis Gmzberg; 
Cor. Sec., Charles I. Hoffman, 334 Belmont Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Julius J. Dukas; Sec., Albert Lucas, 56 W. 105th St., New York City. 

Calisch, Richmond, Va. ; Rec. Sec., Felix A. Levy, Chicago ; Cor. Sec., 
Isaac E. Marcusan, Macon, Ga.; Treas., Louis Wolsey, Cleveland, 

M. S. Margolies, 1225 Madison Ave., New York City. 

AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE (1906), 171 Madison Aye., New 
York City. Pres., Louis Marshall; Asst. Sec. f Harry Schneiderman; 
Treas., Isaac W. Bernheim; Chmn. Exec. Com., Cyrus Adler. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN (1893), 305 W. 98th St., New York 
City. Pres., Mrs. Rose Brenner; Exec. Sec., Mrs. Harry Sternberger; 
Rec. Sec., Mrs. L. A. Hecht; Treas., Mrs. Alvin L. Bauman, 

seph Wiesenf<eld, 2333 Eutaw PL, Baltimore, Md.; Sec., Mrs. Ben 
Lowenstein, 62 Duttenhofer Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

New York City. Pres., Abraham S. W. Rosenbach; Cor. Sec., Albert 
M. Friedenberg, 38 Park Row, New York City. 

St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Simon Miller; Sec., I. George Dobsevage; 
Treas., Henry Fernberger. 

JEWISH CHAXJTAUQUA SOCIETY (1893), 1305 Stephen Girard Bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Chancellor, Henry Berkowitz; Vice-Chancellor, 
Wiham Rosenau; Sec., Jeanette M. Goldberg; Treas., Emil Selig. 

York City. Gen. Sec. f Louis Lipsky; Treas., Peter J. Schweitzer. 

JEWISH WELFARE BOARD (1917) , 352 Fourth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Irving Lehman; Vice-Pres., Felix M. Warburg; Treas., Felix 
Fuld; Sec., Joseph Rosenzweig. 

Lafayette Ave., New York City. Pres., John L. Bernstein; Treas., 
Harry Fischel; Gen. Mgr., Jacob R. Fain. 

Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres., Solomon Lowenstein; Sec., Samuel 
A. Goldsmith; Treas., Morris Kind. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate 

Learning Philadelphia, Pa. ... Cyrus Adler. 

Jewish Theological Seminal y of America. . New York City Cyrus Adler, acting 

Hebrew Union College .. Cincinnati Julian Moigan Hem 

ftabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seirn- 
nai y New York City B. Revel. 


A few Jewish individuals settled in Maryland about 1650, but th 
records of the Jewish community in the United States may be said 
to date from 1654, when a company of Jews from Brazil or the 
West Indies attempted to land at New Asterdam. The persistent op- 
oosition of the governor, Peter Stuyvesant, delayed them for nearly 

Directory of Religious Bodies 103 

a year, but on April 26, 1655, they were admitted by order of the 
Dutch West India Company. Although accorded permission to live 
and trade in New Netherlands they were yet denied the privilege of 
building a synagogue and of acquiring a site for burial purposes. 
This, however, did not prevent them from meeting for private wor- 
ship, and soon afterwards they formed a congregation, the Shearith 
Israel, which is still in existence in New York City. The burial 
ground order was rescinded as early as July 14, 1656, and in 1682, 
under English rule, the congregation occupied a rented building on 
Mill (or Beaver) Street, and, in 1730, erected on Mill Street the first 
synagogue ever built in the United States. 

From time to time other Jewish communities were formed in 
New York; in Philadelphia, where the first regular congregation, 
Mikye Israel, was instituted in 1740; in Newport, R. I. (1658); in 
Baltimore, Md. (about 1790) ; in Savannah, Ga.; in Charleston, S. C.; 
in Richmond, Va.; and in other of the older cities of the United 
States. From these foci communities from time to time radiated to 
smaller places, until there was, a century ago, a Jewish community 
in almost every good-sized town in the country. 

Up to the beginning of the nineteenth century the great majority 
of the Jewish settiers in this country were of the Sephardic branch 
of the race, L e., descendants of those who had come directly or in- 
directly from Spain or Portugal, and in 1800 there were about 2,500 
Jews in the United States, of whom 700 resided in New York City. 
In 1850 the number had grown to about 50,000, nearly one-fourth 
of them being residents in that city. The increase, in so far as it 
was due to immigration, consisted principally of Jews of the Ash- 
kenazic division, e., those originating in Germany, Austria and cer- 
tain sections of Poland. During the next generation (1850-1880), 
the Jewish population of the country, through natural increase and 
through immigration, again mainly from Central Europe, doubled and 
redoubled, so that in 1880 it was estimated at about 225,000 souls, 
scattered through the principal commercial centers of the nation, 
New York City probably containing 60,000. By that time the Ger- 
man and the Sephardic Jews had formed their congregations, and 
they have established very few since. In 1880-81 began the 
large accessions from Russia, Galicia, Moldavia, Rumania and Hun- 
gary; and it is mainly these newcomers from Russia, Austria and 
Rumania who have set up and who are still evolving new congrega- 
tions. In 1920 the total Jewish population was estimated at 3,300,000. 

In the religious life of the Jews in the United States, there 
has developed a line of cleavage, which is not very well defined, 
indicated by the terms "orthodox" and "reform." These words, bor- 
rowed from the terminology of the Christian denominations are, how- 
ever, likely to be misleading, if "reform" is taken to imply an ex- 
plicit doctrinal disagreement with "orthodoxy," or a return to an 
earlier or purer form of the faith compared with which the present 
stage is considered an aberration. The "reform" movement in 
Judaism primarily concerns itself with synagogue ritual, which 
readily admits of changes by reason of the autonomous character of 
the Jewish congregation, and it is actuated by a desire to modify the 
forms of worship somewhat in accordance with the demands of the 
times. Broadly speaking, then, the so-called orthodox Jew is distin- 
guished from the so-called reform Jew by a more rigid observance 
of the "ceremonial" prescriptions, as that observance has developed 
traditionally; and historically considered, the divergence between 
"orthodoxy" and "reform" has arisen as increasing numbers of Jews, 
no longer hampered by civil and political restrictions, have entered 
the many (for them) novel walks of life, and under the influence of 
new secular pursuits and associations, have become less insistent in 
their observance of the ceremonies in point. The Jewish, faith 

104 Year Book of the Churches 

practically coincides with the Jewish race, and every Jew is con- 
sidered a Jew -until he definitely adopts the tenets of another creed. 
Jewish tradition discourages efforts at convert-making. On the 
other hand, a man or woman who has become convinced of the truth 
of Judaism, and desires to enter the Jewish communion, may do so 
after submitting to the prescribed ceremonials. Examples of this 
kind are, however, quite rare, though not unknown. 


The term "doctrine" as descriptive of certain phases or depart- 
ments of church life has not the same significance in the Jewish 
congregations as in Christian denominations. There is no specific 
creed to be subscribed, divergence from which involves separation 
from a particular synagogue or organization, whether local or gen- 
eral. The religious life of the Jews centers about certain ceremonials 
and liturgies, rather than about expression of faith or belief. The 
"law" is a law of observances rather than a creed. 

At the same time, there is a general system of doctrine accepted 
in the main by all Jews, including the unity of God, the inspiration 
of the Old Testament, and especially of the law as set forth in the 
Pentateuch, the system of holidays, and general worship of the syna- 

With regard to inspiration, Jews generally believe that the spirit 
and teachings of the Old Testament are of divine inspiration, but 
m the specific statement of this belief there are widely divergent ex- 
pressions, some holding that every word and letter of every part of 
the book, especially of the Pentateuch, is of divine inspiration, others 
claiming that there is nothing more divine about the writings in 
question than there is in any exalted human production of genius. 
Whatever detailed statement is made, however, one who professes 
to be a Jew in any proper sense of the word, believes, or believes in, 
the moral and theological doctrine contained in the writings of the 
Old Testament. The canon of this Old Testament comprises 24 books, 
namely, the 5 of the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs, Job, 
Song of Songs, Kuth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, 
Ezra, and Chronicles. 

As to the New Testament, which, of course, formed no part of 
the basis of Judaism, there are Jews who believe it to be historically 
correct, while others question its chronological accuracy. In so far 
as it runs counter to the teachings of the Old Testament, or as it 
seerns to Jewish authorities to so run, the New Testament is not 
to be followed and its teachings are to be considered the reverse of 
the truth. There are Jews who would prohibit its perusal utterly, but 
others do not deny it a due and proper place as literature. 

Jews' High Holidays proper comprise only New Year's Day and 
the Day of Atonement. New Year's Day commemorates the creation 
of the world; the Day of Atonement is a day of humiliation and 
repentance. The Passover belongs to the cycle of three Festivals 
Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles each of which is imbued with 
historic associations, besides retaining in the ritual and ceremonial 
observances, remmiscenses of their ancient agricultural character. 
The giving out of the divine law is associated with the Festival of 
Pentecost. New Year's Day usually occurs some time m the month 
of September, occasionally in October. The Day of Atonement fol- 
lows on the tenth day from the New Year's Day. The Passover oc- 
curs in March or April. The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) is 
the last day of the penitential days, and on the afternoon preceding 
the day proper an evening meal is generally eaten, the day itself 
being observed by fasting. On the Day of Atonement there are cer- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 105 

tain peculiar ceremonies, and every Jew is expected to attend the 
synagogue even if on other holidays he absents himself from it. 

Synagogue services vary greatly in the different synagogues, and 
in some cases they closely resemble services in Protestant churches. 
In others they consist of hardly more than a hurried recital of prayers. 
The essence of religious service is prayer to God, and in some con- 
gregations the main essential is that the communicants shall go into 
the place of worship and there repeat, as they come in, often stand- 
ing, the essential prayers as formalized, so that there is at times no 
unity in those observances. The public or congregational prayers can 
not be begun until ten men are present, a boy of thirteen who has 
been confirmed counting as a man. Especially in the United States 
there has been a tendency to approximate divine service to modern 
conditions and patterns, including, in a few instances, their observ- 
ance on Sunday instead of Saturday. The formal service lasts on 
an average of about two hours, part of that time being given to the 
sermon, sometimes doctrinal, sometimes not; while the prayers, 
chants, and music, vocal and instrumental, precede or succeed the 
address of the rabbi and constitute the balance of the divine service. 
In some cases the prayers are recited in Hebrew (classical, not 
Yiddish), in others the vernacular of the land is employed. In most 
congregations at least one prayer for the dead, known as the "Kad- 
dish" is repeated in Aramic. 


The outstanding fact in oiganized Jewish religious life is the in- 
dependence of the synagogue or local church organization. Among 
Jews there is no such thing as a controlling ecclesiastical, organiza- 
tion. Every congregation the world over, is a law unto itself; each 
one is responsible to itself alone for the interpretation put upon the 
sacred law, and upon sacred traditions. 

Broadly speaking, all persons of Jewish birth are also Jews 
in the religious sense. Hence, the membership of the Jewish congre- 
gations bears a close relation to the Jewish population and member- 
ship in a Jewish synagogue is on an essentially different basis from 
that in a Christian church, but methods vary, some synagogues count- 
ing the heads of families, others only incorporators or pew holders. 
The Jewish ministry includes primarily the rabbis, but also often the 
reader or cantor. The rabbi decides questions of law and ritual, 
iDerforms the office of preacher and religious functionary, is the or- 
eranizer and teacher of religious schools and, in general, represents 
the church community. 


General Conference, annual; Salt Lake City. 

Eighty-four stakes in the U. S., three in Canada, and one in 
Mexico. A stake is composed of a number of wards, the ward 
being the unit in church government. There are nine hun- 
dred and twenty-eight wards and independent branches. 

Officers: Pres. f Heber J. Grant; Counselors, Anthony W. 
Ivins and Charles W, Penrose; Presiding Patriarchy Hyrum G. 
Smith. Pres. of the Council of Twelve, Budget Clawson; Pre- 
siding Bishop, Charles W. Nibley. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. Under the direction of the Presidency of the 
Church, assisted by the Council of the Twelve Apostles. 


Year Book of the Churches 

SABBATH SCHOOL WORK. Supt, David 0. McKay; Gen. Sec., 
A. H. Reiser, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Albert Smith; Gen. Sec., Moroni Snow. 

Martha H. Tingey; Sec., Clarissa A. Beesley. 

PRIMARY ASSOCIATION. Pres., Mrs. Louise B, Felt; Gen. Sec., 
Frances K. Thomassen. 

WOMAN"S RELIEF SOCIETY. Pres., Mrs. Clarrissa S, Williams; 
Gen. Sec., Amy B. Lyman. 

RELIGIOUS CLASS. Supt., Rudger Clawson; Sec. 9 Wm. A. Morton. 


B. Y. Univeisity 
B. Y. College 
L. D. S. U. .. 
Dixie Normal College 
Gila Normal College 
Ricks Normal College 
Snow Normal College 
Weber Noimal College 


Big Hoin Academy 
Jauiez Academy 
Millard Academy . 
San Luis Academy 
Snowflake Academy . 
Uintah Academy 



Provo, Utah 

Logan, Utah 
.Salt Lake City, Utah . 

St. George, Utah ... . 
. Thatchei, Aiizona . . 

Rexburgj Idaho . ... 
.Ephiaim, Utah 
. Ogden, Utah 


, Cowley, Wyoming 

.Col. Jauiez, Chili., Mexico 
.Hinckley, Utah 
. Manassa, Colorado .... 
Snowflake, Arizona 
.Vernal, Utah ... . 


,F. S Harris. 

W. W. Henderson 
.Guy C. Wilson 
, Jos K. Nicholes. 

L. H. Creer. 
. George S Romney. 
.Wayne B. Hales. 
.A W. Tiacy 

P) mcipal 

Elijah M Hicken. 
Lucian Mecliam, Ji. 
L H. Hatch 
Floyd G. Eyre. 
Silas L. Fish 
.E. A Jacobsen. 




Afton . . . 

.Wyoming . . . . 

, . . George H Curry. 

American Fork 

.. ..Utah . 

. . .Sidney Sperry. 


. Jtali .. .. 

. . .Claude S. Cornwall. 

Blanding . . . 

. . . Jtah 

Wayne S. Redd. 

Box Elder 

Bngham City, Utah 

.. Abel S. Rich. 



W. King Dnggs. 



.. Wm. T Tew, Jr 

Gi anite 

. Salt Lake City, Utah . . 

John M Whitaker. 



.Ralph F Nilsson 


. .. Utah . 

. .Hyrum S. Harris . 

Hyrum . 

..Utah . 

E Ray Gardner 

Joidan . 

. .. Sandy, Utah 

Enoch Jorgensen 

Kanab . 

.. . Utah 

..G Alber Fitzgerald 


. .. . Utah . . . 

. . George C Ensign, 



. ... A. B Anderson. 

Manti . .... 


.Joseph Y. Jenson 


.. .Arizona . . 

N. A. Jensen 

Montpehei . 


S H. Spencer. 


.. Utah 

.W E. Men ell 

Mt. Pleasant 


. . A H. Anderson. 

Mur* ay 


. . . Newel K. Young. 



. . . . E M. Greenwood. 

Fans . . 

. . .Idaho . , 

. ...Roy A. Welker. 

Pleasant Grove 

. ...Utah 

Samuel D Mooie, Jr. 

Preston . . 


....Wendell S Stout. 



... .J A Washburn 

Provo Bench . 

. .. Utah 

..Victor C Andeison. 

Richfield . . . 


.... John Harrington. 


Utah . 

Pres W. H Smart. 


.......Idaho ... 

J. E. Fishei 


. Utah 

. . . Joseph A Anderson 

Spanish Fork . . 

Utah . ... 

. . L E Eggertsen. 

Castle Dale . . 

Utah . . 

..Nephi L. Williams. 

Periodicals (All published in Salt Lake City) 

Juvenile Instructor, Editors, Heber J, Grant and George D. 
Pyper; Children's Friend, Editor, Miss May Anderson; Young Wom- 
an's Journal, Editor, Miss Mary Conolly; Improvement Era, Editors, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 107 

Heber J. Grant and Edward H. Anderson; Relief Society Magazine, 
Desert News, Editor, Harold Goff. 


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was founded 
by Joseph Smith, a native of* Vermont, in 1830, at Fayette, Seneca 
County, N. Y. He states that while m the woods near his father's 
home he "had a vision of great light, and two glorious personages 
appeared before him and commanded him 'to join none of the re- 
ligious sects, for the Lord was about to restore the gospel, which 
was not represented in its fulness by any of the existing churches.' " 
Other visions followed, and in one he received directions enabling him 
to obtain "the sacred records, an abridgment of the history kept by 
the ancient inhabitants of America" which "were engraved on plates 
which had the appearance of gold." These records, constituting the 
"Book of Mormon," he translated, dictating the translation to Oliver 
Cowdery and others, who wrote it down. Oliver Cowdery, with David 
Whitmer and Martin Harris, after the completion of the work, gave 
their testimony that they had actually seen the plates. Two years 
later, in 1829, Smith and Cowdery stated that "an angel appeared 
to them and conferred upon them the priesthood of Aaron and in- 
structed them to baptize each other by immersion." This was fol- 
lowed, in April, 1830, by the organization of the church at Fayette, 
N. Y., and "the declaration that the ancient gospel had been restored 
with all its gifts and powers." 

Missionaries were sent out and numerous churches were organ- 
ized in different states. In 1831, headquarters were established at 
Kirtland, Ohio. From the first, the policy of segregating the con- 
verts from the "gentiles" was followed, and in 1831 a colony of be- 
lievers was settled in Jackson County, Mo. Here they met violent op- 
position from neighbors, which culminated in 1833 in their being 
driven from the county by mob violence. They then scattered into 
other counties, although retaining their organization at Kirtland, 
Ohio; and in 1838 Joseph Smith, with other leaders, removed to Cald- 
well County, Mo., which was settled almost exclusively by his fol- 
lowers. Here again there was friction between them and the earlier 
settlers of the adjoining counties, which resulted in 1839 in their ex- 
pulsion from the state. Then followed the settlement at Nauvoo, 
Hancock County, 111., which developed rapidly, and at one time was 
said to be the largest city in the state. In a few years, however, 
the people of the surrounding counties became hostile, and Joseph 
Smith and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by a mob at Carthage, 
111., on the 27th of June, 1844. After the death of Joseph Smith, 
Brigham Young, as president of the Council of Twelve, was chosen 
president of the church. A number, however, refused his leadership, 
and there followed a period of confusion, several organizations being 
formed, one of which is known today as the "Reorganized Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints." 

After the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young be- 
came president of the church, and three years later led a general 
migration of believers from Illinois to the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, the 
present headquarters of the branch known as the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. From this point as a center, the church 
has extended until it is represented in a large proportion of the 
states of the Union. 

The comparative isolation Of the new location gave less occa- 
sion for such disturbances as had hitherto accompanied the his- 
tory of the church, and permitted a more normal development of the 
community life. Active proselyting was carried on, and the number 
of converts increased rapidly. Brigham Young died in 1877 and 

108 Year Book of the Churches 

was succeeded by John Taylor, who held the office of president for 
ten years. His successors in office have been Wilford Woodruff, 
Lorenzo Snow, Joseph F. Smith, and Heber J. Grant. 


The doctrines of the Latter Day ^Saints as set forth bv the first 
president, Joseph Smith, and accepted by both bodies, may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

They hold in the main the body of Christian doctrine commonly 
accepted. Peculiar or special beliefs may be noted, as that the same 
organization that existed in the primitive church continues today 
apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, etc.; there is also 
the same gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, healing, in- 
terpretation of tongues, etc.; the Bible, so far as it is translated cor- 
rectly, and the Book of Mormon, are both regarded as the Word of 
God; there have been, and will be, many revelations of great and 
important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God; there will be 
a literal gathering of Israel and the restoration of the Ten Tribes; 
Zion will be built on this continent; Christ will reign personally upon 
the earth, which will be renewed and receive its paradisaical glory. 


The ecclesiastical organization is based upon the priesthood, 
which is "the power delegated to man by virtue of which he has 
authority to act or officiate in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as 
His representative." Its two grand divisions are the Melchizedek, or 
higher priesthood; and the Aaromc, or lesser priesthood. The Mel- 
chizedek priesthood is so called after Melchizedek, the king of Salem. 
It holds the power of presidency and the right of authority over 
all the offices of the church. Its officers are apostles, patriarchs, high 
priests, seventies, and elders. The Aaronic priesthood holds the keys 
of authority in the temporal affairs of the church, and its officers 
are bishops, priests, teachers, and deacons. 

The chief or presiding council (quorum) of the church is the 
first presidency, which: consists of three high priests a president and 
two counselors or advisers its jurisdiction and authority are uni- 
versal, extending over all the affairs of the church in both temporal 
and spiritual things. The president of the church is regarded as 
the mouthpiece of God to the church, and as alone receiving the law 
for the church through revelation. The first presidency is also the 
presidency of the high priesthood, and has the right to officiate in 
all the offices of the church. 

The second council (quorum) of the church, standing next to 
the first presidency, is composed of the twelve apostles. It is their 
duty, under the direction of the first presidency, to supervise the work 
of the church in all the world, and especially the missionary labors, 
to ordain evangelical ministers, and to act as special witnesses to 
the world of the divine mission of the Saviour Jesus Christ. 

The patriarchs are evangelists who hold the right to bless the 
members of the church with the blessings of prophecy, as was done by 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the early patriarchs. They are un- 
der the direction of the first presidency and are presided over by the 
patriarch of the church. The high priests hold the power of presi- 
dency in the stakes of Zion (or districts), under the direction of the 
first" presidency in their respective stakes and congregations (par- 
ishes) in administering in spiritual things. The seventies are the 
missionaries of the church and labor in the world under the direc- 
tion of the twelve apostles. They are organized into companies of 
70 each, under 7 presidents who preside over all the companies* The 
elders assist the high priests in their duties in the stakes. All the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 109 

members of the Melchizedek priesthood have authority under the di- 
rection of the first presidency to officiate in all the ordinances of the 
gospel. The labors of the twelve apostles and of the seventies are 
principally in the world outside the regular church organization, 
while the labors of the patriarchs, high priests, and elders are con- 
fined principally to their respective stakes and congregations. 

The presiding council (quorum) of the Aaronic priesthood is the 
presiding bishopric, consisting of three bishops, who have jurisdiction 
over all the offices of the Aaronic priesthood in temporal affairs and 
under the direction of the first presidency. 

The general authorities are those presiding officers who have gen- 
eral direction of the whole church or of any general division. Thus 
the first presidency is the presiding council (quorum) over the whole 
church. The apostles have jurisdiction over the whole church under 
the direction of the first presidency, but more especially over the mis- 
sionary enterprises. The presiding patriarch presides over all the 
patriarchs. The First Seven Presidents of seventy preside over all 
seventies. The presiding bishopric presides over all the lesser priest- 
hood of the church. 



General Conference, biennial. 

Headquarters, Independence, Missouri, Box 255 

Four stakes, 75 state or district conferences in the United 
States, and 25 district conferences in foreign countries. 

General Officers : Pres., Frederick M. Smith ; First Counselor, 
Elbert A Smith , Pres. of Quorum of Twelve Apostles, James A. 
Gillen; Pres. Bishop, Benjamin R McGuire; Sec , E. S Sal- 
yards; Recorder, F. A. Russell; Historian, Walter W. Smith. 

Lamoni, la.; See., E. D. Moore, Independence, Mo. 

liams, Independence, Mo. ; Sec.. Miss Hazel Dexter, Independence, Mo. 

WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. Supt., Dora P. Glines, Independence, 


Name Location President 

Graceland College . . . Lamoni, Iowa . . .G. N. Bnggs. 

Independence Institute of Arts and 

Sciences . . Independence, Mo. . Walter W. Smith. 


Saints' Herald (weekly), Independence, Mo.; Zion's Ensign 
(weekly), Independence, Mo.; Autumn Leaves (monthly), Independ- 
ence, Mo.; Journal of History (quarterly), Independence, Mo. 


The death of Joseph Smith in 1844 was followed by the devel- 
opment of several factions among the Latter Day Saints, one of the 
strongest of which, led by Brigham Young, drew to itself a portion 
of the original church membership, and settled in Salt Lake City, 
Utah. Other organizations held for a time, but the great majority 
of the members were scattered, and their descendants still remain 
throughout the Mississippi Valley. Some of these scattered members, 
together with some congregations that had preserved their identify, 
effected a partial reorganization in Wisconsin in 1852, which was 

110 Year Book of the Churches 

afterwards completed under the name, "Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints," and which claims to be the true and 
lawful continuation of and successor to the original Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. A few years later, 1860, they were 
joined by Joseph Smith, the son of the prophet, who identified him- 
self with this organization, and was presiding officer until his death 
in 1914, when he was succeeded by his son. Subsequently the head- 
quarters were removed to Independence, Mo., where they are at 

Doctrine and Polity 

The general doctrine and polity of the Reorganized Church is set 
forth in the preliminary statement of Latter Day Saints. 

The Reorganized Church repudiates the revelation of plural mar- 
riage and maintains "that marriage is ordained of God ; that the law 
of God provides for but one companion in wedlock for either man 
or woman, except in cases of death or where the contract is broken 
by transgression; consequently, that the doctrines of plurality and 
community of wives are heresies and are opposed to the law of God." 


Address, Et. Rev. S. B. Mickicwiez, Wostville, 1U. 

The Lithuanian National Catholic Church of America was or- 
ganized by the Rt. Rev. S. B. Mickiewiez, and is in connection, though 
not ecclesiastically, with the Old Roman Catholic Church. It repre- 
sents the immigration to the United States from the Baltic Prov- 
inces Lithuanian, Polish and Slavic and includes a number of 
communities in general sympathy with the movement of the Old 
Catholic churches against the dogma of papal infallibility. In com- 
mon with the Old Catholic churches, the Lithuanian Church accepts 
the first seven general councils and uses the Niceno-Constantinopol- 
itan creed. The liturgy is Latin, but the services are conducted for 
each race in its own language. The supreme ecclesiastical authority 
is vested in a synod. It maintains a seminary which prepares stu- 
dents for the priesthood of the church. 




Shortly after the Reformation there were Lutheran settlements 
in Florida and South America. Lutherans with the French colonies 
under General Ribaut and Rene de Laudonniere came to Florida in 
1562 and 1564, establishing the forts on the St. John's River. These 
were attacked in 1565 by Pedro Menendez, General of the fleet of 
the King of Spain, who stated that he had come to this country "to 
hang and behead all Lutherans." Asking the colonists the question: 
"Are you Catholics or Lutherans?" He received the answer, "Luth- 
erans of the New Religion." Menendez succeeded in destroying the 
fort of the colonists, hanging his prisoners on trees. He placed over 
them the inscription, "I do this not as to Frenchmen but as to 

It appears that the first Lutheran pastor to come to America 
and the first to die here was Rasmus Jensen, a Dane. He came on 
the ill-fated Jens Monk Expedition to discover the Northwest Pas- 
sage. He set sail on May 16, 1619, and entered the Hudson Bay 

Directory of Religious Bodies 111 

about July 1st of that year. He died February 23, 1620, after having 
regularly conducted Lutheran services from September, 1619, until 
January, 1620. 

The earliest Lutherans to settle permanently in North America 
came from Holland to Manhattan Island in 1623. For years they 
had great difficulty in establishing their own forms of worship be- 
cause of instructions issued by the authorities of Holland to the 
Governor of New Amsterdam "to encourage no other doctrine in 
New Netherlands than the true Reformed. The Dutch and German 
Lutherans organized a congregation in 1648, and 1653 requested the 
authorities to grant them permission to call a Lutheran pastor, but 
they received a curt refusal from Governor Peter Stuyvesant. But 
the Lutherans were not intimidated. When Stuyvesant denied their 
request for a Lutheran pastor, they appealed to the authorities over- 
seas. The Lutherans persisted in their demand and held religious 
services in houses, without a minister. February 1, 1656, Stuyvesant's 
"Ordinance against Conventicles" was posted, imposing penalties of 
100 Flemish for the preaching, and 25 for every attendant at the 
service. As a result, a number were cast into prison. Because of the 
edict and all his harsh treatment of the Lutherans, Stuyvesant was 
rebuked by the authorities in Holland. This resulted in an appeal to 
the Lutheran Consistory of Amsterdam for a minister. In July, 
1657, Rev. John Ernest Gutwasser arrived to minister to the two con- 
gregations in New York and Albany. Governor Stuyvesant ordered 
him not to preach even in a private house. Gutwasser, however, be- 
gan to preach, although he was not allowed to assume charge of the 
congregations, and was finally compelled to yield and to return to 
Holland in 1659. 

The second Lutheran pastor to arrive on Manhattan Island while 
the Dutch were in power was Abelius Zetskorn, whom Stuyvesant di- 
rected to the Dutch settlement of New Amstel (New Castle on the 
Delaware). When the Dutch, however, were called upon to sur- 
render Manhattan to the English, in 1664, according to the procla- 
mation of the Duke of York, the Lutherans were granted religious 
liberty along with the Reformed. In 1669 Jacob Fabricius was sent 
over by the Lutheran Consistory of Amsterdam to minister to the 
Lutherans of New York and Albany. In 1671, Arensius was sent 
over and served the Lutherans of New York and Albany until 1691, 
the time of his death. In 1702, Pastor Rudman, a Swede from Penn- 
sylvania, cared for these congregations. He was succeeded by Jus- 
tus Falkner, who was the first Lutheran minister ordained m Amer- 
ica, November 24, 1703, in the Swedish Gloria Dei Lutheran Church 
of Wicacoa. Pastors Rudman, Bioerck and Sandel participated in this 
first Luthern ordination in America. 

Rev. Joshua Kocherthal arrived with 51 Palatinates the first 
of January, 1709. They formed the first German Lutheran 
congregations in the State of New York. After spending 
the winter in New York City, they settled on the right bank 
of the Hudson, where Newburgh is now located. Kocherthal 
returned to London July, 1709, and came back to America in Jan- 
uary, 1710, with a multitude of immigrants in eleven ships, 2,200 
Palatinates being thus settled on the Hudson at East and West Camp. 

The first independent colonies of Lutherans were established on 
the Delaware in 1638 by the Swedes. 

Pastor Reorus Torkillus was the first Lutheran minister to set- 
tle in the territory of the United States. He arrived in 1639 and 
held services in Fort Christina. He served this Lutheran Colony in 
America until the time of his death, December 7, 1643. His work 
was continued by John Campanius, who arrived in America Feb- 
ruary 16, 1643. Three years later, 1646, he dedicated the first Luth- 

112 Year Book of the Churches 

eran Church in America at Christina (Wilmington)* Here he trans- 
lated "Luther's Small Cathechism" into the language of the Dela- 
ware Indian (Lutheri Catechismus "Ofwersatt pa American-Vir- 
giniske Spraket." Stockholm Tryekt uthi thet af Kongi Maytt 
privelig, Burchardi Trycken, af J. J. Genath/f Anno MDCXCVI, p. 
160) some years before the appearance of Eliot's Indian Bible, 
Campanius returned to Sweden in 1648, leaving his church of 200 
people in charge of Lars Lock, who was succeeded by Jacob Fabricius, 

Campanius learned the language of the red men and became 
the first Protestant missionary among the North American Indians, 
The Indian Catechism of Campanius antedated Eliot's Indian Bible 
in practical use. Eliot's Bible was not printed until 1661, and Cam- 
panius' was not put into print until 1696; however written copies 
were used up to that time. 

In the South, the Lutheran Church was planted in Georgia by a 
colony of 1,200 Saltzburgers who landed at Savannah, March 10, 1734. 
This colony was led by Pastor John Martin Bolzms and Israel Chris- 
tian Gronau. Governor Oglethorpe led the immigrants 23 miles 
northwest of Savannah, wbere they erected a monument of stones 
where now stands the Ebenezer Church. Seven years later, 1741, the 
Church of Jerusalem was built The descendants of these Saltz- 
burgers still maintain flourishing churches in Effingham County, 

Various congregations were organized in and around Philadel- 
phia, with here and there an organization in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware and Maryland from 1643 to 1710. The earliest min- 
isters that visited the Germans in Pennsylvania were the Swedish 
r>astors on the Delaware. The first Lutheran service held in Penn- 
sylvania was held in Germantown in 1694. Among the Pioneer 
German ministers working in Pennsylvania was Daniel Falkner. He 
labored in Pennsylvania from 1700 to 1708, organizing the oldest 
German Lutheran congregation in America in 1703 at New Han- 
over, Pa., this being undoubtedly the first point where permanent 
organization was formed among the German Lutherans in Pennsyl- 
vania. Another pioneer in Pennsylvania was Anthony Jacob Henkel 
('known as Gerhardt) who came to America in 1717, serving the con- 
gregation at New Hanover from 1717 to 1720,, and then again from 
1723 to 1728* He is supposed to have traveled on horseback to the 
Germans in Virginia and also to have visited all the German Luth- 
eran settlements near his home in New Hanover. 

Pastor Henfcel was succeeded by John Casper Stoeyer, Sr., and 
John Casper Stoever, Jr. Most of the missionary work is attributed 
to John Casper Stoever, Jr. Wherever the Germans settled he held 
services for them and encouraged them to build regular churches. He 
was in America fourteen years before Muehlenberg came. 

John Christian Schultz arrived in America in 1732 and showed 
his organizing ability and business-like method in doing his work. In 
some respects he did more to prepare the way for Muehlenberg than 
any one else. As the result of letters written by congregations of 
Philadelphia, New Providence and New Hanover, Pastor Henry 
Melchior Muehlenberg was called to America, arriving September 23, 
1742. He landed at Charleston and visited Bolzius and the Saltz- 
burgers at Ebenezer and arrived in Philadelphia November 25, 1742. 
His name is linked forever with the beginning of organized Lutheran- 
ism in America. He became the patriarch of the Lutheran Church in 
America, his work being to bring the primitive congregations into 
order, to infuse into them a strong piety and true church life, to 
provide them with good pastors, to introduce schools for the education 
of children, and to establish and preserve the Christian home. 
Muehlenberg activities included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 

Directory of Religious Bodies 118 

and Maryland. By the middle of the 18th century Pennsylvania con- 
tained about 30,000 Lutherans, four-fifths being German and one- 
fifth Swedes. On August 26, 1748, Muehlenberg, with six other min- 
isters and lay-delegates of free congregations, organized the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, the first Lutheran Synod in this country. This was the 
most important event in the history of the American Lutheran Church 
in the 18th century. It was followed by the organization of the New 
York Synod in 1786, the Synod of North Carolina in 1803, the Synod 
of Ohio in 1818. The General Synod was formed at Hagerstown, Md. 
The extraordinary growth of the Lutheran Church in America 
was due primarily to Lutheran immigration, and to the activity on 
the part of the different Synods to reach all new immigrants. Dur- 
ing the 19th century these immigrants, in large numbers, came to 
America, establishing German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, 
Finnish and other language settlements, largely in the central, north- 
western and western parts of America. At the same time they estab- 
lished their churches and schools for religious instruction. A number 
of independent Synods were formed, each adapted to the peculiar con- 
dition of language, previous ecclesiastical relation, and geographic 
location. However, as the churches came into closer fellowship, the 
distinctive features tended to fade out and the small Synods became 
absorbed in others. The movements for union have resulted in the 
organization of the Synodical Conference, the Norwegian Lutheran 
Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Wisconsin 
and other States, and the United Lutheran Church in America. In 
addition, in 1918 there was formed the National Lutheran Council, 
which is not a Synod or a church body, but an association of church 
bodies or Synods through their duly appointed representatives. 

The Lutherans of the United States believe firmly in the separa- 
tion of Church and State, in keeping the Church out of politics, and, 
in loyalty to the government. This is in harmony with the funda- 
mental confession of the Lutheran Church The Augsburg of 1530, 


The Lutherans of the United States and Canada accept the 
Canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the inspired 
Word of God and as the only infallible rule and standard of faith 
and practice. They accept and confess the three ecumenical creeds: 
namely, the Apostles, the Nicene, and the Athanasian. They accept 
and hold the unaltered Augsburg Confession as the correct exhibition 
of the faith and doctrine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, founded 
upon the Word of God. None reject any of the other Symbolical 
Books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, namely, the Apology of 
the Augsburg Confession, the Smalcald Articles, the Large and Small 
Catechisms of Luther, and the Formula of Concord. Many accept 
all of these. All accept and use Luther's Small Catechism. 


In form of worship the Lutheran Church in the United States and 
Canada is liturgical. Religious education is emphasized. Thorough 
catechetical instruction is given preparatory to confirmation. 

In the Lutheran Church the Congregation is the unit of organi- 
zation. The internal affairs of the Congregation are administered by 
the church council and the pastor. The council is elected by, and 
accountable to, the congregation. The pastor is called by the Con- 
gregation and is usually ordained by the Synod. 

Congregations representatively, through the pastors and the 
elected lay delegates, constitute the constituent synods, districts or 
conferences. These congregational representatives convene in the 

114 Year Book of the Churches 

synod, district or conference and have, within the constitutional limi- 
tations, the powers of the congregations themselves. 

The general synodical bodies are in turn composed of representa- 
tives elected by the constituent synods, districts or conferences, usually 
upon the basis of one delegate for ten congregations. The general 
synodical body, therefore, represents not only the constituent synod, 
district or conference, but also the congregations . The authority of 
the congregation is thus preeminent and the judgments of the gen- 
eral synodical bodies become the judgments of the Church. 

The constituent synods, districts or conferences meet annually. 
The general bodies meet annually, biennially or tnennially. 


This is not a Synod or a Church Body, but an association of 
Church Bodies through their duly appointed representatives. It 
is an agency through which general Bodies or Synods of the 
Lutheran Church cooperate under regulations guaranteeing to 
each the rights, privileges, and immunities of a free Church 
Body. "It is the right of the Bodies themselves to determine the 
extent of cooperation." Its most important work, since its or- 
ganization in 1918, lias been that done in behalf of European 
relief, for statistics, publicity, and representation. A full ac- 
count of the organization may be found in The Lutheran World 
Almanac and Annual Encyclopedia for 1921 (pp. 493-503), 
published by authority of the Council. The Bodies cooperating 
in the Council are indicated by an asterisk (*). 

Annual meeting 

Officers: Pres, Eev. C H. L. Schuotte, 62 Wilson Ave , 
Columbus, Ohio; Acting Exec Sec., Eev J. A Morchcad, 437 
Fifth Ave , New York City; Treas , Hon E. F. Eilert, 437 Fifth 
Ave , N. Y. C. , Sec , Rev Peter Peterson, 1434 Rascher Ave , 
Chicago, 111. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: Chr., Rev. Peter Peterson, Rev. C. H. 
L. Schuette, Hon. E. F. Eilert, Rev. G. A. Brandelle, Rev. I. Gertsen, 
Prof. Chas. M. Jacobs, Rev. H. G. Stub and Rev. H. A. Weller. 

Norlie, Luther College, Decor ah. Iowa : Statistician, Rev. G. L. Kieif er, 
437 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C. 

City; Chr t Mr. George D. Boschen; Mr. Charles H. Dahmer; Sec. and 
Dir. t Rev. Howard R Gold; Librarian, Prof. 0. M. Norhe; Reference 
Librarian, Rev. G. L. Kieffer. 


The United Lutheran Church in America is the consumma- 
tion of the historic development of Lutheran churches of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For a full century the 
churches were without synodical organization. The beginning 
was made in this direction in 1748, when, under the leadership of 
Henry Melehior Muehlenberg, the Mmisterium (Synod) of Penn- 
sylvania was organized Three general bodies of Lutherans 

Directory of Religious Bodies 115 

which, grew out of the churches of the colonial period came to- 
gether in 1918 in the City of New York and merged into "The 
United Lutheran Church in America/' These were The General 
Synod, The General Council and The United Synod in the South. 

The body is composed of thirty-six constituent synods, 
thirty-two of which are in the United States and four in Can- 
ada It conducts missions in India, Africa, Japan, South Amer- 
ica and the West India Islands. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. F. H. Knubel, 437 Fifth Ave., New York 
City ; Sec , Eev. M. G. G. Scherer, 437 Fifth Ave., New York 
City; Treas., Mr. E. Clarence Miller, 410 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD (ALSO TRUSTEES). The officers with twelve 
other members elected by the Convention. 

Airy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. Holmes Dysmger, 1634 N. Nye 
Ave., Fremont, Nebr. 

BOARD OP FOREIGN MISSIONS . Pres., Rev. E. K. Bell, 821 W. Lan- 
vale St., Baltimore Md.; Gen. Sees., Rev. L. B. Wolf, 18 E. Mt. Vernon 
Place, Baltimore, Md., Rev. George Drach, 18 E. Mt. Vernon Place, 
Baltimore, Md. 

J. E. Whitteker, 1630 S. llth Ave., Maywood, 111.; Gen. Sec.-Treas., 
Rev. H. H. Weber, Security Bldg., York, Pa.; Ed. Sec., Rev. A. S. 
Hartman, 914 N. Carrollton Ave., Baltimore, Md.; Dis. Supts , Rev. 
L C. Hoffman, 319 E. Walnut Lane, Philadelphia, Pa., Rev. J. F. Sei- 
bert, 159 N. State St., Chicago, 111., Rev. A. D. R. Hancher, 1647 West 
Grace St., Richmond, Va. 

Kraehng, 132 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Sec., Rev. G. A. Benze, 
118 W. 23 St., Erie Pa.; Treas., Rev. H. D. E. Siebott, 2502 N. 27th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

IMMIGRANTS MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. W. M. Rehrig, 321 
South St., Mauch Chunk, Pa.; Sec., Rev. Frank E. Jensen, 437 Fifth 
Ave., New York City; Treas., Mr. H. E. Young, Keystone and Glen- 
dale Aves., Bethlehem, Pa.; Supt , Rev. A. L. Ramer, 30 S. Jefferson 
St., Allentown, Pa. 

WEST INDIES MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. H. W. A. Hanson, 2037 
N. Second St., Harrisburg, Pa.; See., Mr. H. F. Heuer, 115 Gowen Ave., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. S. F. Telleen, Chase Natl. Bank, New 
York City; Ex. See., Rev. Zenan M. Corbe, 3120 N. Park Ave., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

COMMITTEE ON JEWISH MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. F. 0. Evers, 228 N. 
Franklin' St., Philadelphia, Pa.; See., Rev. Arthur C. Carty, 256 S. 
Farragut Terrace, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. Charles J. Fite, 213 
First Ave., Bakewell Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. Alonzo J. Turkic, Stock Ave. 
and Arch St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Rec. Sec., Rev. H. R. Gold, 15 Gramercy 
Park, New York City; Treas., Mr. J. M. Snyder, Elkms Park, Pa.; 
Exec. Sec., Rev. F. G. Gotwald, 47 E. Market St., York, Pa. 

INNER MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. E. F. Bachmann, 2100 S. 
College Ave, Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec. and Treas., Rev. Wm. Freas, 437 
Fifth Ave., New York City. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Pres., Prof. . P. Sadtler, 210 S. 13th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. N. R. Melhorn, 4720 Warrington 
Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. E. G. Hoover, Harrisburg, Pa ;" 

116 Year Book of the Churches 

Business Mgr., Mr. Grant Hultberg, S. E. cor. Ninth and Sansom 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Pres., Rev. A. Pohlman, 5143 
Race St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Executive Sec., Rev. E. G. Miller, 701 
N. W. cor. 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Mr. J. H. 
Brandt, 1131 S. 46th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ninth and Sansom Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. W. L. Hunton, 
Ninth and Sansom Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., H. M. M. Rich- 
ards, Esq., Lebanon, Pa.; Field Sec., Rev. D. Burt Smith, 6086 Ches- 
ter Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOARD OF DEACONESS WORK. Pres, Rev. L. M. Zimmerman, 421 
Hanover St., Baltimore, Md.; Sec., Rev. C. E. Hay, 2500 W. North 
Ave,, Baltimore, Md.; Treas., F. J. Singley, Esq., 2429 W. North 
Ave., Batlimore, Md. 

Weidley, 233 Second St. S. E., Washington, D. C.; Rec. Sec., Rev. 
J. T. Huddle, 738 Eleventh St. N. W., Washington, D. C.; Cor. Sec., 
Mr. W. H. Fmckel, 918 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C.; Treas., 
Mr. H. T. Domer, 727 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

COMMITTEE ON CHURCH PAPERS. Chmn, Rev. J. A. Singmaster, 
Gettysburg, Pa.; Sec., Rev. H. Offerman, 7206 Boyer St., Philadelphia, 

Chmn., Mr. J. L. Clark, Ashland, Ohio; Sec., Mr. A. D. Chiquoine, 
1524 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

709 E. llth St., Erie, Pa.; Statistical Secretary of the United Luth- 
eran Church, Rev. G. L. Kieffer, 437 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

master, Gettyburg, Pa.; Sec., Rev. L. D. Reed, 7132 Chew St., Mt. 
Airy, Pa. 

COMMITTEE ON CHURCH Music. Chmn., Rev. J. F. Ohl, 826 S. 
St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chmn., Rev. E. C. J. Kraeling, 132 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kapp, 1208 Race St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

COMMITTEE ON WOMEN'S WORK. Chmn., Rev. W. D. C. Keitcr, 
1502 Locust St , Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hodges, 427 Drexel Bldg, Philadelphia, Pa. 

210 W. Fornance St., Nornstown, Pa. 

Pfatteicher, 527 Washington St., Reading, Pa. 

COMMITTEE ON EVANGELISM. Chmn., Rev. J. C. Seegers, Mt. 
Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

826 S. St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICITY. Chmn., Rev. H. R. Gold, 15 Gramercy 
Park, New York City. 

COMMITTEE ON NECROLOGY. Chmn., Rev. J. H. Orr, 14 Fulton St., 
Philhpsburg, N. J. 

ler, 3214 N. Board St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARCHIVIST. Rev. L. D. Reed, 7132 Chew St., Mt. Airy, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

ler, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 117 

Rev. H. A. W'eller, 1502 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BIBLE SOCIETY. Rev. H. C. Alleman, Gettysburg, Pa. 

WOMEN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Pres., Mrs. S. R. Kepner, 122 
E. Third St., Pottstown, Pa. 

LUTHER LEAGUE OF AMERICA. Pres., W. Barker, Wilkes Bar re, 

THE LUTHERAN BROTHERHOOD. Pres., Charles J. Driever, 40 
N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

PARENT EDUCATION SOCIETY. Pres., Rev. A. R. Wentz, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 

Selinsgrove, Pa. 

J. F. Ohl, 826 S. St. Bernard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(For men) 
Nam& Location President or Dwector 

Gettysburg . . Gettysburg, Pa W. A. Granville. 

Wittenberg Springfield, Ohio R E. Tulloss. 

Roanoke Salem, Va . C. J. Smith 

Newberry Newberry, S. C . . 

Susquehanna University Selmsgrove, Pa. 

Muehlenberg ..... Allentown, Pa. 
Thiel . . . Greenville, Pa. 

.S. J. Derrick. 
.C. T. Aikens. 

J. A. W. Haas. 

Carl A Sundberg. 

Carthage Carthage, 111 H. D. Hoover. 

President or Dean 

Wagner Memorial Staten Island, N. Y A H. Holthusen. 

Midland ... .... Fremont, Neb J. F. Krueger. 

Lenoir . Hickory, N. C J C Peery 

Weidner Institute Mulberry, Ind W. C. Davis. 

Lutheran Saskatoon, Sask , Can H. W. Harms. 

Waterloo Waterloo, Ont., Can . E. Hoffman. 

(For women) 

Mont Amoena Seminary Mt. Pleasant, N. C J. H. C. Fisher. 

Marion College Mai ion, Va C. B. Cox. 

Lankenau School Philadelphia, Pa E. F. Bachmann. 

Surnmerland College Leesville, S. C . . . .P. E. Monroe. 

Theological Seminaries 

Hartwick Seminary Hartwick Seminary, N. Y..M. G L Reitz. 

Theological Seminary Gettysburg, Pa . J. A. Singmaster. 

Southern Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Columbia, S. C A. G Voigt. 

Hamma Divinity School Springfield, Ohio V. G. A. Tiessler 

School of Theology . . . Selmsgrove, Pa F. P. Manhart. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary . . Philadelphia, Pa H. E. Jacobs. 

Chicago Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Maywood, 111 J E Whitteker. 

Western Seminary Fremont, Neb H. Dysinger. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Waterloo, Ont., Can.. .. E. Hoffman. 

Pacific Theological Seminary .... Seattle, Wash J. C. Kunzman. 

Mnrtm Luther Seminary Lincoln, Neb. .. .....F. Wupper. 

Northwestern Lutheran Theological 

Seminary Minneapolis, Minn J. Stump. 

Saskatoon Seminary Saskatoon, Can. . . H. W. Harms 


The Lutheran (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. G. W. 
Sandt, Lutherischer Herold, (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa. Editor, E. 
E. Ortlepp; The Canada Lutheran (monthly), Kingston, Ont., Canada, 
Editor, Rev. J. F. Bermon; The Foreign Missionary (monthly), 
Baltimore, Md., Editor, Rev. G. Drach; Lutheran Church Review 
(quarterly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Seminary Faculty; Lutheran 

118 Year Book of the Churches 

Church Year Book (annually), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. W. M. 
Kopenhaver; Der Luther is che Kalender (annually), Philadelphia, Pa., 
Editor, Rev. R. Neumann; The Young Lutheran (monthly), Green- 
ville, Pa., Editor, Rev. T. B. Roth; The Lutheran Quarterly, Gettys- 
burg, Pa., Editor, Rev. J. A. Singmaster; Orphans' Home Echoes 
(monthly), Loysville, Pa., Editor, Mr. C. A. Widle; Orphans' Home 
Paper (monthly), Topton, Pa., Editor, Rev. J. 0. Henry; Chicago 
Lutheran Advocate (monthly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. G. P. 
Lottish; Lutheran Woman's Work (monthly), Philadelphia, Pa., 
Editor, Mrs. J. F. Seebach; Luther League Review (monthly), New 
York City, Editor, Mr. Harry Hodges; Publications for Bible School 
(quarterly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editors, Rev. C. P. Wiles and Rev. 
"W. L. Hunton; The Messenger (Orphans' Home) (monthly), Salem, 
Va., Editor, Rev. E. W. Leslie. 


Organized at Somerset, Ohio, September, 1818. Now com- 
posed of twelve districts ten in the United States, one in Can- 
ada and one in Australia. 

Synod, biennial ; next meeting, August 1924 

Officers: Pres., Kev. C. H. L. Schuette, 62 Wilson Ave.. Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; First Vice-Pres., Bev. C. C. Hein, 404 S. Third 
St., Columbus, Ohio; Second Vice-Pres., Eev. M. P. F. Doer- 
mann, Blue Island, 111.; German Sec, Eev. A. P Meyer, 818 
Franklin St., Michigan City, Ind. , English Sec , Prof. Carl Ac- 
kermann, 2315 Bast Main St., Columbus, Ohio; Gen. Treas., 
George L Conrad, 55 East Main St , Columbus, Ohio. 

MISSION BOARD. Executive Officer, Rev. E. F. W. Stellhorn, 595 
College Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

PUBLICATION BOARD. Chmn., Rev. J. Sheatsley, 960 Bryden 
Road, Columbus, Ohio; Sec., Rev. C. C. Hein, 404 S. Third St., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; Bus. Mngr., Rev. A. H. Dornbirer, 55-57 E. Main St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

STATISTICIAN, Prof. Carl Ackermann, 2315 E. Main St , Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

BOARD OF WERNLE ORPHANS' HOME. Pres., Rev. A. L. Nicklas; 
Rev. M. L. Baum, E. Holterman, L. Rogge, G. A. Cutter; George 
Deuker, Sec. 

sylvania. Pres., Rev. G. D. Simen; Sec., Rev. C. F. W. Brecht; Rev. 
Adolf Ebert, Otto Mayer, Hon. N. Hogue, Walter Demler. 

BOARD OF OLD FOLKS' HOME, Springfield, Minn. Pres., Rev. P. 
H. Haupt; Sec., Rev. W. Striepe; Rev. H. Pfeiffer, Mr. Ferd. Kettner, 
Mr. E. Bauch. 

BOARD OF AIDS. Pres., Rev. J. M. Johanssen; Sec., Prof. C. 
Vogel; Rev. C. Bez, Rev. C. H Althoff, Mr J. Michelf elder, Mr. J. E. 
Niemann, Teacher F. Wiechert. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, 57 East Main St., Columbus, Ohio. 
Pres., Prof. E. Pfeiffer; Sec., Rev. J. H. Schneider. 

Educational Institutions 

Name Location President 

Capital University Columbus, Ohio . .Otto Mees. 

Luther Seminary St. Paul, Minn. , . ..K Hemmmghaus. 

Wood ville Normal School .Woodville, Ohio W. Nordsieck. 

Hebron Academy ,. . . Hebron, Neb W. Hieronymus. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 119 

Name Location 

Theological Seminary . . Columbus, Ohio . Otto Mees. 

Luther Theological Seminary St Paul, Minn. .. .H Ernst, Dean. 

St. John's Academy Petersburg W Va A. E. Krause 

Luther Academy Melville, Can. H. Schmidt. 


Lutheran Standard (weekly), Editor, Rev. J. Sheatsley; Luth- 
erische Kirchen-Zeitung (weekly), Editor, Prof. R. C. H. Lenski; 
Lutheran Youth (weekly), Editor, Prof. C. B. Gohdes. All Lutheran 
Book Concern, 57 E. Mam St., Columbus, Ohio. 


Organized 1854. 

General Synod, meets triennially , next meeting, Clinton, la , 
August, 1923. 

Officers : Pres., Eev. F. Eiehter, Clinton, la ; Vice-Pres , 
Rev. G-. A. Fandrey, Chicago, 111. ; Sec., Eev. F Braun Hosmer, 
S. Dak. ; Treas., Eev. J. Haefner, Muscatine, la. 

HOME MISSION BOARD. Pres., Prof. K. Ermisch, Waverly, la. 
BOAIBD OF PUBLICATION. Pres, Rev. S. Fuchs, Janesville, Wis. 
FOREIGN MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. R. Taeuber, Tnpp, S. D. 
CHURCH EXTENSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. H. Pritschel, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. M. Reu, Dubuque, la. 
FINANCE BOARD. Pres., Rev. F. Richter, Clinton, la. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Wartburg Theological Seminary . . . Dubuque, Iowa . M Fntschel. 

Wartburg College . . Clinton, Iowa . . O Proehl 

Wartburg Normal and Pro-seminary Waverly, Iowa A. Engelbrecht. 

Luther College . . . Eureka, S. D. G Sandrack. 

Lutheran College . . . . .Segum, Tex. . .C Weeber. 


Kirchliche Zeitschrift, Editor, Rev. M. Reu; Kirchenblatt, Edi- 
tor, Rev. F. Richter; Lutheran Herald (b-weekly) Editor, Rev. E, 
H. Rausch; Jugendblatt, Editor, Rev. G. Weng>; Die Missionsstunde 
(monthly), Editor, Rev. C. Taubert; The Lutheran Missionary 
(monthly), Editor, Prof. G. J. Zeilinger, Dubuque, la.; Anstaltsbote 
(monthly), Editor, Rev. H. Foelsch; Lutherischer Weisenfreund, Edi- 
tors, Rev. F. Henkelmann, Rev. E. W. Matzner; Wartburg Kalen- 
dar (annually), Editor, Rev. A. Pilger, (All published at Chi- 
cago, 111.) 


Organized 1845. 

Officers: Pres, Eev. B. Nemeschy, 1661 Cleveland Ave., 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; German Sec., Prof. Eudolph Grabau, 154 
Maple St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; English Sec., Eev. H. C. Leupold, 
41 Schreck St., Buffalo, N. T. ; Treas., John H Paasch, 184 
Goodell St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Martin Luther Seminary Buffalo, N. Y R. F, W. Grabau 

120 Year Book of the Churches 


Wachende Kir die (semi-monthly), Pittsburgh, Pa, Editor, Rev. 
K. A. Hoessel, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Organized 1893. 

Annual meeting. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Wilhelm Hartwig, E. 2, No. 279 High- 
land Park, Mich ; Vice-Pres and Sec., Rev. H. Wicke, Flat 
Rock, Mich.; Treas., Rev. H. Kehn, 6926 Theodore Ave., De- 
troit, Mich. 


Organized 1860. 

Synod, annual. 

Thirteen conferences, 3 mission districts. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. G. A. Brandelle; Vice-Pres., Rev. P. A. 
Mattson; Sec., Rev, Jos. A. Anderson, Boxholm, la.; Treas, 
K. T. Anderson, Rock Island, 111. 

HOME MISSION BOARD. Chmn., Rev. G. A. Brandelle; Treas., 
C. A. Larsen, Rock Island, 111.; English Field Sec,, Kev. C. M. Olan- 
der, Duluth, Minn.; Treas. for Foreign Work, Prof. C. W. Foss, 
Rock Island, 111. 

CHINA MISSION BOARD. Chmn., Rev. 0. J. Johnson; Field Sec., 
Rev. F. W-. Wyman, Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. G. Chinlund, Omaha; Sec. of the Board, Rev. C. F. Sandahl, 
Genoa, Neb. 

A. Lindholm, Des Moines, Iowa. 

May Mellander, 6253 Greenview Ave., Chicago, 111. 

AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN, Rock Island, 111. Treas.-Mgr., A. 
G. Anderson. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location P estdent 

Augustana College and Theological 

Seminary Rock Island, 111 ...... . G. A. Andreen. 

Gustavus Adolphus College . . St Peter, Mmn 0. J Johnson. 

Bethany College Lindsborg, Kans E. F. Pihlbbad. 

Luther College Wahoo, Neb A. T. Seashore. 

Upsala College Kenilworth, N. J . . . C. G. Encson. 

Northwestern College Fergus Fall, Mmn . ...N P. Langsjoen. 

Minnesota College Minneapolis, Mmn Frank Nelson 

Trinity College Round Rock, Tex Hugo B Haterms. 

North Star College Wai ren, Minn C. E, Sjoestrancl 


Augustana (weekly), Editor, Rev. L. G. Abrahamson; The Luth- 
eran Companion (weekly), Editor, Rev. C. J. Bengston. Both pub- 
lished by Augustana Book Concern, Rock Island, 111. 


The general movement in the Lutheran bodies toward union 
of different Synods resulted in the organization of the Nor- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 121 

wegian Lutheran Church, 1917. This movement was initiated 
in 1905 by Hauge's Synod taking up the matter with other Nor- 
wegian Lutheran bodies. Three bodies form this union, namely, 
Hauge's Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 1846; the 
Synod of the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church of Amer- 
ica, 1853 ; and the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in Amer- 
ica, 1890 

Annual meeting; next session, St. Paul, Minn., June, 1923. 

^ Officers : Pres., Rev. H. G Stub, 425 4th St. S., Minneapolis, 

Minn.; Vice-Pres., Rev. H. C. Holm, Eagle Grove, Iowa; Sec., 

Rev. N J Lohre, Mayville, N. D. ; Treas., Erik "Waldeland, 425 

Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Church Council: Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec., Rev. H. C. 
Holm, Eagle Grove, la. 

BOAED OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec., Prof. L. A. 
Vigness, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

J. H. Stenberg, 315 First Ave., E. Duluth, Minn,; See., Rev. C. S, 
B. Hoel, 2500 Portland Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.; Treas., Rev. Peter 
Tangjerd, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres, Rev. J. N. Sandven, Ro- 
land, Iowa; Rec. Sec., J. R. Birkelund, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Cor. Sec., Rev. M. Saterlie, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Treas., Rev. Peter Tangjerd. 

BOARD OF CHARITIES. Pres., Rev. H. G. Stub; Sec., C. M. "Wes- 
wig, Como and Pierce Sts., St. Paul, Minn.; Gen. Sec. and Supt. of 
Home Finding, Rev. H. B. Kildahl, 425 Fourth St. S., Minneapolis, 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. Pres., 0. 0. Erling, South Side State Bank, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Sec. J. 0. Estrem, 425 Fourth St. S., Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; Treas., Erik Waldeland. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATIONS. Pres., 0. 0. Erling; Sec., Rev. K. A. 
ELasberg, Grantsburg, Wis. 

BOARD OF PENSIONS. Pres., Prof. L. W. Boe, NprtMeld, Minn.; 
Sec., Rev. E. J. Strom, Watson, Minn.; Treas., Erik Waldeland. 


Name Location President 

Luther Theological Seminary . . .St. Paul, Minn. ..MO. Bockman 
Red Wing Pro-Seminary . . , Red Wmg, Minn. . H. E. Jorgenson. 


Luther College . Decorah, Iowa .. Oscar .L, Olson. 

St. Olaf College . Northfield, Minn. L. W. Boe. 

Augustana College and Normal School Sioux Falls, S. 0. . . C 0. Solberg 

Concordia College . ... Moorhead, Minn . . J. A. Aasgaard. 

Normal Schools 

Madison Lutheran Normal ... Madieon, Minn. . E. R. Rorem. 

Augustana College and Normal School Sioux Fall, S D C. O. Solberg 

Canton Lutheran Normal Canton, S D J. N. Brown 


Red Wing Seminary Red Wing, Minn H. E Jorgenson 

Gale Lutheran College . . . Galesville, Wis. H. T. Swanson. 

Central Wisconsin College Scandinavia, Wis . . A 0. B Molldrem. 

Jewell Lutheran College Jewell, Iowa . . Iyer Iverson. 

Spokane Lutheran College . .. Spokane, Wash ..H.P Olson. 

Waldorf Lutheran College , ,. , Forest City, Iowa . C. B. Helgen.. 

122 Year Book of the Churches 

Name Location President 

Pleasant View Lutheran College Ottawa, 111. A. O Mortvedt. 

Park Region Lutheran College Fergus Falls, Mmn E. Wulfsberg 

Pacific Lutheran College Parkland, Wash J. Ordal. 

Clifton Lutheian College . Clifton, Texas C Tyssen. 

Luther Academy Albert Lea, Minn Charles Fritz. 

Camrose Lutheian College Camrose, Alta A H. Solheim 

Outlook Lutheran College Outlook, Sask .H 0. Gronhd 


Lutheraneren (weekly) . Editors, Rev. E. Malmm and P. Tang- 
jerd; Lutheran Church Herald (weekly), Editor, Rev. G. T. Lee; 
Teologisk Tidsknft, Editor, Rev. R. Malmin; Bamevennen, Editor, 
Kev. K. Kvamme; Children's Friend, Editor, Rev. John Peterson; Our 
Young People, Editor, Rev. John Peterson. All, 425 Fourth Street, 
South, Minneapolis, Minn. Famihens Magasin (monthly), N. N. Ron- 
nmg, Editor, 416 8th Ave. So , Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1897. 

Officers- Pres. 9 Rev. 0. H. Sletten, Minneapolis, Minn.; Sec., 
Rev. P. 0. Laurhammer, Fairdale, N. Dak. ; Treas,, Miss Ragna 
Sverdrup, Minneapolis, Mmn. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres. f Rev. E. E. Gynild, Wilmar, 
Minn.; Sec., Rev. Johan Mattspn, Minneapolis, Minn.; Treas., J. H. 
Blegen, Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis, Minn. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. Christian Vtrehus; See., 
Rev. H. C. Caspersen, Churches Ferry, N. Dak. ; Treas., Rev. G. Vang, 
Minneapolis, Mmn. 

Colleges and Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Augsburg College Minneapolis, Minn. . . .George Sverdrup, Jr. 

Oak Grove Seminary Fargo, N. Dak J Fossum. 

Theological Seminary Minneapolis, Mmn George Sverdrup, Jr. 

Periodicals (weekly) 

Folkebladet, Editor, Rev. N. C. Caspersen; Barncts Ven, Editor 
J. Nydahl; Lutheran Free Church Messenger, Editor, Rev. Claus Mor- 
gen. All, Minneapolis, Minn. 


Organized 1846. 

Officers : Pres. f Eev. J 0, Blaness, South Haven, Minn. ; Sec , 
Eev. J. H. Stensether, 2726 18th Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. , Treas., 
Leonard Peterson, Centerville, S. Dak 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. Chmn., T. A. Thompson, Lodi, Wis.; P. T. 
Havreberg, Minneapolis, Minn.; P. 0. Peterson, Centerville, S. Dak,; 
0. A. Larson, Fairchild, Wis.; Thomas Stoll, Jackson, Minn.; Ole 
Jacobson, Disco, Wis.; P. J. Peterson, Clear Lake, Iowa. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Pres., N. F. Jacobson, Dawson, 
Minn.; Sec., I. T. Erickson, 4529 Blasedell Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Treas., T. P. Thompson, Dawson, Minn. 

BOARD OF CHURCH COUNCIL. Chmn., Rev. S. M. Stenby, Clear 
Lake, la.; Sec. J. 0, Blaness; Treas., P. J. Peterson, I. T. Erickson. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 123 

BOARD OP INDIAN MISSIONS. Pres., S. 0. Overby, Taylor, Wis.; 
Vice-Pres., Reier Skutl-ey, Taylor, Wis.; Treas., N. T. Petersen, Tay- 
lor, Wis. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Chmn., Rev. S. M. Stenby, Clear Lake, 
la.; Sec., Rev. J. 0. Blaness, S. Haven, Minn.; Treas., Mrs. A. L. 
Wiek, 2726 18th Ave. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Den Kristelige Laegmand (monthly), Minneapolis, Minn., Edi- 
tor, Rev. G. 0. Blaness, South Haven, Minn. 


Organized 1900. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. E. H. Gunlms, 3135 18th Ave. S., Min- 
neapolis, Minn.; Vice-Pres., Rev. E. M. Sletta, Cooperstown, N. 
Dak. ; Sec., Rev. G. Stenoien, Fergus Falls, Minn. ; Treas., Otto 
Reed, 417 E. Hennepin Ave , Minneapolis, Minn. 

BOARD OP MISSIONS, HOME AND FOREIGN. Officers same as above. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Lutheran Bible School . Grand Forks, N. D E. M. Broen, 


Broderbaandet (semi-monthly), Minneapolis, Minn., Editor, E. 
M. Broen. 


Organized 1896. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. M. N. Andreasen, Cedar Falls, la. ; Vice- 
Pres , Rev. N. C. Carlsen, Royal, la.; Sec., Rev. A. "W. Lund, 
Minneapolis, Minn,; Treas., Otto Hansen, Blair, Nebr. 

Racine, Wis. 

EDUCATIONAL BOARD. Pres., Rev. H. Bondo, Albert Lea,, Minn. 

P. Hundahl. 

Name Location President 

Dana College Blair, Neb C. X. Hansen. 

Trinity Theological Seminary Blair, Neb. P. S Vig. 

Elk Horn Folk High School and College Elk Horn, Iowa . ,.Kr. Auker 

Brorson Folk High School Kenmare, N. D. . James Lund 


Luthersk Ugeblad (weekly), Editor, Rev. J. C. Pedersen; The 
Little Lutheran (weekly), Editor, Rev. Ing. M. Anderson; Borne- 
bladet (weekly), Editor, Rev. J. C. Carlsen; Our Lutheran Youth, 
Editor, Rev. H. Bords. 


Organized 1872, 
Synod, annual. 

124 Year Book of the Churches 

Officers : Pres , Bev S. D Rodholin, Askov, Minn ; Vice- 
Pres., and Sec., Rev. J. C Aaberg, Dwight, 111. , Treas , H. P. 
Rasmussen, 327 S La Salle St , Chicago, 111. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. A. Dan, 510 E. 64th 
St., Chicago, 111.; Sec., Rev. J. C. Aaberg, Dwight, 111. 


Name Location Pi esident 

Ashland College Grant, Mich. . . . P. Rasmussen, 

Atterdag College Solvang, Calif. . B Nordentof t. 

Grand View College i , . . . Des Homes, Iowa . . C P Hojberg. 

Dannebod College Tyler, Minn T Knudsen. 

Nysted College Nysted, Neb Aage Mollei . 


Bornevennen, Cedar Falls, la., Editor, Rev, M. Hoist; Danne- 
virke, Cedar Falls, la., Editor, Rev. M. Hoist; Kirkehg Samler, 
Askov, Minn., Editor, Rev. Ewald Chrestens; Ungdom, Omaha, 
Nebr., Editor, 0. C. Olsen. 


Organized at Mountain, N. Dak., in 1885. 

Meets annually ; next session, June, 1923 

Officers: Pres., Rev. N. S. Thorlaksson, Selkirk, Manitoba, 
Can.; Sec., Eev. F. Hallgrimsson, Baldur, Manitoba, Can. ; 
Treas., F. Johnson, "Winnipeg, Can. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. Chmn., ex officio, The President. 

Name Location President 

Jon Bjarnason Academy , . Winnipeg 1 , Can ... . Rev. H T. Leo. 


Sameiningin (monthly), Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can., Editor, Rev. 
B. B. Jonsson. 


Organized at Calumet, Mich., 1890. 

Officers : Pres., Eev. Alfred Haapanen, 505 Reservation St , 
Hancock, Mich ; Vwe-Pres., J. Wareglin, Hancock, Mich , Sec., 
V. Knusisto, Box 823, Crystall Falls, Mich. ; Treas., Isaac War- 
gelm, 808 Franklin St., Hancock, Mich. 


Name Location President 

Suomi College Hancock, Mich John Wargelm, 


(Published by Finnish Lutheran Book Concern, Hancock, Mich.) 
Lannen Suometar, Editor, F. Tolonen; Amenkan Suometar (tri- 
weekly), Editor, J. L. Olhla; Aura (monthly), farmers' paper; Lasten 
Lehti (bi-monthly), children's paper, Editor, Miss Minnie Perttula; 
The Young People's Friend, Editor, Rev. A. Setala; Paimen Sanomia 
(weekly), Editor, Rev, R. Hartman; Suomi Opiston Juklajulkaisut 

Directory of Religious Bodies 125 


Organized at Ironwood, Mich., October, 1900. 

Convention, annual. 

Officers : Pres., Rev. K. E Salonen, Ironwood, Mich. ; Vice- 
Pres , Rev. M. Wiskari ; Sec., Rev. P. Miettmen, New York Mills, 
Minn.; Treas., Erick Kaiigas, Box 63, Ironwood, Mich. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. The officers. 

JAPAN MISSION COMMITTEE. Cfanin., Rev. M. Wiskari, Calumet, 

wood, Mich. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Seminary . Ironwood, Mich . K. E. Salonen. 


Auttaja (weekly), Ironwood, Mich., Editor, Arne Wasunta; 
The Children's Friend (monthly), Ironwood, Mich., Editor, Mrs. A. 


Organized 1872. 

Convention, annual; next meeting, Ironwood, Mich., June 

Officers: Pres., Rev. J. Onkka, Astoria, Ore. 
Adress, Rev. Charles Ojala, Astoria, Ore. 

Christian Monthly, Astoria, Ore., Editor, Matt Mattson. 



In the early part of the nineteenth century an effort was made 
by King Frederick William III of Prussia to unite the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches. To him it seemed an easy matter to combine 
"the two slightly divergent confessions," but with the study of the 
sources of confessional divergence which naturally followed, and 
particularly in the attempt to furnish a uniform liturgy for both 
bodies, old convictions were intensified, and lines of demarcation 
which had been gradually fading out of sight were revived. Many 
of the Lutherans refused absolutely to recognize the union, formed 
separate congregations, and carried on an active controversy against 
what they recognized as a gross form of ecclesiastical tyranny. 

During the following twenty years the situation grew more 
strained and as Lutheran immigration to the United States began, 
several of these communities removed to this country. The first com- 
pany, under the leadership of the Rev. F. C. D. Wyneken, landed in Bal- 
timore in 1838, and settled in Fort Wayne, Ind. A second, under the 
leadership of the Rev. Martin Stephan, of Dresden, landed at New 
Orleans in 1839, and soon after established themselves in Missouri. 
A third, under the leadership of the Rev. J. A. A. Grabau, of Erfurt, 
settled at or near Buffalo, N. Y., in 1839. 

One of the six clergymen who came over with the Missouri colony, 
the Rev. C. F. W. Walther, proved as effective a leader in the West 

126 Year Book of the Churches 

as Muehlenberg had earlier proved in the East. One of his first steps 
was the establishment of Concordia Seminary at Altenburg, Mo 
In 1844 he began to publish a religious periodical, the Lutheraner, 
which became the exponent of the stricter interpretation of Luth- 
eran doctrine and practice. 

In 1847, 12 congregations, 22 mmisteis and 2 candidates for the 
ministry united in forming the "German Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States." Under the constitu- 
tion adopted, only those ministers whose congregations had entered 
into membership with the Synod, and the lay delegates representing 
those congregations, were entitled to suffrage. All the symbolical 
books of the Lutheran Church (Book of Concord 1580) were re- 
garded as "the pure and uncorrupted explanation and statement of 
the Divine Word." All joint work and worship with churches of 
divergent profession was disapproved. Purely Lutheran books were 
to be used m Churches and schools. A permanent, not a temporary 
or licensed, ministry was affirmed, and at the same time freedom of 
the individual congregation was recognized, the Synod having no 
authority over it. 

Under the leadership of Walther, the Missouri doctrine gained 
acceptance, and as one Synod after another was formed on the same 
general basis, it seemed advantageous to effect some form of union. 
At the time of the organization of the General Council in 1866, sev- 
eral of these Synods were invited to participate, but those who held 
the stricter doctrine could not accept the position taken by the new 
body. The next few years emphasized anew the advantage of union, 
and m 1872, in Milwaukee, Wis., the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical 
Conference of America was formed. Representatives of the Synod 
of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States, the Synod of Ohio, the Synod 
of Wisconsin, the Synod of Minnesota, the Synod of Illinois, and 
the Norwegian Synod were present and effected the organization. 
The Synod of Illinois was later absorbed by the Missouri Synod; 
the Synod of Ohio and the Norwegian Synod withdrew in 1881, be- 
cause of doctrinal differences; but other Synods were added, so that 
at present the Synodical Conference comprises the Synod of Mis- 
souri, Ohio and Other States a national body the Synods of Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Nebraska; the Slovak Synod and 
the Norwegian Synod, a new organization which has been recently 
admitted. Each one of these Synods conducts its own Synodical and 
Church work independently of the others. Their basis of union is 
not so much a matter of common ecclesiastical organization as of a 
common Church life, and particularly of doctrinal purity, and 'uni- 
formity of practice. 


In doctrine the Synodical Conference recognizes but one standard, 
to which there must be absolute accord, namely, the Holy Scriptures 
as interpreted by the Book of Concord of 1580, including a text and 
commentary upon the three ecumenical creeds the Apostles', the 
Nicene and the Athanasian and upon the six Lutheran Confessions 
the Augsburg Confession, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, 
the Smalcald Articles, Luther's Larger and Smaller Catechisms, and 
the Formula of Concord. This unwavering confessionalism is the 
most treasured possession of the Conference, and to its faithful ad- 
herence to this policy it attributes its remarkable growth. 


In polity the Synodical Conference is pronouncedly Congrega- 
tional; the central representative body not being intended primarily 
for purposes of legislation. It concerns itself distinctively with the 
establishment and maintenance of colleges, normal schools, and char- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 127 

itable institutions and with the administration of missions. Its fore- 
most duty is, however, the preservation of scriptural doctrine in its 


Includes the four synods mentioned below. 

Synodical Conference, biennial. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. C. Gausewitz, 620 Broadway, Milwau- 
kee, Wis, ; Vice-Pres , Prof. L Fuerbringer, 2619 Winnebago St., 
St. Louis, Mo. ; Sec., Eev. H M Zorn, 717 S. New Jersey St , In- 
dianapolis, Ind ; Treas., Albert Gruett, 108 Cottage St., Merrill, 

BOARD OF COLOKED MISSIONS, St. Louis, Mo. Pres., Rev. C. F. 
Drewes, 3723 Vista Place, Pine Lawn Station, St. Louis, Mo.; Treas., 
Ewald Schuettner, 323 Merchants-Laclede Bldg , St. Louis, Mo. This 
is the only general board under the direction of the synodical con- 


Lutheraner (bi-weekly), St. Louis, Mo.; Lehre u. Wehre 
monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; Magazin fur Evangelical Lutheran Homile- 
tik (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; Theological Monthly, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Lutheran Witness (bi-weekly), St. Louis, Mo.; Southern Lutheran, 
Publisher, J. H. Schoenhardt, 124 S. Jefferson Davis Parkway, New 
Orleans, La.; Ev. Luth. Gemeinde-Blatt (bi-weekly), Milwaukee, Wis., 
Editor, Eev. H. Bergmann; Northwestern Lutheran (bi-weekly), 
Editor, Rev. J. Jenny, Milwaukee, Wis.; Theologische Quartalschrift 
(quarterly), Milwaukee, Wis.; Ev. Luth. Schulblatt (monthly), St. 
Louis, Mo.; Die Missionstaube (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; The Luth- 
eran Pioneer (monthly), St. Louis, Mo.; The Deaf Lutheran, (month- 
ly), St. Paul, Minn., Editor, Rev. J. L. Salvner; Svedok (bi-weekly), 
Akron, Ohio; Die Ev. Luth. Freikirche (bi-weekly), Saxony, Ger- 
many; The Australian Lutheran (bi-weekly). 


Organized 1847. 

Officers- Pres, Eev. F. Pf otenhaner ; First Vice-Pres., Rev. 
F. Brand, 3316 S. Jefferson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. ; Sec , Eev. M. 
F. Kretzmann, 309 S. Oak St., KendallviUe, Ind.; Treas, E 
Seuel, 3558 S. Jefferson Ave , St Louis, Mo. 

2123 Fremont St., Chicago, 111. 

Garfield Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. Supt. Rev. F, Brand, 3316 S. Jefferson Ave , 
St, Louis, Mo. 

DEAF-MUTE MISSIONS. Rev. A. H. Kuntz, St. Paul, Minn. 

F. Markworth, New Palestine, Ind 

JEWISH MISSIONS. Rev. H. C. Steup, 229 E. 124th St., New 
York City. 

INDIAN MISSIONS. Rev. 0. W. G. Boettcher, Wausau, Wis. 

IMMIGRANT AND SEAMEN'S MISSION. Rev. J. C. Barth, 212 J-ewett 
Ave., Port Richmond, N. Y. 

Lake, 111. 


Year Book of the Churches 

CHURCH EXTENSION BOARD. Rev. F, W. Weidmann, 812 La 
Fayette Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 


Concoidia Theological Seminary 
Concordia Theological Seminary 

Concordia College 

Concordia College . ... 

Concoidia College 
St Paul's College . . 

Lutheran Semmaiy (Normal) 

St. John's Lutheian College 

Concordia College . . 

Concordat College 

Concordia College 

Concordia College 

Concordia College 

Concordia Teacheis' College 
California Concoidia College 
Walthcr College . ... 


...St. Louis, Mo 
.Springfield, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Bionxville, N. Y 

. . . Milwaukee, Wis 
.Concoidia, Mo. 
. Seward, Neb 
W infield, Kans. . . 
Conover N C 
..Poitland, Ore 
. . . Porto Alegre, Brazil 
. ..St Paul, Minn. 
Edmonton, Can. 

Rivei Forest, 111 
. . East Oakland, Calif. . 
. .St. Louis, Mo 

Pi esident 

F P leper 
..H. A Klein 
. . M Luecke 
. Q. A Romoser 
..&. Chr Boith 

J H C Kaeppel 

F W C Jesse. 
.A. W. Meyer. 

W Kreinhedei 
. F Sylwesrter 

Th. Guenger 

A. N Schi aei - 


W C Kohn 
Tli Brohm, Jr. 
E. Harms. 


Organized 1850. 

Officers: Pres. y Rev. G. E. Bcrgemann, Fond du lac, Wis ; 
Sec,, Rev. G Hmnenthal, E. 1, Goodhue, Minn,; Treas., W. 
H. G-racbner, 356 llth Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

JOINT MISSION BOAKD. Chmn., Rev. J. Gauss; Sec., Rev. J. 
W. F. Pieper, 519 Pine St., Stillwater, Minn.; Treas., Rev. F. 

J. Gauss; Sec., Rev. J. W. F. Pieper, 519 Pine St., Stillwater, Minn.; 
Treas., Rev. F. Schrceder. 


Bergmann, 921 Greenfield Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location Pi esident 

Theological Seminary Wauwatosa, Wis J Schaller 

Teachers' Seminary and Dr Martin Luther 

College . . . New Ulm, Minn. . J. Meyer. 

Northwestern College Watertown, Wis. A. F. Ernst. 

Michigan Lutheran Seminary . Saginaw, Mich. J. R. Hoenecke 


Organized 1902. 

Officers: Pra, Kev. J. S. Bradac, 404 Atchison Ave , Whit- 
ing, Ind ; Vice-Pres., Prof. T. Bakalor, 1715 E Lewis St , Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. ; Sec 9 Rev. P. Rafaj, 113 Delaware Ave., Jessup, 
Pa. ; Eng Sec., Eev. Jos. A Dmda, 711 Chestnut St., Johnstown, 
Pa. ; Treas., George S. Kovac, Box 290, Rantan, N, J. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Rev. St. Tuhy, 663 N. Main St., 
Wilkes Barre, Pa.; Rev. P. Rafaj, 113 Delaware Ave., Jessup, Pa,; 
Rev. George Marcek, 31 Center Place, Yonkers, N. Y, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 129 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Rev. L. Alex. Jarosi, 2503 E. 19th 
St., Cleveland, Ohio; Rev. Mich. Gotthardt, 130 Middlebury Ave., 
E. Akron, Ohio; Prof. J. P. Dmda, 2010 Buhrer Ave., Cleveland, 
Ohio; M. Savdor, 12805 Soika St., Cleveland, Ohio; P. Brna, Akron, 


Organized 1877. 


