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Full text of "The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents ..."

Robert E. Gross 
Collection 

A Memorial to the Founder 
of the 



Business Administration Library 
Los Angeles 






t 



THE 



YEARLY JOURNAL OF TRADE, 

1837-8: 



COMPRISING 



Laws of Customs and Excise. 

Treaties akd Conventions with Foreion 

Powers. 
Tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte 

Video, &c. 
Parliamentary Speeches and Papers. 
Proclamations, Orders in Council and op 

Government Boards. 
Keports of Law Cases. 



Translations of Foreign Documents. 

Duties of Lights, Buoys, &c. 

Dock Rates, Pilotage, &c. 

Notices to Mariners, 

Stamp and Postage Duties. 

Descriptions of Foreign Articles of Meh. 

chandise. 
E.xcHANOEs, Moneys, Weights and Mea- 

SUBES. 



A SKETCH OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF TRADE, 

AND 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION, 

NOT TO BE FOUNn IN ANY WORK BESIDES. 



ACCOMPANIED BY A MAP. 

THE statutes brought DOWN TO THE CLOSE OF THE SESSION OF PARLIAMENT, 1 Victoria: 
THE LAW CASES TO MICHAELMAS TERM; AND THE OTHER PARTS TO DECEMBER, 1837. 



(Z^ntJcr t\)t iSpecial Sanction of t^oberiimcnt. 



EDITED BY CHARLES POPE, 

COMPTROLLER OF ACCOUNTS IN THE PORT OF BRISTOL; FORMERLY PRINCIPAL SECRETARTt 

TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF CUSTOMS ; AND COMPILER OF 

THE " IMPORT AND EXPORT GUIDE." 

SEVENTEENTH EDITION. 



The Haroest of the River is her Revenue, and she is a Mart of Nations,"— laal\h. 



LONDON: 
THORP AND GRAHAM, 

BOOKSELLEKS AND WHOLESALE STATIONERS, JEWRY STREET, ALDGATE. 

TO BE HAD AT THE OFFICE, 25, ST. SfFITHIN'S LANE: 

At every Custom House tluoughout the Biitish Dominions ; an<l at every Office 

of the British Consul in Foreign Ports. 

Price to Subscriliers, Five Shii.i.ikgs Sewed ; to Non-Suliscribers, Seven Shimkng? and Sixpence. 



/ 



London • 
Printed by W. Ci.owks and Sons, 
Stamford Street. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall. 



Gross Co!!cctidn 
Bus., Adm. Lib. 



ADDRESS. 



TRIDENS NEVTUNI SCEPTRUM MUNDI, 



Various are the Annuals of Politics, Arts, and Sciences ; yet of Trade 
and Manufactures — the foundation of the Wealth of the Country — there 
is none save that of " The Yearly Journal of Trade." A fit medium, 
therefore, for diffusing knowledge of the general and important character 
now contemplated, is consequently much wanted. 

Many are the Fiscal Regulations of which scarcely anything is known 
in the Commercial World. " The wonder," as remarked in the Edin- 
burgh Review, " is, not that Merchants should sometimes calculate 
wrong, but that they should ever calculate right." 

To obviate this state of things is the design of " The Yearly Journal 
of Trade." 

The main points in view aro, to give an Annual Expose of the State 
of Trade and Manufactures in general, — 

" To hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to Commerce,''* 

—to show Merchants and others the bearings of each case, that by com- 
parisons they may ascertain the state of established Markets, and where 
to seek new ones. Ancillary to this are described whence and in what 
Ships— how manned and navigated — and in M'hat packages Goods may 
be Imported — how Goods may be Warehoused — what Duties are to be 
paid — how Goods may be Exported — what Drawbacks and Bounties 
granted — also to supply a Synopsis of the other British and h'ish Regu- 
lations touching Merchants, Ship Owners, Brokers, and all Persons 
concerned in Maritime Affairs — besides which. Translations of Foreign 
Documents of considerable importance to Commerce are occasionally 
introduced. Brief descriptions of the nature and uses of Foreign Articles 
of Merchandise, and some account of Exchanges, Moneys,* Weights, 
and Measures, are likewise supplied. So that the Trader, whether in 
this Country or Abroad, shall not need to seek elsewhere for information 
on these multifarious topics. Like the Alchymist, the Editor hopes he 
has separated the pure metal from the ore, and thus brought the whole 
into a comparatively small compass. 

Although the Journal is intended primarily for the use of the Classes 
before-mentioned, still it is hoped that it may also be consulted with 
advantage by the Public Functionary, as well as by the Statesman and 
Legislator; in short, by every one who desires to be placed on a level 
with the best-informed persons on the Trade of the Country, 

* In cases whprein no Returns have yet been received from Correspondents on (lie cpot, tlie 
information on these matters has been ileiived from " Tate's, Modern Cambist,^' as boin? tlie best 
book of the sort. Mr. Tate, it is understood, keeps a )iif;hly respectable Mathematical School 
at Liverpool. 

a 2 



1621281 



iV ADDRESS. 

The Editor has, on previous occasions, experienced the kind attentions 
of various Men in power, of all Parties, amongst whom he has the honour 
to enumerate, as one of his earliest Patrons, the Earl of Ripon,— also 
Lord Bexley, Mr. Goulburn, and Mr. Herries — former Chancellors of the 
Exchequer — but especially the present Chancellor, Mr. Spring Rice. 

In London there are about a thousand Subscribers, in Bristol nearly 
seven hundred ; altogether about Five Thousand. — Promises of support 
after the publishing of the Work have been very numerous. — Indeed, in 
every respect the Editor's most sanguine hopes have been surpassed. 
For the courtesy he has experienced from All, he begs to tender his 
grateful Acknowledgments. That this high and honourable support 
M'ill continue to increase, the Editor cannot suffer himself for a moment 
to doubt, when he considers that he appeals to the Public as the humble 
Drudge— the Pioneer — to clear the Path through which they may extend 
their Commerce and increase their Wealth. 



EXTRACT OF A LETTER WRITTEN BY ORDER OF THE 

CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. 

Sm, Downing-street, March 14, 1836. 

I am desired by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to assure you that he enter- 
tains a very high opinion of the value of your works ; and that he should have 
great pleasure in stating that opinion to any one who may, of his own accord, or 
at your suggestion, speak to him on the subject. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 
C. Pope, Esq. (Signed) S. SPRING RICE. 



*** The Publication has been considerably delayed, chiefly with a view 
to insert the new Treaty with the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and other 
fresh and important matter, of which there will be found abundance. To 
this end the limits of the Journal have, at a very heavy expense, been 
greatly extended, without any increase whatever in the price originally 
fixed either for the Subscribers or the Public. 



CONTENTS, 



GENERAL INDEX, Page 419. 
Page 



Address '. 

Letter from the Chancellor of 

the Exchequer . . . iv 

Contents . . . . v 

Official Correspondence . ix 

Authorities . . . . ix 

Character of the Work . ix 

Abbreviations . . . xi 

Construction in General . xii 

To Correspondents . . . xii 

Introductoiy Sketch of the Rise 
and Progress of Trade, espe- 
cially showing its State and 
Prospects in 1S37 . . . xiii 

Miscellaneous Information, viz. : — 

Origin of Money and Nature of 
Exchange .... xxii 

English Funds and Foreign 
Stocks .... xxiii 

An Account of the net Produce 
of the Revenue of Great Bri- 
tain ..... xxvii 

An Account of the Imports of 
the Principal Articles of Fo- 
reign and Colonial Merchan- 
dise ..... xxviii 

An Acount of the Exports of 
the Principal Articles of Fo- 
reign and Colonial Merchan- 
dise ..... xxxi 

An Account of the Number and 
Tonnage of Vessels Entered 
Inwards and Cleared Outwards xxxii 

An Account of the Exports of 
the Principal Articles of Bri- 
tish and Irish Produce and 
Manufactures . . . xxxiii 

An Account of the Duty on Hops xxxiii 

Tables of Comparison with Fo- 
reign Weights and Measures xxxiv 

List of British Ministers Abroad xxxv 

Foreign Ministers in Eng- 
land . . . xxxvi 

Governors of British Colo- 
nies .... xxxvii 

British Consuls Abroad xxxvii 

■ Navy and Prize Agents in 

London . . . xxxix 

— — Agents for Officers of the 

Royal Marines . . xxxix 

< Licensed Navy Agents for 

Petty Officers and Sea- 
nien , . t • xxxix 



Page 
List of Army Agents . . xl 
G enerai Agents for Recruit- 
ing Service . . xl 

Parliamentary Agents . xl 

Banks in London . . xl 

Bankers in London . . xl 

Public General Statutes 

passed in the Session 7 
Will. IV., and 1 Vic- 
toria, 1837 . . . xlii 

Works which have been 

quoted or consulted . xlvi 

List of Subscribers . . . xlix 

PART I. 

Navigation .... I 

Ships and Boats . . 5 

Piracy ..... 16 

Salvage .... 16 

Naval Registration . . 19 

Sea Apprentices . . 20 

Passengers .... 24 

Smuggling ... 27 

PART II. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ire/and. 
Imports, viz. : — 
Report and Entry ... 38 
Damaged Goods . . 38 

Valuation of Goods . .38 

Manifests ... 38 

Reciprocity System ... 44 
Duties, Drawbacks, &c. . 45 

PART III. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Exports . . . .158 

PART IV. 
United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 
Coastwise . , . .176 

PART V. 

United Kiiigdum of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

London Tonnage Rates . .177 

Lights, Buoys, &c. . . 1 78 

Dock Rates, viz.: — 

London . . . ,181 

St. Katharine ... 184 

West India . . . .135 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



[1837-8. 



Pilots 
Liverpool 
Bristol 
Hull . 



Page 
188 
192 
192 
191 



PART VI. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, 
Countervailing Duties between 

Great Britain and Ireland , 193 
Inland Excise Duties . . 195 

Stamp Duties . . .196 

A Table of Days . . 200 

Letters, Newspapers, Magazines, 

&c 201 

Bills of Exchange . . 203 

PART VII. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain 

and Ireland, 

Warehousing . . . 204 



PART VIII. 




United Kingdom of Great Br 


tain 


and Ire/and, 




Aliens .... 


. 221 


Agents, Brokers, and Factors 


223 


Holidays 


. 224 


Return of Duty . 


224 


Samples 


. 224 


Consuls' Fees . 


224 



PART IX. 

Europe in GENEitAL . . 226 

British Possessions . . 226 

Isle of Man ... 227 
Guernsey, -Jersey, Alderney, and 

Sark 230 

Russia .... 234 

Sweden .... 240 

Norway .... 242 

Prussia ..... 244 
Denmark Proper and Duchy of 

Holstein ... 245 
Holland, Netherlands, & Belgium 248 
Austria . . . . ,255 

Hanseatic Towns . . 250 

Mecklenburgh . . . 259 

Hanover .... 259 

Oldenburgh . . . 259 
France . . . . .259 

Spain .... 268 

Canary Islands . . . 270 

Portugal .... 271 

Azores .... 273 

Gibraltar .... 273 

Malta .... 273 

Ionian Islands . . . 274 

Italy, Sardinian Territories . 274 

Papal Territories . , 274 

Austrian Territories . 275 

— — Duchy of Tuscany . . 275 



Page 
Turkey and Continental Greece 275 
Naples and Sicily . . 276 

Morea and Greek Islands . 277 



PART X. 

Asia in General 
British Possessions . . • 

Arabia .... 
Persia . . . . . 

East Indies 

Singapore . . . . 

Ceylon .... 
French Settlements . . 

Danish Settlements . . 

Portugufese Settlements . . 
Cutch and Scind . « 

Birman Empire ... 
Siam .... 

Cochin China . 

Sumatra .... 
Java . . . . . 

Other Islands of the Indian Seas 
Philippine Islands . . . 

China . . • • 

Jajianese Islands . . • 

Australia .... 
New South Wales . , 

New Holland . . . 

Van Dieman's Land . . 

New Zealand ... 

South Sea . . . 

PART XL 

Africa in General . 
Madeira .... 

British Possessions . 
Ports on the Mediterranean . 

J^^gypt 

Tripoli, Barbary, and Morocco . 
Constantine .... 
Senegal and Coast 
Sierra Leone and Coast 
Windward Coa>-t 
Cape Coast Castle and Gold 
Coast .... 

Coast from Rio Volta . 
Cape of Good Hope 
Eastern Coast . 
Ports on the Red Sea 
Cape Verde Islands . 
St. Helena . . 

Madagascar . 
Isle of Bourbon 
Mauritius . . 



278 
278 
278 
278 
278 
278 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
280 
280 
280 
280 
280 
230 
280 
292 
292 
294 
298 
298 
299 
301 



303 
304 
304 
304 
304 
304 
305 
305 
306 
306 

306 
306 
306 
307 
307 
307 
307 
307 
307 
307 



PART XII. 

America in Geneiial. . 309 

British Northern Colonies . 309 

Newfoundland . . . 309 
Canada .... 309 

New Brunswick . . 311 

Nova Scotia . . . ,311 



1837-8.] 


CONTENTS. 


vii 




Page 




Page 


British West Indies . 


311 


Colombia 


. 334 


British Pussessions in General 


314 


Brazil .... 


334 


Hoaduras 


324 


States of the Rio de la Plata . 


335 


Foreign West Indies . 


324 


Chili .... 


. 336 


St. Domiugo or Hayti 


, 325 


Peru .... 


336 


United States of America 


325 


Texas .... 


344 


Bahamas 


331 


Juan Fernandez . . , 


344 


Central America . 


331 


Falkland Islands 


344 


Mexico .... 


332 






Venezuela . 


333 


PART XIII. 




Guatemala . 


334 


Davis's Straits Fishery 


. 346 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



London. Page 
Atlas Assurance Company , 1 
Britannia Life Assurance Co. 8 
Hope Life Assurance Company 4 
Metropolitan Life Assn. Society 5 
National Loan Fund Life Assu- 
rance Society ... 2 
Standard of England Life Assu- 
rance, Reversionary Interest 
and Annuitant Company . 6 
York and North of England . G 

Albert, Loss of Teeth Supplied, 

Loose Teeth Fastened, &c. . 31 
Aulmac's Tarnish and Silver 

Plate Liquids ... 26 

Austin's Artificial Stone Works 12 

BarcFay's Asthmatic Candy . 31 

Blair's Gout & Rheumatic Pills 16 

Bond's Permanent Marking Ink 26 

Brown & Co.'s Dble Action Harp 24 

Chambers's Port. Water Closets 15 

Clark, Sack and Bag Manuf. . 14 
Coles's Improved Carriage for 

Railroads .... 14 

Collis's Essence of Honey . 35 
Cooper's Plate Glass, Carving 

and Gilding Warehouse . 26 
Cromar & Co., Whiteball Carpet 

and Furnishing Warehouse . 15 

Cross's Med. Label AVarehouse I'J 

Cross's New Plan of London . 19 
Cross's Map of the Colony of 

New South Wales . . 19 
Crossthwaite and Co.'s Occult 

Lozenges . . . .31 

Danks & Son, Carpet Warehouse 1 2 

Davis and Co., Tea Warehouse 12 

Davies, Machinist ... 24 

Delcroix and Co., Perfumers . 15 

D'Embden, Surgeon Dentist . 33 

Donovan, Irish Shirting Cluth . 15 
Earnshaws' Superior Chrono- 

mettrs .... 13 
Frauks's Sarsine Paste or Alka- 
line Comp. of Sarsaparilla . 25 
Fowler's Placards and Written 

Tickets .... 27 



Gamble, Patent Preserved Pro- 
vision Merchant . . .28 
Golden Age Restored ; Royal 

City Medal . . .25 

Goss and Co., Med. Admonitors 27 
Gordon's Specific Mixture . 22 

Gosnell and Co., Fashionable 

Articles for the Toilette . 27 

Hassan's Circassian Hair Dye . 15 
Hovenden, Manuf. Perfumer . 12 
Johnson's Soothing Syrup , 35 

Laberu's Botanic Cream . . 33 

Lambert and Sou, Patent Ship 

Pump and Fire Engine . 24 

Lefay's Grand Pomade . . 18 

Longman and Co.'s New Works : d 
M-CuUoch's Dictionary 
Steel'sShip-Master's Assistant. 
Gilbavt's History and Prin- 
ciples of Banking. 
Morrison, Elements of Prac- 
tical Book-keeping. 
Encyclopaedia of Geography. 
New General Atlas. 
Low and Son, Manufacturing 

Perfumers .... 25 
Mallau and Son, Mineral Sncce- 

daneum for Decayed Teeth . 25 
Martin and Co.'s Specimen of 

Lithography ... 23 
Maynard & Co.'s Officers' Out- 

fittuig Warehouse, &c. . 35 

Mordan's Pencils, &c. . . 20 

Morison's Pills . . .12 

Oldridge's Balm of Columbia . 29 
Parliamentary Chronicle . . 19 

Palmer's Soda and Seidlitz Pow- 
ders, Chemical Apparatus, &c. 13 
Perry's Iron and Brass Bed- 
steads .... 29 
Pickering's Works : . .18 
Richardson's Dictionary. 
Gentleman's Magazine. 
Post Otfice Directory . . 19 
Pritchett's Vegetable Vermifuge 

fur Destroying Worms . . 35 

Read, New Fue Escape . . 13 



VUl 



CONTENTS. 



[1837-8. 



Rowland's Macassar Oil . . 

Rypophagoii, or Super-Essential 
Shaving Soap t . . 

Savory and Sons, Manufacturing 
Silversmiths 

Savorj', J. Cox. ditto 

Smith & Son, Ext. of Liquorice 

South Australian Company 

Steffenoni, Cabinet and Uphol- 
stery Furniture . 

Stephens's Patent New Writing 
Fluids . . . . 

Stirling's Rees' Essence . . 

. Stomach Pills . . 

Tarling's Metallic Ink 

Wiss, Patent Portable and Fixed 
Water Closets 

Wood and Barrett's Patent Sell- 
Acting Oven 

Woodhouse, Balsam of Sperma- 

> ceti, Essence of Ginger, &c. . 

Wray's CelebratedBalsamic Pills 

Wray's Chalybeate German Seid- 
litz Powders 

Wray's Alterative Powders 

Zeitter and Co., Patent Flute 
Piano Fortes 



Page 
30 

32 

11 
14 

28 
32 

24 

22 
25 
34 
14 



10 



36 
33 



26 
34 



24 



Bath. 
Bath and Cheltenham Gazette . 37 
Bayntuu, Teeth and Palates, 

iJental Surgery, &c. . . 3G 

Sutton, Accountant, General 

Agent and Collector . . 36 

Bideford. 
Binney, late Butler to Mr. Mor- 
rison of Yeo Vale, Commer- 
cial lun .... 54 

Bristol. 

Generiil Steam Nav. Company . 38 

Crown Fire Utfice ... 37 

Union Fire Office ... 38 

Felix Farley's Bristol Journal . 46 
The Bristol Mirror, late Bonner 

and Middieton's Journal . 47 

Mathew's Bristol Directory . 47 



Bartlett, Manufacturer of Scale 
Beams, &c. . . .46 

Benson, Importer of Foreign 
Cigars and Snuffs , . 47 

Broughton and Sou, Provision 

and Salt Merchants . . 39 

Carruthe;s, Public Library and 
Reading Room ... 47 

Cox, Eating House . . 38 

Douglas, Bookseller, &c. . . 48 

Edwards, Music and Musical In- 
strument Seller . , . 50 



Page 
Frampton and Hancocl£,'Bottled 

Liquor Merchants . . 49 

Fry's Long Approved Church- 
man's Cake Chocolates . 50 
Hancock, Custom-House Agen- 
cy and Shipping Gazette . 49 
Hunt and Co., Tea Trade . 46 
Humpage's Medicated Syrup of 

Horehound ... 48 

Jordan. Economic Clothes' Mart 39 
Kerslakc, Cheap Books . . 42 

Levy Levy, Cut and Engraved 

Glass Manufactory . . 48 

Levy's Bristol Bazaar, and Ge- 
neral Furnishing Depot . 40 
Light and Ridler, Public Library, 
Bookselling, Stationery, and 
Patent Medicine Warehouse . 49 
Miles, Tailor and Draper . 39 
Muston, Chronometer Maker . 39 
Napoleon's Cou2h Drops . . 50 
Nener, Haulier ... 37 
Ring and Hood, Warerooms, 

Porcelain, Flint Glass, &c. . 46 
Rose and Son, Printers, Book- 
sellers and Stationers . . 49 
Spencer, Napoleon's Cough Pills 
Stivens, Gen. Italian Warehouse 49 
Sullivan, Flint Glass Establish- 
ment, Imp. of Whiskey, &c. . 39 
Tovey, Foreign Wine-House . 38 
Vowles, Hat Manufacturer . 50 
W^orboys, Civet Cat, Foreign 
Fancy Merchandise . . 50 



Exeter. 

W'estein Annuity Society 

Hui.i.. 
Phillips, Royal Hat Depot 

Nottingham. 
Haythorn, Commercial Agent . 

Thatcham. 
Cooper's Fish Sauce 

.Whitehaven. 
Temperance News Room . 

Yarmouth. 

Plummer, Classical and Com- 
mercial School . . 

Rotterdam. 

Preston, General Commercial 
Agent .... 



51 
53 
54 
54 
54 

54 

54 



Pope's Yearly Journal of Trade, 
To Advertisers . , .55 



1837-8.] CORRESPONDENCE. — CHARACTER. IX 

OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

to THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HIS MAJESTY'S TREASURY. 

Dec. 2. 1828. 
Mv Louns,— With much deference I beg leave to lay before you the enclosed prospectus of 
a new edition of "The Merchant, Ship Owner, and Ship Master's Import and Export 
Guide,'' * and to solicit the honour of your Lordships' patronage. 

You will see, my Lords, that the work has been one of intense application for a series of 
twenty-two years; and tliatthe information contained in it cannot be acquired from any other 
publication whatever. 

I need not point out to vour Lordships the close connection there is with the subject of my 
book and the causes of public wealth ; nor need I crave encouragement for industry, because I 
am quite sure you will extend to me, as well as to others, due countenance and support. 

Allow me, however, my Lords, to remark that, under your auspices, I should have no doubt 
of rendering my book useful to the nation, benelicial to the revenue, and creditable to the 
patrons. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Charles Pope. 



TO CHARLES POPE, ESQ. 

Treasury Chambers, Dec. 19, 1828. 
Sib,— Having laid before the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury your letter, 
dated the 2n(l instant, enclosing prospectus of a new edition of "The Merchant, Ship 
Owkj:r, and Ship Master's Lmport and Export Guide,"* 1 have it in command to acquaint 
you that my Lords will subscribe to your woik, and desire to be furnished with twelve copies 
thereof. 

I am, Sir, &c. 
* Now " The Yearly Journal of Trade." J. Stewart. 

AUTHORITIES. 

If there beone species of knowledge more essential to a merchant than another, it is that he 
should be acquainted with the various productions of the different Commercial Countries of the 
World, and of those which are in demniul in them. And when ships are freighted and commo- 
dities seut abroad by those who are destitute ol tUU elementary instruction, the wonder is, not 
that they should sometimes calculate wrong, but that they should ever calculate right. — £din. 
Review. 

In everything relating to manufactures and commerce we are on the eve of a new era. Mil- 
lions of our fellow-creatures depend for their means of subsistence on the " onward movement,' 
of this system. We cnnnot retrograde to th.e simple practices of by-gone days ; hence we say, 
and maintain, that all the manufacturing and commercial nations of the earth must accommo- 
date themselves in time to the circumstances of which we notify the advent, otherwise those 
who do not accommodate themselves, will be left behind, like the mile-stones on a roatl, which 
are or will be superseded by a railroa<t. — John Bull, May 7, 1837. 

In the wav that I .shall now propound, the entire body and substance of the law shall remain, 
only discharged of idle and unpvolitable or hurtful matter; and illustrated by order and other 
helps, towards the better understanding of it, and judgment thereupon. — Lord Bacon. 

It is intolerable that the proclamations and orders iu council were not formed into a book 
and bound ; it is not to be supposed we can keep every Gazette. — Lord Chief Justice Ellcnhorough. 

It were greatly to be wished that men of eminence and distinction, whose birth and fortune 
procure them an admission into the British senate, would employ a little more of their time in 
the cultivation of the science of commerce, so worthy of their greatest regard and attention. — 
Dean Tucker. 

The knowledge of trade is of so much importance to a maritime nation, that no labour can be 
thought too great by which information may be obtained. — Dr. Johnson. 

It is a lamentable' truth, that while we have the means of conducting statistical inquiries with 
singular correctness, through the agency of our committees of parliament, the mass of informa- 
tion which is thus aciiuireil, at an immense cost of time and money, is scarcely ever digested, 
systematized, and condensed, so as to be useful to the nation at large. — London Magazine. 

CHARACTER OF THE FIRST EDITION. ' 

From the summary view which we have taken of this work, it appears to contain the most 
important information relative to the nature and management of commercial concerns, and to 
present an interesting display of commercial regulations ; and, under the impression which it 
has made on our minds, we can have no hesitation in saying, that it appears entitled to a place 
in the house of every merchant, ship-owner, or other person, in any respect connected with the 
maritime commerce and manufactures of the United Kingdom. — Tradesman ; or Commercial 
Magazine, April, 1312. 

Mr. Pope appears tons to have performed his task well; and to have compiled a volume 
which mav be said to supply a good clue to the labyrinth of our Custom-house. — Monthly He- 
view, Sept! 1812. 

Wlioever remembers the discussion which took place on Mr. Pitt's memorable plan for the 
simplification of the Duties of Customs, and the eloquent panegyric which Mr. I3uike, though 
at that time in opposition, pronounced on the ability, perseverance, and skill of the Minister, in 
digesting such a system, and in rendering it intelligible to the plainest understanding, needs no 
further information respecting the vast dilTiculty and labour attending the accomplishment 
of such a scheme as that which Mr. Pope has perlected. Of the consequence of a plain, practi- 
cable, and iutelligihle abridgment of those complicated law s, in the execution of which so many 
thousands of the inhabitants of this commercial country are daily and hourly concerneil, every 
nian roust be aware. It would be a matter of astonishment to us, that there is not one work which 



X CHARACTER. [1837-8. 

affords this desirable information, if we were not fully sensible of the extreme labour and 
great skill requisite for so arduous an undertaking. Mr. Pope has not been discouraged by this 
consideration, and he has performed his task with great perspicuity, diligence, and talent.— 
Antijacobiii Review, May, l813. 

CHARACTER OF THE SECOND EDITION. 

A most valuable feature of this edition is the table of Bounties and Drawbacks on British 
Goods Exported, and which in itself renders this book of essential utility to the Merchant and 
Custom-house Agent. We can only repeat our high approbation of the manner in which Mr. 
Pope has executed his task, and we are convinced that the commercial world in general can- 
not fail lo reap the most important benefits from his meritorious labours. — Tradesman ; or Com- 
mercial Magazine, Juue, 1814. 

This is a work of great labour, and no small difficulty. It presents, in as narrow a compass 
as possible, a mass of information that entitles it to a place in the counting-house, where it will 
be found useful as a book of reference, on innumerable occasions. — Literary Fanorama, June, 
1814. 



CHARACTER OF THE THIRD EDITION. 

In our number for September, 1812, we took suHieient notice of the fust edition of this work, 
and gave our testimony to the success with which Mr. Pope had laboured to afford a clue to 
the labyrinth of our Custom-house Laws. The present edition contains considerable additions, 
relating chiefly to the Excise, the India Trade, and the Regulations under which the Ware- 
housing System has of late years received so considerable an extension; comprising a great 
mass of materials in a more accessible form than any that we have seen on the subject.— 
Monthli/ Review, Nov. 1S15. 

In our opinion, Mr. Pojjc is deserving of great credit for his very laborious undertaking; it is a 
work that we feel pleasure and confidence in recommending, not only to Officers in the Navy, 
but likewise to Merchants and the Masters and Mates of Vessels in their employ; and also to 
the principal Officers attached to the Customs and Excise, in the outports aad abroad; each of 
whom ought to possess a copy of this extremely useful publication.— iVauai Chronicle, March, 
1817. 



CHARACTER OF THE FOURTH EDITION. 
Altogether, this is the completest manual of Mercantile Law which has ever issued from the 
British Press ; and the variety, extent, and accuracy of the information it contains, claims for 
it a place on the desk of every Mercantile Man, as well as every Officer of the Customs and 
E.xcise, throughout the British dominions. — Literary Panorama, Oci. 1818. 

CHARACTER OF THE EIGHTH EDITION. 
The utility of works of this kind is best exhiiiitcd negatively, by imagining the misery and 
mischief which may be consequent upon the want of them. No man can say that, unassisted, 
he can act prudently and promptly in mercantile transactions, if he is to ransack libraries and 
consult lawyers \ipon every multifarious occasion which occurs in the course of business. He 
may mistake or be cheated ; and if he chooses to avoid either or both of these, he loses time 
which may be profitably employed. The only question then is this; Is the work so compre- 
hensively and so accurately executed as to answer the indispensable purposes of utility and 
safety ? We use the latter term, because modern acts of parliament are so clumsily composed, 
tiiat an appearance of intelligibility and grammar in a compression of them may lead to a jus- 
tifiable suspicion that the almost incomprehensible meaning of the original is not faithfully 
preserved*. We own, therefore, that the neatness, precision, and judgment of Mr. Pope have 
alarmed us ; but as the work has passed through eight editions, and of course been put to most 
ample test, we have no right to doubt the accuracy of the chart which he h.as compiled to aid 
our navigation through these rocks and quicksands. — Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1823. 

CHARACTER OF THE ELEVENTH EDITION. 

This is indeed a volume which no Merchant, Statesman, or Legislator ought to bo without.— 
Literary Chronicle. 

We have looked into the work, with no small degree of national pride, as a record of the 
triumph of British enterprise in every corner of the world ; and we award to Mr. Pojie the high 
meed of having " done the State some service." — Liverpool Knleiduscope. 

As a book of reference, its usefulness extends to all classes of society engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. It is a Mercantile Magazine, stored with a great and multilarious mass of valuable 
information. — London fFeeUy Review. 

Mr. Pope's Work is peculiarly valuable, from its containing all the Commercial Treaties and 
Conventions, which are not to be met with in any other work. It is, indeed, a volume which 
no Merchant, Statesman, or Legislator ought to be without. — Literary Chronicle, 



CHARACTER OF "THE YEARLY JOURNAL OF TRADE." 
The great merit of a Work of this kind must depend upon its accuracy, and the authenticity 
of the documents from which the inlbrmation has been derived. Mr. Pope ajipears, as far as it 
is possible from a general inspection of his volume to form an opinion, to have executed his 
task with fidelity, and to have conferred a useful favour upon the Commercial men of his 
country.— rime,f, March 17, 1836. 

* It ought not, however, to be expected, says Dr. Johnson, that the Stones which form the 
Dome of a temple should be squared and polished like the Diamond of a Uing.— Ed. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Whenever the several terras or expressions following shall occur in 
any Act relating to the customs or to trade and navigation, the same shall 
be construed respectively in the manner hereinafter directed : viz., the 
term " ship "* shall be construed to mean ship or vessel generally, 
unless such term be used to distinguish a ship from sloops, brigantines, 
and other classes of vessels ; the term " master"' of any ship shall be 
construed to mean the person having or taking the charge or command 
of such ship ; the term " owners" and the term '" owner" of any ship 
shall be construed alike to mean one owner, if there be only one, and 
any or all the owners, if there be more than one ; the term " mate" of 
any ship shall be construed to mean the person next in command of 
such ship to the master thereof; the term " seaman" shall be construed 
to mean alike seaman, mariner, sailor, or landsman, being one of the 
crew of any ship; the term "British Possessions'' shall be construed to 
mean colony, plantation, island, territory, or settlement, belonging to His 
Majesty; the term "His Majesty" shall be construed to mean His 
Majesty, his heirs and successors ; the term " East India Company" 
shall be construed to mean the United Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies; the term " limits of the East India Com- 
pany's Charter'" shall be construed to mean all places and seas eastward 
of the Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magellan ; the terms " col- 
lector and comptroller" shall be construed to mean the collector and 
comptroller of the customs of the port intended in the sentence ; when- 
ever mention is made of any public othcer, the officer mentioned shall be 
deemed to be such officer for the time being ; the term " warehouse" 
shall be construed to mean any place, whether house, shed, yard, timber- 
pond, or other place in which goods entered to be warehoused upon im- 
portation may be lodged, kept, and secured without payment of duty, 
or although prohibited to be used in the United Kingdom ; the term 
" King's warehouse" shall be construed to mean any place provided by 
the crown for lodging goods therein for security of the customs, 3 and 4 
Will. IV., c. 52, $119. 

Further Abbreviations. 



Not otherwise enumer 


ated or described . 


Not otherwise enumerated. 


For every 100^. of the 


value 


100/. val. 


Barrel 




brl. 


Gallon 




gal. 


Yard 




yd. 


Square Yard 




sq. yd. 


Dozen 




doz. 


Exceeding . 




ex. 


British Possessions 




B. P. 


Order in Council 




O. C. 


Treasury Order . 




T. O. 


Treasury Letter 




T. L. 


Customs Order 




CO. 



• The term " ship," or " vessel" is, in sonjs cases, in this Journal, used s\ noiiymously. — Ed. 



CONSTRUCTION IN GKNERAL. [1837-8. 



CONSTRUCTION IN GENERAL. 

If upon the first levying, or repealing of any duty, or upon the first 
granting or repealing of any drawback or bounty, or upon the first per- 
mitting or prohibiting of any importation or exportation, whether in- 
wards, outwards, or coastwise', in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of 
Man, it shall become necessary to determine the precise time at which 
an importation or exportation of any goods made and completed shall be 
deemed to have had effect, such time, in respect of importation, shall be 
deemed to be the time at which the ship importing such goods had 
actually come within the limits of the port at which such ship shall in 
due course be reported, and such goods be discharged ; and such time, in 
respect of exportation, shall be deemed to have had effect, such time, in 
respect of importation, shall be deemed to be the time at which goods 
had been shipped on board the ship in which they had been exported ; 
and if such question shall arise upon the arrival or departure of any 
ship, in respect of any charge or allowance upon such ship, exclusive of 
any cargo, the time of such arrival shall be deemed to be the time at 
which the report of such ship shall have been or ought to have been 
made ; and the time of such departure shall be deemed to be the time 
of the last clearance of such ship with the collector and comptroller for 
the voyage upon which she had departed. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 125. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



The Editor has much pleasure in acknowledp^ing, with his best thanks, the 
receipt of several valuable Communications, particularly from Rotterdam, Oporto, 
Cadiz, Guernsey, Jersey, Miramichi, and St. Kitt's. The last-mentioned one 
reached him unfortunately too late to avail himself of it. 



The Editor earnestly begs tliat all Communications may be made so as to 
reach him by the close of each Session of Parliament. He aspires to have a 
Correspondent at every Principal Port of the Globe ; and if the gentlemen at 
such ports would, from time to time, favour him with information on topics con- 
necttd with this Journal, " there needs no ghost" to say that the value of it 
would be greatly enhanced. 



Agents required at all the Places Abroad not meutioned in the List, page slix. 
A very handsome Commission allowed. 



Communications may be made to the Editor, Custom House, Bristol, or at the 
Office, 25, St. Swithin's Lane, London; to Mr. C. H. Pagden, Custom House, 
Liverpool ; Mr. T. J. Snowden, Custom House, Hull ; or, in fact, to the Agent 
of this Journal at any other Port of the United Kingdom. 



INTRODUCTORY SKETCH 

OF THE 

RISE AND PROGRESS OF TRADE, 

SHOWING ESPECIALLY 

ITS STATE AND PROSPECTS IN 
1837. 



Trade is obviously coeval with the world itself. We are told in 
Sacred History that " man shall eat his bread by the sweat of his brow," 
and that " God sent him forth to till the ground." 

Communication, in the early ages, was kept up by caravans or compa- 
nies of travelling merchants, as is recorded in the 37th chapter of Genesis. 
" A company of Ishraaelites came from Gilead, with their camels, 
bearing spicery, and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt." 

It may be inferred that, even in those early ages, manufactures must 
have made good progress; for we find, in the 41st chapter of the same 
book, that " Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon 
Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold 
chain about his neck ; and he made him to ride in the second chariot 
which he had." 

By degrees, the system of barter extended itself as families increased 
and separated ; and what was at first practised only in one spot, spread 
itself wider and wider, till at last, under certain modifications, it has 
extended over all the kingdoms of the earth. 

Greiit nature spoke ; observant man obey'd; 

Cities were built, societies were made ; 

Here rose one little state ; another near 

Grew by like means, and join'd through love or fear, 

Fope — Essay on Man. 

The first idea of a ship is given us in Holy Writ. We are there told 
that " God commanded Noah to make an ark of gopher wood, and to 
pitch it within and without with pitch." 

According to Herodotus, the Egyptian ships were made of thorns 
twisted together, and their sails of nish mats. Conjecture, however, as 
well as history, warrants us in believing that rafts were the most ancient 
mode of conveyance on the water ; and even in the time of Pliny they 
were extensively employed, especially in the navigation of rivers. Boats 
formed of slender rods or hurdles, and covered with skins, seem also to 
have preceded the canoe or vessel made of a single piece of timber.* 

To a native of Lydia the Greeks ascribe the invention of boats of 
planks. Among some nations leather was the only materal used in the 
formation of ships. Even in the time of Caesar, the Veneti, a people of 
Brittany, made their sails of hides and their tackle of thongs. The 

* -A- fac-simile of the aneieiit navy of the :ibori:;inal lirilons is at this day to be found in its 
primitive simplicity on tlie waters of the Wjo and Towey, and still known by its ancient 
ap|iellatioii of 'coracle,' and used io the salmon fishery near Caermarthen. 



X'lV INTRODUCTORV SKETCH. [1837-8. 

Greeks also, in early ages, used the common rushes of their country, and 
the Carthaginians the spartum or broom of Spain. 

Illi robur, et ms triplex, 
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem true! 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus. Hor. 

The iirst ship that ever sailed on the sea, as some report.'was named 
Ai'go. The derivation of the word has often been disputed ; but it seems 
probable that it is from Argos, the person who originally proposed the 
expedition of the Argonauts, and who built the ship. She had fifty oars. 
According to many authors, says Lempriere, she had also a beam on her 
prow. The expedition commenced about 79 years before the taking of 
Troy, or 12G3 B. C. Orpheus was one of the Argonauts, of which cele- 
brated expedition he wrote a poetical account, still extant. 

The earliest anchors were doubtless large stones, logs of heavy wood, 
or any ponderous substance that might be at hand. At present, the 
shape of anchors is pretty nearly the same in most parts of the civilized 
world ; and, except in a few instances, where copper is used, iron is the 
material employed in their construction. 

According to Diodorus, the Phoenicians, in their first voyages to Spain, 
having obtained more silver than their ships could safely hold, employed 
some of it, instead of lead, for their anchors. The cables were made of 
leather thongs, afterwards of rushes, the osier, the Egyptian byblus, and 
similar materials. The Veneti, however, used iron cables. The chain 
cable, therefore, of which we boast as an invention of the present day, 
was known to a nation of savages in Gaul so far back as the time of 
Csesar. In the days of Agricola, sails were made of flax ; towards the 
end of the first century, hemp was in common use among them for sails 
and ropes. 

The finding out of the mariner's compass is usually ascribed to Flavio 
Gioia, a Neapolitan, about the year 1302 ; and hence it is that the ter- 
ritory of Principato, which makes a part of the kingdom of Naples, 
where he was born, bears a compass for its arms. Others say, that 
Marcus Paulus, a Venetian, making a journey to China, brought back 
the discovery with him in 1260. In the embassy of Lord Macartney to 
the Emperor of China, this latter assertion seems to be confirmed. " It 
has been thought," he says, " that the needle has its chief tendency to 
the north pole ; but in China, the south alone is considered as containing 
the attractive power. The Chinese name of the compass is ting-nan- 
ching, or needle pointing to the south, and a distinguishing mark is 
fixed on the magnet's southern pole, as in European compasses upon the 
northern one." 

Anaximander, a Milesian philosopher, first invented geographical 
maps and sun-dials, about 500 B. C. The fifteenth century is distin- 
guished by the great improvements which were made in their construc- 
tion; but these improvements are carried to a vastly higher degree in 
the present day. 

Sheathing of ships is pretty generally considered to be absolutely new ; 
but two instances of it are recorded by ancient writers. Leo Baptista 
Alberti, in his book of architecture, mentions that Trajan's ship was 
raised out of the lake of Riccia, where it had lain sunk and neglected 



1837-8.J INTRODUCTORV SKETCH. XV 

for above thirteen hundred years,— that the pine and cypress of it had 
lasted most remarkably. On the outside it was built with double planks, 
daubed over with green pitch, caulked with linen rags, and, over all, a 
sheet of lead, fastened on with little copper nails. Here we have caulk- 
ing and sheathing together, about sixteen hundred years ago. The other 
instance is in Purchas's Pilgrims, where he gives an account of the 
finding of a great town, in a dock of which was a pinck of eight or ten 
hundred tons burden, sheathed all with iron. This was about the year 
1613. 

The oldest known bill of lading on record, if we may call it so, is the 
return cargo of King Solomon's fleet navigated betwixt Ezion-Geber and 
Ophir by Tyrian pilots ; this was gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks. 
In the chapters of the Bible* which briefly glance at the trade to Ophir, 
the linen yarn of Egypt is spoken of in a manner that would imply it to 
have been an important article of commerce. 

That a duty of custom was paid by the Jewish nation from almost time 
immemorial is pretty evident from the authority of the New Testament, 
for " St. Matthew sat at the receipt of custom; "' and St. Paul, in his 
Epistle to the Romans, says, " Render to all their dues, tribute to whom 
tribute is due, custom to whom custom." t 

The right of the King of England to the duties of great customs levied 
on the impost of the three staple commodities of wool, skins, and leather, 
is said to be granted by the 3rd of Edward T., the record of which is not 
now extant. This right is, however, specially saved by the 25th of 
Edward I., c. 7. 

The smaller customs, being an impost of 3d. in the pound, due from 
mei'chant strangers only, for all commodities, as w^ell imported as ex- 
ported, were granted by the 31st of Edward I. But the first complete 
legal impost of tonnage and poundage granted by Parliament, and 
extending to natives, was sanctioned by the 47th of Edward III. 

These duties, gradually increased, have constantly formed part of the 
national revenue, and although during several reigns they were only 
granted temporarily, the 31st of Henry VI. conferred them for life on 
that King. The 12 Car. II., c. 4, called the great statute, is considered 
to be the foundation of the modern customs. By the 7th section of that 
statute it is thus enacted : " The customers and collectors, and all other 
His Majesty's officers in the several ports, shall take and receive such 
fees, and no others, as were taken in the 4th year of the late King 
James.'' 

The ancient system of farming certain custom duties, which was occa- 
sionally resorted to, ceased on the appointment of commissioners to 
manage this branch of the revenue in 1761. The practice, however, of 
granting different offices with the profits annexed thereto by patent, to 
persons frequently of the highest rank, who performed their duties by 
deputy, prevailed till ] 784, the last patent, it is believed, being dated on 
the 21st of April in that year. 

The earhest regular table of English customs duties is contained in the 
Act of 12th Charles II. It is well known that these duties have gone 
on increasing from time to time ; and that in the present day they are 

• 1 Kings, Chap, x.; 2 Chron. chap. xix. t Rom. xiii. 7- 



XV) INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. [1837-8. 

to tlie nation a fruitful source of revenue, and to the statesman an engine 
by which many of the ablest schemes of political economy are regulated. 

Excise duties were first levied during the civil wars in 1G43, and the 
12 Car. II., c. 23, confirmed this impost, and directed the erection of a 
principal head ofhce in the city of London. 

The stamp duties were first levied under an act passed in the fifth and 
sixth years of William and Mary, and that statute authorized the appoint- 
ment of commissioners to manage and collect the same. 

During the 12th and 13th centuries, the commerce of Europe was 
almost entirely in the hands of the Italians, more commonly known in 
those ages by the name of Lombards. Companies, or societies of Lom- 
bard merchants, settled in every different kingdom. They became the 
carriers, the manufacturers, and the bankers of Europe. One of these 
companies settled in London ; and thence the name of Lombard-street.* 

The Woollen manufactures, long regarded as the staple trade of 
England, first rose into importance in the reign of Edward III., who 
encouraged the Flemings to establish factories in various parts of the 
country. 

In the reign of James I. it was calculated that nine-tenths of the com- 
merce of the kingdom consisted in woollen goods. 

The cotton manufacture, though probably introduced into England 
about the year 1600, and extensively carried on, as was then thought, in 
the neighbourhood of Manchester about the year 1641, according to 
Lewis Robert's book, entitled " Treasure of Traffic," had not reached 
such a state in the year 1760 as to produce any cloth made of cotton 
alone. The introduction of the carding machine about 1762 was soon 
followed by several attempts to spin also by machinery ; but these seem 
to have been ineffectual till 1769, when Mr ("afterwards Sir Richard) 
Arkwrightt obtained his first patent for the spinning frame. The de- 
clared value of the exportations of cotton manufactures in the year ended 
5th January 1837 was 18,891,386^. besides cotton yarn, which was 
6,128,233/. 

The opening of the East India trade to private individuals stands fore- 
most in the list of modern alterations in our Commercial Code. That 
this trade was almost exclusively confined to the East India Company 
since the year 1595, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, is well 
known. 

The celebrated Act of Navigation has been revised and newly mo- 
delled. The Act took its rise during the Commonwealth, and was after- 
wards confirmed by Charles II. For the last century and a half the 
Navigation Act was considered by the generality of mercantile people as 

* The first regular banker in London was Mr. Francis Child, goldsmith, who began business 
soon after the RT^storalion. His descendants still carry on the banking concern next door to 
Temple-bar. At this house the Lord Mayor and Corporation awaited tiie arrival of the Queen, 
on Her Majesty's visit to dine with them in tlie city cm Navcmber 9th, 1837. 

t Ori'dnally a barber. — One of tlie most singular in.stiinces on record of patient love of know- 
ledne is^ibuad in the case of Arkwright. When he was considerably more than 50 years of age 
(he'died in his GOlh vearl. feeling tliat the defects of his education placed him under great diffi- 
cvilty and inconvenience in conducting his correspondeuce, and that in the general management 
of hi9 business, he encroached upon his shop— lie used at the time to spend in business avoca- 
tions from five o'clock in the morning until nine at night— in order to gain an hour each day to 
leuni Knglish grammuf, and another hour to imjirove his writing and orthography. 



1837-8.] mTRODUCTORY SKETCH. XVli 

a sort of charter by which all our commercial and maritime ri<i;hts and 
privileges were sustained. Adam Smith, however, was not of this opi- 
nion. 

The first General Warehousing Act was passed in 1803. The leading 
feature of the Warehousing Act is to defer the payment of duties for- 
merly due to the King at the time of importation, and to allow goods to 
remain, under certain regulations, in warehouses, or other places, until 
it may suit the parties to remove them either for exportation or home 
consumption. 

In the year 1824, an entirely new principle was introduced into the 
economy of our foreign trade, and which atfects in no slight degree the 
interests of some of our staple manufactures. 

This principle is to abolish, as far as practicable, prohibitions on im- 
port, and bounties on export. 

The union with Ireland has wrought a great change in our commerce. 
Ireland, in her trade, has lately been placed upon the same fooling as 
Great Britain. This had been partially done at the time of the union. 
However, the full consummation of the measure, in a commercial point 
of view, had not been before accompl-jhed. 

A system of reciprocity in our '.ntercourse with foreign nations has 
been recently adopted. The ships of those kingdoms that choose to avail 
themselves of the advantages may now enter British and Irish ports upon 
the same terms as ships of the United Kingdom ; and, on the other hand, 
our vessels may enter into the harbours belonging to those foreign na- 
tions upon the same terms as if built and navigated by their own coun- 
trymen. 

The legislative sanction which has been given to our trade with the 
Independent States of South America opens a channel of great import- 
ance to us. Fresh sources of enterprise are likewise presenting them- 
selves in Australia. 

In the session of 1825, the progress of revision and improvement, if 
possible, outstripped former peiiods. Not only were the Laws of the 
customs reduced to a few in number, but great and important alterations 
were effected in principle. The high prohibitory duties on import were 
lowered, and the whole system revised. 

But the most striking change is the one that has been made touching 
the British possessions abroad. These are now treated in every respect 
as an integral part of the United Kingdom. 

During the session of 1826, an important rule was adopted, viz. that 
various goods shall not be deemed to be imported from any particular 
place, unless they be also imported direct from such place. 

In the year 1827, a material alteration was again made in the Na- 
vigation Laws, by striking out several of the articles which, for a long 
period, had been prohibited to be imported under certain circumstances, 
and by substituting others. 

The year 1834 is remarkable for the Slave Trade having been abolish- 
ed in it, and for the Trade with the East Indies and China having been 
wholly thrown open. 

Amidst the stupendous events of modern times, it would be unpardon- 
able not to mention the rapid progress which the discovery of the uses of 



Xviii INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. [1837-8. 

Steam is making. The great intercourse betwixt England and Ireland, 
especially with Liverpool and Bristol, cannot fail of being reciprocally 
beneficial. Steam may be said to have given to man the wings of the 
dove. To James Watt, a common working mechanic, this mighty dis- 
covery is by some attributed. That his name ought to live, not merely 
in the history of his own country, but of mankind, cannot be questioned. 
The Marquis of Worcester, however, in his " History of Inventions," so 
far back as the time of Charles II., hints at the great uses to which 
Steam might be turned. Perhaps the powers of Steam cannot be more 
fully exemplified than in the instance of the machinery of the printers of 
this Journal. The extreme nicety and expedition with which the im- 
mense masses of the " The Penny Magazine," " The Penny Cyclo- 
psedia," " The Quarterly Review," and other works of extensive circu- 
lation, are wrought ofi", is certainly one of the features of the age. 

In tracing the progress of trade in the expiring year with a view to 
show the Present State and Future Prospects — if there be any present 
state of that which is in perpetual progression — the Revulsions in the East 
India and American branches stand prominent. The effects of these 
severe visitations, to a great degree, still remain, and the public revenue 
has, in consequence, materially suffered. There exists, however, in the 
very nature of trade an innate power to right itself; so that what is com- 
paratively void in one part becomes supplied by the superabundance of 
the other. Re-action has evidently commenced; and Commerce has 
begun to resume her wonted channels. 

Portugal has departed from the principles of reciprocity with this 
country, and retaliation has been made by British Orders in Council 
charging extra duties on Portuguese goods and shipping. This state of 
things has probably been brought about by our having in the first in- 
stance relinquished the spirit of the Methuen Treaty, whereby Portu- 
guese woollens and wines were especially favoured. The wines of all 
counti'ies now pay duties alike, excepting those of the British colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope, which pay only half those of other sorts. 

SjMin, on the other hand, has made some modification in our behalf. 
Recent accounts from Cadiz, however, bring the report of the committee 
of the Cortes, to whom were referred the petitions from Cadiz, Seville, 
&c., against the concessions so lately announced as consented to by the 
Spanish government in favour of the trade of Gibraltar, by placing it on 
an equal footing in reference to the intercourse with Spanish ports, and 
by Spanish vessels, with that of Bordeaux, Marseilles, and other French 
ports. The committee have agreed in recommending that, whilst it was 
expedient the privileges lately extended to Gibraltar should be rescinded, 
it was no less proper that those possessed by the French ports be likewise 
abolished, and, for the future, all placed on the same footing. 

A communication has been established with the East Indies by way of 
Egypt and the Red Sea, through the active exertions of a private indi- 
vidual — Mr. Waghorn — which seems likely to be followed up in such a 
way as to be productive of great national advantage. 

In the last session of Parliament, the laws and regulations of our Post 
Office, which, from lapse of time, had become very numerous and per- 
plexed, were consolidated. They are now brought into a comparatively 



1837-8.] INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. Xix 

small compass, and many judicious alterations introduced. This scheme. 
it is understood, was projected under the able management of the Duko 
of Richmond, who, it is well known, was indcfati<?able in his attention to 
that branch of the public service whilst he was Postmaster-General. 
From the well-known talent and zeal of the present heads of the Post- 
office department, still further improvements may yet be anticipated. 
Colonel Maberly, the Secretary, is always on the alert to carry into effect 
any suggestion tending to the advantage of the public. 

The Tea Trade has been a good deal depressed in prices. These, 
however, have recently advanced, and now promise fair remuneration to 
capitalists. Whenever a new channel of enterprise is thrown open, the 
rush of adventurers is generally so great, that the market for awhile be- 
comes glutted. The supply, however, eventually suits itself to the de- 
mand, and things fall into the right course. Such will be the case, no 
doubt, with the tea trade. 

A slight gloom hangs at present over our Woollen Manufactures, but 
it is believed to be only as a summer cloud. 

"The London New Price Current" of Nov. 10, 1837, states that " the 
Markets for produce generally present a very healthy and improving ap- 
pearance ; for home consumption there has again been an extensive de- 
mand for all the leading articles, and prices of British plantation, Mauri- 
tius, Bengal, and Refined Sugar, Melas.tes, West India ^n^ Ceylon Coffee, 
British Plantation Cocoa, Cotton, Pimento, and Tallow have advanced ; 
other articles have \vell maintained former rates. There has also been a 
fair business doing for export, considering the advanced period of the 
year, and speculators have commenced operations in articles where prices 
are low, as being profitable investments for their capital. The stocks of 
goods in first hands in the kingdom are light, and generally less than at 
this period in 1836. The deliveries iox Home Consumption h^yeheen 
much greater this year than they were last to this period." 

It is also stated that at Manchester there is a very fair demand for 
most of the ordinary shipping numbers of Yarns, and most of the spinners 
are asking an advance of about one farthing per pound. There was also 
a very fair demand for Printing Cloths and for Shirtitigs, and a slight 
advance was realized on both descriptions of cloth. 
The trade of the Potteries is also in a reviving state. 
It is many years since this country was blessed with a Harvest so 
abundant as that of the present year. It is a great happiness to find 
tiiat the whole of the class of agricultural labourers are employed at good 
wages. 

The Fisheries in the Greenland Seas and Davis's Straits have not, 
for a few years, been so productive as formerly. There is an instinct in 
fishes, as well as in all other living creatures, whether on land or in 
water, that warns them of the approach of danger. Fishes, it is well 
known, migrate, upon frequent interruptions, to places of apparently 
greater security. This seems to have been the case with the whale in 
those seas, for this season has added to the list of unprofitable ones. On 
the contrary, the Salmon and Herring Fisheries have turned out un- 
usually well. 
The new system of things consequent on the Abolition of Slavery in 

b 2 



XX INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. [1837-8. 

the West Indies seems, upon the whole, likely to settle down favourably ; 
and the gloomy predictions which were at one time entertained by some 
on this head will, it is hoped, be entirely dispelled. 

Railways are making great progress, not only in this country, but in 
various other places in Europe. Immense quantities of iron, in the early 
part of the year, were shipped to America for such purpose. Time and 
space seem about to be nearly annihilated, and the stories of " The 
Arabian Nights Entertainments" almost cease to be fiction. The pro- 
duce and manufactures of all the earth will be brought, with somewhat 
like talismanic rapidity, to our very doors ; and the labour of years, on 
the system of the ancients, be now accomplished as it were in the 
twinkling of an eye*. 

" In the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say, whirlwind" of the 
affairs of this world, in which commerce so largely participates, and which 
the tumult of railways so strongly calls to mind, surely it is consolatory 
to reflect that there is one 

" Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, 
A hero perish, or a sparrow fall." — Pope, 

The prospect of the Money Market having a sum equal nearly to two 
millions thrown upon it. by the East India Company, in June next, has 
given an assurance, in some degree, that money will be easy throughout 
the intervening period. 

In the Queens Speech on the Opening of Parliament, Monday, No- 
vember 20, 1837, Her Majesty, amongst other matters, states: — 

" It is with great satisfaction that I have received from all Foreign 
Powers the strongest assurances of their friendly disposition, and of their 
earnest desire to cultivate and maintain with me the relations of amity ; 
and I rejoice in the prospect that I shall be able to promote the best 
interests of my subjects, by securing to them the advantages of peace. 

" I have directed a treaty of commerce!', which I have concluded with 
the united republics of Peru and Bolivia, to be laid before you, and I 
hope soon to be able to communicate to you similar results of ray nego- 
tiations with other powers." 

Under the watchful superintendence of Him "by whom Kings reign 
and Princes decree justice," happily the constitution of Old England, 
in the main, as to trade and manufactures, seems vinimpaired. Long 
may it so continue, to promote the happiness of the people as well as 
the stability of the Throne. 

In the reign of Edward III. the total value of all the commodities ex- 
ported in one year was reckoned at 294, 184/., and of all the imports only 
38,970/., sums less than the value of goods now frequently entered in 
one day. 

From the official accounts of the year ended 5 th January 1837, it ap- 
pears that the number of vessels employed in the foreign trade of the 

* From authentic information wliich has heen obtaincfl on the subject of railways in tlie 
United Kingdom, it appears that no less than two hundred patents have been granted for 
improvements in steam-engines, locomotive engines, and carriages of all sorts. Mr. Coles, o 
Chariug-cross, has constructed one, wherein lie professes " to throw the whole weight where 
there is no friction, and where tliere is great friction to have no weight!'' 

The length of the railroads in America is computed at l.SOO miles, ut a cost of thirty millions 
of dollars. See page 328. 

t For this treaty, gee page 338. 



837-8.] INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. XXi 

United Kingdom was 11,740 British and Irish, and 4,791 foreign, m;iking 
a total of 1G,531 vessels. The burthen of these was 2,952,854 tons. 

From the same source we find that the gross amount of the Custom 
Duties on Imports was 23,796,022/. The Exports of the principal arti- 
cles of British and Irish Produce and Manufactures were in value 
46,796,937/. 

Can any other nation or people show us anything like this'.' Well 
may we say, " Her merchants are princes, her trallickers are the honour- 
able of the earth." 

Such, indeed, has been the success which has attended our manu- 
factures, that Bandannah handkerchiefs made in Glasgow have long 
superseded the genuine one in China and India, where they originated. 
Dishes and utensils of the London stamp were seen by Clapperton at 
the Court of the Sultan Bello ; and at Calicut, where calicoes originated, 
and whence their name is derived, the market is supplied with the ar- 
ticle from England. 

To this sketch, slight as it is, let it be added, that the past history of 
mankind does not record an empire so extensive and so powerful, so 
wealthy and so great, as that of the United Kingdom. On her vast ter- 
ritories, during every season of the year, the sun never sets. As the 
evening rays forsake the groves of Honduras, his morning beams strike 
the spires of Calcutta ; and three hours before they sink from the popu- 
lation of Montreal and Jamaica, they gladden the British subjects on the 
western shores of New Holland. The British liag is never struck. 

Can we then refrain from exclaiming, in the language of Sir Walter 
Scott, in the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," 

" Breathes there the man with soul so dead. 
Who never to himsell hath said, 
This is my owu— my native land? " 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 



ON THE ORIGIN OF MONEY 
AND TH|E NATURE OF EXCHANGE. 



In the rude ages of society, cattle are said to have been the common 
instrument of commerce ; and though they must have been a most in- 
convenient one, yet in old times we find things were frequently valued 
according to the number of cattle which had been given in exchange for 
them. The armour of Diomede (says Homer) cost only nine oxen, but 
that of Glaucuscost 100 oxen. We are told by Pliny, upon the authority 
of Timoeus, that till the time of Servius TuUus the Romans had no 
coined money, but made use of unstamped bars of copper to purchase 
whatever they had occasion for. Seneca informs us that there was an- 
ciently stamped money of leather, corium forma publica imTpressum. 
And the same thing was put in practice by Frederic II. at the siege of 
Milan. It is well authenticated, that, in the year 1574, the Hollanders 
coined great quantities of pasteboard. 

To prevent abuses, to faciUtate exchanges, and thereby to encourage 
all sorts of industry and commerce, it has been found necessary, in all 
countries that have made any considerable advances towai'ds improve- 
ment, to affix a public stamp upon certain quantities of such particular 
metals as were in those countries commonly made use of to purchase 
goods. Hence the origin of Coined Money. 

By degrees an improvement was made even in coined money, and the 
mode of remittances and exchanges by Bills was adopted. 

The subject of Exchanges is by many considered abstruse, if not unin- 
telhgible. In itself it is neither. It is a plain, straightforward matter, 
as simple as the dealings in corn or sugar. It is merely an aifair of ad- 
justing prices between the buyer and sellei", as in the common markets ; 
with this exception, that, as the buyers and sellers of different countries 
use the moneys of those countries to pay an exact sum, a calculation 
must be made, to what the amount in the one sort is equal, at such time, 
in the other. 

When the Exchange between two places, such as London and Paris, 
is at Par, it is said to be a sign that the debts due from London to Paris 
are compensated by those due from Paris to London. On the contrary, 
when a Premium is paid at London for a bill upon Paris, it is said to be a 
sign that the debts due from London to Paris are not compensated by those 
due from Paris to London, but that a balance in money must be sent out 
from the latter place ; for the risk, trouble, and expense of exporting 
which, the premium is both demanded and given. But the ordinary 
state of debt and credit between those two cities must necessarily be re- 
gulated, it is said, by the ordinary course of- their dealings with one 
another. When neither of them imports from the other to a greater amount 
than it exports to that other, the debts and credits of each may compen- 
sate one another. But when one of them exports to that other, the 
former necessarily becomes indebted to the latter in a greater sum 
than the latter becomes indebted to it. The debts and credits of 
each do not compensate one another, and money must be sent out from 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Exchange, <^c. xxiii 

that place of which the debts overbalance the credits. The ordinary 
CoMr*eq/'£'.reAa/?o-(?, therefore, being an indication of the ordinary state 
of debt and credit between two places, must likewise be an indication of 
the ordinary course of their Exports and Imports, as these necessarily re- 
gulate that state. 

The ordinary state of debt and credit between any two places is not 
always entirely regulated by the ordinary course of their dealings with one 
another ; but is often influenced by that of the dealings of either with 
many other places. 

The just and true exchange for moneys, by bills, is par pro pari, or 
value for value. 

In foreign exchange, one place always gives another a fixed sum or 
piece of money for a variable price. The former is called the certain 
price, and the latter the uncertain price. Thus, London is said to give 
to Paris the certain for the uncertain, that is, the pound sterling for a 
variable number of francs ; and to Spain the uncertain for the certain, 
that is, a variable number of pence sterling, for the dollar of exchange. 
The uncertain price, as quoted at any time, is called the Rate, or Course 
of Exchange. 

When the demand in London for Bills on Paris is great, a smaller 
number of francs is given for the pound sterling, and the contrary ; and 
when there is a demand for Bills on Spain, a greater number of pence 
sterling must be given for the dollar, and the contrary. 

The Par of Exchange may be considered under two general heads, 
viz., the Intrinsic Par, and the Commercial Par, each of which admits 
of subordinate divisions. 

The Intrinsic Paris, the value of the money of one country compared 
with that of another, with respect both to weight and fineness. 

The Commercial Par is the comparative value of the moneys of dif- 
ferent countries, according to the weight, fineness, and market prices of 
the metals. 

Thus two suras of diflFerent countries are intrinsically at Par, when 
they contain an equal quantity of the same kind of pure metal ; and two 
sums of diflFerent countries are commercially at Par, when they can pur- 
chase an equal quantity of the same kind of pure metal. 



EXCHANGE, STOCKS, &c. 

( From Lloyd's List.) 

Friday, Nov. 17, 1837. 
ENGLISH FUNDS. 

3 per Cent. Consols . . . . . . 93J | 

Consols for Account . . . . • 93J | 

3 per Cent. Reduced . . . . . ,92^1 

3i per Cent. Reduced . . . . . 100 | 

3i per Cent, new 100« J 



31 per Cent. 1818 ...... 

Long Annuities . . . . • . . 14|| 15 

Exchequer Bills 2id . . . . • 45 48 

India 4 p. c. Bonds . , . . . , 33 38 



Bank Stock . . . . . . 211j^ 12 

India Stock ditto ..... 267 69 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Exchange, ^c. [1837-8. 



LONDON COURSE OF EXCHANGE. 



Places. 



Prices 
Printed. 



Amsterdam . 
Ditto at sight. . 
Rotterdam 
Antwerp . . 
Hambro, M.B. . 
Altona . , . 
Paris, 3 d, sight . 
Ditto .... 
Marseilles 
Bordeaux . . 
Frankfort on Maine 
Petersbiu-g, ruble. 
Berlin, Cur. Dol. . 
Vienna, eff. Flo. . 
Trieste, do. . . 
Madrid . . . 
Cadiz .... 
Bilbao. . . . 
Barcelona . 
Seville 

Gibraltar, H. Dol. 
Leghorn . 
Genoa .... 
Milan .... 
Venice, 6 Aust. liv. 
Naples . . . 
Palermo, per oz. . 
Messina . 
Lisbon . 
Oporto. . . 
Rio Janeiro . 
Bahia . . . . . 
Buenos Ayres. . 



12 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
25 
25 
26 
26 

10 

7 

10 

10 



26 



5 
3 

5* 
6' 
13A 
\H 
65 
95 
5 

152i 

3 
11 
13 

33| 
34^ 
34 
34 
34 
46 
31i 
15 
31 
46 
39 



Time. 



3 Ms. 
Short 
3 Ms. 



Short 
3 Ms. 



3 Us. 



2 Ms. 

3 Ms. 



Prices Negociated. 



12 
12 
12 
12 
13 



3 
1 

4i 

4 

12i 



60 d. date 

Metallic 
60 d.sight 



iisj- 

118 — 
52^ — 
52i_ 
27i — 
25 — 
— — 21 d.sight 



25 55 
25 77 
25 90 
25 87^ 
152 



10 8 

10 10 

34i 

35i 



31 
26 <'-i 



39i 

118* 

118' 

52| 

52J 



12 
12 
12 
12 



Par 

about. 



25 55 
25 82A 
25 9i 

I52i 



10 10 

10 12 

34i 



311 
26 5 



39J 
119 



53 
53 



12.9 
12.9 
12.9 
12.9 
34.3 

25.20 



140 



39 



49 
454 



41i 
124 
67^ 



Explanation. 

From the foregoing columns it appears that the exchange between 
London and the three first places is not far from par. 

Also that Frankfort gives more than the par for the pound sterling, and 
hence the exchange is in favour of London. 

At Hamburgh the price of gold is 436 per mark, which, at the English 
Mint price of 2l.\7s.\0\d. the ounce for standard gold, gives an ex- 
change of 13.S. \0\d., and the exchange at Hamburgh on London at short 
being 13*. \Q\d., it follows that gold is 0.12 per cent, dearer at Hamburgh 
than in London. 

The premium on gold at Paris is 9^ per mille, which, at the English 
Mint price of 3/. 17*. lO^ii.the ounce for standard gold, gives an exchange 
of 25. 39., and the exchange at Paris on London at short being 25. 55.^ 
it follows that gold is 0.64 per cent, lower at Paris than in London. 

The price of sovereigns at New York is 5. 14, which gives a par of ex- 
change in paper of 115. 65 per cent., and the course of exchange at New 
York on London being 116 per cent., it follows that the exchange is 0.35 
per cent, in favour of England. 

Whether the course of exchange of the other places be favoural)le or 
otherwise may be ascertained by merely comparing the several columns 
of the list with each other. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— £'ac7w«5'e, t^'C. XXV 



PRICE OF BULLION. 
Gold and Silver, per ounce. 
Foieii^n Gold in Bars (Standard) 
Portugal Gold in Coin, Spanish Doub. . , 

20 Franc Pieces . . 

New Dollars ..... 

Silver in Bars, Standard ... 



FOREIGN STOCKS. 

Austrian, 5 per cent. . 

Belgian, 5 per cent . . 

Brazilian, 5 per cent. 1824 . . 

Buenos Ayres, G per cent. 

Chilian, 6 per cent. ... 

Colombian, 6 per cent. 1822 , 

Ditto, ditto, 1S24 . 

Danish, 3 per cent. . * . 

Dutch, 2^ per cent. 

Ditto, 5 per cent. . . , 

French, 5 per cent. . . 

Ditto, 3 per cent. . , 

Ditto, 4 per cent. ... 

Gri'ck, 5 per cent. . 

Guatimala, C per cent. , . 

Mexican, 5 per cent. . . 

Mexican, 6 per cent. . , 

Ditto, Deferred Stock . , 

Neapohtan, 5 per cent. . 

Peruvian, 6 per cent. . . , 

Portugnese,'_5 per cent. Sterling Bonds 

Ditto, 3 per cent. . . , 

Ditto, 5 per cent. Scrip, 1S3G . 

Prussian, 4 per cent. 1830 . , , 

Russian, 5 per cent. Metallic Roub. • 

Ditto ditto New Loan . . , 

Ditto ditto Sterling Bonds . , 

Ditto 6 per cent. Paper Roubles . . 

Spanish, 5 per cent. . . 

Ditto, Passive .... 

Ditto, Deferred . . • 

Ditto, Coupons . . • . 



3 


17 


'J 


3 


14 








4 


n 





4 


Hi? 



lOli 


I 


81J 


n 


20 


22 


29 


31 


24f 


H 


7^ 


3 


54 ,L 


101^ 


? 


100^ 


7 



271 8 



19^ 20^ 
2'2i. ■? 



19| 20| 

4 i 

21 3 13 15 



PAR OF EXCHANGE. 

In further explanation of this subject, it is stated, in a work entitled 
" The Colonial Par of Exchange," that the Spatiish dollar, which is the 
monetary unit of North and South America, and the legal coin of the 
United States, is the only coin which circulates through Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and America, is also the only real effective money either of ac- 
count or exchange by which (including the East Indies) the English 
colonial property is valued. The object is further to demonstrate the 
corresponding foreign moneys of account, coins, &c., to the English 
pound weight of silver of sixteen North and South American ounces, the 
certain par of exchange for the pound weight of sixteen ounces being 
equal to one thousand pe?ice. The Mexican dollar of pure silver (per 
assay) he values at 960 reas, equal to sixty pe7ice. In the United States 
the silver dollar passes for 100 cents., equal to sixty j^ence; the sazne 
was its value in England from the year 1804 to 1816, the Spanish dollar 
being issued by the Bank of England as sixty colonial silver pence. As 



XXVi MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— ^a?cAaW^(?, (f-C. [1837-8. 

regards gold, it is shown that the minimum vahie of the pound weight 
of silver IS, ihe ounce weight of gold, weighing 437^ English grains, 
equal to 07ie thousand pence ; that the Portuguese ounce of gold is equal 
to sixteen ounces of pure silver ; that the doblon, or Spanish ounce of 
gold, should produce by the assays of the English Mint 1 6^ dollars to 
one, inclusive of '' the remedy of the Mint." By the same calculation, 
or proportion, the sovereign possesses 113 or 112^ English gi-ains oi pure 
gold, and is valued at the Spanish Mints for five dollars, equal to the 
gold unit ; it would therefore appear that the colonial and Spanish mi- 
nimum for the doblon is sixteen dollars and a fraction, whilst the home 
maximum to 1836 is valued at fourteen dollars and a fraction, showing 
a difference of 25 per cent., at 16j to 1, including coinage, freight, &c., 
producing a depreciation of 6.45, &c., per cent, from the Mint price of 
1816. By the United States' tariff of the 14th July, 1832, the sovereign 
is valued as containing 113 grains of pure gold, equal to 480 cents., or 
1^. 4*. ; but from 1834, the par of the sovereign has been 487J cents., or 
292-J pence, equal to \l. As. A^d. In the Chinese empire, gold and silver 
being merchandise, the coins are tveights' In France, Belgium, Italy, 
&c., the monetary unit is the 100th part of a French pound weight, or 
a half kilogramme at ninety fineness ten alloy. — Ed. 



RULE. 

Reducing Money into English, and vice versa. 

Dutch Money is reduced to English by saying, — As the given rate of 
exchange, to £l sterling, so the given Dutch to the sterling sought; and 
sterling is reduced to Dutch by reversing this rule. 

This rule will apply in all cases by merely substituting the money of 
other countries with the rate of exchange. 

EXAMPLES. 

Reduce 8,132 guilders or florins, 16 stivers, into sterling; exchange at 10 current 

florins, 8 stivers, per pound sterling, 

(= 34*. M. Flem.) 

Reverse Rule. 

L. G. S. L. Guild. Stiv. 
As 1 : 10 8 : : 782 : 8132 16 
When the price is given in Flemish say, 
L.St. Fl. St. 
As 34 8 : 1 : 8132 16 
6 20 



G. S. L.St. Guil. Stiv. 
If 10 8 : 1 : 8132 16 
20 20 



-£ 



208 208)162656(782 

1456 



1705, &c. 



208 208)162656(782 



FOREIGN POST DAYS. 

The days for the negotiation of foreign bills of exchange are Tuesdays 
and Fridays. These are called foreign post days, being the principal post 
days in consequence of the exchange business. It is the custom in Lon- 
don \^ ith houses of established credit to pay for the foreign bills they buy 
on one post day, on. the following post day, when they receive the second 
and third bills of exchange. 

The stamp duties are paid by the seller or drawer. 

The brokerage on bills is 1 per 1000; or 1-lOth per cent. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Parliamentary Papers, xxvii 



A TABLE OF DISCOUNT, PER CENT. 
s. d. 
24 per cent, is 6 in the iiouncl. 



3 - 


- 


n 


4 - 


- 


n 


5 - 


- 1 





6 - 


- 1 


2^ 


n - 


- 1 


G 


10 - 


2 





12i- 


2 


6 


15 . 


- 3 





^n - 


- 3 


6 


20 - 


- 4 





22i - 


- 4 


6 


25 - 


- 5 





30 - 


- 6 






— or ith. 



or Ith. 



or ith. 



THE REVENUE. 

An Account of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, in the Years 
ended 10th of October, 1836 and 1837, showing the Increase or Decrease oa 
each head thereof. 



'Year ended Year ended 
! 10th Oct., 10th Oct.. 
I 1836. i 1837. 



Customs — 

Consolidated Duties 
Sugar Duty applicable to 

Consolidated Fund 

Sugar Duty applicable to 

Supplies . . 

Total Customs 

Excise 

Stamps 

Taxes . . . . . 
Post-office . . . . • 
Miscellaneous .... 



20,166,917 



Total ordinary Revenue 
Imprest and other moneys, in- 
cluding repayments of ad- 
vances for Public Works 

Total Income . 

The amount applied to the 
Consolidated Fund . 

Ditto, as part of the Ways 
and Means of the year 



18,372,944 



12,288,173 12,007,238 

6,796,439; 6,461,282 

3,670,747| 3,693,380 

1,486,000 1,490,743 

52,533 44,635 



44,460,809 



42,070,222 



524,124 817,416 



44,984,93342,887,638 



Year ended 10th Oct.. 

1837. 



Increfise. 



Decrease. 



22,633 
4,743 



293,292 



1,793,973 
280,935 
335,157 



7,898 



320,668 I 2,417,963 



29, 096, 254'29, 396,049?^'^"'^* \ 320,668 
' * I ' ' [Increase J ' 

15,888,67913,491,589, 



■ Decrease on 
Total, l44,984,933|42,887,638 the year. 



} 2,097,2 



95 



xxviii MISCELLANEOUS imo-^^iKTiOT^.— Parliamentary Papers. [1837-8. 



AN ACCOUNT* of the Imports of the principal Articles of Foreign and Colonial 
Merchandise, of the Consumption of such Articles, and of the Customs Duties 
received thereon, in the year ended 5th January, 1837, compared with the Imports 
and Consumption and Receipts of the preceding Year. 



ARTICLES. 


Imported. 


Home Consumption. 


Gross Amount of 
Duty received. 




183C. 


1837. 


1836. 


1837. 


1836. 


1837. 


Barilla and Alkali, cwt. 


125,068 


69,998 


146,593 


97,226 


14,617 


£. 
9,678 


B:irk for Tanners' or 














Dyers' use . . civt. 


826,566 


769,765 


807,930 


788,124 


25,869 


26,017 


Butter . . . cwt. 


146, 78i 


240,758 


143,254 


238,638 


143,277 


238,516 


Cheese . . , ctvt. 


140.851 


211,241 


135,508 


203,047 


71,031 


106,224 


Cocoa Nuts . . lb. 


2,118,756 


2,788,211 


1,086,445 


1,130,396 


9.062 


9,435 


Coffee, of the British 














Possessions in Ame- 














rica and Africa . lb. 


14,617,046 


18,877,471 


17.719,600 


17.560,019 


442,977 


439,001 


Of Mauritius . lb. 


35 


523 


35 


623 


1 


13 


East India, \iz. 














Fiom I3riiish 














Possessions lb. 


5,853,650 


9,502,830 


5,583,822 


7,420,041 


209,377 


252,965 


From Foreign 














Possessions lb. 


1,309,229 


336 226 


20,276 


791 


82 


41 


Other sorts . . lb. 


6,613,533 


5,270,229 


2,347 


2,298 


147 


144 


Total OF CoFjEE. . 


28,398,493 


33,987.279 


23,326,080 


24,983.672 


652,604 


692,104 


Corn : — Wheat . , //«. 


42,628 


168,747 


16,350 


19,554 


4,137 


5,603 


Barley . , . qrs. 


67,796 


83,482 


136.853 


110,021 


91,776 


41,577 


Oats , . , (ps. 


113,067 


131,0,56 


176,141 


97,184 


89,830 


41,670 


Rye .... qrs. 


— 


6,626 


3 


18 


4 


10 


Peas . . . qrs. 


24,216 


77.703 


25,184 


80,338 


11,132 


28,887 


Beans , . . qrs. 


34,379 


92,911 


69,823 


87,736 


35,046 


31,503 


Maize, or Indian 














Corn . . qrs. 


737 


1,778 


359 


1,519 


62 


129 


Buckwheat . , qrs. 


1,282 


449 


1,290 


472 


978 


136 


Bere or Bigg , qrs. 





^ 











Malt . . . qrs. 





52 


__ 


■ ,. 




,.„ 


AVheatmeal or flour c^i)^ 


84,968 


255,820 


42,714 


36,954 


3,736 


3,280 


Barley meal , cwt. 


75 


_ 


_ 


. 






Oatmeal . , , cwt. 


187 


644 





21 







Rye Meal . , cwt. 




36 


^_ 







_^ 


Indian Meal . . ctvt. 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


Dyes and Dyeing Stuffs, 














Cochineal . , lb. 


413,320 


673,094 


164,109 


168,891 


4,103 


4,222 


Indigo . . .lb. 


4,168,395 


7,172,698 


2,606,771 


2,864,274 


33,480 


36,503 


Lac-dye . , , lb. 


528,615 


642,436 


600 646 


642,615 


1,609 


1,721 


Logwood , • tuns. 


16,744 


12,895 


15,019 


12,669 


3,061 


2,480 


Madder . . . cwt. 


94,102 


108,855 


94,854 


106,092 


9,602 


10,802 


Madder Root . cwt. 


66,323 


85,375 


68,657 


84,578 


1,717 


2.124 


Shumac . . . civt. 


177,832 


156,666 


178,311 


156,364 


449 


405 


Eggs ... number. 
Flax, and Tow or Co- 


59,964,496 


69.084,717 


60,121,625 


69,168,997 


20,916 


24,048 


dilla of Hemp and 














Flax , . . cwt. 


740,814 


1,529,157 


742,705 


1,532,059 


3,141 


6,473 


Fruits, viz. 














Currants , . cwt. 


176,062 


187.474 


193,690 


175.829 


214,673 


194.879 


Figs. . . , cwt. 


18,773 


12,093 


20,745 


13,328 


15,559 


9,996 


Lemons l chests 


324,438 


265,639 


302,579 


250,812 


l 63,658 




and number > {loose) 


45,015 


18,410 


33,840 


15,717 


52,468 


Oranges J at value 


^.241 


^.127 8 7 


.e.2,389 3 4 


£.2,568 3 9 




Raisins . , ctvt. 


169,365 


176,720 


161,374 


156,447 


120,835 


117,190 


Gloves, leather . jiairs 


1,260,623 


1,491,205 


1,293,065 


1,461,769 


24,251 


27,558 


Hemp, undressed . (ivt. 


687,558 


586,026 


686,695 


596,996 


2,862 


2,847 


Hides, untanned . cwt. 


350,696 


347,471 


298,286 


332,912 


43,604 


46,249 


Mahogany . . . tuns 


19,086 


26,495 


18,238 


24,612 


44,387 


54,519 


Melasscs , . civt. 


526,321 


528,306 


622,974 


657,234 


280,238 


295,715 



* All these Accounts are prepared, as appears by the signature, by Mr. Porter, at the head of the 
Statistical Department of the Board of Trade. The accounts of the trade of the country are thus 
brought, as it were, into a nutshell. Mr. Porter has " done the State some service."— £rf. 
The shillings and pence not being inserted cause a slight deviation in the totals. 



837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— Pay7mwe«/(«ry Papers. xxix 



ARTICLES. 


Imported. 


Home Consumption. 


Gross Amount of 
Duty received. 




1836. 


1837. 


1336. 


1837. 1 


1836. 1 


18.V. 


Metals: viz. 














Copper Ore . cwl. 


277,200 


367,306 


105 


53 


63 


2G 


Unwrouglit cwt. 


5,3di) 


7,435 


5 


3 


7 


4 


Iron in bars, or un- 














wronglit . . Urns 


19,750 


25,061 


17,631 


13.908 


26,447 


28,343 


•Sti^el, unwrunglit cwt. 


l'.»,:JSf. 


21,293 


22 


209 


1 


27 


Lead, Pi;; . . tims 


l,27f. 


1.892 


2 


6 


5 


14 


Spelter . . . cwt. 


141,^109 


176,515 


52,620 


47.408 


6,520 


5,950 


Tin , . , cut. 


19,704 


22,027 


3 


0,017 


9 


— 


Oil: viz. 














Train, Blubber, and 














.Spermaceti . tuns 


24.197 


18.862 


23, 88;^ 


19,807 


1.207 


1,292 


Palm . . , cwt. 


260,150 


276,974 


243,945 


235,969 


15,244 


14.748 


Cocoa Nut. . . cwt. 


19,S33 


25,174 


14,317 


26,215 


895 


1.638 


Olive and Paran gallons 


606. 1G6 


2,634.200 


569,602 


1,893.158 


9,621 


47.470 


Opium . . , llj. 


85,491 


129.794 


31,247 


39,118 


6,249 


4,247 


Quielisilver . . . lt>. 


2,006,907 


1.922.4 -.2 


224,619 


286.808 


936 


1,195 


Rice .... cwt. 


249,537 


186,834 


104,351 


81.010 


5,.S65 


4,235 


Kice in the Husk bushels 


302,321 


258,727 


314,729 


29J.444 


34.650 


33.789 


Saltpetre . . civt. 


264,338 


278,947 


219,657 


242,131 


5,491 


6,053 


Seeds: viz. Clover cwt. 


86,973 


94.495 


68,573 


73,754 


68,434 


73,562 


Flaxseed & Linseed 6s/». 


2,206,748 


3,328,033 


2,170,209 


3,194,405 


13,654 


20,037 


Rape . , . bushels. 


754,834 


577,594 


6 JO, 879 


561,457 


4,318 


3,509 


Silk : viz. 














Raw . , .lb. 


3,737,480 


4,069,162 


4,151,008 


4.372.498 


17,296 


18,219 


Waste, Knubs and 














Husks . . !b. 


1.4 1,964 


1,598,023 


1,382,872 


1.599.. 354 


6I7 


714 


Thrown, of all sorts lb. 


215,883 


388,353 


254,578 


294.934 


40,691 


47,921 


Silk Manufactures of 
Kuropo : 
Silk or Satin, plain . lb. 














50,369 


65,537 


51,330 


59.479 


28,225 


32,716 


— figured or broc.ided //). 


40,197 


71,538 


38,044 


68,377 


32.577 


61,105 


Gauze, j)lain . . lb. 


1,713 


458 


1,525 


361 


1,296 


308 


— tissue, foulards lb. 


23,773 


15.399 


25,633 


15,502 


23,568 


14,267 


— striped, figured, or 














brocaded . . lb. 


33.394 


14.691 


31,377 


14,109 


43,144 


19,400 


Crape, plain . lb. 


3,616 


3.146 


3,098 


3.153 


2,479 


2,523 


— figured . . lb 


47 


7 


23 


7 


21 


6 


Velvet, plain . . lb. 


6,538 


13.385 


5,921 


12.715 


6,517 


13,987 


— figured . . lb. 


2,234 


3,099 


1,933 


2,418 


2.659 


3,326 


Other sorts . . 




• 


- 




28,600 


32,752 


Silk Manufactures of 














India : viz. 














Bandannah and 














other Silk Hand- 














kerchiefs . . pieces 


388,413 


346,401 


164,105 


131,114 


26,534 


22,963 


Other sorts , . 








- 


2,787 


3,411 


Skins: viz. 














Ooat, \1ndre33ed nnmbei 


.'507,370 


405,105 


423,965 


391,442 


883 


8L5 


Kid, undressed number 


253,289 


196,. 325 


252,600 


175.981 


4L' 


30 


— dressed . number 


791,462 


590,619 


791,331 


590.469 


3,957 


2,960 


Lamb, undressed numbe> 


2,257,273 


2,784,313 


2,291,334 


2,709.078 


382 


452 


— tanned, tawed 














or dressed . number 


97,325 


44,893 


84,882 


54,. 392 


424 


274 


Spices: viz. 














Cassia Lignca • lb 


1,966,303 


775,672 


98,. -564 


89.858 


2,346 


2,242 


Cinnamon . , lb 


445.367 


508.722 


17,103 


17.476 


448 


'437 


Cloves . . . lb 


124,924 


18.154 


93.. 535 


117,119 


9,343 


5.326 


Mace ... lb 


20,641 


83.842 


18.834 


22.545 


3,312 


3, £66 


Nutmegs . . lb 


435,047 


323.561 


129,927 


115,786 


17,100 


15,028 


Pepper , , lb 


3.343.277 


7,709.527 


2,359,935 


2,800,983 


118,021 


99,517 


Pimento , , lb 


2.536,353 


3,269,233 


344,564 


400,941 


7.178 


6,359 


Spirits : viz. 
Rum galls, (incl. ow-prf) 


5.540,170 


4.978.947 


3,417,682 


3,324,892 


1.537 .979 


1,496,204 


Brandy , , . 


2,105,755 


3,090.161 


1,315,071 


1,257,955 


1.476 .742 


1,414,013 
22,522 


Geneva . 


277,141 


361.774 


19,703 


20,004 


22.161 


Sugar, unrefined : viz. 














Of tlie British Pos- 
sessions in America cwt. 


3,523,947 


3,601.162 


3,774,821 


3,296,655 


4,529,792 


3,956,896 



XXX MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Parliamentary Papers. [1837-8. 



. ARTICLES. 


Imported. 


Home Consumption. 


Gross Amount of 
Duty received. 




1836. 


1837. 


1836. 


1837. 


1836. 1 1837. 


Of Mauritius . . cwt 


558,237 


491,648 


591,952 


518,228 


£. 

709, 78S 


£. 
621,596 


East India of British 














Possessions . cwt 


101,331 


154,979 


98,718 


110,236 


157,945 


176,377 


East Indiaof Foieij,'n 












1 


Possessions . cwt 


112,314 


63,768 


4 


19 


15 61 


Other sorts . civt 


152,436 


326,273 


27 


14 


88i 46 


Total OF Su OAK . 


4.448,267 1 4,637,832 


4.465,524 


3.925.154 


5.397,632 4.754,976 


Tallow . . . cwt 


1,043.084 


1,183.829 


1,011,003 


1,318,678 


159,597 208.281 


Tar .... lasti 


ii.ive 


9,880 


11,850 


9.641 


8.887 7.231 


Tea ... . lb 


44,300,550 


46.890,225 


*36,606,395 


49,841,607 


3,837,460 ,4,728,617 


Timber : viz. 














Battens and 














Batten Ends lonyhund.\ 


13,154 


17,183 


13,401 


15,707 


128,048 


153,593 


Deals & Deal 














Ends from 














British Ame- 














rica . . longhund 


34,239 


37,387 


36,125 


37,182 


54,060 


51,520 


Deals & Deal 














Ends from 














other parts . Imighund 


27.491 


31,865 


28,015 


31,272 


531,725 


599.790 


Staves . . longhund. 


108,506 


93,300 


100,324 


91,480 


45,164 


57,503 


Timber 8 in. sq. 














and upwards 














from British 














America . . Inads 


563,034 


526,035 


555,113 


526,866 


267,112 


253.881 


From other parts loads 


131,215 


161.931 


129,885 


154,338 


356,570 


423.909 


Tobacco : 














Unmanufactured . lb. 


25,523,611 


44,120.278 


21,974.922 


22,309,021 


3,290,654 


3,344,698 


Manufactured and 














Snuff. . . lb 


295,353 


141,398 


141,837 


159,236 


63,805 


71,560 


Turpentine : 














Common . . cw 


294,103 


372,283 


301,772 


341,693 


66,256 


74.052 


Wine : viz. 












Cape . . galhms 


587,748 


503,994 


523,528 


542,237 


72.020 


74,566 


Frencli . . gallons 


370,446 


526 ,,322 


293.635 


373.508 


80.345 


102.465 


Other sorts . gallons 


8,081,357 


8,153,785 


5,823,370 


6,127,222 


1,600,237 


1,679,622 


Additional Duty on 














Wine collected by 














Excise on Dealers' 














Stocks .... 


- 




- 


- 


14 — 


Total of Wine . 


9,039,551 


9,184,101 


6,640.533 


7,042,967 


1,752,616 1.856,653 


Wool, Cotton : viz. 












Ofthe British Posses- 












sions in America . lb. 


1,495,863 


1,326,918 


1,511,171 1.345.772 


225 


200 


Ofthe British Posses- 














sions in the East 














Indies . . . lb. 


41.450.707 


75,905,279 


26.080,702 


43,398,761 


3,932 


6.458 


From the United 














States of America lb. 


284,455,812 


289,763,407 


269.653,949 


287,346,721 


351,114 


374.151 


From Brazil . . lb. 


24,98H,409 


27,506,369 


24,757,678 


26,879,779 


32.237 


35.000 


From Esypt . lb. 


5,181,017 


5,032,974 


4.515.935 


5,277,568 


5,881 


6.872 


Otherwise imported lb. 


6,133,105 


7,539,643 


5.838.042 


6.701.908 


7.591 


8.717 


Total of Cotton Wool 


563,702,903 


407,074,590 


332.357.477 


370.950.569 


400.980 


431,398 


Wool, Sheep & LambsVi. 


42.174,532 


64,106,810 42,740.993 | 60,724,794 | 


137,425 190,075 


Other Articles . 


- - 




" " ■ " 1 


083,061 741,948 




1 




Al. l2 


2.878.809 


23.668,562 



The foregoing Statenieut is founded upon Returns transmitted monthly throughout the current year 
to the Inspcirtor-general of Imports and Exports from the different Ports of the United Kingdom. Such 
Returns exjiibit the gross quantities of Articles entered for consumption, and tlie gross amount of Duty 
thereon, witliout reference to deductions for over-entries, &c. This Statement will therefore not agree, 
in all points, with the Annual Statement to be compiled after the final adjustment ofthe Custom-house 
Records shall have been made. 

• Exclusive of 535 lb., the duty on which, amounting to 60?,, was received by the Excise, 
t The long hundred of 120. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Parliamentary Papers. Tixyii 

An Account of the Expouts of Ihe principal Articles of Foreign and Co- 
lonial Merchandise in the year ended 5th January 1837, compared with the 
Exports of the preceding year. 



ARTICLES. 



Cocoa Nuts, lb. . . • 

Coffee, viz. : — 

■ B. P. in America, lb. 

Sierra Leone, lb. 

Mauritius, lb. 

Ea.st India, viz., from B. P., lb. 

from F. P., lb. 



Other sorts, lb. 



Corn, viz. 

Wheat, qrs. . • 

Barley, (jrs. ... 

Oats, qrs. . . • 

Wheatmeal and Flour, cwt. 

Dyes and Dyeing Stuflf's, viz. : — 
Cochineal, lb. 

Indigo, lb. , . 

Lac-dye, lb. . . • 

Logwood, tons . . • 

Metals, viz,: — 

■■ Copper, unwrought, cwt. . . 

Iron, in bars or unwrought, tons 

Steel, unwrought, cwt. 

Lead, Pig, tons 

Spelter, cwt. 

Tin, cwt. . . • 

Oil, Olive, gallons . . 

Opium, lb. 

Quicksilver, lb. .... 

Rice, not in the Husk, cwt. . 

Spices, viz. : — 

Cassia, Lignea, lb. 

Cinnamon, lb. . . 

Cloves, lb. ... 

Mace, lb. . . . 

Nutmegs, lb. 

Pepper, lb, . . 

. Pimento, lb. . . 

Spirits, viz. : — 

Rum, gallons* 

Brandy, gallons* 

Geneva, gallons* 

Sugar, viz. : — 

B. P. in America, cwt. 

Mauritius, cwt. • . 

East India, B.P., cwt. 

F.P., cwt. 

Other surts, cut. 

Tobacco, unmanufactured, lb. . 

Foreign manufactured, and snuff, lb. 

Wine, viz. : — 

Cape, gallons .... 

French, gallons . . . 

Other sorts, gallons, 

Wool, Cotton, viz. : — 

B. P. in America, lb. 

in the East Indies, lb. 

Of other parts, lb. 

Wool, Sheep and Lambs', lb. 

' Including overinoof. 



1836. 



1837. 



2,481,133 


332,587 


200,258 


108,493 


1,152J676 


3,216,553 


1,404,205 


406,342 


10,529,398 


6,950,370 


84,992 


173,9,33 


44,365 


18,465 


30,791 


56,184 


165,308 


283,862 


352,023 


435,1334 


4,074,598 


3,691,951 


206,169 


200,975 


3,696 


4,385 


6,898 


2,206 


2,635 


4,761 


27,224 


19,305 


1,268 


912 


69,273 


100,043 


23,795 


17,230 


283,734 


150.561 


74,126 


70,824 


1,399,236 


1,136,821 


244,342 


180,584 


1,432,035 


633,083 


413,138 


421,497 


301,554 


126,323 


17,210 


25,322 


194,997 


180,338 


1,246,482 


4,151,509 


2,462,485 


2,337,982 


1,678,374 


1,279,845 


1,117,253 


822,919 


280,768 


331,301 


11,455 


8,774 


1,750 


2,637 


28,006 


22,290 


129,035 


52,384 


200,983 


191,901 


13,218,897 


12,319,405 


205,651 


436,157 


3,184 


10,876 


113,236 


99,112 


1,757,161 


1,564,536 


5,878 


19,812 


17,104,367 


24,804,260 


15,669,489 


6,855,685 


4,101,700 


613,707 



xxxii MISCELLANEOUS imomiPJiiQ-^.— Parliamentary Papers. [1837-S. 



An Account of the Number and Tonnage uf Vessels, distinguishing the Coun- 
tries to which they belonged, which entered Inwards and cleared Outwards 
in the Year ended 5th January 1837, compared with the Entrances and 
Clearances in the preceding Year, ended 5th January 1836 ; stated exclu- 
sively of Vessels in Ballast, and of those employed in the Coasting Trade, or 
the Trade between Great Britain and Ireland. 



Countries 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 


to which the 


1836. 


1837. 


1836. 1 1837. 


Vessels belonged. 


Ships. Tonnage 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Sliips. 


Tonnage. Ships. 


Tonnage. 


United Kingdom"! 
audits Depen- f 
dencies . . J 

Russia .... 

Sweden . , . 

Norway . , . 

Denmark . . , 

Prussia . . . 

Other German \ 
States . . j 

Holland . . . 

Belgium . . . 

France . . , 

Spain .... 

Portugal . . . 

Italian States . . 

■Other European ) 
States . . 3 

United States of } 
America . . j 

•Other States inl 
America, Afri- > 
ca, or Asia . J 


11,740 

204 
130 
734 
630 
572 
505 

295 
282 
769 
33 
60 
25 

546 
G 


2,203,026 

55,894 
16,839 

115,914 
55,307 

121,815 

38,333 

27.372 
29,245 
32,058 
5.007 
6. 530 
5,536 

238,112 
1.866 


11,644 

225 
193 
873 
772 
S73 

773 

408 
309 
799 
57 
83 
47 

539 
3 


2,250,173 

61,435 
26,900 

144.162 
61.060 

175,938 

57,843 

34.432 
37,188 
33,805 
6,233 
9.231 
9,608 

222,803 
656 


10,158 

118 
116 
209 
671 
376 

445 

370 
286 
695 
30 
37 
33 

547 

2 


1.744,094 

31,502 
13,871 
25,415 
62,324 
74,306 

40,550 

41,560 
30,181 
46,600 
5,447 
4,899 
8,693 

237,074 
457 


10,216 

104 
135 
213 

810 
361 

528 

369 
330 
807 
53 
51 
50 

562 
5 


1,828,501 

29,290 
16,252 
23,298 
68,106 
67,462 
45.618 

36,114 
40,624 
59,115 
6,566 
7.033 
10,560 

254,565 
2,413 


Total . . . 


16, 531 


2.952 ,854' 17,603 


3,132,367 


14,093 


2,370,033 [l4,654 


2,495,.') 17 



An Account of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels which entered Inwards 
and cleared Outwards with Cargoes, at the several Ports of the United 
Kingdom, in the Year ended 5th January 1837, compared with the En- 
trances and Clearances of the preceding Year, ended 5th January 1S3G; 
distinguishing the Vessels employed in the intercourse between Great Britain 
and Ireland from other Coasters. 





INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 




1836. 


1837. 


1836. 1 1837. 




Ships. 


■Tonnage. 
1.138.147 
9.050,-69 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnagfi.' Ships. 


Tonnage. 


E'nployed in the I 
intercourse be- \ 
tweenGreat Bri- j 
tain & Ireland J 

Other Coasting \ 
Vessels , . -> 


10,116 
111,213 


9.820 
113.975 


1.179,062 

9.158,483 


14,608 
115,144 


1.473,255 
9,187,075 


1472 5 
118.616 


1.490,788 
9,271,902 


Total . . 


121,329 10,188.916 


123,795 


10,337,545 


129,752 


10,660,330Jl33,341jlO,762,690 



Statistical Department, Boardt of Trade, 
February 9, 1837. 



G. R, Porter 



1S37-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Parliamentary Papers xxxii 

An Account of the Exports of the principal Articles of British ami liish 
Produce and Maiuifactiires, in the Year ended fjth January lb37, compared 
with the Exports of the previous Year. 



ARTICLES. 


Declared Value. 


/■ 


^ 




1830. 


1837. 




£. 


£. ■ 


Coals and Culm .... 


244, S93 


321,112 


Cotton Manufactures . 


10,421,715 


18,891,380 


Y'am .... 


u,70G.,-)8<) 


0,128,233 


Earthenware .... 


540,421 


838.502 


Glass 


040,410 


5.V2.291 


Hardwares and Cutler}- . 


1,833,043 


2,177,102 


Linen Manufactures 


3,208,778 


3,000,222 


Metals, viz. : — Iron and Steel . 


1,043,741 


2,284.110 


Copper and Brass . 


1,094,749 


1,057,175 


Lead . 


193,144 


2.'0,933 


Tin, in Bars, &c. 


32,290 


02,053 


Tin plates 


3G7,0.')G 


300,873 


Salt . . . . • . 


144,489 


172,999 


Silk Manufactures . . . 


973,780 


922,903 


Suijjar, Refined .... 


852,487 


098,190 


Wool, Sheep's or Lambs' . . 


387,925 


332,, 304 


Woollen Manufactures . . 

Total of the foregoing Articles . 


7,149,002 


8,158,303 


41,437,123 


40,79(;,937 ! 

i 



HOP DUTY. 



An Account of the Duty 


on Hoi)s 


of the Growth of tl 


10 Y'ear 1837, 


Distin- 


guishing the Distrit 


ts, and the Old from the 


New Duty. 




District^.'. 






Duty. 


Districts. 


Duiy 




Barnstaple . 




38 


10 


4 


Lynn . 


10 5 


' 1 


Kaih . . . 




22 


10 


i> 


Northampton 


14 13 





Bedford . . 




13!i 


10 


.) 


I\.)rwich . 


48 


10 


Bristol . . 




4 


14 


8 


Oxford . . 


07 15 


4 


Cambridge 




9 


8 


4 


Plymouth 


ti 


8 


(Canterbury . 


GO 


511 





1(1 


Reading 


30 


r; 


Chester 




3 


1 





Rochester 


82,080 S 


10 


Cornwall . 




12 


1 


9 


Salisbm-y 


5.991 10 


G 


(Coventry . 













Salop . . 


10 14 


(i 


Derby . , 




944 


18 


8 


Slatiovd . . 





4 


Dorset 




48 


5 





Stourbridge . 


3,281 4 


.> 


Essex 


1 


535 


18 





Suffolk . . 


1,002 17 





Exeter 




43 


7 


10 


Surrey , 


49 14 


G 


(Gloucester 




44 


.) 


8 


Sussex 


80,873 2 


2 


(iranthani 




155 


9 


10 


L'xbrid e . 


4 12 


4 


Hants . 


8 


404 





8 


W.iles Middle 


418 8 





Hereford . 


48 


237 


17 


4 


^Vales West . 


4 


10 


Hertford . . 




847 


U 


2 


\\'ehingtou 


104 I 


10 


Isle of Wight 




2 


14 


8 


Worcester 


10.-04 3 





Lincoln 


• 4 


,702 


3 


6 









Old Duty at 1 12-20r/. per lb. . 
New Duto -|8-20(/. per lb. 



Excise Office, London, Nov. 14. 



£310,570 14 

. . . . 178,578 3 O.V 8-20 
. . . . 131, 9^)2 10 11^12-20 

£310,570 14 

W. CoTTUKi.i., General Accountant. 
c 



xxxiv MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Weights and Measures. [1837-8 



Tables of the relation of the Imperial Weights and Measures to the 

CHIEF Weights and Measures on the Continent. 

(From Tales Modern Cambist.) 

TROY WEIGHT. 
100 Ounces Troy are equal to, in 
France. . . 3. 11002 Kilogrammes of 1000 Grammes. 

Netherlands . . 3.11002 Ponclen or Kilo, of do. 

Hamburgh . . 13.3037 Cologne Marks of 16 Loths. 

Prussia. . . 13.301 Prussian Marks of 16 Loths. 

Sweden. . . 14.769 Marks of 16 Lods. 

Russia . . . 7.597 Pounds of 32 Loths or 96 Solotnicks. 

Turkey. . . 9.696 Chequees of 100 Drams. 

Austria. . , 11.077 Vienna Marks of 16 Loths. 

Naples . . . 116.363 Neapolitan Ounces. 

Spain . . . 13.518 Castilian Marks of 8 Ounces. 

Portugal . . 13.553 Marks of 8 Ounces. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

100 lb. Avoirdupois are equal to, in 

France . . . 45.35 Kilogrammes. 

Netherlands . . 90.71 Half Ponden or Kilogrammes. 

Hamburgh . . 93.62 Pounds of 16 Ounces and 32 Loths. 

Denmark . . 90.80 Pounds of 32 Lods. 

Prussia . . . 96.98 Pounds of 16 Ounces. 

Sweden. . . 106.71 Pounds, Victualie Weight, 

Russia . . . 110,78 Pounds of 32 Loths. 

Turkey, Constant . 35.35 Okes of 400 Drams. 

Austria. . . 80.96 Pounds of 16 Ounces. 

Naples. . . 141.41 Pounds of 12 Ounces. 

Leghorn . . 133.58 Poiuids of 12 Ounces. 

Genoa . . . 143.10 Pounds of 12 Ounces. 

Spain . . . 98.57 Pounds of 16 Ounces. 

Portugal . . 98.82 Pounds of 16 Ounces. 



11 


2 lb. Avoirdup 


ois are equal to, in 


France . 


50.79 


Kilogrammes. 


Netherlands . 


101.59 


HalfPonden. 


Hamburg 


104.85 


Pounds. 


Denmark 


101.69 


Pounds. 


Prussia . 


108.62 


Pounds. 


Sweden . . 


119.50 


Pounds, 


Russia . 


3,102 


Poods of 40 lb. 


Turkey, Constant 


39,59 


Okes, 


Austria . . 


90.67 


Pounds. 


Naples . 


0.5702 


Cantaro of 100 Rottoli. 


Leghorn 


1.496 


Quintal of 100 Pounds. 


Genoa . 


1.0685 


Cantaro of 100 Rottoli. 


Spain . 


4.416 


Arrobas of 25 lb. 


Portugal 


3.459 


Arrobas of 32 lb. 



France 
Netherlands 
Hambiirgh 
Denmark 
Prussia . 
Sweden . 
Russia . 
Tuikey . 
Austria . 
Naples . 
Leghorn 
Do. . 



100 Imperial Gallons are equal to, in 

454,34 Litres, 

454.34 Kans, 

62.75 Viertels, 20 to 1 Ahm. 

58 . 79 Viertels, 30 to 1 Oxhoft. 

396.79 Quarts, 64 to 1 Eimer. 

173.66 Kannen, 30 to I Eimer. 

36.97 Wedros, 18 to 1 Oxhoft. 

86.54 Almudes. 

8.03 Eimers. 

10.97 Barile of GO Caraffi. 

9.96 Barile of 20 Fiasche. 

13.58 Barile of Oil. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Weights and Measuves. xxxy 



100 Imperial Gallons are equal to, in 
Genoa . . . 0.12 Barile. 

Spain . . . 28.10 Cantaios of 8 Azumbras. 

Portugal . . 27.47 Alnnules of Lisbon. 

Do. . . . 17.83 Do. of Oporto. 



10 Lasts or 
France . 
Netherlands 
Hamburgh 
Deamaik 
Sweden . 
Prussia . 
Russia . 
Turkey . 
Austria . 
Naples . 
Leghorn 
Genoa . 
Spain 
Portugal 
Do. . 



100 Imperial Quarters are equal to, in 

290.77 Hectolitres. 

9. GO Lasts of 30 Mudde or Hectolitres. 

9.18 Lasts of 30 Scheflfels. 

17.42 Lasts of 12 Toendes. 

176.41 Tunna of 30 Kappar. 

7.34 Lasts of 72 Scheffels. 

138.04 Chetwerts. 

828 .41 Killows of Constantinople. 

472.80 Metzen. 

508.58 Tomoli. 

397.89 Sacks. 

241.51 Mine, 

514.78 Fanegas. 

2151.5 Alqueires of Lisbon. 
1704.7 Do. of Oporto. 



France . 
Netherlands 
Hamburgh 
Denmark 
Sweden . 
Prussia . 
Russia . 
Turkey . 
Austria . 
Naples . 
Leghorn 
Genoa . 
Spain 
Portugal 



100 Yards English are equal to, in 



91.4:; 

91.43 
159.38 
145.67 
154.00 
137.10 
128.57 
135.21 
117.35 

43.27 
153.87 

3G.575 
107.83 

83.45 



Metres. 

Klls or Metres. 

Ells. 

Ells. 

Ells. 

Ells,_ 

Arshines. 

Pikes. 

Ells. 

Canne of 8 Palmi. 

Braccia. 

Canne of 10 Palmi. 

Varas. 

Varas. 



BRITISH MINISTERS ABROAD. 

Russia. — Arab. Ex. and Plen., Earl Durham. Sec. of Emb., J. R. Milbanke, Esq. 
Sweden. — Env. Ex. . and Min. Plen., Hon. J. Bligh. Sec. of Leg., Hon. J. 

Bloomfield. 
Prussia. — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., Lord W. Russell. Sec. of Leg., Sir G. B. 

Hamilton. 
Denmark. — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., Rt. Hon. Sir H. W. W. Wynn. Sec. of 

lieg., P. Browne, Esq. 
Nethpriunds. — Sir E. Dlsbrowe. Sec. of Leg., Sir A. Malet, Bart. 
Behjimn. — Env. Ex., Sir Hamilton Seymour. Sec. of Leg., T. W. Waller, Esq. 
Austria, — Amb. Ex. and Plen,, Sir l'\ J. Lamb. Sec. of Emb., Hon. H. Fox. 
Bavaria. — Env. Ex. and Min, Plen., Lord Erskine. Sec. of Leg,, Hon. R. Bing- 
ham. 
IVirieinberg. — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., Sir G. Shee. Sec. of Leg., Hon. II. 

Welleslcy. 
Saxony. — Min. Plen., Hon. F. R. Forbes. Sec. of Leg., C. T. Barnard, Esq. 
Fratice. — Amb. Ex. and Plen., Lord Granville. Sec. of Emb., A. Aston, Esq, 
Spain.— ¥a\v. Ex, and Min, Plen., Sir G. W. F. Villiers. Sec. of Leg,, Lord \V, 

Hervey, 
Portugal. — Env. Ex, and Min. Plen., Lord Howard de Waldeu. Sec, of Leg,, 

Hon. G. S, Jerningham, 
Sardinia. — Env, Ex. and Min. Plen., Right Hon. Sir A. J. Foster, Sec, of Leg., 

J. H. Sulivan, Esq. 
Tuscany. — Env, Ex. and Min. Plen., R. Abercrombie, E-.q. Sec. of Leg., Foley 
Wilniot, Esq, 

c2 



XXXvi MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— l//wu/er5,<^T. [1837-8 

Nap/fs.—Em. Ex. aud Min. Plen., Hon. W. Temple. Sec. of Leg., J. Ken- 
nedy, Esq. 

Switzeriaml.— Min. Plen., D. R. Morier, Esq. Sec. of U'g . Hon. G. Edgcumbe. 

Greece.— Win. Res., Sir E. Lj-ons. Sec. of Leg., P. GrifKth, Esq. 

Tttriey.—Amh. Ex. and Plen., Lord Ponsonby. Sec. of Emb., H. Lytton Bul- 
wer, Esq. 

Pe>-sia.~J. M'Neill, Esq. 

Germanic Confederalion. — Min. Plen., to reside with the Diet at Frankfort, T. 
Cartwright, Esq. Sec. of Leg., Hon. F. G. Molyneux. 

America.— V.m. Ex. and Min. Plen., H. S. Fox, Esq. Sec. of Leg., C. Bank- 
head, Esq. 

Mexico.— Wm. Plen., K. Pakenham, Esq. Sec. of Leg., Hon. C. Ashburnham. 
olumbia — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., W. Turner, Esq. Sec. of Leg., \V. P. 
Adams. Esq. 

Brazil.— l^w. Ex. aud Min. Plen., H. C. J. Hamilton, Esq. Sec. of Leg., W. G. 
Ouseley, Esq. 

United Provinces of the Rio de la P/ala.—Wm. Plen., J. H. MandeviUe, Esq. S.'c. 
of Leg., 

FOREIGN MINISTERS IN ENGLAND. 

Pussia. — Ambassador, Count Pozzo dl Borgo, Dover-street. Cons. Gen., G. 

Benkhauien, Esq., 29, Great Winchester-street. 
Stvedm and Norway. — Envoy, Comit Bjnrnstjerna; Sec Baron Rehausen, 13, 

Belgrave-place. Cons., C. Tottie, Esq , 17, Grtat St. Helen's. 
Prussia. — Ambassador, Baron Bulow, ?, Lower Berkeley-street. 
Denmark. — Envoy, J5aron de Blome, 39, Grosvenor-place. Sec, C. Eille, Esq. 

Cons., F. Wilson, Esq., C, Warnford-comt. 
Holland. — Ambassador, Muns. Dedt-l, 11, Princes street. Cavendish-square. Cons. 

Gen., J. ^V. May, Esq., 123, Fenchurch-street. 
Belginm. — Envoj^, M. Van de Weyer, 17, Fitzroy-square. Sec, M. Wallez. 

Cons., H. Castellain, Esq. 3, Copthall-court. 
Austria. — Ambassador, Prince Esterhazy. Cons., N. M. Rothschild, Esq., 2, 

New-court, St. Swithin's-lane. 
Bavaria. — Env. Baron de Cetto, 3, Hill-st. Cons., A.F. Schaetzler, 44, Fins.-cir. 
IVirlemberg. — Charge d'Affiiires, Count Mandelsluh, 39, Somerset-street. 
Saxony. — Min. Res , Baron R. de C4ersdorffi 23, Park-street, Grosvenor-square. 

Cons. Gen., J. Colquhoun, Esq. 7G, Cornhill. 
France. — Ambass., Count Sebastiani, Manchester-square. Sec, M. de Bacourt. 

Cons. Gen., M. Durand Si. Andre, 17, Tokenhouse-yard. 
Spain. — Minister, D. M. Agiiiliar, 33, Wimpule-st. Cons. Gen., Chev. Barrero. 
I'ortugal. — Minister, Bavon Moncorvo, 55, Baker-st. Cons. Gen., F. J. Vanzel- 

ler, St. Alban's-place, Bishopsgate-street. 
Sardinia. — Envoy, Count St. Martin d'Aglie, 34, Hill-street. Sec, M. Milon. 

Cons., J. B. Heath, Esq. 31, Old Jewry. 
Sicily. — Envoy, Count de Ludolf, 1, Gloucester-place. Sec, Chev. Vanvitelli. 

Cons. Gen., H. Minasi, Esq. 15, Cambridge-street, Edgeware-ruail. 
Switzerland. — Cons, Gen., J. L. Prevost, P>sq. 24, Cateaton-street. 
Greece. — Min., Sign. Tricoupi, 49, York-terrace, llegent"s-paik. 
Turkey. — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., 
Hanover. — Min. Res., . Sees., H. G. Golfer- 

mann and C. Klengermann, Esqrs. Cons., Sir J. Hall, G, Cncus, Minories. 
Baden, Hesse Darmstadt, and Hesse Cassel. — Cons., Mr. R. Godeffroy, SO, Cole- 
man-street. 
Mecklenburt/h Schwerin. — Cons., Mr. C. Kreeft, 121, Fenchurch-sireet. 
Hanseulic Peptihiics, Ltilieck, Bremen, and Hamlnrf/h. — Cons. Gen., .7. Colquhotni, 

Esq., 12, St. James's-place ; Office, 7C), Cornhill. 
Free City of Frankfurt — Cons., J. G. Behrends, Esq. 14, Broad-street Buildings. 
America. — Env. Ex. and Min. Plen., Andrew Stevenson, Esq. Cons. Gen., Col. 

Aspiuwall. Vice-Cons., J. Le Souef, 1, Bishojisgate-churchyard. 
Mexico. — Mins., M. de Santa Maria. Cons., M. Sclnieidnagel, 20, Austin Friars.* 
Brazil. — Envoy, Chev. d'Arago Ribeiro, 20, Park-crescent, llegent's-park. Sec, 

Chev. Lisboa. Cons. Gen., Jose J. T. d'Araugo, Finsbury-cnambers. 
United Provinces of the Bio de la Plata. — Mins., 

Vice-Cons., V. Pazos, l']sq. 20, Mabledon-place, New Road. 
Uruguay, — Cons. Gen., Mr. F. Do Lisle, 1, York-place, Portmaii-square. 



183r-8.] MISCEM.ANEOUS INFORMATION.— i^/m/A^^;-*, <f-f. XXXvii 

GOVERNORS OF BRITISH COLONIES. 

lU'UOPEAN. 
Jsfe of Man. — Lieiit.-Gov., Cr.l, J, Roady. 
Gihra/lar. — Lieut.-Gov., Jlajor-Gen. Sir A. Woodford, K.('.K. 
Malta. — Lieut. -Gov., Major-Gou. Sir II. F. lioiiverie, K.C.B. 
Ionian I.i/aiidx. — Liinit.-Gen. Sir H. DouLjlas, Hart. 
lleligolamV. — Guv., Major- Gen. Sir II. King. 

AMERICAN. 
Lower Canada. — Gov. Gen., 

Upper Canada. — LiRiit.-Gov., Sir F. B. Iload, Bart. 
Nova Scotia. — Lieut.-Gov.. Mujor-Gtni. Sir G. Campbell. 
Nciv Hri/iiswick — Lieut.-Gov., Major-Gen. Sir .John Harvey, K.C.H. 
Prince F-dnwd h/nnd. — Licut.-Gov., Sir C. A. Fitzroy, K.II. 
Nrv'foundland. — Gov., Capt. H. Presct)tt, ll.N. 
.himaica. — Gov,, Lieut.-Gen. Sir L. Smith, K.C.B. 
Barbadues, St. Vincent, Granada, Tubajo. — Gov., Major-Gen. Sir E. J. M. M'Gre- 

gor, Bart. 
*'/. Fincenl. — Lieut.-Gov., Capt. G. Tyler. 
Granada. — Lieut.-Gov , Lieut.-Col. C. J. Doyle. 
Toba(jo. — Lieut.-Gov., IVIajor-Gen. II. C. Darling. 
Antigua, Montserrat, St, Christopher'' s, Nevis, Virgin Islands, and Dominica. — 

Gov.-Gen.. Lieut.-Col. Sir W. M. G. Colebrooke. 
St. C/iristophers. — Lieut.-Gov., Lieut.-Col. Sir H. G. M'Leod. 
Dominica. — II. Light, Esq. 
British Guiana {Denterara, Esscquibo, and Berbice), — Gov., Major-Gen. Sir J. C. 

Smilh. 
Trinidad. — Lieut.-Gov., Right Hon. Sir G. F. Hill. 
iS7. Lucia. — Lieut.-Gov., Sir D. St. Leger Hill. 
Bermuda, — Gov., Major-Gen. Sir S. R. Chapman. 
Bahama Islands. — Lieut.-Gov., Col. F. Cockburn. 

ASIATIC. _ 
Ceijlon. — Gov., Right Hon. J. A. S. Mackenzie. 

AFRICAN. 
St. Helena. — Gov.. ]\Iajor-Gen. Middlemore. 
Cape of Guod Hope. — Gov., Major-Gen. G. T. Napier, C.B. 
Mauritius. — Gov., Lieut.-Gen. Sir W. Xicolay. 
Sierra Leonr. — Gov., Col. R. Doherty. 
Gambia, — Lieut.-Gov., 

AUSTRALASIAN. 
New South Wales, — Gov., Sir G. Gipps. 

Fan Diemens Land, — Lieut.-Gov., Captain Sir J. Franklin, R.N. 
Swan River, — Gov.. Sir J. Stirling. 
South Australia. — Gov., Capt. Ilindmarsh, R.N. 

INDIAN EMriRK. 
Bengal. — Gov.-Gen., Lord Auckland. 
Madras, — Gov., Lord Elphinstone. 
liombag. — Gov., Sir R. Grant, G.CH. 
.•7^?-a.— Gov., Sir C. T. Metcalf. 

BRITISH CONSULS ABROAD. 

C. signijies Consul. I V.C. . . . Vice Consul. 

C.G. ... Consul General, \ C.A. . . . Consular Agent, 

Russia: — St. Petersburgh, Thomas J. Norway: — Christiania,G. Mygind, C. 

Gisborne, C. Bergen, John Grieg, C. 

Archangel, Thos. Carew Hunt, C. Hammeriest, J. R. Clrowe, C. 

Riga, Robert Hay, C. Denmark : — Elsinore, Francis C. Mac- 

Liebau, Francis Keinitz, C. gregor, C. 

Warsaw, Charles John Barnett, C. Copenhagen, N. A. Fenwick, V, C. 

Odessa, James Yeames, C. G. Prussia: — Dantzic, II. R. Flaw, C. 

Taganrog, William Yeames, V. C. Konigsberg, J.|D. IJrockmann, V. C. 

Sweden : — Stockholm, George Foy, C. Pillau, C* E. Elsasser, V. C. 

Gottcnburgh, Hen. Thos. Liddell, C. Memel, W.J. Ilertslet, V. C. 



xxxviii MISCELLANEOUS iNFORMATiON.—Gwernof*— Cowsm/5. [1837-8. 



Stettin, F. H, Peterson, V. C. 
Germany : — Hamburgh, Henry Can- 
ning, C. G. 
Ditto. Charles Wesselhoeft, V. C. 

Bremen, B. Pearkes, V. C. 

Lubeck, W. L. Behncke, V. C. 

Cuxhaven, Henry H. Dutton, V. C. 
Holland: — Amsterdam, Robt. Melvil,C. 

Rotterdam, Alexander Ferrier, C. 
Belgium : — Antwerp, George de H. Lar- 
pent, C. 

Osteud, Gaspard A. Fauche, C. 
France: — Paris, Tliomas Pickfbrd, C. 

Calais, Samuel G. Marshall, C. 

Boulogne, William Hamilton, C. 

Havre, Gilbert Gordon, C, 

Nantes, Henry Newman, C. 

Brest, Anthony Perrier, C. 

Charente, John Frank Close, C. 

Bordeaux, T. B. G. Scott, C. 

Bayonne, J. V. Harvey, C. 

Marseilles, Alexander Tiirnbull, C. 

Toulon, L. E. Jouve, C. 

Corsica, A. P. Palmedo, C. 

Granville, A. White, C. 
Spain: — Madrid, G. A. Alonzo, C. A. 

Bilbao, J. Clark, C. 

Corunna, J. Crispin, C. • 

Cadiz, J. M. Brackenbury, C. 

San Lucar, Charles Phillippe, V. C. 

Malaga, William P. Mark, C. 

Carthagena, Matthew Carter, C. 

Alicante, Jasper Waring, C. 

Barcelona, James Annesley, C. 

Mahon, L. C. Hargrave, C. 

Teneriffe, Richard Bartlett, C. 

St. Jago de Cuba, John Hardy, C. 

Havana, C. D. Tolme, C. 
Portugal: — Lisbon, William Smith, C. 

Ditto, Jeremiah Meagher, V. C. 

Oporto, Edwin J. Johnston, C. 

Madeira, Henry Veitch, C. 

St. Michael's, William Harding 
Read, C. G. 

Ditto, R. C. Kendall, V. C. 

Fayal, John Minchin, V. C. 

Terceira, Hilliard Alton, V. C. 
Italy : — Genoa, James Stirling, C. 

Nice, Peter Le Croix, C. 

Cagliari, George Bomesteer, C. 

Leghorn, John Falconar, Ct 

Ancona, George Moore, C. 

Rome, John Freeborn, V. C. 

Naples, William Gallwey, C. 

Gallipoli, Richard Stevens, V. C. 

Otranto, Francisco V. Corchia, V. C. 

Palermo, John Goodwin, C. 

Messina, W. W. Barker, C. 
jiustrian States : — Milan and Venice, 

Sir Thomas S. Sorell, C. G. 

Venice, Wm. Colston Tatam, V.C. 

Trieste, Henry Bynner, V. C. 

Flume, Charles Thomas Hill, V. C. 

Ragusa. 



Greece: — Prevesa, Sid. S. Saimders,C. 

Patras, G. W. Crowe, C. 

Pyrgos, Anastasis Pasqualigo, V. C. 

Napoli, J. D. Griffiths, V. C. 

Syra, Richard Wilkinson, C. 
Turkey: — Constantinople, John Cart- 
wright, C. G. 

Ditto, A. C. Cumberbatch,V. C. 

Erzeroom, James Brant, V. C. 

Trebizond, H. Suter, V. C. 

Dardanelles, C. A. Lander, V. C. 

Salonica, Charles Blunt, C. 

Bucharest, R. G. Colquhoun, C. 

Adrianople, John Kerr, C. 

Smyrna, R. W. Brant, C. 

Ditto, John Charnaud, V. C. 

Scio, G. D. Vedova, V. C. 

Tunis, Sir T. Reade, C. G. 

W. Ancram, V. C. 

Tripoli, H. Warrington, C. G. 

Begnazi, T. Wood, V. C. 

Algiers, R. W. St. John. C. G. 

A. Tulin, V. C. 

Oran, John Bell, V. C. 

Tangier, E. Drummond Hay, C. G. 
Syria : — Damascus, W. P. Farren, C.G. 

Beyrout, Niven Moore, C. 

Cyprus, A. Vondiziano, V. C. 

Candia, H. S. Ongley, C. 

Aleppo, N. W. Werry, C. 
Egypt: — Cairo, Patr. Campbell, Agent 
and C. G. 

Ditto, A. Walne, V. C. 

Alexandria, Robert Thurburn, C. 

Ditto, Charles Slgane, V. C. and 
Cancellier. 

Damietta, Michael Surur, V. C. 

Rosetta, Alexander Lenzi, V. C. 
United States : — New York, James Bu- 
chanan, C. 

Philadelphia, Gilbert Robertson, C. 

Charleston, William Ogilby, C. 

New Orleans, John Crawford, C, 

Boston, George Manners, C. 

Baltimore, John M'Tavish, C. 

Mobile, James Baker, C. 

Norfolk, William Gray, C. 

Savannah, Edmund Molyneux, C. 

Portland, Thomas Sherwood, V. C. 
Mexico : — Mexico, J. Parkinson, C. 

San Bias, Eustace Barron, V. C. 

V^era Cruz, Francis GifFard, V. C. 

Tampico, J. T. Crawford, V. C. 
Hayti : — Port au Prince, G. W. C. Cour- 

teiiay, C. 

Ditto, Thomas Ussher, V. C. 

Cape Haitien, Harrison J. Thomp- 
son, V. C. 
Guatemala : — Guatemala. Fred. Chat- 
field, C. 
Columbia : — Carthagena, P. W. Kelly, 
C. 

Jlaracayho, Robert Mackay, C. 

Caracas, Sir Robert Ker Porter, C. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— A^rtry Agents. xxxix 

Panama, Josej)h Cade, G. Buenos Aijrcs : — Buenos Ayres, Charles 

Guayaquil, Walter Cope, C. Griffiths, C. 

Puerto Cabello, T. J. Willimott, C. C/ii/i: — Valparaiso, Honourable John 

£rfln7;— Rio lie Janeiro, R.Hesketh.C. Walpole, C. G. 

Maceio, Balilwin Sealy, V. C. Ditto, V. C. 

Maranhau), .lohii Moon, C. Peru: — Lima. Belford II. Wilson, C.G. 

Para, John Hesketl), V. C. Ditto, Timothy S. Sealy, V. C. 

Pernarabuco, Edward Watts, C. Arica, II. Wilson, C 

Bahia. C. T. O'Gorman, C. Bolivia, J. Peutland, C. G. 

Mottle yideo : — Monte Video, Thomas Sandwich Islanda ; — W'oahoo, Richard 

Samuel Hood, C. G. Charlton, C. 



NAVY AGENTS. 

[Frotn the Navy List,'] 

NAVY AND PRIZE AGENTS IIKSIDENT IN LONDON. 

Atkius and Son, 7, Walbrook. Goode Fred., 15, Surrey-street, Strand. 

Barwis William II. B., 1, New Boswell Halford James, 41 , Norfolk-st., Strand. 

Court, Lincoln's-inn. Hallett & Robinson, 14, Gt. George-st. 

