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Full text of "Yellowstone River basin and adjacent coal area level B study : report and environmental assessment"

333.91 
U31yrd 
1978 

V. 1 



Missouri River 
Basin Commission 

Yellowstone 
River basin and 
adjacent coal area 
level B study 

.w K w. t and Environmental Assessment 



-EASE RETURN 



YELLOWSTONE RIVER BASIN 

AND 
ADJACENT COAL AREA LEVEL 6 STUDY 



PLEASE RETURN 




£fe- 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

m 9 

MONTANA STATE L18RARy 

930 E Lyndafe Ave. 
Helena, Mortftna 59601 



VOLUME 1 





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Basin (Commission 
November 1978 









MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

S333.91U31yrd1978c.1v1 
Yellowstone River basin and ad|acent coa 



3 0864 00027699 1 



Cover Photo Columnar jumper near the Burning Coal Mines south of Medora. N Dak 



mrbc? 



The Missouri River Basin Commission is the principal agency for the coordination of Federal, State, interstate, 
local and nongovernmental plans for the development of water and related land resources in the area served 
by the Missouri River and its tributaries. As an independent regional commission, it also provides a forum in 
whch States meet with Federal agencies to conduct and coordinate water and related land resources 
planning. The Commission's Chairman is appointed by the President, its Vice Chairman is elected from among 
State members. 



MRBC members are Colorado: Iowa: Kansas: Minnesota: Missouri: Montana: Nebraska: North Dakota, South 
Dakota: Wyoming: Department of Agriculture: Department of the Army: Department of Commerce: Department 
of Energy: Environmental Protection Agency: Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Depatment of 
Housing and Urban Development: Department of the Interior: Department of Transportation: Yellowstone River 
Compact Commission: Big Blue River Compact Administration. Canada is an observer. 






8TATI DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

SEP 18 1990 

MONTANA 8TATE LIBRARY 

1515 E 6th AVE. 
HELENA, MONTANA 59620 



REPORT 

AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 



YELLOWSTONE RIVER BASIN 

AND 

ADJACENT COAL AREA 

LEVEL B STUDY 



Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403, 10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

November 1978 



PREFACE 

The 123,000-square-mile Yellowstone study area was divided into seven plan- 
ning areas for study purposes — four in Montana, one in North Dakota, and two in 
Wyoming, Seven planning area reports were prepared by study teams chaired by 
the respective assistant study managers assigned to each State, Study team 
reports are available on a limited basis as follows: 

Volume 2 - Upper Yellowstone, Montana 
Volume 3 - Clarks Fork-Bighorn, Montana 
Volume 4 - Tongue-Powder, Montana 
Volume 5 - Lower Yellowstone. Montana 
Volume 6 - North Dakota Tributaries 
Volume 7 - Wmd-Bighorn-Clarks Fork, Wyoming 
Volume 8 - Northeast Wyoming 

Technical papers prepared by ad hoc work groups during the study provided 
support and additional detail for the plan and recommendations in this report. These 
reports are also available on a limited basis from the Missouri River Basin Commis- 
sion. Titles of major technical papers developed by the ad hoc groups are: 

• Analysis of Energy Projections and Implications for Resource Requirements. 
Harza Engineering Company, December 1976 

• Agricultural Projections and Supporting Data 

• Flood Damages and Streambank Erosion Damages Along the Main Stem 
Reaches 

• Depletion Study, 1975 Level of Development 

• Flood Control and Streambank Erosion Needs, Drainage Areas Less than 
400 Square Miles 

• Land Conservation Measures 

• Outdoor Recreation Update 

• Land Use Update 

• 1975 Surface Water Quality Conditions Based on 1975 Level Depleted 
Flows 

• Current and Projected Population Income and Earnings 

• Legal Constraints on Resource Development in Yellowstone River Basin 

• Nonenergy Mineral Industry Water Needs, Yellowstone River Basin Study 
Area, 1985 and Year 2000 

• Surface Coal Mining Impact and Rehabilitations Analysis 

• Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Fields Operation Study 

Environmental assessment information required under the National Environmen- 
tal Policy Act of 1969 is included in this report. The probable impacts of the 
recommended plan are discussed in chapter 8 as are the probable environmental 
effects which cannot be avoided. The alternatives considered with an evaluation of 
each are shown in chapter 6, tables 37-57, and in chapter 8, tables 65-80. The 
relationship between local short-term uses of man's environment and maintenance 
and enhancement of long-term productivity is also shown in chapter 8, tables 65-80. 
Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources are shown in chapter 8, 
tables 66, 68, 70, 72. 74, 76, 78, and 80, Other environment information is provided 
throughout the report. 

Review comments from the official 90-day review by Commission member States 
and Federal agencies as required by PL. 89-80 will be bound in the report as an 
appendix. This report will then be transmitted to the U.S. Water Resources Council 
for review and transmittal to the President and by him to the Congress. 

The recommended plan and recommendations in the report are to be used as a 
guide to water and related land resource conservation and management in the 
Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Areas. The plan will be updated through 
the Commission's comprehensive, coordinated, joint planning process and the 
involved State's ongoing water planning programs. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The study was conducted under the leadership of the 
following: 

Paul Shore 1 , Study Manager 2 , Missouri River Basin Commis- 
sion 
Judith Lessard, Secretary 3 

Don Ohnstad, Assistant Study Manager, North Dakota, Mis- 
souri River Basin Commission 
Lorna Sanders, Secretary 

Jeff White 4 , Assistant Study Manager, Montana, Missouri 
River Basin Commission 
Emma Cotter, Secretary 



Management Group 

Paul Shore, Management Group Chairman 
Missouri River Basin Commission 



Orrin Ferris, Montana 
Fletcher Newby. Montana 
Gene Krenz, North Dakota 
Don Dexter, Wyoming 
Frank Trelease. Wyoming 



Paul Harley 5 , Department of the Interior 

John VanDerwalker, Department of the Interior 

Wayne Stufft, Corps of Engineers 

Blaine Halliday*. Department of Agriculture 

Patrick Godsil, Environmental Protection Agency 

Daniel Old Elk, Indian Tribes 



Ad Hoc Work Group Leaders 



Work Group Leader 

Agriculture Richard Clark 

Municipal & Rural Domestic Water Requirements Alt Hulteng 

Flood Control & Streambank Erosion • Mamstem Wayne Stufft 

Flood Control & Streambank Erosion - Tributaries Reuben Kammerer 

Land Conservation Measures Reuben Kammerer 

Outdoor Recreation Update Emanuel Louck 

Land Use Update Reuben Kammerer 

1975 Level Streamflow Derwood Mercer 

1975 Surface Water Quality Derwood Mercer 

Population. Income and Employment Richard Clark 

Legal and Institutional Restraints AE. Bielefeld 

Minerals Ronald Pense 

Strip Mine Reclamation Ronald Pense 

River and Reservoir Operation Studies Derwood Mercer 



Agency 

Economics, Statistics & Cooperative Service 

State of Montana 

Corps of Engineers 

Soil Conservation Service 

Soil Conservation Service 

Heritage, Conservation & Recreation Service 

Soil Conservation Service 

US Bureau of Reclamation 

U S Bureau of Reclamation 

Economics, Statistics & Cooperative Service 

Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Mines 

U S Bureau of Reclamation 



State, Federal, special interest group representatives, and private individuals served on the Ad Hoc Work 
Groups and planning area study teams Their contributions are acknowledged and their names are shown in 
the individual Ad Hoc Group Reports and planning area reports that are published separately 

' Also served as Assistant Study Manager, Wyoming 

2 Robert Madsen served as Study Manager July 1975-February 1977 

3 Bess Munns, DeNae Mayer, and Cindy Rupe each served as Secretary during some part of the study 

4 Keith Corngal and Martin Oleson served as Assistant Study Manager, Montana, during some part of the 
study. 

5 Terry Lynott also served 

6 Dennie Bums. Reuben Kammerer — alternates 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
CHAPTER 1 — INTRODUTION 

Background 1 

Purpose and Scope 1 

Level B Planning Process 1 

Study Area 2 

Study Budget 2 

Organization of Study 3 

Staff 3 

Management Group 3 

Ad Hoc Groups 3 

State Study Teams 3 

State Involvement 4 

Public Participation 4 

Interstate and Planning Area Coordination . . .4 
Regional and Planning Area Goals and 

Objectives 4 

Objective 4 

Principles and Standards 4 

Plan Evolution 5 

CHAPTER 2 — THE STUDY AREA AND ITS 
RESOURCES 

Physical Description 7 

Climate 8 

Topography, Geology, and Land Resource 

Areas 10 

Soils 12 

Vegetation 14 

Minerals 14 

Water 16 

Fish and Wildlife 14 

Significant Landscape Features 19 

Land Ownership and Administration 20 

Resource Utilization 22 

Agriculture and Forestry 22 

Mineral Production 23 

Outdoor Recreation 24 

Water Utilization 26 

CHAPTER 3 — SOCIOECONOMIC 
CHARACTERISTICS 

Population 29 

Education 30 

Income 30 

Earnings 31 

Employment 31 

Agricultural Sales 32 



Page 
CHAPTER 4— PRESENT AND FUTURE 
PROBLEMS AND NEEDS WITHOUT A 
PLAN 

Agricultural Production 35 

Municipal, Rural Domestic, and Livestock 

Water 39 

Nonenergy Industry 40 

Energy Industry 41 

Oil and Gas 41 

Uranium 41 

Coal and Related Industrial Production ... 42 

Land Conservation 51 

Flood Control and Streambank Erosion 52 

Indian Water Requirements 55 

Fish and Wildlife 56 

Montana 57 

North Dakota 57 

Wyoming 58 

Endangered Species 59 

Migratory Birds 59 

Outdoor Recreation 60 

Water Quality Control 62 

Instream Flow 64 

CHAPTER 5 — WATER AND RELATED LAND 
RESOURCE POTENTIALS 

Institutional Framework 67 

Federal Legal Constraints 67 

Navigable Waterways 67 

Land Limitations 67 

Winters Doctrine 67 

The Federal Power Act of 1920 68 

The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act ... 68 

The Yellowstone River Compact 68 

The Stock-Raising Homestead Act of 1916 
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act 

Amendments of 1 972 68 

The Clean Air Act 68 

The National Environmental Policy Act of 

1969 68 

The Wilderness Act of 1 964 68 

The Presence of Historical or Archaeological 

Data 68 

The Endangered Species Act of 1973 .... 68 
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation 
Act of 1 977 68 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



Page 

State Legal Constraints 68 

The Wyoming Water Code 68 

The Wyoming Environmental Quality Act of 

1973 69 

The Wyoming Industrial Development 

Information and Siting Act of 1975 69 

The Wyoming Excise Tax Act on the 

Extraction of Minerals 69 

The Montana Water Use Act of 1973 69 

The Montana Moratorium on Yellowstone 

River Appropriations 69 

The Montana Environmental Policy Act of 

1971 69 

The Montana Major Facility Siting Act .... 70 
The Montana Floodway Management Act of 

1971 70 

The Montana Water Pollution Act 70 

The Montana Air Pollution Act 70 

The Montana Coal Severance Tax Act ... 70 

The North Dakota Water Code 70 

The North Dakota Environmental Law 

Enforcement Act of 1 975 70 

The North Dakota Energy Conversion and 

Transmission Facility Siting Act 70 

The North Dakota Air Pollution Control Act 70 
The North Dakota Water Pollution Control 

Act 70 

The North Dakota Coal Severance Tax Act 
The North Dakota Privilege Tax on Coal 
Conversion Facilities 70 

Potential for Meeting Needs 71 

Agriculture (Irrigation and Related 

Developments) 71 

Energy Industry 72 

Land Conservation Measures 72 

Flood Control 73 

Streambank Erosion 73 

Fish and Wildlife 74 

Outdoor Recreation 74 

Water Quality Control and Instream Flows 75 

Potential Developments for Meeting Needs . 75 



Page 

CHAPTER 6 — PLAN FORMULATION 

Planning Procedures 89 

Principles and Standards 89 

The Four-Account System 90 

National Economic Development Account . .90 

Environmental Quality Account 90 

Regional Development Account 90 

Social Well-Being Account 91 

Project Formulation 91 

Plan Emphasizing NED Objective 91 

Plan Emphasizing EQ Objective 91 

Plan Emphasizing SRD Objective 92 

Procedures 92 

The National Economic Development Plan . . .92 

The Environmental Quality Plan 126 

The State-Regional Development Plan 150 

CHAPTER 7— RECOMMENDED PLAN 
Selection of Recommended Plan Elements .169 

Upper Yellowstone 169 

Clarks Fork-Bighorn 169 

Tongue-Powder 1 69 

Lower Yellowstone 1 70 

North Dakota Tributaries 170 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 1 70 

Northeast Wyoming 1 70 

Display of Plan 1 70 

CHAPTER 8 — IMPACT OF RECOMMENDED 
PLAN 
Assessment of Plans' Capability to Meet Needsl 94 

Comparison of Alternative Plan Effects 194 

Land Use Impacts 195 

Water Use Impacts 245 

Environmental Impacts 247 

Socioeconomic Impacts 249 

CHAPTER 9 — RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 
PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 

Summary of Results 251 

Plan Implementation 251 

Near-term Implementation 251 

Legislative Action 251 

Scheduling 251 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Page 

1 . Surface Area by Planning Area -8 

2. Soil-Land Capability Class 12 

3. Coal Production and Estimated Recoverable 

Reserves — 1 975 14 

4. Uranium Reserves — 1975 16 

5. Surface Water Quality 18 

6. Surface Ownership by Planning Area 20 

7. Land Use and Cover 22 

8. Average Annual Value of Mineral Production, 

1 960 Through 1 974 23 

9. Outdoor Recreation Resources by Type . . 24 

10. Selected Water-Oriented Recreation 

Resources 25 

1 1 . Water Storage Facilities Greater Than Five 

Thousand Acre-Feet 26 

12. Population Estimates for Study Area 29 

13. Years of School Completed by Persons 25 

Years of Age and Older— 1970 30 

14. Unemployment Rates 32 

15. Farm Size, Value of Production, and Farm 

Expenses 33 

16. Projected Livestock Production Needs .... 36 

1 7. Yellowstone Study Area, Livestock Feed Units 

Produced and Consumed, OBERS 
Projections — Series E' 37 

18. Projected Needs for Agricultural Acreage . 38 

19. Municipal, Rural Domestic, and Livestock 

Water 39 

20. Nonenergy Industry Water 40 

21. Energy Activities, Resource Requirements, 

and Air Pollution Emissions — Alternative 
Regional Energy Development Scenarios 47 

22. Current and Projected Status of Land 

Conservation 50 

23. Estimated Acreages Affected by Saline Seeps 

and Irrigation Salinity 52 

24. Current and Projected Flood Control Needs 53 

25. Current and Projected Streambank Erosion 

Control Needs 54 



Table Page 

26. Fish and Wildlife Objectives, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork and Northeast 
Wyoming Planning Areas, and State of 
Wyoming 58 

27. Deficit or Surplus of Outdoor Recreation Water 

and Land 61 

28. Predicted Range of Water Quality Under 1 975 

Conditions of Depleted Flow 63 

29. Estimated Instream Flow Needs to Assure 

High Quality Environment (Selected 
Locations Over the Study Area) 65 

30. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Upper Yellowstone Planning Area, 
Montana 76 

31. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Clarks Fork-Bighorn Planning Area, 
Montana 78 

32. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Tongue-Powder Planning Area, Montana 79 

33. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Lower Yellowstone Planning Area, 
Montana 80 

34. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

North Dakota Tributaries Planning Area .81 

35. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork Planning Area, 
Wyoming 83 

36. Potential Developments for Meeting Needs, 

Northeast Wyoming Planning Area 87 

37. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Upper Yellowstone 93 

38. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Clarks Fork-Bighorn 96 

39. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Tongue-Powder 98 

40. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Lower Yellowstone 100 



LIST OF TABLES (Continued) 



Table Page 

41. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, North Dakota Tributaries 102 

42. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork . . .105 

43. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

NED Plan, Northeast Wyoming 119 

44. NED Energy Development Resource 

Requirements and Air Pollution Emissions 125 

45. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Upper Yellowstone 127 

46. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Clarks Fork-Bighorn 130 

47. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Tongue-Powder 1 32 

48. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Lower Yellowstone 1 34 

49. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, North Dakota Tributaries 136 

50. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 138 

51 . Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, EQ 

Plan, Northeast Wyoming 146 

52. EQ Energy Development Resource 

Requirements and Air Pollution Emissions 1 49 

53. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

SRD Elements, Upper Yellowstone 151 

54. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

SRD Elements, Lower Yellowstone 152 

55. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

SRD Elements, North Dakota Tributaries 153 

56. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

SRD Elements, Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 157 

57. Display of Beneficial and Adverse Effects, 

SRD Elements, Northeast Wyoming 167 

58. Recommended Plan Elements, Upper 

Yellowstone 1 71 

59. Recommended Plan Elements, Clarks 

Fork-Bighorn 1 74 

60. Recommended Plan Elements, 

Tongue-Powder 177 

61. Recommended Plan Elements, Lower 

Yellowstone 1 79 



Table Page 

62. Recommended Plan Elements, North Dakota 

Tributaries 1 82 

63. Recommended Plan Elements, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 185 

64. Recommended Plan Elements, Northeast 

Wyoming 1 89 

65. Alternate Plan Capability, Yellowstone Study 

Area 196 

66. Comparison of Alternative Plans, Yellowstone 

Study Area 198 

67. Alternate Plan Capability, Upper Yellowstone 202 

68. Comparison of Alternative Plans, Upper 

Yellowstone 204 

69. Alternate Plan Capability, Clarks Fork-Bighorn 208 

70. Comparison of Alternative Plans, Clarks 

Fork-Bighorn 210 

71. Alternate Plan Capability, Tongue-Powder . .214 

72. Comparison of Alternative Plans, 

Tongue-Powder 216 

73. Alternate Plan Capability, Lower Yellowstone 220 

74. Comparison of Alternative Plans, Lower 

Yellowstone 222 

75. Alternate Plan Capability, North Dakota 

Tributaries 226 

76. Comparison of Alternative Plans, North 

Dakota Tributaries 228 

77. Alternate Plan Capability, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 232 

78. Comparison of Alternative Plans, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 234 

79. Alternate Plan Capability, Northeast Wyoming 238 

80. Comparison of Alternative Plans, Northeast 

Wyoming 240 

81. Land Use Conversions, Recommended Plan 244 

82. Depletions to Streamflow and Water Quality 

Impacts. Present Conditions and 
Recommended Plan 246 

83. Implementation Schedule for Recommended 

Plan 252 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure Page 

1 . Planning Area 2 

2. Yellowstone Basin and Adjacent Coal Area 

Level B Study Organization 3 

3. Annual Precipitation, Yellowstone River Basin 

and Adjacent Coal Area, Level B Study, 
1977 9 

4. Generalized Geology, Yellowstone River 

Basin and Adjacent Coal Area, Level B 
Study, 1977 11 

5. Land Resource Areas, Yellowstone River 

Basin and Adjacent Coal Area, Level B 
Study, 1977 13 

6. Surface Mineable Coal Deposits, Yellowstone 

River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area, Level 
B Study, 1977 15 

7. Monthly Flow of Selected Rivers in the 

Yellowstone River Basin 17 

8. Generalized Land Ownership and 

Administration, Yellowstone River Basin 
and Adjacent Coal Area, Level B Study, 
1977 21 



Figure Page 

9. Family Income Distribution 30 

10. Percent of Earnings by Source — 1974 .... 31 

11. Percent Employment by Source — 1974 ... 31 

12. Coal Field Delineation 45 

13. Saline Seep Formation Process 51 

14. Shoshone River Near Lovell, Wyoming 

(Bighorn River Basin) 64 

15. Recommended Plan Elements, Upper 

Yellowstone 1 73 

16. Recommended Plan Elements, Clarks 

Fork-Bighorn 1 76 

17. Recommended Plan Elements, 

Tongue- Powder 1 78 

18. Recommended Plan Elements, Lower 

Yellowstone 181 

19. Recommended Plan Elements, North Dakota 

Tributaries 1 84 

20. Recommended Plan Elements, 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 1 88 

21. Recommended Plan Elements, Northeast 

Wyoming 191 






m 



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4 





■ i 




CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 



Background 

A comprehensive interagency study for the Yel- 
lowstone River Basin in Wyoming and Montana 
was first recommended by the Missouri Basin 
Inter-Agency Committee, forerunner of the Mis- 
souri River Basin Commission. The recommenda- 
tion was contained in the committee's Missouri 
River Basin Comprehensive Framework Study 
Report, published in December 1971. 

The national energy crisis that came to a head 
with imposition of the Mideast oil embargo in late 
1973 placed increased emphasis on resource 
planning in the Yellowstone River Basin and 
nearby coal areas. A number of programs and 
studies had been completed on portions of the 
areas or on some facet of area problems. It was 
apparent, though, that there remained some 
major unresolved problems and conflicts which 
pointed up an urgent need to update available 
data and develop a more comprehensive plan for 
the Yellowstone study area. 

The Missouri River Basin Commission (MRBC) 
gave a high priority in February 1 974 to initiation of 
the Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal 
Area Level B Study. State and Federal funding 
was made available in December 1975, permitting 
major study efforts to begin in early 1976. 

Purpose and Scope 

Level B Planning Process 

The level B study is regional in scope and in- 
volves a reconnaissance-level evaluation of water 
and related land resources for the Yellowstone 
River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area. The report 



includes recommendations for implementation of 
some projects and programs which are subject to 
the satisfactory completion of appropriate level C 
(preconstruction) studies. 

Broad objectives established at the beginning 
of the study include: 

— Strong participation by State and local 
governmental agencies, and by the 
public-at-large throughout the study: 

— Primary focus upon major problems, 
needs, and issues requiring solutions 
within the 1975-2000 time frame: 

— Coordination and integration of all Federal, 
State, and local planning programs involv- 
ing water and related land resources within 
the study area; and 

— Concise presentation of level B results in a 
main study report with more detailed infor- 
mation in the planning area reports and 
backup technical papers. 

Under the level B approach, a series of plans is 
developed on a continuously expanding and im- 
proving basis, so as to take into account the views, 
comments, and opinions expressed along the way 
by study participants, including the public-at- 
large. 

As contrasted with older forms of planning, 
which were frequently subjected to review only 
after a nearly completed report was available, the 
MRBC level B approach encouraged self- 
examination and self-correction throughout the 
entire course of study. 




1 - Montana. Upper Yellowstone 

2 -Montana. Clarks Fork-Bighorn 
- Montana. Tongue-Powder 

■' - Montana. Lower Yellowstone 

-North Dakota. North Dakota Tnbs. 
' -Wyoming. Wmd-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 
Wyoming, Northeast Wyoming 



Study Area 

The study area includes the drainage of the 
Yellowstone River and Adjacent Coal Area in 
southeastern Montana, northern Wyoming, and 
southwestern North Dakota. It encompasses 
more than 1 23,000 square miles in all or part of 52 
counties. The size and diversity of the study area 
produced a wide array of resource problems, is- 
sues, and needs. Differences in both the nature 
and degree of problems, issues, and needs en- 
countered in individual planning areas prompted 
the decision to prepare individual reports for each 
of the seven planning areas shown on figure 1 . 

Study Budget 

The Yellowstone study was funded jointly by the 



Federal Government, through the U.S. Water Re- 
sources Council, and the three States participat- 
ing in the study through the medium of evaluated 
services. The Federal contribution totaled $1.1 
million. The value of anticipated State contribu- 
tions was estimated at the outset to be $1 .3 mill- 
ion. 

MRBC was directly responsible for payment to 
Federal agencies for their participation in the study 
and for MRBC staff and consultant costs. This 
centralized funding responsibility, though it 
applied to Federal agency and staff re- 
sponsibilities alone, facilitated a more balanced 
study effort and improved the effectiveness of 
management. State expenditures charged to the 
study have not been analyzed. 



Organization of the Study 

Staff 

The Yellowstone study was the responsibility of 
the MRBC under the general supervision of the 
MRBC Director of Planning. Full responsibility for 
the conduct of the study was delegated to the 
study manager, who provided overall manage- 
ment and guidance. The study manager was as- 
sisted in the day-to-day conduct of the study by 
three assistant study managers, one for each 
State. The assistant study managers chaired the 
study teams, composed of Federal and State 
agency personnel and representatives of the pub- 
lic, that were established for each planning area to 
develop plans for their portions of the study area. 

There was no central staff other than the study 
manager, assistant study managers, and their re- 
spective secretaries. 

Management Group 

A management group comprising six Federal 
and six State agency representatives, and one 
representative from the federated Indian tribes 
assisted the study manager in developing policy 
and operating guidelines. The management group 
also consolidated the planning area reports into 
this comprehensive summary for the entire study 
area. 



Ad Hoc Groups 

During the early phases of the study, certain 
specific tasks were assigned to ad hoc groups. 
These groups were composed of Federal and 
State agency representatives or private individu- 
als or firms possessing the expertise and capabil- 
ity needed to effectively complete their assign- 
ments. Most groups prepared functional reports 
(agriculture, recreation, etc.) defining base condi- 
tions (1975), projected future requirements, de- 
termined what part of those requirements may be 
satisfied through private initiative, and derived the 
remaining needs to be met within the 1975-1985 
and 1985-2000 time frame. Other ad hoc groups 
provided background information and basic statis- 
tical data. 

State Study Teams 

Plan development, analysis, and associated 
public participation were handled through the 
study teams under the direction of the assistant 
study manager in each State. The teams prepared 
a plan for their respective planning areas using the 
information supplied to them by the ad hoc com- 
mittees, individual and agency issue papers, 
background reports prepared by the staff, and 
other available material. These plans were then 
incorporated into a total study area plan by the 
management group and the study manager. Fig- 
ure 2 displays the study organization. 



Figure 2 

YELLOWSTONE BASIN AND ADJACENT COAL AREA 

LEVEL B STUDY 

ORGANIZATION 



MRBC 



Study Management Group 

(Chairman — Study Manager) 

Montana (2) USDI (2) 

Wyoming (2) USDA 

N. Dak. (2) EPA 

Indian Rep Corps of Engineers 



State & Federal 
Agency Assignments 



Study Manager 

(3) Assistant Study Managers 



Ad Hoc 
Groups 



Consultants 



State Study Teams 

(Chairman — Assistant Study Manager) 

Public 

Groups 

Individuals 
State Agencies 
Federal Agencies 



State Involvement 

This ievel B study effort was oriented toward a 
high degree of State agency participation, both in 
terms of task performance and policy guidance 
through service on the study management group 
and on State study teams. Additionally, the States 
assumed a major role through their cost-sharing 
portion of the study funding. State involvement 
was strengthened by ongoing State programs that 
were running concurrently with the level B study 
effort. The degree of State agency participation 
varied widely. Some agencies (and individuals) 
were very active and assumed leadership roles, 
while others did not participate at all or limited their 
activities to review of materials prepared by 
others. 

Public Participation 

Public participation was solicited as a means of 
taking advantage of local knowledge and prefer- 
ences. It was considered particularly crucial in 
terms of looking ahead to effective implementa- 
tion of programs based upon the recommended 
plans. Considering the large geographic size and 
diversity of interests in the study area, it was 
deemed inadvisable to structure a formal organi- 
zational entity such as a citizens advisory commit- 
tee or citizens task force. Direct public participa- 
tion in the study teams seemed preferable. In- 
terest groups within the area, both developmental 
and environmental, were already fairly well or- 
ganized, and many of their representatives par- 
ticipated regularly as study team members. Mem- 
bers of the general public also participated directly 
on the study team or, at their option, attended and 
participated in selected study team meetings. All 
meetings were publicized by appropriate news 
releases that invited public attendance and par- 
ticipation. 

Individual citizens and a wide spectrum of in- 
terest groups had unlimited opportunity for direct 
involvement through all phases of plan formula- 
tion. 

Interstate and Planning Area 
Coordination 

Planning for drainage areas crossing State 
boundaries was accomplished in three ways: (1) 
the assistant study managers for the respective 
States maintained constant communication, di- 
rectly and through the study manager; (2) joint 



planning meetings between selected members of 
the affected study teams were scheduled when 
conflicts were evident in planning philosophies or 
resource availabilities; and (3) the management 
group reviewed progress and interarea problems 
on a continuing basis during the plan formulation 
process. This process provided adequate coordi- 
nation to provide compatibility overall but, at the 
same time, permitted enough freedom at the local 
and State levels to allow the plans to reflect local 
conditions and preferences. No joint develop- 
ments directly involving more than one State were 
recommended, only because none seemed es- 
sential or advantageous. 




Regional and Planning Area 
Goals and Objectives 

Objective 

The objective of the Yellowstone Study was to 
identify the best options for use of natural re- 
sources to meet as many of the area's and the 
Nation's needs as is practicable within the physi- 
cal, social, and institutional constraints that have 
been or may be imposed. 

In order to meet this objective, a major effort 
was directed toward identifying the area's prob- 
lems and needs and finding reasonable and ac- 
ceptable solutions. Conflicts over use of the area's 
natural resources were mainly between those who 
would divert water from the streams and rivers for 
out-of-stream uses and those who prefer leaving 
the water as instream flows. 

Principles and Standards 

The Water Resources Council's principles and 
standards provided the basis for the preparation, 



formulation, and evaluation of the plans presented 
in this report. These principles and standards are 
based on the premise that nationally the overall 
purpose of water and land resource planning is to 
promote the quality of life by reflecting society's 
preferences for attainment of objectives designed 
to: 

(a) Enhance national economic develop- 
ment by increasing the value of the Nation's 
output of goods and services and improving 
national economic efficiency; and 

(b) Enhance the quality of the environment 
by the management, conservation, preser- 
vation, creation, restoration, or improvement 
of the quality of certain natural and cultural 
resources and ecological systems. 

To provide a basis for comparisons and trade- 
-offs, single-objective plans were developed for 
each planning area. In order to qualify for the 
national economic development plan (NED), the 
direct benefits from nationally needed production 
made possible by the project or program had to 
exceed the total identifiable and quantifiable 
costs. To qualify for the environmental quality plan 
(EQ), a program was required to produce 
identifiable — but not necessarily quantifiable — 
environmental, social, or other benefits that were 
deemed to be in excess of the environmental, 
social, and economic costs. 



The study effort also included an analysis of 
projects, plans, or elements to test their accepta- 
bility and need for meeting State-regional goals. 
To qualify for State-regional development (SRD), 
the project, program, or element had to be ineligi- 
ble for inclusion in either the optimized NED or 
emphasized EQ Plan; it had to be funded 100 
percent nonfederally; and its total benefits (includ- 
ing induced by and stemming from external 
economies, user benefits, unemployed and 
underemployed resource benefits and con- 
struction benefits) had to be in excess of total 
economic costs. 



Plan Evolution 

The recommended plan presented in this report 
is the culmination of a process which produced 
individual plans for each of the seven planning 
areas. The idea of developing and publishing indi- 
vidual planning area reports, which would later be 
brought together in a single summary report for 
the entire study area, came about for basically two 
reasons: (1) because of the obvious difference in 
problems, issues, and needs found in the indi- 
vidual planning areas; and (2) because it was felt 
that the significance of actions called for in indi- 
vidual planning areas would be diminished or lost 
if such actions were combined with those for other 
planning areas and presented in a study area 
context. The planning area reports, which contain 
considerably more detail than does this summary 
report, are bound separately as supporting data 
and are numbered volumes 2-8 for convenient 
reference. 



To better define potential problems during the 
early phases of the study, the staff identified and 
prepared papers on four functional areas: 



1. Food and fiber production; 

2. Instream flow levels and water quality; 

3. Impact of energy development upon the 
water and land resource base; and 

4. Indian water resource problems. 



These papers served as background informa- 
tion and provided guidance for the identification of 
tasks to be performed. To identify local problems 
and opportunities, individual study team members 
were requested to prepare issue papers which 
reflected either their own or agency views on what 
should or should not be done in the study area to 
best serve the interests of the people who live 
there. 



For each plan, there is a complete display or 
accounting of relevant beneficial and adverse ef- 
fects. The extent to which plans contribute either 
in a beneficial or adverse way in serving the objec- 
tives, as well as their impacts on social well-being, 
have been evaluated to provide the means for an 
appraisal of individual projects and programs. 



Following preparation of issue papers, the team 
considered all of the various programs and pro- 
jects suggested by individual members and iden- 
tified those deemed compatible and that would 
best meet area needs. This sort of reiterative 
give-and-take led to the analyses summarized in 
the following chapters of this report. 



CHAPTER 2 



THE STUDY AREA AND ITS RESOURCES 



This chapter provides a summary of the physi- 
cal characteristics, natural resources, and land 
utilization in the study area based on currently 
available published reports or file documents. The 
absence of opportunity to gather new field data as 
a part of this study prevented the establishment of 
an up-to-date ecological baseline against which 
air quality and some other environmental impacts 
could be evaluated. In general, however, the 
baseline data for the area is adequate for 
reconnaissance-level planning. 

Physical Description 

The Yellowstone study area is a land of diverse 
physical attributes, political systems, and social 
attitudes. The study area (see figure 1), which 
encompasses 78,959,645 acres, was divided into 
7 planning areas along a combination of hy- 
drologic, State, and county boundaries. The plan- 
ning areas are described as follows: 

1. UPPER YELLOWSTONE— The Yel- 
lowstone River and its tributaries (except 
Clarks Fork) located above the mouth of 
the Bighorn River within Montana, exclud- 
ing Yellowstone National Park. 

2. CLARKS FORK-BIGHORN— The Clarks 
Fork and Bighorn Rivers and their 
tributaries within Montana. 

3. TONGUE-POWDER— The Tongue and 
Powder Rivers and their tributaries within 
Montana. 



4. LOWER YELLOWSTONE— The Yel- 
lowstone River and its tributaries (except 
the Tongue and Powder Rivers) located 
below the mouth of the Bighorn River 
within Montana. (Includes the Little Mis- 
souri River and Belle Fourche River 
tributaries within Montana and the remain- 
ing parts of Custer, Dawson, Garfield, 
McCone, Musselshell, Prairie, Richland, 
Rosebud, and Yellowstone Counties lo- 
cated in the Upper Missouri River drain- 
age.) 

5. NORTH DAKOTA TRIBUTARIES— The 
Yellowstone, Little Missouri, Knife, Heart, 
Cannonball, and Grand Rivers and their 
tributaries within North Dakota and Mc- 
Lean County. 

6. WIND-BIGHORN-CLARKS FORK— The 
Clarks Fork and Wind-Bighorn Rivers and 
their tributaries within Wyoming, exclud- 
ing Yellowstone National Park. (Includes 
all of Fremont County and a part of the 
Yellowstone drainage in Teton County.) 

7. NORTHEAST WYOMING— The Tongue, 
Powder, Little Missouri, Belle Fourche, 
and Cheyenne Rivers and their tributaries 
within Wyoming and the remaining parts 
of Converse, Natrona, and Niobrara 
Counties located in the Platte and Niob- 
rara River drainages. 



The total surface area of land and water located 
in each planning area and State is shown in table 
1. 




in the spring and fall, polar-continental cold fronts 
in the winter, and moist tropical air masses 
originating in the Gulf of Mexico during the sum- 
mer. The western parts of the area are influenced 
primarily by Pacific and polar weather systems, 
while the eastern portions are influenced more by 
continental and tropical systems. The eastern por- 
tions receive greater precipitation but have shorter 
growing seasons and colder winter temperatures 
than areas to the west. 




Climate 

Climate within the study area is extremely var- 
ied. Overall, it can be classified as semiarid with 
cold winters and hot summers. Weather patterns 
and systems include moist Pacific-maritime fronts 



Significant climatic events include a large per- 
centage of precipitation during the growing sea- 
son, periodic droughts, and severe summer 
storms. The favorable precipitation during the 
growing season permits substantial agricultural 
production. This precipitation pattern is often inter- 
rupted by long and severe drought, however, as 
occurred in the 1 930s and to a lesser extent in the 
early 1950s and 1960s. Summer rains, which 
often occur in the form of thunderstorms, can be 
accompanied by hail and high winds or tornadoes. 

Figure 3 shows precipitation isohyets for the 
study area. The influence of the mountains is evi- 
dent, both in terms of increased precipitation in the 
mountains and decreased rainfall in rain-shadow 
areas such as the Bighorn Basin. 



Table 1 
SURFACE AREA BY PLANNING AREA 



State and Planning Area 


Land 


Water 


Total 






. 




Montana 








Upper Yellowstone 


5,900,775 


36.552 


5,937,327 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


3.442.990 


24,570 


3,467.560 


Tongue-Powder 


5.236,288 


29,304 


5.265.592 


Lower Yellowstone 


17,302,717 


330,589 


17,633.296 


Subtotal 


(31,882,770) 


(421,015) 


(32,303,775) 


North Dakota 








North Dakota Tributaries 


13.562.792 


409,050 


13,971,840 


Wyoming 








Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


14,497.853 


108.577 


14,606,430 


Northeast Wyoming 


17,963,911 


113.689 


18,077,600 


Subtotal 


(32,461 ,764) 


(222,266) 


(32,684,030) 


Study Area 


77,907,326 


1,052,331 


78,959,645 



Source: Level B Land Use Ad Hoc Report 



Topography, Geology, and Land Resource 
Areas 

Elevations in the study area range from a low of 
just over 1,500 feet on the Missouri River at the 
North Dakota-South Dakota State line to 13,785 
feet at Gannet Peak in the Wind River Mountains 
in Wyoming. 

Geologic materials in the study area range from 
ancient Precambrian igneous and metamorphic 
rocks to relatively recent volcanic and glacial de- 
posits. The plains are underlain by flat-lying 
sedimentary shale and sandstone rocks of the 
Mesozoic and Cenozoic Age. The Fort Union 
Formation in eastern Montana and western North 
Dakota and its extension along with the Wasatch 
Formation in the Powder Basin of Wyoming ac- 
count for the significant coal reserves. Typically, 
the flat-lying formations of the plains are upturned 
at the mountain flanks forming hogbacks and ex- 
posing geologic formations that are deeply buried 
beneath the plains. These rocks, especially 



Paleozoic limestones such as the Madison limes- 
tone, are potentially major aquifers and sources of 
industrial and agricultural water. Igneous and 
metamorphic rocks that form the core of many of 
the mountains also hold potential mineral wealth 
in the form of chromite and copper. Other 
(jeolnqic materials include a largo area of vol- 
canics in the Absaroka Mountains of Montana and 
Wyoming, small areas of glacial materials found 
along the extreme northern edge of the study 
area, and alluvial deposits that fill most of the 
major river valleys. Figure 4 shows the principal 
rock strata found in the study area. Not only is the 
composition of the geologic material significant to 
resource utilization, but so is its arrangement. The 
uplifted edges of the Madison limestone and other 
sedimentary strata form aquifer recharge areas. 
The warping of rocks by mountain-building forces 
resulted in basins and smaller folds which often 
became traps for oil and natural gas; such is the 
case in the Bighorn Basin and many mountain 
valleys. 








f£- ■; T'Jt ■ **<-• 

*v*'- **^a • t j~* * m "**-.• , 



10 




11 



The action of climate over time on the exposed 
geologic materials in the study areas has created 
the landscape features evident today. Figure 5 
outlines land resource areas which can be viewed 
in terms of general physiographic regions. Nearly 
70 percent of the study area is within the Northern 
Great Plains Region. This is a region charac- 
terized by rolling plains which are unglaciated ex- 
cept in the extreme north and a few intervening 
areas of eroded badlands. The rest of the area is 
split about equally between the Rocky Mountain 
Region and the Desert Basin and Semiarid Moun- 
tain Region. The Rocky Mountain Region consists 
of rugged, high mountains extending well above 
timberline. The Desert Basin and Semiarid Moun- 
tain Region is a very dry area lying in the rain 
shadow of the Rocky Mountains. The Bighorn 
Basin and Owl Creek Mountains typify this region. 
Parts of two other regions just enter the study area 
in Wyoming. A small part of the Black Hills Region 
is located in northeastern Wyoming, and a part of 
the Central Great Plains Region is located in the 
extreme southeastern part of the area in Wyo- 
ming. 