Organized 1919. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. B. Harstad, Parkland, Wash.; Sec, 
Rev. L. P. Jensen, Marshfield, Ore.; Treas., Rev. A. J. Torger- 
son, Northwood, la. 


Evang. Luth. Tidende (weekly), Chicago, Editors, Rev. G. A. 
Gullixson, J. A. Moldstad, G, R. Preus. 


(Not Affiliated With Any Synod) 

Besides the Congregations in the Synods, there are a number 
of independent Lutheran Congregations which do not belong 
to any Synod. In most cases the reason is not doctrinal, but 
simply a love of independence. Not infrequently the pastor of 
an independent churcL is himself a member of some Synod. 

The Lutheran Church Year Book for 1921 gives 54 Inde- 
pendent Congregations served by 42 pastors, with a confirmed 
membership of 7,495. 



The origin of the denomination classed under the head of 
Mennonite bodies is traced by them to an early period in the history 
of the Christian Church. They represented a general protest against 
ecclesiastical rule and a rigid liturgy, and an appeal for the sim- 
pler organization, worship and faith of the Apostolic Age. The name 
"Mennonite" dates from 1550, but would scarcely be recognized in 
Holland, where the usual name is "Doopsgezmde" or "Dooper," the 
Dutch equivalent for the English "Baptist." Early in the seven- 
teenth century the first representatives of the Mennonites came to 
America seeking freedom from persecution. William Penn offered 
homes to the Mennonites, and through help from the Society of 
Friends in England large numbers from Holland, Switzerland and 
Germany were enabled to come to America. Individual families set- 
tled m New York and New Jersey as early as 1640, but the first 
Mennonite colony was formed at Germantown, Pa., in 1683. As 
these early settlers came in contact with the Indians, they often 
found that their non-resistant principles served as a better protec- 
tion than rifles. 

There are sixteen different Mennonite bodies, namely, Mennonite 
Church, Hutterian Brethren, Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, 
Old Order Amish Mennonite Church, Church of God in Christ (Men- 

130 Year Book of the Churches 

nonite), Old Order Mennonite Church (Wisler), Reformed Men- 
nonite Church, General Conference of Mennonites of North America, 
Defenseless Mennonites, Mennonite Brethren in Christ, Mennonite 
Brethren Church of North America, Krimmer Brueder-Gemeinde, 
Kleine Gememde, Central Conference of Mennonites, Conference of 
the Defenseless Mennonites of North America, Stauffer Mennonites. 
The Mennonite Church, with a membership of approximately 
thirty-five thousand, the General Conference of Mennonites of 
North America, with a membership of approximately fifteen thou- 
sand, and the Mennonmte Brethren m Christ with some nine thou- 
sand members, are the chief bodies, others varying m membership 
from 171 to 5,000. All have practically the same doctrine and policy. 


At a general conference of the Mennonites in the Netherlands 
and Germany held in Dort, Holland, in 1632, a compilation of the 
previous confessions of faith was made and called "A Declaration of 
the Chief Articles of Our Common Christian Faith." This confession, 
containing 18 articles, is accepted by the great majority of the Men- 
nonite churches today. In addition to doctrines common to Chris- 
tianity, some of the distinctive beliefs are that the washing of the 
saints' feet is an ordinance instituted, and its perpetual observance 
commanded, by Christ; the state of matrimony is honorable between 
those spiritually kindred, and such alone can marry "in the Lord"; 
the civil government is a part of God's ministry, and members are 
not permitted to despise, blaspheme or resist the government, but 
must be subject to it in all things and obedient to all its commands 
that do not militate against the will and law of God, and should 
pray earnestly for the government and its welfare, and in behalf of 
their country; Christ has forbidden His followers the use of carnal 
force in resisting evil and the seeking of revenge for evil treatment; 
love for enemies can not be shown by acts of hatred and revenge, 
but by deeds of love and good will; the use of all oaths is for- 
bidden, as contrary to God's will, though simple affirmation is al- 
lowed. In nearly all the Mennonite bodies, baptism is by pouring. 


With two exceptions the form of church government in the 
different bodies of the Mennonites is the same. The local church is 
autonomous, deciding all matters affecting itself. District or state 
conferences are established, in most cases, to which appeals may 
be made; otherwise the authority of the congregation or of a com- 
mittee appointed by the congregation is final. All decisions of state 
or district conferences are presented to the individual congregations 
for ratification. The divinely appointed offices of the Church of 
Christ are held to be those of Bishop (sometimes called elder and 
sometimes presbyter), minister (pastor or evangelist), and almoner 
(deacon). The ministers are generally self-supporting, sharing the 
farm life of most of the Mennonite communities, 


General Conference, biennial; next session, 1923. 
Officers : Mod , J A. Ressler, Seottdale, la. ; Sec , J. S. Hart- 
zler, Goslien, Ind 

dlebury, Ind.; Sec., S. C. Yoder, Kalona, Iowa; Treas., V. E. Reiff, 
Elkhart, Ind. 

BOABD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Sanford C. Yoder, Kalona, la.; Sec., 
A. E. Kreider, Goshen, Ind.; Treas., S. R. Good, Sterling, 111. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 181 

PUBLICATION BOARD, Scottdale, Pa. Pres. t J. S . Shoemaker, 
Dakota, 111.; Sec., S. H. Miller, Shanesville, Ohio; Treas , J. W 
Christophel, Goshen, Ind. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL COMMITTEE. Chrnn., Vernon J. Smucker, Scott- 
dale, Pa.; Sec., I. W. Royer, Orrville, Ohio. 


Name Location President 

Goshen College . , Goshen, Ind . . Daniel Kauifman 

Hesston College and Bible School Hesston, Kans. . D. H. Bender. 


Gospel Herald (official) (weekly), Christian Monitor (monthly), 
Youth's Christian Companion (weekly), Words of Cheer (weekly) 
Beams of Light (weekly), Mennomtische Rundschau (weekly), Christ- 
hche Jugenfreund (weekly). All, Scottdale, Pa. 


A communistic brotherhood of the followers of Jacob Hutter. 
Address Elias Walter, MacLeod, Alberta, Can 


Annual conference. 

Officers : Mod , Jonas D. Yoder, Belleville, Pa. ; Sec., Nevin 
Bender, Greenwood, Del. 


Herald der Wahrheit (semi-monthly), Editors, S, D. Guengerich, 
Wellman, la., J. B. Miller, Grantsville, Md. 


No annual conference, general officers, church buildings, 
schools, or publications. The older forms of worship, usually in 
German, are strictly adhered to. 



Address Rev. D. H. Dyck, Hillsboro, Kans. 

Messenger of Truth, Editor, F. C. Pricke, Ithaca, Mich, 


A conservative body, using generally the German. They 
have no general conference, schools, or organizations. 
Address Frank W. Hurst, East Earl, Pa. 

132 Year Book of the Churches 

Conference meets on occasion as needed. 


Jacob S. Lehman, Chambersburg, Pa. 

John I. Miller, Camp Hill, Pa. 

Elias H. Hershey, Lancaster, Pa. 

John Kohr, Lancaster, Pa. 

David P. Basinger, Bluffton, Ohio. 

John S. Snearly, Wilhamsville, N. Y. 

Wilmer E. Steele, Humberstone, Ont., Can. 



General Conference, triennial ; next session, Marion, or Free- 
man, South Dakota, fall of 1923. 

Five district conferences in United States and one in Canada. 

Officers: Pres, Rev. H. J. Krehbiel, Reedley, Calif.; Vwe- 
Pres., Rev. P. P. "Wedel, Moundridge, Kans.; See., Dr. J. R. 
TMerstein, Newton, Kans.; Treas., F. C. Claassen, Newton, 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. J. W. Kliewer, New- 
ton, Kans.; Vice-Chmn., Rev. H. D. Penner, Beatrice, Nebr.; Sec., 
Rev. P. H. Richert, Goessel, Kans.; Treas., Rev. Gustav Harder, 
Whitewater, Kans. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. W. S. Gottshall, Bluff- 
ton, Ohio; Sec., Rev. David Toews, Rosthern, Saskatchewan; Treas., 
J. E. Amstutz, Trenton, Ohio. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Pres., Rev. N. B. Grubb, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Sec., Rev. W. J. Ewert, Hillsboro, Kans.; Bus. Mgr., J. F. Leh- 
man, Berne, Ind. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Dr. S. K. Mosiman, Bluffton, Ohio; 
Sec., Rev. J. H. Langenwalter, Newton, Kans.; Treas., D. H, Rickert, 
Newton, Kans. 

EMERGENCY RELIEF COMMITTEE. Pres., Rev. John Lichti, Med- 
ford, Okla; Sec., Rev. John C. Mueller, Freeman, S. Dak.; Treas., 
Mr. C. F. Claassen, Newton, Kans. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Pres., Rev. H. J. Krehbiel, Reedley, 
Calif.; See., Dr. J. R. Thierstein, Newton, Kans.; Vice-Pres., Rev. 
P. P. Wedel, Newton, Kans.; Treas., Mr. C. F. Claassen, Newton, 
Kans.; Rev. J. W. Kliewer, Newton, Kans.; Dr. S. K. Mosiman, 
Bluffton, Ohio; Rev. W. S. Gottshall, Bluffton, Ohio; Rev. N. B. 
Grubb, Philadelphia, Pa,; Rev. John Lichti, Medford, Okla.; Rev. 
G. N. Harms, Whitewater, Kans. 

STATISTICIAN, Rev. Franz Albrecht, Beatrice, Nebr. 

Colleges and Theological Seminary 
Name Location President 

Bethel Colege . Newton, Kans J. W. Kliewer. 

Bluffton College and Mennomte Theologi- 
cal Seminary Bluffton, Ohio 3. K Mosiman. 


Mennonite (weekly), Berne, Ind., Editor, Rev. S. M. Grubb; 
Christlicher Bundesbote (weekly), Berne, Ind., Editor, Rev. C. H. 
Van der Smissen. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 133 


Annual conference, meeting in September. 

Sec. of Conference, E. B. Kupp, Archbald, Ohio. 

Address the City Missionary, J. K. G-erig, 248 Koot St., 
Chicago, 111. 

College and Theological Seminary 

Name Location Pi esident 

Bluffton College and Theological Seminary . . Bluffton, Ohio . S K. Mosiman. 


General Conference; meets at Brown City, Michigan, Oct., 

Five district conferences in United States and two in 

Officers of the Gen. Conf. : Pres., Eev. A. B. Yoder, 727 Wolf 
Ave , Elkhart, Ind ; Sec., Eev. J. A. Huffman, Marion, Ind ; 
Editor of Sunday School Literature, Eev. J. A. Huffman, Marion 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. Pres., Rev. S. Gondie; Sec., Rev. I. Pike, 
Bethesda, Ont. 

PUBLICATION HEADQUARTERS: Gospel Banner Office, New Car- 
lisle, Ohio, and the Bethel Publishing Co., New Carlisle, Ohio. 


Gospel Banner, Bethel series S. S. Literature, New Carlisle, 
Ohio, Editor, J. A. Huffman. 


Meets triennially; next meeting, Corn, Okla., 1924. 

Three district conferences in United States and one in 

Officers : Mod , Eev. H. W. Lohrenz, Hillsboro, Kaiis. ; Clerk, 
Eev. J. F. Dnerksen, Corn, Okla. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Chmn, Eev. H. W. Lohrenz; Sec., 
Eev. N. N. Hiebert, Mountain Lake, Minn.; Treas., J. W. Wiens, 
Hillsboro, Kans. 

Herbert, Sask., Canada. 


Name Location President 

Taboi College . . . Hillsboro, Kans . . . . H W. Lohrenz 

Zion's Bote, Hillsboro, Kans., Editor, A. L. Schelleriberg. 


Annual conference. 

Officers: Mod., D. E. Harder, Hillsboro, Kans,; Sec., D. J. 
Mendel, Freeman, S. Dak.; Treas., J. J. Glanzer, Bridgewater, 
S. Dak. 

134 Year Book of the Churches 

penter, S. Dak.; Sec., D. M. Hofer, 2812 Lincoln Ave., Chicago, 111. 
J. M. Tschetter, Carpenter, S. Dak. 

Neufeld, Inman, Kans. 


Name Location President 

Tabor College Hilhboro, Kans II. W. Loienz 

Zoar Academy Inman, Kans. . C Tlnessen. 


Der Wahrheitsfreund (weekly), Editor, D. M. Hofer, 2812 Lin- 
coln Ave., Chicago, 111. 


Address Abraham I. Friesen, Meade, Kans. 


Conference, annual; meets in September. 
Officers : Mod., Rev. Allan EL Miller, Pekin, 111. ; Sec., M. P. 
Lantz, Carlock, 111. 

MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. Allan H. Miller, Pekin, 111.; Sec., 
George I. Gundy, Washington, 111. 

ington, 111.; Vice-Pres., C. R. Egle; Sec., Rev. Emanuel Troyer, Nor- 
mal, 111.; Cor. Sec. and Treas., D. N. Claudon, Meadows, 111. 

College and Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Bluffton College . . Bluffton, Ohio E. K. Mosiman. 

Witmarsum Seminary Bluffton, Ohio . J. E. Hartzler. 

The Christian Evangel, Danvers, 111., Editor, Rev. L. B. Haigh, 


(Formerly Minnesota and Nebraska Mennonite Conference.) 
Annual conference, 

Address the City Missionary, A. F. Wiens, 4215 Rockwell 
St., Chicago, III 


Address Michael A. Weaver, New Holland, Pa. 


Cor. Sec, Henry Selrurra, 1002 McKenzie St., Los Angeles, 
Calif, Station T. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 135 

Messianic Publishing Co., 1002 McKenzie St., Station T, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 


Among the developments resulting from the introduction into the 
United States of the study of various phases of Oriental religions, 
especially those in India emphasizing the mystical union of the human 
and divine, was the organization of the Christian Yoga Society. The 
founder, A. K. Mpzumdar, gathered a number of followers and a 
society was organized at Spokane, Washington, in February, 1911, 
with 50 active members. For some time it developed somewhat slowly, 
but gathered membership in different parts of the United States. 
After a time the organization was disbanded, and Mr. Mozumdar or- 
ganized the Universal Messianic Church, or the Church of the Uni- 
versal Messianic Message, changed in 1922 to the Messianic World 


The purpose of this church is to bring about unity with om- 
nipresent God on the part of its members, in imitation of the Great 
Master Jesus Christ; to heal the sick by an appeal to God for inter- 
position of divine power; to teach, preach, and demonstrate the great 
mystery of life; and to endeavor to secure that health and inspiration 
which comes from living a life close to God. 

It recognizes no creed or confession and observes no sacrament, 
the only condition imposed on members being that they have an earn- 
est desire to help humanity to a higher and holier idea of God and 
their fellowmen. The attitude toward other creeds is one of good 
will and brotherly love, holding that all have their place in the school 
of the evolution of man. 


The societies or churches are distinctly independent in their or- 
ganization. In the beginning there were ordained ministers, but sub- 
sequently the ministerial office was discontinued. 



The Methodist Churches generally trace a common origin to a 
movement started in Oxford University in 1729 when John and 
Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, and others began to meet for 
religious exercises. The little company was derisively called "The 
Holy Club," "Bible Bigots," "Methodists," etc. The movement soon 
became widely known as the "Methodist Movement," and took more 
definite shape in 1739 "when," as Mr. Wesley himself describes it, 
"eight or ten persons came to him in London and desired that he 
should spend time with them in prayer and advise them how to flee 
from the wrath to come." 

As converts were received they were organized into societies 
for worship, and as the work expanded class meetings were formed 
for the religious care and training of members. The circuit system 
was established by which several congregations were grouped under 
the care of one lay preacher. The itinerancy came into existence 
as the lay preachers were transferred from one appointment to an- 
other for greater efficiency, and finally in 1744 the Annual Con- 
ference was instituted. 

The beginnings of Methodism in America were m the state of 
Georgia, in 1735, when upon the invitation of General Oglethorpe, 
John and Charles Wesley were invited to come as spiritual advisers 

136 Year Book of the Churches 

to his colony. Both, accepted the invitation and John Wesley re- 
mained until 1738. 

In 1760, Philip Embury, a Wesleyan local preacher from Ire- 
land, landed in New York and six years later gathered for regular 
worship a company of Methodists who, in 1768, erected and dedicated 
a chapel, since known as the "John Street Church." 

Robert Strawbridge, also an Irish Wesleyan preacher, assem- 
bled a small company of Methodists in Frederick County, Md. Sub- 
sequently itinerant preachers were sent over by John Wesley, among 
them Thomas Rankin and Francis Asbury, and in 1773 the first 
annual Conference in America was held in the city of Philadelphia. 

American Methodism was set apart independently at what is 
known ns the "Christmas Conference," in Baltimore, Maryland, De- 
cember 24, 1784. In authorizing this organization, Mr. Wesley ap- 
pointed Dr. Coke and Mr. Asbury as joint superintendents m North 
America, and stated that as "our American brethren are now totally 
disentangled both from the state and the English hierarchy, we dare 
not entangle them again, either with the one or with the other. 
They are now at full liberty simply to follow the Scriptures and 
the Primitive Church." The conference then proceeded to form a 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and elected both Coke and Asbury 
superintendents, or bishops. 


In theology the Methodist Churches are Armmian and their 
doctrines are set forth in the articles of Religion formulated largely 
from the thirty-nine articles of the Church of England, Wesley's 
published sermons and his Notes on the New Testament. These em- 

?hasize belief in the Trinity, the fall of man, his need of repentance, 
reedom of the will, sanctification, future rewards and punishments, 
and a sufficiency of the Scriptures for salvation. 

Two sacrements are recognized Baptism and the Lord's Supper. 
Baptism is administered both to infants and adults. As to mode, 
sprinkling is preferred, though in the case of adults choice of sprink- 
ling 1 , pouring or immersion is given. 


The form of church government, while following the general 
rules laid down by Wesley, is somewhat different in England and 
in America. In England the conference remains supreme and the 
superintendency is not emphasized; in America the leading Metho- 
dist bodies are Episcopal in their form of government. This Epis- 
copal form of government, while not corresponding exactly to that 
of the Episcopacy of the Church of England, is a decided factor in 
church life. The Wesleyan Methodist connection in England and 
the Episcopal Methodisms in the United States are the strongest 
representatives of the Methodist movement initiated in Oxford nearly 
two centuries ago. 

As originally organized in America, Methodism was Episcopal 
in its form of government and recognized two orders in the min- 
istry Deacons and Elders. It was divided first into annual confer- 
ences and later a system of church, quarterly, district and annual 
conferences was developed, with the general conference meeting 
quadrennially, since 1812, as a delegated body having the law-mak- 
ing power under certain restrictive rules. Administration was prac- 
tically in the hands of the clergy and there was at first no lay rep- 
resentatives either in the Annual or General Conferences. Through 
protests and dissatisfaction, various modifications were made from 
time to time and organizations independently set up with a modified 
form of Government varying from non-Episcopal, but retaining all 
other features common to Methodist government, to a distinct form 
of Congregationalism. 

Directory of Religious Bodie^ 137 


Decennial, lest session, London, England, September, 1921. 

Ecumenical Methodist Commission represents the conference 
ad interim. 

Eastern Section : Pres., Eev. J E. "Wakerly, Central Bldg , 
Westminster, London, Eng , S. W. ; See., Rev. H B. Workman, 
Wesleyan Training College, Horseferry Road, London, Eng. 
Includes Methodist bodies in Great Britain, Europe, and Aus- 

Western Section: Pres., Bishop J. "W. Hamilton; Sec., Rev. 
H K Carroll, Plainfield, N. J. Includes Methodist bodies in the 
United States and Canada, and the Methodist Church of Japan. 


General Conference, quadrennial, last session, Des Homes, 
Iowa, 1920. 

Annual Conferences and Missions at home and abroad, 159. 

Officers : Sec., Edmund M. Mills, 101 Comstock Place, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.; Treas., Oscar P. Miller, Rock Rapids, la. 


Earl Cranston (Retired), 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
John W. Hamilton (Retired), American University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Joseph P. Berry, 1701 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
William F. McDowell, 2107 Wyoming Ave. N. W., Washington 

William Burt, 202 Morris Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Luther B. Wilson, 150 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Thomas B. Neely (Retired), Philadelphia, Pa. 
William F. Anderson, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
John L. Nuelsen, Zurich, Switzerland. 

William A. Quayle, 14 North Kings Highway, St. Louis, Mo. 
Edwin H. Hughes, 235 Summer St., Maiden, Mass. 
Frank M. Bristol, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Homer C. Stuntz, Omaha, Nebr. 

Theodore S. Henderson, 34 Elizabeth St. East, Detroit, Mich. 
William 0. Shepard, Portland, Ore. 
Francis J. McConnell, 524 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Frederick D. Leete, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Richard J. Cooke (Retired), Athens, Tenn. 
Wilbur P. Thirkield, Mexico City, Mexico. 
Herbert Welch, Seoul, Korea. 

Thomas Nicholson, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 111. 
Adna W. Leonard, 3 City Hall Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 
William F. Oldham, Buenos Ayres, Argentine, South America. 
Charles B. Mitchell, 157 N. Lexington Blvd., St. Paul, Minn. 
Francis W. Warne, Lucknow, India. 
John W. Robinson, Colaba, Bombay, India. 
Eben S. Johnson, 8 Davenport Road, Tambesskloof, Capetown, 
South Africa. 

Imuress J. Birney, care Methodist Book Concern, Shanghai, China. 
Frederick B. Fisher, 3 Middleton St., Calcutta, India. 
Ernest L. Waldorf, Wichita, Kans. 

138 Year Book of the Churches 

Charles E. Locke, Manila, Philippine Islands. 
Ernest G. Richardson, 63 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta, Ga. * 
Charles W. Burns, Helena, Mont. 
Anton Bast, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Edgar Blake, 89 Blvd. Hausmann, Paris, France. 
George H. Bickley, 8 Marent Sophia, Singapore, Straits Settle- 

Frederick T. Kenney, Foochow, China. 

H. Lester Smith, Bangalore, India. 

Charles L. Mead, 1830 Sherman St., Denver, Colo. 

Robert E. Jones, 631 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 

Matthew W. Clair, Monrovia, Africa. 

Retired Missionary Bishops 

Joseph C. Hartzell, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Isaiah B. Scott, 125 Fourteenth Ave. N., Nashville, Tenn. 

THE METHODIST BOOK CONCERN. Publishing Agents: Cincinnati, 
John H. Race, 420 Plum St.; Chicago, Robert H. Hughes, 740 Rush 
St.; George P. Mams, emeritus, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York; Henry 
C. Jennings, emeritus, Portland, Oreg. 

BOOK EDITOR, David G. Downey, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City, 
and 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

DEPOSITORIES: 581 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.; 105 Fifth Ave., 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; 28 East Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich.; 740 Rush St., 
Chicago, 111.; 1121 McGee St., Kansas City, Mo.; 7 City Hall Ave., 
San Francisco, Calif.; salesroom, Portland, Oreg.; 304-313 Artisan's 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
Pres., Bishop Luther B. Wilson; Honorary Vice-Pres., W. V. Kelley; 
Vice-Pres., Frank A. Home; Cor. Sees., Frank Mason North, Titus 
Lowe; Treas., George M. Fowles. 

Seventeenth Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Bishop Joseph F. Berry; 
Cor. Sec., David D. Forsyth. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION FOR NEGROES, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Pres. William F. Anderson; Treas., John H. Race; Cor. Sees., 
Patrick J. Maveety, I. Garland Penn. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York. Pres., 
Bishop Win. F. McDowell; Cor. Sec., Abram W. Harris; Rec. See., 
Ezra S. Tipple; Treas., Omar Powell. 

BOARD OF SUNDAY SCHOOLS, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 
111. Pres., Bishop Thomas Nicholson; Cor. Sec., W. S. Bovard; 
Treas., W. C. Hanson. 

BOARD OF CONFERENCE CLAIMANTS, 820 Garland Building, Chi- 
cago, 111. Pres., Bishop Charles Bayard Mitchell; Cor. Sec, Joseph 
B. Hingeley; Treas., Robert W. Campbell. 

Pres., Bishop Adna W. Leonard; Gen. Sec., Charles E. Guthrie; Edi- 
tor Epworth Herald, Dan B. Brummitt. 

Maryland Ave. N. E., Washington, D. C. Pres., Bishop William F. 
McDowell; Treas., William T. Galliher; Gen. Sec., Clarence True 

GENERAL DEACONESS BOARD, 675-677 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. 
Y. Pres., Bishop Wm. S. Burt; Cor. Sec., Daniel W. Howell; Treas., 
L. M. Potter. 

BOARD OF HOSPITALS AND HOMES. Pres., Bishop W. 0. Shepard; 
Cor. Sec. f Rev. N. E. Davis, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111.; Treas., 
J. T. Bradley, 740 Rush Street, Chicago, 111. * 

Cor. Sec., Committee on Conservation and Advance, Raymond J. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 


Wade, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111.; Treas., M. W. Ehnes, 740 Rush 
St., Chicago, 111. 

TRUSTEES OF CHARTERED FUND, 129 South Fourth St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Pres., Avery D. Harrington; Sec., Edgar J. Pershing; 
Treas., Franklin I. Bodme. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. Pres., James N. Gamble; Sec., C. E. Scbenk; 
Treas., H. A. Winans. 

McDowell, W. F. Anderson, E. H. Hughes, F. J. McConnell, W. P. 
Thirkield; Abram W. Harris, East Maine; D. G. Downey, New York, 
East; W. A. Elliott, Erie; Archibald Moore, West Virginia; Ernest 
H. Cherrington, Ohio; J. M. Melear, Holston; P. W. Kinchen, Louis- 
iana; J. W. Abel, Oklahoma; A. N. Jarvis, Iowa; J. W. Van Cleye, 
Illinois; Loren D. Dickinson, Michigan; E. D. Kohlstedt, Wisconsin; 
Charles E. Allmger, Central German; E. P. Dennett, California; C. 
H. White, Idaho; at large, F. M. North, J. H. Race, D. D. Forsyth, 
Alex Simpson, Jr., I. Garland Penn. 

Nicholson, 4613 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, 111. ; Sec., Mrs. Charles Spaetti, 
Madison, N. J.; Treas., Miss Florence Hooper, 10 South St., Balti- 
more, Md. 

McConnell, Denver, Colo.; Sec., Rev. Harry F. Ward, 150 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York City. 

Colleges and 
Institution Location 

Albion College Albion, Mich 

Allegheny College Meadville, Pa. . 

Baker University .... Baldwin, Kans. 
Baldwin-Wallace College Berea, Ohio 
Boston University .. .Boston, Mass 
Central Wesleyan Col- 
lege Warrenton, Mo 

College of Puget Sound . Tacoma, Wash 
College of the Pacific San Jose, Calif 
Cornell College .Mt Vernon, Iowa 

Dakota Wesleyan Univ .Mitchell, S D . 
De Pauw University . . . Greencastle, Ind 
Dickinson College . .Carlisle, Pa. 
Goucher College Baltimore, Md . 

Hamlme University . ..St. Paul, Minn . 
Illinois Wesleyan Univ Bloommgton, III . 
Illinois Woman's College Jacksonville, 111. 
Iowa Wesleyan College Mt Pleasant, la . 
Kansas Wesleyan Univ.Salma, Kans . 
Lawrence College .. ..Appleton, Wis 

McKendree College Lebanon, 111 

Mo Wesleyan College . . Cameron, Mo 
Mornmgside College . . Sioux City, Iowa 
Mount Union College ..Alliance, Ohio 
Nebr. Wesleyan Univ.. Univ Place Neb. 

Northwestern Univ 

.Evanston, III 

Dhio Wesleyan Univ Delaware, Ohio 

Simpson College . . Indianola, Iowa 
Southwestern College .Wmfleld, Kans. 
Syracuse University ..Syracuse, N. Y . 
Univ. of Chattanooga Chattanooga T'n 
University of Denver. ..Univ. Park, Colo 
Univ. of Southern Calif Los Angeles, Cal 

Upper Iowa Univ Favette, Iowa 

Wesleyan University. . .Middletown. Ct 
W Va. Wesleyan Col-Buckhannon, W. 

le<re Va. ... 

Willamette University . . Salem, Oreg. . . 


Chief Officer 

John W. Laird, President 
Fred W. Hixon, President. 
Wallace B Fleming, President 
A B Storms, President 
L H. Murhn, President. ~ 

0. E. Knege, President 
E. H. Todd, President 
Tully C Knoles, Piesident. 
Acting President 

E D. Kohlstedt, President. 
George R Grose, President. 
James H Morgan, President 
William W. Guth, President. 
Samuel F Kerfoot, President 
William J Davidson, President. 
Joseph R Harker, President. 
Ulysses S Smith, President 
L B Bowers, President. 
Samuel Plantz, President. 
George E McCammon, President, 
Emory F. Buck, President 
Frank E. Mossman, President 
William H McMaster, President 

1. B. Schreckengast, Chancellor. 
Walter Dill Scott, President 
John W. Hoffman, President. 
John L Hillman, President 

A E Kirk, President 
Charles W Flint, Chancellor. 
Arlo A Brown, President 
Heber R. Harper, Chancellor 
Rufus B. von KlemSmid, President 
Rev. J P. Van Horn, President 
Stephen H. Olm, Acting President 

Thomas W. Haught, Acting President. 
Carl G. Donev* President 

Evansville College .... Evansville. Ind 
Goodmar College . .Goodmg, Idaho 
Mont Wesleyan College Helena, Mont .. 
Ohio Northern Univ . . Ada, Ohio 
Oklahoma City College ..Okla. City, Okla 
Wesley College . .University, N. D 

Alfred F Hughes, President 
Charles W Tenney, President 
Charles M Donaldson, President 
Albert E Smith, President. 
E. G. Green, President 
E P. Robertson, President. 


Year Book of the Churches 

Professional Schools 


Boston Univ. School of 
Theology . . . .Boston, Mass 

Central Wesleyan Theo- 
logical Seminary . Warrenton, Mo 

Drew Theological Semi- 
nary . .Madison, N J 

Garrett Biblical Institute Evanston, 111. 

Kimball School of Theol- 
ogy . .Salem, Oreg , , 

Maclay College of Theol- 
ogy . . .. .C/o Univ South- 
ern Calif., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

Nast Theological Semi- 
nary . .Beiea, Ohio , . 

Norwegian-Danish Theo- 
logical Seminary . .Evanston, III 

Swedish Theological Sem- 
inary Evanston, 111 

The II iff School of Theol- 
ogy . . . .Denvei, Colo 

Chief Office* 
Rev James A. Beebe, Dean 
Rev E S Havighoist, Dean. 

Rev E. S Tipple, President 
.Rev C. M. Stuart, President. 

.Rev E. C Hickman, President. 


Boston Univ School of Medicine Boston, Mass 
Northwestern Univ. Medical School Chicago, 111 
Syracuse College of Medicine Syiacuse, N. Y 

' ~o. Co" " ~ " 

Rev. John F Fisher, Dean. 

Rev. Ficdenck Cramer, Dean 

Rev. Otman Filing, Dean 

Rev. F. A Lundberg, Dean 

Rev Edwin W. Dunlavy, President. 
Loca lion 

Univ of So. Calif College of Phys 

Chief Office? 
John P Sutherland, Dean 
Arthur I Kendall, Dean. 
John J Heffron, Dean 

and Suig. . 

Los Angeles, Cal Chailes W Bryson, Dean, 


Bloommgton School of Law (111. 
Wes. Univ ) Bloommgton, 111 

Boston Univ School of Law Boston, Mass 

Cleveland Law School (Baldwin- 
Wallace) Chicago, 111 

Dickinson College School of Law Carlisle, Pa 

Northwestern Univ. Law School Cleveland, Ohio 

Syracuse College of Law Syracuse, N Y 

Univ. of Denver Law School Denver. Colo 

Univ of So Calif. College of Law Los Angeles, Cal Frank M. Portei, Dean 

Willamette Univ. School of Law ...Salem, Oieg T H. Van Winkle, Dean 


Northwestern Univ. Dental School /Chicago, 111 
University of Denver School of 

Dentistiy Denvei, Colo 

Univ. of So Calif. Dental School Los Angeles, Cal . L E. Ford, Dean 

Univ. of So. California School of 

C L Capen, Dean. 
Homei Albers, Dean 

Willis Vickery, Dean 
William Trickett, Dean 
John H. Wigmore, Dean 
Frank R Walker, Dean 
George C Manly, Dean. 

Aithui D. Black, Dean. 
H. A Ftynn, Dean 


Los Angeles, Cal L. J Stablei, Dean. 


Northwestern Univ. College of En- 
gineering . Evanston, 111. 
Syracuse College of Applied Science Syracuse, N .Y 

John F Havford, Director 
William P Giaham, Dean 


Boston Univ. College of Business 
Administration ... . Boston, Mass. . .Everett W. Loicl, Dean 

Northwestern Univ School of Com- 
merce . . Ghicago, 111. 

Univ. of Denver School of Com- 
merce . . . Denver, Colo. 

Ralph E. Heilman, Dean 
George A Warfield, Dean, 

The American University 

Washington, D C Lucius C Clark, Chancelloi 


New York State Col Forestry, Syra- 
cuse University 

Syracuse, N. Y .Franklin F. Moon, Dean 

Directory of Religious Bodies 


Secondary Schools 

Athens School, The Athens, Tenn 

Beaver College . Beaver, Pa 

Blmn Memorial College Brenham, Tex 

Cazenovia Seminary Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Centenary Collegiate Institute Hackettstown, N J 

Drew Seminary for Women Carrnel, N. Y 

East Greenwich Academy 

East Maine Conference Seminary 

Epworth Seminary 

Genesee Wesleyan Seminary 

Onarga Military Academy 

Jennings Seminary 

John H. Snead, Seminary 

Maine Wesleyan Seminary 

Ozark Wesleyan College 

Montpeher Seminary 

Murphy Collegiate Institute 

The Pennmgton School 

Texas Wesleyan College 

Tilton Seminary . . . . . 

Troy Conference Academy 

Union College 

Washington Collegiate Institute 
Wesley Collegiate Institute 
Wilbraham Academy 

E Greenwich, R I 
Bucksport, Me 
Epworth, Iowa 
Lima, N Y 
(Onarga, 111 
Aurora, 111 
Boaz, Ala 
Kents Hill, Me 
Marionville, Mo. 
Montpelier, Vt 
Sevierville, Tenn. 
.Pennmgton, N. J. 

Austin, Tex 
. Tilton, N. H . 
. Poultney, Vt. 
. Barbourville, Ky . 

Washington, N C 

Dover, Del 

Wilbraham, Mass 

Williamsport-Dickmson Seminary Wilharnsport, Pa. 
Wyoming Seminary (not regularly 
classified undei rulings of Um- 
veisity Senate Kingston, Pa 

Harwood Boys' School , Albuquerque, N M 

Baxter Seminary Baxter, Tenn, 

Epworth Seminary . Epworth, Ga 

Mount Zion Seminary . Mount Zion, Ga 

McLemoresville Collegiate Institute 

Paikei College 
Port Arthui College 



Wmnebago,, Minn, 
Port Arthur, Tex 

J. L Robb, Dean 
James M Thoburn, Pres. 
Jacob L Neu, President 
Chailes E. Hamilton, Pres, 
Robert J, Trevorrow, Pres, 
Clarence P McClelland, 


J Francis Cooper, Pres 
Alfred S Adams, President, 
F Q. Brown, President 
Frank MacDaniel, Pres. 
J. E Bittmger, Pres 
Miss B. A Barber, Principal 
William Fielder, President 
Acting Principal. 
Rev C A Gilbert, Pres, 
John Wood Hatch, Principal 
E. A Bishop, President. 
Fiancis H. Greene, Head 


Rev E Olancler, Pres 
Geo. L. Plimpton, Principal 
Chas. L. Leonard, Principal 
Ezra T Franklin, Pres 
M 0. Fletcher, President 
Henry G Budd, President 
Gaylord W. Douglass, Head 

Rev John W Long, Pres 

L L. Sprague, President. 
H 4. Bassett, President. 
Patton R Broyles, Pres 
W. H Patton, Principal 
Rev Heibert N Howard, 

Elmer H. Harrell, Principal 

E C Remeke, President. 
Rev. W. E Callahan, Pres 


Claflm College 

Clark University 

Morgan College 

New Orleans College 

Philander Smith College 

Rust College 

Walden College . . 

Wiley College . . . 

Schools for Negroes 
Location Chief Officer 

Orangeburg, S. C J B Randolph, President 
Atlanta, Ga John W. Simmons, Piesident. 

Baltimore, Md J 0. Spencer, President 

Charles M Melden, President. 
. James M Cox, President 

New Orleans, La 
Little Rock, Ark 

Holly Springs, Miss M, S. Davage, President. 
Nashville, Tenn... . Thomas R Davis, President. 
Marshall, Tex. M. W. Dogan, President. 

Professional Schools 
Gammon Theological 

Seminary . .. Atlanta, Ga . 
Meharry Medical Colege. Nashville, Tenn 

Philip M. Watters, President. 
John J. Mullowney, President. 

Secondary Schools 

Bennett College 
Cookman Institute 
Central Alabama Institute 

George R. Smith College 
Haven Institute . . . 
Mornstown Normal and 

Institute . . 
Princess Anne Academy 
Samuel Huston College 


. Greensboro, N. C. 
Jacksonville, Fla 
P Drawer B., 
West End Sta , 
Birmingham, AJa. 
Sedalia, Mo . 
. . . Meridian, Miss 
. . , Mornstown, Tenn 

. . Princess Anne, Md. 
. . Austin, Tex. 

Chief Officer 
Frank Trigg, Pres 
Isaac H Miller, Principal 
H. H. Sutton, Pres. 

Robert B. Hayes, Pres. 
J. B. F Shaw, Pres 

Judson S. Hill, Pres 
Thomas H. Kiah, Principal. 
R N. Brooks, Pres. 

Official Periodicals 

Methodist Review (M-montHly) , 150 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City, Editor, George Elliott. 

142 Year Book of the Churches 

English (Weekly) 

California Christian Advocate, 7 City Hall Avenue, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Editor, F. M. Larkin; Central Christian Advocate, 
1121 McGee St, Kansas City, Mo., Editor, C. B. Spencer, 
Christian Advocate, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City, Editor, James 
R. Joy; Epworth Herald, 740 Rush Street, Chicago, 111., Editor, 
Dan B. Brummitt; Methodist Advocate- Journal, Athens, Tenn., 
Editor, J. M. Melear; Northwestern Christian Advocate, 740 
Rush Street, Chicago, III., Editor, E. Robb Zarmg; Pacific Christian 
Advocate, 304-313 Artisans Bldg., Portland, Ore, Editor, Edward 
Laird Mills; Pittsburgh Christian Advocate, 524 Penn Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Editor, J. J. Wallace; Southwestern Christian Advocate, 
631 Baronne St., New Orleans, La., Editor, Lucius H. King; Western 
Christian Advocate, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Editor, Ernest C. 


Der Christliche Apologete (weekly), Hans und Herd (monthly), 
Editor, Rev. A. J. Bucher, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church, through various evolutions, re- 
tains the original forms of doctrine set forth in the articles of re- 
ligion Wesley's sermons and notes on the New Testament. 


The constitution of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as adopted 
by the General Conference in 1900 and approved by the Annual Con- 
ferences, has three divisions articles of religion, general rules and 
articles of organization and government The articles of Religion 
are those drawn up by John Wesley based upon the thirty-nine 
articles of the Church of England, with the exception of the twenty- 
third which has reference to allegiance to the Government of the 
United States. The general rules deal specifically with the conduct 
of the church members and the duties of certain church officers, 
particularly the class leaders. The articles of organization and gov- 
ernment lay down the general principles of the organization and 
conduct of churches and Conferences. The general form of Church 
government may be described as connectional. The ecclesiastical or- 
ganization includes the local church, the ministry and a system of 

The system of conferences includes quarterly, district, mission, 
annual and general conferences. 

The quarterly conference is identical in membership with the 
official board in each pastoral charge, and is the highest authority in 
the station or circuit for the purpose of local administration. 

The district conference, while not an integral part of the Con- 
ference system, is made up of the traveling and local preachers of 
a district, the district stewards and other representatives. It meets 
once or twice a year under the presidency of a bishop or district 
superintendent and its duties are nearly identical with those of the 
quarterly conference. 

The annual conference is an administrative and not a legislative 
body. Its membership is confined to traveling ministers. It receives 
reports from pastors, district superintendents and statisticians. The 
Bishop ordains candidates for deacon's or elder's orders, and appoints 
ministers to their charges; ministerial delegates are elected to the 
General Conference and questions of discipline are decided. A lay 
electoral conference, composed of one lay delegate from each pastoral 

Directory of Religious Bodies 143 

charge within its bounds, meets in connection witli the annual con- 
ference, just preceding the General Conference, in order to elect lay 
delegates to that conference. 

The General Conference is the highest body in the church and is 
the general legislative and judicial body, first held in 1784, it was 
established as a delegated body in 1812. It convenes quadrennially 
and is composed of ministerial and lay delegates in equal numbers. 
The General Conference and the Annual Conference are incorporated 
with boards of trustees. 

The ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church includes two 
orders, deacons and elders. Deacons have authority to solemnize 
matrimony, administer Baptism and assist in the administration of 
the Lord's Supper. Elders have in addition to these powers the 
power to consecrate the elements of the Lord's Supper and are eligible 
to appointment as district superintendents or election to any of the 
offices of the Church or to the Episcopacy. Originally, pastors, or 
itinerants, as they were termed, moved every six months, then every 
year. In 1804 the maximum length of pastorate was Axed at two 
years; in 1864 at three; 1888 at five, and in 1900 the time limit was 
removed entirely. Commissions of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, are considering a plan of 


General Conference, quadrennial ; last session, May 3, 1922. 
Forty-eight Annual Conferences. 


William N. Ainsworth, Macon, Ga. 

James Atkins, Waynesville, N. C. 

W. B. Beauchampi, Brussels, Belgium. 

H. A. Boaz, Seoul, Corea. 

Warren Akin Candl-er, Atlanta, Ga. 

James Cannon, Jr., 50 Bliss Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Urban V. W. Darlington, Huntington, W. Va. 

Collins Denny, Richmond, Va. 
- J. E. Dickey, Waco, Tex. 

Hoyt M. Dobbs, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Horace M. Du Bose, Berkeley, Calif. 

S. R. Hay, Shanghai, China. 

Eugene Russell Hendrix (retired), Kansas City, Mo. 

William F. McMurry, Louisville, Ky. 
John M. Moore, 1308 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex. 

Edwin Du Bose Mouzon, Nashville, Tenn. 

William Belton Murrah, Memphis, Tenn. 

BOARD OF MISSIONS, Lambuth Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. Sees. 
Foreign Dept , Rev. E. H. Rawlmgs, and Rev. W W. Pinson; Sees. 
Foreign Dept. (for women), Miss Mabel Howell, Miss Esther Case; 
Sees. Howe Dept , Rev. R. L. Russell and Rev J. W. Perry; Sees. Home 
Dept. (for women), Mrs. J. W. Downs, Mrs. J. H. McCoy; Educational 
Sec., Rev. C. G. Hounshell; Educational Sec. (for women), Mrs. Hume 
R. Steele; Treas., W. M. Cassetty, Jr., Acting. 

BOARD OF CHURCH EXTENSION, Louisville, Ky. Sec., Rev. T. D. 
Ellis, Louisville, Ky. 

BOARD OF ^EDUCATION, Nashville, Tenn. Sec., Rev. Stonewall 
Anderson; Assistant, W. E. Hogan. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD, Nashville, Tenn. Gen. Sec. } Rev. J. W. 
Shackford. Sunday School Editor, Rev. E. B. Chappell; Asso. Sunday 

144 Year Book of the Churches 

School Editors, Rev. Emmett High tower and Rev. L. F. Beaty; Supt. 
Training Work, Rev, L. F. Sensabaugh; Asst. Supt. Training Work, 
Rev. J. Q Schisler; Supt, Extension and Mission Work, Edmund F. 
Cook; Supt. Administrative, M. W. Brabham; Supt. Dept. Young 
People and Adult Work, Rev. W. C. Owen; Supt. Dept. Intermediate 
Senior Work, Rev. E. R. Stanford; Supt. Elementary Dept, Miss 
Minnie E. Kennedy. 

EPWORTH LEAGUE, Nashville, Tenn. Sec., Rev. F. S. Parker; 
Asst., Rev. R. E. Nollner. 

LAYMEN'S MISSIONARY MOVEMENT, Nashville, Tenn. Sees., G. L. 
Morelock and J. M. Way. 

Tenn. Sec., Rev. R. H. Bennett. 

BOARD OP FINANCE. Sec., Rev. Luther E. Todd, St. Louis, Mo. 

PUBLISHING HOUSE, Nashville, Tenn., 810 Broadway. Publishing 
Agents, J. W. Barton, and Rev. A. J. Lamar; B>ook Editor, Rev. G. T. 

Name Location President or Dean 

Emoiy University Atlanta, Ga, H. W, Cox. 

Southern Methodist Univer- 
sity Dallas, Tex James Kilgore, Acting 


Central College Fayette, Mo P. H. Lmn. 

Hendrix College Conway, Ark. . J H, Reynolds, 

Kentucky Wesleyan Winchester, Ky. .. .W, B, Campbell. 

Millsaps College . . Jackson, Miss. A. P. Watkms 

Randolph-Macon College . .Ashland, Va, . .R. E. Blackwell. 

Southwestern University Georgetown, Tex, ,, , p W Horn 

Trinity College Durham, N. C W. P. Few. 

Wofford College Spartanburg, S. C H N. Snyder, 

Athens College Athens, Ala B. B. Glasgow. 

Columbia College Columbia, S C J, C. Guilds. 

Gieensboro College for Wo- 
men . ... . Greensboro, N. C, S B Tuirentme. 

Lander College Greenwood, S. C 

Randolph-Macon Woman's Col- 
lege Lynchburg, Va. D R Anderson. 

Texas Woman's College ...Fort Woith, Tex . .H. E Stout 
Wesleyan College , Macon, Ga. . , W. P, Quillian. 

Woman's College of Alabama. Montgomeiy, Ala, .. ..Walter D. Aynew 

Birmingham-Southern College Birmingham, Ala. Guy E Snavely 

Emory and Henry College .Emory, Va J. N Hillrnan. 

Galloway College Searcy, Ark. . . ..J M. Williams. 

Grenada College . . . Grenada, Miss. J. R Countiss 

Henderson-Biown College Arkadelphia, Ark. ... J. M Workman. 
Lagrange College .. . Lagrange, Ga . W. E. Thompson 
Morris Haivey College Baiboursville, W Va. Chas S Pettis. 
Southern College ... . Lakeland, Fla ..R. H. Alderman, 
Whitworth College .. ..Brookhaven, Miss. .1. W. Coopei. 
Port Gibson College .. ..Port Gibson, Miss. . . .D S Hogg 
Centenary College of Louisi- 
ana Shreveport, La. . George S, Sexton. 

Junior Colleges 

Alexander College . . . . Jacksonville, Tex R. G. Boger. 

Andrew College . Cuthbert, Ga P. G. Branch. 

Blackstojie College for Girls Blackstone, Va W. A. Christian 

Carolina College Maxton, N. C . , . E J Gi eea 

Centenary College (Conserva- 
tory) Cleveland, Tenn. . ,,J. W. Malone. 

Central College for Women f Lexington, Mo Z. M Williams 

Clarendon College . " Clarendon, Tex. George S. Slover 

Davenport College . . . Lenoir, N. C Clifford L Hornaday 

Hiwassee College .. MadisonviIIe, Tenn . James E Lowry. 

Howard-Payne College . .Fayette, Mo W. L. Halberstadt. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 14 

Name Location Pnncipal or Dean 

Kidd-Key College Sherman, Tex Edwin Kidd. 

Larnbuth College Jackson, Tenn J. W. Blackard. 

Logan College Russell ville, Ky A. P. Lyon. 

Louisburg College Louisburg, N. C A W Mohn. 

Mansfield College Mansfield, La R. E. Bobbilt. 

Martha Washington College Abmgdon, Va. .. . J. E. Avant. 

Martm College Pulaski, Tenn G. A. Morgan 

Marvin College Fredencktown, Mo B. W. Loomis. 

Meridian College Meridian, Tex J. H. Bowman. 

Remhardt College Waleska, Ga . . .R. C Sharp 

Rutherford College Rutherford College, N. C. ...M. T. Hmshaw. 

Sparks College Sparks, Ga R. C Mizell. 

South Georgia College McRae, Ga J. D. Smith. 

Weaver College Weaverville, N C A. M. Norton. 

Weatherf ord College Training Weatherf ord, Tex F. G. Rand. 

School . ... 

Wesley College Greenville, Tex G. F. Winfield. 

Westmoreland College San Antonio, Tex Felix R. Hill, Jr. 

Young L. G. Harris College. Young Harris, Ga J. A* Sharp. 

Bible and Missionary Training School 

Scarritt Bible and Training 
School Kansas City, Mo J L Cunninggim. 


Brevard Institute Brevard, N. C C H. Trowbridge. 

Carlisle School Bamberg, S. C W. C. Duncan. 

Cherokee Junior College ...Cherokee, Tex Charles Nixon. 

Columbia Junior College Milton, Oreg H. S. Shangle. 

Downing Industrial School . . Brewton, Ala J. M. Shof ner. 

Emory University School . . . Oxford, Ga A. W Rees 

Ferrum Training School Ferrum, Va B M Beckham 

Holding Institute Laredo, Tex J. M. Skinner. 

Morton-Elliott College Elkton, Ky Richard A Foster. 

John C C. Mayo College . . . Pamtsville, Ky H. G. Sowards. 

Lindsay Wilson Training 
School Columbia, Ky R. V. Bennett. 

Marvin University School . Clinton, Ky W. M. Cooper. 

McFerrm School Martin, Tenn G. L. Morelock. 

McTyeire School McKenzie, Tenn James A. Robins. 

Mississippi Conf. Training 
School ,. . Montrose, Miss E. L. Alford. 

Morton-Elliott School . Elkton, Ky. .. . A P Lyon. 

Randolph-Macon Academy... Bedford City, Va E. Sumter Smith. 

Randolph-Macon Academy... Front Royal, Va Charles L. Melton. 

Randolph-Macon Institute .. Danville, Va Charles G. Evans. 

Seashore Camp Ground 
School Biloxi, Miss H. W. Van Hook. 

Sloan-Hendnx Academy ...Imboden, Ark J. C. Eaton. 

Sue Bennett Memorial School London, Ky A W. Mohn. 

Thomas Industrial Institute. .DeFumak Springs, Fla ..C. H. Motley. 

Trinity Park School . ...Durham, N. C ..F. S. Aldndge. 

WeSatherford College Train- 
ing School Weatherford, Tex F. G. Rand. 

Wofford College F il 1 1 i n g 
School Spartanburg, S. C W. C. Herbert. 

Mission Schools 

Flat Rock High School. .. .Flat Rock, Ala G. W. Floyd. 

Fulsom Training School . Smithville, Okla H. B. Hubbell 

Horry Industrial School Aynor, S. C S. C. Brown. 

Jefferson School Jefferson, N. C E. M. Jones. 

Scarntt-Morrisville College. .. Morrisville, Mo J. J. Copeland. 

Textile Industrial Institute. . Spartanburg:, S. C D. E. Camak. 

Vashti Industrial Institute. . Thomas ville, Ga Charlotte Dye. 

Weddmgton Industrial Insti- 
tute Matthews, N. C R. E. Hmshaw. 


Christian Advocate, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. Thomas 
Ivey; Methodist Quarterly Review, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, R 
G. T. Rowe; Epworth Era, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. F. 
Parker; Missionary Voice, Nashville, Tenn., Editor Rev. A. J. Week 
Alabama Christian Advocate, Birmingham, Ala., Editor, Rev. M. 

146 Year Book of the Churches 

Lazenby; Richmond Christian Advocate, Richmond, Va, Editor, Rev. 
J. M. Rowland; Baltimore Southern Methodist, Baltimore, Md., Editor, 
Rev. Carlton I). Hams; Central Methodist, Louisville, Ky., Editor, 
Rev. T. S. Hulse; Missions Freund, San Antonio, Tex., Editor, Rev. 
John A. G. Rabe; Florida Christian Advocate, Lakeland, Fla., Editor, 
Rev. J. Edgar Wilson; Methodist Advocate Herald, Point Pleasant, 
W. Va., Editor, R. P. Bell; Central Methodist Advocate, Nashville, 
Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. A. Burrow; New Orleans Christian Advocate 9 
New Orleans, La., Editor, Rev. H. T. Carley; North Carolina Christian 
Advocate, Greensboro, N. C., Editor, Rev. Alva W. Plyler; Pacific 
Methodist Advocate, San Francisco, Calif., Editor, Rev W. H. Nelson; 
St. Louis Christian Advocate,, St. Louis, Mo., Editor, Rev. G. B. 
Winton; Southern Christian Advocate, Columbia, S. C, Editor, Rev. 
R. E. Stackhouse; Texas Christian Advocate, Dallas, Tex., Editor, 
Rev. P. E. Riley; Wesley an Christian Advocate, Atlanta, Ga., Editor, 
Rev. W. P. King; Arkansas Methodist, Little Rock, Ark., Editor, Rev. 
A. C. Millar. 


In the early history and development of Methodism in America, 
the territory included both slave holding and non-slave holding states. 
The development prior to 1844 was largely in the slave holding areas 
and six out of the nine bishops -elected previous to 1844 had been 
natives of slaveholdmg states. Nevertheless, the Methodist preachers 
of the time were, with practical unanimity, opposed to human bondage. 

The Christmas Conference of 1784, which organized the scattered 
congregations into the Methodist Episcopal Church, enacted a specific 
rule which required all slaveholding members, under penalty of ex- 
pulsion for non-compliance, to emancipate their slaves. This rule, 
however, was suspended within less than six months and after various 
conflicting measures had been adopted, the General Conference of 
1808 provided that thereafter each annual conference should deal 
with the whole matter according to its own judgment. The General 
Conference of 1816 modified this by another statute which remained 
in f force until 1844, to the effect that no slaveholder should be ap- 
pointed to any official position in the church, if the state in which he 
lived made it possible for him to liberate his slaves. 

Bishop James 0. Andrew, of Georgia, one of the Bishops of the 
Church, became by inheritance and marriage a nominal slaveholder. 
Under the laws of Georgia it was not possible for him or his wife to 
free their slaves. The General Conference of 1844 called attention to 
the embarrassment which would result from this connection with 
slavery by a Bishop in the exercise of his office and declared it "The 
sense of this General Conference that he desist from the exercise of 
his office so long as this impediment remains." The Southern dele- 
gates resented this action. They contended that the episcopacy was 
not a mere office subject to the control of any General Conference or 
church government. The outgrowth of this controversy was the 
drawing up of a provisional plan of separation, to become effective 
whenever the Southern conferences deem it necessary. A convention 
of Southern delegates was held in Louisville, Ky., and on May 17, 
1845, the plan of separation was approved and the Annual Confer- 
ences in the slaveholding states were erected into a distinct eccle- 
siastical connection, separate from the jurisdiction of the General 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal ,Church. The new body added 
the word "South" to the name of the Methodist Episcopal Church to 
distinguish it from the other organization. Its first General Confer- 
ence was^held in Petersburg, Va., in 1846. The M. E. Church, South, 
began with two Bishops and sixteen annual conferences. In 1846 
there were 1,519 traveling preachers, 2,833 local preachers, 327,284 
white members, 124,961 Negro members, and 2,972 Indian members, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 147 

or a total of 459,569. The growth of the Church was rapid and when 
the war between the states began the membership had increased to 
757,205, including 207,776 Negroes. The war wrought havoc in the 
Church. During the war the annual conferences met irregularly or 
in fragments, the General Conference of 1862 was not held, and the 
whole order of the itinerancy was interrupted. The missionaries in 
China were cut off from their home boards and would have suffered 
much but the M. E. Church endorsed the drafts for their support. 
There was a reduction during the period of the war of one-third of 
the total membership. The Negro members either joined the African 
Methodist Church or the Methodist Episcopal Church. The remainder 
of the Negroes formed, in 1870, an independent organization known 
as the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. Following the war the 
work of reconstruction went forward rapidly. The General Confer- 
ence of 1866 made changes in regard to lay representation in annual 
and general conferences, followed by a period of rapid growth. 


In doctrine, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is in agree- 
ment with other branches of Methodism throughout the World and 
puts special emphasis upon the universality of the atonement, the wit- 
ness of the Spirit, and the possibility of holiness in heart and life. 


In its polity it is in close accord with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, emphasizing the episcopacy, which was one of the conten- 
tions resulting in the separation of 1844. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, bishops hold office for life, unless removed by due 
process of law for personal or official misconduct and have a limited 
veto on constitutional questions over the acts of the General Confer- 
ence. There is equal clerical and lay representation in the Genera] 
Conference, and effective lay representation in the annual conferences, 
The itinerancy is still maintained, but the four year's limit of pas- 
torate was modified by the General Conference of 1918. Action taken 
by that Conference, while not abolishing the four-year rule, gives the 
Bishop in charge power to appoint a minister to a charge from yeai 
to year after four years* service when there is unanimous request by 
the Quarterly Conference of the Church for his return. 

Commissions ai^e considering plan of union for Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, and Methodist Episcopal Church. The General 
Conference of 1922 also appointed a commission on union with the 
United Brethren. ^0* 


General Conference, quadrennial ; next meeting in May, 1924. 
Twenty-nine Annual Conferences and eight Mission Confer- 

Officers : Pres., Eev. Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., 
Washington, D. C ; Sec., Eev. Charles H. Beck, 613 W. Diamond 
St., N. S , Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Treas., Mr. H C. Staley, 1025 Gal- 
vert Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, Baltimore, Md. Pres., Eev. F. W. 
Varney, Merrick, N. Y.; Recording Sec., Rev. J. C. Broomfield, Fair- 
mont, W. Va.; Corresponding Sec., Rev. F. C. Klein, 316 N. Charles 
St., Baltimore, Md, 

148 Year Book of the Churches 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., Mr. H. A. 
Sicker, West Lafayette, Ohio; Sec., Rev. Charles H. Beck, 613 W. 
Diamond St. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., J. W. Rnott, New 
Brighton, Pa.; Sec., Rev. George H. Miller, 613 W. Diamond St. N. S., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Agents, Charles Reiner, Jr., 316 N. 
Charles St., Baltimore, Md., and Mr. L. H. Neiplm, 613 W. Diamond 
St. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOAJRD OF YOUNG PEOPLE'S WORK, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., Mr. 
Ely D. Miller, 263 Chittenden Ave., Columbus, Ohio; Sec., Rev. E. A. 
Sexsmith, 1620 W. North Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

FORWARD MOVEMENT COMMITTEE, Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres , Rev. 
Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D. C. ; Sec., Rev. 
Crates S. Johnson, St. Joe, Ind. 

fteld, Catonsville, Md ; See., Mrs. Win. M. Sturgeon, 316 Hastings 
St., Pittsburgh. Organ; Woman's Missionary Record. 

Greensboro, N. C.; Sec., Mrs. Jane A. Gordon, 5428 Howe St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Name Location President 

Adrian College Adrian, Mich Harlan L. Feeman. 

Kansas City University : Kansas City, Kans J. C. Williams. 

Western Maryland College Westminster, Md. A. Norman Ward. 

Westminster College Tehuacana, Tex J. E Butler, Act- 

Theological Seminary 
Westminster Theological Seminary . Westminster Md H. L. Elder dice. 


Methodist Protestant, Baltimore, Md., Editor, Key, Frank T. 
Benson, 316 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md.; Methodist Recorder, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, Eev. Lyman Edwyn Davis, 613 W. Diamond 
St. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Sunday School Periodicals, Editor, Rev. 
Charles Edgar Wilbur, 613 W. Diamond St. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Unofficial: The Methodist Protestant Herald, Greensboro, N. C., 
Editor and Publisher, Eev. J. F. McColloch, Greensboro, N. C. 


The Methodist Protestant Church was organized in Baltimore in 
1830 as a protest against the general practice of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church investing legislative, executive, and judicial power in 
the ministry to the exclusion of lay members. At the time of organi- 
zation 83 ministers were enrolled and some 5,000 members. 

In 1858 there was a division of the Church growing out of the 
question of suffrage and eligibility to office of negroes, but after the 
settlement of the slavery question the two branches of the Methodist 
Protestant Church, were reunited in 1877. 


The doctrines of the Methodist Protestant Church are those com- 
mon to Methodists generally. An Arminian theology with emphasis 
on repentence, faith and holiness. 


In polity the Methodist Protestant Church differs radically from 
other forms of Methodism in the United States. It has no Bishops or 

Directory of Religious Bodies 149 

Presiding Elderb and no life officers of any kind. Ministers and laymen 
are equal in number and in power in all the legislative bodies of the 
Church. The general organization includes a system of quarterly, 
annual and general conferences similar to those of Episcopal Method- 
ism. The Annual Conference elects a President as does the General 
Conference. In the Maryland Conference, the President of the An- 
nual Conference appoints the preachers to their charges, each 
minister having the right to be heard, also the right of appeal. In 
all other conferences a committee known as the Stationing Committee 
is -elected by vote of the ministers and laymen composing the Annual 
Conference. This committee hears requests from both the ministers 
and laymen involving on the part of the minister the charge which 
he desires to serve for the ensuing year, and on the part of the lay 
delegate from the pastoral charge an expression of his desire as to 
who shall be pastor of his charge for the coming year. After hear- 
ing all of these requests, the committee renders a report to the 
Annual Conference, which report must have the approval of the 
Conference and may be amended, recommitted or rejected. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session, 1923. 

Forty-three annual conferences. 

Headquarters, 1132 "Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Officers of the Trustees of the General Conference: Pres., 
Bishop "Walter A. Sellew; Sec., Rev. Mendal B. Miller, 1131 Elk 
St., Franklin, Pa. ; Treas., Eev. N. "W. Fink, 1132 Washington 
Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 


William H. Clark, 412 William St., Rome, N. Y. 
William Pearce, 2318 Eidge Ave., Evanston, 111. 
Walter A. Sellew 68 Falconer St., Jamestown, N. Y. 
David S. Warner, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Bishop D. S. Warner; Gen. Sec., 
Rev. L. G. Lewis, 1132 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

GENERAL MISSIONARY BOARD. Pres., Bishop W. Pearce; Sec., 
Rev. W. B. Olmstead, 1132 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Coleman, Champaign, 111. ; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Charlotte T. Bolles, Oneida, 
N. Y.; Treas., Mrs. Lillian C. Jensen, 1132 Washington Boulevard, 
Chicago, 111. 

CHURCH EXTENSION SOCIETY. Pres., Bishop W. H. Clark; Sec., 
Bishop D. S. Warner. 

Sec. t Rev. J. B. Lutz, 1132 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Clark; Sec., Rev. W. B. Olmstead. 

Sec., E. A. Holtwick, Greenville, 111. 

Name Location President 

Greenville College Greenville, 111 Eldon G. Burritt. 

Central Academy and College . . . . McPherson, Kans C, A. StolL 

Evansville Seminary and Junior Col- 
lege Evansville, Wis S. E. Cooper. 

Seattle Pacific College .Seattle, Wash 0. E. Tiffany. 

Wessmgton. Springs Junior College Wessmgton Springs, S. D..B. J. Vincent. 

150 Year Book of the Churches 


Free Methodist, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. Jacob T. Logan; Light 
and Life Evangel, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. George W. Griffith; Sun- 
day School Worker, Chicago, 111., Editor, Rev. J. E. Lutz; Missionary 
Tidings, Chicago, 111., Editor, Miss Adella P. Carpenter. 


The Free Methodist Church had its orign in the Genesee Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 1850, in the state of 
New York. The movement for this organization was led by min- 
isters who felt strongly that the Methodism of their time had de- 
parted in no small degree from its primitive standards of faith, ex- 
perience and practice. The publication of articles by these leaders 
led to the arraignment of their leader who was declared guilty and 
expelled from the church on the charge of contumacy. Other prose- 
cutions and expulsions, on similar grounds, followed in quick suc- 
cession, resulting in appeals and controversies which finally resulted 
in the organization at Pekin, N. Y., in 1860, of the Free Methodist 


The standards of doctrine of this Church are embodied in the 
Articles of Faith held by the Methodist Episcopal Church with two 
additions, one, on entire sanctification, which is defined as being 
saved from all inward sin, and as a work which takes place subse- 
quently to justification and is wrought instantaneously upon the con- 
secrated, believing soul; and the other, on future rewards and pun- 
ishments, embodying the stricter view as to a general judgment and 
the future condition of the righteous and the wicked. 


The general organization of the church is that common to 
Methodism with the exception that on credentials of proper election, 
laymen, including women, are admitted to the district, annual, and 
general conferences in equal numbers and on the same basis as 

In place of the episcopacy, general superintendents are elected 
to supervise the work at large, preside at the conferences, etc. These 
general superintendents are elected for four years at a time, but may 
be reelected until death or failing powers terminate their term of 
service. District elders are appointed over the conference districts. 
The probationary system and the class meeting are emphasized and 
regarded as an important ^part of the church's economy. 

The aim of the organization is to maintain and exemplify regu- 
lations and usages of Methodism as originally organized, its general 
rules are those formulated by John "Wesley and still subscribed to by 
Methodist Churches generally in addition to one against slavery and 
one forbidding the production, use, or sale of narcotics. It insists 
upon a practical observance of the general rules by all its members, 
including simplicity and plainness of attire, abstinence from worldly 
amusements, and separateness from all secret societies. It also ex- 
cludes instrumental music and choir singing from public worship and 
requires that the seats be free in all its churches. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session, June, 1923. 
Annual conferences, 23, with a mission conference in India 
and in Africa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 151 

Headquarters : 330 E. Onondaga St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Officers: Pres., E. G. Dietrich; See., Eev. E. D. Carpenter; 
Treas., Dr. J. S. Wiliett. 

Officers of General Conference : Pr es., Eev. E. Teter, Sheri- 
dan, Ind.; Sec., Eev. E. P. McCarty, 222 S. Clemens Ave., 
Lansing, Mich. 

THE BOOK COMMITTEE is the Board of Managers of all the con- 
nectional societies: Publishing, Missionary, Superannuated, Educa- 
tional and Sunday School. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Gen. Sec., Rev. T. P, Baker, Sheridan, Ind.; 
Field Sec. of Foreign Missions, Rev. E. F. McCarty, Lansing, Mich. 

W. L. Northam, Sheridan, Ind.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Mabel Perrine, 
Brighton, Mich. 


Name, Location President 

Central College Central S. C L, B, Smith. 

Houghton College Houghton, N. Y . J. S. Luckey. 

Marion College Marion, Ind . ... J W Leedy 

Milton vale College ... . .. .Miltonvale, Kans ... H. W. McDowell. 


The Wesley an Methodist (weekly) , Syracuse, N. Y ., Editor, F. A. 
Butterfield. Sunday School S<ec. t I. F. McLeister, Canandaigua, New 


The Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America was organized 
May 31, 1843, at Utica, New York. It was the outgrowth of con- 
troversy over what was termed "liberty of testimony and freedom of 
discussion" and was also a protest against the exercise of ecclesiasti- 
cal authority. The purpose of the new organization in Methodism 
was the organization of a Church that should be anti-slavery and 
non-Episcopal. About 6,000 members, most of them in New York 
state, united in this organization. They chose what they called a 
republican form of government in which the majority shall rule and 
the laity have equal rights with the ministry. Three restrictions 
were emphasized: first, all connection with slavery was prohibited, 
and any person who in any sense believed in, slavery was debarred 
from membership; second, the use or manufacture of intoxicants, or 
aiding or abetting the same, either directly or indirectly, was pro- 
hibited; third, membership in secret societies was prohibited. 


In doctrine the Church is in accord with the Methodist bodies 
generally throughout the world. It holds that man is not only jus- 
tified by faith m Christ, but also sanctified by faith, and that all who 
accept Him as Saviour and Lord will be so delivered from sin and its 
consequences that they will enter upon the eternal state without 
impairment either in body, soul, or spirit. 


The ecclesiastical organization of the Church is essentially that 
of the other branches except in respect to the episcopacy and the par- 
ticipation of the laity in church government. Before being ordained, 
ministers must be recommended by the laity and the ministry and 
government of the church are just what the laity make them. 

152 Year Book of the Churches 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting, Kewanee, 
111., last Wednesday in September, 1925. 

Officers: Pres., Eev. G. J. Jeffries, Bangor, Pa.; Sec., Rev. 
C. H. Kershaw, New Bedford, Mass , Treas , Rev. W. B. Taylor, 
Lonsdale, R. I. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. J. A. Tinker, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Sec., Rev. J. Iley, Tamaqua,, Pa. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. J. Proude, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Sec., Rev. S. T. Nichols, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Primitive Methodist Journal (semi-monthly), Editor, Rev. E. 
Humphries, Billerica Center, Mass. 


The organization of the Primitive Methodist Church appears to 
have grown out of a protest against camp meetings. Camp meetings 
figured prominently in America. The first camp meeting appears to 
have been conducted in eastern Kentucky in 1800 by a union of 
Methodists and Presbyterians. The Presbyterians, however, with- 
drew from these meetings and the camp meeting became a special 
feature of Methodist revival work throughout the West and South. 

Certain leaders of the Wesleyan movement in England, hearing 
of the great results of American Camp meetings, were instrumental 
in having a camp meeting at Mow Cop, Staffordshire, England, in 
1807. The Wesleyan connection, however, firmly protested against 
these camp meetings and declined to receive converts from them 
unless they would pledge themselves to break off all connection with 
such meetings. As a result, the first society of an independent 
character was organized in March, 1810, at Standley, and was com- 
posed of 10 converts, none of whom belonged to any other church. 
The name "Primitive" was officially assumed at a meeting held in 
February, 1812. The subsequent emigration of considerable num- 
bers of members to America led to the formation of societies in 
various parts of the United States and Canada, the first mission- 
aries arriving in the United States in 1829. In 1840, American Primi- 
tive Methodism became independent of and separate from the British 
Conference which independence it still maintains. As the work ex- 
tended, three conferences were formed the Western, the Pennsylvania 
and the Eastern. 


The doctrine of the Primitive Methodist Church is essentially 
that of other branches of Methodism. 


In polity the church is in general accord with other forms of 
Methodism. It has a quadrennial General Conference and annual 
and quarterly conferences and general and district committees of the 
annual conferences conduct the work between sessions. There are 
no Bishops or Presiding Elders, and no time limit for the pastorate. 
Each church is supplied largely by invitation. When an invitation is 
accepted by a minister, the annual conference simply ratifies the agree- 
ment, except for grave reasons. All uninvited ministers are sta- 
tioned by the annual conference, and no candidates for the ministry 
are received unless there are churches for them. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 153 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Thirteen state conferences. 

Officers of the General Conference: Pres., Eev. N. B. Fair; 

Sec , J. M. Hays, Laurel, Miss. 

EDUCATIONAL BOAKD. Chmn., T. W. Collins, Ellisville, Miss. 
BOARD OF PUBLICATION, Laurel, Miss. Chmn., G. W. Blacklidge, 
Laurel, Miss.; Sec.-Treas., C. C. Pearson. 


Messenger (semi-monthly), Ellisville, Miss., Editor, Eev. G. C. 


The Congregational Methodist Church was organized at Forsyth, 
Georgia, in May, 1852, as a protest against certain features of the 
episcopacy and itinerancy. The organization was formed for the 
purpose as expressed of securing a more democratic form of Church 
government. The Congregational form of government was adopted, 
although modified by a degree of connectionalism. The movement 
extended into Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi and at 
present churches are to be found in most of the Southern and some 
of the Northern states. 

In 1887 and 1888 nearly one-third of the churches of this organi- 
zation joined the Congregationalists. Later a number of these re- 
turned and the church gained in strength for a while, but within 
the past decade has suffered heavy losses. 

The doctrinal position of the church is distinctly Methodistic. 


Its polity is congregational, constituting the chief distinction be- 
tween it and other Methodists. 

Address Eev. "W. A. Thompson, Stockton, Ga. 


The New Congregational Methodist Church was organized in the 
state of Georgia as a protest against the action of the Board of Mi- 
sions of the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in 1881, consolidating a number of the smaller churches in 
the southern part of the state, without consultation with the Churches 
interested. The New Congregational Methodist Church resulted 
through a movement of these churches, thus consolidated, without 

Dcctrine and Polity 

A new constitution was adopted with a congregational polity 
and the Methodist system of ductrine, emphasizing the parity of the 
ministry, the right of the local church to elect its own officers an- 
nually, the rejection of the principle of assessments, all offerings to 
be absolutely freewill, and permission for those who desired it to ob- 
serve the ceremony of foot-washing in connection with the admin- 
istration of the Lord's Supper. 
The form of Church government is congregational. 

154 Year Book of the Churches 


General Conference, quadrennial. 

Sec., Rev. William D. Johnson, Plains, Ga. 


William W. Beckett, 378 Cumberland St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William D. Chappelle, 1208 Harden St., Columbia, S. C. 

James M. Conner, 1519 Pulaski St., Little Rock, Ark. 

Levi Jenkins Coppin, 1013 Bainbndge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joseph Simeon Flipper, 401 Houston St., Atlanta, Ga. 

William Henry Heard, 1426 Rockland St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Hurst, 1808 McCulloh St., Baltimore, Md. 

J. Albert Johnson, 1412 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joshua H. Jones, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

Benjamin Franklin Lee, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

Henry Blanton Parks, 3312 Calumet St., Chicago, 111. 

Isaac N. Boss, 1616 Fifteenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C., 
and Monrovia, West Africa. 

Benjamin Tucker Tanner (retired), 2908 Diamond St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

William D. Johnson, Plains, Georgia. 

A. J. Carey, 3428 Vernon Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

W. Sampson Brooks, 1405 Argyle Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

William T. Vernon, 27th and Parkway^ Kansas City, Kans. 

William A. Fountain, 418 Houston St., Atlanta, Ga. 

BOARD OF MISSIONS, 61 Bible House, New York City. Sec., Rev. 
J. W. Rankin. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Waco, Tex. Sec., A. S. Jackson. 

SOCIETY OF CHURCH EXTENSION, 1535 Fourteenth St. N. W., 
Washington, D. C. Sec., Rev. B. F. Watson. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, 8th and Lea Avee., Nashville, Tenn. 
Sec., Ira T. Bryant. 

ville, Tenn. Sec., Rev. S. S. Morris, 705 St. Paul St., Norfolk, Va. 

BOARD OF FINANCE, 1541 Fourteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. 
C. Sec., J. R. Hawkins. 

PUBLICATION BOARD, A. M. E. Book Concern, 631 Pine St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Gen. Bus. Mgr., Rev. R. R. Wright, Jr. 

Pres., Mr. Mary F. Handy, 1341 N. Carey St., Baltimore, Md. 

S. C. Pres., Mrs. S. G. Simmons. 

Colleges and Universities 
Name Location President 

AHen University . Columbia, S, C .. ..R W. Mance. 

Campbell College . . Jackson, Miss 

Edward Waters College . . .Jacksonville, Pla 

Kittrel College 
Lampton College 

Payne University 
Paul Qumn College 
Shorter College 

.Kittrel, N C G.A.Edwards. 

. . Alexandria, La. 

Morns Brown University . . ..Atlanta, Ga J B Lewis. 

Selma, Ala H. E. Archer. 

. .Waco, Tex J. K. Williams. 

.Argenta, Ark S L. Green. 

Turner College Shelbyville, Tenn ,.J A. Jones 

Western University Qumsdare, Kans . . P. J. Peck 

Wilberforce University Wilberforce, Ohio J A. Gregg. 

Theological Seminaries 
Theological Department, Allen Univer- Dean 

sity . . . Columbia, S. C 

Payne Theological Seminary Wilberforce, Ohio G F. Woodson. 

Turner Theological Seminary . . ..Atlanta, Ga W. G. Alexander 

Tanner Theological Seminary .Jacksonville, Fla 

Directory of Religious Bodies 155 


Christian Recorder (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. 
R. Wright, Jr.; African Methodist Episcopal Review (quarterly), 
Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, Rev. R. C. Ransom; Southern Christian 
Recorder (weekly), Nashville Term., Editor, Rev. G. W. Allen; Voice 
oj- Missions (monthly), New York City, Editor, Rev. J. W. Rankm; 
The Allemte, Norfolk, Va., Editor, Rev. S. S. Morris; Woman's 
Christian Recorder, Fort Scott, Kans., Editress, Mrs. Katherine D. 


As early as 1787 a company of Negro Methodists in Philadel- 
phia, dissatisfied with conditions and hoping to secure larger privi- 
leges and more freedom of action than they believed possible in as- 
sociation with their white brethren, withdrew, built a chapel and 
obtained a Negro preacher through ordination by Bishop White of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

In 1793, Bishop Asbury dedicated, in Philadelphia, the Bethel 
Church, built by Richard Allen, a well-to-do Negro, and the platform 
adopted by the congregation prohibited their white brethren from 
electing or being elected to an office among them save that of preacher 
or public speaker. Similar societies were organized throughout New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, all under the general supervision 
however, of th-e Methodist Episcopal Church, until 1814, when it was 
announced that the white preachers could no longer retain pastoral 
responsibility for the Bethel congregation. Then, in 1816, the vari- 
ous Negro congregations in this territory met in convention and or- 
ganized a Church, under the title of the African Methodist Episcopal 

Previous to the War Between the States, the development of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church was chiefly confined to Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Marvland, New England states, New 
York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky, the church 
having organized only in one Southern state and that the city of 
New Orleans, La. After the war the Church expanded rapidly 
throughout the South and today it is represented in each of the orig- 
inal slave holding states, while its Northern field includes the North- 
ern states from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Ontario in Canada. 

Richard Allen, who had built the first distinctively Negro church 
in Philadelphia, was elected Bishop and consecrated by five regularly 
ordained ministers, one of whom was a priest of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

Among the points emphasized in the first conference at which 
the organization was given shape were the duty of loyalty and obedi- 
ence to civil government and the parity of the ministry on such basis 
that any minister coming from another denomination should be re- 
ceived in the same official standing that he held in the church from 
which he came. 


The African Methodist Episcopal Church is in substantial agree- 
ment with Methodist bodies generally in doctrine. 


In polity the chief difference between the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church and other bodies of Methodism is that in other 

156 Year Book of the Churches 

Episcopal bodies the Bishops are itinerant, traveling at large through- 
out the denomination, while in the African Church the territory is 
divided into Episcopal districts, over each of which a Bishop is ap- 
pointed and for which he is wholly responsible. 

General Conference, quadrennial. 


J. W. Alstork, 231 Cleveland Ave., Montgomery, Ala. 

G. L. Blackwell, 420 S. llth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

K. B. Bruce, 203 S. Brevard St., Charlotte, N. C. 

J. S. Caldwdl, 420 S. llth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

G. C. Clement, 1425 W. Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. 

G. W. Clinton, 415 N. Myers St., Charlotte, N. C. 

J. W. Hood (retired) , 445 Eamsey St., Fayetteville, N, C. 

L. W, Kyles, 4301 W. Bell Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. L. Lee, 450 Qumcy St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. J. Warner, 220 E. Boundary St., Charlotte, N. C. 

CHURCH EXTENSION, 420 S. llth St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres. f 
Bishop W. L. Lee; Cor. Sec.-Treas., J. C. Dancy. 

EDUCATION, 613 N. Garrison Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Pres., Bishop 
G. L. Blackwell; Cor. Sec.-Treas., J. W, Martin. 

FINANCE, 420 S. llth St , Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Bishop J. S. 
Caldwell; Cor. Sec.-Treas., Rev. W. H. Goler. 

FOBEIGN MISSIONS, 1046 Traub Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. Pres., 
Rev. J. H. McMullen; Cor. Sec.-Treas., J. W. Wood. 

St. Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Mrs, Florence Randolph; Cor. See., Mrs. 
A. W. Blackwell. 

PUBLICATION, Second and Brevard Sts., Charlotte, N. C. Pres., 
Bishop G. W. Clinton; Mgr., J. W. Crockett; Tr&as., Rev. J. Harvey 

St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Bishop A. J. Warner; Cor. Sec., Rev. 
C. W. Winfield; Treas., Rev. A. P. Petly. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, Charlotte, N. C. Pres., Bishop R. B. 
Bruce; Cor. Sec.-Treas., J. W. Eichelberger, Jr. 

MINISTERIAL BROTHERHOOD, 276 Division St., New Haven, Conn. 
Pres., Bishop L. W. Kyles; Cor. Sec.-Treas., Rev. C. S. Whitted. 

EVANGELISM, 1425 W. Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. Pres., Bishop 
G. C. Clement; Sec., E. L. Watkins; Treas., Rev. J. H. McMullen. 

Rev. J. W. Brown; Cor. Sec., Aaron Brown; Treas., Rev. G. M. Oliver. 

LEGION OF FINANCIERS, Yonkers, N. Y. Pres., Rev. W- D. Clin- 
ton; Sec., Rev. J. J. Smyer. 

Rev. J. H. Moseley; Treas., Rev. C. W. P. Mitchell. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Atkinson College Madisonville, Ky. . . J. W. Muir. 

Clinton Institute Rock Hill, S. C R. J. Boulware. 

Dmwiddie A and I School Dmwiddie, Va. , W E. Woodyard. 

Eastern North Carolina Industrial 

School New Bern, N C W. M. Sutton. 

Edenton Normal and Industrial School. Edenton, N. C W P. Games. 

Greenville College Greenville, Tenn. Arthur A. Madison. 