Booth and Pettet, 10, Lancaster- place, Hinxmau J., 72, Gn^at Russel-street. 

Waterloo Bndt^e. Holmes W^iUiam, .3, Lyon's-inn. 

Chard William and Edward, 3, Chf- LoudonsackC.F., 1, James-st., Adelphi. 

ford's-inn. Fleet-street. Muspratt John P., 9, New Broad-street, 

Chippendale J., John-street, Adelphi. Ominanney Sir F. M., Kt. 22, Norfolk- 
Clementson Chas., 8, Adelphi-terrace. street, Strand. 

Collier Thomas, and John Adolphus Slade^Villiam, 21, Cecil-street, Strand. 

Snee, 3, Brick-court, Temple. Stilwell Thomas John and Thomas, 22, 
Copland J., 23, Surrey-street, Strand. Arundel-street, Strand. 

Dufaur Joseph, 13, Clements-inn. Woodhead Jos., 1, James-st., Adelphi. 
Evans &Eyton, 7,Northum.-st, Strand. 



AGENTS FOR OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL MARINES, 

Messrs. Cox and Son, Hattoa-Garden. 



LIST OF LICENSED NAVY AGENTS FOR PETTY OFFICERS AND 

SEAMEN. 

With the Dates of their Licences respectively. 

N.B. Each Licence expires three years after the Date thereof. 

Barber Lewis (^Merchant), Malta . . . . IG Nov. 33 

Barnard Rebecca (ividow and executrix of David Barnard') 17, 

High-street, Southampton . . . . .6 Mar. 35 

Chambers George, and Chambers Wm. Grant, 24, Hard, and 58, 

High-street, Portsmouth . . . . .30 Sept. 36 

Cohan Lewis, Chatham . . . , ,3 Feb. 35 

Davis Noah, 131, RatelifFe High., and at 55, High-st., Gravesend 13 Nov. 35 
Davis Martha (undow of S. S. Davis) 68, High-street, Chatham . 5 Sept. 37 
Edmoud Owen Copner, No. 11, Groat St. Helens, Bishopsgale- 

street, and East India Chambers, Leadenhall-street . ,8 Dec. 34 

Edwards J., 34, Union-street, Purtsea . . . .3 Aug. 37 

Isaac Philip, 50, Great Prescott-street, Goodman's Fields . lU May 37 

Isaacs Sam., 37 and 54, Havant-st , and 20, CoUege-st., Portsea 18 April 36 
Joseph Moss, 8, Nelson-street, Liverpool {limited to certain Orders 

dated on or brfore 8 Nov. 34, made in favour of' Samuel Joseph, 

of Liverpool, and by htm endorsed in favour of Moss Joseph^ . 24 Feb. 35 
Nathan Joseph, 52, Great Prescott-street, Goodman's Fields . 8 June 36 
Levi B., 45, Bedfoid st., Plymouth .... 25 Aug. 35 

Marks Charles, 17, Treville Street, Plymouth . . , 29 Dec. 34 

Martell George, 1, St. Mary-street, Portsmouth . . . 7 Mar. 35 

Mordecai, M. 71, Fore-street, Devonport . . . 24 April 37 

Moses Abraham, 30, St. .lames-street, Portsea . . . 22 Dec. 35 

Neck Edmund, 22, Com. Hard, Portsea . . .4 Dec. 35 

Oliver Robert Moon, 36, Chapel-street, Devonport . . 17 Oct. 36 

Philpot John, 35, St. Swithin's-lane, London . . .4 Nov. 36 

Rogers Robert, 93, Queen-street, Portsea , . .28 Oct. 36 



X MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— i4n«y ^o-en^5, ^c. [1837-8. 

Solomon Samuel. Hij^h-strect, Chatham (/imited to Orders dated 

previoi/>;{if to 29 j4i/iji/s/, IS31) .... 11 Feb. 35 

Solomon Moses, 8, Ovdnance-row, Portsea . . .9 April 35 

Holomoii L., 89, High-street, Chatham . , , .24 Oct. 3G 

Symuns John, Devonport . . . . .19 .Tuly 36 

\\ erntr J., 5; Queen-street, Goklen-squaro. . , . 20 Jan. 37 



ARMY AGENTS, 

l^Frojn the Ariny List.'\ 
Ashley and Son, 135, Regent Street. 
Atkinson John, Ely Place, Dublin. 

Earron and Smith, 4, U[iper Charles Street, Westminster, 
Borough, Sir Edward R.. Bt., Armit and C'o., Leinstcr Street, Dublin. 
Cane Richard and Co., Daws(ni-.street, Dublin. 
CoUyer, Geo. Sam., Park-place, St. James's. 
Cox and ('o., Craig's Court. 

Cox and Son, {for Royal I\TaritiesC) 44. Ilatton Garden. 
Downes Cha., 14, Warwick-street, Charing Cross. 
Hopkinson, Barton, and Knj vett, 3. Regent-street, St. James's. 
Kirkland John, 80. Pall Mall. 

Lawrie John and John i\rGrigor, 10, Charles-street, St. James's-square. 
Price William F., 34, Craven-street, Strand. 



GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE RECRUITING SERVICE. 
//I Great Britain, John Kirkland, Esq., No. 80, Pall Mall. 
In Ireland . . Sir Bagenal Wm. Burdett, Bt., Dublin. 

PARLIAMENTARY AGENTS. 

Bain George, 2, Parliament-street. Jones & Walmsley. 40, Parlianient-st. 

Brown TiJ, 21, Parliament-street. Mac Dougal & Upton, 46, Parlianmt-st. 

Bur!<e and \'enables, 44. Parlianient-st. JIundell A, 37, Great George-street. 

Caldwell and Son, 29, Golden-square. Richardson and Connel, 21, Fludyer-st. 

Deans and Dunlop, Fhidyer-street. Spottiswoud & Robertson, Gt.George-st. 

Doringlon. Hayward, & C0..IG. Par!.-st, Sydney Sir W. R., 11, New Palace-yd. 

Dyson ami Hall. 22, Parliament-street. Tliorp, Pritt, & Sherwood, 2. Parl.-st. 

Graham A., 2, Great Scotland-yard. Webster G., 1, Old Palace-yard. 



BANKS IN LONDON, viz.. 

Bank of England, Tlireadneedle-street. 

Branch Banks. — Birminj;liam — ISrisiol — Gloucester — Hull— Leeds — Liverpoul- 
Miincliester — Newcastle upon Tyne — Nurwicli — ri\ mouth — Portsmouth- 
Swansea. 
London Joint Stock Bank, Princes-street. 
London and Westminster Bank: 

HEAD OFFICE. 38, Thro;.'morton-strect. 

Westminster ]3ranch 9, Waterloo I'late, Tall Mall. 

]?loomsburv 15ranch 213, ni;,'h Holhorn. 

."^outliwark'Branch 12, Wellington-street, Borough. 

Eastern liianch 87, High-street, Whileehai.el. 

Borough of Mary-le-bone Bank, 9, Cavendish-square. 

British North American Bank, 7, St. Helen's Place. 

Colonial Bank, 62, Old Broad-street. 

Dundee Union Branch Bank, 2, Billetcr-squarc. 

Finsbury Bank [Branch of Borough of Mary-le-bone] Goswell Road. 

Foreign Banking Company, 32, Lombard-street. 

Natitnial Bank of Ireland,"39, Old Broad-street. 

National Provincial Bank of England, 13. Austinfriars. 

I'rovincial Bank of Ireland. 42, Old Broad-street. 

Surrey, Kent, and Sussex Banking Company, 71, Lombard-street. 

BANKERS IN LONDON. 

Ashley. J.imes, and Son. 13.5. Regent-street. 
Bank of Australasia, 18, Aldermanhury. 
Barclay, Bevan, and Co., 54, Lombard-street. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANKOUS INFORMATION.— /?«?;/{0-5. 

Barnavd, Dimsdiile, and Barnard, JO, Cornhill. 

Barnetts, Hoarp. and Co., (i'2, Lmnbard-strcct. 

Eij^Ljcrstaff's, S, West Sinitiifiuld. 

Bo-sanquft, Pitt, and Co., 73, Lumhaid-sfreet. 

Bouverio. Lefevre, and Co., 1], llayniarkot. 

Brown, Jan.son, and Co , 32, Aljchnrch-lanc. 

Call, Sir W. Y. Marten, and Co., 25, Old Bond-street, 

(Jliihi and Co.. 1, Fleet-stieet. 

Cockbnrn and Co., -1, Wliitehall. 

Cockerell and Co., 8, Aiistinfriar.s. 

Cocks, Biddulpli, and Biddulph, 43, Chariiig-cross. 

Coutts and Co., .')!), Siiand. 

C'.mliflfe and Co., 29, Lombard-street, 

Ciinliffi', Rotter, 21, Bueklcrsbuv}-. 

(Jurries and Co., 29, Cornhill. 

Davies, R., and Co., 190, Sboredilch. 

D'nison and Co., 4, Lom^)ard-street. 

Dixon, Son, and Brooks. 2.'), Chancery-lano. 

Dorvien, JMello, Dorrit-n, and Co., 22, Finch-lane. 

Drewstt and Fowler, Princes-street, Bunk. 

Drumnionds and Co., 4!), Cliarinuj-cr^iss. 

Feltham, John, iind Co.. 42, Lombard-street. 

Fuller, Richard and (Teor!:;;c. and Co., 84, Cornhill, 

Glyn, Hallifax, Mills, and Co, fiZ, Lombard-street, 

(■losling, F. and W,, and R. .Sharpc, 19, Fleet-street. 

Grote, Prcscott, and Co., ('2, Tiueiidneedle street. 

Flallett and Co., 14, Great George-street, 'Westminster. 

Hammersleys and Clark, G9, Pall-mall. 

Ilanbnrys, Taylor, and Lloyds, 60, Lonibar<l-street. 

Hankeys and Co., 7, Fenchurch-street. 

Ilerries, Farquhai". Ilallid.iy, and Co., Ki, St. James'bbtreet. 

Hill and .Son, 17. West Sm'ithiield. 

Iloare, Henry, and Co.. ,'!3, Fleet-street. 

Hopkinson, Barton, C, and Co., 3, Regent-street. 

Jones, Lloyd, and Co., 43, Lothbury. 

.Fones and Son, 41, West Smithtield. 

.lohnston and Co., 15, Bosh-lane, 

Keil, James, 2, B;lliter-S(|nare. 

King, Charles, and Co., 24, Bolton-street, Piccadilly. 

Kin;och and Sons, 1, New Broad-street, 

Ladbrokes, Kin^sote, and Co., Bank-buihlings, Cornhill. 

Lubbock, Foster, and Co., 14, Mansion-house-slrett. 

Martin, Stone, and Stone, 6S, Lombard-street. 

Masterman, Peters, Mildred, and Co., 3j, Nicholas-lane. 

I\Iiddlesex County Bank, 17, Bncklersbury. 

Overend and Co., G.i, Lombard-street. 

Pares and Heygates, G, New Broad-street. 

Pocklin3:ton and Lacy, 60, West Smithfield. 

Praed, Mackworth, and Co., 189, Fleet street. 

Price and Co., King ^Villlam-street. 

Puget, Bainbridges, and Co., 12, St. Paul's Churchyaid. 

Ransom and Co., 1, Pall-mall East. 

Robarts, Curtis, and Co., 15, Lombard-street. 

Rogers, Olding, and Co., 29, Clement's-lane. 

Scott and Co., 1, ("avcndiiih-square. 

Smith, Payne. an<l Smiths, 1, Lombard-street, 

Snow and Paul, Sir J. B., Bart., 217, Strand. 

.Spooner, Attwoods, and Co., 27, (iracechurch-street. 

Stallard, W. II., 7G, West Smithfield. 

Stevenson and Salt, 20, Lombard-street. 

Twining, Richard, Geortje, and J. A-, 21'), Strand. 

Thomas, Son, and Lefevre, 2], Austinfriars. 

Tisdall, Thomas G., l.i. West Smithfield. 

Vere, Sapte, and Co.. 77, Lombard-street. 

Wakefield and Co., 70, Old Broad-street. 



xlii MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Statutes. [1837-8. 

A LIST of the Public General Statutes passed in the Third Ses- 
sion of the Twelfth Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

7 WILLIAM IV. & 1 VICTORIA. 

7 WILLIAM IV. 

I. An Act to suspend for a limited time the operation of two acts passed in 
the last Session of Parliament, for rcf^isteriug births, deaths, and marriages 
in England, and for marriages in England, 

II. An Act to amend an Act passed in the seventh year of His present Ma- 
jesty, for consohdating and amending the laws relating to the presentment of 
public money by grand juries in Ireland. 

III. An Act for transferring to the Commissioners of the Admiralty all con- 
tracts, bonds, and other securities entered into with the Postmaster General in 
relation to the Packet Service. 

IV. An Act to continue, untU the first day of July one thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-seven, the powers of the Commissioners for inquiring concerning 
charities in England and Wales, 

V. An Act for amending an Act of his late Majesty, for restricting the punish- 
ment of leasing-makiug, sedition, and blasphemy, in Scotland, 

VI. An Act to apply the sum of two millions to the service of the year one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. 

VII. An Act for punishing mutiny and desertion, and for the better payment 
of the Army and their quarters. 

VIII. An Act for the regulation of His Majesty's Royal Marine forces while 
on shore. 

IX. An Act to amend several Acts relating to the Royal Mint, 

X. An Act to alter, amend, and continue for a certain period, an Act for 
repealing certain Acts relating to the removal of poor persons born in Scotland 
and Ireland, and chargeable to parishes in England, and to make other provi- 
sions in lieu thereof. 

XI. An Act to apply the sum of eight millions, out of the Consolidated Fund, 
to the service of the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, 

XII. An Act to indemnify such persons in the United Kingdom as have 
omitted to qualify themselves for offices and employments, and for extending the 
time limited for those purposes respectively until the twenty-fifth day of March 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight; and for the relief of Clerks to 
Attorneys and Solicitors in certain cases, 

XIII. An Act to amend the Acts for regulating the General Penitentiary at 
Mdlbank, 

XIV. An Act to explain and amend two Acts relating to Trial by Jury in 
Scotland. 

XV. An Act to discharge His Majesty's manor and demesne lands at Newark 
in the county of Nottingham from any costs of rebuilding or repairing Trent and 
Markham bridges, and to charge the same on the other hereditary revenues of 
the Crown, 

XVI. An Act for raising the sum of eleven millions by Exchequer Bills, for 
the service of the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. 

XVII. An Act for carrying to the Consolidated Fund certain Moneys paid 
into the ICxchequer, and usually applied as a part of the annual Aids and Sup- 
plies ; and for cancelling Stock transferred to the Commissioners for the Reduc- 
tion of the National Debt on account of the redemption of Land Tax, 

I VICTORIA. 

XVIII. An Act for continuing until the first day of June one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-nine, and to the end of the then Session of Parliament, the 
several Acts for regulating tlie Turnpike Roads in Great Britain wliich will 
expiie with the present or with the next Session of Parliament. 

XIX. An Act to empower the Recorder or other person presiding in Quarter 
Sessions in corporate cities and towns, and Justices of the Peace for counties, 
ridings, or divisions, to divide their respective Courts in certain cases. 

XX. An Act for transferring and vesting the Royal military canal, roads, 
towing-paths, and the ramparts and other works l)elonging thereto, and all estates 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.— Sifl^M^e?^, xliii 

and property taken and occupied for the same, in the counties of Kent and 
Sussex, and also the rates and tolls arising therefrom, in the principal OflKcers 
of Her Majesty's Ordnance. 

XXI. All Act to amend the Acts for the extension and promotion of public 
works in Ire/and. 

XXII. An Act to explain and amend two Acts passed in the last session of 
Parliament, for marriages, and for registering births, deaths, and marriages 
in Eiig/and. 

XXIII. An Act to abolish the punishment of the pillory. 

XXIV. Au Act to explain and amend au Act of the seventh year of His Ma- 
jesty King George the Fourth, to provide for improving and rebuilding shire- 
halls, county-halls, and other buildings for holding the assizes and grand 
sessions, and also judges' lodgings, throughout England and Wales. 

XXV. Au Act to make mure effectual provisions relating to the police in the 
district of Dublin metropolis. 

XXVI. An Act for the amendment of the laws with respect to wills. 

XXVII. An Act for granting to Her Majesty, until the filth day of July one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-eighty certain duties on sugar imported 
into the United Kingdom, for the service of the year one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-seven. 

XXVIII. An Act to amend an Act of the third and fourth years of His late 
fllajesty, for the limitation of actions and suits relating to real property, and 
for simplifying the remedies for trying the rights thert to. 

XXIX. An Act for enabling Her Majesty to grant the rank of General officers 
to foreigners now bearing Her Majesty's commission, and to permit the enlist- 
ment of foreigners under certain restrictions. 

XXX. An Act to abolish certain offices in the superior courts of common law, 
and to make provisioir for a more effective and uniform establishment of 
officers in those courts. 

XXXI. An Act for continuing military commissions and commissions in the 
Royal Marines in force notwithstanding the demise of the Crown. 

XXXII. An Act to repeal the several laws relating to the post-oflice. 

XXXIII. An Act for the management of the post-office. 

XXXIV. An Act for the regulation of the duties of postage. 

XXXV. An Act for regulating the sending and receiving of letters and 
packets by the post free from the duty of postage. 

XXXVI. An Act for consolidating the laws relative to offiinces against the 
post-office of the United Kingdom, and for regulating the judicial administration 
of the post-office laws, and for explaining certain terms and expressions em- 
ployed in those laws. 

XXXVII. An Act to continue until the first day of July in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and thirty-eight, and from thence to the end of the then 
next session of Parliament, an Act for the more effectual administration of 
the office of a justice of the peace in and near the metropolis. 

XXXVIII. An Act for raising the sum of thirteen millions six hundred and 
twenty-three thousand three hundred pounds by exchecjuer bills, for the service 
of the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. 

XXIX. Au Act to interpret the words" sheriff'," " sheriff clerk," "shire," 
" sherifldom," and '• county," occurring in Acts of Parliament relating to Scot- 
land. 

XL. An Act to continue an Act of the fifty-fourth year of His Majesty King 
George the Third, for rendering the payment of creditors more equal and ex- 
l)editious in Scotland, until the first day of May one thousand eight hiuulred 
and thirty-eight, and from thence to the end of the then next Session of 
Parliament. 

XLI. An Act for the more effectual recovery of small debts in the sheriff 
courts, and for regulating the establishment of circuit courts for the trial of 
small debt causes by the sheriffis. in Scotland. 

XLI I. An Act to continue until the thirty-first day of December one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-eight, and from thence to the end of the then next 
Session of Parliament, an Act of the ninth year of His Majesty King George 
the Fourth, for the administration of justice in New South Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land. 

XLIII. An Act to amend the laws for the recovery of small debts by civil bill 
in Ireland, 



Xliv MISCELLANEOUS lNFOnUA.TlOfJ.—Siatutes. [1837-8. 

XLIV, An Act to provide for the costs of prosecutions for concealin';^ the birth 
of children by secret Imryinir or otherwise disposing of their dead bodies. 

XLV. An Act to alter the mode of giving notices for the holding of vestries, 
of making proclamations in cases of outlawry, and of giving notices on Sundays 
with respect to various matters. 

XLYI. An Act to vest the IJolls estate in Her Majest)', and to provide for 
the future payment of the salary of the master of the rolls and the expenses of 
the rolls chapel. 

XLVII. An Act to repeal the prohibition of the payment of the salaries and 
alloAvances of the East India Company's officers during their absence from their 
res])ective stations in India. 

XLVIII. An Act to appoint a second commissioner of bankrupts in Ireland; 
and to amend an Act passed in the sixth and seventh years of the reign of His 
hite Majesty King William the Fourth, intituled an Act to amend the laws re- 
ating to bankrupts in Ireland. 

XLIX. An Act to amend certain laws of excise relating to tlie duties on malt 
made in the United Kingdom. 

L. An Act to facilitate the conveyance of lands and buildings for the purposes 
of two Acts passed respectively in the fifth and sixth years of His lite Majesty 
King William the Fotuth. 

LI. An Act to authorize a further issue of exchequer bills for public works 
and fisheries and employment of the poor, and to amend the Acts relating 
thereto. 

LII, An Act to suspend to the end of the next Session of Parliament the 
making of lists and the ballots and enrolments for the militia of the United 
Kingdom. 

LI II. An Act to explain and amend an Act of the sixth and seventh years of 
His late Majesty, for extinguishing the Secular Jurisdiction of the Archbishop 
of York and the Bishop of Ely, im certain liberties in the counties of York, Not- 
tingham and Cambridge. 

LIV. An Act to provide more efFectual means to make treasurers of counties 
and comities of cities in Ireland account for public moneys, and to secure the 
same. 

LV. An Act for better regulating the fees payable to Sheriffs upon the exe- " 
cution of civil process. 

LVI. An Act for amending the several Acts for the regulation of attorneys and 
solicitors. 

LVII. An Act to impose certain duties of excise on sugar made from beet- 
root in the United Kingdom. 

LVIII. An Act to revive and continue, until the si.^th day of April one thou- 
sand eight hundred and thirty-eight, an Act of the last session of Parliament, 
for suspending proceedings for recovering paym.ent of the money advanced under 
the Acts for establishing tithe compositions in Ireland. 

LIX. An Act to postpone until the first day of January one thoxisand eight 
hundred and thirty-nine, the repayment of certain sums advanced by the Bank of 
Ireland for the public service. 

LX. An Act for correcting mistaken references to His late Majesty in Acts of 
this session of Parliament. 

LXI. An Act to extend an exemption granted by an Act of the last session of 
Parliament from the duties of assessed taxes, in resjiect of certain carriages with 
less than four wheels, and to amend the laws relating to the said duties. 

LXI I. An Act to atithorize Iler Majesty, \mtil six months after the commence- 
ment of the next session of Parliament, to carry into iinmediate execution, by 
orders in council, any treaties, conventions, or stipulations made with any foreign 
power or state for tlie suppression of the slave-trade. 

LXIII. An Act to defray the charge of the pay, clothing, and contingent and 
other expenses of the disembodied militia in Great Britain and Ireland; and to 
grant allowances in certain cases to subalter-n officers, adjutants, paymasters, 
quartermasters, surgeons, assistant-surgeons, surgeons' mates, and Serjeant 
majors of tlie militia, until the first day of July one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-eight. 

LXIV. An Act for regulating the coroners of the county of Durham. 
LXV. An Act to render valid certain Acts done in the performance of duties 
in the Court of Exchequer in Scotland hy the Lord Ordinary on the Rills in the 
Court of Session, and for the better regulation of the said Court of Exchequer. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFOKMATION. — .SV^/w/r'.y. xlv 

LXVI. An Act to extend to Iiehuul the Al'I i-t the fifth ami sixth years of 
His hile Majesty's viii<^n, comoVidnUng und iimendin^ tlie l;iws relating to the 
cruel and inipioijer tieataient of auinuils. 

LXVII. An Act to iunend an Act of the llfih year of His Majesty Kiii" 
George the Fourth, for consolidating and amending the laws relative to the arbi^ 
Iration ofdisputes between masters and workmen. 

LXVIII. All Act to provide for payment of the expenses of holding coroners' 
inquests. 

LXiX. An Act to amend an Act for the commutation of tithe.*) in England 
and AVales. 

LXX. An Act to authorize the commissioners for the affairs of India and the 
Court of Directors of the Kjist India Company to suspend the subsisting enact- 
ments concerning the fourfold system of nomination of candidates for the Ka-t 
India Company's college at Haileybuiy. and for i)r()viding during sucli suspen- 
sion for the examination of candidates for the said colle:;e. 

LXXI. An Act to continue until the ilrst day of August one thousand ei"-ht 
hundred and thirty-eight, and to the end of the ti;en session of Parliament, two 
Acts of the last session of Parliament, for suspLuiding appointnunts to certain 
dignities and offices in cathedrals and collegiate churches, and to sinecure rec- 
tories, and for preventing the immediate eiiects on ecclesiastical jurisdictions of 
the measures in progress for the alteration of dioceses. 

LXXIl. An Act to provide for the aj)pointmeiit of Lords Justices in the case 
of the next successor to the Crown being out of the realm at the time of the 
demise of Her Majesty. 

LXXIII. An Act for better enabling Tlir Majesty to confer certain powers 
and immunities on trading and other companies. 

LXX IV. An Act to restrain the alienation of corporate property in certain 
tov/ns in Ireland. 

LXXV. An Act to prolong fur ten years Her Majesty's commission for build- 
ing new churches. 

LXXVI. An Act to impose rates of packet postage on East India letters, and 
to amend certain Acts relative to the post-office. 

LXX VII. An Act to assimilate the practice of the Central Criminal Court to 
other courts of Criminal Judicature within the Kingdom of England and AVales, 
with respect to offenders liable to the punishmcrit of death. 

LXXVIII. An Act to amend an Act ior the regulation of municipal corpora- 
tions in England and Wales. 

LXXIX. An Act to apply the sum of five millions two Iraudred and twcniy 
thousand pounds out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year one 
thousand eight hundred aiul tliirty-seven, and to appropriate the supplies granted 
in this session of Parliament. 

LXXX. An Act to exempt certain bills of exchange and promissory notes from 
the operation of the laws rel.itive to usurv. 

I^XXXl. An Act to provide for the levying of rates in boroughs and towns 
having municipal corporal ions, in England and Wales. 

LXXXII. An Act to amend the law relating to (^rand Jures in Ireland, s« 
far as to empower the Graud Jury of the county of Fermanagh to reconsiructthe 
baronial subdivisions of the said county. 

LXXXIII. An Act to compel Clerks of the Peace for counties and other jier- 
sons to take the custody of such documents as shall be directed to be deposited 
with them under the standing orders of either House of Parliament. 

LXXXIV. An Act to abolish the ]nuiishnieut of death in cases of forgery. 
LXXXV. An Act to amend the laws relating to offences against the ])erson. 
LXXXVI. An Act to amend the laws relating to burglary and stealing in a 
dwelling-house. 

LXXXVII. An Act to amend the laws relating to robbery and stealing from 
the perstju. 

LXXXVIII. An Act to amend certain Acts relating to the crime of piracy. 
LXXXIX. An Act to amend the laws relating to liurning or destroying build- 
ngs and ships. 

XC. An Act to amend the law relating to offences punishable by transporta- 
tion for life. 

XCl. An Act for abolishing the punishment of death in certain cas.^s. 



xlvi 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — Wovks Quoted. [1837-8 



A LIST OF THE WORKS 

Which have been quoted or consulted in the Compilation of this 
Journal. 
Abbott, on Merchant Ships .and Sea- Coneybeare and Phillips's Geology. 

men. 
Account of the Principal Pictures in 
England. 



Accuni, Chemical Works. 

Acts of Parliament. 

Addison, Works. 

Alexander, Travels in the East. 

Almanac, Household. 

Annals of Philosoph). 

Ansfruther, Exchequer Reports. 

Arcana of Science and Art. 

Army List. 

Arnott, Dr., Elements of Physic. 

Athenseum. 

Atvvood, Hist of Dominica. 

Bacon, Lord, Works. 

Bakewell, Litroduction to Geology. 

Barrow, Travels in Africa. 

Barnewall and Aldersou's Reports. 

Batty, Col., Views of Oporto. 

Beaufoy, History of Mexico. 

Beckman, History of Ancient Insti- 
tutions. 

Best, Memoirs. 

Bevan, Honey Bee. 

Biblioth. Physico-Econom. 

Bigland, Original History of the City 
of Gloucester. 

Blackstone. Sir W., Commentaries on 
the Laws of England 

Bochart, Works. 

Bourne, Gazetteer. 

Brande, Manual of Pharmacy. 

Journal of Science. 

Brewster, Edinburgh Journal. 

Bristol Institution, Catalogue of. 

British Galleries of Art. 

Brookes, Winter in Lapland and Swe- 
den. 

■ Gazetteer. 

Brydone, Tour through Sicily and 
Malta. 

Buchanan, Memoirs of Painting. 

Bufibn, Natural History. 

Bulletin des Sciences. 

Bullock, Six Months' Residence in 
Mexico. 

Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia. 

Cabinet C3'^clopaedia. 

Caillie, Travels in Africa. 

Caldclaugh, Travels in South Ame- 
rica. 

Calmet, Diet. 

Chamber, Diet. 

Chemist. 

Cobbett, English Gardener. 

Cochrane, Travels in Colombia. 

Colton, Lacon. 



Constable, Miscellany. 
Conversations on Geology. 
Cook, Voyages. 
Crabbe, English Synonymes. 

Historical Diet. 

Technological Diet. 

Cradock, Memoirs. 

Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. 

Cumberland, Critical Catalogue of Rare 
and Valuable Italian Prints. 

Danson and Lloyd, Reports of Mercan- 
tile Cases. 

Denon, Hist, of the Fine Arts. 

Dibdin, Bibliographical Decameron. 

Dobell,' Travels in Kamtschatka and 
Siberia, and Residence in China. 

Domestic Kcouomy, by M. Donovan, 
Esq., Professor of Chemistry, 

Dryden, Works. 

Duppa, Botany. 

Edinburgh Cabinet Library. 

Gazetteer. 

Journal of Science. 

Philosophical Journal. 

Review. 

Edwards, History of the British West 

Indies. 
Ellis, Journal of a Residence in the 

Sandwich Islands. 
Embassy to Ava. 

Emerson, Letters from the .^gean. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Metropolitana. 

Everest, Journey through Norway, 

Lapland, and part of Sweden. 
Euclid, Elements. 
Exley and Dimsdale, Circular. 
Faulkner, Treatise on the Plague. 
Fetis, Music made Easy. 
Field, Geographical Memoirs of New 

South ■Wales. 
Foreign Literary Gazette. 
Forsyth, New London Medical and 

Surgical Diet. 
Fosbvooke, History of the County of 

Gloucester. 
Eraser, Travels in Persia. 
Freese, Cambist's Compendium. 
Gait, Letters from the Levant. 
Gem, a Literary Annual, 
Gibbon, History of the Decline and 

Fall of the Roman Empire. 
Gill, Technical Repository. 
Gisborne, ^Vorks. 
Goodison, Essay upon the Islands of 

Leucadia, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and 

Zante. 



1837-8.] MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. — IVwhs Quoted. 



xlvii 



Gore's Liverpool Directory. 
Grant, History of Brazil, 
Granville, Travels in Russia, &c. 

Hackluyt, Voyages. 

Haggard, Report of Cases argued and 
determined in the High Court of 
Admiralty. 

Hall, Present State of Colombia. 

Hamilton, Travels through the Inte- 
rior Provinces of Colombia. 

East India Gazetteer. 

Hancock, Researches into the Laws 
and Phenomena of Pestilence. 

Handmaid to the Arts. 

Hansard, Typographia. 

Harwood, l)r., on the Southern Coast 
of England. 

Heeren, on the Polity and Commerce of 
the Great Nations of Antiquity. 

Henderson, History of Ancient and 
Modern AVines. 

Herbert, Sir Thomas, Travels. 

Hill, Sir John, System of Botany. 

Hooker, Dr.. Botanical Miscellany. 

Humboldt, Personal Narrative of Tra- 
vels. 

Political History of New 

Spain. 

Researches in America. 

Hulswitt, Journal of Travels in the 
United States, and on the North- 
western Coast of America. 

Indus. Abstract of proceedings rela- 
tive to the Trade and Navigation of. 

Irving, Life and Voyages of Columbus. 

Jacob, Report ou the Trade in Foreign 
Corn. 

Jameson, Edinburgh New Philoso- 
phical Journal. 

Jennings, Ornithologia. 

Johnson, Diet. 

. Works. 

Jones, Travels in Norway, Sweden, 
Finland, Russia, and Turkey ; also on 
the Coast of the Sea of Azof, and of 
the Black Sea, &c. 

Journal des Connaissances Usuelles. 

des Dames et des Modes. 

des Debats. 

Statistical. 

of a Naturalist. 

of the Royal Institution of 

Great Britain. 

of a West India Proprietor. 

Joyce, Practical Chemical Mineralogy. 
Kennedy, England and Venice com- 
pared. 

Keppel, Journey from India. 
Kirvvan, Essay on Manure. 
Kotzebue, Voyage round the World. 
Laird and Oldfield's Expedition into 

the Interior of Africa. 
Lancet. 
Lardner, Dr., Cabinet CyclopsetUa. 



Lempriere, Classical Diet. 

■ Lecture on the Study of 

Natural History. 
Library of Entertaining Knowledge. 

of Useful Knowledge. 

Literary Chronicle. 

Gazette. 

Locke, Works. 
London Gazette. 
Literary Gazette. 

Lyon, Journal of a Residence and Tour 
in Mexico. 

Macartney, Lord, Embassy to China. 

Maclean, Investigation respecting Epi- 
demic and Pestilential Diseases. 

M'Gregor, Sketches of the Maritime 
Colonies of British America. 

Magazine, Blackwood's. 

Gardener's. 

Gentleman's. 

London. 

Mechanic's. 

Monthly. 

of Natural History. 

New Monthly. 

. Philosophical. 

Malcolm, Sir John, History of Persia.' 

Malte Brun, System of Geograj)hy. 

Mauby, Journal of a Voyage to Green- 
land. 

Mason's Fresnoy. 

Maugham, Treatise on the Law of 
Literary Property. 

Mawe, Treatise on Diamonds. 

Medical Gazette. 

Meredith, Account of the Gold Coast. 

Mill, History of British India. 

Miller, Memoirs of Gen. Miller, in the 
service of Peru. 

Miller, Gardener's Dictionary. 

Mineratogie Industrielle. 

Minutolis, Recollections of Egypt. 

Mirror, 

Mirror of Parliament. 

flloUien, Travels in Columbia. 

Morewood, Essay on Inebriating Li- 
quors. 

Moun(enay,Selection concerning Brazil. 

Musee de Peinture et de Sculpture. 

Navy List. 

Nesmes, Sculpture, Painting, and Ar- 
chitecture. 

Newton, Journal of the Arts. 

Nicholson, Cyclopaedia. 

Oriental Herald. 

Paget, Law Journal. 

Paley, Works. 

Pananti, Narrative of a Residence in 
Algiers. 

Paris, Guide to Mount's Bay. 

Treatise on Diet. 

Park, a System of the Law of Marine 

Insurances. 
Parke, Chemical Catechism. 



xlviii 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.^ — Works Quoted. [1837-8. 



Pailiamentary Papers. 

Parrj', Journals el' a Voy;ijj;e for the 
Discovery of a Noith^Vest Passage. 

Partington, Gallery of Science and Art 

Pennant, British Zoology. 

Penny Cyclopaeilia. 

Phillips, Translation of the Pharmaco- 
poeia Londinensis. 

Voyages. 

Ilis.of Cultivated Vegetables. 

— lutroduciion to IMiaeralogy. 



Picture of Australia. 

Pilkin, Statistical View of the United 

States of America. 
Pilkington, Diet, of Painters. 
Pope. Alexander, AVorks. 
Porter, G. K., Nature and Properties 

of the Sugar Cane. 

• Sir K. K., Travels. 

Official Tables. 

Post-Office Lists. 

Price, Exche<iuer Reports. 

Quarterly Review. 

. Journal of Science, &c. 

Journal of Agriculture. 



Quincey, Diet, of Physic. 
RadcliH'e, Agriculture of Flanders. 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, Works. 
Redding, Cyrus, Treatise ou modern 

Wines. 
Rees, Cyclopaedia. 
Register of the Arts and Sciences. 
Repertory of Patents. 
Report of the Academiede I'Industrie 

Hew-nae-tsze. 

on the Statistics of Tuscain-, 

Lucca, &c. By J. Bowring, LL.D. 

Review, Edinburgh. 

P-ritish and Foreign. 

Quarterl3\ 

Jlonthly. 

-^ Westminster. 



Revue Eiicycloptdique. 

Richards(m, John, M.D., Fauna Boreali 

Americani. 
Robertson, History of America. 
RuUin, Ancient History. 
Rbrdansz, European Commerce. 
Russell, Tour. 

Russian Journal, Severni Arldf. 
Salmonia (Sir Humphry Davy). 
Scientific Gazette. 
Scott, Sir Walter, Works. 

Hist, of Napoleon. 

Scouler, Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. 

Shakspeare, Works. 

Sinclair, Sir John, Bart., on the Culture 

and Uses of Potatoes. 
Smith, Notes made (huing a Tour in 

the Northern Countries of Europe. 
Southey, Hist, of liraiiil. 



Spix and Jlartin, Travels in Brazil. 

Stark, Elements of Natural History. 

Statistical Journal. 

Statutes at Largo. 

Stevenson, Historical Sketch. 

Tate's Modern Cambist. 

Tegg's Chronology. 

Teu:ple, Travels in various parts of 
Peru. 

Teonge, Diary. 

Thomson, London Dispensatory. 

• Narrative of an Official Visit 

to Guatemala. 

Thornton, Dr., Botanical Lecttires. 

Timkowski, Travels of the Russian 
Mission through Mongolia to China. 

Todd's Johnson's Dictionary. 

Topogra])hy of known Vineyards. 

Transactions of the Liim;pan Society. 

• Society of Arts. 

Trcdgold, Elementary Principles of 
Carpcniry. 

Trinity House Tables of Lights, Buoys, 
&c. 

Ure, Chemical Diet. 

\'aughan, \'iew of the Pieseut State of 
Sicily. 

Von Buch, Baron, Observations on Ma- 
deira. 

\"otes of the House of Commons. 

Wallace, Memoirs of India. 

Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting. 

Catalogue of Engravers. 

Wallich, Dr., Eastern Botany. 

Walsh, Dr., Narrative of a Journal from 
Constantinople to England. 

Notices of Brazil. 

Weddell, Voyage to the South Pole. 

West, Journal of a Mission to the In- 
dians of the British Provinces of 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, &c. 

Westmacott, British Galleries of Paint- 
ing and Sculpture. 

Williams, Life and Actions of Alexati- 
der the Great (Family Library). 

Williams, Travels. 

Wilson, Illustrations of Zoology. 

^Voodley, View of the Scilly Islands, 

Wood's Zoography. 

AVoodward, Essay on the Natural His- 
tory of the Earth. 

• Dr. John, Essays towards a 

Natural History of the Earth. 

Youuge and Jervis, Reports of Cases 
argued and determined in the Court 
of Exchequer, and Exch. Chamber. 

Zealand, New. The British Colonisa- 
tion of 

Zediltz, Baron de. Glance at Bosnia, 

ixC. 



AUTOGRAPH PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



PUBLIC BOARDS. 

The Right Hon. The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. 

The Right Hon. The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Adinirulty. 

Tlie Hon. Her Majesty's Board of Ordnance. 

Tlie Hon. The Commissioners of Her Majesty's Customs. 

The Hon. The Commisssioners of Her Majesty's Kxcise. 

The Hon. The Directors of the East India Company. 

The Hon. The Corporation of the City of London. 

The Governor, &c. of tiie Russia Company. 

The East India Dock Company^ 

The Lond(jn Dock Company. 

Tlie English Copper Couipany. 

HER MAJESTY'S MINISTERS. 

The Right Hon. Viscount Melbourne, First Lord of the Treasury. 
The Right Hon. Si)ring Rice, M.P., Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
The Most Noble the Martjuis of Lansdowne, K.G., F.R.S. and D.C.L., Lord Presi- 
dent of the Privy Council, President of the Bristol Philosophical and 
Literary Institution, and President of the Bristol 
Statistical Society. 
The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Palmerston, M.P., Principal 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 
The Right Hon. Lord Glenel;^', Principal Sec. of State for Colonial Department. 
The Right Hon. C. Poulett Thomson. M.P., President of the 
Board of Trade. 

OTHER NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN. 



Duke of Richmond, K.G. 

Duke of Beaufort, Lord High Steward 

of Bristol. 
Marquis of Salisbury, D.C.L , F.R.S., 

and S.A. 
Marquis of Londonderry, K.T. S., 

S.G.B., E.R.E., and S.D.C.L. 
Marquis of Anglesey, K.G., K.G.II., 

MT., and S.G. 
Earl Grey, K.G. 
Earl Spencer. 
Earl of Ripon, President of the Royal 

Geographical Society. 
Lord Francis Egerton. 
Lord Granville Somerset, D.C.L. 
Lord Viscount Strangford, D. C. L., 

K.T.S., G.C.B., and G.C.H. 
Lord William L F. Poulett. 
Lord EUenborough. 
Lord Seaford. 
Lord Ashtown. 
Lord Slielburne, M.P. 
Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 

and Lord Rector of the University 

of Glasgow. 
Sir Edward BurtcnshawSngden, M.P., 

late Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 
Right Hon. Henrv Goulbur i. M.P. 
Right Hon. J. C. Herries, MP. 
Right. Hon. Joseph Planta, M.P. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mavor of 

London, 1837, (Kelly.) 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 

London, liJJS, (Sir J. Cowan, Bart.) 



Sir George Carroll and Sir Moses Mon- 

tetiore, Sheriffs of London. 
David Wire, Esq.. Under-Sheriff. 
George Grote, Esq., M.P. 
William Crawford, Esq., M.P. 
James Pattison, Esq., M.P. 
Sir Mattlicw Wood. Bart., M P. 
Lord Sandon, M.P. 

C. Cresswell, Esq., M.P., Q.C. 
William Miles, Esq., M.P. 

Philip William Skynner Miles, Esq, 

M.P. 
The Hon. Francis Henry Fitzhardinge 

Berkeley, M.P. 
John Temple Leader, Esq., M.P. 
Thomas Giimstone Bucknall Estcourt, 

Esq., M.P. 
Joseph Hume, Esq., M.P. 
T. Attwood, Esq., M.P. 
Joshua Scholefield, Esq., M.P. 
Benjamin Hall, Esq., M.P. 

D. W. Harvey, Esq., M.P. 
John Humphrey, Esq., M.P. 
Joseph Pease, junr. Esq., M.P. 

C. Strickland Star.dish, Esq., M.P. 
J, I. Briscoe, Esq., M.P. 
Robert Holland, Esq., M.P. 
G. A. Muskttt, Esq., M.P. 
John Rundle, Esq., M.P. 
John H..les Calcraft, Esq., M.P. 
Andrew White, Esq., M.P. 
John Davenport, Esq., M.P. 
E'lward Baines, Esq., M.P. 
Edward Turner, Es(i., M.l'. 

(I 



1 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



J. H. Seale, Esq., M.P. 

John Brocklehurst, Esq., M.P. 

J. Heathcoat, Esq., M.P. 

Henry Thomas Hope, Esq., M.P. 

Richard Hodgson, Esq., M,P. 

Edward Protheroe, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Richard Bulkely Philips, Bart., 
M.P. 

Josiah J. Guest, Esq., M.P. 

Wyndham Lewis, Esq., M.P. 

Cornelius O'Brien, Esq., M.P. 

Daniel Callaghan, Esq., M.P. 

David Morris, Esq., MP. 

H. Dundas Scott, Esq., Foreign Office. 

Thomas Bidwell, Esq., Consular De- 
partment, Foreign Office. 

L. W. Patterson, Esq., Colonial Office. 

G. Beiikhausen, Esq., Russian Consul 
General 

Charles Tottie, Esq., Consul General 
for Sweden and Norway 

Bernard Hebler, Esq., Prussian Consul 
General. 

John William May, Esq., Dutch Con. 
sul General 

John George Behrend, Esq., Consul 
General for the Free City of Frank- 
fort 

James Colquhoun,Esq., Consul-Gene- 
ral for the Hanse Towns. 

H. Castellain, Esq., Belgian Consul. 

R. Tourode, Esq., French Consulate. 

Messrs. Goddeffroy and Simson, Ba- 
den Consulate. 

J. M. Barrers, Esq., Spanish Consul 
General 



F. I. Vanzeller, Esq., Portuguese Con- 
sul General. 

John B. Heath, Esq., Consul General 
for Sardinia. 

Colonel Thomas Aspinwall, Consul of 
the United States, 2 copies 

John J. Silva, Esq., Vice-Consul of 
Brazil. 

F. de Lizardi, Esq. and Co., Mexican 
Consul General. 

E. Allsopp, Esq., Consul for New Gre- 
nada and Venezuela. 

G. F. Dickson, Esq., Consul-General 
for the Republic of the United States 
of the Rio de la Plata. 

Colonel Maberley, Secretary to the 
General Post Office. 

Ebenezer Ludlow.Esq., Serjeant at Law. 

Charles A. Scovell, Esq., Secretary of 
Customs, 

John Ker, Esq., Assistant Secretary. 

Charles Williams, Esq., Secretary of 
Western Ports. 

John Manning, Esq., Tim. H. Davis, 
Esq., and William Weston, Esq., 
Surveyors General of Customs. 

Charles Boyd, Esq., Collector of Cus- 
toms, London, and Thomas Morris, 
Esq., Collector of Customs, Bristol, 
late Surveyors General. 

Elias Arnaud, Esq., Collector of Cus- 
toms, Liverpool. 

Charles Lutwidge, Esq., Collector of 
Customs, Hull. 

William Palgrave, Esq., Collector of 
Customs, Dublin. 



LONDON. 



Allsop, E. esq.. Consul for New Grenada and 

Venezuela. 
Aspinwall, Col. Thomas, Consul of tlie United 

Slates, (2 Copies). 
Anderson, J & Sons, merchants, 65, Old Broad st. 
Atkins, .Tohn and Son, merchants, 7. Walbrook. 



Adam and Sons, merchants, 5, Martin's lane. 
Alston and Co., merchants, 33, Great St. Helens. 
Ashley and Co., tea dealers, 15, Strand. 
Ashley, George & Co., tea dealers, 72, Piccadilly. 
Allen, Hanbury & Barry, chemists, Plough ct, 

Lombard street. 
Arnold & Woollett, ship agcnts,3, Clement's la 



RETURNS. 

From a great many places, no returns whatever have yet been received. Such is the case espe- 
cially with Bath, Manchester, Birmingham, Dublin, Edinburgh, and various ports on the continent 
of Europe. From others again, merely the total number of Subscribers has been sent in without 
the Names. 

The machinery on such an extended scale, could liardi^ have been expected in the first instance 
to work quite smoothly. In future these little defects will, it is hoped, be to a great degree, if not 
entirely, remedied. Indeed, considering all things, the progress in this respect already made, cannot 
be deemed much amiss, there being to record, one way or another, about five thousand AutOjjrap/i 
Matrons and Subscribers. In all, the Edition comprises Eioirr Tkous.\nd Copies. 

DIRECTORY. 

In future, it is expected, this List will of itself furnish no mean Directory of the names, &c., of 
merchants and otliers_resident abroad, as well as in this country. 

TITLES. 

In drawing out this List, an unexpected, and iudeed almost insuper.ible obstacle has started as 
tovhat names should have the word " Mr." or "Esq." annexed to them. Bearing in mind the 
injunction of St. Paul, " Give to every man his proper title lest he be offended," and not having 
the honor of personally knowing, of course, a very large proportion of his Patrons and Subscribers, 
and having no guide to direct him in such eases, the Editor trusts, if there \)e found any inaccuracy 
in this respect, the individual whom it may chance to affect, will impute it to the right cause — want 
of information ; and, by no means, as any slight or mark of disrespect. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Avery, John, esq., wino ami s\)hU broker, 30, 

Mincing lane. 
Andrews, Edward, esq., 24, Mark lane. 
Aldred, S. B., Mr., draper, 81, Holborn hill. 
Andrews, Samuel, Mr., tea dealer, 4'i, Old liond 

street. 
Amor, John, esq., wine merchant, 135, New 

Bond street. 
Axman, P. es<i., merchant, 4, Mark lane. 
Arroyare, Ade, esq., merchant, 16, George street, 

Mansion house. 
Aiid, W. B. Mr., grocer, 33, Little Newport st. 
Atkinson, T. Mr., Customs. 
Archer, G. S. Mr., Customs. 
Abingdou, S. J. Mr., Customs, 
Ayerst, .lohn, esq., broker. Lower Thames st. 
Ast(m, Thomas, jun. esq. 9, Mark lane. 
Arnold, G. esq.. East India Dock Company. 
Adams, C. T. Mr., London Docks. 
Alldridge, R. \V. Mr., 2, Alderman's walk. 
Allen, Thomas, Mr., 53, Threadneedle street. 
Allerton, Richard, Mr., Norfolk street, Strand. 
Ashford, T. F. Mr., 137, Fenchurch street. 
Austie, Alfred, Mr., accountant, 5, Adam's ct, 

Old Broad street. 
Austin, George, esq.. Register of Bankrupt's 

Ofhce, Cateaton street. 
Anstead, Charles, esq., merchant, 8, St. Ben- 
nett's place. 
Ashmore, Thomas, esq., merchant, 78, Cornhill. 
Astwick and Webb, wine merchants, 9, Lau- 
rence Pountney lane. 
Atteridge, Jonas, Mr., grocer, 7i Exraouth street, 
Spa tields. 

B 

Brocklehurst, John, jun. esq., M.P. 

Briscoe, J. W. esq., M.P. 

Baines, Edward, esq.. M.P. 

Benkhausen, G. esq., Russian Consul General 

Barrers, J. M. esq., Spanish Consul General. 

Behrends, John George, esq., Consul General for 

the Free City of Frankfort. 
Baring(Bro)(6Copies), merchants, 8, Bishops- 
gate street. 
Brandram (ISro), merchants. Size lane. 
Boddingtou and Co., (5 CopiesJ, merchants, St. 

Helen's place. 
Bond, Pearce & Child, merchants, 8, Finsbry pi. 
Buck, Richard & Co. merchants, 36, St. Mary 

at Hill. 
Beiitley, J. and L., merchants, 1, Duncannon st. 
Beerbohen and Co., merchants. 15, G St. Helen's 
Baynes & Co., merchants, 5, New London st. 
Barker and Co., merchants, St. Saviour's Dock, 

Southwark. 
Briggs, Thurburn, Aeraman,and Co. .merchants 

5, Crosby square. 
Brown, R. & B. & Co., merchants, 157, Cheap- 
side. 
Brown, G. and J. and Co, merchants, St. Mil- 
dred's court. 
Bain, George, esq.. Parliamentary agent, 2, Par- 
liament street, 
acchus and Green, glass manufacturers, 8, 

Tokenhouse yard. 
Burnett, Sir Robt and Co., distillers, Vauxhall. 
Bettsand Wood, tea dealers, 262, Oxford st. 
Birkitt, Danl and J no, corn factors, Crosby sq. 
Baldwin and Waters. 
Burrows, T and Son, wholesale confectioneiv, 

Hounsditch. 
Barough and Fall, grocers, 1, New Cavendish st. 
Barber and Nephew, East India brokers, 36, 

Fenchurch street. 
Barclay and Friend, 147, Leadenhall street. 
Boddington and Miller, brokers, 2, Pliilpot lane. 
Batten and Edwards, ship brokers, 66, Lower 

Thames street. 
Barry, Charles and Co., ship brokers, 38, Min- 
cing lane.. 
Baker, J. and Co., silk printers, 111, Chcapside. 



Barnes & Co., ship brokers, 31,. «!t. Mary at Hill. 
Burbidge, E. & W., rectifiers, 74, Aldersgnte st. 
Bowerbank& Sous, distillers. Sun st, Bishops- 
gate street. 
Bailey, Henry Wm. esq.. Admiralty. 
Blanchard, H. esq., meichant, Birchin Line. 
Bard, J. Mr., oil and colourman, .321, Oxford st. 
Urant, J. C. Mr., oil and colourman, 298, Ox- 
ford street. 
Bovill, Benj. Mr., corn and coal merchant. Mil- 
ford lane. Strand. 
Burnell, Thomas, Mr., glass manufacturer, 1 

Coleman street. 
Brown, (J. .^. Mr. t .illow merchant, Fenchurch st. 
Blurton, James, Mr., architect, 30, Ebury street, 

Pimlico. 
Eieber, N. E. esq. 
Brooks, John, esq, wholesale tallow chandler, 

124, Cock hill, RatclilTe. 
Bennett, J. C. Mr., tea dealer, 3, Gerard street, 

Soho. 
Barry, Dykes, Mr., grocer, 27i Skinner street. 

Snow hill. 
Blackley, Matthew, Mr. (2 Copies), stationer, 

27, North Audley street. 
Bentham, H. Mr., oilman. 62, Piccadilly. 
Bishop. J. esq , merchant, 1, Crescent, Minories. 
Buck, Robert, esq., merchant, 60, Mark lane. 
Burrell, Thomas, esq., merchant. Trinity sq. 

Southwark. 
Barnes, H. Mr.,drysalter, 129, Up. Thames st. 
Braily, George W. esq., solicitor, 1, Staples Inn, 
Bennett, Mr. 1, East lane, Walworth. 
Bradley, Mr., 11, Albion place, New Kent road. 
Burgess, Henry, esq., 29, St. Swithin's lane. 
Barlow, R. P. Mr., Customs. 
Balory, Mr., Customs, 
liisshopp. H esq , Customs. 
Brent, J.Mr., Customs. 
Beiihain, George, Mr., Customs. 
Bezer, J. esq.. Customs. 
Beverley, W. Mr. Customs. 
Berners, A. Mr. Customs. 
Brown, 11. C. Mr , Customs, 
Blake, D. J. Mr., Customs. 
By, G. Mr., Customs. 
Bathurst, George, Mr., Customhouse agent. 76, 

Lower Thames street. 
Barrows, Thomas, Mr., Mark lane. 
Body, J. G. esq., corn factor, 34, Mark lane. 
Blogg, John, Mr., commission agent, 8, Law- 
rence lane. 
Brewer, S. J. Mr., London docks. 
Beeston, C. W., London Docks. 
HuUpitt, J. Mr., cork-cutter, 62, Minories. 
Burrell, T. J. Mr., 48, Trinity sq. Southwark. 
Barber, W. esq., 2, Sell wood ter. Fulham road. 
Backhouse, J. esq., merchant, 14, Gt. St. Helens. 
British Cast Plate Glass Manufactory, 1, Albion 

place, Blackfriars. 
Brown, J. F. Mr., harp maker, 12, Berners 

street, Oxford street. 
Bigg, J, esq., Lanelly Company, 59, Old Broad 

street. 
Butler, G. Mr., chemist, 93, Chcapside. 
Barber, J. Capt., East India agent, 64, Cornhill. 
Barlley, G. esq., lead merchant, 1, Martin's lane. 
Burroughs. J. Mr., 2, Sambrook court. 
Barton, J. E. Mr., 14, Great Queen st. New road. 
Blake, W. Mr., accountant, 158, New Bond st. 
Brockbank.Mr., perfumer, 35, New Bond street. 
Benjamin, E. esq., merchant, 60, Aldermanbury. 
Berners, A. Mr., Customs. 
Brown, .1. Mr., Green Man, Old Kent road. 
Brown, G. esq., shipowner, Ratclilf Cross. 
Brown and Bavid, wine merchants, 25, Laurence 

Pountney lane. 
Bradley, S. Mr., tea dealer, 27, Laurence Pount- 
ney lane. 
Bult," J. and Son, goldsmiths, 85 and 86, Cheap- 
side. 
Beevor, F, B. es>j., solicitor, 63, Chauccry lane, 
(i 2 



lii 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Barclay and Sons, patent medicine wareliouse, 

Fariingdon street. 
Baiss, Brothers, and Co, druggists, 125, Lower 

Thames street. 
Bailey, Potter, and Co., druggists, Garlick hill. 
Bank of Australia, 18, ."Mdermanbury. 



Crawford, W. esq.. M.P. 
Castellan, esq., Belgian Consul. 
Colquhoun,.T.esq., Consul for the Hanse Towns, 
(lastelli (brothers), merchants, 10, Bury court, 

St. Mary Axe. 
Cox, Heisch, and Co., merchants, 16, America 

square (2 (Copies). 
Cavan (Brothers), merchants, 29, Finsbury 

circus. 
Carvalho and Co., merchants, 3, South street, 

Finsburj'. 
Cockrell, Sir C. and Co., merchants, 8, Austin 

Friars (2 Copies). 
Cockburn, J. and Co., merchants, 11, New Broad 

street. 
Clossmaii, F. F. and Co., Bordeaux merchants 

Mincing lane. 
Chiy and Gillman, merchants, 23, Bucklesbury. 
Campbell, J. and Co. merchants, 2, Bank street, 

Cornhill. 
Cummiug, W. and Co., Carpenters' Hall. 
Cory and Scott, coal merchants. Commercial 

road, Lambeth. 
Chater and Ilayward, window-glass manufac- 
turers, 2, St. Dunstan's hill. 
Cunningham and Forbes, wine merchants, 

Arthur street west. 
(Crosse and Blackwell, oilmen, 11. King st. SoliO. 
(Christy and Co., hatters, Gracechurch street. 
Curling, W. A. and J., fi^h factors, 13, Lower 

Thames street. 
Chniilet ai\d Hoii^'hton, French glass warehouse, 

12, Water lane, Tower street. 
Coward, Canellor, and Co., starch makers. 

Princes street, Lambeth. 
Capper, Maut, and Co., 90, Cheapside. 
Cousens and Kemp, wholesale tea dealers, 

60, Upper Tliames street. 
Chapman (Brotliers) and Co., distillers. Old 

Ford. 
Committee of the General Ship Owners' Society, 

72, Cornhill. 
Cope, F. C. esq., (/ustoms. 
Crisp, .1. esq., Customs. 
Co!e, II. esq., London Docks. 
Cliureh, F. esq., Loudon Docks. 
Capel, .1. esq., stock broker, Uoyal F-xchanse. 
Camroux. F. H. esq., mercliant, 1, Clement's la. 
Clifford, J. esq., merchant, 5S, Lombard street. 
Carrnthers, T. esq , Russia merchant, 19, BiUi- 

ter street. 
Cross, J. Mr., publisher, &c., 18, Ilclborn. 
Clifford, E. Mr., tea dealer, 82, Grosvenor street. 
Chevorlou, T. Mr., tea dealer, 21,Goodge street. 
Colcock, W. Mr., tea dealer, 1, James street, 

Covent Garden. 
Chester, G. Mr., oilman. 55, Long Acre. 
Cannon, W„ ship broker. 21, Water lane. 
Carter, A. esq,, notary, .36, Mark lane. 
Chamliers, G. esq., wine merchant, 22, St. Dun- 
stan's hill. 
Calvert, C. A. esq.. Secretary to the Colonial 

Bank, 13, Bishopsgate street. 
Carr, G. Mr., 126, London Wall. 
Cooper, C.esq., 2'], Gracechurch street. 
Cripps, 11. .Mr., lea dealer, 398, Oxford street, 
Clark, S. Mr., Customs, 
folbeck, Mr., Customs. 
Courtenay, Mr., Customs. 
Cliafey, J. Mr., Customs (2 Copies). 
Cox, ll. Mr., Customs. 
Cuflley, B. H, Mr., Customs. 



Cuffley, J.II. Mr., East India office, Crutched 

Friars. 
Cook,C. Mr., 9, St. Dunstan's hiU. 
Cliristopher, T. and .1., Harp lane. Tower street. 
Cheap, J. esq., ship broker, 24, Threadneedle st. 
Crouch, J., London Docks. 
Cohen, A. jun. Mr.. St. Mary Axe. 
Coles, R. O. Mr., 157, Cheapside. 
Clark, E. Mr., Customs. 
Cook, .1. esq., Customs. 
Child, G. Mr., 9, South street, Finsbury. 
Cath, J. Mr., agent, 35, St. .Maiy at Hi'lL 
Carey, W. Mr., Hoxton square. 
Coles, Wm. Mr., truss maker, 3, Charing Cross. 
Cromar, Wm. Mr, carpet manufacturer, 32, 

Charing Cross, 
Crump, .iames Henry, Mr., cheesemonger', 59, 

Hackney road. 
Covtissus, II. 15. Mr., broker. Little Tower st. 
Chew, Thomas, Mr., grocer, 25, Crawford street. 
Carter, Henry, Mr., upholsterer, 53, High street, 

Pojdar. 
Capi)ell and Pons. 
Coward, 11. A., esq., merch.ant, 9, Laurence 

Pounlney lane. 
Clark, James. Mr., sacii maker, 24, Old Change. 
Champion. Fishwick, and Co., lead merchants, 

19, Laurence Pountney lane. 
Cooler, Josh, and Co., hat manufacturers, 19, 

Laurence Pountney lane. 
Commercial Railway Company, 34, Cornhill. 
Carbonell, A. De E.esq., merchant, 5, Freeman's 

Court, Cornhill. 
Clegg, James, & Co , merchants, 46, Walling st. 
Castelli (Brothers), merchants, 10, Bury court, 

St. Mary axe. 

D. 

Dickson, G. F. esq.. Consul-general for the Re- 
public of the United States of Rio de la Plata. 

Donaldson & Dickson, merchants, 35 Marie la. 

Desmoulines D. and D., wholesale cheesemon- 
gers, 5, Ne\v(,'ate street. 

Dean, Johnson, and Co., tea dealers, 84, New 
Bond street. 

De Bee & Rhan, brokers, 4, Crescent, Minories. 

Duncan and Fisher, leather factors. Half Moon 
street, liisiiopsg.ate. 

Drolenvaux and Stahlschmidt, shipping agents, 
2, IMincing lane. 

Danks and Sou, carpet manufacturers, 98,natton 
Garden. 

Davy, M'Mnrdo, and Co., drug merchants, 
Gould square. 

Day, W. and Co., oilmen, Gracechurch street. 

Dobson, Wm. esq.. Secretary to Lloyds, 3, Veru- 
lara buildings. 

Draper, George, esq., merchant, Baltic Coffee 
house (2 Copies). 

Droop, J. K. e-.q., merchant. Love lane. 

Dixon, George, esq., merchant. Church passage, 
Clement's lane. 

Davis, Tlios. esq., merchant, 15, Angel court. 

Davis, H. esq , Customs. 

DrummondH.M.esq., 20, Grafton st, Fitzroy sq. 

Dart. Rich., esq., merchant, 3, Walbrook builds. 

De la Court, T. P., 23, Fenchureh street. 

Davis, Wra. Mr., tea dealer, 90, Holborn hill. 

Dunn, Wm. Mr., innkeeper, 13, Vine s reel, Pic- 
cadilly. 

Dale, James, Mr, 6. Elizabeth street, Hans pi., 
Chelsea. 

Dean, W. esq., solicitor, 16, Essex st, Str;ind. 

Davies, Mr., Barrack street, Gravesend. 

Donovan, Mr., ("ustoms. 

Delacourt, T., Customs. 

Duncan, G., Customs. 

Dewguard, E., Customs. 

Davidson, Wm. Mr., agent, 8, Water lane. Tower 
street. 
I Douglas, J. W., London Docks. 



PATRONS ANn,St;BSCRIBERS, 



liii 



Dclaiie, W., Earl stioet, Blackfiiars. 
D'Emden, Mr., dentist, 1, Soiitliampton street, 

Strand. 
DoB;;r;inds, Fordatti and Co., morcliants, 80, 

Watliii« street. 
Diiffi(dd and Co., 6, Laurence Pountney lane. 
Downes and Hill, wliolcsale tea dealers, 24, 

Laurence Pountney lane. 
Deed, James, Mr., currier, 24, Stanhope street, 

Clare market. 
Eakin, Thos, Mr., druggist, 73, King William st. 

E. 
Kstcourt, T. G. B. esq., M.P., D.C.L. 
East India Dock Company, 44, Leadenliall sf. 
Ewbank and Cordes, merchants, 6, Idol lane. 
Ewart, Taylor, & Co., merchants. Crown court, 

Philpot lane. 
Ewart, Manaughey and Co., East India brokers, 

Coptliall court. 
English Copper Company, 27, Upper Thames st. 
Eagletons, Edw. and Co., tea importers, 83 & 84, 

Newgate street. 
Evans, Rich. & Co., roITee dealers, C2 Queen st. 
Ehreusporgcr, C. and Co., 4, Laurence Pount- 
ney lane. 
Ellis, Langton and Co., druggists. Up. Thames st. 
Emmott, t'hristopher, Mr., pickle merchant, 21, 

Grange walk, Bermondsey. 
Element and Collins, carpet manufactureri 273, 

High Holborn. 
Eccles, C, and Tohibb, G.CJreat Winchester st. 
Evans, Tliomas, esq., surgeon, 25, Mortimer st. 
Evaus, Robt. Mr., tea dealer, 134, Kew Bond st. 
East, G. Mr., bookseller, 319, Regent's street. (2 

Copies.) 
Earnsiiaw, Tlios. Mr., chronometer maker, 119, 

High Holborn. 
Eales, R, esq., ("ustoms. 
Emmerson, J. Mr., Customs. 
Edwards, George, esq., London Docks, 
Elmslie, A. W., Mr., .lamaica Steam Navigation 

Company, 35, Abchurch lauo. 
Edwards, Thomas, Mr., dressing case maker, 21, 

King street, Bloomsbury. 
Elias, Henry, Mr., wine merchant, 4, Bury ct. 
Edwards, William, Mr., druggist, 73, King 

William street. 

F. 
Foreign Banking Company, Lombard street. 
Foster, Brothers S: Co., merchants. High Lords 

court, Crutched Friars. 
Vonseca & Co., merchants, 25, Crutched Friars. 
Fruhling & Goschen, merchants, 2, Crosby sq. 
Finlay, Hodgson & Co , merchants. St. Helen's 

place. 
Fletcher-, Alexander and Co., merchants, 10, 

King's Arms yard. 
Franghiadi (Bro.), merchants, 28, Martin's la. 
Field and Co., brokers, 23, Mincing lane. 
Eraser and Wood, foreign warehouse, 63, New 

Bond street. 
Fortnum and Mason, foreign warehouse, 182, 

Piccadilly. 
Forman and Hadow, 14, Mincing lane. 
Flockhart, Sidebottom and Co, wine merchants, 

8, Fenchurch street. 
Feaver and LlewclUn, woollen warehouse, 46, 

Ludgate hill. 
Freeman, Edw. Mr., chandler, 3, Wigmore st. 
Vountleroy, Chas., woolstaider, Bermondsey. 
Frost, H. C. Mr., oilman, 272, Oxford street. 
Franks, Geo. esq., surgeon, 90, Blackfriars rd. 
Fountain, W. Mr., wine merchant, 12, Charlotte 

street, Fitzroy square. 
Penning, P. esq.. Customs. 
Fall, R., Customs. 
Forsyth, G., Customs. 
Fairman, J. N., Customs. 
Foreman, Thos. Mr., London Docks. 
Fenjermau, Jno. F., 19, Grafton street cast. 
Forster.Robt. Mr., broker, 5, Beer la., Tow or st. 



Franchi, A. G. esq., notary, S3. Low. Thames st 
Fielder, D., Crosby hall chambeis. 
Fcnnell, Saml. esq. .merchant, 14, St. Mni7.\xe. 
Fanshawp, II, R.jun., India rnbbermanufactr. 
Fynmore & Pigeon, druggists, Throgmorlon st. 
Foulger and Son, druggists, RatclifTc highway. 

G. 

Grote, George, esq., M.P. 

Goldsmid, Isaac, esq., F.R.S. 

Godefl'riiy and Simpson, merchants, 6, Great 
Winchester street. 

Gentile, .1. P. and Rossell, merchants, 8, St. 
Swithin's lane. 

Grant, K. J. and Co., merchants. Lime street, 

Gowan and Manx, merchants, 7, Coptliall ct. 

Gore, .Tnu. and Co., merchants, 112, Bishops- 
gate street. 

Greenwood and West, merchants, 4, Birchin la 

Gibbs and Sons, mercliants, 47, Lime street 

Giles, Son & Co., merchants, 4, Fowlies bldgs. 

Gower, A. A. & Co., merchants, 28, Coleni.an st. 

Grand .Surrey Dock and Canal Company, 2, 
White Lion court. 

Gooch and Cousins, warehousemen, 126, Lou- 
don wall. 

Gosnell J. and Co.. perfumers, &c., Lombard st. 

Gledstanes, Kerr & Co., merchants, 3, White 
Lion co\ut. (4 Copies.) 

Gibbs, A. & .Sons, merchants, 47, Lime street. 

Griflin and Hyams, silversmiths, Cornhill 

Gamble, J. esq., provision merchant, 77, Cornhl. 

Gadsden, J. Mr., cheesemonger, itc, 273, Ox- 
ford street. 

Gillmau, Chas. Mr., Italian warehouse, 2C7. Ox- 
ford street. 

Glover, G. esq., rectifier, 146, St. John street. 

Garnett, Jeremiah, Mr., oilman, 38, Wigmore bt. 

Green, J. Mr., oilman, 3 Knightbridge terrace. 

Gray, J. esq., ship agent, 17, St. Dunstan's hill. 

Gordon and Co., surgeons, 54, Greek st, Soho. 

Garfield, Mr., carpenter, 4, Rodney buildings 
New Kent road. 

Grindlay, Capt. R. M., 16, Cornhill. 

Griffiths, G. esq,. Customs. 

Green, Mr., Customs. 

Gutcli, Mr., Customs. 

Gray, James, Mr., Customs. 

Gray,T. Mr., Customs. 

Green, G. Mr, Customs. 

Goddin, — , esq. 

Grimmy, Mr. 

Griftiths, Jeremiah, esq., ship broker, 2, Wliite 
Hart court, Lombard street. 

Gray, 11. jun. Mr., lighterman. Water lane, 
Thames street. 

Greenfell, Pascoe and Co., merchants, Upper 
Thames street. 

Gill, Saml. Mr., Customs. 

Green, Wilson & Burton, tea dealers, 6, Queen's 
place, Southwark. 

Gay, Jas. & Geo., merchants, 2, Queen's place, 
Southwark. 

Gaury, Josh, esq., merchant, 80, Watling st. 

General Steam Navigation Company, 69, Lom- 
bard street. 

Giblis, Mr., Bell court. Cloak lane. 

Golrlie, Jas. Mr., distiller, 88, High street, 
Whitechapel. 

Green, W. F. Mr., druggist, 42, Whitechapel rd. 

Grant, D. esq., merchant, 2, Soulh pi., Fuisbury. 

Grant, James & Co., grocers, 56, Mansell st. 

Gore, J. B. Mr , solicitor, 89, Chancery lane. 

(ieddes, A. esq., broker, East India chambers. 

Graham, Chas. esq, Lloyd's, 2, While Lion ct. 

Green Robt. Esq., ship agent, 12, Birchin la. 

Greverus, H. D. esq., mercliant, 3, White Hart 
court. 

Grey, II. jun. esq.. Custom House agent, 19, 
Water street. Tower street. 

Green, W. A. Mr, Parliamentary Chronicle, 2, 
Judd street. 



liv 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS 



H. 

Hall, Benj. esq.. M.P. 

Hume, Joseph, esq., M.P., Bryanstone square. 

Harvey, D. W. esq., M.P. 

Hebber, Bernard, esq., Russian Consul. 

Heath, J. B. esq., Consul General for Sardinia. 

Harman Si Co., merchants, Old Broad street. 

Hiibbert, G. W. S. & Co., merchants, Billiter 
court, Billiter square. 

Hutli, Fredk. and Co., merchants, 9, South st., 
Finsbury. 

Henckell and Du Buisson, merchants, IS, Lau- 
rence Puuutuey lane. 

Hart & Logen, merchants, 4, New Broad st. 

Hodgson, Brothers a»d Davey, merchants, 3, 
Cranes wharf. 

Howe & Co., wine merchants, St. Dunstan's hill. 

Hutchinson R- and Co., merchants. Old Swan 
stairs. 

Hewlett and Goddard, wholesale druggists, 68, 
Hatton garden. 

Homan and Heme, wholesale shoe warehouse- 
men, 25, Skinner street. Snow hill. 

Haviside, .1. and Co., Sun court, Cornhill. 

Haywood, F. and D., Uoor cloth manufacturers, 
37, Newington causeway. 

Holme and Loftiis, solicitors, 10, New inn. 

Henley and Son, tea dealers, &c,, 64 and 63, 
Conduit street. 

Howls and Masson, oilmen, 216, Piccadilly. 

Hillam, J. C. and F., Custom House agents, 3, 
Catherine court. 

Harris, Thomas and Co., 6, John st., Minories. 

Hodgkinson, Stead & Co., wholesale druggists, 
213, Upper Thames street. 

Herring (Bro.), druggists, 40, Aldersgate st. 

Hunter, Zaccheusand Co., druggists, 44, Web- 
ber row, Blacktriars. 

Hill and Wackerbarth, ship agcnts,9, New East 
India chambers. 

Hall, J. and Son, gunpowder manufacturers, 23, 
Lombard street. 

Hyers & Gallaway, ship agents, 25, Mincing la. 

HuUe, Jacob and Co., merchants, Laurence 
Pouutney lane. 

PUham, J. C. and F., Custom House agents, 3, 
Catherine court. 

Hodgson and Powis, shipping and insurance 
agents, 13, Change alley. 

Horner and Son, drug merchants, Bucklersbury. 

Harris and Billiter, oil merchants. Maze Pond. 

Hennington, T. esq, merchant, Leadenhall st. 

Hickson, Saml. Mr., foreign warehouse, 72,\Vcl- 
beck street. 

Hutch, John. 

Henderson, E. esq., wine merchant, 166, Picca- 
dilly. 

Hodgkinson, \Vm. esq., wholesale stationer, 24, 
Skinner street. 

Hodson, Geo. Mr., woollen draper, 2, Skinner st. 

Hunter, Mark, esq., merchant, 15, Pi-ovidence 
row, Finsbury. 

Hovenden, R., 57, Crown court, Finsbury. 

Hart, T. esq.. Comptroller of Accounts. 

Herbert, T. C, Customs. 

Hoare, Geo. esq.. Customs. 

Harvey, W. P., Customs. 

Hills, C. M., Customs. 

Hammond, C. Mr., Customs. 

Haward, George, Customs. 

Hayward, Richard, London Docks. 

Hilson, James, London Docks. 

Head, John, London Docks. 

Hearon, R. esq., wholesale druggist, 95, Bishops- 
gate street. 

Horsey, Geo. Mr., packer, 33, Camomile st. 

How, \Vm.«sq., wine merchant, 19 Gt. Queen st. 

HafTenden & Pye, merchants, 12, Bucklersbury. 

Hawkins, Walter, esq., meroh.int, Fowkos bldgs. 

Hodd, John, esq., brewer, Walworth common. 

Humphrey, S. esq., merchant, 23, Little Britain. 



Harrison, J. F. esq., 'merchant, 26, New Broad s^ 
Hentsch, George, Mr., 22, High st., Islington. 
Henderson, John, esq., 4, Hare court, Temjile. 
Hooper, Jno. and Sons, wholesale confectioners, 
27, High Holborn. 

I. 

Ivimy, Joseph, esq., solicitor, 89, Chancery la. 
Izod, Henry, esq., provision merchant, 107, 

Blackman street. 
Inglis, W., Customs. 

Innis, John, and Co., tea dealers, 91, Fleet st. 
Ishcrwood, Robert, Mr., Ludgate hill. 
Ilbery, Jas, esq., ship broker, 6, Beer lane. 

J. 

Jaulery and Co., merchants, 9, New Bond st. 

Jeft'ery, J. and R., drug merchants, Fish st. hill. 

Javeson and Co., 137, Fenchurch street. 

Jackson, G. L. and Sons, insurance brokers, 
Hi, Water lane. Tower street. 

Jones, W. & T., oil merchants, Graccchurch st. 

Johnson, Mann and Co., merchants, Aldgate 
High street. 

Judsou and Wilson, drysalters, 7, Bush lane. 

Johnson, W. C. esq., warehouseman, 95, Avai- 
ling street. 

Jenner, Tlios. Mr., oil and colourman, 25, High 
street, St. Giles. 

Jones, A. M. Mr., tea dealer, 166, Oxford .street. 

Jones, R. Mr., grocer, 2t)8, High st. Borough. 

Junqmichel, Chas, esq., merchant, 9, Size la. 

Jay, G. H.,36, Lime street. 

Joiliffe, C, Customs. 

Jones, J. K., Customs. 

Jones, H., London Docks (4 Copies). 

Jarrett, W., 109, Fenchurch street. 

Jones, T. T., 9, Billiter street. 

Jaques, John, Mr., dealer in ivory, &c., 102, 
Hatton garden. 

Jackson and Knitt, wharlingcrs. Fresh wharf. 
Lower Thames street. 

Jameson, Wra. and Son, merchants, 23, Lau- 
rence Pouutney lane. 

Jacobson and Sons, gold and silver beaters, 20, 
Great St. Helen's. 

Johnston, R. Mr., perfumer, &c., 68, Cornhill. 



Kelly, T. esq., (late lord mayor) Paternoster rw. 
Key, sir John and Co., wholesale stationers. 

4, Barge yard. 
Kerr, Niven, esq., Turkey merchant, 4, Groat 

Winchester street. 
King, James, and Co., tea brokers, Walbrook. 
King and Melvil, corn factors, 110, Fenchurch 

street, (2 Copies.) 
King <k Mortleman, coffee dealers, 22, Budge rw. 
Keir, Stoddard and Co., merchants, Jo, Old 

Broad street. 
Kent, G. and Co , bristle merchants. Falcon sq. 
Kinniard, Staite, and Co.,Upper Thames street. 
Kendall and Son, perfumers, 447, Strand. 
Kempson, H. C. Mr., ironmonger, 55, Hatton gn. 
Kendall, W. S., customs, 
Knox, C. esq., customs. 
King, G. B., 4, Carslile street, Soho. 
Kirk & Co., cochineal merchants, 2. Martin's In. 
Kendall, J. Mr., Shepherd's lane, Homerton. 
Knox, Edward, Mr., Mark lane. 
Keil, J. esq.i Dundee Bank, 2, Billiter square. 

L. 

Leader, J. T. esq., M.P. 

London Dock Company. (6 Copies.) 

London and Havre Steam Packet Company, 70, 

King William street. 
London Caoutchouc Company, 36, King street, 

Cheapside. 
Lougdiil and Co., merchants, Crutched Friars. 
Loughan and Co., merchants, 23, Coleman st. 
Lyall (Bro.) & Co., merchants, 6, St. Helen's pa. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



W 



Lillevall & Molnc, clioescmongcrs, 42, Lime st. 
Low, R. & Son, wholesale perfumers, 330, Striind. 
Leaf, Cole, Son, & Co., warehousemen, 39, Old 

Change. 
Lambert, Thos. and Son, brass founders, 30, 

New Cut, lilackfriars. 
Lucas, Pope and Shaw, lighterman, 17, Harp 

lane. Toner street. 
Lashmar and liellingham, tea dealers, 38, 

Graceclnirch street. 
Langton and Wheatley, wholesale druggist, 27, 

Laurence Pountney lane. 
Lawford, T. B. esq., merchant, 106, Fenchurch 

street. 
Lingard, J. .T. N., Royal Navy, 7, Northumber- 
land street. Strand. 
Lewellin, Daniel, Mr., 30, Edward street, Ilamp- 

stead road. 
Leather, William, Mr., warehouseman, 32, King 

street, Clieapside. 
Lindifren, H. J. esq., ship broker, 45, Crutched 

Friars. 
Lea, Mr., Customs. 

La Mark, F., agent. Water lane, Thames street. 
Luscombe, J., Customs. 
Low, D. W., Customs. 
Lowen, W., Customs. 
Lemon, S. B., Customs. 
Lambert, W., Customs. 
I,ow, W. T., Customs. 

London, E. Mr., Coborn street. Borough road, 
Lucas, H. A. Mr., High street. Borough. 
Low, H. Wylie, Mr., 12, King's Armsyard. 
Lewer, J. T. Mr., tobacconist, 4, Upper East 

Smithdeld. 
Lea, C. esq., Customs. 
Lizardi, F. de, and Co., Mexican consuls. 
Lambait, Mr., Liverpool street. 
Laurence, George, esq., merchant, 6, Bury court, 

St. Mary Axe. 
Lane, James, esq., 63, Chancery lane. 

M. 

Muskett, G. A. esq., M.P. 

Montefiore, Sir M., sherift' of London. 

May, John, Wm. esq., Dutch consul general. 

Maberly,co1one),secretary to Geueral Post Office. 

Morrison, Cryder, and Co., geueral merchants, 

9, New Broad street Buildings. 
Martinez, Jones, Gassiot, and Co., merchants, 

77, Mark lane. 
Mussabini, J. and Co., merchants, 26, Finsbury 

circus. 
Mason, (Brothers,) merchauts, 21, Billeter st. 
M'Andrew, W. and Sons, merchants, 3, Philpot 

lane. 
Mitcliell, VV. and J., merchants, 46, Lime street, 
Macdonald, D. and Co., 31, Clement's lane. 
Morrison, J. and Co., warehousemen. Fore st. 
Maikland and Frost, wholesale coffee dealers, 

139, Upper Thames street. 
Morel (brotiiers), wine merchants. Sec, 210 and 

211, Piccadilly. 
Miluer, Francis, and Sons, lead merchants, 

Crispin street, Spitalfiolds. 
Moginie and Co., spice mcrcliants, 10, St Mary 

at Hill. 
Marshall, John, and Sons, taUow merchants, 

181, High Holboru. 
Morris, Valleutine, and Sons, wine merchants, 

9, St. Mary-at-Hill. 
Mould, Josh, and Co., wholesale cheesemongers, 

43, Newgate street. 
Marshall, Hutchinson, & Co., brokers. Bishop- 
gate street. 
Martin, R. and Co., lithographers, 26, Long Acre. 
MGhie, Page and Smith, ship brokers, 21, E.K- 

change Buildings. 
Milton, John, Mr., tea dealer, 10, Great Mary- 

lebone street. 
May, W. esq., merchant, 123, Fenchurch street. 



Makius, R. J. Mr., tea dealer, &c., 24, Blandford 

street. 
Matthews, J. Mr., wax chandler, 4 1, Long Acre. 
Mongredieu, J. K. esq., merchant, 38, Finsbury 

circus. 
Maynard, R.Mr., East India agent, 27, Poultry. 
Meader, S., Customs. 
Manning, J. T. esq., Customs. 
Macvicar, N., Customs. 
Mackenzie, Customs. 

Major, C. J., Custom house agent, 9, Billiter st. 
Moss, Charles, and Co., ship brokers, 9, Mark 

lane. 
Munro Hector, London Docks. 
MuUer, W. Mr., 3, Newm.in's court, Cornhill. 
Mash, R. Mr., oilman, 150, Drury lane. 
Messenger, Edgar, J. esq., 28, Fenchurch street. 
MMurdo, David, and C/'o., manufacturing che- 
mists, 4, Gould square, Crutched Friars. 
Martin, T. escj., wine merchant, 14, Benet's 

place, Graceclnirch street. 
Many at and Sons, merchants, 2, Laurence 

Pountney lane. 
JLaunus, M. L. esq., merchant, Steel yard, Upper 

Thames street. 
Miller and Lowcock, wliolesalo tea-dealers, 2, 

Queen street. Southwark bridge. 
M.-irsden and Son, druggists. Queen street, 

Cheapside. 

N. 

Nelson, Adam and Nelson, merchants. Savage 

gardens. 
Newman, Hunts and Christophers, merchants. 

New Broad street. 
Nash, Wm. and Co., tea dealers. Bridge row. 
Neale, J. and E., oilmen, 64, Minories. 
Nichols and Son, ship brokers, 33, Seething la. 
North, Simpson and Graham, tea dealers, 36, 

New Bridge street. 
New\)on, C. Mr., tailor, 94, Dorset St., Fleet st. 
Norris, B. Mr., raason, 39, George street. New 

Kent road. 
Norton, D. Mr., broker. 
Newman, Customs. 
Nottingham, Matthew, Mr., Custom house agent, 

2, Beer lane. Tower street. 
Neave, John, London Docks. 
Newland, Mr., London Docks. 
Naylor, George, Mr., grocer, 53, Bishopsgate st. 
Nesbitt, J. esq., merchant. Mincing lane. 
Norman, John, esq. ship broker, 1, Water lane. 

Tower street. 

O. 

Ormerod fBro.). merchauts, 26, Bucklersbury. 
O.xley and Taylor, merchants, 8, George yard, 

Lomlnird street. 
Oldaker, Wm. and Thomas, hop merchants, 90, 

Boroush. 
Oliver, C. M. esq. merchant, 37, Finsbury sq. 
OUlroyd, W., Customs. 
Oakcs, Thos., London Docks 
Ormiston, James, esq., 22, Bread street. 

P. 

Planta, Right Hon. Joseph., M.P., 17, Clifford st. 

Pattison, Jas. esq., M.P. 

Palmers, Mackillop, Dew and Co., merchants, 
King's Arms yard. 

Phillips, Jonas, & Sons, merchauts. 6, Crosby sq. 

Passingham and Nail, merchants, 1U6, Fen- 
church street. 

Pearse, J. and 1!. and Co., merchants, Moorgato 
street (2 Copies). 

Payne and Son, tea dealers, 3i!8, Regent street. 

Powell, T and J. and T., leather factors, 3'j, 
Lime street. 

Prescot, Grote and Co., bankers, 62, Tlireadiieo- 
dle street (2 Copies). 

Prior, J. and C, coal mercliants, 146, Upper 
Thames street. 



Ivi 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



riiikinson, Jolin and Thomas, wax bleachers, 

21,ykiniiev sliei't. 
riiillips, I'aniell and Rowsell, Custom house 

agents, 7". Lower Thames street. 
PhilUjis and 'J iplady, insui-ance brokers, 3, 

George yard, Lombard street. 
Viriej.lohu and Co., ship brokers, 3, Freeman's 

court, Coinhill. 
Price & Gifl'ord, Colonial bankers, /, Suffolk la. 
Pelershall, Urown and Co , wax chandlers, 1L2| 

Fenchiirch street. 
Pliipps, John and Co., wholesale stationers, 176 

Upper Thames street. 
Patry and Pasteur, brokers, 38, Mincing lane. 
Pitcarn and Amos, merchants, 1, Copthall 

buildings. 
Pickstock, T. esq., merchant, 1, Clement's lane. 
Phillips, Jas. Mr., packer, 9, King's arms yard. 
Phipps, J. esq., wholesale stationer, 1/6, Upper 

Thames street. 
Palmer, Edw. Mr., chemical and philosophical 

instrument maker, 103, Newgate street. 
Pope, Samuel, esq., Bushey hall, Peckhani. 
Perry, Thomas, Mr., iron manufacturer, 251, 

High Holboin. 
Prowse, J. S. esij., ship broker, &c., 28, Cle- 
ment's lane. 
Pye, George, esq., tin agent, Winchester house. 

Old Broad street. 
Pallatt, Jlr., spirit merchant, 31, County ter- 
race. New Kent road. 
Parsall, AV. II. Mr., corn factor, 4, Catherine ct. 
Powell, C, Customs. 
Piucomhe, W., Customs. 
Packham, D., Customs. 

Pritchard, Robt. Mr., South St., Grosvcnor sq. 
Perkins, Thos. Mr., Addington sq.. Cambers ell. 
Pearson, Thomas, Mr., 3, St. Helen's place. 
Pepper, Captain J. D., ship harrier. 
Powis, Jolin, Mr., insurance broker. Crooked 

lane chambers. 
Paton, 'NVm., 15. Great St. Helen's. 
Pimm, .lames, Mr., 3, Poultry. 
Pinckard, Josei)h, esq., Kussell square. 
Plank, George, t"S(£., Customs, Fund office. 
Provincial Bank of Ireland, 42, Old Broad st. 
Pigeon, H. and A. S., distillers, 158, High Hol- 

born. 
Pim, Joseph, esq., 12, Castle couit, Bridge row. 

Q. 

Quinlan, J., 33, Trinity square. 

R. 

Reid, Irving, and Co., merchants. Old Broad st, 
Reay, J. and Co., merchants, 75, Mark lane. 
Redhead and Spiers, merchants, 16, Trinity sq. 
Ridgway, Sidney, and Co., tea dealers. King 

William street. 
Rnekand Co., wiuemerchants, St.Dunstan'shill. 
Rowland, A. and Son, perfumers, Ilation Gard. 
Rule, E.and A., ship brokers, 103, Leadenhall st. 
Robinson, Matthias, and Co., grocers, &c,. Red 

Lion street, Holborn. 
Ronchetti, J. and Co., opticians, Ilatton Garden. 
Robarts and Co., merchants, 2, Abchurc'u lane. 
Reinecker and Co., merchants, 9, Great Tower st. 
Reynolds, Gunton, and Co., druggists, Nesv 

Western street, Southwark. 
Redhouse, J. esq., 34, Ernest street. Regent's 

park. 
Redman, J. Mr., 14, Liverpool st. Gray'siun rd. 
Read, F. esq., Customs. 
Reeves, W. T., Customs. 
Reinforth, Customs. 
Rich, G., Customs. 
Russell, T. A., Customs. 
Ricken, A. esq.. Customs. 
Redman, T. Mr., chemist, Peokham. 
Reeve, R. Mr., woollen draper, I, Skinner st. 
Roberts, T. Mr., draper, 17, Blackman street. 

Borough, 



Riddle, T. Mr., 2, .Surrey place, Newington. 
Ross, F. Mr., 15, Mansion House st. Kenningtou. 
Ret.alliek, J. Mr., West India IJocks. 
Routh, F. G. Mr., 8, Bisliopsgate street. 
Rowsell, C. J. Esq., merchant, 8, Philpot lane. 

Robinson and Co., lightermen. Water lane, 

Tower street. 
Rutty, J . esq., timber merchant (108, Edgeware 
road. 

S. 

Scholefield, J. esq., M.P. 

Standish, C. S. esq., M.P. 

.Silva, J. T. esq , Vice-Consul for Brazil, 

South Australian Company, Bisliopsgate st. 

Story and Storr, merchants, 15, John street, 
Crutched Friars. 

Smith, T. W. and Co., merchants, 29, Great St. 
H.dens. 

Stride and Sons, merchants, 6, Copthall court. 

Stiachan and Co., merchants, Copthall court. 

Seddon.T.and G., cabinetmakers, Gray's-inn rd. 

Schnnck, Souchays, and Co , merchants, 8, To- 
kenhouse yard. 

Sack, Bremer, and Co., ship brokers, 25, Mark la. 

Savory, A. B. and Sons, silversmiths, Cornhill. 

Sewell and Wlioley, wholesale grocers, King 
William street. 

Shedden and Sons, merchants, 6, Bedford square 
(2 Copies). 

Sinii)Pon, J. and J., furniture printers, 53, Skin- 
ner stieet. 

Scott, Bell, and Co., East India agents, 2, Alder- 
man's Walk. 

Stephenson and Co , wholesale ironmongerj, 
61, Gracechuich street. 

Smith, Sundins, and Co.,ship brokers, Cornhill. 

.Sheldon, Messrs., brokers, 3, Ingram court, 
Fcnchurch street. 

Sharpe and Sons, grocers and tea dealers, 56, 
Fenchnrch street. 

Smith and Son, confectioners. Fell street. Wood 
street, Cheapside. 

Sowerby, W. and Co., distillers, 26, Aldersgatc st. 

Salmon and Hall, 6, Farringdon street. 

Scott, Savory, and Co., chemists, 369, Strand, 'j 

Silver, J. W. and Co., clothiers and out-titters, 
9 and 10, Cornhill. 

Street, J. P. Mr., at Messrs. Boddington's, 9. St. 
Helen's place. 

Sander*, J. E. esq., Head Warden to the Fish- 
mongers' Company, 7, Lower Thames street. 

Slieppard, G. Mr., solicitor, 3, Guildford street, 
Russell square (4 Copies). 

Shepherd, J. esq., merchant, l.Lime street sq. 

Sim, J. esq., rectifier, 146, St. John street. 

Surridge, \V. Mr., wholesale cheesemonger, 
21, Sraithfield. 

Stokes, F. esq., 6, Leicester place. 

Spindler, B., leather dresser, Bermondsey. 

Strong, S. Mr., carpet warehouse, 20, Skinner st. 

Swinburn, H. esq., merchant. Bush lane. Can- 
non street. 

Seally, H. M. Mr., tea agint, Fenchnrch street. 

Staple, C. Mr., tea de.iler, 21, King st. Cov. Gar. 

Selby, W. II. Mr., oil and colourman, 25, James 
street, Covent Garden. 

Speller, E. Mr., grocer, &c., 36, Berners street. 

Smith. G. esq., 54, Lombard street. 

Shea, H. esq., merchant, 10, Dowgate hill. 

Sniilli, J. Mr., tea dealer, Grafton House, Graf- 
ton street. 

Shaw, J., Customs. 

.Souther, Customs. 

Shaw, A. W., Customs. 

Shave, T., Customs. 

Scanlan, E., Customs. 

Suidey, J. M. esq., ship and insurance broker, 
71, Cornhill. 

Saunders, C. esq., comptroller of accounts. Legal 
Quays. 

Str.aith. J. Mr., indigo broker, 28, Commercial 
Sale Rooms. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Ivii 



Stone. R. Mr., Bloomru-lds, Dcptfoid. 

SlicviKF, K., London Docks. 

Story, W., U]i])cr Maiylcbono sirect. 

Smith, II., 25, LiUirence I'ountney lane. 

Sed};«ick, R., Custom House .-ig., 15, (.'iinnon st. 

Snook, J., 16, George street, M^msion Mouse. 

Smit!i. T. os<i., Mercantile .lournal Ollice, Min- 
cing lane. 

Shaw, W. esq.. Editor of Mark I/ane Exinrss. 

Steel, J. II., nt Mr. Sheldon's, 3, Ingram court, 
Fenclmrch street! . 

Sclienk, R. osci., merchant, 4, Vine st. Minories. 

Snnlev, G., chemist, 18, Wenlworth place, Mile 
Knii. 

Sprinj^weilor, A. Mr., cabinet maker, Duke street. 
Little Britain. 

S|)ooncr, Attwood, nml Co., bankers, Grace- 
church street. 

Smith, Goodhall, and Beeves, merchants, 
Lawrence I'ountney lane. 

Standard of England Life Assurance Oflice, 
King William street. 

Sewell, J. and Son, jewellers, 49, Fore street, 
Cripplegale. 

Spark, Ilealet, and Parsons, druggists, Brick 
Hill lane. Upper Thames street. 

T. 

Touroude, R. esq., French Consulate, 4, Token- 
house yard. 

ToLtie, Clias. esq.. Consul for Sweden and Nor- 
way, 17, Great St. Helen's, (2 Copies). 

Twiss and Browning, merchants, 37, Mark la. 

Thomson, Bunan and Co., merchants, 7, Austin 
Friars. 

Trenor and Satchell, merchants. 

Taylor, E. and I , oilmen, 17, Holborn. 

Thorp, .Mfred, esq., merchant, 39 & 40, Kingst. 

Tliorp and Graham, wholesale stationers, 2, 
Jewry street, Ald^ate. 

Tennant and Sons, merchants, T^p. Thames st, 

Tricbner and Mole, Russia brokers, 2, Union 
court. Broad street. 

Thompson and Foreman, Dyers' Hall wharf. 
Upper Thames stieet. 

TIiM aites, J. and B., 16, Mincing lane. 

Taylor, Rich, and Co., East India agents, Free- 
man's court. 

Tibbs, J. II. Mr., grocer. Sec, 294, O.xford st. 

Tanner, E„ ship broker, 16, Fish street hill. 

Tuach, .T. es<|., woolstapler, 232, Bermondsey st. 

Terry, W. J. Mr., grocer, 59, Greek street, Soho. 

Ti]ipler, Robt. esq , merchant, 89, Tower st. 

ThurslieUl, Edw. Mr., oilman, Oxford street. 

Taltam.W. esq , Customs. 

Taylor, W. W. esq , Customs. 

Tanner, Thos., Customs. 

Towdey, S., Customs. 

Talbot, Mr., Customs. 

Thomas, W. H., East India Dock Company. 

Taylor, W. G.esq, silk broker, 13, Old Jewry. 

Tyler.J., 16, Size lane. 

Thorpe, (5eo. Mr., Surrey street. Strand. 

Turner, W. J., Arnold place, Walworth. 

Tundall, J. T., 48, Mark lane. 

Taylor, H. J.Mr., grocer, 112 .ind 113,Tooley st. 

Trimby, G. esq., merchant, 6, Lawrence I'ount- 
ney lane. 

Tarling, II. J. Mr,, ink maker, 28, St. John st. 

Tonge, George, esq. 

Tudor and Co , white lead manufacturers, 1C6, 
Upper Thames street. 

Thompson, J. Mr., Wood street. 

Tatchell, Wm. escj., Russia broker, George yd. 

Testet De Firmin and Co., merchants. Bishops- 
gate chiirch-yard. 

Tattam, Wm. esij.. Customs, (Inspector general 
of Water guard). 

Taylor, George, Mr., grocer, 53, Bisliopsgate 
street, without. 

Tuke and Hankcy, merchants, 25, Crutched 
Friars. 



V. 



Vanzeller, F. esq., Portuguese Consul (-.'eneral. 
Viltii, .^u>tin and Co., Italian merchants, 14, St. 

Swithin's lane. 
Veary, Richard, esc], (Customs. 
Von Melle, W. esq., merchant, 10 Old Broad st. 

U. 
Underwood, Thos. Mr., grocer, 10, Cross lane. 
Umpleby, John, esq., merchant, 2, Love lane. 

W. 

Wire, D.ivid Williams, es<i.. Under Sheriff of 

London. 
WiLson, Thomas and ('o., merchants, 6, Warn- 

ford ciuirt 
Walstiib, Jebsonand Co., merchants, 26, Austin 

Friars, 
Witton, n. W. & Co., mercliants, 63, Fcnchurch 

street. 
Willis, Arthur, Son and Co., merchants, Crosby 

square. 
Wilson, Harvey and Co., merchant:', 15, New 

Bond street. 
Wood and Co., merchants, Mark lane. 
Welch, Gregory and Cubitt, stiaw hat manufac- 
turers, 20, Skin nor street. 
Walkers, Parker and Co., merchants, Abchurcli 

lane. 
Waters, J. & Sons, wine merchants, 1, Arthur st. 
Wells and Winn, Custom House agents, 3, Lovo 

lane. East Cheap. 
Wrathall and Co., grocers, Tooley street. 
Williamson, J. .*t J., mercliants, 5, Nicholas la. 
Wilkinson, James & Sons, brokers, 138, Leadcn- 

hall treet. 
Webb, R. and Co., builders, St. John's gate. 
A\ yattand Perth, wholesale tea dealers, Bloom- 

field street, London wall. 
Watkins, G. W. Mr., oil and colourman, 308, 

Oxford street. 
Way, J. Mr., tea dealer, 272, Oxford street. 
Wall, G. jun. esq., 13, Peckham grove. 
Walenn, \V. Mr., grocer, &c., 36, Gt. Portland st. 
Warne, Saml. Mr. , newsvender, 36, Bell yard. 

Temple bar. 
Worley, Kobt. Mr., salesman, 10, Newgate st. 
Wellspring, J. Mr., chemist, 35, Bedford street, 

Covent garden. 
Wadge. Jonat. Mr., wine merchant, Hayraaiket. 
Wade, R. F. esq.,shipbrokcr, 14, London street, 

Fenchurch street. 
Williams, I,. esq., St. Thomas st.. Borough. 
Willis, Josh. S. esq., merchant, Crosby s(iuare. 
Weber, C. F. esq., merchant, 18, New East In- 
dia chambers C2 Copies). 
Watson, T. B. esq.. Customs. 
Wilson, Mr., Customs. 
Wilkinson, Edw. Mr., Customs. 
Westlake, T. Mr., Customs. 
Wride, W. Mr., Customs. 
Wroughton, T. Mr., Customs. 
Walton, 1). H. Mr., Customs. 
Whaits, E. Mr., Custom.?. 
Wilkinson, C. esq. Custom House agent, 05, 

Lower Thames street. 
Williams, R. esq.. West India Dock Company. 
Wrightmati. Mr. 121, Cheapside. 
Wooddeii, Thos , London Docks. 
Welford, J. C. Mr, Crosl)y row. Borough. 
Walker, John, Mr., 49, Park street. Regent's pk. 
Wills, H. Mr., London Docks. 
Williams, J. J. Mr. lighterman, 2, Beer lane. 
Wing, T. W. Mr., Eastcheap. 
Wayte, II. Mr., confectioner, 5, Gracechurch st. 
Woodhouse, Decimus, chemist. King William st, 
Watkins, Jas., Mr., 140, Aldersgate street. 
Whitley, W. esq., Upper Thames street. 
Wood, Mr., Castle & Falcon inn, Ahlersgatc st. 
Witherby, Richard, merchant, 29, Nicholas la. 
Wright Edgar, 21, Circus, New road. 
Ward, John, Mr., chemist, 79, Bishopsgato st. 



Iviii 



Wye, G. W. esq. .merchant, ly.Crutched Friars 
Warren, & Co., wholesale grocers, Houndsditch 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 

Yatus, Saml. Mr., wine merchant, 3. Bury ct. 



Younger, Samuel, Mr., commercial agent, 8, Gt. 
Tower street. 



Zulueta and Co., merchants, 69, King William 

street. 



APPLEDORE. 

Burt, W. C, tide surveyor. 
Bowen, James, ship owner. 

Chappel, James, sliip owner. 
Chappell, Thos.esq., merchant. 
Clibbett, Wra. jun. esq., ship builder. 
Cock, Wm., maltster. 

Dart, Richard, ironmonger. 

Hodges, Edw. B., wine and spirit merchant. 

Pearce, Lieut., Richard, R.N. 

Williams, Joshua, esq., ship owner. 
Williams, Joshua, esq., builder. 

ASHBURTON. 

Bradford, John, North street. 
Barons, Wm., Golden Lion Inn 
Browse, Arthur, coach builder, &c. 

Gaunter, R ichard, woollen manufacturer. 
Caunter, Ilenry, woollen manufacturer. 
Creagh, Ilenry, Crouch, land surveyor. 

Husson, Edward, Crispin Inn. 

Mann Wm., auctioneer and seed merchant. 
Mann Chas. Henry, tailor, &e. 
Mann, Thomas, commission agent, S:c. 

Searell, Allen, slate merchant, I'enn Quarry. 

Whiteway, W. Rolstone, miller, maltster, and 
seed merchant. 



ATREWAS near LICHFIE[.D. 

Kent, Jno and Co., wire drawers. 



BARNSTAPLE. 

Arter, W. and Suns, merchants, Quay. 

Baker, Richard, ironmonger. 
Besley, John, grocer, 
Bcncraft. Stephen, esq., banker. 

Cotton, W. and Son, wine merchants. 
Chaunon, Jno., tallow chandler. 

Fairchild, Jno. esq., iron merchant. Quay. 
Finch, Jno. esq., merchant. 

Gibbs, Henry, iron and coal merchant. 
Gregory, Robert and Son, esqrs., merchants, 

Harris, George and Co., merchants. 

Hunt, J. B.,atMessrs. Limnington's, merchants. 

Martin, James, public rooms, Boutport street. 

Prust, Joshua, iron and coal merchant. 

Snell, Symonds & Co., wine & spirit merchants. 

Thorn, Wm. Henry, grocer. 
Thorn, Wm. esq., banker. 

Veale, Samuel, tea dealer 
Vellacott, Wm. and J., mercers. 

Ware, Samuel, wine merchant. 
Willshire, Thos, L. esq , ironfounder. 
Woollacott, J,esq., timbermerchnt.,Ribboquay. 
Wilkins, Jas. Rivers, ironmonger. 



BIDEFORD. 

Burnard, Thos. esq., merchant, Bideford. 
Chanter, T. B. esq., merchant, Bideford. 



Doidge, S. C, grocer, Bideford. 

Evans, Thomas, ship builder, Middon street. 

Forester, Henry, wine merchant. 
Facy, Jno., cornfactor, steam mills. 

Grant, Thomas, collector of Customs. 

Handford, John, coal merchant. 

Hogg, Jno. druggist. 

Hamlyn, R. C, draper. High street. 

Ley, James Smith, esq., banker (2 Copies). 

Lee, John, upliolsterer, High street. 

Martin, Wm., harbour master. 

Pridham, W., ship agent. Quay. 
Parramore, Thomas, esq., ironfounder. 

Saunders, John, furnishing ironmonger. 
Saunders, J. C, dniggist, Quay, (2 Copies). 

Taylor, Robert, builder. Quay. 

Vellacott, Thomas, draper. High street. 

Wickhara and Co., wine merchants. High street. 
White, Samuel, watch maker. All Halland street. 
Wren, Josias, merchant and shipowner. 



BRIDGEWATER. 

Dalley, J.,esq.,collector of Customs (6 Copies). 

BRISTOL. 

James George, esq., mayor. 
Thomas Kington, esq., sheriff. 
Daniel Bvirgess, esq., town clerk. 
Thomas Morris, esq., collector of customs. 
John Brickdale, es((., comptroller of customs. 
John Nightingale, esq., collector of excise. 
Thomas Todd Walton, esq., postmaster. 
C. F. Edes, esq., distributor of stamps. 

BANKERS. 

John Wilson Cowell, esq.. Branch Bank of Eng- 
land. 

William Edwards, esq.. Old Bank. 

Tlioraas K. Bayley, esq.. Miles, Harford, and 
Co.'s Bank. 

P. F. Aiken, esq., Stuckey's Banking Company. 

Geo. Wright, esq., Provincial Bank of Enghmd. 

John Bates, esq.. West of England and South 
Wales Bank. 

MERCHANTS AND OTHERS. 

Acraman, D. E. and A., Quay. 

Ale.xander, M. J. F. and A., Quay. 

Alnian and Co., Quay. 

Abraham, J. and J., 32, King street, Queen sq. 

Arnold, Tliomas P., accountant. Small street. 

Amos and Manning, linen drapers, 25, Union st. 

Arlett, Wm., leech dealer, Castle street. 

Attwood, Henry, 104, Redclifl' street. 

Ayres, William, marine ."-tore dealer, King st. 

Alexauder, Jos. F., Royal Hanoverian consul. 

Alexander, Abraham, V. Russian consul. 

Alexander, W. W., V. consul for His Majesty 

the King of the two Sicilies. 
AUford, Robert, 39, Redclilf street. 
Ariel, Myles, esq. 
Allies, John, 50, Broad Mead. 
Baillie, Evan, Sons and Co. 
Brice, Stock and Hier, Old Market street. 
Barnes, F. K. esq.. Counter Slip. 
Beard, W. II., I'rinces' street. 
Bryant, Edward, bonded store merchant. 
Barford, Captain, J. C, commissariat depart. 
Brain, Joseph. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



llX 



Bickley, Benjamin, and Co., Princes street. 

Brown and Johnson, commission agents, &c., 
Clare street Hall. 

Barnt'tt, Samuel, A. and Son, timber merchants. 

Buckuall and Spark. 

Bushel], William, Esq., alderman, Portland sci. 

Bligh, Francis, John, Mr., 26, College Green. 

Barrow, R. and J., commission merchants, 19, 
Clare street. 

Budgett, H. II. and S., wholesale grocers, 13, 
Nelson street. 

Brown, James, and Co. 

Burltou, Richard, esq., Clevedon. 

Bcames, T., silk mercer, St. Augustine's parade. 

Bigg, L. O. esq., St. Stephen street. 

Benson, M. tobacconist, St. Augustine's parade. 

Bremner and Chapman, tailors and drapers, St. 
Augustine's parade. 

Bartlett, John, scale, beam and weighing ma- 
chine mauul'actoiy, 3, Welsh Back. 

Bigg, W. Oliver, (obacco manufacturer. Back. 

Box, Cliarles, tea dealer. 

BroughtoH, E. and Son, salt and provision mer- 
chants, 4, Welsli Back. 

Bush, H. and Co., merchants, Baldwin street. 

Bryant, S.,tea merchant, Clare street. 

Braham, John, optician, St. Augustine's pa- 
rade, (3 Copies.) 

Bigwood, J. sen., Baldwin street. 

Booth and Morcom, West India brokers, 1, 
Stephen street. 

Bragg, Ricliavd, wine merchant. 

Beer, W., wliartinger and colour raanuf. Quay. 

Bridges, J. J., chemist, &c.. Broad street. 

Bryant, Lewis, grocer, Nicholas street. 

Blethyn, T., woollen draper, 48, wine street. 

Bodham, J. B. esq., merchant. 

Ballin, Isaac, furrier, 45, Wine street. 

Bernard, C. and M. C, merchants. 

Brooks, Jno., Nelson street. 

Boucher and Laveston, drapers, 28, Castle st. 

Batten, Robert, High street. 

Bartlett aud Mogg, wine merchants, Bath st. 

Beeston&WooUey, timber merchants, Wapping. 

Burges, Daniel, Esq., town clerk 

Barrett, W., hat manufactory, 72, Castle street. 

Baker, Jno., Castle green. 

Brooks, Charles, 105, Temple street. 

Brooking, Johu, sworn measurer, Bedminster. 

Bartlett, R., ship builder, Hotwells. 

Bradley, Lieut. W. J., R.N. ,13, Cornwallis place. 
Baptist mills. 

Bligh, James, Belmont Clifton. 

Bowles iic Noake, timber merchants, Thomas st. 

Barton, S. and J., coach builders, Bedminster 
bridge. 

Boone, John, Temple street. 

Ball, James Tavler, 2, Wilder street. 

Blake, Thomas,' 29, Bath street. 

Bull, Edward, I ucker street. 

Bright, J. and J., Temple street. 

Benlield, Charles, 47, Redclill" iiill. 

Birtill, Samuel S., Redcliff street. 

Bevan, John, S., St. John's bridge. 

Burgess, W., Small street. 

Butler, William, Castle street. 

Ball, Henry, esq., barrister. Temple. 

Blackburow, Jno., (2 Copies.) 

Cunningham. James, esq., Rodney pi., Clifton, 

Clent, Thomas, Mr. 

Cross, W. and Son, ship brokers and merchants. 
Quay. 

Carlisle, Robson and Co., mercers, &:c.. Wine st. 

Clemeuts, S. G. aud Co., merchants and whole- 
sale druggists. 

C^'ole, Holder & Cole, linen merchants. Bridge st. 

Chanter, J. and (^o., linen merchants. Bridge St. 

Clifton and Weir, wiue merchants. 

Cross, Cornelius, tea dealer. Old market street. 

Clark, Mr., ship broker, Quay. 

Coombs, J. H., stationer, St. Augustine's parade, 
(3 Copies.) 



Castle, Edwards, and Co., distillers. Milk street. 

Capper, Joseph, chemist and druggist. Corn st. 

Copp, John, IJaldwin street. 

Cozens, Joseph, 5, Sussex phace, Montpellier. 

t/orey, Thomas, Park row. 

Cross, Thomas, whtlesaie stationer. Narrow 

Wine street. 
Catley, R. W., linen'draper, 22, Union street. 
Cousins, Wm., and Co. 
Coalbrookdale Company, 82, Castle street. 
Cross, Jno. B. esq., merchant, 114, Redcliff st. 
Carruthers, Jno. Beard, bookseller. High street 

(2 Copies.) 
Claxton, W. esq., merchant, 19, Trinity street. 
Cook, William, Cannons Marsh. 
Coles, George, Temple Gate. 
Clark, Michael, 65, Park street. 
Curtis. Jacob, ironmonger, 27, Baldwin street. 
Cox, James, and Son, Small street. 
Carlile, Thomas, Bath street. 
De Mascareuhas, Chev. Portuguese consul gen. 
Davis, Thomas, 0, Exchange buildings. 
De (iamboa, A. esq., St. John's bridge. 
Dighton, Isaac, esq., 2, Lower Park row. 
Drake, Thomas, aud Sons, Back hall. 
Daniell, J. A. and Co., ship chandlers, &c., 54. 

Queen square. 
Doddrell, T. D., tea dealer. Small street. 
Davey, George, bookseller, (^6 Copies.) 
Dale and ('o.. Wine street. 
Drew, John, printer, St. John street. 
Dando, J. and C. V., 10, Castle street. 
Dulfett, John, Temple back. 
Dixes and Williams, Narrow Wine street. 
Dibbin and Co., 21, Old Market street. 
Duffett, James, sen., St. Philip's marsh. 
Davis, Samuel and Co., 1, Okl Market street. 

Eales, Charles F., esq.. Distributor of Stamps. 
Edwards, James. 35, Back. 
Edgar, Preston, 1, Temple-street. 
Edwards, Francis, 4, Somerset-terrace. 
Edwards and Baker, hemp aud lla.x mills, St. 

Philip's (2 Copies). 
Evans, W. & Co., Castle-green. 

Franklyn, J. N. and G. W., Welsh-back. 

Fry, J. S. and Sons, Union-street. 

Ford, James, and Co., public bonded warehouse 

proprietors. King- street-hall. 
Frampton and Hancock, tea dealers aud liquor 

merchants. Little King-street. 
Forde and Fresnoy, King-street. 
Fi<her, Jolin, esq., wine-merchant. 
Fiske, Wills, and Co., wholesale tea dealers. 
Freeman, Charles, silk mercer, St. Augustine- 

paratie. 
Freeman, John, and Co., copper merchants. 
Ferris, Brown and Scove, chemists, Bristol and 

Clifton. 
Fear, Samuel J., plumber, &c., Redcliff-street. 
Fowler, John, esii,, builder, Dowry-pirade. 
Foley, Charles, 5, Old King-street. 
Frost, John, 7o and 76, Redcliff-street. 
Fargus, John, and Son, 4, C'lare-street. 
Fisher, Stephen, currier. Old Market-street. 
Flook, Thomas, and Co., wine merchants, 

Glo'ster-lane. 
Fielclen and Co., Castle-street. 
Fullarton and Co., booksellers (100 Copies). 

Gibbs, Son, aud Bright. 

Gibbs, James, esq., alderman. 

Granger, Chas.,&; Son, merchants, Lewin's-mead 

Gardener, J. and II., i»ressers aud packers, 

Broad-street. 
Garrard, Thomas, esq., Sinthwell street. 
G(!orges, Kickettes, ami Co., porter brewers, 

Bath-street. 
Gray and Morris, wine and spirit merchauLs. 
Gulloy, Lionel \V., wine merchant. Exchange. 
Glasson, George C., commission merchant. 
Godwin, Hensley, and Godwin, Wine street. 



Ix 



PATRONS AMD SUBSCRIBERS. 



Giles and Snow, rlrapers, 4G, Wine street. 

Ganc, George, chi'ese liictor. 

Goolden, Samuel, colonial broker, Albion 
cliiimbors, Small street. 

Greenslade, James, and Co., Bridge parade. 

Gn yer, W. and J., Tem)de back. 

George, Clnistojdier. and Co., Rcdcliffliill. 

Gwyer and Gil)l)s, Tucker street. 

Giles, R. B., 52, York crescent, Cliftou. 

Gillam, .losepli, 63, Redcliff street. 

Greenslade, William, and Co., Thomas street. 

Garrard, George and John, 43, Princes street. 

Green, F. W., Dean's marsh. 

Glass, J. M., Temple back. 

Gwyer, H. and F., Temple gate. 

Gibbs, James, 42, Broadmead. 

Godwin, James, 87, Castle street. 

Gosling, Henry, 108, Thomas street. 

riarley, Edward,esq., alderman, 34, Portland sq. 

Hare, Charles, esq., Clifton. 

Hamilton, James, Mr. receiver of town dnes and 
custom house agent. 

Hunt, Richard, and Co., Quay. 

HoUaday, F. esq., 3, Montague parade. 

Hopkin, William, w ino and brandy merchant. 

Harlbrds, Davis and Co., iron masters. 

Harper, A., and Co., St. Augustine's paraile. 

Hcllicar, V. and J., Welsh back. 

Ilusenbeth, F. C.esq., wine merchant. 

Hornblower, J. esq., wine merchant, 50,Quecn sq. 

Hodges, Francis, music seller, Clare strei^t. 

Kingston, Thomas, 10, Park street. 

Howell, John, and .Son, timber merchants. 

Hole, William, gun maker, Higli street. 

Hdbbs, T. M. esq., iron merchant, 46, Qnay. 

Hillier, John, groc<'r, 2, Welsh back. 

Hazard, Rubert, and Co., confectioners, fruit 
erers, &c., St. Augusiine's parade. 

Hamlen, Richard, 20, Baldwin street. 

Hall and Evans, wine merchants. 

HilUiouse, George, and Co., merchants, Cum- 
berland road. 

Holland, George L. esq., customs. 

Harwood, William, jun., grocer, Lewin's mead. 

Hunt, Geo. and Co., tea dealers, Maryleport st. 

Harwood, J. B., and Co., St. John's bridge. 

Hunt, John, and Sons, ironmongers, cutlers, 
iicc, 1, Castle street. 

Hobbs, William, chemist, commissioners' agent, 
&c.. King street. 

Hill, G., tea dealer and grocer, 10, Union street. 

Hogarth, G. A., chemist, 34, Redclift" street. 

Harris and Son, soap makers, 115, Redcliffst. 

Hall, Frank M. grocer, St. Maryleport st. 

Hasell, W. H., tea dealers, 66, Redcliff hill. 

Heaven, Thomas, Cave street, Queen square. 

Harding, Cox, and Slean, 5, Old ilavket street. 

Hare, John, and Co,, Temple gate. 

Hewitt, William, M'elsh coal wharf. 

Hasell, Richard, 125, Thomas street. 

Hill, James, dealer in mahogany, Merchant st. 

Hill, George, Beaufort buildings, Clifton. 

Hillier, Richard, 10, Nicholas street. 

Hallani, James K., 16, Maryleport street. 

Hall, William, tallow chandler, West street. 

Hunt, Wright, and Co. 

Ingram and Bush, West India brokers. Corn st. 

Ingram, William, grocer, Maryleport street. 

Joliffe, James Hudson, druggist, College green. 

Jeffery, John, College green. 

Jones, Joshua, es(j., Gt. George st, Park street. 

Jennings, James, grocer. High street. 

Jordan, John, tailor and men's mercer, 9 and 
10, Upper Arcade. • 

Johnson, Thos. & Son, silk mercers,33. Wine st. 

Jackson, Ainsworlh and Co., wholes.ale iron- 
mongers, Ratclifte st. 

Jefferies and Price, brass founders, RedclilT st. 

Jones, K. T., Clifton. 

James, Stephen, RedclilT hill. 

Kilsby, Richard, general agent. 



King, Richard and William, African merchants. 
King, John, optician, 2, Clare street (6 Copies). 
Kerslake, J., bookseller. Barton Alley (2 Co- 
pies), 
Kent, John, esq., Frogmore street. 

Ludlow, E., esq., sergeant-at-law. 

Lucas, Robert, esq., public bonded warehouse 
proprietor. 

Lucas, Coathupe and Co. 

Lucas, Thos. S. W. and John, wholesale confec- 
tioners. 

Lax, Josh, and Co., wine andbrandy merchants. 

Lleweliu, H. R.esq., pul.-lic bonded warehouses, 
Redcliff wharf. 

Lowe, Wm., turner, 24, Denmark street. 

Lucas, James, china dealer, 12, Queen square. 

Lewis, John L., cheescfactor, 10, Small street. 

Lewis, Thomas, esq., ironmonger, Marsh street. 

Lambert, Wm., block maker. Quay. 

Leonard, Warren, and Co., 30, Bridge street. 

Levy and Co., Bristol bazaar, Union street. 

Low and Dilsdall, linen merchants, Mai-yporf st. 

Light and Ridler, 21, High street (2 Copies). 

Langhornc, Thomas L.. Merchant street. 

Leon, Matthew T., Castle green. 

Lyne, S., Broad plain, St. Philip's. 

Lawrence, W. S., !0, Merchant street. 

Levy, Levy, 34, Upper Arcade. 

Lediard, Jones and Mortimer, 67, Thomas street. 

Lovell, J. H., 28, James's place, Kingsdown. 

Lane, Edmund, 1, Ellbroad street. 

Lambert, Richard, jun. esq,, 34, Princes street. 

Lawes, Charles, P.ayne and Co., 12, Castle st. 

licwis, James, 49, Old market street. 

Lilly, R. T. esq.,1, Pennywell road. 

Line, John, woollen draper. Union street. 

Lc Ray, J., agent. Quay. 

Miles and Kington. 

Maze, Peter and Son, Grove.^ 

Mngg, W. H. esq., solicitor. 

Masey, Edward, esq., bonded warehouse keeper. 

Marsh street. 
Moore and Browne, wine merchants. 
Moxham, John, accountant. Bank ct.. Corn st. 
Mereweather, J. and Son, merchants. 
Muston, George, chronometer maker. Small st. 
]\Ieredith, Abraham, 36, Quay. 
Matthews, Matthew, Bristol Directory oflice. 

Narrow wine street. 
Moger, George, wine merchant. Nelson street. 
Masey, J. W. and J. M., Princes street. 
Marsh, Robert, 22, Castle green. 
Moore, Roger, 123, Redcliff street. 
Moore, Wm., and Son. 125, Redcliff street. 
Manning, R. II. and Co., Temple back. 
Milsom, James, Clifton wood. 
Meatyard.George, iron warehouse and hardware. 

Bridge street. 
Magjfs, George, and Co., 2, Ellbroad street. 
May, R. S., Baldwin street. 
Moore, Adlam, and Co., 12, Broad Weir. 
Morris, George, 3, Queen lane, Redcliff street. 
Morgan Richard, 59, O. M. street. 
Menlove, Thomas, grocer, Union street. 

Nash, James Ezekiel, esq., Gt. George street. 

O'Neill, John, linen draper, 1, St. Augustine's 

Parade. 
Ogden, Benj. esq., Welsh R.ack. 
Osier, Thos. esq., Richmond Hill, Clifton. 
Osborne, Robert, Redcliff Backs. 

Pinney and Case. 

Powell (Brothers), St. Philip's.' 

Palmer, .\rthnr, jun. esq., barrister. 

Payne, Chas. esc)., 29, Corn street. 

Piltcr, Lovell, ship broker. Sec. 

Parsons, Hurles and Co. 

Protheroe and Son. 

Pollard and Co., ship brokers. Queen square. 

Protheroe, Thos., bonded timber yard. Butts. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Ixi 



Palmer, FreJ. esq., wine merchant, 2, Fioglane. 
Pattillo. Penolt and Co., Clare stveet. 
P.-ck, W. B., jun., Broad street. 
Pink, Brown 'ami Co., liigli street. 
Parker, Francis, tea dealer, 2, Bridge street. 
Pope, Peter, esq.. Custom House. 
I'rideaiix, Son,Shapland and Co., general ware- 
housemen. Wine street. 
Proctor and Barker, china and glass warehouse, 

29, Wine street. 
Paruall, Wra. and Co., ironmongers, &c.. Dol- 
phin street. 
Powell, Wm., stationer, 22, Narrow Wine street 

(2 Copies). 
Paruells and Co., tobacconists, RcdclilY street. 
Price, Chas., RedcliiT street. 
Prichard Sc Croft, oil merchants, 17, lledclilVst. 
Powell, T. and S., cork merchants. 
I'reston, H., 20, Bridge street. 
Peters, W.aud John, 113, KedelitV street. 
PhiUipps, Alfred, 105, Kedclitf street. 
Poole, James, and Son, coiil wharf, Ilotwells. 
Perry and Perrott, 35, St. Thomas street. 
Price, Chas. and Son, 43, Thomas street. 
Parsons, Jaraes, 67, Thomas street. 
Phillips, J. U.sen., Nelson street. 
Pralten, Benj., shoe manufactory, Stokes Croft. 
Perry, T. .and J., coach makers, Stokes Croft. 
Phili\ps & Gomez, linen warehouse, 1, North st. 
I'errin, Thomas, Wilder street. 
Prosser, James, King street. 
Pointer, J. 11. &; Co., Iloultou street, St. Paul's. 

I'owell, T., oil and colourmari, 37, Redclilf hill. 

Pence, John, 22, Milk street. 

Peace, Chas., 50, Castle street. 

Pratten, M. and W., 3 and i. Castle Mill street. 

Pass, Capper, metal refiner, St. Philip's marsh. 

Penny, Wra., mason, 5, Avon street, Temple st. 

Poun'tney and Goldney, pottery. 

Quinton, II. C.esq., Welsh back. 

Rieketts, Rich, esq , alderman. 

Reed and Staile, wine merchants. Lit. King st. 

Handle, Wm. esq., Queen square. 

llidiUe and Dew, merchants. 

Richardson and Board, wholesale druggists. 
Small street. 

Room, Grazebropk and Co., Quay. 

Rankin, F. Harrison, esq., Asylum Life Office, 
Corn street. 

Rowland, Edw., optician (2 Copies). 

Rin;; & Hood, shiss S; china dealers, 3, High st. 

Racole, Thos. Wm , Brislington. 

Robinson, Ricli. and Co. , merchants. Queen sq. 

Rol)erts, 'I'hos., seedsman, &c., 9, Peter street. 

Ringer, W. esq., tobacco and snuff manufacturer, 
Ul, Redclilf street. 

Ridgway and Allis, 12, Nelson street. 

Rumsey, Wm., 18, North street. 

Ricketts, Wills and Co., Maryleport street. 

Ricketts, Henry and Co., Temple gate. 

Robertson, John, Temple street. 

Ring, lUch. F., Ilengrove. 

Russell, Josh, esq., Barrs lane. 

Roach, Thos. and Son, Barrs lane, Milk street. 

Rutter and Co., IS, Castle street. 

Rice, Benj., 13, Nicholas street. 

Rogers. Wra., College street. 
Rose, P. and Sons (3 Copies). 

Smith, Wm., Irish provision merchant. Quay. 
Smith, Thos. Lovelin, Custom House agent. 
Staite and Ash, iron merchants. Marsh street. 
S.mders, Wm, esq.. Bridge parade. 
Shettler, Robt. B. (at Geo. llilhouse, and Co.) 
Sheppard, Thos., chemist, Clare street. 
Stone, Thos., tea dealer, Clare street. 
Sargent, J. and J., boot and shoe manufacturer, 

Welsh Back. 
Strong W., bookseller, Clare street. (2 Copies.) 
Salmon, John, and Co., timber merchants. 
Stivens, .lohn, Leghorn meiehaut. 
Shapland, Wreford and Co., liuen merchants. 



.Spencer, John, chemist, &c., 10, Rroadmond. 
Smith, Simeon, wine and spirit merchant, Mary- 
leport street. 
Stanton, I), tea dealer and grocer, GO, Castle st . 
Shattock,John, 10, merchant street. 
Sndth, Baker and Co., High street. 
Shuiraer, liich., waggon office, Temple street. 
Smith, Joseph, 137, Thomas street. 
Short, Samuel, Piiiladelphia street. 
Stirt'and Beddoes, Uedclin' street. 
Sirams, Thos., rope yard, Hillsbridge, near Tem- 
ple gate. 
Smitli, Francis, 8, Merchant street. 
Savage, J. and Francis, sugar house. Wilder at. 
Symons and Bevan, ship and boat builders, 

Wapping. 
Sanson), Philip, Redeliffback. 
Stephens, Isaac, 18 and 19, Maryleport street. 
Spurrier, Charles, 1, Hanover bldgs.. Park st. 
Stephens, Isaac,jun., 46, Castle street. 
Stoate, Rich, and Son, 2, Unity street. 
Simmons, Kobt. and Co., Broad street. 
Shilstoue, M. esq.. Customs. 
Terry and In^'ledeu, tea brokers, 3, Clare st. 
Thomas, John, Sons and Co. 
Taunton, Edmond, esq., (of Palermo.) 
Turner, Wm., bonded warehouse. Back street. 
Tovey, Charles, wine merchant, Stokes Croft. 
Thou'ias, Edw., spirit merchant, 2, Ciiftou place, 

Clifton. 
Thomas, Wm., sail maker. Quay. 

