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Full text of "Ye solace of pilgrimes, a description of Rome, circa A.D. 1450, with a frontispiece illusrating the author's handwriting"



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BRITISH AND AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ROME 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

A DESCRIPTION OF ROME, circa A.D. 1450, 
BY JOHN CAPGRAYE, AN AUSTIN FRIAR 

OF KING'S LYNN 

WITH A FRONTISPIECE ILLUSTRATINQ THE AUTHOR'S HANDWRITING 

EDITED BY 

C. A. MILLS 

SECRETARY, BRITISH AND AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ROME 

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY NOTE BY 

THE REV. H. M. BANNISTER, M.A. 



HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO, AND MELBOURNE 

1911 




OXFORD: HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

Introductory Note xi 

PART I 

Author's Preface 1 

Chapter I. The founders of Home 3 

II. The gates, walls, and towers 7 

III. The bridges 12 

IV. The hills 13 

V. The palaces 16 

VI. The arches of victory . 18 

VII. The cemeteries 20 

VIII. Other holy places and their ancient names . . .21 

IX. The ' anguilla sancti Petri *, or needle of S. Peter . . 22 

X. Temples of pagan gods converted to churches . . .25 

XI. The Capitol 26 

XII. The two horses of marble, or the Caballus ... 29 

XIII. The horse of brass, or Marcus Aurelius . . . .31 

XIV. The Coliseum 33 

XV. The Pantheon 37 

XVI. AraCaeli 39 

XVn. The tomb of Augustus 42 

XVIII. The Septizonium 44 

XIX. The arch of Priscus Tarquinius 45 

XX. The Cantharus in the forecourt of S. Peter's . . .46 

XXI. The tombs of Romulus and Remus 47 

XXII. The palace of Trajan and Hadrian 48 

XXIII. The * conk ' or bath of Constantine .... 49 

XXrV. * Omnis terra ' or Monte Testaccio 50 

XXV. The rulers of Rome from Romulus to Tarquin (part 

missing) 52 

XXVI. The rulers of Rome from Tarquin to Frederick II (part 

missing) . . . . ... . . .53 

a2 



IV 



CONTENTS 



PART II 



Pbeface 

Chapter T. S. Pietro 

IL S. Paolo 

III. S. Sebastiano 

rV. S. Giovanni Laterano 

V. S. Croce 

VI. S. Lorenzo fuoii . 

VIL S. Maria Maggiore 

VIII. Station at S. Sabina 

IX. Station at S. Giorgio in Velabro 

X. Station at SS. Giovanni e Paolo 

XI. Station at S. Trifone . 

XII. Station at S. Giovanni Laterano 

XIII. Station at S. Pietro in Vincoli 

XIV. Station at S. Anastasia . 
XV. Station at S. Maria Maggiore 

XVI. Station at S. Lorenzo in Panisperna 

XVn. Station at SS. Apostoli . 

XVIII. Station at S. Pietro 

XIX. Station at S. Maria in Dominica 

XX. Station at S. Clemente . 

XXI. Station at S. Balbina 

XXII. Station at S. Cecilia 

XXm. Station at S. Maria in Trastevere 

XXIV. Station at S. Vitale 

XXV. Station at SS. Marcellino e Pietro 

XXVI. Station at S. Lorenzo fuori . 

XXVn. Station at S. Marco 

XXV ill. Station at S. Pudenziana 

XXIX. Station at S. Sisto 

XXX. Station at SS. Cosma and Damiano 

XXXI. Station at S. Lorenzo in Lucina 
XXXn. Station at S. Susanna . 

XXXIII. Station at S. Croce 

XXXIV. Station at SS. Quattro Coronati 
XXXV. Station at S. Lorenzo in Damaso 

XXXVI. Station at S. Paolo 

XXX Vn. Station at S. Marti no ai Monti 

XXXVm. Station at S. Eusebio . 

XXXIX. Station at S. Nicola in Carcere 





CONTENTS 






v 




PAGE 


Chapter XL. 


Station at S. Pietro 135 


XLI. 


Station at S. Crisogono 






. 137 


XLII. 


Station at S. Ciriaco .... 






138 


XLIII. 


Station at S. Marcello. ... 






140 


XLIV. 


Station at S. Apollinare 






142 


XLV. 


Station at S. Stefano Rotondo . 






144 


XLVI. 


Station at S. Giovanni a Porta Latina 






145 


XLVII. 


Station at S. Giovanni Laterano . 






146 


XLVIII. 


Station at S. Prassede 






147 


XLIX. 


Station at S. Prisca .... 






149 


L. 


Station at S. Maria Maggiore 






150 


LI. 


Station at S. Giovanni Laterano . 






151 


LIL 


Station at S. Croce .... 






152 


LIIL 


Station at S. Giovanni Laterano . 






154 


LIV. 


Station at S. Maria Maggiore 
PART III 






155 



Peeface 156 

Chapter I. S. Maria Rotonda 157 

II. S. Maria Araceli (part missing) 158 

III. (Missing) — 

IV. S. Maria sopra Minerva (part missing) . . . .159 
V. S. Maria Annunziata 160 

VI. S. Maria in Traspontina . . . . . .161 

VII. S. Maria delle Palme (Domine quo vadis) . . .162 

Vm. S. Maria del Popolo 163 

IX. S. Maria de Penis inferni (S. Maria Liberatrice) . .165 

X. S. Maria in Cosmedin . . . . . . . 167 

XI. S. Maria Imperatrice . . . . . . .168 

XII. S. Maria della Consolazione 169 

XIII. S. Maria in Porticu (part missing) 170 



Index 



171 



VI 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

5 = g or y ; sometimes at the end of a word it may mean h or gh, pronounced 
or silent. 

u = u or V as the case may be. 

i is sometimes shown short and sometimes long (1 or I). Whenever instances 
of its use in the latter form can be expressed by the more modern 'j' this 
has been done : e. g. both the forms * iewis ' and ' jewis ', ' ion ' and * jon ', &c., 
will be found in the transcript. The long I is generally used to indicate 
the personal pronoun or the beginning of a sentence. (See Facsimile, 
f. 387 r, lines 1 and 3, and last line : ' In ail he? peynes pe '.) 

Only the punctuation actually indicated in the MS. itself has been entered 
in the transcript. 

Italics in the text of the transcript represent contractions, which, for the 
sake of convenience, have been expanded and written in full. Words under- 
lined in the same are underlined in the MS. (See Facsimile, f. 387 r, lines 5, 
16, and 17.) Whether this was done by the writer or by a reader is difficult 
to say. It has therefore been shown in every case wherever it occurs. 



vu 



PREFACE 

FouK years ago this MS. was shown to the Rev. H. M. Bannister 
by Mr, Madan, one of the Bodleian Librarians, with the suggestion 
that he should publish it if he thought it of sufficient value. It so 
happened that the editor was present on this occasion, and when 
Mr. Bannister made a short examination of the MS., the first chap- 
ter which came under particular notice was that entitled ' Omnis 
terra'. This expression alone, as applied to Monte Testaccio, 
sufficed to show that the work was of considerable interest, and 
likely to yield some valuable information. 

Mr. Bannister, whose whole time is fully occupied with his 
own special studies, could not, however, find leisure to undertake 
the necessary transcription, and the editor — although he had 
never attempted anything of the kind before — offered to do his 
best if Mr. Bannister would kindly help him with his advice. 
Mr. Bannister was good enough to promise his assistance, and it 
has been most generously given ; indeed, it is not too much to 
say that, without it, the editor would have been quite unequal 
to the task for want of experience. 

At this time the name of the author was unknown ; but it was 
hoped to be able to ascertain the date of the work, to compare the 
facts therein mentioned with those given by known contemporaries, 
and so test the accuracy and powers of observation of the writer. 
Fortunately, the MS. yielded abundant information on these points. 
It was clear that he was an Augustinian friar, and the author of 
another work entitled Concordia ^ (see p. 92 and the facsimile of 
f. 387 r of the MS.) ; that he was in Rome during the pontificate of 
Nicholas V (1447-54) ; and that he came on a pilgrimage under 
the special protection of Sir Thomas Tudenham, a gentleman of 
Norfolk, near King's Lynn, who was executed for high treason in 
1461. As there was an Augustinian house at King's Lynn, the 
natural inference was that the author came from it. Whether or 
not he wrote the book in England from notes taken in Rome — 

^ Cf. E. E. Text Society, vol. cxl, 1910, p. 146. In a sermon which John Capgrave 
preached at Cambridge in 1422, he says : * This mate? is proued with grete euydens . . . 
in ))e book whech I mad to J>e abbot of Seynt lames at Norhampton in Latin, whech boke 
I named Concordia, be-cause it is mad to reforme charite be-twix Seynt Augustines 
heremites and his chanones.* 



viii PREFACE 

from internal evidence it is probable that he did — he must have 
gathered the information he gives us between the years 1447 and 
1452, inasmuch as he mentions the recent death of Henry Beaufort, 
Bishop of Winchester, who died April 11, 1447, and describes John 
Kempe as Cardinal of S. Balbina and Archbishop of York, which he 
ceased to be in July, 1452, on promotion to the higher rank of 
Cardinal Bishop of S. Rufina and Archbishop of Canterbury. From 
several passages one can infer that Rome was much crowded when 
he was there, so that he probably took part in the Jubilee of 1450, 
for in the fifteenth century the population of Rome was not great. 

Fortunately we have other records of pilgrims about this period, 
notably Giovanni Rucellai, a Florentine merchant, and Niklaus 
MufFel, a Nurnberg patrician. We have Ranulf Higden and 
Adam de Usk (an ofiicial of the Papal Court) for the period from 
1350 circa to 1415, before our chronicler's visit ; we can also consult 
von HarflTs Pilgerfahrt, and the anonymous author of Ein Buchlein, 
&c., Strassburg, 1500, for the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

But the most complete test of our author's accuracy is that he 
was in the habit of copying inscriptions and lists of relics in most 
of the churches which he visited. From those inscriptions which 
still exist (and there are several) it will be seen that our Augustinian 
friar is in every case letter-perfect. We can therefore accept his 
testimony as to those which have since disappeared. His keenness 
of observation is remarkable, and he has this one great superiority 
to most mediaeval writers : viz., that he is most careful not to put 
down a thing unless he has either seen it himself, or has, in his 
opinion, the best of authority for it. As examples of this refer, 
firstly, to what he says about the archus Prisci Tarquinii (p. 45) : 
and, secondly, about the relics at S. Lawrence in Panisperna 
(p. 102). In the former case he reproaches himself, and admits 
frankly that he either did not take the trouble to see, or failed to 
find the monument, and in the second that he did not make a copy 
of the list of relics because of the press of people there at the time. 
His topography is, as a rule, most accurate, and he is a most careful 
observer and a well-read man. For his facts regarding ancient 
Rome he depends on the Mirabiliay the guide-book of all educated 
pilgrims of this period. It is also interesting to note that after his 
death he is sometimes styled ' Beatus ', and Henry VII is known to 
have made an effort to have him canonized. 

There is a great wealth of mediaeval legendary lore in Part I of 
the MS. This has been compared with the works of some of the 



PREFACE • ix 

best authors on this subject, notably Adinolfi and Graf. The 
author takes this opportunity of acknowledging his indebtedness to 
Graf's Roma nella memoria e nelV immaginazione dd Medio Eva, 
2 vols., Turin, 1880, a book which has been of the greatest help, 
and has been very freely quoted. The legends regarding the lives 
of the saints in Parts II and III have also been compared with the 
recognized authorities on this subject. 

It will be observed that the editor has not entered upon any 
critical examination of the work or the text, for which, indeed, he 
feels that he is not qualified. He has merely made what he hopes 
is a faithful transcript, and has further attempted to illustrate the 
MS. by quoting from the writings of contemporary authors, and of 
others who have dealt with the subject-matter of this chronicle. 
The present volume was originally intended cmly to be published 
privately for the members of the British and American Society of 
Kome, as an interesting description of Rome by an English pilgrim. 
The editor had, at first, no idea of appealing to a wider audience. 
But a discovery made only a few weeks ago, at the time when this 
book was ready for publication, has thrown an entirely new light 
upon it. The author's identity has now been ascertained. This is 
a hitherto lost work of John Capgrave, Prior of King's Lynn and 
Provincial of the Augustinian Order, a well-known writer and his- 
torian of the fifteenth century. The discovery was made in the 
following manner. 

On his way from Rome to Oxford, the editor took the transcript 
of the MS. to Sir George Warner at the British Museum, to ask his 
opinion as to the authorship of the MS. From the above-mentioned 
data he considered that the author might possibly be John Capgrave 
(1393-1464), who was known to have written a description of 
Rome. This description bad disappeared, with the exception of two 
fragments which are attached to the binding of two other Capgrave 
MSS. at Oxford (All Souls and Balliol College Libraries). Sir George 
Warner then showed the British Museum Capgrave MS. to the 
editor, who was at once struck with the remarkable similarity of 
its handwriting to that of the present work. This can be observed 
by comparing the facsimile of the script of this work with that of 
the British Museum MS. The latter can be seen in E. E. Text 
Society, vol. cxl, 1910. On comparing the text of the two frag- 
ments (which can be seen in vol. i of the Rolls Series, p. 355) 
with that of our MS., it was found that the latter was almost an 
exact copy of portions of chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Part I of 

b 



X PKEFACE 

this book.^ There was now no possible doubt that the present work 
is the lost description of Rome by John Capgrave, and that a literary 
discovery of considerable importance had been made. 

The further examination of the fragments in question, and of 
other MSS. reputed to be Capgrave's autograph works, was left to 
the Rev. H. M. Bannister, as the editor felt that he was not quali- 
fied for that task. The result of Mr. Bannister's investigations at 
Oxford, Cambridge, and London, will be found in his Introductory 
Note. 

It now only remains to express the editor's thanks to those who 
have been good enough to help him, without which assistance he 
feels that the task would have been one beyond his powers. First 
and foremost his most grateful thanks are due to his friend, the 
Rev. H. M. Bannister, who, whenever it was required, has been 
most kind in giving his guidance and advice. He also wishes 
to mention his deep sense of the courtesy of the authorities of the 
Bodleian Library, who have readily granted him every facility for 
the transcription and publication of the work. Thanks are also due 
to the Provost of Oriel and to Father Ehrle, Prefect of the Vatican 
Library, who have kindly permitted the editor to reproduce the 
miniatures in Oriel MS. 132 and Vatican Cod. Reginen. 1880. Dr. 
Ashby, of the British School of Rome, has kindly helped with his 
advice, and permission to reproduce the illustrations of the Carnival 
on Monte Testaccio and the churches of Rome from old and rare 
prints in his possession. The editor also wishes to express his 
obligation to Dr. Ch. Hvilsen, and to authors whose works he has 
made use of, more especially to Professor Arturo Graf and to Mr. 
F. M. Nichols, a member of the British and American Archaeological 
Society. 

C. A. MILLS. 

Oxford, August, 1911. 



* From f. 864 r, 1. 27, to f. 366 v, 1. 2, of the MS. ; cf. pp. 26-82. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

In the Preface the editor has shown how the MS. here published was 
ascertained to be the long-lost work on Rome by John Capgrave. My con- 
nexion with it has been confined to : (1) an examination of the MS., with 
a suggestion as to its date and orthography ; (2) advice as to the method of 
editing it ; and (3) -an investigation as to whether it can claim to be an 
actual autograph of the author. 

1. The MS. 2322 (Bodley MS. 423), 1 + 416 leaves of parchment and 
paper, 272 x 197 mm., is a composite volume containing five MSS.,^of which 
the Capgrave is the last ; but as the other four came as a donation from 
Dr. W. Cotton, Bishop of Exeter, in 1605, and were bound together with it 
by Sir Thomas Bodley's orders, they need not be considered here. It is to 
be regretted that our MS. was then considerably cut down both in length 
and breadth to match the other four, hence its marginalia are now incom- 
plete, and the original pagination was so cut away that it had to be refoliated 
as ff. 355-414. At present it consists of eight qoiires of eight parchment 
leaves ; the third one lacks its middle four leaves, and the last one has one 
missing leaf; the rest of the MS. is now lost. It bears on its first page the 
title ' Stations of Rome ' in Bodley's handwriting. 

There are no signs of Norfolk provenance in the rest of the volume ; the 
only name added in our MS. is that on f. 387 v of "Warner, a common Norfolk 
name, but there is nothing to show what connexion he had with the MS. 

(a) Date of the work. Dr. Furnivall (Early English Text Society, vol. c, 
p. viii) has suggested that it was at some date after 1422 and before c. 1437, 
when he settled down to write his Annals, that Capgrave went to Rome and 
was there in his illness helped by Bishop Grey. These dates, however, are 
not consistent with the bishop's movements, for his sojourn in Italy was 
mostly after 1442, and he did not take up his abode in Rome until 1449. 
This date fits in admirably with that assigned by the editor to our MS., 
viz. c. 1450. 

(6) Orthography. The present MS. adds considerably to our knowledge 
of the Middle English of the fifteenth century ; for an account of this, the 
reader is referred to the recent editions of two of John Capgrave's other 

* I am much indebted to Mr. Madan for allowing me to see his copy for the next volume 
of the Summary Catalogue. 

b2 



xii INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

English works in vols, c and cxl of the Early English Text Society, and 
to the Glossary at the end of vol. i of the Rolls Series. A further notice 
of Capgrave's English can be seen in John Cajygrave und die englische 
Schriftsprache, a doctor's disputation by William Dibelius, Friedrich- 
Wilhelms University, Berlin, 1899. 

2. I have suggested that the practice of the Early English Text Society 
should be retained as to the use of the ]> and the 5, in the typographical 
reproduction of the final g, 11, n), and ?, and in the universal use, as in the 
MS. of u for v; but as to punctuation I felt that- the custom of the 
MS. should be invariably retained ; it may occasionally be defective and 
misleading, and, to our minds, it is always incomplete, but I think that the 
small additional effort demanded of the reader is preferable to an arbitrary 
editorial trampling on the transcription of the text. For the same reason 
I have not advised that hyphens should be inserted between adverbs and 
their adjectives, or between two words which are now joined together, such 
as on to, with in, be for, for the MS. in veri/ few instances lessens in their 
case the space between the words, and capital letters are not used for such 
words where only modern custom demands them, unless the text gives some 
warranty for their use. 

The text of the MS. in every case treats the final syllables of words ending 
in -ion, such as opposition, petition, meditation, religion (cf Early English 
Text Society, vol. cxl, p. 61), as written -iou with contraction mark for n 
over the u and not as -ion. The u and n of the MS. are practically identical 
in form ; the letter is here written as intended by the scribe, and the example 
of the Early English Text Society, vol. cxxii, pp. 510, &c., which prints Etieas 
for Eneas because the second letter looks more like a u than an n, has not 
been followed. I am aware that in this advice I am departing from the 
usual modern practice, but the exact transcription of the text appears to me 
to be of more importance than an attempt to render it more intelligible to 
some of its readers. 

3. The question as to John Capgrave's autograph is more difficult than 
appears at first sight ; it has been seriously compromised by the fact that 
almost without exception every early MS. of his writings has been called his 
autograph by recent editors and cataloguers. For convenience of reference 
these MSS. are here recited : — 

No. 1. Liber de illustribus Henricis. Corpus Christi, Cambridge, MS. 408. 
„ 2. Livesof S.Augustine, S. Gil- Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 36704. 
bert, &c. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE xi 

No. 3. Description of Rome. Bodleian MS. 423 — the present one. 

AH Souls MS. 17. 



4. Fragments of „ Fly-leaves of 



Balliol MS. 190. 



„ 5. Commentary on Genesis. Oriel MS. 132. 

„ 6. „ „ Exodus. Bodl. Duke Humphrey MS. b. 1. 

„ 7. „ „ the Acts. Balliol MS. 189. 

„ 8. The Chronicle of England. Univ. Libr. Cambridge, Gg. 4. 12, 

„ 9. Commentary on the Creeds. Balliol MS. 190. 

„ 10. „ „ „ All Souls MS. 17. 

„ 11. Life of St. Norbert. Phillipps Library, Cheltenham, 

The article on John Capgrave in the Dictionary of National Biography 
applies the term * autograph ' to 1, 5, 8, 10, and perhaps 7. This statement 
is apparently founded on Preb. Hingeston- Randolph's Introd. to Nos. 1 and 
7 in the Rolls Series, vol. vii, pp. li, 124, 183, 211 ^ and vol. i, pp. xiii, xvi, 
XX, xxvi, 356, and is accepted by Dr. Furnivall, Early English Text Society, 
vol. c (1893), pp. xiii, xiv, xviii, and by Dr. Horstmann, Nova Legenda 
Angliae (Oxford, 1901), vol. i, p. Ixviii, who includes in the list of auto- 
graphs No. 11. The Catalogvs of Additions to the MSS. in the British 
Museum, MDCCCC-MDCCCCV (1907), p. vii, speaks of No. 2 as 'auto- 
graph ', and states that ' the hand, both of text and corrections, agrees with 
that ' of No. 8, ' which there seems to be adequate reason for regarding as 
Capgrave's MS.,' and refers to the Dictionary of National Biography for 
several other of his works occurring in the same hand. The latest editor of 
Capgrave, Mr. J. J. Munro, in his Introd. to the Lives of S. Augustine^ 
S. Gilbert^ &c. (Early English Text Society, vol. cxl (1910), p. ix), states that 
No. 2 is in Capgrave's own hand, with his characteristic orthography, and 
contains the author's corrections in th-e text. 

Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson, Bodley's Librarian, in an insertion in Mr. F. 
Madan's Summary Catalogue of Western MSS., &c., vol. vi, Ft. I, states that 
* The companion Genesis ', i.e. No. 5, * shows that the Exodus ' (No. 6) pur- 
chased for the Bodleian in January, 3 907, * is in Capgrave's own hand.' 
Similar conceptions can be seen in K. K, Vickers, Humphrey Duke of 
Gloucester (London, 1907), 'the original copy is at Oriel'; and Dr. M. R. 

' * The style of the writing of Cambridge, Gg. 4. 12, corresponds very closely with that 
of those MSS. of Capgrave which are known, by unmistakable evidence, to have been 
written by his own hand. ... A comparison of all the extant MSS. leaves no doubt as to 
the identity of the author's handwriting and which of them are autographs ' (Rolls Series, 
vol. i, p. xxvi). 'The writing of No. 1 corresponds exactly with that of Nos. 4, 7, 8, 10. 
Two at least of these MSS. contain good, though not strictly conclusive, evidence that they 
are in the handwriting of their author ' (Rolls Series, vol. vii, p. li). 



xiv INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

James's Descriptive Catalogue of the MSS. in the Library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge (1910), p. 378, 'the autograph MS. is Univ. Library, 
Gg. 4. 12.' 

Doubts, however, arose as to the statement in the Introduction to The 
Chronicle of England, Rolls Sei-ies, vol. i, p. 356, that the handwriting of 
No. 4 (the fragments of the Guide to the Antiquities of Rome) was ' identical 
with that of the English Chronicle and the other works of John Capgrave, of 
which we possess the autographs', and Prof. Napier's letter of May 16, 
1892 (Early English Text Society, vol. c, p. xxxiv), proved that 'neither the 
fly-leaves of All Souls' 17 nor the body of that MS. are in the same hand as 
the Cambridge University MS. of the Chronicle ; all three are different '. 

Doubts, too, have been expressed as to the validity of the argument founded 
on the use of the so-called autograph which forms the colophon at the end 
of several MSS., Feliciter per John Capgrave, and of the trefoil- shaped mono- 
gram which is assumed to be the private mark of the author, which either 
accompanies the colophon or occurs in the margin of some of the MSS. 

The present seemed to be an appropriate time to investigate the above 
statements, and to ascertain, if possible, exactly how many MSS. are John 
Capgrave's autograph. It has been my privilege to compare at the same 
time all the MSS. at Oxford, Nos. 3-6, 7, 9, 10, and to examine the two at 
Cambridge, Nos. 1, 8, and the one at the British Museum, No. 2 — in fact 
all the possible ' autographs' of Capgrave with the exception of No. 11 — 
with the following results : — 

(i) The Rome fragments. No. 4, are scarcely (cf. Rolls Series, vol. i, 
p. 356) * only first and rough copies ', and that this is the cause of the 
* universal carelessness of the spelling, and the incompleteness of many of 
the sentences'. My impression is that these leaves formed part of a late 
copy which must have been made from dictation, for no other explanation 
seems to account for the entirely different spelling, e.g. say for sey, siluer 
for siluyr, conqueste for conqwest, sekemes for sekir nerkis, &c. ; a copy which 
has no words underlined and no initial letters inserted in colour, but was 
left unfinished and rejected as only fit for fly-leaves of other MSS. No one 
can take up our present MS. and compare it with the two fragments without 
being struck by its great superiority and accuracy. (Some of the errors in 
the fragments as printed in the Rolls Series, No. 7, are due not to the scribe 
but to the transcriber, who has turned ' christes birth ' into * giftes such ', has 
omitted the word * puerum ' which is necessary for the scansion of a hexa- 
meter, and has printed ' exameron ' as ' epistolarium '.) 

(ii) Feliciter per John Cajygrave, which forms the colophon in Nos. 1, 
5-7, 9-11, is, judging by the form of the letters a, I, p, the work of at least 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE xv 

four or five different scribes; its position varies, for it occurs either as 
a separate clause, attached to or separate from the text of the corpus libri, 
or as part of the Incepit, &c., or as Feliciter only. In the presentation 
copies to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and Bishop Grey, Nos. 5-7, which 
I believe to have been written by professional copyists, these words are 
undoubtedly by the hand of the copyist. The expression is doubtless derived 
from the author's colophon in the original copy, as we shall see in the De 
illustribus Henricis, No. 1, but it was retained and copied more or less 
exactly by subsequent scribes. Thus Genesis and Exodus, though the work 
of the same copyist, differ in that the former uses Feliciter only whilst the 
latter has F. p. J. G. The argument founded on the occurrence of these 
words has been unduly forced, for they do not bear the interpretation 
usually assigned to them. 

(iii) The trefoil mark occurs in Nos. 1, 5-11, either in black or red; its 
shape varies considerably, being either with or without a stalk, the shape of 
which is seldom made in the same way. It is found occasionally in the 
margins of some MSS., in places which do not seem to have called for special 
notice, except that it is affixed to the year of the author's birth, to his 
personal opinion, * we think that ', and to references to the resurrection. It 
is also used in connexion with, either before or after, the Feliciter per John 
Capgrave. It used to be called the private monogram of John Capgrave, 
but recent editors have felt that this is an unsafe argument, e. g. Mr. Munro 
(Early English Text Society, vol. cxl, p. 10), ' the monogram itself is not 
infallible, nor is the Feliciter j «&c., for both of these were liable to be copied ' ; 
and Prof. Napier writes (loc. cit.), * the sign may have been copied from the 
exemplar.' 

(iv) What authority have such expressions as Incepit . . . hoc opus . . . ei 
fecit Jlnem ejusdem, as found in the Genesis and the Exodus 1 Do they 
necessarily refer to the copying of the MS. and not to the composition of the 
work itself] The use of the third person instead of the first, and of hoc opus 
instead of hunc lihrum, though not conclusive, is at least suggestive ; 
I believe that in most cases the original colophon in the author's copy was 
copied by the transcriber, without any intention of misleading or fear of 
misapprehension. As a matter of fact, of how many mediaeval authors do 
we possess the ipsissima acripta 1 They wrote either rough notes or rough 
copy, occasionally they made a fair copy, but as a rule this was done by 
professional scribes, who produced the exemplar which served for others in 
the same or some other scriptorium. Unless a MS. gives us, either by some 
expression in the text or by its known handwriting, some evidence to the 
contrary, no copy of any work should be regarded as written by the author. 



xvi INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

(v) Of the ten MSS. examined, three are the work of one scribe, two of 
another, but the remaining five are due to different copyists. It is true 
that the dates of the works copied extend from 1438 to 1461, yet, especially 
in the larger MSS., most of them show signs of a common scri2)torium by the 
ruling of the lines, the underlining in red, and the scroll mark at the end of 
the quires ; one can detect the same illuminators and the same revisers, 
but the writing itself varies considerably, being either an ecclesiastical script 
(preferred for the Latin MSS.), occasionally badly formed, or the usual 
English script of the fifteenth century ; in the case of the Genesis, Exodus, 
and Acts both are employed. 

(vi) The same scribe probably copied Nos. 5 and 6, the Genesis and 
Exodus ; both MSS. have for the Bible text a larger script than that 
employed for the Expositio, and at first sight the hands seem dissimilar (cf. 
especially No. 6, f. 75 r), but there is no reason why difference of parchment, 
of pen, and of ink may not account for this. Hence, though a second scribe 
is suggested by the different position of the Feliciter and by the varying 
words of the Inceint, &c., I attribute to the same trained copyist both these 
presentation copies to Duke Humphrey. 

(vii) There is one MS., however, which is undoubtedly the autograph of 
John Capgrave : No. 1 , the Be illustrihus Henricis at Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. At pp. 135, 138, where the author gives the title and incipit 
of certain works which he had seen, he uses a thicker pen or darker ink in 
order to make these incipit more prominent ; but for the last example his 
memory failed him, and he inserted later on, in a third quality of ink,^ * iam 
now recorder quoniara ad manias now est.' There is no change whatever in 
the handwriting. This proof of autograph seems decisive and unanswerable ; 
no one but Capgrave himself could have inserted these words. (The English 
words on p. 1 08, ' make no space but writh forth invocato ' (see Rolls Series, 
vol. vii, p. 11), a direction for some future copyist, may be and in fact seem 
to be the work of a subsequent reviser, but the * corrige librum quia erronee 
ecribi^wr' on p. 83 is apparently by the author.) 

With this MS. before us, we are able to point out two others which by 
the rules of their Libraries cannot be compared side by side, but which 
a careful examination of each letter proves to be by Capgrave himself. 
These are : 

(a) No. 2. British Museum, Add. MS. 36704, which the Catalogue rightly 
calls * autograph ', but it unfortunately quotes as a similar hand No. 8, the 
Cambridge University copy of The Chronicle ; the alphabet, however, of this 

' Similar change of quality of ink can be seen on pp. 98-95 ; the MS. clearly was not 
all written at one time ; cf. pp. 95, 111. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE xvii 

MS. in at least eight letters, a, h,d, h, h, I, m, w, is entirely different. This 
can be seen by a comparison of the facsimiles in Early English Text Society, 
tol. cxl, and in the Rolls Series, vol. i. 

No. 2 bears some evidence on the fly-leaf, f. 3 r, as to the author : ' Magister 
lohannes Capgrave conuenius \mn fecit istuw librum ex precepto unius 
generose.' The expression facere librum (not opus) seems to refer to the 
writing of the MS. ; hence, with the palaeographical evidence before me, I 
share the opinion of Mr. Munro, who apparently had not seen the Corpus 
MS., that No. 2 is a holograph of Capgrave's. 

(b) The MS. now edited. A comparison of the collotype of f. 387r of this 
MS., here printed, with that of No. 2 (Early English Text Society, vol. cxl) 
leaves no doubt as to their both having been written by the same man ; the 
words augustinus (augustyn), ordre (orde?), titiled (entytled), seynt, frer, and 
whech occur on both facsimiles ; the words ' concordia ' and ' ye jere of ou^ 
lord a mccccxij ' of our collotype can be seen on ff. 116, 1 1 7 of the British 
Museum MS. It appears to me that the identity is indisputable. 

(viii) Judging by Dr. Furnivairs account (Early English Text Society, 
vol. c, pp^ xliv, xlv), the MS. at Cheltenham would appear to be an 
autograph. 

(ix) There is, however, another source of evidence open to us : the script 
of contemporary or early revisers of the text. Did John Capgrave correct 
any of the MSS. which he did not write himself, and if he did, may not his 
autograph appear in the margins or between the lines of their text 1 One 
would naturally expect corrections by the author of a presentation copy of 
any of his works, in order that the accuracy of the copy should be guaran- 
teed, but in the MSS. before us each one without exception bears some 
witness in this sense (later additions do not concern us), and the writing of 
at least three or four revisers can be made out. 

Taking them in order and summarizing my notes, I find that — 

No. 1 . In almost every page Capgrave has inserted words above the line 
with a red sign (\) below, and in the margins ; I see no trace of any other 
reviser. 

No. 2. Nearly all the corrections are due to the scribe himself. 

No. 3. The text has frequently been altered by erasures or by a red 
deleting line, without any advisory indications in the margin. This is what 
one would expect if the author were personally revising his own writing. 

No. 4 was left in its imperfect state. 

Nos. 5 and 6. Both MSS. were carefully looked over by some one who 
inserted in red (in the margin and between the lines of the text) words 
which were to be altered or inserted ; where the words erroneously written 

c 



xviii INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

in the text were so many that an erasure was impossible, va . . . cat is 
written at their beginning and end. These temporary readings were almost 
always erased as soon as they had served their purpose and the original 
scribe had inserted them in the text. These corrections are naturally fewer 
in the Exodus than in the Genesis. To Capgrave may possibly be ascribed 
the words ' contra ^d^cexdotei terrarios ' (!) in the Genesis, chapter 45 — they 
are not a correction of the text, but are apparently the expression of the 
author calling attention to its purport. 

No. 7 has very few alterations, all apparently by the first hand — ^the * in 
ydiomate * in the margin of Acts, chapter 21, is preceded by the red line and 
point (1.) which occurs five times in our MS. 

No. 8 has been carefully revised by the original scribe. 

No. 9. Capgrave's hand is probably to be seen in the margins of ff. 5 v, 
49 V, 11 1 r (in the latter page the red 1. appears) ; the other few corrections 
are either by the original scribe, or by the reviser of the All Souls MS. 

No. 10. On pp. 175, 204 I detect the hand of Capgrave,. and I note that 
the reviser of No. 9 also exercised his office on this MS. ; a reference to tiie 
Book of Judges occurs by the same hand in All Souls, pp. 2, 77, and in 
Balliol 190, fi*. 4v, 42 r; 'iste sermo ' «fec.. All Souls, p. 60, is by the scribe 
who wrote 'idem sermo est' in Balliol 190, f. 33 r, but the 'lierum Sim- 
holum hugonis ' of p. 4 is, as in No. 9, apparently by Capgrave. 

But a discussion of such details would lead us too far ; they are only 
a corollary to the evidence that we have produced as to the autograph of 
Capgrave being found in three MSS.: C.C.C.Camb.408, B.M. Add. MS. 36704, 
and in the volume now under examination — but in the text of no other MS. 

HENRY MARRIOTT BANNISTER. 
OxFOBD, August 5, 1911. 



YE SOLACE OP PILGKIMES 

Many men in J>is world aftyr he? pilgnmage haue left memoriales of f. 855 r 
swecli ]?ingis as Ipei haue herd and seyn Ip&t nowt only here eres schuld be? 
witnesse but eke he? eyne. So ded pictagoras pat trauayled as seith sey^tt 
ierome be ]>e prophetis memphetik. So did plato fiat laboured ]?orw egipt 
and alle J^oo cuntres of itayle weeh we? called sumtyme grecia maior* 
not aschamed he ]?at was a maystir at atenes schuld be a pilgWme for to 
lerne strange ]?ingis namely in strau??ge cuntrees. To on eke J^at was 
clepid titus liuiz^s came many men owt of spayn on to rome mo? for Ipe 
fame of Ipe man J^an Ipe fame of Ipe cite for to here him trete and dispute 
of f>e werkys of natu? and J?e maneres of men whech are comendable. 
This same clerk seynt jerom f)at wrytith alle fese storyes he him selue 
laboured all ]>e holy lond to knowe Ipe spaces and Ipe townes )?e? J:e holy 
patWarches dwelt sumtyme & spemly fe? our lord ihu)with his holy presens 
halowid ]?e circuite. Yerfo? Ipei })at wil knowe J^is processe lete hem rede 
])e same book of seynt ierom whech is called de distanciis locorww. Also 
pe? was a man of uenys whech ]:ei called marcus paulus he laboured alt f>e 
soudanes londe and descryued on to us ]>e natu? of Ipe cunt? J>e condiciones 
of f»e men and ]>e stately aray of }?e grete cane houshold. Eke jon 
maundeuyle knyth of yngland aftir his labou? made a book ful solacious on 
to his nacyoun. Aftyr aH f>ese grete cryeris of many wonderful! fingis I wyl 
folow with a smal pypying of swech straunge sitis as I haue seyn and swech 
strauTige J?ingis as I haue herd. No man blame me J)ow he be leue not )?at 
I schal write for I schal not write but f>at I fynde in auctores & fat is for 
a prmcipall, or ellis ]?at I sey with eye and ]?at is for a secuwdari, or ellis 
}3at 1 suppose is soth lete J?at be of best auctorite. On to all men of my 
naciouTi ]?at schal rede f)is present book and namely on to my spmal mayst^ 
sir thomas tudenham'^ undyr whos protecciouTi my pylgremage was spectaly 
sped I recomende my sympilnesse praying hem of paciens in }>e redyng j?at 

grecia maior. 

1 Corrected thus in- MS. : grete grece. 

^ Sir Thomas Tudenham was 18 years old in 1417 ; married Alice, daughter of John 
Wodehouse, before he was of age ; had no issue ; obtained a divorce Nov, 22, 1486 ; 
and was beheaded on Tower Hill on Feb. 22, 1461, together with John, Earl of Oxford, 
the Earl's son Aubrey, John Montgomery, and William Tyrrell, for corresponding 
with Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI. He was Lord of the Manor of Oxburgh, 
in the NW. part of the County of Norfolk, not far from King's Lynn. There were three 
houses of Austin friars in the county, one at Norwicli, one at Thetford, and one at King's 
Lynn (Blomefield, Norfolk^ vol. vi, p. 174, n. 4, p. 175). 

B 



2 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

fei take no bed at no crafty langage whe? non is but at Ipe good entent of 
J?e make?. If je wil algate wite what ye book scbal bite me Jjinkith best to 
kalle it solace of pilgWmys in wbecb scbal be ail J^e descripciouw declared of 
rome )?at was before scbortly drawe in a mappa.^ The forme of ou? werk 
scbal be ordred Ipua. The first part scbal declare the disposiciouri of rome 
fro bis first makyng. The secu^de part scbal decla? fe bolynesse of J>e 
same place fro his first crystendam. These be J?e chapeteres of f>e first part. 
H Whech we? f>e first fouwdatoris of rome. pnmi. 
U Of f>e dyu^rse 5atis wallis and towris of rome. ii. 
U Of J?e dyuerse bryggw of rome. iii. 
H Of J?e dyuerse hillis of rome. iiii. 
f. 355 V ^ Of f>e mul/titude of paleys in rome. u. 

U Of J?e multitude of arches in rome rered for djuera uictories. ui. 

U Who many cymyteries be in rome. uii. 

H "Who many ofir holy places & of he? names be for it was cristen. uiii. 

U Of f>at place in special fat is calle angulla sci petri. ix. 

U Of dyuers templis of fals goddis now turnyd to g^ruyse of seynti*. x. 

U Of J>e capitole principal! place of J>e cite. xi. 

U Of \>e too bors of marbill and too nakid men whech ]>ei clepe J?e caballis. xii. 

H Of J?e bors of brasse and pe ryde? J)at stant at laterane. xiii. 

U Of }>at place whech pei clepe ]>g collise. xiiii. 

U Of Ipai place eke whech pei clepe pantheon, xu. 

U Of ])6 fay? place clepit Ara cell. xui. 

H Of f>e tou? lpa.t stant fast be }>e jate whech is clepid porta flaminea. xuii. 

U Of f)at werk whech pei clepe septisolium. xuiii. 

H Of )?e arche clepid prici tarqmni. xuiiii. 

51 Of J?e place be fore seynt petres kyrk whech ]>ei calle cantarus xx. 

51 Of pe sepulcris of remus and romulus. xxi. 

U Of f>e paleys longyng to traiane & adriane. xxii. 

U * Of fe conke in whech constantine was baptized, xxiii. 

Of ]>e gouernouris in rome fro ]?e tyme of vomvlus on to J>e last kyng 
t&rquinius xxiiii. 

Of Jje gouemoures in rome iFro fat same kyngz's on to fat emperourw 
begu?me. xxu. 

Of all fe emperouris from juliws cesar on to frederik. xxui. 



, * The writer is here evidently alluding to an early map or plan of Rome, but which one 
it is now impossible to say. 

' In the margin (opposite the word * constantine ') are the letters * place oii tfa ' ; the 
rest of the words having been cut away in binding this MS. with three others. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 3 

"Whech we? first foundatourts of rome cap i. 

Of J?e auctoris or ellis fe makeris of rome or of hem J^at first dwelt J?ere 
are many opynyones. Suwme sey J?at remus & romulus bilid it first & ^aue 
he? name to it but a geyn f»at opynyouw is solim^g de mirabilib?/g mundi f)at 
seith it hith rome er J^ese brethren we? bo?. For fese oppynyones and 
many moo I wil precede be ordre and declare on to J?e rederes of J^e first 
dwellerts of rome. The? was a cronicale? in elde tyme whech f>ei called 
Estodius* whos book is not now redyly founde but he is rehersid in Ipe 
newe? bookis as for a trewe auctou?. Thus writith he that aftir f>e tyme f>at 
noe had seyn who his successioun had bilid ))* hy tou? of babilon & ueni- 
tmnce taken on f>e puple in confusioun of tungis fat same noe with certeyn 
of his frenschip in a litil schip seyled in to itayle dwelt and deyid in ]?at 
same place whech we clepe now rome.'' Aftir him dwelt yere janus ' his 
sone othir cronicles calle him ionlcus and Jjei sey of hym fat he was a grete 
astronome? for he taut fat sciens on to nembroth he eke prophecied of f e 
regnes fat we? deryued fro f e sunnys of noe. For of cam was he belus born 
after\s'ard kyng of surry. Of sem spronge f ei of mede f ei of perse and f ei 
eke of grece. And of iaphet come f e romaynes. These f ingis wrote f is 
joniew* and many othir. Neuyr fe lasse for I am not sykyr wheythir / f ese f. 356 r 
too names longyn to o man or to too f ^rfor I write what cronicles sey of 
janus. lanus fei say with jan\is his son & his neue tamese* biggid fe 
cite whech fei called janiclye and eke ouyr tibur he mad a paleys whech he 
clepid janicle in fat same place whe? seynt pet«r cherch stant and f e paleys 
as I suppose for f is cause for f e hiH a boue f ese too hith ^et mons janicul?^g. 
Sone after f is tyme saturne whech was of his owne son gelt and fled fro his 

* Although he is mentioned by name in old chronicles no other trace of the works of 
Hescodius (Escodius, Estodius) can be found. Sometimes he is, without any justifica- 
tion, identified with Hesiod, and sometimes with Methodius (Nichols, The Marvels of 
Rome, part i, ch. i, p. 2, n. 2). 

2 The legend of Noah having died at Rome is very fully discussed in A. Grafs Roma 
nella memoria e nelV immaginazione del Medio Evo, a book which will be much quoted 
in part i of this chronicle. From note 15, pp. 85-6, vol, i, of the same, it would appear 
that near the well-known Colonnacce, in the forum of Nerva, there was an arch, known 
before the fifteenth century as the * arch of Noah', probably, a corruption of arcug Nervae 
(Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, pp. 80-91 ; Nichols, Marvels of Rome, part i, 
ch. i, p, 2, n. 3). For another account of the Arco di Noe, and the Arco di Oro or 
Aureo, and the origins of these names, cf. Adinolfi, vol. ii, pp. 58-9, and pp. 63-4. 

' Ranulf Higden (bom in the latter end of the thirteenth century, died probably in 
A.D. 1363) says : * lanus vero cum lano filio Iaphet nepote suo trans Tiberim laniculum 
condidit, ubi modo est ecclesia Sancti lohannis ad laniculum ' (Higden, Polychronicon, ed. 
Babington, London, 1865, vol. i, p. 203 ; Nichols, Marvels of Rome, part i, ch. i, p. 2, n. 4). 

* He is called Caraese in the Mirahilia; and, in that work, is not a relative of Janus, 
but a native of the place, who helped Janus to build the city Janiculum on the Palatine 
hill (Urlichs, Codex Topographicusi, p. 113.; Nichols, Marvels of Rome, p. 2). 

b2 



4 YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 

cuntre he cam to f>e same place and )?e? aftyr many bataylis he bylid a cyte 
where now stant pe capitole. In J)00 same dayis ])e kyng of itaile cam to 
\)e same saturne with ali ])e strength of J?e siracusanis whech is a cyte 
of cicile and he bylid eke a grete part of rome fast by J^e flood J)at was 
JjanfD clepid albula and now is it clepid tibur. Hercules eke his son as uarro 
writith mad a cite undir J)e capitol whech he clepid ualery. Than cam a kyng 
J)at dwelt up on tybu? and mad J)e? a cyte. Euander after ]?is kyng of 
archadye bilid him a cite in ]>e mount palantine. This same man fled his 
cunt? as summe men seyn for he had kyllid his fadir at instauns of his 
moder whech hith hym grete fingis for Ipe dede and aftirward fled with hym 
on to rome. Of J^is same Euander spekith uirgil in Ipe uiii book eneydos. 
Aftir him to men on hith coroboam an othir hith glausus bylid mech ping 
in rome. And J)ann) as writith solinws cam a fled woman fro troye whos 
name was romen sumtyme it is seid ]?at sche was dowtir to eneas and summe 
tyme it is seid sche was but cosin but sche jaue fe name to Ipe cyte as we 
seide be fo? longe or remus and romulus we? bore. Wherfor writith J?is 
auctou? ]?at it was for bodyn in he? sacraries yat no man schul name f>is 
woman but only put all Ipe honour on to romuliw aftir tyme he had take 
pe reule.* Auentinws eke Ipe kyng of albany mad him a cite in Jjat hili 
fat is jet called auentyn. And f)ann) euene iiii hundred jere aftir Ipe de- 
struccioun of troye fifty and four romulus born of Ipe troianes blood his broj^ir 
remus deed or slayn pe je? of his age xxii Ipe xu kalende of may all pese 
forsaide citees coupled to gydir and walled in on empire. And be cause pat 
J?ese too bretheri?i mad rome & sette it in a p^rfithnesse perfor me J>inkith 
ful necessarie to descryue he? birth and he? persones for eschewing of grete 
errouris J>at poetis feyne of hem. There was a kyng fast be rome in pe 
kyngdam J)at was called regio latinor-wm whos name ]3ei clepid Amuli^g pe 
son to procate kyng of pe same. This man Amiliws had a ekie? brothir J)at 
hith munitor. So f)is jonge? brothir droue out pe eider fro j^at kyngdam and 
exiled for euyr for he wold be kyng alone. Eke he took his doutyr clepid rea 
f. 366 T an<i put hi? in a hous of / religioun dedicate on to mars god of batayle J)at sche 
Bchuld be? no childyrn whech upenhap myth uenge pe wrong ]?at was do. This 
woman pus constreyned to chastite conseyued it is not pleynli teld of whom 
for aft pe clerkys in ]^oo dayis feyned ]?at })ese too men we? be gotyn of a god 
celestiaft ^ and so pe woman, hir selue confessed J^at mars god of batayle had 

* For the above account of the foundation of Rome compare Nichols, The Marvels of 
Some, part i, ch. i ; being a translation, with notes, of the Mirabilia urbis Fomae ; also 
Urlicha, Codex Urbis Romae Topographicus, p. 113. 