Hood Theological Seminary Salisbury, N. C W 0. Carrington. 

Lancaster High School Lancaster, S. C M." D. Lee, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 157 

Name ' "1 Location President or Dean 

Livingstone College Salisbury, N. C D. C. Suggs. 

Lomax-Hannon High School Greenville, Ala. J. R Wmgfield. 

Macon Industrial School Macon, Ga B. J. Bridges. 

Walters Institute Warren, Ark J. W. Eichelberger. 


Star of Zion (weekly), Charlotte, N. C., Editor., Rev. J. Har- 
vey Anderson; Western Star of Zion (weekly), E. St. Louis, HI., 
Editor, Rev. T. W. Wallace; Quarterly Review, New Rochelle, N. Y., 
Editor, Rev. C. C. Alleyne; Missionary Seer (monthly), Indianapolis, 
Ind., Editor, Rev. J. W. Wood. 


Among the early independent Negro Methodist congregations of 
this country was one organized in New York City in 1796 from mem- 
bers of the old John Street Methodist Church. This independent or- 
ganization was prompted by the desire that "they might have oppor- 
tunity to exercise their spiritual gifts among themselves and thereby 
be more useful to one another" and was occasioned largely by the 
"caste prejudice which forbade their taking the sacrament until the 
white members were all served" and by the desire of other church 
privileges denied them and by the conviction that it would assist in 
the development of a ministry adapted to their needs. The first 
Church was built in the year 1800 and was called "Zion." The next 
year it was incorporated as the African Methodist Episcopal Zion 

Under articles of agreement, this Church was supplied with 
preachers by the Methodist Episcopal Church until 1820, when the 
congregation formally withdrew from the supervision of white pas- 
tors and entered with their congregations into a separate and inde- 
pendent organization. This organization confined its activities to 
the Northern area until 1863, since which times it has had rapid de- 
velopment and has organized generally throughout the South. 


In doctrine, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is in 
accord with the general doctrines of Methodism. 


In polity it is in substantial agreement with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, having the same system of conferences, quarterly, an* 
nual and general. The itinerancy is maintained throughout all ranks 
of ministers. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next session at Muskogee, 
Okla., May, 1926. 

Sec. of Gen. Conf., Eev. M. F. Brinson, Box 301, Fort Val- 
ley, Ga. 


R. S. Williams, 912 Fifteenth St., Augusta, Ga. 
E. Cottrell, Holly Springs, Miss. 
C. H. Phillips, 123 Fourteenth Ave., Nashville, Tenn. 
R. A. Carter, 4408 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
N. C. Cleaves, 4145 Enright St., St. Louis, Mo. 
R. T. Brown, Birmingham, Ala. 

158 Year Book of the Churches 

J. C, Martin, Jackson, Tenn. 

J. A. Hamlett, Nashville, Tenn. 

J. W. McKmney, Sherman, Tex. 

Isaac Lane (retired), 422 Laconte St., Jackson, Tenn. 

BOARD OF MISSIONS. Pres., Bishop N. C. Cleaves; Sec., Rev. J. 
H. Moore, Holly Springs, Miss. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Bishop R, A, Carter; Sec., Rev. J, 
A. Bray, Birmingham, Ala. 

BOARD OF CHURCH EXTENSION. Pres., Bishop R. A. Carter; Sec., 
Rev. R. R. Stout, Louisville, Ky. 

EPWORTH LEAGUE. Pres., Bishop E. Cottrell; Gen. Sec. f Rev. A. 
R. Calhoun, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Pres., Bishop C. H. Phillips; Sec. t Rev. 
J. C. Martin, 109 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD. Pres., Bishop R. S. Williams; Sec., Rev. 
J. W, Gilbert, Augusta, Ga. 

Pres., Bishop N. C. Cleaves; Sec., Rev. T. H. Copeland, Hopkinsville, 

Name Location President 

Haygood Seminary ,Pme Bluffs, Ark 

Homer College , .Homer, La 

Holsej: Normal and Industrial Institute Cordele, Ga 

Lane College . Jackson, Tenn. G. F. Lane. 

Miles Memorial College Birmingham, Ala. R T Brown. 

Mississippi Industrial College . ... Holly Springs, Miss G R. Ramsey 
Oklahoma Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute Boley, Okla . ... A M. D. Wangrum. 

Paine College Augusta, Ga 

Texas College Tyler, Tex W. R. Banks 

Williams Industrial and Normal School South Boston, Va 

Periodicals (weekly) 

Christian Index, Jackson, Tenn., Editor, J. A. Hamlett; Western 
Index, Dallas, Tex., Editor, J. R. Starks; The Index Herald, Shelby 
N. C.; Colored Methodist, Louisville, Ky. 


At the close of the Civil War, a great majority of the colored 
members in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, joined other 
Methodist churches. About seventy-five thousand, however, retained 
their membership m the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The 
General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, held 
in 1886 appointed a Commission, at the request of the colored mem- 
bers of that church, to make a study of the question of relationship 
and to recommend a plan for the organization of the colored members 
into a separate and distinct body to themselves according to a petition 
submitted by the colored representatives sent to the General Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for that purpose. 
Four years later, m 1870, it was found that these colored representa- 
tives had gone forward and succeeded, under the direction of the 
Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in organizing five 
annual conferences among themselves and were unanimous in their 
desire to be properly and orderly set apart in their own ecclesiastical 
integrity. This was approved by the Bishops of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and accordingly steps were taken by the 
Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, forthwith for the 
organization of the General Conference of the Negro members of 
the M. E. Church, South, into a separate body. This was effected on 
December 1, 1870, at Jackson, Tenn., and the new body organized 
under the name of Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 159 


In doctrine, the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church is in com- 
plete harmony with the doctrines of Episcopal Methodism. 


In polity, this organization is essentially the same, with only 
such variations as conditions seem to require, with the polity of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The General Conference con- 
sists of the Bishops, who, however, have no right to vote, and of 
delegates elected from the annual conferences, both ministers and 
laymen, each in equal number. The itinerant system is retained; 
the time limit for preachers to remain in one pastoral charge has 
been ^ removed. Presiding elders are permitted to remain m their 
districts not more than six consecutive years and bishops are per- 
mitted to remain in one district not more than four consecutive 


No report. 


The Colored Methodist Protestant Church was organized in 1840 
at Elkton, in Maryland, on essentially the same principles on which 
the Methodist Protestant Church had been organized some few years 


The doctrines of this Church are in accord with the doctrines of 
Methodism generally. 


The polity of the Church is substantially that of the Methodist 
Protestant Church, having no episcopacy and recognizing only one 
order, that of elders, among the ministers. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 1926. 

Officers: Sec., Rev. Walter L. Castelle, 1922 Latona, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Philip A. Boulden, 1932 Carpenter St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jacob F. Ramsey, 1319 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Benjamin T. Euley, 19 W. 12th St., Wilmington, Del. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. Sec. t Eev. 0. S. Watts, 766 Line St., Cam- 
den, N. J. 

CHUKCH EXTENSION. Sec., Rev. W. L. Castelle, 420 N. Olive St., 
Media, Pa. 

EDUCATION. Sec., Rev. 0. S. Watts, Camden, N. J. 

W. 131st St., New York City. 


Name Location Dean or Prtn. 

Union Industrial School Wilmmgrton, Del S. P. Shepherd. 

Spencer's Training: School Camden, N. J P. A. Boulden. 

160 Year Book of the Churches 


Union Recorder and Messenger, Camden, N. J., Editor, Rev. 0. 
S. Watts; Southern Pioneer, Mobile, Ala., Editor, Rev. W. H. King; 
Union Herald, Chester, Pa., Editor, Rev. H. T. Ryder, 


The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church was formed by 
Negro members of the Methodist Church who were dissatisfied with 
the treatment accorded them, September, 1813. 


They are in accord with the doctrines of Methodism generally, 
candidates for membership, however, being required to assent only 
to the Apostles' Creed. 


The chief difference in polity between this Church and the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church is in the provision for a general convention 
as a constitutional law-making body, such convention to be called 
only when a change in polity or name is under consideration. 


General Conference, last meeting, Wilmington, Del , Septem- 
ber, 1922. 

Officers: Pres., Rt. Rev. D. J. Russell; Sec, Rev. G. A. Cole- 
man, Viola, Del., E. F. D. 

Rev. J. H. Johnson, 4086 Warren St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. Loper, Jr., Felton, Del. 

BOARD OP MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Chmn., Rev. Simon Hines; Sec., 
Rev. J. H. Johnson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa, Gen. Mgr. f Rt. Rev. D. J. Russell. 

College and Seminary 

Name Location President 
Spencer's African Union Methodist Protes- 
tant College and Seminary , . Viola, Del G. A. Coleman. 


The Union Star, Editor, D. J. Russell. 

This body is a union of two distinct organizations of the African 
Union Church and the First Colored Methodist Protestant Church, 
This union was effected in 1866. 


The doctrines of the Church are identical with those of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 


In polity this organization differs considerably from the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, being formed rather after that of the Metho- 
dist Protestant Church. It accords equal rights to ministers and lay- 
men, has lay delegates in the annual conference and the General Con- 
ference, no bishops, and no higher office than that of elder. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 161 


General Conf erenee, quadrennial ; next meeting at La Crosse, 
Va., August, 1922. 

Officers : Pres., Et. Rev. G. W. Taylor, Jumbo, Va. ; Sec., J. 
E. Talley, Invermay, Va. ; Treas., Alex. Baskerville, Joyee- 
ville, Va. 

CHUKCH EXTENSION BOARD. Treas., J. A. Hicks, Jumbo, Va. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL CONVENTION. Pres., D. H. Hendricks, Basker- 
ville, Va.; Sec., Mrs. A. S. Hicks, Meredithville, Va. 

WOMAN'S AUXILIARY. Pres., Mrs. Sallie Winfield, Meredithville, 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Chmn., Eev. F. Watson, La Crosse, Va.; 
Gen. Sec., Rev. J. E. Hines, Lawrenceville, Va. 

A. Vance, Harpervilie, Va.; Sec., Mrs. Annie B. Hill, Warfield, Va. 

Pres., J. A. Hicks, Jumbo, Va.; Sec., Mrs. A. V. Peebles, Jumbo, Va. 


Name Location Principal 

Afro-American Normal and Industrial 
Institute La Crosse, Va F. Watson. 


The Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church was organized as a 
result of dissatisfaction among the Negro Methodists of Southeast- 
ern Virginia, following the War Between the States. It was for- 
mally organized in 1869. Disorganization soon resulted in its com- 
plete disruption, but in 1881 it was reorganized. 


The doctrines of the Church are those common to the Methodist 


There is the same general system of organization, including the 
episcopacy and the series of conferences. The General Conference 
meets annually. 


General Conference, 1924. 

Address, Bishop T. A. Walker, 402 N. 31st St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Walker; Treas., T. W. Allen. 

Organized in Baltimore in 1873. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The general organization follows that of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church and the articles of religion are essentially the same. 

162 Year Book of the Churches 



General Conference, quadrennial. One state conference in 
two divisions. 

General officers- Bishop, Kt. Eev. E. E. Middleton, Sumter, 
S. 0.; Financial Sec., Rev. J. M. Seabrook; Sec. of Education, 
Rev. P. C. Keels, Greeleyville, S. C. ; Sunday School Sec., H. W. 
Washington, "Wedgefield, S. C. ; Missionary Sec., Rev. James S. 
Green, 540 Congress St., Savannah, Ga. ; Mgr. of Publication, 
Rev. A. S. Boston, R. P. D. No. 1, Box 65, Bernini, S. C. ; Sec. 
of Book Concern, Rev. F. R. Young, 117 President St., Charles- 
ton, S. C. 


In 1884 a number of ministers and members of the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church withdrew from that body, and in 1885 
a convention of delegates representing churches in South Carolina 
and Georgia was held, and the Independent Methodist Church or- 
ganized. At first, the organization was non-episcopal, but in 1896 
it was decided to make a change and create an episcopacy and the 
name Eeformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church was adopted. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine and polity of this church are substantially the same 
as those of Episcopal Methodism generally. 

MORAVIAN CHURCH (Unitas Fratrum) 

Two coordinate Provinces of the Unity in America; the 

Northern, with a Provincial Synod meeting every five years ; the 
Southern, with a Provincial Synod meeting every three years 
The next Synod of the Northern Province will meet in 1925. 

Bishops (Address R t. Rev.) 

J. Taylor Hamilton, 424 Avenue C, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Clement Hoyler, 9857 84th Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, Can. 
Charles L. Moench, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Karl A. Mueller, Watertown, Wis. 
Edward Rondthaler, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Northern Province, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. Pres., Bishop 
C. L. Moench; Vice-Pres. and Treas., Rev. Paul de Schweinitz; See., 
Eev. John S. Eomig; Western Vice-Pres., Bishop Karl A. Mueller; 
Acting Sec., Rev. C. D. Kreider. 

Southern Province, Winston-Salem, N. C. Pres., Bishop Edward 
Rondthaler; Sees., Rev. James E. Hall, J. Kenneth Pfohl, John W. 
Fries, Agnew L. Bahnson; Treas., E. H. Stockton. 

BOARD OF CHURCH EXTENSION, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Pres., Rev. Paul de Schweinitz; Sec., Bishop C. L. Moench; Treas., 
Emil J. Bishop. 

PEL AMONG THE HEATHEN, 67 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa* Pres., 

Directory of Religious Bodies 163 

Bishop C. L. Moench; Sec., Rev. C. D. Kreider; Vice-Pres. and Treas., 
Rev. Paul de Schweinitz. 

Colleges and Seminaries 
Name Location President 

Lmden Hall Litrtz, Pa P.W.Stengel. 

Moravian College and Theological 

Seminary Bethlehem, Pa J. Taylor Hamilton 

Moravian Seminary and College 

for Women Bethlehem, Pa R Riemer, 

Nazareth Hall Nazareth, Pa A. D. Thaeler. 

Salem Academy and College for 

Women Wmston-Salem, N. C H. E. Rondthaler. 


The Moravian (weekly), Bethlehem, Pa., Editor, C. D. Kreider; 

The Moravian Missionary (monthly), Gnadenhutten, Ohio, Editor, 
F. R. Nitzschke; Der Brueder-Botschafter (weekly), Watertown, 
Wis., Editor, Bishop Karl A. Mueller. 


From the time of the first propagation of the gospel among them 
by Cyril and Methodius, the Bohemians and Moravians have stood 
for freedom in religious as in national life, and under the leadership 
of John Hus and Jerome of Prague they offered a firm resistance 
to the rule of both the Austrian Empire and the Roman Catholic 
Church. For several years after the martyrdom of Hus in 1415, 
and of Jerome in 1416, their followers had no special organization, 
but in 1457, near Kunwald, in Bohemia, an association was formed 
to foster pure Scriptural teaching and apostolic discipline. 

^ In spite of continued persecution the union grew steadily, so that, 
taking the lowest estimate, it appears that at the beginning of the 
Reformation the brethren had, in Bohemia and Moravia, more than 
400 churches and a membership of at least 150,000, and probably 
200,000 souls. Most cordial relations were maintained with Luther 
and Calvin, though no formal union with the German and Swiss 
churches was ever reached, and the Moravian Confession of Faith, 
published in 1535, had the cordial assent of Luther. After the 
Schmalcald War a branch of the Union was established in Poland. 
In its organization the church was episcopal, having a supreme judge 
to preside in the assembly and a synod to decide matters of faith 
and discipline. Priests, living at first in celibacy, were ordained after 
the apostolic example, and pursued grades for their support. The 
administration of the congregation was in the hands of elected elders 
who had supervision over the church members, the promotion of the 
religious life of the women being in care of matrons. 

The union proved to be strongest in the fields of education and 
literature. In nearly every large town they had schools and a print- 
ing house. Their greatest achievement, however, was the translation 
of the Bible into the Bohemian from the original tongues (com- 
pleted in 1593) and a revision of the Polish Bible was published in 
1632. Hymnals were issued in Bohemian, in German and in Polish. 

Meanwhile, the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church had 
increased, and the Thirty Years' War devastated the country. At 
its commencement Bohemia and Moravia were overwhelmingly evan- 
gelical. At its close, in 1648, the evangelical churches of Bohemia and 
Moravia had been practically destroyed. Large numbers of mem- 
bers had been put to the sword and others had fled into Hungary, 
Saxony, Holland, and Poland, in which countries, as well as in Bo- 
hemia and Moravia, they continued in scattered communities. The 

164 Year Book of the Churches 

last well-known bishop of the United Church, the famous educator, 
John Amos Comenius, died at Amsterdam in 1670. 

In 1722 a small company from Moravia, followed later by others 
who cherished the traditions of their ancestral church, were per* 
mitted to settle on an estate of Nicholas Louis, Count of Zinzendorf, 
in Saxony, where the village of Herrnhut arose. Colonists came from 
Germany also, and an association was formed in which the religious 
plans of Zinzendorf and those of the Moravians were combined. The 
Protestant confession of the realm was accepted, and a distinct order 
and discipline, perpetuating elements of the old Moravian Church, 
was established under royal concessions. In 1735 the historic Mo- 
ravian episcopate was transferred to the association by two surviving 
bishops of the old line who were filling State Church positions in Ger- 
many, and the Unitas Fratrum, or Church of the Brethren, known at 
the present time in England and America as the Moravian Church, 
was established. 

The chief purpose of the church was to carry on evangelistic 
work in Christian and heathen lands. In accordance with this pur- 
pose, the first Moravian missionary came to Pennsylvania in 1734, 
and in the same year an attempt was made at colonization and mis- 
sionary work in Georgia. David Nitschmann, the first Moravian 
bishop in America, who, in 1731, had helped to found the first Mo- 
ravian mission among the heathen in the West Indies, came to 
Georgia in 1736. Political disturbances ruined the work in Georgia, 
and in 1740 the colony moved to Pennsylvania. In 1741 Bishop 
Nitschmann and his associates founded the town of Bethlehem, and 
a little later the neighboring domain belonging to the evangelist, 
George Whitefield, which he had named Nazareth, was purchased. 
A cooperative union to develop the settlements and support mis- 
sionary work was formed by the colonists, and was maintained until 
1762. All labored for a common cause and received sustenance from 
a common stock, but there was no surrender of private property or 
of personal liberty, nor any individual claim on the common estate. 
Missionary work was begun among the Indians and also among the 
white settlers, as well as in foreign lands, the first native born 
American missionary being sent from Bethlehem, Pa., May, 1746. 

In 1749 an act of Parliament recognized the Moravian Church 
as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church." This gave it standing 
and privileges in all British dominions; but its policy of doing unde- 
nominational leavening work, with the hope of furthering evangelical 
alliance, caused it to remain a comparatively small body. In subse- 
quent years it was mainly active in cooperating with the European 
branches of the church in the conduct of missions among the heathen. 

Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in Pennsylvania, and Bethabara 
and Salem, in North Carolina, were organized in colonial times as 
exclusive Moravian villages, after the model of the Moravian com- 
munities in Germany, England, and Holland. During the years be- 
tween 1844 and 1856 this exclusive system was abolished, and ( the 
organization of the church was remodeled to suit modern conditions. 
At the same time home missionary work was revived, and since then 
membership of the church in the United States has been quadrupled. 


The Moravian Church has no doctrine peculiar to itself. It is 
simply and broadly evangelical, in harmony with Protestants gen- 
erally on the essentials of Christian teaching. 


In polity the Moravian Church is a modified episcopacy. Every 
congregation has a council composed of communicant members who 

Directory of Religious Bodies 165 

have attained the age of 21 years, and have subscribed to the rules 
and regulations of the congregation. 

The general supervision of the congregation rests with the gen- 
eral and provincial synods. The American branch of the church, 
composed of a northern and a southern province, and the European 
branches are federated in a "Unity," with a general synod, which is 
an international representative body meeting at least once in a 

There are three orders of the ministry bishops, presbyters, and 

The church has an established liturgy, with a litany for Sunday 
morning and a variety of services for different church seasons, the 
general order of the ancient church year being observed. 


No report obtainable. 


The scattered bands of Bohemian and Moravian Christians, after 
the general dispersion consequent upon the Thirty Years' War, re- 
tained their religious life through the persecutions which broke out 
from time to time. 

The first considerable immigration to America of adherents of 
this Union came after the revolutionary period of 1848. Those from 
Bohemia and western Moravia settled chiefly in the Northern states; 
while those from eastern Moravia almost without exception turned 
to Texas. The first Bohemian evangelical sermon in Texas was 
preached in 1855. The first congregation was organized in 1864 at 
Wesley, Texas. 

The next step was the calling of an assembly of delegates of all 
the congregations to meet at Granger, Texas, in 1903. 

At a second synodal assembly at Taylor, Texas, in 1904, a general 
constitution was prepared and accepted and a state charter secured. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The basis of doctrine of the Evangelical Union of Bohemian and 
Moravian Brethren is the "Confessio Fratrum Bohemorum," of the 
Confession of Faith of the Union of the Bohemian Brethren, pre- 
sented to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, by the Lords and Knights 
of the Union in 1608. Other doctrinal symbols, as the Helvetic, or 
Reformed, and the Augsburg, or Lutheran confessions, are accepted 
in so far as they agree with the Bible, which is with the Brethren 
the only rule of faith, intercourse, and life. 

The legislative and executive authority is intrusted to a synod, 
which meets annually on the 6th of July in commemoration of the 
burning at the stake of John Huss. 


Address Eev. Francis Pokorny, E. D. 3, Cedar Eapids, 

166 Year Book of the Churches 


In 1858 a group of 6 families, formerly members of the Ee- 
formed Church of Bohemia, under the leadership of Rev. Francis 
Kun, organized the First Bohemian and Moravian Church, in Col- 
lege Township, Linn County, Iowa. 

While claiming the same origin as the Moravian Church (Unitas 
Fratrum) and the Evangelical Union of Bohemian and Moravian 
Brethren, these churches are not ecclesiastically connected with 
either of these bodies. They hold friendly relations with the Pres- 
byterian. Reformed, and Bohemian churches of the Northwest and 
East, and enter into accord with them in movements for education 
and missionary work, in these respects affiliating especially with the 
Central West (Bohemian) Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Independent Bohemian and Moravian churches recognize the 
Helvetic and Westminster confessions of faith and use the Heidel- 
berg and Westminster catechisms. They administer baptism to the 
children of believers, and to adults on profession of faith. The 
Lord's Supper is celebrated four times a year, according to the usage 
of the Reformed Church of Bohemia. In polity these churches are 


Annual convention. 

Twenty-four state associations. 

Officers : Pres., Dr. George B. "Warne, Chicago, 111. ; Sec., Rev. 
George W. Kates, Washington, D. C. ; Treas., Cassius L. Ste- 
vens, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

PROGRESSIVE LYCEUMS (Sunday Schools). National Supt., Mrs. 
Anna L. Gillespie, Battle Creek, Mich. 

wise, Bangor, Maine. 

PUBLICITY BUREAU. Chmn., Geo. B. Warne, Chicago, 111. 


Name Looatuyn Dean 

Morris Pratt Institute Whitewater, Wis A. J. Wearer. 


Progressive Thinker (weekly), Chicago, 111., Editor, Mrs. M, E. 
Cadwallader ; Banner of Life (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, H. 
C. Berry; Reason (monthly) , Los Angeles, Calif., .Editor, Dr. B. F. 
Austin; The National Spiritualist (monthly), Chicago, 111., Editor, 
Dr. George B. Warne. 


This organization traces its origin to the writings of Andrew 
Jackson Davis, published in 1845. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century almost no religious 
denomination taught or believed in the possibility of communion 
with those who had passed to the spirit world. Very little emphasis 

Directory of Religious Bodies 167 

was laid upon the universal fatherhood of God and brotherhood of 
man. Furthermore, the idea of progression after death was enter- 
tained by very few. In view of these and other facts, Mr. Davis and 
his followers, representing nearly every religious denomination, as 
well as the Materialists, felt that it was necessary to go outside of 
the accepted orders of thought and establish an entirely new move- 

From 1850 to 1872 local organizations sprang up throughout the 
United States, but no attempt was made to organize a national asso- 
ciation until 1863. In 1863 the National Spiritualists ' Association of 
the United States of America was organized. 


Special emphasis is laid on right living here upon earth, be- 
lieving that their condition in the spirit life depends entirely upon 
what they do while in mortal form. 

The Declaration of Principles contains the following: 

We believe in Infinite Intelligence; and that the phenomena of 
nature, physical and spiritual, are the expressions of Infinite Intel- 

We affirm that a correct understanding of such expressions, and 
living in accordance with them, constitute the fcn^e religion; that the 
existence and personal identity of the individual continue after the 
change called "death," and that communication with the so-called 
"dead" is a fact scientifically proven by the phenomena of Spirit- 

We believe that the highest morality is contained in the Golden 
Rule: "Whatsoever ye would that others should do unto you, do ye 
also unto them." 

We affirm the moral responsibility of the individual, and that 
he makes his own happiness or unhappiness as he obeys or dis- 
obeys Nature's psychic laws. 

We affirm that the doorway to reformation is never closed against 
any human soul, here or hereafter. 

Spiritualists believe that the spirit world is a counterpart of the 
visible world, only more beautiful and perfect, and that those who 
enter it must be free from the impress of evil wrought while in the 
body. They are almost unanimous in their belief in progression after 
the death of the body, and in the final restoration of all souls to a 
state of happiness; and they hold that those who die in childhood 
grow to maturity in spirit life. They further believe that punish- 
ment for wrongdoing continues beyond the grave until every vestige 
of it has been cleared away through honest effort. They are opposed 
to war, to capital punishment, to restrictive medical laws, and to 
every form of tyranny, political or religious. They declare there is 
no forgiveness for sin and assert that every man must work out his 
own destiny. Their views with regard to God are widely divergent, 
but the great majority of them accept Theism, using the word in the 
broadest possible sense, as the foundation of their philosophy. 

The organization of the Spiritualists is congregational. 


Office 4324 Vineennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Officers : Supreme Pastor, Eev. G. V. Cordingley ; Sec., Eev. 
F. E. MeNabb; Treas., Eev. Minnie Foss Eeaderj Eev. A. L. 
Hanson, Seminary Lake Villa, 111. 

168 Year Book of the Churches 


The Progressive Spiritualist Church was established to embrace 
the rapidly increasing number of individuals who had come to regard 
spirit communication not only as a scientifically demonstrated fact, but 
as a revelation no less divine in its origin than those recorded in 
the Holy Scriptures; and who believed that God did not cease His 
revelations 2,000 years ago, but that the increased facility of ^spirit 
communication of the present day is but a logical development in the 
spiritual evolution of the human race. 

It was founded by Rev. G. V. Cordingley. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The doctrine of this church is, in general, that of conventional 
Christianity, modified by later divine revelations received in spirit 


Headquarters : Boston, Mass. Address, Charles A. Kowe, P. 
0. Box 2662, Boston, Mass. 

No organization or regular membership, no church, buildings 
or paid ministry. 


The Echoes of the Stumbling Stone, Boston, Mass., Editor, 
Charles A. Rowe. 


The Non-Sectarian Churches of Bible Faith, founded by Lyman 
H. Johnson, 1868, protest against the generally accepted concep- 
tion of church organization. The basic principle lies in the interpre- 
tation of the term church. "This word," they say, "as traditionized, 
is made to mean a society organized by man like secular corpora- 
tions, except for religious purposes; a joint interest and agreement 
of several Christians under covenants and laws they have adopted is 
essential to the meaning of the word "church," as generally under- 
stood." This interpretation, in their view, classes "with infidels and 
the irreligious" those Christians outside of church organizations and 
"is an injustice to such Christians and contrary to the Bible mean- 
ing of the word." The truth as they recognize it, is that churches 
of Christ have always existed outside of sectarian systems. They say 
that the Greek word "ecclesia," which is translated "church" in Eng- 
lish, has the meaning "called out" that is, "converted out of the 
world by a change of heart into the assembly of Christians on 
earth" and they hold that the church exists where one person is 
thus called out from the world. The idea of the assembly thus con- 
stituted has no reference to locality or organization, and the church 
is the "body of Christ," including "all who are in Christ regardless of 
locality." They find no account in the Bible of any Christian joining 
the church; he is already a member by faith in Christ, and every de- 
scription of the church in any city or house of the New Testament is 
simply of one or more Christians living there. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the churches agree substantially with the so-called 
"orthodox or evangelical churches." They hold the Bible to be the 
divinely inspired rule of faith and practice and reject all creeds and 
disciplines not contained in it. They believe in the Trinity, the 
vicarious atonement of Christ, the baptism of the Holy Spirit as the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 169 

the antitype of water baptism, a final judgment, and an eternal 
heaven and hell. 

There is no general ecclesiastical organization. No head over 
individual members is recognized but Christ, and though there are 
elders in each community or church, they are regarded simply as 
teachers, having no ecclesiastical authority. In their view, the only 
authority is "the authority of the truth," which is the authority of 
God to all who are convinced of the truth of the Bible. The minis- 
ters receive no salary, and the necessary expenses connected with 
the preaching services are met by voluntary contributions. 


General Conference, quadrennial; next meeting, May, 1925; 
place unknown. 

Ten conferences. 

Headquarters: Franklin Springs, Koyston, Ga. A Literary 
and Bible School and printing plant is conducted at Franklin 
Springs, Ga. 

Officers : Gen. Supt , Rev. J. H. King, Royston, Ga. ; Asst. 
Gen. Supts., E. D. Reeves, 503 Salem Ave., Roanoke, Va.; S. A. 
Bishop, 2429 37th Ave., Birmingham, Ala.; Gen. Sec., L. R. 
Graham, 652 Bast Trigg Ave., Memphis, Tenn. ; Gen Treas., 
Rev. G. F. Taylor, Royston, Ga. 

Committee to complete Official Board : A. H. Butler, Falcon, 
N. C.; P. F. Beaeham, 254 Briggs Ave., Greenville, S. C.; F. M. 
Britton, Royston, Ga. ; Ralph Taylor, Route No. 3, Anderson, 
S. C.; F. M. Bramblett, McCormick, S. C.; R. B. Beall, 916 
North Kellham, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (weekly), Royston, Ga., Editor, 
Rev. G. F. Taylor. 


The Pentecostal Holiness Church, as it now exists, is a union 
of three or more former organizations. The two principal organiza- 
tions that came together to form said church were the Fire-Baptized 
Holiness Church and the Pentecostal Holiness Church. The former 
was organized at Anderson, S. C., m 1898, and the latter at Clinton, 
N. C., in 1899. The union of these two organizations under the name 
of the Pentecostal Holiness Church was effected at Falcon, N. C., in 
January, 1911. There are ten annual conferences, spread out over 
the territory embraced within lines drawn from Maryland to Florida 
and from the Atlantic Ocean to Oklahoma. It has a membership of 
7,000, including 469 ministers m America and more than five hun- 
dred in foreign lands. Fourteen missionaries and a dozen native 
workers are supported in South Africa, South China, and in India. 


Accepts the Apostles' Creed; believes that the Bible is the true 
and full revelation of God to man; that regeneration and justifica- 
tion are by faith alone; sanctification as a second definite work of 
grace to "be received subsequent to regeneration; the Baptism of the 
Holy Spirit to be received subsequent to sanctification and evidenced 

170 Year Book of the Churches 

by speaking in other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance; divine 
healing as in the Atonement; that there is eternal peace for the 
righteous and never-ending torment for the wicked; the personal, 
pre-millennial second coming of Jesus. 


The form of government is episcopal but the majority vote rules. 
Each local church is entitled to a lay representative at the session 
of the annual conference. Each annual conference is entitled to lay 
representation at the General Conference. The General Conference 
enacts all laws of discipline, and elects a General Board who have 
oversight of the work. Each annual conference has an Official 
Board elected by the conference who have oversight of the work of 
the conference. The chief officer of the annual conference is called 
Conference Superintendent, and the chief officer of the whole church 
is called General Superintendent. 


(Formerly International Holiness Church) 
General Assembly, biennial; nest meeting 1923. 
Officers Gen. 8upt., Rev. Winifred E. Cox, 712 Silver Ave., 
Greensboro, N C ; Asst. Supts , Rev. G-. Arnold Hodgin, 1455 
Atchison St., Pasadena, Calif., and Rev. C. Gr. Taylor, Kings- 
wood, Ky. ; Gen. Sec. and Treas , Rev Paul H, Qreeson, Handle- 
man, N. C ; Statistical Sec , J L. Kennett, 28 Louis Block, 
Dayton, Ohio. 

GENERAL MISSIONARY BOARD. Chmn., Rev. E. G. Finch; Treas., 
Rev. M. 0. Standley, 1810 Young St., Cincinnati, Ohio; Sec., Rev. 
Henry Oleson, Trappe, Maryland. 


Name Location President 

Bible Holiness Seminary Owosso, Mich C, G Taylor 

Kmgswood College .....Kmgrswood, Ky. H. P. Thomas 

Beulah Holiness Academy . . . Shacklesford, Va 

Apostolic Holiness University Greensboro, N, C W. R. Cox. 

Holiness Seminary Allentown, Pa. . . .... 


International Holiness Advocate, King^wood, Ky., Editor, Rev. 
C. G. Taylor. 


Organized in 1897, at Cincinnati, Ohio, by the Rev. Martin W. 
Knapp, previously a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


The doctrine of the organization emphasizes the sanctification of 
believers as a definite second work of grace instantaneously received 
by faith, the healing of the sick through faith in Christ, the pre- 
millennial reign of Christ on earth, and the evangelization of the 
world as a step in hastening the coming of the Lord. 

The Lord's Supper, to whicH admission is general, is observed 
as often as the congregation deems proper. The mode of baptism is 
left wholly to individual option. 


The government corresponds closely to that of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The local union has as its ecclesiastical authority 

Directory of Religious Bodies 171 

an advisory board, consisting of a superintendent, an assistant super- 
intendent, a secretary, a treasurer, and three other members. The 
governing officers of a local church are the pastor, assistant pastor, 
licensed preachers, secretary, treasurer, five elders, and five deacons. 

There is a state organization which meets annually and a Gen- 
eral Assembly, which meets quadrennially and, in addition to its 
own officers, elects a general superintendent, an assistant superin- 
tendent, a general secretary, a treasurer, and three others, who ^ act 
with the officers as a general council, to which all disputed questions 
of government and discipline mav be referred for final decision. 

The Churches choose their own pastors. Pastors are supported 
by freewill offerings, and very few have any regular salary. The 
elders have special care for the spiritual interests of the church. 
The deacons receive the offerings, prepare the sacraments and care 
for the poor. Deaconesses may be ordained for special missionary 
work, and the admission of women to the ministry has been recom- 

Camp meetings under the charge of the state and district organi- 
zations are held annually, during the summer season in the North 
and during the winter season in the South. 


General Synod, decennial ; next session, 1930. 

Provincial Synods, biennial. 

Four provinces : Eastern, Central, Western and Northern. 

Bishops (Address Rt. Bev.) 

Francis Bonczak, 592 Hayes Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Francis Hodur, 529 Locust St., Scranton, Pa. 
Valentine Gawrychowski, 182 Sobieski St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location Principal 

Theological Seminary Scranton, Pa Francis Hodur. 


Straz (Guard) (weekly), Scranton, Pa. 

With the increasing immigration from Poland and the establish- 
ment of large Polish Koman Catholic churches in a number of Amer- 
ican cities, misunderstandings and disputes developed between the 
ecclesiastical authorities and the lay members of the Polish parishes. 
These were occasioned chiefly by dissatisfaction on the part of the 
laymen with the "absolute religious, political, and social power over 
the parishioners," given by the Council of Baltimore in 1883 to the 
Eoman Catholic priesthood; and by the rather free exercise of that 
power on the part of certain Polish Roman Catholic Priests. The 
situation was aggravated, in some cases, by the placing of other 
than Polish priests in charge of Polish churches. The result was 
that disturbances arose, which developed, at times, into riots. In 
Buffalo, N. Y., a popular Polish priest was removed, and a protest 
made against the installation of his successor resulted in a general 
decree of excommunication. The congregation laid claim to the 
church property, but the claim was disallowed by the courts. The 
congregation then purchased ground, put up a new edifice of its 
own, and declared itself absolutely independent of the former eccle- 
siastical leaders. 

172 Year Book of the Churches 

In Chicago, 111., there was a revolt against the Polish Order of 
Resurrectionists, and especially against a certain Polish priest; and 
in Cleveland, Ohio; in Scranton and Shamokin, Pa., and elsewhere, 
similar troubles occurred. 

A convention of independent congregations was held at Scran- 
ton in September, 1904, and was attended by 147 clerical and lay 
delegates, who represented about 20,000 adherents in 5 states. As a 
result, these churches in northeastern Pennsylvania, together with 
others in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland, 
combined to form the Polish National Church, the Rev. Francis 
Hodur being elected as its head, with the title of bishop. He was 
subsequently consecrated by the National Catholic bishops of the 
Netherlands. A constitution was adopted, and the Latin books of 
Holy Church Rites were ordered to be translated into the Polish 
language. Resolutions were adopted expressing a desire for fra- 
ternal and sympathetic cooperation with other Christian churches, 
and repudiating the claim of the Roman Catholic Church to be the 
sole exponent of the true doctrines of Christ. 

This convention, or synod, was the first gathering of its kind 
held by Polish people since the Reformation movement in Poland was 
crushed in the seventeenth century. At a special session of the synod, 
held in Scranton two years later, the various church charters were 
unified, the church constitution was amended, and two new feasts 
were instituted, the Feasts of Botherly Love and Union of the Polish 
People m America, to be observed on the second Sunday in Septem- 
ber of each year, and the Feast of the Poor Shepherds, to be ob- 
served on the first Sunday after Christmas. At the following synod 
three more feasts were added: The Feast of the Institution of the 
Polish National Church, to be observed on the second Sunday in 
March; the Feast of the Memory of the Martyrs of the Polish Nation, 
to be observed on the second Sunday m May; the Feast of the Chris- 
tian Family, to be observed on the second Sunday in October, of 
each year. 

The controlling motive of the conventions was both a desire for 
freedom in religious institutions corresponding to that in other de- 
partments of American life, and a protest against the placing by the 
Roman Catholic Church of all power, administrative as well as spirit- 
ual, in the hands of the ecclesiastics. This freedom included in their 
view the right of the congregations to own and control their church 
edifices, schools, orphanages, etc.; the right of the individual to read 
and study the Bible for himself; and the corresponding right to work 
out his own salvation, not through ceremonies, but through a better 
understanding of the doctrines of Christ in their application to pri- 
vate and to public life. 

One or two churches in Chicago, Illinois, together with churches 
in Indiana and Wisconsin, and several in the East, organized another 
independent diocese, known as the Polish Independent Catholic 
Church, of which the Rev. Anton Kozlowski was eventually made 
bishop. Subsequently these two organizations united to form the 
Polish National Catholic Church of America, which includes all 
the Independent Polish Catholic churches of the TTnited States, ex- 
cept one at Buffalo, N. Y. 


The doctrine of the Polish National Catholic Church of Amer- 
ica is based upon the Bible, and especially upon the New Testament, 
as expounded by the apostles and the first four Ecumenical councils, 
and as further interpreted by the synod of the church. It is also 
held that the hearing of the Word of God preached in the National 
Church is a sacrament, for it has "the power to pour in the soul 
the Divine Grace," leading to the knowledge of truth, spiritual regen- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 173 

eration, and union with God. The church rejects the doctrine of the 
infallibility of the Pope in matters of faith and morals, and be- 
lieves that all men have the right to interpret the Word of God 
according to their convictions and the dictates of their conscience. 

It believes the "man, by following the Supreme Being, is in this 
life capable of attaining a certain degree of the happiness and of 
the perfection which is possessed of God in an infinite degree"; that 
"faith is helpful to man toward his salvation, though not absolutely 
necessary," which is especially true of "blind faith." Good deeds, 
however, it holds "bring us nearer to God, and to His Mediator, Jesus 
Christ, and make us worthy of being His followers and brothers, and of 
being children of the Heavenly Father." It rejects the doctrine of 
eternal punishment and believes that "even sinful man, after under- 
going an intrinsic metamorphosis through contrition, penance, and 
noble deeds, may have a chance to regain the grace of God." Sin is 
regarded as a "lack of perfection in the essence of man, and as 
mankind progresses in this knowledge of the causes of life and the 
nature of God, and comes nearer and nearer to Him, sin will grad- 
ually grow less and less until it vanishes entirely. Then man will be- 
come the true image and child of God, and the kingdom of God will 
prevail upon earth." 


The constitution vests the highest authority of the church in 
the synod. This conven-es in regular session every five years, although 
a special session may be called at the request of one-third of the 
members of the church at any time when the bishop deems it neces- 
sary. Each congregation is governed by a board of trustees, elected 
by the members, and working in harmony with the priests assigned to 
it. The question cf the celibacy of the clergy has been discussed, 
but action was postponed. 

The administrative power is centralized in the bishop and the 
grand council, which is composed of three clerical and three lay 
members, who are elected at each regular session of the synod. 


As the Lutheran churches represent those features of the 
Reformation emphasized by Luther, so the Presbyterian and Re- 
formed churches represent those emphasized by Zwingli and 
Calvin. The doctrinal and ecclesiastical system developed at 
Zurich and Geneva, modified somewhat in Holland and in 
France, and transferred to Scotland, became solidified there 
largely under the influence of John Knox in 1560, and found 
a practical and thoroughly logical presentation in the Westmin- 
ster Assembly, London, England, 1643-1649 . This was not a 
distinctively Presbyterian body. Called by act of Parliament 
to consider the state of the entire country, in matters of re- 
ligion, it represented in its membership all English-speaking 
Christians, although the Anglicans took practically no part in its 
deliberations. It had no ecclesiastical authority, yet its deliv- 
erances on doctrine have furnished the basis both for Presby- 
terian and many non-Presbyterian bodies, and the form of eccle- 
siastical government it recommended has gone far beyond the 

174 Year Book of the Churches 

country where it was formulated, and has had a marked influ- 
ence not only on church life, but in civil and national develop- 
ment. In England it led to the development of the Independ- 
ents who afterwards became the Congregationalists. In Scot- 
land, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it resulted in 
the, development of several Presbyterian bodies, and one of its 
strongholds was the north of Ireland, where so many Scotch 
found a more congenial home for the time being, until they 
should cross the Atlantic. 

The distinctively Presbyterian churches of the United States 
trace their origin chiefly to Great Britain Whatever of English 
and Welsh Presbyterianism there was in the colonies, together 
with the few French Protestant or Huguenot churches, com- 
bined at an early date with the Scotch and Scotch-Irish ele- 
ments to form the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, from which the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States afterwards sepa- 
rated. The Calvinistic Methodists of Wales are represented by 
the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church. Five Presbyterian de- 
nominations are directly connected with the Secession and Re- 
lief movements of the church in Scotland in the eighteenth cen- 
tury; the United Presbyterian Church of North America; the 
Associate Synod of North America, known also as the Associate 
Presbyterian Church; the Associate Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church, formerly the Associate Eeformed Synod of the South; 
the Synod and the General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian 

In close harmony with these distinctively Presbyterian 
churches are the Reformed churches traceable to the influence 
of immigration from the continent of Europe; particularly, the 
Reformed Church in America and the Christian Reformed 
Church, both of which originated in Holland ; and the Reformed 
Church in the United States, whose beginnings were in Switzer- 
land and Germany. All of these, Presbyterian and Reformed, 
substantially agree in government, and all maintain similar prin- 
ciples of the Calvinistic system, whether expressed in the West- 
minster Confession of Faith, the Canons of the Synod of Dort, 
or the Heidelberg Catechism. The Alliance of Reformed 
Churches throughout the world holding the Presbyterian system, 
whose special purpose is to secure cooperation by the different 
denominations in general church work, has grown out of this 
concord, as has also the Council of the Reformed Churches in 
the United States, holding the Presbyterian system, organized 
for the same general purpose. 

Presbyterianism as a doctrinal system has as its fundamental 
principles the undivided sovereignty of God in Ms universe, 
the sovereignty of Christ in salvation, the sovereignty of the 
Scriptures in faith and conduct, and the sovereignty of the in- 
dividual conscience in the interpretation of the Word of God. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 175 

As a polity it recognizes Christ as the only head of the church 
and source of all power, and the people of Christ as entitled 
under their Lord to participation in the government and admin- 
istration of the church. As polity and as doctrine it maintains 
the. right of private judgment in matters of religion, the mem- 
bership in the Church Universal of all who profess the true re- 
ligion, the validity of church organization, and the power of 
each association of organizations to prescribe its own terms of 
communion. It further holds that ministers are peers one of 
another, and that church authority is positively vested, not in 
individuals, such as bishops or presbyters, but in representative 
courts, including the session, the presbytery, and the synod ; and 
in the case of some bodies, especially the larger ones, the general 
assembly. This principle of coordinate representative authority, 
by which the individual member of the church has Ms own 
share in the conduct of that church, while, at the same time, he 
recognizes not merely the headship of Christ, but the fellowship 
in Christ, has given to the system a peculiar hold wherever there 
has been representative government, and has exerted a strong 
influence modifying both individualistic and hierarchial tend- 
encies. Its advocates call attention to the resemblance between 
its polity and the political constitution of the United States, in 
which country it has had its strongest influence; its courts cor- 
responding in a measure to the local, state, and national organi- 




The Presbyterian and Reformed Churches throughout the 
world, having essentially the same creedal basis and similar 
ecclesiastical organization, for purposes of fellowship and con- 
ference have organized a "World Alliance. There is a General 
Council in which all are represented and which meets every 
four years. There are also an Eastern and a Western Section 
which meet separately at the convenience of their constituent 

General Council. 

Officers Pres., Rev. John McNaugher, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Vice- 
Pres., Eastern Sec , Eev. J. N. Ogilvie, Edinburgh, Scotland ; 
Vice-Pres., Western Sec., Rev. James I. Good, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Acting Gen. Sec., Rev. J. R. Fleming, Edinburgh, Scotland; 
American Sec., Rev. Henry B. Master, 510 Witherspoon Bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eastern Section: Includes Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. The Re- 
formed Church in Hungary is a member of the Eastern Section. 

Western Section: Includes Presbyterian and Reformed 

176 Year Book of the Churches 

Churches in the U. S., Canada, and South America. Office, 510 
Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Officers: Chmn, Rev. W. I. Chamberlain; See.? Kev. Henry 
B. Master; Treas., Philip E. Howard. 



Officers: Pres , Rev. J. Sprole Lyons, Atlanta, Ga.; Stated 
Clerk, Kev. William P. Fulton, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Eev. 
David F. McGill, Bellevue, Pa. 



General Assembly, annual; next meeting in Indianapolis. 
Ind., May 17, 1923. 

Forty-six synods, 301 presbyteries. 

Officers of the General Assembly: Mod , Eev. Calvin C. Hays, 
Johnstown, Pa. ; Stated Clerk, Rev. Lewis S. Mndge, 514 Wither- 
spoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Trustees of the General Assembly, 1319 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Pres., George Stevenson; Rec. Sec., H. P. Ford; 
Treas., The Philadelphia Trust Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

spoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Chmn., Eev. Calvin C. Hays; Sec*, 
Rev. Lewis S. Mudge. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. Pres., 
Eev. Wilton Merle-Smith; Gen. Sec., Rev. John A. Marquis; Sees., 
Rev. B. P. Fullerton, Rev. John McDowell, Rev. W. R. King; Treas., 
Varian Banks. 

BOAED OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Rev. George Alexander; Sees , Robert E. Speer, Rev Ar- 
thur J. Brown, Rev. Stanley White, Rev. Wm. P. Schell; Treas., 
Dwight H. Day. Organ: All the World. 

GENERAL BOARD OF EDUCATION, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 
Pres., Rev. Hugh T. Kerr; Gen. Sec., Edgar P. Hill; Treas., Edward 
R. Sterrett. 

spoon Bldg., 1319 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Franklin L. 
Sheppard; Sec., Rev. Harold McAfee Robinson; Editor, Rev. John T. 
Faris; Supt. of Missions, John M. Somerndike; Business Supt., F. 
M. Braselman; Treas., Marshall S. Collingwood; Manufacturer, 
Henry F. Sheetz. 

BOARD OP CHURCH ERECTION, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Pres., Rev. Ford C. Ottman; Rec. Sec., W. K Gilchrist; Gen. Sec., 
Rev. David G. Wylie; Treas., Rev. George R. Bauer. 

erspoon Bldg., 1319 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Rev. George 
F. Greene; Gen Sec., Rev. Henry B. Master; Asso. Sees., Rev. Robert 
Hunter, Rev. Wm. S. Holt; Treas., Rev. William W. Heberton. 

BOA&D OF MISSIONS FOR FREEDMEN, Bessemer Bldg., Sixth St., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Pres., Rev. Samuel J. Fisher; Gen. Sec. and Treas., 
Rev. John M. Gaston. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 


BOARD OP TEMPERANCE, Columbia Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pres., Rev. Thomas Waiters; Gen Sec., Rev. Charles Scanlon 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chmn , Charles L. Huston; Sec. and Treas., Rev. 
George G. Mahy. 

Timothy Stone; Gen Sec., Rev. W F. Weir, 19 S. La Salle St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

New York City. Chmn., Rev. H. H. McQuillan; Sec., Rev. H. L. 

NEW EEA COMMITTEE, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. Chmn., 
J. T. Mansem; Gen. Sec, Rev Wm. H. Foulkes; Treas., A R. Nichol. 

City. Pres., Mrs. F. S. Bennett; Gen. Sec., Miss Lucy H. Dawson, 
Organ: Home Missions Monthly. 

City. Pres., Miss Margaret E Hodge; Gen. Sec., Mrs. Charles EL 

Colleges and Universities 
Name Location 

Albany College Albany, Oreg. .. 

Alma College .... . . . . Alma, Mich. . 

Buena Vista, College Storm Lake, Iowa 

Carroll College Waukesha, Wis. 

Cumberland University Lebanon, Tenn, . 

Davis and Elkins College Elkms, W. Va. 

Emporia, College of Empona, Kans. 

Hastings College Hastings, Neb. 

Huron College Huron, S. D . 

Idaho, College of Caldwell, Idaho . 

Illinois College Jacksonville, 111. . 

James Milliken University, 

Decatur College and Industrial School Decatur, 111. . . . 

Jamestown College Jamestown, N. D 

Kentucky College for Women Danville, Ky. . . 

Lafayette College Easton, Pa. .. 

Lincoln College Lincoln, 111. . 

Lmdenwood College St. Charles, Mo 

Macalester College St. Paul, Minn 

Maryville College Maryville, Tenn. 

Missouri Valley College Marshall, Mo. 

Ozarks, College of The Clarksmlle, Ark, 

Parsons College Fairfield, Iowa 

Pikeville College Pikeville, Ky. 

Rollins College Winter Park, Fla.. 

Trinity University Waxahachie, Tex. 

Tulsa, University of , Tulsa, Okla 

Waynesburg College Waynesburg, Pa. . 

Westminster College Fulton, Mo . . . 

Westminster College Salt Lake City, Utah 

Whitworth College Spokane, Wash, .... 

Wilson College Chambersburg, Pa . 

Wootfer, The College of Wooster, Ohio 

President or Dean 
.A M Williams. 
.H. M. Crooks. 
.Rev A M Boyd 
.W. A Ganfield, 
.John Royal Harris 
.James E. Allen. 
.Frederick W. Lewis 
.Calvin H. French 
.George S. McCune. 
.W. J. Boone. 
.C H. Rammelkamp. 

.Louis E. Holden 
B. H. Kroeze. 

".John H McCracken. 
.A. E. Turner. 

John L Roemer 
.Elmer A. Bess. 

S. T. Wilson. 
.W. H. Black. 

Hubert S. Lyle 
.Howard McDonald. 
,J. F Record. 
.Calvin H. French. 

John H Burma. 
. J. M Gordon. 

Paul R Stewart, 

.E E Reed. 

H. W. Reherd. 

,W. H Robinson, Ji 

,E. D. Warfield, 

Charles F Wishart 

Theological Seminaries 

Auburn Theological Seminary 

Johnson C. Smith Univ, Theo. Dept. 
Bloomfield Theological Seminary . . . . 

Dubuque German College and Seminary. 
Evangelical Seminary of Porto Rico 
Lane Theological Seminary ... . . . 

Lincoln University, Theological Dept, 
McCormick Theological Seminary 

Omaha Theological Seminary 

Princeton Theological Seminary . . . 
5an Francisco Theological Seminary. . 
Theological Seminary of Kentucky 

Auburn, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C ... 

Bloomfield, N. J... 

Dubuque, Iowa .. 

Rio Pedras, P. R. 

Cincinnati, Ohio .., 

Lincoln Univ., Pa., 

.Chicago, 111 

. Omaha, Neb 

. Princeton, N. J . . . . 
.San Anselmo, Calif. 

Louisville, Ky 

Western Theological Seminary Pittsburgh, Pa. 

. George B. Stewart. 
.H. L. McCrorey. 
.H. E. Richards. 
.Cornelius M. Steffens. 
.J A. McAllister. 
.William McKibbinu 
.John B. Rendall. 
.James G. K. McCtae. 
.J. M. Wilson 
.J. Ross Stevenson. 
Warren H. LaMon. 
. John M. Vander 

.James A. Klsa 

178 Year Book of the Churches 


Southold Academy Southold, N. Y. . ..John H Lelir 

W. Nottingham Academy ....... . . Colora, Md. . . . 

The following institutions are not connected with the Presbyterian 
Church by any legal ties, nor are they subject to ecclesiastical con- 
trol. Their history, however, and associations with the life and work 
of our Church are such as to justify our earnest cooperation with 

Blackburn College Carlmville, 111 Win M Hudson 

Centre College of Kentucky .Damille, Ky R Ames Montgomeiy 
Coe College ... . .Cedar Rapids, Iowa Rev Hairy Morehouse Gage 

Elmira College . .... Elniira, N Y j Rev Frederick Lent 

Grove City College . Grove City, Pa Weir C Ketler 

Hamilton College Clinton,, N Y 1 ,.. . .Frederick C Feiiy 

Hanover College Hanovei, Ind . Rev W A Millis 

Lincoln University Lincoln Univ , Pa John B RendalL 

Occidental 'College Los Angeles, Calif Reinsert D End 

Park College Parkville, Mo Frederick W. Hawley 

Tusculum College .. . . Greeneville, Tenn. . C. Gray 
W abash College . . . Crawf 01 dsville, Ind. ,G L Mackintosh 
Washington and Jefferson col- 
lege Washington, Pa... ,S S Baker 

Western College for Women . Oxford, Ohio ,W W. Boyd. 


The Presbyterian Magazine (monthly), organ of the Mission 
Boards, New York, Editor, Rev. James M. Snowden; Business 
Mgr., H. P. Camden; Presbyterian Advance, Nashville, Tenn.; Con- 
tinent (weekly), New York City and Chicago, 111.; Presbyterian 
(weekly), Philadelphia, Pa.; Presbyterian Banner, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Herald and Presbyter (weekly), Cincinnati, Ohio; Woman's Work, 
New York City, Editor, Mrs. Henry Elliott 


The earliest American Presbyterian churches were established in 
Virginia, New England, Maryland, the Carolinas, and New York, and 
were chiefly of English origin, their pastors being mostly Church of 
England ministers holding Presbyterian views. In Virginia the Rev. 
Alexander Whitaker was installed, about 1614, as pastor of a church 
which was governed by himself and a? few of the most religious men, 
and in 1630 the Rev. Richard Denton located in Wethersfield, Conn., 
removed in 1641 to Stamford, Conn., and in 1644 to Hempstead, L. I. 
Between 1642 and 1649 many of the Virginia Puritans were driven 
out of that colony and found refuge in Maryland and North Caro- 
lina; while Denton and his associates found New Amsterdam more 
friendly than New England. The English Presbyterian element m 
Maryland and the colonies to the northward was strengthened by 
the arrival, from 1670 to 1690, of a considerable number of Scotch 
colonists, the beginnings of a great immimgration. There were many 
Presbyterians among the early settlers of New England, and the 
church founded at Plymouth in 1620, and other churches in that 
region had ruling elders as officers. Several synods were also held, 
one of which, in 1649, adopted the Westminster Standards for doc- 
trine. English-speaking 1 Presbyterians were first found in New York 
City in 1643, with the Rev. Francis Doughty as their minister, though 
no church was organized there until 1717. Presbyterian churches of 
English origin, however, were established earlier on Long Island, 
among which are to be noted Southold (1640) and Jamaica (1656). 
The founders of the earliest churches in New Jersey Newark (1667), 
Elizabeth (1668), Woodbridge (1680), and Fairfield (1680)- were 
from Connecticut and Long Island. The first church in Pennsylvania 
was that founded by Welsh colonists at Great Valley about 1690, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 179 

while the church in Philadelphia dates from 1698. In 1683 the Pres- 
bytery of Laggan, Ireland, in response to a letter from William 
Stevens, a member of the Council of the Colony of Maryland, sent 
to this country the Kev. Francis Makemie, who became the apostle of 
American Presbyterianism. He gave himself to the work of eccle- 
siastical organization, and at last succeeded in bringing into organic 
unity some of the scattered Presbyterian churches throughout the 

In the spring of 1706, 7 ministers, representing about 22 congre- 
gations, not including the Presbyterians of New England, Virginia, 
the Carolinas, and Georgia, met at Philadelphia and organized a 
presbytery, which in 1717 was transformed into a synod. 

The synod in 1729 passed what is called the "adopting act," by 
which it was agreed that all the ministers under its jurisdiction 
should "declare their agreement in, and approbation of, the Confes- 
sion of Faith, with the Larger and Shorter Cathechisms of the As- 
sembly of Divines at Westminster, as being, in all essential and neces- 
sary articles, good forms of sound words, and systems of Christian 
doctrine," and also "adopt the said Confession and Catechisms as the 
confession of their faith." At the same time the synod also denied to 
the civil magistrate power over the church and power to persecute 
any for their religion. 

The general religious movement which characterized the early 
part of the eighteenth century, and manifested itself in Germany in 
Pietism, in England in Methodism, and in the American colonies in 
The Great Awakening, deeply affected the Presbyterian Church. When 
Whitefield came to the country in 1739, he found most congenial fel- 
low-workers in Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, Jr., and their as- 
sociates of the Log College. They, however, became so severe in 
their denunication of "unconverted ministers" as to arouse bitter op- 
position; and the result was a division, one party, the "New Side," 
endorsing the revival and insisting that less stress should be laid on 
college training, and more on the evidence that the candidate was a 
regenerate man, and called by the Holy Ghost to the ministry; the 
other, the "Old Side," opposing revivals and disposed to insist that 
none but graduates of British universities or New England colleges 
should be accepted as candidates for the ministry. There was also 
divergence of views with regard to the interpretation of the Stand- 
ards, but in 1758 the bodies reunited upon the basis of the West- 
minster Standards pure and simple. At that date the church con- 
sisted of 98 ministers, about 200 congregations, and some 10,000 com- 

It was during the period of this division that the New Side 
established, in 1746, the College of New Jersey, later Princeton Uni- 
versity, for the purpose of securing an educated ministry. In 1768, 
the College called John Witherspoon from Scotland and installed him 
as president and professor of divinity. 

Ecclesiastical forces were among the powerful influences operat- 
ing to secure the separation of the colonies from Great Britain, and 
the opening of the Revolutionary War found the Presbyterian Church 
on the colonial side. The general synod called upon the churches to 
uphold firmly the resolutions of Congress and to let it be seen that 
they were "able to bring out the whole strength of this vast country 
to carry them into execution." At the close of the war the synod con- 
gratulated the churches on the "general and almost universal attach- 
ment of the Presbyterian body to the cause of liberty and the rights 
of mankind." 

With the restoration of peace in 1783 the Presbyterian Church 
gradually recovered from the evils wrought by war, and the need of 
further organization was deeply felt. It had always been ecclesi- 
astically independent, having no organic connection with European 

180 Year Book of the Churches 

or British churches of like faith; but the independence of the United 
States had created new conditions for the Christian churches as well 
as for the American people. All denominations were no longer merely 
tolerated, but were entitled to full civil and religious rights in all 
the states. In view of these new conditions, the synod, in May, 1788, 
adopted, as the constitution of the church, the Westminster Confes- 
sion of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, the Form of Gov- 
ernment and Discipline, and the Directory for the Worship of God. 
Certain changes were made in the Confession, the Catechisms, and 
the Directory, in behalf of liberty in worship, and in prayer, and, 
above all, of freedom from control by the state. The Form of Gov- 
ernment was altogether a new document and established the General 
Assembly as the governing body in the church. The first General 
Assembly met in 1789 in Philadelphia. 

The first important movement in the church after the adoption 
of the constitution was the formulation of a Plan of Union with the 
Congregational associations of New England. It began with corre- 
spondence in 1792, and reached its consummation in the agreements 
made from 1801 to 1810 between the General Assembly and the 
associations of Connecticut and of other states. This plan allowed 
Congregational ministers to serve Presbyterian churches, and vice 
versa; and also allowed to churches composed of members of both 
denominations the right of representation in either presbytery or coun- 
cil. It remained in force until 1837, and was useful to both denomina- 
tions in securing the results of the great revivals of religion through- 
out the country, and also in furthering the causes of home and 
foreign missions, but, on the other hand, it introduced administrative 
peculiarities and doctrinal tendencies that gave rise to serious ap- 
prehensions among many Presbyterians. 

What is known as the Cumberland separation took place during 
this period. The Presbytery of Cumberland ordained to the min- 
istry persons who, in the judgment of the Synod of Kentucky, were 
not qualified for the office, either by learning or by sound doctrine, 
The controversies between the two judicatones resulted in the dis- 
solution of the presbytery by the synod in 1806, and finally, in 1810, 
in arrangements for the organization of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. 

The membership of the church during this period, 1790 to 1837, 
increased from 18,000 to 220,557, due mainly to a revival of religion, 
of which camp meetings were one of the main features in western 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. In this period also the first 
theological seminary of the church was founded at Princeton, N. J. 
(1812), and most of the missionary and benevolent boards were es- 

The Presbyterian Church has always maintained the rights of 
women in the church in connection with administrative affairs. Wom- 
en members have ordinarily voted for pastors and other spiritual 
church officers. Women's foreign missionary societies were organized 
as early as 1870, and women's work m home missions in 1879. There is 
also a woman's department of the Freedmen's Board. The last 
step taken by the church in connection with the Christian service 
of women was the adoption, in 1915, of a provision in the form of 
government authorizing the election and setting apart of deaconesses 
m each of the churches, these officers being under the direction of 
the session. 

The official publications of the church are the records of the 
General Presbytery, 1706-1716; of the General Synod, 1717-1788, and 
of the General Assembly, 1789-1921, each in printed form. They 
are the most complete ecclesiastical records in the United States of 
America. Both the minutes of the General Assembly and the reports 
of the boards are now issued annually. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 181 

The standards of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America are twofold the standards of doctrine and the standards 
of government, discipline, and worship. These last are contained 
in documents known as the "form of government," the "book of 
discipline," and the "directory for worship," and, taken together, form 
the constitution of the church. They were first adopted in 1788, and 
amendments and additions have been made from time to time, the 
book of discipline being entirely reconstructed in 1884-85. 


The standards of doctrine of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America are the Westminster Confession of Faith 
and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These were first adopted in 
1729. In 1788 certain amendments to the Confession and Larger 
Catechism were approved by the General Synod, giving expression 
to the American doctrine of the independence of the church and of 
religious opinion from control by the state. In 1886 the clause for- 
bidding marriage with a deceased wife's sister was stricken out, and 
in 1902 certain alterations were again made, and there were added 
two chapters, "Of the Holy Spirit," and "Of the Love of God and 
Missions." A declaratory statement was also adopted setting forth 
the universality of the gospel offer of salvation, declaring that sin- 
ners are condemned only on the ground of their sin, and affirming 
that all persons dying in infancy are elect and therefore saved. As 
a whole, these standards are distinctly Calvinistic. They emphasize 
the sovereignty of God in Christ in the salvation of the individual; 
affirm that each believer's salvation is a part of the eternal divine 
plan; that salvation is not a reward for faith, but that both faith 
and salavtion are gifts of God; that man is utterly unable to save 
himself; that regeneration is an act of God and of God alone; and 
that he who is once actually saved is always saved. 

Discipline is defined in the book of discipline as "the exercise of 
that authority, and the application of that system of laws, which the 
Lord Jesus Christ has appointed in His church." In practice it is 
controlled by a policy of guidance and regulation, rather than one 
of restriction and punishment. Christian liberty is regarded as con- 
sistent with the wise administration of Christian law. 

The Directory for Worship makes no restriction as to place or 
form. The church insists upon the supreme importance of the spirit- 
ual element, and leaves both ministers and people at full liberty to 
worship God in accordance with the dictates of their own consciences. 
The sacraments are administered by ministers only, and ordinarily 
only ministers and licentiates are authorized to teach officially. A 
book of common worship was approved by the General Assembly 
in 1906 for optional use by pastors and congregations. 


The organization of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America is set forth in the Form of Government. It has 
as its two principal factors the ministers as representatives of 
Christ and the ruling elders as representatives of the people; and 
these two classes constitute the four judicatories which form the ad- 
ministrative system. These are the session, which governs the con- 
gregation; the presbytery, which governs a number of congrega- 
tions within a limited geographic district; the synod, which governs 
the congregations within a larger geographic district; and the gen- 
eral assembly, which is the supreme judicatory. All of these courts 
are vested with legislative, executive, and judicial powers. 

Applicants for church membership are examined by the session 
as to their Christian life and belief, but are not required tq assent 

182 Year Book of the Churches 

to the creed of the church. The usual form of baptism is sprinkling, 
both for infants and unbaptized adults on confession of faith. The 
invitation to the Lord's Supper is usually general for all evangelical 

The General Assembly is the highest ludicatory of the t Presby- 
terian Church. It is composed of an equal number of clerical and 
lay commissioners. 

Its officers are a moderator and a stated clerk. The term of the 
stated clerk is five years and he may be elected to succeed himself. 
The moderator serves for one year and with the stated clerk acts as 
the representative of the church during the interim between the 
meetings of the General Assembly. The General Assembly decides all 
controversies respecting doctrine and discipline, erects new synods, 
appoints the various boards and commissions, receives and issues all 
appeals, etc. Its decision is final, except in all cases affecting the 
constitution of the church. It meets annually on the third Thurs- 
day in May. 

The General Assembly has appointed permanent executive and 
judicial commissions with carefully regulated and restricted powers. 
Membership on these bodies is ordinarily limited to three years. Of 
the executive commission the moderator is the chairman and the 
stated clerk the secretary. 



General Assembly, annual ; next meeting, Montreal, N. C , 
May 17, 1923. 

Seventeen synods; 88 presbyteries. 

Officers of the General Assembly: Hod, Eev. E. C. Eeed, 
Columbia, S. C. ; Stated Clerk and Treas., Rev J. D Leslie, 
Dallas, Tex. 

Nashville, Tenn. Exec. Sec., Eev. Egbert W. Smith; Sec. Foreign 
Correspondence and Editor, Rev. S. H. Chester; Associate Field and 
Foreign Sec., Eev. J. 0. Eeavis; Treas., Edwin F. Willis. 

lanta, Ga. Exec. Sec , Eev. S. L. Morris; Sec., Eev. Homer McMillan; 
Treas., A. N. Sharp. 

RELIEF, 410 Urban Bldg., Louisville, Ky. Exec. Sec., Rev. Henry H. 
Sweets; Treas., John Stites. 

WORK, Publishing House, 6 and 8 N. Sixth St., Richmond, Va. Exec. 
Sec. and Treas., R. E. Magill. 

sell Cecil, Eichmond, Va. 

Melvin, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Ckmn., Rev. Robert Hill, Tyler, Tex. 

Swpt. Sunday Schools and Young People's Societies, Rev. Gilbert 
Glass, Richmond, Va. 

WOMAN'S AUXILIARY, Field Bldg., Taylor and Olive Sts., St. 
Louis, Mo, Sicpt., Mrs. W. C. Winsborough. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 


Colleges and Schools 

President or Dean 

. Richmond, Va F T. McFaden. 

. . . Decatur, Ga . F H. Games. 

Assembly's Training School . . . 

Agnes Scott College ___ , 

Alabama Presbyterian College for Men.. Anmston, Ala. . . .David Park. 

Arkansas College Batesvile, Ark W. S. Lacy. 

Austin College Sherman, Tex. . T S Clyce. 

Belhaven College Jackson, Miss ..G T. Gillespie. 

Chicora College for Women Columbia, S C .. S C." Byrd. 

Daniel Baker College Brownwood, Tex. . . S. E. Chandler. 

Davidson College Davidson, N C ... .William J. Martin- 
Davis and Elkms College Elkms, W. Va James E. Allen. 

Flora Macdonald College Red Springs, N. C . C G Vardell, 

Hampden-Sidney College Hampden-Sidney, Va J D. Eggleston. 

Isbell Presbyterian College for Girls ..Talladega, Ala C Gerard White 

King College Bristol, Tenn. . . Tilden Scherer. 

Lewi sburg Seminary Lewisburg, W. Va .John I. Armstrong. 

Mary Baldwin Seminary Staunton, Va. . .Miss M P. Higgins. 

Mississippi Synodical College Holly Springs, Miss .R T. Cooper. 

Mitchell College Statesville, N. C J. M. Moore. 

Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls. Durant, Okla. E D. Hotchkm. 

Palmer College and Academy De Funiak Spgs , Fla W. M. Keinper. 

Peace Institute Raleigh, N. C . .Miss M. O Graham. 

Presbyterian College of S. C Clinton, S. C ...DM. Douglas. 

Queens College Charlotte, N C W H Fraser 

Sayre College Lexington, Ky. . A S. Venable. 

Sillrman College Clinton, La. . U B Currie. 

Southwestern Presbyterian University . . Clarksville, Tenn. . Chas Edward Diehl. 

Stonewall Jackson College Abmgdon, Va. . F W Alexander. 

Synodical College Fulton, Mo 

Texas Presbyterian College Milford, Tex. . .French W Thompson. 

Westminster College Fulton, Mo E. E Reed. 

Theological Seminaries 

Austin Theological Seminary Austin, Tex. . Thomas W. Currie. 

Columbia Seminary Columbia, S C J. M Wells. 

Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Ky Louisville, Ky . J. M. Vander Meulen, 

Stillman Institute (colored) Tuscaloosa, Ala. .R A Brown 

Union Theological Seminary Richmond, Va. .W. W Moore 


Christian Observer, Louisville, Ky., Editor, Rev. David M. 
Sweets; Presbyterian Standard, Charlotte, N. C., Editor, Rev. J. R. 
Bridges; Presbyterian of the South, Richmond, Va., Editor, Rev. W. 
S. Campbell; Missionary Survey, Edited by the Board Sees., Rev. S. 
H. Chester, Rev. S. L. Morris, Rev. Henry H. Sweets, R E. Magill 
and Mrs. W. C. Winsborough. 


When the Civil War broke out, in 1861, the Old School General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, in session in Philadelphia, 
through what were known as the "Spring resolutions," pledged its 
whole constituency to the support of the Federal Government in the 
contest which was then beginning. The Southern churches which 
were connected with the assembly took the ground that this action 
violated the constitution of the church, in that it assumed to decide 
a disputed political question, and would inevitably introduce the 
strife and rancor of political discussion into the church courts. There 
was also a deep-seated conviction that the difference of opinion as to 
the status of slavery was radical and irreconcilable. The great ma- 
jority of the Northern churches, whether or not they gave formal 
expression to their belief, regarded slavery as sinful. The Southern 
churches refused absolutely to "make slaveholding a sin or non- 
slaveholding a term (condition) of communion." Accordingly 47 pres- 
byteries formally withdrew from connection with the Old School 
General Assembly, and their commissioners met in Augusta, Ga., 
December 4, 1861, and organized the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the Confederate States of America. 

184 Year Book of the Churches 

In 1864 tlie United Synod and the General Assembly of the Con- 
federate States came together, and in the following year adopted the 
name, "The Presbyterian Church m the United States." This united 
church was further enlarged by the accession of several bodies which 
had proclaimed themselves independent of the Northern Assembly, 
in protest against any political action by an ecclesiastical body. Of 
these, the largest were the Synod of Kentucky, which joined in 1869, 
and the Synod of Missouri, which joined in 1874. 

As the discussions connected with the Civil War subsided, fra- 
ternal relations were established with the Northern churches in 1882, 
and in 1888 the two General Assemblies held a joint meeting in 
Philadelphia in celebration of the centenary of the adoption of the 
constitution of the church. In 1897 each assembly celebrated the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the Westminster Assembly, 
which formulated the Confession of Faith and Catechism of the 

Various efforts have been made to bring together these two great 
sections of the Presbytenan Church. As yet, however, they have not 
been successful, owing partly to differences in doctrinal emphasis 
and church conduct, but chiefly to diversity in community and church 
life. The Northern churches make no distinction between white and 
Negro; the Southern churches have adopted a policy of separation, 
being moved thereto by the conviction that the best development of 
the Negroes would be secured by the increased responsibility thus 
laid upon them, and by apprehension that social embarrassment might 
result from ecclesiastical relations. So far as may be, the Negro 
members are organized into separate congregations, and these into 
separate presbyteries, with reference to an ultimate colored Pres- 
byterian Church. An independent synod was thus set off by the 
assembly in 1897, but two presbyteries, composed exclusively of ne- 
groes, owing to remoteness, remained as constituent parts of the 
synods in whose bounds they are located. However, in 1916, the 
General Assembly constituted these and two other Negro presbyteries 
existing within its territory into a synod composed exclusively of 
Negro ministers and members, yet being a constituent part of the 
Presbtyerian Church in the United States. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrinal matters the church is strictly Calvinistic, adheres 
closely to the standards, and, while allowing liberty of dissent in 
minor matters, requires strict creed subscription from all its min- 
isters and office bearers. It particularly excludes from its courts all 
discussion of political questions, holds to the plenary inspiration of 
the Bible, and has not abated faith in its inerrancy. It claims that 
the Scriptures forbid women the public expounding of God's Word, or 
other functions pertaining to an ordained minister, but admits their 
services in other lines of Christian work. 

In polity the principal distinctive feature is the recognition of 
ruling elders as entitled to deliver the charge in the installation of a 
pastor and to serve as moderators of any of the higher courts. 


General Assembly, annual , next meeting at Fairfield, 111 , 
May 17-23, 1923. 

Twelve synods and 70 presbyteries. 

Officers : M od , Rev. Hugh I. MeCord, Marshall, Mo. ; Stated 
Clerk and Treas., Rev. D. "W. Fooks, Nashville, Tenn. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 185 

Dyer, Odessa, Mo.; Treas., Dr. R. M. King, Warrensburg, Mo. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres, A. C. Biddle, Clarksville, Tenn.; 
Cor. Sec. and Treas., Rev. W. B. Cunningham, Union City, Tenn. 

WORK, Nashville, Tenn. Pres., Rev. J. M Cook, London, Tenn.; Sec. 
and Treas., Rev. Charles R. Matlock, Cleveland, Tenn. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Pres., Rev. C. A. Galloway, Jack- 
son, Tenn.; Cor. Sec. and Treas., Rev. John A. McLane, Bethany, 111. 

TITHING BOARD. Evangelist, Rev. Hugh McCord, Marshall, Mo.; 
Treas., Mrs. Vint N. Bray Freeman, Mansfield, Mo. 


Name Location Dean 

Bethel College ... McKenzie, Tenn 

Cumberland College (temporarily sus- 
pended) Leonard, Tex. 

Theological Seminary 

Cumberland Presbyterian Theological Sem- 
inary McKenzie, Tenn. . . P F. Johnson 


Cumberland Presbyterian, Nashville, Tenn., Editor, Rev. J. L. 
Hadgms, Nashville, Tenn. 


The opening years of the nineteenth century witnessed a re- 
markable religious awakening in various parts of the United States. 
Revivals were numerous and in certain sections were accompanied 
by strange "bodily exercises." As the revival work progressed, 
physical manifestations became so marked as to create an unfavor- 
able reaction, and some Presbyterian ministers set themselves against 
the entire movement. Others favored it, on the ground that various 
communities in which it was carried on were indeed transformed. 
The division in sentiment resulted finally in two distinct parties, re- 
vival and antirevival; the one inclined to regard the bodily exercises 
as a sign of divine approval; the other unable to see any good in 
the work because of the extravagances. 

At the first meeting of the Synod of Kentucky in 1802 the south- 
western portion of the Presbytery of Transsylvania, including the 
Cumberland country, was constituted the Presbytery of Cumberland. 
As the revival, which had started in the Transsylvania Presbytery, 
spread to the various small settlements in this section, the demand for 
ministers became greater than the supply, and the revival party, 
which controlled the new presbytery, believed that the emergency, as 
well as precedent, justified them in introducing into the ministry 
men who had not had the usual academic and theological training. A 
few such were inducted into the ministry ,and others were set apart 
as "exhorters." In addition to this, those thus inducted into the min- 
istry were permitted, if they so desired, to adopt the Westminster 
Confession "as far as they deemed it agreeable to the Word of God," 
the reservation having special reference to "the idea of fatality, 
which," as they later expressed it, "seems to be taught under the 
mysterious doctrine of predestination." 

The antirevival party objected both to the admission into the min- 
istry of men who were not up to the usual literary and theological 
standard, and to the permission of this reservation in regard to doc- 

The result after much controversy was the organization of a new 
independent presbytery February 4 ? 1810. The organization grew 

186 Year Book of the Churches 

rapidly, and in the course of a few years it became apparent that 
a new denomination had entered upon its career. At first it was 
referred to as "the members of the Cumberland Presbytery." As the 
denominational idea became more apparent, it was called the "Cum- 
berland Presbyterian," the next step being to call it the "Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church." 

In October, 1813, the Presbytery of Cumberland, or General 
Presbytery, was divided into 3 presbyteries, and a general synod was 
constituted. This continued to be the supreme judicatory until 1828, 
when there was a reorganization. In place of the general synod, 4 
synods were constituted and a general assembly, which met in 1829. 

After the War Between the States a mutual agreement for the 
establishment of the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church was 
reached, as affording to the Negroes the opportunities they needed 
most for church development. 


In doctrine the Cumberland Presbyterian Church is essentially 
Calvinistic of the more moderate type; that is, it has uniformly pro- 
tested against the doctrine of reprobation; but recognizes fully the 
sovereignty of God and the doctrine of the perseverance of the 
saints. The Westminster Confession continued to be the creed of 
the church until 1814, when a revision was made which was de- 
signed to be a popular statement of doctrine emphasizing human 
responsibility, and this was again revised along much the same 
lines in 1883. 

So far as church membership is concerned, no subscription to 
the confession is required. Those who are ordained to the ministry, 
eldership, and diaconate, are required to subscribe to the Confession 
of Faith. 


In polity the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has always been 
thoroughly presbyterian, its government being exercised by the vari- 
ous courts session, presbytery, synod, and general assembly. The 
principle of delegated authority is supreme, and the conditions of 
church membership include a pledge to abide by and support the rules 
and regulations of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 


General Assembly, annual ; next session, Buffalo, N. T , May 
23, 1923 

Sixty-nine presbyteries 

Officers of the General Assembly : M od., Kev. J. Kelly Giffen, 
Khartum, Sudan, India, Vice-Mod., Eev. Chas. P. Proudfit, 
Xenia, Ohio ; Stated Clerk, Eev. David F. McGill, Bellevue, Pa. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, Philadelphia, Pa. Cor. Sec., Rev. 
W. B. Anderson, 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Twos*, Robert 
L. Latimer, 24 N. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOAKD OF HOME MISSIONS, 703 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cor. Sec., Rev. R. A. Hutchinson; Treas., J. Allison Reed, 519 Wood 
St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF FREEDMEN'S MISSIONS, 608 Publication Bldg., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Cor. Sec. and Treas., Rev. R. W. McGranahan. 

BOARD OF CHURCH EXTENSION, 701 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Cor. Sec., Rev. J. C. KMler, 209 Ninth St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Treas., George C. Arnold, Monongahela National Bank, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 187 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, 1180 E. 63d St., Chicago, 111. Cor. Sec., 
Rev. John E. Bradford; Treas. of Income Funds, Hugh R. Moffett, 
Monmouth, I1L; Treas, of Permanent Funds, R. L. Wray, Monmouth, 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION, Publication Bldg., 209 Ninth St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Business Mgr., Rev. E. M. Milligan; Cor. Sec. f Rev. John 
McNaugber; Editor of Sabbath School Periodicals, Rev. R. J. Miller; 
Ckmn. of Sabbath School Committee, T. J. Gillespie; Treas., George 
C. Arnold, Monongahela Nat'l Bank., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF, Philadelphia, Pa. Cor. Sec., Rev. 
J. C. Scouller, 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., W. J. Gra- 
ham, 201 Bulletin Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

WOMEN'S BOARD, Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Sec., Miss 
Jennie B. Wallace; Treas., Mrs, J. B. Hill, 1531 Denmston Ave , Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Organ: Woman's Missionary Magazine. 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S WORK. Gen. Sec., Rev. J. A. Cosby, Ellwood 
City, Pa. 

Rev. W. L Wishart, 2333 Perrysville Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Exec. Sec., Rev. J. H. White, 209 Ninth St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Treas., 
J, Allison Reed. 


Name Location President 

Sterling College Sterling, Kans Ross T. Campbell. 

Knoxville College Knoxville, Tenn J. K Giffen 

Monmouth College . Monmouth, 111 Thomas H. McMichael. 

Muskingum College New Concord, Ohio J. Knox Montgomery. 

Tarkio College ... Tarkio, Mo Jos. Addison Thompson. 

Westminster College New Wilmington, Pa . . W. C. Wallace. 

Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Pittsburgh, Pa John McNaughei. 

Xema Theological Seminary St. Louis, Mo M G Kyle. 


United Presbyterian (weekly) , Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, Rev. W. 
J. Reid; Christian Union Herald (weekly), Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, 
Rev. R. J. Miller. 


The most successful attempt at union of the different Presby- 
terian bodies in the United States which represent the Covenanter 
and Secession movements in Scotland, was that accomplished in 1858, 
when the greater part of the Associate Synod (Secession) and the 
Associate Reformed Synod (Secession and Covenanter) were brought 
together in the United Presbyterian Church of North America, in the 
city of Pittsburgh. Whatever was distinctive in the views and usages 
of the two branches of the church, together with their colleges, semi- 
naries, missionary enterprises, traditions, and records, became the 
inheritance of the United Church. 


The United Presbyterian Church accepts the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith and Catechisms as its doctrinal standards, modifying 
somewhat the chapters on the power of civil magistrates. Accom- 
panying these standards, as a part of the basis of the union, was a 
"judicial testimony," declaring the sense in which these symbols were 
received. This testimony, consisting of eighteen articles, contains 
the declarations of doctrine and order on which the United Presby- 
terian Church justifies its separation from other Presbyterian 

188 Year Book of the Churches 

These eighteen articles affirm: The plenary inspiration of the 
Scriptures; the eternal sonship of Christ; the fall of man in Adam's 
transgression; man's present inability to secure salvation; atonement 
through the satisfaction of the justice of God by the sacrifice of 
Christ, who thereby placed himself in the room of a definite number 
chosen before the foundation of the world; the imputation of Christ's 
righteousness to the believer ; the free and unconditional offer of sal- 
vation to all who hear it; the necessity of appropriation and persua- 
sion, as well as of intellectual assent to the gospel, in order to saving 
faith; repentance as a fruit of justifying faith, not a ground of the 
sinner's pardon; obedience to the moral law as a perpetual obliga- 
tion, but not a condition of salvation; the quickening, regenerating, 
sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit; the headship of Christ, involv- 
ing His dominion over the church and over all created things; the 
supremacy, m authority and obligations, of the law of God; that 
slaveholding is a violation of that law; that secret societies are incon- 
sistent with the letter and spirit of Christianity; that the observance 
and offer of church communion should be limited to those keeping the 
ordinances; that public social covenanting is a moral duty; that the 
songs contained in the Book of Psalms should be used in public and 
private worship, to the exclusion of the devotional compositions of 
uninspired men. 


In organization and government the church is in accord with 
other Presbyterian bodies, having the same courts session, presby- 
tery, synod, and general assembly and observing the same general 
methods of baptism, admission to church membership, ordination to 
the ministry, etc. 


General Assembly, annual. 

Seventeen presbyteries and 4 synods. 

Officers: Mod., Rev. H. M. Bishop, Martin, Tenn. ; Stated 
Clerk, Eev, James Edwards, Huntingdon, Tenn. ; Treas., Elder 
F. L. Me Williams, Athens, Ala. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Chmn., J. M. W. DeShong, Milan, Tenn. ; 
Vice-Chmn., Rev. Wm. Fowlks; Treas., Rev. E. J. Simpson, Provi- 
dence, Ky.; Sec,, Elder J. J, Jenkins, Elkwood, Ala. 

BOAJRD OF MISSIONS. Pres., J. M. W. DeShong, Fayetteville, Tenn.; 
Vice-Pres , Rev. E. E. Jones; Rec. Sec., Rev. Wm. Fowlks; Fin. Sec*, 
W. D. Edmgton, London, Tenn.; Tr&as., C. H. Dozier, Elkwood, Ala. 

BOARD OP PUBLICATION. Pres., Rev. C. H. Jordan; Sec., G. W. 
Sadler, Waco, Texas. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Elder P. H. Hill, Nashville, Tenn. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Pres., Rev. John Page; See., 
Rev. R. H. Goodloe, Dyersburg, Tenn.; Treas., Elder D. W, Beadle, 
Madison, Ala. 

WOMAN'S BOAED OF MISSIONS. Pres., Mrs. Bettie Todd-Bonner, 
Chicago, 111. 


Name Location Principal 

Milan Industrial and Bible Institute . ...Milan, Tenn Miss Phoebe Mitchum. 


The Colored Cumberland (semi-monthly), Gen. Mgr., J. M. W, 
DeShong, Milan, Tenn. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 189 


Before the Civil War it was estimated that there were about 
20,000 Negro members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. They 
belonged to the same congregations as the white people, and sat 
under the same pastors, though they had preachers of their own 
race, and often held separate meetings. These preachers, however, 
were not fully ordained and were practically little more than ex- 
horters. With the close of the war and the changed conditions, these 
Negro members organized separate churches, and later sought a sepa- 
rate ecclesiastical organization. They were legally set apart by the 
General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., in May, 1869, each synod being instructed to order 
the presbyteries in its bounds to ordain the Negro ministers under 
their charge and organize them into presbyteries of their own. Ac- 
cordingly, in the fall of that year, three presbyteries, all in Tennes- 
see, were set apart. The first synod organized was the Tennessee 
Synod, in 1871, at Fayetteville; and the first General Assembly was 
organized in 1874 at Nashville. The discussion and final action in 
regard to uni^n with the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America has not materially affected this body, which remains 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church ac- 
cepts in general the Westminster Confession of Faith, but emphasizes 
the following points: (1) There are no eternal reprobates; (2) Christ 
died not for a part only, but for all mankind; (3) all persons dying 
in infancy are saved through Christ and the sanctification of the 
Spirit; (4) the Spirit of God operates in the world coextensively with 
Christ's atonement, in such a manner as to leave all men inexcusable. 

In, polity the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church is in ac- 
cord with other Presbyterian bodies, having the usual courts ses- 
sion, presbytery, synod, and general assembly and, as officers, 
bishops or pastors, ruling elders, and deacons. 


(Calvinistic Methodist) 

This body has recently united with the Presbyterian Church, 

U. S. A. 


Synod, annual. 

Seven presbyteries, 1 in Mexico, and 1 in India. 
Officers of Synod : Mod , Kev Oliver Johnson, Winsboro, S. 
C. ; Principal Clerk, Kev. A. S. Kogers, Rock Hill, S. C. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, Due West, S* C. Chmn,, Rev. F. Y. 
Pressly; Sec., Rev. G. G. Parkinson; Treas., P. L. Grier. 

J. C. Galloway, Gastonia, N. C.; Cor. Sec., Eev. R. G. Miller, Char- 
lotte, N. C,, R. F. D. 1; Treas., Rev. G. R. White, Charlotte, N. C., 
R. F. D. 

J. W. Carson, Newberry, S. C. 

JUNIOR CHRISTIAN WORK. Gen. Sec., Mrs. W. B. Lindsay, Char- 
lotte, N. C. 

190 Year Book of the Churches 

WOMAN'S WORK. Gen. Sec., Mrs. J. R. Miller, Rock Hill, S. C. 
BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Sec., Rev. R. W. Carson, Bruns- 
wick, Terni. 

Name Location President or Dean 

Bryson College Fayetteville, Tenn H B. Blakely 

Erskme College Due West, S. C R. C. Gnen 

Woman's College Due West, S. C Richard L. Robinson. 

Theological Seminary 
Theological Seminary Due West, S. C F. Y Pressly. 


Associate Reformed Presbyterian, Due West, S. C., Editor, Rev. 
R. M. Stevenson. 


The union in 1782 of the Reformed Presbytery, representing the 
old Scotch Covenanters, and the Associate Presbytery, representing 
the Associate Synod, Anti-Burgher, of Scotland, in the Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church, was followed by a steady increase in 
the strength of that body, until it included four synods which were 
organized under a general synod. One of these synods, the Synod of 
the Carolinas, became somewhat doubtful of the loyalty of the gen- 
eral synod to the distinctive principles of the Scotch churches, and 
withdrew in 1821, becoming in the next year an independent body 
the Associate Reformed Synod of the South, so called to distinguish 
it from other Associate Reformed synods in the North. By the 
union of 1858, which formed the United Presbyterian Church, there 
ceased to be any other Associate Reformed synods in the North or 
elsewhere, and there being no longer need of the distinction, the synod, 
in 1913, dropped the phrase "of the South," and adopted the name 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the synod is thoroughly Calvinistic, having the same 
symbols of faith as the other Reformed Presbyterian churches. In 
polity it is presbyterian, in close accord with other similar bodies. 
Its distinctive feature, it claims, is the exclusive use of the Psalms 
in praise. 

(Old School) 

Synod, annual , next meeting at Wmona Lake, Ind , June 6 ; 

Officers : M od., Kev. J. E. W. Stevenson, Idana, Kans ; Clerk, 
Rev. D. C. Mathews, New Alexandria, Pa.; Stated Clerk and 
Treas., James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

SYNOD'S BOARD OF TRUSTEES. Pres., George A. McRee, Pittsburgh 
Pa.; Sec.-Treas., James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa 

FOREIGN MISSION BOARD. Pres., R. J. Bole, New York, N. Y. 
Cor. Sec., Rev. F. M. Wilson, 2410 N. Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Treas., Jos. M. Steele, 1600 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOME MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. E. L. McKnight, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; Sec.-Treas., James S. Tibby, 408 Penn Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

JEWISH MISSION BOARD. Pres., Rev. M. M. Pearce, 315 Bucking- 
ham Place, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Treas., Jos. M. Steele, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 191 

BOARD OF CHUKCH ERECTION. Pres., Evan W. Jones, New York 
City; Sec., S. E. Greer, 411 S. 43d St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Jos. 
M. Steele, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOARD OF RELIEF. Pres., A. F. Reid, Morning Sun, Iowa; Sec., 
Rev. H. G. Patterson, Morning Sun, Iowa; Treas., James S. Tibby, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Secretary of the Forward Movement, Rev, B. H. Elliott, 1101 W. 
10th St., Topeka, Kans. 

May Dodds, 2018 S. Columbine St., Denver, Colo.; Rec. Sec., Mrs. R. 
M. Young, Parnassus, Pa.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. W. M. Hutcheson, Sterl- 
ing, Kans. ; Treas., Mrs. W. Ferguson, Denison, Kans. 

J. Coleman, 2325 Osgood St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. G. A. 
McKee, 2430 Perrysville Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Treas., Mrs. Agnes 
E. Steele, 321 Lehigh Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Name Location President 

Geneva College .Beaver Falls, Pa A A. Johnston. 

Theological Seminary 
Theological Seminary East End, Pittsburgh, Pa R C. Wylle. 


Christian Nation (weekly) , New York City, Editor, J, W. Pritch- 
ard, 1105 Tribune Building; Ohve Trees (monthly), Philadelphia, 
Pa., Editor, M. M. Pearoe, 315 Buckingham Place, Philadelphia, Pa. 


The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was organized by John 
Knox on his return from a conference with Calvin at Geneva, in 
1560. As it became evident that the Stuart dynasty was bitterly op- 
posed to the organization, because of its asserted independence of 
state control, a movement was started in 1580, though apparently 
not fully organized, for covenanting together in defense of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and this movement secured a quasi indorsement 
from James VI. On the 28th of February, 1638, in Grayfriars 
Church, Edinburgh, the Covenant, with important additions, to adapt 
it to the times, was renewed. 

Anticipating hostile action from the king, the Covenanters pre- 
pared far war, and the following years were signalized by constant 
* hostilities, which continued until 1640, when an agreement was signed 
for commissioners to settle the points in dispute, and the "Solemn 
League and Covenant" was received by "the English Parliament 
and the Assembly of Divines in 1643." This covenant consisted in an 
oath to be subscribed by all sorts of persons in both kingdoms, where- 
by they bound themselves to preserve the Reformed religion in the 
Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government 
* * * according to the Word of God and practice of the best Re- 
formed churches and to endeavor to bring the churches of God in 
the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in 
religion, confession of faith, form of church government, directory 
for worship, and catechising; to "endeavor, without respect of per- 
sons, the extirpation of popery, prelacy (that is, church government 
by archbishops and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that 
hierarchy), and whatsoever should be found contrary to sound doc- 
trine and the power of godliness"; to "preserve the rights and privi- 
leges of the parliaments, the liberties of the kingdom, and the king's 
majesty's person and authority in the preservation and defense of 

192 Year Book of the Churches 

the true religion and ^ liberties of the kingdom"; to "endeavor the 
discovery of incendiaries and malignants hindering the reformation 
of religion and dividing the king from his people, that they may be 
brought to trial and receive condign punishment"; finally, to "as- 
sist and defend all those that enter into this covenant and not suffer 
ourselves to be divided or to be withdrawn from this blessed union, 
whether to make defection or to give ourselves to a detestable in- 
difference or neutrality m this cause." 

It was signed by members of both Houses and by civil and mili- 
tary officers, and, very reluctantly, by Charles II, in 1650, when he 
was hoping to recover the English throne. After his restoration, a 
majority in the House of Commons in 1661, ordered it to be burned 
by the common hangman. In the same year the Scottish Parliament 
renounced the covenant and declared the king supreme. The Cove- 
nanters protested against these wrongs, and, under the name of "Con- 
venticlers" and sometimes "Cameromans," were subjected to a fierce 
and cruel persecution. Without having any special ecclesiastical or- 
ganization, they formed societies for worship, meeting often in nouses, 
Barns, and caves, and continued to do this even after the accession 
of William and Mary in 1689. At that time there was established 
what was known as the revolution settlement, which again made the 
Presbyterian Church the state church of Scotland. Some, however, 
believing that in this settlement Eeformation principles had been 
seriously compromised, refused to recognise any longer the authority 
of the General Assembly, and identified themselves with the Cove- 
nanters of the previous years; but it was not until 1743 that they 
perfected an organization called the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland. 

The first minister of this body came to this country from Scot- 
land m 1752* As others joined him they constituted, in 1774, the 
Reformed Presbytery. Eight years later, 1782, this Presbytery united 
with the Associate Presbytery in the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian Church, As in the case of the Associate Presbytery, there 
were some that were dissatisfied, and in 1798 the Reformed Pres- 
bytery was reorganized. At the meeting of the Presbytery held 
in 1800 it was stated that in some of the congregations there were 
members who owned slaves, and it was resolved that no slaveholder 
should be retained in their communion. This action was enforced, 
and accounts for the fact that at the time of the Civil War there 
were only three Reformed Presbyterian congregations south of Mason 
and Dixon's line, and these were in the border states. 

By 1809 the presbytery had grown so that a synod was consti- 
tuted. Somewhat later, there arose a difference of opinion as to the 
practical relation of the members to the Government of the United* 
States, which culminated in 1833 in a division of the church. One 
party, the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Old Light), 
refused to allow its members to vote or hold office under the present 
constitution. The other, the General Synod of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church (New Light), imposed no such restrictions on its 
members. The discussion resulted m the framing of a new covenant 
embodying the engagements of the National Covenant of Scotland and 
of the Solemn League and Covenant, so far as applicable in this land, 
and, in 1871, in Pittsburgh, Pa., the synod engaged for the first time 
in the act of covenanting. Following is the statement of the position 
of the American Church on the matters involved in the Solemn 
League and Covenant as stated m this Covenant of 1871: 

"Persuaded that God is the source of all legitimate power; that He 
has instituted civil government for His own glory and the good of 
man ; that He has appointed His Son, the Mediator, to headship over 
the nations; and that the Bible is the supreme law and rule in 
national as in all othr things, we will maintain the responsibility of 

Directory of Religious Bodies 193 

nations to God, the rightful dominion of Jesus Christ over the 
commonwealth, and the obligation of nations to legislate in con- 
formity with the written Word. We take ourselves sacredly bound to 
regulate all our civil relations, attachments, professions and de- 
portment, by our allegiance and loyalty to the Lord, our King, Law- 
giver and Judge ; and by this, our oath, we are pledged to promote the 
interests of public order and justice, to support cheerfully whatever 
is for the good of the commonwealth in which we dwell, and to 
pursue this object in all things not forbidden by the Law of God, 
or inconsistent with public dissent from unscnptural and immoral 
civil power." 

"We will pray and labor for the peace and welfare of our country, 
and for its reformation by a constitutional recognition of God as the 
source of all power, of Jesus Christ as the Euler of Nations, of the 
Holy Scriptures as the supreme rule, and of the true Christian re- 
ligion; and we will continue to refuse to incorporate by any act, with 
the political body until this bless-ed reformation has been secured." 


The synod maintains that God is the source of all legitimate 
power; that He has instituted civil government for His own glory 
and the good of men ; that He has appointed His Son, the Mediator, 
to headship over the nations; and that the Bible is the supreme law 
and rule in national as well as in all other things. Its members 
pledge themselves to "promote the interests of public order and jus- 
tice; to support cheerfully whatever is for the good of the common- 
wealth in which they dwell;" and to "pray and labor for the peace 
and welfare of the country, and far its reformation by a constitu- 
tional recognition of God as the source of all power, of Jesus Christ 
as the Ruler of Nations, of the Holy Scriptures as the supreme 
rule, and of the true Christian religion." They, however, "refuse to 
incorporate by any act with the political body until this blessed refor- 
mation has been secured," and explain thus their refusal to vote or 
hold office. 

The Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are accepted as 
the very Word of God, and as the supreme standard in all matters 
relating to faith and practice. Their teachings with reference to doc- 
trine are summarized in the subordinate standards, the Westminster 
Confession and Catechisms, and the Reformed Presbyterian Testi- 
mony; and their teachings with reference to order and worship are 
summarized, in substance, in the Westminster Form of Church Gov- 
ernment and Directory for Worship. The covenant of 1871 is recog- 
nized as binding on those who took it, and on those they represented. 

Only members in regular standing are admitted to the Lord's 
Supper. The children of church members only are admitted to the 
ordinance of baptism. The metrical version of the Psalms alone is 
used in the service of praise. Instruments of music are not allowed 
in worship. Connection with secret societies is prohibited. 


Presbyterianism is considered as the "only divinely instituted 
form of government in the Christian Church." The church courts are 
the session, the presbytery, and the synod, there being no general 
assembly. The officers are of two classes, elders and deacons. Elders 
include both those who rule and those who also teach; the deacons 
care for the poor, and are usually intrusted with the temporalities. 
To the latter office women are eligible. In the church courts the 
ruling elders and the minister are on an equality. 

194 Year Book of tlie Churches 


General Synod, annual 

Officers: Mod., Eev. James L. Chesnut, 838 Winsor Square, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Stated Clerk and Treas , Eev. L. A. Benson, 
Clay Center, Kans. ; Asst. Clerk. Eev. E. W. Chesnut, Delanson, 
N. Y. 

BOARD OP FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres., Rev, John Parks, 5923 Wash- 
ington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. R. W. Chesnut, Delanson, 
N. Y.; Treas., A. B. McMillan, Sparta, 111. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. Alex. Savage, New Gali- 
lee, Pa.; Sec., Rev. R. N. Coleman, R. F. D. Industry, Pa.; Treas., 
W. J. Imbrie, New Galilee, Pa. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Chmn., Prof. F. A. Jurkat, Cedarville, 

BOARD OF CHURCH EXTENSION. Pres., Rev. Thos. Whythe, 1759 
N. Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Sec., Rev. John Parks, 5923 Wash- 
ington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., W. J. Imbrie, New Galilee, Pa. 

SUSTENTATION FUND. Treas., W. J. Imbrie, New Gallilee, Pa. 

DISABLED MINISTERS' FUND. Treas., Rev. F. A. Jurkat, Cedar- 
ville, Ohio. 


Name Location President 

Cedarville College Cedarville, Ohio . . .W R. McChesney. 

Theological Seminary 

Reformed Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary Cedarville, Ohio W. R. McChesney, 


Reformed Presbyterian Advocate (monthly), Delanson, N. Y,, 
Editor, Rev. R. W. Chesnut. 


The Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanter) Church, which was 
reorganized in 1798 and developed into a synod in 1809, was divided 
in 1833 on the question of the relation of its members to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. One party objected to any participa- 
tion in public affairs, and the other leaving the decision with the 
individual. The former was called the "Synod" and the latter the 
"General Synod." 

The General Synod holds equally with the Synod to the West- 
minster Standards, to the headship of Christ over nations, to the doc- 
trine of "public social covenanting," to the exclusive use of the 
Psalms in singing, to restricted communion in the use of the sacra- 
ments, and to the principle of "dissent from all immoral civil insti- 
tution"; but allows its members to decide for themselves whether 
the Government of this country should be regarded as an immoral 
institution, and thus determine what duties of citizenship devolve 
upon them. They may, therefore, exercise the franchise and hold 
office, provided they do not in these civil acts violate the principle 
that forbids connection with immoral institutions. Many of them do 
participate in elections. Negotiations for the union of the General 
Synod and the Synod failed in 1890, because the latter would not 
agree to a basis which interpreted the phrase "incorporate with the 
political body" as meaning "such incorporation as involves sinful com- 
pliance with the religious defects of the written constitution as it now 
stands, either in holding such offices as require an oath to support 
the constitution, or in voting for men to administer such offices." 

Directory of Religious Bodies 195 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine and polity this church is in general accord with other 
Presbyterian bodies. 


(Associate Presbyterian Church) 

Synod, annual, next meeting, Mmneola, Kans. 

Three presbyteries. 

Officers: Mod, Rev W, P. Gilkey, Minneola, Kans., Clerk, 
Rev. A. M. Malcolm, 210 S. Second St., Albia, Iowa; Treas., 
Dr. W. J. Masson, Washington, Iowa. 

BOARD OF MISSIONS. Chmn., A. J. Dawson; See., Rev. A. M. 
Malcolm, Albia, Iowa; Treas., Dr. W. J. Masson, Washington, Iowa; 
Rev. R. K. Atchison. 

BOAED OP PKEEDMEN. Rev. W. P. Gilkey, Rev. Win. Porter, Eev. 
A. M, Malcolm. 

BOAED OF RELIEF. Pres., Rev. A. M. Malcolm; See., Rev. W. P. 
Gilkey; Treas., A. J. Dawson, Washington, Iowa. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Chmn., Rev. A. M. Malcolm, 210 S. Sec- 
ond St., Albia, Iowa; Bus. Mgr. and Treas., Rev. R. K. Atchison, 
Rimersburg, Pa.; Rev. H. S. Atchison, Mr. A. J. Dawson. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Treas., Dr. W. J. Masson, Washington, 

Iowa. ,,,., 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Theological Seminary . Beaver Falls, Pa H. S. Atchison. 


Associate Presbyterian Magazine (monthly), Washington, Iowa, 
Editor, Rev. R. K. Atchison, Rimersburg, Pa. ; Associate Editor, Miss 
Anna Dawson, Washington, Iowa. 


The Associate Synod of North America, generally known as the 
Associate Presbyterian Church, is the direct descendant of the first 
secession from the Established Church of Scotland in November, 
1733. At that time four ministers Ebenezer Erskine, William Wil- 
son, Alexander Monerieff, and James Fisher withdrew from the state 
church, holding that the law of patronage, which deprived the people 
of any voice in the choice of a pastor, was contrary to the spirit and 
principles of Presbyterianism. They formed, on December 6, an As- 
sociate Presbytery, but did not act judicially as a presbytery until 
1736. In 1737 four other ministers joined them. The movement 
became popular and developed into the Secession Synod of Edinburgh. 

To meet the needs of the families which emigrated to this coun- 
try, this synod sent two missionaries in the fall of 1753, who were 
reinforced from time to time by others who came out from the mother 
church, and in 1754 organized the Associate Presbytery. Meanwhile 
representatives of the Old Covenanter Church had also come, form- 
ing in 1774 what was known as the Reformed Presbytery. In 1782 
the two bodies, the Associate Presbytery and the Reformed Pres- 
bytery, united, taking the name of Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. Two ministers and three ruling elders declined to enter 
this union. Other presbyteries were organized, and in 1801 they de- 
veloped into the Associate Synod of North Ainerica. In 1858 this 
Associate Synod and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church ef- 

196 Year Book of the Churches 

f ected a union, under the name of the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America. Eleven ministers refused to enter this union and 
continued the Associate Presbyterian Church, which is the Associate 
Synod of North America. 


In doctrine the church is Calvmistic, adhering to the Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, and 
has a published testimony (the Associate Testimony) explaining its 
position on many doctrinal points more fully than does the West- 
minster Confession. It encourages public solemn convenantmg, pro- 
vides against occasional communion, opposes secret societies, and pre- 
scribes the exclusive use of the Psalms in praise services. 


In polity or government this branch of the church differs in no 
essential element from other Presbyterian churches. 


General Convention, triennial. 

Ninety dioceses and missionary districts in the United States 
and 11 missionary districts abroad. 

Presiding Bishop: Rt. Rev Daniel S. Tuttle, Bishop of 
Missouri, 74 Vandeventer Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Officers : CJimn.y House of Bishops, Rt Rev. Wm C. Brown, 
Richmond, Va , Bishop of Virginia , Sec , Rev Chas. L. Pardee, 
251 4th Ave , N Y C , Pres , House of Deputies, Rev. Alexander 
Mann; Sec , Rev. Carroll M Davis, 281 Fourth Ave., New York 
City; Treas of the Convention, William W. Skiddy, 82 Wall St., 
New York City. 

The Presiding Bishop and Council. Officers : Pres., Rt. Rev. 
Thomas F. (Jailor; See., Rev. Franklin J. Clark; Treas., L. B. 
Franklin, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City; Asst. Treas., Chas. 
A. Tompkins. 

Departments of the Council 

and For. Sec., Dr. John W. Wood; Domestic Sec, Rev C. M. Davis; 
Sec. for Work in Latin-America, Rev. Arthur R. Gray; Ed. Sec., Dr. 
William C. Sturgis; Sec. for Foreign-Born Americans, Rev. Thomas 
Burgess; Field Director for Work Among Foreign-Born Americans, 
Kev. William C. Emhardt; Ass't. Sec., Rev. Charles T. Bridgeman; 
Gen. Missioner for Work Among Welsh, Rev. Hugh D. Jones. 


N. Lathrop. 

DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE. Treas., L. B. Franklin. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICITY. Exec. Sec., Rev. R. F. Gibson. 

Bishops (Address Rt. Rev.) 
(Dioceses in paretheses) (M. B.= Missionary Bishop) 

Charles M. Beckwith (Alabama), 1305 S. Hull St., Montgomery, 

Wm. G. McDowell, Jr. (Coadjutor, Alabama), Birmingham, Ala. 

Peter T. Rowe (M. B., Alaska), 418 Mutual Life Bldg., Seattle, 

Directory of Religious Bodies 197 

Richard H. Nelson (Albany), 29 Elk St., Albany, N. Y. 

George A. Oldham (Coadjutor, Albany), 3 Irving; Place, Second 
St., Troy, N. Y. 

Julius W. Atwood (M, B., Arizona), 110 W. Roosevelt St., 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

James R. Winchester (Arkansas), 1222 Scott St., Little Rock, 

Edwin Warren Saphore (Suffragan, Arkansas), Little Rock, Ark. 

Edward T. Demby (Suffragan, Arkansas), Little Rock, Ark. 

Junius M. Horner (Western North Carolina), Asheville, N. C. 

Henry J. Mikell (Atlanta), Peachtree Circle and E. 17th St., At- 
lanta, Ga. 

Ethelbert Talbot (Bethlehem), South Bethlehem, Pa. 

William F. Nichols (California), 1215 Sacramento St., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Edward Lambe Parsons (Coadjutor, California), 1215 Sacramento 
St., San Francisco, Calif. 

Charles T. Olmsted (Central New York), 1101 Park Ave., Utica, 

Charles Fiske (Coadiutor, Central New York), 778 Genesse St., 
Utica, N. Y. 

Charles P. Anderson (Chicago), 4512 Drexel Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

Sheldon Munson Griswold (Suffragan, Chicago), 1314 Hinman 
Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Irving P. Johnson (Colorado), 323 McClmtock Bldg., Denver, 

Fred Ingley (Coadjutor, Colorado), 323 McClmtock Bldg, Denver, 

Chauncey B. Brewster (Connecticut), 98 Woodland St., Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Edward C. Acheson (Suffragan, Connecticut), 376 Washington 
St., Middletown, Conn. 

Alexander C. Garrett (Dallas), Dallas, Tex. 

Harry T. Moore (Coadjutor, Dallas), Dallas, Texas. 

Philip Cook (Delaware), Bishopstead, Wilmington, Del. 

Granville Gaylord Bennet (Duluth), 2131 E. Superior St., Duluth, 

Thomas C. Darst (East Carolina), Wilmington, N. C. 

William P. Remington (M. B., Eastern Oregon), Hood River, Ore. 

George William Davenport (Easton), Easton, Md. 

John Chamberlain Ward (Erie), 437 W. 6th St, Erie, Pa. 

Edwin G. Weed (Florida), Jacksonville, Fla. 

Reginald H. Weller (Fond du Lac), Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Frederick F. Reese (Georgia), 2425 Bull St., Savannah, Ga. 

James H. Darlington (Harrisburg), 321 North Front St., Har- 
risburg, Pa. 

John Dominique La Mothe (M. B., Honolulu) , Honolulu, T. H. 

Frank H. Touret (Idaho), Boise, Idaho. 

Joseph M. Francis (Indianapolis), 1559 Central Ave., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Theodore N. Morrison (Iowa), 1102 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa. 

Harry Sherman Longley (Coadjutor, Iowa), 4200 Grand Ave- 
nue, Des Moines, Iowa. 

James Wise (Kansas), Topeka, Kans. 

Charles E. Woodcock (Kentucky), 1129 3d St., Louisville, Ky. 

Lewis W. Burton (Lexington), 436 W. 6th St., Lexington, Ky. 

Frederick Burgess (Long Island), See House, Garden City, L. I., 
N. Y. 

Joseph H. Johnson (Los Angeles), Pacific Mutual Bldg., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

198 Year Book of the Churches 

William Bertrand Stevens (Coadjutor, Los Angeles), Pacific 
Mutual Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif, 

Davis Sessums (Louisiana), 2919 St. Charles Ave., New Or- 
leans, La. 

Benjamin Brewster (Maine), 143 State St., Portland, Me. 

Robert LeRoy Harris (Marquette), Marquette, Mich. 

John G. Murray (Maryland), 409 N. Charles St , Baltimore, Md. 

William Lawrence (Massachusetts), 122 Commonwealth Ave., 
Boston, Mass. 

Charles L. Slattery (Coadjutor, Massachusetts), 1 Joy St., Boston, 

Samuel Gavitt Babcock (Suffragan, Massachusetts), 496 Common- 
wealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Charles D. Williams (Michigan), 2326 Woodward Ave., Detroit, 

William W. Webb (Milwaukee), 222 Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, 

Frank A. McElwam (Minnesota), 2642 Portland Ave, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Theodore DuB. Bratton (Mississippi) , Battle Hill, Jackson, Miss. 

William M. Green (Coadjutor, Mississippi), Meridian, Miss. 

Daniel S. Tuttle (Missouri), 74 Vandeventer Place, St Louis, Mo. 

Frederick Foote Johnson (Coadjutor, Missouri), 5609 Clemens 
Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

William F. Faber (Montana), Helena, Mont. 

Herbert H H. Fox (Suffragan, Montana), Billings, Mont. 

Ernest V. Shayler (Nebraska), 203 Kennedy Bldg, Omaha Nebr 

George C. Hunting (M. B., Nevada), 505 Eidge St., Reno, Nev. 

Edwin S. Lines (Newark), 48 Berkeley Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Wilson Reiff Stearly (Coadjutor, Newark), 21 Washington St., 
Newark, N. J. 

Edward M. Parker (New Hampshire), Concord, N. H. 

Paul Matthews (New Jersey), 307 Hamilton Ave., Trenton, 
N. J. 

Frederick B. Howden (M. B., New Mexico), Albuquerque, N, M. 

William T. Manning (New York), Amsterdam Ave, and 110th 
St., New York City. 

Arthur S. Lloyd (Suffragan, New York), Synod House, Amster- 
dam Ave. and 110th St., New York. 

Herbert Shipman (Suffragan Bishop, New York), Synod House, 
Amsterdam Ave., and 110th St., New York City. 

Joseph B. Cheshire (North Carolina), Raleigh, N. C. 

Edwin A. Pemck (Coadjutor, North Carolina), 625 Clement Ave., 
Charlotte. N. C. 

Henry B. Delany (Suffragan, North Carolina), Raleigh, N. C 

John P. Tyler (M. B., North Dakota), Fargo, N. D. 

John H. White (Northern Indiana), 319 West Coif ax Ave., South 
Bend, Ind. 

Edward A. Temple (M. B., North Texas), Amarillo, Texas. 

William A. Leonard (Ohio), 3054 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Frank Du Moulin (Coadjutor, Ohio), 2241 Prospect Ave., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Theodore P. Thurston (M. B., Oklahoma), 724 W. 16th St., Okla- 
homa City, Okla. 

Frederic W. Keator (Olympia), 601 St. Helen's Ave., Tacoma, 

Walter T. Sumner (Oregon), 574 Elm St., Portland, Oreg. 

Philip M. Rhinelander (Pennsylvania), 251 S. 22d St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 199 

Thomas James Garland (Suffragan, Pennsylvania), 202 S. 19th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gouverneur F. Mosher (M. B., Philippine Islands), 567 Calle 
Isaac Peral, Manila. 

Alexander Mann (Bishop-elect, Pittsburgh). 

Charles B. Colmore (M. B., Porto Rico), Box 1115, San Juan, 
P. R. 

M, Edward Fawcett (Quincy), 1661 Jersey St., Quincy, 111. 

James De W. Perry, Jr. (Ehode Island), 10 Brown St., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

William H. Moneland (Sacramento), 2600 Capitol Ave., Sacra- 
mento, Calif. 

Robert Herbert Mize (M. B., Salina), 156 S. 8th St,, Salina, 

Louis C. Sanford (M. R, San Joaquin), 733 Peralta Way, Fresno, 

William A. Guerry (South Carolina), Charleston, S. C. 

Lucien L. Kinsolving (M. B., Southern Brazil), Caixa 549 Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Hugh L. Burleson (M. B., South Dakota), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

William Blair Roberts (Suffragan, South Dakota). 

Cameron Mann (M. B., Southern Florida), Orlando, Fla. 

Boyd Vincent (Southern Ohio), 223 W. Seventh St., Cincinnati, 

Theodore Irving Reese (Coadjutor, Southern Ohio), 206 First 
National Bank Bldg., Columbus, Ohio. 

Beverly D. Tucker (Southern Virginia), 709 Stockley Gardens, 
Norfolk, Va. 

Arthur Conover Thomson (Coadjutor, Southern Virginia), Ports- 
mouth, Va. 

Robert Carter Jett (Southwestern Virginia), 18 Elm Ave., Roa- 
noke, Va. 

Herman Page (M. B., District of Spokane), 2303 First Ave., 
Spokane, Wash. 

Granville H. Sherwood (Springfield), 627 S. Walnut St., Spring- 
field, 111. 

Thomas F. Gailor (Tennessee), 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

James M. Maxon (Coadjutor, Tennessee) , Nashville, Tenn. 

George H. Kinsolving (Texas), 2607 Whitis Ave., Austin, Tex. 

Clinton Simon Quin (Coadjutor, Texas) , 3708 Fannin St., Hous- 
ton, Texas. 

Kirkman G. Finlay (Upper South Carolina), Columbia, S. C. 

Arthur W. Moulton (M. B., Utah), 441 E. First South St., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

Arthur C. A. Hall (Vermont), Burlington, Vt. 

George Yemens Bliss (Coadjutor, Vermont), Burlington, Vt. 

William C. Brown (Virginia), 906 Park Ave., Richmond, Va. 

Alfred Harding (Washington), Cathedral Close, Washington, 
D. C. 

Thomas F. Davies (Western Massachusetts), 1154 Worthmgton 
St., Springfield, Mass. 

John N. McCormick (Western Michigan), 43 Lafayette Ave. S. 
E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Sidney C. Partridge (West Missouri), 14 West Armour Blvd., 
Kansas City, Mo. 

George A. Beecher (M. B., Western Nebraska), Hastings, Nebr. 

Charles H. Brent (Western New York), 237 No. St., Buifalo, 
N. Y. 

David Lincoln Ferris (Suffragan, Western New York), 325 Park 
Ave., Buifalo, N. Y. 

200 Year Book of the Churches 

Junms M Horner (Western North Carolina), Asheville, N. C. 

William T. Capers (West Texas), 108 W. French Place, San 
Antonio, Tex. 

William L Gravatt (West Virginia), 1583 Va St., Charleston, 
W. Va. 

Nathaniel S Thomas (M. B , Wyoming), Ivmson Hall, Laramie, 

Walter H. Overs (M. B, Libena), Monrovia, Liberia 

T. M. Gardiner (Suffragan, Liberia), Harper City, Cape Palmas, 

Frederick R. Graves (M. B., Shanghai), Shanghai, China. 

Logan H. Roots (M. B., Hankow), Hankow, China. 

Daniel T. Huntington (M. B., Anking), Anking, China. 

John McKim (M. B., Tokyo), Tokyo, Japan. 

Henry St. G. Tucker (M. B., Kyoto), Kyoto, Japan. 

Hiram R. Hulse (M. B., Cuba), Havana, Cuba. 

Henry D. Aves (M B, Mexico), Monterey, N. L., Mexico. 

H R. Carson (M. B., elect, Haiti). 

James C. Morris (M. B., Canal Zone), Ancon, Canal Zone. 

Resigned Bishops 

James S. Johnston (West Texas), San Antonio, Texas. 
Anson R. Graves (Kearney), Sonora, Calif. 
Lemuel H. Wells (Spokane), Tacoma, Wash. 
William M. Brown (Arkansas), Galion, Ohio. 
Edward W. Osbome (Springfield), 723 Maupas Aye., Savannah, 

Albion W. Knight (Cuba), Sewanee, Tenn. 

Paul Jones (Utah), 118 E. 28th St., New York City. 

Henry B. Restarick (Honolulu), Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

G. Mott Williams (Marquette), 9 Southgate Ave., Annapolis, Md. 

J. D. Morrison (Duluth, Minn), Ogdensbuigh, N. Y. 

Robert L Paddock (Eastern Oregon). 

Fourth Ave., New York City. Sec, Miss G. Lindley. 

LEAGUE. Under the Department of Religious Education. Exec. Sec., 
Miss Frances H. Withers, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Ave., New York City. Treas., Charles A. Tompkins; Cor. See., Rev. 
Charles L. Pardee. 

BROTHERHOOD OF ST. ANDREW, Church House, 12th and Walnut 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Edward H. Bonsall; Gen. Sec. and 
Editor, St. Andrew's Cross (official organ), Geo. H. Randall; Exec. 
Sec., Franklin H. Spencer; Treas., Warren H. Turner. 

B. Brewster; Cor. See., Rev. Harry I. Bodley, New Britain, Conn.; 
Treas,, Elijah C. Johnson. 

York City. Pres, Rt. Rev. Frederick Burgess; Sec., J. Van Vechten 

Edwin B. Rice, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City, N. Y. 

AMERICAN CHURCH UNION. Pre?., Clinton R. Woodruff; Cor. 
Sec., Rev. Elliot White, 1625 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., 
Rev. E. S. Lane, 51 Rex Ave., Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Rt. Rev. W. T. Manning; See., Edwin S. Gorham, 11 W. 45th St,. New 
York City; Treas., Frank B. Warburton. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 201 

COLLEGES, AND SEMINARIES. Pres , Rev. Lawrence T. Cole; Sec., 
; Treas,, George Zabriskie. 

OF LABOR, 416 Lafayette St., New York City. Pres., Rt Rev. W. T. 
Manning; Exec. Sec., Miss Harriett A. Keyser; Treas., H. B. Living- 

B Spoiford, 6140 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. 

CHURCH TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 2050 Amsterdam Ave., New York 
City. Pres , Rev. James V. Chalmers ; Gen. Sec , Rev James Empring- 
ham; Treas., Win. J. Schiefflien. 

CHRISTIAN UNITY FOUNDATION, 143 E. 37th St., New York City. 
Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton , Treas., Origen S. Seymour, 54 William 
St., New York City. 

American Branch; Pres., Rt. Rev. F. M. Parker and Rt. Rev. Bp. 
Alexander; Gen. Sec., Rev. W. C. Emhardt, 281 4th Ave., New Yoik 
City. . 

BLOOD OF CHRIST. Superior Gen., Rt. Rev. R. H. Weller; Sec. Gen., 
Rev. W. A. Grier, 14 E. 109th St., New York City; Treas. Gen., 
Thomas E. Gallagher, 4859 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111. 

C. L. Slattery; Gen Sec., Rev. S. M. Dorrance, New City, N. Y., 
Treas., Rev. John M. Erickson, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., R. Francis Wood; Gen. Sec, Rev. J. A. 
Goodfellow, 2353 East Cumberland St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., 
George Hall. 

perior, Rev. F. C. Powell 33 Bowdom St., Boston, Mass. 

ORDER OF THE HOLY CROSS. Father Superior, 0. H. C., West 
Park, N. Y. 

ter, Rev. F. D. Ward, 1606 Mifflin St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

S. BARNABAS' BROTHERHOOD, Gibsonia, Pa. Visitor, Rt. Rev. Alex. 

etta R. Goodwin; Sec., Anna G. Newell, Christ Church Cathedral, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

GIRLS' FRIENDLY SOCIETY, 15 East 40th St., New York City. 
Pres., Miss Frances W. Sibley; Sec., Miss Mary M. McGuire; Treas., 
Miss Mary B. Anthony. An organization of the young women of the 
Church with branches in every diocese. 

DAUGHTERS OF THE KING, Bible House, New York City. Pres., 
Mrs Felix G. Ewing; Gen. Sec., Miss E. E. BehJendorff ; Treas., Mrs. 
C. H. Arndt. 

CHURCH PERIODICAL CLUB, 2 W. 47th St., New York City. Pres., 
Mrs. Otto Heinigke; Exec. Sec., Miss Mary E. Thomas; Treas., Mrs. 
H. J. Jackson. 

GENERAL MISSION OF HELP. Pres., Mrs. John M. Glenn, New York 
City; Sec., Miss Katharine Greene, 1133 Broadway, New York City; 
Treas., Mrs. S. G. Welles, Trenton, N. J 

GUILD OF ST. BARNABAS FOR NURSES. Chaplain General, Rt. Rev. 
W. S. Stearly, Newark, N. J. 

Mrs. H. G. Sanford; Sec., Mrs. E. de P. Hosmer. 

EVANGELICAL KNOWLEDGE. Pres., Mr. F. A. Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa.; 

202 Year Book of the Churches 

Sec., Rev. A. G. Cummins, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Treas , Mr. Zelah 
Van Loan. 

CATHOLIC PRINCIPLES. Pres., Rt. Rev. W. W. Webb, Bishop of Mil- 
waukee; Sec.-Treas., Rev. W. H. A. Hall, 311 W. 94th St., New York 

THE CHURCHMAN'S ALLIANCE. Pres., Professor C. B. Tinker, 
Yale University; Sec., Miss Frances Grandm, 126 Claremont Ave., 
New York City. 

Sec., William I. Rutter, Jr., 525 S. 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Littell, 45 Church St., Hartford, Conn. 

Smith; Sec t Rev. H. N. Arrow-smith, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. M. H. Gates; Sec., Rev. W. Gwynne, Summit, N. J. 

Chmn., Miss Vida D. Scudder; Sec., Rev. R. W. Hogue, Manayunk, Pa. 

Boston, Mass.; Sec., Mr. Oscar W. Ehrorn, 15 William St., New 
York City. 

Schools of Arts and Sciences 

Name Location President or Dean 

Racine College Racine, Wis 

St Stephen's College Annandale, N. Y B. I. Bell. 

Non-Sectarian Colleges 

Hobart College Geneva, N. Y Murray A. Bartlett. 

Trinity College Hartfoid, Conn Rerasen B Ogilby 

Theological Seminaries 

Berkeley Divinity School Middletown, Conn. . . W. P. Ladd. 

Bishop Payne Divinity School .... Petersburg, Va . . C. B. Bryan. 

Church Divinity School of the Pa- 
cific San Francisco, Calif . . W. F. Nichols. 

DeLancey Divinity School Geneva, N. Y Thomas B. Berry. 

Divinity School of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church Philadelphia, Pa George G. Bartlett. 

Episcopal Theological School Cambridge, Mass . H B Washburn 

General Theological Seminary ... New York City Hughell E. W. Fosbroke 

Nashotah House Nashotah, Wis E. A. Larrabee. 

Seabury Divinity School Faribault, Minn P. A McElwain- 

Theological Seminary m Virginia Alexandria, Va Bei ryman Green. 

Western Theological Seminary . . . Chicago, 111. . . William C. DeWitt. 

College of St John the Evangelist Greeley, Colo. . . . I. P. Johnson. 

Du Bose Memorial Monteagle, Tenn 

De Lancy Divinity School Buffalo, N. Y. 

Schools of Arts and Theology 
Name Location President or Dean 

Kenyon College Gambier, Ohio William F. Peirce. 

University of the South Sewanee, Tenn . . . .Cleveland K. Benedict. 


General (all weekly) : Churchman, New York City; Living 
Church, Milwaukee, Wis., Editor, F. C. Morehouse; The Witness, Ho- 
bart, Ind., Editor, Rt. Rev. Irving P. Johnson; The Chronicle 
(quarterly), Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Southern Churchman, Richmond, 
Va. (weekly) . 

The Church at Work; The Spirit of Missions (monthly) ; Amer- 
ican Church Monthly, 11 W. 45th St., New York City; Holy Cross 
Magazine (monthly), West Park, N. Y.; Anglican Theological Re- 
view (monthly), 2720 Washington Boulevard, Chicago. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 203 

Diocesan: Church Record, Montgomery, Ala.; Alsakan Church- 
man, Fairbanks, Alaska; Bethlehem Churchman, Box 291, Reading 1 , 
Pa.; Pacific Churchman, San Francisco, Calif.; Gospel Messenger, 
Utica, N. Y. ; Diocese of Chicago, Chicago, 111.; Connecticut Church- 
man, Hartford, Conn. ; Mission Herald, Kinston, N. C. ; Church Herald, 
St. Augustine, Fla.; Church Outlook, Antigo, Wis.; Harrisburg 
Churchman, Hamsburg, Pa.; Hawaiian Church Chronicle, Honolulu, 
Hawaii; Iowa Churchman, Ottumwa, Iowa; Kansas Churchman, 
Topeka, Kans.; Bishop's Letter, Louisville, Ky.; Diocesan News, Paris, 
Ky.; Los Angeles Churchman, Santa Monica, Calif.; Diocese of 
Louisiana, New Orleans, La.; North-East, Portland, Maine; Mary- 
land Churchman, Baltimore, Md. ; Church Militant, Boston, Mass.; 
Michigan Churchman, Detroit, Mich.; Church Times (Diocese of Mil- 
waukee), Delavan, Wis.; Church Record, Minneapolis, Minn.; Church 
News, Yazoo City, Miss.; Church News, St. Louis, Mo.; Montana 
Churchman, Helena, Mont ; Crozier, Omaha, Nebr.; Newark Church- 
man, Newark, N. J ; Church Fly Leaf, Concord, N. H.; Diocese of 
New Jersey, Trenton, N. J.; Carolina Churchman, Charlotte, N. C.; 
North Dakota Sheaf, Fargo, N. Dak.; Mission Churchman, Amarillo, 
Texas; Church Life, Cleveland, Ohio; Oregon Churchman, Portland, 
Oreg.; Church News, Philadelphia, Pa.; Albany Church Record; 
Arizona Church Record, Box 1326, Phoenix, Ariz.; Atlanta Diocesan 
Record; Duluth Churchman, 408 W. 1st St.; TheMission Herald, East 
Carolina, Plymouth, N. C.; The Diocese of Erie, Pa., Titusville; 
Long Island Churchman, 622 Greenwood Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Church News, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Light, Macomb, 111.; Diocesan Record, 
Providence, R. I.; Sacramento Missionary, Sacramento, Calif.; South 
Dakota Chu/rchman, Mitchell, S. Dak.; Anpao Kin, Cheyenne Agency, 
S. Dak.; Palm Branch, Orlando, Fla.; Church Messenger, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; Diocesan Journal, Portsmouth, Va.; Cathedral Chimes, Spo- 
kane, Wash. ; Springfield Churchman, Springfield, 111. ; Mountain Echo, 
Brandon, Vt. ; Pastoral Staff, Westfield, Mass. ; Church Helper, Grand 
Rapids, Mich.; Western Nebraska Churchman, Kearney, Nebr.; Church 
News, San Antonio, Texas.; Church News, Wheeling, W. Va.; 
Wyoming Churchman, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Periodicals Devoted to Special Interests 

American Church S. S. Magazine, Sunday Schools, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Church Advocate, Colored Work, Baltimore, Md.; Cross, Italian 
Work, Port Richmond, L. I.; St. Andrew's Cross, Brotherhood of St. 
Andrew, Philadelphia, Pa.; Spirit of Missions (monthly), 281 Fourth 
Ave., New York City; Shepherd f s Arms, Sunday Schools ( 1801 Fond 
du Lac Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.; Silent Churchman, Deaf Mutes, Chi- 
cago, 111.; Young Churchman, Sunday Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 


The earliest known services of the Church of England in the 
American colonies were conducted by the chaplains carried with the 
fleets of Frobisher in 1578 in New England and Drake in 1579 on 
a headland overlooking the present Bay of San Francisco. But not 
until 1607 was that church permanently established, when the Rev. 
Robert Hunt celebrated the Holy Communion on May 21 on the banks 
of the James River, Virginia. 

The churches in the colonies were under the jurisdiction of the 
Bishop of London, who, in 1685, sent out to Virginia as his Com- 
missary the Rev. Dr. James Blair, through whose efforts a royal 
charter was obtained for the College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

In New England there was a church at Portsmouth, N. H., prior 
to 1642 and the same year the Rev. Richard Gibson was arrested by 

204 Year Book of the Churches 

the Puritan authorities for marrying and baptizing in the Isle of 
Shoals, and there is evidence of the ministerial work of the Rev. 
Robert Jordan in Maine as early as 1640. After the revocation of the 
charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Church of England, serv- 
ices were established in Boston by the Rev. Robert Ratcliife, who ar- 
rived on May 15, 1686, and preached in the Town House. King's 
Chapel, Boston, was opened June 30, 1689; Trinity Church, Newport, 
R. I., in 1702, and the Naragansett Church five years later. In 1664 
the churchmen of Connecticut petitioned, without success, the Gen- 
eral Assembly for the right to hold church services, but on Septem- 
ber 13, 1702, the Rev. John Talbot conducted the first Church of 
England service in that Colony. 

The first English church was opened m Philadelphia in 1685 and 
three years later the Rev. Thomas Clayton, described by the Quakers 
as "a minister of the doctrine of devils," was appointed rector. The 
Rev. Charles Wolley, chaplain to the royal forces, ministered in the 
Chapel within the Fort, New York, in 1678, and in 1697 the charter 
for Trinity church was granted by the royal governor. The colon- 
ists from Virginia who attempted a settlement at Port Royal, S. C., 
in 1660, were ministered to by the Rev. Morgan Jones and the first 
church at Charleston was erected about 1681. The Rev. Dr. Henry 
Herbert accompanied the first band of settlers in Georgia in 1733 and 
three years later was succeeded by the Rev. John Wesley, who was 
accompanied by his brother, Charles, and later followed by George 
Whitefield, all ministers of the Church of England. Prior to 1675 
there were "three Protestant ministers of the Church of England" 
in Maryland, and early in the reign of William and Mary it became 
the established religion in the Colony. 

The formation in England of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts led to a marked growth of the church 
in the American Colonies. Its founder was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Bray, who was sent to Maryland as Commissary of the Bishop of 
London in 1700. The first missionaries of the S. P. G. were the 
Revs. George Keith and Patrick Gordon, who were later joined by the 
Rev. John Talbot. Mr. Gordon died soon after his arrival; Talbot 
settled in New Jersey and Keith traveled through the length and 
breadth of the Colonies. From 1702 till the outbreak of the War of 
the Revolution the S. P. G. supplied the missionaries save in Virginia 
and Maryland, where the church was established by law. Dean 
Berkeley, later Bishop of Cloyne, came to Newport, R. L, with the 
intention of founding a college. Although this project failed, he was 
one of the earliest supporters of Yale College and, on his return to 
Great Britian, had much to do with securing the charters for King's 
College (now Columbia), New York, and for the Academy and Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania. 

The Church in America, prior to the Revolution, was seriously 
handicapped by the lack of a bishop. Candidates for ordination were 
obliged to take the long and dangerous journey to England and the 
Bishop of London was unable to exercise the discipline, both of 
clergy and laity, which was at times greatly needed. Repeated ap- 
peals were made for the consecration of a bishop for the Colonies, 
but the plan was blocked partly through political considerations and 
partly by reason of the Puritan fear of an established church. 

During the War of the Revolution many of the churches were 
closed and the loyalist clergy fled to England and Canada. On the 
other hand, some of the clergy steadfastly adhered to the American 
cause. A notable example was Dr. William White, chaplain to the 
Continental Congress and a trusted adviser of George Washington. 

The declaration of peace in 1783 found the Episcopal Church dis- 
organized and threatened with extinction. In Virginia and Mary- 
land the church was automatically disestablished and in some of the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 205 

other Colonies deplorably weak. The church in each state jealously 
preserved its independence and there was no bond of unity. 

The first step to creating such a bond was the publication in 
1783 of a pamphlet entitled, "The Case of the Episcopal Churches 
in the United States Considered," by William White. Published 
before peace was declared, it urged measures for the perpetuation 
of the ministry without waiting" for the Episcopate, and outlined a 
general plan for the organization of the church in the United States. 
The moment the British authorities suggested peace, the pamphlet 
was withdrawn. 

The same year the Maryland clergy met and adopted a Declara- 
tion of Fundamental Rights and Liberties in which the title, Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, was used publicly for the first time. At an 
informal meeting held at New Brunswick, N. J., on May 11, 1784, 
further steps were taken towards organization, and thirteen days 
later a conference of clergy and laity was held in Philadelphia, this 
being the first time that laymen were admitted to the councils of the 
Church. A further gathering was held in New York in October at 
which the following fundamental principles were adopted: 

1. There shall be a general convention of the Episcopal Church 
in the United States of America. 

2. That the Episcopal Church in each state send deputies to the 
convention, consisting of clergy and laity. 

3. That associated congregations in two or more states may send 
deputies jointly. 

4. That the said church shall maintain the doctrines of the gospel 
as now held by the Church of England and shall adhere to the liturgy 
of said church, as far as shall be consistent with the American Revo- 
lution and the Constitution of the respective states. 

5. That in every state where there shall be a bishop duly conse- 
crated and settled he shall be considered as a member of the conven- 
tion ex officio. 

6. That the clergy and laity assembled in convention shall deliber- 
ate in one body, but shall vote separately, and the concurrence of both 
shall be necessary to give validity to any measure. 

7. That the first meeting of the convention shall be at Phila- 
delphia the Tuesday before the Feast of St. Michael next, to which 
it is hoped and earnestly desired that the Episcopal churches in the 
respective states will send their clerical and lay deputies duly in- 
structed and authorized to proceed on the necessary business herein 
proposed for their deliberation. 

In accordance therewith the first General Convention met in 
Philadelphia, September 27, 1785, with clerical and lay delegates pres- 
ent from the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. A constitution was 
adopted, the Liturgy revised and an address to the Church of Eng- 
land adopted asking for the consecration of Bishops for America. 
Samuel Seabury, who had been consecrated Bishop of Connecticut by 
the Scotch non-juring bishops in 1784, was not present at the Con- 
vention, nor were the New England churches represented owing to 
acute differences of opinion as to some clauses of the Constitution. 
The English bishops were unwilling to consecrate a bishop for Amer- 
ica owing to some of the changes which had been made in the Prayer 
Book: notably, the omission of the Nicene Creed. The Convention of 
1786 complied with their requests, save in the case of the restoration 
of the Athanasian Creed, and in 1787 William White and Samuel 
Provoost were consecrated Bishops of Pennsylvania and New York 
respectively, in the Chapel of Lambeth Palace, London. Dr. David 
Griffith, who had been elected Bishop of Virginia, was unable to find 
means for the journey and the election of Dr. Willam Smith as 
Bishop of Maryland failed to win the approval of the General Con- 

206 Year Book of the Churches 

vention. A little later Dr. James Madison was chosen Bishop of 
Virginia and consecrated in London. 

In 1789 the Constitution of the Church and the Prayer Book 
were revised, resulting in the union of hitherto divergent views, and 
Bishop Seabury took his seat in the Convention and in 1792 united 
with the other three bishops in the consecration of Dr. Thomas John 
Claggett as Bishop of Maryland, this being the first episcopal conse- 
cration in the United States. 

The first twenty years of the nineteenth century are known as 
the period of painfully slow growth. Religious emotionalism ran riot; 
the Liturgy was regarded as formal; the sermons were more moral 
than Christian, and the Church was still regarded as British. The 
new birth of aggression began in 1811 with the consecration of two 
bishops John Henry Hobart for New York, and Alex. V. Griswold 
for New England. From this period sprang the beginnings of mis- 
sionary work in the West to which emigrants were going in crowds. 
The consecration in 1819 of Philander Chase as Bishop of Ohio was 
the first effort to recognize the claims of the regions beyond to the 
Episcopate. Two years later the Church formally organized her 
missionary work by the creation of the Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, and in 1835 Jackson Kemper was elected the first 
missionary bishop with the whole of the Northwest for his juris- 

The Tractanan Movement profoundly influenced the Church in 
America, and for several years controversy was acute. On the high- 
church side George Washington Doane was the recognized leader and 
among the Evangelicals Bishop Alexander Veits Griswold, followed 
by Bishop Mcllvaine of Ohio. For several years the controversy was 
doctrinal and pamphlets were sown broadcast. The great storm burst 
when doctrine began to express itself in advanced ritual. Then 
came the period known as "the ritualistic controversy." In an en- 
deavor to quiet the storm it was declared by a large group of Bishops 
that the word "regenerate" in the office of Baptism did not signify 
a moral change, and the General Convention passed a canon limiting 
ritual observance. Efforts to conciliate the more extreme Evangel- 
icals failed, and in 187 Bishop George D. Cummins of Kentucky, 
withdrew and organized the Reformed Episcopal Church. The con- 
troversy died down and the ritual canon was repealed in 1904. During 
the Civil War the southern churchmen organized the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States. It held but one general 
convention and in 1865 the Church in the North and South was re- 
united. Brief mention should be made of the work of Foreign Mis- 
sions, the first of which was established in Greece and Liberia. China 
followed in 1835 and Japan was added as soon as that country was 
thrown open to foreigners. Later came the missions to Brazil and 
Cuba and at the close of the Spanish-American War the Philippine 
Islands, Porto Rico and Mexico were provided with bishops. Alaska, 
Honolulu and the Virgin Islands are also missionary districts. 

Under the leadership of Bishop William Lawrence the sum of 
nine million dollars has been raised to provide pensions for aged 
clergy and the widows and orphans of clergy. Parishes are required 
to contribute annually a percentage on the salaries paid to the 
clergyman and this amount, together with invested funds, will in a 
few years provide an adequate pension to those retiring at the age 
of 68. 

The doctrinal symbol of the Protestant Episcopal Church, so far 
as the laity are concerned, is the Apostles' Creed. The Thirty-nine 
Articles of the Church of England are, with some modifications, 
printed at the end of the American Prayer Book, but subscription to 
them is not required. The Church expects of her members loyalty 
to her doctrine, discipline and worship, but allows considerable lati- 

Directory of Religious Bodies 207 

tude in the interpretation of the Creeds. She recognizes all lawfully 
baptized into the name of the Holy Trinity as members of the Church, 
and requires that all who have been baptized shall be brought to the 
bishop for confirmation after they have been adequately instructed 
in the Catechism. By a strict interpretation of an ancient rubric 
only those who have been confirmed can come to the Holy Commun- 
ion, but a more liberal view prevails in practice. Two Sacraments 
only are recognized Baptism and the Supper of our Lord. 

The Episcopal Church recognizes three orders in the ministry- 
Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Deacons must have reached the age of 
twenty-one. They can not administer the Holy Communion and their 
special duty is to care for the sick and poor of the parish and preach 
only when licensed by the bishop. No one can be ordained priest until 
he has been one year a deacon and is twenty-four years old. Both 
deacons and priests are required before ordination to sign the fol- 
lowing declaration: 

"I do believe the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments to be the Word of God, and to contain all things necessary to 
salvation; and I do solemnly engage to conform to the doctrine, 
discipline and worship of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America." 

Diocesan bishops are elected by the clerical and lay members of 
the convention of the diocese, a majority of whom must sign the 
necessary testimonials. If the election takes place within three 
months of the meeting of the General Convention the consent of the 
House of Deputies and the House of Bishops is required before the 
consecration. At any other time the consent of a majority of all the 
Standing Committees of the dioceses and a majority of the bishops 
having jurisdiction in the United States must be obtained. Three 
bishops are necessary to a valid consecration. Provision is made for 
the election of a coadjutor bishop for a diocese who, on the death of 
the diocesan, has the right of succession, and also for the election of 
suffragan-bishops without the right of succession. Missionary 
bishops are elected by the House of Bishops, subject to the approval 
of the House of Deputies when the General Convention is m session. 
After five years, missionary bishops are eligible for election as dio- 
cesan, coadjutor or suffragans in any diocese. 

The canonical duty of a bishop is to ordain priests and deacons, 
assist at the consecration of bishops, to preside over the diocesan con- 
vention, to accept candidates for holy orders, to institute rectors of 
parishes, confirm and to visit every parish in his diocese at least once 
in three years. 

Rectors of parishes are usually elected by the Vestry, though in 
some states the election must be ratified by the congregation and in 
all cases the assent of the bishop to the election must be obtained. 
The rector has sole charge of the spiritual concerns of the parish 
subject to the godly counsel of the bishop and he is entitled to the use 
and control of the church and parish buildings. He is required to 
instruct children in the Catechism, to prepare candidates for confirma- 
tion, to record in the Parish Register all baptisms, confirmations, 
marriages and burials and to administer the Communion alms for the 
benefit of the sick and the poor. All lay readers must be licensed by 
the bishop. A rector can not resign without the consent of the 
vestry, nor can he be removed against his will except for misconduct, 
and that only after due trial and conviction. 

The method of the incorporation of a parish varies with the laws 
of the different states, but its usual legal title is, 'The Rector, 
Wardens and Vestrymen of * * * Church." All requirements of 
the civil law must be met before a parish can be received into union 
with the convention of the diocese and conformity to the doctrine, 
discipline and worship must be promised. The government of a 

208 Year Book of the Churches 

parish rests with the rector, wardens and vestrymen The wardens 
and vestrymen are elected by members of the congregation whose 
qualifications to vote are set forth in law. In come dioceses women 
are now permitted to vote for the vestry. Wardens are specifically 
charged with the duty of seeing that the church is kept sweet and 
clean and, with the vestrymen, are responsible for the finances of the 
parish. The vestry is a trustee for the property of the corporation. 

Next to the parish comes the diocese which is made up of the 
bishop or bishops, the clergy within the diocese and laymen elected 
by the parishes and missions of the diocese. The diocese is empowered 
to make assessments for the support of the episcopate, for diocesan 
missions, religious education, social service and any other work of 
which it may approve. Each diocese has a Standing Committee which 
may also act as a council of advice to the bishop when requested. 
Under certain circumstances the Standing Committee becomes the 
ecclesiastical authority of the diocese, notably during a vacancy in the 
episcopate. Missionary districts are those parts of states and terri- 
tories which are not, for the time being, capable of self-support. The 
stipends of all missionary bishops are paid by the central authority. 

The United States are now divided into eight provinces in each 
of which there is a synod consisting of a House of Bishops, composed 
of all the bishops within the "province, and a House of Clerical and 
Lay Deputies elected by the dioceses and missionary districts within 
the province. The synod has authority to create provincial Boards 
of Missions, Religious Education and Social Service; also to elect 
judges of the Court of Review. 

The supreme legislative body of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
is the General Convention which xneets once in three years. It con- 
sists of two bodies the House of Bishops and the House of Clerical 
and Lay Deputies. Each House sits separately ; either may originate 
legislation, but there must be on all matters concurrent action. 

The House of Bishops is composed of all the bishops having 
jurisdiction, and every bishop, who through infirmity or age, has 
resigned his jurisdiction. Suffragan bishops have a seat, but no 
vote. The House of Bishops elects its own presiding officer and now 
throws open its doors to the public except when seated in council. 

The House of Deputies consists of clerical and lay representa- 
tives elected by each diocese admitted to union with the convention. 
The number of such deputies must not exceed four from each diocese 
in each order. Missionary districts within the boundaries of the 
United States elect one clerical and one lay deputy. Missionary 
districts in foreign lands have the same privilege save the right to 
vote when the vote is taken by orders. Ordinarily the vote of a 
majority of deputies suffices, but either the clerical or lay represen- 
tative of a diocese may call for a vote by orders. In such case the 
two orders vote separately, each diocese having one clerical and one 
lay vote, and the deputies from the domestic missionary districts one- 
fourth of a vote. No change in the Constitution nor in the Book of 
Common Prayer can be made unless first proposed in one General 
Convention, then sent to each diocesan convention and finallv adopted 
at the next General Convention by a majority of the whole number 
of bishops entitled to vote, and by a majority of the clerical and lay 
deputies voting by orders. 

At the General Convention of (1919) a radical departure was 
taken in the organization of the Presiding Bishop and Council 
charged with the duty of carrying on the missionary, educational and 
social work of the Church. The Council consists of sixteen elected 
by the General Convention four bishops, four clergymen and eight 
laymen; one elected by each of the eight provincial synods, and a 
Vice-President and Treasurer. Pending the election of a Presiding 

Directory of Religious Bodies 209 

Bishop the General Convention elects a bishop as President of the 
Council. The Council has organized the following departments: 

Missions and Church Extension. 

Religious Education. 

Christian Social Service. 



Nation Wide Campaign, 

The budget of the Council for 1922 was $4,036,361. 

The subject of Christian Unity has been to the fore in the Epis- 
copal Church since the General Convention, which met in Chicago, 
adopted as a basis of reunion four articles which were in turn adopted 
by the Lambeth Conference of 1888, and have since been known as 
"The Lambeth Quadrilateral." They are as follows: 

(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as 
"containing all things necessary to salvation/* and as being the rule 
and ultimate standard of faith. 

(6) The Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene 
Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. 

(c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ himself baptism 
and the Supper of the Lord ministered with unfailing use of Christ's 
words of institution and of the elements ordained by Him, 

(d) The historic episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its 
administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called 
of God into the unity of His Church. 

At the General Convention of 1910 there was appointed a Joint 
Commission on the Faith and Order of the Catholic Church with the 
intent to promote a world conference looking towards the "visible 
unity of the Body of Christ on earth/' The advent of the great war 
arrested the arrangements for the conference, but the effort is now 
being renewed with every prospect of success: the more so because 
similar commissions have been appointed in England both by the 
Anglicans and Nonconformists. 

A further step was taken in 1919 when the General Convention 
appointed a commission on the suggested Concordat with the Congre- 
gational Church in the United States. A further report on the mat- 
ter will be laid before the General Convention in the fall of 1922. 

These efforts towards unity have been greatly stimulated by the 
action of the Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops throughout the 
world held in London in 1920. 

In a fine Appeal to All Christian People the bishops urge the 
need of that fellowship which shall express itself in the visible unity 
of Christ's flock. They express the belief that the visible unity of 
the Church will be found to involve the whole-hearted acceptance of 
the Holy Scriptures, as the record of God's revelation of Him- 
self to man, and as the rule and ultimate standard of faith; and the 
Creed commonly called Nicene, as the sufficient statement of the 
Christian faith, and either it or the Apostles' Creed as the baptismal 
confession of belief; the divinely instituted Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Holy Communion, as expressing for all the corporate life of 
the whole fellowship in and with Christ; a ministry acknowledged 
by every part of the Church as possessing not only the inward call 
of the spirit, but also the commission of Christ and the authority of 
the whole body. 


General Council, triennial; next session, Philadelphia, Pa., 
May, 1924 (Jubilee Council). 

210 Year Book of the Churches 

Three synods, including 1 in Canada, and 3 missionary 

Officers of General Council: Pres. and Presiding Bishop, 
Robert L. Rudolph, 103 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. ; See., Rev. 
William A. Freemantle, 1617 Oxford St., Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; Treas., George "W. Wagner, 4418 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


"Willard Brewing, 491 Euclid Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Can. 

Robert L. Eudolph, 103 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. Pres., Bishop Robert L. Rudolph; 
Sec., H. H. Siimamon, West End Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. Sec., Rev. Wm, Eareckson, Jr., 2750 
S. Cleveland Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

COMMITTEE ON SUNDAY SCHOOLS Sec , Rev. William Tracy, 4401 
Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Way, D. D., 1611 N. Caroline St , Baltimore, MdL 

SUSTENTATION FUND. Pres. Trustees, Frederick 0. Foxcroft, 13 
Carteret St., Newark, N. J.; Treas., The Provident Trust Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

R. L. Rudolph, 103 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. 
Samuel B. Ray, 442 W. School Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles F. Hendricks, West End Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Theological Seminary 

Name Location President 

Theological Seminary Philadelphia, Pa Joseph D Wilson. 

Episcopal Recorder, Philadelphia, Pa. 


At the sixth conference of the Evangelical Alliance in New York, 
in October, 1873, a communion service was held in the Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, in which Dr. Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury, 
and Bishop George David Cummins, of Kentucky, participated. This 
was at the time of the intense discussion in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church concerning ritual, and Dean Smith and Bishop Cummins were 
subjected to some very severe and unfriendly criticisms for partici- 
pating in this union communion service. Bishop Cummins had for 
some time felt disturbed at the apparently ritualistic tendencies of 
his church, and the loss as he thought of true catholicity, and so 
keenly did he feel these criticisms as new evidence of these tendencies 
that, on November 10, he withdrew. A number of others shared his 
opinions, and on a call from him 7 clergymen and 20 laymen met in 
New York City on December 2, and organized the Reformed Episcopal 
Church. Bishop Cummins was chosen as presiding bishop, and the 
Rev. Dr. Charles Edwards Cheney was elected a bishop and was 
subsequently consecrated in Chicago, 

The name Reformed Episcopal was chosen because of the belief 
of the founders of the new movement that the same principles were 
adopted which were the basis of the Anglican Church at the Reforma- 
tion which is known in law as the "Reformed Church of England" 
and also of the Protestant Episcopal Church when fully organized 
after the American Revolution. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 211 


In doctrine the Reformed Episcopal Church declares its belief in 
the Scriptures as the Word of God, and the sole rule of faith and 
practice; and accepts the Apostles' Creed, the divine institution of 
the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the doctrines 
of grace, substantially as set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. It rejects the doctrine that the Lord's 
table is an altar on which the oblation of the body and blood of Christ 
is offered anew to the Father; that the presence of Christ in the 
Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements of bread and wine; and 
that regeneration is inseparably connected with baptism. 


The polity accords with that of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
except that it looks upon episcopacy as an ancient and desirable form 
of church government rather than as of divine right. It rejects, as 
erroneous doctrine and contrary to God's Word, the position that the 
Church of Christ consists of only one order of ecclesiastical polity, 
and that Christian ministers are priests in any other sense than that 
in which all other believers are "a royal priesthood." 

The Reformed Episcopal Church recognizes the Christian char- 
acter of members of other branches of Christ's Church and receives 
them on letters dimissory. It does not demand the reordination of 
clergymen, duly ordained in other communions, who enter its ranks. 
It holds, however, that, through its bishops, who alone have the right 
to confirm and ordain, it has preserved intact the historic succession 
of the ministry. Unlike the General Convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, the bishops do not constitute a separate house in 
the General Council. They preside over synods or jurisdictions which 
correspond to dioceses and jurisdictions of the Protestant Episcopal 

For worship the church accepts the Book of Common Prayer as 
revised by the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in 1785, but holds that no liturgy should be imperative or 
repressive of freedom in prayer, and reserves full liberty to alter, 
abridge, enlarge, and amend the same, as may seem best, "provided 
that the substance of the faith be kept entire." 


The churches, aside from the Lutheran, that were the direct 
outcome of the Protestant Reformation, trace their ecclesiastical 
origin to republican Switzerland, and those leaders in the cause of 
representative government, Swingli, Calvin, and Melanchthon. Of 
these the Swiss, Dutch and some German churches came to be known 
as Reformed; the Scotch and English as Presbyterian, and the French 
as Huguenot; while those in Bohemia and Hungary preserved their 
national names. 

In the early colonization of America, Dutch and Germans, as well 
as Scotch and English, were prominent, and as a result there are now 
three Reformed Churches, two tracing their origin to Holland, one to 
the German Palatinate, The Hungarian Reformed Church has ceased 
to exist as a separate body in America, its membership having joined 
the Reformed Church in the United States, or made a concordat with 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. The first church in New Amster- 
dam was organized by the Dutch in 1628, and for a considerable time 
the Hollanders were practically limited to that neighborhood. Some- 
what later a German colony, driven from the Palatinate by the ruth- 
less persecution of Louis XIV, settled in upper New York and Penn- 

212 Year Book of the Churches 

sylvania, and, as it grew, spread westward. Another Dutch immigra- 
tion, which established its headquarters in Michigan, identified itself 
with the New York branch, but afterwards a minor part formed its 
own ecclesiastical organization. The New York branch, known at 
first as the "Reformed Dutch Church," later adopted the title "Re- 
formed Church in America,*' similarly, the German Reformed Church 
became the Reformed Church in the United States, The third body is 
known as the Christian Reformed Church, while the fourth is styled 
the Hungarian (Magyar) Reformed Church. There are also a num- 
ber of churches, called Netherlands Dutch Church or True Reformed 
Dutch Church, which have no general ecclesiastical organization and 
are included under the head of "Independent Churches/' 

In its earlier history each body clung to its ancestral language, 
a practice which not infrequently checked a natural growth, although 
it had the advantage of giving to the newcomers a congenial church 
life, to which is largely due the fact that these communities have 
grown up loyal to the best interest both of their mother church and of 
their new country. As conditions changed the use of English was 
accepted, and the older churches blended with the general interests 
of the community. 

In their doctrine, polity, and general public life, the Reformed 
churches remain conservative. New ideas, simply because novel, have 
not had ready acceptance; yet new forms of organization, such as the 
various societies for young people and similar enterprises, have found 
a cordial welcome. In, interdenominational relations they have always 
been friendly, are members of the Alliance of Reformed Churches, and 
early inaugurated foreign mission work. They have stood for high 
standards in education and scholarship and have furnished many 
men prominent in public life. 

In doctrine they are generally Calvimstic. Their Heidelberg 
Catechism emphasizes the general comfort of redemption in Christ, 
while the Westminster Catechism teaches the same and emphasizes 
the sovereignty of God. The polity is Presbyterian, differing from 
that of the Presbyterian churches only in the names of church offices 
and some minor details. They have a consistory instead of a session, 
a classis instead of a presbytery, and a general synod instead of a 
general assembly. The denominations grouped under the name 
"Reformed Bodies" are as follows: 

Reformed Church in America. 

Reformed Church in the United States. 

Christian Reformed Church. 


General Synod, annual; next session, Pella, Iowa, June 8, 

Five particular synods; 40 classes. 

Headquarters : 25 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Officers: Pres., Rev. Albert Ottman, 25 E. 22d St., New York 
City; Stated Clerk, Rev. Henry Lockwood, East Millstone, N. J. ; 
Treas., Frank R. Van Nest. 

Rev. Henry E. Cobb; Cor. Sec., Rev. W, I. Chamberlain; Asso. Sec.- 
Treas., F. M. Potter; District Sec., Rev. W. J. Van Kersen. Organ, 
Mission Field. 

Knox; Cor. Sec., Miss Eliza P. Cobb; Treas., Miss K. Van Nest. Or- 
gan : Mission Field. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 213 

BOARD OP DOMESTIC MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. James S. Kittell, 
Sec.j William T. Demarest; Treas., Charles W. Osborne; Field Sec., 
Rev. S. Van der Werf . 

Bussing; Cor. Sec., Mrs. John S. Allen; Treas., Miss Mary M. Green- 

F. S. Wilson ; Cor. Sec, 9 Rev. Isaac W. Gowen ; Treas., John F. Cham- 
bers; Business Agent, Lucius W. Hine; Educational See., Rev. Abram 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Rev. A. T. Brock; Cor. Sec., Rev. 
Willard D. Brown, Treas., John F. Berry. 

Van Nest. 

Name Location President 

Central College Pella, Iowa M.J.Hoffman. 

Hope College Holland, Mich Edward B. Dimnent. 

Rutgers College ( non-sect'n)... New Brunswick, N. J . W. H. S. Demarest. 

Theological Seminaries 

Theological Seminary . .New Brunswick, N. J John H. Raven. 

Western Theological Seminary .Holland, Mich. J. F. Zwemer. 


Organ of Mission Boards, The Christian Intelligencer (weekly), 
New York City, Editor, Rev. James Hunter; Leader, Holland, Mich., 
Editor, Rev. James F. Zwemer; De Hope, Holland, Mich., Editor, 
Rev. James F. Zwemer; Der Mitarbeiter (monthly), German Valley, 


In 1626 Manhattan Island was purchased from the Indians, and 
in that year two "comforters of the sick" came over and read the 
Scriptures and creeds to the people every Sunday. The first min- 
ister, Jonas Michaelius arrived in 1628, the same year that Endicott 
came to Salem, Massachusetts, and a church was organized with at 
least 50 communicants, both Walloons and Dutch. As immigrants 
settled along the Hudson, on Long Island, and in New Jersey, other 
congregations were gathered. Some of these churches are still in ex- 
istence, and are more than two centuries old. The first church build- 
ing was erected in New Amsterdam in 1633. 

In 1747 a coetus was formed, under the care of the Classis of 
Amsterdam, to which the Synod of North Holland had committed the 
American churches, which were no longer under the care of the West 
India Co. This coetus, however, was merely advisory, and was in 
entire subordination to the classis, which reserved all power to itself. 

In 1755 a minority of the coetus, dissatisfied with the assumption 
by that body of large powers, formed a "conference." This was the 
beginning of a sharp controversy, which ended in 1771 in the union 
of the two bodies in a self-governing organization which held, how- 
ever, a close relation to the Classis of Amsterdam. With the close 
of the Revolutionary War and the development of the independent 
republic, and with the growth of self-government, the ecclesiastical 
autonomy of all denominations was further developed, and in 1792 
the present ecclesiastical government of the Reformed Churches in 
America was perfected. 

The stream of Dutch immigration ceased in the latter half of the 
seventeenth century. About 1800 the Dutch language ceased gen- 
erally to be the language of worship and in 1867 the word "Dutch" 
was eliminated from the title of the church, and the present title was 

214 Year Book of the Churches 

adopted. In consequence of a considerable immigration from Holland 
in the middle of the nineteenth century, the greater part of which has 
settled in Michigan, Iowa and other sections of the West, many con- 
gregations have been founded there and a few in the East, in which 
the Dutch language is again used. 


The Reformed Church in America accepts as its doctrinal sym- 
bols the Apostles, the Nicene, and the Athanasian creeds, the Belgic 
Confession, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort, the Heidelberg 
Cathechism, and is a distinctively Calvinistic body. It has a liturgy, 
for optional use in public worship with forms of prayer. Some parts 
of the liturgy, as those for the administration of baptism and the 
Lord's Supper, for the ordination of ministers, elders, and deacons, are 
obligatory; the forms of prayer, the marriage service, etc., are not ob- 
ligatory. Children are "baptized as heirs of the kingdom of God and 
of His covenant"; adults are baptized on profession of repentance for 
sin and faith in Christ. All baptized persons are considered members 
of the church, are under its care, and are subject to its government 
and discipline. No subscription to specific form of words being re- 
quired, admission to communion and full membership is on confession 
of faith before the elders and minister. 

Ministers, on being ordained, are required to subscribe to the 
standards and polity of the church. 


The polity of the Reformed Church is Presbyterian. The govern- 
ment of the local church is under the control of a consistory which is 
composed of the minister, elders, and deacons, who are elected by the 
members of the church over 18 years of age. The minister and elders 
have particular care of the spiritual interests, and the deacons of the 
collection of alms and relief of the poor and distressed. The Colle- 
giate Church (College of Churches) is a collection of worshiping 
congregations under the general management of one consistory. Each 
congregation, however, has its own special consistory. 

The classis, which has immediate supervision of the churches and 
the ministry, consists of all the ministers within a certain district, 
and an elder from each consistory with that district, collegiate 
churches being entitled to an elder for each worshiping assembly. The 
classes of a certain district are combined in a particular synod, com- 
posed of four ministers and four elders from every classis within its 
bounds, which acts as an intermediate court in certain cases, but has 
special supervision of church activities within its borders. The high- 
est court of the church is the General Synod. It consists of ministers 
and elders from each classis nominated by the classes to the particu- 
lar synods, which have power to appoint them as delegates to the 
General Synod. In default of nomination by a classis the particular 
synod makes appointments. Classes meet semiannually in the spring 
and fall; the particular synods, annually in May; the General Synod, 
annually in June. 

The Reformed Church in America is a member of the Alliance of 
Reformed Churches throughout the world holding the Presbyterian 
System, and of the Council of Reformed Churches holding the Presby- 
terian System, and has approved the Constitution of the Council of 
Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian System. These articles, 
approved by the constituent bodies, while leaving each church's judic- 
atories independent in action, secure through a council mutual con- 
ference and cooperation in church activities. 