Soils 

Soils in the study area fall into four categories: 
desert soils, weakly developed semiarid loamy 
and clayey soils, strongly developed semiarid 
loamy and clayey soils, and mountain soils. Moun- 
tain soils (Boralfs) are found exclusively in the 



Rocky Mountain Region, as shown on figure 5, 
and are useable primarily for forest land and 
rangeland. The desert soils (Orthents) are weakly 
developed soils that are dry most of the year and 
usable primarily for rangeland, although some are 
capable of supporting irrigated crops. These soils 
are found mainly in the Bighorn and Wind River 
Basins. Much of the Montana portion of the study 
area is composed of weakly developed loamy and 
clayey soils (Orthents) which receive more pre- 
cipitation than those of the Bighorn Basin. These 
soils are used principally for rangeland with limited 
use for dry and irrigated crops. Strongly de- 
veloped loamy and clayey soils are found mostly 
in North Dakota and the Powder River Basin. The 
soils in North Dakota (Borolls) are deep, fertile, 
and capable of supporting substantial dry and irri- 
gated cropland. These soils extend westward 
from North Dakota into parts of Montana. Soils in 
the Powder River Basin (Argids), in contrast, are 
less fertile and receive less precipitation than 
those in North Dakota and are suitable primarily 
for rangeland. 

Table 2 shows the acreage of soil-land capabil- 
ity classes. 1 Classes I through III are capable of 
supporting irrigated agriculture, while classes I 
through IV could be dry farmed. 



1 Land capability classes are groupings of soils according lo the degree of hazards 
and limitations of use The four major hazards and limitations are erosion, water 
problems, soil limitation, and climate Hazards and limitations of use become 
progressively greater from class I to class VIII 



Table 2 
SOIL-LAND CAPABILITY CLASS 



Capability Class 


Montana 


N. Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 










1 


108 


5 


26 


139 


II 


1.117 


3,818 


347 


5.282 


III 


1,477 


2,640 


914 


5,031 


IV 


3,981 


790 


2,796 


7,567 


v 


36 


1 


75 


112 


VI 


12,292 


2.804 


7,446 


22,542 


VII 


908 


766 


2,041 


3,715 


VIII 


2,079 


33 


5,434 


7.546 


Subtotal 


21.998 


10,857 


19.079 


51,934 


Nonclassified 


10,306 


3,115 


13,605 


27,026 


Total 


32,304 


13,972 


32.684 


78,960 



12 




13 



Vegetation 



Native vegetation in the study area is extremely 
varied, depending on range site. Shrubs tend to 
dominate the vegetative aspect in the lower pre- 
cipitation zones. As precipitation becomes more 
plentiful with elevation, grasses and grasslike 
plants generally become more dominant. Along 
most of the major rivers and streams of the plains, 
flood plains are dominated by cottonwood and 
willow. Woodland vegetation, comprised of pon- 
derosa pine and grasses, grow along the river 
breaks and sandstone buttes in the Bull Mountains 
and in Rosebud and Power River Counties, Mont. 
Isolated patches are found throughout the Great 
Plains. Forests of spruce, lodgepole, Douglas fir, 
and ponderosa pine cover most of the Rocky 
Mountains and Black Hills area, but give way to 
alpine grassland at timberline above 9,000 feet. 





Minerals 



Some of the rangeland plant communities have 
been converted to agricultural crops. Likewise, 
many of the flood plain forests have been cleared 
for irrigated crops. With these exceptions, native 
vegetation in the study area is still common. The 
desert and semiarid grasslands have been grazed 
extensively by domestic livestock, as have most of 
the ponderosa pine woodlands and alpine areas. 
Livestock use has often been so excessive that 
vegetation damage and accelerated soil erosion 
have occurred. 



Forests in the area are mostly slow growing and 
yield only limited supplies of timber. 



Minerals in the study area fall into three general 
categories: energy, metallic, and other. Energy 
minerals include coal, petroleum, natural gas, and 
uranium. Estimated recoverable coal reserves in 
the area are enormous, amounting to over 165 
billion tons (table 3). These reserves consist 
mainly of subbituminous grade coal in Montana 
and Wyoming, and lignite in North Dakota. The 
largest coal deposits are found in the Powder 
River Basin of Montana and Wyoming (figure 6). 
Known oil and gas reserves are substantial in 
North Dakota, while in Wyoming and especially in 
Montana such reserves are declining rapidly. The 
presence of oil and gas has been associated tradi- 
tionally with structural basins, such as the Bighorn 



Table 3 
COAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED RECOVERABLE RESERVES— 1975 





Montana 


N.Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 






Million Tons 

7.7 a 






Production 


21.8 


8.1 


37.6 


Reserves 










Subbituminous 


100,700 


NA 


44,000 


144,700 


Lignite 


6.200 


14,000 


NA 


20,600 



a Lignite production. 

t> Includes a small percentage of bituminous coal. 

Source: USDI, Bureau of Mines. 



14 




15 







Table 4 
URANIUM RESERVES— 1975 




Forward Costs 3 


Montana 


N.Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 


$10 
$15 
$30 

Total 


10 
708 
718 


686 

919 

1,192 

2,797 


56,000 
122.000 
178,000 
356,000 


56,686 
122,929 
179,900 
359,515 



"Forward Costs" are those yet to be incurred at the time an 
estimate is made. Figures shown are dollars per pound 
These costs provide a means of estimating reserves and are 
independent of market prices 



Basin, but exploration is increasing along the 
flanks of the Rocky Mountains. Uranium reserves 
are substantial only in Wyoming as shown in table 
4. 

Metallic mineral resources consist largely of 
chromate, copper, and iron ore. Chromate is 
found in the Stillwater Complex in Stillwater 
County, Mont. Copper is found near Meeteetse in 
Park County, Wyo., while iron ore occurs in south- 
ern Fremont County, Wyo. Iron ore is the only 
significant metallic mineral currently mined within 
the study area. 

Other important minerals include bentonite, 
clay, sand and gravel, stone, lime, and gypsum. 
Bentonite and clay are associated with the shale 
deposits of the plains in all three States. Sand and 
gravel is found principally in the alluvium along 
stream channels, while stone is largely associated 
with localized rock outcrops or mountain areas. 
Lime and gypsum are derived from limestone out- 
crops that occur along the mountain flanks. 

Water 

Streamflows in the study area originate primar- 
ily from melting snowpack in the higher moun- 
tains. Hydrographs of streamflow reflect the 
spring and early summer snowmelt, with high 
flows in June and July and very low flows during 
the winter months (figure 7). Low flows during 
August reflect not only lower natural streamflow 
but also higher rates of water diversions for irriga- 
tion. The snow hydrology along with the overall 



semiarid climate creates extreme seasonal flow 
variations, and annual variations resulting from 
periods of drought. For example, the average an- 
nual streamflow for the Tongue River at Miles City, 
Mont., is over 300,000 acre-feet, while the lowest 
recorded annual flow was less than 47,000 acre- 
feet and the maximum was over 1 million acre- 
feet. These seasonal and annual extremes in flow 
tend to intensify a variety of existing water prob- 
lems. 

Natural quality of streamflow is highly variable 
and is largely a function of geographic location. 




16 



Powder River at Arvada, Wyoming 

50 - 



Powder River near Locate, Montana 



150 



o 

o 
o 
o 



o 



40 - Average Annual Flow 
201,860 Ac. Ft. 

30 - 



20 



10 



■? 


120 - Average Annual Flow = 


o 


450,360 Ac. Ft. 


•* 




o 


90 - 


o 




o 


















* 


60 - 




o 






U_ 












co 
.o 


30 - 





Month ON DJ FM AM JJ AS 



Month ONDJFMAMJJAS 



Yellowstone River near Sidney, Montana 

3.000 " 



400 ■ 



Clarks Fork at Edgar, Montana 



o 

o 
o 
o 



2.250 - Average Annual Flow 
8,653,650 Ac. Ft. 



1,500 - 



_ 750 
co 



Month ONDJFMAMJJAS 



o 

o 

o 
o 






2 

CO 
5 



300 Average Annual Flow = 
763,640 Ac. Ft. 



200 



•~ 100 



Month ON DJ FM AM JJ AS 



11,000 ' 

aj 

"? 

£ 900 

o 

<t 

o 
o 
o 



Yellowstone River near 
Livingston, Montana 



Average Annual Flow 
2,770,520 Ac. Ft. 



o 
u_ 



600 



300 - 



0> 



u 

o 
o 
o 



5 

o 



Tongue River at Miles City, Montana 

150 ~ 



120 - Average Annual Flow 
332,220 Ac. Ft. 

90 - 



60 



30 - 



co 



Month ONDJFMAMJJ AS 



Month ONDJFMAMJJAS 



Bighorn River near St. Xavier, Montana 

600 ~ 



CD 

£ 
o 



500 



Average Annual Flow 
2,609,840 Ac. Ft. 



rJ 400- 

^ 300 • 

CO 

■8 

s 



Figure 7 

Monthly Flow 

of Selected Rivers 

in the 

Yellowstone River Basin 



Month ONDJFMAMJJAS 



17 



Table 5 
SURFACE WATER QUALITY 8 



River Station 


Mean Flow 


Mean TDS 6 


Mean DO c/ 


Mean BOD d ' 


Yellowstone River 
Sidney. Mont 


14.527 


460 


9.8 


1.8 


Bighorn River 
St Xavier. Mont. 


4,000 


622 


11.4 


1.7 


Tongue River 










Miles City. Mont. 


594 


560 





— 


Powder River 
Moorhead, Mont. 


642 


1,522 


9.0 


3.0 


Heart River 
Mandan. N Dak 


— 


844 


9.6 


2.9 



a Based on limited data. 

b TDS = Total Dissolved Solids 

c DO Dissolved Oxygen. 

d BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand. 

e cfs = Cubic feet per second 



Water quality is generally high within and adjacent 
to the mountains, but as streams flow across the 
sedimentary strata of the foothills and plains, 
water quality deteriorates. As can be seen in table 
5, the main stem of the Yellowstone River gener- 
ally has a higher quality water than any of its 
tributaries. Yellowstone River water quality re- 
mains quite high throughout its length, but it is 
gradually deteriorated by lower quality tributary 
inflows and human impacts downstream. 

Ground water, like surface streamflow, origi- 
nates largely from melting snow percolating 
through the soil and into aquifer formations lying 
near the surface. The main aquifers in the area are 
the relatively deep, buried ancient limestone and 
sandstone formations which are exposed only on 
the mountain flanks and the unconsolidated sands 
and gravels that fill most of the alluvial valleys 
(figure 4). Minor aquifers include the coal veins 
and sandstone layers of the Fort Union and 
Wasatch formations that immediately underlie 
most of the plains area. 

Ground water quality is extremely variable, 
even over very short distances. Ground water 
quality is extremely variable, even over very short 



distances. Near-surface aquifers, like the Fort 
Union formation, generally hold water of fair 
quality — 500 to 1,000 milligrams per liter of total 
dissolved solids — in quantities suitable for domes- 
tic purposes and in some places large enough for 
irrigation use. Generally, water with dissolved sol- 
ids in excess of 500 milligrams per liter would have 
questionable value as a domestic water source 
under current criteria. 

High quality water is obtainable from deep 
aquifers only near the outcrop area, such as along 
the flank of the Bighorn and Powder River Basins. 
The deeply buried aquifers, such as the Madison 
limestone, can yield exceptionally large 
quantities— 1 ,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute — of 
high quality water containing about 250 milligrams 
per liter of total dissolved solids. Both quantity and 
quality of the water from these aquifers vary widely 
from location to location, however. Although 
ground water is prevalent in some locales, a sub- 
stantial portion of the study area does not have 
readily available supplies of potable ground water. 
Areas on the high plains of Montana and North 
Dakota and in the center of the Bighorn and Pow- 
der River Basins have especially difficult problems 
producing suitable water supplies. 



•3 




• • 



■15 » 



. 



Fish and Wildlife 

Wildlife has been more affected by the presence 
of man than any other resource in the study area. 
This impact is recognized principally in the re- 
placement of the plains bison by domestic live- 
stock. Such impacts also extend to the relocation 
of other animals, such as elk, and the introduction 
of new species, such as pheasants. Terrestrial 
wildlife can be divided into two general 
groups — plains species and mountain species. 
Plains species include whitetail and mule deer, 
pronghorn antelope, sage and sharptailed grouse, 
prairie dogs, numerous furbearers, raptorial birds, 
migratory waterfowl, and introduced species such 
as pheasants, partridge and turkey. Mountain 
species include whitetail and mule deer, elk, 
moose, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black and 
grizzly bear, mountain grouse, and numerous fur- 
bearers and raptorial birds. Endangered species 
include the northern rocky mountain wolf, the 
peregrine falcon, the black-footed ferret, and an 
occasional migrating whooping crane. The grizzly 
bear is listed as threatened within the area. 

Fisheries and other aquatic wildlife consist of 
sport, commercial and other fish, amphibians, rep- 
tiles, and mollusks. Sport fish include cold-water 



salmonoid fish, such as trout and whitefish found 
in most mountain streams and the Upper Yel- 
lowstone River, and warm water fish, such as 
sauger, channel catfish, ling, and paddlefish found 
in the Lower Yellowstone River and other plains 
rivers. Commercial fisheries exist only on the 
periphery of the study area in Fort Peck Reservoir 
and Lake Sakakawea on the Missouri River, 
though opportunities for developing commercial 
fisheries are available on a number of large reser- 
voirs within the study area. There are well over 50 
different species of fish in the study area that are 
not now utilized by man, but which nevertheless 
have important intrinsic and ecological values. Lit- 
tle information is available on the occurrence, 
ecological importance, or potential values of these 
fish and other amphibians, reptiles, and mollusks. 
No fish, amphibians, reptiles, or mollusks are cur- 
rently listed as threatened or endangered. 

Significant Landscape Features 

Unique and nationally significant natural land- 
scape features are found throughout. These fea- 
tures include badland, geologic and hydrologic 
features, alpine lakes, unique vegetation, and 
productive streams. Badlands are found through- 
out the plains adjoining many of the major 



19 




Makoshika State Park, Mont. Unique geologic and 
hydrologic features include: spectacular canyons 
such as found along the upper Clarks Fork and 
Tongue Rivers in Wyoming and the Wind River 
and Bighorn Canyons on the Bighorn River, 
geologic formations such as Devils Tower Na- 
tional Monument in northeastern Wyoming, and 
spectacular waters such as Boulder Falls on the 
Boulder River in Montana and Shell Falls on Shell 
Creek in Wyoming. Alpine lakes and alpine tundra 
are found extensively on the Beartooth Plateau 
and in smaller areas of many of the other mountain 
ranges. Unique vegetation is associated with a 
few small areas of pristine prairie and isolated 
stands of limber pine and columnar juniper in 
North Dakota. The main stem of the Yellowstone 
River above Big Timber, Mont., is recognized as a 
premium trout fishery of national importance. 

Land Ownership and Administration 



streams. Outstanding examples are found along 
the Little Missouri River and near Glendive, Mont. 
Parts of these areas are included in Theodore 
Roosevelt National Memorial Park, N. Dak., and 



The general pattern of surface ownership in the 
study area is shown in figure 8. Table 6 gives a 
breakdown of Federal and non-Federal own- 
ership for each State and planning area. 





Table 6 








SURFACE OWNERSHIP BY PLANNING AREA 




State and Planning Area 


Federal 


Non-Federal 


Total 






. 




Montana 








Upper Yellowstone 


1 ,475,299 


4,462,028 


5,937,327 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


597,122 


2,870.438 


3,467.560 


Tongue-Powder 


1,254,894 


4,010,698 


5,265,592 


Lower Yellowstone 


3,172,167 


14,461,129 


17,633,296 


Subtotal 


(6,499.482) 


(25,804,293) 


(32,303,775) 


North Dakota 








North Dakota Tributaries 


1,588,881 


12.382,959 


13,971,840 


Wyoming 








Wmd-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


9.299,013 


5,307,417 


14,606.430 


Northeast Wyoming 


3,573,613 


14,503,987 


18,077,600 


Subtotal 


(12,872,626) 


(19,811,404) 


(32,684,030) 


Total Ownership 


20,960,989 


57,998,656 


78,959,645 



Source: Level B Land Use Ad Hoc Report 



20 




21 



About 27 percent of the study area is Federal 
land administered by agencies of the Federal 
Government. The two largest Federal land ad- 
ministrative agencies are the Bureau of Land 
Management and the Forest Service. The remain- 
ing 73 percent of the area is in non-Federal own- 
ership. This includes the privately owned lands; 
those lands owned by Indians but held in trust by 
the U.S. Government: and those lands owned by 
State, county, and municipal governments. 



dry cropland in table 7 with the acreage of land 
suitable for crop production, classes I through IV in 
table 2, shows that an additional acreage could be 
cultivated. This does not imply, however, that all 
land presently cropped is suitable for such use. 
Some recent cropland expansion has been noted 
to occur on soils unsuited for such use. Although 
almost all range is grazed and some areas are 
very well managed, a significant portion needs 
improved management practices or mechanical 







Table 7 










LANO USE AND COVER 






Land Use-Cover Category 


Montana 


N. Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 


Percent 


Cropland 












Irrigated 


609.776 


91.566 


599,384 


1,300,726 


2 


Nonirngated 


2,877.000 


5,505,509 


529,040 


8,911,549 


11 


Pasture 












Irrigated 


124,869 


1.490 


213,000 


339,359 


1 


Nonirrigated 


552.830 


311,680 


138,410 


1,002,920 


1 


Range 


23.911.055 


7,087,975 


25,812,735 


56,811,765 


72 


Forest Land 












Commercial 


761,500 





2,214,000 


2,975,500 


4 


Noncommercial 


2.488,340 


189,250 


1,342,180 


4,019,770 


5 


Urban & Builtup 


206,000 


170,620 


131,015 


507,635 


1 


Barren Land and Tundra 


351,400 


204,700 


1,482,000 


2,038,100 


2 


Water 


421,015 


409,050 


222,266 


1,052,331 


1 


Total 


32.303,785 


13,971,840 


32.684.030 


78,959,655 


100 



Resource Utilization 



Agriculture and Forestry 

Agriculture is the largest land use in the study 
area, amounting to over 85 percent of the total 
(table 7). Over 70 percent of all land is used for 
range, followed by dryland farming, which uses 
over 1 percent. A comparison of the irrigated and 



improvements. About 90 percent of all water use 
in the basin is attributable to agriculture. 

Forestry use is extremely limited due to slow 
tree growth on most forest land. This situation 
results from natural conditions, such as high ele- 
vation, short growing season, and limited mois- 
ture, as well as from a lack of management neces- 
sary to convert the large expanses of overmature, 
stagnated, and overstocked timber stands to 
healthier and faster growing stands. 



22 



Table 8 

AVERAGE ANNUAL VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION 

1960 Through 1974 



Mineral 


Montana 


N. Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 










Coal 


6,963 


5,972 


8,334 


21,269 


Petroleum 


68,496 


25,334 


348,036 


441,866 


Natural Gas b 


1,243 


1,787 


17,515 


20,545 


Natural Gas Liquids 


NA 


NA 


10,768 


10,768 


Uranium d 


— 


— 


35,693 
420,346 


35,693 


Energy Minerals Subtotal 61 


76,702 


33,093 


530,141 


Bentonite 


NA 


NA 


14,964 


14.964 


Iron Ore 


— 


— 


14,542 


14,542 


Sand & Gravel 


3,780 


1,209 


3,344 


8,333 


Other Nonenergy Minerals 


3,1 62 e ' 
6,942 


272* 


589 
33,439 


4,023 


Nonenergy Minerals Subtotal 


1,481 


41.862 


Total Mineral Production* 


83,080 


35,393 


451,656 


570,129 



a 1967 dollar, except as noted 
LV 1961-1974 average 

c. 1960-1972 average 

d. Columns may not total precisely due to nonreportmg of some data 

e. May include some bentonite production 



Mineral Production 

Next to agriculture, mineral production is the 
largest economic use of land in the study area, 
although the actual acreage of land use is quite 
small. Table 8 lists the types and average values 
of mineral production since 1960. Oil production 
has been the most important single mineral, ac- 
counting for over 70 percent of the total mineral 
value in all three States. These historical values 
are somewhat misleading in that recent increases 
in coal production are not adequately reflected. 
Estimated 1975 value for coal production should 
approach $175 million. Coal is now the second 
most important mineral produced in the study area 
and is becoming relatively more important as pet- 
roleum production remains constant or even de- 
clines. Uranium, which traditionally has been the 
second most important mineral, continues to be 
important. Uranium production is expected to in- 
crease, but at a slower rate than coal. Production 
of nonenergy minerals has generally been declin- 
ing in recent years because of a lower demand for 
sand, gravel, and stone. The production of sand, 
gravel, and stone is dependent on large construc- 
tion projects such as the Interstate Highway Sys- 



tem. Iron ore and bentonite are produced primarily 
in Wyoming, and production has increased slowly, 
but steadily, since I960. Expanding mineral pro- 
duction will have severe impacts on other land 
uses until these lands are adequately reclaimed. 




23 



Table 9 
OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES BY TYPE 



Recreation Type 
TYPE I - Historic. Scenic, & 

Natural 

No. o( Areas 

Land Acres 

Water Acres 

Total Acres 

Trail Miles 
TYPE II - Land-Onented 

Recreation 

No of Areas 

Land Acres 

Water Acres 

Total Acres 
TYPE III • Water-Onented 

Recreation 

No. of Areas 

Land Acres 

Water Acres 

Total Acres 

Stream Miles 



Montana 


N Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 


628 


30 


45 


703 


186,008 


82,584 


NA 


270,592 








NA 





188.008 


82,584 


NA 


270,592 


128 


NA 


NA 


128 


23 


841^ 


579 a/ 


1 ,543 a/ 


2,104.393 


l,213,100 a/ 


18,387,845 a/ 


21,705,338 ay 


NA 


5,914 


11,581 


17,495 


2,104,393 


1,219,014 a/ 


18,399,416^ 


21,722,833 a ' 


67 


121 


93 


281 


4,993 


29,170 


1 30,642 


164,805 


826 


288,759 


92,327 


381,912 


5.819 


317,929 


222,969 


546,717 


2,700 


572 


6.834 


10,106 



a Includes rest areas 



Outdoor Recreation 

Outdoor recreation resource use is highly de- 
pendent on natural landscape features and man- 
made opportunities. Although no land is specifi- 
cally identified for recreation use in table 7, a large 
portion of the noncommercial forest, barren and 
tundra, range and water acreage is available for 
recreation. Table 9 summarizes the number of 
areas and acreages devoted to recreation in the 
study area. 

Table 10 summarizes selected wateroriented 
recreation resources (type III). Although the 
acreages in tables 9 and 1 appear large, not all of 
these areas are devoted exclusively to recreation. 
The existence of large tracts of Federal lands pro- 
vides substantial opportunities for dispersed re- 
creational pursuits. 



Significant outdoor recreational opportunities in 
the study area consist of abundant big game in the 
mountains, trout in the Upper Yellowstone River 
and paddlefish in the Lower Yellowstone, impres- 
sive mountain scenery in the Beartooth Plateau, 
and extensive wilderness in the Absaroka and 
Wind River Mountains. The study area is also 
nationally important as a route to Yellowstone and 
Grand Teton National Parks and provides numer- 
ous tourist facilities for vacationers. Archaeologi- 
cal and historical sites are relatively numerous, 
consisting of early Indian settlement and cultural 
sites, historic trails, battlefields, and forts. How- 
ever, only a few of these sites, such as the Custer 
Battlefield, are developed. Other developed recre- 
ation sites include Theodore Roosevelt National 
Memorial Park, Devils Tower National Monument, 
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, camp- 
ing facilities in the national forests and at most 
major reservoirs, and a number of State parks. 



24 



Table 10 
SELECTED WATER-ORIENTED RECREATION RESOURCES 



Land Classification 


Montana 


N. Dakota 


Wyoming 


Study Area 


Local Parks Inc. — Those at 










Federal Reservoirs 










No. of Areas 


2 


25 





27 


Land Acres 


11 


6,252 





6,263 


Water Acres 





3,408 





3,408 


Total Acres 


11 


9.660 





9,671 


State Parks & Recreation Areas 










No. of Areas 


8 


3 


3 


14 


Land Acres 


3.181 


2,139 


25,300 


30,620 


Water Acres 


826 


10 


35,700 


36,536 


Total Acres 


4,007 


2,149 


61,000 


67,156 


State Fishing & Hunting Areas 










No. of Areas 


20 


16 


NA 


36 


Land Acres 


986 


5,072 


NA 


6,058 


Water Acres 


NA 


1.392 


19,902 


21,294 


Total Acres 


986 


6,464 


19,902 


27,352 


National Wildlife Refuges & Fish 










Hatcheries 










No. of Areas 


NA 


4 


1 


5 


Land Acres 


NA 


10,528 


5 


10.533 


Water Acres 


NA 


1,612 


NA 


1,612 


Total Acres 


NA 


12,140 


5 


12,145 


Indian Reservations 










No. of Areas 


3 


2 


1 


6 


Land Acres 


NA 


420 


NA 


420 


Water Acres 


NA 





NA 


NA 


Total Acres 


NA 


420 


NA 


420 


Federal Reservoirs 










No. of Areas 


4 


21 


3 


28 


Land Acres 


740 


2,904 


105,337 


108,981 


Water Acres 


NA 


268,023 


17,286 


285,309 


Total Acres 


740 


270,927 


122,623 


394,290 


Private Lands 










No. of Areas 


12 


48 


85 


145 


Land Acres 


75 


1,595 


NA 


1,670 


Water Acres 


NA 


2,143 


19,439 


21 ,582 


Total Acres 


75 


3,738 


19,439 


23,252 


Streams & Stream Systems 










No. of Areas 


18 


2 


NA 


20 


Land Acres 


NA 


260 


NA 


260 


Water Acres 


NA 


12,171 


NA 


12,171 


Total Acres 


NA 


12,431 


NA 


12,431 


Total Stream Miles 


2,600 


572 


6,834 


10,006 



Source: USD I Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service 



25 



Table 11 

WATER STORAGE FACILITIES GREATER THAN 

5,000 ACRE-FEET 



Facility 


Planning 




Stream 


Primary 


Storage Capacity 


Name 


Area 




Location 


Purpose* 


Acre-Feet 


Boysen 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




Wind-Bighorn River 


Multiple Use 


922,600 


Brooks Lake 


Bighorn. Wyoming 




Wind River 


M&l 


9,700 


Louis Lake 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




L. Popo Agie R. 


P 


8,000 


Shoshone 


Bighorn. Wyoming 




Shoshone Cr. 


I 


9,700 


Yellowtai! 












Reservoir 


Bighorn, Montana 




Bighorn River 


Multiple Use 


1.375.000 


Tongue River 


Tongue, Montana 




Tongue River 


I 


69,439 


Cooney 


Clarks Fork, Montana 


Red Lodge Cr. 


I 


24,190 


Willow Creek 


Bighorn, Montana 




Lodge Grass Cr. 


I 


23,000 


Mystic Lake 


Upper Yellowstone, 


Montana 


West Rosebud Cr. 


P 


20,800 


Lake Walvoord 


Upper Yellowstone, 


Montana 


Sweet Grass Cr. 


I 


14.000 


Lake Adam 


Upper Yellowstone, 


Montana 


Sweet Grass Cr. 


I 


11,000 


Heart Butte 


Western Tribs.. North Dakota 


Heart River 


Multiple Use 


75,800 


Bowman-Haley 


Western Tribs., North Dakota 


Grand River 


Multiple Use 


21,950 


Nelson Lake 


Western Tribs., North Dakota 


Square Butte Cr 


P 


10,400 


Lake Ho 


Western Tribs.. North Dakota 


Spring Cr. 


FWL, R 


7,130 


Dickson 


Western Tribs., North Dakota 


Heart River 


I, M&l, FC 


6,680 


Buffalo Bill 


Bighorn. Wyoming 




Shoshone River 


I, lnd„ D, M&l 


421.300 


Lake DeSmet 


Powder, Wyoming 




Piney Cr. 


I, Ind. 


239,243 


Keyhole 


Western Tribs., North Dakota 


Belle Fourche River 


Multiple Use 


190,000 


Bull Lake 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




Bull Lake Cr. 


I, Ind. 


152,500 


Lower Sunshine 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




Greybull River 


Multiple Use 


56,800 


Upper Sunshine 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




Greybull River 


Multiple Use 


53,000 


Pilot Butte 


Bighorn. Wyoming 




Wind River 


I, P. M&l 


36,900 


Anchor 


Bighorn, Wyoming 




S. Fork Owl Cr. 


I, D 


17,400 


Big Goose Park 


Tongue, Wyoming 




Big Goose Cr. 


Multiple Use 


11.200 


• iwer. FWL = Rsn 4 Wildlife. R 


= Recreation; 


Vl&l = Municipal & Industnal; FC 


= Flood Control; D = Domestic; Ind. = Industnal. 


Source State Agency Reports. 











Water Utilization 

About one-third of the major rivers in the area 
have some form of reservoir storage on them. 
Table 1 1 lists those storage facilities larger than 
5,000 acre-feet. Most of these facilities were con- 
structed primarily for irrigation or municipal and 
industrial water storage or for power generation. 
Most are maintained and operated for multiple 
uses. Although a large portion of the major 
tributaries of the Yellowstone River do not have 
storage facilities, extensive use of water for irriga- 
tion is made through onstream diversions or 
pumps. Actual consumption of water is about 10 
percent of total streamflow of the Yellowstone 
River at Sidney, Mont., but the amount of water 



that is diverted from streams has significant im- 
pacts on instream flows and water quality locally. 
In addition to water consumption, instream use of 
water for recreation and water quality mainte- 
nance is beginning to be recognized as an impor- 
tant and beneficial water use. 

Man's use of surface water is directly evident in 
the form of water quality impacts arising from both 
depleted flows and pollutants. Water quality prob- 
lems occur throughout the study area, but are 
most prevalent in the Bighorn and Powder River 
Basins. Major problems are associated with in- 
adequate sewage treatment, return flows high in 
nutrients, large natural highly mineralized springs, 
and pollution from petroleum production. Natural 



26 



process sediment is the most visible problem in all 
of the major Yellowstone tributaries and is largely 
the result of natural erosion processes. Even so, 
land disturbances by man, especially from mining 
and agriculture, have resulted in accelerated ero- 
sion. Water quality problems are not confined to 
the plains. Acid-mine drainage from past hard- 
rock mining in the headwaters of some mountain 
streams is an isolated but continual source of pol- 
lution. Water quality will become an increasingly 
important consideration in future flow depletion 
decisions. 

Ground water is relatively limited in the study 
area and occurs most often in the valley alluvium. 
The largest single use of ground water traditionally 



has been for domestic and livestock use. Large 
amounts of ground water have also been used in 
oil field injection to increase well yields. Ground 
water use for irrigation and for coal mining and 
processing is increasing. Current use of ground 
water has resulted in few changes in either the 
quality or quantity of this resource. As the use of 
ground water increases, water levels in wells may 
continue to drop. Lowering of the ground water 
level could, in time, affect streamflows in the re- 
charge area of the impacted aquifer. Coal mining 
activity that overturns or replaces the material 
overlying some aquifers may degrade ground 
water quality. Mining within an aquifer could cause 
a lowering of water levels in that aquifer and affect 
adjacent wells, springs, and streams. 




27 









tz^?S'~* 



18? ' - s Jr. 







CHAPTER 3 

SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 



Population 

Study area population in 1 975 was slightly over 
500.000. a 10 percent increase from 1970 (table 
12). The Northeast Wyoming and Upper Yel- 
lowstone, Mont., planning areas each represent 
about one-fourth of the study area's current popu- 
lation. These two areas contain the major urban 
centers — Casper, Wyo.. and Billings. Mont. The 
growth in study area population between 1970 
and 1975 represents a reversal of the 1960 to 
1970 downward trend. The reversal was due to 
energy development and a healthier agricultural 
sector. 

The number of persons living on farms has been 
decreasing areawide. The percentage of the 



population residing on farms in 1970 varied con- 
siderably among the planning areas. Almost 35 
percent of the North Dakota Tributaries' residents 
lived on farms, whereas less than 8 percent of the 
population lived on farms in the Upper Yel- 
lowstone planning area of Montana. The presence 
of Billings in the Upper Yellowstone area is the 
major reason the area's percentage of farm resi- 
dents is so low. 

The 1970 median age of study area residents 
was 28.0 compared to 28.3 nationally. The study 
area contains a higher percentage of people 
under 18 years (37.6) than the Nation (34.3). The 
median age and age distribution did not vary a 
great deal among the seven planning areas. 



Table 12 
POPULATION ESTIMATES FOR STUDY AREA 



Category Area 


1960 


1970 


1975 


Study Area 


466,595 


456,612 


502,784 


Upper Yellowstone 


(100,992) 


(105,984) 


(117.700) 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


(18,324) 


(17,153) 


(18,600) 


Tongue-Powder 


(15.712) 


(15,060) 


(14,300) 


Lower Yellowstone 


(51,046) 


(44,886) 


(48,578) 


North Dakota Tributaries 


(107,649) 


(97,241 ) 


(97,969) 


Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


(70.188) 


(68,774) 


(75.623) 


Northeast Wyoming 


(102.684) 


(107,514) 


(130,014) 


3 States 


1 ,637,279 


1,644,617 


1.759.000 


% of 3 States 


28.5 


27.8 


28.6 


% Urban 


46.2 


50.7 


NA 


% Farm 


23.0 


18 .1 


NA 


°o Rural Nonfarm 


30.8 


31.2 


NA 



Source Level B current and proiected population income and earnings ad hoc 
report 



29 



Table 13 

YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY 

PERSONS 25 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER— 1970 



Education Level 






Number 


Elementary 




to 8 years 


25,271 


8 years 


45,091 


High School 




Less than 4 years 


36,148 


4 years 


78,704 


College 




Less than 4 years 


34.025 


4 years or more 


22,677 



Study Area 



- United States 



Percent 

10.5 
18.6 

14.9 
32.5 

14.1 
9.4 



Percent 

15.5 
12.7 

19.4 
31.1 

10.6 
10.7 



Education 

Educational attainment by the area's people 
compares very favorably with the Nation (table 
13). A higher percentage of the area's residents 
have some college education than do all the Na- 
tion's residents, and a smaller percentage have 
less than an 8th-grade education. For an area that 
is more rural than the Nation as a whole, such 
comparisons speak well of the educational re- 
sources. 

People in urban areas generally have attained 
higher levels of education than those in the rural 
areas so planning areas such as the North Dakota 
Tributaries that are the most rural had the lowest 
levels of formal education. 

Income 

The 1970 average family income in the area 
was almost $9,400, which was about 15 percent 
lower than the national average. Average family 
incomes varied considerably among study areas 
from a high of $1 0,878 in Northeast Wyoming to a 
low of 58,084 in the North Dakota portion of the 
area. In Northeast Wyoming the average ex- 
ceeded the national average by about 1 percent. 
The distribution of the income (figure 9) was not 
too much different than the Nation's: however. 
there were relatively fewer study area families 
making $10,000 or more when compared to the 
U.S. The income distribution in Northeast Wyom- 
ing was practically identical to the U.S. whereas 
the North Dakota and Clarks Fork-Bighorn, Mont., 



areas' incomes were more heavily distributed to 
the lower incomes than the Nation or any of the 
other planning areas. 

Per capita income in the study area in 1974 
(adjusted to 1975 dollars) was about $5,400, 
compared to a national average of almost $5,800. 
The Clarks Fork-Bighorn, Mont., planning area's 
personal income was $4,200, only 71 percent of 
the national average, whereas Northeast Wyom- 
ing's per capita income was a little higher than the 
Nation's. 



Figure 9 
Family Income Distribution 



40 - 



30 



20 



10- 



38.4 



23.6 



Less 
Than 5 



24.1 



10.9 



3.0 



5 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 25 25 and Over 
(Income Class ($000) 



30 



Figure 10 
Percent of Earnings By Source — 1974 



Agriculture 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Trans., Comm. 

& Public Utilities 

Trade 

Fin, Ins. & Real 

Estate Services 

Federal Civilian 

Govt. 

State & Local 

Gov't. 

Other 



Key 



1— Mont . Upper Yellowstone 
2— Mont .. Clarks Fork-Bighorn 
3— Mont . Tongue-Powder 
4 — Mont . Lower Yellowstone 
5— N.D.. North Dakota Tnbs 
6— Wyo , Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 
7— Wyo .. Northeast Wyoming 



I 



10 
(Percent) 



15 



20 



Earnings 

Agriculture, including forestry, is the base indus- 
try that contributes the most to primary earnings in 
the study area (figure 10). Agriculture is a much 
more important contributor to earnings in the area 
(16.8 percent) than the Nation (3.7 percent). The 
relative contribution of individual planning areas to 
total output of each sector is depicted by the size 
of the numbered areas in each bar of figure 1 0. For 
example, area 5 contributed the most to agricul- 
tural earnings of the study area, whereas planning 
area 7 was the most important contributor to earn- 
ings for the mining sector. One cannot determine 
from this figure, however, the percentage con- 
tribution of a given sector in a specific planning 
area. 

To determine the relative importance of sectors 
for each planning area, one must refer back to the 
individual planning area reports. In those reports 
one will find, for example, that in Northeast Wyom- 
ing agriculture contributes only 3.4 percent of total 
earnings, whereas in the Lower Yellowstone area 
of Montana it accounts for almost 41 percent of the 
total earnings. 

