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University of California Berkeley 

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Printers, Engravers and Electrotypers, 



npHE National Park Branch, running from Livingston to the northern boundary of the Yellow- 
J- stone National Park, is being built and will be completed July first, which will be in ample 
time to carry tourists to the Park. 

At the southern terminus of the National Park Branch, a line of Concord coaches will con- 
nect with trains of the Northern Pacific Railroad, conveying passengers without delay to Mam- 
moth Hot Springs, Norris Geyser, Lower and Upper Geyser Basins, Lake Outlet, the Great Falls, 
and other prominent places of interest in the Park. Saddle ponies and guides can be obtained at 
above points at reasonable rates by parties desiring to take side detours, in visiting the various 
points of interest not reached by the stage line. 

A large and commodious hotel is being built at Mammoth Hot Springs, to accommodate 400 
guests, and will be completed in time to receive tourists visiting the Park this season. Other 
hotels are being built at Lower Geyser, Upper Geyser, Lake Outlet and Great Falls, which 
will also be completed in time to receive tourists. Bath houses at all Hot Springs, and other 
conveniences, will be connected with the hotels for the use of visitors. 

It will be the aim of the parties controlling the stage routes, hotels and other appurtenances of 
the Park, to make charges reasonable for services performed, and^assurances are given that no 
imposition shall be permitted; on the contrary, all that can, will be done to make a visit in the 
Park one of pleasure, profit and economy. The management of the Park appreciate fully the 
fact that the Yellowstone National Park is the Finest Pleasure Resort of the Continent (indeed it 
may be said of the World), and every effort Avill be made to make visitors welcome, giving a full 
equivalent for expenditure made, and making this the favored PLEASURE GARDEN OP AMERICA. 

The passenger rates of fare, from St. Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth to Mammoth Hot Springs 
and return, are as follows- 

Forpartiesof 1 to 5 $90.00 

5 to 15 85.00 

15 to 25 80.00 

Forpartiesof 50 to 75 ..$70.00 

75 to 100 65.00 

100 or more 60.00 

25 to 50 75.00 

Tickets will be placed on sale July 1st, and good to return till September 30th. 

From Chicago to Mammoth Hot Springs and return, the rate for single tickets will be about 
$110. A careful estimate of expense of a trip from St. Paul to the Park and return, allowing ten 
days for sight-seeing in the Park, including railroad fare, sleeping car fare, meals in dining cars 
and at hotels, stage fare and moderate incidentals, is placed at $200. From Chicago, $225. 
From New York, $275. While extravagances may be indulged to increase these estimates, the more 
economical will materially reduce them. It is suggested that the more economical mode of visit- 
ing the Park is by organizing into parties of five or more, in which event the given estimate 
would be decreased about $50 per person. 

Anticipating the fact that much detailed information will be desired by those intending a visit 
to this National Pleasure Resort the present season, all such are requested to write freely for such 
specific information as may be desired, to 

G. P. & T. A., N. P. R. R., Gen'l Agent N. P. R. R. % Gen'l European Asjent N. P. R. R., 

St. Paul. 52 Clark Street, Chicago. 20 Water Street, -Liverpool, Eng. 

Varied Views of "Old Faithful" Geyser. 

HE scenery along the line of the Northern Pacific 
never ceases to be interesting. Leaving the great 
lakes at Dulnth, the wild rushing waters of the 
St. Louis ; St. Paul and Minneapolis, the great com- 
mercial centres of the Northwest; traversing the 
Mississippi to Brainerd, the beautiful city of pines ; 
Detroit and its lovely lakes ; Moorhead and Fargo, the 
twin sisters of the Red River Yalley ; continuing 
through one vast wheat-field and thriving towns to 
Jamestown, ambitious and worthy to become the capital 
of one of the greatest States in the Union, situated in the 
beautiful valley of the James ; Bismarck, the Banner 
City ; Mandan, the Omaha of the West ; Pyramid Park 
and the Burning Buttes ; Glendive, the Gate City, at 
the entrance of the Yellowstone; Miles City, with its life and bustle; 

The Yellowstone National Park. 

Billings, the Magic City, you reach Livingston, the gateway to the 
National Park. 

The only convenient method by which Eastern tourists may reach the 
remarkable Wonderland of America is by way of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad and its branch line from Livingston. The traveler, after arrival 
at Livingston Station, is carried at once to the Mammoth Hot Springs, one 
of the principal attractions of the Park, enjoying the entire distance of 
sixty-one miles through the upper valley of the Yellowstone River, 
ever-varying views of mountain, woodland and well-cultivated farms. 
Five minutes after leaving the railroad station a grand scene presents 
itself to the eye. This is the first canon of the majestic river, where pict- 
uresque groups of towering rocks, varied by beautiful areas of forest 
trees, claim wondering admiration. Soon the grim walls of the canon are 
passed, and the broad and fertile valley of the Yellowstone unfolds as a 
panorama its charming features of farmstead and of wood-clad islands, 
the latter reflecting their foliage in the silver flood, whose rushing waters 
fall upon the ear in deep crescendo tones. To these charms must be 
added those afforded by watching the animal life of the country. Eagles 
and other birds of prey hover in the air; glimpses of startled antelope 
and elk are caught on the mountain crags, while myriads of wild geese 
and ducks haunt the feeding-grounds on the margin of the river. 

Passing by these scenes of sylvan beauty another surprise awaits the 
tourist about half way up the valley. This is the second canon of the 
Yellowstone, which even excels the first in the wild and rugged character- 
istics of its romantic mountain scenery. Beyond this point the valley 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 

becomes very narrow, farm-life ends, 
and the mountainous region is entire- 
ly uninhabited. There are, however, 
innumerable beautiful localities in 
this long stretch of 
unpopulated coun- 
try which, in course 
of time, will be 
taken up by set- 
tlers, and the now 
unrevealed attrac- 
tions will be doubt- 
less sought out by 
tourists as soon as 
proper accommo- 
dation is offered. 