Directory of -Religious Bodies 215 


General Synod, triennial; next session, Hickory, N. C., May 
23, 1923. 

Eight district synods, 61 classes 

Officers: Pres., Rev. George W, Kichards, Lancaster, Pa.; 
Stated Clerk, Rev. J. Rauch Stein, 499 S. Franklin St., 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Treas., Milton Warner, 2232 N. 15th St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOAKD OF HOME MISSIONS, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pres., Rev. C. E. Miller; Gen. Sec., Rev. C. E. Schaeffer; Rec. Sec., 
Rev. J. H. Mickley; Treas., Joseph S. Wise. 

BOABD OP FOREIGN MISSIONS, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, 
Pa. Pres,, Rev. J. I. Good; Sec., Rev. A. R. Bartholomew; Treas., 
Rev. A. S. Bromer. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Pres., Rev. C. Clever; Gen. Sec., Rev. R. W. Miller; 
Treas., C. 0. Althouse. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Pres., Rev. Philip Vollmer; Sec, 
Rev. J. W. Meminger; Treas. , Rev. E. L. McLean. 

Prcs., Rev. C. J. Walenta; Sec, Rev, A. Muehlmeier, Monticello, Wis.; 
Treas., Rev. H. T. Vriesen. 

CENTRAL PUBLISHING HOUSE, 2969 W. 25th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Pres., F. von Tacky; Sec, Rev. F. W. Leich, Dayton, Ohio; 
Business Mgr., Peter Wetzel, Cleveland, Ohio. 

B. B. Krammes, Tiffin, Ohio; Statistical Sec., Mrs. Anna L. Miller, 
Canton, Ohio; Treas., Mrs. Anna L. Anewalt, 814 Walnut St., Allen- 
town, Pa.; Rec. Sec., Miss Helen Bareis, Canal Winchester, Ohio. 

Name Location President or Principal 

Catawba College Newton, N. C .... .A. D. Wolfinger. 

College for Women . . . . Allentown, Pa William F. Curtis. 

Franklin and Marshall College . . Lancaster, Pa. . . . Henry H. Apple. 

Heidelberg University Tiffin, Ohio . . , Charles E Miller. 

Hood College Frederick, Md. . . . Joseph H. Apple. 

Franklin and Marshall Academy Lancaster, Pa Edwin M Harlman. 

Massanutten Academy .... . Woodstock, Va. . . Howard J Benchoff. 
Mercersburg Academy . . Mercersburg;, Pa. .William Mann Irvine. 

Ursinus College Collegeville, Pa. , George Leslie Omwake. 

Theological Seminaries 

Central Theological Seminary .Dayton, Ohio Henry J. Christman. 

Mission House Theological Seminary 

and College Academy Plymouth, Wis. .John M G Darms. 

Theological Seminary . Lancaster, Pa. . . George W. Richards 


English: Reformed Church Messenger (weekly), Philadelphia, 
Pa., Editor, Rev. Paul S.-Leinbach; Christian World (weekly), Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Editor, Rev. Henry Gekeler; Reformed Church Review 
(quarterly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editors, Rev. Theo. F. Herman and 
Geo. W. Richards; Reformed Church Record (weekly), Reading Pa., 
Editor, Rev. I M. Beaver; Reformed Church Standard (semi-- 
monthly), Hickory, N. C., Editor, W. W. Rowe; Heidelberg Teacher 
(monthly), Editor, Rev. Rufus W. Miller; Way (weekly), Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Editor,, Rev. R. L. Gerhart; Leaves of Light (weekly), 
Sunshine (weekly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editor, R. L. Gerhart; Outlook 

216 Year Book of -the Churches 

of Missions (monthly), Philadelphia, Pa., Editors, A. R. Bartholomew, 
C. E. Schaeffer, Mrs, E. W. Lentz. 

German (all weekly) : Reformierte Kwelienzeitimg, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Editor, G. Dolch; Hungarian- American Reformed Sentinel, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Editor, Alexander Harsanyi. 


The Reformed Church in the United States for many years 
known as the "German Reformed Church" traces its origin chiefly 
to the German, Swiss, and French people who settled in America 
early in the eighteenth century. Among its founders it includes 
Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin, of Switzerland, while the fact that 
so many of its early members came from the German Palatinate, 
gives it close relation to Philip Melanchthon. The Heidelberg Cate- 
chism, compiled under Frederick III, Elector of the Palatinate in 
1563, by Zacharias Ursmus, a pupil of Melanchthon, and Caspar 
Olevianus, a pupil of Calvin, is still the Reformed Church's standard 
in teaching the Scriptures. 

Pastorius with a little company of Mystics came to Pennsylvania 
in 1683, at the invitation of William Penn, and founded Germantown; 
but it was not until 1709 that these immigrants became at all numer- 
ous. About that time more than 30,000 from the Palatinate, who had 
found their wav to England, encamped near London, clamoring for 
transportation. Some thousands of them were placed on unoccu- 
pied lands in Ireland and elsewhere, while large numbers were 
brought to America where they established settlements in the South, 
in New York, and in Pennsylvania. These pioneers were almost in- 
variably thoroughly religious in character, and made provision for 
churches and parochial schools. No regular method of securing ordi- 
nation in this country existed, although Boehm was ordained by the 
Dutch Reformed ministers of New York with the assent of the Classis 
of Amsterdam. Meanwhile the ecclesiastical authorities of the 
Palatinate, appreciating their own inability to do much for the Amer- 
ican churches, made application to the Classis of Amsterdam, and 
that classis commissioned Michael Schlatter as a missionary evangel- 
ist. He arrived in August, 1746, and soon after he had a conference 
with the pastors who were already in the churches. As a consequence, 
a coetus or synod was organized the next year. Some opposition arose 
to connection with the Holland Church, which, in its turn, was some- 
what discouraged by the reports from America and also by the death 
in 1749 of Boehm, whose influence had been great. 

In 1751 Schlatter made a visit to Europe, and so interested the 
people of Holland in the churches of Pennsylvania that he returned 
the next year with six ministers and a sum estimated at $60,000. 
This general assistance, however, was so conditioned upon subordina- 
tion to the Classis of Amsterdam as to occasion a great deal of fric- 
tion, manifested especially in the development of two distinct parties 
in the Coetus itself, differing in their views of polity and resembling 
in a general way the "Old Side" and "New Side" in the Presbyterian 
Church; the former emphasizing doctrinal regularity, the latter being 
more in accord with the evangelistic and Pietistic developments of the 
time. Among the most prominent leaders in the latter company was 
Philip William Otterbein, later identified with the organization of the 
United Brethren in Christ. A number of independent ministers de- 
clined to identify themselves with the Coetus, among whom one of 
the most prominent was John J. Zubly, pastor of a church in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, and for a time a member of the Continental 

The first synod of the German Reformed Church met at Lancas- 
ter, Pennsylvania, April 27, 1793, and reported 178 congregations and 

Directory of Religious Bodies 217 

15,000 communicants. Of the congregations at least 55 had no min- 
isters. The churches were scattered through New York, northern 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, with several 
congregations west of the Alleghenies. 

With the development of the Protestant Episcopal Church some 
congregations joined that body and others joined in the organization 
of the United Brethren. Various movements sprang up for union 
with other bodies, such as the Dutch Reformed Church, and especially 
the Lutheran, at the time of the organization of the first Lutheran 
Ministerium. This latter union was especially encouraged by the 
union in 1817 of the Lutheran and Eeformed churches of Prussia. It 
did not, however, materialize. 

Then followed the revival period, in which two opposing influ- 
ences were developed the liberal and the conservative. The conser- 
vative party was anxious to preserve the faith, and the liberal party 
laid greater stress on fellowship. Another complication arose from 
the fact that the younger element preferred to use the English lan- 
guage in church services, while the older element preferred the Ger- 
man. As the difficulty of securing trained leaders became more ap- 
parent, a theological seminary was founded. During the discussions 
that followed, a number of churches withdrew and formed, m 1822, 
the "Synod of the Free German Reformed Congregations of Penn- 
sylvania," later known as the "German Reformed Synod of Pennsyl- 
vania and Adjacent States." These churches returned to the North- 
ern Synod, in 1837. A theological seminary was established at Car- 
lisle, Pa., m 1825; removed to York, Pa., in 1829; thence to Mercers- 
burg in 1837. Since 1871, the seminary has been located m 
Lancaster, Pa. 

Meanwhile the church had been developing westward, but the 
difficulties of intercommunication made the mutual relations uncertain 
and the western classis soon developed into the Western Synod, which, 
while holding generally fraternal relations with the Eastern Synod, 
was not identified with it. As graduates of Mercersburg- found their 
way into the distant sections, the two synods came into more inti- 
mate relations, and in 1844 a convention was called in which the 
Dutch Reformed Church and the two German Reformed synods were 
represented. Although the convention was purely advisory, it pre- 
pared the way for later union. Tbe western congregations mean- 
while had met the same difficulty as those in the East in securing 
ministers, and had established their own educational institutions, one 
of which, Heidelberg College, at Tiffin, Ohio, was founded m 1850. 

During this period the church developed its general activities. 
The earliest German church papers were the result of private enter- 
prise, but in 1840 the Synod founded a printing establishment at 
Chambersburg, Pa., which was removed to Philadelphia after the de- 
struction of Chambersburg during the Civil War. 

As early as 1755 the Synod of Pennsylvania had organized a 
society for the relief of ministers and their widows. In 1833 the 
fund was transferred to the Synod and the society placed on a more 
substantial basis. In 1826 a Board of Domestic Missions was or- 
ganized, and in 1838 a Board of Foreign Missions, working in rela- 
tion with the American Board. In all departments of Christian ac- 
tivity there appeared indications of renewed life. The three-hun- 
dredth anniversary of the formation and adoption of the Heidelberg 
Catechism was celebrated by the Reformed Church in 1863, by the 
union of the two synods in a General Synod. With the organization 
of the General Synod began the rapid extension of the work of home 
missions; the German work in the West rapidly assumed unexpected 
proportions and the English-speaking portion increased also; as a re- 
sult, separate district synods and specific classes were organized 

218 Year Book of the Churches 

the latest being the Hungarian Classis to meet the needs of the 
Reformed Hungarian churches. In 1922, two Hungarian classes be- 
longing to the Eeformed Church of Hungary, with a constituency of 
about 3,000 members, were incorporated m the Reformed Church in 
the United States, 

Through these experiences the church has developed strength, and 
at the same time has entered into the most cordial relations with 
other bodies. It is a member of the Alliance of Reformed Churches 
throughout the world holding the Presbyterian System, and of the 
American Council of those churches. It has given cordial welcome 
to consideration of closer union, both with the Reformed Church in 
America and with the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 

Doctrine and Polity 

Both in doctrine and polity the Reformed Church in the United 
States is in hearty accord with the other Reformed and Presbyterian 
churches. The Heidelberg Catechism is in universal use in the 
churches, and the system of church courts corresponds to that of the 
Reformed Church in America, and differs in name only from the 
Presbyterian bodies. 


Synod, "biennial; next meeting, Kalamazoo, Mich, June 18, 

Thirteen classes. 

Synodical Com., Rev. W. P. Van Wijk, Rev. R. L. Haan, Rev 
J. Holwerda ; Stated Clerk, Rev Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave , 
S E., Grand Rapids, Mich.; Treas., Rev. J. Noordewier, 617 
Bates St S. B , Grand Rapids, Mich. 

HOME MISSION COMMITTEE. Pres., Rev. K. Poppen,* Sec. and 
Treas., Rev. I. Van Dellen, 1804 S. Emerson St., Denver, Colo. 

CHURCH ERECTION COMMITTEE. Sec. and Treas., Rev. J. Manni, 
525 Superior Ave., Sheboygan, Wis. 

Westervelt, 66 Haledon Ave., Paterson, N. J.; Immigration Work 
at Ellis Island and Hoboken, M. J. Broekhuizen, 332 River St., Ho- 
boken, N. J. 

nen, Orange City, Iowa, R. F. D. No/1. 

JEWISH MISSION COMMITTEE. Sec.-Treas., Rev. J. L. Van Tielen, 
W. Sayville, L. L, N. Y. 

BOARD OP MISSIONS. Pres., Rev. R. B. Kmper, Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Sec., Rev, Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Treas., Rev. J. Dolfin, 155 Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich. 

BOARD OF MINISTERIAL RELIEF. Sec. and Treas., Rev. J. Smitter, 
Lansing, 111. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Sec., W. Heyns, 1319 Sigsbee St. S. E., 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Colleges and Theological Seminaries 

Name Location prin. or Rector 

Calvm College Grand Rapids, Mich J, J. Hiemenffa. 

Theological Seminary Grand Rapids, Mich L Berkhof 

Grundy College Grundy Center, Iowa w. Bode (Pres.). 

Directory of Religious Bodies 219 


The Banner (weekly), Grand Rapids, Mich., Editor, Rev. Henry 
Beets; De Wackier (weekly), Grand Rapids, Mich, Editor, H. 
Keegstra; Der Reformierte Bate (monthly), Kanawha, Iowa, Editor, 
Rev. G. L. Hoefker. 

History, Doctrine and Polity 

The Christian Reformed Church belongs to the Calvinistic group 
of churches which hold the Presbyterian System of church govern- 
ment. Its doctrinal standards are: The Heidelberg Catechism, the 
Belgic or Netherland Confession of Faith and the Five Canons of 
Dordrecht. As suggested by the name of the second standard men- 
tioned, the Christian Reformed Church is of Holland extraction, nearly 
exclusively. Its oldest part, the present Classis of Hackensack, for- 
merly known as the True Protestant Dutch Reformed Church, in 
1822, under leadership of Dr. S. Froehgh, seceded from the Reformed 
Church in America, alleging that the parent body had departed seri- 
ously from the Reformed standards and Reformed discipline. 

The main part of the denomination is composed of people whose 
ancestors in 1834 and following years left the "Hervormde" (Re- 
formed) Church of the Netherlands to become known as Christian 
Reformed Church. Persecuted in Holland for the sake of their re- 
ligion, they went to the United States, the pioneer bands arriving 
here in 1846 and 1847, and settling m central Iowa under leadership 
of the Rev. H. P. Scholte and in western Michigan under Dr. A. C. 
Van Raalte as its leader. In 1848 the Michigan Hollanders consented 
to join the Reformed Church in America on condition that they would 
have the greatest possible liberty if they at any time considered the 
ecclesiastical connection to be contrary to their religious pros- 
perity or enjoyment, to bid the Reformed Church a fraternal adieu 
and be by themselves. In the course of the next few years a number 
of the Dutch immigrants, led by G. Haan and Rev. K. Vanden Bosch, 
began to entertain the idea that it would promote their prosperity 
and joy to form a separate body, and consequently four Michigan 
churches withdrew from the Reformed Church and organized what 
became later known as the Christian Reformed Church. The new 
denomination at first had a hard struggle for existence, but as the 
immigration of Reformed Hollanders from the Netherlands from 1880 
to 1890 was quite strong, they increased considerably, strengthened 
the more in 1882 by the joining of several churches, led by the Rev. 
L. J. Hulst, which from 1880 to 1881 had withdrawn from the Re- 
formed Church on account of the stand its General Synod took re- 
garding Free Masonry. In 1890 the Classis of Hackensack named 
above, joined the Christian Reformed Church. 

When the pioneer Hollanders came here during the middle of the 
19th century, they stated that their obejct in coming was not alone 
to obtain material prosperity, but also to provide their children with 
a Christian education and to have a share in the coming of the King- 
dom of God among the heathen, things they were unable to obtain 
because of economic pressure at the time and persecution for their 
principle's sake. The Christian Reformed have tried to carry out the 
twofold program named. Everywhere they opened free Christian 
primary schools, at first parochial institutions, but later on supported 
by separate organizations composed of their church people. In half 
a dozen places they are maintaining Christian high schools or acad- 
emies. Grand Rapids, Mich., is the seat of their Calvin College and 
Theological School, opened in 1876 and at present having an enroll- 
ment of about 300 students. In central Iowa the Grund College is 
maintained largely by the German element of the denomination. This 
element is descended from people living in parts of Germany, con- 

220 Year Book of the Churches 

tiguous to the Netherlands and drawn into the secession movement of 
1834 and following years 

The monthly organ of the German Christian Reformed Churches 
is Der Reformierte Bote. The Holland speaking churches, still the 
most numerous, although rapidly Americanizing, have as their weekly, 
De Wachter. The American churches, steadily increasing, are served 
by the weekly, The Banner, dating from 1866. 

Home Mission work is carried on among the scattered Hollanders 
and Germans in America In a few places Rescue Mission work has 
been taken up. In Paterson and Chicago, Jewish mission work is 
being done. Five mission posts are maintained in the Southwest 
among the Navaho and Zum Indians. This work was begun in 1896. 
In 1920 a pioneer party of three missionaries and their wives was 
sent to China, and, November 17, 1922, began work at Rukoa, in 
Northern Kiangsu. 

The Christian Reformed Church is very conservative doctrinally. 
A portion of the Heidelberg Catechism is explained in sermons, dur- 
ing one of the Sabbath services, throughout the year. A great deal 
of emphasis is placed on catechetical instruction. A series of cate- 
chism books, from primary grades up to more advanced work for 
adults, is used regularly in well attended weekday classes taught by 
pastors and elders. In most congregations Sunday Schools are main- 
tained and all kinds of societies of a religious educational character 
for young people and married men and women. In some of the Hol- 
land churches three preaching services are held each Sabbath, in 
others two, and in a few as many as four, two of them employing the 
Dutch as language of worship and two the English. 

The Psalms are used as the chief manual of praise, the American 
churches employing the United Presbyterian Psalter published in 1914. 

The Liturgy of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands, dat- 
ing from Reformation times, is in regular obligatory use in so far as 
the forms for the administration of Baptism and Communion, ordina- 
tion of office bearers and of discipline are concerned. 

The Church Order, containing rules for church government, is a 
revision of what was promulgated in 1618-19 by the Synod of 

The Christian Reformed denomination occupies in the Reformed 
family of churches very much the place taken by the United Presby- 
terians of the United States in the Presbyterian family. Some years 
ago an attempt was made to form a union between the two but the 
movement was barren of results. 

Ecclesiastical correspondence is carried on with various denomi- 
nations in America and the Reformed Church of South Africa, while 
a few struggling Holland churches in the Argentine Republic are not 
alone corresponded with but also supported financially. But contact 
with the Reformed Churches of the Netherlands is the closest of all 
and their leaders have considerably influenced the religious thought 
of the American denomination. The Christian Reformed Church in 
1918 applied for membersip in the Federal Council. In 1913 its 
Board of Missions joined the Home Missions Council. The Foreign 
Missions Conference was joined in 1920. 


Apostolic Delegate to the United States, Archbishop Pietro 
Fumasoni-Bionbi, 1811 Biltmore St. N. W., Washington, D. 0. 


Most Rev. Michael, Cardinal Curley (Baltimore), 408 N. Charles 
St., Baltimore, Md. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 221 

Kt. Rev. Owen B. Corrigan, Auxiliary Bishop, 1611 Baker St., 
Baltimore, Md. 

His Eminence, William, Cardinal O'Connell (Boston), 217 Bay 
State Road, Boston, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Jos. G. Anderson, Auxiliary Bishop, 309 Bowdoin St., 
Dorchester, Mass. 

Most Rev. George Mundelein (Chicago), 1555 N. State St., 
Chicago, 111. % 

Most Rev. Henry Moeller (Cincinnati), 5418 Moeller Ave., Nor- 
wood, Ohio. 

Most Rev. James John Keane (Dubuque), Locust and llth Sts., 
Dubuque, la. 

Most Rev. Sebastian G. Messmer (Milwaukee), 2000 Grand Ave., 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Most Rev. John W. Shaw (New Orleans), 1205 Esplanade Ave., 
New Orleans, La. 

Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes (New York), 452 Madison Ave., 
New York City. 

Rt. Rev. John J. Dunn, Auxiliary Bishop, 452 Madison Ave., New 
York City. , \t ] 

Most Rev. Alexander Christie (Oregon City), 62 N. 16th St., 
Portland, Ore. 

His Eminence, Denis, Cardinal Dougherty (Philadelphia), 1723 
Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rt. Rev. Michael J. Crane, D. D. V. G., Auxiliary Bishop, 4625 
Springfield Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon (St. Louis), 3810 Lindell Blvd., St. 
Louis, Mo, 

Most Rev. Austin Dowling (St. Paul), 226 Summit Ave., St. Paul, 

Most Rev. Edw. J. Hanna (San Francisco), 1000 Fulton St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Most Rev. Albert A. Daeger, 0. F. M. (Santa Fe), Cathedral, 
Santa Fe, N. M., P. 0. Box 02. 

Dioceses (address Rt. Rev.) 

Edmund F. Gibbons (Albany), 225 Madison Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Cornelius Van de Ven (Alexandria), 1805 Jackson Ave., Alex- 
andria, La. 

James Ryan (Alton) , Cathedral, Alton, 111. 

John J. McCort ( Altoona) , 1211 13th St., Altoona, Pa. 

Joseph F. McGrath (Baker City), Baker, Ore. 

Henry Althoff (Belleville), 222 S. Third St., Belleville, 111. 

Vincent Wehrle, 0. S. B. (Bismarck), Bismarck, N. D. 

Daniel M. Gorman (Boise), 804 N. Ninth St., Boise, Idaho. 

Thomas E. Molloy (Brooklyn), 367 Clermont Ave., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

William Turner (Buffalo), 1035 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Jos. J. Rice (Burlington), 52 William St., Burlington, Vt. 

William T. Russell (Charleston), 114 Broad St., Charleston, S. C. 

Patrick A. McGovern (Cheyenne), St. Mary's Cathedral, Chey- 
enne, Wyo. * 

Joseph Schrembs (Cleveland), 1007 Superior Ave. N. E., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

James J. Hartley (Columbus), 198 E. Broad St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Francis J. Tief (Concordia), 307 East 5th St., Concordia, Kans. 

E. B. Ledvina (Corpus Christi), 804 Antelope St., Corpus Christi, 

Ferdinand Brossart (Covington), 1140 Madison Ave., Covington, 

222 Year Book of the Churches 

Timothy Corbett (Crookston), Crookston, Minn., Cathedral. 

Jos. P. Lynch (Dallas), 4946 Swiss Ave, Dallas, Tex. 

James Davis (Davenport), 15th and Brady Sts., Davenport, la. 

J. Henry Tihen (Denver), 1536 Logan St., Denver, Colo. 

Thomas W. Drumm (Des Homes), 2000 Grand Ave., Des Moines, 

M. J. Gallagher (Detroit), 1223 Washington Blvd., Detroit, Mich. 

John T. McNcholas, 0. P. (Duluth), 211 W. Fourth St., Duluth, 

Anthony J. Schuler, S. J. (El Paso), 1014 Mesa Ave., El Pasr, 

John M. Gannon (Erie), 205 W. 9th Street, Erie, Pa. 

Daniel F. Feehan (Fall Eiver), 394 Highland Ave., Fall River, 

James O'Reilly (Fargo), Fargo, N. D. 

Herman Jos. Alerding (Fort Wayne), 1140 Clinton St., Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. 

C. E. Byrne (Galveston), Galveston, Tex., St. Mary's Cathedral. 

James Albert Duffy (Grand Island), 204 E. Second St., Grand 
Island, Neb. 

Edward D. Kelly (Grand Rapids), 1225 Lake Drive S. E., Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Mathias C. Lemhan (Great Falls), 215 16th St.. N., Great Falls, 

Paul P. Rhode (Green Bay), R, F. D. No. 6, Green Bay, Wis. 

Philip R. McDevitt (Harrisburg), 111 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

John J. Nilan (Hartford), 140 Farmmgton Ave., Hartford, Conn. 

John P. Carroll (Helena), 720 Madison Ave., Helena, Mont. 
Joseph Chartrand (Indianapolis), 1347 N. Meridian St., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Thomas F. Lillis (Kansas City), 301 E. Armour Blvd., Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Alexander J. McGavick (La Crosse), 608 S. llth St, La Croste, 

Jules B. Jeanmard (Lafayette), Lafayette, La., Bishop's House. 

John J. Lawler (Lead) , Lead, S. D. 

John Ward (Leavenworth), 1228 Sandusky Ave., Kansas City, 

C. J. O'Reilly (Lincoln), Lincoln, Neb., Bishop's House. 

John B. Morris (Little Rock), St. Andrew's Cathedral, Little 
Rock, Ark. 

Denis O'Donaghue (Louisville), 809 Brook St., Louisville, Ky. 

George A. Guertin (Manchester), 151 Walnut St., Manchester, 
N. H. 

Paul J. Nussbaum (Marquette), Cathedral, Marquette, Mich. 

Edw. P. Allen (Mobile), Cathedral, Mobile, Ala. 

John J. Cantwell (Los Angeles-San Diego), 717 S. Burlington 
Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Thomas S. Byrne (Nashville), 2001 W. End Ave., Nashville, 

John E. Gunn (Natchez) , Bishop's House, Natchez, Miss. 

John J. O'Connor (Newark), 552 South Orange Ave., South 
Orange, N. J. 

Jos. H. Conroy (Ogdensburg), Cathedral, Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

Theophile Meerschaert (Oklahoma), 1905 W. 19th St., Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Jeremiah Harty (Omaha), 808 N. 36th St., Omaha, Neb. 

Edmund M. Dunne (Peoria), 740 Glen Oak Ave., Peoria, 111. 

Hugh C. Boyle (Pittsburgh), 116 Dithridge St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Louis S. Walsh (Portland), 307 Congress St., Portland, Me. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 223 

William A. Hickey (Providence), Bishop, 30 Fenner St., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Denis J. O'Connell (Richmond) , 800 Cathedral PL, Richmond, Va. 
Thomas F. Hickey (Rochester), 947 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
Peter J. Muldoon (Rockford), 1704 National Avenue, Rockford, 

Thomas Grace (Sacramento), Cathedral, Sacramento, Cal. 

Patrick Barry (St. Augustine), Cathedral, St. Augustine, Fla. 

Jos. F. Busch (St. Cloud), St. Cloud, Minn. 

Maurice F. Burke (St. Joseph), 718 N. Seventh St., St. Joseph, 

Joseph S. Glass, C. M. (Salt Lake), Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Arthur J. Drossaerts (San Antonio), 310 Dwyer Ave., San An- 
tonio, Tex. 

Michael J. Keyes (Savannah), 222 E. Harris St., Savannah, Ga. 

Michael J. Hoban (Scranton), 315 Wyoming Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Edward J. O'Dea (Seattle), 1104 Spring St., Seattle, Wash. 

Thomas O'Gorman (Sioux Falls), Sioux Falls, S. D., Bishop's 

Augustin F. Schinner (Spokane), 238 East 13th St., Spokane, 

E. M. O'Leary (Springfield), 68 Elliott St., Springfield, Mass. 

John Grimes (Syracuse), 257 E. Onondaga St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Samuel A. Stritch (Toledo), 525 Islington St., Toledo, Ohio. 

Thomas J. Walsh (Trenton), 153 N. Warren St., Trenton, N. J. 

Henry Gran j on (Tucson), Cathedral, Tucson, Ariz. 

Patrick J. Donahue (Wheeling), cor. 13th and Byron Sts., Wheel- 
ing, W. Va. 

Augustus J. Schwertner (Wichita), 320 East Central Ave., 
Wichita, Kans. 

John James Monaghan (Wilmington), 1301 Delaware Ave., Wil- 
mington, Del 

Patrick R. Heffron ( Winona) , Terrace Heights, Winona, Minn. 

Vicariate of North Carolina and Belinont Abbey, Rt. Rev. Leo 
Haid, 0. S. B., Belmont Abbey, N. C., Belmont Cathedral Annex. 

V ieariate-Apostolic of Alaska, Rt. Rev. Jos. Raphael Crimont, 
S. J., Jurieau, Alaska. 

Titular Bishops 

Rt. Rev. Bonaventure F. Broderick (Titular Bishop of Juliopo- 
lis), Saugerties, N. Y. 

Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Shahan (Titular Bishop of Germanicopolis) , 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 

Chicago, 111. Director, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Francis C. ELelley. 

CATHOLIC MISSIONARY UNION, Brookland Station, Washington, 
D. C. Director, Rev. Lewis J. O'Hern, C. S. P. 

ington, D. C. Director, Rev. William Quinn. 

Madison Ave., New York City. Director, Rt. Rev. Mgr., John E. 

nary, Baltimore, Md., Director, Very Rev. Louis B. Pastorelli. 

New York City. Gen Director, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph Freri. 

N. W., Washington, D. C.; Gen. Sec. f Rev. John J. Burke, C. S. P. 

224 Year Book of the Churches 

Colleges, Seminaries and Monasteries 

There are 373 of these institutions under the control of the 
Roman Catholic Church. The full list will be found in the Official 
Catholic Directory. 


Ecclesiastical Review (monthly), 1305 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Ave Maria (weekly), Notre Dame, Ind.; Rosary (monthly), 871 Lex- 
ington Ave., New York City; Catholic World (monthly), 120 W. 60th 
St., New York City, Rev. James M. Gilhs, C. S. P., Editor; Catholic 
University Bulletin (bi-monthly), Washington, D. C.; The Magnifi- 
cat (monthly, Editor, Sr. M. Ignatia, Manchester, N. H.; The Ex- 
tension (monthly), Editor, Rev. Francis Kelley, 750 McCormick 
Bldg., Chicago, 111.; Messenger of the Sacred Heart (monthly), 
801 E. 81st St, New York City; Franciscan Herald, 1434 W. 51st 
St., Chicago, 111.; Christian Family, Techny, III; Benziger's Maga- 
zine (monthly), 36 Barclay St., New York City; The Lamp 
(monthly), Garrison, N. Y.; The Field Afar, Maryknoll, Ossming, 
N. Y.; America (weekly), Editor, Rev. R. H. Tiemey, S. J., 59 
E. 83d St., New York City; St. Anthony's Messenger, Beaumont, 
Texas; Homiletic Monthly, New York City; Truth Magazine 
(monthly), New York City; The Good Work, New York City; Annals 
of Propagation of the Faith, New York City; Holy Name Journal 
(monthly), New York City; The Catholic Convert (bi-monthly), 117 
W. 61st St., New York City; The Catholic Historical Remew (quar- 
terly), Catholic University, Washington, D. C.; The American Catho- 
lic Quarterly, Philadelphia, Pa.; The Queen's Work (monthly), St. 
Louis, Mo.; The Missionary (monthly), Brookland, D. C., Editor, Rev. 
Lewis J, O'Hern, C. S. P. 

NOTE. Roman Catholic data furnished by Frederick B. Eddy, 
Editor, Official Catholic Directory. 


The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church, more generally 
known as the "Roman Catholic Church," includes that portion of the 
Christian Church which recognizes the Bishop of Rome as Pope, 
the Vicar of Christ on earth, and the Visible Head of the Church 
It dates its origin from the selection by Jesus Christ of the Apostle 
Peter as "chief of the Apostles," and it traces its history through his 
successors in the bishopric of Rome. 

Until the tenth century practically the entire Christian Church 
was recognized as one. Divergent views on various matters, particu- 
larly the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Ghost and the pri- 
macy of the Bishop of Rome, culminated in the eleventh century in 
a separation between the Western and Eastern sections. 

The first Catholic congregation in the territory now constituting 
the United States was founded at St. Augustine, Fla., in 1565, al- 
though Catholic services had been held on the soil of Florida long 
before that date. 

Missionaries in connection with Coronado's exploring expedition 
in 1540 preached among the Indians of New Mexico, but they soon 
perished. After the founding of Santa Fe, the second oldest town 
in the United. States, missionary work was more successful and 
many tribes of Indians accepted the Catholic faith. On the Pacific 
coast Franciscans accompanied the expeditions to California about 
1600, and on the Atlantic coast French priests held worship on Neu- 
tral Island, on the coast of Maine, in 1609, and three years later 
on Mount Desert Island. Jesuit missions, begun on the upper Ken- 
nebec in 1646, were more successful and permanent, many Indian 

Directory of Religious Bodies 225 

converts being among their fruits. In 1665 Catholics sought to con- 
vert the Onondagas and other tribes in New York, while similar at- 
tempts among the Indians on the Great Lakes had been made as 
early as 1641. 

The history of the Catholic Church among the English colonists 
began with the immigration of English and Irish Catholics to Mary- 
land in 1634, and the founding of the town of St. Mary's in that year. 
Religious toleration was from the beginning the law of the colony; 
but in later years the Catholics were restricted and even disfran- 
chised, and the restrictions were not entirely removed until after the 
War of the Revolution. 

Religious equality, however, became universal and complete only 
after the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, in which the present Con- 
stitution of the United States was adopted. During the discussion of 
the Constitution a memorial was presented by the Rev. John Carroll, 
recently appointed (1784) superior of the missions in the United 
States, which undoubtedly contributed to the adoption of the pro- 
vision of the sixth article which abolishes religious tests as a qualifica- 
tion for any office or public trust, and of that portion of the first 
amendment which says: '"Congress shall make no law respecting an 
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." 

The Revolutionary War left the Catholic Church in America 
without any immediate hierarchical superior. The vicar apostolic of 
London held no intercourse with the church in America and refused 
to exercise jurisdiction in the United States. After considerable in- 
vestigation and delay the propaganda proposed the name of John 
Carroll as the superior or prefect apostolic of the church in the 
thirteen original states, with the power to administer confirmation. 
This nomination was confirmed and was followed by a decree making 
the church in the United States a distinct body from that in England. 

Mention should be made of what are known as the "Uniat 
churches," some of which were formerly connected with the Eastern 
or Oriental Churches, particularly in southeastern Europe and the 
Levant. They recognize the authority of the Pope, and teach the 
same doctrine and have the same polity as the Roman Catholic 
Church, but differ from it in some matters of discipline, and use 
their own languages, as Greek, Syriac, Slavonic, Armenian, etc., in 
the liturgy. Among them are the Maronite, the Greek Catholic or 
United Greek, and Slavonic Catholic Churches, all of which are 
branches of the Roman Catholic Church and are included in its 

The growth of the church is indicated by the increase in its 
membership, the development of its dioceses, and its councils and 

In 1807 about 80 churches were reported, and a Catholic popu- 
lation of 150,000. Since that date a number of estimates have been 
made by different historians, some of them differing very widely. 
Thus Prof. A. J. Schemm gives the total Roman Catholic population 
in 1860 as 4,500,000, while John Gilmary Shea estimates it at 3,000,- 
000. The 1916 U. S. census gives 15,721,815 as Roman Catholic 

The first diocese was that of Baltimore, erected in 1789, fol- 
lowed by New Orleans in 1793. In 1808 Baltimore was made an 
archdiocese, and the dioceses of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia 
were erected. Others followed: Charleston, S. C., 1820; Cincinnati 
and Richmond, 1821; St. Louis, 1826; Mobile, 1829; Detroit, 1833; 
Indianapolis, 1834; Dubuque, Nashville and Natchez, 1837; Chicago, 
Hartford, Little Rock, Milwaukee, and Pittsburgh, 1843 ; Oregon City, 
1846. In 1847 St. Louis, in turn, became an archdiocese, and three 
years later Cincinnati, New York, New Orleans, and Oregon City 

226 Year Book of the Churches 

were elevated into provinces, while other dioceses were formed Al- 
bany, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Galveston in 1847, and St. Paul, Santa 
Fe, Monterey and Los Angeles, Nesqually (Seattle), Savannah, and 
Wheeling, in 1850. In 1853 San Francisco was established as an 
archdiocese, and m 1875 the diocese of Philadelphia, Santa Fe, Bos- 
ton, and Milwaukee became archdioceses. Among other archdioceses 
formed have been those of Chicago in 1880, St. Paul in 1888, and 
Dubuque in 1893. 

Three plenary or national councils have been held in Baltimore, 
in 1852, in 1866, and in 1884. The Catholic laymen have held two 
congresses, one in Baltimore in 1889, in conjunction with the cen- 
tennial of the establishment of the hierarchy in the United States, 
and another in Chicago in 1893. Other items of interest are the 
promotion to the cardinalate of Archbishop McCloskey of New York, 
m 1875, and of Archbishop Gibbons of Baltimore, in 1886; the estab- 
lishment of the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. 
C., by the decree of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884), 
and the establishment of the apostolic delegation at Washington, in 


The Roman Catholic Church bases its doctrines upon the Canon- 
ical Books of the Sacred Scriptures, explaining and supplementing 
them by tradition expressed in written documents, the more impor- 
tant of which are the dogmatic definitions issued either by an Ecu- 
menical or General Council, or by the Pope speaking "ex Cathedra," 
or as Head of the Church. Such definitions are not considered as 
constituting or establishing new doctrines, but only as official state- 
ments that the particular doctrine was revealed by God, and is con- 
tained m the "Depositum Fidei," or Sacred Depository of Faith of 
the Church. 

The Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed 
are regarded as containing the essential truths accepted by the church. 
A general formula of doctrine is presented in the "profession of 
faith/ 7 to which assent must be given by those who join the church. 
It includes the rejection of all such doctrines as have been declared 
by the church to be wrong, a promise of obedience to the church's 
authority in matters of faith, and acceptance of the following state- 
ment of belief: 

One only God, in three divine Persons, distinct form, and equal 
to each other that is to say, the Father, the Son, and the Holy 

The Catholic doctrine of the Incarnation, Passion, Death, and 
Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ; and the personal union of 
the two Natures, the divine and the human; the divine Maternity of 
the most holy Mary, together with her most spotless Virginity; 

The true, real, and substantial presence of the Body and Blood, 
together with the Soul and Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the 
most holy Sacrament of the Eucharist; 

The seven Sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ for the salva- 
tion of mankind; that is to say, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, 
Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, Matrimony; 

Purgatory, the Resurrection of the Dead, Everlasting Life; 

The Primacy, not only of honor, but also of jurisdiction, of the 
Roman Pontiff, successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, Vicar 
of Jesus Christ; the veneration of the Saints and of their images; 
the authority of the Apostolic and Ecclesiastical Traditions, and of 
the Holy Scriptures, which we must interpret, and understand, only 
in the sense which our holy mother the Catholic Church has held, and 
does hold; and everything else that has been defined, and declared 

Directory of Religious Bodies 227 

by the sacred Canons, and by the General Councils, and particularly 
by the holy Council of Trent, and delivered, defined, and declared by 
the General Council of the Vatican especially concerning the Primacy 
of the Koman Pontiff, and his infallible teaching authority. 

The sacrament of baptism is administered to infants or adults 
by pouring, and "cleanses from original sin." Confirmation is the 
sacrament through which "the Holy Spirit is received" by the laying 
on of hands of the bishop, and the anointing with the holy chrism 
in the form of a cross. The Eucharist is "the sacrament which con- 
tains the body and blood, soul and divinity, of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
under the appearance of bread and wine." It is usually to be re- 
ceived fasting, and is given to the laity only in one kind, the form 
of bread. Penance is a sacrament in which the sins committed after 
baptism are forgiven. Extreme unction is a sacrament in which the 
sick who are in danger of death receive spiritual succor by the anoint- 
ing with holy oil and the prayers of the priest. The sacrament of 
orders, or holy orders, is that by which bishops, priests, and other 
ministers of the church are ordained and receive power and grace 
to perform their sacred duties. The sacrament of matrimony is the 
sacrament which unites a Christian man and woman in lawful mar- 
riage, and such marriage "can not be dissolved by any human power." 

The chief commandments of the church are: To hear mass on 
Sundays and holy days of obligation; to fast and abstain from meat 
on the days appointed; to confess at least once a year; to receive the 
Holy Eucharist during Easter time; to contribute toward the sup- 
port of pastors, and to observe the regulations in regard to marriage. 


The organization of the Roman Catholic Church centers in the 
Bishop of Rome as Pope, and his authority is supreme in matters 
of faith and in the conduct of the affairs of the church. Next to 
the Pope is the College of Cardinals, who act as his advisers and as 
heads or members of various commissions called Congregations, which 
are charged with the general administration of the church. These 
never exceed 70 in number, and are of three orders : Cardinal deacons, 
cardinal priests, and cardinal bishops. These terms do not indicate 
their jurisdietional standing, but only their position in the cardinalate. 
With, few exceptions the cardinal priests are archbishops or bishops, 
and the cardinal deacons are generally priests. In case of the death 
of the Pope the cardinals elect his successor, authority meanwhile 
being vested in the body of cardinals. Most of the cardinals reside 
in Kome, and their active duties are chiefly in connection with the 
various congregations or commissions which have the care of the 
different departments of church activity. 


National Headquarters: 122 "W. 14th St., New York City. 
Commander United States Forces, Miss Evangeline C. Booth; 
Nat. Sec., Colonel Walter F. Jenkins; Nail. Auditor and Fin. 
Sec., Colonel G. S. Eeinhardsen ; Nail. Spiritual Special, Colonel 
Samuel L. Brengle. 

Eastern Territory: 122 W. 14th St., New York City. 

The Territorial Headquarters Staff: Commissioner, Thomas 
Estill; Chief Sec: y Colonel Eichard E. Hok; Field Sec., Colonel 
Alex. M. Damon; Fin. Sec., Brig. Wm. C. Arnold; Prop. Sec., 
Major V. E. Post; Editor-in-Chief, Lieut-Colonel Eobert Sand- 

228 Year Book of the Churches 

all; Young People's Sec , Brig. "Win. F. Palmer; Campaign Sec., 
Lieut.-Colonel Albert Kimball ; Bureau of Information, Statistics 
and Inspection, Colonel John E. Margetts; Principal of the 
Training College, Colonel Charles Miles ; Trade Sec , Brig. Sam- 
son Hodges; Men's Social Sec, Colonel Edward J. Parker; 
Women's Social Sec., Colonel Margaret Bovill 

Central Territory : 713-719 N. State St , Chicago, 111. 
The Territorial Headquarters Staff- Commissioner, "William 
Peart , Chief Sec , Colonel Sidney Gauntlett , Field Sec , 
Colonel John T. Fyrni ; Fin. Sec , Brig. Frank K. Robertson , 
Pro. Sec, Brig John E. Wiseman; "Young People's Sec, Brig- 
Walter Peacock; Editor-in-Chief, Lieut -Col. Fletcher Agnew; 
Publicity and Special Efforts Dept., Staff Captain A. E. Mar- 
purg; Territorial Traveling Special, Lieut.-Colonel J. C. Addie; 
Central Men's Social Prisons and Charity Department, Brig. 
David Miller; Women's Social Dept., Brig Amish Powden ; Prin- 
cipal of the Traveling College, Colonel Alfred A. Chandler. 
Western Territory : 115 Valencia St , San Francisco, Calif. 

The Territorial Headquarters Staff: Lieut. Commissioner, 
Adam Gifford ; Chief Sec., Colonel "W. J. Barnard Turner ; Field 
Sec., Brig. William Guard, Fin. Sec, Lieut-Col "William J. 
Dart; Auditor, Brig Albert Widgery; Territorial Young Peo- 
ple's Sec., Colonel J. W. Cousins; Prop, and Campaign Sec, 
Colonel T. Scott; Editor, Lieut-Colonel A. B. Pebbles; 
Revivalist, Lieut.-Colonel George H. Davis; Staff Records and 
Statistics, Major Bessie Smith; Sec. for Trade Dept., Staff Capt. 
Arthur Armstrong; Men's Social Sec., Lieut.-Colonel Emil Mar- 
eussen; Women's Social Sec., Major Sophia Harris; Principal 
of the Western Training College, Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Craw- 

Training Schools 

Name Location Principal 

Training College . .. .New York City Colonel Charles Miles. 

(Men and Women) 
Training College Chicago, 111 Colonel Alfred A Chandler. 

(Men and Women) 
Training College San Francisco, Calif Lt.-Col. Andrew Crawford. 

(Men and Women) 


Eastern Territory War Cry (weekly) ; Stride Ropet (weekly) ; 
Young Soldier (weekly) ; Social News (monthly) ; Local Officers 9 
Counsellor (monthly), 120 W. 14th St., New York, Editor, Lieut.- 
Col. Eobert Sandall. 

Central Territory War Cry, and Young Soldier (weekly), 108 
N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., Editor, Lieut-CoL Fletcher Agnew. 

Western Territory War Cry, and Young Soldier (weekly), 115 
Valencia St., San Francisco, Calif., Editor, Lieut.-Col. A. B, Pebbles. 


William Booth, a minister of the English body known as the 
"New Connexion Methodists," was from his earliest preaching, which 
began when he was 16 years of age, deeply impressed with the 
fact that an important percentage of the crowds which filled the 

Directory of Religious Bodies 229 

towns and cities of England lay outside the influence of the churches. 
In an effort to reach these people, he inaugurated a series of open- 
air meetings in London, holding the first on July 5, 1865. As the 
attendance increased, the meetings were held in a tent, and after- 
wards m a theater. The movement became known as the East End 
Mission, and later as the Christian Mission. For 13 years little 
attention was drawn to it, but a far-reaching revival took place, 
and as a result the crowds increased, the interest extended, and evan- 
gelists were sent out in different directions. One of these evangelists, 
working m a seaport, was spoken of as "Captain/' in order to at- 
tract the sailors who had come into port. On the coming of Mr. 
Booth, a visit was announced as from the "General." The secretary 
in preparing the annual report wrote, "The Christian Mission Is a 
Volunteer Army." Mr. Booth glanced over the secretary's shoulder, 
took up the pen, erased the word "volunteer" and wrote in "salva- 
tion." The title "Salvation Army" was at once accepted as the most 
appropriate that could be devised for the special undertaking, which, 
as they phrased it, was an effort "to destroy the fortresses of sin in 
the various communities." In the early years of the work, the 
founder, General William Booth, with whom his wife, Catherine Booth, 
was always most intimately associated, looked upon the army as 
primarily supplementary to the churches, but as it enlarged it de- 
veloped into a distinctive movement with a people of its own. 

From the beginning, efforts were made to care for the physical 
needs of the destitute, soup kitchens being the first institutions es- 
tablished for relief. Experiments of various kinds were made, and 
out of these grew the scheme developed in "Darkest England and the 
Way out," which outlined a plan of social redemption for what came 
to be known as the "Submerged Tenth," under three divisions: City 
colonies, land colonies, and oversea colonies. In the carrying out of 
its schemes, however, the army has always been elastic, expansive, 
and progressive, adapting itself easily to new conditions, and enter- 
ing new fields as need was manifest. 

Although the movement originated in England, it extended rap- 
idly into other countries, not so much through the plans of its found- 
ers as through circumstances. English converts, finding homes in the 
United States, Canada, Australia, and other distant lands, began 
work according to the methods of the army and followed their efforts 
by urging the General to send them trained leaders from the inter- 
national headquarters in London. The first country thus entered 
was France, followed by the United States, in 1881. Notwithstand- 
ing considerable opposition, the movement spread rapidly all over 
the country, until it has become one of the most prominent forces in 
work of this character. 


The Salvation Army has a creed, but gives little attention to the 
discussion of doctrinal differences. It is in general strongly Arminian 
rather than Calvinistic. The special features emphasized are: Be- 
lief in the ruinous effects of sin, and the ample provision" made for 
entire deliverance from its power by the salvation of God. In its 
attitude toward the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper 
it is neutral, acting in harmony with the followers of George Fox 
in regarding the sacraments that save as spiritual. Admission to 
its membership is not founded upon any acceptance of creed alone, but 
is based upon the most solemn pledges to Christian and humane con- 
duct, including total abstinence from intoxicating liquors and all 
harmful drugs. The pledges are known as the "Articles of War," 
and must be signed by every soldier. 

230 Year Book of the Churches 


The government of the Salvation Army is military in charac- 
ter, but sufficiently democratic to include within its ranks persons 
of every social grade. Its lower officers may be promoted to high 
commands, and thus it is believed the usual dangers which threaten 
a hierarchy are avoided. The ideal of its founder was the parental 
and patriarchal model, namely, that the officer of higher rank should 
regard those beneath him as a father regards his children, and thus 
protect and guide their lives. This spirit controls in general. The 
commanding: Officer is assisted by local officers who act in the capacity 
of an advisory board; in addition to these, he is aided, when neces- 
sary, by officers of various grades and ranks. These officers are com- 
missioned, after successfully passing through the training given in 
schools or giving evidence of ability sufficient to qualify them for 
any work. Mental qualifications are not ignored, although an edu- 
cational test is not emphasized, and the applicant is urged to improve 
himself mentally and socially as well as religiously. Soldiers are 
chiefly persons pursuing their usual avocations during the day and 
giving their services during the evening, and are not paid. Officers 
receive their support, but no more, and each corps is expected to 
meet its own expenses. 

The form of worship is elastic, the desire being that, so far as 
possible, the services be spontaneous, and great liberty is encouraged, 
although extravagances are frowned upon, and if regarded as dan- 
gerous are suppressed. These services include open-air meetings, 
salvation meetings for the conversion of the impenitent, holiness 
meetings for the deepening of the spiritual life among the soldiers 
and adherents, junior meetings, and Sunday schools for the conver- 
sion and training of children. 

The international headquarters of the army are in London, but 
each country has its own organization under the direction of a Com- 
missioner, who is assisted by responsible officers for provinces and 
divisions. The local corps is usually commanded by a captain and 
a lieutenant, assisted by local officers, as a sergeant-major, treasurer, 
secretary, etc. 



The movement away from the State Churches In Sweden, 
Norway, and Denmark has found expression in the United 
States in the formation of three bodies: The Swedish Evan- 
gelical Mission Covenant of America, the Swedish Evangelical 
Free Chureh (formerly the Free Mission), and the Norwegian- 
Danish Free Church. 


General Conference, annual; last session, Seattle, Wash., 
June, 1922. 

Headquarters : 186 West Lake St, Chicago, 111, 
Officers: Pres. of Exec. Board, Rev. E. G. Hjerpe; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. E. A. Skogsberg., Minneapolis, Mirm.; Sec.* Bev. C. V. Bow- 
man; Vice-Sec., Eev. M. J. Eggan. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 231 

College and Theological Seminary 
Name Location President 
North Park College and Theological Semi- 
nary Chicago, 111 D. Nyvall. 


Covenant Weekly, Editors, D. Marcelius, Andrew Johnson, 4 Sun- 
day School Friend, Editor, Miss Rosa Sahestrom; Teacher's Com- 
panion, Editor, Eev. N. Franklin. 


The great body of the Swedish immigrants were in their own 
country connected with the State Church of Sweden, and on com- 
ing to this country identified themselves with the Swedish Augustana 
Synod in connection with the Lutheran General Council. There are, 
however, quite a number of churches which represent the results of 
the great spiritual awakening which visited Sweden in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, and which corresponded very closely to 
kindred awakenings in Norway, and to the Pietist movement in Ger- 
many. The ordained state clergy seemed to some unable to satisfy 
the deep spiritual needs of the communities, and services were con- 
ducted by uneducated laymen. This procedure was followed by perse- 
cution by the State Church, but without avail. Congregations were 
organized, edifices erected, and a strong spiritual life developed. 
These congregations were represented, to a considerable degree, in the 
Swedish immigration to this country and, as the necessity of or- 
ganization became apparent, two synods were formed, the Ansgarii 
Synod and the Mission Synod. These were afterwards dissolved, and 
in their place the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of America 
was formed in 1885. 

Doctrine and Polity 

In doctrine the Covenant is strictly evangelical, accepting the 
Bible as the inspired Word of God unto men, the only infallible guide 
in matters of faith, doctrine, and practice, and His message regard- 
ing both this life and the life that is to come. 

In government, the church is purely congregational. The local 
churches are associated in state conferences, and in an annual con- 
ference in which all matters of common interest are considered by 
the delegates assembled, and important business, such as making ap- 
propriations for missions and receiving sister churches into fellow- 
ship, is transacted. The Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of 
America has been incorporated in the State of Illinois. 


(Incorporated under the laws of the State of Minnesota.) 
HEADQUARTERS, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Pres., Rev. C. T. Dyrness, 2814 McLean Ave., Chicago, 111. ; 
Sec., Eev. 0. Thompson, 420 "W. Sarnia St. Winona, Minn. 

FOREIGN MISSION: "Scandinavian Missionary Alliance." 
Treas., Rev. Algath Olsen, 44 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 


Name Locatwn President 

Bible Institute and Academy S. Minneapolis, Minn L. J. Pedersen. 


Evangelisten (weekly), The Children Evangelist (weekly), 3525 
Fullerton Ave., Chicago, Editor, H. F. Josephson. 

232 Year Book of the Churches 


The Norwegian and Danish Free Church movement traces its 
origin to the spiritual awakening that swept over Norway in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, and to the conditions which 
made it necessary for those who were brought under the influence of 
the movement later to separate from the State Church and organize 
what were called Free Churches. Similar movements were spreading 
in other countries, with which the movement from Norway and 
Denmark has found bonds of fellowship, especially that earlier move- 
ment in England, which resulted in the founding of the Congrega- 
tional denomination. 

In the latter part of the nineteenth century there was a sufficient 
number of Norwegian and Danish Free Churches in the United 
States to organise into two associations, one in the Eastern states 
and one in the Middle West These associations held bonds of fellow- 
ship with the Congregational denomination 

In the year 1910 representatives of the two associations met in 
Chicago and organized the Norwegian and Danish Evangelical Free 
Church Association of North America, still maintaining the Eastern 
and Western associations as district organizations to look after local 
work. In the national organization all the churches, represented by 
delegates, and with their pastors and teachers, meet annually for 
conference and business. 

In doctrine, the association is strictly evangelical, believing the 
Bible to be the inspired Word of God, and accepting without que& 
tion its authority in all things. The local churches have the con- 
gregational form of government. 


Address Kev Erik A Halleen, 1417 Seventh St., S , Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 


At the time of the union of the Swedish Ansgarii Synod and the 
Mission Synod in 1885, forming the Swedish Evangelical Mission 
Covenant of America, a number of congregations did not share in 
the consolidation, but united in an organization known as the Swed- 
ish Evangelical Free Mission, more recently known as the Swedish 
Evangelical Free Church. The first general conference was held at 
Boone, Iowa, at which plans were made for work, particularly in 

The Swedish Evangelical Free Church has no written confession 
of faith, but accepts the Bible as the Word of God and the only 
perfect rule of faith and practice. Regarding doctrinal questions, 
such as tbe atonement, baptism, and the holy communion, ministers 
are at liberty to believe according to their convictions. The qualifica- 
tions for membership are conversion and a Christian life. 

The local congregations are self-governing. An annual confer- 
ence is held, to which the local congregations send delegates, and at 
which regulations are made concerning charitable institutions, schools, 
etc.; but these regulations are advisory in character, and the congre- 
gations are privileged either to accept or to reject them. In addi- 
tion to the conference there is a society of ministers and mission- 
aries, organized in 1894, which has for its object the supervision of 
doctrine and conduct, the reception of worthy candidates, and the 
rejection of those who are unworthy. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 233 


General Conference, semi-annual; meets third Saturday of 
May and October. 

Headquarters Norristown, Pa. 

Officers: Mod., John H. Sdraltz, Norristown, Pa ; Sec., S. 
K. Brecht, Eagle Road, Manoa, Pa.; Treas., Amos S. Anders, 
Norristown, Pa. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION. Pres., Edwin K Schultz, Boyertown, Pa.; 
Sec., Rev. 0. S. Kriebel, Pennsburg, Pa. 

Norristown, Pa.; See., Rev. H. K. Heebner, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Anders, Lansdale, Pa., R. D.; Sec., Wayne C. Meschter, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 


Name Location Principal 

Perkiomen School Pennsburg, Pa . . . . 0. S. Kriebel 


The Schwenkfeldian (monthly), Editor, S. K. Brecht, Eagle 
Road, Manoa, Pa. 


Among the early enthusiastic advocates of the Reformation was 
Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a councilor at the court of the Duke of 
Liegnitz in Silesia. At the time of Luther's manifesto he was a 
young man, 25 years of age, and threw himself into the new move- 
ment with energy. Although never ordained as a clergyman, he took 
a prominent part in religious work, and it was mainly through his 
eiforts that the Reformation gained a stronghold in Silesia. He was, 
however, independent in his thinking, and developed certain lines of 
belief which were not acceptable to other reformers. 

Strongly opposed to the formation of a church, he did no more 
than gather congregations, and was compelled to flee from one place 
to another to escape persecution, until he died in Ulxn in 1561. After 
his death, under the conditions of the times, any ecclesiastical organi- 
zation of his followers was impracticable, although meetings and 
occasional conferences were held in Silesia, Switzerland, and Italy. 

Early in the eighteenth century the question arose of emigration 
to America, and in September, 1734, about 200 persons landed at 
Philadelphia. Allegiance to the civil authorities having been pledged 
on September 23, they devoted the next day to thanksgiving for their 
deliverance from oppression, and they have continued to celebrate it 
as a memorial day ever since. Unable to secure land as they desired 
for a distinct community, they obtained homes in Montgomery, Bucks, 
Berks, and Lehigh Counties, Pa., where the greater number of their 
descendants are now to be found. The character of their early life 
in this country is indicated by their literary and doctrinal activities, 
the adoption of a school system in 1764, and the establishment of a 
charity fund in 1774, through which they have since cared for the 
unfortunate members of the community. 

Toward the close of the Revolutionary War it became evident 
that a closer church organization was necessary, and one was formed 
and a constitution adopted in 1782. In common with the Quakers, 
Mennonites, and other kindred bodies, they gave their testimony 
against war, secret societies, and the taking of oaths. More recently 
a responsiveness to modern influences, has taken the place of their 
early clannish exclusiveness ; all rules and regulations against secret 

234 Year Book of the Churches 

societies have been dropped; the participation in war has been left 
to the individual conscience; and, in the war with Germany, not only 
was no exemption asked on the ground of religious belief but a con- 
siderable number of the young men entered the national service. 

The establishment of the Perkiomen School has had a marked 
effect in increasing the number of college graduates in the churches 
and the general interest in higher education. As a result, they have 
gained in strength and in numbers. 


The church holds that theology should be constructed from the 
Bible alone, but affirms that the Scriptures are dead without the 
indwelling Word. Christ's divinity, it is held, was progressive, His 
human nature partaking more and more of the divine nature with- 
out losing its identity. They believe that an absolute change through 
faith and regeneration, and subsequent spiritual growth, are primary 
essentials to salvation, but that justification by faith should not ob- 
scure the positive righteousness imparted by Christ, imitation of 
whom is the fundamental feature of the Christian life. The Lord's 
Supper, symbolic of both His humanity and His divinity, is regarded 
as a means of spiritual nourishment without any change in the ele- 
ments, such as is implied in consubstantiation or transubstantiation. 
They look upon infant baptism as not apostolic, and the mode of 
baptism as of no consequence. 

The Christian Church islield to be unity, whose discipline should 
be rigorous, and whose members should be those who give experi- 
mental evidence of regeneration, and who pass a satisfactory exam- 
ination in the doctrines and customs of the church. The activity of 
the laity is considered to fulfill the doctrine of the Christian priest- 
hood. The right of the state to force the conscience of the citizen is 


The only officers are ministers, deacons, and trustees, who are 
elected and ordained by the local churches; the ministers for an un- 
limited period, the deacons for a term of three years, or until their 
successors are chosen, and the trustees annually. The public worship 
is simple and flexible as to time and manner. 

Tne members of the local churches meet in a district confer- 
ence at least once a year. The district conferences are members of 
the General Conference, in which all church members have equal 
rights and privileges without distinction of sex. The General Con- 
ference has original and appellate jurisdiction in all matters relating 
to the Schwenkfelder Church. It elects the members of the mission 
board, the trustees of Perkiomen School, and the members of the 
board of publication. 


Address Rev. F. P. Wilson, Eldorado, 111. 

History, Doctrine and Polity 

At the close of the Civil War a number of persons who had be- 
come dissatisfied with certain teachings and practices in the denomi- 
nations to which they belonged, gathered some congregations in Illi- 
nois. For about 20 years they continued under a somewhat loose 
organization, but in 1887 adopted a discipline containing a statement 
of doctrine and rules for the government of the churches and for the 
ordination of ministers. 

The Confession of Faith, consisting of 10 articles, pronounces 
against political preaching, declares the right of all lay members to 

Directory of Religious Bodies 235 

free speech and free suffrage, and recognizes 3 modes of baptism as 
the applicant may prefer. It rejects infant baptism, however, and 
accepts only believers as candidates for that rite. 

Annual associations are held, composed of ministers and lay dele- 
gates, and a biennial general assembly, whose membership includes 
ordained ministers, licensed preachers and exhorters, the general 
superintendent of Sunday schools, and lay delegates from each as- 

The churches conduct no special mission work, home or foreign, 
and have no denominational schools or philanthropic institutions. 

(The American Ethical Union) 

Office: 2 West 64th St., New York City. 

Leaders: Felix Adler, Horace J. Bridges, Percival Chubb, 
John L. Elliott, Alfred W. Martin, David S Muzzey, Henry 
Neumann, George E. ODell, Nathaniel Schmidt, S. Burns 

Officers : Climn of Exec. Comm., Robert D. Kohn ; Sec. and 
Editor, David S. Hanchett ; Treas., Alexander M. Bing. 

Foreign Secretaries: H. Snell^ London, Eng.; Jean Wagner, 
Lausanne, Switzerland; "William Boerner, Vienna, Austria. 

The Standard, 2 West 64th Street, New York City. 


Name Location Superintendent 

Ethical Culture School , .. New York City .. Fianklm C. Lewis. 
Ethical Culture School Brooklyn, N. Y. . Henry Neumann. 

Component Societies 

New York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 W. 64th St., New York. 
Philadelphia Society for Ethical Culture, 1324 Spruce St., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Brooklyn Society for Ethical Culture, 176 S. Oxford St., Brookyln, 
N. Y. 

Chicago Ethical Society, 163 W. Washington St., Chicago, III 
St. Louis Ethical Society, 3648 Washington Blvd., St. Louis, Mo, 
Boston Ethical Society, 3 Joy St., Boston, Mass. 


The New York Society for Ethical Culture was founded by Dr. 
Felix Adler in 1876. Five similar societies have since been formed, 
and in 1887 the American Ethical Union was organized, including 
the societies at that time in existence. The movement has since ex- 
tended to England, Germany, and other countries, and in 1896 the 
International Ethical Union was organized. 

Doctrine and Polity 

The Ethical Societies have no formal expression of doctrine. 
Their purpose as expressed in the Constitution of the International 
Union is "to assert the supreme importance of the ethical factor in 
all the relations of life personal, social, national and international 
apart from any theological or metaphysical considerations." 

Each society is autonomous in government. 

236 Tear Book of the Churches 

TEMPLE SOCIETY (Friends of the Temple) 

Address Emil G. Sorg, 535 East Utica Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The Temple Society, also known as "Friends of the Temple," 
was founded in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1853, by the Rev. Christo- 
pher Hoffman. Adherents of the society emigrated to America a 
few years later, and within 10 years an organization was effected. 
At present there are 2 local congregations, while a number of sym- 
pathizers, mostly members of other churches, are scattered over the 

The Society has no ecclesiastical forms or doctrine. It holds 
that the sum and substance of the New Testament is the teaching 
of the Kingdom of God, the essence of which is contained in the 
words of Jesus, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God * * * and 
thy neighbor as thyself," and emphasizes the spiritual development 
of the kingdom. 

Accepting in full the prophecies of the Old Testament in regard to 
the future of the Holy Land, one great aim of the organization Is 
the establishment of Christian colonies in the Holy Land. Its er- 
forts have resulted in six colonies in Palestine. 

The Society in Jerusalem is regarded as the chief organization, 
and its president exercises general supervision over the branches in 
Germany and America. In the American branch, a general commit- 
tee, with a presiding elder, keeps up the connection with Jerusalem. 
The individual churches have preachers and elders, and hold Sun- 
day preaching services and Sunday schools. 



The original Theosophical Society was founded by Mme. Helena 
Petrovna Blavatsky m New York in 1875,, under the name "Theo- 
sophical Society." Col. Henry S. Olcott was the first president; 
William Q. Judge was elected counsel, and Mme. Blavatsky corre- 
sponding secretary. For some years special attention was given to 
the education of the members in the Theosophical philosophy, and to 
the development of the organization both in America and in Europe. 
In 1879 Mme. Blavatsky and Col. Olcott went to India and established 
headquarters at Adyar, Madras. 

There are three societies in this country the original Theo- 
sophical Society, American Section; Theosophical Society in America; 
and the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society all tracing 
their origin as organizations to the original Theosophical Society. 
There is also in New York an independent organization called the 
Theosophical Society, New York. 

These societies, while varying somewhat in particulars, unite in 
emphasizing as their principal object the universal brotherhood of 
humanity, and require sympathy with this object as a condition of 
admission to membership. 


A brief summary of doctrine as accepted by most members of the 
Theosophical societies follows: 

God is infinite and absolute, therefore not to be limited by thought, 
attribute, or description. Evolution is accepted, but it is only half a 
law the other half being involution. Humanity is one great family; 
all souls are the same m essence, though they differ in degrees 

Directory of Religious Bodies 237 

of development. Man is essentially a spiritual intelligence inhabiting 
a soul and a body. By purification and training of the body, the 
emotions, and the mind, the latent divine powers will develop and 
become active. Man is composed of seven principles which are grouped 
as a lower or mortal nature constituting his personality and a 
higher or immortal nature. Death is the dissolution of the mortal 
principles followed by the absorption of their experiences by the 
higher or universal principles. Heaven is the state of bliss and 
rest attained by the threefold higher nature of spirit, intuition, and 
mind. Reincarnation is the return of the higher nature to physical 
life, after having enjoyed its rest; it must not be confused with the 
ignorant and impossible idea of the transmigration of human souls 
into animal bodies. Karma is the action and interaction between 
desire and mind, the law of balance, of action and reaction, of effect 
inevitably connected with preceding cause; applied to man, it is a 
moral law of unerring justice, to which all other laws, physical or 
otherwise, are subservient. Karma is inseparable from reincarnation; 
Karma is the cause, reincarnation the effect. 


Organized, 1875. 

Annual Convention, meets last Saturday in April. 
Sec., Miss Isabel E. Perkins, P. Box 64, Station 0, New 
York City. 


Theosophical Quarterly, P. 0. Box 64, Station 0, New York City. 


Organized 1895. 

Annual Convention , next meeting at Chicago, 111., July, 1923. 
Headquarters: 826 Oakdale Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Officers: National Pres., L. W. Rogers ; National Sec., Miss 
Clara Linder. 

ORDER OF THE STAR IN THE EAST. In preparation of the coming 
of the Christ. 


Name Location Dean or Principal 

School of the Open Gate Los Angeles, Calif . .Julia K. Sommer, B. Sc. 

The Messenger, Chicago, 111. 



Organized 1875. Keorganized, 1898. 

International headquarters: Point Lonia, Calif. 

Officers : Leader, Katherine Tingley ; Sec., Joseph H. Fussell 

University and School 
Name Location Secretary 

Theosophical University .. .Point Loma, Calif Clark Thurston. 

Raja Yoga College Point Loma, Calif Gertrude "W. Van Pelt 

288 Year Book of the Churches 


Theosophical Path (monthly), Editor, Katherine Tingley; The 
Raja Yoga Messenger (bi-monthly); The New Way (monthly). 


Organized 1899 - 

Officers : Pres , Harold W. Percival, 1580 Amsterdam Ave., 
New York City; See., Benoni B Gattell, 1580 Amsterdam Ave., 
New York City. 


General Conference of Unitarian and other Christian 
Churches ; meets biennially. 

Officers: Pres., Hon. Wiliam H. Taft; Gen. Sec., Rev. Pal- 
frey Perkins, Weston, Mass., Treas, Percy A. Atherton, 30 
State St., Boston, Mass. 

THE AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION is the executive organiza- 
tion; Unitarian Bldg., 25 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Pres., Rev. Sam- 
uel A. Eliot; Sec., Rev. Louis C. Cornish; Treas., Henry M. Williams. 
Asst Sec. and Publication Agent, W, Forbes Robertson. 

BRANCH OFFICES, 299 Madison Ave., New York City; 105 Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111; 760 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 

Field Sees, Rev. W. Charming Brown, Carl B. Wetherell, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif, ; Rev. Walter R. Hunt, New York City. 

rence, 16 Beacon St , Boston, Mass.; Asso. Sec, Rev. E. F. Fairley, 
299 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Pres, Miss Lucy Lowell; Rec. Sec., Mrs C. S. Atherton, 25 Beacon 
St., Boston, Mass ; Treas., Miss Louise Brown. 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S RELIGIOUS UNION. Pres. of Exec. Board, Albert 
A. Pollard; Sec., Miss Margaret Aborn, 25 Beacon St., Boston, Mass.; 
Tieas., Arthur G. White. 

UNITARIAN LAYMEN'S LEAGUE. Pres., Charles H. Strong; Sec., 
Wm. L Barnard, 7 Park Square, Boston, Mass.; Treas., Henry D. 

Sec. and Librarian, Julius H. Tuttle. 

Sec., Rev. L, V. Rutledge; Treas., Seymour H. Stone. 

George H. Root; Cor. Sec., Miss Frances A. Austin, 128 Neponset 
Ave., Dorchester, Mass.; Treas., Mrs. Arthur G. Robbins. 

Sec., Rev. Roderick Stebbins, Milton, Mass.; Treas., Stephen W. 

Howard N. Brown; Sec., Rev. Fred R. Lewis, North Easton, Mass.; 
Treas., George R. Blinn. 

OTHERS IN NORTH AMERICA. Pres., Rev. James H. Ropes; Vice-Pres., 
Prof. F. G. Peabody; Sec., Rev. Charles E. Park, Boston, Mass.; 
Treas., H. W. Cunningham. 

menter; Sec., Rev. Robert S. Lormg, Milwaukee, Wis.; Treas., Rev. 
H. G. Arnold. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 239 

Theological Seminaries 

Name Location President 

Divinity School of Harvard Uni- 
versity Cambridge, Mass. . . . Abbott Lawrence Lowell. 

The Meadville Theological School .. Mead ville, Pa Franklin C. Southworth 

Pacific Unitarian School for the 
Ministry .. Berkeley, Calif Earl M. Wilbur. 


Christian Register (weekly), Boston, Mass,, Editor, Rev. A. C. 
Dieffenbach; The Beacon (weekly), children's paper, Boston, Mass.; 
The Pacific Unitarian (monthly), San Francisco, Calif., Editor, 
Charles A. Murdock; Unitarian Word and Work (monthly), Boston, 


Unitarianism may be defined in the most general terms as the 
religious doctrine of those holding belief in one God in one person 
(as distinguished from the Trinitarian belief in one God in three 
persons) and the related belief in the strict humanity of Jesus (as 
contrasted with the belief in His Diety) . While Unitarians affirm that 
these beliefs were held in the first Christian centuries, before ever the 
Trinitarian dogmas were developed, yet the Unitananism of today 
originated historically in the first half century of the Protestant 
Reformation. In one form or another it was espoused in the six- 
teenth century by a number of Anabaptist leaders and by numerous 
independent thinkers in Italy or Switzerland. Its most influential 
leaders on the Continent, where it was variously known as A nanism, 
Sociniamsm, or Unitarianism, were Michael Servetus in Switzerland, 
Faustus Socmus in Poland, and Francis David m Transylvania. 

In England Unitarianism gradually developed during the eight- 
eenth century, largely under Socinian influences, and chiefly among 
the Presbyterian churches, though there were also important acces- 
sions from other religious bodies. While such men as Newton, Locke, 
Milton, and Penn in the seventeenth century are known to have held 
Unitarian views, no movement toward a distinct denomination began 
till late in the eighteenth century; and the most distinguished leaders 
of Unitarianism since its separate organization have been Joseph 
Priestly, Theophilus Lindsey, and James Martineau. 

In America Unitarianism developed out of New England Congre- 
gationalism, whose churches had as a rule left the way open 
for doctrinal changes, by requiring members upon joining the 
church simply to join in a covenant, rather than to subscribe to a 
creed. Thus many of the Congregational churches of eastern Massa- 
chusetts, including most of the oldest and most important ones, grad- 
ually moved far toward Unitarian beliefs in the second half of the 
eighteenth century, though the first church distinctly to avow such 
beliefs was the Episcopal King's Chapel at Boston, in 1785. These 
churches preferred to call themselves simply Liberal Christians, and 
the name Unitarian was only slowly and reluctantly accepted. The 
formation of a new denomination out of the liberal wing of the 
Congregational Church was a gradual process, which went on in one 
congregation after another. The cleavage was hastened by the elec- 
tion of Henry Ware, a liberal, as Professor of Theology at Harvard 
University in 1805, in spite of orthodox protests, and by the fastening 
of the name Unitarian upon the liberals by the conservatives in 1815, 
after which the former were more and more refused religious fellow- 
ship by the latter, who desired thus to exclude them from the denom- 
ination. At length, in 1819, William Ellery Channing, of Boston, 
acknowledged leader of the liberals, preached at Baltimore an ordina- 
tion sermon which defined and defended the views held by Unitarians 
and was thenceforth accepted by them as their platform. 

240 Year Book of the Churches 

In 1825 the Amercan Unitarian Association was formed to do 
aggressive missionary work and to promote the interests of the 
churches concerned, and thus the new^ denomination became organ- 
ized separately. The Unitarians of this period were much averse to 
fostering sectarian spirit. They had been only loosely welded to- 
gether, and their own fundamental principles were not clearly set- 
tled; so that for nearly 40 years the denomination was stagnant and 
was divided and weakened by internal controversy centering mainly 
about the question of miracles. But by the end of the Civil War this 
controversy had been largely outgrown; a national conference was 
organized m 1865, and a period of rapid extension and of aggressive 
denominational life ensued, which has continued to the present time. 
For a generation past emphasis has been laid much less upon doc- 
trinal points than upon personal religion, moral advancement, and 
civic and social reform. 


The Unitarians have never adopted a creed and do not require 
of members or ministers profession of a particular doctrine. 

The constitution of the General Conference states simply that 
"These churches accept the religion of Jesus, holding in accordance 
with His teaching that practical religion is summed up in love to 
God and love to man." The declared object of the American Uni- 
tarian Association is "to diffuse the knowledge and promote the in- 
terests of pure Christianity." And the covenant most generally used 
in local churches reads: "In the love of truth and in the spirit of 
Jesus, we unite for the worship of God and the service of man." 

The most distinguishing marks of Unitananism today are its in- 
sistence upon absolute freedom in belief, its reliance upon the su- 
preme guidance of reason, its tolerance of difference in religious 
opinion, its devotion to education and philanthropy, and its em- 
phasis upon character, as the principles of fundamental importance 
in religion. There is, however, a general consensus upon the uniper- 
sonahty of God, the strict humanity of Jesus, the essential dignity 
and perfectibility of human nature, the natural character of the 
Bible, and the hope for the ultimate salvation of all souls in distinc- 
tion from the views traditionally taught on these points. 


The Unitarians are congregational in polity, each congregation 
being entirely independent of all the others. But for purposes of 
fellowship, mutual counsel, and the promotion of common ends, they 
unite in local or state conferences, in a General Conference meeting 
biennially, and in an international congress formed "to open com- 
munication with those in all lands who are striving to unite pure 
religion and perfect liberty, and to increase fellowship and coopera- 
tion among them." Besides the national missionary organization, 
the American Unitarian Association, with headquarters at Boston, 
and offices at New York, Chicago, and San Francisco, other national 
organizations include the Alliance of Unitarian Women, the Uni- 
tarian Sunday School Society, the Young People's Eeligious Union, 
the Laymen's League, the Unitarian Temperance Society, etc. 


General Conference, quadrennial, next session, 1925. 

Thirty-one Annual Conferences. 

Headquarters: United Brethren Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 241 

Officers : Pres , Board of Administration, Bishop William M. 
Bell; Exec. Sec , S. S. Hough; Gen. Treas., L. 0. Miller. 


W. M. Bell, 1509 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 
H. H. Font, 945 Middle Drive, Woodruif PL, Indianapolis, Ind. 
C. J. Kephart, 3936 Harrison Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 
W. H. Washinger, 686 E. Taylor St., Portland, Ore. 
A. E. Clippinger, 1602 Grand Avenue, Dayton, Ohio. 
W. M. WeeMey (emeritus), 1038 Murdock Ave., Parkersburg, 
W. Va. 

Sec., Rev. S. G. Ziegler; Treas., L. 0. Miller; Special Support Sec., 
Mrs. J. Hal Smith. 

HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Pres., Bishop H. H. Fout; Gen. Sec., 
Rev. P. M. Camp; Sec. of Ed. Dept., Miss L. B. Wiggin; Treas., L. 
0. Miller. 


1550 Georgia Ave., Omaha, Nebr.; Gen. Sec. and Treas., Miss Alice 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S WORK. Pres., Bishop A. R. Clippinger; Gen. Sec. 
Sunday School and Brotherhood Work, Rev. Charles W. Brewbaker; 
Supt. Elementary Division, Miss Ida M. Koontz; Gen. Sec. Young 
People's Work, Rev. O. T. Deever. 

COMMISSION ON EVANGELISM. Pres., Bishop H. H. Font; Gen. 
Sec., Rev. J. E. Shannon. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. Pres., Bishop C. J. Kephart; Gen. See., 
Rev. William E. Schell; Treas., L. 0. Miller. 


Name Location President or Dean 

Indiana Central College .. . University Heights, Ind I. J Good. 

Kansas City University Kansas City, Kans. J. C. Williams. 

Lebanon Valley College Annville, Pa G D. Gossard 

Otterbem College Westerville, Ohio W. G. Clippinger 

Philomath College Philomath, Oreg H. D. Boughter. 

York College York, Neb W. O. Jones. 

Shenandoah Institute Dayton, Va ..... .. .D. T. Gregory 

Theological Seminary 
Bonebrake Theological Seminary. Day ton, Ohio . .A. T. Howard. 


Religious Telescope, Editors, Eev. J. M. Phillippi, Kev. W. E. 
Snyder; Watchword, Editor, Eev. H. F. Shupe; Friend of Boys and 
Girls, Editors, Rev. W. 0. Fries and Rev. J. W. Owen; Evangel, Edi- 
tor, Miss Alice Bell. 


Among the serious conditions facing the German Reformed 
churches in America in the early part of the eighteenth century were 
the lack of organization and especially the dearth of ministers. There 
were as yet no training schools in this country, and they were com- 
pelled to look to the Old World for their ministerial supply. The re- 
sult was that they were not always provided for, and it was difficult 
to secure ministers of the best type. The Methodist movement in 
England and the Pietist movement in Germany were becoming prom- 

242 Year Book of the Churches 

inent, but had not extended to any great degree through the churches, 
and the tone of spiritual life was low. 

There were indeed earnest workers, but the general condition 
was deplorable. Appeals were made to the churches of the Palati- 
nate, but they recognized their inability to meet the need and applied 
to the Classis of Amsterdam, which had already given assistance to 
the Dutch Reformed churches in New York. In accordance with this 
appeal, in 1746, the Rev. Michael Schlatter, a Swiss by birth, was sent 
as a missionary to the German Reformed churches in Pennsylvania, 
although under the general direction of the Synod of Holland. In 
1751 he returned to Europe to present an appeal for further aid and 
additional missionaries. Six young men responded to his presenta- 
tion of the need in the new colonies. Among them was Philip William 
Otterbein, who was born in the duchy of Nassau, Germany, in 1726, 
and who had already had some experience in pastoral work. The 
company arrived in New York in July, 1752, and Otterbein soon found 
a field of labor with the congregation at Lancaster, Pa., at that time 
the second in importance among the German Reformed churches of 
the colonies. 

A peculiar personal experience, in which he found himself unable 
to respond to an earnest appeal from one seeking spiritual counsel, 
led him to a prolonged struggle for a fuller witness to the regener- 
ating power of the gospel in his personal life. The result was a 
spiritual transformation, and an insistence upon the necessity of a 
deeper inward spirituality on the part of his people. This was not 
always acceptable at that period, barren as it was in spiritual life. 

About the same time he came into personal relations with Martin 
Boehm, a member of the Mennonite community, who had passed 
through a similar religious experience, and together they conducted 
evangelistic work among the scattered settlers in Pennsylvania. This 
again was deemed irregular by Otterbem's fellow ministers, and of- 
fended the synod to such a degree and aroused such opposition to 
him that in 1774 he accepted a call to the Baltimore, Md., congrega- 
tion on an independent basis. For the next fifteen years Otterbein 
continued his evangelistic labors among the German speaking com- 
munities, going into the surrounding country and holding two-day 
"great meetings," in which he became more closely associated with 
ministers of kindred spirit in other denominations. Under their 
preaching converts rapidly multiplied, but church organizations were 
not yet formed, many of the converts uniting with English speaking 

In 1789 a meeting of these revivalist preachers was held in Bal- 
timore, and a confession of faith and rules of discipline were adopted 
based upon the rules adopted four years before for the government of 
Otterbein's independent church in Baltimore. During the next decade 
similar councils were called at irregular intervals, which culminated 
at a conference held in Frederick County, Md., in 1800, in the forma- 
tion of a distinct ecclesiastical body under the name of "United 
Brethren in Christ." Thirteen preachers were in attendance, and Ot- 
terbein and Boehm were elected bishops, in which office they remained 
until the death of Boehm in 1812, and of Otterbein in 1813. This new 
organization was in no sense a schism from any other body, but a 
natural development on the part of the German-speaking congrega- 
tions of that section which were desirous of a fuller evangelistic life. 