Mining, including oil and gas, is also more im- 
portant to the area than it is to the Nation. Over 8 
percent of the area's earnings are due to mining 
compared to only a little over 1 percent nation- 
wide. Almost 18 percent of Northeast Wyoming's 
earnings were due to mining, whereas only about 
1 .3 percent of the Upper Yellowstone, Mont., earn- 
ings came directly from mining. Manufacturing, 
which is nationally by far the most important sector 
in terms of earnings, ranks eighth in the study 
area. 



Wholesale and retail trade generates the most 
earnings of all sectors. Trade, however, depends 
heavily on base sectors such as agriculture and 
mining for its sales. The importance of trade in 
terms of total earnings varies considerably, from 
about 1 percent in the Lower Yellowstone, Mont., 
to almost 24 percent in the Upper Yellowstone, 
Mont. The Upper Yellowstone area is high due to 
the wholesale-retail trade center at Billings. 




Employment 

Ranking sectors by employment provides ranks 
similar to those that resulted from ranking sectors 
by earnings. Farm employment when combined 
with farm proprietors accounts for almost 15 per- 
cent of the area's total employment (figure 1 1 ). It is 
not possible to compare other sectors to agricul- 

Figure 11 
Percent Employment by Source — 1974 



Farm Proprietors 
Nonfarm Proprietors 
Wage & Salary 
Employment 

Agriculture 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Trans., Comm. 

& Public Utilities 

Trade 

Fin., Ins. & Real 

Estate 

Services 

Federal Civilian 

Govt. 

State & Local 

Gov't. 



Key 

1 — Mont , Upper Yellowstone 
2 — Mont , Clarks Fork-Bighom 
3 — Mont ., Tongue-Powder 
4— Mont.. Lower Yellowstone 
5— N.D.. North Dakota Tnbs. 
6— Wyo., Wmd-Bighom-Clarks Fork 
7— Wyo.. Northeast Wyoming 



10 15 

(Percent) 



20 



31 



Table 14 
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 



Area 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 






- Percent — 




Upper Yellowstone 


5.8 


5.4 


5.4 


6.9 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


7.9 


75 


8.3 


8.5 


Tongue-Powder 


5.0 


4.6 


4.1 


5.0 


Lower Yellowstone 


4.3 


4.2 


4.2 


4.7 


North Dakota Tnbutanes 


63 


6.6 


6.1 


5.8 


Northeast Wyoming 


38 


3.1 


3.2 


3.5 


Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 


J 4 


3.8 


3.8 


4.7 


State Parts of Study Area 










Montana 


55 


52 


5.2 


8.1 


North Dakota 


4.9 


5.1 


5.0 


4.9 


Wyoming 


3.8 


33 


3.4 


4.2 


State of: 










Montana 


6.1 


6.2 


6.7 


8.1 


North Dakota 


4.9 


5 1 


5.0 


4.9 


Wyoming 


3.8 


3.3 


3.4 


4.2 


United States 


5.6 


4.9 


5.6 


8.5 


Study Area 


5.1 


4.8 


4.8 


5.3 



ture since nonfarm proprietors are not distributed 
over the nonfarm sectors. Trade, however, is the 
most important individual sector, providing 18 
percent of the area's jobs. State and local gov- 
ernment provides jobs for almost 1 1 percent of the 
area employment which makes it an important 
sector. 

Study area unemployment for the past four 
years has tended to be lower than the national 
average (table 14). The highest unemployment 
rates within the study area occur in the Clarks 
Fork-Bighorn area of Montana and in the North 
Dakota Tributaries area. Northeast Wyoming has 
had the lowest unemployment rate of the 7 plan- 
ning areas. The study area's unemployment has 
consistently been below that of the State of Mon- 
tana, higher than the State of Wyoming, and about 
the same as the State of North Dakota (table 14). 

Agricultural Sales 

Livestock traditionally has been the largest con- 
tributor to agricultural sales in the study area. The 
latter is also generally true of all seven planning 
areas except for North Dakota, where crops have 
in some years contributed as much or more than 
livestock to total agricultural sales. 




32 



Agricultural sales almost doubled between 
1 969 and 1 974 (table 1 5). Part of the increase was 
due to increased production, but a large part was 
due to increased prices. The year 1 974 was a very 
favorable year for agricultural prices, especially 
crops. Since that time, agricultural commodity 
prices have fallen severely so that similar figures 
for today are likely to be lower than in 1974. 

Production expenses continue to go up (table 
1 5). As a value these expenses accrue primarily to 
the support of other businesses. Like all ex- 
penses, without these expenditures by the agricul- 



tural sector many of the other businesses would 
not exist. 

Average farm size continued to increase in the 
early 1 970's in the study area. The largest farms in 
terms of acres occur in the Northeast Wyoming 
and Tongue-Powder, Mont., planning areas. 
Farms in these areas tend to be less intensively 
used compared to other areas. Much of the land in 
the designated areas is grazed by livestock, and 
relatively little is farmed. The total acreage farmed 
was about the same in 1974 as it was in 1959. 



Table 15 
FARM SIZE, VALUE OF PRODUCTION, 
FARM EXPENSES 



AND 



Category/Area 


1959 


1964 


1969 


1974 


Land in Farms (1 ,000 Acres) 


50,901 


52,594 


51 ,540 


50,831 


No. of Farms 


24.509 


22,379 


21,715 


19,929 


Ave. Size of Farms (Ac.) 


2,077 


2,350 


2,373 


2,551 


Upper Yellowstone 


(1,757) 


(1,845) 


(1,851) 


(1,780) 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


(2,695) 


(2,305) 


(2,861) 


(2,889) 


Tongue-Powder 


(5,232) 


(5,742) 


(5,325) 


(5,099) 


Lower Yellowstone 


(2,986) 


(3.557) 


(3,408) 


(3,529) 


North Dakota Tributaries 


(1,073) 


(1,311) 


(1,320) 


(1 ,360) 


Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


(1,843) 


(2,242) 


(2,340) 


(2,400) 


Northeast Wyoming 


(4,856) 


(5,145) 


(4,951) 


(5.221) 


Total Value of Ag. Products 










Sold ($000) 


273,806 


293,599 


454,344 


834,630 


% Sales from Crops — Study Area 










Total 


27.8 


36.0 


28.7 


47.0 


Upper Yellowstone 


(30.3) 


(27.8) 


(17.0) 


(32.0) 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


(34.4) 


(39.3) 


(28.4) 


(41.4) 


Tongue-Powder 


(16.3) 


(17.0) 


(14.0) 


(29.2) 


Lower Yellowstone 


(29.8) 


(38.3) 


(31.9) 


(53.9) 


North Dakota Tributaries 


(34.8) 


(49.4) 


(43.9) 


(60.0) 


Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


(29.3) 


(32.6) 


(29.1) 


(47.4) 


Northeast Wyoming 


(7.0) 


(9.4) 


(5.2) 


(12.1) 


% Sales from Livestock-Study 










Area 


72.2 


64.0 


71.3 


53.0 


Upper Yellowstone 


(69.7) 


(72.2) 


(83.0) 


(68.0) 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


(65.6) 


(60.7) 


(71.6) 


(58.6) 


Tongue-Powder 


(83.7) 


(83.0) 


(86.0) 


(70.7) 


Lower Yellowstone 


(70.2) 


(61.6) 


(68.1) 


(46.1) 


North Dakota Tributaries 


(65.2) 


(50.6) 


(56.1) 


(40.0) 


Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork 


(70.7) 


(67.3) 


(70.9) 


(52.6) 


Northeast Wyoming 


(93.0) 


(90.6) 


(94.8) 


(87.9) 


Farm Production Expenses ($000) 


NA 


NA 


367,366 


637,918 



33 





•ti 



- 




CHAPTER 4 

PRESENT AND FUTURE PROBLEMS AND NEEDS 
WITHOUT A PLAN 



Several of the ad hoc groups mentioned earlier 
in this report developed natural resource 
baselines and identified the resource problems 
and needs evident in 1975 and those projected to 
occur by 1985 (near term) and by 2000 (middle 
term). 

In some instances, the State study teams ad- 
justed the projections to accommodate known 
local problems and preferences. 

Rather than relying on single projections for the 
near- and long-term, multilevel projections were 
developed wherever it seemed both appropriate 
and practical. Such alternative levels were pro- 
jected for energy, instream flows, and agricultural 
production. 

In order to determine residual needs, i.e., those 
needs which would not likely be met by the private 
sector, it was necessary first to determine future 
conditions "without" a plan. These conditions 
were derived by analyzing the historical trends of 
water use and related land activities and project- 
ing them to the future. It is important to note that 
the "without" condition assumes continuation of 
ongoing Federal and State programs but assumes 
no additional involvement or interference. 

A summary of results is presented here for each 
of the seven planning areas, and for the total study 
area. 

Agricultural Production 

To establish a base from which to make projec- 
tions of crop and livestock production needs and 
capability, reliance was placed on a study of Ag- 
ricultural Census reports for every five years, 



1949-1969. and Statistical Reporting Service data 
for 1970 through 1974. Derived "base" figures for 
crop acreages and production were taken as the 
average of 1972-1974: livestock production and 
numbers were for 1974. 1 

Two of three projections of crop yields, 
acreages, and production were based on nation- 
ally consistent OBERS 2 estimates of national 
requirements. These estimates for 1 985 and 2000 
were disaggregated to the various States by 
OBERS, and the ad hoc group further disaggre- 
gated the State estimates, on a crop-by-crop 
basis, to the planning areas, using State county 
data. Livestock production figures were not avail- 
able at less than State level, and county livestock 
numbers were used to disaggregate to the plan- 
ning areas. 

The Series E projections of OBERS are based 
on a population projection which assumes a birth 
rate that eventually will result in no further popula- 
tion growth nationwide except for immigration. 
Series E' projections were based on the same 
population as Series E. but assumptions relating 
to the agricultural sector were altered to generate 
Series E'. The altered assumptions relate primar- 
ily to greater national exports, but some adjust- 
ments in per capita consumption rates and pro- 
ductivity were made as well. 



' Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area "Agricul- 
tural Projections and Supporting Data," Agricultural Ad Hoc 
Work Group. 

2 An acronym that stands for Office of Business Economics 
(OBE), now known as Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. 
Dept. of Commerce, and Economic Research Service (ERS), 
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



35 



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36 



Within the study area much of the grain, most 
hay, and all pasture are devoted to maintaining 
livestock. Livestock production needs were pro- 
jected by OBERS for six commodities — beef and 
veal, pork, lamb and mutton, chickens, eggs, and 
milk. Table 16 shows these needs for the major 
categories of livestock by the years 1985 and 
2000 in relation to the 1975 base. 

There is not always a direct correlation in each 



study area of the projected livestock numbers and 
related crop and roughage requirements. In view 
of this, the OBERS E AND E' projections for live- 
stock production were converted to the related 
feed unit requirements to determine whether the 
projected production for each planning area and 
for the Yellowstone study area as a whole was 
adequate to meet the feed requirements of live- 
stock numbers projected by OBERS (table 17). 



Table 17 

YELLOWSTONE STUDY AREA 

LIVESTOCK FEED UNITS PRODUCED AND CONSUMED 

OBERS PROJECTIONS— SERIES E' 





Feed Units Produced 


Feed Units Reguired 


Excess 


pr Deficit Feed Units 


Area 


Roughage 


Grains 


Rouqhaqe 


Grains 


Rouqhage 


Grains 


Total 


























1 1 ULJ Jd 1 1 U -J 

1985 








Montana 
















Upper Yellowstone 


1,201,812 


241,066 


1,794,880 


198,781 


-593,068 


42,285 


-550,783 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


936.934 


140,115 


1,077,231 


115,507 


-140,297 


24,608 


-115,689 


Tongue-Powder 


870,064 


79.374 


1,046,059 


98,662 


-175,995 


-19,288 


-195,283 


Lower Yellowstone 


2,012,693 


393,224 


2,528,444 


257,072 


-515.751 


136,152 


-379,599 


Total 


5,021,503 


853,779 


6,446,614 


670,022 


-1,425,111 


183,757 


-1,241,354 


North Dakota 
















North Dakota 
















Tributanes 


5,786,104 


1,688,012 


5,404,999 


631,309 


381.105 


1 ,056,703 


1,437,808 


Wyoming 
















Wind-Bighorn- 
















Clarks Fork 


1,708,819 


247,332 


1,421,036 


138,462 


287,783 


108,870 


396,653 


Northeast Wyoming 


2,647,353 


234,539 


2,244,120 


216,666 


403,233 


17,873 


421.106 


Total 


4,356,172 


481,871 


3,665,156 


355,128 


691,016 


126,743 


817,759 


Study Area 


15.163,779 


3,023,662 


15,516,769 


1,656,459 
2000 


-352.990 


1,367,203 


1,014,213 


Montana 
















Upper Yellowstone 


1.289,501 


291,970 


2,244,867 


238,883 


-955,366 


53,087 


-902,279 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn 


1,120,499 


164,809 


1,325,961 


140,174 


-205,462 


24,635 


-180,827 


Tongue-Powder 


985,558 


84,371 


1,287,620 


120,135 


-302,062 


35.764 


337,826 


Lower Yellowstone 


2,270,841 


520.952 


3,180,126 


318,555 


-909,285 


202,397 


-706,888 


Total 


5,666,399 


1,062,102 


8,038,574 


817,747 


-2,372,175 


244,355 


-2,127.820 


North Dakota 
















North Dakota 
















Tributaries 


6,580,822 


2,367,064 


7,539,045 


792,388 


-958,223 


1,574,676 


616,453 


Wyoming 
















Wind-Bighorn- 
















Clarks Fork 


2,000,302 


300,973 


1.539,719 


144,758 


460,583 


156,215 


616,798 


Northeast Wyoming 


3,079,352 


243.511 


2,397,819 


225,451 


681,533 


18,060 


699.593 


Total 


5,079,654 


544,484 


3,937,538 


370,209 


1,142,116 


174,275 


1,316,391 


Study Area 


17,326,875 


3,973,650 


19,515,157 


1,980,344 


-2,188,282 


1,993,306 


-194,976 



37 



Analysis of table 1 7 indicates that the individual 
planning areas may or may not be able to meet 
their own needs, but that the Yellowstone Study 
Area as a whole will not. 

Based on projected production requirements, 
table 1 8 shows, in the first three columns, the base 
agricultural acreages as well as those projected 
by OBERS to the target years 1985 and 2000 for 
Series E and E'. Here the lesser future acreages, 
despite greater volumes of projected needed pro- 
duction, reflect higher unit yields with continued 
improvements in technology and farm manage- 
ment. 




Table 18 
PROJECTED NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE 















Harvested 


Acreage 












Base 


Series E 


SeriesE' 


Ad Hoc Group 


Without 


3E/3E' 


Planning Area 


1975 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


3E/3E' 
1985 2000 


Plan 
1985 2000 


Resi 
1985 


lual Need 

2000 


















Upper Yellowstone 
























Irngated 
Nonirngated 
Clarkt Fort Bighorn 


175 
290 


155 
231 


156 
227 


158 
276 


159 
296 


x hss 


412 /442 


188 
290 


207 
290 


196 /l7, 


""/MS 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
Tongue-Powder 


116 
162 


100 
138 


100 
140 


102 
168 


103 
188 


157 /l37 


,5 '/l49 


120 
162 


124 
162 


"/17 

- M /6 


w /25 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
Lower Yellowstone 


31 
104 


30 
79 


32 
79 


30 
101 


32 

117 


1aJ /93 


" 8 /,16 


33 
104 


36 
104 


H /60 

-27-3 


K /eo 
-"Via 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
North Dakota Tributaries 


144 
853 


138 
619 


146 
583 


146 
750 


155 
799 


369 /285 


"*/373 


169 
853 


207 
853 


W/116 


" e /l66 
-^54 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
Wind-Bighorn Claris Fork 


56 
3,621 


91 
3,562 


148 
3.685 


102 
4,008 


178 
4,515 


91 /102 


'«/413 


86 
3.359 


135 
3,180 


S /16 
BB /649 


,3 /278 
""/l 302 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
Northeast Wyoming 


328 

1 


307 
1 


307 
0+ 


336 
0+ 


346 
0+ 


a^w 


307 /347 


337 
1 


346 
1 


JO/., 
-Vl 


-«°Ao 
-Vi 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 
Study Area 


94 
246 


94 
196 


98 

174 


101 
225 


107 
253 


M /10. 


M /107 


109 
238 


109 
228 


-'Vs 
-«M3 


-"/■a 


Irrigated 
Nonirngated 


952 

5,277 


915 
4,826 


987 
4,888 


975 
5,828 


1,080 
6,170 


'""/Mia 


,86 °/l947 


1,042 
5,007 


1,172 
4,818 


**/37i 

- ,81 /S21 


^/TTS 
*>/l302 



Source: Seven Planning Area reports and Agncultural Ad Hoc Work Groups report, "Agncultural Proiections and Supporting Data 



38 



Table 19 
MUNICIPAL. RURAL DOMESTIC. AND LIVESTOCK WATER* 











Average Annual Water Consumption 






Municipal 1 " 




Rural Domestic ' Livestock Water E/E7Pond Evaporation 11 ' 


Planning Area 


1975 


1985 


2000 


1975 1985 2000 1975 1985 2000 



-Thousand Acre-Feet - 



Upper Yellowstone 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 

darts Fort-Bighorn 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 

Tongue-Powder 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 

Lower Yellowstone 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 

North Dakota Tributaries 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 

Wlnd-Blghorn-Clarts Fork 
Low 

Most Probable 
High 

Northeast Wyoming 
Low 

Most Probable 
High 

Study Area 

Low 

Most Probable 

High 



6.8 



1 1 



08 



28 



102 



7.9 



8.1 


89 


82 


9.1 


8.2 


9.3 


1.1 


1.3 


1.2 


1.5 


1.2 


1.5 


1 


1.2 


1.2 


2.2 


1.5 


3.5 


3.0 


3.5 


3.2 


39 


3.1 


39 



12.3 
13.6 



5.0 15.0 



34.6 63.1 



16.7 
17.2 



10.2 



20.0 



636 



03 



02 



0.1 



0.5 



1.4 



0.4 



4 8 



3.3 



0.3 0.3 3.8/3.8/8.9 5.3/5.2/9.5 5.9/6.4/11.0 



0.2 0.2 2.5/2.5/9.2 3.3/3 2/10.4 3.7/3.9/11.0 



0.1 0.1 2.3/2.3/17.8 3.1/3.1/20.0 3.6/3.7/22.1 



0.5 0.5 5.9/5.9/28 5 7.8/7.5/31.7 9.0/9.3/37.4 



1.4 1.4 19.0/19.0/47.0 20. 2 d, 20. 6/52.0 26.8/28.7/70.0 



4 0.4 6.0/6 0/4.9 6.3/6.3/6.0 6.7/6.7/9.1 



4.8 4. 1 



3.7/3.7/5.5 4.5/4.4/6.7 5.9/5.7/8.5 



3.3 3.3 43.2/43.2/121.8 50.5/50.3/136.3 61.6/64,4/169.1 



a/ Planning area report estimates 

b/ Generally about 35-50 percent of diversion requirement 

c/ Based on unit requirements in the 1975 National Water Assessment and rural farm population protections in Yellowstone Study 

d, Requirements for 1975, increased to accommodate 1985/2000 livestock population increases for E and E' 



Municipal, Rural Domestic, and 
Livestock Water 

The amount of water diverted from streams or 
withdrawn from aquifers for municipal, rural 
domestic, and livestock watering purposes varies 
greatly throughout the study area. For purposes 
of this study, estimates of 100 gallons per capita 
per day (gpcd) in rural areas to 200 gpcd in some 
cities were used to determine municipal water 
requirements. This averages out to about 150- 



185 gpcd. It is worth noting that while energy- 
related development will add significantly to the 
requirements of a given community, the overall 
study area impact is not great. Consumptive use 
values were estimated at 35-60 percent of aver- 
age per capita uses to give the average annual 
amounts shown in table 19. Rural domestic water 
consumption estimates in table 19 reflect unit 
usage as determined in the 1975 National Water 
Assessment and rural farm population as deter- 
mined in the Yellowstone Study. 



39 



. 









Livestock water needs were estimated by multi- 
plying the estimatedlllivestock numbers based on 
Series E and E' production projections by the con- 
sumption rates established for each type of ani- 
mal. Estimates also were developed for livestock 
water impoundment evaporation which for the 
study area is greater in magnitude than the direct 
animal consumption. 

Future requirements for municipal, rural domes- 
tic, and livestock water can generally be met under 
ongoing programs without the addition of plan 
elements. 



Nonenergy Industry 

Nonenergy industrial water is comprised of 
water needed for manufacturing and for the min- 
ing and processing of nonenergy minerals. In the 
case of nonenergy minerals — both metallic and 
nonmetallic — estimates were developed initially 
for each State located within the study area and 
later allocated to individual planning areas on a 
judgment basis. As reflected in table 20, about 85 
percent of the total is the result of projected mining 
and the concentration of copper in the Wind- 
Bighorn-Clarks Fork area of Wyoming. 



Table 20 
NONENERGY INDUSTRY WATER 







Water 


Consumption 


(Average Annual) 






Planning Area 


1975 




1985. 


2000 






Mfg* 


NMF*' 


Mfg 


NMP 


Mfg 


NMP 














Upper Yellowstone 


8.7 


+ 


9.4 


0.1- 


10.1 


0.7 


Clarks Fork-Bighorn c 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Tongue-Powder 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Negl 


Lower Yellowstone 


2.9 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


North Dakota Tributaries 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.1- 


+ 


0.1 


Wlnd-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 


0.1- 


0.1 


0.1 


2.2 


0.2 


5.8 


Northeast Wyoming 


0.4 


0.1 


0.3 


0.1 


0.3 


0.1 


Study Area 


12.1 


0.2 


12.9 


2.5 


13.9 


6.7 



a Mfg Manufacturing 

b/ NMP Nonenergy mineral mining and processing 

c/ Because historical and projected uses are so small, area demands are included in the municipal demands reflected in table 19. 



40 



Energy Industry 

It is apparent that the Yellowstone study area 
faces the possibility of an emerging expansion of 
energy-related activities and potentially major im- 
pacts, as a result, on both the human and natural 
environment. While the potential for increased ac- 
tivity in the development of uranium, natural gas, 
and oil is certainly present, emphasis is currently 
being placed on the area's coal reserves. 

One of the objectives of the Yellowstone study 
was to evaluate the area's capability to satisfy the 
water and land needs associated with energy de- 
velopment. Since energy development is to a 
major degree a function of the private sector, and 
since it is virtually impossible to determine in any 
definitive way the location, magnitude, and timing 
of such development, a number of alternative 
levels of development — each having different land 
and water requirements — were evaluated. 

0/7 and Gas 

Production and reserves of crude oil in the Yel- 
lowstone study area account for about 5 percent of 



■ 




the nationwide totals while the output and re- 
serves of natural gas are insignificant on a na- 
tional scale. An estimated 150 million barrels of 
Yellowstone crude oil was produced in 1975, 
three-quarters of this in Wyoming. 

Under existing "without" conditions, the U.S. 
demand for crude oil nationally is expected to 
continue to rise through the near term, from 6.0 
billion barrels in 1 975 to 8.3 billion barrels in 1 985. 
Domestic production, under the influence of rising 
prices, is also expected to show a near-term 
increase— from 2.9 billion barrels to 4.1 billion bar- 
rels. Crude oil production in the Yellowstone study 
area will probably reflect these national trends. 

To meet new petroleum demands, exploratory 
drilling in new areas and at greater depths will 
have to be conducted nationally. In addition to 
costing more, this exploration will place increasing 
demands on land resources within the study area. 
In this respect, industrial need for access to ex- 
panded drilling areas will be contending both with 
existing surface uses and mounting demands for 
more intensive and exclusive recreation uses. 

Drilling water needs have been minor and are 
not expected to increase significantly. 

Petroleum industry water requirements for sec- 
ondary recovery by water-flooding will also in- 
crease. In the past, these needs generally have 
been met by pumping from deeper aquifers, which 
are relatively inaccessible and sometimes of lower 
quality water than is suitable for most purposes. 
As a result, conflicts have been minimal, but with 
increasing interest in the tapping of ground water 
supplies of varying quality for coal-related de- 
velopment, previously uncontested aquifer 
sources may become less readily available. 

Uranium 

Current production levels and reserves de- 
scribed in chapter 2 indicate that the area can 
respond significantly to national uranium needs. 
While uranium can be found in western South 
Dakota, southwestern North Dakota, and eastern 
Montana, the Wyoming Basin District is already 
producing and shows the greatest potential. Its 
discovered and probable reserves aggregate 
some 1 .2 million tons of U3O8 which appear to be 
economically feasible to mine now and in the fu- 
ture. Total production in the study area was about 
1,500 tons of U 3 Os in 1975. 



41 



Demands undoubtedly will increase. Current 
forecasts show the uranium industry having an 
apparent capability to meet demands of the elec- 
trical power industry at least through the 1980s. 
The Energy Research and Development Ad- 
ministration has indicated a probable gap beyond 
1980 between needs and 'proven and probable" 
reserves. In view of this gap potential and in rec- 
ognition of the lead time needed before uranium 
mining can commence, continued exploration is 
necessary. Unlike coal deposits, uranium de- 
posits tend to be small and difficult to find. 

With about 58 percent of the present milling 
capacity and largely proven reserves, the Gas 
Hills District in central Wyoming probably will 
show some added mine development, but its mill 
capacity (now 5,500 tons of ore per day) is not 
expected to increase. For the southern Powder 
River Basin, exploration undoubtedly will be very 
active and added mine and mill development (pre- 
sently 3,000 tons of ore per day) should double by 
1985. Beyond 1985, new reserve discoveries 
could profoundly increase uranium production in 
the study area. 

For open pit mines, water is needed for dust 
control, vehicle maintenance, and potable uses. 
For underground operations, drilling needs must 
be added. Milling requires water for leaching and 
associated processes and normally for the slurry 
line transport of tailings. However, water pumped 
from the mining pits of underground mines usually 
proves adequate for mine and mill requirements. 
Other potential operations may draw upon ground 
water supplies, but the quantity impact should not 
be too significant. In view of this, the primary ef- 
fects are apt to be the social and environmental 
impacts. 

Coal and Related Industrial Production 

The emergence of a national shortage of oil 
supplies and the presence of huge reserves of 
strippable, low-sulpher coal in the study area have 
created a potential for large-scale coal mining and 
some degree of coal conversion. In view of this, it 
is essential that the study area face up not only to 
its own future requirements but also to its share in 
meeting the Nation's needs. In doing so, it is im- 
portant to recognize that while all but one of the 
area's four small hydroelectric plants and two 
larger ones (Yellowtail 250 MW, and Garrison 400 
MW) are expected to remain in production, the 
opportunity for added hydroelectric capacity is re- 



latively limited. Large increases in thermal power 
generation would make desirable some added 
hydroelectric development for peaking, and the 
area does have some potential in this respect, but 
meeting the needs overall is dependent largely on 
coal-burning fuel plants. The area is already 
caught up in a regional, largely integrated system 
of plants and facilities, to fulfill both regional and 
export needs of the future. This makes it doubly 
important that a broad range of needs, forecasts, 
and alternative ways of meeting those needs be 
evaluated, not only to determine how much of the 
need the area can and is willing to meet, but also to 
minimize whatever adverse impacts might be as- 
sociated with development. 

A model was developed to provide a basis for 
forecasting the possible level, type, and location of 
future energy development and associated re- 
source requirements under alternative energy 
policies and programs. Brief highlights herein are 
from the basic study by Harza Engineering Com- 
pany, "Analysis of Energy Projections and Impli- 
cations for Resource Requirements," December 
1976, conducted as a part of the level B efforts. 




42 




The Harza results are not to be viewed as a goal 
or recommended plan for energy development; 
rather, they illustrate the implications of three dis- 
tinct sets or scenarios of energy policy and prog- 
ram assumptions for the years 1985 and 2000. 
Variations of these three basic runs were made by 
applying constraints of one kind or another as 
considered appropriate and desirable: 

1. A low rate of regional development, in- 
cluding coal production to meet only local 
needs and to cover exports already con- 
tracted or highly probable; 

2. A most probable rate of development 
consistent with national energy con- 
sumption and production forecasts; and 

3. A high rate of development based on the 
maximum contribution that the study area 
energy resources could reasonably be 
expected to make in alleviating shortages 
in domestic nuclear generation and 
eliminating national reliance on imported 
oil and gas. 



For national/regional consistency, the study in- 
volved two components: (1) a "macro" level 
analysis which considered national energy supply 
and demand interaction and identified the North- 
ern Great Plains' share of national energy produc- 
tion 3 ; and (2) a "micro" level analysis which fo- 
cused on energy development of the Yellowstone 
study area. Basically, the location, amount, and 
type of energy development within the study area 
was projected considering the relative economic 
advantages within the national energy system and 
subject to limitations on availability of resources, 
land ownership, land use, environment, transpor- 
tation facilities, equipment availability, and public 
attitudes and preferences regarding development 
and conservation. 

For the initial runs of the Harza model, an as- 
sumption was made that presently existing taxa- 
tion and environmental policies would remain rela- 
tively unchanged into the future. 



^Developed by tne Federal Energy Administration and summanzed in National 
Energy Outlook tor 1976 



43 



Four steps were considered in the process of 
meeting the demand for coal: 

1 Mining— National requirements were pro- 
jected for coal supply regions 7 and 8, 
which cover the same geographic area 
as Northern Great Plains (NGP) supply 
areas 1 through 9, shown by figure 12. 
Six of the NGP supply regions fall within 
the Yellowstone study area, and the 
model was programmed to isolate de- 
mands for each of them. Inputs permitted 
the model to weigh several variables, in- 
cluding mining costs, capacities, over- 
burden ratios, mine life, and stnppable 
reserves; 

2. Transportation to Processor— Provisions 
were made to transport utility coal to pro- 
cessing site by unit train, slurry pipeline, 
or unit train waterway combination and 
industrial coal by conventional train. Both 
costs of transport and capacity con- 
straints were determined for all mining/ 
demand area combinations and each al- 
ternative transportation mode; 

3. Processing — At the processing site, coal 
can be converted to electricity or synthe- 
tic gas or used for industrial purposes. 
Each process has separate production 
costs and capacities; and 

4. Transportation — Processor to Con- 
sumer — For coal converted to electricity 
in the study area, provisions were in- 
cluded to transport it from point of con- 
version to demand point by transmission 
lines. Gas pipelines were not included in 
the model; rather, the activities asso- 
ciated with gasification were handled out- 
side of the model because gasification is 
not economically competitive before year 
2000. 

Overall, the objective in the model was to meet 
demands of each scenario at the least cost for 
mining, coal transportation, conversion to electric- 
ity, and electrical transmission. Mining costs in- 
clude land reclamation fees and severance costs; 
conversion costs include emission taxes. 

The "high" scenario provides an indication of 
the maximum contribution the study area may 
reasonably be expected to make in meeting na- 







Mf. *"» 



£*W 



^ 



tional energy needs constrained primarily by 
energy demands. Here, the report shows 12 un- 
derlying assumptions; 

1 . Economic / technological / environmen- 
tal / social / legal / institutional con- 
straints remaining essentially as now 
applied: 

2. Present taxation/environmental policies 
unchanged: 

3. Adequate capital/low risk/attractive 
wages; 

4. Study area producing 85 percent of coal 
supply regions 7-8 and southern 
Colorado- Wyoming 15 percent; 

5. Social/environmental problems limiting 
coal production to 100 million tons in 
1985 and 200 million tons by 2000 in 
each mining area; 

6. Mining not occurring within one mile of 
cities/towns, under State/Federal high- 
ways, on irrigated croplands, on valley 
floors of major streams/tributaries, or in 
unique environmental areas; 



44 




LEGEND 

Boundary of Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) 

Coal Supply Regions 
Yellowstone Study Area 
1-9 Numbers Designating Coal Mining Areas 

Major Coal Reserve Areas Within the Study Area 



Figure 12 
Coal Field Delineation 



45 




7. Net available link capacities of existing 
railroad lines being expanded to 40 mill- 
ion tons by 1985 and to 100 million tons 
by 2000 (upgraded single track, cen- 
tralized traffic control by 1985 — 
alternating 10 miles each automated 
single and double track by 2000); 

8. Institutional/social/environmental obs- 
tacles to long distance slurry lines being 
removed in the near future, but only 
when railroad capacities are saturated 
to the time-capacity levels heretofore 
listed; 

9. Water supplies delivered to demand 
point not to exceed $450/acre-foot; 

10. Use of mechanical draft towers when 
water costs exceed $450; 

1 1 . New transmission lines as necessary to 
transmit any additional energy by this 
mode; and 

12. Financial incentives available from the 
Federal Government or private sources 
to construct one gasification plant by 
1985; beyond 1990 rapid expansion of 
gasification is assumed; and by 2000, 
resource availability, environmental 
concerns, and social preferences will 
act as the primary constraint. 

For the "most probable" scenario, the assump- 



tions are the same as for the high" scenario, but 
institutional/social/environmental obstacles will 
preclude long distance slurry line development. 
Moreover, uncertainties regarding the amount of 
coal to be moved by rail will preclude large capital 
investments in fixed plant facilities necessary to 
expand rail capacities beyond "high" scenario 
levels. 

The "low" scenario assumptions are; 

1. Production sufficient only to meet local 
needs and exports already guaranteed or 
highly probable; and 

2. No gasification to occur by the year 2000. 

This limits annual mining capacity to 1 1 1 million 
tons by 1985. and lack of added requirements 
beyond that time hold this limit. 

Highlights of information for these three alterna- 
tives are displayed in table 21 . This reflects wide 
variances in coal production, exports, magnitude 
of conversions, water/land requirements, pollution 
emissions, and labor. Recognizing the urgency of 
the Nation's current and projected energy needs, 
the "high" level could be viewed as the "without 
plan" for all resource and socioeconomic compo- 
nents shown. However, it is important to note that 
for some planning areas, the Harza "high" level 
(without plan) was amended to take into account 
constraints imposed by State governments and to 
accommodate local concerns and actions that will 
limit what can be accomplished. 



46 



Table 21 

ENERGY ACTIVITIES, RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS, 

AND AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS 

ALTERNATIVE REGIONAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS 

LOW LEVEL 





Tong 


ue- 


Lower 


North Dakota 


Northeast 




Powder 


Yellowstone 


Tributaries 


Wyoming 


Resource 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


Coal Production (1,000 tons) 


25.000 


25.000 


500 


500 


11. 000 


11 000 


74,500 


74,500 


Number of Mines 


6 


6 


1 


1 


6 


6 


12 


12 


Exports (1,000 tons) 


21,900 


21.900 


400 


400 


5.500 


5,500 


73,100 


73,100 


Rail (1,000 tons) 


21,900 


21 .900 


400 


400 


5,500 


5,500 


73.100 


73.100 


Slurry (1,000 tons) 


























Conversion (1,000 tons) 


3.100 


3,100 


100 


100 


5.500 


5,500 


1,400 


1.400 


Thermal Electricity (1,000 tons) 


3,100 


3,100 


100 


100 


5.500 


5.500 


1,400 


1,400 


Capacity (Megawatts) 


900 


900 


50 


50 


1,222 


1,222 


390 


390 


Generation (Gigawatt-hours) 


5,519 


5,519 


307 


307 


7,493 


7,493 


2,392 


2,392 


Plants (500 Megawatts) 


4 


4 


1 


1 


6 


6 


3 


3 


Syngas (1,000 tons) 


























Capacity (Millions cf/d) 


























Plants (250 Millions cf/d) 


























Water Requirements (Total Acre-Feet) 


15,702 


15,702 


822 


822 


20,592 


20,592 


9,586 


9,586 


Mines 


500 


500 


10 


10 


220 


220 


1,490 


1,490 


Reclamation 


1,405 


1,405 


45 


45 


1,639 


1,639 


2,117 


2,117 


Coal Gasification 


























Electrical Generation 


13,797 


13,797 


767 


767 


18,733 


18,733 


5.979 


5,979 


Slurry Pipeline 


























Land Requirements 


















Strip Mines (Acres-Year) 


360 


360 


12 


12 


421 


421 


543 


543 


Other Coal Needs (Acres) 


1,746 


1,746 


57 


57 


1.716 


1,716 


2,654 


2,654 


Air Pollution Emissions 


















Particulates (Tons/Year) 


541 


541 


30 


30 


733 


733 


233 


233 


Sulfur Oxides (Tons/Year) 


4.510 


4,510 


250 


250 


6,110 


6.110 


1.940 


1,940 


Nitrogen Oxides (Tons/Year) 


451 


451 


25 


25 


611 


611 


194 


194 


Labor (Number ot Employees) 


















Operating 


617 


617 


17 


17 


379 


379 


1,540 


1,540 


Mines 


500 


500 


10 


10 


220 


220 


1,490 


1,490 


Syngas 


























Electrical Generation 


117 


117 


7 


7 


159 


159 


50 


50 


Construction 


























Mines 


























Syngas 


























Electrical Generation 


























Capital Requirements (Millions ot Dollars) 














26 


26 


295 


295 


Mines 





C 








26 


26 


295 


295 


Syngas 


























Electrical Generation 



























47 



Table 21 (Con I ) 

ENERGY ACTIVITIES. RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS, 

AND AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS 

ALTERNATIVE REGIONAL ENERGY DEVELOPMEN1 SCENARIOS 

HIGH LEVEL 





Tongue- 


Lower 


North Dakota 


Northeast 




Powder 


Yellowstone 


Tributaries 


Wyoming 


Resource 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


Coal Production (1,000 Tons) 


100.000 


200 000 


36.300 


230,100 


5-1090 


158,260 


103.500 


203.500 


Number of Mines 


20 


40 


7 


46 


11 


32 


21 


41 


Exports (1,000 Tons) 


96,900 


196.900 


36.200 


173.000 


19.200 


25,600 


102.000 


157.500 


Rail (1 ,000 Tons) 


56.300 


152,600 


7,000 


40,600 








63,800 


118.700 


Slurry (1.000 Tons) 


40.600 


44.300 


29,200 


132.400 


19.200 


25,600 


38,200 


38.800 


Conversion (1.000 Tons) 


3,110 


3.110 


120 


57,120 


34.900 


132,600 


1.500 


46.000 


Thermal Electricity (1.000 Tons) 


3.110 


3.110 


120 


120 


24.600 


28,600 


1.500 


1.500 


Capacity (Megawatts) 


900 


900 


50 


50 


8,870 


8,873 


390 


390 


Generation (Gigawatt-Hours) 


5.521 


5.521 


158 


158 


34,198 


40,806 


2.393 


2.393 


Plants (500 Megawatts) 


2 


2 


1 


1 


18 


18 


1 


1 


Syngas (1,000 Tons) 











57,000 


10,300 


104.000 





44,500 


Capacity (Millions cf/d) 











1,500 


250 


2.524 





1,330 


Plants (250 Millions cf/d) 











6 


1 


10 





5 


Water Requirements (Total Acre-Feet) 


45,800 


55,607 


3,397 


163,326 


115,987 


224.779 


34,145 


92,320 


Mines 


2.000 


4,000 


726 


4,602 


1.082 


3.165 


2,069 


4,069 


Reclamation 


5.620 


11,240 


2,277 


13,940 


8.060 


23.580 


3.111 


5.911 


Coal Gasification 











60,021 


9,986 


100,828 





53.044 


Electric Generation 


13,804 


13,804 


394 


394 


85,494 


102,015 


5,982 


5,982 


Slurry Pipeline 


24,376 


26,563 





84.369 


11,365 


15,191 


22,982 


23,314 


Land Requirements 


















Strip Mines (Acres-Year) 


1.440 


2,880 


583 


3,572 


2,072 


6,061 


798 


1,516 


Other Coal Needs (Acres) 


3.900 


6.900 


1,139 


9,955 


10,992 


18.663 


3.494 


9.146 


Air Pollution Emissions 


















Particulates (Tons/Year) 


2,761 


2,761 


79 


6.184 


18.114 


30,655 


1,196 


6,585 


Sulfur Oxides (Tons/Year) 


33.129 


33,129 


946 


67,978 


216.331 


357.363 


14.356 


73,541 


Nitrogen Oxides (Tons/Year) 


27,607 


27,607 


789 


45,534 


178,435 


279.211 


11.963 


51,493 


Labor (Number of Employees) 


















Operating 


1,987 


4,037 


678 


8,297 


2.868 


10.755 


1.971 


7.136 


Mines 


1.870 


3,920 


671 


4,538 


1,091 


3,300 


1.920 


3,770 


Syngas 











3,752 


624 


6,302 





3,315 


Electrical Generation 


117 


117 


7 


7 


1.153 


1,153 


51 


51 


Construction 


340 


180 


2,490 


2,250 


2,200 


4,440 


1,650 


1.870 


Mines 


340 


180 


320 


500 


230 


240 


310 


210 


Syngas 








2.170 


1.750 


410 


4,200 


1.340 


1.660 


Electrical Generation 














1,560 











Capital Requirements (Millions ot Dollars) 


446 


1,016 


170 


7.221 


3.733 


13,362 


515 


6.337 


Mines 


446 


1.016 


170 


1,217 


225 


775 


515 


1,030 


Syngas 











6,004 


998 


10,079 





5,307 


Electrical Generation 














2,510 


2,508 









4S 



Table 21 (Can't.) 