* Brunetto Latini (born at Florence 1230, died 1294), on p. 43 of Li Livres dou Tresor 
(Paris, 1863), says: 'Cil Numitor en fu rois aprfes la mort de son pere, et avoit une fille qui 
livoit k non Emilia; mais Amulio li toH son legne, et chaca Numitorem et sa fille en essil, et il 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 5 

be goten Ipese childirn. But for ali Ip&t Ipe trewe jugis at })at time con- 
dempnecl hi? to be doluyn qwik for swech deth was ordeyned f)ai3n) for 
maydenes J)at we? consecrate to ]?e templis if Ipei broke be? cbastite. Aftir 
]>e deth of fe mode? J>ese too childyrn we? leyd be J>e tibu? side fat doggis 
and woluys schuld distroye hem. So happed a schypard f>at kept J^e kyngis 
flok whos name was fastulus to kom by and sey f)oo fay? babes left in 
gwech pereli he took hem up and bare hem boom to his wyf laureTis j^at sche 
schuld norch hem and releue hem. It is seid comouTily J?at J^ei we? fed of 
a wolf for J»is same laurence was called lupa whech sour^dith in ou? langage 
a Avolf rith for })is cause fer sche was fay? and lecherous and grete appetite 
had to many men and perfor was sche likned on to J^is stynkyng beest. And 
5et on to J?is day J>e celles J^at comown women dwell in f)orw oute Ipe latyn 
tonge be clepid lupanaria -j^at is to sey houses of woluys. But who so euyr 
it be of f)ese exposiciones Ipe cronicles of rome and pictu? })orw ytaile here 
wytnesse f>at a wolf 5aue soke on to J>ese childyrn perauenture or faustulus 
had founde hem.* Thus grew J»ei undir protecciouw of J)is schiphard and his 
wif til J>ei come to swech age J»at Ipei coude ryde and schote & put hem in 
prees Ipere bufiPetis schuld be ^oue. So it happed on a tyme pat remus went 
oute a lone or ellis with a smal felawchip and was taken of theuys led as 
a thef to pis munitor f>at was his moderis fadir. That herd sey romulws 
and with fastulus pe scliiphard gadered a grete strength for to fecch hom his 
bro}?ir and whan he cam to ]?is munitor and herd him telle what wrong his 
^onge? brothir had doo to hym J)ei alle in fere went and kyllid ]3is amilium 
and restored pe trewe eyir to pe kyngdam. Thus haue I schewid he? 
)?at J)Ow J>e? we? many dwelleris at rome be fore J?ese too brej^rin jet J^ei 
coupled ali J?ese citees to gidir made J^e wallis and pe touris whech we? 
not mad be fo?. This cite in })is wise was begunne of })ese too men 
pe xix je? of phacee kyng of isrl and pe iiii je? of achaz kyng of ierlm 
in pe fourte age of pe world of whech was spent iii hundred jere and xxiii fro 
pe hegjnnjng of pe world iii fousand ii hundred Ixxxii and fro pe destruc- 
cioun of troye iiii hundred & liiii. The f)ird je? folowyng aftir J?is was remus 

Be fist f aire roi ; et Emilia concut ii filz, Eomulum et Remum, en tel maniere que nus ne sot 
qui fu lor peres; maia 11 plusor disoient que Mars, Ii diez des batailles, les engendra, et 
dha lors en avant fu cele feme apelde Rea, et puis fist ele une cit^ en mileu de Ytaille, qui 
por le non de Ii est apelee Reate.* 

* •* Et porce que maintes estoires devisent que Romulus et Remus furent nd d'une lue, 
il est bien droiz que je en die la verity. II est voirs que quant ils furent n^, Ton les gita 
8or une riviere porce que la gent ne s'aperceussent que lor mere eust conceu. Entor cele 
riviere manoit une feme qui servoit a touz comunement, et tels femes sent apel^es en latin 
lues. Cele feme prist les enfanz et les norri molt doucement ; et por ce fu il dit que 11 es- 
loient fil d'une lue, mais ne estoient mie ' (Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou Tresor, ed. 
Chabaille, Paris, 1868, p. 43 ; Graf, JRoma nella memoria e nelV immaginadone del 
Medio Evo, vol. i, p. 96). 



6 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

slayn with a laboureris rake of a m&n J?at hith fabius duke of romulws host 
367 r wheythir be pe consent of romulws / or nowt is put in dowt.^ Rakes are 
called ]3e? long hokls of jmn with too tynes with whech fei turne he? lond. 
For euene as we with spadis put J)e lond from us in deluyng so ])ei with he? 
rakes draw it on to hem.'^ Summe writeris sey })at fese too brejjrin fell at 
debate wheoh of hem schuld be pnncipall and it plesed hem both J)at J?is 
souereynte schuld be had with sum heuenely tokne. So both to we? acordid 
to go in to f»e hill aduentyne and whan {)ei come J)edir first on to remus 
appered seuene egles J)an after on to romulus appered fourtene. Remus 
mad his chalange yat he schuld be pWncipaH for J?e first apperyng. Ro- 
mulus seyd he had mo? rith for ])e grette? nowmbyr and so in J?is strif J^e 
forseyd man fabius hit him with a rake J)at lay next hand as is seyd be fo?. 
An othir apiniouw of his deth I fynde wrytyn J^at aftir ]>e wallis we? made 
summe & summe dikys )?e? ]>e walUs schuld be it was mad a lawe J^at no 
man schuld passe hem with outen leue and in dew tyme and for J>e cause ]5at 
remus was Ipe first breke? of J^is lawe yerfo? was he slayii. Aftir fe deth of 
J)is man romulus called on to fe cite mech sundry puple sabinenses albanenses 
tuBculanes politanes celanenses sicanens«s camarianis campanis lucanis & ny 
all pe noble puple of itayle. Than was J^e grete care for to haue so many 
me?i with outen women and specmly for fei of J>e cuntre were not glad to 
lete he? dowteris be weddid to Ipe dwelleris of rome for J>e grete noyse J>at 
was of hem in extorsion theft and mord? as is used a mongis werriouris. 
Wherfo? J)is same romulus let make a grete cry of dyuers exercises iustyng 
schetyng putting 9,t ]>e ston and swech othir to towe ])e cunt? both man and 
woman on to J^ese gay games. And whan pe puple was most gadered euery 
man )?at was sengil chase him a make of J)oo maidenes whech we? come oute 

* In the Latin text of the Folychronicon we find : ' Igitur regnante Komulo, Remus 
frater Romuli a Fabio duce Romuli rastrp pastoral! occisus est. Eutropius* (10). *Nescio 
an fratris voluntate id actum sit ; cuius causa interitus haec fuit, quod ut tutelam novae 
urbis vallum non posse suflEicere Remus increpaverit. In cuius rei argumentum ipse val- 
lum saltu transiliit. Titus Livius (1).'* The Trevisa translation is as follows : ' Yanne 
while Romulus regnede his ledere Fabius slowj Remus [Romulus] his broker wi]) a herdes 
rake. Martinus. I noot 5if J)at was idoo by his bro])ir wil. pe cause of his deth was 
\nB: Romus seide J)at as engle wal was nou5t strengjje ynow for ]>e newe citee, and for 
to make ))at good he lepe ouer J)e wal at oo leepe. [Titus].' The Harleian MS. 2261 has 
only : < Romulus reignenge, Remus his brother was sleyne of AfFabius a duke of Romulus. 
Titus Livius' (R. Higden, Polychronicon, vol. iii, p. 54). 

■ This passage is interesting as showing the diflFerent methods of cultivation in use at 
this period in Italy and in England. It would seem that, in Italy, the earth was worked 
with two'pronged forks, whereas spade cultivation was more in vogue in our country. 
But the forks appear from the text to have served the purpose of a harrow or rake ; as the 
author, in truth, calls them. 

♦ ' (10) Eulropius] cm. C. D. The circumstance is not mentioned in Eutropius. (1) Titm 
Accius C. D. A. omits reference.' 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 7 

of Ipe cunt? but moost sp«cmly of )jat naciou?i whech we? called sabynes. 
And Ip&re be gan a grete bataile be twix }>e romaynes and sabynes and lested 
many dayes on to f»e tyme }jat fei we? })us acordid Ipat enery child fat is 
born of both blodes schuld haue to names on in worchip of J)e fadyr an othir 
in worchip of J?e mode?. Thus grew rome in grete nowmbir and in grete 
worchip for romulus chase owt an hundred of ]>e eldest men & called hem 
senatoures a senectute whech is for to sey age menyTig her by J>at elde men 
and weel wered of longe exp«riens schuld haue gouernauwoe omV f)e puple. 
Eke he chase owt of J>e puple of j^e moust strenghesb & likly men and ech 
of hem called was miles fat is to sey in ow? langage a knyth. For mille is 
a fousand and a fousand of fese chase he first fat soo of J?is noumbir be gan 
bis name. Whan he had regned J>ub not many jeres he held a bataile in 
a marys of campanie and sodeynly a grete tempest and grete J? undir rysyng 
to / gidir sodeynly bare him a wey fat no man wist whe? he be cam and f. 357 v 
f anfO f e puple annowbred him a mongzs he? goddis and called him god 
qwyryn for f is cause for qwyryn in f e sabynes tonge is called a schaft and 
he rood neuyr with cute a spere yerfor fei apprarid to him fat nam«. And 
in worchip of him for f e moost part of f e romaynes at f eso dayes if f ei goo 
on fote f ei walk with speres. A nothir cause of f is name is assigned be 
writeris fat aftir his deth f ei picchid his schaft m f e mount aduentyn and it 
grew on to a tree y^rfor wold f ei calle him f e god qwyrynaU. 



Of f e 5atis wallis and towris cap. ii. 

Now of f e jatis of rome wallis and towris schal be ou? tretyng folowyng 
euyr fe steppis of ou? elde. 3^tis be fere in rome xii be side fe cite 
leonyne whe? seint petir cherch stant whech cite hath iii ^ates and eke 
f e cite transtibe? whe? seynt cecile and seynt pancras and seynt grisogonws 
lyn whech hath alsoo of ir iii. As for f e wallis 50 schal undirstand fat f ei 
stand at fis day sumwhat appeyred of age as no wonder is but jet are 
f ei strong and hy for f>e most part as touris be in inglond of f e townes fat 
stand fere. Who many myle f ei conteyne I can not seyn but be gessyng for 
I fynde writyn fat if a man go a boute f e wallis and f e watir he schuld goo 
xxii myle and I hald not fe watir fro fe tou? by seynt poules jate 
on to f e toure fat ^ be f e jate whech is called porta flaminea not mech mo? 
fan ui myle. So as be myn estimacioun fro seyn poules jate fat stant in f e 
south on to porta flaminea fat stant in f e north f e wall conteynyth in length 
up on xui myle.'^ As touching fe toures fe elde writeris sey fat fere 

* * Btant * in margin of MS. 

' For the discrepancy in the length of the >\*alls of Rome, cf. Nichols, Marvels of 
Rome, p. 6, n. 11 ; Urlichs, Codex Topographicus, p. 92. 



8 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

be iii hundred sexti and on whech is likly I now to be soth for J^ei stand rith 
ny to gidir. U. Now of J>e 5atis we wil beginne at ]?at ^ate ]>'dt ledeth to seynt 
paules whech stant on fe south side of rome it is cleped in elde bokis porta 
capena * whech souwdith in ou? langage J^e takyng jate for pstt wey fat goth 
be J?at 3ate is clepid uia hostiensz'g for it goth to a cyte })at hith hostie 
whech stant in swech a place whe? tibu? rennyth in to J>e see and so 
souwdith Ipe name in latyn for hostium is a do? and ]3at is called soo as 
fe dore of tibu?. On Ipe rith hand of J?is 5ate stawt a grete sware hili 
ny ioyned on to J>e wal mad al of fre ston grete be nethin and smal a bouyn 
hier panji ony tou? in whech remus is byried as J>ei sey ]7ere. This porta 
capena is sumtyme in elde bookis called porta campania whe]?ir it is errou? 
of writeris or nowt I leue it as now. Be )?is jate was seynt paule led whan 
he schuld be ded. Be J?is jate cam seynt syluest^r horn whaiD he had 
f. 358 r dedicate paules cherch so late fat he / was constreyned to prey god of 
endewryng of ]>e sunne and as it ^ seid fe suwne sernyd him tyl he came at 
seynt petres cherch & be fat tyme it was mydnyth. This dedicacioU7^ was 
in halowmesse monthe sumwhat aftyr seynt martyn day. H. Next f is jate 
stant fat 5at6 fat is called porta appia * f is wey goth first on to a litil 
cherch whech is cleped sea maria de palma and fann) to a crosse me calle 
domme quo uadis fery^rmo? on to fat holy place whech is dedicate on to f e 
name of seynt Sebastian) wh^ is kalixti cymyteri and eke catacumbas of 
whech places whe speke now but litil for aftir in ou? book we will speke 
of hew mo? largely. Fast by f is jate was seynt sixte heded for f e name of 
oure lord ihu as we fynde in cronicles whech sixte was pope of rome 
and maystir on to seynt laurens. The cause whi it is clepid porta appia for 
a grete lord of rome whech hith appius claudius mad it. IT. Porta latina 
is alsoo a grete 5ate of rome and is clepid latina for fat wey goth on to fat 
lond fat was called f e latyw lond f e? be gan first f e latyn tunge with labou? 
and study of latyn kyng of fat lond and of karmentis his modi?. Fast by f is 

* The gate of San Paolo was known as the ' porta capena ' in the Middle Ages. On 
referring to Plate No. I (of the thirteenth century) published in De Rossi's Piante icono- 
grafiche di Roma, it will be observed that the gate is marked * porta capena *. In 
Plate III the same thing is found ; but in Plate IV the Porta Appia is called the Porta 
Capena for the first time. In Plate II the Porta Appia is marked Porta Dazza. * Porta 
chapua la quale se chiama la porta de sancto paulo' {Edifichazhon di molti palazzi, 
Venice, 1480, p. B iii). 'Prope portam capenam, quae vocatur porta sancti Pauli iuxta 
murum urbis, inter portam predictam et montem testarum, eepultus est Remus, frater 
Romuli ' (Mirabilia, Cod. Cott.). For list of references as to this gate bearing the name of 
Porta Capena see Tomassetti, Campagna JRomana, Via Ostiense e Laurentina, 1897, 
p. 10, published by the Societk Romana di Storia Patria. It appears to have been known 
under that name until the fifteenth century. 

» (?) is. 

^ Cf. Tomassetti, Campagna JRomana nel Medio Evo, vol. i, pp. 87 sqq. (Rome, 1884). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 9 

5ate stant a litiii chapeii in whech seynt jon f)e euawgeliste was put in a 
tunne of hrcnnyng oyle and be myracle had no harm. The mane? of J^is 
martirdam is declared in cronicles on J>is wyse ne?.^ He was in ephese and 
preched j^ere bysily 'pe feith of oul? lord ihu. Than \>e proconsul of f>e cite 
defended him his ■preching. He answerd l^at it was better for to obeye to 
god ]?an to man. And J?a?e was jon sent to rome with a lettir to domiciane 
in whech he was called a wycch ful of sacrilege and a loue? of him J)at was 
do on Ipe crosse. So be comau/wimewt of domiciane he was put in ]>e innne 
and whann pe emperou? say J)at he was so meruelously delyueryd he had 
yout3 for to a saued him but for f>e grete hate whech he had to crist he sent 
him in to pathmos to be exiled f>ere. U. Eke pere is a jate whech suwme clepe 
metronia & summe triconia. This ^ate is not now used but sperd up for 
f)orw J)at tou? entreth a fresch watir in to pe cite whech rennyth J^orw 
\)e nunnes place }>at dwell at seynt syxtes and it appereth a geyn in a deep 
hole fast by seynt georges and J^anfD undir pe ground mo? pan too myle for 
it rennyth in to tybyr with a grete ^ at a well fat stant ny sea maria de pplo.^ 
Metronia is as mech to sey as mesuryng and triconia soundith in our* tunge 
dressing of he? in to iii partes. Be cause women waschen at J)is jate custom- 
habily both exposiciones of gramar may be applied to fat place first mesu? 
of he? camisees whech fei boyle fere and dressing of hee? whech f ei wasch 
J>e?. U. Now folowith pe 5ate fat f ei clepe laterane or ellis asinari. Laterane 
is it cleped for it stant be f e pa/leys lattfranens/5 and whi fat paleys is called f. 358 v 
soo auctores seyn for l&tus lat^ris is a side and be cause fat place stant on f e 
side of rome and closith in f e cite f ^rfor f e calle it soo. Othir men sey 
fat it was clepid laterane of f e frosch fat was in nero wombe whech frosch 
at his comaundment was byried f e? for lateo is for to hide & rana is a frosch 
in latyn tunge whech soundith hidyng of f e frosch.* He? may 50 knowe 

* * ne? ' begins a line ; ' wise ' ends the preceding one. Probably the author thought 
he had written * in this nian-ner '. The * ner * is redundant. 

* * streem ' in margin of MS. 

' This stream, now called the Mariana or Marrana, is fully described by Adinolfi. 
Our chronicler is mistaken in supposing that it fell into the Tiber near S. Maria del 
Popolo. He should have said S. Maria in Cosuiedin. It is mentioned by Cicero, and 
was formerly called the Aqua Crabra or Dannata (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 156). 

* The derivation of the word Lateran from lateo-rana seems to have been universal in 
the Middle Ages. Giacomo di Voragine, in De saucto Petro Apostolo, c. Ixxxix, tells 
the same story, concluding thus : ' Unde et pars ilia civitatis ut aliqui dicunt, ubi rana 
latuerat, Lateranenis nomen accepit.' Enenkel (Welthuch) says : 'Nerone chiama a se 
settanta due medici, e fa intendere loro il suo desiderio. Questi da prima si scusano, ma, 
minacciati di morte, e rinchiusi in un carcere, ricorrono all' espediente del beveraggio e 
della rana, poi, liberati e largamente premiati, se ne fuggono. La gravitlanza faccndosi 
assai tormentosa, Nerone chiama altri medici, e con I'ajuto dell' arte loro vomita il mal 
concepito figluolo, al quale tosto provvede una nutrice perchfe lo allevei, e dh, per compagni 
i figluoli di tutti i principi che si trovano in Roma. Celebra poscia una festa solenne, a cui 

C 



10 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

weel ]>&i of ful lewid dedis of men risen in J)is world ful famous places for of 
Jie fame of J>is place schal be mad ful gret declaraciouw aftirvvard in ou? 
secuwd book. This jate is called alsoo asinari for f)e multitude of asses 
J>at come in 5et at J^ese dayes with dyuerse birdenes.* U. Now next aftir 
J?is 3ate stant a ful solempne ^ate whech fei calle f>e grettest and eke 
fei name him Iperio porta lauicana be J>is 5ate passe J^e pilgrmies whan) pei 
goo to seiTit laurens extra muros. And wheythir it is clepid laui with 
a u or lani with a n it is dowt to summe men for lanicana with a n 
soundith J>e 5ate of wollis and lauicana with a u souwdith Ipe jate of 
wasching. I leue all f)is in f>e disposiciouw of ])e rederes. I wene ueryly J>at 
fe weye )?at goth be fis jate is called uia ardeatina. ^ U. Next fanii) is 
a nothir 3ate whech J>ei call porta sci laurentii it is clepid so for whan) 
men haue be on pilgWmage at seiwt laurence pel come hom a geyn to rome be 
J?is 5ate. But in elde tyme it was called porta taurina J>e bullis ^ate or ellis 
porta tiburtiyia fe jate J>at ledeth to pe cite whech hitith tiburtine fat stant 
xii myle fro rome and jet Ipe romaynes haue it in subiecciouTi in token wherof 
J>e keyis of fat cyte hange with in rome ' at a gate fast be fe cherch of uiti 

intervengono settanta due re, e fa girare per Roma la nutrice e la rana in un carro di 
argento con le ruote d'oro, tempestato di gemme, adorno di un magnifico baldacchino, 
e tirato da un cervo domesticato. Nel passare un ponte, la rana salta nell' acqua e 
sparisce. Nerone, furibondo, fa mettere a morte la balia e quindici giovanotti, figli di 
principi. Allora i padri si ribellano, segue una gran battaglia, e Nerone, vinto, si fa 
uccidere da uno de' suoi capitani. I principi vincitori edificano il Laterano ' (Graf, 
Boma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, pp. 338 sqq.). See also Edijichazion di molti palazzi, 
Venice, 1480, p. B iii. * Hanc tamen ranam Nero fecit in turri quadam custodiri usque ad 
obitum suum, unde putant quidam locum ilium a rana ibi latente lateranam appellari * 
(R. Higden, Folychronicon, vol. iv, p. 396). 

* For the Porta Asinaria (S. Giovanni), and the derivation of the name, see Ashby 
Classical Topography of the Boman Campagna — III {The Via Latina). — Section I. 
Papers of the British School at Rome, vol. iv, p. 42. 

^ Here our author makes a mistake in his topography, as the Via Ardeatina of course 
did not start from the Porta Maggiore, 

• * Das ist pey in thor darunter ' (S. Vito e Modesto) " * die schlussel von der Tyber 
pruck hangen, die von Tiberi die tur nicht hinein geen Rom geen den ' (als) * durch 
dasselb thor.' This passage is from the chronicle of Niklaus MufFel (p. 54), who was 
a man of good family and fortune, a citizen of Nurnberg, of which place he was town- 
councillor at the age of twenty-two. He was sent to Rome on the occasion of Frederick Ill's 
coronation ; and on p. 5 of his book he says : * und die kronung des keysers geschach am 
Suntag Letare in der vasten anno 1452 iar.' His visit to Rome coincided almost exactly 
with that of our chronicler ; and as he will be quoted frequently, it will be suflBcient to 
note his name, and the page of his work, which appeared in the proceedings of the 
Litterarischer Vereiiij Stuttgart, cxxviii — 1875-6, herausgegehen von Wilhelm Vogt. 
Adinolfi says in one passage: 'Dal mezzo della curvatura dell' arco intitolato da 
M. Aurelio Vittore a Gallieno e Salonina, ossia dalla chiave, fino agli ultimi tempi 
pendea appiccata una catena coUe chiavi che Giuliano Giamberti, architetto, in numero di 
quattro figurb ne* suoi disegni, tolte da' Roraani ai Viterbesi in un combattimento che 
ebbero con cotestoro, dalla porta di Viterba detta della Salciccia' (Adinolfi, vol. ii, p. 229). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 11 

and modesti be a chene of yrun} H. The nexte 5ate folowycg as summe sey 
is porta salaria but seynt anneis legend calleth it porta numentana and so ])e 
nexte in to }?e north side is salaria f is hold I f>e trewer party. Be )5is 
5ate go men to seynt anneis cherch^ and to seynt constauwce and whi 
J?ei calle it numewtana auctores say for f)at wey goth on to a cunt? whech 
is called soo in whech cunt? we? many worthi werriourrs and continued 
in many batailes a geyn fe romaynes as men may rede in Ipe book de 
gestis romanorwm. U. Than folowith f e jate whech f>ei calle salaria be 
p&t wey go men to a cyte of pe same name. For as lucane Ipe poete 
seith in his secured book this cite berith his name of pe grete plente of 
salt J?at fei fynde in the mouwtis. And J>at )?is is soth pilgnmes may 
knowe weel be f>e pokes of salt J>at hors and asses be? speaaly if men 
go be J?at wey to rome pere peruse stant.' IT. A nothir jate J>ere is 
Jjat is cleped p^?^ciana and took his name of fat hill J>at goth from 
sea* de pplo on to J>e same jate. Men sey at rome fat Ipere dwelt 
a tyraunt sumtyme whech hith pincis of whom fis hill took his name. At 
fis day are 3et / uoutes in fe hill many and walles eke for mech of fe hiH f. 359 r 
longith on to J?e fre? austenes J>at dwell at sea maria de pplo. Summe 
sey fat it was on of nero paleys and both may be soth. Fast by f is jate 
a boue fe hill stood a cherch of seynt felice fe martir but now it is 
falls down fe most part as many othir be.'^ Anothir jate is fere fast be sea 

^ S. Vito e Modesto is a very ancient church, erected in the fourth century near the 
arch of Gallienus on the Esquiline, and restored by Stephen III. It was abandoned for 
centuries, restored by Sixtus IV in 1477, and again fell into a ruinous state. It was 
finally rebuilt by Federico Colonna, duke of Palliano, in 1620, in gratitude for his recovery 
from the bite of a mad dog. It had the title of a cardinal, instituted by S. Gregory, and in 
the ninth century was known by the name ' in macello ', from the macellum Liviae, near 
which it stood. It should not be confused with S. Vito • ad lunam', which was an oratory, 
dedicated to S. Vito, near the monastery which Pope Hilary built in the place known as 
* ad lunam '. This was probably on the Aventine, not far from S. Prisca, where there was 
an ancient temple to the goddess Luna, mentioned by Ovid in the Fasti (Adinolfi, vol. ii, 
p. 225 ; Armellini, p. 656 ; Nibby, Soma nelV anno 1838, Rome, 1889, vol. i, p. 760). 

^ The church of S. Agnes is believed to have been founded by Constantino in 324. It 
was enlarged by Symmachus (498-514), rebuilt by Honorius I (625-40), altered and 
restored in the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. The church of S. Costanza was alfo 
built by Constantine, over his daughter's tomb (Marucchi, p. 468 ; Armellini, p. 672 ; 
Nibby, p. 43). 

' This derivation of the word * Salaria ' is a curious reversal of fact, as salt was prepared 
by evaporation in salt-pans by the seaside, and carried inland for trading purposes; 
whereas the author describes it as being found in the mountains, and brought into Rome. 

* * maria ' in margin of MS. 

' S. Felix in pincis was on the Pincian hill, as the name denotes. It was an important 
Basilica ; it is shown in Bufalini's plan of Rome. It stood near the Villa Medici ; 
S. Gregory preached one of his homilies in it. Hadrian J and Benedict III enriched the 
church, but it was allowed to fall into ruin (Armellini, p. 237). It is also marked in 
Antonio van den Wyngaerde's panorama, circa 1560 (Lnuc\a.n\, Bollet{i7io Comtnunaledi 
Archeologia, 1895, p. 81). 

c2 



12 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

m de pplo }?ai etant evene in to J)e north and J?e wey to peruse and to uenyce 
lith Jjere ouyr a grete brigg of ston a long myle fro )?e ^ate whech brigg pei 
calle pons miluiws. The jate is clepid porta flaminea for )?is cause for it is 
open to a prouyw.ce of J»at same name. Geruase in his book de ociis 
imperialibws rehersith xuiii prouinces fat longe to ytaile of whech f)is 
flaminea is put in pe xi place. ^. The last 5ate of alle is called porta colina 
ul colatina whech stant at J>e briggis foot under ]?e casteH aungeli whech 
castett was sumtyme clepid templum adriani. ^ U. In transtibe? a^ f>e? 
iii jates and in pe cite leonyne of)ir iii whos names I coude not esely lerne 
but on of hem hith portuens^^g and f>at is in J>e wall J?at goth fro J>e popes 
paleis on to f)e castell auwgell. Anothir hith aurelia and })at is a boute 
seynt pancras as I suppose in transtibe?.^ 



Off dyuerse briggis in rome. cap iii. 

Of ]?e dyuers briggis in rome schul we make but schort processe for it is 
a mate? of no grete charge. The first brigg is pons milui^^g of whech I spak 
be fore whech stant more J)an a myle fro pe north ^ate of rome and pere goo 
men ouyr tibu? fat schul to peruse goo or ellis to uenyce. It had summe 
tyme grete touris and mech housyng a boute it as fe name of it soUTidith 
jet, for miluitts is as mech to say as a fousand and be cause Ipe romanes wold 
not he? enmyes schuld ^nt? with inne he? wateris yerfor had f ei fe? as it is 
seyd a J>ousand assigned to kepyng of J>is brigg. U. The secunde is pont 
adriane for it stand undir adrianes temple now is fat temple cleped casteH 
auwgeli for f e grete miracle fat was do fere in seynt gregory tyme of whech 
place we schul speke mo? largely aftirward. This brigg is f e comouw weye 
out of rome on to seynt petres. U. The thirde brigg is called neroniane 
I hope it be falle down for we may jet se f e steppes of him and many moo 
fat stood sumtyme and now are falle. It was cleped neroniane for nero mad 
it. Thow he was cursyd in lyuyng jet was he as f ei write a grete bylder. 
U. The iiii is called pont antonine for fat lord mad it and many other f ingis 

^ Our author appears to have fallen into an error here, as he is confusing the Porta 
Collatlna with the Porta CoUina, which latter was near the Castel S. Angelo. Its 
position is mentioned in the Ordo Romanus. It appears to have closed the bridge, 
opposite the Castel S. Angelo, from the Leonine city (Nichols, Marvels of Borne, p. 168, 
n. 392). Adinolfi calls this gate the Porta di S. Pietro in Adriano, and adds : * Fb. appel- 
lata eziandio Porta CoUina senza aver riguardo a questi edifizi' (S. Peter's and the 
Vatican), ' ma solo ai colli Vaticani. Fh una delle due porte Aurelie, secondo quel che 
disse Procopio, e dall' essere di bronzo corrottamente veniva chiamata dello Brunoso, ciofe 
bruonso' (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 133). * Porta cholina apresso dil castello dandriano' {Edifi- 
chazion di molti palazzi, &c., Venice, 1480, p. B iii). 

' The gate of S. Pancrazio was also called the Porta Aurea (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 138). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 13 

in rome as we schal trete of aftirward. 1[[. The fifte is pofit fabrice for on 
fabricius mad it a man eke of grete fame. U. The sixte is pont graciane for 
]>at holy cristen emperou? mad it. This man was so good and so propicius 
to ]>e cherch J^at seynt arabrose bischop of melan wrote on to him a grete 
book of ])e feith of ou? lord ihu whech is now / ful straunge for to fynde. f. 359 v 
U. The uii was cleped Ipe senatouris brigg for be cause pei made it. II. The 
uiii was all of marbill theodosius Ipe emperou? made it & of him it ba? }>e 
name. U. The ix mad ualentiniane pe emperou? & eke it ba? his name. 
^. But 50 schul undirstand }?at of all f)ese briggis stand now but u, as fer 
forth as I could aspie and eke )?ei be not ful longe as othir citees haue for 
pei passe not fou? or u arches Ipe watir is dep but not rith brood.* 



Of Ipe dyuers hillis in rome. cap iiii. 

Seuene famouse hillis we? sumtyme rehersid of rome & Ipe names of hem 
haue be so ofte chauwged fat it is ful hard for to write pe treuth of hem. 
IT. Mons ianiculus is pe first and on pe foot of pat hill stant seint petir 
cherch and pe popes paleys. Of ]?is hiH J)us writith domznicus de arecio in 
his book de montibws.'^ Janicle he seith is on of pe uii hillis of rome so 
named of jane fat dwelt fe? whom pe romanes aftir he was ded receyued 
for a god & fat in saturn2<s tyme. Of whom ouyde in his bok de fastis 
rehersith certeyn wordis fat janus schuld haue seid whann his aute? was 
mad. Ara mea est collis quern uulgus nomine nostro nuncupat hec etas 
ianiclum qj vocat.' This is to say iu ou? tu?2ge. This is myn auter of fat 
hill whech f e puple be my name calletli ianicle in f is age. This hill was 
ioyned on to rome and wallid in fertoo whann) anthus marcius medulienst^ 
had ouyr come f e kingdam of f e latyn tunge and brout aH f e puple on to 
rome for fer he mad hem dwell. H. Mons palantinws is fat hill as I suppose 
on whech f e grete paleys stood on f e est side stant seynt gregory monastery 
and on the west side stant f e cherch of seynt anastase on f e south side 
gardeynes fat we? sumtyme all marys and watir. This reherse I for to 
acorde with auctores whech speke of f is hill. For of it f us writith domi- 
nicus de arecio. Palantine he seith is on of fe uii hill of rome up on whech 
hill remus and romulw* bygunne her first bildyng. But of f e name of f is 
hill is dyuers writing a mongts f ese auctores. Uarro seith in his u bok fat 

1 For early accounts of the bridges of Rome cf. Nichols, Marvels of Rome^ p. 24 ; 
TJrlichs, Codex Topographicus, pp. 95, 118, 128, 158. 

' Dominicus of Arezzo, otherwise known as Bandino, was an Italian poet who died in 
the year 1348. 

' Ovid, Fast, lib. i, 11. 245-5. The first line is not quoted quite correctly. 



14 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

certeyn men cleped palantes whech come fro a cunt? J^ei calle it reatyne 
came J>edir with euander bat oute J^e dwelleres fat were Jje? and named f>e 
hiti aftir hem. Solin^g de mirabilibi^g mundi seith J^at it was named of 
certeyn men J>* come fro Archadye and mad he? dwellyng ]?ere. And summe 
othir sey ]?at euander had a son whech hith palante and he inhabite pis hiii 
and jaue it his name. Of J^e paleys f)* stood up on pis hill schul we speke 
in J?e next chapet? folowyng. U. Mons auentintta is eke on of fese hill of 
f. 360 r rome / of whech uarro writith }>us. Mouwt auentine for summe cause men sey 
was J3us named. On neuius J^at stood )?e? sey certeyn birdis J>at come out 
of tybir and litid up on hym. Uirgil speketh of f>is story in f>e uiii book 
eneydos whe? he seith duarttm nidus domus oportuna uolucres . The sentens 
of fe poete is fat to nestis of birdis litid on fis man on fe same hill whech 
hill he seith is ful able to birdis.* Summe othir sey fat it is called auentyne 
of new comeres or dwelleris ferto for so sou7^dith fe latyn tunge whech 
dwelleris mad f e? a temple to diane. Therfo? seith uarro fat it was called 
so ab aduewtu fat is to sey of newe comyng of men f ertoo. Sumtyme fro 
fat hill to rome folk we? feried with botis now is it londid. Titus liuiws 
seith fat it was called soo of a kyng of albany whech had f e same name 
fere smet ded with f undir. Of f is story makith ouyde menciouw in his 
iiii book de fastis. Uenit auentini^ post hos locus unde uocatur Mons quoq^ 
&cra.^ That is to sey in englisch. Auentine cam thidir with his boost 
aftir whom fe place is named and eke fe mount. Eke in fe iiii book 
methamorphoseos fas spekith he of f is mate?. Tradidit auentino qui quo 
regnaret eodem Monte jacet positus tribuitq^ uocabula monte. ^ This same 
auentine he seith dwelt in fe foreseid hill and aftir his birying jaue his 
name to fat hill. This hill was annexid on to rome be a worthi conqwerou? 
called anthus m&rciits. In fis hill stant fe paleys of enfermiane and 
a cherch of geynt sabyn of whech we wil speke of aftirward. This hill eke 
is cleped qwirinall ^ for whan romulus was ded f ei picchid his schaft fere 
and it grew of whech mate? we spoke be fore & eke whi he is called qwyrinws 
in f e first chapet?. II. Mons canalis hangith on f e south side of fis same 
hiH and it is called soo as I suppose for it is fro fat pleyn be fo? seynt poules 
jate lowe lich a gutte? in his ascense and on fis hiH stant a cherch of seynt 

1 Thig may refer to Cn. Naeviua, the poet, whose works have almost entirely dis- 
appeared, but who would seem to have been much appreciated by bis contemporaries and 
his successors. Ennius and Vergil copied him ; PlautuB, Terence, Cicero, and Horace 
admired him, and praise him. 

» Ovid, Fast.f lib. iv, 11. 51-2. 

» Ovid, Metam., lib. xiv, 11. 620-1. The first word should be ' Tradit ' not ' Tradidit '. 

* Of course our author is mistaken here. The same hill was never called by both the 
names Aventine and Quirinal. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 15 

boneface f>e martyr in whech lith eke seynt alexe Ipe couwfessou?,^ Up on Ipe 
side of f)is hitt stant a piler of marbiit with a hole for to receyue a schaft 
whech schaft hath a cloth of silk wounde a boute it and who can ride best 
and soonest touch J^is schaft he schal haue f>is cloth. Thus be f)e? iii clothis 
set up and woune on fasting gong Sunday euerj ^ere. And he? cours of he? 
ridyng be gynnyth at ]?e hill whech is clepid omnis terra and endith in J^is 
same hitt. U. Mons Capitolinus stant ny in f>e myddis of rome. Uarro 
seith f>at it is clepid soo for whan f>ei diggid Ipe ground for to make J^ere 
a temple on to iubit^r J>ei fouwde a mawnis bed al hool and ]?is caused pe 
hillis name for caput is a heed and soo of caput was ]>e hill called capitoline. 
Be for J)at jet in elde? tyme f)e hill was clepid tarpeye of a raayden pat had 
f>e same name whech was fere byryid and slayn. 3et be for fat tyme was 
it clepid mons saturni^g for pere stood a litil town called saturnia as / uirgitt f. 360 v 
geith in Ipe uiii book eneydos. And be cause Ipere schal be a special chapet? 
of Ip'iB place in ou? book folowyng pernor as now we speke no mo? of him. 
H. Mons Celius is eke on of fe seuene so named as uarro seith in his u book 
of on celienne keper of f>at hitt whech man was with him Eomulus a grete 

* It is difficult to understand this passage, when it is compared with the previous one, 
which refers to the church of S. Sabina. As a rule, our author is very accurate in his 
topography, but here he would seem to have fallen into an error. The present church of 
S. Alexis was, in ancient times, dedicated to S. Boniface; it was probably founded in the 
fourth century. It was built in the palace of Eufermianus (father of S. Alexis) on the 
Aventine, and in the tenth century a Greco-Latin monastery was attached thereto ; it 
was then dedicated to the two saints. In time the name of S. Boniface dropped out, and 
the title, which at first was named after that saint, now bears the name of S. Alexis only. 
Possibly there may originally have been two separate churches, which were united in the 
tenth century, but it is quite certain that the church of S. Boniface (or S. Alexis), the 
palace of Eufermian, and the church of S. Sabina were all close together on the Aventine. 
It is difficult to say what hill our author may mean by mons canalis. He may be think- 
ing of the hill generally known as the Pseudo-Aventine, on which the church of S. Saba 
stands. On the other hand, he may mean the spur running down from the Collegio of 
S. Anselmo towards the Porta S. Paolo, and along which the Via del Priorato descends 
to the plain. On referring to De Rossi's Piante iconogrqfiche di Homa, it is curious to 
find that although S. Alexis and S. Sabina are shown in their correct relative positions in 
Plate No. IV, in a later Plate (the large one in sections at the end of the work) S. Sabina is 
shown furthest to the east, and S. Alexis near to S. Saba (Plates VIII and IX). The follow- 
ing occurs in a MS. in the Bodleian Library : — 

* Montes infra urbem sunt isti. 

laniculus qui dicitur ianuarius ad S. Salavam. 

Mons cavalleus ad S. Alexium. 

Mons S. Stephani in celio monte. 

Mons capitolii. 

Mons in palatio maiori. 

Mons sanctae Mariae maioris. 

Mons rivealis ubi Virgilius captus fuit 

a Romanis et invisibiliter ivit Neopolym. 

[M^. Mons Testarum] * 
{MS. Bodl. Laud. Mist. 203, fol. 147 r, sec. xiv). 



16. YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 

helper a geyn J^e kyng of pe latyn tunge in ali his batayles. And J?is hiH 
was anuexid to Ipe cyte whech tyme tuUius bostilius ouyr cam in batayle pe 
puple of a regioun called albanoritm whech puple he translate on to pe cyte. 
This hitt eke ba? a grete name for f>at same tulli^g hostiliws dwelt perm and 
eke it was mo? noysed for pe gloriouse poete enniws dwelt in f)at same place. 
Of pe temple J)at stood J?erupon and who it is dedicate to seynt steuene we 
schul trete in pe secund book whech schal be of spm^ual Ipmgis. IT. Mons 
supcragofius is J^at hill on whech stant sea maria maior whech edificaciouTi 
was mad be a grete miracle of snow as it schal be declared in pe secund book. 
Be side J^ese hillis a? many othir as pe hill in whech titus and uespasianies 
lyn, and pe hill whe? pe cherch of seynt balbyn stant, and pe hill of quatuor 
coronatorMW fast be laterane, and pe hill Jjat is clepid omwis t^rra fast by 
seynt poules ^ate, and pe hiH eke )pat is be twix pe housyng of rome & sea 
maria de pplo whose names for errou? of writeres I can not discerne. For 
f)ei write J)at pere schuld be a hill in whech pe romanes wold a slayn uirgili 
and fro fat hill he went iwuysible to naples summe men calle f>is hiH 
iuuenalis & snmme riaalis.^ 



Of pe multitude of paleysis in rome cap u. 

Now of pe paleysis f>at be in rome we wil schortly trete. And first of pe 
grete paleys fus writith an auctor. The grete paleys stood in pe myddis 
of pe cite in tokne f»at J?ei we? lordes of all pe world and it was mad in 
forme of a crosse in fou? frontes in whech frontes we? a hundred 3ates 
on eche side euery 3ate of brasse. In tokne f)at pere we? so many brasen 
jatis a man may jet se in cherchis many y^rof all hole, for a grete part 
of hem are jotyn in to othir uses as men may se. For J^e body of seynt 
petir church is cured ^ with metall. This paleis was as I suppose a myle 
a boute and jet stand pere many wallis dyu^rs arches & maruelous uontes. 
The? is a sele? jjat longid to ]?at paleis as J>ei sey a uout undir J>e ground 
whech hath iiii deambulatories & euery deambulatory hath xui arches eucry 
arch is xui fete fro pile? to pele? eke euery pile? is iiii fete sware and pis 
was a sele? for wyn. A no]^ir sele? sey I J^e? Jjat stant of seuene longe panes 
and sex walles be twix pe paues sum wall hat u dores, sum ui, sum uii, so 
disposed J>at o man may se xiiii or xu dores at ones if ony man go owt or 
in.^ II. A paleys J^e? is eke whech is called pe paleys of romulus I can not 

' For early accounts of the hills of Rome of. Nichols, Marvels of Home, pp. 16-17; 
Urliche, Codex Topographic us, pp. 93, 128, 144, 156. Note 32 on p. 17 of Nichols's 
work is particularly interesting, in regard to the above legend concerning Vergil. 

^ Covered. ^ This is a very good description of the Sette Sale, and leads one 

to believe that the author was thinking of them when he penned this passage. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 17 

gesse of)ir but / it is templum pads for both of Ipis and eke of Ipe capitoH f. 361 r 
fynde I wnim Ip&t ])ei scbuld stand on to Ipe tyme fat a mayde bo? a cbild 
and on J)at nyth whech ou? lord was bore it is seide of bothe ]?at a grete part 
of hem fell down. But ^et at pese dayes pat temple }>at was cleped templum 
pacis fallith be pecis 5erely in Ipe fest of Ipe natiwite of ou? lord crist. ^. pe 
paleys latsrsmenBis is sumtyme clepid nero paleys suwtyme constantine 
paleis in fese elde descripciones of rome. And J^is is J^e cause as I suppose. 
Nero berith Ipe name of it for he bilid a grete part ]>erof. Constantine eke 
berith "pe name of it for he 5aue it in to j^e cherchis possessiouw. Nero had 
an othir paleys fast be Ipe cherch of marcelline and petir, eke an othir be 
twix pe hospitall of pe holy goost and seynt petir cherch, eke an othir be pe 
place whech f)ei calle Eca maria de pplo whe? he killid him selue. A bouen 
on pe hiii of whech paleys are sene ^ete many uoutis and cloysteris undir pe 
erde summe as hole as euyr we? J;ei. | The paleys of traiane I wot not uerily 
whe? it standith. | Adrianes paleys J)ei sey is pe casteli aungeli summe sey 
it is a no}?ir place be whech stant a columpne in altitude xx passe. | The 
paleys of him clauditts stant fast by pantheon all in ruyne. | The paleys of 
Julius cesar was fast by pe grete stoon on whech his bones ly. | The paleys 
of eufemyane fade? to seynt alexe was in pe hill auentyne whe? stant now 
a fay? cherch of seynt sabine and a place of fre? pr^choures. | The paleys of 
hem called titus & uespasianws stant with oute rome as men goo on to 
cathacumbas. If. The paleys of domician was in transtibe?. | The paleys 
of octonian ^ was fast by pe cherch of seynt syluest^r. | The paleys called 
olympiadis was in f)at place whech seynt laurence was rostid called now 
laurencii in pgrliperne.^ | The paleys of him tulliug cicero is but litil fro 
pe iewis market mo? in to pe est. | This man was pnnce and pnncipaH 
of rethoryk fyndyng and teching in pe latyn tunge. | The paleys of uenus * 
was fast by J^at place whech J^ei clepe scola grecort^m & summe sympitt men 
calle it catonys scole. | The paleys of on called kateline a man of wondirful 
witte and maruelous gou^rnaunce stood in f)at place whe? now stant a cherch 
of seiwt antoni.* These eraperoures eke had certeyn places whech J:ei clepid 
theatra and ]5at souwdith in ou? tunge a place in whech men stand to se 
pleyis or wrestilingts or swech oj^ir exercises of myth or of solace. Summe 
of J?ese places we? called ampheatriim f>at was a place all round swech as we 
haue he? in })is lond, summe we? called theatrwm & J^at was a place was lich 

* ? Octauian. * panispenia. ' ? remus. 

* Some account of the palaces of Eome will be found in Nichols, Marvels of Home, 
p. 19 ; TJrlichs, Cod. Topog., pp. 98, 115, 128, 157. There ia also a reference to the palace 
of Catiline in Nichols, p. 97, n. 197 ; being a translation of the DescHptio plenaria in 
Urlichs, Cod. Topog., p. 109. The mention of Cannapara, in connexion with the temple of 
Ceres and Tellue, is also interesting. Compare with note 2, p. 22 of this book. 

D 



18 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

half a sercle of whecli pere were uii in rome. On y*^ titus and uespaslant«5 
mad be he? paleys as we goo to catacuwbas. The secunde made tarqmnms 
\>e kyng fast be f>e place clepid septisolium. The iii made pompey fast by 
J>e cherch of seynt laurence in damasco. The iiii made antonie fast by seynt 
f. 861 V sixtis. The u made /alisaundre pe emp^rou? fastbyseynt mary rotunde. | The 
sexte made nero fast by creeensis casteH. | The uii was called flamineum fast 
by porta appia.^ 



Of pe multitude of arches in rome rered for diuers uictories. ca ui. 
Arches in Rome were many rered in worchip of conqwerouris aftyr he? 
grete conquestis. The arche )?at was gilt fast by seynt celsis ^ ' rered in 
worchip of alisaund? not grete alisaund? kyng of macedony but of on 
alipauTzd? emperou? of rome. But 5e must undirstawd )?at all )?ese we? not 
housed with uoutis but J^ei called arches alle swech eterne memoriales for 
J?e most pait of hem we? sette on arches. The nobilnesse of J?is man is 
expressed in cronicles whech calle him Alexander mammeas for mammea 
hith his mcdir. Sche sent aftir origene on to grete alisaund? for to speke 
with him for J^e grete fame of clergy whech was bo? of hiw. And he cam 
to rome to Jjis lady conueried hi? and taute hi? pe feith of ou? lord ihu not 
longe aftir f>ei to brout pe same alisaund? on to pe trewe by leue. And 
sone after he was cristen he went in to perse and J'ere had a grete conqueste 
a geyn pe kyng of perse called xerses perhr reisid pe romanes on to him 
J)is memorial as I suppose, for J^ei took euyr mo? heed at temperall ioyes 
J)an goostly. This same emperou? graunted leue to hem of edissa to fecch pe 
body of seynt thomas pe aposteH in to he? cyte. ^. An othir arche is pe^ 
be seynt urse * which was mad in honou? of iii cristen emperoures theodosi 

* For an account of the theatres, of. Nichols, Marvels of Home, p. 23 ; Urlichs, God, 
Topog., pp. 94, 116,- 180. 

* * was ' in margin of MS. 

' The chronicler is referring to the church of S. Celso e Giuliano, which is a very 
ancient parish church in the Via dei Banchi, near the Bridge of S. Angelo. In the 
twelfth century it was one of the most important churches in Rome. Julius II pulled it 
down partly, iti order to increase the width of the street, and reduced it much in size. 
Under Clement XII it was demolished, and rebuilt in its present form. Even as late 
as 1625 the parish would appear to have been considered one of the most important in 
the city (Armellini, p. 184 ; Nibby, p. 166). The golden arch of Alexander appears to 
have fallen down in the reign of Urban V (cf. Nichols, Marvels of Borne, p. 10 ; Urlichs, 
Codex To'pog. Anonymus Mngliahecchianus, pp. 153 and 168, which gives the position of 
S. Ursus as near S. Celsus). 