Two miles with- 
in the limits of the 
Park the way leads 
upward from the 
Yellowstone River to a command- 
ing height which presents a sur- 
prisingly charming view of the 
valley in which the wonderful 
Mammoth Hot Springs are situat- 
ed. From this eminence the eye 

Tlie Yellowstone National Park. 

at once rests upon a number of white terraces resembling the chalk cliffs 
of Dover, from which, in many places, columns of steam and jets of boiling 
water are ascending high into the air. These are the Mammoth Hot Springs 
of the Gardiner River, the natural beauties of which excite the liveliest 
wonder and delight, the traveler at once feeling himself amply repaid for 
the toil of his journey by the sight of this phenomenal display of Nature's 
handiwork. Descending into the valley half a mile farther, one becomes 
more and more impressed at every step with the magnificence of the scene 
before him. The terraces, the pools with their play of boiling water, and 
the crystal formations, are in themselves marvelous, but the charm of them 
all is endlessly enhanced by the brilliant and varied coloring which meets 
the gaze snow-white alternating with dark blue and green and even with 
red and yellow ; tints and shades, in fine, which vie in brightness with 
those of the rainbow. 

Opposite these terraces there is a steep, symmetrical hill, upon the 
summit of which is perched the headquarters of the Superintendent of 
the Park. This building lends a picturesque effect to the surroundings. 
At the foot of this hill, in the shadow of the largest terrace, are two high 
columns formed out of the deposits of the boiling springs, which are 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 

not exceeded in singular interest by any 
other striking feature of "Wonderland." 
One of these pillars, 47 feet in height, is 
aptly named the Liberty Cap, from its re- 
semblance to the coiffure of Columbia's God- 
dess. The other, inferior in height, is called, 
with questionable taste, the Devil's Thumb. 
Not far distant from these strange columns 

are two small houses, 
comfortably arranged 
with the object of giving 
weary travelers a welcome 
and refreshing bath from the hot 

Yellowstone River, in the Park. 

10 The Yellowstone National Park. 

spring water. The Mammoth Hot Springs are entirely surrounded by 
high and beautiful mountains, which give a charming landscape picture 
to their situation. 

The road from this attractive place to the interior of the Park leads to 
the right of the Springs through a grand forest up a steep ascent for 
nearly four miles. On the top of this height there appears a lofty white 
mound, from the centre of which a jet of boiling water is spurted. This 
miniature geyser may be regarded as a precursor of the stately fountains 
which later are to be seen. Traversing several miles through a region 
which possesses no marked attraction, the tourist again gradually comes 
into the neighborhood of the Gardiner River, which stream was left 
behind at the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the country becomes more inter- 
esting. The beauty of the woods, alas ! at intervals on this road, as well 
as at many other points in the vast area of the Park, has been utterly 
destroyed by the carelessness of tourists who have left their camp-fires 
burning. Immense tracts of noble forest within the Park limits have thus 
been ravaged by fire, leaving nothing but charred and blackened trunks 
for the eye to rest upon. A stop must soon be put to this wholesale 
destruction if the present varied and manifold attractions of the Park 
are not to be confined to the places of transcendent interest. Happily, 
measures are already in progress for the proper care and protection of the 
Park, and the great evil to which allusion is here made will be prevented. 
Crossing the Gardiner River, the tourist again finds himself in the valley, 
and sees in picturesque groupings numerous pleasant belts of wood. 

Reaching the Obsidian Cliffs, or mountains of volcanic glass, over 

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pulverized fragments of which the road passes, a romantic region of 
delightful landscapes is again entered. Here the mountain walls are 
clothed with woods to the very base ; the river, in many places, widens 
itself out into ^^:^: f ' r ~~' ^~~~^~~^^ 

smiling lakes, 
which are peo- 

pled With ..-ff^a^; 

ducks and 
geese and 
show eviden- 
ces of the in- 
genious work 
of beavers in 
the intelligent 
of their dams. 
To those un- 
familiar with the beaver's work, 
it seems incredible that tree 
trunks, so heavy and so long, 
could be laid so skillfully with- 
out the aid of human hands. Leaving this 
valley again the tourist ascends the wooded 
heights to the water- shed between the valleys of the Gardiner and Gribbon 
Rivers, and is delighted on reaching the summit at the sight of a small, 

12 The Yellowstone National Park. 

crystal lake, which nestles in lonely beauty in the midst of the forest. 
From this charming Lake of the Woods the descent into the valley of the 
G-ibbon begins. This river is an affluent of the Madison, which collects 
into its swift waters all the hot streams which flow from the great gey- 
sers and in turn empties them into the Missouri. As soon as the valley 
of the Gibbon is entered, hot sulphur springs begin to show themselves. 
Presently the great Norris Geyser Basin with its grand display of natural 
wonders appears to view. Soon one sees the boiling wells, full to the brim 
with water, now seething and sending up clouds of vapor, and anon 
spouting mighty columns of spray high into the air, while other craters 
brew and cook great bowls of thick and paste-like clay in broth of divers 
colors. Close by, on the way-side, the "Minute Man" is met, a small 
geyser which sends out a splendid stream to the height of fifteen feet 
once in sixty seconds and makes his movements loudly heard. He is a 
pleasant little fellow to gaze upon and really seems proud of his achieve- 
ments, inviting one to examine his well-formed mouth in the brief intervals 
of its idleness. Withal he is a perfect type of the grander geysers which 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 


lie deeper within the Park. Passing by many other small geysers and 
hot springs which' impress their beauties upon the mind by the brilliant 
coloring of their deposits, any single one of which would draw multitudes 
to see it and to marvel at it, 
if it stood isolated and apart 
from this lavish exhibit of 
wonderful things, the road 
leads on to the head of the 
Gibbon Canon. Very inter- 
esting to visit are the so- 
called Monument Geysers 
and the Paint Pots, which 
are to be seen before enter- 
ing the canon. These two 
points of interest should 
not be overlooked and both 
are easy of access from Elk 
Park, a wide stretch of 
meadow land through which 
the river flows ere it meets 
the mountain gorge. The One Day's Sporting. 