ENERGY ACTIVITIES, RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS. 

AND AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS 

ALTERNATIVE REGIONAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS 

MOST PROBABLE LEVEL 





Tongue- 


Lower 


North Dakota 


Northeast 




Powder 


Yellowstone 


Tributaries 


Wyoming 


Resource 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


1985 


2000 


Coal Production (1.000 Tons) 


84,650 


200.000 


19 490 


68,890 


17,160 


112,400 


41,500 


136,500 


Number of Mines 


77 


40 


4 


14 


3 


23 


8 


26 


Exports (1,000 Tons) 


80.000 


196.000 


19.400 


30,800 








40.000 


108,500 


Rail (1 ,000 Tons) 


80.000 


196,000 


19.400 


30.800 








40,000 


108,500 


Slurry (1.000 Tons) 


























Conversion (1,000 Tons) 


4,600 


4,000 


90 


90 


17,160 


112,400 


1,500 


28,000 


Thermal Electricity (1 ,000 Tons) 


4.600 


4.000 


90 


90 


6,860 


29,400 


1,500 


1,500 


Capacity (Megawatts) 


1.369 


1,370 


50 


50 


2.914 


9,182 


390 


390 


Generation (Gigawatt-Hours) 


8,395 


7,001 


158 


158 


9,191 


41,766 


2,393 


2,393 


Plants (500 Megawatts) 


3 


2 


1 


1 


6 


18 


1 


1 


Syngas (1 ,000 Tons) 











38,000 


10,300 


83.000 





26,500 


Capacity (Millions cf/d) 











100 


250 


2.024 





790 


Plants (250 Millions cf/d) 











4 


1 


8 





3 


Water Requirements (Total Acre-Feet) 


27,437 


32,742 


2,532 


46,689 


35.879 


203,872 


8,184 


44,115 


Mines 


1,683 


4,000 


390 


1,377 


345 


2,247 


828 


2,638 


Reclamation 


4,757 


11,240 


1,748 


4,903 


2.571 


16,742 


1,374 


3,907 


Coal Gasification 











40.014 


9.986 


80.469 





31 ,588 


Electrical Generation 


20,987 


17,502 


394 


394 


22,978 


104,415 


5.982 


5,982 


Slurry Pipeline 


























Land Requirements 


















Strip Mines (Acres-Year) 


1,219 


2,880 


448 


1.257 


661 


4,303 


353 


1.002 


Other Coal Needs (Acres) 


3.908 


7,370 


635 


4,117 


3,931 


16,577 


1,633 


5,927 


Air Pollution Emissions 


















Particulates (Tons/Year) 


4.197 


3,500 


79 


4,149 


5,611 


29.065 


1,196 


4,405 


Sulfur Oxides (Tons/Year) 


50.369 


42,000 


946 


45,634 


66,291 


340.402 


14,356 


49.601 


Nitrogen Oxides (Tons/Year) 


41,974 


35.005 


789 


30.619 


53,401 


268,831 


11,963 


35.503 


Labor (Number of Employees) 


















Operating 


1,755 


4.098 


367 


3,850 


1.357 


8.479 


823 


4,471 


Mines 


1,577 


3,920 


360 


1,342 


354 


2.256 


772 


2.446 


Syngas 











2,502 


624 


5.029 





1,974 


Electrical Generation 


178 


178 


7 


7 


379 


1,194 


51 


51 


Construction 


70 





380 


1,185 


1,320 


4,830 


1,110 


1.090 


Mines 


70 





130 


225 


160 


280 


200 


200 


Syngas 











960 


410 


3,280 


910 


890 


Electrical Generation 








250 





750 


1,270 








Capital Requirements (Millions of Dollars) 


517 


1,170 


74 


4,215 


1,603 


11,158 


197 


3,821 


Mines 


364 


1,016 


74 


325 


48 


505 


197 


661 


Syngas 











4,003 


998 


8,044 





3,160 


Electrical Generation 


153 


154 








557 


2,608 









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C 
O 

z 


•6 

c 


— 

CD 

LL 


C 
O 

Z 


— 
CD 
LL 


C 

c 
Z 


co 


T3 
CD 
U. 


c 

o 
z 



50 



Land Conservation 

Land conservation measures are recom- 
mended to make wise use of soil, water, and plant 
resources by providing treatment so as to pre- 
serve, maintain, and enhance resource values. 
These measures may include both vegetative and 
mechanical practices and improved management 
of the existing resource. In many areas only 
proper management is required to protect the re- 
source. 

The current status of land conservation is that 
about 41.6 million acres (53 percent) are 
adequately treated in the study area. These in- 
clude both lands that have been treated and those 
that do not need treatment from the forces of wa- 
ter, wind, fire, and climate. In 1975 there were 
about 37.2 million acres classed as needing 
treatment. 

The future land conservation needs without a 



plan were derived on the basis of anticipated fund- 
ing and activity under current ongoing programs. 
Current and projected status of land conservation 
for Federal and non-Federal lands is shown for 
each of the planning areas in table 22 

A special problem encountered, particularly in 
four counties in Montana, is that of saline seeps. 
This condition is caused by underground water 
which reaches the surface and, through evapora- 
tion, leaves a white crust (figure 13) consisting of 
magnesium, sodium, sulfates, and nitrates that is 
damaging to dryland crop production and may be 
harmful to drinking water. The problem stems from 
the geology of the affected areas, but is aggra- 
vated by the crop-fallow dryland farming system 
now in use, particularly for wheat. Because the 
source of the problem may be wholly or in part on 
lands other than those of the landowner adversely 
affected, solutions can be extremely difficult to 
attain. 



Figure 13 
Saline Seep Formation Process 




^^^?^ 



- k, ^^^^v^^^^^^^ 



51 



Table 23 

ESTIMATED ACREAGES AFFECTED BY SALINE 

SEEPS AND IRRIGATION SALINITY 



Planning Area 



Saline Seeps a 




Irrigation Salinity 








23.600 




6,570 


1,000 




17,350 


NA b 




NA b 


15.930 




1.330 


NA b 




NA b 


NA b ' 




97,800 c 


NA b 




NA b 



Upper Yellowstone 
Clarks Fork-Bighorn 
Tongue-Powder 
Lower Yellowstone 
North Dakota Tributaries 
Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 
Northeast Wyoming 



a Investigation ot salinity m hydrological systems m Montana — Water Quality Bureau. July 1975 

bi 1 Information not available, affected areas are not believed substantial. 

c Soil Conservation Service. Wind-Bighom-Clarks For* Basin Type IV Survey- 



Table 23 sets forth information on the acreages 
adversely affected by saline seeps and Irrigation 
salinity. The wet and saline soil areas indicated for 
the Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork planning area 
could show increased agricultural production by 
improving agricultural water management and ir- 
rigation and drainage systems. 



Flood Control and Streambank 
Erosion 

Flood and streambank erosion control needs 
are expressed as estimates of damages to lands 



and existing and potential property by current and 
future human activities. Properties subject to 
damage include buildings, roads, utilities, and 
planted crops required to carry on commerce, 
transportation, and farming operations. 

A fairly comprehensive analysis of flood dam- 
ages was made by the Soil Conservation Service 
for tributaries having less than 400 square miles of 
drainage area and by the Corps of Engineers for 
main stem reaches having at least 400 square 
miles of drainage area in the Missouri River Basin 
Comprehensive Framework Study. 

These estimates were based on an evaluation 
of the primary tangible losses that could be ex- 
pected from potential flood occurrences with exist- 
ing development in the flood plain and existing 
protective works — no attempt was made to in- 
clude losses such as loss of life, health hazards, 
and disruption of transportation that cannot be 
expressed in dollars. Basic flood damage projec- 
tions contained in the 1975 National Water As- 
sessment were used to obtain projection factors 
for future flood damages. OBERS E projections of 
population, personal income, and total agricultural 
earnings were used to generate composite factors 
reflecting flood damage increases. Included were 
three classifications of damages: (1 ) crop and pas- 
ture; (2) other rural; and (3) urban. 



52 



Table 24 summarizes probable average annual 
flood damages by planning area only, though the 
estimates were initially developed on a stream- 
by-stream basis. Distributed about equally bet- 



ween tributary and main stem areas, needs for 
control can be expected to increase about 1 3 per- 
cent by 1985 and nearly 42 percent by the year 
2000. 



Table 24 
CURRENT AND PROJECTED FLOOD CONTROL NEEDS* 



Planning Area 



Area Subject 
to Flo oding 



Average Annual Flood Damages 



1975 



1985 



2000 



Upper Yellowstone 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 

Clarks Fork-Bighorn 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 

Tongue-Powder 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 

Lower Yellowstone 
Tributaries 
Mam Stems 

North Dakota Tributaries 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 

Northeast Wyoming 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 



Thousand Acres 


150.3 


63.6 


86.7 


48.7 


23.1 


25.6 


116.8 


28 1 


88.7 


171.6 


84.1 


875 


415.3 


251.3 


164.0 


132.5 


62.8 


69.7 


107.3 


57.3 


50.0 


1.142.5 


570.3 


572.2 



2.315 

1,461 

854 

260 

128 
132 

637 

74 

563 

1,045 

414 
631 

2.412 

1.337 
1,075 

1,307 
490 

817 

1,077 
732 
345 



Thousand Dollars 

2.650 


3.444 


1.753 


2.484 


897 


960 


293 


367 


154 


218 


139 


149 


680 


760 


89 


126 


591 


634 


1.158 


1.413 


496 


704 


662 


709 


2.733 


3.483 


1.605 


2.273 


1.128 


1.210 


1,446 


1.753 


588 


833 


858 


920 


1.240 


1,631 


878 


1.245 


362 


386 


10.200 


12,851 


5.563 


7,883 


4.637 


4,968 



Study Area 
Tributaries 
Main Stems 



9.053 
4,636 
4.417 



a Updated from Missou n River Basin Framework Study estimates, with interpolations and pnce indexing for 1 975 plus new projections for 1 985 and 2000 



53 



Streambank erosion damage estimates are 
shown in table 25 with sources and constraints in 



distribution by planning areas as indicated by 
footnotes. 



Table 25 
CURRENT AND PROJECTED STREAMBANK EROSION CONTROL NEEDS" 



Total 
Length 

of 
Planning Area or Combinations" Channel 



Length of 
Erosion 



Current 
Total Serious 



Average Annual 
Damages 



1975 



1985 



2000 



Upper and Lower Yellowstone. 
Mont. 
Main Stems 
Major Tributaries 

Clarks Fork-Bighorn, 
Mont.° 
Main Stems 



Stream 
Miles 



671 
767 



Bank Miles 



454 



105 
132 



81 



21 
15 



10 



— Thousand Dollars — 



217 
85 



80 



338 
133 



125 



382 
150 



141 



Tongue-Powder. Mont 
Main Stems b 

Yellowstone. Clarks Fork-Bighorn, 
Tongue-Powder River Tributary 
Areas. Mont. 



1.043 



215 



47,250 1.028 



21 



488 



119 



61 



186 



96 



209 



108 



Little Missouri River 
Tributaries. Mont. 



4,702 



330 



48 



12 



14 



North Dakota Tributaries 














Tributaries 


25,299 


296 


296 


39 


55 


62 


Main Stems 


1,891 


362 


38 


265 


369 


419 


Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork. 














Wyo.b 














Tributaries 


19.447 


1.989 


844 


107 


166 


187 


Main Stems 


1,294 


213 


29 


243 


377 


426 


Northeast Wyoming" 














Tributaries 


33.085 


3,573 


1,548 


220 


343 


388 


Main Stems 


665 


142 


15 


76 


116 


132 


Study Area 


136,568 


8,466 


3,373 


1,520 


2,316 


2,618 


Tributaries 


129.783 


7,216 


3.224 


435 


672 


759 


Main Stems and Major Tributaries 


6.785 


1,250 


149 


1,085 


1,644 


1.859 



ai Based on data in Western United States Water Plan (Westwide Study) and National Streambank Erosion Assessment of 1969. ad|usted to 1975 

conditions. 
b Ad Hoc Group estimates tor entire nvers distnbuted to planning areas based on |udgment of State planning team. 



54 




Indian Water Requirements 

Forecasting Indian water requirements is com- 
plex and difficult in view of current limitations on 
the use of available resource data and because of 
varied interpretations read from treaties and ag- 
reements between Indian tribes and the United 
States as approved by acts of Congress or for- 
malized by executive orders. To understand the 
basic tenets it is necessary to examine the Federal 
reservation system or doctrine. In its simplest 
form, this doctrine means that if the U.S. Govern- 
ment reserves a portion of the public domain for a 
Federal use which ultimately will require water, 
and intends to reserve unappropriated water for 
that purpose, then sufficient amounts for that use 
are reserved from appropriation by private users. 

The effect of the doctrine is twofold: (1) when 
the water is eventually put to use. the water rights 
of the United States will be superior to private 
water rights which were acquired after the date of 
the reservation: and (2) the Federal use is not 
subject to State laws regulating the appropriation 
and use of water. The origin of the doctrine was 
the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case of 
United States v. Rio Grande Dam and Irrigation 
Company, 174 U.S. 680 (1899). 

With respect to Indian water rights, a similar 



form of the reservation doctrine has been set forth . 
It had its beginning in 1908 in the case of Winters 
v. United States. 207 U.S. 564 (1 908), which main- 
tains that the formation of an Indian reservation 
necessarily reserved the water without which the 
lands would have no value. This decision has 
become known as the Winters Doctrine and has 
served as the keystone upon which virtually all 
Indian water rights cases have been based. 

Given a broad interpretation, the Winters Doc- 
trine would appear to assign an unlimited amount 
of water for use on Indian reservations. However, 
most of the related case law has held that the 
quantity of the right is to be measured by the 
amount required for irrigation of all lands within the 
reservation that can be irrigated practically. In 
Arizona v. California, 373 U.S. 546 (1963), the 
amount of water reserved for Indian use was de- 
termined by using Bureau of Reclamation stan- 
dards for measurement of water requirements for 
irrigable lands. It is necessary to note that while 
this ruling appears to fix irrigation potential as the 
measure of all Indian water rights, there is no 
definitive ruling to that effect. Also, it cannot be 
stated with accuracy whether uses for recreation, 
industry, or energy-related development may be 
considered as a portion of the irrigation water al- 
lotment simply as a change of use from the original 
purpose, or whether nonirrigation developments 
entitle the Indians to additional amounts of water 
above those needed for irrigation purposes. 

Litigation concerning Indian water rights is cur- 
rently pending in Federal District Court in Billings. 
Mont. Of three lawsuits pending, two actions were 
brought by the United States on its own behalf and 
on behalf of the Crow and Northern Cheyenne 
Indian tribes to have the water rights adjudicated 
in the Tongue and Bighorn River drainages. The 
third suit, brought by the Northern Cheyenne tribe 
on its own behalf, is to adjudicate the water rights 
in the Tongue River and Rosebud Creek. There 
are a few thousand private water users and sev- 
eral State agencies named as defendants in the 
three lawsuits. 

These actions have not yet gone to trial, and it is 
unlikely that they will go to trial in the near future. 
Motions to dismiss were filed by the State and 
most of the private users in September 1977. 
These motions argue generally that the proper 
forum for adjudication of all of these water 
rights — Federal, Indian, and private — is in Mon- 
tana district courts pursuant to the Montana Water 



55 



Use Act. Until this basic jurisdictional question is 
finally resolved, there will be no further action in 
these cases. 

Pursuant to an act of the State legislature, the 
State of Wyoming January 24, 1977, instituted a 
general adjudication of the nature, extent, and 
relative priority of the water rights of all persons in 
the Bighorn River System and all other sources of 
water in Water Division Number Three, which in- 
cludes the Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork area. The 
United States has been joined in this adjudication 
in both its proprietary capacity with respect to such 
things as national forests and in its fiduciary or 
trustee capacity for and on behalf of the Shoshone 
and Arapahoe Indian tribes of the Wind River Re- 
servation. In the adjudication, the court is being 
asked to (1) confirm those rights of evidence by 
previous court decrees, by certificates of approp- 
riation, or by certificates of construction heretofore 
issued by the Wyoming State Board of Control; (2) 
determine the status of all uncanceled permits to 
acquire the right to the use of the water of the State 
of Wyoming and adjudicate all perfected rights 
thereunder not heretofore adjudicated; (3) deter- 
mine the extent and priority date of and adjudicate 
any interest in the right to use the water of the 
Bighorn River System and all sources in Water 
Division Number Three not otherwise represented 
by the aforementioned certificates or permits; and 
(4) establish, in whatever form determined to be 
most appropriate by the court, one or more tabula- 
tions or lists of all water rights and their relative 
priorities on all sources in Water Division Number 
Three. Since tens of thousands of permits and 
rights are involved, and inasmuch as the case may 
be a precedent-setting one with respect to the 
reservation doctrine, it will undoubtedly be several 
years before the case is settled. 

The importance of these actions in Wyoming 
and Montana is substantial since — whether they 
are tried in State or Federal court — they could 
answer the question of the extent of Federal and 
Indian reserved water rights in the Yellowstone 
River Basin. The adjudicating court will have to 
determine the reserved water rights, and it may 
also determine such important questions as 
whether the Indian right is ultimately quantifiable, 
or, as the Indians have claimed, open-ended, and 
whether the reserved waters can be used or sold 
for use outside the boundaries of the reservations. 
In view of the complexity of the pending pro- 
cedural issues, however, these questions will not 
soon be answered. 



Because of these uncertainties and the current 
activities in the legislatures and courts to resolve 
the problems, it is very difficult to make predictions 
of what may happen with respect to Indian water 
developments. For purposes of this study it was 
considered that water and related development 
needs on the reservations should be treated in the 
same manner as for those off-reservation, i.e., 
comprising a part of the overall needs for agricul- 
tural and mineral production, satisfaction of fish/ 
wildlife and recreation requirements, fulfilling 
municipal and domestic water requirements, etc. 
Likewise, in the absence of firm plans for imminent 
developments on the reservations, it is assumed 
for purposes of this analysis that there will be no 
further resource development on the reservations 
through the year 2000 without Federal assistance. 




_.- • - 




»' <*<&- till "" " ' 

mar-***** > 








' <.■*>" '*».,» ^2*. »"3^ 



WM 



Fish and Wildlife 

Under the Federal Fish and Wildlife Coordina- 
tion Act, conservation of these resources is to 
receive equal consideration with other functions of 
water resource management. For the most part, 
controversies develop from inadequate know- 
ledge of the effects of various proposals on area 
resources. With certain exceptions, the data base 
for fish and wildlife resources as compared with 
water resource data is quite limited as are the 



56 



methodologies for projecting the possible effects 
on fish and wildlife from various proposed actions. 
Thus, the greatest problem and need is to com- 
plete basic inventories of both habitat and popula- 
tions, to complete basic research now underway, 
and to develop adequate technologies by which to 
project the basic fish/wildlife needs and the im- 
pacts of interacting resource proposals. 

Inputs for the fish and wildlife function in this 
study have not been such as to permit a com- 
prehensive, uniform portrayal of existing problems 
and projected needs, as has been possible for 
most other functions. Under these circumstances 
the available information by States is as follows: 

Montana 

Montana Department of Fish and Game's 
strategic plan indicates a surplus of salmonoid, 
nonsalmonoid, waterfowl, and grouse populations 
will exist in the Yellowstone Basin planning area 
through 1982; big game, pheasant, and turkey 
populations are presently being managed to ad- 
just a limited supply to a greater demand. In addi- 
tion, the demand for trout fishing in streams will 
exceed presently available supply by 1990. With- 
out solving problems of access to private lands 
and through private lands to public lands and 
without solving problems of increasing habitat de- 
gradation, the supply of wildlife and fish will not 
increase in proportion to demands over the long 
term. 

In general, the future "without" plan is affected 
by four factors: (1) continuing degradation and 
loss of habitat: (2) lack of adequate access; (3) a 
relatively fixed supply; and (4) increasing demand. 
It is unlikely that the private sector will enter the 
fish and wildlife business in any substantial way 
until shortages become apparent and encourage 
profitable entry. Loss and degradation of habitat 
as well as limited access for sportsmen have to be 
accounted for; thus, maintenance of habitat and 
access must be recognized as a shortage and a 
remaining need. 

Waterfowl hunting is available in adequate sup- 
ply basinwide, but a demand for waterfowl hunting 
within 50 miles of Billings is an expressed need, 
especially since the moratorium on hunting on the 
Crow Indian Reservation. Other generally recog- 
nized needs are: (1 ) actions by the Montana Board 
of Natural Resources on requests for instream 
flow reservations; (2) establishment of several 



new waterfowl breeding and resting areas; (3) ar- 
rangement for fish passage at critical diversion 
structures; and (4) augmentation of low 
streamflows to improve habitat in streams where 
depletions are adversely affecting aquatic life. 




North Dakota 

Currently instream flows are not recognized as 
a beneficial use in North Dakota, and under the 
"without" conditions it is expected that instream 
flows would not be established or protected and 
would continue to decline. From the standpoint of 
fish and wildlife objectives, the foremost needs are 
for (1) environmental legislation at the State level 
according such recognition, (2) identification of 
critical aquatic and wildlife habitats, and (3) de- 
termination and implementation of plans to man- 
age these resources for the general well-being of 
the State. Considering the wide variation in flow 
characteristics and degree of present streamflow 
utilization and residuals, there is need to develop a 
methodology that lends itself to a variety of exist- 
ing constraints and meaningful objectives in sus- 
taining aquatic life. 

Under existing conditions, some 3,500 acres of 
unique woodland are protected under Federal 
ownership and about 7,300 acres are held in pri- 
vate ownership. For the private areas there is 
need for easements for their protection. Although 
the planning area has 10 national wildlife man- 
agement areas, and there are other lands adja- 
cent to some of these that may have potentials for 
addition to the protection area system, the needs 
have not been quantified in this study. 



57 



Wyoming 

The Wyoming Game and Fish Department has 
established objectives for meeting the State's 
wildlife and fishing needs for districts approximat- 
ing the Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork and Northeast 
planning areas, with regional and State projection 
periods and results as shown in table 26. State 
objectives for 1980-1990 for game do not neces- 
sarily represent specific future objectives for the 



planning areas. In all species hunted and for both 
stream and lake/reservoir fishing, these figures 
show the need and objectives for increased pro- 
duction and harvest. Virtually all streams have a 
carrying capacity that exceeds their use, even 
though some of them are subjected to heavy fish- 
ing pressure. Generally there are recognized 
needs to enact legislation acknowledging fish, 
wildlife, and the general environment as contribut- 
ing to general well-being, to identify and preserve 



Table 26 

FISH AND WILDLIFE OBJECTIVES'" 

WIND-BIGHORN-CLARKS FORK AND NORTHEAST WYOMING 

PLANNING AREAS, AND STATE OF WYOMING 





1980 Objectives for Wyoming 


Planning Areas 


Statewide Projected 


Change 












1980-1990 






Postseason 




Recreation 


Post- 




Recrea- 




Population 


Harvest 


Days 


season 
Popula- 


Harvest 


tion 
Days 


Species 


WBC W NEW 6 ' 


WBC b < NEW* 


WBO* NEW* 


tion 










Big Game 




(%) 


(%) 


(%) 


Antelope 


14,600/79,090 


3,150/22,712 


6,930/49,966 


-1 


-2 


+ 24 


Mule Deer 


61,600/103,730 


13.875/25,919 


83,250/155.514 


+ 15 


+ 23 


^34 


Whitetail Deer 


700/45,450 


50/14.137 


275/79,753 


-17 


-14 


+ 22 


Elk 


17,820/6,075 


4,565/1 ,733 


68,475/25,995 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+ 17 


Moose 


950/60 


115/5 


460/20 











Bighorn Sheep 


1,900/175 


88/4 


2,640/120 


+ 9 


+ 20 


+ 20 


Mountain Goat 


80/- 


41- 


16/- 


+ 25 


+ 50 


+ 50 


Black Bear 


475/333 


70/47 


2,800/1,880 





+ 8 


+ 8 


Grizzly Bear 


100/- 


51- 
Small Game 


200/- 


+ 40 


+ 100 


+ 100 


Cottontail 


37,000/50,833 


NA 


18,500/25,417 


NA 


+ 40 


+ 40 


Squirrel 


429/756 


NA 


286/504 


NA 


+ 39 


+ 39 


Snowshoe 


250/1 ,095 


NA 


250/1,095 


NA 


+ 46 


+ 46 


Pheasant 


5,650/4,884 


NA 


8,071/6,977 


NA 


-18 


+ 22 


Sage Grouse 


8,600/5,146 


NA 


5,058/3.027 


NA 





+ 71 


Sharptail 


-/3,643 


NA 


-/3.036 


NA 


— 


— 


Partridge 


7.100/1,372 


NA 


8,875/1.716 


NA 


+ 56 


+ 56 


Mountain 














Grouse 


2,600/2,710 


NA 


2,600/2,710 


NA 


+ 83 


+ 83 


Turkey 


12/2,158 


NA 


40/7, 1 94 


NA 


+ 25 


+25 


Ducks 


40,972/22,971 


NA 


27,314/15,314 


NA 


+ 40 


+40 


Geese 


2,009/919 


NA 


10,045/4,595 


NA 


+ 180 


+ 180 






Thousand Fisherman-Days 


1990 


2 






1980 


1985 


000 


Streams 




405/201 


438/253 


476/272 


575/NA 


Lakes and Reservoirs'" 


418/232°/ 


452/292C 


492/31 5 C/ 


575/NA 


Total 




823/433 


890/545 


968/587 


1,000/NA 



a/ Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 

t>, WBC = Wind-Bighom-Clarks Fork Planning Area, NEW = Northeast Wyoming Planning Area 

c/ Majority ot fishing pressure — Keyhole Reservoir and Lake DeSmet. 



58 



critical habitat; to emphasize the inclusion of fish 
and wildlife enhancement in project plans: and to 
strengthen the policy and funding in acquiring pub- 
lic access to streams where significant require- 
ments therefore become apparent. 

Other stated objectives are: (1) for furbearer 
species, to determine population status and har- 
vest potential; (2) for raptors, nongame birds, and 
mammals, to initiate/maintain status/inventory 
and estimate recreational/esthetic importance; 
and (3) for endangered and threatened terrestrial 
wildlife, to determine population density and take 
steps to insure their continued maintenance or 
increased production. 




Endangered Species 



throughout all or a significant portion of their 
ranges. Two primary objectives were to "provide a 
means whereby the ecosystem upon which en- 
dangered species and threatened species de- 
pend may be conserved," and "to provide a prog- 
ram for the conservation of such endangered 
species and threatened species." The act placed 
a heavy responsibility on all Federal agencies and 
especially on the Secretary of the Interior for its 
administration. The Secretary has delegated to 
the Fish and Wildlife Service responsibility for 
coordinating programs to this end. Recovery 
plans developed by recovery teams reflect the 
ultimate goal of restoring endangered and 
threatened species as viable self-sustaining 
members of their ecosystems. 

Animal species on the Federal endangered list 
known to occur within the study area and to oc- 
cupy local habitat include the black-footed ferret, 
Rocky Mountain wolf, bald eagle, and the Ameri- 
can peregrine falcon. 

Migratory Birds 

Migratory birds frequenting the study area are 
renewable resources that provide recreation in 
various forms for thousands of people. However, 
the resource is not limitless, and, thus, careful 
surveillance and management are needed to keep 
populations in harmony with other land and water 
uses. As the Federal agency having primary re- 
sponsibility for the overall welfare of migratory 
birds under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 4 , the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must perpetuate the 
resource through wise use and sound manage- 
ment. This must be accomplished through exten- 
sive cooperative efforts with the States, Canadian 
and Mexican natural resource agencies, and the 
private sector. Recognizing the wide variety and 
heavy populations of ducks, geese, shore birds, 
cranes, and other forms that pass through the 
study area to and from nesting and wintering 
grounds, the Service (and States) has acquired 
and must preserve and increase natural habitat 
generally as practicable and within national 
wildlife refuges and wetland management dis- 
tricts. 



Under provisions of the Endangered Species 
Act (P.L. 93-205) two categories of endangerment 
were recognized: (1) those species in danger of 
extinction, and (2) those species likely to become 
endangered within the foreseeable future — both 



1 Also Migratory Bird Conservation Act, Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act. and 
Convention Agreement between the United States and United Mexican States for 
the Protecton ol Migratory Birds and Game Mammals " 



59 




Outdoor Recreation 

Despite the existence of large tracts ot land, 
areas of water, and miles of rivers and streams, 
the development of outdoor recreation facilities 
and acquisition of accesses have fallen behind 
public demands in many parts of the study area. 
Private recreation has provided and will continue 
to provide a portion of the public recreation needs. 
However, without a coordinated commitment by 
all interests to provide recreational opportunities 
for an expanding population, the inadequacy of 
development and access will be magnified. 

Outdoor recreation in the area has covered a 
broad spectrum of human activity throughout the 
years, ranging from a variety of summer activities 
to a rapidly increasing demand for winter sports. 
This, along with the interests of a diverse popula- 
tion which is increasing in mobility and possesses 
abundant leisure time, must be considered in as- 
sessing the recreational problems and needs. 
Given the natural attractions of the area for the 
local population and an already heavy and grow- 
ing presence of nonresident visitors not only dur- 
ing the summers but expanding to the winter sea- 



sons, the evolving problems and needs require 
more attention to coordinated planning and sound 
resource development, preservation, and man- 
agement. 

Time and funding restrictions limited the collec- 
tion of data on potential historic, scenic, and 
natural outdoor recreation resources (type I). In 
view of the rapidly growing public support for the 
preservation of these resources, the need exists 
for affected State and Federal agencies to inven- 
tory and evaluate the historic, scenic, and natural 
recreation resources and to develop plans for their 
preservation. Such inventory should also include 
potential rivers to be protected, as well as scenic 
and recreational trails. This program, with assis- 
tance from the public and nonprofit organizations, 
will provide a means of preserving these non- 
renewable resources for the enjoyment of future 
generations. 

Many facilities and resources inventoried that 
provide for land- and water-oriented recreation 
(types II and III) either are far removed from the 
current or potential user or inadequate when com- 
pared with the most probable level of demand for 
the area as a whole. There are many variations 
between planning areas and within each of them. 

In appraising outdoor recreation needs for land- 
and water-oriented activities, the methodology for 
developing demand was based on estimated 
1975 and future populations. Anticipated partici- 
pation rates were multiplied by the population es- 
timates for a given target year to arrive at esti- 
mated activity occasions which were converted to 
recreation days. The total acreage required to 
support future recreation demand was derived 
using design load from State Comprehensive 
Outdoor Recreation Plans (SCORP) or previous 
river basin planning studies. Acreage estimates 
were calculated for both land and water for all 
activities (swimming beach, water and snow ski- 
ing, boating/canoeing, etc.). Comparison of these 
estimates with the available supply, provided a 
means of determining surplus or deficit resources 
in each planning area. Quantitative needs for driv- 
ing and sightseeing were not derived since there 
are no measurable standards for this popular ac- 
tivity. 

The deficits (-) and surpluses ( + ) as shown in 
table 27 for the several recreation activities focus 
on inadequacy or adequacy by planning area. Al- 
though it would appear that some balancing of 



60 



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61 




deficits and surpluses between and within plan- 
ning areas is possible, excessive travel distance 
often precludes this. For example, the water 
surplus shown in Wyoming will not accommodate 
day-use needs of the Montana recreationist due to 
the excessive driving distance. Another factor that 
cannot be overlooked is the supply/demand imba- 
lance within the individual planning areas. For 
example, a surplus of water for water skiing is 
shown in the North Dakota tributaries planning 
area; this total consists primarily of Lake 
Sakakawea along the very northern edge of the 
planning area. Here, due to excessive distances, 
this large supply of water does not meet the day- 
use requirements of residents of southwestern 
North Dakota. Adding to the problem of in- 
adequate geographical identification of recrea- 
tional needs is the lack of uniform planning stan- 
dards for determining uses and projecting needs. 

Although water resources abound in the area 
generally, their recreation potential is, in fact, li- 
mited by the prospective industrial and agricultural 
demands for water and by insufficient access to 
major rivers. The major needs are maintenance of 
adequate and quality instream flows and the ac- 
quisition of public access sites. The increasing 
closure of private lands to recreation will inevitably 
place more and more pressure on public lands. 

Many recreation facilities are dependent on or 
directly related to reservoirs, large or small, or 
other project features developed primarily for 



some other purpose than recreation. Because 
these projects and attendant features generally 
involve State or Federal funding, it is assumed that 
these recreational facilities will not be available 
under "without" conditions. Needs that will be met 
otherwise are essentially those associated with 
local problems and existing facilities; thus the de- 
ficits set forth in table 27 must be considered as 
needs along with other needs that may be iden- 
tified in more detailed studies. 

Water Quality Control 

In considering problems and needs for water 
quality control and instream flows, the following 
quotation from the Federal Water Pollution Con- 
trol Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500, 
Sec. 101) serves as the cornerstone for water 
quality goals: 

The objective of this act is to restore and main- 
tain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity 
of the Nation's waters. More specific objectives 
include: (1) It is the national goal that the dis- 
charge of pollutants into the navigable waters be 
eliminated by 1985; (2) it is the national goal that 
wherever attainable, an interim goal of water qual- 
ity which provides for the protection and propaga- 
tion of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for 
recreation in and on the waters be achieved by 
July 1, 1985. 

Each of the three States of the study area has 
adopted statements of its water quality objectives. 



62 



The following example was taken from Wyoming's 
Water Quality Rules and Regulations (1974): 

The goal of the water pollution control program 
is to maintain the best possible quality of water 
commensurate with use. All sources of pollution, 
whether man-made or natural, shall be consi- 
dered. Control shall be applied to all sources 
where physically and economically feasible. By 
the nature of the problems, they will evolve into 
long-range and short-range programs to reach the 
ultimate goal. Definition of such problems and 
control programs will be a part of the State continu- 
ing planning process. 



was necessary to devise a simple, practical ap- 
proach in developing a baseline to judge present 
conditions (1975) and conditions anticipated in 
imposing future resource proposals. Basic to this, 
an ad hoc group updated available 1970 data to 
reflect water quantity and quality for streamflows 
depleted to 1970 conditions. Using computer 
analyses for 17 locations, the group's report 
shows monthly adjusted values for 5 quality 
parameters where the minimum and maximum 
predicted chemical concentrations are as shown 
in table 28. Such values were based on 5 years of 
records to attain equations using a linear relation- 
ship between chemical concentrations and flows. 



Fully recognizing the wide-ranging but specific 
application of Federal and State water quality ob- 
jectives and adopted standards for this study it 



Although generally the quality of the waters is 
good and new treatment plants already or soon 
will control pollution from point sources, at some 



Table 28 

PREDICTED RANGE OF WATER QUALITY UNDER 1975 

CONDITIONS OF DEPLETED FLOW* 





Predicted Range of Average Monthly Values (Min.- 


Max.) 


River and Location 


TDS 


Sodium 


Calcium 


Magnesium 


Sulfate 














Wind below Boysen Reservoir. Wyo 


. 433-459 


61-65 


56-58 


18-19 


201-210 


Greybull at Basin, Wyo. 


366-633 


67-113 


46-71 


16-31 


1 78-293 


Shoshone at Lovell. Wyo. 


405-578 


55-79 


54-76 


16-24 


163-247 


Bighorn at St. Xavier, Mont. b 




— 


— 


— 


— 


Tongue near Miles City. Mont.b 




— 


— 


— 


— 


Powder at Arvada, Wyo. 


1,066-1,903 


149-369 


143-162 


35-64 


566-885 


Powder at Moorhead. Mont b 




— 


— 


— 


— 


Powder at Locate, Mont.b 


1.047-1.560 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Little Missouri at Watford 












City. N. Dak. 


<294-1,638 


57-378 


14-93 


10-45 


135-810 


Knife at Hazen. N. Dak. 


483-1.113 


96-251 


38-78 


17-44 


184-457 


Heart at Mandan. N. Dak. 


597-787 


111-153 


48-60 


27-36 


237-346 


Cannonball at Breien, N. Dak. 


800-1.879 


42-267 


<52-111 


<43-88 


<452-970 


Belle Fourche at Wyoming-South 












Dakota Line 


419-1,606 


<42-109 


70-264 


12-83 


226-998 


Cheyenne at Edgemont, S. Dak. 












(Upstream of Angostura Res.) 