Taylor, Chas. and Son, goldsmiths. High st. 

Trotmau, James, oilman, &;c., 77, Broad quay. 

Thomas, W. and Son, hosiers, glovers, &e., 14, 
Wine street. 

Thomas, T. and Sons, Queen street. 

Tothill, Chas. and Co., Temple back. 

Tucker, J. W., Commons marsh. 

Thornton, H., grocer, 2, Clarence rd.. West st. 

Taylor, Henry, ship broker. Grove. 

Trickey, R. H., builder, College street. 

Urch, Prichard and Co. 
Underbill, Gec.rge, lOt), Temple street. 
Underwood, T., farrier and cloth cap maker, St. 
James's church-yard. 

Verriere, and Co., merchants. Princes street. 
Vowles, James, T., hat manufacturer, Corn st. 
Vildosola, A. L. esq.,mercl!ant. 
Vallance, Henrv, Re<lclitf st. 
Viuer, A., G8, Oid Market street. 

Winwood, Bush and Boddoe. 

Wait and James. 

W"arne, J. escj., Clifton. 

Wiutle, Thos. and Joseph, linen merchants. 

Whitwell and King, ship brokers, &c. 

West, Edward, H. eiq., maliogany merchant. 
Cerulean Lodge, Stokes Bishop. 

Wright, Wm. and Son, wine meiehanls. 

W.alker, R. S., accountant. 

Walton, Thos. T. esq., postmaster. 

Wright, Geo. esq.. Manager of National Provin- 
cial bank of England. 

Webb, J. escj.. Marsh street. 

Wauklyn, John, vinegar maker. Small street. 

Wliittiiig, Charles, Baldwin street. 

Watts, W. O. esq., wine merchant. 

Watts, Jas. Colston, sail maker. Quay. 

Wallington, Jacob, painter and ship chandler. 
Quay. 

Wedmore & Claypole, tea dealers, Bridge prde. 

Williams, Joseph, ship broker, 2", Welsh-back. 

Whiitard, J. A., draper, 54, Wine street. 

Wickham and Hooper, silk mercers, 2, Union st. 

Williams, Rees, bacon factor, Maryleport street. 

Wilmot and Son, Narrow wine street. 

Wallis, Swaine, clothier, 3, Castle street. 

Webb, James. druggist. Castle street. 

Worboys, George B., jewelloi-, &c.,62 Wine st. 
Warren, Thomas, wholesale druggist, 4i!, Red 
^ clilV street. 



Ixii 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Wyld, Geo. and Sons, wine and spirit merchants, 

RcdcUlT street. 
Whittall, G. P., merchant, Quay, 
"Withey, George, 4, Old King street. 
Whiteiiouse, J. L., 3, Bridge street. 
Williams, Charles, 24, Redcliff street. 
"Westeott; .Tasper, 20, Redcliff street. 
Williams, Thomas, 5, Thomas street. 
Wine, John, 27, Temple street. 
Witehell, T. S., corn factor, Redcliff street. 
Widgery, C. B., 2, Broadweir. 
Wayte and Lloyd, 3, Union street. 
Wintle, .Tames and Co., Bridge parade. 
Wales, James, 110, Thomas street. 
Withers, Geo. and Jno.,hatters,81, Castle street. 
Winter, Henry, Jacob st. Old Market street. 
Ward, Danvers, H. esq.. Bread street, St. Philips. 
Winchester, James, pipe manufacturer, Bread 

street, St. Philip's. 
Wild, A. and J., glass stainers, 1, Horsefair. 
Williams, George, watch maker, 59, Broad Quay. 
Whereat, John, 70, Castle street. 
Williams John, 45, King street, Queen square. 
Webb, Charles, Wine street. 

BRIXHAM. 

Champion, George, ship owner. 
Kendrick, Samuel. 

BUCKFASTLEIGH. 

Petherbridge, Jno., woollen manufaclurer 
Thnell, J no, woollen manufacturer. 
Waycott, Wm, maltster. ~ 



BURTON UPON TRENT. 

Allsop, J. B., esq. 

Allsopp and Sons, brewers. 

Salt, Thomas and Co., brewers. 



CHITTERN. 

Long, Walter, esq. 
Fisher, Thomas, esq. 



CHUDLEIGH. 

Whiteway, Samuel, maltster. 



COLLOMPTON. 

Burrow, Robert, gentleman. 
Bowerman, James, White Hart, hotel. 

Gribble, Albert, esq., solicitor. 

Nichols, James, druggist, &c. 

Pannell, William, bell founder. 

Sliiles, H. M., Willand near Collonipton. 

Whitter, T. W. esq., bunker. 



DARTMOUTH. 

Anlhony, Rich., grocer and spirit merchant. 

Brooking, G. esq., collector of Customs. 
Baker, Brothers ami (b., merchants. 
Bryant, James, engineer, gas works. 

Clift, Noah, ship owner. 

Donevan, Daniel, Castle inn. 

Fox, John, ship owner. 

FoUett, William, ship builder. 

Fagvvell, Thomas, ship owner. 

Fox, Rich, and C^o., patent rope manufacturer. 

Green, John Wilson, ship builder. 

Holdsworth, Henry, merchant. 



Harris, Robert, banker. 
Hutchins, Chas., esq., Woodford house. 
Lanyon, John F., ship owner. 
Lakeman, Thomas, brewer, &c. 
Langley, Robert, H., Commercial hotel. 

Nichols, William Henry, ship builder. 
Newman, William esq.. South town. 

Porter, John, esq.. Above town. 
Petherbridge, Henry, ship owner. 

Rogers, Henry, wine merchant. 

Smith, J. B. esq.. Clerk of the Peace. 
Seale, J. H. esq. M.P., Mount-boom. 
Stapleton, M. esq., banker. 

Teage, John, esq., mayor. 

Vincent, Charles, surveyor, &c. 

Wills, Henry, accountant. 
Wills, Joshua, esq., merchant. 



DEVONPORT. 

Brockenton, J., sailmaker, 52, Clowance street. 
Banks, David, ship builder, Franks Quarry. 
Belling, F. esq., merchant, St. Aubyn street. 

Chubb, Edward, rope manufacturer. Wood park» 
Clarke, W., ship owner, James street. 

Desteu, R., ironmonger, 70, Fore street. 
Doubttire, James, grocer. Market street. 
Dale, Henry, ship owner. Mull Brook." 
Devon and Cornwall Banking Company. 

Elswovthy,T. jun., coal merchant. New Passage. 

Fittock, G., tea dealer, &c., 5, Catherine street. 

Giles, J., brewer^ 29, Chaple street. 
Hoar, J., tobacco maimfacturer, Pembroke st. 
Husband and Co., bankers. Fore street. 
Jeffery, M. W., druggist. Market street. 
Paramore, David, merchant, George street. 
Rundle and Sons, wine merchants, .5, George st. 
Restarick, T., ship owner, &c., 88, James st. 
Row, Uriah, ship owner, Ker street. 
Thomas, John, wharfinger. Prospect terrace. 
Wheddon and Lescombe, brewers, St. Aubyn st. 
Winlo and Son, merchants, James street. 



EXETER. 

Arming, R., grocer, 1G3, Fore street. 

Burch, J., auctioneer. High street. 
Barrell, T.,coal merchant, Heavitree. 
Benuicke, W. A., accountant, 19, Holloway st. 
Bowcher, E., spirit dealer, 71, High street. 
Bear and Murch, British spirit dealers. Water 

Beer street. 
Braiind, G. and J., wholesale drapers. Water 

Beer street. 
Bury, Thomas, general carrier. Mermaid yard. 
Burne and Farrant, drapers, 131, Fore street. 
Beal, W., ironmonger. North street. 
Bond, J. jun., spirit merchant, St. Thomas st. 
Bastard, S. S. and Co., merchants, James st. 
Burrow, R., draper, 173, Fore street. 
Barbery, W., oil merchant, 144, Fore street. 

Clench, J. jun. and Co., brewers. Mermaid yard. 
Crockett, W., wine and spirit merchant, Paul st. 
Cullum, R., printer, &c., Goldsmith street. 
Cross, H., tobacconist, 76 and 77, Fore street. 
Croome, J., druggist, 47, High street. 
Coldridge& Sons, ironfounders. New North rd. 
Cuthbertson, J., baker, &c.. South street. 
Craig, S., draj)er, Oakhampton street. 

Dewdney, K. H., tea dealer, 82, Fore street. 
Deane, W. R., friller, Coorabe street. 
Downe, W., plumber. South street. 
Dean, C, civil engineer. Castle street. 
Dyer, T., druggist, St. Thomas street. 

Kllett, J. B., Butclicrs' Arms, Market street. 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



xliii 



Froom, W. and Son, druggists, Novth street. 

Gaul, R., coppersmith, 42, South street. 
Gould, C. S., grocer, 40, Higli street. 

Howell, \V., Steam Packet agent, C^athedral yd. 
Hucklebridge, J., plumber, &c., 7. Paris street. 
Ham, .1., druggist, 187, High street. 
Helmore, M., ironmonger, 158, Fore street. 

Jones, J., accountant, 1, Lower Southerney. 

Kennaway, VV. esq., merchant, Friars. 

Langworthy, J., ironmonger. North street. 
Lutley, A. and S., liop merchants. South street. 
Luke and Sons, ironmongers, 93, Fore street. 

M'Kay, .T., chemist, 220, High street. 
Moxon, R., grocer, 70, High street. 
MoUand, J., ironmonger, Water Beer street. 
Matthews, H. and Co., wholesale druggists, 
101, Fore street. 

Owen, T. jun., brewer. City Brewery. 
Oke, T. B., accountant, Alphington street, 

Perriara, J., general agent. Quay. 
Punchard, S., Dolphin inn, Market street. 
Poole, S. sen., dyer, E.\e Islands. 

Rew, W., tanner. 

Rossitcr, E.^jjlass dealer. High street. 

Rendell, S., Royal Oak, Milk street. 

Sercomb, J. C. and G., merchants. Quay. 
Sanders, W., tanner, Woodbui y, near Exeter. 
Shepperd, J., wine merchant, 57, Magdalen st. 
Sanders and Snow, wine merchants. Gaudy st, 
Sercorabe, T., porter merchant, 100, Fore street. 
Strong, J., Powhey mills, Exe Islands. 
Strong, W. esq., merchant, Exe Islands. 

Tanner, F. esq., merchant, Colleton crescent. 
Tucker, W., Crown and Sceptre inn. North st. 
Tombs, W., banker. Fore street. 
Tosswill, J. H., grocer, 86, Fore street. 
Tuckett, N., t.illow chandler, 1C3, Fore street. 
Tricks, W., fuller, 35, South street. 

Underhay, W., tanner, Heavitree. 

Visick, R. G., oliemist, 217, High street. 

White, J., ship owner, Magdalen street. 
Worthy, J. esq., merchant, Bartholomew terrace. 
Willcocks, J. C. and Co., nien-hants, 178, Fore st. 
White, J., upholder, &c., Magdalen street. 
Willcocks, P., Vali int Soldier inn, HoUaway. 
Wills, W., tallow chandler. Frog street. 



FALMOUTH. 

Sanders, — esq., landing waiter. 

GLOUCESTER. 

Alexander, James, esq.. Customs. 

Brimmel, Wm., ship chandler. 
Butt, R., merchant. 
Bird and March, ship chandlers, &c. 
Brown, Gopsell, sliip agent. 

Donelan, James, esq., Customs. 
Davis, T. A., wharfinger. 
Davies, Thomas, ship broker. 

Fox, Sons, and Co., merchants. 
Forster, John, mercliaut. 

Gibbs, Bright, and Co., ship agents. 

Heane, J. R., wharfinger. 
Hair, J.N., grocer. 

•lohnsons and Tasker, wine merchants. 
Jenkins .and VVoodhouse, wine merchants. 

Kimberly, J. P. esq., merchant. 

Kendall, Wm. and Son, merchants. 

Lloyd, Wm. King, esq., landing waiter. Customs. 

Martin, Washbourn, & Lloyd, wine merchants, 

Mayer, Francis, soap boiler. 



Price and Washbourn, merchants. 
Partridge, Wm. es(i., merchant. 

Steger, G. G. esq.. Customs. 
Shipton, J. M. esq., merchant. 
Sturge, Thomas M. esq., agent. 
Southan and Son, merchants. 

Tripp (Brothers), merchants. 

Vining, Gerard, and Vining. 

Win tie, John, and Co., wine raerchantg. 

HARWICH. 

Robert Welch, esq., collector of Customs. 
Frederick Freshfield, esq.. Customs. 
Billingsley and Co., merchants. 
George, Thomas, esq., merchant. 
Mayer, Samuel, jun.. Customs, 
Ranfield, Wm., merchant. 

HONITON. 

Basleigh and Avery, merchants. 

Francis, Wm., engineer gas works. 

Hussey, J. B., auctioneer. 

Lee, Wm., builder. 

Pine, Wm., maltster. 

Pidgeon, John, wine & spirit merchant. 

Stroud, Edward, King's Arms Inn, High street. 

Wheaton, W'm., ironmonger. 



HULL. 

Charles Lutwidge, esq.. Collector of Custom s. 

Thomas Rodmill, esq.. Comptroller of Customs. 

Wm. Ilarbord, esq., Comptroller of Accounts. 

Bean, W. F., Customs. 

Cramp, R. and Co., merchants. 

Cockey, Petei', esq., landing surveyor. Customs. 

Coningworth, Robert, Customs. 

Clay and Squire, merchants. 

Eyre, M. esq., merchant. 

Foster, J. esq., merchant. 

Good, W. C. esq., merchant. 

Gay, Thomas, esq., landing waiter. Customs. 

Kidd, John, Customs. 

Price, T. S. esq., merchant. 
Priest, W. esq., merchant. 

Roe, II. W., Customs. 
Roberts, John, Customs. 

Sanderson, J. and J., merchants. 
Snowden, T. J., Customs. 
Somerscales, Charles, Customs. 
Scaife, Thomas, Customs. 

Terry, R., and Sons, merchants. 
Thompson, T. esq., merchant. 

Walker, Joshua, Customs. 

ILFRACOMBE. 

Dennis, Charles, merchant. 

Harris, G., and Co., ship builders. 
Huxt,able, W., Agent for Droits of Admiralty. 

Jones, John, surgeon, &c. 

Moon, Robert II., surgeon and chemist. 

Sye, W. B. 

KINGSBRIDGE. 

Balkwill, John, maltster. 



Ixiv 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Bi(;nell, G. E., maltster. 

Blamy, George, grocer and miller. 

Crimp, Richard, maltster. 
Cranch, R. D., coal merchant. 
Crump, William, tea dealer. 

Dennis, James, cmrier, grocer, &c. 

Foale, Robert, Kings Arms hotel. 
Fox, George, esq, banker. 
Fryer, Charles, grocer. 

Grant, Henry, ship owner, &c. 

Hooper, John, grocer, &c. 

Hiugston, Josepli, timber and coal merchant. 

Jordain, Joseph, ship builder, &c. 

I.akeman, John, grocer. 

Prideaux, R. I., esq. 

PolyblanU, R., auctioneer and spirit merchant. 

Randall, Peter, giocer and maltster. 

Sprague, John, ironmonger. 

Toms, Reuben, malster and cooper. 

Weymouth, William, shipowner and maltster. 
Weekes, Toope Samuel, builder. 

LIVKRPOOL. 

Arnaud Elias, esq., '.'oUeetor, ('ustoms. 

John Grimes, esq., Comptmller, Customs. 

Ade, R.esq., Customs. 

Aslitoii, K. 

Brandies, S. A., merchant, 24, King street. 

Bridge, J.O., Customs. 

Bezer, J.T. esq., Customs. 

Blease, P., Cust ans. 

Baiford, J. 

Brown, Edward. 

Barber, W. 

Bunting, Thomas, Customs. 

Benson, O. 

Brown, W. and James (3 Copies). 

Bebby, John, and Co. 

Benbow, 11. and J., and Co. 

Bennett, G. 

Barrow, W. 

Byrne, Andrew E. 

Barkwell (Brothers), tea dealers. 

Barrow, J. and J., brokers, Exehange. 

Beazley, Mr., Bold street. 

Carter, W. M., at Ewart, Myers, and Co., 

brokers, 3, Exchange buildiugn. 
Clifford, J. 
Colquhoun, D. 
Closson, Philip. 
Cammeron, Culin. 
Crosby, Henry. 
Christian, William, Customs. 
Cliisholm, C. 
Cram and Smith. 
Crump, John, and Co, 
Cam and Telo. 
Cleaver, E. 
Can, H. W. 
Carrington, Richard. 
Carter, J. 
Chappie, William. 
Chauncey, H. C.J., Customs. 

Donovan, A. F., at Wainwright and f^o., 

merchants, James street. 
Duncan, J., esq., meichant, India buildings. 
Derinzey, Robert, Custums. 
Dickenson, Thomas, Customs. 
Denton, William. 
Davies, Robert. 
Dawson, Joseph. 
Dickson, R. W. 
Daniel, John. 

Edwards, Dawson, and Co., brokers, E.\change 
street, east. 



Evans, J. 

Evans, J. S. 

Elberly, W. 

Eastwood, Charles. 

Fluker, W., Customs. 

Fletcher, J. 

Fairclougli, R. 

Fisher, R. 

Frager, U. 

Fryer, W. 

Froster, Thomas. 

Guibalt, James, Customs. 

Green, William. 

Gunning, Daniel. 

GiUer and Co. , 

Gardner, R. J. 

Gugter, W. 

Gilbert, E. 

Hodgson, John, at Andrew Tayler's and Co , 

Goree piazza. 
Horley and Eyre, druggists. Seel street. 
Hegan, HalK and Co., merchants, Mersey 

chambers (4 Copies.) 
Harper, C. W., esq., Customs. 
Hussey, William. 
Hodson, II. 

Hinchliffe, W., Customs. 
Hultou, Robert, and Co. 
Hamilton, C , and Co. 
Heath, Charles. 
Hall, Robert. 
Hilton, Thomas. 
Heblelhwaite, John. 

Hey wooil and ('o., merchants, 3, Romfurd place. 
Irlam and Thompsini, brokers, Romfort street. 
Johnson, S., and Sons, druggists, 4, Church st. 
James, Battersley, and Co., merchants, 34, 

Strand street. 
Jackson, J., Customs, 
Jagger, Thomas. 
Jackson, Richard. 
Jackson, J. 
Kelsail, J., Customs. 
Kelley, A. 
King, William. 
Kurlchenbart and Co. 
Lecle, W. G., broker, 34, Driivy lane. 
Levy, S. and A., merchants. North John st. 
Lee, Edwin. 
Lambert, H. 
Leithhoad, F. O. 
Lonsdale, J., Customs. 
Logan, James. 
Lister, R . L. 
Lister, T. H. 

Moore, John, esq., merchant, 19, Slater street. 
Molineaux and Hulbert, brokers. Temple ct. 
Mossop, J., Customs. 
M'Uure, F. 

Morgan, F. D., Customs. 
Marsh, T., Customs. 
M'Quiston, J. 
Muirhead, J. 
Mealey, J. 

Morrall and Woodward. 
Moore and Christian. 
M'Leod, R., and Co. 
Nyren, John. 
Nevit, W. 
Neal, John. 

Peek (Brothers) and Co., tea merth.ants, North 
John street. 

Parry, David, wholesale grocer, 3, Temple ct. 

Pagilen, Elgar, Customs. 

Poole, James, and Co. 

Powell, F. H. 

Pilchard (Brothers), merchants, Tablev street. 

Quaile, J. ^ 

Rowlinson and Co., brokers. Chapel sireet. Ex- 
change. 



PATRONS AND SU15SCRIHKRS. 



Ixv 



Ruess, Mr.i merchnnt. Lord sliVL't. 

Robinson, J. E., Messrs. Robinson ami Ilad- 

wcn, brokers, 17, Tatliebaru street. 
Ross, Alex., esq., inspector yeueral of Customs. 
Robinson, H. 
Rudd, H. 

Kyland, Geo., Customs. 
Rulhbone ( IJrothers). 
Robinson, James, W. 
Robertson, A. 

Sinclair, arcbibald, nierclianl, 10, Slater street. 

Syers, Geo., Customs. 

Sherlock, Thomas, Customs. 

Stone, Henjamiu. 

Smith, William. 

Shellev. .lohn. 

Smith,' William. 

Searcher's ofilce, Custom?. 

Smithon, John. 

Smith, U., bookseller (6 Copies). 

Sherlock, Randal. 

Tate, Wm., schoolmaster, Renshaw street. 

Taylor, I'otter and Co., merchants. Old Hall st. 

Thompson, William. 

Thumble, Ilarloe, Customs. 

Thorn, J. G. 

Taylor, John, Customs. 

Tripp, J. S. 

Wintersgill, Thos., Customs. 

Willott, J. S., esii .Customs. 

Wells, John. 

Wilson, !•'. W. 

Witt, (r.-org,'. 

Wing. Vincent. 

Wariir..id, C. E. 

Walter, K. 

Woodhouse ( Brothers). 

Wallliew,J. W. 

Wilcocks, II. 

Witney, Thomas. 

Way, Edward. 

Wood, James M. 

Watham, William. 

Wo'.idrofl'e, Thos. 

Whitane, Rathboue, and Co. 

MANCHESTER. 

Robertson, Wm., dry waiter, Tib street. 
Watkins, W. B. and Co., dry Salter, 44, Spring 

gurilens. 

[No return from this town, but the number of 
Subscribers there are estimated at 400.] 

MODBURY. 

Stedwoithv, Kdw., E.Kcter inn. 



NEWCASTLE UPON-TYNE. 

Burnett, Geor^fo, esq., merchant. Love laue. 

C'olhoun, Robert, tobacconist, Side. 

Dickinson, John, esq., lead agent and general 

broker. Royal Arcade. 
Dunn, .lohn b., chemist, Head of W'estgate st. 
Davidson, e.«q., agent, Elswick row. 

Green, John and Beiij., archiiccts and survey- 
ors, Royal .\rcade. 

Kent, Robert, hatter, CoUingwood street. 

Lee, John, esq.. Alkali manufacturer. Felling. 

Patlinson, Hugh Lie, chemist and rianufac- 
turer, Close. 

Sopwith, Thos. esq., civil engineer and laud 
surveyor, Royal Arcade. 

Walkers, Parkers, Walker and Co., lead manu- 
facturers, Elsvvick. 



Bradford, Win.esq., merchant. 
Banlell, C. T., tea ilcalcr, &c. 
Balsom, John, builder. 

Clarke, Gustavus, ship owner. 
Cull, John, esq., merchant. 
Crews, Wm. esq., merchant. 

Davis, J. B., ironmonger. 

Ford, Elias, tea dealer. 

Goodenougli, Nichs., currier. 
Gasking and Symons, maltsters. 

Ilernaman, Fras., merchant. 
Hill, James, hat manufacturer. 
Ilearder, Wm., printer, &c. 
llatchwell, Henry, cabinet maker. 
J.,ethbridge, John, tallow chandler. 
Milward and Son, iron merchants. 

Pack and Co., brewers. 

Parker, W , painter. 

Pattison, Robert, Golden Lion inn. 

Rattenberry, J, W., academy. 

Society for the Attainment of Useful Knowledge. 

Stooke, Wm., limber merchant. 

Vallance, Wm., esq., merchant. 

Walk.Nichs., auctioneer. 

Winser, John, builder. 

Wells, Charles, grocer. 

Westbrook, Charles, commercial hotel. 



NEWTON BUSHEL, DEVON. 

Brandcombe, Samuel, tanner and glover. 
Davis, Geo., wheelwright. 
Evans, Hugh, wine merchant. 
Vicaray, John, tanner, &c, 

NORTH SHIELDS. 

Bell, John, Mr., tide surveyor, Dockray square. 

Forbes, Duncan, Mr., Cliflfort's fort. 

Leslie, jun. Mr., baker, Low street. 

Milbuin, Ml-., agent for the North of England 

Joint Stock Bank. 
Philipson, Mr., draper, Howard street. 
Speuce, Robt. and Co., drapers, Howard street. 



NORWICH. 

Wilde, Edward, esq. 



NEWTON ABBOTT. 
Arcy, W. T. D., solicitor. 



NOTTINGHAM. 

Rich. Morley, esq., mayor. 

Bradley John, boVibin thi-ead manufacturer. 
Barton, Jonathan, laco manufacturer. 

Carey, George, hatter. 

Carey, Francis, lace manufacturer. 

Deverill, Wm., wine merchant. 

Hay thorn, J.AV., commerci.il agent. (20 Copies.) 

Hay thorn, J. W'., cotton thread manufacturer, 

Alrcwas mills, near Lichfield. 
Herbert, Wm., tatting lace manufacturer. 

Roberts, Thomas, lace manufacturer." 
Roberts, Thos. jun and Co., lace manufacturers. 

.Spencer, James, corn factor. 
Saalfeld and Co., lace merchants. 
Sands, Robert, lace manufacturer. 

Wakefield, Thomas, cotton spinner. 
Weld, John, silk merchant. 
Waynman, Wm., lace manufacturer. 



Ixvi 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Wakefield and Smith, lace mauiifacturuis. 

PLYiAIOUTH. 

Wright, J. T. esq., collector. Customs. 
Lockyer, W. esq., comptroller. Customs. 
Gidley, Gustavus, collector Kxcise, Notte st. 
Amhoine, Harvie, navy hotel, 34, Southside st. 
Arnold, Josh., ironmonger &c., 1, Treville st. 
Ackland, W.,wholosale stationer, 32, Treville st. 
Allen, Edw. and Sun, maltsters, Stillman street. 

Bryant and James, merchants, Woolster street 

and Guy's quay- 
Beer and Isaac, plumbers, 20, Bilbnry street. 
Blatchford, Peter, miller. Kind's mill. 
Bryant Jas., starch mauufacturer. Mill street. 
Bazley, Josh., ship broker, Parade. 
Bennett, J. 11., coal merchant, Sutton wharf. 
Bayley, John, esq., merchant, 1, Brunswick ter. 
Bellman and Sons, ship agents, Woolster street. 
Blackler and Co., silk meicers, 9, Treville st. 
Barberie, J. N. esq., landing surveyor, Customs. 
Cuming, Clias. esq., merchant, 7, Gasking st. 
Carter, Thos., ironmonger, Buckwell street. 
Crocker, Tlios., Customs broker, 10, Parade. 
Collier and Dunsford, merchants. 

Davis and Dickinson, general merchants, Dead- 
man's bay. 
Davies, C, sail maker, Sonthside St., quay. 
Drescall, John, ship agent, 12, South side. 

Eardley, J. P., china glass dealer, Bedford st. 
Frean, George, corn merchant, Drake's place. 
Fellis, Richard, wine merchant, Vauxhall st. 
Foot, J. G., Customs. 

Gill, Thos. esq., merchant. Mill bay. 
Gillard, George, grocer, V2, Drake street. 

Hawker and Co., merchants, Briton side. 
Hearle, Jno., plumber, Bilbury street. 

Jenkyns, Francis, Customs. 

King, James, esq., merchant, Notte street. 
Kelly, John, solicitor, Woolster street. 
Ladd, Thos., coal merchant, Britou side. 
Luscombe, John, maltster, Hoegate street. 
Luscomlie, A. H., broker, 10, Parade. 
Luscombe, J. esq., merchant, Briton side. 
Luscombe, Richard, Customs. 
Lindon, J. esq., merchant. 
May, Josh., Bank, Wimpole street. 
Aloir, James, ironfounder. Sec, Mill bay. 
Moore, Vvm., grocer, Vauxhall street. 
Nettleton, John, ship agent. Smart's quay. 

Power, Chas., ship and general agent, 4, Parade. 
Pope, Jonathan C, shi]j owner. Teat's hill. 
Paddon, H. J., agent, 47, Park street. 
Pope, Henry, ship owner, 7. Brunswick terrace. 
Rendle Si Harris, wine merchants, 41, Bedford st. 
Scott and Co., merchants, Hoegate street. 
Sauniiers, John, secretary to tlie South Devon 

Shipping (Company, Custom House quay. 
Soper, Josh, esq., merchant, Woolster street. 
Saunders, Jno., general merchant, 30, Notte st. 
Scardon, J. S., brewer, Bilbury street. 
Stamford. N. .Sc S., glass manufacturers, Mill bay. 
Stevens, John, chart seller, sliip inn. Parade. 
Stevens, Thos., coal merchant and ship broker, 

12, Southside. 
Smitham, Wm., accountant, Cambridge street. 

Treby, Samuel, esq., merchant, Briton side. 

Veale, Wm., builder, &c.. Green street. 
Vivian, Tlios., grocer. Parade. 
Wingyett, J. B., ship owner. Lone street. 



SALCOMBE. 

Adams, N., esq., agriculturist, Higher row. 



Hall, John, ship-builder. 

Ball, John, captain, smaik Hero. 

Bunker, William, ship builder. 

Dornham, George, captain, smack Union. 

Evans, John, ship builder. 

Hurrell, Robert, ship owner. 

Jarvis, William, draper, &c. 

Lindon, Richard, esq., merchant, Suapes. 

Prowse, James, schoolmaster. 

Sladen, captain, smack Salcombe. 
Strong, Henry, esq., merchant. 



SOUTHAMPTON. 

Right Honorable Lord Ashtown, Chessel. 

R. Bell, esq., collector of customs. 
B. Harrison, esq., comptroller of customs. 
Rev. R. Baker, rector. Parsonage Botley. 
Bennett, Joel, engraver, 14, Above bar. 
Beddlesoun, W., draper, 152, High street. "^ 
Brooks, Charles, estate agent, 52, Above bar. 
Brou n, W., glover, 9, East street. 
Bromley, C. esq., dentist, Portland terrace. 

Cray, Charles, grocer, &c., 40, High street. 
Chaunell, James, grocer, 24, High street. 

Edwards, Joseph, boot maker, 127, High street. 

Fox, Thomas, provision merchant, 132, High st. 
Fitt, Thomas, grocer, 152, High street. 
Fesk, Charles, confectioner, 144, High street. 

Glassyer, J. H., chemist, &c., 7, Higli street. 

Gater, Robert, esq., Uplands, near Botly. 

Guy, innkeeper. Dolphin. 

Houghton, Thomas, yeoman, Titchlield, Parson- 
age, Botley. 

King, Will and Co., lead, glass, &c., merchants, 
Higli street. 

Lankester, W. Sc J., iron founders, 136, High st. 

Lames, W., fruiterer, &c., 9, Hi?h street. 

Lobb, Joseph, silk mercer, 32, High street. 

Metford, Joseph, ironmonger. High street. 

Owen, J., engaver, 79, Marland place. 

Prianlx, M. M., esq., merchant, 6, Gloucester sq 

Quick, J., brewer. Bridge street. 
Quick, G., innkeeper, Southampton, Coach and 
Horses. 

R.andall, W. and Sons, chemists. High street. 
Richardson, Joseph, chemist, 17. Above bar. 

Sharland, W., bookseller, 33, High street. 
Stebbiiig, J. R., optician, &e., 47, High street. 
Simpson, Stephen, watchmaker, 29, Above bar. 
Smart. W., stationer, 154, High street. 
Stephens, confectioner, 49, Above bar. 
Smith, J. and Co., carriers. Sec, Orchard place. 
Svvyer, Thomas, innkeeper, Crowninn. 
Shepherd, innkeeper. Star inn. 

Wakeford, W., wine merchant, 91, High street 
Wlieeler, John, printer. Above bar. 
Wolff, J. J., brass founder, 75, High street. 



SOUTHMOLTON. 

Cooke, S. H., grocer, &-c 
Cliant, Robert, tMocer, &c. 
Cock, John, builder. 

Deagon. J. E., chemist, ."^ic. 
Davies, John L., esq., banker. 

Ilitclicock, Maundies and Co., manufacturers. 

Smyth, W. G., tanner. 

Tunuei, John, chemist, &c. 



PATRONS AND STTnf?CRTnKUS. 



Ixvii 



STARCROSS. 

Ash, Hpiny IJ.,sliip bruker, Sic. 
Gk'nderming, Thomas, ship owner. 

STONE HOUSE. 

Bickford, Joseph, esq-.tnorchant, Newport hou. 
Chnpple, Charles, architect, &c., Union street. 
Ellis Crawl, William, rope maker, Eldred place. 
Hocking, R., jnn., ship builder, Stonchouie. 
Hare and Son, brewers, Uiunford street. 
Narracott, N., spirit merchant, Caroline place. 

Peake and Son, ship owner, Diirnlbrd street. 
Pike, Georse, stove-grate manulactnrer, 4, 

Market street. 
Tayler, N., ship owner, lOS, Union street. 

TAVISTOCK. 

Oill, Rvmdie and Co., bankers. 
Gribble and Liiscombe, grocers. 
Lamb, Henry, chemist and druggist. 
Long, Richard, miller. 

Physick, .Tohn, auctioneer. 
Skinner, John, grocer. 
Wyers, Thomas, grocer. 

TEIGNMOUTH. 
On en, Arlhm, jun.,ship agent. 

TIVERTON. 

.T. Heathcoat, esq., M.P. 

Hryaut, R., inspector of weights and measures. 

Hodge, William, linen draper. 
Hurley, Tliomas, land surveyor. 
Hill, William, nursery and seedsman. 

Jorden, Thomas, sadler. 

Paine, William, spirit dealer. 

Teague, Richard, victualler. 

TOPSHAM. 

Davy, Francis, merchant. 

Gale, George, maltster, &c. 

Harrison, John Swale, Globe hotel. 
Holman, John, sail maker and ship agent. 

Ireland, Jabez, Half Moon inn. 

Lake, William, Salutation inn. 

Pain, James, Commercial inn. 
Popham, Thom.as, shipowner, &c. 
Percaiu, GiUiert, general merchant. 

Salisbury, James, ship owner. 

TOTNESS. 
Adiims, Henry, esq., merchant. 
Bishop, Michael, Seymourhotel. 
Cridland, Henry, junior, woolstapler. 
Coombe, Joseph, maltster. 
Crocker, Heury,eoach builder, 

Destin, Thomas, ironmonger. 

Fagwell, John, esq., merchant. 

Gilbert, William, ironfounder. 
Gill, Robert, druggist. 

HoUicrton, William, jun., chemist. 

Parrot, Thomas, esq., merchant. 



Reeve, John, grocer. 

Sawyer, Juraes, wine merchant, &c. 
Sanders, Samuel, coach builder. 

Tucker, Richard, grocer. 
Tucker, John Thomas, surveyor. 

TRURO. 

Traer, Peter, esq., landing waher, customs. 



WARMINSTER. 

Cockcrell, A. and W. 

Pocock, SamueL 

Strode, George. 

Wilkins, Edward. 

Wilkins, George. " 



WEST EXE. 

Aplin, H., fellmonger, Bampton street. 

Beedell, T., baker. 

Besley, T. S., grocer, &c., Fore street. 

Clarke, S., rope manufacturer. 

Culhbert, T., Inspector of Lace manufactory, 

Leat street. 
Capern, Thomas, maltster. 
Carew, esq., ColUpriest House. 
Cannon, B. L, Angel hotel. Fore street. ' 

Drew, W., surveyor of taxes. 

Foster, T., jeweller. Fore street. 

Gath, S., manufacturer. 

Hawkes, R., Three Tuns hotel. Fore street. 
Hall, J., esq. 

Jackson, W., engineer. 
Jones, W. D., mechanic. 

Puddecombe, J., White Horse inn. Gold street. 

Richards, J., maltster, &c., Bampton street. 

Turner, E., innkeeper, Barrington street. 

Voysey, G., corn factor. Gold street. 



WEYMOUTH. 

Raggett, Robert, esq., landing waiter. Customs. 

WHITEHAVEN. 

W'illiam Sawyer, esq., comptroller. Customs. 

Bell, Edward, Customs. 
Brown, George, accountant. 

Darnley, William, Customs. 

Grisdale, William, Custom house agent. 

Hayton, Isaac, Customs. 

Hobson, John, landing waiter. Customs. 

Jefferson, R. and H., merchants. 

Pennell, Frederick, landing waiter. Customs. 

Randleson and Forster, merchants. 

Simpson, Robinson, Customs. 

WILTON. 

Thring, William, esq. 

YARMOUTH. 

Br.icey, J. T. esq., merchant, Jetty ro.ad. 
Barber, R. esq., merchant, liri<ige quay. 
Butcher, M. and Sou, merchants. King street. 
Barth, S. J., solicitor. 

Cory, S. P.., farmer, Runham. 

e2 



Ixvili 



PATROXS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Costerton, J. F. esq., merchant, Quay. 
Fellows, Barth, and Palmer, merchants. 
Garwood, T. U. esq., mcrclmnt, South qnaj'. 

Hammond and Cherry, Steam Packet agents, 

ISridge quay. 
Hammond, R. esq., merchant. North End. 
Lacon, E. Sir, Bart., and Sons, brewers. 
Mabson, W., chemist. 
Preston, I. and Son, merchants. Quay. 
Preston, E. H. L. esq., merchant, Quay. 
Paget, S. esq., merchant. Quay. 
Paijct, F. esq., National Pjivincial Bank of 

England. 
Plummer, J. G., schoolmaster. King street. 
Palmer, N. esq., solicitor, Quay. 
Pelt. T. jun. esq., solicitor, Howard street. 
Preston, E. esq., solicitor. North quav. 
Palmer, G. D. esq., merchant. Quay.' 
Palmer, A. R.. ship builder. South quay. 
Palmer, W. H. esq., merchant. Quay. 
Palmer, S. esq., solicitor. 

Shelly, J. and Co., merchants, Quay. 
Tolver, S. esq., solicitor. Quay. 

WALES. 

MILFORD. 

Gwyther, George, Customs. 

Lewis, Thomas J., ship agent. 

"Williams, W., Customs. 
Williams, George, Customs agent. 

PEMBROKE. 

Perry, Charles, timber merchant, S;c. ' 



CARMARTHEiSr. 

L. Morris, esq., M.P. . 
J. Jenkins, esq. 
Llewellyn,'Jol>u 
Pliilipps, Wm. '~ 

MERTHYR TYDVIL. 
James, D. W. 

HAVERFORDWEST. 

Tombs, Joseph, esq , merchant. 



SCOTLAND. 

GLASGOW. 

William Mills, esq.. Lord Provost of Glas£,'ow 
D. V. M'Murdo, esq.. Collector of Customs. 

Balduren. A., esq., merchant. 
B.ur, Walter, esq., merchant. 
Brown, John, esq., merchant. 

Campbell, John, sen., and Co., merchants. 
Connall, William, broker. 
Carrick, Andrew, esq., merchant. 

Donaldson, James, and Co., brokers. 
Deans, D. D., agent. 

Eales, Robert, and Co., merchants. ; 

Ferguson, Baird, and Co., brokers. 

Handyside, N. and R., merchants, 

Jaffery, Joseph, Customs. 



Johnson, Galbraith, and Co., mercliants. 

Lamend, Robert, broker. 

Mitchell, John, esq., merchant. 
-Marten, William, esq., merchant. 
Marten and Burns, merchants. 

Piukertnn, James, sen., esq., merchant. 
Price, Hugh, esq., merchant. 

Sanderson, Robert, esq., merchant. 

Thompson and M'Connell, ship agents. 

Ure, Robert, esq., merchant. 

PORT GLASGOW. 

Archibalil Henry, Collector, Customs. 
William Munlery, Comptroller, Customs. 

liurrell, A. M., ami Co., merchants. 

King, Jlatthow, jun., and Co., merchants. 

lAt'Lachlan, Alexander, and Co., merchants. 

IRELAND. 

BELFAST. 

Cliarlos Trover, esq.. Collector, Customs. 
Agnew, John, esq. 

Bui'ke, W., esq , Warehouse-keeper, Customs. 
B.iyly, William J., Locker, Customs. 
Bell, James G., esq., merchant. 

Cl^e^ter, Thomas G., Customs. 
(;orbett, Thomas, and Co., mercliants. 
Cocman, James and William, merchants. 

Uunvill, John, esq., merchant. 

Fnrster, Robert, esq.. Landing Surveyor, Cust. 
Filzpatrick, John, Customs. 

Greene, James, Customs. 
Gamble, Robert, esq., merchant. 
Grainger, David, esq., merchant. 

Hurd, Jo.seph, esq., ship broker. 
Heyn, Gustavus, esq, merchant. 

Keigan, James, esq., merchant. 
Kane, John, esq., merchant. 

Lowth, Henry, Weigher, Customs. 
Lemen, James, esq., merchant. 

Motfett, Joshua, Customs. 
M'Faden, Phillip, Customs. 
M'Clure, William, and Son, merchants. 
M'Gee and Abbott, merchants. 
M'Entire, R. and J., merchants. 

Nicholl, Henry, esq., merchant. 
Neill, Robert, esq., merchant. 

Ross, James, Customs. 
Riford, Lewis, esq., merchant. 

Shannon, J. B., esq., merchant. 

Topping, George, esq., ship broker. 
Thompson, Richard, esq., merchant. 
Thomson, Samuel, esq., merchant. 

GALW^AY. 

J. Lushington Reilly, Collector, Customs. 
J. Kearney, Esq., Comptroller, Customs. 

Fyrm, James, esq., merchant. 

Hadley, Me Donogh and Co., ship brokers. 

Lynch, Mark, esq., merchant. 

Reilly, J., (,'ustoms. 

WATERFORD. 

James Wallan, esq., Collector, Customs. 



PATRONS AND SllHSClil HKKS. 



Ixix 



John Siiiitliprs, (•>(!., ComiitroUer, Customs. 
I^irilcn, Juliii, nieicliaut. 

FaiTi'II, Matthew, ship bvoker ami commission 

ageiit. 
I/a»son, James, chief clerk, Customs. 
Lee. James, general commission ajji-nt. 

Mone, llenjamin, shij) broker and ciimmission 
agent. 

Pope, Kichard and Co., ship brokers and agents. 

White, George and Albert, merchants.' 

GUERNSEY. 

Barbet, M. 
bronard, Nicholas. 

Carey, T. and Son. 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Davey and Co. 

De Putron, F. and Co. 

Gui'rin. (Brothers). 
Guille, William. 

Harris, Peter G. '• 
Iseraonger, R. W. 
Jones, William. 
Jones. John, notary public. 

Le Lievre and Matthews. 

Manger, J. jun. 
MouUin, .John. 
Mellish, John. 

Priaulx, Langa and Co, 
Price, Frederic, jun. 

Radford, George, R. 

Symes, Belts and Co. 
Stevens, William. 

Tapper, F. B. 

JERSEY. 

Majov-General Campbell, Lieut-Governor. 
Thomas Le Breton, esq., Attorney-General. 
Arthur, Philip. 
Authoiue, .lohn. 

Bertram, Francis. 
Benest, John. 
Blanchard, William F. 
Bicliard and Le Sueur. 
Black, Archibald. 

Croix De Ste, P. F. and J. 
Dean, Philip. 
Fruing, William. 
Gosset, Isaac lUlgrove. 
Hemery, (Brothers). 
Hocquard, Francis. 
Le Breton, Francis. 
Le Cras, Abraham Jones. 
Le Ouesue, Nicholas, jun. 

Nicholle, Philip, jun. 

Neel, Klias. 

Ouetteville, D. (Brothers). 

Pike, Samuel. 
Pellier, Philip. 
I'erree, John, and i^ons. 
Prittie, G. P., Customs. 

Robin, Charles, and Co. 
Banwell, William. 
Rider, Joseph, Customs. 
Rider, James, Customs. 



."Stephens, Sd-phcu, jun. 
Turner, 'I'homas. 
Vibert, Philip. 
Westbruok, William. 



II L L A N 1) . • 



ROTTKRD.VM. 

Blankenhi-ym, D. and C, merchants. 
Bersot de, and OIneen. morohants. 
lilokliuy/.i'ii, D. Van, for the .\niieitla. 
Burger, 1). and Son, ship ageuts. 
Boutmy and Cii., ship agents. 
Browne, TMos. and .S(Ui, merchants. 
Beyer, B. .\. Mispelblom, merchant. 

CoUings and Maigny, merchants. 

Dobree, 11. and J., merchants. 

EUerman, .\., merchant. 
Ks, P. A. Van, ship agent. 

Fisenne and Philippi, merchants. 
Ferrier, Alexander (4 Copies). 

Guldemond, E., merchant. 
Gibson, George, merchant. 

Iloboken, A. Van, and Sons, merchants. 
Iludig, John, ship agent. 

Jong, Gt. de, for the Lees Museum. 
Jung, G. G. and Co., merchants. 

Kelirmann, F. A., merchant. 

KoKf. Corn. J. Van Santen, merchant. 

Kreglinger and Co., merchants. 

Kuyiier Van Dam, and Smeer, merchants. 

Kuowles and Smyth, merchants. 

Lenersan and Co., merchants. 
Laming, James, merchant. 
Laboucliere and Co., merchants. 

Macdonald, Gibb and Co., merchants. 
Macpberson, Camjibell and Co., merchants. 
Mees and Moens, merchants. 

Noltebohra, (Brothers), merchants. 

Preston, A. S. 

Pluygers and Hauck, merchants. 

Ringrose, C. L. and Co., merchants. 
Ryckworsel, TL Van, merchants. 

Smith, W. merchant and ship agent. 
Stewart, Charles, merclianl. 
St. Martin, merchant. 

Twiss, Robert, merchant. ' 

Varkwiser and Hodges, merchants. 
Vyver, Vander (Brothers), merchants. 

Wilkeus, Thorbecke and Co., merchants. 



SPAIN. 
CADIZ. 

Brackenbury, W. jun. esq., vice & acting consul. 



PORTUGAL. 
OPORTO. 

F.dwin J., IL M. Johnson, esq., consid. 

Archer and Miller. 

Ashworth, Wiltuu and Co. 

Atkinson, John. 

Alvarenga, Koclior,jun. and Co. 

Butler, Nephew ami Co. 



Ixx 



PATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS, 



Clamouse, Emanuol ilp, (Brown). 
Cocklmvn, Gieig and Dunlop. 

Dow, James. 

Forrester, Jos. James. 

Hill, S. 

Harris, Quavles, sen., J. D. and Co. 

Hunt, Roojie, Teasje and Co. 

Joao, Ferra. dos Stos. Sii., jun. 
Joao, Edward de Britoe Cemlia. 

Kemliavdt, C. J. 
Knowsley, Geo. 

Mallen. Joas. 

Morrugh, Walsh, Jones and Co. 

Mello, P. F. de. 

Noble, C. H.andMurat. 

Newtnn, Isaac. 

O'Reirne, Thomas. 

Ormerod, L. 

Offley, Forrester, and Webber. 

Page, C. R. 
Perry, Joseph. 
Perry, Francis. 
Quillinan, J. Thomas. 

Russell, R. H. 

Redjiatli, Geo. A. 

Rougliton, W. G. 

Reid, George. 

.Sealy, A. R. 

Sanderaan, George, and Co. 

Smitli, Woodhouse and Co. 

Smith, J. S. 

Taylor, Fladgate and Co. 

Wright, J. R. 
Wye, John. 



WEST INDIES. 

ST. KITT'S. 
Hon. J. K. Waltley, chief judge, Basseterre. 



Robert Claxton, esq., Collector of Customs. 
Henry King, esq.. Comptroller, Customs 

Abbott, Wm. M. jun., Basseterre. : 
Aolam, Horatio, Basseterre. 
Abbott and Troclor, Basseterre. 

Berkeley, C. A., Customs. 
Barr, John and Co., Basseterre. 
Barnes, J. K., Basseterre. 
Bankheads, A. and Co. 
Barridge, J. S. and Co. 
Berkeley, John, Basseterre. 

Claxton and Woodcock, solicitors. 

Claxton, Robert. 

Caver, Samuel, Basseterre. 

Evans, Edward, Basseterre. 

Gowan, William, Basseterre. 
Garnett, John H., Basseterre. 

Howe, J. A., Basseterre. 
Harper, Thos. , Colonial Secretary. 

Kinikeny, H. E., Customs. 

Lynch, N. J. 

Livermore, Thos.,' Basseterre. 

Nicolay, Geo. W., Customs. 

Ottley, Thos., Basseterre. 

Pencheon, Jas. Wm. " 

Palmer, Jas. F., Basseterre. 
Piguinit, Wigley and Burt, solicitors, 

Saunders, Robt, searcher. 
Sheffield, Beecher, & Co., Newhaven, Connec- 
ticut, U. S. America. 
Seaton, Geo. 

Tudor, J. Earle, Basseterre. 
Taylor, F. M., Basseterre. 
Thornton, Robt. Thos. (10 Copies.) 
Thurston, Wanton, Basseterre. 
Tapshire, Geo. M., Basseterre. 
Tapshire, A., Basseterre. 

Wattley, Geo., Basseterre. 



SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES 



Received too lale for insertion in the regular order. 



LONDON. 

Abrahamson, J. esq., merchant, 55, Basinghall st. 

Abraliamson Clias. esq., merchant, 34, Waltiiook. 

Allan, David, and Co., merchants, Clemanst. 

AlHiud and Co., factors, 11, BasiughiiU street. 

Anderson, J. S., esq., merchant, 24, Austin 
Friars. 

Anderson, Wm. sen. and Co., merchants, 10, 
Austin Friars. 

Andrews, T. H., wine merchant. Old Jewry. 

Barnes, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Edw., 105, Piccadilly. 

Barlow, John, esq., merchant, Old Jewry. 

Biirsottand Lee, wiuemerchanis, 9, Hart street, 
Crutched Friars. 

Borrailaile, Son and t'o., merchants, 34, Fen- 
church street. 

Bhick, Wm. esq., 7, Laurence Pountney lane. 

Baumor, C. esq., merchant, 33, Gt. St. Helen's. 

Benassit, E. esq., wine merchant, 3, Crostiy liall 
chambers. 

Bevan Wm, esq., solicitor, 2l01d Jewry. 

Britannia Life Assurance Company, Prince's 
street. Bank. 

Baldwin, Chas. P.. esq., 6, Parliament street. 



Clifton and Hitchcock, wine merchants, 27, To- 

keuhouse vard. 
Capleton, Mr., grocer, 2, Crawford street. 
Clayton, Edward, Mr., UO, Fenchurclr street. 
Claridge, Francis and George, 113, Fenchurch st. 
Conway, B. Mr., 30, Pancras place. 
Copland, Barnes and Co., merchants, 9, New 

Bro.ad street. 
Churchill & Sim, timber brokers, 5, Old Broad st. 
Curling, Young and Co., merchants, 10, George 

yard, Lombard street. 
Drake, Geo. Mr., artists' colorman, 6, Tower 

Royal. 
Devitt and Moore, ship brokers, Langbourn 

chambers. 
Davis, John Elienezer, esq.. Secretary to tha 

Hon. Irish Society, Guildiiall. 

Gandell, J. esq., iron merciiant, 1, Suffolk lane. 

Humphrey, John, esci-, M.P. 

Hollond, Bobt.esq., M.P. 

Herring, Charles, esq., ship broker, 6, King s 

Arms yard. 
Hinton, Edw. esq., merchant, 8, Warnford ct. 



PATRONS AND SUbSCRIBERS. 



Ixxi 



11 lulson, Wulter, esq., ruerchaiit, 16, Criiwfovrl st. 

Hull, F. and J., merclianls, 3, VValbrook bUlgs. 

Hamsun and Aleploghiu, inercliants, 1, Copt- 
hall chambers. 

Hendricks, H., nieichant, l.Copthall chambrs. 

lleppell, (i. H. Mr., fuieign fVuiteier, I'lince's 
street, IJauk. 

Hirl, E. esq.. Patent White Lead Cumpany, 29, 
Austin Friars. 

Ivimy, John, esq., merchant, 4, lirabanl ct. 
Jameson, Hunter and Co., merchants, 110, Fen- 
church street. 
Jacobson, J. esq., merchant, 8, Fonchurch st. 
Jones, J. esq., merchant, 78, Old broad street. 

Lamb, John, Mr., a^eiit, 2, Fen ct., Fenchurch st. 
Labat, J. H. & C'o.,meri-hauts, 103, Fenchurch st. 
I^uidaud Hall, wool broUeis, 9, Old Jewry. 
Lou;,'hnan & Hughes, brokers, 11, IJasiughall st. 
Lonsdale, G. B. escj., Anglo Mexican Mining 
Company, New Broad street. 

Morby and Co., paper manufacturers, 13, George 
street. Mansion House. 

Monkhouse, Winter and Bowman, warehouse- 
men, 21, Budge row. 

Mears, E. W. esq.. Colonial agent, 5, Leaden- 
hall street. 

Roxon, B. esq., 5, Baldwin court. Cloak lane. 
Railton, John, esq., ship agent. Feu ct., Fen- 
church sheet. 
Ropes, W. esq., merchant, 80, Old Broad st. 
Richards, Wm. e^q., 12, New city chambers. 
Roberts, C, broker, JetVery's sq.. Si. Mary Axe. 
Ramsgate Harbour OfTice, Austin Friars. 

Sipiibb, G. J. esq., 6, Orchard st., Poitman S([. 
Smithers, H. K. jun.. Commercial Dock Com- 
pany, 106, Fenchurch street. 
Schneider, J no. esq., merchant, 10, Old Broad st. 
Scott, Joseph, esq., merchant, Basinghall st. 

Todhunter, Benj. esq., broker. Mincing lane. 

Venning, Wm. and Co., merchants. Old Jewry. 

Williams & Waring, merchants, 38, Mincing la. 

Young, Geo. F. esq., M.P. 
Young, Dowson and Co., Ship Register Office, 
CoruhUl. 



BRISTOL. 

Bruce, Robert, jun., Dutch Vice-Cousul. 

Cripps, Wm.,Tido Surveyor, Customs. 

Edwards, G, music warehouse, 31, Upper arcade. 

Griffiths, David, Exchange. 
Gutch and Martin, Small street. 

Homes, John A., Albion Chambers. 

Lunell, George, and Co., Agents to Steam Navi- 
gation Company, Quay. 
Land, W. H. iind Co., Union court. Corn street. 

Rice, Francis, accountant. Queen square. 
Rees, J., bookseller, 31, College green. 

Savage, W., wine and spirit merchant, Doury 

parade. 
Taylor, John, Proprietor of Bristol Mirror. 
Trapnell, Heury, Queen street, St. Michael's. 

Williams, James, Small-street court. 



MANCHESTER. 

Simms, Wm., paper maker, Farnuorth mills 
near Boltoa. 



SOUTHAMPTO N 
Roes, John, stationer, Sic. (b Copies.) 



STRATFORD ON AVON. 

Iiucy, Cliarlcs, miller. 



SWANSEA. 

Bevau, Henrv, Customs. 

Bond, John, Castle. 

Bath, Henry, and Son, merchants. 

Beer, R. W.," solicitor and notary public. 

Dawkhi, George, ship agent. 

Evans, John, ship agent. 

Gilbart C, ship agent. 

Lewis, W., Customs. 
Lloyd, D., Customs. 
Loveluck, W., Customs. 

Meager, F., coal merchant. 

Poingdestre, J., esq., mercliant. 

Sanders, D., ship agent. 



WEXFORD. 

James Edwards, Collector, Customs. 

Brenan, Thomas, esq., merchant. 
Harrington, John, esq., merchant. 

Gafney, Timothy, esq., mercliant. 
Green, John, Editor and Proprietor of Wexford 
Independent Paper. 

Kaveuagh, Laurence, esq., merchant. 

O'Connor, Richard, esq., merchant. 

Powell, Wm., agent for Lloyd's. 

Roche, John, es<[., merchant. 

Rowe, T., Agent for Steam Packet Office. 

Whitty, Rev. George. 



WINCHESTER, 

V. Earl, esq.. Mayor, St. Thomas street. 

Benny, ('. W., grocer, Higli street. 
Bird, Robert, solicitor-. Parchment street. 

Coles, Wm., builder, ICingsgate street. 

Gillum, W., wine merchant, Hyde street. 

Houghton, Wra., builder, Southgate street. 

Maiit, Edward, esq. merchant, Kingsgate st. 

Parraiter, John, grocer, High street. 
Powell, Edward, chemist, &c.. High street. 

Bobbins, James, bookseller. College street. 
Seard, Henry, esq., merchant, College wharf. 
Stone, James, confectioner. High street. 

Thomas, C. R., linen draper, &c., High street. 

Wells, Charles, draper, Kingsgate street. 
Williams, Rev. W. T., St. Cross. 

Young, James, woolstapler, St. Tltomas street. 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Thome, George. 



MONTREAL. 

W. Hall, Collector, Customs. 

R. H. Hamilton, Comptroller, Custoitrs 

Armour, Robert. 

Court, James. 



Ixxii 



rATRONS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Dongall, J., jun., esq., merchant. 

Forsytli, Richardson and Co., merchants. 

Gillespie, Muffall, Jameson and Co., merchants 

Hart, B. and Co., merchants. 
Hawkins, Alfred, merchant. , , 

I,e Rofiue, F. A., merchant. 
Le Measnrer and Co., merchant. 
Mills, J., tide snrveyor. Customs. 
Molson, Da% ies and Co., merchants. 
Miller, J. 
M'Kcnzie and Co. 

Scott, James. 

Thain, T., landing vvaiter. Customs. 
Torrance, John and Co., merchants. 
Tobin, Murison and Co., merchants. 

■\Vorkman, Wm. 



MIRAlMICni. 



Hon. Joseph Cunard. 
Alexander Rankin, esq. 
John A. Street, esq. 
John Wright, esq. 
Henry Cunard, esq. 
George Kerr, esq. 
Richard Blackstock, esq. 
John M. Johnson, esq. 
J. Dean, esq. 
R. M. Clarke, esq. 
Stafford Benson, esq. 
T. C. Allan, esq. 
"\Vm. Carm.an, esq. 
Thomas II. Peters, esq. 
Mr. ,1. A. Pierce. 
]Mr. ^Vm. Davidson. 
Mr. .^. P. Hendersun. 



Mr. Robert Morrau. 
Mr. John Rue. 
Mr. Henry Wiswell 
Mr. J. Bryant. 
Mr. W. Hamilton. 
Mr. M. S.amuel. 
Mr. .^. Me Ewan. ' 
Mr. Thomas Vondy. 
Mr. G. F. Taylor. 
Mr. A. Haddow. 
Mr. George Parker. 
Mr. James Caie. 
Mr. J. Samuel. 
Mr. (Jeorge Letson. 
Mr. Alexander Taylor. 
Mr. W. Simpson. 
Mr. W. Letson. 
Mr. A. "Wellard. 



BATHURST. 



Henry W. Baldwin, esq, 
Thomas M. Deblois, esq, 
Wm Napier, esq. 
Josej/h Ueid, esq. 
tJhipman ]'.i)ts.ford,esq. 
'\Vm. Stephens, esq. 
Mr. \Vm. Blanchard. 
Mr. Andrew Fain. 
Mr. George Deblois. 
Mr. C. M'Namara. 



RESTIGOUCIIK. 



Arthur Ritchie, esq. 
Peler Stewart, esq. 
John Montgomery, esq. 
Anitrew Barbine, esq. 



# m 



O F TH K'" 

' m//i which rhf 
»)REIGK TRADE OP TlIE UNITED KIX(»>0]Mh 

D/men ejcpresslf fyr 

THE YEARiy JOURNAL OF TRAD^ . 






C r 



THE 

YEARLY JOURNAL OF TRADE. 

1837-8. 



PART THE FIRST, 



NAVIGATION. 

ORIGIN AND OBJECTS OF THE SYSTEM. 

[The Great Charter of the Naviijjatioii System of this country was the Act of Ihe 
twL'lfih of Charles 11. The different modes which that Act provided for the 
eiK'oiiragcmeut of shipping may be arranged imdcr thti Jive following heads: — 

First, the Fisheries, The ocean is a common field, alike open to all the people 
of the earth. Its productions belong to no particular nation. It was, therefore, 
our interest to take care that so much of those productions as might be wanted 
for tlie consumption of Great Britain, should be exclusively procured by British 
industr^^, and imported in British ships. This is so simple and reasonable a ride, 
that, in this part of our Navigation System, no alteration whatever has been 
made. 

The second object which the Navigation Laws had in view was to give, to the 
shipping of this country, employment in what is called the Coasting Trade. 
When those laws were first passed, that trade was confined to England only ; 
but, since we have become legislatively united with Scotland and with Iveh\nd, it 
has embraced the whole of the British Islands. The law in this respect remains 
unchanged. 

The third object of our Navigation System was the European Trade. The 
rule laid down with regard to that trade was, that the ships of the other states of 
Europe were at liberty to bring from any port in Europe any article of European 
production, with the exception of certain articles sii.ce known in trade by the 
name of the "enumerated articles." They amount in number to twenty-eight, 
and include those commodities which, being of the most bulky nature, employ 
the greatest quantity of shipping. With respect to these "enumerated articles," 
the exception was this — that they should not be brought to our ports in any other 
than British ships, or ships of the country in which they were produced, pro- 
ceeding directly from such ctiuntry to this. This was the general state of the 
law, in respect to European commerce, from the time of its enactment, in the 
12th of Charles II., down to a recent period. Its provisions, however, ^vere more 
rigorous and exclusive towards Holland and the Low Countries. The regulations 
of that period were not framed merely for the preservation and encouragement of 
oiu' own commerct!, but also to weaken the powerful marine of Holland. (Juided 
by this policy, oru' ancestors ajiplied more severe measures towards the Dutch 
than they thought necessary towards any other nation. In this spirit it was that 
they prohibited the importation, generally, of the productions of the other 



2 NAVIGATION. [1837-8. 

countries of Euiope from Holland, instead of confining that prohibition to the 
twenty-eight enumerated articles. 

Thv. fourlh object of our Navigation System was to regidate our Cummerve with 
Asia, Africa, and America. The nde of law on this head was, that no article, the 
produce of either of those three quarters of the globe, sliould be allowed to be 
brought into an English port except in a British ship. In this branch of trade 
various modifications have been made. 

The Ji/'/i and last part of the system of our Navigation Laws related to our 
Colonies. The principle on which we acted towards those colonies was strictly to 
confine them, in all matters of trade, to an intercourse with the mother country. 
They were not allowed to dispose of any of their produce, otherwise than by 
sending it in British vessels to this country. They were equally restricted from 
receiving any articles necessary for their consumption, except from this country, 
and in British bottoms. Recently this principle has been greatly relaxed. 

"£\\Q jn-esent state of the Navigation Law is given below. — Ed.'\ 

NAVIGATION ACT. 

Goods of Europe. — The several sorts of goods hereinafter enumerated 
being the produce of Europe; (that is to say) masts, timber, boards, tar, 
tallow, hemp, tlax, currants, raisins, figs, prunes, olive oil, corn or grain, 
wine, brandy, tobacco, wool, shumac, madders, madder roots, barilla, 
brimstone, bark of oak, cork, oranges, lemons, linseed, rape-seed, and 
clover-seed, should not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used 
therein, except in British ships, or in ships of the country of which the 
goods are the produce, or in ships of the country from which the goods 
are imported.* 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 54, ^S 2. 

Goods of Asia, Africa, or America, from Europe. — Goods the produce 
of Asia, Africa, or America, shall not be imported from Evirope into the 
United Kingdom, to be used tliereiti, except the goods hereinafter men- 
tioned ; viz. 

Goods, the produce of the dominions of the Emperor of Morocco, which 
may be imported from places in Europe within the Straits of Gib- 
raltar : 
Goods, the produce of Asia or Africa, which (having been brought into 
places in Europe within the Straits of Gibraltar, from or through 
places in Asia or Africa within those Straits, and not by way of the 
Atlantic Ocean) may be imported from places in Europe within the 
Straits of Gibraltar : 
Goods, the produce of places within the limits of the East India Com- 
pany's Charter, which (having been imported from those places into 
Gibraltar or Malta in British ships) may be imported from Gibraltar or 
Malta : 
Goods taken by way of reprisal by British ships : 

Bullion, diamonds, pearls, rubies, emeralds, and other jewels or precious 
stones. § 3. 

Goods of Asia, Africa, or Ameiica, i?i Foreign Ships. — Goods, the 
produce of Asia, Africa, or America, shall not be imported into the 
United Kingdom, to be used therein, in foreign ships, unless they be 
ships of the country in Asia, Africa, or America, of which the goods are 
the produce, and from which they are imported, except the goods herein- 
after mentioned ; viz. 

Goods, the produce of the dominions of the Grand Siunior, in Asia or 
Africa, which may be imported from his dominions in Europe, in ships 
of his dominions : 

* For the sake of ixnsiiicuily, tliis regulation is digested uuder the names of the several 
articles in Imports.— iirf. 



183--8.J NAVIGATION. 3 

Raw silk and mohair yarn, the produce of Asia, which may he imported 

Irom the dominions of the Grand Signior in the Levant Seas, in ships 

of his dominions: 
Bullion. *J 4. 

Manufarttired gonds. — All manufactured <foods shall be deemed to be 
the produce of the country of which they are the manufacture. \S 5. 

Guetiisey, <^-c. — No sioods shall be imported into the United Kiu<:;dom 
from the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, except in 
British ships. ^ 6. 

British Possessiom. — No goods shall be exported from the United 
Kinplom to any British Possession in Asia, Africa, or America, nor to 
the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, except in 
British ships. »J 7. 

Coasttrise. — No goods shall be carried coastwise from one part of the 
United Kingdom to another, except in British ships. § 8. 

Guertisey, Jersey, t^-c. — No goods shall be carried from any of the 
Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, to any other of 
such i.slands, nor from one part of any such island to another part of the 
same island, except in British ships. ^ 9. 

British Possessions in Asia, t^-c. — No goods shall be carried from any 
British Possession in Asia, Africa, or America, to any other of such 
possessions, nor from one part of any such possessions to another part of 
the same, except in British ships. § 10. 

In what Vessel, into British Possessions. — No goods shall be imported 
into any British Possession in Asia, Africa, or America, in any foreign 
ships, unless they be ships of the country of which the goods are the pro- 
duce, and from which the goods are imported. § 11. 

What a British Ship, and how Navigated and Man?ied. — No ship 
shall be admitted to be a British ship unless duly registered and navi- 
gated as such ; and every British registered ship (so long as the registry 
of such ship shall be in force, or the certificate of such registry retained 
for the use of such ship) shall be navigated during the whole of every 
voyage (whether with a cargo or in ballast), in every part of the world, by 
a master who is a British subject, and by a crew, whereof three-fourths 
at least are British seamen ; and if such ship be employed in a coasting 
voyage from one part of the United Kingdom to another, or in a voyage 
between the United Kingdom and the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, 
Alderney, Sark, or Man, or from one of the said islands to another of 
them, or from one part of either of them to another of the same, or be 
employed in fishing on the coasts of the United Kingdom or of any of 
the said islands, then the whole of the crew shall be British seamen. ^S 12. 

Navigation upon Rivers, c^-c. Newfoundland Fishery, (^-c— All 
British-built boats or vessels under fifteen tons burthen, wholly owned 
and navi<iated by British subjects, although not registered as British 
ships, shall be admitted to be British vessels, in all navigation in the 
rivers, and upon the coasts of the United Kingdom, or of the British 
Possessions abroad, and not proceeding over sea, except within the limits 
of the respective colonial governments within which the managing 
owners of such vessels respectively reside ; and all British-built boats or 
vessels wholly owned and navigated by British subjects, not exceeding 
the burlheii of thirty tons, and not having a whole or a fixed deck, and 
being employed solely in fishing on the banks and shores of Newfound- 
land, and of the parts adjacent, or on the banks and shores of the 
provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, or New Brunswick, adjacent to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, or on the north of Cape Canso, or of the islands 
within the same, or in the trading coast-wise within the said limits, sliali 
be admitted to be British boats or vessels, although not registered, so long 
as such boats or vessels shall be solely so einplojed. $ 13. 

b2 



4 NAVIGATION. [1837-8. 

Honduras Ships. — All ships built in the British settlements at Hon- 
duras, and owned and navigated as British ships, shall be entitled to the 
priviletjes of British rcjiistered ships in all direct trade between the 
United Kingdom or the British possessions in America and the said 
settlements ; provided the master shall produce a certificate under the 
hand of the superintendent of those settlements, that satisfactory proof 
has been made before him that such ship (describing the same) was 
built in the said settlements, and is wholly owned by British subjects ; 
provided also, that the time of the clearance of such ship from the said 
settlements for every voyage shall be endorsed upon such certificate by 
such superintendent. $14. 

Of what Country Sh/ps deemed. — No ship shall be admitted to be a 
ship of any particular country, unless she be of the built of such country ; 
or have been made prize of war to such country ; or have been forfeited 
to such country under any law of the same, made for the prevention of 
the slave trade, and condemned as such prize or forfeiture by a com- 
petent court of such country ; or be British built (not having been a 
prize of war from British subjects to any other foreign country) ; nor 
unless she be navigated by a master who is a subject of such foreign 
country , and by a crew of whom three-fourths at least are subjects of such 
country ; nor unless she be wholly owned by subjects of such country 
visually residing therein, or under the dominion thereof: Provided that 
the country of every ship shall be deemed to include all places which are 
under the same dominion as the place to which such ship belongs. ^ 15. 

Who quulijied for BritisJt Master and Seamen. Natives of India. 
Projmrtion nf Seamen to Tonnage. — No person shall be qualified to be 
a master of a British ship, or to be a British seaman within the meaning 
of this act, except the natural born subjects of His Majesty, or persons 
naturalized by any Act of Parliament, or made denizens by letters of de- 
nization ; or except persons who have become British subjects by virtue 
of conquest or cession of some newly-acquired country, and who shall 
Lave taken the oath of allegiance to His Majesty, or the oath of fidelity 
required by the treaty or capitulation by which such newly-acquired 
country came into His Majesty's possession ; or persons who shall have 
served on board any of His Majesty's ships of war in time of war for 
the space of three years : Provided that the natives of places within the 
limits of the East India Company's charter, although under British do- 
minion, shall not, upon the ground of being such natives, be deemed to 
be British seamen : Provided that every ship (except ships required to be 
whollv navigated by British seamen) which shall be navigated by one 
British seaman, if a British ship, or one seaman of the country of such 
ship, if a foreign ship, for every twenty tons of the burthen of such ship, 
shall be deemed to be duly navigated, although the number of other sea- 
men shall exceed one-fourth of the whole crew: Provided, that nothing 
herein contained shall extend to repeal or alter the provisions of 
4 Geo. IV. c. 80, for consolidating and amending the laws then in force 
with respect to trade from and to places within the limits of the East 
India Company's charter. § IG. 

Foreigners. — It shall be lawful for His Majesty, by his royal proclama- 
tion during war, to declare that foreigners, having served two years on 
board any of His Majesty's ships of war in time of such war, shall be 
British seamen within the meaning of this Act. i^S 17. 

British Ship 7iot to depart unless duly Navigated. Lascars and Ne- 
groes. — No British registered ship shall be suffered to depart any port in 
the United Kingdom, or any Biitish possession in any part of the world 
(whether with a cargo or in ballast), unless duly navigated : Provided 
always, that any British ships, trading between places in America, may 
be navigated by British negroes ; and that ships trading eastward of the 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 5 

Cape of Good Hope within the limits of tlio Eu>t India Company's 
cliuitfi- may bo navigated by Lascars, or other natives of countries within 
those limits. ^^ 18. 

Ej-ccss of Foreign Seamen. — If any British rej,nstcred ship shall at 
any time have, as part of the crew in any part of the world, any foreij^n 
seaman not allowed by law, the master or owners of such ship shall for 
every such foreign seaman forfeit 10/.: Provided, that if a due proportion 
of British seamen cannot be procured in any foreiiz;n port, or in any place 
Avithin the limits of the East India Company's charter, for the navij^ation 
of any British ship ; or if such proportion be destroyed dnrintr the voyage 
by any unavoidable circumstance, and the master of such ship produce a 
certilicate of such facts under the hand of any British consul, or of two 
known British merchants, if there be no consid at the place where sucdi 
facts can be ascertained, or from the British governor of any ])lace within 
the limits of the East India Company's charter; or, in the want of such 
certificate, shall make proof of the truth of such facts to the satisfaction 
of the collector and comptroller of customs of any British port, or of any 
person authorized in any other part of the world to inquire into the navi- 
gation of such ship, the same shall bo deemed to be duly navigated, vj \\). 

How pri)j)oriio?i of Seitmen altered. — If His Majesty sliall, at any time 
by his royal proclamation, declare that the proportion of British seamen 
necessary to the due navigation of British ships shall be less than the 
proportion required by this Act, every British ship navigated with the 
])roportion of British seamen required by such proclamation shall be 
deemed to be duly navigated, so long as such proclan'.aliou shall remani 
in force. ^S 20. 

Goods projiibifcd. Warehotisivg. — Goods of any sort or the produce 
of any place, not otherwise prohibited than by the law of navigation 
herein-before contained, may be imported into the United Kingdom from 
any place in a British ship, and from anyplace not being a British pos- 
session in a foreign ship of any country, and however navigated, to be 
warehoused for exportation only, under the provisions of any law in force 
for the time being, made for the warehousing of goods without payment 
of duty upon the first entry thereof. ^S 21. 

Goods contrarij to Law. — If any goods be imported, exported, or carried 
coast-wise, contrary to the law of navigation, all such goods shall be for- 
feited, and the master of such ship shall forfeit 100/. ^S 22. 

SHIPS AXD BOATS. 

[The term Ship is properly given to such vessels only as have three masts, and 
are square rigf/ed ; that is, having their sails suspended from what are called 
yards, hung from the masts, and lying, usually, at right angles to the keel or 
length of tlie vessel. 

A Boat is a vessel without a deck, or open, and is propelled by oars or by 
sails; it is of endless variety of size and form, fmm the small, light, sharp- 
headed Wherries of our rivers, to the Loug-hont, Pi/inace, and Ihirge cf a Man of 
War, capable of carrying thirty or forty seamen, with arms and stures, for a 
short expedition. 

Vessels with an entire or partial deck, and having one mast, and a bowsprit, 
or mast projecting forward frum the head, are termed Shops and Cutters ; these 
carry one large, or main-sail, a top-sail, fure-sail, and jib-sail, all lying nearly in 
the line of the keel. These sails are larger in proportion to the body, or hii//, in 
the cutter than in the s/oup. The pleasure sailing-boats kept by gentkmen are 
usually cirtters, and when carrying all their sails in a gentle gale, no vessel can 
exceed them for beauty to the eye. 

Brigs are vessels with two masts, square-rigged, and are familiar to Londoners, 
fi-om the colliers, which bring us coals from the North, and lie in numbers in the 



6 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

Pool of London, below the bridge, in almost uninterrupted succession for two 
miles. Wlien vessels with two masts are not square-rigged, bui have their 
main-sails and fore-sails like that of a cutter, they are caWinl Schooners ; but this 
species of vessel is very various in its rigging. 

Ships are principally distinguished as those calhd Merchantmen, which 
belong to individuals or companies, and are engaged in commerce ; and Men-of- 
Wau, or the national ships, built for the purposes of war. The latter receive their 
designations from the number of their decks, or of the guns which they carry ; 
the largest class are termed Shifis of the Line, from their forming the Line of 
Batt/e, when acting together in fleets ; and are divided into First Hates, Second 
Rates, Third Rates, &c. First Rates include all those carrying 100 guns and 
upwards, with a company of 850 men and upwards ; Second Rates mount 90 to 
100 guns, and their complement or crew is from (J50 to 700 men; Third Rates 
have from GO to 80 guns, and from 600 to 650 men ; and so on, down to Sixth 
Rates : but some ships of less than 44 guns are termed Frigates, a name which 
is also given to others carrying a greater number of guns, the distinction 
depending on the form and arrangement of the vessel. — Ed.~[ 

SEA TERMS. 

Windward, from whence the wind blows; 

Leeward, to which the wind blows; 

Sliirljourd, the riyhf of the stern ; 

LMrbourd, the left of the stern ; 

Starboard /ie/wwhen you go to the left ; but when to the right, instead of larboard 

helm, helm-a-port ; 
Lvffyou may, go nearer to the wind ; 
Theis {thus), you are near enough ; 
Luff no near, you are too near the wind ; 
Tlie tiHer, the handle of the rudder ; 
The capstan, the weigher of the anchor ; 

The hvntlmes, the ropes which move the body of the sail, the iiw/ being the body ; 
The ^0M)//7!P«. those which spread out the sails and make them swell ; 
Ratlines, the rope ladders by which the sailors climb the shrouds ; 
The companion, the cabin-head ; 

Beefs, the divisions by which the sails are contracted ; 
Stunsails, additional sails, spread ibr the purpose of catching all the wind 

possible ; 
The fore-mast, main-mast, 7nizen-mast ; 
Fore, the head ; 
^ft, the stern ; 

Being pooped, having the stern beat in by the sea; 
To belay a rope, to fasten it ; 
The sheets, a term for various ropes ; 
The halyards, ropes which extend the top-sails ; 
The pamter, the rope which fastens the boat to the vessel. 

Jou7-nnl of a West India Proprietor. By M. G. Lewis. 

Vessels detained in Chops of the Channei , and in Want of Assistance. 

Admiralty Office, February, 1830. 
Tlie Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having had under their con- 
sideration the mode by which assistance may lie most easily and efficaciously 
afforded to the homeward-bound trade, which may be detained by adverse 
winds in the Chops of the Channel ; their J^ordships have directed that, with a " 
view to this desirable object, it be suggested to the trade in general to adopt the 
following plan on the occasions alluded to; viz. — 

"Tliat the masters of merchant vessels, detained in the Chops of Uie Channel, 
and in want of assistance, should be directed by their owners, as a standing rule, 
to keep as near as possible in what is usually marked on the charts as the fair 
way track up Channel, namely, the latitude 4',)° 27' N., until within about thirty 
miles of Scillv, stretching not more than twelve miles on each side of that 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 7 

parallel ; anil that His Majesty's ships, which may at any time be sent out to 
relieve the trade, should stretcli alon^ that space, and thus ineiease the cliances 
of ialUu}^ in with the distressed vessels. — That on i'allin}^ in with a inan-ol-war, a 
vessel, reipiirin>j assistance, should hoist the usual sij^nal of distress at her main- 
top->^allant-mast-head, and make every effort to close with His Majesty's ship ; 
and that, in order to save mucli valuiljle time in had weather, tlie name of the 
article of which the vessel is most in w.mt. sliould he written in la;t;e characters 
with chalk, on a loi^-hoard, or on the quarter-bi>ar(is, as the first boat sent from 
the man-of-war coidd then carry part of the su]iply."' 

Their Lordships will issue currespoiulin^ standinfr orders to their officers ; hut 
while they desire that the mnsters of mercliant vessels should conform to these 
suggestions, they are anxious to press upon them the necessity of being provided 
with adetju.ite resources, to meet the contingency of foul \\iiids, without rehing 
too mucli on f.illiug in with His Majesty's ships, even in the track pointed out, 
as so many circumstances may occasionally occur to disappoint such expec- 
tations. J. W. Ckokeu. 

No Vessel to erijoi/ Privileges until Registered. — No ship shall be en- 
titled to any of tlie privileges or advantages of a British registered ship, 
unless tlie persons claiming property therein shall have caused the same 
to have been registered in virtue of the fi Geo. IV. c. 1 10, or 4 Geo. IV. 
c. 44 (former Registry Acts), or imtil such persons shall have caused the 
same to be registered, and sliall have obtained a certificate of such regis- 
try from the persons authorized to make such registry and grant such 
certificate. 3 and 4 Will.IV. c. 5;5. ^^2. 

Malta, Gibraltar, and Heligoland. — No ship to be registered at Heli- 
goland, except such as is wholly of the built of that place, and ships, 
after having been registered at Malta, Gibraltar, or Heligoland, shall not 
be registered elsewhere : and ships registered at Malta, Gibraltar, or Heli- 
goland, shall not be entitled to the privileges and advantages of British 
ships in any trade between the said United Kingdom and any of the Bri- 
tish possessions in America. § 3. 

Ships exercising Privileges before Pegistry. — In case any vessel, not 
being duly registered, and not having obtained such certificate of registry 
as aforesaid, shall e.xercise any of the privileges of a British ship, the 
same shall be subject to forfeiture : Provided always, that nothing in this 
Act shall extend to affect the privileges of any ship which shall, prior to 
the commencement of this Act (Sept. 1, 1833) have been registered by 
virtue of 6 Geo. IV. c. 110 (former Registry Act). ^ 4. 

IVhat Ships entitled to be Registered. — No ship shall be registered, or 
having been registered shall be deemed to be duly registered, bv virtue of 
this Act, except such as are wholly of the built of the United Kingdom, 
or of the Isle of Man, or of the Islands of Guernsey or Jersey, or of some 
of the colonies, plantations, islands, or territories in Asia, Africa, or Ame- 
rica, or of Malta, Gibraltar, or Heligoland, which belong to His Majesty, 
at the time of the building of such ships, or such ships as shall have been 
condemned in any Court of Admiralty as prize of war, or such ships as 
.shall have been condemned in any competent court as forfeited for the 
breach of the laws made tor the prevention of the slave trade, and which 
shall wholly belong and continue wholly to belong to His Majesty's sub- 
jects duly entitled to be owners of ships registered by virtue of this Act*. 
\S 5. 

* Transfers of Shares. — l?y C. O., Sept. 1. 1835, notice is f;ivcn, that in all fiitinc transfers of 
shares in sliips, each iiarly liansfeirinf; a share or sliares will be rfquircd eiUier to do so bv a 
separate conveyance : or where all the owners of shares join in the conveyance of the whole ship, 
they will be required, in the recital of the conveyance, to state what sliare or shares each of 
them holds; and in the granting part, each party will l)^^ required to convey his own share or 
shares. 

By T. L., Nov. 25, 183G, foreign vessels are pl.iced upon the same footing as British vessels 
or the exportation of goods to foreignp arts without hein;,' remeasiired under 5 & 6 W. IV. c. 
56 [p. U], and that in all cases in which it can he proved by the production of certificates, 
tliat foreign vessels have heretofore had tlie privile;;e of carrying bonded goods, ihey may be 
permitted to retain that privilege under the same regulations as ai i)resent. Transfers 



8 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

Name of Vessel, Port, and Master, and nf Boat. — The owner of every 
vessel belonging in the whole or in part to iiny of His Majesty's subjects 
shall paint or cause to be painted upon the outside of the stein of every 
boat belonging to such vessel the name of such vessel, and the place to 
■which she belongs, and the master's name withinside the transuni, in 
white or yellow Roman letters, not less than two inches in length, on a 
black ground, on pain of the forfeiture of such boat not so marked, 
wherever the same shall be found. § 1 1. 

Names. Boats not bftonging to Ships. — The owner of every boat, 
not belonging to any vessel, sliall paint or cause to be painted upon the 
stern of such boat, in white or yellow Roman letters of two inches in 
length, on a black ground, the name of the owner or owners of the boat, 
and the port or place to which she belongs, on pain of the forfeiture of 
such boat not so marked, wherever the same shall be found. § 12. 

Hotr Vessels and Boats used in Piloting or Fishing to be painted, — 
Tlie owners of every vessel or boat employed on the coasts of the United 
Kingdom in piloting or fishing shall paint or tar every such vessel or 
boat, or cause the same to be painted or tarred, entirely bhick, except the 
name or other description now required by law to be painted on such ves- 
sel or boat ; and every such vessel or boat found not so painted or tarred, 
and every boat so painted as to resemble any boat usually employed for 
the prevention of smuggling or in any other employment in His Ma- 
jesty's service, shall be forfeited: Provided always, that nothing herein 
shall extend to prevent any distinguishing mark from being placed on 
any such vessel or boat, or to be otherwise painted, if the commissioners 
of customs shall think proper to allow the same, and whitdi shall be so 
expressed in the licence of the said vessel or boat, vj 13. 

Vessels havi^ig secret places or devices for running goods. — All ves- 
sels and boats belonging in the whole or in part to His Majesty's sflbjccts, 
having false bulk-heads, false bows, double sides or bottoms, or any secret 
or disguised place whatsoever in the construction of the vessel or boat 
adapted for the purpose of concealing goods, or having any hole, pipe, or 
other device in or about the vessel or boat adapted for the purpose of run- 
ning goods, shall be forfeited. ^S 14. 

What Vessels to be Licensed. — AH vessels belonging in the whole 
or in part to His Majesty's subjects, not being square-rigged or propelled 
by steam, and all vessels belonging as aforesaid, whether propelled by 
steam or otherwise, being of less burthen than '200 tons, of which the 
length is to the breadth in a greater proportion than three feet six inches 
to one foot, and all such last-mentioned vessels carrying arms for re- 
sistance, and all vessels of more than '200 tons burthen, belonging as 
aforesaid, armed with more than two carriage guns of a calibre exceeding 
four pounds, and with more than two muskets for every ten men, and 
all boats belonging as aforesaid, which shall be found within 100 leagues 
of the coast of the United Kingdom, shall be forfeited, unless the owners 
thereof shall have obtained a licence from the commissioners of customs 
in the manner hereinafter directed *. 3 & 4 W. IV. c. 53, ^S 16. 

Other Vessels and Boats to be Licensed. — Every vessel or boat l)elong 
ing in the whole or in part to His Majesty's subjects, or whereof one-half 
of the persons on board shall be subjects of His Majesty, (not being a 
lugger, and at the time fitted and rigged as such,) which shall be navi- 

Transfcrs of Ships (ir Shares cf Ships.— V.y C. 0.,Dec. 18, iS35, cacli parly trausfenin- will 
ha lequirod ciUR-r to do so by a separate conveyance, or where llie owners of sliares join in one 
conveyance tliey will be re(|uired to slate what share or shares each conveys. And in the 
j,'rantiiig part after tlie ciistomary words, " ]Lcrant, bargain, sell. assi;;n, and set over it," tlie 
words " in the proportions above specified" sliall likewise be inserted. 

* ]!y 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. GO. § 8, tlie owners of boats solely enga;,'ed in fishini? on the coasts of 
Scotland shall not be required to obtain licences for navigating tlie same from the commis- 
sioners of customs uuiler the provisions of the above Act. 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 9 

gated 1))' a fireator imnibcr of men (dUicci'S and bnys iiulu<1cd) tluui in 
tlic following- i)r()i)oi'tions ; viz. 

ir of ;^0 tuns or nndcr, and above 5 Ions, 1 men 

CO .'50 . . 5 

80 GO . . (i 

100 80 . . 7 

Above lluit tonna<^o, 1 man for every 15 tons ol' s.iudi additional lonnaye. 
Or if a Lugger, 

If of 30 tons or nndor 8 men 

50 tons or nnder, and above 30 . . 9 

60 50 . .10 

80 00 . . 11 

100 80 . . 1-' 

And if above 100 tons, one man for every ten tons of such additional 
tonnage, which shall be found within one hundred leagues of the coast 
of the United Kingdom, shall be forfeited, \nilcss such vessel, boat, or 
lugger, shall be especially licensed for the purpose by the Commissioners 
of His Majesty's (Justoms. § 17. 

Particulars of Licence. How Licevce may he restricted. — Every li- 
cence granted by tlie Commissioners of Customs for any vessel or boat 
requiring licence under this Act shall contain the proper description of 
such vessel or boat, the names of the owners, with their place or places of 
abode, and the manner and the limits in which the same is to be em- 
ployed, and if armed, the numbers and description of arms, and the 
cjuantity of ammunition, together with any other particulars which the 
Connnissioners may direct ; and it shall be lawful for the Commissioners 
of Customs to restrict the granting of a licence for any vessel or boat in 
any way that they may deem expedient for the security of the revenue. 
iS 18. 

Bond as to Ilieffal Einj)Ioy. Loss, Brcalung itp, ^-c. Stamp Dutij. 
— Before any such licence shall be issued or delivered, or shall have 
effect for the use of such vessel or boat, the owners of every such vessel 
or boat shall give security by bond in the single value of such vessel or 
boat, with condition as follows: viz. that the vessel or boat shall not be 
employed in the importation, landing, or removing of any prohibited or 
uncustomed goods, contrary to the true intent and meanmg of this Act or 
any other Act relating to the revenue of customs or excise, nor in the 
exportation of any goods which are or may be prohibited to be exported, 
nor in the rclanding of any goods contrary to law, nor shall receive or 
take on board, or be found at sea or in port with any goods subject to 
forfeiture, nor shall do any act contrary to this Act, or any Act hereafter 
to be made relating to the revenue of customs or excise, or for the ]iro- 
tection of the trade and commerce of the United Kingdom, nor shall bo 
employed otherwise than mentioned in the licence and within the limits 
therein mentioned; and in case of loss, breaking up, or disposal of the 
vessel or boat, that the licence shall be delivered, within six months from 
the date of such loss, breaking up, or disposal of such vessel or boat, 
to the collector or principal officer of customs at the port to which such 
vessel or boat shall belong; and no such bond given in respect of any 
boat shall be liable to any stamp duty. § li). 

Wltat sum Penaltij not to exceed. — Nothing herein contained shall 
authorize the rctiuiring any bond in any higher sum than 1000/., although 
the single value of the vessel or boat for which such licence is to be issui^d 
may be more than 1000/. \S 20. 

Bonds by Minors. — All bonds given by persons under the age of 
twenty-one years, in pursuance of the directions herein contained, shall 
be valid, if i]. 

Using Vessel contrary to Licence. — When any vessel or boat shall 
be found or discovered to have been used or employed in any manner 



10 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

or in any limitis other than such as shall he specified in the licence hereby 
required, or if such licence shall not he ou board such vessel or boat, 
or shall not at any time be produced and delivered for examination to any 
officer of the army, navy, or marines duly employed for the prevention 
of smuggling, and on full pay, or any officer of customs or excise, de- 
manding the same, then such vessel or boat, and all the goods laden 
on board shall be forfeited. ^S 22. 

Exemptions. — Nothing herein shall extend to any vessel, boat, or 
lugger belonging to any of the royal family, or being in the service of 
the navy, victualling, ordnance, customs, excise, or post-office, nor to 
any whale boat or boat scflely employed in the fisheries, nor to any boat 
belonging to any square-rigged vessel in the merchant service, nor to 
any life-boat or tow-boat used in towing vessels belonging to licensed 
pilots, nor to any boat used solely in rivers or inland navigation, nor to 
any boats solely used in fishing on the coasts of the north and west high- 
lands of Scotland, nor to any boats so used on the coast of Ireland. ^S 23. 

Counterfeiting, ^-c. — If any person shall counterfeit, erase, alter, or 
falsify, or cause to be counterfeited, erased, altered or falsified, any licence 
so to be granted, or shall knowingly make use of any licence so counter- 
feited, erased, altered, or falsified, such person shall for every such offence 
forfeit 500/. ^ 24. 

HoiD long Bonds to be in /orce.— No bond given on account of the 
licence of any vessel or boat under the Act for the prevention of smuggling 
shall be cancelled until the space of twelve months after the licence for 
which such bond had been entered into shall have been delivered up to 
the proper officer of customs, and such bond shall remain in full force and 
effect for twelve months after the delivering up of the licence as afore- 
said. ^S 25. 

Former Licences and Bonds. — All licences for any vessels or boats 
granted in pursuance of any Act relating to the customs shall continue 
valid for all the purposes for which such licences were required, and all 
bonds given in pursuance of any such Act shall continue valid and may 
be enforced, any thing herein contained notwithstanding, ij 26. 

Guernsey, 4^c.- — All the provisions herein contained relating to the 
licensing of vessels and boats shall extend to the islands of Guernsey, 
Jersey, Alderney, Sark, and Man. § 27. 

Tonnage or Burthen of Ships. — The tonnage or burthen of every 
British ship within the meaning of this Act shall be the tonnage set forth 
in the certificate of registry of such ship, and the tonnage or burthen of 
every other ship shall, for the purposes of this Act (for the general regu- 
lation of the customs), be ascertained in the same manner as the tonnage 
of British ships is ascertained. 3 & 4 W. IV., c. 52, ^S 127. 

Hou^ Officers may refuse Master to act. — It shall be lawful for tho 
officers of customs at any port under British dominion where there shall 
be a collector and comptroller of the customs, to refuse to admit any per- 
son to do any act at such port as master of any British ship, unless his 
name shall be inserted in or have been indorsed upon the certificate of 
registry of such ship as being the master thereof, or until his name 
shall have been so indorsed by such collector and comptroller. § 128. 

Carrying Letters.— '^^o ship or boat appointed and employed ordinarUy 
for the carriage of letters shall import or export any goods without per- 
mission of the commissioners of customs, under the penalty of the for- 
feiture of 100/., to be paid by the master of such ship or boat, ij 142. 

Ships not bringing to at Stations. — If any ship coming up or de- 
parting out of any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, 
shall not bring to at the proper stations in such port appointed by the 
commissioners of customs for the boarding or landing of officers of 
customs, the master of such ship shall for every such offence forfeit 
100/. § 135. 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 11 

How Officers may he stationed in Ships. Accommodation. — It shall 
be lawful for the commissiontM's of customs, and for the collector and 
comptroller of any port under their directions, to station ollicers on board 
any ship while within the limits of any port in the United Kingdom or 
in the Isle of Man ; and the master of every ship on board of which any 
ofllcer is so stationed shall provide every such otlicer suflicient room 
imder the deck, in some part of the forecastle or steera<>e, i'or his bed or 
hammock, and in case of neglect or refusal so to do, shall forleit 100/. 

Size of Vessels in which Goods may be Imported and Exported. — 
Whereas the imi)ortation and exportation of certain goods into and from 
the Umted Kingdom and other dominions of His Majesty by the laws 
now in force is restricted to vessels of seventy tons burthen or upwards : 
And whereas bv 5 & G WiH. IV., c. 56, vessels are rec|uired to be ad- 
measured according to the rules set forth in that Act, and m consequence 
thereof it has become expedient to reduce the tonnage to which such im- 
portations and exportations are restricted ; it is therefore enacted, that it 
shall be lawful to import into or export from the United Kingdom, and 
other dominions of His Majesty, any such goods in vessels of sixty tons 
burthen and upwards, provided such vessels have been admeasured 
according to the rules prescribed by the last-mentioned Act, 6 & 7 Will. 
IV., c. 60, § 5. 

Goods in Possession of Bankrupt. — If any trader at the time he be- 
comes bankrupt shall, by the consent and permission of the true owner 
thereof, have in his possession, order, or disposition any goods or chattels 
whereof he was reputed owner, or wdiereof he had taken upon him the 
sale, alteration, or disposition as ow'uer, the commissioner shall have 
power to sell the same for the benefit of the creditors under the com- 
mission ; provided that nothing herein contained shall invalidate or alfect 
any transfer or assignment of any vessel, or any share thereof, made as a 
security for any debt, either by way of mortgage or assignment, duly 
registered according to the provisions of 4 Will. IV., c. 41. 6 & 7 Will. 
IV., c. 14, s^ 86. [^Oth May, 1836. " An Act to amend the Laws relating 
to Bankrupts in Ireland."] 

Tonnage of Ships. 

Former Act. — From the commencement of this Act (Sept. 9, 1 8.']5), so 
much of the Act as establishes rules for ascertaining the tonnage of ships 
is hereby repealed so far as respects the merchant shipping of the United 
Kingdom to be thereafter registered, 5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 5G, § 1. 

Rule by ivhich Tonnage to be ascertained. — The tonnage of every 
vessel required by law to be registered shall, previous to her being regis- 
tered, be measured and ascertained while her hold is clear, and according 
to the following rule, viz., divide the length of the upper deck between 
the aftcrpart of the stem and the forepart of the stern-post into six etiual 
parts. Depths : at the foremost, the middle, and the aftermost of those 
points of division, measxire in feet and decimal parts of a foot the depths 
from the under side of the upper deck to the ceiling at the limber strake. 
In the case of a break in the upper deck, the depths are to be measured 
from a line stretched in a continuation of the deck. Breadths : divide 
each of those three depths into five equal parts, and measure the inside 
breadths at the following points, viz., at one-fiftli and at four-fifths from 
the upper deck of the foremost and aftermost depths, and at two-fifths and 
four-fifths from the upper deck of the midship depth. Length : at half 
the midship depth measure the length of the vessel from the aftcrpart of 
the stem to the forepart of the stern-post ; then to twice the midship 
depth add the foremost and the aftermost depths for the sum of the 
depths; add together the upper and lower breadths at the foremost divi- 
sion, three times the upper breadth, and the lower breadth at the midship 



12 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

division, and the upper and twice the lower breadth at the after division, 
for the sum of the breadths ; then midtiply the sum of the depths by the 
sum of the breadths, and this product by the length, and divide the final 
product by 3500, which will give the number of tons for register. If the 
vessel have a poop or half deck, or a break in the upper deck, measure 
the inside mean length, breadth, and height of such part tliereof as may 
be included within the bulk-head ; multiply these three measurements 
together, and dividing the product by 92'4, the quotient will be the num- 
ber of tons to be added to tlie result as above found. In order to ascer- 
tain the tonnage of open vessels, the depths are to be measured from the 
upper edge of the upper strake. § 2. 

Tuimage to be entered on Register. — The tonnage or burtlien of every 
ship belonging to the United Kingdom, ascertained in the manner herein- 
before directed, shall, in respect of any such ship which shall be regis- 
tered after the commencement of this Act (except as hereinafter ex- 
cepted), be inserted in the certificate* of the registry thereof, and \)q 
taken to be the tonnage or burthen thereof for all the purposes of the 
said Act. § 3. 

Tonnage of Steam Vessels. — In each of the several rules herein-before 
prescribed, when applied for the purpose of ascertaining the tonnage of 
any ship propelled by steam, the tonnage due to the cubical contents of 
the engine-room shall be deducted from the total tonnage of the vessel as 
determined by either of the rules aforesaid, and the remainder shall be 
deemed the true register tonnage of the said ship or vessel. The tonnage 
due to the cubical contents of the engine-room shall be determined in the 
following manner, viz., measure the inside length of the engine-room in 
feet and decimal parts of a foot from the foremost to the aftermost bulk- 
head, then multiply the said length by the depth of the ship or vessel at 
the midship division as aforesaid, and the product by the inside breadth at 
the same division at two-fifths of the depth from the deck taken as afore- 
said, and divide the last product by 92-4, and tlje quotient shall be deemed 
the tonnage due to the cubical contents of the engine-room. \) 4. 

Contents of Engine-Room in descriptiori of ^team Vessel. — The ton- 
nage due to the cubical contents of the engine-room, and also the length 
of the engine-room, shall be set forth in the certificate of registry as part 
of the description of the ship or vessel, and any alteration of such ton- 
nage due to the cubical contents of the engine-room or of such length of 
the engine-room, after registry, shall be deemed to be an alteration re- 
quiring registry de novo within the meaning of the Act for the register- 
ing of ships. ^S 5. 

For ascertaining Tonnage of Vessels tvhen laden. — For the purpose 
of ascertaining the tonnage of all such ships, whether belonging to the 
United Kingdom or otherwise, as there shall be occasion to measure 
while their cargoes are on board, the following rule shall be observed and 
is hereby established, viz., measure, first, the length on the upper deck 
between the afterpart of the stem and the forepart of the stern-post ; se- 
condly the inside breadth on the underside of the upper deck at the 
middle point of the length ; and, thirdly, the depth from the underside of 
the upper deck down the pump-well to the skin; multiply these three 
dimensions together, and divide the product by one hundred and thirty, 
and the quotient will be the amount of the register tonnage of such 
ships. § 6. 

* By C. O., June 11, 18^G, tluit in all certificates of ailmensuicment of foreign sliips wliose 
tonnage may l)e so alteied by llie new mode of iiilmeasiircment, as to preclude their bein:; cm- 
])loyed in-tlie conveyance of waridioiised goods, tlie tonnage according to tlie tbrmer as well as 
the present mode of adineasuri-ineni be inserted in the said cenilicatts, and under similar cir- 
cumstances, the same rule is to ajijily to liritisli vessels on llicir lirst registry, or registry de 
niiro, and tlial the registering ofTicir likewise notify on the certificates of such registry the 
tonnage according to the formermode of admeasurement, and also in certificates to obtain 
Licences. 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 13 

Rpgister Tonnage on Main Beam. — The true amount of the rcf;ister 
tonnage of every mercliant ship belonginj^ to the United Kinodom, to be 
ascertained according to the nde by tliis Act established in respect of such 
ships, shall be deeply carved or cut in figures of at least three inches in 
lengthen the main beam of every such ship, piiorto her being regis- 
tered. § 7. 

Vessels already Registered. — Nothing herein contained shall extend 
to alter the present measure of tonnage of any ship which shall have 
been registered prior to the commencement of this Act, [September 9, 
183.3,] unless in cases where the owners of any such ships shall require 
to have their tonnage established according to the rule herein-before pro- 
vided, or unless there shall be occasion to have any such ship admea- 
sured again on account of any alteration which shall have been made in 
the form of burthen of the same, in which cases only such ships shall bo 
re-admeasured according to the said rule, and their tonnage registered 
accordingly. ^S 8. 

Commencement of Act. — This Act shall commence from 1st January, 
1830. §9. 

Former Acts of 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 30, and 9 Geo. IV. c. 56, so far as 
concerns this Act, repealed*. 1 Vict. c. 89, iJ 1. [July 17, 1837.] 

Setting fire to Ships nith intent to Murder. — Whosoever shall un- 
lawfully and maliciously set fire to, cast away, or in anywise destroy any 
ship, either with intent to murder any person, or whereby the life of 
any person shall be endangered, shall be guilty of felony, and being 
convicted thereof shall sutfer death. § 4. 

Hanging out fdse Lights. — Whosoever shall unlawfully exhibit any 
false light or signal, with intent to bring any ship into danger, or shall 
unlawfully and maliciously do any thing tending to the immediate loss 
or destruction of any ship in distress, shall be guilty of felony, and 
being convicted thereuf shall sutler death. \J 5. 

Setting fire to Ships icith Intent to destroy. — Whosoever shall unlaw- 
fully and maliciously set fire to or in anywise destroy any ship, whether the 
same be complete or in an unfinished state, or shall unlawfully and mali- 
ciously set fire to, cast away, or iu anywise destroy any ship, with intent 
thereby to prejudice any owner or part owner of such ship, or of any goods 
on Ijoard the same, or any person that hath underwritten or shall under- 
write any policy of insurance upon such ship, or on the freight thereof, 
or upon any goods on board the same, shall be guilty of felony, and 
being convicted thereof shall bo liable, at the discretion of the court, to 
be transported beyond the seas for the term of the natural life of such 
oflfender, or for any term not less than fifteen years, or to be imprisoned 
for any term not exceeding three years. ^S G. 

hnpeding Person to save Life from Ship xcrecked, Sfc. — Whosoever 
shall by force prevent or impede any person endeavouring to save his 
life from any siiip which shall be in distress, or wrecked, stranded, or 
cast on shore, (whether he be on board or shall have quitted the same,) 
shall be guilty of felony, and being convicted thereof shall be liable, at 
the discretion of the court, to be transported beyond the seas for the 
term of the natural life of such offender, or for any term not less than 
fifteen years, or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding three 
years. § 7. 

Destroying IVrecks or Articles. — Whosoever shall unlawfully and 
maliciously destroy any part of any ship which shall be in distress, or 
wrecked, stranded, or cast on shore, or any goods or articles of any 
kind btdonging to such ship, shall be guilty of felony, and being con- 
victed thereof shall be liable, at the discretion of the court, to be trans- 
ported beyond the seas for any terra not exceeding fifteen years, nor less 

• To commence from October 1, 183/. § 16, As to Piracy, sec p. IC. 



14 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

than ten years, or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding three 
years. (J 8. 

Setting fire to Coal Mines. — Whosoever sliall unlawfully and mali- 
ciously set fire to any mine of coal or Cannel coal shall be guilty of fe- 
lony, and being convicted thereof shall be liable, at the discretion of the 
court, to be transported beyond the seas for the terra of the natural life 
of such offender, or for any term not less than fifteen years, or to be 
imprisoned for any term not exceeding three years. ^ 9. 

Setting fire to Agricultural Produce, i^-c. — Whosoever shall unlaw- 
fully and maliciously set fire to any stack of corn, grain, pulse, tares, 
straw, haulm, stubble, furze, heath, fern, hay, turf, peat, coals, charcoal, 
or wood, or any steer of wood, shall be guilty of felony, and being con- 
victed thereof shall be liable, at the discretion of the court, to be trans- 
ported beyond the seas for the term of the natural life of such offender, 
or for any term not less than fifteen years, or to be imprisoned for any 
term not exceeding three years- § 10. 

Accessaries. — In the case of felony punishable imder this Act, every 
principal in the second degree, and every accessary before the fact, shall 
be punishable with death, or otherwise in the same manner as the prin- 
cipal in the first degree is by this Act punishable ; and every accessary 
after the fact to any felony punishable under this Act shall, on con- 
viction, be liable to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two years. 
§11. 

Offences punishable by Imprisonment. — Where any person shall be 
convicted of any offence punishable under this Act, for which imprison- 
ment may be awarded, it shall be lawful for the court to sentence the 
offender to be imprisoned, or imprisoned and kept to hard labour, in the 
common gaol or house of correction, and also to direct that the offender 
shall be kept in solitary confinement for any portion or portions of such 
imprisonment, or of such imprisonment with hard labour, not exceeding 
one month at any one time, and not exceeding three months in any one 
year, as to the court in its discretion shall seem meet. ^S 12. 

Exceptio7is not to affect powers of 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 38, and 4 Geo. 
IV. c. G4. § 13. 

Admiralty Jurisdiction. — Where any felony punishable under this 
Act shall be committed within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of Eng- 
land or of Ireland, the same sliall be dealt with, inquired of, tried, and 
determined in the same manner as any other felony committed within 
that jurisdiction. § 14. 

Scotland. — Nothing in this Act contained shall extend to Scotland. 

COURT OF EXCHEQUER, Saturuay, May \3, \S37.~( London Si/tings at 
Nisi Prills, before Lord Abinger and Common Juries.) — Haiivky v. Thompson. 

This was an action to recover the vahie of two bales of goods shipped on 
board a steamer, called The Princess L'lcloria, belonging to a company of which 
the dei'endant was a director. 

The damages were laid at 147/. \8s. 

Messrs. Cresswell and Henderson appeared for tl:e plaintiff, and Mr. Serjeant 
Talfonrd and Mr. Bodkin lor the defence. 

On the 12th of February last year the vessel was to have left the pier of Leith 
to make fur the roads, there to complete her cargo. The stress of weather com- 
pelled her to lighten her cargo before she could get out on her way to the roads. 
Afterwards she strnck on the weir at the mouth of the liarhour, and from this she 
did not get clear until the IGth of February. 'i'he remainder of lier cargo, 
brought out to her in a sloop and lighters, she then tonk un board and put out 
to sea, between .'5 and 4 p.ii. Towards evening there came ou a heavy gale, 
which continued to increase until near midnight, when the danger appearing to 
be imminent, all the passengers on board signed a requisition to the captam to 
lighten the cargo, After the lapse of an hour, during which the critical 



1837-8.] SHIPS AND BOATS. 15 

situation of the vessel continued, the captain assented, and threw a certain 
portion of the goods overboard, in which was induded the property of the 
plaintifl'. This produced the desired effect; the captain was enabled to put 
about, and a<,'aiu liove in sij^ht of land on Tlun-sday. The real point at issue was 
this — Had the vessel been overloaded, or had it not ? The captain deposed to 
having often cariied safely a larger cargo. For the plaintiff the cargo was 
sworn to be much groiter than usual, and of an embarrassing nature. Goods 
were piled in parts six feet high. There were five mail-coaches and some 
hiu'ses on deck. 

The jury, after two hours and a half, brought in their verdict; it was for the 
plaintiffj m the full amount claimed, 

ROLLS" COURT, Westjunsteu, May 24, 1837.— Lynn v. Chaieks. 
Lord Lanuo.vi.k delivered judgment in tliis case. The plaintiffs, Messrs. 
John Lynn, James Lynn, and Cornforth, were joint owners of a ship called 
The Friends, oi' ivhich Cornfortlvs share was mortgaged, and being desirous to 
sell it, they empowered .lames Lynn to act as their agent. He agreed with a 
raan of the name of Wright, who acted Ibr the defendant Chafers, and also for 
himself, for the sale of the ship at 750/., to be paid one-third down in cash, 
another third in a bill at three, and the remaining third in a bill at six months, 
On August 16, 1833, the parties met to complete the purchase, and hills of sales 
■were executed, by which 42-6-lth. parts of the ship were assigned to the 
defendant Chafers, in consideration of VML 3.v. 9^/., and the remaining i'i-GJths 
part was assigned to Wright for 257/. IGs. 3c/., making up the sum of 750/. for 
the whole ship. The 2o()A was paid by Wright by a check upon his bankers, 
and he accepted two bills for 250/. each, at three and six months, for the 
remaining 500/. When these bills became due, they were dishonoured, and 
Wright became bankrupt. The 500/. was claimed of tlie defendant Chaters, and 
an action at law was brought to recover it. To this action the defendant pleaded, 
that in the bill of sale to him the sum of 492/. 3i-. 9d. was expressed to be 
received. Upon this plea the plaintiffs abandoned their action and instituted 
this suit, which prayed that Chaters should be ordered to pay the amount of the 
two dishonoured bills, or otherwise that the ship might be resold and the proceeds 
applied in their paynrent. The defendants contended that the Court had no 
jurisdiction to give relief in this case, but it must be considered that the money 
was in point of fact not paid ; that by the defence set up at law the plaintiff' had 
been compelled to submit to abandon his action there, and that the claim was 
just. It had been also said that payment had been made by the delivery of the 
two bills whh the 250/. actually paid, but delivery of bills was not payment. 
The defendant also contended that he had nothing to do with the bills, for that 
he had at the time money in the hands of Wright on purpose to pay for the 
ship, and that that was known to the vendors, who in consequence agreed to take 
the bills of Wright alone in payment. In j)oiut of fact the bills were given by 
Wright alone, but the statement v/as not in itself probable, nor was there evidence 
to satisfy liim (Lord Laiigdale) that Chaters should be exonerated from the pur- 
chase money. The only thing in favour of his case was the evidence of James 
Hill, but it appeared that James Hill died on the day of the transaction, and 
Williams said he did not believe he knew what he was about. His Lordship 
was of opinion that the defendant Chaters should be made liable for the payment 
of the unpaid purchase money. The decree must be for an account to be taken 
of what was due of the purcliase money, and if the money was not paid then, 
that the ship be resold, and that the defendant should be restrained from 
making away with the ship until he had paid what was due on the account. 

COURT OF KING'S BENCH, Friday, May 20, l837.—{Sitli>i</s in Ba/ico.)— 

HoLI.INGSWOliTH t'. BrtOUERICK. 

Mr. Martin said, that this was au action on a policy of insurance effected for 
tvvelve months on T/ie Angerstein. The declaration alleged that the vessel had 
been lost by the perils of the sea. The defendant pleaded in answer, that after 
making the policy, and during the continuance of the insurance, aiul prior to the 
loss, the vessel had become broken and unseawortliy ; that the vessel might 
have been repaired and made se<iworthy at an expense less than that of lier 
value, but that notwithstanding the plaiiitit}' had not made such repairs. To 
this plea the plaintiff demurred. The learned counsel in support of the demurrer, 



15 SHIPS AND BOATS. [1837-8. 

submitte<l that the plea was bad and insiifKcient, inasmuch as that it did not 
allelic that the loss arose in consequence of the presumed unseaworthiness; and 
farther, that it did not ailej;e that this supposed unseaworthiness was in exist- 
ence prior to the commencement of the voyac^e. Now it would be most dan- 
gerous to the shippiufj; interest of the cuuntr)-, if, in a time policy, the insertion 
therein that the vessel was seaworthy when she commenced her voyage were not 
held to be suificient. If any other rule were to be adopted, the owners would be 
placed at the mercy of their captains, who, by acts of negligence, however 
trifling, by an omission in having some repairs made either to the vessel or to 
her rigging subsequent to her having set out on her voyage, might thereby 
render the policy void. 

Mr. Watson having been heard on the other side, 

The Court said that the pleading in this case on behalf of the defendant did 
not raise the question which had been put forward in argument, and therefore 
the decision of the Court must be for the plaintiff. 

PIRACY. 

The Acts 28 Hen. VIII. c. 15 ; 11 and 12 Will. III. c. 7 ; 4 Geo. I. 
c. 1 1. § 7 : 8 Geo. I. c. 24 ; and 18 Geo. II. c. 30, are repealed. 1 Vict, 
c. 88.\S. 1*. (July 17, 1837.) 

Murder attempted. — Whosoever, with intent to commit or at the time 
of or immediately before or immediately after committing the crime of 
piracy in respect of any vessel, shall assault, with intent to murder, any 
person being on board of or belonging to such vessel, or shall stab, cut, or 
wound any such person, or unlawfully do any act by which the life of 
such person may be endangered, shall be guilty of felony, and being con- 
victed thereof shall suffer death as a felon. § 2. 

Transportation. — AVhosoever shall be convicted of any offence which 
by any of the Acts hereinbefore referred to amounts to the crime of pi- 
racv, and is thereby made punishable with death, shall be liable, at the 
discretion of the court, to be transported beyond the seas for the term of 
the natural life of such offender, or for any term not less than fifteen 
years, or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding three years. ^^. 3- 

Accensarii'S. — In the case of every felony punishable under this Act 
every principal in the second degree and every accessary before the fact 
shall be punishable with death or otherwise in the same manner as the 
principal in the first degree is by this Act punishable : and every acces- 
sary alter the fact to any felony punishable under this Act shall, on con- 
viction, be liable to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two 
years. § 4. 

Imprisonment. — Where any person shall be convicted of any offence 
punishable under this Act, for which imprisonment may be awarded, it 
shall be lawful for the court to sentence the offender to be imprisoned, or 
imprisoned and kept to hard labour, in the common gaol or house of cor- 
rection, and also to direct that the offeuiler shall be kept in solitary con- 
finement for any portion or portions of such imprisonment, or of such 
imprisonment with hard labour, not exceeding one month at any one 
time, and not exceeding three months in any one year, as to the court in 
its discretion shall seem meet. § 5. 

Exceptions. — Not to affect powers of 5 and 6 AVill.lV. c. 38, and 4 Geo. 
IV. c. 04. § G. 

salvage:. 

ADMIRALTY COURT, Wfdnf.s»ay, June 7, 1837.— Tmj Funchai,. 
The Fiinclia/, a Portuguese vessel, of 70 tons, with a cargo of butter, salt pro- 
visions, and other goods, from Hamburgh to Lisbon, through stress of weather, 
and by mistaking the lights on the English coast, on the 17th of JUarch, had 

* To Kommonee from October 1, 1837. § 7. As to setting fire to ships, hanging out false 
lights, &c., see p. 13. 



1S37-8.] SALVAGE. 17 

f^ot into tlie Sunk Channel in the nioutli of the Tliames, and touched on the flat 
of the Lon^ Sand. Thu Pro.tp'7-ni/s, a fishing smuck, being on the look-out to 
the north of the Nore light, with other boats, came up, and with their assist- 
ance the vessel was taken through the Swin, and anchored in safety near the 
Nore light. For this service, which, it was contended, was mere pilotage, the 
master offered ')0/., which was refused. 

Sir J. Nicnoi.i. was of opinion that the offer was more than the parties were 
entitled to. The whole service was steering the vessel up the channel of the 
sand. There was some reason aiul room to suspect that the foreign vessel had 
been intentionally carried out of her course to the Nore light. lie did not, how- 
ever, decide the question on this ground, or venture to pronoinice that the conduct 
of the asserted salvors had been fraudulent ; but he considered the demand of the 
salvors unreasonable and improper, and that the offer had been improperly re- 
fused. Had the tender been made in Court, he shoidd have been bound to con- 
demn the parties in the costs ; but he left each party to pay their own costs, and 
dismissed the suit. 

THE CIIEEKLY. 

This was an action by the masters, owners, and crews of five fishing smacks, 
for services rendered to the Cheerhj, a colliers brig, which, on her return to Sun- 
derhijul from London (where she had delivered a cargo of coals), in ballast, got 
on a sand in the mouth of the river, at 1 o'clock in the morning between the 22(1 
and 23d of November. The vessel was observed to be in this situation by the 
salvors, who were on the look-out from the Swin, and who proceeded in boats to 
her assistance at half-past nine. They boarded the Cheerlt/, but the master, as the 
tide was flowing, conceive<l that the vessel would come off at high water, and 
refused the proffi^red aid. The smacksmen, however, remained on board, smok- 
ing their pipes, and as the vessel did not float at high water, the master agreed 
to accept the services of the smacksmen, in lightening the vessel, on an under- 
standing that the amount of compensation should he matter of arbitration. Some 
ballast was accordingly thrown out, and with heaving on the anchor, at hall- 
past 12 o'clock, on the 23d, the brig got off, and was steered by the master into 
the Colne. An offer of 100/. was made, and tendered in this Court, but refused. 
The numlier of hands on board the smacks was 31, but only 8 or 10 were ac- 
tivel)' engaged. The value of the vessel was 900/. 

Dr. Biirnaby, for the salvors, contended that the sum offered was not adequate 
to the services rendered; for if the vessel had remained ou the sand^ which was 
a dangerous one, she would have become a wreck. 

])r. Addams, for the owners, said that there had been no signal for assistance ; 
the lucn had come vuhmtarily on board, and when it was found that the vessel 
would not float at high water, they were engaged in discharging the ballast for 
about seven hours, and for this service they had refused one-ninth of the value 
of the whole propert}^ 

Sir J. Nicuoi.i. observed that it was not immaterial to consider what was the 
nature of the sand in question. It was on the Essex coast, above Southend, and 
helow the Nore, and was a mixture of sand and ooze, covered with water at an 
hour and a-half or two hours' flood. It was, therefore, a soft sand, at the tail 
of which the vessel touched, about half an hour after high water. It was na- 
tural to exiiect that she would have got oft' next tide, for it was full moon ou 
the very day, and the tide would increase. But it sometimes happened, that 
from the force of the wind the tide did not reach its expected altitude, and as the 
vessel did not come off at the second tide, the master prudently determined upon 
throwing out jiart of the ballast. But there was no sort of difficulty or danger. 
The smacksmen being on board, they were employed in heaving out the ballast, 
but the master steered the brig into the Colne. Yet the salvors demanded 
nothing less than UJO/., which they afterwards reduced to 120/., and entered an 
action in this court for 200/. He (the learned judge) was of opinion tliat the 
tender was abimdantly sufficient, and he pronounced for the tender, and directed 
the salvors to pay the costs from the time they refused it, and moreover that the 
costs be paid out of the money brought into the registry. 

TIIK COUSINS. 

The King's Advocate stated that this was a suit by the masters and crews of 
four boats for services rendered to the Collins, a brig of 119 tons, from Stockton 
to Sheerness, with a cargo of coals, valued at 600/., which had come into collision 

C 



18 SALVAGE. [1837-8. 

with another vessel, named the Hero, from which she snffered much damage, 
and drifted on tlie West Rocks, in the Swin, oft the coast of Essex, on the 16th 
of February. She was perceived by the salvors, some of whom had been out on 
a spratting voyage, and otb.ers were on tlieir voyas^e to get sprats for manure, 
when they proceeded immediately to the assistance of the vessel, which was car- 
ried safely to Harwich. For this service only 20/. had been offered. 

The Court. — It is a sprat service. 

The King's Advocate. — Not a whale service, undoubtedly. 

The Court. — If they get 20/. and their costs, I think that will he sufficient. 

THE DEFIANCE. 

This was an action by the master, owner, and crew of the Lady Nepeaii, of 80 
tons, which, whilst on a voyage from Lisbon to Gloucester, with a valuable cargo 
on boiird, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of January31,in lat. 40. 53., long. 90. 50., 
perceived the brig Defimcp, on her voyage from Leghorn to London, with a 
cargo valued with the ship at 5,300/,, in a distressed situation, under jury- 
masts, with a signal of distress flying, rolling and labouring very much, the wea- 
ther being boisterous. The Ladij Nepean went to her assistance, and (being 
unable to board the Defiance) took her in tow to Oporto ; but from the state of 
the wind, and the difficulty of getting over the bar at Oporto, it was agreed that 
she should be taken to Coruana, where the vessel was conveyed in safety. The 
service lasted three or four daAs. The only fact in dispute was the distance of 
towing, one party calculating it at 259 miles, the other 205 miles. No tender 
was made. 

After hearing the King's Advocate and Dr. Addams for the salvors, and Dr. 
Haggard and Dr. Nicholl for the owners of the Defiance, who suggested 700/., 

Sir J. NicHoi.i. said, there could be no doubt that the property had been in 
extreme peril, and beside tlie labour and risk of towing for four days, the salvors, 
independent of the delay, had placed their insurance in jeopardy by the devia- 
tion from their course. He thought 1000/. not too much, 

i\IoNDA-s:, July 3, 1837. — the maria. 

The vessel salved in this case was the Maria, of 234 tons, with a crew of 11 
men, which, on her return voyage from the Levant to Hull, with a cargo of 
hones, on the 10th of February, about day-break, got on the south end of the 
Cross Sand, near Yarmouth. The persons on the look-out from the beach at 
Yarmouth launched two yawls, the Royal Sovereign, oi' 31 tons and 11 men, and 
the Red Rover, of 30 tons and 14 men, and proceeded to the assistance of the 
vessel, the wind blowing very hard from the south-south-west, and a heavy sea 
running. The Red Rover reached the Maria first, and having carried out the 
kedge anchor, and the sails being backed, the vessel was got off the sand before 
the Roxjal Sovereign came up, which, however, assisted in towing her into Yar- 
mouth Roads. Being last from Smyrna, where the plague was raging, and 
having no clean bill of health, the vessel was sent to the quarantine station, with 
such of the salvors as were on boanl, where they were detained 37 days, the ves- 
sel meanwhile requiring frequent pumping. For this service and detention the 
owners had tendered 300/., which the salvors had refused. The value of the 
ship and cargo was 2,445/. 

The Queen's Advocate, with whom was Dr. Nicholl, for the salvors, contended 
that they were entitled to a larger reward. The principal facts were uncon- 
tradicted ; the vessel was in great peril, and the crew had packed up all their 
lothes to be prepared for the worst. 

Dr. Phillimore and Dr. Haggard, for the owners, on the contrary, maintained 
that the tender was a handsome one ; that the Red Rover alone had released the 
vessel, the duratiim of the time being one hour, and that the case was one (the 
action having l)een entered for 1000/.) in which the Court should conden-.n the 
party refusing the temler in the costs. 

Sir J. Niciioi.T, was of opinion, looking to all the circumstances, that there 
liad been considerable merit on the part of the salvors, who had evinced readi- 
ness in launching their vessel, and had incurred some risk in going over the sand, 
and in remaining on hoard a vessel which might have had the plague. The 
temler was not one-seventh, and he thought he was bound to add 150/. more, and 
make the award 450/, with costs. 



1837-8.] SALVAGE. 19 

THE COMMIJkCIANT. 

This was a foreign vessel, of '2C0 tons, bound to Ilonfleur, with a cari^o of 
timber, which, meeting with temi^estiioiis weather, {^iit on the Kentish Knock 
Sand, but was able to get oH' by the exertions of her own ciew. Being water- 
logged, and in want of lepair, the master liad b.irgained with a laden brig to tow 
him to Yarmouth, but the salvors, in an Aldborough yawl, came up, and were 
emp'oyed in preference, and conveyed the vessel to Harwich, a phice to which 
the masier wished to go for repairs. The appraised value of the ship and cargo 
was2,J13/. 

After hearing Dr. Nicholl for the salvors, and the Queen's Advocate for the 
owners^ Sir J. Nicnoi.i. awarded 150/. as salvage, the owners to pay the costs. 

THE MAUGAUET. 

In this case the Margaret, a steam-vcsscl, with cargo and passengers from 
Waterford to London, in the afternoon of the 24th of January, during a liaze or 
fog, got on the Burling Reef, about two miles to the westward of Beachy Head. 
Previous to the accideut Lieutenant Smith, of the coast-guard, stationed at the 
Burling-gap, ordered a gun to be ilred to warn the vessel of her danger, but she 
struck. Blue lights were shuwu on board, and the lieutenant directed bis boat 
to go to the vessel's assistance, being himself ili. It was stated in the affidavits 
that the place is one of the must dangerous on the coast, and that very few ves- 
sels which once get on the reef escape. Having carried out an anchor to steady 
her, at the rise of the tide, the paddles were backed, and the vessel got oif. The 
master gave the boatmen a soverei^ju for their assistance. No tender was made. 
The vessel and cargo were worili 20,OUO/. 

After hearing Dr. Addams, for the salvors, and Dr. Phillimore for Sir John 
Tobin, the owner of the steam-vessel, 

Sn- John Niciioi.t. observed, that the salvage service was of a vexy slight de- 
scription ; the vessel was got oifby her own machinery. But there was a fea- 
ture in the case which deserved consideration. The property was worth 20,00U/., 
the vessel was a steam-vessel, and had passengers on boiird. If such vessels ren- 
dered assistance, it was considered good policy to pay liberally for their assist- 
ance ; and it was the duty of the Court to enforce this principle against them. 
Litutenant Smith bad shown alertness in sending the boat, and latterly wished to 
go himself. Considering the value of the property, and that there were passen- 
gers on board, if lie directed a present of lOOA to be paid to Tilr. Smith, with lire 
expenses of the proceedings, he thought it was a \ resent which the owners and 
irnderwriters would not grudge on principles of policy. 

NAVAL REGISTRATION. 

Notice to all Captains and Commanding-Officers of British Vessels, rcapeeting 
Registry of Birt/ts and Deaths at S^a. 

The Registrar-General of births, deaths, and marriages in England hereby 
directs the attention of all captains or commanding-ofiicers of British vessels to 
the following provisions of the act of the 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. S(j, 
entitled " An Act for Registering Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England,"' 
namely, 

In the 21st section it is enacted, " That, if any child of an English parent 
shall be born at sea, on' board of a British vessel, the captain or comnranding 
officer of the vessel on board of which the said child shall have been born, shall 
forthwith make a minute of the several particulars hereinbelore required to be 
inserted in the register, touching tl.e birth of such child, so far as the same may 
be known, and the name of the vessel wherein the birth took place, and shall on 
the arrival of the vessel in any port of the United Kingdom, or by any other 
sooner opportunity, send a certificate of the said minute, through the Fost-ofKce, 
to the Registrar-General." 