''Monument Geysers" are mainly the craters of partially inactive hot 
springs, and are only noticeable on account of the grotesque forms which 
the ancient deposits have assumed. For instance, one crater resembles a 
sitting dog, another the torso of a man, a third looks like a lioness couchant, 

14 Tlie Yellowstone National Park. 

and a fourth Las the shape of a steam-ship's smoke-stack. The Paint 
Pots, in the same neighborhood, are a large collection of boiling clay 
springs, interspersed with great caldrons of seething water, the varied 
and vivid coloring of which is of the highest interest, awakening a lively 
enthusiasm in the beholder of the spectacle. 

The Canon of the Gibbon presents a perfect picture of a wild arid 
romantic mountain gorge. The road soon leads through this fluvial pass 
on a constantly ascending grade, and only admits of a partial view of the 
really beautiful Falls of the River, over which the water tumbles in a foamy 
sheet full eighty feet in depth. It then winds its way for a long distance 
through the dense pine forest, the charms of which are apt to cloy, 
before the Firehole Basin, which proves to be the next attractive region, 
is finally reached. At this point a small hotel is to be found, and here 
the roads to the leading attractions of the Park converge as to a common 
centre. Taking the route to the Yellowstone the tourist keeps the Firehole 
River in view for a considerable distance, and this fishless stream, fed by 
hot springs, presents peculiar and interesting features of its own. Fine 
pictures of mountain and forest scenery are also offered as the journey 
goes on over the high hills which form the water-shed between the Yellow- 
stone and Madison Rivers. In this stretch one passes through fine and 
noble forests, the home of the bear and the elk, and sees innumerable 
sulphur springs, with now and then a brook carrying its mineral-impreg- 
nated water to the river. From this lofty water- shed, indeed, the view is 
so spread out that the greater part of the mountains which inclose the 
spacious Park may be seen at a glance in all their magnificence and 

16 The Yellowstone National Park. 

majesty. Descending from the heights toward the Yellowstone the route 
soon becomes tiresome and uninteresting, traversing a barren waste of 
rolling sage-bush plains which are apt to be annoyingly dusty. 

At the place where the roads part respectively for the Falls and Great 
Canon of the Yellowstone River and for the foot of the Yellowstone Lake, 
the latter is reached by pursuing the way leading southward. Taking the 
northern direction, one soon thankfully comes to the so-called Sulphur 
Mountain, where the beautiful spectacle of boiling springs and dancing 
waters is again repeated. Here the tourist incontinently tarries a few 
minutes to recover himself from the tedious trip he has finished, and, per- 
chance, to forget its discomfort. Around the margins of these springs are 
mounds of purest sulphur, the crystals bright and sparkling in the sun, 
the character of the pools and basins being entirely different from those 
previously observed. Continuing on the way, the banks of the Yellow- 
stone River are soon reached and again a beautiful region is opened to 
view. The valley suddenly narrows and the stream rushes wildly over 
the rocks. Still more the valley narrows, the banks grow higher, the rush 
of waters mightier, and the charms of the mad torrent increase. Isolated 
rocky islets show themselves as if to bar the progress of the raging river. 
Presently the first great water-fall reveals its proximity, making itself 
plainly heard amid the tumult before its tremendous rush is visible to the 
expectant eye. The water falls sheer over a wall of rock full 162 feet, 
breaking into clouds of spray and mist ere it reaches the bottom of the 
deep-lying pool at its base. Not alone the height of this Fall, but also 
the width of the sheet of foaming water, is a striking element of its 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 


grandly picturesque beauty. Its charms, too, are immeasurably height- 
ened by the wildly romantic scenery which almost secludes it from 
view scenery which the most celebrated of landscape-painters would 
shrink from attempting 
to depict on canvas. 
But prodigal Nature 
does not satisfy herself 
with this one water-fall. 
She exhibits, not more 
than half a mile be- 
yond, still another of 
grander dimensions and 
sublimer aspect. This 
second Fall of the Yel- 
lowstone leaps over a 
broken ledge, and 
drops into the pro- 
found depths of the 
canon 350 feet further 
down. Think of this 
amazing leap ! The first 

18 Called the Upper Fall Yellowstone River, In the Grand Canon. 

and the second the Lower Fall. Both are alike in terrible majesty and 
power ; but each, nevertheless, has its peculiar characteristics, the result 
of different scenic effects which environ them. The first is partly veiled by 

18 The Yellowstone National Park. 

the woods while the other, imprisoned by rugged walls of lava and of basalt, 
dashes itself in mad frenzy into the depths, where the course of the river is 
actually hidden for a time by the dense clouds of mist and columns of spray 
which dart upward from the base of the tremendous cataract. If the sun's 
rays penetrate these mist clouds at the proper angle, there is at once visible 
a rainbow not only wider but richer in color than can anywhere else be seen. 
But this mighty play of the waters by no means exhausts the marvels 
of the place. The rocky canon which extends a distance of many miles, 
displays itself as a scene of enchantment to the view, surpassing all the 
expectations which were conjured up by the imagination ere its remark- 
able features were witnessed. From the Upper Falls, for a distance of eight 
miles down the stream, the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone reveals the 
most varied and astonishing groupings of crags and rocks which eye ever 
beheld. Among them are many hot springs, one of which was particularly 
interesting to notice as it shot up clouds of vapor from its vent at the 
apex of a tall pinnacle. Not alone is the gaze entranced by the great variety 
in the form of the towering rocks which open up in changing pictures like 
the shifting scenes of a theatre, but also by the wonderful magnificence of 
this gorge throughout its depth of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet in brilliant colors 
of every hue, which the hot springs through long eras have painted upon 
its steeps. Some of the tints are as bright as those to be found in a box of 
paints ; indeed, it would be difficult to exaggerate their brilliancy. These 
colors often blend in harmonious shades, and are astonishingly vivid. 
Especially is this the case with the reds and yellows, which are toned down 
by gradual stages to white of purest beauty. Precisely as at the hot sul- 


Great Falls of the Yellowstone. 