3.139-3,139 


392-392 


358-358 


107-107 


1,514-1,514 


Yellowstone at Billings. Mont. b 


116-321 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Yellowstone at Miles City, Mont. 6 


353-586 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Yellowstone at Sidney, Mont.b 


304-602 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Public Water Supply Standard ' 


500 


— 


— 


— 


50/250 


Irrigation Standard 


500/1,500 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Livestock Standard 


1,000/7,000 


>1, 000/2,000 


>500 1.000 


> 250 500 


>250/1 ,000 



a Ad Hoc Committee Report. Develop 1975 Surface Water Quality Data. 

b, Montana Water Quality Bureau — financed by Old West Regional Commission. 

c Range in Standard" generally recognized for the indicated uses 



63 



locations the present water quality is marginal or 
below recognized standards. For the "without" 
situation it is assumed that all communities and 
other point sources of water pollution will provide 
satisfactory treatment by 1985. Irrigation, feed- 
lots, grazing or range lands, certain new industrial 
developments, and even natural as well as man- 
induced contributions of sediment show complex 
problems. Satisfactory solutions for these prob- 
lems will evolve only over time as water quality 
administrators and operators seek their practical 
implementation. 




An original study concept of determining in- 
stream flow requirements to meet NED con- 
straints proved unrealistic because (1 ) State water 
quality standards are not generally defined well 
enough to relate directly to stream discharge; (2) 
the data base is not complete, for many stream 
segments show inadequate or no data; and (3) the 
lack of fixed relationships regarding water quality 
variables where many of these may be strongly 
affected by other external factors. Thus, the ad 
hoc group on instream flows narrowed the scope 
of its activities to examine but one variable that 
has a direct and relatively stable relationship with 
flows — total dissolved solids (TDS). About 5 years 
of records were used to define regression curves 
for selected stream locations over the study area. 
Figure 14 illustrates the results in this respect for 
the Shoshone River near Lovell, Wyo., where the 
curve related TDS to discharge and the 500 ppm 
standard. Such curves were developed for about 
15 stations. 



Instream Flow 

With the objective of maintaining the high qual- 
ity environment in and adjacent to the principal 
rivers and their tributaries, the ad hoc group de- 
veloped a set of recommended monthly average 
flows that would reasonably assure this. These 
estimates took into account the physical/biological 
requirements including adequate spawning and 
rearing conditions, migratory movements of fish, 
maintaining sediment transport and bedload 
movement, etc. While the estimates were de- 
veloped for 86 locations as shown in the planning 
area reports for these streams, it is not practical to 
show all of them here. Instead, table 29 shows the 
results only for those locations involved in deter- 
minations of future quantity/quality impacts under 
river and reservoir system operation studies. 



Figure 14 

Shoshone River Near Lovell, Wyoming 

(Bighorn River Basin) 



800 



500 




1968-73 
N = 137 
M = .85 

LOG = 4. 1039 
B = -.493 



1000 2000 3000 4000 

Discharge, In Cubic Feet Per Second 



5000 



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65 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER AND RELATED LAND 
RESOURCE POTENTIALS 



Institutional Framework 

Existing Federal and State laws, policies, and 
the administration practices of a variety of gov- 
ernmental agencies profoundly affect the present 
and future use of water and land resources. Be- 
fore plans can be developed, it is necessary to 
recognize those constraints to planning contained 
in the existing laws, policies, and administrative 
procedures. 

In order to prevent abuse by those who do not 
concern themselves with prudent management of 
our available resources, laws are passed and ad- 
ministrative restrictions are issued to authorize or 
to regulate the use of resources. These legal and 
institutional regulations can facilitate or constrain 
the development and use of resources. Since 
there is no single and certainly no universally ac- 
ceptable definition of what constitutes "the total 
public good," society has attempted to protect it by 
piecemeal actions that attempt to control resource 
segments where some measure of the public in- 
terest can be identified. Some of the more signific- 
ant of the institutional and legal constraints that 
affect the future of the Yellowstone level B study 
area are summarized briefly in the following 
paragraphs. These constraints apply to all types of 
development — private and public — and do affect 
what will happen, either with or without coordi- 
nated planning efforts. 



Federal Legal Constraints 

Navigable Waterways 

Uses of, discharges in, or intrusions in, naviga- 
ble waterways require a permit from the Corps of 
Engineers according to section 1 0, Act of March 3, 
1899. The Corps of Engineers has declared the 
Yellowstone River navigable to Emigrant, which is 
21 miles upstream from Livingston, Mont. The 
United States District Court has found the Bighorn 
River navigable up to the Montana- Wyoming bor- 
der. 

Land Limitations 

Irrigable lands to which irrigation water from a 
Federal reclamation project can be delivered are 
generally limited to 1 60 acres in the ownership of a 
single person or entity or 320 acres in the owner- 
ship of husband and wife (Act of June 17. 1902. as 
amended and supplemented). There are. how- 
ever, many legal exceptions. 

Winters Doctrine 

Lands within an Indian reservation or other 
Federal areas reserved for public purposes hold a 
reserved right to use the waters which are within, 
crossing, abutting, or beneath the reservation. 
This reserved right, even though unexercised, en- 



5" 



joys a continuing priority as of the date the reser- 
vation was established. The quantity of the re- 
served right is that amount of water needed to 
serve the purposes for which the reservation was 
established. 

The Federal Power Act of 1920, as amended, 
requires non-Federal entities who propose to con- 
struct a power or navigation facility to secure a 
Federal Regulatory Commission license prior to 
any construction which will affect (a) waters over 
which Congress has jurisdiction; or (b) public 
lands or reservations of the United States. 

The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, as 
amended, requires that any public or private 
agency, proposing to impound or divert water or to 
modify any stream, must consult with the Fish and 
Wildlife Service and take appropriate action to 
prevent loss or damage to fish and wildlife re- 
sources. 



The Wilderness Act of 1964 prohibits commer- 
cial enterprise and permanent roads within any 
wilderness area designated by the act. The 
Washake Wilderness Area within the Shoshone 
National Forest was so designated October 9, 
1972. 

The Presence of Historical or Archaeological 
Data within the site of any Federal or federally 
licensed or assisted activity may require that the 
activity be preceded by a survey by the Secretary 
of the Interior to determine if such data shall be 
recovered and preserved. Act of June 27, 1 960, as 
amended. 

The Endangered Species Act of 1973 requires 
that Federal agencies insure that actions au- 
thorized, funded, or carried out by them do not 
jeopardize the continued existence of endangered 
species or result in the destruction or modification 
of the habitat of such species. 



The Yellowstone River Compact provides for 
the division of waters of the Yellowstone River 
drainage area between Wyoming and Montana 
and Montana and North Dakota and forbids the 
diversion of waters from the Yellowstone River 
Basin without the unanimous consent of Wyom- 
ing, Montana, and North Dakota. 

The Stock-Raising Homestead Act of 1916 
provides for protection of crops and improvements 
of the surface owner against the developer of fed- 
erally reserved minerals. The Act of June 21, 
1949, extends this surface owner's protection to 
damage done to the value of the land for grazing. 

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
Amendments of 1972 restate and extend previous 
Federal laws prohibiting the pollution of navigable 
waters. Standards for water quality and the en- 
forcement of such standards are to be the respon- 
sibility of the Environmental Protection Agency in 
cooperation with the affected States. 

The Clean Air Act, as amended, provides for the 
establishment and enforcement of air quality 
standards by the Environmental Protection 
Agency in cooperation with the affected States. 

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 
requires that where Federal funds or property are 
involved, the development of natural resources 
must be preceded by an analysis and weighing of 
the environmental impacts of such development. 



The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation 
Act of 1977 imposes limitations on the surface 
mining of coal and other minerals, not only with 
respect to surface reclamation and surface own- 
er's consent, but also with respect to areas which 
cannot be surface mined. 




^JLJWmi ; i% J II 



State Legal Constraints 

The Wyoming Water Code provides a right to 
the use and control of any of the waters of the 
State. The right must be initiated through applica- 
tion to the State engineer. 



68 



The Wyoming Environmental Quality Act of 
1973 established an Environmental Quality 
Council and a State Department of Environmental 
Quality with authority to promulgate and enforce 
rules for the control of air. water, and land pollu- 
tion. The act also provides for limitations on mining 
operations and requires that such operations be 
pursuant to a permit from the administrator of the 
Land Quality Division of the Department of En- 
vironmental Quality. 

The Wyoming Industrial Development Informa- 
tion and Siting Act of 1975 establishes an Indust- 
rial Siting Council with authority to issue permits 
required for the construction of electrical generat- 
ing plants (100 megawatts or more), synthetic gas 
plants (100 million cubic feet per day), oil extrac- 
tion plants (50.000 barrels per day), uranium en- 
riching plants (500 lbs); or any other industrial 
facility costing more than $50 million indexed. 

The Wyoming Excise Tax Act on the Extraction 
of Minerals imposes a 2 percent tax on the value of 
the gross product of most extracted minerals and 
an additional 2 percent tax on the value of the 
gross product of extracted trona. coal, petroleum, 
natural gas. oil shale, or any other fossil fuel min- 
erals. The 1977 session of the Wyoming Legisla- 
ture amended the tax laws to increase the sever- 
ance taxes on specified minerals. A total increase 
of 4.5 percent was added to the tax on coal. 3.5 
percent to the tax on uranium, and 1 .5 percent to 
the tax on trona. One and one-half percent of the 
tax on each mineral will go into a fund for construc- 
tion and improvements on State buildings: 1 per- 
cent of the uranium tax will go to the permanent 
mineral trust fund and 1 percent to the general 
fund for State agency budgets. 1 .5 percent of the 
coal tax will go toward the funding of water re- 
source developments, 1 percent toward high- 
ways, and 0.5 percent to the permanent mineral 
trust fund. Thus, as of 1977. the total severance 
tax is 8.5 percent of gross product value for coal. 
5.5 percent on uranium and trona. 4 percent on 
other fuels, and 2 percent on nonenergy minerals. 
In addition to the severance tax, Wyoming im- 
poses an excise tax on coal extraction that 
amounted to 1 .2 percent of the gross value of 
production in 1976. 1.6 percent in 1977, and will 
level off at 2 percent in 1978 and subsequent 
years until gross revenues total $120 million. 

The Montana Water Use Act of 1973 provides 
that after July 1 , 1973, a right to the use of Mon- 
tana waters may be initiated only through applica- 
tion for a permit from the Montana Department of 



<?9 ■ 




Natural Resources and Conservation. The act 
stipulated that the use of water for slurry out of 
State was not a beneficial use. 

The Montana Moratorium on Yellowstone River 
Appropriations was a 3-year moratorium estab- 
lished March 12. 1974. on Yellowstone River 
Basin appropriations which exceeded 20 cfs or for 
reservoir impoundments exceeding 14,000 acre- 
feet. Reservations were permitted by local and 
State agencies but not by the United States. The 
1977 Montana Legislature extended the 
moratorium to December 31 , 1 977, and permitted 
reservations by the United States. The Montana 
Supreme Court extended the moratorium to June 
30. 1978. 

The Montana Environmental Policy Act of 1971 
provides, similar to the National Environmental 
Protection Act, that State agency actions which 
may significantly affect the quality of human envi- 
ronment shall be preceded by an analysis and 
weighing of the environmental impact of such ac- 
tions. 



The Montana Major Facility Siting Act requires 
that a certificate of environmental compatibility 
and public need be issued by the Montana De- 
partment of Natural Resources and Conservation 
as a condition to the construction of facilities for 
the generation or transportation of electricity, gas, 
or liquid hydrocarbon; for the transport of water; 
for the enriching of uranium; for the conversion of 
coal: for the use of geothermal resources; or for/n 
situ gasification of coal. 

The Montana Floodway Management Act of 
1971 provides that where the Department of 
Natural Resources and Conservation has de- 
lineated an area as a flood plain, the establish- 
ment thereon of artificial obstructions or noncon- 
forming uses, shall be unlawful. 

The Montana Water Pollution Act forbids the 
pollution of State waters and requires a permit 
from the Department of Health and Environmental 
Sciences for any activity which is likely to cause 
such pollution. 

The Montana Air Pollution Act authorizes the 
Montana Department of Health and Environmen- 
tal Sciences to establish and enforce air quality 
standards and to require permits for any facility 
that may contribute to air pollution. 

The Montana Coal Severance Tax Act imposes 
a severance tax on each ton of coal produced in 
Montana. The tax is based on the coal's BTU 
value and is varied from the greater of 1 2 cents per 
ton or 20 percent of value to 40 cents per ton or 30 
percent of value on surface-mined coal and from 5 
cents per ton or 3 percent of value to 1 2 cents per 
ton or 4 percent of value on coal mined under- 
ground. Montana also continues its general prop- 
erty and net proceeds tax on other types of mine 
production. 

The North Dakota Water Code provides that the 
right to the use and control of any of the waters of 
the State must be initiated through application to 
the State Engineer. 

The North Dakota Environmental Law En- 
forcement Act of 1975 allows any State or local 
governmental agency or person to bring an action 
to enforce any North Dakota environmental sta- 
tute, rule, or regulation and to recover damages 
for the violation of the same. 



The North Dakota Energy Conversion and 
Transmission Facility Siting Act requires a Public 
Service Commission's Certificate of Site Com- 
patibility as a condition to the construction of an 
energy conversion or transmission facility after 
January 1, 1976. 




The North Dakota Air Pollution Control Act, as 
amended, requires a permit from the North Dakota 
Department of Health as a condition to the con- 
struction, modification, or use of any source of air 
contamination which the Department of Health 
may identify. 

The North Dakota Water Pollution Control Act 
authorizes the State Department of Health to es- 
tablish and enforce standards to maintain water 
quality and to require permits of any person whose 
activities may contribute to the deterioration of 
water quality. 

The North Dakota Coal Severance Tax Act im- 
poses an initial tax of 50 cents per ton (increasing 
with the wholesale price index) on all coal severed 
for sale or for industrial purposes. 

The North Dakota Privilege Tax on Coal Con- 
version Facilities was also enacted in 1975. On 
electric generating plants the tax is at the rate of 
.25 mills on each kilowatt-hour produced. The tax 
on coal gasification plants is 10 cents on each 
1 ,000 cubic feet of gas produced or 2.5 percent of 
gross receipts. 



70 



Potential for Meeting Needs 

There are many possibilities for making better 
use of the Yellowstone study area's resources and 
many opportunities for providing better protection 
for these resources. Unfortunately, many of the 
potentials are expensive, and often there is not a 
strong consensus among local interests on what 
courses of action are in the best interest of the 
local area or the area at large. Development- 
oriented groups believe that the area needs the 
economic gains that full use of available resources 
would bring, and that the area can withstand the 
related environmental and social strains without 
undue difficulty. Antidevelopment groups take the 
opposing stand — that the area cannot shoulder 
the environmental and social costs of fuller de- 
velopment, and that future activities should be 
limited to as near present levels as possible. Each 
of many groups represents a minority point of 
view, but this does not imply that there is a mid- 
point where the opposing views converge into a 
majority stance. There is, however, a major group 
that believes limited development and use of the 
area's coal and other resources can be managed 
and controlled to the area's overall benefit, con- 
sidering the economic, environmental, and social 
pluses and minuses that are involved. 



Agriculture (Irrigation and Related Develop- 
ments) 

Although there is a relative abundance of water 
in the river systems overall, the availability of an 
assured, firm supply for potential developments is 
generally dependent upon storage. In considering 
potentials for increased agriculture, a review was 
made of earlier investigations by Federal and 
State agencies or districts for added surface water 
irrigation projects and related developments. 
Moreover, all other irrigable lands delineated dur- 
ing this study were evaluated. 

Improved irrigation efficiencies could increase 
crop yields, and current efficiencies on existing 
developments could be increased by use of ditch 
linings, pipelines, sprinkler systems, reorganiza- 
tion of irrigation systems, and by supplying water 
to lands proportional to the crop consumptive-use 
rate. New or additional storage is needed on most 
streams to store spring runoff for release during 
the peak consumptive-use period (July and Au- 
gust) to permit more efficient use of available 
runoff. Sizeable acreages now having irrigation 
service are in need of supplemental water sup 
plies to attain full production. 




71 



Energy Industry 



There is no question that the study area has the 
coal reserves to meet whatever demands might 
be imposed upon it between now and the year 
2000. It is likewise apparent that other physical 
needs associated with any reasonable level of 
energy demand, such as water, land, and con- 
struction materials, could be provided. It is felt, 
however, that there is a limit of production beyond 
which the area could not support without severe 
environmental and population impacts. At the out- 
side, that limit is the "without plan" or "high" level 
of development outlined in the previous chapter. 
The State study teams agree that there is some 
lower level of development that would be prefera- 
ble, but they do not uniformly agree on what that 
level should be. In weighing future potentials, it 
should be recognized that the resources, and thus 
the opportunities, are available to meet any level 
of production the market place and environmental 
and social tradeoffs may ultimately permit. 

In considering planning constraints, one of the 
early proposals was that mining should not be 
permitted in alluvial valley floors, in riparian com- 
munities, in areas where the coal beds are major 
aquifers, in national or State monuments, and in 
other publicly restricted areas. These constraints 
were adopted by the management group and in- 
corporated in the model runs, but it was found that 
there is so much coal lying below unrestricted 
areas that the total amount of coal that could be 
produced within the "high" level of need was not 
limited by those constraints. Thus, the so-called 
"limited-mining" objective is a matter of controlling 
where and how coal is mined, rather than a ques- 
tion of how much. The agencies administering 
coal leasing and mining activities will have to carry 
the burden of insuring that areas with critical prob- 
lems or unique values are avoided as planning 
and development take place. There is also a 
"need" for all groups dealing with or interested in 
energy developments to face the controversial is- 
sues in full public view as soon as the issues 
become apparent, so that differences can be re- 
solved early, before commitments to development 
and large expenditures have been made. 

Land Conservation Measures 

Conservation of land resources in the past has 
been motivated primarily by economic improve- 
ment or development considerations. Tradition- 
ally, land conservation measures have been one 





means of meeting these goals, and present land 
treatment programs were established and funded 
on this basis. In the past decade, more emphasis 
has been placed on the need for measures that 
will improve water quality in streams and lakes. 
Relative to this problem, it has been determined 
that sediment and irrigation water return flows are 
the greatest pollutants and carriers of other pollut- 
ants. Accordingly, reductions in sediment load 
and return flows would greatly improve water qual- 
ity for many uses. Since many of the land conser- 
vation measures needed to achieve improved 
water quality will only provide limited on-farm be- 
nefits, an accelerated land treatment program 
should be considered that will include the follow- 
ing elements: 

1. Increased efforts of educating landow- 
ners to accelerate application of conser- 
vation measures; 

2. Increased cost-sharing to provide a grea- 
ter incentive to the landowner; and 

3. Additional technical assistance for plan- 
ning and installing conservation mea- 
sures. 



72 



Land conservation needs outlined in the previ- 
ous chapter are not peculiar to any particular 
planning area and so have been treated on a 
general or areawide basis. The mere fact that 
there are areas that need treatment to protect their 
soils provides the opportunity for meeting needs. 
Land conservation programs are essentially "man 
and the land" type endeavors, where land use 
practices and measures are designed to provide 
optimum protection to the affected area. This pro- 
tection has both economic and environmental val- 
ues, so there are land conservation proposals in 
both the national economic development and en- 
vironmental quality proposals that follow in chap- 
ter 6. 




Flood Control 

A review of historical flood data indicates that 
total damages continue to increase even though a 
large number of flood control programs have been 
implemented. There are two reasons for this 
paradox. First, long-term economic trends have 
increased the value of property, materials, and 
labor which, in turn, has caused the value of im- 
provements subject to flooding to increase and 
thus cause flood losses themselves to grow ac- 



cordingly. Second, continuing economic expan- 
sion creates demands for land on which new im- 
provements can be located. In many instances, 
this has resulted in development on the flood plain 
of new improvements, which became subject to 
flood damage. 

It is apparent that a need exists for flood plain 
management. With proper management of water 
and the lands subject to inundation, the trend of 
increasing flood damages can be slowed mate- 
rially, if not reversed. However, to attain such 
management is not a simple task. Studies which 
take into account known flood risks can determine 
the best use of the flood plain lands, but, because 
flood plain regulation is viewed by many as an 
infringement of property rights, the implementa- 
tion of effective flood plain regulation is difficult. 
Notwithstanding this type of resistance, there is a 
growing commitment on the part of Federal , State, 
and local interests to the concept of strict flood 
plain management. This means that in planning 
for flood damage reduction both structural and 
nonstructural measures must be evaluated. 

Streambank Erosion 

Streambank erosion contributes sediment to 
the area's streams, degrading water quality and 
causing the loss of much productive land each 
year. It is greatest on streams that have been 
straightened in the past and which are now seek- 
ing to widen their channels. Streams with silty or 
sandy banks are also a particular problem. 

Under section 32 of the Streambank Erosion 
Control and Demonstration Act of 1974, as 
amended by the Water Resources Development 
Act of 1 976, authority for work has been expanded 
to include the Yellowstone River from Intake, 
Mont., to its mouth. The original act authorized 
work on the Missouri River in the reach below 
Garrison Dam and in the reach between Fort Ran- 
dall Dam and Sioux City. The intent of this prog- 
ram is to develop a demonstration of structural 
means for controlling bank erosion with a view 
toward developing those most cost effective and 
environmentally acceptable. Several initial sites 
have been selected along the Missouri River in 
Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. Addi- 
tional sites will be selected on both the Missouri 
and Yellowstone Rivers as funding and schedul- 
ing permit. 



73 



Fish and Wildlife 

Fish and wildlife needs take several forms in- 
cluding new or adjusted legal, social, and institu- 
tional changes; the enhancement or preservation 
of the fish and wildlife environments, including 
streamflow; and mitigation of losses due to other 
resource development. Some of the opportunities 
for satisfying these needs include adopting laws to 
assure habitat mitigation, expanding incentive 
programs such as soil bank and water bank to 
enhance fish and wildlife resources, expanding 
the wetlands acquisition program, and providing 
State reservation of instream flows. 

Outdoor Recreation 

There are many alternatives useful in satisfying 
outdoor recreation needs. These include riverfront 
access purchase or easements, "hold use" 
easements which would preserve present recrea- 
tion values and control development, tax incen- 
tives to private landowners to allow public recrea- 
tion use of their land, flood plain municipal parks, 
purchase of river access for developments, 
sandpit lake developments, and others. 

In urban areas with developed parkland 
deficiencies undeveloped flood-prone lands are 
generally available. Their slopes are gentle, the 
lands fertile, and usually they are better suited to 
accommodate day-use recreation demands than 



are nonflood plain lands. Properly developed and 
managed, they can be a valuable recreation asset. 
Because of their naturally occurring woodlands 
and attractive setting, such areas are suitable for 
parks, playgrounds, golf courses, picnic areas, 
and other outdoor recreational facilities. Early ac- 
quisition of such areas within the limits of projected 
needs would preempt adverse encroachment of 
intensive developments and, at the same time, 
reduce associated flood damages by substituting 
appropriate land uses and facilities which receive 
only minor damage from flood flows. 

Many stream reaches possess natural recrea- 
tional resources but have limited public access. To 
meet existing and projected requirements for out- 
door recreation, scattered tracts or "nodes" of 
various sizes could be acquired to provide such 
public access. These nodes could be developed 
primarily for day use, with trails, campgrounds, 
picnic areas, and play areas. 

Recreation areas, particularly along interstate 
highways, must be used within their capability to 
accommodate the needs of both resident and non- 
resident users. For some reaches where canoeing 
is proposed as a major activity, primitive camp 
sites interspersed between day-use areas should 
be considered. These reaches would require 
adequate flows to assure canoeing and related 
activities, reinforcing the need of adequate flows 
for fish and wildlife preservation. 







MM.? 



74 



Water Quality Control and Instream Flows 

One of the major water quality problems is the 
large sediment load carried by most of the area 
streams, originating in part from man-induced 
erosion but due to a larger degree by natural pro- 
cesses. The ongoing "208" programs and the land 
conservation efforts discussed elsewhere in this 
report will tend to reduce erosion, and the water 
quality laws and regulations currently in effect will 
tend to limit further deterioration of water quality in 
the area. These ongoing programs, even though 
accelerated, will not wholly solve the water quality 
problems of the region, but they should keep them 
within reasonable bounds. The remaining need 
related to this function, as it is treated in this 
analysis, is to insure that resource developments 
proposed for any purpose do not create erosion 
and water quality problems. 

To preserve environmental values and the 
riverine ecosystems, it is necessary to maintain 
streamflows at various levels depending upon the 
particular stream and its projected use. To provide 
a system in which all uses of water are equitably 
recognized, changes in State laws would be re- 
quired. Fish and wildlife interests feel it would be 
desirable to keep intact the "base flow" of all prin- 
cipal streams; that is, the flow in the stream during 
periods of no storm runoff. However, keeping in- 
tact only the "base flow" would not meet all the 
seasonal needs of fish, wildlife, and recreation. 
Suitable instream flows established on a monthly 
basis would still allow some excess water to be 
available for development in some streams, al- 
though full development may require offstream 
storage of high spring flows to satisfy late season 
demands. 



Potential Developments 
for Meeting Needs 

Opportunities for development, preservation, 
and conservation of water and related land re- 
sources were generally identified early by the 
State study teams, but in some cases they were 
impossible to discern until all resource needs were 
identified and correlated. These opportunities in- 
cluded consideration for resource proposals de- 
veloped under earlier studies, but only on the 
basis of updating to reflect current planning con- 
cepts, resource constraints not originally known, 
current local support or disinterest, and current 
beneficial and adverse effects. Utilizing these 
concepts, such potential projects and programs 
were evaluated and the results scrutinized in light 
of the planning objectives and goals, the problems 
and needs of the individual planning areas, and 
the localities affected. Where possible, combina- 
tions or adjustments were effected to provide mul- 
tipurpose use of the resources, and alternative 
methods of achieving the desired result were 
evaluated. In this process, certain single-purpose 
alternatives were eliminated in favor of others as 
in favor of multipurpose alternatives. 

The following tables contain a brief description 
of the potential developments which survived an 
initial screening process and were later subjected 
to evaluation and the plan formulation procedures 
presented in chapter 6. Many of the elements 
have multipurpose values, but, due to space limi- 
tations, only the major features have been 
itemized while other associated functions were 
omitted. The potential developments for meeting 
needs are grouped according to planning area 
and are not listed in any special order. 





W' 




w^jc* 




75 



Table 30 
POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 
UPPER YELLOWSTONE PLANNING AREA, MONT 



Project Name and Location 


Major Features 


Average Annual 
Costs 


Average Annual 
Benefits 


Flathead Creek near Wilsall 


8.340 AF in 2 reservoirs 
tor 5,000 acres of irri- 
gation 


— - Thousand Dollars 

216 


232 


Sweet Grass Creek, north- 
west of Melville 


27,000 AF in 2 reservoirs 
for 14,900 acres of irri- 
gation 


334 


748 


East Rosebud Creek, south 
of Ftoscoe 


15,000 AF reservoir for 
3,206 acres of irrigation 


138 


182 


Pryor Creek, northeast of 
Pryor 


Reservoir canals, and 
laterals for 4,200 acres 
of irrigation 


243 


322 


Whitehorse Bench Unit, 
north of Silesia 


Pumping plant and sprinkler 
irngation for 2,000 acres 


181 


213 


Huntley South Unit, north- 
east of Huntley 


Pumping plants, canals, and 
laterals for 3,840 acres of 
irrigation 


390 


410 


West Billings Local 
Protection 


Canyon Creek diversion for 
flood control 


247 


334 


Accelerated Land Conser- 
vation, areawide 


447,000 acres of additional 
land treatment 


1,577 


Assumed more 
than costs 


Seven Mile-Sitting Bull 
Unit, near Custer 


Pumping plants, canals, and 
laterals for 6,508 acres 
including 1 ,700 acres presently 
irrigated 


719 


590 


Removel of spawning barriers 
on Cedar, Eightmile, and 
Rock Creeks 


Highway and railroad culverts 


Culvert 
Modification 


Allow passage 
of salmonoids 


Antelope Creek storage 
near Shields River 


19.000 AF reservoir for 
streamflow augmentation 


622 


Improve in- 
stream flows 


Wheat Basin and Broadview 
Wildlife Refuges near 
Molt 


Waterfowl breeding and rest- 
ing grounds created by 
pumping plant 


Not available 


Support for 
existing and 
new refuges 



76 



Table 30. Continued 
POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 
UPPER YELLOWSTONE PLANNING AREA. MONT. 



Project Name and Location 



Maior Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Beartooth Wilderness Area 



New legislation 



Thousand Dollars 

Not available Preserve and 

protect a 
unique natural 
area 



Sweet Grass Creek Storage 
near Big Timber 



27,000 AF in 2 reservoirs 



334 



Streamflow 
augmentation 



Streambank Greenbelt 
Program 



Restoring denuded grassed 
and forested areas 



Unknown 



Protection from 
streambank 
erosion and im- 
proved habitat 



Instream flows, areawide 



Implementation of existing 
legislation 



Unknown 



Preserve exist- 
ing habitat and 
water quality 



Rehabilitation of Head- 
water Basin. Shields 
River 



Improved Management 



Not available 



Prevent defor- 
estation 



Yellowstone River. Gardiner 
to Pompeys Pillar 



National Wild and Scenic 
River designation for 225 
miles 



3,324 



2,832 



Boulder River, Upside-Down 
Creek to Yellowstone 
River 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 58 miles 



386 



283 



Shields River. Flathead 
Creek to Yellowstone 
River 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 40 miles 



507 



196 



Stillwater River, 20 miles 
upstream of Woodbine 
Campground to Yellowstone 
River 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 65 miles 



454 



318 



Flow Regimen Improvement of 
Tnbutary Streams 



Institute better water con- 
servation and land use 
measures 



Not available 



Improve trout 
habitat 



Management of Yellowstone 
River Islands 



Proper management of island 
habitat 



Not available 



Increase goose 
and other wild- 
life population 



7? 



7 8 



Table 31 
POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 
CLARKS FORK-BIGHORN PLANNING AREA, MONT. 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Elbow Creek Unit near 
Joliet 



11,000 AF reservoir for 
6,800 acres of irngation 



Thousand Dollars 



200 



367 



Blue Water-Five Mile Creek 
Unit south of Laurel 



12,000 AF reservoir for 
5,350 acres of Irngation 



193 



316 



Wyola-Lodge Grass Unit 
north of Wyola 



Diversion dam and canals for 
2,900 acres of irngation 



35 



254 



Long Otter and Gas Field 
Pump Units near Crow 
Agency 



Pumping plants and canals for 
2.270 acres of irngation 



39 



199 



Hardin Unit, near Yellow- 
tail Dam 



Pumping plants and canals for 
43,750 acres of irngation 



4,479 



6,221 



Accelerated Land Conser- 
vation, areawide 



410,500 acres of additional 
land treatment 



777 



Assumed more 
than costs 



Yellowtail Afterbay Power 
plant downstream of 
Yellowtail Dam 



114 MW bulb-type turbines 



751 



1,128 



Instream flows, areawide 



Implement existing 
legislation 



Unknown 



Preserve exist- 
ing habitat and 
water quality 



Beartooth Wilderness Area 



New legislation 



Not available 



Preserve and pro- 
tect a unique 
natural area 



Streambank Greenbelt 
Program 



Restonng denuded grassed 
and forested areas 



Unknown 



Preservation 
from streambank 
erosion and im- 
proved habitat 



Bighorn River, Bighorn NRA 
to Yellowstone River 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 80 miles 



525 



Clarks Fork River. Wyoming 
border to Yellowstone 
River 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 75 miles 



943 



307 



Table 32 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

TONGUE-POWDER PLANNING AREA. MONT. 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Tongue River Reservoir 
Modification near 
Wyoming border 



58.000 AF added storage 
for 13.000 acres of irri- 
gation plus industrial 
water 



3.622 



Thousand Dollars 

3,622 



Moorhead and Lower Powder 
Units near Wyoming 
border 



275.000 AF reservoir for 
1 1 ,300 acres of irngation 
plus industnal water 



6.346 



8,410 



Miles City Local Protection 



Accelerated Land Conser- 
vation, areawide 



3-mile levee for urban 
flood protection 

721.300 acres of additional 
land treatment 



363 



790 



442 



Assumed more 
than costs 



Instream flows, areawide 



Streambank Greenbelt 
Program 



Implement existing 
legislation 



Restoring denuded grassed 
and forested areas 



Unknown 



Unknown 



Preserve exist- 
ing habitat and 
water quality 

Protection from 
streambank ero- 
sion and improved 
habitat 



Tongue River, Tongue River 
Reservoir to mouth 



State Recreational Waterway 
designation for 115 miles 



1.419 



586 



79 



Table 33 
POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 
LOWER YELLOWSTONE PLANNING AREA, MONT. 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Conns Coulee Unit. 3 
miles southwest ot 
Terry 

Haley Unit, between Miles 
City and Glendive 



Marsh Unit. 22 miles from 
Glendive 



Seven Sisters Unit. 5 miles 
from Sidney 



Fox Creek South Unit. 
2 Miles from Crane 



Accelerated Land Conser- 
vation, areawide 

Yellowstone River, Pompeys 
Pillar to North Dakota 



Streambank Greenbelt 
Program 



Instream flows, areawide 



Hay Creek Unit, 15 miles 
west of Forsyth 



Forsyth Unit, 5 miles 
southeast of Forsyth 



Fallon Bench Unit, south 
of Fallon 



Broadview Bench Unit, 6 
miles southwest of 
Terry 

War Dance Unit, 3 miles 
northeast of Intake 



Yellowstone River, 
Intake, Mont., 
to mouth 



Pumping plants and canals 
for 2.700 acres of irri- 
gation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 2.372 acres of irri- 
gation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 2.759 acres of irri- 

gation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 3,205 acres of 
irrigation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 1,570 acres of 
irrigation 

1 .8 million acres of addi- 
tional land treatment 

National Scenic or Recrea- 
tion River designation for 
260 miles 

Restonng denuded grassed 
and forested areas 



Implementation of existing 
legislation 



Pumping plants and canals 
for 4.350 acres of 
irngation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 8,810 acres of 
irngation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 10,750 acres of 

irngation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 6.240 acres of 
irrigation 

Pumping plant and canal 
for 1 ,425 acres of 
irngation 

Streambank 
protection at 
24 key locations 



Thousand Dollars 

225 288 



218 
253 

307 

106 

2.972 
3,636 

Unknown 
Unknown 



954 



1,254 



658 



176 



430 



253 



294 



342 



157 



Assumed more 
than costs 

4,056 



Protection from 
streambank ero- 
sion and improved 
habitat 

Preserve exist- 
ing habitat and 
water quality 

451 



864 



1,054 



611 



136 



Prevent loss of 
valley land 



80 



Table 34 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

NORTH DAKOTA TRIBUTARIES PLANNING AREA 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Hazen Rood Control 



Watershed project to pro- 
tect Hazen from Antelope 
Creek 



17 



Thousand Dollars -• 
40 



Missoun River. Gamson 
Dam to Heart River 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 86 miles 



1.252 



1,419 



Cannonball Unit, near 
Elgin 



241.000 AF reservoir for 
multipurpose use 



1.632 



4.367 



Thunderhawk Unit, near 
Hettinger 



258.000 AF reservoir for 
multipurpose use 



1.555 



2,441 



Bronco Dam and Reservoir 



95,000 AF reservoir for 
multipurpose use 



2.599 



3,511 



Gamson Dam. added 
hydro power 



272 MW of installed 
capacity 



6.070 



9.604 



Knrfe River Historical 
Site, near Stanton 



1.800 feet of streambank 
protection 



Protect his- 
toncal Indian 
village 



Yellowstone River, State 
line to mouth 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 22 miles 



263 



110 



Knife River, Manning to 
mouth 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 76 miles 



964 



380 



Heart River, Heart Butte 
Dam to mouth 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 106 miles 



1,613 



530 



Cannonball River. Shields 
to Bndge 1806 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 45 miles 



577 



225 



Unique woodland areas, 
along Little Missoun 
River 



Preservation of 1 1 .000 acres 
through legislation and 
easements 



20 



Protection of 
States only 
natural Ponder- 
osa Pine 



81 



Table 34, Continued 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

NORTH DAKOTA TRIBUTARIES PLANNING AREA 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Instream flows, areawide 



New legislation 



Thousand Dollars 

Unknown Preserve exist- 

ing habitat and 
water quality 



Hazen-Stanton Unit, near 
mouth of Knife River 

Oliver-Sanger Unit, 
near Washburn 



Upper Painted Woods 
Unit, southeast of 
Washburn 

Little Heart Unit, 
near Mandan 



Fort Yates Unit, 
near Lake Oahe 



Pumping plants and canals for 
12,650 acres of irrigation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 8,000 acres of 
irngation 

Pumping plant and canal 
for 610 acres of 
irngabon 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 3,100 acres of 
irrigation 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 4.260 acres of 
irngation 



1.845 



1,181 



97 



344 



500 



1,192 



750 



59 



301 



412 



Mott Unit, near Mott 



218.000 AF reservoir for 
multipurpose use 



2,017 



638 



Mott Local Protection 



Levees along Cannonball 
River for urban flood 
control 



153 



112 



Missoun River, Garrison 
Dam to Lake Oahe 



Streambank protection at 
21 key locations 



800 



Prevent loss 
of valley land 



82 



Table 35 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

WIND-BIGHORN-CLARKS FORK PLANNING AREA. WYO. 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Upper Badwater Creek. Fremont 
and Natrona Counties 

Upper Beaver Creek, southern 
Fremont County 

Crow Creek, northern Fremont 
County 

Muddy Ridge Area, north 
of Riverton 

Popo Agie River. Shoshone 
National Forest 

Sand Mesa, west of 
Boysen Reservoir 

Taylor-Dutch Flat Ditch, 
southeast of Lander 

Bighorn Unit, north 
of Worland 

Buffalo Bill Enlargement, 
west of Cody 



Cody Canal Rehabilitation, 
south of Cody 

Hidden Valley. Fremont 
County 

Cody Pump Area, north 
of Cody 



Crooked Creek, Big Horn 
County 

Gooseberry Creek, near 
Neiber 

Greybull Rat Unit, 
northwest of Greybull 

Lower Greybull River, 
near Otto 



1.170 AF reservoir for 
flood control and irrigation 

14.500 AF reservoir lor 
flood control and irrigation 

10,000 AF reservoir for 
flood control and irngation 

Diversion and canals for 
18,000 acres of irngation 

State Scenic or Recreation 
River designation for 29 miles 

Wildlife habitat and 
irngation 

Concrete-lined canal 



Pumping plants and canals for 
1,730 acres of irngation 

25-foot raise to provide 
271,300 AF for multi- 
purpose use 

Delivery canal for 2,000 
acres of irngation 

300 AF reservoir for 
supplemental irrigation 

Pumping plants and 
canals for 510 acres 
of irngation 

Ten deep wells for 
1.400 acres of irngation 

Reservoir and canal for 
2.110 acres of irngation 

Pumps and canals tor 980 
acres of irrigation 

Drainage for 21.200 
acres of irrigated land 



120 



80 



895 



45 



100 



15 



194 



2.964 



298 



22 



37 



25 



75 



63 



380 



Thousand Dollars - 
57 



176 



152 



910 



78 



150 



40 



249 



2,594 



383 



114 



73 



32 



106 



141 



933 



83 



Table 35. Continued 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

WIND-BIGHORN-CLARKS FORK PLANNING AREA, WYO 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Lakeview Canal Rehabilitation, 
southwest of Buffalo Bill 



Lateral H-103 Improvement, 
northeast of Buffalo Bill 

Lateral R-9N Improvement, 
west of Powell 



N, Fork Shoshone River, 
Pahaska Teepee to 
Buffalo Bill 



Canal lining and structure 
replacement for irrigation 
project 

Closed pipe system for 
existing irrigation project 

Canal lining and buned pipe- 
line for existing irrigation 
protect 

U.S. Forest Service Recreation 
River designation for 26 miles 



Thousand Dollars 

109 115 



61 



10 



77 



62 



13 



190 



Nowood River, southwest 
of Big Trails 

Porcupine Creek-Devil 
Canyon, source to 
State line 



18,000 AF reservoir for 
irrigation and flood control 

State Scenic or Recreation 
River designation for 22 miles 



36 



192 



34 



Sage Creek - Pryor 
Mountain, near Frannie 

Shell Creek — Source to Bighorn 
National Forest Boundary 

Lower Shell Creek, 
east of Cody 

Sidon Canal Rehabilitation, 
near Byron 

Westside Irrigation, near 
Manderson 



Badger Basin Unit, 
southeast of Clark 



Clarks Fork. State line to 
Crandall Creek Bridge 

Cyclone Bar, near Clark 



Off stream Storage, Badger 
Basin and Cyclone Bar 



1,300 AF reservoir for 
regulation of irrigation canal 

National Scenic or Recreation 
River designation for 26 miles 

Off-stream reservoirs for 
1.940 acres of irrigation 

Canal lining and structures 
for irrigation project 

Pumping plants and canals 
for 25,000 acres of 
spnnkler irngation 

Pumping plant and laterals 
for 1 ,600 acres of 
irrigation 

National Recreation River 
designation for 20 miles 

Diversion dam and canals 
for 5,366 acres of irrigation 

24,470 AF reservoi: for 
irngation, recreation, and 
mstream flow 



91 



38 



50 



232 



2,002 



134 



73 



107 



366 



246 



326 



2.300 



162 



109 



176 



205 



84 



Table 35, Continued 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

WIND-BIGHORN-CLARKS FORK PLANNING AREA, WYO. 