* S. Ursus is not mentioned by Armellini ; but, according to Jordan, it is said by 
Martinelli {R. ex. ethn. Sacra, pp. 313, 406) to be identical with the Oratorio della Pietk 
dei Fiorentini {not the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini) ; and, according to the old 
church registers, S. Ursus was in the Regio of S. Thomas, west of the Via Papale, whereas 
S. Celflus was in the Regio of the XII Apostles. See Jordan (Hulsen), vol. i, 3, pp. 598-9, 
and notes 106-8, edition 1907; also vol. ii, pp. 413-14, edition 1871. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGKIMES 19 

ualentine & graciane. These men ded so many ]?ingis for pe comoun profite 
\>&t Ipe puple of rome lete make fis memoriai for hem. H. Eke with outen 
f>e 5ate whech was clepid and ^et it is porta appia stood sumtyme a temple 
consecrate to mars god of batayle and fast by j^at temple stood an arche was 
cleped SLYchus triumphal is. U. To Titus & uespasiant^g pei made eke an 
arche whan) J?ei came from ierlm j?is arche stant fast by sea maria le none. 
I An arch jere was eke made in worchip of f>e emperou? and j^e senatoures 
whech stood fast by seynt laurens in lucina . | An othir was J^ere rered in 
worchip of pe emp^rou? octauiane. | Eke an othir J)ei called antonini. | An 
othir fast by seynt marc chercli called pe hand of flesch in latyn mantis 
carnea. | Eke on in pe capitole f)at was clepid archus panis aurei J)at is to 
sey pe arche of golden brede. | Be side ail J)ese was pe^ on be seynt marie 
rotunde whech J?ei cleped archus pietatis.^ This was mad as J)ei say for 
swech a cause. The? was an emperou? redy in his cliare sum sey it was 
traiane )?at rood oute to batayle. Happed a certeyn woma^^ to mete wit5 
him, wepte, felle down at his foot and prayed him of mercy. He askid 
what sche wold and sche sayde. I had a sun and no moo but him and f)i 
sun killid / my son wherfo? I charge J^e as f)ou art a trewe juge do me rith f. 362 r 
in J3is mate?. The emperou? answerd on to pe woma^i f)at whech tyme 
he come hom a geyn fro his iornay he wold se J^at rith schuld be had in pe 
best mane?. Sche mad obieccion a geyn and seide. If it be soo J?at f)ou 
dey er J)ou com hom who schal do me rith pann). That sey the emperou? 
and cam down from his chare examined pe mate? and condempned pe ma/i 
qwelle? to pe deth. Tho fell sche down and prayed him fat sche myth 

* See the account of this arch in the Mirahilia (De Mirabilihus), p. 129 : * Sunt 
praeterea alii arcus qui non sunt triuiuphales sed memoriales, ut est arcus Pietatis ante 
sanctam Mariam Kotundam, ubi cum esset imperator paratus in curru ad eundum extra 
pugnaturus, quaedanx paupercula vidua procidit ante pedes eius, plorans et damans ; 
domine, antequam vadas mihi facias rationem. Cui cum promisisset in reditu facere 
plenissimum ius, dixit ilia : forsitan morieris prius. imperator hoc considerans praesiliit 
de curru, ibique posuit consistorium. Mulier inquit : habebam unicum filium, qui inter- 
fectus est a quodam iuvene, ad hanc vocem sententiavit imperator : moriatur, inquit, 
homicida et non vivat. Morietur ergo filius tuus, qui ludens cum filio occidit ipsum. qui 
cum duceretur ad mortem, mulier ingemuit voce magna : reddatur mihi iste moriturus in 
loco filii mei, et sic erit mihi recompensatio, alioquin nunquam me fatear plenum ius 
accepisse, quod et factum est, et ditata nimium ab imperatore recessit.' It will be noticed 
that Trajan is not mentioned here by name, nor is he in Parthey's Mirahilia Itomae, pp. 7-8; 
in other texts the name is given : but, on the other hand, the killer is not the emperor's 
son. See Codex Casanatensis D.V. 13, f. 148: 'Arcus pietatis ante sanctam mariam 
rotundam, ubi accedit quedam istoria de paupere muliere cuius filius occlsus erat a filio 
vicine sue, que petiit ius sibi fieri ab imperatore Traiauo peracto ire ad exercitum, Ac' 
Jean d'Outremeuse in Li/ myreur des histors, vol. i, p. 64, says even that the widow 
married the emperor's son (cf. Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. ii, p. 25, n. 48). 
See also Comm'"*' Giacomo Boni's account of this legend in the Nuova Antologia, 
Nov. 1, 1906. 

D 2 



20 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

haue his son for hir son. Thus pe emperour' grauTited hir })at sche desired 
and J>us was trewe jugemewt had and pite exercised in sauaciouw ©f fis 
mannis lif wherfoi? was J^is memoriail cleped archus pietatis.^ 



"Who many cymyteries be in rome. cap uii. 

Cymiteries in rome are called nowt only swech places as deed men be 
byried in but swech as holy men dwelt in. This sey I not f)at men schuld 
undirstand fat no msm were byryed in hem but to j^is entent for to proue 
))at J?ei serued of sumwhat ellis. For cimitmum in latyn is not ellis for to 
sey but tredyng of deed mewnis bodies and je must undirstande }>at J?e cymy- 
teries at rome be grete uoutes and mynes undir J>e erde in whech seyntis 
dwellid sumtyme but now be ]?ei desolate for horrible derknesse and disuse 
of puple saue only Ip&t cymytery whech is called kalixti. And be cause f>at 
in Ipe secuwd book we schul trete of ]>e goostly tresou? f)at is in f>is cymyterie 
"perfor in J?is chapet? wil we reherse only pe multitude of hem Ipou^ J?ei be now 
desolate. | Cimitmum kalepodii is at seynt pancras in transtibi?. | Cimi- 
terinm agathe is in J^e place of )?e same title. | Cimiterium ursi in pe same 
place. I Cimitgrium sci felicis in f>e same place. | Cimiterium " moost 
famouse fast by catacumbas undir seint sebastianes cherch. | Cimitmum 
prgtaxati is be twix Ipe 5 ate whech is cleped porta appia & seynt appollina?. 
I Cimiteriuw ccmcordianum is with outen porta latina. | Cimiterium inter 
duos lauros is fast by seynt heleyn. | Cimiterium ad ursum pileatum sum 
bokis sey pai is fast by seynt sabines but I fonde writin in marbill at a crosse 
fast be seynt julianes ^ f)at seynt uiuianes'* place was sumtyme clepid ad 
ursum piHeatum .° | Cimiterium in agro uerano is at seynt laurens extra 
muros. I Cimitmum priscille at pe same title. | Cimiterium trasonis fast by 

* Consult the chapter on triumphal arches in Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 9-15 ; and 
Urlichs, Cod. Topog., pp. 92-3, 115, 129, 153-6. 

^ * Kalix ' in margin of MS. 

8 The church of S. Giuliano was in the street leading from the Lateran to S. Mary 
Major, and was called S. Giuliano agli Trofei di Mario. It was restored by Nicholas V, 
but fell into ruin afterwards (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 202). 

* The church of S. Bibiana was founded about 467 by Pope Simplicius, near the pala- 
tium Licinianum. It was originally called Olympina, after a pious matron, Avho provided 
the funds for constructing it. A nunnery was attached to the church, and the name of 
the street in which it stood was ursus pileatas. Honorius III restored it in 1220, and 
the church was entirely altered by Urban VIII. In ancient times there was a statue of 
a hatted bear there (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 281 ; Armellini, p. 167 ; Marucchi, p. 844 ; 
Nibby, p. 134 ; Stadler's Eeiligenlexikon, vol. i, p. 479). 

* A note in Adinolfi, however, says that some authors ascribe this name to one Ursus 
Togatus, a freedman of Verus. A statue to him bore an inscription, commencing : 
* Ursus togatus qui primus pila lusi decenter cum meis lusoribus,' &c. ; which inscription 
is in the Capitoline Museum (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 281, n. 3). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 21 

seint saturnyn.^ | Cimiterium see felicitatis in fe same title. | Cimit^riu?^ 
ponciani fast by cimitmum kalixti. I Cimiterium h^rmetis & domitile and 
cimiterium cuviaci were in f)e weye whech goth to seint poules it is cleped 
uia hostienszs. But ye moost part of f)ese be now desolat and onknowen 
nowt only to pilgrymes / but eke on to hem fat haue be J»ere all he? lyue.^ ^- 362 



Of of>ir holy places & he? names be for it was cn'sten. uiii. 
Of o}>ir holy places spoken of in oure legendzs and martilogis wil we trete 
now for it is grete cou?^fort on to ou? deuociouw ]?at whan we rede of hem 
we may rememb? J)at we sey hem. Owt at Ipe 5ate whech is cleped porta 
appia l^ere was sumtyme a temple of mars god of bataile and now is J)e? 
a fay? arche in whech is depeynted all Ipe story who ou? lord met with 
petir and seyde on to him )5at he wold go to rome to be crucified ageyn 
and J>e? he sent petir ageyn to receyue his martirdam whech was in will 
to a fled yerfro. Thus pe temple of f)e fals feyned god of batayle is turned 
on to a memorial of trewe fiteres for ou? lord ihu whech wold rather deye 
J»an forsake his feith. | That place pat is now cleped custodia mamortini 
whe? seynt petir was in prisouTi was sumtyme a temple consecrat to 
jubiter. | That cherch whech is cleped seynt adrianes was sumtyme the 
temple of refuge J)at is to sey who so euyr fled yertoo was saf fere. | The 
cherche of seynt george was J»e temple of concorde. | That place whech is 
cleped now sea m. de penis inferni^ whe? fe dragon lyuyth ^et undyr Ipe 
ground as fei sey was sumtyme templum ueste. Uesta wis as mech for 
to seye as a goddesse keper of chastite & uestales we? called foo uirgines 

* The church of S. Satuminus and the Cymeterium Trasonis were on the Via Salaria. 
The church was restored by Hadrian I, rebuilt by Felix IV, after its destruction by fire, 
and decorated with pictures by Gregory IV. It lasted till the time of Nicholas IV 
(1287-92), but is not mentioned again after his date. Bosio found remains of it, when 
exploring the Catacombs, and traced the staircase connecting the church with them. 
A modern chapel was erected in the Villa della Porta, and dedicated to S. Satuminus 
(Armellini, p. 669). 

^ At the time our chronicler wrote hardly anything was known about the Catacombs. 
Their rediscoverer was Antonio Bosio, who was born about 1576 in Malta. He began his 
life's work in 1593, and devoted thirty-six years to their study. De Rossi very justly 
calls him (in the Introduction to hia great work) the Columbus of underground Rome 
{Roma Sotterranea, p. 26 sq.). De Rossi also mentions the work of the Belgian 
scholar Philip van Winghen, who lived in Rome for two years. In 1590 he had 
already discovered the Catacombs of Priscilla, but he died young. Bosio carried on the 
work he had begun ; and ultimately, when he published his own book, Roma Sotterranea^ 
included in it some maps which had been drawn by Van Winghen (cf. Orbaan, Sixtine 
jRorne, London, 1911, p. 276). For early accounts of the Catacombs see Nichols, Marvels 
of Rome, pp. 26-9 ; Urlichs, Cod. Topog., pp. 96, 118, 130. 

' At or near the church of S. Maria AuLiqua. 



22 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

fat dwelt })e?. | That place whecli is cleped sea maiia le none fat was fe 
temple of concorde and pite. | Fast by was a place cleped cartularium in 
whech place we? here bokes kept of he? lawe. For fei engrosed on to 
hem aH f>e gode customes of fe world J?at we? writyn in ony book and 
f>ei inacted hem in to he? bokes whech bokes f ei named bibliotecis of foo 
had fei xxii uolumes. | That cherch cleped seynt petir ad uincula whe? 
seynt petir cheyne is schewid was sumtyme temple to uenus goddesse of 
leacherye. | That place whe? seynt paules cherch stant was called in elde 
tyme ortus lucille. This same woma?* ^aue mech possessiouw on to fe cherch 
as men may rede in cronicles. | Fast by septisolium was a foule pitte of 
wose and watir in whech seynt Sebastian body was cast and he appered on 
to p'la same woman lucille and teld hi? fat sche schuld fynde his body f e? 
whech he bid schuld be byried in fe cherch fast by catacumbas and sche 
fulfillid his commaundme?it.* | Fast by f e capitolie was a hous all undir f e 
ground whech is cleped in f e legendis of martires in tellure.'^ | The strete 
fat is cleped laterane goth by seynt praxedis. | That place where seynt 
laurens was rested is called sumtyme olimpiades pales as is seid by fo? 
sum tyme it is cleped olimpiades temple. Many ofir places be fe? f us 
chaunged to f e best of whech we schul speke mo? largely in f e secund 
f. 363 r book whan we schull / descryue f e cherchis.^ 



Of fat place in specml yt is called angulla sci petn. ix.* 
Ther is a pile? fast .by seynt petir cherch ail of o ston a grete m«rueyle 
for to be hold for as f e elde writeris sey fat had experiens of f e mesu? f e 

» See n. 2. p. 68. 

^ The position of the place in tellure, so often mentioned in this MS., is approxi- 
mately fixed by the following passage : ' Anche dove se cliiama anchoi chanapara fo il 
tepio di Cerere & di telure le qle dee secodo la opinioe de li romai sono la terra cioe adire 
el tepio della terra ' {Edifichazion di molti palazzi, Venice, 1480, p. A ii v). It must 
not, however, be confused with the temple of Tellus in the Suburra, in Carinia (see 
n. 69, p. 31, Nichols, Marvels of Rome, and n. 78, p. 33). * Item dagegen ' (tem- 
plum Concordiae) * ist gewesen templum telluris, das ist der got des erttriclis, des man 
nichtz sicht, nu heist mans zu sand Salvator in Tellumine' (Jordan, ii. 483), * und fur 
tellure sprechen sy tellumine. Item mer stet ein edel gepeu noch eins tempels Mercurio 
ein got der redung oder potschaft den man nun Sand Michel' (Jordan, ii. 487) 'geweicht 
hat, do man izunt die fisch verkauft * (Muffel, p. 53). 

' Compare with Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 29-34 ; Urlichs, Cod. Topog., p. 94. 

* The etymology of the name anguilla sancti petri is more or less confused. In the 
Mvrahilia the word * agulia' occurs : 'iuxta quod est memoria Cae.saris id est agulia, ubi 
splendide cinis eius in bug sarcophago requiescit.' In a MS. in the Turin Library the 
word becomes the name of a piazza, and the tomb of Caesar is described as : * une pomme 
d'ereen doree sor un haulte colombe de marbre ou marchiet qu'on dist Julie a Romme' 
{Cod. L. Ily 10, f. 106 v). The following forms are found : acus, acucila, agucchia, aguglia 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 23 

pile? is in heith cc. feet and .n. Up on |?is pilere is a grete ball of copir 
or brasse whech was sumtyme gilt and fretted with precious stones in 
whech was julius cesar body put rith for f>is cause. For as he was lord 
a boue alle men f)at we? olyue whil he regned he? so schuld his body rest 
a boue aii bodies }?at we? byried be fo? him. Wherfo? in fat round 
ball of gold be wrytyij Ipeae uers. Cesar erat tantus quantus fuit ullus 
in orbe Se nunc in modico clausit in antro suo Mira sepultura stat 
cesaris alta columpna Regia structura qua rite nouercat in aula Aurea 
concha patet qua cinis ipse latet Si lapis est unus die qua fuit arte leuatus 
Et si sint plures die ubi iuwctura inest.^ This is f>e sent ens of f>ese uers. 

(Latinized form aguglia), according to Graf. But in the Middle Ages it was believed that 
the name was a corruption of Julia, and Gervase of Tilbury calls it Julia Petra (cf. Graf, 
Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, p. 288). Ranulf Higdeu says: ' Hanc autem Pyrami- 
dem super quatuor leones fundatam peregrin! mendosi acum beati Petri appellant, men- 
tiunturque ilium fore mundum a peccatis qui sub saxo illo liberius potuerit repere ' 
(Higden, Polychromcon, ed. Babington, London, 1865, vol. i, p. 226). 'Presso a sancto 
Pietro dove mo se dice la gulgia dove e una cholona quadra grandissima come una tore, 
& di sopra & la zenere dil chorpo di zessare ' {Edijichazion di molti palazzi, Venice, 
1480, p. B iv). In De Rossi's Piante iconograjiche di Roma the obelisk is shown in 
Plate No. I, and the term acus (= needle) is used to describe it. De Rossi says, in the 
text, that he considers this use of the word to be * singolare '. In the large plan, at the 
end of De Eossi's work, it is called ' La Guglia ', and it is shown as an obelisk with a ball 
at the top. It is also shown thus in Plate No. IV, 

^ This inscription varies a good deal in different authors. Ranulf. Higden says as 
follows : * Pyramis lulii Caesaris, habens in altitudine ducentos quinquaginta pedes in 
cuius summo fuit sphaera aenea cineres et ossa lulii continens. De quo colosseo quidam 
Metricus sic ait : 

Sic lapis est unus, die qua fuit arte levatus : 
Si lapides plures, die ubi contigui * 

(Higden, Polychromcon, vol. i, p. 226). 
And again : 

* Item in columna lulia quae nunc a peregrinis acus Petri dicitur, ubi pulvis combusti 
corporis lulii ponebatur, sic erat metrice scriptum : 

Tantus Caesai* eras quantus et orbis. 
Sed nunc in modica clauderis urna.' 

(Higden, Polychromcon, hook iii, vol. iv, p. 210). 
Thus rendered by John Trevisa : 

* J>ou were grete, Cesar, as al \>e world is at ene 
And art now sette J)ere i-closed in a litel stene ' 
Here is another version : 

' Mira sepultura stat Caesaris alta columpna, 
Regia structura, que rite vocatur Agula, 
Aurea concha patet, qua cinis ipse iacet ' 
{Mon. Germ. Hist. Script, xxii. 67 ; Gotfredi Viterbiensis, Speculum Begum, vv. 837-9). 
And another : 
* As man dat unden an eyme steyne gehauwen vindt myt desen nae gescreuen versen 
Cesar tantus erat quo nullus maior in urbe, 
Sed in modico nunc tam magnus clauditur antro. 
Intra scriptura stat Caesaris alta columpna 
Regia structura quanta non extat in aula. 



24 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

This maw was swech ])ere is now non him lich. Now passed fro men and 
sperd ill his litil den A meruelous sepultu? a pile? of hy figu?. To a kyngis 
bildyng fuH* in halle stand pere no swech. The rounde balle we se 
in whech his asches be If f>is be but o ston be what craft myth it up 
gon If ioyntis ony ^e se telle us whe? fat Ipei be. This is pe pWramydall 
memorie of pis noble conqwerou? to whom was not joue so grete worchip 
aftir his deth with outen notable dedis in his lyfP. Whe?for we list now 
to reherse summe of his dedis fat all f e rederes may know he hath not 
J)is memoriall with oute cause. Or he was emperou? whilis he was on of 
\>e consulis he caused fat f e romanes sent oute wise men gretly lerned in 
secular sciens to mesu? all f e world. Thei laboured a boute fis werk xxxi 
5e? and fouwde fat f e erde hath famouse sees xxx, prouiwces seuenety and 
uiii, notabil citees an hundred and seuenety. So all f e world sehuld cowteyne 
in his sercle xx fousand myle and xl myle an be cause fe circumferens 
of euery sercle is thries as mech as is fe space fro o side to an othir 
f «rfor f ei concluded fat fro fe o side of fe world to f e othir sehuld be 
ui fousand myle and uii hundred. Grrete uictories had f is man ouyr dyuers 
naciones fat is to seye frauds germanie with all his prouynces whech is 
ful ny fe f irde part of cristendam sueue eke he conquered grete brytayn 
whech fei clepe inglond erlond & many ofir. He had so many batailes 
in f e prouynces of germanye fat fe noumbre of hem fat we? slayn fere, 
cam as cronicles telle to iic thousand Ixxxii thousand of chosen armed men. 
At* grete alisaund? also mad he meruelous werk saue o rebuk had he fere 
he was fayn to flee to f e watir and whan he had entred a schip Ipere folowid 
him so many men fat f e schip sank. Thanfi) saued he him selue swymmywg 
f. 363 V with o hand iic passe and / certey letteris in his ofir hand whech we? neuly 
brout on to him. This lord eke with ful grete stodye corrected f e kalende? 



Si lapis est unus qua fuit arte levatus, 
Et si sint plures die ubi congeries ' 

{Filgerfahrt, Ritter v. Harff, 1496-9, p. 24, Coin, 1860). 
And lastly : 

* Ut in quirinali aurei scriptum est : 
Cesar tantus fuit quantus fuit uUus in orbe 
Se nunc in modico clausit in antro suo. 
Mira sepultura stat Cesaris alta columpna. 
Regia structura qua rite novercat in aula. 
Aurea concha patet qua cinis ipse latet 
Si lapis est unus die qua fuit arte levatus 
Et si sint plures die ubi contiguant' 

{MS. Bodl. Laud. Misc. 203, fol. 148 r, saec. xiv). 
See also Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 70-3 ; Urlichs, Cod. Topoj., pp. 105, 132. 
* * iich ' in margin of MS. 

» ?A8. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGKIME8 2S 

whech was neuyr parfith on to pe tyme f>at J?is correcciou^^ was mad and 
J?erfor was on of f>e monthis of it named aftir him. Suetoni^g seith of him 
J?at his hand was as able to )?e penne as to Ipe swerd. Of his meknesse it is 
told )?at he cam on a tyme in to skole whe? as acciitg pe poete sat and red 
on to his disciples. AUe men rose a geyn pe emperou? saue f>is accius J?at 
sat stille. Aftir pe acte was do a lord enqwirid of J)is poete whi he ros not 
and ded worchip to pe uictou? of ali f>is world. He answered a geyn in J^is 
mane? )^at a sougreyn schuld not rise on to his subiecte, j^e? for to do worchip 
on to his pare is ful conuenient but wisdam excellith al pmg. This same 
proposiciouTi was so alowid of pe emperou? fat he ded make a lavve pere 
schuld neuir maystir in skole rise a geyn non astat.* Aftir many dyuers 
commendaciones of }>is lord pe cronicles conclude fat he was killid in pe 
capitole be enuye of ^ hrutus casams. Of pe mane? of his deth and pe 
toknys be for his deth we? ouyr longe for to telle and eke ouyr fer? fro 
ou? purpous on whech we sette oure book at ou? begynnyng. 



Of dyuers templis of fals goddis turnyd to seruyse of seyntes. cap x. 

Be fore in pe uiii chapetir spoke we sumwhat in ph mate? and he? schul 
we fulfille fat was left fere. Be fore adrianes temple we? of ir too temples 
on was dedicat to f e goddesse of flowres f e of ir was consecrate to phebus. 
Phebus called f ei f e sunne for f is cause. Phebus is as mech to sey as cler 
or brith fer for called f ei so f e suwne for he is britest of ali planetis. And 
you5 so be fat alle f ingis fat growyn on erde be moost norchid be f e surme 
jit f ese men in he? errouris wold haue a nof ir specml goddesse on to floures 
and hi? called f ei flora. On of f ese templis is now dedicat on to ou? lady 
and f e of ir on to seyn jame.^ The cherch fat is clepid seynt urse was sum- 

* * Auditorium TuUii Caesar intravit. Cui cum assurgeret Tullius, Caesar prohibuit, 
dicehs, "Non assurgas mihi, maior est enim sapientia quam potentia." Cui Tullius : 
" Orbis victori non assurgam? " Et Caesar, "At tu maiorem lauream adeptus es quam 
propagare terminos Komani imperii." Cuius verbi occasione lex a Caesare emanavit ut 
nemo codicem tenens aut legens cuiquam assurgat. Valerius.' And later : * Accius 
poeta lulio Caesari ad collegium poetarum venienti non assurrexit. Interrogatus autem 
cur tantae maiestati eupersederet, respondit, " Inferior superiori assurgit : par pari con- 
venit, sed sapientia cunctos praecellit (excellit)," quod quidem dictum lulius approbavit. 
Banulphus' (Higden, Polt/cAronicon, vol. iv, pp. 216, 218). 

* * tm ' corrected thus in MS. 

^ This is probably S. Giacomo del Portico. This portico was the celebrated one which 
led from the bridge of S. Angelo to the Vatican basilica, and was constructed for the 
convenience of pilgrims, and for the venders of sacred objects. The church still exists, and 
is now called S. Giacomo di Scossacavalli (Ai-mellini, p. 247 ; Nibby, p. 233). The church 
dedicated to Our Lady is probably S. Maria Traspoutina. 

E 



26 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

tyme nero secretari in whech as men rede he used ful cursid nygromawcy 
and dyuynacioun moost speciali in deed mewnys bodies. For we rede of 
hym and of juliane apostata both J^at J>e deuel wold not speke on to hem on 
to tyme fei must sle a fay? woma»i grete with childe and sche schuld be 
hangid up and opened as a beest fann) schuld f)e deuel apperin in hir body 
and jiue hem answe? of he? materis. These houses comounly we? called 
he? scry secretaries . Blessed be ihu )?at hath turned cristen metinys hertis 
fat not only J»ei be aferd for to doo swech dedis but eke it is horrible on to 
hem for to he? J>erof. The? was eke a feld fast by martis temple whech 
stood as we seide be fore fast by fat place whech fei clepe domme quo uadis. 
This feld seruyd to fis office. The firde kalendis of July come ail J>e worth i 
f. 364 r puple of rome / to ]mt same and J?e? was fe usage to chese he? consules 
whech is as mech to sey as wise men of couwceli whech we? chosen to gouerne 
J>e puple as for o je?. For we rede of J>e worfi men of rome fat f ei were 
twyes consul or thries or foure sithes often tyme chose for he? worthinesse. 
These men fus chosen schulde abide fere fro fat iii fet. of July on to fe 
kalendis of januari and f ann) schuld be brout on to f e capitol with grete 
Bolempnite and receyue fe? his office. Minerues temple whech is clepid 
goddesse of wisdom is now turned in to a cherch of ou? ladi and a couent of 
frere prechoures in whech stant a conclaue Ipere many a pope hath be chosen 
for grete sewirnesse for it stant in f e myddis of f e cyte. And f e? be mer- 
uelous merkis made in marbill and writyng f erupon who bye fat tybu? hath 
risen dyuera jeres. This chauwgyng of templis in to chirchis schal be mo? 
largely talked in f e secunde book whan we come to f e same places fat we 
speke of now. 



Of f e capitol principal place of f e cite, ca xi» 

Of f e capitol whech is now and euyr hath be as principal place of f e cite 
wil we speke. First je schal undirstand fat f is place stant on a hill whech 
is cleped mons capitolinitg for f is cause as we ^eyde be fore in f e capitule de 
montibw« fat a man^ies bed al hoi was fou^ide in f e ground whanw f ei diggid 
to make a temple in worchip of jupiter.^ It was eke clepid capitol as heed 
of aft f e world for in fat hous f ei kept he? couwceft who f ei schuld gouerne 
all f e world. It had grete wallis and foo sumtyme sette with gold and 
precious stones of ful meruelous Werk fat wold not lithly be distroyed with 
wedir for f e stones we? sawen in dyuera formes and couchid in f e waft with 

* * Tandem in monte Tarpeio templum lovi construxit. In quo loco quia caput hominis 
inventum est dum foderent, Capitolium locum ilium vocaverunt* (Ranulf Higden, 
Poltfchronicon, vol. iii, p. 158). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 27 

cyment as men may ^et se in dyuers cherches in rome. But Jjis werk of J?is 
place and many moo is distroyed eythir be conqwest of J?e cite or ellis be 
chauwge on to bettir use. With inne J>is tou? was a temple whech pei sey 
as of ricchesse was worth J)e J^ird part of J?e world of gold siluyr perle and 
precious stones in which uirgile mad a m^ruelous craft * fat of euery region 
of J?e world stood an ymage mad aH of tre and in his hand a lytil belle, as 
often as ony of J>ese regiones was in purpos to rebelle a geyn ]>e grete mageste 
of rome a non J?is ymage J?at was assigned to f>at regiouw schuld knylle his 
bell. Thanw was ])ere in J?e myddis of fe hous al a boue a knyt mad of bras 
& a hors of fe same metaH whech euene a noon* as fis belle was ruwge 
turned him with a spere to fat cost of j?e erde whei" fis puple dwelt fat 
purposed f us to rebelle.* This aspied of f e prefas whech be certeyn cuw- 
panyes we? assyned to wecch and wayte on fis ordynauws a non aH fe 
knythod of rome with he? legionis / mad hem redy to ride and redresse f is f. 364 v 
rebellion. Summe auctores sey fat f e belle hing a boute f e ymages nek. 
And a non as f e puple mad rebellion f e ymage turned his bak to f e gret 
god iubiter fat stood in f e myddys. Thei enqwyred of uirgile who lowge f is 
werk Bchuld endewre and he answered tyl a may * bare a child wheHor f ei 
concluded fat it schuld stande euyr. In f e natimte of crist f ei sey aH f is 
brak and many of ir f ingis in the cite to schewe fat f e lord of aH lordes was 
come. Men may haue merueile fat uirgile schuld haue swech knowyng of 
f e misteries of ou? feith and I answe? f ertoo fat f e holy goost put his jiftis 
nowt only in good men of trewe by leue but eke in othir. Lych as it is seyd 
of cayphas fat prophecied of cristis deth f e euangelist spekith of him f us. 
These wordes seid he not of him self but be cause he was bischop for fat 5e? 
f^rfor he prophecied. Neuyrfelasse in uirgil bookes be founde open 
testimonies of cristis birth as it is cowteyned in a latyn book fat a woma/i 
called proba gadered owt of uirgiles uers. These iii uers folowyng coupled 
sche owt of f e first book eneydos & uii book. Uirginis os habituw qj gerens 
mirabile dictu Nee generis nostri puerww nee sanguinis edit Uera q3 terrifici 

^ The legends regarding Vergil's miraculous powers would appear to have originated 
among the common people of Naples, and to have spread from there to Rome and to 
countries outside Italy. They disappeared from literature after the sixteenth century ; 
but, in the south of Italy, they survive among the people to this day (Comparetti, Vergil 
in the Middle Ages, Part ii, London, 1908). Jligden gives Alexander de naturis rerum, 
as the * rehersour of mony meruellous thynges ' regarding Vergil's necromancy (Higden, 
Poly chronic on, vol. iv, p. 248). * ever anon. 

' The Salvatio Romae is described in Edijichazion di molti palazzi, Venice, 1480, 
p. A i V ; and in Solinus De memorahilihus mundi, Venice, 1491, p. G ii v; but the 
latter author places it in the Pantheon instead of the Capitol. Higden also speaks of it 
{Polychronicon, vol. i, p. 216 et seq.). See also Graf in the chapter entitled La Potenza di 
Jioma, in his work Homa nella memoria, &c., vol. i, ch. v, p. 182 et seq. * ?maid. 

E 2 



28 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

cecinenint omnia uates. These uers mene J^is in ou? tunge as I suppose, 
A woman beryng a uirginal mouth and a uirginal habite merueyl to seye 
Neythir of our kynrod ne of owre blood hath bore a child. The late comyng 
of }5is dredful lord sunge f>e forme? prophetis. This same capitol had many 
templis and houses hangmg up on him as jet is sene. For in J^e heith 
a boue was a temple consecrate to iubiter and iuno. A lithil be neth 
an othir temple cleped uestal in whech maydenes dweld in clennesse of 
chastite as I declared be fore. In a noJ)ir temple put was sumtyme named 
of ]>e lady rose ^ was a solempne chayer in whech Ipe principal bischop of alle 
here temples J?e day of his entre schuld be intronyzid in whech chaye? f>ei 
sette juliws cesar whanw he was first receyuyd and J)at was pe ui day of 
march. Ali f>is as it semeth was on pe est side of fe capitol. And on Ipe 
west side to pe mercate ^ side was a temple dedicate to mynerue. And fast 
by a tou? in whech fei kyllid J>e noble man often rehersid whech hith 
julii^a cesar . Alle fese places ar ny chaunged or distroyed be dyuers men 
of ofir londis f>at haue wonne rome often tyme. And for pe romanes sey 
J)at J?ei ferd neuir weel ne neuyr stood in prosperite sith cristendawi cam 
perfor wil I schewe hem })at ofir naciones conquered hem longe be fore crist 
was incai:nate. The cronycles of grete brytayne ly now nexte hand whech 
is cleped inglond ferfor out of j?oo wil I take my testimonie. Belinw£_and 
brenn^g we? to Kyngis of fis IcmS. regnyng to gidir in f>at same tyme fat 
f. 365 r hester was wedded to / assue?. These to bretherin wonne a grete pMy of 
rome ' but principal was brennws whech made pe cytees in lumbardye both 
melan and pauye and aftyrward J^ese too brej>rin held a grete batayle with 
J>e romaynes at a flood of Jjis side of rome called albula where pe romanes 
fled and fei folowed and took all J)is citee saue J>is capitol whech had be 
take had not a gander with cry a waked J^e keperes. Of J^is story not only 
ou? cronicles be? witnes but pe cronicles of itaile* | pai is to sey godfrey of 

* It is diflBcult to understand what the author means by the Temple of * J)e lady rose '. 
The MiraUUa mentions a place called in monasferio dominae Rosae castellum aureum 
(Urlichs, Cod. Topoff., p. 108). Nichols, in n. 167, p. 86, identifies the castellum 
aureum as the Circus Flaminius, and the monasterium dominae Bosae as S. Caterina ai 
Funari. ' ? market. 

' Brennius, brother of Belinus, King of Britain, rebels against the latter, and expels 
him. Belinus flees to France, and becomes Duke of Brittany. He invades England, but 
their mother makes peace between them. They then conquer France, a great part of 
Germany, and finally lay siege to Rome. Furius Caraillus, however, breaks the siege 
(Higden, Polychronicon, ch. xvii, vol. iii, pp. 264-70. See also ch. xix, vol. iii, pp. 294-806, 
for another account of Belinus and Brennus). 

* * Et k la voix des oies puet on conoistre toutes les hores de la nuit et les vigiles ; et 
n'est nus animaus au monde qui sente si bien les homes come eles font. Et a lor cri 
furent aperceu li Francois quant il voloient prendre le Chapitoile de Rome, selonc ce que 
I'iatoire nous raconte' (Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou Tresor, p. 206), 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 29 

uiterbe in his book whech he clepeth pantheon | and trogus pompeius ^ in 
his book eke, ysid bischop of spayn in his book of cronicules.^ Also 
seynt ambrose bischop of melan in his book called exameron seith on to rome 
J?at f>ei we? mo? bouwde to do worchep on to he? gees Ipann to he? goddis for 
pe gandyr was wakyng and warned hem whann he? goddis slept. And in 
uery soth whan J>i8 brenn^^a had receyued a grete summe of gold and was 
goo f>e fonnyd ' puple defouled in errou? ded make a gandyr of white marbili 
and ded to it worchip as to a god. The hed of it is broken but J?e body lith 
jet hool at a cherch do? whech )?ei clepe scs mcho\n,u8 in carcere.* 



Of Ipe too hors of marbili & to naked men called J>e caballis. xii.* 

Off f e caballis be many strange tales sum sey f>ei we? geauwtis summe sey 
jyei were philisophres. Too grete horses Ipere be and too naked men standyng 
be hem. On fe othir side of ]>e strete sittith a woman wbunde al a boute 
with a serpent and a fayre conk of porphiry ston be fo? hi?.^ This is Ipe 
treuth of J^is mate? as cronycles telle. In ]>e tyme of tiberiw* pe emperou? 
come to rome to naked men and philisophres but 5ong of age on of hem 
hith pratellus pe oj^ir hith sibia. These men were brout on to pe emperou? 

* For an account of Trogus Pompeius see article on Justinus, the historian, in Smith's 
Dictionary/ of Biography/. He flourished in the time of Augustus. His great work was 
called Liber Sisforiarum Philippicarum, to which title the words et tofiua mundi origines 
et terrae situs were afterwards added. Justinus admits that his own book was entirely 
derived from Trogus Pompeius's Universal History (Smith, Dictionary of Classical 
Biography, vol. ii, p. 680 b). 

2 There are several theological writers named Isidore ; but the writer, who in another 
passage speaks of him as a * bishop of Spain ', appears to be referring to Isidore, Bishop of 
Seville. He is generally called S. Isidore the younger, so as to distinguish him from 
S. Isidore, Bishop of Cordova. S. Isidore the younger was the son of Severian, Governor of 
Cartagena, and Theodora ; he flourished in the seventh century, and died in the year 636. 
S. Isidore the elder lived in the reign of Honorius and Theodosius the younger (Moreri, 
Dictionnaire historique). 

^ Fond, foolish. 

* For an early account of the Capitol see Nichols, Marvels of Borne, pp. 86-90 ; Urlichs, 
■Cod. Topog., p. 120. 

* Earlier and similar accounts of the following legend will be found in Ranulf Higden, 
Polyckronicon, vol. i, p. 276 ; Graf, Boma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, pp. 141 sqq. ; Urlichs, 
Cod. Topog., p. 122. * Temporis Tiberii ... in concha ilia.' 

' Nichols thinks that the statue of a sitting woman mentioned here may be the 
Hygeia of the Giustiniani Palace (Marvels of Borne, p. 41, n. 95). Michaelis mentions 
this statue of the woman wound about with a serpent, and remarks that it must have 
disappeared early ; as that of the capti ve dwarf under the horse's hoof of the bronze statue 
of Marcus Aurelius must also have done ; neither of them are mentioned by any 
author after the Mirahilia. He agrees with Nichols that it is very likely that the statue 
of Hygeia in the Giustiniani Palace is the same ; as it shows (by its considerable restora- 
tion) signs of having been exposed for a long period to the action of the weather 
(JRomische Mittheilungen, 1898, p. 252). 



30 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

for "pe puple dempt be here strauwge aray f>at fei knewe suwme strauwge 
Jjingis. The emperou? inqwirid of hem what was cause of he? comywg and 
whi j?ei went nakid. Thei answerd J?at as f>e schap of he? body was open to 
alle men be cause of he? nakednesse soo aii f)e pryuy ^ of fe world were open 
on to her knowyng. Calle f ou pi couwceli in to J>i pryuy chambir J^us seid 
fei on to )?e emperou? and comouTi on to hem what mate? J?ou wilt as 
pryuyly as fou can and we schal telle J>e aftirward what was seyd fro pe 
moost on to pe leest. The emperou? assayed fat fei seide and he fond all 
ping Both )?at was promissed. Tho hith he hem grete ricchesse and had hem 
in ful grete reuerens and f>ei refused aii and desired of him no oJ>ir fing but 
yt J>is memorial schul be mad in he? name.^ Or we precede ferj>er in on? 
mate? we wil satisfie pe resones of men })at wil aske in what wise fese men 
myth haue J)is pryuy cunnywg. And we answe? perio J?at ]?ei had fis 
cunnyng as is suppose for innocens for f>ei J?at walked so naked had litil 
f. 365 V appetite on to worldly good / and were ful uertuous eke in here maneres 
wherefor ou? lord list to rewarde hem with sum special jift. I suppose eke 
|?at J)ei we? of a naciouw whech be clepid guynosopistis of whom we rede in 
pe geesiis of grete alisauTidre J>at aftir he herd pe fame of hem he wolde algate 
se hem whom he fond al naked man and woma^i dwellyng in caues in pe erde 
euyr preising god neuyr doing wrong lyuywg with outen stryf with oute 
debate. Here lyuyng plesed )?is king so wel }>at he comauwded hem to ask 
of hym what J?ei wold haue and he schuld grauwte hem. Thei prayed him 
to jyue hem immortalite and he answerd J?at ]?ing whech he had not him 
self ne not myth haue who schul he jyue it on to oJ)ir men. Tho J?ei 
undirtok " of his pride manslauth ouyr rydyng of pe cuntre and mech oJ>ir 
J?ing and he passed fro hem gretly meuyd of her innocent lyuyng. All J?is 
sey we for to proue be liklynesse J?at J>ese too men were of J?is naciouw. 
Therfor stood f>ei naked for J)ei knew many priuy J>ingis as if a man se 
anoJ?ir naked he schal haue mo sekir merkis of him p&nn if he se him clad. 
That J>ei hald up he? handis and he? armes it be tokneth J?at J?ei coude telle 
of J>ingis whech schul falle aftirward. The grete hors J>at trede so sore up on 

* * J)ingi8 ' in margin of MS. 

' The following passage in Nichols's translation of the Mirahilia is interesting, and 
comes in at this point of the legend : * Therefore he made them the memorial that he had 
promised, to wit, the naked horses, which trample on the earth, that is upon the mighty 
princes of the world that rule over the men of this world ; and there shall come a full 
mighty king, which shall mount the horses, that is, upon the might of the princes of this 
world. Meanwhile there be the two men half naked, which stand by the horses, and with 
arms raised on high and bent fingers tell the things that are to be ; and as they be naked, 
Bo is all worldly knowledge naked, and open to their minds ' (Nichols, Marvels of JBowe, 
pp. 40-41). For the Latin text see Urlichs, Cod. Topog., p. 97. 

^ * him ' in margin of MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 31 

]>e erde betokneth J>e prmces and potestatis J?at haue gouernauws of fis 
world ouyr whom stood fese naked men for to signifie J>at wis dam is mo? of 
honou? pann power . For in kyng alisaundre lif is a story ful iust to f is 
purpos whech tellith )?at f>e kyng was in will for to distroye a cite man & 
woman wal and hous \>e city hith attenes. And whanw lie was come ]3idir 
with al his hoost he fonde sittyng in Ipe sunne an eld philisoph? called 
anaximenes whech had sum tyme be his maystir. The kyng supposed as it 
was fat f>e city had sent him for to gete grace of fe kyng and a non as he 
say him with a grete ire and a grete oth he seide ]?ese wordis. Be pe hy 
prouydens of god a boue what so euyr pou ask of me ))is day it schal not be 
had. And ]>e philisoph? answerd him and seide. Now be pat same 
prouydens whech Jjou hast named I charge pe fat fou lette not til J>is cite 
be distroyed. O quod alisau/id? euyr is pe maistiris wit a boue his disciple. 
Thus was pe cite saued and pe kyngis ire softed. These too naked men whos 
memorial we haue now in hand to descryue fei profecied of pe cherch and 
eke of pe bap tern and perfor in testimonie of fis profecie J?e? sittith a woman 
wouwde with a serpent an a gret uessel by for hir of a porphiri ston. This 
woman wou^ide with a serpent be tokneth pe soules whech were in pe deueles 
daunger with errou? in he? feith and cursed customes in he? manors. The 
fai? uessel of porphiri ston be tokneth pe baptem in whech sche schuld be 
waschid fro all pese grete perellis. This same exposiciouw is touchid / in f. 366 r 
pe eld cronicles of rome and not neuly feyned be us.^ 



Of pe hors of bras and pe ride? y* stant at laterane xiii. 

Now of pe hors fat stant at laterane and of pe sitter fat is up on him 
schal BOW ^ be ou? processe for summe men sey fat it was mad in worchip of 
grete constantine but it is not soo,' First wil I declare on to 50U f e schap of 
f e ymage and aftir telle f e story what he was and whi he was sette fere, 
A grete hors of brasse is fere of ful fay? schap whech was sumtyme gilt and 
a man eke of f e same metal! sittyng on his bak with outen sadiil. A kyng 
bouwdyn undir f e hors fot and a bird sittyng on f e horses hed. This ymage 

* ' De femina citcundata serpentibuS. Habews &nte se concham, significat baptismuw 
& prcdicationeg quag predicabuntwr ut quicunque ad dominum ire voluerib | non potent: 
nisi lavetMr pHus in concha in fonte baptismatis * (Solinus, De memorabilibtu mundi^ 
Venice, 1491, p. G ii). See also Higden, Polychronicon, vol. i, p. 226, 

^ * now ' interlineated in MS. 

^ * Unten auf der erden do stet gar ein gross eren ross and ein pawr darauf gar meyster- 
lichen gossen von aller glidmass, ist hoi innen und vergult gewest ; hat man denselben 
pawren zu eren gemacht, hat geheyssen Septimosephero, der Rom behalten und der konig^ 
der davor lag, erschlagen gen Rom pracht hat ' (Muffel, p. 14). 



32 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

was sette pere for J>is cause. In ]?at tyme J>at consules gouerned rome "be feH 
)?at a kyng cam oute of pe est with a grete strength of men and be sechid 
rome. In fe tyme of consules seide I for rome was first gouerned be kyngis and 
Jiann be to consules whech we? chosen euery jere and J^ann) be emperouris of 
whech iulius cesar was ]>e first. So as I seide in J>at same tyme }?at counsellouris 
gouerned )?e cite in whos tyme speciali fynde I not cam fis kyng and be seged 
rome. The cite was gretly frayed of J^is kyng and coude not fynde a mene who 
fei schuld a uoide hym. Than was pere in rome a maw of grete strength summe 
bokes sey J>at he was a knyth summe a swyer" and summe J>at he was but of 
pe low degre in pe puple whech is to sey in her langage rusticw* in ou? 
a chorl. A bold man be was strong and wise. Happed him to be in pe 
capitoft whe? pe states and pere puple treted what cheuesauwce ^ j^ei myth 
make to uoyde J?is grete dauwge?. He stood up a mongis hem and seide 
what wold 30 gyue a man )?at schuld delyuer 50U fro )?is distresse. The 
senate answerd lete f>at man appe? and ask what he wil and he schal haue 
it. I wil seid J?is man tak J)is iornay up on me so fat 5e grauTit me 
XXX sextaries of gold and eke make a memorial in my name hors and man 
lich as 1 wil ride. Alle J>is schal be mad of brasse and gilt a boue on pe best 
wise. The senate grauwted him to fulfill aH his desire. Than seide he on 
to hem. At mydnyth loke 50 be redy alle in dikys and cauernes in )?e 
ground and in pe arches with inne pe wallis and wbat so euyr I bid 50U do 
loke je fulfille it. Thei consentid to al }7at was seid. At mydnyth J>is man 
lep up on a grete hors and a strong and rood forth in to pe feld with a sith 
on his bak as Jjouj he wold goo to mowe. When he cam in pe boost he 
houed and taried til pe kyng had slept his slepe and roos and went on to a 
tre to auoyde pe birden of his worabe. Certeyn knytis and swieres f>at we? 
keperis for ye body folowed fro feii* and sey J>is man J)us arayed lich a charl 
ridyng wit5 oute a sadel supposed not fat he had be of rome but rather sum 
t. 866 V laboure? of / he? owne party and pus fei cried on to him. Be wa? carl 
what J>ou do come not so ny pe kyng fou schal be hangid and fou touch him. 
The man herd what fei seide and with a good a uis he lyft up pe kyng on to 
his hors for he was a large man and a strong and pe kyng but of litil statu?. 
Thus rood he forth crying with a loude voys. Rise romanes and defende 
jou for I haue caute pe kyng. The romanes caut grete counfort fat fis 
kyng was take pe opir partye lost hert fat he? heed was absent and f us had 
romanes f e feld f is man grete worchip and f e perell delyueryd. For fat same 
kyng was fayn to compown wit^ hem and pay hem grete tribute or his 
delyueraunce was mad. Than rered f ei f is ymage at laterane with many 

^ * Chevissance ', old French word = ce dont on a besoin, ce qu'on se propose. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 33 

o))ir Ipingis J>aiiw we expr^sse now for J^ei be wasted with age and rust as 
men may uerily see.* 



Of fat place whech J>ei clepe ]?e coUise cap xiiii. 

The collise eke is a meruelous place whech was mad round of schap & 
grete arches & mayn as jet is sene for J?e moost part of it stant at J)is day. 
It was ]3us disposed J>at a wal goth in a sercle I suppose pat it was ny of an 
hundred arches a boute and a boue fat as many and eke a boue fat as many. 