The Yellowstone, National Park. 

phur springs in other parts of the Park one discovers here also the most 
brilliant rainbow hues in rich abundance, and here these tints are particu- 
larly brought out in bold relief by the dark green of the pine- wood 
needles, which serve as a background for these warmer colors. To all this 
must be added the silver glimmer of the clear, swift-flowing water in the 
depth of the canon, the whole uniting to form a scene of enchanting splen- 
dor. Views of this sort repeat themselves in infinite variety for many 
miles down the river, enriched by alternating glimpses of the majestic 
falls, the beautiful forest and the grand walls of the canon. Mount 
Washburn, the highest peak within the limits of the Park, is not far 
distant. Its summit rises 10,320 feet above the sea- level, and the views 
spread out from its hoary head are well worth the toil expended in the 

In order to reach the Yellowstone Lake the road which has been 
briefly described must be retraced. This is by no means to be regretted, 
as it is almost a new revelation to gaze upon the attractions and mag- 
nificence of the canon from the opposite point of view. It presents a 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 


reverse of the pictures in all the splendor which is here so inadequately 
portrayed. Arriving at that point in the road where the way leads 
southward to the Lake, 
the course of the river 
is followed for about 
eight miles, continuous- 
ly through a beautiful 
valley, with picturesque 
views of small islands 
in the stream, of high 
mountains and long 
stretches of woodland, 
the charms of which are 
increased by a more 
abounding animal life 
than has yet appeared. 
Wild geese, ducks and 
pelicans are extraordi- 
narily plentiful. In 
the way also are nu- 
merous hot springs 
again to be seen, and 
these are always pleas- Lower Canon. 

ant to look upon as constantly presenting new instances of Nature's way- 
ward moods. 

22 The Yellowstone National Park. 

Arriving at the Lake, one is at once surprised by its vastness and the 
majestic mountains which encircle it to the east and south. The beautiful 
islands, woods and shores lend this lake charms which are perhaps 
superior to those of the famous inland seas of the Alps. Very beautiful 
are the immense white swans floating upon the Lake, which appear in the 
distance like small sail-boats gliding over the green and sparkling water. 
One looks far down into the emerald depths and sees the bottom paved 
with bright pebbles and crystals of every size and color. This, indeed, 
is the place where the finest specimens of ornamental stones may be 
collected in profusion, but the occupation requires time and trouble to 
insure success. In many cases on the unexplored mountain sides the 
existence of hot springs and perhaps geysers is demonstrated by tall 
ascending columns of fleecy vapor. There are also several large white 
spaces visible at great distances on the mountain sides which surely 
indicate tha,t thermal springs were there in great activity. All these 
things unite in adding to the beauty of the scenery, which is particularly 
rich in color in the perspective distance. 

If the bridle path on the western side of the Lake is followed, the 
road leads through a beautiful forest, rich with glades and living streams, 
to the Natural Bridge which spans the deep gorge of a mountain torrent. 
This bridge is formed of hard trachyte which has been vertically upheaved, 
and its arch is extremely fine. The roadway is thirty feet across and 
wide enough to admit the passage of a carriage. The groups of rocks are 
very striking, and these, in connection with the small cascades below the 
bridge and the beautiful woods lining the deep ravine, form a forest 

solitude which the scene-paint- 
ers for the opera of "Der 
Freischiitz" would give their 
right hands to reproduce. Leav- 
ing the bridge, the path leads 
down the deep ravine, and from 
below the best view of this 
remarkable natural causeway is 
to be obtained. Here the bridge 
is particularly imposing in its 
outlines, as one from this point 
secures a collective view of the 
beautiful surroundings. As 
soon as the heights on the op- 
posite side of the ravine are 
reached, the climb is again 
rewarded by a farewell 
view of the Natural 
Bridge. Thence, pass- 
ing a long 
stretch of 
ed forest, 
green trees 
are again reached, and one 

Scenery on the Yellowstone Lake. 

24 Tlie, Yellotvstone National Park. 

breathes more freely at the agreeable change, connected as it is with 
pleasant glimpses through the woodland vistas of the shining water of 
the Lake. The road gradually approaches that part of the Lake known 
as West Bay, the shores of which again show very interesting hot springs. 
These attract so much attention that one is apt to forget entirely the fine 
scenery of the Lake. Here are to be seen at a glance almost every pos- 
sible variety of hot spring formations, not excepting small specimens of 
geysers. This single point sufficiently illustrates all the beauties of the 
natural formations which the Park offers for admiration, and it may be 
regarded as a museum of all the varieties of hot springs. If one carefully 
collects specimens at this place of the different kinds which are visible, he 
will secure a perfect exhibit of every formation which the numerous hot 
springs in every part of the Park can present. This portion of the lake 
shore must be designated without any doubt as one of the most inter- 
esting points within the Park limits, and no visitor should fail to see it. 

