One Hundred Years in Ceylon
The Centenary Volume
Church Missionary Society
THE REV. J. W. BALDING, C.M.S.
PRINTED AT THE DIOCESAN PRESS, VEPERY
IN consequence of my having had the honour of com
piling the general History of the Church Missionary
Society, I am now asked by the Ceylon Committee that
has arranged for the celebration of the Centenary of the
Ceylon Mission, to introduce this present work, which
tells the story of the Hundred Years of that Mission,
and this I do with pleasure and thankfulness. The
author, the Rev. J. W. Balding, is now the senior C.M.S.
missionary in Ceylon, so far as length of service in the
Island is concerned, having joined in 1881, and having
therefore thirty-seven years experience. That honoured
veteran, the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, indeed, went out
fifty-seven years ago (1861), but he retired in 1884 and
rejoined in 1907, so that his actual service in the field
is less than Mr. Balding s. The book, therefore, is
authoritative in an unusual degree.
In 1868 a small Jubilee volume was prepared by the
Ceylon missionaries. It was not an encouraging recital
of the fifty years.
Few Missions have had, in so long a period, more
apparently scanty results to report. In my History,
published thirty years later, I noticed this, and explained
the causes (Vol. ii, p. 288), and I added that if a record
of those thirty additional years were written, the tone
would be very different (Vol. iii, p. 547). In the supple
mentary fourth volume, published in 1916, I was thank
fully able to present a much more hopeful account.
Although I had even then to acknowledge that progress
had been, as compared with that of several other
Missions, exceptionally slow, yet on the other hand,
the Mission had been exceptionally interesting in respect
of the individual cases of conversions reported (Vol. iv,
p. 257). This general impression will be confirmed by
the present work, and the careful reader will find much
to strengthen his faith in the Gospel and his thankful
ness to God.
Colombo, with Galle Face Church, the Ladies
College, etc. ; Cotta and Baddegama, as centres of village
work; Kandy, with Trinity College; the Itinerancies;
the Tamil Coolie Mission ; Jaffna, and its isolated but
important influence ; all these present features of real
interest, though they may have little of the romance of
Uganda, or the Punjab, or parts of China, or the Arctic
In one respect Ceylon is unique. The Anglican
Church there furnishes the spectacle of a self-governing
body comprising white and coloured races working
together in harmony and fellowship, with the native
Christians in a decided majority, while the foreign
Christians are no negligible minority, differing therefore
from Colonial Churches like those of Canada or New
Zealand on one side, and from Churches almost purely
native as in China and Japan on the other.
The Church in Ceylon has its own constitution
and its own Synodical administration, although
ecclesiastically a single diocese in the Province of India
and Ceyion. It presents, on a small scale, a picture of
what we hope in time to see on the larger field of India
I heartily commend this book to readers both at home
and in the mission field, and to the Divine blessing.
PREFACE ... ... ... ... iii
INTRODUCTION ... ... ... j
I. CEYLQX 5
II. THE SINHALESE ... ... 11
III. BUDDHISM ... ... ... 16
IV. THE TAMILS ... ... ... 24
V. HINDUISM ... ... ... ... 28
VI. CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON ... 32
VII. EDUCATION ... ... ... .., 43
VIII. C.M.S. IN CEYLON ... ... 53
IX. KANDY ... ... 68
X. JAFFNA ... ... ... 88
XI. BADDEGAMA ... ... IQS
XII. COTTA ... ... 128
XIII. THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES ... ... 143
XIV. COLOMBO ... ... ... ... 155
XV. THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION ... ... 173
XVI. C.E.Z.M.S. IN CEYLON 188
XVII. THE GREAT WAR AND RECENT PROGRESS. 196
XVIII. RECENT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS ... 201
CONCLUSION ... ... ... ... 205
A HYMN FOR CEYLON ... ... ... 206
Ceylon C.M.S. Missionaries (Men) ... 207
Sinhalese Clergy ... ... ... 225
Tamil Clergy ... ... ... 228
Women C.M.S. Missionaries ... 231
New Constitution for the Ceylon Mis
sionary Conference ... ... 236
EUGENE STOCK, in the History of the Church
Page 34, line 6 from bottom for it read * in
Page 165, line 17, /or women read
Page 190, line 5, for having too great for her - read
having proved too great for her
Pa a g n e d S n 2 3 ^^ ^ P f Itinerancies Between Teldeniy,
and Dunuvila read Urugala .
have presented in subsequent years more manifest signs
of the working of the grace of God.
Early in 1915, in view of the near approach of the
centenary of the C.M.S. in Ceylon, the Standing Com
mittee of the Conference suggested the formation of a
Centenary Central Committee, so that the Centenary in
1918 might be widely and properly commemorated.
A representative committee was accordingly formed,
with the Secretary of the Mission (the Rev. A. E.
Dibben) as chairman. Two secretaries, one clerical
Ceylon C.M.S. Missionaries (Men) ... 207
Sinhalese Clergy ... ... 225
Women C.M.S. Missionaries ... 231
DR. EUGENE STOCK, in the History of the Church
Missionary Society published in 1899, in connection
with the Centenary of the Parent Society, refers to the
Jubilee Sketches, or an Outline of the work of the
C.M-S. in Ceylon during fifty years, 1818-1868 written
by the late Rev. J. Ireland Jones, and published in
Colombo, in the following terms : In 1868, the Ceylon
Mission celebrated its Jubilee. The missionaries then
brought out a small volume of " Jubilee Sketches," giving
the history of each station during the fifty years. This
little book is singularly modest in its estimate of the
work done and the results achieved. If the interesting
little book were now to have a new edition, the whole
tone would be different. Few missions had been, at the
end of fifty years, more scanty in results. Few missions
have presented in subsequent years more manifest signs
of the working of the grace of God.
Early in 1915, in view of the near approach of the
centenary of the C.M.S. in Ceylon, the Standing Com
mittee of the Conference suggested the formation of a
Centenary Central Committee, so that the Centenary in
1918 might be widely and properly commemorated.
A representative committee was accordingly formed,
with the Secretary of the Mission (the Rev. A. E.
Dibben) as chairman. Two secretaries, one clerical
(Rev. A. M. Walmsley) and one lay (Mr. W. Wadsworth)
and a treasurer (Rev. J. W. Ferrier) were also
In addition, members of committee were nominated
by the District Church Councils.
It was proposed that the Centenary should be made
the occasion of the raising of a sum of at least Rs.
50,000, as a thank offering, and that this should have
four objectives :
(1) a Capital Fund for advance Missionary Move
ments, (2) a Pension Fund for Catechists, Biblewomen
and School Teachers, (3) a Capital Fund to meet
opposition in Educational Work, and (4) to provide
funds for Itinerating Bands.
Several Centenary Pamphlets have been published,
and the writer of No. 3 says, We do not want to make
this centenary effort merely a matter of raising funds-
To do so, would be to fall very short of our real needs.
What are they ? First of all, this must be a time of
increased prayer and re-consecration. If we are all in
the line of God s will, praying earnestly for the extension
of His kingdom, the effort and the means will be forth
coming, but money, without His Spirit to direct and
control and bless it, can never fulfil its purpose. Let
the Centenary be borne to us on a great wave of prayer,
and we shall find it stored with a rich cargo of blessings.
Let us remember three watchwords : (1) Thanksgiving,
for the past, with all its mercies and blessings. (2)
Humiliation, as we think of the present, with its many
unanswered calls, unused opportunities, and unentered
doors. (3) Advance, in the future, as we remember that
in the future lies the coming of the Lord, so closely
connected with the evangelization of the world.
Further, it was agreed that a history of the work of
the C.M.S. in Ceylon should be written, which it was
hoped would find its way into many homes, and thus
sustain and deepen interest in our work, and prove a
source of information and renewed effort.
This I was asked to undertake, and the following pages
are the result, which I trust will draw forth praise and
thankfulness for God s goodness and help in the past,
and call forth more prayer and work in His cause in the
I have chosen as the title for the book, One hundred
years in Ceylon, or the Story of the C.M.S. there from
1818 to 1918. It is the natural title to take for a
centenary volume, and other writers on Ceylon seem to
have been impelled to describe their books in terms of
years, for instance,
Two Happy Years in Ceylon, by Miss Gordon-
Seven Years in Ceylon, by Miss M. Leitch.
Eight Years in Ceylon, by Sir Samuel Baker.
Eleven Years in Ceylon, by Major Forbes.
Fifty Years in Ceylon, by Major Skinner.
A Century in Ceylon, by Miss Helen Root.
Although I have been a missionary in Ceylon for more
than a third part of the one hundred years, I cannot lay
claim to much that is original in the pages of this
history, as I have drawn and compiled, largely and
liberally, from the Jubilee Sketches published in 1868 ;
the small pamphlet, the Ceylon Mission published
by the C.M.S. in 1900; the History of the C.M.S.
published in 1899 ; the Historical Sketch of Ceylon
published by the S.P.G. ; Ceylon at the Census of 1911,
by Mr. E. B. Denham ; the Book of Ceylon and
Golden Tips, by Mr. H. W. Cave ; Ceylon, by Dr.
J. C. Willis; History of Ceylon, by Mr. Donald
Obeyesekere ; the Ceylon Handbooks published by the
Messrs. Ferguson ; the local Reports of the C.M.S.
Ceylon Mission ; and many other writers. To each and
all of these I am much indebted and tender grateful
thanks, as well as to the many friends who have given
valuable advice and assistance, and last but not least to
the kind writer of the preface.
J. W. BALDING.
No country in the world, except possibly Egypt, has such a
long continuous history and civilization, with tradition, fable
and legend encircling it from the remotest times. The
Mohammedans assert that Ceylon was given to our first
parents, Adam and Eve, as a new Elysium to console them
for the loss of Paradise. According to the Indian poem, the
Ramayana, (500 B.C.) a prince named Rama is said to have
come with a great army from India to Ceylon about three
thousand years ago and conquered and killed the king.
It is also supposed to have been part of the region of Ophir
and Tarshish, from which the ships of King Solomon obtained
gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks. The ancient
Greeks and Romans knew the island as Taprobane, and
the poet Milton has preserved the name in his great
Embassies from regions far remote,
From India and the golden Chersonese,
And from utmost Indian isle, Taprobane.
To the people of India it has been known for centuries as
Lanka the Resplendent, and the pearl-drop on the brow
of Ind, whilst the Siamese called it the divine Lanka. To
the Chinese it was the island of jewels, to the Persians the
land of the hyacinth and ruby, to the Arabs it was Seren-
dib , to the ancient Sinhalese the island of the lion race,
and to travelled Europeans the Eden of the Eastern wave.
6 CENTENARY VOLUME
It has been immortalized by Bishop Heber, in the well-known
What though the spicy breezes
Blow soft o er Ceylon s isle
Though every prospect pleases
By another poet it is
Confessed to be the brightest gem
In Britain s orient diadem
Ceylon lies to the south-east of the continent of India, and
is about the size of Ireland. .Its length from north to south
is 271 miles, and its greatest width 137 miles. Its area is
about 25,000 square miles. The south of the island lies with
in six degrees of the equator, and the average temperature
near the coast is between eighty and ninety degrees in the
shade, a climate always humid and enervating. In the hills
however a temperature as low as twenty-six degrees is some
times experienced. The annual rainfall varies from thirty-six
inches in the driest parts of the island to two hundred inches
in the wettest whereas the rainfall of Great Britain range?
from a minimum of twenty-two inches to a maximum of
seventy inches. Time is five hours and twenty minutes
ahead of Greenwich, so it is about noon in Colombo when
England is only half awake.
Ceylon has a population of over four millions of people, and
among these, eighty races are represented. The Sinhalese
number 2,714,880, the Tamils 1,060,432, the Moors 266,876,
the Burghers 26,857, the Malays 13,092, the Europeans
8,555 and the Veddahs 5,342.
The Veddahs are supposed to be the descendants of the
aborigines the yakkos or devils, as they are called in native
legend. These were conquered by an invading race who in
543 B.C., swept down from the valley of the Ganges, com
manded by Wijayo, the son of a king of Bengal. He founded
the royal dynasty which held sway for about 2,300 years.
The Sinhalese (from Sinha, a lion) are the descendants of
these conquerors. They speak an Aryan language of the
Sanskrit type, and are divided into two great sections,
Kandyan and Low-Country Sinhalese. Both are descended
from the same stock and are only distinguished outwardly by
difference of dress. The Tamils are of Dravidian origin, and
are the descendants of mercenaries and invaders from South
ern India who settled in the Island ages ago. Others are
recent immigrants who corns over in large numbers from
India to work on the tea and rubber plantations. The Moors,
who are energetic and enterprising traders, are probably de
scendants of Arabs, who conquered some coast towns in the
eleventh century, and intermarried with the women of the
land. They are Mohammedans, as are also the Malays, who
were brought to Ceylon by the Dutch.
The Burghers are the descendants of the Portuguese and
Dutch settlers, and form an influential part of the community.
Tne Dutch Burghers are largely employed in Government
offices, law and medicine.
The Europeans consist chiefly of Government officials, the
military, merchants, planters, and missionaries.
The principal seat of Government is at Colombo, which
under the name of Kalambu, was described by the Moors in
1340, as the finest city in Serendib. It has one of the
finest harbours in the world, and all steamers going to or from
the East make it a port of call.
Kandy, the capital of the interior, is situated in an amphi
theatre surrounded by wooded hills and forest-clad mountains,
seventy-two miles from Colombo, nearly two thousand feet
above the sea, whilst in Nuwara Eliya, six thousand feet
above sea level, Europe amid Asia smiles.
Ceylon is an island of indescribable beauty. Nature has
showered her charms with lavish hand, and has welded
8 CENTENARY VOLUME
together giant peaks, rippling streams, dense jungles and
pleasant plains into one sweet fairyland. There is beauty
everywhere, in the wealth of vegetation and foliage, the rich
colourings of birds and insects, and a thousand other objects.
A belt of rich alluvial soil round the coast waves with dense
groves of coconut, palmyra, sago, areca, and other palms.
There is an abundance of fruit, such as mango, rose-apple,
guava, durian, prickly-pear, sour-sop, lovi-lovi, custard-apple,
cashew nut, pomelo, tamarind, pomegranate, pineapple, man-
gosteen, orange and lime.
Melons and cucumbers, papaws and bananas, breadfruit
and jak, cinnamon, cacao, cardamoms, pepper, nutmegs,
cinchona, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, lemon and citronella
grass all have their place.
There are about three thousand species of native plants,
two hundred and thirty different kinds of ferns, and over one
hundred and sixty-eight species of orchids growing wild.
Paddy or rice cultivation has been the chief agricultural
pursuit of the people from time immemorial, and although
sixty varieties of rice are grown, the quantity raised is not
sufficient for the wants of the people. For many years
coffee cultivation was the staple industry of the European
planters, but a fungoid pest, Hemeleia vastatrix, practically
destroyed this shrub, and tea took its place. In 1873 only
23 Ibs. of tea were exported, but now nearly 200,000,000 Ibs.
are exported annually.
The fauna of the island includes a number of species
which are not found in any other country. There are superb
butterflies, black and grey monkeys, lemurs, civet-cats,
cheetahs and bears, wild elephants (protected by Govern
ment), wild buffaloes (also protected), crocodiles, porcu
pine, pangolin, sambur, wild pig, jackals and twenty-two
species of bats. Amongst the owls there is one called the
devil bird uttering most fearful cries, which have been
A PEEP OF THE LAKE, KANDY
A FAMILIAR SCENE NEAR KANDY
compared with those of a woman being murdered, or a child
tortured. Forty-three of the one hundred and thirty-three
species of reptiles, have not been found elsewhere. Of the
snakes, eight species are poisonous, the most dangerous being
the cobra and tic polonga. One thousand five hundred species
of beetles are found in the country, and mosquitoes, ticks,
sand flies, leeches and other creatures make their presence felt
The seas abound in fish, trout have been introduced into
upcountry streams, singing fish live in the hot water wells
on the east coast, another fish only thrives when half buried,
in mud, and a kind of perch can make its way across dry
land unaided by legs.
The island is also renowned for its precious stones, the chief
of these being the ruby and sapphire, to which may be added
the catseye, the star ruby, star sapphire, amethyst, alexandrite,
moonstone, garnet, chrysolite, chrysoberyl and tourmaline.
Iron is also found, and plumbago, otherwise known as
graphite or blacklead, and pearls are fished up from the
oyster banks on the north-west coast.
Mr. H. W. Cave in his Book of Ceylon writes : To
those who have the most extensive experience of East and
West, the claim of Ceylon to be regarded as the very gem of
the earth will not seem extravagant. The economic results due
to its situation in the eastern seas, a spot on which converge
the steamships of all nations for coal, and the exchange of
freight and passengers, its wealth and diversity of agricultu
ral and mineral products, the industry of the inhabitants
both colonists and natives these, together with its scenery
and the glamour of its unrivalled remains of antiquity, entitle
Ceylon to a place of. high distinction among the dependencies
of the empire.
Sir Emerson Tennent, who resided in the island for
some years as Lieutenant-Governor and Colonial Secretary,
TO CENTENARY VOLUME
in his interesting and valuable work on the colony,
There is no island in the world, Great Britain itself not
excepted, that has attracted the attention of authors in so
many distant ages and so many different countries a> Ceylon,
there is no nation in ancient or modern times possessed of a
language or literature, the writeis of which have not at some
time made it their theme. Its aspect, its religion, its anti
quities and productions, have been described as well by
classic Greeks as by those of the lower empire, by the
Romans, by the writers of China, Burmah, India and
Cashmere, by ths geographers of Arabia and Persia, by the
mediaeval voyagers of Portugal and France, by the annalists
of Portugal and Spain, by the merchants and adventurers of
Holland and by the travellers and topographers of Great
Britain. . . . Ceylon, from whatever direction it is approach
ed, unfolds a scene of loveliness and grandeur unsurpassed, if
it be rivalled, by any land in the universe. The traveller from
Bengal, leaving behind the melancholy delta of the Ganges
and the torrid coast of Coromandel, or the adventurer from
Europe recently inured to the sands of Egypt, and the
scorched headlands of Arabia, alike are entranced by the
vision of beauty which expands before him as the island
rises from the sea, its lofty mountains covered by luxuriant
forests, and its shores, till they meet the ripple of the waves,
bright with the foliage of perpetual spring.
THE origin of the Sinhalese has given rise to much specula
tion. The Mahawansa J (chapter VI) states that the grand
mother of Wijaya was Suppadevio, a princess of Bengal, who
secretly fled with a caravan chief bound for the Maghadha
country. In the jungle in the land of Lala, she was carried
off by a lion, by whom she had a son called Sinhabahu, who
slew his lion father and became king of Lala, and founded a
city called Sinhapura. Wijaya was his son, who with his
followers arrived in the island about 543 B.C.
By whatever means the monarch Sinhabahu slew the
Sinha (lion) his sons and descendants are called Sinhala (the
lion slayers). Lanka having been conquered by a Sinhala, it
obtained the name of Sinhala or Sihala. It is probable
that the lion was a bold and daring bandit, known by the
name of Sinha, the lion.
The most generally accepted theory however is, that the pro
genitors of the Sinhalese were Aryan settlers from the north of
India. This is borne out by language, customs, and subse
quent history. The ancient poem Ramayana (500 B.C.) and
the inscriptions of Asoka (250 B.C.) prove early intercourse
between India and Ceylon. The Sinhalese language is one of
the group of Indo-Aryan languages of which Sanskrit is the
literary type. It is unknown in India, and its preservation in
Ceylon is valuable evidence of the distinct development of the
Sinhalese race. It has borrowed largely from Sanskrit, Pali
1 An ancient History of Ceylon.
12 CENTENARY VOLUME
and Tamil, and many Portuguese, Dutch, Malay and English
words have become naturalized in it.
The Sinhalese literature consists of works written in pure
Sinhalese, now called Elu, free from Sanskrit foreign words.
The Buddhist scriptures, or the sayings of the founder of
Buddhism, were first reduced to writing in Ceylon, in 85 B.C.
The language of most of the sacred books is Pali, which is not
understood by the common people, and many of the Sinhalese
commentaries are written in an antiquated style.
The Mahawansa is a dynastic history of the island
written by Buddhist monks, to cover twenty-three centuries
from 543 B.C. to A.D. 1758.
Before the dawn of civilization in England, the Sinhalese
were a nation possessing beautiful cities and wonderful
temples, and maintaining a high type of civilization. Being
keen agriculturists they brought the whole country into a high
state of productiveness by means of irrigation. The inhabi
tants of the Sinhalese highlands, of which Kandy is the capital,
are called Kandyans or Upcountry Sinhalese. They are of a
stronger and more independent character than the people of
the plains, or low-country, and preserved their freedom intact
throughout the Portuguese and Dutch periods. A Sinhalese
writer says The Kandyan and Low-country Sinhalese are as
distinct from each other in their dress, manners and customs
and in their very ideas and manner of thinking as if they
formed two different races, rather than two sections of one
The distinction is every year lessened, by increasing inter
marriage, opening up of the country by improved means of
communication, the creation of new standards of comfort, and
the spread of education and Christianity.
Marriages take place at an early age, though not so early
as in India, the daughters as a rule marrying before the
THE SINHALESE 13
Superstition abounds and lucky days are sought, for begin
ning any important work, for marriages, and even for sending
children to school. Astrologers are consulted on every event
of life. Devil ceremonies for the sick are of nightly occur
rence, and planet-worship is practised. Charms are worn by
the mass of the villagers, and pots spotted with lime are hung
up in the vegetable gardens to avert the evil eye. Fishers on
the sea and reapers in the harvest field use a language they
suppose the evil spirits will not understand. Caste, in the
matter of marriages is extremely rigid, and sometimes strong
in social intercourse, but as affecting trade it is almost dead.
The Sinhalese are a graceful race, with delicate features.
The men wear a jacket, and a cloth round the waist reaching
to the ankles. They usually wear their hair long, drawn
back from the face and tied in a knot at the back. A semi
circular tortoise-shell comb on the top of the head is frequently
used by the men of the low-country. Many are now adopting
short hair and English dress as well as language.
Intellectually they are capable of anything, but as a race
they are perhaps lacking in energy. Educated Sinhalese now
take high and honourable positions in the various professions,
and in Government service up to the Legislative Council
and the Supreme Court bench. Agriculture is the chief
employment of the people and there are good artisans who
excel in wood-carving, carpentry and brass work. It is
not easy to win the confidence of the people at first, as they
are of a very independent and somewhat suspicious turn of
mind, but are responsive to kindness and confidence. Euro
pean habits and customs have a great attraction for them, and
the more progressive have a great desire for English education.
The following is the judgment of Sir William Gregory, a
former governor, written after he retired from the island :
The people are pleasant to govern, they are quick-witted
and intellectual, and the higher classes singularly well-bred
14 CENTENARY VOLUME
and taking in their deportment. I think too, there are indica
tions of the quality of gratitude, in the existence of which in
the East I had long disbelieved. I am sure much may be
done with them by kindness, courtesy, and respectful treat
ment. I have known some whom I would trust as implicitly
as I would Englishmen, and I am as confident as one can
ever be of human conduct, that if future rulers of Ceylon will
endeavour to induce the natives to trust them and rely on them,
much more of the administration of the country may be
vested in them. Weakness and moral and physical timidity
are their main faults, and as you well know, cowardice is a
difficult defect to cure. The way to deal w th such a race is
to give them confidence and encouragement, to reward even
ostentatiously good conduct, fidelity and strength, but to be
down on offenders with relentless severity. I have pursued
ihis course, and without egotism I can say that I believe no
Governor ever before succeeded in inspiring such a universal
trust in his motives.
A rebellion of the Kandyan Sinhalese occurred in 1817-19.
The first outbreak was in Uva, and the Government Agent of
Badulla was killed by the rebels. The people were not
altogether pleased to be governed by foreigners, and the chiefs
were discontented when they found they were less respected,
.and the greater part of their power taken away. Some of the
rebels were beheaded, and others banished to the Mauritius.
A change was also made in the relations between the British
Government and Buddhism. When the British took Kandy
in 1815, a treaty was made in which Buddhism was declared
. inviolable, and its rites and temples were promised protec
tion and maintenance. It was found that the Buddhist priests
were the chief promoters of the rebellion, so in the new treaty
it was stated that the priests as well as the ceremonies of
Buddhism shall receive the respect which in former times
was shown to them.
THE SINHALESE 15
There were two small risings of the Sinhalese in 1820 and
1823, but in 1848 a small rebellion broke out in Matale and
Kurunegala. There had been unrest for some time and
resentment towards the new taxes on dogs, guns and boats,
the stamp-tax, and especially the road-tax. Riotous meetings
were held protesting against the taxes, and a rebellion broke
out, but it was at an end in less than three months. Some of
the ringleaders were banished to Malacca. In 1866 there
were serious food riots in Colombo, Kandy and Galle, owing
to the high price of rice.
For the next fifty years everything was peaceful, till in
May 1915 serious riots occurred in many places, which led to
considerable loss of life, the proclamation of martial law,
and the imprisonment of some 6,000 men, under sentences
varying from a few weeks detention to death. Religious and
economic considerations led the Sinhalese mob to attack the
Mohammedans or Mcors. The Mohammedans had protested
against a Buddhist religious procession passing their mosque
at Gampola, and their protest had been upheld in the law-
courts. They also boasted that they would interfere with the
great Kandy perahera in August the most important proces
sion in Ceylon and tried, though in vain, to prevent the erec
tion of a dansala, or booth, in Kandy for the free distribution
of food on Buddha s birthday. These steps aroused religious
animosity, which was intensified by the economic hatred of
the Moors, caused chiefly by jealousy on account of their
superior success as traders. The riots broke out on the
morning of the 29th of May, when a mosque which had been
specially aggressive in its objections to dansalas and proces
sions, was wrecked by the Sinhalese, and in the evening of
that day bloodshed began. The riots were quelled after a few
weeks, the ringleaders punished, and heavy fines imposed
upon the inhabitants to repair the damage done to property.
THE population of Ceylon in 1911 was 4,110,367 ; of these
2,714,880 were Sinhalese. In the Census returns for that
year 2,474,170, entered themselves as Buddhists.
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived and died
in Northern India in the sixth century B.C. At the age of
twenty-nine years he undertook what is called the Great
Renunciation by forsaking his family and departing into the
jungle, to discover by his own unaided efforts how deliver
ance from the ills and changes, ,to which mankind was sub
ject, could be realized. At the end of six years of meditation
he achieved his aim and while sitting near a Bo Tree (ficus
religiosa) became Buddha, i. e. the enlightened one. He
declared he was free from all desire and was capable of com
prehending all things past, present and future. With regard
to the beginning of matter and life, he asserted that it was
unknowable. In one of his first sermons he took as his text
the words, Everything burns, and said that nothing is
permanent, and that the comprehension of this fact was
essential to the attainment of the summum bonuin of his
religion nirvana. Buddha commenced to preach at the age
of thirty-five and died at the age of eighty.
In the seventeenth year of the reign of Asoka, king of
Maghada, in India, in the third century after Buddha s death,
a convocation of Buddhists was held and it was decided to
send missionaries to Ceylon. Prince Mahindo, the son of the
king, was sent about the year 307 B.C. and succeeded in
converting Tissa, the king of Ceylon and many of his subjects.
Tissa sent to Asoka for the right collar bone of Buddha, and
over this was erected the Thuparama dagoba, in Anuradhapura.
Shortly after this Sanghamitta, the younger sister of Mahindo,
came to Ceylon bringing with her a branch of the sacred
Bo Tree. Buddha is said to have visited the island on three
occasions, knowing that Ceylon would be the place where
his religion would be most glorified, and on the last occa
sion is said to have left the impression of his foot on Adam s
Peak. In 85 B.C. five hundred priests met in a rock-temple
at Aluwihare, near Matale, and there the Tripitaka or
Threefold Collection of Buddha s sayings, with notes, were
written down. Previously the doctrines were committed to
memory and handed down orally.
In A.D. 313, the relic, Buddha s tooth, was brought to
Ceylon by a Brahman princess, hidden in the folds of her
hair, to prevent its falling into the hands of enemies.
In A.D. 1305 King Bahu IV built many temples, and during
his reign the Jatakas or five hundred birth stories of
Buddha were translated from Pali into Sinhalese.
The canonical scriptures of Buddhism contain more than
two million lines, about two feet each in length of manuscript,
and treat of the most abstruse and metaphysical subjects, as
well as of moral duties. The raison d etre of Buddhism
must be looked for in the pantheism and sacerdotalism which
prevailed in Buddha s time and country. The Brahmans
taught that every particle of matter was a visible portion of
the unseen God and that worship addressed to it was the
same as worship addressed to Him. They also had become
unpopular on account of their extreme pretensions to superi
ority with regard to caste. The Ceylon priests in a petition
to the late King Edward regarding their temple-lands, said
that Buddha did not inculcate the worship of any God, and
that the temples were not built for, nor dedicated to, the worship
of any supernatural being. Answer 122 in the Buddhist
Catechism, published by the late Colonel Olcott says, The
Buddhist priests do not acknowledge or expect anything from a
divine power. A personal God is only a shadow thrown
upon the void of space by the imagination of ignorant men.
Buddha repeatedly told his followers to look to themselves
alone for salvation, so prayer to a superhuman being is un
known and unpractised. Professor Monier Williams says,
It is a strange irony of fate that Buddha himself should
have been not only deified and worshipped, but also repre
sented by more images than any other being ever idolized in
any part of the world.
The obliteration of the doctrines relating to the Supreme
Being of the Universe and the soul of man has made Bud
dhism generally inoperative in the lives of its adherents.
Buddhism teaches that a man s present existence was
preceded by unnumbered lives in past ages, and will be
succeeded by countless others, unless, like Buddha, we snap
the chain of desire which links us to life. The arbiter of any
particular state of being is karma action. This is taught
in the oft-quoted saying of the Buddhists, who, when wish
ing to show what is the doctrine of rewards and punishments,
say, Kala, kala de, phala, phala de, the equivalent of As
a man sows, so shall he reap.
Dr. R. S. Copleston, in his valuable work Buddhism, past
and present, says : Buddhism does not hold that there is any
such thing as a permanent independent soul, existing in or
with the body and migrating from one body to another. The
self or personality has no permanent reality ; it is the result
of certain elements coming together, a combination of facul
ties and characters. No one of these elements is a person, or
soul, or self, but to their combination the term self is popu
larly given. The death of a man is the breaking up of this
ombination, not the separation of soul from body, but the
dissolution both of body and of the aggregate of faculties and
characters on which life depended.
On the death of any living being whose Karma is not yet
exhausted, another being comes into 1 existence, to whom the
residue of the karma is transferred. This second being is the
same as the first and yet not the same.
Buddhism lays stress upon four fundamental truths called
the Four noble Truths, viz:
(1) All existence is suffering, (2) The origin of suffer
ing is desire, (3) The cessation of suffering is brought about
by the removal of desire, (4) The way to the attainment of
cessation of suffering is by carrying out the precepts, until
Nirvana is reached.
The course of conduct which, if adopted, will lead to the
removal of desire is called the Noble Eight-fold Path, viz :
(1) Right opinion, (2) Right resolve, (3) Right speech,
(4) Right employment, (5) Right conduct, (6) Right effort,
(7) Right thought, (8) Right self-concentration.
Every priest is bound to abstain from the following ten
things, (dahasil};\. Killing, 2. Theft, 3. Unchastity, 4.
Falsehood, 5. Alcoholic drink, 6. Solid food after midday,
7. Dancing, 8. Perfumes and ornaments, 9. High or broad
beds, 10. Receiving of gold or silver. The lay adherent is
only bound to abstain from the first five of these (pansil).
Buddha himself issued no regulacions about religious ritual
or worship, because it was opposed to that state of self-reliance
which he insisted on. All that we find now relating to
temples, images and offerings was instituted later. He estab
lished an order of celibates, who were to devote the whole of
their lives to the subjugation of their passions, and to exhort
others to join their order. Buddhism has adopted many
ceremonies of the Hindus in order to obtain popular sympathy
and processions with dancing, jugglers, music, clowns and
elephants are frequently held to attract the public. The
20 CENTENARY VOLUME
people give alms to the priests, feed beggars, make pilgrimages,
prostrate themselves before images, relics, trees, dagobas and
footprints, visit temples at the changes of the moon, and
recite their creed, Buddham saranam gachchami, Dhatnmam
saranam gachchami, Sangham saranam gachchami I take
refuge in Buddha, in the doctrine, in the priesthood.
For some years past there has come into prominence the
belief in the coming of another Buddha, the Maitri or
Metteyya, the loving one. Buddha made the following
prophecy : Man s average age will dwindle through sin to ten
years, and will then rise again to eighty thousand years ; there
will then arise a Buddha named Metteyya, endowed with all
Many of the Buddhists now centre all their hopes of
Nirwana in the coming of this Maitri Buddha, who is to be
righteousness, knowledge and love, believing that the love he
will inspire by his personality and preaching will do what
they cannot now do. Animism or demon worship which
existed before the introduction of Buddhism, still holds its
own, and the devil priests are important functionaries in the
village communities, having less philosophy but more power
than the Buddhist priests. Bishop R. S. Copleston says, It
is the devil priest and not the Bhikku who is the real pastor
of the people.
According to the Census of 1911, there were in Ceylon,
7,774 Buddhist priests, 3,019 ebittayas, or attendants on the
priests, 948 persons engaged in temple service, 1,305 devil
dancers and 468 astrologers. Buddhism has wealthy endow
ments, and four hundred thousand acres of land belong to the
About thirty years ago a Buddhist Temporalities Ordi
nance was passed by the Government, and a few years later
a Mr. Bowles Daly, LL.D. of Dublin University, and once
a clergyman of the Church of England, was appointed
Commissioner to enquire into the working of the Act. For
some years he had made Ceylon his head-quarters, identifying
himself with the Buddhists, and endeavouring to excite among
them a revival of religious zeal. He visited 1,300 of the
Pansalas or monasteries, and, in his report to Government, is
scathing in denunciation of the general character of the
For the last thirty years the Buddhists have been very
active and aggressive, through what is called the Buddhist
revival which was commenced by American and English
Theosophists. A catechism was published, with the approval
of the high priest, and in the preface it states The signs
abound that of all the world s great creeds, that one is destined
to be the much talked of religion of the future which shall be
found in least antagonism with nature and with law. Who
dares predict that Buddhism will not be the one chosen ? It
further says, Various agencies, among them, conspicuously,
the wide circulation of Sir Edwin Arnold s beautiful poem
The Light of Asia ", have created a sentiment in favour of
Buddhistic philosophy, which constantly gains strength. It
seems to commend itself to Freethinkers of every shade of
opinion. The whole school of French Positivists are practi
cally Buddhists. This Catechism further states The word
religion " is most inappropriate to apply to Buddhism, which
is not a religion but a moral philosophy.
In addition, vernacular schools as well as English and
Boarding schools have multiplied rapidly, some of them
taught by European teachers, and itinerant preachers pene
trate to remote villages copying Christian phraseology and
Christian missionary methods. Sunday schools, Young Men s
Buddhist Associations, tract distribution, carol singers during
the Sinhalese New Year, parodies of Christian hymns,
Buddhist cards for Buddha s birthday, newspapers, a
Buddhist Daily Light, an Imitation of Buddha, a
22 CENTENARY VOLUME
Funeral Discourse, pictures of events in the life of Buddha,
a Buddhist flag, have all been brought into being.
We agree with the words of the Rev. J. A. Ewing in the
Resplendent Isle, viz. We rejoice in all this opposition
for it rouses the people from apathy and indifference. It has
led also to the spread of primary school teaching among the
children the duty utterly neglected by the Buddhist monks
in respect of the boys, and, of course, nearly always of the
girls. Christianity has everything to gain ultimately by the
change. It is in the days of strenuous struggle that the
Gospel wins its greatest triumphs, not in the days of ease
Mr. K. J. Saunders, late of Trinity College, Kandy, on the
last page of his Modern Buddhism in Ceylon, writes,
Already we have to thank God for signs that Buddhists are
awakening from the long sleep of centuries, a new enthusiasm
for national life, and a revival of the old yearning for the
coming one, both due, we believe, to the quickening touch of
Christianity. The problem before the Church of Ceylon
would seem to be so to preach Christ that He should be
accepted as the realization of their ideal of a loving one, who
has superseded Law by Love, and counteracted karma by
His redemptive power, and that His kingdom shall stand for
the Fulfilment of all those dim yearnings after national
greatness which are struggling to find expression.
Mr. Harold Begbie, in his introduction to In the Hand
of the Potter, writes truly Christianity is janua vitae,
Buddhism, janua mortis. Christianity is an ardent enthu
siasm for existence, Buddhism is a painful yearning for
annihilation, Christianity is a hunger and thirst after joy,
Buddhism a chloral quest for insensibility. The Christian
is bidden to turn away from sin that he may inherit the
everlasting joy of eternity, the Buddhist is told to eradi
cate all desire of any kind whatsoever lest he be born again.
Buddha sought to discover an escape from existence, Chrisl
opened the door of life. Buddha forbade desire, Christ
intensified aspiration. Buddha promised anaesthesia, Christ
promised everlasting felicity.
AT the last Census (1911) there were 528,024 Ceylon Tamils
and 530,983 Indian Tamils, making a total of 1,059,007, in
the Island, or slightly more than a quarter of the whole
The first invasion by the Tamils from South India occurred
in 205 B.C. when an army led by Elara, a prince of the
kingdom of Chola, now called Tanjore, landed in Ceylon, and
marched victoriously to Anuradhapura, where he defeated
and slew Asela, the king of the Sinhalese.
The Ceylon Tamils or Jaffna Tamils as they are more
popularly called, are the descendants of the old conquerors,
who mostly came from the far north of Southern India.
The Indian Tamils are chiefly the estate coolies, who are
temporary migrants from the extreme south of India. The
name cooly is derived from the word kuli which means
daily hire or wages, therefore a cooly means a day
Jaffna is the stronghold, or Mecca, of the Ceylon Tamils,
whilst the Indian Tamils look upon the coast as their
home. Jaffna has always been supplied with educational
advantages, and this has encouraged emigration. Many of
the Jaffnese find work in the Madras presidency, and others
find employment in Colombo, and the far East, as accountants,
clerks, overseers and conductors on estates. There were
seven thousand Jaffnese in the Federated Malay States and
THE TAMILS 25
Straits Settlements at the last Census. Owing to the emigra
tion of so many men, Jaffna is the only district in Ceylon,
with the exception of Galle, where there is a preponderance of
females. The Tamils have of course their failings like other
mortals, but it is always more gracious and pleasant to look
at the bright side of things than at the dark. No one who
knows anything of Tamils will deny the fact that as a
race they are industrious, enterprising and clever. The
energetic and industrious coolies are the backbone of all
island labour. It has often been said that Tamil cooly labour
is the best labour in the world, and certainly it is surprising
how much work a Tamil labourer will get through in a day
on a minimum of food.
In days of old these immigrants invaded Ceylon as ruth
less conquerors, now they come as valuable helpers in
every enterprise, and are invaluable on the tea and rubber
They are also an enterprising people, for they are to be
found in many parts of the world, as far away as Capetown,
the Mauritius and Jamaica, where they make money by
their industry and thrift. This readiness to emigrate in
search of work is a singular characteristic in an Eastern
That they are clever is clear from the many wise sayings
which are found in their classical works, and from the fact
that many of them take high honors at our universities. It is
a fact, of which the Tamils may be justly proud, that the first
Indian to be raised to the Episcopate, the Right Rev. V. S.
Azariah, D.D., of Dornakal, is one of their race. Another
point of interest is their literature. The great epic poem,
the Ramayana, was rendered into Tamil some centuries ago
.and is most popular to-day. Among the mo^t interesting of
their classical works is the Cural, which is considered one of
the finest poems in the Tamil language. Here are a few
26 CENTENARY VOLUME
examples of its ethical teaching culled from E. J. Robinson s
book on Tales and Poems of South India.
Woman. What is there not, when she excels ?
Where she is useless nothing dwells.
Children. The rice is all ambrosial made,
In which their tiny hands have played.
Love. The soul of love must live within, .
Or bodies are but bone and skin.
Slander. Who loves to backbite makes it clear
His praise of virtue s insincere.
A question which naturally arises is, Have the Tamils made
their mark upon Christian literature in any degree ? The
answer is in the affirmative. One of the greatest Christian
poets that has arisen among the Tamils is Vethanayagam
Sasthriar of Tanjore. Perhaps the most popular of his
hymns is one that is connected with Ceylon. The story of
how it came to be written has its humorous side, and by
some may not be considered very complimentary to the fair
island. The story is that on one occasion the poet and his
choir of singers visited Jaffna, and their robes being some
what soiled, it was thought expedient to send them to the
wash. But, alas, they never returned, the washerman
having set envious eyes on them. The poet and his choir
had, therefore, to appear in their ordinary clothes. To com
fort his own mind the poet wrote a hymn which is often sung
by the Tamils in time of sorrow. Of course, there is no*
mention made of the dhoby and his thievish tricks. The
following is a translation of the hymn, which may be entitled
Trusting at all times.
Though sinners hate thee sore
And would entrap thy way,
Though trials and distress
Befal thee day by day,
THE TAMILS 27
Though all should persecute,
And grievous cares arise,
Though devils should appear
Before thy trembling eyes,
Though all men should forsake
And battles rage around,
Though pain and suffering come
And poverty abound,
Though men despise and scorn
And ill for good requite,
Though evil hosts combine
To rob thee of thy right,
My soul, be aot distressed,
Remember Zion s Lord,
By anxious thoughts oppressed,
Faint not, but trust His word.
THE Ceylon Hindus may be described as pure Animists,
Animists and Sivites, and orthodox Sivites. The Animists
are principally composed of all castes from the barber caste
downwards, who are not allowed to enter a consecrated Hindu
temple, and who are not ministered to by Brahmans. The
orthodox Sivite worships certain gods, of whom Siva, Parvati
his wife, Ganesha their son, Skanda and Virabhadra are the
principal ; but these gods merely represent ideals for medita
tion. The worship of Skanda is considered the most
important, and Kataragama is the chief shrine in Ceylon.
The circle of gods is considerably enlarged by the admission
of various other gods of local, caste, or traditional significance.
Each caste has its own protecting deity. Hinduism was
originally nature worship, but has become polytheism of a
gross kind. In the Hindu mythology there is a triad of
principal gods, -Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the first of whom
is not now worshipped. The legends of Vishnu represent
him, in his various incarnations, as guilty of all sorts of
immoralities. Siva represents the reproductive force of
nature, and in his temples an upright black stone, called a
lingam, is worshipped. Saivas or Sivites, the followers of
Siva, are distinguished by the three stripes of white cow
dung ash, smeared on their foreheads and often on their
arms and breasts. Many also have a round white mark on
the centre of their foreheads to represent the third eye of
Siva. In Ceylon, the most familiar names of deities, or
perhaps as they should rather be called, demons, are Mari-
amma (mother of death), Suppramaniam, Muniyandi, Katha-
resan, and Narayanan. Mari-amma is the small-pox god.
dess or demon. Muniyandi is the demon most commonly
worshipped by the coolies, and has many little temples on
the tea estates. Muniyandi was once a cooly himself, in
the early coffee days. He was of the lowest caste (shoe
maker). One day he went to cut some branches from a tree
for his goats, when a branch fell on him and killed him.
That very day a terrible storm broke over Hunasgiriya
estate, near Kandy, where Muniyandi worked. T.vo men
chanced to take shelter in a cow-shed and one of them was
struck by lightning. Next day, his companion consulted a
fortune teller, as to the cause of the misfortune. He was
told that it was the spirit of Muniyandi that had taken
revenge on his companion, and he was urged to worship
Muniyandi with proper rites. Muniyandi has ever since
been regarded as a worker of mischief on the estates. The
following is the mode of worship of the coolies. The
worshipper, accompanied by a few companions, takes some
incense in a pot, a banana leaf, some bananas and betel nuts,
some ashes and camphor, a coconut, a bottle of arrack and a
live cock. Arriving at the spot sacred to Muniyandi, he
burns the incense, arranges the bananas with the betel nuts
on the banana leaf, covers the ashes with camphor, sets fire
to it and cuts the coconut shell in halves, care being taken
to cut the shell with one cut. He then places the bottle of
arrack beside the banana leaf and kills the cock, pouring its
blood over the rude stone that serves as an idol, as well as
over the banana leaf and its contents. He then pulls the
feathers off the bird, and, having cut it down the breast,
holds it over the camphor fire for a few minutes. This done,
he either prostrates himself before the idol or stands with his
hands clasped over his head, and prays to Muniyandi to
30 CENTENARY VOLUME
prosper him and forgive anything amiss in his worship. He
then takes the ashes, now sacred, and having put some in his
mouth and smeared some on his forehead, he distributes
some among his companions, and reserves the remainder for
his family. He then takes up the cock and the arrack, and
after pouring a little of the latter before the idol, he cuts the
kernel of the coconut into pieces and pours some arrack
into the coconut shell. He then cuts the fowl into pieces
and distributes it with the coconut and arrack among him
self and his companions. Once more, with due reverence, he
places a piece of coconut and betel before the idol and
There are three chief religious festivals in Ceylon, (l)
The Thai Pongal, which takes place early in the year, is a
relic of an aboriginal nature worship of the sun. (2) The
Tee-Vali in October commemorates the defeat of a tyrannical
giant who had mightily oppressed both gods and men. It is
also called the feast of lamps. (3) The Vale is connected
with the worship of Suppramaniam, a son of Siva. In
Colombo this festival is the occasion of a curious procession
between two temples at opposite extremities of the town,
and of celebrations lasting many days.
The religion of the higher classes is a religion of fear, for
Hinduism presents God in a terrible aspect. No one can
visit the temples in India and Ceylon without being struck
with the representation of God. As in all false systems of
religion, purity is unknown in Hinduism. This is clear from
the fact that dancing girls are attached to nearly every
temple. These unhappy girls are called the slaves of God,
while in reality they are the miserable slaves of men s worst
passions. Every candid Hindu will admit that the presence
of these women at their festivals is a blot on the escutcheon
of their religion. And yet there is a certain amount of light
in Hinduism, for the doctrines of expiation, sacrifice, the
incarnation and the unity of the Godhead are all found in it.