^ This legend was a favourite one in the Middle Ages, as will be seen from the following 
references : Edifichazion di molti palazzi, Venice, 1480, p. B vi ; Solinus, De tnemorahili- 
bus mundi, Venice, 1491, p. g ii. He speaks ' de rustico sedewte super equum ereum ' 
(Ritter von HarflF, Pilgerfahrf in den Jahren 1496-9, pp. 15-16 : von Groote, Coin, 1860). 
He says : * Item hie bij vur der kirchen saegen wir eynen groissen metaellen man off 
eynem metaellen perde sitjen,' &c. In the Descriptio plenaria of the Mirahilia we read : 
* Laterani est quidam caballus aureus qui dicitur Constantini sed non est ita,' &c. (Urlichs, 
Cod. Topog., pp. 98, 99). Graf thinks that the owl on the head of the horse was only 
the plaited forelock of hair between the ears of the animal, and that the figure of the 
bound dwarf king, now no longer to be found, represented some subdued people {Roma 
nella memoria. Sec, vol. ii, pp. 113-115). Rucellai, a Florentine pilgrim of 1450, says 
that the hero of the legend was a * villano o vero uno pastore che guardava bestie ' 
{II Giuhileo delV anno santo, ArcMvio St. Fat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 571). But 
Higden's account differs so much from all the others that it is interesting enough to quote 
in full. At vol. i, p. 228, the Latin text begins : ' Est et aliud signum ', and the trans- 
lation in the Harleian MS. 2261 is as follows : * Also there was an other signe a fore the 
palice of the pope, whiche is a horse made of brasse, and the sitter on hit as spekenge to 
the peple by the signe of the rijhte honde, and governenge the horse as with the lyfte 
honde, havenge a brydde callede a cukkowe made betwene the eeres of the horse, and 
Nanus lyke to dye under his feete, whom pilgremes calle Theodoricus, the commune peple 
Constantyne, but clerkes of the cowrte calle hit Marcus or Quintus Curtius. That signe 
stode somme tyme on iiii pyllers of brasse a fore the awter of lupiter in the Capitoly or 
chiefe place of Rome. But Seynte Gregory put downe the horse man and that horse, 
and putte the pillars in the chirche Lateranense. The Romanes toke the horse man and 
the horse and sette hit before the palyce of the pope. Men eallenge hyt Marcus assigne 
this cause. A man callede Nanus, erudite in the arte of nigromancy, which subduenge 
to hyra mony kynges and realmes wente to the Romanes, takenge a weye from theyme the 
vertu of smytenge and kyHenge {virtutem feriendi) segede theyme longe schutte with in 
the cite. This Nanus wente from his felowschippe erly in the mornenge afore the rysenge 
of the Sonne, and put hia arte in exercise ; whiche thynge perceyvede, the Romanes made 
promise to Marcus, a noble knyjhte, that he scholde have predominy of the cite and a 
perpetualle memory if he cowthe delyuer that cite. Marcus pereschenge the walle of the 
cite on that parte where Nanus usede the arte of nigromancy goenge furthe on the ny5hte 
taryede for Nanus untylle the morowe, whom a brydde callede a cuckowe schewede by 
here voyce ; whiche takenge him broujhte hym in to the cite, whiche fallenge down 
amonge the feete of the horses supposede to have delyverede hym by his arte ; wherfore 
Marcus had that memorialle. Men that calle hit Quintus assigne this reason, seyenge 
that there was a place open in the myddes of the cite pereschenge mony men as with 
a brethe of sulphure, an answere jiffen to the peple that hit wolde not be schutte un tylle 
a man felle in to hit voluntarily. Then Quintus armenge hym felle in to hit to delyuer 
the cite ; that doen, a cukko did flye owte from that pytte, and the erthe was closed 
anoon ' (R. Higden, Polychronicon, vol. i, p. 228). 

F 



34 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Thann was f)e? an othir wal inward J^at had as many arches be }>e ground 
as fe first part had but Ipe arches we^ lesse as reson askith for J»e sercle 
was smalle? and ]?is wal had but to cors of arches for Ipe curyng of ]>e 
uoutes we? so disposed J?at J>e roof was hy with oute and descended lowe? 
with inne. Than was J?e? Ipe J?ird wal whech had and hath as many be f>e 
ground as hath pe opir but it hath non a bouen. So hath J?e uttir wal 
iii arches in heith the secunde ii arches in heith the iii but on. Than^i 
was fere in ])e myddis a grete uoide court and a solempne werk yerin 
whech is now distroyed for J>ere stant but an eld chapeli. As of J^e name 
of J)is place fus write oure bokis. Catholicon ^ seith pat coUiseus is swech 
a J>ing J?at is rered for f)e mynd of a ded \ He allegith for him juuenal 
J?e poete fat seith fus. Et de marmoreo citharam suspende colloso. "Whech 
is to sey. And al of marbil hang up an harp to fe collise. Wherby he 
ment fat what f ing be mad to f e memorie of a ded man it may be called 
a collise. Therfo? seide papie' fat collise is a grete ymage of marbill and 
a hy. Catholicon seith alsoo he? fat in f is same place stood yoo ymages 
with bellis a boute he? nekkis whech * f e rebellioun of dyuers cuntres a geyns 
rome. But all of ir auctores sey fat f is ordinauws was in f e capitol as we 
declared be fo?. Wherfor we will iustly write now what ye elde auctores 
sey in yis mate?.° The collise f ei sey was a temple of grete heith and brede 
nomiwat and consecrate on to f e suiine and f e mone in whech we? many 
f. 867 r / wondirful werkis. For f e rof a boue was cured with plates of metail so 
gilt and depeynted fat it was lich f e sterred heuene a boue in whech be 
sotiti craft f ei feyned f undris and leuenes reynes and of ir wederes swech 

^ Catholicon at this date meant a dictionary. 
' * man ' in margin of MS. 

* There are three writers of this name. The first is S. Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, a 
disciple of S. John Evangelist ; or, according to Eusebius, of S. John of Ephesus. He 
wrote five books, entitled The Explanation of the Discourses of our Lord ; only some 
fragments remain. Papias No. 2 was of Alexandria, and lived in the fourth century. 
He wrote on Mathematics in the time of Theodosius the Great. Two of the eight books 
which he wrote have been lost ; the remainder were published in Latin at Pesaro. Papias 
No. 3 was the author of a book called the Elementarium doctrinae rudimentum. His 
date is uncertain ; but a manuscript of his book is believed to have existed in 1173. His 
work, a glossary, was published in Venice in 1496 (Moreri, Dictionnaire historique). 

* ' schewid ' in margin of MS. 

' For the legend of the Colosseum consult Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, pp. 118 
and 122. It will be noticed in the Mirabilia that, in the older editions, such as the 
descriptio plenaria, the Orapliia, &c., the wording is : * Ante Coliseum fuit Templuui 
solis ubi fiebant . . . ,' &c. ; whereas in later editions the words are : ' Coliseum fuit 
templum solis,' &c. This would show that the earlier authorities believed that the 
Temple of the Sun was a separate building in front of the Colosseum, but that later writers 
took the Colosseum itself to be the Sun-temple. Compare Urlichs, Cod. Topoff., p. 110 
with p. 136. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 35 

as come fro f)e firmament. The? we? also apperyng Ipere ])e signes super 
celestial expressid ful weel in whech tymes of fe jer ))e sunne passith be 
hem. As in januari be Ipe signe f>ei clepe aquari, in februari be ]>e fischis, 
in march be J^e ram, in april be Ipe bul, in may be ]>e too twynnes castor & 
pollux, in iune be ]>e crabbe, in iule be Ipe \eoun, in august be Ipe uirgin, in 
September be J?e balau?ice, in October be pe scorpiouTi, in novembir be pe 
scheter, in december be ]?e gote. All pese we? schewid J^e? ful meruelously 
in he? meuingis and many ofir f)ingis. In the myddis of Ipia place stood pe 
grete god phebus so is Ipe sunne cleped and eke apollo is his name. He was 
so mad J?at with his feet he touched fe erde and with his rith hand Ipe 
heuene for in his left hand held he a bal as J30U3 he had al pis world in 
gouernauTice.* Whi he is cleped phebus and whi apollo and whi f>at iuuenal 
seid be fo? })at pe harp schuld be hange be fo? him rather ]?an be for othir 
all f>is wold ask longe declaraciouw of poetrie whech is now fer fro my 
mynde & clene out of use. Neuyrfelasse as a gramarioun I wil sumwhat 
expowne J>is J?at sol is clepid phebus a phos whech is as mech to sey as lith 
for )?is cause f>at he hath mo? lith psm alle pe planetis. He is eke cleped 
appollo aftir a famouse man fat had fat same name whech was a souereyn 
lech and f is name was attribut on to pe sunne for he cureth pe sores of 
erde and causeth pe same erde to bring forth forth ful rip frutes. The 
melodye of pe harp is oflFered on to him as to pe reule? and prmcipall of ail 
planetis in whech planetes cours and turnyng as philisophres sei is ful grete 
melodye. Now whi al fis fayre werk was distroyed wil I telle 50U. Seint 
eiluester aftir yat tyme he had baptized ye grete constantine was mad lord 
and emperou? of all fis side of pe world for pe for said constantin went on 
to Constantinople and dwelt f>e? fat he ne non of his schuld interrupt pe 
grete powe? and pe grete possessiouw whech he ^ave to pe cherch. Thus 
standyng pe cherch at his liberte mech cristen puple come to rome in pil- 

* * Another signe is an ymage of Colossus, whom they seye to be the ymage of the sonne 
or elles of the cite of Rome of whom hit is to be meruaylede how that so hevy a thynge 
myjhte be soe erecte, sythe hit is in longitude of c foote and xxui" ; whiche ymage was 
Bomme tyme in the yle of Rhodus, whiche was more hie in altitude by xu foote than eny 
place of the cite. That ymage hade in the ryjhte honde of hit a rownde thynge after the 
similitude of \>e worlde, and a swerde in the signe of batelle in the lifte honde, in token 
that hit is less vertu to gete than to kepe thynges y-geten. That ymage was made of 
brasse, but hit was ouer gilte with golde imperialle, schynenge contynually in derkenesse, 
movenge egally with the son in his circumference, hade the face of hit contrarious alle- 
weyes to the body of the sonne ; whom alle Romanes worschippede in a signe of subieccion, 
whom seynte Gregory destrayede with fyre ; of whiche jm&ge the hede and ryjhte honde 
remaynede, whiche be sette nowe afore the palice oflf the pope on ii pyllers of marbole * 
(Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon). This passage follows immediately on the quotation 
already made in chapter xiii, describing the legend of the * hors of brass ' (vol. i, pp. 283-5). 
See also Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 62-4, notes 112 and 114. 

r 2 



36 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

gWmage and vvliann f>ei seyn J)is gay bildyng and })is meiiyng of J»ese 
planetis as I haue declared |?ei left mech of he? deuocioun and stood and 
gased on f)ese uanities rith for nouelte of ]>e site, Tho mad semt siluester 
Jjis mauwmentrie to be broke and spent in to betir use. Al ]?is haue I red, 
f)at whech folowith in f>is mate? haue I herd. Men sey ]?at siluester cam 
jpidir on processiouw whech tyme J^is werk schuld be distroyed and ]?is grete 
1 367 V ymage J?at stood al a boue / be power whech fe deuele had perm spak to 
siluester and seide J^us. Colis eum J)at is to sey in englisch worchipis fou 
him. The deuele spak yoo wordes at p&t tyme to stere ])e puple whech was 
redy to distroye fat maumewtrie fat for very fe? of foo wordis fei 
schuld lette hir werk. And fann) seynt siluester with a grete boldnesse 
turned fe xposiciou?i on to anothir and seyd to fe mauTidmewt. Colis 
deum. fat is to sey fou worchipist god. So cried f ei oft sithis as it is told 
fe on colis eum f e of ir colis deum and of fis dialoge in returnywg of 
a terme roos f e name of fis place as sum sey fat it was called collise . 
"Whefir fis be treuth or nout I make no meyntenauwce. But fis haue 
I red in fis mate? fat siluester ded distroye it and in tokne fat f e? was 
swech a f ing sumtyme f e grete heed and f e left hand in whech he held f e 
ball he sette at laterane and jet stant it f e?.^ 

* After describing the statue of Marcus Aurelius as standing before the Lateran, 
Mufiel describes this head and hand of the Colossus as being in the same place. The 
former, he says, was popularly known as * septimo sephero ' ; of the latter he remarks : * und 
nit fern davon do stet ein grosz ern ' (ehern) * haubt von einem aptgot, das ist grosser dan 
ein saltz scheib und dopey die haiit desselben aptgotz, hat ein maiestat apfel in yr 
begriifen, gar wercklich gemacht ' (MufFel, p. 14). ' Item in sulla piaza in sur un pezo di 
colonna una testa di giogante di bronzo e uno braccio con una palla di bronzo' (Rucellai, 
n Giuhileo delV anno 1450, Arch, St. Pat, 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 572). Solinus in 
his description says that St. Sylvester, after destroying the figure of Apollo, • Caput vero 
et manus dicti idoli cum pomo ad palacium in laterano fecit poni in memoriam; q«ae 
pftlma & caput Samsonis falso vocatMr a vulgo' {De mirdbilibus mmidi, Venice, 1491, 
p. G ii v). The following passage occurs after a description of the 'Colixeum': *aco da 
poi el dco SCO bonifatio papa el chapo e lamano desso idolo fece ponere per memoria alia 
ecclesia di sancto ihoanwe laterano. & chussi ene achoi de mettalo & dichono li grOssi 
homeni che la e la testa & la mano di sampsone ma non e vero come o dco & lavanza 
de esso idoUo disperso qua & la per roma, * {Edifichazion di tnoUi palazzi, Venice, 1480, 
p. A iii V. Compare Urlichs, Cod. Topog., p. 136). In Plate No. I of De Rossi's Piante 
iconograjicke di Roma it will be noted that the head and hand of the Colossus are shown 
close to the Sancta Sanctorum of the Lateran, and that the statue is also there. In 
subsequent plates the head and hand are no longer shown; but the statue appears as 
late as Plate VIII, when the following words are written (in another hand to the engraver's) 
on the plate: *Haec enea equestris statua M. Aurelii Antonini Severi aut Septimii 
Seven, nunc posita capitolio.' It is also noteworthy that Coliseus is spelt so in Plate I, 
and that in Plate II the building is covered with a cupola, which very likely refers to the 
legendary description of the heavenly spheres given in our MS. The colossal head of 
Domitian (then believed to be either that of Commodus or of Nero) was removed from 
the Lateran Palace, together with the hand holding an orb (popularly known as the 
palla Samsonis), by Sixtus IV in 1471, and taken across to the Capitol. They found 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 37 

Of }?at place whech Ipei clepid pantheon, cap xu. 
Pantheon was eke a notable place now it is called sea maria rotunda ul * 
sea maria ad martires. And of all ]>ese names schal be mad \ In ]?at same 
tyme ]7at kyngis had cesed at rome and consules had f)e gouernsmnce ther 
was a man a mongis hem cleped marcus agrippa grete of witteand of powe?. 
This man was sent be f>e auctorite of pe senate for to conquere pe west 
parties of pe world. And took with him iiii legiones and went down in to 
J)e lowe? cuntres conqwered on to he? empi? all pe sueues and saxones and 
many ofir. Whan ]?is conquest was performed and he com hom receyued as 
a uictou? not longe aftir on of yoo ymages ]?at stood with he? belles a boute 
he? nekkis in J>e capitole ronge his belle and turned his face a wey fro J?at 
coost fat he be held be fe? and Ipis same ymage was named and markid on 
to J>e kyngdam of perse. This say fe prest fat was ebdomadary for fat 
weke whech lay and wayted up on swech chauwces as his office was he roos 
up a non went up in to f e capitol on to f e lordes and teld in sothnes fat 
f e puple of perse was redy to debate and purposed to rebelle. Thei gadered 
he? counceH to make remedy a geyn f is rebellion and all f ei consentyd fat 
f is marcus agrippa schuld goo on to f is conquest for too causes. On was 
for he had sped so weel in his of ir iornay, a ndpir cause for his puple was 
redy on to his hand and he as late exp^rte knew best f e condiciones of hem 
what f ei coude doo or ell what f ei myth doo. This man refused f is charge 
alleggyng fe labou? fat he had late and fe litil rest aftir fat. Neuyrf elasse 
at grete instauns of f e senate he took a uisemewt of iiii dayes to jeue hem 
yanne a final answe?. Hom he gooth heuy and f outhful stodying on f is 
mater of f e grete disiauwce of f e weye of f e perel eke in f e see and moost 
for f e powe? as was reported yat f ei of / perse had purueyed a geyn rome. f. 368 r 
Thus as he lay half a slepe fere appered on to him a fay? woman sche coun- 
forted him as he font & bad him be myry for if he wold doo aftir hi? 
councell he schuld haue as fay? a iornay as euyr had conqwerou? of rome. 
The man in f is uisioun as he foute spak on to fis lady he had merueyl he 
seide what sche was fat hit3 him so grete f ingis of whech he stood sore in 
dout. Sche answerd on to him fat sche was modyr of fe grete goddis 
celestial wyf on to saturnws modir on to jubiter neptune and pluto my 
name sche seith is cibeles whech in jou? sacraries is rehersed wit^ gret 
Bolempnite. blissid modir seith fis man will je now make me sewir fat 
I schal haue f e uictorie at fis iornay. | 3a treuly sche seith so fou make fis 

a new home under the portico of the Palace of the Conservatori ; and formed an historical 
group together with the celebrated brazen wolf of the Capitol (Michaelis, JRomische 
Mittheilungen, 1891, p. 14 and note). 

* * ul* = uel. 2 t mewcion ' in margin of MS. 



38 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

byhest fat J)ou schalt make me a temple of J>at schap whech I schal deuyse on 
to J5e. There sche dyuysed hem all pe schap of )?e temple both in heith and 
in brede and he be hite hi? aftir his iornay sped he scliuld fulfill al f>at sche 
had comauwded. He roos up in Ipe morownyng weel counfortid told all Jjis 
couTiceH on to fe senate and all J? at euyr he had be hit^ f)ei promissed to 
fulfille. Men myth ask he? whi ou? lord suffered f>ese wikked spiritis J^us to 
appe? and ))us undir simulat religious* to make men spend so grete good in 
])e deueles seruyse. As for fe sufferauTis of god J)at mater is inp^rscrutabil 
saue J^at seynt paule seith fat for \>e grete defautes whech we? in he? 
lyuyng fei we? worfi for to be disseyued. Thus seith he in fe epistiH ad 
romanos. To J>e ofir party whi he suffered swech richesse to be spent in pe 
deueles seruyse summe men answe? because it was wrongfully gote it had fe 
lesse grace for to be weel spent. Summe men sey bettir f e? to fat god mad 
a pumyauwce at fat tyme fat f oo grete houses whech were rered up for 
errou? or for uanyte schuld aftirward serue in betir use to worchip of god 
and seyntis as dauid took f e crowne of an hethen kyng and wered it him 
selue f is rede we in f e secund book of kyngis. Now to telle ou? processe f is 
marcus agrippa restored his boost and with grete strength went in to perse 
many schippis had he for he led with him u legiones. pere with grete 
labou? and many batayles he ouyr cam hem and put hem undyr gretter 
tribute on to rome f ami f ei we? by fore. Thus comth he horn uictou? and is 
receyued with grete worchip. A non as he hath rested him a while he by 
gan f is temple with ful grete cost for it is a meruelous hous and a grete 
whech myth not haue so grete sintiris * as f e arches ar wyde and f erfor he 
ded make a grete hill of erde and couchid all f ese uoutes f erupon and in f e 
erde was f rowyn mech mony fat fe puple aftir edificacioun of the hous 
Bchuld be glad for to here oute f e erde.' Eke f eporche is made with pileres 

* Centering. 

' • Giacomo da Voragine racconta neW&Legenda aurea (ed. del Grasse,cap clxii, p. 167) 
una storia assai appropriata al concetto che nel medio evo si ebbe della ricchezza dei 
Bomani. Quando a Roma si prese a costruire il Pantheon, di forma rotonda per significare 
I'etemitk degli dei, si vide che stante I'ampiezza del giro non sarebbe stato possibile 
di alzare, con gli aiuti ordinari, la testudine, ossia la cupola. Allora si penso di ri- 
empiere di terra, mescolata con denari, tutto il vano dell' edifizio mano mano che le mura 
crescevano sopra suolo. A questo modo si potfe compiere agevolmente I'opera e compiuto 
che fli, si diede licenza a chiunque volesse trar fuori di quella terra di appropriarsi le 
monete che vi avrebbe trovato. Accorse gran moltitudine di gente, e in poco d'ora fu 
votato il tempio' (Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, p. 180). In Vasari's Life of 
Filippo Brunelleschi a similar proposal was made at the time of the celebrated discussion 
as to how the dome of the cathedral at Florence was to be built. He says : ' E non 
mancb che dicesse che sarebbe stato bene empierla di terra e mescolare quattrini fra essa, 
acciochfe, volta, dessino licenza che chi voleva di quel terreno potesse andar per esso, e cosi 
in un Bubito il popolo lo portasse via senza spesa' (Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de' piit 
eceelUnti pittorif ecuUori e architetti). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 39 

of marbil so hye and so grete J?at it is mer/ueil for to se and for to ))ink f. 868 v 
who \>ei myth be caried or lift up. Aftir J?e hous was mad he sette up 
a ymage of cibeles in ]>e heith of }>e roof whech ymage was made of bras fal 
weel gilt a boue and ouyr hir hed was pat coproun ^ fat stant by fo? seynt 
petres cherch who it cam ]>ere or in whos tyme schal be declared aftirward in 
])e secund book. Sufficid now of }>is place f>us mad in f»e honoz^r of cibeles 
modir of J>e goddis and neptune god of J^e see in special and all oj^ir goddis 
in general. Summe men sey f>at f>is J^ing was doo in domicianes tyme and 
)je elde cronycles sey it was doo in the consules tyme. Whech beguTine to 
gouerne rome at ]>e last kyng and cesed whan fe first emperou? cam whech 
was Julius cesar eke be twix iulius and domician were ix emp«roures. He? 
be to opiniones let men chose what fei will.' 



Of J?at fai? place cleped ara celi. cap xui. 

Ara Celi is now a ful solempne place standyng on a hill fast by f>e capitoll 
it is not ou? occupaciou?* for to telle what it is for fat longith to J>e secunde 
book but for to telle what it was. The? was a emp^rou? at rome clepid 
octauian next regnywg aftir juliws cesar for he was cosyn on to iuliw^. This 
emperou? with grete labou? and prudens mad subiecte on to rome all pe 
naciones of fe world fus sey fe romanes. We sey fat crist ded f is for whan 
he schuld come & take mankynde and ioyne it on to his godhed he wold 
haue a general pes f orw oute fe world whech feH in f is mawnes tyme fe xlii 
je? of his regno. The senatoures and f e puple of rome fat knew not crist 
ne receyued him nowt seyn aH f is pes had in f is mannes tyme tendred eke 
f e grete iornayes fat he had mad considered alsoo f e beute of his p^rsoue 
f ei cleped him on to he? capitol and had on to him swech wordis. | Lord 
hiest of myth fayrest of beute moost fortunat to pees and trancquillite we se 
weel and perseyue fat fis f ing myth neuyr be doo be a worldly man. | 
Wherfor we undirstand weel fat pere is a grete part of deite regnyng with 
inne f e and for fat cause we alle with on assent a? f us acordid to worchip 
f i persone as a god to sette up f i statue and a lawe f erupon fat who so euyr 
come forby and do it no worchip he schal be ded. Eefuse not fat we profir 
for of uery loue and pu? deuocioun we oflBr to 50U all fis seruyse. The 
emperou? heryng f ese wordes stood al a stoyned knowing him a man corrupt- 
ible and dedly prikkid f us with ueyn glorie on f e side and with fe? of deth 
on f e of ir side jaue hem fis answere. 3e schal he seitb grauwt me leyser 

* ? cuprum = copper. 

* For the early legends regarding the Pantheon see the Mirabilia commencing: 
* Temporibus consulum et Benatorum Agrippa . . . quod Caesar ei concessit ' (Urlichs, 
Cod. Topog., pp. 99-101 ; Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 46-50 ; Graf, Roma nella 
memoria, &c., vol. i, pp. 130-2). 



40 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

and auysement of )?ia mate? and aftir tyme I haue a uised me ^e schal haue 
swech answere with whech 36 schal be plesed. Aftir he was go fro hem he 
sent for a woman f ei cleped hir sibillam tiburtinam eythir was sche cleped 
f. 369 r so for sche dwelt in J^at cite or ellis for / sche was bo? in f>at cite. Whanw 
sche was come he rehersed on to hi? alt J)at pe senate had purposed on to 
him and sche took of him iii dayes of auisemewt in whech sche fastid ful 
streytly praying J?e grete god of heuene to 5eue hir grace J?at sche schuld 
be? J)e emp^rou? an answe? whech schuld be plesamis to god and worchip to 
his persone. Here may men se f)at be fo? cristis birth were ful goode and 
holy creatures nowt only in Ipe iewis lawe whech was joue be moyses but eke 
a mongis pe hethen men as romanes we? dwelt sum folk whech be uery 
inspiractouTi of god had f)is undirstawdyng J^at pei knew weel p&re was no 
god but on make? of heuene and erde, pei knewe eke J>at })oo mawmewtis 
sperd in templis had no part of deite as pe puple supposed but al was errou? 
and mysbeleue. "Whan J>is woman in fastyng and praye? had continued 
J>ese iii dayes sche mette with pe emperou? rith in pe same place called now 
ara celi psmn was it clepid octauianz* chambir and J^ere had sche meruelous 
wordis on to pe emperou? for sche as J»is story seith brout him fidir xxuii uers 
pe first begynnyth. Judicii signum tellus sudore madescit in whech xxuii uers 
in capitales of hem was contejned fis sen tens. lesos cristos tenuyios sother/ 
in latyn f>us. lesus Xpc dei filius saluator, in english J?us. lesus crist pe son 
of god ou? sauyou?. Of fese uers and ]?is sibrile spekith seint austyn in 
pe xuiii book de cimtate dei but sumwhat (diu)) seth he fro )?is cronicle whech 
calleth hi? tiburtinam for austin clepith hi? erutheam. Aftir yese uerse red 
and expowned as J>ei loked up fei sey pe heuene opyn and a grete clernesse 
brith as pe sunne eke an ante? J>ei seyn and on pe aute? a fai? mayde 
standyng and in hir arme a child. Summe bokis sey )?at J^is mayde with hir 
child appered in a sunne and suwme sey fat f)e? appered J>at day })at crist 
was bore iii sunnes and alle iii in schort tyme turned in to on, be whech 
j^ing as J)ei say was undirstande psii in pe godhed a? iii persones and on of 
J?ese iii took ou? kynde of J>is mayde. Othir men sey f)at fis J>ing signified 
who iii kyndes godhed soule and flesch schuld be ioyned in o persone. 
Whan pe emp«rou? had be hold fis a gre while he herd a uoys fro heuene 
souwdyng f)ese wordis. This is pe auter of god to J>is loke J>ou do worchep.'^ 

* 'Irjaods xP^crbs 0€ov "tibs "Xorriip. 

^ 'Tempore Octaviani imperatorig senatores videntes eum tantae pnlchritudinis, quod 
nemo in oculis eius intueri posset, et tantae prosperitatis et pacis, quod totum mundum 
sibi tributarium fecerat, ei dicunt : "Te adorari volumus quia divinitas est in te; si hoc 
non esset, non tibi omnia subirent prospera." Quod renitens indutias postulavit ad se 
sibillam tiburtinam vocavit, cui quod senatores dixerant recitavit. Quae spatium trium 
dierum petiit in quibus artum ieiunium operata est, post tertium diem respondit impera- 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 41 

A non f>e emp^rou? and sibill fett down to ground and ded reuerens and 
deutq to )?at lord Ipat wold schew him swech msmer misteries. All ]?is was 
don on ]>e same day J^at crist was born )?at not only bedlem schuld haue 
knowing of cris>t, ne not only schiphardis in iude, ne not only J>e kyngis of 
pe est, but men of rorae whech we? fer fro Ipe trewe feith. Thoo went pe 
emperou? on to Ipe senate and teld hem of f>e gret memeilis whech he had 
seyn. per" he refused ail fat Ipei profered him and seide he wold be seruauwt 
on to f)is child euyr whil he may lyue. The senate consentid to all J>at is 
don and go horn euery man / musyng up on f)is site whech pe emperou? and f. 369 v 
eke sibili had seyn. Sone aftir he ded make an ante? in pe same place ^ 
and called it ara celi, now it is a ful solempne couente of fre? myenouris and 
be cause we schul not talk peroi in pe secund book for it is neythir on 
of pe uii cherches ne non of pe patnarcal cherchis whech be clepe staciones 
perfor wil I write he? uers whech I red J?ere. Cnnctarum prima que fuit 
orbe sita Noscas quod, cesar tunc struxit octauianws Hanc aram celi sacra 
proles cum patet ei.^ Thus mene f>ei in englisch with declaracioun and 
addiciouTi of moo termes for esie? undirstawdyvig. The first church of all 
cherches J^at we? mad in p\s world is })is. Knowe weel J?at pe emperou? 
octauian mad f>is same. He cleped it pe auter of heuene whech tyme ]?at pe 
mayde with hir child appered on to him. This same place as I fond writen 

tori, " Hoc pro certo erit, domine imperator : ludicii signum tellus sudore madescet, E celo 
rex adveuiet per secla futurus, Scilicet in came presens, ut iudicet orbem." Et cetera 
quae secuntur. Ilico apertum est celum, et maximus splendor irruit super eum. Vidit 
in celo quandam pulcerrimam virginem stantem super altare, puerum tenentem ia 
brachiis; miratus est nimis et vocem dicentem audivit : "Haec ara filii dei est" ; qui statim 
in terram procidens adoravit, quam visionem senatoribus, et ipsi mirati sunt nimis. 
Haec visio fuit in camera Octaviani imperatoris, ubi nunc est ecclesia sanctae Mariae in 
Capitolio. Idcirco dicta est ecclesia sanctae Mariae ara celi ' (Urlichs, Cod. Topog., 
pp. 95-6). See also paper on the legend of Ara Caeli, read before the British and Ameri- 
can Archaeological Society in Rome by Dr. Ch. Hiilsen in February, 1907, published in 
Proceedings of the Society for 1906-7 ; Nichols, Marvels of Borne, pp. 35-8. 

* In the Middle Ages it was believed that Augustus had adored the infant Christ, and 
that Tiberius, Titus, and Vespasian had received baptism. Eusebius, S. Jerome, and 
OrosiuB all believed that Philip was a Christian. This was also believed by Baroniua 
and I'Huet, but disputed by Pagi (see Graf, vol. ii, n. 45, p. 75). It is stated that 
Alexander Severus was not only a Christian, but that he also endowed the Church 
liberally (see Godfrey of Viterbo, Speculum regum, v. 1026-81). Giacomo Malvezzi says 
that during the reign of Philip, the moet Christian Emperor, the church of S. Peter in 
Brescia was dedicated (Chronicon, dist. iii, C. 5). See also Urlichs, Cod. Topog., 
pp. 101-3, which gives a long account of Philip ; Graf, lioma nella memoria, &c., vol. ii, 
p. 75. 

^ Curiously enough, the first line of the inscription (which still exists) is not found here. 
The remainder is quite correct (see Forcella, Isorizioni, &c., vol. i, p. 181). The missing 
line is as follows : — 

Luminis hanc almam matria qui scandis ad aulam : 
and the inscription is cut in Gothic letters. 

G 



42 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

J>ere was conseci-at be anaclete f>e pope whech was fe iiii fro petir. And up 
on to J?is are ])e fayrest graces of white marbil J>at be in })e world for ])ere 
be as I haue mynde ui sco? and eyte.^ 



Of J^at place ]:at stant fast be J>at ^ate called flaminea. cap xuii. 

Fast by J?at 5ate whech ]>ei clepe porta flaminea f>is same octauian did 
make a grete tou? whech he clepid Ipe emperoures casteli whepir it was ]>e 
grete rouwd hiil f)at stant ]>ere and ail pe housyng is distroyed saue uoutis in 
"pe ground or ellis it is a grete tou? of ston Jjat stant nyher the foreseid ^ate it 
is to me a doute.^ But J?is mech fynde I wrytyn J^at he mad J>is werk to J?is 
entent fat emperoures schuld be byried J^ere. Edified it was with grete 
tables of marbil and in Ipoo tables grauen pe conquestis of rome. Therfor 
hope I 3et ]?at ]?is same tou? lpa,t stant jet a grete part is f)at same. He 
called it )?e castelle augustaH,^ Augustus is as mech for to sey as an emperou? 

* The church of S. Maria in Ara Celi was founded about the fifth century near the Temple 
of Juno on the Capitol. Its old name was S. Maria in Capitolio, and it became known by 
its present one about the fourteenth century. The convent is mentioned in the year 882 ; 
in 1250 Innocent IV gave it to the Franciscan Order ; previous to this date it had been 
held by Benedictines. It was reconstructed by Paul III, who connected it with the 
Palazzo Venezia by means of a covered way (only recently destroyed), along the Via della 
Pedacchia and the Via della Ripresa. The tower of Paul III and a great part of the 
convent have been destroyed to make room for the monument to Victor Emanuel 
(Armellini, p. 376 ; Marucchi, p. 258 ; Nibby, p. 341). Our chronicler must have counted 
these steps. At present there are 124. Alterations in the Piazza below them will 
account in all probability for the other four. The following note is interesting : 'Und 
vorderselben kirchen pey dem Capitolium do stet ein nodel darauf ist ein gulder knopf, 
do liegt Octavianus in begraben . . . un des sind in dem Capitolio in die zurstortten maur 
zwifeltig pogen in das neu gepey gemacht, izunt leckt ' (legt) * man das gemein saltz hin 
und in den geschriben ist mit sehr gar alten puchstaben und die das saltz nahet auszgessen 
hat ; noch ein grab darein Gains Publius und sein erben darein gelegt worden, das do dy 
rathherm und das volk schutfen von ir ere und tugend wegen' (MuflFel, p. 52). 

2 There would appear to be some confusion in the author's mind here, and he is not 
certain which is the * tower ' of Augustus ; the tower by the gate, or the Mausoleum 
(now the Augusteo). On referring to De Kossi's Piante iconografiche di Roma, it will be 
seen, in Plate IV, that the mausoleum and the tower by the gate are both marked ; and, in 
the large plate (in sections) at the end of the book, the latter is called the * torre dove stete 
gran tempo il spirito di Nerone '. 

* *Ad portam flaminiam fecit Octavianus quoddam castellum quod vocatur Augustum, 
ubi sepelirentur imperatores, quod tabulatum fuit diversis lapidibus. Intus in girum est 
concavum per occultas vias. In inferiori giro sunt sepulturae imperatorum ; in unaquaque 
sepultura sunt litterae ita dicentes : haec sunt ossa et cinis Nervae imperatoris, et victoria 
quam fecit ; ante quas stabat statua dei sui, sicut in aliis omnibus sepulcris. In medio 
sepulcrorum est absidia ubi sedebat Octavianus ; ibique erant sacerdotes facientes suas 
querimonias. De omnibus regnis totius orbis iussit venire unam cirothecam plenam de 
terra quam posuit super templum, ut esset in memoriam omnibus gentibus Romam venien- 
tibus ' (see chapter xxiv of this part and note ; Urlichs, Cod. Tojpog., pp. 106-7 ; Nichols, 
Marvels of Rome, pp. 80-1). There is a short description ot the Mausoleum Augusti in 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 43 

and J)is name was first 50ue to octauiane for f>is skil for augeo auges is 
as mech to sey as to make a J^ink mo? lpa,r\n it was, and because fis man 
mored ]>e empi? of rome with grete conquestis yerfor ]>ei joue him Ipis name 
and mad eke on to his worchip on of Ipe monthis of J>e ^e? to be? his name. 
This same octauian had a special loue as it semeth on to J»is jate and 
\>\a strete f>at gooth |?erby. The cause of Ip'is spectalte is alegged in a book 
de uiris illustrib^ f»at domimcus de arecio mad ca^ nero, whe? he writith \)\xs 
whanw octauian had wedded his new wyf he brout hi? hom by J>is same 
strete and J^is same 5ate. And happed as sche cam be Ipe weye an egle to 
flye ouyr hir whech had caute a white henne to his pray. The henne had in 
hir mouth a brauwch of laure? with ripe bayes yeron, for euene as sche stood 
for to fede hi? ])e egle caute hir up and whann) he had bo? hir but a lityl 
space he lette henne brauwch and att fail in fis ladies lappe.^ / Mech lokyng f. 370 r 
was on Jjis and busy rounyng'^ be twix J^e lordis what Jjis myth be tokne. The 
grete maystiris of swech sory sciens of magik and sorsry we? councelled 
what pia schuld mene but f»ei wolde 5eue non answe? f>^rinne but comauwded 
J>at ]>e braunche schuld be sette and Ipe henne kepte. And fat 5ere as 
writith J>is man were in Ipat plage of rome moost plenty of hennys f>at euyr 
men herd sey. Eke fro ]?at time forward in )?at partie a mongis he? nine? 
J^ei planted many laureris and jet be Ipere many growyng in euery nine. Be 
fo? in J?e chapit? of jates we seid J^at pis jate is cleped porta £taminea 
of a prouynce J^at hatj f)e same name and )?is jate is Ipe weye to pe same 
prouynce. This was seid fanii) undir auctorite of geruase and jet we sei f>e 
same. But oute of fis may men sone contryue a newe colou? why it is 
cleped flaminea. For flameum flamei ' as seith catholicon is a kerchi or ellis 
a large wympil mad of red silk all f>inne with whech jong women hid her 
face ))at here schameful a baschid chere schuld not gretly be aspied. Lucane 
in his secuwd book berith witnesse of fis exposiciouw whe? he seith. Lutea 
demissis uelarunt flamea uultus. The poete seith J5* with red kerchies J^ei 
hillid he? schamful facis. For luteus is take in grame? both for jelow and 
red. Than conclude I Ipua of \)\s mate? in as mech as }>is lady rood with 
swech a kerchi be ]?is same jate in whech fell on to hi? swech a notable 

Hautle's account of the embassy of Johann Gottfried von Aschhausen, Prince Bishop of 
Bamberg, who visited Rome in 1612-13. It is particularly interesting, because he says 
that he saw the statue of Augustus and that of Agrippina the mother of Nero in the 
building itself {Litterarischer Verein, Stuttgart, 1881, p. 195 et seq.). 

^ The site of this event is the Alta Semita on the Quirinal hill, see SoUetHno di 
Archeologia Cristiana, 1870, p. Ill, 'domum positam in hac urbe regione quarta iuxta 
locum qui appellatur Gallinas albas ' (S. Gregorii Epistolae, lib. Ill, II ep. 17, ed. 
Maurin, t. ii, p. 636 ; Priller, Die Regionen der Stadt Bom, 10-11). 

' whispering, secret consultation. 

' flammeum, a bright-coloured bridal veil. 

G 2 



44 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

pronosticaciouw pernor of hir ueil whech is clepid flameum cleped J?ei Ipe ^ate 
flamea j^ou^ it we? so pat it had J?e same name be fo?. 



Of pe place cleped septisoliuwi. cap xuiii. 

Septi solium ^ alsoo was a famous place it stant fast be seynt gregories 
monasterie a meruelous place of bildyng for in pe west side it is mad 
of grete aschler stones and f>oo ar all to schake as fou^ Ipei schuld falle. The 
oJ?ir iii sides ar open with peleres of marbil so disposed f>at Ipere be distincte 
uii setis be twix pese pileres and so souwdith J>e name of Ipe place,'^ for 
septem is seuene and solium a sete f)at is for to say seuene setis. A boue f>ese 
seuene setis are oJ>ir seuene & eke aboue J^o seuene ar o]?ir seuene })at 
it is merueil who f>o heuy pileres of marbil myth be caried up so hy. Of f)is 
place be thre opynyones wherof J>at it serued. The romanes sey j^at ]>ei 
dwelt j^e? J>e uii wise men whech J>ei clepe pe uii sages. We rede J>at ]>er^ 
we? uii wise men in grece whos names be redy in cronicles. pe first hith 
pitacus, Ipe secund solon, pe J^ird eylon, pe fourt piriandw«, pe fift cleobulus, 
pe sexte bias, and pe uii bienws.' But J>ese men leued not aii at ones at o tyme 
and )?ou5 f)ei had be at o tyme I wene )?at Jjei come neuyr at rome. To f)is sey 
pe romanes fat fis place was mad for oj^ir seuene but pel haue not he? names 
rydyly. Wherfo? I 5eue no grete credens to J?is tale for }?is cause namely for ali 
f. 370 y /pe grete clerkis of rome for pe most party had places of he? owne as seneca 

* The name was corrupted into Septizodium, Septidonium, and later Septemsolium, 
Septem Solia, Septisolium, Septa Solis, Sedes Solis, Septem Viae. For the last see 
Hiilsen's Anonimo Eimiellense. In the sixteenth century, Schola Septem Sapientium, &c. 
(Jordan, Tojpographie, vol. ii, p. 511). In the Mirabilia it is described as the ' templum 
solis et lunae\ but the Magliahecchiana MS. says : * Ad septem solia fuit teinplum omnium 
septem scientiarum, et posito quod aliqui velint dicere templum solis fuisse, vel domum 
Severi Afri ; sed derivatio sua est septem artium scilicet septem omnium scientiarum 
domus ' (Urlichs, Cod. Topog. p. 167). See also Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., Appendix 
to vol. i, p. 569 et seq. 

* * Do ist auch das studium, darynn die siben kunst gefunden sind, und sind siben gaden ' 
' (Stockwerk) ' von seulen und sust gezirt und auf einander gesetzt gar kostlich und ist 

ein tempel gewest der gottin Vesta (*) die ein gottin des feurs gewest ist fiber all offen ' 
(MufFel, p. 58). (*) Vogt notes here : * MufFel scheint hier die sog. Schola xantha und den 
Vestatempel fur ein und dasselbe Gebaude zu halten, was unrichtig ist. Beide standen 
nicht einmal neben einander.' 

' Kanulf Higden gives their names as follows : he names Thales of Miletus as the 
first in vol. iii, pp. 62-8, and on pp. 64-6 he adds : * Ceteri sex sapientes tempore 
transmigrationis ludaicae floruerunt, qui tamen nulla post se scripta reliquerunt. Sed 
quadam morum honestate homines docuerunt. Horum nomina sunt : Pittacus Mity- 
lenaeus, Solon Atheniensis, Chilon Lacedemonius, Periandrus Corinthius, Cleobulus 
Lydius, Bias Prienaeus. Valerius, lihro quarto, capitulo primo, De mensa aurea.* In 
the Trevisa and Harleian MSS. Bias is called Bias Pieneus or Pienus. Our author has 
copied the names but has omitted Thales (of whom a separate and longer account is previously 
given by Higden) ; and, to make up seven wise men, he makes two of Bias, viz. Bias and Bienus. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 45 

tulliws caton boys ^ and eke salustius. | An othir opinion red I in dommicus 
book de arecio ]?at it was clepid septisolium for whanw octauian cam horn fro 
aii his conquestis and was in pees with al J>e world pe romanes ordeyned J)e? 
f)at he was receyued with uii sundry worchippis peraiientu? of euery sciens of 
J^e uii liberal was mad sum special pagent in comendacioun of fe man. | I red 
eke a nopir tale at seynt gregories monasteri be fe schewyng of an englisch 
monk. It was and is writyn J)ere f>at seynt gregory occupied ))is place with 
grete maisteris of all seuene sciens at his cost fat what man wold com lerne 
ony of Ipe seuene he schuld frely lerne in lpa,t place. 



Of ])B.i place whech is clepid archus pWci tarquini. cap. xix. 

Archus prici tarquinii is an othir place and in uery suyrte I wot not 
where it standith.'^ The descripcioun of J^e place schal I write as I fynde 
leuynge pe soile for to be soute of hem J?at wil walk and take heed mo? 
bisily Ip&n I ded. Martyn ' seith in his cronicle J?at it stood be twix pe 
mount auentyn and pe grete paleys and it had as he seith too jates on in to 
)?e est an of)ir in to Ipe west menielously disposed as we schal trete aftirward. 
Martyn clepith f>is place circus prici & Ipe cronicle clepith it archus prici. 
Archus is a arche rered for a uictou? circus is a place mad for rewnyng 
of hors. This place was of ful grete beute and so meruelously mad j^at fouj "jpere 
stood neiiir so many men Iperin schuld neuiV man lette olpir to see f)oo games 
whech we? exercised J^e?. Al a boue we? arches mad with gold and precious 
stones and a boute foo arches was sitting mad for women for to se pe grete 
dedis f>at we? exercised Ipere in the kalend s of may. In fe myddis of }?ese 
arches were too by columpnes fe lesse had Ixxxuii feet on heith, and "pe 
grette? had ccxxii. Al a boue J>is hy pile? stood a hors of metali gilt ful 
weel. And a nof>ir hors on pe o jate whech we? made with swech 

^ ?Boethius. 

^ The author appears never to have seen this monument, but it is shown in Plate III of 
De Rossi's Piante iconografiche, and would seem to have been close to the chordhes of 
S. Sabina and S. Alexis. 

■ The Martin here referred to is probably Martinus Pol onus, who was a native of 
Poland, although some authorities say that he was a Scotsman and others a Frenchman. 
He was of the Order of S. Dominic, and was penitentiary to John XXI and Nicholas III. 
The latter nominated him Archbishop of Gnesen in Poland ; but, before he could take 
possession of his charge, he died at Bologna, on June 27, 1278. He wrote a chronicle 
which was afterwards continued on to 1320, which led to the belief that he lived up 
to that date. But this must have been the work of a later writer, for Martin himself says, 
in the preface to his work ; ' Ego F. Martinus domini papae poenitentiarius & capellanus, 
ex diversis chronicis & gestis summorum pontificum & imperatorum, praesens opusculum 
usque ad lohannem XXI papam deduxi inclusive.' John XXI died in 12/7 (Moreri, 
Dictionnaire historique, Paris, 1732). 



46 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

countenauwce J)at it Bemed uerily on of hem schuld renne a geyn Ipe 
oJ)ir. Eke al a boue f)ese werkis was a sete for pe emp«rou? whann he 
wold see fese pleyis.^ But all: )5is is down and as I seide be fo? I am 
in doute whejjir it was f>is place or no\vt for pere be of>ir higgingis whech to 
my dom ^ we? mo? likly fan fis J^at swech werkis fschuld be pere. 



Of J>e place bi fo? seiwt petiV kirk cleped cantari^s xx 

There is a uoide place by fo? seynt petir cherch closed in al with 
housyng and in pe myddis peroi stant a fay? disposed werk sumwhat 
lich a cundite. This werk J»ei sey mad symon magus whech was grete enmy 
to petir and poule and gretly meynteyned be nero thei clepe J)is same werk 
cantarus' and cantarus as sey auctores is a uessel in whech men be? 

1 Here the author is quoting verbatim from the * descriptio plenaria ' of the Mirahilia, 
which he calls the chronicle in this connexion (Urlichs, Cod. Topog., pp. 1 10-1: 'Circus 
Prisci . . . visebant ludum '). Nichols thinks the writer is referring to the Circus Maximus 
(Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 103-5, n. 211). 
^ * dom ', Norw. dialect = deeming, judgement. 

' Mufifel mentions the Cantharus as heaving been brought by evil spirits from Troy to 
Constantinople, and from Constantinople to Rome. It was then placed above the 
Pantheon, and afterwards removed to the Atrium of S. Peter's. He describes it as : * auf 
die vi merblein seul gesetzt worden und ist sunst mancherley zir darumb gesetzt von eren 
pfaben' (pfauen) 'und tyeren darein gossen gar kostlichen ' (Muffel, p. 19). * Also wew 
man hin uflf kompt so heist es im paradeis, da ist in der mitt ein knopfF von messig 
gross (?) der stundt uff d'kirche Maria rotunda die well sie was ein tempel der aptgoter 
da man sie weihet flirt der teuffel den knopfF enweg und warff in in dye Tibur zu Rom 
und man hat in durch wunder her gesetzet zu einem zeychen' {Ein BilchUn, &c., 
Strassburg, 1500, p. c ii). [Two copies of Mn Buchlin have been consulted. One is in 
the Bodleian Library, the other in the British Museum. These are apparently of two 
diflFerent editions. The Museum copy has the following words written on the fly-leaf : 
'Auctor huius tractatw* est Onophrius Pan vinius, Verona, Italius Eremita Augustinianus, 
supposito nowine StephanMg Blanck, Passavianus, edidit hie librum ao 1550' (sic) 
* occasione lubilaei sub Alexandre VI papatus ipsiw* anno 9.' When quoting from 
the British Museum copy the letters B.M. will be added to the title of the book in the 
footnotes.] As to the manner in which the Cantharus came to S. Peter's, see Stacions of 
Rome, E. E. Text Society, 1867 ; Vernon MS., ab. 1370 ; and PorJcington MS., No. 10, 
ab. 1460-70, p. 20. 