Project Name and Location 



Ma|pr Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Accelerated Land Conservation, 
areawide 



2 million acres ot added 
land treatment 



Thousand Dollars 

2,956 Assumed more 

than costs 



Green Valley Ranches, north 
of Shoshone 



Pumping plant for sprinkler 
irngation of 5.100 acres 



530 



360 



Kirby Draw, near Riverton 



Pumping plants for sprinkler 
irngation of 11.200 acres 



1,025 



675 



North Hudson, near Hudson 



Pumping plant for spnnkler 
irngation of 6,200 acres 



674 



397 



Preacher Draw - Beaver Creek, 
between Hudson and Riverton 



Pumping plants for spnnkler 
irrigation of 7,400 acres 



766 



473 



Winchester Unit, near 
Fort Washakie 



Diversion canal and reservoirs 
for 9.680 acres of irrigation 



1.088 



611 



Banio Flats, southeast 

of Worland 



Canal and pumping plant for 
sprinkler irrigation of 
10,400 acres 



1,099 



757 



Polecat Bench, north of 
Powell 



6,000 AF reservoir and 
canals for 20,470 acres 
of irngation 



3.401 



3.058 



Shoshone Extensions (South) 
YU Bench 

McCollough Section, Shoshone 
Extension (south) 

Sage Section, Shoshone 
Extension (south) 



Reservoir and canals for 
17,270 acres of irngation 

Pumps and laterals for 
1,110 acres of irrigation 

Pumps and laterals for 
2,140 acres of irngation 



2,930 



82 



2,085 



160 



211 



Flood Plain Management, 
areawide 



Instream flows, areawide 



Activate regulations for 
sound land use 



New legislation 



Not 


Reduced flood 


Available 


damages; pre- 




servation of 




wildlife 




habitat 


Unknown 


Preserve 




existing 




habitat and 




water quality 



Wind River, Source to 
Boysen Reservoir 



National Wild, Scenic, or 
Recreation River 
designation for 120 miles 



1,387 



85 



Table 35, Continued 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEDS 

WIND BIGHORN CLARKS FORK PLANNING AREA. WYO. 



Project Name and Location 



Major Features 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Bighorn River, Wind 
River Canyon 



National Recreation River 
designation tor 12 miles 



.Thousand Dollars . 



135 



94 



Bighorn River, Wind River 
Canyon to Bighorn Lake 



State Recreation River 
designation for 98 miles 



1,236 



375 



Environmental Protection 
Dikes, Buffalo Bill 
Enlargement 



Dike system for dust 
abatement 



782 



Air quality 
control and 
waterfowl 
enhancement 



Cloud Peak Pnmitive 
Area, Bighorn National 
Forest 



New legislation for 
designation as wilderness 
area 



57 



N. Fork Shoshone River, 
National Forest to 
Buffalo Bill 



State Recreation River 
designabon for 10 miles 



136 



61 



Tensleep Creek, lake to 
Tensleep 



State Scenic and 
Recreation River 
designation for 23 miles 



113 



80 



Clarks Fork, Canyon 
mouth to State line 



State Recreation River 
designation 



183 



76 



Clarks Fork, Crandall 
Creek Bridge to mouth 
of Canyon 



National Wild and 
Scenic River designation 
for 22 miles 



66 



93 



High Country Lakes, 
Beartooth Area 



Off -stream Storage, Clarks 
Fork Basin 



Sunlight-Crandall Basins. 
Upper Clarks Fork 



New legislation for 
designation as wilderness 
area 



6.500 AF reservoir for 
recreation and low flows 



Establish development 
control programs 



Not 


Preserve and 


Available 


protect a 




unique natural 




area 


91 


Create wild- 




life habitat 




and improve 




water quality 


450 


Scenic ease- 




ments to 




retain land on 




tax roles 



Mule Butte, Wind River 
Indian Reservation 



Pumping plants for spnnkler 
Irrigation of 17,280 acres 



2,028 



1.042 



86 



Table 36 

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR MEETING NEEOS 

NORTHEAST WYOMING PUNNING AREA 



Project Name and Location 



Major F ea tures 



Average Annual 
Costs 



Average Annual 
Benefits 



Crazy Woman Unit, 
near Buffalo 



Reservoir and pumping 
plants for irrigation 
of 9,528 acres 



Thousand Dollars 



1,010 



1,555 



Accelerated Land 
Conservation, areawide 



11.5 million acres of 
added land treatment 



4.600 



Assumed more 
than cost 



Middle Fork Crazy Woman, 
near Buffalo 



4.400 AF reservoir for 
irngation of 3,000 acres 



169 



286 



Northeast Wyoming Water 
Supply, near Gillette 



Pumping plants, deep wells, 
and reservoirs for irngation. 
industry, recreation, and 
fish and wildlife 



16,514 



19,762 



Piney Unit, near Buffalo 



Reservoir and canals for new 
and supplemental irrigation 



807 



1,804 



Shendan Local Protection 



Stage III of levees and 
channels for flood control 



South Tongue River- 
Praine Dog Proiect 



Reservoir, conduit, and 
canals for irrigation 
and industry 



1,238 



4,224 



South Tongue Watershed, 
near Shendan 



Reservoir and canals for 
irngation of 9,200 acres 



343 



357 



Ucross Unit, near Buffalo 



Purchase or exchange of Lake 
DeSmet water for irngation 
of 3,750 acres 



499 



513 



Kaycee Project, Powder River 



Reservoir and canals for new 
and supplemental irngation of 
8,700 acres 



2,227 



1,127 



Cabin Creek Watershed, 
near Keyhole Dam 



Reservoir for flood control 
and irrigation of 330 acres 



26 



26 



South Tongue River, source 
to South Fork Reservoir 



Scenic or Recreation River 
designation for 27 miles 



42 



133 



Tongue River, source 
to Forest boundary 



National Scenic or Recreation 
River designation for 26 miles 



60 



68 



Tongue River, Forest 
boundary to State line 



State Recreation River 
designation for 35 miles 



197 



87 




m 



CHAPTER 6 

PLAN FORMULATION 



Planning Procedures 

Principles and Standards 

Criteria used for evaluation of projects and for- 
mulation of the alternative plans set forth later in 
this chapter are those established under the mul- 
tiobjectiye planning (MOP) approach of the U.S. 
Water Resources Council. MOP guidelines for the 
study conform with the Water Resources Coun- 
cil's Principles and Standards for Planning Water 
and Related Land Resources. 

Alternative plans have been formulated to em- 
phasize national economic development (NED) 
and environmental quality (EQ). A third, but par- 
tial, plan emphasizing local-State-regional de- 
velopment (SRD) has been included to identify 
projects which, with the addition of regional be- 
nefits, qualify for such development, but do not 
meet NED criteria. A fourth plan, called the re- 
commended plan (RP), is a combination of those 
projects or programs selected from the NED. EQ. 
and SRD plans, that best meet the needs outlined 
in chapter 4. 

Plan formulation for the NED and SRD plans is 
tied primarily to the monetary benefit, cost, and 
repayment evaluation of potential projects or 
programs (components). To be included in the 
NED or SRD plan, components must show user 
benefits exceeding costs and an apparent source 
of repayment of project costs. EQ plan formulation 
criteria emphasize environmental enhancement, 
preservation, or management as the principal ob- 



jectives. Each of the four plans is described in 
more detail later in this chapter. 

The beneficial and adverse effects of a prop- 
osed development are evaluated for the period of 
the useful life of the major project facilities, with an 
upper limit of 100 years. A discount rate of 6 -% 
percent 1 was used for the Yellowstone Study. Be- 
nefits and costs occurring in different time frames 
over the period of analysis were adjusted to com- 
parable values by the use of the 6 - % percent 
discount rate. Costs and benefits are based on 
January 1 975 prices unless other dates are speci- 
fically identified. 

The absence of State or Federal governmental 
planning, financing, construction, and controls 
beyond current levels as envisioned for the 'with- 
out'' plan would result, in some cases, in levels of 
development exceeding any of the "with" plans. 
This suggests that overutilization or misallocation 
of resources as well as underutilization, would 
sometimes occur in the absence of adequate 
planning. 

It suggests also that the recommended plan 
formulated on current MOP guidelines is subject 
to changes. It is conceivable that unforeseen na- 
tional or regional needs may be identified which 
could move presently unrecognized components 
or recognized but unjustifed components to the 
top of the priority list. 



1 A rate of 6 • ' » percent was in effect when this study began, and a few projects have 
been evaluated at that rate All such projects have been checked to insure that the 
changed (6- ^ percent) rate would not affect their economic feasibility. 



89 




Environmental Quality Account — A water and 
land resources plan may have a variety of effects, 
beneficial and adverse, on the natural environ- 
ment. While monetary effects do occur and should 
be shown, effects on the environment are gener- 
ally characterized by their nonmarket, nonmonet- 
ary nature. 

Beneficial environmental effects are contribu- 
tions resulting from the management, preserva- 
tion, or restoration of one or more of the desirable 
natural environmental characteristics of an area 
under study. Adverse environmental effects are 
consequences of proposed actions that result in 
environmental deterioration. 



The 4-Account System 

Under multiobjective planning procedures, 
each plan, regardless of which objective is em- 
phasized, is evaluated and displayed in terms of a 
4-account system — national, regional, environ- 
mental, and social factors. This means that each 
project or program proposed for consideration in 
any of the plans must be evaluated on a com- 
prehensive basis. 

Benefits and costs for the national and regional 
accounts are expressed as monetary values, but 
also include a descriptive analysis of beneficial 
and adverse effects. For the other two 
accounts — environmental and social factors — the 
emphasis is on identifying and evaluating 
changes that could occur (or that by design would 
not occur) with a plan, and on describing as- 
sociated beneficial or adverse effects. 

National Economic Development Account — 
Benefits evaluated under the national account are 
direct user benefits, displayed for project pur- 
poses such as irrigation, flood control, recreation, 
fish and wildlife, M&l water, and electric power. 
User benefits are measured as net income in- 
creases, damage reductions, or proxy values of 
alternative actions to direct project beneficiaries. 
Income increases may include the net increases 
in salaries of persons who actually work on the 
project during construction or operation and who 
would be unemployed or underemployed in the 
absence of the project. Benefits may not include 
second-level effects such as income to business 
resulting from the project. National account costs 
are measured as the economic values placed on 
the resources required to implement a plan and 
place it in operation. 



Regional Development Account — Benefits and 
costs evaluated under the regional account are 
those, including NED values, that would occur 
within the boundaries of the study area. These 
local effects are determined for three areas: the 
local area, adjacent area, and the rest of the Na- 
tion. For purposes of this study, the adjacent area 
is defined as the rest of the State. Direct NED 
effects occur in the local area and in some of the 
other areas as well as the Nation. Secondary ef- 
fects on the local economy are usually offset by 
changes in other regions. Increased employment 
in the local region due to a project is offset by 
reduced employment in other regions under the 
assumption of full employment. 

Local monetary benefits are estimated for four 
income categories: (1) user benefits (the NED 
values), (2) benefits induced by and stemming 
from effects, (3) construction impacts, and (4) un- 
employment and underemployment effects. 

"Induced by" benefits result from increased net 
returns to those who supply goods and services to 
the direct project beneficiaries. "Stemming from" 
benefits are those that accrue to the people who 
handle or use the output of the direct project 
beneficiaries. Construction impacts are estimated 
as the income increases accruing to the region 
from wage payments to imported labor forces dur- 
ing the construction period. Income increases to 
the unemployed and underemployed persons in 
the region are estimated as portions of the in- 
duced and stemming effects and construction im- 
pacts and are assumed to be significant only dur- 
ing the early years of project or program life. 

Local costs include local payments toward con- 
struction and operation and regional tax contribu- 



90 



tions. Both adverse and beneficial effects that are 
not evaluated monetarily are measured in approp- 
riate terms and displayed in the local account. 

Social Well- Being Account — Beneficial and 
adverse social effects are derived from a plan's 
success or failure in meeting social needs. The 
identification and satisfaction of social needs will 
relate to the social deficiencies expected to prevail 
in the study area without a plan as compared to the 
expected changes, social gains, or losses, with a 
plan. 

The multiobjective planning guidelines for 
evaluating social factors were written to em- 
phasize the effects on those users of projects or 
programs who have failed to share in rising 
economic standards. This would seem to focus on 
the unemployed or underemployed person ef- 
fects, which, according to regional benefit evalua- 
tion criteria, would be significant only during the 
early years of project life. 

Opportunities for improving social status are 
available through implementation of resource de- 
velopment; however, documentation of the actual 
benefiting social group is not possible. Social ef- 
fects are, therefore, evaluated and displayed only 
for projects and programs that are included in the 
alternative plans and are not considered as an end 
in themselves. 











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Project Formulation 

When a project or program has been evaluated 
and the results tabulated under the 4-account sys- 
tem, it is then possible and necessary to test the 
proposal in terms of its acceptability for inclusion 
in the various "objective" plans. Each of these 
plans has specific requirements that must be met 
if a project or program is to be included. A particu- 



lar proposal may qualify for more than one plan, 
and to the extent that this is so, the proposal's 
attractiveness for inclusion in the recommended 
plan is enhanced. No project or program may be 
included in the recommended plan unless it has 
qualified for at least one of the three objective 
plans, but modifications may be made to accom- 
modate additional functional needs. The limiting 
criteria for the objective plans, briefly stated, are: 

Plan Emphasizing NED Objective — National 
economic development is achieved by increasing 
the value of the Nation's goods and services, by 
utilizing additional resources, or by improving the 
efficiency of existing resource use. Theoretically, 
the best NED plan will produce the maximum net 
benefits as an excess of projected monetary be- 
nefits over monetary costs. A satisfactorily de- 
veloped plan with NED emphasis will meet the 
following minimum requirements: 

1. User benefits are in excess of total 
economic costs: 

2. Separable costs of each functional com- 
ponent are less than benefits or the alter- 
native cost of producing comparable be- 
nefits; 

3. Sufficient capability is in prospect to 
repay all reimbursable costs: 

4. Significant local and State support is ap- 
parent; and 

5. Output from the plan will be used to meet 
near-to-intermediate-term needs. 

Plan Emphasizing EQ Objective -The objective 
of the environmental quality plan is the manage- 
ment, conservation, preservation, creation, resto- 
ration, or improvement of natural and cultural re- 
sources and ecological systems. Although the EQ 
plan is not subjected to a benefit-cost comparison 
as such, the plan should reflect the most efficient 
way of obtaining the desired results. To the extent 
that monetary benefits or costs accrue, they 
should be shown underthe NEDor SRD accounts 
in the 4-account system. 

Primary consideration is given to environmental 
protection or enhancement utilizing those unique 
or natural resources of the study area where they 
exist. A measure of their importance should rec- 
ognize the available supply at the local, regional, 



91 



and national level. Consideration for the preserva- 
tion of those resources that are scarce or irrep- 
laceable should be given a high priority. 

Plan Emphasizing SRD Objective — Local de- 
velopment is accomplished by utilizing available 
local, regional, and national resources to alleviate 
chronic or cyclic economic conditions of low in- 
come, high unemployment, or other persistent 
economic or social problems within the region, but 
only in those cases where there is a known or 
reasonably predictable non-Federal source of 
financing for all of the project or program costs. An 
acceptable plan with SRD emphasis must meet 
these criteria: 

1. Monetary benefits (user benefits plus 
other regional benefits) must exceed total 
costs; 

2. Sufficient repayment capability is appa- 
rent to meet cost-sharing requirements; 
and 

3. Demonstration that non-Federal financ- 
ing can be expected. 

Procedures 

Some projects and programs listed in chapter 5 
are not included in the following three plans. 
Dropped due to an insufficient water supply were 
the Crazy Woman and Piney Units in Northeast 
Wyoming. The South Tongue River Watershed in 
Northeast Wyoming was incorporated into the 
South Tongue-Prairie Dog multipurpose project 
for the NED and SRD plans but was the alternate 
finally included in the recommended plan. 

Projects that are listed in more than one plan are 
varied slightly to enhance various purposes, or 
because they are felt to be suitable under more 
than one plan. 

The National Economic Development Plan 

The objective of the national economic de- 
velopment (NED) plan is to enhance national 
economic development by increasing the value of 
the Nation's output of goods and services and 
improve national economic efficiency. The word 
needed is very important, because there must be, 
somewhere in the national economy, a demonstr- 
able demand for the goods, materials, or services 



that will be produced, if those effects are to be 
included in the benefit evaluations. Since the NED 
plan is oriented to the national economy, it is 
geared to national choices among alternatives 
rather than to regional or local choices. 

The same philosophy applies to costs — it is the 
total cost to the Nation that is to be considered. 
Some of those costs, particularly those related to 
the environment, social values, and other effects 
that are hard to evaluate in dollar terms, are often 
considered as negative benefits. The result is the 
same — they affect the all-important relation bet- 
ween costs and benefits. The point here, however, 
is that what is measured are all costs no matter to 
whom they accrue and all benefits no matter to 
whom they accrue in determining whether or not 
an element belongs in the NED plan. Benefits and 
costs (secondary) of that element to the local and 
adjacent areas that are measurable in dollars are 
to be displayed, however, in the recommended 
plan account previously discussed. Environmen- 
tal benefits and costs of the NED plan element are 
to be displayed in the environmental quality ac- 
count. Direct national costs will accrue to one, two, 
or all of the regions. Some secondary costs may 
accrue to one area and be offset by benefits in 
another area. Offsetting, i.e., secondary, benefits 
and costs are not to be considered in determining 
whether or not a plan element meets NED criteria. 

The NED plan is geared to maximizing the net 
value of goods and services to the Nation. Often 
the NED plan elements will be financed by the 
Federal Government. This does not mean that 
there should be no repayment of costs by the 
beneficiaries; it simply means that raising the capi- 
tal required to get the development underway will 
be a Federal responsibility. In some instances, 
however, it could be to a State or local entity's 
interest to finance all or some part of an NED 
project. There is no restriction against such action. 

The projects and programs that meet some na- 
tional need and produce direct benefits in excess 
of total costs are summarized in the following ta- 
bles. The beneficial and adverse effects of the 
NED plan elements have been evaluated and are 
displayed for each of the seven planning areas in 
tables 37 through 43. 

Table 44 shows the NED energy resource re- 
quirements and air pollution emissions. 



92 











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Protect 2,080 acres of urban land 
and improvements from flooding, 
enhance the health and social 
well-being of 60,000 residents, 
and encourage more orderly 
development in the protected 
areas 


Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 

Insure that resources are available 
for use in the future. 


User Benefits $334,000 
Regional Benefits $896,000 
Net Benefits $983,000 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


Improve human environment 
through weed reduction. 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quaiity of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flow to streams. 


First Cost $3,620,000 
Annual Benefits $334,000 
Annual Cost $247,000 


A. Cap. Cost $18,304,000 
•Ann. Equiv Cost $1 ,483,400 

B. Cap. Cost $167,000 
*Ann. Equiv. Cost $13,500 

C. Cap. Cost $991 ,000 
•Ann. Equiv Cost $80,300 

Annual benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs. 

"6% percent interest for 25 
years. 


FLOOD CONTROL 
West Billings Diversion 

COE Level B Study 
Yellowstone County 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
431 ,000 Acres 

B. National Resource Lands 
13,500 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands 
2,400 Acres 



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Increase and stabilize farmers' 
and merchants' incomes, provide 
131 additional farm units, and 
provide jobs for 407 people directly 
involved in farm operations. 

Influx of 488 construction workers 
and their families, including 166 
school children. 


Provide employment for small 
operation and maintenance force 
and increase Montana's power 
capacity without dislocations. 


Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 


User Benefits $6,221,400 
Regional Benefits $12,347,400 
Net Benefits $14,090,000 


User Benefits $1,127,800 
Regional Benefits $503,000 
Net Benefits $879,700 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


Upland game bird and waterfowl 
populations will increase by 100 
percent, hydropowered pumping 
plant will not consume resources, 
and muskrats and mink 
populations will increase by 200 
percent; Medicine Wheel, 
Bozeman Trail, and Fort Smith 
sites have public access and 
reduce wind erosion. 

Deer and antelope populations will 
decrease by 50 percent, features 
will be visual intrusions, Bighorn 
Lake will be depleted by 3 percent, 
TDS will increase 3 to 6 percent, 
and sulphate will increase 4 to 7 
percent in the Bighorn River. 


Opportunity to generate power in 
an existing dam will not alter river 
flows. 

Visual impact of a 1 mile power line 
will require effort to preclude 
serious short-term river pollution 
during construction 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams 


First Cost $66,731,000 
Annual Benefits $6,221,400 
Annual Cost $4,478,800 


First Cost $10,490,000 
Annual Benefits $1,127,800 
Annual Cost $751,100 


A Cap. Cost $9,296,000 
'Ann. Equiv. Cost $753,300 

B. Cap. Cost $303,000 
"Ann. Equiv. Cost $24,600 

C. Cap Cost $0 
"Ann. Equiv. Cost $0 

Annual Benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs. 

■6 3 /s/8 percent interest for 25 
years. 


Hardin Unit 

USBR Pick-Sloan Missouri 
Basin Program 
Big Horn County 


ENERGY 
Yellowtail Afterbay 
Powerplant (Hydropower) 

USBR 

Big Horn County 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
385,000 Acres 

B. National Resource Lands 
25,500 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands 
Acres 



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Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 


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The NED plan is an export-only 
approach with no population 
impacts from thermal electric 
generation or coal gasification 

Increased mining activities will 
have an impact and add to social 
pressures; there will also be 
increased employment 
opportunities associated with 
expanded mining operation 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


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Regional benefits are not 
available; it may be assumed that 
net benefits would increase 
substantially. 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flow to streams. 


See Tongue River Reservoir 
Modification Proiect above. 


The NED is an export-only 
scenario using rail and slurry to 
move coal out of the basin. Mine, 
reclamation, and slurry water 
requirements will total 17,400 
acre-feet by I985 and 68,400 by 
the year 2000 

Nearly 6,100 acres of land will 
have been affected by strip mining 
by the year 2000. The value of the 
reclaimed land will be dependent 
on the level of success of the 
reclamation program. 


A Cap. Cost $7,653,000 
"Ann. Equiv. Cost $620,200 

B. Cap. Cost $982,000 
•Ann. Equiv. Cost $79,600 

C. Cap. Cost $1,1 19,000 
•Ann. Equiv. Cost $90,700 

Annual Benefits — not computed - 
assumed to be at least equal to 
cost. 

'6% percent interest for 25 
years. 


Included under Tongue River 
Reservoir Modification Proiect 
(seo above). 


Private Capital Costs 

$2,923,200,000 

Annual Benefits $589,060,000 

Annual Cost $500,960,000 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A State and Private Lands — 
639,000 Acres 

B. National Resource 
Lands— 78,000 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands — 
4,300 Acres 


ENERGY 

Tongue River Power Plant — 
6 MW, 21 gigawatts 


NED Energy development 



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100 



Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 


The pleasures associated with 
river-oriented recreation are 
important to social well-being. 
Local residents as well as tourists 
relax and revitalize themselves 
through their association with the 
pleasures provided by nature- 


Increased employment in the 
energy sector of a predominantly 
agricultural area and secondary 
economic effects to local business. 

Additional social, educational, and 
health stresses on existing 
institutions. 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


Tourism is a major contributor to 
the area and State economies. 
Recreational benefits resulting 
from preservation of these river 
reaches are in the State-regional 
interest. Other analysis is not 
available. 


Regional benefits are not 
available; it may be assumed that 
net benefits would increase 
substantially. 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 

Increased fire hazard from added 
production of forage plant species. 


The natural beauty along these 
reaches of streams will be 
preserved for present and future 
generations, water quality will be 
improved, flora and fauna habitat 
values will be protected, and a 
higher level of recreation will be 
offset by the protection of 
resources. 


Two additional coal-fired plants 
are built at Colstrip (3 and 4) 
which may increase air pollution 
emissions over present levels. No 
gasification plants will be built. All 
but 9 million tons of coal per year is 
exported either by slurry or rail. 
Water requirements will jump to 
nearly 86,000 acre-feet per year by 
2000. The bulk of water is used in 
thermal electric and slurry 
operations, although slurry 
operations are about seven times 
more water efficient. 


A Cap. Cost $33,728,000 
•Ann. Equiv. Cost $2,733,300 

B. Cap Cost $2,855,000 
'Ann. Equiv. Cost $231,400 
Cap. Cost $87,000 
"Ann. Equiv. Cost $7,100 

Annual Benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs. 

*6% percent interest for 25 
years. 


First Cost $41,068,000 
Annual Benefits $4,056,000 
Annual Cost $3,636,200 


Private Capital Costs 

$1,311,200,000 

Annual Benefits $772,970,000 

Annual Cost $657,290,000 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
1,551,000 Acres 

B. National Resource Lands 
251 ,500 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands 
700 Acres 


RECREATION 
Yellowstone River 

Establish national scenic 
and recreational designation 
for the lower Yellowstone 
from Pompeys Pillar to the 
Montana-North 
Dakota border 
for 260 miles. 


ENERGY 

NED Energy Development 



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Create 18 skilled jobs for 90 days 
and 30 man-days of part-time 
employment for local residents 
each year, and provide an 
estimated 95 percent reduction of 
flood damages to the flood plain. 


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Land ownership and control will be 
regulated by the purchase of 16 
acres in fee title and 18,920 acres 
of easement 


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Air pollution will be increased 
slightly during project construction 
and channel relocation will cause a 
temporary increase in downstream 
bank erosion 


Energy-related facilities will 
impose long-term obtrusions to the 
visual quality of the area; 
anticipated increases in major 
facilities from 1 975 to 2000 include 
an addition of 6.359 megawatts; 
land requirements for these facility 
sites will total 8,873 acres and 
4,946 acres for mine sites, by the 
year 2000; strip mining will affect 
6,315 acres per year by 2000; 
areas surrounding and downwind 
of energy conversion plants will be 
subjected to low levels of aerial 
contaminants over a long period of 
time; the value of the reclaimed 
lands will be dependent on the 
level of success of the reclamation 
program; and water requirements 
will total 210,628 acre-feet per 
year by 2000 


Maintain scenic, recreational, and 
wildlife options by preservation of 
75 miles of free-flowing streams 
from II miles downstream of 
Garrison Dam to the mouth of the 
Heart River at Fort Lincoln State 
Park 


First Cost $160,000 
Annual Benefits $40,000 
Annual Cost $17,100 


First Cost $3,770,000,000 
Annual Benefits $584,500,000 
Annual Cost $497,240,000 


First Cost $11,806,000 
Annual Benefits $1,237,500 
Annual Cost $1,108,595 


FLOOD CONTROL 
Hazen Flood Control— SCS 

Provides protection to Hazen 
from flooding of the Antelope 
Creek. 


ENERGY 

NED Energy Development 
Scenario 

Coal production of 20 71 
million tons per year by 1985 
and 164.88 million tons per 
year by 2000 


RECREATION 

Missouri River— NPS 
(75 miles of free-flowing 
stream below Garrison Dam- 
national designation) 



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106 



employment in the service sectors 
dealing with tourism and hunting; 
therefore, increased wildlife 
population will provide increased 
opportunity for viewing wildlife as 
well as increase hunting. 
Increased income will allow 
beneficiaries to more actively 
participate in social, cultural, 
recreational, and community 
activities of the region. 


The net income on about 10 
ranches will be increased by about 
$104,000 annually and the ranch 
income will be stabilized by the 
improved water supply 
Community income will increase 
about $315,000 annually due to 
increased employment and 
business generated by the project 
and will be stabilized by the 
improved reliability of agricultural 
income. The project will generate 
about 14 full-time jobs in the 
community and provide better use 
of the area's underemployed 
resources. 


Fremont County has one of the 
highest unemployment rates in 
Wyoming and has had a decrease 
in rural population. The project will 
encourage 75 to 100 additional 
farm families to move into or 
remain in the area. The project will 
provide work for 40 
construction-related people during 
the 4-year construction period. 
Ranch and community income will 
become stabilized by more 
dependable agricultural 
production. Some landowners 
may have irrigation features cross 
their land and not receive benefits 
from the irrigation. 




Employment impacts, induced and 
stemming from benefits, and net 
externalities less related costs will 
result in a net regional benefit of 
about $255,000; these benefits will 
be partially offset by $12,200 of 
losses to the rest of the Nation. 


In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $1,626,859 
as a result of increased 
employment income, induced 
business in the region, and other 
secondary effects. 


production of pheasants, 
Hungarian partridge, and other 
upland game and songbirds. 


The storage reservoir will provide 
waterfowl habitat on 4 to 1 8 acres; 
improved irrigation management 
will reduce erosion on about 2,000 
acres of irrigated land; about 20 
acres of land will be converted 
from rangeland to water storage 
use; erosion will be increased 
during the construction and 
revegetation period on about 20 
acres of land; and water depletions 
will be increased about 300 
acre-feet per year. 


The project will create potential for 
improved upland game hunting. 
Drains, canals, and other features 
of the irrigation systems will 
provide increased habitat for small 
aquatic furbearing animals and 
upland game birds. Irrigation will 
increase the value and productivity 
of the land due to the use of 
irrigation in the dry months. The 
project will create a visual effect of 
irrigation facilities, lands, and 
drains. The change in terrain due 
to irrigation and new farming 
methods will change the natural 
habitat for wildlife. Return flows will 
increase the amount of silt 
deposited in the Boysen 
Reservoir. 




First Cost $325,000 

Total Annual Cost $21,900 

Annual Benefits $114,200 


First Cost $13,000,000 
Total Annual Cost $895,000 
Annual Benefits $910,000 




AGRICULTURE (Irrigation) 
Hidden Valley Project 

Irrigation — SCS 

A 300 acre-foot reservoir 
located along the Pilot Canal 
will provide storage for 
surplus flows during periods 
of low demand and for release 
during periods of high 
demand when a full supply is 
not available from regular 
flows in the canal. A 
supplemental water supply 
would be provided to 2,362 
acres. The project will not 
affect the amount of diversion 
into Pilot Canal. 


Muddy Ridge Area 

Irrigation— USBR 

Provide irrigation water to an 
undeveloped portion of the 
third division of the existing 
Riverton Unit. A gravity 
system would supply water 
from the Wyoming Canal to 
9,000 irrigable acres. An 
additional 9,000 acres for 
potential sprinkler irrigation 
may be provided by capturing 
and reusing drainage water 
from a currently operating 
portion of the Riverton Unit 



107 



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number from 20 to 200 during the 
5-year construction period. Local 
schools will have to accomodate 
these students. Persons on fixed 
incomes could have reduced 
buying power if local prices 
increase during construction 
activity. Visitor centers with audio 
and visual displays will provide 
historical and cultural information 
about the dam, reservoir, and 
surrounding area. 

um benefits to 


The net ranch income will be 
stabilized and increase by 
$150,000 annually due to the 
improved reliability of crop 
production. Community income 
will increase $1,000,000 annually 
due to increased employment and 
business generated by the project 
and will be stabilized. The project 
will generate about 53 new |obs in 
the community and the need for 
some part-time help will result in 
better use of the underemployed. 
Additional water will be available 
for firefighting, and rural fire 
hazards will be reduced by 
prolonging the period of green 
vegetation. Increased income will 
permit more participation in social, 
cultural, recreational, and 
community activities. An added 
potential for recreational 
development will be provided at 
Beck Lake. 


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State-regional benefits, in addition 
to those listed under the NED 
account, would be 

Employment impact$143,000 

Induced benefits $682,000 

Externalities $42,000 

$867,000 

About $107,100 of these benefits 

will accrue to areas outside of the 

Yellowstone Basin. 


declared a national historic 
landmark and modification will 
alter it somewhat, but will prevent 
its overtopping during maximum 
probable flood conditions. Seven 
archaeological sites in the 
reservoir area could be altered by 
preconstruction investigation and 
excavation as appropriate. 
Minimum flows between the dam 
and the Heart Mountain 
Powerplant will be increased from 
50 to 100 cubic feet per second 
and from 50 to 250 cubic feet per 
second be'ow the powerplant. The 
shoreline will be increased 4 miles, 
and the water surface area will be 
increased a normal maximum of 
3,089 acres. The loss of inundated 
vegetation will result in a loss of 
wildlife population and the North 
Fork and South Fork of the 
Shoshone River will have 1 .3 and 
0.6 miles, respectively, inundated. 
The enlargement will decrease 
flood hazards and flood losses 
below the dam, 

low. municipal and industrial supply, and power I 


Land use and cover on about 
2,000 acres will be converted from 
nonirrigated range to irrigated hay, 
pasture, and grain. About 20 acres 
of range would be converted to 
canal use. The increased irrigation 
will create an additional 
consumptive use of about 4,500 
acre-feet per year, but this will not 
materially affect streamflows 
because of the flow regulation at 
the Buffalo Bill Dam. The potential 
for recreational development at 
Beck Lake will be enhanced and 
the water supply system for the 
City of Cody will be assured of 
needed supplies. Stream 
depletion will be increased by 
4,500 acre-feet per year 


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First Cost $3,067,500 
Total Annual Cost $298,000 
Annual Benefits $382,600 


increased 271,300 acre-feet 
for a total of 695,400 
acre-feet The maximum 
surface area will be increased 
from 6,691 acres to 9,780 
acres. The existing 5 6 
megawatt Shoshone 
powerplant is obsolete and 
will be replaced with a new 
powerplant with a capacity of 
20 megawatts. The spillway 
capacity will be enlarged from 
18,000 cfs to 66,850 cfs 
Water releases through Heart 
Mountain will allow an 
additional annual generation 
of 14.9 million kilowatt hours. 
A visitor center will be 
constructed at the left 
abutment of the raised dam 

a This enlargement will provide additional wate 
the Cody area 


Cody Canal Rehabilitation 

Irrigation and other 
purposes— SCS 

The proiect involves 
rehabilitation of the Cody 
Canal, construction of a 
delivery canal from the Heart 
Mountain Tunnel bifurcation 
works to the Cody Canal near 
Sulphur Creek, and provision 
of facilities to serve 2,000 
acres of new irrigation; further 
studies may indicate the 
same 



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The net ranch income will be 
increased by about $30,000 
annually and community income 
will be increased by $600,000 
annually. Ranch and community 
income will be stabilized by more 
dependable agricultural 
production. Project installation will 
create six full-time jobs and six 
seasonal on-farm jobs. Increased 
income will allow beneficiaries to 
more actively participate in social, 
cultural, recreational, and 
community activities of the region. 
Recreational opportunities of 
region residents will be enhanced 
through the formation of a 
permanent pool of 265 acres 


Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 


In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $331,000 in 
regional benefits as a result of 
increased employment income, 
induced business in the region, 
and other secondary effects. 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


POWDER RIVER BASIN 
The reservoir will cover about 1 
mile of live stream, and about 400 
acres of mountain grazing will be 
committed to water storage use. 
About 150 acres of barren ground 
will be exposed by the annual 
drawdown of the reservoir, and 
about 265 acres of flat water can 
be made available for fishing and 
recreational use. 


BASINWIDE 

Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 

Late season streamflows will be 
maintained through reduction of 
overland surface flows, increased 
soil infiltration, and 
moisture-holding capabilities. 


First Cost $2,180,000 
Total Annual Cost $169,000 
Annual Benefits $286,000 


A. Cap. Cost $32,427,000 
"Ann Equiv. Cost $2,627,900 

B. Cap. Cost $2,562,000 
"Ann Equiv. Cost $207,600 

C Cap. Cost $2,009,000 
"Ann. Equiv. Cost $162,800 

Annual Benefits — not 
computed — assumed to be at 
least equal to costs 

'6 3 /8 percent interest for 25 
years. 