Bullocks, sheep and fowls are commonly offered as expiatory
sacrifices. Hinduism teaches moreover, that the God Vishnu
has become incarnate, under different forms, nine times, and a
tenth incarnation is eagerly looked for by every devout
Again, the Trinity in Unity, is not a strange doctrine to
the Hindu, for he believes that Brahma is God, Vishnu is
God, and Siva is God, and yet they have a saying, Let
earth be put into the mouth of any one who denies that Vishnu
and Siva are one.
It has been well said that a man s religion consists of
what he is, what he does, and what he hopes for. What
then is the hope of the Hindu ? His highest ambition is to
lose his own personality and be absorbed in the deity. To
attain this he must perform many acts of self-mortification, or
of charity, which bring with them the reward of merit, but
before this highest stage can be reached, he must pass
through many transmigrations. Hinduism presents but little
hope to women. Here is a story the truth of which can be
vouched for. A Hindu woman was seen in devout and
earnest prayer. When she had concluded her devotions, a
Zenana missionary asked her, For what have you been
praying ? and the woman replied, I have been praying that
when I die, my soul may enter into a cow. It is often said,
Why trouble to preach the Gospel to the Hindus ? Surely,
the Hindus, men, women and children need the Gospel, the
Gospel of love and purity. While the Hindus are expecting
another incarnation of their God Vishnu, it is the duty and
privilege of the Christian Church to proclaim far and wide
the one true incarnation which, when compared with the
false incarnation of Vishnu, is as light compared with
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON.
THERE is a tradition of the existence of Nestorian Christi
anity in Ceylon, in the time of the Emperor Justinian.
Cosmas, a Nestorian Christian, writing about A.D. 550 says,
on the authority of one Sopater, a Greek merchant, that in
Taprobane (which was the ancient Greek name for Ceylon)
there existed a community of Persian Christians, tended by
bishops, priests and deacons, and having a regular liturgy.
St. Thomas, St. Bartholomew, and the eunuch of Candace,
whose conversion by St. Philip is recorded in the Acts of the
Apostles, are all alleged to have preached Christianity in the
The historical evidence of the planting of Christianity is
the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, who brought with
them Franciscan Fathers and who did their utmost to press
Roman Catholicism upon the people. The most famous of
their workers was St. Francis Xavier, the Apostle of the
Indies who came over from India in 1544 on a mission to
the Tamils in the North. He, being unable to accept the
invitation of the people of Manaar to come and teach them
also sent one of his clergy, through whom about seven
hundred persons received baptism, a baptism which was
straightway crowned by martyrdom, as these early converts
were forthwith put to death by the Rajah of Jaffna, who was
a worshipper of Siva. In 1650 the Dutch arrived, forcing
the people by every means in their power to embrace the
doctrines of the Reformed Church of Holland. Baptism had
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 33
come to be regarded as a Government regulation, and was
known as Christiyani karnawa, or making Christian.
In 1795 the low country, and in 1815 the upcountry, came
under the rule of the British, who proclaimed religious
liberty. Emerson Tennent says, It had been declared
honourable by the Portuguese to undergo such a ceremony,
" making Christian," it had been rendered profitable by the
Dutch, and after three hundred years familiarity with the
process the natives were unable to divest themselves of the
belief that submission to the ceremony was enjoined by
orders from the civil government. When the pressure of
compulsion was removed by the advent of the British power,
thousands openly returned to their former superstitions, while
the great majority of those who kept up their connection with
Christianity had been so educated and trained in hypocrisy
and false profession, that while outwardly, as a body, con
forming to Christian worship, and anxious, as a matter of
respectability, to obtain Christian rites, they held as their
religious belief the doctrines of Buddhism, and practised in
secret all its ceremonies and rites. In the first ten years of
the British r-ule, the number of Buddhist temples in the
Sinhalese districts had increased from between two and three
hundred to twelve hundred.
In 1801, out of an estimated population of about one and a
half million, the number of those who professed the Protes
tant form of the Christian faith was estimated to exceed
342,000, while the Roman Catholics were considered to be
still more numerous. In 1804, the Protestant Christians
were estimated at 240,000, in 1810 they had dropped to
150,000, in 1814 to 130,000 and fifty years after in 1864,,
there were said to be 40,000 Protestants and 100,000
The writer of the Jubilee Sketches of the C.M.S. in
Ceylon says, About the time that the first C.M.S.
34 CENTENARY VOLUME
Missionaries came to the island, the people were becoming
aware of the fact that the outward profession of Christianity
was no longer necessary to secure their civil rights, and were
going back in large numbers to the open practice of Bud
dhism which, all along, they had secretly believed. The
gradual cessation of efforts to instruct the people, which
preceded and followed the advent of the British rule, left the
mass of nominal adherents, who still retained their outward
profession of Christianity, in utter ignorance of its real
nature, and thus confirmed in them the idea that connection
with it, although no longer compulsory, still placed them in a
more advantageous position and that the reception of its rites,
(Baptism and Marriage) still secured to them the countenance
of the ruling powers, and gave them a respectable standing,
which, for their worldly advancement and profit, it was
necessary to retain.
At the commencement of the Dutch rule, and for a long
period of its continuance, earnest and systematic efforts seem
to have been made by that Government to bring the people of
the island to a knowledge and profession of Christianity.
Had those efforts been continued in full vigour, both by the
Dutch Government and our own, Buddhism would doubtless
have been uprooted from the land, and a nominal profession
of Christianity established in its place. Whether or not that
would have been more favourable to the real progress of the
Gospel than the present state of things, is a question which
it is difficult to decide, and concerning which diverse opinions
will always be held. For a long period of their rule, the
Dutch made vigorous efforts, and liberally expended funds, it
endeavours to convert the inhabitants to the Christian faith.
Not only did they establish schools, but they also built
churches and employed ministers in direct missionary work
among the adults. Yet these efforts seem to have been
marred by their mistaken policy, in making the reception of
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 35
baptism and the outward profession of Christianity necessary
in order to secure to the people their civil rights and pri
vileges, and as a passport to Government employment. The
result of this false policy was to make the outward profession
of Christianity almost universal, but, at the same time, it so
opened the floodgates of hypocrisy, that the tide of false and
insincere professors completely overwhelmed the real con
verts, and overspread the land with a spurious Christianity
which although imposing in extent, was utterly false and
unsound. In the Historical Sketch of Ceylon by Dr. R. S.
Copleston, published by the S.P.G., the writer says, When
the English took possession in 1798, more than 300,000
natives are said to have been registered as members of the
Dutch Church. Of these a few were genuine Protestants, a
large number were really Romanists, but the majority were
merely nominally Christians, and actually Buddhists or
Hindus. Still, it was a grand opportunity which was thus
set before our own nation and our own Church. For,
although much of the Christianity we found in* Ceylon was
unsound, still the heathenism was feeble, ignorant, and dis
credited (to a depth far below what is now the case), and
Christian education had done much to bring the children at
least within our reach. But unhappily the England of that
time was little alive to such a responsibility, the opportunity
was lost, almost all that was done was to remove the pressure
which had kept so many people nominally Christian. With
the gradual withdrawal of that pressure (which was not
completely done till I860, when marriage, other than
Christian, obtained equal registration), the great majority of
the nominal Protestant Christians resumed the open profes
sion of their real religion. In many cases this was Roman
Catholicism, in more it was heathenism. Thus during nearly
the whole century, at the beginning of which more than
300,000 persons outwardly professed the Church of England
36 CENTENARY VOLUME
as representing the Government religion, the number of
adherents of the Church has steadily decreased.
For some time after the British annexation, Dutch Pres-
byterianism wa= recognized as the established Church of the
Colony, and Mr. North afterwards Lord Guilford, the first
British Governor, not only took active measures for restoring
one hundred and seventy of the Dutch village schools, but
also offered Government assistance to the clergy if they
would itinerate through the rural districts, and so keep alive
some knowledge of the Christian faith.
The first Protestant missionaries to visit Ceylon from
England were four agents of the London Missionary Society
in 1805, but for some reason, they all soon left for India,
except the Rev. J. D. Palm who settled down as the Pastor
of the Dutch Church at Wolfendahl in Colombo. The
pioneer of modern missions in Ceylon was the Rev. James
Chater who landed in Colombo on April 16, 1812. He
was sent out by the Baptist Missionary Society in 1806 to
join the Serampore Mission in North India, but his landing
was opposed by the Indian Government, so he went on to
Burmah and commenced work there. Civil war in the
Burmese dominions and the ill-health of his wife forced him
to relinquish work there and try Ceylon. The Governor-
General Sir Robert Brownrigg, and Lady Brownrigg, were
in full sympathy with missionary effort and gave him a hearty
welcome. The beginning of all the principal missions in
Ceylon took place during this Governor s regime.
The centenary of the Baptist Mission was celebrated in
1912, and a most interesting story of the hundred years was
written by the Rev. J. A. Ewing, under the title, The
Resplendent Isle a hundred years witness in Ceylon. In
it, the writer say?, The Baptist cause in Ceylon has never
been strong numerically. There have been years of abun
dant harvest, as well as periods of barrenness and drought,
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 37
but every effort is made to receive only sincere adherents,
believing that only thus will the Church ultimately become
strong and self-supporting. The principal stations are at
Colombo, Kandy, Matale and Ratnapura. There are twenty
stations and out-stations, four men missionaries, nine women
missionaries, thirty-nine native evangelists, thirty-one in
dependent churches, 954 native members, 106 school teachers,
forty-six schools with 3,831 scholars, and 2,787 children in the
The Ceylon Auxiliary (originally called the Colombo
Auxiliary) of the British and Foreign Bible Society was
established at Queen s House, Colombo, on August 1, 1812,
mainly by the zealous efforts of Sir Alexander Johnston,
Chief Justice of Ceylon, with the Governor, Sir Robert
Brownrigg as President, and the Rev. J. Bisset, Assistant
Colonial Chaplain, the Honorary Secretary. From the day
of its birth the Society has pursued an unwavering course
and stands at the centre of all organized efforts for the
evangelization of the island. The position which it holds in
respect to all Protestant; missions is unique, for it is the
partner, helper and friend of all.
The auxiliary celebrated its centenary in 1912, and in the
Annual Report for that year, a summary of the year s work
is given as follows : The Scriptures circulated totalled
84,326 volumes, in twenty-five languages, against 72,783 for
the previous year, an increase of 11,543 copies. The average
number of Colporteurs employed was twenty and of Bible-
women sixty-four. The receipts from sales reached no less a
sum than Rs. 7,622 : 27 and the subscriptions and collections
contributed locally came to Rs. 8,424 : 92.
The Wesleyan Methodist Mission commenced its work in
Ceylon in 1814, being the first oriental station of this
denomination. The first party of six missionaries, two of
whom were married, with Dr. Coke as their leader, sailed from
3 CENTENARY VOLUME
England on December 30, 1813, and arrived at Point de
Galle on June 29, 1814. Dr. Coke and Mrs. Ault, wife of one
of the missionaries, died on the voyage.
Evangelistic, educational and industrial work have been
prosecuted vigorously in many parts of the island. The
principal educational institutions are Wesley College in
Colombo opened in 1874, Richmond College, Galle, 1876,
Kingswood College, Kandy, 1891 and the Wellawatte,
Industrial Home, 1890. In Wellawatte, the mission owns
a valuable printing establishment, and in Colpetty a high
school for girls. It has also established a mission to seamen
and a city mission in Colombo. Other important stations
have been established in the Jaffna peninsula and on the
East coast. In 1916 there were twenty-seven European
men missionaries, twenty-eight women missionaries not
including wives, sixty catechists, 343 elementary schools
with 927 teachers and 27,500 scholars, eleven boys high
schools with eighty-six teachers and 1,572 scholars, four
colleges with eighty-two teachers and 1,583 students, 6,545
church members and 10,438 on probation.
The American Board of Foreign Missions (Congregation-
alist) commenced work in Jaffna in 1816, and have ever
since confined themselves to that part of the island. The
first missionaries had been designated for Madras, but on
their way their vessel was wrecked off the north-west
coast. This they accepted as an indication of the Divine
will that they were to go no further. The medical work of
the mission has been a great feature, and has been attended
with much success. In 1824 the Uduvil Girls Boarding
School was commenced, probably the earliest effort of the
sort in a heathen land. One of the missionaries, Miss Eliza
Agnew had charge of this school for forty-three years.
Upwards of a thousand girls studied under her care, and of
these more than six hundred left the school as really earnest
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 39
Christians. Although the Mission has concentrated its effort
on a comparatively small field, it has twenty-one outstations,
twenty-one churches, 2,252 members, five men missionaries,
nine women missionaries, eleven pastors, 375 teachers and
126 schools with 11,548 scholars. The mission celebrated its
centenary in 1916, when a history was compiled by Miss
Helen Root entitled A Century in Ceylon.
The Friends Foreign Mission Association commenced
work in Matale in 1896 and in Mirigama in 1903. In 1915
there were six missionaries, sixty-three native workers, 313
adherents, twenty-three schools, 1,373 scholars and three
dispensaries at which 4,800 patients were treated that year.
The Salvation Army commenced work in Ceylon in 1883,
the Heneratgoda Faith Mission in 1891, and there are a few
private or free lance missions at work.
The Ceylon branch of the Christian Literature Society for
India, formerly called the Vernacular Education Society, was
founded in 1858 as a memorial of the Mutiny by a union of
all the chief missionary societies to do a work which (in
their own words) could not be done by them separately
except by the wasteful expenditure of much money. It is
accordingly controlled by committees composed mainly of
their missionaries. The Central Depot and Head Office of
the Ceylon Branch is situated in Dam Street, Colombo.
During the year 1915, there were sold 16,237 copies of
General Literature, 2,015 Bibles and 11,278 Testaments and
portions, whilst there were distributed free 240,000 four-
page tracts and 120,000 twelve-page booklets. During the
same year 123,500 copies of school books, 44,000 copies of
general literature, 140,300 copies of periodicals and 240,000
copies of tracts, having a total of 11,233,500 pages, were
printed. Six colporteurs were employed whose sales
produced nearly Rs. 1,500. The object of the Society is to
disseminate among the masses pure, healthy literature of a
40 CENTENARY VOLUME
Christian spirit and tone, chiefly in the vernacular. The
Edinburgh Conference of 1910 reported that Christianity
has been most intelligent, influential and progressive when
mental activity has been most carefully nourished and
stimulated by Christian literature, and an Indian missionary
says, After an experience of fifty years among the millions of
these vast regions, I have no hesitation in saying that I
regard this agency as se % cond only to preaching and teaching
among all the forms of labour employed in the missionary
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began work
in Ceylon in 1840, and in November of that year the Rev.
C. Mooyart became its first missionary, being stationed in
Colombo. In 1842 the Rev. H. Von Dadelszen was appointed
to Nuwara Eliya and the Rev. S. D. J. Ondaatjie to Kalutara.
In the following year a District Committee was formed at
Colombo. The S.P.G. began by aiding existing churches,
not by going into entirely new fields. In some cases,
a Sinhalese or a Tamil clergyman, who was already employed
as a chaplain under Government to minister to Christians of
his own race, would be assisted by a grant from the S.P.G.
and placed upon its lists of missionaries, that he might in
this capacity be encouraged and enabled to extend his work
to the heathen, and such missionary chaplains employed
catechists, and opened schools. In other instances, where
Government could be persuaded to make an allowance for a
Catechist, the S.P.G. grant, in addition to the Government
salary, made it possible to maintain a priest.
The S.P.G- has been a promoter and helper of missionary
work rather than a proprietor of distinct missions. In one or
two districts it has independent and valuable work, but more
often the S.P.G. has worked in clo^e conjunction with
Government chaplains or diocesan clergy, rather than by a
staff and missions of its own. In 1851 with the assistance of
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 41
the S.P.G., St. Thomas College was opened and has received
continuous aid. The Society has been gradually reducing
its grant to Ceylon which now only amounts to ^500.
It was through the help of the Society that the Bishopric
Endowment Fund was originated and completed in 1898.
The statistics for the year ended June 1916 were
Christians 2,906, commmunicants 816, catechumens 44,
baptized during the year 94, schools 28, teachers 148,
The preponderance of Roman Catholicism in the island
is very marked. In seven out of the nine provinces more
than seventy per cent of the Christians are Roman Catholics.
There has been great activity not only in multiplying digni
taries, but in promoting higher education. There are three
principal Roman Catholic Missions, the Oblates of Mary
Immaculate, the Oblates of St. Benedict and the Society of
Jesus. The Archbishopric is of Colombo, with Bishops
of Colombo, Jaffna, Kandy, Galle and Trincomalee, whilst
there are 173 foreign priests, 67 native, priests, 26 foreign
lay brothers, 64 native lay brothers, 186 foreign sisters and
324 native sisters. Among the congregations of women at
work are the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Franciscan
Missionaries of Mary, and the Sisters of the Holy Family.
There are several native congregations including the
St. Joseph s Society of lay brothers and the Societies of
St. Peter and of St. Francis Xavier for women. The edu
cational institutions include St. Joseph s College in Colombo,
St. Patrick s College in Jaffna, St. Aloysius College in Galle
and the Papal General Seminary at Ampitiya near Kandy.
The last named institution was founded by Pope Leo XIII
in 1893 to provide a specially thorough theological education,
of which all Indian dioceses might avail themselves.
The Church of England in Ceylon, according to the
Government Census of 1911, numbered 41,095 members.
42 CENTENARY VOLUME
Ceylon, which had been added to the See of Calcutta in
1817, and to that of Madras in 1835 was erected into a
separate Bishopric in 1845. The first Bishop of Calcutta,
Dr. F. T. Middleton, was consecrated privately in Lambeth
Palace on May 8, 1814, for fear of offending the natives
and the Dean of Winchester s sermon on the occasion was
not allowed to be printed. His first episcopal visitation to
Ceylon was in October ^1816, when he arrived by the H.M.
Cruiser, Aurora. His next visit was in 1821, when he
consecrated St. Peter s Church in Colombo on May 22.
Bishop Heber visited the island in 1825, followed by Bishop
Turner in 1831, and Bishop Wilson in January 1843. The
first Bishop of Colombo, Dr. James Chapman, was consecra
ted in Lambeth Palace Chapel on May 4, 1845, and landed
in Colombo on All Saints Day of that year, and after sixteen
years of devoted service resigned in 1861. The C.M.S.
Annual Report of 1845 said, The Committee anticipate
much benefit to the Ceylon Mission from his spiritual direc
tion and paternal superintendence over the Church in this
The second Bishop of Colombo, was Dr. Piers C. Claugh-
ton, who was translated from St. Helena in 1862, and after
eight years work resigned in 1870.
The third Bishop, Dr. Hugh W. Jermyn, was consecrated
in 1871, but was forced by ill-health to resign in 1874, and
afterwards was appointed Bishop of Brechin and Primus of
In 1875, his successor, Dr. Reginald Stephen Copleston,
was consecrated and worked assiduously for twenty-seven
years, until his translation in 1902 to Calcutta. In 1892,
was published his standard work on Buddhism, primitive
and present, in Magadha and in Ceylon. Dr. Copleston,
owing to ill-health, resigned the See of Calcutta in
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 43
In 1903, his brother, Dr. Ernest A. Copleston who had
been working in Ceylon for some years, was consecrated fifth
Bishop of Colombo, in the Cathedral Church of Calcutta.
In 1881, the connection of the British Government with
the endowment of religion by ecclesiastical votes from the
general revenue to the Bishop and a number of Episcopal
and Presbyterian Chaplains, was discontinued by ordinance,
provision being made for existing incumbents. The Bishop
thereupon summoned a Church assembly, comprising all the
clergy in priests orders, and lay delegates chosen by the
various congregations, who elected a Committee to consider
the future constitution of the Church. This Committee sat
for nearly five years and ultimately drafted a complete con
stitution for the Church of England in Ceylon. On
July 6, 1886, the draft constitution was submitted to the
Church assembly and approved, and recommended to the
acceptance of the permanent Synod of the disestablished
Church, which had already been elected by anticipation.
The Synod met on the following day for the first time and
solemnly accepted the constitution in the name of the whole
Church in Ceylon. The proceedings closed with a joyful
The duty of self-organization and self-support which was
thus forced upon the Church by the withdrawal of State aid,
has served to quicken and to create corporate feeling, as well
as the sense of unity, and has brought into it new life and
Under rule 8 of Chapter VII on the Revision and For
mation of Parishes and Districts of The Constitution and
the Fundamental Provisions, and Regulations Non-Funda
mental, of the Synod of the Church of England in Ceylon it
says nor shall any of the foregoing rules be so interpreted
or understood as to hinder or prevent either the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts or the Church
44 CENTENARY VOLUME
Missionary Society, or any other directly Mission Organiza
tion of the Church of England from carrying on as heretofore
with the sanction and license of the Bishop, direct Evange
listic Missionary work amongst such heathen and Moham
medan populations, and in Chapter VIII, on Patronage,
Rule V, Nothing contained in this chapter shall interfere
with the rights of the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel or of the Church Missionary Society or of any other
Patrons, so long as they desire to exercise their Patronage
independently of Synod.
At the close of the year 1916 the number of clergy of the
Church of England in Ceylon holding the Bishop s License
was 108, viz. thirty-eight Europeans, five Burghers, twenty-
nine Tamils and thirty-six Sinhalese.
The Church Missionary Society commenced work in 1818,
and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in
1889, particulars of which will be found in Chapter VIII and
the following pages of this volume.
in the Census of 1911 the population enumerated was
4,110,367. Of these 409,168 entered themselves as Christians,
as follows i
Roman Catholics ... .-.. 330,300
Church of England ... ... 41,095
Presbyterians ... ... 3,546
Wesleyans ... ... 17,323
Baptists ... ... ... 3,306
Congregationalism ... ... 2,978
Salvationists ... ... 1,042
Friends ... ... ... 120
Lutherans ... ... ... 142
Others ... ... ... 316
According to the Census of 1881 the Christians numbered
267,977, in 1891 they numbered 302,127, and in 1901 they
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 45
numbered 349,239. The strength of the four principal
religions in 1911 was, Buddhists, 60 per cent ; Hindus, 23 per
cent ; Christians, 10 per cent ; and Mohammedans, 7 per cent,
of the population.
One result of the World Missionary Conference held in
Edinburgh in June 1910, was the appointment of a Continua
tion Committee of some forty leaders of the missionary forces.
This Committee requested its Chairman, Dr. John R. Mott,
to visit the mission fields, acquainting missionaries and native
leaders with the work and plans of the Committee and assist
ing the work in such other ways as might be determined.
Dr. Mott accordingly spent from October 1912 to the
following May in a tour through the principal mission fields
of Asia, and held a series of twenty-one conferences. Never
before have the great questions involved in the establishment
of Christ s kingdom upon earth been discussed by so many
recognized leaders of the Christian forces throughout the non-
Christian world, nor has there ever been such an expression
of united judgment and desire on the part of workers of the
various Christian bodies.
Ceylon was the first centre visited and a Conference was
held in Colombo, on November 11-13, 1912, at which sixty-
six delegates chosen by the various religious bodies (except
ing Roman Catholics) were present under the chairmanship
of Dr. Mott. The following were chosen to represent the
C.M.S., the Revs. G. S. Amarasekara, J. W. Balding, J. V.
Daniel, A. E. Dibben, A. G. Eraser, W. E. Rowlands, W. G.
Shorten, S. S. Somasundaram, Messrs. N. _P. Campbell, N.
Selvadurai, Mrs. A. G- Eraser and Miss L. E. Nixon.
The following is a summary of the findings
Conference, in regard to Ceylon.
Missionary work is located in the most populous and me
accessible areas and is reaching the Sinhalese and Tamil
speakin* people. Very little, except through our schools, is
46 CENTENARY VOLUME
being done for the Mohammedan men. The Parsis and the
forest Veddahs are neglected. More direct evangelistic work
among non-Christians needs to be done. A serious attempt
should be made towards a better understanding of the religious
standpoint of the people. Preachers and teachers should lay
special stress by precept and example upon the truth that the
task of the evangelization of this country is the task of every
member of the Church. The Sinhalese and Tamil Churches
connected with several missions support their own Ministry
entirely in many places, partially in others. The community
is strong enough in religious experience and intellectual
attainment to supply an ordained ministry for its Church life,
and is doing so. The progress made in self-government has
resulted in greater generosity and in a deeper appreciation of
independence, responsibility and power. The support of
evangelistic efforts through indigenous Missionary Societies
has been steadily increasing. Evangelistic effort in the
immediate neighbourhood of independent churches and con
gregations is wholly inadequate. Leaders should be sought
out and trained and every effort should be made to provide
for them a ladder of responsibility, and to give freedom of
initiative to such persons when discovered or trained. Mission
schools should be concerned primarily in educating the
Christian and social conscience of their pupils. Ceylonese
workers should be accorded a powerful place in Church con
ferences aud a full share in its consultations. Greater efforts
should be made through the children attending schools to
reach and influence their homes. As singular opportunities
exist for the calling out and development of the missionary
spirit in the various Christian schools and colleges, it would
give encouragement to the missionary cause if the training of
Ceylonese missionaries were placed in the forefront of the
objects for which such colleges exist and if special scholar
ships were founded to help those who wish to qualify for
CHRISTIANITY IN CEYLON 47
missionary service. Greater attention should be given to the
production and dissemination of Christian literature adapted
to the needs of Ceylon Christians and non-Christians. There
is a lack of leaders from among the Ceylonese women and a
paucity of European women workers. Suitable Ceylonese
women missionaries should receive exactly the same official
and social status as the foreign workers. Simple inexpensive
Anglo-vernacular Girls Boarding Schools should be multi
plied. The non-realization of many women and girls of the
congregations of their duty to undertake voluntary church
work is a defect. Simple medical work among women and
children in backward districts is to be desired.
ABILITY to read and writa at least one s own language,
though not indispensable to the planting and development of
Christianity, must be acknowledged to be a very importan
aid to the work of the Christian Missionary. Christianity
does not invite ignorance as an ally, but welcomes enlighten
ment as its co-adjutor. The total numbers able to read and
write one language in all Ceylon in the last four decades
Census of 1881 ... ... 404,441
1891 ... ... 603,047
1901 ... ... 773,196
1911 ... ... 1,082,828
The proportions of the above (in which males and females
are included) are :
1881 1891 1901 1911
Percentage of Males ...24-6 30-0 34-70 40 4
Females ... 2-5 4-3 6-92 10-6
The total number of literates at the last Census was
878,766 males and 204,062 females. The total native
population literate in English was 70,679. Of these 57,881
were males and 12,798 females, and of these 1,785 Sinhalese
and 241 Ceylon Tamils, a total of 2 ; 026 could not read and
write trfeir own language.
During the Dutch occupation of the Colony, schools were
established and attendance was made compulsory. The
teaching was largely religious and the girls had to show that
they understood the catechism and creed before they could be
married. In the Instructions from the Governor-General of
India to the Governor of Ceylon in 1656, it is laid down
that the boys and girls should be made to attend schools,
and be there received into Christianity. The observance of
this point will cause some difficulty, because the natives
think a great deal of their daughters, and the parents will not
consent to their going to school after their eighth year. They
may, perhaps, receive a little more instruction on the visits of
That the education imparted was not of a very advanced
type may be gathered from a quotation from Eschelskroon in
his Description of Ceylon, 1782. The schoolmasters are
either chaplain?, that come with the ships from Europe, or
more usually still, broken mechanics, such as bakers, shoe
makers, glaziers, etc., who have no more book learning than
just to make a shift to sing the Psalms of David, and at the
same time perhaps can say the Heidelberg catechism by
heart, together-jwith a few passages out of the Bible, and are
able to read a sermon from some author, or else they are some
wretched natives, that can scarce make a shift to read Dutch
intelligibly, much less can they write a good hand, and in
arithmetic are still more deficient. When the British took
possession in 1796, the question of education was neglected
for some years, but with the advent of the missionary bodies,
schools were established in various parts of the Island.
A School Commission was instituted by the Government
on May 19, 1834, and the first Government Educational
Institution, called the Colombo Academy, now known as the
Royal College, was started on October 26, 1836. In January
1868, Sir Hercules Robinson s Education Scheme passed the
Legislature, abolishing the School Commission, appointing a
Director of Education, and regulating Grants-in-aid to all
denominations and private schools in return for secular
50 CENTENARY VOLUME
results only. This gave a great impetus to education, and
the total number of scholars under the cognizance of the
Department of Public Instruction has risen from 44,192 in
769 schools in 1873, to 384,533 in 4,303 schools in 1915.
Of these 118,381 were girls, about 39 per cent of the girls of
The total expenditure on Education from the General
Revenue in 1879 was Rs. 445,228 and for the year 1915 it
amounted to Rs. 2,154,209.
The Cambridge Local Examinations were introduced in
1880, and for the first examination that year, were presented
twenty-one boys and no girls; in 1915 there were 2,151
boys and 236 girls.
There are thirty-nine industrial schools, and carpentry
among boys, and lace- making among girls, are the most
The following extracts from Mr. E. B. Denham s Ceylon
at the Census of 1911 are interesting. Under Instruction
he s-ays, 67 per cent of the persons employed in this
profession are males and 33 per cent females. In all
it supports 15,500 persons. The number of persons de-
perding on " Instruction " has increased by 5,000 during the
decade. There were 4,690 school masters and teachers,
as compared with 3,126 in 1901, and 2,269 school mistresses
and teachers, as compared with 1,507 in 1901. Of the
Kandyan Sinhalese, only 912 depend upon educational
employment, as compared with 7,176 Low-country Sinha
lese and 5,001 Ceylon Tamils.
Again Mr. Denham writes under Education , The
improved standard of comfort throughout the country, the
growth of wealth, accompanied by considerable changes in
manners and customs, have ail produced an enormous
demand which may almost be described as a passion for
education. The older generation regard education as an
investment for their children, which will enable them to take
up positions to which their newly acquired wealth entitles
them. The small landowner and cultivator who has pros
pered believes that education will make a clerk of his son or
fit him for a learned profession, that the latter will then hold
a better position in the world than his father, and that
consequently the fortunes, and, what appeals to him equally
strongly, the status of the family will be assured. The
younger generations seek escape from rural life, from manual
toil, from work which they begin to think degrading, in an
education which will enable them to pass examinations,
which will lead to posts in offices in the towns, and so to
appointments which entitle the holders to the respect of the
class from which they believe they have emancipated them
The Church Missionary Society, together with the other
Christian Missions, has from the beginning been in the
forefront in the matter of education, and has established
some of the best schools in the Island. Consequently the
Christians show the highest proportions of literates amongst
In 1911, the percentage of literates of each religion and
sex was as follows :
Christians ... ... 60-3 38-8
Buddhists ... ... 41-8 9-1
Hindus ... ... 29-6 4-0
Mohammedans ... 36 2 3-2
During the last thirty years the Buddhists have taken a
keener interest in education, and hundreds of vernacular
schools have been opened in the villages for boys as well as
for girls, and English schools in the towns. The Hindus are
also now taking their share in the education of the young.
52 CENTENARY VOLUME
It is a cause for thankfulness that the education of girls
has not been neglected, for the value of female education is
so great that its importance cannot be exaggerated.
Sinhalese women have never been deliberately excluded
from the acquisition of knowledge, and the old proverb of
the Tamils, Though a woman may wear cloth upon cloth
and is able to dance like a celestial, she is not to be desired if
she can press a style on a palm leaf does not hold to-day.
Mr. John Ferguson in his review of Christian Missions
in Ceylon says Education has made great strides . . .
Perhaps the most unfailing and successful branch of mission
work has been found in the boarding schools for girls as
well as for boys, but especially for the girls. If a Christian
philanthropist were to stipulate that his wealth had to be
devoted solely to that branch of mission operations which had
been found to give the most uniformly satisfactory results,
we fancy the vote of the missionaries, as of Christian laymen
in Ceylon, would go by a large majority in favour of Girls
C.M.S. IN CEYLON.
ON February 16, 1796, Colombo was surrendered by the
Dutch, with scarcely a blow being struck in its defence, and
so the low country became a possession of the British crown.
Three years after, on Friday, April 12, 1799, in a first
floor room in the Castle and Falcon Hotel in Aldersgate
Street, London, when sixteen clergymen and nine laymen
were present, was founded The Church Missionary Society
for Africa and the East. In each year s annual report of the
Society issued since, we are reminded that Ceylon was one
of the first fields to which the fathers of the C.M.S. turned
The peculiar circumstances of Ceylon, its claims on British
Christians, and the facilities it afforded for the prosecution of
missionary work, led the Committee of the Society to deter
mine on making an effort in its behalf as soon as they should
find themselves in a position to do so. It was, however, not
the heathenism of Ceylon, but its Christianity which led them
to contemplate this step. In the first report of the Society s
proceedings, published in 1801, we read, In the island of
Ceylon, it appears that there are not less than 145 Christian
schools ; of these fifty-four are within the district of Colombo,
and in that one district alone there are not less than 90,000
native Christians. The Christian religion having been thus
successfully planted by the Portuguese and then further
cultivated by the Dutch, it is hoped that it will not be suffered
to decline now that the Island is subject to the Crown of
England. This important subject has not escaped the
attention of the Committee.
54 CENTENARY VOLUME
With no actual experience of the real state of matters to
guide them, the Island appeared to them as a field of labour
white already to the harvest. A clergyman stationed in
Ceylon in a letter dated December, 1801, to one of the
Governors of the Society, writes, From the time the English
took possession, until the arrival of Mr. North, the Governor,
the Christian schools and education of the inhabitants were
entirely neglected, many Churches had fallen into ruins, and
thousands of those who called themselves Christians had
returned to their ancient paganism and idolatry. By the last
returns in the Ecclesiastical department, there were nearly
170 schools and upwards of 342,000 Christians.
Until 1813, the C.M.S. was unable, first from the want of
funds, and then from the want of men, to take any direct
step towards the opening of a mission. They, however, cor
responded with men of influence in the island who took an
interest in Christian work, in order to obtain, information for
future use, and further made an offer to Sir Alexander
Johnston, the Chief Justice, to educate for the ministry any
two native young men that he might select and send to
England. Sir A. Johnson also caused the first number of
the Missionary Register (January, 1813) to be translated
into Sinhalese, Tamil and Portuguese, for circulation in the
island. He also engaged two men to translate Bishop
Porteus work on the Evidences of Christianity into
Two men, Thomas Norton and William Greenwood, had
been accepted for training by the C.M.S. in 1809. Norton
was a married shoemaker who had studied Greek, and Green
wood was a blanket manufacturer. After training, the
Bishops declined to ordain men for work outside their own
dioceses. Eventually they were ordained to curacies in
England, and in 1814 appointed to Ceylon, being the first
clergymen of the Church of England to go to Asia definitely
C.M.S. IN CEYLON 55
as missionaries, the first two English men trained by the
C.M.S. and the first two English clergymen sent out by the
In the instructions delivered to them at the valedictory
dismissal on January 7, 1814, the following passage occurs,
You, Mr. Norton, and Mr. Greenwood, are destined to
labour in the populous island of Ceylon. We feel great
interest in the increase of true religion there, and in this
desire our personal intercourse with Sir A. Johnston, has
greatly confirmed the Committee. The war into which the
ambitious violence of these days unwillingly forced Great
Britain and Holland is now happily closed. This protracted
war disabled the Dutch from maintaining in Ceylon that suc
cession of clergymen which was necessary for the support of
religion. We send you to lend your aid to the religious
concerns of this important portion of the British colonial
possessions, and in the persons in authority there, you will
find willing protectors. The two missionaries embarked in
the same vessel for Ceylon, but she was obliged to put back
for repair^, and before finally sailing, which was three weeks
before the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the Committee altered
their destination to India.
In the autumn of 1817, the Comrtrittee appointed the Revs.
Samuel Lambrick, Benjamin Ward, Robert Mayor and
Joseph Knight, all of whom had been ordained by Bishop
Ryder of Gloucester, as missionaries to Ceylon, and in their
instructions we read, In few places are there more favour
able opportunities of reviving and extending Christian truth.
For want of religious instruction, numbers are fast degene
rating into heathenism.. The Chief Justice has prepared the
way for our exertions, by diffusing information respecting the
designs of our Society. There are two objects which you
will ever keep in mind as forming the great design of your
labours, the revival of true Christianity in the hearts of the
56 CENTENARY VOLUME
natives who at present only nominally profess it, and the
conversion of the heathen.
On October 28, 1817, a valedictory dismissal under the
presidency of Lord Gambier was held at the Freemason s
Hall in the City of London, and a sermon was previously
preached by the Rev. J. W. Cunningham, Vicar of Harrow,
at St. Bride s Church, from Psalm Ivi. 3, Though I am
sometime afraid, yet put I my trust in Thee.
The Rev. Charles Simon also gave an address to the de
parting missionaries. On December 20, 1817, the four men,
with Mrs. Mayor and Mrs. Ward, embarked at Gravesend
on board the Vittoria. They arrived at Teneriffe on
January 5, leaving again on the 23rd, not reaching the Cape
till April 14, in consequence of calms and contrary winds,
arriving in Madras on June 17, and at Point de Galle on
June 29, 1818, having taken two hundred days to accomplish
the voyage. On disembarking at Galle, the missionaries
were received with great kindness by the Rev. J. M. S.
Glenie, the Chaplain at the station.
In the original plan of the Parent Committee it &ad been
arranged that Mr. Lambrick should be stationed at Colombo,
Mr. and Mrs. Mayor at Galle, Mr. Knight at Jaffna and Mr.
and Mrs. Ward at Trincomalie, but on arrival representations
were made to them which led to a change in the location of
two of their number.
Messrs. Lambrick and Ward were stationed at Kandy and
Calpentyn respectively, and Messrs. Mayor and Knight pro
ceeded to the stations to which they were originally designated.
After a few months Mr. Mayor thought it advisable to leave
the town of Galle, so in 1819 moved twelve miles inland to
Baddegama, and Mr. Ward finding Calpentyn unsuitable for
a Mission station, removed to Jaffna and afterwards to
In 1822 the Cotta Mission was begun, Colombo was occu-
REV. STEPHEN COLES
REV. R. T. DOWBIGGIN
REV. E. T. HIGGENS
REV. \Y. OAKLEY
REV. J. D. SIMMONS
C.M S. IN CEYLON 57
pied in 1850 and the Kandyan Itinerancy and Tamil Cooly
Mission were founded in 1853 and 1855 respectively. In
1827 the Cotta Institution to train workers was founded,
but now for some years it has been carried on as an English
Early in 1850, Sir J. Emerson Tennent, Secretary to the
Ceylon Government, and afterwards well known for his ela
borate book on Ceylon, wrote a letter to Lord Chichester, the
President of the C.M.S., in which he said, The mission of
Christianity is not doomed to repulse, as has been improperly
asserted. Its ministers are successfully carrying forward
the work of enlightenment and civilization with an effect so
remarkable, and a result so convincing, in Ceylon, as to afford
every assurance of a wide and permanent triumph for the
An important high class boys school was begun at Chun-
dicully in 1851, which is now kaown as St. John s College,
and the Copay Training Institution was opened in 1853. In
1857 the Kandy Collegiate School for boys was opened by
the Rev. J. Ireland Jones and was closed after six years, but
in 1872 was reopened under the name of Trinity College by
the Rev. R. Collins.
Several boarding schools for girls were opened, the
first at Nellore in 1842, another for Tamils at Borella by
Mrs. W. E. Rowlands in 1869, the Cotta school in 1870 by
Mrs. R. T. Dowbiggin, another at Baddegama in 1888 by
Mrs. J. W. Balding, and one at Kegalle by Mrs. G. Liesching
in 1895. Miss H. P. Phillips opened an industrial school at
Dodanduwa in 1893 and a Girls English High School was
commenced at Chundicully in 18S6 by Mrs. J. Carter.
The C.M.S. Ladies College was opened in Colombo in
1900 by Miss L. E. Nixon and Miss E. Whitney, in 1903 a
Girls English School at Cotta by Mrs. J. W. Balding, and
in 1904 a vernacular training school for Sinhalese women
58 CENTENARY VOLUME
teachers was opened in Colombo which after a few months
was transferred to Cotta and in 1916 to the newly instituted
Training Colony at Peradeniya.
The Jubilee of the mission in Ceylon was celebrated in
1868 and an appeal was issued by the Rev. W. Oakley, the
Secretary of the Mission in May 1868, for contributions to
a Jubilee Fund, as a token that the utility of past efforts is
recognized, and as a pledge of the desire that the work shall go
still on. The writer of the appeal also says, The amount of
success has not perhaps been all that was at first anticipated,
the number of satisfactory converts may have not been as
great as in some more favoured missions, still the efforts
made have not been without fruit, the prayers offered have
not been without answer, and there is good reason to hope
that in the midst of the great and countless multitude of the
redeemed which shall hereafter surround God s throne,
many shall appear whose first knowledge of the truth as it
is in Jesus was conveyed to them by the workers of the
C.M.S. Meetings were held in various centres to celebrate
the Jubilee, the chief one being held at the girls school near
the Kachcheri, in Colombo, on Friday evening, July 17, 1868.
This was presided over by the Bishop, and the collection at
the close amounted to 18.
The Rev. W. Oakley moved the first resolution, That this
meeting feels bound to render hearty thanks to God for His
goodness in having enabled the C.M.S. to continue uninter
ruptedly, its labours in Ceylon for a period of fifty years, and
for the measure of success by which those labours have been
crowned. This was seconded by Dr. Willisford. Mr. R. V.
Dunlop moved the second resolution which was seconded
by the Hon ble Colonel Layard, That this meeting desires
to express its confidence in the soundness of those principles
by which the C.M.S. has, from its commencement been
guided, and to which it still firmly adheres.
C.M.S. IN CEYLON
The Hon ble R. F. Morgan moved the third resolution
which was seconded by the Rev. J. Ireland Jones, That this
meeting, while acknowledging with thankfulness the impor
tant results which have by God s blessing, followed from the
Church Missionary Society s labours in Ceylon, feels deeply
the urgent need which still exists for continued and extended
efforts, and recognizes the duty of promoting by every
possible means, the great ends which the Society has in
Also to commemorate the Jubilee, the Rev J. Ireland Jones
wrote the small book already mentioned, entitled Jubilee
Sketches. In this review of the fifty years work, the writer
says, A more arduous task, a more trying field of labour, it
would be difficult to imagine. It is a matter well understood
by planters, that while the primeval forest land, if cleared
and planted, will soon yield them a rich return, the chenas
the lower ranges, previously exhausted by native cultivatic
though far more easy of access, and requiring far less outlay
at the beginning, will too often mock their hopes, and can o
be made^ to yield a return at last, by a long and expeni
mode of cultivation. This fact has its counterpart in spir
In 1875 Dr Reginald Stephen Copleston was
fourth Bishop of Colombo, and arrived in the island early t
following year. Soon after the Bishop s arrival,
difficulties arose, owing to his seeking a more direcl
than his predecessors had had, over the C.M.S. work.
Society conceived that its just liberties as an independent
organization, and those of its missionaries as clergymen o
diocese, were at stake, and the controversy was render,
more painful by theological differences. In 1880, the que tio
at issue were submitted to the Archbishop of Canterbury
(Dr. Tait), the Archbishop of York (Dr. Thomso
Bishops of London (Dr. Jackson), Durham (Dr. Lightfoot),
60 CENTENARY VOLUME
and Winchester (Dr. Harold Browne), and the result was
an Opinion from these prelates which was accepted on
both sides as satisfactory and under which the mission has
been carried on ever since with little difficulty.
In 1881 the Bishop confirmed 520 candidates, including
174 Tamil coolies, in C.M.S. districts. In another tour in
1885, he confirmed eighty-three candidates, and wrote to a
missionary magazine, The Net, I have lately seen much
that was encouraging among the immigrant Tamil coolies and
among the native Sinhalese respectively. The former set a
very good example by the zeal and liberality with which they
support their own Churches. In one planting district, while
the English masters were waiting, and wishing, and consider
ing how they should get a Church, their Tamil labourers
The Bishop was transferred to Calcutta in 1902, a gain to
India but a corresponding loss to Ceylon. Whilst it is im
possible to forget that the early years of his episcopate were
a period of estrangement and conflict between the Bishop and
the missionaries and the Committee, the alienation had long
since disappeared and for many years the record had been
one of unbroken and cordial co-operation. Differences in
deed doubtless remained, theological, ecclesiastical and prac
tical, but these have not prevented the discovery of a common
ground on which all could work together for the glory of
their common Lord. Clergy and laity alike, European and
Ceylonese, learnt to revere the Bishop as a true Father
In 1884 some questions arose upon which the missionaries
and lay friends differed from the Home Committee, and the
Revs. J. Barton and C. C. Fenn were sent out to adjust
matters, which they accomplished to general satisfaction,
and no further difficulty has occurred. In 1887 and again in
1889, Special Missions were conducted by the Rev. G. C.
REV. G. CHAMPION
REV. C. JAYASINGHE
REV. J. HENSMAN
C.M.S. IN CEYLON 61
Grubb, assisted on the first occasion by Colonel Oldham^
Much blessing was vouchsafed, many English planters were
brought to Christ, and the Christian men among them stirred
up to greater zeal, and the effect of this, both upon the
Ceylonese Christians and upon the evangelistic work was
very marked. It was afterwards marred by the antago
nistic influence of the Exclusive Brethren. The Revs.
E. N. Thwaites and Martin J. Hall also conducted special
missions in 1894 and the Rev. E. Bacheler Russell in 1896
at Christ Church, Galle Face. Mrs. J. W. Balding, writing
to the localized Gleaner in 1887 with reference to the
missioners in the Baddegama District, says, Blessed have
been the messages, straight from the loving Saviour, through
His instruments, messages of earnest, tender appeal for a
full surrender of the heart to God, and perfect consecration
to Him and to His service. The mission came, bringing to
many a weary heart, rest, joy, and peace, and has gone,
leaving behind a greater hungering and thirsting after
righteousness. Some of our Christians have been stirred up
to more active work. Every day there were good attend
ances. Backsliders were present whose faces had not been
seen for many years. Buddhists also came. It was beauti
ful to note the earnest upturned faces, and the rapt attention
with which the word was listened to, the word of God full of
pardon, love and peace, melting to tears some of the hearers,
imparting to others unspeakable joy. The Rev. A. E.
Dibben writing of the 1894 mission said, Europeans,
Sinhalese and Tamils have been so stirred up that several
have given in their names as wishing to engage directly in
the Lord s work as He may lead.
In 1886 the Rev. F. E. Wigram, the Honorary Clerical
Secretary of the C.M.S. during his tour of the missions in
the East, accompanied by his son, visited Ceylon.