If the road is now taken directly westward over the high mountains, 
it crosses one of the water-sheds between the Atlantic and Pacific slopes 
of the continent. Descending the western side of the mountain, one 
enters the valley in which is situated the large and beautiful Shoshone 
Lake. Presently another water-shed is traversed, and one enters by way 
of the rugged Norris Pass into the valley of the West Firehole River, 
which here rushes in romantic wildness through a deep and rocky gorge. 
The entire road from the Lake to the Falls of the Firehole River is varied 
by fine views of rock, groups and woods, of distant mountain chains, of 
beautiful meadows, and of babbling brooks. This region is the more 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 


Mg% pleasing, particularly as the road mainly passes through 
^ff^L the forest, and the diversity of the views is far greater 
and more frequent than on earlier routes. Arriv- 
ing at the beautiful 
water- fall of the Fire- 
hole River, one is 
more than delighted 
at the natural beau- 
ties of the romantic 
scene. This water- 
fall is by no means as 
large as those of the 
Yellowstone River, 
but it appears, how- 
ever, quite bewitch- 
ing in its loveliness, 
and is, perhaps, more 
inviting to the paint- 
er' s brush. The har- 
mony of this picture 
leaves nothing to be 
desired on the score 
of beauty. Te romantic is 
here picturesquely perfect, and the 
colors of the vegetation and the rocks, 

Hot Springs. 

26 The Yellowstone National Park. 

in contrast to the foaming water, delight the eye. Reluctantly one leaves 
this idyllic spot. However, after a few miles farther, where this river 
more quietly flows, and the beautiful woods are left behind, one enters 
the broad valley or Upper Geyser Basin in which Nature brings to light 
her subterranean forces. 

Scarcely arriving in this scene of marvels the visitor is greeted by the 
geyser known as "Old Faithful," which regularly every hour sends its 
stream of boiling water 200 feet upward in the air, and permits this 
spectacle to continue for the space of five long minutes. This grand 
exhibition is alone sufficient to satisfy the expectations of the most 
exacting sight-seer. However, if one now continues his tour in the great 
Geyser Basin which spreads out before him he will be more and more 
delighted with the boiling fountains. Presently the "Beehive" Geyser 
is encountered, which every eight hours sends up for a few minutes a 
lordly jet 219 feet in height from its shapely crater. Next, one comes 
up to the " Giantess," which, however, only once in fourteen days shows 
her power. She then shoots up a stream 250 feet into the air, with strong 
eruption, lasting twenty minutes and heard at a great distance. From 
here one visits the "Lion," the "Lioness" and her two cubs, and of 
these, the "Lion" of ten exhibits a play of waters which are well worth 
visiting. Following these still, are the "Saw Mill," the "Grand," the 
"Comet," the "Giant," the "Grotto," the "Splendid" and the 
"Castle" Geysers, with others of smaller character, all working in a 
concert with water-trumpets in tones of deep diapason, although each one 
only permits itself to be heard in fullest blare at intervals of more or less 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 

frequency. Of all those named in the last group, the "Giant" and the 
"Grand" are the mightiest, throwing streams to a height of 200 feet, the 
former playing an hour and the latter twenty minutes, each with strong 
ebullitions. The craters of 
all these geysers are very 
different in form. Many are 
even with the ground, and 
have either narrower or 
wider throats. Others have 
elevated craters, which often 
exhibit the most peculiar 
shapes ; as, for instance, the 
"Castle," which has a strik- 
ing similarity to a ruined 
stronghold, while that of the 
"Grotto" resembles a her- 
mit's cell. In addition to 
these geysers, the hot sul- j 
phur springs are also here 4 
in large numbers, exhibit- 
ing their beautiful play of Old Faithfu , Geyser 
colors, as well as their wonderful work of varied crystallizations. One 
sees here, indeed, the waters in constant play, in every stage, from that of 
the boiling and seething stage to that of eruption in great columns of 250 
feet in height which appear as perfect fountains, while the effect is vastly 

28 The Yellowstone National Park. 

enhanced by the clouds of hot vapor which float upward far beyond the 
jets of water. These geysers, as already mentioned, are boiling springs. 
This unique demonstration of Nature's power in the Geyser Basin has 
lent to the National Park the appropriate name of the "Wonderland," 
which it really deserves. For, although similar works of Nature may be 
found elsewhere, yet in no other land does so vast a group of geysers 
exist, nor are they likely to be reproduced. The landscape from this 
Geyser Park offers a beautiful view of high wood-clad mountain chains, 
in which rugged rock groups are often visible. The Firehole River also 
presents its novelties in the way of hot and cold water flowing in many 
places in near proximity. Especially is this instanced at the crossing of 
the stream where the road leaves the Upper Geyser Basin for the Middle 
Basin. Here the "Riverside" Geyser rears itself directly from the bank 
and mingles its boiling water with that of the river. 

The way to the Middle Geyser Basin is through beautiful woods, show- 
ing snatches of mountain scenery, and passing numerous hot springs of 
the same character as those already named. 

Finally the largest geyser which* exists in this land of wonders is 
reached. This is the celebrated " Excelsior." The eruption of this geyser 
is at irregular times, and it is difficult to know when it will happen. But 
whoever has the good fortune to witness this geyser in activity will certain- 
ly marvel most at its terrible power. It has a stream of between 60 and 75 
feet in diameter and sends up this colossal body of water over 300 feet into 
the air. Under such conditions of eruption it is evident that the same are 
accompanied with sharp detonations. The "Excelsior" has a disagree- 

Northern Pacific Railroad. 


able habit of projecting stones from its enormous crater, which latter it 
behooves the visitor to carefully avoid, unless at the risk of carrying 
away with him an undesirable memento of his observations. The throat 
of this crater is uncom- 
monly large, and one can 
see down far into its yawn- 
ing depth through the em- 
erald green water. The 
boiling flood flows from 
the rim like a brook into 
the river close by. From 
here the way leads to the 
Lower Basin where nu- 
merous hot springs and 
one large paint pot are to 
be seen. These require no 
particular mention, being 
in all essential characteris- 
tics similar to the others. 
There are several minor 

geysers also ; One, the Bee Hive Geyser. 

"Fountain," being the most important of the group; but if the tourist 
makes the mistake of seeing the Upper Geyser Basin first, he is apt to slur 
the attractions here and to hurry back involuntarily to the hotel in search 
of the much-needed rest to which he is now fairly entitled. 