Middle Fork Crazy Woman 
Project 

Irrigation, water storage, 
recreation, and flood 
control— SCS 

A multipurpose reservoir 
will provide supplemental 
water to 3,000 acres of 
existing irrigated lands. 
This development is 
contingent to providing 
energy-related water needs 
to Sunoco from the 
Northeast Wyoming Water 
Project or some other 
source. 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
5.472,000 Acres 

B National Resource 
Lands 217,000 Acres 

C Forest Service Lands 
110.100 Acres 



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The Environmental Quality Plan 

The environmental quality plan is intended to 
include those developments or preservation ef- 
forts that either protect or enhance the environ- 
ment where "environment" is defined as the total 
ecological, physiological, and sociological setting 
in which man lives. Under this broad definition, 
there are wide differences of opinion on what con- 
stitutes environmental quality. To the avid out- 
doorsman, it may mean maintaining a pristine, 
unpolluted atmosphere at the expense of physical 
comforts if necessary. To others particularly those 
who are older or handicapped, it may mean a 
comfortable home, an easy chair, and a television 
set, even if providing those comforts means some 
degradation of the outside conditions. There are 
all shades of differences between these extremes. 
Even if all needed information was in hand, de- 
veloping an EQ plan under the consensus method 
of operation would be difficult. 

For a myriad of reasons, all needed environ- 
mental data were not available, and, as a result, 
the environmental quality objective and the en- 
vironmental quality account of other objectives 
have received relatively less adequate treatment 
than the national economic development objec- 
tive. The following explains some of the reasons 
for this imbalance and recommends corrective ac- 
tions for the future. 

According to the principles and standards 
(P&S), "the environmental objective is enhanced 
by the management, conservation, preservation, 
creation, restoration, or improvement of the quality 



of certain natural and curtural resources and 
ecological systems in the area under study and 
elsewhere in the Nation." 

The plan of study (POS) for the Yellowstone 
level B states on page 21 . "This study will be of 
reconnaissance level. For projects, programs, or 
other elements to be included in the level B plan- 
ning analysis they must contain, as a minimum, 
reconnaissance level cost and benefit informa- 
tion." On page 22, the POS goes on to say, 
"Background data to be used in the level B study 
will be taken or updated from available sources, 
such as reports on studies listed in the introduction 
of this POS, to the extent practicable. Major base- 
line studies will not be undertaken." 

The POS's statements regarding use of existing 
studies and reports and the fact that no new base- 
line studies are to be accomplished are consistent 
with the time and, to a lesser extent, dollar con- 
straints of the study. However, society has not until 
recently encouraged projects that were primarily 
environmental in nature. As a consequence, there 
were very few "environmental" projects that had 
been examined in any detail. Lack of an inventory 
of environmental projects argued for strong par- 
ticipation by those who deal most directly with 
environmental concerns. The latter did not happen 
like it should have. Seldom was an analysis of the 
past, present, and future provided as a basis for 
supporting proposals for EQ actions. 

Conversely, many projects whose major pur- 
poses were national economic income, have been 
examined in detail in the past. These projects 
could be and were updated and proposed as NED 
plan elements by the agencies concerned. 

The results of this set of circumstances is an EQ 
plan that is inadequate. The limited number of 
environmental projects does not mean that others 
are not possible, but only that the issues were not 
fully addressed. Environmental elements in the 
plan must be given the benefit of the doubt when 
account displays are examined for completeness 
and accuracy. 

The beneficial and adverse effects of the EQ 
plan elements have been eveluated and are dis- 
played for each of the seven planning areas in 
tables 45 through 51. 

Table 52 shows the EQ energy resource re- 
quirements and air pollution emissions. 



126 



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Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 

Ensures that resources are 
available for use in the future. 


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Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


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Same as above 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 


First Cost $6,568,000 
Annual Benefits $195,500 
Annual Cost $507,000 


First Cost $4,964,000 
Annual Benefits $317,700 
Annual Cost $454,500 


A. Cap. Cost $18,304,000 "Ann, 
Equiv. Cost $1,483,400 

B. Cap. Cost $167,000 "Ann 
Equiv. Cost $13,500 

C. Cap. Cost $991 ,000 'Ann. 
Equiv Cost $80,300 

Annual Benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs. 

*6 3 /e percent interest for 25 
years. 


Shields River 

Establish State recreational 
river designation for the 
Shields River from Flathead 
Creek to confluence with the 
Yellowstone River for 40 miles 


Stillwater River 

Establish State recreational 
river designation for the 
Stillwater River from 20 miles 
above the U.S. Forest Service 
Woodbine Campground to 
confluence with the 
Yellowstone River for 65 miles 


LAND CONSERVATION 

Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
431 ,000 Acres 

B National Resource Lands 
13,500 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands 2,400 
Acres 



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Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 




Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 




Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover 
resulting from improved 
management of existing 
resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 


First Cost $1 1 ,946,000 
Annual Benefits $307,100 
Annual Cost $943,300 


A. Cap. Cost $9,296,000 "Ann. 
Equiv. Cost $753,300 

B. Cap. Cost $303,000 *Ann 
Equiv. Cost $24,600 

C. Cap. Cost "Ann Equiv. Cost 

Annual Benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs. 

'6 3 s percent interest for 25 
years. 


Clarks Fork River 

Establish State recreational 
river designation for the Clarks 
Fork-Montana-Wyoming 
border to Yellowstone River for 
75 miles; the Clarks Fork 
source to the 

Montana-Wyoming border will 
be administratively managed 
by the US, Forest Service for 10 
miles. 


LAND CONSERVATION 
Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
385,000 Acres 

B National Resource Lands 
25,500 Acres 

C. Forest Service Lands 
Acres 



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•34 



Population and social impacts will 
still be felt under the EQ plan; 
however, there will be less than 
one-half of the NED impacts. 


Improved downstream water 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 


Regional benefits are not 
available; it may be assumed that 
net benefits will increase 
substantially 


Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increasing goods and services. 


No additional thermal electric 
generation takes place above 
existing levels. Coal production is 
held at 59 million tons per year and 
all of it is exported by rail except 
that used to fire existing thermal 
electric plants. Water consumption 
is held to roughly 20,700 acre-feet 
per year. There are no slurry 
operations, and future production 
is still six times the current 
production. There will be no 
increase in air pollution emissions 
over present levels. 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover results 
from the improved management of 
existing resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 


Private Capital Cost $336,300,000 
Annual Benefits $382,330,000 
Annual Cost $325,000,000 


A. Cap, Cost $33,728,000 "Ann 
Equiv. Cost $2,733,300 

B. Cap. Cost $2,855,000 'Ann 
Equiv. Cost $231 ,400 

C. Cap. Cost $87,000 "Ann Equiv. 
Cost $7,100 

Annual Benefits — not 

computed — assumed to be at least 

equal to costs 

'6% percent interest for 25 
years. 


ENERGY 
EQ Energy Development 


LAND CONSERVATION 

Accelerated Land 
Conservation 

A. State and Private Lands 
1 ,551 ,000 Acres 

B. National Resource Lands 
251,500 Acres 

C Forest Service Lands 700 
Acres 



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Federal easement acquisition on 
3,231 acres of private land for 
maintaining educational, cultural, 
and recreational values. Livestock 
cover preserved. 


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Improved downstream wate." 
quality for all uses. 

Improve general esthetics of the 
land. 




Total Benefits 
Total Adverse Effects 
$8,250 


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Maintain and enhance the output 
of goods and services to users in 
the region. 

Provide additional employment in 
the application and maintenance 
of proposed measures. 

Provide additional permanent 
employment in processing 
increased goods and services. 


from Garrison Dam to the mouth of 
the Heart River at Fori Lincoln 
State Park 


Provide protection and 
management of 4,328 acres of 
Ponderosa pine, 735 acres of 
limber pine, and 100 acres of 
columnar |uniper and adjacent 
areas by administrative action on 
Federal lands and through 
acquisition of easements on 
private land. Provide protection of 
only natural Ponderosa pine in 
North Dakota. 

Provide a level of flow not below 
the following, provided natural 
conditions will permit: North Fork 
Grand River at Haley 8,536 
acre-feet per year: Cannonball 
River at Breien 68,884 acre-feet 
per year: Little Missouri near 
Watford City 1 86,326 acre-feet per 
year; Knife River at Hazen 62,238 
acre-feet per year: and Heart River 
near Mandan 70,628 acre-feet per 
year. These flows will provide for 
conservation of fish and wildlife. 


Additional reduction of soil loss 
and sediment yield above 
future-without condition. 

Increased vegetative cover results 
from the improved management of 
existing resources. 

Improved quality of fish and wildlife 
habitat including cover, forage, 
watering places, waterfowl nesting 
sites, and establishment of 
fisheries. 

Reduce soil nutrients from 
entering streams and the 
underground water table. 

Reduction of undesirable return 
flows to streams. 




First Cost $129,240 
Annual Benefits $8,250 
Annual Cost $8,250 


Not Available 


A. Cap. Cost $49,573,000 'Ann 
Equiv, Cost $4,017,400 

B. Cap. Cost $140,000 'Ann 
Equiv Cost $1 1 ,300 

C. Cap. Cost $1,198,000 'Ann 
Equiv. Cost $97,100 

Annual Benefits — not 
computed — assumed to be at 

least equal I its 

"6% percent interest for 25 
years. 




PRESERVATION 

Unique Woodland Areas 
North Dakota 


INSTREAM FLOW 

Modified Level of Streamflow 


LAND CONSERVATION 

Accelerated Land Conservation 
A State and Private Lands 
1,787,000 Acres 

B National Resource Lands 
14,000 Acres 

C Forest Service Lands 5,500 
Acres 



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The project with its new facilities 
will relieve pressure on existing 
facilities and will improve the 
quality of the recreational 
experience Operation and 
maintenance of new facilities will 
create additional full-time jobs. 
Local business establishments will 
profit from increased tourist trade. 


Employment of construction 
workers will vary from 5 to 56 
during the 2-year construction 
period. Most workers will be 
employed from local forces. 
Undesirable living conditions for 
local residents will be alleviated. 
The reservoir area will be more 
compatible with winter sports 
activities. 




In addition to NED benefits, the 
project will generate $400,000 in 
employment benefits and 
$650,000 as a result of induced 
business in the region 


In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $61 1 ,000 in 
regional employment benefits and 
$134,000 as a result of regional 
induced and stemming from 
benefits. 


standards will be met; scenic, 
recreational, and wildlife options 
will be maintained; scenic and 
recreational values will be 
preserved and enhanced; and 
future development choices will be 
lost. 


A higher level of recreation will be 
offset by the protection of 
resources; interpretation will 
enhance public use value; present 
or future endangered or 
threatened species of wildlife or 
vegetation will be identified and 
protected; water quality will be 
improved due to increased and 
improved sanitary facilities; State 
standards will be met; scenic, 
recreational, and wildlife options 
will be maintained; scenic and 
recreational values will be 
preserved and enhanced; and 
future development choices will be 
lost. 


BIGHORN BASIN 

Water contained in ponds behind 
the earthen dike system will help 
prevent annual flooding, and will 
cover dust-producing lands and 
reduce air quality problems during 
winter months. Impoundment 
areas will provide waterfowl 
nesting areas and furbearing 
animal habitat and wildlife 
observation opportunities will be 
increased. 




First Cost $17,716,000 
Annual Equiv. Cost $1,386,700 
Annual Benefits $666,000 


First Cost $11,884,000 
Total Annual Cost $782,300 

Annual Benefits — not evaluated 
except for $26,000 per year for 
waterfowl and game use of the 
dike areas. The major benefit will 
be air quality control. If the 
development was privately owned, 
the State and/or Federal air quality 
agencies would undoubtedly insist 
on the dikes as a condition to 
construction which suggests that 
the benefits of maintaining or 
providing air quality in the area 
would exceed its cost. 


NOTE; There is no agree- 
ment on what, if anything, 
should be done in compo- 
nent 2 and it has been 
dropped from consideration 
in this report. 

a/ Does not include fish and wildlife benefits 


Wind River Recreation 

From source to Boysen Reser- 
voir is a wild, scenic, or recrea- 
tional river for 120 miles — 
HCRS 

National designation as a 
wild, scenic, or recreational 
river with three major ac- 
cess sites and two boater 
access areas for 120 miles 
is proposed. 


MULTIPURPOSE 

Buffalo Bill Enlargement 

Environmental Protection 
Dikes— USBR 

Raising Buffalo Bill Dam 25 
feet from its present height 
of 5,370 feet will increase 
the total surface area from 
6,691 acres to 9,780 acres. 
In the upper reservoir, a 
dike system will be installed 
for dust abatement that will 
also have waterfowl en- 
hancement areas. This plan 
element is dependent upon 
completion of the Buffalo 
Bill Enlargement proposed 
under the national 
economic development 
plan. 



139 



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142 



The project will provide facilities in 
an area where facilities are limited 
in number The project will give 
local residents the opportunity to 
fish, picnic, and have access to the 
stream. Local business 
establishments will profit from 
increased tourist trade. The project 
will allow tourists to make use of 
the facilities and recreational 
opportunities and. therefore, 
relieve some of the pressure 
placed on facilities near or in 
Yellowstone Park. Operation and 
maintenance of the project will 
provide for additional full-time jobs. 


Recreational facilities in the 
Yellowstone Park area are 
becoming overcrowded. 
Protection of this scenic area and 
the expansion of its use will 
improve the quality of the 
recreation experience in other 
areas that would otherwise be 
overcrowded. The operation and 
maintenance of the new facilities 
will provide at least four full-time 
and four part-time jobs. Tourists 
using the area and its facilities will 
improve business opportunities in 
the service area Additional access 
and facilities in the lower Clarks 
Fork will permit more local use of 
the resource and will attract some 
nonlocal use and relieve the 
pressures on other recreational 
facilities in the Yellowstone Park 
area. 




In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $50,000 in 
regional benefits as a result of 
increased employment income 
and $80,000 as a result of induced 
business in the region and other 
secondary effects 


In addition to NED benefits, 
regional employment benefits of 
about $55,000 and induced and 
stemming from benefits of about 
$100,000 will be realized from 
component 1 

Corresponding figures for 
component 2 will be about $45,000 
and $95,000 

Corresponding figures for 
component 3 will be about 
$135,000 and $105,000 

Use of the facilities will create a 
market for recreation-type goods 
and services 




The scenic beauty along 23 miles 
of the designated scenic and 
recreational river will be preserved 
and managed by the U.S. Forest 
Service and the State as a 
free-flowing stream. A higher level 
of recreation will be offset by the 
protection of resources; 
interpretation will enhance public 
use value; present or future 
endangered or threatened species 
of wildlife or vegetation will be 
identified and protected; water 
quality will be improved due to 
increased and improved sanitary 
facilities; State standards will be 
met; scenic, recreational, and 
wildlife options will be maintained; 
scenic and recreational values will 
be preserved and enhanced; and 
future development choices will be 

lost 


CLARKS FORK BASIN 

A higher level of recreational use 
will be offset by the protection of 
resources, endangered or 
threatened species will be 
protected; excellent water quality 
will be maintained; development 
will result in some loss of options 
for future uses but will not involve 
irreversible or irretrievable effects, 
natural beauty along this stretch of 
river will be maintained; 
interpretation will enhance public 
use value; and historical and 
cultural use values, particularly in 
connection with the Nez Perce 
Trail, will be protected 




First Cost $1,202,000 
Annual Equiv. Cost $113,500 
Annual Benefits $79,800 


First Cost $524,000 
Annual Equiv. Cost $73,200 
Annual Benefits $108,800 


First Cost $372,000 
Annual Equiv. Cost $65,600 
Annual Benefits $93,100 


Tensleep Creek 

From West Tensleep Lake 
to Tensleep. Wyo., is 
designated as a scenic and 
recreational river for 23 
miles 

Administrative designation 
as a national, scenic, and 
recreational river with two 
minor access areas is 
proposed. 


RECREATION 

Clarks Fork River 

Recreation 

Component 1 — From the 
Wyoming border down to 
Crandall Creek Bridge is 20 
miles 

Designation as a national 
recreational river with one 
major access site and one 
minor access area is 
proposed Acquire scenic 
easements on 440 acres. 


Component 2— From the 
Crandall Creek Bridge to 
the mouth of Clarks Fork 
Canyon is 22 miles. 

National designation as a 
wild and scenic river with 
two major access sites and 
one minor access area is 
proposed. No land 
acquisition is required. 



143 



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146 



pleasant streams renew human 
vitality. Operation and 
maintenance of facilities will 
provide additional full-time jobs. 
Local business establishments will 
profit from increased tourist trade 


This portion of the Tongue River 
offers visitors numerous on- and 
off-river recreation opportunities 
The pleasures associated with 
river-oriented recreation are 
important to social well-being 
Recreation opportunities along 
pleasant streams renew human 
vitality. Operation and 
maintenance of facilities will create 
additional full-time jobs. Local 
business establishments will profit 
from increased tourist trade 


A decrease in the number of 
people coming into the area will 
lessen the pressures on existing 
service facilities so that the quality 
of service will be higher. Average 
incomes will be somewhat lower. 
The needs for secondary service 
facilities — stores, plumbers, 
doctors, etc., will decrease. 




In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $103,686 in 
employment benefits and 
$189,000 as a result of induced 
business in the region and other 
secondary effects 


The reduced demand for coal will 
decrease the revenues to the State 
and region but will also reduce the 
demand for services somewhat. 
The decreased production will 
have little effect on the types of 
water and related land resource 
developments that will be needed 
under the State-regional 
development program 


protected, water quality will be 
improved due to increased and 
improved sanitary facilities. State 
standards will be met; scenic, 
recreational, and wildlife options 
will be maintained; scenic and 
recreational values will be 
preserved and enhanced; and 
future development choices will be 
lost. 


The scenic beauty along 35 miles 
of the State designated 
recreational river will be preserved 
as a free-flowing stream A higher 
level of recreation will be offset by 
the protection of resources; 
interpretation will enhance public 
use value, present or future 
endangered or threatened species 
of wildlife or vegetation will be 
identified and protected; water 
quality will be improved due to 
increased and improved sanitary 
facilities; State standards will be 
met; scenic, recreational, and 
wildlife options will be maintained; 
scenic and recreational values will 
be preserved and enhanced; and 
future development choices will be 
lost. 


A savings of 25 percent in coal 
production in the region will 
eliminate the need for 50 million 
tons of coal per year, a dozen coal 
trains out of Wyoming each day, or 
a slurry pipeline of air pollutants 
over 30,000 tons annually, 
housing and services for over 
5,000 additional people, and a 
proportionate share of other 
environmental problems 
associated with coal production 
and conversion. 




First Cost $1,828,700 
Annual Equiv. Cost $197,200 
Annual Benefits $189,000 


Numerical values for costs and 
benefits are not available but it is 
self-evident that savings in energy 
demand will reduce required 
investments in production, 
transportation, and conversion 
facilities. Probably more important 
are the savings in environmental 
degradations and the conservation 
of resources that are becoming 
increasingly scarce. 


since this component flows 
entirely within Federal 
lands. 


Component 2 — From the 
national forest boundary to 
the Montana-Wyoming 
border is 35 miles and is 
designated as a 
recreational river. 

State designation as a 
recreational river with one 
major access site and two 
minor access areas is 
proposed. 


ENERGY CONSERVATION 

Coal production and 
conversion 

Develop and implement a 
plan to reduce 1 975-2000 
energy consumption by at 
least 25 percent under what 
it will be if rates of per capita 
growth continue as they 
have in the past. 



147 



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The State-Regional Development Plan 

The State-Regional Development (SRD) Plan 
involves those projects or programs that should be 
carried forward under the auspices of local or 
State jurisdictions. These program items are too 
complex, too large, or too financially involved to 
warrant their development by individuals. Often, 
but with a few exceptions, they do not meet the 
basic requirement for national economic de- 
velopment because the direct user benefits do not 
exceed the costs. They have regional values in 
excess of their costs, however, when the secon- 
dary effects of increased community income, im- 
proved services, induced business activities, and 
other such factors are considered in addition to 
NED benefits. From the regional point of veiw, the 



secondary effects are just as important as the 
primary ones — the impact on the local area irres- 
pective of whether there may be offsetting effects 
somewhere else in the Nation. It should be noted, 
however, that there may be regional costs incur- 
red as a result of the developments that are not 
reflected in the NED costs and have not been 
evaluated in these studies. 

The projects and programs covered in the fol- 
lowing tables are those that could appropriately be 
handled at the State level. 

The beneficial and adverse effects of the SRD 
elements are displayed in tables 53 through 57 for 
each of the five planning areas where SRD ele- 
ments were developed. 






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The increased irrigated acreage 
will increase the total agricultural 
returns to the farmers of the area. 
Community income will be 
increased an average of 
$1,590,400 annually because of 
increased employment and 
business generated by the project 
installation and output. Proiect 
installation, operation, and 
maintenance will provide 
increased full-time employment in 
agriculture. Production of 
increased agricultural output will 
generate additional full-time jobs in 
the agribusiness industry and will 
create new seasonal on-farm |obs 
Increased income will allow 
beneficiaries to more actively 
participate in social, cultural, 
recreational, and community 
activities of the region 


The increased irrigated acreage 
will increase the total agricultural 
returns to the farmers of the area. 
Community income will be 
increased an average of $660, 1 00 
annually because of increased 
employment and business 
generated by the project Project 
installation, operation, and 
maintenance will provide 
increased full-time employment in 
agriculture Production of 
increased agricultural output will 
create new seasonal on-farm jobs 
as well as generate additional 
full-time |obs in the agribusiness 
industry and service sector of the 
region. Increased income will allow 
beneficiaries to more actively 
participate in social, cultural, 
recreational, and community 
activities of the region 




In addition tothe NED benefits, the 
project will generate $2,576,600 in 
regional benefits as a result of 
increased employment income, 
induced business in the region, 
and other secondary effects 


In addition to the NED benefits, the 
proiect will generate $937,500 in 
regional benefits as a result of 
increased employment income, 
induced business in the region, 
and other secondary effects 




Streamflow levels will be depleted 
due to the irrigation diversion. 
About 17,280 acres of antelope 
and sage grouse habitat will be 
lost. Farming of the area will leave 
large areas exposed to wind 
erosion during the fall, winter, and 
spring Increased crop acreage will 
increase the upland game and 
songbird habitat 


Streamflow levels will be depleted 
due to the irrigation diversion. 
About 6,200 acres of antelope and 
sage grouse habitat will be lost. 
Farming of the area will leave large 
areas exposed to wind erosion 
during the fall, winter, and spring. 
Increased crop acreage will 
increase the upland game and 
songbird habitat 




First Cost $25,343,800 

Total Annual Cost $2,028,500 

Annual Benefits $1,042,300 


First Cost $7,972,000 
Total Annual Cost $674,100 
Annual Benefits $396,700 


, 


Mule Butte Project 

Irrigation 

The project will sprinkler 
irrigate about 1 7,280 acres 
of land with water supplied 
from the Wind River A 
three-pumping-plant 
system will be used. 


North Hudson Project 

Irrigation 

The project is a sprinkler 
irrigation project of about 
6,200 acres. Water will be 
pumped from the Popo Agie 
River using one river 
pumping plant 



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164 



and maintenance will provide an 
average of one full-time job. 
Production of increased 
agricultural output will create an 
additional four seasonal on-farm 
jobs. Area schools will have to 
accommodate children of the 
imported workers Persons on 
fixed incomes could have reduced 
buying power if local prices 
increase during construction 
activity There will be an increase 
in commercial facilities and 
services needed to supply the 
requirements of increased 
irrigation farming and to process 
the increased produce. This will 
strengthen the employment base 
in the area. 


Employment of construction 
workers will average 1 1 workers 
and at peak construction will be 
about 20 during a 2-year or longer 
construction period. Some workers 
will be imported, but most will be 
hired from the local and adjacent 
areas. Project operation and 
maintenance will provide an 
average of one full-time job. 
Increased agricultural output will 
create eight additional seasonal 
on-farm jobs. Area schools will 
have to accommodate the children 
of the imported workers Persons 
on fixed incomes could have 
reduced buying power if local 
prices increase during 
construction activity. There will be 
an increase in commercial facilities 
and services needed to supply the 
requirements of increased 
irrigation farming and to process 
the increased produce. This will 
strengthen the employment base 
in the area. 




In addition to the NED benefits, the 
project will generate $375,300 in 
regional benefits as a result of 
increased employment income, 
induced business in the region, 
and other secondary effects. 


stable downstream flows. Strutting 
grounds of sage grouse will be 
eliminated in irrigated areas. The 
project will create visual effects of 
canals, laterals, diversion dams, 
pumping plants, and access roads. 


Water quality will be affected by an 
increase in salinity due to return 
flows. Some upland game bird 
habitat and some aquatic 
furbearing animal habitat will be 
created in canals and laterals. 
Waste grains will provide 
waterfowl food. Strutting grounds 
of sage grouse will be eliminated in 
irrigated areas. The project will 
create visual effects of canals, 
laterals, diversion dams, pumping 
plants, and access roads 

Jdy Canal Systom 




First Cost $938,000 

Total Annual Cost $82,200 

Annual Benefits $211,300 

ie Extensions South Unit or alteration ol the C 


irrigation will be supplied to 
660 acres by gravity from a 
lateral which will divert from 
the Oregon Basin Feeder 
Canal and to 450 acres by 
pumping from that lateral. 
Required facilities include 
two pump lifts, one relift 
pump, and other related 
structures. 


Shoshone Extensions Unit 
(South Additions);. 

Sage Section 

Irrigation 

Water for irrigation will be 
pumped from the Oregon 
Basin Feeder Canal to 
supply 2,140 acres of 
irrigable land which will be 
subdivided into about 15 
farm units. Required 
facilities include two 
pumping plants, one relift 
plant, and other related 
structures 

a/ Contingent on either construction ot Shosho 



165 



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167 



CHAPTER 7 



RECOMMENDED PLAN 



Selection of Recommended 
Plan Elements 

The recommended plan summarized in this 
chapter is the culmination of efforts to determine 
which projects and programs would best meet the 
needs described in chapter 4. 

The procedures followed by the various plan- 
ning area study teams in evaluating projects and 
programs for possible inclusion in the alternative 
NED, EQ, and SRD plans and, subsequently, for 
incorporation into the recommended plan are dis- 
cussed in some detail in the preceding chapter. It 
is important to point out that most of the elements 
which ultimately became a part of the recom- 
mended plan were drawn from one or the other of 
the alternative plans, without modification. What 
follows is a list, by planning area, of those plan 
elements which were modified together with a 
brief explanation of the differences. 



Upper Yellowstone 

No modifications were made to those plan ele- 
ments which moved to the recommended plan 
from either the NED plan, EQ plan, or SRD plan. 

Clarks Fork-Bighorn 

No modifications were made to those plan ele- 
ments which moved to the recommended plan 
from either the NED plan or EQ plan. 

Tongue-Powder 

Energy Development — Energy development is 
included as part of both the NED plan and EQ plan; 
however, the recommended plan varies signific- 
antly in this development from both of the others. 
The recommended plan level of private energy 
development is lower than either the projected 
requirements or the NED level. 



Most notable is the provision for export of coal 
by slurry pipeline from the planning area to eastern 
demand centers. Also, the level of synthetic coal 
gasification has been cut to one-fourth of that 
under the future without level; and then only on the 
condition that the single gas plant be privately 
funded and receive no government subsidy. 

Lower Yellowstone 

Energy Development — Energy development is 
included as part of both the NED plan and EQ plan; 
however, the recommended plan varies from both 
of the others. The recommended plan level is simi- 
lar to the NED plan except that the coal export by 
slurry pipeline included in the NED plan is drop- 
ped. 

North Dakota Tributaries 

Energy Development — The NED plan calls for 
development sufficient to meet the Harza energy 
report "high" level demand but excludes coal 
gasification completely and coal slurry until after 
the year 2000. The EQ plan contains a modifica- 
tion of the "low" level Harza scenario, recognizing 
only those plants which have been constructed or 
are now (1978) under construction. The recom- 
mended plan adds all energy facilities having an 
approved water permit to the EQ plan version. 

Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork 

Sand Mesa Project — The recommended plan 
contains this plan element as described in both the 
NED and SRD plans. The EQ plan includes the 
Sand Mesa Project but limits the extent of sprinkler 
irrigation to 546 acres instead of the 1 ,690 acres 
proposed in each of the other plans. 

Buffalo Bill Enlargement— The SRD plan ver- 
sion of this plan element was approved and 
adopted for the recommended plan. Both the NED 
and EQ plans contain the Buffalo Bill Enlargement 
proposal, but the scope of the project in each 
varies from the SRD plan. The NED plan does not 



include the upper reservoir dike system found in 
the recommended plan. The EQ plan does not 
include hydropower modification nor the visitor 
center construction. 

Cyclone Bar Project — This plan element was 
transferred to the recommended plan from the 
NED plan with no change except in project costs. 
Estimated project cost in the NED plan is 
$1,133,900, while the recommended plan lists a 
cost of $285,400. This difference is the result of 
sharing reservoir storage with the off-stream stor- 
age project. 

Off-Stream Storage-Clarks Fork Basin — The 

recommended plan provides 24,470 acre-feet of 
storage to provide a water supply for the Badger 
Basin Unit and Cyclone Bar project for irrigation 
(4,740 acre-feet), a supplemental supply for exist- 
ing irrigation, 5,000 acre-feet dead storage, and 
1 1 ,470 acre-feet for instream flow maintenance. 
The NED, EQ, and SRD plans include this plan 
element, but with a storage capacity of 6,500 
acre-feet. Thus the recommended plan and costs 
exceed those of the other plans, with costs in- 
creasing from $1,353,300 to $5,534,700. 

Northeast Wyoming 

South Tongue Watershed — In both the NED 
and SRD plans, the South Tongue Prairie Dog 
project plan element contains provisions for irriga- 
tion, recreation, fish and wildlife, and industrial 
water supply at a cost of $24,497,000. The re- 
commended plan omits this but contains a mod- 
ified version of this proposal for the South Tongue 
Watershed in which only the irrigation and recrea- 
tion needs are addressed at a cost of $4,787,000. 

Display of Plan 

A presentation of the recommended plan is ac- 
complished through the maps and tables which 
follow. The planning area maps locate various 
plan elements and the tables summarize the cost 
information available on each element. 



170 



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CHAPTER 8 

IMPACT OF RECOMMENDED PLAN 



This chapter summarizes and compares the al- 
ternative plans for NED. EQ, SRD, and RP in 
terms of each plan's response to meeting the 
needs of the seven individual planning areas and 
the study area as a whole, and in terms of benefi- 
cial and adverse effects. The effects are quantified 
where practicable, but for some, only a qualitative 
observation is made. While the evaluations are 
preliminary in most instances, they are useful in 
comparing what can be anticipated from each of 
the alternative plans. 

The Yellowstone level B study provided an op- 
portunity for private and public groups operating at 
the local, State, and national levels to assemble 
information available to them and coordinate their 
activities in the area of resource planning. The 



study participants intend that the results of their 
efforts be used in determining what resource- 
related activities and developments should move 
forward to implementation. The information con- 
tained in descriptions of beneficial and adverse 
effects of plan elements in the environmental qual- 
ity account of the displays in chapter 6 provides an 
assessment of environmental effects as do the 
tables displaying and comparing the plan in this 
chapter. 

This report does not require any substantive 
Federal, State, or local action. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the management group consensus 
as expressed at its June 16. 1977, meeting, was 
that a formal environmental impact statement 
(EIS) was neither required nor desirable at this 



193 



stage, recognizing that such statements will be 
needed when individual program items or groups 
of items are moved into the preconstruction and 
implementation stages. These later EIS's would 
be needed irrespective of whether an EIS had 
been prepared to accompany the Yellowstone 
level B report. 

A part of the management group decision re- 
lated to the reconnaissance nature of much of the 
material utilized in planning. Selecting alternative 
potentials for further study and for coordinating 
planning activities is a legitimate and very useful 
process at the reconnaissance level. Trying to use 
reconnaissance data as a basis for the precise 
evaluations expected of a formal EIS is quite a 
different matter. Any attempt to do so would in- 
volve a considerable expenditure of resources to 
produce a product that at worst could be mislead- 
ing, at best would add little of substance to the 
evaluations contained in the following paragraphs 
and the supporting planning area documents, and 
that in any case would of necessity have to be 
redone when more detailed plans are developed. 



Assessment of Plans' 
Capability to Meet Needs 

While there is no particular mandate that oppor- 
tunities cannot be included, the primary focus and 
justification of recommended plan components is 
that their capabilities and values are in response to 
and fall within the limits of identified needs. How- 
ever, in responding to these needs and also to the 
objectives for the study area as a whole, it is obvi- 
ous that a deficiency or excess in one or more of 
the seven planning areas may be countered by 
opposite results in the other areas. Table 65 
shows a summary of the plan capability or re- 
sponses to identified needs for the study area. The 
recommended plan column in tables 67, 69, 71, 
73, 75, 77, and 79 shows the aggregate remaining 
corresponding information for seven planning 
areas for need or excess in response taking both 
the SRD and NED/EQ capabilities into account. 
Residual needs or excess capability are shown for 
individual planning areas but seldom is an excess 
capability shown for the entire study area. 







194 



Comparison of Alternative 
Plan Effects 



The recommended plan presented in chapter 7 
reflects selections from the NED and EQ plans 
which could qualify for national assistance or ac- 
complishment. Shown also are selections from the 
SRD, which based on the criteria outlined in chap- 
ter 6, could be implemented only where there is a 
non-Federal source of financing. Under the NED 
and EQ plans, and for the NED account, all 
monetary figures for benefits represent only direct 
user values, whereas the SRD figures in the re- 
commended plan account also include the effects 
of increased community income, improved ser- 
vices, induced and stemming from business activ- 
ity, to serve the direct user beneficiaries, and other 
such factors. To the extent that recommended 
SRD and NED/EQ components are implemented, 
the results will add together in fulfilling needs. 

Table 65 shows the beneficial and adverse ef- 
fects for the study area, for the NED, EQ, and SRD 
plans together with the recommended plan. This 
separates the evaluation of effects under each of 
the four accounts: (1) national economic de- 
velopment; (2) environmental quality; (3) regional 
development; and (4) social well-being. Tables 68, 
70, 72, 74, 76, 78, and 80 present similar informa- 
tion for the seven planning areas. In those tables 
the recommended plan elements are broken into 
columns, SRD and NED/EQ. These columns iden- 
tify the alternative plan from which the recom- 
mended plan elements were taken. The additional 
income to residents shown under the regional de- 
velopment accounts of tables 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 
78, and 80, refers to net income increases due to 
new full-time jobs associated with the particular 
plan component. Those increased incomes were 
multiplied by multipliers and summed to provide 
an estimate of increased annual income shown 
under item A of the social well-being account. 
There are shown in columns 6 and 8 for each 
beneficial or adverse effect the plus (+) or minus 
(-) difference of the recommended plan and the 
comparable components of the NED and EQ al- 
ternative plans in column (4). For SRD, there are 
shown only the results for all programs meeting 
this criteria in column (9), and for those selected 
therefrom and recommended as set forth in col- 
umn (2). 

Most components in SRD failed to meet the 
NED test. A few did meet the EQ test and these 



appear in both the EQ plan and SRD program. 
There are components that qualified for the NED 
plan, but are included in and are also recom- 
mended for State regional implementation. In no 
case does a given component appear in both the 
SRD and NRD EQ entries of columns (2) and (3). 



Energy development (coal) will in many re- 
spects be regulated by government, but will de- 
velop privately; however, it does impact the study 
area's resources in many respects. In view of this, 
the most important effects have been evaluated 
and displayed as parenthesized entries and are 
not included in the tables, as noted. 



Land Use Impacts 



The most significant land use impacts as- 
sociated with the recommended plan are the shifts 
of rangeland to other uses, primarily to irrigation 
status, industrial uses, (coal), water areas, and 
recreation/wildlife. The multiple effects are evident 
in table 66 for the study area as a whole, and major 
types are summarized in table 81. These shifts 
would not necessarily result in reductions to the 
amount of livestock grazed, but do indicate possi- 
ble future changes in feed utilization and the 
length of time that livestock must rely on winter 
feed. Tables 16 and 17 provide forecasts of re- 
quired production for meat and for livestock feed. 

Table 65 reflects a potential to provide some 
52,600 acres of cropland with supplemental irriga- 
tion water. In addition to other private develop- 
ment, the plan contemplates some 243,000 acres 
of added public irrigation development. 

Nearly 19,500 new surface water acres would 
be created with a conversion from agricultural land 
and terrestiral habitat to aquatic uses. Nearly 
300,000 acres could be involved in easements for 
scenic and recreation uses at selected locations 
along some 1,630 miles of river. About 1.740 
acres of forest and woodland or stream bottoms 
would be converted to developed recreation 
areas. Preservation of woodlands and unique 
areas together with preservation or improvement 
of wildlife habitat could involve over 1 million 
acres, much of this already having some public 
designation, such as the 913,500 acres in the 
Absaroka and Beartooth Primitive Areas as re- 
commended for a "Beartooth Wilderness Area." 



195 



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In the aggregate, conversions of agricultural 
lands to industrial plant sites may affect about 
26,500 acres, with the average area affected by 
coal strip mining being about 6,800 acres per year. 
Sizeable increases in air pollutant emission would 
occur as estimated in table 66 with State stan- 
dards. Coal production under the recommended 
plan (table 65) would fall beneath the national 
need of the study area by 35 percent, with thermal 
electric production meeting the need (opportun- 
ity), and synthetic gas production satisfying only 4 
percent of the forecasted need. 

Virtually all of the programs and projects involve 
some measure of conservation. About 13 million 
acres would be subjected to accelerated land 
treatment, improving water quality, and providing 
some measure of flood control and sediment re- 
duction. Over 1,840 acres of urban area would 
receive structural flood protection, affecting some 
20,000 people. Others would gain some protec- 
tion as a result of projects built for other purposes 
and through flood plain management. 



These and other changes reflected in table 66 
are associated with the recommended plan. They 
are in addition to or in lieu of other changes in land 
use that would occur from "without" plan activities 
not reflected in the plan components. 

Water Use Impacts 

Full implementation of the recommended plan 
could increase streamflow depletions from the Yel- 
lowstone River at Sidney, Mont., by 909,000 acre- 
feet per annum by the year 2000. This increase 
does not include noninteracting ground water us- 
age, but it does include an estimated 461,000 
acre-feet above Sidney, Mont., attributable to the 
"without" plan conditions and 448,000 acre-feet 
attributable to the recommended plan. Depleted 
flows for 1 975 together with anticipated depletions 
to the year 2000 at 1 6 locations are shown in table 
82; also shown are estimated average effects on 
water quality based on the general indicator "total 
dissolved solids." 







•«*! 





245 



Table 82 

Depletions to Streamflow and Water Quality Impacts 

Present Conditions and Recommended Plan 







Average Annual Flow 
Thousand Acre-Feet 




Average Water Quality - TDS 
Total Dissolved Solids 


Gaging Station 


1975 


2000^ 


% Red 


uction 3 - 


1975 


2000 '. 


o Increase 


Wind River below 
Boysen Res., Wyo. 


1047 


1044 


983 


0.3 


6.1 


, 


. 




Greybull River at 
Byron, Wyo. 


122 


122 


122 





. 


. 




Shoshone River at 
Lovell, Wyo. 


606 


595 


521 


1.8 


14.0 


* 


. 




Bighorn River at 
St. Xavier, Mont. 