In 1869 a system of Native Church organization was
62 CENTENARY VOLUME
brought into operation, with District Councils to manage all
financial business, and a Central Council as a deliberative
body. Large grants-in-aid which were received yearly from
the Home Society were reduced by one-twentieth annually.
These grants have now run out, and in 1911 the old system
was superseded by the launching of a Scheme for the organi
zation of Churches in Ceylon in connection with the C.M.S.
More responsibility is now thrown upon the Ceylonese clergy
as they take independent charge of their pastorates. Several
clergy have been accorded this position, and some have taken
over the management of the schools and assumed responsibi
lity for the evangelistic work in their respective areas. This
new scheme has had the effect of developing the spirit of
devotion and self-sacrifice, as well as of calling forth more
prominently the co-operation of the laymen of the Church.
Some of these independent pastorates also receive annual
grants from the Synod of the diocese. In 1892 two tea-
planters, Messrs. Ernest J. Carus Wilson and Sydney
M. Simmons left their estates and commenced a Band of
Associated Lay Evangelists in connection with the Sinhalese
branch of the mission. Work was carried on in the villages
with the assistance of catechists. The work was helped by
the exhibition of large coloured Scripture pictures, hymn
singing, lantern talks under the palm trees and work amongst
children. The band was never really given a fair trial of
steady and continued labour, as when any urgent vacancy
occurred in the stations, one of the lay evangelists was at
once sent to fill the gap. The evangelists went to England
in 1896 and returned the following year. Mr. Simmons who
had been ordained was appointed to take charge of Badde-
gama, and in 1899, Mr. Carus Wilson who had been engaged
in evangelistic work at Bentota, was obliged to return to
In 1899 the Ceylon Mission commemorated the Centenary
C,M.S. IN CEYLON 63
of the Parent Society. On April 12 a public meeting was
held in the school room at Galle Face Church, Colombo.
The Bishop presided and the three speakers, all of whom
have since passed to their rest, were the Revs. E. T. Higgens,
J. D. Simmons and Sir W. W. Mitchell. Special services
and meetings were held at all the stations. At Cotta,
Rs. 315 was contributed as a birthday offering, at Baddegama
Rs. 500 as a centenary thankoffering and at Holy Trinity
Church, Kandy, RP. 500 was given to meet the monthly
liabilities of the pastorate. At Nellore a breakfast was given
to five hundred persons. At Chundicully there was a social
gathering and at 5.20 p.m. corresponding to noon in London,
the Union Jack was unfurled, and the hymn Jesus shall
reign was sung. At Pallai, after the thanksgiving service,
Sir W. Twynam entertained one hundred and fifty Christians
The C.M.S. Conference, which until quite recently met
twice a year, now meets once a year in the month of
August, with the Bishop as Chairman. All the European
missionaries, four Ceylonese clergy and two Ceylonese
laymen are members. The women missionaries have also a
Conference which meets annually. The Conferences elect
Standing Committees, Examination, Visiting and other sub
The Finance Committee of the mission is composed of
nine laymen, two missionaries and the Secretary of the
mission. There have always been influential laymen willing
to give their services, and one of these, Sir VV. W. Mitchell,
K.C.M.G., who died in Colombo on December 15, 1915, had
been a valuable member for thirty-one years.
i A new constitution granted by the Parent Committee came into force
at the August Conference, 1921. See Appendix.
64 CENTENARY VOLUME
In the year 1843 an Association, under the patronage of
His Excellency, Sir Colin Campbell (then Governor), the
Bishop of Madras and some of the principal members of the
Civil Service, was established, in order to assist the evange
listic and educational work of the C.M.S. in Colombo and the
Western Province. From the commencement the Ceylon
Association of the C.M.S. as it is now called, has contributed
largely to the local funds of the mission, and for several
years has made grants to the stations and has supported
workers. The receipts of the Association for the twenty-five
years, 18911915, amounted to no less than Rs. 126,804.
A few years ago a Home Branch of the Ceylon C.M.S.
Association was formed by Mr. Ernest J. Carus Wilson,
Woodlea, Barnet, (formerly of the Ceylon Mission) in order
to retain the prayerful sympathy and practical help of those
interested in Ceylon and also of those who, when resident in
the island, subscribed to the work. Gifts are forwarded to
Ceylon and donors receive the monthly Gleaner and the annual
report of the Association.
For some years the Church Missionary Gleaner, a monthly
illustrated publication containing information of the work in
various missions throughout the world, has been localized.
The Ceylon portion furnishes details of local mission work
and is edited by one of the missionaries.
During the hundred years, 108 European missionaries,
clerical and lay, and sixty European women missionaries
(not including wives) have worked in the mission with,
during the same period, thirty-three Tamil clergy and twenty-
As regards area, fully three-fourths of the island has
been committed to the C.M.S. by diocesan authority, either
for Sinhalese or Tamil work or for both, but it has to be
acknowledged with regret that a great part of this area has
never been effectively occupied. The following are the
C.M.S. IN CEYLON 65
STATISTICS OF THE MISSION FOR 1918
1. Mission Agents
European Clergy .... ... ... 16
Ceylonese Clergy ... ... .... 27
Women Missionaries ... ... ... 14
Catechists and Readers .. ... 122
Biblevvomen ... ... ... 37
School Masters ... ... ... 479
School Mistresses ... ... ... 319
Communicants ... ... ... 6,041
Christians (adults and children) including
the Communicants ... ... .,. 14,796
Adult candidates for baptism ... ... 302
3. Baptisms in 1918
Adults ... ... ... ... 224
Children ... ... ... ... 487
4. Sunday Schools ... ... ... 253
Scholars ... ... ... ... 9,749
Students ... .. 52
High Schools 4
Students ... ... 1357
Middle Schools ... ... 15
Students ... ... ... 1,342
Students ... ... ... 23,814
Students ... ... 141
66 CENTENARY VOLUME
STATISTICS OF THE MISSION FOR 1918 continued.
6. Contributions in 1918
Grants by Parent Committee and contri
butions received through them ... 184,714:24
Contributions by Europeans and Burghers. 31,057:52
Contributions by Sinhalese and Tamils for
their own Churches ... ... 42,346:10
Contributions for Tamil Cooly Mission ... 11,734:84
Ceylon Association ... ... ... 7,538:69
Total ... 92,677:15
It must be borne in mind that in dealing with the statistics
the figures refer only to what are known as the C.M.S.
districts, for instance, the number of Christians given above
as 14,796, is the number living in the districts belonging to
the congregations for that year. Many of our young people
who by our means have been brought to the knowledge of the
truth, move out into the world to obtain a livelihood, and
attach themselves to other congregations. There is not a
parish or district in the island in which will not be found
those who have at one time or another, been connected with
our districts or schools.
In 1918 the C.M.S. thus had in Ceylon 314 schools with
Three hundred and ten of these schools received grants-in-
aid from Government that year, amounting to Rs. 118,866
or nearly ^"7,924. The twenty-one English schools received
of this amount, Rs. 36,300:50, the four Anglo- Vernacular
schools, Rs. 4,375:21 and the 285 Vernacular schools,
C.M.S. IN CEYLON
Again, the results of missionary work cannot be gauged by
the number of converts living at any particular date. The
real fruits of the work are the souls that have passed to the
everlasting rest. Dr. Stock truly says in the History of the
C.M.S. (vol. iii, p. 769) : Let it be repeated, that statistics
fail to show the best fruits, the fruits already gathered into
the heavenly garner, and no mission has given brighter
examples of Christian deaths crowning Christian lives than
the mission in Ceylon.
STATISTICS OF THE MISSION AT VARIOUS DATES
European Clergy ...
Ceylonese Clergy ...
STATISTICS OF THE MISSION AT VARIOUS DATES contd.
1888 1898 1908 191S
European Clergy ...
Ceylonese Clergy ...
17 ! 21
KANDY, beautifully situated in a valley amid the Kandyan
hills, seventy-two miles from Colombo and 1,654 feet above
sea-level, was founded about A.D. 1200 and from the year
1592 to 1815 was the Capital of the Sinhalese Kings. Kandy
or Kande means the hill or hill country, but it is known to
the people as Maha Nuwara, the great city. Cruelty on
the part of the last Sinhalese king had made his subjects
regard him with hatred, and the execution of the wife and
children of his prime minister, Ehelapola, led the people to
compass his overthrow. The British were invited to help,
and the arrest and death in exile of the tyrant, Sri Wickrama
Raja Singha, terminated the line of Sinhalese kings. On
March 2, 1815, the British flag was hoisted and the interior
came under the dominion of the British Crown. , At a Con
vention on the same day, between the Governor and the
chiefs, it was agreed that the late sovereign had forfeited all
claims to that title and that his descendants should be for
ever excluded from the throne. It was also agreed that the
religion of Buddha should be inviolable and its rites, ministers
and places of worship maintained and protected. The spirit
of independence, however, still remained, the chiefs would
not brook the restraints of the new government, and within
three years a rebellion broke out the suppression of which
cost the lives of a thousand British and many natives.
About this time the population of Kandy was about three-
thousand, whilst to-day it is over thirty thousand, and the low
country people in the town out-number the Kandyans by
nearly three thousand. A wonderful change has taken place
in Kandy during the last hundred years. In the early day?,
the town consisted of mud huts thatched with straw, the streets
being almost impassable, with open drains on each side, six
or seven feet wide, which acted as receptacles for the filth of
the town and over which were placed planks as approaches to
the huts. Villagers brought in produce from the country,
fowls could be bought at two pence each and one hundred and
twenty eggs for a shilling. There were no proper roads and
the first mail coach did not run till 1832. When the first
C.M.S. missionaries arrived in Ceylon, the Governor strongly
urged that one of their number should commence work in
Kandy. There were many reasons which favoured this.
Here was the temple, the Dalada Malagawa, containing the
so-called tooth of Buddha, which was regarded with supersti
tious reverence by the Buddhists, also the viharas or colleges
of the priests. The independence of the people was in itself
a safeguard against hypocrisy and a pledge of their sincerity
when they should be led to profess faith in Christ. So in
1818 the Rev. S. Lambrick entered on his work in Kandy.
On October 27, 1818, he wrote I cannot be permitted at
present to preach to the natives, but I have obtained author
ity to open schools, and have obtained two priests to be the
masters of them. The children will be especially taught to
read and write their own language as a step towards their
receiving the words of eternal life. Mr. Lambrick was for
two years the only Church of England clergyman in Kandy
and consequently gave much time to the spiritual care of the
troops and other Europeans there. On the eve of the depar
ture of the Governor, Sir R. Brownrigg, from the island, a
levee was held at which the four C.M.S. missionaries were
present and presented an address, to which the Governor
replied, The whole island is now in a state of tranquillity,
most favourable for the cultivation and improvement of the
70 CENTENARY VOLUME
human mind. I cannot doubt but that under the guidance of
providence, the progress of Christianity will be general, if the
zeal for propagating the knowledge of Christianity be tem
pered with such a sound discretion as has been exhibited
already by one of your mission (Mr. Lambrick) in the centre
of the heathen population. It is my sincere wish that you
may all follow that example, and that your success may
justify my partial feelings of regard for the missionaries of
the established Church. On October 28, 1821, the Rev.
and Mrs. Thomas Browning arrived to work with Mr.
Lambrick. Owing to want of success among the Kandyans,
there was some thought of abandoning the town and starting
work in an interior village. The Government however
would not sanction the removal on account of the unsettled
state of the country. At the end of May, 1822, Mr. Lambrick
removed to the low country. In June, 1822, Mr. Browning
obtained from Government a grant of land, which still forms
part of the Trinity College compound, on which he erected a
bungalow and school room. Service was held in the school
on Sundays, several Kaffir soldiers belonging to the Ceylon
regiment were under instruction, and the Sinhalese prisoners
in the jail were visited. At the end of 1823 there were 127
children attending the five schools which had been opened.
Bishop Heber, on his visit to Kandy in 1825, says We
went up with the Governor, Sir E. Barnes, to Kandy, where I
preached, administered the sacrament, and confirmed twenty-
six young persons in the audience hall of the late King of
Kandy, which now serves as a Church. Here, twelve years
ago, this man, who was a dreadful tyrant, used to sit in state,
to see those whom he had condemned, trodden to death by
elephants trained for the purpose. Here he actually com
pelled the wife of one of his chief ministers, to bruise to death
in a mortar, with a pestle, with her own hands, one of her
children, before he put the other to death, and here at the
time, no Englishman or Christian could have appeared, unless
as a slave, or at the risk of being murdered. Now, in this
very place, an English Governor and an English congregation,
besides many converted natives of the island, were sitting
peaceably to hear an English bishop preach.
In 1826 a further piece of land was granted by Government
for a burial ground. In 1827, there were eight communi
cants from the Portuguese and Sinhalese, whose moral
conduct was consistent and in 1830 the state of things had
not much altered for the better. In March, 1831, Bishop
Turner of Calcutta visited the station and confirmed thirty-six
candidates, and in October of the same year the first Sunday
school was opened.
The mission was strengthened in June, 1835, by the arrival
of the Rev. William Oakley. Soon after, a house to house
visitation of the Sinhalese Protestant Christians in Kandy
was started, and in fifty families containing about three
hundred persons, it was found that family worship was only
kept up in ten, some were totally destitute of the word of
God, some never attended divine worship, some were living
in open sin, and others were found neglecting the baptism
and education of their children. Another investigation of the
number of Protestant families that were not Sinhalese was
made, and it was found that out of five hundred and eighty
souls in one hundred and twenty-three families, eighty children
were unbaptized, and in between thirty and forty families, the
parents were living together unmarried.
Mr. Oakley also visited the villages, the hospitals in the
town and the Malay soldiers of the Ceylon Rifle regiment.
Mr. Browning died at sea in July, 1838, when only two
days sail from England. The Bishop of Madras visited the
mission in November, 1839, and wrote My next visit was to a
place very interesting to me, the Church Missionary premises
in Kandy, where under the devoted care of Mr. Oakley the
72 CENTENARY VOLUME
work grows and flourishes. His school room, which is also his
Church, is becoming much too small for either purpose. He
understands his work, and loves it, and is evidently doing
good. In 1840 there were at Kandy besides Mr. and Mrs.
Oakley, eighteen native teachers, of whom two were women.
There were twenty-two communicants and thirteen schools,
containing three hundred and thirteen boys and fifty-six girls.
Mrs. Oakley, who died on July 14, 1866, aged fifty-one years,
was a remarkable woman, speaking both Tamil and Sinhalese,
exercising great power for good and universally respected.
A tablet to her memory was placed in Holy Trinity Church
by the congregation.
For many years Mr. Oakley and the catechists visited the
district of Yatanuwara, about twelve miles from Kandy, and
during one of his early visits in 1837, a man who had been a
prisoner in the Kandy jail expressed a wish to be baptized.
On his release from prison, he returned to Ratmiwela, his
village, taking with him some tracts and Scripture portions.
He attended regularly the Sunday services in Kandy. He
had been a devil dancer, and brought all his books connected
with devil worship to the missionary saying, With these
books I have for a long time deceived myself and the
people. I shall use them no more. God has shown me
that I must give up all these things, and I now give them
to you, lest my family should get hold of them, and also
be deceived. His relations were greatly enraged with him
for forsaking his old religion, and one of his brothers procured
a gun intending to shoot him. He was baptized on Sunday,
June 3, 1838, by the name of Abraham. The following
August his eldest son was baptized by the name of Isaac,
and his wife, who was at the first very much opposed to the
step which her husband had taken, was on January 3, 1841,
baptized by the name of Sarah.
Abraham was appointed school master in his native village,
and six years after his baptism, the brother who had threat
ened to shoot him was baptized by the name of Samuel.
Samuel built a new school in the village and in 1849 a
resident catechist was appointed. There were only three
women in the whole district at that time who could read and
write, and they were Mary, Martha and Rebecca, the daugh
ters of Abraham. Two other women were also baptized by
the names of Christina and Lydia, and the former became
the wife of David, a son of Abraham. Samuel died in 1867,
having lived a consistent life from the day of his conversion.
In 1860 died one, who had for forty years been a great
strength and help to the Kandy mission, Cornelius Jayatilaka.
From the very first he had connected himself with the
mission, and aided in the erection of the buildings and the
formation of schools and congregations. He was a Govern
ment officer of high rank, a Mudaliyar of the Governor s Gate,
and a humble and consistent Christian. During a rebellion
of the Kandyans, he obtained possession of the so-called
tooth of Buddha. The relic is, in the eyes of the Kandyans,
of priceless value. For its surrender to the Buddhists,
Jayatilaka might have made his own terms and named his
own price. But true to his trust, he hid the relic in his long
hair, made his way to the Commandant, and placed it in his
hands. The fact of its capture broke the spirit of the rebels,
and the rising was at once quelled. It was a striking sight
to see this man of high family and rank kneeling at the
Lord s Table close beside two half-naked Kandyan converts
and with them partaking of the memorials of the death and
passion of his Saviour and theirs.
During Mr. Oakley s time Trinity Church in the Mission
compound and churches at Katukelle and Getambe were
built. Trinity Church cost about ^"1,000 towards which
the Sinhalese gave /~500. Shortly before Mr. Oakley s
retirement, Trinity Church was transferred to the care of the
74 CENTENARY VOLUME
Rev. Cornelius Jayasinha, and a council composed of Sinhalese
gentlemen was formed for the management of the affairs of
the three churches.
From the commencement of the Kandy Mission in 1818 to
the year of Mr. Oakley s retirement in 1867, the number of
adults baptized in connection with the congregations at Kandy
was 128, viz. seventy-four men and fifty-four women. Of
these thirty-six were Kandyans.
In 1872 the Rev. Henry Gunasekara (the son of the late
Rev. A. Gunasekara of Baddegama) was appointed to Trinity
Church, and for thirty-seven years till February 1909 when
he retired, was the faithful pastor and friend of the congre
gations. The Christians in 1909 numbered 395, of whom 195
were communicants. Mr. Gunasekara died in 1916.
When the Missionary Conference assembled at Cotta on
July 14, 1885, an incident occurred which was unique in the
history of the mission. It was just over fifty years since
Mr. Oakley had arrived in Ceylon, and with the exception of
a short visit to India of three months, he had never been away
from the island. Past and present missionaries had subscribed
to a fund to provide a scholarship in connection with Trinity
College, to bear his name, and this, which amounted to
Rs. 800, was presented together with a copy of the Revised
Version of the Bible and an illuminated address in the follow
ing words :
We, your fellow-labourers, and others who have worked
with you in this mission, desire to offer you our warmest
congratulations on the completion of your fiftieth year of
missionary service in Ceylon. It is a matter of deep thank
fulness to us all, that in God s mercy and love you have been
allowed to spend so many years of continued labour in our
Master s cause. During the long period you have been
connected with this branch of the Church Missionary Society,
it has been your earnest desire to glorify our Lord and Saviour
HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, KANDV
ST. ANDREW S CHURCH. r.AMPor.A
Jesus Christ, and as Secretary of this Mission, you have
enjoyed the hearty, loving confidence of your brethren, over
whose Conference you have so long presided. We have also
a grateful remembrance of many personal kindnesses received
at your hands. You hav r e been glad with us in our joys, and
in our troubles you have always sympathized, while the
matured wisdom of your counsel and advice, your prudence,
and forbearing gentleness, have been used by God in great
measure, to secure that unity of feeling and of action which,
has characterized our mission for so many years.
We wish you to accept this volume the Revised Version
of the Bible as a token of our esteem and affection, and to
allow us to associate with your name a prize or exhibition, to
be known as the Oakley Prize or Exhibition, in connection
with Trinity College, Kandy, the station where the greater
part of your active missionary life was spent.
That our Heavenly Father may graciously spare you to
us for many years to come, and, when your work on earth is
finished, give you an abundant entrance into His eternal
kingdom and glory, is the fervent desire and earnest prayer of
your brethren of the Ceylon Mission.
Just a year after, on July 11, 1886, Mr. Oakley entered
into rest at Nuwara Eliya, aged seventy-nine years. . To the
last he was the active Secretary and revered counsellor and
friend of the whole mission.
On February 13, 1909, the Rev. Gregory S. Amarasekara
was appointed Incumbent of Trinity Church, the congrega
tions connected therewith giving him a hearty welcome.
In 1918 the congregation of Trinity Church numbered 215
adults and eighty -three children, of whom 161 were communi
cants, whilst the average attendance at the Sunday morning
service was 105 adults. The annual sale of work produces
over Rs. 500 and one of the members of St. John s Church,
.Gatambe, bequeathed one thousand rupees to that Church.
76 CENTENARY VOLUME
FOR some years the leading Sinhalese in Kandy had been
urging on the C.M.S. the need of a superior school for the
education of their sons, and had promised their support and
On October 16, 1857, the Rev. John Ireland Jones
arrived from England and opened an establishment, under
the name of the Kandy Collegiate School. Its primary
object was to attract the sons of the Kandyan chiefs. In
this it was not successful, although many of the principal
residents of the town availed themselves of its advantages.
The institution continued in operation for about six years,
being during the latter half of the time under the charge of
the Rev. R. B. Tonge.
On January 18, 1872, it was re-opened under the name
of Trinity College and Collegiate School with the Rev. R.
Collins as Principal, and Mr. Alfred Clark as Tutor, and
quickly took an important position which it has since main
tained. At the end of the same year there were 120 students
on the roll.
Early in 1877 the latter half of the name was dropped
and from thenceforth it became Trinity College, and the
Kandy Prince of Wales Reception Fund Committee pre
sented the college with Rs. 2,000 in memory of his Royal
Highness visit to Kandy. In the following year the college
was affiliated to the Calcutta University, and in 1879 the
Acting Principal, Mr. Thomas Dunn, reported The Govern
ment examination was satisfactory, 90 per cent of passes
being obtained. The Entrance and F.A. examinations were
held in December. Six students went up for the first, and
three for the second examination.
In 1880 the Rev. J. G. Garrett was appointed Principal,
and the following year there were 238 students, thirty of
these being boarders. In 1883 the Rev. J. Field was appointed
TRINITY COLLEGE. KANDY
Vice-Principal. In 1885 the Rev. E. Noel Hodges, formerly
of the Noble High School in Masulipatam, became Principal,
assisted by the Rev. J. Ilsley. In 1889 Mr. Hodges was
appointed to the Bishopric of Travancore and Cochin, and
his post at Kandy was taken by the Rev. E. J. Perry, who
had been a master at Merchant Taylors School. He threw
himself into the work with a bright enthusiasm that augured
great things, but on April 2, 1890, he was accidentally shot
dead near Alut-nuwara, whilst on a visit to the Veddahs in.
the Bintenne country. As a memorial to him, a college
mission, known as the Perry Memorial Mission was started
in an outlying district. The Rev. J. W. Fall, the Vice-Prin
cipal, who had arrived in November 1889, carried on the
work of the college, until the arrival of the new Principal,
the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering, in June 1890. At that
time there were 298 students, sixty-three of whom were
boarders. Owing to the increased number of students two
blocks of additional buildings were erected.
In November, 1891, the Rev. J. Carter arrived as Vice-
Principal. The following year, Mr. Napier-Clavering reported
that there were many boys hoping to be baptized as soon as
they became their own masters and that on Advent Sunday
seventeen of the students were confirmed.
In 1895 the Rev. R. W. Ryde became Vice-Principal till
August 1899, and the Rev. A. A. Pilson arrived to fill the
vacancy in March 1900. Mr. Pilson died of typhoid fever
at Nuwara Eliya on April 30, 1902, aged twenty-nine.
The Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering s resignation on account of
home claims in A\igust 1900, was universally regretted, as he
was popular both with masters and boys, and the college had
prospered under him. The period of his Principalship was
emphatically one of progress, new buildings were erected, the
number of students increased and the general status of the
college Raised. The Rev. R. W. Ryde succeeded to the
78 CENTENARY VOLUME
Principalship. The average daily attendance that year was
323 out of a roll of 410. The primary school, nurtured by
the college, showed a daily attendance of fifty-four out of
eighty-three, for the same period.
In 1902 the Rev. J. Carter became temporarily Principal
and early the following year, the Rev. A. MacLulich
MacLulich, Vice-Principal. During 190+ the college was
carried on under the guidance of no less than four heads,
succeeding each other. I Ir. Carter was in charge until his
departure for England on May 6, the Rev. H. P. Napier-
Clavering till August 7, then the Rev. A. MacLulich, and,
from November 5, Mr. A. G. Fraser. The annual report
showed that in the highest things the year had been one of
prosperity and blessing. It says, The Te Deum has been
swelling more and more as the months have rolled on. This
year is in every sense an improvement on last, and has
been continually improving on itself. Five lads have been
baptized, and thirteen were confirmed by the Bishop. Under
Mr. Fraser s masterly direction the school has gone forward
to a remarkable degree. The compound has been extended
by the acquisition of new land ; new buildings have been
erected ; a magnificent playing field of several acres has
been hewn from a hillside ; a strong staff including several
Europeans has been built up, and the school has been further
developed as a boarding school anl has acquired a distinctive
character and spirit. These things have involved a heavily
increased expenditure and Mr. Fraser has worked successfully
for the establishment of the Trinity College Extension Fund
which has made these schemes of development possible.
In 1905 a bungalow and compound known as Woodlands,
adjoining the college premises, were acquired by means of
money collected by Mr. Fraser, thus giving a residence for
the Principal and leaving the college bungalow for the
In August, 1906, Mr. Fraser was suddenly ordered home
on account of ill-health. The Rev. W. S. Senior, who had
recently arrived, assumed the office of Acting Principal, and
was joined later in the year by the Rev. A. M. Walmsley.
Towards the end of the year 1908, Mr. Fraser returned
with reinforcements of men, viz. the Rev. J. P. S. R. Gibson
and Messrs. N. P. Campbell and K. J. Saunders, backed up
by a wealth of prayer and sympathy. The aim of Mr. Fraser
and the methods by which he proposed to achieve it may be
best expressed in his own words.
The Aim. We intend to make a serious effort
First.- To train Christians in Ceylon so to present Christ
that their hearers may realize Him not as a foreigner, but as
the real and true fulfilment of all that is best and highest in
their aspirations and in their past.
Second. To make the pupils good citizens of their own
land, (a) By carefully relating all that is taught them to the
needs, problems and language of their own people, (b) By
deliberately striving to foster and encourage their sense cf
responsibility and readiness to act and, so working, to produce
The Methods. We propose (a) The appointment of
three capable and accomplished students to devote them
selves to the study of education in India and Ceylon, and of
Hindu and Buddhist apologetics, (b) The establishment of a
good training college for Christian teachers in the Vernacular
and English and the creation of a ladder from the village
school to the college with its possibilities of leadership. We
hope by basing our education on the Vernaculars whilst
teaching English thoroughly, to make the transition from
village school to college easier, and to instruct pupils more
readily and more intelligently from the basis of their own
knowledge, (c) The efficient prosecution of higher education
on the lines of the Japanese code or of the Arya Samaj in its
gO CENTENARY VOLUME
national gurukulas, i.e. education in their own classics
combined with that of the West, and modern science, (d) In
all. we hope to devolve responsibility more and more on the
people themselves, to strictly limit the number of our pupils
that each may have individual attention, and that there may
be close contact between teachers and taught. To sum up :
We are attempting to translate into carefully planned action
the belief that the hope of the future lies with the native
Christians, and our energies are most wisely exercised when not
directly employed on Hindus, Mohammedans and Buddhists,
but when building up a wise, eager and indigenous Church.
In 1909 Mr. N. P. Campbell designed new buildings which
were erected at the cost of ^"3000. These contain a chemi
cal laboratory, a physical laboratory with gallery, a class
room, quarters for two masters, a masters common room, and
a dormitory containing sixty beds. The compound was
improved and two acres of land adjoining were leased from
Government for ninety-nine years. In this year, Mr. G. K.
Mulgrue, who had been on the teaching staff for some years,
was taken into local connection.
The Rev. L. J. Gaster joined the staff in 1910. The
following year Mr. Eraser left on a visit to England to plead
for funds to carry out a Training Colony scheme and during
his absence the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering was Honorary
In 1914 Mr. K. J. Saunders who during his stay in Ceylon
had written several books and pamphlets on Buddhism, left the
College to take up Y.M.C.A. work in India. Mr. Campbell
also left for England in the same year for training in
connection with the war, and Mr. A. C. Houlder, who had
previously been on the staff as a short service man,
rejoined the college as missionary in full connection.
At the close of 1915 the Rev. K. C. McPherson joined the
teaching staff as a missionary of the C.M.S., and the Rev.
W. S. Senior who had been Vice- Principal for eight years,
left to take charge of Christ Church, Galle Face, Colombo.
The Trinity College Annual for 1914 gives a wonderful
account of the various activities and agencies of the college.
It consists of nearly one hundred pages and many illustrations.
The spiritual side is put well to the front as the following
quotation will show : Trinity College, while a public
school on the best lines, is before all a missionary school. Its
success is not indeed to be measured by mere numbers of those
baotized and confirmed or by the number of communicants.
It is rather to be sought in the " atmosphere " and " tone," the
outlook on life and the general product of the place. Yet if
the general product never crystallized in particular results,
our success would be questionable. It is with gratitude, then,
that we are able to record a number of baptisms in 1913, and
a few in the current year. No pressure save that of public
preaching (and the " atmosphere " alluded to), no preferential
treatment is ever brought to bear. Truth is our one weapon,
and in several cases the candidates have very real obstacles
of antecedents and circumstance to overcome. As to Confir
mation, the numbers seem to increase yearly, and the annual
Confirmation Service more and more becomes a red letter
day of our calendar. No one can be present either on the
Sunday evenings when public baptism is administered, or on
the afternoons when the Bishop confirms, without being
much moved and much inspired, with the thought of the
reality and value of the educational missionary task.
The students who are communicants have a Communi
cants Union, the Sunday School has twenty-eight classes
and 210 students, there is also a Union for Social Service,
and in 1914 a College Hostel was opened in Colombo,
where so many Trinity boys go down for employment or to
continue their studies. There is also a College Cadet Corps,
and Cricket, Rugger, Boxing, Fives and Tennis are keenly
82 CENTENARY VOLUME
supported. There are also Literary and Reading Associa
tions, and a Masters Guild.
In the report of the year s work read at the Prize-giving in
1915, the Rev. A. G. Eraser said, for the third year in
succession we headed the Commercial examination, and in
the Cambridge Senior Local four of our students won the
first four places in the Empire in Book-keeping. In the
Junior Local we passed twenty candidates, one obtaining
first class honours, and we obtained four distinctions. In the
Senior Local we passed thirty-five candidates, with two
second class honours, five third class, and ten distinctions.
In the Intermediate in Arts all our three candidates passed.
In the Inter Science we presented four and all passed. In
athletics, we won the Cricket Championship, and the Inter
collegiate Shooting Cup for the ninth time in succession.
We were the winners also of the Inter-collegiate Shields for
Physical Drill, and for Military Drill, and we still retain the
Boxing Shield. Our Rugby Football team was again with
out rivals, and the only Inter-collegiate competition we have
not come first in is that for track running, and in that we
were equal second.
The Rev. L. J. Gaster went on furlough in 1915, and
returned the following year. In his report as Acting Principal
he says, I had the privilege of preparing twelve boys for
confirmation, and a few for baptism. To see those boys
coming forward in the fa:e of opposition, ready to confess
Christ in baptism, and to take up their cross and follow Him,
is something which does not fail to leave its mark on oneself
also. It can be said most emphatically that the Life and
Person of Jesus Christ make a strong appeal, and an appeal
not in vain to the young life of Ceylon.
Mr. A. C. Houlder writes, The Social Service Union is,
I believe, the strongest agency we have whereby the fulness
of Christ, the life in Christ, may be demonstrated. The work
is voluntary, the motto, " A patriot can serve his country only
when he makes their sorrows and disabilities his own." There
are about thirty members amongst the boys, and at least eight
earnest workers amongst the masters. We have made
frequent visits to villages, treating cases of sores and ulcers,
and teaching games to the boys. We have also opened a
school in an outcaste village. These people are mat-weavers
by occupation. They are not allowed to attend school with
any other caste people, and until we went there no Kandyan
of good family had been near them at all. Our boys have
visited them frequently, bicycling ten miles, or walking
seven each way, to see the school, lecture to the boys,
and help them in any way possible, also visiting their
The following with regard to the great war is an extract from
the Report read at the Annual Prize Giving in December, 1918:
The war ended almost as suddenly as it began. Trinity
College is never a dull place, and has on occasions shown a
wonderful energy of expression, but when the news came
through that Germany had signed the armistice we surpassed
all previous records in the irresponsible enthusiasm of our
There are sixty-two names on our Roll of Honour. Of
this number ten were killed in action on the Western Front,
one was drowned in the Mediterranean on his way to England
to enlist, and one died of disease contracted on active service.
In the midst of our rejoicings we think of these brave souls
who will never return : R. Aiyadurai, N. P. Campbell,
F. Drieberg, H. C. Forster, C. F. H. Kent, J. Loos,
K. Murray, A. G. F. Perera, A. Paramananthan, R. Skipp,
P. Scott-Coates, and A. J. Wells. They went forth unafraid
to defend the right, and they gave their lives that the right
might triumph. We thank God for their courage, their
vision, and their self-sacrifice.
84 CENTENARY VOLUME
One of the last to fall in the conflict was Herbert Forsteiv
who left school for the Front early last year, and was killed
in France in March of this year at the age of nineteen.
Besides those who gave their lives, eighteen of our number
were wounded or gassed, and two were made prisoners.
Those who received decorations are J. W. S. Bartholomeusz,
who was awarded the French Croix de Guerre of the First
Class, and Vere Modder, who won the Military Medal. Capt.
E. C. Squire, who joined our staff and was about to sail for
Ceylon when war broke out, has been awarded the Military
Three of our boys on the Western Front obtained Com
missions, the last being Ajit Rudra, the son of the Principal
of St. Stephen s College, Delhi, and five of our Old Boys
recently obtained Commissions in the I. A. R. O.
Mr. N. P. Campbell joined H. M. Forces at the end of
1914, obtaining a Commission as Captain in the Royal Engi
neers, and was killed in action on May 3, 1917. An
In Memoriam notice in the C.M.S. Gleaner for the following
month says, Not only in the school but outside it in Kandy
were Mr. Campbell s energies spent. His work among the
poor and needy and his keen efforts to help them, and to
uplift them, are well known. Often was he seen alone on a
roadside helping a lame man or binding up a sore foot. Even
the poor in hospital knew him and were cheered by the
concerts he organized for them. He did not spare himself in
doing all he could for the needy, among whom he was much
Early in the war he left us as he believed " no man had a
right to keep away." Nothing could prevent him. He had
dedicated his life to the cause of freedom.
As He died to make men holy
Let us live to make men free,
were the words he set before him. On his final mission he
was called away to a Greater Freedom on High.
THE TRAINING COLONY.
THIS institution takes its root in the first century of C.M.S.
work and looks for its fruit in the second. It is the product
of the past, and the prophet of the future. In main outline
the plan was conceived by Mr. A. G. Fraser as far back
as 1906. Into what it shall develop none can prophesy, for
it faces the problems of the day in the dim though growing
light of the future rather than in the still strong but waning
twilight of the traditional past.
In the first place the Training Colony is co-denominational.
The Church Missionary Society and the Wesleyan Methodist
Missionary Society in Ceylon have federated as regards the
governing of this institution which is in the hands of a
special Council. The C.M.S. have at present the preponder
ating interest on the basis of larger capital invested, but
there is nothing in the Constitution which in any way gives
special rights or privileges to either Society.
Students from both Societies are admitted and the whole
policy is that of the fullest combination possible for essen
tially similars, and not that of the mere juxtaposition of radi
cally differents. Students eat and sleep, work and play, and
also worship together except for the Sunday morning services,
when as members of their respective Churches the students
attend their own Church or Chapel. At the same time each
Society has full rights and opportunities for teaching its own
members such special doctrines or beliefs as it feels to be
its sacred contribution to the Universal Church. Each
Society has a Vice-Principal in residence to whom the super
vision of the religious life of his flock is specially entrusted.
Of these two, one is chosen Principal and as such impartially
administers the joint interests of the Colony. Secondly, the
86 CENTENARY VOLUME
Colony is co-educational. Men and women are trained in
joint classes, and Sinhalese women, as well as men, teach
the^e classes* This is as real a step forward as is the whole
hearted denominational federation, and is preparing the way
for woman to take her right place in the East.
There are two main departments, the normal training of
Sinhalese teachers for primary vernacular schools, and the
training of evangelists. In the former there are about forty
men and forty women. The course lasts three years and the
objective is the Government Diploma. Government grants
amounted last year to just over Rs. 7,000. The Evangelist
Class is more irregular and so far no such class for women
has been started.
The staff comprises three Europeans and seven Ceylonese.
The main policy of the work is summed up by the motto
Victory through self-sacrifice, self-expression attained
through self-abnegation, Christ in me the hope of Glory. The
vitalizing force in the Colony is the half -hour spent corpo-
rately in silent prayer each morning. From this observance
flows power that gives meaning to the rest of the day.
In many ways, by special services for seed-sowing and
harvesting, by a service of beating the bounds, by national
music and art, by processions and illuminations, we seek to
enable religious faith to express itself in national forms and
the spontaneity of the expression makes one believe that the
springs are deep. Apart from the daily half-hour of quiet,
frequent times are taken when staff and students wait in
silence upon God, with the mind receptive for the impress of
the Divine. The medical side of the work enables the idea
of Social Service to be developed and the elements of First-
Aid to be acquired. The learning of pottery painting adds
another form of beautiful self-expression. The elementary
principles of agriculture which are taught send the men forth
the better able to deal with rural problems.
STAFF AND STUDENTS AT FRASER HALT.
MEN S HOSTEL (ASHLEY HALL) AND ESTATE
Drill, games and mountaineering excursions develop the
body and open the mind to the glories of Nature.
Such in outline is the ideal. In conclusion a few facts may
be of interest. The Colony is on the site of the Rosehill
Estate, Peradeniya Junction, and contains now about thirty
acres planted in tea and rubber. The buildings comprise
the Principal s Bungalow, the Women s Hostel (Laurie
Hall), the Men s Hostel (Ashley Hall), and the main teaching
school (Fraser Hall), the right wing of which is the Vice-
Principal s house. There are also houses for the married
staff, a dispensary, and buildings for the Evangelist Depart
ments both men s and women s. The Colony was acquired
and opened in 1914. Work began in Laurie Hall in 1916, in
Ashley Hall in 1917, and in Fraser Hall in 1918. The total
capital cost has been over Rs. 125,000.
JAFFNA, in the extreme north, is a town of about 50,000
inhabitants, and the northern province, of which it is the
capital, contains a population of 330,000, nearly all of whom
are Tamils. Jaffna is 207 miles from Colombo, and, until the
railway was opened in 1905, it seemed to be cut off from the
rest of the island. A large fort still stands which was built by
the Portuguese in 1624, and the massive Church in the form
of a Greek cross, with the date 1706 over the main entrance,
testifies to the importance of Jaffna in the Dutch period.
Jaffna is supposed to have been founded in the year A.D. 101
and is thus described in Casie Chetty s Tamil Plutarch :
Yalpana was a minstrel who lived in the Chola country.
Being blind, he depended on the earnings of his wife. One
day his meals were not ready at the proper hour, so he quar
relled with his wife and left the house saying he was going to
Ceylon. When he arrived there, he was refused admittance
into the king s presence, but it was afterwards arranged that
the king should stand behind a curtain and hear the blind
minstrel s song. The king, being greatly pleased, honoured
him with the gift of a tusked elephant, and by the donation of
a piece of land in the northern extremity of the island in
perpetuity. This was no other than the present peninsula of
Jaffna. It was then uninhabited and covered with jungle, but
he had it cleared, and, having induced a colony of Tamils from
Southern India to settle in it, soon rendered it a rich country,
which he called after his own professional name Yalpana
Nadu, that is, the minstrel s country.
Yalpana has been corrupted into the modern name of Jaffna.
The climate and scenery differ from those of the other parts of
tne island. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people,
palmyra palms and tobacco being the chief products. The
C.M.S., the American Board of Foreign Missions, the
Wesleyans and the Roman Catholics, have all strong missions
in the district. The proportion per cent, of the adherents of
each religion to the total population in 1911 was, Hindus
87-76, Mohammedans I ll, Buddhists 09, and Christians
The Rev. Joseph Knight, the first C.M.S. missionary,
arrived in Jaffna in July, 1818, and moved to Nellore in
November. As soon as he commenced work he met with
difficulties and opposition. The people thought it necessary
to bathe themselves and purify their houses after the mission
ary s visit, and it was usual for the pundit to bathe at the
tank on his way home after giving a lesson at the Mission
House. The first printing press was set up by Mr. Knight,
and thousands of tracts were printed and distributed. The
extent of their distribution may be judged from the fact that
1,002,800 tracts were issued from the press in the years 1835-
to 1838. This printing press was afterwards sold to the
In 1820 there were 270 children in the schools, and much
visiting was done. The Rev. and Mrs. Joseph Bailey arrived
in March, 1822, but they were able to remain only twelve
months, during which time Mr. Bailey took the English
duties at the Dutch Church.
During this year Mr. Knight obtained from Government
an old Dutch Church with a piece of land, adjoining the
mission premises. Of this building, forty-two feet were taken
from one end, for "a dwelling house. Mr. Knight married
Mrs. S. B. Richards and after her death, Mrs. E. S. Nichols,
both widows of American missionaries. He died at Cotta
90 CENTENARY VOLUME
and was buried there on October 11, 1840, aged fifty-three.
In the preface to Winslow s Comprehensive Tamil and
English Dictionary, published at Madras in 1862, it is stated
that it was commenced by the Rev. J. Knight, late of
The Rev. W. Adley arrived in 1824 and continued till the
death of Mrs. Adley in 1839, when he left for England,
returning two years later, but being compelled owing to ill-
health to relinquish his work in 1845. Mr. Adley died in
England in 1889, aged ninety-seven years. In September
1826, Mr. Adley baptized four young Tamil men, pupils in
the boarding school which had been established in Nellore in
1823. He wrote, I baptized the boys in the names of
Edward Bickersteth, William Marsh, Jcsiah Pratt and John
Raban, and afterwards described to them the characters of
the persons whose names they bore, with a solemn exhorta
tion that they would follow them as they followed Christ.
The same year was baptized Samuel who had been a
leader of devil worship, practised incantations, given offerings
to religious mendicants, given a cow to a temple, keeping it at
his own house and giving the priests the milk daily, and had
presented a silver sword and shield as an offering to St. James
at a Roman Catholic Church. He became a most earnest
Christian. He met his death one evening as he was re
turning from a missionary meeting, being bitten by a
poisonous snake. His father, a heathen, said, Before,
he was a devil, but after he gave himself up to Christ he put
all evil away. Shortly after his death his wife received
baptism. The Rev. F. W. Taylor joined the mission in 1839
and remained till 1841, when the Rev. J. Talbot Johnston
arrived and stayed eight years.
The same year the district of Chundicully was taken over.
The old Portuguese Church of St. John the Baptist, with its
congregation of ninety, had been handed over to the C.M.S. by
their old Pastor, the Rev. Christian David, who was a convert
of the missionary Schwartsz, in South India. Services were
conducted in it till 1862, when the present church was erected
and dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
The Rev. Robert Pargiter, who had come out as a
Wesleyan missionary and had left that body and been ordained
deacon in 1846 and priest in 1847 by Bishop Chapman, was
added to the missionary band in 1846, spending the greater
part of his time at Chundicully, till his retirement to England
in 1864, where he died in 1915, aged ninety-eight years. The
Rev. James O Neil arrived also in 1846 at Nellore. Mrs.
O Neil under whose care the Girls Boarding School, which
had been opened in 1842, had grown and prospered, died on
December 16, 1848, aged twenty-seven. A tablet to her
memory in Nellore Church says, After the short space of
two years and nine months, spent in mission labour, she
exchanged earth for heaven. Mr. O Neil returned to England
In July, 1847, Dr. Chapman, Bishop of Colombo, visited
Jaffna, when one hundred and thirteen candidates were con
firmed. In 1849 Copay was adopted as a separate mission
district. The Mission House and Church were built on a
piece of land given by Mr. P. A. Dyke, the Government
Agent of the Province. The foundation stone of the church
was laid on May 9, 1850, and the completed building opened
on January 9, 1852, costing about ^"400. At the opening
service three adults were baptized. The Rev. Robert Bren
arrived at Copay in 1849 and returned to England in 1858.
The Copay Training Institution for catechists, readers and
teachers was opened in 1853. In 1855 so much hypocrisy
and mercenary conduct appeared among the Christians in
Jaffna, that it was proposed to close the stations and abandon
the work, but a visit from Mr. Knight revived the spirits of
the missionaries, and the work took a fresh start from that
92 CENTENARY VOLUME
time. The Rev. C. C. MacArthur arrived in 1859 and extend
ed the work till his retirement in 1867. The Rev. H. D.
Buswell arrived in 1862, but was obliged to relinquish the
work owing to ill-health in 1865. In February, 1867, the
Rev. Thomas Good came, just as the schools had been closed
and general work suspended in consequence of a visitation of
cholera, and in January of the following year the Rev. David
In September, 1863, the chief catechist, Mr. J . Hensman, was
ordained deacon by the Bishop of Colombo, and was made priest
two years later. The Rev. J. Hensman was a most energetic
and enthusiastic worker till his death in 1884. Three other
catechists, Messrs. T. P. Handy, G. Champion and E. Hoole
were ordained deacons in 1865. In 1868 when the Jubilee
of the Mission was celebrated, the statistics of the Mission
were, two European missionaries, four Tamil clergy, . ten
catechists, three readers, thirty-four schoolmasters, ten school
mistresses, one biblewoman, one colporteur, 677 Christians,
237 communicants, nineteen boys schools with 961 pupils
and seven girls schools with 397 girls.
The following year, 8640 houses were visited by the
pastors and catechists, 636 meetings held, the gospel preached
to no less than 36,864 persons and work commenced in the
Islands of Mundativu and Allypitty. A Church Council was
formed and the amount contributed that year was \ 18-2-1.