Pyramid Park of Dakota, 

A BOUT forty miles west of Dickinson the railroad enters the famous " Bad Lands " or " Pyramid 
*-*- Park " of the Little Missouri, which cover an area of perhaps 10,000 square miles, or a tract 
about 200 miles long by 50 miles wide. They were named Bad Lands by the Indians, who found 
them difficult to get through, and were obliged to perform circuitous journeys by winding around 
the buttes in very narrow and broken trails at the base of these curious, conical and angular pro- 
jections. The general elevation above the sea is about 2,500 feet, and the climate is superb. The 
geological formations are so eccentric, the fossils so numerous, and the features of the landscape 
so startliugly grotesque, that the country will always possess an infinite interest to the scientist ; 
game is so plentiful and so easily reached that the sportsman will find it a paradise ; and the grass 
is so nutritious and the shelter so complete that the ranchman will hold it a better range than can 
be found anywhere as near the market. 

Hundreds of ambitious writers have attempted a description of them with only comparative 
success. The charm of the landscape is found in the wonderful colors, the reds v and grays and 
greens and browns with which these enormous masses of conglomerate are bedecked ; enormous 
masses in all sorts of fantastic and grotesque forms, towers, and pillars, and peaks, and domes, and 
pyramids, and shapes that are unlike anything seen outside the limits of a nightmare's ride. 

One day the land is supposed to have been level, a high plateau underlaid with beds of lignite, 
topped with stratas of clay. The coal caught fire and baked the clay ; the surface caved in when 
the fuel was exhausted, and the masses which were left unburned now stand alone in gorgeous 
splendor and in fantastic forms that can not be represented in words. Some of the fires which 
produced these wonderful results are still burning. These subterranean fires can be seen with only 
a six miles ride from Little Missouri Station, either by pony or wagon, and the traveler who has 
never witnessed them should stop over a train for this especial purpose. 

On approaching them the smell of sulphur becomes very distinct, and the intense heat will not 
permit too near an approach, but near enough to remind the visitor of the hereafter. 

The "Pyramid Park" is a part of the scenic attractions of th'e Valley Route to the Pacific 
Coast. From these we pass on to the "National Park " or "Pleasure Garden " of the American 

Continent, which will be reached by the Northern Pacific in July, 1883. 


A Talk with the Traveling Public. 

DO not forget, in planning your pleasure excursions and business tours for this year, that the 
Northern Pacific Railroad will be completed in August, and will open the most attractive 
2,000 miles of railway travel in America. Before the connection is made between the ends of track 
advancing from the East and the West, you can pass over the gap of the Rocky Mountain region 
in comfortable Concord coaches. You need not wait for the line to be finished to start over it for 
the Pacific Coast. The ride across the Rockies on top of a stage coach will be among the most 
delightful experiences of your trip. 

We have space here only to make brief mention of a few of the striking, beautiful and won- 
derful features of the journey across the continent by the Northern Pacific Road. You will see, 
first, the busy, trim cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, and the Falls of St. Anthony, where the 
Mississippi River turns the wheels of the largest flouring mills in the world. The big lumber 
mills in the pineries of Northern Minnesota will be worth seeing, and also the Lake Park region 
of Western Minnesota, where there are more beautiful lakes, abounding in fish, than you can 
easily count. Farther on comes the broad, rich plain of the Red River Valley, fast becoming an 
immense wheat field. Stop a day at Fargo or Moorhead, and a day at one of the bonanza farms. 

After passing Valley City, Casselton, Tower City and Jamestown, about 200 miles west of 
Fargo, 3 r ou cross the Missouri River on the new Bismarck Bridge, near the young city named after 
the great German statesman, and traveling 150 miles more through green valleys, come to the 
famous Pyramid Park, a region of wonderful petrifactions, mountains of red terra cotta, burning 
coal seams baking the superimposed masses of blue clay, and strange and grotesque rock 

Reaching the Yellowstone at Glendive, you journey up that lovely stream for 340 miles, through 
Miles City, Billings and other new towns, to Livingston, where you should leave the mainline and 
make an excursion of about 60 miles to see the giant geysers, magnificent waterfalls and other 
wonders of the Yellowstone National Park. Returning, you pursue your journey across the first 
range of the Rockies at Bozeman, run north 100 miles to Helena, cross the main Divide, and then 
proceed with the course of the streams all the way to the Pacific Coast. At Helena you should 
stop to see the neighboring gold and silver mines, where the quartz rock is mined and crushed. 
Visit the Sulphur Springs. Near Garrison, west of the Divide, you can see hydraulic mining on 
a large scale. 

The wild caftan of Hell Gate River, the fertile valleys of the Bitter Root and the Missoula, the 
Flathead Indian Camps on their reservation, the Jocko and Flathead Valleys, and the valley of 
Clark's Fork hemmed in by lofty forest-covered mountains, will next invite your interest. Then 
omes Lake Pend d'Oreille, far more beautiful than Lake George ; then the impressive double 
falls of the Spokane River, and a day later all the varied and fascinating scenery of the mighty 

At last comes the rich and pretty city of Portland, from whose streets you can see five magnifi- 
cent snow peaks. Then you go still farther, and see the deep blue waters of Puget Sound, mir- 
roring the gigantic white forms of Mount Tacoma and Mount Baker, the great saw-mills, the neat 
towns nestling in the fir forests, and if you wish to journey so far, the handsome capital of British 
Columbia, Victoria, and the broad Strait of Juan de Fuca, from which rise the precipitous walls 
of the Olympian Mountain Range. 

Do we need to say more? Yes, one word about the comforts of travel. Pullman Cars, the 
finest in the land, are run from St. Paul to the termini and National Park, and Dining Cars, in 
which meals will be served at 75 cents; Horton Reclining Chair Cars are also run between Fargo 
and Mandan. There are no deserts, no alkali plains, and no regions where a man and his purse 
are not safe at all times. 