In the 26th section of the same Act it is enacted, " That if any of His Majesty's 
English suljects shall die at sea, on board of a British vessel, the captain or 
commanding-otficer of the vessel on board of which such death shall have hap- 
jiened, shall forthwith make a minute of the several particulars hereinbefore 
required to be inserted in the register touching such death, so far as the same 
may be known, and the name of the vessel wherein the death took place, and 

C 2 



20 



NAVAL REGISTRATION. 



[1837-8. 



shall, on the arrival of such vessel in any port of the United Kingtlom. or by 
any other sooner opportunity, semi a ceitiiicate of the said minute, throuj^h the 
Posl-otfiee, to the Reuistrai-General." 

The following are the schedules containing the particulars required to be 
inserted in the register, so far as the same may be known : — • 

183 . — BIRTH of a child at sea, on board of [/lere name the vessel]. 





















^ 














P-S 
















d 3 


c 




• 


'•" -* 








S . 


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1 




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a 


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2i ^ 


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e 


C8 


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E S 




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"3 
To 




55 


C/J 


;<5 


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pci 


i-yj-zl 




tn 


P5 PS 



Instead of the Registrar, let tlie Captain or Commanding Offici'V liere sign his nime. 



183 . 


—DEATH at sea 


on board o 


■ [Aere name Me nesie/]. 




s 






c 




i, *' 




tn 




S 








■i 




2 


CD 


5 


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C3 






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Pi 


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o 




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3 


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wj-i: 


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i 











+ Instead of the Rej;islrar, let the Captain or Commanding UtTicer liere sign his name. 

The word " English" includes only natives of England and Wales. The word 
"British" includes vessels belonging to all parts of the British empire. 

The minute may be made in the ship's log, and the certificate of the minute 
shall be a true copy of it, with the following words, or others to the like effect, 
subscribed : — 

" I hereliy certify that this is a true copy of the minute made in the log 
of on the day of 18 . 

"Witness my hand , this day of 18 . 

"Captain (or commanding-officer) of ." 

[Here insert the name of the vessel.] 
Such certificate is to be sent through the Post-office, directed — 

"To the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, 
General Register-office, London." 



SEA APPRENTICES. 

Hnw Parish Boys may be put out Apprentices in Sea Service. — It 
shall be lawful for the ovei-seers of the \toox of any place in the United 
Kingdom, or in whom the duty of overseers or guardians of the poor 
shall or may be vested, and they are hereby empowered, to bind by in- 
denture, and put out any boy having attained the age of thirteen years, 
and of sufficient health and strength, who or whose parent or parents is 



1837-8.] SEA APPRENTICES. 21 

or are charfjeable to or mtiintaincd 1)v any sucli parish or township, or 
who shall be^ for alms therein, witli his consent, but not nihertcise, an 
apprentice in the sea service to any of His Majesty's subjects, bein<j the 
master or owner of any ship reuistered in any port of the United Kin<r- 
dom, for so lon^ time, and until such boys shall rcsiiectively attain the 
age of twenty-one years, which bindinij; shall be as effectual in the law as 
if such boy had been bound by virtue of any statute now in force rcspect- 
inp: the bindini; of parish apprentices, or as if such boy were of full a<^e 
and had bound himself an apprentice, and notwithstandinj^ the residence 
of the master or owner to whom ho may bo bound shall bo more than 
forty miles distant from such parish or place : Provided, that every such 
binding shall be made in the presence of two justices of the peace acting 
for the place within which such parish or township shall be situate, which 
justices shall execute the indenture in testimony of their having been 
satisfied that such boy hatli attained the ago, and is of sulllcient health 
and strength as required by this Act ; and to the end that the period 
when the service under such indenture shall expire may the more cer- 
tainly appear, the age of every such boy shall be inserted in his inden- 
ture, the same being truly taken from a copy of the entry of his baptism 
in the register book of the parish in which he was born (where the same 
can be obtained), which copy shall be given and attested by the officiat- 
ing minister of such parish without fee or reward; and in cases where no 
such entry of baptism can be found, the justices shall inform themselves 
as fully as they can of such boy's age, and from such information shall 
insert the same in his indenture, and the age of every such boy so in- 
serted shall (in relation to the continuance of his service) be taken to be 
his true ago without any further proof thereof. —o and G Will. IV. c. 19. 
§ 26. (30th July, 1835.)' 

Hoio Parish Ajqirentices may be turned over to Sea Serrice. — It shall 
be lawful for any master or person to whom any poor parish apprentice 
shall have been or shall be hereafter bound to a service on shore according 
to the statutes already in force relating to such apprentices, or for the ex- 
ecutors or administrators, or, there being none such, for the widow of 
any such deceased master, with the concurrence of two or more justices 
of the peace residing in or near to the place where such poor boy shall 
have been bound apprentice, to assign and turn over such poor boy, with 
his consent, but not otherwise, apprentice to any master or owner of any 
ship not having her complement of apprentices as hereinafter required, 
to be employed by such master or owner in the sea service during the 
period then remaining unexpired of his apprenticeship. § 27. 

How Indentures nutij be assigned on deutJi of Muster. — In the event 
of the death of the master of any such poor or parish apprentice to the 
sea service, it shall be lawful for the widow or the executor or adminis- 
trator of such deceased master to assign the indenture of any such ap- 
prentice for the residue of the term then unexpired therein to any master 
or owner of any such shij) not having the complement of apprentices as 
hereinafter required ; all which assignments, if executed within the limits 
of the port of London, shall be attested by the said registrar or one of his 
assistants or clerks, and if at any other port shall be attested by the col- 
lector or comptroller of customs of such ports. *^S 28. 

Parish Officers to prepare Indentures, Constable to convey Appren- 
tice. — Such overseers or other persons shall cause the indentures of ap- 
prenticeship to be prepared and transmitted in duplicate, if the master or 
owner of the ship to whom such apprentice is to be bound be or reside 
within the limits of the port of London, to the said registrar, and if at 
any other port, to the collector or comptroller of customs at such port; 
and the saul overseers or other persons shall cause each such poor boy to 
be conveyed to such place by the constable and at the expense of the 
parish or township sending him thilher, and shall also, upon the execu- 



■22 SEA APPRENTICES. [1837-8. 

tiou by the master of the counterpart of the indentures, cause to be paid 
down to the master 5/., to be expended in providing such boy with neces- 
sary sea clothint^ and bedding ; which sum, as well as the expenses to 
be incurred in the conveyance of the boy, shall, when paid, be allowed to 
them in their accounts of moneys expended in relation to the poor. § 29. 

Hotc cnuntei'jarts of Indentures to be atteated. — The counterparts of 
all such indentures shall, if the master be or reside wiihin the limits of 
the port of London, be executed in the presence of and attested by the 
said registrar or one of his assistants or clei-ks, and if at any other port, 
by the collector or comptroller of customs at such port, and also in both 
cases by the constable or other officer who shall convey such apprentices 
thither, and such indentures shall bear date respectively on the days on 
which they are executed : and the constable on his return shall deliver 
such counterparts to the overseers or other persons as aforesaid, to be by 
them registered and preserved. ^^ 30. 

Number 'Y Apprentices for each Ship. — The master of every ship be- 
longing to any subject of the United Kingdom, and of the burthen of 
eighty tons and upwards, shall have on board thereof, at the time of clear- 
ing out from any port of the United Kingdom, one apprentice or more, 
in the following proportions to the number of tons of his ship's admea- 
surement, according to the certificate of registi*y, viz., every ship of 
Tons. Tons. 

80 and under 200 .. 1 apprentice at least. 
200 „ 400 .. 2 " 

400 „ 500 .. 3 

500 „ 700 .. 4 

700 and upwards .. 5 „ 

all of whom at the period of their being bound respectively shall have 
been under seventeen years of age, and shall have been duly bound for the 
terra of four years at the least : and if any such master shall neglect to 
have on board his ship the number of apprentices as hereby required, he 
shall for every such offence forfeit 10/. in respect of each apprentice so 
deficient. ^ 31. 

Contributions for Hospitals. — No apprentice bound or assigned pur- 
suant to this Act, nor any master or owner in respect of any such appren- 
tice, shall be liable to the payment of any contribution towards the support 
of any hospital or institution. ^ 32. 

Indentures and Assignments to be registered, and Lists transmitted. — 
The registrar in London, and the collector and comptroller of customs at 
each other port shall, in a book to be kept for that purpose, cause to be 
entei-ed from time to time all such indentures and assignments of parish 
apprentices, specifying therein the dates thereof, the names and ages of 
the apprentices, the parishes or places whence sent, the names and re- 
sidences of the masters to whom bound or assigned, and the names, ports, 
and burthen of the respective ships to which such masters belong, and 
shall make and subscribe on each indenture or assignment an indorse- 
ment purporting that the same hath been duly registered pursuant to 
this Act ; and every such collector and comptroller shall also at the end 
of each quarter of the year transmit a list of the indentures and assign- 
ments so registered by him within the preceding quarter, containing all 
the particulars aforesaid, to the registrar, for the purposes of this Act. 
SS33. 

How Indentures of voluntary Apprentices to beregistered. Lists trans- 
mitted, and Assignments made.— In eveiy case of a person voluntarily 
binding himself apprentice to the sea service the indentures to be exe- 
cuted on such occasions shall be registered in a book to be kept for that 
puj-pose by the registrar in London and by tlie collector aiul comptroller 
of customs at each other port at which tlie indenture shall be executed, 
in which book shall be expressed the dates of the several indentures, the 



1 837-8.] SEA APPRENTICES. 23 

names and a<zesof the apprentices, the names and residence of their mas- 
ters, and (if known) ihe names, port, and burthen of the several ships on 
board which they are respectively to serve : and such registrar and col- 
lector or comptroller respectively shall indorse and subscribe upon each 
indenture a certificate purporting that the same hath been duly registered 
pursuant to this Act, and the collector and comptroller shall also at the 
end of each quarter of the year transmit a list of the indentures so regis- 
tered by them within the preceding quarter, containing all the particulars 
aforesaid, to the registrar for the purposes of this Act : and it shall be 
lawful for the master, or in case of his death, his executor or administra- 
tor, with the consent of the apprentice if of the age of seventeen years or 
upwards, and if under that age with the consent of his parent or guard- 
ian, to assign or transfer the indenture of any such apprentice to any 
other person who may be the master or owner of any registered ship ; and 
all such voluntary apprentices may, during the term for which they shall 
be bound, be employed in any ship of which the master of any such ap- 
prentice may be the master or owner : Provided, that every such assign- 
ment shall be registered and indorsed by the registrar, or by the collector 
or comptroller of customs at the port where the master shall be resident, 
or to which his ship shall belong, in which latter case the collector or 
comptroller shall notify the same to the registrar, as is hereinbefore pro- 
vided with regard to the indenture of such apprentice. ^^ 34. 

Stamp Duly. — All agreements with the crew of a ship made in pur- 
suance of this Act, and all indentures of parish and voluntary appren- 
tices to the sea service, and all counterparts and assignments of such in- 
dentures to be respectively executed alter the passing of this Act, shall 
be wholly exempt from stamp duty. ^ 35. 

Masters neglecting to resister Indentures, or sufferi7tg Apprentice to 
quit Service. — If any master to whom any apprentice mentioned in this 
Act shall be bound or assigned shall neglect to cause the indenture or the 
assignment thereof (as the case may be) to be registered as required by 
this Act, or shall, after the ship shall have cleared outwards on the voyage 
upon which such ship may be bound, suffer his apprentice to quit his ser- 
vice (not entering into that of His Majest^i), except in case of death, de- 
sertion, sickness, or other unavoidable cause, to be certified in the log-book 
of the ship, every such master shall for everv such oftence forfeit 10/. 
§36. 

Justices to determine Complaints. — Two or more justices of the peace 
residing at or near to any port at which any ship h'iving on board thereof 
any sea apprentice, shall at any time arrive, shall have full power and 
authority to inquire into and determine all claims of apprentices upon 
their masters under their indentures, and all complaints of hard or ill- 
usage exercised by their respective masters towards any such their ap- 
prentices, or of misbehaviour on the part of any such apprentice, and to 
make such orders therein as they are empowered by law to do in other 
cases between masters and apprentices. \J 37. 

Entering Royal ^avy. liases. — No parish or voluntary apprentice 
to the sea service shall be at liberty to enter into the naval service 
of His Majesty during the period of his apprenticeship without the 
consent of his master : but if, nevertheless, he shall voluntarily enter on 
board any of His Majesty's ships of war, and shall be allowed by his 
master to continue therein, such master, in case he shall give notice to 
the Secretary of the Admiralty of his consent to his apprentice remain- 
ing in His Majesty's service during the residue of the term of his ap- 
prenticeship, shall, upon the production of his indenture, be entitled, at 
the time of paying off the ship, to receive to his own use any balance of 
wages that may be then due to any such apprentice up to the period of 
the expiration of his indenture. § 39. 



24 PASSENGERS. [1837-8. 



PASSENGERS. 

Former Act. — The Act 9 Geo. IV. o. 21, to regulate the cavriagc of 
passengers, i?, repealed. 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 53. § ]. (31 Aug. 1835.)* 

Proportion of Passcii<xers. Height between Decks. Number of 
Berths, and Height of Floor. — No ship carrying passengers from any 
place in the United Kingdom, or in the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, 
Aldcrney, Sark, or Man, on any voyage to or for any place out of Europe, 
and not being within the Mediterranean Sea, shall proceed on her voyage 
with more persons on board than in the proportion of three persons for 
every five tons of the registered burthen of such ship, the master and 
crew being included in and forming a part of such prescribed number; 
and no such ship having more than one deck shall carry any passengers 
upon any such voyage unless she shall be of the height of five feet and 
a half at the least between decks ; and no such ship having only one 
deck shall carry any passengers upon any such voyage unless a platform 
shall be laid beneath such deck in such a manner as to aiford a space of 
the height of at least five feet and a half, and no such ship shall have 
more than two tiers of berths; and no such ship having two tiers of 
berths shall carry any passengers on any such voyage unless there shall 
be an interval of six inches at the least between the deck or platform 
and the lloor of the lower tier throughout the wliole extent thereof: Pro- 
vided, that whatever may be the tonnage of the ship, no greater number 
of ])ersons as passengers shall be taken on board than shall be after the 
rate of one such person for every ten superficial feet of the lower deck or 
platform unoccupied by goods or stores, not being the personal luggage 
of such persons, if such ship shall not have to pass the Line on her voy- 
age, or after the rate of one such person for every fifteen such clear 
superficial feet if such ship shall have to pass the Line. § 2. 

Quantity of Water and Prcmisions. — No ship carrying passengers on 
any such voyage shall be cleared out for such voyage from any port in 
the United Kingdom, or in the said islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, 
Sark, or Man, unless there be actually laden and on board such ship 
good and wholesome provisions for the use and consumption of the pas- 
sengers, over and above the victualling of the crew, to the amount or 
in the proportion following ; viz. a supply of pure water to the amount 
of five gallons to every week of the computed voyage for every passenger 
on board such ship, such water being carried in tanks or sweet casks, 
and a supply of bread, biscuit, oatmeal, or bread stuff's to the amount of 
7lb. to every week of the computed voyage for every such passenger : 
Provided that to the extent of one-third of such supply, and no more, 7 lb. 
of potatoes may be deemed and computed to be equivalent to \lb. of 
bread, biscuit, oatmeal, or bread stulls in the supply of any ship bound 
to some place in North America : Provided also, that when any ship 
shall be destined to call at a place in the course of her voyage for the 
purpose of filling up her water, a supply of water at the rate before 
mentioned for every week of the computed voyage to such place of calling 
shall be deemed to be a compliance with the provisions of this Act. jj 3. 

Computed number of Weeks for J'oi/age. — The number of weeks 
deemed to be necessary for the voyage of any such ship, according to her 
destination, shall be determined by the following rule of computation ; 
viz : — 

For a voyage to North America, ten weeks : 

to South America on the Atlantic Ocean, or to the west 

coast of Africa, twelve weeks : 

* liy CO., Ainil 1, 1337, tlio aljuvc Act is> nut to apply tu Foreign ships. 



1837-8.] PASSENGERS. 25 

Fur a voyage to the Cape of Good Hopo, fifteen weeks : 

to tlie Mauritius, cii^hteen weeks: 

For any other voyatie, twenty-four weeks, v^ 4. 

Officers ofCuxtouis to ^',?Y/?/n'/^^.— Before any such ship shall be cleared 
out fur the voyap;e, the oilicers of customs shall survey, or cause to bo 
surveyed by some competent person, the provisions and water herein- 
before re(iuired for the consumption of the passengers, and shall ascertain 
that the same are in a sweet and good condition, and shall also ascertain 
that, over and above the same, there is on board an ample supply of water 
and stores for the victualling of the crew of the ship ; and such oilicers 
shall also ascertain that the directions hereinbefore contained in respect 
of the situations of berths have been complied with. ^^ o. 

A Tahhr nf the Prices of Pro ri sinus. — The master of every such ship 
shall cause a table to be drawn up of the respective prices at which any 
provisions or stores that may be sold by any person on board to any of 
the passengers during the voyage are to be supplied; and a copy of the 
same, printed or written in a fair and legible manner, shall be affixed 
in some convenient and conspicuous place on board the said ship for the 
perusal of all parties, and the same shall be maintained for continual 
reference as well during the period in which passengers shall be engaged 
as during the whole of the voyage ; and no higher prices than are stated 
in such table shall in any case be charged for such provisions or stores 
as may bo so supplied during the voyage: Provided, that nothing herein 
shall be construed as requiring the nuistcr of any ship to provide pro- 
visions or stores for the purpose of sale to any passengers who may have 
contracted to victual themselves during the voyage. § G. 

How Scd-icortliiness of S/iip may be ascertained. — If doubts shall 
arise whether any ship about to proceed with passengers.is sea-worthy, 
so as to be fit for her intended voyage, and such doubts shall not be re- 
moved to the satisfaction of the collector and comptroller of the customs 
at the port from which such vessel is to be cleared out, it shall be lawful 
for such collector and comptroller at any time to cause such ship to be 
surveyed by two competent persons ; and if it be reported by those 
persons that such ship is not in their opinion sea-worthy with reference 
to such voyage, such ship shall not be cleared out unless the contents of 
such re|)ort be disproved to the satisfaction of the commissioners of cus- 
toms, or until such ship shall have been rendered sea worthy. )J 7. 

Copies or Abstracts of Act. — Two copies of this Act, or abstracts of the 
same, provided and issued by the authority of the commissioners of cus- 
toms, and authenticated by the signature of the collector or comptroller 
of customs at the port of clearance of the ship, shall be delivered to the 
master, on demand, liy such collector or comptroller at the time of clear- 
ance, and shall be kept on board every ship proceeding with passengers as 
aforesaid, and one of such copies or abstracts shall, upon request made 
at seasonable times, to the master of the ship, be produced to any pas- 
senger for his perusal. \^ 8. 

Medical Man, Medicines, c^r. — No ship carrying passengers in any 
such voyage to any such place, except any place in North America, if 
the number of such passengers shall amount to or exceed one hundred, 
shall clear out for such voyage from any port in the United Kingdom, 
or in the said islands of Guernsey, Jeisey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, 
unless there be rated upon the ship's company, and be actually serving 
on board such ship, some person duly authorized by law to i)ractise in 
this kingdom as a physician or surgeon or apothecary, and no such ship 
shall actually put to sea or proceed on such Toyage unless such medical 
])ractitiuner shall be therein, and shall bond Jide proceed on such voyage, 
taking with him a medicine chest, and a proper supply of medicines, 
instruments, and other things suitable to the intended voyage; and no 
ship carrying passengers under the provisions of this Act shall clear out 



26 PASSENGERS. [1837-8. 

for any voyago fi'ora any such port unless there shall be actually laden 
and on board such ship medicines and other things necessary lor the 
medical trealmouto'l'the passengers on iioardduring such intended voyage, 
and available ibr that purpose, nor unless sucli medicines and other 
things shall be adequate in amount and kind to the probal)le exigencies 
of any such vovage ; and, together wilh such medicines and other things, 
shall also bo put on board every such ship previously to her clearing out 
for any such voyage, a certificate under the hands of any two or more such 
medical practitioners, to the effect that such medicines and other things 
have been inspected by them, and are, in their judgment, adequate to 
meet any such prol>able exigencies as aforesaid. § 9. 

Spirits; as StoiTs. — No ship carrying passengers to any place as afore- 
said shall be cleared out if there be laden on board such ship by way 
of stores, over and above the stores proper for the crew of such ship, any 
quantity of spirits or strong waters beyond one-tenth part of such quantity 
as would, except for this restriction, be allowed by the officers of customs 
upon the victualling Ijill of such ship for the outward voyage only, ac- 
cording to the number of persons going the voyage. ^S 10. 

List of Passengers, and Counterpart, at Port of Landinir.- — The 
master of every ship carrying passengers on any such voyage shall, be- 
fore clearing out his ship for such voyage from any place in the United 
Kingdom, or in the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, 
deliver to the collector or other principal officer of customs at such place, 
a list in writing, together with a duplicate of the same, specifying, as 
accurately as may be, the names, ages, and professions or occupations 
of all the passengers on board sucdi ship, with the name of the place at 
which the master hath contracted to land each of the passengers ; and 
such collector or other chief olficer of customs shall thereupon deliver 
to the master a counterpart of such list signed by the collector or other 
chief officer; and the m.aster shall exhibit the counterpart of his list to 
the collector or other chief officer of customs at any place in His Majesty's 
possessions, or to His Majesty's consul at any Ibreign port, at which the 
passengers, or any of them, shall be landed, and shall deposit the same 
with such collector or chief officer of customs, or such consul, as the case 
may be, at his final port of discharge in the said possessions. § 11. 

Improperly landing Passengers. — The master of any ship carrying 
any passengers as aforesaid shall not, w'ilhout his or her previous consent, 
land or put on shore any passenger at any place other than the place at 
which he may have contracted to land, or put such passenger on shore. 
S^ 12. 

Hoiv Children are to be eomputed.- — For the purpose and within the 
meaning of this Act, two children, each being under the age of fourteen 
years, but above the age of seven years : or three children, each being 
under the age of seven years, shall in all cases be computed as one person 
only; and children under the age of twelve months shall not be included 
in the computation of the number of persons, vji 13. 

Detention. — If any ship shall not actually put to sea and proceed upon 
any such intended voyage on the day for that purpose appointed by any 
contract made by the owner, master, or charterer of such ship, or by their 
agent, with any passenger who shall on that day be on board the same, 
or ready lo proceed on such intended voyage, then the master of such 
ship shall pay to each such passenger as shall have contracted to victual 
himself a fine, to be computed at the rate of 1*. in respect of each day 
during which he or she shall be so detained previously to the actuul 
clearing out and final departure of such ship on such voyage, and the 
same may be recovered daily ; and the master of such ship shall victual 
each such passenger as shall have contracted to be victualled by the 
ship-owner on and from the day which shall be so appointed: Provided, 
that no such fine shall be incurred in respect of any detention of any such 



1837-8.] PASSENGERS. 27 

vessel which shall be so detained by stress of weather or other unavoidable 
cause, s^ 14. 

How Passengers to be maintained forty-eight Hours after Arrival. — 
At the close of any such voyage every person arriving as a passenger at 
any place shall, during the space of forty-eight hours next afier sucli 
arrival, be entitled to continue on board such ship, and to be provided for 
and maintained on board the same in such manner as during such voyage, 
unless in any case it shall have been expressly agreed between any such 
passenger and the master of such ship that such passenger shall not be 
entitled to such provision or maintenance during the said period of forty- 
eight hours, or unless in the ulterior prosecution of her voyage any such 
ship shall quit any such place within the period of forty-eight hours. ^S 15. 

Infringement. — In case of the infringement of any of the aforesaid 
enactments, the master of any such ship shall for each such offence be 
liable, on summary conviction, to the payment of a fine of not less than 
5/. nor more than liO/. sterling British money. ^J 16. 

Right of Action. — Nothing herein contained shall take away or abridge 
any right of suit or action which may accrue to any passenger ni any such 
ship, or to any other person, in respect of the breach or non-perforraanco 
of any contract made between or on the behalf of any sucli passenger or 
other person, and the master, or owners of any such ship. ^S 1 7. 

Bond for due performance of Rules. Stamps. Limitation of Pro- 
secutions. — Before any ship carrying passengers shall clear out for any 
such voyage from any place in the United Kingdom, or in the islands of 
Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, to or for any place out of 
Europe, and not being in the Mediterranean Sea, the master of the ship 
shall enter into a bond to His Majesty, witli one good and suflicient 
surety, to be approved by the collector or other chief officer of customs at 
such port, in the sum of lOOt)/., the condition of which bond shall be that 
the said ship is seaworthy, and that all the rules made by this act for 
the carriage of passengers shall be well and truly performed before and 
during such intended voyage, and that all penalties, fines, and forfeitures 
whicli the master of such ship may be sentenced or adjudged to pay for 
the breach or non-performance, before or during such voyage, of any such 
rules, shall be well and truly paid : Provided always, that such bond shall 
be without stamps, and that no such bond shall be put in suit, and that 
no prosecution shall be brought under this act, or by reason of the breach 
of any of the provisions thereof, in any of His Majesty's possessions 
abroad after tlie expiration of twelve calendar months next succeeding 
the commencement of any such voyage, nor in the United Kingdom or 
any of the islands before mentioned after the expiration of twelve calen- 
dar months next after the return of the muster to the place from which 
he sailed on such voyage. § 19. 

Exceptions. — Nothing in this act shall extend to ships carrying pas- 
sengers in cases in which the number of persons, computed in nuunu r 
hereinbeibre provided, shall not exceed one person for every fne tons of 
the registered burden of such ship ; nor shall any thing in this act ex- 
tend to any shij) in the service of the lords commissioners of His Majes- 
ty's admiralty, or in the service of His Majesty's postmaster-general, or 
in the service of the East India Company, v,^ -iO. 

Bahama'^, ^'C. — The Bahama islands, and all places in America south- 
ward of the same, shall be deemed to be in South America for the pur- 
poses of this act. iJ 21. 

SMUGGLING. 

[Dr. Johnson defines a smuggler as " A wretch, who in defiance of justice 
and the laws, imports or exports goods either contrahaud, or without pay- 
ment of the customs." And Adam Smith says, "smuggling is the most ha- 
zardous of all trades, and the infallible road to bankruptcy." 



28 SMUGGLING. [1837-8. 

The regulations under this title are restricted to those only that are applicable 
to persons pursuing smuggling as a trade. 

In other instances, such as a mere inadvertency, or a casual slip of moral dutj', 
they will be found in Part II., imdcr Imports. — Entry, or Baggage. — Ed.^ 

Vessels with Materials for Smuggling. — If any vessel not being 
square-rigged, or any boat, either belonging in the whole or in part to 
His Majesty's subjects, or having half the persons on board subjects of 
His Majesty, be found or discovered to have been within one hundred 
leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom; or if any vessel either 
belonging in the whole or in part to His Majesty's subjects, or having 
half tiie persons on board subjects of His Majesty, or any foreign vessel 
not being square-rigi^ed, or any foreign boat, in which there shall be one 
or more subjects of His Majesty, be found or discovered to have been 
within four leagues of that part of the United Kingdom which is hetwecii 
the North Foreland on the coast of Kent, and Beachy Head on the coast 
of Sussex, or within eight leagues of any other part of the coast of the 
United Kingdom ; or if any foreign vessel or boat be found or discovered 
to have been within one league of the coast of the United Kingdom ; or if 
any vessel or boat be found or discovered to have been within one league 
of the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man respectively, 
or within any bay, harbour, river, or creek, of or belonging to any one 
of the said islands ; any such vessel or boat so found or discovered, 
having on board or in any manner attached thereto, or having had on 
board or in any manner attached thereto, or conveying or having con- 
veyed in any manner, any spirits not being in a cask or package contain- 
ing 40 gallons at the least, or any tea exceeding 6 pounds weight in the 
whole, or any tobacco or snufFnot being in a cask or package containing 
450 lb. at least, or being packed separately in any manner within anv 
cask or package, or any cordage or other articles adapted and pirepared 
for slinging or sinking small casks, or any casks or other vessels what- 
soever of less size or content than 40 gallons, of the description used for 
the smuggling of spirits, then and in every such case the said spirits, tea, 
tobacco, or snuff, together with the casks or packages containing the 
same, and the cordage or other articles, casks, and other vessels of the 
description aforesaid, and also the vessel or boat, shall be forfeited. 3 Sc 4 
Win. IV., c. 53. ^2. 

T'essels or Boats, /taring prohibited Goods on board or attached 
thereto. — If any vessel or boat whatever arrive, or be found or discovered 
to have been within any port, harbour, river, or creek of the United 
Kingdom, not being driven thereinto by stress of weather or other una- 
voidable accident, having on board or in any manner attached thereto, or 
having had on board or in any manner attached thereto, or conveying or 
having conveyed in any manner, within any such port, harbour, river, 
or creek, any spirits not being in a cask or package containing 40 gallons 
at the least, or any tobacco or snuft'not being in a cask or package con- 
taining 450 lb. weight at least, or being packed separately in any 
manner within any cask or package, every such vessel or boat, together 
with such spirits or tobacco or snuff, shall be forfeited : Provided, that if 
it be made appear to the satisfaction of the commissioners of customs that 
the said spirits, tobacco, or snuff were on board without the knowledge or 
privity of the owner or master of such vessel or boat, and without any 
wilful neglect or want of reasonable care on their or either of their 
behalves, that then and in such case the said commissioners arc hereby 
authorized and required to deliver up the vessel or boat to the owner or 
master of the same. ^ 3. 

Exceptions. — Nothing herein contained shall extend to render any 
vessel liable to forfeiture on account of any tobacco or snuft" from the 
East Indies being in packages of 100 lb, each at least, or on account of 



1837-S.] SMUGGLING. 29 

any cigars being in packages of 100 lb. each at least, or on account of 
any tobacco made up in rolls, being the produce of and imported from the 
state of Columbia, and in packages containing 320 lb. ea<di at least, or 
on account of any tobacco of the dominions of tlie Turkish Empire which 
may be separated or divided in any manner within the outward package, 
provided such package be a hogshead, cask, chest, or case containing 
450 lb. net at least, or on account of any rum of and from the British 
plantations in casks containing 20 gallons at the least, or on account of 
any spirits, tea, or tobacco really intended for the consumption of the 
seamen and passengers on board during their voyage, and not being 
more in quantity than is necessary for that purpose, or to render any 
square-rigged vessel liable to forfeiture on account of any tea, or of any 
spirits in glass bottles, being really part of the cargo of such ship and 
included in the manifest of such ship, or to render any vessel liable to 
forfeiture if really bound from one foreign port to another foreign port, 
and pursuing such voyage, wind and weather permitting''. 

Vessels not bringing to upon Signals, or throwing Goods overboard 
durmg Chase. — When any vessel or boat belonging in the wliole or in 
part to His Majesty's subjects, or having one half of the persons on 
board subjects of His Majesty, shall be found within one hundred leagues 
of the coast of this kingdom, and shall not bring to upon signal made by 
any vessel or boat in His Majesty's service, or in the service of the 
revenue, hoisting the proper pendant and ensign, in order to bring such 
vessel or boat to, and thereupon chase shall be given, if any person on 
board such vessel or boat shall, during the chase or before such vessel or 
boat shall bring to, throw overboard any part of the lading of such vessel 
or boat, or shall stave or destroy any part of such lading, to prevent 
seizure thereof, the vessel or boat shall be forfeited ; and all persons 
escaping from such vessels or boats, or from any foreign vessel or boat, 
during any chase made thereof by any vessel or boat in His Majesty's 
service or in the service of the revenue, shall be deemed to be subjects of 
His Majesty, unless it be proved to the contrary. ^S 5. 

Vessels in. Port with Cargo unaccounted for. — If any vessel or boat 
whatever be found within the limits of any port of the United Kingdom 
with a cargo on board, and such vessel or boat afterwards be found 
light or in ballast, and the master is unable to give a due account of the 
place within the United Kingdom where such vessel or boat shall have 
legally discharged her cargo, such vessel or boat shall be forfeited. § G. 

Vessels not bringing to on being Chased. Firing at. — In case any 
vessel or boat liable to seizure or examination under any act for the pre- 
vention of smuggling shall not bring to on being required so to do, on 
being chased by any vessel or boat in His Majesty's navy having the 
proper pendant and ensign of His Majesty's ships hoisted, or by any 
vessel or boat duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, having a 
proper pendant and ensign hoisted, it shall be lawful for the captain or 
master of such vessel or boat in His Majesty's navy, or employed as 
aforesaid, (first causing a gun to be fired as a signal,) to fire at or into 
such vessel or boat ; and such captain or master is indemnified from any 
indictment, penally, or other proceeding for so doing. ^S 8. 

Vessels hoisting Pendant, Ensign, <^'C. — If any person shall wear, 

• By 4 & 5 Will. IV. c. 89, \ 9, nothing in the .ibove act sh;iU extend to render any vessel of 
not less th;in 20 tons burthen li;ible toforleitiire on account of any si>irits iu glass bottles, or to 
render any vessel of not less than 120 tons burthen liable to forfeiture on account of any tobacco 
the produce of and coniinj; direct from Mexico or the coutinent of South America, or from the 
islands of Saint Domingo and Cuba, iu packages of not less than 80 i>ounds wei;^ht each, and 
spirits and tobacco being really part of the cargo of such ship, and included in the manifest 
thereof. 

By 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 60, § II, in all cases where casks or packages containing spirits, tobacco, 
or .snulT, found on board vessels within any such distances, are of sucli size or dimensions as 
may bo legally imported into the United Kiugdom, no such forfeiture, deteuliou and prosecu- 
tion shall take place. 



30 SMUGGLING.' [1837-8. 

cany, or hoist in or on board any vessel or boat whatever belonginf^ to any 
of His Majesty's subjects, whether the same be merchant or otherwise, 
without particuhir warrant from His Majesty or the Admiralty of Great 
Britain, His Majesty's Jack, commonly called The Union Jack, or any 
pendant, ensign, or colours usually worn by His Majesty's ships, or any 
flag, jack, pendant, ensign, or colour, resembling those of His Majesty, or 
those used on board His Majesty's ships, or any other ensign or colours 
than the ensign or colours by any proclamation of His Majesty now in 
force or hereafter to be issued prescribed to be worn, then the master or 
the owners being on board the same, and every other person so offending, 
shall forfeit C^OL; and it shall be lawful for any officer of His Majesty's 
navy, on full pay, or for any officer of customs or excise, to enter on board 
any such vessel or boat, and to seize any such flag or colours, and the 
same shall thereupon be forfeited. § 9. 

Vessels and Boats used in Removal of Goods. — All vessels and boats 
made use of in the removal, carriage, or conveyance of any goods liable 
to forfeiture under any Act relating to the revenue of customs, shall be 
forfeited. § 10. 

Vessels not square-rigged having Goods in secret Places. — Foreign 
vessels or boats not being square-rigged, coming to or arriving at any 
port of the United Kingdom, having on board any goods liable to the 
payment of duties, or prohibited to be imported into the United Kingdom, 
concealed in false bulkheads, false bows, double sides or bottoms, or any 
secret or disguised place whatsoever in the construction of the vessel or 
boat, shall be forfeited. >? 14. 

How Vessels may be searched within limits of Ports, as also Persoris 
on board, or ivho may have landed from them. — It shall be lawful for 
any officer of the army, navy, or marines, duly employed for tlie pre- 
vention of smuggling, and on full pay, or for any officer of customs, 
producing his warrant or deputation (if required), to go on board any 
vessel which shall be within the limits of any of the ports of this king- 
dom, and to rummage and to search the cabin and all other parts of such 
vessel for prohibited and uncustomed goods, and to remain on board such 
vessel during the whole time that the same shall continue within the 
limits of such port, and also to search any person, either on board or wdio 
shall have landed from any vessel, provided such officer shall have good 
reason to suppose that such person have any uncustomed or prohibited 
goods secreted about his or her person ; and if any person shall obstruct 
any such officer in going or remaining on board, or in entering or search- 
ing such vessel or person, every such person shall forfeit 100/. s^ 34. 

Hou^ Persons may require to be taken before a Justice or Officer of 
Customs, before searching. — Before any person shall be searched by any 
such officer as aforesaid, it shall be lawful for such person to require such 
officer to take him or her before any justice of the peace, or before the 
collector, comptroller, or other superior officer of customs, who shall de- 
termine whether there is reasonable ground to suppose that such person 
has any uncustomed or prohibited goods about his or her person : and if 
it shall appear to juch justice, collector, comptroller, or other superior 
officer of customs, that there is reasonable ground to suppose that such 
person has any uncustomed or prohibited goods about his or her person, 
then such justice, collector, comptroller, or other superior officer of cus- 
toms shall direct such person to be searched in such manner as he shall 
think lit; but if it appear to such justice, collector, comptroller, or other 
superior officer of customs that there is not reasonable ground to suppose 
that such, person has any uncustomed or prohibited goods about his or 
her person, then such justice, collector, comptroller, or other superior 
officer of customs shall forthwith discharge such person, who shall not in 
such case be liable to be searched ; and every such officer is hereby au- 
thorized and required to take such person, upon demand, before any such 



1837-8.] SMUGGLING. .31 

justice, coUeolor, comptroller, or other superior ofilcor of customs, dotain- 
in<x him or her in the moan time : Provided, that no person being a female 
shall be searched by any other person than a female duly authorized for 
that purpose by the commissioners of His Majesty's customs. \S 35. 

Females. Misconduct «v to Searc/i.— If any such ollieer sliall not take 
such person with reasonable despatch before such justice, collector, comp- 
troller, or other superior oUicer of customs, when so required, or shall re- 
quire any person to be searched by him, not having reasonable ground to 
suppose that such person has any uncustomed or prohibited goods about 
his or her person, that such officer shall forfeit and pay the sum of 1 0/. 
§ 3r,. 

Persons denying having Foreign Goods about them. — If any passen- 
ger or other person on board any vessel or boat shall, upon being ques- 
tioned by any officer of customs, whether he or she has any foreign goods 
upon his or her person, or in his or her possession, deny the same, and 
any such goods shall, after such denial, be discovered upon his or her 
person, or in his or her possession, such goods shall be forfeited, and such 
person shall forfeit treble the value of such goods. § 37. 

Hoio Officers may search Houses for prohibited Goods, and. break open 
Doors and Packages. — It shall be lawful for any officer of customs, or 
person acting under the direction of the commissioners of customs, hav- 
ing a writ of assistance vmder the seal of His Majesty's Court of Exche- 
quer, to take a constahle, headborough, or other public officer inhabiting 
near the place, and in the daytime to enter into and search any house, 
shop, cellar, warehouse, room, or other place, and in case of resistance to 
break open doors, chests, trunks, and other packages, there to seize and 
thence to bring any uncustomed or prohibited goods, and to put and se- 
cure the same in the custom-house warehouse in the port next to the 
place from whence such goods shall be so taken as aforesaid : Provided 
always, that for the purposes of this Act any such constahle, headborough, 
or other public officer, duly sworn as such, may act as well without the 
limits of any parish, ville, or other place for which he shall be so sworn as 
within .such limits. § 38. 

Duration of Writs of Assistance. — All writs of assistance so issued 
from the Court of Exchequer shall continue in force during the whole of 
the reign in which such writs shall have been granted, and for six months 
from the conclusion of such reign. ^S 3'J. 

Hoiv Officers may stop Carts, ^-c, and search for Goods. — It shall 
be lawful for any officer of customs or excise, or other person acting in 
his aid or assistance, or duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, 
upon reasonable suspicion, to stop and examine any cart, waggon, or 
other means of conveyance, for the purpose of ascertaining whether any 
smuggled goods are contained therein ; and if no such goods be found, 
then the officer or other person so stopping and examining such cart, 
waggon, or other conveyance, having had probable cause to suspect that 
such cart, waggon, or other conveyance had smuggled goods contained 
therein, shall not, on account of such stoppage and search, he liable to 
any prosecution or action at law on account thereof; and all persons 
driving or conducting such cart, waggon, or other conveyance, refusing 
to stop when required so to do in the king's name, shall forfeit 100^. 

Where Police Officers seizing Goods are to lodge them. — If any goods 
liable to forfeiture under this or any other act relating to the customs shall 
be stopped or taken by any police officer or other person acting by virtue 
of any act of parliament, or otherwise duly authorized, sucli goods 
shall be carried to the custom-house warehouse next to the place v.-here 
the goods were stopped or taken, and there delivered to the proper officer 
appointed to receive the same, within forty-eight hours after the said goods 
were stopped and taken. § 41. 



32 SMUGGLING. [1837-8. 

Hoiv goods stopped bt/ Police Officers may be retained until trial. — If 
any such goods be stopped or taken by such police officer on suspicion 
th;it the same have been feloniously stolen, it shall be lawful for the 
otiiccr to carry the same to the police oflice to which the offender is taken, 
there to remain until and in order to be produced at the trial of the said 
offender; and in s\icli case the oflicer is required to give notice in writing 
to the commissioners of customs of his having so detained the goods, witli 
the particulars of the same ; and immediately after the trial all such 
goods are to be conveyed and deposited in the custom-house warehouse as 
aforesaid, to be proceeded against according to law; and in case any police 
officer making detention of any such goods shall neglect to convey the 
same to such warehouse, or to give the notice of having stopped the same 
as before described, such ofKcer shall forfeit 20/. ij 42. 

Persons rtushipping, harbouring, or having Custody of Prohibited or 
Unri/,sto?ned or Warehoused Goods. — Every person who shall, either in 
the United Kingdom or the Isle of Man, assist or be otherwise concerned 
in the unshipping of any goods which are prohibited to be imported into 
the United Kingdom or into the Isle of Man, or the duties for which have 
not been paid or secured, or Mho shall knowingly harbour, keep, or con- 
ceal, or shall knowingly permit or sutler to be harboured, kept, or con- 
cealed, any goods which shall have been illegally unshipped without pay- 
ment of duties, or which shall have been illegally removed, without pay- 
ment of the same, from any warehouse or place of security in which they 
may have been deposited, or any goods prohibited to be imported, or to 
be used or consumed in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, and 
every person, either in the United Kingdom or the Isle of Man, to whose 
hands and possession any such uncustomed or prohibited goods shall 
knowingly come, or who shall assist or be in anywise concerned in the 
illegal removal of any goods from any warehouse or place of security in 
wiiich they shall have been deposited as aforesaid, shall forfeit either the 
treble value thereof, or the penalty of 100/. at the election of the commis- 
sioners of customs. § 44. 

Hotv Value to be ascertained — In all cases where any penalty the 
amount of which is to be determined by the value of any goods is directed 
to be sued for under any law now in force or hereafter to be made for the 
prevention of smuggling, or relating to the revenue of customs or excise, 
such value shall be deemed to be according to the rate and price which 
goods of the like sort and of the best quality bear at such time, and upon 
which the duties due upon importation have been paid. 5J 45. 

Insuring Delivery of Prohibited or Uncustomed Goods. — Every per- 
son who by way of insurance or otherwise shall undertake or agree to de- 
liver anv goods to be imported from beyond the seas into any place in the 
United Kingdom without paying the duties due on such importation, or 
any prohibited goods, or who in pursuance of such insurance or otherwise 
shall deliver or cause to be delivered any vmcustomcd or prohibited goods, 
and every aider or abettor of such person, shall for every such offence 
forfeit 500/. over and above any other penalty to which by law he may 
be liable ; and every person who shall agree to pay any money for the 
insurance or conveyance of such goods, or shall receive or take such goods 
into his custody or possession, or suffer the same to be so received or 
taken, shall also forfeit 500/. over and above any penalty to which bylaw 
he maybe liable on account of such goods. § 46. 

Offering goods for sale as being run or prohibited. ~1? any ])evson 
offer for sale any goods under pretence that the same are prohibited, or 
have been unshipped and run on shore without payment of duties, then 
all such goods (although not liable to any duties, or prohibited) shall be 
forfeited, and the person, and every of them, offering the same for sale, 
shall forfeit the treble value of such goods, or the penalty of 100/., at the 
election of the commissioners of customs. ^^ 47. 



1837-8.] SMUGGLING. 33 

Persons discovered lo JiitvebcP)} onboard J'essels /iah/j to Forfeiture' 
Justice of Pence. — Every person, beinj:; a subject of His ?'ilajesty, who 
shall be found to have been on board any vessel or boat liable to forfeiture 
for being found to have been within any of the places in this Act men- 
tioned, from or in the United Kingdom, or from or in the Isle of Man, 
having on board or in any manner attached thereto, or having had ou 
board or in any manner attached thereto, or conveying or having conveyed 
in any manner, sucli goods as subject such vessel or boat to forfeiture, or 
who shall be found or discovered to have been, within any such distance, 
ou board any vessel or boat from which any part of the cargo or lading of 
such vessel or boat shall have been thrown overboard, or staved or de- 
stroyed, to prevent seizure, shall forfeit 100/.; and every person, not being 
a subject of His Majesty, who shall be found to have been on board any 
vessel or boat liable to forfeiture for any of the causes aforesaid, within 
one league of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the Isle of Man, or 
within any bay, harbour, river, or creek of the said island, shall forfeit 
for such otfence 100/.; and it shall be lawful for any officer of the army, 
navy, or marines, being duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, 
and on full pay, or any officer of customs or excise, or other person acting 
in his aid, or duly employed for the jn-evention of smuggling, to detain 
every such person, and to convey such person before any justice of the 
peace in the United Kingdom, to be dealt with as directed : Pi'ovided 
always, that any such person proving, to the satisfaction of any justice 
before whom he may bo brought, that he was only a passenger in such 
vessel or boat, and had no interest whatever either in the vessel or boat, 
or in the cargo, or any goods on board the same, shall be forthwith dis- 
charged by such justices. ^S 48, 

Persons unshipping, or concerned in the carrying aioay or concealing 
Spirits or Tobacco. — Every person whatsover who shall unship, or be 
concerned in the unshipping of any spirits or tobacco liable to forfeiture 
either in the United Kingdom or the Isle of Man, or who shall convey, 
or conceal, or be concerned in the conveying or concealing of any such 
spirits or tobacco, shall forfeit for such offence 100/,; and every such per- 
son may be detained by any oificer of His Majesty's army, navy, or ma- 
rines, being duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and on full 
pay, or by any officer of customs or excise, or other persons acting in his 
aid, or duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and taken before 
any justice of the peace in the United Kingdom, to be dealt with as here- 
in after directed. ^ 49. ' 

Persons carnjing, i^-c. Tea or Manufactured Silk. Justice of Peace. 
—Every person whatsoever who shall unship, or be aiding, or concerned 
in the unshipping of any tea or foreign manufactured sUk of the value 
of 20/., liable to forfeiture, or who shall convey, or be concerned in the 
conveying, or concealing of such tea or silk, shall forfeit for every such 
offence treble the value thereof ; and every such person shall and may 
be detained by any officer or officers of His Majesty's army, navy, or 
marines, being duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and ou 
full pay, or by any officer of customs or excise, or by any other person 
acting in his aid or assistance, or duly employed for the prevention of 
smuggling, and taken before any justice of the peace in the United 
Kingdom, to be dealt with as herein-after directed: Provided, that it shall 
be lawful for such person so detained to give security in treble the amount 
of the goods seized, by recognizance or otherwise, to the satisfaction of 
such justice of the peace, to appear at a time and place to be appointed ; 
and no such person shall be liable to serve His Majesty in his naval ser- 
vice. ^S 50. 

Houi Justices may order persons to be detained a reasojialde time.— 
And whereas it is expedient that time should be allowed to prepare in- 
formations, convictoins, and warrants of commitment j it is therefore 

D 



34 SMUGGLING. [1837-8. 

enacted, that when any person shall have heen detained hy any officer of 
the army, navy, or marines, being dnly employed for the prevention of 
smuggling, and on full ]>ay, or by any officer of customs or excise, or any 
person or persons acting in his aid or assistance, or duly employed for the 
prevention of smuggling, for any offence under this or any other Act 
relating to the customs, and shall have been taken and carried before any 
justice of the peace, if it appear to such justice that there is reasonable 
cause to detain such person, such justice is hereby authorized and required 
to order such person to be detained a reasonable time, and at the expira- 
tion of such time to be brought before any two justices of the peace, who 
are hereby authorized and required finally to hear and determine the 
matter. ^^51. 

Any person liable to be arrested, making his Escape. — If any person 
liable to be detained under the provisions of this or any other Act re- 
lating to the customs shall not be detained at the time of so committing 
the offence for which he is so liable, or after detention shall make his 
escape, it shall be lawful for any olficer of the army, navy, or marines, 
heing duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and on full pay, 
or for any officer of customs or excise, or any other person acting in his 
aid or assistance, or duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, to 
detain such person at any time afterwards, and to carry him before any 
justice of the peace, to be dealt with as if detained at the time of com- 
mitting the said offence. § 52. 

Signals to Smugglers. Justice of Peace. — No ])erson shall, after 
sunset and before sunrise between the 21st September and 1st April, or 
after the hour of eight in the evening and before the hour of six in the 
morning at any other time in the year, make, aid, or assist in making, 
any signal in or on board or from any vessel or boat, or on or from any 
part of the coast or shore of the United Kingdom, or within six miles of 
any part of such coasts or shores, for the purpose of giving any notice 
to any person on board any smuggling vessel or boat, whether any person 
so on board of such vessel or boat be or be not within distance to notice 
any such signal ; and if any person, contrary to the true intent and 
meaning of tliis Act, make or cause to be made, or aid or assist in making, 
any such signal, such person so offending shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor ; and it shall be lawful for any person to arrest, and detain the 
person who shall so offend, and convey such person before any one or 
more of His Majesty's justices of the peace residing near the place where 
such offence shall be committed, who, if he sees cause, shall commit the 
oftender to the next county gaol, there to remain until the next court of 
oyer ot terminer, great session, or gaol delivery, or until such person 
shall be delivered by due course of law ; and it shall not be necessary 
to prove on any indictment or information that any vessel or boat was 
actually on the coast ; and the offenders being duly convicted thereof 
shall, by order of the court before whom such offenders shall be convicted, 
either forfeit lOt)/., or, at the discretion of such court, he sentenced or 
committed to the common gaol or house of correction, there to be kept 
to haiTl labour for any term not exceeding one year. § j3.* 

* By 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 60, § 9, when any person slmll liavR been duly convictcil of any of the 
offences in llie said Act mentioned before any two justices of the jieaee within whose jurisdiction 
there is no house of correction, such justices are authorised and required, by warrant under their 
hands and s6als, to commit such offender to any of His Majesty's gaols within their jurisdiction 
wherein the sentence of liard labour is or can be executed, or to the house of correction nearest 
to the place where such olVender is convicted, for such time as is set forth in the said Act for a 
first, second, and third otfence respectively ; and the governor or keeper of such house of cor- 
rection is hereby required to receive such offender, and to obey such warrant in all respects as 
if such house of correction was within the jurisdiction of tlie said justices. 

How Miigisfrates to pruieid to cunriitwn in certain cases untlviut order frum Board of Customs. 
— By § 10, whenever any person shall have been detained and taken before any justice of the 
peace for unshipping, or for aiding, assisting, or being concerned in the unshipping, of any spirits 
or tobacco liable to forfeiture, under any Act relating to the customs or excise, or for carrying, 
conveying, or concealing, or for aiding, assisting, or being concerned ia the carrying, couveying 



1837-8.] SMUGGLING. n.O 

Prnnf nf Signals. — Tn case any person bo chargcil with or indicled for 
havin<f mado or caused to be nuule, or been aidin<j; or assisting in niakinf^-, 
any such siscnal as alurcsaid, the burthen of proof that such si<i,iial so 
charfi,ed as liaving been made with intent and for the purpose of {5ivin<i; 
such notice as aforesaid was not mado with such intent and for such 
purpose, shall be upon the defendant against whom such charge is made 
or such indictment is found. § 54. 

How Persons may prevent Signals, and enter upon Lands. — It shall 
be lawful for any person whatsoever to prevent any signal being made as 
aforesaid, and to enter and go into and upon any lands for that purpose, 
without being liable to any indictment, suit, or action for the same, s^ 55, 

Resisting Officers, or rescuing or destroying Goods. — If any ])crson 
whatsoever shall obstruct any officer of the army, navy, or marines, 
being duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and on full pay, 
or any officer of customs or excise, or any person acting in his aid, or 
duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, in the execution of his 
duty, or in the due seizing of any goods liable to forfeiture by any ether 
Act relating to the customs, or shall rescue any goods which have been 
seized, or shall attempt to do so, or shall, before or at or after any seizure, 
stave, break, or otherwise destroy any goods, to prevent the seizure thereof 
or the securing the same, in such case the party or parties oifending shall 
forfeit for every such offence 100/. § 5G. 

Persons procaring others to act illegally. — Any person who shall by 
any means procure or hire any person, or who shall depute, authorise, or 
direct any person to procure or hire any person, to assemble for the pur- 
pose of being concerned in the landing or unshipping or carrying or 
conveying any goods which are prohibited to be imported, or the duties 
for which have not been paid or secured, shall, for every person so pro- 
cured or hired, forfeit 1 00/'. § 57. 

Armed Persons assembled to assist in the Illegal Landing, or in 
rescuing Goods seized. — If any persons to the number of three or more, 
armed with fire-arras or other offensive weapons, shall, within the 
United Kingdom, or within the limits of any port, harbour, or creek 
thereof, be assembled in order to be aiding in the illegal landing, run- 
ning, or carrying away of any prohibited goods, or any goods liable to any 
duties which have not been paid or secured, or in rescuing or taking away 
any such goods, after seizure, from the officer, or from any person em- 
ployed by them or assisting them, or from the place where the same shall 
have been lodged by them, or in rescuing any person who shall have 
been apprehended for any of the oflences made felony by this or any act 
relating to the customs, or in the preventing the apprehension of any 
person who shall have been guilty of such offence, or in case any persons 
to the number of three or more, so armed, shall, within the United King- 
dom, or within the limits of any port, harbour, or creek thereof, be so 
aiding, every person so offending, and every person aiding therein, shall, 
being thereof convicted, be adjudged guilty of felony, and suffer death as 
a felon, § 58. 

Shooting at Boat belonging to Navy, or in Service of Revenue, ^^c. — 
If any person maliciously shoot at any vessel or boat belonging to His 
Majesty's navy, or in the service of the revenue, within 100 leagues of 
any part of the coast of the United Kingdom, or shall maliciously shoot at, 

or conceiiling of any such spirits or tobacco, and it sliuU ainx;ar to sucli justice tlist the quan- 
tity or spirits in respect of wliicli sucli person has been so detained does not exceed one fjallon, 
or that the quantity of tobacco in respect of which such person )ias been so detained does not 
exceed 611)., such justice is authorised to proceed summarily upon the case without any iiilorma- 
tion, and althouf^h no direction sliall have been given by tlie Commissioners of Customs, ami to 
convict such person of such olVence, and to ailjuilge tliai such person shall in lieu of any other 
penalty, forl'eit any sum of money not exceedinj; bl., and in default of payment of such sum of 
mouey to commit such person to any of His Majesty's gaols for any time not exceedin;; one 
month. § 10. 

D 2 



36 SMUGGLING. [1837-S. 

maim, or dangerously wovind any officer of the army, navy, or marines, 
beinjr duly employed for the prevention of smugglin<f, and on full pay, 
or any oflinor of customs or excise, or any person actiu": in his aid, or 
duly employed for the prevention of smui4<iling' in the due execution of 
his office or duty, every person so ottendinjj, and every person aiding 
therein, shall, being lawfully convicted, be adjudged guilty of felony, and 
suffer death as a felon, s^ 59. 

Persons having Prohibited Goods, or beii/g anwd or disguised. — If 
any person being in company with more than four other persons be 
found with any goods liable to forfeiture under any Act relating to the 
revenue of customs or e.xcise, or in company with one other person, within 
five miles of the sea coast or of any navigable river leading therefrom, 
with such goods, and carrying offensive arms or weapons, or disguised in 
any way, every such person shall be adjudged guilty of felony, and shall, 
on conviction of such offence, be transported as a felon for the space of 
seven years. § 60. 

Assaulting or opposing Officers. — Tf any person shall by force or 
violence assault, or obstruct any oHicer of the army, navy, or marines, 
being duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, and on full pay, 
or any officer of customs or excise, or other person acting in his aid, or 
duly employed for the prevention of smuggling, in the due execution of 
his office or duty, such person, being thereof convicted, shall be trans- 
ported for seven years, or sentenced to be imprisoned in any house of cor- 
rection or common gaol, and kept to hard labour, for any term not exceed- 
ing three years, at the discretion of the court before whom the offender 
shall be tried and convicted. ^^ 61, 

How commanding Officers may haul their Vessels o?i Shore. — It shall 
be lawful for the commanding officer for the time being of any vessel or 
boat employed for the prevention of smuggling, to haul any such vessel 
or boat upon any part of the coasts of the United Kingdom, or the shores, 
banks, or beaches of any river, creek or inlet of the same (not being a 
garden or pleasure-ground, or place ordinarily used for any bathing-ma- 
chine or machines), which shall be deemed most convenient for that 
purpose, and to moor any such vessel or boat on such part of the afore- 
said coasts, shores, banks, and beaches below high-water mark, and over 
which the tide flows on ordinary occasions, and to continue such vessel or 
boat so moored for such time as the commanding officer shall deem ne- 
cessary and proper ; and such commanding officer, or persons acting 
under his direction, shall not be liable to any indictment, action, or suit 
for so doing. § 62. 

TVho to take up Spirits in small casks sunk or floating upon the Sea. 
— No person whatsoevei', being a subject of His Majesty, other than an 
officer of the navy, customs, or excise, or some person or persons autho- 
rised in that behalf, shall intermeddle with or take up any spirits, being 
in casks of less content than forty gallons, which may be found floating 
upon or sunk in the sea within 100 leagues of the United Kingdom; 
and if any spirits be so intermeddled with or taken up, the same shall be 
forfeited, together with any vessel or boat in which they are found. § 72. 

Rewards for giving Information of Goods floating or sunk in the Sea. 
— If any person discover any spirits, being in casks of less content than 
forly gallons, which may be found floating upon or sunk in the sea, and 
shall give information to any oflicer of customs, or oiher person duly 
authorised to make seizure of such spirits, so that seizure shall be made of 
the same, the person giving such information shall be entitled to and 
shall receive such reward as the commissioners of customs may deem it 
expedient to direct. § 73. 

Alloivanre to poor persons confined. — For the necessary subsistence of 
any poor person contined in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, 



1837-8.] SMUGGLING. 37 

under any oxclicqucr or other process for tlie recovery of anv duties or 
penalties, either upon bond or otherwise, under this or any ntlier Act re- 
iatiiif^ to the customs or excise, sued for under any order of the connnis- 
sioncrs of customs or excise, it shall he lawful for tlie commissioners re- 
spectively to cause an allowance, not exceedin*;- the sum of l}^d. and nut 
less than Ahl. per day, to be made to any su('h poor person, out of anv 
money in their hands arising from the duties of customs or excise, as the 
case may require. § 74. 

MatTird IVomcn. — Where any party so convicted before two justifies 
of the peace shall be a married woman, such party shall be liable to be 
committed to prison in manner hereiu-before mentioned, notwithstanding 
her coverture. »J 83. 



PART THE SECOND. 



UNITED KINGDOM OF G Tl E A T BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND. 



IMPORTS. 

REPORT AND ENTRY. 

[The regulations touching the Report aud Entrtj of Ships and Goods arc con- 
tained in the Act 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 52. The passing of these documents 
through the different offices can with safety be entrusted only to practical and 
experienced persons. Those, therefore, who are not such, will do well on these 
occasions to employ some respectable Brokeh or Custom-house Auent. A 
mere theoretical knowledge will never enable any one duly to accomplish the 
matter. For these reasons, the details are omitted. 

The same remarks apply also to 

DAMAGED GOODS, aud to the VALUATION OF GOODS. 

Report and Entry. T/me-t a?}d Places of Landing ; and care of Offi- 
cers. Goods not Reported nor Entered. Bulk illegally broken. Ex- 
ceftions. — No goods shall be unladen from any ship arriving from parts 
beyond the seas at any place in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of 
Man, nor shall bulk be bi-oken after the arrival of such ship within four 
leagues of the coasts thereof respectively, before due report of such sliip 
and due entry of such goods shall have been made, and warrant granted, 
in manner hereinafter directed ; and no goods shall be so unladen ex- 
cept at such times and places, and in such manner, and by such persons, 
and under the care of such officers, as is and are hereinafter directed ; 
and all goods not duly reported, or which shall be unladen contrary here- 
to, shall be forfeited ; and if bulk be broken contrary hereto, the 
master of such ship shall forfeit 100^.; and if, after the arrival of any 
ship within four leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of 
the Isle of Man, any alteration be made in the stowage of the cargo of 
such shi|), so as to facilitate the unlading of any part of such cargo, or if 
any part be staved, destroyed, or thrown overboard, or any package be 
oi)ened, such ship shall be deemed to have broken bulli : Provided, that 
the several articles hereinafter enumerated may be landed in the United 
Kingdom without report, entry, or warrant ; (that is to say) diamonds and 
bullion, fresh tish of British taking, and imported in British ships, tur- 
bots and lobsters fresh, however taken or imported. 3 and 4 Will. IV. 
c. 52, s^ 2. 

MANIFESTS. 

Manifests of British Ships, and all Ships with Tobacco. Parti- 
culars. — No goods shall be imported into the United Kingdom or into 
the Isle of Man from parts beyond the seas in any British ship, nor any 
tobacco in any ship, unbjss the master shall have on board a manifest* 

* As to owners, cliaitorors or consignees' letters, and having goods ut)oar(l, see 1 Vict. c. 34, 
§ 23, in 1'aet C. 

Uj § 25, same Act, no vessel shall bre«k bulk till all letters delivered, except in particular 

cases, such as yuaianUnc, ScC. 



1837-S.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— iJfaw/^*^*. ' 39 

of such floods or of such tobacco, made out and dated and signed bv him 
at the jihice or respective places whore the same or the different jia'rts of 
the same was or were taken on board, and authenticated in the manner 
hereinafter provided : and every such manifest shall set forth the name 
and the tonnajre of the ship, the name of the master and of the place to 
which the ship belongs, and of the place or places where the goods were 
taken on board resjjectively, and of the place or places for whidi they are 
destined respectively, and shall contain a particular account and de- 
scription of all the packages on board, with the marks and UHinbers 
thereon, and the sorts of goods and different kinds of each sort contained 
therein, to the best of the master's knowledge, and of the particulars of 
such goods as are stowed loose, and the names of the respective shippers 
and consignees, as far as the same can be known to the master; and to 
such particular account shall be subjoined a general account or recapi- 
tulation of the total number of the packages of each sort, describing the 
same by their usual names, or by such descriptions as the same can best 
be known by, and the different goods therein, and also the total (luanti- 
ties of the different goods stowed loose : jirovided that every manifest for 
tobacco shall be a separate manifest, distinct from any manifest for any 
other goods, and shall, without fail, contain the particular weight of 
tobacco in each hogshead, cask, chest, or case, with the tare of the same ; 
and if such tobacco be the produce of the dominions of the Grand Siguier, 
then the number of the parcels or bundles within any such hogshead, 
cask, chest, or case, shall be stated in such manifest. 3 & 4 Will. IV., 
c, 52, ^ 3. 

Manifest to be jiroduced before clearing out. — Before any ship shall 
be cleared out or depart from any place in any of the British Possessions 
abroad, or from any place in China, ^^ith any goods for the United 
Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce 
the manifest to the collector or comptroller of the customs, or other proper 
ofhcer, who shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof 
to him : Provided always, that in all places within the territorial pos- 
sessions of the Jlast India Company,* the servant of the said Company by 
whom the last dispatches of such ship shall be delivered shall be the 
proper oflicer to authenticate the manifest as aforesaid ; and in all places 
in tJhina the chief supercargo of the said Company shall be the proper 
officer for such purpose. § 4. 

Tubaccn Manifest at Foreign Places. — Before the departure of any 
ship from any place beyond the seas, not under the British dominions, 
where any tobacco has been taken on board s^uch ship for the United 
Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall jjroduce 
the manifest of such tobacco to the British consul or other chief British 
oflicer, if there l)e any such resident at or near such place ; apd such 
consul or other officer shall certify upon the same the date of tjje pro- 
duction thereof to him. ^S 5. 

Manifest ivuiiting. — If any goods be imported into the United King- 
dom or into the Isle of Man, in any British ship, or any tobacco in any 
ship, without sucli manifest, or if any goods contained in such manifest 
be not on board, the masfer of such ship shall forfeit 100/. v^ (i. 

When Manifest to be produced. Copies. — The i>iaster of eyery ship 
required to have a manifest on board shall produce such manifest to any 
oflicer of customs who shall come on board his ship after her arrival 
within four leagues of the coast of the United Khigdom or of the coast 
of the Isle of !\Ian, and who shall demand the same, for his inspection; 
and such master shall also deliver to any such officer who shall be the 
first to demand it a true copy of such manifest, signed by the master; 
and shall also deliver another copy to any other oflicer of customs who 

* See now East InUies and China, 1'akt 7. 



40 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Mm,yf'.s/c?. [1837-8. 

shall be the first to demand the same within the limits of the port to 
which sudi ship is hound ; and thereupon such officers respectively shall 
notify on such manifest and on such copies the date of the production 
of such manifest and of the receipt of such copies, and shall transmit 
such copies to the collector and comptroller of the port to which such 
vessel is first bound, and shall return such manifest to the master; and 
if such master sh.all not in any case produce such manifest, or deliver 
such copy, he shall forfeit IQQl. § 7. 

S/iip to come qiiichhj tn Place of Unlading, avcl to bring to at Sta- 
tions. Tobacco S/iips. — Every ship shall come as quickly up to the 
proper place of mooring or vmlading as the nature of the port will admit, 
and without touching at any other place; and in proceeding to such 
place shall bring to at stations appointed by the commissioners of His 
Majesty's customs for the boarding of ships by the officers of the cus- 
toms : and after arrival at such place of mooring or vmlading such ship 
shall not remove fn m such place except directly to some other proper 
place, and with the knowledge of the proper officer of the customs, on 
penalty of 100/. to be paid by the master of such ship: Provided always, 
that it shall be lawful for the commissioners of His Majesty's customs to 
appoint places to be the proper places for the mooring or unlading of ships 
im])orting tobacco, and where such ships only shall be moored or unladen ; 
and in case the place so appointed for theunlading of euch ships shall not 
be within some dock surrounded with walls, if any such ship after hav- 
ing been discharged shall remain at such place, or if any ship not im- 
porting tobacco shall be moored at such place, the master shall in either 
case forfeit 201. ^ 1.3. 

Officers to board Ships. Access to all Parts; seal or secure Goods, 
a?ui ope?i Locks. Goods concealed. Seal, S;c. brohen. — It shall be lawful 
for the proper officers of customs to board any ship arriving at any 
port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, and freely to stay 
on board until all the goods laden therein shall have been duly delivered 
from the same ; and such officers shall have free access to every part of 
the ship, with power to fasten down hatchways, and to mark any goods 
before landing, and to lock up, seal, mark, or otherwise secure any 
goods on board such ship: and if any place, or any box or chest, bo 
locked, and the keys be withheld, such olRcers, if they be of a degree 
superior to tidesmcn or watermen, may open any such place, box, or 
chest, in the best manner in their power ; and if tliey be tidesmen or 
watermen, or only of that degree, they shall send for their superior offi- 
cer, who may open or cause to be opened any such place, box, or chest, 
in the best manner in his power; and if any goods be found concealed 
on board any such ship, they shall be forfeited: and if the officers shall 
place any lock, mark, or seal upon any goods on board, and such 
lock, mark, or seal be wilfully opened, altered, or broken before due de- 
livery of such goods, or if any such goods be secretly conveyed awav, or 
if the hatchways, after having been fastened down by the officer, be 
opened, the master of such ship shall Ibrfcit lOOA >^^ 14. 

NatioJtal Ships, British or Foreign, having Goods on Board. Ships 
liable to Search. — If any ship (having commission from His IMajcsty, or 
from any foreign prince or state) arriving as aforesaid at any port in the 
United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, shall have on board any goods 
laden in parts beyond the seas, the ca])tain. master, or purser of such ship 
or of such goods for that voyage shall, before any part of such goods be 
taken out of such ship, or when called upon so to do by any officer of the 
customs, deliver an account in writing under his hand, to the best of his 
knowledge, of the quality and (piantity of every package or parcel of such 
goods, and of the marks and numbers thereon, and of the names of the 
respective shippers and consignees of the same, and shall make and sub- 
scribe a declaration at tlie foot of such account, declaring to the truth 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— TMroi<Ts.—i1/a?/?rr.v/,?. 41 

thereof, and shall also truly answer to the collector or conip(ri;ller such 
questions concernintj such troods as shall be recjuircd of him; aud on 
failure thereof such captain, master, or purser shall forfeit 100/.: ami all 
such ships shall be liable to such searches as merchant ships are liable to ; 
and the ofllcers of customs may freely enter and tro on l)oard all siudi 
ships, and brinj^ from thence on shore hito the kinir's warehouse any 
yoods found on board any such ship ; subject nevertheless to such rejxida- 
tions in respect to ships of war bclonsinp^ to His Majesty as shall from time 
to time be directed in that respect by the commissioners of His Majesty's 
treasury. ^^ 15, 

List of Creio of Ships from West Indies.— Tho master of every British 
ship arriving at any port in the United Kingdom, on her return from any 
British Possessions in the West ludies, sliall, within ten days of such 
arrival, deliver to the collector or comptroller a list, containing the names 
and descriptions of the crew which was on board at the time of clearing 
I'roni the United Kingdom, and of the crew' on board at the time of arri- 
val in any of the said possessions, and of every seaman who has deserted 
or died during the voyage, and also the amount of wages due at the time 
of his death to each seaman so dying, and sluiU make and subscribe a de- 
claration at the foot of such list, declariug to the truth thereof: and every 
master omitting so to do shall forfeit 50/.; and such list shall be kept by 
the collector for the inspection of all persons interested therein, s^ 10. 

Returned Goods. Bill of Store. Property not changed. Foreign 
Goods. Goods JVarehoiised. Certain Goods may not he Returned for 
Home Use. — It shall be lawful to reimport into the United Kingdom from 
any place, in a ship of any country, any goods (except as hereinafter ex- 
cepted) which shall have been legally exported from the United Kingdom, 
and to enter the same by bill of store, referring to the entry outwards, and 
exportation thereof, provided the property in such goods continue in the 
person by whom or on whose account the same have been exported, and 
that such re-importation take place within six years from the date of 
the exportation ; * and if the goods so returned be foreign goods, which 
had before been legally miported into the United Kingdom, the same 
duties shall be payable (hereon as would, at the time of such re-imporla- 
tion, be payable on the like goods imder the same circumstances of im- 
I'ortation as those under which such goods had been originally imported, 
or such goods may be warehoused as the like goods might be warehoused 
upon a first importation thereof: Provided always, that the several sorts 
of goods enumerated or described in the table following shall not be re- 
imported into the United Kingdom for home use upon the ground that 
the same had been legally exported from thence, but that the same shall 
be deemed to be foreign goods, whether originally such or not, and shall 
also be deemed to be imported for the first time into the United King- 
dom ; (that is to say) — 

A TABLE OF GOODS EXPORTED WHICH MAV NOT BE RE-IMPORTED 
FOR HOME USE, 

Corn, grain, meal, flour, and malt. 

Hops. 

Tobacco. 

Tea. 

» I?y 6 & 7 'Will. IV. c. CO, § 2 fAu;,'. 13, 18S6), any gcoils \\liicli luive been lepally expovti-d 
from the t'niteil KingilDiu, and wliicli shall alterwards be re-impoited into the same, the real 
Vroinietor thereof being then absent therefrom, shall upon sncli re-importation be permitted to 
be entered by bill of store, jjrovided the ^'oods be such as are entitled to tliat privilege, on pro- 
duction of a declaration subscribed by such real proprietor setting forth the identity of the j;. ods 
so exported and so returned, and that he was at the time of exportation from the (jnited Ivin;;- 
dom, and will be at tlie time of re-importation thereinto, the propiietor of such i,'oods, and that 
the same have not during such time been sold or disposed of to any other person; such declara- 
tion to be made before British Consid, Vice-Consul, or other iiVi/isA autliorily residing in or 
near the place of residence ofsucli real jiroprietor, and upon such further proof of the idcniiiyof 
the goods as the commissioners of the customs shall require, and upon compliance with all the 
other regulations rcjuired by law on the entry of goods bv bill of store. 



42 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports,— Mw?>s/^. [1837-8. 

Goods for which any bounty or any (h-awback of excise had been received 

on exportation, unless by special permission of the commissioners of 

His Majesty's customs, and on repayment of such bounty or such 

drawback. 
All goods for which bill of store cannot be issued, except small remnants 

of British goods by special permission of the commissioners of His 

Majesty's customs, upon proof to their satisfaction that the same are 

British and had not been sold. § 33, 

By whom Bill of Store may be taken out. Agent to declare Name of 
Employer. Cofis/gnee to declare who is Proprietor. Proprietor to 
declare to Identity, and Property iw changed. Entry by Bill of Store. 
— The person in whose name any goods so re-imported were entered for 
exportation shall deliver to the searcher at the port of exportation an 
exact account, signed by him, of the particulars of such goods, referring 
to the entry and clearance outwards and to the return inwards of the 
same, with the marks and numbers of the packages, both inwards and 
outwards; and thereupon the searcher, finding that such goods had been 
legally exported, shall grant a bill of store for the same ; and if the person 
in whose name such goods were entered for exportation was not the pro- 
prietor thereof, but his agent, he shall declare on such bill of store the 
name of the person by whom he was employed as such agent; and if 
the person to whom such returned goods are consigned shall not be such 
proprietor and exporter, he shall make and subscribe a declaration on 
such bill of store of the name of the person for whose use such goods 
have been consigned to him ; and the real proprietor, ascertained to be 
such, shall make and subscribe a declaration upon such bill of store, to 
the identity of the goods so exported and so returned, and that he was 
at the time of exportation and of rc-importation the proprietor of such 
goods, and that the same had not during such time been sold or disposed 
of to any other person ; and such declaration shall be made before the 
collectors or comptrollers at the ports of exportation and of importation 
respectively ; and thereupon the collector and comptroller shall admit such 
goods to entry by bill of store, and grant their warrant accordingly. ^S 34. 

Snrplus Stores. — The surplus stores of every ship arriving from parts 
beyond the seas, in the United Kingdom, or in the Isle of Man, shall 
be subject to the same duties, and the same prohibitions and regulations 
as the like sort of goods shall be subject to when imported by way of 
merchandise ; but if it shall appear to the collector and comptroller that 
the (juantity or description of such stores is not excessive or unsuitable, 
uncjer all the circumstances of the voyage, it shall be lawful for them to 
permit such surplus stores to be entered for the private use of the master, 
purser, or owner of such ship, or of any passenger of such ship to whom 
such surplus stores may belong, ou payment of the proper duties, or to 
be warehoused for the future use of such ship, although the same could 
not be legally imported by way of merchandise, i^ 35, 

Goods from. Plantations. Plantation Clearance. — No goods shall 
be entered as being of or from any British possession in America (if any 
benefit attach to such distinction) unless the master of the ship importing 
the same shall have delivered to the collector or comptroller a certificate 
under the hand of the proper officer of the place wheie such goods were 
taken on board, of the due clearance of su(di ship from thence, containing 
an account of such goods. § 36. 

Importation direct. — No goods shall be deemed to be imported from 
any particular place unless they be imported direct from such place, and 
shall have been there laden on board the importing ship, eilher as the 
first shipment of such goods, or after the same shall have been actually 
landed at such place. § 48. 

Goods under Excise Permit. — Officers of Excise to attend Delivery 
and Weigh, ^-c. — No goods which are subject to any regulations of excise 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Ma^z/cs/s. 43 

shall be taken or delivered out of the charge of the ufllcers of customs 
(although the same may have been duly entered with them, and the full 
duties due thereon may have been i)aid,) until such goods shall also 
have been duly entered with the ollicers of excise, and permit granted 
by them for delivery of the same, nor unless such permit shall correspond 
in all particulars with the warrant of the officers of customs: Provided, 
that such entry shall not bo received by the officers of the excise, nor 
such permit granted by them, until a certificate shall have been produced 
to them of the particidars of the goods, and of the warrant lor the same, 
under the hand of the officers of customs who shall have the charge of the 
goods : Provided also, that if upon any occasion it shall appear necessary, 
it shall be lawful for the proper officers of excise to attend the delivery 
of such goods by the otiicers of the customs, and to require that such goods 
shall be delivered only in their presence; and it shall be lawful for such 
officers of excise to count, measure, gauge or weigh any such goods, 
and fully to examine the same, and to proceed in all respects relating to 
such goods in such manner as they shall be authorised or required by 
any Act for the time being in force relating to the excise. \^ 52. 

Prohibitions and Restrictions. — The several sorts of snoods enumerated 
or described in the table following, denominated " A Table of Prohibitions 
and Restrictions Inwards," shall either be absolutely prohibited to be 
imported into the United Kingdom, or shall be imported only under the 
restrictions mentioned in such table, according as the several sorts of 
such goods are respectively set forth therein ; viz. : — 

A TAHLE OF PROHIBITIOXS AND RESTRICTIONS INWARDS. 

A List of Goods absolutely Prohibited to be Imported. ^ 58. 
[These goods are dij^t'sted under their respective names in "' Imcokts." Ed,^ 

List of Goods subject to certain Restrictions on hnportation. 
[These goods are likewise digested under their respective names, in "Tii- 
poiiTs."] § 58. 

How Goods may be Warehoused for Exportation. Exceptions. — Any 
goods, of whatsoever sort, may be imported into the United Kinffdom 
to be warehoused under the regulations of any Act in force for the time 
being for the warehousing of goods, without payment of duty at the time 
of the first entry thereof, or notwithstanding that such goods may be pro- 
hibited to be imi)orted into the United Kingdom to be used therein, 
except the several sorts of goods enumerated or described in manner 
following ; (that is to say) — goods prohibited on account of the packiige in 
which they are contained, or the tonnage of the ship in which they are 
laden ; gunpowder, arms, ammunition, or utensils of war ; dried or salted 
fish, not being stock- fish ; infected hides, skins, horns, hoofs, or any 
other j)art of any cattle or beast ; counterfeit coin or tokens ; books first 
composed or written or printed and published in the United Kingdom, 
and reprinted in any other country or place ; copies or prints first en- 
graved, etched, drawn, or designed in the United Kin<idom ; copies of 
casts of sculptures, or models first made in the United Kingdom ; clocks 
or watches, being such as are prohibited to be imported for home use. 
$39. 

Goods to be Warehoused for Exportation only. — If by reason of the 
sort of any goods, or of the place from whence, or the country, or navi- 
gation of the ship in which any goods have been imported, they be such 
or be so imported as that they may not be used in the United Kin>:dom, 
they shall not be entered except to be warehoused, and it shall be 
declared upon the entry of such goods that they are entered to be ware- 
housed for exportation only. § 60. 

Goods concealed, and Goods packed icith them. — If any goods which 



44 UNITED KINGDOM,— i?ec?;;roc%. [1837-8. 

aie subject to any (l>;ty or restriction in respect of importation, or whicli 
arc prohibited to be imported into the United Kinj^dom, be found con- 
cealed in any manner on board any vessel, or be found, eitlier before or 
after landing, to havt; been concealed in any manner, then all such goods, 
and all other goods which shall be packed with them, sliall be forfeited. 
3 & 4 Will, IV., c. ,03. § 1 5. 

Goods Unsliipped, Prohibited, and Warehoused Goods. — If any goods 
liable to the payment of duties be unshipped from any vessel or boat in the 
United Kingdom, or the Isle of Man (customs or otber duties not being 
first paid or secured), or if any prohibited goods whatsoever be imported 
into any part of the United Kingdom or of the Isle of Man, or if any goods 
^vbat^:oever which shall have been warehoused or otherwise secured in 
ihe United Kingdom, either ibr home consumption, or exportation, be 
clandestinely or illegally removed from or out of any warehouse or place 
of security, then all such goods shall be forfeited, together with all horses 
and other animals, and all carriages and other things made use of in the 
removal of such goods, ij 28. 

Searching Vessels or Persons. See Smuggmng, p. 30. 

RECIPROCITY SYSTEM. 

How additional Tonnage Dnticf. on Ships may be charged. — It shall 
be lawful for His Majesty by any Order in Council to bo published from 
time to time in the London Gazette (whenever it shall be deemed expe- 
dient), to charge any additional or countervailing duty of tonnage upon 
any vessels which shall enter any of the ports in the Uniled Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, or in any of His Majesty's dominions, and 
M'hich shall belong to any foreign country in which any duties of tonnage 
shall have been, or shall he levied upon British vessels entering the ports 
of such country, higher or greater than are levied upon the vessels of 
such country : Provided always, that such additional or counlervailing 
tonnage duties shall not be of greater amount than may be deemed 
fairly to countervail the difference of duty paid in such foreign country 
upon tonnage of British vessels, more than the duty there charged upon 
the vessels of such country. 5 Geo. IV., cap. 1, ^*i 3, 

See Portu(;al, Part 9. 

PIoic the Tonnage of Foreign Ships ma7j be charged as British. — His 
Majesty may authorise the entry into the United Kingdom of foreign 
ships on payment of the like tonnage duties as are or shall be charged in 
respect of similar British ships, upon satisfactory proof being laid before 
His Majesty in Council that ships of such foreign country, in whose 
favour such permission shall be granted, are charged with no other or 
higher tonnage duties, on their entrance into the ports of such foreign 
country, than are charged on the entry into such ports upon the ships of 
such country, v) 4, 

Additional Duties on Goods. Prohibition, S,^c. — His Majesty, by order 
in council, from time to time may order that there be levied any additional 
duty, not exceeding one-fijth of the amount of any existing duty, upon any 
goods, the growth, produce, or manufacture of any country which shall levy 
higher or other duties upon any article the growth, produce, or numufac- 
ture of any of His Majesty's dominions than upon the like article the 
growth, produce, or manufacture of any other foreign country ; and in lilie 
manner to impose such additional duties upon any goods when imported 
in the ships of any country which shall levy higher or other duties upon 
any goods when imported in British ships than wlien imported in the 
national ships of such country, or which shall levy higher or other 
tonnage or port or other duties upon ]>ritish ships than upon such 
national sliips, or which sluiU not place the commerce or navigation of 
this kingdom upon the footing of the most fa^•oured nation in the ports of 



1837-S.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«//e5, c^-c. 45 

such country ; and cither to pn)hibit the importation of any nianu- 
f'acturod article tlie produce of such country in the event of the export of 
the raw material of which such article is wholly or in part made Ix'in*;- 
prohibited from such country to the Hritisli dominions, or to imijose an 
additional duty, not exceed in <^ o?i<?-/7/"//« as aforesaid, upon such manufac- 
tured article ; and also to impose such additional duty in the event of 
such raw material bein;^ suhject to any duty upon beinjj: exported from 
the said country to any of Ilis Majesty's dominions. 3 & 4 Will. IV., 
c. 5G, ^^ 5. See Portugal, Part IX. 

Foreign Powers. 

By order in council, October 12, 1832, it is declared that the foiei<;n 
powers with which any reciprocity * treaties are subsistin;^ in'o those 
hereinafter mentioned, viz. : —the kin<;dom of Portugal, the United 
States of America, His Majesty the Kin<^ of Prussia, His Majesty as 
Kinji; of Hanover ; ■(• His Majesty the King of Denmark, the United Pro- 
vinces of Rio de la Plata; the state of Colombia, the senate of the free 
Ilanseatic city of Lubeck, the senate of the free Ilanseatic city of Bremen, 
and the senate of the free Hanseatie city of Hamburg, His Majesty the 
King- of the French, His Majesty the Kin<^ of Sweden and Norway, the 
United States of Mexico, His Majesty ihe Emperor of Brazil, His Majesty 
the Emperor of Austria, and the free city of Frankfort. 

NEW DUTIES. 



GENERAL REMARKS, 

The Duties and Drawbacks mentioned under this title are all granted 
by 3 Si A Will. IV., e. 5G, except where otJieriinse mentioned. 



The Figures denote the rate o/Duty, if nd otherwise e.vpressed. 
Wliere no Drawrack is stated, none is allowed. 



To avoid as much as possible a multiplicity of Rl-.Ficrkncics, each 
Article is ranged under its sjenoric term ; such as Bees'" JVax, under 
Wax — Bra7idy, under Spirits — Wheat, under Corn — Deals, under 
Wood. 

Goods, being either in part or ivholly manufactured, and not £. s. d. 
being enumerated nor otherwise charged ivith duty, and 
not prohibited to be imported into or used in Great Britain 
or Ireland, \00l. value 20 



Goods, Jiot being either in part or wholly manufactured, and 
not being enumerated n/yr otherwise charged with duly, ami 
not prohibited to be imported into or used in Great Britain 
or Ireland, lO'Jl. vcdue . . . . . . .500 



Parts of Articles, z'/i;. ; — Any distinct or separate part of 
any article not accompanied by the other j)art or all the 
other parts of such article, so as to be complete and perfect, 
if such article be subject to duty according to ihe value 
thei'eof, prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture. 

• Rociprocity Tivalics are those fuuuiU'd on tlic iniuciiilos laid down in thu forngoing claiist! 
of Acts. 

Fi>r the suke of perspicuify, tlic above particulars are digested under their Siiveral lie ids, in 
googripliical order. 

t Now the King of Hanover — formerly tho Duke cf Cumberland— who has succeed ■ 1 to 
that throne. 



46 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— D«i?e5, t^-r. [1837-8. 

Abandonment of Goods. — It shall be lawful for the commissioners 
of cvistoms to accept the abandonment, for tlie duties, of any whole 
packages of warehoused goods, and to cause or permit the same to be 
destroyed, and to deduct the contents of such whole packages from the 
total quantity of the same importation, in computing the amount of the 
deficiency of such total quantity. 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 5 7, ^S 33. 

As to Tobacco, Cocoa, Coffee, Pej'per, and Lees of Wine, see under the 
names of the several articles, in alphabetical order. 

Computation of Duties. — In computing the Duties, it may not be 
amiss to remind the reader that 



100/. vulue 



Ibl. 


is three-fourths, 


or 


\i>s. 


5U. 


one-half, . 




1 0.y. 


2;-)/. 


one- fourth, 


, , 


5.?. 


Vll. \0s. 


one-eighth, 


, 


2sM. 


10/. 


one-tenth, 




2.V. 


o/. 


one-twentieth 




\s. 



in the £. 



Ciot., qr. and lb., may l)e readily reduced into lb., thus: — 

Cwt , qr. lb. 
13 1 5 



156 multiply by 12, carrying out two figures. 
33 the odd qr. and 5lb. 



1489 lb. 



A. 

Acetous Acid. See Vinegar. £. s. d. 

Acorns. See Seed. 

Africa. — Goods, the produce of, see p. 2. See the names of 

the several articles in alphabetical order ; see also Africa, 

Part II. 
Agates, or Cornelians, 1 00/. value, . . . , . 10 
— Set, 1 00/. value, 20 

Tliey fjive the mime of onyx to agates formed of two'translncid sliipes of dilTerent colours. 
Oriental agate is (listin},'iuslied by the fineness of its comjiiisition, and Ijy the yeiniliar a))- 
pearance },'iven to its interior by its various undulated lamina;. When the quart/, afjate is 
less tine in its composition, it is used for gun-flints and for millstones, and even for com- 
m<jn flinis. — MaUc-Brun. 

Alkali, not being Barilla, viz. : — 

Any article containing Soda or Mineral Alkali, whereof Mineral Alkali is tlie 
most valuable part (such Alkali not being otberwiso particularly charged 
with duty), viz. : — 

• not containing a greater portion of such Alkali than 

20 per cent. cwt. . . . . . . . 114 

containing more than 20 per cent, and not exceeding 

25 per cent. cwt. ....... 

more than 25 per cent, and not ex. 30 per cent. cwt. 

more than 30 per cent, and not ex. 40 per cent. cwt. 

if containing more than 40 per cent. cwt. 

Natural Alkali, imported from places within the 

limits of the East India Company's Charter, cwt. . . 2 

Alkali. — A term dciived from Itali, the Aial)ic name of a plant, from the ashes of wliieh one 
species of alkaline substance can be exlr:ieted. Alkalis may be detiued, tho^e bodies 
which combine tvilli acids, so as to neutialise or impair their activity, and produce salts. 
Acidity and alkalinity are llioreforc two coirelutive terms of one species of combination.— 
Vrc. 






15 








18 


4 


1 


3 


4 


1 


10 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 7)«if/t' , .^v. 47 

.£ s. d. 
Alkanet Root, cwt 2 

The alkiini't jilaiit is ;i kind of biinlos, wliicli is a tiutive of tlie warmer paits (if Ivurope, ami 
cultivated in some of our ^aniens. The jireatcst quantities are raised in Germany and 
Fiance, particuhuly abcmt MontiieUer, whence wo are chielly supplied with the roots. 
This root imparts an elegant deep rod colour to pure alcohol, to oils, to wax, aud to all 
unctuous substances. — Ure. 

Almond Paste, 100/, value 60 

Almonil paste is divided into three kinds : namely, brown .ilmond paste, white sweet alraoml 
paste, and white bitior almond paste ; but all of them are prepared nearly in a similar way. 
— Gill's Tt'c/t. Repos. and drama uf Science and Art. 

Almonds, Bitter, cwt . . 4 

— Jordan, cwt .200 

of any other Sort, cwt. . . . . . 10 

The Valeniia almond is a sweet, largo, (lat almond, iminted at one extremity, and ( ompressod 
in the middle as if with the thumb. The Italian are not so sweet, smaller, and less de- 
pressed in the middle. The Jordan almonds, which como from Malaga, are the best sweet 
almonds brought to England. — Thumson. 

Aloes, lb. . . 8 

■ produce of and imported from B. P. lb. . . . 2 

Three sorts of aloes are distinguished in the shops by the names of alo.' socnlrina, aloe he- 
patica, and aloe caballina. The fust denomination, which is applied to the purest kind, 
is taken from the island of Socotora; the second, or next in quality, is called hepatica, 
from its liver colour; an<l the third, caballina. The principal characters of ;;oofl aloes are 
these : they must be glossy, not very black, but brown ; when rubbed or cut, of a yellow 
~ colour; compact, but easy to break ; easily solul)le ; of an unpleasant peculiar smell, which 
cannot be descriljed, and an extremely bitter taste. — Ure. 

Alum, cwt 0176 

Roch, cwt 11 8 

The greater quantity of the alum of commerce is prepared by a peculiar management of 
schistose pyritic clays, usually denominated alum ores. At La Tolfa, near Civita Vecchia, 
where the best Roman alum is made, the ore is alum stone or sulphuretted clay ; but at 
other places, both on the Continent and in Great llritaiu, it is manufactured from pyrita- 
ceous clay. The best alum is thel Roman, w hich is in irregular, octahedral, crystalliuo 
masses, powdery on the surface. — Thomson, 

Amber, Rough, lb 6 

Manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated, lb. . 12 

Tliis substance is dug out of the earth in Ducal Pru'ssia, near the sea-co:ist, and is thrown in 
considerable (piantity on the sea-shore of Polish Prussia aud I'omerania, i;artieularly alter 
tempestuous west or north-west winds. The greater part of what is brought to this country 
comes from the Baltic ; and a small quantity from Catania, in Sicily, packed in chests.— 
Tliotnson. 

Ambergris, oz. . . . . . . . . 6 

This substance is a product of the spermaceli whale, but it is not an article of medicine? in 
this country. The best account of the method of procuring it is in the Pkilusoiihical Trans- 
actions for 1783. It is found floating on the surface of the sea. The best is brought from 
Madagascar, Surinam, and Java. Ambergris seems to be the feeeal matter of the cachelot, 
probably hardened and otherwise altered by disease. Some have considered it analogous to 
biliary calculi ; its chemical properties favour this supposition. It is a solid, opaque, grey- 
ish, striated substance, having a pleasant musk-like odour, and which is supposed to be de- 
rived from a spee;es of cuttle-lish (sepia moschata) on which the animal feeds. In favour 
of this opinion must be mentioned the fact that the horny boaks of a sepia are found im- 
bedded in it. Its specific gra\ity is from 0'9U8 to 0'92. — Perinra in the Medical Gazette. 

America. — Goods, the produce of, see p. 2 ; see the names 
of the several articles in alphabetical order; see also 
America, Part XII. 

Anchovys, lb 2 

I3y C. O., Jan. 1792, onothird to be allowed for salt and pickle, besides an adequate t;ire for the 
package. 

In the Mediterranean, which may be regarded as the grand nursery-ground (if not the \>er- 
manent head- quarters) of the common anchovy, the finest ones are obtained oil' the little 
island of Gorgona, and superior to those taken nearer the main-land. The common an- 
chovy is found in prodigious numbers along all the shores of the Mediterranean, espL-ci.illy 
the Kuropean ones. Tlie months during which the fishing is ehielly carried on are May, 
June, and July ; the best lish in May, the most abundant in June, and inferior, mixed with 
" shotteu" ones, or those that have spawned, in July. They are found not only in the -Me- 
diterranean, but on the Atlantic shores without the Straits', along the west of Spain and 
Portugal; less abundantly in the bay of liiscay; rarely in the Knglish Channel 5 and still 
more rarely to the northward of the Straits of i)over. The number caught every year is 
immense ; and the only preparation they receive is said to be drawing, decapitation, and 
sailing down in casks, coutaiuing about ten pounds ou the average, though they vary const- 



43 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— i)«r/e.?, <^'c. [I S3 7-8. 

Aneliovys, continued, viz. : — £ s. d- 

(lerably. The roal anchovy is about .1 span long; less, of coiivsp, when the head is re- 
moved; phmn) and round ill the body ; brownisli lilile, with a silvery lustre on tlie upiier 
I)art, and silvery white on tlie under; tlie tlesli is salmou-eoU)ur wlieu salted; but if the 
lish are not iu hiyh si'ason. it is jinle as well as thin and tasteless. Tliere is another spe- 
cies in the Mediterranean (fi. Melctta) which bears about the same relation to the common 
anchovy that the sprat does to the herriuij. It is said that the anchovys of commerce are 
often adulterated with an admixture of the sardine {Clupca sardina), a fish very much re- 
sembling the pilchard, only smaller in size ; but as it has neither the colour nor the llavour 
of the anchovy, it can be used only in mixture with that. — Partinc/ton's Cyrlu. 

Angelica, cwt. . . ...... 4 

Angelica is a native of .the more northern parts of Europe. Tlie odour of every part of the 
recent plant is frai,'rant and aromatic ; the tiisle sv. (•rti>li at iii si, Ihen aromatic, warm, and 
sli'dilly bitter. Tlie iliied root is corrnijated, ami of a f,'ieYisl!-brown colour externally; 
breaks'short with a starchy li actuio, and presents a Ikui interior, whitish, with many resinous 
brown and yellow points. It has the same odour and taste as the recent phuit, and yield 
these qualitiesto alcohol, and iu some degree to boiling water. — T/iomsou. 

AmioUo, cwt 10 

Roll, cwt 4 

Annatto, Anotlo, Aruotfo ((lie rocou of tlie French), a rod dye preiiared iu the West Indies, 
from the seed capsules of the Jiixn (Irlmn-p, a tree of South America. It is much used in 
the dairies of Kntjland and Holland Iu colour cheese and butter. The Spanish 1 iidiaus use 
it medieiually.— ii(N-;y. Mcliop. 

Antimony, Ore, ton 10, 

Crude, cwt 8 

. Rc^^ulus, cwt IG 

This metal, when pure, is of a brilliant white, or bluish-white colour, showin^j a radiated 
liactuie when broken ; by exposure to he.il and air it is converted into a white oxide, which 
sublimes in vapinis. Its ores are found chieily in Saxony and the Hart/. ; also in Corn- 
wall, AUemont in France, Spain, Mexico, and Siberia. Antimony is used in medicine, 
forming with several agents very active compounds ; it also enters into the composition of 
type metal as used ibr printing. — Joijce. 

Apparel, Wearing. See Baggage, next page. 

Apples, Bushel ..040 

dried, bnsbel . . 2 0. 

Aquafortis, cwt. . . . . • . • . 0143 

This name is given to a weak and impure nitric acid, commonly used in the arts. It is dis- 
tin"uishcd by the terms Double and Single, the single being only half Ihe strength of -the 
other. The artists who use these acids call the more concentrated acid, whicli is much 
stronger even than the double aquatbrlis, Spirit of Nitre. — Vre. 

Arclielia. See Orchal. 

Argol, cwt. G 

Crude tartar, in the state in which it is taken from the inside of wine vessel?, is known iu Ihc 
shops by the name of argol. The casks in which some kinds of wine are kept become 
incrusted with a hard substance, tinged with the colouring matter of the wine, and other- 
wise impure, which has long been known by the name ofargol, or tartar, and distinguished 
into red and'white according to its colour, it has likewise been found iu oilier fruits, parti- 
cularly before they arc ripe.— f/rc. 

Aristolochia (G and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) lb. . . . 1 

The root of this plant, which is the part used ofliciimlly, is small, light, and bushy, consisling 
of a number of fibres matted together, issuing i'i(uu one common head, of a brownish colour 
on the outside, and a pale or yellow within. It has an aromatic smell, somewhat like that 
of valerian, luit more agreeable, and a warm, bitterish, pungent taste, very much resembling 
camiihor.— ii'nc!/. Melrop, 

Arms. 

Amnivuiition and Utensils of War, hi/ wa;/ of merchandise, except by license 
frum His Miijosty lor furuishiuo- liis Majesty's public stores, only; prohi- 
bited to be imported on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 WiU. IV., c. 52, § 58. 

Arquebusade Water. See Spirits. 

Arrow Root, lb. . . . . . • • • 2 

, . tbe produce of and imported from B. P., cwt. 10 

By T. L., April 15, 1835, as Arrow-root is an article of fond made from a variety of vegetable 
substances, and although of the starchy principle, it ought not to be confounded with starch, 
which is not an article of food, and tliererore the practice observed previou^ly to charging 
the above duty (Ui cassava powder or starch, is to be observed, viz., that it be charged as 
Arrow-root. See Powder. 

It is so called because it was thought to extract the poison from wounds inflicted by the 
poisoned allows of the Indians.— A'iWio/soji. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— lMPonTs.—Z>//^/c.';', c^-c. 49 

Arrow-root, continued, viz. : — £ s. a. 

Anow-iodt is tlie pith of the Maraiita anuKlinncca. The powder is prei)ari'(l from the roots of 
:i year old, wliich, after being well waslied, are beaten, and the librous part separateil 
IVo'm the pulp. The supernatant lluid is now poured o IV, and the starch, after l)einf,' w<dl 
washed, is dried in the sun. In this state it is brought to Europe, and sold under the 
name of Indian arrow-root. — Thomson. 

This root ('/"aert pinnatifiilus, I.in., the Pea of the natives) grows in the greatest abundance in 
all the islands which we visited ; vi/., in tliaheite, Kmeo, Iluaheine, Kaiatea, and Otliaha. 
So abundant is the root, that several tons might be prepared annually by proper manage- 
ment: as it is, there is a considerable quantity prepared; it being not only eaten by the 
natives and strangers on the island, but also by the crews of the vessels that touch there.— 
When we visited the island, we purchased the prepared Arrow-root at !2rf. per lb., and a mis- 
sionary there informed us, that lie would engaL'e to procure any given quantity at lid. per 
lb., which is, I believe, ranch less than it can be purchased at either in the Kast or the 
West Indies. Its quality is excellent; I should say equal to that of the East Indies, and far 
superior to that ot Chile, with which I have, since my return, had an oiiportunity of com- 
paring it. — Gardener's Magazine. 

Arsenic, cwt. . . . ..... 8 

The form under which this metal is generally known is that of oxi<le. the arscnious acid ; and 
this is readily converted into the metallic slate by fusion with half its weight of black ilnx 
in a close vessel. Arsenic, or rather the arscnious a-'id, principally comes from Saxony, 
Bohemia, and Germany, where it is either worked directly for thi- market or indirectly .as a 
product in working cobalt, and some other ores with which it is combined in large ([uanti- 
ties. Arsenic is one of the least valuable of the metals; with sulphur it forms two com- 
pounds, occasionally employed as colours, viz.— orpiment and realgar, a yellow and red 
paint ; a green colour is also aflorded by aiWing a solution of arseniate of potassa to sul- 
phate of copper, and called, from the inventor, Sclieel's Green. — Joyce. 

The arsenic of commerce is generally half plaster of Paris, and the eye cannot detect the dif- 
ference. — Literary Gazette. 

Asafoetida. See Gum. 

Ashes, Pearl and Pot, cwt. . . . . . . 6 

imported from any B. P. . . . . . Free, 

Pearl or Pot, of foreign production, imported from B, P. 

in Europe, cwt. . . . . . . . G 

(5 and 6 W. IV. c. G6. Sept. 9, 1835. Duty to commence 
from that day.) 

Soap, Weed, and Wood, cwt 18 

- not otherwise enumerated, 100^. val. . . . 20 

Potiisli and Pearlash come chiefly from Canada, North America, and Russia They are very 
extensively used in soap-making, the manulacture of glass, bleaching and scouring of linens, 
woollen cloths, &c. With the acids they form salts, some of which are m\ich employed in 
medicine, either as .-.n anti-acid or catharti-c. In combination with the nitric acidthey form 
nitre or saltpetre, which enters very largely into the composition of gunpowder; ami this 
salt, wlien heated, is often used as a substitute for the oxide of manganese in preparing oxy- 
gen gas. It is from this salt that the whole of the nitric acid and aquafortis used in com- 
merce is obtained. — Joyce. 

The cultivation of the beet-root appears likely to prove more advantageous than ever, in con- 
sequence of the discovery that the melasses extracted from the root may be, after serving 
fur the manufacture of sugar, turned to further advantage. It appears that potash may be 
manufactured from it, and of so good a quality as to compete with the foreign article. M. 
Uubrunfaut has discovered a method of extracting this substance from the residue of the 
melasses alter distillation, and which residue having served for the production of alcohol, 
was afterwards thrown away an<l lost. To give some idea of the importance of the creation 
of this new source of national wealth, it will be sullicieut to say, that the quantity of potash 
furnished by M. Dubrunlaut's process is equal to une-sixth of the quantity of the sugar ex- 
tracted from the beetroot. — Journal des Debats. 

Asia. — Goods, the produce of. See p. 2. See the names of the 
several articles in alphabetical order. See also Asia, Part 10. 
Asphaltum, cwt, . . . . . . . 4 

Asplialtum, likewise called Bitumen Judaicum, or Jews' Pitch, is a smooth, hard, brittle, 
black or brown substance, which breaks with a polish, melts easily when he.ated, and when 
pure burns without leading any ashes. It is found in a soft or liquid state on the surface of 
the Dead Sea, but by age grow"s diy and Iiard. The same kind of bitumen is likewise found 
in the earth in other parts of the world — in China; America, particularly in the island of 
Trinidad ; and some parts of Europe, as the Carpathian hills, France, Neufchatcl. — Ure. 

Asses, each 0100 

The ass, either in a domestic or wild state, is found iu almost (•\i'ry warm and temjierate climate 
of the old continent. It existed not in the new continent when it was tirst discovered ; but the 
species, after being transported thither from Europi', has now subsisted and multiplied greatly 
in America during more than two <-enturies, so that, at present, it is almost eeiually dill'used i)\ er 
the four quarters of the globe.— 5«#on. 

B. 

Bacon, cwt. .........180 

15acon, the flesh of a hog salted and dried —Envy. Mctrop. 

E 



50 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw;?e.9, <^c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Baggage. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 53, § 37, if any passenger or other per- 
son on board any vessel or boat shall, upon being questioned by any officer 
of customs, whether he or she has any foreign goods upon his or her jierson, 
or in his or her possession, deny the same, and any such goods shall, after 
such denial, be discovered upon his or her person, or in his or her possession, 
such goods shall be forfeited, and such person shall forfeit treble the value 
of such goods. 

By C. O., Dec. 3, l%\&, foreign watches and fowling-pieces, whether now or otherwise, are to be 
regularly entered and charged with the proper duties, although the same be brought from 
aV)toad in passenger's bagg;ige. 

By C. L., July 22, 1834, the London practice of allowing the delivery duty free, of fowling- 
pieces of British Manufacture, the propeity of private^iiulividuals coming from abroad, upon 
the parties making a declaration to the satisfaction of the officers that the articles are of 
British manufacture, is to be adopted at the other ports. 

By T. L., Jan. 2, 1S17, sillt stockings, silk handkeiehiefs, shoes, and gloves, when they 
accompany the proprietors arriving from aVnoad. and are evidently a part of their baggage, 
and have been worn and used, are not to be seized liy the officers of customs ; provided such 
articles do not exceed what may be reasonably allowed according to the rank of the party 
In whose baggage the same may be found. 

By T. L., Nov. 10, 1817, the baggage of persons arriving from the East Indies is not to be 
detained by tlie officers of customs in consequence of its consisting of chintzes, calicoes, or 
any articles of that description, unless the quantity shall appear to be unreasonable with 
reference to the rank of the parly ; and by order of the board of customs, dated Nov. 14, 1817, 
care is to be taken that the articles so delivered have been used and worn. 

By C. O., Sept. 29, 1827, small quantities of china ware, and other articles of trivial value, the 
produce and manufacture of China and the East Indies, may be imported from the continent 
of Europe by passengers with their baggage, on payment of the proper duties, and a fine pro- 
portionate to the value. 

By C. O,, Dec. 9, 1816, no military stores or baggage, coming from abroad, shall be delivered 
without previous examination by a revenue officer. 

By T. L., Sept. 26, 1817, British built cirriages actually in use by passengers as their travelling 
carriages, may pass inwards and o\i(\vards without payment of duties, and without entries 
under the restrictions le.spceiiu^' bairuage. 

By C. O., A\ig 5, IS'22, the loUowiii;; r.^rulatlDus h.ave been established : — 

That all weaving apparel and li.iggage aeeompanying the proprietor, of whatever description 
(except Kiist India articles) be delivered duty fiee; provided it appears, on the examination 
of the officers, that the articles have been really worn, and were not made up for the purpose 
of being introduced into this counfry. . 

That where the articles are not of the above description, and liable to duty, or where the same 
are prohibited, tliat the proprietors be allowed to leave them in the King's warehouses, under 
the care of the officers, for a period not exceeding six months, in order to give them an oppor- 
tunity of taking them back without payment of duty. 

Th.it these regulations be conlined to cases where there is no improper proceeding or attempt to 
unship or land articles without the knowledge of the officers. 

By C O., July 15, 1828, it is stated that applications having been made by passengers ai'riving 
from the continent for the delivery, /ree ufduty, of certain articles, such as silk vestments for 
religious purposes, foreign and religious books, professional instruments, and other articles, 
upon the grounds of the same being intended for purposes of religion, for private or profes- 
sional use, or having been jirevimisly in constant use by the parties, the board will not in future 
comply with applications of tliis nature ; unless in regard to any ti'ifling article which may be 
clearly shown to the board's satisfaction to be necessary to enable the party to follow any par- 
ticular profession, such as a flute or violin, or musical or surgical instruments, and that the 
article is bona fide the property, and has been in the constant use of the party in the ordinary 
exercise of his profession. 

By T. O., Sept. 16, 1835, vestments are not to be introduced duty free without a special order from 
the Treasury. 

See Books, p. 5-1. See also Newspapers, and Spirits. 
Balm of Gilead. See Balsam, below. 
Balsam, Canada, lb. . . . . .001 

This tree is a native of the coldest regions of North America, ilowering in May. It is a straight, 
elegant tree, rarely exceeding forty feet in height, and twelve or fiiteen inches in diameter, 
covered with a smooth, whitish-grey bark. The manner in which the Canada balsam, or fine 
turpentine, yielded by this tree is collected, is by incisions in the body of the tree, from which 
it exudes. — Thomson. 

Capivi, cwt. . . . . .040 

The Copaiba tree is a native of South America and the Spanish West India islands. It grows 
in great plenty in the woods of Tohi, near Cartliagena, and in those of Quito and Brazil. Ge- 
nuine good Copaiba balsam has a peculiar but agi-eeable odoiu-, and a bitterish, hot, nauseous 
taste. Itis clear and transparent; its consistence is that of oil, the colour a pale golden yel- 
low. — Thomson. 

Peru, lb. . . . . .010 

The ti-ee which affords this balsam grows in the warmest parts of South America : it is obtained 
by boiling tlie tw igs in water. It has a deep brown, colour,, considerable consistency, a fra- 
grant aromatic smell, and a pungent bitterish flavour.— iBrawrfff. ,» 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— lMroRTS.—Z)w/?V5, c^r. 51 

Balsam, conthiKed, viz : — £ ,v. d. 

Riga, lb. . . . . .010 

and fuiilier as foreign spirits, gal. . . 110 

Rij,M l<als;\m is iunKiikvl from the north of Eiiro\)i'. It is ai)\)lip<l nxfonially to lioiil recent 
wovuhIs and briiiscs. It is likewise emi)loyeil internally to remove coughs, asthmas, and other 
comiilainis of the breast.— liuchan. 

Tolu, lb. . . . . .020 

Tliis has generally been considered as the iirodiice of a South American tree (the Tohiifera 
balsamum), but, from a recent iu(|uny into the suliject, it appears that it is obtained by exu- 
dation from tlie Myroxyloii I'eniil'ennn ; tlial it flows freely fnrai incisions in its bark, and is 
collected in mats and ealaljashes, where it hardens, and is thus brought to this country. 
— Ure. 

Balm ol" Gileatl, and all Balsams not otherwise enume- 
rated, lb. . . . . . .046 

Balm iif flilend. — The most precious of the l)alsams is that commonly called Halm of (Jilead. 
The true balsam is of il pale ye.lowisli colour, dear and transparent, about the eonsistenc- 
of Venice turpentine, of a strong;, penelratin;,', a^^reeable, aromatic smell, and a slightly 
bitterish pungent t iste. liy age it becomes yellower, browner, and thicker ; losing by 
degrees, like volatile oils, some of its liner and more subtile parts. — Ure. 

Balsiiiii (if Melikii.— Sy.M'ci and Heder are the only places iuthe lledjas\vherebah.am of Mekka, 
or Halesan, can be procured in a piuc state. The tree from which it is collected grows in the 
neighbouring mountains, but principally upon Djebel Sobh, and is called by the Arabs 
Beshem. Ttie richer classes of the hailjys put a dro^) of balesan into the first cup of collce 
they drink in the morning, from a notion that it acts as a tonic — Burchlmrdt. 

The Queen of Sheba, among presents unto Solomon, brought some plants of the balsam free, 
as one of the peculiar estimables of her country. — Sir T. Brown, 

Bandstring Twist, doz. knots, each knot 32 yds. . .050 

A manufacture generally of silk, and was formerly much in vogue for ornamenting bands and 
neckcloths. — Kd. 

Barilla, ton . . . . . .200 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 54, § 2, Barilla, bciiij^ the produce of Europe, shall 
not be imported into tbe United Kingdom to be used therein, except in Bri- 
tisb ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or 
in ships from which the goods are imported. 
Drawback. — For any barilla used in the process of bleaching of linen a repay- 
ment of the duties which have been paid on tbe importation of such Ijarilla 
shall be made to the person so using tbe same, under such regulations as the 
Commissioners of Customs shall direct. 4 and 5 WilL IV. c. 89, ^14. 
By C. O., Sept. 26, 1834, the repayment its to be made under the same regula- 
tions as heretofore, viz. : — 
For any barilla used in tbe process of bleaching of linen, a repayment of the 
duties which bad been paid on the importation of sucli Ij.irilia shall be made 
to the person so using tbe same, provided that tbe person claiming such re- 
payment shall, within three calendar montlis next after tbe 5th day of Ja- 
nuary in each year, produce to tbe commissioners of customs an account of 
tbe total quantity of barilla soused by bim in tbe preceding year, showing 
when and where and by whom the duties on the same had been paid, and 
where tbe same bad been used ; and shall also prove, to the satisfaction of 
tbe commissioners, that tbe barilla mentioned in sucli account had, within 
such year, been actually used by bim in the process of bleaching of linen ; 
and tbereupon a debenture shall issue for making such repayment at the 
port at or near to which such barilla shall have been so used. 
Barilla and Kelp. — These two substances, whieli are largely used by the manufacturers of Iiard 
soaps, are prepared trom sea weeds in a similar mamu'r to potashes, without any separation 
of the earthy matters with which the alkali is c(Mnl>ined, after the process of incinei'aliou. Kelp 
is chiefly the product of the common sea weed, which grows upon the rocks betvveen high and 
low water marks. The best, or Alicant barilla, is made from the ashes of the salsula soda, 
which is very extensively cultivated on the shores of the Meiliterranean.— J»i/cf . 

See Alkali, p. 46. 

Bark for TaiuiLMs' or Dyers' use, cwt. . . .008 
imported from B. P. cwt. . . . . 1 

The word Tan is sometimes, though improperly, used for the bark itself, which is the chief 
ingrudiiait in the tanning of leather. Dak bark, on account of its great astringency, and 
gummy-resinous properties, is prel'eired to all other substances for the purpose of t.mning, as 
it not only preserves the leather from rutUug, but also, by condensing the pores, renders it 
impervious to water.— iiwcy. Britan. 

E 3 



52 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«f«>5, (^c, [1837-8 

Baivk, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

• Peruvian and Cascarilla, lb. . . . 1 

Tlio Chinchona lancifolia fLunishcs the pale or common Penivian bark of the shops. It is 
impovteil in chests of about 200 lb. each, chiefly in rolled-up pieces or quills, of very 
various dimensions, mixed with larger and flatter pieces; tlxese dilTerences apparently 
depend upon the part of the tree from wliich it has been taken. In trade, we liud these 
varieties in sorts : the small and fine quilled portions, being considered as most select, bear 
the highest price, and are called Crown Hark. The larger quills form a second commercial 
variety ; and the flat, coarse, and broken pieces are the least esteemed. — Brande. 

of other sorts, lb. . . . . 1 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Bark of Oak, being the produce of Europe, 
shall not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in 
British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, 
or in ships from which the goods are imported. 

Bark, ff'interanus, so named from Captain William Winter, who brought the bark of this tree 

from the Straits of .Magellan. There are three species. — Nicholson. 
The bark of the Quassia Simarouha, a n ilive of the West Indies. This bark is imported in long 

and very fibro\is tiat pieces, stripped ofi" the root. It furnishes an astringent and bitter 

infusion. It is a drug of very questionable utility. — Brande. 
Yellow bark is the produce of the Chinchona conlilolia, or heart-le.aved Chinchona. It is found 

in the shops chiefly in flat pieces, and in large rolls or quills, eight or ten inches long. — 

Brnnde. 
Red bark is the produce of the Chinchona oblongifolia : it tastes more astringent but less 

bitter than the yellow bark, and has not the peculiar .aromatic austerity of pale bark. — 

Brande. 

Extract of, or of other vegetable substances to be used 

only for tanning leather, cwt. .... 

imported from B. P. cwt. .... 

Bar Wood, ton ...... 

Bar wood is a red wood brought from Africa, and is used in dyeing. — Ed. 

Barrels, Empty. See Casks. 

Basket Rods, the bundle, (not ex. three feet in circumference 
at the band) ..... 

Baskets, 100/. val. ..... 

Bast Ropes, twine, and strands, cwt. 

A kind of cordage, manufactured from the rind of a tree, but now seldom used. — Ed. 

Bast or Straw Hats or Bonnets. See Hats. 

Platting, or other Manufacture of Bast or Straw, for 

making Hats or Bonnets. See Platting. 
Beads, Amber, lb. ..... 

Arango, 100/. val. , . . . 

■ Coral, lb. ..... 

Crystal, 1000 ..... 

of Glass, lb. .... . 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c, GO.) 

Jet, lb. ...... 

not otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. 






3 











1 





5 






1 





20 





10 









12 





20 











15 


10 


1 


8 


6 





1 








3 


2 


30 









Beads and Bugles. — By O. C, Oct. 28th, 1836, these articles do not cease to be Beads or Bugles 
within the scope of the terms in which the rated duties are imposed, although they be strung 
as necklaces and have clasps att;\ched to them. 

Small globules or balls used in necklaces ; and made of different materials, as pearl, steel, 
garnet, coral, diamond, amber, crystal, pastes, glass, &c. The Komanists make great use of 
beads in rehearsing their Ave Marias and Paternosters. — Ency. Britan. 

Beans, Kidney or French Beans, bushel . , . 10 

Beef, Salted (not being Corned Beef) cwt. . . 12 

Fresh or corned or slightly salted, prohibited to be imported for home tise oa 

pain of forfeiture, but may be warehoused for exportation only. 3 & 4 VV. 

IV., c. 52, § 58, 59, CO. 

Beef Wood, unmanufactured, imported from New South 

Wales, ton . . . . . .050 

The Beef Wood of Australia is similar to the oak of England, but not so durable.— £d. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«^/e5, <^c. * 53 

£ .9. d. 
Beer, Mum, brl. 32 ^'al. . . . . .311 

ISeer is a spirifuoiis liquor, mado from any farinaceous grain, but generally from barley. It 

is, i>ro])erly sjioaUiii;;, the wine of barley. 
Mum, a kind of ni;ill li<|U(ir much drank in (Jermany, and chiefly brought from Ilrunswiek, 

w hich is llie place of most note for making it. — Emy. liritan. 

Beer, Spruce, brl. 32 gal. . . . .360 

Sjiruce beer is a cheap and vliolesome liquor. In North America, and in other countries 
wliere the black and white spruce (irs abound, they make a decoction of the leaves and 
small branches of these trees. It is a powerful anti scorbutic, and may prove vciy useful 
in Ion;; sea voyages. — Enc;/. Uritan. 

Beer or Ale of all Other sorts, 32 gal. . . . 2 13 

Ale, a fermented licpior obtained from an infusion of malt, and differing from beer cliiedy in 
having a less proportion of hops. — Eiuy. Britun. 

Benjamin or Benzoin, cwt. . . . .040 

The tree which produces benzoin is a native of the East Indies, parlicu'arly of the islands 
Siiini aiul Sumat ra. The juice exudes from incisiims, in the former of a thick \\ hile balsam. 
This resin is moderately hard and brittle, aiul yields an agree:ible smell when rubbed or 
warmed. AVhen chewed, it impresses a slight sweetness on the palate.— L'rc. 

Berries, Bay, Juniper, Yellow, and any other sort not other- 
wise enumerated, cwt. . . . .020 

The fem.-vle laurel tree, which Linnaeus has therefore entitled the Laurus nobilis. It is an 
evergreen, which grows wild in Italy and France. The leaves and berries of this shrub 
have an aromatic and astringent taste, and a fragrant smell, whence it is called the Sweet 
Hay.— Cr(i66. 

The common juniper is indigenous, growing on heaths and chalky hills. It is a low, very 
branching, rigid, smooth, evergreen .shrub. The berries require to remain two years on the 
tree before they are fully ripe. The greater quantity of those which are used in Britain 
are brought from Germany, Holland, and Italy. The Italian benies are less shrivelled, 
and have a fresher and more beautiful bloom upon them than the German, and are therefore 
generally preferred. Junipi-r benies have a pi'cnliar aromatic odour, and a sweetish, 
l)ungent, bitterish taste, when chewed. In liislillation with water they yield a volatile, 
terebinthinate oil of a yreenish colour, on which their virtues depend.— '/'/i07H.';r)n. 

Makleua, a Siamese Black Dye.—'\'\\\s is a berry growing on a large forest tree at liankok, and 
used most extensively by the Siamese as a ve;;etable black dye. It i-; merely bruised in 
water, when a fermentation takes place, and the article to be dyed is steeped in the wliole 
and then spread out in the sun to dry. The berry when fresh is of a fine green colour, but 
after being gathered for two oi- three days it becomes quite black and shrivelled like 
pepper. It must be used fresh, and whilst its mixture with water produces a fermentation. 
— Brewster's Edinbunjk Juurnal. 

iaurt'/.— This tree is a native of Italy and the south of Europe ; but is cultivated in this 
country. Laurel berries, and the oil which is obtained by boiling the berries in water, aie 
imported from the Straits. The sim.ple expressed oil is insipid. — Thomson. 

Bigg. See Corn. 

Birds, Singing Birds, doz. . . . .080 

tViimrics.— These birds at the Canary Islands, whence they take their name, are, in general, 
uniformly green ; some, however, liavi; a yellow tint on their backs: their note is the same 
as that o'f the tame canary. C^f all the lj;rds of the Canary Islands, that which has the 
most heart-soothing son;; is unknown in Europe ; this is the capirote, which no ellort has 
been able to tame. — Humboldt. 

Bitumen Judaicum, cwt. . . . . .040 

IJitumeu, in a liquiil stale, when it is of a brownish colour, commonly bears the name of 
peti oleum, or niiueial tar, and when it is white and transparent, that of naiilitha. It tillers 
through the earth and rocks, which remain impregnated with it. There are springs of it ; 
those (if Baku in Persia are well known. It floats sometimes like oil upon the surface of 
the watcrs.-*il/a/^c Brun. 

Blacking, cwt. . . . . .3120 

Bladders, doz. . . . . . « 

Blubber. See Train Oil, in Oil. 

Bones of Cattle and olher Animals, and of Fish, except 
Whale Fins, whether burnt or not, or as Animal Char- 
coal, lUO/. val. . . . . .10 

As to Gelatine from Bones, see Glue. 

Bonnets. See Hats, and Silk. 

Books, Editions printed prior to the year 1801, bound or un- 
bound, cwt. . . . . . .10 

Editions printed in or since the year 1801, bound or 

unbound, cwt. . . . . . ,500 



54 UNITED KINGDOM.-lMpoim.— i)«//>5, t^-c. [1837-8. 

Books, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

in the foreign living languages, being of editions 

printed in or since the year 1801, bound or unbound, cwt. 2 10 

(4 & 5 W. IV., c. 89.) 
First composed or written or printed in the United Kingdom, and printed or 
reprinted in any other country, imported for sale, except books not reprinted 
in the United Kingdom within twenty 3 ears ; or being parts of collections, 
the greater part of which had been composed or written abroad ; prohibited 
to be imported into the United Kingdom on pain of forfeiture. 3 & 4 W. 4, 
c. 52, § 58. 

By T L., Apiil 2, 1836, a prospectus written in the English language, .iltliough describing 
works in foreign languages, is to be considered as an Englisli book, and subject to the 
liigher duty of customs, altliough the works themselves, to which the prospectus refers, be 
only subject to the lower duty. 

Translations into French of the classics to be considered as books in a dead language, and pay 
duty accordingly, notwithstanding any translation or commentary in a living language by 
which it may be accompanied. 

By T. O., Oct 3, 1818, to prevent books and maps, brought over by passengers, from being 
charged w itii duty more than once, the proprietor shall, on each importation subsequent to 
the original, declare that the duties were paid on their original importation, or that he 
purchased them in Great Britain in a fair way of trade; that they are the identical books 
or maps whicli he exported from this kingilom, and that they arc now brought back for his 
private use, and not for sale in this country. 

By T. O., June 29, 1830, the importation for private use of English books reprinted abroad, is 
limited to a single copy for each party, accompauied by their baggage. 

' See Prints brought by Passengers. 

See Baggage, p. 50. 

SIZES OF BOOKS. 

Folio is the largest size, of which 2 leaves, or 4 pages, make a sheet. 
Quarto, 4to, 4 leaves or 8 pages. 

Octavo, 8vo, 8 leaves or 16 ditto. 

Duodecimo, 12mo, 12 leaves or 24 ditto. 
Octodecimo, 18mo, 18 leaves or 36 ditto. 

Boots, Shoes, and Calashes, viz.: — 

Women's Boots and Calashes, the dozen pairs . 1 10 

if lined or trimmed with Fur or other trimming, 

doz. pairs . . . . . . 1 16 

■ Women's Shoos, with cork or double soles, quilted 

Shoes and Clogs, doz. pairs . . . .16 

if trimmed or lined with Fur or any other trimming, 



doz. pairs . . . . . .19 

Women's Shoes of Silk, Satin, Jeans, or other 

Stufl's, Kid, Morocco, or other leather, doz. pairs . 18 

if trimmed or lined with Fur or other trimming, doz. 



pairs . . . . . .14 

Children's Boots, Shoes, and Calashes, not exceeding 



seven inches in length, to be charged with two-thirds of 

the above duties. 

Men's Boots, doz. pairs . . . . 2 14 

Men's Shoes, doz. pairs . . . .14 

Children's Boots and Shoes, not ex. seven inches in 



length, to be charged with two-thirds of the above duties. 
Boracic Acid, cwt. . . . . .040 

This acid has been found native on the edges of hot springs near Sapo, in the territory of 
Florence; also attached to specimens from the Lipari Islands, and from Monte Rotondo, 
to the west of Sienna. It is in small pearly scales, and also massive, fusing at the flame of 
a candle into a glassy globule. — Urc. 

Borax or Tincal, cwt. . . . . .040 

Refined, cwt. . ,. . . . . 10 

According to Mr. Saunders, who accompanied Capt. Turner, the lake from which tincal and 
rock salt are obtained is lifteen days' journey north from Teshoo-Lomboo. Jn Thibet 
tincal is employed for soldering, and as a flux for promoting the fusion uf gold and silver. 



1837-8,] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Ai/zV,?, .^c 55 

Borax, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

The borate, or rather sub-boratc of soilu, or borax, is of great utility, cspocially in tlie 
nielliiig ami soldering of metals. Tliis substance, tlie origin of whicli is disputeil, is found 
as a native pro<luction in some lakes and caverns inTliibet, Nepaul, Persia, I'artary, and in 
Saxony. — Matte Brun. 
15or;ix and Boracic .\cid are becoming daily more important in our manufactories, and can 
bo procured in no part of Kurope except Tuscany. The lagoons, in which these substances 
are produced, are truly wonderlul. The borax lagoons of Tuscany are unique in Europe, if 
not in the world ; and their produce is become an article of equal importance to Great 
Uritain as an import and to Tuscany as an export. They are spread over a surface of 
al)out 30 miles, and exhibit from the distance columns of vapour, more nr less according to 
the season of the year and state of the weather, which rise in large volumes among llu; 
recesses of the mountains. Tlu' sotlioni, or vapours, break forth violently in dinercnt parts 
of the mountain recesses. They only produce boriu;ic acid when they burst witli a tierce 
explosion. — Report on the Statistics of 'I'uscany, Lucca, the Poyitijical, and the Luinbardu- 
fenetiaii States. By J. Bowvinij, LL.D. 