In September, 1870, the Bishop, Dr. Piers Claughton,
visited the Mission and the following account of the visit is
given in the C. M. Record of January, 1871. We are seldom
favoured with the visits of our Diocesan. The way of access
to Jaffna, since the island steamer was discontinued, is sc
difficult and tedious that it requires no ordinary amount of
courage and patience, first to undertake, and afterwards to
endure the journey. It is almost as easy, and certainly more
pleasant, to go to England from Colombo, than to come from
Colombo to Jaffna. Having received a telegram from
Mr. Templer of Manaar, that the Bishop had left there at 6 a.m.
for Jaffna, I drove to the beach at 3 p.m. to meet him, but in
consequence of light winds, or no wind at all, there was no
appearance of the boat. I waited till 8.30 p.m., and returned
to Nellore. However I had the pleasure of welcoming his
Lordship at 12 o clock, midnight. The boat had grounded
several times, and, in consequence of the darkness and shallow
water, sailing in the large boat had become impossible, and
his lordship wisely hailed a fishing barrow," whose occupant
was engaged in his nightly toil, and in this primitive craft
came safely to shore.
On September 7, the Bishop held his visitation in St. John s
Church, Chundicully. Four Tamil clergy, three English
clergy and ten churchwardens were present. After this the
Bishop visited the English Seminary, and in the afternoon a
confirmation service was held at Nellore when twenty-seven
candidates were presented. Next morning the Bishop exami
ned the children of the schools of Chundicully under the
mahogany trees, and afterwards held a confirmation in the
church when twenty-eight candidates were confirmed. In
the afternoon a confirmation was held at Copay where thirty
candidates were presented, and the Bishop afterwards visited
the English School and Training Institution. After sunset he
attended a moonlight meeting two miles from Copay, and at
9 o clock returned to Nellore. The following morning his
lordship held a confirmation in the temporary church in the
Pettah, when twenty-seven persons were confirmed, and the
same afternoon laid the foundation stone of a church at
On Saturday morning the Bishop visited the Girls Board
ing School after which he examined the three candidates for
priests orders, in the afternoon addressed the mission work
ers at Nellore, and in the evening laid the foundation stone
of the Pettah Church. On Sunday morning at 9 o clock,
the Bishop preached in the Pettah, and at 11 o clock con
ducted the ordination service at Nellore, preaching from the
text Titus, 1,5," That thou shouldest set in order the things
that are wanting and ordain elders in every city." The Revs.
Handy, Hoole and Champion were admitted to priests
orders, and the Revs. T. Good, D. Wood and J. Hensman
assisted in the laying on of hands. There were 158 Tamil
communicants. At four in the afternoon the Bishop preached
at the Portuguese service in the Pettah, and at 5.30 in St:
John s Church, Chundicully. The following day the Bishop
held a confirmation in the Court House at Pallai, twenty-five
miles from Jaffna.
In 1871 the Rev. D. Wood removed to Colombo for a
time and Mr. Hensman took the oversight of the Copay
Training Institution. The following year, the missionary
reports, The dowry system and caste are still great evils
among the Christians. A man, professedly Christian, will
not allow his children to marry those whom he considers of
lower caste than his own, though everything else is in favour
of such an alliance.
Mission work was commenced this year, 1872, in
Vavunia Valankullam, by the sending of a catechist and
The Bishop, Dr. Jermyn, paid his first visit to Jaffna in
June of that year. Much evangelistic work was carried on
by the Jaffna clergy and hundreds of Scripture portions sold.
One woman offered a quantity of thread for a gospel, another
two leaves of tobacco, whilst a cooly woman on an estate
begged her employer to pay a penny in advance out of her
hire for the day, and bought a scripture portion with it. An
interesting series of meetings was held in connection with a
party of Christians from Tanjore, known as the Lyrical
Preachers, and blessing resulted.
On December 24, 1874, the Rev. J. D. Simmons, who had
previously been fourteen years in the Tinnevelly Mission,
arrived at Nellore. Mr. Wood returned to Jaffna in 1875,
and in 1878 the Rev. E. Blackmore was stationed in Chundi-
cully, taking the place of Mr. Wood who had been transferred
Mr. Blackmore died on October 24 of the following year.
In 1878 there were thirty-eight schools for boys and fourteen
for sirls, with 2,152 boys and 420 girls, and three-fourths of
the four pastors stipends were paid by the Christians, of whom
there were 485 adults and 285 children.
In December, 1880, the Rev. G. T. Fleming arrived, and the
following year on July 17, the Rev. E. Hoole who had been a
faithful and successful worker passed away in his fifty-second
year. Mr. Hoole s father was the founder and proprietor of a
temple dedicated to the goddess Amman, one of the wives of
Siva. Every parental effort was directed towards the training
of his three sons for their duties as temple-masters. The
father s greatest ambition was to see his elder son growing in
favour with the gods, but one day he received a great shock,
when he had left him in charge of the household gods with
strict injunctions as to the quantity of food and flowers to be
offered. The boy prepared the offerings and presented them
to the images, but after a time, seeing they had not partaken
of the food, he expostulated, and threatened them. He then
took a hammer and smashed the gods to pieces. He had
once before seen an image of Pulliar, which had been sold for
seven shillings and sixpence by a Brahman to a missionary
who wanted to send the idol to England. This had also
helped to undermine his faith. In 1837 he was baptized and
became a Wesleyan minister. The mind of the younger
brother was influenced by the example of the elder, and, re
nouncing his right to the temple, he openly professed
Christianity and was baptized by the name of Elijah Hoole.
95 CENTENARY VOLUME
An In Memoriani notice in one of the papers referred to him
as a model pastor, profound scholar and a speaker with few
equals. Mrs. Hoole who had been a true helpmate died on
August 26, 1906, in her seventieth year.
The Rev. E. M. Griffith was transferred to Jaffna in
February, 1882. In 1884 the Rev. J. Hensman, and in May,
1885, the Rev. J. P. Handy, died, both faithful and good
men. The Revs. J. Niles and J. Backus were ordained in
In 1888 during the month of March, Colonel Oldham and
the Rev. G. C. Grubb conducted a Mission in Jaffna, when
there were direct conversions, a great awakening among
professing Christians and a great spiritual refreshing.
On October 15, 1889, the foundation stone of the church at
Pallai was laid, which was opened on November 30, 1895,
and dedicated to St. Andrew.
On March 13, 1890, the Rev. E. M. Griffith died and the
Rev. J.I. Pickford was appointed to succeed him.
On March 24, 1892, the Rev. J. Niles died. Few have
realized more fully than he did the responsibilities of the
pastor s office. The people and district committed to his
charge were always uppermost in his thoughts.
The Nellore Girls Boarding School continued to flourish
and with 101 pupils it was necessary to erect additional
buildings, whilst the English school at Copay had a hundred
pupils, the fees and government grant meeting all expenses.
On Sunday, December 31, 1893, an ordination was held
entirely in Tamil in Christ Church, when the Revs. G. Daniel,
A. Matthias, S. Morse and C. T. Williams were admitted to
deacons orders. A confirmation was held the same day at
Nellore when thirty-two candidates were confirmed.
Four women missionaries, Misses Heaney, Saul, Paul
and Case were appointed to the district about this time. On
January 15, 1896, a Girls English High School was opened
at Chundiculiy under the management of Mrs. J. Carter and
during the first year there were thirty-nine pupils. Miss
Spreat assisted in the school for a few months but returned to
England and died there. Miss Goodchild became Principal in
1898 and Mrs. Carter, the founder, whose ability, earnest zeal
and loving sympathy had won all hearts, died at Jaffna on
June 8, 1899. Seventy-three girls were now in the school and
Miss Payne arrived to assist. Eleven of the pupils were
confirmed the following year. At the first government exami
nation, forty-two girls out of the forty-six presented passed.
In September 1904, Miss Goodchild went on furlough and her
place was taken by Miss S. L. Page who had been helping in
the work since May. Two Sivite pupils were baptized that
year and there were 120 pupils, including fifty-three boarders.
A Christian Endeavour Society and a monthly consecration
meeting were started. Four years later there were 150 pupils,
and new schoolrooms and dormitories were erected. Miss
.Whitney acted as Principal until Miss Page returned from
furlough in December 1910. In 1914 there were 214 pupils,
about half of whom were boarders. The government grant
earned was six times as much as that earned at the first
examination. Six girls passed the Junior and three the
Senior Cambridge Locals. Fifteen girls were confirmed.
On October 13, 1915, Bishop Copleston opened the new
Kindergarten room, which had cost Rs. 2,100, the government
contributing Rs. 600 of the amount. The school was also
registered under the new government regulations as efficient
and entitled to receive a block grant yearly.
In 1896 a church was built at Pallai at a cost of Rs. 1 1,000.
In 1863 Mr. John Backus, a catechist, who was afterwards
ordained in 1885, had been sent to the district, his instructions
from the missionaries being, Travel east and west, north and
south, exercise your own discretion prayerfully and fix upon a
centre. He made Pallai his head-quarters, putting up a hut,
98 CENTENARY VOLUME
twenty feet by twelve, one half of which served as a school
room, and the other half as a bed and dining room. Sir
William Twynam gave a piece of land, and soon a better
school and house were built. Mr. Backus continued his
energetic work till 1903, during which time the church and
eleven schools were opened.
In May, 1897, the Rev. Hugh Horsley took charge of the
district work. There were at that time seven ordained
pastors, three women missionaries, fifteen catechists and
readers, seven bible women, 1,423 Christians, 637 communi
cants, sixty-seven schools and 3,234 scholars. Mr. Horsley
in his report for the year says, If we may judge by the atten
dance at church and at the Holy Table, the spiritual life is
certainly up to the average of that in England. Family
prayer is the order of the day in many houses. Considerable
interest has been shown in the restoration of some of the
A schoolmaster and catechist of many years standing, Mr.
C. Bartlett, died this year. He and his brother being con
verted about the same time, vindicated their strong convic
tion of the truth of Christianity, by demolishing the heathen
temple that was in their garden and was conducted under the
management of their parents. They were the means also of
leading their father, brother, and sisters, to Christ. The
secretary of the Nellore Church Committee, Mr. Alexander
Bailey, died this year. At his funeral, Sir William Twynam
a former Government Agent of the Province, a friend and
staunch supporter of mission work, said He was always a
steady man and reliable.
The Nellore Girls Boarding School under Mrs. and Miss
Horsley continued to be a bright spot. One of the girls gave
a rupee to the church fund, saying that she had worked
during the holidays at plaiting coconut leaves and had
brought her earnings. The Rev. G. Daniel mentions an
aged woman who had heard the Gospel for twenty-eight
years, and had at last yielded herself to the power of the Word
of God. The Rev. J. Backus mentions the death of an old
Christian, who was well known as the Bishop s good old
man. He was baptized late in life and at the confirmation
service he was so ready with his answers to certain questions
put by the Bishop, that the Bishop s curiosity was aroused,
and he asked Who is that good old man, who was so ready
with his answers ? Although he lived four miles from the
nearest church, he was always among the first at the
In 1901 a church was erected in the heart of the Wanni
at Vavunia, under the superintendence of the Rev. A.
Matthias. The same year, Mr. Charles Wadsworth, whose
name will be long remembered with affection and esteem,
especially at Copay, where he worked for forty years as Head
master of the Training Institution, was called to his rest. A
large hall was built at Copay as a memorial to him and is
known as the Wadsworth Memorial Hall. The founda
tion stone was laid by the Bishop and, on July 10, 1912, the
Hall was opened by him.
Miss E. G. Beeching, who had previously worked in the
N.-W. America Mission, arrived at Copay this year. In
February, 1902, Mr. Horsley was obliged to return to
England owing to failure of health, and the Rev. J.I. Pickford
filled the gap, until the appointment of Rev. W. J. Hanan
in August. The Rev. G. Champion also retired from active
The following year the Rev. C. T. Williams left Copay to
work at Anuradhapura, and the Rev. A. Matthias succeeded
him. Mr. Matthias had spent thirty-one years in Vavunia.
When he first went there, there were no Christians, schools
nor church ; when he left, there were seventy Christians,
three schools and a church which was designed by him and
100 CENTENARY VOLUME
built under his superintendence, partly with his own hands,
Mrs. Hanan was now in charge of the Nellore Boarding
School with ninety-two pupils. Miss Case reports that in
1903 the biblewomen paid 7,536 visits to houses and read
the Bible, and taught twenty-two women to read.
In August, 1905, Mr. Hanan went on furlough, Mr. Pickford
took charge of the district and Miss A. T. Board of the
Boarding School. The Rev. A. Matthias commenced branches
of the Gleaners Union and the Y. M. C. A. in his pastorate,
and Mr. Backus, who was now at Nellore, mentions sewing
classes, prayer meetings, moonlight services and Sunday
schools as being vigorously worked in his parish. The Rev.
J. D. Sattianadhan was ordained priest on Trinity Sunday,
1906, and the same year Miss E. S. Young took charge of
the women s work. Mr. and Mrs. Hanan returned in 1907,
and the foundation stone of a new church was laid at
Tanniuttu, a village in the Wanni, which was dedicated by
the Bishop in 1913.
The Jaffna Missionary z\ssociation at this time was main
taining four workers in out-of-the-way places, the President
of the Association being Mr. James Hensman, a son of the
first Tamil ordained for C.M.S. work in Jaffna.
In 1909 Mr. Hanan moved to Copay in order better to
supervi c e the Training Institution, Miss Young went to
Nellore, and Miss Henrys arrived to superintend the Boarding
School. The Rev. S. Morse died on September 8, after forty
years work, the Rev. T. D. Sattianadhan was transferred to
the Tamil Cooly Mission, and Mr. S. Somasundaram was
ordained to the diaconate on June 29, at Nellore. The Rev.
G. T. Weston arrived to assist Mr. Hanan, and Mr. N. G.
Nathaniel was ordained.
The following year, 1910, the Rev. George Champion died.
He was one of the oldest Tamil Christians in Ceylon, having
been born on October 1, 1824. In 1844 he became a teacher
at Copay, in 1865 was ordained deacon, and in 1870 admitted
to priests orders. For twenty-five years he was in charge of
Kokuvil, where he built the church. His record was one
of fifty-eight years of active service for the Master.
Mr. Backus in his annual report of this year, mentions a
sad case of apostasy of a mother and her three sons and three
daughters, who openly denied Christ on Good Friday in a
heathen temple. The mother many years before had become
a Christian in order to be married, and apostatised in order
to marry her daughters to heathen men.
The Rev. Jacob Thompson had charge of the Jaffna
District throughout 1911 until the Rev. W. J. Hanan re
turned in May 1912. Miss Whitney towards the close of the
year took charge of the Nellore school. About this time
work was begun at Mankulam, a large convict settlement in
In 1913 the district had three superintending missionaries,
namely, from January to March, the Rev. W. J. Hanan, from
April to September, the Rev. J. Ilsley, and from September
25 to the end of the year, the Rev. A. E. Dibben.
It was decided this year to withdraw the European mis
sionary and to hand over the greater part of the pastoral,
evangelistic, and vernacular educational work to the various
committees of the Tamil Churches.
In the Chundicully Pastorate, which includes work in the
Island of Mandaitivu, the Incumbent was the Rev. S. S.
Somasundaram. The Christians numbered 541, communicants
246 and vernacular schools nine. The Nellore-Kokuvil
Pastorate was in charge of the Rev. J. Backus. The Christians
numbered 359, communicants 197, and vernacular schools 17
with 1,288 children.
On July 15, 1913, Mr. Backus celebrated his fiftieth year
of service in connection with the C.M.S. The Bishop offi
ciated at the Holy Communion, and eighty-two friends of the
102 CENTENARY VOLUME
pastor partook of the Sacrament with him. There was a
Thanksgiving Service in the afternoon, followed by a social
gathering at Which Sir William Twynam presided.
In 1915 the Rev. A. Matthias retired from the Incumbency
of the Copay Pastorate, and in his last report says, The
Christians number 374, communicants 161 and vernacular
schools thirteen with 919 scholars. The starting of a
Christian Union greatly helped the congregation.
The Fev. C. T. Williams was appointed pastor on the
retirement of Mr. Matthias, thus returning to the scene
of his former labours. At the beginning of the year
Miss A. M. Tisdall took charge of the Nellore Boarding
School receiving valuable help from Miss Findlay who
volunteered to accompany her to Jaffna. There were
then ninety-four pupils attending the school, of whom
seven belonged to the training class and seventeen to
the industrial class. Sixty-two were Christians and thirty-
The chief event in the year 1916, in the Jaffna mission,
was the amalgamation of the Training Schools for vernacular
teachers. Hitherto each of the three Protestant Missions
had a training school of its own, the results from each being
poor, yet each Mission was reluctant to give up its own
school. The question reached a climax when the Govern
ment proposed to establish a well-equipped training school on
secular lines, which would have ruined all three. It was then
decided to amalgamate, and the Government agreeing that
this should be done at the C.M.S. training school at Copay,
necessary buildings and equipment were procured. It is
believed that this combination will result in increased effici
ency and economy, and at the same time form an outward
and visible sign of the inward and spiritual unity which binds
together the Missions of North Ceylon. As a part of the
scheme sanctioned by Government, Hindu students also are
admitted to a share in the secular parts of the teaching, but
they are housed in a separate hostel of their own quite apart
from the mission compound.
ST. JOHN S COLLEGE.
In the year 1823, an English Seminary for the higher
education of Tamil youths was opened at Nellore by the Rev*
J. Knight and in 1825 was in charge of the Rev. W. Adley.
The primary aim of the school was to bring forward agents
for mission work. It had, on an average, thirty boys, select
ed from the day schools, who were boarded, clothed and
educated free. The pupils were required to attend public
worship and other religious services, the Bible was made the
most prominent subject of study, and a good secular educa
tion was also given.
In 1841 the seminary was removed to Chundicully and
in 1851 as a boarding establishment it was abolished. From
its foundation to its close, upwards of two hundred lads
passed through the regular course, and seventy became con
verts to Christianity. From 1851 it was called the Chundi
cully Seminary, and carried on without a boarding depart
ment, the pupils paying fees from one shilling to eight shillings
a quarter. A government grant-in-aid was received until
1862, when, because of the introduction of restrictions upon
Scriptural teaching, the grant was relinquished. The school
was divided into six classes, and the first of these was for
boys preparing for Matriculation in the Madras University,
to which the school was affiliated. In 1867 the only two
Jaffna youths who were successful in this examination were
pupils of the school. About this time the pupils numbered
One day a Brahmin brought his son to be admitted. The
Principal said to him, We teach the Bible and I .shall make
a Christian of him if I can. The Brahmin replied, I know
104 CENTENARY VOLUME
it, the Bible precepts are good for a son to learn, and as to
his becoming a Christian, the Christian religion is good ; it is
better than Hinduism. If he wishes to become a Christian,
he may, but I would rather he did not, at least before I die.
The headmasters up to this date had been Mr. W. Santiagoe,
1841-48, Mr. J. Phillips, 1848-53, and Mr. R. Williams,
In a Retrospect of the Past, written fifty years after by
an old boy, Mr. F. R. Bartholomeusz, we read, The working
of the Chundicully school was under the immediate eye of
Mr. Robert Williams. His sternness was dreaded, but with
a stout heart he possessed a winsome mind, tact, and ability.
The Rev. R. Pargiter took charge of the school in 1846,
built the old hall in 1861 and retired in 1866. In 1872 the
number of pupils was 220 and the following year, the Governor
of Ceylon, Sir W. H. Gregory, visited the school. It pursued
the even tenor of its way and in 1885 the Principal, the
Rev. G. T. Fleming, gave an encouraging report, showing that
it had done well in scholastic work, and was the means of
spiritual profit to many of the scholars. The following year
the Headmaster, Mr. J. Ewarts, who was an able man and
an earnest Christian, passed away. During the Michaelmas
vacation about a dozen of the elder students, members of the
Y.M.C.A., made an evangelistic tour in Mundativu, a large
island in the lagoon.
The year 1891 was the Jubilee of the school and to mark
the event the new name of St. John s College was given to
the old Chundicully Seminary, the Rev. J. W. Fall being
Principal at the time. The same year, three students passed
the Calcutta Entrance examination and three the Cambridge
Local. The Headmaster, the Rev. C. C. Handy, a son of
the late Rev. J. P. Handy of Nellore, was ordained in May.
The number of boarders increased from nine to forty, and
an annexure was built to accommodate more. In 1894
CRICKET_TEAM, ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, JAFFNA
SCIENCE LABORATORY, ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, JAFFNA
Mr. .Godwin Arulpragasam, who had served the College
faithfully for fifteen years, died.
In 1895 the Rev. J. Carter, the Principal writes, Both as
Chundicully Seminary and as St. John s College, this school
has done good work in Jaffna. In 1899 the number of pupils
had risen to 397, with a staff of fifteen Tamil masters assisting
the Principal, the Rev. R. W. Ryde, who had arrived in
August and continued till July, 1900, when he was succeeded
by the Rev. Jacob Thompson.
Mr. Thompson a few months later writes, When I took
charge, the College buildings were still in a state of pictures
que ruin, while the walls of the boarding house were support
ed only by the rafters that had fallen from the roof of the other
building. The students were being taught, some on the narrow
verandah of the boarding house, some in the vestry of the
church, others in the village girls school, and even the shade
of a large tree had been utilized. By October of the follow
ing year, a new boarding house, a new hall with class-rooms
and library, and a new dining hall had been built, and many
other improvements effected. Above Rs. 10,000 were spent
on the buildings. The Government Inspector of Schools for
the province reported I have just been looking round the
new buildings, which are now complete, not only externally
but internally. In accommodation and furnishing they are
models of taste, tidiness and comfort. The influence of
beautiful surroundings, apart from positive training, will, I
feel certain, tend to raise the tone of the school.
In addition to the College, Mr. Thompson was responsible
for a branch English school at Copay, with 150 boys (which
was enlarged in 1903) and the Chaplaincy of Christ Church
in the Pettah. Mr. Thompson went on furlough in Septem
ber, 1904, and the Rev. W. J. Hanan took charge till August
of the following year, when he handed over to the Rev. J. I.
Pickford. Mr. Thompson returned at the end of the year,
106 CENTENARY VOLUME
and in 1906 there were 539 scholars in the college and
Three men volunteered for training for Orders, one of these
the son of the proprietor of one of the most popular temples.
He had sacrificed his influential position in order to become a
Christian and after taking his degree at Calcutta had been a
master at the College. The government grant for the two
schools had steadily increased from Rs. 1,300, in 1900, to
Rs. 4,600 in 1907.
The following year the College lost by death the services
of the Rev. C. C. Handy, who for nineteen years had worked
with manifest unselfishness for the good of the students and
people. During Mr. Handy s illness the Rev. and Mrs,
A. M. Walmsley gave assistance in the College, and Mr.
T. H. Crossette was appointed headmaster.
Twenty-two boys passed the Cambridge Locals, one of
whom obtained honours, with distinction in Logic. This b >y
was a grandson of Mr. Phillips who sixty years before was-
headmaster of the school.
In 1909 the premises were further enlarged by an addition
to the playground, the gift of the Old Boys Association, in
memory of the Rev. C. C. Handy. The Senior Mathematical
master, Mr. S. S. Somasundaram, was also ordained this year.
The number of pupils had now reached 600.
During 1910 the Rev. Jacob Thompson was absent from
Ceylon for eight months, during which time the College was
under the management of a Tamil, Mr. T. H. Crossette, and
the number of students and the discipline were fully maintained.
On June 21, 1911, the foundation stone of a new library
was laid, the entire cost of erecting and furnishing having been
given by Dr. J. M. Handy, in memory of his brother. In
March, 1913, the library was opened by Mrs. J. M. Handy.
The religious work of the College was being carried on
quietly under the auspices of the College Y.M.C.A., Prayer
meetings were conducted every Tuesday, Bible classes on
Sunday mornings, Gospel meetings on Saturdays, and a Bible
class on Sunday afternoons. A Scripture Union with ninety-
six members had been started and a Communicants Union
In 1914 the Vice- Principal visited Singapore and Kuala
Lumpur, and collected from the Tamil settlers about Rs. 9,000,
with which a large hall and four airy class rooms were erected.
The College was also re-organized into distinct schools, one
providing a sound commercial education, and the other an,
education preparatory to University work. The staff was
considerably strengthened and a laboratory added.
In 1915 the Director of Education recognized the uniformly
excellent results of the Junior School by granting a first class
certificate to Mr. Williams, the headmaster.
In 1916 there were over a thousand boys on the rolls of
St. John s College and its branches, Copai, Urumparai and
Kaithady, with fifty-five masters and one hundred and thirty
THE Rev. and Mrs. Robert Mayor landed at Galle on
June 29, 1818, and were received with great kindness by the
chaplain, the Rev. J. M. S. Glenie. Shortly after, Mr. Mayor
writes to the C.M.S., It is not their readiness to welcome
the light of the Gospel which must be your inducement to
send out more labourers, but their great need of instruction,
and the positive duty of a Christian nation to communicate
the knowledge of the only Saviour to all its subjects. We
have free access to the people, and their prejudices against
Christianity are not deeply rooted ; they are willing to have
their children taught to read, and these children have an
intellect capable of the highest cultivation.
On October 20, Mr. Mayor visited several villages on the
banks of the Gindara river by boat. At Telikada, six miles
from Galle, the government schoolmaster with his scholars and
the headmen, drew up in line and saluted him with three
The next place visited was Baddegama, twelve miles from
Galle, where he was met by the Mudaliyar, the chief govern
ment officer, and the Government School boys. Mr. Mayor
writes, The situation of Baddegama appears to be exceed
ingly convenient for the residence of a missionary. The
people, though nominally Christians, are really Buddhists.
The Mudaliyar is desirous that I should reside there, and offers
to raise a subscription for the erection of a Church and School.
The Archdeacon would, I believe, very much approve of my
residing among the natives.
The next day, Mr. Mayor proceeded up the river to Mapa-
lagama, where about 800 people met him, and out of this
number there were only ten who had riot been baptized. Mr.
Mayor again writes, The Dutch have done much injury to the
cause of Christianity by disqualifying all persons from in
heriting property who have not been baptized. In consequence
of this law, every one, whether he worships Buddha or the devil,
is eager to be baptized. On his return journey, the headmen
of Nagoda offered to build a school within six days and fill it
with children. At Baddegama he again preached to about
150 people, on our Lord s feeding the five thousand.
On his return to Galle, after consultation with the other
missionaries and with the approbation of Government, Mr.
Mayor decided to settle in Baddegama. Accordingly on
August 14, 1819, he took up his abode in a small house in
Baddegama. Government gave a free grant of land and a
substantial house was finished in November. The name
Baddegama is derived from the Sinhalese Bat denna
gamma, or rice supplying village. It is recorded that the
monks of Totagamuwa temple subsisted on the rice which was
supplied from this village by o der of the Sinhalese kings.
About the year A.D. 1240 a bridge of 120 cubits span was
in existence over the river at Baddegama, the same having
been constructed by the minister Patiraja Deva, who was
appointed Governor over the Southern provinces by King
Parakrama II. The bridge was to connect the road from
Bentota to Baddegama via Elpitiya. Near to Elpitiya
Patiraja founded a college, and the ancient Sinhalese Gram
mar, Sidathsangarawa, was written there, and the locality is
still known by the name of Patiraja Kanda.
The hill on which the mission house was built was named
Church Hill. It presents a delightful prospect of a winding
river, a fruitful valley, well -watered fields and distant mount
ains. A large school-room of stone was next built, capable of
HO CENTENARY VOLUME
holding 250 people, and was used for public worship till the
church was built. Mr. Glenie having removed to Colombo,
the Lieutenant Governor asked Mr. Mayor to undertake duty
at Galle until another chaplain could be provided.
On October 26, 1819, the Rev. Benjamin Ward, on account
of ill-health, moved from Calpentyn to Baddegama, and
preached his first sermon in Sinhalese, ten months after
On February 14, 1821, the foundation stone of the church
was laid by Don Abraham Dias Abeysinghe, Guard
Mudaliyar of Galle, in the presence of a great concourse of
people. The chief headman of the district, who had previous
ly sent a donation of fifty-six dollars, was present and the
collection amounted to 2Q. Sir Robert Brownrigg, the
Governor, expressed his approbation by a public grant and a
private donation. The Revs. Mayor, Ward and Glenie
addressed the people. Rice and curry were provided for all
who chose to partake and 350 children were feasted.
The difficulty of erecting the church may be judged from
the fact that 700 Ibs. of gunpowder were required to blast the
rock for the foundation. The church is a substantial stone
building, eighty-four feet by forty-three, with a square tower.
The roof is supported by twelve round iron-wood pillars, thirty
feet high, each cut out of a single tree. Most of the wood
used was either iron- wood or teak. A deep verandah surrounds
the church. Before the workmen commenced each morning,
they assembled under a shed, and one of the missionaries
offered a prayer and gave a short address. The church was
opened on March 11, 1824, by the Archdeacon. In the large
congregation were the chief government officials, and Sir
Richard Ottley, the Chief Justice, who presented the Commun
Mr. Mayor writes, The Church will remain, I doubt not,
a monument to future ages of the day when the Sun of
Righteousness first rose upon this village. It is the first
church which has ever been erected in the interior for the sole
benefit of the Sinhalese.
Before commencing the building of the church, Mr. Mayor
asked to be relieved ot the garrison duty at Galle. The mis
sionaries had also undertaken the superintendence of forty
government schools in the Galle and Matara districts. Mr.
Ward writes, These schools will give us access to many
thousand natives; they will increase our influence, and will
afford us opportunities of preaching the Gospel.
Mr. Mayor, at one time when there was no medical
officer in Galle, discharged the important functions of that
The following extract from Mr. Mayor s diary is interesting :
August 6, 1822 Left for Belligama. Here preached to a
large concourse. Seventy children present, twelve of whom
read the New Testament. Fifty boys repeated their
Catechism. Went to Denipittya and married twenty-three
August 7 Proceeded to Mirisse and preached upon the
<l fall of man." Married four couples.
August 8 Visited the Matara School after preaching ;
examined scholars. Married thirty-eight couples. Then on
to Kottecagodde, where I preached and married eleven
Mr. Ward gives the following instance of the influence of
caste. On Sunday, many came to have their banns of
marriage published. By virtue of a late regulation of govern
ment, low-caste women are authorized to wear jackets a
privilege, which the system of caste had hitherto denied them.
Three of these women appeared in the congregation, each
decently clothed in a white cloth jacket. When I entered the
church, I perceived the school-girls and other women in the
utmost confusion, apparently resolved not to take their seats.
112 CENTENARY VOLUME
Some of them went oat. The three women who had given so
much offence sat at the opposite end of the building. I ex
postulated with the congregation on the impropriety of their
conduct, explained to them the nature and tendency of our
religion, and reasoned with them upon the childishness of
taking offence at others, for wearing the same kind of clothing
Mr. Ward also writes, There exists prejudice even be
tween individuals of the same caste, and these expect a distinc
tion in seats. We have hitherto found it necessary not to
indulge them with an elevated seat, but with a distinct one. A
bench is placed either in the front or on one side, on which
the headmen and higher families sit. The Mudaliyar is yet
more distinguished by sitting on a chair.
The missionaries resolutely set their faces against the pre
valent abuse of the sacred ordinance of Baptism, which had
led to the degradation of the Christian name, and Mr. Ward
writes, The country is full of baptized persons, who worship
Buddha and the devil. We have resolved to baptize the
children of only those persons who attend the public worship
of the true God. Seven schools were commenced with an
average attendance of 159 scholars. A school for girls was
commenced in the verandah of the mission house, conducted
by Mrs. Mayor, who writes The average number of girls is
forty. They sit on mats, and are taught to read and sew.
A portion of Scripture is read and explained. To encourage
them to attend regularly, we give them clothes twice a
Experience taught the missionaries to view appearances of
success with caution. In the case of many apparently
genuine seekers after truth, the hope of worldly honour and
emolument appears to have been the real inducement. The
missionaries received the following letter from the Secretary
of the C.M.S., brother-in-law of Mr. Mavor :
C. M. HOUSE, LONDON,
July 19, 1824.
We anticipate much blessing on your work, because the
Lord has so completely shown you your own helplessness,
and is leading you to look more simply to His sufficiency.
He will never disappoint those who trust in Him. We
rejoice to see your zealous exertions in preaching the word.
It is your grand weipon against the enemy. You probably
somewhat under-rate education, but you do not under-rate
preaching to the adults, and we pray God that there may be
such a manifest blessing on your labours, as may be a great
encouragement to your brethren everywhere. Go on in the
strength of the Lord. We rejoice in your labours, and sym
pathize in your sorrows. You are our joy and comfort, and
may the Divine Spirit be poured out more and more upon
you and your work, and the Lord Jesus be constantly magni
fied in you.
The church was consecrated by Bishop Reginald Heber
of the occasion of his visit to Ceylon in 1825. The following
is an extract from the Bishop s Indian Journal :
September 24, 1825. Long before day-break we were on
our way to Baddegama. At Amlangoda we breakfasted, and
at Kennery left the mam road, and wound through very
narrow paths and over broken bridges, till we had arrived at
the river which we had first crossed on leaving Galle, but
some miles higher up.
The country then improved into great beauty, and at the
end of about two miles we came within sight of a church on
the summit of a hill, with the house of one of the missionaries,
Mr. Mayor, immediately adjoining it, and that of Mr. Ward
on another eminence close to it, forming altogether a land
scape of singular and interesting beauty. We ascended by
a steep road to Mr. Mayor s where we found the families of the
two missionaries and some of our friends from Galle, awaiting
our arrival. At the foot of this hill, the river we had recently
crossed winds through what has the appearance of a richly
dressed lawn, while all around rise mountains, one above the
other. On our right was the church, a very pretty building.
The whole scene was peculiarly interesting. Here we found
two very young men, with their wives and children, separated
from all European society by many miles of country, impass
able, save in two directions, even to palanquins, devoting
themselves entirely to the service of their Maker, in spreading
His religion among the heathen and in the education of their
families. The two families, indeed, seem to form but one
household living together in Christian fellowship, and with no
other object but to serve God, and do their duty to their
neighbour. I have seldom been more gratified, I may say,
affected. Mr. Mayor who is son to our neighbour at Shaw-
bury (Rev. John Mayor) was originally brought up in the
medical line, his surgical and medical knowledge are invalu
able to himself and his neighbours and even during the short
time we were his guests, we found their use in a sudden attack
our little girl had, brought on by fatigue and over-exertion.
The Bishop consecrated the church and afterwards the
burial ground on the morning of September 25. Almost all
the European residents from Galle and a great number of
natives were assembled to witness the ceremony. The
Bishop preached from Genesis xxviii. 16 and 17 and in the
afternoon confirmed thirteen persons, all of whom, save three,
were Sinhalese. In the evening the Bishop examined some
of the scholars.
September 26, 1825. We left Baddegama in palanquins
and made our way along the banks of the river, which was
too much swollen by recent heavy rains to admit of our going
in boats. Indeed, the track was in some parts covered with
CHRIST CHURCH, BADDEGAMA, CONSECRATED BY
BISHOP HEBEK IN IS25
water so deep that it nearly entered my palanquin and was
very fatiguing to the poor bearers. In the afternoon we
arrived at Galle.
The Bishop, writing to his mother on the following day
from Galle, says, There are also some very meritorious mis
sionaries in the Island. One of them, Mr. Mayor, together
with another Shropshire man, Mr. Ward, has got together a
very respectable congregation of natives as well as a large
school. He has also built a pretty church, which I conse
crated last Sunday, in one of the wildest and most beautiful
situations I ever saw.
Writing to the Rev. J. Mayor, Vicar of Shawbury, Bishop
Heber says Mrs. Heber and I had the pleasure of passing
the best part of three days with Mr. and Mrs. Mayor, in their
romantic home at Baddegama, where we also found his
colleague Mr. Ward, with his wife and family, in perfect
health and contented cheerfulness. They are active, zealous,
well-informed and orderly clergymen, devoted to the instruc
tion and help of their heathen neighbours, both enjoying a
favourable report, I think I may say without exception, from
the Governor, public functionaries, and in general, from all
the English in the colony whom I have heard speak of them.
Bishop Heber received his home call on April 3, 1826, at
Trichinopoly, in South India.
Owing to failing health Messrs. Mayor and Ward left for
England in April, 1828. Before they left, a joint report of
their work was issued in which they say, The Sunday
morning service is attended by about 100 children and
seventy adults. The Litany is used in the native tongue.
In the evening, prayers are read in English and an exposition
interpreted into Sinhalese.
A stone tablet in the church has the following inscription :
In memory of the Rev. Robert Mayor, the founder of
this station, and by whose exertions this Church was built
116 CENTENARY VOLUME
who after nearly ten years of faithful labour in this country
was compelled by the loss of his health to return to England
where he afterwards became successively Rector of Coppen-
stall and Vicar of Acton in the county of Chester, at which
last place he died in perfect peace on the 14th of July 1846,
aged fifty-five. His friends in Ceylon have erected this tablet
as a tribute of their affectionate remembrance of his character
The Rev. George Conybeare Trimnell and Mrs. Trimnell
took charge in September 1826 and soon afterwards the Rev.
George Steers Faught and Mrs. Faught were associated with
them. On Easter Sunday, 1830, the first adult convert from
Buddhism in connection with the C.M.S. in the district was
baptized, receiving the name of Edward Bickersteth.
In 1833 Mr. Trimnell reports, The schools are in a
flourishing state, the girls school having an attendance of 115.
Where all or nearly all, a few years ago, were unlettered,
there ard now many who can read ; where there was nothing
to read but a few Buddhist books or foolish songs written on
the leaf of a tree, there are now hundreds of printed copies of
the word of God ; where there was no sound of the Gospel it
is now certainly preached and there are hundreds who hear it
every Lord s day. Thus far all is well, but we who cannot
be satisfied with a change in externals, or without an evidence
of spiritual life among the people, and who have seen
things almost in their present state for years, are often
much discouraged. He adds as a chief cause of sorrow
there is scarcely any evidence of any one being really
On the return to England of Mr. and Mrs. Faught in 1836,
the Rev. J. Selkirk took charge until the return of Mr. Trim
nell. : Mr. Selkirk again took up the work after Mr. Trimnell
left for England in 1838, until set at liberty by the arrival of
the Rev. and Mrs. H. Powell in January 1839.
Bishop Corrie of Madras visited Baddegama in 1840 and
thus writes to the Earl of Chichester : Beautiful Badde
gama, a Christian watchfire in a very dark night, a Christian
lighthouse in a very dark place, a cradle of the gospel in a
In 1841 the Rev. and Mrs. Charles Greenwood took charge
and for a few months in 1848 the Rev. and Mrs. Isaiah Wood
were associated with them. Balapitimodera and Bentota,
two towns of importance on the coast, were occupied as out-
In October, 1847, the first Bishop of Colombo, Dr. Chap
man, visited Baddegama, and writing to the C.M.S. he says,
My visit to Baddegama for the Confirmation was full of
interest and encouragement. I was met on the banks of its
beautiful river by Messrs. Greenwood and Gunasekara, your
two valued missionaries, and all the catechists and the youths
of the Seminary, and up the hill, close to the mission house,
with its English-towered church and English scenery around,
by Mrs. Greenwood and above sixty children of her native
girls school. No welcome could have been more characteris
tic or more pleasing. On the next day the church was filled
for the Confirmation at eleven o clock. Twenty-three were
confirmed ; one a poor cripple in limb but not in faith, was
carried to the Holy Table, and I trust the fullness of the
blessing conveyed to his heart by faith was not marred by
the unworthiness of the channel through which it reached
On June 21, 1850, the Rev. C. Greenwood, aged thirty-
seven, was drowned while bathing in the river, and his sudden
removal threw the charge of the station upon the Rev.
George Parsons, who had been only six months in the
A clock was placed in the church in memory of Mr. Green
wood. Mr. Parsons extended the work on the sea coast and
118 CENTENARY VOLUME
for some time left Baddegama in charge of the Rev. Abraham
Gunasekara, taking up his own residence at Bentota. Small
congregations were collected at Bentota and Balapitimodera,
but these were formed of nominal Christians, not of converts
from heathenism ; schools were opened, but the seed sown
did not yield any visible fruit. At Dodanduwa, however,
some enquirers presented themselves, and after several
months of instruction, twelve adults were baptized.
The Rev. G. Pettitt, the Secretary of the Mission, visited
Baddegama in April 1850, and thus writes The view from
Palm Hill, the site of the second mission house, is peculiarly
beautiful. The eye never rests upon a barren spot, or even
upon a foot of soil or sandy ground, and all this loveliness is
perpetual, for there is no winter in Ceylon. There are how
ever disadvantages connected with this excellence ; it is not
Paradise after all. It is exceedingly damp, everything
capable of it becomes mouldy in an incredibly short time, a
little bodily exertion produces a disagreeable amount of
perspiration, and the feeling of languor easily creeps over
the frame, a short pointed grass takes advantage of your
shortest walk to tease your legs and demands a considerable
portion of time for its dislodgement, a small leech with a,
troublesome bite operates without medical prescription, while
frequent rains either impede your plans of usefulness, or
drench you in adhering to them. Snakes, centipede s, scor
pions and other noxious insects abound. From 1859 to 1862
during Mr. Parson s absence on furlough, the district was
under the charge of the Rev. A. Gunasekara by whom the
work was earnestly and faithfully carried on. Mr. Guna
sekara was born in 1802 and died in 1862. His father
Bastian Gunasekara who was born in 1773 and died in 1853,
came to Baddegama from Galle, having been recom
mended to Mr. Mayor by the Galle Mudaliyar, for the post
of overseer during the building of the church. A tablet
to Mr. Gunasekara s memory was placed in the church,
inscribed as follows :
He was the first Native Missionary of Baddegama
where he laboured twenty-three years with zeal and fidelity
in the Master s service. Deeply sensible of his unworthiness
and firmly trusting in Jesus his Saviour he joyfully antici
pated being present with the Lord.
It is related of Mr. Gunasekara that once as a Buddhist boy
he went into the temple to offer his evening flower. When he had
done so, he looked into the idol s face, expecting to see a smile
of approval, but he noticed that the great eyes stared on with
out any expression of pleasure in them. He thought therefore
that so great a god would not condescend to accept a child s
offering. Soon after a man came in, laid down his flower,
turned his back and went carelessly away. The boy again
looked in the idol s face and thought he would see an angry
frown at this disrespect, but the eyes stared on as before.
He then began to realize the fact that the image had no life
in it, and was alike powerless to reward or punish.
In 1863 the vernacular institution for the training of
catechists was removed from Cotta to Baddegama, and in the
following year, an institution for the training of schoolmasters
was opened under the Rev. S. Coles. These were carried on
until 1868 when both were transferred to Cotta.
In November 1863, what is called the Baddegama Contro
versy began, and several public meetings were held till the
following February, when they were stopped by order of the
magistrates. Mr. Parsons writing to the C. M.S. says, The
spirit of controversy broke out in November last, and though
I was partly prepared for it, I was slow to believe it would
become such a serious matter until urged by our people to
prepare for a fierce contest. The result fully justified their
anxieties, for never before in Ceylon was there such a mar
shalling of the enemy against Christianity. The one aim of
120 CENTENARY VOLUME
the fifty priests and their two thousand followers who
assembled here on February 8, was not to defend Buddhism
but to overthrow Christianity. Encouraged by translations
from Bishop Colenso s writings, they considered the utter
defeat of Christianity easy and certain. Knowing the people
we had to encounter, we felt that our victory would be more
triumphant and complete, by attacking Buddhism, whilst we
defended Christianity. It was not, however, till we were
somewhat advanced in the controversy, that we could fairly
estimate the difficulties of our position, and day by day ; we
had to commend ourselves in prayer to God and confide
in Him for wisdom and direction at every step. On review
ing the whole controversy, I am thankful for what has taken
place, and believe the effect upon this district has been
healthy and encouraging.
On November 24, 1864, Dr. Claughton, the Bishop,
consecrated the new church at Balapitimodera, which was
originally built by Dr. Clarke, a former Police Magistrate of
the place. The Bishop also held a Confirmation at Badde-
gama when twenty-four candidates were confirmed. In April
1866, Mr. Parsons was suddenly removed, by death from fever,
whilst on a visit to Colombo. Mrs. Parsons who had dili
gently worked among the girls and women, returned to England
and died thirty years after in November 1896. A beautiful
marble tablet was placed to his memory in the church by the
Christians. The station then came under the superintendence
of the Rev. E. T. Higgens. During his time the Church
Council system came into operation, and Baddegama, Balapi-
tiya and Dodanduwa were formed into separate pastorates
under a district council.
In 1869 the Rev. John Allcock took charge, and although
work had been carried on for fifty years, the Christians only
numbered 240, of whom sixty-four were communicants, and
in the eleven schools there were 457 children. Mr. Allcock
in his first annual report writes, The Church here, like many
other, is still deficient in apostolic simplicity, earnest convic
tion, zeal, faith, hope and charity ; yet there are a few who
earnestly desire to adorn the Gospel of our Lord Jesus
In 1875 a church was erected at Dodanduwa costing
Rs. 2,000, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity.
In 1881 two of the catechists Messrs. A. S. Amarasekara
and G. B. Perera were ordained deacons and stationed at
Dodanduwa and Balapitimodera.
Mr. Allcock was an earnest, simple-minded, good man, full
of the Holy Ghost, enthusiasm and good works, whose one
object was to preach the Gospel, in season and out of season.
The greater part of his time was spent going from village to
village, sowing the good seed. In one of his reports he
writer, I do not expect very much good from girls day
schools. In another, Schools are of little use, we must
preach more, and again, Preaching and sowing are the best
means of winning the people. In nearly all his letters he
mourned over the apathy and indifference of the Sinhalese
Christians, in not caring for the souls of others.
In 1881 Dr. Johnson, Metropolitan and Bishop of Calcutta,
visited Baddegama, and before leaving wrote as follows, I
visited Baddegama on Monday, February 7, 1881, driving out
from Galle with the Bishop of Colombo. I addressed a large
congregation, taking for my subject " The difficulty of getting
free from bondage and the consequent liability to discourage
ment." A special service was held later in the day when I
gave an address to the heathen, endeavouring to draw out the
contrast between the morality of Buddhism and that of
Christianity, the latter being based upon our relations with
the One God, One Father. It seems that here, as in most
parts of India, the progress is slow, the adult heathen being
only brought out by ones and two*. The schools are gradually
122 CENTENARY VOLUME
exercising an influence and by their means each generation
must, it may be hoped, show increased results.
When Mr. Allcock left for England in March 1883, the
Christians numbered 481, of whom 137 were communicants,
and the schools contained 1,353 children.
A few years after, on Mr. Allcock s death from fever in
the Kandyan country, the sum of Rs. 250 was collected, and
a large bell placed in the church tower with the inscription
* In memory of the Rev. John Allcock.
In November, 1882, the Rev. J. W. Balding was transferred
from the Kurunegala district to take charge of Baddegama.