Uppon his heued . a couert of bras. 

To seynte petres . blowen hit was. 

With a wynt of helle . as I. trouwe 

For no mon mihte hit . pider haue prowe. 

per hit stont . I. telle J^e. 

5if ))ou go Jjider . pon may hit se. 
See also Graf, Roma nella memoria, &c., vol. i, p. 132, and n. 67. There is a description 
of the Cantharus in the Mirahilia, in which the place is called the Paradise of S. Peter 
(Urlichs, Cod. Topog., pp. 105-6 and 118-19). See also Dr. Hiilsen's full and interesting 
article on the Cantharus of old S. Peter's, and the ancient Pigna fountain (Hiilsen, 
Romische Mittheilungen, 1904, p. 87 sq.). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 47 

wyn with / merth and uphap f)is fals man whech was gretly exercised in f. 371 r 
wischcraft and ful familia? with spiritis mad swech grete uesseles for to 
meue and stere. This uessel was arayed with meruelows pileris of porphiri 
ston with tables of fay? marbil with copir platis anameled and gilt with 
flouris birdis and delphuns of meruelous werk whech had dyuers spoutes 
rewnyng with watir. In fe myddis of Jjis werk now stant J>e pynot J^at was 
sumtyme a curyng on to fat place clepid f>oo dayes pantheon now sea maria 
rotunda. This piuot had sumtyme certeyn pipes of led in whech watir was 
caried ful sottilly to alle men pat had nede Iperot. And a grete part of Jjt 
same watir was caried to \>e emperouris batth ^ be sotiii ymaginaciones but 
prtncipaly be nygromawcie and wischcraft of J?is forseid man simon magus 
whech was ^oue al to swech Ipinggis. But now be all fese fingis distroyed 
for yere is left no ping of swech sotiltees. 



Off pe sepulturis of Romulus and Remus, cap xxi. 

The? is eke a place be twix seynt petir cherch and casteli aungell whech 
Jjei clepe aruagia ^ whech is as mech to say as a place in a feld for aruus in 
pe latyn tunge is a feld. In J>is same place stant a grete hili mad of ston 
in whech romulus body lith. And fis hili was wallid a boute sum tyme 
lich a warde of a casteli with grete marbiii stones but cristen men at com- 
aundment of pe pope in elde tyme took a wey ))oo stones & mad perot pe 
grecis and pe pauimewt be for seynt petir cherch. It had eke a nofir waii 

' The ' emperouris bath ' is described by Adinolfi, in his chapter on the Acquedotto 
Sabbatino. It is also mentioned by Petrus Mallius, in his account of the Vatican under 
Alexander III, and was in the position assigned to it by our chronicler. In course of 
time its name was confused with that of the pilgrims' bath. It was close to the 
Cantharus (Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 161). 

' Dr. Hulsen has very kindly furnished the following note : * The word " arvagia " must 
be a corruption of Almachia, and the author must have had a guide-book similar to the 
Anonymm Magliabecchianus, who begins his description of the Vatican territory with 
the words (Urlichs, Cod. Topoy., p. 161; Jordan, Topographie,\\, 626) : "in Almachia, 
id est iuxta S. Mariam Transpontinam, est meta, quae ut dicitur fuit sepulcrum Romuli ". 
It was easy to invent the etymology from " arvum ", but I find no other mention of it. The 
name Almachia itself is a corruption from Naumachia (see my dissertation II Oaianum 
e la Naumachia, p. 24). The "great hill made of stone" is the Meta Rorauli itself; it 
was believed by some authors that Pope Donus (676-8) took away the marble decora- 
tions when •' atrium ecolesiae S. Petri qui est ante ecclesiam in quadriporticum magnis 
marmoribus stravit ". See Duchesne's note to the life of Donus in the Liher Pontijicalis. 
MufFel thinks that the shape of the tombs (pyramidal) was made so "in der meynung das 
kein hunt auf yr grab kummen soil ". He also calls the bridge of S. Angelo the 
"donerpruck ", saying : " die ander nodel stet pey der Tyber prucken die toner prucken 
genannt, die ein keyser fur das wetter machen liess, dem geweissagt was, dtis er vom 
weter erschlagen solt warden, und die hat ein loch oder spelunk ; do ging er eins tags, do 
es ser heytter und schon am hymel was unter das loch ; von stund an erschlug in daa 
wetter" (Mutfel, Michaeli's edition, in Romische Mittheilungen, 1888, p. 260, n. *).' 



48 YE SOLACE OF PTLGRIMES 

with outeii yia as a dobil warde and fast by was a strete called tiburtineum 
and eke a grete market place to ward J?at hili f>e? seynt petzV was crucified 
but ali is turned now ad seruyth in bettir use. In ]?ese stones of Ipese 
walles was mech grauyng of certeyn hethen stories with pecokkis and oj^ir 
birdis of metall ful weel gilt and a bull in pe myddis ful weel made of J?e 
same werk whech is but wast for to speke of as now for as I seide al is 
chauTiged and turned in to bettir use. The graue of lemus was touchid 
be fo?. 



Of fe paleis longing to traiane 

adr 
cap 

Eke ]?e paleys of traiane and adriane J^e emperouris was ful costful werk 
of metall ad of stones with dyu^rs memoriales of elde stories whech we? 
longe to speke of. | But o fing in sp^cml was J^ere whech me lykith gretly 
to declare. For in J>is place were tables of brasse in whech was wrytyn J)e 
fraternite and f)e frenchip whech was mad be twix J?e jewis and Ipe romanes 
in iudas machabeus tyme. And be cause J?e bible spekith of f>is mate? 
yerfor wil we haue recors on J>at same book and translate on to 50W f>oo 
wordes J?at he hath pnmo machaj^ uiii. Judas machabeus he seith herd 
speke of J?e grete name of pe romanes who J>at f>ei we? strong of powe? and / 
f. 371 V gentiH: in helping of ali men pat wold pray hem of frenschip. Eke he herd 
speke of }>e grete batayles whech f>ei had in galys ^ who pei had ouyr come 
hem and put hem undyr tribute and of hem of spayn who J>ai we? obedient 
on to pe romanes to sende hem both gold & syiuyr with of»ir metallis whech 
a? fouride in J)at lond. pei herd speke eke of asie and lydie and many ofir 
cuntres whos kyngis & dukis pe romanes had ouyr come with powe? and 
good counsel! in so mech J>at whom ]3ei wold prefer? f>ei schul regne in 
prosperite and whom pe wold oppresse pe schuld neuyr rise. FerJ?e? mo? 
J>at pere was no kyng a mongt* hem ne no man usurped to we? no crowne in 
dommacioun ouir pe puple but J?ei had cccxx councellouris with whos witte 
ali ]?ese iomayes we? doo, saue )>at ))ei made special coTzimissioun to man 
for iornay or for je? to do certeyn 'pmgis at he? comaundmewt. | Judas 
heryng ali Jjis worchip of hem sent on to hem his embassiatouris with 
swech a message. Of ]?ese embassiatoures on of hem hith eupolemy pe oJ?ir 
hith eleazar.' These too men come to rome in to pe court a jRongis })ese 
counselloures and swech wordes fei seide on to hem. Judas machabe and 

^ Edge of MS. cut here | for purpose of binding. ^ Qalicia. 

* Jason, the son of Eleazar. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 49 

his breJ>Wn and eke ail Ipe puple of f>e iewis whech dweli a boute ieilm sent 
us hidir on to 50U to make comenauwt of pees ferme and stable be twix 50U 
and hem J?at ]>ei schuld be accept in to ^our felawchip & 50 schuld entre 
hem in 5011? memoriales as 50U? felawis and 50U? frendes. These tjdjnggis 
{>at pese men brout5 we? weel accepted on to Ipe romanes so fe? forth f)at 
f>ei wrote J?ese same comenauwtts in too tables of bras and on of hem 
remayned at rome in J?e same place of whech we speke of now, and J>e oj^ir 
sent J>ei to ierlm as for a perpetual memorye. And })is is J>e sentens of J^at 
epistill writyn in J?ese tables. Euyr be it weel on to Ipe romanes and to 
pe puple of jewis both in Ipe se and in pe lond J^e enmy and J^e swerd euyr 
be fer? fro hem. And if it so fulle fat pere come ony grete batayle on to pe 
romanes or to ony oJ?ir naciones whech are ioyned in felawchip on to hem 
pe puple of pe iewis schal help hem as tyme and space may serue with 
trewe hert and hool enUnt. And pe same romanes ne non fat longe on to 
hem schul not 5eue on to pe iewis nefir whete ne armou? ne siluyr ne 
gchippis but fei schul help pe romanes and fite and be gouerned aftir pe 
romanes comauwdment. Also if fe? come ony batayle or ony distresse on 
to pe puple of pe iewis pe romanes schul ^ hem as tyme and space wil sufiTyr 
and to foo helperes pe iewis schul neythir jeue whete ne armou? ne syluyr 
ne bred as it pleseth pe romanes and fei schul kepe he? comauwdmentis 
with outen ony deceyt. The same romanes wrote eke on to pe puple of 
iewis f>at if ye romanes or ellis pe iewis list aftirward to sette mo? to f>is 
writyng or lesse ony ping J?at is ferinne fei schul do fis at good leyse? and 
good tyme aftir dis/posiciouw of both parties and all fat it writyn or schal f. 372 r 
be writyn schal be hald grate and rate.^ 



Of pe conk in whech constantin was baptized, xxiii. 

The conk in whech constantin was baptized stant at seynt jon lateranensts 
not in pe same place whe? it stood in tyme of his baptem but in a litil 
chapeli on pe rith hand as we come in gratid ail with tymbir. This conk 
is hewyn owt of a blak ston schapyn lich a hoi trow in whech appere ^et pe 
swames of his ' whech tyme f ei fell from his body. Off fis uessel who it 
was arayed sum tyme spekith domniicus de arecio in his book oftyn allegged 

^ * help ' in margin of MS. 

' The beginning and end of this chapter are taken from the Descriptio plenaria 
(Urlichs, Coil. Topog., pp. 108-9). For the middle part see 1 Maccabees, ch. viii. An 
account of the church of S. Basilius will be found in Armellini, p. 151. Its old name 
W!i8 S. Basilio di Arco Noe, and it is very ancient. Nichols (pp. 91-3) thinks that the 
remains of the Basilica Ulpia are referred to as being the palace of Trajan and Hadrian. 

' ' lep? ' in margin of MS. 

H 



50 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

in ]?is mane?. That same uessel in whech constantyn was baptized f>at on 
uulgare name is clepid a conke it was hewyn owt of a blak ston polchid as 
brith as geet. Whecb ston constantyn in worchip of his baptem hillid with 
syluyr both with oute and with inne as fer? as f e watir went in tyme of 
his wasching. In Ipe myddis of Ipe uessel he ded sette a fay? pile? of porphiri 
ston up on whech pile? he sette a laumpe of pure gold whech weyid lii 
pouwd and in f)is lau??ipe all ester tyme was norchid a lith J>at brent with 
non ofir licou? but with bawme. A boue on ])e brmke of J^is uessel he 
sette a lombe al of gold whech with sotil gemetry pored watir down in to 
]>e uesseft and )5is same lombe weyid a hundred pou^d and Ixx. In ]?e 
rith part of \>e same uessel he sette an ymage of ou? sauyou? ihu crist 
whech weyid a hundred pouwd & seuenety all of clene siluyr. And on f)e 
]yft side of Ipe same uessel sette he a ymage of seynt jon baptist of Ipe same 
metal! and of pe same with * holdyng a scrowe in his hand in whech was 
wrytyn ecce agnus dei ecce qui tollit pgcca^cc muyidi. iEke a boute J^e brynk 
be twix J»ese ymages we? sette uii bestes whech we clepe hertis ich of hem 
with a spoute poryng watir in to Ipe uesseli and ich of hem was jotyn of 
pu? gold Ipe wite of iiii sco? pouTid. All pese iowelles and al f>is aray is 
now goo and a way as J>is man wrytith eythir with fals couetyse of prestis 
whech haue mys spent it, or ellis with robbyng of tyrauwtes whech haue 
conqwerd rome oft sythe and so ]>e uesseli at l?is day stant naked and ba?. 



Of yat place cleped omms terra, cap xxiiii. 

As we goo to seynt paules stant a hill on ye rith hand whech J?ei clepe 
omnis tgrra and f>is is pe cause whi it is clepid soo. In f>at tyme J?at 
romanes had lordchip of all Ipe world for Ipe moost party pei mad a con- 
stituciouTi in he? senate J>at ail fat puple whech was undir he? dominaciouw 
schuldbrynge with he? tribute certeyn pottis ful of erde suwme mo? summe 
lesse aftir J>e quantite of J?e regiouw and "jpe distau9^ce of pe place, pis usage 
lested many ^eres and )?at is sene })e? for J^e hill is gret and brod and at 
))is day if a man delue in )?at hill he schal fynde all pe erde ful of schordis 
f. 372 V of pottis.^ / Up on fis hill is gret ordinau^ice on fastinging Sunday for J>e? 

* 1 weight. 

^ In a prose commentary on the Speculum regum of Godfrey of Viterbo (Pertz, Script., 
vol. xxii, p. 76) we read as follows : * Sciendum est quod imperator Antoninus Pius erat 
mitis et benignus, avaritiam non habens nee amans. Ideo ab omni populo romano imperio 
subiecto tributum accipere noluit, sed terram de omnibus regnis mundi loco tributi 
apportari iussit in signum obedientie et montem Rome qui dicitur omnis terre iuxta 
sepulcrum Remi de eadem terra fecit.' ' E tributi venivano a Roma in vasi di terra 
invetriati chon diversi cholori, et questo providdono e romani per fare di ci5 perpetua 
memoria perchfe come el tribute era giunto a Roma gittavano et rompevano il vaso in uno 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 51 

be grete cartis with bugles Iperin for to drawe hem and ])e cartis ful of 
swyn, I alle Jjis ordinauwce is sette a boue f>e hiil and }pere come pe romanes 
with armoii? and swerdis in he? best aray for he f'at may cacch a mussel of 
flesch )?at day he is a man for euyr. Thus sodeynly pe cartes go down and 
f)e men be redy with speris for to go? pe bestis so what for Ipe grete 
descence and sodeyn fro Ipe hill and hurt of f)e bestis and cry of Ipe men J?e 
ge? brekith and Ipe bestis are loos a ful onlikly game me f>out5 it was whe? 
)?at flesch is hewe with rusty heren^ and summe men hurt and summe dede 
but j?is is he? elde game whech Ipei can not leue.^ A nothir game is pere of 

Inogho di che apare uno grandissimo monte apresso a quella porta che va a Santo Pagholo 
dove h il sepolcro di Remo, che si dice la meta di Santo Pagholo ' (Libro Imperiale, iii, 
c. 4, Cod. Casanat., d, i, 4, p. 62. Cf. Graf, vol. i, p. 153). * Item neder wart off der 
seluer hant zo der stat lijcht eyn kleyn berchelgen, Omnis terra geheysschen, ertrijch van 
alle der werlt. As do die Romer alle die werlt vnder sicli hadden ind eyn yeclich lant yen 
tzyns ind tribuyt geuen moyst, dae sij nu goltz ind siluers genoich hatten, begerden sij van 
eyner jeclicher lantschaff der gantzer werlt zo tzynse zo brengen eycen pot voll ertrijchs 
van der seluer lantschafft. Dae worffen sij die potte vol erden all off eynen houff. Uss 
der meniiichueldicheyt waert ein berch geheysschen Omnis terra ' (Ritter A. von Harff, 
Pilgerfahrt in den JaJiren 1496-9, p. 21, Dr. E. von Groote, Coin, 1860). * Die dritt 
haubt kirch ist zu sant Pauls zweltfpoten usserhalb der stat by dem thor do man usz hin 
get zu sant pauls ist der perg der von aller welt erdrich gemacht ist worden. ] Do di 
romer gutes gen6g hetten und nicht goldes oder silbers begerten do geboten sie zu geben 
fur den zinsz | des ertnchs usz aller welt in krugen do wiirffen sie di kr^g uff ein hauffen 
usz der menig wart ein perg | ' (Em Biichlin, &c., Strassburg, 1500, p. C v. See also 
Urlichs, Cod. Topog., p. 143). * Testaccio che h uno monte pocho meno chel (che '1) monte 
di Sancto Miniato di Firenze fatto solo di vasi rotti di terra cocta ne' quali i suditi de' 
Romani quando signoreggiavano il mondo recavano e tributi o vero e censi et voti che gli 
erano i Romani gli facevano portare in su detto monte' (Rucellai, II Giiibileo del- 
Vanno santo 1460, Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 578). 

* * heren ', obs. form of iron. 

^ * La seguente Dominica (Quinquagesima) si ragunavano in Campidoglio i pih nobili 
cittadini tutti adornati di ricche e preziosi vesti, e di Ik tutti insieme partivansi in pompa 
prendendo la via di Testaccio, ordinati nel modo seguente. Ogni Rione aveva il suo carro 
trionfale colla sua insegna tirato da quattro bianchi cavalli e seguito da dieci giovani giuo- 
catori montati sopra cavalli riccamente bardati, e cadauno di essi, i quali erano de' piti 
ricchi e nobili cittadini, accompagnato era di sei staflReri, riccamente vestiti con uniformi 
livree. II Rione di Trastevere andava innanzi e seguivano cosi per ordine tutti gli altri. 
Appresso i giuocatori venivano i Capo-Rioni con dieci staflSeri per ciascuno con preziose 
vesti e preceduti da tamburri e trombette. Seguivangli i Maestri Giustizieri, i Riforma- 
tori dello studio, i due Giudici del Senatore, il Capitano dell'appellazione, ed il putto 
della Giustizia. Ne venivano di poi i due Cancellieri del popolo, i Conservatori ed il 
Senatore, i quali accompagnavano trecento soldati a piedi col loro capitano a cavallo. 
Chiudevano finalmente la pompa una folia di gentiluomini Romani e Forestieri tutti a 
cavallo riccamente addobbati di scarlatto e ganzo di oro. Gionta questa pompa trionfale nel 
Prato di Testaccio, lasciavansi dal monte tredici carri tirati dai tori, in ciascuno de' quali 
erano legati quattro porci, e vi s'innalzava un' aata dalla quale pendea unacanna di drappo 
rosato. Appena giungevano i carri nel piano che quei diversi giuocatori di rione sguai- 
nate le spade vi correvano sopra per rapire i porci ed il drappo ; ed urtandosi e conibat- 
tendo tra loro, era questa una vera battaglia nella quale restavan feriti non pochi ed alcuna 
volta anche morti. A questa battaglia succedeva il giuoco della Cuccagna, che consisteva 
in molti travi innalzati unti di sevo, e sh di essi montava a gara la plebe per rapire le 

II 2 



52 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

more gentili sport for f»ei ridyn fro }>e foot of )?is hiii to f>e mou?it can ale 
and who ride best schal haue a cloth of silk to his reward as we seyd be fo? 
whan we spoke of fe same liiH. 



Of ]?e gouernouris in rome fro romulits on to tarqmniMS. cap. xxu. 

Now wil we mak recapitulaciou** of all }pe gouernouris of rome from 

romulus on to frederik and specialy in f)is chapet? of J^e uii kyngis fat 

1 regned J^e? first. Romulus as we seide be fore was first kyng and gouernowr 

of rome aftir tyme fat it was broute on to a monarchic for as we declared in 

cibarie che vi erano appese, che eran di quelle procacciatesi nella cerca fatta per la cittk. 
Compivasi di poi la festa con corse di cavalli, correndosi dal monte Testaccio fine alle 
faldi deir Aventino, ed il premio dei vincitori erano trenta caniie di panno rosato. Non 
sempre questo giuoco si usava di fare nel tnodo istesso, ma si variava alcune volte, come 
pure avveniva dei giuochi che si usava di fare nella Piazza Navona, i quali erano un 
simile di questo, e che io per non essere soverchiamente lungo avviso non essere qui pre- 
gio di fame la descrizione ' (Magni, Biscorso sopra gli spettacoli, le fesfe, ed il lusso 
degli Italiani nel secolo xiv, Koma, 1818, pp. 28 sq.). See also Gregorovius, vol. vi, 
part ii, pp. 709-10 and p. 670 for Adam de Usk. In Adam de Usk's (1377-1421 a.d.) 
Chronicon, 2nd ed., 1904, by Sir E. Maunde Thompson, K.C.B., pp. 94-5 and 269-71, 
the following full account is found written in the year 1404 : * Romani circa Dominicam 
in Quinquagesima, cum capitibus regionum ad agonem, tanquam fallerata phalanx, con- 
veniunt ; et iuxta id beati Pauli dictum : '* omnes quidem currunt," &c., probravio forti- 
ter certant. Tres magnos anulos argenteos, ad unam altam cordam ligatos, ponunt, et in 
equis, ut lanceas in eos mittant, currunt, inde huiusmodi anulos habituri. In isto ludo 
urbis senator ' (cenator in MS.), * duo conservatores, et septem regentes eiusdem in magno 
apparatu, stipiti et securi pro cediciosorum decapitacione precedentibus, intersunt. 
Eodem ludo taberne crapula, sed miserie epula, cum indomita luxuria, ut Belial et Bel- 
fagor filii, quam bestialiter discurrunt Romani. Deinde in ipsa Dominica, ludaeoruin 
expensis, ad quatuor currus, octo apros vivos continentes et scarleto rubio contectos, ad 
sunimitatem montis omnis terre, ideo quia ex omni terra mundi in signum universalis 
dominii illuc allata compositus, octo ponuntur tauri indomiti, et, per descensum montis 
dissolutis curribua et bestiis liberis, omnia cedunt Romanorum in predam ; et tunc quili- 
bet ac si dissoluto impetu ' (infetu in MS.) 'dictas bestias invadit suo instrumento. 
Itaque, si quis aliquid de huiusmodi preda uxori non attulerit, quasi miser efc vecors ad 
Sancti Panchardi festum cum ea non coibit. Et sepius in huiusmodi discursu cedes et 
vulnera, et presertim curtesanis, propter uxores et filias sibi exosis, inferunt. Postea tres 
pannos, primum aureum pro melioribus, secundum argenteum pro secundis equis, et ter- 
cium sericum pro equabus velocius currentibus, in lancee ponuntur summitate ; et, si quig 
huiusmodi equester prius eos tetigerit, eos pro se in bravium reportat. Et demum a dicto 
bestiarum incursu, aliqui cum modicis frustis, aliqui cum intestinis et stercoribus in gladio- 
rum mucronibus, pomparum cum vilitate transeunt ad uxores.' ' Et in detto luogho si 
fa la domenica innanzi al carnesciale una certa festa di tori et porci con carro per memoria 
di certi giudei che solevano ogn' anno fare raorire in tale di * (!). * Et in sur uno prato a pib 
del detto monte di Testaccio in tale di fanno correre tre pali due con cavagli ed uno con 
cavalle et vannovi e caporioni con molte genti armate et a pife et a cavallo et la detta 
festa pagano e giudei ch' abitano a Roma che costa scudi 600' (Ruceilai, 7Z Giubileo 
delV anno eanto 1450, Arohiv. St. Pat.^ 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, pp. 578-9). See also an 
interesting article, entitled * The Carnival of Rome in the Middle Ages ', by Count D. Gnoli, 
in the Giornale d' Italia, Rome, Feb. 22, 1909. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 63 

\>e first chapet? Ipere were many smale kyrigis be fo? regnywg on ];e smale 
parties. Of )?is romulus both of his dedes and his deth and eke his deite is 
spoke be fo? yerfor he? it schal be left. H. The secund kyng at rome aftir 2 
romulus was clepid numa pompilius. This man regned in rome xli jere in 
J?at same tyme fat ezechie was kyng in iury. This kyng of hye prouydens 
ordeyned f>at knytis schuld haue he? wages of pe comown errarie f>at J»ei 
Echuld J?e mo? absteyne fro extorsioun for mech of his tyme he had pees 
witj f>e regiones fat stood a boute him. This kyng eke addid on to fe jere 
too monthis januai i and februari for pe ^e? be fo? his tyme be gan at march. 
Eke f>e first mony fat was mad of siluyr was mad be his a uys for he made 
f e werkmen to graue f erin his ymage and write "perin his name. And perfor 
in pe latyn tonge pe name of pe money was deryued oute of f is lordis name. 
For nuwmMs in latyn tuwge is as mech to sey as mony and f is mawnes name 
was numa so oute of numa cam nummus.^ He assyned eke x wise men to 
write oute solon his lawes and fat f ei myth be used in fat puple he sette 
hem in longe declaraciouTz in xii parties whech f ei clepe bibliotekes. The 
names of f ese men fat had f is labou? a? f ese. Appius, Claudius, Gemiciw*, 
Ueteriws, Julius, Maniliits, Suspiciws, Sixtus, Curaciws, Romulus postumtt^. 
This last romulus postumws hath too names in f e cronicles for different fro 
f e first romulus. U. The f irde kynge fat regned in rome hith tullius 3 
hostiliug and he regned eke fat same tyme in whech manasses was kyng in 
iude. This man . . . 

Here part of the MS. has been lost. 

/uerus regned uii jere. This man was of euel condicioun and sp^czaly in f. 373 r 
gloteny and leachery in so mech fat he wedded his stepmodyr called iulia 
he deyid in f e cite whech fei clepe edissa. U. Than was an emperowr thei 22 
clepe martinws whech regned but ^ere for he and his son on day lost 
both he? hedis. Of fis marines name and of fe place of his deth is grete 
contradiccioun a mongis f ese writeres. Suwime sey he hith martinws summe 
sey macrinw« summe sey he deyed in inglond summe sey in rome all fis leue 
I to diecusse a monges f e rederw of fis book. H. A nof ir antony regned 23 
aftir him a man of cursed lyf ferfor was he slayn and his modir to gidir 
whan he had regned iii ^er. In his tyme lyued seynt kalixte fe pope of 
whom 5e schul he? aftir. U. Than was Alisaundre emperou? whech regned 
xiii 56?. This man be in stauns of his modir marnmeas and teching of origene 
whech cam to rome to couerte hi?, was mad so good on to cristen men fat 

* Compare Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon, vol. iii, pp. 72-4, as regards Numa's 
invention of money. 



64 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

he suffered hem to haue he? couwcelles and he? prayerls be hem self. 
NeuzVJjelasse in his tyme fe schrewed officeres of his killid many martires 
seynt urbane cecile tiburce and ualeriane. U. Maximianits regned yann) 
iii 56? suwme bokis calle him maximinws. Ther is no gret wrytyng of pis 
man but j^at for mis gou^rnaunce he was slayn and his son eke whech was 
but 5ong of age. ^. Aftir him was gordian emperou? ui 56? he regned and 
slayn he was eke aftir he cam fro perse. In his tyme lyued fat grete write? 
often allegged in bokes J^ei clepid him affricanus. U. Philippe }>e elde? 
regned yann) and philippe his sone aftir him Ipe regne of hem both is connted 
to gidir for f»ei regned but uii 5ere. Thei both we? baptized of a raartir J^ei 
clepe poncius and aftirward slayn of J?e boost on of hem at rome Ipe othir at 
uerone. Thei beqwoth in hir deth all he? tresou? on to seynt sixte whech 
was pope ^ f>at tyme pat he Echuld dispose f>is good to Ipe worchip of god 
and sustenau?^ce of po? men and seynt laurence at assignaciou^i of his 
maystir sixte departed Ipis tresou? aboute rome whech was grete cause of 

28 his martyrdam. II. Decius was next emperou? a wise man of wer? but to 
cristen men an odious tyrauwt. For philippe pe elde? sent him in to frauwce 
be cause f>ei rebelled & whan he herd sey f>at decius had redressed all f)ing 
weel & was comy^ig homward a geyn he for to do him a singule? worchip 
met with him at uerone and sone aftir Ipe same decius killid his lord a slepe 
in his bed. This herd sey Ipe ^onge? philippe })at was at rome he took J?ann 
al j^is tresou? to seynt sixt. Of pis decius is mech strif in cronicle for sum 
sey })at seynt laurence was not in his tyme and it is excused fus fat fis man 
is clepid decius cesar & not decius impe^-ator so be fat exposiciouw pere we? 
too. Summe othir men say fat galiene fe emperou? hith deciws alsoo. 

29 U. Ualeriane was aftir him and he regned with his son galiene xu 56?. 
This man was manly in f e beginni^ig but aftirward he was 5oue to nice and 

f. 373 V mech/wrecchidnesse and so was his son galiene. Summe auctoris sey fat 
be fo? f ese too we? of ir too emiperoniis whech f ei calle gallus and uolusianus. 
I suppose fat f ei regned but litil tyme and f erfor f e writeres charged not 
her bokes with them, or elles f ei were emperouris extraordinari. For we 
rede of swech many of on glodius fat was a oribile etere and diynke? and 
of an othir diadumeus fat was as f ei sey bo? with a cappe on his heed. 
This ualerianws of whom we spoke went in to perse and fere for f e grete 
blood of martires whech he had spilt was taken of f e kyng of perse whan he 
had take him he put oute both his eyne and kepte him to f is office fat whan 
so euyr he schuld ride f is ualerian schuld ly down and he schuld set his feet 
on his bak whan he wold take his hors. This say and herd galiene his son 

^ From this point in the MS. the word * pope ' is frequently erased, so as to make it 
illegible. Wherever this occurs in future the word will be marked thus : * pope*'. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 55 

|3at was left at rome and fat caused fat lie was not so cruel to cristen men 

as he was be fore. II. Aftir fese regned claudi^^g fe secund i 5ere and uiii 31 

monthes. This man aftir a uictori whech he had in macedony was sone deed. 

^. Thann) aftir him regned quintiiiv^ his brof ir but uii dayes for he was 32 

slayn a non. ^. Aurelianws was J?o emperou? and in his tyme cristen men 33 

had mech persecucioun most s^ecidl in frauwce for fere was he him selue & 

exercised mech tyranny e and fat fai? cite whech fei clepe orgliaunce he 

named it aftir him. U. Tacitus was f ann) a wis man and a redy but sone 3A 

ded he regned f e? uii monthis. 51. Thanw regned on probus ui jer and Sci 

iii monthis. He was bore in perse as summe men sey but f e trewe? opiniouTi 

is fat he was a roman. In his tyme roos fat heresi whech fei clepe maniches 

of a prmce of hem cleped manes a geyns whom seynt austen laboured ful 

strongly and fat in many bokis. ^. Tho regned clarus and his too sones 36 

carini^s and numerianus but sone we? fei ded f e fade? was drenchid in 3/\ 
' ■ ^ 00 

a watir f e o son killid in his bed f e othir sone ded but it is not expressid 

on what wise. AH f ese iii regned but too 5ere. U. Diocleciaun cam aftir 39 

hem and maximian fe on regned on f e est fe ofir in fe west. The first aq 

f ing f is diocleciauw ded he brent all f e cristen bokes fat myth be fouwde. 

These too tyrauwtis ded most harm on to cristen men fan euyr did ony ofir 

for X jere lested her persecuciouw for as we redyn with inne xxx dayes 

XX f ousand men we? slayn for cristis cause a mongis whech we? seynt 

anastase and sebastiaurt and many ofir. U. Galeriz^ regned aftir with on jii 

constancies, galeriws in fe est, constancitts^ so wa« fe empi? at foo dayes A2 

dyuyded. This constauwce aftir tyme fat he had conquered ali spayn he 

went in to grete brytayn and fere he wedded heleyn a kyngis doutyr 

of whom he be gate grete constantyiO and f is same constauwciws deyid in 

britayi]^ & is byryed at ^ork as martyn seyth. Grete Constantino regned A3 

xxx 5ere x monthis and xi dayes. This man brout cristen men to he? liberte 

& 5aue hem leue to bilde / cherches to f e worchip of god. Summe cronicles f. 347 r 

slauwdir him and sey fat in f e last ende of his lyf he schuld be peruerted to 

f e heresy of fe arianes but fis oppinioun is a geyn seynt gregori in his 

registe?, and seint ambrose up on f e psalmes, and ysidre in his cronicle, 

whech all sey fat he ended wel. The grekis eke sey of him as of a seynt 

for his fest fallith f e xxi of may . AVe schal write of him mech mo? in f e 

secund book whan we schul decla? f e werkis fat he mad. U. Constantinus ASif 

f e secunde regned with his too brefrm xxxiiii jer and in his last ende was he 

peruerted to f e heresi of fe arianes be a bischop called eusebi so fat summe 

men slauwder f e fadir for f e son be cause fei had both name. The ende of 

fis man was fis as he schuld go in Constantinople to a grete couaicell in whech 

* * in ]je west ' in margin of MS. 



56 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

he had fout to a c(widempned J?e bischoppis and clerkis of trewe by leue he 
went be fo? to a chambir to a uoyde swech J^ing as natu? * and Ipere sodeynly 
his boweles felle fro him and he sone ded. This same ende had arry ^ eke 
A t^ as we rede. U. Julian2^g apostata was next him and he regned too 5er & 
uiii monthis he was clepid apostata for he fled f»is constawtin whech killid 
his broJ)ir and for fe? of deth was mad a monk but aftirward be couTiceil of 
a nygromancer he asked of J^e deuele whef)ir he myth be emperou? or nowt 
and ])e spirit answerd J^at he schuld be emperou? o condicioun pat he schuld 
forsake his cristendam & be uttir enmye on to cristen men. And so was he 
for he jaue leue to pe iewes p-dt ]?ei schuld bilde a geyn J^e temple of ierlih 
and fro cristen men he took all he? godes undir colou? of f)at clause.' 
U. Jourmanus regned aftir him but uiii monthis for whan iulian was ded 
pe boost chase him emperou? and he seide it was not leful to a cristen man 
to be lord ouyr so many hethen men. Thei answerd rather J^ann) he schuld 
forsake pe empi? pel wold be cristen alh Thus took he ]?at dignite but sone 
was he ded and in meruelous mane?. For he was leyd after his iornay in 
a cloos hous all of stone newly whitid with lym in whech J?ei mad on to his 
couwfort as f>ei f)out a fi? of cha? cole and of pe eyir of j^ese too in pe morow 
he was fouwd deed. U. Aftir him regned ualentinian with his bro]?ir ualent 
for he departed pe empi? and jaue his broJ)ir pe est and kept him selue pe 
west. This ualentinianws was a lord wit5 iuliane apostata and happed him 
on a tyme for to go in to a temple of fals goddis for to do sacrifise and 
mimstres stood pere with watir halowid aftir he? * with whech pe strewg " 
lordis. This ualentinianws smet pe minister Jr'at j?rew watir up on him and 
seid he was rather defiled per by J>an clensed. Be cause of J)at Julian ded 
him exile but ou? lord god for his open confession of his name rewarded him 
with pe empi?. His bro))ir ualent fell in to pe oppinyon of arianes & deyid 
in J?at heresi. This same ualent lyued iiii je? after ualentiniauws with 
gratiane and a nothir ualentinian) pe 5onger. In J?is tyme lyued seynt 
f. 374 V ambrose. U. Grattan with his brejwin ualenti/nian pe ^onger and eke 
with theodosiug regned ui 5e?. In his tyme were cherches oppened a geyri 
& cristen men had leue to renewe goddis seruyse whech ]?ingis we? defended 
uO by fo? at comaunment of emperouris infect with heresie. U. Theodosie 
regned aftir him with J)is ^ong ualentiniane. This man distroyed pe temples 
of maumentrye and in his tyme eke seynt ierom translate pe bible and 

* * requirit ' in margin of MS. 
"" ?Ariu8. 

^ There is a marginal note, in another hand, which says: *in J-e gospel nisi quia 
renu»ciav«rit omwibus quae possidcf no7i potest mens esse discipwlMs.' 

* * gise * in margin of MS. 

' • lid J)e ' in margin of MS. ? sprinkled the. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 57 

seynt ambrose mad J?e ympnis, and seynt aiisten was conuerted. This man 
faut a geyn his enmyes mo? with orison and praye? )?an with swerd. He 
regned xi ^ere. He deyid at melan and biried at Constantinople. U. Archa- ui 
Aius and honoring regned xiii 36? and in he? tyme rome was wel ny distroyed 
be a kyng clepid ularicus of whech destruccioun roos a gret blaspheme of 
pe romanes for Jjei seide p&t f>ei ferd neuyr weel sith crist cam to rome & be 
raute hem he? goddz^ be fe J^reching of petir and poule. A geyn Ip'is blas- 
pheme seynt austin mad Ipat solempne werk whech we clepe de cimtate dei. 
II. Honorius aftir |?is with theodosi2^g his broJ?ms son regned xu jere a man u2 
of holy lyf for too wyues had he and pei deyed both maydenes. He loued 
epectaly J?e cherch & hated gretly heretikes. In his tyme deyid seynt 
ierom at bethlem )?e jere of his age Ixxxxi. H. Theodosius Ipe ^ongir with u3 
ualentiniane his neue regned xxuii ^ere. In his time was J>e fest ordeyned 
whech is clepid ad uincla sci petii. In his tyme deyed seynt austyn J?e 5er 
of his age Ixxui. In his tyme we? reisid be miracle J?e uii sleperes whech had 
slept cc 5ere. This man deyid at Constantinople and pere is he biried. 
II. Marcianus & ualentinianus regned uii ^ere in whos tyme was holde fe grete u A 
counceli calcedonensis whe? pe heretikes euticen & dioscorus we? con- 
dempned. | xi ]?ousand uirgines at coloyn we? martirized in his tyme but not 
be him. H. Leo pe first regned xuii 5ere. In his tyme were Ipe rogacioues uli 
ordeyned be for pe ascensioun of seynt mamert bischop of uyenne. The pope * 
eke of rome at p&t tyme hith leo eke with whom was a notable clerk and 
notary on to him ]?ei calle him prosper whose bokes wehaue togretlernyng.^ 
f. Zeno aftir J^at legned xu jere in whos tyme fe bodies of seynt mathew Ipe u6 
euangelist and seynt barnabe pe apostel we? fouwde and wit^ hem pe gospel 
fat seynt mathew wrot. H. Anastasiu s aftir him regned xxui 3ere. In his tjA 
tyme we? many heretikes of pe arianes oppiniouw sodeynly ded on olimpius 
at cartage and a nofir barabas whech was gret confusiouw to J?at errou? 
and confirmaciou?i on to us. H. lustiims aftir him regned ix ^er. This man m8 
with all his myth laboured to distioye heresi in pe cherch to whom eke fro 
rome jon pe pope * went on to Constantinople for to gete grace J^at arrianes 
schuld haue he? cherches a geyn at instaunce of a tyraunt called theodorici/^ 
and fat same cite was ful glad to se goddis uike? uisite hem whech had not 
ofte be seyn be fo?. 51. lustiniane cam aftir fis man and / he was first taute f. 875 r 

* S. Prosper of Aquitaine or Guienne was the secretary of Pope S. Leo. He is said 
by some to have been Bishop of Reggio; by others, of Riez in Provence. He died 
a little after 455, and was buried at Eiez, in a church which he had built and 
consecrated to S. Apollinaris. What remains of his works has been published at Lyon 
in 1539, at Louvain in 1566, at Douai in 1577, at Cologne in 1609 and 1680, and at 
Paris in 1711. The last is said by Moreri to be the best edition (Moreri, Dictionnaire 
his(onque). 



58 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

with a biscliop of \)e arrianes secte alle J^e erroures ]?at longe to )?at heresie. 
But aftirward be pe mercy of oure lord and bysy labour* of }?e pope * cleped 
agapiti^s he was turned fro J?at heresy in to ]>e trewe feyth. This is fe same 
man j?at gadered all pe lawe cyuyle Institues Code and Digest. He mad 
eke f e grete temple at constantynople whech Ipei clepe see so phie. He regned 
in J>at empi? xxxuiii 5ere. II. lustinian-wg pe secunde regned xi 5ere. In his 
tyme itayle rebelled a geyns him. pe capitayne of })is rebelliou-Ti was on 
narces with a grete multitude of himbardis. pe cause j^at sophie J>e 
emp«?^esse hated him and pat mad him to fle in to lum.bardye and rere pe powe? 
be fo? seyd. U. Tiberius regned aftir him uii 5ere lasted his regne. This 
man 3aue grete good in almesse for cristis loue so ferforth p'di he was falle 
in grete pouert but aftirward releued be a grete tresou? founde in partie be 
myracule. U. Maurici^s regned aftir him xx 5ere euene. In his tyme was 
seynt gregorie pope * be whom inglond was neuly conuerted on to pe feith. 
U. Than regned focas whech grauTi^ted leue to pope * boneface f)at pe temple 
piad in worchip of all goddis schuld be consecrate to aH seyntis. This 
temple hith now sea maria rotunda . U. Eraclius regned aftir him xxxi 
jere. This man killid "pe kyng of perse cosdre and browt pe holy crosse on 
to ierlm. In his tyme eke regned Jjat cursed prophete machomete. II. Con- 
stantin-Ms tertius regned aftir him xxuii 5ere. This was eraclius son and 
deceyued with pe same heresie with whech his fader wasdeceyued })e heresy 
is cleped monachelitart^w )3ei seid f)at in crist was but o will. The feith 
puttith too in crist on to pe godhed a noJ>ir to pe mayihod. ^. Constantinws 
quartKg son to J^e forsaid man regned aftir his fader xuii ^ere. This lord 
hated Jjat his fader loued and was ful bysy for to distroye fat heresy whech 
was meynteyned be his fader. For be his comaundmcTit was gadered J^e sexte 
couwseH at Constantinople of cc bischoppis iiii score and ix whech all diffyned 
fat pere we? in crist to willis as is seid be fore. U. lustinian^g pe secund, 
son to pe same constaTityne regned aftir his fader x 5ere. He went fro his 
fader steppes & 5aue fauou? to heresy wherfor ou? lord suffered him to be 
■exiled in to an yle fei clepe tersone first priuyd both of his nase and eke of his 
tunge. In his tyme lyued bede. II. Leo ]>e secuyid regned iii 5ere whom 
tiberius exiled in to pe ilde cleped tersona first cuttyng his nase and his 
tunge. The same ti-berit^ regned aftir him uii ^ere whom J?e forseid iustini- 
anw5 fat was exiled kyllid. H. Philippe pe secunde regned a ^e? and ui 
monthis. He distroyed all pe ymages of criste or of seyntis whech he fond 
ofir pingis of him rede we nowt. ^. Anastasius pe secu?id regned iii ^e?, 
f. 375 V This / man killid pe forseid philippe wherfor pe knytis of his boost deposed 
A3 him & mad him a preest. 51. Theodosius pe f irde was intronized be pe same 
Aa knytis a good man and pesible he regned o je?. II. Than regned Leo iii 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 59 

xxu 56? whecli deyed in Tpat same errou? whech suffer! tli non ymages to be 
honowred. In his tyme was J>e body of seynt austyn translate fro sardyny 
to papie. 51. Constantinus u yis marines son both in natur and in maneris A^ 
regned xxxu jere. Aftir him regned leo iiii whech desired a crowne owt of /\6 
a cherch and whan he had it on his hed a non a feue? took him and mad 
an ende of him. II. Tho regned constantinus ui jeres x. In his tyme was A A 
gadered pe grete cou?iceH at nycene of ccc & 1 faderis in whech ])e crede 
was mad whech we singge at masse. II. Aftir him regned nicephorus ix 5ere. AS^ A^ 
%. And yanne michael ii 5ere whech was good and trewe of condiciouw. Than 80 
came charles called ]>e grete in to Ipe empi?. This man at comauTfcdmewt of 
adriaiie J>e pope * went in to ytaile & took on desideri lord of })at cunt? led 
him prisone? in to frau^ce and aftirward at prayer of pe pope and pe 
romanes took up on him J>at empi?. He regned euene xiiii 56?. H. Lode- 81 
wik son of pe same karolus regned xxu 5e?. In his tyme we? pe bokis of 
seynt denys translate. Lotharios ius regned aftir him x ^ere. In his tyme 
was seynt heleyn modir to const awtine translate from rome in to fraunce. 
Lodewicits iius regned aftir him xxi 5e?. Carolus iius whech was cleped ^^ 
caluitg regned aftir him iii 5er and ix monthis. H. Than carolus iims g^ 
whech was cleped grossus regned xii jere. H. Than arnulphus xii ^ere. 8a 
H. Than lodwic^g iii^^g ui jere. H. Than berengari^g i^g . In his tyme was 86 8/\ 
fat abbey fouTidid whech J»ei clepe clunacenst'g we calle it cloyne. He? 
cesed pe frensch blod to regne and j^e almaynes be ^nnne. H. Conrardus uis 88 
regned uii 56? summe men anowbir him nowt a mong2s pe emperoun's be 
cause he was neuir confermed be pe pope. * H. Berengarit^g ii^g regned 89 
}?ann) uiii 5ere. II. Than regned herry pe kyng xuiii 56? in almayne but 90 
not in itaile ferfor is he not anoumbired a mongis em-perouTis. H. Beren- 91 
garius iiius regned aftir him uiii ^ere. H. Octo pnmus regned yann) xxxui 92 
je?. He weddid as we fynde pe sister of adelstan kyng of ynglond. 
H. Octo iius regned xx 5ere he went to rome and j^ere was crowned of pope* 93 
benedicte. H. Than regned octo iii^s xix jere. ^. And fann) henricws ius 9fi> 
xii 5ere. H. Than conrardus pWmus xx 5ere. This man was m^ruelously 9cj-6 
comaunded to be slayn whil he was ^ong and be grete miracle saued but pe 
story is long. ^. Aftir him regned henricus iius xuii ^ere. In his tyme 9a 
was berengarie in frauwce cowdempned & conuicte of heresie as it is cowteyned 
in pe decrees dist^ ii ego berengarius. And in his tyme was mad f>e grete 
uiage to ierlm whan godfrey of boloyn was mad kyng / J^ere. H. ISenricus f. 376 r 
iiius regned xlix^ 5ere. In his tyme was grete pestilens forw oute pe 
world. In his tyme eke was found pe spe? f)at ou? lord was wounded with. 
H. 'Henricus iiii^^s son to J)is man regned xu je?. Aftir tyme he was intronized 
be sufferauns of his fader he put his fader in prison & kept him J?ere til he 

i2 



60 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

deyed. In liis tyme lyued hugo de sco uicto? at parj^s.^ H. Conrardus ])e 
secuTide regned xa jere he mad a ful solempne iornay in to Ipe holy lond at 
instans of seynt bernard. U. Frederic7/s -primus regned xxxuii jere. He was 
crowned at seynt petres in rome and aftir took his iornay in to J>e holy lond 
and deyid Jjere. For in his dayes was ierlrh take oute of cristen mennis 
handis. U. Henricns xius regned uiii 56? he conquered in his tyme Ipe 
regiones both of cicile and of neaplis. H. Aftir him regned Octo iuius. 
He regned but iiii ^ere for all Ipe pn'nces of almayne {onien a geyn him with 
frederik at comaundmewt of Ipe pope * cleped honorii^s. Aftir him regned 
frederici/s i\us jeres xxiii. This man was grete enmy to f>e cherch in so 
mech J)at he was deposed be Ipe pope * and aftirward leued a wrecchid lif 
and had deth lich on to his lyf and he? wil we mak an ende of Ip'is partie of 
ou? ^ as we promised and go streith on to J?e secund part which echal trete 
of J?e sptre'mal treso? of rome. 



Here begiwnyth Ipe secunde part whech tretith of Ipe cherchis in rome and 
of Ipe spm/uale tresou? conteyned in hem. 

Prologus. 