Bottles, Glass, covered with "Wicker, doz. quarts content . 12 
and further, cwt. . , . . .400 

Green or common Glass, not of less content than one 

pint, and not being phials, empty, doz. fjuarts content . 2 

Green or common Glass, full, computing all bottles 



of not greater content than half a pint, as of the content 
of half a pint ; and all bottles of greater content than half 
a pint, and not of greater content than a pint or a reputed 
pint, as of the content of a pint or a reputed pint, viz. : — 

imported from B. P., doz. quarts content . .010 

imported from any Foreign Place, viz. : — 

containing Wine or Spirits, doz. quarts content . 4 

not containing Wine or Spirits, doz. quarts content 2 



Pacha/jes. — By C. O., Dec. 7, 1H33, common green glass jars and similar articles used as 
packages for goods imported, shall in future be admitted at the duty chargable on bottles 
of green or common glass full, not containing wine or spirits, viz., 2s. the dozen quarts 
content (and not the duty payable under 3 and 4 Will. 4, c. 5t), on glass manufactures not 
enumerated or described, viz. 20/. per cent, ad v.alorem, and 4/. i)er cwt.J 

of Glass, not Otherwise enumerated, 100^. val. . 25 

and further, civt. . . . .400 

Flasks in which wine or oil is imported, and glass bottles or flasks in which mineral or 
natural water is imported, are »iot subject to duty. 

of Earth or Stone, Empty, the doz. . . 6 

Full . . . Free. 



(4 and 5 WiU. 4, c. 89.) 

Boxes of all Sorts, 100/. value . . . 20 

Box Wood, ton . . . . .0100 

(6 and 7 Will. 4, c. fiO.) 
Brass, Manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated, 100/. vul. 30 

Powder of, for Japanning, lb. , . .026 

Brazil AVood, ton . . . . .200 

The Brazil-wood derives its name from the country in whicli it grows. It is found in the 
greatest abundance, and is of the best quality, in the province of Pernambuco: but it is 
also found in many other parts of the western hemisphere, and in the East Indies. — Ency. 

Metroi). 

Brazilletto Wood, ton . . . . .046 
imported from B. P., ton . . 3 

Braziletto, or Jamaica wood, is brought from Japan, Santa Martha, and Pernambuco. It is 
an inferior sort of Brazil wood. — Ed. 

Bricksor Clinkers, 1000 . . . . .12 6 

Clinkers, called Dutch Chnkers, 1000 . . 10 

(6 and 7 Will 4, c. 60.) 

used in the building of Churches or Chapels. See 

Churches, p. GO. 
Brimstone, cwt. 

• Refined or in Rolls, cwt. 

• in Flour, cwt. 









6 





6 








9 


9 



56 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— X»2<//e5, ^r. [1837-8. 

Byimsiona, C07if.wued, viz.: — £ s. d. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, ^ 2, Brimstone, beinw the produce of Europe, shall 

not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in 

British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, 

or in ships from which the goods are imported. 

By C. O., Sept. 9, 1834, a case liavinf; recently occiirreil at one of tlio outporls, in which a 
quantity of Brimstone, in cakes, was entered for tlie lUity of 6(i. per cwt. as rough Brim- 
stone, whereas the same proved to have kou" through some process of manufacture or re- 
lining, and to be similar in quality to the article imported in rolls, although not cast into 
that sliape, and to be subject to the duty of ("iS. per cwt. chargeable on Brimstone refined or 
in rolls, it is directed, that all similar importations be charged with the duty of Gs. per cwt. 

Sulphur is abundant among volcanic pioducts, and in union with various metals forms some 
of the most abundant and important metallic ores ; such are the sulplnnets of copper, of 
lead, of mercury, &c. Native sulphur is imported into England from Sicily and Naples, 
and largely consumed by the manufacturers of sulj)huric acid and of gunpowder, and by 
the bleachers of cotton goods. Roll sulphur is chiefly obtained by roasting sulphuret of 
copper. Sublimed sulphur, or flowers of sulphur, is obtained by heating sul|)hur, and is 
condensed in receptacles, in the form of a line pow der ; the residue is called suli)hur vivum 
in old pharmacoi)U'ioe. Sublimed sulphur, or very flnely powdered native sulphur, is used 
medicinally. — Brande. 

There is in the Island of Java a volcano, called Mount Idienne, from which the Dutch East 
India Company have often been supplied with sulphur for the manufacture of gunpowder. 
At the foot of this volcano is a vast natural manufactory of that acid commonly called oil of 
vitriol, although it is a lake about 1200 feet long. — Lardner's Cabinet Cyclupcedia. 

Bristles, viz. : — 

Rough, and in Tufts, and not in any way sorted, lb. . 2 

in any way sorted or arranged in colours, and not en- 
tirely rough and in tufts, lb. . . . . . 3| 

If any part of the bristles in a package be such as to be subject to the liigher 
duty, the whole contents of the package shall be subject to the higher duty. 

Bristles, a rigid glossy kind of hair, found on swine, and much used by brushmakers, shoe- 
makers, saddlers, and others. They are chiefly imported from Russia and Poland. — iVj- 
cJwlsun. 

Brocade of Gold or Silver, 100/. val 30 

A silken stuff, variegated with colours of gold or silver. — Juhnsun. 

Bronze, all works of art made of Bronze, cwt. . . .10 

Other manufactures of Bronze, 100/. val. . . 30 

(4 and 5 W. IV., c. 89.) 

It appears, from a number of experiments, that the bronze of which the ancients formed their 
weapons and other articles consists of 88 parts of copper to 12 of tin ; and it is remarkal)le 
that the same admixture of the metals has been employed in nations very remote from each 
otl.'cr. — Begister of Arts and Sciences. 

Bugles, lb. (C and 7 W. 4,0. 60.) 10 

A kind of glass bead, imported piincipally from the shores of the Mediterranean, and sujiplicd 
by us to the Asiatic and African markets.— £■</. 

Bullion and Foreign Coin, of Gold or Silver, and Ore of Gold 
or Silver, or of which the major part in value is Gold or 
Silver. ......... Free. 

By 3 and 4 AV. 4, c. 52, § 2. BulUon may be landed in the United Kingdom 

without report, entry, or warrant. 
Gold. — The great value which has always been attached to this metal has occasioned its dis- 
covery in many parts of the world, particularly in the Brazils, Mexico, and Peru ; also in the 
sands of many rivers in Africa, Sumatra, Japan, Transylvania, Hungary, Italy, in the 
county of Wicklow in Ireland, and more or less in almost every country. Its malleability 
and ductility are so great, that it may be extended into leaves not more than the three hun- 
dred thousandth part of an inch in thickness —Jtii/ce. 
Silver. — 'I'he ores of silver are rather numerous, and are found in almost every country, but 
particularly in Mexico, Peru, Saxony, Bohemia, the llartz, and Guadalcanal in Spain ; also 
in France, Norway, and Siberia : it has also been found in Cornwall and Devonshire. Silver 
not being easily tarnished by exposure to air, and possessing a considerable degree of metal- 
lic splendour, is used in the manufacture of trinkets, as well as the making of coin ; for the 
latter jiurpose it is alloyed with a small quantity of copper to increase its hardness, and 
consequent durability. It is extremely tough and malleable, although not in so great a 
degree as gold; it does not furnish the artist with any good colour; but its solution in 
nitric acid is used to impress indelible characters on linen, cottoiij &c. — Joyce. 

Bull Rushes, load of 63 bundles 12 

Bull-rushes are chiefly imported from Russia and the Netherlands ; and are used in manufac- 
turing baskets, seats of chairs, and some other articles. — Ed. 



J 837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z?M^?(?s, <^ff. 57 

£ s. d. 

Butter, cwt. . • . . . . . . 10 

Buttons, 100/. val. 20 O O 



Cables, not being Iron Cables, tarred or unturrcd, cwt. . 10 9 

not bein<r Iron Cables, in actual use ofa British ship, 

andbcinjifit and necessary for such shi]), and not or until 
otherwise disposed of ...... Free. 

if, and when otherwise disposed of, 100/. val. . . 20 



Cakes, Linseed. See Linseed. 

Oil Seed Cakes. See Oil. 

Rape Cakes. See R. 

Calashes. See Boots, p. 54. 

Calicoes brou<?ht as baggage. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Cambrics. See Linen. 

Camomile Flowers, lb. ...... 3 

Camomile or Chamomile flowers have long been celebrated as an aromatic bitter : they de- 
ri\e their aroma from essential oil. — Ure, 

Camphor, cwt. ........ 1 

Refined, cwt. . . . . . . 2 

The Dryobalanops Camphora is a native of forests on the north-western coast of Sumatra, 
and especially in the vicinity of Tapanooly. It is stated by Mr. I'rince to be found in 
abiindaiioe from the back of Ayer Kongey, as far north as Hacongan, a distance of 250 
miles. It grows to a gieat height. The camphor is found in a concrete state, and resembles 
wliitish flakes in perpendicular layers, occupying a space the thickness of a man's arm. 
A middle-sized tree will yield nearly eleven pounds, and a large tree double thai quantity. 
— Thomson. 

Camwood, ton . .... ... 5 

Camwood is produced chiefly at Sierra Leone, but is occasionally brought from Brazil. Its 
principal use is in dyeing and in turnery. — Ed. 

Candles, Spermaceti, lb. . ..... 2 6 

Tallow, cwt. . . . . . . .334 

■ Wax, lb. 2 6 

Candlewick, cwt. . . . . . . . 4 8 8 

CanellaAlba, lb. ... .... 1 

This bark is imported from the West Indies, generally in long quilled pieces of a pale Initt 
colour, an agreeable aromatic odour, ami a warm pungent and somewliat bitter tasie. The 
Materia M edica is already tlironged with arumatics, and cauella bark has nothing to recom- 
mend its preference — Brande. 

Canes, Bamboo, 1000 ....... 

. Rattans, not ground, 1000 .... 

Reed Canes, 1000 

"Walking Canes or Sticks, mounted, painted, or other- 
wise ornamented, 100/. val. . . . . . 20 

• Whangees, Jaraboo, Ground, Rattans, Dragon's 

Blood, and other Walking Canes or Sticks, 1000 . . 5 

Of canes a great variety is found in the Indian islands. The most remarkable are the Bam- 
boos, w hicli are found ('verywhere in the w ild and cultivated stale. When they grow to per- 
lection, forty or lilty feet is a common height.— C'jHH/Mrd. 

Cantharides, lb. .... "... 1 

Hy 4 and 5 W. 4, c. 89, § 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on ac- 
count of any damage received by Cantharides. 

We are chiefly supplied w ilh Cantharides from Astracan and Sicily, whence they are imported 
in casks and chests. They should be dry and free from mould and du.st, ofa strong nau- 
seous odoui", brilliant colour, and not mixed with other beetles, which is frequently the case 
to a great extent. Tliey may lie kept lor any length of time in a dry place, and secured 
from air; but they are very liable, notwithstanding their acrimony, to the attacks of sm.ill 
insects, which gradually reduce them to dust, without, however, materially allVcliug their 
activity. — Brande. 






5 








5 








5 






58 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Pm//m, ^^c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Caoutchouc, cwt. . . . . . . . 10 

Caoutchouc is ajuice exuding from a tree common in South America ; it is a substance of 
the consistence and colour of cream, which, in concreting, may be made to assume any 
form ; and generally comes here in the shape of small bottles, wliicli talie tlieir form from 
the mould of baked clay, over which layers of the substance are laid, and successively coa- 
gnlated. A solution of caoutchouc renders cloth, linen, &c. impervious to any kind of mois- 
ture, and will make even a cotton sack water-tight. It has been found that the caout- 
chouc, in its pure state, may be coloured or scented ; it may also be cast into any form ; and 
it has been suggested that it might be rendered exceedingly serviceable if used as seals to 
important records. — Ed. 

Capers, including the pickle, lb. . . . . . 6 

Dr. Smith says, that the caper-bush is as common in the South of France, as the bramble is 
with us. 5lr. Kay observed it wild on the walls of Rome, Sienna, and Florence. Between 
Marseilles and Toulon, and in many parts of Italy, it is cultivated on a large scale for the 
sake of the young buds of the flowers, which are pickled for the table, and exported in con- 
siderable quati tides. — Rees. 

Messrs. Veniere and Co.. of Bristol, are importers of Capers from France. — Ed. 

Caps. See Silk. 

Capsicum. See Pepper. 

Cardamoms, lb. . . . . . . . . 10 

Extract or Preparation of. See Extract. 

Cardamom Seeds. — These seeds, contained in their capsuh's or pods, are imported from Bengal 
ill cases of about I cwt. each; tliose which are small, broad, and heavy, are preferable to 
the longer kinds, which contain fewer seeds, and less closely packed. — Brande. 

Cards. Playing Cards, doz. packs . . . . . 4 

No plaj'ing cards which, having been made out of the United Kingdom, shall 
be imported, shall be deposited in warehouse pursuant to the General Ware- 
housing Act (Part 7.) without the name of the foreign maker, or having the 
name, &c. of any British card maker thereon, — but shall be forfeited. 9 Geo. 
4, c. 18. 
Foreign Playing Cards. — By C. O., May 11, 1836, foreign cards, seized in consequence of 
the name and address of the maker not being marked on the outside wrapper of each pack, 
allowed to be returned to the port of sliipmeut on proof that no fraud was contemplated by 
the shippers. 

Carmine, oz. . . . . . ,006 

Carmine is a beautiful red precipitate of the colouring matter of cochineal, — Rees. 

Carrebe. See Succinum. 

Carriages of all sorts, 100/. val 30 

• in use by passengers. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Cases, Empty. See Casks. 

Casks, Empty, 100/. val 50 

By C. O., May 5, 1835, empty packages of British manufacture, exported with merchandise 

and returned, are to be admitted to entry did;/ free. 
By C. O., October 20, 1835, packages from which wine ov spirits have been [racked or drawn 

off, or started or destroyed, are to be delivered free of duty. 

Cassava Powder, the produce of, and imported from B. P. in 
America, cwt. ....... 

Cassia, Buds, lb. ....... 

Fistula, lb. (6 and 7 Will. 4, c, GO.) 

The pods are brought from the East and West Indies ; they are about half or threefoiivths of 
an inch thick, one or two f(;et Ion.', black, and furrowed upon one side. The East Indian 
pods are generally preferable to the others ; but they have of late become very scarce in 
the British market, in consequence of want of demand. — Brande. 

Lignea, lb. . . . . .. 10 

. imported from B. P. lb. . . . 6 

Cassia Lignea, wild senna, a purgative fruit, brought from the East, being the produce of a 
tree of the same name, called in English the pudding-pipe tree. This is sometimes more 
particularly denominated Cassia Fistularis, by way of distinction from another drug called 
Cassia Lignea. There are four kinds of cassia, alike in properties, and nearly in tigure ; 
being all in long black pods; but very different, if considered with regard to the trees that 
produce them. These are, the cassia of the Levant, that of Kgypt, that of Brazil, and that 
of the Antilles Islands. — Rcc.s. 

M. Batka is induced to view the cassia as only another variety of cinnamon, and that the 
Chinese cassia hark is the produce of an undescrihed species. Cassia buds he considers as 






1 








1 











1 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— luvonrs.—Dulies, ^c. 59 

Cassia, continued, viz. : — £ s. d 

pi'iliaps the fruit of tlie I^nurus Manillensis of Cavanillos ; the Otnn wiimi, or Kast India 
copal, whidi lias been ranked by some as the produce of the Vnluria Indica, and by others 
as a species o{ Etrrocnrpus, lie has determined to be the produce of the lli/iiiencea vcrruaisa. 
—Trans. I.in. Socicfi/. 

Castor, lb. . . , . . . 6 

Two kinds of ca^toraro met with in trade ; the best is from Kussia, Prussia, and Poland, and 
now scarcely to be obtained: the pods are larf,'e and firm, and their eoiiteuts dry, of a red 
brown colour, pulverulent but somewhat toufjli, of a strong and jieculiar odour, and a bitter 
nauseous taste. 'J'he other kind of castor is imported from Canada, and is the only variety 
now to bo procured in the drii;,' market : the pods are usually flatter, smaller, and moister 
than the former; and their contents so miscellaneous, as to baffle all attempts at descrip- 
tion, — Bmndc. 

Castsof Busts, Statues, or Figures, cwt. . . 2 6 

Casts of sculptures or models, first made in the United Kingdom, copies of, 
prohibited to be imported. See this more fully under Stone, Sculptured. 

Catechu. See Terra Japonica. 

Catlings, gross of 12 doz. knots . . . 6 4 

Catlings, strings for musical instruments, made of the intestines of animals, dried and twisted. 
Great quantities are brought from Italy and France. — Ed. 

Cuttle, Great, prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture. 2 and 3 
Will. 4, c. 52, ^S 58. 
His Majesty may, by order in cotincil, proliibit the importation of, on ]iain of 

forfeiture, in order to prevent any contagious distemper. 3 and 4 Will. 4, 

c. 52, § 58. 

Caviare, cwt. . . . . . 12 

Caviar, or Caviare. — The roe of two kinds of sturgeon found in the Danube, Yaik, and parti- 
cularly tlie Volga ; and in the sea near their mouths. That of the latter is the more esteem- 
ed. It is a very consiilerable article of commerce at Astrakhan, and is consumed in large 
quantities in Kussia and the Levant, where it is commonly eaten spread upon bread, or 
bread and butter, without any iireparation whatever. — Ency.Mctrup. 

Cedar, ton. . , . . . . 10 

(6 and 7 Will. IV „ c. GO.) 

There are two species, both stately trees, producing the wood called cedar, used for furniture ; 
it is not the cedar of which lead pencils are made (which is the wood of the Juniperinus 
Virginiana); the C.odorata abounds in the West Indies, particularly in the island of Cuba, 
whence large quantities are imported into Lngland. C. toona is a native of the East 
Indies ; this, or a species allied to it, is abundant in New South Wales. — Ency. Mctrop. 

Chalk, prepared or otherwise manufactured, 100/. val. . 10 

unmanufactured, 100/. val. . . .500 

(Gaud? Will. IV., c. GO.) 

Chalk is a white fossil, usually reckoned a stone, but by some ranked among the boles 
It is used in medicine as au absorbent, and is celebrated for curing the heartburn. — 
C/iambers. 

Chapels. See Churches. 

Charts. See Maps. 

Cheese, cwt. . . . . . 10 6 

By 4 and 5 Will. 4, c. 89, cheese deposited in warehouses of special securi/i/, 
when taken out for home use, the duty shall be charged upon the quantity 
actually delivered. 

By T. O., 29tli November, 1S26, on the delivery for home use of cheese deposited in ware- 
houses of extra security, fitted up in the proper manner, an .allowance is to be made for 
the natural waste that may have arisen thereon in such warehouses, not exceeding 3 per 
cent, for the first 12 month?, on the quantities ascertained at the time of the lirst entry 
and landing the same ; and for any term exceeding 12 months an allow ance not exceeding 
4 per cent. 

The most celebrated foreign cheeses are the Parmesan from Italy, the Gruyere from Switzer- 
land, tlie Rocliefort (of ewes' milk) and Neul'chatel from France. In Lapland, the milk of 
reindeers forms a cheese. — Ency. Mctrnp. 

Cherries, cwt. . . . . . ... 18 8 

dried, lb. . . . . ,008 



60 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw/i'es, ^-c. [1S37-8. 



Chicory, or any other vegetable matter applicable to the uses 
of chicory or cotfee : — 

Raw or Kiln-dried, cwt. . . . 10 

■ Roasted or Ground, cwt. . . . 2 16 

(6 and 7 Will. 4, c. 60.) 

Tliisroot is of a rery astriugent and bitter quality, growing to the size of parsnips, and llie 
substitution of it for coffee was first made to a very yreat extent under the immediate 
sanction of Buonaparte, wlien lie first forbad the introduction of the genuine article into his 
dominious, in order to distress the English colonial trade. — Ed. 

Chillies. See Pepper. 

China Root, lb. . . . . . .003 

China. For the regulations touching the trade with, see China, Part 

10. 
China or Porcelain Ware, viz. : — 

Plain, 100/. val. . . . . . 15 

• Painted, Gilt, or ornamented, 100/. val. . . 30 

or Porcelain Ware, brought with Baggage. See Bag- 
gage, p. 50. 

Chintzes, brought as baggage. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Chip, Manufactures of, to make hats or bonnets. See Plat- 
ting. 

Chocolate. See Cocoa Paste, next page. 

Churches. The duties of Customs and Excise on Stone, 
Slate, Bricks, Timber, or other Materials, brma. fide pro- 
cured for, and used in the building, rebuilding, or en- 
larging of any Churches or Chapels, under the regulations 
of the Acts 58 Geo. 3, c. 45 ; 59 Geo. 3, c. 134 ; and 3 Geo. 
4., c. 72, may be remitted under the authority of the 
Lords of the Treasury. 

By 1 Vict. c. 75, July 17, 1837, continued for 10 years from July 20, 1838, 
and thence unto the end of the next session of Parliament. 

Cider, ton . . . . . .21100 

Cinders, ton . . . . . .200 

Cinnabaris, Nativa, lb. . . . . .001 

Cinnabar, a mineral substance, red, heavy, and brilliant; found chiefly in the quicksilver 
mines, and being one of Die ores of that mineral. The best mineral cinnabar is of a high 
colour, brilliant, auil free from stony matter. It is used by physicians in cases occasioned 
by sharp serosities. — Rees. 

Cinnamon, lb. . . . . ..010 

imported from B. P. lb. . . . .006 

This shrub does not attain more than three feet at its greatest height. The best cinnamon is 
the thinnest extremity of the twigs ; the worst, the tliick pail.jfear the roots. To be good 
the bark must be smootli, but nut soft nor crumbling. Ciirnanion is now principally im- 
ported from Ceylon, nm\ every English housewife possesses, in her spice-box an article, 
which, in the days of Caleu, was considered too precious/to belong to any but an imperial 
ow ner. — Enctj. Melrup. 

Citrat of Lime, lb. . . . . .002 

Sail formed by citric acid or acid of limes. It has been found nearly unmixed with other acids, 
not only in lemons, oranges, and limes, but also in berries, grapes, and tamarinds. — lire. 

Citric Acid, lb. . . . . . .006 

Citron Preserved with Salt, 100/. val. . . . 20 

■ Preserved with Sugar. See Succades. 

Citron Water. See Spirits. 

Civet, oz. . . . . . . .049 

Civet is an unctuous substance secreted in a bag near the tail of a fierce quadruped, the Viverra 
zibetha of Linnaeus, a native of the Brazils, the coast of Guinea, and the East Indies. Num- 
bers of them are kept in Holland for purposes of commerce. Civet is of a clear yellowish or 
brownish colour, about the consistence of honey, and uniform throughout. Undiluted, the 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)«/?V5, .^^c. CI 

Civet, continued, viz : — £ s. d. 

smoll is ofTi'nsively slroiii; ; but \v!u>ii mixeil witli other substiinpos it lu'comos a most fra^'ant 
perfiimi', fur wliich piiri^se it is most Irocnicntly used, being now rarely employed in meUieiiie. 
— Eni'y, Metriip. 

Clinkers. See Bricks, p. 55. 

Clocks, 100^. val, . . . . . 25 

Clocks and watches of any metal, impressed with any mark or stamp appearin;^ 
to be or to represent any legal British assay, mark, or stamp, or purporting 
by any mark or appearance to be of the manufacture of the United King- 
dom, or nt)t having the name and place of abode of some foreign maker 
abroad visible on the frame and also on the face, or^not being in a complete 
state, with all the parts properly fixed in the case, prohibited to be imported 
on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58. 

By T. L. Sept. 1828, tlie foresoin^ regulation is not to be enforced as to Clocks and Watches 
tut private use, the party declaring liis ignorance of the law. 

Cloves. See Spices. 

Coals, ton . . . . . .200 

Some n:\tiualisfs have asserted, that coal constitutes .a true rock formation, 'or original deposite, 
.and tberefcire not deriving its origin from vegetibles or any other organic matter. A more 
accurate knowledge of the nature of organic combinations, an advantage which we owe to the 
progress of chemical science, does not permit us any longer to consiiier coal as a combination 
of carbon with bitumen. The transition of vegetable wood to the mineral, which is called Bi- 
tuminous Wood, or more properly Fossil Wood, is so manifest, th.at, in m.any cases, one 
might think he could determine with certainly the species of wood which gave rise to the ex- 
istence of the mineral — Edinh. Philosoph. Journal. 

Cobalt, cwt. . . . . . .010 

By far the greatest part of the cobalt which is used in this country comes from the Saxon mines 
under the form of zaflre, a very impure subst.ance. The cobalt ores are also found in Corn- 
wall, and w ill most probably be soon discovered in various parts of this kingdom. The coloin- 
of the dilTerent cobalt ores are silver and tin white, steel grey, straw yellow, llesh red, crimson, 
brown, and black. — Joyce. 

Cochineal, lb. . . . . . .006 

produce of and imported from B. P. lb. . . 2 

Dust, lb. . . . . .002 

produce of and imported from B. P. lb. . 1 

The cochineal is an insect growing upon a plant called Nopal, which, with the exception of 
the leaves, resembles in every respect the («?ws of Andalusia. The insect resembles in 
shape the lady-bird, and, when arrived at its full size, is no larger than a flea. 'I'he juice 
of this plant, which is its only moisture, is converted into its own substance ; and, instead 
of being fluid and aqueous, assumes a beautiful carmine hue. — Kncy. Melrop. 

The principal adulteration to which cochineal is liable, is the admixture of a manufactured 
imitation composed of coloured dough. These spurious grains are detected by the action 
of boiling water, which dissolves and disintegrates them, while it has little action upon the 
genui!ie insect. — Bramle. 

There is a small insect peculiar to the Russo-.\rmenian provinces on the eastern side of the 
Caucasus, from which a Greek archimandrite has at last succeeded in extracting a dye, 
which imparts a brilliant carmine to silk, woollen, and cotton substances, and resists the 
application of the most powerful acids. — Athenaum, No. 260. 

Cocoa, lb. . . . . . . G 

produce and imported from B. P. lb. . .002 

Husks and Shells, lb. . . . .001 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 32, no abatement of duties shall be made on 
account of any damage received by cocoa. 

As to certificate of growth, see Coffee. 

It shall lie lawfid for the commissioners of cu.stoms to accept the 

abandonment, for the duties, of any quantity of warehoused cocoa, and to 
cause or permit the same to be destroyed, and to deduct such quantity of 
cocoa, from the total quantity of the same importation, in computing the 
amount of the deficiency of such total quantity. 3 and 4 VVill. IV., 
c. 57, ^ 33. 

Paste or Chocolate, lb. . . .044 

produce of and imported from B. P. lb. . 1 

Cocoa, or cacao nut, is a kind of nut growing on a tree in the West Indies. The cocoa or 
chocolate nut is a IVuit of an oblong figure, resembling a large olive in size and shape. It 



62 UNITED KINGDOM.— lMPOiiTS.—-D«/?V.?, ^r. [1837-8. 

Cocoa, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

is composed of several irregular and unequ:il parts, which, however, coliere firmly enough 
together. It is of a very fragrant and agreeable smell, and of a pleasant and peculiar 
taste. The cocoa or chocolate nuts are found in the cavity of the large nut, and are 
usually in the number of about 30 in each fruit. It is of these nuls that cocoa, cocoa-paste, 
and cliocolate are manufactured. Messrs. Fry and Sous, of liristol, are celebrated manu- 
facturers of cocoa. — Ed. 

Coco, or Coker Nut. See Nuts. 
Cocoa Nut Fibre. 

IJy O. C, July 27, 1835, Coir or cocoa nut fibre is to be admitted at all times, and under all 

circumstances, at the duty payable on hemp, viz., the cwt. Id. 
Cocoa nnt fibre is now used as a substitute for horsehair, ilock, and other materials in 

bedding, stuffing furniture, carriage cushions, &c. It is said to be very durable and elastic, 

and about one-third the price of horse-hair. — Ed. 

Coculus Indicus, lb. . . . . .020 

'■ Extract or Preparation of. See Extract. 

By 4 and 5 Will. IV.. c. 89, § 5, no abatement of the duties shall he made on 

account of any damage received by Coculus Indicus. 
Coculus Indicus. — The fruit of the Menispermum Coculus, a shrub which grows in sand amid 
rocks on the coasts of Malabar, and other parts of the East Indies. Tlie fruit is blackish, 
and of the size of a large pea. — Vre. 

Cocus Wood. See Ebonv. 

Codilla. See Flax. 

Coffee, lb. . . . . . .013 

produce of and imported from B. P. in America, lb. 6 

Certifrate. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 37, coffee, cocoa, or spmts which 
shall be entered as being of the produce of son>e B. P. in Amtrica, or the 
island of Mauritius, the master of the ship importini:^ the same shall deliver 
to the collector or comptroller a certificate, under the hand of the proper 
officer of the place where such goods were taken on board, testifying that 
proof had been made in manner required by law that such goods are of the 
produce of some B. P. in America, or of the island of Mauritius, stating 
the name of the place where such goods were produced, and the qiiantity 
and quality of the goods, and the number and denomination of the packages 
containing the same, and the nam.e of the ship in which they are laden and 
of the master thereof: and such master shall also make and subscribe a 
declaration before the collector or comptroller, that such certificate was 
received by him at the place where such goods were taken on board, and 
that the goods so imported are the same as are mentioned therein. 

produce of Sierra Leone, and imported thence, lb. . 6 

(5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 66.) 

By T. M., June 24, 1837, on t!u' sulyeet of the amount of duty to be paid upon a cargo of coffee 
"from the islands of St. Thomas and Prince's on the Aftican coast, it is stated, that as 
those islands belong to Portugal, it appears to tlieir lordships that coifee the produce of 
those islands is neither admissible under the letter of the Act, nor mider the spirit and 
intention of the orders by wliich their lordships directed that collee grown in the neighbour- 
hood of the Hrilisli hcUlcnicuts , although not actually within their limits, should be intro- 
duced at the lower rate of duty. 

the produce of B. P. within the limits of the East 

India Company's charter, and imported from such Pos- 
sessions, lb. . . . . . .006 

imported from any other place within those limits, lb. 10 

(5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 66,^ 1.) 
Certijicale. — No coffee shall be entered as being the produce of any B. P. 
within the limits of the East India Company's charter, unless the master of 
the ship importing the same shall have delivered to the collector or comp- 
troller a certificate under the hand and seal of the proper officer at the place 
where such coffee was taken on hoard, testifying that a declaration in writing 
had been made and signed before him (the contents of which he had 
examined and believed to be true) by the shipper of such coflfiie, that the 
same was really and bond fide the produce of some such B. P., nor unless 
such inaster shall also make and subscribe a declaration before the collector 
or comptroller that such certificate was received by him at the place where 
such coffee was taken on board, and that the coffee so imported is the same 
as is mentioned therein. § 2. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 7)m//m, c^-c. C? 

Coffee, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Damage. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 32, no abatement of duties shall bo 
made on account of any damage received by Coffee. 

Abandonment. — It shall be lawful for the commissioner.^ of customs to accept 
the abandonment, for the duties, of any (juantity of warehoused coffee, and 
to cause or permit the same to be dusfroj'ed, and to deduct such quantity 
of coffee irom the total quantity of the same importation, in computing 
the amount of the deficiency of such total quantity. 3 and 4 Will, IV., c. 57. 
^ 33. 

CoflFee is extensively produced in the East and West Indies, in E^'ypt, Sierra I,eonp, and 
various otlier parts of Asia, Africa and America. Its use has become general. — En. 

Tlie main and almost sole staple of Mocha is coffee, of which Arabia was tlie original country, 
and produces it of an excellence wliich is still unrivalled. It is a small tree or slirul), 
which rises to the heifiht of sixteen or eighteen feet, and has loaves about live inches lon<5 
and two l)road. Tlie only v.ilual)le part is the fruit, whicli grows iu clusters, resembles a 
cherry, and is gathered when of a deep red. — Edinburgh Oaxclfcei: 

No individual who continually uses coffee can be suliject to putrid fevers ; and in the 
east of Europe, it is consi<lered as the only certain remedy for the cure of the plague. — 
Dr. Thornton s Botankiil Lectures. 

To Roast Coffee. — Instead of roasting the coffee in an atmosphere of its own steam, it will bo 
lietler to dry it on a large iron pan over a very gentle lire, keeping it constantly stirring, so as 
to present now surfaces, imtil the colour become yi'Uow. In this way, the chief part of the 
water will be dissipated without exerting any detriuieutal iullueuce on the substance which 
is afterwards to form the aromatic liitter. After being thus dried, the coffee should be pounded 
into coarse fragments, by no moans too line ; eadi Uermd, as it occurs, being divided, perliaps, 
into tour or live parts. In this state, it is to be transferred hito roasting apparatus, and scorched 
to the proper di'gree. — Cabinet Ci/rkiptedia. 

To make C'o//(c.— Infusion in Ixiiling water extracts the aroma without the whole of the bitter ; 
but long boiling extracts all the liitter and dissipates all the aroma ; and hence we mav infer 
that any elVeclivi' degree of boiling must be in a slight degree injurious. The rii'lit modi- of 
procceifiug is lliereUpve obvious. The whole water to be used is' to In- divided into two ecpiiil 
parts, one of which is to be drawn on the coifee, but in an inverted order. In the usual order, 
boiling water is allowed to cool on coffee ; but if this be inverted, cold water should be lieated 
on coffee, over the lire, niitil it come to a boil, and then it is to be removed. This inversion 
cannot differ from tlie direct mode with regard to retaining the aroma : but it differs much 
with regard to the advantage of obtaining the liquid coffee at the end of the process boiling 
hot, instead of cool, and tlius making a rehe iting necessary, which is always injurious. 
As soon as the liquor comes to aboil, it should be allowed to subside a few seconds, and 
then poured off as clear as it will run. Immetliately, the romahiing half of the water at a 
lioilmg heat is to be poured on the grounds ; the vessel is to be placed on the fire, and kept 
boiling for about three minutes. This will extract all the bitterness left in the grounds ; and 
after a few moments' subsidence, the clear part is to be poured off and mixed with the former 
liquor. This mixed li(|niir now contains all the qualities which originally existed in the 
roasted coffee in perfection, and it is as hot as any taste could desire it. There is little 
doubt that the pungent aroma of coffee is perceived by tlie p;il!ite nuich more acutely when 
the liquor is very hot, and the fact is generally admitted. — Cabinet Ci/clopcedia. 

To make Coffee us the French make it. — Have a coffee-pot w ith a lip ; pour into it as many 
cups of boiling water as you wish to make cups of coffee ; let the water boil, then put in 
as many table spoonfuls of cofi'ee as there are cups of water, stir it iu, and let it simmer 
till the head falls. When tl:e coffee is done, take it off the fire, pour in a cup of cold water, 
set the coffee on the hearth, and let it stjind ten minutes, when it will be fine. For 
breakfast, put one cupful of this coffee to three or four cupfuls of boiled milk and sweeten 
to your taste, and you will find it a luxury, at a small expense, as great as wealth can 
procmre. — Household Almanac. 

Coin, Copper. See Copper. 

Foreign, of Gold or Silver. See Bullion, p. 56. 

False money or counterfeit sterling and silver of the realm, or any money 
purportini^ to be such, not being of the established standard weight and 
fineness, prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture, 3 and 4 Will. 4, 
c. 5'2, §58. 

Coir Fibre. vSee Cocoa Nuts. 

• Rope, Twine, and Strands, cwt. 

Old, and fit only to be made into mats, ton 

Colocynth, lb. . . . . . 

This trailing plant is a nativeof Turkey and Nubia. The fruit when ripe is about the size 
of an orange: it is imported dried, and generally peeled. That Colocyulh pulp which is 
dense and deep grey, or dirty brown, is uuhealthy, or has beeti injured in drying — Brande. 

Colophonia. See Rosin. 

Columbo Root, lb. . . . . .002 

Columbo-root, an article lately introduced iu the materia mcdica, the ratural history of 






5 








5 











2 



64 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Duties, ^fc. [1837-8. 

Columbo-root, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

wliicli is not yet well known. Columbo, a to\ni of Ceylon, gives name to, and supplies 
all India witli, it. This root comes to us in circular pieces, which are from half an inch 
or an inch to three inches iu diameter. — Enci/. Britan. 

Comfits, lb. . . . . . .010 

Dry sweetmeats : any kind of fruit or root, preserved with s\igar, and dried. — Johnson. 

Copper Ore, cwt. . . . . .0120 

. produce of and imported from B. P. in America, 

cwt. • . . . . 

■ Old, fit only to be re-manufactured, cwt. . 

In Plates and Copper Coin, cwt. 

— Unwrouijht, in Bricks or Pigs, Rose Copper, and 

all Cast Copper, cwt. . . . . 

in Part Wrought, viz. Bars, Rods, or Ingots, ham- 



1 





15 





1 10 






mered or raised, cwt. . . . . 1 15 

Manufactures of Copper otherwise than enumerated, 



and copper-plates engraved, 100/. val. . . . 30 

produce of and imported from B. P. within the limits 



of the East India Company's charter, viz. Ore, cwt. 

Old, fit only to be re-manufuctured, cwt. 

in Plates and Copper Coin, cwt. 

Unwrought, in Bricks or Pigs, Rose Copper, and all 






1 





9 





15 



Cast Copper, cwt. . . . . .092 

in Part Wrought, viz. Bars, Rods, or Ingots, ham- 
mered or raised, cwt. . . . . .1113 

Manufactures of Copper not otherwise enumerated, 

and copper-plates engraved, 100/. val. . . . 30 

It shall be lawful for flie importer or proprietor of any copper ore warehoused 

to give notice to the proper officers of customs of his intention to take such 

ore out of warehouse to be smelted, stating in such notice the quantity of 

copper computed to be contained in such ore, and delivering to such officers 

sufficient samples or specimens for ascertaining by proper assays, at the 

expense of the proprietor, such quantity of copper, and giving sufficient 

security by bond for retiu-ning such quantity of copper into the warehouse; 

and if such officers be satisfied of the fairness of the samples or specimens 

of such ore, and of the assays made of the same, and of the security given, 

they sliall deliver such ore for the purpose of being smelted as aforesaid : 

Provided, that if any copper ore intended to be so smelted shall be imported 

into any port where such ore or where copper cannot l)e warehoused, the 

same may be entered as being to be warehoused at the port at which the 

copper after smelting is to be warehoused, and such ore shall thereupon be 

taken account of and delivered for the purposes aforesaid, in like manner 

as if the same had been warehoused : Provided also, that all copper so 

produced by smelting sliall be deemed to be copper imported, and shall be 

warehoused as such. 3 and 4 Will. 4,c. 57, § 36. 

By T. O;, Dec. 21, 1827, autlwrity is given to allow old copper sheathing to be delivered duty 

free, upon the proof that the said sheathing is of British manufacture, viz. by requiring the 

party who may claim remission of duty on old copper sheathing as British, to slate the time 

when, and the liritish port wliere, the vessel was last sheathed ; to produce the tradesmen's 

bills and receipts for the sheathing, or other satisfactory proof of the fact ; and that the 

copper stripped from the vessel, and upon wliich remission of the duty is claimed, is the 

identical copper with which she had been so sheathed, such copper to be then delivered 

duty free to tlie British copper manufacturer by whom the vessel is to be re-coppered in 

this country. 

By C. O., Dec. 17, 1828, old copper sheathing and all copper utensils returned to this kingdom 

from the British plantations, and also old copper stripped off vessels iu ports in the 

United Kingdom, is to be admitted to entry, dntij free, under the following regulations, viz. : 

1st. Old copper sheathing, stripped offa British vessel in a British I'ossession, and brought 

iu such vessel, upon the master of the vessel making proof to the fact that the copper had 

been stripped oil" in a Briiisli port abroad. 

2nd. Old copper sheathing of British ships stripped oflf in ports in the British Possessions, 

but not brought in such ships, upon the production of certificates from the principal officers 

of this revenue in the said possessions that such copper had been stripped oflf such vessels 

in their ports. 

3rd. Old copper sheathing stripped off any ship in ports in the United Kingdom, upon the 

fact being certified by tlie lauding waiter siiiierinteuding the process. 



5 





5 





1'2 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Dm/Zc*, ^fc. G5 

CoPPKR, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

In all three e:i9i"8 tlie nld ciipju'r to I>e doliviTcvl only to the coin)or-sniitli, who may ru-eojUH-r 
the vi-dsi'l fiom wliirh the co|>ii(M- was striiijie.l, he niaUiii;; iirnufof that fact. 

4th. All worn-out British copper iilensili; to l,e, in all cases, delivered when hroi\i;ht fuiiu 
Kritish Possessions abroail in iliitisli ship.-;, upon tlie consignee submittin;; proof that tliey 
had been used on a particilar e.ilate, anl are eonsi;^ned to him on account of the owner of 
that estate, and tint he (the conbi^nee) verily believes them to have been of liritish ina- 
unfirinro. 

By T. ()., July 24, 1829, din-ctions are i;iven for an extension of the indulgence granted by the 
letter of the 2ist no.:.. 18i27. with respect to the landing' and delivery of old Hritish topper 
slieathinj;/rtf o/</«.'//. when taken olf \essels in a liritish ]iort. so far as respects l)ritii.U 
vessels, from «hieh the copper ni.iy have been stripjied in a foieiiiu p.)rt, provided they 
(xnne to this countrv to be re-cojipered, and lirin;; \\\>- old copper «iih them. 

By C. O., .^ ng. lU, \%h. the provisions of tlie order of Dec. 17, 1828, are exlemle.l not oidy to 
old copper, Ixit to sueli articles as are niannfactnred fioai copper and pewter, of which the 
olil nteiisds usually returne.l from the West Indies arc commonly c.mipo-fd. 

By C O., Sept 9, 18;U. copjier ore, reiiuirin;.^ the process of snieliinf,', is allowed to be entered, 
without reference to its having undergi.nc the process of calcining or roasting, for the pur- 
pose of bl•in^' smelted lOr exportation. 

By 'r. L , May 23, 1837. Cup/icr Slt';iit/ilug, of Ilrilish niannfacturo, im)iorled from Fprnandtt 
Po, may he admitted to entry, free of duty, under the same regulations as thosi! wliich ap- 
ply to IJritish Posses<ions. 

Copper is found native, but much oflener in comliinatiou with other metals, oxy?en. sulphur 
and acids. The ores are usually of a green or brownisli reii aiipi'arance; are found in veins 
and beils in Cornwall. .StalVordsiiirc, and several other p.irts of (Jreat Biitain, as well as in 
Germany, Sweden, &c.; in France, Spain, IreUiml, and Norway, copper is much less 
abundant; its ores occur in beds of liuiestoue and (;ranite. Copper, on account of its im- 
periahable quality, is generally employed in the mauul'acture of kitchen utensils and cop- 
per boilers, for shcatliing ships' bottoms, as a circulating medium, and for .ilUniiig witli 
gold and silver, as in certain projjortions it renders these valuable metals much liarder and 
more durable; it is also the basis of brass, pinchbeck, prince's metal, Dutch gold, .Soc, also 
of two i)igments called Scheele's green and verdigris, and arseniate and acet.ite of the 
metal; its oxides are occasionally tiscd in porcelain painting and in lireworks. — Jui/ce. 

Copperas, Blue, cwt. ..... 

Green, cwt. 

"White, cwt. ..... 

Copperas, a name given to vitriol, is green, blue, or white, :js it is respectively a sulph!;to of 
iron, copper, or zinc; it is used in black dyes, and making iuk, and tanning leather.— A'lii;^. 
Metrup. 

Coral, in fragnient.s, lb. ..... 

whole, poli.shed, lb. . . . , 

unpolished, lb. ... . 

of British fishing or taking, lb. 

" 1 have looked do nil to those ocean depths, 
Many thousand fathoms low, 
And seen, like woods of mighty oak, 

The trees of coral grow; — 
The red. the green, and the beautiful 

Pale branch'd like the chrysolite, 
Which, amid the sunlit waters, spread 

Their llowers intensely brii;ht. 
Some, tliey were like the lily of June, 

Or t!ic rose of fairy land. 
Or as if some poet's glorious thought 
Had inspired a sculptor's hand." 

— The Gem; alUerary anniuil. 
Coral rocks, which rise from the bed of the ocean, were formerly thought to he of a vegetable 
nature; yet subsequent invesli;;ation has proved their foundation to be elVected b) polypi. 
A portion of our own islaud is based on a foundation of coral ; and many islands between 
the tropics appear to rest entirely on masses of coral rocks. The rapidity of their labours 
is equally surprising with their vaslness. — Mirrur. 
Bruce say.s, " Large trees or plints of coral spread everywhere over the bottom of the Red 
Sea." Pococke states that the madrepores grow so thick and high as to be dan:,'erous 
even to ships ; and Finati, speaking of his voyage on the Red Sea, says that the water was 
so transparent that he amused himself by observing the peculiarity of the depths beneath 
him, " where weeds and corals grew to such a size, and so disposed, as almost to have llio 
appearance of groves and gardens." — Life nf Finati, Quarterly Revieiv, July, 1837. 

Cordage, tarred or untarred (standing or running rigging in 

use excepted), cwt. . . . . .0109 

in actual use of a British ship, and being fit and 

necessary for such ship, and not or until otherwise disposed of Free. 

if and when otherwise disposed of, lOU/. val. . 20 

Cordial Waters. See Spirits. 






1 








12 








5 


6 








6 



66 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)«^/e5, ^-c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Cork, cwt. . . . . . .080 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54. § 2, Cork, being the produce of Europe, shall not he 

imported into the United Kingdom lo be used therein, except in British ships, 

or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in ships 

from which the goods are imported. 

The Quercus suber, whieh |,'ro\vs wild ia tlie soutli of Eiuope, furnishes from its exterior 

bark the su\>st;ince known as cork. When the bark is Jiist stripped from the tree, it is 

}ihiced with tlie convex side next a fire, and pains are taken by swelling it to fill up any 

accidental holes; or, otherwise, it is straightened by being fust laid under heavy ])iles of 

stone, and afterwards charred. It is then stacked, and considered fit for sale. It is selilom 

sufliciently roasted for the cutter's use by these processes, and it generally undergoes a 

more complete laying after importation. — Enci/. Melrirp. 

Corks, ready made, lb. . . . . .070 

Corn*. There shall he paid to His Majesty, upon all Corn, 
Grain, Meal, or Flour entered for home consumption in 
the United Kingdom, from parts'!" beyond the seas, the 
several duties following, (9 Geo. IV., c. 60.) viz. : — 

Corn Imported from any Foreign Country. 

Wheat. 

According to the average price of "Wheat, made up and published in 

manner required by law, viz. : — 

Whenever such price shall be 

62*. and under 63*. .... 

63*. — 64.y. 

64*. — 65*. .... 

65*. — 66*. 

66*. — 67*. .... 

67*. — 68*. 

68*. — 69*. .... 

69*. — 70*. 

70*. — 71*. .... 

71*. — 72*. 

72*. ' — 73*. . 
At or above 73*. the duty shall be for every quarter 
Under 62*. and not under 61*. the duty shall be for every 

quarter . . • • . .15 8 

And in respect for each integral shilling, or any part of each 
integral shilling, by which such price shall be under 61*., 
such duty shall be increased by I*. 

M. La Gasc.a, formerly s\iperintendenl at the Royal Garden at Madrid, and, we hope, now 
restored to an office he so ably and worthily filled, being, during his exile, in Jersey at 
the harvest time, there recognised twenty three varieties of wheat growing in one field, arid 
consequently yielding on the whole a bad crop, for one would be dry, while another was full 
and jiiicv, and a lliird ([uite green. Thinking this subject of importance, M. Lecouleur re- 
ported it to the Academy of Sciences, and observes that these varieties may i)robably be 
accommodated to very different climates. M. I>a Gasra himself has obt.-vined more than 
150 varieties of wheat from Europe, the Cape, Kgyjit, Venezuela, kc— AUienceum, No. 50t). 

Barley. 

Whenever the average price of barley, made up and pub- 
lished in manner required by law, shall be 33*. and under 
34*. the quarter, the duty shall be for every quarter . 12 4 

And in respect of every integral shilling by which such 
price shall be above 33*., such duty shall be decreased by 
1*. ad., until such price shall be 41*. 

• • By C. O., Aug. 6, 1829, it is directed that in cases where any vessel shall arrive at an out- 
port with Ibreign corn in a heated or damaged state, or under any other circumstances which 
may render an immediate unshipment thereof necessary, the collector and comptroller may per- 
mit the same to be dejiosited in some proper warehouse upon such cargo being duly entered, 
and are to report the same forthwith for the Board's further direction, 
t As to Isle of Man, see Part IX, 



per q 

£ *. 


d. 


1 4 


8 


1 3 


8 


1 2 


8 


1 1 


8 


1 


8 


18 


8 


16 


8 


13 


8 


10 


8 


6 


8 


2 


8 


1 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports. -Z»«^?e^, <^c. 67 

Corn, continued, viz : — £ s. d. 

Whenever such price shall be at or above 41*. the duty shall 

be for every quarter . . . . .010 

Under 33*. and not- under 32*., the duty shall be for every 

quarter . . . . . . 13 10 

And in respect of each integral shilling, or any part of each 

integral shilling, by which such price shall be under 32*., 

such duty shall be increased by 1*. 6d. 

See the case of " Carr v. Southan and Son", at the end 
of " Corn imported from Foreign Countries." 

Oats. 

Whenever the average price of Oats, made up and published 

in manner required by law, shall be 25*. and under 26*. 

the quarter, the duty shall be lor every quarter . .093 

And in respect of every integral shilling by which such 

price shall be above 25.S'., such duty shall be decreased by 

1*. 6d. until such price shall be 31*. 
Whenever such price shall be at or above 31*., the duty 

shall be for every quarter . . . .010 

Under 25s. and not under 24*., the duty shall be for every 

quarter . . . . . . 10 9 

And in respect of each integral shilling, or any part of each 

integral shilling, by which such price shall be under 24*., 

such duty shall be increased by 1*. 6d. 

Rye, Peas, and Beans. 

Whenever the average price of Rye, or of Peas, or of Beans, 
made up and published in manner required by law, shall 
be 3G*. and under 37*. the quarter, the duty shall be for 
every quarter . . . . . . 15 G 

And in respect of every integral shilling by which such 
price shall be above 36*., such duty shall be decreased by 
1*. f)d. until such price be 46*. 

Whenever such price shall be at or above 46*. the duty shall 

be for every quarter . ... . . .010 

Under 36*. and not under 35*., the duty shall be for every 

quarter 0169 

And in respect of each integral shilling, or any part of each integral shil- 
ling, by which such price shall be under 35*., such duty shall be in- 
creased by 1*. 6d. 

OXFORD CIRCUIT.— Gi.ocESTER, Friday, August 4, 1837. — Nisi Prius 
Court. — Cakr t). SouTH.^N AND Son. — (Special Jury.) 

This was an action of trover to recover a quantity of oats. 

Mr. Richards and j\!r. Liimley conducted the plaintiff's case; Mr. Serjeant 
Tail'uiird and Mr. Selfe appeared for the defendants. 

The plaintiff was a merchant at Hamburgh, and in April of this year sold 
a cargo of oats to persons of the name of Hentig and Howell, who were 
merchants in ihis city. The oats were shipped, and arrived in Gloces- 
ter on the S\\\ of May. The plaintiff finding that the bills he had drawn 
had not been duly honoured, directed Messrs. Stiirge, his agents, to stop the 
delivery of the oats. Hentig and Howell had, however, previously sold the 
cargo to a Mr. Vining, who chiiined it under the bill of lading. His claim 
being disputed, he applied to them, and they agreed to deposit with him a 
cargo of oats which had come by a ship calleil the Kmanuel, and were at 
the time in a bonded warehouse gi Glocester, and the key of that warehouse 
was delivered to Mr. Viuing. Two days afterwards an arrangement was 
made by Hentig, Vining, and Sturge, that this cargo should be pledged to 
the plaintiff as a security for the payment of the bills which he had drawn, 
and that the claim on the Ellen's cargo should be given up. Mr. Vining 
kept the key of the warehouse, but allowed Hentig's mau to have it from 

F2 



68 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— X»wfe, cf-c. [1837-8 

Corn, continued, viz. : — •£ *• d- 

time to time to turn the corn, which had become heated. On the 17th of 
May Ilentij^'s inaii lefused to letarn the key, and the defendants took pos- 
sesion oi' the warehouse and the corn. The defendants' case was, thiit on 
the 17th of April the defendants gave their acciptance for the amount of 
3^0/., and the cargo of the Kmanuel was deposited with them as a security 
in case the hill was not taken up by Hentig and Howell, the defendants sli- 
pidating to receive 4 per cent, commission, vvhich was exiilained to mean in 
case the defendants sold this cargo. That bill was paid by Ilentig and 
Howell to their bankers, and afterwards taken up by the defendants. The 
key of the warehouse was not at first received by the deft-ndants, but they 
afterwards obtained it, and it was taken from time to time by Hentig's men. 
in order that the corn might be turned. This was as early as the 1st of 
May. Mr. Southan having left this city on business, Henlig obtained the key, 
and during the time of his absence had jiledged the cargo to Mr. Vining 
and the plaintiff. These facts having been proved, and bis Lordship stating 
that there was no usury in the deposit with the defendants, the plaintiff 
elected (o he nonsuited. 

Wheat-Meal, and Flour. 
For every barrel, being 196 lb. duty equal in amount to the duty payable on 
38^ gallons of Wheat. 

Oatmeal. 
For every quantify of IBHlb. a duty equal in amount to the duty payable on 
a quarter of Oats. 

Maize or Indian Corn,* Buck-Wheat, Beer or Bigg. 
For every quarter, a duty equal in amount to the duly payable on a quarter of 

liarley. 
Produce of, and imported fi-om, any British Possession in North Jmerica, or 
elseivhere out of Europe. 

Wheat. 
For every quarter . . . . .050 

Until the price of British Wheal, made up and published in manner requ'red 
bylaw, shall be 67s. per quarter. 

At or above 67*. the duty shall be for every quarter . 6 

Barley. 
For every quarter . . . . .026 

Until the price of British Barley, made up and published in manner required 
by law, shall be 34s. per quarter. 

At or above 345. the duty shall be for every quarter • G 

y Oats. 

For every quarter . . . . .020 

Until the price of British Oats, made uj) and published in manner required 
by law, shall be 25s. per quarter. 

At or above 25*. the duty shall be for every quarter . 6 

Rye, Peas, and Beans. 
For every quarter . . . . .030 

Until the price of British Bye, or of Peas, or of Beans, made up and published 
in manner required by law, shall be 414-. 

At or above 41*. the duty shall be for every quarter . 6 

Wheat-Meal, and Flour. 
For every barrel, being 196 lb., a duty equal in amount to the duty payable on 
38J gallons of wheat. 

• By C. O., Sept. 2, 1828, it is stated that Indian meal is iiroliibited to be imported, and liable 
to forfeiture. 



1S37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I»«</Ciy, <^c. C9 

Corn, cnnti?ii/ed, viz. : — 

Oatmeal. 
For every quantity of 18H lb. a C.uiy equal in amount to the duly payable oa 
a quarter of oats. 

Maize or Indian Coun, Buck-AViikat, Bker or Bigg. 

Fur every quarter, a duty equal in amount to the duty payable oa a quarter of 

bailey. 

Prnditcr of Europe. — Coin or p:rain, heinn^ the produce of Europe, shall not bo 
imported into the United Kingdom, lo be n^eil ihf.rciii, except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the ^O'lds ;ire the produce, or in 
shijis of the country from which the goods are imported. 3 & 4 W. 4, 
c. ;■)-!, § 3. 

Be-imporlaho)}. — Corn, gvahi, meal, flour, and malt, shall not be re-imported 
into the United Kiiig(!om for /(';»;<!• mc, upon the ground tl!at the siiine had 
Iteeii legally expoited tlience ; but the same sb;ill be deemed to be foreign 
goods, whether originally such or not, and shall also he deemed to be 
imported for the first time into the United Kingdom. 3 and 4 \V. 4, 
c. 52, § 33. 

Mali. — Malt prohibi'ed to be imported for home use, on pain of forfoituro, 
but may be warehoused for exportation only. ^ 58. 

Certijicdfc ri.s lo British Posspssion.t. — No corn, grain, meal, or flour, shnll be 
shijiped from any iiort in any l^ritish possession out of Europe, as being the 
pro<luce of any such possession, luit 1 the owner or proprietor or shifqier 
thereof shall have made and subscribed, before the collector or other chief 
ollicer of customs at the port of shipment, a declaration in wriling, specify- 
ing the quantity of each sort of such corn, grain, meal, or flour, and that 
the same >vas tlie produce of some British posvession out of Europe, to ie 
named in such decdaration, nor until such owner, or i)ro]irietor, or shipper, 
shall have obtained from tb.e collector or other chief ofiicer of customs at 
the said jiort a certificate under his signature, of the quantity of corn, grain, 
me.il, or flour, so declared to be shipped; and before any corn, gr.iin, meal, 
or flour, s'lall be entered at any place in the United Kingdom, as being tlie 
produce of any British possession out of Europe, the master of the ship 
importing tlie same shall produce and deliver to the collector or other chief 
officer of customs of the [lace of importation a copy of such declaration, cer- 
tified to be a true anil accurate cojiy thereof under the hand of the collector 
cr other chief otficer of customs at the port of shipment before whom the 
same was made, together v/ith the iertiflca!e, signed by the said collector 
or other chief officer of customs, of the quantity of corn so declared to be 
shipped ; au'l such master shall also make and subscribe, before the col- 
lector or other chief officer of customs at the place of importation, a decla- 
ration in writing, that the several quantities of corn, grain, meal, (jr flour, 
on board such sliip, and proposed to b,^ entered imder the authority of such 
declaration, are the same that were mentioned and referred to in the decla- 
ration and certificate produceil by him, without any admixture or addition ; 
and if any person shall, in any sucli declaration, wilfully and corruptly 
make any false statement resjiectlng the jilace of which any such corn, 
grain, meal, or flour, was the produce, or resjiecting the identity of any such 
corn, grain, meal, or flour, such jierson shall forfeit and become liable to pay 
to His Majesty 100/.; and the corn, grain, meal, or flour, to such person 
belonging, on hoard such ship, shall also be forfeited. 9 G. 4, c. CO, ^ 4. 

Ma/t or Ground Com. — It shall not be lawful to import from parts beyond the 
seas into the United Kingdom, for consumption there, any malt; or to 
import, tor consumption, into d'leat Britain, any corn ground except wheat 
meal, wheat flour, and oatmeal ; or to import, for cousmuption, any corn 
ground into Ireland; and if any such article be imported contrary to the 
provisions aforesaid, the same shall be forfeited. ^ 5. 

London Gazette. — The commissioners of customs shall, once in each calendar 
month, cause to be published in the London Gazette an account of the total 
quantity of each suit of the corn, grain, meal, and flour respectively, which 



70 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— DMif/e5, <^c. [1837-8. 

Corn, continued, viz : — £ s. d. 

shall have been imported into the United Kincjdom ; and also an account 
of the total quantity of each sort of the corn, grain, meal, and flour respec- 
tively, uj)on which the duties of importation shall have been {)aid in the 
United Kingdom during the calendar month next preceding ; together with 
an account of the total quantity of each sort of the said corn, grain, meal, 
and flour respectively remaining in warehouse at the end of such next pre- 
ceding calendar month. § 6. 

Dntics of Foreign Stales If it be made to appear to His Majesty in council 

that any foreign state or power hath subjected British vessel^, at any port 
within the dominions of such state or power, to any other or higher duties 
or charges whatever than are levied on national vessels at any such port, 
or hath subjected, at any such port, goods, the growth, produce, or manu- 
facture of any of His Majesty's dominions, when imported from any of such 
dominions in British vessels, to any other or higher duties or charges what- 
ever than are levied on such or the like goods, of whatever growth, produce, 
or manufacture, when so imported in national vessels; or hath subjected, 
at any place within the dominions of such foreign state or power, any 
article of the growth, produce, or manufacture of His Majesty's dominions, 
when imported from any of such dominions in British vessels or in national 
vessels, to any duties or charges which would not be paynble on the like 
article being of the growth, produce, or manufacture of any othir country, 
and imported from such other country in national vessels ; or that any such 
foreign state or power hath granted any bounties, drawbacks, or allowances 
upon the exportation from any place within the dominions then-of of any 
articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the dominions of any other 
foreign state or power, which hath not also been granted upon the exporta^ 
tion from such place of such or the like articles, being the growth, produce, 
or manufacture of His Majesty's dominions ; then it shall he lawful for His 
Majesty, by any order, to be by him made, with the advice of his privy 
council, to prohibit the importation of all or of any sort of corn, grain, meal, 
or flour, from the dominions of any such foreign state or power ; and it 
shall also be lawful for His Majesty from time to time: with the advice of 
his privy council, to revoke and to renew any such order, as there shall be 
occasion. § 7. 

Cornelians. See Agates, p. 46. 

Cotton, Manufactures of, lOOA value . . . 10 

Articles of Manufactures of Cotton wholly or in part 

made up, not otherwise charged with duty, 100/. value . 20 

Small quantities of wearing apparel of passengftrs, in use, are not charged with this duty. 
—Ed. 

Wool, or Waste of Cotton Wool. See Wool. 

By T. O., Feb. and April, 1819, and Aug. 1825, patterns and samples of Cotton, useful only as 
such, are dutyfree. 

Cotton Warehoused. — It shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to 
permit any stuffs or fabrics of silk, linen, cotton, or wool, or of any mixture 
of them with any other material, to be taken out of the warehouse to be 
cleaned, refreshed, dyed, stained, or calendered, or to be bleached or printed, 
without payment of duty of customs, under security, nevertheless, by their 
bond to their satisfaction, that such goods shall be returned to the ware- 
house within the time that they shall appoint. 3 and 4 VV. 4, c. 57, § 35. 

Cotton Manufactures. — That branch of industry which, in numerous ramifica- 
tions and subdivisions, is comprehended under the name of the cotton manu- 
facture, is of peculiar interest, both as exhibiting the powers of the human 
mind and of human skill, and as having enriched the community, and raised 
the condition of our lower orders to a degree of comfort to whii h their fore- 
fathers were wholly strangers. This manufacture, though probably intro- 
duced into England about the year 1600, and extensively carritd on, as was 
then thought, in the neighbourhood of Manchester about the year 1641, 
according to Lewis Roberts's book, entitled " Treasure of Tratlic," had not 
reached such a state in the year 1760 as to produce any cloth made of 
cotton alone. The art of spinning cotton of sufficient tenacity to be used 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.—Imports.— DM/iM, ^f. 71 

Cotton, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

as warp was utterly unknown ; and that part ef the fabric on the strength 
of which its utility to the wearer depends, was made of linen-yarn, cotton 
only being used for the weft or shoot. The introduction of the carding 
machine about 1762 was soon followed by several attempts to spin also 
by machinery ; but these seem to have been ineffectual till 1769, when Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright obtained his first patent for the spin- 
ning frame. It is not too much to assert, that as the use of the raw mate- 
rials has increased a hundred-fold within the last seventy years, so in spite 
of all the economy in the application of labour to the manufacture, the 
demand fur woikmeiihas increased in far more than an equal proportion. — 
Quarterfy Revieii.'. 
The late Earl of Liverpool, in his speech in the House of Lords, June SO, 
1825. said. '• He reminded their lordships of the remarkable circumstance, 
that the British manufacturer coidd undersell the natives of India in their 
own market, though the price of labour was here 2s. Grf. a day, and in 
India only 2(/.'' 
Mr. Baines, of Leeds, a relatiou of Mr. Baines, M. P., and proprietor of the 
" Leeds Mercury," has published an elaborate history of the cotton manu- 
factures. — Eu. 

Cranberries, gal. . . . . .001 

NewfouniUand produces the best cranberries. They are used chiefly in pastry. — Ed. 

Crape. See Silk. 

Crayons, 100/. val. . . . . . 40 

Crayons are composed of coloured stones, earths, or other minerals pounded, and tlien reduced 
to a paste, by mixture with gum, glue, resin, soap, &c., and a little water. — Ency. Metrop. 

Cream of Tartar, cwt. . . . . .020 

Crystal, Rough, 100/. val. . . . . 20 

Cut, or in any way manufactured, except Beads, 

100/. val. . . . . . . 30 

Crystals are hard, pellucid, and naturally colourless bodies. There are many various species 
of it pro<Iuced in different parts of the globe. — Hill. 

Cubebs, lb. . . . . . .006 

Cubebs have much of the appearance of common pepper, bnt each berry has a short stalk 
attached to it, whence the term Piper caudatum. Those which are lareie, heavy, plump, and 
of a fragrant odour, are to be preferred to the lisht, small, and inodorous. Their flavour is 
aromatic and bitter ; but they have not the biting pungency of common pepper. — Brande. 

Cucumbers, Pickled. See Pickles. 

Preserved in salt and water, 100/. val. . 20 

Culm, ton . . . . . .200 

Culm is a variety of coal. It is found principally in Wales; it is not easily kindled, but when 
once it is so itburns a long time, without flame or spioke ; it does not cake, audit leaves but 
few ashes. — Ency. Metrop. 

Currants, cwt. . . . . . .12 2 

By 3 and 4 W. 4, c. 52, § 2, Currants, being the produce of Europe, shall not 

be imported into the United Kingdom /o be used therein, except in British 

ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 

ships from which the goods are imported. 

By 3 and 4 W. 4, c. 52, iS 32, no abatement of duties shall be made on account 

of any damage received by Currants. 
ByC. O., April, 1816, Tare on Currants in casks to be, per cent, from Zante, 13; Leghorn, 10 ; 
Trieste, 10; with liberty to liave an actual taring la case of dissatisfaction either of the 
merchant or oflicer. 

By 4 and 5 W. 4, c. 89, Currants deposited in warehouses of special security, 
when taken out for home use, the duty shall be charged upon the quantity 
actually delivered. 

By T. O., Nov. 29, 1836, on the delivery for home use of Currants, deposited in warehouses of 
extra security, fitted up in the proper manner, an allowance is to bi- made for the natural 
Waste that may have arisen thereon in such warehouses, not exceeding 3 per cent, for the 
first 12 mouths on the quantities ascertained at the time of the lirst entry and lauding the 
same; and for any term exceeding 12 months, an allowance not exceeding 4 per cent. 

Currants are brought principally from Zante and Cephalouia. They are gathered off the bushes, 
and laid to dry in the sun, and so put up in large butts.— £ncy. Britan. 



72 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z>2</ie.?, i^'f. [1837-8. 

Cin"ia.ni!i, cot>tini/rd, viz. •— £ s. d. 

Tlio culture of the plant is one demtiniling a considerable outlay of capitul; employing a sreat 
nnnilier of hands ; ami, above all, aiibjcct In many uncorl.iinties. A blight, known by the 
name of ' briua,' occuriinu' in the siirinL', fri-(iurntly damagfii, ami sometimes destroys a 
whole crop. At the lime of the frathcrinv:, and when the fruit is drying, a single shower is 
fatal to the liopes and the care of the [iroprictor. Insurance against such accidents isun- 
known, perliaj)* impracticable. — letter fnitu the Siat of the Ionian Gvvernment. 

D. 

Damask. Soc Linen. 

Dates, cwt. . . . . . .0100 

Derelict, Foreign "joods Derelict, Jetsam, riot.sam, Lap'an, or Wreck, 
broii<»ht or comiiiu,' into Great Britain or Ireland, are subject to the 
same duiies and entitled to the same drawback.s as goods of the like 
kind re<rularly imported. 

It shall be lawful for the cominissioncrs of customs, or for the officers of 
ciistonis actint^ under tht-ir direclious, to inquire into and receive proof of 
the extent to which any such <;foods sliall have been damaged, and to make 
such abatement of the duties as to them shall appear to bear a just propor- 
tion to tlie damage, fi and 7 W. 4, c. (iO, ^ 3. 
Goods rejior'ed to the otticers of customs as Jetsam, Flotsam, or La<:an, and 
jiot claimed witliin 12 months, to be condemned as droits of Admiralty. ^7. 
As to duty on siiips wrecl;ed, see Ships in P.iux 2. 

Pereliot iiooils are tho-o intentinn.ally cast awayor abandoned. — Ed. 

It is observed, that in order to lonstiuue a legal w reck llie goods must come to land. If they 
con-.inne at sea. the law distinguishes them by ihe li.irliarous and uncouth appellations of 
jetsam, (loatsam, and lagan. Jelsam is where the goods are cast into the sea, and there 
sink .md remain under water ; tloat^am is where they conlinue swimming on ihe surface of 
the waves ; lagan is where they are sunk in the sea, but tied to a cork or buoy, in order to 
be found again. — Btnehsloiie, 

My C. O., February 4, 1834, goods salved from wreck may be forwarded in a coasting vessel 
to the port of oriyiual ilestinatiou. 

Diagrydium. See Scammony. 

Diamonds ...... Free. 

By 3 and 4W. 4, c. r)2. ^ 2, Diamonds may be landed in the United Kingdom 
without report, entry, or warrant. 

; Diamoiuls are found of various colours, black, blue, red. light yellow, &e., but the colourl-ss 
variety, which is also of the most freiiuent occurrence, is the most esteemed ; next to wliicli 
arc those containing the greatest depth of colour, as the black, blue, &c. Diamonds are met 
with in the Ghauts from Beniial to Cape Comorin ; but are principally obtained in the 
tract between Gdlconda and Mazulipatam. 'J'hey are also occasionally brought from 
Borneo and the distiictof Sierra do Frio in hrazil. To Escertain whether any specimen is 
a true diamond or not, a fine file may be used; if the surface of the stone is in the least 
abraded, or scratched by its action, it is not a diamond. — Joyce. 

Diaper. See Linen. 

Dice, pair . . . . . .16 2 

Down, lb. . . . . . .013 

Down. — The fine feathers from the l)reasts of several birds, particularly of the duck kind. 
That of the eider-duck is tlie most valuable. These birds pluck it from their breasts and line 
their nests with it. That found in the nests is most valued, and termed Live Down ; it is in- 
finitely more elastic than that plucked from tlic dead bird, which is little esteemed in Ice- 
laud. — Envy. Britan. 

Drawings. See Prints. 

Drugs, not particularly enumerated or charged with duty in 
this or any otlier Act, cwt. . . . .020 

(6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 60) 

E. 

Earthenware, not otherwise enumerated, 100^. val. . 15 

The ware has been pro\ idid in such gradations of quality as to suit every sfcition, from the 
highest to the lowest. It is to be seen in every country, and almost in every house, throiigh- 
out the whole extent of America, in many parts of A»ia, and in most of the countries of Ku- 
rope. At home it has sujn rseded the less cleanly vessels of pewter and of wood, and by itn 
cheajjuess has been brought within the means of our poorest housekeepers. — Quarterti/ Jiev, 

East India Goods. See East Indies, Part 10. 



1S37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dk/jVj, c^-c. 73 

£ *. d. 

Ebonv, produce of or i m port c;l from any foreip:n country, ton 10 

(6 and 7 Will. TV.c. GO.) 
produce of and imported from 15. P., ton . . .3 

EWmy is liroui»lit from Uic Imlii-.x. cxrccdinijly li.-ird ami licavy, miscojitible of a very finp i)o!i«li, 
nnJ on that acoiiiil usi-d i.i inosnic ami iiilai'l works, toys, &c. Tlicrc arc (Uxors kiiiils of 
ebony ; tlii." most usual amoii^ us arc black, red, and f^rocn, all of tl'.i-m tlio produpt of tlu; 
island of Madairascar, wlioro tlio u.itivos call tlii"m indilTtTcutly II.\7.on maiullii, q. d., blaok 
wood. The island of St. .Maurice, beloni;infj to tlie Dutcli, likewi.-e furnishes part of the 
oboiiies used in \'.\ntt\n\— Env.t/. Jlritnn. 

Ejrjrs. 120 . . . . . .0010 

Embroidery and Needlework, 100/. val. . . . 30 

"VVoiiriiif]; apparel of this sort, in reasonable quantities, is delivered/r^p of duly ; 
but larije (piantilies of needlework, liavini^ been worn or not. and new worked 
caps, collars, pelerines, tippets, &c., are liable to this diiiy. — Ed. 

Emeralds. See Jewels, 

Enamel, lb. . . . . . .072 

There are two kinds of enamel — the opaque and the transparent Trniinp.irent enamels are 
ustially rendered opaque by addint; iiutly, or the white oxide of fin, to them. Tlie basis of all 
enamels is, therefore, a iH'i'fertly transparent and fusible glass. — Urc- 

Essence, being Oil. See Essential Oil, in Oil. 

of Spruce, 100/ val. . . . . 20 

not otherwise enumerated, lb. . . , 4 G 

Essence may be taken for the very beins; of ,any tiling, wlicrcby it is what it is. And thus tho 
real, interual, but generally in snbst^inces unjinown. constitution of things, wherein their dis- 
coverable qualities depend, may be called their essence. This is the proper ori};inal sifjnili- 
cation of tlic word, as is evident from the formation of it; essentia in its primnry notation 
sitfiiifying jirooerly being. — l.nr.he. 

French i'crfumrri/.— The essential oils or e'senres obtained in the Pontli of Franrp, are those 
of roses, neroli, petit -;;rain, luTcnder, wild-thyme, thyme, and rosemary. — Gill't Terfi. liqws. 

Eupliorbium, cwf. . . . . .060 

The oflieinal euphoibium is a n.ative of Africa, and the gum resin, 'as it is not (piite properly 
called, is imported in the form of small liollow'tearsof an intolerably acrid flnvour. — Dninde. 

EuKOPK. Goods the produce ef. See p. 2. See the names 
of the several Articles, in alphabetical order: see also 
EuROPi-:, Part IX. 

Extract, viz. : — 

Cardamoms, 

• Coculus Indicus, 

• Grains, Guinea Grains I Extract or Preparation of, 

—of Paradise, f 100/. val. . . 75 



"I 



■ Licorice, 
Nux Vomica, 
Opium, I Extract or Preparation of, 

Pepper, viz. Guinea, ( 100/. val. . . 25 

Peruvian or Jesuits' Bark, Extract or Preparation 



of, lb 

Quassia, Extract or Preparation of, 100/. val. 

Radix Rhatanix', Extract or Preparation of, lb. 

Vitriol, Extract or preparation of, 100/. val. 

Extract or Preparation of any article not being par- 






5 





50 











5 





25 








20 











10 






ticularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with duty, 
100/. val. ...... 

OR, and in lieu of any of the above duties, at the option 
of the importer, lb. . 

E.rtrart. — When decoction is carried to such a point as to afford a substance either solid or 
of the consistence of paste, this residual product is called an extract. When chcmistB speak 
of extract, they most commonly mean the ]iroduet of aqueous decoction ; but the earlier 
chemists frequently speak of spirituous extract. — Vre. 

F. 

Feathers for Beds, in beds or not, cwt. . . ,240 



£ 


S. 


d. 


1 


10 








1 








1 





20 








10 









74 UNITED KINGDOM.-lMFORTs.-Dw^i'e^, ^'c;. [1837-8. 

Feathers, continued, viz. : — 

• Ostrich, dressed, lb. 

undressed, lb. . 

Paddy Bird, lb. . 

not otherwise enumerated : — 

. ■ dressed, 100/. val. 

_ ■ undressed, 100/. val. 

Feathers make a considerable article in corameice, particularly those of the ostrich, heron, 
swan, peacock, goose, &c., for plumes, ornaments of the head, filling' of beds, writing pens, 
&c. Eider down is imported from Denmark ; the ducks that supply it being inhabitants of 
Hudson's Bay, Greenland, Iceland, and Norway. Hudsou's Bay also furnishes very fine 
feathers, supposed to be of the goose kind. The down of the swan is brouia;ht from Dantzic. 
The same place also sends us great quantities of the feathers of the cock and hen. The 
lx!st method of cuiing feathers is to lay them in a room, in an exposure to the sun ; and 
when dried, to put tliem in bags, and beat them well with poles to get the dirt oK.—Enc;j. 
Britiin. 

Figs, cwt. . . . . . . 15 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2. Figs, being the produce of Europe, shall not 

be imported into the United Kingdom lo be tised therein, except in British 

ships, or ill ships of the country of which the goods are the produce^ or in 

ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 32, no abatement of duties shall be made on 

account of any damage received by figs. 
By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, figs deposited in warehouses of special security, 
when taken out for home use, the duty shall be charged upon the quantity 
actually delivered. 
By T. O., Nov. 29, 1836, on the delivery for home use of figs deposited in warehouses of extra 
security fitted up in the proper manner, an allowance is to be made for the natural waste 
that may ha\ e arisen thereon in such warehouses not exceeding three per cent, for the first 
twelve months on the quantities ascertained at the time of the first entiy and landing the 
same, and for any term exceeding twelve months an allowance not exceeding four per cent. 
The wild, as well as the cultivated kind, is supposed to have been origiually brought from 
Asia, whenci' they have been spread over the southern parts of Europe, and are now to be 
met with in Languedoc, in Provence, in Spain, in Italy, &c. ; not to mention those of Eng- 
land, which are merely raised for the table, and not cultivate.!, like those abroad, for com- 
mercial purposes. On the continent, and in the Levant, vast quantities of figs are dried in 
the sun, and form a considerable article oftraflic. — JFimcCs Xuotjrnpht/. 
Of the fig there are thirty species or varieties cultivated in France, Spain, and Italy. — Duppa. 

Fish, Eels, ship's lading . . . . .13 13 

Lobsters ...... Free. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 2, Lobsters fresh, however taken, or imported, 
may be landed in the United Kingdom without report, entry, or warrant. 

Oysters, bushel . . . . .016 

. Stock Fish, 120 . . . . .050 

Sturgeon, keg, not more than five gallons . . 9 

Turbots ...... Free. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 2, Turbots fresh, however taken or imported, 
may be landed in the United Kingdom, without report, entry, or warrant. 

Fresh, of British taking and imported in British 

vessels ....... Free. 

Turtle. — Of the dilVerent kinds of turtle one only alTords good food ; it is called the green tur- 
tle, because of its yielding the much celebrated " gn'cn fat." It is occasionally found of a 
very large size, being sometimes seven feet long ; ami it varies from 56 pounds to 800 
pounds. The islands of the East and West Indies, and numberless other islands, abound 
in them ; those along the coast of Cochin China are not only plentifully supplied with them, 
but they are of exqviisite llavour. They form a consideralde article of commerce between 
the West India Islands and Great Britain ; and tlie ships engaged are provided with proper 
accommodation txi permit their being brought over alive and iu tolerable health. The tiu'tle 
is a valuable addition to the live stock of a ship at sea ; or the flesh may be salti-d and pre- 
served a long time; iu this state it is much used iu the West Indies and America.^XJu- 
mestic Economy. By Michael Donovan, Esq , Professor vf Chemistry. 

Cured, of British taking and curing, and imported in 

British vessels ..... Free. 

.(^s a relish for the breakfast-table the dried capelin of Oie coasts of Newfoundland and 
Labrador is become extensively used, The cod are taken by hooks, baited either with 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— !>«/?>*, (^c. 75 

Fisli, continued, viz. : — £ ,v. d. 

Cdpclin (ir /tarings. Tlic latter is a kind of fish well known in Europe : but tlic rapelin 
pi-cms to 1)0 poculiar to tlie coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador. Tliey are equally 
jilentiful witli the cod in tliosc countries, and are, as a bait, essentially necessary towards 
obtiiniu!^ the latter. These tish have liei-n strangely overlooked by the most distin'MiisIied 
naturalists. Tlio ea\ielin is a small and delicnto species of fisli, greatly resemblnig tlio 
snii'lt— iirf. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. :')2, § 2. Fresh fish of British taking and imported 
in British ships may be landed in the United Kingdom without report, 
entry, or warrant. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV.,c.r)2,^ 44, Fresh fish of every kind, of /inVi.vA taking and 
imiHirted in British ships, and fresh lobsters and tiirbots, however taken or 
in whatever ship imported, and cured fish of every kind, of Bi-itish taking 
and curing, imported in British ships, shall be imported free of all duties, 
and shall not be deemed to be included in any charge of duty imjiosed by 
any Act hereafter to be made on the importation of goods generally: Pro- 
vided always, that before any cured fish shall be entered free of duty as being 
of such taking and ciuing, tlie muster of the ship importing the same shall 
make and subscribe a declaration before the collector or comptroller, that 
such fish was actually caught and taken in British ships, and cured by the 
crews of such ships, or by Ilis Majesty's subjects. 

Fish of foreign taking or curing, or in foreign vessels, except turbots and 
lobsters, stockfish, live eels, anchoveys, sturgeon, botargo, and caviare, pro- 
hibited to be imported for home use on pain of forfeiture, but may be 
warehoused for exportation only, except dried and salted fish, not being 
stockfish. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58. 

By T. L., Feb. 10, 1834, aiithority is given to continue tlie admission of ftsh, &c , the iiroduco 
of tlie Colonies, from GucTusey and Jersey; granted by tlie Order of March 2, 1826. 

Fishing Nets, Old. See Rags. 
Flasks. See Bottles. 

Flax, and Tow or Cedilla of Hemp or Flax, whether dressed 
or undressed, cwt. . . . . .001 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Flax being the produce of Europe shall not 
be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 
ships from which the goods are imported. 

Flax in agriculturi^ is the name of a plant cultivated equally for the baik or covering of its 
stiilk and its seed ; the former being used in making linen cloth, and the latter for oil, which 
is drawn from it by pressure, and for the refuse or cake. — Bees. 

Flocks, cwt. . . . . . .0190 

Cuttings of wool in a partial state of manufacture. They are used in the stuffing of mattresses, 
and laUerly of beds. A finer sort is known in Gloucestershire by Uie name of Milpul!. — Ed. 

Flotsam. See Derelict, p. 72, 
Flour. See Corn, p. G8. 

Flower Roots, 100/. val, . . . . .500 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) 

Roots are of many different kinds, which vary considerably in their nature. The peculiarilies 
of structure and the direction in the stock parts of routs have led to several distinctions in 
regard to their kinds. — Rces. 

Flowers, Artificial, not made of silk, 100/. val. . . 25 

Paris is I he lirst city in the world lor artificial flowers. To such perfection has the art been brought, 
that more than once natural and artilicial lluwers have been placed together, ami a gardener 
asked to view them at a little distance and junnt out the former; but he has been almost 
constantly deceived by the art of the imitator. Tlie milliners and dealers in various f ishion- 
able articles having exerted their genius in the adjustniont of artilicial llo«ers, and brought 
them into general use, the makers of them having been obliged to fabricate them of materials 
of less value, that they may afford tliem cheaper ; and thus paper and other common 
substances are substituted for silk. — Juurnnl des Dames et des Mudes. 

Fossils, not Otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. . . 20 
Specimens of. See Specimens. 

In this globe are many bodies, wlii<;h, because we discover thorn by digging into the bowels 
of till! eanh, are called by one comraan name, Fossils; under which are comprehended 
metals and minerals. — Locke. 

Those bodies which will melt in the fire are called Minerals ; the rest, Foasih.—Pemberlon, 



76 UNITED Kll\GD0M.—luP0RTS.— Duties, ,$-c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
FowHiig-Pieoes. See Baggage, p. 50, 

Frames, for Pictm-es, Prints, or Drawings, 100/. val. . 20 

Frankincense. See Olibanum. 

Fruit, Raw, not otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. . .500 

Fur.s See Skins. 
Fustic, ton . . . . . .046 

■ imported IVom B. P., ton . . . .030 

Fustic is procured from a tree nf considerable magnitude, which grows in the West Indies. Tlie 
wood is yellow, as its name imports, \\\i\\ uraiige veins. Ever since the discovery of America 
it lias been used in dveing, as appears from a paper in the Transactions of the Royal Society, 
of which .Sir ^Villiam I'etly was t'le author. Its price is moderate, the colour it imparts is 
permanent, and it readily cc*mbiues w itii indigo, which properties give it a claim to attention 
us a valuable ingredient in dyeing. — Ency. Brttan. 

G. 

Galls, cwt. . . . . . .020 

Tlie best galls ;ae imported from .Aleppo and Smyrna. Their taste is extremely astringent and 
somewhat bitter, tlieir surface tubercular, and of a deep bluish-grey, or olive colour. Those 
wliich are li^lil in weight and colour, and which instead of breaKing dense and resinous are 
hollow and pulver.dent, arc of inferior quality. — Brtinde. 

Gamboge, cwt. . . . . . .040 

Gamboge is a concreted vegetable juice, partly of a gummy, partly of a resinous nature. It is 
lieavy, of a brit;ht yellow colour, and scircely any smell. It is brought from America, and 
from many parts of the li^ast Indies, particularly from (Jambaja, or Cambogia, whence it lias 
its name. — I Hit. 

Garnets, 11). • . . . • . . 10 
Cut, lb. . . . . . 1 10 

The colour of the garnet varies from dark Ui light red or brown; the Syrian is con&idercd the 
linest, and supposed to be the stone the ancients called the Carbuncle. It is always Known 
by its peculiar colour, and better by its great spccilic gravity. The linest varieties come from 
India, and some good specimens liave been received from Greenland.— jl/o we. 

Gauze of Thread, 100/. val. . . . . 30 

Gauze, a very thin, slight, tiansparent hind of stuff, woven sometimes of silk, and sometimes 
I'Ulv of thread. There are tiguied gauzes; some with flowers of gold and silver, on a silk 
groimd ; these last are chiefly brought from China, — Ency. Britan. 

Gauze. Sec Silk. 

Gelatine. Sec GUie. 

Geldings, See Horses, p. 81. 

Gentian, cwt. . . . . • .040 

Gentian is abusidant in the Swiss and Austrian Alps, and in the m.ountainous forests of many 
parts of Germanv, whence the roots are chielly imported in contorted pieces of variovis sizes, 
covered with a brownish WTinkled epidermis. W'lien broken, they exhibit a brown' bark, 
surrounding an interior yellow and mori' librous part ; they should be tough and flexible, and 
free from worms. The taste of gentian is purely and inlenscly bitter, accompanied by a slight 
sweetness, which in line samples is \ery manifest on touching the tongue with the brokeu 
surfa.-e of the r<X)t. — lliiindc. 

GiBRALT.\R. Goods imported from, see p. 2. See the names 
of the several Articles in Alphabetical order, also Gib- 
raltar, Part 9. 
Ginger, cwt. . . . . . .2130 

• — Preserved, produce of or imported from any Foreign 

country, lb. . . , . , .006 

(0 and 7 Will. IV., c. CO.) 

produce of, and imported from B. P., cwt. . , 110 

Preserved, lb. . . . .001 

Ginger is distinguished into two scrts, the black and the w hite ; but the diiTercnce arises wholly 
from the mode of curing. — Edwards. 

Ginger is extensively difl'used through (lie Indian isles, and of pretty general use among tlie 
natives, who neirlect the liner spiee ;. The great and smaller varieties are cultivated, and the 
sub-\ arieties di^tinguislied by their brown or wliite colours. The ginger of the Indian Archi- 
jKdago is iuf 'lior iii ([uality to tiiat of Malabar or iiengal. — (.'rnwfurd. 

Ginger, Frrsrrved. — By C. O., May, 17, 183(5, it is directed that the duties on Preserved Ginger be 
reyuiated as undermentioned, viz.: — 

Cims'ignmcntS! and Ships' Store-l. 

In a ship reported from China and a British Tossessii-n iu the Kast, the £ s. d. 
high duty . . , 13 



£ 


a. 


<l. 


U 


U 


i 








I 





1 


3 








1 



1S37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw^^H t^-c. 77 

Gh)gcv, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Kxccpt on (li'cliimlion by the i^irly \\vA llic nrticlc w.is takfii on Unard at 

u Brilish Possession, of which it is the inoiluci.', tliou tlio low duty . 

Rrmtiining Stares uf I'assemjers. 

Ou a dolaration that thear'.icle was liikcn oil Iwaril at a Hritish Possession 

It IMVOKTED IN A SHIP FROM A UEITISH POSSESSION. 

Cunsignmcnts and Ships' Stures. 
In China j)acka-;03 ....... 

Unl iipou a (li'chiration by the i«''^y '''''^ ""^ article is tlic pmihice of a 
liritisli Possession ....... 

Ixonalninr) Stores of I'lusciitjers. 
If imported from a Crilisli Possession where j^in^er, &c , is not grown ; 
sueli as Siucapore, tlie Cape of Good Hope, and St Helena, the hiyh 
duty .-. . . . , . . .013 

Ginseng;, cwt. . . . . . .040 

There are two specie-, botli of which j;row natmally in North Americi ; one of (hem is believed 
to be the s iiue with the Tartarian ginseng. The ginseng is one of the principal medicines of 
the (Jhiuese and Tart;irs. — C/i(Uiibers. 

Glass. Cfown Glass, or any kind of Window Glass, (not 

bein<^ Plate Glass or German Sheet Glass), cwt. . 8 8 

German Sheet Glass, cwt. . . .10 

Plate Glass, superficial measure, viz.: — not containing 

more than 9 sq. feet, the sq. foot . . .060 
more than 9 sq. ieet, and not more than 14 sq. 

feet, the sq. foot . . . . .080 
more than 14 sq. feet, and not more than 3G sq. 

feet, the sq. foot ..... 

containing more than 3G sq. feet, the sq. foot . 

Manufactures not otherwise enumerated, and Old 

Broken Glass lit only to be re-manufactured, 100/. val. . 
and further, cwt. .... 

By T. L., Dec. 5, 1821, any glass in the dressing or medicine cases of travellers arriving from 
abroad, such t;lass bein^ in actual use, may be p^iSied o\er by the officois, upon their 
being satislii'd upon oath, or otherwise, according to the rank of the patty, that it was taken 
from this country, that it was of British manufactuie, and that no drawback of the inland 
duties has been paid upon it. 

By C. O., Nov. 7, 18.;9, small mirrors cr glasses, hitlnvto entered as "toy mirrors," are in 
future to be entered and the duty paid, as " plate glass." 

Glass Jars and similar articles used as Packages. See Bottles, 
page 55. 

Glass, a transparent, brittle, factitious body, produced from sand melted in a strong fire witli 
lixed alka'.ine salts, lead, slags, &c, till the whole Incomes perfectly clear and line. Crown 
glass, of which ti ere are two kinds, distinguished l>y the places where tliey are wrought, — 
French glasi, called also Normandy glass, and lormerly Lorraine glass, because made in 
those Provinces. It is of a thinner kind than tair crov.n glass ; and when laid on a piece ol 
wiiitep;iper appears of a dirlyish-.'reen colour.— Girman glass is of two kinds, the white and 
g!ceii ; ihe first is of a whitish colour, but is subject to those small curved streaks observed 
ill our Newcastle glass, though free from tlie spits and blemishes th, reof The green, be- 
sides its colour, is liable to the same streaks as the white ; but both of them are stiaigh'.ei 
and less warped than our .Newcastle jilais. — IDuich glass is not much unlike our Newcastle 
glass, ciiher in colour or price. — Phial glass is a kind between the flint-glass and the com- 
mon bottle or grcL'n glass. Theccmmon bottle or gioen is formed of sand of any kind flu.^ed 
by the ashes of burnt wood, or of any otlu r parts of vegetables. — Plate or mirror glass. The 
materials of which this glass is made are much the same as those of other works of glass. — 
Ency. Uritan. 

As to .\chromatic Telescopes, see Telescopes. 

Gloves, of Leather, viz. : — 

Habit Gloves, doz. pair , . , 

Men's Gloves, doz. pair . . , 

Women's Gloves or Milts, doz. pair 

Gloves of leather, unless in ships of seventy tons or upwards, and in packaji;es 
cont'.iiiiiij^ one hiudied dizeii p.iirs of such glovis, juohibited to be im- 
ported on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 \\ ill IV., c. 5L ^ 58. 
By T. O , Dec. 3, 1830, woollen and linen gloves are to be charged with the duty by value as 
manufactures of cotton, woollen and linen. For such duty, see under the names of such 
manufactures. 

Gloves having been worn. See Baggage, p. 50. 






9 


G 





11 





•20 








4 












4 





5 





7 



78 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dz<^«>5, <^^c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Glue or Gelatine, cwt. . . . . . 12 

Gluos are of different kiuds, according to the various uses tliey are dpsignod for, as the common 
glue, glove glue, and parchment glue ; whereof the two last are more projierly called size. 
The glue manufactured in Europe is of different kinds ; but that which is made in England is 
esteemed the liest. — Ency. Britan. 

Oelat'me from Bones. — The apparatus employed at the hospital of St. Louis, for extracting the 
gelatine from bones has been in full activity since October, 1829; in about three years 
and three months it has wrought night and day without interruption, and has supplied 
1,0.')9,701 ralions of gelatinous solution, and 2,192 kilogrammes (4,384 lb.) grease. More tliau 
29,0U0 persons in llie course of that time have been suppli(>d at the liospital of St. Louis 
with upwards of a million of rations of gelatine. The sick, labourers, and poor, are perfectly 
satisfied with the regimen, and would not revert, without complaint and opposition, to the or- 
dinary mode oi \i\mg.— Repertory of Patents. 

Clippings or Waste of any kind fit only for making 

Glue, 1 00^. val. (See Hides.) . . . .10 

Grains, Guinea Grains, lb. . . . .020 

Extract or preparation of. See Grains, in Extract, 

page 73. 

By 4 and 5 Will IV., c. S9, ^ 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 
account of any damage received by Guinea grains. 

of Paradise, lb. . . . . .020 

Extract or Preparation of. See Grains, in Extract, 

page 73. 

Guinea Grains. — Ihe seed of a plant produced in the East Indies and Guinea. They are some- 
what like pepper, and applied to similar purposes, — Ed. 

Granilla, lb. . . . . . .002 

Tlie inferior parts of cochineal. — Ed. 

Grapes, 100^. val. . . . . .500 

The fruit of the vine. The varieties of the vine are very numerous. Don Simon de Koxas 
Clemente, to whom we are indebted for the most scientific work on the sul>ject, enumerates 
about two hundred and fifty varieties, as cultivated in the kingdom of Andalusia alone. One 
of the richest Malaga wines is furnished by a grape that is said to have originally come from 
the banks of the Rhine. — Henderson. 

Grease, cwt. . . . . . .018 

Bears'. — The quantity of oil drawn from a single bear is considerable. The flesh and fat are 
boiled together in a caldron, and the oil is easily separated. This oil is equally good, and 
answers the same purposes, as the best olive oil. lieneath we find a lard as white, but a little 
softer, than hog's lard. It serves for culinary purposes, and has no bad taste or smell. 
Their grease is like suet ; and, after being well melted, it becomes as clear as whale oil. It 
is generally burnt in lamps, and has not so bad a smell as fish oil. Our sailors sell it for 
wliale oil. — Biijfon. 

Greaves, for Dogs, cwt. . . . . .020 

Guinea Wood, ton . . . . .050 

Gum, Animi, Copal, Arabic, Senegal, Tragacanth, Lac Dye, 
Shellac, Storax, Assafoetida, Ammoniacum, Kino, Guia- 
cum, and other Gum not otherwise charged, cwt. . 6 

Ammoniacum. — A gum resin, supposed, but upon very doubtful evidence, to be the produce of 
a species of Heracleum, called by Willdenow, Heradeum gumuiferum, a native of Africa 
and of the East Indies, whence the finest is iinported into Europe, either in separate drops, 
or in cakes and masses, which appear to consist of the tears agglutinated. That which is 
decidedly guttiform, of a clean and deep buff colour externally, paler within, and free from 
impurities, is most esteemed. Ammoniacum has little smell, but its taste is bitter, nause- 
ous, and somewhat pungent. The powdered ammoniacum should be packed up in small 
oblong parcels, as it will afterwards again agglutinate. — Brande. 

Animi, improperly called Gum Animi, is a resinous sulistance imported from New Spain and 
the llrazils. There are two kinds, distinguished by the names of Oriental and Occidental. 
The former is ilry, and of an uncertain colour, some specimens being greenish, some reddish, 
and some of the brown colour of myrrh. The latter is In yellowish-white, transparent, 
somewhat unctuous tears, and partly in larger masses, brittle, of a light pleasant taste, 
easily melting in the lire, and burning with an agreeable smell. — Ure. 

Gum Acacirj;, or, as ills vulgarly called. Gum Arabic, is a spontaneous exudation from the bai-k 
of the Acacia vera, a native of Africa. This gum is imported, packed in casks, from Bar- 
bary and Morocco, in drops or tears, and in small fragments, of a pale straw colour, and 
more or less transparent or translucent. It is frequently mixed with what is known in the 
trade under the name of Gum Senegal, also an African product, and probably indiscri- 
minately collected from several trees. — Brande, 

Gunpowder, cwt, . • « f , • 3 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)«/iw, <$•€. 79 

Gunpowder, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Gunpowder, except by licence from His Majesfy, such licence to be granted for 

furnishing His Majesty's stores only, jimhibited to be imjiorted on pain of 

forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 5-', § 58. 

This well known powder is cnmiiosed nf 75 piuts, by weight, of nitre, 16 of charcoal, .-iiid of 

siil]iluir, iutiniaiely blended tofjether by lonj; poiiudinj; in wooden moitaia, witli a small 

quantity of water. This inoportionof the materials is the most eftectual ; but the variations 

of stienglli in different samples of ^inpowder are generally occasioned by the more or Icbs 

intimate division and mixture of tlie parts. — Vre. 

Guns, bi-ought by Passengers. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Gypsum, the ton . . . , . . 1 11 8 

produce of, and imported from B. P., ton . 13 

The name of a class of fossils: the plaster stone; white lime; a kind of plaster.— Jo/in.?on. 

Sulphated lime, or lime combined with slilphuiie acid, is commonly called gypsum, or plaster- 
stone when mixed with carbonated lime. When crystallized it is called selenite. This 
stone was used by the ancients instead of glass for w indows. — Mu'te-Brun. 

Hair. Camel's Hair or Wool, lb. . . . .001 

the produce of and imported from B. P. . . Free. 

— — Cow, Ox, Bull, or Elk Hair, cvvt. . . .006 

Goat's Hair. See Wool. 

Horse Hair, cwt. . ■, . . .006 

Human Hair, lb. . . . . .010 

not otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. . . 5 

Manufactures of Hair or Goats' Wool, or of Hair or 



Goats' Wool and any other material, and articles of such 
manufacture wholly or in part made up, not particularly 
enumerated, or otherwise charged with duty, 100/. val. . 30 

Human hair makes a very considerable article in commerce, especially since the mode of pe" 
rukes has obtained. The hair of the growth of the northern countries, as England, &e., is 
valued much beyond that of the more southern ones, as Italy, Spain, the south part* of 
France, &c. Its length should be about 25 inches ; the more it falls short of this tha less 
vnlue it bears. Hairis also used in various other arts and manufactures. lu particular, the 
liair of beavers, hares, conies, &c., is the i)rincipal matter whereof hats are made. — Ency. 
Britan. 

Horse-hair is used in a variety of manufactures, such as stuffing the cushions of chairs and 
other articles by tlie upholsterer. — Kd. 

India shawls are distinguished from French slia\\ Is by the circumstance of thsir not becoming 
crumpled in consequeuce of being pressed. M. Key attributes this quality to the nature of 
the substance of which they are manul'uctured. lie imagines this substance to be the wool 
of sheep, ami not goat-hair. Amtmg the tribes of Turkish origin which inhabit the central 
parts of Asia, the animal whose hair is employed in the manufacture of shawls beari the 
name of Thiliet Goat. The goat of Tliibet has been introduced into France for the jiurposu 
of producing the fine hair which has been believed to be employed in the maunf icture of tho 
rich shawls of lad\;x.— Bulletin dcs Sciences Jigricules, and Quarterly Jcurnul of Agriculture. 

Hams, cwt. . . . . . .18 

By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, hams deposited in warehouses of special security, 

when taken out for home use, the duty shall be charged upon the (quantity 

actually delivered. 

liy T. 0.,29 Nov. 183G, on the delivery for home use of hams deposited in warehouses of 

exlrd security lilted up in the proper manner, an allowance is to be made for the natural 

waste that may have arisen thereon in such wai-eliouses, not exceeding 3 per cent, for tho 

fust twelve months, on the quantities ascertained at the time of tire first entry and landing 

the same ; and for any term exceeding twelve months, an allowance not exceeding i 

per cent. 

Harp Strings, or Lute Strings, silvered, 100/. val. . . -20 

Hats or Bonnets, viz. : — 

Bast, Chip, Cane, or Horse-hair Hats or Bonnets, each 

hat or bonnet not ex. 22 inches in diameter, doz. 

each hat or bonnet ex. 22 inches in diameter, doz. 

Straw Hats or Bonnets, each hat or bonnet not ex. 22 

inches in diameter, doz. .... 

each hat or bonnet ex. 22 inches in diameter, doz. 

made of or mixed with felt, hair, wool, or beaver, 

the hat . . . . . .0106 



1 








2 








3 


8 





6 


16 






80 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Dwiie*, ^-c. [1837-8. 

Hats or Bonnets, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
See Silk. 

Tlie flneat, iiinl those most Viiliieil, are mailc of pure li.iir of an amphilnous anim;il, called the 
castor or be:iv«?i-, rre((ueiit in C;iua<la, and other provinces of North America. Hats are also 
made for women's we.ir, nut only of the above stuffs.but of chips, straw, or cane, by plaitiu;.', 
nnd sewing' the pliits to^'cther: beginning with the centre of the crown, and workinir round 
til! tlie wliiile id finished. Ilatg for the same purpo.se are also woven and made of horse 
hair, silk, &c. — Emy. Britan. 

Hay, the load of 36 trusses, each truss 5G lb. . , 14 

Heath for brtishes, cwt. . . . . .092 

Helebore, lb. . . . . . .001 

; The root of a plant formerly used iu medicine, but now nearly diicarded from practice, in 
coniequenco of the violence of its operation. — i're. 

Hemp, Dressed, cwt. . . . . .4150 

■ Rousrh or Undressed, or any other vegjetable sub- 
stance of the nature and quality of undressed hemp and 
applicable to the same purposes, cwt. . . .001 

By 3 and Will. IV., c. 3-4, § 2, Hemp being the produce of Europe shall not 
be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used /herein, excei)t in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 
ships from which the goods are imported. 

Only the coarser kinds of hemp are employed in making oonlage, the belter sov'.s heini; used 
for linen, which, tliou;,'h it can never be made so fine as that from flax, is yet incomparably 
stronger, and equally susceptible of bledchiug both in the old and new way. Cloths made 
of herap have also this projierty. that their colour imjiroves by wearing, while that of linen 
decays. Ensjlish hemp is much superior iu strength to tliat whicli grows in any other 
country. Neit to it is the Kussiaii, from which sacking is usually made, as it is sometimes 
also from the (JlVal of tlie Kurdish kind; but none of tlio Suffolk hemp is ever made into 
cordage, on account of its liiieness. Russia slieeting is impiirted into England merely on 
account of its strength, but is much coarser at the price than any otlier foreign lineH. — 
Ency. Britan. 

Hides, Horse, Mare, Gelding, Buffalo, Bull, Cow, or Ox 

Hides, viz.: — 

not tanned, tawed, curried, or in any way dressed, viz. : — 

Dry, cwt. . . . . .048 

Wet, cwt. . . . . .024 

the produce of and imported from the West Coast of 

Africa, each hide not ex. 14 lb., the cwt. . . 2 4 

the produce of, and imported from B. P., viz. : — 

Dry, cwt. . . . . .024 

Wet, cwt. . . . . .012 

By T. L., .Tan. i3, 1S35, "Sea-Cow Hides,'* Elephant Hides, and " El.md or large Deer 
Hides" imported from the Cape of (Jood Hope, may be admitted to entry upon the same 
terms or rates .18 tlose appertaining to Ox and Cow Hides, on condition of Bond being 
given in the usual manner to pay tlie higher duties if it Bhould not be the pleasure of Par- 
liament to sanction the proposeil reduction of duty. 

. tanned and not otherwise dressed, lb. . .006 

tanned and not otherwise dressed, the produce of 



and imported from B. P., lb. 

cut or trimmed, lb. .... 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

and pieces of such hides, tawed, curried, or in any 



way dressed, lb. 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

cut or triinmed, lb. 






3 





9 





4* 





9 





4i 





1 2 





7 



the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

Tails. See Tails. 

Bi'ffalo.— \\y C. O., July 2, lS3t), Manilla and Siucajioic bufTalo hides, wliich will not hear 
so high a duty as 4s. 8d. tlie cwt., are allowed to be reduced in bond into waste or 
clipj)ings, fit only to make glue, at the expense of the parties, and afterwards delivered on 
payment of the duty of U. per cent, charged on buffalo hides when imported iu strins. See 
Glue, p. -,S. 

— — — Losh Hides, lb. . , . .018 



1837-8.] UNITKD KINGDOM— Imports.— D«//V,9,cy-c, 81 

Hides, continued, riz. : — £ s. d, 
Muscovy or Russia Hides, tanned, coloured, shaved 

or otherwise dressed, hide . . . , '> 

' pieces tanned, coloured, shaved, or otherwise dressed, 

lb. . . . . . .020 

Hides, or Pieces of Hides, raw or undres.sed, not 



particularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with duty, 

imported from B. P. in America, 100/. val. . . 5 17 6 

Hides, or Pieces of Hides, raw or undressed, not 

particularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with duty, 

100/. val. . . . . . . 20 

Hides, or Pieces of Hides, tanned, tawed, curried, or 



in any way dressed, not particularly enumerated, nor other- 
wise charged with duty, 100/. val. . . . 30 
Hides or any other part of cattle or beasts, Ilis Majesty maj', by order in 

council, prohibit, m order to prevent any contagious Uistempcr, 3 and 4 

Will. IV., c. .')2, ^^58. 

Hides, tlie skins of beasts ; but the word is particularly applied to (liosp of large cattle, 
as bullocks, cows, horses. Sec. Hides are either raw or (•reen, just as takeu olV the carcase ; 
salted or seasoned with salt, alum and saltpetre, to prevent their spoilin.;;; or curried and 
tanned. — line;/, lirilan. 

Hones, 100 . . , . . ,13 

Honey, cwt. . . . . . .0150 

produce of and imported from B. P., cwt. . . 5 

F. I.amberti asserts, that the best honey in the world is produced in Pontus, and that it-J 
superiority is attributable to the great qiuintity of balm growing there. In this quarter of 
the world, the Narbonue Honey is regarded as the finest, owing to the rosemary which 
abounds in the neighbourhood of Narbonue. — Beviin. 

At Chinama, in Madeira, Don Antonio first let us taste the honey which the bees upon the 
I'eak prepare from the retama. The honey is taken from them twice every summer, always 
in great abundance, and neither Hymettus nor Chamouny have ever produced anything 
cipial to it; — it is so pure and traus])arent, and the taste so aromatic and delicious. 
Whoevi-r, indeed, would import this bush to the bees of Kurope, would deserve as well of 
his countrymen, as he who introduced the vine and fruit-trees. — Baron Vun linch. 

Hoofs of Cattle, 100/. val. . . . .10 

Hoofs, or any other part of cattle or beasts, His Majesty may, by order in 
council, prohibit the importation of, in order to prevent any contagious dis- 
temper. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, $ 58. 

Hoops, Iron, cwt. ..... 

• Wood, not exceeding G inches in length, 1000 

■ ex. G feet and not ex. 9 feet in length. 1 000 

ex. 9 feet and not ex. 12 feet in length, 1000 . 

ex. 12 feet and not ex. 15 feet in length, 1000 

ex. 15 feet in length, 1000 

Hops, cwt. ...... 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 33, Hops shall not be re-importcd into the 
United Kini^dom for home use, upon the ground that the same had been 
legally exported from thence; but the same shall be deemed to be foreign 
goods, whether originally such or not, and shall also be deemed to be 
imported for the first time into the United Kingdom. 

Horns and Horn Tips, ton . . . .010 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. CO.) 
Pieces of Horns, not otherwise charged with duty, cwt. 2 4 

Pee the foregoing. Query. Are IIoius or Horn Tips, Pieces of Horns ? — Ed. 

His Majesty may, by order in council, prohibit the importation of horns, in 

order to prevent any contagious distemper. 3 atid 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 58. 
Horns make a considerable article in the arts and manufactures. Bullocks' hums, softened 
by the fire, serve to make lanterns, combs, knives, ink-horns, tobacco-boxes, S;e. — Fnc;/. lirit. 

Horses, Mares, or Geldings, each 10 

By T. O., July 30, 1835, horses in steam vessels may be immediately lauded, upon a deposit 
being made or security given, and the proper customs rej;\ilations being afterwards duly 
complied with. 



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3 


9 





5 








7 


G 





10 








12 


G 





15 





8 


11 






82 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports— Z)M//c5, c<?r. [1837-8. 

Horses, conti7iued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

The Barh.—T\\a H;iib, from Bnvliary, and particularly from Morocco nnrl Fez, and the interior 
of Tripoli; and remarkable for"liis fine and graceful action. The Barb is decidedly 
superior to the Arab in form, but has not his spirit, nor speed, nor countenance. 
The Dotigola Hursc— The kingdom of Uon<,'ola, and tlie neiijhbouring districts lying between 
Egypt and Abyssinia, contain a horse not at all like any other oriental. The Dongola 
horses stand full sixteen hands high, but the length of the body, from the shoulders to the 
quarter, is considerably less. One of these horses was sold in ISIG, at Grand Cairo, for a 
sum equivalent to 1000/. 
The Arabian. — There are said to be three breeds or varieties of Arabian horses. The Arabian 
horse would not be acknowledged by every judge to possess a perfect form; his head, 
however, is inimitable. 
The East India Horxe. — The Toorky, originally from a Toorkoman and a Persian, beauliful in 

his form, graceful in his action, and docilo in his temper. 
The Chinese Horse. — Tliis breed is small, weak, ill formed, without spirit, and altogether 

undeserving of notice. 
The Persian llm-se- — The Persian horses never exceed fourteen or fourteen hands and a half 
Inigh, yet certainly in the whole are taller than tlie Arabs. Those of the desert and country 
about llillah run very small, but are full of bone, and of good speed. 
The TuorhinuiH //orse.—Turkistan is that part of South Tartary, north-east of the Caspian 
Sea, and has l)een celebrated from very early times for producing a pure and valuable breed 
of horses ; they are called Toorlioraans. They are large, standing from fifteen to sixteen 
hands higli ; swift, and inexhaustible under fatigue. 
The Tartar and Cahnuch Horse. — The horses of the other parts of Tartary, comprehending 
the immense plains of Central Asia, and .a considerable part of European Russia, are little 
removed from a wild state; they are small and badly made; but capable of supporting 
the longest and most rapid journey on the scantiest fare. 
The Turkish Horse. — The Turkisli liorses are descended principally from the Arab, crossed by 
the Persian and certain other bloods. The Byerley and the Helmsley Turk are names 
familiar to every one conversant with horses, and connected with our best blood. 
The (ierman Horse. — The German horses are generally large, heavy, and slow. 
The Swedish, Finland, and Nonvegian Horfe. — Of the Swedish horses, Clarke, in his " Scandi- 
navia," says, that they are small, but beautiful, and remarkable for their speed and spirit. 
Those of Finland he describes as yet smaller, not more than twelve hands high, beautifully 
formed, and very fleet. 
The Iceland Horse. — There are numerous troops of horses in this cold and inhospitable 
country. They are very small, strong, and swift. There are thousands of them in the 
mountains which never enter a stable. 
The Flemish and Butch Horse. — The Flemish and Dutch horses are large, and strongly and 
beautifully formed. We are indebted to them for some of the best blood of our draught- 
horses, and we still have frequent recourse to tlu^m for keeping up and improving tlie breed. 
The French //arse. —France contains, like England, numerous breeds of horses, and consider- 
able attention has lately lieen paid to their improvement ; but they are far inferior to ours 
in beauty, fleetucss, and strength. 
The Spanish Horse. — Spain was early celebrated for her breed of horses. The Andalusian 
charger and the Spanish jennet are familiar to all readers of romance. The Spanish horse 
of the present day is not much unlike the Yorkshire half-bred; perhaps with flatter legs 
and better feet, but far inferior figure. 
Tlie Italian Horse. — The Italian horses were once in high repute, particularly the Keapolitans ; 
but they have sadly degenerated. A few of the Neapolitan horses, from their superior size 
nud stateliness, are well adapted for the carriage. 
The American Horse. — In the extensive territory and varied climate of the United States, 

several breeds of horses are found. 
The Canadian is found principally in Canada, and the Northern States. He is supposed to 

be of French descent, and many of the celebrated American trotters are of this breed. 
The Conestoga Horse is found in Pennsylvania and the Middle States; sometimes rising 
seventeen hands, used principally tor the carriage; but when not too high, and with 
sufficient substance, useful lor hunting and the saddle. 
The English Horse, with a good deal of blood, iirevails in Virginia and Kentucky ; and is 
found, to a greater or less degree, in all the stales. — Library of Useful Knowledge — Farmer's 
Series, 

Hungary Water. See Spirits. 

I. & J. 

Jalap, lb. . . . . . . G 

By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, § 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 
;\ccount of any damage received by jalap. 

This species of convolvulus is named from Xalappa, a city of jSb'xico. The root, which, 
when fresh, .abounds in a milky juice, is importeci in irregular globular pieces, and their 
sections and slices; it should he. dense, and of a resinous fracture, exhibiting a brownish- 
grey interior, and a concentric arrangement of its layers. Its odour, especially when in 
])owiler, is very characteristic ; ils taste exceedingly nauseous, accompanied by a .sweetish 
bitterness. Those pieces which are light, spongy, p.ale-coloured, worm-eaten, and ino- 
dorous, should be rejected, as either injured or spurious. — Brande. 

Japanned or Lacquered Ware, 100^. val, . . 20 

Jean Boots and Shoes. See Boots, p. 50. 



1837-8.J UNITED KTNGbOM.— Imports.— 7)?^/?V.,?, c'^r. 83 

£ s. d. 
Jet, lb. . . ... 2 

Jet, a bliiok inflaminablc substnnce of tlio bitiiniiiious lii'nd, havdor than asplinltnm, ami sii-^- 
ceptible of a f^imd polish. (Jicat (luantities of it have lieen dug up in llio I'yrenn-aii 
mountains; also near liatalka, a small town of I'oituyal, anil in Gallicia in Spain. U is 
foiftid also in Ireland, Sweden, Prussia, Gfvmauy, and Italy. It is used in making small 
lioxes, buttons, bracelets, mourning jewels, Sic. Sometimes also it is employed in con- 
junction with |iroi>er oils in making, varnishes. When mixed with lime in powder, it is 
said to make very hard and durable cement. — Enrji, Biititn. 

Jetsam. See Derelict, p. 72. 

Jewels, Eiiiertilds, Rubies, and all other Precious Stones, 
except Diamonds, viz. 

• Set, lUU/. val. . . . . . 20 

not set, 100/. , . , . . 10 

Gems, ov Precious Stones, arc sometimes found of regular shapes and with a natural polish, 
and sometimes of irregular shapes and with a rough coat. 'I'he first sort may be considered 
.IS of the pebble kind, and are saiii to be found near the beds of rivers, after great rains ; 
the otliers are found in mines, and in the clefts ol rocks. The gems of the lirst sort were 
what the ancients most usually engraved upon. The.se are commonly called Intaqlins. 
The following is a general list of what ari! usually called Frcciuas Stunas ; — the beryl, 
red, yellow, or white ; emerald, green ; jacinth, of a deep tawny red ; chrysolite, of a liglit 
grass-green; crystal, or Oriental pebble, of a silvery white ; garnet, of a deep-red claret 
colour; amethyst, purple; diamond, white; ruby, red or crimson-coloured ; emerald, of a 
deep green; aqua marina, of a bluish sea-green, like sea-water; topaz, of a ripe citron 
yellow ; sapphire, of a deep sky-blue, or of a silver white; corneli.in, red or white ; opal, 
white and cliangeable ; vermilion-stoue, more tawny than the jacinth. All those stones 
• are more or less transparent. The Ibllowing are all opaijue: — liiu cal's-cye, brown; red 
Jasper, called also thick cornelian, of the colour of red ochre; jet, Iplack ; agates of various 
sorts ; blood-stone, green, veined or spotted with red and white ; onyx, consisting of 
dilTerent parallel strata, mostly white and black ; sardonyx, of several shades of brown aiul 
white ; agate onyx, of two or more strata of white, either opaque or transparent ; alabaster, 
dilferonl strata of white and yellow, like the agate-onyx, but all opaque ; load'seye, black ; 
turquoise, of a yellowish blue, inclining to green ; lapislazuli, of a lino deep blue. Of 
most of the species before mentioned, there are some of an inferior class and beauty. These 
are commonly called, by jewellers. Occidental Stones. They are mosll> the produce of 
Europe, and found in mines or stone quarries; and are so named in opposition to tliose of 
a higher class, which are always accounted Oriental, and supposed to bo produced only in 
the IJast. — Parhington's Cijclop. 

Emerald. — The ladies of llogola are adorned with emeralds of a peculiarly fine green, and 
without flaws, which is rare in these stones, and makes them very valuable. These 
emeralds are all from the mines of Moussa ; wliere some of the largest in the world havo 
been found are now in the possession of the King of Spain. — Mavie. 

Huhy and Sapphire. — The celebrated sapphire and ruby mines, which have always afforded, 
and still continue to afl'ord, the finest gems of this description in the world, aio about five. 
day.s' journey from Ava, in the direction li.S. E. Sapphires and rubies form a considerabla 
article in the exports of the Chinese. — Embassy to Aoa. 

.Amethyst. — This interesting gem appears to unite the blue of the sapphire with the red of the 
ruby, so nicely blended as to produc;^ the most perfect violet colour. The oriental auieLhvst 
is extremely scarce, and I have rarely seen one oll'ored for sale, lailoss very small and 
inferior in colour. — Mawe. 

Topaz. — This is of a light yellow or straw colour, and when pure possesses great beauty. It 
occurs in the same localities with the preceding, is less common than the sapphire, but not 
so rare or valuable as the ruby or amethyst.— J/awe. 

India Rubbers. See Caoutchouc, p. 58. 

Indigo, lb. . . . . . .004 

produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . . 3 

Indigo is a dyeing drug procured from many dilTerent species of plants, belonging to Tourne- 
fort's natural family of leguminous, included for the most part iu the genus called 
Indigofera by Liunicus. It constitutes the most valuable article of export and remittance 
from Hindostan. A very considerable quantity of indigo is also imported into Europe from 
America and Egypt. It is not long since the Uaraca and Guatimala indigo held a niucli 
higher cliaracter, and commanded a much belter price than that of India; but thu 
improvements due to the intelligence of our planters in the East have, within these few 
years, enabled them to prepare an article very superior to the linest American.— Z)r. I've 
in Brande's Quarterly Journal of Science. 

Ink, for Printers, cwt. ..... 

Inkle, Unwrought, lb, . . . . ] 

Wroughr, lb. ....*. 

A kind of narrow lillet, a tape.— Dr. Johnson. 

Instruments. Professional, brought by Passon"-ers. See 

Baggage, p. 50. ° 

Ipecacuanha. Sec Radix Ipccacuanhcc. 

Iron, iu Bars, or Unwrought, the ton . , , 1 lo 






10 











10 





5 


2 



£ 


s. 


d. 





2 


G 





5 





10 











12 








5 


9 





10 








1 


3 





5 





20 









84 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>»j;/e5, <^'r. [1837-8. 

Iron, continued, viz.: — 

' the produce of and imported from any B. P., ton 

• Slit or Hammered into Rods, and Iron drawn or ham- 
mered less than | inch square, cwt. 

Cast, 100/. val. ..... 

Hoops. See Hoops, p. 81. 

Old Broken and Old Cast Iron, ton . . 

• Ore, ton ...... 

Pig Iron, ton ..... 

• the produce of and imported from B. P., ton 

• Chromate of Iron, ton .... 

Wrought, not otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. 

Iron, in some sliape or ollipr, is very fjonerally distriljiitcd tliroiiffli most parts of tl\e world ; 
and its ores, of wliicli there are several varieties, are in },'eneral combinations of iron with 
more or less oxygen, orwitli sulpiuir. The best iron, for many ])urposes,L'omes from Norway 
and Sweden, but the largest quantity is raised in England and Wales. Iron is a metal 
so well known in consequence of its indispensable necessity, as to require but little attempt 
at the enumeration of it» uses. Its alloys with carbon or charcoal are three in number, 
viz.: steel, cast-iron, and plumbago, commonly called black lead. In combination wiili 
acids, it forms salts, much used in dyeing, ink-making, calico-priutini;, &c. It is also 
frequently used in medicine as a tonic. It is the colouring matter of several ochres used in 
painting, the basis of the fine pigment, called Prussian Hlue.and, as a metal, it is valuable 
wherever sharpness of edge, firmness of texture, durability and cheapness, are recjuisite. — 
Joyce. 

Isinglass, cwt. . . . . . .276 

• produce of, and imported from B, P., cwt. . 15 10 

Isinglass is maile from certain fish found in the Danube, and the rivers of Muscovy. Isinglass 
boiled in milk forms a mild nutritious jelly, and is thus sometimes employed medicinally. 
This, when flavoured by the art of the cooli, is the blanc-manger of our tables. — Ure. 

Isle of Max. 

Goods from the Isle of Man, except such as be of Ihe growth, produce, or 
mauufacture thereof, prohibited to be imjiorted into ibe United Kini^dom, 
on pain of forfeiture. Sand 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58. — See Isle of Man, 
Part 9. 

Corn from the Isle of Man. See also Isle of Man, Paut 9. 

Juice of Lemons, Limes, and Oranges, gal. . . 0^ 

By C. O., April 23, 18.35, Juice of Lemons, whether concentrated or raw, is chargeable only 
with the duty of one lialfpenny per gallon. 

These articles are used in medicine and cookery. Lime juice is imported principally from the 
West Indies. — Ed. 

Junk, old. See Rags, old. 
Kelp. See Alkali, p. 4G. 



K. 



Lac, Stick Lac, cwt. . . , . .010 
Lace, Thread Lace, 100/. . . . , 30 
See Silk. 

There are several towns in England, and particularly in Buckinghamshire, that carry on the 
m.anulaclure of lace : but vast quantities of the finest lace have been imported from 
Flanders and France. — Ency. Britnn. 

Lacquered Ware. See Japanned Ware. 

Lagan. See Derelict, p. 72. 

Lamb. 

Probibited to be hnported for home use on pain of forfeiture, but may be 
warehoused for exportation only. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58, 59, GO. 

Lamp Black, cwt. . . . . .10 

The finest lamp black is produced by collecting the smoke from a lamp with a long wick, 
which supplies more oil than can be perfectly consumed. — Ure. 

Lapis Calaminaris, cwt. . . . . ,010 

Several chemical varieties of ores of zinc are known nnder the name of Calamine, or Lapis 
calaminaris. That which we find in commerce is visually buft'-coloured or reddish grey 
fragments, of an earthy aspect. — Brande. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)M</e.9, cf-c, 85 

£ s. d. 
Lard, cwt. . . , . . .080 

Latten, cwt. . . . . . .040 

Shaven, cwt. . . . . .060 

Liittca denotes iron plates tinned over, of which tea canisters are made. — Ed. 

Lavender Flowers, lb. . . . . . 10 

Tliesc are rather to be re^'arded as a ijerfiime tlian a medicine. In point of fr.agrance nono 
of the foreign oil of lavender comes into competition with that distilled in Knijland ; and 
the plant is very abundantly cultivated in the vicinity of London for tliat purpose. — Brande. 

Lead, Black, cwt. . . . . .040 

Chroinateof Lead, 11). . . . .020 

Ore, ton . . . . . . 1 ;5 

• Pig, ton . . . . . .200 

• Red, cwt. . . . . .000 

White, cwt. . . . . .070 

This mineral, which is not very common, is found chiefly in primitive mountains. It is met 
with in Spain, France, IJavaria, and Hungary. Graphite or black lead is employed for 
making pencils. The coarser parts are employed in making eruciljles. It is also employed 
for covering cast iron, such as grates, to defend them from rust ; and, on account of its 
unctuous property, it is applied to those parts of machines which are subject to frictigu, 
for the purpose of diminishing it. — Emy. Brifan. 

An alkaline chromate, mi.Yed with the solution of nitrate of lead, forms a precipitate in tho 
state of red powder, which is chromate of lead. — Enc;/. Britan. 

The ores of lead are very numerous, tlie metal being mineralized by sulphur, oxygen, 
molybdic, oliromic, arsenic, carbonic, and muriatic acids. Lead is also found combined 
Willi other metals in the reguline state, as well as with earths, and metallic oxides. Tlie 
ores of lead are found in Saxony, France, England, and some other parts of Europe. Lead 
is a metal of much importance, as from its durabilily it is extensively used in the con- 
struction of water-pipes, as a covering for flat surfaces or tops of buihlings, S:c. &c. Its 
salts, which are poisonous, are used in medicine to form sedative external apidicatious, and 
freipii-ntly not a little by the disreputable wine-merchant, to stop the process of acetous 
fermentation. The oxida of lead enters into the composition of white glass, which it 
renders clear and more fusible ; it is also used in glazing common earllien vessels ; henea 
tlie reason that pickles kept in common red pans become poisonous. Lead with tin, and a 
small quantity of some of the other metals, forms pewter; with antimony it forms the 
alloy of which printing types are made.— Ji«/ce. 

Pig lead is merely the state of lead aft.-r its first process towards manufacture. — Ed. 

If oxide of lead be reduced to a fine powder, and exposed to a strong heat in a furnace for 
about fifty or sixty hours, it is converted into a red powder, which is well known by the 
name of minium, or red lead. — Ency. Britan. 

Ceruse, or white lead, which is employed as a paint, is a carbonate of lead. It is prepared 
by exposing thin plates of lead to the vajiour of vinegar. — Ency. Britan. 

A curious document connected with the working of the lead mines in Spain (in the kingdom 
of Granada') lias been forwarded to a mercaiuile house in the city by a correspondent at 
Madrid. The mau.igers of those mines, in consequeuce of the non-remunerating ])rice 
■which tlie commodity bears in the market, have determined on taking measures to diminish 
tlie quantity produced, and have consequtiitly ])ut a total stop to the working of those 
mines under their control, whether productive or unproductive, until the article is as much 
sought after as it used to be in former years. They have also closed the magazines iit 
which the lead already worked was kept, and will not allow any of it to be taken away. 
All buyers of the article are prohibited from appearing on the works until a change of 
circumstances has taken place. It is understood that these extraordinary measures were 
intende<l to remain in force " for one year, or longer if necessary." They were resolved 
upon, it seems, at a meeting of the council of the lead mines of the Sierra of Gador, in the 
kingdom of Granada, held at Beija on the 8th Sept., 1837, the insjiector of the mines 
having presided on the occasion. — Ed. 