At the close of the following year he writes, What grieves
me most is that in nearly every village, I find that of
those who at one time or the other have professed Christ
and been baptized, many now living carelessly are worse than
the heathen around, whilst very few of the Christians make the
slightest endeavour to bring others to a knowledge of the truth.
In 1884 a stone school chapel was built at Kitulampitiya,
and in 1885 a similar building at Elpitiya on a piece of land
given by Mr. Elias Perera, the catechist there.
In 1886, an Ordination Service was held in Baddegama
Church, when three deacons were admitted to the priesthood,
by Dr. R. S. Copleston, Bishop of Colombo. Archdeacon
Matthew and ten other clergy were present. This was the
first time that an Ordination had been held in the Sinhalese
language and in the midst of the people themselves.
On June 1, 1888, a Boarding School for Sinhalese
girls was opened by Mrs. Balding, and from its commence
ment has been a success. Many of the pupils have become
teachers in village schools. In addition to missionaries
wives, other European ladies, Miss Binfield, Miss Ursula
Kriekenbeck, Miss Henry (all three since dead) and Miss
C. Kerr have given valuable help in the school, whilst Mrs.
Wirakoon, always called Mistress by the girls and
a daughter of the late Rev. H. Kannangara, has been the
invaluable head mistress from the opening day to the present
time. In May. 1893, a lady missionary* Miss Helen P. Philips?
late Principal of the Clergy Daughters School at Sydney
and the first worker sent out by the New South Wales C.M.S.
Association, was appointed to Dodanduwa, to be joined in
the following November by Miss E. M. Josolyne. An
industrial school for boys and girls, where printing, carpentry,
wood-carving, tailoring and lacemaking were taught, was
On August 14, 1894, the seventy-fifth anniversary of
the founding of the Baddegama mission was celebrated.
Dr. Copleston, the Bishop, and fifteen clergy were present.
At the morning service, a sermon was preached by the Rev.
J. de Silva, on the Parable of the Mustard Seed, after which
the Holy Communion was administered to 205 communicants.
At mid-day the Rev. S. Coles addressed over 600 children in
the church, and afterwards a public meeting presided over by
the Bishop, was held in the English school. In the after
noon there was a garden party, and in the evening, a lantern
address on the Holy Land, by Archdeacon de Winton-
The sum of Rs. 1,250 was given by the people towards the
renovating of the church. A teak reading desk, lectern and
pulpit were bought, and a brass offertory dish, alms bags,
kneelers and an ebony Communion Table were presented. A
stone tablet with the names of the missionaries who had
worked in the district, with the text underneath Whose faith
follow was also placed in the church.
In November, 1895, two more women missionaries, Miss
C. N. Luxmoore and Miss M. S. Gedge arrived.
About this time the district was well supplied with Sinhalese
clergy, the Rev. James Colombage in Baddegama, the Rev.
G. B. Perera at Balapitimodera and the Rev. J. P. Kalpage
124 CENTENARY VOLUME
In 1897 over 700 people attended the service in connec
tion with the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. In the
same year fifty girls were presented at the Government
examination of the Girls Boarding School, obtaining eighty-
five per cent, of passes and in the Diocesan Religious Exami
nation fourteen girls obtained prizes, and the school a second
class certificate. One of the old girls who had gone to India
as a mission worker, died of cholera this year. On the first
page of her Bible was found written My mottoes for 1897.
Holiness unto the Lord. First, suffering, then glory.
In 1898 Mr. E. J. Carus Wilson, a lay missionary, was
stationed at Bentota, Miss Townsend at Dodanduwa and Miss
M. L. Young at Baddegama.
Mis? L. M. Leslie Melville arrived in 1899, and the Rev.
G. B. Perera, who had been in Balapitimodera for twenty-one
years, moved to Baddegama.
About this period, the Rev. Professor Mayor of St. John s
College, Cambridge, delivered a lecture on Antipathies of
race and habit, in which he said, In the Michaelmas term
I had a proof, interesting to me at least, of the truth of that
promise, " Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shalt
find it after many days." A Sinhalese knocked at my door.
He is in holy orders in the English Church, won a scholarship
at Selwyn College and is reading for the theological tripos
His first words were " My father was a convert of your
father." He must have been converted from devil-worship.
Eighty-one years ago, my father founded a mission-station at
Baddegama. To the ruin of his health, labouring under a
tropical sun, he built church and school and parsonage. In
that village my sister and I were born, in that church she and
I were baptized. Seventy-one years ago we left Ceylon,
where Reginald Heber, an old Shropshire friend of my
father s had visited and blessed his work. My father would
have hailed that one fruit of his labours as ample reward for
shattered health and an early grave. My friend had taken
part in the seventy-fifth anniversary of the mission.
In December, 1900, Mr. G. A. Purser arrived to take charge
of the Industrial School at Dodanduwa, and in October, 1901,
the Rev. J. W. Balding, who had been connected with the
district for twenty years, moved to Cotta to take charge of
When Mr. Balding left, there were two Sinhalese clergy,
five biblewomen, 553 Christians, 226 communicants, thirty-
one schools and 2,110 scholars. The Rev. H. E. Heinekey
took charge at the end of the year. In 1903 the district
suffered severe losses in the home calls of the Rev. J. P.
Kalpage, and of Mr. Baptist Karunaratne (a son-in-law of
Rev. A. Gunasekara) who had been a mission worker for forty
years. The Rev. G. B. Perera also left to become a pastor
in the Cotta district. This year the Buddhists became very
active in opposing Christian work, and establishing opposition
The following year Mr. Heinekey reports Christianity
cannot be said to be in a thriving condition here, converts are
few, and the best of them seem glad to get away to other
parts. Thus, there are now only 538 Christians against 653
in 1901, whilst there are 324 children less in the schools.
The catechist, Mr. R. T. E. A. Gunatilake was ordained
deacon in 1904. The same year the much- valued matron of
the Girls Boarding School, Mrs. Mary Perera, or old Mary
as she called herself, passed away. For sixteen years she had
faithfully filled her post, and for many years previously had
been a valued school-teacher and biblewoman.
On the resignation of Mr. Heinekey in 1905 the Rev.
S. M. Simmons was appointed. The Buddhists were now
building schools of a far more substantial nature, which were
thronged with children, and in charge of efficient teachers.
Where there was no active opposition to Christianity, the
126 CENTENARY VOLUME
attitude of the Christians was one of utter indifference. The
Dodanduwa Industrial School continued to flourish, and at the
Galle Agri- Horticultural Exhibition three prizes were won
In 1906 the School Chapel and two schools at Kitulam-
pitiya were handed over to the incumbent of Galle.
The following year, Mrs. S. M. Simmons, who had thrown
herself heart and soul into the work, and won the love and
admiration of all, was called to higher service, and Mr.
Simmons went on leave to England for a year, the Rev.
R. H. Phair taking oversight of the work. Miss E. M. Josolyne
was at this time in charge of the women s work in the district.
Miss Henry carried on the work of the school during the
year 1908, Miss Walker then being located to Baddegama as
In 1909 the number of schools had fallen to 22 and the
scholars to 1543.
Mr. G. A. Purser, who had been to England on furlough,
returned to Baddegama in 1912, having been ordained, and
with Mrs. Purser took charge. The following year, he
laments the dearth of helpers, not a single Ceylonese clergy
man or lady missionary being in the district. In 1914 the
Rev. J. P. Ramanayake was stationed at Dodanduwa and in
1915, Mr. W. B. de Silva, the pastoral catechist, was ordained
deacon. This year there were four adult and fourteen infant
baptisms and several enquirers, and twenty-two candidates
were presented for Confirmation. The Government grant to
the schools had suffered considerably owing to the continued
Mrs. Purser, who was Principal of the Girls Boarding
School, reports forty-six girls in the school, and the Inspector
reported The results of the examination were satisfactory
and reflect credit on the Lady Principal and her staff. The
English recitation and writing were both above the average.
At the Diocesan Scripture Examination the school obtained
a first-class certificate. There is a branch of the Young
People s Union in the school and a child is supported in a
school at Dohnavur.
Mr. Robert de Silva, who has been connected with the
Industrial School since its commencement, and is now in
charge reports, We have sixty-three boys and at the last
examination the Inspector wrote, " This is a very useful,
school. The work done is really very good. I am much
pleased with the work." : The Bishop and Mrs. Copleston
visited the school, and wrote in the log-book We saw some
very good carving, one boy shewing real talent. I saw some
pages of the Gleaner being printed. In September, 1916,
Miss L. M. Leslie Melville and Miss Wardlaw Ramsay
returned from England, and the former took up the post of
Principal of the Girls Boarding School, and the Rev.
G. A. Purser removed to Dodanduwa, superintending the
district from that centre.
In 1918 there were twenty-one schools in the district.
There were two Sinhalese clergy, t\vo catechists, two bible-
women, twenty-two male teachers and twenty -three female
teachers, 662 Christians, of whom 223 were communicants,
and 1,112 boys and 568 girls in the schools.
COTTA, or Kotte, about six miles from Colombo, is a place
famous in the annals of Ceylon as Jayawardhanapura, and at
the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in A.D. 1505 was
the capital and residence of the Sinhalese king. Sinhalese
kings reigned there from A.D. 1378 to 1573. During the
Dutch rule (164-0 to 1796) the spiritual interests of Cotta and
ne ghbourhood were not neglected. Cotta, with six adjacent
villages, formed a parish, having its own pastor, supported
by Government, and superintended by a Dutch Presbyterian
clergyman. It had its large and substantial church in Etui
Cotta, on the site where the C.M.S. girls school now stands,
well attended, for, with few exceptions, all the inhabitants had
been baptized and many were communicants. There was
also a school, with three teachers and a singing master, who
also led the singing in church. The Dutch minister attended
periodically from Colombo to perform religious rites and to
examine the school.
The post of pastor was for a long time filled by a
Mr. Philipsz, a Sinhalese gentleman, who had been educated
and ordained in Holland. There was also a resident
registrar whose duty was to collect the people for baptism
and marriage on the periodical visits of a Proponent. On
such occasions fathers and sons, who had been married for
years, came to have their wedlock christianized and their
children and grandchildren baptized. Their names were then
entered in the Thombuwa, or Register, and a fee of three
fanams, or three pence, was levied for each entry, in payment
for the registrar s trouble. The following extract from the
deed conveying the land to the Dutch minister is interesting :
* On April 23, 1721, the Honourable Isaac Augustin Rumpf,
ordinary Counsellor of the Dutch Indies and Governor and
Director of the Island of Ceylon, of his own free will and
from motives of affection, resolved and thought proper to
make a present of, for the service and benefit of the new-
built native Reformed Church at Cotta, a certain garden, his
property in the hamlet Etui Kotte, to the Rev. Wilhelmus
Koning, the only officiating minister in Chingalee, through
whose knowledge in the said Chingalee language accompanied
by a great and good zeal to preach and propagate the true
reformed religion amongst the Chingaleese and other natives,
this Church was expressly commenced to be built about a
year ago, for which reason also full power and authority is
given by the said Honourable Donator to the said reverend
gentleman to act and do with the said gardens as he should
deem most proper for the service, greater airiness and
embellishment of the said church and its compass. The
transfer of the Government to the British in 1796 produced
a great change. Evangelization was laid aside. The
churches and schools, including those of Cotta, were abandon
ed and allowed to fall into decay, and the people returned
to Buddhism and its companions, kapuism and devil worship.
The proponent system was soon abolished, having left, how
ever, an almost indelible stamp on the religion of the country,
handing down from generation to generation a nominal pro
fession of a belief in Christianity where none was felt. The
last of the proponents who officiated in Cotta was Don
Abraham of Talangama.
The first English minister who exerted himself for the
benefit pf the people of Cotta was Mr. Chater of the Baptist
Mission, but his efforts were attended with so little success
that in the year 1820 he closed the school he had started,
130 CENTENARY VOLUME
and retired from the place. In 1822 the Rev. Samuel
Lambrick, who was one of the first four C.M.S. missionaries
to Ceylon, and who on arrival had been stationed in Kandy,
moved to Cotta. A piece of high and waste land, named
Thotepallekannatte, on the border of the Cotta lake, Diwas-
nahwa or Juwannawa, was purchased from Government, and
eight other pieces of land adjoining, from villagers, in order
to build mission premises. The Government deed of convey
ance is dated July 13, 1822, and signed by the Governor of
Ceylon, Sir Edward Paget, K.G.C.B., and stipulates that the
Rev. Samuel Lambrick shall and do take good care and
preserve for the care and benefit of the Crown all the cinna
mon trees which are now growing or which may hereafter
grow on the said spot of ground.
Soon after taking possession Mr. Lambrick wrote to the
C.M.S. , Cotta has a water communication with Colombo
by means of a canal connecting the Calany with the Calpera
and Pantura rivers ; there is also a bridle road with wooden
bridges over two branches of the canal, but in the rainy season
this road is frequently impassable. It is sufficiently distant
from Colombo to avoid the evils connected with a large town.
The following year the Rev. Joseph Bailey was transferred
to Cotta from Jaffna. Buildings were erected, and a printing
press set up, from which 15,000 tracts were issued during the
On November 8, 1827, Sir Edward Barnes, Governor
of Ceylon, laid the foundation-stone of a theological college,
called the Cotta Institution, to train Ceylonese for Christian
work among their own people. Most of the civil and military
residents from Colombo, the Archdeacon, the Chaplains and
many others were present. On the opening of the Institution
fifteen pupils were admitted who were to receive -a good
education in English, Science, Mathematics, Philology, Latin,
Greek and Pali.
The first student admitted was Abraham Gunasekara who
was ordained in 1839 and worked at Baddegama till his death
in 1862. The Rev. James Selkirk arrived in 1826, and, on
his retirement in 1839, became Curate of Middleton Tyas,
in Yorkshire, and in 1844 published his Recollections of
In October, 1828, the first school for girls only was estab
lished under the superintendence of Mrs. Lambrick, who
had arrived in the Island the previous year as Miss Stratford,
and had been married to Mr. Lambrick. Great reluctance
had always been shown by the mothers to send their daughters
to learn letters as they called it, and Mrs. Lambrick went
to all the houses in the villages inviting the girls to attend.
At the end of the year there were thirty-three girls attending.
In the same year, Mr. William Lambrick, a nephew of the
Rev. S. Lambrick, was appointed classical teacher in the
Institution and in 1831 the Rev. Joseph Marsh arrived from
Madras to help.
The Cotta missionaries also prepared a translation of the
Bible into colloquial Sinhalese, and on November 14, 1833,
it was issued from the press and is known as the Cotta
Bible. To help in the printing of the Bible, a Mr. Riddes-
dale came out from England and had charge of the printing
press for six years. It may be here stated that the lir.-,t
edition of the whole Bible in Sinhalese was published by the
Bible Society in 1823, in three volumes, quarto, of 3,350
pages, the price per copy being ^3-1-6, but as this edition was
found to be too expensive and cumbersome for general use,
and as the need of a glossary shewed that it required revision,
a revised and more portable edition was, in November, 1830
published in one octavo volume of 1,212 pages, the price being
only eleven shillings and sixpence.
The C.M.S. missionaries in 1824, considering that this
edition contained so many words derived from the Sanscrit
132 CENTENARY VOLUME
and Pali languages, words common in Sinhalese books and
intelligible to persons of learning, but not to the great body of
the people, and so many inflections of words, different from
those in common use so as to render them difficult to be
understood, determined with the sanction of their Parent
Society, to prepare and print at their own expense and at
their press at Cotta a new version of the Bible in familiar
Sinhalese. Thus there were two distinct versions of the
Holy Scriptures in circulation, the older one, Tolfrey s,
prepared under the auspices of the Bible Society in Colombo,,
and the Cotta version by the C.M.S. For some years it
was found impossible to reconcile either of the respective
translators to the use of the other version, although both
parties felt that it was desirable that there should be but one
The controversy lasted until 1852, when, at a meeting held
. in the Dutch Church, Colombo, under the presidency of the
Governor, Sir George Anderson, it was announced that all
differences had terminated and that both sides would join to
prepare one uniform Sinhalese version. The Rev. G. Peltitt
of the C.M.S. and the Rev. D. j! Gogerly of the W.M.S.
were elected joint Secretaries of the Bible Society, and the
second period of translation and revision began. An ad in
terim version of the Bible was first prepared and a revised
edition issued in 1857. A re-translation of the whole Bible was
begun in 1858, by the Rev. D. J. Gogerly, but this translation
was not altogether approved, so the re-translation was started
again in 1887, with the Rev. S. Coles, C.M.S., as chief reviser.
The work was performed with the most painstaking care, but
when Mr. Coles suddenly died on September 13, 1901, whilst
waiting for the assembling of the Revision Committee in the
vestry of Galle Face Church, the revision had been complet
ed only as far as the end of the Acts of the Apostles. Bishop
R. S. Copleston took the place of Mr. Coles, and had com-
pleted Romans and Galatians, when he was appointed Metro
politan of India. It was not until 1911 that the whole work
of re-translation was finished, and the new Bible published.
The first public examination of the Cotta Institution took
place in 1831, and is thus noticed in the Government Gazette
of December 17, A breakfast was given this morning by the
Cotta Church missionaries to His Excellency the Governor
(Sir R. J. Wilmot Horton) and Lady Wilmot Horton, at
which all the civil and military authorities and a great num
ber of the officers of the regiments stationed here were pre
sent. After breakfast the company adjourned to the Institu
tion to hear the examination of the pupils in English reading,
geography, geometry, arithmetic, Latin, and Greek. About
.two hours and a half were devoted to the examination. His
Excellency expressed the pleasure and gratification that had
been afforded him by an exhibition of so much talent, which
did equal honour to those who taught and to those who re
ceived tuition. He could not express his own opinion more
clearly than by referring to a passage that had just been con
strued by the Latin class : Nullum tnunus reipublicae afferre
niajus meliusve possumus, quam si doceamus ct enidiamus
jtiventiitetn, we can confer no greater benefit upon the
country than by the education of youth. On November 11,
1834, the Bishop of Calcutta, Dr. Wilson, visited and with
his chaplain spent two hours in examining the Institution
students in geography, trigonometry, geometry, Latin, Greek
and the Hebrew Bible.
In 1835 the Rev. S. Lambrick returned to England and
became domestic chaplain to the Marquis of Cholmondeley,
and died in 1854, aged 85.
On the retirement of Messrs. Lambrick and Selkirk, the
Revs. J. Bailey and F. W. Taylor carried on the work of the
various departments of the district with the assistance of the
Rev. Cornelius Jayasinha, who had been ordained by Bishop
134 CENTENARY VOLUME
Spencer of Madras. After twenty years trial it was found
that the object for which the Institution was established had
not been fully effected, as many of the students, after having
completed their course, made choice of the more lucrative
and popular employments at the disposal of the Government.
In 1851 the Rev. C. C. Fenn (who died in 1913 in England
at the age of 90) was appointed and it was decided to make
the Institution more comprehensive by changing it into a
kind of Grammar School. It was thought that in this way
many more than formerly would be brought under Christian
influence and instruction. In 1853 there were 106 pupils
on the list with an average attendance of seventy. Of these
twenty were boarders, one paid nine -.hillings, nine paid seven
shillings and sixpence, and four paid four and sixpence
monthly, three were pupil teachers receiving food and four
shillings each monthly, and three were free students.
After ten years of trial of the plans worked out by Mr. Fenn r
it was manifest that although greater numbers were under
instruction, there was no better supply of mission workers,,
and owing to the opening of the Government Academy, after
wards the Royal College, in Colombo, and other Colleges, boys
stayed a much shorter time in the Institution than formerly.
It was, therefore, decided not to keep up an expensive
institution, and the present English school took its place.
The total number of students educated in the Institution
amounted to nearly two thousand. Of these, seventeen be
came ordained ministers, forty-one catechists, six Scripture
readers, sixty-seven school masters, two advocates, one
magistrate, eight proctors, six mudaliyars, sixty-eight govern
ment employees, and many others merchants, clerks,
In 1841 Mr. Bailey was suddenly removed by death, and
the Rev. H. Powell was transferred from Baddegama to
Cotta. Two years later no less than sixty-nine adults and
THE CHURCH, COTTA
THE BOYS HOSTEL, COTTA
128 children were baptized during the year and 110 candi
dates were confirmed by the Bishop, and the accounts of the
work were so encouraging that the annual report of the
Parent Society for that year speaks of Cotta as the heart of
the Ceylon Mission.
From 1848 till 1861 the Rev. Isaiah Wood was in charge.
During this period the printing establishment was closed and
the press sold. In 1861 the Rev. J. H. Clowes arrived, and
the Rev. J. Ireland Jones was the Superintending Missionary.
During the eighteen months that followed, mission work
throughout the entire low-country underwent a severe sifting
process, which brought to light an amount of heathenism and
hypocrisy among those who called themselves and were re
garded as Christians, which was hardly credible. A Buddhist
revival took place during which public lectures were given
for the avowed purpose of overthrowing Christianity, and
leading the converts back to their original faith. The result
was that hundreds of those, whose names had stood on the
congregational lists of the various missionary societies, for
sook all connection with the Christian church. The one
bright feature of all this was that the revival of Buddhism
seemed to accomplish what missionaries for years had been
labouring in vain to effect. It taught many that it was
utterly inconsistent to call themselves Christians while they
were Buddhists in heart.
In 1863 the Rev. E. T. Higgens removed from Kandy
and took charge. The unsatisfactory character of many
of the people he felt deeply, and in order to discover how
many there were who were really Christian, and to draw
a line of demarcation between them and the heathen, he
instituted a test which he required the Christians to sign. It
was a declaration that they believed Christianity to be the
only true religion, that they regarded Buddhism as false, and
that they had renounced all connection with heathenism and
136 CENTENARY VOLUME
all practice of its ceremonies. Out of one thousand profess
ing Christians, only 342 persons signed this test, and of these
many were in the employ of the Mission.
In 1865 Mr. Clowes was in charge and had a zealous
helper in the Rev. J. de Livera. The following year the
Rev. J. Ireland Jones returned with instructions to pursue
vigorously the work of reorganization. The Rev. Cornelius
Jayasinghe who had been in charge of Talangama removed
Three years later, when the Mission Jubilee was celebrated,
there were 440 adults who professed to have given up all faith
in Buddhism. The schools numbered twenty, with seven
hundred children attending, the number on the lists being
about one-half more. The communicants numbered 175.
In 1869 the Rev. R. T. Dowbiggin was appointed and
remained in charge for the next thirty years.
In June, 1871, Mrs. Dowbiggin (who was a daughter of Sir
C. P. Layard, Government Agent of the Western Province)
opened a Girls Anglo- Vernacular Boarding School which
continues to flourish to the present day, and has been a benefit
and blessing to many. Up to the end of the year 1916, 860
girls had passed through the school. In 1886 the Rev. S.
Coles had charge of a class for training catechists, with seven
Two years later the Rev. H. de Silva, the Pastor of
Talangama and Welikada, the Rev. G. S. Amarasekara, the
Pastor of Cotta and Nugegoda, and the Rev. W. L. Botejue,
the Pastor of Mampe, gave cheering and encouraging accounts
of the work in their Pastorates.
In 1897 Miss A. Dowbiggin was working as a missionary
among the women and girls.
In the same year the Revs. Joseph Perera, Theodore Perera
and W. E. Botejue were appointed to Colombo, Talangama
and Mampe respectively. At the close of 1900 Mr. Dowbiggin
.gave a survey of the work of the district during his thirty
years superintendence with the following statistics :
Christians ... ... 874 1,361
Communicants ... ... 144 412
Contributions ... ... Rs. 750 3,230
Girls in G. B. S. ... ... 29 76
Boys in English School ... 60 268
Vernacular School Pupils ... 1,082 3,300
Early in the following year the missionary was called to
higher service after a painful illness patiently borne and a
memorial brass in the Cotta Church bears these words
IN LOVING MEMORY OF THE
REV. RICHARD THOMAS DOWBIGGIN,
WHO FOR THIRTY YEARS
PREACHED CHRIST IN THE COTTA DISTRICT.
DIED AT SEA NEAR SUEZ
MARCH STH 1901. AGED 63 YEARS.
TO ME TO LIVE IS CHRIST, AND TO DIE IS GAIN.
THIS TABLET WAS ERECTED BY MANY FRIENDS.
On March 1 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones was appointed to
Cotta, but the death of the Rev. S. Coles in September
necessitated his return to Colombo, when the superintendence
of the district was handed over to the Rev. J. W. Balding
who had been for many years in Baddegama.
138 CENTENARY VOLUME
A portion of the district was cut off in 1909 and placed in
the independent charge of the Rev. G. S. Amarasekara, and
called the Nugegoda Pastorate. This consisted of St. John s
Church, Nugegoda, Christ Church, Mirihana, and six verna
cular schools. During his incumbency, Mr. Amarasekara
collected funds and built a parsonage. On the appointment
of Mr. Amarasekara to Kandy in 1908, the Rev. J. H.
Wikramayake of Mampe succeeded him.
The following year the Rev. G. B. Perera moved to Cotta
and the same year a long-felt want was met by the starting of
a girls English day school by Mrs. Balding.
In 1905 the Sinhalese Women Teachers Vernacular
Training School, which had been started in a hired house
in Colombo by Miss H. P. Phillips, was moved to Cotta
under the superintendence of Miss K. Gedge. Mr. Balding
went on furlough this year and the Rev. R. W. Ryde
took charge. In 1908 the re-built Church of St. Matthias,
Boralesgamuwa, was opened, and a new church, dedicated
to St. John, was built at Homagama through the liberality of
Mr. J. C. Ebert.
In 1909 Mr. Balding writes, The Buddhist opposition to
Christian work is severe and intense, and our means to combat
it are limited.
ThelMen Teachers Training School, established some years
previously, was this year transferred to Colombo, where a
hostel was opened and the students attended the Government
Training College. After the marriage of Miss K. Gedge to the
Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering in 1909, Mrs. Balding had
charge of the Women Teachers Training School for some
months till the appointment of Miss Leslie Melville.
In 1910 Mrs. Dowbiggin went to England, and Miss Leslie
Melville with the help of Miss G. Hutchinson managed the
Girls Boarding School. Mrs. Dowbiggin was missed by all.
She had a remarkable way of keeping in touch with the old
MRS. R. T. DOWBIGG1N
GIRLS ANGLO-VERNACULAR SINHALESE BOARDING SCHOOL, COTTA
girls and a wonderful power of winning and retaining the love
of her pupils.
In 1911 there passed away in one week two of the best
and oldest workers of the district, both good men, full of the
Holy Spirit and good works, whose praise was in all the
churches, William de Silva, son of Thomas de Silva, a former
catechist, who for fifty-two years had been Headmaster of
the Cotta English School, and Hendrick de Silva, a catechist
for fifty-one years.
At the end of the same year the Rev. and Mrs. A. M.
Walmsley took charge of the Girls Boarding School, the
staff was strengthened, the buildings renovated, and some
necessary equipment added. The spiritual side of the work
was not neglected as the following letter to the missionary s
wife will shew, I regret very much to let you know that I
have made out from the letters sent by my two girls that you
have infused into their childish brains the teachings of your
religion, and have nearly succeeded in attempting to revert
their minds to same. We sent the girls to your school to get
them educated only. We never expect that our children
become Christians. Therefore I hereby give you notice with
thanks that I am going to withdraw said two girls by the end"
The last visit of the Metropolitan, Dr. R. S. Copleston,
took place in 1912, when about 400 people met in the
Mission compound for a garden party and assembled for
Evening Service in church when His Lordship gave an
One of the best catechists, Peter de Silva, a man of little
education and no training, but whose life was a living witness,
was called Home during this year.
The following year, Miss Wardlaw Ramsay, who had been
a missionary in Palestine for some years, came to reside with
Miss Leslie Melville in Cotta, and gave much voluntary help
140 CENTENARY VOLUME
in every good work. The Rev. G. B. Perera moved to
Colombo, and was succeeded by the Rev. R. T. E. A. Guna-
tilaka. The Talangama Pastorate, consisting of St. Matthew s
Church, Talangama, St. Mark s Church, Kotewegoda, and
St. Stephen s Church, Upper Welikada, with nine vernacular
schools, was cut off from the Cotta district, and became an
independent incumbency under the Rev. D. L. Welikala.
When Mrs. Dowbiggin returned from England in 1911
she made her home in Liyanwala, a corner of the district
where a good work, inaugurated by her husband, had been
carried on for some years. With the help of a companion and
a staff of Biblewomen, she still carries on her self-denying
.labours, going in and out among the people carrying the
Word of Life, tending them in their sicknesses and encourag-
,ing the teachers, working independently but in close co-opera
tion with the Superintending Missionary.
The Buddhist opposition continued active throughout the
district, and not only had they their day schools, but all
Christian methods were adopted, such as Sunday schools,
fancy bazaars, Scripture examinations, prize givings, etc.
A Buddhist priest, writing to a local Buddhist paper, said,
Christianity is an epidemic which is spreading far and wide.
In June, 1914, the Rev. J. W. Balding left on furlough and
the Rev. A. M. Walmsley took charge until the arrival of the
Rev. S. M. Simmons in July. Unfortunately Mr. Simmons
was invalided home in September, when the Rev. A. E.
Dibben took the oversight until the arrival of the Rev. J. W.
Ferrier in 1915.
Mr. Ferrier in his first report, referring to the Boys School,
writes, Here is an Institution the glories of the past of
which are without parallel in the annals of the Mission. It
has made an indelible mark in the civil and ecclesiastical life
of the Island. Nearly every C.M.S. Pastor, Catechist, and
Teacher prior to the year 1900 has been helped in it.
Of Liyanwala he writes, A very earnest congregation \
worship at St. Paul s Church, which is the centre of an
efficient group of schools. One great advantage to the work
is the residence there of Mrs. Dowbiggin and her helper,
Miss Hutchinson. Both itinerate in the villages, visiting the
schools and cheering the teachers, and in the house-to-house
visiting are assisted by several Biblewomen. From April,
1915 to September, 1916, Mr. Ferrier motor-cycled 6,000 miles
in connection with his work.
The Baptismal Register of the Cotta district records the
baptism of nearly six thousand persons since the commence
ment of the Mission. This does not include the baptisms in
the churches of the separate incumbencies which have been
made in recent years. The first entry is the following,
Samuel, an adult Jew, on the credible profession of faith in
Christ. He was known before by the name of Joseph Judah
Misrabi, and is a native of Cochin on the Malabar Coast.
Baptized on November 4, 1827, by me, Samuel Lambrick.
The first entry in the Register of Marriages is James Ford,,
late a Private in H.M. s 16th Regiment, and Anachy Anna
Kangany married at Cotta on December 22, 1827, by me,
James Selkirk, Church Missionary. The Register of
Burials records the burial of 212 persons, in the little
churchyard in Cotta. In the graveyard there are only
sixteen stones to mark their resting-places, and four of these
are in memory of two European missionaries and two English
children, so 196 Sinhalese have no memorial stones.
The burials during the first twenty years of the Mission do
not seem to have been recorded. The first entry is Anna
Maria, wife of Maddamahallinnaygay Juan de Silva, aged
34 years, buried December 8, 1844, by me, Henry Powell,
One of the first four C.M.S. missionaries to Ceylon lies
buried in the churchyard, and the following is the inscription
142 CENTENARY VOLUME
on the tomb-stone, Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Joseph
Knight born October 17, 1787, died October 11, 1840 he
laboured as a missionary in connection with the C.M. Society
at Jaffna for more than twenty years. Was wrecked off the
Cape on his way Home in 1838, when he is thought to have
contracted an affection of the lungs, of which he died shortly
after his return to Ceylon. His end was peace.
Although work was commenced in 1822 and ten churches
have been built in the out-stations, at the headqtiarters in
Cotta there has never been a proper church building, and
the services have been held in the large hall of the Boys
English School. In August, 1904, the Rev. J. \V. Balding
determined to raise money to build a church and issued an
appeal supported by the Metropolitan and the Bishop of the
Diocese. A sum of about Rs. 20,000 has been received from
about 2,500 contributors, and a further Rs. 10,000 is needed
for the work.
On December 31, 1918, there were in the whole Cotta
District four Ceylonese clergy ; 109 lay workers ; thirty-four
schools with 1,412 boys and 1,156 girls, making a total of
2,568 pupils; 1,687 Christians, of whom 680 were communi
cants. Of these Christians 397 were in the Talangama
Pastorate and 590 in the Nugegoda Pastorate.
THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES.
WORK in the Kandyan Sinhalese Itinerancies was com
menced in the year 1853, and now covers the greater part of
the Central, North-Central and North-Western Provinces and
a portion of the Sabaragamuwa Province. For the previous
thirty-five years the work carried on at the Kandy Station
had been almost entirely confined to the Low-country Sinhalese
resident in the town and neighbourhood. Very few Kandyan
families resided in the town itself, and the object of this new
effort was to convey the Gospel to the Kandyans in their
villages. The Rev. E. T. Higgens commenced the work in
July, 1853, in the district of Harispattu, as being the most
populous for its size of the Kandyan districts. The name
Harispattu means the country of the four hundred.
According to tradition it received its name from its having
been originally peopled by four hundred captives brought
from the Coromandel Coast by King Gaja Bahu (113-li>5
A.D.) in lieu of those whom the sovereign of that country had
carried off from Ceylon during the reign of his father. The
country of the four hundred is now a division with 44,000
Mr. Higgens entered on the work single-handed, but in the
first year, repeated attacks of jungle-fever compelled him to
take a sea voyage to the Cape. On his return he found that
his wife had passed away during his absence, but he vigor
ously resumed his preaching in Harispattu, visiting every
village in turn. Permanent outstations were commenced in
Kurunegala in 1854 and at Hanguranketa in 1855, and the
144 CENTENARY VOLUME
Itineration was extended to other parts of the country, includ
ing the populous districts of Uda Nuwara and Yata Nuwara..
Robert Knox, who was a prisoner in the interior of Ceylon
from 1659 to 1679, on his escape from captivity, wrote the
first account we have of Ceylon in the English language, in
which he says of Uda Nuwara and Yata Nuwara, These
two counties have the pre-eminence of all the rest in the land.
They are most populous and fruitful. The inhabitants there
of are the chief and principal men, insomuch that it is a usual
saying among them that, if they want a king, they may take
any man, of either of these two counties from the plough, and
wash the dust off him and he by reason of his quality and
descent is fit to be a king. And they have this peculiar privi
lege, that none may be their Governor but one born in their
The great body of the people, when the Mission was com
menced, were entirely ignorant of Christianity.
In 1854 Mr. E. R. Clarke joined the Mission and worked
in Yata and Uda Nuwara for a couple of years.
At Hanguranketa and Maturata small congregations had
been collected, and at the former place was built a little
church, by a Sinhalese gentleman, Mr. C. H. de Soysa.
In 1861 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones joined in the work,
living on an abandoned coffee estate in Harispattu.
Mr. Higgens, owing to repeated attacks of fever, removed to
the low-country, and the Rev. J. H. Clowes took his place.
The Kandyans of Harispattu were not responsive to the
Gospel, so Mr. Jones removed to Kurunegala, about twenty-
seven miles from Kandy, and made it his centre.
The congregation at Kurunegala assumed a more settled
character and a small church was erected where Europeans
and Sinhalese united in worship. The Rev. J. A. de Livera
was appointed Pastor, and by his diligence the congregation
made further advance.
THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES 145
On Mr. de Livera s removal in 1862, Mr. Jones again took
up his residence there and visited the villages around.
In one of these, Talampitiya, some five years previously, a
New Testament had been left, which had been read by the vil
lagers. The Holy Spirit had blessed the reading, and when the
missionary visited them again, a crowd, attentive and earnest,
listened to the glad tidings. Within a few months thirteen
men were baptized, one of them formerly a Buddhist priest.
These converts became missionaries to their own people,
with the result that fourteen more adults were baptized.
About this time Mr. Jones was compelled to return to
England and the Rev. E. T. Higgens again took charge.
The Rev. John Allcock also arrived. The Church at Talam
pitiya continued to prosper, and up to 1867 fifty converts
from Buddhism had been baptized, some of them men of
much intellect as well as deep spirituality. One of the first
converts was Elandege Abraham, whose Christian life and
character showed the reality of his faith. He became an
earnest evangelist and in later years often accompanied the
missionaries in their preaching tours. He passed to his rest
on December 13, 1891, and was buried in the Talampitiya
churchyard. In 1866 Mr. Higgens was transferred to another
district, and Mr. Allcock became Superintendent.
In 1870 Mr. Jones was again in charge and the work was
extended to Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of the Island.
Two catechists visited it and the country round for a con
siderable distance, preaching and distributing tracts. The
journey was undertaken at the request of Mr. Louts
Liesching, a Government official there, who collected the
money to pay the travelling expenses of the workers.
Mr. Jones also spent the month 1 of April visiting the villages.
At the close of the same year a Girls Boarding School was
begun in Kandy by Mrs. Jones with seven boarders ; the
following year there were thirteen. Catechists were stationed
146 CENTENARY VOLUME
at Ruanwela, Kegalle and Nawalapitiya. A church com
mittee was formed at Gampola, and efforts were made to pay
the salary and house-rent of the catechist.
In July, 1872, the Rev. S. Coles took charge, at which time
there were eight catechists and six readers and a number of
village schools. In 1877 the Rev. G. F. Unwin, who had
been for a short time in Kegalle, moved to Anuradhapura, but
owing to ill-health had to return to England the following
year. Mr. Coles was now left single-handed in the district
with twenty-seven congregations, forty day schools and 1,200
Christians. In 1880 Mr. Coles broke down, and Mr. Jones
again took charge, residing at Kurunegala. The Holy
Emmanuel Church was built and opened in 1881. The
Rev. G. L. P. Liesching arrived in 1882, and worked in
the Kegalle and Kurunegala districts for nearly nineteen
years. During his time a Mission House was purchased at
Kegalle, and a Girls Boarding School opened on June
1, 1895. The Rev. J. Allcock had charge of the Central
District from 1884 till his death in Kandy in March,
1887. In the year 1886 sixty-five adults and twenty-two
children were baptized by Mr. Allcock and eleven adults and
nineteen children by Mr. Liesching. The following year the
invasion of the district by the Salvation Army caused a
division among the Talampitiya Christians.
In 1888 the Rev. J. G. Garrett took charge of the Central
District, residing in Kandy, and for twenty-three years with
enthusiasm and earnestness threw his very best into the work.
Early in 1911 he returned to Dublin to undergo an operation
and shortly after was called to his eternal rest.
The centre of women s work in the Central District is the
Mowbray Home. This embodies a development of the village
work begun by Miss Denyer, who first came out in 1889 with
Miss Bellerby and Miss James of the C.E.Z.M.S., but after
wards attached herself to the C.M.S. as an honorary worker.
MOWBRAY GKOUP. 1916
GAMPOLA MISSION HOUSK, C.E.Z.M.S.
THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES 147
After some years of itinerating work with Kandy as her centre,
she was joined in 1897 by Miss A. L. Earp from the parish
of Mowbray, S. Africa. During their village work^tbey, &v
came convinced that it was necessary to get enquirers away
from their heathen surroundings, at any rate until their faith
was established, and to this end they obtained help from Miss
Earp s home parish and took up their quarters in various
rented houses one after another. Here they gathered round
them various grades of enquirers, some with their families,
and also received village women sent on from the C.E.Z.
Mission in Gampola to be tested and taught. There were
some real conversions, and some converts of that day are still
Christian workers, as are also their children. Rescue work
was attempted, but experience showed that it could not be
carried on with the other work and accordingly it was handed
over to the Salvation Army. The work found a permanent
home in 1906 after the purchase and adaptation of the
bungalow and grounds now known as Mowbray. Here
enquirers from many villages were taken in and taught, not
only Christianity, but elementary secular subjects and
Miss Hargrove came out in 1908 and was located to
Mowbray for language study. In 1910 Miss Earp writes :
Sixteen have been admitted into the Home this year, and
two of the girls baptized. These two are the first fruits of an
old girl s work in a village school. Five of the girls confirm
ed at Kegalle were sent to school there from Mowbray, and
another girl, confirmed at Gampola, is a prcbationary Bible-
woman there. Three of the old girls are now employed as
teachers in the Home. There have been no less than six
Christian marriages this year, five of them with C.M.S.
workers. The new Maternity Home and Biblewomen s
House are nearing completion and the Mission House in
Hurikaduwa is finished.
148 CENTENARY VOLUME
In 1911 Miss Earp mentions the opening of a Training.
Home for Biblewomen and the admission of four women
for training. She also reports the baptism of seven con
verts. Miss Earp resigned in 1914 and Miss Denyer, with
the help of Miss Findlay, an honorary worker from S.
Africa, carried on the work, the Biblewomen s Training
Class being given up. Miss Hargrove returned from fur
lough early in 1915 and was put in charge of the Home
work, Miss Josolyne also living at Mowbray and doing
evangelistic work among the women and girls of the district-
Miss Denyer left for England in 1915 after sixteen years of
faithful and devoted honorary service in the Mission.
In his last annual report at the close of 1910 Mr. Garrett
gives the following statistics : Sixteen catechists and lay
readers, two Biblewomen, 712 Christians, 312 communicants,,
fifty-three men teachers, twenty-seven w T omen teachers, forty-
four schools and 4,878 scholars. In another part he writes,.
The schools are crowded out with the very children we want
to reach. But till a Spirit-filled Sinhalese evangelistic
agency is raised up the work will not grow. The whole
community in a village gathered to witness the first two
baptisms ever seen in the place. Two young men, aged
eighteen and fifteen, answered most satisfactorily, showing a
grasp of the teaching as to the Holy Spirit. The scene was
most impressive, a schoolroom, i.e., a shed on rough posts,
with mud walls four feet high, a clay bench all along three
sides, a sloping board nailed on two posts for a school desk, the
village fathers all in a long line along one mud bench which
forms half our school furniture ; the children, twenty-seven in
number, along the opposite side behind the desk ; several
little ones on the floor looking up at the bowl of water on my
white table cloth : the mothers all lining the wall outside,
looking over the children s heads ; the catechist and school
master on our two school chairs, the only ones in the village,
THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES 149
behind the little children, facing the table. My Christian
servant and Mark, a new convert from a neighbouring village,
formed the Christian congregation. I read all the service
carefully and explained almost every clause, after which my
two brothers, Richard and Thomas, came and knelt on a mat
before the table, and, pouring a handful of water over them,
I admitted them into the fellowship of the people of Him who
died for them, and I believe they are indeed living members
of His body.
In September, 1891, the Rev. and Mrs. G. Liesching left
and the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge of the Western
Itinerancy until June, 1893, when Mr. Coles became respon
sible until Mr. Liesching s return. In January, 1895, the
Itinerancy which had hitherto been divided into two districts,
the Central and the Western, was further divided, and a new
one called the Northern Itinerancy was formed and placed in
charge of the Rev. H. E. Heinekey.
In July, 1898, Major Mathison, an honorary lay missionary,
was appointed to evangelistic work in the Dumbara portion
of the Northern Itinerancy, while the Rev. J. Colombage was
working in Anuradhapura and the Rev. F. W. Daundesekara
Mr. Liesching returned to England in July, 1899, and the
Rev. S. M. Simmons took his place in January, 1900, and
shortly afterwards Miss S. C. Lloyd and Miss M. S. Gedge
were appointed to work in the district. In 1903 the Rev.
C. T. Williams became Pastor at Anuradhapura, and Major
Mathison had charge of the evangelistic and school work.
During his superintendence a new mission house costing
about Rs. 12,000 was built. The same year Mr. Simmons
was invalided home and the Rev. W. G. Shorten took up his
residence in Kegalle.
Mr. Heinekey whilst in Anuradhapura was instrumental in
collecting a large proportion of the money for the building of
)50 CENTENARY VOLUME
a church, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the
Bishop on August 26, 1905. On St. Andrew s Day of the
following year the building, which had cost over Rs. 16,000,
was consecrated as St. Andrew s Church. When Major
Mathison left on furlough in 1908, there were 191 Christians,
fifty-seven communicants, twenty-eight enquirers, five cate-
chists and four schools with 196 scholars.
The Rev. R. W. Ryde succeeded Major Mathison, and had
just prepared the mission house for the residence of himself and
family, when he passed away after a short illness in Colombo.
In 1907 Miss A. K. Deering and Miss Bennett were working
in Kegalle, whilst the following year Miss M. S. Gedge and
Miss S.H.M. Townshend had charge of the women s work. In
June, 1909, the Rev. R. H. Phair made Kurunegala his head
quarters, and the Rev. C. Wijesinghe was appointed Pastor,,
but on the return of Mr. Shorten, Mr. Phair moved to Anura-
dhapura and took over the Northern Itinerancy. The Rev.
A. M. Walmsley for eight months had been spending a week
each month in the district in addition to his work at
In 1911 the Rev. J. P. S. R. Gibson paid periodical visits
and the Rev, J. D. Welcome was Pastor in Anuradhapura.
On the death of Mr. Garrett, the Rev. W. G. Shorten was
appointed to the Central Itineration and Miss M. S. Gedge
took charge of the Kegalle Girls Boarding School.
The following year Mr. Walmsley was in charge of the
Northern Itineration for six months, after which the Rev. and
Mrs. T. S. Johnson took up their residence in Anuradhapura.
In the annual report for 1913 the Rev. T. S. Johnson
says, Anuradhapura may be regarded as the most interesting
town in the Island. Here is a buried city of ancient fame
and splendour, where Sinhalese kings reigned at the zenith
of Sinhalese history and where to-day ruins, rivalled only by
those of Egypt, lift themselves skyward from the mass of
THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES 151
jungle and scrub with which thousands of square miles of
country is covered.
The Rev. R. H. Phair was again back as Superintendent of
the Western Itinerancy, and in 1913 writes : The Buddhist
opposition has been bitter and persistent. Those who are at
variance in every other matter are united in opposition to the
cause of Christ. False stories backed by false witnesses and
fabrications of all sorts are alleged against us and our
teaching. The Jesuits in some places add their rivalry to
Buddhist opposition and in face of all this there is a lack of
In 1915 the Kegalle Girls Boarding School was again in
charge of Miss M. S. Gedge with the assistance of Miss de
Vos, and Miss E. M. Josolyne was released for work at
Mr. Shorten went on furlough in May, 1915, the Rev. A. M.