2444 


2416 


2176 


1.2 


8.4 


, 


. 




Tongue River near 
Miles City, Mont. 


316 


252 


249 


20.3 


21.2 


504 


540 

539 


7.1 

6.9 


Powder River at 
Arrada, Wyo. 


183 


133 


166 


27.3 


9.3 


, 


. 




Powder River at 
Locate, Wyo. 


423 


361 


335 


14.7 


20.8 


, 


, 




Little Missouri R. at 
Watford City, N. Dak. 


421 


405 


405 


3.8 


3.8 


* 


. 




Knife River at 
Hazen, N. Dak. 


119 


113 


113 


5.0 


5.0 


„ 


, 




Heart River at 
Mandan, N. Dak. 


161 


140 


140 


13.0 


13.0 


. 


. 




Cannonball River at 
Breien, N. Dak. 


158 


143 


143 


9.5 


9.5 


. 


. 




Belle Fourche R. at 
N.-S. Dak. State Line 


63 


63 


63 








* 


. 




Cheyenne River at 
Edgemont, S. Dak. 


44 


44 


44 








. 


. 




Yellowstone River at 
Billings, Mont. 


5273 


5218 


5189 


10.4 


15.9 


200 


201 

201 


0.5 

0.5 


Yellowstone River at 
Miles City. Mont. 


8308 


8033 


7639 


3.3 


8.1 


411 


417 

426 


1.5 

3.6 


Yellowstone River at 
Sidney, Mont. 


874I 


8280 


7832 


5.2 


10.4 


468 


478 

488 


2.1 

4.3 



a' Wittiout/and Recommended Plan Conditions. 

' Information was not developed to give an average annual value at these gaging stations 



246 



Average annual streamflow depletion of 
554.000 acre-feet would result by the year 2000 
from added irrigation development. Energy re- 
quirements for water could amount to around 
262.000 acre-feet, about 60 percent for electric 
and synthetic gas production, and about 78.000 
acre-feet for slurry line export of coal. Hydroelec- 
tric plants would provide 309 megawatts of 
generating capacity, with the bulk of the energy 
being of the peaking category. Municipal, rural 
domestic, and livestock uses may increase by 
nearly 305.000 acre-feet. 

In the year 2000, anticipated depletions affect- 
ing the Yellowstone System would be 12,400 
acre-feet for the Clarks Fork (2.9 percent of the 
water available to Wyoming); 238,000 for the 
Wind-Bighorn (13.2 percent of available); and 
100.000 acre-feet for the Tongue and Powder 
Rivers (44 percent of available). The individual 
planning area reports and the river operations ad 
hoc group report contain extensive information 
concerning the hydrologic criteria and studies. 

Much of the increased water use would occur 
utilizing offseason flows taken into storage. This 
storage, combined with irrigation return flows of 
considerable magnitude, will dampen the ex- 
tremes of both high and low flows. 

Total water requirements (262,000 acre-feet) 
for coal energy development are significantly less 
than some of the earlier projections. There is the 
outlook for adequate water supplies for the energy 
industry. This, of course, presupposes that gasifi- 
cation development will be quite limited. However, 
if conversion beyond the levels shown in the re- 
commended plan does occur, the requirement 
cited above is understated (see table 65). 

In terms of water quality, table 82 shows in- 
creases in TDS that range from minor to about 7 
percent as annual averages, but where low flow 
discharges and resultant higher chemical con- 
centrations may become of concern. At Sidney, 
Mont., the "without" plan increase would be about 
2 percent and the recommended plan would in- 
crease this to about 4.3 percent. 

Environmental Impacts 



Under the EQ account of tables 66, 68, 70, 72. 
74, 76, 78, and 80, the effects of the recom- 
mended and alternative plans are summarized. 




Descriptive and numerical evaluations are made 
for a wide range of environmental indices. 

The outdoor recreation components are de- 
signed to meet foreseeable needs for all activities, 
but they show some shortfalls overall for recrea- 
tion days. Recommended components will protect 
by designation and easement major areas along 
1 ,630 miles of river together with the special areas 
needed to maintain and enhance the overall re- 
creation experience. Reference is made earlier in 
this chapter to the magnitude and nature of land 
use changes in this field. Accelerated land con- 
servation on nearly 13 million acres of public and 
private land will provide benefits to lake and 
stream waters subject to man-induced pollution. 
Areas of woodland and unique areas totaling well 
over 1 million acres are recommended for public 
designation and preservation. Nearly 20.000 sur- 
face acres of water would be created for multiple 
uses including recreation, fishing, and aquatic 
habitat. Recommended plan elements together 
with existing developments and those to be at- 
tained under "without" programs should maintain 
or enhance the study area reputation as one of the 
Nation's prime outdoor recreation regions. 

The plan includes general provisions but few 
specifics for instream flow improvements for fish 
and wildlife, general water quality, and other uses. 
Tentative determinations have been made in the 



247 



planning area reports of desirable monthly in- 
stream flows at many locations, but much added 
study is needed to develop better instream flow 
determination techniques. Also needed is greater 
public recognition of the fact that mounting with- 
drawals will ultimately reduce the availability and 
quality of fish and wildlife habitat and organisms 
that can occupy that habitat. 



Several components for streamflow augmenta- 
tion would be provided as a result of water storage 
and movement, but the quantities available are not 
necessarily optimum and areas affected are min- 
imal. Aside from the potentials shown, no oppor- 
tunities were found where water was available and 
where needed quantities could be developed and 
regulated at costs commensurate with the benefits 
that could be identified. Certainly changes in both 
land and water uses resulting from the overall plan 
would have effects, some favorable and some 
adverse, to game and fish values. 



State game and fish management people have 
developed effective resource and management 
plans to keep supplies and demands in balance 
within the limits of water qualities, habitat areas, 
and other resources available and planned. Some 
32 miles of stream fishery could be lost due to the 
imposition of reservoirs, but the resulting flat water 
areas aggregating about 20,000 acres could fulfill 
a recognized need for this type of recreation re- 
source. Added stream access could result in 
added capability to fulfill fishing and general re- 
creation needs by taking advantage of values al- 
ready present but not fully utilized. 



Both State and Federal laws and regulations 
provide means for controlling developments so as 
to protect water, land, and air resources. By the 
year 2000, about 6,800 acres would be disturbed 
each year as a result of the level of coal develop- 
ment contained in the recommended plan that 
compares to over 1 1 ,700 acres per year without 
the plan. With enforced land reclamation, the 
cover should be restored and made fully produc- 
tive, but lags of 5 to 25 years are possible in 
attaining full productivity. Consequently, it is pos- 
sible that at any given time several times the 
above number of acres will be in some stage of 
disruption. Without the plan, the number of acres 
could be almost twice as high. Air pollution emis- 
sions associated with recommended thermal elec- 
tric and gasification installations would be held 
within State standards. By and large, streamflow 



depletions are considered irreversible commit- 
ments of resources to future uses, and many land 
dedications are difficult to change. Table 82 
shows, however, that in the aggregate the 
743,000 acre-feet of anticipated depletion for all 
proposed developments in the plan above the 
North Dakota line would represent 8.5 percent of 
the present condition's average annual flow of the 
Yellowstone River at Sidney. State determination 
of policy regarding the reservation of instream 
flows will permit each application for additional 
uses to be evaluated and approved, adjusted, or 
denied in the broad public interest. 





Socioeconomic Impacts 

The recommended plan will have major impacts 
on the region's social and economic structure. The 
primary effect will be the reduction of energy- 
related employment and the associated popula- 
tion compared to the without plan situation. The 
following figures show the employment impact 
and total population of the recommended plan 
compared to the without plan. 



248 



Total Employment Impact 

Without Plan 
Recommended Plan 

Reduction due to plan 

Total Population 

Without Plan 
Recommended Plan 

Reduction due to plan 



1985 2000 



28,945 68.730 
16,820 26,620 

12,125 42,140 



617,850 735.210 
588.630 657.060 

29,220 78,150 



The reduced level of employment is primarily 
due to reductions in the level of energy develop- 
ment. Since the unemployment levels in the region 
were generally low already and are expected to 
remain low, the reduction in employment will 
primarily mean a reduction in the number of 
people moving into the area. 

The nonenergy components of the plan are ex- 
pected to contribute to stabilization of the region's 
population. Some additional jobs will be provided, 
but growth of the existing population should pro- 
vide adequate employees for the nonenergy-type 
jobs. Even though the recommended plan re- 
duces overall population impacts due to energy, 
certain areas will still face needs for public facilities 
that will create problems. Small communities will 
find water and sewer facilities, as well as roads 
and streets, overburdened. The need will be for 
financial assistance in the construction and early 
operation phases of energy development. 

Projected coal mining would contribute in ex- 
cess of 513 million tons of coal annually by the 
year 2000, with exports representing 87 percent of 
this. About 80 percent of the exports would occur 
by rail and 20 percent by slurry line. Railroads are 
expected to have more than 100 million tons of 



capacity by the year 2000, but under a low- 
conversion regional policy they would be hauling 
Montana coal over Wyoming lines. This would 
increase pressures for slurrying Wyoming coal. At 
least one slurry line appears essential to meet 
recommended export goals by 1985, with sub- 
sequent slurry lines scheduled to accommodate 
events of the future as they unfold. Export by slurry 
would involve less regional demand for water than 
would the processing of this coal regionally for 
export as electricity or gas. 

Other effects placed in perspective by table 66 
show 4 structural works benefiting some 1,805 
acres of urban area and 20,000 people. An addi- 
tional 320,000 acres would benefit from reservoirs 
and other protection. Aside from possible benefits 
of flood plain management, these provisions 
should reduce flood losses by about $700,000 per 
year. Improved yields from both nonirrigated and 
irrigated agricultural lands show some deficiency 
but an adequate response to food and livestock 
feed requirements of the region. 

Fishing, hunting, and outdoor recreation show 
some regional shortfalls, but a substantial poten- 
tial to respond to increased day use needs by the 
year 2000. Locally, significant shortages for most 
activities are indicated presently and are showing 
increases through the year 2000. particularly 
beyond 1985. 

There can be wide speculation for the sharing of 
basic responsibility for costs involved in the re- 
commended plan. Based on prevailing practice, 
table 66 shows the possible outlooks for Federal 
and non-Federal costs. These must be considered 
only as general determinations, but of the total 
cost of nearly $1 .2 billion for plan components, the 
funding could be about 30 percent Federal and 70 
percent from non-Federal sources. Excluded are 
private coal industry investments expected to ex- 
ceed $6.0 billion. 



249 



v'i ■■" 










CHAPTER 9 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 



Summary of Results 

The recommended plan shown in chapter 7 con- 
tains an array of elements directed at meeting the 
study area's needs. Several functional areas of 
the plan, however, do not meet the identified re- 
maining needs. An example is in the area of flood 
and erosion control. Other functional areas of the 
plan evaluate the contribution this area would 
make to national needs, as in the development of 
energy resources. This plan and the associated 
recommendations do, however, represent an 
economic and environmental balance based on 
the best available information and judgment of the 
planning participants. 

Plan Implementation 

To implement elements of the recommended 
plan, Federal, State, and local entities will have to 
work together with State and Federal legislative 
bodies and private individuals and organizations 
toward that end. 



Near-term Implementation 

Those plan elements which are ready for con- 
struction are undergoing detailed planning to pre- 
pare them for construction as shown in table 83. 
The agency responsible for initiating a feasibility 
study is also shown. 

Legislative Action 

Several modifications or additions to State and 
Federal laws and policies are recommended 
under the various functional areas. These recom- 
mendations are intended to suggest courses of 
action which will further water resources man- 
agement on a coordinated basis. 

Scheduling 

Scheduling of the recommended plan elements 
is an important part of plan implementation. The 
schedule presented in table 83 provides a unified 
suggested approach for implementing the re- 
commended plan. 



251 



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278 



Updating the Plan 

The recommended plan as developed should 
not be considered rigid or inflexible. It is based on 
existing or current information and will require up- 
dating as goals, objectives, and needs change 
and as new information becomes available. 

Flexibility 

The recommended plan is flexible and can be 
adjusted under the Missouri River Basin Commis- 
sion's Comprehensive. Coordinated, Joint Plan- 
ning Process. 

Limitations 

The water and related land resources of the 
study area have been fairly well determined. 



These resources impose limits on the flexibility of 
the resource management alternatives. 

Responsibility 

The responsibility for updating this plan should 
be a coordinated effort between the States of Mon- 
tana, North Dakota, and Wyoming and the Mis- 
souri River Basin Commission. Vehicles for updat- 
ing the plan already exist in the ongoing State 
water planning programs and the Missouri River 
Basin Commission's Comprehensive, Coordi- 
nated, Joint Planning Process. 

Responsibility for updating individual project or 
program elements rests with the sponsoring 
agency. Changes in the plan should be coordi- 
nated through the Missouri River Basin Commis- 
sion and the affected State or States. 



279 



APPENDIX 
COMMENTS FROM OFFICIAL REVIEW 

Public Law 89-80 requires that before the Commission submits a comprehensive 
joint plan or major portion thereof or revision thereof to the U.S. Water Resources 
Council, 

"... it shall transmit the proposed plan or revision to the head of each Federal 
department or agency, the Governor of each State, and each interstate agency, 
from which a member of the commission has been appointed, and to the head of 
the United States section of any inter-boundary water or a river crossing a 
boundary, or any tributary flowing into such boundary water or river, over which 
the international commission has jurisdiction or for which it has responsibility. 
Each such department and agency head, Governor, interstate agency, and 
United States section of an international commission shall have ninety days from 
the date of the receipt of the proposed plan, portion, or revision after considering 
the reports so submitted. The views, comments, and recommendations submit- 
ted by each Federal department or agency head, Governor, interstate agency, 
and United States section of an international commission shall be transmitted to 
the Council with the plan, protion, or revision; . . . 

Prior to initiating the required official review, the Missouri River Basin Commission 
adopted the report on the Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area as part of 
the Commission's Comprehensive, Coordinated, Joint Plan for the Missouri River 
Basin. The Commission instructed that upon completion of the official review, the 
Chairman shall append the official comments received to the report. 

The ninety-day review was initiated on July 1 2, 1 978. All letters of official comment 
received from that review are included in this appendix. Some transmitted specific 
comments which are not reproduced here, but are on file at the Commission head- 
quarters. Comments suggesting editorial improvements, or which could be incorpo- 
rated without changing the substance of the report adopted by the Commission, 
have been included in this document. 




OFFICE 

OF 

PLANNING 

AND 

PROGRAMMING 



BOX 94601 ■ STATE CAPITOL ■ LINCOLN, NEBRASKA • 68509 • (402)471-2414 



Governor J. James Exon 

State Planning Officer 



Jon H. Oberg 

Director 



August 17, 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord, Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403 

10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 



Dear Mr Acord: 

The Governor's Office has reques 
a review of the Yellowstone Leve 
source issues discussed will not 
ever, the Yellowstone Level B St 
impacts which are definitely a c 
as increased rail traffic, possi 
competition for water between ag 
to the state. Highlighting thos 
a more valuable document from Ne 
is outside of the primary area. 



ted that the State Pla 
1 B Study. In general 
have a direct impact 
udy does provide some 
oncern to Nebraska. S 
ble coal slurry pipeli 
riculture and energy a 
e issues would make th 
braska's perspective, 



nning Office conduct 
many of the re- 
on Nebraska. How- 
data on the spin-off 
uch spin-off impacts 
nes and increased 
re of great concern 
e Yellowstone Level E 
eventhough the state 



Comments on the specific projects, etc., would not be in order due to our 
unfamil iarity with them. However, the data base and issues discussed in 
the Yellowstone Level B should be of considerable use to the people of the 
Yellowstone Basin in the future. 



Sincerely, 

JarTen G. WhTte 

Natural Resources Coordinator 




WGW:jkh 

cc: Tom Eason 

Dayle Will iamson 
John Neuberger 




DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 

REGION VII 

FEDERAL BUILDING 

601 EAST 12TH STREET 

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 641 06 



August 30, 1978 



OFFICE OF 

PRINCIPAL REGIONAL 

OFFICIAL 



Mr. John E. Acord, Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403 

10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 



Dear Mr. Acord: 



This is in response to your letter of July 12, 1978 transmitting the 
Draft Report and Environmental Assessment of the Yellowstone River 
Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B study, requesting our views, 
comments and recommendations. 

As HEW's representatives on the MRBC we have no additional comments 
and approve the draft report for final preparation and transmission to 
the U.S. Water Resources Council. Our concerns are for the protection 
of human beings, health and educational facilities, and water supplies 
against the hazards of floods. 

Although we have no comment on the report we wish to continue serving as 
HEW's representative on the MRBC and in the water resource devel- 
opment of the Missouri River Basin. In particular, we are interested 
in how it impacts on society by requiring changes to our programs, 
facilities and efforts. 




Jaro£s R." BeVgfalk^ 
ixing Principal Regional Official 



cc: Joseph Califano, Jr. 

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 



STATE OF KANSAS 




Office of the Governor 

State Capitol 
Topeka 



ROBERT F BENNETT 
Governor 



September 5, 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403, 10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

This will acknowledge your transmittal of the Level B Study, Yellow- 
stone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area, for formal review. I am advised 
by the Kansas Water Resources Board that the study is of concern primarily 
to the states of Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota. It would not appear 
that the interests of Kansas would be directly affected. Accordingly, 
on behalf of the State of Kansas, I would have no direct comments to offer 
and would feel that the views of the affected states should govern future 
actions on the Level B Study. 

The Kansas Water Resources Board is the designated agency to represent 
the state on matters of this nature and their representatives also serve 
the Commission as a member and alternate. If further information or 
assistance is needed in this regard, I would suggest you contact the 
Executive Director of the Board. 



Mery s 




Bennett 
lor of Kansas 



RFB:rs 

cc: Kansas Water Resources Board 



JOSEPH P. TEASDALE 

GOVERNOR 



Executive Office 

State of Missouri 
Jefferson City 

September 13, 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord, Acting Chairman 
Missouri River Basin Commission 
Suite 403, 10050 Regency Circle 
Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

This is in answer to your request for review of the Yellowstone 
River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B Study. 

The Plan recommendations, in general, are for meeting the needs 
of agriculture, municipalities, the energy industry, outdoor 
recreationists , and the environment in the Yellowstone Basin 
areas of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The recommenda- 
tions are chiefly the concerns and responsibilities of those 
three states and the federal government. 

Missouri's concern is with the impacts of stream depletion on 
downstream users. The Plan does not describe or acknowledge the 
impact of continued consumptive water use on downstream states; 
there is no mention of the impact of declining Yellowstone River 
flows on downstream Missouri River states. 

In that respect, the environmental assessment of the report is 
deficient and inadequate. 

What is needed, first, is the recognition of the downstream 
consequences where plans are made to increase consumptive use in 
the upper Missouri River basin. Then, an analysis is needed of 
the economic, social, and environmental costs in the lower basin 
states when greater consumptive water use is planned upstream — 
including the Yellowstone basin. This kind of information is 
needed before valid decisions can be made in the Missouri River 
Basin regarding future water allocation in this plan. 

Thank you for the opportunity to comment on this final draft of 
the report. Our state is willing to work with the other members 
of the Missouri River Commission to remedy the report's de- 
ficiencies . 



Sincerely , 




OVEffNOR 



JPT:cw 

cc: Deoartment of Natural Resources 



pZZo^A 




DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

OFFICE OF THE UNDER SECRETARY 
WASHINGTON, DC. 20310 



2 2 SEP 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403, 10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 



Dear Mr. Acord: 



This is in response to your 12 July 1978 letter to the Secretary 
of the Army transmitting for review and comment the final draft report 
on the Yellowstone River Basin Level B Study. 

We offer the following comments. While Chapter 4 presents a 
detailed estimate of future water "needs" for municipal, rural domestic, 
livestock, and energy and nonenergy industrial purposes, it does not 
address projected irrigation water needs. In view of the sizeable acre- 
ages projected for irrigation, we feel an estimate of water demand should 
be included. Additionally, we feel that an expanded description of poten- 
tial hydropower development would be appropriate in view of recent 
emphasis on this source of power. 

I appreciate this opportunity to comment on your draft report and 
wish to acknowledge the important contributions of the Missouri River- 
Basin Commission in formulating a comprehensive plan for the conservation, 
development, and management of the water and related resources of the 
Yellowstone River Basin and adjacent coal areas in Montana, Wyoming, and 
North Dakota. 



S incerely , 



Michael Blumenfeld 
Deputy Under Secretary 




DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 

REGIONAL OFFICE 
ROOM 300, FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING, 91! WALNUT STREET 
>}« 3a »■•*" KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 64106 

October 10, 1978 

REGION VII .ply bef I 

7C 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

10050 Regency Circle - Suite 403 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

Please accept this letter as the official Departmental response to your 
request for review and comment on the Final Draft Report and Environmental 
Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B Study . 
I have conducted a review of the subject study and coordinated my review 
with Ms. Betty Miller, Regional Administrator, Department of Housing and 
Urban Development (HUD), Region VIII, Denver, Colorado. Her office has 
responsibility for administering the Department's programs within the 
geographical area under study; i.e., the Yellowstone River Basin and 
Adjacent Coal Area. 

As a result of our consolidated review, I am pleased to report that the 
Department has no substantive concerns regarding the nature or findings 
of the subject study. Our only comment is that the Department has a 
sincere interest in the evolving growth of these targeted energy impact 
areas. As a result, HUD will be monitoring the activities in the Yellow- 
stone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Areas to assess the increasing demands 
on housing and community development resources. 

Thank you for providing me the opportunity to review the study. Should 
you have further questions or need additional information, please feel 
free to contact my alternate members, Mr. Gary Ultican (Region VII, 
Kansas City) at FTS 758-3192; or, Mr. Myron Eckberg (Region VIII, Denver) 
at FTS 327-3207. 

Sincerely, 




William 0. Anderson 
Regional Administrator 



AREA OFFICES 
KANSAS CITY. KANSAS • OMAHA , NEBRASKA-ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 

Insuring Offices 
Des Moines, Iowa • Topeka, Kansas 




DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 
UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 



MAILING ADDRESS 
U S COAST GUARD 
WASHINGTON. D C 20590 

phone 202-426-3300 



(G-WEP-7/73) 



•16476/7. b 476 
1 2 OCT 1978 



"Missouri River Basin Commission 
Suite 403 

10050 Regency Circle 
Omaha, Nebraska 68114 



Gentlemen: 

On behalf of the Department of Transportation. the concerned operating 
administrations and staff of the U. S. Coast Guard have reviewed the 
Final Draft Report/Environmental Assessment fo r the Yellowstone River 
Basin and Adjacent Area Level B Study. We have neither comments nor 
objections to offer regarding this project. 

The opportunity to review the Final Draft Report/Environmental 
Assessment is greatly appreciated. 



Sincerely, 




onst Guard 
Gfiisf ? Marine Hr ? ronr]sntal 

ProtF^on ^ r '*•> 'H 
By direction of tl".e Oemnisndint 



[55] 

It's a law we 
can live with. 




"«m t» ^ 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCE 
The Assistant Secretary for Policy 

Washington. D C. 20230 



October 13, 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 



The Department of Commerce review generated few comments 
on the Missouri River Basin Commission's Yellowstone River 
Basin Level B Report. I have enclosed for your considera- 
tion a summary of the remarks from the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service's 
Central Region Office. 

Thank you for the opportunity to provide these comments. 





James W. Curl in 
Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for Policy 



Enclosure 




State of North Dakota 



EXECUTIVE OFFICE 
BISMARCK 



ARTHUR A LINK 
Governor 



October 17, 1978 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Act ing Cha i rman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite ^03, 10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 681 1 A 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

Volume I of the Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B 
Study has been reviewed by the staff of the State Water Commission and 
other North Dakotans expressing an interest in the study, including mem- 
bers of the State Study Team. Comments, if any, from those participating 
in the study were to be sent directly to the Commission. 

The emphasis of the review performed by the State Water Commission was 
directed to the question of whether or not the Main Report accurately 
summarizes and reflects the contents of Volume 6, The North Dakota 
Tributaries Report. 1 am advised that it does and, as a consequence, 
have no substantive comments to offer. 



I am personally convinced that those North Dakotans who were interested 
enough to participate actively throughout the study had something to 
say about how they viewed their state and its natural resources. More- 
over, 1 am quite certain, that as a result, we all understand the issues 
more f ul 1 y . 

Sincerely yours, 



Arthur A. Link 

Governor of North Dakota 




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE OF THE SECRF 
WASHINGTON. D. C 20250 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

10050 Regency Circle, Suite 403 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 



October 1 9 1978 



This is in reply to your letter of July 12, 1978, transmitting for our 
review and comment your Level B study report on water and related land 
resources of the Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area in 
Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. 

The report is well prepared and presents a comprehensive inventory of 
water resources problems, needs, and possible solutions. In particular, 
it does an excellent job of providing information on agriculture and the 
comparison of impacts of the various plans. 

We note that limitations in undertaking the development of new data 
prevented a comprehensive development of some subjects, especially evident 
regarding environmental considerations. Reference should be made to the 
Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87) and to 
the Rural Clean Water Program (Public Law 95-217). 

The report could be further strengthened by adding a summary emphasizing 
the major elements of the recommended plan and the recommendations for 
impl ementation . 

There are several concerns which remain with the companion documents 
(volumes 2 through 8). These will be addressed at the time of their official 
90-day review. 

The Department's specific comments are enclosed for your use. 

Sincerely, 




Enclosure 



COMMISSIONERS 

HERBERT T REED Chairman— Wmlerset 

THOMAS A BATES-Bellevue 

JOHN C BROPHY-Lansing 

CAROLYN T LUMBARD-Des Moines 

MARIAN PIKE -Whiting 

JOHN C THOMPSON-Foiesl C ty 




FRED A. PRIEWERT, Director 

Wallace State Office Building, Des Moines, Iowa 50319 

515/281-5145 

An EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Agency 



October 19, 1978 



John E. Acord, Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Water Resources Division 

Dept . of Natural Resources & Conservation 

32 South Ewing 

Helena, MT 59601 

Dear John: 



We appreciate the opportunity to review and comment on the Yellowstone River Basin 

and adjacent coal area level B Study. The focus of major problems, needs and issues in the 

study area over the next twenty-five year period certainly seemed appropriate in view of 

the energy status. Major resource area information within the Missouri River Basin, including 

this major coal resource, is significant to Iowa. 

Full implementation would increase water depletions approximately 1 .2 million acre feet 
annually. The water marketing analysis in 1 974 pointed out that 'Any amount of wafer up 
to 3,000,000 acre feet for which potential industrial users can demonstrate a legitimate 
need is currently available for marketing". This study data falls within those projected 
criteria limits. Water management can do much to alleviate water problems, however we 
feel the downstream water needs must also continue to be met. Our position has always been 
that the average annual stream flow of the Missouri River at Sioux City, Iowa must be 
21 .2 million acre feet. 





Im C. Brabham, Iowa Member 
Missouri River Basin Commission 

WCB/fb 

cc: Governor Ray 

Jim Webb 

Fred Priewert 



BENJAMIN F.STAPLETON 
Chairman, Denver 

FREDERICK V. KROEGER 
Vice-Chairman, Durango 

JOHN R. FETCHER 
Steamboat Springs 

C. M. FURNEAUX 
Walden 

FLOYD L. GETZ 
Monte Vista 

PATRICK A. GORMLEY 
Grand Junction 

ROBERT A JACKSON 
Pueblo 

DAVID LEINSDORF 
Crested Butte 

HERBERT H. VANDEMOER 
Sterling 




FELIX L. SPARKS 
Director 

LAREN D. MORRILL 
Deputy Director 



RICHARD D. LAMM 
Governor 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

COLORADO WATER CONSERVATION BOARD 

823 STATE CENTENNIAL BUILDING 

1313 SHERMAN STREET 

DENVER, COLORADO 80203 



TELEPHONE 

(303) 839-3441 



October 20, 1978 



Mr.- John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

10050 Regency Circle, Suite 403 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

This is in response to your letter of July 12, 1978 to 
Governor Richard D. Lamm concerning the draft Report and 
Environmental Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent 
Coal Area Level B Study, dated May 1978. 

Pursuant to the request by the Governor's Office, the 
Colorado Water Conservation Board staff reviewed the report from 
the standpoint of its relationship to the state of Colorado. 

Since the area studied in the report and the proposals 
outlined therein will have no affect on Colorado, we have no 
comments to offer. 



Very truly yours, 

Felix L. Sparks 
Director 




^/f- 



& 



FLS:mm 




Department of Energy 
Washington, D.C. 20545 



OCT 2 7 1978 



Mr. Millard W. Hall, Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

Suite 403 

10050 Regency Circle 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Hall: 

This is in reply to a letter dated July 12, 1978, from John E. Acord, 
Acting Chairman, Missouri River Basin Commission, to Secretary Schlesinger 
requesting comments on the draft report and environmental assessment for 
the Yellowstone Level B Study conducted by the Missouri River Basin 
Commission. 



We have reviewed this report and have no major adverse comments. The 
study appears to be very well done, however, some detailed staff review 
comments are enclosed for your consideration in finalizing the report. 

Thank you for the opportunity to review this study. 

Sincerely, 







»es L. Liverman 
'Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for Environment 



Enclosure: 
As stated 




United States Department of the Interior 

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 
WASHINGTON, DC. 20240 



PEF IR 78/777 



NOV 8 W8 



Mr. John E. Acord 

Acting Chairman 

Missouri River Basin Commission 

10050 Regency Circle, Suite 403 

Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Acord: 

This is in response to your letter of July 12, 1978, addressed 
to the Secretary requesting his review of the Level B Study 
for the Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area. We 
have completed the review and this letter constitutes the 
views and comments of the Department of the Interior. 

General Comments 

The report appears to reflect a thorough effort to accomplish 
what the study management group determined should be done. 
However, we believe the procedures followed are not totally 
in conformance with the Principles and Standards for Planning 
Water and Related Land Resources (PSS). For example, the PSS 
specify only two planning objectives - to enhance national 
economic development (NED) and to enhance environmental quality 
(EQ). This Level B study includes an implicit third planning 
objective entitled State-Regional Development (SRD). 

We believe that development of an alternative plan emphasizing 
a SRD objective could result in recommendation of projects 
having local benefits and national costs. The SRD plan con- ^ 
tains projects which would bring to local communities economic 
benefits in the form of increased income, improved services and 
induced business activity. However, as indicated on page 174 
of the study report, there may be (and presumably are) regional 
(and national?) costs incurred as a result of development that 
have neither been evaluated nor reflected in the NED costs. 
Nevertheless, SRD plan items appear in the recommended plan 
(for example, see page 18 6, the Bdffalo Bill Enlargement). 



v^ 




'^6-l9l 6 



Further, the first step in the plan formulation process described 
in the PSS is to specify components of the objectives relevant 
to the planning setting. No components relative to the Yellow- 
stone River Basin are identified in the study report. This 
omission is a critical defect because objective components 
relative to the Yellowstone River Basin must be identified so 
that planners can develop proposals to achieve the objectives. 
Without specific objectives, planning cannot occur. The so-called 
plan formulation consisted of reviewing projects previously pro- 
posed or already planned and segregating them into three lists 
entitled NED, EQ, and SRD according to the dominant type of 
benefits that each project would produce. A recommended list is 
formulated by making trade-offs among the three lists. We do 
not believe that this constitutes a plan. 

The study report reveals that effects of the recommended plan 
would be reduction of employment in the Yellowstone Basin in 
the year 2000 from 68,700 (without a plan) to 26,620; a reduction 
of population from 735,210 to 657,060; and a significant shift 
in land use from rangeland to irrigated cropland, strip mining, 
water areas and recreation lands. Comparison of these anticipated 
effects with planning objectives is impossible because no specific 
planning objectives were established. In fact, the effects seem 
not to have been intentional but just happened to be the sum of 
the effects of the projects on the recommended lists. There is 
no way to evaluate such planning. 

The product of the Yellowstone River Basin Level B study is the 
listing of projects to produce a variety of benefits for each of 
the seven planning areas within the overall study area. It tends 
to be more of a project justification document than a plan for 
management of the water resources within the Yellowstone River 
Basin. 

The Yellowstone study is typical of other recently completed 
Level B studies in this regard. Apparently, identification of 
regional planning goals is an extremely difficult process. How- 
ever, we believe that they must be identified to guide plan 
formulation and eventual plan evaluation. 

Specific Comments .. .(the specific comments provided are on file at the 
MRBC office) . . . 

We hope these comments will be of assistance to your efforts. 

Si.ncera.ly, 




Enclosures 



*«. Larry E. Meierotto 
SECRETARY 




§>tatc of Jliuntaiia 

(Office uf U in- <• unu-riuu- 

Hi-lcua, 59601 



THOMAS L JUDGE 

N 

November 21, 1978 



Mr. Wayne Hall, Chairman 
Missouri River Basin Commission 
Suite 403, 10050 Regency Circle 
Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Mr. Hall: 

It is obvious that a tremendous amount of work has gone into the Final 
Draft Yellowstone River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B Study, and the 
Missouri River Basin Commission is to be commended for evaluating water 
resources in that basin. As you know, Montana could not become as deeply 
involved in this effort as we originally planned. Even so, our efforts on 
the Management Board, State Study Team, and Ad Hoc Groups were significant 
in light of pressing on-going programs, particularly the water reservation 
process in the Yellowstone River Basin. State input was also reduced in 
part due to the delays in study initiation and funding. 

The water reservations adopted by the Board of Natural Resources and 
Conservation this December will, to a large degree, establish future water 
use patterns in the Yellowstone River Basin. The Board's action on in- 
stream flow requests in particular will determine the additional amount of 
water development that can occur in the future. The recommended plan for 
Montana in the Yellowstone Level B Study obviously does not reflect the 
Board's future decision, making it impossible to use the Level B plan as the 
state water plan in that basin. 

Because of the water reservation process and the fact that hydrologic 
evaluations were not available when needed, the State Study Team was unable 
to formulate a recommended plan based on tradeoff analysis and compromise 
between instream and consumptive water use values. Consequently, the 
recommended plan for Montana shown in the final draft contains plan elements 
that are mutually exclusive. That is, implementation of the instream flow 
recommendations would preclude the full realization of water development 
elements also included in the recommended plan, and vice versa. 

For these reasons, Montana cannot endorse the recommended plan for our 
state. However, it may be possible for us to accept the report as long as 
it is clearly understood that we do not endorse each element in the plan. 

The Level B study analyzes water resources issues, yet the discussion 
of water use impacts in Chapter 8 is extremely superficial and could even be 
misleading. An expansion of that section is essential to properly and 
adequately portray the effects of instream flows and/or development on 
streamf lows . 



Mr. Wayne Hall 
Page Two 
November 21, 1978 



I have attached specific comments on the Level B study drafted by the 
Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. 



Sinc&rely , 




TED SCHWINDEN 
Acting Governor 



Enclosure 



cc: Ted Doney, Director, Department of Natural Resources & Conservation 
Jack Acord, Water Resources Division, DNR 




THE STATE *,. & OF WYOMING 



ED HERSCHLER 



BARRETT BUILDING CHEYENNE. WYOMING 82002 

WYOMING WATER PLANNING PROGRAM 

November 29, 1978 



Dr. Wayne Hall, Chairman 
Missouri River Basin Commission 
10050 Regency Circle, Suite 403 
Omaha, Nebraska 68114 

Dear Dr. Hall: 

This is in response to the MRBC request for comments on the Yellowstone 
River Basin and Adjacent Coal Area Level B Study. 

Comments were provided to the Assistant Study Manager for Wyoming on 
Report Volumes 7 and 8 covering the Wind-Bighorn-Clarks Fork and Northeast 
Wyoming Areas, respectively. 

The study as represented in the Final Draft Report and Environmental Assess- 
ment is a very good effort at trying to integrate the economic, hydrologic, energy, 
recreation and fish and wildlife interests and concerns into a regional study. 
The study is based on the Harza report, "Analysis of Energy Projections and Impli- 
cations for Resource Requirements", and reflects the future only as well as Harza 
was able to predict the future with their linear programming model. 

The study was conducted under the guidance of local diverse membership 
citizen committees. The result is that many tradeoffs and problems are identi- 
fied but are not resolved; however, the local citizens should be commended for 
their efforts to make the study reflect the areas' values and feelings. 

In the recommendation section of the report there are some areas that need 
clarification. 

Wyoming Recommendation 2: T 'The Wyoming State Legislature should pass legis- 
lation that would: (1) Provide a legal basis for management of water levels in 
newly built reservoirs to provide minimum practicable daily and seasonal fluctu- 
ation in reservoir (and streamflow) levels, where minimum pool levels are a basis 
for benefits . " 

While this is perhaps a desirable end to accomplish, imposition of strict 
arbitrary rules could alter the project's capacity to perform its beneficial pur- 
poses. Benefits assigned to the provision of a minimum pool apply only to the 
minimum pool level and restrictions of seasonal reservoir level fluctuation to 
levels above the minimum pool level would reduce the ability of the reservoir to 



Dr. Wayne Hall 

Page 2 

November 29, 1978 



function as planned and to repay its cost. Problems could result in operating 
the reservoir to provide for unusual weather conditions such as for flood damage 
reduction or to provide additional water during drought. 

Wyoming Recommendation 11: 'The Wyoming State Legislature should pass 
legislation that would: (2) Provide authority for an appropriate regulatory 
agency to adopt and inforce minimum flow regulations for selected streams, after 
due consideration of all potential and foreseeable beneficial uses of the streams." 

The Constitution of the State of Wyoming declares all of the waters of the 
State to be property of the State and charges the State Engineer with administering 
these waters. The State Engineer through the water commissioners can now super- 
vise the delivery of stored water to maintain instream values if this is a project 
purpose. The State Engineer is also charged with planning for the orderly de- 
velopment of the State's water and recent studies in the Yellowstone study area 
have included analysis of stream flow maintenance as part of the projects analyzed. 

This report is one attempt at trying to view the future and as such it should 
be used as a planning scenario and not as an ultimate plan. Definite plan elements 
and potentials are identified in the report and only time and the economics of the 
energy industry will determine how well the "Recommended Plan" reflects the future. 



Sincerely, 



Sj&e* 





C 



George L, Christopulos 
State Engineer 



GLC:ew 



Photo Credits Bureau of Reclamation. Interior, pp 4, 27, 38, 40, 55, 56. 62, 71, 75. 150, 245 
Forest Service, USDA, pp 28, 34 
National Weather Service, p 8 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, pp 72, 73 
Montana Department of Highways, pp 16, 43, 69 

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, pp. 42, 66, 168 

North Dakota State Water Commission, pp. cover, x, 6, 23, 52, 57, 64. 88. 90, 91. 126, 192, 247, 248, 250 
North Dakota Travel Department, pp. 10, 31, 41, 70, 74 
Wyoming Highway Department, pp. 10. 19. 20. 32, 59. 60, 68, 194 
Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and Development, pp. 14, 44, 46