Leather, viz. Pieces of Leather, or Leather cut into Shapes, 
or any article made of Leather, or any Manufacture 
whereof Leather is the most valuable part, not otherwise 
enumerated, 100/. val. . . . . .30 

Leather has divers names according to the state wherein it is, and according to the different 
kinds of skins whereof it is ]irepared, and its peculiar qualities when so prepared. 1. 
The skin is raw as it conies off the animal. 2. Some are salted to prevent corruptiiui in 
keeping. Skins dried with the h.iir on are commonly those of oxen and cows, or buffaloes, 
either t.ame or wild. Most of those in France come from foreign countries. The places 
which furnish the largest quantity are Peru, the isle of St. Domingo, ISarbary. Cape Verd 
Isles, the river Senegal in Africa, Muscovy, Ireland, the island of Cuba. Those uf the 
latter place are the most esteemed ; they are called Havaiinah skins, fiom the name of 
the capital city of that island. The three principal assortments of leather are tanned or 
tawed, and oil and alum leather, all which are dressed, — Chambers. 

Leather Shoes. See Boots, p. 54. 



S6 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Duties, ^-c. [1837-8_ 

£ 5. d. 
Leaves of Gold, 100 leaves . . . .030 

Gold Ipaf ought to be prepared from the finest gold ; as the admixture of other metals, though 
in too sraall a proportion to atl'ect sensibly the colour of the leaf, would dispose it to lose its 
beauty in the air. — Ency.Br'ttan. 

Keaunuir asserts, that in an experiment ho made, one grain of gold was extended to rather 
mori! than forty-two square inches of loaf-gold; and that an ounce of gohl, which in the 
form of a cube, is not half an inch eitlier liigh, broad, or long, is beat under the hammer 
into a surface of 150 square feet. There are gold leaves not thicker, in some parts, than the 
three hundred and sixty thousandth part of an 'mi^\\.-' Burtm. 

Leaves of Roses, lb. . . . . .002 

The unfolded buds are used in the preparation of the confectio rosaj gallica;, which is a con- 
venient vehicle for some medicines. — Brando. 

Leeches, 100^. val. . . . . .500 

Lemons. See Oranges. 

Peel of, lb. . . . . .005 

The rind of the fruit contains a particularly pleasant essential oil, which is a good adjunct to 
bitter and nauseous medicines. — Urc. 

Preserved in Sugar. See Succades. 

Lentiles, bushel . . . . . 10 

I.entile, in botany, the name of a genus of plants. Lentiles make excellent sweet fodder ; 
and are therefore to be preferred to all other kinds for calves and other young cattle. Tliey 
are likewise the best as well as cheapest food ibr pigeons. The seeds of lentiles are 
frequently the common food of the poor in some of the islands of the Archipelago, and 
other warm countries, wlien they can meet with no better fare. — Recs. 

Lignum Quassia. See Quassia. 

Vitse, ton . . . . . 10 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

Lignum vitae, the wood of a genus of trees called by botanists Thuya. Lignum vita? is much 
valued by turners, making extremely beautiful cups, bowls, boxes, and other curiosities. 
Lignum vitse is also a name given to guaiacum. — Rues. 

LiNKN, or Linen and Cotton, viz. : — 

■ • — Cambrics and Lawns, commonly called French 

Lawns, the piece not ex. eight yards in length, and not 

ex. seven-eighths of a yard in breadth, and so in proportion 

for any greater or less qiiantitv : 

Plain . . " . . . .060 

Bordered Handkerchiefs . . .050 

Lawns of any other sort, not French, viz. 

• not containing more than 60 threads to the inch of 

warp, sq. yd. . . . . . .009 

containing more than GO threads the inch of warp, 



sq. yd. 

Damask and Damask Diaper, sq. yd. 

Drillings, Ticks, and Twilled Linens, sq. yd. 






1 








2 











8 








7h. 



■ Sail Cloth, sq. yd. 

Plain Linens and Diaper, not otherwise enumerated, 

and whether chequered or striped with dyed yarn or not, 

viz. 
not containing more than 20 threads to the inch of 

warp, sq. yd. ..... 2.^ 

more" than 20 threads and not more than 24 threads 

to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . . . . ' 3 

. L — more than 24 threads and not more than 30 threads 

to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . . . .004 
more than 30 threads and not more than 40 threads 

to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . . . . 4:|- 

more than 40 threads and not more than CO threads 



to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . . . .008 

more than 60 threads, and not more than 80 threads 



to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . . . . 10 

more than 80 threads, and not more than iOO threads 



to the inch of warp, sq. yd. . , . .01 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— iMrouTS.—Z^wZ/M, .$-c. 87 

hinen, C07itinued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

more than 100 threads to the inch of wiirp, sq. yd. . I G 

OR, and instead of the duties hereinbefore imposed 

upon hnens according; to the number of threads in the 
warp, at the option of the importer, lOU/. val. . . 40 

No increased rate of (hity to be charged on any linen or lawns for any addi- 
tional number of threads nut exceedini; two threads for such as are not of 
thirty threads to the inch, nor tor any additimial number of thrcails nut I'X- 
ceeding five threads for such as are of thirty threads and upwards to the inch. 

Sails, the 100/. val. . . . . 30 



in actual use of a British ship, and fit and necessary 

for such ship, and not otherwise disposed of . . Free. 

if and when otherwise disposed of, 100/. val. . 20 

Manufactures of Linen, or of Linen mixed with 



Cotton or withWool, not particularly enumerated, 100/. val. 2j 
Articles of Manufactures of Linen, or of Linen mixed 



with Cotton or with Wool, wholly or in part made up, not 

otherwise charged with duty, 100/. val. . . . 40 

It shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to permit any stulfs or 

fabrics of Silk, Ijinen cotton, or ^^■ool, or of any mixture of tbcm with any 

other material, to be taken out of the warehouse to be cleaned, refreshed, 

dyed, stained, or calendered, or to be bleached or printed, without pa\meut 

of duty of customs, under security, nevertheless, by bond to their satisfaction, 

that such goods shall be returned to the warehouse within the time that 

they shall appoint. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 33. 

By C. O., September 19, 1S27, samples of foreign linen may lie taken out of warelioiiso 

M'ithout entry or payment of duty, upon bond being given to return the same or pay tlic duty. 

Jean boots and shoes. See Boots, p. 54. 



Flax is a plant, whose bark, full of fibres or strings, is useful in making fine linen. The 
method of making this liuea in Kgypt was wonderful, and carried to such peifoclion, that the 
llu-eads which were drawn out of them were almost too small for the observation of the 
sharpest eye. 

Alexander Severus was the first emperor who wore a shirt : but the use of so necessary a 
garment did not become common till long after him. — Ency. liritan. 

Linseed, Cakes, cwt. . . . . .002 

Linseed cakes are the residue after extracting the oil from the seed. They are given as food 
to cattle. — Ed. 

Liquorice Juice, or Succus Liquoritire, cwt. 
— ■ Powder, cwt. ... 



— Root, cwt. . . . . . 

— Extract, or Preparation of. See Extract, p. 73. 



3 


1,3 





5 


10 





3 


3 


4 



Bv C. O., June 27, 1834, an allowance of Jib. per cwt. is to be adopted as a general allowance 
for tare on Liqviorice, subject to the actual t:!re,attlie opUon of the otlicers or the merchant. 

By leUcr of the Privy Council for Trade, dated 31st May, 1837, it is stated, that their lordships 
having had under their consideration the question iS to the different qualities ol' liquorice 
to which the several duties on " Succus Liciuoritia;," and an " Extract " or " Preptiration 
ofLi(luorice," are properly applicalile, the ostensible distinction between the old and the new 
commodity is, that the lirst is made up into sticks, and the second is in bulk contained in 
casks ; but the essential difference is, that the sticks are a preparation of the bulk with a 
commixture of several other in^'redients, w hile th.at w hich is in bulk remains in its original 
slate, lioth are, in the first instance, equally juice extracted by a similarity of process from 
the root; and, were it not necessary to recognise some description of juice as distinct from 
" Extract," l)oth might be charged as Extract, and tlio first of the two with greater reason 
us being also a preparation. 

In order therefore to reconcile the two terms, there is a necessity for deciding first — that juice, 
in its lirst state, is not Extract within the meaning of the table ; and next that Extract or 
Preparation is something extracted or prepared from the juice, and brought by such second 
process into a relined or concentrated state. 

This decision will not disturb the practice under which the prepared sticks of " Succus Liquo- 
ritise'' have hitherto been passed as simple juice, because tUe preparation tl:ey have under- 
gone is neither a refinement nor a concentration, but indeed the reverse, being merely a 
c omniixt\ire of some cheap, Ijut innocent ingredients, added only lor the purpose of incre:ia;.ij_' 
the quantity for sale. 

Liquorice root is long and slender, externally of a dusky reddish brown, but within ofa fine 
yellow, full of juice, and of u taste sweeter than sugar; it grows wild in many parts of 



88 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Z»M//^.v, c^^c. [1837-8. 

Liquorice Juice, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

France, Italy, Spain, and Germany. The inspissated .juice of this root is broiij^ht tons 
Irom Spain, and Holland ; from tlie first of which places it obtained the name uf Sipauish 
juice. — Hill. 

Litharge of Gold or Silver, cwt. . . . .020 

The scum of lead that arises in purifying silver with lead. Litharge is more or less white 
or red, according to the metals witli which the silver is alloyed. The while is called 
Litharge of Silver, the red Litharge of Gold. — Crahh. 

Live Creatures illustrative of Natural History. . . Free. 

Liverwort. See Lichen Islamlicus, in Moss. 

Logwood, ton . . . . . .046 

■ imported from B. P., ton . . . 3 

The wood of this tree is brought in logs of about three feet in length to Europe, where it 
"is used for dyeing purples, and for the finest blacks, and therefore it is a very valuable 
commodity. It is a very valuable dyeing material. Logwood is used in miniature painting 
to make a purple wash, which may be varied to a more red or blue colour by the addition 
or omission of Itrazil wood, liesides its use among dyers, it is employed medicinally as 
an astringent and corroborant.— ifecs. 

Lupines, cwt. . . . , . .050 

The seed of a plant indigenous in Europe 
English gardens. — Ed. 

Lutestrings. See Catlings, p. 59. 



The seed of a plant indigenous in Europe and America, and produces a flower commou in 
English gardens. — Ed. 



M. 

Macaroni, lb. . . . . . .002 

A preparation of fine flower, which forms a favourite article of food among the Italians. 
It is eaten in various ways, generally simply boiled, and served up with grated cheese. 
Macaroni is generally made in pieces resembling a long )iipe handle, of small diameter; 
sometimes, however, in other shapes, as flat, square, &c. It is a national dish of the 
Italians, particularly of the Neapolitans, and is a wholesome food. Tt is made best in 
the neighbourhood of Naples, whole villages living almost solely by the manufacture; 
and, in Naples, it is continually sold in the streets, cooked for the lower classes, par- 
ticularly for the /nzxaronf. Macaroni is well made at Aix in France, and pretty \>ell in 
Germany. — Partington s Ct/clu. 

Mace. See Spices. 

Madder, cwt. . , . . . .020 

Root, cwt. . . . . .006 

By 3 and -1 Will. IV., c. ^4, § 2, Madders; and fliadder Roots, being the pro- 
duction of Eiiiope, shall not be imported into the Unified Kin:;dom to be used 
therein, except in British ships, or in ships ot the country of which the 
goods are the produce, or in shijis of the country from which the goods are 
imported. 
A substance very extensively employed in dyeing is the root of the Rubia tinctorum. Tt 
is cultivati'd in many of the provinces of France, in Alsace, Normandy, and Provence : 
the best of European growth is that which comes from Zealand. The best roots are 
about the thickness of a goose quill, or at most of the little finger ; ihey are semi-transpa- 
rent, and of a reddish colour : they have a strong smell, and the bark is smooth. — Urv. 
M Runge, of 15erlin, has extracted three very distinct colouring matters from madder, 
which he calls crimson, red, and orange madiler. The fiist will dye cotton, steeped in 
a mordant, of a deep and brilliant red. A solution of ammonia will change it into a lieau- 
tiful ruse colour. The teconil dyes the same material of a deep red ; strong .aciils will 
turn it yellow, and alum water into violet, 'the third produces an orange yellow, and if 
the cotton be previously steeped in alum it will give a dull red. All these dyes are in 
the Ibrm of a crystallized powder. — At/iencnum, A'o.483. 
France now grows sufficient madder not only to supply the whole of the home dem.ind, 
but to send to foreign markets, where it overcomes all competition. In 18U0 there were 
only eleven manufactories of this dye in France, while at present there are more than 
four times as many in the department of the Vaucluse alone. — Riport uf the Acadtmie dc 
V Industrie fur Ai^ril, 1836. 

Magna Grsccia Ware, 100/. val. . . . 5 

The Greek colonies in the south of Italy gave the name of ]\Iagna Gra^cia to that j>art of the 
country. — Cramer' s Description of Ancient Italy. 

Mahogany imported from any Foreign Country, entered after 

July 5, 1837, ton . .' . " . .500 

(G and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 



1837-S.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z>M<t>*, c^-(r. 89 

Miihogany, conli7iuod, viz. : — £ s. d. 

imported from the Bay of Honduras in a British 

ship cleared out from the port of Belize, ton . . 1 10 

■ imported from B. P., ton . , . 4 



If any Muhoujany which'had been imported direct from the bay of Honduras, 
in a ship cluared out frum the port of Belize, into a free warehousing^ port 
in any ot the Biitish Possessions in America, anil there warehoused as havinj^ 
been so cleared and imported, shall be exported from the warehouse, and 
imported direct into tlie United Kinj^dom, such Mahogany shall be snlject 
in the United Kingdom to the same duty as it w-ould have been subject 
to it it had been imported direct from the Bay of Honduras in a British ship, 
cleared out from the port of Belize, provided it shall iippear in tlie proi)i r 
clearance of the ship importing the same into the United Kingdom ihat 
such inahoifany had been so warehoused and exported from the warehouse. 
4 and 5 Will. I V., c. 89, § 12. 

Mahogany deposited in warehouses of special security, when taken out for 
home use, the duty shall be charged upon the quantity actually delivered. 
§ 'iO. 

By C. O., Sei)tembcr 12, 1825, niaIio;?,iny in bund is allowed to be cut undi-r care of projicr 
officers, on condition that (lie wliolo oi' cacli fntry be c'eared at tliu same time, and tlio 
Crown be put to no oxpense in conseiiueuce ol'sucli indulgence. 

Malioi^any is a native of iho West Indies, and tlie country round the Bay of Ilundmas, in 
America. 

'J'lierc are two species besides the malioi^any tree, whicti are natives of tlie Kiist Indies. 
The one a large tree, of which (he wood is of a dull red colour, and remarkably liard and 
lieavy. The other is only a middle sized tree, with wood of a deep yellow colour, close 
{;rain, heavy, and dm able, much rt'seinbling that of the box-tice ; but neither of these 
species is in use in this counliy. 

The variety called Spanish maho^'any is imported from Cuba, .Tamaiea, Hispaniola, and 
some oilier of the West Indian islands, and in smaller logs than the Honduras. The 
Spanish mahogany is close grained and hard, generally of n. darker colour than Honduras ; 
free from black specks, and sometimes strongly figured ; and its pores appear as if chalk had 
been rubbed into them. 

The Honduras mahogany is impoited in logs of a larger size. Tlie grain of Ihe Honduras 
kind is generally very open, and often irregidar, willi black or grey spots. 'J'he veins and 
ligures are frequently very line and showy ; the best kind is that w liieli is most free from 
grey specks, and of a fine golden colour. It ludds with glue better than any other wood, 
— TredQuld. 

Maize. See Corn, p. GG. 

IManj^ancse Ore, ton , . ^ . .0100 

Mangoes. See Pickles. 

]\Ianna, lb. . . . . . . 3 

The concrete juice of the Fraxinus ornus, a species of ash, native in Ihe south of Europe, and 
especially common in Calabria and .Sicily. Several ^arieties of manna occur in commerce; 
the purest, and that which ou;;ht only to be used, is called Hake manna; the others are in 
smaller fragments, mixed abiindanlly willi all kinds of impurities, and often, it is said, 
adulterated with sugar, honey, scammony. and other analogous articles. Fine manna is 
sott, and somewhat adhesive; its te.xlure generally appears granular, but it also luesents 
laseieuli if aticular crystals ; its odour is slightly disagieealjle ; its taste sweet and nau- 
seous. Manna has now fallen much into disuse. — Hrande. 

M. lilore, formerly chief gardener and farmer to the Pacha of Egypt, has discovered that the 
manna (the Tamarix Mannifera) grows in great abundance about a day's journey from 
Mount Sinai. The Arabs assured him, that wlieu this manna was purilied, it was equal to 
honey. — Athcna'um, 

Manuscripts, lb. . . . . ..002 

Manuscript, abbreviated MS., or in the plural MSS. manuscripts, from Manuscripla, tilings 
written with the liand: any thing in hand-writing, as distinguisheil from what is in print. — 
Crabb. 

Maps or Charts, or parts thereof, viz.: 

__ Plain, each . , . . 1 

■ ■ Coloured, each . . . .002 

(G and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) 

See Prints. 

brought by passengers. See p. 50. 



90 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«Y/e6% cf'C, [1837-8. 

Maps, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Maps art- jjlaue (ii;iires iTjirt'seiiting the surface of the caith according to the hiws of jiorsjiec- 
tive ; or Ihf y are projecliuus of the surface of the glebe, ilescril)iug the several couutiies, 
Vic, — Crabb. 

A chart is distinguished from a map, by representing only the coasts. — Julmsim. 

The Map ))refixe(l to this Journal is considered as hitj^hly cruilitable to the 
present state of the arts. It is drawn by Messrs. Deau and Muuday, of 
Threadneedle-street. 

Marble. See Stone. 

Marbles for Cbildren. See Toys. 

Marcs. See Horses, p. 81. 

Marmalade, produce of or imported from any foreign country, lb. 6 

(G and 7 Will. IV., c. CO.) 
' produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . 1 

Marmalade, a confection made of the juice or pulp of some fruit, as plums, apricots, quinces 
boiled with sugar to a consistence. The marmalade of quinces is the most frequent. — 
Chambers. 

Mastic, cwt. . . . . . .000 

The Lentisck, or Mastich-tree, is a native of the Levant, particularly the island of Chios. 

Mastich is most abuudanlly obtained in the island of ('hios. Transverse incisions are made 
in the trunks and brauclics of the Lentisck trees, from which the mastich slowly exudes, 
some dropping on the ground, which is made as smooth and hard as a pavement for the pui'- 
pose of receiving it ; and some remaining fixed on the trees, and hardening so as to require, 
lor its detachment, the aid of a sharp iron chisel. — Thomson. 

Mats and Matting, 100/. val, . . . , 20 . 

imported from B. P., 100.'. val. . . . 5 

(4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89.) 

Mattresses, ICO/, val. . . , . . 20 

Mead or Metheglin, gal. . . . . G 7 

As the cup of the flower to the bee when he sips, 

Is the full cup of mead to the true Briton's lips; 

From the flower-cups of summer, on tield and on tree. 

Our mead-cups are tilled by liie vintager bee. — Lit Gaz. 
Prior to the introduction of agriculture into Britain, mead was the principal cordial beverage 
of its inhabitants. In otlier northern nations, also, it was formerly in high estimation. In 
the present day it is a liquor seldom heard of, and still seldomer made ; and when made, 
holding a very humble rank among our imperfect vinous productions. — Bevan. 

Medals of Gold or Silver .... Free. 
of any other sort, 100/. val. . . .500 

The French medaillc. I talian mcduglie, comes from the I.,alin metallum, metal, from the substance 
of which it is made ; a piece of metal struck in the form of money, and stamped to preserve 
the memory of some person or event. Medals are distinguislied into Consulai', which were 
struck in the time that Eome was govcrmd by consuls ; Imperial, such as were struck from 
tlie reign of J ulius Ca;sar to the year of Christ 260 ; Ancient, such as were struck b(!tween 
tlie third and seventh centuries ; Modern, thiise whicl; have been struck within the last 
3U0 years; Singular, sucli of which there is but one of a sort extant, — Crabb. 

The medal, faithful to its charge of fame, 

Tliro' climes and a^ies bears each form and name: 

In one slunt vieiv subjected to our eye, 

Gods, Emp'rors, Heroes, Sages, Beauties lie. 

Pope's Verses, occasioned by Addison's Treatise of Medals. 

Medlars, bushel . . . . , 10 

Common fruit in England, and singular for being not good till in a perishable slate. — Kd. 
You'll be rotten ere you be half ripe. 
And that's the riglit virtue of the medlar. — S'lahspcarc. 

Melasscs. See Sugar. 

Melting Pots for Goldsmiths. See Pots. 

Mercury, Prepared, 100/. val. . . . . 30 

Mercury, commonly called Qiiicksilver, is found native in the pure metallic state, but the 
source from whence the greatiM' pntiiou is obtained is from the sulplmret of the metal or 
native cinnabar. Fluid mercury is Ijctween tin and silver white. It is collected in glo- 
bules in cavities, or holes dug in the earth for the purpose. The principal mines which fur- 
nish this metal are those in Ilydria, Deitx I'onts, Almadeu, and Guanca Vellica; it is not 
peculiar to any one soil, being found in quartz, indurated clay, argillaceous schistus, calca- 
reous spar, &c. — Juyre. 

We have two sul])hurets of mercury ; the Black or Efhiops' mineral, and the Red or Cinna- 
bar. The amalgamation of the noble metals, water-gilding, the making of vermilion, the 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)M//e5, <^-c. 91 

Mercury, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

silvt'ihig of Idokiiig-gliissos, tlie raakiii;; of biiromoteis anil tUcimomck'is, and tlie jiiepara- 
tion of st'veial powerful medicines, are tlio principal nses to which tliis metal is uijpliecl. — 
Vre. 
Calcination, employed upon tpiicksilver," produces, accordinf; to Ihe dilTerent degrees of heat 
by which it is ellected, sublimate, precipitate, or calomel. — Ed. 

Metal, Bell Metal, cwt. . . . . .10 

Loll metal is composed of tin and copper. — Ed. 

Leaf Metal (except Leaf Gold), the packet, 250 leaves 3 

Loaf metal is metal foliated or thinly beaten. — Ed. 

We understand by the term Metal, a firm, heavy, and hard subsfance, opaUe, fusible by fire, 
aud coucretins again when cold into a solid body, such as it was before, which is mal- 
leable under the hammer, and is of a bri^'ht, glossy, and glittering substance where newly 
cut or broken. Tlie metals are six in unmber: l.Gold; 2. Silver ; 3. Copper; 4. Tin ; 
5. Iron; and, 6. Lead; of which gold is the heaviest, lead the secon<l in weight, then silver, 
then copper, and iron is the lightest except tin : some have added mercury or quicksilver 
to the number of metuls ; but as it wants malleability, the criterion of metals, it is more 
properly ranked among the semi-metals. — Hill. 

The metals hitherto discovered are forty-two in number, of which seven were known in the 
earliest ages,— 6Va66. 

Metheglin. See Mead, preceding p., 90. 

Mill Boards, cwt. . . . . ' . 3 8 2 

Mill boards are a very thick sort of pasteboard, used for the coTers of books, and various 
otlier purposes by pressors, clothiers, printers, &c. — Ed. 

Millinery. See Silks. 

Minerals not otherwise enumerated, 100^. val. . , 20 

■ Specimens of. See Specimens. 

Fossil bodies: matter dugout of mines. All metals are minerals, but all minerals are not 
metals. Minerals, in the restrained sense, are bodies that may be melted, but not mal- 
leated.— Johnson. 

We distinguish four classes in the mineral kingdom : the first comprehends saline or acidi- 
ferous substances, which are composed of an acid united to an earth or an alkali, and 
sometimes to both. The second contains the earthy substance, into the composition of 
which earths alone enter, or sometimes an earth united to an alkali; in the third class are 
placed all inllammable substances which are not metallic: the fourth class embraces the 
metallic substances, known by their brilliancy, by their great specific gravity, and, in part, 
by their ductility and malleability. — Malle Bntn. 

Mirrors, Toy. See Glass, p. 77. 

Mitts. See Gloves, p. 77. 

Models of Cork or Wood, 100^. val. . . .500 

See Sculptures. 

A model is a representation in little of something made or done. A copy to be imitated: a 
mould: any thing which shows or gives the shape of that which it incloses.— Jo/inson. 
England ! model to thy inward greatness, 
Like little body with a mighty heart. — S/ialtspearc. 

Morocco, Goods the produce of. See p. 2. 

See also the names of the several articles in alphaheticul order. 
Morphia and its Salts, lb. , . . . IG 

(6 and 7 WiU. IV., c. GO.) 
Moss, Lichen Islandicus, lb. . . . .001 

The active components of Iceland moss are a bitter matter, and a peruliar modification of 
mucilage. These ingredients render Iceland moss tonic and nutritive; but it apiiears to 
possess no other claims upon our attention, and certainly caiiuot be admitted as having any 
pretensions as a specific iu pthisis pulmonalis. — Biandc. 

Rock, for Dyers' use, ton . . . .050 

Rock moss grows on limestone rocks, mostly about the lialtie, and other paUs iu the north of 
Europe. — Ed. 

not otherwise charged, 100/. val. . . .500 

Mother-of- Pearl ShelLs, 100/. val. . . . .500 

Mother of-pcarl is Ihut beautiful white enamel which forms the greater part of the substance 

of the oyster-shell, particularly of the pearl oyster. — yic/iulsun. 
Mother-of-pearl is found chielly in the seas about the Last and West Imlies. It is used for 

inlaid works, handles of knives, for toys, and various small articles,— iid. 

Mules, each . . . . . .0100 

The mules of South America are so sure footed, that they inspire the greatest confidence. 
Their habits are the same as those of the beasts of burtlieu in Switzerland aud tlie Fyre- 
nees, — Uumbuldt. 



92 UNITED KINGDOM.— iMroRTs.—Dw^ms, ,^c. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Mum. See Beer, p. 53. 

Musical Instruments, 100^. val. . . . . 20 

See Baggage, p. 50. 

Dy C. O.. January 28, 1833, the indulgence granted by Treasury Order of Octol)cr 3, 1818, in 
respect of Books and Maps the property of individuals, and brought over by passengers 
from abroad, being cliarged with duty only once, is extended to musical instruments. 

Musical instruments may be divided into three classes: — 1st. Instruments of percussion, 
v.hether pulsatile, as a drum, or as a piano-lorte ; or pelectrated, as a guitar, or a harp, or 
a harpsichord, &;c. 2nd. Instruments of inflation, such as the organ, trumpet, flute, &c. 
3rd. Instruments of collision, such as the violin and the celestina. — Nicholson. 

Musk, oz. . . . . . .006 

A peculiar concrete substance, the produce! of the Moschus moschiferus, or musk deer. This 
animal inhabits the nioimtains of Eastern Asia, especially the Ilymalayan chain. Behind 
the navel is a bag which, in the adult animal, is filled with m\isk. These bags are im- 
ported from China, and, in inferior perfection, from Bengal and Russia. They are covered 
with coarse hair, and are about the size of a large i)igoon's egg. Musk, originally a viscid 
fluid, concretes on drying into a brown friable solid, the strong, peculiar, and highly difl'us- 
able odour of which is well known. — Brande. 

Mutton prohibited to be imported for home use on pain of forfeiture, but 
may be warehoused for exportation only. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, 
§ 58, 59, GO. 

Myrrh, cwt. . . . . . .000 

In commerce, even at I'aris, there are two very distinct species of myrvh : tlie True or ancient, 
and the False, or model n. Of eighteen specimens which were preseiilrd fur teal myrrh, 
sixteen only evolved a red colour by nitric acid. — Brande s Journal of Science. 

It is chiefly imjiorled from Turkey, in the form of irregular tears and their fragments, of a 
reddish lirown colour, more or less translucent, a fragrant aromatic odour, and a warm 
pungent taste. It is sometimes largely rai.\od \>ilh otlicr gummy resinous substances, — 
Brande. 

N. 
Natron. See Alkali, p. 46. 
Needlework. See Embroidery, p. 73. 
Net, Silli. See Silk. 
Nets, viz. Old Fishing Nets, fit only for making Paper or Pasteboard. 

See Rags. 
Newspapers. 

By T. O., April 9, 1829, foreign newspapers, as regular consignments, whetlior bound or 
unbound, and foreign newspapers brought in the baggage of passengers, if bound, are to 
be charged with duty as nonenuraerated manufactured articles; but foreign newspapers 
brought in tlie baggage of passengers, unbound, are to be admitted to entry without pay- 
ment of duty. 
[See now the new law witli regard to foreign newspapers. Part 6.] 

Nicaragua Wood, ton . . . . .050 

This wood takes its name from Nicaragua, a province of South America, where it is pro- 
duced. It is used for dyeing, and is of a bright-red colour. — Ed. 

Nickel, viz. Arsenate of Nickel, in lumps or powder, being 

in an unrefined state, 100/. val. . . .500 

■ Metallic, refined, and Oxide of Nickel, 100/. val. . 20 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 
Nitre, Cubic Nitre, cwt. . . . . . 6 

The common name of the nitrate of potash. The nitrate of potash is the salt well known by 
the name of Nitre or Saltiietre. It is found ready formed in the Ivist Indies, in Spain, in 
the kingdom of Naples, and elsewhere, in considerable quantities ; but the nitrate of lime is 
still more abundant. For tlie greater part of the nitrate made use of is produced by a com- 
bination of circumstances whicli tend to compose and condense nitric acid. — Ure. 

Nutmegs, lb. . . , . . .036 

produce of, and imported from B. p.. lb. . 2 6 

imported from any B. P. within the limits of the 

East India Company's charter, lb. . . .026 

The nulnii'g, like trees most excellent, is not very lofty in height, scarce rising so high as the 
cherry ; by some it is resembled to the peach, but varies in form of leaf and grain, and afl'ects 
more compass. Of the nutmeg there arc iu the Indian islands at least eight kinds, which 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 7)«//w, ^>^. 93 

Nutmegs, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

ai>]H-ar onls- to bo varilii'8, though generally permanptit oiips, Tlie shajio is of little eoiise- 
(|ueiiec. U'ell llavoured milmegs are foiiml in New (iiiiiiea, in Cerani, (Jilolo, Turrmti, and 
all tlie eircumjacent islands, as well as in Aniboyna, Uorneo, &c. The Dutch havi- endca- 
vouied, pretty successfully, to extirpate them in these their native country, and to cunline 
them to three of tlie Utile cluster of the llauda isles, viz.. I'ulo Ay, H:inda,and Nera. Nut- 
nie(,'3, in commerce, are ilivided into two sorts. The first ami most valuable arc those 
which are rei;ulaily phicked from the trees as they ripen ; and the second, or infeiior, 
consist of such as fall lr(mi the tree, and from the delicacy of the fruit, sustain injury 
by lying for any time on the' moist earth. The first are alwa\s sent to the superior markets 
of IC'urope, the last preserved for the Imiia market.— C)-a»/Kid. 

Nuts, Cashew Nuls and Kernels, cwt. . . • JO 
Castor Nuts or Seed, ton . . . .010 

The seed or nut from which castor oil is e.^ctracted. — Ed. 

(G and 7 Will. IV., c. CO.) 
Chestnuts, bushel , . . . .020 

The triangular seeds of the juvia are sold in Portugal and England under the vague name of 
chestnuts (caslanas) or nuts of lirazil and the Amazon; and it was long believed, that, 
like the fruit of the pckea, they grew on separate stalks. Tliey have furnished an article 
of a toleraldy brisk trade for a century past to the inhabitants of lirand Para, by whom 
they are sent either ilirectly to Europe, or to Cayenne, where they are called Tonka. This 
tree abounds in the forests in the neighbourhood of Macapa, at the mouth of the Amazon; 
it there bears the name of Capucaya.■-Hwm';oW^ 

Coker or Coco Nuts, the produce of B. P., 1200 nuts . 10 

The coco-nut tree is very generally dispersed within the Tropics and the South Sea Islands, 
flourishing on the sea-shores; the nuts are carried by winds and currents, and are soon 
found vegetating on the numerous islands that are continually forming from accumulated 
coraL Tlie unripe nut is full of a pulp generally eaten in the \\est Indies. — Ency. Metrop, 

Ground Nuts imported from Africa, by T. L., July 16, 

1835, to be admitted to entry as Seed for crushing, qr. . 10 
Pistachio Nuts, cwt. . . . . 10 

The Pistachio tree grows naturally in Arabia, Persia, and Syria, whence the nuts are annu- 
ally brought to Europe. Pist ichio nuls are moderately large, containing a kernel of a pale 
greenish colour, covered with a reddish skin. They have a pleasant, sweet, unctuous taste, 
resembling that of almonds ; they are reckoned among the analeptics, and are wholesome 
and nutritive. — Ency. Brilan. 

Small Nuts, bushel . . . . .020 

AValnuts, bushel . . . . .020 

The species are, l.The common walnut; 2. The large French walnut; 3. The thin-shelled 
walnut; 4. The double walnut: 5. The late-ripe walnut; 6. The hard-shelled walnut ; 7- 'ri'" 
Virginian black walnut; S.Virginian black walnut, with a. long furrowed fruit; i). The 
hickery, or white Virginian walnut ; 10. The small liickerv, or white Virginian walnut. — 
Miller. 

Walnuts form rather a considerable branch of foreign trade. — Ed. 

Nuts not otherwise enumerated, 100^. val. . . -20 

Nux Vomica, lb. . . . . .026 

The taste of this kernel is extremely bitter : it has little or no smell: and is so hard, that it 
cannot be reduced into powder by beating. This nut is a very powerful narcotic, inducing 
■even death by its sedative power, as, on dissection, no marks of iuflamniatiou, or local affec- 
tion, are to be discovered in the stomach. — Ency. Britan. 

Extractor Preparation of. See Extract, p. 73. 

By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, & 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 
account of any damage received by nux vomica. 

o. 

Oakum, cwt. . . . . . .001 

Old ropes untwisted and pulled out again into loose hemp, to bo used in tlio caulking of 
ships. — CraUb. 

Oatmeal. See Corn, p. 66. 

Ochre, cwt. . . , . . .010 

The earths distinguished by tlie name of ochres are those which have rough or naturally 
dusty surfaces, are but slightly coherent in their texture, and are composed of tine and soft 
argillaceous particles, and are readily dilVusible in water. They are of various colours, 
such as red, yellow, blue, green, black. The yellow sort are called ochres of iron, and the 
blue ochres of copper, — Hill. 






4 








14 








4 








4 








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4 






94 UNITED KINGD0M.~lMP0RTs.—Dw//e5, t^^^. [3 837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Oil, of Almonds, lb. . . . . . 10 

Almonds consist cliii'dy of an oil of the nature of fat oils, toiiGthcv witli faiinaceous matter. 
The oil is so plentit'ul and so loosely combined or mixed witli the other principles, that 
it Is obtained by simple pressure. — Vre. 

Animal Oil, cwt. . . . . .026 

ofBays.lb. . . . . . .003 

Oil of Bays is an essential oil, obtained from the berries of the bay. The berries and leaves, 
as well as the oil, are used medicinally. — C/iamlers. 

Castor, cwt. . . . • . .013 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

imported from B. P., lb. . . . .003 

produce of, and imported from B. P., cwt. . .020 

The seeds of the Kicinus communis, and their expressed oil. This plant is a native of tlie 
West India Islands and South America, and of several parts of Africa and Asia. In the 
West Indies, the oil is sometimes separated by boiling tlie decorticated seeds in water : in 
this case it is deeper coloured, more acrid, and more liable to become ranciil; generaliy, 
also, more active as a purgative. This oil, commonly called castor oil, is a valuable ape- 
rient. — Brande. 

• Chemical, Essential, or Perfumed, viz. : — 

Carraway, lb. .... . 

Cloves, lb. 

Lavender, lb. .... . 

Mint, lb. . 

Peppermint, lb. . 

Spike, lb. ..... 

Cassia, Bergamot, Lemon, Otto of Roses, Thj'me, 

and of all other sorts, lb, . . .014 

Chemical Oils are distinguished from tlie expressed oils ; such as those of almonds, linseed, 
olives, and the like, which are made by so simple a process as mere squeezing. — C/uimhers. 

Cnjaput Oil, obtained by distillation from the leaves of the Malaleuca Cajaputi, a shrub 
abundant in Amboyna and part of Borneo, whence the essential oil is imported. It gene- 
rally has a greenish coloin'. 

Oil of Carraicni/ is procured by distilling the carraway seed. It is very warm and pungent, 
and of an agreeable flavour. A few drops are frequently incorporated with pill masses, 
and added to powders to disguise the flavour, and to prevent flatulency. — Bd. 

Oil uf Cassia is procured from the bark and buds of the Laurus cassia, growing in the Kast 
Indies. — Ed. 

Oil of Cinnamon is generally adulterated with alcohol or expressed oil. Eleven pounds of 
cinnamon are required to procure one ounce of the oil. Cinnamon is sometimes inter- 
mixed with cinnamon from which the oil has been drawn, and with cassia. The former is 
detected by the weakness of its odour and taste ; and the latter by its thickness, smooth 
fracture, and remarkably slimy taste. — Thomson. 

Oil of Cloves is brought in bottles ; but a considerable quantity is drawn in this country. The 
oil is also much adulterated ; and when it has a hot, fiery taste, and a great depth of colour, 
it may be suspected. — Thomson. 

Otto or Attar of Roses are the petals of the Damask Rose. These are exclusively used in the 
distillation of lose water, when they afford a butyraceous oil, which is largely prepared in 
warm climates, and imported, especially from the East, under the name of Otto of Ro-es. 
The English oil is of a very inferior odour, and apt to become rancid ; the foreign oil is often 
adulterated with oil of sandal wood, and the crystalli ne appearance of the genuine otto 
imitated by the addition of spermaceti. — Brande. 

In the town of Cumana a great quantity of oil of cocoas is made, which is limpid, without 
smell, and very fit for burning. The trade in this oil is not less brisk than tiiat on tlie 
coast of Africa for palm oil, which is obtained from the Elays Guineensis, and is used as 
food. At (Juniaiia, I have often witnessed the arrival of canoes laden with 3000 cocoa 
nuts. — Humboldt. 

• Cocoa Nut, cwt, . . . . .013 

. Fish Oil, See Train Oil, in Oil. 

of Hemp Seed, tun . . . . 39 IS 

imported from B, P., tun . . 10 

Oil of Ilempsecd is used chiefly by painters. — Ed. 

■ of Linseed, tun . . . . . 39 18 

imported from B. P., tun . . .10 

The oil of Linseed yields, by expression, an oil that has most of the qualities of nut oil, and 
is accordingly generally tised, in lieu tliereof, in painting, and for burning. That drawn 
without the assistance of fire is of much esteem in medicine, and is sujqiosed good in the 
cure of catarrhs, coughs, asthmas, and other diseases in the breast, &c. — llees. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— /)w//m, <5-^. 95 

0[\, cnjiiiiuiPil, viz.: — X" s. d. 

Olive, tun {Ad. gal.) . . . . .440 

the i)ro(luco of, or importod from any part ol" the do- 
niiniuus of the Kaig of the Two Sicilies after 
August 31, 1S34, Ihe'tun (8(/. gal.) . . 8 8 

imported in a ship helonging to any of the subjects 
of the King of the Two Sicilies afier August 31, 
1834, the tun (lOc/. gal.) . . . 10 10 

And whereas duties hi<^her thim in other cases are imposed upon Olive Od. 
beinji; the produce of the dominions of the Kinj^ of the Two Sicilies, or bein;^ 
impin-ted from those dominions, and it may become exjiedient to reduce the 
said duties; it is tlierel'ore enacted, that it shall be hxwful for His Majesty, 
by his order in council, to reduce the said duties to any sum not being less 
than the duty ])ayable upon Olive Oil, the produce of or imported from other 
places: Providecl always, that during the continuance of any such distinc- 
tion of duty, before any Olive Oil shall be entered as being the produce of 
some jilace not within the dominiims of the King of the Two Sicilies, a 
certificate shall be produced from the British Consul residing at or near the 
place at which such oil was taken on board the importing ship, testifying 
that proof had been made to his satisfaction that such oil was not the \no- 
duce of iuiy place within those dominions. 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, ^ 10. 
By 3 and 4\VilI. IV., c. 54, ^ 2, olive oil, being the produce of Kurope, shall not 
be imported into the United Kingdom to be itsed (herein, except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 
ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

By C. O., Sept. 1, 1834, the olTicers of customs arc to pay par!ii;ular attention to the produc- 
tion of sucli certilicates, and no oil is to bo admitted into tliis kingdom witliout llieni. 

15 y O. C July 23, 1828, the ullowanees on jars uf olive oil imported, in all eases where it 
may not be found necessary to resort to actvial taring, are to be ono-seveulh for foot, and 
one-third for tare each jar. 

Few articles difTor more in quality thiin olive oil; not that the ditTercnt kinds are produced 
from dilTeront fruit, but in the different stages of the pressure of the olives. Thus, by 
means of gentle pressure, the best or virj/in oil Hows lirst ; a second, and afterwards a third, 
quality of oil is ol)tained by moistening the residuum, breakin;; the kernels, &c., and 
increasing the pressure. When the fniil is not sufficiently ripe tlie recent oil has a bit- 
terish taste; and when too ripe it is fatty. After the oil lias been drawn it deposits a white, 
fibrous, and albuminous matter; but when tliis deposition has taken place, if it be put into 
clean flasks it undergoes no further alteration. The common oil cannot, however, be pre- 
served in flasks above a year and a half or two years. The consumption of olive oil as Ibod 
is not surprising if we remember that it is the lightest and most delicate of all the fixed 
oils. — Mirror. 

Sweet oil, it cannot be too generally known, is the best application to the bites of venomous 
reptiles — ii'd. 

Palm, cwt. . . . . .013 

This species of palm is a native of Hrazil, and is found in abundance near the mines of Yba- 
qupuses. It is a lofty tree, with a rough bark, and the foliage forming a very dense shade. 
The nut has a cartilaginous skin and a fibrous pulp; and contains a cartihiginous hard 
kernel, having nearly the same taste as that of the common cocoa-nut. This kernel yields 
the oil. — Thomson. 

Palm oil is produced in immense quantities about F.bue, and the .average price of it at that 
place is about il. per tun. — Travels in Africa by Laird and Oldjield. 

Palm oil is produced in immense quantities about liboe, and is collected in small gourds, each 
capable of containing from two to four gallons, from which it is emptied into trade pun- 
cheons. .Some of these, belonging to vessels in the Bonny, I saw in canoes at Kboe ; but 
generally, the gourds are taken in large canoes to a market-pl.ace on the Bonny bianch of 
the Niger; which branch being dry in the dry season, the Eboe oil then finds its way through 
tlie Brass creek to the Bonnv. — Narrative of an Expedition into the Interior of the River 
Niger in 1832-4. JJ;/ Laird and Oldjieid. 

of Paran, tun . . . . .880 

of Rape Seed, tun . . . . . .39 18 

imported from B. P., tun . . . 10 

Oil of Rapeseed is \i3cd mostly by clotliiers, and is obtained merely bv expression of tlie 
seed. — J£d. 

— — Rock Oil, lb. . . . . .0010 

Petrol, oil of pel re, or rock oil, an oleaginous juice, issuing out of the clefts of rocks, and found 
floating on the waters of certain springs. Beside artificial and vegc^tablo oils, i. c. those 
drawn from plants, &c. by expression, there are .also natural and niineval oils issuing of 
themselves from the entrails of the earth, called by a common name- pclroU cir petroloa. 
The more fluid petrolea, says Dr. Lewis, have been distinguished liy the name of naplitlui; 
and the thicker by those of pissasphaltura and pisselieum.— CVmmto-s. 



39 IS 





1 








2 



96 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)/<//^.9,.j'C. [1S37-8. 

Oil, continued, viz. : — £ s. d, 

Seal Oil. See Train Oil, in Oil. 

■ • Seed Oil not otherwise enumerated, tun 

imported from B. P., tun . 

Seed Cakes, cwt. .... 

Most of the seeds of the umbelliferous plants, wli'cli usually pass for aromatics of the first ami 
most eminent kind, have, iu reality, no smell at all in themselves; the oil-liladiiers wliicli 
yield their virtues heins,' placed in their outer coverin;;, the kernel within Ihe seed usually 
containin',' a fat oil of the olive or almond kind, and wholly different from the essential. — 
Chnmler.s. 

of Spermaceti. See Train Oil, in Oil. 

■ Train Oil, Blubber, Spermaceti Oil, and Head-mat- 
ter, viz : — • 

the produce of fish or creatures living in the sea, 

taken and caught by the crews of British ships, and 

imported direct from the fishery, or from any British 

possession in a British ship, tim . . .010 

the produce of fish or creatures living in the sea, of 

foreign fishing, tun . . . . 20 12 

By B. O., Aug. 12, 1825, lish oil and blubber are to he computed as 126 gals, the pipe, and 
63 gals, the hlid. 

By 3 and 4 W. IV ,c. 52, & 45, before any bUibber, train oil, spermaceti oik bead 
matter, or whale fins shall be entered as beui<^ the produce of tish or crea- 
tures living in the sea, taken and caught wholly by His Majesty's subjects 
usually residing in some ]iart of His Majesty's dominions, and imported 
from some British possession, the master of the ship importing tliesime 
shall deliver to tbe collector or comptroller a certificate under the hand of 
the proper officer of such British possession where such goods were taken on 
l)oard, (or if no such officer be residmg there, then a certificate under tbe 
liandsof two princijial inhabitants at the place of shipment,) notifying that 
oath bad been made before bim or them by tbe shipper of such goods, that 
tbe same were tbe produce of fish or creatures living in the sea, taken wholly 
by British vessels, owned and navigated according to law ; and such master 
shall also make and subscribe a declaration before tbe collector or comp- 
troller, that such certificate was received by bim at tbe place where such 
goods were taken ou board, and that the goods so imported are the same 
as mentioned therein ; and tbe importer of such goods shall also make and 
subscrilie a declaration before the collector or comptroller, at tbe time of 
entr)^, that, to tbe best of bis knowledge and belief, tbe same were tbe pro- 
duce of fish or creatures living in the sea, taken wholly by British vessels 
in manner aforesaid. 

By § 46, before any blubber, train oil, spermaceti oil, bead matter, or whale 
fins, imported direct from tbe fishery, shall be entered as being tbe produce 
of fish or creatm-es living in tbe sea, taken and caught wholly by the crews 
of ships cleared out from tbe United Kingdom, or from one of tbe islands 
of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, the master of tbe ship import- 
ing such goods shall make and subscribe a declaration, and the importer of 
such goods (to the best of bis knowledge and belief) shall make and subscribe 
a decbiraiion, that the same are the produce of fish or creatures living in 
tbe sea, taken and caught wholly by tlie crew of such ship, or by the crew 
of some other ship (naming the ship) cleared out from tbe United Kingdom, 
or from one of the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man 
(stating which). 

By § 47, it shall be lawful upon the return of any ship from the Greenland 
Seas or Davis's Straits to the United Kingdom with any blubber, being the 
produce of whales or other creatures living in tbe sea, for the importers 
thereof to cause the same to be boiled into oil at the port of importation, 
imdertbe care and inspection of tbe proper officers of tbe customs ; and tbe 
oil so produced shall be admitted to entry, and the duties be paid thereon, 
as if imported in that state, and such oil shall not afterwards, if tbe same 
come to be e.\ported, be subject to duty of exportation as a manufacture of 
the United Kingdom. 



]837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)?</ie*, c^c. 97 

0'i\, continued, viz.: — £ s. d. 

Uliiblier denotes tlie f:it ofwlinles and otlier large sea-animals, whereof is made train-cil. It 
is jiroyerly the adeps of the animal; it lies immediately under the skin, and over the nm,- 
eular flesh. In the whale its thickness is ordinarily six inches; but about the under lij> it 
is found two or three feet tliick. The wliole quantity yielded by one of tliese animals ordi- 
narily amounls to 40 or 50, sometimes to SO cwt. or more. Its use in trade and manulac- 
tures is to furnish train-oil, wliich it does by boilin<; down. Formerly tliis was perfoimed 
ashore in the country where the whales were ciiufjlit; but of late the fishers do not u'o 
ashore; they brinj; tlie blubber home stowed in casks, and afterwards boil it down in the 
preparation of oil. — Jinci/. Britrm. 

Spermaceti is found in every pirt of the body, mixed with the common fat of the animal ; but 
to tliis it bears a small pro))ortiL'U. The two kinds of fat in tlie head are contained in cells 
or in cellular membrane, similar to what takes place in otlier animals; but, besides these, 
there are larger cells, or li^'anientous parts goin;; across ; the better to supi)ort the vast 
load of oil of which the bulk of the head is principally composed. There are two places in 
the head in which this oil lies. The numerous useful purposes to which the common oil of 
the whale and the spermaieti are applied, the latter sometimes in medicine, and bi>th in 
many of tin.- arts and in domestic economy, are too well known to be particularly pointed 
out. — Ency. Britan. 

Cod Oil is, from universal experience, the only fish oil which will answer all the purposes of 
the currier; and it is reckoned by many of them almost indispensable. — Davidson in Brew- 
ster's Edinburgh Journal of Scicnee. 

Walnut Oil, lb. . . . . .006 

AVhale Oil. See Train Oil, in Oil. 

not particularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with 

duty, 100/. val. , . . . . JO 

By T. L., Feb. 10, 18;J4, authority is ^iven to continue the permission for the admission of oil, 
the produce of the Hritish Colonies, from Guernsey and Jersey, granted bv the order of 
March 2, 1826. 

The following is the mode adopted by the officers of customs in reduc- 
ing the tceig/t( ot: oil into measure: 

cwt. qr. lb. 

100 2 23 
94, viz. 1121b., deducting 18 per cent. 

9400 

6G allowed for 2 qr. 23 lb. 

Divide bv numberl ,.x„ ,„_ 
01 lb. in gal. . J ^ 

Or 4 tuns, qr. 43} gal. 

Tea Oil. — A species of fixed oil. familiarly used in China for the same economical purpo-i.'S 
for which olive oil is employed in Kurupc, has been ascertained by recent lra\elleisiu 
(!;hiiia to be produced in all probability by the tea-plant, or another species of the same 
natural familv. It either is, or may be, obtained from the seeds of various species of the 
two genera T'/iea and Camellia. It has been hitherto alniost unknown in Lurope. It is 
when fresh quite free of smell, of a pale yellow tint, without any sediment when lou!^ kejii. 
It resists a cold of -10° K., but at 39^ becomes like an emulsion. Its clensity is 927. ^^ '"♦ 
in«oluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in ether. It burns with a remarkably clear white 
n.ime. This oil might prove an important article of commerce in the Kast, because in its 
properties it is superior to cocoa-nut oil, and the various other oils pievalently used for 
burning, or as oleaginous coudiments, in -Asiatic cjuntries. — Robert D. Thomson, M. D., on 
Tea Oil. 

Olibanum, cwt. . . . . . .000 

A gum resin produced, according to the London Pliarmacojincia, by the Juuiperus lycia. Mr. 
Thomson, however, on the authority of Mr. Colebrook, regards it as the exudation of tlio 
Iloswellia scrrata of Roxburgh, a native of the mountains of India. The finestolibanum is 
imported fnmi the Levant, in yellowish white, and nearly opaque tears or drops, having a 
slight odour of turpentine, and a bitterish taste. — Brande. 

Olives, gal. . . . . . .020 

This fruit is in its natural slate bitter, acid, and exceedingly disagreeable ; though it< taste is 
much improved when pickled, iis we receive it from abroad, particularly the smaller kind, 
or Lucca olives. Those of Florence are esteemed excellent; but on account of the ;ibMn- 
dance of oil they contain they are not adapted to delicate stom.ichs, and are pi^rnieioiis, 
especially when eaten as a dessert, after a heavy dinner. Though pickled olives :ire grate- 
ful to the stomach, and lue supposed to promote appetite and digestion, the ripe ones are 
more eaten among the Greeks, forming a consiilerable part of their food, especially in Lent. 
There are three kinds of olives ftequently sold, different in size and quality ; ikiiiu ly, tlioso 
of Verona, those of .'fpain, and those of the south of Fi ance.— i>'ri<is/j Ci/clo. 

n 



98 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«</j>5, c^r. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Olive Wood, the produce of, or imported from, any foreign 

country, ton . . . . . . 2 10 

(6 and 7 W. IV., c. 60.) 
the produce of, and imported from, B. P., ton . 12 4 

Olive wood is chiefly usedby cabinet-maUers on .iccount of the high pohsh of which it is sus- 
ceptible. — Ed. 

Onions, bushel . . . . . .030 

Opium, lb. , . . . . .010 

(6 and 7 W. IV., c. GO.) 

extract or preparation of. See Extract, p. 73. 

By 4 and 5 W. IV., c. 89, § 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 
account of any dam.age received by Oiiium. 

Opium is the concrete juice of the white po|ipy. The white poppy' is probably an original 
native of Asia, though by no means an uncommon indigenous plant in various parts of 
Europe. Opium is chiefly prepared in Turkey, Persiii, and India; but the plant is also 
abundantly cultivated in France and the Soutli of Europe, on account of its seeds, from 
which a useful bland oil is procured by expression. — Brande. 

On examination there appear to be three kinds of opium. 1st, the Company's, which has a 
black skin; it is called Wootoo, and comes from Bengal ; the second has a white skin, and 
is brought from Bombay ; and the third, with a red skin, is from Madras. ("Turkey.) All 
these places belong to England. — Repmt of Hew-nae-tsze, Vice President of the Sacrificial 
Court in Peking, to the Emperor of China, 1836. 

Orange Flower Water, lb. . . . .001 

(6 and 7 W. IV., c. 60.) 

Orange flowersare justly esteemed one of the finest perfumes ; and though little used in medi- 
cine, yet the water distilled from them is accounted stomachic, coi'dial, and carminative. — 

Ency. Britan. 

Oranges and Lemons, viz. 

the chest or box, not exceeding the capacity of 5000 

cubic inches . . . . . .026 

the chest or box exceeding the capacity of 3000 

cubic inches, and not exceeding 7,300 cubic inches . 3 9 

the chest or box exceeding the capacity of 7,300 

cubic inches, and not exceeding 1 4,000 cubic inches . 7 6 

• for every 1000 cubic inches exceeding the above 

rate of 14,000 cubic inches 

Loose, 1000 . 

OR, and at the option of the Importer, 100/. val. 

Peel of, lb. ... . 

By 3 and 4 W. IV., c. r)4, § 2, Oranges and Lemons, being the produce of 
Europe, shall not be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used therein, 
except HI British ships, or in ships of the country of wliich the goods are the 
produce, or in shijis of the country from which the goods are imported. 
By 3 and 4 W. IV., c. 52, § 32, no abatement of duties shall be made on account 
of any damage received by oranges and lemons. 
CONTENT. 
The London practice of ascertaining the cubical content of chests and boxes of Oranges and 
Lemons is — 1st, take the internal length, allowing for the thicknessof the inside partition ; 
2dly, take the breadth and depth, exclusive of the cone; lastly, take the height of cone, 
deducting two-thirds. 

Example. 

Inches. 
Inside length, exclusive of wood partition . . 33 
Breadth 20 . 









n 





15 





75 














6 



660 



Depth, exclusive of cone 

Height of cone 9 inches, subtracting two-thirds 



660 X 11 = 7260 cubic inches. 



The orange-tree is a native of India and Persia, but it is now abundantly propagated in the 
south of Euroi)e and th iWest India islands, and is also found in o\ir green-houses. 
Oranges are imported in chests and boxes separately packed in paper. — Tkomson. 

The lemon-tree is a native of Assyrianind Persia, whence it was brought into Europe; first 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— DM//V.V, ^'C. 99 

Oranges and Lemons, continued, tu'z. : — £ s. d. 

to Greeci', ami afteiwavds to Italy. It is now cultivated in Si)ain, rortugal, anil Fiance, 
anil is not uncommon iu our f;rccn-liouses. Lemons are brought packed in cliests and 
boxes soparatelv rolled in paper. The Spanish lemons are most esteemed.— rAomSf/ji. 
Orange-peel is anagreeable aromatic, proper to repair and strenj;tlien the stomach, and gives 
a very grateful flavour to any infusions or tinctures into whose compositions it enters. It 
is particularly useful in preparations of the htuk.—Ency. Britun. 

Oi-chal, Orchelia, or Archclia, cwt. . . .030 

Orchal, Archil, Archilla, Rucella, Orseille.— \ whitish lichen, growing upon rocks iu the 
tJanary and Cape Verde islands, which yields a rich purple tincture, fugitive indeed, but 
extremely beautiful. This weed is imported to us as it is gathered. — (ire. 

Ore, not particularly charged, 100/. val. . . .500 

of Gold or Silver. See Bullion, p. 56. 

Specimens of. .See Specimens. 

Ore, from the Saxon ore, and not improbably from aurum, gold .which is the most precious 
of metals; a metal in a mineral state, or as it is dug out of the earth. Ores are found in 
four different states; namely, 1. Native or pure, i. e. when they are purely in their mbtallic 
state, whether by themselves, or in alloy with other metals. 2. In the state of an oxide, or 
combined with oxygen. 3. In the state of a sulphuret, or in combination with sulphur; 
and 4. In combination with acids forming salts ; besides which, all ores aie combined, more 
or less, with earthy materials, from which it is the business of the metallurgist to rid them 
by the various processes. When ores are tlius treated for the practical purpose of fitting 
the metals for use, this is called Reduction ; but when the constituent parts of metals are 
separated, in order to obtain the knowledge of their composition, this is termed Analysis, 
and the knowledge thus obtained is comprehended under the name o{ Mineralogy. — Crabb. 

Orpiment, cwt. . . . . . .18 6 

Orpiment, auripigmentum, a yellow kind of arsenic, or more properly a mineral composed of 
sulphur and arsenic, found native in the earth, and constituting one of the ores of arsenic. 
It is the Arsenicum auripigmentum of Linnajus. — Crabb. 

Orris or Iris Root, cwt. . . . . .0106 

This species of Iris, which is found in a wild state in Carniola, the island of Rhodes, Laconia, 
and other places of the south of Europe, is cultivated in our gardens; flowering in May and 
June. The roots of the Florentine iris are brought in a dry state from Leghorn, packed in 
large casks. The best pieces break with a rough but not fibrous fracture. — Thomson. 

Orsedew, lb, . . . . . .006 

Orsedew is also called Dutch-gold, and Dutch-metal, an inferior sort of gold leaf in appear- 
ance, conipnsedof copper and zinc, or of copper and brass. Dutch pictures, when imported, 
have frequently this article on the frames in lieu of gold leaf. It has a very coppery 
hue. — Ed. 

Otto, or Attar, or Oil of Roses. See Oil, p. 94. 

P. 

Paddy. See Rice, p. 106. 

Painters' Colours not particularlv charged, viz. 

Unmanufactured, 100/. val. . . .300 

Manufactured, 100/. val. . . . 10 

The principal colours used by painters are red and white lead or ceruse ; yellow and red 
ochres; several kinds of earth, umber, orpiment, lampblack, burnt ivory, black lead, cin- 
nabar or vermilion, gamboge, lacca, blue and green ashes, verdigris, bistre, bice, smalt, 
carmine, ultramarine. — Eucy. Britan. 

Paintings. See Pictures, p- 101. 

on Glass, 100/. val. . . . .500 

and further for every act. nf glass . .400 

Palmetto Thatch, the produce of, and imported from, B. P. 

in America, cwt. ... . . .001 

(4 and 5 W. IV., c. 89.) 

Paper, Brown Paper made of old rope or cordage only, with- 
out separating or extracting the pitch or tar therefrom, 
and without any mixture of other materials therewith, lb. 3 

■ Printed, Painted, or Stained Paper, or Paper Hang- 
ings, or Flock Paper, square yard . . .010 

By T. O., Dec. 27, 1827, the officers of customs are, when required by tlie importer, to stamp 
printed or stained paper, to denote payment of duty. 

Waste Paper, or Paper of any other sort not parti- 
cularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with duty, lb. 9 

II 2 



100 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I»w//<?5,<f'c. [1837-8. 

Paper, contmiied, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Paper is now made of linen rajs, and is of different kinds, namely: as to their colour, white, 
brown, blue, &c.; as to their quality, fine, second, bastard, superfine, hot-pressed, yellow 
wove, &c.; as to their use, writing, printin^j, drawing, eap, cavtrid5;e, copy, ehancery, )-ost- 
paper, &c. : as to their dimensions, pot, foolscap, crown, demy, medium, royal, super royal, 
imperial, elephant, atlas, &c. To tliese may be added, printed paper, to hang rooms with ; 
stamped paper, to wrile deeds, &c. on : ruled paper, for account books ; blotting pipi^r, 
which is not sized, and in wliicli the ink readily sinks ; teint or demi teint paper, a paper 
for desii-ning on ; bistard paper, white paper washed over with a sponge dipped in scot- 
water, whicii is used to save the labour of the cr.ayon; marble paper, which is painted with 
various colours, and used in book-binding. — Crabb. 

Parchment, doz. sheets . . . . .0100 

I'archment is the skin of a sheep dressed and made fit to write upon. It was called Perga- 
meuum, from Pergamus, wliose kings liad the honour of the invention. All the ancient 
manuscripts are either npin parchment or vellum, which is calf-skin, and a great deal finer 
than tlie common parchment. — RuUin's Ancient Histnry. 

The manufacture of parchment is begun by the skinner, and finished by the p.-vrchment 
maker. What is called vellum is only parchment made of the skins of aborlives, or at 
least Slicking calves. This has a mucli finer grain, and is wliiter and smoother than parcli- 
ment; but it is prepared in the same manner, except its not being passed through the lime 
pit. — Ency. Britan. 

Pasteboards, cwt. . . . . . .382 

Pasteboard is a kind of thick paper formed of several sheets pasted one upon the other, which 

is used by bookbinders for the covers of books, &c.— Crnhb. 
Patterns. — By T. O., Feb. and April, 1819, and Aug. 183."), patterns and samples of foreign 

manufactures, useful only as such, dutyfree. 

Pea, Indian. Sec Seed. 

Pearl Barley, cwt. . . . . .0170 

Common bailey is converted into pearl-barley by a machiu3 so constructed as to grind off 
the cuticle, and afterwards round the grain. Its decoction, or what is generally called 
barley-water, contains littlo else than starch. — Brande. 

Pearls, lOOZ. val. . . . . .500 

By O. C, September 19, 1836. all beads the substance of which is glass, whether it be coloured 
or not; or even although tlieir .ippearancu may be affected by the addition of wax or other 
material, are to pay duty, the lb. Is. See p. 52. 
The pearl shells in Norway, and elsewhere, breed in fresh water. Their shells resemble 
those commonly called muscles, but they are larger. The fish in them looks like an oyster, 
audit proiluces a great cluster of eggs like those of craw-fish, some white, some blac'r, 
which latter become white, the outer black coat being taken off. These eggs are cast out 
when ripe, and thru grow, becoming like those that cast them. But sometimes it happens 
that one or twonfihose ecgs stick fast to the sides of the matrix, and are not voided with 
the rest. These are fed by the oyster against its will, and they grow, according to the length 
of time, into pearls of dilToreiit sizes, ,vnd imprint a mark both in thehsh and the ahell. — 
Brewster's Edbdnrgh Journal ofSi-ienre. 

Why should I tell of the diamond's blaze? 

Wliy should I sing of the sappliirc's rays ? 

Ye are purer, and fairer, and dearer to me — 

Gems of tlie ocean, pearls of tlie sea! — Lit. Gax, 

Pears, bushel . , . , . 

■ ■ Dried, bushel . * . . 

Pelts. See Skins. 

Pencils, 100^. val. .... 

of Slate, 100/. val. 

The pencil is an iustrnment used by painters for laying on their colours. Pencils are of 
various kinds, and made of various materials ; the largest sorts are made of boars' bristles, 
the thick ends of which are bound to a stick, bigger or less, according to the use they are 
designed for; these, whei large, are called lirushes. The finer so.ts of ])encils are made 
of camel's, badgers', and scpiirrels' hair, and of the down of swans ; these are tied at tha 
uppi'r end with a ])iece of strong thread, and enclosed in tlie barrel of a quill. All good 
pencils, on being drawn between the lips, come to a fine point. 

Pencil is also an iusirument used in drawing, writing, Sec. made of long pieces of black lead 
or red chalk, placed in a groove cut in a s.ip of cedar ; on whicli other pieces of cedar being 
glued tl'.o whole is planed round, and ono of the ends being cut to a point it is fit for use. — 
Ency. Britan. 

Pens, 100/. val. . . . . . . 30 

pen, a little instrument, usually formed of a quill, serving tJ write withal. Pens are aUo 
sometimes made of silver, brass, or iron. Dutch pens are made of quills that have jiassed 
through hot allies to take off the grosser fat and moisture, and render them more trans- 
parent. Fountain pen is a pen of silver, brass, &c., contiived to contain a consideral)le 
(juautity of ink, unit let it flow out by gentle degress, so as to iupply the writer a long time 






7 


G 





2 





30 








20 









183r-S.] VNITED KINGDOM.— I^voms.—Daiies, 4-c. 101 

Vens, continued, viz.: — £ s. d. 

viihmit Ixnng umler the necessity of taking fresh ink. There nrc, it is wi-11 known, komo 
iiisliiimenls used by practical miitliematicians wliich are called pens, and wliich are dJH- 
tinguished according to the use to wliich thev are principally applied.— i'nry. Dritan. 
Sec Quills, p. 105. 

Pepper. See Spices. 

Perlumery, not otherwise charged, 100/'. val. . . 20 

Perry, tim . . . . . . . 22 13 8 

A ]>loasant and wholesome liipior extracted from pears, in the same manner as cider is from 
apples. — Emy. BriUiii. 

Pewter, Manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated, 100/. 

vul. . . . . . . . 20 

01(1. See Copper, p. G-l. 

Pewter, a faclilious metal used in maUing domestic utensils, as plates, dishes, &o. The 
basis of the metal is tin, united to small portions of lead, zinc, bismuth and antimony.— 
Ency. Britan. 

Pickles of all sorts not otherwise enumerated, including the 

vinegar, gal. . . . . . .GIG 

Pickles are well known. Tliey are brought from various parts of Europe. Tliose from the 
East and West Indies are in high repute. — Ed. 

Pictures, each . . . . . .010 

and further, sq. foot . . . .010 

200 sq. feet or upwards, each . . . 10 

l!y T.O., .\.ug. 8, 1825, Fresco paintings are to be charged with duty as ■water-colour drawings. 
]5y T. O., May 5, 1824, paintings being the work of English artists, accompunied with a 
certificate in each case, attested by tlie artist, that it is the work of himself, and on proof 
of the importer that the painting is the identical work alluded to in the certiticate,/rct. :■ 
Painting is the art of representing to the eye, by the means of figures and colours, every 
object in nature that is discernible by the sight. It is distinguished, according to the sub- 
jects, into landscape painting ; portrait painting ; historical or history painting; archilic- 
liiral painting; battle pieces ; sea-pieces; night-pieces; painting of animals, living or 
dead; painting of fruits, ice. According to llie manner of painting.it is distinguished 
into painting in miniature, in water-colours, in oil, in fresco, in varnish, in distemper, &c. 
— Crabb. 
Prcsco Painting is a painting on fresh plaster, or on a wall laid with mortar, not yet dry; 
and being used for alcoves and other buildings in the open air, obtained from the Italians 
this name of fresco. — Tudd's Juhnson's DictiuiKiry. 

'Tis Painting's first chief business to explore 

What lovelier forms in nature's boundless store 

Are best to art and ancient taste allied. 

For ancieut tasto those forms has best supplied. — Mason's Fresno;/. 

Pimento. See Spices. 

Pink Root, the lb. . . . . .004 

This is a perennial plant, a native of the w armer parts of North America ; flowering in July 

and August. 
Sjiigelia root has a bitter taste, which is imparted to boiling water. This root is purgative and 

anthelmintic. — Thomson, 

Pitch, CWt. ..... 

the produce of any B. P., cwt. 

Burgundy Pitch, cwt. 

• Jew's Pitch. See Bitumen Judaicum, p. 53. 

P)y C. O., Nov. 2, 1797> 'are on pitch, in Archangel casks, 931b. each ; in Swedish casks, 36 
lb. each ; and in American casks, 5ti lb. each. 









10 








9 





8 






A tenacious oily substance, drawn chiefly from pines and firs, and used in shipping, medicine, 
and various arts ; or it is more properly tar inspissated by boiling it over a slow lire. — Ency. 
Biitan. 

Gi niiiue Burgundy Pitch is the produce of the Pinus abies, obtained by incision throughjthe 
biirk. When genuine, it has a very peculiar odour. — Brande. 

In vol. 1. of the Transactions of the Geological Society is an account of the Pitch lake of the ' 
island of Trinidad. It is evident that it may be converted to many useful purposes : and 
it is universally used in the country whenever jiitch is recjuired. The reports of the naval 
oflirers who have tried it are extremely favourable. — Edinb. Rev. 

At the southern basis of Vesuvius, about a mile from shore, there is under water a spring 
of petroleum. M. Gamba visited Bakou, in the vicinity of which are found those naphtha 
pits, which afford to the inh.ibitants an inexhaustible article of co.nmerce.— Ouarfe/V^ Itev. _ 

Plantains, Dried, produce of and imported from the B. P. in 

America, 100/. val. . , . . .500 



3 


]6 


9 





6 


4 





6 








4 


6 






2 


6 


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1 








ur. 


It 


is a 



102 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— I>?</2>,y, ^r, [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Plants, Shrubs, and Trees, alive .... Free. 

In 1778 Linnaeus described about 8000 species of plants; M. UecandoUe has now increased 
the list to 40 fiOO.—Rc(jister of Arts and Sciences. 

Plaster of Paris, cwt. . . . . .010 

Plaster of Paris, a preparation of several species of gypsum, dug near Mount Martre, a village 
in the neip:hbourlioo(l of Paris, whence the name. The best sort is h:a'd, white, shining, 
andmarbly; known by the name of Plaster-stone or Parget of Mount Martre. Plaster 
of Paris is used as a manure in Pennsylvania. — Ency. Britan. 

Plate, Battered, fit only to be re-manufactured. See Bul- 
lion, p. 56. 

of Gold. oz. Troy ..... 

of Silver Gilt. oz. Troy .... 

part gilt, oz. Troy .... 

ungilt, oz. Troy ..... 

Old, not battered up, having been in the private use 

of the importer while residing abroad, and intended for 
his private use in this kingdom, viz. : 

Silver, oz. ..... 

Gold, oz. ..... 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

Platina and Ore of Platina, 100?. val. 

Platina is a metallic substance, the name of which has an allusion to its colour, 
diminutive of Plata, and signifies'' little silver.'' — Encij. Britan. 

Platting or other Manufactures to be used in or proper for 
making Hats or Bonnets, viz. : 

of Bast, Chip, Cane, or Horse Hair, lb. . , 10 

of Straw, lb. . . . . . 17 

Willow Squares, by C. O., Nov. 2, 1836, come under the denomination of Platting of Chip 
or other manufactures, to be used in making hats or bonnets, and are to be charged, lb. \l. 

The seed from which the straw for platting is grown is a small round grain of wheat, called 
Grano marzuolo, or more properly Grano marzolano. It is an error to suppose that hats 
are made from rye, or any other grain in Tuscany. This marzolano straw is cultivated 
for the sole purpose of being made iuto hats ; and is grown chiefly in the vicinity of Florence, 
and on the hills on both sides of the valley of the Arno. 

Tuscan women have settled themselves in various places, such as Vienna, Petersburgh, &c., 
where they carry on the manufacture with straw grown in Tuscany. Fine plait is not 
accounted good, unless very much drawn together, lor which end it is worked very wet. 
After being smoked and pressed, the plait is made up into hats by women, who do nothing 
else ; it is put together by the edges, not overlapped. On the operation of pressing a great 
deal depends. — Edinb. Philus. Journ. 

Plums, Dried or Preserved, cwt. . . .17 6 

commonly called Plums and Prunelloes, cwt. . 10 

(4 and 5 Will. IV.. c. 89.) 

Dried or Preserved. — By O. C, April 13, 1836. according to the proper construction of the 
table of duties, the jjarticular denomination, "plums dried or i)reserved" must overrule the 
general denomination " succ.ades," with regard to every species of plum. 

Pomatum, lOOA val. . 

Pomegranates, 1000 ..... 

Peels of, cwt. .... 

These plants grow naturally in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Mauritania. There are also many 

of them in the West Indies. The Kalaustia of the shops is the impalement of the flower of 

the double flowering pomegranate. — Miller. 
The pomegranate is found in every civiliseil country of the Archipelago, only in its cultivated 

state. The oidy good pomegranates are those brought iuto upper India by tlie caravans 

from eastern Persia. — Crawford. 

Pork, salted (not Hams nor Bacon, which see, pp. 49 and 79), 

cwt. . . , . . . . 12 

Pork fresh or corned, or slightly salted, prohibited to be imported for home use 
on pain of forfeiture, but may be warehoused for exportation only, 3 and 4 
Will. IV., c. 52 § 58, 59. 90. 

Portugal. See Part IX. 

Potatoes, cwt. . , , . , .020 



30 





15 





1 









3 


2 


30 








9 


15 





13 


13 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— lMPORTs.--Z?M/ie.?, cf-c. 103 

£ s. d. 

Potato Flour. Bv T. L., Aug. 1834. Foreign Potato Flour 
to be admitted on payment of, 100/. val. . . 20 

Tlio i)otato stulk, CDnsidored as a textiU' plant, produces in Austria a cottony flax. In Sweden 
sugar is extracted iVora its roots. By combustion its different parts yield a very consider- 
alile quantity ol' potass. Its apples, when ripe, ferment, and yield vinegar by exposure, or 
spirit by dist'illati.m. Its tubercles, made into a jmlp, arc a substitute for soap in bleacli- 
ing Cooked by steam the pDtalo is one of the most wliolesome and nutritious, and at the 
same time tlie most eounomical, of all vegetable aliments, liy different manipulations it 
furnishes two kinds of fl(mr, a gruel, and a parenchyma, which, in times of scarcity, may be 
made into bread, or applied to increase the bulk of bread made from grain ; and its starcli is 
little, if at all, inferior to tlie Indian arrow-root. Such are the numerous resources which 
this invaluable plant is calculated to furnish.— /rw/iFiirmo's il/a^Uiine. 

Pots, Melting Puts for Goldsmiths, 100 

of Stone, 1 00/. val. ..... 

Powder, Hair Powder, cwt. .... 

perfumed, cwt. .... 

Powder, not otherwise enumerated, that will serve 

the same uses as Starch, cwt. . . . .9100 

See Arrow Root, p. 48. 
Precious Stones. See Jewels, p. 83. 

Prints and Drawings, each . . . .001 
Coloured, each . . . . .002 

By C. O., Sept. 5, 1829, w here maps and prints are contained in and form part of a book, and 
serve merely to explain or illustrate the subject of the book, they are to be deemed a part 
of the work, and to be charged by weight as books : but when prints or maps are bound 
or stitched together without letter-press, or when the letter-press is merely descriptive 
of the prints or maps, they are to be charged with duty by tale, ;is prints or maps. 

By T. O., June 2, 1S30, if'satisfactory proof be adduced that prints or maps, although im- 
ported separately, do in reality form part of a work, they may be charged wiih the book 
duty by weight, but in other cases they are to be charged by tale. See Pictures, p.lOl. 

ByC.'O.l March IJ, 183,5, Post Entries may in future pass for any prints and maps which 
"may not be included in any Prime Entries, provided the officers are satisfied that no fraud 
or deception be intended. 

Drawings by travellers lor private use, upon due proof, are not charged with duty.— Ed. 

Certain Prtnis not to be Imported. — Every person who shall invent and desijijn, 
engrave, etch, or work in mezzotinto or chairo oscuro, any historical or other 
print, shall have the sole right and liberty of printing and reprinting the 
same for the term of 14 years, to commence from the da)' of the first pub- 
lishing tliereof, which shall be truly engr.ived with the name of the pro- 
prietor on each plate, and printed on every such print : and if an}' person 
whatsoever, within the time limited by this Act, shall engrave, etch, or work 
as aforesaid, or in any other manner copy and sell, in the whole or in part, 
or import /or sa/e, any such print or any part thereof, without the consent of 
the pioprietor, then such oilender shall forfeit the plate on which such print 
shall be copied, and every sheet (^being part of, or whereon such print shall 
be so copied or printed), to the proprietor of Mich original print, who shall 
forthwith destroy and damask the same ; and further, every such oiii^nder 
shall forfeit bs. for every print which shall be found in his custody, contrary 
to this Act. 8 Geo. II., c. 13, § 1. 

Proviso. — It shall be lawful for any person, who shall hereafter purchase any 
plates for printing from the original proprietors thereof, to print and reprmt 
from the said plates, without incurring any of the penalties before men- 
tioned. ^ 2. 

Prints from Pictures, SfC. — Every person who shall invent or design, engrave, 
etch, or work in mezzotinto or chairo oscuro shall have the benefit of the 
preceding Act and this Act, under the restrictions hereinafter mentioned. 
7Geo. HI., c. 38, § 1. 

Every person who shall engrave, &c. any picture, drawing, model, or sculpture, 
either ancient or modern, shall have the benefit of the said Act, and this Act 
for the term hereinafter mentioned, in like manner as if such print had been 
graved or drawn from the original design of such graver, utcher, or dralts- 
man; and if any person shall import yb>- sa/e any copy of any sui;h print, 
contrary to this and the said Act, every such person shall be liable to the pe- 
nalties in the said Act. § 2. 

Mowing Right in Proprietors. — The sole right and liberty of printing and re- 



104 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— JD«h"es, (?-c. [1837-8. 

Prints, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

in-inting, intended to be secured by the said Act and this Act, shall be cx- 
leiuk'd ill the respective proprietors, for 28 jeais, to commence from the day 
of the first publishini; of anj' of the works respectively hereinbefore and in 
the former Act mentioned. § 7. 

Copies of Prints. — If any person shall within the time limited by the aforesaid 
Acts import /or sale any copy of any print whatsoever, which hath been, or 
shall be engraved, &c. in Great Britain, without the express consent of the 
proprietor thereof, then every such proprietor may, by a special action upoia 
the case to be brought against the person so offending, recover such da- 
mages as a jury on the trial of such action, or on the execution of a writ of 
in(^uiry thereon, shall give or assess, together v/ith double costs of suit. 17 
Geo. III., c. 57. 

Ejtcusiini to United Kijigdom. — All the provisions of 17 Geo. 111., c. 57, and of 
all the other Acts therein recited, are extended to the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland. C and 7 Will. IV., c. 59, 6 1. (Aug. 13, 1836.) 

Enip-aviiig or Publishing trithout consent of Proprietor. — If any engraver, 
etcher, printseller, or other person, shall within the time limited by the 
aforesaid Acts, engrave, etch, or publish, any engraving or print of any de- 
scription whatever, either in whole or in part, which may have been, or 
Vi'hich shall hereafter be, jublished in any part of Great Britain or Ireland, 
without tlie express consent of the proprietor in writing, signed by bim in 
the presence of, and attested by two or more credible witnesses, then every 
such proprietor shall and may by a separate action on the case, to be brought 
against the person so offending in any court of law in Great Britain or Ire- 
land, recover such damages as a jury on the trial of such action, or on the 
execution of a writ of enquiry thereon, shall give or assess, together with 
double costs of suit. § 2. 

Mv.Evelyn says the art of engraving, and working off from plates of copper, did not appear till 

about ilio year 1490. — Jf'alpole's Catalogue of Engravers. 
T]ie invention of engr.aving on steel jilates seems likely to produce as important an effect on 

the fine arts as the invention of the steam-engine has produced on manufactures. — Lit. Oaz. 

Piunelloes. See Plums, p. 102. 

Prunes, cwt. . . . . . .070 

(4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89.) 

By 3 and 4 Will- IV., c. 54, o 2, Prunes, being the produce of Europe, shall not 

be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used therein, except in British 

ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods arc the produce, or in 

ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

]5y C. O., Dec. G, 18'28. on all future importations of prunes contained in cartoons and baskets, 

tlic same being inner pucka:;es, no duty is to be demanded. 
Prunes are dried plums. They are imported from the continent of Europe, chiefiy from 
France, and are used in desserts, and .-ilso medicinally. They form a considerable "branch 
of trallic.— i?rf. 

Q. 

Quassia, cwt. . . . . . . 8 17 6 

Extract or Preparation of. See extract, p. 73. 

This wood is imported in billets from the West Indies. It has a pure but intense bitter t.iste, 
which it readily imparts to water. — lirandc. 

Quicksilver, lb. . . . . . .001 

, For description of (piicksilver, sec Mercury, p. 90. 

Quills, Goose Quills, 1000 . . . .026 

■ Swan Quills, 1000 . . . . . 12 

Quills are the large feathers taken out of the end of the w ing of a goose, crow, &'c. They are 
denominated from the order in whicli Uiey are ti.xed in llie wing; the second and third 
quills being the best for writing, as tlu'V have the largest and roundest barrels. Crow quills 
are chii fly used for drawing. — Ency. Britan. 

Steel pens have greatly superseded the use of those made of quills. It is doubtful whether, 
after all, any substance can be found for writing with equal to the quill. — Ed. 

Quinces, 1000 . . . . . .010 

'J he quince tree was originally brought from Cydon in Crete by the Greeks ; but it has l)een 
found growing wild in Germany and on the rocky shores of the Danube, and is cultivated to 
great perfection in England, and many other jmrls of Europe. — Tlunnson. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)M.Ve.<r,<f-r. 105 

£ s. d. 
Quinine, Sulphate of, oz. . . . . .006 

(C and 7 Will. IV., c. CO.) 

Siilpliatea arctlie dpfinitive ('01111)01111118 of siilj)lnnicaciil wiili the salifiable bases. — Vre. 

liiarmaccutical clu'iiiis-ts have loiiu endeavoured to asceitaiu the natiirp of the ai-tive princi- 
ple of bark; to determine whether any distinet substance exists in it to which its virtue* 
are to be ascribed. It is only very lately that the discovery has been made liy Messrs I'el- 
lelier and Caventou. who have detected in Cinchonia lancifolia a peculiar substance, which 
may be called Cinchonia. — ISrandc. 

In \S22 this article was imported from France at the enormous price of five guineas an ounce. 
—EJ. 

R. 

Radix, Contrayenco, lb. . . . . .002 

Tim root <if l/ie Darstftiia Conlrnjcrvn. — Conlrajcn-a Root. — This root is importe<l from South 
America and the West Indies, where it might safely lejiiain without any loss to medi- 
cine. — Biunde. 

Enulae Campuna?, cwt. , . . .0136 

The roots of elecampane found in the shops arc generally obtained from trarden plants. 
Elecampane mot when dry has an aromatic, yet sli^'hlly fu'tid oduur ; and when chewed, 
the taste is at fust disagreeable, glutinous, and in some degree resembling that of rancid 
soap; then aromatic, bitter, and hot. — Thomson. 

Eringii,lb. . . . . . ,006 

This root is produced here, and is occasionally used in medicine and preserves. — Ed. 

IpecacuanlisD, lb. . . . . .010 

By 4 and 5 AVill. IV., c. B'J, ^ 5, no ahatcmcnt of the duties shall be made 

on account of any damage received hj' ipecacuanha. 
Uadix Ipecacuanha! is the produce of South America. Several varieties of it are occasion- 
ally met with, but that which is preferred is imiorted in bales from Kio Janeiro; it is in 
shoit wrinkled pieces, covered with a srey-brown epidermis, and having a central woody 
fibre, surrounded by a pale grey cortical part, which breaks short and resinous, and iu 
which its virtues reside; the larger, therefore, its relative proportion, the belter.— .Srnnrfe. 

■ Rhatanioo, lb. .... . 01 

Extractor Preparation of. See Extract, p. 73, 

This plant is a native of Peru. Ratanhy Boot is collected for niedieiual purposes after the 
rains. As imported, it consists of pieces of various sizes; b>it seldom exceediiig half an 
inch in thickness. The root breaks short, exhibiting in the fracture a woody centre, and 
au easily separable, fibrous, dark-red bark.— T/ioinson. 

Senekse, lb. . . . . .002 

This plant is a North .\merican perennial. The root is pale brown an<l wrinkled, and its 
virtues reside in the exterior cortical portion. — Brandc. 

Serpentarifo, or Snake Root, lb. . . .002 

This plant is a native of North America, from Pennsylvania to I'loriiKa. Dried Serpeutaria 
root is imponeil into this country in bales, each containing from two to five huiulreil 
weight. It is frequertly mixed with the roots of Collinsonia pra-eox. The dried root has 
an aromatic odour, not unlike tliat of valerian. — Tlwmson. 

Rags, Old Rags, Old Ropes or Junk, or Old Fishing Nets, 

fit only for making paper or pasteboard, ton , . 5 

Old Woollen Rags, ton . . . .010 

(G and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) 

An extensive manufacture is carried on in this neighbourhood, by which old rags are made 
into new cloth ; and to so great an extent does this manufacture prevail, that at least live 
million pounds' weight of woollen rags are yearly imported, from (jermany and other parts, 
for this purpose. Tlie rags are subjected to a machine, which tears them to pieces, and 
reduces tliem nearly to their primitive state of wool; and they are then, with a small ail- 
mixtnre of new wool, again carded, slubbed, spun, and woven; and they make a clotli not 
very strong, but answering very well for paddings, and other piirpot^es of that nature. — 
Cvrrespuiident at Leeds. 

Raisins, cwt. . . . . . . 15 

produce of, and imported from B. P., cwt. . . . 7 6 

(4 and .) Will. IV., c, 89. 6 and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) 
By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, raisins, being the produce of Euro;ie, shall not 
be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used tha-eui. exce^it in British 



106 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Z)w^/e.<r, <f-c, [1837-8. 

Raisins, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 
ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 
By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ .32, no abatement of duties shall be made on ac- 
count of any damage received by raisins. 
By 4 and 5 Will.IV.,c. 89, Raisins deposited in warehouses oi special security, 
when taken out for home use, the duty shall be charged upon the quan- 
tity actually delivered. 
Ky C. O., Nov. 27. 1821, it is st.Tte<l, tliat merchants are entitled to iitare of 4 lb. for each luilf 
box of sun raisins inipoited; and that it is the practice in London in drawing average tares 
to give the meichants a whole numb r when the fraction is half or more, but ill cases in 
whicli it does not amount to a half, then to throw it oif in favour of the crown. 
T)i:it it is not the practice in London to mark boxes of r.aisins or other articles in small packages, 

of which mure than one is weighed at a draft, with the contents at the time of l.inding. 
By T. O., 29th Nov. 1836, on the delivery for home use of Raisins deposited in warehouses of 
e.rtra security, fitted up in the proper manner, an allowance is to be made for the natural 
waste that may have arisen therein in such warehouses, not e.xceeding 3 percent, for the 
first twelve months, on the quantities ascertained at the time of the (irst entry and landing 
tile same ; and for any term, exceeding twelve mouths, an allowance not exceeding 4 per 
cent. 
Raisins are made from the varieties named the Rlaek Raisin Grape, and the White Raisin 
Grape. They are cured in two methods; either by cutting the stalk of the bunches half 
through, when the grapes are nearly ripe, and leaving them suspended on the vine till 
their watery part be evaporated, and the sun dries and candies tbera ; or by gathering the 
grapes, when they are fully lipe, and dipping them in a ley made of the ashes of the burnt 
tendrils ; after wtiich they are e.xposed to the sun to dry. Those cured in the first method 
are most esteemed. — Thomson. 

Rape Cakes, cwt. 2 

Rape Cakes are cakes made of rape seed, after extracting the oil therefrom. They are used 
for feeding cattle, and form a good manure. — Ed. 

Rape of Grapes, ton . . . . . . . 13 6 

Rape of Grapes are the vine stalks, and also the stems of the cluster dried. They are used 
in making vinegar. — Ed. 

Ratafia. See Spirits. 

Red Wood, or Guinea Wood, ton . . . . . 5 

Red or Guinea Wood is imported from the coasts of Guinea, and is used chiefly in dyeing. 
—Ed. 

Rhatany Root. See Radix Rhatanise, p. 105. 

Rhubarb, lb. . . 10 

By 4 and ,5 Will. IV., c. 89, § 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 

account of any damage received by rhubarb. 
This plant is a native of China and Tartary; the exact species of rheum, with the root of 
which we are supplied by the Chinese, seems not accurately ascertained. The varieties of 
Rhubarb, known in commerce under the names of Russian, Turkey, and Indian Rhubarb, 
are all derived from one source; the finest and most perfect pieces being sold under the 
name of Russian and Turkey Rhubarb, and the inferior ones as East Indian. In selecting 
rhubarb for the Russian market, the utmost attention is paid to its soundness; and a 
variety of curious precautious are ado)ited by that government to prevent the importation 
of any inferior kinds. The best rhubarb is in pieces of various sizes, each of which, gene- 
rally, has a hole bored through it. When cut or bioken, it exhibits a mottled texture, and 
alternate streaks of red and grey. Its odour is peculiar, its taste nauseous, bitter, and 
.astringent. — Brande. 

Ribands. See Silk. 

Rice, not being Rough and in the husk, cwt. 

Rough and in the husk, or paddy, bushel 

■ the produce of and imported from any B. P., viz. : — 

not being Rough and in the husk, cwt. 
Rough and in the husk, or paddy, qr. 

(5 and 6 Will. IV., c. Gfi.) 

■ Rough and in the husk, imported from the west coast 

of Africa, quarter . . . .■ . .001 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 
DrawJ)ack. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. h&, ^ 6, upon tlie exportation from the 
United Kingdom of any foreign rice or paddy which shall have been cleaned 






15 








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6 





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1 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM,— Imports.— Z)?<2:ze.t, cj-c. 107 

'Rice, continued, t'iz. : ~ £ s. d. 

therein, and which shall have paid the duties payable on the importation 
thereof under this act, there shall be allowed and ]iaid for every hundreil 
weif^ht thereof a drawback equal in amount to the dutj' paid on every foi;r 
bushels of the rough rice or paddy from which the same shall luive been 
cleaned. 

By § 7, such drawback upon rice so exported shall be paid and allowed only 
upon such clean rice as shall be deposited for the purpose of exportaiimi 
within one calendar month from the day on which the duty thereon had 
been paid, in some warehouse (in which tlie rice may be warehoused on im- 
portation without payment of duty), and shall there remain secured untd 
duly shipped to bj exported from such warehouse : Provided that the ex- 
porter of such rice shall make oath before the collector or comptroller that 
the rice so warehoused for exportation was cleaned from the rough rice or 
paddy upon which the duties had been so ]iaid. 

Cleaning. — It sball be lawful for the commissioners of customs, under secu- 
rity by bond to their satisfaction, to permit any rice, the product of places 
within the limits of the East India Company's charter, to be delivered out 
of warehouse to be cleaned, making such allowance for waste as to the 
commissioners shall appear to be reasonable. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, ^3.5. 

This pl.-xnt is greatly cultivated iu most of the eastern countries, wliere it is the chief support 
of the inhabitants, and great quantities of it are brought into England and other European 
couutiies every year, where.it is much esteemed for puddings, &c. — Ency. Britan. 

With trifling corruptions, rice, in its two forms ofhusl<e(l and unhusked, are known by the 
same terms (Padi, Bras) in all the variety of languages and dialects which prevail from 
Madagascar to the Philippines. Tlie best places to take in large cargoes are Indramayu, 
Cherition, Tagal, Pacalougan, .Taparo, Gressic, and Surabaia. The rice of the eastern dis- 
tricts is generally superior to that of the west The \yorst rice is that of Indramayu, whicli 
is usually discoloured. All Indian rice is classed in commercial language into the three 
descriptions of Table Rice, While Rice, and Caigo Rice. Java rice is inferior in estima- 
tion to that of Bengal or Carolina, in the markets of Europe. The low estimation of Java 
rice is not attributable to any real inferiority in the grain, but to the mode of preparing it 
lor the market. — Crawfurd. 

Rocou. See Annotto, p. 48. 
Root, Orris or Iris. See p. 89. 

other. See Radix, p. 105. 

Ropes, New. See Cordage, p. 65. 

Old. See Rags, p. 105. Coir. — See Coir, p. 63. 

Rosewood, ton (6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) . . .600 

Rosewood is produced iu the Canary Islands, the East Indies, China, Jamaica, and tlie Bra- 
zils. It takes a fine polish, and has rather a fragrant smell. It is much used by the 
cabinetmakers, especially for drawing-room furniture, and forms elegant and costly ar- 
ticles. — Ed. 

Rosin, or Colophonia, cwt. . . , .049 

produce of, and imported from B. P., cwt. . . 3 2 

Common Rosin, or Yellow Rosin, is the residue of the distillation of turpentine. It receives 
different appellations according to the mode in which the process is carried on. When the 
distillation is performed without addition, and continued to dryness, the residue is called 
Common Rosin, or Colophony, but when agitated with about "one-eighth of fresh water 
while yet fluid, it is named Yellow Rosin. — Thomson. 

Rubies. See Jewels, page 83. 

S. 
Saccharum Saturni, lb. . . . .0010 

Saccharum Saturni, or Sugar of Lead, is sometimes imported from Germany, but the ehief 
supply is now obtained from the British chemist. As a styptic it is useful, but otherwise it 
is liiglily dangerous. — Ed. 

Safflower, cwt. . . . . . .010 

Rouge is prepared from cartliamus. It is used for dyeing silk of a poppy, cherrv, rose, or 

blight orange-red. — Ure. 
;''ixteen species are natives of the South of Europe and Africa. — Ency. Mctrop. 
This is an indigenous plant of the Indian Archipelago, and is found throughout the whole of 

it. The colour which it yields is a saffron, for whicli its name indeed is the expression. — 

Crawfuid. 

Saffron, lb. . . . . . .010 

This is a perennial bulbous plant, probably a native of Asia. Good batlron should be of a 



108 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>w^/m, cf-c. [1837-8. 

Saffron, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

very bri;;ht colour, not too moist, of a warm and slightly bitter taste, and a iicciiliar odour, 
remarkably adlierinj; to the clothes. — lire. 

Sago, cwt. . . . . . .010 

A good Sago jilantation, or forest, is a liog, knee deep. There is but one species of this palm, 
but lour varieties. .Sago is an article of exportation to Europe, to India, principally bengal, 
and to China. It is iu its granulated form alone that it is ever sent abroad. The best sago 
is the produce of Siak, on ihe north coast of Sumatra. This is of a light brown colour, 
1 he grains large, and not easily broken. The sago of Borneo is the next in value. It is 
whiter, but more friable. The" produce of the Muluccas, though greatest in quantity, is of 
the smallest estimation. — Craufurd, 

Sails. See Linen, page 86. 

Sal Ammoniac, cwt. . . . . .010 

Tlic muriate of ammonia, commonly called Sal Ammoniac, comes from Kgypt and Persia. It 
is also foimd in small quantities round the volcanos of Sicily and Italy. It is likewise made 
in several countries in Europe. The great desert of Sahara appears to be a basin covereil 
with saline efllorescence; while the country watered by the Kiger is totally fiee from it. 
Brazil, in America, is destitute of salt ; while Paraguay abounds with it. This salt is rare 
iu Scandinavia, and ia the north of Russia. — Malte Brun. 

Limonum, lb. . . . . .049 

Sal Limonum is a prep;iration of lemon juice, and is scarcely ever imported. Calico printers 
and others use it. — Ed. 

Prunelle, cwt. . . . . .010 

Sal Prunelle is nitrate of potash cast into flat flakes, or round balls, after fusion. It is used 
in medicine, and also in curing provisions. — Hd. 

Salep, or Salop, cwt. . . . . .010 

Salep is the root of a species of orchis. The orchis flourishes in various parts of Europe and 
Asia, and grows in our country spontaneously, and in great abundance. Salep should be 
chosen clean, firm, and hard ; it is very little liable either to decay or sophistication. The 
people of the East are extremely fond of Salep. Salep is said to contain the greatest quan- 
tity of vegetable nourishment iu the smallest bulk. — Chambers. 

Salt ....... Free. 

Salt, one of the great divisions of natural bodies. Common salt, or sea salt, the name of that 
salt extracted from the waters of the ocean, wliich is used in great quantities for preserving 
provisions, S;c. There are few countries which do not afford vast quantities of rock or 
fossil salt. Mines of it have long been discovered and wrought in England, Spain, Italy, 
Germany, Hungary, Poland, and other countries of Euro])e. In several parts of the world, 
there .are huge mountains which wholly consist of fossil salt. The new world is likewise 
stored with treasures of this useful mineral, as well as with all other kinds of subterranean 
productions. Moreover, the sea affords such vast plenty of common salt, that all mankind 
might thence be supplied with quantities sufiicient for their occasions. There are also in- 
numerable springs, ponds, lakes, and rivers, impregnated with common salt, from which 
the inhabitants of many countries are plentifully supplied therewith. Amongst the salt 
mines of chief note are those of N'orthwich in Cheshire, Altemonte in Calabria, Halle in 
Tyrol, Cardona in Catalonia: also those stupendous mines at AVilieczka in Poland, and 
Soowar in Upper Hungary. — Ency. Britan. 

The uses of salt are numerous and important : perhaps much more so than is generally be- 
lieved or understood. In the arts, manutactures, and agriculture, it liolds a distinguished 
place among the most valuable articles emi)loycd. — Rensselaer. 

The prime cost of Salt (supplied by merchants from Bombay^ in the district of Miilabar, 
which contains a population of 900,000, is 35s. per garce ; in the district of Cauara, which 
contains a population of 850,000, where it is produced by solar evaporation, it averages 22.S-. 
These two districts jointly supply the Mysore country; aud the latter, in conjunction with 
Goa, supplies the Mahratta country. — Currcsp'mdent, Oriental Oiub. 

Saltpetre, cwt. . . . . . .006 

The bulk of .Saltpetre used in this country comes f.om the East Indies, where, at certain sea- 
sons of the year, they tiiid it deposited on tlie surface of the soil. It is swept off once or 
twice a v.eek, ai.d as often renewed. At Apulia, near Najdes, there is, according to Parker, 
a. bed containing 40 per cent, of it ; and in Switzerland the farmers extract it iu abumlanco 
from the earth under the stalls of their cattle. The goodness of saltpetre is measured by 
the angle at which light is refracted in passing through it. As the angle is less, the quality 
is better. The infeiior sort contains common salt: it is tested .at Apothecaries' Hall, and 
the several refractions denoting the quality arc marked upon the bags. — Qiiar. Juur. nf Agr 

Sample.?. See under the names of the several articles, also 

under Patterns, page 100. 
Sanguis Draconis, cwt. . . . . .040 

The astiingent juice, known iu commerce by the name of Dragon's Blood, is the produce of 
several American plants, which do not belong to the same genus. At I.aguiia, tooihi.icks 
steejied in llie juiw of the dragon tree are made in the nunneries, and are much extidled as 
highly useful for the preservation of the gums.— i/wintc/Wf. 



1B37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— lMP0RTS.-D«//e9, c^'C. 109 

.€ s. (K 
Santa Maria Wood, 100/. value . . . . 20 

'I'liis wood li:is rocently l)i'cn iiitroducod into this country from Ilomliiras.and is used by bli;i)- 
buildi-rs— AV. 

Sapun Wood, ton . . . . .010 

Snpan Wood is simi'iir to Urazil wood, and is ajiplicd to the lilie piiriioses. It is pro.liiccd in 
Soiitli America, Jajian.and Coiliin China. It i< cmijloycd not ouiy in bnilding. but liku- 
wise in tlie nialiiny of small articles, such as cabinets, boxes, Sic—Ed. 

Sarsaparilla, lb. . . . . . G 

By 4 an<l 5 Will. IV.. c. 89, (> 5, no abatement of tbe duties sball be made on 

account of any damage received by sarsaparilla. 
Several kinds of Sarsaiiaiilla root are occasionally imported from Sonlli America. Tliat whii-h 
is preferred is in long slender vuntieri!, issuing from a common stem: it is bound up iii 
bundles of various sizes, which very frecinently contain e.ttraneous substances in tlu'ir in- 
terior, or fa^fjots of i-utten and decayed roots. Tliis variety is distinguished as Lisbon sarsa- 
parilla; it is the produce of the Brazilian settlements of Peru and Astaranham, in South 
America. — Bmnrie. 

Sassafras, cwt. . . . , . .020 

The wood of this tree, which is very common in most parts of North America, is yellowish 
and odoriferons, of a brisk, aromatic scent, somewhat resembling,' fennel. The Lii^num Sas- 
safras, and cliiefly its bark, wherein its principal virtue is supposed to reside, as it doi's, also 
in the smaller twii;s more than in the larger pieces, was formerly sold at an incredible price, 
to be u-ed with sarsaparilla and China-root. Choose that covered with a thick bark, red- 
dish, and roufjh, of a sliarp taste, and a strone aromatic smell. — CImmhers. 

Recently the sassafras tree has been discovered in yreat quantities in the island of Banca, 
and cut down for commercial purposes. — Crawfurd. 

Satin Shoes and Bouts, New. See Boots, page 54. 

having been worn. See Baggage, page 50. 

in general. See Silk. 

Saunders, Rod, ton . . . . .010 
White or Yellow, cwt. . . . .010 

There are three diflerent woodsbrouyht under this name from the East Indies, in larsje billets, 
and said to be the produce chiefly of the island of Timor, in the Indian Ocean. Tlie Yellow 
Saunders is of a i)ale yellowish or brownish colour, close even grain, pleasant smell, and 
bitterish, aromatic puu;;ent taste. The White Saunders is of a paler w hitish colour; and 
being far weaker thiiu the other, promises little medicinal virtue, and has bi'en long ne- 
glected. Tlie Red Saunders is of a dull red, almost blackish colour ou the outside, and 
deep brighter red wilhin: its fibres are occasionally curled, as in knots. — Chambers. 

Sausages or Puddings, lb. . . . .004 

The most esteemed confection of this kind is the Bologna sausage, which is much thicker 
than the common one, and is made with mucli success in some cities in Italy, particularly 
Bologna, Venice, &c , whence great <iuautilies are exported to other places. — Rccs. 

Scaleboards, cwt. . . • . .382 

Scaleboards are very thin boards used in printing, and in the making of hat boxes. — Ed. 

Scammony, lb. . . . . . .026 

This is a common plant in Syria: its roots furnisli, by incision, a milky juice, which con- 
cretes into the sc.innnony of commerce, a substance chiefly imported from Aleppo. It oc- 
curs in \ery various states of puiity: and an extremely inferior and evidently adulterated 
article is l)rou;;ht from Smyrna in cukes. Aleppo Scammony comes into tlie market iu 
packages called drums, weighin;,' about lOOlb. each. A fictitious article, composed of jalap, 
senna, manna, gamboge, and ivory black, is sometimes sold for scammony. The colour 
of good scammony iu powder is light greenish-giey. — Biiiude. 

Sculptures or Models first made in the United Kingdom, 
copies of casts of, prohibited to be imported on pain of for- 
feiture. 6 Geo. IV., c. 107, § 53. 

Seed, Acorns, bushel . . . . .010 

The nut or fruit of the oak tree. They m.ake one of the best substitutes for coffee when 
scorched brown over a slow fire. In Kngland, at this lime, they are principally given to 
poultry and hogs for fattening. — Ency. Mctrop. 

Arami, or Aramios, lb. . . . . fi 

Amnd or Ammios Seed comes from .Mexamlria and Crete occasionally, though it is rarely 
imported, and is of little use. — Ed. 

Aniseed, cwt. . . . . .050 

The taste of.Vnisecd is warm and sweet : it should be free from mustiness. and, when rubbed 
iu the han.jis exhales its peculiar aio;na1ic odour, The small and more compact seed. 



110 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)M<«e*, c^c. [1837-8. 

Seed, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

imported from Spain, is usually preferred to the lighter and larger kind, which is the 
growth of this country. — Brande. 

Burnet, cwt. - . . . . .10 

Liuufeus reckons throe, and Miller four species. All these sorts are hardy perennial plants, 
and will thrive in almost any soil or situation. — Chambers. 

Canary, cwt. . . . . .300 

Canary Seed is a well-known seed, used as food for singing birds, originally procured from 
the Canary Islands. The chief, if not the only supply, is obtained from this country. — Ed. 

Caraway, cwt. . . . . .110 

The seedfi are used by the London confectioners and bakers, as well as for medicinal pur- 
poses. — Thomson. 

Carrot, lb. . . . . . .009 

The sensible qualities of the root of the cultivated carrot are well known: it contains 
chiefly mucilage and sugar. The seeds of the wild variety have an aromatic odour, and 
.•I warm pungent taste: qualities depending on an essential oil, which may be separated 
by distillation with water. — Thomson. 

Carthamus, lb. . , . . .006 

This is the seed of the safflower plant. See Safllower. — Ed. 

Castor. See Nuts, pasje 93. 

Cevadilla. See Sebadilla Seed, page 111. 

Clover, cwt. . . . . .10 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, clover seed, heiiif^ the produce of Europe, 
shall not be imported into the United Kingdom, lo be used therein., except 
in British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the pro- 
duce, or in ships of tlie country from which the goods are imported. 
Clover Seed is universally known, and is imported chiefly from France and the Nether- 
lands. — Ed. 

Cole, quarter . . . . .010 

Cole Seed is produced from a plant of the cabbage kind. It is used in feeding rattle. The 
seed yields a good oil, and the refuse makes manure. — Ed. 

Coriander, cwt. . . . . .0150 

This plant is an aunual, a native of Italy; but is now found wild in some parts of this 
country. The dried seeds have a grateful, aromatic odour, and a moderately warm, pun- 
gent taste ; qualities which depend on an essential oil, that can be obtained separate 
by the distillation of the seeds with water — Thomson, 

Cummin, cwt. . . . . .020 

This plant is an annual, a native of Egypt, but cultivated in great abimdance in Sicily and 
Malta; whence the seeds are brought to this country. Cummin seeds have a strong, 
peculiar, heavy odour, and a warm, bitterish, disagreeable taste. — Thomson. 

Fennel, cwt. . . . . .020 

Fennel is a bicnni:il plant, originally found in the south of Europe only, but now growing 
abundantly on our chalky soils and cliffs, and flowering in July and August. There are 
three varieties of lenuel ; the root of the first of which, the common fennel, and the seed 
of the second, the sweet fennel, aru oflicinal. The roots found in the shops are the pro- 
duce of our own country, and are taken up in the spring; but the seeds are generally 
imported from Italy. — Ed. 

Fennugreek Seed, cwt. . . . .096 

The southern parts of Europe produce the plant from which this seed is obtained. It is 
used in pharmacy. — Ed. 

■- Flax, quarter . . . . .010 

By T. L., Dec. 29, 1832, their lordships permit the introduction of flax seed from Holland 
in neutral vessels. 

The best seed is that brought from the east country, particularly from Riga, whence great 
quantities are imported. This is short, roundish, firm, oily, heavy, and of a shining or 
clear brown colour, which, though dear, repays the charges with abundance 

The Siberian perennial flax answers very well for making common strong Unen ; but the 
thread spun fi-om this is not so fine or white as that produced lioni the common sort. — 
Rees. 

Forest, lb. . . . . . .006 

Garden, not particularly enumerated or described, nor 

otherwise charged with duty, lb. . . .006 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— l'MroRTS.—Z>z<//e*, ^-c. Ill 

Seed, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Grass of all sorts, cwt. . . . .10 

Hemp, quarter . . . . .010 

Ilemp seed is impoitod for sowing, for feeding birds, and for extracting oil therefrom. I'lax 
and hemj) seed a,e of great importance in the manufacture of linen, which in this coiuUry 
is now broui;ht to a great pitch of excellence. — Ed. 

Leek, lb. . . . . . . 1 G 

Lettuce, (juarter . . . . .010 

Linseed, quarter . . . . .010 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV.. c. .54, § 2, linsied lieinj^ the produce of Kiu-ope shall 
not be imjiovted into the United Kingdom, to he used therein, except iu 
British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the pro(hice, 
or in ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

Lucern, cwt. . . . . .10 

It is the same plant which the ancients weru so fond of under the na'me of Medica. This is 
the only plant in the worlil whose hay is preferalile to the saintfoin for the fattening of 
cattle. — Chambers. 

Maw, cwt. . . . . . .300 

Maw seed is used as food for birds. It has been thonght to have similar properties as the 
poppy seed. — Ed. 

Millet, cwt, . . . . . .0116 

One sort grows naturally in India, but is now cultivated in many parts of Europe as an escu- 
lent grain. Tlie other grows naturally at La Vera Cruz. The common millet was origin- 
ally brought from the eastern countries, where it is still greatly cultivateil, whence we are 
furnished annually with this grain, which is by many persons greatly esteemed for pud- 
dings, &c. — C/imnhers. 

■ Mustard, bushel . . . . .08 

Although the seeds of two species of mustard differ in their botanical characters, yet tliey 
agree in otlier respects, the caramon being only rather more pungent; and they may be indis- 
criminately employed. Reduced to a fine powder, they form the common comliment every 
day used at our tatjles. — Thomson. 

Miller reckons four, and Linna;us nine species.— Chnmhers. 

Onion, lb. . . . . . .016 

Pen, Indian. — By O, C, Aug. 9, 1836, Indian Pea is to be admitted to entry as an article not 
enumerated in the table of duties, and not in any degree manufactured, whether it be 
imported whole or after the seed has been extracted, viz., the 100/. val., 51. 

Parsley, lb. . 

Piony, or Peony, lb. . 

Quince, lb. . 

Rape, quarter ..... 

By 3 and 4 ^Yill. IV., c. 54, § 2, rape seed, being the produce of Europe, 
shall not be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used therein, except in 
British ships, or in ships ol' the country of which the goods are the produce, 
or in the ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

— — Sebadilla, or Cevadilla, cwt. . . . .040 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

Shrub or Tree not otherwise enumerated, lb. . . 6 

Trefoil, cwt. . ... . . .100 

Miller enumerates twelve, Linnipus forty species. The species commonly cultivated in the 
open lields for the food of cattle are the Red Dutch Clover, the White Dutch Clover, and 
the Hop (Clover. — Chambers. 

■ Worm, cwt. . . . . . .026 

Worm seed is a hot, bitter, drying kind of seed, proper to destroy worms generated in a hu- 
man body, and particidarly in children. This seed is light, small, of a brownish colour, 
an oblong figure, a bitter taste, and a strong smell. It must be chosen new, greenish, of a 
sharp, biUer, aromatic taste, not a little disagreealV.e. The place where it is produced is 
Persia, about the frontiers of Muscovy. It is brought to us from Aleppo, &c. — Chambers. 

• All Seeds not particularly enumerated nor otherwise 

charged with duty, commonly made use of for extracting' 

Oil therefrom, quarter . . . . .010 

All other Seeds not particularly enumerated, nor other- 
wise charged with duty, 100/. val. . . . 30 

By C. O., Oct. 1'2, 1818, seeds, &c. for the Horticultural Society may be delivered dutyfree. 






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112 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)«^?>5, ^r. [1837-8. 

£ *. d. 

Segars. See Tobacco, Manufactured. 

Sena, lb. . . . . . . .000 

By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, 6 5, no abatement of the duties shall be made on 

account of any damage received by sena. 
The European mail;et is su])jjlied witli sena leaves from Alexaiidiia, whither Uiey are brought 
from Upper E^ypt; and alter ha%'iu){ been mixed and adulteiated witli leaves of the Cy- 
naiiehum oleafolium, or Argel, and occasionally also with the leaves of bladder scua, box, 
and some others, they are packed in bales for exportation. It is difficult to desciibe 
the cliar.icters which should guide us in the selection and purchase of sena; amoni,' 
them we may enumerate a bright fresh colour, and au agreeable smell somewhat ve?embliiig 
that of green tea. It should not be too largely mixed w ith stalks, seed pods, and other ex- 
traneous matter, nor very much broken, nor very dusty. — Brande. 

Shaving for Hats, See Platting, p. 102. 

Sheep, prohibited to be imported for home use on pain of for- 
feiture, but may be warehoused for exportation only. 
3 and 4 Will, IV., c. 52, ^^ 58. 

European Sheep. — Nearly every country in Europe has its own race of sheep. These again 
are subdivided into peculiar varieties, arising from difference of climate, food, treatment, 
and intermixture. European sheep vary considerably in size and form; but the most im- 
portant difference is in the quantity and quality of the wool, it being thin in some, dense in 
others, coarse or fine, more or less elastic, &c. &c. Of the German sheep there are the 
following varieties : — The Friesland, about throe feet high and four in length, producing 
a coarse wool about four or five inches long. It is found in the marshes of Schleswick, near 
Husum, in Friesland, in the environs of Itremen, in Holland, itc. ; and if put upon inferior 
pasture soon degenerates and becomes smaller. Tlie tlyderstaedt, which is somewhat smaller, 
having long wool on the back, and very short hairs on the belly and thighs. The Suabi:iu, 
also termed Zaubelscliaaf, found in different parts ofSuabia and Francouia. It is small, 
and produces about two pounds of fine wool, like flock silk. The heather sheep, also called 
Heidschnucke.oue of the smallest kinds, found on the heath of Lunebourg,in the environs 
of Hremen and the Mark. It is clipjied twice a-year, yielding each time about a pound 
and a lialf of long course wool. This method of twice clipping has been generally acfopied 
in large flocks amongst sheep bearing a secondary quality of wool. The Spiegelschaafe, found 
in Mecklenburg, Franconia, &:c.. with a bine woolly ring round the eyes, may be considercil 
a species of German sheep, produced by intermixture. The Polish sheep resembles llie 
German sheep in size and wool. The Danish is distinguished by a smooth head, erect ears, 
and wild disposition. The wool is coarse, mingled with stiff" h*irs. The Swedish, a cross 
breed of the Spanish, lias lately been much improved. It had originally but little wool, 
and that of a coarse quality. The Uelgian, Flemish, and Flanders sheep are nearly five 
feet in length, and weigh about two cwt. The wool is middling. The Dutch sheep are a 
species of them. The Hungarian sheep, like the Moldavian, have a very long, coarse, and 
inferior wool, and the flesh is very fat and unpalatable. — Ed. 

The Huniah is a large tall breed, with slender, compressed, spirally-twisted horns, and short 
narrow tail. Though now naturalised in the Kacluir, it is of Trans-Himalayan origin. The 
colour is almost invariably white. Individuals of this species are apt to have three, four, 
and even five horns. The Huuiah cannot bear the heat of Nepal, south of the northern 
division of .\sia, and will doubtless flourish in Enijland, where the experiment is making 
of naturalising it. The wool is sujierb. — Athencettm. 

Shells. Mother-of- Pearl. See p. 91. 

Ships, to be broken up, with their tackle, apparel, and fur- 
niture, except Sails, viz, : — 

Foreign Ships, 100/. val. . . . . 50 

British Ships entitled to be registered as such, not 

having been built in the United Kingdom, 100/. val. . 15 

As to the Ships in which goods may be imported, 

see page 2. 

ff'rerk.i.—Ky C. O., Dec. 16, 1S35, no higher duty i- chargeable upon the nrpcks of " Briiish 
ships or vessels entitled to be registered as such, not having been built in the United King- 
dom'' than is payable on sucdi ships wlieu to be broken up, \ii. fifteen percent, nd valorem. 

Duty payable upon " Ships to he broken wp."— By T. L., Jan. 11, 1S3C), the dutv of 20 per cent, 
to he levied ; but in every case where such inJlulgence shall be claimed, a strict and specific 
investigation to be made by the officers of customs, in order to guard against imposition. 

Shoes, New. See Boots, p. 54. 

having been worn. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Shrubs. See Plants, p. 102. 

Shumack, ton . . , . . .010 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., "c. 54, § 2, Shumack being the produce of Europe sh.ill 

not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in 

British ships, or in ships of tlie country of which the good.s are the produce, 

or in ships of the country from which tlie goods are imported. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM —Imports. -ZJi^Z/V^, c^.^. 113 

Shumac, continued, viz. : — £ .9. d. 

Cummon Shiim:ic is a slinib thiit grows naturally in Syria, Palastiiie, Spain, anil l'ortii;»al. 
In the two last, it is ciiUivated witli jjreat care. Its shoots are cut down every year unite lo 
the root ; and, after bein^' dried, they arc reduced to powder by a mill, and thus (uep ired 
for the purposes of dyeing and tanning. The shuraac cultivated in the neighbourhood of 
Moutpelier is called redoul or roudon. — Urc. 

Silk. Kiuibs or Huiks of Silk and Waste Silk, cwt. 

Raw Silk, lb. ..... 

Thrown Silk, not dyed, viz. : — 

Singles, lb. ..... 

Tram, lb. . 

Organzine or Crape Silk, lb. . , . 

Thrown Silk, dyed, viz.: — 

Singles or Tram, lb. . . . , 

Organzine or Crape Silk, lb. . . . 

Manufactures of Silk, or of silk mixed with any other 

material, the produce of Europe, viz. : — 

Silk, or Satin, plain, lb. .... 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Silk or Satin, Figured or Brocaded, lb. 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Gauze, Plain, lb. . 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Gauze, Striped, Figured, or Brocaded, lb, 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 1 00/. val. 
Crape, Plain, lb. ..... 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Crape, figured, lb. . 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Velvet, Plain, lb. ..... 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/, val. 
Velvet, Figured, lb. .... 

or, and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. 
Ribands, Embossed or Figured with Velvet, lb. 
or, and at the option of the olficers*. 100/. val. 
and further, if mixed with Gold, Silver, or other 
Metal, in addition to the above rates, when the 
duty is not charged, according to the value, lb. . 
Fancy Silk, Net or Tricot, II). 
Plain Silk Lace or Net, called Tulle, sq. yd. 

Manufactures of Silk, or of Silk mixed with any 

other material, the produce of and imported from B. P., 
■within the limits of tlie East India Company's Charter, 
100/. val. . . . . . . 20 

By T. O., Feb. and April, 1S19, and .\ng. 1825, patterns and samples of silk, useful only as 
such, are dtiti/frce. 

Manufactures of silk, beinj^thc inamifactures of Europe, unless into the port of 
Lou<lon, or into the port of Dublin direct from Bordeaux, or into the port of 
Dover direct from Calais, or into Dover from 15uulogne, and iniless in a ship 
or vessel of seventy tons, or upwards, or into the port of Dover in a vessel 
of the burden of sixty tons at least, with licence of the commissioners of 
customs, prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV'., 
c. 5-2, ^ 58.-4 and 5 Will. I\^, c. 89, vS 6. 

Stockings, Shoes, and Gloves, having been worn. See 

Baggage, p. 50. New, See Boots, p. 54. 

It shall be lawful for the cumm.ssiouers of customs to permit any stuffs or 
fabrics of silk, linen, cotton, or wool, or of any mixture of them with any 
other material, to be taken out of the warehouse to be clean.'d, lelresbed, 
dyed, stained, or calendered, or to be bleached or printedj without payment 

• Oflicers of Customs to bo understood in all these casea. 






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3 








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25 











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114 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dm^«<?;?, (f^c. [1837-8. 

Silk, contijiued, viz. : — £ s. d- 

of duty of customs, under security; nevertheless, by bond to their satis- 
faction, that such goods shall be retiuned to the warehouse within the time 
that they shall appoint. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 37, § 35, 

Millinery of Silk or of which the greater part of the 

raaterials is of Silk, viz. : — 

Turbans or Caps, each .... 
Hats or bonnets, each .... 

Dresses, each . . ■ . 

Oi; and at the option of the officers*, 100/. val. . 
Manufactures of Silk, or of Silk and any other mate- 
rials, not particularly enumerated, or otherwise charged 
with duty, 100/. val. . . . . . 30 

Articles of Manufactures of Silk, or of Silk and any 

other material, wholly or in part made up, not parti- 
cularly enumerated, or otherwise charged with duty, 
100/. value . . . . . . 30 

Worm Gut, 100/. value . . . . 20 

The silk worm is a native of China, and the culture of silk, in ancient times, was entirely 
confined to that country, where, we are told, that the empresses, surrounded by their women, 
employed their leisure hours in the reeling of silk, and in the weaving of silk tissues and 
veils. Vast quantities of raw silk are annually imported into this country from I'engal, 
China,' Italy, and Turkey. The raw silk thus imported is, however, too slender in the 
thread for the weaving of most articles ; the greater part of it is therefore sent to a mill to 
be thrown, as it is termed. All kinds of silk, which are simply drawn from the cocoons by 
reeling, are termed raw silk, hni are distinguished by several denominations, according to 
the number of fibres which compose the thread. As raw silk is very rarely used without 
being dyed, it is necessary to prepare the thread for that process, by giving it a twist, which 
enables it to withstand the eflect of the hot liquor, without separating the fibres, or furring 
it up. The silk yarn employed by the weavers for the woof or weft of the stuffs they fabri- 
cate is composed of two or more threads of the raw silk, and undergoes a slight twisting by 
a machine. In the weaving of silk stockings, the thread employed is of the same kind, but 
contains a greater number of the single threads, accordingto tlie strength and quality of the 
work. Organzine silk is composed of two, three, or four threads of raw silk united, by first 
twisting separately each component thread in a mill, in a right-handed direction ; and 
then, by a subsequent operation, twisting the two threads together in a contrary direction. — 
Register of the Arts and Sciences. 

China Silks. — The Chinese will not even pack silks for exportation in damp weather ; that is 
to say, unless they are hurried to do it by the strangers who have business with them, and 
wish to get their ships away sooner than ordinary. I liave known a ship detained tliree 
weeks longer th.an the captain wished at Canton, because the security-merchant would not 
pack the silks which formed part of her cargo until the weather became favourable. This 
will account, in some measure, not only for the permanency and beauty of the dye, but like- 
wise for the care that is taken to preserve it. The Chinese say that if newly-dyed silks be 
packed before they are perfectly dry, or in damp weather, they will not only lose their 
brightness of colour, but will also become spotted. They may have some secret in the spin- 
ning and tissue of silks, which we know nothing of, but certainly not in dyeing them. — 
Dobell. 

The Italian Silks preserve their ancient reputation in the markets of Britain ; but they have 
now formidable rivals. The attention paid by the Eiist India Company and other oriental 
merchants to the silks of India and China — their low prices — their improving qualities — 
have tended to shift the position of Italian silks for the English demand, and will continue 
to influence it. From 1800 to 1814, the average importation of silk into London was 
786,280 Italian lb. of Italian silk, and only 538,483 lb. of Asiatic silk ; while from 1815 to 
1834, the .average of Italian silk imported was 1,446,519 Italian lb., and of Asiatic silk, 
1,572,0511b. Thus the increase of Italian silk has been 84 per cent., and that of Asia 192 
per cent, or more than double. In other words, the importation of Ilaliiin silks, from 1802 
to 1814, was 50 per cent- more in amount than the importations from Asia, while tlie average 
since 1815 has been 8 per cent, more from Asia than from Italy. — Report on the Statistics of 
Tuscany, Lucca, the Pontifical and I,ombardo-Venetian States. By J. Bowrino, LL.D. 

Culture of Silk in the JFest Indies. — A specimen of raw silk produced in Guadaloupe has been ex- 
hibited on 'Change, being the first produce of that island, and the sample has excited much 
interest in the trade, the filature being exceedingly fine, and the cocoons larger than those 
produced either in Italy or India. The fact that silk can be raised in the colony referred to 
is of more importance, as it is understood that the attention of some of our West India 
planters has been drawn to the subject of rearing the silkworm in our own colonies, which 
might in some degree take the place of sugar cultivation. — Ed. 

Skins, Furs, Pelts, and Tails, viz. :— 

skin, in commerce, a term particularly used for this membrane, stripped off the animal, to be 
prepared by the tanner, skinner, currier, parchment-maker, &c., and converted into 

* Officers of Customs to be understood. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)m^i>*, ^c. 115 

Skins, &c., continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

leather, S:o. The use of skins is very ancient, tlie first garments in the world having been 
made of skin. Tlie Danes and other northern nations huve a long time dressed themselves 
in skins. — Rees. 

• Badger, undressed, skin . . . .006 

Bear, undressed, skin . . . .040 

undressed, imported from any B. P. in America, 



skin . . . . . . .026 

The skin of the ISear is a vahiable fur. The skins of the white bears are of great use to those 
who travel in winter. They are dressed, even at Spitzbergen, by steeping them in warm 
water, which extracts the grease ; and they are afterwards dried. Gerard de Veira asserts 
that, after killing one of these bears, he measured the skin, and found it to be 23 feet long, 
which is more than triple the length of the common bear. Tlie polar bear is of great use to 
the Greenlanders, who split his tendons into threads for sewing, and make boots, shoes, and 
gloves of his skin. — Buffim. 

- — Beaver, undressed, skin . . . .008 
undressed, imported from any B. P. in Ame- 
rica, skin . . . . . .004 

By C. O., Jan. 15, 1824, pieces of Beaver skins, from the British Colonies, to pay duty as 
follows, viz. : to weigh pieces of beaver skins against whole skins upon so many as are 
required to balance the weight of the pieces, on future importation, and charge duty on so 
many whole skins. 

Beaver, the fur or skin of an amphibious animal, called the Castor, or Beaver, sometimes found 
in France, Germany, and Poland, but most abundantly in the province of Canada in North 
America. — Chambers. 

Beaver skins are important articles in commerce, being used in the manufacture of hats ; the 
short downy part of the fur, which is close to the body, and covered by the long coarse 
hair, being employed for that purpose ; but it is generally mixed with the downy fur of 
other animals. Tlie black skins are esteemed the most valuable, but the general colour is a 
darkchesiiut brown. White beavers are very rare. The Hudson's Company have at one 
sale sold more than 54,600 skins. They are named differently according to their quality. 
Coat beaver is what has been worn by the Indians as coverlets. Parchment beaver, 
because the lower side resembles parchment ; and Stage beaver, which is the worst, is that 
killed out of season, when the Indians are on journeys. — Eney. Metrop. 

Calabar. See Squirrel Skins, p. 120. 

Calf, viz. :— 

in the Hair, not Tanned, Tawed, Curried, or in 

any way dressed, viz.: — 

dry, the cwt. . . . . .048 

wet, the cwt. . . . . .024 

the produce of and imported from the West 
Coast of Africa, each skin not exceeding 7 lb. the cwt. . 2 4 

produce of and imported from B. P., viz. : — 

dry, the cwt. ..... 

wet, the cwt. ..... 

Tanned, and not otherwise dressed, the lb. 






2 


4 





1 


2 








9 








4* 





1 


2 








7 





1 











6 





1 


6 








9 



produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

■ — ■ — Cut or Trimmed, lb. . . . . 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . 

Tawed, Curried, or in any way Dressed (not tanned 

hides), lb. ..... . 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

Cut or Trimmed, lb. . 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. 

By T. L., May 13, 1837, the higher duty to be charged upon those skins only which have been 
rounded by the separation of the flanks and thinner parts liom tlie bodies of the skins, and 
that the cutting away of small parts or jagged edges of the skiu does not constitnte a 
cutting or trimming in the intention of the Act. 