Walmsley taking charge of the Central Itinerancy. At the
close of the year he gives the following statistics: One Sinha
lese clergyman, four catechists, three readers, three Bible-
women, 141 teachers, 830 Christians, 335 communicants,
nineteen adults and forty-two children baptized, fifty-seven
catechumens, forty confirmed, forty-four schools and 5,378
In the early days of the Itinerancy the missionary had to
tramp from village to village or use a springless bullock cart
as his means of locomotion. The present-day missionary has
his motor cycle and Mr. Walmsley writes : In rain and
shine, up hill and down dale, by day and by night, it has been
my constant companion and scarcely ever-failing friend. It
hardly ever grows weary, and still more rarely grumbles.
We have travelled together, during the past year, over seven
thousand miles, and have never yet broken an engagement.
On October 6, 1916, Mr. Phair, then in charge of the
Northern Itinerancy, met with a serious accident whilst riding
152 CENTENARY VOLUME
his motor cycle. He collided with a bullock cart and his
injuries were so serious that his right leg had to be amputated.
From the shock of this operation he never fully recovered.
In January, 1917, he left for England and returned to his
work in February, 1918, before physically fit to resume it.
Several of the old mud-and-thatch school buildings have
been replaced by more substantial ones during the last few
years. Just before leaving Mr. Shorten made the following
entry in the log-book of Gonagama School which was re-open
ed in June, 1915 : This building has an interesting history.
The site is our own property. The zinc for the roof was
given by Mr. L. W. A. de Soysa. The sawing expenses
were paid by Mr. Williams, a planter. The trees were given
by Government, except for one jak tree which was given
by Mr. Soysa. The teacher got the villagers to transport all
the timber some 2,000 square feet free, from a jungle four
miles away, the best bit of work I have ever got done
through a teacher. The zinc 1 ton, 4 cwts was brought
by the school children, three miles away over a mountain
pass, without costing me a cent. Mr. R. E. S. de Soysa
transported it from Kandy to Hanguranketa at the same rate.
When I visited this place on March 5 three or four coolies
were leisurely clearing the ground or site for the new build
ing. All the timber was then growing, except two trees,
which had been cut down the previous week. The dressed
stones for the pillars were still solid rock, and neither sand
nor lime were collected. This is May 7, and the building is
now practically finished. The success of the effort is largely
due to the zeal and hard work of the head teacher. 1
Mr. Walmsley writes : We can say, in all humility and
thankfulness to God, that the work is progressing. I am
sure that the men and women working away quietly in scores
of villages are testifying by word and life, and that we shall
continue steadily to reap the fruits of their labours in the
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THE KANDYAN ITINERANCIES 153
Lord. In one village I found a bright sweet-faced woman
with eight children, who gave evidence of an earnest desire to
become a Christian. She is learning regularly, and seems to
drink in what one says. I remember what a joy it was to
watch her face, as I told her recently of Christ s sacrifice for
her sins. We have as many enquirers, catechumens and
candidates for confirmation as we can well deal with, con
sidering the amount of time available for that side of our
work, and so we thank God and take courage.
If one were determined to look on the dark side of things
there is always enough to break one s heart. Indeed, Ceylon
has always been a heart-breaking place, from a missionary
point of view. Why it should be so, I have been trying for
nearly ten years to find out, but so far unsuccessfully.
Doubtless a great deal of the difficulty is accounted for by the
inexpressible inertia of Buddhism. It seems impossible to get
a move on, to make, the dry bones live. Men who come to
face Ceylon Buddhism must realize that God only wants men
who can do the impossible, men who can do all things through
Christ, Who strengtheneth them.
In 1916 the Rev. T. S. Johnson, who had for three and a
half years ministered in three languages, was transferred
from Anuradhapura to the Tamil Cooly Mission, while still
remaining in charge of the Anuradhapura district.
The Rev. J. N. Seneviratne, who as curate to the incumbent
of Gampola, has the pastoral oversight of the work of that town
and in addition is in charge of St. Andrew s, Nawalapitiya, in
his report for 1916, says: The Pastorate consists of three
congregations, English and Sinhalese at Gampola, and
Sinhalese at Nawalapitiya. The membership is as follows :
English sixty adults, twenty communicants ; Sinhalese
(Gampola) eighty-five adultsj> sixty-four communicants ;
Sinhalese (Nawalapitiya) forty-six adults, eighteen communi
cants. The contributions to the pastorate amounted to
154 CENTENARY VOLUME
Rs. 1,561 during the year. A Confirmation Service was held
at Nawalapitiya in three languages, when thirty-eight candi
dates were presented. From 1906 to the present date the
attendance at St. Andrew s Church has been steadily increas
ing, and the building is not large enough to accommodate the
congregation. A Building Committee has been appointed and
it is hoped to raise Rs. 25,000 during the next three years in
order to build a new church.
THERE are several theories of the derivation of the name
Colombo. Some connect it with the Kelani River, which
enters the sea near Colombo, by others it is said to be derived
from Calamba, a seaport or fortified place. The derivation
most generally received is that the village and port were
originally known as Colontota, from the Sinhalese words
Cola amba tota, mango leaves port. The Portuguese,
finding a name so like that of their famous navigator Chris
topher Columbus, called the city Colombo.
There is a tradition that the Khalif of Baghdad, in the tenth
century, hearing that the Moorish traders settled in Colombo
were not very orthodox Mohammedans, sent a priest to instruct
them, who also built a mosque for their use.
A writer in 1344 described Kalambu as the finest town in
At the first census of the people of Ceylon, of which there
is any record, in 1824, the population of Colombo is given as
31,188 ; in 1871 the population had increased to 95,843 ; and
in 1911 to 211,274.
Percival, writing in 1803 of Colombo, says : There is no
part of the world where so many different languages are
spoken, or which contains such a mixture of nations, manners
and religions. This description remains true to-day.
At the census of 1911, persons of seventy-eight different
races were enumerated in Colombo ; these included 2,374
British, 110 French, 97 Germans, 13,485 Burghers and
Eurasians, 2,495 Kandyan Sinhalese, 91,590 low-country
156 CENTENARY VOLUME
Sinhalese, 15,252 Ceylon Tamils, 36,717 Indian Tamils,
24,4S1 Ceylon Moors, 13,688 Indian Moors and 5,364 Malays.
Among the other races represented were Americans, Australi
ans, Arabs, Boers, Chinese, Canadians, Japanese, Egyptians,
Parsees, Kaffirs, Zulus, Maldivians, Burmese and Maoris.
The proportion per cent of the adherents of the four chief
religions to the total population in Colombo in 1911 was
Buddhists 30-89, Christians 28-31, Mohammedans, 21-56 and
Hindus 19-07. The Church Missionary Society did not
commence a settled work in Colombo until the year 1850,
although it was their intention that one of the four missionaries
first appointed to Ceylon should be stationed there. The first
missionaries thought it more desirable to occupy villages near
large towns than the towns themselves. In 1828 the Rev.
A. Armour, Chaplain of St. Paul s Church in Colombo,
addressed a letter to the Conference assembled at Cotta
urging them to begin work in Colombo, but the invitation was
not accepted. In 1843 a C. M. S. Association was formed
under the patronage of Sir Colin Campbell, the Governor, in
Colombo, to help the Mission with funds.
In 1850 the Parent Society reviewed their missions and
said : While most of the missions have enlarged themselves,
the Ceylon Mission has remained almost stationary. Exten
sion in a mission must be looked for, and in this respect at
least, the Ceylon Mission has proved unsatisfactory. Inviting
fields present themselves continually in other parts of the
world, and when these are put in contrast with the Ceylon
Mission, a temptation to withdraw its forces for employment
under brighter prospects arises.
The Home Committee could not entertain the idea of with
drawal until their best efforts should have been made for its
improvement. For this purpose they have adopted a new
system of management for the mission. A Central Committee,
Avith the Bishop of the Diocese as its President, has been
appointed, and its permanent Secretary will reside in
The Secretary here referred to was the Rev. G. Pettitt,
who arrived from Tinnevelly in April, 1850, and visited the
stations before taking up his residence in Colombo in
November of the same year.
He found a few Sinhalese catechists at work in Colombo
and a few converts, and these were organized under the Rev.
C. Jayasinghe. Tamil work was commenced and a catechist
employed. The duties of Mr. Pettitt, as Secretary to the
Central Committee, did not include any ministerial work, and
he suggested that a church should be built, where the Secre
tary might take regular English duty. A sub-committee was
appointed to enquire whether there was room in Colombo for
another church, and the facts ascertained were such as to lead
to the conclusion that the building of another church was a
The Parent Committee agreed and gave ^"700 on condition
that local assistance should also be given. An appeal was
issued in September, 1851, and on January 21, 1853, the
foundation-stone was laid. The land was purchased for 225
1 on the Esplanade of the Fort called the Galle Face, near to
the bridge which passes from it into Slave Island, and on the
edge of the lake. With the sea at a distance of about three
hundred yards in front and the lake close behind it, the situa
tion is both cool and pleasant.
On October 13, of the same year, the church was
opened for Divine Service by Bishop Chapman, who preached
a sermon from Malachi i. 11, From the rising of the sun
even unto the going down of the same, My name shall be
great among the Gentiles.
In the next annual report of the C.M.S. the Rev. Henry
Venn, the Secretary, referred to this service as affording
a happy illustration of one of the main objects of the
158 CENTENARY VOLUME
erection of the church the union of races in the Church
The total expenditure for the site, the church with its
fittings, and the churchyard wall was ^1,566.
The Rev. G. Pettitt ministered to the English and Tamil
congregations of Christ Church until January, 1 355, when he
left for England, and the Rev. H. Whitley, Curate of Sapcote,
Leicester, was appointed to succeed him.
In 1857 a piece of land was acquired adjoining the church
premises upon which a parsonage was built. The Parent
Committee made a grant of /"600 which was supplemented
by local funds and subscriptions of ^"450 towards this
purpose. The house was completed by the end of September,
1860. Mr. and Mrs. Whitley took possession in October, but
on November 10 Mr. Whitley received fatal injuries through
the falling of a wall in the church premises. Bishop
Chapman wrote to the C.M.S.: The last sad offices were
solemnized by myself on the following evening amid more
universal sorrow than I have witnessed on any previous
occasion. The pall was borne by persons of the highest
position in the Colony. A tablet in the Church records that
4 Mr. Whitley ministered to congregations worshipping in
three different languages and that he was also a faithful
and earnest preacher of the Gospel to the heathen population
of the town. A memorial stone set in the floor of the school
room at Galle Face records the circumstances of his death.
Early in 1861 the Rev. C. C. Fenn removed from Cotta to
Colombo, and carried on the work until the end of the year,
when he was joined by the Rev. W. E. Rowlands. Mr.
Rowlands was directed to give his attention to the study of
Tamil and to assist Mr. Fenn in the English services, which
he did until October, 1862, when he was transferred to the
Tamil Cooly Mission. The following year Mr. Fenn left for
England, the Rev. J. H. Clowes was appointed to Christ
Church and in January, 1864, Mr. Rowlands returned to
In 1866 Mr. Clowes left and the Rev. J. Ireland Jones,
while residing at Cotta, assisted in the work. In 1867 the
Rev. J. C. Mill was appointed to Colombo and with Mr.
Rowlands worked among the Tamil-speaking population.
In February, 1865, the Government made a grant of land
situated in the Cinnamon Gardens near the Borella Road for
the erection of a mission house and school. To erect these
buildings the Parent Committee made a grant of ."600, the
Local Fund ^"50, while 133 raised some years before for a
Sinhalese Boarding School was appropriated, a Sale of Work
in the Colombo Racquet Court produced ^246 and nearly
-"700 was received by subscriptions. The mission house
and school were soon built and on December, 1867, the
first pupils were admitted to the Tamil Girls Boarding
School, Borella, the foundation of which had been laid by
Mrs. Temple on the previous June 14.
In his report of the following year Mr. Rowlands (who had
been mainly instrumental by his own efforts and liberality in
procuring the Borella land and buildings) writes : There
cannot be a doubt that if we are enabled to carry on the
school as we desire, and if the Divine blessing follow our
efforts, the school will tend very much to improve the condi
tion of the young women of the upper classes, and thereby
confer a benefit which cannot easily be over-estimated upon
the Tamil people generally.
In July, 1870, the Rev. E. T. Higgens took charge of the
English work at Christ Church, the evangelistic work among
the Sinhalese and the management of the Sinhalese schools,
and the Rev. H. Gunasekara was appointed Pastor of the
Preaching was carried on in the streets and lanes, in the
coftee-curing establishments and at the Police Court, and the
160 CENTENARY VOLUME
hospitals and jails were visited. Services were held by Mr.
Gunasekara in school-rooms at Maradana, Hunupitiya and
Borella, whilst the Sunday afternoon service at Christ Church
had an average attendance of fifty-three Sinhalese.
The Tamil work was vigorously carried on by Mr. Row
lands ; work was started on the coconut and cinnamon
estates in the Negombo district, and a congregation of fifty
Christians living at Thiverlei was taken over. Preaching was
carried on in the streets and coffee stores. There were also
four congregations of Tamil Christians, numbering 478 persons.
In September, 1871, Mr. Rowlands sailed for England and
the Rev. D. Wood took charge. This year the Rev. C.
Jayasinghe was the Pastor of the Christ Church Sinhalese
The Rev. H. Newton became Incumbent of Christ Church
in February, 1877, and the following year the Rev. J. I.
Pickford arrived to strengthen the Tamil Mission.
Both the Boys and Girls Boarding Schools at Borella were
full of children, and the number of Christians on the congre
gational lists was 1,092. Their subscriptions in 1879 amounted
to Rs. 1,189-02. Miss M. Young arrr ed in 1879 to take
charge of the Girls Boarding School, and was married in
1880 to the Rev. J. I. Pickford. The same year the average
number present at Christ Church English service was 144 in
the morning and 130 in the evening on Sundays, and 49 at che
Wednesday evening service. The Rev. J. Gabb was assisting
at the Tamil services.
In 1881 Miss M. Hall arrived to help in the Girls Boarding
School. She was not only the youngest missionary ever sent
out by the C.M.S. but the only lady worker sent out that year
to any mission field. Three years later she was married to
the Rev. J. W. Balding.
On June 30, 1881, St. Luke s Church, ^Borella, was
opened, when the Rev. J. I. Jones, who had also laid the
BOYS ENGLISH SCHOOL, HORELLA.
OLD PUPILS OF THE GALLE FACE SINHALESE GIRLS SCHOOL
foundation-stone in the previous year, preached the sermon.
Services are now held there in Sinhalese, Tamil and English.
The Rev. H. Newton on his retirement from Ceylon sug
gested to the Parent Committee the holding of Missionary
Missions or Special Missionary Weeks, and he was
appointed one of the first missioners. The first Special
Missionary Week was held in England in December, 1883,
when the Rev. S. Coles of Ceylon, who was at home on
furlough, was one of the missioners.
In 1883 the Rev. E. T. Higgens again took charge of Christ
Church and the Rev. S. Samuel assisted with the Tamil
During the year 1886 over four thousand persons visited the
mission room in the Pettah to converse on the subject of
Christianity. This room, to quote the words of a Tamil
Christian, was like a good well of water cut in a dry plain.
The Rev. J. I. Pickford left for England in 1887 and the
Rev. D. Wood early in 1888, when the Rev. J. Ilsley took
charge of the Colombo Tamil work.
Miss Eva Young, who arrived in 1884, began work among
the Hindu and Mohammedan women assisted by five Bible-
In 1890 the Tamil work was in charge of the Rev. J. D.
Thomas. Miss Thomas superintended the Biblewomen and
was assisted by Miss B. Child who arrived in 1891.
A house and garden for the Slave Island pastor was bought
by the Tamil Christians, and at Wellawatte a school chapel
and residence for a Tamil worker erected. A piece of land
was also purchased at Maradana, on which were erected a
school and a house.
It is interesting to mention here that the month of Decem
ber, 1893, marked a great epoch in the history of the. Uganda
mission in Africa. Pilkington, one of the missionaries, there,
received into his soul $ message, from God through .a little
162 CENTENARY VOLUME
book written by V. D. David, a Tamil evangelist, which led
to a great spiritual revival in Uganda. David was for some
years a worker in the Tamil mission in Colombo.
In 1895 the Tamil clergymen, the Revs. S. Samuel and P.
Peter, died within six weeks of each other. The Rev. G. T.
Fleming took over part of the Tamil work, but in the follow
ing year both he and the Rev. J. D. Thomas were called to
higher service. Mrs. Thomas remained in Ceylon, continuing
in missionary work. The school hall adjoining St. Luke s
Church, Borella, was erected as a memorial to Mr. Fleming.
In 1895 the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge of Christ
Church and the work among the Portuguese. A branch of
the Boys Brigade was started and also a branch of the
In 1897, owing to the fall of part of the west wall and the
generally unsatisfactory state of the fabric of Christ Church,
it was pulled down, entirely re-built, and re-opened on March
In 1899 the English work was in charge of the Rev. J.
Thompson and the Tamil work in charge of the Rev. J. I.
Pickford. In the following May the. Rev. E. T. Higgens,
who first came to Ceylon in 1851, retired.
Mr. John Daniel, the Headmaster of the Tamil Boys
Boarding School, was ordained this year, and the mission
suffered a serious loss by the death of Lieut. -Colonel
Meaden, who was honorary treasurer of the mission, a
member of the Finance Committee, and treasurer of the
C.M.S. Colombo Association.
The pastorates of the Sinhalese congregations of Christ
Church and St. Luke s Church were separated from the Cotta
district and placed under the Rev. D. J. Perera as pastor.
It had been felt for some years that the work in Colombo
needed supplementing by the establishment of a high-class
educational institution for girls, and therefore in February,
1900, the Ladies College was opened in a large bungalow in
Union Place, with Miss L. E. Nixon as Principal, and Miss E.
Whitney as Superintendent. Progress was at first slow, and
only twelve pupils were in the school at the end of the first
year, representing Tamil, Sinhalese, Jewish and English
In 1901 the Rev. E. T. Higgens, who had been mainly
instrumental in starting the Ladies College, died in England
on June 11. For the last few .years of his life, before his
retirement, he had resided at the Galle Face Mission House,
undertaking the duties of the Secretariat. But the old love of
evangelization remained and constantly he was to be seen in
the streets and public places with the catechists, preaching and
inviting the heathen to come to Christ.
The Rev. S. Coles, who was in charge of the Sinhalese
station in addition to the work of revising the Sinhalese Bible,
also received his Home call this year. One more diligent in
business, fervent in Spirit, and earnest in serving the Lord, it
would be difficult to name. A brotner missionary, after
spending some time in his company, remarked, How that
fellow does work. I never saw anything like it.
And that work continued to the last moment of his life.
On the morning of September 23 he spent some two hours
preparing for the meeting of the Revision Committee
appointed to take place on that day. At the hour appointed
he walked from the mission house to the vestry of Christ
Church, declining proffered help, and saying in his bright
way that he felt like a young man. These were his last
words. He took his seat in the vestry, and had only just
done so s when with hardly a sigh or a sound he was gone.
Mr. Coles came out to Ceylon in 1861. His chief, if not his
only recreation was to get for a time among children. His
appearance among a crowd of young people, enjoying the
freedom of play hour, was greeted with shouts of welcome.
164 CENTENARY VOLUME
For the children s benefit he used to good purpose his
remarkable gift of versification in Sinhalese. The Rev.
J. I. Jones returned to Ceylon and took over the Sinhalese
work in May, 1900, Miss A. Higgens and Miss E. M. Josolyne
were working among the women, and the Rev. W. J. Hanan
among the Tamils, assisted by Mrs. J. D. Thomas, Miss
E. S. Young and Miss E. J. Howes.
The Rev. A. R. Virasinghe having resigned, the Rev.
J. V. Daniel was appointed to succeed him as Tamil pastor.
The following year Mr. Pickford returned to superintend
the Colombo Tamil work.
This year the Government acquired for railway extension
purposes the land on which St. John s Church, Maradana, had
been erected a few years before, thus necessitating the demoli
tion of the little church. Mr. Chellappah, who had been head
master of the Girls Boarding School for about twenty-eight
years, died this year. He was, as he once said, a Christian
from conviction, and he had to suffer for his conviction.
In June, 1903, Mr. J. W. Ferrier arrived from Australia as
mission accountant. He also took charge of a Sunday
School in the Kew Police Barracks, re-started the Gleaners
Union, and gave help in taking services in and around
On November 12 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones, who had
been connected with Ceylon since 1857, was called to his
eternal rest. Mr. Jones had acted on three separate occa
sions as Bishop s Commissary, and also taken a leading part
in the ecclesiastical settlement made at the time of the
disestablishment of the Church in Ceylon. His Handbook
of Sinhalese has been useful to many a student of the
language, and his booklet, The Wonderful Garden, a story
designed to convince Buddhists of the existence of a Creator,
has been a blessing to many. Of a very gentle and loving
disposition, he yet never made any compromise where he
considered the honour of the Lord or the truth of His word
to be concsrned. This year the Tamil work in Galle was
strengthened by the appointment of Miss E. C. Vines and
Miss H. E. Payne.
In January, 1904, the Rev. R. W. Ryde took charge of the
Sinhalese work and the Rev. W. Booth, who had come out in
1901, of the Tamil work. At the end of the same year
Miss Young and Miss A. E. Thomas were working among the
women. The following extract from a letter written by the
latter will give some idea of the nature of the work and of the
blessing that rested upon it : I had between 200 and 300
houses on my list to visit. In addition to the pupils many
men, women and children have heard the Gospel. In the
course of the work I have realized the truth of the promise,
" Cast thy bread upon the waters and thou shalt find it after
many days." Taken by one of the Biblewomen to see a
young Christian women, I was told that some years ago she
was a learner. After a time she expressed a wish to become
a Christian, but her parents strongly opposed, and prevented
her learning with the Biblewoman by leaving that neighbour
hood. But she had learnt to read and had a Scripture
portion which she used to read secretly. Then the mother
married her to a man who had been baptized in his infancy,
but apparently was not a Christian except in name. These
two went back to the man s native village in Tinnevelly.
There she had more opportunity of learning, so, getting her
husband s consent, she became a candidate for baptism, and
was baptized by my brother-in-law, the Rev. E. A. Douglas.
When they returned to Colombo, she begged the Biblewoman
to come and read the Scriptures and pray with her. Her
father was dead, but her mother was living with her. Her
mother is still opposed to Christianity, and would not stay in
the room when I read. Two days afterwards the Bible-
woman asked if I remembered seeing another heathen
166 CENTENARY VOLUME
woman there, who listened most attentively while I was
speaking. She said, after I had left, that woman exclaimed,
" Oh, why was I never told this before ? Why did no one
ever teach me about these things ? You must come and
teach me, I want to hear more."
I-i 1906 the Rev. A. MacLulich was appointed to assist
at Christ Church, the Rev. G. T. Weston and Miss A. M.
Tisdall to Tamil work, Miss Sparrow to Sinhalese work and
Miss Henrys to work in Galle. The Rev. G. M. Arulanan-
tham was also appointed to the Tamil mission.
A special mission was held at Christ Church in October by
the Rev. H. Pakenham Walsh (afterwards Bishop of Assam)
assisted by the Rev. C. R. Burnett. The services were well
attended and deep interest was manifested, especially by
European men, whose hearts were so stirred that a number
of them forthwith organized a weekly meeting at the house
of each in turn for Bible study and prayer. These meetings
were continued with much success till they were broken up
by the interference of military duties consequent on the out
break of the Great War in 1914.
The following year (1907) the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering
was Incumbent of Christ Church and Secretary of the
Mission, and Miss L. M. Leslie Melville was superintending
In September, 1908, Mr. MacLulich resigned and accepted
the Incumbency of Holy Trinity Church, Colombo, and on
Mr. Dibben s return from furlough Mr. Napier-Clavering
took up his new sphere of work as Planters Chaplain at
Pussellawa. The Rev. J. Ilsley took over the Tamil work in
May. In August, 1909, the Rev. R. W. Ryde died in
Colombo. His knowledge of Sinhalese, his literary ability,
and varied experience, added to his gifts of character and
charm of manner, had made him a most valuable missionary
and caused his loss to be greatly felt.
THE LADIES COLLEGE, COLOMBO
THE LADIES COLLEGE, COLOMBO
LIBRARY AND BUNGALOW
The Rev. A. K. Finnimore arrived in August to take charge
of Christ Church having been in his early days a Ceylon
planter and afterwards a C.M.S. missionary, first in South
India and then in Mauritius.
In 1910 Mr. J. W. Ferrier returned to Australia and Miss
M. A. Ledward joined the Tamil Mission.
This year the Rev. D. J. Perera was given a more indepen
dent position by being placed in full charge of the Sinhalese
congregations of Christ Church and St. Luke s. He had
360 Christians under his care, lt>0 of whom were communi
The Rev. G. M. Arulanantham was in charge of what
had now come to be called the Tamil Northern Pastorate,
which included the congregations of Hultsdorf, Mutwal and
The Rev. J. V. Daniel was in charge of the Tamil Southern
Pastorate, which included the congregations of Slave Island
and Wellawatte. The Slave Island congregation worshipping
in Christ Church numbered 319 persons, of whom 112 were
The three ladies, Mrs. Thomas, Miss Tisdall and Miss
Ledward, working among the Tamils, were living at The
Lodge, whilst Miss A. Higgens and Miss H. E. Hobson were
working among the Sinhalese. The Ladies College had been
growing yearly, and as the work was hindered by cramped
accommodation and noisy surroundings, it was deemed essential
that more suitable premises should be secured. In addition
to Miss Nixon and Miss Whitney, Miss Hall, Miss C. E.
Browne, Miss Clarke, Miss A. Horsley and others had helped
to make the school a success. So in 1910 the College was
established in its own new quarters in Flower Road.
The money for the purchase of the land and bungalow was
largely obtained through the exertions of Miss Nixon, also
funds for the erection of class-rooms, drill-hall, assembly-hall,
168 CENTENARY VOLUME
kindergarten rooms and dormitory accommodation. The late
Rev. C. L. Burrows, when on a visit to Ceylon with Bishop
Ingham, gave ,"1,000 towards the extension in memory of
his wife. At the time of the transfer there were eighteen
teachers and 237 pupils. These included fifty little boys
between the ages of four and ten in the school for young
boys attached to the College, a class for the training of
kindergarten teachers, and about twenty boarders. A class
for Old Boys on Sundays, and a monthly At Home for
Old Girls, a Students Union and a prayer meeting for
girls were also inaugurated. The students also supported a
catechist in the Tamil Cooly Mission.
In 1913 in the Cambridge Local Examinations, nine
students passed, four in the Senior, one with honours, and
five in the Junior. Sixty-four girls entered for the Trinity
College of Music Examination, all of whom passed, twenty-
four with honours.
In April of the following year Miss Nixon resigned after
fourteen years of devoted work and building up of the
Miss Wardlaw- Ramsay kindly consented to act as Princi
pal, and with the help of Miss A. E. Kent, who had arrived
from England, the College continued to prosper. It was
this year placed under Government as a grant-in-aid institu
tion and, subsequently, classed as a fully organized second
ary school. Miss Kent resigned on her marriage in
December, 1915, Miss G. L. F. Opie arrived as prospective
Principal from New Zealand and Miss E. Morgan arrived
from England about the same time. Miss Whitney returned
from Nellore to the College early in 1916 as acting-Principal,
afterwards becoming Warden of the Hostel.
A library of reference books, mainly collected through
the efforts of Miss Nixon, numbers over a thousand
HOLY EMMANUEL MEMORIAL CHUKCH, COLOMBO
TAMIL CHURCH, KANOV
In 1917 only four girl-students in the whole of Colombo
passed the Senior School Certificate Examination, and two of
these were pupils of the Ladies College.
In 1910 the men teachers who had been in training in the
school at Cotta were removed to Colombo, and resided
in the Teachers Hostel at Bambalapitiya whilst attending
lectures at the Government Training College. The hostel
was given up when the training of men teachers was com
menced at the Training Colony. On September 19, 1912,
the new Holy Emmanuel Memorial Church at Maradana
was consecrated by the Bishop in the presence of a large
gathering of Tamil Christians. The Rev. W. E. Rowlands
preached from Psalm 32, v. 7-8, and 133 communicants
partook of the Holy Communion. The church has accommo
dation for about six hundred people, and is the gift of
Mr. Rowlands to the Tamil Christians as a memorial to his
wife who died in Colombo in 1877.
On September 17, 1912, the Rev. D. J. Perera, who for
some years had been pastor of the Sinhalese congrega
In 1914 the Rev. W. J. Hanan was appointed acting-Incum
bent of Christ Church, the Rev. A. E. Dibben, the Secretary
of the Mission, left on furlough for Australia in March, and
the Rev. J. W. Balding was acting-Secretary till the end of
the year, when Mr. Dibben, who had returned from Australia
in September, resumed office. The Rev. G. B. Perera was
appointed Incumbent of the Sinhalese congregations, and
Miss Townshend took charge of the Sinhalese women s
This year the Tamil catechist stationed at the Ragama
Camp, where coolies from India on their way to tea and
rubber estates are detained for a few days by the medical
authorities, discovered 869 Christians and reported their
arrival to their future pastors. This work was commenced
170 CENTENARY VOLUME
through the liberality of a Colombo lady, who gave Rs. 5,000
in memory of her husband, towards the salary of a Christian
worker, who should seek out the Christian coolies who came
from India, shepherd them while in the Camp, and send
their names and addresses to the clergyman who lived nearest
the estate they were bound for.
A few years ago work was commenced among the Maiayali
people who come over from Travancore to find work. There
are about 5,000 of these people in Colombo alone. A congre
gation of over sixty has been gathered together, who hold
their services in Holy Emmanuel Church, and a Malayalam
catechist works among them. Open-air services are also held
for the Maiayali coolies working on the railway.
Much of the progress in this work is due to the devoted
service of the catechist, Mr. K. E. Ephen, who suddenly died
in 1915 from an attack of cholera, whilst on a visit to his
relatives in India.
The Rev. W. J. Hanan in his report for 1915 says, I must
give one illustration of modern persecution. My Tamil
congregation at Mutwal consists largely of road and rickshaw
coolies. Not far from Mutwal school is a rickshaw stand,
where about twenty coolies wait for customers. Three of these
are Christians. On a Hindu festival day the others decided
that a present must be sent from that rickshaw stand to a
Hindu temple, and that all must subscribe. The three
Christians refused saying that their religion did not allow
them. They were threatened that they would be driven from
the stand, and that complaints would be made to the Police
constable near, who would soon find an excuse for locking
them up. They remained firm, so the aid of the constable
was invoked. He, being a Hindu, entered into the spirit of the
thing, and told the Christians that if they did not subscribe he
would have them in jail before a week. The Christians then
appealed to me to help them, and sent a petition with an
account of their difficulties and the number of the constable.
I sent it to the Inspector-General of Police and asked for an
enquiry. That very day one of the Christians was arrested
by the constable on a false charge and put in prison. I
engaged a Christian proctor to defend him and went with a
copy of the petition to the Police Court. It was proved to
the satisfaction of the Magistrate that the charge was a false
one, and the man was acquitted. The Christian coolies are
poor ignorant men, unable to read or write, unable perhaps to
give a reason for the faith that is in them that would satisfy
many of the modern professors of Christianity, but willing to
suffer loss and imprisonment for the sake of Christ.
The Rev. W. J. Hanan, who had been acting-Incumbent of
Christ Church for two years, relinquished this position in May,
1915, and the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge until the
appointment of the Rev. W. S. Senior in September of that
Miss Margaret Keith, who had been the organist for
twenty-five years, left for England in November, whilst in
December, by the death of Sir William Mitchell, the Church
lost one of its oldest and most influential members.
The Rev. G. B. Perera, the Incumbent of the Sinhalese
Churches, retired on account of old age in June, 1916, and the
Rev. D. L. Welikala was appointed. Mr. Perera was one of
a Buddhist family who lived in Talangama in the Cotta
district and had four brothers and four sisters. It was their
custom to relate stories as they lay on their mats in the
evening. One night the mother told the children a story
which she had heard from an old woman in the village who
was a Christian. The mother also told them that it was a
story from the Bible. Next morning Mr. Perera, who was
then a boy of eight, on going to school, tried to find the story,
which was the parable of Dives and Lazarus. His teacher
found it for him, and the Holy Spirit so blessed the boy s
172 CENTENARY VOLUME
reading that he became a Christian. Soon after this he had
an attack of fever, and the mother brought in a devil priest to
perform a ceremony over him, but the boy threatened to jump
from the bed and make himself worse if any ceremony was
performed. The mother was angry and scolded him, but to
her surprise he recovered without the ceremony.
Mr. Perera s wife, who was a true helpmeet and earnest
Christian, died in 1915, after fifty-one years of married life.
She had a similar story to tell of her early days. She became
a Christian whilst a pupil in the C.M.S. school at Baddegama,
and her parents and three brothers and five sisters were all
Buddhists. On one occasion when she had an attack of fever,
her people got some charmed oil to be rubbed on her forehead,
but, knowing that she did not believe in such things, put the
charmed oil on one side in order to rub it on when she fell
asleep. The girl, overhearing their plans, got out of her bed
quietly, took the cup and poured the oil on the ground. Mr. and
Mrs. Perera were able by God s grace to lead their parents
and many other members of their families to Christ ; and
many of their children and children s children are now
The Sinhalese evangelistic and school work was handed
over to the charge of the Rev. D. L. Welikala at the end of
1917, his Church Committee not seeing their way to shoulder
ing this responsibility.
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION.
THE existence of the Tamil Cooly Mission is very closely
connected with the fame which Ceylon acquired as a coffee-
producing country soon after the British took possession.
Coffee planting was first commenced in the Kandyan
country in the year 1820, and the first regular plantation
was opened in 1827. The export of coffee that year was
16,000 cwts. Ten years later in 1837 the exports reached
34,600 cwts., in 1849 they had reached 373,368 cwts., and
the Government had sold 287,360 acres of forest land,
suitable for the cultivation of coffee. Many speculators
suffered from their inexperience. But still, Coffee became
King, and in 1870 the annual export had risen to 974,333
cwts., valued at ,"5,000,000.
In 1840 Major Skinner from the top of Adam s Peak
looked down on a dense pathless forest and foretold that this
region was destined to become the garden of Ceylon and
peopled with Europeans as well as Asiatics. His prophecy
has been largely fulfilled.
We now come to the people by whom the labour market is
supplied and on whom the planters are dependent for the
cultivation of the estates.
Mr. C. R. Rigg, in an article in the Journal of the Indian
Archipelago and Eastern Asia, Vol. VI, No. 3, writes:
When planting first came into vogue, the Kandyans flocked
in hundreds to the great distribution of rupees, but this
source of labour was soon found to be insufficient, and of too
.precarious a nature to be relied on. The Kandyan has such
174 CENTENARY VOLUME
a reverence for his patrimonial lands, that, were his gain to
be quadrupled, he would not abandon their culture. It was
only during a portion of the year that he could be induced
even by the new stimulus money to exert himself. Next
came the Sinhalese from the maritime provinces, who
have a stronger love of gain, a liking for arrack, and a
rooted propensity for gambling. In 1841-3 thousands of
these people were employed on estates ; they generally left
their homes for six months at a time, and then returned with
their earnings. The sudden access of wealth amongst them
soon engendered as much independence as was to be found
in the Kandyans. This source of labour became dried up ?
and the lowlanders were only known in the central provinces
as domestics, artificers, traders and carters. Southern
India stepped forward to fill up the vacancy occasioned by
the cessation from labour of the sons of the soil.
The arrivals of Tamil coolies at Ceylon ports from South
India for the years 1841 to 1846 were 190,074 men, 3,083
women and 1,614 children, a total of 194,771, whilst the
departures were 110,704 men, 2,331 women and 1,421
children, a total of 114,456. During that period the coolies
remitted to their country about ^"400,000, whilst the value
of rice imported during the same period was valued at
^"2,116,189. In the year 1900, the immigrants numbered
207,995. For their enterprise in migrating, the Tamils
have been called the Scotchmen of the East. The coolies
live on the estates in long rows of buildings called lines .
They have plenty to eat, their doctors, houses, and teachers
cost them nothing, and their other wants are few. At early-
dawn they are summoned by tom-tom or horn to the muster-
ground and then proceed to work. At about four in the
afternoon they finish for the day, first having their names
entered on the check-roll. In the evening the women
prepare the evening meal of curry and rice, and all retire early.
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 175
Missionary work had been carried on for many years
among the Tamils of Southern India, and had been most
productive, so that among those who came over to Ceylon
there were many Christians. In the year 1851 the Rev.
J. T. Tucker, a missionary in Tinnevelly, wrote : In July
last, finding no means of getting a living, twenty-seven of
our Christians went to Ceylon, but previously appointed
one of themselves to act as their reader, and took a Testa
ment and Prayer Book with them. Twenty-five of them
returned at the end of the year. They had maintained, as
far a-; I can learn, their Christian character, notwithstanding
they were absent from almost all means of grace. In 1846
two of the South Indian missionaries, Messrs. Pettitt and
Thomas visited Ceylon to ascertain if there were any
means of reaching the coolies when away from their homes.
But no opening at that time presented itself.
In 1854 the Rev. W. Knight, one of the C.M.S. Secre
taries, visited Ceylon, and was invited by the proprietors
of some estates in the district of Matale, in company with
Dr. John Murdoch, who was interested in the spiritual welfare
of the coolies, to consider the subject. The result was, that
some of the planters agreed to support and bring over from
Tinnevelly trained catechists and arranged that the C.M.S.
should supply a missionary to superintend the work. Pending
the appointment of a superintending missionary, the Rev.
E. T. Higgens, who was then engaged in the Kandyan
Sinhalese Itineration, consented to do what was necessary.
Dr. Murdoch went over to Tinnevelly and laid the subject
before the missionaries and Christians, and invited cate
chists to volunteer for the work. Eight men offered them
selves and at the close of the year six came over to Ceylon.
The Rev. J. Thomas thus describes their departure: We
had an interesting dismissal of the catechists to Ceylon,
when instructions were delivered to them as to the mode of
176 CENTENARY VOLUME
pursuing their work. Each departing catechist addressed
They arrived in Kandy in November, 1854, and were
located as follows : Annathan to Cabragalla, Joseph to
Kinrara, Gnanamuttu to Pitikanda, Arumanayagam to
Hoolankanda, Vethanayagam to Elkaduwa, Gnanapragasam
to Rajawela. The owners of these estates kindly undertook
to pay their salaries of ,"2-10-0 per month.
The following March the catechists went over to Thine -
velly and brought back with them their families in July.
In November, 1855, the Rev. Septimus Hobbs, who had
for thirteen years been a missionary in Tinnevelly, arrived
with Mrs. Hobbs, and became Superintendent of the Tamil
The C.M.S. took charge of the work, a local committee
of planters, comprising me i of various denominations, under
taking to defray all expenses, except the stipends and allow
ances of the European missionaries.
The Committee met quarterly, all matters of importance
were freely discussed, and much practical good resulted from
this system of management. It was also decided that instead
of being confined to single estates, the catechists should
itinerate, according to a regular cycle, through all the districts
within a reasonable distance. This plan was adopted only as
a temporary measure, and in later years the number of
stationed catechists has been steadily increasing. The
catechist is now appointed to take charge of some thirty
estates, and lives in the centre of the district.
He is able, therefore, to visit each estate at least once a
month, and has opportunities for becoming much more
intimately acquainted with each individual Christian, and for
instructing each one more thoroughly.
The catechist only preaches on those estates where fte has
the permission of the Superintendent, and generally at
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 177
six o clock in the morning for about twenty minutes when
the coolies assemble at muster. He also visits the lines,
reading and speaking to the sick, or any other people he may
find there, visits the schools and gives addresses to the
children, distributes tracts and portions of Scripture, visits
and instructs the Christians, and prepares catechumens for
baptism, and in the absence of a missionary or pastor
conducts the Sunday Services.
Mr. Hobbs remained in charge for seven years, until the
close of the year 1862, when the Rev. W. E. Rowlands
became responsible until the arrival of the Rev. and Mrs. J.
Pickford in January, 1864. Mrs. Pickford soon made her
influence felt upon the women and girls who came within
her reach, regularly met the wives of the catechists, estab
lished a Tamil girls school in the Kandy bazaar, and did
what she could until her death on May 6, 1866.
The Rev. D. Fenn was in charge for a few months in
1867, and Mr. Pickford had finally to retire in March, 1868,
owing to ill-health. The Rev. W. Clark, who had been
eighteen years in the Tinnevelly Mission, took charge in
November, 1868, assisted by the Rev. E. M. Griffith, who
had been appointed in consequence of an appeal made by the
local committee for a second European missionary and who
was the first T.C.M. missionary to take up his residence in
the Uva district.
This year, the twelfth since the commencement of the
work, there were eighteen workers and 600 estates under
visitation, whilst there had been 394 baptisms during the
About this time, in May, 1869, orange-coloured spots
appeared on the coffee leaves a disease called Hemeleia
vastatrix which rapidly spread over the whole coffee region,
whilst grubs attacked the roots, and brown bugs sapped the
life-blood of the trees. In a few years King Coffee fell and
178 CENTENARY VOLUME
was a thing of the past. With the grit and gold of the
British, other products, cinchona, cocoa, cardamoms, vanilla,
camphor and tea were planted experimentally, and in a few
years, tea Camelia Theifera had the supremacy and
became Queen over the fair fields of Ceylon. In 1873
only 23 Ibs. of tea were exported, in 1911 about 184 million
pounds, 380,000 acres of land being under tea cultivation.
Four years later, in 1915, the export of tea had risen to over
211 million pounds.
The tea shrubs are planted in rows, and owing to constant
pruning never grow to a great height. The tender leaves or
shoots are called the flush, and women and children working
in gangs under kanganies or overseers pick the flush and
carry it in baskets to the factories. It is there withered,
rolled, fermented and fired, and is graded as broken orange
pekoe, orange pekoe, pekoe, pekoe souchong, souchong,
congou and dust. It is then packed and forwarded to
Colombo, where it is shipped to all countries of the globe, as
it has won universal favour as the best tea in the world.
The Tamil Cooly Mission continued to prosper, and in
1878 there were 42 catechists, 34 school masters, 955 adult
Christians, 442 Christian children, 378 communicants and
32 schools with 354 pupils. A church had also been built in
Hil! Street in Kandy, which was in charge of a Tamil pastor,
and two Tamil clergy, the Revs. P. Peter and G. Gnanamuttu,
were stationed at Pelmadulla and Dickoya.
During the next ten years the Mission was divided
into three districts under the superintendence of the Revs.
J. D. Simmons, J. D. Thomas and H. Horsley. The
Christians had increased to 1,705, the communicants to 418,
and the school children to 867. During part of this period,
the Revs. A. R. Cavalier, W. P. Schaffter, V. W. Harcourt
and F. Glanvill had worked in the Mission. Mrs. Glanvill
died and was buried in Haputale after a few months of
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 179
.narried life in 1882, and the following year Mr. Glanvill,
after two years work, retired, and died in Bristol in 1914,
after doing good work as an Organizing Secretary and Vicar.
Dr. Stock, in his C.M.S. History, writes : Glanvill was
a most lovable character and a model Organizing Secretary.
It was said that he had more real personal influence in
Durham and Northumberland than bishops, deans, arch
deacons or canons, and when he was brought to London, he
quickly won the hearts of the clergy with whom he came in
In 1898 the Revs. J. D. Simmons, J. Ilsley and
W. Welchman were the Superintending Missionaries. Mr.
Welchman had worked in the T.C.M. for five years and
writes as follows :
The number of the Christians on the estates is constantly
increasing. There are, of course, amongst them not only the
earnest, but the lukewarm and the backsliders. The mission
aries are often wonderfully encouraged by the consistency of
the great mass of Christians. Many planters will come
forward and give the highest testimony as to their lives, and
there are many ways by which the sincerity of their faith may
be tested. Not only do the Christians give liberally to the
Church Fund and to the building and maintenance of
-churches, but are themselves supporting several catechists
who are working amongst the heathen on the estates. One
man, a conductor, spent Rs. 100 in purchasing a magic lantern,
and Rs. 900 on slides representing the life of Christ, and now
goes about the estates preaching to the coolies. It is no
easy matter for a cooly to get up and walk ten miles to church
.and ten back in the burning sun, and yet this is what very
many of them do. Nor is it a trifling matter for the
catechists and schoolmasters to give up their time and all to
the work when they could get much more remunerative
employment elsewhere, or for the Christians, as they often do
180 CENTENARY VOLUME
to stand up in the open air and testify for Christ. An over
seer on an estate built a small room. Day by day he gathered
coolies together and read God s word to them. On being
asked his reason for so doing, he replied, " God has taken six
of my little children to Himself, now I want to win six souls
for Him." Not long ago a youth who had learnt about Christ
in one of the schools was turned out of his father s house
for refusing to take an offering to the little idol-house, and
another man was beaten very severely for going to the
schoolmaster s house to read the Bible and learn about Christ.
The Christians in 1898 numbered 2,932, the communicants
1,070, the schools 48, the scholars 1,893, whilst the
income from all sources amounted to Rs. 10,934. During
this last decade the Revs. W. J. Hanan, J. W. Fall and
H. C. Townsend were workers for different periods, whilst in
1899 the Rev. J. I. Pickford and in 1904 the Rev. A. N. C.
Storrs gave valuable help. The Rev. W. Booth joined the
Mission in 1901.
The Rev. J.D. Simmons retired in 1903 and died in 1914, and
an In Memoriam notice in the C. M. Review for June, 1914,
said: Few men have more decidedly left their mark upon the
Tamil Cooly Mission than he has. His sterling character
and entire devotion to the work he had in hand were highly
appreciated by the European planters, even by those who
were not in a position to estimate his spiritual qualifications
at their true value, while his gentlemanly bearing and kindly
disposition won for him the affectionate esteem of many of
chem. The catechists and schoolmasters could not fail to
realize that in him they had a teacher and guide of no
ordinary spiritual power.
In 1904 the Rev. J. llsley was in charge of the Central
Division and part of the Southern Division, residing at
Nanuoya. and the Rev. R. P. Butterfield, who arrived in
Ceylon in 1900 and had rendered help in Haputale, St. John s
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 181
College, Jaffna, and Colombo, assumed charge of the Northern
Division, together with the Sabaragamuwa portion of the
Southern Division. Working in Kandy among the Tamil and
Mohammedan women were Miss Franklin, Miss Howes and
Miss Finney. On the departure of the latter to England,
Miss Poole (who afterwards became Mrs. W. S. Senior) was
associated with Miss Howes in the same work.