The? is grete question?! a mongis studious men whi rome hath swech grete 
pryuylege f>at J»e hed of alle cristendam schuld dwelle f)e? as for ])e most part 
and alle Ipe cherchis of cristendam schuld obeye pat cherch as for a pn'ncipal 
moder and norche? of oure feith. Summe men sey it was conuenient J>at 
\)ere schuld god be principaly honoured whe? he was pWncipaly despised and 
)?at cyte whech was heed of all errou? schuld be mad aftirward heed of 
aft lernyng. So can oure lord as seith seiwt austin make his gode J^ingis of 
ou? euele. Othir men be J>e? fat grounde hem in pe gospell whe? ou? lord 
jaue powe? plenarie on to seynt peter in whech \>ei sey is conteyned J^at he 
was mad pWnce and principal ouyr aft Ipe apostelis so J?ei conclude f>at f>ow 
\>e cherch of antyoche be elde? of tyme ]>e cherch of rome is worthier of 
dignyte. A othir cause is rehersed of grete constantine whech mad aftir his 
baptem certeyn lawes euyr for to be kepte of whech lawes f>is was on, pat lich 
as \>e emperou? of rome is lord and pnncipaft ouyr aft kyngis so pe bischop 

* Hugo de S. Victor, a celebrated theologian, and Prior of S. Victor in Paris, devoted 
himself to a religious life at the age of eighteen, in the year 1115, He died in 1142. 
He taught theology from the year 1180 with such success that he was called the ' second 
Augustine'. His works have been published at Paris in 1526, at Venice in 1588, at 
Mainz in 1617, and at Rouen in 1648 (Moreri, Dictionnaire hUtorique). 

' * book * in margin of MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRTMES 61 

of rome scliuld be pWncpal ouyr all bischoppis. We fynde also in bokys J>at 
\)e cherch of Constantinople presumed for to be principal of all pe world and 
for }>at presumpcioun pope * boneface pe iiii mad suggestion to Ipe emperou? 
/ cleped focas )?at he schuld sette sum remedy in J^is mate?. And he f. 376 v 
ordeyned J)at \>e cherch of seynt petir at rome schuld be in name & in 
auctorite pnncipail of all fe world. Men f)ink ferf>grmore of grete reson f)at 
it schuld be soo for pe multitude of martires whech spilt he? blood in 
confirmacioun of ou? feith in ]?at same place. Than wil we speke of fis holy 
place and of pe dyuers parcellis of ]?is place undir f>is forme. First of 
pe seuene cherchis whech be cleped pn'ncipal. Thanii) of all )?oo cherchis in 
whech pe staciones be holde in lenton) or esterne. Last of all f>oo cherchis 
whech be hald in ony fame as ferforth as ou? rememberauwce may atteyne. 



Off U seynt petir cherch.^ cap i. 

Seynt petir cherch stant on pe west side of rome nowt in rome for it is a 
cyte be pe selue J^at and J^e popes * paleys and castell a.ungeii & a strete with 
iii cherches and an hospital. This same cyte in elde cronicles is clepid 
cimtas leonina. This cherch of seynt petir is gret and long and hath many 
dyufrs houses hangyng up on him. The length is xxii pileres be twix euery 
pile? is xii fete of space and euery pile? contejnyth. iiii fete of f)iknesse so a? 
fere of f>o spacis of xii fete xxiii, be side of>ir pileres whech caw^ out 
of salamones temple of whech iiii stande on side and iiii on pe opir and iiii 
ouyr whert - be for pe auter.' Or we come at seynt petres pere be greces * of 
marbil whech a? as brood as al pe cherch of summe mewnys passe ]?ei are of 
length luiii for so brood is pe cherch f)at is to seye pe body with iiii eles too 
on eythir side. A passe conteynyth u fete aftir pe mesure of gemetry whech 

* The Basilica of S. Peter, according to tradition, is over an oratory built by Pope 
Ana«letu8 to mark the site of the Apostle's tomb. The original basilica was founded by 
Constantine in 306, and rests in part upon the walls of Nero's circus. The existing 
church was commenced in 1450 by Nicholas V, and dedicated by Urban VIII in 1626. 
The nave was finished as early as 1612. The work made little progress, however, until 
it was undertaken energetically by Julius II in 1506, with Bramante as architect. 
Raphael, Sangallo, and Michelangelo succeeded him ; the fa9ade was designed by 
Maderno, and the dome completed by Giacomo della Porta. 

' Overthwart = athwart, transversely. 

' 'Appresso all ' altare maggiore sono colonne sedici di marmi bianchi storiate alquanto 
rotonde molto gentili che si dice venneno di Gerusalem ' (Rucellai, II Giuhileo delV anno 
santo 1450, Archiv, St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 567). Another authority of the 
same period says there were fourteen pillars from Solomon's Temple, two of which were by 
the altar of the Vemacle, the others in the choir (Muffel, p. 21). 

♦ Steps. 



62 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

is conuenieni here. These greces be in noumbir xxix,* and as oftyn as 
a man goth up on pese greces be cause of deuocioun as oftyn hat^ he for 
euery gre uii 5ere of indulgens grauwted of alisaundre f>e pope * as we fynde 
writin in elde rememberaurice. With inne )?e cherch of seynt petir be 
iiii score auteres and uiii ^ and to euery auctei? is graunted pardon of xxuiii 

* Muflfel says that the number of steps leading up to the basilica was twenty-eight ; 
they appear to have been increased to thirty-five under Paul II (1464-71) (MuflPel, p. 18 
and n. 5). 

' There is a strange diversity in the accounts given by various mediaeval authors as to 
the number of altars in S. Peter's ; also as to whom the seven head altars were dedicated. 
Here follow the statements made by some of the writers most frequently quoted in these 
footnotes. MufFel (p. 25) says there were 105 altars and that the principal altars were 
dedicated as follows : (1) S. Simon and S. Jude, (2) S. Gregory, (3) S. Andrew, (4) S. Leo, 
(6) The Holy Cross, (6) our Lady, (7) The Vernacle. Ritter von Harff (p. 22) says that 
there were 100 altars, and that the principal ones were dedicated to (1) the Trinity, 
(2) All Souls, (3) S. Gregory, (4) our Lady, (5) S. Leo, (6) S. Lucian, (7) the Vernacle. 
lEin Biichlin, Strassburg, 1500, says there were 100 altars, and agrees with von Harflf as 
to the dedication of the principal ones (see pp. C ii v and C iii). Adam de Usk, who was 
an official of the Papal court, gives the principal altars (on page 354) as follows : (1) S. Peter, 
(2) the Holy Cross, (8) the Vernacle, (4) S. Gregory, (5) S. Fabian and S. Sebastian, 
(6) S. Leo, (7) S. Andrew. A MS. Bodl. Dighy 196, folio 10, entitled Descriptio urhis 
Rome cum indulgenciis, gives a total of 89, and says that the principal altars were 
(1) Sudarium, (2) S. Simon and S. Jude, (3) S. Gregory, (4) our Lady, (5) S. Andrew, 
(6) S. Leo, (7) Holy Cross. The Porkington MS., E. E. Text Society, 1867, p. 30, gives 100 
altars, and adds : * But vii byn moche and most of dygnyte, J)at is to say, furst on J)e right 
hond ys ])e autwr of J)e vernaculle. %. The ij of J)e honoure of oure lady : The J)red of seynt 
Symon and Jude : The iiii of cent androw : The v of sent gregorye, and \er he lythe : The 
vi of sent leoo J)e pope : The vii of J)e holly cross, and perin commythe no woman.' The 
Vernon MS. (1370), E. E. Text Society, 1867, vol. xxv, p. 2, on the Stacions of Rome,aa.ys : 
In ])at Munstre . men may fynde. 
An hondred Auteres . biforen and behynde. 



II Among ye Auters . seuene "per be. 

More of grace . and dignite. 
1[ J>e Auter of ])e vernicle is on. 

Up-on ])e riht hond . as |jou fcchalt gon. 
% J>e secunde . in l>e honour of ur ladi is. 
H Pe J)ridde . of seynt Symon and Jude I.-wis. 
U pe Feorjje . of seint andreuj . )?ou schalt haue. 
% pe Fifbe of seint gregori . ]>er he lyth in graue. 
^ pe Sixte . of seint leon ])e pope. 
per he song masse . in his cope. 
% Of seint Crois . ])at seuenjje is. 

In wjuche, no wowmon schal comen I.-wis. 
It will be observed that the two English authors agree, as do the two Germans ; but 
that the two nationalities dijGFer widely from each other. But one of the two English MSS. 
is much earlier than the other authorities ; the dates being : Vernon MS. about 1370, 
PorJcington MS. about 1460-70, MufFel 1452, Von Harff 1496-9, Ein Biichlin 1500. The 
date of the Dighy MS. (Bodleian) is not mentioned, but it is about 1450 to 1475. Rucellai 
says : * In detta ohiesa sono novansei (96) altari dove si dice messa ' {II Giubileo delV anno 
eanto 1450, Archiv. St. Pat, 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 567. II Giubileo delV anno eanto is 
from the Zibaldini quaresimale which Giovanni Rucellai, merchant and citizen of Florence, 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 63 

jere j?at day fat J>e seynt fallith to whech seynt f>e ante? is consecrat this 
same indulgens durith be \>e ootaue of f>e same fest. Seuene aucteres be f>e? 
of principal auctorite. The ante? of Ipe uernacle, pe aute? of ou? lady, 
\>e aute? of seynt gregory, ]>e aute? of J^e apostoles simon and iude, f e ante? 
of seynt andrew, J>e ante? of seynt leon and seynt cruce whe? wome-w enter 
not. To ech of J>ese is grauTited tociens quociens uii ^ere indulgens. In ]>e 
fest of e anuriciaciouTi of ou? lady who so euer uisite fis cherch hath 
of indulgens a m1 5ere, on mauTide Jjursday a mI 5ere. In euery feest of 
seynt petir a mI 5010. In Ipe dedicatioun of Ipe cherch whech falleth in ])e 
octane of seynt martyn uii mI ^ere & pe J)irde part remission?* of all synne. 
Whann so euyr pe uernacle is schewid iii mI 5ere is grauTited to J^e romanes. 
I And to hem alle J^at dwelle ouyr Ipe mowntis / ix m1 jere. | And to f 00 })at f. 377 r 
dwelle be fishalue Ipe mowntis xii m1 ^e?.^ But ^e schal undirstand ]?at m 
J>e cite of rome resten uiii bodies of J>e aposteles. In seynt petir cherch is half 
]>e body of petir and half of poule incinerat saue ye bones and Ipe oJ)ir half 
of Ipe same is at seynt poules. Also in Ipe cherch of seynt petir are simon 
& iudas lying a boue in pe waH, Ipe oJ?ir iiii aposteles schul be teld of 
aftirward. In pe same cherch lith seynt gregory Ipe pope *, seint leon 
Jje pope *, seint ion crisostom bischop of Constantinople, J^e holy martires pro- 
cessus & martinianws,^ seynt petroniil and o]?ir mo. U. Of fie holy uernacle wil 

ordered to be written in 1459, and which remained until recent times in the possession of 
the family of the same name. It then passed into other hands, and an extract from it was 
published in 1872 by John Temple-Leader, an Englishman, then resident in Florence, 
who had acquired it (see JrcMvio della Societd Eomana di Storia Patria, 1881, vol. iv, 
fasc. iv, p. 563, n. 1). While on the subject of the altars in S. Peter's, it is interesting 
to note a fact which Muffel states. He says that at the high altar are now (1452) 
the ancient pictures of S. Peter and S. Paul, which were shown by S. Silvester to 
Constantino, in order to ascertain whether they were the persons who had appeared to 
him in his dream (MufFel, p. 24 ; see also Nichols, Marvels of Rome, pp. 123 and 132). 
He says: 'The picture yet standi th in the altar wall above the high altar' (of S. John 
Lateran). This passage occurs in a Cod. Vat 4265 {Mirahilia), of the fourteenth 
century. 

* In the Vernon MS. above mentioned (on p. 3), the Indulgences at S. Peter's are said 
to be as follows : AtS. Peter's altar every day twenty-eight years. From Holy Thursday 
to Lammas, 14,000 years. On the date of the consecration of the church 14,000, and one- 
third remission of sins. When the Vernacle was shown, 3;000 years to Romans, 9,000 to 
other people, 12,000 to those that cross the sea to go on pilgrimage to Rome. According 
to Ruceilai, there was, on the occasion of the jubilee of 1450, plenary remission of all sin 
for penitents who stayed in Rome for at least fifteen days, and visited every day the four 
Churches of S. Peter, S. Paul, S. John Lateran, and S. Mary Major {II Giubileo delV anno 
santo 1460, Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 563). 

'^ SS. Processus and Martinianus are believed to have been baptized by S. Peter in the 
Mamertine prison, on which occasion a spring miraculously appeared in the floor of the 
prison for the purpose of the rite. S. Gregory speaks of their martyrdom in Horn. 32, n. 7. 
There was a church of their name outside the Porta Aurelia, and S. Lucina founded a 
cemetery under it. Their remains were at first laid to rest in this place ; but, under 



64 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

we speke now.^ Summe men clepe it J)e siidary of crist. Of J^is same grete 
relik spekitli geruasius in his book yat he mad de ociis impmalibus. He 
seith fere fat f>is woman fat had f is sudary in whech crist wipt his face 
whan he went to his passiouw was martha whom he had cured eke fro fe flux 
of blood whech sche had suffered xii 5ere, and on uolusianus frend on 
to tibery fe emp^rou? whan he herd sey at ierlm fat fis woman had 
f is sudary he caused hi? for to come to rome with the same sudary fat fe 
emperowr with contemplacioun of f e face myth be hool of certeyn seknesse 
fat he had. This was do in dede for a non as he sey f e face of ihu in fat 
sudary he was hool. The woman teld him f e mane? pleynly who sche cam 
be fis figure. Sche saide a litil be fore f e passioun sche undirstood weel 
partye be f e wordis of ou? lord partye be f e conspiracioun of iewis fat ou? 
lord in schort tyme schuld deye wherfo? sche ordeyned a fay? kerchy in 
whech' sche foutj sche wold haue depeynted fe face of ou? lord and as 
sche went to seke f e poyntot^r ou? lord mette hir and askid he? whidir 
sche went and sche answerd and told him f e treuth. Tho ou? lord took f e 
kerchy and impressid f erin f e liknesse of his face whech was al disfugured 
of colon? of labou? in preching and fastyng and of ir hardnesse whech he 
used. For ou? bokes sey fat of swech penauns he semed mech elde? f ann 
he was as may be seyn in jones gospel whe? f e iewis supposed fat he 
was L ^ere old whann he cam neuyr to xxxiiii. This same geruase tellith 
of an of ir figure of ou? lord and alleggith for him a book i called gesta 
de uultu lucano whech book is not I trow in fis lond. This geruase seith 
fat whan ou? lord hing naked on f e crosse Joseph ab arimathia stood 
a mongis of ir frendis of ihu and morned lich as f ei dede. And f oo he seide 
on to ou? lady and of ir fat stood by. This man he seith fat hangith on f e 
tre he?, he may sey fat he hath but febil frendis whan non of us hath he? a 
cloth to hide with al his nakidnesse. Tho sent f ei with o consent and bowt 

Pascal I, they were translated to S. Peter's. Their feast-day is observed in many churches 
in Rome besides S. Peter's ; especially at S. Pietro in Carcere. The mosaic at their altar 
in the basilica represents their martyrdom ; the original of the picture is at the Quirinal. 
In some martyrologies they are associated with S. Firmiu (Stadler, Seiligenlexikon ; 
Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. i, p. 800). 

^ The first mention of the Vernacle by name is made by Nicholas IV in 1290, who 
says : * sui pretiosissimi vultus Imaginem, quara Veronicam fidelium vox communis 
appellat in singularis amoris insigne tribuit venerari.' Some authorities derive the word 
from a corruption of the words 'vera icon'. Others think that the name of the matron of 
Jerusalem, who helped our Lord on His way to Calvary, was Berenice or Berenice ; whence 
the name Veronica. Her house is described as 550 paces from that of Pilate, and on the 
left hand of the pilgrim as he goes towards the Holy Sepulchre. The so-called Gospel of 
Nicodemus first mentions the tradition that she was the woman cured of the flux of blood 
(Mark v. 25). She is supposed to have been the wife of S. Aniator, who again is believed 
to be identical with Zacchaeus of the New Testament. They both fled from persecution to 
France. Her name is not found in the Mart. Rom. (Stadler, Eeiligenlexikon). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 65 

hem a fay? schete a large and a clene and woud ]?is schete a boute him 
whil he hing on fe crosse, and body schete and al f)ei took down. But 
/ whan yei schuld ley him in Ipe graue al ye schap of his body was impr^ssid f. 377 v 
in l^e cloth. Nichodemws kept J>is cloth and ded poynt a nolpir aftir 
fat figu? woud it up and kept it with oj^ir relikes, )?at is to sey a crowet with 
fe blood of ou? lord, on of Ipe nayles, part of }>e crowne of ]?orn, fe sponge 
and mech o]?ir j?ing. And )?is orison folowyng seid he euery day in presens 
of Jjese relikes. Ecce agnus dei ecce qui tollit ipeccata muwdi ecce deus 
uiuoritm & mortuoritm ecce uita uiuencium salus omniwm credenciuw quern 
adoramw* quern glorificamws cui b^nedicimws & dominum patrew omnipotew- 
tem & filiuw cuw spm^u sco laudamus & superexaltam^<s in secula. Adiutor 
& protector & defensor sis michi domme benignissime & Eanctis^ime & 
misericordissime. This same geruase spekith of an othir figure of ou? lord J^at 
was in a cyte pei clepe edissa and J^e grete story whech is cleped eccZesiastica 
historia berith witnesse of Ipe same. The processe is f)is. A kyng of j^at 
same cite cleped abgarus uexid with grete seknesse sent to ou? lord ihu to 
ierlm desiring to se his p«rsone desiring eke Jjat he schuld cure him of 
certeyn greuous seknesse. Ou? lord wrote on to him a lettir in whech 
he seyde l?at J^e kyng was blessid for to be leue in him whom he had nowt 
seyn. He wrote ferJ?ermo? J:at he must fulfill f)at dispensacion for whech 
he was. sent but aftir his deth he be hiih him for to send on of his disciples 
whech schuld lerne him ])e trew feyth. And as touchyng sith of his persone 
he sent him a cloth in whech was depeynted J^e ymage of ou? sauyou?. And 
as it is wrytyn in f>e cronicles of f e cyte ou? lord leyd him selue naked on 
j)e cloth in whech al his body was meruelously merkid and f>at same cloth is 
Bchewid eu^ry esterne day, in whech pe ymage apperith in dyuers formes, ]>e 
first hou? of ]?e day it semeth a child of uii 5ere age, Ipe seciind ou? xiiii 5ere 
age, )?e iii oure xx jere, and last ou? in swech age as he suffered passion for 
us. All Ipia is seid undir auctorite of geruase. There be alsoo in seynt 
petir cherch xii pileres standyng next pe ante? whech as we seide be fore 
were caried fro ierlm & on ich of J)ese pileres stood sum tyme an ymage lich 
to on of pe aposteles of siluyr and gold but J^e tyraurites J?at haue coTiquered 
rome bore a wey J>at rychesse. On pere is a mongis all moost precious of )?oo 
pileres whech is barred a boute with yruw and what uertu it hath and whi 
it hath swech uertu is wrytyn peie in latyn in hard marbiii pe sentens of 
}>at writirig is translate here in englisch. This is pe pilere on whech ou? 
lord ihu crist lened whann) he prechid to pe puple and on whech he rested 
whann he prayed to pe fader of heuene, whech pilere with othir xi J)at stande 
lie? a boute were brout fro salamones temple on to fis nobel cherch, pe uertu 
perof puttith a wey / wikkid spirites fro men ):at be uexid with hem & doth f. 378 r 



66 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

many o))ir miracles.* A litil fro Ipese pileres is an autere of white marbil & 
in ]>e myddis a fayre porphiri ston mo? pamn a sup^raltari. This sentens is 
writen "pere in latyn. Upon J^is porphiri ston were weyed f>e bones of pe 
holy aposteles petir and paule & departed be seynt siluester J^e pope* pe 
jere of ou? lord iii hundred and xix wh&nn J>is cherch was mad. Many ofir 
fingis be J?e? at seynt petres but fese be most famouse. 



O seynt paules cherch ^ caplm ii 

Now of J>e cherch of seynt paule wil we speke whech stant in j?e south 
side of rome a myle oute fro J>e jate whech J?ei called in old tyme porta 
capena now is it clepid porta sci pauli. It is fro seynt petir cherch to seynt 
paules cherch iii myle. ^e schul undirstand J)at in J?e cherch of seynt petir 
ar seculere chanones and in J^e cherch of seynt paule monkis of seynt 
benedictis ord?. This same cherch of seynt paule is. large ny of schap to 
seynt petres with a body and iiii eles saue in length it hath too pileres lesse 
in eu^ry rowe for seynt ^ hath iiii sco? and uiii in al and fis hath but iiii 
score. The auter of seynt petir cherch stant in to Ipe west and pe aute? of 
seynt paule cherch stant in to J>e est. Therfor sum pilgWmes be p^ knowe 

^ The following is a copy of the inscription on the column. Our author cannot have 
written before 1447, so that the inscription was then about ten years old. 

EEC E ILLU COLtJNA I QUA BASILICE. HIC LOCATA 

^NS NK YH'uS XPS APPO FUIT. DEM ONES EXPELLlT. ET 

DIATUS. DUM POPULO P AB IMMUNDIS SPIKITIBUS VE 

BEDICABAT. ET DEO PKI P XATOS LIBEROS REDDIDIT. ET 

CES 1 TEMPLO EFPUNDE MULTA MIRAC'lA COTID 

BAT. ADHERENDO STABAT. IE FACIT : P REVERENDISSIM 

QUE UNA CU ALUS UND PREM ET DOMINU DNU' 

=ECI HIO CIRCtJSTANTIBUS CARD. DE URSINIS OR 

DE SALAMONIS TEMPLO NATA : ANNO DOMINI 

IN TRIUMPHUM HUI* M CCCC XXXVIII. 

* The more ancient Basilica of S. Paul was founded, according to tradition, by 
Anacletus; it was enlarged by Constantine, and stands over the tomb of the Apostle, 
which was in the Catacombs of Lucina. The second church, in which the orientation of 
the former building was reversed, was commenced by Valentinian II, Theodosius, and 
Arcadius ; it was completed by Honorius in 396, restored by Leo the Great in the fifth, 
by Eusebius in the sixth, and by Leo III in the eighth century. After its desecration by 
Saracen invaders, John VIII repaired the church, surrounded it with a fortified wall, and 
gave it the name of Johannopolis. Other works were carried out by Hildebrand 
(Gregory VII), whose name was engraved on the bronze doors. Honorius III decorated 
the apse with mosaics, and many other pontiffs repaired and beautified the church. The 
last to carry out important works therein was Benedict XIV, but it was destroyed by the 
disastrous fire of the year 1823, and the work of restoration, which is under the charge 
of the Italian Government, has not as yet been completed, though it is well advanced. 
' • petir c I ' in margin of MS. The rest of the addition cut off for purpose of binding. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 67 

J?e cause whi men go in at J»e west ende of seynt paules, for Ipe redie? weye • 
is for to ent? be f>e north side. The cause whi foo men f)at knowe Ipe place 
enter be Ipe west side is J)is, for aftir tyme ]?at seynt paules heed was smet 
of too myle f>ens it was caried and hid Ipere fe west dore is now and aftir- 
ward fouwde and kepte with grete reuerence. And in worchip of f>at heed 
who so euyr enter be fat do? he hath eu^ry day xxuiii ^ere of indulgens with 
remissiouw of Ipe J>irde part of his synnes. In f>e feste of seynt paule is 
graunted a mi jere. In his comiercioun a c 5ere. In Ipe feste of iw^nocentis 
xl je?. In f>e dedicacouTi of pe cherch whech is f>e octane day of seint 
martyn uii mi ^ere & pe f)ird part remissions. Euery sunday of pe ^ere 
hath a man J?ere as mech pardon as ]?ow he went to seynt iames in gales.* 
This lond whe? pis cherch stant and pe abbey with all he? comoditees was 
sumtyme cleped ortus lucille in englisch it meneth pe gardeyne of lucille. 
This lucilla was a rich woman and an holy whech spent liir good in coum- 
forting of martires in he? passiones and in byrying of he? bodies aftir her 
deth. Also in J^e cherch of seynt paule be twix pe liye ante? and pe ante? 
of seynt benedict is a ful fay? ymage of crist hanging on pe crosse whech 
ymage spak certeyn wordes on to seynt bryde whech tyme sche lay J?ere in 
contemplacion and pe same ston f>at sche rested on at fat tyme is fere closed 
in a /grate. Eke in pe sacristie may a man see pe same bible fat was seynt f. 878 v 
ieromes, and as summe sey fere he wrote it him selue. A fay? book is it 
and a large and ful wel arayed.'^ 



Of f e cherch of seiwt sebastiaun.* iij. 

The cherch of seynt Sebastian stant to myle fro seynt paules also oute of 
f e wallis of rome a grete myle for we enter in to rome a geyn whan we haue 

* In the Staciom of Rome, E. E. Text Society, 1867, p. 4, the indulgences are as follows : 
on the Festival of his Conversion 100 years, on S. Paul's Day 1,000 years, on Chi] derm asse 
Day 4,000 years ; and, for a whole year's Sundays, as much pardon as for a pilgrimage to 
S. James's. 

' The great Alcuin Bible at S. Paul's is of the ninth century; it is a good copy of the 
recension made for Charlemagne by Alcuin, and presented to the emperor at Christmas, 800. 
Bishop Grandison, of Exeter, in the fourteenth century, had all the Bibles of his diocese 
corrected by a copy of this Bible at S. PauFs. It is Jerome's only in the sense that it is 
his recension of the Vnlgate. 

* The Basilica of S. Sebastian was erected in the fourth century, in honour of SS. Peter 
and Paul, and was then known as the Basilica A postal or iim. Below the confessio of the 
building was the Platonia, where the remains of the Apostles were laid for security during 
the troubled period of the persecutions. The church appears to have consisted of a nave 
and two aisles, separated by columns, with an apse ; behind the apse was a matroneum. 
It was frequently restored during the Middle Ages, but was completely reconstructed in 
its present form by Cardinal Borghese in the seventeenth century. Practically, but little 
of the old building can now be seen (Armellini, p. 714 ; Nibby, p. 704 ; Marucchi, p. 488). 

K 2 



68 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

do ou? labour* \>ere be a 5ate fei clepe porta appia. In )?is cherch litb f>e 
holy pope seynt fabiane fat was chosen to ]?at dignite be a grete myracle for 
a dowe cam sodeyTily and rested on his heed. It was he J^at ordeyned 
notaries in rome for to write J>e deth of martires whech we? killid \>ere for 
cristis cause. This man lith in f>e hye aute? f>at stant a boue.^ There is 
a nojjir aute? be nethe as we come oute fro J)e cymytery whech is cleped 
kalixti and in )?at auter lith Ipe holy martir called sebastiane. This aute? 
is hald on of J?e holy places of rome.^ For at ]:)is aute? sang seynt gregori 
and an aungeH mynistered at his messe whech au^igeii for f)e moost party 
of f>at messe stood on a white ston f)at lith J)ere jet and it is hald in ful 
grete reuerens. The aurigeft seid )?ese wordis as it is writyn pere. In loco 
isto est uera promissio & i^eccatorum remissio splendor & lux perpetua ac 
sine fine leticia quam promeruit xpi martir sebastianits. That is to sey 
in englisch. In J^is place is J?e uery behest & remission of all synnes 
schynywg and lith euyr lastyng ]?orw pe meritis of cristis martir sebastiane. 
Also a bouen in Ipe same cherch be f>at dore pat goth to rome lith sei^it 
steuene fe pope a for an aute? undir a fai? ston i grated with irun. This 
cherch hath grete pardouTi euery day ]?orw oute Ipe jere a mi jere and in 
o Sunday in may remission of ali synnes. The cymytery cleped kalixti is 
undir Ipe cherch a caue or ellis a myne undir J?e ground. It is neythir uery 
ston ne uery erde but be twix both red of colou?. Many caues be fere and 
stopped with stones fat men schuld not erre in her weye saue too are left 

1 S. Fabian succeeded S. Anteros in the Holy See in the year 236. According to 
Eusebius, his election was unanimous ; because, when the clergy and the people were 
assembled to choose a Pope, a dove settled on his head ; this was accepted as a miraculous 
sign. But we know little certain about him. Eusebius says that he was of a good Roman 
family ; that he was the nineteenth Bishop of Rome, and reigned from 236 to 251 ; other 
authorities say that he was the twenty-first Pope, and only reigned fourteen years, 
perishing in the persecution of Decius in 250. The latter version is accepted by the 
Bollandiats as the more correct. He was buried in the cemetery of S. Callixtus on the 
Appian Way, and the church of S. Sebastian was erected over his grave. S. Cyprian calls 
him, in a letter to Pope Cornelius, an incomparable man ; he is said to have baptized the 
Emperor Philippus Arabus; he sent S. Denis to Gallia; and during his pontificate, 
according to Gregory of Tours, the Churches of Paris, Tours, Toulouse, Narbonne, Aries, 
Clermont, and Limoges were founded (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, 
January, vol. ii, p. 252 ; Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, vol. i, p. 148). 

' S. Sebastian was bom at Narbonne ; his family came originally from Milan, where 
his youth was spent. He came to Rome about 283. He was appointed officer in the 
Pretorian body-guard ; it was not known at the time that he was a Christian. He used 
his official position to help his fellow believers as much as possible ; amongst others, he 
Was able to be of assistance to the Pope S. Caius. His martyrdom took place in the reign 
of Diocletian and Maximianus. Owing to the care of a pious widow, Irene, he recovered 
from the wounds inflicted on him by the arrows ; but he was beaten to death in the 
circus, and his body was thrown into the cloaca. It was recovered and buried, in 
the manner described by our chronicler (Stadler, Heiligenlexihon ; Acta Sanctorumf 
Januaiy, vol. ii, p. 259). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 69 

open of whech on as |7ei sei was seynt petir chapel. But if je bere lith in 
5our hand 50 se rith newt for it is dep undir )>e grouTid. For whan we go 
down on Ipe side of f)e cherch Ipere be xxxii greces and i trow as many 
upward on f>e o]?ir side Ip&re J?e auTigell ministred to seint gregori at messe. 
The cymytery is f)us long ]?at if a man tary not in pe chapeles but go rith 
forth he schal walk it be J?ann) he hath said iiii sithes miserere mei dens. 
In }>is place wer biried xlui popes* and ech of hem jaue grete indulgence to 
Ipe same place. Ther was seynt cecile biried alsoo hir memorial is ])ere ^et 
grauen in white marbiii ful wel. The comouw opinion is ])ere of }?is place 
f)at who so euyr out of synne uisite it })at is to seye clene schreue and / con- f. 379 r 
trite he is assoiled as clene as a man may be be power of Ipe cherch. This 
cymytery was mad be calixte pe pope* pernor it bereth his name. He mad 
it as fei sey for too causes on is J^at f>e hedes or ellis J?e popes * of f>e cherch 
schuld dwelle fere secretly fro perel of tirauntis for it was nececarie fat fei 
schuld leue lenge? to confirmacioun of hem fat were neophites. An ofir 
cause fei sei he had for he desired for to byry martires fat deied for cristis 
sake and for he myth not doo f is openly f erfor he ordeyned f is priuy place.^ 
Be side f is cherch is a grete hous whech f ei clepe cathacumbas fis same 
catacuwbas is a meruelous name for it is not expowned in ou? latyne bokes 
ne non of f e gramaiiones touch fis word f us compowned. The simples fei 
speke of as of cata whech soundeth as fei wryte fat cata is a boue or ellis 
cata is al and cumbo or ellis cumbas fei sey fat fis is lowe or ellis dep so 
fis word souwdith all lowe or elles al dep and in uery sikirnesse fis same 
hous is dep in f e erde and was sumtyme a grete pitte for we go down jertoo 
on xxuiii greces. Summe men sey fat is was f e purgacioun of all yssewes 
of f e bocheres fat dwelt fere for fere be jet many wallis on whech stood ful 
solempne houses whech houses we? a bochery sumtyme to rome and in fis 
place as fei sey were petir and paule f rowe rith for despite. This tale in 
partie is soth and in partie not for fat it was a macelle called in ou? tonge 
a bochery fat is soth and fat fei were f rowe fere of f 00 men fat killid hem 
for despite fat is not soth. Therfor wil we declare on to 50U f e trewth of 
fis mate?. Petir and paule suflfered he? passion at rome f e last jere of nero 
both at tyme as gelasius fe pope * writith. Petir was killid in uia aurea 
and fere byried in a place whech fei clepe uaticanz^s whech place is now 

1 S. Callixtus I was Pope from 219 to 222. Some authorities, however, give 217 and 218 
as the date of his election. He appears to have been born at Ravenna, and to have 
belonged to the family of Doniitian. He founded the cemetery on the Via Appia which 
bears his name. He was martyred during the reign of Alexander Severus ; probably not 
by his orders, as the emperor is said to have had a warm personal regard for him. He 
was buried in the cemetery of Kalepodius on the Via Aurelia ; his relics rest in the 
church of S. Maria Trastevere (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon; Acta Sanctorum, October, 
vol. vi, p. 401 ; Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, vol. i, p. 141). 



70 YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 

ioyned on to seynt petir cherch* and it was clepid so for pe prestis of f>e 
hethen lawe had f>ere certeyn reuelaciones as J»ei seide be whech J?ei -pro- 
phecied on to ]>e puple. For uates is a prophete and canus is as mech to 
sey in fat tonge as elde so ioyned to gidir f)is place soundith in oure tonge 
a place of elde prophecye. And )?at )>is place stood uia aurea or aurelia as 
it is cleped snmtyme witnessith f>e legende of seynt pancrace. Now was 
paule ded u myle fro J>at place uia. hostiensi where a chapelle with iii welles 
stant jet fast bi scala celi and Ipere biried and so ley j^ei many jeres on to Ipe 
tyme of cornely J>e pope* whech was fe xxi pope* fro petir for in his tyme 
fe grekis J?at dwelle at Constantinople hauywg enuie J>at f)e cherch of rome 
schuld be mo^ in honou? J)an he? cherch & considering psd J>ese bodies of 
petir and paule biried at rome were a grete cause of accesse of pilgWmes ful 
sotilly f)ei com to rome and with grete curiosite stole }>ese bodies with entent 
to be? hem to hostie and so forth to J^e se. And whan J?ei we? goyng Ipe 
f. 379 V spi/ritis fat were in ydolis constreyned be J»e grete powe? of ou? lord cried 
with a loude uoys help men help for ellis jour goddis schul be stole. The 
cristen men undirstood f is of Ipe bodies of petir and paule, J?e hethen men 
undirstood it of he? maumentis, and so with o consent fei pursewid fe 
grekis, and ^ sey fe grekis J>ei frewe Ipe bodies in f is pitte and Ipere lay fei 
as summe cronicles sey Ixx jere. Martines cronicle seith fat f ei were f rowe 
fere in Cornelius tyme and lift up eke in f e same popes tyme and translate 
to f places Ipere f ei ly now at instans of a blessid woma?^ callid sumtyme 

^ This passage is interesting, as it shows that in the fifteenth century the site of the 
martyrdom of S. Peter was believed by some to be near the Basilica of S. Peter, and not 
on the Janiculum at S.. Peter in Montorip. For a full discussion of this subject see 
lecture by Comm. Prof. O. Marucchi, published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the 
British and American Archaeological Society. The modern error, which fixes the site at 
S. Pietro in Montorio, appears to have crept in somewhere about this period (1450), for 
which see In diesem Biichlin stet geschryhen wie Rom von erst gehauet, &c., Strassburg, 
1500, p. G ii V : * Es ist zfi sant peter in montorio ist ein closter des ordens sante 
francisci und halten di observanz ) ufF der selben stat die kirch lygt da is gemartert 
wordew und gecretitziget sant peter der zwelfFpot | da is grosz genad und ablasz.' 
Muffel's account is interesting, as It also shows that in 1452 the site of S. Pietro 
in Montorio was, by some, held to be the true one. He says that, after parting with 
S. Paul, * sand Peter ward wyder in kerker gefiSrt, und on einem andern tag gekreutzigt 
auf einem perg zwischen den zweyen nodellen' (nadel= pyramid) *dye do sten eine in der 
maur, do sand Paulus thor hinauf get und Rumulus und Remus auf begraben ligen . . . 
und zwischen der anderen nodelen, die do steht zwischen der Tyber prucken und sand 
Peter * (p. 28). Again, in speaking of the Church of S. Pietro in Montorio, von HarfF 
says : * Off deser stat is gemartelt ind gecruciget woirden sijnt Peter apostel ' {Pilgerfahrt 
in den Jahren 1496-9, p. 30, Dr. E. von Groote, Coin, 1860). The Cliurch of S. Pietro in 
Montorio is ancient, and is mentioned in the ninth century by Agnello in the Liber 
Pontificalis of Ravenna. Sixtus IV bestowed the church upon the Franciscans in 1472, 
and Ferdinand and Isabella employed Pontelli, the architect of the Palazzo Venezia, to 
rebuild it (Armellini, p. 551; Marucchi, p. 460; Nibby, p. 587; Urlichs, Cod. Topog., 
p. 174). ••' ' pat ' in margin of MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 71 

lucilla and suwtyme lucina. Otbir cronicles sey j^at J?ei were translate fro 
J?at place long aftir f>at tyme for siluest^r was J>e xii pope fro cornely whech 
weyid hem and departed hem as it is writyn in marbil openly in seynt petir 
cherch. Swech contradiecioun is a,lday in cronicles but for be cause it 
touchith not J?e articles of oure feith ))erfor may men chese what party 
J?ei wil. 

Of'J>e cherch latcranensi^.* cap iiii. 

The cherch clepid lateranensis is a ful solempne place and many dyu^rs 
houses be perin with dyuers relikes.^ First whan we come fro sebastianes 
we entre a hous cleped seynt gregoryes librarie for J)ere as fei sey mad he 
J>e most part of his bokis in token J>at it is so, mech of his lif is jet 
depoynted on fe wallis. A noj^ir litil chapel is by and on J?e ante? stand 
to elde pileris of ston whech^ileres pei sey stood in J^at conclaue at Nazareth 
whe? gabriel told ou? lady J^oo first heuenely tydyngis. And in uery soth 
a ymage of ou? lady is on pe o pile? and a ymage of gabriel on )?e o|3ir of 
ful elde picture. Than go we in to J>e baptistery. The baptistery is a grete 
hie round hous in whech constantyn was baptized and many of>ir houses 
hangen \>eroii as schal be declared aftirward. In J>e myddis of J>is hous 
stand uiii grete pileres of porphiri ston be twix whech was J^e uessel sette 
in whech he was waschid. On J)e rith hand as we come in is a hous grated 
with tymbir where J^e conk stant )?us pe'i clepe it Ipe uessel of his baptem of 
whech conk we mad a sp«cml declaracion in f>e first part be fore Ipe xxiii 
chapetre. Next )5at hous is a litil chapel halowid in Ipe worchip of seynt 
ion baptist in whech no woma^i entre th and pere as )?ei sey is plene? 
remissiouw tociens quociens of J»e grauTit of sei^it siluester women haue pe 

* The church of S. John Lateran occupies part of the site of the family palace of the 
Laterani. At the time of Constantine it was imperial property, and is said to have been 
conferred by him upon S. Silvester as an episcopal residence. The emperor founded the 
basilica, and from this time the Patriarchum, as it was called, was the ordinary residence 
of the Popes. The basilica was destroyed by an earthquake, or by fire, and was rebuilt by 
Sergius III (904-11). Innocent IV embellished it, and Boniface VIII, in the year of 
his jubilee, decorated it magnificently. Two outbreaks of fire, in 1307 and 1361, caused 
great damage, which was repaired by Clement V, Innocent VI, and Urban V ; the last 
named sent funds from Avignon. On the return of the Popes to Rome, the building was 
found to be in a ruinous condition ; it was subsequently entirely renovated by Clement VII, 
Innocent X, and Clement XII. 

^ Muffel gives a very careful description of the Lateran, and says that the indulgences, 
when the heads of SS. Peter and Paul are shown, are the same as when the Vemacle is 
shown at S. Peter's: i.e. 7,000 years for Romans, 10,000 for other Italians, and 14,000 
years for those who come from across the mountains. He also mentions the lex regia, 
which Cola di Rienzo hung up in the church : * Item neben an der seul stet der zwelf 
tafel eine von messing, dorin die recht geschriben stend die den Romern von Athenis 
geschickt wurden do Rom nur xx jargestanden was' (pp. 10-11). 



72 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

same if fei go on pilgWmage and touch f»e dore. Than next is a grete 
chapett and an offering on to an ymage of ou? lady Ipe ppecial offeringis be 
ringis of gold or of siluer and ])erfor is j^at ymage cleped Sea maria de anulo 
fat is to sey in englisch Seyn mary of J>e ring. Who j^at )?is offering cam 
t 380 r /in use first is writyn ]?ere in a table rith thus. U. There was sumtyme in rome 
a rich man whech had on to his wyf a woman both ^ and good. This man 
loued be side his wyf a woman of uicious condicionis and pei to spent grete 
good in riot and uicious lyuyng. The wif f>at was good of lyf had f)is 
condiciou/i J>at ones or twyes in J?e weke sche wold walk to seynt ion 
lat^ranense and spectal deuocioun wold sche sey be fo? J?is ymage J^at is in 
worchip of ou? lady. The uicious woman perceyued weel J^at al f>e loue of 
pe husbond was go fro fe wif and ful onkendly com to hi?, detracted pe wif 
in his presens and seid J>at sche used J>e same onclennesse whech he used 
and prouyd J>is be grete absens fi'o hir owne hous ones or twies in pe weke. 
The man leued not j^ese tales. Tho f)is wikkid woman went to a nygro- 
mancer and compelled a dawipned spirit to stele J^e ring p^ ]:)is good woman 
was weddid with and be him selue appe? lich a 5ong man weryng J)is ring. 
And whan pe husbond sey al })is a non he hastid homward al fat he myth 
in purpos for to sle his innocent wif for to f>is entent wroute pe forseid 
wikkid woman al J>is malicious werk. And fan pe wif prayed oure lady for 
sche coude not fynde pe ryng whech he bad hir seke and be grete myracle 
f e ryng was brout a gayn and all pe fraude of pe fend parceyued, pe husbond 
eke conuerted fro his'^ and f is same is jet a gret offeryng in rome in special 
of ryngis.'' In fat same chapel is a nof ir fay? hous in whech fei seye 
constantine held his counceil with his lordis and fere stant jet partie of his 
tribunal. Be side f is is a chapett and be f e do? stant a pile? of marbitt 
scarce a metjerd by be twix whech pile? and f e wal is a litil space and in 
fat space on of f e popes * clepid gregorie condempned him selue to prison 
but aftirward he was delyueryd be miracle and on f is pile? stood sumtyme 
a crucifixe whech men kissed with grete deuocioun. So happed it fat 
a gentil woman cam for to kisse f is crucifixe and sey anof ir old po? woman 
kisse fe same. And as of dedignacioun whan sche wold haue wipte fe 
crucifixe al sodeynly it fled fro fat place up to a wal and mo? fan fou? 
fadom hy hing stille and jet it hangith in testimonie of f e miracle.* Aftir 

* * fay?' in margin of MS. ^ ' wi ' (? wish, will) in margin of MS. 

' • In ... is another chapel, wherein is painted an image of our Lady, that, upon the 
offering of a ring by a certain woman, stretched forth her hand, and drew to her the ring, 
where it yet appeareth upon the finger in the picture' (Nichols, Marvels of Some, 
p. 188, translation of Codex Vaticanus 4265). 

* Ein BUchlin, &c., Strassburg, 1500, gives a similar account of this miracle. See also 
Rucellai, II GiuUleo delV anno eanto 1450, Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 568. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGKIMES 73 

uisitaciouw of Jjese places we entre in to \>e grete cHercli whech was ]>e first 
Jjat euyr was bilid in ciisteTidam and euene ouyr J?e ante? on ]>e wal is fe 
face of our sauiou? whech appered on to ali J^e puple of rome uisibile J?e 
same day )?at seynt syluester halowid Ipe cherch. And as fe elde stories sey 
it was neuyr mad with mannes hand but sodeynly Jjus it appered. A fayre 
figure it is and biith of colon? brown and red and large eke. Than turne 
we down in to f»e cherch / and kisse a grete auter ouyr whech auter be J>e f. 380 v 
hedes of petir and paule whech be schewid ofte sith in fe weke be fo? estern 
openly on to Ipe puple.^ The hed of petir is a brood face with mech he? on 
his herd and )?at is of grey colou? be twix whit and blak. The hed of paule 
is a long face balled with red he? both herd and hed. On eithir side of yis 
ante? stand too grete pileres of brasse hoi ful of seyntes bones. Suwme 
men sey }?at }?oo we? f>e pileres f>at hiram mad to salamon as f)e J^irde book 
of kyiigis make mynde but Jjis be leue I nowt for f)at descripciouw whech is 
mad in Ipe book of regum accordith rith nowt with Ipe schap of fese pileres. 
In pe uttir ende of Ipe cherch fer]:»est fro fis aute? is a chapell in whech be 
many relikis. The? is J?e arke of }pe eld testament with Ipe tables \>e rodde 
))at floured & Ipe uessel of gold with marina. The? is Ipe bord on whech crist 
mad his maunde, fe 3erd of moyses, of Ipe u loues and of J?e too fischis fat 
left at cristis fest, Ipe cote of on? lord whech ou? lady mad, part of ou? 
ladies kerchi, part hir he?, J?e hed of zakarie jon baptist fader, of ]>e blood 
and of Ipe aschis of seynt jon baptist body, Ipe hed of seint pancrace,* Ipe 
schuldir of sey?it laurens, f>e cote of seynt jon euawgelist with whech he 
reysid iii dede men, Ipe cuppe in whech he drank uenuw, Ipe chene with 
whech he was teyid in ephese & many of ir ymgis. Now go we upward in 
to fe cherch a geyn and entren in to a cloistir whech ledith in to fe grete 
halle where Ipe general councell be holden whech tyme pei be at rome. At fe 
hey des of fis halle is a ful fayre marbil ston so cured a boue witb bord fat 

* Montaigne aleo saw the heads of the Apostles when he travelled in Italy, and 
describes them thus : * La veille de Pasques je via k S. Jean de Latran, les chefs S. Pol 
et S. Pierre, qu'on y montre, qui out encore leur chamure, teint et barbe, comme s'ila 
vivoient ; S. Piene, un visage blanc un peu longuet, le teint vermeil & tirant sur le san- 
guin, une barbe grise fourchue, la teste couverte d'une mitre papale. S. Pol, noir, le 
visage large et plus gras, la teste plus grosse, la barbe grise, espesse' {Journal du 
Voyage en Italic, ed, by Ancona, Cittk di Castello, 1895). 

' S. Pancratius was the only son of wealthy heathen parents of Synnada, a town in 
the north of Phrygia mluiaris. On the death of his father he went with his uncle 
Dionysius to Rome, where they lived in a large house on the Caelian Hill. They were 
both converted to the Christian faith, in spite of the persecution which was then raging. 
The uncle fell ill, and died in peace ; but S. Pancras, in spite of his youth, was sentenced 
to death by the sword. He sufiFered martyrdom in the year 804, in the reign of Diocle- 
tian, on the Via Aurelia, and was buried by the noble matron Octavilla in the cemetery 
of Kalepodius (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum^ May, vol. iii, p. 17). 