Calves, beside their flesh, afford two sorts of commodities for trade, namely, the hide and the 
hair. Calf-skins, in the leather manufacture, are prepared and dresseil by the tanners, 
skinners, and curriers, wlio sell them for the use of the shoemakers, saddlers, bookbinders, 
and other artificers, who employ them in their several manufactures. (!alf-skin dressed in 
shumac denotes the skin of this animal curried black on the hair side, and dyed of an 
orange colour on the flesh side, by means of shumac, chiefly used in the making of belts. — 
Chainhers. 

Cat, undressed, skin . . . . .001 

I 2 






1 











2 








1 



116 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>«^/e5, ^r. [1837-S. 

Skiss, Sec, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Of all spotted animals, the robe of tho male Ocelot or Mexican Cat is unquestionably tho 
mo3t beautiful and tlie most elegantly variegated. Uiit in the female Ocelot the colours 
are fainter and tlie design more irregular. The Margay, or Cayenne Cat, is much smaller 
tlian the Ocelot. In size and flgure he resembles the w'ild cat. Tlie tiger-cat skin, like that 
of the ounce, is very much spotted. Tlie Pichou is a kind of cat as tall as a tiger, but not 
so thick : his skin is equally beautiful: he is not very common iu Louisiana. There is 
still another animal of this genus, which the furriers call Guepard: his fur, which is of a 
very pale yellow colour, is speckled, like that of the leopard, with black spots, but they are 
smaller and nearer each other. The Wild Cat of New Spain is nearly three feet high, and 
more than four in length ; its hair is so stiff, that pencils may be made of it with a firm 
point. A considerable traffic is carried on in cats' skins. Spain furnishes a great number, 
but tho chief quantity comes from Russia, which are exported from that country to 
different parts of Europe, and also to China. — Buff'on. 

Chinchilla, undressed, skin . . . ,003 

Cony, undressed, 100 skins . . . .010 

Greece and Spain seem to be the only places in Europe where rabbits anciently existed. 
Tlieiice they were transported into more temperate regions ; as Italy, France, Germany, 
Britain, where they are now naturalized. We find them in the mcSst southern parts of 
Asia and Africa ; as along the Persian Gulf, the Bay of Saldana, in Libya, Senegal, and 
Guinea. They are likewise found in the American islands, where they have been brought 
from Europe, and have succeeded extremely well. Tlieir furs form a considerable article 
in the niauufacture of hats ; and such part of the fur as is unlit for that purpose has been 
found as good as feathers for stuffing beds and bolsters. — Buffon and Pennant. 

Deer, undressed, skin . . . .001 

undressed, produce of and imported from any 

B. P. in America, 100 skins 

Indian, half dressed, skin 

undressed or shaved, skin . ■ . 

The number of Matacani, or Little Deer, is so considerable in tho Llanos, that a trade nii-ht 
be carried on with their skins. A skilful hunter would kill more than twenty a-day ; but 
the indolence of the inhabitants is such, that often they will not give themselves the trouble 
of taking the skin. The trade in these skins is carried on, but on a very insi^nilicaut 
scale, at Carora and at Barquesimeto. — liumbuldt. 

Deer skin, when properly dressed, is an excellent defence ag.ainst the cold; for when the 
hair is outmost, neither cold nor rain can penetrate it. The skin of the deer makes a very 
pliable .and useful leather. — Bu/fon. 

It is a curious fact, that if the rein-deer skin be exposed to s.altwater, the hair falls off, unless 
the fur be immediately well rubbed with snow. — A. Do Cupel Brooke. 

Do^, in the Hair, not Tanned, Tawed, or in any way 

Dressed, doz. skins . . . . .002 

The Isatis, or Arctic Do;;, is called the Cross Fox. Dogs are killed for tho sake of tlieir skins 
both in Asia and Hudson's Bay; the fur is liglit and warm, but not durable. The tips of 
their tails are always black; those of the common foxes are always while. The (iieeii- 
landers preserve the skin for tratlic. They also make buttons of the skins, and split the 
tendons, and make use of them instead of thread. The blue furs are much more esteemed 
than the while. The New Zealanders are very careful of tlioir dogs, feed them with fish, 
and wlien fat, kill them for tho sake of their flesh and skin. The jiair is used fir orna- 
mental purposes. — Biiffhn. 

On the southern bank of the Cano, between the tributary streams Barapara and Oclie, lies 
the almost mined mission of San Miguel de la Tortuga. The Indians assured ns that the 
environs of this little niissiun abound in otters with a very fine fur, called by the Portuguese 
Water-dogs. — Humboldt. 

Dog Fish, undressed, the doz. skins . . .052 

undressed, of British taking and imported direct 

from Newfoundland, doz. skins . . . .001 
Elk, in the Hair, not Tanned, Tawed, Curried, or in 

any way Dressed, skin . . . . .010 

111 F.uropo and Asia the elk is found only on this side, and the rein-deer beyond, the polar 
circle. In America we meet with them iu lower latitudes, because tlirre the cjld is greater 
than iu Europe. The elk approaches not so near the pole, but inlial)its Norway, Swedi'ii, 
Poland, Lilliiiania, Russia, Siberia, and Tartary, as far as tlie north of China. In (Jaiiada, 
and in all the nortliern parts of America, we meet with the elk. under the name of the 
Original, and the rein-deer under that of C.aribou. The elk is talk'r thaji a horse. Ills 
liair is commonly grey, sometimes yellow, and as long as a man's linger. In general, llu; 
elk is mncli larger and stronger than the slag or reindeer. His hair is so rough, and his 
skin so hard, that it is hardly i.enetrable by a muskLa-ball.— L' {//om. 

Ermine, undressed, skin . « . ,003 

Dressed, skin • . • ,008 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— lMroRT9.—I>M/?V*, <$-c. 117 

Skins, &c., continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

The wcasi'l v itli a black tail is callcil the Ermine, finil Tlosclet by the French. In Nurway 
the ermine lives among the frajjnirnts of rocks. This .mimnl seems to brlonK to llie weasel 
tribe ; his skin is white, except tlie tail, \vliich is spotted •v.\\\\ black. The furs of Norway 
and Lapland preserve their wliileness better than those of Russia, which Booncr turn 
Yellowish; and for this reason the former are of greater reijuest, even at Pelersbureh. 
—Biiffon. 

Fisher, undressed, skin . . . .006 

undressed, imported from B. P. in America, skin 3 

For the description of Fisher-skins, seo Sable-Bkins, they being only different names for the 
same article. — Ed. 

Fitch, undressed, doz. skins . . . .020 

Tltc Polecat, Fitchet, or Foumart.— TXw length of this animal is about seven inches, exclusive 
of the tail; that of the titil six. The i-ic!es arc covered with hairs of two colours, the ends 
of which are of a blackish hue, like the other parts; the middle of a full tawny colour. 
Though the smell of the polecat, when alive, is rank and disaijree.ible, even to a proverb, 
yet the skin is dressed w ith the hair on, and used as other furs for tippets, &c., and also to 
line clothes. — Rces. 

Fox, undressed, skin . . ..008 

undressed, imported from any B. P. in America, 



skin 4 

Tails, undressed, 100^. val. . . .500 



In Norwav there are white, bay, and black foxes, and others which have two black lines on the 
reins. The latter kind, and those which are wholly black, are most esteemed. These furs 
are a considerable article of commerce. From the port of Bei-gen alone more than 4,000 
foxes' skins are annually exported. — Biiff'un. 

— Goat, raw or undressed, doz. skins • . ,006 

■ tanned, the doz. skins . . ..200 

Goat Skin is more valuable than that of the sheep. Goats are So numerous in Norway, that 
from the port of Uergen alone 80,000 raw hides are annually exported, without reckoning 
those which have been dressed. The skin is peculiarly well adapted for the glove manu- 
factory, especially that of the kid; abroad it is dressed and made into stockings, bed-ticks, 
bolsters, bed hangings, sheets, and even shirts. In the army, it covers the horseman's 
arms, and carries the foot soldier's provisions. It takes a dye better than any other skin. — 
Buffon. and Pennant. 

Hare, undressed, 100 skins . . . ,010 

According to the furriers, the Siberian hares are the finest in the world, in size. Strength, and 
quality of the fur. Next to these in point of size are the mawkins found in the Isle of Man. 
The w'eight of one of them exceeds belief, and has been given as high as 12, 13, and 141b. — 
Ed. 

Husse, imdressed, skin . . . .006 

Kangaroo, raw and undressed, imported from B. P., 

100/. val. . . . . . .600 

One kind gets the name of Forest Kangaroo from being found on dry places, partially 
covered with trees. Another, which is styled the Mountain Kangaroo, ishlack, with shaggy 
hair, and found upon the hills. There is a third, the Ked Kangaroo, so called from its 
colour, which is chiefly found on the plains, or more open forests. Its fur is smooth and soft. 
In the interior a kangaroo has been met with, vyith fur so long and soft, as to get the name 
of the Woolly Kangaroo. These are all animals of considerable size, being found of the 
weight of between two and three hundred pounds ; and they are all sought after for food ; 
while their skins, in some places of the country, more especially in the south-western parts 
of New Holland, and in Van Diemcn's Land, are used by the native inhabitants for cloaks, 
while the colonists dress and prepare them as leather. — Picture of Australia, 

Kid, in the hair, undressed, 100 skins . ,004 

dressed, 100 skins . . . . JO 

• dressed, and dyed or coloured, 100 skins . . J5 



For description of Kid Skins, see Goat Skins, above. 

Kip. See Calf Skins, p. 115. 

Kolinski, undressed, skin . . . .003 

Lamb, undressed, in the wool, 100 skins . .004 

tanned or tawed, 100 skins . . . 10 

tanned or tawed, and dyed or coloured, 100 skins 15 

dressed in oil, 100 skins . . .400 

At Meschet, in the country of Chorazan, on the frontiers of Persia, Lamb Skins formerly 
constituted a great article of commerce. The fleeces were of a beautiful silver-grey colour 



118 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Dwiieij, <^c. [1837-8 

Skins, &c., continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

all curled, and finer than silk; those sheep which come from the mountains to the south of 
this city, and from the province of Kerman, afford the tinest wool in Persia. The f^reatest 
part of this fine wool is furnished by the province of Kerman, which is the ancient Cara- 
mania, and the best kind comes from the mountains adjacent to the town, which has the 
same name with the province. It is singular that when the sheep of these places have 
eaten the new herbage from January to Majf, the fleeces fall entirely oil', and leave the 
animals as bare as scalded pigs ; so that there is no occasion of shearing them as in France. 
When the fleeces are collected, they are beat or threshed ; by which operation the coarser 
part separates, and leaves nothing but the fine. The wool is never dyed ; it is naturally of a 
bright brown or a grey ash colour, andTery little of it is white.— Bif^un. 

Leopard, undressed, skin . . . .026 

The Leopard inhabits Senegal and Guinea, and spares neither man nor beast. These animals 
are taken by the negroes in pit-falls, covered at the top with slight hurdles, on which they 
place a bait offish. The skins are valuable, and brought to Europe. — Chambers. 

Lion, undressed, skin . . . .010 

Two varieties of the lion are found in South Africa, namely, the Yellow and the Brown ; or, 
(as the Dutch colonists often term the latter,) the Blue or Black Lion. The dark-coloured 
species is commonly esteemed the strongest and fiercest. — Thompson. 

His skin does not appear to be much sought after. The old adage seems verified in this 
case: "A live dog is better than a dead lion." — Ed. 

Lynx, undressed, skin . . 

Marten, undressed, skin .... 

undressed, imported from B. P., skin . 

Tails, undressed, 100 tails 

The Skins of Martens are in request in Turkey, for the use of the fur. Tom-nefort says that those 
of Dauphiny are particularly valued at Smyrna. The deepest in colour are sometimes mixed 
with the sable. The pine-weasel, or yellow-breasted marten, is a native of the northern 
region, where the species is so numeTous, that the quantity of their furs annually consumed 
is perfectly astonishing. — Buffoon. 

Mink, undressed, skin . . . .004 

undressed, imported from B. P. in America, 

the skin . . . . . .002 

dressed, the skin . . . .020 









6 








6 








3 





5 






The Mink is a kind of pole-cat. Its skin is so black as to become a proverb in America. The 
value of the skin depends much on the season in which it is taken. The tail of the mink is 
entirely devoid of hair. — Ed. 

Mole, undressed, doz. skins . . . .006 

The mole frequents cultivated countries only. There are none in the dry deserts, nor in the 
cold climates, where the earth is frozen during the greatest part of the year. The animal 
called the Siberian Mole, with green and yellow hair, is a different species from our mule, 
which abounds only from Sweden to Barbary, for they exist not in hot climates. — Bujff'on. 

The fur of the mole is sometimes used in the liat-manufacture, and it gives a very superior 
surface. — Ed. 

Musquash, undressed, 100 skins . . .010 

The Musquash, or musk rat, is a diminutive species of the beaver, found in North Ame- 
rica. — Ed. 

Nutria, undressed, 100 skins . . . .010 

I have been connected for the last ten years with an establishment where, on an average, 
150,000 Nutria Skins are annually manufactured, and the wool cut off" for the use of hatters. 
I have searched every book of travels in Brazil, &c., that I could procure, and the chief 
English works on zoology, without being able to gather any description of the scientific 
name or habits of the animal. All the information I could collect was from tlie captains 
that had visited Buenos Ayres, and brought cargoes of skins; but their accounts were 
extremely vague and unsatisfactory. I have sent the skin of a female Nutria herewith, for 
your inspection, (from which the fur has been cut by machinery,) with a small sample of 
the belly fur, prepared for the covering of a hat ; the wholesale price of the latter is now 
three guineas per lb. : it is used as a substitute for beaver-wool in second-rate hats. Our 
French correspondents term the skins "Ratgoudin.'' The skin is rather above the usual 
size; its length is 26 inches, the tail being cut off, as is always done before skins are 
exported: the width of the skin is 15 inches. Benjamin NoRRis,jun. 

Windsor Place, Southwark Bridge Road. 

Otter, undressed, skin . . . .016 

undressed, imported from B. P. in America, skin 10 

The Otter is spread over Europe from Sweden to Naples; and we find it even in North 
America; The skins of the sea-otter are exceedingly valuable, and are sold in great 
quantities to the Chinese. — Buffon. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.—Imports.— Dii^tej, ^(T. 119 

Skins, &c., continued, viz. :— £ s. d. 

The conquest of Siberia, and its annexation to tlio Russian enn)ire, took place in 1640. thirty 
years lie lore the incorporation of the Hudson's l$ay Company. The Kuril and Aleutian 
Isles, in the sea thai divides Asia from North America, were discovered and taken 
possession of in 1745, by which the fur of the sea-otter was first introduced into rommereo, 
and which, while rare, obtained inciedible prices in the (Ihiuese market. In 17B0 the lur- 
bearing animals had already become scarce in Siberia, while the demand continued undi- 
minished in the Asiatic markets : this led to new exertions ; and when Cook, in tlie course of 
his exploratory circumnavigation, was engaged in surveying the western coast of America 
north of Nootka, he found that the Russians had already, on some points, opened an inter- 
course for furs with the inhabitants. The sea-otti-rs obtained by the crews of his ships 
sold in Kamtschatka, for the Chinese market, for prices whicli astonished them, and which 
gave birth soon after to Hritishand American expeditions to the same quarter, and even 
excited some signs of spirit in the sluggishness of the Spaniards of Monterey anil California. 
The Russians, however, being nearest and in force, and stimulated by commercial jealousy 
and national ambition, established a colony on the American coast, and now possess the 
north-western, extremity of that continent. Thus the fur-traders of different nations, the 
one setting out from the western boundary of Asia, and the others from the eastern 
boundary of America, have traversed these two great continents, and now find themselves 
face to face on the western shores of America, No new fur-ground remains to be explored ; 
and, although the supplies of this commodity may not, for some years, diminish in any very 
sensible degree, yet it is evident ihat the summit of the traile has been reached, and perhaps 
over-passed. The fur-trade of England is both an importing and exporting one. The 
imports for our own consumption are blue and white fox from Norway and Iceland, marten 
and fitch from Germany and France, bears, silver and grey, sables, ermines, squirrels.hares, 
and lambskins, from Russia; seals from the Southern Ocean, and chinchilla from South 
America. The imports, partly for home consumption and partly for reexportation, are the 
furs of North America. Several of the smaller animals which were imported from Canada 
while that colony was in possession of the French, and which formed the menu pelleterie of 
the traders, are found to be no longer worth the trouble and expense of collecting : these 
were chiefly ermine and squirrel, but considerably inferior in quality to similar skins from 
Russia. — Transactions of the Society of Arts, fjc. 

Ounce, undressed, skin . . . .076 

Panther, undressed, skin . . . .026 

The history of this species has been rendered rather complex by the inadvertence of some 
deservedly popular writers. Butfon appears to have figured the American jaguar as the 
true panther ; and Pennant, having found in the London fur-shops certain skins from 
Ameriqa, which agreed with the French author's despiiptioii of the panther, drew the 
erroneous inference that that animal was found both in the old and new world, instead of 
being confined to the former. — Wilson. 
• Many of the jaguars in the Spanish colonies equal the mean size of the royal tiger of Asia — 
they are called by the furriers of Europe skins of the great panther. — Hunihuldt. 

Pelts of Goats, undressed, doz. pelts 

dressed, the doz. pelts . 

Pelts of all other sorts, undressed. 100 pelts . 

Racoon, undressed, skin 

undressed, imported from B. P. in America, skin 

Sable, undressed, the skin 

Tails or Tips of Sable, undressed, the piece 

Fine and middling skins are sold without the bellies ; the coarse ones with them. The 
finest sables are sold in pairs perfectly similar, and such pairs are dearer than single ones 
of the same goodness, for the Russians want those in pairs for facing caps, cloaks, and 
tippets. The blackest are reputed the best. Sables are in season from November to 
February ; those caught at any other time of the year are short-haired. The hair of sables 
differs in length and quality. The more a skin has of such long hairs, :iud the blacker 
they are, the more valuable is the fur. Tlie very best have no other but those long black 
hairs. The dyed sables always lose their gloss and become less uniform. White sables 
are rare ; they are not common merchandise, but bought only as curiosities. Some are 
yellowish, and are bleached in the spring on the snow. The common sables are scarcely 
any thing better in hair and colour than the marten. The sable is also found in North 
America. The length of the American sable is about twenty inches. 

Seal in the hair, not tanned, tawed, or in any way 

dressed, skin . . . . .010 

— ^--of British takinfj, imported direct from the fishery 
or from a B. P., doz. skins . . . .001 

(4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 8S.) 

By O. C, June 29, 1836, Seal skins imported from the Falkland Islands must be deemed 
to be imported from a British possession, according to the legal construction of that term. 

In general form seals bear no very distant relation to tlie weasels. A particular species 
goes by the name of Ground Seal among the Greenland fishers, of whose sUin the Green- 
landers make their thongs for fishing. Seals, from three to five feet in length, frequent the 






3 








6 








17 











2 








1 





2 


6 








3 






1 





2 








4 











n 


6 





17 


6 


20 









120 UNITED KINGDOM.— lMroRTS.—I'2/i/w, c^c [1837-8. 

Skit^s, 8ic., continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

western coast of Iielaiid. We so persecute fliis animal, as to destroy hundreds of 
thousiinds annually, for the sake of the pure and transparent oil with which it abounds ; 
secondly, for its tanned skin, which is appropriated lo various purposes by different modes 
of preparation ; and, thirdly, we pursue it for its close and dense attire. In the common 
teal, the hair of the adult is of one uniform kind, so thickly arranged and imbued with oil, 
as to effectually resist the action of the water; while, on the contrary, in the antarctic 
seals tlie hair is of two kinds : the longest, like that of the northern seals; the other, a 
delicate, soft fur, growing between the roots of the former, close to the surface of the skin, 
and not seen externally ; and this beautiful fur constitutes an article of very increasing 
importance in commerce ; but not only does the clothing of the seal vary materially in 
colour, fineness, and commercial estimation in the different species, but not less so in refer- 
ence to the age of the animal. The young of most kinds are usually of a very light colour, 
or entirely white, and are altogether destitute of true hair, having this substituted by a 
long and particularly soft fur. — Brande's Quarterly Journal of Science. 

' Sheep, undressed, in the wool, the doz. skins 

tanned or tawed, 100 skins . » 

dressed in oil, 100 skins . , 

■ Sheep. See Lamb. 

Squirrel or Calabar, undressed, 100 skins , 

' tawed, 100 skins . . , 

Tails, undressed, 100^. value 

The hair of the tails of squirrels is used for pencils, but their skin is only an indilferent fur. 
The fur of the greysqiiiirel is much liner and softer than that of llie common. Tlie hunting 
season begins about Michaelmas. Almost every native of Lapland is occupied in this 
business, which is a considerable article of commerce; but there is no merchandize in 
which a man may be more deceived than in that of the grey squirrel and ermines ; for 
you buy without seeing, the fur side of the skins being always turned inmost. Tliere is no 
distinction to be made ; the good and the bad are all sold at the same price. The finest 
fur brought from the Iroquois country is the skin of the black squirrel. This animal is 
as large as a cat of three months old. The Iroquois make robes of this fur. Their skins 
in America are used for ladies' shoes, and are often imported into England for lining or 
facing for cloaks. Ground squirrels are taken merely on account of their skins, whicli, 
though forming but a slight or ordinary fur, have a very pleasing appearance when 
properly disposed, and are said to be chiully sold to the Chinese. — Biiffhn. 

Swan, undressed, skin . . . .010 

The Icelanders, Kamtschatkadales, and other inhabitants of the northern world, dress their 
ekins with the down on them, sew them together, and convert them into various sorts of 
garments. The northern American Indians have recourse to the same expedient for 
clothing themselves. They likewise gather the feathers and down in large quantities, and 
barter or sell them. — Ency. Britan. 

Tiger, undressed, skin . i . .026 

All those skins which have short hair, and roundish and distinct spot.s, have been called 
tigers' skins ; and travellers, deceived by this false denomination, have indiscriminately 
named every ferocious animal, thus spotted, by the a])pcllation of tigers. We are assured 
by M. dela Lande-Magon that he has seen, in the East Indies, a tiger of fifteen feet in 
length, including the tail, which, supposing it to be four or five feet, the length of the body 
was at least ten. In Europe these skins, though rare, are not much valued. Those of the 
leopard of Guinea and Senegal, called Tigers' .Skins by our furriers, are preferred. — Buffon. 

The indolence of the South Americans is such, that they will not give themselves the trouble 
to chase the jaguars, or great American tigers, the skin of which fetches only one piastre 
in the steppes of Varinas, while at Cadiz it costs four or five, — Humboldt, 

Weasel, undres.sed, 100 skins . . 4 9 

■ Wolf, undressed, skin . . . .006 

undressed, imported from B. P. in America, skin 3 

tawed, skin . . . . .0176 

The hair and colour of these animals vary with the climate, and sometimes even in the same 
country. In France and Germany, beside the common wolves, we find some with thicker 
and more yellow -coloured hair. There is nothing valuable in the wolf but his skin, which 
makes a warm, durable fur. The black wolf, the lynx, and the fox, are very numerous in 
North America ; and yet the black fox is very rare, and his skin is much more beautiful 
than that of the black wolf, which makes but a very coarse fur. — Buffon, 

Wolverings, undressed, skin . . .010 

' undressed, imported from any B. P. in 

America, skin . . . . .006 

Tlic Wolverine or Glutton has been described as a species of bear. It is found in the 
northern parts of Europe and Asia, and in Hudson's ISay and Canada. The skin of the 
glutton is much valued in Siberia and Kamtschafka, and the fur is greatly esteemed in 
Europe ; that of the north of Europe and Asia is much finer and of a more glossy black 
tluin that of the American kind, — Chambers, 



1837-S.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>?</j>5, (J-tf. 121 

Skins, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
and Furs, or Pieces of Skins and Furs, raw or un- 
dressed, not particularly enumerated, nor otherwise 
charged with duty, 100/. val. . . . 20 

and Furs, or Pieces of Skins and Furs, tanned, tawed, 

curried, or in any way dressed, not particularly enumer- 
ated nor otherwise charged with duty, 100/. val. , 30 

Articles manufactured of Skins and Furs, 100/. val. . 75 

His Majesty may, by order in council, prohibit the importation of skins, in 

order to prevent any contagious distemper. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58. 
Chinchilla. — The length of the body is about nine inches, and tliat of the tail nearly five. 
Its proportions are close set, and its limbs comparatively short, the posterior beiui; consi- 
derably Ion<,'er than the anterior. The fur is long, thick, close, woolly, somewhat crisped 
and entangled together, greyish or ash-coloured above, and paler beneath. The tail isaliout 
half the length of the body, of equal thickness throughout, and covered with long bushy 
liairs ; it is usually kept turned up towards the back, but not reverted us in the squirrels.— 
Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society. 

Slate. See Stone. 

used in the building of churches. See page 60. 

Smalts, lb. . . . . . .004 

Smalt is ii kind of glass of a dark blue colour, which when levigated appears of a most 
beautiful colour ; and if it coxdd be made sufficiently fine, would be an excellent succpda- 
neum for ultramarine, as not only resisting all kinds of wcatlier, but even the most violent 
tires. At the bottoms of the crucibles in which the smalt is manufactured we generally 
tind a regulus of a whitish colour, inclined to red, and extremely brittle. This is melted 
afresh, and when cold, separates into two parts : that .it the bottom is the cobaltic regulus, 
which is employed to make more of the smalt; the other is bismuth. — Ency, Britan. 

Snuff, lb. . . . . , .060 

SnufF-work, prohibited to bo imported for home use on pain of forfeiture, but 
may be warehoused for exportation only. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, 
§ 58, 59, 60. 

Tobacco is usually the basis of snuff; other matters being only added to give it a more 
agreeable scent. Sec. The kinds of snufTand their several names are intinite ; and new 
ones are daily invented; so that it would be difficult, not to say impossible, to give a detail 
of them. There are three principal sorts : the first granulated ; the second an impalpable 
powder; and the third the bran, or coarse part remaining after sifting the second sort, — 
Chambers. 

Soap, Hard, cwt. . ^ • « 4 

Soft, cwt. ..... 

the produce of and imported from B. P., in the East 

Indies, viz. : — 

Hard, cwt. » * k • 

Soft, cwt. .... 

In general the only soaps employed in commerce are those of olive oil, tallow, lard, palm oil, 
and rosin. A species of soap can also be formed by the union of bees' -wax with alkali; 
but this has no detergent application, being used only for painting in encaustu. — Ure. 

Soda. See Alkali, page 46. 

Spa Ware, 100/. value . . . . 30 0~0 

The inhabitants of Spa, a town of the Netherlands, province of Liege, adapt, like those of 
Tunbridge, their manufacturing industry to the taste of tlieir visitors, and employ them- 
selves in making boxes of painted and varnished wood, with a variety of ornaments, and 
fanciful articles. — Edinburgh Qazettecr. 

Specimens of Minerals, Fossils, or Ores, not particularly 
enumerated, nor otherwise charged with duty, each speci- 
men not ex. 14lb. ..... Free. 

ex. 1 -lib. each, 100/. val. . . .500 

illustrative of Natural History, not otherwise 

enumerated ..... Free. 

Speckled Wood, produce of, or imported from, any foreign 

country, ton . . . . .2100 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

produce of, and imported from, B. P., ton 16 3 

Spelter, in Cakes, cwt. . . , . .020 



4 


10 





3 


11 


3 


1 


8 





1 


3 






122 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— i^M^ies, <Sx'. [1837-8. 

Spelter, cotitinued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
not in Cakes, cwt, . . . . 10 

Speltre, or Spelter, another name for Zinc. Zinc is a metal of a bluish-white colour, some- 
wliat brigliter than lead ; of considerable hardness, and so malleable as not to be broken 
with the hammer, though it cannot be much extended in this way. It is very easily 
extended by rollers of the flattinj^-mill. — lire. 

Tutanag, the Chinese name for Speltre, which we erroneously apply to the metal of which 
canisters are made that are brought over with the tea from China; it being a coarse 
pewler made w ith the lead carried from England, and tin got iu the kingdom of Quiutang. 
— TFuodwurd. 

Spermaceti, Fine, lb. . . . . .016 

This substance is erroneously supposed to be found in tlie cranium of the physeter macruce- 
phalus, or long-headed whale : it is the fat of the animal. Formerly, and, indeed, not lung 
since, spermaceti was only used as a medicine, and annually many tons of it were throun 
into the Thames as useless, the quantity brought to this country being so much more than 
was required for medical purposes. It has become very valuable since its application by 
the tallow-chandlers ; by whom, in the manufacture of candles, it is mixed with tallow or 
wax, to render it lit for working ; pure spermaceti being exceedingly pliable when in tlie 
solid state. — Transactions rf Society of Arts. 

Spices, viz.: — 

Cloves, lb.* . . . . .000 

Tliere appear to be five varieties of the clove, viz. the ordinary cultivated clove ; the clove 
called the Female Clove by the natives, which has a pale :^tem ; the Kiri, or ivory clove ; 
the Royal clove, which is very scarce ; and the Wild clove. The three first are equally 
valuable as spices, the Female being considered fittest for the distillation of essential oil. 
The Wild clove has hardly any aromatic flavour, and is of course of no value. In almost 
all the languages of the Arcliipelago the clove is known by one of these names, ChaiKjlich 
and Buah-Lawiing. — Crawfurd. 

Mace, lb,* . . . . . o 2 6 

Tlie nutmeg tree is a native of the Molucca islands ; its fruit is about the size of a nectarine, 
and includes the kernel or nutmeg, which is covered by its own shell, and this by what is 
called mace. When the fruit is gathered, the mace is separated and dried in tlie sun ; the 
nutmegs are then gently baked, taken out of their shells, and washed in lime-water. — 
Brande. ' . , 

Pepper, lb.* . . . . . ^ t^Q^^-Q- 6 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 32, no abatement of duties shall be "made on 

account of any damage received by pepper. 
It shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to accept the abandon- 
ment, for the duties, of any quantity of warehoused pepper, and to cause or 
permit thtf same to be destroyed, and to deduct such quantity of pepjier from 
the total quantity of the same importation, in computing the amount of 
the deficiency of such total quantity. 3 and 4 WilhlV., c. 57, § 33. 

There are no fewer than forty-one kinds of pepper. A Balavian naturalist of the name of 
Blumelias written a description of them, accompanied with plates. — Uiirary Gazette. 

This plant grows wild in India, but its fruit does not attain perfecliou witliout care and 
culture. It is grown with many precautions and with much success in Java, Malacca, 
and Sumatra, whence the European market is almost exclusively supplied. — Brande. 

The east coast of the tiulf of Siam, from the latitude of 10^ to that of 12i north, aflbrds an 
extensive produce of pepper. + — Asiatic Journal. 

Capsicum, or Guinea Pepper, is more used as a sance, and in pickle, than in physic, being 
frequently put into fish-sauce, or into any thing that is flatulent and windy ; for whicli 
purpose it is ordered divers ways, either green or ripe, pickled or rubbed to powder with 
ss\{..—i'hamhers. 

Malagueta is the native name for a small species of capsicum, the most biting and pungent 
of all peppers. — Dr. JFiilsh. 

Long Pep/icr. — This pepjier difl'ers little in flavour, and nothing in medicinal properties, from 
black pepper. It is native in Bengal, where the spikes are gathered in an immature slate, 
and dried in the sun. — Hrandc. 

JVhite Pepper. — The relative value of black and white pepper is but imperfectly understood. 
The former is decidedly the better. It grows in long small clusters of from 20 to 50 grains. 
When ripe it is of a bright red colour. After being gathered it is spread on mats iu the 
sun, when it loses its red colour, and becomes black and shrivelled as we see it. White 
pepper is of two sorts, common and genuine. The former is made by blanching the grains 
of the common black pepper, by steeping them for awhile in water, and then gently 

•6and7Will. IV., C.60. 
t The President of the Board of Trade (the late Mr. Huskisson), in his speech in tlie 
House of Commons, on Friday, June 17, 1825, said, the original cost of pepper was about 
5d.per lb. The whole consumption of the United Kingdom was not more than 1,200,000 lb. 
a-year, which did not exceed a proportion of about an ounce and a quarter to every indivi- 
dual of our population. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— DM^/e*, ^^c. 123 

Spices, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

rubbing them, so as to remove the dark outer coat. It is milder than the ofncr, and much 
prized by the Chinese, but very little is imported into England. Genuine, white pepper is 
merelv the blighted or imperfect grains picked from among the heaps of black pepper. It is, 
of course, very inferior. In the Singapore Chionicle it is stated that the average annual 
quantity of pepper obtained from diffeient countries is 46,066,666 lb. avoirdupois. — Ed. 

Pimento, lb.* . . . . .003 

Pimento has an aromatic agreeable odour, resembling that of a mixture of cinnamon, clove:*, 
and nutmegs, with the warm pungent taste of the cloves; qualities which reside chiefly in 
the cortical part of the dried berry. — T/iotnson. 

The leaves and bark of the allspice tree are full of aromatic inflammable particles, on account 
of which the growers are extremely cautious not to suffer any tire to be made near 
the walks, for if it once catch the trees, they consume with great rapidity. Pimento is 
called Allspice from the berries smelling and tasting like cloves, juniper- berries, cinnamon, 
and pepper, or rather a mixture of them all. — Mirror. 

Spirits or Strong Waters of all sorts, viz. : — 

For every gallon of such spirits or strong waters of 

any strength not exceeding the strength of proof by 
Sykes's hydrometer, and so in pi'oportion fur any greater 
strength than the strength of proof, and for any greater 
or less quantity than a gallon, viz. 

■ Not being Spirits or Strong Waters, the produce of 

B. P. in America, or B. P. within the limits of the East 
India Company's charter, and not being sweetened spirits, 
or spirits mixed with any article, so that the degree of 
strength thereof cannot be exactly ascertained by such 
hydrometer . . . . . .12 6 

Spirits or Strong Waters, the produce of B. P. in 



America, not being sweetened spirits or spirits so mixed 

as aforesaid . . . . ..090 

As to charging the duty on Warehoused Rum, see next 
page. 

• Spirits T)r Strong Waters, the produce of B. P. within 

the limits of the East India Company's Charter, and not 

being sweetened spirits or spirits mixed as aforesaid . 15 

Spirits, Cordials, or Strong Waters, respectively, (not 

being the produce of B. P. in America,) sweetened or 
mixed with any article, so that the degree of strength 
thereof cannot be exactly ascertained by such hydrometer 1 10 

Spirits, Cordials, or Strong Waters respectively, being 

the produce of B. P. in America, sweetened or mixed with 
any article, so that the degree of strength thereof cannot 
be exactly ascertained by such hydrometer . . 10 

Rum shrub, however sweetened, the produce of and 

imported from B. P. in America, the gallon . . 9 

Spirits prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture, under tlie following- 
circumstances, viz. : — 

not being perfumed or medicinal spirits, viz. : — 

all spirits, unless in ships of seventy tons or upwards. 

Rum of and from the British plantations, if in casks, unless in casks 

containing not less than twenty gallons. 

all other spirits, if in casks, unless in casks containing not less than 



forty gallons. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^S 58. 
By 6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60, § 4, the said restrictions shall not extend to any 

such spirits in casks of not less than twenty gallons. 
Spirits from the Isle of Man prohibited to be imported for home use on pain 

of forfeiture, but may be warehoused for exportation only. 3 and 4 \Vili. 

IV., c. 52, ^S 58, 59, 60. 
By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Brandy, being the produce of Europe, shall 

not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used tfterri/i, except in 

British ships, or in ships of the cotuitry of which the goods are the produce, 

or in ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

*6and 7 Will. IV., c. 60. 



124 . UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.->Z)m/<>5,c5'(7. - [1837-8. 

Spirits, continued, viz. : — ' £ s. d. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 123, the same instruments, and the same tables 
and scales of graduation, and the same rules, as the officers of excise shall 
by any law in force for the time being be directed to use in trying and ascer- 
taining the strengths and quantities of spirits made within the United 
Kingdom, for the purpose of collecting the duties of excise thereon, shall 
be used by the officers of customs in trying and ascertaining the strength 
and quantities of spirits imported into the United Kingdom, for the purpose 
of computing the duties of customs thereon. 

As to Certificato of Produce, see Coffee, page 62. 

— — — It shall be lawful in the warehouse to draw oif and 
mix with any Wine any Brandy secured in the same 
warehouse, not exceeding the proportion of ten gallons of 
Brandy to one hundred gallons of wine ; and also in the 
warehouse to fill up any casks of spirits from any other 
casks of the same, secured in the same warehouse, under 
such regulations as the commissioners of customs may 
from time to time require. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, 
§31, 32. 

JFMei-.— ny C. O., July 24, 1829, with reference to §38 of the act of 6 Geo. IV., c. 107, it 
appears that two gallons and a half of British proof spirits, the excise diUy on wliich, of 7s. 
per gallon, amounts to I'/S. fid., are required for tlic manufacture of one gallon of etlier; 
and it is directed to charge ether imported from the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderuey, 
Sark, or Man, under the regulations of the said act, with a countervailing duty of 17«. 6rf. 
per gallon. 

By C. O.. February 16, 1827i the strength of spirits imported in bottles is to be charged to 
one-tenth of a gallon. 

' Liqueurs, the produce of, and imported from B. P. 

in Amerfca, viz. : — 

> not being of greater strength than the strength of 

proof by Sykes's hydrometer, the gallon . , ,090 

• being of greater strength, the gallon , , 13 6 

(4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89.) 
Spirits or strong waters imported into the United Kingdom, mixed with any 
ingredient, and although thereby coming under some other denomination, 
■ shall nevertheless be deemed to be spirits or strong waters, and be subject to 
a duty as such. § 13. 
Packages. — Whereas the importation of rum of and from the British planta- 
tions, if in casks, is restricted to casks containing not less than twenty 
gallons, and the importation of all other spirits, not being perfumed or 
medicinal spirits, if in casks, is restricted to casks containing not less than 
40* gallons, and it is expedient to prevent the evasion of such restriction.s, 
by persons using cases, vessels, or other packages not being strictly casks, 
hut available for the purposes of casks ; it is therefore enacted, that the 
said restrictions shall be construed to apply to all cases, vessels, or pack- 
ages whatsoever capable of containing liquids, and not being glass bottles, 
iu like manner as the same now apply to casks ; and that such cases, 
vessels, or packages shall be, for the purposes of such restrictions, deemed 
to be casks within the meaning of the said act. 
Jersey, ifc.— By C. O., March 11, 1834, spirits from Jersey and Guernsey may be imported 
into the United Kingdom in vessels of the burthen of 70 tons and upwards, whether square- 
rigged or not. 

Accidetit. — It shall be lawful for tl>e commissioners of customs to remit or 
return the duties payable or paid on the whole or any portion of spirits or 
other fluid which shall be lost by any unavoidable accident in the warehouse 
in which the same shall have been deposited imder the provisions of any 
act for the warehousing of goods. 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, 

Allowances, — The duties payable upon spirits when taken out of warehouse for 
Home Usk shall be charged upon the quantities ascertained by the measure 
or strength of the same actiia/li/ delivered, except that if the spirits (buing 
any other spirits than Rum of the British Plantations) shall not be in a 

• Now 20 gallons. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports— Dwi/e*. .$•(«. 125 

Spirits, continued, viz. : — 

warehouse of special security, no greater al)ateracnt on account of deficiency 
of the quantity or strengtii first ascertained as aforesaid sli.iU be made 
than shall be after the several rates of allowances following, viz. : 

For every 100 gallons, hydrometer proof, viz. : — 

For any time not ex. G months . . . i 1 gallon. 

Ex. 6 months, and not ex. 12 months . . 2 gallons, 

Ex. 12 months, and not e.x. 18 months . . 3 gallons. 

Ex. 18 months, and not ex. 2 years . . ,4 gallons. 

Ex. 2 years . . . . .5 gallons. 

(3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 19.) 

Minimum.— "Rw T. L., October 20, 1820, tlie duties in future are not to bo charfjetl on any 
quantity less than a pint of ordinary drinkable spirits, of whatever stren^tli they may be, 
or liair a pint of Eau de Cologne, or other cordial waters, or any medicated or perfumed 
spirits or liqueurs, when imported in the baggage of passengers for private use. 
Fractional Dcjiciencies. — By C. O., October 7, 1334, no charge is to be made on doficienciea 
in warehoused spirits for any fractional part of a gallon, unless the same shall exceed live- 
tenths of a ;;allon, either in the liquid quantity or in the strength, as the case may be. 
Abalement of Quantitijor Strength. — l?y C. O., Oct. 13, 1834, the abatement on wine and spirits 
removed coastwise, to be made either in the liquid quantity or strength, or in the quantity 
or strength conjointly, as the case may be. 
AHuwanre of Under-proof. — 15y C. O., Feb. 11, 1834, spirits deposited in warehouses of ordi- 
nan/ security are entitled to the allowance of under proof that may have been ascertained 
on their first examination, exclusive of any further abatement to which tlie same may bu 
entitled under tlie Warehousing Act. 
T'atted Rum.— ]iy C. O,, May 20, 1829. and Aug. 29, 1834, B. P. rum vatted in London may be 

removed to the outports under bond for eitlier exportation or home consumption. 
By C. O., Sept. 3, 1835, the regulations permitting rum to be vatted in London for home con- 
sumption are extended to alt rum removed to out ports, which liad been vatted there, or at 
any otlier port at which the operation is allowed. The rum to be delivered out of ware- 
house in legal quantities, and the import marks effaced from the casks. 
By CO., June 20, 1837, the following regulations are to be observed in respect of British 
Plantation Spirits vatted under bond in warehouses not of special security, viz. all decreases 
before vatting to be carried forward to the new vatting account. Tlie duty not to be 
charged for decreases until the clearance of the goods, either for home use or for export- 
ation ; and such part of the decrease as shall be apportioned to the packages for clearance 
to be then charged, subject to the following allowances : — On British Plantation Spirits, 
the allowance of any lots not considered by the landing surveyor as excessive, unless in 
cases of suspicion that abstraction has taken place. 
Samples of Bunded Spirits. — By V. O., Feb. 10, 1836, the practice of permitting the return of 
samples into casks of spirits render boiul discontinued. When spirits are cleared for 
home use, two samples free of duty allowed, viz. one at the time of importation, and ii 
second for the purpose of sale ; and a further sample duty free allowed, if entered for 
exportation. 

Licenses may be granted to any person to sell beer, spirits, and wine, in any 
theatre established under a royal patent, or in any theatre or other place 
of public entertainment, duly licensed, without the production of a certi- 
ficate for such person to keep an inn or victualling house. 5 and 6 Will. 
IV., c. 39. [Aug. 31, 1835.] 
Alcohol. — Tlie term applied by chemists to the purely spirituous part of liquors that have' 
undergone the vinous fermeutation. It is in all cases the product of the saccharine 
principle, and is formed by the successive processes of vinous fermentation and distillation.' 
Various kinds of anient spirits are commonly known as brandy, rum, arr.ack, malt spirit, ami 
the like ; these dilfer from each other in colour, smell, taste, and strengtii ; but the spiritu- 
ous part, to which they owe their inflammability, their hot liery taste, and their intoxicating 
quality, is the s.ame in each, and may be procured in its purest state by a second distillation, 
which is technically termed Rentijication. Alcohol is procured principally in this country 
from a fermented grain liquor, but in France, and other wine countries, the spirit is obtained 
from the distillation of wine ; hence the term Spirit of ff^ine, which it sometimes bears.— 
Alcohol is a colourless, transparent liquor, appearing to the eye like pure water. It 
possesses a peculiarly penetrating smell, distinct from the proper odour of the distillcil 
spirit from which it is procured. Its uses are many and important ; it is employed as a 
solvent for those resinous substances which form the basis of numerous varnishes; it is 
employed also as the basis of artificial cordials and liquors, to which a flavour land ad- 
ditional taste are given by jiarticular admixtures ; it serves as a solvent for the more activi! 
parts of vegetables, under the form of tinctures. The antiseptic power of alcohol renders it 
particularly valuable in preserving particultir parts of the liody as anatomical specimens. 
The steady and uniform heat which it gives during combustion makes it a valuable material 
for burning in lamps. — Ed. 
Arquchusade Jfatcr. — A distilled water, applied to a bruise or wound. — Johnson. 
Hungary Water.— .\ distilled water prepared from the tops of flowers of rosemary, sodenomi- 

naled from a (pieen of Hungary, for whose use it was flrst made. — Kiici/. Britnn. 
Lavender Ji^ater .—\\\v,\.i is sold I'mder the name of Lavend ^r Water is, with very few excep- 
tions, not a distilled spirit, but an alcoholic solution of oil of lavender, to whicli other scents 
are occasionally added. Each manufacturer has generally his own recipe.— ZJrande, 



126 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dm/zV*. ^c. [1837-8. 

Spirits, continued, vis. : — £ s. d. 

Usquebaugh. — A strong compound liquor, chiefly taken by way of dram. — Ency. Britan. 

Jrrack.— An anient spirit obtained by distillation from the external pulp of diflferent species 
of palms, or from rice which has been fermented. At Goa and in Ceylon tlie arrack is 
distilled from toddy, the fluid obtained from cocoa-nut and palmyra, by an incision near 
the top of the tree. At Batavia arrack is distilled from paddi or rice in the husk. Good 
arrack should be clear, yellow, of a strong smell and taste, and have at least 52 to 54 per 
cent, of alcohol. Thit made at Goa and thrice rectified is the best.— £ncv. Metrop. 

Brandy.— GkoX. quantities are distilled at Uourdeaux, Rochelle, Cogniac, and in the depart- 
ment of the Charente, the Isle of Rhe, Orleans, Blois, Poictiers, Angiers, Tours, Nantes, 
Burgundy, ( hampagne, and Montpellier. In these districts, besides the brandy Irom wine, 
a great deal is made from eider, syrup, and molasses, in most places where there are sugar 
houses. A sjirit resembling whiskey is also made from the fruit of the sloe-tree. The 
practice is of early date, and was introduced by the Italians, who also, in the year 1630, 
invented the well known drink of lemonade. — Morewoud. 

It is stated that the berries of the service-tree (Sorbus acuparia) are now used in the north 
of France for distillation, and the result is said to be equal to the purest distillation Irom 
gra|)es for brandy. This spirit has none of the fiery and unwholesome properties of spirit 
distilled from grain ; and as the berries could be extensively cultivated in England, it 
might be made a profitable branch of industry — Lit. Gaz. 

Citran TVater. — A well-known strong water or cordial, made of lemon and orange peel, spirit 
of wine, &c., mixed with water. — Ed. 

Geneva. — Although in Holland, as in Switzerland, the quantity of grain reared is inadequate 
to the consumption of its inhabitants, yet there are few countries better supplied with that 
necessary of life. From Russia, Poland, Elbing, Koningsberg, and Flanders, are drawn 
those immense resources, which not only enable the Dutch to export large quantities, but 
to distil to great extent. It has been calculated that the annual produce of spirits in the 
Dutch distilleries is nothing short of 14,000,€00 of gallons, 4,560,000 of which are consumed 
in the country. — Murewuud. 

British Gin has now very nearly superseded the use of the foreign article in this country. 
The houses of Sir Felix Booth, in London, and of Messrs. Castles, Edwards and Co., in 
Bristol, as well as many others, stand very high in the manufacture of British Gin. — Ed. 

Rum. — In the West Indies we find the distillation of ardent spirits carried on to an extent 
not siupassed within the same limits of territory in any other quarter of the world. The 
molasses, from which the rum is principally made, are the syrup of the sugar. The richness 
of flavour peculiar to this spirit, which has rendered it famous in almost all parts of the 
world, is supposed to be derived from the raw juice and the fragments of the sugar-cane, 
which are mashed and fermented with the other materials in the tun. The planters, it is 
said, often improve it by the addition of pine-apple juice. 

JFItisliey. — .\ term signifying water, and applied in the highlands and islands of Scotland 
and in Ireland to strong water or distilled liquor. The spirit drank in the North is drawn 
from barley, and is said to be preferable to any English malt brandy. — Chambers. 

It has recently been imported occasionally from the West Indies. The great distinction 
between rum and whiskey is, that rum is a sugar spirit, and whiskey a corn spirit. — Ed. 

As to Bottling Spirits, see Wine. 

Sponge, lb. . . . . . .006 

the produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . 1 

By C. O., May 1835, no allowance for sand, dirt, or other extraneous matter, unless for such 
as may exceed 7 I'c cent. 

A soft, light, very porous, and compressible substance, readily imbibing water, and distend- 
ing thereby. It is found adhering to rocks, particularly in the Mediterranean Sea, about 
the islands' of the .'Vrchipelago. It was formerly supposed to be a vegetable production, but 
is now classed among the zoophytes ; and analyzed, it yields the same principles with 
animal substances in general. — Ure. 

Divers fur Sponge. — The inhabitants of almost all the islands on this part of the coast of Asia 
Minor subsist by diving for the sponges which are found in great abundance on the sunken 
rocks, in the vicinity of their coasts. When taken up fresh it is covered with a gelatinous 
epidermis, said to he the flesh of the animal, and has a strong fishy smell. It is immedi- 
ately immersed for some hours in warm water, till this coating detaches itself, anil leaves 
within the porous vesicles which form the sponge of commcice.— Letters frotn tlie .Mgcan. 

Squills, dried, cwt. . . . . .080 

■ not dried, cwt. . . . . .010 

This bulbous mot is imported from the Levant packed in wet sand ; it has a nauseously bitter 
and very acrid flavour, and is generally cut into slices and dried for pharmaceutical use. — 
Brande, 

Starch, cwt. . . . . . . 9 10 

the produce of and imported from B. P. in Ame- 
rica, cwt. . . . . . .010 

starch is a most nutritious substance, and being tasteless, admits of being characterised by 
any flavour that is most palat.ible. The starch which is found in some tropical plants is 
indeed esteemed so valuable, that it is washed out of them and brought into Europe as a deli- 
cacy ; thus, Indian arrow- toot is starch procured from the root of a plant which is cultivated in 
the West Indies. Sago is obtained from the pith, or rather the central part of the stem, of 
several species of palm-tree; tapioca, from the root of a plant common in South America, 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z»mie*, ^c. 127 

Stavch, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

and many oUievs might bo mentioned. Sago, however, is partly gelatinised by the degree 
ijf heat in wliicli it is dried ; and there seem to be otlier differences in the qualities of the 
starch produced from different plants and in different climates, though they all a},nee in 
chemical composition, and in being tasteless and highly nutritive. — Quarterti/ Journal of 
Agriculture. 

Stcivesacre, cwt. . . . . . .040 

This species of larks))ur is a bieuuial plant, a native of the south of Europe. Stavesacre seeds 

have very little odour, but that little is disagreeable ; their taste is bitter, acrid, and hot. 

They are yellowish within, and covered with a rough blackish cuticle, — Thonison. 
Mr. Hofschlaeger of Bremen, has discovered, in the seeds of Stavesacre, a new acitL It is 

white, crystalline, volatile at a low temi)erature, and a small quantity of it excites violent 

vomiting. — Journal de Pharmacie. 

Steel, unwrought, prepared in and imported from B. P. in 

Asia, Africa, or i\merica, ton . . . ,010 

or any Manufactures of Steel not otherwise enumer- 
ated, 100/. val. . . . . . 20 

Forged iron placed in contact with carbonaceous substances, and again softened by the action 
of the fire the moment it enters into combination with these substances, or rather with the 
carbon which they contain, is converted into steel. The operation of tempering which steel 
undergoes does not change its nature ; it only varies the arrangement and aggregation of 
its particles; it augments at once its hardness, its brittleness, and its volume, and gives it 
a coarser grain than that of steel not tempered. Thus the difference between cast iron, 
forged iron, and steel, deoends on two principles, namely, oxygen and carbon : their union 
constitutes cast iron ; the absence of both, at least in a perceptible quantity, characterises 
forged iron ; and in steel, carbon exists alone without oxygen. — Malte Brun. 

Stibium. See Antimony, p. 48. 

Sticks, viz., Walkina: Sticks. See Canes, p. 57. 

Stockings, Silk, having been worn. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Stone, Burrs for Mill-stones, 100 . . . 10 

Burrs for millstones are generally imported from France, and sometimes from the islands of 
Guernsey, Jersey, Alderuey, Sark, and Man. — JSd. 

Churches and Chapels, Stone used in the building 

of, see Churchcs,-p. 60. 
Dog, not ex. four feet in diameter, above six and 

under twelve inches in thickness, pair . . .036 

Dog-stones are a smaller description of mill-stones. — Ed. 

Emery, ton . . . . ,010 



Emeiy is an oxide of iron, intimately united with the basis of alum and with silex. This sub- 
stance is valuable in the arts, on account of its great hardness. By bruising it in steel mills 
it is reduced to a powder, whose sharp and hard particles can, by the application of friction, 
give a polish to all existing substances, except the diamond. — Matte Brun. 

Filtering, 100/. val. . . . . 50 

Flint, Felspar, and other Stones for Potters . Free, 

The extensive use of flint in consequence of its property of striking fire with steel, as gun 
flints, is well known. Flints are employed also as a substitute for quartz in the manufacture 
of glass and porcelain, and in the falirication of smalt. The coarser kinds, or such as are 
perforated and carious, are applied to the purposes of building and mill-stones. Sometimes 
the colours and the polish of flint are so fine as to have brought it into use in jewellery. — 
Ency. Britan. 

Grave-stones of Marble, viz.: — 

Polished, each not more than two feet square, 

foot sq. superficial measure . . . .026 

Unpolished, foot sq, superficial measure . 10 



Grave-stones not of marble, Pohshed or Unpolished, 

foot sq. superficial measure . . . .006 

By C. O., Jan 19, 1822, it is stated that it is the London practice to charge duty on gravestones 
by the superjicinl foot only, if tlieir thickness does not exceed two inches, and if above that 
thickness by the cubic foot. 

• Limestone . , . . . Free. 

Malta blocks or 'slabs.— Hy T. O., Oct. 2, 1835, mav be admitted free of dutv in the same 
manner as marble. 

Limestone forms very extensive stratiform mountains, and is usually met with along with 
coal and sandstone. It is very abundant in Saxony, Bohemia, Sweden, France, Switzer- 
land, aiul Britain. The Magnesian Limestone is abundant in Yorkshire and Nottingham- 



128 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 2)M^/e5, cj-c. [1837-8. 

Stone, continued, viz. : — £ . d. 

shire. The uses of limestniie for the purposes of buiUUng, and, when reduced to the sl;ite 
of quicklime, to form the basis of mortar, as well as in various arts, are well known. This 
variety of limestone, wlien susceptible of a polish, furnishes marbles ; which name, al- 
though it be applied to very different stones which are susceptible of a polish, and are fit fur 
sculpture, or ornuraental architecture, is frequently applied to limestone of this description. 
— Ency. Britan. 

• Marble, rough. Blocks or Slabs . . . Free. 

By T. C, June 30, 1835, it appears blocks can be converted into slabs only by sawing: all 
slabs are to be deemed roujjh slabs if they have been cut from a rough block, and have 
undergone no polishing subseijuent to the sawing. 

Marble in any way manufactured, (except Grave- 
stones and Paving Stones, each not more than two feet 
.square,) cwt. , . . . . .030 

Marble Paving, each not more than two feet sq. viz. : — 

Polished, foot sq. superficial measure . 10 

Rough, foot sq. superficial measure . ,006 



Marble, in common language, is the name applied to all sorts of polished stones employed in 
the decoration of monuments and public eilifices, or in tlie construction of private houses ; 
but, among the materials thus made use of, it is necessary jto distinguish the true marbles 
from those stones which have no just title to such a designation. In giving a short but 
univers.ll cliaracter of marble, it may be said that it effervesces with dilute acid, and is ca- 
pable of being scratched with fluor, while it easily maiks gypsum. These properties will 
separate it at ouce from the granites, porphyries, and silicious pudding-stones, with which 
it has been confounded on one side, and from the gypseous alabaster on the other. From 
the hard rocks having been formerly included under the marbles, comes the adage, " hard 
us marble." 

Parian marble; its colour is snow-white, inclining to yellowish-white; it is fine, granular, 
and, when polished, has somewhat of a waxy appearance. 

Penteliean marble, from Mount Pentelicus, near Athens, resembles very closely the pre- 
ceding, but is more compact an<l finely granular. 

Carrara marble is of a beautiful white colour, but is often traversed by grey veins, so that it is 
difficult to procure large blocks wholly free from them. It is not subject to turn yellow, as 
the Parian. This marble, which is almost tlie only one used by modern sculptors, was also 
quarried and wrought by the ancieuts. 

Hfd antique marble. — This marble, according to .intiquaries, is of a deep blood-red colour, 
here and there traversed by veins of white, aud, if closely inspected, appears to be sprinkled 
over with minute white dots, as if it were strewed with sand. Another variety of this marble 
is of a very deep red without veins, of which a specimen may be seen in the Indian Bacchus , 
in the Royal Museum of Paris. 

Orfen anii^ue mnrWa is an indeterminate mixture of white marble and green serpentine. It 
has a black ground, in which are imbedded fragments or portions of a greyish-white, of 
a deep red, or of a purple wine colour. This is one of the mo.st beautiful marbles hitherto 
found, aud has a superb effect when accompanied with gilt oruaments. — Partingtoft's Cyr.lo. 



Mill, above four feet in diameter, or if twelve inches 



in thickness or upwards, pair . . . .118 

France was considered formerly to produce the best Mill-stones : but tliose of Nortli Wales 
are now found equally good. — Ed. 

Paving, not of Marble, 100 feet sq. superficial mea- 



12 

In Britain, the pavement of the grand streets, &c. is usually of Hint, or rubble slone ; courts, 
stables, kitchens, &c. are paved with tiles, bricks, flags, or (ire-stoue ; more frequently with 
a kind of freestone aud ragstone. — Ency. Britan. 

Pebble ...... Free. 



Pebble Stoues are collected from the sea-beach, mostly brought from the islands of Guern- 
sey and Jersey : they are very durable, indeed the most so of any used for paving.— iVicj/. 
Britati. 

Polishing, lOOZ. val. . . . ,500 



Pumice, ton , . . . .050 

Kear Home Pumices arc most .abundant, which are sought in vain on the mountains of ,41bano 
iiud Tuscolo; and they become much nu>re abundant as we proceed northward from 
Rome. Most of the jmmice of commerce comes from Lipari. — Brewster's Edinburgh Journ. 

Quern, under three feet in diameter, and not ex. six 



inches in thickness, pair . . . .089 

three feet in diameter, and not above four feet 



in diameter, and not ex. six inches in thickness, pair . 17 6, 
Quern stones are a description of grind stones, aud iucmorc i'artigularW used for hand-mills. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Di^^/V,?, ^-c. 129 

Stones, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
Rag, 100/. val. . . . . .2000 

Rag-stones are fossils cliiefly found iu EiigUind, ,inil ;ue uscil for sharpening tools. — Ed. 

Sculptured or Mosaic Work, cwt. . . . 2 G 



If any statue, group of figueis, or otlier stone or marble ornament, carved out 
of the same block, shall exceed one ton weight, the duty to be charged 
then-on shall be estimated at the rate payable for one ton weight, and 
no more. 

By T I.., Nov 5, 1832, witli a view of encouraging a^i rrmoh as possible the school of H vitish 
Artists, Works ol Sculptm-i^ are to be adniitted uniler the same regulations as are at present 
applicable to the adrnission of Paintings IVora the Conlinent. See p. 101. 

liiff/it and Properti/ of Sru/pturp, Models, tye. — Every person who shall make 
iiny new and original sculpture, or model, or lopy, or cast of the human 
figure, or of any bust, or of anv part of the hiunun tigure, clothed m dra- 
pery, or otherwise, or of any animal, or of any [)art of any animal combined 
witu the human figure, or otherwise, or of any subject being matter of 
invention in sculpture, or of any alto or basso-relievo representing ;iny of the 
things hereinbefore mentioned, or any cast of the things hereinbefore men- 
tioned, whether separate or combined, shall have tlie sole right and projierty 
ot the same, for the term of fourteen years, from first putting forh or pub- 
lishing the same; provided, in eveiycase, that the proprietor do cause his 
name, with the date, to be put on every such sculpture, model, copy, or 
cast, before the same shall be put forth or published. 54 Geo. III., c. 56. § I. 

Piranng,or lUfgalJi) Importing. — If any person shall, within such term of four- 
teen years, import any pirated copy or pirated cast of any such sculpture, or 
model, or copy, or cast, to the detriment of the proprietor of any such works 
so pirated: tiien the proprietor, or his assignee, may by a special action 
upon the case to be brought against the person so oti'ending, receive such 
damages as a jury, on a trial of the action, shall give or a,ssess, together with 
double costs of suit. § 3. 

Purchasers uf Copyrights. — No person who shall hereafter purchase the riijht or 
property of any sculpture, or model, or copy, or cast, or of any of the things 
protected by this Act, of the proprietor, shall be subject to any action for 
the same. ^ -1. 

Additi'inal Term. — From the expiration of the said term of fourteen years, tlie 
sole right of any of the things hereinbefore mentioned, shall return to the 
person who originally made the same, if he be then living, for the further 
term of fourteen years, excepting in the case where such pers<in shall by sale 
or otherwise have diverted himself of such right of maknig or disposing of 
the same. ^ 6, 

Then sculptnre and her sister arts revive, 
Stones leapd to form, and rocks began to live. — Pope. 
Apollo Belvidere is esteemed by most artists as the snblimest specimen of anc'ent art which 
has survived to modern times. This statue is a standing iigure, almost naked, and more 
tlian seven feet in height. — Ency. Metrop. 
A statue ot Venus has been excavated at lionavia, in the neighbourhood of Syracuse. In 
beauty of form and purity of execution, it is said to excel tliat of Medicis. Unfortunately 
the head is wanting, but, as it is, the statue measures six palms four inches in height. It 
has been placed in the Syracuse Museum. — Foreign Rev. 

Slates, not Otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. . 66 10 

Slates in Fraiiies, doz. . . . .030 

h-late for drawing is found in Italy, where it is an object of commerce. It is also found in 
Spain, France, and some parts of Scotland. It is employed like black chalk in drawing. 

Whet Slate was originally brought from the Levant ; but has since been uiscovered in Bohe- 
mia, Saxony, in bayreuth, wliere it is wrought, and in Siberia. 

Whet Slate, as its name imports, is cut and polished for the purpose of sharpening knives, 
and other instruments ; and, reduced to powder is employed in polishing steel. 

Clay Slate is very abinulant in most countries; it is not unliequent in many parts of Scot- 
la-, d ; but the slate of Easdale, and the contiguous islands on the wesi coast, has Ion" 
maintained a decided superiority and preference to all others in this countrv. 

Clay Slate is in extensive use for covering houses, and then it is known in this country by the 
single word slate. It is also employed in large plates lor writing on, or tracing characters 
that are afterwards to be effaced. — Ency. Britan. 

To judge of the goodness of slate, Mr. Colepress, in the Philosophical Transnctions, orders it 
to be knocked against any hard body, to make it yield a sound; if the sound be good and 
clear, the stone is fu'm and good : ot"herwi»e, it is friable and soft. — Chambers. 



130 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z)M/ie5, 4-c. [1837-8. 

Stones, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
Slick, 100 . . . . .080 

Slick, or Sleek Stones, are a species of smootliing stoues. — Ed. 

Stone to be used for the purpose of Lithography . Free. 

Lithography, tlie art or practice of engraving upon stones. — Johnson. 
The map prefixed to this Journal is drawn on stone. — Ed. . 

Whet Stones, 100 . . . . .089 

Whet stones are so called because they serve for the whetting of edge-tools upon. — Ency. 
Brilan. 



Stones not particularly enumerated, nor otherwise 



charged with duty, 1 00/. val. . . . . 20 

Precious. See Jewels. 



Storax or Styrax. See Gum, p. 78. 

Stores, Mihtary. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Straw or Grass for Platting, cwt. . . . .001 

Stuffs. See Silk, p. 113. ~ 

It shall be lawful i'or the commissioners of customs to permit any 

stuffs or fabrics of silk, linen, cotton, or wool, or of any mixture of them 
with any other material, to be taken out of the warehouse to be cleaned, 
refreshed, dyed, stained, or calendered, or to be bleached or printed, 
without payment of duty of customs, under security, nevertheless, by 
bond to their satisfaction, that such goods shall be returned to tlie 
warehouse within the time that they shall appoint. 3 and 4 Will IV.. 
c. 57. § 35. 

Succades, produce of or imported from anv foreign coun- 
try, lb. . . . . . " .006 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. GO.) 

produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . .001 

Apricots, Peaches, and Pears preserved, — By O. C, April 19, 1836, Fruits preserved by susar, 
whether in a liquid state or not are succades, and are cliavgeablo as such, unless otherwise 
charged by name. 

Plums preserved are particularly rated; and as the apricot is a species of plum, apricots, iii 
whatever way preserved, may be entered under the generic denomination. There is also a 
particular rati lor dried pears ; and if the pears are in a dry state, although some sugar may 
have been used in their preservation, the particular rate must prevail. 

Peaches are not named in the table, and although dry, if sugar has been the material of their 
preservation, they must be treated as succades. 

As to plums, dried or preserved, see p. 102. 

Succades, another name for sweetmeats or preserves, are brought in great perfection from the 
East and West Indies. — £d 

There is, perliaps, no country where the inhabitants live so much upon sweetmeats as in 
Versia. The finest is the Guzangabeen, made of the honey of the guz or tamarisk tree, 
mixed with some flour and sugar. — Sir John Malcolm. 

Succus Liquoritise. See Liquorice Juice, p. 87. 

Sugar.* Brown or Muscovado or Clayed Sugar, not being 

refined, cwt. . . . .330 

Growth of B. P. in America, and imported 

thence, cwt. . . . .14 

• Growth of B. P. within the limits of the East 

India Company's charter, into which the 
Importation of Foreign Sugar may be by 
this Act prohibited, and imported thence, 
cwt. . . . . .14 

Growth of any other B. P. within those 

limits, and imported thence, cwt. 

Melasses, cwt. ..... 

produce of and imported from anyB. P., cwt, 

Refined, cwt. ..... 

— Candy, Brown, cwt, .... 

White, cwt. .... 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 26.) 

* By 1 Vict. c. 27, 5 1, the duties imposed on sugar are continued until July 5, 1838 



1 


12 





1 


3 


9 





9 





8 


8 





5 


12 





8 


8 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Z>w<^>y, ^c 131 

Sugar, continued, viz. : — 

EAST INDIA SUGAR. 

Foreign Sugar into certain British Possessions. — From December 1, 1836, it 
shall not be lawful to import into any part of the Presidency of Fort 
William in Bengal, or of any DependL'Ucy thereof, beinj^ a British Posses- 
sion, any Foreign Sugar, nor any Sugar the growth of any British Possession 
into which Foreign Sugar can be legally imported, except into such districts 
or provinces of the said Presidency or of the Dependencies thereof as shall 
be a])pointed by the Governor General of India in Council. ^ 3. 

Sugar ?iot at a lotcer Rale of Dtitij, — No Sugar the produce of any district or 
province in respect of which any such orders shall be issued shall be im- 
ported into any part of the United Kingdom at the lower rate of duty pro- 
posed by this Act. § 4. 

Certificate of Origin. — Before any sugar shall be entered as being of the 
produce of any of the provinces composing the presidency of Fort William, in 
Bengal, or of any of the ilependencies thereof, being a British Possession, at 
the lower rate of duty fixed by this Act, the master of the ship importing the 
same shall deliver to the Collector or Comptroller of Customs at the Port of 
Importation a certificate under the hand and seal of the Collector of Sea 
Customs of the port where such sugar was taken on board within the limits 
of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal, or of any of the dependencies 
thereof, being a British Possession, testifying that there had been produced 
to him by the shipper of such sugar a certificate under thehnnd and seal of 
the Collector or Assistant Collector of the Land or Custom Revenue of the 
district within which such sugar was produced that such sugar was of the 
produce of the district, and that the importation into such district of foreign 
sugar, or sugar the growth of any British Possession into which foreign 
sugar can be legally imported, is prohibited ; which certificate so granted 
by the Collector of Sea Customs shall state the name of the districts in 
which such sugars were produced, their quantity and quality, the number 
and denomination of the packages containing the same, and the name of 
the ;ship in which they are laden, and of the master t"liereof; and such 
master shall also make a declaration before the Collector or Comptroller 
that such certificate was received by him at the place where such sugar 
was takei^ on board, and that the sugar so imported is the same as is men- 
tioned therein. § 5. 

fVhat Persons may give Certificates. — It shall be lawful for the Governor 
General of India in council to appoint any officers, other than the Collector 
and Assistant Collector of Land Revenue and the Collector of Customs, to 
give such certificates. ^ 6. 

Sugar the Growth of certain British Possessions. — If at any time satisfactory proof 
shall have been laid before Her Majesty in Council that the importation of 
foreign sugar into any British Possessions within the limits of the East 
India Company's charter is prohibited, it shall be lawful for Her Majesty, 
by Order in Council to be published from time to time in the JjmduH 
Gazette, to allow the importation of sugar, the growth of any such British 
possession, at the lower rate of duty in the foregoing Act specified, in like 
manner and under the same restrictions and conditiuns as sugar the growth 
of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal may be imported subject to a 
lower rate of duty under the provisions of the said Act, 1 Victoria, c. 27. 

Before any sugar shall be entered as being the produce of any B. P. within 
the limits of the East India Coinpany's Charter, the master of the ship 
importing the same shall deliver to the collector or comptroller a certi- 
ficate, under the hand and seal of the proper officer at the place where such 
sugar was taken on board, testifying that proof had been made before him, 
by the shipper of such sugar, that the same was really and bona file the 
produce of such B. P. ; and such master shall also make and subscribe a 
declaration before the collector or comiitroUer, that such certificate was 
received by him at the jdace where such sugar was taki-n on board, and that 
the sugar so imported is the same as is mentioned therein, 3 and 4 ^Vill. 
IV., c. 5-_', § 38. 

MAl'LK SUGAR. 

By C. O, March 15, 1836, maple suyav, imported from Canada, to be admitted to entry as 
the produce of a British plantation, provided it be certified by the proper ullicers of this 
revenue, in the certificate of cleaiantc, that such sugar is the produce of Canada. 

K 2 



132 UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— Dw^?>5, <^-c:. [1837-S. 

Sugar, co?itinued, viz. : — 

TARE ON B. p. SUGAR. 

UnderScvvt 14 pev cent. 

8 aud under 12 cwt .1 cwt. each cask. 

12' . .15 1 1 12 Do. 

15 . .17 1 2 Do. 

17 and upwards .13 Do. 

By C. O., Sept. 18.34, 121b. per cwt. allowed on Demerara Sugar in casks of pcculrar 
structure. ' 

CERTIFICATE OF B. P. IN AMERICA, AND MAURITIUS SUGAR. 
By 3 and 4 Will IV., c. 52, § 37, before any sugar shall be entered as beinj^ of 
the produce of some B. P. in America, or the Island of Mauritius, the 
master of the ship importing the same shall deliver to the collector or comp- 
troller a certificate, under the hand of the proper officer, of the place where 
such goods were taken on board, testifying that proof had been made in 
manner required by law that such goods are the produce of some B. P. in 
America, or of the Island of Mauritius, stating the name of the place where 
such goods were produced, and the quantity and quality of the goods, and 
the number and denomination of the packages containing the same, and the 
name of the ship in which they are laden, and of the master thereof ; and 
such master shall also make and subscribe a declaration before the col- 
lector or comptroller, that such certificate was received by him at the place 
where such goods were taken on board, and that the goods so imported are 
the same as are mentioned therein. 



Vacuum Pan Sugar.— By T. M ., Aug. 27, 1S33, it is stated, tliat, with respect to the Vacuum 
Pan Sugar, my Lords are given to understand, that by a simple process of stoving only, it 
can be brought into such a state as to be entitled to receive the drawback on exportation as 
refined sugar; that, where such is the case, it is clearly impossible that this sugar can be 
admitted at the lower duty of 24s. ; but that in cases where the sugar in question could not 
be permitted to receive the drawback on exportation without any process of refining, my 
Lords are of opinion that the Vacuum Pan Sugars may be justly admitted at the lower 
duty. 

ALLOWANCES. 

The duties payable upon sugar, when taken out of warehouse for /lome use, 
shall be charged upon the quantities ascertained by the weight of the same 
actualbj delivered, except that if the sugar shall not be in a warehouse of 
special security, no greater abatement on account of deficiency of the quan- 
tity first ascertained as aforesaid shall be made than shall be after the rate 
of three per centum of such quantity for the first three months, and one per 
centum for every subsequent month during which such sugar shall have been 
warehoused. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 19. 



Samples. — By C. C, Aug. 31, 1832, samples of sugar are not to be deemed deficiencies, but to 
be chargeable with duty at the time of the delivery of the packages from which such sam- 
ples may have been taken, as the samples on all other goods are (spirits excepted). 

Sweepings. — The sweepings of the sugar warehouses may be charged with the melassos duty, 
subject to such allowance for dirt, &c. mi.Ked therewith, as the proper officers shall consider 
the sweepings entitled to. 

Pe-iceujldng. — By T. L., Feb. 13, 1832, the re-weighing of sugar and melasses is dispensed 
with, when taken out of warehouse for removal from one warehousing port to another; 
provided the merchant, upon his taking the goods out of warehouse for removal, shall, 
previous to such removal, declare that the goods are taken out and removed for home use 
only, and give security to pay the duty according to the weight ascertained at the time of 
removal. 

By C. O., Oct. 1832, so much of the minute of July 10, 1830, and T. O. of Feb. 13, 1832, as 
regards the re-weighing of sugar,;^removed coastwise, is rescinded. 

CULTURE, &c. 

The strongest proofs, carefully collected from the best authorities of ancient 
and modern times, lead to the conclusion, that China was the first country 
in which the sugar-cane was cultivated, aud its produce manufactured ; 
and it is tolerably well ascertained, that the inhabitants of that country 
enjoyed its use two thousand years before it was known and adopted ia 
Europe. 

In 14G(J,the use of sugar in England was confined to medicines and feasts, and 
this continued until 1580, when it was brought from Brazil to Portugal, and 
theuce to our country. — G, B, Porter's History of the Sugar Cane, 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Di///e5, ^'(T. 133 

SvgplK, continued, vis. : — £ s. d. 

The su^ar-cane may be considered as the iiroduction of the liigliest effort of the power of ve- 
getatiou. ■ In almost all other plants, it is only dining the germination of the seed, tho 
most active period of their lives, that the sweet principle is to be detected. In the cane it 
it is at all times to be found, and that in ciuantities surpassing what exists in all other 
plants put togetlier. The cane is a plant of a warm latitude, its growth being in propor- 
tion to the heat of the climate, and the fertility of the soil. In the West India islands, it is 
in the plains that the cane reaches all the perfections of which it is capable. Yet even 
here, according to report, its size and luxuriance are inferior to what it attains in Madagas- 
car, the Isle of France, and the districts of tlie cast, more immediately beneath the equa- 
tor. Like all gramineous plants, it delights in rather a moist climate. When the rains, 
liowever, are excessive, a rank luxuriance is the consequence, unfavourable to the matura- 
tion of the plant, the juices it affords beiu" watery, and deficient in the saccharine principln 
yielding on crystallization a dark-coloured sugar. It is a peculiarity of the sugar-cane in 
the V/est India islands, that it refuses to jjerlect its seed. Ever since its cidtivatioii in the 
island of Jamaica, it has bc^en raised from cuttings of the joints. By these innumerable 
subdivisions it has been continued to tho present time, retaining all the characters and 
peculiarities of the parent plant. There are, in reality, only a very few jdants in the 
islands — the canes which cover our lields being strictly not distinct beings, but prolonga- 
tions of a few individuals — their origin derived from the enlargement of one part removed 
by division to another. The case is different in tlie east. Here we can point out few va- 
rieties ; there along the banks of the Ganges, its native region, it perfects its seed, and 
may be raised in this manner, presenting innumerable varieties, corresponding to what we 
observe in all plants produced in this manner — the offspring seldom presenting a strict si- 
milarity to its parent stock. — Dr. Macfaylen — Huoltefs Quarterly Butunual Miscellany. 

fy kite or Clayed Sugar. — Muscovado sugar is the raw material whence the Hritish sugar- 
bakers chiefly make their loaf or refined lump. There is another sort, which was formerly 
much used in Great Britain for domestic purposes, and was generally known by the name 
of Lisbon sugar. In the West Indies it is called clayed sugar. — Ure. 

MRLASSES. 

That gross fluid matter remaining of sugar after refining, and which no boiling will bring to 
a consistence more solid than that of syrup ; hence also called syrup 'of sugar. Properly, 
melasses are only the sediment of one kind of sugar called Chypre.or brown sugar, which 
is the refuse of other sugars, not to be whitened or reduced into loaves. Melasses are 
much used in Holland for the preparation of tobacco, and also among poor people iustead 
of sugar. There is a kind of brandy or spirit made of melasses ; but by some held exceed- 
ingly unwholesome. — Ency. Britan. 

SUG.^R CANDY. 
Sugar Candy is the true essence of the caneformed into large crystals by a slow process.— 
'Ency. Britan. 

Sulphur Impressions, 100^. val. . . , .500 
Vivum. See Brimstone, p. .'jj. 

Sulphur volatilizes under 220° Fahr., at which it fuses, and, what is singular, by increasing 
the heat to 320°, it becomes thick and viscid, and if then poured into water, it assumes a 
red colour and ductility like wax; while its specific gravity is increased to2'323. In this 
state it is kneaded under the water, and used for receiving the impressions of seals and 
medals. — Thomson. 

Sweep-washers' Dirt, containing BuUion. See Bullion, p. 56. 
Sweet Wood, produce of or imported from any Foreign 
country, ton . . . . . .2100 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. G0.> 
produce of and imported from B. P. ton . 1 G 3 

Sweet- Wood is a species of the willow. — Eel. 

Swine, prohibited to be imported for home use on pain of forfeiture, but 
may be warehoused for exportation onlv. 3 and 4 Will, IV., c. 52, 
§ 59, 60, 



Tails, Buffalo, Bull, Cow, or Ox, 100 , . .-060 

Fox. ] 

Marten. I o o ,» -inn 

— Sable. f ^^" ^''''''' P- ^-^- 

Squirrel, or Calabar. J 

Talc, lb. . . . . , . .008 



This mineral is found in Piedmont, Saxony, Bohemia, and in the western parts of Invei 
shire in Scotland. Talc is somclimes cniphjycd as a substitute for chalk, eultrs into mo 
composition of crayons, and is mixed with some kinds of paint. Indurated talc forms beds 



to tho 



134 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw^ze^, <f-c. [1837-8. 

Talc, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

in mountains of argillaceous schistus, gneis, and serpentine, in the Tyrol, Italy, and Swit- 
zerbind, and also in the western parts of Scotland. It is applied to the same purposes as 
the preceding. — Ency. Britan. 

Tallow, cwt. . . . . . .032 

imported from B. P. in Asia, Africa, or America, 

cwt. . . . . . . .010 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Tallow, being the produce of Europe, shall 
not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in Bri- 
tish ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are tlie produce, or 
in ships from which the goods are imported. 
Tallow is the fat of certain animals melted and clarified. It is procured from most animals, 
but chiefly from bullocks, sheep, hogs, and bears. Some kinds of tallow are used as un- 
guents in mi'dicine, some for making soap and dresfing leather, and some for making can- 
dles — Ency. Hritan. 
Mineral tallow, which was discovered in Finland in 1736, has lately been found in a bog on the 

borders of Loch Fyne, ui Scotland. — Edinb. Phil. Journ. 
A tree producing a substance like tallow, and which serves for the same purpose, grows very 
commonly in China. — Reg. nf the Arts and Sciences. 

Tamarinds, lb. . . . . . .008 

produce of and imported from B. P., lb. . 1 

This fruit is chiefly imported from the West Indies. It is a grateful acid to allay thirst in 
febrile affections.— Brande. 

The tamarind, one of the hirgest and most beautiful of trees, grows luxriantly in most of the 
Indian islands, and appears to be a native production. Of fruits, tamarinds alone consti- 
tute an article of foreign exportation. Java is the principal exporting country. Tlie best, 
which are of a very dark colour, nearly, indeed, black, and with a very large proportion of 
pulp to the seed, are the produce of the d pending island of Madura. Those exported 
from one country of the Archipelago to another, are merely dri^d in the sun. Such as are 
sent to Europi* are cured with salt and jjacked in tubs, weighing from two and a half to 
three piculs. — Crawfurd. 

Tapioca, cwt. . . . . . .010 

An Ameiican plant, the jatropha manihat, contains the nutritive starch cassava, curiously 
associated with a deadly poisonous juice. The roots of jatropha are squeezed in a bag. 
The cassava remains in it; and the juice, which i« used by the Indians to poison their 
arrows, gradually lets fall some starch of an innocent and very nutritious quality. The 
whole solid matter is dried in smoke, ground and made into bread. — Ure. 

Tar, the lastof 12 brls, each brl. not ex. 3li gals. . . 15 

produce of and imported from B. P. the last of 12 

such brls. . . . . . .0120 

Barbadoes, cwt. . . . . .026 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Tar, being the produce of Europe, shall not be 

imported into the United Kin<j;dom, to be used therein, except in British 

ships, or in ships of the couiilry oi' which the goods are the produce, or in 

ships from which the goods are imported. 

Tar is a thick, blick, unctuous substance, obtained chiefiy from old pines and fir trees, by 

burning them witii a close smothering heat. It is prepared in great quantities in Norway, 

Sweden, Germany, Russia, and North America, and in other countries where the pine aiid 

fir abound. -Tar, which is well known for its economical uses, is properly an empyreumatic 

oil of turpentine, and has been much used as a medicine both internally and externally. — 

Ency. Britan. 

Tares, quarter . . . , . .0100 

Tarras, bushel , . . . . .013 

Tarras, a coarse sort of plaster, or mortar, durable in the wet, and chiefly used to line basons> 
cisterns, wells, and other reservoirs of water. That wliich is called the Dutch tarras, is 
made of a soft rock stone, found near CoUen, upou the lower part of the Rhine ; it is burnt 
like lime, and afterwards reduced to powder by means of mills ; from thence it is brought 
to Holland ia great quantities, w\>ere it has acquired the name of Dutch tanas, it' is of 
a greyish colour when it is not mixed. — Chambers. 

Tartaric Acid, lb.. . . . . ,004 

Tea. 

New Duty from 1st July, 1836. 

From and after 1st July, 1836, the several duties on Tea 
shall cease ; and in lieu thereof there shall be charged 
on tea which after the said day shall be imported, or 



1837-8] UNITED KINGDOM— Imports —7)//f/es, <^c. 135 

Tea, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

which, havin<T been previously importefl, shall after that 

day be entered for Home Consumption in the United 

Kingdom, lb. . . . . .021 

(5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 32.) 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 101, ^ 1, from April 22, 1834, it shall be lawful to 
import any Tea into the United Kingdom from the Cape of Good Hope and 
from places eastward of the same to the Straits of Magellan, and nut from 
any other place. 

Draft. — By § 2, the allowance called Draft now made by the commission- 
ers of excise in the weighing of Tea, shall be made by the commissioners of 
customs under the authority of this Act. 

Damage. — By ^ 4, no abatement of duty shall be made on account of damage 
received by any tea during the voyage ; but it shall be lawful for the 
importer to separate the damaged parts, and to abandon tin- same to the 
commissioners of customs for the duty. 

Mired Tea. — By § T), if different sorts of tea mixed togetlier be imported in 
the same pacitage, the whole shall be liable to the highest rate of duty to 
which any otsuch sorts would be separately liable ; and if two or more sorts 
of tea not perfectly mixed together be imported in one package, the same 
shall be forfeited. 

Former Laws. — By § 6, nothing herein before contained shall alter or afFt-ct 
any law of excise relating to licences for the sale of tea, or relating to 
permits for the removal of tea, or otherwise to the internal management of 
tea by the commissioners of excise, after the duties of importation on the 
same shall have bten paid, and afrer the same shall have been delivered out 
of the charge of the officers of customs. 

Permits. — By ^ 7, it shall be lawful for the Lords of His Majesty's Trcasiny, 
by any warrant or order mider the hands of any two or more of them, to 
discontinue the practice of requiring and issuing permits for the removal of 
tea, and to make and establish any other rules, either of customs or excise, in 
lieu of such practice, as to them shall, after the discontinuance of the same, 
appear necessary for the security of the reveniie. 

Surveysand Permits. — By B. O., Feb. 17, 1836, surveys and permits in tlie tea trade ahoUshed. 

Re-impo7't. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 33, tea shall not he re-imported into 
the United Kingdom for home use upon the ground that the same had been 
legally exported from thence, htit the same shall be deemed t j be foreign 
goods, whether originally such or not, and shall also be deemed to be 
imported for the first time into the United Kingdom. 

Stock.— By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 9.3, § 111, from Aug. 28, 1833, all enact- 
ments and provisions directing the East India Company to provide for 
keeping a stock of tea, shall be repealed. 

As to dejiciencies and increases on re-weighing, see Exports. Part 3. 

Ports, Warehouses, and General Regulations. — By C. O., July 10, 1834, for giving effect to tlie 
Order of the Lords of the Treasury, dated 3i-d instant, permitting tea to be imported and 
warehoused at tlie undermentioned ports, viz. : — 

London, liEiTH, Dublin. 

LivKRPooL, Glasgow, Kelpast, 

Bristol, Greenock, Gork, 

Hull, Port Glasgow, and 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne (T. O. Waterford,— -from Julv 1, 

Sept. 23, 1834). 1836 (.T. O. Aug.26, 1835). 

Whitehave.n', from .Tiily'1,1836, 

(T. O. Aug. 26, 1835). 
and also allowing tlie Removal thereof from the original Port of Importation to any of the 
other Warehousing' Ports in the United ICiniidom, for the purpose of bidng re warehoused 
for home consumption ; and the Surveyors General having submitted the following propo- 
sitions for the approval of the Board, viz. 

1st, That the warehouses which may be approved for the deposit of tea, be exclusively appro- 
printrd to that purpose. 

2ndly, That the articles be weighed and examined at the time of importation, the oflKcers 
taking care that all the packages imported in each vessel Vie " scribed " witli a progressive 
number, with the initials of the vessel's and master's names, and the gross Uuiding weighU ; 
and that the duty be charged according to the quantity and quality then ascertaineil. 

3rdly, That no packages be allowed to be divided into smaller packages (except for the 



1 lunipd out 


3 


ditto. 


4 


or 5 ditto. 


5 


ditto. 


6 


ditto. 


8 


ditto. 


10 


ditto. 


12 


ditto. 


16 


ditto. 



136 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— J)i.'^/i'.?, c^-c, [1837-8. 

Tea, continued, viz. : — 

purpose of stores), nor the mixing of tea, of any sort or sorts, be permitted in tlie vvareliouses, 
either for liome consumption or exportation. 
4thly, That tlie pacl^ages be sorted and arranged in the warehouse by the occupier, according 
to their respective "chops" or "beds," so as to enable the ofTicers to select from cacli the 
retiuiied number of packages for taring, and to ascertain the proper tare to be allowed on 
the packages in each " cliop,'' or " bed ;" and that the rule to be observed, as to number of 
chests to be turned out in each "chop" or "bed" Vjeing of the same-size and description 
of tea, be as Ibllows, viz. 

1 to 5 — 5 chests of the same size and description of teas . 

6 to 40— 40 ...... . 

41 to 80— SO . . .... 

Si to 120— 120 ....... 

121 to 200— 200 ....... 

201 to 300— 300 ....... 

301 to 50.J— 500 . . . . . ■ . 

501 to 800— 800 ....... 

SOI and upwards ....... 

And that in addition to the tare, an allowance for draft be made of 1/i. upon each package 
exceeding 28/6. gross, to be deducted from the foot of the landing account. 

5thly, That tea entered for exportation be previously weighed, and any deficiency of the 
landing quantity charge<l with duty, unless such tea be deposited in a warehouse of special 
securiti/. 

Samples^— GMy, That the officers be authorized under the Kegulation Act to draw samples of 
tea, not exceeding three ounces of each description and quality, unless under special cir- 
cumstances, such samples to be disposed of as the Board may see fit to direct. And that 
the merchants or proprietors of the goods be allowed to take the like quantity as samples, 
under the 31st section of the General Warehousing Act, 

Hemuval.—'RyC. O., Oct. 7, 1834, and Dec. 17, 1834, Tea is allowed to be removed coastwise 
under bond from one warehousing port to another, without being re-weiglied at the port of 
destination, either for home consun]ption, or to be shijipcd for use, as stores. 

Samples.— By C. O., Oct. 13, 1834, samples of tea referred to' in the General Order of the 10th 
July last, may be drawn under an order from the officers in the warehousing department, 
who should note the same in the registers, at the foot of each merchant's account ; and all 
subsequent samples to be delivered under the authority of the locker in charge of the ware- 
house, subject to the following regulations; the said ofhcer being required to note the 
several transactions in the respective merchants' accounts : 

1st, Tliat authorized parties requiring second or subsequent samples, do present to tlie 
lockers a request specifying the description and quantity of tea, manifest marks, and 
number of packages, Irom which the same are to be drawn. 

2ndly, That an equal quantity of tea of similar description be deposited in a bag or other 
package belonginj; to the respective merchants, prior to second or any subsecjuent samples 
being delivered, the returned s;imples tliat are to be deposited, being checked daily by the 
locker witli the delivery orders lor the same, viz. by his weighing the total quantities 
received back, in lieu of those for which orders have been received and acted upon. 

jrarehuusinij. — That if the entire importation of any one description of tea, in a particidar entry, 
be eleared for home consumption, the samples that may have accumulated tli' reon, be de- 
livered without entry or payment of duty, on application to the warehouse keeper's depart- 
ment ; but that upon such tea as may be delivered lor exportation or stores, a propurtiouata 
part of the accumulated samples be charged with duty, whether tlie goods be deposited m 
warehouses of special security or otherwise, unless the same shall have been returned at the 
lime of shew, or previous to delivery into their respective packages; — it being distinctly un- 
derstood that the quantities of the samples are to be similar to those hcrelulore allowed by 
the East 1 ndia Compaiiy, viz. 1, 2, 2i, or 3 ounces, according to the description or quality of 
■the tea, not exceeding in any case 3 ounces to each person bearing the sampling order from 
the merchant or other proper person: and that in cases where tea may be warehoused fur 
exportation only, and a second sample shall be required, 1 oz. of each description or quality 
be allowed to be taken, an equal quantity being returned into the packages from whence thu 
sample shall have been drawn. 

CULTURE. 

The cultivation of Tea is not general throughout the Chinese empire; the northern parts be- 
ing too cold, and the southern ))arts too warm. The plant is the growth of a particular 
region, situated between tlie thirtieth and thirty-third decrees of north latitude, called the 
tea country, Tok-yen, Ho-)piug, An-koy, &c. There are some plantations near Canton, but 
they are few, and those thatdo exist are of no great extent. The trees are planted four or 
live feet asunder; they havc-a very stunted appearance ; and they are not allowed to grow 
higher than is convenient for men, women, and chihhen to pick the leaves. The gatherings 
take place from one to four times in each year, according to the age of the plant. It is 
only the difl'ereuce in the times of gathering, and manner of curing, which causes the dis- 
tinction in appearance, qunliiies, and \alue; those which aregatlieted earliest in the spring 
make the strongest and most valuable tea, such as iiekoe, souchong, &c. ; the inferior, such 
as consjou, boliea, are of the latest gatherings. Green, or hyson, can be made of any of the 
gatherings, by a difierent mode of drying. The first gathering of the leaves begins about 
the middle of April, and continues to tlu' end of May ; the second lasts from Midsummer to 
the end of July; the third takes place during the mouths of August and September. When 
the leaves are gathered, they are put into wide shallow baskets, jplaeed on shelves in 
the air, oi'winil, or mild sunshine, from morning till noon; then, on a flat cast-iron pan, 
oVer a charcoal stove; tenor twelve ounces of the leaves are thrown at a time, stirred 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM— Imports.— J?«<;/e5, ^-c. 137 

Tea, continued, viz. : — £ ,y. d. 

quickly with a. short liand-bioom twice otthiicej and then brushed olT again into the bask- 
ets, ill whicli they arc equally and carefully rubbed between men's hands to roll tliem ; 
after which they are affaiu put into the pan in larf^er quantities, over a slower lire, to be 
dried a second time. When tired enough, tlie tea is laid on tables, to be drawn, or picked 
over, putting asiile all the unsightly and imperfectly dried leaves, in order that the saiii|ilo 
may be mote even and marketable. To make siuglo, or hyfeon, the first two gatherings are 
chosen, and, as soon as picked from the trees, are put into the pan; next rolled, and spreail 
thin, to s('i)arate tlie leaves which adhere to each other ; again well dried, spread, sifted, 
picked, and tired two or three times more (especially if it is damp weather), before it is in a 
marketable state. The Chinese drink their tea without either milk or sugar ; they partake 
of it plentifully at their meals, and very frequently in the course of the day. One mode of 
using it, amongst the higher ranks, is formed by grating into the cup balls made of the most 
valuable leaves, cemented together by sjme kind of tasteless gum. — Gardener s Mnyitzine. 

By a recent letter from Calcutta some interesting facts are made known relative to the tea- 
plant, which is at length ascert.iiued beyond doubt to be indigenous in Ujiper Assam, being 
found there through an extent of one month's march within the territories of the ICast 
India Company, from Sadiya and Ceesa to the Chinese frontier province of Yunnan, where 
the shrub is cultivated for the sake of its leaf. The committee of tea culture in Calcutta 
have addressed a letter on the subject to Mr. Macnaghten, Secretary to the Goverirmeat, in 
the revenue department, in which they express their entire conviction that the plant 
refened to is the identical ten of China, the exclusive source of all the varieties and shades 
of the tea of commerce, and recommend that one or more scientific gentlemen may be 
deputed into Upper Assam for the purpose of collecting on the spot the greatest variety pro- 
curable of botanical, geological, and other details, which, as preliminary informatioii, are 
absolutely necessary before ulterior measures can be successfully taken for the cultivation 
of the lea shrub of that cotintry. This recommendation has been adopted by the Govern- 
ment, but tlie investigation was not expected to commence with the jirospect of any good 
effect before November, as the rainy season would intervene, during which no such research 
could be conducted. — Ed. 

Many ell'orts are making to cultivate the tea-shrub in France; it languished in great heat, 
but has flourished in a lower temperature, and now grows in a strong and lieaithy 
manner, in the open air at Marseilles, and it is proposed to naturalize it throughout the 
region where the orange trees prosper. — -Atlienesum, No. 513. 

Prirate Trade Sales. — The series of private trade sales of tea, which commenced on the 23rd 
October, 1837, were attended with results much more favourable tlian were expected. 
There has been considerable animation throughout, and all sorts advanced as the sales 
proceeded, especially bolieas, common congous, and twankays. All the Canton boheas 
were sold at 2d. to 3d. per lb. higher than at the sales in September. On Fokien boheas 
the advance is 2d. to Ad. per lb. ; on common congous 3d. to id. ; and on common souchongs 
2d. to id. per lb. The demand for low-price teas being greater than for the superior quali- 
ties, the latter did not participate in tlie improvement to the same extent. Out of 65,473 
packages put up for sale, about 50,000 were disposed of; and the greater proportion of 
the remainder was bouglit in by the merchants, who are confidently looking for better 
prices, as the supplies for next year, it is supposed, will not exceed 2o,000,U001b., or half a 
year's consumption, in consequence of the prostrated state of several of the firms which 
heretofore have been large importers. Much speculation is still going on in tea, and the 
lluctuations, it is thought, will yet be considerable, as so many merchants have retired from 
the trade, which since the opening has proved too uncertuiu in its results to reduce yet to 
any regular channel of commerce. — Ed. 

Teasels, 1000 . . . . . .010 

The largest burs, and those most pointed, are esteemed the best, and are now called Male 
Teasels; they are mostly used in the dressing and preparing of stockings and coverlets; 
the smaller kind, projierly called the Fullers' or drapers' Teasels, and sometimes the Fe- 
male Teasel, are used in the preparation of the finer stuH's, as cloths, rateens. Sec. The 
smaller kind, sometimes called Linnots Heads, are used to draw out the knap from the 
coarser stulTs, as baize, &c. — Chambers. 

Without this useful plant, our woollen manufactory could hardly have made any progress: it 
appears, from many attempts, that the object designed to be efl'ected by the teasel cannot 
be supplied by any contrivance— successive inventions having been abandoned as defective 
or injurious. — Journal of a Naturalist. 

Teeth, Elephants', Sea Cow, Sea Horse, or Sea Morse 

Teeth, cwt. . . . . . .010 

The first country where elephants are frequent is that part of the coast called by the Flemish 
Taiid Kust. or Teeth Coast, on account of the number of elephants' teeth, of which the 
natives make a lucrative traffic. The country of Auta likewise abounds in elephants. The 
Ethiopians have elephants in their country, but they are smaller than those of India ; and, 
thougli their teeth are hollow, and of less" value, they constitute a considerable article of 
trade. There are many elephants in Ethiopia, and in the country of Prester John, beyond 
the island of Mosambiipie, where the ealfres or negroes kill a great number for the sake of 
their teeth. In the island of Madagascar, elephants are supposed to be more numerous 
than in any other country. Madagascar and an adjacent island, called Cuzibet, furnish 
such vast quantities of ivory, that, in the opinion of iiu- merchants, the rest of the world 
does not produce an equal number of elephants' teeth. Lopes amused himself iu weighing 
several tusks of the elephant, each of which amounted to about 2001b. The magnitude oC 
elephants may be estimated by their tusks, some of which have been found to weigh 200 lb. 
In the kingdom of Loongo 1 purchased two tusks, w hich belonged to the same animal, each 
of which weighed 12(i lb. At the Cape of Good Hope, the elephants' teeth are verv large, 
andweighfromCO to 1001b.— .BM/on. 



138 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw^eVj, <f'C. [1837-8. 

Teeth, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

The Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, the only countries of the Archipelago where the elephant 
is found, are also, of course, the only countries that afford much ivory. From these two 
countries, and more especially from the neighbouring country of Siam, ivory forms a consi- 
derable article of exportation, principally to China, where the manufacture of this beautiful 
commodity is better understood than any where else. — Crnwfurd. 

Telescopes, 100/. val. . . • • . 33 

By T. L., Jan. 5, 18.37, for the future the maximum value on Discs for the object glasses of 
achromatic telescopes, may he fixed at 20s. the pound the ad valorem duty on which, toge- 
ther Willi the rated duty of 41. the cut. would never exceed 4s. 8d. the pound. (See Glass 
Manufactures, p. 77, as to the duty of il. the cwt. before mentioned.) 

The telescope is an optical instrument for viewing distant objects. This name is commonly 
appropriated to the larger sizes of the instrument, while the smaller are called perspi'ctive- 
glasses, spy-glasses, opera-glasses. A particular kind which is thought to be much brighter 
than the rest, is called a Night-glass. — Jinct/.Britan. 

Terra Japonica, or Catechu, cwt. . . .010 

A brown astringent substance, formerly known by the name of japan earth. It is a dry ex- 
tract, prepared from the wood of a spt;cies of sentitive plant, the Mimosa catechu. It is 
imported into this country from Bombay and Bengal — Ure. 

Sienna, cwt. . . . . .040 

A brown bole, or ochre, with an orange cast, brought from Sienna in Italy, and used in 
painting, both raw and burnt. When burnt it becomes of a darker brown. It resists the 
tire a long time without fusing. It adheres to the tongue very forcibly. — Ure. 

Umbra, cwt. . . . . .040 

Umber is found disposed in beds, in the island of Cyprus ; and it is employed as a pigment. — 
Ency. Brilitn. 

Verde, cwt. . . . . .010 






15 








15 








4 








18 





25 









This is used as a pigment, and contains iron in some unknown state, mixed with clay, and 
sometimes with chalk and pyrites. — Ure. 

Thread, Bruges Thread, doz. lb. . . . . 15 

Cotton Thread. See Cotton Manufactures, p. 70. 

Outnal Thread, doz. lb. . 

Pack Thread, cwt. 

Sister's Thread, lb. . . . 

Whited Brown Thread, doz. lb. 

Not otherwise enumerated, \00l. val. 

Thread is a small line made up of a number of fine fibres of any vegetable or animal substance, 
such as flax, cotton, or silk : from which it takes its name of linen, cotton, or silk threatL — 
Ency. Britan. 

Formerly some sorts of foreign threads were in high estimation in this country, but the gi-eat 
improvement in our own manufactures has now in a great degi-ee superseded the use of 
thread m.ide abroad. Outnal thread is the brown flaxen thread made in Holland. — Ed. 

Tiles, 10 OZ.vaL . . . . . . 50 

Dutch, 100/. val. . . . . . 15 

There are various kinds of tiles for the various occasions of building; as plain, thack, ridge, 
roof, crease, gutter, pan, crooked, Flemish, corner, hip, dorman or dormar, scallop, astragal, 
traverse, paving, and Dutch tiles. — Chambers. 

Tin, cwt. ...... 

• Manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated, 1 00/. val. 

Ore, 100/. val. ..... 

The ores of this metal are found in comparatively few places; the principal, and perhaps 
only ones, are Cornwall, Gallicia, Erzgebirge in Saxony, Bohemia, Malacca, and Banca 
in Asia. They are peculiar to primitive rocks, generally in gra'iite, either in veins or beds. 
Tin is much used as a co-Bering to several other metals, iron is tinned to prevent its rapid 
oxidation when exposed to air and moisture, and the same process is applied to copper, to 
:ivoid the injurious effects to which those who are in the habit of employing cooking utensils 
madeof this metal .ire always liable. The solutions of tin in the nitric, muriatic, nitro- 
sulphuric, and taruuic acids, are much used in dyeing ; tin forms the basis of pewter, in the 
composition of which it is alloyed with lead; when rolled into thin sheets it is called tin foil, 
and is applied, with the addition of mercury, to cover the surface of glass, thus forming 
looking-glasses, mirrors, &c., and in combination with sulphur it constitutes what is called 
Mosaic Gold. — Jut/cc. 

The whole tin ore of the Eastern Archipelago, is a stream of the most valuable description. — 
Asiatic Journal. 

Tincal. Sec Borax, p. 54. 

Tin Foil, 100/. val. . . . . 25 

Tm foil is used chiefly in fixing quicksilver to the backs of looking-glasses.*-£rf. 



2 10 





20 





20 






1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw/ies, 4-c. 139 

£ *. d. 
Tobacco, Unmanufactured, lb. . . . .030 

the produce of and imported from any 

B. P. in America, lb. . . . . .029 

Manuftictured, or Segars, lb, , . .090 

Drawback. 

(Manufactured in the United Kiui^dom at or within two miles of any port into 

which Tobacco may be imported, made into Shag, Roll, or (Carrot Tobacco, 

</raMj/'rtc/i upon exportation, lb.) 2s. 7^d, 

Tobacco and Snuff' prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture, under the 

followinir circumstances, viz.: — 

unless in a ship of the burthen of 120 tons or upv/ards. 

Tobacco of and imported from the State of Colombia, and made up in 

rolls, unless in packages containing at least 3-Olb. of such rolls. 

Segars, unless in packages containing lOOUi. of segars. 

all other tobacco and snuff', unless in hogsheads, casks, chests or cases, 

each of which sliall contain of net tobacco or snuff' at least 100 lb. if from 
tlie East Indies, or 450 lb. if from any other place, and not packed in b;igs or 
])ackages within any such hogshead, cask, chest, or case, n^'r separated nor 
divided in any manner whatever, except tobacco of the dominions of the 
Turkish Empire, whicli may be packed in inward bags or packages, or sepa- 
rated or divided in any manner within the outward package, provided such 
outward package be a hogshead, cask, chest, or case, and contain 450 lb. 
net at least.* 

and imless the particular weight of tobacco or snuff in each hogshead, 

cask, chest, or case, with the tare of the same, be marked thereon. 

and unless in the ports of London. Liverpool, Bristol, Lancaster, 



Cowes, Falmouth, Whitehaven, Hull, Port Glasgow, Greenock, Leith, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, Plymouth, Belfast, Cork. Drogheda, Dublin, Galway, 
Limerick, Londonderry, Newry, Sligo, Waterford, and Wexford. 

or into some other ports which may hereafter be appointed for 



such purpose by tire Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury ; such 
appointments in Great Britain being published in the London Gazette, and 
such appointments in Ireland being published in the Dublin Gazette. 

but any ship wholly laden with tobacco may come into the port 



of Cowes or Falmouth to wait for orders, and there remain 14 days, pro- 
vided due report of such ship be made by the master to the collector or 
comptroller of such port. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 58. 

By C. O., Jan. 3, 1 833, it is directed that the same privilege previously granted 
to Cowes and Falmouth, relating to vessels laden with tobacco, and which 
could not hitherto come into this port to refit, or for orders, be extended to 
Portsmouth. 

Tobacco stalks stripped from the leaf, whether manufactured or not, and to- 
bacco stalk flour, prohibited to be imported for home use on pain of forfeit- 
ure but may be warehoused for exportation only. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, 
§ 58, 59, 60. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 33, tobacco shall not be re-imported into the 
United Kingdom for home use upon the ground that the saine had been 
legally exported from thence, but shall be deemed to be foreign goods, whe- 
ther originally such or not, and shall also be deemed to be imported lor the 
first time into the United Kingdom. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, ^ 2. tobacco being the produce of Europe, shall 
not be imported into the United Kingdom to be Jtsed therein, exce[it in Bri- 
tish ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or 
in ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, 6 32, no abatement of duties shall be made on 
account of any damage received by tobacco. 

Size of Packages. — Whereas certain restrictions are laid down in respect of the 
packages in which tobacco may be imported into the United Kingdom ; the 
said restrictions shall not extend to any tobacco the produce of and imported 

* Tiv G and 7 Will. IV., c. 60, § 4, the said restriction shall not extend to any such tobacco or 
snuff in hogsheads, casks, chests or cases, each of which shall contain of net tobacco or enuff 
300 lb 



140 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>2//?es, <^c. [1837-8. 

Tobacco, coiitinued, viz. : — £ *• ^• 

diiect from Mexico, or from the Continent of South America, or from the 

islands of St. Dominijo and Cuba, iu packages of not less than 801b. each. 

4and.5 Will. IV.,c.'89, §7. 

Sf^ars.— By C. O., Jan. 7, 1837. Passengers arriving from the continent, or other short 

vovages/are permitted to enter anv quantity oTsegars under 3Ib. 
Passengers from tlie East or West Indies, or other distant voyages, are permitted to enter any 
quantity of segars not e.\ceeding 71b., without special application to the Board. 

How Duties charged. — The duties payable upon tobacco, when taken out of 
warehouse for Home Use, shall be charged upon the quantities ascertained 
by the weight of the same acliialhj delivered. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, ^ 19. 

It shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to accept the abandon- 
ment, for the duties, of any quantity of tobacco, and to cause or permit the 
same to be destroyed, and to deduct such quantity of tobacco from the total 
quantit}' of the same importation, in computing the amount of the defi- 
ciency of such total quantity. § 3.3. 

Use of the iVnyy.— Tobacco, the produce of the B. P. in America or of the 
United States of America, and purchased for the use of His Majesty's navy, 
may be removed by the purser of any ship of war in actual tiervice to tlio ports 
of Rochester, Portsmouth, or Plymouth, to be there re-warehoused, iir the 
' name of such purser, in such warehouse as shall be approvt'd for that purpose 
by the commissioners of customs. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 21. 

Re-weighing.— Viy T. L, Nov. 19, 1831, provided the merchant upon his taking tobacco out of 
the lol)acco warehouse in London for removal to an out-port, shall, previous to such lemoval, 
declare that the tobacco is taken out and removed for home use only, and will give security 
to pay the duty according to the weight ascertained at the time of removal, all subsequent 
weighings at tlie port to which the tobacco is removed sliall be dispensed with. 

By C. O., Nov. 22, 1833, as it appears that accommodation would be afforded to the trade, if 
the declaration when tobacco is taken out of warehouse for removal, and intended for 
home use only and security given accorflingly, were permitted to be given either at the port 
of shipment or at the port of destination, as "most convenient to the parties interested ; and, 
in cases of omission to give such security, the proprietors were allowed to pay the duties at 
the port of arrival upon the weight ascertained at the time of removal, the duties being ten- 
dered prior to the weighing of the tobacco, consequent on its being re-warehoused, the same 
is permii ted accordingly. 

i>tS(ri;)hon.— There is perhaps no vegetable which, when considered in connexion with 
the history of mau, presents a more curious subject of contemplation than the tobacco 
plant. It's nomenclature, both ancient and modern, is not a little multifarious and oliscure. 
AVhen the tobacco is described by its supposed native name, the term Pctun is generally 
nsed. The modern or European epithets have been almost as numerous and as varied 
as the ancient or American ones. When the plant was fnst brought into Spain, the original 
name was laid aside, and that of Tobacco applied to it. The general opinion is, that it 
reci'iv. d this name from the circumstance of its being lirst imported thither from the island 
ot Tubago, of which it was supposed to be a n.ative ; but it is not a native of Tobago, but was 
first discovered in Tahaco, a province of Yucatan, whence it was brought into Spain, and 
whence it received the preceding appellation. The name tobacco is now, however, only 
nsed as its vulgar epithet; in science it is known under the title of Herba nicotiana. f ome 
botanists enumerate eleven species, others only seven. The most ancient, indeed, as we 
may .almost say, the original use to which tobacco seems to have been applied, is smoking. 
Snulling and chewing are the only other ways in which tojjacco is used as a luxury. The 
" ' 'tobacco plant is found 1o thrive in all temperate ctimates ; butthat prodiic'ed in the trojiics 
is most esteemed, as possessing the finest flavour. The mode pursued by the original 
Indians in cultivating it cannot be properly ascertained — Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. 

Seyars. — The segar is a mode of smoking, originating, we believe, in the East Indies. The 
cheroot, or China segar, is much larger than that of the West Indian islands, being some- 
times between six and nine inches in length, 'while the latter seldom exceeds about three. 
The sevar has become very common all over Euroj)e ; but it is not in very general use, 
on account of its being much more expensive than unrolled tobacco. — Quarterly Journal 
of Agriculture. . 

Tobacco Pipes, 100/. val. . . . . 30 

The Dutch have evidently copied the form of their pipe from us. In size and shape, the 
two are exactly the same; but the DutcU pipe, uhicli is generally reckoned the best, 
is made of a difl'ercnt sort of clay, and does not require to be glazed at the top of the stalk. 
This, indeed, forms the principal distinguishing mark between them. — Quarterly Journal of 
Agriculture. 

Tongues, doz. . . • . . .030 

Tornsal or Turnsole, cwt. . . . .050 

Tornsal, or Turnsole, is a plant cultivated principally in the South of Europe, and used in 

dyeing, — Ed. 

Tortoiseshell or Turtlesbell, unmanufactured, lb. . ,020 
imported from any B. P., lb. , « « 1 



1 83 7-8.] UNITED K INGDOM.— Imports.— I>M^ie5, ^c. 141 

Tortoiseshell, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Tortoise Slu-ll is a valuable article of tho commerce of the Archipelago. The tortoise is 
fonnil in nil theseasoflhe Archipelago, but particularly the east coast of Celebi'S, the 
ciiasts of llie Spice Islands, and those of New Guinea: Towards the western parts of the 
Archipehigo.the animal is smaller, the shel\ thinner, and of course much less valuable.— 
Crairfurd. 

Tow, See Flax, p. 75. 

Toys, 100/. val. . . . . . . 20 

Toys are brought principally from Holland, and form rather a considerable branch of tvude. 
Those carved in wood lioar the highest price. — Ed. 

Trees. See Plants, p. 102. 

Tricot. 1 

Tulle. [See Silk, p. 113. 

Turbans. ) 

Truffles, lb. . . . . . .010 

Trnllles, a sort of subterraneous prodnction, or a kind of mushroom. In Italy, France, 

England, Sec., tliey are eaten as a great dainty. — Chambers. 
A German has made a most important discovery, viz. that trufHes may be transplaritod and 

produced in abundance in all countries of the temperate zone. We hope, that in a few 

years, epicures will be blessed with truffles in England without sending to France for 

them, whence tliey rarely arrive in a slate of.perfection. — Lit. Gaz. 

Turmeric, cwt. . . . . .0100 

imported from B. P., cwt. , . .024 

Turmeric is a root. licrtholkt hail an opportunity of examining some turmeric that c-ame 
from Tobago, which was superior to that which is met with in commerce, both in the size 
of the roots and in the abundaiice of the colouring particles. This substance is very rich 
iu colour, and there is no other which gives a yellow colour of such brightness. — Ure. 

TiU'nery, not otherwise enumerated, 100/. val. . . 30 

Turnery, the art of fashioning harxl bodies into a round or oval form in a lathe. — Jo/msnn. 

The art of turning is of considerable importance, as it contributes essentially to the per- 
fection of many other arts. Tlie architect uses it for many ornaments, both within and 
without liigldy finished houses. The mathematician, the astronomer, and the natural 
I)hilosopher, have recourse to it, not only to embellish their instruments but also to give 
tliem the necessary dimensions and precision: in short it is absolutely necessary to llie 
mechanist, the goldsmith, the watch-maker, the joiner, the smith, and others. With this 
instrument, it is said, the ancients turned all sorts of vases, many of which they enriched 
with figures and ornaments iu basso-relievo. — Scientific Gaz. 

Turn.5ole. See Tornsal, p. 140. 

Turpentine, not of greater value than 12s'. the cwt. thereof, 

cwt. . . . . . . .044 

of greater value than 12s. and not of greater 

value than Ids. the cwt. thereof, cwt. 

• ■ of greater value than 1 5*. the cwt. thereof, cwt. 

of Venice, Scio, or Cyprus, lb. 

Common Turpentine is about the consistence of honey, of au opaque, brownish-white colour, 
the coarsest, heaviest, and in smell and taste the most disagreeable, of all the kinds of tur- 
pentine. It is obtained from the wild pine, which is extremely resinous ; insomuch that 
if not evacuated of its juice, it often swells and bursts. — Chambers. 

Canadian Turpentine, ViWe the other turpentines, is a compound of a volatile oil and resin. 
It is obtained by incision from the bark of the tree, and imported in casks, in a form of 
a very viscid liquid; it is a fragrant odour, and a warm bitter taste; it is diuretic, and 
generally stimulant, but scarcely ever used in medicine; it is a valuable ingredient in 
transparent varnishes. — Brandc. 

Turpentine of Venice is usually thinner than any of the other sorts, of a clear whitish or 
pale yellowish colour, a hot, pungent, bitterish, disagreeable taste, and a strong smell, 
without the aromatic flavour of the Chian kind. The true Venice turpentine is said to 
be obtained from the larch tree, growing iu great abundance on the Alps and Pyrenees, 
and not uncommon in the English gardens. — Chambers. 

Cyprus Turpentine is the produce of the Pistacia terebinthus, a native of the south of Europe 
and of Barbary, cultivated in the islands of Chios and Cyprus, and not unfiequent in our 
gardens. This species of turpentine is fragrant and warm, but less acrid and bitter than 
the others, from which, however, it is not essentially different in medical virtues. It is 
said to be generally adulterated with common turpentine. — Brande. 

Paramos. — The produce of this barren spot (the Andes,) is confined to one kind of plant, 
calleil El Fraylegon ; the same is to be found in great abundance in all Paramos ; the 
leaves of it are remarkably soft and white, and ecpial in size to a large turnip leaf, and the 
soldier thought himself particularly Ibrtunate when able to get a sufficient number to 
form his bed. In the crown of this plant is a sort of gum, which is made into turpentine, 
and has some medicinal qualities. — Hamilton, 

Turtle. See Fish, p. 74. 






u 


4 


1 


6 


.1 








10 



142 UNITED KINGDOM.—Imports.— DwieV*, ^c. [183^8. 

£ s. d. 
Turtleshell. See Tortoiseshell, p. 140. .-, 

Twine, cwt. . . . . . ,1110 

Bast. See Bast, p. 52. 

V. 
Valonia, cwt. . . . ... .010 

The liotatiiciil tpim is Velanij a name given to the acorns of a species of oak. It is usei'i 
loi- ilvfiii'.' and tanning. The nut or kernel is not reckoned of any value, and is some- 
times jpickeil out to save freight and charges ; but the cup which contains that nut oi 
kerui'l constitutes the value of valonia. It has been lately used to a great extent in the 
tanneries of this country as a substitute for oak bark. — Rccs. 

Vanelloes, lb. . . . . . .050 

The plant which produces the fruit called V^anilla or Bauilla by the Spaniards, has a trailing 
stem, somewhat like the common ivy, but not so woody. The sort which is manufactured, 
grows not only in the Bay of Campeachy, but also at Carthagena, at the Caraccas. Hon- 
duras, Darein, and Cayan. The fruit which is brought to Europe is of a dark brown 
colour, about six inches long, and scarcely an incli broad; wrinkled on the outside, and 
full of a vast number ofblack seeds, like grains of sand of a pleasant smell like balsam 
of Peru. They are used chiefly in perfumes ; scarcely ever among us with any medica^ 
intention.— C/iamfters. 

Tlie English and the Anglo-Americans often seek to make purchases of vanilla at the port 
of La Guayra, but the merchants procure with difficulty a very small quantity. — Humboldt. 

Vaiiiish, not otherwise enumerated, 100^, val. . . 30 

Lac-varnishes or lacquers consist of diflereut resins in a state of solution, of which the 
most common are mastich, sandarach, lac, benzoin, copal, amber, and asphaltum. The 
menstrua are either expressedor essential oils, as also alcohol. — f7)'e. 

Vases, Ancient, not of Stone or Marble, 100^, val. . . 5 

Vellum, skin . . . . . .072 

Vellum is a kind of parchment that is finer, evener, and more white than the common parch- 
ment. The word is formed from the French velin, of the Latin vitulinus, " belonging to the 
calf.'' — Ency. Britan. 

Velvet. See Silk, p. 113. 

Verdigris, lb. (6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) . .006 

This salt is principally manufactured in the south of France, at Montpellier, and Grenoble. 
In the former place, from the marc of the grape, that is, the cake which remains in the 
wine-press after the juice is expressed, composed of the husks and stalks. The suliacetate 
of copper is imported into this country in the leather sacks, or bags, in which it is dried, 
each containing from 14 to 30 lb. But it is, also, now prepared in Great Britain. — Thomson. 

Verjuice, tun . . . . . . 73 12 9 

A kind of harsh, austere, vinegar, made of the expressed Juice of the wild apple, or crab. 
The French give this name to unripe grapes, and to the sour liquor obtained Irom them — 

Vre. 

Vermicelli, lb. . . . . . .002 

For description of Vermicelli, see Macaroni, p. 88. 

Vermilion, lb. . . . . . .006 

Vermilion is a bright and beautiful red colour, composed of quicksilver and sulphur, in great 
esteem among the ancients under the name of Minium ; but what goes by the name of 
minium amongst us is a preparation of lead, linown also by the name of Red Lead. A 
frequent (ne of mercury is the red sulphuret, which is known by the name of (Jinnabar, 
The sulphurct of mercury is of various colours, from vermilion red to brown. Sometimes 
it efiloresces on the surface of the ore, when it is called Flo\\ers of Cinnabar, or Native 
Vermilion. — Ency. Britan. 

Vestments for Roman Catholic Priests. 

B r r. li,, September 16, 183.5, not to be introduced duty free, without a special order from 
Uiis Board. T. O., IGth Sept., 1835. 

Vinegar or Acetous Acid, tun . . . . 18 18 

'I'he manufacture of vinegar deserves to be classed among the chemical arts, sincethe means 
of extracting this acid from wood, by carbonization, have been discovered. The fabrication 
of vinegar from fermented liquors was known to the Israelites, and to other eastern nations. 
Boa/, says to Ruth, " Eat of the bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar." Notwithstanding 
its ancient origin, however, this art was only empirical, until the birth of pneumatic che- 
mistry. — /,;;. Gaz. 

The varieties of acetic acids known in commerce arc fop : 1st, Wine Vinegar; 2nd, Malt 
Vinegar ; 3rd, Sugar Vinegar ; 4th, Wood Vinegar. AlW)st all the vinegar of the north of 
France being prepared at Orleans, the manufactory of that place has acquired much cele- 
brity. — lire. 






1 


3 





1 


8 


25 









1837-8.J UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 2>w<?>*, <fc 143 

£ s. d. 
W. 

"Wafers, lb. .... < 

Washini? Balls, lb. ... ■ 

Wsitclies of Gold, Silver, or other Metal, 100/. val. 

See Clocks, p. 61. 

brought by passengers. See Baggage, p. 50. 

Chronometer.— ?i.n instrument for the exact mensuration oiiKxne.— Johnson. 

The coustruction of clironometers has 'been considered, by the maritime states of Europe, for 
nearly two centuries, as an object of tlie first importance. lu tlie year 1598, Philip the 
Third of Spain, offered a reward of 1,000 crowns fur the discovery of a marine watch, capable 
of determining' the longitude at sea ; and the states of Holland soon afterwards promised 
100,000 (loriiis to whomever should attain that obi<'ct. lu the reign of queen Anne, Ensland, 
not to be behind other po\\ers, offered liO.OOO/. for a similar discovery: and, in 1716, the 
Duke of Orleans, then regent of Fiance, also offered 100,000 livres. These princely offers 
naturally excited men of science and injienuity to the arduous undertakiuf^. To our highly 
talented countrymen, John Harrison, who, after ujnvards of fifty years' intense application, 
at length succeeded in completing a marine watch capable of determining the longitude 
at sea, the British parliament, in 1764, awarded the 20,000/. 

For the further improvement in this important branch of mechanical science, the Board of 
Admiralty have very laudably established a (iepfit at the Koyal Observatory at Greenwich, 
where chronometers are tried for one ye:ir, and if they pertorm, within prescribed limits, a 
liberal prize is awarded to the maker. " Nearly two liundied have, at different times, been 
de))osited there for trial, and 300/. was \!\\m to one which only varied, in its daily rate, one 
second eleven hundredths in the year. — Lit. Gnz. 

Mr. Miiston, of Leadenhall-street, London, and of Small-street, Bristol, is a chronometer- 
maker of some eminence. — Ed. 

Water, Arquebusade, 

Citron, 

Coidial, ^See Spirits, p. 123. 

Hungary, 

Lavender, 

Cologne Water, the flask (thirty such flasks con- 
taining not more than one gallon) . . .010 

Mineral Water, gallon . . . .001 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c, 60.) 

. Natural Water, the dozen bottles or flasks (each 

bottle or flask not ex. three pints) . . .040 

Those Waters which contain such a quantity of saline or other foreign matter, as to be sensible 
to the tuste, are termed Mineral. They are found more or less in every country, and vary 
considerably in their composition, consequently in their action on the animal economy. 
Mineral waters are generally divided into four classes — Hepatic, Carbonated, Chalybeate, 
and Saline.^ — Joyce. 

Strong Water.^ See Spirits, p. 123. 

Eaux de Cologne. — There are two processes which are usually emi>loyed in the preparation of 
Eaux de Cologne ; namely, distillation and infusion, i he first is now generally abandoned ; 

* but it is, nevertheless, beyond C(mtradicti<)n, the preferable one. The only essences which 
are employed, and which afford this water its great celebrity, are the following: bergamotte, 
citron, lavender, rosemary, Portugal, and neiuli. — Granville. 

Wax, Bees, viz. : — 

unbleached, cwt. . . . .110 

in any degree bleached, cwt. . . ,300 

imported from any B. P. in Asia, A jji( I <^3 

America, viz. : 

unbleached, cwt. . . . 10 

■ in any degree bleached, cwt. . . 10 

Bees' Wax unbleached, produce of the West Coast of 

Africa, and imported thence, cwt. (6 and 7 Will. IV., 
c. 60.) . . . . . . 10 

r>y C. O., April 14, 1829, foreign bees' wax may be taken out of bond for the purpose of being 

bleached, proper security being first given to pay the duty thereon. 
Prime wax is of a bright yellow colour and an agreeable odour, somewhat like that of honey. 
Tile best is procured from combs which have been eiihc r w holly unoccupied, oroccupieil by 
nothing butlioney. Inde];endently of its colour, tlie goodness of wax may also be estimated 
by the passing of the thumb uiil forcibly over its surface ; if good, the nail w ill pass with a 
kind of jevk ; but if no obstrucMh be I'eit, the wax must be looked upon as adulterated with 
suet, or some similar substance. White wax is nothing more than the yellow wax that has 



1-44 UNITED KINGDOM —Imports— Dw//e^, <^-c?. [1837-8. 

Wax, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

been exposed in thin flakes or shreds to the action of the snn and air. The uses of wax in 
makins; candles, ointments, &c. are well known. Bees'-wax forms a considerable article of 
commerce, and lar<;e quantities of it are anniuiUy imiiorted into this country from the lialtic, 
the Levant, the Barbary Coast, and North America. — Beva,n. . 

Myrtle Wax, lb. . . . ... 1 

According to the experiments of M. Cadet and Dr. Bostock, this myrtle wax differs in some 
respects from bees'-wax. It differs from it in colour, <litferent specimens of it asstiming dif- 
ferent shades of yellowish 'gieen ; its smell is also difTerent : myrtle wax, \i-he.n fresh, emit- 
ting a fragrant balsamic odour. It has in part the tenacity without the unctuosi'ty of bees'- 
wax, and somewhat of the briltlencss of resin. Its specific gravity is greater, insomuch that 
it sinks in water, w!\ereas bees'-wax floats upon it; and it isjiot so easily bleached to form 
white wax. Tiie wax tree of Louisiana contains immense quantities of wax. — Be^an. 

■ Sealing -Wax, 100/. val. ' .• . ." ..' , ■ 30 

S.e.aling-wax is a composition of gum.'lac, melted and'prepared with resins, and coloured with 
some suitable pigment. There are two kinds of sealing-wax in use; the one hard, intended 
for sealing letters, and other such purposes ; the other soft, designed for receiving the im- 
pi-essions of seals of office to charters, patents, and such written instruments. — Enry. Britan. 

Messrs. Thorp and Graham, of Jewry-street, A Idgate, London, are celebrated manufacturers 
of -sealing-wax. — Ed. 

Weld, cwt. . . . . . -.0 1 

Weld is a plant used by the dyers, to give a yellow colour. This plant grows wild on dry 
grounds ; but it is also cultivated for use. — Ency. Britan. 

Whale Fins, ton . . . . . . 95 

• taken and caught by the crew of a British ship, 

and imported direct from the Fishery, or from any B. P. 

in a British ship, ton . . . . .10 

JVhalc Fins. — A name improperly given to whalebone. — Chamhcrs. 