Bishop Ashbury, of the Methodist Church, and Bishop Otterbein, 
of the United Brethren, came into close relations and were warm 
friends, but as the Methodist Church was at that time unwilling to 
accede to the wishes of the German-speaking communities, and en- 
courage German-speaking churches, the two bodies remained distinct, 
and no specific effort to unite the forces was ever made. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 243 

The fact that those who joined in the new organization repre- 
sented different forms of church life necessitated mutual conference 
ind some concessions. Of the 14 ministers at the conference of 1789, 
) were of German Reformed antecedents and 5 were Mennonites. The 
shurch members, however, were more widely distributed. The Re- 
formed churches practiced infant baptism, but not foot-washing; the 
Mennonites practiced foot-washing and regarded believers' baptism 
yy immersion as the only correct form. The result was that each 
generously conceded to the other freedom to follow personal convic- 
ions as to the form of baptism, the age of persons baptized and the 
sbservance of foot-washing. 

During the first years of the nineteenth century the movement 
continued to grow, and many preaching places were established in 
Ohio and Indiana, and some m Kentucky, but the center of greatest 
activity was the Miami Valley in Ohio. 

The first General Conference was held in 1815, 4 conferences 
being represented by 14 delegates. This conference arranged and 
adopted a book of discipline, accepting in general the system agreed 
upon in the first conference of 1789. The same conference was also 
significant for its recognition of a change that had been gradually 
taking place m the use of the English language m the churches. 
Until this time, almost all the churches had used German in their 
services, but as they came into closer contact with other religious 
bodies, the use of English increased, and although many continued 
their German preaching, English-speaking churches became numer- 
ous. This change was further recognized by the conference held in 
1817, which ordered the confession of faith and the book of discipline 
to be printed in both German and English. 

The church has taken a radical attitude on questions of moral 
reform, and early placed in its book of discipline a decided declara- 
tion in condemnation of slavery, which was followed in 1821 by strong 
prohibitive legislation. In 1841 the distilling, vending, and use of 
ardent spirits as a beverage was forbidden, as also, the renting or 
leasing of property for the manufacture or sale of such drinks, the 
signing of petitions for granting license, or entering as bondsmen for 
persons engaged in the traffic. * 

The last seventy-five years have been characterized by the de- 
velopment of departments of church activity as Education, Home and 
Foreign Missions, Church Erection, Sunday School and Young Peo- 
ple's work, Evangelism, Ministerial Pension Bureau. 

The finances of the denomination have been promoted through a 
budget system with special emphasis on Stewardship, and the giving 
to the causes of Christ on a weekly system. 


In doctrine the church is Arminian. Its confession of faith con- 
sisting of thirteen brief articles, sets forth the generally accepted 
view of the Trinity, the authority of the Scriptures, justification and 
regeneration, the Christian Sabbath, and the future state. Concern- 
ing the Sacraments, it holds that baptism and the Lord's Supper 
should be observed by all Christians, but the mode of baptism, the 
manner of celebrating the Lord's Supper, and the practice of foot- 
washing should be left to the judgment of each individual. The ques- 
tion of the baptism of children is left to the choice of parents. Em- 
phasis is laid upon sanctification, which is described as "the work of 
God's grace through the Word and the Spirit, by which those who 
have been born again are separated in their acts, words, and thoughts, 
from sin, and are enabled to live unto God." 

244 Year Book of the Churches 


The polity of the United Brethren is similar to that of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Although not historically a Methodist 
branch, they affiliate with Methodist churches, send delegates to the 
ecumenical Methodist conferences, and also fraternize with other de- 
nominations. They have classes and class leaders, stewards, exhort- 
ers, local and itinerant preachers, presiding elders, circuits, and 
quarterly conferences. The annual conferences are composed of the 
local and itinerant preachers and of lay delegates representing the 
churches. The General Conference is composed of ministerial and lay 
delegates elected by the churches in the respective conferences, and 
meets once in four years. It has full authority under certain consti- 
tutional restrictions, to legislate for the whole church and to hear 
and decide appeals. There is but one order among the ordained 
preachers, that of elder. Since 1899 it has been lawful to license and 
ordain women. Bishops are elected by the General Conference for a 
quadrenmum, and are eligible to reelection. They preside over annual 
conferences and, in conjunction with a committee of presiding elders 
and preachers, fix the appointments of the preachers for the ensuing 
year. Since 1893 the pastoral term is unlimited, so that a preacher 
may be reassigned annually to the same charge for any number of 

(Old Constitution) 

General Conference, quadrennial. 

Twenty-three annual conferences, including one in Canada. 


F. L. Hoskins, Juhetta, Idaho. 

C. A. Mummart, Ubee, Ind. 

EL C. Mason, Hillsdale, Mich. 
* Publishing Agent J. W. Burton, Huntington, Ind. 

Editor of Sunday School and Christian Endeavor Literature A. 
B. Bowman, Huntington, Ind. 

General Missionary Secretary J. Howe, Huntington, Ind. 

General Secretary of Preacher's Aid J. L. Buckwalter, Mt. 
Carroll, 111. 

Secretary of Education D. R. Ellabarger, Ubee, Ind 

Secretary of Religious Education J. E. Harwood, Huntington, 

Secretary of Otterbein Forward Movement W. E. Musgrave, 
Huntington, Ind. 

PUBLISHING BOARD C. A. Mummart, F. L. Hoskins, W. C. South, 
E. C. Mason, B. J. Hazzard, W. R. Lines, W. H. Clay. 

MISSIONARY BOARD Bishop F. L. Hoskins, Bishop C. A. Mum- 
mart, Bishop H. C. Mason, J. Howe, S. A. Stemen, J. W. Burton, J. 
E. Harwood, 0. R, Lash, W. H. Zeigler, C. E. Wolverton, Thomas 

BOARD OF EDUCATION 0. G. Alwood, A. Hoffman, C. H. Slusher, 
G. S. Seiple, W. E. Musgrave, E. E. Plumley, A. B. Bowman, U. S. 
Wertenbarger, B. F. Blubaugh, J. E. Harwood, R. M. Stahl, W. H. 
Ely, Elmer Clark, H. J. Ickes, B. J. Hazzard, Roscoe Laforge, Wm. 
Galbraith, C. S. Mumma, Glen G. Gideon, Isaac Whealdon. 

Johnson, J. Howe, H. C. Mason, 0. G. Alwood, C. A. Mummart. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 245 

Bishop C. A. Mummart, Bishop H. C. Mason, Mrs. F. A. Loew, Mrs 
0. R. Lash, Mrs. M. A. Durham, D. R Ellabarger, W. E. Musgrave, 
A. Hoffman, J. W. Burton, 0. G. Alwood, W. R. Lines, B. J. Hazzard, 
A. B. Bowman, J. E Harwood, Effie M. Hodgeboom, B. K Ely, J. G 
Connor, George Shepherdson, J. L. Buckwalter, E. C. Mason, W. C. 
South, W H. Clay, Win. Johnson 

SUNDAY SCHOOL BOARD Bishop C. A. Mummart, J. E. Harwood, 
A. B. Bowman, J. G Connor, Geoige A. Shepherdson. 

J. E. Harwood, A B Bowman, Effie M Hodgeboom, B K. Ely. 

PREACHER'S AID BOARD Bishop F. L. Hoskins, Bishop C A. 
Mummart, Bishop H. C. Mason, J. L. Buckwalter, W. H Clay, E C. 
Mason, W. C. South. 

Name Location President 

Albion College Albion, Wash F. L Hoskins 

Central College Huntmgton, Ind D R Ellabarger 

Philomath College Philomath, Oreg 


Ctoistian Conservator (weekly), Editor, Rev. 0. G. Alwood, 
Huntington, Ind.; Missionary Monthly, Editor, Parent Board Depart- 
ment, Rev. J. Howe, Huntmgton, Ind.; Editor, Woman's Missionary 
Association Department, Mrs. P. A. Loew, Huntington, Ind.; Sunday 
School Publications, Rev. A. B. Bowman, Editor, Huntington, Ind. 


With the growth of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ 
as in other denominations, two parties developed one which held 
closely to the original constitution, another which sought to change 
it to meet what they considered the necessity of changed conditions. 
At the General Conference of 1841, when final steps were taken 
toward adopting the full constitution, four points were emphasized, 
which later became objects of special discussion; the slavery question, 
secret societies, changes in the confession of faith, and changes in the 
constitution. The slavery question disappeared after the Civil War, 
but the others came to the front and the last two became specially 
prominent. In 1885 the General Conference set aside the constitu- 
tional provisions for change by pronouncing them impracticable, and 
arranged for another constitution, under the name of amending the 
constitution. The minority recorded a protest, but the majority pro- 
ceeded to appoint a commission, which drafted an amended constitu- 
tion, and presented it for adoption by the society in such a manner as, 
in the opinion of the minority, insured indorsement, by the indifferent 
and youthful members. Although less than one-half of the whole 
society voted, the General Conference of 1889 accepted the results and 
pronounced the revised constitution in force. The minority chose to 
remain upon the unamended constitution, holding that the constitu- 
tion of 1841 was still in force, and that they were the true United 
Brethren Church, and as such entitled to the church property. In 
some cases decisions were given by the courts, in others by vote of the 
congregations, while occasionally property awarded to "one body was 
purchased by the other. Those days of legal contentions and occa- 
sional bitter personalities have passed, and a spirit of Christian 
courtesy now prevails. 


In doctrine the church holds to the Trinity, the Deity and hu- 
manity of Jesus Christ, and an atonement -unlimited as to the pos- 
sibility of its application. Upon repentance, faith appropriates the 

246 Year Book of the Churches 

benefits of the atonement to the salvation of the soul, and in this 
salvation the soul is spiritually baptized into Christ, and becomes a 
new creature i. e., is born again the doctrine upon which the early 
life of the church was based. A spiritually directed life is held to be a 
necessity to the maintenance of the regenerate state, and the ordi- 
nances of baptism and the Lord's Supper are to be observed by all of 
God's spiritual children, by each in the manner which he deems scrip- 
turally correct. On moral questions the church holds to the strict 
interpretation of the early laws on temperance, connection with secret 
combinations, and participation m aggressive warfare. 


In polity the church is Methodistic, having quarterly, annual, and 
general conferences on- the same general basis as that of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. The pastorate is made up of one or more 
local societies, and the quarterly conference, its governing body, con- 
sists of the presi ding-elder, pastor, and local officials, and has only 
administrative powers. The membership of the annual conference 
includes the licensed and ordained preachers and the lay delegates 
elected by each pastorate. The General Conference, which is made 
up of ministerial delegates elected, pro rata, by the annual confer- 
ences, convenes every four years and is vested with legislative and 
judicial power, being restricted only by the constitution. As a judi- 
cial body, it is composed of the bishops of the past quadrennium and 
of the elders among its members who have stood in the ordained re- 
lation at least three years. 

Candidates for the ministry, recommended by the local church, 
may be licensed annually by the quarterly conference, and after a 
year's trial may be received into the annual conference, where, upon 
completing a prescribed course of study, they become eligible to ordi- 
nation as elders, the only ordination practiced by the church. No 
distinction is made as to sex. Official distinctions in the ministry are 
elective, and for a limited term only. Pastors are appointed by the 
annual conference for a term of one year, and are eligible for reap- 
pointment to the same station for five successive terms, and for ad- 
ditional successive terms only by consent of the annual conference. 
Presiding elders are elected by the annual conference for a term of 
one year, and are eligible to unlimited reelection. Bishops are elected 
by the General Conference for the term of four years, and are eligible 
to reelection. 


General Convention, biennial. 

Twenty-eight state conventions, 8 state conferences. 

General Convention Officers : Pres , Roger S G-aler, Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa; Yice-Pres., Richard Billings, Woodstock, Vt. ; 
Sec., Rev. Roger F. Etz, 176 Newbniy St., Boston, Mass. ; Treas., 
Joseph B. Horton, Boston, Mass.; Gen. Supt., Rev. J. S. Lowe, 
176 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 

HEADQUAKTERS, 176 Newbury St., Boston, Mass.; Western Office, 
6010 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111. 

BOAED OP FOKEIGN MISSIONS. Ckmn., Rev. Fred C. Leining, 
Providence, R. L; Sec., Rev. Roger P. Etz. 

Huntley; Sec., Carl A. Hempel, Lynn, Mass. 

M. Allen, Columbus, Ohio; Sec, Mrs. W. C. Caldwell, Muncie, Ind.; 
Treas, Mrs. Emma L. Bush, Boston, Mass. 

Directory of Religious Bodies 247 


176 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. 

NATIONAL Y. P. C. U. Pres., Einest C. Jones, Somerville, Mass.; 
Nat. Sec.-Treas., Louis F. Meslm, 338 Franklin Ave , Brooklyn, N Y.; 
Director of Young People's Work, Rev. Stanley Manning, 176 New- 
bury St , Boston, Mass. 

UNIVERSALIST COMRADES. Pres., Ralph W. E. Hunt, Portland, 
Me.; Sec., Fred C. Can*, Providence, R. I. 

Mass.; 6010 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111. Gen Agt , Harold 


Name Location Dean or President 

Lombard College Galesburg, 111 Joseph M Tilden. 

St. Lawrence University .... Canton, N Y. . Richard E Sykes. 

Tufts College Tufts Colleg-e, Mass J A Cousens. 

Th eolo gical Seminaries 

Canton Theological Seminary . Canton, NY. . . . J. Murray Atwood. 
Crane Divinity School . .Tufts College, Mass Lee S McCollester. 

Ryder Divinity School . .Chicago, 111. Lewis B. Fisher. 


Dean Academy Franklin, Mass. . Arthur W. Pierce. 

Goddard Seminary . , Barre, Vt . . R L Davison 

Westbrook Seminary . .. .Portland, Me Orlando K. Holhster. 


Universahst Leader (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Frederick 
A. Bisbee ; Universalist Herald t Atlanta, Ga., Editor, Rev. J. W. Row- 
lett; Universahst, Carthage, N Y., Editor, Rev. G. D. Walker; On- 
ward (weekly), Boston, Mass., Editor, Granville Hicks. 


A distinction should be made between Universalism and the Uni- 
versalist denomination. 

Universalism has been defined as the doctrine or belief that it is 
the purpose of God through the grace revealed in our Lord Jesus 
Christ to save every member of the human race from sin. In a more 
general way, it has been described as the belief that what ought to be 
will be; that in a sane and beneficent universe the primacy belongs 
to Truth, Right, Love the supreme powers; that the logic of this 
conception of the natural and moral order imperiously compels the 
conclusion that although all things are not yet under the sway of 
The Prince of Peace, the definite plan set forth in Him is evident, and 
the consummation which he embodies and predicts can not be doubted. 

Universalism, thus, it is claimed, is as old as Christianity; was 
taught in the schools of the second and third centuries at Alexandria, 
Nisibis, Edessa, and Antioch; and was accepted by many of the apos- 
tolic and church fathers, as Clement of Alexandria, Gregory of 
Nyssa, Origen, and probably Chrysostom and Jerome. 

Those members of the Christian family in whom this thought has 
become predominant and who hold to the idea that there is a divine 
order and that it contemplates the final triumph of good over evil in 
human society, as a whole, and in the history of each individual, are 
considered Universalists. 

The Universalist denomination, however, is of modern origin, is 
confined mostly to the American continent, and embraces but a por- 

248 Year Book of the Churches 

tion of those who hold the Universalist belief. It dates from the 
arrival of the Rev. John Murray, of London, in Good Luck, N. J., in 
September, 1770, although there were some preachers of the doctrine 
in the country before that time. Mr. Murray preached at various 
places in New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, and societies 
sprang up in all these states as a result of his ministry. His first 
regular settlement was at Gloucester, Mass., where a church was 
built in 1780, but he afterwards removed to Boston. 

The earliest movement for denominational organization was made 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1785, but accomplished little more than 
to emphasize the need and value of fellowship, although it approved 
of the name selected by the Universahsts of Gloucester for their 
church, "The Independent Christian Society, commonly called "Uni- 
versaiists," and approved also the Charter of Compact as the form 
of organization for all societies. The second convention, held at Phil- 
adelphia in 1790, drew up and published the first Universalist profes- 
sion of faith, consisting of five articles, outlined a plan of church or- 
ganization, and declared itself to be in favor of the congregational 
form of polity. Another convention, at Oxford, in 1793, subsequently 
developed into the Convention of the New England states, then into 
the Convention of New England and New York, and finally into the 
present organization, the General Convention. 

Among the younger men at the second Oxford convention was 
Hosea Ballou, who soon became the recognized leader of the move- 
.merit, and for half a century was its most honored and influential ex- 
Txmnt. During his ministry, extending from 1796 to 1852, the 20 or 
30 churches increased to 500 distributed over New England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, although the greater 
part were found in New England. It was, however, the era of the 
propagation of the doctrine, and of ^ the controversies to which that 
gave rise, and little attention was paid to organization. 

About 1869 agitation began for a more coherent organization and 
a polity better correlated than the spontaneous Congregationalism 
wnich had developed during the earlier period, and the result was that 
at the centennial convention of 1870 a plan of organization and a 
manual of administration were adopted under which the denomination 
has since been conducted. 


The historic doctrinal symbol of the Universalist denomination 
is the Winchester Profession, adopted at the annual meeting of the 
General Convention held in Winchester, N. H., in September, 1803. 

At the session of the General Convention in Boston, October, 
1899, a brief Statement of Essential Principles was adopted and 
made the condition of fellowship, in the following terms: "The Uni- 
versal Fatherhood of God; the spiritual authority and leadership of 
His Son, Jesus Christ; the trustworthiness of the Bible as containing 
a revelation from God; the certainty of just retribution for sin; the 
final harmony of all souls with God." The Winchester profession is 
commended as containing these principles, but neither this nor any 
other precise form of words, is required as a condition of fellowship, 
provided always that the principles above stated be professed. 

The theology of Universalism, while setting forth the predicates 
of its conclusion, that all souls are included in the gracious purpose 
of God to make at last a complete moral harmony, discriminates be- 
tween belief in a result, and faith in the forces by which the result 
is to be achieved. It points out and emphasizes the fact that effec- 
tive faith in final universal salvation must rest on implicit belief in 
the value and potency of truth, righteousness, and love, witnessed by 
the free and steadfast use of these great and only means to the de- 
sired end. The teaching of Jesus, with which His life and works 

Directory of Religious Bodies 249 

accord, is interpreted as a distinct revelation of these facts and prin- 
ciples, to wit, that God is the Father of all men; that all men are 
brethren; that life at the root is spiritual and therefore eternal; that 
the law of life is righteousness and its motive force is love; that 
human society, properly conceived, is a natural social and moral unity, 
or kingdom of heaven; that this life is "the suburb of the life ely- 
sian"; and that physical death is the necessary prelude to immortal 
life. Universalism avers that the sinner "and no man liveth that 
sinneth not" can not escape punishment; which is remedial and is 
meant to vindicate the inflexible righteousness of God and to induce 
repentance and reformation in His wayward children. 

Umversalists are not Trinitarians. The position taken by the 
Unitarians of Channing's day, and held for a generation or more sub- 
sequently, would fairly represent the view that has been consistently 
set forth in Universalist literature and teaching. That view is that 
Jesus (the Christ) had the same essential spiritual and human nature 
as other men; but that he was chosen of God to sustain a certain 
unique relation on the one hand toward God and on the other toward 
men, by virtue of which he was a revelation of the divine will and 
character and a sample of the perfected or "full-grown" man. There 
is, therefore, propriety and accuracy in describing this unique man as 
a God-man, a divine Son of God, the mediator, or way, between God 
and men. 

Universalists, as a body, are now practically Unitarians, so far 
as the person, nature, and work of Christ are concerned. 

As to the mode of baptism, both immersion and sprinkling are 
practiced, but usually in Universalist churches the candidate, whether 
adult or infant, is baptized by the minister placing his hand, which 
has been previously dipped in the font, on the head of the candidate, 
and repeating the baptismal formula. In Universalist parishes where 
a church has been organized the Lord's Supper is regularly observed 
usually four times a year and all members are expected to participate ; 
but all others who would like thus to show their loyalty to their 
Master and cultivate Christian graces are cordially invited to join in 
the memorial. _ ,. 


The local parish or society is independent in the management of 
its own temporal affairs and worship, in the choice of officers or of 
ministers, and in the details of administration. The different parishes 
within a state are organized into a state convention, consisting of 
delegates elected by the parishes. Representatives, duly elected by 
the several state conventions, constitute the General Convention. The 
state conventions meet annually; the General Convention, biennially. 

In order to remain in the fellowship of its own state convention 
and of the General Convention, the local church must be organized 
on the common profession of faith, employ a minister in the fellow- 
ship of the convention, and promise obedience to the laws of the 
convention. The state conventions have complete control of matters 
of common interest to the local societies in their territory, but they 
must administer these affairs according to the laws made by the 
General Convention, which is the supreme legislative body of the de- 

In the interval between sessions of the General Convention a 
board of trustees, consisting of 11 members, and including the secre- 
tary of the Convention, who is its chief administrative officer, adminis- 
ters the affairs of the denomination, except those which are reserved 
to the state conventions and the general membership. 

In 1898 a system of supervision, including a general superin- 
tendent and local superintendents in most of the states, was adoptee* 
and met with general approval. Recently the Sunday school was put 

250 \ r ear Book of the Churches 

under the care of the General Convention, and a salaried superinten- 

Stetens have committees of fellowship who grant let- 
Mlowshlp from one rtate to .noth.r; reeav, dy <g 

' ^!ra 


societies rather than churches, the term "comumcant" or church 


of requiring subscription to the Winchester Profession 
orhekt Statement of Essential Principles Most churches have 
a form of covenant also, in which the members join, but a large 
freed of personal preference as to form of profession and covenant 
is favored. 


Headquarters 34 W. 28th St , New York City. _ 

Officers- Pros., Gen. Ballington Booth; Jice-Pres., Maj.-Gen. 
Edward Fielding; Sec., Col. J. W. Merrill; Treas., Col. W. J. 


Chief departments of work: evangelical, helping-hand, 

prison, home, hospital. 


In response to the call of a number of persons deeply Interested, 
many of them actively engaged, in evangelistic and philanthropic 
work, Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth, already well known as evan- 
gelists were induced, in the spring of 1896, to form an organization 
S fee ^Ki?of thi unchurched and the needy. The first public 
meetings were held in March of that year and almost immedi ately the 
societv under the name of Volunteers of America, became active in 
many parts of ^e country. In the following summer the Volunteer 
Pnson P League Branch was organized by Mrs. Booth, with signal suc- 
cess and in November, 1896, the organization was incorporated under 
the laws of the state of New York. 

From the beginning the organization has been declared to .be an 
auxiliary of the church, and converts have been advised to unite with 
churches of their preferance, so that a large growth in membership 
has neither been expected nor realized. It ha also endeavored con- 
tinually to work along lines that do not conflict with any other re< 
ligious military society. 


In doctrine the Volunteers are in harmony with the evangelical 
churches on all essential points. Their pnnciples are stated ^ a BooK 
of Rules, issued by order of the Grand Field Council, and those who 
make application to join as officers subscribe to^ these doctrines, out- 
lined in brief on an application form. They include belief m one 

Directory of Religious Bodies 251 

Supreme Triune God; in the Bible as given by inspiration of God, 
and the divine rule of all true godly faith and Christian practice; in 
Jesus Christ as truly man and yet as truly God; in the temptation 
and fall of our first parents, whereby all men have become sinful by 
propensity. They believe that Jesus Christ, by sacrifice of His life, 
made atonement for all men; that m order to obtain salvation it is 
necessary to repent toward God, believe in Jesus Christ, and become 
regenerated through the Holy Spirit; that the Holy Spirit gives to 
each person inward witness of acceptance; that it is possible for those 
who have been accepted by God to fall from grace, and except as re- 
stored, to be eternally lost; that it is possible for Christians to be so 
cleansed in heart as to serve God without fear, in holiness and right- 
eousness throughput life ; that the soul is immortal ; and that the pun- 
ishment of the wicked and the reward of the righteous are eternal. 

The Volunteers believe in the Sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, and give opportunity for the observance of these rites at the 
various stations. They also ordain their officers to the gospel min- 
istry after due preparation and a satisfactory examination upon the 
prescribed course of study. 


The government of the Volunteers of America is democratic. The 
term "military," appearing in the Manual, is applied only in the be- 
stowing of titles, the wearing of uniforms, and the movements of of- 
ficers. As a corporate society the government is vested in the Grand 
Field Council, which is composed of the officers of, or above, the rank 
of major. This council elects the directors, 11 in number, who are the 
responsible financial officers, and who act as trustees and custodians 
of the property. 

The commander in chief, or general, is elected for a term of five 
years. The officials forming his cabinet or staff are the vice-president, 
with title of major general; the secretary, with the title of colonel; 
the treasurer, with title of colonel; and the regimental officers. The 
departments or territories are usually under the command of an of- 
ficer of the rank of brigadier general. They comprise two or more 
regiments, each under the command of a colonel, who may have 20 or 
more stations under his control. 

A post consists of an officer in charge, assistants, secretary, treas- 
urer, trustees, sergeants, corporals, and soldiers. There is no limit 
to the membership of the post in point of numbers. The commissions 
are issued by the commander-in-chief and countersigned by the head 
of the division or department. 


Headquarters: 117 W. 72d St., New York City. 
Officers. Pres. y Martin Krudop; Vice-Pres., W. N. Good- 
year; Treas. y Mrs. A. S. Burke; Sec., Miss E. Eobinson. 


The Vedanta Society, as a religious or philosophical factor in 
American life, dates from the Parliament of Keligions at the World's 
Fair in 1893. At that time the various Hindus who were present at- 
tracted much attention, and one of them, Swami Vivekananda, who 
came as a delegate, gave a series of lectures on Vedanta philosophy 
in New York in 1894. He made no attempt at an organization, but 
three years later Swami Abhedananda arrived in that city to carry 
on the work started by Swami Vivekananda, and organized the Ve- 
danta Society, which was incorporated in October, 1898. Slowly but 
steadily the work grew, and finally the society became strong enough 

252 Year Book of the Churches 

to have a permanent center in New York City, with, other centers in 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Boston. Some of these centers have 
country places where schools are held in the summer. 

The term "Vedanta" is the name of an ancient philosophy of 
India, and as interpreted by the society it means literally "end of all 
wisdom." The Vedanta philosophy explains what the end of wisdom 
is and how it is attained, and claims to harmonize with the ultimate 
conclusions of modern science, and to give to religion a scientific and 
philosophic basis. The society has, however, no purpose of forming 
a new sect or creed, but by -explaining through logic and reason the 
spiritual laws that govern life, it seeks to harmonize all systems. 

The society has six trustees who, with three other officials, form 
the executive board. Members residing elsewhere than in New York 
City are given lessons and instruction by correspondence. The society 
has published a large number of works on its religious philosophy, 
most of which, were written by Swami Vivekananda, and his succes- 
sors and followers. Following the custom of the Hindu priesthood, 
the Swamis do not accept a salary or any remuneration for their 
services, but freely devote their time and energy to the spiritual 
growth and unfoldment of all men and women without regarding their 
caste, creed or nationality. 





With Affiliated, Cooperative and Consultative Bodies 

Directory of the Federal Council 


The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America is an 
organization officially representing most of the Protestant denomina- 
tions of the United States. Its constituent bodies are listed in the 
statistical table on the following page. 

The Council held its first meeting at Philadelphia in 1908 and was 
largely the culmination of previous voluntary federative movements, 
the chief of which had been the Evangelical Alliance and the National 
Federation of Churches and Christian W r ^ ers - ^ ne important 
preliminary work leading up to the organization was accomplished 
by the Inter-Church Conference on Federation held in Carnegie Hall, 
New York City, in 1905, a body composed of official delegates from 
thirty denominations convened through the initiative of the National 
Federation of Churches and Christian Workers. This conference 
adopted the Constitution of the Federal Council and transmitted it 
to the various denominations with the understanding that approval 
by two-thirds of them would give it full effect. This approval was 
secured early in 1908. 

Created for the purpose of enabling the churches to do together 
what they could not hope to do alone, the aims of the Council, as 
then defined in its constitution, and as now pursued, are as follows: 

I. To express the fellowship and catholic unity of the 
Christian Church. 

II. To bring the Christian bodies of America into 
united service for Christ and the world. 

III. To encourage devotional fellowship and mutual 
counsel concerning the spiritual life and religious activi- 
ties of the churches. 

IV. To secure a larger combined influence for the 
churches of Christ in all matters affecting the moral 
and social condition of the people, so as to promote the 
application of the law of Christ in every relation of 
human life. 

V. To assist in the organization of local branches of 
the Federal Council to promote its aims in their com- 

The work of the Council, it is not top much to say, is by far the 
most powerful influence today in enlarging the spirit of unity within 
the Church. 

The difference between the Federal Council and the previous move- 
ments is that it is not an individual or voluntary agency, or simply 
an interdenominational fellowship, but is an officially and ecclesias- 
tically constituted body. 

It is differentiated from most other general movements for the 
manifestation of Christian unity in the fact that it is the coopera- 
tion of the various denominations for service rather than an attempt 
to unite them upon definitions of theology and polity. 

It does not interfere with the autonomy of these bodies and its 
Constitution specifically states that "The Federal Council shall have 
no authority over the constituent bodies adhering to it; but its 
province shall be limited to the expression of its counsel and the 
recommending of a course of action in matters of common interest 
to the churches, local councils, and individual Christians. It has no 
authority to draw up a common creed or form of government or of 
worship, or in any way limit the full autonomy of the Christian 
bodies adhering to it." 


Year Book of the Churches 

The Federal Council is thus constituted by thirty Protestant 
evangelical denominations, to express their common voice and unite 
them in cooperative activities. 

It includes 149,436 local churches, with 20,727,319 members. Its 
constituent bodies, with statistics, are as follows: 

Statistics of the Constituent Bodies of the Federal Council for 1922 

Figures furnished by some official, usuallj the statistician of each body 


T ' p ^ 





> -^ 


3 3 










S ' fr ^ 

cr "" 

g_! P? *^ Q, 


Baptist Northern Contention 


8,463, 1,274, 250 




Baptist, Xat'l Con\ention t colored) 

24,333 18,267 

3,253,733 19,723 



Baptist, Se\enth Das 

81 101 

7,643 76' 5,398 


Baptist, Free 

Included in Northern Baptist Statistics Estimated 

Christian Church, General Conv of the 






Churches of Gort in X A , (General 








Congregational Churches 







Disciples of Christ 






Evangelical Church 







E\ angelical Synod of North America 

1,314! 1,175 





Society of Friends (Orthodox) 

714) 1,200 





*Umted Lutheran Church 

3,803 2,839 





Methodist Episcopal 

29,232 20,514 





Methodist Episcopal, South 






Methodist Protestant 







Prunithe Methodist, U S A 


85 9,986 




African Methodist Episcopal 







African M E Zion 







Colored M E in America 







Mora\lan (Unitas Fratrum) 







Presbyterian Church, U S A 







Presbyterian Church, IT S 







United Presbj terian Church of N A 







Reformed Presby Ch in N A , Gen'l 


15 13 





fProtestant Episcopal Church 1 8, 324) 6,024 





Reformed Episcopal Church 

79 75 



9,005! 460,283 

Reformed Church in America | 736 1 774 





Reformed Church in the United States 







Christian Reformed 







United Brethren in Christ 







Total, 1922 


118,913 20,727,319 




* Consulatn e Body 

ff Represented through Commissions on Christian Unity and Social" Ser\ ice 

tf Local preachers 5 109 

Including one-half District, of Columbia 6 529 

Associated with the Federal Council are affiliated, cooperating and 
consultative bodies. 


Home Missions Council. See Directory of Organizations, p. 335. 

Council of Women for Home Missions. See Directory of Organi- 
zations, p. 334. 

Federation of Woman's Boards of Foreign Missions. See Directory 
of Organizations, p. 320. 

International Sunday School Council of Eeligious Education. See 
Directory of Organizations, p. 311. 

Council of Church Boards of Education. See Directory of Organi- 
zations, p. 311. 

Directory of Federal Council 257 


American Bible Society. See Directory of Organizations, p. 299. 

National Board of Young Women's Christian Associations. See Di- 
rectory of Organizations, p. 374. 

International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations. See 
Directory of Organizations, p. 342. 


Committee of Reference and Counsel of the Foieign Missions Con- 
ference of North America. See Directory of Organizations, p. 320. 

Committee on Cooperation in Latin America. See Directory of 
Organizations, p. 319. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. See Directory 
of Organizations, p. 321. 

The Council itself consists of about 400 members, elected by the 
denominations, and it convenes every four years. The Executive 
Committee, consisting of official representatives of the constituent 
bodies, meets once a year. The Administrative Committee meets 
once a month. 

The national offices for general administration and for the Com- 
missions are at 105 E. 22nd St., New York City. Offices are also 
maintained at Washington, D. C., and Chicago, 111. 

The Council has local correspondents all over the United States, 
and has foreign correspondents connected with the Protestant churches 
of all countries. 

In addition to the meetings of its own Committees and Commis- 
sions, the Council calls frequent representative conferences upon mat- 
ters of common interest to all the churches. 

At the office in Washington, D. C., affairs of national religious 
concern are considered by a resident committee, the work including 
such matters as chaplains in the Army and Navy, federation in the 
Southern field, missionary affairs of national and international con- 
cern, cooperation with the Government Departments and Agencies, 
the gathering of religious statistics for the Nation, the publication 
of the Year Book of the Churches, and a general church service 

The Council is incorporated under the laws of the District of 


of the 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America 

Plan of Federation Recommended by The Interchurch Conference of 
1905, Adopted by the National Assemblies of Constituent Bodies, 
1906-1908, Ratified by the Council at Philadelphia, December 2-8, 
1908, Amended at Chicago, December 4-9, 1912, and at St. Louis, 
December 6-11, 1916. 


Whereas, In the providence of God, the time has come when it seems 
fitting more fully to manifest the essential oneness of the Christian 
churches of America in Jesus Christ as their divine Lord and Saviour, 
and to promote the spirit of fellowship, service, and cooperation among 
them, the delegates to the Interchurch Conference on Federation assem- 
bled in New York City, do hereby recommend the following Plan of 
Federation to the Christian bodies represented in this Conference for 
their approval : 

258 Year Book of the Churches 


1. For the prosecution of work that can be better done in union than 
in separation a Council is hereby established whose name shall be the 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. 

2. The following Christian bodies shall be entitled to representation 
in this Federal Council on their approval of the purpose and plan of 
the organization: 

The Baptist Churches of the United States 
The General Conference of Free Baptists 
The National Baptist Convention ( African) * 
The Christians (The Christian Connection)! 
The Christian Keformed Church in North America* 
The Churches of God in the United States (General Eldership)* 
The Congregational Churches 
The Disciples of Christ 
The Evangelical Association f 2 
The Evangelical Synod of North America 
The Friends 

The Methodist Episcopal Church 
The Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
The Primitive Methodist Church 
The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church m America 
The Methodist Protestant Church 
The African Methodist Episcopal Church 
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 
The Moravian Church 
The Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A, 
The Presbyterian Church m the U. S.* 
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist or Presbyterian Church f 1 
The Eeformed Presbyterian Church (General Synod) 
The United Presbyterian Church 

The Protestant Episcopal Commissions on Christian Unity and 
Social Service 

The Eeformed Church m America 
The Reformed Church in the U. S. 
The Reformed Episcopal Church 
The Seventh Day Baptist Churches 
The United Brethren m Christ 
The United Evangelical Church f 2 

3. The object of this Federal Council shall be 

I. To express the fellowship and catholic unity of the Christian 

II. To bring the Christian bodies of America into united service for 
Christ and the world. 

III. To encourage devotional fellowship and mutual counsel con- 
cerning the spiritual life and religious activities of the churches. 

IV. To secure a larger combined influence for the churches of 
Christ in all matters affecting the moral and social condition of the 
people, so as to promote the application of the law of Christ in every 
relation of human life. 

*Received into fellowship of the Council under provisions stated m Section 7 of 
the Constitution, 

t Now The General Convention of the Christian Church, (1922). 

1 1, Now merged with the Presbyterian Church in the U S. A. 

t 2. Now, by a merger, m 1922, of the Evangelical Association and the United 
Evangelical Church, the Evangelical Church " " 

Directory of Federal Council 250 

V. To assist in the organization of local branches of the Federal 
Council to promote its aims in their communities. 

4. This Federal Council shall have no authority over the constituent 
bodies adhering to it; but its province shall be limited to the ex- 
pression of its counsel and the recommending of a course of action in 
matters of common interest to the churches, local councils, and 
individual Christians. 

It has no authority to draw up a common creed or form of govern- 
ment or of worship or in any way to limit the full autonomy of the 
Christian bodies adhering to it. 

5. Members of this Federal Council shall be appointed as follows: 
Each of the Christian bodies adhering to this Federal Council shall 

be entitled to four members, and shall be further entitled to one mem- 
ber for every 50,000 of its communicants or major fraction thereof. 
Alternates may be chosen and certified to the Council in the same 
manner and to the same number as members to fill vacancies caused 
by the death, resignation, or permanent disqualification of members. 
Such alternates may also attend sessions of the Council in the ab- 
sence of members and exercise all powers of members as temporary 
substitutes during such absence. 

6. Any action to be taken by this Federal Council shall be by the 
general vote of its members. But in case one-third of the members 
present and voting request it, the vote shall be by the bodies repre- 
sented, the members of each body voting separately; and action shall 
require the vote, not only of a majority of the members voting, but 
also of the bodies represented. 

7. Other Christian bodies may be admitted into membership of this 
Federal Council on their request if approved by a vote of two-thirds 
of the members voting at a session of this council, and of two-thirds 
of the bodies represented, the representatives of each body voting 

8. The Federal Council shall meet once in every four years and the 
term of service of the members or their alternates shall be four 
years or until their successors shall be appointed. Special meetings 
may be called by the Executive Committee. 

9. Section a. The officers of this Federal Council shall be a President, 
one Vice-President from each of its constituent bodies, a Recording 
Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Executive Committee, who shall per- 
form the duties usually assigned to such officers. Vacancies among 
the Vice-Presidents or in the Executive Committee may be filled by 
the Executive Committee on nomination by the representatives on the 
Executive Committee of the constituent body in which, the vacancy 
may occur. 

Section b. The General Secretary and other secretaries of the 
Council except the Recording Secretary shall be chosen by the Execu- 
tive Committee, which shall have authority to fix their duties and 
their salaries, and they shall aid in organizing and assisting local 
Councils and shall represent the Federal Council in its work under 
the direction of the Executive Committee. 

Section c. The Executive Committee shall consist of two repre- 
sentatives from each of the constituent bodies, preferably one minis- 
ter and one layman, and one additional representative for every 500,- 
000 of its communicants or major fraction thereof, who may be either 
a minister or layman, together with the President, all ex-Presidents, 
the Recording Secretary, and the Treasurer. The Executive Com- 
mittee shall have authority to attend to all business of the Federal 
Council in the intervals of its meetings and to fill all vacancies, ex- 
cept that it shall not have power to make any amendments to the 
Constitution or to the By-laws. It shall meet for organization at the 
eall of the President of the Council immediately upon the adjournment 

260 Year Book of the Churches 

of the Federal Council, and shall have power to elect its own officers. 

Section d. All officers shall be chosen at the quadienmal meetings 
of the Council and shall hold their offices until their successors take 

Section e. The President, the Recording Secietary, and the Treas- 
urer shall be elected by the Federal Council on nomination by the 
Executive Committee, but nominations may be made from the floor 
of the Council by any member at the time of the election. 

Section /. The Vice-Presidents and members of the Executive Com- 
mittee and their alternates shall be elected by the Council upon nomi- 
nation by the representatives in attendance of each of their respective 
constituent bodies. 

10. The expenses of the Federal Council shall be provided for by 
the several constituent bodies. 

(The following paragraphs were leconuiiended by Interchurch 
Conference in 1905, adopted by national assemblies of constituent 
bodies, 1906-1908.) 

[This Plan of Federation shall become operative when it shall have 
been approved by two-thirds of the above bodies to which it shall be 

lit shall be the duty of each delegation to this Conference to present 
this Plan of Federation to its national body, and ask its consideration 
and proper action. 

Un case this Plan of Federation is approved by two-thirds of the 
proposed constituent bodies the Executive Committee of the National 
Federation of Churches and Christian Workers, which has called this 
Conference, is requested to call the Federal Council to meet at a 
fitting place in December, 1908.] 

11. This Plan of Federation may be altered or amended by a ma- 
jority vote of the members, followed by a majority vote of the repre- 
sentatives of the several constituent bodies, each voting separately. 
Amendments to this plan shall be reported officially to the several 
constituent churches. 


1. The Council shall meet quadrennially on the first Wednesday of 
December, at such place and hour as the Executive Committee shall 
from time to time determine. The place and time of special meetings 
shall be determined by the Executive Committee. 

2. The President of the Council, or in case of his absence, the last 
President present shall open the meetings with an address and devo- 
tional exercises, and preside until a new President is chosen. 

3. The Recording Secretary and the Secretary, or Secretaries, to 
whom this duty may be assigned by the Executive Committee, shall 
make up the roll of the members in the Council from the certificates 
of the proper officers of the constituent bodies composing the Council, 
and no one not thus certified shall be enrolled. The Council shall de- 
termine any question arising as to the validity of the certificates. 

4. No President or Vice-President shall be eligible to immediate 

5. A quorum of the Council shall consist of two or more members 
from a majority of the churches entitled to representation. A quorum 
of the Executive Committee shall be fifteen persons, and at least five 
denominations shall be represented. 

6. The Council shall appoint a Business Committee, to which shall 
be referred all matters connected with the proceedings of the Council 
while in session, and all such papers and documents as to the Council 
may seem proper. It shall consist of two members from each church 
having twenty or more representatives in the Council, and one from 
each of the churches having a less number of representatives. The 

Directory of Federal Council 261 

Council may also appoint such other special committees as to it may 
seem proper. 

7. The business expenses of the Council, the expenses of its com- 
mittees subject to the discretion of the Executive Committee and the 
salaries of its officers shall be paid out of the funds contributed by 
the churches, but the expenses of the repiesentatives of the churches 
in the Council shall not be a charge against the funds of the Council. 

8. (1) The following Commissions, subject to the Executive Com- 
mittee, shall be appointed to further the general purposes of the 
Federal Council as stated in its Constitution within the fields indi- 
cated by their respective names. 

a. A Commission on Evangelism. 

6 A Commission on the Church and Social Seivice. 

c. A Commission on the Church and Country Life. 

d. -A Commission on Christian Education. 

e. A Commission on Temperance. 

/. A Commission on International Justice and Goodwill. 

g. A Commission on Interchurch Federations (State and Local). 

h. A Commission on Relations with the Orient.-) 

i. A Commission on Relations with France and Belgium. 

/. A Commission on Relations with Religious Bodies m Europe. 

k. A Commission on the Church and Race Relations.* 

(2) Each Commission shall consist of twenty-five or more mem- 
bers appointed from the Christian bodies appointing members to the 
Council, by the President of the Council, and confirmed by the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

(3) The members of these Commissions shall serve four years or 
until their successors are appointed. The Commissions shall report 
annually to the Executive Committee, and oftener should the Execu- 
tive Committee require, and quadrennially through the Executive 
Committee to the Federal Council. 

(4) The President of the Council shall appoint the Chairman of 
these Commissions, which shall have power to choose such other 
officers for the conduct of their affairs as may be authorized by the 
Federal Council or the Executive Committee. 

(5) These Commissions shall not commit the Federal Council to 
any policy or expense until such policy or expense is approved by the 
Executive Committee of the Federal Council. 

(6) The Commissions shall submit their proposed budgets to the 
Executive Committee, and upon the Committee's authorization of such 
budgets, may solicit contributions for their work under the direction 
of the Executive Committee and the Treasurer of the Federal Council. 

9. The Secretaries chosen by the Executive Committee shall conduct 
the correspondence of the Council and of the Executive Committee. 
The Executive Committee shall have full power to appoint, when 
necessary, such Secretaries as it may deem advisable and to designate 
their respective relations and duties. 

10. The Recording Secretary shall keep the minutes of the Council, 
and shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the 
Executive Committee. The Executive Committee may appoint such 
assistant secretaries as may be necessary for the transaction of busi- 
ness, both for the Council and for the Committee. 

11. The Treasurer of the Council shall be the custodian of all the 
funds of the Council and the Committees, and shall perform the duties 
usually assigned to the office, shall give bond in such sum as the 
Executive Committee shall determine, and his account shall be annu- 
ally audited under the direction of the Executive Committee. 

fMerged with Commission on International Justice and Goodwill, by action of 
Executive Committee in 1921. 
*Created ad interim by Executive Committee in 1921. 

262 Year Book of the Churches 

12. The Executive Committees shall have authority to consider dur- 
ing the sessions of the Council or in the intervals between its meetings 
any business referred to it by the Council, and shall exercise general 
supervision erf all its affairs, and shall have authority to adopt its own 
rules for governing its own business. The Executive Committee shall 
meet at the call of the Chairman, or in his absence or disability, the 
call of three of the members representing three of the constituent 
bodies, and ten days' notice of meeting shall be given. Public meetings 
under the direction of the Executive Committee may be held annually 
in various sections of the country. The President shall also appoint 
the following Standing Committees to work under the direction of 
the Executive Committee: 

(1) A committee on Foreign Missions, to number not more than 

fifteen members.* 

(2) A committee on Home Missions, to number not more fc than 

fifteen members.* 

(3) A committee on Family Life and Religious Rest Day* 

The Executive Committee shall have power to establish commissions 
or committees ad tntenm, which may become permanent by the ap- 
proval of the Federal Council. 

13. The minutes of the Council shall be published regularly, under 
the editorship of the Secretary of Secretaries to whom this duty may 
be assigned by the Executive Committee. 

14. These By-laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Council by a two-thirds vote of the members present. 

The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America was in- 
corporated under the laws of the District of Columbia in 1915. The 
Board of Trustees is as follows: 


President . . . Dr. Robert E. Speer 

V ice-President . Rev. Howard B. Grose 

Gen, Sec, and Recording Sec., 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland 

Treasurer. , . . Mr. Alfred R. Kimball 

For Three Years 

Dr. Robert E. Speer, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
James M. Speers, 345 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Rev. Charles L. Thompson, 156 Fifth Ave , New York City. 
Rev, John M. Moore, 520 Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Rev. Charles S. Marfarland, 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 
Rev. Andrew R. Bird, 1516 22d St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Rev. Wallace Radcliffe, 1675 31st St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Flrank Morrison, 9th St. and Massachusetts Ave., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Rev. Lewis Seymour Mudge, 514 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, 

For two years 

Dean Shailer Mathews, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Rev. Frank Mason North, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Rev. William I. Haven, Bible House, Astor Place, New York City, 
John M. Glenn, 130 East 22d St., New York City. 
Rev. Howard B. Grose, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Alfred R. Kimball, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 
Rev, Alfred G. Lawson, 400 W. 118th St., New York City. 
President J. Ross Stevenson, Princeton, N. J. 

*These committees are no longer functioning, their interests being caied for in 
other ways. 

Directory of Federal Council 263 

Kev, Rivington D. Lord, Hotel Mohawk, Washington and Greene 
Aves., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
For one year 

Bishop William P. McDowell, 2107 Wyoming Ave., Washington, 
D. C. 

Rev. Rufus W. Miller, 15th and Race Bis., Philadelphia, Pa. 

John R. Matt, 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

E. E. Olcott, Desbrosses Street Pier, New York City. 

Prof. J. R. Hawkins, 1541 14th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Hon. Gifford Pinchot, State House, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Norton M. Little, 1413 H St., Washington, D. C. 


(State and Local) 

Chairman . Fred 5. Smith 

Executive Secretary Rev. Roy J3. Guild 

This Commission seeks, in every community having two or more 
churches, the development of some form of organization by which 
these churches can cooperate in doing for the religious, social, and 
civic welfare of the community what they cannot do by working 
independently of each other. 

It plans to do this by personal visitation, correspondence, and 
literature. It seeks to help construct the machinery in the com- 
munity through which the churches can work with one another and 
with other organizations and through which the Commissions of the 
Federal Council can function. 

There are now fifty local federations or councils of churches with 
employed executive secretaries. Special attention is now being di- 
rected to the development of State Councils. 

During the year 1920 this Commission held a conference at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, for the purpose of standardizing certain methods of work 
which have become successful features in the programs of many 
federations, or are in the period of testing. The reports carefully 
prepared by sub-commissions are now published in "Community Pro- 
grams for Cooperating Churches." 


Chairman Pres. /. Ross Stevenson 

Executive Secretary Rev. Charles L. Goodell 

This Commission is organized to cooperate with the pastors and 
leaders of the churches in developing and maintaining an effective 
evangelistic movement throughout the nation. Where there are church 
federations, it renders assistance in making effective their federated 
evangelistic work. It brings together the evangelistic agencies in the 
several denominations for united action. In denominations where 
there are no organized evangelistic commissions it will be glad to 
give aid in the forming of such commissions and to supply such 
literature as may be helpful in the development of this work. 

The Commission acts as a clearing house for the evangelistic work 
of all the denominations and keeps each informed of the methods 
and results in other fields. Its most important work is in developing 
a program of united evangelism in the larger cities, with the aim 
of enabling the churches to reach the whole community at one time 
and with the ideal of their pastors as their own evangelists. The 
secretaries in the various denominations are brought together under 
the leadership of the Federal Council and unite in holding conferences 

264 Year Book of the Churches 

throughout the country, assembling all the pastors of a community 
and assisting them to organize their forces for simultaneous action 

As a result, a new and better type of evangelism is arising. The 
last few years have shown an unparalelled record of accessions to 
church membership. Conspicuous is the fact that the largest gams 
are reported in the cities which have adopted this united approach to 
their evangelistic task. 

Increasing attention is now being given to the theological semi- 
naries in the interest of bringing home to the teachers of ministers 
and to prospective ministers the possibilities of pastoral evangelism. 

Chairman Rev. William Adams Brown 

In the field of Christian Education the Council is endeavoring to 
correlate the work of the various educational agencies of the churches 
and to promote cooperation in a common program of religious edu- 

At a conference called by the Federal Council in 1921, repie- 
sentatives of all the Sunday School agencies, the Missionary Educa- 
tion Movement, the agencies dealing with Christian education in the 
college and university, the young people's societies, the Young Men's 
and Young Women's Christian Associations, and other organizations 
studied the educational task from the standpoint of the whole Church, 
with a view to discovering how each of the existing organizations 
could best cooperate with the others in meeting the whole responsi- 
bility. This effort at coordination is now being furthered by other 
conferences and studies. 

In addition to carrying on this task of coordination, the Council 
is directing its attention to the groups largely unreached by any 
of the educational forces, especially by interpreting to the general 
public the significance of the Christian Gospel for the life of men 
in their industrial, racial and international relations. 


Vice-Chairman. Shelby M. Harrison 

Executive Secretary. Rev. Worth M. Tippy 

Research Secretary Rev. F. Ernest Johnson 

The purpose of the Commission is to unite the various church 
organizations in the study and improvement of social conditions; to 
encourage the organization of departments or commissions of social 
service in denominations not so organized; to cooperate with the 
denominational agencies in organizing local churches for neighbor- 
hood and community service; to assist departments of social service 
in community federations of churches; to cooperate in public welfare 
effort with national social movements and agencies, and with depart- 
ments of the national and state governments; to carry on research 
into social and industrial questions from the standpoint of moral is- 
sues involved; to labor to establish social justice, and a Christian 
social order. 

The Research Department gathers information concerning social, 
economic and industrial conditions and movements in their moral 
aspect and with especial reference to the work of the churches. The 
material gathered by the Department is made available to the relig- 
ious press and to individual subscribers through a weekly 
Information Service, a monthly Book Review Service , research bulle- 
tins on industrial problems, study courses and occasional other publi- 
cations. The Department also conducts an extensive correspondence 
with persons studying social problems. 

Directory of Federal Council 265 

Educational literature on social questions for the use of study 
groups and Bible classes is being prepared every year for the use 
of churches of every faith. 


Chairman Hon. Carl E. Milliken 

Acting Exec. Sec. . Mev. Charles S. Macfarland 

This Commission, united with the National Temperance Society, 
the oldest American temperance society, works with the denomina- 
tional and other agencies, to promote personal abstinence from intoxi- 
cating beverages, by research, exhibits, literature, and the creation of 
public sentiment to ensure proper legislation. 

An active part was taken in securing Congressional action favor- 
ing the Constitutional Prohibition Amendment. 

The following periodicals covering temperance interests are pub- 
lished : 

The National Advocate ' A comprehensive temperance paper, de- 
signed primarily for use in churches and Sunday schools. Published 
monthly. Price, $1.00 per year; special rates to pastors, clubs, and 
Sunday school classes. 

The Youth's Temperance Banner' A "Youth *s Companion" devoted 
to temperance stories and articles. Published monthly. Price, 30 
cents per year; in clubs of ten or more to one address, 15 cents. 

The Water Lily A four-page monthly containing stories attrac- 
tively illustrated; suited to children between five and ten years. 
Price, 15 cents per year; in clubs of ten or more, to one address, 8 


Chairman John J. Eagan 

Executive Secretaries George E. Haynes 

Rev. W. W. Alexander 

In a day when the problem of the relations of the white and the 
Negro races is challenging America as never before, the recent es- 
tablishment of the Commission on the Church and Race Relations 
is of great significance. It means that the churches are definitely 
setting themselves to a solution of the problem on the Christian basis 
of brotherhood. 

Under the wise guidance of Southern leaders, both black and white, 
the united influence of the churches is being brought to bear to 
promote the active cooperation of the two races in a program for 
racial justice and goodwill. They are helping to create inter-racial 
committees in local communities for the purpose of cooperative 
activities in securing to the negro fuller opportunity for self-develop- 
ment, in preventing mob violence and lynching; and in developing 
a Christian public opinion on the racial question. 

Especial attention is given to working closely with the voluntary 
organization, known as the Commission on Inter-Racial Cooperation, 
which has done so much for racial goodwill in the South. 

266 Year Book of the Churches 


Chairman Dr. John H. Finley 

Executive Secretary Rev. Sidney L. Gulick 

Associate Secretaries- Rev. George R. Montgomery 

Donald Winston 
Chairman of Committee on Relations with the Orient, 

Rev. James H. Franklin 
Chairman of Committee on Mexico, 

Dr. Hem y Goddard Leach 
Chairman of Committee on Mercy and Relief, 

Rev. F. H. Knubel 

The world-wide interest in international cooperation and world 
peace has set the work of this Commission into bold relief. The 
merest indication of what the Council has done in connection with 
the movement for limitation of armament and better international 
relations will show how far-reaching its influence has been 

On a designated Sunday in June, 1921, pulpits all over the nation 
responded to a call of the Federal Council to observe disarmament 
Sunday and to urge an international conference. Through the asr- 
sistance of the Church Peace Union the cooperation of Roman Catho- 
lics and Hebrews was also secured, and a joint memorial presented 
to President Harding. When, soon after, he issued the historic 
invitation to the nations, the Commission set out at once to mobilize 
the churches in helping to create the public opinion that made possible 
what the Conference has. achieved. 

Through its educational literature, such as "The Church and a 
Warless World," "Working Toward a Warless World," "Problems 
of the Pacific and the Far East" and "The Achievements of the Con- 
ference" over three hundred thousand of which were circulated, the 
one hundred and fifty thousand churches of the country were as- 
sisted to become centers of public education on the necessity for 
reduction of armament. Local federations, of churches in all parts 
of the country were stimulated to hold mass meetings on the sub- 
ject, A great campaign of educational publicity was carried on 
through the daily press. 

In all its program the Federal Council is engaged not in a spas- 
modic effort but in a persistent campaign. It is now carrying on 
its activities unabated to secure the participation of the United 
States in permanent organized cooperation for world peace and 
human welfare. It is definitely committed to continuing an unre- 
mitting activity until. a peace system takes the place of competitive 
armament and recurring war. 

Through the helpful cooperation of the World Alliance for Pro- 
moting International Relationship through the Churches contacts 
are secured with Christians in all parts of the world. 


Special attention has long been directed to relations with the 
Orient. The Council seeks to interpret the best in each to the other 
and to reinforce the work of foreign missions by removing national 
misunderstandings and unchristian policies which would imperil the 
success of Christian missions in the Far East. A special commissioner 
has been in the Orient during 1922-1923 in the interest of better 
understanding between the Eastern and Western worlds. 

Vigorous effort has been given to securing justice for the perse- 
cuted minorities of the Near East. Special attention is now being 
given to better relations with Mexico. 

Directory of Federal Council 267 

Committee on Mercy and Relief 

Since international goodwill is best expressed not in words but 
in deeds of serving love, the Council has offered itself as a servant 
of the churches in answering calls of suffering humanity. For 
several years it has been of assistance to the Near East Belief. 
In the European Relief Council, organized by Mr. Hoover to save 
the children of Central Europe, the Council was responsible for the 
church activities and drew from Mr. Hoover the tribute that if the 
Council had not been in existence he would have found it necessary 
to build up something like it. 

The imperative need for such a central agency was most clearly pre- 
sented by the starving millions of Russia. A special committee on 
relief was appointed by the Commission on International Justice and 
Goodwill. During the summer of 1922, a special representative of 
the Council was in Russia distributing relief, especially to the suffer- 
ing among the clergy of the Russian Church, and their dependents, 
in connection with the American Relief Administration. 


Chairman William Sloane Coffin 

Secretary Rev. Charles S. Macfarland 

This Commission conducts relief and reconstruction work in France 
and Belgium in cooperative relationship with the corresponding or- 
ganizations in those countries and assists them in their church and 
institutional work. It is made up of Protestant denominational 
bodies and cooperating agencies having work or related work in 
France and Belgium and works through a corresponding organiza- 
tion, the Comite d'Union Protestante pour les Secours de Guerre en 
France et en Belgique, representing the Federation Protestante de 
France, the Federation des Eglises Protestantes de Belgique and the 
following Protestant bodies of those countries : 

Comite Protestante Francaise 

Comite Protestante d'Entr'Aide 

Union Nationale des Eglises Refprmees Evangeliques 

Union Nationale des Eglises Reformees 

Eglise Evangelique Lutherienne de France 

Union des Eglises Evangeliques Libres 

Eglise Evangelique Methodiste 

Union des Eglises Baptistes 

Mission Francaise Eglise Methodiste Episcopale 

Societe Centrale Evangelique 

Union des Englises Protestantes Evangeliques de Belgique 

Eglise Chretienne Missionaire Beige 

Mission Populaire Evangelique (Me All) 

Societe des Missions Evangeliques 

Nearly a million and a half dollars have been contributed by the 
American Churches to the devastated churches of France and Bel- 
gium through this agency. 



Chairman. Bishop James Cannon, Jr. 

Secretary Rev, Charles S. Macfarland 

This Commission seeks to strengthen fraternal relations between 
the churches of the United States and of the various nations of 
Europe; t aid the European churches in the betterment of ecclesias- 

268 Year Book of the Churches 

tieal conditions; and to assist them in securing physical relief, par- 
ticularly through cooperation with the organizations for this pur- 
pose already existing in the United States. 

As a result a conscious unity of spirit and purpose among the 
Protestant churches throughout the world is being developed. A 
large number of leaders in the American churches who are going 
to Europe are delegated by the Council to represent not simply one 
denomination but the evangelical forces as a whole. Friendly visitors 
from the churches abroad are constantly received by the Council. 
Largely as a result of this fellowship, federations of churches are 
being developed in Switzerland, France, Germany, and other Euro- 
pean countries, and related to this movement for Christian coopera- 
tion in our own land. As a result of the Bethesda Conference at 
Copenhagen in 1922, a Central European Bureau of Eelief for the 
Protestant Churches lias been created, the first interdenominational 
organization in Europe tianscendmg national lines. 

The increasing cooperation among the churches of all lands is to 
come to a head in the proposed Universal Conference of the Church 
of Christ on Life and Work, to be held in 1925, to consider how the 
churches of the world can bring about a fuller application of the 
Christian Gospel in modern life. In the initiation of the conference 
the Federal Council had a large part and in the preparation for 
it assistance is generously given. 


Chairman Bishop William F. McDowell 

Secretary Rev. E. 0. Watson 

937 Woodward Building, Washington, D, C. 

Represents the various denominations in the selection of Protestant 
chaplains for the Army and Navy, and in furthering the work of 
the chaplains. 


Chairman Rev. Ernest (7. Wareing 

Acting Secretary Rev. Howard B. Grose 

An organization of editors of Protestant publications for considera- 
tion of common interests, and mutual helpfulness. 


OFFICE: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Rev. Wm. D. Mackenzie, Hartford, Conn.; Vice- 
Chmn. and Chmn. Ewec. Com., Rev. James H. Franklin, New York 
City; Sec., Rev. Henry A. Atkinson. 

This is a joint committee of The Church Peace Union, the World 
Alliance and the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America, functioning through The Church Peace Union. 

Established by the General War-Time Commission of the Churches, 
and representative of the Protestant Churches in America through 
the Federal Council. 

Directory of Federal Council 269 


Chairman E. E. Olcott 

Secretary Rev. Boy B. Guild 

A central agency through which the Churches of the United States 
assist in building and maintaining the union churches in the Canal 



Chairman Rev. William Adams Brown 

Viee-Chairman ,,...Rev. Charles W. Gilkey 

Secretary ,,...., Rev. S. M. Cavert 

Has studied thoroughly some of the more important problems in 
the religious life of America and brought out its results in a series 
of widely known reports. 


Officers for the Quadrennram 1920-1924 

President Robert E. Speer 

Honorary Secretary Rev. Elms B. Sanford 

Recording Secretary. Rev. Rivington D, Lord 

Treasurer Alfred B. Kimball 

Former Presidents 

Bishop E. R. Hendnx . . . 1908-1912 

3242 Noiiedge Place, Kansas City, Mo. 
Dean Shailer Matheivs . . .1912-1916 

Divinity School, University of Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Frank Mason North . . . 1916-1920 

150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 


Baptist Churches, North 

Pres. C. A. Barbour, 300 Alexander St., Rochester, N. Y. 
National Baptist Convention 

Dr. E. P. Cheek, 18 Lemon St., Newark, N. J. 
Free Baptist Churches 

Pres. Joseph W. Mauck, Hillsdale, Mich. 
Christian Church 

Rev. Frank G. Coffin, Albany, Mo. 
Christian Reformed Church 

Rev. Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave-, S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Churches of God in N. A. (General Eldership) 

Rev. Wm. Harris Guyer, Findlay, 0. 
Conffregational Churches 

Rev. William Horace Day, 25 Court St., Bridgeport, Conn. 
Disciples of Christ 

Rev. Finis S. Idleman, 142 West 81st St., N. Y. C. 
Evangelical Church 

Evangelical Synod of North America 

Rev. J. U. Schneider, Evansville, Indiana. 

Hon. Herbert Hoover, Commerce Department, Washington, D. C. 

270 Year Book of the Churches 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop Luther B. Wilson, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Bishop Edwin D Mouzon, Nashville, Tenn. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

Bishop L. W. Kyles, Wlnston-Salem, N. C. 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America 

Bishop C. H. Phillips, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Rev. Thomas H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D. C. 
Primitive Methodist Church 

Rev. John Hardcastle, Kewanee, Illinois. 
Moravian Church 

Rt. Rev. C. L. Moench, 45 West Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 

Rev. J. Ross Stevenson, Princeton, N. J. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 

Rev. George Summey, 3002 De Soto St., New Orleans, La. 
Protestant Episcopal Commission on Christian Unity and Department 
of Chnstian Social Service 

Very Eev. H. E. W. Fosbroke, Gen'l Theo. Seminary, New York 

Reformed Church in America 

Rev. John E. Kuizenga, 4 E. 14th St., Holland, Mich. 
Reformed Church in the U. S. 

Rev. J. M. G. Darms, Allentown, Pa. 
Reformed Episcopal Church 

Rev. Joseph D. Wilson, 210 S 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, General Synod 

Rev W. P. Harriman, Cedarville, Ohio. 
Seventh Day Baptist Churches 

Rev. A. L. Davis, Ashaway, R. L 
United Brethren Church 

Bishop W. H. Washmger, 686 E. Taylor St., Portland, Oreg. 
United Presbyterian Church 

Rev. W. I. Wishart, 2333 Perryville Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chairmen and Secretaries of the Council and Commissions 

Rev William Adams Brown, Union Theo. Sem., New York City. 

Rev. Samiuel McCrea Cavert, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 

William Sloane Coffin, 575 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

John J. Eagan, Citizens and Southern Bank Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. John H. Fmley, 229 West 43d St., New York City. 

Rev. Charles L. Goodell, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 

Rev. Roy B. Guild, 105 East 22d Street, New York City. 

Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, 105 East 22d Street, New York City. 

Dr. George E. Haynes, 105 East 22d Street, New York City. 

Bishop William F. McDowell, 2107 Wyoming Ave., Wash., D. C. 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 

Hon. Carl E. Milliken, Augusta, Me. 

Fred B. Smith, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 

Pres. J. Ross Stevenson, Princeton, N. J. 

Rev. E. B. Sanford, Rockfall, Conn. 

Rev Worth M. Tippy, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 

Rev E C. Wareing, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. E. 0. Watson, 937 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Herbert L. Willett, 19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

Directory of Federal Council 271 



Chairman Rev. F W. Burnham, 

1501 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Vice-Chairmen : 

Bishop John M. Moore 1308 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex. 

Prof. John R. Hawkins 1541 14th St., N W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Rufus W. Miller . 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Recording Secretanj Rev. Riving ton D. Lord, 

Hotel Mohawk, Washington and Greene Aves., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Members by Virtue of Article 9, Section C, o the Constitution 

Bishop E. R. Hendrix, 3242 Norledge Place, Kansas City, Mo. 

Alfred R. Kimball, 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Rev. Rivmgton D. Lord, Hotel Mohawk, Washington and Greene 

Aves., Brooklyn,, N. Y, 

Dean Shailer Mathews, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Rev. Frank Mason North 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Robert E. Speer, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Denominational Members 

Baptist Churches, North 

Rev. Robert A. Ashworth, 95 Radford St., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Rev. Arthur T. Fowler, Hanson Place Baptist Church, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, 144 Dartmouth St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Rev. Howard B. Grose, 276 Fifth Ave,, New York City 

Rev. Albert G. Lawson, 400 W. 118th St., New York City. 

Prof. William H. Allison, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Rev. G. N. Brink, 1701 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. C W. Petty, First Baptist Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pres. Clifton D, Gray, Bates College, Lewiston, Me. 

Rev. D. B. McQueen, 164 Brunswick Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

National Baptist Convention 

H- W. Holloway, Box 287, Helena, Ark. 

Rev. I. A. Thomas, 1717 Benson Ave., Evanston, III. 

Rev. W. H. Jernagin, 1341 Third St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. L. G. Jordan, 2032 Bainbridge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. S. E. J. Watson, 560 E. 36th St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. J, H. Henderson, 328 Patton St., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rev. R. T. Pollard, Selma, Alabama 

Prof. J. D. Crenshaw, Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. C. A. Ward, 33 Waumbeck St., Roxbury, Mass. 

Rev. J. F. Robinson, 69 Portland St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Rev. D. S. Klugh, 43 Rutland Square, Boston, Mass. 

Rev. M. W. D. Norman, 1933 13th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. E. J. Echols, 337 N. Division St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rev. E. W. Johnson, 1302 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Thomas H. White, Clifton Forge, Va. 

Rev. J. C. Jackson, 44 Pluney St., Hartford, Conn. 
Free Baptist Churches 

Rev. Alfred Wms. Anthony, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Hon. Carl E. Milliken, Augusta, Maine 

272 Year Book of the Churches 


Hon. Lindley M. Webb, 396 Congress St., Portland, Maine 

Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, Sandwich Center, N. H. 
Christian Church 

Rev. Martyn Summerbell, Lakemont, N. Y. 

Rev. J. 0. Atkinson, Elon College, N. C. 

Rev. J. F. Burnett, Dayton, Ohio 

Rev. Alva Martin Keri, C. P A Bldg , Dayton, Ohio. 
Christian Reformed Church 

Rev. J. Timmerman, 129 4th Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Rev. John Dolfin, 155 Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich, 
Churches of God in N. A (General Eldership) 

Rev. H. Dickson Boughter, Decatur, 111. 

Rev. John W. Whisler, McMechen, W. Va. 

Rev. S. Fulmer, Mt. Pleasant, Pa. 

Rev. H. R. Lobb, Shippensburg, Pa. 

Congregational Churches 

Rev. Charles F Carter, 40 Kenyon St., Hartford, Conn. 

Norton M. Little, 1502 Decatur St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. R. W McLaughlm, 31 May St., Worcester, Mass. 

Pres. Henry Churchill King, Oberlin, Ohio 

Rev. H. F. Holton, 14 Oakland Ave., Brockton, Mass. 

Rev. George P. Eastman, 448 Highland Ave , Orange, N. J. 

Rev. Edward D. Eaton, Wellesley, Mass. 

Arthur J. Lockwood, Glen Ridge, N. J. 

Disciples of Christ 

Rev. Peter Ainslie, 504 N. Fulton Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Robert Graham Frank, Dallas, Tex. 

Rev. F. W. Burnham, 1501 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. E. Cory, Kingston, N. C 

Rev. J. H. Goldner, Euclid Ave. Christian Church, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Rev. John R. Ewers, 1313 Denniston Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. B. A. Abbott, 2712 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Albert G. Shepard, Clmtondale, N. Y. 

Dr. Walter C. Woodward, 101 S. 8th St., Richmond, Ind. 

Miss Mary S. Paige, 50 E. Chatham St., East Lynn, Mass. 

Mrs. Mary Doane Hole, 615 National Road, West, Richmond, Ind. 
Evangelical Synod of North America 

Rev. J. Baltzer, 2013 St. Louis Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. D. Bruning, 1300 E. Fayette St., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. R. Niebuhr, 2726 Lothrop St., Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. T. Lehmann, 674 S. High St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Rev. C. W. Locher, 1920 G St., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Paul A. Menzel, 2951 Tildon St., Washington, D. C. 

Directory of Federal Council 273 

Evangelical Church 

Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, 836 Center Ave., Reading, Pa. 

Rev. A. V. Summers, Louisville, Stark County, Ohio. 

Bishop S. P. Spreng, 106 Columbia Ave., Naperville, 111. 

Rev. A. E. Hangen, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop W. F. McDowell, 2107 Wyoming Ave., N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Bishop Thomas Nicholson, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Bishop C. B. Mitchell, 157 North Lexington Blvd., St. Paul, Minn. 

Rev. William I. Haven, Bible House, Astor Place, New York City. 

Rev. C. F. Rice, 158 Middlesex Ave., Medford, Mass. 

Dr. A. W. Harris, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. A. B. Storms, Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio. 

Dr. John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Dr. James R. Joy, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. David G. Downey, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. E. S. Tipple, Madison, N. J. 

Rev. Ralph E. Diffendorfer, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 


Bishop T. S. Henderson, 34 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich. 

Bishop E. H. Hughes, 235 Summer St., Maiden, Mass. 

Bishop E. G. Richardson, 63 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

Bishop W. F. Conner, "The King Edward," Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. D. D. Forsyth, 1701 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. George Elliott, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

E. H. Cherrington, Westerville, Ohio 

W. E. Massey, Ocean City, N. J. 

L. Wilbur Messer, 19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

T. F. Holgate, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. 

W. T. Rich, 20 Sargent St., Newton, Mass. 

Methodist Episcopal Church t South 

Bishop John M. Moore, 1308 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex. 

Bishop James Cannon, Jr., 50 Bliss Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. W. W- Pinson, Lambuth Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 

Dean W. F. Tillett, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

T. S. Southgate, Norfolk, Virginia 

Mrs. H. R. Steele, Lambuth Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. Charles D. Bulla, 1416 Scenic Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

Bishop H. A. Bpaz, Seoul, Korea. 

Rev. T. McN. Simpson, Lynchburg, Va. 

Rev. L. C. Branscombe, First Church, Anniston, Ala. 

Pres. H. N. Snyder, Spartanburg, S. C. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop J. H. Jones, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Bishop J. M. Connor, 1519 Pulaski St., Little Rock, Ark. 

Prof. A. S. Jackson, Waco, Texas. 

Rev. R. C. Ransom, Oceanport, N. J. 

Rev. J. Q. Johnson, 520 Avery Place, Memphis, Tenn. 

Rev. C. P. Cole, 50 Putnam Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

Bishop George C. Clement, 1425 West Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. 

274 Year Book of the Churches 

Prof. S. G. Atkins, Slater State Normal College, Winston- Salem, 
N. C. 

Kev. Henry J. Callis, 619 M St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. James E. Mason, 249 Columbia Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

S. M. Dudley, 615 F St., N W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. John W. Martin, 4428 W. Belle Place, St. Louis, Mo. 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America 

Bishop N. C. Cleaves, 4145 Enright Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Bishop J. A. Hamlett, 112 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn. 

Rev. William Y. Bell, 218 W. 130th St., New York City 
A Iternates 

Rev. G. L. Word, Miles Memorial College, Birmingham, Ala 

Prof. G. F Porter, Lane College, Jackson, Tenn. 

Rev. J. R. Starks, 2621 Flora St., Dallas, Texas. 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Rev. Lyman E. Davis, 613 West Diamond, N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Moravian Church 

Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, 67 West Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 

A. W. Stephens, 244 Madison Ave., New York City 
Presbyterian Church in the U* S. A, 

Rev. G. Ross Stevenson, Princeton, N. J. 

Rev. Joseph A. Vance, First Presbyterian Church, Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. Henry C. Swearmgen, St. Paul, Minn. 

Thomas D. McCloskey, Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. Lewis Seymour Mudge, Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. E. P. Hill, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Rev. W. H. Black, Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo. 

Rev. John A. Marquis, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. William P. Merrill, 112 E. 36th St., New York City. 

Dr. J. M F. Finney, 1300 Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Md. 
Presbyterian Church in the 27. S. 

Rev. James I. Vance, Fifth Ave. and Church St., Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. J. B. Hutton, First Presbyterian Church, Jackson, Miss. 

Rev. H. W. DuBose, Spartanburg Presbyterian Church, Spartan- 
burg, S. C. 

Rev. Ernest Thompson, Charleston Presbyterian Church, Charles- 
ton, Va. 

Primitive Methodist Church 

Rev. Elijah Humphries, Billerica Center, Mass. 

Rev. J. Hardcastle, 229 Chestnut St., Kewanee, 111. 

Rev. S. T. Nicholls, 2609 West Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. J. Proude, 1313 Union St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Protestant Episcopal Commission on Christian Unity and Department 

of Christian Social Service 

Rt. Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Rt. Rev. G. A. Beecher, Hastings, Nebr. 
Robert H. Gardiner, 174 Water St., Gardiner, Me. 
John M. Glenn, 130 E. 22nd St., New York City 

Directory of Federal Council 275 

Reformed Church in America 

Rev. Albertus T. Broek. 137 S. 6th Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Rev. Isaac W. Gowen, North Bergen, N. J. 
A Iternates 

Rev. Ame Vennema, 11 Reid Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
Reformed Church in the U. S. 

Rev. Charles E. Schaeffer, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. H. J. Christman, 257 Linden Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. Rufus W. Miller, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. T. F. Herman, 556 West James St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Franklin P. Brown, 514 Lextmgton Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. H. H. Apple, Lancaster, Pa. 
Reformed Episcopal Church 

Bishop Robert L. Rudolph, 103 South 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Robert W. Peach, 271 Parker St., Newark, N. J. 

Rev. William A. Freemantle, 1617 Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reformed Presbyterian Church (General Synod) 

Rev. John Parks, 5923 Washington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Thomas Whyte, 1759 North Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Seventh Day Baptist Churches 

Rev. Arthur E. Main, Alfred Theological Seminary, Alfred, 
N. Y 

Rev. A. J. C. Bond, 207 W. 6th St., Plamfield, N. J. 

Pres. Boothe C, Davis, Alfred University, Alfred, 1ST. Y. 

Prof. Alfred E. Whitford, Milton, Wis. 
United Brethren in Christ 

L. 0. Miller, 418 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. S. S. Hough, 415 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Bishop William M. Bell, 1509 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hon. A. S. Krieder, Annville, Pa. 

Bishop C. J. Kephart, 3936 Harrison St., Kansas City, Mo. 

E. L. Shuey, 204 Central Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 
United Presbyterian Church 

Rev. R. A. Hutchison, 703 Publication Bldg,, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. D. F. McGill, 317 Home Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 


Chairman Rev. John M. Moore 

520 Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Vice-Chairman , Rev. Rufus W. Miller 

15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Recording Secretary Rev. Rivington D. Lord 

Hotel Mohawk, Washington and Greene Aves., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

276 Year Book of the Churches 

Denominational Representatives 

Bishop William M. Bell (United Brethren in Christ), 1509 State St., 

Hamsburg, Pa. 
Eev. William Y. Bell, (Colored Methodist Episcopal Church), 218 W. 

130th St., New York City. 
Rev. William E. Bourquin (Evangelical Synod of N. A.), 595 E. 7th 

St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 

Bishop S. C. Breyfogel (Evangelical Church), 836 Center Ave., Read- 
ing, Pa. 
Rev. Willard D. Burdick (Seventh Bay Baptist Churches), Dunellen, 

N. J. 
Bishop James Cannon, Jr (Methodist Episcopal Church, South), 50 

Bliss Bldg, Washington, D. C. 
Charles S. Crosman (Friends), Brunswick Bldg., 225 Fifth Ave., 

New York City, 
John M. Glenn (Protestant Episcopal Commission on Christian Unity 

and Department of Christian Social Service), 130 E. 22d St., 

New York City. 

Rev. I. W. Gowen (Reformed Church in America), North Bergen, N. J. 
Rev. W. H. Hainer (Christian Church), 37 Myrtle Ave., Irvmgton, 

N. J. 
Rev. E. Humphries (Primitive Methodist Church), Bill erica Center, 

Rev. R. A. Hutchison (United Presbyterian Church), 703 Publication 

Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rev. Finis S. Idleman (Disciples of Christ), 142 W. 81st St., New 

York City, 
Rev. Albert G. Lawson (Baptist Churches, North), 400 W. 118th St. 

New York City. 
Rev. Robert A. Ash worth (Alternate for Dr. Lawson), 95 Radford 

St., Yonkers, N. Y. 
Bishop W. L. Lee (African Methodist Episcopal ion Church), 450 

Quincy St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. Thomas H Lewis (Methodist Protestant Church), 2844 Wiscon- 
sin Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C- 
Rev. Rivington D. Lord (Free Baptist Churches), Hotel Mohawk, 

Washington and Greene Aves., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bev. John A. Marquis (Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A.), 156 

Fifth Ave., New York City 
Rev. Harry R. Miles (Congregational Churches), 107 Dwight St., 

New Haven, Conn. 
Rev. Robert Westly Peach (Reformed Episcopal Church), 271 Parker 

St., Newark, N. J. 
Rev. Harry E, Stocker (Moravian Church), 309 W. 93d St., New 

York City. 
Rev. George Summey (Presbyterian Church in the U. S.), 3002 De 

Soto St., New Orleans, La. 
Rev. J. M. Wells (Alternate for Dr. Summey), Columbia Theological 

Seminary, Columbia, S. C. 
Rev. J. Timmerman (Christian Reformed Church), 129 Fourth Ave, 

Paterson, N. J. 
Rev. Ezra S. Tipple (Methodist Episcopal Church), Drew Theological 

Seminary, Madison, N. J. 
A. Hice Watterson (Reformed Presbyterian Church General Synod) 

R. F. D., Industry, Pa 

Rev. S. G. Yahn (Churches of God General Eldership), 102 N. 13th 
St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Directory of Federal Council 277 

Representatives of Affiliated, Cooperating and Consultative Bodies 

Rev. Charles L. Thompson (Home Missions Council), 156 Fifth Ave., 
New York City. 

Mrs. Fred S. Bennett (Council of Women for Home Missions), 156 
Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Miss Grace Lindley (Federation of Woman's Boards of Foreign Mis- 
sions), 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Dr. Robert L. Kelly (Council of Church Boards of Education), 111 
Fifth Ave., New Yoik City. 

Dr. Hugh S. Magill (International Sunday School Council of Religious 
Education), 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. William I. Haven (American Bible Society), -Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York City. 

E. T. Cpltpn (International Committee Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations), 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Miss Mabel Cratty (National Board Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciations), 600 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

Fenn-ell P. Turner (Committee of Reference and Counsel of the For- 
eign Missions Conference of N. A.), 25 Madison Ave., New 
York City. 

Rev. S. G. Inman (Committee on Cooperation m Latin America), 25 
Madison Ave-, New York City. 

Robert P. Wilder (Student Volunteer Movement), 25 Madison Ave., 
New York City. 

Members at Large 

Rev. Alfred Wms. Anthony, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. Charles E. Burton, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. William L Chamberlain, 25 East 22d St., New York City. 

Robert H. Gardiner, Gardiner, Me. 

Rev. Howard B. Grose, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Prof. John R. Hawkins, 1541 Fourteenth St., N. W,, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. James R. Joy, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Alfred R. Kimball, 105 E. 22d St., New York City. 

Rev. Frederick Lynch, 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Dr. John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Dr. Robert E. Speer, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

James M. Speers, 345 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. Augustus Steimle, 174 W. 93d St., New York City. 

Rev. George U. Wenner, 319 E. 19th St., New York City. 

Rev. Charles L. White, 23 E. 26th St., New York City. 

Bishop Luther B. Wilson,, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Members of the Federal Council 

Northern Baptist Convention 

Rev. J. Y. Aitchison, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Prof. William H. Allison, Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Prof. F. L. Anderson, 169 Homer St., Newton Center, Mass. 

Rev. Robert A. Ashworth, 95 Radford St., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Pres. C. A. Barbour, 300 Alexander St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Rev. L. C. Barnes,j23 East 26th St., New York City. 