Until 1895 this work had been carried on under the
superintendence of the wives of the missionaries stationed
in Kandy. It was greatly handicapped for many years by
having no Home, to which enquirers and others could be
brought for instruction or protection. In 1906 the need was
supplied by the renting of the Snuggery as the head
quarters of the Women s Work, and the Home thus provided
has proved the mean> of much blessing. Miss Howes in
one of her annual letters speaks of it as being the most fruit
ful part of her work. In the early days, lace-making was
taught as a means of livelihood for the converts, and was
brought to a high degree of perfection, but of later years
the Home has gradually assumed the character of a school,
thus showing that there is in Kandy an opening fora boarding
school for Tamil girls. Several converts have gone from the
Snuggery to be trained as nurses in the American Mission
Hospital for Women at Uduvil, Jaffna, and in all 140 girls
have passed through the Home, 54 of whom were Hindus
and 12 Mohammedans.
The visiting in the slums of Kandy has gone on regularly
and many Mohammedan women have learnt to read the Bible.
Definite results have not been obtained, but the way of Life
has been opened to many. As Mis? Howes writes : It is
difficult for the women to make any stand for Christ as they
are so much in the power of their relations and again
definite results are precluded largely because the men, their
husbands, are untouched. In 1910, 150 Mohammedan
182 CENTENARY VOLUME
women were being taught regularly. Visiting has been done
in Gampola,* Nawalapitiya, Matale, Peradeniya, but when,
as has frequently occurred, one missionary has had to carry
on alone, the outstation work has had to be dropped. Miss
Case, Miss Henrys, Miss Tisdall and Miss Led ward have all
worked in Kandy at different times. The lace school in
Brownrigg Street, carried on for many years as part of the
women s work and attended mainly by Hindu and Moham
medan girls, was handed over to the Kandy Tamil Pastorate
The numerical weakness of the staff of missionaries in the
T.C.M. became very marked in 1905 when the Rev. J. Ilsley
having left for England, the burden of the whole work fell on
the Rev. R. P. Butterfield and the Rev. T. S. Johnson, who
later in the year took charge of the Southern Division. On
the return of the Rev. J. Ilsley the T.C.M. had once more its
normal complement of three missionaries. This state of things
however only lasted for a brief while, for in March, 1906,
the Rev. J. Ilsley left the mission and the work again
devolved on his two younger colleagues.
But in 1907 the T.C.M. received a very welcome accession
to its staff in the person of the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, who
had had so much to do with its earlier development and who,
after a lengthy spell of 23 years in parish work in England,
now returned to the land and the people he loved so well.
The Rev. and Mrs. R. P. Butterfield left on furlough in
1908 and for two years the T.C.M. was managed by the Rev.
W. E. Rowlands and the Rev. T. S. Johnson. During this
period however a marked advance was made in the organi
zation of the Tamil congregations into nine definite pastorates^
In 1907 the Kelani Valley had become a vigorous pastorate
under the Rev. J. G. Doss. This was a comparatively new
district having been first opened for evangelistic work among
the coolies in 1884 by the Rev. J. D. Simmons, when there
A KAXDY SLUM REGULARLY VISITED BY THE WOMEN MISSIONARIES
OF THE T.M.
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 183
were reported to be 45 Christians, whose contributions
amounted to Rs. 13-40. In 1917 there were 813 Christians,
and their contributions amounted to Rs. 2, 129 59. We also
find the Rev. A. Sathianathan at Dickoya, the Rev. A. Pakkia-
nathan in Dimbula and the Rev. C. T. Williams in Kandy.
In 1908 the Christians in the whole T.C.M. had increased to
3,934, the communicants to 1,400, the schools to 107 and the
scholars to 5,551. The statistics of the mission do not always
fully represent the year s work, as sometimes it happens that
a larger number of Christians than usual return to the
coast, or a larger number arrive. During recent years the
cultivation of para rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis] has been
taken up by the planters. In 1898 only ten tons of rubber
were exported ; thirteen years after in 1911, six million pounds
weight, valued at over 28 million rupees, left the country.
Four years later, in 1915, the exports in rubber had reached
the enormous amount of forty-six million pounds weight.
Rubber is obtained from the trees by what is called tapping.
Spiral or herringbone cuts are made in the tree to the height
of about six feet, and the milk or latex then runs down, is
collected in tins, removed to the factory, mixed with creosote
and acetic acid, and clotted into sheets of rubber, which are
placed in the hydraulic press and compressed into blocks about
two inches thick. The wounds on the tree are re-opened at
the next tapping by shaving off a small slice. (Dr. Willis.)
Rubber will grow almost anywhere in Ceylon below an
elevation of 3,000 feet, and Sinhalese villagers seem to be
attracted to work on rubber estates.
The Rev. T. S. Johnson left on furlough in 1909, and his
place in Kandy was filled by the Rev. W. Booth, who had
also returned from furlough, while the Rev. R. P. Butterfield
assumed charge of the Central Division.
The Ceylon Observer, established in 1834, and since 1859
owned by the Ferguson family (Messrs. A. M. and J. Ferguson)
184 CENTENARY VOLUME
has from its commencement been a warm supporter of
all Christian work. It had a leading article on the
Tamil Cooly Mission in its issue of April 24, 1911, from
which the following is an extract : The report of the
Tamil Cooly Mission constitutes a very effective reply to
that diminishing number of people, who are still sceptical
or doubtful of the use and value of Christian work in the
planting districts of the island. There are still some who
think that the Tamil cooly was a better labourer and a more
contented man in the good old days before any attempt had
been made to bring him that Message to which his employer
owed more than he was frequently willing to confess. That
attitude completely ignores the vast changes which have
taken place in the labour problem in the period in question.
The planter of fifty years ago was in most cases a proprietor
with a closer personal interest in his workers than the
average servant of a company can possibly have. Moreover,
the moral status of the cooly when compared with that of
fifty years ago is immensely higher. That is not to say that
it is as high as it should be, or that it is impossible to find
grounds for cheap sneers at or even sincere criticism of
the cooly s character. But if we begin to mark iniquity in
that fashion, who shall be able to stand ? When a fair
estimate is made of the generations of soul-destroying heathen
ism which lie behind the cooly, it is surprising that his level
is not lower than we find it.
And the most hopeful feature of the case is, that the cooly
is so susceptible to civilizing and evangelizing influences,
that he responds so readily to the truth that is taught when it
is brought in clear and guileless methods before him, that,
speaking generally, he proves to be a consistent Christian
according to the light that he has. We do not forget that
even now an occasional facetious advertiser declines to con
sider applications from Christians for employment. But the
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 185
most casual examination of such cases usually shows that the
irate employer has been deceived by a smart scoundrel using
Christianity for financial profit, which could easily have been
detected by the simple method of writing to the man s alleged
pastor, or that there has been a good deal to say on both
sides, and the employer is by no means the only injured
party in the affair. The Christian Church in Ceylon can
point to numerous cases, perfectly genuine and open to the
most rigid scrutiny, of coolies who have embraced the
Christian faith, and are as a result living up to a standard
that would not disgrace a Christian of any nation. There
are authentic records of direct evangelistic efforts made by
coolies who were not satisfied that they alone should remain
in possession of a manner of life, that they had learned to
value so highly, and that had made so great a difference to
them. Thus the conversion of one or two members of the
labour force of an estate sets in motion forces for good, the
results of which it is difficult to calculate.
In 1912 the Rev. A. K. Finnimore, who had joined the
Ceylon Mission in 1909, succeeded the Rev. W. E. Rowlands
in the charge of the Southern Division and in the Secretary
ship of the Mission, and in the same year a new pastorate
was formed in Sabaragamuwa under the charge of the
Rev. P. A. Paukiam, son of an old catechist connected with
the Tamil Cooly Mission.
In the report for 1915 we find there was an income of
Rs. 13,949. The 5,500 adults and children also contributed
Rs. 17,361. The Rev. W. Booth writes : The grace of
liberality, efforts to win others for Christ, and the honouring
of God s word by reading it privately and at family
prayers show that some of the Christians have got hold
of the real thing. A tea maker is giving by instalments
a sum sufficient for the purchase of a set of communion
186 CENTENARY VOLUME
At a Confirmation an overseer brought two sovereigns a^
a thank-offering for his recovery from a serious illness.
In one district, on Good Friday, when a collection was
made for the Jews, a woman in the congregation brought
Rs. 12 as her offering.
The catechists, who are our messengers to the people,
greatly deserve the prayerful sympathy of all who wish their
work to prosper, for their task is not an easy one, and the
discouragements they meet with from those who ought to
help them are many.
One of these catechists writes in his journal, The estates
are not near to each other. I have to pass through forests,
cross rivers and climb up and down the steep hills. On some
estates I have no place to sleep, and sometimes I can get
nothing to eat before I lie down. Yet I take much pleasure
in visiting the estates, and telling the Hindus about Christ.
Another writes, I walk in sunshine and rain. On some
estates I find no place to stop for the night. On one occasion
I had to sleep in a cattle shed.
A noteworthy point, gleaned from the statistics for the
year 1916, is that the contributions of the Tamil Christians
themselves Rs. 16,879-29 exceed the European and general
contributions Rs. 13,990-35 by Rs. 2,888-94. When one
considers the circumstances of the coolies who form the
greater part of the congregations, one realizes with thankful
ness and feelings of shame that the lesson of self-support
and the duty of every church to be from its commencement
a missionary church, are being learnt and put into practice
by these new Christians in a way that sets an example to
Christians and Churches of an older growth.
In 1917 the staff of the Mission was the normal one of
four superintending missionaries the Revs. W. E. Rowlands,
A. K. Finnimore, R. P. Butterfield and T. S. Johnson. At
the same time there were eight Tamil clergy associated with
THE REV. W. E. ROWLANDS AND TAMIL WORKERS
AN ESTATE CHURCH
THE TAMIL COOLY MISSION 187
them in the pastoral oversight of the congregations. These
were the Rev. T. D. Sathianathan at Badulla, the Rev.
P. A. Paukiam at Rakwana, the Rev. J. Yorke at Avisawella,
the Rev. A. Pakkianathan at Lindula, the Rev. J. G. Doss
at Dickoya, the Rev. S. M. Thomas at Gampola, the Rev.
N. G. Nathaniel at Matale, while the Rev. G. M. Arula-
nantham was expected to take charge of the Kandy Tamil
The Christians connected with the T.C.M. have increased
from 3,140 in 1900 to 4,711 in 1918 and their contributions
from Rs. 5,314-93 to Rs. 14,728 48.
The work sustained a severe loss in 1918 by the death in
England of the Rev. W. Booth, and a further one by the
well-earned retirement of the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, which
was the occasion for the unique honour of an appreciative
minute being passed by the Ceylon Planters Association
and for the request that an enlarged portrait of the veteran
missionary should be placed in the Planters Hall, Kandy.
The minute is as follows :
This Association desires to express the deep sense of
planters of Ceylon of their appreciation of the long and valua
ble services rendered to the community in general and to plant
ers and their coolies in particular by the Rev. W. E. Rowlands,
Secretary of the Tamil Cooly Mission.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND ZENANA MISSIONARY
SOCIETY IN CEYLON.
AN effort to bring Christian education to the Kandyan girls
of rank first led the C.E.Z.M.S. into Ceylon. The high-class
Buddhists of the Kandyan country had seemed as inaccessible
to ordinary methods of foreign missions as the rocky height
-of Adam s Peak, which only enthusiastic pilgrims scale in
search of salvation. The Rev. and Mrs. J. Ireland Jones
believed, in spite of every discouragement and adverse opinion,
that it would be possible to induce the parents to entrust their
daughters to the care of English ladies. The Rev. J. G.
Garrett (C.M.S.) also had the project at heart and when
speaking in Birmingham in 1888, appealed for ladies to start
Miss Bellerby and Miss James responded to the appeal and
the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society sent them
out in 1889, the expense of the venture being largely met by
a few warm supporters of the Society.
On arrival in Ceylon, Miss Bellerby and Miss James went to
Cotta to learn the language. Miss Denyer, who went out
as an unattached and honorary worker, joined them and
worked amongst the villages around Kandy. Later on she
transferred to the C.M.5., as that Society was responsible for
the evangelistic work in the Kandy district.
In 1890 a suitable bungalow, Hillwood, was found, in which
to begin the proposed boarding-school in Kandy, and Miss
Bellerby and Miss James removed there. A prospectus was
C.E.Z.M. SOCIETY IN CEYLON 189
issued bearing the names of three Kandyan Chiefs. Miss R.
Gooneratna of Cotta was associated with the missionaries in
the work during these early years and her wise and untiring
efforts did much to build up the school.
Hilhvood was originally called the Clarence Memorial
School in memory of the infant son of the Rev. and Mrs. J.
Ireland Jones, but owing to the confusion that constantly
arose through having two names to the same institution, the
Society decided in 1900 to drop the name Clarence
Memorial. Such progress was made that in 1892 there were
altogether twenty girls in the boarding school, and Miss
Maiden was sent out to help Miss Bellerby in the work as
Miss James had married the Rev. E. Bellerby.
Miss Scovell accompanied Miss Maiden and, after learning
the language at Hilhvood, went to Gampola to start the village
mission work there.
In 1892 the Government Agent, Mr. P. A. Temple, in the
Administrative Report writes, I should not pass unnoticed an
admirable institution conducted in Kandy by some English
ladies for the education of the daughters of Kandyan Chiefs.
It is no small thing to have made an attempt, even partially
successful, to bring out into the sunshine of knowledge and
womanly accomplishments a class which native prejudice has
hitherto consigned to the gloomy and uncultured life of a
In 1893 three of the pupils were confirmed one being
the first convert to Christianity.
In 1894 the work was reported of as successful, though the
spadework done in those early years by Miss Bellerby had
been exceedingly difficult. For many years, owing to the in
accessibility of the Walauwas before the days of train and
of motors the children only went home once a year, during
Sinhalese New Year in April.
The numbers soon outgrew the capacity of the bungalow,
190 CENTENARY VOLUME
and in 1895 a dormitory to accommodate thirty girls was
added. In 1897 Miss Alice Naish arrived to help in the school
and carried on bravely with Miss Maiden during Miss Bellerby s
furlough, but she died at Home in 1901, the strain of the work
having too great for her.
In January, 1901, Miss Lena Chapman, who had been
invalided home from Bengal, was sent to Kandy. During
this year, the arrangement by which the Principal of Trinity
College was manager of the school, the Rev. J. G. Garrett,
Clerical Secretary and Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Duff
Gibbon, Financial Secretary, came to an end. Miss Bellerby
was appointed Manager as well as Principal, and the Rev.
A. E. Dibben became Corresponding Secretary with the
In 1902 Miss Menage came out to help in the care of the
girls. She was transferred to the Deaf School in Palam-
cottah, South India in the following year, and returned to
help in the Deaf and Blind School in 1912.
In 1903 Miss Scovell and Miss Maiden retired. The latter
had been invalided home in 1901 having done good work in
the school, and was not allowed to return. The first success
in a public examination Junior Cambridge was obtained in
1903, one fesult of this being that girls were allowed to stay
longer at school ; thus a blow was struck at the prevalent
practice of too early marriage.
In 1904 Miss Eva Heather, B.A., came to Hillwood, and
from 1904-1907 Miss Lena Chapman was acting-Principal,
while Miss Bellerby was on furlough. Miss E. Curtis joined
Hillwood in 1905 as a local worker, and in 1907 Middle-
wood, a bungalow near Hillwood, was opened as a school for
little boys from four to eight years of age, the boys schools
in Kandy not catering for such young children and the parents
being desirous of having their small boys at Hillwood with
their sisters. Miss F. Naish took charge of Middlewood.
A KANDYAN BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM OF CHIEFTAIN RANK
C.E.Z.M. SOCIETY IN CEYLON 191
In 1908 Miss Rose Overton (Somerville College, Oxford)
joined the Hillwood staff and Miss M.F. and Miss B.E. Brutton
came out to give voluntary help for a year. In this year,
Hillwood was enlarged to accommodate over a hundred girls.
This was done by blasting away a large portion of the hillside
and filling up a deep ravine with the debris. Thus a two-storied
school building, play-ground, and tennis court were evolved.
In 1909 seven girls were bapti/ed and five confirmed
fruits of the faithful work of the past years in breaking up the
soil. In 1910 Miss Cave, M.A., formerly Editorial Superin
tendent of the C.E.Z.M.S. and Miss J. Oakley arrived to
help at Hillwood and Middlewood.
Miss Lena Chapman returned from furlough in 1910 and
opened Peradeniya School for girls ineligible for Hillwood,
but in the following year Miss Bellerby was invalided home
and retired from the work, and Miss Lena Chapman was
asked to close Peradeniya School and return to Hillwood as
Principal bringing some of her girls and all her school plant
Miss Heather, who had been in England for some little
time, retired from the C.E.Z.M.S. in 1911. The Annexe
was built on the hillside in 1912 and it has served as a
valuable isolation block in cases of infectious illness. In 1913
the first day pupils were admitted to Hillwood. Miss Hall,
B.sc., joined the staff in 1915 and a Science Room was built.
Miss Rose Overton, having learnt the vernacular (Sinhalese),
was lent to the C.M.S. Training School, and she has since
been in charge of the Women s Department of the Training
Colony, Peradeniya. In 1915 the first Middlewood old
boy was baptized at Trinity College.
In 1916 class rooms and a covered way connecting the
1 Annexe with the school were added. Several baptisms had
taken place during these years, and this year saw the first
Christian marriage from Hillwood. Miss Dorothy Gunston
192 CENTENARY VOLUME
arrived during the year and took charge of the Kindergarten.
Other Christian marriages followed in 1917, and thus the
goal of the work, the foundation of the Christian Home,
having been now reached, the school was abundantly
justifying its existence.
In 1917 Miss Oakley returned from furlough and brought
Miss Cragg with her as an honorary worker. As Miss Oakley
broke down a few months after her arrival, Miss Cragg gave
invaluable help for over three years at Middlewood by taking
over the charge of the small boys.
The Kandyans are a rapidly changing community and are
coming abreast of the other races in their national life.
Perhaps not the least potent force in this modern forward
movement is the influence of its educated and enlightened
THE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND
In 1910 Miss M. F. Chapman joined her sister at the Pera-
deniya School for a year and whilst there wrote an article in
a Sinhalese newspaper, The Rivikirana, calling attention to
the fact that nothing was being done for the deaf and dumb of
the Island and appealing for funds to start the work. The
census returns for 1911 showed that there were 3,233 deaf and
dumb persons in the Island and 3,957 blind, 947 of these being
under fifteen. Mr. K. J. Saunders, of Trinity College, took
up Miss Chapman s appeal and commended it to the public
through the press. Mr. T. Gracie, Secretary of the Ceylon
branch of the Bible Society, also wrote supporting the appeal
and suggesting the formation of a scheme which would include
the blind also. As a result, an Appeal Fund Committee was
formed with the Bishop of Colombo as Chairman, Mr. Saunders
as Honorary Secretary and Mr. Gracie as Honorary Trea
surer, with the object of raising Rs. 37,500. Meanwhile, Miss
Chapman went to England and succeeded in collecting over
192 CENTENARY VOLUME
arrived during the year and took charge of the Kindergarten.
Other Christian marriages followed in 1917, and thus the
goal of the work, the foundation of the Christian Home,
having been now reached, the school was abundantly
justifying its existence.
In 1917 Miss Oakley returned from furlough and brought
Miss Cragg with her as an honorary worker. As Miss Oakley
broke down a few months after her arrival, Miss Cragg gave
invaluable help for over three years at Middlewood by taking
over the charge of the small boys.
The Kandyans are a rapidly changing community and are
coming abreast of the other races in their national life.
Perhaps not the least potent force in this modern forward
movement is the influence of its educated and enlightened
THE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND
In 1910 Miss M. F. Chapman joined her sister at the Pera-
deniya School for a year and whilst there wrote an article in
a Sinhalese newspaper, The Rivikirana, calling attention to
the fact that nothing was being done for the deaf and dumb of
the Island and appealing for funds to start the work. The
census returns for 1911 showed that there were 3,233 deaf and
dumb persons in the Island and 3,957 blind, 947 of these being
under fifteen. Mr. K. J. Saunders, of Trinity College, took
up Miss Chapman s appeal and commended it to the public
through the press. Mr. T. Gracie, Secretary of the Ceylon
branch of the Bible Society, also wrote supporting the appeal
and suggesting the formation of a scheme which would include
the blind also. As a result, an Appeal Fund Committee was
formed with the Bishop of Colombo as Chairman, Mr. Saunders
as Honorary Secretary and Mr. Gracie as Honorary Trea
surer, with the object of raising Rs. 37,500. Meanwhile, Miss
Chapman went to England and succeeded in collecting over
C.E.Z. M. SOCIETY IN CEYLON 193
a thousand pounds. She also secured the services of Miss
Bausor, a trained teacher of the blind, and induced the C.E.Z.
M.S. to enter upon this new work in Ceylon. Miss G. Bergg
offered herself to the Society specially for work amongst the
deaf of Ceylon and went into training. Miss Mase, a trained
teacher of the deaf, came out to help in the work until Miss
Bergg had completed her course, anJ. Miss Menage, who had
previously worked at Palamcottah, joined the staff as matron.
The Appeal Committee collected about Rs. 48,600, the Hon.
Mr. A. ]. R. de Soysa, M.L.C., gave a site of six acres
near Mt. Lavinia, and on this land the school was built. The
work itself was begun in 1912 in a rented bungalow in Dehi-
wala, the new building not being ready for occupation until
1914, when the Appeal Fund Committee, having completed its
work, handed over to the C.E.Z. M.S. A serious outbreak of
illness occurred immediately after the removal and as it was
seen that further drainage was necessary, Icicle Hall in
Colombo was rented and the school carried on there for a
time. Miss Bausor returned to England in 1914 owing to ill-
health and Miss G. Bergg, having completed her training,
arrived in Colombo in February, 1915, Miss Mase leaving
shortly afterwards. In September, 1915, Miss Chapman left
on medical advice and the school was re-transferred to
the new buildings. Miss S. C. Lloyd, of the C.M.S., was
asked to undertake the oversight of the work temporarily, and,
after five months, Miss Bergg became Principal, and shortly
afterwards, Manager also. During the yean, 1916 and 1917
steady progress was made, several new buildings were added,
the numbers increased and new industries were started. A
training class was opened for girls who wished to become
teachers of the deaf or blind, and most encouraging reports
were received as a result of the Government examination, the
annual Government grant being considerably increased.
Besides this generous grant the school has no fixed income,
194 CENTENARY VOLUME
and is entirely dependent on voluntary contributions. Appeal
ing as it does to the sympathies of every class and creed, the
work has aroused widespread interest and encouraging support
in its efforts to train these afflicted children to become useful,
happy and, as far as possible, independent citizens.
In 1892 Miss A. Scovell was sent out, specially supported for
work in the villages around Kandy, which remained her centre
until 1896 when the present Mission. House at Gampola was
first rented. The C.E.Z.M.S. was then assigned the womerrs
work in the Gampola district, thirty-six miles long by thirty-
four broad, and Miss Scovell and Miss E. S. Karney carried on
a zealous evangelistic campaign in the numerous villages,
besides running a very successful dispensary in Gampola itself.
Through this elementary medical work touch was obtained
with many of the surrounding villages, patients taking back
the Gospel message to their homes. The C.E.Z.M.S. reliev
ed the C.M.S. of the ten girls schools in the district: and opened
five new ones. Miss K. Gedge worked in Gampola from
1898 to 190,;, and then took charge of the C.M.S. and C.E.Z.
M.S. Training School for vernacular teachers at Cotta from
1904 until her marriage in 1909. Miss Johnson arrived in
1904 expressly for village work. Another valued helper was
Miss M. R. Gedge who, after a period of honorary service in
East Africa, came to Ceylon in 1900 and rendered useful help
in various mission stations, both C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S.,
especially devoting herself to the English-speaking people.
A Young Women s Christian Association branch of seventy
members was started in Gampola in 1898 and Bible-classes
formed, and these two branches of work were carried on by
Miss Gedge on her arrival with much success. Living at
Gampola, she also visited in the railway settlements at
Kadugannawa and Nawalapitiya. Later this work among
C.E.Z.M. SOCIETY IN CEYLON 195
the railway employees and their families was taken up by
Miss M. Peto, another honorary missionary, who, after service
in North India, made her home at Gampola in 1910 and
has since worked among the English-speaking people. Miss
Scovell retired in 1903 and Miss Karney in 1905. Miss
M. E. Lambe arrived in 1906 and from that time she and
Miss Johnson have carried on the work. The Society having
acquired the bungalow and compound, a new dispensary
.and sick-room were added in 191J, a boarding school was
started and a preaching band formed. In this year Miss
Karney returned to the Mission and developed the work at
Talawa, a village ne_ir Anuradhapura, in which village she
Jived until her departure from Ceylon in 1915.
Some of the girls schools taken over from the C.M.S. were
given back to that Society in 1918, thus setting free the
missionaries to devote more time to evangelistic work.
THE GREAT WAR AND RECENT PROGRESS.
THE great war of 1914-18 had a less direct effect on the
Ceylon Mission than on those of India, Uganda, Egypt,
China and Japan. Ceylon sent no Labour Corps officered to a
certain extent by missionaries as did Uganda, India, China
and Japan, but this was mainly due to the inability of the
Ceylon Government to finance such an effort. Apart from
the enlightened and active patriotism shown in some of the
secondary schools, the attitude of the mass of Sinhalese and
Tamil Christians was that of sympathetic spectators of the
The Ceylon Mission played its part in the war as far as its
numbers and position would allow. The Revs. A. K. Finni-
more and A. G. Fraser served as Army Chaplains on the
Western Front, while another missionary was accepted as a
chaplain, but withdrew on account of an urgent call to
return to Ceylon. Trinity College, Kandy, gave of its best,
including seven of its staff, of whom two were killed. Fifty-
four of its pupils, of whom eleven laid down their lives, also
took part. Its contribution to the war was graciously recog
nized by the King, who presented one of the captured
German machine-guns to the College. Mounted on a granite
stand, this was unveiled by the Governor of Ceylon, Sir
William Manning, in the presence of a large assemblage, in
THE GREAT WAR AND RECENT PROGRESS 197
The Rev. A. M. Walmsley served tor a short time in the
I.A.R.O. in Mesopotamia and in 1917 when compulsory
military training for all Europeans under fifty was introduced,
several of the members of the Mission preferred to join
the local Defence Corps rather than be exempted by reason
of their calling. The son of a T.C.M. catechist joined up in
1916 and fought throughout the Palestine campaign.
Several old boys of our elementary English schools also
joined up and served in Palestine and Mesopotamia and on
other battle fronts.
The smaller boarding schools, both boys and girls ,
contributed to the best of their ability to the various war
In consequence of the war and the subsequent problems
arising from it, the desire for greater political freedom has
become mftre intense and more widely spread. The Christian
community share to a great extent in this legitimate aspiration,
the only difference being that their non-Christian brethren
make more use of the Press and of public meetings to
forward the particular ends which they favour. With many,
self-determination is the political war-cry and the object
of their agitation. It is not the purpose of this chapter to
discuss this movement, but simply to note to some extent its
effect as seen in the manner of the recaption of the Christian
message. Among the masses of the Sinhalese there is a decided
tendency to regard Buddhism as the national religion, while
many, both Tamils and Sinhalese, regard Christianity as a
religion of the West. Hence has arisen the somewhat
widely-spread idea that to become a Christian is to become
denationalized and to be out of sympathy with national
aspirations. For this reason, the missionary body as a
whole would welcome a far greater measure of self-reali/ation
for the Cevlonese communities than has hitherto been
198 CENTENARY VOLUME
The revival of Buddhism, which became noticeable
early in the century, has received a further impetus from this
national movement. Of recent years this revival seems to
have taken the form of an attempt to demonstrate that the
Buddhist system of philosophy is capable of adaptation as a.
working force in the modern movements of the day, many of
which are essentially Christian in origin. Thus we have, as
pointed out in Ch. Ill, Buddhist Grant-in-aid Schools run by
a central organization, just as we have Christian Grant-in-aid
Schools run by different Christian bodies ; Buddhist Sunday
Schools ; Young Men s Buddhist Associations in emulation
of the Young Men s Christian Association ; and a Buddhist
Literature Society is contemplated. Buddhists co-operate
with Christians in Social Service Leagues and in other
societies for the amelioration of suffering.
As regards the Mohammedans the most that can be
stated is that their attitude is more friendly than in pre-war
Dealing with the congregations of Sinhalese and Tamil
Christians connected with and owing their origin to the C.M.S.,.
it should be noted that the ten years prior to 1918 have seen
a considerable development in organization, especially in
connection with the Diocese. Missionaries and Ceylonese
clergy of the C.M.S., holding the Bishop s license, are
naturally part of the Diocese as much as are the clergy more
directly associated with it, their relationship to the C.M:S.
being something additional. C.M.S. missionaries took a
prominent part in the formation of the Diocesan Synod in
1880, and have ever since taken their share in its work
and in that of the Diocesan organizations generally.
In 1909 the present Bishop of Colombo, Dr. E. A.
Copleston, accepted the invitation of the Parent Committee
to become Chairman of the C.M.S. Conference, and the estab
lishment of this closer connection between the Bishop and
THE RIGHT REV. E. A. COPLKSTON, D.D., BISHOP OF COLOMBO
THE GREAT WAR AND RECENT PROGRESS 199
the Society has been attended by much profit to the work.
Whilst thus intimately connected with the Diocese, it is
however natural that as the Parent Committee makes large
grants to the Ceylon Mission and sends out missionaries from
England, it should claim a certain amount of control and this
up to the present has been secured by the Conference and the
Finance Committee which together form the Local Governing
Body of the Mission, and by a Patronage Board which
controls the appointment of Ceylonese clergy to the charge of
pastorates connected with the Society. The Parent Com
mittee s Memorandum of 1900 forms the basis of the policy
which has been pursued. Four Ceylonese clergy, elected by
their own fellow clergy, and two laymen nominated by the
Conference have seats on the Conference, and two of these
are generally elected each year to serve on the Standing
A stage has now been reached in which the leading pastor
ates, Sinhalese and Tamil, have attained to a status of self-
support and independence, receiving practically no grant from
the Parent Committee for pastoral work, but assisted by
grants in aid of the evangelistic and school work which
nearly all of them have undertaken.
Thus fo r example, there is now no Di-trict Missionary in
Jaffna. The whole of his work has been undertaken by the
four pastors and their Church Committees, with Chundicully,
Nellore, Copay and Pallai as their centres, leaving only the
English educational work and the training of vernacular
teachers in the hands of the missionaries. In the Cotta
District a similar step has been taken with the Nugegoda and
Talangama pastorates, and in Colombo as regards the Sinha
lese and Tamil pastorates. In Kandy the Tamil pastorate has
become independent, and the Sinhalese congregations there,
namely at Trinity Church, Katukelle and Gatembe, have been
in this position for nearly forty years.
200 CENTENARY VOLUME
A remarkable feature of recent years has been the progress
and development of the Tamil Christian pastorates in the
planting districts. Whereas in 1900 there was but one
ordained Tamil clergyman working in the sphere of the Tamil
Cooly Mission, the Rev. A. Gnanatuuttu of Kandy, there are
now nine. These men are in charge of vigorous pastorates in
Kandy, Dikoya, Dimbula, Nuwara Eliya, the Kelani Valley,
Sabaragamuwa, Matale, Badulla and Gampola.
RECENT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS.
THE past twenty years have witnessed a great and ever-in-
creasing demand for education, and a correspondingly higher
standard in missionary schools has been necessitated. The
days are past when any sort of a weather-proof building
would do for a school and when a teacher need have only
sufficient education to impart instruction. Buildings, to
satisfy Government requirements, must be of a much higher
type, and teachers must, with few exceptions, be more or less
experts. Thus the burden and expense of missionary schools
becomes increasingly heavier. Secondary schools must have
their laboratories and science equipment and all schools must
have a certain proportion of trained teachers on their staffs.
A feature of the present demand for education is the desire
to learn English. Parents will pay anything in reason and
often more than they can afford for English education for
their children. Pupils will daily trudge miles to supplement
a vernacular school course with some instruction in English.
The importance of higher educational work is accentuated
in these days of national aspirations. Ceylonese are taking
a more and more prominent part in public life and although
the few proceed to an English University, the many receive
their deepest educational impress in the high schools and
colleges of the island. Moreover, in connection with the
progress of Christianity and the development of the Church
of the future, it is increasingly necessary to aim at the
training of men who will be fitted to take a leading part. It
is a significant fact that with some few notable exceptions,
202 CENTENARY VOLUME
the Ceylonese of outstanding capacity in politics, Government
service and business, are Christians or have received their
education in a Christian institution.
A distinction more or less defined may be noticed in the
outlook and ideals of the Christian and non- Christian leaders.
Christianity gives a wider and more altruistic outlook and, in
many of the present-day leaders, tends to moderate the
ambitions of the extreme Nationalists without, however,
evincing any lack of sympathy with any reasonable scheme for
the greater self-realization of the Ceylonese races.
The teaching of science, both pure and applied, has made
great strides of recent years. The School of Tropical
Agriculture is doing a great work and receives the support of
the land-owning classes. Agriculture as a profession is
beginning to compete with the practice of law and medicine
and with the attractive Government service.
The world-wide movement towards Social Service has not
left Ceylon untouched. The first Social Service League in
the island was initiated at Trinity College under the leader
ship of the late Capt. N. P. Campbell. The movement has
spread, and in Colombo and in other places similar organiza
tions are working for the uplift of the masses. Some of
these are even non -Christian, but when one remembers the
pessimism of the Buddhist philosophy, the negative idealism of
Hinduism and the fatalistic creed of Mohammedanism, there
can be no doubt as to the source of the inspiration.
Higher education for girls is still largely in the hands of
the missionary bodies at work in the island. The Buddhists
have two institutions in Colombo and others are projected,
whilst the Hindus have one school in the North. The
Mohammedans, the most backward race as regards education,
are beginning to bestir themselves, but so far only as regards
the education of their boys. Signs are not wanting that in
India the more enlightened Mohammedan communities are
A CONDEMNED VILLAGE SCHOOL
THE SAME SCHOOL REBUILT, 1915
RECENT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS 203
realizing the necessity for educating their girls, and it is
hoped and believed that this movement will before long
spread to Ceylon. There are two factors which mark the
urgency of the higher education of girls. One is that the
educated young Easterner feels the need of and demands
a correspondingly educated and enlightened partner. The
second is the increased scope for the work of women
in social service. The pace at which the movement for the
emancipation of women in the East is progressing leaves
the historian breathless. During the last year or two, the
claim for the franchise for women has been urged in India
with no uncertain voice. The fulfilment of this claim is
probably far distant, but that it has been made at all, is a
From a missionary point of view, the Boarding Schools
for Girls are the most satisfactory in results. These, however,
share with all other grades of schools, in the necessity for
complying with the demands of Government for better
buildings, more competent staff, and more up-to-date equip
ment. To keep pace with these demands is an ever-increasing
difficulty and many schools barely pay their way.
A few years ago compulsory education was introduced
and is gradually being enforced. With it came also the
Conscience Clause, a copy of which is displayed in every
school. A new policy of education affecting our vernacular
schools, recently foreshadowed by the Ceylon Government,,
constitutes a problem for our Missionary Societies. The near
future will witness a considerable modification of evangelistic
effort, the chief notes of which will be more concentration
and greater efficiency.
Within the sphere of the Tamil Cooly Mission the most
noticeable development of recent years has been the increase
in the number of Estate Schools. This is due chiefly to a
Government ordinance requiring estates to make provision for
.204 CENTENARY VOLUME
the education of the children of their labour force. Though
the ordinance fails in that it contains no clau-e for enforcing
attendance, a large number of estates have provided schools
and many of these are under the management of the mission
aries. A smaller number are both managed and financed by
the missionaries. Educationally, they are of doubtful value
owing to the irregularity of the attendance, though this, we
hope, will be remedied to a great extent by the provisions of
a new labour ordinance which will limit the employment of
very young children in manual labour on the estates. From
a missionary point of view, the chief points in favour of many
of them are that they provide a point d appui for beginning
work among the coolies of an estate, and that the school
building is useful a? a meeting-place for the Christians.
IT is hoped that the foregoing pages have given a fair and a
readable account of the work of the Church Missionary
Society in Ceylon during the century which ended in the
year 1918 and that the reader will rise from their perusal
with some idea of what God has wrought by this imperfect
and unworthy instrument. He has given to all concerned in
the work much cause for praise and thanksgiving for the
measure of prosperity and progress which He has permitted
them to witness, for the many souls brought into His
Kingdom and for the moral uplift of the peoples of Ceylon.
At the same time there is much cause for humiliation when
it is borne in mind that throughout the century there have
been multitudes, young and old, rich and poor, educated and
illiterate, who, although they have had the Gospel of Christ
put plainly before them, have either deliberately rejected it or
turned away from it with indifference, as though it were
something which did not concern them. The proportion of
Christians to non-Christians in the whole island is still a
fraction below ten per cent. This constitutes a loud call to
the Ceylonese who have embraced the Christian religion to
1 Take up the torch and wave it wide,
for the work of evangelizing the country must now be left
more and more in their hands, and dark places still abound
which need to be illuminated with Gospel light.
Say not, " The struggle nought availeth,
The labour and the wounds are vain,
The enemy faints not nor faileth,
And as things have been they remain."
For while the tired waves vainly breaking,
Seem here no painful inch to gain,
Far back, through creeks and inlets making,
Comes silent, flooding in, the main.
And not by eastern windows only
When daylight comes, comes in the light ;
In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly
But westward, look, the land is bright.
A HYMN FOR CEYLON.
Jehovah, Thou hast promised
The isles shall wait for Thee;
The joyous isles of Ocean,^
The jewels of the sea ;
Lo ! we, this island s watchmen,
Would give and take no rest,
(For thus hast Thou commanded,)
Till our dear land be blessed.
Then bless her, mighty Father,
With blessings needed most,
In every verdant village,
By every palmy coast ;
On every soaring mountain
O er every spreading plain.
May all her sons and daughters
Thy righteousness attain.
Give peace within her borders,
Twixt man and man goodwill,
The love all unsuspicious,
The love that works no ill ;
In loyal, lowly service
Let each from other learn,
The guardian and the guarded,
Till Christ Himself return.
To Him our land shall listen,
To Him our land shall kneel,
All rule be on His shoulder.
All wrong beneath His heel ;
Oh consummation glorious,
Which now by faith we sing ;
Come, cast we up the highway
That brings us back the King.
W. S. SENIOR.
LIST OF CEYLON C.M.S. MISSIONARIES (MEN).
Abbreviations. Oxf., Oxford; Camb., Cambridge ; Dub.
Dublin ; Dur., Durham ; Isl., Church Missionary College,
Islington; d., deacon; p., priest; m., married; S.M.,
Sinhalese Mission ; T.M., Tamil Mission ; T.C.M., Tamil
Cooly Mission ; T.C.K., Trinity College, Kandy ; Ret.,
Retired from Ceylon; C., Curate; V 7 ., Vicar; Rec., Rector;
1. Lambrick, Rev. Samuel (Matlock) m. 1827 Mary Ann
Stratford, d. 1860. S.M. Ret. 1835. Tutor at Eton, 1816.
Chaplain to Marquis of Cholmondeley, 1837. Compiled a
Sinhalese Grammar and Vocabulary. D. 1854, aged 85.
2. Mayor, Rev. Robert, son of Rev. John Mayor, of
Shawbury.m. September 4, 1817, at St. George s, Everton,
Charlotte Bickersteth, daughter of Rev. E. Bickersteth of
Watton, and Secretary of the C.M.S. S.M. Ret. 1S28. V. of
Acton and Rec. of Coppenstall, 1838. D. July 14, 1846, aged
55. A soa, Rev. John Eytou Bickersteth Mayor, born
Baddegama, January 28, 1825, became Professor of Latin,
St. John s College, Cambridge, in 1872, and wrote several
classical, philological and antiquarian works. He died
December 1, 1910, aged 85. Another son, Rev. Joseph
Bickersteth Mayor, was Professor of Classics at King s
College, London, 1870-79, and died in November, 1916,
3. Ward, Rev. Benjamin (Wellington) m. Mary Meires.
d. 1864. S.M. Ret. 1828. Hon. Canon of Carlisle, 1857.
208 APPENDIX A
Rec. of Meesden, 1859. D. 1879, aged 87. A son, Rev. D.
Ward, Vic. of Upton, Cheshire, died in 1912, aged 85.
4. Knight, Rev. Joseph, born at Stroud on October 17,
1787. T.M. m. (l) Mrs. S. B. Richards, D. April 26, 1825.
(2) Mrs. E.S. Nichols, D. February 4, 1837 both widows of
American missionaries. They were buried in churchyard of
American Mission, Tellippalai, Jaffna. Wrecked off the
Cape in 1838, died shortly after his return to Ceylon on
October 11, 1840, and was buried at Cotta.
The four above missionaries were ordained by Bishop
Ryder, of Gloucester.
5. Browning, Rev. Thomas (Stroud) m. Mary Stephens,
D. 1839. S.M. Died at sea in July, 1838.
6. Bailey, Rev. Joseph (Dewsbury) S. M. m. (l) Sophia
Parkin, D. 1825. (2) 1834, Octavia Bulmer, D. 1864. D.
at Cotta on March 19, 1844, aged 47, and buried there.
Compiled a Church Hymn Book.
7. Adley, Rev. William (Canterbury) T.M. m. (l) Lucy
Coles, D. 1839. (2) 1841, Catherine Theodora Gauntlett,
D. 1880. Ret. 1846. Rec. Rudboxton. D. 1889, aged 97.
8. Selkirk, Rev. James (Harwich), St. Bees Coll., S.M.
Mrs. Selkirk died in 1876. Two children, Emily Jane (1831)
and John (1832) were buried in St. Paul s burial ground,
Colombo. Chaplain of Hull Gaol. D. 1880, aged 81. Wrote
in 1844 Recollections of Ceylon. Ret. 1840.
9. Trimnell, Rev. George Conibere (High Wycombe),
Isl. S.M. Ret. 1847. Mrs. Trimnell died in 1861. D. 1880,
APPENDIX A 209
10. Faught, Rev. George Steers, Isl. S.M. m. Anne Le
Clerc. d, 1870. Ret. 1836. C. Bradfield. D. 1873, aged 72.
Three children, Susan Margaret (1830), Marcus Steers
(1835) and Godfrey Steers (1835), died and were buried at
11. Ridsdale, Mr. William (Hull), S.M. m. on April 7,
1832, at St Peter s, Colombo, Susan Dorothea, eldest daughter
of Captain F. W. von Drieberg. Ret. 1836. A daughter,
Mary Anne (1834), buried in Galle Face burial ground.
12. Marsh, Rev. Joseph (Bonsall), Isl. S.M. Died at sea,
13. Oakley, Rev. William (Hertford), Isl. S.M. Born
October 3, 1808. m. 1839, Frances Mary King, D. in Kandy
July 14, 1866. A tablet to ner memory in Trinity Church,
Kandy. Wrote The Lord s Supper not a Sacrifice, Conver
sation on the Christian Religion, Simple Truths of Chris
tianity and several other tracts. Did not visit England aftei
his arrival in 1835, and died in Nuwara Eliya on July 18,
1886, in his 79th year.
Mr. Oakley s only son sailed for England in the City of
London in 1850, the vessel foundered and all on board
perished. His only daughter, Mary, married at Kandy on
May 10, 1867, Priestly Jacob, Head Master of the High
School, Poona, son of the Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., Christ s
14. Powell, Rev. Henry (Reading), Isl. S.M. m. Mary
Ann Heath. Ret. 1845. Vicar of Bolton and Hon. Canon of
Manchester. D. 1898, aged 84.
210 APPENDIX A
15. Haslam, Rev. John Fearby (Halifax), B.A., Camb.
S.M. m. (1) 1837, Elizabeth Denton, D. 1839. (2) 1842,
Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. J. Bailey, D. 1873.
Compiled Vocabulary, and Arithmetic . Translated into
Sinhalese Dr. Mill s Life of Christ. D. in Colombo
March 19, 1850. Buried in Galle Face burial ground.
The Haslams arrived on January 7, 1839. The first Mrs.
Haslam died at Cotta on March 24, aged 25, and their
daughter, Elizabeth, died on November S. Both buried in
the Galle Face burial ground.
16. Taylor, Rev. Francis W. (Luton), Isl. T.M. m.
Caroline Bella Price. Ret. 1849. V. West Thorney. D.
1887, aged 76.
17. Johnson, Rev. J. Talbot (London), Isl. T.M. Ret.
1849. m. Amelia Winn. Rec. Beccles. D. 1871.
18. Greenwood, Rev. Charles (Cambridge), Isl. S.M. m.
Harriet Winn, D. 1872. Drowned whilst bathing in the
Gindara river at Baddegama on June 21, 1850, aged 37.
19. Pargiter, Rev. Robert (Cornwall) d. 1846. p. 1847.
T.M. m. (1) 1844, Charlotte Elizabeth Jones, D. 1849. (j)
1851, Anna Matilda Palm, D. 1900. Ret. 1864. C.M.S.
Association Secretary, 1865-1885. V. Towersey, 1885. D.
Charmouth, April 1, 1915, aged 98. Mr. Pargiter went to
Ceylon in 1844 under the Wesleyan Missionary Society and
joined the C.M.S the following year.
A son, Robert S. Pargiter, C.C.S., died as Assistant Govern
ment Agent of Negombo in 1876. A daughter, Mrs. John
APPENDIX A 211
Pole, died in Ceylon, and another son, A. H. Pargiter, died in
Colombo in 1898. Another son, Rev. G. E. A. Pargiter, was
Principal of St. John s College, Agra, 1883-91.
20. Gordon, Rev. Alexander Douglas, Isl. S. M. Ret.
1854. D. 1865.
21. O Neill, Rev. James (Kilcoleman), Isl., B.D., Lam-
beth. d. 1845. p. 1846. in. 1846, Elizabeth Adams, D.
December 16, 1848, aged 27. T. M. Ret. 1854. V. Luton.
D. December 28, 1896, aged 75.
There is a marble bust of Mr. O Neill in Luton Parish
ChurcL where he was Vicar for thirty-four years. A son,
^ James Arthur, a physician in Devonshire; another son,
Henry Edward, H. M. Consul at Rouen.
22. Collins, Rev. Henry (Maidenhead), Isl. S.M. Ret.
1849. D. 1860.
23. Wood, Rev. Isaiah, Isl. S.M. m. Sarah Ann
Spencer, D. 1873. Ret. 1861. D. 1889.