Northern Pacific Terminal Station, 





.2 ts 
f 1 





















































R. R. 

Railroad Terminus . . 








$23. OO 





Hanimoth Hot Springs 







19. OO 






Norris Geyser Basin 







15 00 18.00 


22 OO 



Lower Geyser Basin . . 







11.5OI 14. 5O 

18. CO 




Upper Geyser Basin 


6O 33 




10.00 13.00 

16 50 



Lake Outlet 


1O9 82 





6 00 

9 OO 


Lower Falls 


128 1O1 







7 OO 


Tower Creek Falls 


148 121 









Hot Springs 


171 144 








R. R. 

Railroad Terminus . 


176 149 











Local Rate, between Lower Geyjer and Riverside, 
Local Rate, between Jack's Bridge and Soda Butte, - 

To all other points in the Park, ponies with guide, $2.00 to $4.00 per day. 



Hints to Travelers, 

TO " tip "the sleeping-car porter is customary but not necessary. 
Before starting on a journey, become familiar with the route and names of hotels where you 
expect to stop, thus avoiding importunities of hotel runners. 

Never travel with just enough money, but carry sufficient to provide for any possible emergency. 

Wear but little jewelry, and keep the larger part of your money in some inside pocket, out of 

Look out for yourself, allowing no stranger to procure your ticket, or get checks for your 

Purchase tickets of authorized agents (thus saving an extra dime or so); then proceed to the 
baggage room with ticket in hand, get your baggage checked, place the checks where they 
will be safe, and enter the numbers of checks in your memorandum book. 

Show your ticket on entering the train (as this is required by most roads now). 

You are at liberty to choose sittings from the vacant seats, but custom has made the rule that 
some article deposited in a seat secures it for the holder, but no passenger has a right to monopo- 
lize space to the inconvenience of others. 

A ticket entitles its owner to one sitting, which is one-half of a seat; therefore, if one-half of a 
seat is vacant, you are at liberty to occupy it; asking the occupant of the other half if you can sit 
with him is not required, only, if you elect to do so, as an act of courtesy. 

Gentlemen will not see ladies standing, without at least offering to resign their sitting to them 
cases of illness only excepted. 

Avoid raising windows when it is apparent a draft from it will be directed to those sitting 
near you. First obtain their consent. 

Have due regard for the rights and comforts of your fellow travelers, thus teaching them by 
your example to respect yours. 

If you want information regarding changes of cars, rechecking baggage, route, etc., inquire in 
advance of the conductor or of those whose badge of office establishes their identity. 

Remain seated until the train comes to a full stop. 

Always close the door on entering or passing from the car, unless you are followed by others. 

In making changes, transfers, etc., take an omnibus or follow the crowd; these are safest. 

Civility should be practiced by all, and it should also be understood that it is equally com- 
mendable whether practiced by the railway employe or the passenger. 

Politeness is not thrown away even on a railroad train, and a proper regard for the rights of 
fellow travelers is due from every one. 



"The Land of the Midnight Sun." 

DURING the coming summer THE PACIFIC COAST STEAMSHIP COMPANY will conduct a series 
of excursions to Alaska and points of interest along the coast. One of the large and elegant 
steamers of this line will leave for Alaska, touching at Portland, Oregon, about the first days of 
June, July and August; touching at Victoria and Nanaimo, B. C. ; Port Townsend, W. T. ; 
Wrangel, Sitkaand Juneau, Alaska, returning to Portland; making the round trip in twenty days. 
The accommodations on these steamers are unsurpassed for comfort and luxury. The table will 
be equal to that of any hotel in the world. Meals and berths will be furnished without additional 
charge. There will be excellent music for dancing and promenading, and no pains will be spared 
to make the trips enjoyable and entertaining. Passengers will have the liberty of stopping off at 
Portland, and making side tours up the Columbia and Willamette Rivers. Tickets for these side 
tours will be sold excursionists at 40 per cent, less than regular rates, and same reduction will be 
made for side tours in Puget Sound. 

Tickets will be good from Portland, either by the Alaska steamer, or by river steamers to 
Kalama, thence via Northern Pacific R. R. to Puget Sound, and thence by steamer to Victoria, 
meeting the Alaska steamer at latter point. The trip will be made largely through inland seas, 
thus avoiding sea-sickness, and detours will be made up unfrequented arms of the sea, for the 
purpose of viewing the grand icebergs and glaciers for which this country is noted. 

These excursions offer unequaled opportunities to visit this truly wonderful region, and the 
trip can not fail to be an interesting one throughout. Commencing with the picturesque coast 
scenery from Portland, the beautiful views along the banks of the Columbia and Willamette 
Rivers, the magnificent scenery of the Puget Sound region, the novel trip through the inland seas, 
the mountains, glaciers, icebergs and wonderful scenery of the "Land of the Midnight Sun," all 
combine to make a trip to be enjoyed and remembered. 

Cost of tickets for the round trip, Portland to Alaska and return, $95. These rates include 
berths and meals on excursion steamer. Passengers making side tours on river and sound 
steamers will have to pay extra for berths and meals, 50 cents each. 

Accommodations on the steamer will be secured on application to the undersigned, with a 
deposit of $20.00. In this connection would say that it is advisable to secure accommodations as 
early as possible, as only a limited number can be taken. For further information, apply to 


Sup't of Traffic, Gen'l Eastern Agent O. R. & N. Co., G. P. & T. A., N. P. R. R., 

Portland, Oregon. 52 Clark Street, Chicago, 111. St. Paul, Minn. 



Charges in these Cars are as follows: 

Between Fargo and Jamestown, - 50 cents. 
Jamestown and Bismarck, 50 " 

Between Fargo and Bismarck, - 75 cents. 