JVhalebune. — This is a substance peculiar to the whale. It is of the same nature as horn. It 
is extremely elastic. There are two kinds of whalebone. One kind is got from the large 
whale ; the other from a smaller species. It is placed in the inside of the mouth, and is 
attached to the upper jaw. — Ency. Britan. 

Whipcord, lb. . . . . ..010 

Wine, French, Canary, Fayal, Madeira, Portugal, Spanish, 

and other Wines not enumerated, gal. . . .056 
the produce of His Majesty's Settlement of the Cape 

of Good Hope, or tlie territories or Dependencies thereof, 

imported directly thence, gal. . . . .029 
Lees, subject to the same duty as Wine, but no 

Drawback is allowed on the Lees of Wine Exported. 

Di-awhack. — The full duties on Wine are drawn back upon exportation. 

Allowance fm- JFaste. — By T. O., Nov. 29, 1836, with regard to Wine delivered for Home Use 
from warehouses nut of special security, the same allowance to be made for waste as is now- 
allowed by law upon the delivery of that article from such warehouses for exporiation, viz. 

Upon every Cask, for any time not exceeding 1 year 1 gallon. 

, , , , exceeding 1 year, and not ex. 2 years 2 gallon.s. 

,, ,, exceeding 2 years ... . . 3 gallons. 



Europe. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2. Wine beint^ the prod.uce of lilurope, 
shall not be imported into the United Kingdom to be used therein, except in 
British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the pro- 
duce, or in ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

Cape of Good Hope. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV^., c. 52, ^ 39, before any wine shall 
be entered as being the produce of the Cape of Good Hope, the master of 
the ship importing the same shall deliver to the collector or comptroller a 
certificate, under the hand of the proper officer of the Capo of Good Hojie, 
testifying that proof had been made, in manner required by law, that ■such 
wine is nf the pi'odtice of the Cape of Good Hope or the dependencies 
thereof, stating the cpiantity and sort of such wine, and the ninnher and 
denomination of the jiackages containing the same; and such master shall 
also make and subscribe a declaration before the collector or comptroller, 
that such certificate was received by him at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
that the wine so imported is the same as is mentioned therein. 

Damage. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 32. no abatement of duties shall be 
made on account of any damage received by wine. 



1837-S.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports— Z)«//e*, >$'c. 145 

Wine, continued, viz. ;— 

Defciencies. — By 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, wine deposited in warehouses of 
.v/;ec(fl/ sec?//-iVy, when taken out lor home use, the duty shall be charged 
upon the quantity actually delivered. 
Accident. — It shall be lawiul for the commissioners of customs to remit or re- 
turn the duties payable or paid ou the whole or any portion of wine or other 
fluid which shall be lost by any unavoidable accident in the warehouse in 
which the same shall have been deposited under the provision of any Act 
for the warehousing^ of floods. 
AbanJoniiient. — It shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to accept 
the abandonment for the duties, of any quantity of lees of wine, and to 
cause or permit the same to be destroyed, and to deduct such quantity from 
the total quantity of the same importation, in computing the amount of the 
deficiency of such total quantity. 3 and 4 \Vill. IV., c. 57. § 33. 
Fortifijing with Brandy — FiUmg tip Casks — Rar/i-u/f Lees. — It shall be law- 
ful, under sucli regulations as the commissioners of customs may from time 
to time require, ill the warehouse to draw oti'andmix with any wine any 
brandy secured in the same warehouse, not exceeding the proportion often 
gallons of braiulv to one hundred gallons of wine ; and also in the waie- 
honse to fill up any casks of wine from any other casks of tlie same, respec- 
tively secured in the same warehouse ; and also in any warehouse of special 
sectirilij to rack ofi' any wine from the lees, and in such warehouse to mix 
any wines of the same sort, erasing from the casks all import brands. 3 
and 4 Win. IV., c. 57,^31, 3-2. 
Bottlhig Il'ines and Spirits — Hy C. O., Aug. 30, 1S32, the following regulations uvo to be 

adopted on the lx>ttlins of wines and spirits : 
1st. That a separate bonded vault be appropriated to the drawing off spirits and wine into 

bottles. 
2nd. That all spirits be subject to the same restrictions as rum, under the 31st section of the 
'Warehousiu i; Act — viz. to be drawn off into reputed quart or pint bottles, and packed in cases 
containing not less than three dozen of such quart, or six dozen such pint bottles each. [Now 
one dozen quart] 
3rd. That no foreign bottles, casks, or packages, except any in which goods shall have been 

imported .Tud warehoused, be used, unless the full duties shall have been first paid thereon. 
4th. That if any surplus quantity or sediment remain in the cask, the full duties be immediately 

paid thereon, or the same be destroyed in the )>reseace of the proper officers. 
5th. That the bottling take place in the iireseuce of the proper officers, and under the frequent 

superintendence of the landing surveyor. 
Racking. — Hy C O., .Tune 4, 1834, wine deposited in approved warehouses, although not ap 
pointed as warehouses of special security, may be racked off and mi.Ked as heretofore, all 
import brands in the latter case being I'lased from the e.-isk. 
Fradiiinal Deficiencies. — By C O., Oct. 7, 1834, no charge to be made on deficiencies in ware- 
housed wine for any fractional part of a gallon, unless the same shall exceed live tenths. 

Entries by Dealers in Wine, and Survey by Officers. — From the passing of this 
Act (Aug. 31. 183.5.) so much of any Act as requires any Dealer in ^Vine to 
make entry of the premises, by him occupied for dealing in wine, and as 
requires the keejnng an account by the officers of excise of the stocks of 
wine in the possession of dealers, and as authorizes the survey by officers of 
excise of such stotks and of tlie jiremises in whieh the same are kept, is 
hereby repealed, h and 6 Will. IV., c. 30, § 3. 

Ret'iilersof ll'ine who also deal in Spirits. Entry and Examinatio7i by 0/f'cers. 
— \\ here any dealer in wine shall also be a dealer in or retailer of foreign or 
British spirits in the same house or jtreinises, or in any other house or pre- 
mises, within five huudrt-d yards, such dealer or retailer shall continue to 
make entry with the officers of excise of every place made use of by him 
for the keeping or storing of or dealing in, or retailing wine, on pain of for- 
feiting for every imentcred house, room, cellar, vault, or place. 50/., together 
with all wini' and other liquors which maybe found therein ; and it shall be 
lawful for any officer of excise at any time to enter inio any place used by 
any such dealer or retailer fur keeping wine, and to examine all wino 
therein. ^ 4. 

Permiis. — So much of any Act as relates to the requiring of permits for the 
removal of wine is repealed. § 5. 

Licenses fur dealing in ll'ine. — Nothing in this Act shall extend to affect the 
dutieson licenses required to be taken out by dealers in and retailers of wine ; 
but every dealer in and retailer of wine shall take out a license, and pay for 
the sainu in the same manner as if this Act had not been passed. 6 6. 



146 VmTED KmGDOM.—luPonTs.— Duties, cfc. [1837-8. 

Wine, co?itinued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Licenses to yell Beer, Spirits, atul Wine in Theatres, <^e. — The commissioners 
and orKcers of excise are hereby authoriz; tl to grant retail licenses to any 
person to sell beer, spirits, and wine in any theatre established under a 
royal patent, or in any theatre or other ])lace of public ciitertainment 
licensed by the lord chamberlain or by justices of the peace, ^vithout the 
production by the person applying for such license or licenses of any cer- 
tificiite or authority for such person to keep a common inn, alehouse, or 
victualling house. 

J'ntting. — By C. O., .Time 20, 1837, the allowauces to be made on Wine Vatted in a similar 
minner to those ou Britisli Plantation SjiLiits (page 125, subject to the allowances specified in 
§ 19, 3 and 4 Will. IV.. c. 57. p. 144.) 

Jemsheed was the first who discovered wue. He was immoderately fond of grapes, and 
desired to preserve some, which were placed in a lai'ge vessel and lodged in a vault for future 
use. When the vessel was opened, the grapes had fermented : their juice was so acid, that 
the king believed it must be yioisonous : he had some bottles filled with it, and Poison written 
upon each: these were placed in his room. It happened that one of his favourite ladies was 
affected with nervous headaches-: the pain distracted her so much, that she desired death : 
obsei'ving a bottle with poison written on it, she took it and swallowed its contents. The 
wine, for such it had become, overpowered the lady, who fell into a sound sleep, and awoko 
much refreshed. Delighted with the remedy, she repeated the doses so otten, that the king's 
poison was all drunk. He soon discovered this, and forced the lady to confess what she hail 
done. A quantity of wine was made; and Jemsheed and all his court drank of the new 
beverage, which, from the manner of its discovery, is to this d;iy known in Persia by the 
name of Zeher-e-khoosh, or the Delightful Poison.— Sir J. Malcolm. 

The wines in daily use on every gentleman's table are, it is presumed, sufficiently known for 
fieneral purposes. It would seem needless, therefoie, to go into an enlarged description of 
them here ; tie more especially as there are several books extant on the subject. " Dr. 
Henderson's History of Ancient and Modern Wines" is a very elaborate and indeed 
splendid work. Mr. Cyrus Ueddiug has also written a Treatise on Modem Wines, which 
is understood to be a worlc of merit. — Ed. 

Wire, Brass or Copper, cwt. 

Gilt or Plated, 100/. val. 

Iron, cwt. .... 

Latten, cwt. .... 

Silver, 100/?. val. .... 

Steel, lb. .... 

Wire is a piece of metal drawn throuj;h the hole of an iron into a thread of a fineness answer- 
able to the hole it passed tlirough. Wires ai'e frequently drawn so fine as to be wrought 
along with other threads of silk, wool, flax, &c. The metals most commonly drawn iulo 
wire are gold, silver, copper, and iron. Gold wire is made of cylindrical ingots of siher, 
covered over with a skin of gold, and thus drawn successsively through a vast number of 
holes, each smaller and smaller, till at last it is brought to a finoness exceeding that of hair. 
— Ency. Britan. 

Woad, cwt. . , . . . .010 

This plant is indigenous in almost every country in Em-ope. The result of experiments made 
in various places leaves no doubt as to the facility of extractuig iuaigo from woad ; and it- 
has been clearly proved that this indigo, being of the same nature with that procured from 
America, miyht replace this latter with advantage and economy, even in time of peace. The 
good balls are distinguished by their inside being of a violet colour, and having an agreeable 
odour ; those which have been injured by the woad being gatliered during' tlie rain have an 
earthy appearance in the inside, and a disagreeable smell; the mouldy and rotten ones have 
lost their substance and are light. W hen these cones are dry, the cidtivi.tor sells them to the 
jiwholesale merchant, who ought to make them undergo a new fermentation before he delivers 
them to the dyers. The indigo of the Indies has obtained a pr<'ferencc to the woad, and the 
use of the latter has been nearly abandoned. — Published in Fruiice hi/ order of the Count 
Montalivet, Minister of the Interior, and translated In/ the Rev. T. Radcliff'. 

WOOD. 

Anchor Stocks, piece ..... 

imported from* B. P., in America, piece . 

Balks, under 5in. sq., and under 24 ft. in length, 120 

under 5 in. sq. and 24 ft. in length, or upwards, 120 . 

5 in. sq. or upwards are subject to the duties on Fir 

Timber. 
• imported from* B. P. in America, viz. 

* Europe. — l!y 5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 40, (Aug. 31, 1835,) the duties piiyable upon wood im- 
ported from Europe shall be due upon woud the produce of Europe, ul'lhough imported from 
some B. P. in America. 



2 


10 





25 








1 








1 


{) 





25 











1 


10 






8 


4 








10 


18 


2 


7 


27 









£ 


s. d. 


3 


5 


4 


17 ti 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.-Imports.— DM^eV*,^c. 147 

Wood, cotitinued, viz. : — 

Balks under 5 in. sq. and under 24 feet in length, 120 

under 5 in. sq., and 24 ft. in length, or upwards, 120 

- — 5 in. sq. or iqjwards are subject to the duties on Fir 
Timber. 
Battkns, Imported into Great Britain, viz. 

6 ft. in length, and not ex. 1 6 ft. in length, not 

above 7 in. in width, and not above 2f in. thick, 120 
(or, 1*. 8rf. each) . . . .10 

— — ex. 16 ft. in length and not ex. 21 ft. in length, 
not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 1% in. thick, 120 
(or 1*. Ud. each) . . . . 11 10 

— — ex. 21 ft. in length and not ex. 45 ft. in length, 
not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 2| in. thick, 120 
(or 3*. -id. each) . . . . . 20 

ex. 45 ft. in length, or above 2| in. thick (not 

being timber 8 in. sq.) load of 50 cubic ft. (or Is. a 

foot) . . . . r . . 2 10 

and further, 120 (or Is. each) . . .600 

■ — growth and produce of B. P. in America, and im- 
ported dii-ectly thence into Great Britain, viz. 

6 ft. in length, and not ex. 16 ft. in length, not 

above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 2f in. thick, 120 . 10 

ex. 16 ft. in length and not ex. 21 it. in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 2J in. thick, 120 13 

■ ex. 21 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, or if 

ex. 2| in. thick, 120 . . . . 

Imported into Ireland, viz. : 

8 ft. in length and not ex. 12 ft. in length, not 

above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 . 8 6 3 

ex. 12 ft. in length and nut ex. 14 ft. in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 9 14 

ex. 14 ft. in length and not ex. 16 ft. in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 11 1 8 

ex. 16 ft. in length, and not ex. Ih ft. in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3x in. thick, 120 12 9 4 

ex. 18 ft. in length, and not ex. 20 ft. in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3:^ in. thick, 120 13 17 2 

ex. 20 ft. in length, and not ex. 45 ft in length, 

not above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 34 1 

ex. 45 ft. in length or above 3^ in. thick (not being 

timber 8 in. sq.) load of 50 cubic ft. . 2 10 IJ 

and further, 120 . . . .600 

Batten Ends, Imported into Great Britain, viz. " 

under 6 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, and 

not ex. 2J in. thick, 120 , . . .300 

under 6 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, and 

ex. 2| in. thick, 120 . . . .600 
growth and produce of B. P. in America, and im- 
ported directly thence into Great Britain, viz. 

under 6 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, and 

not ex. 2f in. thick, 120 . . . .076 

under 6 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, and 

ex. 2| in. thick, 120 . . . . 15 

Imported into Ireland, viz. 

under 8 ft. in length, not above 7 in. in width, and 

not ex. 3i in. thick, 120 . . . . 4 14 5 
under 8 ft. in length, if ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 . 9 3 1 

I. 2 



143 UNITED KINGDOM.-lMPORT.s.~r>«//e.y,c^-c. [1837-8. 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Battens and Batten Ends of all sorts, of the growth and pro- 
duce of B. P. in America, and imported directly thence 
into Ireland, 120 . . . . .083 

Small Quantities. See Deals. 

Beech Plunk, 2 in. thick or upwards, load of 50 cuhic ft. . 2 8 9 

of all sorts, of the growth and produce of 13. P. in 

America, and imported directly thence, 120 . 8 4 

Beech Qur.rters, under j in. sq. and under 24 ft. in length, 

120 ^ . . . . . . . 4 10 

5 in. sq. and under 8 in. sq., or if 24 ft. in length, or 

upwards, 120 . . . . . . 12 3 6 

of all sorts under 8 in. sq., of the growth and produce 

of B. p. in America, and imported directly thence, 120 . 16 3 

Beech is not useful in building, because it rots so soon in damp places, but it is useful for piles 
in situations where it will be constantly wet ; and it is very useful for vaiious tooU, for 
which its uuirorm texture and hardness render it superior to any other wood : it is also mui'h 
used for furniture, and great quantities are broujjht to London in boards and planks, 
liefore cast iron was introduced much beech was used for railways for the collieries about 
Newcastle. — Tredtju!d. 

Boards, viz. 

Beech Boards, under 2 in.'thick, and under 15 ft. in 

length, 120 . . '. . . .496 

under 2 in. thick, and if 1 5 ft. in length, or up- 

AA'ards, 120 . . . . . 8 19 

Clap Boards, not ex. 5 ft. 3 in. in length, and under 

8 in. sq., 120 . ... . .620 

growth and produce of B. P. in America, and im- 
ported directly thence, 120 . . . 12 4 

Linn Boards or White Boards for Shoemakers, under 

4 ft. in length, and under 6 in. thick, 120 . . 6 16 

4 feet in length, or 6 in. thick, or upwards . 13 13 

■ Oak Boards, under 2 in. thick, and under 15 ft. 

in length, 120 . . . . , 18 1 

■ under 2 in. thick, and if 15 ft. in length or up- 

wra-ds, 120 . . . . . 3G 2 

Outside Slabs, or Paling Boards, hewed on one side, 

not ex. 7 ft. in length, and not above 1^ in. thick, 120 . 2 

hewed "on one side, ex. 7 ft. in length, and not ex. 



12 ft. in length, and not above U in. thick, 120 . . 4 

• hciced on one side, ex. 12 ft. in length, or ex. \ in. 

thick, are subject in the duties payable on Deals. 

hewed on one side, growth and produce of B. P. in 

America, and imported directly thence, viz. 

not exceeding 7 ft. in length, and not above IJ- in. 

thick, 120 . , . .'.050 

ex. 7fc. in length and not ex. 12 ft. in length, and 

not above 1^ in. thick, 120 . . . . 10 

ex. 12 ft. in length, or ex. \^ in. thick, are subject 

to the duties payable o??. Deals. 

■ Pipe Boards, above 3 ft. 3 in. in length, and not ex. 

8 ft. in length, and under 8 in. sq., 120 . . 9 3 

ex. 8 ft. in length, and under 8 in. sq., 120 . 18 6 

of all sorts, ex. 5 ft. 3 in. in length, and under 8 

in. sq., growth and produce of B. P. in America, and 
imported directly thence, 120 . . . 19 6 

Wainscot I'oards, the foot, of 12 ft. in length, and 1 



i 



in. thick, and so in proportion for any greater or lesser 

length or thickness . . . . .040 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports— i)«//e5, c^r. 14!) 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Boards of all sorts not ollierwise enumerated, growtli 

and produce of any 13. P. in America, and imported di- 
rectly thence, 120 " . . . . .084 

By 3 .and 4 Will. I\'., c. ')1, ) 2, boanl-i, being the jiioiluce of Knropo, shall 
luit he iinported into the Unite<i Kingdom to he used therein, excejit in 
British ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, 
or in shijis from which the goods are imported. 

Bowsprits. See ]\Iasts, page 152. 

By C. O., Jan. .'W, 1833, deiils arc pevmitlod to be sawn in bund for exportation, wiihout special 
.ippUcation hoing made in oacli case to tlie commissioners, on condition tliat tlio operation 
be conliriod to sawiiij; tliom thinner only, and that their identity be preserved l)y leaving a 
suflicieiit pi>rlion of one end uncnt, the operation being performed dnring the legal hours of 
business, and in the Ijoniting yards. 

15y T. L, Jan. 4, 1822, their Lordships authorize deals commonly railed Sirew Hoards, not 
exceeding 8 feet in leugtli, brought as stowage for cargoes for hemp and flax, to be destroyed 
or rendered unfit lor any purpose of manufacture, by reducing them to lire wood, and to be 
admitted to entry as such. 

Box Wood. See p. 55. 
Brazil Wood. See p. 55. 
Brazilletto Wood. See p. 55. 
Camwood. See p. 57. 
Cedar Wood. See p. 59. 
Cocus Wood. See Ebony, p. 73. 

Deals to be used in Mines, above 7 in. in width, being 8 ft. 
in length and not above 10 ft. in length, and not ex. U in. 
thick, 120 . . . . .".826 

• Imported into Great Britain, viz. : 

above 7 in. in width, being G ft. in length and not 

above 16 ft. in length, and not ex. 3j in. thick, 120 

(or 3*. 2rf. each) " . . . . 19 

above 7 in. in width, above 16 ft. in length and not 

above 21 ft. in length, and not ex. 3? in. thick, 120 

(or 3.V. 8(/. each) . . . . . 22 

above 7 in. in width, above 21 ft. in length and not 

above 45 ft. in length, and not above 3| in. thick, 120 

(or 7s. Ad. ea(di) . . . . . 44 Q 

above 45 ft. in length, or above ?j\ in. thick (not 

being timber 8 in. sq. or upwards), load of 50 cubic 

ft. (or 1*. a foot) . . . . .2100 

and further, V20 {oY \fi. e[iQ:\\) . , .600 

growth and produce of B. P. in America, and import- 
ed directly thence into Great Britain, viz. : 

above 7 in. in width, being 6 ft. in length and not 

above 16 ft. in length, and not ex. 31 in. thick, 120 

(or 4d. each) . • . . .200 

above 7 in. in width, above 16 ft. in length and 

not above 21 ft. in length, and not ex. 3\ in. thick, 120 

(or !Jd. each) . . . . .2100 

above 7 in. in width, being 6 ft. in length and not 

above 21 ft. in length, and ex. 3| in. thick, 120 (or St/. 

each) . . . . . .400 

• above 7 in. in width, ex. 21 ft. in length, and not 

ex. 4 in. thick, 120 (or inrf. each) , . .500 

above 7 in. in width, ex. 21 ft. in length, and not 

ex. 4 in. thick (not being timber 8 in. sq. or upwards), 

120 (or Lv. 8rf. each) . . . . 10 

Imported into Irehmd, I'iz. : — 

above 7 in. in width and not ex. 12 in. in width, 

and not ex. 3| in. thick, viz. :— 



12 


9 


5 


14 


1] 





16 


12 


6 


18 


14 


1 


20 


15 


7 



150 UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw^«M, <^c. [1837-8. 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
above 8 ft. in length, and not ex. 12 ft. in length, 

120 . 

ex. 12 ft. in length and not ex. 14 ft., 120 

ex. 14 ft. in length and not ex. 16 ft., 120 

ex. 16 ft. in length and not ex. 18 ft., 120 

ex. 18 ft. in length and not ex. 20 ft., 120 

above 7 in. in width, and not ex. 12 in. in width, 

and ex. 3} in. thick, viz. : 

above 8 ft. in length and not ex. 20 ft., 1 20 . 4111 3 

above 7 in. in width and not ex. 12 in. in width, 

and not ex. 4 in. thick, and ex. 20 ft. in length, 120 51 9 2 
above 7 in. in width and not ex. 12 in. in width, 

and ex. 4 in. thick, and ex. 20 ft. in length, 120 . 100 6 1 
Deal Ends, Imported into Great Britain, viz. : — 

above 7 in. in width, being under 6 ft. in length, 

and not ex. 3| in. thick, 120 (or I*, each) . , 6 
above 7 in. in width, being under 6 ft. in length, 

and ex. 3| thick, 120 (or 2.9 each) . . . 12 

growth and produce of B. P. in Amorica, and imported 

directly thence into Great Britain, viz. : — 

above 7 in. in width, under 6 ft. in length, and not 

ex. 3^ in. thick, 120 (or ]^ each) . . . 15 
above 7 in. in width, under 6 ft. in length, and ex. 

3| in. thick, 120 (or 3rf. each) . . . 1 10 

Imported into Irelajid viz. : — 

above 7 in. in width and not ex. 12 in. in width, 

and under 8 ft. in length, viz. . — 

not ex. 3| in. thick, 120 . . . 7 18 

ex. 3i in- thick, 120 . . . . 13 14 8 

Deals and Deal Ends of all sorts, growth and produce of B. 
P. in America, and imported directly thence into Ireland, 
120 . . . ' . . .083 

And further, on all Deals and Deal Ends imported into 

Ireland, of the aforesaid lengths and thicknesses, but 

of the following widths, the additional duties follow- 
ing, viz. : — 
If ex. 12 in. in width and not ex. 15 in. in width, 

25^. per cent, or one-f)urth of the aforesaid rates. 
If ex. 15 in. in width and not ex. 18 in. in width, 

50Z. per cent, or one half of the aforesaid rates. 
If ex. 18 in. in width and not ex. 21 in. in width, 

75/. per cent, or three-fourths of the aforesaid rates. 
If ex. 21 in. in width, 100/. per cent, or an addi- 
tional duty equal to the aforesaid rates respectively. 
Drnwhacks. — By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 58, § 12, for all deals and timber here- 
in-after described, bein^ of the growth of Norway and imported direct 
thence, and used in the mines of tin, lead, or copper in the counties of 
Devon or Cornwall, or in Ireland, and on which the duties of customs shall 
have been paid, there shall be paid the several drawbacks herein-after men- 
tioned ; (that is to say), on any such deals being above seven inches in width, 
eight feet in length, and not above ten feet in length, and not exceeding one 
inch and a half in thickness, the 120, 4/. l.s. 3f/. On any such timber being 
five inches square and not exceeding ten inches square, the load fifty cubic 
feet, 21. 5s. 3d. 
By ^13, the several drawbacks hereby allowed for such deals and such timber 
so used shall be paid to the owner of any such mine, under the follovring re- 
gulations ; (that is to say,) the purser, agent, or captain of any such mine, 
intending to claim the drawback under this Act, shall enter or cause to be 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— 7)M/e>.9, (f-c. 151 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

entered in a book to be kept for that purpose an account of the quantity of 
such deals and timber used and employed in such mine, stating of whom 
such deals and timber were purchased, and at what port the same were 
stated by the vendor to have been imported, and twice in each year lie shall 
deliver an account tliereof to the collector or comptroller of the customs of 
tbe port where the duty upon such duals and timber shall h^ive beeu stated 
t > have been paid, and shall make and subscribe a declaration before him 
to the truth of such account, and shall, if required by such collector or comp- 
troller, produce the costs book of such mine. 

By § 14, the person or his agent who shall have supplied the said deals and 
tuober shall make and subscribe a declaration before the collector nr comp- 
troller to the truth of his account for the same, and referring to the impor- 
tation thereof and payment of duties thereon, shall further declare that the 
deals and timber for" which the duties of customs had been so paid; and 
thereupon the collector and comptroller, being satisfied that such deals and 
timber were supplied for the use of such mine, and the full duties of cus- 
toms had lieen paid thereon, a debenture shall be issued for the payment of 
the drawback allowed by this Act; provided, that no debenture for any such 
drawback shall be paid after the expiration of three years from t!ie day on 
which the duty on any of the deals or timber mentioned in such debenture 
had been paid. 

By ^ 15, if the purser, agent, or captain of such mine shall deliver any false 
account of the quantity of deals or timber used and employed, with the intent 
to defraud His Majesty, such purser, agent, or captain shall, on being con- 
victed of any such oflence, for the first offence foifeit :^00/., and for every 
second or further offence 400/., to be sued for within three months after the 
delivery of the account. 

Small Quantities. — By C. O., Feb. 18, 1837, deals and battens in small quantities not exceed- 
ing half a hundred, and of staves to the extent of one hundred in excess of the masters' re- 
ports of cargoes from the British colonies admitted to entry as tlie produce thereof, without 
asiiecial application to the board for that purpose. 

/Fhi'e Fir or Deal. — White lir is the produce of different species of spruce fir ; that from the 
n,>rth of Europe is produced by the Norway spruce, but that from America is produced 
either by the white spruce or black spruce. White tir is imported iti deals or planks. The 
Norway spruce is a native of mountains in various parts ol Europe and the north of Asia. 
The forests of Norway afford it abundantly. A considerable quantity is imported from 
Christiana in deals and planks, which are esteemed the best white deals of any ; not so 
much. Von Huch says, from the superior quality of the tree, as the regular thickness of the 
deals. — Tredgotd. 

American Fines, Pitch, Pine, Silver Fir, and Pinaster. — The Weymouth Pine or White Pine, is 
a native of North America, and is imported in large logs, often moie than two feet square 
and thiity feet in length. It is one of the largest and most useful of the American pines, 
and makes excellent masts. The wood is light and soft, but is said to stand the weather 
tolerably well. In joiners' work the wood is much used fur mouldings, .and other work, 
where clean straight grained wood is desirable ; but it is not durable, nor lit for large tim- 
bers, being very liable to take the dry rot. It has a peculiar odour. — Tredguld. 

Ebony. See p. 73. 

Firewood, not fit or proper to be used other than as such, viz. : — 

the fathoni,6 ft. wide and 6 ft. high . . 19 

imported from B. P. in An}erica, the fathom, 6 ft. 

wide and 6 ft. high . . . . 10 

By C. ()., Oct. 10, 1820, no wood which is allowed to be reduced to fire -wood, in order that it 
may be admitted to Uuty as such, is to pass under the latter denomination, unless it be re- 
duced to lengths, not eNceeding one foot and a half in measure, or unless it siiall be so split 
as to be rendered unfit for any other purposethan tire-wood, which is to be done at the pro- 
prietor's expense, and before the measurement iu the fathom takes place. 

Fir Quarters, under 5 in. sq. and under 24 ft. in length, 120 18 2 7 
under 5 in. sq. and 24 ft. in length, or up- 
wards, 120 . , . . . 27 
5 in. sq. or upwards are subject to the duties 



payable on Fir Timber. 
growth and produce of B. P. in America, and 

imported directly thence, viz. : 
under 5 in. sq. and under 24 ft. in length, 120 3 5 



152 



UNITED KINGDOM— luvoKrs.— Duties, <$-€. [1837-8. 



Wood, contmiied, viz. : — 

under 5 in. sq. and 24 ft. in length or unvvards, 

120 . . . . . / . 

■ 5 in. s(\. or upwards, are subject to the duties 

payable on Fir Timber. 
Fir Timber. See Timber, p. 1 54. 
Fustic. See p. 7G. 
Guinea Wood. See p. 78. 
Handspikes, under 7 ft. in length, 120 

' 7 ft. in lenjTth or upwards, 120 . 

imported from B. P. in America*, viz. : 

under 7 ft. in length, 120 

7 ft. in length or upwards, 120 . 

Knees of Oak, under 5 in. sq., 120 . . 

5 in. sq. and under 8 in. sq., 120 

8 in. sq. or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft 

imported from B. P. in America*, viz. : 

under 5 in. sq., 120 

• 5 in. sq. and under 8 in. sq., 120 

8 in. sq. or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft. 

Lathwood, in pieces under 5 ft. in length, fathom 6 ft. wide 
and 6 ft. high 

■ in pieces 5 ft. in length and under 8 ft. in length 

fathom 6 ft. wide and 6 ft. high 

• 8 ft. in length and under 12 ft. in length, fathom 

ft. wide and 6 ft. high .... 

12 ft. long or upwards, fathom 6 ft. wide and 6 ft 



hisjh 



imported from B. P. in America*, viz. 



£ s. (I. 



4 17 6 



2 








4 











2 


6 





5 








10 





4 








1 


6 








2 








15 








5 






4 5 



6 16 



10 4 



13 12 



15 



1 5 



in pieces under 5 ft. in length, fathom 6 ft. wide 

and 6 ft. high .... 

in pieces 5 ft. in length or upwards, fathom 6 ft. 

wide and 6 ft. high .... 

Logwood. See p. 88. 
Mahogany. See p. 88. 

Masts, Yards, or Bowsprits, 6 in. in diara. and under 8 in., 
each ....... 

• 8 in. in diam. and under 12 in., each 

12 in. in diam. or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft. 

imported from B. P. in America*, viz. : 

• G in. in diam. and under S in., each . 

• 8 in. in diam. and under 12 in., each . 

■ 12 in. in diam. or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft.. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. r)4, § 2, masts being the produce of Europe shall not 
be imported into the United Kingdom, to be used therein^ except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or ia 
ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

Nicaragua Wood. See p. 92. 

Oak Plank, 2 in. thick or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft. . 4 

of the growth of B. P. in America, and imported di- 
rectly thence, viz. : 

■ — ' 2 in. thick or upwards, load of 50 cubic ft. . 15 

Oak Timber. See Timber, p. 154. 

Oars, 120 . 14 19 3 

growth of B. P. in America, and imported directly 

thence, 120 . .. . . . . . . 19 6 






8 





1 


2 





2 


15 








1 


G 





4 








10 






* As to Europe, see note (o ji. 146, 



1S37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— D«i?W, .^^c. 153 

Wood, continued, viz. : — • £ g. d. 

Olive Wood. See p. 98. 
Red Wood. See p. 106. 
Rose Wood. Seep. 107. 
Santa Maria Wood. See p. 1 09. 
Sapan Wood. See p. 10 'J. 
Speckled AVood. See p. 121. 

Spars, under 2'2 ft. in length, and under 4 in. in diam. ex- 
clusive of the bark, 120 . . . .280 
'22 ft. in length or upwards, and midcr 4 in. in diam., 

exclusive of the bark, 120 . . . .450 
4 in. in diam. and under 6 in. in diam. exclusive of the 

bark, 120 . . . . . .900 

of the growth of B. P. in America, and imported thence, 

viz. : 
under 22 ft. in length, and under 4 in. in diam., exclu- 
sive of the bark, 120. . . . .090 
22 ft. in length or upwards, and under 4 in. in diam , 

exclusive of the bark, 120 . . . . 16 

• 4 in. in diam. and under 6 in. in diam., exclusive of the 

bark, 120 . . . . . . 1 15 

Spokks for Wheels, not ex. 2 ft. in length, 1000 . .3 7 4 

• ex. 2 ft. in length, 1000 . . . . 6 14 8 

of all sorts, growth of B. P. in America, and imported 

directly thence, 1000 . . . . .064 

Staves, not ex. 3C in. in length, not above 3 in. thick, and 

not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . . . .13 
above 36 in. in length and not ex. 50 in. in length, not 

above 3 in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . 2 6 
above 50 in. in length and not ex. 60 in. in length, not 

above 3 in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 , 3 
above 60 in. in length and not ex. 72 in. in length, not 

above 3 in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breaclth, 120 . 4 4 
above 72 in. in length, not above 3 in. thick, and not 

ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . . . . 4 16 

■ above 3 in. thick, or above 7 in. in breadth, and not ex. 

63 in. in length, shall be deemed Clap Boards, and be 

charged with Duty accordingly. 
■ above 3 in. thick, or above 7 in. in breadth, and ex. 63 

in. in length, shall be deemed pipe boards, and be charged 

with duty accordingly. 
imported from B. P. in America, and imported directly 

thence ; viz. not ex. 36 in. in length, not above 3i in. 

thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . . . 2 

• above 36 in. in length and not ex. 50 in. in length, not 

above 3^ in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . 4 

•^ above 50 in. in length, and not ex. 60 in. in length, not 

above 3j in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . 6 
above 60 in. in length, and not ex. 72 in. in length, not 

above 3^ in. thick, and not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 . 8 
above 72 in. in length, and not above Zh in. thick, and 

not ex. 7 in. in breadth, 120 (Icf. each) . ' . . 10 

■ not ex. \h in. thick shall be charged with one-third 

part of the duty herein charged on such staivv. 
above 3| in. thicfi, or above 7 in. in breadth, and not 

ex. 63 in. in length, shall be deemed Clap Boards, and he 

charged with duty accordingly. 



154 UNITED KINGDOM.— IMPORTs.~DM<^■e*, <f-c. [1837-8. 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 
above 3i in. thick, or above 7 in. in breadth, and ex. 

63 in length, shall be deemed Pipe boards, and be charged 

with duty accordingly. 

of uneven thickness, imported from, the B. P. in 

America. 

By C. C, May 25, 1836, staves which exceed \\ inches in thickness thvoufjhout the minimum 
lenfjth of the staves, to be chargod with duty as staves not above-3i inclies. For example, 
60-72, if exceeding 1^ inches in thickness throughout the lengtli of 60 inches, to be charged 
as not exceeding 3^ inclies. 

Sticks. Seep. 127. 

Sweet Wood. See p, 133. 

Teak Wood, load * . . . . . 10 

imported from any B. P. within the Hmits of the 

East India Company's charter, load . . .001 

(6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 60.) 

Teak wood is a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, as 
well as of Java, Ceylon, and other parts of the Kast Indies. The wood of the teak tree is 
by far the most useful timber in India; it is lii;ht, easily worked, and, thougii porous, it is 
strong and durable ; it requires little seasoning, and shrinks very little; it is rather of an 
oily nature, therefore does not injure iron ; and is the best wood in that country for ship- 
timber, house carpentry, or any other work where strong and durable wood is required. 
Malabar teak is esteemed superior to any other in India, and is extensively used tor ship- 
building at Bombay. — Tredgold. 

Timber, Fir Timber, 8 in. sq. or upwards, load . . 2 15 

imported from any B. P. in America, 8 in. sq. or 

upwards, load . . . . .0100 

Red or yellow fir is the produce of the Scotch fir tree ; it is a native of the hills of Scotland, 
and other northern parts of Europe, and common in Russia, Denmark, Norway, Lapland, 
and Sweden. The great forests of Norw ay and Sweden consist almost entirely of Scotch fir 
and spruce fir. The Scotch fir is exported from thence in logs and deals, under the name of 
Red-wood. Norway exports no trees above 18 inches diameter, consequently there is much 
sap-wood ; but the heart- wood is both stronger and more durable than that of larger trees from 
other situations. Riga exports a considerable quantity under the name of masts and spars : 
those pieces from 18 to 25 inches diameter are called masts, and are usually 70 or 80 feet in 
lencth; those of less than 18 inches diameter are called spars. According to Mr. Coxe, the 
griater jiart of the Riga timber is grown in the districts near the Dnieper. Yellow deals 
and planks are imported from Stockholm, Gefle, Fredeiickshnll, Christiana, and various 
other ports of Norway, Sweden, Prussia, and Russia. — Tredgold. 

Oak Timber, 8 in. sq. or upwards, load . . 2 15 

of the growth of B. P. in America, and imported 

directly thence, 8 in. sq. or upwards, load . . , 10 

Timber of all sorts, not particularly enumerated nor 

otherwise charged with duty, being 8 in. sq. or upwards, 

load . . . . . . .18 

Timber of all sorts not particularly enumerated or 

described, nor otherwise charged with duty, being of the 
growth of B. P. in America, and impprted directly thence, 

8 in. sq. or upwards, load . . . .050 

Timber used in the building of churches and chapels. See 

p. 60. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, § 2, Timber, beiutj the produce of Europe, shall 
not be imjiorted into the United Kingdom to he used therein, except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which t-)ic floods are the pmdiice, or in 
ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 

Of the Oak there are several species, which produce valuable timber. Vitruvius enumerates 
five kiuilh, viz. the Hscuhis, the C:'rrus, the Quercus, the Suber, and the Robur; the tmiber 
of each lieing (iistingaished by iis peculiar properties ; but it would be difficult to identify 
some of the kinds mentioned by him with the species described by botanical writers. In 
general the English oak is spoken of by practical men as though there were but one species, 
and no difference in the ([uality of the wood, except that produced by soil and situation; 
but two distinct species have been long known to English botanists. Common British 

* The load contains ."JO cubic feet. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— luvoms.— Duties, 4-c, 155 

Wood, continued, viz. : — £ .v. d. 

oak is founfl throughout the temperate parts of Kurope.and is that which is most commonly 
met witli ill the woods and hedges of the south of England. In favourable situations this 
species attains an immense size. — Tredgold. 

Trees. See p. 102. 

Ufors, under 5 in. sq. and under 24 ft. in length, 120 . 18 2 7 

under 5 in. sq. and 24 ft. in length or upwards, 120 . 27 

5 in. sq. or upwards are subject to the duties payable 

on fir timber. 

— ■ — Im'ported from B.. P. in America* viz. 

under 5 in. sq. and under 24 ft. in lenojth, 120 . 3 5 

under 5 in. sq. and 24 ft. in length or upwards, 120 4 17 6 

5 in. sq. or upwards are subject to the duties 

payable on fir timber. 

Wainscot Logs, 8 in. sq. or upwards, load t . . 2 15 

growth of B. P. in America, and imported directly 

thence, load . . . . . .0120 

Zebra Wood. Seep. 157. 

Wood, unmanufactured, growth of B. P. in America, not 
particularly enumerated, nor otherwise charged with 
duty, 100/. val. . . . . ' . .500 

Unmanufactured, not particularly enumerated, and on 

which the duties due on the importation are payahJe ac- 
cording to the value thereof, being of the growth of the 
British limits within the province of Yucatan in the Bay 
of Honduras, and imported directly from the said Bay, 
100/. val. , . . . . .500 

Unmanufactured, not particularly enumerated, nor 

otherwise charged with duty, 100/. val. . . . 20 ff 



Wool, Beaver, lb. . . . . .017 

Cut and combed, lb. . . . .049 

The Beaver is fo uid in the northern parts of Europe and Asia, but most abundantly in North 
America. Tlie fur is coarse and of a ferruginous browu colour, bi'iieath wliicli, and close 
to the body, is found a tine down. — Ency. Metrop. 

Coney, lb. . . . . . .002 

— — Cotton, or waste of cotton wool, cwt. . . . 2 11 
the produce of and imported from B. P., cwt. . 4 

By T. L., March 19, 1821, 2 per cent, is to be allowed for tare on cotton wool from the Brazils 
and .St. Domingo, aii<l A per rent, on cotton wool from all other places (exclusive of ropes) 
except in cases where the merchant shall require tlio actual tare to be ascertained, or where 
the officers of the revenue may deem such a proceeding advisable. 

Previously to 1790, tlie supply of raw cotton for the British manufacture was principally 
derived from the West Indies and the Levant. But, after the termination of the American 
war, cotton began to be cultivated in Carolina and Georgia, and has succeeded ^o well that 
it now forms one of the most valuable iiroductions of the United States. American cotion 
is generally known by the uamis of Sea Island and Upland. The former is tlie tinest cotton 
imported into Britain. The Upland is so very difficult to separate from the seed, that it 
was for a considerable period not worth cultivating. But the genius of a Mr. Whitney, who 
invented a machine which separates the wool from the seed with the utmost facility, has 
done for the planters of Carolina and Ueorgia what the genius of Arkwright did for the 
manufactures of Lancashire. Mr. Whitney took out a patent for his invention, and sold the 
right to use it to the State of South Carolina for 50,000 dollars. — Edin. Rev. 

Goat's, or hair, lb. . . . . .001 

the produce of and imported from B. P. . . Free. 

Hares', lb. . . . . . .002 

Lambs'. See Sheeps' Wool, next page. 

Red or Vicunia Wool, lb. . . . .006 

Bed Wool is used for the making of Cashmere shawls, which, says the editor of the Quarterly 
Review, continue to be sold frora50Ui. to iOOO/. each. — Ed. 

• As to Europe, see note to p. 146. f The load contains 50 cubit feet. 



156 



UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— I>/<^;>s, ^r. [1837-8. 



"Wool, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Sheep or Lambs' Wool, viz. 

not of val. of ]s. the lb. thereof, lb. . . 0^ 

• of the val. of l5. the lb. or upwards, lb. . . 1 

the produce of and imported from B. P. . . Free. 

By 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 54, 6 '-', Wool, being the produce of Europe, shall 
not be imported into the United Kingdom /o be used therein, except in British 
ships, or in ships of the country of which the goods are the produce, or in 
ships of the country from which the goods are imported. 
Tare. — By T. L., Oct. 13, 1820, the rate of tare to be Mlowed on all Spanish wool is fixed at 
101b. the cwt. on all bat;s of ordinary texture ; it being however distinctly understood that 
the officer is to be .it full liberty to proceed to tare any bags which in his jud2;mcnt may 
appear to be loss than 81b. the cwL, or any bags which may be of a different texture from 
those in which Spanish wool is ordinarily imported ; or whenever he may liave occasioQ to 
suspect the fraudulent concealment of any otlier article than wool in any package. 
History.— Tu tlie late King of Saxony is diic the merit of having first brought the breed of 
Spanish Merino sheep into Germany, which has since transferred the valuable tr.ade in fiiie 
wool almost wholly from the Spanish to the German soil. From the period of its first intro- 
duction until 1814, when Europe once more began to eujoy the blessinirs of a general peace, 
this wool was gradually, although slowly, spreading itself over the surface of the kingdom 
of Saxony; but when iho continental trade was thrown quite open, by the events of the 
short campaign of 1815, and men's minds were set at rest by the final catastrophe of Napo- 
leon, the Saxon wool dealers began to open a regular trade in the article to England, and 
they soon discovered the real value of this new branch of German commerce. Lnfortu- 
nat'ely for the Spanisli flock-masters, the captains of Bonaparte's armies which invaded 
Spaiii drove several of the finest flocks into France, and many others were killed or dispersed 
by .the various parties who were ravaging that coimtry during the contest for its dominion. 
So completely were.they destroyed, and the original system of keeping the sheep lost, by 
the convulsions of that period, that the wool has degenerated into a quality not worth more 
than one-third of the same stock of sheep in Germany. In the year 1795, a small flock of 
sheep, not exceeding one dozen, was brought to the upper colony of New .^outh Wales, from 
the Cape of Good Hope, by Captain 'Waterhouse; these formed the nucleus of the vast 
flocks which now exist there ; although the quantity of wool they yielded for a long period 
was too small to form a shipment to this country. — Foreign Quarterly Rev. 



^Prices of Nov. 8, 1837, and of the Same Period Last Year. 



Upland, inferior 

middling 

fine 

good fair 

good 

Ne'w Orleans, inferior .... 

middling 

fair ,. 

good fair 

good 

very choice gin marks 
Jlobile, inferior 

middling 

good fair 

good 

Alabama, inferior 

fair 

good fair 

Sea Island, sto. and saw ginned 

inferior 

mid. ,..•... 

fair clean, not fine • • . 

good clean, and rather fine 

fine and clean .... 

Pernambuco 

Maranham ....... 

IBahia 

Egyptian 

Surat 

Demerara 

West India 

Carthagena 



1837. 



1836. 



4J 
5| 

n 

55 
7 



47- 

(if 

f. 

6 
12 
13 
14 
15 
18 



8.i 
3' 



5.1 
6' 
°g 

8 
5| 
6J 
6i 



9 

5^ 
6 

n 

8 

5 

51 

6| 
12 
13 
14 
15 
17 
30 
101 

13 

6 

13 

10 
5.1 



n 
11 

8 

8i 

91 

10« 

111 

12^ 

8 

81 
10| 
114 



9 

9 
19 
22 
24 
25 
28 
12 
lOj 

13 

10 
9 



H 

10 

11 

111 

8i 

i? 

12i 
14 

8| 

1?^ 
12 

81 

% 

19 
22 
24 
25 
28 
36 
14 
14 
12 

n 

14, 

12 

9 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Imports.— Dw/te*, .J-^;. 157 

Wool, continued, viz.: — £ s. d. 

Woor.LKNS, Manufactures of wool not bcinci; Goats' Wool, 
or of wool mixed with cotton, not particulaily enumerated 
nor otherwise charijed with duty, 1 00/. val. . . 15 

■ Articles of manufacture of wool not bein<jj Goats' Wool, 

or of wool mixed with cotton, wholly or in part made up, 
not otherwise charged with duty, 100/. val. . . 20 

By T. O , Feb. and April 1810, and Aug. 1825, patterns and samples of woollens, useful only 
as such, are duty free. 

It shall 1)6 lawful for the commissioners of customs to permit any stuffs or 
fabrics of silk, linon, cotton, or wool, or of any mixture of them with any 
other material, to be taken out of the warehouse to be cleaneil, refreshed, 
tl3'e(l, staineil, or caknukred, or to be bleached or printed, without payment 
of duty of customs, under security ; nevertheless, by bond to their satisfac- 
tion, that such goods shall be returned to the warehouse within the time 
that they shall appoint. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 35. 

Wreck. See Derelict, p. 72. 

Y. 

Yarn, Cable, cwt. . . . . . 10 9 

Camel or Mohair, lb. . . . .001 

Raw Linen, cwt. . . . . .010 

Worsted, lb. . . . . .006 

z. 

Zaffre, cwt. . . . . . .010 

The Zaffre that is commonly sold, and which comes from Saxony, is a mixture of oxide of 
cobalt with some vitriliable earth. It is of a f<rey colour, as all the oxides of cobalt are 
before vitrification. — Ure. 

Zebra Wood, ton . . . . .200 

Goods, being either in purt or wholly manufactured, 
and not being enumerated nor otherwise charged trith 
duty, and not prohibited to be imported into or used in 
Great Britain or Ireland, \QQl.val. (or one-fifth] . 20 

Goods, not being either in part or icJiolly manufactured, 
and not being enumerated nor otherwise cJiarged with 
duty, and not prohibited to be imported into, or used in 
Great Britain or Ireland, 100/. ral. for Is. in the £.) . 5 

Mauritius. — All goods, the produce or 7nanufacture of the 
Island of Mauritius, are subject to the same duties as are 
imprised on the like goods, the produce or manufacture of 
the British Possessions in the West Indies. 

Cape of Good Hope. — All Goods the produce or manufac- 
ture (f the Cape of Good Hope or the territories or de- 
pendencies thereof, are subject to the same duties as are 
imposed oti the like goods, the produce or manufacture of 
the British Possessions within the limits of the East 
India Company's Charter, except when any other duty is 
expressly imposed thereon. 



PART THE THIRD. 



UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND. 



EXPORTS. 

[See the Remarks under Imports, p. 38, which are also applicable to Exports.] 

Passengers" Baggage. Ship with Baggage only deemed hi Ballast. 
— If any passengers are to depart in any ship from the United Kingdom 
or from the Isle of Man for parts beyond the seas, it shall be lawful for 
the master of such ship to pass an entry and to receive a cocket in his 
name for the necessary personal baggage of all such passengers, and duly 
to clear such baggage for shipment in their behalf, stating in such clear- 
ances the particulars of the packages and the names of the respective 
passengers ; and if such ship is to take no other goods than the neces- 
sary personal baggage of passengers actually going the voyage, it shall 
be lawful for such master to enter such ship outwards in ballast for pas- 
sengers only ; and if no other goods than such baggage duly entered and 
cleared be taken on board such ship, the same shall be deemed to be a 
ship in ballast, notwithstanding such baggage, and shall be described in 
the clearance, on the content and on the label to the cocket or cockets, 
and on the victualling bill and in the book of ships' entries, as a ship 
cleared in ballast, except as to the necessary personal baggage of pas- 
sengers going the voyage. 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 52, s^ 82. 

Chalk and Rubbish, and Goods for Private Use. Master to clear 
Goods. Ship deemed in Ballast.—lf the master and crew of any foreign 
ship which is to depart in ballast from the United Kingdom for parts 
beyond the seas shall be desirous to take on board chalk rubbish by way 
of ballast, to take with them for their private use any small quantities 
of goods of British manufacture, it shall be lawful for such master, with- 
out entering such ship outwards, to pass an entry in his name, and 
receive a cocket free of any export duty for all such goods, under the 
general denomination of *' British Manifactures not Prohibited to be 
exported,"^ being for the use and privilege of the master and crew, and 
not being of greater value than in the proportion of 20/. for the master, 
and 10/. lor the mate, and 5/. for each of the crew, and stating that the 
ship is in ballast ; and the master shall duly clear such goods for ship- 
ment in behalf of himself and crew, stating in such clearances the parti- 
culars of the goods and packages, and the names of the crew who shall 
jointly or severally take any of such goods under this privilege; and such 
ship shall be deemed to be a ship in ballast, and be cleared as such, and 
without a content, notwithstanding such goods or such cocket or cockets ; 
and such clearance shall be notified by the collector or comptroller on 
the label to the cocket or cockets, and on the victualling bill, and in the 
book of ships' entries, as a clearance in ballast, except as to the privilege 
of the master and crew. § 83. 

By 4 & 5 Will. IV., c. 89, § 3, chalk, slate, and slates to be deemed 
ballast. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— En/ry, <^c. 159 

Ships to bring to at Stations. — Every ship departing from any port in 
the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man shall bring to at such stations 
within the port as shall he appointed by the commissioners of customs for 
the landing of officers from such ships, or for further examination previous 
to such departure. § S5. 

Entry of Debenture Goods. — No drawback or bounty shall be allowed 
upon the exportation from the United Kingdom of any goods, unless 
such goods shall have been entered in the name of the person who was 
the real owner thereof at the time of entry and shipping, or of the person 
who had actually purchased and shipped the same, in his own name and 
at his own liability and risk, on commission, according to the practice of 
merchants, and who was and shall have continued to be entitled in his 
own right to such drawback or bounty, except in cases hereinafter pro- 
vided for. s^ 86. 

Declaration as to Property and Right of Drawback. — Such owner or 
commission merchant shall make and subscribe a declaration upon the 
debenture that the goods mentioned therein have been actually exported, 
and have not been re-landed, and are not intended to be re-landed in any 
part of the United Kingdom, nor in the Isle of Man, (unless entered for 
the Isle of Man,) nor in the Islands of Faro or Ferro, and that he was the 
real owner thereof at the time of entry and shipping, or that he had pur- 
chased and slapped the said goods in his own name and at his own 
liability and risk, on commission, as the case may be, and that he was 
and continued to be entitled to the drawback or bounty thereon in his 
ow-n right : Provided always, that if such owner or merchant shall not 
have purchased the right to such drawback or bounty he shall declare 
under his hand upon the entry and upon the debenture the person who 
is entitled thereto, and the name of such person shall be stated in the 
cocket and in the debenture ; and the receipt of such person on the 
debenture shall be the discharge for such drawback or bounty. ^S 87. 

Owner not resident. Joint Stock Company. — If such owner or mer- 
chant shall be resident in some part of the United Kingdom being more 
than twenty miles from the Custom-house of the port of shipment, he 
may appoint any person to be his agent to make and pass his entry, and 
to clear and ship his goods, and to receive for him the drawback or 
bounty payable on his debenture, if payable to him, provided the name of 
such agent and the residence of such owner or merchant be suljoined to 
the name of such owner or merchant in the entry and in the cocket for 
such goods ; and such agent, being duly informed, shall make declaration 
upon the entry, if any be necessary, and also upon the debenture, in 
behalf of such owner or merchant, to the efiect before required of such 
owner or merchant, and shall answer such questions touching his know- 
ledge of the exportation of such goods and the property therein, and of 
the right to the draw'back or bounty, as shall be demanded of him by the 
collector or comptroller ; and if any such goods be exported by any cor- 
poration or company trading by a joint stock, it shall be lawful for them 
to appoint any person to be their agent for the like purposes and with the 
like powers to act in their behalf. § 88. 

Property of Persons Abroad. — If any goods which are to be exported 
for drawback be the property of any person residing abroad, having been 
consigned- by the owner thereof to some person as his agent residing in 
the United Kingdom, to be exported through the same to purts beyond 
the seas, by such agent, upon account of such owner, it shall be lawful 
lor such person (being the consignee by whom and in whose name the 
duties inwards on such goods had been paid, or his legal representative), in 
like manner, as agent for such owner, to enter, clear, and ship such goods 
for him, and upon like conditions to receive for him the drawback payable 
thereon. $ 89. 

Time of Shipment and Payment of Drawback. Goods of less Value 



160 UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Dw/iV*. if'C. [1837-8. 

tha7i the Drawback. — No drawback shall be allowed upon tlie exportation 
of any <;oods unless such goods be shipped within tJiree years after the 
payment of the duties inwards thereon, and no debenture for any draw- 
back or bounty allowed upon the exportation of any goods shall be paid 
after the expiration of iico years from the date of the shipment of such 
goods, and no drawback shall be allowed upon any goods which by reason 
of damage or decay shall have bi'corae of less value for home use than the 
amount of such drawback; and all goods so damaged which shall be 
cleared for any drawback shall be forfeited, and the person who caused 
such goods to be so cleared shall forreit 200/., or treble the amount of 
the drawback in such case, at the election of the commissioners of 
customs. ^S 90. 

Prohibited Goods and all Goods packed, therewith. — If any goods 
which are prohibited to be exported shall be put on board any vessel or 
boat with intent to be laden or shipped for exportation, or shall be 
brought to the quay, wharf, or other place in the United Kingdom in 
order to be put on board any vessel or Ixiat for the purpose of being ex- 
ported, or if any goods vvhich are prohibited to be exported be found in 
any package produced to the officers of customs as containing goods not 
so prohibited, then not only all such prohibited goods, but also all other 
goods packed therewith shall be forfeited. 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 53, ^ 31. 

Vessels with Slate and Chalk. — Slate, and slates and chalk, laden on 
board any ship bound to foreign parts, shall be deemed to be ballast, and 
every such ship having on board slate, and slates and chalk only, or 
either of them, shall be deemed to be a ship departing in ballast ; and if 
on the return of any such ship any slate, or slates or chalk, be remaining 
on board, the same shall be deemed to be the ballast of such ship. 4 & 5 
Will. IV., c. 89, ^S 3. 

By C. O., Sept. 17, 1834, severnl instances liaving occurred where transports and other 
vessels engaged for the conveyance of troops, convicts, &c., and having stores on board Irom 
the bonded warehouses, have left the Port of London without being duly cleared outwards 
as required by the Act 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, § 82, it is ordered, that the following regu- 
lations be in future adopted ; viz. : — That in the case of sliips hired by government lor the 
^oya^e only, to take out convicts or government stores, the master do, on clearing, dcciare 

that he is ijound to , with convicts or government stores (as tlie case may be), 

having no other goods or merchamlize wliatever on board: and witli regard to transports, 
that, in lieu of any clearance, there shall be with the requisition, in virtue of which the store 
bond is made out, be delivered to the clerk of the bonds a paper on which it shall be 
certified by the searchers that the ship has been taken up as a regular transport by 
government, as appears by letter of the Admiralty, dated . 

Exporti?ig Prohibited Goods. — If any goods liable to forfeiture for 
being shipped for exportation be shipped and exported without discovery 
by the officers of customs, the persons who shall have caused such goods 
to be exported shall forfeit double the value of such goods. •^ 103. 

Prohibited Goods. — The several sorts of goods enumerated or described 
hereafter shall be either absolutely prohibited to be exported from the 
United Kingdom, or shall be exported only under restrictions, according 
as the several sorts of such goods are respectively set forth, viz. ^S ] 04. 
[Here follou's in the Act a List of Articles ; but as those articles are all 

enumerated binder their respective names in this part, and as all 

regulations affecting them, are given under such names, it is consi- 

dered unnecessary to insert the List here.'\ 

NEW DUTIES, &c. 



Goods, of the Grotvth,pr<jducp,or manufacture of tJie United 
Kingdom (not being subject to other Export Duty, Jior 
particularly exempted from Export Duty), \{>fiLval. . 10 

Except the articles mentioned as Duty Free. 



The Duties in this Part are all charged by 3 and 4 Will. IF., c. 56. 



l83;-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Z)«^?H«^c. Ifil 

£ '5. d. 
The Goods in. this Part all to be deemed British or Irish, unless other- 
wise particularly described. 



The Suirifi stated in figures are Rates of Customs Duty, unless particu- 
lurhj mentioned otherwise. 

Packages. — By C. 0., Oct. 12, 1833, 7iew Puncheons, and all other 
packages in ivhich it has been'the jiractice to export coals and other 
goods, are to be deemed as coming irittiin the meatiing of the general 
order of the 9th June, 182G, and to be passed ivithout payment of E.v- 
port Duty. 

As to Packages of Warehoused Goods, see Part 7. 

Ale for Ships' Stores. See Part 7. . 

Ammunition and Arms may, by proclamation or order in council, be pro- 
hibited to be exported, or waterborne to be exported, on pain of for- 
feiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c 52, s^ 104. 

Arms. See Ammunition, above. 

Ashes, Pearl and Pot, may, by proclamation or order in council, be pro- 
hibited to be exported, or waterborne to be exported, on pain of 
forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^S 104. 

Baggage. See page 50, ■ 

Beds. See Wool, page 1 75. 

Beef and Pork, Warehoused, 

Upon the entry outwards of any salted beef or salted pork to be 

exported from the warehouse to parts beyond the seas, and. before 
cocket be granted, the person in whose name the same shall be 
entered shall give security by bond in treble the value of the goods, 
with two sufficient sureties, of whom the master of the exporting ship 
shall be one, that such beef or ])ork shall be duly shipped and ex- 
ported, and that no part thereof shall be consumed on board such 
ship, and that the same shall be landed at the place for which it be 
entered outwards ; and that a certificate of such landing shall be pro- 
duced within a reasonable time, according to the voyage, to be fixed by 
the commissioners of customs, and mentioned in the bond, such certi- 
ficate to be signed by the otficers of customs or other British officer, if 
the goods be landed at a place in the British dominions, or by the 
British consul, if the goods be landed at a place not in the British 
dominions, or that such goods shall be otherwise accounted for to the 
satisfaction of the commissioners; and such master shall make and 
sign a declaration that such beef or pork is to be laden on board such 
ship as merchandise to be carried to and landed at parts beyond the 
seas, and not as stores for the said ship : and if sucii ship shall not 
have on board at the time of clearance outwards a reasonable supply 
or stock of beef or pork according to the intended voyage borne u])on 
the victualling bill, the master of such ship shall forfeit 100/. 3 and 4 
Will. IV., c. 5 7, H3. 

E.\cise-Dra\vback. 

Beer, brewed or made by any entered brewer of beer for sale 
in the United Kingdom, and which shall be duly exported 
from any part of the United Kingdom to foreign parts as 
merchandise, the barrel of 3G gals. . , ' . 5 

[1 Will. IV., c. 54.] 

Beer for, ships' stores. See Part 7. 

Biscuit. See Corn, page 1G3. 

Bobbins. See Tools. 

Bran. Sec Corn, page 1G3. • ' 



162 UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Dm^/>*, (^c. [1837-8. 

£ *. d. 
Bottles, Glass. See Glass, page 163. 

Excise Drawback. 

Bricks, not ex. 10 in. long-, 3 in. thick, 5 in. wide, 1000 . 5 10 

ex. any of the foregoing dimensions, 1000 . . . 10 

Smoothed or polished on one or more side or sides, 

the same not ex. the superficial dimensions of 10 in. long 
by 5 in. wide, 1000 . . . . "! 12 10 

such last-mentioned Bricks ex. the aforesaid 



superficial dimensions, 100 . . . .025 

Bullion, Dutyfree. 

Candles. By 1 and 2 Will. IV., c. 1 9, all the duties of excise pay- 
able upon candles made in Great Britain, or made in Ireland, and 
removed into Great Britain, and all duties upon licenses required to be 
taken out by any maker of candles in Great Britain and Ireland, and 
all drawbacks for the removal of any candles from Great Britain to 
Ireland, or on the exportation of any candles from Great Britain, 
shall cease. 
Cards and Dice. Playing cards or dice, not being stamped for use in the 
United Kingdom, and not having paid the stamp duties, may be ex- 
ported, 9 Geo. IV., c. 18, § 28. Playing cards or dice exported con- 
trary to law, or re-landed after entry, shall be forfeited. § 30. 
If any person fraudulently re-land cards or dice, after entrj- and shipment for 

exportation elsewhere than in the port of consignment, he shall for every 

such offence forfeit 50/. § 31. 
No person shall export any cards to the Isle of Man, unless stamped for such 

island, or for use iu the United Kingdom, upon pain of forfeiting 20/. for 

every pack. § 32. 

Carriages. 

By T. L., Sept. 26, 1817. British-built carriages actually in use by passengers, as their tra- 
velling carriages, may pass outwards without payment of duties, and without entries, under 
the restrictions respecting'.baggage, p. 50. 

Cigars, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 
Chalk, deemeti ballast. See page 158. 

Clocks and Watches. Any outward or inward box, case, or dial-plate, of 
any metal, without the movement in or with every such box, case, or 
dial-plate, made up fit for use, with the clock or watch-maker's name 
engraven thereon, prohibited to be exported, or waterborne to be 
exported, on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, ^ 104. 
Coals, Culm, or Cinders. 

Duty. — So much of the Act as imposes any duty upon the exportation in 
British ships of Coals, Culm, or Cinders, according to the weight thereof, is 
herehy repea/ed : Provided, that nothing herein shall tend to exempt such 
coals from the duty payable upon the exportation of goods according to the 
value thereof ; * and tiiat in lieu of the duties of exj'ortation now payable 
upon any coals, culm, or cinders, when exported in a foreign ship, the duty 
of 4s. the ton shall in all cases be payable. 4 and 5 Will. IV., c 89, 6 17. 

Duty. — By T. L., May 15, 1835, no charge of duty of 10s. per cent, is to be made upon the 
exportation from Guernsey and Jersey of coals in a French ship to France. With respect 
to the exportation of coal to those islands, such duty is not to be charged, and measures 
are to be taken in the next Customs Act to remove the ambiguity. 

By T. L., March 4, 1837, the Export Foreign Ship Duty on coals exported to Brazil in Bra- 
zilian vessels remitted. 

Foreign Vessels.— By C. O., March 14, 1836, coals exported from Great Britain to a B. P. in a 
foreign vessel are liable to the duty of 4s. per ton. 

Bond.—Bj C. O., Sept. 10, 1834, Bond is still to be taken in cases of coal shipped in vessels 
of countries with which treaties of reciprocity have been concluded.— For list of such 
eountries, see p. 45. 

Cocoa Nuts. For any cocoa nuts lodged in warehouses not 
being declared to be of special security, the following 

* See Duties, p. 160. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Z)m//m. (^c. 163 

Cocoa Nuts, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

allowance for natural waste shall be marie upon the ex- 
portation thereof: viz., Cocoa Nuts, for every 100 lb., and 
so in proportion for any less quantity . . . 2 lb. 

[.3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, ^ 40.] 

Cocoa, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 

Coffee. For any coffee lodged in warehouses not being 
declared of special seairity, the following allowance for 
natural w-asto shall be made upon the exportation thereof ; 
viz. Coffee, for every 100 lb., and so in proportion for any 
less quantity . . . . . . 2 lb. 

[3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 40.] 

By T. O., May 16, 1834, on roasted Coffee allowed to be shipped as stores, n djsawback 
allowed, equal in amount to the import duty chargeable on Coffee the produce of ami 
imported from a B. P. in America. 

for other ships' stores. See Part 7. 



Coin. Dutyfree. 

Copper Ore, smelted for exportation. See page 84. 

Corn, Grain, Meal, Malt, Flour, Biscuit, Bran, Grits, Pearl Barley, and 
Scotch Barley, Duty free. 

Cotton Yam, or other Cotton Manufactures. Duty free. 

Crew^els. See Wool, page 174. 

Culm. See Coals, page 162. 

Dice. See Cards, page 162. 

Fish. Dutyfree. 

Fisheries. — Any sort of craft, food, victuals, clothing, or implements or 
materials necessary for the British fisheries established in any of 
the B. P. in North America, and exported direct thereto. Dutyfree. 

Flour. See Corn, above. 

Fruit, Dried, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 

Excise Drawback. 

Glass.* Ground or Polished Plate Glass made in any part of 
the United Kingdom from materials or metal or other 
preparations for which the duties payable for plate-glass 
shall have been paid, and which shall be exported from 
any part of the United Kingdom to foreign parts, in rect- 
angular plates of the size of 6 in. in length by 4 in. 
in breadth at the least, and of the thickness throughout of 
one-eighth part of an inch at the least, and which shall be 
free from stains and of good and fair quality, and fit for 
immediate use as ground and polished plate-glass, sq. foot, 
superficial measure . . . . .029 

So ranch of any Act as prohibits plate-glass from being made of any greater 
thickness than five-eighths of an inch is hcxahy repeated ; and it shall be 
lawful for any maker of plate-glass to make the same of any thickness; 
provided always, that no plate-glass shall be entitled to be exported on 
drawback which shall be in any part thereof when ground and polished of a 
less thickness than one-eighth of an inch. 5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 77. 
[Sept. 9, 1835.] 
Unground and Unpolished Plate-glass. — The drawback now payable on un- 
ground and unpolished plate-glass is hereby repealed: and no drawback 
shall be allowed on any plate-glass exported after the passing of this Act 
[Sept. 9, 183 J], from the United Kingdom, except such glass shall be 
ground and polished, and in all other respects conformable to the regulations 
in respect to the drawback on and export of ground and polished plate 
glass. § 20. 

• By T. L., .\pril 23, 1837, the amount of duty not to be calculated in the value of glass 
exported for the purpose of charging the 10s. per cent, ad valorem Export duty (p. 160.) 

M 2 



164 UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— X>?^i/^5, cf'c. [1837-8 

Excise Drawback. 

Glass, continued, vis.: — £ s. d. 

Window Glass not being spread glass whether flashed 

or otherwise manufactured, and commonly called or known 
by the name of crown-glass or German sheet-glass, made 
in any part of the United Kingdom, for which the duties 
. . shall have been paid, which shall be exported from any 
part of the United Kingdom to foreign parts, or to the 
islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderncy, or Sark, in whole 
tables, or half tables, or quarter tables, and so in pro- 
portion for any greater or less quantity than a hundred 
weight of such whole tables, half tables, .or quarter tables, 
calculating the drawback upon the weight of the whole 
table exported, although the same may be ciit into half or 
quarter tables for the convenience of exportation, cwt. . 3 13 6 

• Panes of German Sheet-glass made m any part of the 

United Kingdom, and for which the duty shall have been 
charged, and which shall be exported as merchandise 
from any part of the United Kingdom to foreign parts, 
such panes not being of less dimensions than 6 in. in 
length by 4 in. in breadth, cwt. . ' . . 4 4 

(5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 77, § 5.) 
.No glass exported in panes of a greater specific gravity than 2800 ghall be 
entitled to drawback as crown-glass or German sheet-glass; but all glass 
produced for exportation in panes as crown-glass or German sheet-glass of 
a greater specific gravity tlian 2800, and all coloured glass exported on 
drawback, shall be deemed to be flint glass, and.shall not be entitled to any 
higher rate of drawback than the drawback on flint glass granted by this 
Act. $11. 
All the regulations contained in any Act for securing the duties on or regu- 
lating the manufacture of spread window glass or crown glass, shall extend 
to and be put in force in securing the duties on and regulating the manu- 
facture of'Germaa sheet-glass. § IG. 

■ Spread Window Glass, commonly "called or known by 

the name of broad glass, made in any part of the United 
Kingdom, for which the duties shall have been paid, and 
which shall be exported from any part of the United 
Kingdom to foreign parts, or to the islands of Jersey, 
Guernsey, Alderney, or Sark, cwt. , . . 1 1.0 

' Common Bottles (not being phials) and vessels made 

use of in chemical laboratories, and garden glasses, or' 
all other vessels or utensils of common bottle metal, made 
in any part of the United Kingdom from materials or 
metal or other preparations for which the duties shall 
have been paid, and which shall be exported from any part 
of the United Kingdom to foreign parts, or to the islands 
of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, or Sark, cwt. ■ . . 0/0 

Flint Glass which shall be made in Great Britain ov 

Ireland, and for which, or of the materials, metal, or other 
preparations from which the same shall have been made, 
all excise duties payable thereon shall have been duly 
charged, and which shall be exported as merchandise from 
. thence to foreign parts, 100 lb. . . . . 18 9 

• (5 and 7 W. IV., c. 77. Sept. 9, 1835.); 
No drawback shall be allowed on the exportation of any flint glass wares 
which shall not be good, fair, and merchantable articles, perfectly manu- 
factured of metal fully and properly fluxed or fused and finished, by all 
rough, waste, and useless parts being removed therefrom, and of such qua- 
lity as to be worth at least 5c/, per pound, exclusive of the duty, if made, or 



183 7-8 J UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— A<//ey, ^r. us 

Glass, conliyiucd, viz. : — £ ,9. ^_ 

if the same had liocn made into articles for home consiimptiou ; and every 
jteison who shall pack or enter or ship, fur exportation on drawhaclc, any 
bad or unmerchantable flint {^lass, or any Hint j^lass wares which shall not 
be of the description, quality, and value aforesaid, shall forfeit treble the 
value of the drawback sought to be obtained, or UK)/., at the election of the 
commissioners of excise, together with all the flint glass so packed, entered, 
or shipped. § 7. 

Goods Warehoused. — It shall not be lawful for any person to export any 
goods warehoused, nor to enter for exportation to parts beyond the 
seas any goods so warehoused, iu any ship which shall not be of tlie 
burthen of 70 tons or upwards. 3 and 4 Will. IV,, c. 57, ^S 4G. See 
p. 12, and Guernsey, &c. Part 9. , 

Grain. See Corn, p. 163. 

Grits. See Corn, p. 163. 

Gunpowder may, by proclamation or order in council, be prohibited to be 
exported, or waterborne to be exported, on pain of forl'uiture. 3 and 4 
Win. IV., c. 52, s^ 104. 

Hops. — Drawback, the whole of the duty paid. 1 and 2 Geo. IV., c. 100. 

Isle of Man. — Goods exported to the Isle of Man by virtue of any license 
which the commissioners of customs may be empowered to grant. 
Dutyfree. 

Lace. Any metal inferior to silver which shall be spun, mixed, wrought 
or set upon silk,, or which shall be gilt, or drawn into wire, or flatted 
into plate, and spun or woven, or wrought into, or upon, or mixed with 
lace, fringe, cord, embroidery, tambour work, or buttons, made in the 
gold or silver lace manufactory, or set upon silk, or made into bullion 
spangles, or pearl or any other materials made in the gold or silver lace 
manufactory, or which shall imitate or be meant to imitate such lace, 
fringe, cord, embroidery, tambour work, or buttons ; or any copper, 
brass, or other metal M'hich shall be silvered or drawn into wire, or 
ilatted into plate, or made into bullion spangles, or pearl, or any other 
materials used in the gold or silver lace manufactory, or in imitation of 
such lace, fringe, cord, embroidery, tambour work, or buttons, or of 
any of the materials used in making the same, and which shall hold 
moi-e or bear a greater proportion than three pennyweights of fine 
silver to the pound avoirdupois of such copper, brass, or other metals, 
prohibited to be exported, or waterborne to be exported, on pain of for- 
feiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, s^ 104. 

any metal inferior to silver, whether gilt, silvered, stained, or 

coloured, or otherwise, which shall be worked up or mixed with gold 
or silver in any manufacture of laco, fringe, cord, embroidery, tambour 
work, or buttons, prohibited to be exported, or waterborne to be 
exported, on pain of forfeiture. 

Linen, or Linen with Cotton mixed. Dntijfree. 

Malt. See Corn, p. 163. 

Mattresses. See Wool, p. 1 74. . 

Meal. See Corn. p. 163. 

Melasses, Dutyfree. As to Ships' Stores, sec Part 7. 

Mortling?. See Wool, p. 1 74, 

Paper. By 6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 52, s^ 3, (13th Aug., 1836) 
former drawbacks are repealed, and the following substi- 
tuted, the duties for which articles having been paid, viz. 

Glazed paper, sheathing paper, button paper, button- 
board, mill-board, paste-board, and scale-board made in 
the United Kingdom of materials of the -first class, and 
on books, lb. . . , , . . 1.} 






8 








16 








17 











G 





1 








1 


3 





1 


6 



166 UNITED KmGDOM.—EKVOR'is— Duties, ^c. [1837-8. 

Paper, continued, viz, : — £ s. d. 
Stained, &c. By same Act, all drawbacks on paper, 

printed, painted or stained, are repealed, and the following 

substituted, viz. 

printed, painted, or stained in the United Kingdom, 

and exported as merchandise, there shall be granted and 

paid, doz. sq. yards . . . . .002 

Pearl Barley. See Corn, p. 163. 

Pepper. For any pepper lodged in warehouses not being 
declared to be of special security, the following allowance 
for natural waste shall be made upon the exportation 
thereof, for every 100 lb., and so in proportion for any less 
quantity . . . . . . 'lib. 

(3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, ^ 40.) 

Plate, if manufactured in Great Britain, assayed and 
marked, viz. 

of Gold, made since Dec. 1» 1784, oz. 

made since July 5, 1797, to Aug. 31, 1815, oz. 

after Aug. 31,1815, oz. .... 

of Silver, made since Dec. 1, 1784; oz. 

made since July 5, 1797, oz. 

■ made since Oct. 10, 1804, oz. . 

made since Aug. 31, 1815, oz. 

except on gold watch-cases, rings, and any articles of gold, not 

exceeding 2 oz. in weight ; on silver watch-cases, chains, necklaces, 
beads, lockets, filigree work, shirt buckles, or brooches, stamped 
medals, and spouts to china, stone, or earthenware teapots, of any 
Aveight whatever ; tippings, swages, or mounts, not weighing 10 penny- 
weights of silver each, and not being necks or collars for castors, cruets, 
or glasses appertaining to any sort of stands or frames, wares of silver, 
not weighing 5 pennyweights each : this exemption is not to include 
necks, collars, and tops of castors, cruets, or tjlasses appertaining to 
any sort of stands or frames, buttons to be affixed to or set on any 
wearing apparel, solid silver buttons and solid studs, not having a 
bizelled edge soldered on, wrought seals, blank seals, and bottle tickets, 
shoe clasps, patch boxes, salt spoons, salt ladles, tea spoons, tea 
strainers, caddy ladles, buckles, and pieces of garnish, cabinets, knife 
cases, tea chests, bridle stands or frames. 52 Geo. III., c. 59 — 55 Geo. 
III., c. 185—1 Geo. IV., C.14. 

Ireland. — By Sand 4 Will. IV., c. 97, § 21, upon the exportation from Ire- 
land, for any foreign parts, of any gold or silver plate, manufactured iu Ire- 
land, the game being new plate, not having been used, and which shall 
appear to have been duly marked for payment of the duty of Is. the ounce, 
a drawback of, the oz. Is. 
Scotland. — No goldsmith, silversmith, or other person in Scotland shall 
work or make any gold vessel, plate or manufacture or ware of gold what- 
soever, less in fineness than eighteen carats of fine gold iu every pound 
Vi'cight troy ; uor work or make any silver vessel, plate or manufacture or 
ware, whatsoever, less iu fineness than eleven ounces and two}>!Minyweights 
of fine silver in every pound weight troy ; nor sell, exchange, or keej) or 
exjwse for sale, or export or attempt to export out of Scotland, any gold 
vessel, plate or manufacture or ware of gold whatsoever, wrought or made 
after 1st October, 1836, less in fineness than eighteen carats of fine gold 
in every pound weight Troy ; nor sell, exchange, or keep or expose for sale, 
or export or attempt to export out of Scotland, any silver vessel, plate or 
manufactme or ware of silver whatsoever, wrought or made after the said 
day, less in fineness than eleven ounces and two pennyweights of fine silver 
in every pound weight Troy ; and every goldsmith, silversmith, or other 
person who shall after the said day," upon pain that he shall for each piece 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— ExP0RTS.--Z)i^i2W, <f-c. 167 

Plate, cojitinued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

of i^okl or silver plate so sold, exchanged, or kept or exposed for sale, or 
exported or attcmjited to be exported, forfeit a sura not exceediujr 100/. 
6and7Will.IV., C.G9, § 1. 

-Exemptions as to marking gold and silver wares similar to those before men- 
tioned, § 16 and 17. 

Selling or exporting plale not duly marked. — If any goldsmith, silversmith, or 
worker or dealer in plate, or other person, shall knowingly sell, exchange, or 
keep or expose fur sale, or export or attempt to export out of Scotland "-"■ any 
gold or silver plate or ware (except as herein is excepted) made or wrought 
after the 1st October, 1836, which shall not respectively be marked with the 
proper marks hereinbefore required to be stamped on the kind and standard 
quality of which such respective plate or ware shall be, every person so 
offending shall for each piece of gold or silver plate so sold, exchanged, or 
kept or exposed for sale, or exported or attempted to be exported, forfeit and 
pay a sum not exceeding 100/., and shall also forfeit all such plate and 
ware. § 18. 

Goldsmiths' Hall. — The drawback is paid at Goldsmiths' Hall, although the 
documents are issued from the Custom-house. 

Upon entry of gold and silver wares assayed in other places than in London, 
a certificate of such assay must be produced previous to the oath of the 
exporter being made, as to the identity of the plate specified therein. 

Plums, for ships' stores. See Pakt 7. 

Pork, salted. See Beef, p. 161. 

Porter, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 

Provisions, or any sort of victual which raaybe used as food by man, may 

be prohibited to be exported, or waterborne to be exported, on pain of 

forfeiture. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 32, § 104. 
Prunelloes, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 
Rice, for ships' stores. See Part 7. 

S. 

Salt. Dutyfree. 
As to Netherlands, see Fart 9. 

Samples. See Part 7. 

Scotch Barley. See Corn, p. 163. 

Sei^jars, for ships" stores. See Part 7. 

Ships. As to the ships in which goods may be exported, see p. 2. 

Silk. — Upon the exportation of silk goods there shall be allowed the 
several drawbacks of the duties payable on the importation of thrown 
silks, herein set forth, 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 58, § 9: viz. 

Drawbacks on the exportation of silk goods, manufactured in the United 
Kingdom, viz. 

Silk stuffs, or ribbons of silk, composed of silk only, and be- 
ing of the value of 14s-. at the least, lb. . . . 3 6 

Stuffs, or ribbons of silk and cotton mixed, whereof one- 
half at least shall be silk, and being of the value of 4*. so?. 

at the least, lb. . . . . . .012 

Stuffs, or ribbons of silk and worsted mixed, whereof 

one-half at least shall be silk, and being of the value of 

2*. 4c?. at the least, lb. . . . . .007 

Such drawbacks shall be allowed only in respect of exportations to be made by 
the persons in whose names the amount of duties to be drawn back had 
been paid, or to be made by any holder of any written order signed by any 
such persons transferring the right of making such exportations and of 
receiving such drawbacks thereupon. ^ 10. 
The drawbacks shall be allowed, although the manufactured silks in respect 
of which the same shall be claimed shall not have been made of the thrown 

* Tliu like provisions iu fuvmer Acts as t« other arts of the United Iviii.:,'dom.- 



168 UNITED KINGDOM.— ExP0RTs.—D?<;?t'5, 4^c. [1837-8. 

Silk Stufifs, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

silk in respect of which the amount of duties to be drawn back had been 
paid, and whether such amount of duties shall have lieen received inider 
the authority of this Act or of any former Act: provided that the drawbacks 
shall not be allowed unless such manufactured silks be shipped for exporta- 
tion within two years after the payment of such duties. § 11. 



COURT OF COMMON PLEAS, June 28,1837.— (Before Lord Chief Justice 
TiNDAL and Common Juries.) — Euenborough v. Wrightson. 

Mr. Serjeant Wilde and Mr. Arnold were for the plaintiff, and Mr, Serjeant 
Talfourd and I\Ir. James for the defendant. 

This was an action brought by the plaintiff, a silk-lace manufacturer, residing 
in Milk-street, Cheapside, to recover from the defendant, the master and 
part owner of a vessel called the Spanish Packet, the sum of 51/, odd, for 
goods sold and delivered. 

The goods were made up in three packages, and sent by the plaintiff to the 
vessel, of which the defendant was the part owner, on the understanding, as 
the plaintiff' alleged, that they should be considered as sold to the defendant 
unless returned in good condition within a reasonable period. The vessel 
sailed for Spain, and on her return the plaintiff' claimed from the defendant 
the amount of the goods shipped as stated, but the defendant denied his 
liability, and the present action was commenced. 

The defence was, that the goods being out of fashion in England, were shipped 
on board the defendant's vessel by the plaintiff, with a view that they should 
be sold in Spain, where it would appear they had been seized as contraband 
articles by the officers of the Spanish Customs. The defendant denied, that 
he had bought the goods upon the terms stated, and insisted that it was 
a mere speculation on the part of the plaintiff to get them off his hands in 
Spain, they being. unsaleable in England, and for that purpose the articles 
were made up as " ships' stores," in order to conceal the intended fraud 
iipon the Spanish revenue. 

Lord Chief Justice Tindal summed up the evidence. 

The jury returned a verdict for the plaintifl'for the amount claimed. 



Skins, Hare and Coney, tbe 100 skins , , . 10 

Slate, deemed ballast. See p. 158. 

Soap, hard, to Foreign Parts and Ireland, lb. . . 1^ 

Soft, to Foreign Parts and Ireland, lb. . . 1 

Hy T. O., Sept. 6, 1833, Soap may be shipped for dniwbark on boniil tianspovls for the use of 
troops, &c. Ill the same manner as ships' stores, by 2 and 3 Will. IV., c. 84, Part J. 

for Ships' Stores. See Part 7. 

Spirits. For any Spirits lodged in warehouses not being declared to be 

o^ special security, the following allowances for natural waste shall be 

made upon the exportation thereof, viz. 
Spirits,* upon 100 gallons hydrometer proof; for any time 

not exceeding C months . . 1 gallon. 

ex. 6 months, and not ex. 12 months . . 2 gallons. 

ex. 12 months, and not ex. 18 iTQonths . . 3 gallons. 

ex. 18 months, and not ex. 2 years . . .4 gallons. 

ex. 2 years . . . . . . 5 gallons. 

(3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57.) 

Jlum. — By T. O., Sept. 6, 1833, the dnty on deficiencies of British Plantation Rum, arising from 
natural causes, are allowed, when taken out of warehouse for exportation in the port of 
Bristol, being the same indulgence as has been granted to the port of Liverpool, by T.O., 
Aug. G, 1831. 

By T. L., Dec. 17, 1827, authority is given to allow the exportation of Brandy in casks, Contain- 
ing 15 gallons imperial each, from Liverpool to Mexico .Chile ,or Pbru, for the convenience, 
of transport into the interior of those countries. 

* Tl O., Sept, 6, 1833, allows all deficiencies on British Plantation Rum at Liverpool and 
Br-iStol. 

By C. .0., April 13, 1830, the allowanee is extended to nil Foreign Spirits exported from ware- 
house. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— ExpoRTs.—ZJMite^.^c. 169 

Spirits, continued, vis. .•— £ .v. d. 

By C. O., Aug. 5, 1828, Rum warohouseil at nristol may be removed co.nstwise, to be shipped 
as stores on board vessels at the neighbouring ports in (he Bristol Channel, upon condition 
tliat the cnsks of nmi intended to be removed be filled up to the full content previously to 
shipment, and that ri bond bu taken, as in cases of removal of ^oods ,:;eneraUy. 

PachaiPS. —iiy C. O., Oct. 20, 1835, pacl<a:;es from wliich Wiuclwmsed Spirits have been racked 
or drawn off, or started and destroyed, may be delivered tree ol(bily. 

deficiencies. — By T. 0-, Nov. 29, 1836, the duties are to be remitted upon deficiencies of Spirits 
aseertainetl previous to their delivery from warehouse for exportation, in eases in which such 
deficiencres may exceed. the scale of allowances gra'nted by the Warehousing Act, provided 
they be not considered liy the principal ofTicL-rs to be excessive. 

Hackitif/, tS-c— It shall liO lawful, iinclei- such regulations as the commis- 
.sioiiers of customs may require, in the warehouse to draw off' any rum of the 
British plantations into reputed (juart bottles or reputed pint bottles, for 
the jHirpose only of being exported from the warehouse ; and also in the 
M'arehouse to draw up any such rum into casks containing not less than 
20 gallons each, for the purpose only of being disposed of as stores for 
ships ; and also in the warehouse to draw ofF any other spirits into reputed 
quart bottles, under such regulations as the commissioners of customs shall 
from time to time direct, for the purpose only of being exported from the 
warehouse ; and also in the warehouse to fill uj) any casks of spirits from 
any other casks of the same, respectively secured in the same warehouse. 
3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 31, 32. 

Stores may be shipped without entry or payment of any duty for any 
ship of the burthen of 70 tons at least, bound upon a voyage to foreign 
. parts, the probable duration of which out and home will not be less 
than 40 days: provided always, that such stores shall be duly borne 
upon the ship's victuallin<f bill, and shall be shipped in such quantities, 
and subject to such directions and regulations, as the commissioners 
of customs shall direct and appoint. 3 and 4 W. IV., c. 57, ^S 10. 
Any rum of the British plantations maybe delivered into the charge of the 
searcher to be shipped as stores for n«y ship without entry or paymentofany 
duty ; and any surplus stores of any ship may be delivered into the charge of the 
searcher to be re-shipped as stores for the same ship, or for the same mas- 
ter in another ship, without entry or payment of any duty ; such rum and 
such surplus stores being duly borne upon the victualling bills of such ships 
respectively ; and if the ships for the future use of which any surplus stores 
have been warehoused shall have been broken up or sold, such stores may 
be so delivered for the use of any other ship belonging to the same owners, 
or may be entered for payment of duty, and delivered for the private use 
of such owners, or any of them, or of the master or purser of such ship. 3 
ahd4W. IV., c.57, § 17. 
For list of goods allowed to be shipped as stores, see Part 7." 

Military Clothing, Accoutrements, or Appointments, exported 

under the authority of the commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, and 
sent toany of His Majesty's forces serving abroad. Dutyfree. 

• Military Stores exported to India by the East India Company. 

Duty free. 

Military Stores and Naval Stores, and any articles (except cop- 



per) which His Majesty shall judge capable of being converted into or 
made useful in increasing the quantity of military or naval stores, may 
be prohibited to be exported, or watcrborne to be exported, by procla- 
mation or order in council, on pain of forfeiture. 3 and 4 \V. IV., c. 
52, § 104. 
Sugar. — Refined, of all sorts, and Sugar Candy. Dutyfree. 

By T. L., Nov. 20, 1834, the same indulgence is granted to sugar taken out of warehouses not 
hom'^ oi' special scciiriti/ tor exportation, or to be used as ships' stores, as is granted by 3 
and 4 Will. IV., c. 57, § 19, in respect of sugar taken out for home use. See p. 132, 

Bounty on Refined Sugar. — So long as the duties which are now made payable 
upon the importation of sugar shall be continued,* there shall be allowed 
upon the exportation of refined sugar made in the United Kingdom the 
several bounties following, viz. : — 

« 1 Vict. c. 2/, I 1, tlie duties oil sugar and mclasscs are continued until July 5, 13.33, but llio 
hoimtxes are not mentioned. 



170 UNITED KINGDOM— Exports.— DM/te^, ^c. [1837-8. 

SvG An, continued, viz. — £ s. d. 

Refined Sugar, viz. 

Bastard Sugar, or Refined Loaf Sugar broken in pieces, 

or being Ground or Powdered Sugar, or such Sugar Pound- 
ed, Crashed, or Broken — 

exported in a British ship, cwt. . . 14 

exported in a ship not British, cwt, . . 13 

Other Refined Sugar in Loaf, complete and whole, or 



Lumps duly Refined, having been perfectly clarified and 
thoroughly dried in the stove, and being of a uniform white- 
ness throughout, or such Sugar, Pounded, Crashed, or 
Broken, and Sugar Candy — 

exported in a British ship, cwt, . . 1 J6 10 

exported in a ship not British, cwt. . . 1 15 8 

Double Refined Sugar, and Sugar equal in quality to 



Double Refined Sugar, additional bounty, cwt. . 6 4 

(3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 58.) 

Bond for due Exportation. — The exporter of any goods in respect of which 
any bounty is claimed under this Act, or the person in whose name 
the same are entered outwards, shall, at the time of entry and before 
cocket be granted, give security by bond in double the value of the goods, 
with one sufficient surety, that the same shall be duly exported to the place 
for which they are entered, or be otherwise accounted for to the satisfaction 
of the commissioners of customs, and shall not be relauded in the United 
Kingdom, or landed in the Isle of Man, unless expressly entered to be ex- 
ported thereto. § 3. 

Candy. — No bounty shall be given upon the exportation of any refined sugar 
called candy, unless it be properly refined and manufactured, and free from 
dirt and scum, and packed in packages each of which shall contain half a 
hundred weight of such candy at the least. §4. 

Sugar crashed. — If any sugar in lumps or loaves is to be pounded, crashed, or 
broken before the same be exported, for the bounty payable thereon, such 
lumps or loaves shall, after due entry thereof, be lodged in some Avarehouse 
provided by the exporter and approved by the commissioners of customs for 
such purpose, to be then first examined by the oificers of customs while 
in such lumps or loaves, as if for immediate shipment, and afterwards to be 
there pounded, crashed, or broken, and packed for exportation, in the pre- 
sence of such officers, and at the expense of the exporter ; and such sugar 
shall be kept in such warehouse, and be removed from thence for shipment, 
and be shipped under the care and in the charge of the searchers, in order 
that the shipment and the exportation thereof may be duly certified by 
them upon the debenture, according to the quality ascertained by them of 
the same while in such lumps or loaves. § 5. 

Slowing different sorts of crashed Sugar. Quality. — The different sorts of such 
sugar shall be kept apart from each other in such manner and iu such dis- 
tinct rooms or divisions of such warehouse as shall be directed and appoint- 
ed by the commissioners of customs ; and if any sort of such sugar be found 
in any part of such warehouse appointed for the keeping of sugar of a sort 
superior in quality thereto, the same shall be forfeited ; and if any sort of 
such sugar be brought to such warehouse to be pounded, crashed, or broken, 
which shall be of a quality inferior to the sort of sugar expressed iu the 
entry for the same, such sugar shall be forfeited. § 6. 

Standard Sample Loaves. Process of Refinement. — Tliere shall be provided by 
and at the expense of the committee of sugar refiners in London, and in like 
manner by and at the expense of the committee of merchants in Dublin, as 
many leaves of double refined sugar, prepared in manner hereinafter di- 
rected, as the commissioners of customs shall think necessary; which 
loaves, when approved of by the said commissioners, shall be deemed to be 
standard samples ; one of which loaves shall be lodged with the said com- 
mittees respectively, and one other with such persons as the commissioners 
shall direct, for the purpose of comparing therewith double refined sugar, 
or sugar equal in quality to double refined sugar entered for exportation for 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— I>M<te*, c^c. 171 

Sugar, continued, viz. : — 

the bounty ; and fresh standard samples shall in like manner be again fur- 
nished by such committees respectively, and in like maimer lodjjcd, when- 
ever it may be deemed expedient by the commissioners ; provided that uo 
loaf of sugar shall be deemed to be a proper sample loaf of double refined 
sugar as aforesaid, if it he of greater weight thau fourteen pounds, nor unless 
it be a loaf complete and whole, nor unless the same shall have been made 
by a distinct second process of refinement from a quantity of single refined 
sugar, every part of which had first been perfectly clarified and duly re- 
fined, and had been made into loaves or lumps which were of a uniform 
whiteness throughout, and had been thoroughly dried in the stove. ^ 7. 

Suffar not equal to Stcim/ard. — In case any sugar which shall be entered in 
order to obtain the bounty on double refined sugar, or sugar equal in qua- 
lity to double refined sugar, shall, on examination by the proper officer, be 
found to be of a quality not equal to such standard sample, all sugar so en- 
tered shall be forfeited. § 8. 

Wakeuousing for Refinement. 

Premises for Bonded Sugar Houses. — Upon the application to the commis 
sioners of customs of any person actually carrying on the business of a sugar 
refiner in the ports of London, Liver^jool, Bristol, Hull, Greenock, or Glas- 
gow, or any other port to be approved of by any three of the lords of the trea- 
sury, it shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs, by their order, to 
approve of such premises as bonded sugar houses for the refining of sugar 
for exportation only, on it being made appear to the satisfaction of the said 
commissioners that the premises are fit in every respect for receiving such 
sugars, and wherein the same may be safely deposited. 3 and 4 Will. IV., 
c. 61, § 1. 

How Sugar may be Delivered to be Refned.— On the approval of any premises 
as bonded sugar houses as aforesaid, it shall be lawful for the officers of 
customs at the ports respectively where such premises are situated to deliver, 
without payment of duty, to the party or parties so applying as aforesaid, 
on entry with the proper officer of customs, any quantity of foreign sugar, or 
of sugar the produce of any B. P., for the purpose of being there refined, 
under the locks of the crown, for exportation only; and all sugars so deli- 
vered shall be lodged and secured in such premises, under such conditions 
as the said commissioners shall from time to time direct : provided that it 
shall be lawful for the commissioners by their order to revoke or alter any 
former order of approval of any such premises. § 2. 

Refiner to give Bond. Process 'of Refinement. 'I\me for Export, 8;c. — Upon 
the entry of sugar to be refined in any premises approved of under the au- 
thority of this Act, the retiner on whose premises the same is to be refined 
shall give bond to the satisfaction of the officers of customs, in the penalty 
of double the amount of the duty payable upon a like quantity of sugar of 
the British plantations, with a condition that the whole of such sugar shall 
be actually subjected to the process of refinement upon the said premises, 
and that within four months from the date of such bond the whole of the 
refined sugar and treacle produced by such process shall be either duly ex- 
ported from the said premises, or delivered into an approved bonded ware- 
house, under the locks of the crown, for the purpose of being eventually ex- 
ported to foreign parts. ^ 3. 

Sugar-houses, and delivery of Sugar.— liy C. O., Oct. 4, 1833, it is directed that the sufjar- 
houses intended for approval should be either detached, or othernise so separated as to pre- 
vent any communication with other refineries, (and more especially if in the occupation of 
the same parties,) and to be in all respects secured, as far as may be practicable, according' 
to the mode observed with regard to bonded warehouses of ordinary security ; and to be 
freed from all sugar, melasses, treacle, scum, or other sacehariue matter, previous to any 
sugars from the bonded warehouses being received into them for the purposes intended. 
That a warrant of entry be issued to authorise the proper warehouse officers to deliver a de- 
finite quantitv of sugar, for which bond shall have beeu given pursuant to the above Act of 
3 and 4 Will. IV., c. Gl, into the bonded sugar-houses to be refined. That on the receipt of 
such warrant, the warehouse ofiicers should issue orders accordingly ; and that it be made 
a condition in the bonds, that all dejiciencies arising iu the transit from the bonded ware- 
houses to the sugar refineries should be charged with duly. 

Tea. 

Increase and Decrease.— liy C. O., March 2, 1836, when packages of tea of the same 
IKircel and description, and belonging to the same inward entry arc rc-weiglied for cxporta- 



172 UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— D?//zk?,<f-c. {1.837-8. 

Ten, continued, viz.:— 

tion, llie total increase in weight of the packaj;es in which there may be any increase, 
shouhi be setoff against the total deficiency of tliose iiacliages found deficient, and when 
the total deficiency is greater than the total increase, tlie duty to be cliarged on the ditfer- 
ence only, provided the increase or deficiency of any single package does not exceed 2 lb. 

Tea for Ships' Stoves. See Part 7. . . 

Tobacco. 

lly C. O,, July 9, 1837, the separate declaration of the exporter on the shipment of manufac- 
tured tobacco for drawback is discontinued. 

liy T. O., Sept. 6, 1833, roll tobacco allowed to be shipped for drawback on board transports 
for the use of troops, &c; in tlie saiiie manner as the indulgence in respect to the shipment 
of stores which has been granted to merchant vessels undcx the Act 2 and 3 Will. IV., c. 84, 
Part?. 



• foi- Ships' Stores. See Part 7. 

■ for rate of Drawback. See p. 139. 

Tobacco for Use of Navy — It shall be lawful for the purser of any of His Ma 
jesty's ships of war in actual service to enter and ship at the ports of llo- 
chestcr, Portsmouth, or Plymoitth, in the proportions hereiualter mentioned, 
any Tohacce there warehoused in his name or transferred into his. name, for 
the use of the ship in which he shall serve; p'ovided such purser shall deli- 
ver to the collector or comptroller of such port a certificate from the captain 
ot such ship, statinj^ the name of the purser and the number of men belong- 
ing to the ship, and shall also give bond, with one sufficient surety, in treUle 
the duties payable on the Tobacco, that no part thereof shall be re-landed 
in the United Kingdom without leave of the officers of the customs, or be 
landed in either of the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark^ or Man. 
^ 3 and 4 Will. IV„ c. 52, § 99. 
Fro7n one Ship to another . IJ arehoi'sing Jet.— 1{ any purser be removed from 
one ship to another, it shall be lawful for the collector a'nd comptroller of 
the port where such ships shall be to perm.it the transhipment of the re- 
mains of any such Tobacco for the use of such other ship, upon due entry of 
such Tobacco by such purser, setting forth the time when and the port at 
which such Tobacco was first shipped ; and if any such ship be paid offi it 
shall be lawful for the collector and comptroller of any port where such shi-p 
shall be paid off to permit the remains of any such Tobacco to be landed, 
and to be entered by the purser of such ship, either for payment of duties, 
or to be warehoused for the term of six months, for the supply of some other 
such ship, in like manner as any Tobacco may be warehoused and supplied 
at either of the ports before mentioned, or for payment of all duties within six 
months: provided that all Tobacco warehoused for the purpose of so sup- 
pljnng His Majesty's ships of war shall be subject to the provisions of this 
Act made for the warehousing of Tobacco generally, as far as the same are 
applicable, and are not expressly altered by any of the. provisions herein par- 
ticuarly made. ,^100. ' . . 

Qifan/ili/. Jccot/nf. — No greater quantity of such tobacco shall be allowed to 
any ship of war then tvv'o pounds by the lunar month. for each of the crew 
of such ship, nor shall any greater quantity be shipped at any one time than 
sufficient to serve the crew of such ship for six months after such rate of 
allowance; and the collector and comptroller of the port at or from which 
any such tobacco shall be supplied to any such ship, or landed from any 
such ship, or transferred from one such ship to another, shall transmit a 
particular account thereof to the commissioners of customs, in order that a 
general account may be kept of all the quantities supplied to and consumed 
onboard each of such ships under the allowances before granted. § 101. 

Tools and Utensils ;* viz. 

any machine, engine, tool, press, paper, utensil or instrument 

used in or proper for the preparing, "working, pressing, or finishing of 
the woollen, cotton, linen, or silkirianufactures of this kingdom, or any 
other goods wlierein wool, cotton, linen, or silk is used, or any part of 
such machines, engines, tools, presses, paper, utensils,or instruments, 

« n'firp' Bobbins.— liy C. ()., Oct. 10, 1885,. Wa-rp Bobbins. of Wood, with " Lace Thread 
Gassed" wound upon them, are not Machinery witiiin the application of thg Prohibitory 
Laws, and the cx]iurlatiun tliereof may be allowed. . , 



1S37-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Z)w/;e5, c^-r. 1 73 

Tools, coidhtucd, vie : — 

or any model or pUin llieveof, or any part thereof; except wool oarcls or 
stock Cards not worth above 4?. per pair, and spinners' cards, not worth 
above 1*. Cul. per pair, used in tlic woollen manufactures. 

Blocks, plates, engines, tools, or utensils, commonly used in or 

proper for the preparini;-, workini; up, or finishing of the calico, cotton, 
muslin,- or lineu printing manufactures, or any part of such blocks, 
plates, engines, tools, or .utensils, 

— Rollers, either plain, grooved, or of any other form or denomina- 
tion, of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel, for the rolling of iron or any 
sort of metals, and frames, beds, pillars, screws, pinions, and each and 
every implement, tool, or utensil thereunto belonging; rollers, slitters, 
frames, beds, pillars, and screws for slitting mills ; presses of all sorts, 
in iron and steel, oi* other metals, which are used with a.scirevv exceed- 
- ing one inch and a half in diameter, or any parts of these several arti- 
cles, or any model of the before-mentioned utensils, or any part thereof ; 
all sorts of utensils, engines, or machines used in the casting or boring 
of cannon or any sort of artillery, or any parts thereof, or any models 
of tools, utensils, engines, or machines used in such casting or boring, 
or any parts thereof; hand stamps, dog-head stamps, pulley stamps, 
hammers and anvils for stamps; presses of all sorts called cutting-out 
presses ; beds or punches to be used therewith, either in parts or pieces, 
or fitted together ;. scouring or shading engines ; presses for horn but- 
tons ; dies for horn buttons ; rolled metal, with silver- thereon ; parts 
of buttons not fitted up into buttons, or in an unfinished state ; engines 
for chasing, stocks for casting buttons, buckles, and rings^ ; die-sinking 
tools of all sorts ;■ engines for making button-shanks ; laps of all sorts ; 
tools for pinching of glass; engines for covering of whips; bars of 
metal covered with gold or silver, and burnishing stones commonly 
called blood-stones, either iii the rough state or. finished for use; wire 
moulds for making paper ; wheels of metal, stone, or wood, for cutting, 
roughing, smoothing, polishing, or engraviug glass ; purcellas, pincers, 
sheers, and pipes used in blowing glass ; potters' wheels and lathes, for 
plain, round, and engine turning ; tools used by saddlers, harness- 
makers, and bridle-makers, viz. candle strainers, side strainei's, point 
strainers, creasing irorus, screw creasers, wheel irons, seat irons, prick- 
ing irons, bolstering irons, clams, and head knives. 
Frames for making wearing apparel. 



Prohibited to be exported, or waterboriic to be exported, on pain of forfeiture, 
3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, {n 104, 

Treacle. 7 Dnti/free. As to ships' stores, see Part 7. 

Wadding. See Wool, p. 174. 

Watches.. See Clocks, p. 1G2. 

WixE. For any wine lodged in warehouses, not being declared to be of 
special security, the following allowances for natural waste in pro|)or- 
tion to the time during which any such goods shall have remained in 
the warehouse shall be made, viz, 

upon every cask, viz. 

'■ for any time not exceeding 1 year " . . . 1 gallon. 

exceeding 1 year, and not exceeding 2 years 2 gallons. 

exceeding 2 years . . . .3 gallons. 

• It shall be lawful, under such regulations as the commissioners of 

customs may from time to time require, in the warehouse to draw off 
any wine into reputed quart bottles or reputed pint bottles, for the 
purpose only of being exported from the warehouse. 3 and 4 Will. IV., 
c. 57, ^ 31, 32. 40. 

iitmoi'"/ — By C:0., Aiif;. 24, 1333, l)ondcil Wine may be removed from lirislol to Newporl, 
CarililT, Swansra, and .MiUord, lor tlio puriiosa of exportation as merchandise, under the 
same regulalioas as bonded spirits (^. 10 y_), 



174 UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Dw^/es, ^c. [1837-8. 

Wine, continued, viz. : — £ s. d. 

Packages. — By C. O,, Oct. 20, 1835. packages from which warehoused Wine has been racked 
or drawn off, or started and destroyed, may be delivered free of duty. 

Drawback. — By CO., Fell. 26, 1836, the quantity of Wine in bottles entered for the drawback 
should in every ca':e bo ascertained by actual experiment, and the quantity inserted by the 
Searchers on the cocket and bill. 

Certain Wines exempt frnm re-examination. — By C. C, April 6, 1836, Wines of delicate and high 
quality, and such as are usually imported in bottle and exported in the original package 
exempted from the examination directed as above, provided the Examining Officers be satis- 
lied of the capacity of the bottles and of the original packages. 

As to ships' stores, see Warehousing. Part 7. 

A Drawback of the whole of the duties of customs shall be allowed 

for wine intended for the consumption of officers of His Majesty's navy, 
on board such of His Majesty's ships in actual service as they shall 
serve in, not exceeding the quantities of wine, in any one year, for the 
use of such ojBicers hereinafter respectively mentioned, viz. 
For every Admiral .... 1,260 gallons. 
,, Vice- Admiral , . . 1,050 ., 

, , Rear- Admiral . . . 840 , , 

, , Captain of the first and second rates 630 , , 
, , Captain of the third, fourth, & fifth rates 420 , , 
. , Captain of an inferior rate . . 210 , , 

, , Lieutenant, and other commanding offi- 
cer, and for every marine officer 105 , , 
Provided always, that such wine be shipped only at one of the ports 
hereinafter mentioned ; viz. London, Rochester, Deal, Dover, Ports- 
mouth, Plymouth, Yarmouth, Falmouth, Belfast, Dublin, Cork, Leith, 
or Glasgow. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, $ 96. 

The person entering such wine, and claiming the drawback for the same, shall 
state in the entry and declare on the debenture the name of the officer for 
whose use such wine is intended, and of the ship in which he serves ; and 
such wine shall be delivered into the charge of the officers of customs at the 
port of shipment, to be secured in the king's warehouse until the same shall 
be shipped under their care ; and such officers having certified upon the 
debenture the receipt of the wine into their charge, the debenture shall be 
computed and passed, and be delivered to the person entitled to receive the 
same. § 97. 
If any such officer shall leave the service, or be removed to another ship, it 
shall be lawful for the officers of customs at any of the ports before men- 
tioned to permit the transfer of any such wine from one officer to another, as 
part uf his proportion, whether on board the same ship or another, or the 
transhipment from one ship to another for the same officer, or the re-landing 
and warehousing for future rc-shipment ; and it shall also be lawful for the 
officers of customs at any port to receive back the duties for any of such 
wine, and deliver the same for home use : Provided, that if any of such wine 
be not laded on board the ship for which the same was intended, or be 
unladen from such ship without permission of the proper officer of customs, 
the same shall be forfeited. § 98. 

Wire, gold thread, gold lace, or gold fringe, made of plate 
wire spun upon silk, such plate wire being made of gilt 
wire made in Great Britain, lb. drawback . . 15 4 

Silver thread, silver lace, or silver fringe, made of plate 

wire spun upon silk, such plate wire being made of silver 
wire made in Great Britain, lb. drawback . . 11 6 

By 7 Geo. IV., c. 53, § 6, the drawbacks on gilt wire, silver wire, and big wire, 
are repealed. 

Wool. 

Hare and coney, cwt. duty . . . .010 

Sheep and lamb, cwt. duty . . . .010 

Woolfels, mortlings, shortlings, woolflocks, crewels, 

coverlets, waddings, or other manufactures or pretended 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Exports.— Z)m^?>.9, c^r. 175 

Wool, continued, viz : — £ s. d. 

manufactures, slightly wrought up, so as that the same 
may be reduced to and made use of as wool again, mat- 
tresses or beds stuffed with combed wool or wool fit for 
combing or carding, cwt. . . . .010 

— ■ — Dutyfree. 

Woollen goods. So much of the Act as excepts woollen goods, or woollen 
and cotton mixed, or woollen and linen mixed, exported to any place 
within the limits of the East India Company's charter from payment 
of duty on exportation from the United Kingdom, is hereby repealed. 
See Duties, p, IGO. 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 89, s^ 18. 

Worsted, cwt. . . . . . .010 

Yarn, cwt. . . . . . .010 

See Cotton, p. 163. 



PART THE FOURTH. 

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND. 



COAST-WISE. 

[See the remarhs under Imports, p. 38, which are also applicable lo Goods, S,-c., 
Coast-wiseJi 

JVhat deemed Cuasting Trade. Beyond Seas.—KW trade by sea from auy one 
part of the United Kingdom to any other part thereof, or from one pait of 
tJie Isle of Man to another thereof, shall he deemed to be a coasting trade, 
and all ships while employed therein shall be deemed to be coasting sliips ; 
and no part of the United Kingdom, however situated with regard to any 
other part thereof, shall be deemed in law, with reference to each other, to 
be parts beyond the seas in any manner relating to the trade or navigation 
or revenue of this realm. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 52, o 105. 

IVIiat deemed Trading by Sea. — And whereas some parts of the coast of the 
United Kingdom maybe so situated with regard to other neighbouring 
parts thereof that doubts may arise in some cases whether the passage 
between them by water shall be deemed to be a passage by sea within the 
meaning of this act, and that in other cases, although such passage be by 
sea, it may be unnecessary for the purposes of this act, or of any act relating 
to the customs, to subject ships passing between such places to the restraints 
of coast regulations, it shall be lawful for the commissioners of His Majesty's 
treasury to determine and direct in what cases the trade by water from any 
place on the coast of the United Kingdom to another of the same shall 
or shall not be deemed a trade by sea within the meaning of this act or of 
any act relating to the customs. § 106. 

Coasting Ship. Unlading Goods front beyond Seas. Deviation of J'oyage. — No 
goods shall be carried in any coasting ship except such as shall be laden to 
be so carried at some place in the United Kingdom, or at some place in the 
Isle 'of Man respectively ; and no goods shall be laden on board any ship 
to be carried coast-wise until all goods brought in such ship from parts 
beyond the seas shall have been unladen ; and if any goods be taken into 
or put out of auy coasting ship at sea or over the sea, or if any coasting ship 
shall touch at any place over the sea, or deviate from her voyage, unless 
forced by unavoidable circumstances, or if the master of any coasting ship 
which shall have touched at any place over the sea shall not declare the 
same in writing under his hand to the collector or con>ptroller atthe port in 
the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man where such sliip shall afterwards 
first arrive, the master of such ship shall forfeit 200/. § 107. 

Prohibited Goods. — Whenever any goods which may be prohibited to be 
exported by proclamation or by order in council under the authority of this 
act shall be so prohibited, it shall be lawful in such proclamation or order 
in council to prohibit or restrict the carrying of such goods coust-wise; and 
if an}' such goods shall be carried coastwise, or shall be shipped or water- 
borne to be carried coastwise, contrary to any such prohibition or restriction, 
the same shall be forfeited. § 1 18. 

Dues of the City of London. — For the purpose of enablingthe mayor and com- 
monalty and citizens of the city of London, and their successors, to ascer- 
tain and collect the amount of the dues payable to them upon the several 
articles hereinafter mentioned, imported coastwise into the port of London, 
it is enacted, that if all or any of the goods of the description hereinafter 
mentioned, viz. firkins of butter, tons of cheese, fish, eggs, salt, fruit, roots 
eataVile, and onions, brought coastwise into the port of the said city, and 
which are liable to the said dues, shall be landed or unshipped at or in the 
said port before a proper certificate of the payment of the said duties shall 
have been obtained, such goods shall be forfeited, 5 110. 



PART THE FIFTH. 



UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND. 



LONDON TONNAGE RATES. 

[Loiulon — " The resort anil mart of all the earth'" — is the largest and richi'st 
city in the world, occupying a siulace of o'2 square miles, thickly planted with 
houses mostly three, four, ami five stories high. It contained in 1S3I a popula- 
tion of 1,471,941. It consists of London city, Westminster cit)', ^Finsbmy, 
Marylebone, Tower Hamlets, Suuthwark, and Lambeth districts. The London 
Docks cover 20 acres. The two West India Docks cover 51 acres, St. Katharine 
Dock covers "24 acres. There are generally about 5,000 vessels and 3,000 boats 
in the river, employing 8,0GO watermen and 4,000 labourers. Londoji pays 
about one- third of the window duty. In England the number of houses assessed 
is about 120,000, rated at upwards of 5,000,000/. sterling ; about one-third are 
not assessed. The house rental is probably 7,000,000/. or 8,000,000/., includ- 
ing taverns, hotels, and public-houses. The retailers of spirits and beer are 
upwards of 10,000; while the dealers in the stafiFof life are somewhere about a 
fourth of this number. Numbering all the courts, alleys, streets, lanes, squares, 
places, and rows, they amount to upwards of 10,000 ; and on account of their 
extreme points no individual could pass through them in the space of one whole 
year. — Ed.] 

London Tonnage Rales*. — In consideration of the expenses which will be occa- 
sioned by maintaining and renewing the mooring chains, and paying the 
salaries and allowances of the harbour masters and their assistants, there 
shall be paid to His Majesty, in respect of vessels frequenting the port of 
London, the several duties of tonnage as the same are hereinafter set foith. 
4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 32. 

First Class. — For every vessel trading coastwise between £ s. d. 
the port of London and any place in Great Britain, Ire- 
land, the Orkneys, Shetland, or the Western Islands of 
Scotland, for every voyage both in and out of the said 
port, the ton , . . . . .000^ 

Second CUtss. — For every vessel entering inwards or clear- 
ing outv.-ards in the said port from or to Denmark, Nor- 
way, or Lapland (on this side of the North Cape), or from 
Ilolstein, Hamburgh, Bremen, or any other part of Ger- 
many bordering on or near the Germanic Ocean, or from 
or to Holland or any other of the United Provinces, or 
Brabant, Antwerp, Flanders, or other ])arts of the Nether- 
lands, or from or to France (within Ushant), Guernsey, 
Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or the Isle of Man, for every 
voyage both in and out of the said port, the ton . .000} 

* As to NetlK'rlauds and Portugal, see Part IX. 



178 UNITED KINGDOM.— London Tonnage Rates. [1837-8. 

£ s. d. 
Third Class. — For every vessel entering inwards or clearing 
outwards in the said port from or to Lapland (beyond the 
North Cape), Finland, Russia (without or within the 
Baltic Sea), Livonia, Courland, Poland, Prussia, Sweden, 
or any other country or place within the Baltic Sea, for 
every voyage both in and out of the said port, the ton . OJ 
Fourth Class. — For every vessel entering inwards or clearing 
outwards in the said port from or to France (between 
Ushant and Spain), Portugal, Spain (without the Medi- 
terranean), or any of the Azores, Madeira, or Canary 
Islands, or any of the United States of America, or of the 
British Colonies or Provinces in North America or Flo- 
rida, there shall be paid for every voyage both in and out 
of the said port, the ton . . . . Of 

Fifth Class. — For every vessel entering inwards or clearing- 
outwards in the said port from or to Greenland, Gibraltar, 
France, or Spain (within the Mediterranean), or any 
country, island, port, or place within or bordering on or 
near the Mediterranean, or Adriatic Sea, or from the West 
Indies, Louisiana, Mexico, South America, Africa, East 
India, China, or any.other country, island, or place within 
or bordering on or near the Pacific Ocean, or from any 
other country, island, or place whatsoever to the southward 
of twenty-five degrees of north latitude, for every voyage 
both in and out of the said port, the ton . . Of 

The said duties shall be under the manag-ement of the commissioners of cus- 
toms, and shall be received and recovered in the same manner as any duties 
of customs are or can be received or recovered. ^ 4. 
Exemptions. — This act shall not extend to charge with any of the said rates 
any of His Majesty's ships ot war, or any vessel whatsoever bein;^ the pro- 
perty of His Majesty, or of any of the Royal Family, nor to char<;e therewith 
any vessel coming to or going coastwise from the port of London to any 
part of Great Britain, unless such vessel shall exceed forty-five tons register 
tonnage, nor any vessel bringing corn coastwise, the principal part of whose 
cargo shall consist of corn, nor any fishing smacks, lobster and oyster boats, 
or vessels for passengers, nor any vessel or craft navigating the river Thames 
above and below London Bridge as far as Gravesend only, nor any vessel 
entering the port of London inwards, or going from the port of -London out- 
wards, when in ba/last. § 5. 



DUTIES FOR LIGHTS, BUOYS, &c., IN ENGLAND. 
OVERSEA GENERAL PASSING LIGHTS, &c. 

RATE PER TON. 



Fern 

Fiambro' 

Dudgeon 

Foulness 

Haisbro' Sand (North End) 
Winterton and Orford . . 



EAST COAST. 



British 
& Foreign 
Privileged 

Vessels. 
d. 



W 



Haisbro' and Newarp . 

St. Nicholas Gatt 1 

Ditto Buoys ......... 



Light Houses -f 

Light House j 

Floating Light \ 

Light Home j 

Floating Light \ 

Light Houses A 

Light Houses aml'i ] 

Floating Light J • ' * i 

Floating Ltght \ 



Foieign 
Uupii- 
vileged 
Vessels. 
d. 

1* 

1 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Lights, Buoys, &c. 



179 



East Coast, continued, viz 



r , re f 3 Ltq/tt Uouaes nnd) 

Lowestoft { ^ I-', r r Is f 

N. E. Shimyash 1 Floatinq Liqht . . 



RATK PER TON. 



& Forei^'D 
Privileijed 
Vessels. 
d. 



N. E. Shiinyash 1 Floating Light 

Harwich 2 Light lloiises 

Sunk and Galloper 2 F/qqling Lights fin4 Bi/oys 



Foreign 
Unpri- 
vileged 
Vessels. 
d. 



ENGLISH CIIANNE|.. 

Forelands 3 Light Houses i 

Goodwill and Gull Stream . 2 Flunting Lights 5 

Smith Sand Head 1 Flonim.g Light i 

Dutiu^eness 1 Luihi Lloii.se ...... ^ 

Beacliy Head 1 Lighl Uo'/.^e i 

Owers and Bembiidge ... 2 F/odhng Lights .... A 

Needles I Lu,ht H"'<>e mid 'i Light) , 

Houses at Hurst J 

Portland 2 L'ght Hni< es J 

Caskets 3 Light Hons'-s h 

Start 1 Li.ht House i 

Eddj'stone 1 Light House -5 

Lizard 2 Light Houses ^ 

Louj^hips 1 Liglit H'usc h 

Scilly 1 Light House \ 



BRISTOL AND ST. GEOHGE S CHANNELS. 

Ltindy 1 Liglit House \ 

Nash 2 Light Houses -5 

Flathohn 1 Lic/hl House ^ 

Smalls 1 Ligh/ Hou^e 1 

Milfurd 2 Li o hi Houses i 

Baidscy 1 Light Hvusc 5 

Sonth Stack 1 Light House \ 

East Coast Lights payable only I'or certain Voyage?: 

Spurn 1 F/ooling Light . . , . ^ J 

Heligoland 1 Light House 1 

Swin Middle 1 Fi»uti»g Light J 



LOCAL DUTIES. 

British & Foreign 
privileged. 
Tees Buoys. On all Vessels passing the Buoys to 
or from the Ports of Newcastle, Sunderland, Stockton, 

or Whitby, of under 40 tons 4rf. perves. 

'10 tons and upwards Grf. ,, 

Lynn Well. Floating Light. On all Vessels trad- 
in" to or from the Ports of Lynn or \\'isbeach, or to or 
from the Port of Boston, if navigated to the southward 
of the Lon^'sand, also on all \'essels entering or depart- 
ing from Lynn Deeps southward of the Longsand . . 1</. per ton 

Hunstanton. 1 Liglit House. On all Vessels pass- 
ing to or from the Ports of Lynn, Wisbeacli, or Wells, 
or to or from the Port of Bi)ston, southward . . . .8'/. per 20 tons 
NN'oonnuincK Buuys. On all Vessels entering the. 

Port of \Voodl)ridge under .30 tons Is. per ves. 

of 5(1 and under 100 tons 'Is. ,, 

,, l(l() tons and upwards 3s. ,, 

N 



Foreign 
unprivileged. 



IS. per ves. 



2d. per ton. 

id. , , 
Is. per ves. 
3*. 



180 UNITED KINGDOM— Lights, Buoys, S;c. [1837-8 

Local Duties, continued, viz. : — 

liritish & Foreigu Foicij;!! 
piivilegeil. uninivileged. 

TuiNiTY Duties. Buot/age and Beaconage, On all 

Vessels enteriiif^ the Port of London !</. per ton. 2c/. per ton. 

On all Vessels entering the Ports of Sheerness, Ro- 
chester, Favershara, Leigh, ilaldon, Colchester, Har- 
wich, Ipswich, Woodbriilge, or Aldbio' \d. „ Id. , , 

NoRE. Floating Lifjht. Ou all Vessels passing the 
Light on their upward passages only, under 100 tons Is. per ves. 2s. per ves. 
of 100 and under 200 tons ... ^s. „ 4«. ,, 

„ 200 ,, 300 „ ... 3«. „ 6a-. ,, 

,. 300 „ 400 ,. ... 4s. „ 8s. ,, 

„ 400 „ 500 „ ... 5s. „ 10s. ,, 

,, 500 tons and upwards .... 6s. „ Vis. , , 

Exeter Buoys. On all Vessels navigating to or 

from the river Exe, per voyage ^(/. per ton. U. per ton 

St. Anthony's Point. \ Light House, On all Ves- 
sels trading to or from the Ports of Falmouth, Truro, 

or Gweek \d, „ \d. , , 

On all Vessels entering the said Ports for other pur- 
pose than that of trading, for each time of passing the 

light Id. „ id. ,, 

BiDEFORD Bar. 2 Light Houses. On all Vessels 
entering the Harbours of Bideford or Barnstaple, or 

any place within the Bar ,.....] i^d, „ 3d, , , 

Caldy. 1 Light House, On all Vessels entering 
into, or going out of any Port or place between Worms- 
head and St. Gowan's head 1(/. per ton. 2t/. per ton 

C-armartiien Buoys. On all Vessels entering or 
departing from the Port of Carmarthen, or any place 

within the bar ^d. „ %d. , , 

UsK. 1 Light Hmise. On all Vessels trading to or 
from the Port of Newport, or any place within the 

mouth of the river Usk ^d. ,, ^d. , , 

BuRNUAM. 2 Light Houses. On all Vessels enter- 
ing Bridgewater River 5s. per ves. 10s. per ves. 

On all Vessels entering or departing from the Port 

of Bristol, under 100 tons - 3s. ,, 6s. ,, 

„ 100 & „ 250 „ 5s. ,, 10s. ,, 

., 250 tons and upwards 7s, 6d. ,, 15s. , , 

Aberdovey Buoys. On all Vessels crossing the 
Bar at the entrance of the Kiver Dovey, in or out . . \d. per ton \d. per ton 

Conway Buoys. On all Vessels entering or depart- 
ing from the Port of Conway ^d, „ ^d. , , 

All). 1 Light House, and Dee Buoys. On all Ves- 
sels passing over Chester Bar, or between the southwest 
part of Iloyle Sands, and the Main-land on the coast 

of Wales, in or out 4d. „ %d. , , 

St. Bles. 1 Light House, On all Vessels passing 
to or from the Ports of Whitehaven, Parton, or Work- 
ington, per annum 2d. „ Id. , , 



EAST COAST. 

These Duties, except for the Spurn Floating, Heligoland, W^interton and 
Orford, and Harwich Lights, are payable once only for the whole voyage out and 
home, but a single passage, whether coastwise or over sea, subjects a vessel to 
the full duties. Those for the Wiuterton and Orford and Harwich are payable 
each time of passing, as are also those for the Spurn Floating and Heligoland, 
in their respective districts. 

ENGLISH, BRISTOL, AND ST. GEORGE'S CHANNELS. 
These Duties are ])ayable each time of passing, except that for the Bardsey 
Light, which is payable once only for the whole voyage out and home. 



1837-8.] UNITED KINGDOM.— Lights, BuoYfi. &(•, 181 

English Channels, continxted, viz. : — g. d. 

Tliu rlulies may be recovered by distress, aceordiii}^ to clause 54, Act 6 and 7 
■Will. IV^, cap. 79, in any Port of the United Kingdom, as well as in that where 
thcj' first became payable. 

British and Foreign privileged Vessels navigated wholly in ballast, and with 
out any passengers, are exempt. 

Foreign unprivileged Vessels, navigated wholly in ballast, and without any 
passenger, are exempt from the duties of the VVinterton and Orford, Harwich 
and Forelands Lights. 

The charge is lor the course usually taken from or to the respective Ports, and 
is payable for such voyage, whether the vessel takes that course or rot, and 
vessels are not chargeable with the duty for any light which such vessels may 
pass or receive benetit hy, when driven out of their course by stress of weather ; 
and vessels driven by stress of weather to seek shelter in any port, are also exempt, 
excepting such as shall break bulk or take in cargo at such port ; excepting also 
such as shall remain in port longer than the state of the weather or the repara 
tion of damage may render unavoidable. Vessels from foreign port to foreign 
port, without touching at any port or roadstead in the United Knigdoni are ex- 
empt. — From the Tables published by permission of the Honourable Corporatioti oj 
Trinity House. London : Smith and Ebbs, Towerdiill. 



LONDON DOCKS. 

TONNAGE RATES ON SHIPPING. 



First Class. 

Vessels from any Port in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, 
Jersey, Guernsey, Aldtirney, Sark, or other European ports 
outside the Baltic, between the North Cape and Ushant, 
(Hambro', Bremen and Einbden excepted,) seeSecmd Class, 
with liberty to re-load for any port, register ton . ,06 

Rent after four weeks, from the