Rev. Win. C Bitting, 5109 Waterman Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. G. N. Brink, 1701 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. S. Clinch, 41 Park Row, New York City. 

Pres. W. H. P. Faunce, Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Rev. J. H. Franklin, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

A. H. Gordon, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Pres. C. D. Gray, Bates College, Lewiston, Me. 

Rev. Howard B. Grose, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

278 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. E. A. Hanley, First Baptist Church, Berkeley, Calif. 
Eev. M. A. Levy, 40 Bartlett Ave , Pittsfield, Mass. 
Rev. Albert G. Lawson, 400 West 118th St., New York City. 
J. W. Million, Des Homes, Iowa, 

Dean Shailer Mathews, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, 144 Dartmouth St., Rochester, N. Y. 
Rev. John M. Moore, 520 Nostranci Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mrs. H. W. Peabody, Beverly, Mass. 
Pres. Rush Rhees, Rochester, N. Y. 
W, C. Richardson, 26 Broadway, New York City 
Rev. C. H. Sears, 276 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Rev. H. F. Stilwell, 1132 Schofield Bldg , Cleveland, Ohio. 
Rev. H. J. White, 1.36 Sigoumey St., Hartford, Conn. 
Rev. C. L. White, 23 East 26th St., New York City. 
National Baptist Convention 

Rev. J. R. Bennett, 1614 W. 2d St., Chester, Pa. 

Rev. J. A. Booker, Baptist College, Little Rock, Ark. 

Rev. J. M. Booker, Kansas City, Mo. 

Rev. J. W. Bowren, Kansas City, Kans. 

Rev. W. W. Brown, 143 West 131st St., New York City. 

Dr. P. James Bryant, 402 Auburn Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

Rev. J. R. Burdette, Houston, Tex. 

Rev. J. T. Caston, 4348 Bell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. R. M. Caver, Little Rock, Ark. 

Rev. E. M. Cohron, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Rev. A. A. Cosey, Mound Bayou, Miss. 

Rev. Felix A. Curtright, care Y. M. C. A., Des Moines, Iowa. 

Rev. T. O. Fuller, Memphis, T'enn. 

Rev. J. Goins, 2010 East llth St , Kansas City, Mo. 

Rev. J. W. Goodgame, Birmingham, Ala. 

Rev. W. F. Graham, 1631 Christian St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. S. E. Griggs, Memphis, Tenn. 

Rev. H. H. Harris, 4299-C Lucky St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. William Haynes, Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. J. H. Henderson, 328 Patton St., Knoxville, Tenn. 

H. W. Holloway, Box 287, Helena, Ark. 

Rev, E. W. D. Isaac, 409 Gray St., Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. W. H. Jernagin, 1341 3d St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. A. M. Johnson, Baptist Church, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Rev. L. G. Jordan, Apt. 3, 2032 Bambndge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. J. E. Knox, 602 East 14th St , Austin, Texas. 

Rev. W. F. Lovelace, Wynne, Ark. 

Rev. George McNeal, 1816 North 3d St., Kansas City, Kans. 

Rev. W. H. Moses, 666 North 13th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. S. A. Mosley, 2814 Pine St.., St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. C. H. Parrish, 847 South 6th St., Louisville, Ky. 

D. S. Shadd, Helena, Ark. 

Rev. George E. Stevens, 4265 Finney Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

W. H. Steward, 608 South 5th St., Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. A. J. Stokes, Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. I. A. Thomas, 1717 Benson Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Dr. C. T. Walker, Augusta, Ga. 

Rev. B. J. F. Wesbrooks, 520 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

W. W. Whitton, 9 Lumpkin St , Memphis, Tenn. 

Rev. Thomas H. White, 456 York St , Jersey City, N. J. 

Rev. A. Wilbanks, 937 S St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. E. Arlington Wilson, 2813 Thomas Ave., Dallas, Tex. 

Rev. L. K. Williams, 3115 South Park Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Directory of Federal Council 279 

Free Baptist Churches 

Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony, 156 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. Rivington D. Lord, Mohawk Hotel, Washington and Greene 
Aves., Brooklyn,, N. Y. 

Pres. Henry F. McDonald, Harper's Ferry, W. Va. 

Dr. Joseph W. Mauck, 173 Hillsdale St., Hillsdale, Mich. 

Rev. George F. Mosher, 107 Howland St., Roxbury, Mass. 

Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, Sandwich Center, N. H. 
General Convention of the Christian Church 

Rev. W. W. Staley, Suffolk, Va. 

Rev J. 0. Atkinson, Elon College, N, C. 

Pres. Frank G. Coffin, Albany, Mo. 

Rev. Martyn Summerbell, Lakemont, N. Y. 

Col. J. E. West, Suffolk, Va. 

Rev. J. F. Burnett, Dayton, Ohio. 
A Iternates 

Rev. W. G. Sargent, 138 Lenox Ave., Elmwood Station, 
Providence, R. I. 

Rev. Hugh A. Smith, Versailles, Ohio. 

Rev L. E. Smith, Norfolk, Va. 

W. R. Sailer, Milford, N. J. 

Rev. A. M. Kerr, C. P. A., Dayton, Ohio. 
Churches of God in N. A. (General Eldership). 

Rev. Wm. Harris Guyer, Findlay College, Findlay, Ohio. 

Rev. John W. Whisler, 310 Frazer St., Findlay, Ohio. 

Rev. H. Dixon Boughter, 1512 North Main St., Decatur, 111. 

Rev. J. A. Detter, 2735 Canby St., Harnsburg, Pa. 
Congregational Churches 

Rev. Arthur H. Armstrong, 901 Federal Reserve Bank Bldg., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Edmund A. Burnham, 134 Winthrop St., Taunton, Mass. 

Rev. Allen E. Cross, 28 Claflin St., Milford, Mass. 

Rev. William J. Campbell,' 1530 Elm St., Youngstown, Ohio. 

Rev. Alexander C. Garner, 48 Edgecomb Ave., New York City. 

Rev. Frank H. Fox, 946 West Park Place, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Rev. Ernest M. Halliday, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. Ira J. Houston, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Rev. Theodore B. Lathrop, 131 Pearl St., Framingham, Mass. 

Rev. William T. McElveen, First Congregational Church, Port- 
land, Oreg. 

Prof. C. Rexford Raymond, Berea, Ky. 

Ralph Flanders, Springfield, Vt. 

A. W. Fagerstrom, Worthington, Minn. 

Pres. Edward F. Green, Starr, N. C. 

Marion Lawrance, 1516 Mailers Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. H. F. Holton, 14 Oakland Ave., Brockton, Mass. 

Rev. E. T. Root, Room 427, 6 Beacon St.,, Boston, Mass, 

Rev. E. B. Sanford, Rockfall, Conn. 

Prof. Edwin C. Norton, Claremont, Calif. 

Rev. M. H. Wallace, Plantsville, Conn. 

Hon. Wayne B. Wheeler, Bliss Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Benjamin S. Winchester, R. F. D. 9, Fairfield, Conn. 

Hon. JokrTM. Whitehead, 646 Garfield St., Janesville, Wis. 

Rev. John Gordon, Rockford, 111. 

Rev. Albert J. Lord, Meriden, Conn. 

Rev. Chas. S. Hagar, 1 Ramsey Place, Albany, N. Y. 

Rev. Alfred V. Bliss, Room 406, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

280 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. Charles Harbutt, 95 Exchange St , Portland, Me. 

Rev. Wm. N. DeBerry, 643 Union St., Springfield, Mass. 

Rev. James M. Lewis, Sandwich, 111. 

Rev. Edward W. Cross, Grmnell, Iowa. 

Rev. Warren S. Archibald, Hartford, Conn. 

Rev. A. J. Sullens, 207 Guardian Trust Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Rev. Jason Noble Pierce, 1738 Lamer Place, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Henry Stiles Bradley, Portland, Me. 

G. L. Dunham, Brattleboro, Vt. 

F. W. Chamberlain, Evanston, 111. 

Prof. F. E. Jenkins, Demorest, Ga. 

Marquis Eaton, 105 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. B. F Willmott, 170 Townsend St., Roxbury, Mass. 

Rev. Henry K. Booth, Long Beach, Calif. 

Rev. B. G. Mattson, Manistee, Mich. 

Wto. Knowles Cooper, Y. M. C. A., Washington, D. C. 

W. W. Mills, Marietta, Ohio. 

Rev. Roy M. Houghton, New Haven, Conn. 

Rev. Edwin B. Robinson, 171 Cabot St., Holyoke, Mass. 
Christian Reformed Church 

Rev. Henry Beets, 737 Madison Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Rev. J. Timmerman, 129 Fourth Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Rev. J. Dolfin, 155 Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich. 
Disciples of Christ 

Rev. B. A. Abbott, 2712 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Peter Ainslie, 504 North Fulton Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. F. W. Bumham, 1501 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. George A. Campbell, Union Ave. Christian Church, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. J. Castleberry, 1116 Cypress Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. C. M. Chilton, 10th and Edmund Sts., St. Joseph, Mo. 

Rev. A. E. Cory, Gordon St. Christian Church, Kingston, N. C. 

Pres. R. H. Crossneld, William Woods College, Fulton, Mo. 

John Ray Ewers, 1313 Denniston Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. R. Graham Frank, Central Christian Church, Dallas, Tex. 

Rev. John R. Golden, 236 North Edward St., Decatur, 111. 

Rev. J. H. Goldner, Euclid Avenue Christian Church, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

W. H. Hoover, North Canton, Ohio. 

Rev. Ray E. Hunt, 164 North 18th St., East Orange, N. J. 

Rev. Finis S. Idleman, 142 West 81st St., New York City. 

Rev. Edgar D. Jones, Central Christian Church, Detroit, Mich. 

R. A. Long, 601 R. A. Long Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Frank H. Main, Penn Bldg., 15th and Chestnut Sts., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

A. E. McBee, 120 Broadway, New York City. 

Pres. I. N. McCash, Phillips University, East Enid, Okla. 

Rev. C. S. Medbury, University Station, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Rev. H. 0. Pritchard, 222 Downey Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rev. W. F. Rothenburger, Springfield, 111. 

C. M. Rodefer, Bellaire, Ohio. 

Prof. Alva W. Taylor, 821 Occidental Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rev. L. N. D. Wells, 4708 Gaston Ave., Dallas, Tex. 

Rev. Earl Wilfley, 1483 Harvard St., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Herbert L. Willett, 19 South La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Z. T. Sweeney, Columbus, Ind. 

Rev. F. D. Kershner, 1306 28th St., Des Moines, Iowa. 

Directory of Federal Council 281 

Rev Carey E. Morgan, 325 22d Ave., N. Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. John McD. Home, 307 E. Main St., Lebanon, Ind. 

Pres. Miner L. Bates, Hiram, Ohio. 

Rev. C. E. Cobbey, Bethany, Nebr. 

Rev. E. M. Waits, Fort Worth, Tex. 

W. Palmer Clarkson, 2712 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Carl Agge, Roosevelt Blvd. and Tenth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. B. H. Melton, 3615 Macomb St., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. F. M. Gordon, 69 Schermerhorn St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. B. H. Linville, Harlem Avenue Christian Church, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Rev. E. H. Wray, 227 Richmond Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Dr. G. W. Riley, 14 East 31st St., New York City. 

Samuel B. Lindsay, 503 D. S. Morgan Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rev. M. W. Williams, 241 Park Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. T. E. Winter, 648 40th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. H. D. C. Maclachlan, Richmond, Va. 

Rev. C. M. Watson, 1610 Colonial Ave., Norfolk, Va. 

Rev. J. B. Hunley, Richmond, Va. 

Rev. C. R. Stauffer, 9th and D Sts., N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. P. H. Welshimer, Canton, Ohio. 

Rev. L. G. Batman, 1643 Elm St., Youngstown, Ohio. 

Rev. Cloyd Goodnight, Bethany, W. Va. 

Rev. C. C. Morrison, 508 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. A. B. Philputt, 1330 North New Jersey St., Indianapolis, 

G. M. Kirby, 43 Jewatt Parkway, Buffalo, N. Y. 

E. M. Bowman, 1 W. 67th St., New York City- 

Stephen M. Hadley, Penn College, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Mrs. Mary Doane Hole, 615 National Road W., Richmond, Ind. 

Murray S. Kenworthy, 20 South 12th St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Miss Mary S. Paige, 50 East Chatham St., East Lynn, Mass. . 

Albert G. Shepard, Clmtondale, N. Y. 

Walter C. Woodward, 101 South 8th St., Richmond, Ind. 

Margaret T. Carey, 1004 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

Samuel L. Haworth, 108 West Green St., High Point, N. C. 

Richard R. Newby, Wichita, Kans. 

Dr. Wm. V. Coffin, 519 Earlham Drive, Whittier, Calif. 

Mrs. Mary M. Harold, Danville, Ind. 

Theodore Foxworthy, Spiceland, Ind. 
Evangelical Synod of N. A.. 

Rev. John Baltzer, 2013 St. Louis Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. D. Bruning, 1300 E. Fayette St , Baltimore, Md. 

Bev. Charles Enders, 1707 Prospect Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Rev. Paul A. Menzel, 2951 Tilden St., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. J. H. Horstman, 1716 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. T. Lehmann, 674 South High St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Rev. C. W. Locher, 1920 G St., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. R. Niebuhr, 2726 Lothrop Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. S. D. Press, 1621 Hunt Road, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. U. Schneider, 116 Lower 6th St., Evansville, Ind. 
Evangelical Church 

Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, 836 Center Ave., Reading, Pa. 

Bishop J. F. Dunlap, Lewisburg, Pa. 

Rev. E. G. Frye, 1903 Woodland Ave., S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Dr. G. B. Kimmel, Pres. Evangelical Theol. Sem., Naperville, 111. 

282 , Year Book of the Churches 

Bishop M. T. Maze, Le Mars, Iowa. 

Bishop L. H. Seager, Northwestern College, Naperville, 111. 

Bishop S. P. Spreng, 106 Columbia Ave., Naperville, 111. 

Rev. T. C. Meckel, 1903 Woodland Ave., S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 


John J. Arnold, 418 Central Park West, Apt. 76, New York City. 

Rev. J. Q. A. Curry, 210 Morrison Ave., Johnstown, Pa. 

Eev. H. C. Lilly, 2125 Union St., Hamilton Paik, Allentown, Pa. 

Rev. D. C. Ostroth, 15 Wmterhill Circle, Somerville, Mass. 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop W. F. Anderson, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Bishop J. F. Berry, 1701 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bishop T S Henderson, 34 East Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich. 

Bishop E. H. Hughes, 235 Summer St., Maiden, Mass. 

Bishop Francis J. McConnell, 524 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bishop W. F. McDowell, 2107 Wyoming Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Bishop C B. Mitchell, 157 North Lexington Blvd., St. Paul, Minn. 

Bishop C. L. Mead, First Methodist Church, Denver, Colo. 

Bishop Thomas Nicholson, 58 East Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Bishop W. A. Quayle, Baldwin, Kans. 

Bishop E. G. Richardson, Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

Bishop Luther B. Wilson, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. B. F. Abbott, 209 N. Leffingwell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. C. E. Bacon, Y. M. C. A , Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rev. P. A. Baker, Westerville, Ohio. 

Rev. J. A. Beebe, 72 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. 

Rev J. H. Bell, 504 Whitley Ave., New Haven, Conn. 

Rev. C. M. Boswell, 409 South 51st St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. W. S. Bovard, 58 E. Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Dillon Bronson, Church of All Nations, Boston, Mass. 

Rev. W. E. Brown, 141 Comstock Place, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Rev. Dan B. Brummitt, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. L. C. Clark, American University, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. W. F. Conner, The King Edward, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. R. E. Diffendorfer, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. D. G. Downey, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. George Elliott, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. D. D. Forsyth, Arch and 17th Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. G. R. Grose, Greencastle, Ind. 

Rev. William I. Haven, Bible House, Astor Place, New York 

Rev. L. 0. Hartman, 581 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

Rev. J. B. Hingeley, 1101 Garland Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. F. W. Hixson, Alleghany College, Meadville, JPa. 

Rev. A. E. Kirk, Winfield, Kans. 

Rev. W. W. King, 417 Maple Boulevard, Kansas City, Mo. 

Rev. F. M. Larkin, 3 City Hall Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 

Rev. Titus Lowe, 75 Midland Ave., Montclair, N. J. 

Rev. H. K. Madsen, First Norwegian-Danish Church, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Rev. Wallace MacMullen, 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Rev. W. N. Mason, Pittsburg, Kans. 

Rev. P. J. Maveety, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. H. H. Meyer, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. E. L. Mills, Artisans Bldg., Portland, Oreg. 

Rev. E. M. Mills, 101 Comstock Place, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Rev L. C. Murdock, Montgomery County, Hatboro, Pa. 

Rev. H. E. Murkett, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Directory of Federal Council 283 

Rev. J. C. Nate, East Orange, N, J 

Rev. Frank Mason North, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. F. P. Parkin, 701 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. C, F. Rice, 158 Middlesex Ave., Medford, Mass. 

Rev. S. A. D. Rogers, Stockton, Kans. 

Rev. C. B. Spencer, 1121 McGee St., Kansas City, Mo. 

Rev. A. B. Storms, Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, Ohio. 

Rev. C. M. Stuart, 621 Foster St., Evanston, 111. 

Rev. J. W. R. Sumwalt, 318 West 57th St., New York City. 

Rev, William Swenson, 1717 North Fairfield Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. John Thompson, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. E. S. Tipple, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J. 

Rev. E. F. Tittle, Evanston, 111. 

Rev. Samuel Van Pelt, 203 North Plymouth St., Los Angeles, 


Rev. C. E. Veronilyea, 3 City Hall Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 
Rev. J. J. Wallace, 524 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rev. E. C. Wareing, 420 Plum St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Rev. Robert Watt, 2310 Market St., Wilmington, Del. 
Rev. E. L. Watson, Roland Park M. E. Church, Baltimore, Md. 
Rev. H. A. Wheeler, Union Trust Co., 7 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 

Rev. E. R. Zaring, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 

J. B. Bradshaw, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Ernest H. Cherrington, Westerville, Ohio. 
C. P. Colgrove, 1079 N. Marengo St., Pasadena, Calif. 
Hanford Crawford, Marble Head, Mass. 
George W. Dixon, 426 South 5th Ave., Chicago, 111. 
F. C. Dunn, 52 Central St., Gardner, Mass. 
A. S. Elford, 1057 Summit Ave., (North), Seattle, Wash. 

F. D. Gardner, 4508 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Charles S. Gibson, 649 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. 
Dr. A. W. Harris, 150 5th" Ave., New York City. 

T. F. Holgate, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

Robert Hughes, 740 Rush St., Chicago, 111. 

James R. Joy, 150 5th Ave., New York City. 

C. W. Kinne, 1012 A. M. B. Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla. 

0. G. Markham, Baldwin, Kans. 

L. Wilbur Messer, 19 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

W. E. Massey, Ocean City, N. J. 

John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

W. T. Rich, 20 Sargent St., Newton, Mass. 

A. P. Sloan, 141 Broadway, New York City. 

G. M. Spurlock, York, Nebr. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Bishop W. N. Ainsworth, 106 Cleveland Ave., Macon, Ga. 

Bishop *James Atkins, Lake Junaluska, N. C. 

Bishop James Cannon, Jr., 50 Bliss Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Bishop John M. Moore, 1308 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex. 

Bishop W. B. Murrah, 1615 Central Ave., Memphis, Tenn. 

Rev. S. H. Babcock, Holdenville, Okla. 

S. H. Bland, Troy, Ala. 

Rev. L. C. Branscomb, First Church, Anniston, Ala. 

Rev. C. D. Bulla, 1416 Scenic Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

M. L. Burton, Jackson, Miss. 

C. K. Campbell, Roswell, New Mexico. 

Rev. F. A. Carter, Sweetwater, Tenn. 

284 Year Book of the Churches 

Judge J. E. Cockrell, 4107 Gaston Ave , Dallas, Tex. 

D. B. Coltrane, Concord, N. C. 

Eev. R. E. Dickenson, First Methodist Church, Vernon, Tex. 

Mrs. J. H. Dickey, Louisville, Ky. 

Rev. W. F. Dunkle, 314 E. Palm Ave., Tampa, Fla. 

Rev. Plato Durham, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga. 

John E. Edgerton, Nashville, Tenn. * 

Rev. J. D. French, Emory, Va. 

Rev. George Gibson, 5614 Swiss Ave., Dallas, Tex. 

Thomas Gregory, Corpus Christi, Tex. 

C. P. Hammond, Spartanburg, S. C. 

Rev. W. S. Hays. 

Rev. Curwen Henley, Murphysboro, 111. 

Rev. Forney Hutchmson, Oklahoma City, Okla 

Mrs. Luke Johnson, P. 0. Box 1909, Atlanta, Ga. 

Rev. James Kilgore, Dallas, Tex. 

C. W. Lamus, Shelbina, Mo. 

Thomas Mellow, 6633 Vermont Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Judge E. D. Newman, Woodstock, Va. 

Rev. F. N. Parker, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga. 

Rev. W. F. Quillian, Wesleyan College, Macon, Ga. 

C. M. Reeves, Conway, Ark. 

Senator Joe T. Robinson, Little Rock, Ark. 

H. S. Shangle, Milton, Oreg. 

Rev. R. G. Smith, La Grange, Ga. 

Mrs. Hume R. Steele, 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. 

E. F. Story, Franklin, Va. 

L. M. Stratton, Memphis, Tenn 
Judge W. A. Tarver, Corsicana, Tex. 
C. S. Wallace, Morehead City, N. C. 

Rev. E. 0. Watson, 937 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
R. M. Weaver, Corinth, Miss. 
R. T. Webb, B arbours ville, W. Va. 

Rev. S. H. Werlein, 1412 So. Harvard Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Rev. G. B. Wmton, 408 Security Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 
C. M. Woodward, Dallas, Tex. 
African Methodist Episcopal Church 

Rev. R. H. Bumry, 636 Chauncy St , Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rev. J. E, Beard, 194 St. Philips St., Charleston, S. C. 
Rev. C. P. Cole, 50 Putnam Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bishop J. M. Conner, 1519 Pulaski St, 5 Little Rock, Ark. 
Rev. W. P. Q. Byrd, Box 203, Mound Bayou, Miss. 
Bishop L. F. J. Coppin, 1913 Bainbridge St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rev. J. A. Gregg, Wilberforce University^ Wilberforce, Ohio. 
Bishop John Hurst, 1808 McCulloh St., Baltimore, Md. 
Prof. J. R. Hawkins, 1541 14th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Bishop J. A. Johnson, 1412 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rev. John Quincy Johnson, 520 Avery Place, Memphis, Tenn. 
Bishop J. H. Jones, Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio. 
Rev. J. A. Lindsay, Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga. 
Bishop H. B. Parks, 3312 Calumet Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Prof. L. B. Kincheon, 702 S. Pearl St , Belton, Tex. 
Rev. S. A. Williams, St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Rev. A. J. Wilson, 308 North 6th St., Wilmington, N. C. 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

Bishop Josiah S. Caldwell, 420 South llth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bishop George L. Blackwell, 420 South llth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bishop L. W. Kyles, 1612 E. 14th St., Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Directory of Federal Council 285 

Bishop Wm. L. Lee, 450 Quincy St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bishop George C. Clement, 1425 W. Walnut St., Louisville, Ky. 

Bishop J. W. Wood, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Bishop P. A. Wallace, 522 Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. J. W. Martin, 4428 W. Belle Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. H. J. Callis, 619 M St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. James E. Mason, 249 Columbia Ave , Rochester, N. Y. 

Rev. W. C. Brown, 347 Bridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Dr. Simon G. Atkins, Slater State Normal School, Winston- 
Salem, N. C. 

Dr. D. C. Suggs, Salisbury, N. C. 

Prof. W. J. Trent, Atlanta, Ga. 

Rev. Wm. Y. Bell, 218 W. 130th St., New York City. 

Rev. H. D. Denson, Springfield, Mass. 

Bishop R, A. Carter, 4408 Vmcennes St., Chicago, 111. 

Prof. G. F. Porter, Lane College, Jackson, Tenn. 

W. A. Bell, Atlanta, Ga. 
Colored MetJiodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop C. H. Phillips, 10828 Drexel Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bishop R S. Williams, 912 15th St., Augusta, Ga. 

Bishop E. Cottrell, Holly Spnngs, Miss. 

Rev. C. H. Tobias, 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Rev. R. J. Brown, Miles Memorial College, Birmingham, Ala. 

Bishop J. A. Hamlett, 112 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn. 

Rev. J. A. Walker, Paine College, Augusta, Ga. 

Rev. G. T. Long, 717 E St., N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. S. B. Wallace, Israel C. M. E. Church, 1st and B Sts., S. W., 
Washington, D. C. 

Prof. H. A. Knox, Ensley, Ala. 

Rev. L. H. Brown, 2167 East 76th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Rev. T. H. Lewis, 2844 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. L. E. Davis, 613 West Diamond St., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. F. T. Benson, 316 North Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. H. L. Elderdice, Westminster Theol. Sem., Westminster, Md. 

Rev. C. S. Johnson, St. Joe, Ind. 

Rev. H. L. Feeman, Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. 

H. J. Safford, Inwood, Long Island, N. Y. 

J, Norman Wills, Greensboro, N. C. 
Moravian Church 

Rt. Rev. Edward Rondthaler, Winston- Salem, N. C. 

Rt. Rev. C. L. Moench, 45 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 

Rev. John S. Romig, 1519 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, 67 West Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Presbyterian Church in the U, S. A. 

Rev. Maitland Alexander, 920 Ridge Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dr. John Willis Baer, Union National Bank Bldg., Pasadena, 

Hon. E. E. Beard, Lebanon, Tenn. 

Rev. Wm. E. Black, Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo. 

Rev. John F. Carson, 258 Jefferson Ave., Brooklyn^ N. Y. 

W. M. Cosby, Birmingham, Ala. 

Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Rev. Charles R. Erdman, 20 Library Place, Princeton, N. J. 

Robert S. Fulton, Title Guaranty Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

David B. Gamble, 4 Westmoreland Place., Pasadena, Calif. 

286 Year Book of the Churches 

Rev. Reuben H. Hartley, 369 La Jolla Boulevard, La Jolla, Calif. 

Rev. Edgar P. Hill, 156 5th Ave., New York City. 

Rev. George E. Hunt, Christ Presbyterian Church, Madison, Wis. 

Henry W. Jessup, 27 Cedar St., New York City. 

Pres. Warren H. Landon, San Francisco Theological Seminary, 
San Anselmo, Calif. 

Rev. Charles Little, Presbyterian Church, Wabash, Ind. 

Rev. Robert Mackenzie, 156 5th Ave., New York City. 

John T. Manson, First Nat. Bank Bldg., New Haven, Conn. 

Rev. John A. Marquis, 156 5th Ave., New York City. 

Prof, J. J. McConnell, 1924 B Ave., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Rev. William McKibbin, Lane Theol. Seminary, Walnut Hill, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. Harlan G. Mendenhall, 449 Park Ave., New York City. 

Rev^Wm, P. Merrill, 112 East 36th St., New York City. 

Rev. George Reynolds, 33 Pintard Ave,, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Prof. Goodman, Holly Springs, Miss. 

Prof. J. F, Lane, Lane College, Jackson, Tenn. 

Rev. D. H. Jones, First Presbyterian Church, Evanston, 111. 

Rev. James H. Snowden, 723 Ridge Ave., N. S , Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Rev. J. Ross Stevenson, Princeton Theol. Seminary, Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

Rev. John Timothy Stone, 126 East Chestnut St., Chicago, 111. 

T. W. Synnott, Wenonah, N. J. 

Pres. William 0. Thompson, Ohio State University, Columbus, 

Rev. Joseph A. Vance, First Presbyterian Church, Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. R. E. Williams, 5137 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev, George Alexander, 47 University Place, New York City. 

Rev. Alexander Alison, Jr., First Presbyterian Church, Bridge- 
port, Conn. 

Rev. A. H. Barr, 808 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

John A. Bell, Iroquois Apartments, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. John T. Bergen, 632 East 18th St., Minneapolis, Minn, 

Hon. Wm. Jennings Bryan, "Fairview," Lincoln, Nebr. 

Rev. John Dixon, 156 5th Aye., Itfew York City. 

Rev. John S. Edenburn, 38 Melrose Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 

Rev. Robert Freeman, Pasadena Presbyterian Church, Pasadena, 

Rev. Baxter P. Fullerton, 1220 Arcade Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles S. Holt, Room 1010, 11 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Robert Hunter, 2902 Frankfort Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Wjn. Beatty Jennings, 6012 Greene St., Germantown, Pa. 

Robert Johnston, 5111 Raympnd Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. M. D. Kneeland, Winchester, Mass. 

Rev. Mark A. Matthews, First Presbyterian Church, Seattle, 

Rev. Hugh B. McCauley, Paterson, N. J. 

Rev. J. G. K. McClure, 2348 N. Halsted St., Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Cyrus H. McCormack, 606 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 

Rev. Wm. L. McEwan, 836 South Negley St,, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. Frank C. McKean, Central Presbyterian Church, Des Moines, 

V. E. Middlebrook, Nacogdoches, Tex. 

Rev. R. Ames Montgomery, Danville, Ky. 

Directory of Federal Council 287 

Logan C. Murray, Princeton, N. J. 

H. S. Nichols, 346 Palham Road, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. A* McD. Paterson, First Presbyterian Church, Newbury- 
port, Mass. 

Hon. Mahlon Pitney, Supreme Court of U. S., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Wallace Radcliffe, 1675 31st St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Daniel Russell, 236 West 73d St., New York City. 

Rev. U. Franklin Smiley, Dormont, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. Samuel M. Templeton, Rockwall, Tex, 

Hon. M. B. Templeton, Dallas, Tex. 

Frederick A. Wallis, Ellis Island, N. Y. 

Rev. Edgar W. Work, 631 West End Ave., New York City. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 

Hon. A. M. Aiken, Chester, S. C. 

Rev. R. F. Campbell, First Presbterian Church, Asheville, N. C. 

Rev W, S Campbell, Editor, Presbyterian of the South, Old 
Dominion Trust Bldg., Richmond, Va. 

Rev. S. H. Chester, 156 5th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. William Crowe, 5625 Gates Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. B. Curry, 1730 Glenwood Place, Memphis, Tenn. 

Hon. Willis M. Everett, 679 Piedmont Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

Rev. J. B. Hutton, First Presbyterian Church, Jackson, Miss. 

Rev. J. L. Mauze, Huntmgton Presbyterian Church, Huntington 
W. Va. 

Rev. R. H. McCaslin, Box 775, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Rev. E. D. McDougall, Jackson, Tenn. 

Rev. L. E. McNair, Jacksonville Presbyterian Church, Jackson- 
ville, Fla. 

Rev. G. T. Storey, Bay City Presbyterian Church, Bay City, Tex. 

Rev. George Summey, 3002 De Soto St., New Orleans, La. 

Rev James I. Vance, 154 Fifth Ave , N., Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. John Van Lear, First Presbyterian Church, Little Rock, 


Rev. T. M. Boyd, First Presbyterian Church, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Rev. W. L. Caldwell, Woodland St. Presbyterian Church, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Rev. Melton Clark, Columbia Theol. Seminary, Columbia, S. C. 

H. C. DuBose,,Sanford, Fla. 

Rev. H. W. DuBose, Spartanburg Presbyterian Church, Spartan- 
burg, S. C. 

Rev. S. M. Glasgow, First Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rev. P. B. Hill, 3423 Noble Ave., San Antonio, Tex. 

Rev. F. T. McFaden, 3423 Noble Ave., Richmond, Va. 

Rev. Homer McMillan, 1522 Hurt Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Hon. E. T. Miller, Law Dept, St. Louis, San Francisco Rail- 
way, Frisco Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. D. H. Ogden, Government St. Presbyterian Church, Mo- 
bile, Ala. 

Rev. J. P. Robertson, Shelbyville, Tenn. 

Rev. E. E. Smith, First Presbyterian Church, Owensboro, Ky. 

Rev. Ernest Thompson, Charleston Presbyterian Church, Charles- 
ton, W. Va. 

C. W. Wells, Jackson, Miss. 

Rev. J. M. Wells, Columbia Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C. 
Primitive Methodist 

Rev. E. Humphries, Billerica Center, Mass. 

Rev. John Hardcastle, 229 Chestnut St., Kewanee, 111. 

288 Year Book of the Churches 

F. W. Robinson, Olyphant, Pa. 

E- J. Curson, 35 Shepherd Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. John Proude, 1313 Union St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rev. S. T. Nicholls, 2609 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tom Brierley, 464 Coggeshall St., Fall River, Mass. 

F. Adams, 358 E. Northampton St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Protestant Episcopal Commission on Christian Unity and Department 
of Christian Social Service 

Rt. Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, 825 Delaware Ave., South Bethlehem, 

Rt. Rev. James H. Darlington, 321 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Rev. Hugh Birckhead, Emmanuel Church, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Charles K. Gilbert, 416 Lafayette St., New York City. 

Very Rev. C. N. Lathrop, 281 4th Ave., New York City. 

Rt. Rev Alexander Mann, P. E. Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Very Rev. Henry B. Washburn, 3 Mason St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Robert H. Gardiner, 174 Water St., Gardiner, Me. 

John M. Glenn, 130 East 22d St., New York City. 

R Fulton Cutting, 32 Nassau St., New York City. 

Rt. Rev. Charles H, Brent, 237 North St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rev. W. Russell Bowie, Grace Episcopal Church, New York City. 

Rt. Rev. William Alexander Guerry, Bishop's Office, Charleston, 
S. C. 

Very Rev. Hughell E. W. Fosbroke, General Theological Semi- 
nary, New York City. 

Rev. James E. Freeman, 1317 G St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Very Rev. Howard C. Robbins, Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
New York City. 

Miss Vida D. Scudder, Leighton Road, Wellesley, Mass. 

Mrs. G. P. T. Sargent, 306 State St., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Miss Lucy Sturgis, 66 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Rev. T. D. Wmdiate, Kensington, Md. 

Miss Florence Rmggold, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rev. W. A. R. Goodwin, St. Paul's Church, Rochester, N. Y. 

L. B. Franklin, 281 4th Ave., New York City. 

Dr. Jeffrey R. Brackett, 220 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Rt. Rev. Nathaniel S Thomas, Ivinson Hall, Laramie, Wyo. 

Rt. Rev. James Wise, Bishop's House, Topeka, Kans. 

Rt. Rev. Herman Page, 2303 First Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

Rev. N. B. Nash* Lincoln, Mass. 

Rev. W, J. Loaring Clark, 281 4th Ave., New York City. 

Rt. Rev. Arthur W. Moulton, 444 East 1st South St., Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

Rt- Rev. Theo. DuBose Bratton, Battle Hill, Jackson, Miss. 

Rev. Frank H. Nelson, 318 East 4th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. Holmes Whitmore, St. Paul's Church, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Courtenay Barber, 122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

F- C. Gilbert, 75 Conant Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Louis Howland, Indianapolis, Ind. 

James A. Waterworth, 14 North Kingshighway Blvd., St. Louis, 

Warren Kearney, 520 South Peters St., New Orleans, La. 

Miss Alice L. Simrall, 318 East 4th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

W. 0. Frohock, Columbus, Ohio. 

W, A. Gallup, North Adams, Mass. 

R M. H. Wharton, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Walter T. Schutz, Hartford, Conn. 

Rev. J. Howard Melish, 126 Pierrepont St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Directory of Federal Council 289 

H. D. W. English,, 1st National Bank Bldg , Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mrs. George A. Strong, Needham, Mass. 
Reformed Church in, America 

Rev. I. W. Gowen, North Bergen, N. J. 

Rev. Ame Vennema, 11 Reid Ave., Passaic, N. J. 

Rev. 0. M. Voorhees, 350 East 146th St., New York City. 

Rev. F. B Seeley, Kingston, N. Y. 

Rev. John E. Kuizenga, 44 East 14th St., Holland, Mich. 

Rev. G. C. Lenington, 25 East 22d St., New York City. 

Rev. H. D. B. Mulford, Claverack, N. Y. 

Rev. Henry Hospers, Holland, Mich- 
Rev. C. H. Tyndall, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Rev. Arthur Johnson, Hackensack, N. J. 

Rev, Taber Knox, Warwick, N. Y. 

Rev. Henry Harmeling, 24 East 107th St., Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Albertus T. Broek, 137 South 6th Ave , Mt Vernon, N. Y. 
Reformed Church in the U. S. 

Rev. C. E Schaeffer, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. H. H Apple, Lancaster, Pa. 

Rev. H. J. Chnstman, 257 Linden Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. R. W. Miller, 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev J. M. G. Darms, 225 North St. George St., Allentown, Pa. 

Harry E. Paisley, Reading Terminal, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Philip Vollmer, 1701 Hunt Road, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. T. F. Herman, 556 West James St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Franklin P. Brown, 514 Lexington Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. C. E. Miller, Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio. 

Rev. James I, Good, 3320 Huffman Ave., Dayton, Ohio. 
Reformed Episcopal Church 

Rev. Thomas J. Mason, 1849 East 86th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Rev. Robert W. Peach, 271 Parker St., Newark, N. J. 

Bishop Robert L. Rudolph, 103 South 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. W. T. Way, 1611 N. Caroline St, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. W. A. Freemantle, 1617 Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Percy T. Edrop, 329 East 51st St., New York City. 

Rev. Edward J. Sonne, 6552 Yale Ave., Englewood Station, Chi- 
cago, 111. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church General Synod 

Rev. John Parks, 5923 Washington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. W. P. Harriman, Cedarville, Ohio. 

Rev. Thomas Whyte, 1759 North Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

A. Hice Watterson, R. F. D., Industry, Pa. 
Seventh Day Baptist Church 

Rev. A. J. C. Bond, 207 West 6th St., Plainfield, N. J. 

Pres. Alfred E. Whitford, Milton College, Milton, Wis. 

Pres. Bootbe C. Davis, Alfred University, Alfred, N. Y. 

Dean Arthur E. Main, Alfred Theological Seminary, Alfred, N. Y. 
United Brethren in Christ 

Bishop W. M. Bell, 1509 State St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Bishop H. H. Fout, 800 Middle Drive, Woodruff Place, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 

Rev. W. R. Funk, 404 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Rev. S. C. Enck, United Brethren Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. S, S. Hough, 415 Otterbein Press Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Bishop C. J. Kephart, 3936 Harrison St., Kansas City, Mo. 

Dean J. P. Landis, 1566 W. 2d St., Dayton, Ohio. 

290 Year Book of the Churches 

L. 0. Miller, 418 Otterbem Press Bldg, Dayton, Ohio. 
Howard H. Russell, Anti-Saloon League of America, Westerville, 


Rev. J. H. Harris, Station A, 33 W. 5th St., Columbus, Ohio. 
Rev. J. M. Philhppi, Religious Telescope, 1603 West. 3d St., 

Dayton, Ohio. 

Bishop W. M. Weekley, Parkersburg, W. Va. 
United Presbyterian Church 

Rev. R. A. Hutchison, 703 Publication Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

J. JU Hervey, 627 Ferry St., Woodhaven, L. I. 

Rev. D. F. McGill, 317 Home Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 

H . H. Marhn, 244 South Rebecca St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

W. I. Wishart, 2333 Perrysville Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. James N. Knipe, 517 Washington Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Rev. R. A Pollock, 110 East 14th Ave., Denver, Colo. 




Los Angeles, Rev. J. C. Pmkerton, 517 Western Mutual Life Bldg 

Hartford, Rev. Morris E. Ailing, 27 Lewis Street 

Indianapolis, State Federation of Churches, Y. M. C. A* Bldg. 


Boston, Rev. E. T. Root, 6 Beacon Street. 

Columbus, Rev. B. F. Lamb, Exec. Sec., 406 Gasco Bldg.; Rev. 

Chambersburg, *Rev. Wm. L. Mudge (P), 267 No. Main Street. 

Honolulu Interchurch Federation, Norman C. Schenk, Honolulu, 

T. H. 
Porto Rico 

Evangelical Union of Porto Rico, Rev. P. W. Drury, Ponce, 
Porto Rico. 



Fresno, A. W. Louch, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Rev. Joseph A. Stevenson; Miss Clara B. Homer, 
Assistant, 436 Van Nuys Bldg. 

Sacramento, Mrs. M. F. Harbaugh, 208 Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

San Francisco, Rev. Homer K. Pitman, (P) 23d and Mission Sts. 

Bridgeport, The Association of Churches (Attention, Rev. 
Maurice J. Dunklee) , 786 Mam St. 

Hartford, Rev. Morris E. Ailing, 27 Lewis Street. 
District of Columbia 

Washington, Rev. W. L. Darby, 941 Woodward Bldg. 

Atlanta, James Morton, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Chicago, Walter R. Mee, Exec. Sec., 19 S. LaSalle St.; Emerson 
0. Bradshaw, Sec., Commissions on Public Institutions, Daily 

Directory of Federal Council 291 

Vacation Bible Schools, Religious Education; Mrs. C. L. Holtz- 
man, Pres., Women's Department. 


Indianapolis, Kev. C. H. Winders, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Wichita, Rev. Ross W, Sanderson, Y. M. C. A. Bldg.; Miss Mabel 
Coe, Asso. Sec. 


Louisville, *Rev. M. P. Hunt (P), 401 Norton Bldg. 

Portland, Mrs. Elbridge Stoneham, 40 Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Baltimore, Rev. L. W. McCreary, 1531 Munsey Bldg. 

Boston, George L. Paine, Sec., 6 Beacon St., Room 426. 

Worcester, Federation of Churches, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. (attention 
Mr. R. L. Moore). 


Detroit, Rev. Morton C. Pearson, 407 Charlevoix Bldg., Ex-Sec.; 
*Rev. Edward R. Bartlett, (S) Supt., Religious Education; 
Rev. Wm. H. Hoffman, Hospital Pastor; Rev. Edw. L Hughes, 
Municipal Court Probation Worker; Miss Dolly Milne, Juvenile 
Court Worker. 


Duluth, W. L. Smithies, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Rev. Robert B. Blyth, Archwood Ave. Congrega- 
tional Church, Cleveland, Ohio. 

St. Paul, *Rev. Arthur F. Wittenberger, (P) 514 Midland Trust 


Kansas City, Rev. Ralph C. McAfee, Y, M. C. A. Bldg. 

St. .Louis, Rev. Arthur H. Armstrong, 901-5 Federal Reserve 
Bank Bldg., Exec. Sec.; Rev. Howard Billman, Associate Sec.; 
Rev. C, P. Kirkendoll, Industrial Sec.; Rev. A. C. Ernst, 204 
Lockwood Ave., Webster Grove, Police Court Worker. 

Lincoln, Miss Eleanora L. Miller, Exec. Sec., Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
New Jersey 

Atlantic City, Rev. Eugene L. Nixon, 223 Chelsea Nat'l Bank 

Moorestown, Miss Sara Carpenter, Acting Sec., 36 E. Main St. 

Newark, Mrs. Susan L. Knapp, Office Sec., Park Presbyterian 

Passaic, Rev. C. Arthur Lincoln, 169 Prospect St. 

Paterson, Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley, 328-A Ellison Street. 
New York 

Brooklyn, Rev. Frederick M. Gordon, 69 Schermerhorn St. 

Buffalo, Rev. Don. D. Tulles, Acting Sec., Niagara Bldg., Frank- 
lin and Mohawk Sts. 

New York City, Rev. W. B. Millar, Gen. Sec. t 71 W. 23d St.; 

Rev. Herbert F. Laflamme, Sec.; George L. Leonard, Assist- 
ant Treasurer. 

Rochester, Rev. Orlo J. Price, 423 Cutler Bldg. 

(*) Indicates secretary employed part of the time as (P), pastor 
(S) Sunday School Association. 

292 Year Book of the Churches 


Akron, Federation of Churches, Attention Lee J. Myers, Pres., 

713 Second National Bank Bldg 
Cincinnati, Rev. Henry Pearce Atkins, Exec. Sec., 516-517 Union 

Central Bldg.; Miss Evangelme Rafferty, Social Service Sec.; 

Miss Edith Condit, Court Representative; Miss Bertha Masters, 

Court Representative. 
Cleveland, Rev. E. R. Wright, Exec. Sec., 701 Hippodrome Bldg.; 

Miss Mary E. Panhorst, Assistant Sec ; Rev. John Prusha, 

Immigrant Work. 
Columbus, Church Federation of Columbus, Exec. Sec , Rev. W. A. 

King, Exec. Sec., Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Dayton, Rev. Irvm E. Deer, 500 American Bldg. 
Toledo, Rev. C. McLeod Smith, 423 Nicholas Bldg. 
Youngstown, Rev. G. L. Ford, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Portland, James W. Palmer, Room 111, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

Allentown, *Rev. H. C. Lilly (Y), Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 
Erie, *Interchurch Federation, Y. M C A. Bldg. 
Harrisburg, *Rev, Harvey Klaer (P), 202 No. Third Street. 
Philadelphia, Rev. E. A. E. Palmquist, 1420 Chestnut Street. 
Pittsburgh, Rev. Charles R. Zahniser, 245 Fourth Avenue. 

Norfolk, Rev. James A. Grain, Y. M. C. A, Bldg. 

Seattle, Rev. H. I. Chatterton, 402 Thompson Bldg., 4th and 

Cheriy Sts. 

Milwaukee, Rev. Frederick G. Behner, Y. M. C. A. Bldg. 

(Y) Y. M. C A Secretary. 



Belgian Protestant Committee of Union 
(Comite d'Union Protestante Beige) 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: Union of Protestant Evangelical Churches of 
Belgium, Belgian Christian Missionary Church. 

OFFICERS: Hfon. General Secretary, M. Kennedy Anet, 11 rue de 
Dublin, Brussels; Secretary General, M. Aloys Gautier, 11 rue de 
Dublin, Brussels. 

Federation of Protestant Churches of Belgium 

(Federation des Eglises Protestantes de Belgique) 
HEADQUARTERS : 5 Rue de Champ du Mars, Brussels, Belgium. 

National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: Baptist Churches, Congregational Churches, 
Methodist Churches, Presbyterian Church, Free Episcopal Churches, 
Society of Friends. 

OFFICE: Memorial Hall, Farringdon St., London, E. C. 4, England. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. R. C, Gillie, M, A.; Pres.-Elect, Rev. S. Chad- 
wick; Hon. Sees., Rev. J. S. Lidgett, Rev. Thomas Nightingale; 
Treas., George Cadbury. 

Directory of Federal Council 298 

Federal Council of the Evangelical Free Churches 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: Baptist Church, Presbyterian Church, Con- 
gregational Church, Primitive Methodist Church, Wesleyan Reform 
Union, Independent Methodist Church, Moravian Church, Countess 
of Huntingdon Connexion, United Methodist Church, Wesleyan Meth- 
odist Church. 

OFFICERS: Moderator, Rev. J. D. Jones, M.A., St. Stephen's 
Road, Bournemouth; Sees., Rev. W. L. Robertson, 7 E. India Ave., 
London, E. C. 3, Rev. Walter H. Armstrong, 49 City Road, London, 
E. C. 1, and Rev. J. H. Shakespeare, M.A., 4 Southampton Row, 
London, W. C. 1; Treas., Sir Walter Essex, Dixcot, North Drive, 
Streatham Park, London, S. W. 16, and William Mallison, 130 Hack- 
ney Rd., London, E. 2. 


Protestant Federation of France 
(Federation Protestante de France) 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: National Union of Reformed Evangelical 
Churches, National Union of Reformed Churches, Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church, Union of Evangelical Free Churches, Evangelical 
Methodist Church, Union of Baptist Churches of Northern France, 
Reformed Churches and Churches of the Augsburg Confession 
(Lutheran) of Alsace and Lorraine. 

EXECUTIVE BODY: Council of the Federation. 

OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL: Pres., Ed. Gruner; Vice-Pres., M. Junc- 
ker, Rev. M. Roberty; Sec., Rev. Elie Bonnet, 8 rue de la Victoire, 
Paris; Asst. Sec., Rev. M. Vincent; Treas., Rev. M. Morel. 

United Protestant Committee for War Aid in France and Belgium 

(Comite d'Union Protestante pour le Secours de Guerre en France 

et Belgique) 

OFFICERS OF THE COMMITTEE: Pres., M. Edouard Gruner; Sec.- 
Treas., M, Andre Monod, 8 rue de la Victoire, Paris. 

French Protestant Committee 
(Comite Protestante Frangais) 

OFFICERS OF THE COMMITTEE: Pres., M. Paul Fuzier; Director, M. 
Andre Monod, 8 rue de la Victoire, Paris. 

Federation of German Evangelical Churches 

(Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund) 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: These have not yet beeen listed, and perma- 
nent organization has not been completed. 

OFFICERS: Publicity Secretary, Dr. A. W. Schreiber, Humbold- 
strasse 14, 1, Berlin-Steglitz, Germany; Sec., Rev. Henry Schaedel, 
Mommenstrasse 49-A, Berlin-Steglitz. 

Federated Churches of Japan, Tokyo, Japan 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. Kakujiro Ishikawa; Sec., Rev. Kikutaro Mat- 
sumo, 234 Shimo Shibuya, Tokyo. 

The Conference of Federated Missions in Japan. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Rev. A. K. Reischauer; Sec., Rev. G. W. Fulton. 
OFFICE: Methodist Publishing House, Ginza, Tokyo. 

294 Year Book of the Churches 


Federation of the Evangelical Churches of Spain 
(Recently Organized) 

ADDRESS: c-o Rev. Fernando Cabrera, Beneficencia 18, Madrid 4, 


Federal Council of Evangelical Free-Churches in Sweden 

(Friky v Kliga) 

HEADQUARTERS : Kristinehamn, Sweden. 

CHAIRMAN: Sven Bengtsson; Sec., August Stromstedt. 


Union of Swiss Reformed Churches 
(Verband Schweizerischer Reformierter Kirchen) 

CONSTITUENT BODIES: Includes now all Reformed Churches of 
Switzerland (reformed and free). 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. D. Herold, Winterthur; Sec., Rev. Adolf 
Keller, 43 Carmenstrasse, Zurich; Treas. t Prof. Ammann, Zofingen. 



Austria. Prof. Karl Beth, Zitterhofergasse 8, Vienna, VII. 
Belgium. Rev. Henri Anet, 15 Avenue Brunard, Uccle (Brabant). 
Bulgaria. Rev. Edward B. Haskell, American Mission, Samokov. 
Czecho-Slovakia. Kirchenpraesident Wehrenpfennmg, Gablonz, A. N. 
Denmark. Rt. Rev. N. Ostenfeld, 11 Norregade, Copenhagen. 
Great Britain. Rev. Thomas Nightingale, Memorial Hall, Farrmg- 

don St., London, E. C. 4. 

Esthonia. Mr. Herbert S. Gott, Kiriki uul 2 Toom, Reval. 
France. M. Andre Monod, 8 Rue de la Victoire, Paris. 
Finland. Rt. Rev. Gustav Johannson, Archbishop of Finland, Abo. 
Germany. Dr. A. W. Schreiber, Humboldstrasse 145, Berlin-Steglitz. 
Greece. Mr. D. C. Hibbard, 44 Metropolitan PL, Athens. 
Holland. Dr. J. A. Cramer, Coenstraat 10, The Hague. 
Hungary. Rev. A. Szabo, Fehervar 51, Budapest. 
Iceland. Rev. Tryggvi Thorhallsson, West Iceland. 
Italy. Rev. Antonio Rostan, 107 Via Tre Novembre, Rome. 
Latvia. Mr. J. J. Somerville, Torbatas Eela 4, Riga. 
Norway. Rev. Jens Gleditsch, Christiania. 

Portugal. Mr. W. H. Stallings, Rue Alexander Herculaneo, Coimbra. 
Poland. Rev. Julius Bursche, Krolewska St. 19, Warsaw. 
Rumania. Bishop D. Teusch, Hermannstadt, Siebenburgen. 
Scotland. Rev. J. R. Fleming, 44 Queen St., Edinburgh. 
Serbia. Rt. Rev. Nicholai Velimirovic, Bishop of Ochrida, Metro- 

polia, Belgrade. 

Sweden. Rt. Rev. Nathan Soederblom, Archbishop of Upsala, Upsala. 
Switzerland. Rev. Adolf Keller, Peterhof statt 6, Zurich. 
Turkey. Mr. Frank D. Steger, 4 Rue Taxim, Constantinople. 


Ceylon. Rev. John Bicknell, Vaddukoddai. 
China. Rev. J. W. Crofoot, West Gate, Shanghai. 
India. Rev. William Paton, National Missionary Council of India, 
5 Russell St., Calcutta. 

Directory of Federal Council 295 

Japan Rev, Kakiyiro Islukawa, President, Federal Council of 

Japan, Tokyo. 

Java. Rev. Raymond L. Archer, 246 Handelstraat Boitenzorg. 
Korea, Rev. B. W. Billings, M. E. F. B. Mission, Seoul. 
Siam. Mr. William Harris, Chiengmai (via Singapore Laos). 


Algeria. Rev. Frank B. Bonnefon, Aglises d' P Algerie, Algiers. 

Belgian Congo. Rev. Thomas B. Brinton, Kampanga Katanga. 

Egypt Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, 35 Charia Falaki, Cairo. 

Liberia. Rev. Frederick A. Price, Cape Palmas. 

Rhodesia. Rev. John R. Gates, Umtah. 

So. Africa. Dr. Bridgman, 19 Eleanor St., Johannesburg, 

West (Central) Africa. Rev. Austin J. Gibbs, Loanda, Angola. 


Brisbane. Mr. W. G. Tunley, 228 Albert St. (Secretary Federation 

of Churches). 

New So. Wales. Rev. William A. Gillanders, 327 Pitt St., Sydney. 
Tasmania. Rev. C. Bernard Cockett, Memorial Congregational 

Church, Hobart. 
Victoria. Mr. Leo J. Greenberg, Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 


Argentina. Rev. C. W. Drees, Calle Junin 976, Buenos Aires. 

Bolivia. Ernest F. Herman, Sasilla 118, Cochabamba. 

Brazil. Rev. Erasmo Braga, Caixa 454, Rio de Janeiro. 

British Guinea. Rev. T. L. M. Spencer, 86 Upper Robb St., George- 

Chile. Rev. Webster E. Browning^ Casilla 2037, Santiago de Chile. 

Colombia. Rev. Thomas H. Candor, Apartado 100, Barranquilla. 

Costa Rico. Rev. Sidney W. Edwards, San Jose. 

Dominican Republic. Rev. Nathan Huffman, Aptdo. 31, Santo 

Ecuador. Rev. H. W. Cragin, Casillo 137, Guito, Otavale. 

Guatemala. Rev. E. M. Haymaker, Aptdo. 174, Guatemala City. 

Nicaragua. Rev. G. Grossman, Bluefields. 

Paraguay. Mr. W. Barbrooke Grubb, Casilla 98, Concencion, 

Peru. Rev. William J. Denme, Apartado 44, Huancayo. 

Venezuela. Rev. T. J. Bach, Scandinavian Alliance Mission, 


Alaska. Rev. A. Putzin, Bethel, Kuskokwin Dist. 
Canada. Rev. Robert Laird, Confederation Life Bldg., Toronto. 
Cuba. Rt. Rev. Hiram R. Hulse, 15th and 8th Sts., Havana. 
Mexico. Rev. John Howland, Aptdo. 117 bis, Mexico City. 
Panama. Canal Zone. Rev. W. F. Jordan, Bible House, Cristobal. 
Philippine Islands. Rev. Arthur Beckendorf, San Isidro, Neuva 

Ecija; Rev. James B. Rodgers, Presbyterian Mission, Manila. 
Porto Rico. Rev. D. P. Barrett, Ponce. 
Salvador. Rev. William Keech, Aptdo. 188, San Salvador. 
West Indies. Rev. J. Reinke, Kingston, Jamaica. 

296 Year Book of the Churches 



Peterhofstatt 6, Zurich. 

(Instituted by the Bethesda Conference In Copenhagen, in August, 

President Dr. 0, Her old 

Winterthur, Switzerland. 
Vice President Dr. Alfred Jorgensen 

Badstuestraede 17, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Secretary Dr. Adolf Keller 

Zurich, Switzerland (Peterhofstatt 6). 

National Representatives 

Denmark. Dr. Alfred Jorgensen, Copenhagen; Pastor Malstrom, 

Holland. Prof. Franz Bohl, Verlangerte Oosterstraat 8, Groningen; 

Prof. D. Cramer, Mahebaan 84, Utrecht. 
Norway. Rev. Dr. Koren, Hjelpkomiten for Nddlidende Kirken, 

Miinchsgat, Kristiania; Dean Jens Gleditsch, Knstiania. 
Sweden. Rev. Gustav Kyhlberg, Diakoniestyrelses Expedition, 

Jakob sbergsgaten 15, Stockholm. 
Switzerland. Prof. Dr. Bohringer, Basel; Prof. Dr. Choisy, Geneva. 


Methodist Episcopal Church 

Bishop John L. Nuelsen, "La Chabliere," Lausanne, Switzerland. 
Presbyterian Alliance 

Rev. J. R. Fleming, 44 Queen St., Edinburgh, Scotland. 
National Lutheran Council 

Rev. John A. Morehead, National Lutheran Council, 437 5th 

Ave., New York. 
Baptist W&rld Alliance 

Rev. J. H. Bushbrooke, Baptist Church House, Southampton 

Row, London, England. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America 

Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 105 E. 22d St., New York. 




Social Service 



This Directory, in addition to Inter church agencies, lists the major 
organizations which are National or International in scope organized 
to serve on lines in accord with the spirit and purpose of Christ. 
While by no means complete it lists the major organizations of gen- 
eral public service, and is greatly enlarged as compared with pre- 
vious editions of the Year Book. We call especial attention to the 
government agencies listed in this section; also to organizations for 
international friendship through practical service. 

For information concerning distinctly denominational agencies in 
all the lines of service here fisted, see Directory of Churches, under 
the several denominations, Sec. I. 

American Bible Society 

OFFICE : Bible House, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Churchill H. Cutting: Pres. Emeritus, 
James Wood ; Gen. Sees., Rev. William I. Haven, Frank H. 
Mann; Rec Sec., Rev. Lewis B. Chamberlain; Asst. Sec, Rev. 
Jesse L. McLaughlin; Treas., Gilbert Darlington. 

PURPOSE: To secure the translation, publication, and circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment, in all languages and 
in all lands. 

HOME AGENCIES: Colored people, South, Sec., Rev. J. P. Wragg, 
Bible House, Astor Place, New York; Northwestern, Sec., Rev. S. H. 
Kirkbride, 156 W. Washington St., Chicago, III.; S. Atlantic, Sec., 
Rev. M. B. Porter, 218 N. Adams St., Richmond, Va.; Western, Sec. t 
Rev. A. F. Ragatz, 808 Railroad Building, Denver, Colo.; Pacific 
Sec., Rev. A. W. Mell, 122 McAllister St., San Francisco, CaL; South- 
western, Sec., Rev. J. J. Morgan, 1304 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex.; 
Eastern, Sec. t Rev. J. L. McLaughlin, Bible House, Astor Place, New 
York City; Central, Sec., Rev. Frank Marston, 424 Elm St., Cin- 
cinnati, 0.; Atlantic, Sec., Rev. F. P. Parkin, 701 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

FOREIGN AGENCIES: Levant Agency, Rev. Arthur C. Ryan, Bible 
House, Constantinople, Turkey, Rev. J. Oscar Boyd, Cairo, Egypt; 
La Plata Agency, Rev. Paul Penzotti, Casilla de Correo, 304, Calle 
Parana, 481, Buenos Ayres, Argentina; Japan Agency, Rev. Karl 
E. Aurell, Bible House, Ginza Street, Tokyo, Japan; China 
Agency, Rev. Carleton Lacy, 73 Szechuen Road, Shanghai, China; 
Brazil Agency, Rev. H. C. Tucker, Caixa do Correio, 454, Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil; Mexico Agency, Rev. A. H. Mellen, Apartado 1373, 
Mexico City, Mexico; West Indies Agency, Jose Marcial-Dorado, 
Ph.D., San Juan, Porto Rico; Siam Agency, Rev. Robert Irwin, 
Bangkok, Siam; Caribbean Agency, Rev. W. F. Jordan, Bible House, 
Cristobal, Canal Zone; Philippines Agency, Rev. G. B. Cameron, Box 
755, Manila, P. L; Upper Andes Agency, Rev. R. R. Gregory, Bible 
House, Cristobal, Canal Zone. 

PERIODICAL: Bible Society Record. 

300 Year Book of the Churches 

American Tract Society 

(Organized May, 1825) 

OFFICE : 101 Park Ave , Cor. 40th St., New York, N. Y. 
OFFICERS Pres., William Phillips Hall; Yice-Pres , Rev. David 
James Burrell , Gen Sec , Rev. William H. Matthews ; Exec. Sec., 
Rev. Edward Noah Hardy , Treas , Edward L. Snffern. 

PURPOSE: To diffuse a knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ and to 
promote the interests of vital Godliness, sound morality and good 
citizenship by the distribution of Christian literature in many lan- 
guages throughout the world. 

PERIODICAL. American Messenger, Editor, Rev. Henry Lewis. 

Chicago Tract Society 

OFFICERS : Pres., Rev. Geo. L. Robinson ; Vice-Pres., Rev. 
Wm. R. Wedderspoon; Sec., Rev. G. K. Flack, 440 S. Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111. ; Treas., William T. Vickery, Conti- 
nental and Commercial National Bank, Chicago, 111. 

PURPOSE : To carry the gospel to the poor and neglected by personal 
testimony and the printed page; to supply to missionaries suitable 
literature in all languages; to employ missionary colporteurs, espe- 
cially among those of foreign speech. 

Commission on Evangelism and Life Service (Federal 

See p. 263. 

The Christian Family Crusade 

OFFICE- 1625 Greenleaf Ave, Chicago, 111. 

OFFICERS: Gen. Dir., Rev. "Wm. Matthew Holderby; T?e- 
Chmm., Ernest A. Bell; Sec., Rev. Wm. E. McDermott; Treas., 
0. T. Miller; Comptroller, J. Fred Lynn. 

PURPOSE: To cooperate with denominational and interdenomina- 
tional agencies, through a publicity campaign, and with pastors and 
parents to secure the establishing of the practice of Family Worship. 

PERIODICAL: The Christian Family Crusade (Quarterly), Editor, 
Rev. Wm. Matthew Holderby. 

Family Altar League 

OFFICE: 538-541 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. "W. E. Biederwolf ; Treas., Thos. J. Bol- 

PURPOSE: To promote family worship and Bible study. 

Gideons (The Christian Commercial Travelers' Association 
of America) 

(Organized July 1, 1899) 

OFFICE: 140 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

OFFICERS: Pres., J. Harry Humphreys; Vice-Pres,, W. D. 
Gillespie; Sec., A. B. T. Moore; Treas., W. W. Crissinger; 
Chaplain, J. P. Cousart 

Directory of Service Organization 301 

PURPOSE : To band together the Christian travelers of America, and 
through them to win the commercial travelers of America for the 
glory of God; to supply every hotel in America with a Bible for each 
guest room; to prepare the hearts of travelers for the acceptance 
of salvation. 

PERIODICAL: The Gideon, Editor, A. B. T. Moore. 

Interdenominational Evangelistic Association 

OFFICERS : Pres , Rev. 0. A. Newlin ; Gen. Sec. and Treas., 
Rev. Parley E. Zartmann, Winona Lake, Ind. 

PURPOSE: To elevate the standard of evangelistic work, to promote 
evangelism, to secure mutual fellowship, cooperation and protection 
of those engaged exclusively in evangelistic work; also to provide a 
bureau of information for churches desiring leaders or helpers for 
evangelistic meetings. 

National Testament and Tract League 

OFFICE: 200 Kellogg Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
Address the Gen. Sec. and Treas., W. P. Cooke. 

OBJECT : To promote the interest of evangelical religion by the free 
distribution of the gospel in printed form, and by conducting evan- 
gelistic meetings. 

Pocket Testament League 

HEADQUARTERS : 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

FOUNDER: Mrs. Charles M. Alexander; Hon. Pres., Dr. 
R. A. Torrey; Pres. Board of Directors, Alwyn Ball, Jr.; 
General See., Mrs. B. McAnlis ; Extension See., Mr. S. Le- 
roy Smith; Chmn. Business Men's Council, Joseph Steele, 
520 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PURPOSE: Personal evangelism through the distribution of Testa- 
ments or Bibles to all who will carry them and read at least one 
chapter daily. 

Scripture Gift Mission, American Branch 

OFFICE: 119 S. Fourth St., Philadelphia, Pa. Chief office 
and depository, 14 Bedford St., London, Eng. 
OFFICERS: Sec., Robert B. Haines, Jr. 

PURPOSE: To distribute the Gospels free throughout the world, 
among soldiers and sailors and particularly in the destitute rural 
portions of our country. 


American Council on Education 

(Organized 1918) 

OFFICE: 26 Jackson Place, N. W., Washington, D. C. 
OFFICERS: Pres., L. D. Coffman, University of Minn.; 
Director, C. R. Mann ; Sec., Dean Ada Comstock, Smith College, 
Northampton, Mass. 

302 Year Book of the Churches 

t PURPOSE: To promote and carry out cooperative action in educa- 
tional matters of common interest and to act as a central clearing 
house of the national educational associations that comprise its mem- 

American Federation of Teachers 

(Organized April 15, 1916) 

OFFICE: 166 W. Washington St , Chicago, 111 

OFFICERS- Pres., Charles B. Stillman; Sec and Treas., F. G. 

PURPOSE: To bring associations of teachers into relations of mu- 
tual assistance and cooperation; to obtain for them all the rights to 
which they are entitled; to raise the standard of the teaching pro- 
fession by securing the conditions essential to the best professional 
service; to promote such a democratization of the schools as will 
enable them better to equip their pupils to take their places in the 
industrial, social and political life of the community. 

The American Humane Education Society 

OFFICE : 180 Longwood Ave., Boston, Mass 
OFFICERS. Pres , Dr Francis H. Rowley; Treas.., Eben Shute; 
Counselor, Hon. Albert F. Pillsbury, Sec, Guy Richardson. 

PURPOSE: An organized effort to carry Humane Education into all 
our American schools and homes, aiding societies, and founding Bands 
of Mercy over the whole American continent. 

Association of American Colleges 

OFFICERS : Pres., Harry M. Gage, Coe College, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa; Exec Sec, Robert L. Kelly, 111 Fifth Ave., New York 


The Authors' League of America (Inc.) 

OFFICE : 22 East 17th Street, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Ellis Parker Butler; Vice-Pres., Gelett Bur- 
gess ; Editor, Henry Gallup Paine ; Sec.-Treas , Eric Schuyler ; 
Managing Sec., Luise M. Sillcox. 

PURPOSE: The Authors' League of America, Inc., is the official na- 
tional organization in the United States, of authors, artists, dramatists, 
screenwriters and composers. It was organized in 1912, to procure 
adequate copyright legislation, both international and domestic; to 
protect the rights and property of all those who create copyrightable 
material ^ of whatever kind or nature; to advise and assist all such 
in the disposal of their productions and to obtain for them prompt 
remuneration therefor; to disseminate information among them as to 
their just rights and remedies. 

Bureau of Vocational Information 

(Organized 1919) 

OFFICE: 2 West 43d Street, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Wendell T. Bush; Treas., Miss Edith 
E. Rand; Sec., Miss Eugenia Wallace; Director, Miss Emma P. 

Directory of Service Organization 308 

PURPOSE: A clearing house of vocational information for women. 
Cooperates with trained and experienced women in all professions 
and in business in the collection of occupational information. Cooper- 
ates with colleges and schools in the distribution of this information 
among students and prospective workers. Publishes vocational bul- 
letin and occupational surveys. 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

HEADQUARTERS : 522 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Elihu Root; Vice-Chmn., Robert A. 
Franks ; Treas., Robert A. Franks ; Sec.-, James Bertram. 

PURPOSE: To promote the advancement of knowledge and under- 
standing by aiding schools, libraries, research, hero funds, useful 
publications, and other agencies. 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 
(Incorporated 1906) 

OFFICE: 522 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
OFFICERS: Pres., Henry S. Pritchett; Treas., Robert A. 
Franks; Sec., Clyde Furst. 

PURPOSE: To provide retiring allowances and pensions for teachers 
and, in general, to encourage, uphold, and dignify the profession of 
the teacher and the cause of higher education. 

Chautauqua Institution 

(A System of Popular Education, founded in 1874) 

OFFICES : Chautauqua, N. Y. and 1819 Broadway, New York 

OFFICERS*. Honorary Pres., George E. Vincent; Pres , Arthur 
E. Bestor; Chmn. Exec. Board, Charles E. Welch. 

ASSEMBLY: July and August, lectures, concerts, symposia, etc. 

SUMMER SCHOOLS: July and August, oldest summer school in 
country, 17 departments, 125 instructors. 

HOME READING DEPARTMENT: A four years' course of systematized 
home readings, aims to give a general increase of knowledge and of 
culture, also special courses. 

Community Motion Picture Bureau 

OFFICE: 46 West 24th Street, New York City. 
OFFICER: Pres,, Warren Dunham Foster. 

PURPOSE: Organized to supply educational and recreational motion- 
picture service for community development. 

General Education Board 

OFFICE: 61 Broadway, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Wallace Buttiick; Sees*, Abraham Flexner, 
Trevor Arnett ; Asst. Sees., E. C. Sage, W. W. Brierly ; Treas,, 
L. G. Myers; Asst. Treas., L. M. Dashiell; Auditor, Ernest A. 
Buttrick; Dir, of the Div. of School Surveys, Frank P. Bach- 

304 Year Book of the Churches 

man; Dir. of the Div. of College and University Accounting, 
H. J. Thorkelson. 

PURPOSE: The promotion of education in the United States, by 
means of surveys, research, the promotion of modern technical edu- 
cation, and financial aid. 

Highway Education Board 

(Formerly: Highway Transport Education Committee) 

OFFICE: "Willard Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICERS. Chmn., John J. Tigert, United States Commissioner 
of Education; Sees., Walton C. John, Thos H. MacDonald, 
Chief, Bureau of Public Roads, Dept. of Agriculture; F, C 
Boggs, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.; Roy D. Chapm, 
National Automobile Chamber of Commerce; F L. Bishop, So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Engineering Education; Harvey S 
Firestone, Rubber Association of America; H. W. Alden, So- 
ciety of Automotive Engineers. 

PURPOSE: To interest educational institutions in the technical 
training of young men in highway engineering and highway trans- 
port, so that eventually they may properly administer the funds given 
them to handle. Conducts annually an essay contest open to all High 
School students on some subject affected by good roads, the prize for 
the best essay being a H. S. Firestone University Scholarship valued 
at not less than $4,000. 

National Committee for Teaching Citizenship 

(Organized 1919) 
OFFICE: 3421 Lowell St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

PURPOSE: To encourage the education of boys and girls of the 
United States concerning the origin and development of liberty, co- 
operation, and democracy; the economic, political, and social prob- 
lems confronting democracy today; the responsibility of citizens in 
a democracy, and the needs and values of living. 

National Education Association 

OFFICE: 1201 Sixteenth St. N. W., Washington, D, C, 
OFFICEES. Pres., William B. Owen; Sec., J. "W. Crabtree; 
Treas., Miss Cornelia S Adair. 

PURPOSE: To elevate the character and advance the interests of 
the profession of teaching and to promote the cause of education in 
the United States. 

National Federation o College Women 

(Organized 1912; in process of inc.) 

OFFICER: Sec. { Mrs. Flora Warren Seymour, 5547 Dor- 
chester Ave., Chicago, 111. 

PURPOSE: To bring into communication with one another all college 
women, in order to secure unity of purpose and action, thereby con- 
serving the power of college women for rendering effective service. 

Directory of Service Organization 305 

National League of Teachers' Associations 
(Organized 1912) 

OFFICER : Pres., Nina Buchanan, Hotel Wintonia, Seattle, 

PURPOSE: For the advancement of education and the interests of 
classroom teachers. 

National League of Women Voters 

(Organized 1920) 

OFFICE: 532 Seventeenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Maud Wood Park; Hon. Pres, Mrs. 
Carrie Chapman Catt ; First Vice-Pres., Mrs. Richard Edwards, 
Peru, Ind. ; Second Vice-Pres., Miss Belle Sherwin, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Third Vice-Pres. , Mrs. Solon Jacobs, Birmingham, Ala.; 
Treas., Miss Katharine Ludington; Sec., Miss Elizabeth Hauser, 
Girard, Ohio ; Exec. Sec., Mrs. Minnie Fisher Cunningham. 

PURPOSE: To foster education in citizenship and to support needed 

National Physical Education Service 

OFFICE : 309 Homer Bldg., "Washington, D. C. 
OFFICERS: Manager, E. Dana Caulkins. 

Thirty-five national organizations cooperating. 

Maintained by the Playground and Recreation. 

Association of America. 

PURPOSE: To obtain progressive legislation for physical education. 

National Story Tellers' League 

(Organized 1903) 

OFFICERS: Pres., Miss Mary E. Hargreaves, 1602 Mailers 
Bldg., 5 South "Wabash Ave, Chicago, 111. ; Sec. and Treas., Mrs. 
E, P. Leonard, 3512 Bosworth Ave., Chicago, 111. 

PURPOSE : To encourage the art of story telling among men, women, 
and children in the United States and Canada. 

Rockefeller Foundation 

(Organized 1913) 

OFFICE: 61 Broadway, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn. Board of Trustees, John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr.; Pres., Geo. E. Vincent; See., Edwin Kogers Embree; 
Treas., L. G. Myers. 

PURPOSE: To promote the well-being of mankind throughotit the 
world. Has so devoted its resources to programs of public health and 
medical education throughout the world that these have come to be 
regarded definitely as its fields. 

306 Year Book of the Churches 

The Southern Cooperative League for Education and Social 

OFFICE: 937 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICERS: Pres. 9 J. P. McConnell; Yice-Pres , Philander P, 
Claxton; Bisliop Theodore D Bratton, Gov. C. H Brough, Sec., 
J. E. McCuIloch; Treas., Richard T. Wyche. 

Ex. COM.: Chmn., J. P. McConnell; Sec., Richard T. 
Wyche; E. 0. Watson, P. P. Claxton, J. 0. Spencer. 

PURPOSE: To enlist the citizenship of ^the South in reinforcing the 
existing agencies for education and social service. 
SUPPORT: It is supported by membership fees and donations, 

Negro Education 

Association of Colleges for Negro Youth 
(Organized 1913) 

OFFICERS: Pres., J. L. Peacock, Shaw University, Ealeigh, 
N. C. ; 8ec., Dean J. T. Cater, Tailadega, Ala. 

Holds an annual meeting for discussion of all phases of college 

work, including curriculum as well as administration. Admits to 

membership only institutions maintaining work of college grade and 

, of a standard approved by the Association. Supported by annual 

dues of its members and contributions from philanthropic boards. 

PURPOSE: To extend and develop institutions for the higher edu- 
cation of negroes. 

Association for the Study of Negro Life and History 
(Organized and Incorporated 1915) 

ADDRESS PiV., C G. Woodson, 1538 9th St , N. AY., Washing- 
ton, D. C 

PURPOSE: To collect and publish sociological and historical docu- 
ments and to promote studies bearing on Negro life and history. 
Endeavors to bring about harmony between the races by interpreting 
one to the other. 

Holds an annual meeting, open to the public. 

Commission on the Church and Race Relations (Federal 

See p. 265. 

Commission on Inter-Racial Cooperation 

OFFICE: Palmer Building, Atlanta, Ga. 
OFFICERS: Chmn., John J. Eagan; Treas., E.'Darden 
Borders ; Director, Will W. Alexander. 

PURPOSE: Seeks to promote good-will and cooperation between 
white and Negro races. 

Julius Rosenwald Fund (Rural School Buildings) 
(Organized 1914) 

OFFICER: Genl Field Agent of Rural Schools, S. L. Smith, 
Commercial Club, Nashville, Tenn. 

Directory of Sendee Organization 307 

PURPOSE: Extends aid to southern communities desiring to provide 
modern rural school houses for Negroes. 

National Association for the Advancement o Colored 

OFFICE : 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Moorfield Storey; Chmn, Board of Di- 
rectors, Miss Mary White Ovington; Sec , James "Weidon John- 
son; Treas., J. E. Spingarn. 

PURPOSE: To secure to colored Americans the common rights of 
American citizenship, and to advance their interests generally. The 
Association carries on an active educational and publicity campaign 
against lynching and mob violence. 

PERIODICAL: Crisis, Editor, W. E. Burghardt Du Bois; Branch 

National Association of Colored Women 

Organized 1896 Incorporated 1904) 

OFFICERS: Pres., Miss Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce 
Univ., Xenia, Ohio; Sec., Mrs. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, 
Sidalia, N. C. 

Has affiliated State and city federations and local clubs of colored 
women in more than half the States of the Union. National organ- 
izer stimulates and assists in the formation of federations and clubs. 
Community requesting this service usually pays expenses. National 
Association holds biennial meetings, open to the public, at which are 
discussed civic and social questions and any matters relating to the 
welfare of the colored race. Proceedings are published; available 
on request until supply is exhausted. Work is carried on throughout 
the year by standing committees on Education, Suffrage, Civil Rights, 
Social Service, Music and other topics. Committees make reports at 
biennial meetings. The more important of these reports are included 
in the Proceedings. 

National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools 
(Organized 1903) 

OFFICERS: Sec., Silas X. Floyd, 1025 Twelfth St., Au- 
gusta, Ga. ; Exec. Sec., Prof. R. S. Grossley, 446 W. Pearl 
St., Jackson, Miss. 

PURPOSE: For the promotion of education and the betterment of 
teachers in colored schools. 

Has organized State associations throughout the South. Holds an 
annual meeting, open to the public, for the discussion of problems. 

National Urban League (for Social Service among Negroes) 
(Established 1911) 

OFFICE: 127 East 23d Street, New York City. 

OFFICERS : Chmn., L. Hollingsworth Wood ; Treas., A. S. 
Frissell; Sec., William* H. Baldwin; Exec. Sec., Eugene 
Kinckle Jones. 

PURPOSE: To improve the relations between the races; to bring 
about coordination of social agencies working with Negroes and to 

308 Year Book of the Churches 

develop such agencies and organizations where necessary; to secure 
and train Negro social workers; to investigate conditions of city life 
as a basis for practical work. 

Negro National Educational Congress 

(Organized and Incorporated 1900) 

OFFICERS: Pres., J. Silas Harris, 1611 Forest Avenue, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

PURPOSE: To lift the Negro to* a higher and more useful plane of 
American citizenship. 

Negro Rural School Fund, Anna T. Jeannes Foundation 
(Organized 1907) 

President and Director, James H. Dillard. 

ADDRESS : Box 418, Charlottesville, Va. 

PURPOSE: To assist remote country schools for Negro children. 

Phelps Stokes Fund 

(Organized 1910, Incorporated 1911) 

ADDRESS : 100 William St., New York City. 

PURPOSE: To originate, stimulate, and encourage activities for 
educational and social betterment among North American Indians, 
needy and deserving whites of the United States, and Negroes of 
America and Africa. To this end the Fund has assisted to a small 
extent Indian education, a few schools for whites, and a larger num- 
ber of schools for Negroes. In cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of 
Education it made a study of Negro education in the United States; 
in cooperation with Foreign Mission Boards of North America, and 
Great Britain and Ireland it made a study of (Native) Education in 
Africa (Eeport published in 1922), and has now completed the erec- 
tion of a "Model Tenement" house for whites in New York City. 

Slater Fund, John F. 

(Organized 1882) 

OFFICE: 61 Broadway, New York City. 
President and Director, James H. Dillard, Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 

PURPOSE: For the improvement and extension of schools for colored 
children in the South. Contributes to teacher training or industrial 
work in a number of colleges and private secondary schools. Has 
established many county training schools, which provide industrial 
training as well as the usual academic courses, and include some 
special preparation for teaching. 

University Commission on Southern Race Questions 

(Organized 1912) 

OFFICERS : Chmn,, Josiah Morse, University of South Carolina, 
Columbia, S. C ; Sec., W. M. Efanley,.V. P. L, Lexington, Ya. 

Holds an annual meeting, and publishes occasionally "Open Letters 
to the College Students of the South." Is composed of one repre- 
sentative of each of the southern State universities. 

Directory of Service Organization 309 

PURPOSE: Organized for the purpose of studying questions con- 
nected with the relation of the races and the needs and conditions 
of the Negroes in the southern States. 

American Sunday School Union 

(Organized 1817: Took its present name 1824) 

OFFICE: 1816 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Martin L. Finckel; Rec. See., William 
H. Hirst ; Treas. y John E. Stevenson ; Sec. of Missions, George P. 

PURPOSE: To establish and maintain Sunday schools, and to publish 
and circulate moral and religious publications. 

PERIODICALS: The Sunday School World, Editor, James McCon- 
aughy and others. 

Bihlical Seminary in New York 


OFFICE: 541 Lexington Ave. cor. 49th St., New York 

OFFICERS: Pres., Wilbert W. White; Vice-Pres., J. Camp- 
bell White ; Treas., Orrin R. Judd ; Sec., Leslie J. Tomkins. 

PURPOSE: For the preparation of ministers and Christian workers 
for service in all lands. 

Commission on Christian Education (Federal Council) 

See p. 264. 