L 



74 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

men may kisse it. On ))is ston stood seynt jon f)e euangelist and prechid 
\>e feith of ou? lord on to domician emp«rou? and to J^e puple of rome. Aftir 
his sermone ou? lord ihu appered on to him in swech figure as he went in 
erde and )3ankid him for his sermone and so sodeynly passed oute at J^e o]?ir 
ende of f>e halle no man wist where. This uisiou^i caused popes * in elde 
tyme to grauwte grete indulgence to »)?is hous xl 3ere & xl leutones. And 
be cause no ma« can telle uerily be whech do? crist went oute for )?e? be iii 
dores perfor pilgWmes goo J>orw ail iii doresl^ Euene be fore J>oo dores is 
a ful fayre hous open on to J>e cort of lat^ranense and sette hye up on 
a uoute in whech hous seynt gregory prechid often on to \>e puple. The 
desk of marbil stant 'pere ^et on whech he was wone to lene whan he prechid. 
Than go we forth in a long pane of a cloystir and Ipere lith a grete rouwd 
ston of toarbil and fast by is depoynted a ymage of seynt jame. This is f»e 
uery story of ])ese toknes as I lerned Ipere. Seynt jon Ipe euangelist whan 
he was at rome had grete desire to speke with james his broj^ir whech was 
f. 881 r ]5at tyme in spayn at gales. This / same jon cried out at pe windowne and 
spak on to seiwt iame & iames answered him of certeyn materis whech f>ei 
wold. This )?ing semeth impossible to marines witte for j^e grete distauns 
of u or ui hundred myle but to god is no ping impossible whan he will werk 
ony J>ing for his seruauntes. A litil ferthe? in fat cloyster hang .pe first 
bellis f>at euyr wer mad.^ And forth in anoJ?ir pane of )?at cloystir is 
a chapei and pere stant J>e chaye? f)at pe pope* is asayed in whef>ir he be 
man or wom&n be cause j^e cherche was deceyued ones in a woman whech 
deyid on processiouw grete with child for a ymage is sette up in memorie 
of hir as we go to laterane be for a litil place sumtyme a cherch as I suppose 
it.schuld be cleped titulus pastoris. ^ Aftir yis chapeli be a peyre greces 

* Ritter A. von Harff mentions the fact that pilgrims go through all three doors. On 
p. 14 he says: *'Dae steynt oUch drij ander portzen beneiien eyn andereren, weyss man 
vnder den drynnen nyet wylch die rechte poertz sij, darumb geyt man durch sij alle 
drij.* He adds, that he who does this with devotion, all his sins are forgiven. He also 
tells us, on p. 15, that in the church is a stone, on which S. Silvester stood and preached 
to CJonstantine ; and that cm it are written the words : Aures ntediencium {Pilgerfahrt in 
den Jahren 1496-9 : Von Groote, Coin, 1860). 

' * Item appresso al detto luogo due campane non molto grandi senza battaglio che si 
dice furono le prime campane che si fflicessino mai al mondo* (Rucellai, II Giiibileo del- 
Vanno santo 1450, Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 571. See also Muffel, p. 14). 

' Our chronicler has made the mistake of confusing the very ancient church of S. Pas- 
tor with the titulus pastoris, the old name of S. Pudenziana. S. Pastor was near 
S. Clemente ; it is mentioned in the papers of the hospital of S. Salvatore, in the year 
1452, as • ecclesia S. Pastoris prope S. Clementem de qua non restat nisi pars tribunae '. 
It appears to have been attached to the Monastery of S. Clemente ; for, in a catalogue of 
churches of the time of Pius V, it is referred to as * S. Pastore dentro S. Clemente '. The 
catalogue of Turin says : * Ecclesia S. Pastoris habet unum sacerdotem '. There is now 
no trace whatever of it ; and Armellini, while admitting that he knows of no historical 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 75 

down in to J>e cort of fai? white marbill as I haue mynde now "jpere be euene 
xxuiii. Up on on of f)ese greces stood ou? lord ihu be fore pilate whan he 
was dempt to Ipe deth and not withstanding J)at o gre is merkid for )?at 
cause as J?ei sey 5et Ipe deuocion of pilgn'mes is not ccmtent Iperhj but fei 
knele up on alle and kisse all for uery sikirnesse. 3^^ aboue in \)e cloistir 
be othir iii chapellis of whech on in sp^cml is of grete auctorite f>ei clepe it 
J?e chapel of )je saluatou? eke in ]?is chapel entreth neuyr no womaTi.^ The 
story of f)at chapel is writyn Ipere in grete declaraciouTi here it schal be 
abreggid. Aftir pe deth of ou? lord ihu ou? lady mary made grete lamenta- 
cioun for absens of hir son. Consolacyon wold sche non receyue but if sche 
myth haue a face lich his face on whech sche myth loke euerj day. This 
mate? was comouwned a mong^s J>e apostoles and }?is weye fouwde J^erin. fat 
seynt luke must make f>is ymage. He wold not graunte hem to make it but 
on a cojidicioun J)at J^ei schuld fast and prey iii dayes for his good speed. 
And in )?is mene while J»is luke planed a table of a palme tre in whech he 
J^out for to make his werk whech table he sperd up pWuyly )?at no man 
schuld touch it. But whann tyme cam f)at he schuld werk he fonde a face 
redy mad whech no ma?2. coude amende. This table was schewid on to ou? 
lady and sche had so grete plesauns f>mn J?at sche kissid it swetely and 

record of the saint, thinks that he belonged to the early apostolic era in Rome. Maruc-. 
chi, in his article on S. Pudenziana, thinks that S. Pastor was the brother of Pope 
Pius I (142-57). (Armellini, p. 501 ; Marucchi, p. 865.) Adinolfi says that the tribuna 
of the church was standing near S. Clemente in 1462. Regarding the legend of Pope 
Joan, he says that Martinus Polonus is one of the earliest authors to mention the 
fable, which was invented about the thirteenth century (vol. i, pp. 317-18 ; vol. ii, 
p. 79). The fable of Pope Joan is also mentioned by MufFel, p. 18. The place where 
the statue stood which in the Middle Ages was supposed to record this event was 
near S. Clemente ; it is marked in the large map (in sections) at the end of De Rossi's 
Piante iconografiche di Roma, with the words * Logo dove partori la papessa '. There 
is some interesting information regarding the sedes stercoraria in Nichols, Marvels of 
Rome, pp. 129-30, notes 274 and 275. Finally, for a discussion of the whole subject, see 
Tomassetti's able article in the Bullettino Communale, 1907, p. 82, on La Statua delta 
Papessa Giovanna. He attributes the legend to three causes : (1) The rite of the sella 
stercoraria, abandoned after the time of Leo X; (2) the existence of a statue on the road- 
side, which statue he believes to be that of Juno suckling Hercules, in the Chiaramonte 
gallery of the Vatican Museum ; and (3) the abandoning of this road for the procession of 
the possessio. This change was attributed to the existence of this statue, round which the 
legend grew; whereas it was, according to Tomassetti, really due to the impracticability 
of the road, until it was reopened by SixtusV, who is also believed to have removed the 
statue to the Vatican. 

1 * Item si dice che S. Piero vi disse messa e che Sto Lorenzo cantb il vangelo e Sto 
Vincenzio vi disse la pistola alia predetta messa e che la detta cappella fu consecrata per 
Cristo e per Sto Piero. — Item si dice che in detta cappella non si pub dire messa se non per 
la persona del papa e che gli h pi^ che cento anni che non vi si disse mai messa nfe per lo 
papa nfe per altri salvo che il passato papa Nichola quinto vi fece dire messa a uno suo 
cappellano V anno 1448 ' (Rucellai, Giuhileo delVanno santo 1460, Archiv. St. Pat, 1881, 
vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 570). 

l2 



76 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

seide pese wordis. This same is licli my son. In ail hir lyf myth no man 
gete it fro hir but at hi? deth sche 5aue it on to seynt jon euangelist, and 
fro him it was be left with pollicarp his disciple and aftirward brout 
to rome. 

Of yat cherch cleped seint cruce.* cap u. 

Now of )?at place whech is cleped seynt cruce wil we speke and first telle 
fe fundacion of J?at place. Constantine had a doutyr meruelously cured of 
scabbe at Ipe graue of seynt agues as we schul trete mo? largely aftirward 
whan we speke of seynt agues. This constauTice* ded mak ]?is cherch of 
f. 381 V seynt cruce and pope * siluester / halowid it. In J>e hye ante? whech is 
a ful fay? conk so clepe )?ei hoi uessels of ston in ]?at same conk ly \>e 
bodies of seynt anastase J>e marti? & cesari J^e martir^ and ])ere to is grauTited 
xl jere of pardon and as many lentones. And in J?e festis of J>ese too martires 

^ The church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme was founded by Constantine, in the fourth 
century, in PalcUio Seseoriano ; which palace, in classical times, was near the place 
of public execution. Marucchi thinks that S. Helena may have lived in the palace, 
which was at that time joined to the Lateran, and to the gardens of the Esquiline. The 
church was formerly known under the title of the Basilica Sessoriana. Its present name 
is derived from the portion of the Holy Cross placed in it by the Empress Helena when 
she brought that relic to Kome from Jerusalem. The church was embellished in the fifth 
century by Placidia and Valentinian III, and about this time the building was called the 
Basilica Heleniana, It was restored by Gregory II in 7*20, and by Benedict VII in 
the latter part of the tenth century. The present form of the church is due to 
Benedict XIV. The extraordinary legend (which follows in the text) of a Pope being 
dismembered at his own request at the door of the church, is due to the fact that 
Sylvester II expired, while he was celebrating Mass, on Quadragesima Sunday in 1008. 
He was buried at S. John Lateran. It is possible that he may have expressed a wish 
that his heart should be buried in the church in which he died. He was generally 
believed to have acquired magical knowledge from the Mohammedans in Spain, and the 
somewhat gruesome legend has probably developed by degrees around the above data. 
His epitaph still exists, and is quoted in full in n. 2, p. 77. For the origin of the name 
Sessorio or Seasoriano, see Adinolfi. He derives it from the Amphitheatrum Castrense, 
which was named the Sessorian, on account of the graduated order of its steps, and gave 
its name to the neighbourhood (vol. i, p. 272). 

^ S. Constantia, the daughter of Constantine, bears also the title * Augusta'. She was 
cured of a dangerous illness at the grave of S. Agnes ; this caused her conversion to 
Christianity. Gallicanus, a military leader, had asked for her hand in marriage ; but when 
he had to leave Rome for one of his campaigns, she gave him, as companions, her servants 
SS. John and Paul ; receiving into her household, in return, SS. Attica and Artemia, 
daughters of Gallicanus by a former marriage. Through her prayers they were converted 
to the Christian faith, as also was Gallicanus on his return from victory. S. Constantia 
and her two companions took upon themselves a vow of chastity ; she built a church and 
dwelling at the grave of S. Agnes, in which she lived until her death in the fourth century 
(Stadler, Heiligenlexikon; Acta Sanciorum, Fehruarj,yo\. iii, p. 67). 

' Possibly this S. Cesarius ig the saint of that name who suffered martyrdom in 
Terracina about the year 300, in the persecution of Diocletian. The relic of his arm 
was preserved in S. John Lateran; his feast-day ia on Nov. 1 (Stadler, Edligenlexikon), 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 77 

is grauTited remission of fe iiii part of synne. The fest of anastase falleth 
\)e xxii day of januari. The fest of cesari fallith on halowmesday. In 
f>is cherch is a grete pece of ]>e crosse )?at ou? lord suffered passion upon, 
«ke raech of f>e crosse on whech )?e theef hyng f>at was on Ipe rit side. 
The? be too saphires hoi at ]>e 5ift of seynt heleyn in on of hem is part of 
fe blood of ou? lord ihu in fe o)?ir part of J?e mylk of Ipe blessed uirgine. 
The? is also a nayle with whech ou? lord was fast to pe crosse it is a grete 
boistous f^ing of too handful long with a gret heed lich a schip nayl and 
blunt at \)e ende for pat poynt whech is at coloyn of too unch long was 
broken fro f»is nayl at comaundme«it of charles whan he was emperoi^r. 
He ded so mech for J?e cherch pat pe cherch myth no ping denye him. 
The? is a cloth J?at seynt ion baptist wered. The? is a laumpe ful of bawm 
whech bawm ran fro pe heid of seint uincent. The? is a pees of pe flesch 
of seynt laurens and coles ioyned perto rith as J>ei fried in his passiouw. 
The? be many oJ>ir relikes in both auteres on eythir side for pe summe of 
indulgens in pe same place is euerj day a hundred ^ere and xxuii and 
euery sunday wednysday and friday ccliiii. Than^i go we down on a pey? 
greces in to a chapel J?ei clepe ierlm. This same chapel was pe pryuy 
chambir of seiwt heleyTi in whech sche lay moost and seynt siluest^r at hir 
instauws consecrate fis hous and jaue perto ful grete indulgens for euery 
friday Jjorw oute pe ^er is pere plene? remissiouw, and on good friday 
absolucioun a pena & culpa as pe elde writing of j^e wallis witnessid 
sumtyme. In f)is chapeil entreth no woman but o day in pe je? and f>at 
is in march pe xx day, in pe uigile of seint benedict for J?at day was )?is 
chapel consecrate. Whi ))at women be for boden swech holy places be told 
many lewed causes to whech I wil 5eue no credens but I will sey myn 
opynyoun in ]?is mate?. Al f oo whech haue be at rome knowe weel J^at pe 
women J>e? be passing desirous to goo on pilgrimage and for to touch and 
kisse euery holy relik. Now in uery sothfastnesse pese places whech are 
forbode hem be rith smale in quantite. And uphap sum woman in pe prees 
efir for seknesse or with child hath be in grete jperel pere and for fis cause 
})ei we? forbode pe entre of J?ese houses as I suppose.* In yis same chapel 
fel a wondirful case of on siluestgr pe pope not J^at siluester J?at baptized 
constantyn but anoJ>ir whech hith gilbert be fore.' This maw was enhau^ced 

* The following reason is given why women are not admitted to the chapel of the 
Holy Cross at S. Peter's : ' Das kam also zu, das ein fraw ein briester lieb het, und 
dieweil er ob dem altar stund und sy in ansach mit poser begir, do enging yr die natur ; 
das sicht man auf dem merbelstein do dy fraw ist gestanden.' The author adds that many 
Germans were buried in this chapel (Muflfel, p. 24). See also Nichols, Marveh o/Romej 
p. 127. 

^ Silvester II is first mentioned in the Liher Pontijicalis, vol. ii, p. 258, in the Life t)f 
Benedict VII (974-83). The strange legend regarding his death will be found in his own 



78 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

f. 382 r on J>at dignite be / fals menes of nygromayicie. And wh&nn he whas pus 
sublimat on to J>e hiest degre of fe cherch he couTicelled with his familia? 
deuel who longe he schuld lyue and where he schuld deye. The deuele told 
him undir a sophim he schul neuyr deye but at ierlm. Than was Ipe name 
of ]?is chapel onknowe to )?e pope * for he supposed ueryly J>at ierlm whech 
stant in palestin was pe place asigned be pe deuele. Thus leued he in 
a maner of a sikernesse of long lyf for at ]?at ierlm whech we spak of last he 

life, p. 268. Duchesne, in n. 3, ib., places its origin about the end of the eleventh century, 
and traces it to the Vita et Geata Hildehrandi of Cardinal Benno, who wrote in 1099. 
Vincent de Beauvais gives it at length (xxiv, 98).. Sylvester was, however, buried in the 
Lateran; in the left aisle, near the entrance to the modem Corsini chapel. The tomb 
was stated by John the Deacon to drip with water. He says : * Cuius' (Silvestri) 'saepe 
sepulcrum, etiam in serenissimo acre, cum non sit in humido loco, aquarum guttas, quod 
satis est hominibus admirandum, visibiliter emanat. Inde est altare sanctorum Quadra- 
ginta Martyrura' (Migne, P. X., t. cxciv, p. 1551). The tomb was opened in 1648 ; the 
stone which bore the epitaph was preserved, and is still to be seen on one of the pillars of 
the right aisle of the church. Another very strange legend grew up about this tomb ; 
viz. that the bones wei-e heard to move and rattle whenever a Pope was about to die. 
The origin of this legend is explained by the inscription, which is as follows : — 
Iste locus mundi Silvestri membra sepulti 

Venturo domino conferet ad sonitum 
Quem dederat mundo celebre doctissima virgo 

Atque caput mundi culmina romulea 
Primum Gerbertus meruit francigena sede 

Remensis populi metropolim pata-iae 
Inde Ravennatis meruit conscendere summum 

Aecclesiae regimen nobile sitque potens 
Post annum Romam mutato nomine sumpsit 

Ut toto pastor fieret orbe novus 
Cum nimium placuit sociali mente fidelis 

Obtulit hoc Caesar tertius Otto sibi 
Tempus uterque comit clara virtute sophiae 

Gaudet et omne seclum frangitur omne reuw 
Clavigeri instar erat caelorum sede potitus 

Tema sufFectus cui vice pastor erat 
Iste vicem Petri postquam suscepit abegit 

Lustralis spatio saecula morte sui 
Obriguit mundus discussa pace triumphus 

Aecclesiae nutans dedidicit requiem 
Sergius hunc loculum miti pietate sacerdos 

Successorque suus compsit amore sui 
Quisquis ad hunc tumulum devexa lumina vertis 
Omnipotens domine die miserere sui. 
Obiit anno, dominioe incarnationis Miii. name. i. m. mai. d. xii. 

The epitaph says nothing of the humidity, but the * tumultus ossium ' of the Liber 
Ponti/iealis (p. 263) was suggested by the second line. Duchesne says : * Dans le venturo 
Domino on a vu, non le Souverain Juge, mais le pape futur, celui qui remplacera le pontife 
actuel en fonctions: ad sonitum a ^t^ entendu, non de la trompette du jugement dernier, 
mais du bruit que font en se choquant les os de Silvestre II (Silvestri membra sepulti . . . 
conferet) chaque fois qu'il y a un dominus venturus k Thorizon. C'est un exemple 
remarquable de Ugende formde d'aprfes une inscription mal comprise ' (Note 5, p. 264). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 79 

cast him neuyr to come. Than felle it a day in whech }?e staciouw was at 
Jjis chapell and f>e pope of usage mut nede synge pere for at pia day ^et 
syTiggith no man at fat aute?.^ Whan f)is siluest^r was at messe f)e wedyr 
wex blak and meruelous tempestis aryse crowis innumerable eke appered. 
The cardinalis and J>e puple fel down for far and no man myth entende on 
to pe seruyse so were fei dismayed. Tho pe pope* cleped on un to him an 
inqwired of him J>e name of ]?is place. He answerd and seid J?at siluester 
named it ierlm at instauns of seint heleyn. Thoo wept J?e pope * and had 
grete repentauns of his wikkid lyf and be fore }>e puple mad open con- 
fessioun what conuauntis he had mad with pe deuele and who he was 
deceyued in sophisticacioun of J>is name ierlm. Wherfor he comaunded hem 
fat fei schuld disme?7ibir him ioynt be ioynt and frow it owt to pe crowis pe 
same schuld fei do of his hert eke if f>ei bo? a wey his hert fei schuld nemV 
pray for him he seide, and if fei bo? it not a wey fan myth fei trost fat 
he stood undir proteccioun of goddys mercy. Thus as he comaunded it 
was doo for f e hert of him wold f ei not touch whech hert in tokne of f is 
myracle hangith in f e roof on to f is day.'' Be fo? f e ^ate of seynt cruces 
stand iii crosses on whech f e passioun of ou? lord is ensaumpled on good 
fryday with mech of ir circumstauns. Eke as we go forth oute of f e cyte 
to f e cherch of seynt laurens is a grete wal standyng on arches on whech 
wall runne sumtyme cundites of oyle of watir and of wyn on to f e grete 
paleys. And in f e natiwtte of ou? lord fel pere a meruelous f ing on of f o 
grete pileres mad al of tyl with half f e arch of f e o side and half on f e 
of ir side whech rested up on him turned him and stood euene contrarie to 
fe werk and so etant he at fis day. 



I 



Of f e cherch of s laurens. lii. 

Now go we oute of f e cyte be a 5ate f ei clepe porta lauicana and betwix 
heggis and uynes walk a grete myle or we come at fe cherch of seynt 

^ ' but J)e * (? pope, cut off in binding) in margin of MS. 

2 Muffel says that the heart of the Pope is buried in S. John Lateran, but appears to 
be confusing the grave with the chapel built by Pope Hilary in honour of S. Stephen 
Protomartyr ; for he says : * Item hinten in der kirchen in der abseytten * (apsis) * do ist 
auch das grab sant stephanus des bapsts, der sich zuhauen liess vor der kirchen zu Jeru- 
salem zu dem heiligen creutz . . . und dasselbig grab, darinn das hertz ligt, gibt stetigs 
feuchtikeit und donnert darynn, wen ein bapst sterben sol, das mansz etlich tag da vor 
hort' (p. 12). *Vor d' kirch ist ein roter marmelstein dar uff der pabste sasz d' sich dem 
teuffel ergab wad wurde da z6 stucken gehawen. JJnd dew teuffeln flir geworffen di dar 
kovamet yn vogels gestalt. Die stuck wiirde yn ein feur geworffen, sie fiirte die stuck alle 
bin da, allein das hertz mochtews nit weg fiiren nnd das was ein g&t zeicheu der gnaden ' 
{Ein BucAlin, &c., Strassburg, 1500, p. D ii v, B.M.). 



80 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

laurens.^ For it stant in a feld in her langage and in oure legendis {>ei sei 
in agro uerano. This cherch is edified ful wel and a monasterie of muTikis 
f. 382 V anexid jerto. In fis cherch be nethe f)e aute? in a uoute in a / ful fayre 
tumbe lith seint laurens with seynt steuene ful realy laurews was byryed 
J?ere aftir his martirdam but who seynt steuene cam yidir fro ierlm ]?at 
schal I telle 50W. Whan he was stoned to J?e deth with pe iewis and left in 
J)e feld J>at bestes and foules schuld ete him, on gamaliel mayster on to seynt 
paule J>e apostel took up J>is body & ded it byry with grete worchip in 
a possession of his clepid in fe ebrew tonge caphargamala and ]>ere lay ]?is 
body iiii hundred jere to couwte fro cristis birth, and for to count fro ))e deth 
of seynt steuene ccc jere Ixui. So in J>e uii 5ere of honorii^s ])e emperowr 
)?is same gamaliel appered to a prest cleped lucianws and told hym whe? 
steuene was byried and o]3ir persones of whech J>is gamaliel was on. He 
coniaunded him eke to go to ]>e bischop of ierlm and telle him J>at it was Ipe 
wil of god fat f>ese persones schuld be lyft fro J>at despect place in whech 
]?ei were leyd and bore on to Ipe cherch cleped syon in whech J)e forseid 
steuene was sumtyme arschdekne. As gamaliel comaunded al was do for 
pere was fe bodye of seynt steuene leyd in grete worchip and many myracles 
do pat day as seynt austen berith witnesse in xxii book de cimtate dei.'^ 
Aftir J>is certeyn jeres a gret lord senatou? of Constantinople cleped 
alisaundre sayled on to ierlm with his lady julyane to uisite J>oo holy places 
in whech oure lord suffered for us passion. And whan he was come 
for grete deuocioun whech he had to seynt steuene he mad on to him a fay? 
oratorie and a chest of silue? in whech his body was couchid. So happed it 
with inne fewe dayes f>at J>is alisaund? dyed aftir his deth his frendis made 
a chest of siluer lich on to f>e former chest and leyd his body perinne, 

* The more ancient Basilica of S. Lorenzo outside the walls was founded by Constantino, 
and enlarged by Galla Placidia and Pelagius II in the fifth and sixth centuries. It went 
under the name of speciosa ; and, as it was erected over the tomb of the saint in the 
Catacombs of Ciriaca, it was also called ad corpus, its position being further denoted by 
the words super arenario crypiae. The entrance to it was on the far side ; that is to say, 
where the tomb of Pius IX now is. The second basilica, according to Armellini, was the 
work of Sixtus III; the two buildings were separate and distinct until the time of 
Honorius III (1218). The church of Sixtus III, which was erected about the year 432, 
was known as the basilica maior from its size ; later, as the Basilica S. Maria presso 
S. Lorenzo from its dedication. The entrance to it was from the Via Tiburtina, so that 
the orientation was reversed. Honorius joined the two churches together (they were then 
back to back), and destroyed the two apses, thus making the basilica of Constantine the 
confessio of the church of Sixtus III. The porch dates from this period. Alexander IV 
decorated the interior in 1254 (Armellini, p. 679 ; Duchesne, Lib, Fontif., vol. i, p. 197, 
n. 84, pp. 233-4 ; Marucchi, p. 496 ; Nibby, p. 296). 

* S. Gamaliel, a Pharisee, was a leading teacher of the Jewish law, in which he 
instructed S. Paul. For the account of the burial of S. Stephen, and Gamaliel's 
apparition to Lucian, cf. Stadler, BeiligenUxiJcon. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 81 

Seuene jere aftir his cleth his wif juliane desired to sails to Constantinople and 
prayed Ipe bischop of ierlrn to ^eue hir leue fat sche myth cary hir husbondes 
body horn with hi?. He answerd f)at in treuth he knew not J>e o chest fro 
J?e o]?ir be cause fei were so lich. Sche saide J>at sche had pnuy merkes 
whei* hir husbond lay of whech sche schuld not faile. Thoo J?e bischop 
schewid both and sche of ignorauwce chase Ipe chest of scynt steuene and left 
hir husbond J>e?. Whan f>e body was with hir in fe see Ipe deueles of pe eyr 
cried with grete noyse fat he? enmy steuene was stole fro ierlm. Thus was 
he brout on to Constantinople and had 'jpere in ful grete reu^rens. Aftir fis 
not long eudosia f>e douter on to fe emp^rou? theodosius was "uexid with 
a wikkid spirit sche at rome hir fader dwellyng at Constantinople. Hi? 
frendis sent on to fe emperou? and teld him of J>is chauT^s. He wrote a geyn 
on to hem fat sche schuld come to Constantinople for fere he hoped sche 
schuld be cured f orw meritis of seynt steuene. Whan f is message was come 
f e deuele with in hir cried and seid sche schal not go to constaTitinople but 
steuene must come to rome for so is / f e wil of f e aposteles. Than was fere f. 383 r 
a grete trety betwix f e grekis and f e romanes and in here trety f is was her 
apoyntmewt fat f e grekis schuld brynge f e body of seynt steuene to rome 
and leue it fere and in reco7>ipe7is receyue f e body of seynt laurens and here 
it to Constantinople. Thus come f ei of grace with f e body of seynt steuene 
on to rome and fei of rome had ordeyned fat fis body schuld be leyd 
at a cherch fei clepe sci petri ad uincula. But whan ]:ei cam fere f e wikkid 
spirith with in f e mayde cried and spak on fis wise. | Not here schal he ly 
but with his brof ir laurens. Tho bore fei him to f e cherch of seynt laure?^s 
& euene at f e entre of f e cherch f e mayde fat folowid continiely be labou? 
of hir frendis was delyuered of hir wikkid gest. A non as fei cam to 
f e tombe of seynt laurens for to make a chauwge f e body of laurens sodeynly 
turned and mad a space whe? his felaw schuld ly. Tho leyd fei down f e 
body of seynt steuene and a non as fei leyd baud for to take seynt laurens 
fei fett down as ded and so ley still a grete while on to f e tyme fat f e pope * 
and f e puple prayed for hem, eke with in x dayes after fei deyid all. Thus 
cam seynt steuene fro ierlm to rome on to f e cherch of seynt laurens of whech 
cherch fis special chapet? is mad.^ In fis cherch ly many mo seyntis fan fei 
to as a table fere berith witnesse in whech be wrytin swech uers. Continet 
hoc templum sanctorum corpora plura A quibws auxilium suplex homo 
poscere cura Cum sixto iacet hvLrencius igne crematits Et prothomartir 
ste\:ihanua leuita beatus Post hos ypolitws collis reWg&tus equorum Cum 

* The relics of S. Stephen were, according to S. Augustine, discovered in a.d. 415. An 
account of the translation of the same from Constantinople to Rome will be found in the 
article ' Stephanus* in Stadler, HeiligenU'xiJcon. 

M 



82 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

imtWce sua cum cuwcta plebe suoYum Eomanus miles tiiphonia uirgo qurilla 
Et quadraginta quos passio coniinet ilia lustinws sacer defuwctos qui 
tumulabat Curiaca uidua que sanctos eciam recreabat Huiws matrone fuit haec 
possessio cara Ipsius nomew speaaliter co^itinet ara. This is fe sentens of 
Jjese uers. This temple conteynjih of seyntis bodies fele ^ Of whech seyntis 
J>ou man aske sum help. "With sixte J>e pope* lith laurens brent in fe fir. 
The first martir steuene eke he lith he?. The man ypolitus with wild hors 
drawe to j^e deth Lith he? with his norys and all j^e s^ruauTitis of his hous 
Komanws f>e knyth triphonia J?e mayde and quirille And xl mo as he? passion 
telleth ful pleyn Justint^ )?e prest p&t byried J)is puple with dreed Curiaca 
J?e widow whech fed J^is puple ful oft On to )?is woma^i J^is same place 
longid sum tyme | Hir name is ^et on )?e ante? ful specialy sette.^ These be 
pe relikes eke in seynt laurens cherch | a grete ston of white marbil with 
certeyn holes on which his body was fried on whech ston a man may ^et se }>e 
blood and J>e fatnesse of his body. The? is eke a grete pece of f>e gredil ^ on 
whech he was rosted, and of his maner of tormentrie be grete opiniones f>e?,* 
sum sey fat Ipe ston lay a baue ]>e gridel summe sey it lay be nethe. There 
is schewid eke J?e lauou? of copir with whech he baptized all f)at cam on to 
f. 883 V hiw / for fat cause. There be schewid alsoo iii stones al blody whech we? 
frowyn at seynt steuene. With to of hem Ipei persed on to his braynes and 
with J?e fird fei smet him down. The indulgens of fis place as fei sey 
is grete euery day uii ^ere as many lentenes & J?e fird part remission of all 
synne. In fe festis of steuene and laurens a c jer and fat dureth be 

^ many, Germ. viel. 

^ De Kossi mentions this inscription, which still exists. It, however, contains four 
more lines (at the end), which are not given by our chronicler. He says that the inscrip- 
tion was generally to be found in the hooks of indulgences and relics which were used by 
pilgrims in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries {Bollettino cCArch. Crist,, Ser. 3, An. 6, 
Kome, 1881, p. 86 sq.). S. Hippolytus appears to hav€ been a Roman officer whose duty 
it was to guard S. Lawrence ; he was so struck with his constancy that he was converted 
and baptized by him. His nurse's name was Concordia ; they both suffered martyrdom 
on the same day in a.d. 258, Hippolytus by being dragged by wild horses, and Concordia 
by being scourged to death (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, August, 
vol. iii, p. 4). S. Romanus was a soldier of the Imperial Guard under Valerian and Gal- 
lienus, who, witnessing the tortures preceding the martyrdom of S. Laurence, was so 
struck by his patience and fortitude that he embraced Christianity, and was baptized by 
the saint before his death. He was beheaded outside the Porta Salaria, and buried in the 
Agio Verano by the priest Justinus (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorurriy 
August, vol. ii, p. 408). SS. Triphonia and Quirilia were mother and daughter. The 
for meris said by some authorities (amongst which is the Mart. Bom.) to have been wife 
of the Emperor Decius. This, however, was not so ; but she may have been a relative, or 
perhaps the slave of his wife. She was baptized by the priest Justinus with her 
daughter, and both were martyred on the following day (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; 
Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. viii, p. 813 sq.). 

' Over the word < gridil ' is written * gridian *. 

* The gridiron is now at S. Lorenzo in Lucina. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 83 

\)e octaue. An as is seid ]:e? and writyn in autentik bokes who so euyr 
uisitith J>is cherch eu^ry wednysday he schal delyue? a soule fro purgatorye. 
Of whech mate? is founde in wrytyng swech a raeruelous uision. Ther was 
sumtyme a holy man in J^at place ful of uertu keper of J?at cherch in a nyth 
as he lay not a slepe but wakyng he say seint laurews entir be Ipe est side 
of fe cherch be ]>e wyndow and many fayre joiig folk hangyng on his skirtis. 
The seynt cam on to fis man and seid on to him Ipns. Wete ]?ou wel f)at 
I am laurens patron of pis cherch whech stand in goddis presens continiely 
praying for all J?oo f>at haue special deuociou?i to me and euery Wednisday 
for })at day was I martired haue I a special commissiouw of ou? lord ]?at 
I descende to purgatorie where as many soules as may cacch hold of me 
a"? delyuered fro fat peyne. Theifor fou and all ofir beth bysy to do sum 
special seruyse on to god and me for 50 schul haue special reward better fan 
56 gan gesse. This seyd ye martir with all his felawchip ascendid up to 
heuene syngiwg fis antyme. In craticula te dominum non negaui &cra. He 
be gan it and fei song it forth. This same story is writyn in a elde legend 
whech j?e monkes of charter hous usen and a clerk f>ei clepe osbert makith 
mynde of fe same in his book of epistoles.* 



Of fe cherch cleped sea maria maior. ca uii. 

Now schal we speke of a cherch fei clepe sea maria maior in englisch we 
may calle it seynt marie fe more.^ But whi it is cleped so ^e schul here. 

^ There are several Osberts, writers on theological subjects. The first was a Benedic- 
tine, Precentor of Canterbury Cathedral in the eleventh century, and a friend of Lan- 
franc. He wrote a Life of S. Dunstan, &c. The second was also a Benedictine, who 
came from Clare or Stoke Clare in England. He lived in the twelfth century, and wrote 
the Life of S. Edward and other works. The third was Osbert Pickengham, a Carmelite, 
and Doctor of Paris in the fourteenth century. He was the author of various theological 
treatises (Moreri, Dictionnaire historique). 

^ The Basilica of S. Mary Major was founded near the Macellum Liviae in the year 
852 ; it was enlarged by Sixtus III about eighty years later, after which its name was 
changed from Basilica Siciniana to Basilica S^' Mariae ad praesepe. It was also 
known as S. Maria in superaggio, in allusion to the agger of Servius Tullius. Great 
additions to the church were made by Nicholas IV at the end of the thirteenth century. 
In the fifteenth century Alexander VI gilded the ceiling with the first gold which came 
from America. Sixtus V and Paul V constructed the two chapels which bear their 
names ; finally, the modern fa9ade was constructed by Benedict XIV in 1741, replacing 
that of Eugenius III of the twelfth century. The beautiful campanile is the work of 
Gregory XI, and was built after his return to Rome from Avignon (Armellini, p. 888; 
Marucchi, p. 149 ; Adinolfi, vol. ii, p. 148). Mufiel gives an interesting account of 
a chapel which he saw in S. Maria Maggiore; it was then (1452) being decorated by 
a pious Koman lady by permission of Nicholas V (then Pope). Our Lady had appeared 

M 2 



84 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Be for })ls cherch was mad ])ere was no clierch in rome in memorie of oure 
lady. And pernor ou? lady appered on to a certeyn man of rome comavinding 
him with his good to make fis cherch for it is a fay? house large and 
plesauwt to J>e sith costful eke specialy in the pauyment. For it was ])e 
first was mad and eke it is J?e largest of ail Ipertor is it called maior. la 
what mane? it be gan and be what myracle it was mad fus fynde we wrytyn 
in \)e elde stories of ]>e cherch. In Ipe tyme of liberiMg \>e pope * not he f>at 
was sone aftir constantyn but a noJ>ir whech is cleped liberi^^.^ pe ^onger. 
In his tyme was in rome a man }>at had mech f)e gouernauws of rome for 
emperouris at yat tyme ne now as fer? as I can se haue lytyl c?ominacion 
fere. This man as pe bokis sey hith jon a holy man deuoute iuste and 
trewe whech had a wif of J?e same proporciouTi in holynesse deuociouw^ 
f . 384 r rithwisnesse / and treuth. They prayed euery day to ou? lady of hie deuocyoun 
fat fei myth leue in fis world to fe pleasauns of ou? lord and eke fei prayed 
enterly J?at J?oo worldly goodls of whech fei hadde grete habundauws schuld 
be expendid in sum werk whech we? plesauns on to hir son. Aftir f>is lyf 
many feres' cwitinued ou? lady appered on to pe seid pope* and to f)is same 
jon eke on to his wyf for ail fei in o mome^it had o man^r auisiouw. Sche 
sayde on to hem who fat grete cyte had rered up many a solempne hous in 
worchip of dyuers seyntis and non in al fat cite was dedicate to hi? wherfo? 
it plesed hir son fat sche schuld merke f e ground and f ei schuld edyfye f e 
werk. And fat f ei myth knowe weel fat sche whech appered was modir 
on to crist and eke fat f is was f e wil of crist fat f is hous schuld be edified 
Bche told hem who f * sche had merkid al f e grouTid with snow whe? fat sche 
fout hir hous schuld stande. And in encresing of fe myracle fat snow 
schuld * down so habuwdaurttly sche saide hem fat it was ageyns f e kynde 
of fat tyme of f e ^ere for fis was do f e u day of August. This man jon 
aros in f e morowny^ig and as he went forby fis hill whech is cleped mons 
euipersLggitts he say al f e top ferof snow. Tho went he forth to telle f e 
pope * of fis myracle and he fond him redy whech had sent for f e cardynales 
and f e puple of f e cyte for he wold with solempne procession both se fis 
myracle and begynne f ese grouTides. Thus go f ei forth all in fere and at 
fat same day f ei opened f e grouwdes as f e snow schewid. Aftirward with 

to this woman in a vision, which event was followed by a miracle. The Roman lady 
would seem to have begun a picture of the Virgin in this chapel, and it was costing her 
more than she could aflFord to expend. She began to beg for the purpose, by order of our 
Lady, who in the vision ordered her to go towards S. Paul's Church, and ask the first 
person whom she met for alms. First a man passing her gave her two gulden, and then 
a woman gave her two more gulden ; but when she opened her hand she found she had 
six gulden, and the story ends thus : * ist allererst geschehen im gnadenreichen jar, das 
im tausent. virhundert und im zweiund funfzigsten jar gewest ist ' (MufFel, p. 83). 
* * &lle ' in margin of MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 85 

ricchesse of ]:>is jon )3is chercli was mad to his perfeccion and he himselue 
with his wif is biried pere in a conk of red ston ))ei clepe porphiiie ston fast 
be Ipe dore J?at goth to seynt ant on} e. In Ipe hie ante? of J>e cherch restith 
))e body of seynt raathie Ipe apostil. And in a no)?ir auter by }>e body of 
seynt ierom doctou?. There is also a ymage of ou? lady whech seynt luce 
mad. The? be eke Ipe bodies of fese popes * honory eugeny gregory pelagii 
& nicholas. The? is J^e arme of seynt luk ]?e euangelist ( J?e arme o seynt 
mathew })e euangelist | pe lied of seynt uyuyane f)e uirgine* | ipe arme of 
seynt thomas of cauntirbyry and of his uestmentf^ | f>e cradill f)at crist was 
leyd in | J>e manio?^r with f>e hey of whech pe bestes ete whe? crist was bore | 
J?e hosen of seynt Joseph | pe mylk of ou? lady | and mech o]?ir })ing. These 
be pe indulgens grau^ited to pe same place. In pe dedicacou9i of pe same 
cherch ii ml ^ere and pe f)ird part remissiou?i of al maner synne. Euery 
day }?orw oute pe je? ar grau7^ted xxuiii jere in lenton pe pardon is dobled. 
In euery fest of ou? lady a hundred 5ere. Fro pe assumpcioun of oure lady 
on to hi? natiuite is graunted euery day xiiii hundred ^e?. The summe of al 
pe pardon of J)is cherch is hald pere ful grete. 



Of pe / stacion at seynt Sabine, cap uiii. f. 384 t 

Now wil we speke of all J)oo cherches where pe staciones be holden in 
lentow but 50 schal undirstand fat pe staciones be sumtyme at })ese same 
cherchis.^ Seynt Gregory as we redyn ordeyned J^ese staciones and was at 
hem him selue and prechid f)ere as we may notabilly parceyue in many of his 
omelies. It is cleped a staciouTi a stando for staciouw is as mech to sey as 
to stand aftir walkyng. For pilgWmes walkyn pe sercle with grete labou? 
and summe rest neuyr tyl al he? labou? be don. Wherfor J)is holy doctor 
gregory ordeyned J?at euery day schuld be a masse in a certeyn place and 
pere schuld men rest and he? J>at masse. Eke for to encrese he? deuocyon 
mo? on to Jjis dede he graunted on to Jjat cherch whe? pe stacyon is as mech 
pardon as is in al rome as for pstt day. And f>is is pe cause as I suppose 
)?at fewe romanes walk pe sercle but pe stacioun as a man may pleynly se. 

^ S. Bibiana (the Roman S. Swithin) was the daughter of the Roman knight Flavian 
and his wife Dafrosa, who were also martyrs. She was brought with her sister S. Deme- 
tria before Apronian in the year 863, during the reign of Julian the Apostate ; she was 
then cruelly tortured and beaten to death. Her body was thrown to wild beasts, but 
was secretly buried by a priest named Johannes in the neighbourhood of the Licinian 
palace (Stadler, HeiligenlexikorC). 

^ From t to f, the reference to S. Thomas k Becket, has been erased by striking it 
through with the pen, but it is quite legible. 

^ * be fo? seid ' in margin of MS. 



86 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

The first stacion on puluyr wednisday is at a clierch yei clepe seynt sabiue ^ 
be whech cherch stant a ful fay? place whech was ]>e paleys of eufermiane 
fader on to seynt alexe. In ]?at place haue pe fre? prechoures a couent and 
f>is same chercli haue J>ei annexid y^rto. This cherch and p\a couent stant 
on a hili fei clepe it mons auentiriws of whech we spoke be fo? in pe 
capitule de montihus. Now wil we telle 50U what we haue red of fis same 
sabine. This woman was doutyr on to on of pe heroudes whech was clepid 
herodes mettallarius for dyfferens fro ofir heiaud?s was he £0 clepid. Sche 
was weddid on to a worthy man of rome cleped ualentine and aftir his deth 
sche drow to felauchip of a wor|?i woman and holy aftirward martired for 
crist whech ]?ei cleped seraphia. This seraphia taut J>e feith of ou? lord to 
J)is same sabine first, and aftirward brout hi? on to ]>e knoulech of holy prestis 
of whom sche receyued hir sacramentis. Thus with' J>is seraphia dwelt f>is 
same sabine in holy conuersacioun on to pe tyme J)at f>is foiseid seraphia was 
a restid led on to fie iuge and co?idempued on to pe deth only for sche beleued 
in ou? lord ihu crist. This same sabyne folowid on to hi? passion and aftir 
hir deth took hir body and byried it in ye same graue whech was ordeyned 
for hir selue. Aftir tyme ]?at mech of f)is was doo but be fo? pe deth of J?is 
same seraphia a grete president of rome cleped berillus called Jjis woman 
sabine on to him and J?us he spak. Why doost ]?ou f>i selue so mech schame 
and makist ]?i selue so wrecchid. Why considerest nowt what f>ou art an 
whens f>ou cam. Thou hast ioyned pe in felauchip on to )?ese ciisten folk 
and hast forgete pe noble birth f)ou cam of and pe worthy man whech weddid 
pe eke ]30u art notaferd of pe wretth of ou? goddys. Turne a geyn woman 
f. 385 r to Jjin / owne hous & fle pe cumpany of J)at vvicch whech hath deceyued pd 
and many oj^ir. Sabine 5aue him })is answere. That same holy mayde 
whom f>ou slaundrest now ful on treuly wold god f)ou had herd ^ pe same 
councel fat fou myth forsake pe fals ydoles and knowe the uery god fat 
calleth good men to euyrlasting lyf and sendith euel men to euyrlasting payn. 
This president berillus whan he had herd fese wordes lete hir go at large 
and seyd no mo? on to hi?. This was doo be fo? pe deth of seraphia for 
aftir hir deth sche was a rened and brout to a iuge fei cleped helpidittg 
whech seid on to hi? at hi? first appering. Thou art sabine wyf on to fat 
worthi man ualentine and doutyr on to heraude whech was of ful grete 
dignite. Sche answerd I am fat same and blessed be ou? lord ihu fat be f e 

* The church of S. Sabina was commenced under Celestine I about 425, and completed 
under Sixtus HI about 432. Honorius HI lived there, as did Honorius IV. The former 
allowed S. Dominic to occupy part of hia fortified palace attached to the church. 
Eugenius III and Gregory IX were also benefactors of the church (Armellini, p. 582 ; 
Marucchi, p. 184 ; Nibby, p. 688). 

* ' of hi? ' in margin of MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 87 

labou? of seynt seraphia hath brout me fro Ipe onclennesse of Ipe delues ^ power 
on to ]>e fredaw of ou? lord. The iuge whan he herd fis and say hir grete 
constauns in Ipe feith pronouwsed j^e sentens of hir deth in ))is forme. Sabine 
inobedient on to Ipe goddis and despising ou? lordis Ipe emiperouris we 
comauride to be heded with a swerd and all hir godes to be arested on to Ipe 
comown profith. Thus was sche siayn J^e xiiii kalendts of septembir and 
pryuyly caried be nytli of cristen men and byried be seraphia maystresse of 
hir feith.* In J^is same cherch be many relikes whech I wrote not. O 
memoriale say I yere of seynt dominik for it is seid whan he was besy to 
haue his ordre co^ifermed he prayed mech with grete wecch in )3at same 
cherch and pe deuel )?at hath enuye with ^eu^ry good dede J)rew a grete ston 
as mech or mo? f)an a marines hed to a slayn him but be grete myracle it 
felle be side and raf ^ a marbil ston doyng him no harm. Of Jsis story are 
wrytyn pere swech uers. Credidit orntntem iacto confundere saxo Hie 
sanctum, dommicum hostis uersutus set ipswm lUesum dominus seruat mira- 
bile factum Marmoris illisi confracczo monstrat in euuw Hijs' quod fidera 
prebet suspensus & iste molaris. The sentens of pe uers is J>is. He supposed 
whil he preyed to destroye him with yis ston. Here in J)is place seynt 
dommic ou? wikkid enmy he supposed soo. But ou? lord kept his seruaunt 
fro harm a meruelous tale. The marbil J?at is hurt he? berith witnesse for 
euyr. And eke a grete euydeois of j?e treuth is f>e ston })at hangith he?. 



Of J?e stacion) at f>e cherch of seint george. ca ix. 

The fursday be fore Ipe first Sunday of lenton is Ipe stacion at a cherch of 
seynt george * wher* f)at his hed is schewid his spere and pe ban5e? with 
whech he killid Ipe dragon. The bed stawt Ipere on a auter Jjat day in a 

1 ? devil's. 

' S. Sabina is coupled with S. Seraphia in the Ada Sanctorum, and the facts related 
regarding her life agree generally with those here given. Some ancient authors describe 
her as having been a virgin martyr, but she was, according to accepted accounts, the 
widow of Valentinus and the daughter of Herod Metallarius, as our chronicler says. 
Her church in Rome is said to have been built on the site of her ancestral home (Stadler, 
HeiligenlexiJcon (under SS. Seraphia and Sabina) ; Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. vi, 
p. 496). ' raf, obs. p. t. of rive = riven. 

* The church of S. George in Velahro was a diaconia, founded before the si3t;th century 
in the Velabrum, the ancient name of the quarter of the city where it stands. It was 
restored by Leo II, S. Zacharias, and Gregory IV, who adorned it with mosaics, and 
added two porticos. Boniface VIII created Cardinal Stefaneschi cardinal of the title ; 
the latter ordered Giotto to decorate the apse with frescoes which have since been 
destroyed. Cardinal Newman was titular of this church, and up to a few years ago his 
coat of arms was to be seen there. Since his death no cardinal has been appointed to 
this title, and the church is practically closed, except on S. George's Day and the day of 
the station (Armellini, p. 253 ; Marucchi, p. 266). 