24. Bren, Rev. Robert (Reading), Isl. T.M. m. Sarah
Jordan Brown. Ret. 185S. D. 1885. Wrote Christianity
and Hinduism Compared (Tamil).
25. Parsons, Rev. George (Bath), Isl. S.M. m. Diana
Alway, D. 1896. D. Colombo, April 18, 1866, aged 42.
Buried in Galle Face burial ground. Wrote Exposition of
the Thirty-nine Articles (Sinhalese). A tablet to his
memory in Baddegama Church. Eldest son, Rev. G. H.
Parsons, a C. M. S. missionary in Bengal, for many -years.
A grandson, Rev. B. G. Parsons, C.M;S., Fuhkien.
212 APPENDIX A
26. Fettitt, Rev. George (Birmingham), Isl. S.M. Tinne-
velly, 1833-50. Ret. 1855. m. Louisa Hare, D. 1892.
V. St. Jude s, Birmingham. D. 1873. Wrote Tinnevelly
Mission (1850), Life of Rev. J. T. Tucker, The Mirror
of Custom. (1862).
27. Fenn, Rev. Christopher Cyprian, son of Rev. Joseph
Fenn, Travancore. Born at Cottayam. M.A., Camb. d.
1848. p. 1849. S. M. in. (l) 1859, Emma Poynder, D.
1870. (2) 1872, Harriet Elizabeth Christiana Morris. Ret.
1863. C. Ockbrock 1848-50. C.M.S. Secretary, 1864-94.
D. October 12, 1913, at Tunbridge Wells, aged 90. Wrote
(1868) Answer to Durlabdy Winodaniya.
28. Higgens, Rev. Edward Thomas (Snodland), Isl.
S.M. m. (1) Amelia Dyke, D. June 9, 1854. (2) 1858 r
Annie Catherine Schon, D. 1911. Ret. 1900. D. June 11,
1901, at Chatham, aged 78. Wrote No Salvation in
Buddhism (Sinhalese). The first Mrs. Higgens, and their
son, Edward Albert, who died on October 6, 1854, buried in
Holy Trinity Churchyard, Kandy,
29. Barton, Mr. Henry James (Ipswich), St. Aidan s r
S.M. Ret. 1862. m. A. Allen. Afterwards ordained and
Chaplain of Poplar Sick Asylum.
30. Sorrell, Mr. Joseph, Highbury Training College,
X.M. Ret. 1860. Afterwards ordained, d. 1863. p. 18,64,
C. St. John s, Limehouse, 1901. Rec. of St. Nicholas ,
Holton, Somerset. D. November 1 1, 1916, aged 88.
APPENDIX A 213
31. Collins, Rev. Richard, M.A., Camb. T.C.K. Ket.
1880. m. (1) Frances Wright, D. 1862. (2) 1863, Frances
Anne Hawksworth. V. Kirkburton. D. 190C, Wrote Philo
sophy of Jesus Christ (1879), The After Life (1894)
4 Missionary Enterprise in the Far East, and introduction to
Leviticus in Pulpit Commentary.
32. Whitley, Rev. Henry, B.A., Camb. Incumbent of
Christ Church, Galle Face. m. 1855, Marcia Paterson.
Accidentally killed by the falling of a wall of school room,
Galle Face, November 10, 1860, aged 34.
A tablet to his memory in Christ Church.
33. Hobbs, Rev. Septimus (Portsea), Isl. T.C.M. m.
1849, Sarah Westbrook, D. 1898. Ret. 1862. 1842-55 in
Tinnevelly. Rec. Compton Vallence. D. 1898, aged 82,
34. Jones, Rev. John Ireland, M.A., Dub. Isl. S.M. m.
(1) Kitty Crawford Colclough, D. 1877. (2) 1882, Frances
Matilda Sinclair. D. Colombo, November 12, 1903. Wrote
Jubilee Sketches (1868), The Wonderful Garden (Sinha
lese), Handbook of Sinhalese, Answer to Durlabdy
Eldest son, Rev. Philip I. Jones, C.M.S., North India;
second son, Beauchamp, died in Kegalle, and daughter, Mrs.
H. W. Umvin, died in England.
35. Mac Arthur, Rev. Charles Chapman, (lona), Isl.
T.M. -m. Annette Cohen, D. 1898. Ret. 1867. Rec. Burling-
ham. D. 1892. Wrote First Principles (Tamil).
214 APPENDIX A
36. Foulkes, Rev. Thomas (Holywell), Isl. T.M. m-
(1) Miss Maiben, D. 1853. (2) Mary Anne Ashley, D.
February 6, 1859, aged 22. A tablet to her memory in
Nellore Church. Tinnevelly, 1849-58. Madras, 1859-60,
Only one year in Jaffna.
37. Coles, Rev. Stephen, Highbury Training College.
S.M. m. 1860, Elizabeth Nicklin, D. 1898. D. Colombo,
1901. Wrote Essay on the Atonement. Comp. Scripture
Text Book, Hymns for Children. Trans. My King
(Sinhalese), Picture Tracts.
38. Tonge, Rev. Robert Burchall (Manchester), B.A. r
Lond. Isi. S.M. Ret. 1867. Mrs. Tonge died 1875.
39. Clowes, Rev. Josiah Herbert (Yarmouth), Isl. S.M.
in. Susan Emily Seppings. Ret. 1866. C. Woodbridge,
1867-68. C. Newton, 1868-70. Diocesan Inspector of
Schools, 1880-96. Rec. Weston. D. Beccles, May 16,
1911, aged 74.
A son, Rev. E. G. Clowes, Rector of Weston ; a daughter
married Rev. E. A. Fitch, C.M.S., E. Africa.
40. Rowlands, Rev. William Edvvard (Worcester),,
M.A., Oxf. Isl. Born October 30, 1837. d. 1861. p.
1864. T. M. Ret. in 1884 and rejoined in 1907. m. (1)
1863, Mary Black well Evans, d. 1877. (2) 1S88, Emily
Charlotte Adams, D. 1889. C. Watermen s Church, Wor-,
cester, 1861. Rec. Bonchurch, 1895-1906. Assistant Chap
lain at Les Avants. 1906-07. Ret. 1918.
A son, Rev. H. F. Rowlands, C.M.S., Punjab, killed in
earthquake at Kangra in 1905 ; another son, Rev. F. W.
Rowlands, Japan Mission. ....
APPENDIX A 215
41. Bus well, Rev. Henry Dixon, Isl. d. 1862. p. 1863.
T. M. m. 1862, Mary Sophia Cullis, D. 1892. Ret. 1865.
C.M.S., Mauritius, 1866. Archdeacon of Seychelles, 1894.
42. Pickford, Rev. John (Sheffield), St. Bees. T. C. M.
Previously eleven years in Tinnevelly. m. Mary Turner,
D. 1866. Ret. 1868. D. 1882.
43. Allcock, Rev. John (Marston), Isl. S. M. m. 1867,
Harriet Elizabeth Gladding, D. 1899. D. Kandy, 1S87.
Eldest son, Rev. W. G. Allcock. C. St. John s, Baling.
44. Good, Rev. Thomas (Kilbourne), Isl. B.D., Lam
beth. d. 1866. p. 1867. T. M. m. 1867, Susan Brodie.
Ret. 1874. C. Baggotrath, 1874-78. V. Sandford Ranelagh,
1878. Wrote on Temperance.
45. Mill, Rev. Julius Caesar (Lodi, Italy), T.M. Ret.
1869. m. 1867 Catherine Mary Schaffter. 1869-75 Tinne
velly. D. 1888.
46. Fenn, Rev. David, M.A., Camb. T.M. Only four
months in Ceylon. D. 1878.
47. Dowbiggin, Rev. Richard Thomas (Hawkshead).
Born April 27, 1838. Isl. S. M. m. 1869, Letitia Ann
Layard. D. at sea near Suez on March 8, 1901.
48. Griffith, Rev. Edward Moule (Birmingham), Isl.
B.A., Camb. T. M. m. 1867, Mary B. Skinner Marshall.
D. Jaffna, March 13, 1890, aged 47.
216 APPENDIX A
49. Wood, Rev. David (Stockton on Tees), Isl. d. 1867.
p. 1869. T.M. m. 1869, Margaret Webster. Ret. 1892..
Rec. Willand, 1898. Wrote Brief History of Prayer Book
A son, Rev. A. R. Wood, V. Thorpe-le-Soken ; a daughter,
Mrs. T. Gaunt, C.M.S., China.
50. Clark, Rev. William (South wark), Isl. T.C.M.
m. 1851 Mary Anne Baker. Ret. 1878. Wrote Expo
sition of Prophecy, Christian Minister. 1848-68 in Tinne-
velly. 1.880-84 in Travancore. D. at Highbury in 1013,
51. Unwin, Rev. Gerard Francis, Isl. d. 1873. p.
1878. S. M. Ret. 1878. V. Frocester.
52. Cavalier, Rev. Anthony Ramsden (Sheffield), Isl.
d. 1874. p. 1875. T.C.M. m. 1876 Mary Grey. Ret.
1880. 1883-85, Tinnevelly. Secretary, Z.B.M.S. V. Man-
53. Dunn, Rev. Thomas (Wallhouses), Isl. d. and p.
1882. Ret. 1881. m. 1874, Jane A. Ford. 1882-84, British
Columbia. 1886-90, Japan. 1904-10. Rec. Weare Gifford.
54. Simmons, Rev. Jonathan Deane (Shiplake), Isl. d.
1860. p. 1862. T.M. m. (l) 1860, Caroline J. Bolton, D.
1861. (2) 1864, Ada Van Someren Chitty, D. 1900. Ret.
1903. In Tinnevelly, 1861-74. D. March 27, 1914,
Wokingham, Berks, aged 79.
55. Smith, Mr. William. Ret. 1878. D. at sea.
APPENDIX A 217
56. Newton, Rev. Henry, M.A., Dub. d. 1870. p. 1871.
Incumbent, Christ Church, Colombo. Ret. 1885. C. St.
Matthew s, Dublin, 1870-72. C. Christ Church, Leeson Park,
1872-73. Inc. St. Paul s, Portarlington. 1873-76. Perp. C.
St. Mark s, Brighton, 1885-95. V. Christ Church, Surbiton,
1901-15. V. Haydon, 1916.
57. Ferris, Mr. William Bridger, Isl. T.C.M. Ret. 1878.
Ordained d. 1878. p. 1879. V. Christ Church, Worthing,
1898. Hon. Canon of Chichester.
58. Taylor, Mr. Isaac John. Born November 1, 1847.
Isl. T.C.M. Ret. 1878. S. India, 1878-80. Ordained d. and
p. 1880. N. W. Canada, 1884-1897. V. Linstead, 1907.
59. Schaffter, Rev. William Pascal, Isl. T.C.M., son of
Rev. P. P. Schaffter, C.M.S., Tinnevelly. m. 1861, Theresa
Stammer, D. November 29, 1916. Ret. 1879. Tinnevelly,
60. Blackmore, Rev. Edwin (Exmouth), Isl. T.M.
D. Jaffna, 1879. Tinnevelly, 1874-78.
61. Pickford, Rev. Joseph Ingham (Sheffield) d. and p.
1878. Isl. T.M. m. 1880, Mary Young. Ret. 1907. C. Wing-
neld, 1888-9. C. St. Mary s, Islington, 1897-98. V. Walpole,
62. Fleming, Rev. George Thomas (Pimlico), Isl. T.M.
.m. 1892, Minnie Frances Fleming, daughter of Rev. T. S.
Fleming, formerly of the Chekiang Mission, who died on
November 11, 1916, aged 90. D. Colombo, 1896.
63. Garrett, Rev. John Galloway (Boyle), M.A., Dub.
S.M. m. 1878, Eliza Margaret Bradshaw. D. Dublin, 1911.
218 APPENDIX A
Father of Rev. Geo. Garrett, C.M.S., Uganda, also of
Second Lfeut. William Oakley Garrett, killed in action in
64. Glanville, Rev. Frederic (Exeter). Born November
19, 1856. Isl. d. and p. 1880. T.C.M. m. (l) 1882. Frances
Ann White, D. 1883. (2) 1885, Eleanor Keen. Ret. 1883.
C. St. John Evang. Penge, 1880-81. C.M.S. Organizing Sec.,
1885-1901. V. St. Matthew s, Kingsdown, Bristol, 1901. D.
Bristol, May 15, 1914.
65. Balding, Rev. John William. Born at Horncastle,
March 20, 1856. Isl. d. 1881. p. 1884. S.M. m. June 10,
1884, Matilda Hall. Wrote Story of Baddegama Mission,
Story of Cotta Mission, Centenary Volume of the Ceylon
Mission Eldest son, Charles John Balding, A.M.I.C.E.,
drowned at Felixstowe in 1912, aged 27 ; youngest son,
Second Lieut. Reginald Norman, fell in action in Mesopotamia
in 1917, aged 22.
66. Horsley, Rev. Hugh (Courtallam), M.A., Camb.
d. 1873. p. 1877. T.M. m. 1877, M.E. Kendall. In Tinne-
velly, 1873-79. Ret. 1894. V. Oulton. V. Eastwood.
67. Field, Rev. John (Schull), Isl, d. 1880. p. 1881. S.M.
m. 1872, Emily Jane Mattock. Ret. 1885. In Yoruba, 1877-
79. C. Pitt Portion, Tiverton, 1880-82. British Columbia,
68. Liesching, Rev. George Louis Pett. Born July 18,
1856. Isl. d. 1882. p. 1885. S.M. m. 1882, Maude Edridge.
Ret. 1901. C. St. Paul s, Dorking, 1892-3. St. Stephen s,
Walthamstow, 1902-03. Bushbury, 1903-04. Bovington, 1904-
07. V. Little Horwood, 1907.
A daughter, Grace Liesching. Assistant Secretary of the
APPENDIX A 219
69. llsley, Rev. Joseph (Liverpool). -Born September 19,.
1855. Isl. d. 1879. p. 1885. T. M. Ret. 1914. m. (1) 1881,
Jeannette Morgan, D. 1905. (2) 1909, Isabella Jane
Boesinger. In Tinnevelly, 1880-84. C. St. Giles , Northamp
70. Thomas. Rev. John Davies, Isl., son of Rev. John
Thomas, Megnanapurarn. In Tinnevelly, 1863-86. m. 1*63
Mary Jane Green. T. M. D. Colombo, April 18, 1896, aged
56. Buried in Kanatte Cemetery. Translated Whately s
Evidences and Butler s Analogy, Part I into Tamil.
Father of Dr. J. Llewellyn Thomas, many years in Colombo,
of Mrs. T. S. Johnson, C.M.S. and Mrs. E. A. Douglas, C.M.S.
71. Hodges, Rt. Rev. Edward Noel, D.D., Oxf. T.C.K.
m. 1877 Alice Shirreff. Ret. 1889. Masulipatam, 1877-86.
Bishop of Travancore and Cochin, 1890-1904. Rec. St.
Cuthbert, Bedford, and Hon. Canon of Ely. A son killed in
France in 1916.
72. Fall, Rev. John William (Bedale), M.A., Camb.
d. 1887. p. 1888. T. M. m. 1893, Ethel Berridge. Ret. 1897,
C. Walcot, 1887-89. Jesmond, 1898-1900. Asst. Secy.,
C.P.A.S., 1900-02. V. St. Andrew s, Whitehall Park, 1902,
V. Christ Church, Ware, 1917.
73. Perry, Rev. Edward John (Stratford;, M.A., Oxf.
T.C.K. Accidentally shot near Alutnuvvara on April 2, 1890,
aged 34 years. Was of Worcester College, Oxford, and
Pusey and Ellerton Scholar and had been a master at
Merchant Taylors School.
.220 APPENDIX A
74. Napier- Clavering, Rev. Henry Percy, M.A., Camb.
d. 1885. p. 1886. T.C.K. Ret. 1908. m. 1909, C.K.E.
Gedge. C. Monkton Combe, 1885-89. Rec. Stella, 1900-07.
Chaplain, Pussellawa. Clerical Secy., C.E.Z.M.S., London,
1912-16. Chaplain, Beaufort War Hospital, Fishponds,
75. Dibben, Rev. Arthur Edwin, M.A., Camb. d. 1886.
p. 1888. S. M. Secy, of Ceylon Mission. C. Fairfield, 1886-
87. St. John s, Chelsea, 1887-89.
76. Carter, Rev. James (Netherseale), M. A.., Camb.
<1. 1889. p. 1890. m. (1) 1893, Mary Fertile, D. 1899. (2)
1903, Agnes Layard Dowbiggin. T.C.K. and St. John s,
Jaffna. Ret. 1904. Asst. Master, St. Oswald s Coll., Ellesmere,
1888-89. C. Christ Church, Stone, 1890-91. C. Branston,
1904-05. Rec. Kineton and Oxhill, 1905.
77. Welchman, Rev. William (Bristol), M.A., Camb.
d. 1890. p. 1891. m. Elizabeth Marshall Griffith, 1892. T. M.
Ret. 1899. V. Holy Cross, Bristol, and Hon. Canon, 1901.
Army Chaplain in France, 1915-16.
A son, Lieut. Eric Welchman, fell in action, 1914, in France.
78. Simmons, Rev. Sydney Mainwaring, son of the Rev.
J. D. Simmons. Isl. d. 1897. p. 1898. m. (1) 1897.
Beatrice Reynolds, D. 1907. (2) 1909, Helena Elsie Marion
Walker. S.M. Ret. 1915. C. Christ Church, Great Woriey,
1915. Rec. Little Laver, 1917.
79. Carus-Wilson, Mr. Ernest Jocelyn. m. 1898, Kathe-
rine Mary Chapman. S.M. Ret. 1899.
APPENDIX A 221
80. Heinekey, Rev. Henry Edward, Lond. Coll. Div
d. 1889. p. 1890. m. 1892, Ellen Flora Harris. S. M. Ret.
1905. Compiled Sinhalese Birthday Text Book. Only
child died and buried at Baddegama. C. St. Paul s, Stratford,
1889-91. C. St. Cuthbert s, West Hampstead, 1891-93. V.
St. George s, Westcombe Park, 1906. C. St. Thomas , Hull,
1916. V. St. Peter s, Drypool, Hull, 1917.
81. Mathison, Major Gilbert Hamilton Fearon. m. 1906,,
Edith Alary Tucker. Ret. 1909; S. M. Formerly Major iti
Alexandra P.W.O., Yorkshire Regt.
82. Ryde, Rev. Robert William (Brockley), M.A., Camb.
T.C.K. and St. John s, Jaffna m. 1897, Emily Margaret
Loveridge. S. M. D. Colombo, 1909.
83. Hamilton, Rev. James, B.A., Dub. d. 1876. p. 1878.
T.M. m. 1880, Wilhelmina M.B. Moore. Ret. 1897. In
cumbent of Thornhill, Ireland.
84. Townsend, Rev. Horace Crawford (Clonakilty), B.A.,
Dub. d. 1893. p. 1894. m. 1899, Mary Edith Grace Young.
T.C.M. Ret. 1903. C. Ballymena, 1893-96. Incumbent,
Craig Army Chaplain, France, 1915-17. Awarded Military
Cross (Fourth Class), 1917.
85. Hanan, Rev. William John (Cahir), M.A., Dub.
d. 1895. p. 1897. m. 1899, Miriam Clarke. T. M. C. Cahir,
222 APPENDIX A
86. Thompson, Rev. Jacob (Liverpool;, M.A., Camb.
.d. 1888. p 1894. m. 1888, Amy Beatrice Brockbank. St. John s
College, Jaffna. Travancore, 1888-94. C. Blundell Sands,
1895-96. C. Peel, 1896-7. Brother of Rt. Rev. J. D.
Thompson, Bishop of Sodor and Man.
A son, Lieut. H. B. Thompson of the Berkshires, was
awarded the Military Cross in December, 1916, was wound
ed and missing the same month. Another son, Second Lieut.
R. Denton Thompson, joined a Motor Cycle Signalling
Corps, and a third son, Second Lieut. J. Cyril Thompson of
the East Lanes., was taken prisoner.
87. Butterfield, Rev. Roland Potter (Aylsham), Isl. M.A.,
Our. d. 1900. p. 1901. ra. 1904, Clara Herbert. T.C.M.
88. Pilson, Rev. Arthur Ashfield (Birts Morton), M.A.,
Oxf. T.C.K. D. April 30, 1902, at Nuwara Eliya, aged 29.
89. Purser, Rev. George Arthur, Isl. d. 1911. p. 1912.
S.M. m. 1911, Elizabeth Beatrice Sparrow, S.M.
90. Booth, Rev. Wilfrid, B.A. ? Oxf, d. 1895. p. 1896.
m. 1904, Constance Magdalene Clift. T.C.M. C. Great
Yarmouth, 1895-1900. D. Teignmouth, March 23, 1918.
91. Shorten, Rev. William Good, Isl. B.:\., Dur. d. 1901.
p. ,1903. S.M. m. 1907, Amy Kathleen Deering, S.M.
92. Johnson, Rev. Thomas Sparshott, Isl. B.A., Dur.
d: 1902. p. 1903. T.C.M. m. 1905, Annie Elizabeth Mary
93. MacLulich, Rev. Archibald MacLulich (Clonaiin),
M.A., Dub. d. 1899. p. 1902. T.C.K. Ret. 1909. C. Tuam,
1899-1900. C. Carrickfergus, 1900-02. V. Holy Trinity,
APPENDIX A 223
94. Ferrier, Rev. John William, Moore Coll , Sydney
d. and p. 1912. L.Th., Dur.-m. 1901, Evelyn May Garland
5.M. Accountant of Mission till 1910 ; rejoined 1915, having
been ordained in Australia.
95. Fraser, Rev. Alexander Garden, M.A., Oxf . d. 191 ;
p. 1915. m. 1901, Annie Beatrice Glass. T.C.K.. Uganda^
1900-04. Army Chaplain, France, 1917.
~6. Phair, Rev. Robert Hugh Oliver, B.A., Manitoba
Isl. d. 1904. p. 1906. Son of the Rev. Archdeacon Phair
of Winnipeg. S.M.
97. Storrs, Rev. Arthur Noel Coopland, B.A. Camb -
d. 1887. p. 1888. m. 1893, Anna Maria Louisa Fitton. T CM
Tinnevelly, 1889-04. Son of Rev. W.T. Storrs, CMS
India. Ret. 1904.
98. Walmsley, Rev. Alfred Moss (Stockport), M.A., Camb
~d. 1906. p. 1907. m. 1906, Alice J. Murgatroyd, B.Sc ,
London. Trinity College, 1906-1911. S.M., 1911. Served in
99. Weston, Rev. George Thomas (Langley), Isl -d
1906. p. 1907. T.M. Ret. 1911. Planters Chaplain, Matale
100. Senior, Rev. Walter Stanley, M.A., Oxf d 1903
p. 1904. T.C.K., 1906-1915. Incumbent of Christ Church
Colombo, 1915. m. 1907, Ethel May Poole, T.M. Author
of Pisgah or The Choice, the triennial prize poem on a
sacred subject in the University of Oxford, 1914.
101. Gibson, Rev. John Paul Stewart Riddell MA
Camb. F.I.A.-d. 1906. p. 1907. m. 1904, Kathleen" May
Armitage. T.C.K., 1908-1914. Training Colony, Peradeniya,
224 APPENDIX A
102. Saunders, Mr. Kenneth James, B.A., Camb. T.C.K.-
Ret. 1913. Y.M.C.A., Calcutta, Rangoon. Trans. Dham-
mapada into English. Author of Maitri The Coming One,
Buddhist Ideals, Two Heroes of Social Service (St. Francis
and St. Dominic), The Candid Friend, or Buddhism from
Within, The Vital Forces of Southern Buddhism in relation
to the Gospel, Adventures of the Christian Soul, and
several other pamphlets and articles.
103. Campbell, Mr. Norman Phillips, M.A., Oxf. T.C.K.
m. 1913, Lettice Margaret Armitage (a sister of Mrs. P,
Gibson). Joined H.M. s Forces in 1914, obtained commission
as Captain in Royal Engineers, fell in action on May 3, 1917.
104. Finmmore, Rev. Arthur Kington, Isl. M.A., Dur.
d. 1885. p. 1888. Inc. Christ Church, Colombo. T.C.M. m.
1885, Mary Elizabeth Hughes. In South India, 1885-90.
Mauritius, 1893-01. C.M.S. Organizing Secy., 1901-08. C.
Eastbourne, 1908-09. Army Chaplain, France, 1915-16.
A son, Lieut. David Keith Finnimore, died from wounds in a
military hospital on May 10, 1917. Another son, Major A. C.
Finnimore, in the Royal Engineers ; a daughter, Miss D. E.
Finnimore, a missionary at Palamcotta.
105. Mulgrue, Mr. George Robert. T.C.K. Ret. 1915.
106. Gaster, Rev. Lewis John, Isl. d. 1910. p. 1912.
T.C.K. m. November 18, 1911, Harriet Elizabeth Hobson,
107. Houlder, Mr. Alfred Claude (Croydon), B.A., Oxf.
108. McPherson, Rev. Kenneth Cecil, B.A., Oxf. T.C.K
d. 1915. p. 1917.
APPENDIX A 225
1. jayasinghe, Rev. Cornelius. d. 1839. p. 1843. Educated
at Cotta Institution. First Catechist and Interpreter. Stationed
at Talangama and Slave Island. In 1867, Trinity Church,
Kandy. Editor of the Sinhalese CM. Record. D. Colombo
on November 18, 1876. Mr. Jayasinghe s name stands fourth
on the C.M.S. List of Native Clergy and Mr. A Gunasekara s
2. Gunasekara, Rev. Abraham. d. 1839. p. 1843 by
Bishop Spencer. Educated at Cotta Institution. Worked
in Baddegama and died there on June 27, 1862, aged 60.
The son of Bastian Gunasekara, who was born in 1773 and
died in 1853. The father of Rev. H. Gunasekara, who died
in 1916, Paul Gunasekara, a catechist and schoolmaster for
fifty years, who died on January 3, 1917, aged 74 years, and
Mrs. B. Karunaratna, a Bible woman for many years. A
grand- daughter married Rev. T. G. Perera, and another
married Rev. A. B. Karunaratne.
3. Senanayake, Rev. Cornelius. d. 1846. p. 1851.
Educated at Cotta Institution. Transferred to Colonial
Establishment in 1852 and died in 1886. Wrote a Sinhalese
4. De Livera, Rev. James Andris. d. 1861. p. 1867.
Educated at Cotta Institution. Stationed at Kandy and
Nugegoda. Died December 23, 1868. At his examination
for Deacon s orders by Bishop Chapman, he was offered his
choice between the Greek Testament and the Sinhalese Bible
and he unhesitatingly chose the former.
5. Gunasekara, Rev. Henry. d. 1867. p. 1871. Educated
at Baddegama Seminary and Cotta Institution. (1) Pupil
Teacher, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor. Stationed at Nugegoda,
Colombo, and Trinity Church, Kandy. Retired in 1909.
226 APPENDIX A
Died May 24, 1916, at Lunawa. Mr. Gunasekara was
married in 1870, and his widow died on November 1, 1916.
A son of Rev. A. Gunasekara.
6. de Silva, Rev. Hendrick. d. 1868. p. 1885. Educated
at Cotta Institution, (l) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3)
Pastor at Cotta, Nugegoda and Talangama. Died at Negombo
on March 12, 1891.
7. Jayasinha, Rev. Daniel. d. 1868. Educated at Cotta
Institution. (1) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor at
Katukelle, Nugegoda and Cotta. Died at Cotta on January 1,
8. Wirasinha, Rev. Bartholomew Peris. d. 1869. Edu
cated at Cotta English School. (1) Schoolmaster at Cotta,
(2) Catechist for sixteen years, (3) Pastor at Kegalle. Retired
in 1894 and died in 1900.
9. Kannanger, Rev. Hendrick. d. 1869. (1) School
master, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor at Talangama, Cotta, Ben-
tota. Retired 1885, and died on July 13, 1894. Father of Mrs.
Wirakoon, Head Mistress of Baddegama Girls Boarding
10. Perera, Rev. Garagoda Arachchige Bastian. d. 1881.
p. 1886. Retired 1916. The son of Garagoda Arachchige
Don Abraham Perera and Thudugalage Dona Christina.
Born at Talangama on December 19, 1836. Stationed at
Balapitiya, Baddegama, Cotta and Colombo. Celebrated
golden wedding and fifty-fourth anniversary of service with
C.M.S. in 1914. Mrs. Perera died the following year.
A daughter married Mr. H. C. Jayasinghe of T.C.K.
11. Amarasekara, Rev. Abraham Suriarachchi. d. 1881.
p. 1884. Stationed at Kegalle, Dodanduwa and Kandy.
Retired in 1885 and became (l) Curate of Holy Emma
nuel, Moratuwa, (2) Incumbent of Matale. Founder of
Matale Mission to the Duriyas.
12. Kalpage, Rev. Johannes Perera. d. 1881. p. 1887.
APPENDIX A 227
Kurunegala, Kegalle, Baddegama, Dodanduwa, Bentota.
Died 1903 from the effects of a crushed finger, and buried
in Kanatte cemetery. Father of Rev. J. A. Kalpage of
13. Amarasekara, Rev. Gregory Suriarachchi. d. 1887.
p. 1889. Educated at Baddegama and T.C.K. (1) School
master, (2) Pastor, Cotta, Nugegoda and Trinity Church,
Kandy. Celebrated twenty-fifth anniversary of ordination to
Priesthood in 1914. A brother of Rev. A. S. Amarasekara.
14. Botejue, Rev. Welatantrige Lewis. d. 1889. Edu
cated at Cotta Institution. (1) Catechist, (2) Pastor at
Mampe and died there on May 13, 1895. Father of Rev.
W. E. Botejue.
15. Seneviratne, Rev. Henry William. d. 1889. Gam-
pola. Retired 1902. Died in 1917, aged 80.
16. Colombage, Rev. James. d. 1894. p. 1898. Edu
cated at T.C.K. Baddegama and Kegalle. Retired and
joined the staff of St. Paul s, Kandy.
17. Daundesekara, Rev. Frederic William. d. 1894.
p. 1910. Educated at Kurunegala and T.C.K. Colombo and
18. Botejue, Rev. Welatantrige Edwin. d. 1896. p. 1901.
Educated at T.C.K. Mampe. Ret. 1902. Incumbent of
19. Perera, Rev. Theodore G. d. 1896. p. 1898. Edu
cated at Cotta English School. Talangama. m. a grand
daughter of Rev. A. Gunasekara. Ret. in 1902.
20. Perera, Rev. D. Joseph. d. 1896. p. 1904.
Colombo. Died in 1912.
21. Gunatilaka, Rev. Robert Teuton Eugene Abeya-
wickrama. d. 19C3. p. 1905. Baddegama, Dodanduwa,
22. Welikala, Rev. Don Louis. d. 1903. p. 1905.
Talangama and Colombo, m. a sister of Rev. J. Colombage.
228 APPENDIX A
23. Wikramanayake, Rev. John Henry. d. 1903. p.
1905. Mampe, Nugegoda.
24. Wijesinghe, Rev. Charles. d. 1903. Gampola,
Kurunegala, Liyanwela. Ret. 1916.
25. Seneviratne, Rev. James Gregory Newsome. d.
1909. p. 1913. Gampola.
26. Wickramasinghe, Rev. Benjamin Perera. -d. 1909.
p. 1914. Mampe. Cotta.
27. Ramanayake, Rev. John Perera. d. 1913. p. 1917.
(1) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor, Homagama and
28. Jayasundra, Rev. D. S. d. 1915. Talampitiya.
29. de Silva, Rev. W. Bernard. d. 1915. Educated at
T.C.K. (D Catechist, (2) Pastor. Baddegama.
30. Weerasinghe, Rev. C. B. Educated T.C.K. Master
at T.C.K. d. 1918. Kurunegala.
1. Hensman, Rev. John. d. 1863. p. 1865. Educated at
Cotta Institution. Teacher, Nellore, 1837. Catechist,
Chundicully, 1840. Copay, 1848. Pastor, Copay. Died Sep
tember 5, 1884.
2. Champion, Rev. George. Born October 1. 1824. d.
1865. p. 1870. Educated at Batticotta Seminary. (1) Cate
chist, (2) Pastor, Nellore, and Chundicully. Retired 1902.
Died 1910. Celebrated Jubilee of his C.M.S. Service in 1894.
3. Hoole, Rev. Elijah. d. 1865. p. 1870. Pundit, 185CX
Catechist, Chundicully, 1852. Pastor.
Died at sea July, 1881, on his way home from Bishop s
Assembly at Colombo.
4. Handy, Rev. Trueman Parker. d. 1865. p. 1870.
Educated at Batticotta Seminary. School Inspector, 1850.
Pundit, 1851. Catechist, 1856. Pastor at Nellore. died
May 17, 1885.
APPENDIX A 229
5. Peter, Rev. Pakkyanathan. d. 1872. p. 1874.
Teacher, 1856. T. C. M. Catechist, 1862. Assistant
Missionary, Pelmadulla, 1892. Died June 15, 1895.
6. Peter, Rev. John S. d. 1872. p. 1874. Retired 1877.
T.C.M. Pastor, Kandy. Died 1906.
7. Gabb, Rev. John. d. 1876. p. 1883. Retired 1883.
(1) 1876-81, Mauritius. (2) 1881-83, Ceylon. (3) 1883-94,
8. Gnanamuttu, Rev. Arulananthar.. d. 1881. p. 1885.
Retired 1897. Died 1906. Schoolmaster, Catechist, Pastor
T.C.M. , Dickoya, Kandy.
9. Samuel, Rev. Samuel. d. 1878. p. 1881. Educated at
Palamcotta Training institution. Son of Rev. A. Samuel of
Tinnevelly. 1878-84, Tinnevelly. 1884-95, Colombo. Died
May 6, 1895, in Colombo.
10. Niles, Rev. John. d. 1885. p. 1889. Copay. Died
March 23, 1892.
11. Backus, Rev. John. d. 1885. p. 1889. (1) School
master, (2) Catechist, ^3) Pastor, Pallai, Nellore. Celebrated
his fiftieth year of C.M.S. service in 1913. Mrs. Kackus
died December 17, 1916.
12. Handy, Rev. Charles Chelliah. d. 1891. p. 1896.
B. A., Calcutta University. T.C.K. Head Master of St.
John s College, Jaffna. Died 1908.
13. Virasinha, Rev. Arulumbalam Russell. d. 1892. p.
1900. T.C.K. Stationed T.C.M. Died 1914.
14. Daniel, Rev. George. d. 1893. Catechist, 1858.
Copay. Seventy-five years of age on retirement in
15. Williams, Rev. Charles Tissaverasingam d, 1893.
p. 1896. T.C.K. Pastor, Kokuvil, Anuradhapura, Kandy,
16. Morse, Rev. Samuel. d. 1893. p. 1896. Nellore.
230 APPENDIX A
17. Matthias Rev. Arulpragasam. d. 1893. p. 1898.
Vavuniya. Copay. Retired after forcy years of service in
18. Sathianathen, Rev. Aseervathem. d. 1899. p. 1902.
T.C.M. Nanuoya, Dickoya. Retired 1914. Died 1916.
19. Daniel, Rev. John Vethamanikam d. 1900. p. 1902.
Head Master of Borella Boys Boarding School, Incumbent of
Tamil Congregation, Christ Church, Colombo.
20. Satthianadhan, Rev. Tillainather David. d. 1903.
p. 1906. T.C.M. Badulla.
21. Arulananthan, Rev. Gnanamuttu Manuel. d. 1906.
p. 1908. Incumbent, Emmanuel Church, Colombo.
22. Pakkiariathan, Rev. Asirvatham. d. 1906. p. 1908.
23. Doss, Rev. James G. d. 1907. p. 1910. T.C.M.
24. Somasundaram, Rev. Sangarappillai Samuel. d. 1909.
p. 1911. B.A., Calcutta. Master in St. John s College,
25. Nathaniel, Rev. Gunaratnam N. d. 1909. p. 1913.
Jaffna. 1917 Matale.
26. Welcome, Rev. Jesson Daniel. d. 1910. p. 1914.
27. Daniel, Rev. Samuel Chelvanayakam. d. 1910. p.
28. Paukiam, Rev, Paul Abraham. d. 1912. p. 1914.
Rakwana T.C.M. Died 1918.
29. Yorke, Rev. John Vedamanickam. d. 1914. p. 1917.
30. Thomas, Rev. S. M. d. 1915. p. 1917. Wellawatte
31. Ratnathicum, Rev. J. S. d. 1915. Jaffna.
32. Refuge, Rev. M. d. 1915, Matale. 1917,.Vavuniva.
APPENDIX A 231
LIST OF CEYLON C.M.S. MISSIONARIES
1. Knight, Miss Jane (Stroud), T.M. m. Rev. D. Poor,
2. Cortis, Miss Hannah. S.M. m. Rev. J. A. Jetter,
3. Stratford, Miss Mary Ann. S.M. in. Rev. S. Lam-
4. Bailey, Miss Sophia Elizabeth. S.M. m. Rev. J. F.
5. Young, Miss Mary (Louth), sister of late Bishop
R. Young of Athabasca. T.M. m. Rev. J. I. Pickford,
6. Hall, Miss Matilda, sister of Rev. j. W. Hall and
Miss Margaret Hall, and cousin of Miss E. Hall, of the
C.M.S., India. T.M.m. Rev. J. W. Balding, 1884.
7. Young, Miss Eva (Louth), sister of Nos. 5 and 12.
T. M. -m. Rev. H. Robinson, N. W. Canada.
8. Higgens, Miss Amelia, daughter of Rev. E. T. Higgens.
1877 in service of I.F.N.S., Punjab. S.M.
232 APPENDIX A
9. Child, Miss Beatrice. T.M. Ret. 1898.
10. Denyer, Miss Ann Murton. S.M. Ret. 1915.
11. Phillips, Miss Helen Plummet. S.M. Previously
Principal of Clergy Daughters School, Sydney. Ret. 1905.
12. Young, Miss Emily Sophia. T.M. Sister of Nos. 5
and 7. Ret. 1910.
13. Heaney, Miss Kate, Highbury Training Home.
T.M. Ret. 1898.
14. Saul, Miss Mary, Highbury Training Home. T.M.
15. Paul, Miss Annie Elizabeth, Highbury Training
Home. T.M. Ret. 1897.
16. Josolyne, Miss Ellen Maria. The Willows. S.M.
17. Forbes, Miss Constance Cicele. S.M. Ret. 1896.
18. Case, Miss Lizzie Ann, Highbury Training Home.
T.M. Ret. 1912. m. Rev. G. Hibbert-Ware, S.P.G.
19. Luxmoore, Miss Caroline Noble. The Willows.
S.M. m. 1896, Rev. J. H. Mackay, Murree.
20. Finney, Miss Harriet Ellen, daughter of Rev.
W. H. Finney, Birkin. The Olives. T. M. Ret. 1904.
21. Loveridge, Miss Emily Margaret, Highbury Train
ing Home. S. M. m. Rev. R. W. Ryde, 1897.
22. Gedge, Miss Mary Sophia (Redhill). The Willows.
23. Spreat, Miss Helen Mary Warren. T. M. Ret. 1897.
Died in London, 1898.
APPENDIX A 233
24. Wood, Miss Minnie Alice, daughter of Rev. D. Wood.
The Olives. T.M. Ret. 1898.
25. Dowbiggin, Miss Agnes Layard, daughter of Rev.
K. T. Dowbiggin. S. M. m. Rev. J. Carter, 1904.
26. Thomas, Mrs. J. D. T.M. Ret. 1914. Remained
on staff after the Rev. J. D. Thomas death.
2.7. Townsend, Miss Susan Henrietta Murray. The
Willows. S.M. Daughter of Rev. H. W. Townsend of Abbey-
strewry and sister of Rev. H. C. Townsend.
28. Earp, Miss Annie Louisa (Capetown). The Olives.
S.M. Ret. 1915.
29. Goodchild, Miss Amy Chanter, St. Hugh s Hall, Oxf .
The Willows. Principal of Chundicully Girls School. m.
Mr. C. V. Brayne. C.C.S. 1906.
30. Thomas, Miss Annie Elizabeth, daughter of Rev.
J. D. Thomas. The Olives. 1887-93 in Tinnevelly under
C.E.Z.M.S. m. Rev. T. S. Johnson, 1905. T.M.
31. Young, Miss Maud Lucy. The Willows. S. M. Ret.
32. Franklin, Miss Valentina Maria Louisa. The Willows.
T.M. Ret. 1912. m. Rev. Ashton.
33. Payne, Miss Harnette Edith. The Willows. T.M.
34. Leslie Melville, Miss Lucy Mabel, daughter of the
late Rev. Canon Leslie Melville, Welbourn. The Willows.
35. Nixon, Miss Lilian Evelyn, B.A., Royal Univ. of
Ireland. The Olives and Willows. Principal of C.M.S.
Ladies College, Colombo. Ret. 1914.
234 APPENDIX A
36. Whitney, Miss Elizabeth. St. John s, N.B. Canada.
C.M.S. Ladies College, Colombo.
37. Howes, Miss Eva Julia. The Willows. T.M.
38. Tileston, Miss Mary Wilder, B.A. Harvard Univ.
The Olives. Ret. 1902. S.M.
39. Dowbiggin, Mrs. R.T. S.M. Remained on staff after
Mr. Dow biggin s death.
40. Beeching, Miss Edith Grace, Highbury Training
Home. Pacific Mission, 1894. T.M. m. Mr. J. B. Dutton,
41. Lloyd, Miss Sarah Cecilia. The Olives. S.M. Ret.
1907. Rejoined 1914. Died 1918.
42. Vines, Miss Ellen Campbell, daughter of Rev. C. E.
Vines, C.M.S., Agra. 1889, South India. T.M. m. Rev.
W. S. Hunt, C.M.S. , 1907.
43. Board, Miss Annie Theresa (Clifton). The Olives.
S.M Ret. 1907.
44. Ketchlee, Miss Sophy Laura. The Olives. m. Rev.
A. N. MacTier, C.M.S., Tinnevelly.
45. Poole, Miss Ethel May. The Olives. T.M. Daughter
of Bishop Poole, first C. of E. Bishop in Japan. m. Rev.
W. S. Senior, 1907.
46. Page, Miss Sophia Lucinda (Bath). The Olives.
Principal, Chundicully Girls High School.
47. Bennitt, Miss Edith Gertrude (Harborne), L.L.A.
St. Andrew s Univ. The Olives. S.M. Ret. 1908.
48. Browne, Miss Constance Emily, B.Sc., Univ. of
Wales. C.M.S. Ladies College and T.C.K. Ret. 1914.
APPENDIX A 235
49. Deering, Miss Amy Kathleen. S.M. m. Rev. W. G.
50. Sparrow, Miss Elizabeth Beatrice. S.M. m. Rev.
G. A. Purser, 1911.
51. Tisdall, Miss Adairine Mary. The Willows. T.M.
52. Henrys, Miss Florence Emily. T.M. South India,
190,2. Returned to India, 1917.
53. Walker, Miss Helena Elsie Marion. S.M. m. Rev.
S. M. Simmons, 1909.
54. Hargrove, Miss Eleanor Mabel. Daughter of the
late Rev. Canon Hargrove. The Willows. S.M.
55. Hobson, Miss Harriet Elizabeth. Grand-daughter of
Rev. J. Hobson, C.M.S., China. S.M. m. Rev. L. J. Gaster,
56. Horsley, Miss Anna Frances, Newnham. The Olives.
Daughter of Rev. H. Horsley. C.M.S. Ladies College. -
57. Led ward, Miss Mary Amelia. T.M.
58. Kent, Miss Alys Emily, C.M.S. Ladies Coll., Colombo.
m. Mr. H. S. Stevens, 1915.
59. Morgan, Miss E. C.M.S. Ladies College.
60. Opie, Miss Gwen Lilias Fanny, M.A., B.Sc. C.M.S-
61. Higgens, Miss E. C. (In Local Connexion).
62. Taylor, Miss J. R., L.L.A. Chundiculiy Girls High
NEW CONSTITUTION FOR THE CEYLON
AS APPROVED BY THE PARENT COMMITTEE
OF MARCH 8, 1921.
LOCAL GOVERNING BODY.
The Local Governing Body of the C.M.S. Ceylon Mission
shall be the Conference of men and women hereinafter refer
red to as the Conference.
The Conference shall consist of :
(a) The Bishop of Colombo, if a member of the Church
Missionary Society Chairman.
(b) All ordained Missionaries of the Society.
(c) All lay Missionaries in Home, Colonial, or Local Con
nexion with the Society, both men and women.
(d) Eight Ceylonese, of whom six shall be clergymen
and two shall be from the laity, one man and one woman,
annually elected by the Conference. Among the six clergy
men, those priests in responsible charge of Districts formerly
under the charge of European Missionaries shall first of all
be included. The remainder shall be clergymen in Priests
Orders elected annually by the whole body of Ceylonese
clergy in connection with the C.M.S., provided that the six
clerical representatives shall include at least two Tamils and
(e) Seven lay members, primarily to advise on matters
of finance, who shall be appointed by the Parent Committee,
and shall hold office for three years, being eligible for re-
appointment at the end of that period.
APPKNDIX B 237
(/) Any additional members who shall be appointed to
membership by express resolution of the Parent Committee
on the recommendation of Conference.
While nothing shall be considered as outside the purview
of the Conference as a whole, it should direct its attention
more particularly to the larger matters of Mission policy, to
receiving and dealing with the reports of its Committees, and
to the opportunity for united devotion and intercession, devolv
ing the main responsibility for actual administration, includ
ing finance, on its Executive Committee.
This Executive Committee shall direct the work of the
Mission between meetings of the Conference, and shall con
(a) The Chairman of Conference.
(/;) The Secretary of the Mission.
(c) The Chairman and Secretary of the Women s
(d) The seven laymen appointed by the Parent Com
(e) Two Ceylonese, and four men and two women from
the Missionary members of the Conference, to be elected by
the whole body of the voting members of the Conference.
There shall be a Finance Sub-Committee of the Executive
Committee to consider and when required report to the Exe
cutive Committee on matters of finance. This Sub-Commit
tee shall consist of the seven lay members appointed by the
Parent Committee, and three members elected by the Exe
cutive Committee, together with the Secretary ex-officio.
PRINTED IN INDIA
BY GEORGE KENNETH
AT THE DIOCESAN PRESS, MADRAS 1922