Committee on Friendly Eelations Among Foreign Students 

OFFICE : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 
OFFICERS: Chmn., Dr. D. Willard; Treas., B. H. Fancher; 
Gen. Sec, Charles D. Hurrey ; Exec. Sec., Elmer Yeltoru 

PURPOSE: To furnish information to students abroad who contem- 
plate study in North America; to meet students upon arrival at 
American ports; to assist them in finding lodging, board and em- 
ployment; to advise in the choice of courses and colleges; to issue 
letters of introduction and help students on the way to their desti- 
nations; -to visit colleges and interview foreign students on personal 
problems; to counsel with pastors, church workers, Christian Asso- 
ciation Secretaries, faculty and others, regarding foreign student 
interests; to bring students into adequate contact with American 
Christian people, homes and churches, and into understanding of 
American institutions and problems; to encourage attendance at 
student Christian Conferences, discover and train Christian leaders; 
to provide foreign student speakers for American audiences, and in 
general, to relate students from other lands to all that is best in 
American Christian civililation. 

PERIODICAL: Bimonthly news bulletins for the Filipino, Chinese, 
Russian, Japanese, Indian and Korean Student groups. 

Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook (Ap- 
pointed by Federal Council) 

See p, 269. 

310 Year Book of the Churches 

Conference of Church Workers in Universities in the North 
Central Eegion 

OFFICE: 54 loth Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

OFFICEES : Pres., N. D. Goehring, University o Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kans ; Vice-Pres., Norman B. Henderson, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn ; Sec. and Treas., Vernon S. Phil- 
lips, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 

PURPOSE: The purpose of this Conference shall be to make more 
helpful and efficient the work of the churches in university centers 
and to call the attention of the denominations of the nation to the 
strategic opportunities for Christian service and education in these 
important fields. 

Conference of Church Workers in Universities of the United 

OFFICE : 54 15th Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

OFFICERS. Pres., F. B. Igler, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa ; Vice-Pres., L. B. Hillis, University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley, Calif. ; Sec. and Treas. } Lloyd Wallick, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

PURPOSE: To organize four more regional Conferences. 

Conference of Theological Seminaries and Colleges in the 
United States and Canada 

(Organized August, 1918, at Harvard University) 

The Conference is under the direction of a Continuation 
Committee of thirty men representing different seminaries. 

The fourth biennial meeting will be hel'd in Garrett Biblical 
Institute, Evanston, 111., June, 1924. 

OFFICERS : Pres., Prof. Daniel J. Fraser, Principal of Presby- 
terian College, Montreal, Canada, Vwe-Pres., Prof. Henry E. 
Jacobs, 7333 Germantown Ave , Philadelphia, Pa. ; Sec. and 
Treas., Prof. George W. Richards. 

CONTINUATION COMMITTEE: Chmn., Rev. Wm. Douglas Mack- 
enzie, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.; Sec,, 
Prof. Henry Wilder Foote, Harvard University, Cambridge, 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE : Chmn., Rev. Wm. Douglas Mac- 
kenzie; Sec., Rev, George "W. Richards, Lancaster Theological 
Seminary, Lancaster, Pa. 

PURPOSE: A constitution was adopted by the Conference at To- 
ronto, June, 1922, in which the purpose of the Conference is defined 
as follows: 

"The object of the Conference shall be to promote intercourse 
amongst the institutions which compose its membership; to confer 
concerning those interests which are common to all these institutions; 
to advance the highest ideals of education and training for the 
Christian ministry; to consider any problems which may arise from 

Directory of Service Organization 311 

time to time as to the relation of these institutions to the State and 
to other educational establishments; to provide a central source of 
information for students from North America who desire to carry 
on advanced theological studies in Europe; and on the other hand, 
to cmake known in Europe the opportunities for such study in Amer- 
ica; and to deal with any cxther matter which from time to time the 
Conference may wish to take up." 

Council of Church Boards of Education 
(Organized 1911) 

OFFICE: 111 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Dr. Stonewall Anderson, Nashville, Tenn. ; 
Vice-Pres., Dr. John E. Bradford, Chicago, 111. ; Rec. Sec., Dr. 
0. D. Foster, New York, N. Y. ; Treas., Dr. E. P. Hill, New York, 
N. Y.; Exec. Sec., Dr. Kobert L. Kelly; Asso. Sec., Miss Lura 
Beam; University and Seminary Sec., Dr. 0. D. Foster. 

Most of the organized Protestant Boards of Education, represent- 
ing some twenty leading denominations, are members of the Council. 

PURPOSE: To gain a mutual knowledge and cooperation that will 
promote the interests of Christian education in both denominational 
and tax-supported institutions. 

PERIODICAL: Christian Education. 

International Association of Daily Vacation Bible Schools 

OFFICE: 90 Bible House, New York City. 
OFFICERS: Pres., Russell Colgate; Home Director, Thomas S. 
Evans; Sec, "Walter M. Hewlett; Treas., 0. H. Cheney. 

PURPOSE: To bring together in every community and in every 
communion in many lands, Christian teachers to instruct idle children 
during idle vacations, in idle churches, at small expense, in unsec- 
tarian Daily Vacation Bible Schools, combining worship, work, play, 
and patriotism. 

PUBLICATION : Facts. Literature supplied free. 

The International Sunday School Council of Religious Edu- 

OFFICE: 1516 Mailers Bldg., 5 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, 

OFFICERS: Chmn. Exec. Com., Robert M. Hopkins, St. Louis, 
Mo. ; Chmn, of Board Trustees, Lansing F, Smith, St. Louis, Mo. ; 
Gen. See., Hugh S. Magill, Chicago, III; Treas., J. L. Kraft, 
Chicago, 111. 

PURPOSE: To promote religious education in the local church 
schools and in the community throughout its territory. 

The International Sunday School Council of Religious Education is 
the accredited inter-denominational organization in the field of re- 
ligious education of the Protestant Evangelical churches. It has been 
formed by a merger of the Sunday School Council of Evangelical 
denominations, representing the Protestant churches, and of the 
international Sunday School Association. 

312 Year Book of the Churches 

International Sunday School Lesson Committee 

OFFICE: 1516 Mailers Bldg., Wabash and Madison St., 
Chicago, 111. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Prol John R. Sampey; Vice-Chmn., 
Pro! L. A. Weigle; Sec., Prof. Ira M. Price; Treas., Rev. 
W. 0. Fries. 

PURPOSE: To prepare lists of lessons for Sunday school use on the 
basis of the best established principles of religious pedagogy. 

Magna Charta Day Association (International) 

HOME OFFICE: 147 Kent Street, St. Paul, Minn. 
OFFICERS: Fres., Rev. "William J. Johnstone; Founder and. 
Exec. Sec., Mr. J. W. Hamilton. 

PURPOSE: The Association seeks to arouse interest in plans to have 
the churches and Sunday schools of the English-speaking ^ world 
recognize the third Sunday in June as Magna Charta Sunday, if only 
by a prayer that God will continue to bless the relations between 
England and America, the press to comment on the greatness of this 
day, on every June 15. Circulars upon request. 

Missionary Education Movement 

(Organized 1902) 

OFFICE: 150 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICEKS: Chmn., Rev. William P. Schell; Vice-Chmn., 
Mr. George F. Sutherland; Rec. Sec., Dr. Harry S. Myers; 
Treas., Mr. Philip S. Suffern; Educational Sec., Mr. Frank- 
lin D. Cogswell; Business Mgr., Mr. Herbert L. Hill; Con/, and 
Promotion Sec., Dr. Gilbert, 2 Le Sourd. 

PURPOSE: An agency, in which many denominations cooperate, for 
the publishing of interdenominational graded missionary education 
literature and the conducting of interdenominational summer con- 
ferences and institutions. 

Religious Education Association 

OFFICE: 1440 E. 57th St., Chicago, 111. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Prof. Theo. G. Soares, Chicago, III; 
First Vice-Pres., Sir Eobert A. Falconer, Toronto; Sec., 
Henry F. Cope; Rec. Sec., Herbert W. Gates; Treas., David 
R. Forgan. 

A cooperative organization of the leaders in religious, educational, 
cultural, and social organizations, and a clearing house for religion 
and education. 

PURPOSE: To promote moral and religious training in existing 
agencies, in homes, and through the press. 

METHODS OF WORK: Bureau of information, public reference li- 
brary, investigations, publications, conventions, traveling exhibits, 
experiments, and local conferences. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions 

See p. 321. 

Directory of Service Organization 313 

Sunday School Council of Evangelical Denominations 

OFFICE: 99 Dundas St. East, Toronto, Canada. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Dr. Sidney A. Weston, Boston, Mass.; 
Sec., Rev. George T. Webb, 99 Dundas St. East, Toronto, 
Canada; Treas., R. E. Magill, Richmond, Va. 

PURPOSE: To advance Sunday school interests in the cooperating 
denominations : 

1. By conferring on matters of common interest; 

2. By giving expression to common views and decisions; 

3. By cooperative action on matters concerning educational, edi- 
torial, missionary and publishing activities. 

By merger agreed upon February 15-16, 1922, ceases as an organi- 
zation, though provision is made for its essential functions by the 
organization of groups of professional workers, each group having 
affiliation through its chairman with the new organization resulting 
from the merger, the International Sunday School Council of Re- 
ligious Education. See p. 311. 

United Society of Christian Endeavor 

(Organized Feb. 2, 1881) 

OFFICE: Christian Endeavor Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

WESTERN OFFICE: Room 411-17 N. "Wabash, Ave., Chicago, 111. 

OFFICERS: Pres. t Eev. Francis E. Clark; Asso. Pres., 
Daniel A, Poling; Gen. Sec., E. P. Gates; Editorial See., 
Rev. E. P. Anderson; Treas. and Publication Mgr., A. J. 
Shartle; Extension Sec., Rev. Ira Landrith; Southwestern 
Sec., W. Eoy Breg; Southern Sec., Charles F. Evans; Pacific 
Coast Sec., Paul C. Brown; Alumni Supt., Stanley B. Vander- 
sall; Army and Navy Supt., Rev. S. C. Ramsden; Mgr. Western 
Office, R A. Walker ; Field Sec., C. C. Hamilton. 

Christ; service for Christ; loyalty to Christ's Church; fellowship 
with Christ's people. 

Comrades of the Quiet Hour. Members covenant to spend a defi- 
nite portion of each day in communion with God. 

Tenth Legion. Members make the tenth their minimum gift for 
the work of the kingdom. 

Life Work Recruits. Young people who have covenanted to give 
themselves to full time service in the Christian ministry or in mis- 
sionary work. 

Christian Endeavor Experts. Members pass a definite examina- 
tion in Christian Endeavor methods and principles. 

PERIODICAL: The Christian Endeavor World (weekly), Editor, 
Amos R. Wells, Boston, Mass. 

World Association of Daily Vacation Bihle Schools (Far East 
and Foreign Departments) 

(Organized December, 1922) 

OFFICE: 156 5th Ave., Boom 1202, New York City. 
OFFICERS* Pres. and Director, Eev. Robert Gr. Boville; Sec., 
Charles B. Ford ; Treas., Charles Eliott Warren. 

314 Year Book of the Churches 

PURPOSE: To bring together in foreign lands idle children, idle 
churches, idle students and idle vacations in unsectarian daily vaca- 
tion Bible schools, combining worship, work, play, and patriotism. 

PUBLICATION: Young China. 

World Brotherhood Federation 

HEADQUARTERS: Trafalgar Buildings, 1, Charing Cross, 
S. W. 1, London, Eng. 

Toronto, Canada. 

OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Rev. John Clifford, London, Eng.; 
Pres., Wm. Ward, London, Eng. ; Vice-Pres., Gen. Jan C. 
Smuts, Cape Town, S. Af ., Rev. T. A. Moore, Toronto, Can., 
Rt. Hon. Arthur Henderson, M. P., London, Eng.; Asso. 
Treas., Wm. Heal, London, Eng.; Commissioner for Evs- 
rope, Tom Sykes, London, Eng.; Commissioner for N. 
America, James Foster Wilcox; Commissioner and Sec., 
Thomas Howell. 

The objects of the Federation are: 

1. To promote the organization of brotherhoods and kindred socie- 
ties in all countries. 

2. To promote the universal observance of a Brotherhood Sunday. 

3. To interpret and exemplify brotherhood in the light of the life 
and principles of Jesus. 

4. To make such a spirit and interpretation of brotherhood domi- 
nant in all life, personal, social, economic and political. 

World's Student Christian Federation 

(Organized, 1895, at Vadstena Castle, Sweden) 

OFFICE : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 
OFFICER: Chmn., John R. Mott. 

Composed of the following Christian Student Movements: Austra- 
lia, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greajt 
Britain and Ireland, India, Burma and Ceylon, Italy, Japan and 
Korea, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, 
Sweden, Switzerland, United States of America. 

World's Sunday School Association 

(Organized 1907) 

OFFICE : 1 Madison Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS : Pres., Hon. Justice J. J. MacLaren, Toronto, Cana- 
da ; Chmn., Arthur M. Harris, New York City ; Gen. See,, W. G. 
Landes, New York City; Freas., Paul Sturtevant, New York. 

Primarily a missionary organization and directly represents the 
mission and Sunday school boards. 

Young Men's Christian Association 

See Men and Boys, p. 342. 

Young Women's Christian Association 

See Women and Girls, p. 374. 

Directory of Service Organization 315 

Ad Interim Committee on Organic Union 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Rev. Joseph A. Vance, 21 Edmund 
Place, Detroit, Mich. ; Sec., Rev. Ruf us W. Miller, 15th and 
Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., E. H. Bonsall, Esq., 
Land Title and Trust Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PURPOSE: To arrange a conference of representatives of evangeli- 
cal denominations to consider the question of "Closer Relations and 
Union of the Churches." 

American Association of University Women 

(Organized 1882) 

OFFICE : 1634 I St., N. W., Washington, D. 0. 
OFFICERS: Pres., Miss Ada Comstock, Smith College, North- 
ampton, Mass. ; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Amelia H. Eeinhardt, Mills Col- 
lege, Calif.; Treas., Mrs. Katharine P. Pomeroy, 938 Glengyle 
Place, Chicago, 111.; Rec. Sec., Mrs. Eoscoe Anderson, 5370 
Pershing Ave., St. Louis, Mo. ; Exec. Sec , Miss Ruth Greneh, 
1634 I St., Washington, D. C.; Editor, Miss R. Louise Fitch, 
1634 I St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

PURPOSE: To unite alumnae of accredited institutions for practical 
educational work. 

Association for the Promotion of Christian Unity 

(Organized 1910) 

OFFICERS: Pres., Peter Ainslie, 504 N. Fulton Avenue, 
Baltimore, Md. ; Sec., Henry C. Armstrong. 

An organization of the Disciples of Christ for promoting the unity 
of the Church and cooperation among Christians, by encouraging 
intercessory prayer, the holding of interdenominational conferences, 
general and local, and the publication and distribution of Christian 
unity literature. Its work reaches the leaders of various commu- 
nions throughout the world and coordinates with the general move- 
ments for unity and cooperation. Membership is open to all who 
desire tlie union of Christians and who contribute $5.00 annually. 

PERIODICAL: Christian Union Quarterly, Peter Ainslie, Editor. 
Annual subscription, $2. 

Christian Unity Foundation 

OFFICE: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Bishop Lines, Newark, N. 3.; 
Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton, New York City; Sec., Rev. 
W. C. Emhardt, Newton, Pa. ; Treas., 0, S. Seymour. 

PURPOSE: To promote Christian unity at home and throughout 
the world. 

Commission on Councils of Churches, State and Local 
(Federal Council) 

See p. 263. 

316 Year Book of the Churches 

The Continuation Committee of the World Conference on 

Faith and Order 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Rt Rev. Charles H. Brent, Bishop of 
Western New York; Treas., George Zabrlskie, 49 Wall St., 
New York City; Sec., Robert H. Gardiner, 174 Water St., 
Gardiner, Maine. 

PTOPOSE: A World Conference of all Christians on questions of 
Faith and Order looking to an approach to the Unity of Christendom. 

The Continuation Committee, appointed at a Preliminary Confer- 
ence held in Geneva, Switzerland, in. August, 1920, represents 78 co- 
operating Churches in 40 nations. The meeting of the World Con- 
ference has been tentatively set for May, 1925. 

General Federation of Women's Clubs 

(Organized 1889; Incorporated 1904) 
OFFICE: 1734 N St , Washington, D. C. 
OFFICEES: Pres., Mrs. Thomas G. Winter, 2617 Dean Boule- 
vard, Minneapolis, Minn. ; First Vice-Pres., Mrs "W. S. Jennings, 
Jacksonville, Fla. ; Second Yice-Pres , Mrs. "Wallace T. Perham, 
Glendive, Mont.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. H. S. Godfrey, 1766 Girard 
Ave., S. Minneapolis, Minn. ; Eec, Sec , Mrs. James E. Hays, 
Montezuma, Ga. ; Treas.,, Mrs. Florence C. Floore, Cleburne, 
Tex.; Director Headquarters, Miss Lida Hafford, Washington, 
D. C. 

PURPOSE: To bring into communication with one another the 
women's clubs of the world and to unite their activities. Maintains 
a central office which serves as a clearing house and bureau of infor- 
mation. The central organization includes besides the usual officers, 
one director for each State, -the District of Columbia, "and Alaska, 
and Chairmen of seven departments as follows: American Citizen- 
ship, Applied Education, Fine Arts, International Belations, Legisla- 
tion, Press and Publicity and Public Welfare. Central organization 
conducts work through State federations which in turn are composed 
of local groups. State federations are grouped together into district 
federations. General federation holds a biennial convention for dele- 
gates and State Presidents; on alternate years it holds a Council 
meeting. State and district federations hold annual meetings. State 
Clubs conduct activities on a State-wide basis similar to those of the 
national departments. Membership in the General Federation in- 
cludes State federations and federated or affiliated clubs in other 
countries. Supported by annual dues, $5 and up, according to mem- 

National Federation of Religious Liberals 
OFFICE: 813 Barristers' Hall, Boston, Mass. 
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Charles W. Wendte, Berkeley, 

Calif.; Pres., Prof. Jesse H. Holmes, Swarthmore, Pa.; Sec. 

and Treas., Frank H. Burt. 

% PURPOSE: To promote the religious life by united testimony for 
sincerity, freedom and progress in religion, by social service, and a 
fellowship of the spirit beyond the lines of sect and creed. 

Holds one or more interdenominational meetings yearly in different 
parts of the United States. 

Directory of Service Organization 317 

Universal Conference of the Church of Christ on Life and 

(NOTE: This takes the place of the Ecumenical Conference.) 

Chmn., Archbishop Nathan Soderblom, Upsala, Sweden; 
General Sees., Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 105 E. 22d St., 
New York, Rev. Frederick Lynch, 70 Fifth Ave., New 

The preliminary conference to arrange for the Universal Confer- 
ence on Life and Work was called at Geneva, in the summer of 1920 
by the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. It is 
proposed to hold a conference representative of all communions of 
the Church of Christ, to concentrate the thought of Christendom on 
the mind of Christ as revealed in the gospels towards those great 
social questions, industrial and international, which are so acutely 
urgent in every country, and to discover how best His message may 
be applied to the problems with which, since the war, every nation 
has been confronted. The entire Conference will be composed of 
officially appointed representatives of the churches. 

A committee has been formed in three sections, representing many 
Christian communions in Continental Europe, the British Empire, 
and the United States. On this committee are leaders from the 
Church of England, the Church of Scotland, the Free Churches of 
Great Britain, and most of the communions in Europe and America. 
Regional and sectional conferences have already been held in Scandi- 
navia, England and the United States. The American section is 
organized as follows: 

OFFICERS: Rev. Arthur J. Brown, Chmn.; Bishop Luther B. Wilson, 
Vice-Chmn. and Chmn. of the Exec. Com.; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, 
Gen. Sec. 


The Church and Federated and Cooperative Effort Chmn., Rev. 
Frank Mason North; Sees., Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Rev. Roy B. 

The Church and Evangelism Chmn., Rev. J. Ross Stevenson; See., 
Rev. Charles L. Goodell. 

The Church and Social Service Chmn., Robert H. Gardiner; Sec., 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy. 

The Church and International Relations Chmn., Rt. Rev. Charles 
H. Brent; Sec., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton. 

The Church and Education Chmn., Pres. Ellen F. Pendleton; 
Sec., Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert. 

The Church and Domestic Missions Chmn., Rev. F, W. Burnham; 
Sec., Rev. Alfred W. Anthony. 

The Church and World Evangelism Chmn., Rev. James I. Vance; 
Sec., Fennell P. Turner. 

The Church and Moral Reform Chmn., Rev. James H. Franklin. 

Africa Inland Mission, American Council 

OFFICE : 233 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

OFFICERS: Gen. Director, Rev. Charles E, Hurlburt; 
Home Director, Rev. Orson R. Palmer; Gen. Sec., Rev. 
Oliver M. Fletcher. 

818 Year Book of the Churches 

PURPOSE: To conduct work among unreached tribes in the African 

PERIODICAL: Inland Africa, Editor, Walter F. Clowes. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
(Organized 1810, Incorporated 1812) 

OFFICE.- Congregational House, 14 Beacon St , Boston, Mass. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev, Edward G. Moore, Vice-Pres., David P. 
Jones, Minneapolis, Minn ; Re& Sec., Rev. Oscar B. Maurer; 
Asst. Bee. Sec., Dr. Edward "Warren Capen , Cor Sees., Rev. Jas. 
L. Barton, Rev. Cornelius H Patton, Rev William B Strong; 
Treas., Frederick A. Gaskms, 14 Beacon St , Boston, Mass. ; 
Asst., Treas , Harold B. Belcher; Editorial Sec , Rev Enoch F. 
Bell ; Asso Sees., Rev. D. Brewer Eddy, Rev. Ernest W. Riggs, 
Candidate Sec, Rev. Alden H. Clark; Publishing and Purchas- 
ing Agent, Harvey L Meeken. 

DISTRICT SECRETARIES: New England District, Secretary 
Patton in charge, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. ; Rev. Wm. W. 
Scudder, Middle District, 287 Fourth Ave. 5 New York City; 
Interior District, Rev. W. F. English, Jr., 19 S. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111 ; Pacific Coast District, Rev. Henry H. Kelsey, 760 
Market St , San Francisco 

PRUDENTIAL COMMITTEE* The Pres. and Yice-Prcs., ex officio; 
Rev. Edward D. Eaton, Rev. Arthur L. Gillett, Charles S. 
Bates, Arthur H. "Wellnian, Frank B. Towne, Arthur Perry, 
Dr. Joel L. Goldthwait, J Livingston Grandm, Rev. Ashley D. 
Leavitt, Rev. Arthur H. Bradford, Charles S. Olcott, Rev. Geo. 
W. Owen. 

PURPOSE: The American Board is the oldest foreign missionary 
society in America having been organized June 29, 1810, at Brad- 
ford, Mass., during the session of the General Association of Massa- 
chusetts. Its charter was received from the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts in 1812. Its object, as stated in its charter, was, "for the 
purpose of propagating- the gospel in heathen lands by supporting 
missionaries and advancing the knowledge of the holy scriptures." 
From the beginning it sought the cooperation of all Christians with- 
out distinction of sect, who desired "to piopagate the gospel among 
the uneyangehzed nations." This undenominational character has 
been maintained throughout the century of its life. During the cen- 
tury various religious denominations have withdrawn from its support, 
believing they could labor for the same great object more efficiently 
through denominational boards, but the American Board, still receiv- 
ing support from churches and individuals of different names, is in 
the main supported by Congregationalists. 

American Mission to Lepers, Inc. 

OFFICE: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 
OFFICERS: Pres., William J. Schieffelin; Gen. Sec., W. M. 
Banner; Treas., Fleming H. RevelL 

PURPOSE: To preach the gospel to lepers, to relieve their dreadful 

Directory of Service Organization 319 

suffering's, to supply their simple wants, and in time, to rid the 
world of leprosy. 

PERIODICAL: Without the Camp (quarterly), Editor, W. JL P. 

NOTE: This organization is also the American representative of The 
Mission to Lepers (London). 

Centra! American Mission 

OFFICE : 33 Grand Ave., Paris, Texas. 
OFFICERS: Chmn., Rev. Luther Rees, Paris, Texas; See,, 
Thos. J. Jones, 804 Sumpter Bldg., Dallas, Texas; Treas., 

D. H. Scott, Paris, Texas. 

PURPOSE: To preach the gospel to every creature in Central 

PERIODICAL: Central American Bulletin, Paris, Tex., Editor, D. H. 

China Inland Mission 

(Organized m London, 1865) 

OFFICERS Director for North America, Rev. Henry W. Frost, 
Princeton, N. J. ; American Sec.-Treas., Roger B. Whittlesey, 
235-7 W. School Lane, Germantown, Pa ; Canadian Sec., Eev. 

E. A. Brownlee; Canadian Treas., Kev. Kobert Wallace; Publi- 
cation and Prayer Union Sec , F. F. Helmer, 507 Church St , 
Toronto, Ont, 

PURPOSE: To evangelize the inland provinces of China. 

Committee on Cooperation in Latin America 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Kobert E. Speer; Exec. Sec., Eev. S. G. 
Inman, 25 Madison Ave., New York City; Editor of Spanish 
Publications, Kev. Juan Orts Gonzalez, New York City; Educa- 
tional Sec., Kev. W. E. Browning, Calle Ghana 2126, Montevideo, 
Uruguay; Treas., James H Post, 129 Front St., New York City. 

The Committee on Cooperation in Latin America acts as a clearing 
house and board of strategy for thirty American and Canadian 
Mission Boards working in Latin America, being officially represen- 
tative of the Mission Boards themselves, and serves as a Continuation 
Committee of the Panama Congress on Christian Work in Latin 
America where its organization was enlarged and reconstituted. It 
is composed of one representative of each missionary agency in its 
membership and a number of co-opted members, not exceeding one- 
half of the number of regularly appointed representatives of the 
various Mission Boards. Its functions are consultative and advisory. 
The work of the committee has gradually grown to the point where 
it is impossible in a brief statement to trace its numerous activities 
and influences. 

It brings the mission boards around a common council table to 
discuss all the problems connected with their work in Latin America. 
It keeps a constant circle of helpful contacts and ^ood-will goinec 
through the Mission Boards. It pushes cooperative enterprises which 
would otherwise languish. It maintains helpful and broadening con- 
tacts with missionaries on the field. It saves the boards much 
money by doing for all of them work which individual boards would 
otherwise have to undertake. It represents the Evangelical Church 

320 Year Book of the Churches 

in many Pan-American movements which might otherwise overlook 
the importance of the Christian forces. It gives out a large amount 
of information to the press, schools, business concerns, and indi- 
viduals concerning Latin America, keeping missionary work in these 
countries in the public mind. It arranges addresses and conducts 
classes on Latin-American topics in churches, conferences, conven- 
tions and educational institutions. It is developing an ever-widening 
acquaintance with the intellectual leaders in Latin America and 
undertakes to interpret to them the spirit and purpose of American 

Commission on International Justice and Good-Will (Fed- 
eral Council) 

See p. 266. 

Commission on Relations with the Orient (Federal Council) 

See p. 266. 

Committee on Religious Work in the Canal Zone (FederaJ 

See p. 269. 

Continuation Committee o the World Missionary Confer- 

See International Missionary Council, p. 321. 

Federation o Woman's Boards of Foreign Missions of 
North America 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. William Boyd, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. De Witt Knox; Sec., Miss Vernon Halli- 
day; Treas., Mrs. J. C. Henley. 

PURPOSE: To promote unity, Christian fellowship, and cooperation 
among woman's boards; to engage and disseminate the best methods 
of work; and to plead unitedly for the outpouring of the Spirit of 
God upon the Church of Christ, 

Foreign Missions Conference of North America 

OFFICE : 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS : CJimm. 9 Rev. Allen R. Bartholomew ; Vice-Chmn , 
Miss Margaret E Hodge and Rev. George B. Epp; Sec., P. P. 
Turner; Treas., Alfred E. Marling. 

PURPOSE: To hold an annual conference of North American foreign 
boards, to provide for the study of missionary problems, to promote 
a true science of missions, and to do work in the interest of the 

Chamberlain ; Vice-Chmn , Rev. Canon S. Gould ; Rec. See., Mrs. H. R. 
Steele; Sees., Fennell P. Turner, Rev Frank W. Bible; Treat , Alfred 
E. Marling; Com. on Missionary Preparation, See., Rev. Frank K. 
Sanders; Missionary Research Library, Sec., Charles H. Fahs; Li- 
brarian, Miss Hollis W. Herring. 

kenzie; Vice-Chmn. t Rev. William I. Chamberlain; Sec., Fennell P. 
Turner ; Director, Rev. Frank K. t Sanders. 

For Statistical Report, see Religious Statistics, Sec. V, p. 402-413. 

Directory of Service Organization 321 

Grenfeil Association of America (Inc.) 

OFFICE : 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
OFFICERS: Pres., D. Bryson Delavan; Treas., Henry C. 
Holt; Sec., Edmund 0. Hovey. 

PURPOSE: Promotes work of Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfeil among fisher- 
men in North Newfoundland and Labrador. 

International Missionary Council 

(Formerly the Continuation Committee of the World Missionary 
Conference ) 

OFFICERS : Chmn., John R. Mott, 347 Madison Ave., New 
York City; Joint Sees., J. H. Oldham, A. L. Warnshuis, 
Edinburgh House, 2 Eaton Gate, London, S. W. 1, England. 

CONSTITUTION: The Council is constituted by the national mission- 
ary organizations in the different countries, and is composed of about 
seventy members. In countries where there is no representative 
organization, a committee of the Council shall determine the method 
of representation. 

FUNCTIONS: To stimulate thinking and investigation on missionary 
questions and to make results available for all missionary societies 
and missions; to help coordinate activities of the national missionary 
organizations of different countries; to help unite Christian public 
opinion to support freedom of conscience, of religion and of mis- 
sionary literature; to help unite the Christian forces of the world in 
seeking justice in international and inter-racial relations; to publish 
the International Review of Missions and other missionary litera- 
ture; to call a World Missionary Conference if and when this should 
be deemed desirable. 

Lebanon Hospital for Mental Diseases 

(Beirut, Syria) 

OFFICE: American Committee, 119 South Fourth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Joel Cadbury; Treas., Asa S. Wing; 
Sec., R. B. Haines, Jr. 

Institution in the Near East providing scientific care for mental 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions 

OFFICE: 25 Madison Ave., New York City; Canadian office, 
604 Jarvis St., Toronto, Canada. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Joseph C. Bobbins; Gen. Sec., Robert P* 
Wilder; Vice-Chmn., Kenneth S. Latourette, W. E. Taylor; 
Treas. , James M. Speers. 

PURPOSE: To awaken and maintain among all Christian students 
of the United States and Canada intelligent and active interest in 
foreign missions; to enroll a sufficient number of properly qualified 
student volunteers to meet the successive demands of the various 
foreign missionary boards of North America; to help all such intend- 
ing missionaries to prepare for their life-work and to enlist their 
cooperation in developing the missionary life of home churches; to 
lay an equal -burden of responsibility on all students who are to 

322 Year Book of the Churches 

remain as ministers and lay workers at home, that they may actively 
promote the missionary enterprise by their intelligent advocacy, by 
their gifts and by their prayers. 

PEKIODICAL: Student Volunteer Movement Bulletin (Quarterly). 

Sudan United Mission of the U. S. A, 

OFFICE . Littell Bldg , Summit, N. J. 

OFFICERS- Gen Sec., H K. W. Kumm; Asst Sec, Jean L. 
Ovens, Treas., Livingston P. Moore. 

PURPOSE: To counteract the Mohammedan advance in Central 
Africa by Christianizing the Pagan tribes there. The mission mam- 
tains a Freed Slaves Home there; a Seminary for the training of 
Native teachers; a Hospital and various stations in the Sudan. 

PERIODICAL: Newsletter, Editor, Jean L. Ovens.* 

Woman's Union Missionary Society of America 

OFFICE: 67 Bible House, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Samuel J. Broadwell; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. S. T. Dauchy; Rec. Sec., Miss Adele Masters; Treas. , 
James H. Prentice. 

OBJECT: The salvation and elevation of Eastern women. 

Yale Foreign Missionary Society 


OFFICE : 5 White Hall, New Haven, Conn. 

OFFICERS: Pres,, Clarence H. Kelsey; Chmn. Board of 
Trustees, F. Wells Williams; Gen. Sec., Dr. Edward H. 
Hume; Exec. Sec. and Treas., Herbert H. Vreeland, Jr.; 
Asst. Sec. and Asst. Treas., Rachel A. Dowd. 

OBJECT: The support and development of the College of Yale-in- 
China and the Hunan-Yale College of Medicine and Hospital at 
Changsha, Hunan, China. 

PERIODICAL: The Yah Quarterly. 

The White "House 

Warren G. Harding, President. 

George B. Christian, Jr., Secretary to the President. 

ADDRESS : "The White House," Washington, D. C. 


Calvin Coolidge, President of the Senate. 

Edward T. Clark, Secretary to the President of the 

Rev. J. J. Muir, Chaplain of the Senate. 


Frederick H. Gillett, The Speaker of the House. 

Charles H. Parkman, Secretary to the Speaker. 

Rev. James Shea Montgomery, Chaplain of the House. 

ADDRESS : "The Capitol/' Washington, D. C. 

Directory of Service Organization 823 

Department of State 

Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State. 
William H. Beck, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
ADDRESS : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of State is charged, under the 
direction of the President, with the duties appertaining to corre- 
spondence with the public ministers and the consuls of the United 
States, and with the representatives of foreign powers accredited to 
the United States ; and to negotiations of whatever character relating 
to the foreign affairs of the United States. He is also the medium 
of correspondence between the President and the chief executives of 
the several States of the United States; he has the custody of the 
great seal of the United States, and countersigns and affixes such 
seal to all executive proclamations, to various commissions, and to 
warrants for the extradition of fugitives from justice He is re- 
garded as the first in rank among the members of the Cabinet. He 
is also the custodian of the treaties made with foreign states, and 
of the laws of the United States. He grants and issues passports, 
and exequators to foreign consuls in the United States are issued 
through his office. He publishes the laws and resolutions of Con- 
gress, amendments to the Constitution, and proclamations declaring 
the admission of new States into the Union. 

Department of the Treasury 

Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury. 
John Kieley, Private Secretary to the Secretary of the 
ADDRESS: Treasury Department, Washington, D, C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of the Treasury is charged by 
law with the management of the national finances. He prepares 
plans for the improvement of the revenue and for the support of the 
public credit; superintends the collection of revenue, and directs the 
forms of keeping and rendering public accounts and of making 
returns; grants warrants for all moneys drawn from the Treasury 
in pursuance of appropriations made by law, and for the payment of 
moneys into the Treasury; and annually submits to Congress esti- 
mates of the probable revenues and disbursements of the Government. 
He controls the construction and maintenance of public buildings; 
the coinage and printing of money; the administration of the Coast 
Guard and the Public Health branches of the public service, and 
furnishes generally such information as may be required by either 
branch of Congress on all matters pertaining to the foregoing. 


D. H. Blair, Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

Jasper N. Baker, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS : Treasury Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has gen- 
eral superintendence of the collection of all internal revenue taxes; 
the enforcement of internal revenue laws and the national prohibi- 
tion act; recommendation for appointment of internal revenue em- 
ployees; compensation and duties of inspectors, agents, and other 
subordinate officers; the preparation and distribution of instructions, 
regulations, stamps, forms, blanks, hydrometers, stationery, etc. 

324 Year Book of the Churches 


Hugh S. Gumming, Surgeon General. 
Daniel Masterson, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS: Surgeon General's Office, 3d and B Sts. S. E., 
Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Bureau of Public Health Service comprises 
seven divisions and the chief clerk's office, the operations of which 
are coordinated and are under the immediate supervision of the 
Surgeon General. 

1. The Division of Scientific Research conducts the scientific in- 
vestigations of the service. 

2. The Division of Foreign and Insular Quarantine and Immigra- 
tion, through the Surgeon General, enforces the national quarantine 
laws and prepares the regulations relating thereto. 

3. The Division of Domestic Quarantine of the Public Health Ser- 
vice carries out measures to suppress epidemics, such as plague and 
typhus fever, and measures to prevent the spread of epidemic dis- 
eases in the United States. 

4. The Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics collects and 
publishes information regarding the prevalence and geographic dis- 
tribution of diseases dangerous to the public health in the United 
States and foreign countries. 

5. Through the Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief, hospital 
care and treatment is provided for beneficiaries at 20 marine hos- 
pitals and 46 Public Health Service hospitals, including 13 for the 
treatment of tuberculosis patients, 10 for mental and nervous dis- 
eases, and 1 for lepers. 

6. The Division of Personnel and Accounts transacts all bureau 
matters relating to the appointment, promotion, transfer, resigna- 
tion, or other change in status of service personnel. 

7. The Division of Venereal Diseases cooperates with State boards 
or departments of health for the prevention and control of such 

Department of War 

John Wingate Weeks, Secretary of War. 
John W. Martyn, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
ADDRESS: State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of War is head of the War De- 
partment, and performs such duties as are required of him by law 
or may be enjoined upon him by the President concerning the military 


General John J. Pershing, Chief of Staff. 

ADDRESS : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Chief of Staff is the immediate adviser of 
the Secretary of War on all matters relating to the military estab- 
lishment and is charged by the Secretary of War with the planning, 
development, and execution of the Army program. 

Chaplain John T. Axton, Chief Chaplain of the Army. 
Chaplain Julian E. Yates and Chaplain John J. Campbell, 

Directory of Service Organization 325 

Augustus S. Bonanno, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS : State, War and Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Chief of Chaplains coordinates and super- 
vises the work of chaplains and develops plans for the moral and 
spiritual betterment of the Army. He exercises direct supervision 
over the Chaplains' Service School and such projects for the instruc- 
tion of chaplains as may be considered necessary to secure a properly 
trained personnel. He investigates the qualifications of all candi- 
dates for appointment as chaplains. 


Maj. Gen. Frank Mclntyre, Chief of Bureau. 

L. V. Carmack, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS : 18th and E Sts. N. W. Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Bureau of Insular Affairs is assigned all 
matters pertaining to civil government in the island possessions of 
the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the War Department, 
the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico being the ones so subject at 
the present time. 

PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT: Governor General, Leonard Wood, Head- 
quarters, Manila. 

POETO Eico GOVERNMENT: Governor, E. Mont Riley, Headquarters, 
San Juan. 

William E. Pulliam, Headquarters, Santo Domingo. 

HAITIAN CUSTOMS RECEIVERSHIP: General Receiver of Customs, 
A. J. Maumus, Headquarters, Port-au-Prince. 

Department of Justice 

Harry M. Daugherty, The Attorney General* 
W. Frank Gibbs, Private Secretary and Assistant to the 
Attorney General 

ADDRESS: Vermont Ave. and 15th St. N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Attorney General is the head of the Depart- 
ment of Justice and the chief law officer of the Government. 

Post-Office Department 
Harry S. New, Postmaster General. 

Ebert K. Burlew, Private Secretary to Postmaster General. 
ADDRESS: Post-Office Department, Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Postmaster General is the executive head of 
the Federal Postal Service. He appoints all officers and employees 
of the Post-Office Department, except the four Assistant Postmasters 
General and the purchasing agent, who are presidential appointees. 

Department of the Navy 

Edwin Denby, Secretary of the Navy. 

John B. May, Jr., Private Secretary to the Secretary of the 

ADDRESS: Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of the Navy performs such duties 
as the President of the United States, who is Commander-in-Chief, 
may assign him, and has the general superintendence of, construction, 
manning, armament, equipment, and employment of vessels of war. 

326 Year Book of the Churches 


Rear Admiral Thomas Washington, Chief of the Bureau. 
Edward Henkel, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS: Room 3057, Navy Department Bldg., 18th and 
B Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The duties of the Bureau of Navigation com- 
prise the issue, record and enforcement of the orders of the Secretary 
to the individual -officers of the Navy; the training and education 
of line officers and of enlisted men at schools and stations and in 
vessels maintained for that purpose; the upkeep and operation of 
the Naval Academy, of technical schools for line officers, of the 
apprentice-seaman establishments, of schools for the technical edu- 
cation of enlisted men, and of the naval home at Philadelphia, Pa.; 
the upkeep and the payment of the operating expenses of the Naval 
War College; the enlistment, assignment to duty, and discharge of 
all enlisted persons* 

CHAPLAIN DIVISION: Captain Evan W. Scott, head of the Chap- 
lains' Division. 

ADDRESS: Boom 3502-4 Navy Department Building, 18th and D 
Sts. N. W., Washington, D, C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: This office functions by special appointment un- 
der the Bureau of Navigation for the selection, appointment and 
assignment of chaplains and the promotion of religious work in the 
Navy, and has general supervision over the Chaplains' Corps, per- 
sonnel and affairs. 

HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE: Capt. Frederic B. Bassett, Jr., Eydrog- 
rapher, Room 1026 Navy Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Hydrographic Office is charged with marine 
surveys in foreign waters and with the collection and dissemination 
of hydrographic and navigational data ; the preparation and printing 
of maps and charts relating to and required in navigation; the fur- 
nishing of the foregoing to the Navy and their sale to the mercantile 
marine and the public at the cost of printing and paper. 


Capt. C. S. J. Butler, Medical Corps, United States Navy, 
23d and E Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 


Capt. Middleton S. Elliott, Medical Corps, United States 
ADDRESS : Foot of 24th St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Department of the Interior 

Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior. 

Harry G. Clunn, Private Secretary to the Secretary. 

ADDRESS : Interior Department Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of the Interior is charged with 
the supervision of public business relating to the General Land 
Office, Reclamation Service, Geological Survey, Bureau of Mines, 
Office of Indian Affairs, Patent Office, Bureau of Pensions, Bureau 
of Education, National Park Service, Capitol Building and Grounds, 
and certain hospitals and eleemosynary institutions in the District 
of Columbia. 

Directory of Service Organization 327 


Charles H. Burke, Commissioner. 

Lem Towers, Jr., Private Secretary to the Commissioner. 

ADDRESS : Interior Department BIdg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has charge 
of the Indian tribes of the United States (exclusive of Alaska), their 
education, lands, moneys, schools, purchase of supplies, and general 

Washington Gardner, Commissioner. 
Fred K. Swett, Acting Private Secretary to tJie Commissioner. 
ADDRESS: Pension BIdg., Judiciary Square, Washington, 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Commissioner of Pensions supervises the 
examination and adjudication of all claims arising under laws passed 
by Congress granting pensions on account of service in the Army or 
Navy rendered wholly prior to October 6, 1917 j claims for reimburse- 
ment for the expenses of the last sickness and burial of deceased 
pensioners; claims for bounty-land warrants based upon military or 
naval service rendered prior to March 3, 1855, and claims for annui- 
ties, refunds, and allowances, arising under the act of May 22, 1920, 
providing for the retirement of employees in the classified civil 


John J. Tigert, Commissioner of Education. 

Theo. Honour, Secretary to the Commissioner. 

ADDRESS: Pension Office BIdg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Commissioner of Education has charge of 
the Bureau of Education, which collects statistics and general infor- 
mation showing the condition and progress of education in the 
United States and all foreign countries. 


George Vaux, Jr., Chairman. 

Malcolm McDowell, Secretary. 

ADDRESS : Interior Department BIdg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Board of Indian Commissioners, created in 
1869, is a body of unpaid citizens, appointed by the President, who 
maintain an office in Washington, for the expenses of which and of 
travel Congress appropriates. The board is not a bureau or division 
of any department, but is purposely kept reasonably independent and 
afforded opportunities for investigation in order that it may freely 
express an intelligent and impartial opinion concerning Indian legis- 
lation and administration. Its legal duties are to visit and inspect 
branches of the Indian Service, to cooperate with the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs in the purchase and inspection of Indian supplies, 
and to report to the Secretary of the Interior, to whom and to the 
President the board acts in an advisory capacity, with respect to 
plans of civilizing or dealing with the Indians. 

Department of Agriculture 

Henry Cantwell Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture. 

H. M. Bain, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of Agri- 

328 Year Book of the Churches 

ADDRESS : The Agricultural Department Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of Agriculture is charged with the 
work of promoting agriculture in its broadest sense. 


G. W. Forster, Acting Chief. 

Raymond Evans, Assistant to the Chief. 

ADDRESS: Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: This office studies the farmers' economic prob- 
lems with a view to reducing costs and increasing profits through a 
better organization of the farm and a better adjustment of produc- 
tion to the demands of the market. 


A. C. True, Director. 

Eugene Merritt, Assistant to the Director. 

ADDRESS : Department of Agriculture, Washington, D, C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The States Relations Service represents the 
Secretary of Agriculture in his relations with the State agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations, under the acts of Congress granting 
funds to these institutions for agricultural experiment stations and 
cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, and 
in carrying out the provisions of acts of Congress making appropria- 
tions to this department for farmers' cooperative demonstration work 
investigations relating to agricultural schools, farmers' institutes, 
and home economics, and the maintenance of agricultural experiment 
stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. 


Henry C. Taylor, Chief. 

Leon M. Estabrook, Associate Chief. 

ADDRESS: Department of Agriculture. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates ac- 
quires and disseminates information regarding the marketing and 
distributing of farm and non-manufactured food products, and col- 
lects, compiles, summarizes, interprets, and makes public statistical 
data relating to agricultural production. 

Department of Commerce 

Herbert Clark Hoover, Secretary of Commerce. 

Richard S. Emmet, Private Secretary to the Secretary of Com- 

ADDRESS: Nineteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of Commerce is charged with the 
work of promoting the commerce of the United States and its mining, 
manufacturing, shipping, fishery, and transportation interests. 


William M. Steuart, Director. 

Joseph A. Hill, Assistant to the Director, 

Directory of Service Organization 829 

ADDRESS: Building D, 4^ Street and Missouri Avenue 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The taking of the decennial census, which covers 
the subjects of population, agriculture, manufactures, mines and 
quarries (including oil and gas wells), and forestry and forest prod- 
ucts, is the chief function of the bureau, A religious census is also 
taken decennially, five years after the general census. 

Department o Labor 

James John Davis, Secretary of Labor. 
Arthur E. Cook, Private Secretary to the Secretary of 
ADDRESS : Department of Labor Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Secretary of Labor is charged with the duty 
of fostering, prompting and developing the welfare of the wage 
earners of the United States, improving their working conditions, 
and advancing their opportunities for profitable employment. He 
has power under the law to act as mediator and to appoint commis- 
sioners of conciliation in labor disputes whenever in his judgment 
the interests of industrial peace may require it to be done. 


Ethelbert Stewart, Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 
Charles E. Baldwin, Chief Statistician. 
ADDRESS : 1712 G St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Bureau of Labor Statistics is charged with 
the duty of acquiring and diffusing among the people of the United 
States useful information on subjects connected with labor in the 
most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially 
upon its relations to capital, the hours of lab^r, the earnings of 
laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, 
social, intellectual, and moral prosperity. 


Grace Abbott, Chief. 

ADDRESS: Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The act establishing the bureau provides that it 
shall investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the wel- 
fare of children and child life among all classes of our people, and 
shall especially investigate the questions of infant mortality, the 
birth rate, orphanage, juvenile courts, desertion, dangerous occupa- 
tions, accidents, and disease of children, employment, and legislation 
affecting children in the several States and Territories. 


Mary Anderson, Director. 

Agnes L. Peterson, Assistant Director. 

ADDRESS : Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The functions of the Bureau are to formulate 
standards and policies to promote the welfare of wage-earning 
women, to improve their working conditions, increase their efficiency 
and advance opportunity for profitable employment. The Bureau 
has authority to investigate and report to the Department upon all 
matters pertaining to the welfare of women in industry. 

330 Year Book of the Churches 


Francis I. Jones, Director General 

Charles A. Pearson, Assistant Director General. 

ADDRESS : Twentieth and D Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The purpose of the United States Employment 
Service is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage 
earners of the United States by so conserving^ and distributing their 
industrial activities as to improve their working conditions and ad- 
vance their opportunities for profitable employment, in harmony 
with the general good, with the necessities of war, with the just 
interests of employers, and with the development in practice of the 
recognized principle of a common responsibility for production and 
a common interest in distribution. 

Smithsonian Institution 

Charles D. Walcott, Secretary. 

H. W. Dorsey, Chief Clerk. 

ADDRESS: The Mall, Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Smithsonian Institution was created by act 
of Congress in 1846, under the terms of the will of James Smithson, 
an Englishman, who in 1826 bequeathed his fortune to the United 
States to found, at Washington, under the name of the " Smithsonian 
Institution," an establishment for the "increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." The Institution is legally an establishment, 
and is governed by a Board of Regents. Government bureaus com- 
ing tinder direction of the Smithsonian Institution are: National 
Museum, National Gallery of Art, Bureau of American Ethnology, 
International Exchanges, National Zoological Park, Astrophysical 
Observatory, Regional Bureau for the United States, 


The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature publishes an 
annual classified index to the literature of science The organization 
consists of a central bureau in London and 33 regional bureaus 
established in, and supported by, the principal countries of the world. 
That for the United States is supported by an annual appropriation 
from Congress, administered by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Pan-American Union 

L. S. Rowe, Director General. 
C. M. Litteljohn, Secretary to Director General. 
ADDRESS: Seventeenth between C and B Sts. N. W*, 
Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Pan- American Union is the official inter- 
national organization of all the republics of the Western Hemisphere, 
founded and maintained by them for the purpose of exchanging 
mutually useful information and fostering commerce, intercourse, 
friendship, and peace. It is supported through their joint contri- 
butions, each nation annually paying that part of the budget of 
expenses which its population bears to the total population of all 
the republics. 

Directory of Service Organization 331 

Interstate Commerce Commission 

Charles C. McChord, Chairman of Commissioners. 
George B. McGinty, Secretary. 

ADDRESS : Interstate Commerce Commission Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The act to regulate commerce requires "all rates 
to be just and reasonable and prohibits unjust discrimination and 
undue or unreasonable preference or advantage in transportation 
rates or facilities; prohibits the charging of a higher rate for a, 
shorter than for a longer haul over the same line in the same direc- 
tion, the shorter being included within the longer haul, or the charg- 
ing of any greater compensation as a through route than the aggre- 
gate of the intermediate rates subject to the act. The Commission 
is authorized to require carriers to establish through routes and 
joint rates. By various amendatory and supplementary enactments 
the powers of the Commission have been increased and the scope of 
the regulating statute materially widened. 

United States Railroad Labor Board 

Ben W. Hooper, Chairman, Public Group. 
Albert Phillips, Chairman, Labor Group, 
L. M. Parker, Secretary. 
ADDRESS : 608 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES : The Labor Board shall hear, and as^ soon as 
practicable and with due diligence decide, any dispute involving 
grievances, rules, or working conditions, in respect to which any 
adjustment board certifies to the Labor Board that in its opinion the 
adjustment board has failed or will fail to reach a decision within a 
reasonable time, or in respect to which the Labor Board determines 
that any adjustment board has failed or is not using due diligence in 
its consideration thereof. All the decisions of the Labor Board in 
respect to wages and salaries and of the Labor Board or an adjust- 
ment board in respect to working conditions of employees or sub- 
ordinate officials of carriers shall establish rates of wages and sala- 
ries and standards of working conditions which in the opinion of the 
Board are just and reasonable. 

Civil Service Commission 

...... ., President of Commissioners. 

John T. Doyle, Secretary. 

ADDRESS : 1724 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The purpose of the civil service act, as declared 
in its title, is "to regulate and improve the civil service of the United 

United States Veterans' Bureau 

Gen. F. T. Hines, Director. 

T. H. Scott, Executive Officer. 

ADDRESS: Arlington Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The United States Veterans' Bureau was created 
by an act of Congress approved August 9, 1921, by which act the 
Bureau was established as an independent bureau under the Presi- 
dent. The Bureau of War Risk Insurance was abolished by said act 

332 Year Book of the Churches 

and the powers and duties pertaining to the Director of the War 
Risk Insurance under the Treasury Department were transferred 
to the Veterans' Bureau, together with the functions, powers, and 
duties conferred upon the Federal Board for Vocational Education 
by the act of June 27, 1918, known as the vocational rehabilitation 
act, and all ^personnel, properties, etc., of the United States Public 
Health Service as prescribed and provided in a written order to the 
Secretary of the Treasury on April 19, 1921, designated "Order rela- 
tive to the transfer of certain activities of the United States Public 
Health Service, relating to the Bureau of War Bisk Insurance, in- 
cluding the trainees of the Rehabilitation Division of the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education." 

The Bureau of War Eisk Insurance was created by act of Congress 
approved September 2, 1914, to insure American vessels and their 
cargoes against the risks of war. By an act approved June 12, 1917, 
Congress added the duty of insuring the lives of masters and crews 
of American vessels. On October 6, 1917, the most important pro- 
visions of the war risk act were added. These provided for payment 
of allotments and allowances to the dependent families of members 
of the military forces of the United States, payment of compensation 
for death or disability, and the writing of term policies of insurance 
by the Federal Government against death or total disability. Several 
amendments to the act have been made since, notably the amend- 
ment approved December 24, 1919, which provided for an optional 
payment in lump sum of the converted forms of insurance and sub- 
stantial increases in the amount of compensation payable on account 
of death or disability, and the amendment of August 9, 1921, which 
greatly decreases the restrictions on reinstatement of lapsed insur- 
ance by disabled ex-service men and the furnishing of hospital and 
other medical treatment for disabled members of the military and 
naval forces, and transfers the duty of furnishing vocational training 
to disabled members of the military and naval forces from the Fed- 
eral Board for Vocational Education to the Veterans' Bureau. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education 

James J. Davis, Chairman (The Secretary of Labor). 
E. Joseph Aronoff, Secretary and Chief Clerk. 
ADDRESS: 200 New Jersey Ave. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The Federal Board for Vocational Education was 
created by act of Congress approved February 23, 1917. This act 
makes appropriations to be used in cooperation with the States in 
the promotion of vocational education. For the fiscal year 1917-18 
the amount appropriated was $1,860,000, but the appropriation in- 
creases each year until in 1925-26 it reaches $7,367,000, which sum 
is provided annually thereafter. The money appropriated is to be 
given to the various States for the purpose of inaugurating or 
stimulating vocational education in agriculture and the trades and 
industries and in the preparation of teachers of vocational subjects. 
Its allotment is upon condition that for each dollar of Federal money 
expended the State or local community, or both, in which schools 
are established shall expend an equal amount for the same purpose. 

By the passage of the Federal vocational rehabilitation act, ap- 
proved June 27, 1918, and the amendment thereto of July 11, 1919, 
the^board was charged with the duty of furnishing vocational re- 
habilitation to every member of the military or naval forces of the 
United States discharged with a disability incurred, increased, or 
aggravated while a member of such forces or traceable to service 
therein, needing vocational rehabilitation to overcome the handicap 
of such disability. In furnishing training under the act no limita- 

Directory of Service Organization 338 

tions were imposed by the board with respect to the courses to be 
pursued, and all careers were opened to the disabled men, much of 
it being given directly in the trades and industries. The board 
carried out this work of training the disabled soldiers, sailors, and 
marines and placing them in employment in their particular line of 
endeavor until the passage of the bill on August 9, 1921, creating 
the Veterans' Bureau, which consolidated all the agencies dealing: 
with the disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines. 

American National Red Cross 

Warren G. Harding, President. 

James L. Fieser, in charge of domestic operations. 

ADDRESS: Seventeenth Street between D and E Streets 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

United States Board o Mediation and Conciliation 

William L. Chambers, Commissioner. 

Whitehead Kluttz, Asst. Commissioner and Secretary. 

ADDRESS: 920-926 Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES: The purpose for which the Board of Mediation 
and Conciliation was established is to settle by mediation, concilia- 
tion, and arbitration controversies concerning wages, hours of labor, 
or conditions of employment that may arise between common carriers 
engaged in interstate transportation and their employees engaged in 
train operation or train service. 

National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers 

Col. C. W. Wadsworth, General Treasurer. 
Col. James A. Mattison, Chief Surgeon. 
ADDRESS: National Military Home, Dayton, Ohio. 

United States Soldiers' Home 

Maj. Gen. Tasker H. Bliss, Governor of the Home. 
Col. William T. Wood, Secretary of the Board. 
ADDRESS : U. S. Soldiers" Home, Washington, D. C. 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf 

Percival Hall, President. 

Rev. Ulysses G. B. Pierce, Secretary. 

ADDRESS: Kendall Green, Washington, D. C. 

International Sanitary Bureau 

Surg. Gen. Hugh S. Gumming, Director. 
W. P. Montgomery, Executive Clerk. 
ADDRESS: Pan-American Bldg., Seventeenth between B 
and C Sts. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

National Civil Service Kefonn League 

OFFICE : 8 "W. 40th St., New York City. 

OFFICERS : Pres., Richard Henry Dana ; Sec., H. W. Marsh. 

PURPOSE: To establish and promote a system of appointment, pro- 

834 Year Book of the Churches 

motion and removal in the civil service throughout the United Stages 
founded upon the principle that public office is a public trust. 
The League is supported by voluntary contributions. 


There are many Home Mission agencies differing in 
character. Among these are: 

1. Denominational Boards and Societies listed under de- 
nominational headings in Section I, Directory of Churches. 
See pp 9-251. 

2. Interdenominational agencies composed of church 
members but not under church control. In most cases 
these agencies perform functions other than those dis- 
tinctly pertaining to Home Missions. They are listed under 
appropriate headings in Section III, of which Home Mis- 
sions is a subheading (or listing) . 

8. There are many organizations commonly thought of 
as secular, but religious in spirit, which are supplementing 
the Home Mission work of the Church in charities, civic 
betterment, education, philanthropies and social service 
generally. Notable among these are governmental agen- 
cies of the Nation, the State, and the municipality. All 
these cannot be listed in this volume, but many of them are 
under appropriate headings in Section III. National gov- 
ernmental agencies functioning especially for uplift and 
social betterment are included under the headng "Govern- 
mental Agencies." 

American Missionary Association (Inc.) 
OFFICE: 287 Fourth Ave., New York City. 
OFFICERS : Pres., Rev. Nehemiah Boynton ; Treas., Irving 

C. Gaylord; Cor. Sec., George L. Cady. 

PURPOSE: Establishing missionary churches and schools throughout 
the United States for the benefit of Negroes, Indians, Eskimos, etc. 

Council of Women for Home Missions (Affiliated Body with 

the Federal Council) 

(Organized 1908) 

OFFICE: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Fred S. Bennett; Vice-Pres. t Mrs. 
May Leonard Woodruff; Exec. Sec., Miss Florence E. Qninlan; 
Bee. Sec., Mrs. Edwin W. Lentz ; Treas., Mrs. Orrin B. Judd. 

Twenty constituent boards, two consulting boards, eighteen affili- 
ated schools of missions. 

PUEPOSE: To unify the efforts of the national women's home mis^ 
sion boards and societies by consultation and by cooperation in action. 

PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES; Publishes Home Mission study books for 
adults, young people and children; prepares program for Day of 
Prayer for Missions; cooperates with interdenominational Schools 
of Missions; promotes formation of local Women's Church and Mis- 
sionary Federations ; cooperates in international plans for the various 
racial and sreoeranhical errouns. 

Directory of Service Organization 385 

PERIODICAL: Woman's Home Mission Bulletin, Editor, Miss Flor- 
ence E. Quinlan. 

HOME MISSION STUDY BOOKS for 1922-1923 (published jointly by 
the Council of Women for Home Missions and the Missionary Edu- 
cation Movement) ; 

THEME: "The Negro in America" 

FOR ADULTS: "The Trend of the Races" by Georgia E. Haynes. 

FOR ADULTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE: "In the Vanguard of a Eace," 
by L. H. Hammond. 

FOE CHILDREN : "The Magic Box," by Anita B. Ferris. 


THEME : "Saving America Through Her Boys and Girls." 

FOR ADULTS: Books by Hon. John H. Finley and Jay S. Stowell. 

FOR LEADERS AND JUNIORS: Book by Joyce Constance Manuel. 

Home Missions Council 

(Affiliated Body with the Federal Council) 

OFFICE: 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. Charles L. Thompson; Exec. Sec., 
Rev. Alfred Williams Anthony; Asso. Sec., Rev. Rodney 
W. Roundy; 8ec., Rev. Charles E. Schaeffer; Treas., Samuel 

Includes 42 home missionary organizations, representing 27 de- 

PURPOSE: To promote fellowship, conference, and cooperation 
among Christian organizations doing missionary work in the United 
States and its dependencies. 

For detailed statistical report, see Sec. V, "Religious Statistics," 
p. 414-418. 

Joint Committees of the Home Missions Council and the 
Council of Women for Home Missions 

Address the representative named, care Home Missions 
Council, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

JOINT ADMINISTRATION: Chmn., Mrs. F. S. Bennett; Vice-Chmn., 
Charles L. Thompson. 

ALASKA: Chmn., Paul de Schweinitz; Rec. Sec., Alfred Williams 

BLIND: Chmn., Irene Haislip. 

CHURCH BUILDING: Chmn., Joseph S. Wise. 


COMITY AND COOPERATION: Chmn., Lemuel Call Barnes. 


HEBREWS: Chmn,, John S. Conning. 

INDIAN MISSIONS: Chmn., Elmer E. Higley. 

MIGRANT GROUPS; Chmn., Geo. B. Dean. 

MORMONISM: Chmn. f Edward Laird Mills. 

NEGRO AMERICANS: Chmn., Fred L. Brownlee. 

NEW AMERICANS: Chmn., Thomas Burgess. 




J. W. Downes. 

TOWN AND COUNTRY: Chmn., Paul L. Vogt. 

336 Year Book of the Churches 

Joint Special Committee 

H. Wilson. 

Special Home Missions Council Committee 


American Committee for Devastated France 

OFFICE: 16 East 39th St., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Hon. Myron T. Herrick; Ckmn., Miss 
Anne Morgan; Treas., Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys. 

PURPOSE. To assist the inhabitants of the devastated villages to 
become, again self-supporting by supplying implements of trade and 
to feed and educate the children who have suffered the horrors of 
war for five years. 

American Committee for the Italian Evangelical Church at 
Geneva, Switzerland 

OFFICE : 287 Fourth Ave , New York City. 

GENEVA : Eev. E. Mittendorf , Jean Martin, Jean Lombard, Rev. 
A. Carmagnola, Edmond Barbey, Rev. Ernest Christen, Leon 
Gouy, Chaplain Eli Bertalot, American representative and 
pastor of the Italian Evangelical Church, Geneva. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE ; Rev. Sylvester W. Beach, Rev. George 
Alexander, Rev Henry A Atkinson, Rev. Allen R. Bartholomew, 
Nolan R. Best, Rev. 'Hugh Black, Dr. John H. Finley, Mrs. 
John H. Finley, Rev. Harry B Fosdiek, Rev William I. Haven, 
C. V. Hibbard, Rev. John Kelman, Rev. Albert G. Lawson, 
Dr. Henry Goddard Leach, Rev Charles S. Macfarland, Rev 
William P. Merrill, Rev. Kenneth D. Miller, Rev. William W. 
Scudder, Fennel P. Turner, Rev. Cornelius Woelfkm, Rev Fred- 
erick Lynch, Secretary. 

American Friends Service Committee 

OFFICE: 20 South 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
OFFICERS: Chmn., Rufus M. Jones; Treas., Charles F. 
Jenkins ; Exec. Sec., Wilbur K. Thomas. 

PURPOSE: To carry on relief work in France, Germany, Austria, 
Poland and Russia, in such a way as to create a better understand- 
ing among nations, and thus make war less likely. 

American and Foreign Christian Union 

OFFICE: 104 E. 39th St., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. George Alexander; Vice-Pres., 
Rev. Frank Mason North; Sec., S. W. Thurber; Treas., 
Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., New York. 

Directory of Service Organization 887 

PURPOSE : To diffuse and promote the principles of religious liberty 
and evangelical Christianity at home and abroad; especially to aid 
in the maintenance of the American Church in Paris. 

American McAI! Association 

OFFICE: 1710 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Frank B. Kelley; First Vice-Pres., 
Mrs James C. Colgate; Gen. Sec., Miss Helen Bisliop Strong; 
Field Sec., Rev. Geo. T. Berry ; Cor. See., Miss Harriet Harvey ; 
Treas., Mrs. Abraham R. Perkins. 

Auxiliary to La Mission Populaire Evangelique de 
France, founded in 1872 by R. W. McAll. 

PERIODICAL: American Me All Record, Editor, Miss Harriett Harvey. 

American Relief Administration (Inc.) 

OFFICE : 42 Broadway, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Herbert Hoover; Treas., Gates W. 
McGarragh; Director, Edgar Rickard. 

PURPOSE: Receives and distributes relief for children of Austria, 
Poland and Russia. Conducting medical and general relief in Russia 
on behalf of cooperating organizations. 

American Relief Committee for Hungarian Sufferers 

OFFICE: Hotel McAlpin, New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Bartalan Barna; Treas., Rudolph 
Oblatt; Sec., Dr. Frank I. Horn. 

PURPOSE: Raises funds to supply supplementary meals for Hun- 
garian children in cooperation with American Relief Administration 
European Children's Fund. 

American National Bed Cross 

(Organized 1881) 


OFFICERS Pres, Warren G. Harding; Tice-Pres , WHI. 
Howard Taft and Robert "W. DeForest; Chmn., John Barton 
Payne; Counselor, James M. Beck; Treas, Eliot Wadsworth; 
Sec., Mabel T. Boardman; Exec. Corn., John Barton Payne, Mrs. 
August Belmont, Mabel T. Boardman, Herbert Hoover, Maj. 
Gen. Merritte W. Ireland, Gustavus D. Pope, George E. Scott, 
Eear Admiral Edward R. Stitt, Eliot Wadsworth. 

Rose Hill. 

L. Fieser. 

DIVISION OFFICES. New England, 73 Newbury St., Boston, 
Mass.; Southern, 249 Ivy St., Atlanta, Ga,; Southwestern, 1709 
Washington Ave , St. Lonis, Mo. ; Central, 660 Rush St., Chicago, 
111. ; Pac^fic, Grove and Larkin Sts., San Francisco, Calif.; Wash- 
ington, 17th and D Sts., Washington, D. C. 

338 Year Book of the Churches 

PURPOSE: The Red Cross is the reserve emergency organization of 
the American people for community relief in time of disaster, and 
for relief of wounded and distressed in time of war. 

PUBLICATION: Red Cross Conner (weekly), Washington, D. C. 


HEADQUARTERS- True Quentin-Bauchart, Paris, France. 

Includes the Red Cross societies of Argentina, Australia, 
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Chile, Cuba, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Esthonia, 
Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, 
India, Italy, Japan, Jugo-Slavia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New 
Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, 
Siam, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, 
Uruguay, Venezuela. 

American Waldensian Aid Society 

OFFICE : 520 West End Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. Cornelius "Woelfkin; Eon. Vice-Pres., 
Rev, Henry A. Stimson; Yice-Pres., Rev. Henry Bverton Cobb, 
Rev, William Pierson Merrill, Yery Rev. Howard C. Robbins, 
Rev. JohnKelman, Gilbert Colgate; Treas , Mrs Harlan G. Men- 
denhall; Rec. See., Mrs. Frank Gardner Moore ; Field Sees., Mrs. 
Charles H. Seymour, Mrs. E W. Schauffler, 3640 Lake Park 
Ave., Chicago, 111. - Foreign Field Sec , Rev. Henry C. Sartorio, 
5 Via Maria Cristina, Rome, Italy; CJimn. Exec. Com., Gilbert 

DEPOSITORIES: Messrs. Brown Brothers & Co., United 
States Mortgage & Trust Co. 

PURPOSE: To help the religious, educational and relief work of the 
Waldensian Church of Italy. 
PERIODICAL; The Sempre Avanti t Editor, Miss Annette Fiske. 

Armenia America Society 

(Organized, July, 1920) 

OFFICE: 289 Fourth Ave., New York City. 
OFFICERS: Pres., Walter George Smith, 711 Witherspoon 
Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. ; Directory Eev. George E. Montgomery. 

PURPOSE: The purpose of the Society is to work toward securing 
such conditions in the settlement of the Near East problems that 
the Armenians may he given security and an opportunity to re- 
establish themselves, in their historic home as a nation. The Society 
is supported by voluntary contributions. 

Baltic American Society, Inc, 

OFFICE.* 15 Park Row, New York City. 
OFFICERS: Pres., B. J. Caldwell; Sec., Alfred C. Bossom; 
Treas., George Gordon Battle. 

Directory of Service Organization 339 

Commission on Relations with France and Belgium (Fed- 
eral Council) 

See p. 267. 

Commission on Relations with Religious Bodies in Europe 
(Federal Council) 

See p. 267. 

Committee on Mercy and Relief: Relief for Children of 
Russia (Federal Council) 

See p. 267. 

Huguenot Society of America 

OFFICE: 2 W. 45th St., New York City. 
OFFICEKS-. Pres., Dr. W. J. Schieffelin; Sec., Miss Margaret 
A. Jackson. 

Huguenot Association 

OFFICE : New Bochelle, N. Y. 

OFFICERS : Pres., John F. Lambden ; Sec., Morgan H. Seacord. 

Huguenot Society of Pennsylvania 

OFFICE: Heading, Pa. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Hon. Gifford Pinchot; Sec., Mrs. Bobert S. 
Birch, 318 Windsor St., Beading, Pa. 

Huguenot Society of South Carolina 

OFFICE: Charleston, S. C. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Hon. Thomas Wright Baeot; Sec., Daniel 
Bavenel, 54 Broad St., Charleston, S. C. 

Huguenot Society of New Jersey 

OFFICE: 655 Salem Road, Elizabeth, N. J. 
OFFICERS : Pres. f John L. Merrill ; Sec., Chauncey B. McPher- 

Huguenot Society of London 

OFFICE: 13 Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W. 8, London, 

OFFICERS: Hon. Sec., Col. Duncan GL Pitcher; Deputy Hon. 
Sec., Hon. Samuel B. Boget. 

Near East Relief 

OFFICE: 151 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., Dr. James L. Barton; Vice-Chmn., 
Hon. John H. Finley; Gen. Sec., Charles V. Vickrey; Asso. 
Gen. Sees., John B. Voris, W. E. Doughty, Barclay 
son; Treas.j Cleveland H. Dodge. 

340 Year Book of the Churches 

PURPOSE: To administer relief in the form of food, clothing, medi- 
cal attendance, orphanages, industrial work, to the needy Armenians, 
Syrians, Greeks and other destitute peoples in the Near East without 
regard to race or creed. 

Russian Refugee Relief Society of America, Inc. 

OFFICE 350 W 87th St., New York City. 

OFFICERS Hon. Pres , R Fulton Cutting ; Pres., W. W. Bouim- 
strow; Sec. and Asst Treas , Joseph Clark Baldwin, III, Exec. 
See., E. Macgrath. 

Special Societies 

ALLIANCE FRANCHISE, 32 Nassau Street, New York 

Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 

AMERICAN JUGOSLAV SOCIETY. Chmn , Dr. Albert Shaw, 49 
Wall St , New York City. 

tees, Hamilton Holt, Sec., James Creese, 25 West 45th Street, 
New York. 

Washington, D. C 

ASSOCIATION TO ABOLISH WAR, 14 Eoanoke Avenue, Jamaica 
Plains, Mass 

Place, Washington, D C. 

CHJNA SOCIETY OF AMERICA- Pres., William S. Carey; Sec., 
William Nelson Searles, 13 Astor Place, New York. 


Tremont Street, Boston, Mass 

WORLD PEACE, 287 Fourth Avenue, New York. 

SOCIATION, Washington, D. C. 

Pres, John W. Davis; Sec. and Treas, Edwin F Gay, 25 W 
43d Street, New York City. 

ENGLISH-SPEAKING UNION : Pres , John W. Davis ; Sec and 
Treas., Charles 0. Goodrich; Exec. Sec.? John Daniels, 6 East 
45th Street, New York 


FRANCE- AMERICA SOCIETY: Pres., Nicholas Murray Butler; 
Sec., Snowden A. Fahnestock, 40 Wall Sreet, New York 

FRIENDS OF BELGIUM : In process of organization. 

FRIENDS OF MEXICO : In process of organization. 

Street, New York 

Directory of Service Organization 341 

Avenue, New York 

Paul, Minn 

ITALY- AMERICA SOCIETY : Pres , Paul D Cravath ; Sec., Fran- 
cis Hartman Markoe, 23 West 43d Street, New York. 

JAPAN SOCIETY : Pres., Frank A. Vanderlip ; Sec , Eugene C. 
Worden, 23 West 43d Street, New York. 

PEACE, 19 Euston Street, Brookline, Mass. 

Everwyn; Pres, Edward W. Bok; Sec pro tern,, Mrs. Hanna 
White 'Catlm, 311 Sixth Avenue, New York. 



PEACE ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS, 20 South 12th Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa 

POLAND-AMERICA SOCIETY Hon Presidents, Herbert Hoover, 
Prince Casimir Lubomirski , Sec., Clarence A. Manning, 40 West 
40th Street, New York, 

esley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Nelson Cromwell, Gen Sec , John Foster Dulles, 450 Madison 
Avenue, New York 

WOMAN'S PRO-LEAGUE COUNCIL, 303 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Chicago, 111. 

ing, Chicago, 111. 

Big Brother Movement, Inc. 

OFFICE: 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Franklin Chase Hoyt; Sec., Charles A. 
Taussig; Treas., Francis J. Danforth; Chmn. Exec. Com,, 
Ernest K. Coulter (founder) ; Gen. Sec., Rowland C. 

PURPOSE: To ascertain the cause of boys' troubles, and to build 
up within the boy a sense of honor and good citizenship. 

A Federation of the Big Brother and Big Sister Movement was 
formed in 1904, inc. 1909. Offices, 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Boy Scouts of America 

OFFICE: 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Warren G. Harding; Pres., Colin 
H. Livingstone; Chief Scout Exec., James E. West; Treas., 
George D. Pratt; National Scout Commissioner, Daniel 
Carter Beard; Special Field Scout Commissioner, Rev. 
Charles S. Macfarland. 

342 Year Book of the Churches 

PURPOSE: Supplementing existing agencies the home, church, 
school to develop character, good citizenship, initiative, and re- 
sourcefulness in boys by cultivating their interest in activities ^ of 
practical every-day value through their interest in the fascinating 
outdoor activities of the Scout leisure-time program, under carefully 
selected leadership. 

PERIODICALS: Scouting (monthly), bulletin for men in the field; 
Boys' Life (monthly), for boys. 

Boys' Club Federation 

HEAD OFFICE : 110 W. 40th St., New York City. 
DIVISIONAL OFFICE : 343 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
Address the Exec. Sec , C. J. Atkinson, or Alexander Camp- 
bell, Divisional DIT 9 Chicago, 111. 

PURPOSE: To organize clubs, supply superintendents, suggest pro- 
grams, conduct conferences, organize educational courses for workers 
with boys, provide speakers on boy problems for a great variety of 
occasions, and cooperate in local surveys and campaigns. Boys' Clubs 
specialize in work for underprivileged boys. 

PERIODICAL: Boys' Workers' Round Table. 

Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip 

OFFICE: 200 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
OFFICER: Hon. Pres., Rev. Eufus W. Miller. 

A Denominational and Interdenominational Men's Organization. 
PURPOSE: To advocate prayer and service and the spread of 
Christ's Kingdom among men. 

Committee on !Boy Scout Work (Federal Council) 

International Order of the Knights of King Arthur 

(Organized 1893) 

OFFICER: Pres., William Byron Forbush, Dreamelden, 
Route 3, Media, Pa. 

PURPOSE: To adapt to the use of American boys the ancient ideals 
of chivalry. Organizes boys' fraternities, or "Castles," which are 
self-governing and under the control of a local church. 

Young Men's Christian Associations, International Com- 

OFFICE : 347 Madison Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Chmn., James M. Speers; Vice-Chmn., Cleveland 
E. Dodge, Win D. Murray, Roger H. Williams,- Gen. Sec., John 
R. Mott; Asso. Gen Sec., F. S. Brockman; Treas., B. H. Fancher. 

PURPOSE : To promote the spiritual, intellectual, physical and social 
well-being of young men and establish Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations in any country. 

PERIODICAL: Association Men (monthly). 

For detailed report and statistics, see Sec. V, "Religious Statistics," 
p. 425. 

Directory of Service Organization 343 

Allied Loyalty League 

OFFICE: 57 West 58th St., New York City. 
OFFICERS: Chmn. Exec. Com., William M. Sullivan; 
Treas., Harris A. Dunn; Asst. Sec., Margaret H. Lawson. 

PURPOSE: Promotes friendly understanding between the allied coun- 
tries, and a high type of Americanism, and combats anti-American 

American Association for International Conciliation 

(Established 1906, Incorporated 1908) 

OFFICERS : Pres., Nicholas Murray Butler, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City; Vice-Pres., Stephen Henry Olin, 149 
Broadway, New York City; Sec., Henry S. Haskell, 407 W. 117th 
St., New York City; Treas., Robert A. Franks, 522 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. 

PURPOSE: To promote in all practicable ways mutual understand- 
ing and good feeling between nations. 

American Legion 

(Organized and Incorporated 1919) 

OFFICE: Chalfant Bldg., 24 B. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

OFFICERS : Nat'l Com., Alvin Owsley, Denton, Tex ; Nat 'I Vice- 
Commanders, Edward J. Barrett, Sheboygan, Wis. ; Watson B. 
Miller, Washington, D. C. ; E. Erie Cocke, Dawson, Ga. ; Eobert 
0. Blood, Concord, N. H.; Chiles P. Phimmer, Casper, Wyo.; 
Nat 'I. Adjt , Lemuel Bolles, Seattle, Wash.; Treas., Eobert H. 
Tyndall, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Judge Adv., Eobert A. Adams, In- 
dianapolis, Ind.; Chaplain, Father Win. O'Connor, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; Historian, Eben Putnam, Wellesley Farms, Mass.; Asst. 
Nat 'I Adjt, Eussell G. Creviston, Marion, Ind. 

PURPOSE: To uphold and defend the Constitution of the United 
States of America; to maintain law and order; to foster and perpet- 
uate a 100 per cent Americanism; to preserve the memories and in- 
cidents of our association in the Great War; to inculcate a sense of 
individual obligation to the community, state and nation; to combat 
the autocracy of both the classes and the masses; to make right the 
master of might; tx> promote peace and good-will on earth; -to safe- 
guard and transmit to posterity the principles of justice, freedom 
and democracy; to consecrate and sanctify our comradeship by our 
devotion to mutual helpfulness. 

American Patriotic League 

(Incorporated 1891) 
OFFICE: Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PURPOSE: To create a popular demand for moral and civic train- 
ing; to secure legislation for its introduction and supervision in all 
schools- at home and abroad. Drafts and assists in the enactment of 
State laws requiring school training in the duties of citizenship. 

344 Year Book of the Churches 

Organizes schools into school republics in which children have legis- 
lative, executive, and judicial powers under the instruction of the 

American Peace Society, Inc. 

(Organized 1828, Incorporated 1848) 
OFFICE . 612 Colorado Bldg , Washington, D C 
OFFICERS- Pres , Andrew J. Montague, Treas , George W 

"White , Sec , Arthur Deerin Call 

PURPOSE: To promote permanent international peace through 
justice; and to advance in every proper way the general use of con- 
ciliation, arbitration, judicial methods, and other peaceful means of 
avoiding and adjusting differences among nations, -to the end that 
right shall rule might in a law-governed world. 

American School Citizenship League 

(Established 1908) 

OFFICE: 405 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Randall J. Condon (Supt. of Schools, 
Cincinnati) ; See., Mrs. Fannie Fern Andrews. 

PURPOSE: The American School Citizenship League aims to develop 
an American citizenship which will promote a responsible world 
democracy and a real cooperation among the nations. 

Carnegie Endowment o International Peace 

(Organized 1910) 

OFFICE: 2 Jackson Place N W., "Washington, D C 
OFFICERS- Pres, Elihu Root; Vice-Pres., George Gray; Sec,, 
James Brown Scott ; Asst See., George A. Finch ; Treas , Charle- 
magne Tower ; Asst Treas , Andrew J. Montague. 

PURPOSE : To advance the cause of peace among nations, to hasten 
the abolition of international war, and to encourage and promote a 
peaceful settlement of international differences. 

Church Peace Union 

OFFICE: 70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rev. William P. Merrill; Sec., Rev. 
Henry A. Atkinson; Sec. Ed. Dept, Rev. Frederick Lynch; 
Treas., George A. Plimpton. Trustees: Rev. Peter Ainslie, 
Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, Rt. Rev. C. H. Brent, Rev. Arthur 
J. Brown, Rev. Francis E. Clark, Pres. W. EL P. Faunce, 
Robert H. Gardiner, Most Rev. J. J. Glennon, Rev. Frank 

0. Hall, Bishop E. R. Hendrix, Hamilton Holt, Prof. Wm. 

1. Hull, Rev. C. E. Jefferson, Henry Churchill King, Rev. 
Frederick Lynch, Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Marcus M. 
Marks, Dean Shailer Mathews, Rev. Wm. P. Merrill, Henry 
Morgenthau, John R. Mott, George A. Plimpton, Rev. J. B, 
Remensnyder, Henry Wade Rogers, Robert E. Speer, 
Walker George Smith, Wm. H. Taf t, James J. Walsh, Bishop 
Luther B. Wilson. 

PUKPOSE: The promotion of a Christian international order. 

Directory of Service Organization 345 

Commission on International Justice and Good- Will (Fed- 

. etal Council) 
See p. 266. 

Committee for Treaty Ratification 

OFFICERS: Chmn., George W. Wickersliam ; Vice-Pres., 
Samuel Gompers; Vice-Pres., James Byrne; Sec., Charles S. 

OFFICE OF SECRETARY: Room 612, 105 East 22d Street, 
New York City. 

PUR3 5 CK>E: To work for the ratification of the treaties resulting 
from the Limitation of