Fargo and Maudan, 

- 75 

Tourists will appreciate this new feature, which will give additional comfort, 
at a very moderate expense. 

<J oj 

PH 3 

fc a 
K "~ 

.1 2 




^= o 


Dining Cars, 

now equipped with a line 
of the finest Dining Cars 
on the Continent, in which 
first-class meals are served 


These Cars are new, 
from the Pullman Car 
Works, built expressly for 
this Company, and will 
be run and operated ex- 
clusively by the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company, 
under the direction of an 
efficient and experienced 

Tourists, prospectors, 
and all classes of the 
traveling public, will at 
once recognize this as one 
of the leading features of 
this already popular route 
to Minnesota, Dakota and 
Montana; and will appre- 
ciate the comforts to be 
derived from this specially 
attractive feature in mod- 
ern travel. 

To eat when you feel like it, and get what you want, 

Is the traveler's enjoyment when taking a jaunt; 

Tourists, Artists and Sportsmen, who are on the look out, 

For solid comfort, and a picturesque route. 

Take the NORTHERN PACIFIC, and in Dining Cars fine 








^~ Tourists and others en route to the Summer Resorts of Minnesota and the Yellow- 
stone National Park, who desire all the comforts and pleasure of travel, should patronize 
the old established and favorite CHICAGO, ST. PAUL & MINNEAPOLIS LINE. 

is the shortest and best equipped passenger line between Chicago and St. Paul, 
Minneapolis, and all points on and reached by the great Northern Pacific Railroad. 

St. Paul and Minneapolis trains of this line connect in same depots with trains 
of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and passengers, whether in sleepers or day coaches, have 
no changes of cars between Chicago. St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Chicago, St. Paul & Minneapolis Line is first class in all its appointments, runs 
new and elegant day coaches, luxurious smoking room sleepers, and the finest dining cars 
in the world, and is th only line between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis that runs dining 
cars of any description. _ _ 

taking this line passengers have choice of route via Milwaukee and through 
Waukesha, the famous health and pleasure resort, and also visiting other attractive resorts 
in Wisconsin en route to the resorts of the Golden Northwest. 

52^* Through tickets over this line are for sale at all principal railroad offices throughout 
the country, and at Chicago & North- Western Railway offices in Chicago and Milwaukee, 
where sleeping car accommodations and all information can be secured. 

pamphlet describing the summer resorts reached by this line en route to the 
Yellowstone National Park and great Northern Pacific country, address 


General Superintendent. General Passenger Agent, 

Chicago & North-Western Railway. Chicago, 111. 

Tourists and others returning from the Northwest can secure sleeping car accommoda- 
tions to Chicago and all information about Eastern Connections with this line, at Chicago, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway offices in Minneapolis and St. Paul. 


General Traffic Manager, General Passenger Agent, 

Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway. St. Paul, Minn. 









Chicago, Milwaukee, La Crosse, Winona and St, Paul, 







IN CHICAGO Are at No. 63 Clark Street; Grand Pacific Hotel; Palmer House, and at Union Passenger 

Station, corner Canal, Madison and Adams Streets. 

IN MILWAUKEE At 400 East Water Street, and at Union Depot, corner Reed and South Water Street . 
IN ST. PAUL At No. 162 East Third Street, and at Union Depot. 
IN MINNEAPOLIS - At No. 7 Nicollet House, and at Passenger Depot. 

S. 5, MERRILL, Gen' I Manager, A. V. H. CARPENTER, Gen'l Pass. Agt., 

J. T. CLARK, Gen'l Superintendent, GEO. H. HE AFFORD, Ass't Gen'l Pass. 


The New Pullman Sleepers of the Northern 

Pacific Railroad, 

THESE Sleepers justly deserve the popularity they have attained. The general traveling public 
pronounce them as superior in every appointment, "and the best in use." 

Why ? Because neither money, time nor trouble have been spared, nor opportunity omitted, 
nor invention ignored that could be make practicable or useful in them. They embody everything 
that can be desired or be of use for the comfort of the traveler. They fill all of the purposes for 
which Sleeping Cars were invented, viz. : Rest, Quiet, Comfort, and Safety on the Road. 

In them are Elegance, Comfort, Neatness, Convenience and Safety combined. 

Elegance. None but the best material is used in constructing, equipping and furnishing these 
cars. Modern patterns and tastily arranged designs, all harmonizing together, give both the exte- 
rior and interior of the car a palatial and brilliant appearance. 

Comfort. It is needless to say that a car of this sort furnishes a " home," with a parlor and 
bed-chamber containing every convenience desired, a porter to attend to the wants and look after 
the comfort of its occupants, keeping proper ventilation and even temperature, etc. 

Neatness. Everything about the car, its apartments, closets, toilet-rooms, etc., etc , are kept 
neat, clean and pure, the car being thoroughly renovated at the end of every trip, making it im- 
possible for insects or filth of any sort to accumulate or remain in them. The bed linen is never 
used the second time before washing ; the combs, brushes, towels, etc. , are especially cared for. 

Convenience. They are composed of sections, closets, smoking rooms, etc. , and so arranged 
as to permit the occupants being entirely quiet and as secluded, if desired, as at home, and 
surrounded with every convenience and comfort of a modern home. 

Safety. Under the system with which the Company conducts its business, a competent and 
reliable Conductor and Porter accompany every car for the express purpose of looking after the 
interests of the passengers and Company. Passengers can retire at any hour they desire, and in 
doing so feel perfectly secure in every way, as the Porter or Conductor is continually on duty to 
care for and protect the passengers and their property. 

These cars are run on all night trains of the Company between 








Brainerd ... . . . 


s3. 0<) 


$ 5.50 




4 00 

Miles City 




2 00 

4 00 

Billings ... 

8 00 











National Park 







Interior View of the New Pullman Palace Sleeping Cars, now Running on the Northern Pacific R. R. 


Is the 

Northern Pacific Railroad