88 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

tabernacle of syluyr and gilt mad soo J>at a man may lyft up certeyn part 
ferof and touche and kisse f>e bare skul.* OJ^ir hedis be schewid ])€re whech 
f. 385 V be now oute / of remcmberauws. But as touching seynt george be cause f>is 
lond haldith him in grete reuerens sumwhat of his lyf wil we touch. In pe 
grete couwcel }>at was bald at nycene a cyte in grece pere J)e lif of ))is seynt 
was a noumbirid a mowgis apocripha. Apocrzfum is as mech to sey as whan 
"pe treuth of a fing is in doute or ellis men haue no certeyn who was make? 
or write? of fat mate?. But pe counceli at J^at time determined f)at he was 
worthi to be anoumbired a mongis pe holy martires of crist. Perauentu? 
pei had a lif with sum ueyn tales whech cam neuyr to ou? handis. But for 
f)t pei at f>at tyme whech we? faderes of J?e cherch a noumbered him a mongts 
Ipe holy martires pertor may we suppose ueryly Jiat mech whech we rede fat 
he ded or suffered was soth. As fat he was bore in f e lond of capadoce, 
and fat he delyuered f e mayde fro fe dragon, and killed fat best whech 
dede was cause of conuercion both of f e kyng and eke of f e cyte. And whan 
he schuld goo fro fe kyng he taut hem iiii f ingis. On fat he schuld be besy 
to edifie chirchis in his lond. The secunde fat he schuld haue f e mynystris 
of f e cherch in grete reuerens. The f irde fat he schuld here f e seruyse of 
god deuoutly. The fourt fat he schuld euyr be besy to releue pore men. Al 
f is f ing touchid in his lyf is likly for to be soth. It is ful lich a treuth also 
fat dacian president of pers undir wikkid diocleciane compelled f is seynt to 
thurifie and offir to f e deueles, and be cause he wold not consent to ydolatrie 
fat he comaunded him to many tormentis. First to be hanged on a gibet, yann) 
his sydes to be rent with yrun hokis, and bre?iny7zg laumpes put to f e wou^ides, 
and aftir mech othir tormentrie his bed to be smet of. This is touchid schortly 
of his passion fat men may knowe wel fat f e legende whech was bald suspect 
in f e forseid counceil is not come to ou? handis, but perauentu? f e treuthis 
were drawen oute f erof and left to us and f e othir suspecte f ingis f row be 
side. So rede we fat seynt ierom seyd of origenes bokes, for certeyn enmyes 
of origene in slaunder of his name had planted heresies a mongis his treuthis, 
so ferforth fat seynt ierom was fayn for to sey. Sic lego origenem tanquam 
coUigews rosas de spinis. So rede I he seith origen as f ou I schuld gader 
roses fro f ornes. Suffisith fis as for fe memorie of seynt george. But a 
mongis studious men is meuyd fis doute.^ Whi yat f e region of ynglond 

* The head of S. George was in the church as late as 1891. Chanoine de Bleser men- 
tions it in his Guide du Voyageur dans la Gapitale du Monde Chretien (one of the most 
exact modern books about relics in Roman churches), vol. i, p. 228. Recent inquiry 
shows that the relic in question is still in the sacristy of the church, but that it is no 
longer exposed. The reliquarium in which it is kept is a modern one, 

" The history of S. George is obscure to this day. The so-called Acta regarding him 
were rejected by the Council at Rome under Gelasius I in 494, as being the work of 
Arians. This gave rise to a belief that S. George had never existed. He would, however. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 89 

hath f)is seynt in so special reuerens fat )?ei make him a pWncipal capteyn m 
he? batayles and trost up on him moost aftir god. Many pingis haue I herd 
in fis mate? but of non auctorite and \erhr wil T leue it rith as I fynde. 
I rede weel J?at a specml tuycioun ouyr aft cristen men hath fis seynt and 
f)is rede I in a story is cleped historia antiochena whe? J?at he tellith ]?U8. 
Whan ]?e last sege was at / ierlm and cristen men went J^idir to conque? ]?e f. 
cyte Ipere appered a fayre 5ong man on to a prest pat dwelt in })at place whe? 
fe body of seynt george rested in perse, and comaunded J>e same prest to take 
fe body and cary it forth with pe ost for f)ei schuld spede mech f>e bettir as 
he seide. Whan f>ei came to pe cyte and schul skale ]>e wallis ]>e cristen 
men we? gretely a ferd for Ipe sarsines, most for he? schotte f>at was so 
habuwdawt. Tho appered on to hem pe same jong man in white clothis and 
a reed crosse perin he bad hem fat f>ei schuld folow him and put a wey al 
fere. So dede fei and wuwne pe cyte to ye grete honou? of cristen men and 
grete confusion of sarsines. 



Of pe BtaciouTi at pe cherch of jon & paule. cap x. 

The friday after puluyr wednysday is pe staciouTi at a cherch fei clepe 
johannis & pauli it stant fast be pe monastery of seynt andrew pe monkig 
of seynt andrew sey fat f ese same seyntis jon & paule be translate & ly 
a mongis hem.* Wei wote I fat whan f e stacioun is fe puple uisitith 
both cherchis but f e grete solempnite and al f e tariing of f e puple, eke 
certeyn fingis whech J)ei selle pere at staciones al fis is at fe cherch of 

appear to have been honoured in very early times ; and the doubt which arose later may 
in part be the cause of the legends (e.g. that of the dragon) which have grown up around 
his name. We may, however, accept that he suffered martyrdom under Diocletian in 
Nicomedia, or Lydda, in the year 303. According to Metaphrastes, he was born of a good 
family in Cappadocia ; after his father's death he went with his mother to Palestine, her 
native country, and where she had much property at Lydda, between Joppa and Jerusa- 
lem. He joined the army and attained high rank and honour under Diocletian ; but later, 
when he became a Christian, was barbarously tortured and finally decapitated by the 
orders of the emperor. While one need not accept all the Acts regarding him, the Litur- 
gies and, above all, the Sacramentarium of Gregory the Great are practically incontrover- 
tible proofs of his existence and of his martyrdom. The Council held in Oxford in 1222 
ordered his feast-day to be solemnly kept throughout England every year (Stadler, 
SeiligenlexiJcon ; Acta Sanctorum^ April, vol. iii, p. 100). 

^ The monastery of S. Andrew here mentioned was attached to the church of 
S. Gregory the Great. The monastery (which preceded the church) was founded by 
S. Gregory in his own paternal home ; he also built a church, which he attached to it 
and dedicated to S. Andrew. After his death the monastery was abandoned, but 
Gregory II restored it, and erected another church, which he dedicated to his namesake. 
This church was completely altered by Cardinal Scipio Borghese in 1633, and again rebuilt 
by the monks in 1725 (Armellini, p. 290 ; Marucchi, p. 212). 



90 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

johannis & pauli.* Be side J^e clierch is a fay? place J^at longith to 
a cardinal, and on ])e olpii side as we go forth to ]?e collise was a grete 
paleys of whech stand jet many hye wallis and meruelous uoutes. In pis 
cherch is ful grete indulge^is J>at day, but we J^ink best at pis tyme to telle 
sum what of pe lyf of fese seyntes and whi ]?ei wer dede as we cast us for to 
do of alle othir. Thei were with constaunce doutir on to constantine m 
houshold, on of hem was steward of hir house pe othir was chambirleyn and 
whan pe woma?i deyed of pe grete good whech sche left sche mad })ese men 
hir aturnes. Thei as goode and trew men disposed ]?es ricchesse on to cristen 
men in many sundry degrees mete and drynk and dothis ^ was euery day. 
This herd julianus J^e emparou? whech is cleped apostata for he was first 
lerned in pe feith and aftirward he forsoke it ' and be cause he was passing 
couetous he coloured his monetise with pe gospell whech seith to cristen men. 
But if je forsake al J^at je haue je may not be my disciples. Thus robbid 
j^is tyraunt all cristen men and he herd sey as we rehersed of pe grete elmesse 
5ouew be ion and paule he sent on to hem J?at J^ei schuld come on to 
his presens. Thei sent him a geyn swech an answere. For f>i wikkidnesse 

* The church of SS. John and Paul is believed to have been erected by Byzantius and 
his son Pammachius in the fourth century, over the house in which the two saints lived 
and suflfered martyrdom. It was first known under the name of the titulus Pammachii. 
Pammachius was a friend of S. Jerome, and is mentioned by him in his letters. The 
church was restored by Symmachus in the fifth century, also by Hadrian I and Leo III 
in the latter half of the eighth. The beautiful apse, the portico, and perhaps the fine 
pavement were constructed in 1159 by Hadrian IV, the English Pope. Cardinal Howard, 
in 1677, placed the bodies of the two saints under the high altar of the upper church ; 
but it was not till 1887 that ^he excavations of Father Oermano made the interesting 
subterranean dwelling-house of the saints, and the frescoes contained therein, accessible 
(Armellini, p, 276 ; Nibby, p. 266 ; Marucchi, p. 203). 
' ' & ])at ' in margin of MS. 

^ For mediaeval legends regarding Julian the Apostate see Graf, Roma nella memoriaf 
&c., vol. ii, ch. xiv, p. 121. Godfrey of Viterbo, in his Pantheon (Pertz, vol. xxii, p. 180), 
says, referring to his attempt to restore the Temple at Jerusalem : — 
Templa tremunt, pavimenta ruunt et tigna sub illis 
Ignibus e celis pereunt exusta favillis, 

Exiliunt lapides, area sola manet. 
Igneus ex templo globus est, emissus in illos 
Incendens homines vestes caput atque capillos, 

Astantesque viri iure cremantur ibi. 
Haec ne fortuitu mala provenisse putentur, 
Signa crucis confixa sibi gestare videntur, 
Gestant ludei corpora signa dei. 
But, in truth, the hatred of Julian was so great, that some of the stories about him are 
too horrible to repeat here ; there is, however, one exception, a very notable one. The 
author of the Gesta episcoporum Neap olitano rum (eighth or ninth century) says : 
*Iuliano apostata imperatore facto, ad idolorum cultum converso, blanda persecutio fuit, 
inliciens magis quam impellens ad sacrificandum, in qua multi voluntate propria corrue- 
runt.' A very remarkable instance of toleration and fair-mindedness in such an epoch. 



I 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 91 

haue we left fi lordchip for we be not fals feyned cristen as fou pretendist 
but trew seruauwtis on to ou? lord. He sent hem a geyn a new message 
undyr swech wordis, 3e J>at were norchid in Ipe emperoures hous it is not 
semly f>at 56 schuld withdraw 50U fro my presens for if it be so J>at I 
be despised of 50U it is nedful to me to make swech ordiiiauns fat neythir 50 
ne non olpir schiil be dis/piseres of pe empi?. Paule and ion sent him J?is f. 386 v 
answere f>at Ipei dispised him nowt in swech degre J?at fei worchiped ony 
of)ir man more fjan him but pei put be for him in worchip J>at lord Jjat hath 
his lordchip both ouyr heuene and erde, and be cause fat his comauwdmentis 
were contrarious to J>is hye lordis wil perfor J>ei sent hym word J?at J?ei wold 
neuyr come to his presens. Julianws sent on to hem a geyn and seyd fus. 
Ten dayes schul be joue 50U of auisement at Ipe ten day if je come I schal 
receyue 50U as my frendys if ^e come nowt I wil punch 50U as myn open 
enmyes. Alle fese dayes were fese seyntis ful bysi for to gyue a wey al fat 
euyr fei had on to po? cristen men. On fe tent day cam terrenciani^ 
a grete lord with juliane with a ymage formed aftir jubiter comauwding hem 
on f e emperoures name fat f ei schuld worchip f is ymage as a god. They 
answered rith thus. Juliane if he be f i lord haue pes with him. To us is 
no othir lord but fe fadir and fe sun and fe holy gost whom he was 
not aferd to forsake. And be cause he is now f rowyn fro f e face of god f erfor 
wold he bring of ir men to f e same fal. Aftir f is comunicaciou7^ f is same 
terrenciane ded make a pitte in her owne hous al be nyth comaunded 
he? hedes to be smet of, wonde ali in clothis and byried hem f us makyng 
a cry in f e morownywg be auctorite of f e emperou? fat f ei were exiled oute 
of f e cite of rome. This was f e ende of f ese martires.^ Sone aftir f is 
was juliani^s killid in fe batayl of pers and aftir him jouimane fe emperou? 
be cause he was a cristen man jaue leue to all cristen men to open 
he? cherchis and exercise goddis seruyse as f ei had do be fore. Thoo deueles 
with inne men were put oute specialy in f e hous of ion and paule crying 
and diuulgi^ig here holy passion in so mech fat fe son of fe forseid 
terrenciane whech was obcessid with a deuele cam on to fat same hous of jon 
and paule and f e deuele with inne him cried fat ion and paule brent him. 

^ The account, as given by our chronicler, of these two Roman saints is correct in all 
details. They appear to have been martyred in secret on June 26, 862, a report being 
afterwards spread that they had been exiled. But SS. Crispus, Crispinianus, and Bene- 
dicta found the bodies of the martyrs in response to their prayers ; but they also, on 
refusing to sacrifice to false gods, were in their turn beheaded. It is interesting to note 
that the two saints were held in great reverence in England : for, by the order of the 
Council held in Oxford in the year 1222, it was laid down that on their feast-day it was 
obligatory to hear Mass before commencing the day's work. It is just possible that 
they were confused with S. John the Evangelist and S. Paul the Apostle (Stadler, 
Heiligmlexikon; Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. v, p. 158). 

N 2 



f. 387 r 

H 
of I 

was 
frere 



92 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

That herd f e fadir he cam J?idir and askid forgifnes of his trespas and be fore 
his eyne his sone was cured, eke Ipei both at esterne folowiwg we? mad 
cristen men for so was Ipe usage Jeanne. This same terrenciane endited 
pe lif and fe martirdam cf fese seyntis for he coude best be cause he was at 
fe ende. 

Of pe staciow at seynt tWphonis. cap xi. 

The satirday aftir puluyr wednisday is pe stacion at seynt triphonis 
an elde cherch it is and anexid on to pe cherch is a couent of freres whech 
we clepe comouwly heremitis of seynt austyn.^ In })is cherch lith seynt 
triphon & seynt respicius whech was his felaw. Thedir is eke neuly 
translate pe body of seynt raonica modir to seynt austyn. The? be alsoo pe 
bodies of seynt felice pope *,^ seynt auree^ & longii martires, pe hed of seynt 
menne & many o]?ir. Who seynt monica cam fjidir and in whos tyme with 
al pe declaracion we? long to telle who wil rede it / he may 
se it a book J^at I mad titiled to seynt austiii whech 
is cleped concordist. because it is a mane? of a concord 
be twix chanonys and us.* The sewtens of J>at translacioun 



1 S. Trifone in posterula was built by Crescentius, Prefect of Rome, in the year 957, 
under John XII, iuwta posterulas, in the street now called the Via della Scrofa. It was 
pulled down to construct the Augustinian convent now occupied by the Ministry of 
Marine (Armellini, p. 651 ; Nibby, p. 699). * If Zu sant Tryfon lyget nahet by sant 
Augustin' {Ein Biichlin, &c., Strassburg, 1500, p. E vi v, B.M.). 

2 S. Felix IV, fifty-fourth Pope in order from S. Peter, was elected in 526, after 
S. John I's death in prison during the reign of Theodoric. He was a worthy Pope, and 
did much work in building and adorning churches. More especially he converted the 
Temple of Romulus into a church (SS. Cosmo and Damian) ; restored the Basilica of 
S. Satuminus, which had been destroyed by fire ; and completed that of S. Stephen. He 
lived into the reign of Athalaric, and died in 529 or 630, being buried at S. Peter's 
(Stadler, Reiligenleodkon ; Acta Sanctorum, January, vol. ii, p. 1032 ; Duchesne, Liber 
Fontificalis, vol. i, p. 279). 

^ S. Aurea was martyred at Ostia in the nuddle of the third century by being thrown 
into the sea with a stone round her neck. On referring to S. Censurinus, S. Mennas is 
amongst those who sufiered on the same occasion (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). The 
Anonymus of Einsiedeln (ed, Hiilsen), ch. xiii, n. 12, p. 42, mentions a church of 
S. Menna, which Armellini thinks was dedicated to the celebrated Egyptian martyr, 
S. Mennas. It stood on the celebrated portico from the Vatican to S. Paul's. Leo IV 
and Pascal I restored and adorned it, but it is not mentioned after the tenth century 
(Armellini, p. 742). 

* There appears to have been an entry in the margin of the MS. here, probably giving 
the name of the chronicler. Most unfortunately it has been trimmed off', leaving only 
the few letters given in the margin of the book. From the context it would appear that 
the chronicler was an Augustinian friar, and author of another work called Concordia. 
Search has been made for this in the Aniatasis Avgustiniana (Antwerp, 1614) ; Nar- 
ducci's Catalogue, 1893, of the Angelica Library ; Dissertatio historica de ducentis cele- 
herrimisAugustinorum scriptoribus,'Rome, 1704 ; Curtius CorneliuS; Fivoruw illustrornm 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES »3 

I wil write he? schortly. The pope* martyn })at was last at instans of 
a fre? of ou? ordre called petir bischop electensts sexten on to Ipe pope * fat 
tyme for so it is comouwly J>at f)is ordre hath "pat office.^ Be instaunce also 
of a gret clerk cleped augustinus de roma general of fat ordre for ]?at tyme '^ 
5aue leue fat freres of f is ordre schuld goo to hostie and bryng fis body to 
rorae to f<^ same place of seynt triphonis of whech place fis special chapet? 
is mad. He f out he seid in his butt conuenient fat sith fe cherch hath 
determined fat heremites of f is ordre be f e uery childyrn of seyn austyn 
and eke for f e cherch be real powe? brout hem in to pauy whe? f ei haue 
possessiouw of f e body of seynt austyn it was also coTiuenient fat f ei whech 
haue f e son schuld also haue fe mcdir. This translacion was mad fe jere 
of ou? lord ml ccccxx swech tyme as palme Sunday fell o f e ix day of april. 
Now of fese seyntis of whom fe place is dedicate triphon and respicius wil 
we speke. Thei both were bore in asle of good kynrod of nobil condicion 
and of grete disposiciouri on to uertu. Whan f ei were on of hem xii ^ere 
old f e of ir xiiii happed to mete with a cristen prest whech baptized hem 
whech taute hem f e feith and grouwdly lerned hem many treuthis of scriptu?. 
Aftir f ei had take informaciouw of f is man f ei went forth in f e cunt? whe? 
f ei fel in felauchip with a jong child of here age and aftir her aqueyntaurice 
fis same was gretely hurt of a serpent he made his querimonie on to fese 
seyntis and prayed hem of help for he knew wel he seid fat ou? lord god 
had graunted hem grace to hole swech sores. Tho triphon prayed on to ou? 
lord with swech wordis. O lord lite of oure soules incline fin eres on to ou? 
prayeres and send ou? felaw sum reles of his peyne fat att fis puple may 
knowe f e for uery lord hauywg powe? ouyr al f ing. Thus was f e child 
sodeynly mad hool. A nof ir grete myracle ded f ei be f e wey to a greke & 
eke a marchauwd fat fell down sodeynly ded in he? sith f ei reisid him fro 
deth to lif and 5oue him swech exhortacion fat he forsoke fe world and 
folowid crist forth att his lyf. Thus fro asie in to rome in euery town 
or castett whe? f ei restid f ei preohid f e feith of ou? lord ihii crist and ded 
many myracles in encresing of f e feith. So come to rome and dwelt fere in 
empoure philippis tyme but undir decius f e eraperou? were f ei martired be 
f e meyr of rome aquiline. First were f ei put in prison kept fro mete and 
drynk fro comfort eke of att cristen men, fanne were f ei drawe oute of prison 

ex ordine eremit. D. Aug., Antwerp, 1636, 4'' ; and Elssius Phil. Encomiasticon ; but 
no trace of the present book, nor of one called Concordia by an Austin friar, can be 
found about this date (1450). 

^ Peter, Biahop of Alet in Brittany, was forty-five years sacristan and librarian to the 
Pope ; died 1440, in France (Chron. Ord. Frat. Erem. S. August., p. 77 v, Rome, 1581). 

* Augustinus Romanus, episcopus Nazianzenus et Cesenensis ; appointed General of 
Order 1419 (p. 73) ; died 1448 (p. 79 v) (Chron. Ord. Frat. Erem. S. August, Rome, 
1581). 



94 YE SOLACE OF PILGBIMES 

onto tormejitiye and euyr we? f ei redy to ali mane? peynes putting of he? 
clof>is with good wil. Whann fei schuld be betyn offeryng hem selue redy to 
f. 887 V aH mane? torme?itrye. In ail he? peynes f)e / meyhir aqujlmus cryed on to 
hem with swech wordis. Knowe weel 5e ^ong men J^at no man schal do 
a geyn J?e comau?idment of Ipe myty emperouris but pei schul abyden 
ful bittir peynes. And j^is answe? J^ei gaue him a geyn. Be J)ou sikyr alsoo 
J?at no man schal be inobedient to J)e heuenely comaundme^itis but he schal 
be punchid with belle tormentis. Tho he lete hem down fro Ipe gibbet whe? 
J>ei we? scorgid and comauwded "pe soles of he? feet to be smet ful of nayles 
and soo to be led f)row oute f>e cyte in Ipe grete cold of wyntir, for he? day 
of he? deth and martirdam is a boute f»e fest of sei*it martyne. Last of ail 
he comauwded he? hedes to be smet of and so J?ei knelyng and praying 
receyued he? martirdam for ou? lordis sake. Thus regne he? soules in heueue 
and he? bodies in erd be had in mech worchip/ 



Of "pe staciouTi of seint jon lateranenses. caplm xii. 

The first sunday of lenton is pe stacion at seynt jon lateranensis of whech 
place we seid mech J>ing be fore in pe capitule made of pe same cherch. 
But here 5et we f)ink it is resonable to reherse summe f>ingis perauentu? 
left be fo? for it schal make pe boke mo? p^rfith and alsoo it schal not 
acombir pe rederis with no tariing for pe processe schal be succi7*ct. This 
cherch is pe first cherch ]^at eu^r was rered in pe world for constawtin him 
selue aftir his baptem halp for to digge pe grou9*dis peroi and in pia same 
place is J^e pope * crowned aftir his eleccion). For J>is place was principal 
paleys of constantine whech place pe same constantine resigned on to 
siluester and eke pe diademe of his hed for he mad him temporal lord ouyr 
al pe west side of pe world. And ]?at pere schuld be no contrauersie be 
twix he? ofiiceres and he? housholdis he remeued to Constantinople and 
dwelt pere ai his lyf. Mech )?ing ded ]?is holy emperou? for pe cherch for 
aftir his baptem be uiii dayes euery day ded he a notable f>ing. The first 
day he mad a lawe and ded it pronounce J?orw oute rome aftirward J>orw 
out pe empi? that crist schuld be honoured as a god and who so euyr 

* SS. Tryphon and Respicius came, according to one account, from Phrygia, and suffered 
martyrdom under Decius during the winter of the year a. d. 250. Other stories differ as 
to their birth, standing, and age. Some say that S. Tryphon was a shepherd and of tender 
age, others that he was of noble birth and grown up. Respicius again, according to one 
account, was of the same age and standing, a companion and fellow convert of S. Tryphon ; 
according to another, he was a heathen military officer, who was converted on seeing the 
constancy of the saint under torture. They are also sometimes associated with a S. Nynipha, 
about whom little is known (Stadler, HeiUgenlexilcori). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 95 

dispised him schuld be treted as a traitoa?. The secund day was ]?is lawe 
mo? largely expressid J^at who so euyr blasphemed f>e name of crist schuld 
be slayn. Blaspheme is undirstand he?, whau men sey of crist o]?irwise 
fan treuth as suwme heretik<es seid })at he took no uery flesch ne blood of 
mary but ]>e body whech he took was formed of pe eyir whech body he myth 
transmute as he wold. Blaspheme is eke cleped whan we sey of crist o]5ir 
wise f)an is to his worchip as f>at he schuld do ony forfete or ony synne or 
giue meyntenau^s to ony swech )?iugi«. The J)ird day made he ]?is lawe pat 
who so euyr ded ony cristen man ony wrong a non wit5 outen ony of)ir 
iugement he schuld lese half his godis. Befor J?at tyme it was leful to 
eucry man to robbe cristen men and brit^gge / hem to Ipe iuge and pursewe p. 388 
hem to J)e deth. The iiii d«.y he mad f)is lawe ))at euene as Ipe emperou? of 
rome is souereyn lord of y* empi? so schuld pe bischop of rome be hed and 
souereyn of all bischoppis and fis lawe is grounded in J^e gospeH whe? J?at 
crist mad petir hed of ail pe apostelis ioyned Iperto J)at praktik whanri petir 
chase his principal sete at rome. The u day mad he f)is lawe J?at who so 
euyr fled to ony cherch for sauacion) of his lyf J?e cherch schuld saue him 
and J)is lawe is nowe ful euel kept a mougis us, god ne seyntis ne eke he? 
houses are not hold in reuerens as pei schuld.* The ui day was f>is law 
mad fat no man schuld make no chirch in no cite ne town but if he had 
leue of Ipe bischop to whom fat town longith. The uii day ordeyned he fat 
f e tithes of all his possessiones schuld be gadered and treuly expendid in 
edificaciouw of cherchis. The uiii day cam be to fat place whe? now seynt 
petir cherch is and mekely asked for gifnesse of all his synne, aftirward tok 
a pickex and reisid f e ground f e? f e wallis schuld be, eke of grete meknesse 
he bare oute of f e pitte of dikkid erde xii uessellis in worchip of f e xii 
aposteles.'' 

1 The * porta santa ' appears to have been originally always open ; even murderers who 
went through it were pardoned. According to Muffel it remained open 'pisz einer 
fresslich gemort het und ging dadurch und sprach : wers got lieb oder leyt, so wolt 
er hindurch geen und ira miisten sein siind vergeben werden '. This being reported to the 
pope, he ordered the door to be walled up (p. 20). See also Rucellai, II Giuhileo del- 
Vanno santo 1450, Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 570. 

* * Item am ersten tag so constantinus getauflft ward gepot er das man Jhesum cristum 
yn aller welt solte eren unrf an betten vmd ja halten fur einen waren got und herren. 
H Am anderen tage gepot der keyser wer eynem cristen ein leyd thet dem solt man sein 
gut halb nemew. H Am dritten tage gebot er das Silvester solt seyn ei» bischoff zu 
Rome. H An dem vierden tag gebot er und schuff in masz als er ein keiser und ein 
herre were yn d'welt uber alle herren. Also solt sein ein romischer bischoff uber alle 
bischoff und uber alle priester die in der welt weren das wart darnach uber.ccc. iar 
bestetiget von dem kaiser focus,' &c. * Tf Am funflften tag gebot constantinus wer in 
eyn kirchen entriin der solt dar yn freyung haben vor gewalt was missetat er gethon 
hette. ^ Am sechsten tage gebot der keiser das man kein kirchen solt machen es 
erlaubet dan der pabst silvester. H Am .vii tage gebot der keiser das man dem bischoff 



96 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Of "jpe stacyouw of seynt petir ad uincla. cap xiii. 

The muTiday aftir f>e first Sunday is J>e stacion at a cherch fei clepe sci 
petri ad uiucula pere is schewid )?e chene )?at he was bouTide with at ierlm 
pilgWmes kisse it and put it aboute he? )?rotes.^ Of J^is phice fynd I mech 
writiTig and long whech I schal abreggin he?. We rede wel })at afttV J)e 
ascencion of crist petir a bode stille at ierlm and in pe cunt? a boute. This 
witnessit seynt paule in his epistel ad galathas whech seitli )?at neUly aftir 
his conuercion) he went up to ierlm for to se petir and pere dwelt with him xu 
dayes. Thus petir dwellyng at ierlm and preching f>e feith of ou? lord ran 
in offens of fe iewls whech hated crist and pei of malice acused him to 
heraude ]>^ was mad lord of al pat cunt? be pe ^ift of gayus whech was pan 
emperou? of rome. This heraud killid first seynt iame hropir on to jon pe 
euangelist and whan he had aspied ]?at he plesed pe iewis with ))is dede he 
leyd wecch for to take petir took him and bond him in prison with chenes, 
assigned many men to wecch him but ^et was he delyucred meruelously be 
an auwgell as it is wrytyn in actibw^ apos^olori^w. And yis same cheyne 
whech pe smngeli losid is J?at same whech is in so mech reuerens at rome. 
But be cause fat pere is grete errou? whech heraude ded f>is dede for pere 
wer iii perhv wil I here schortly write a reule whech I fynde in uers J)at 
men may know whan )?ei regned and what f>ei dede in he? tyme. The uers 

solt geben bin fiir den keiserlichen pfennig von dem leyb nnd schuff di zehenden der 
kirchen. Am .viii. tag da gieng er selbs zu sant peters kirchen die was cleyn nnd hub do 
an dz muster zu bawen und lialfT selbs arbeiten und trug selbes .xii. korbe my t erden usz ' 
{Ein Biichlin, &c., Strasaburg, 1500, pp. B ii and B iii). Chapter xii of the Legenda aurea 
of G. da Voragine also refers to this subject. Graf mentions this and says : ' Allora 
per sette giorni consecutivi promulga ogni giorno una legge in favor della chiesa e della 
fede ; e la prima h che nella cittk di Roma Cristo sia adorato qual vero Dio ; la seconda, 
che chiunque bestenmiia Cristo sia punito ; la terza, che chiunque fia, ingiuria a un 
cristiano perda la meta del suo avere ; la quarta, che il Pontefice Romano sia da tutti i 
vescovi ricouosciuto per capo ; la quinta, che chiunque ripara in una chiesa sia tenuto 
immune ; la sesta, che nessuno possa costruir chiese dentro le mura di una cittk senza 
aveme ottenuta licenza dal vesoovo; la settima che alia edificazione delle chiese si 
consacri il decimo dei possedimenti imperiali. L'ottavo giorno I'imperatore va alia 
chiesa di S. Pietro, accusa le sue colpe, e dovendosi porre le fondamenta della nuova 
basilica prende a cavare con le proprie mani la terra, e ne leva suUe propria sue si)alle 
dodici Bporte ' {Roma nella memoriae &c., vol. ii, p. 82). 

1 The church of S. Peter ad vincula was built by Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III, to 
preserve the chain with which Peter was bound at Jerusalem. Leo the Great added 
another chain with which the Apoetle was bound at Rome during the persecution of 
Nero. The date of the church was about 442 ; it was called the Basilica Eudoxiana, 
from its founder, and dedicated to the SS. Apostles. Subsequently it was restored in the 
eighth century by Hadrian I, and entirely reconstructed by Sixtus IV and Julius II in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (Adinolfi, vol. ii, p. 108 ; Armellini, p. 553 ; 
Marucchi, p. 311 ; Nibby, p. 663). Muffel 'says of the church (p. 42) : * do ligt gar ein 
grosser gegosner steiner trog und ein abtgot dapey.' 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 97 

ar f>ese. Ascalonita necat pueros antipa iohawnem Agrippa iacobu?n claudens 
in carcere petrwm. The sentens of J^ese uers is )3is. The? we? iii heraudes 
regnyng by and by / on of hem hith heraude ascalonita ye ofir heraude t 388 v 
antipas J>e J^irde heraude agrippa. This ascalonita was he fat regned in 
ierlm at cristis birth whech comauwdad all Ipoo iwnocentis to be slayn f)at 
Crist schuld be ded a mongzs hem. Antipas was he f>at killid seynt jon J>e 
baptiste. And agrippa was he fat killid seynt iame and prisoned seiwt 
petir of whos cheynes in f>at same place we haue now take on hande to 
speke. Who fan fat f ese cheynes cam to rome it is told in eld bokys. 
The doutyr to theodosius fe emperou? called Eudosia * aftir tyme fat sche 
was delyuered of a wikkid spirit be presens of seynt stetiene whan he cam 
first to rome as we told be fo? in fe chapete? of seynt laurens f is same 
woraari f us delyudred went on pylgWmage on to ierlm to worchip f er^ f e 
holy steppes of crist. And be cause sche was grete of birth and held fere 
grete houshold sche drow mech folk to hir aqweyntauwce but in special o 
iew was fere whech sche had take to grete familiarite. He told hi? of f a 
cheynes whech seynt petyr was bourid with, and whan he say fat sche 
desired hem he brout hem on to hir and jaue hem as for a grete 5ift. Than 
cam sche to rome with fis relik and had a grete couwceii with fe pope* 
pelagitts what schuld be do with f ese cheynes for f ei both desired fat fere 
schuld be a special place and special solempnite consecrate on to hem. Than 
was fere in rome be fore fat tyme a gi*ete haliday f e first day of august in 
worchip of octauiane whech solempnite myth not esily be distroyed. Tho 
mad fis woman fis cherch and fe pope* ordeyned fat al fat solempnite 
whech was doo in worchip of octauiane schuld be turned to worchip of seynt 
petir. The cheyne fat cam fro ierlm fro heraudis prison was brout be fis 
woman and offered fere. The pope* broute fe same cheyne whech petir 
was bouwde with at comaundmewt of nero and whanw f ei were both brouta 

^ Eudosia was the wife of Theodoaius II. Her name was Athenais, and she was the 
daughter of Leontius (or Heraclius), an Athenian philosopher. In the year a.d. 424 she 
went to Constantinople, was instructed in the tenets of Christianity by Atticus the 
Patriarch, and was baptized, taking the name of Eudosia. She married the emperor and 
bore him one daughter, Lucinia Eudosia, who married the Emperor Maximus. Eudosia 
undertook her pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the year 438 ; on her return she brought back 
the relics of S. Stephen with her. But, in the year 449, the emperor accused her of 
infidelity ; this suspicion led to the execution of the patrician Paulinus. She afterwards 
obtained leave to retire to Palestine, where she spent the rest of her life in piety and 
works of charity. She was a distinguished poetess ; wrote a commentary on the first 
eight books of the Bible in verse, a paraphrase of the books of Daniel and Zechariah, and 
three works in praise of the martyr S. Cyprian. None of her works have, however, come 
down to us. She is often called Eudoxia ; she should not be confused with the Empress 
Eudoxia, who persecuted S. John Chrysostom, and died in the year A. D. 408 (Stadler, 
Heiligenlexikon 'f Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. iii, p. 4). 





98 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

to gidir sodeynly be myracle Ipe o cheyiie was fast on to fe o)?ir as \>ou ]>ei 
had be wrouth so and ]?us J>ei p^rseue? in to J>is same day.^ A no]?ir cause 
of J^is fest is told fat pope * alisaundre whech was ]>e sext pope * fro seiwt 
petir was in prison for cristis cause and on qwyrine was his kepe?. So f>is 
co^^nauTit was be twix hem both )?at qwyrine schuld dobil his cheynes Ipat 
he was bouwde with and schet al J?e dores of Ipe prison and if he myth that 
nyth come to his hous he schuld be leue in crist. Thus was he alisaundre 
be an aungell m^ruelously delyueryd fro prison and appered on to hem and 
J»ei mad ful promisse to be baptized. Tho pei prayed him for helth of he? 
doutyr whech was meruelously seek. And he comauwded hem J>at sche 
schuld go to his prison in whech he was and kisse his cheynes and soo 
schuld sche be hool. Quyryne seid on to him a geyn. Schal sche go fidir 
& not fynde Ipe jpe? and he answerd. He f)at brout me fens be myracle 
f. 389 r schal lede me a geyn be fat same mene. The mayde cam and fond / pope * 
in prison and whan sche wold a kissid his cheynes he comaunded hir to 
seke f>e cheynes of seynt petir and kisse hem so did sche and was hoi. For 
f is special myracle f is same pope * ordeyned f is fest to be solempnyzed in 
pe cherch.' Many myracles haue be doo with f ese same cheynis as is openly 
declared in many bokes of whech we haue no leiser to epeke now. 



Of pe staciouw at seynt anastase. Caplih xiiii. 

The tewisday aftir pe first Sunday is pe stacion at seynt anastase a fay? 
cherch fast be seynt georges but it is but seldom used as I suppose.' This 

^ An account of this event is given in the DescripHo plenariaf which our author has 
made use of. It runs : ' Hie ritus pervenit usque . . . apostolorum Petri et Pauli.' The 
second chain, however, according to the Mirahilia, was the one with which S. Paul was 
bound by order of Nero (Urlichs, Cod. Topoff., p. 104). 

^ Alexander I was elected Pope in the year 109. His feast-day is on May 3 ; there 
is no account in Stadler's Heiligenlexikon of the miracle of the chains here related by our 
chronicler. He was imprisoned, together with two priests, Eventius and Theodulus, 
under the Emperor Hadrian (according to some Trajan) ; the name of his jailer was 
Quirinus, and he, with many others, was converted and baptized by the pope. They 
were all martyred under circumstances of great cruelty, and buried on the Via Nomentana. 
This Pope is remarkable for having introduced some customs into the Church which have 
lasted until the present day. For example, he was the first to mix water with the wine 
of the Sacrament, in memory of the blood and water which flowed from our Saviour's 
side ; also the custom of mixing salt with holy water, the salt being previously blessed, is 
due to him (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, p. 367 ; Duchesne, 
Liher Pontificalis, vol. i, p. 127). 

' The church of S. Anastasia gave a title to a cardinal in the fifth century. It was 
rebuilt in 769, again by Innocent III in 1210, and restored by Sixtus IV in 1475. 
Urban VIII rebuilt the fa9ade in 1686, and Cardinal da Cunha altered the interior to its 



YE SOLACE OF PILGMMES 99 

nnastase was a woman of grete possessioun and leuyd in grete perfeccion as 
hir lif telleth. Pretaxatws a worthi man of rome he was hir f&der and 
fausta hir modir. This same fausta was conuerted to crist be mediacion of 
a holy bischop J?ei cleped crisogonus. Eke f>is same anastasia fro J)e tyme 
fat sche coude speke was induced on to ]>e feith hir fade? dwellyng still in 
his paganite. So whan sche cam to womannes age sche was constreyned be 
hi? frendis to be weddid to on publitts a rich mawnes child but of ful euel 
condiciones. Sche f)us weddid a cristen woman on to a hethen man wold 
not comouw with him in fleschly comunicacioun but feyned hir selue seek f>at 
schuld undir ]?at colon? abstine fro his bed. And whan he had aspied J>at 
sche was a cristen woman an) who sche wold in ful febil aray only with 
o mayde uisite J>e pWsones in whech cristen men we? putte and refrecch hem 
plenteuously with hir goodis a non J)is wikkid husbond sperd hi? in a prison 
and ordeyned J)at sche schuld neithir haue mete ne drynk desiring J?at sche 
Bchuld deye for hungir )?at he myth aftir hir deth entir in to hir nobel posses- 
siouw & spend it in ryot and reuel as he had don his owne. Thus is Jiis 
woman in pn'son with oute consolaciouw saue J?at sche sent c^rteyn lettms 
on to selnt grisogonws and he sent a geyn to hi? episteles of ful holy counceft 
as men may rede in his lif and perauentu? whan we schul speke of him we 
wil reherse hem )?ere. Thus aftir grete tribulaciouTi f)is woman had sum 
what of hi? desi? for hir husbond deyed & sche with swech godes as were left 
ful plenteuously ded elmesse for cristis sake. Than was sche aftir J)is brout 
be for a iuge and accused J)at sche was cristen. The iuge say Ipe beute of hi? 
and undirstood weel f>at sche was bo? to grete lyflode he led hir in to a pnuy 
chambir in purpose for to defile hi? }?ere. A non as fei were alone sodeynly 
he was blynd and eke \)erto swech maner maledye fell up on him J?at with 
inne a litil while he deyed in his seruauntis amies. Than was sche broute 
on to a nofir iuge and he seid on to hir in councell. Anastase if fou wil 
be a cristen woman do as crist bad Ipe ^yue a wey al f>i good and folow him 
in pouerte. Sche answerd him on fis wise. Crist bad me gyue my good 
for his /sake not to rich men but to pore men. Therfor be cause )30u art f. 339 v 
rich I schuld gretly doo a geyn my lordis comaundmewt if I 50ue my godes 
to Ipe. Than comaunded J?e iuge "jpei schuld lede hi? to prison and lete hir 
deye J^ere for hungir. In whech pWson a uirgine whech was martir but 
fewe dayes be fore fed hir with heuenely mete ii monthis. Aftir )7at tyme 
passed sche and ii hundred maydenis were exiled out of rpme to certeyn 
yles whech be cleped insule palmarie be cause many palmes growe \>ere. 
And not long aftir )?e same iuge went Jjidir and put hem all to fe deth but 

present form in 1722 (Armellini, p. Ill ; Marucchi, p. 246 ; De Rossi, Bollettino d'Arch. 
Crist, 1867). 

o 2 



100 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

anastase he ded bynde to a tre J»at sche schuld be brent whe? sche comcndid 
hir soule to god and so deyid longe or Ipe fi? brent ony grete j^art of hi?. A 
worthi man gat hir body and biried it a rome as many men suppose.' 



Of f»e stacion at sea maria maior. Cap xu. 

The wednisday aftir |?e first Sunday is f>e stacion at a cherch J^ei clepe 
sea maria maior of whech we spoke of be fore and told all Ipe vvrityngis whech 
we fouwde ])eie. But neu6rj)elasse for perfeccion of f)e book we wil plant 
in sum notable processe whech fel in fis place. The holi doctor seynt 
gregory in his book of omelies telleth a notable processe of a womaw whech 
haunted mech J>is cherch and J)is tale is in f>e xi omelie of his book f>at is to 
sey ]>e last. There was an elde woman in rome swech tyme as he leued in 
monasterie be fo? he was pope.* This woman hith as he seith redempta. 
Sche had ioyned on to hir in felauchip too 5ong women of gode condiciones 
whech we? on to hi? disciples. On of hem hith romula of Ipe olpir he seith 
he knew Ipe fas but not \)e name. AH iii leued Ipus in good lif in a hous fast 
be J?is cherch of seynt mary and eu^ry day were j^ei in fat place with deuoute 
contemplacioun and in ful despect habite. So aftir many jeres Ipxxs spent in 
holy lyf J)is romula fel in to greuous siknesse swech as J^ei clepe Ipe peralise 
whech encresed up on hi? f>at sche lost ail Ipe use of hir membris. Thus 
lay sche many jeris wel blessed of god for pe mo? seknesse sche had J?e mo? 
paciens had sche. On a day sche cleped hir maystresse on to hir and eke hir 
felaw and prayed hem to sitte by hi? in felauchip to hir couwfort. Euene 
as \)e sitte by hi? j:ei herd grete melodye in J)e hous and felt sote sauou? of 
whech Jjei felt neuer ere and bisily f>ei gunne loke on J?is woman whech lay 
)?us long sek for J?ei supposed uerily ]?at sche knew more of swech J)ingis 
J?an Jjei. Tho J?e seek woman seid on to hem pese wordes. Beth not a ferd 
for I schal not deye Jjese iiii dayes. The iiii day sche cleped hem a geyn and 
prayed hem J)at Ipe prest myth come and ministir on to hi? Ipe holy sacrament. 

* The accepted story of S. Anastasia, widow and martyr, differs somewhat from that of 
our chronicler, although he is in the main correct. She appears to have lived in the time 
of Diocletian, and to have been baptized as a child, a rare occurrence in those days. She 
refused to live as a wife with her pagan husband, Publius, and he imprisoned her in her 
own house. When, however, she was like to perish from hunger, her husband himself 
died, while on a journey to Persia, and she was free. Her works of Christian charity 
brought her into contact with S. Crisogonus ; she accompanied him to Aquileia, where 
he was martyred. Here she was imprisoned, and left for thirty days without food or 
drink. She was then put into a boat, through the bottom of which many holes had been 
bored, and sent to sea in it. But the boat did not sink ; and finally she was burnt at the 
stake, in the year 304. Her remains, according to some accounts, were brought to Rome ; 
according to others, to Constantinople (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 101 

So was it do in dede and aftir J)at mimstery fulfiUid Ipei herd J?e same noyse 
agayn and felt fe same sauou? more ouyr / J?ei herd in f>e strete as it had be f. 390 r 
too sundry qweres on of men an othir of women singing ful swetly and in al 
|?is swete melodye f ei loked at romula and hir soule was passed and goo. 
This tellith seint gregorie to Ipis conclusioun Jsat J?ei fat seme wrecchid are 
sumtyme fulder worthi with god and we rehersid fis to J>is ende to magnify- 
ing of J^is cherch whech Tpese women most used.* 



Of J>e staciow at sei»^t laurews panisperne. Ca xni 

Anothir staciouw is ])ere on pe J^ursday aftir J>e first Sunday of lenton at 
a cherch J?ei clepe seint laurens panisperne. This place as I suppose was 
cleped so for gret plente of bred mad ]?ere. For panis in her tonge is breed 
and perna or perne souTidith as fatnesse whech fatnesse with a mane? of 
a transumpcion is used in on? langage for ple^ite as we say a fat lond whech 
is pleiiteuows of birden. This place clepid J>us panisperne was a place in 
whech mech bred was mad & many ouenes used for in on of }?oo ouenes as J^ei 
sey ])ere whech ouene lesteth pere at fis tyme was seynt laurens rostid.^ A 
gret merueyle to me growith in f)is mate?. Summe sey he was rosted on 
J)e white ston J>at stant at seynt laurels and f>at suppose I best for a man 
may 5et se pe places whe? Ipe grees and Ipe flesch of him fried and j^is ston is 
not smal to put esily in a ouene for it is as meeh as a comoun graueston. 
Summe sey ]?at he was rosted on a gridel of yrun of whech many parties 

* The account of the lives of S. Redempta and Romula will be found in St. Gregory's 
Dial. iv. 15 (Stadler, Heiligenlexilcon ; Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. v, p. 482). 

* The church of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna was formerly known as S. Lorenzo in For- 
moso or Formonso, the meaning of which is obscure. It might refer to alterations carried 
out by Pope Formosus ; but in Formonso, which is mentioned in the ninth century, 
would appear to refer to a locality. The church was rebuilt and consecrated by 
Boniface VIII in the year 1300, again under Gregory XIII in 1575, and lastly by 
Leo XIII in 1893 (Armellini, p. 306 ; Marucchi, p. 374 ; Adinolfi, ii, p. 250 ; Nibby, 
p. 305). See also Hiilsen's Fianta di Boma delV Anonimo Einsiedlense, where it is 
mentioned three times, on pp. 17, 25, and 28, always as 'S. Laurentius in Formonso, ubi 
ille assatus est '. * Ancho el palazo de holimpiade dove fo arostito sancto lorewzo benche 
deto dove mo e la ecclexia cioe monastiero de done io o vedutto la fornazeta & baxatolla 
dove quelle sa^icto fo arostito' {Edifichazion di molti paiazzi, Venice, 1480, p. B iv). 
The name Panisperna is difl&cult to explain ; it may refer to an old pagan Latin inscrip- 
tion in the church, in which the name Perpennia occurs. In the Mirabilia, Codex Mar- 
cianus, the following passage is met with : * In thermis Olympladis, ubi assatus fuit sanctus 
Laurentius, et vocatur ibi Panisperna ; ideo dicitur Panisperna quia Olympias, uxor 
Philippi regis Macedonii ibi colebatur pro dea, et offerebatur ei panis, pola et perna, vel 
caro porcina ' (cf. Graf, vol. i, p. 217). But the writer has, of course, confused the baths 
of Alexander Sever us with a supposed palace of Alexander the Great ; the latter was at 
this period popularly believed to have been oflfered and to have accepted the crown of the 
empire by the Romans. 



102 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

lesteu 5et in rome and are kissid with ful grete reuerens for touching of holy 
body. SuTnme sey J>at he was leyd in a ouene. I may weel be leue fat his 
tormewtis we? chau??ged now to o peyne now to a noj^ir and J>us at dyuers 
chauTiges had he dyuers torme^itis and all in fy?. In confirmaciouTi of myn 
opynion is fat first I rede in his lyf fat f ei took grete hrennyng plates of 
yrun and leyd hem to his sides. I rede also fat decius seid on to him fat 
al fat nyth schuld be spent in tormetne of his body whech soundith on to 
my eres fat fere was chauTige of tormentrye. In his lif eke is red who 
decius comaunded a bed of yrun to be brout forth in whech laurens schuld 
rest. This bed of yrun is clepid f e gridil. And I suppose ueryly fat if I 
had now at hand f e grete book of martires whech is cleped passionariuw 
T schuld fynde mo testimonies for myn oppiniouTi.^ Suffiseth as now fat oure 
deuocioun be enclined on to f e treuthis whech f e cherch of rome pr^chid both 
of f e ston whech is hald in grete reuerens and stant in f e pn'ncipal part of 
f e hed cherch of him euene on f e rith hand of f e popes sete. And eke of 
f e ouene whech is anexid to a cherch of his name and ful wel hillid a boue 
in whech cherch eke a? ful good women lyuyng solitarie lif in he? contem- 
placiouTi. Many of ir relikes ar schewid in f is cherch of whech I haue now 
no fresch remewiberauws for I wrote hem nowt for f e prees fat was f ere.^ 



f. 390 V / Of f e stacion at f e xii aposteles. cap. xuii 

The friday in f e first weke of lenton is f e stacion at a cherch dedicat to 
fe xii aposteles.' The? is part of f e bodies of philippe and iacob but 
in special fere is schewid fe arme of seint philippe al hool.* The? ly 
f e bodies eke of f ese martires basilidis cirini naboris nazarii & celsi uictoris 

* By passionarium is no doubt meant one of the raartyrologies which were in use in 
«arly times. 

' For a full account of the life and martyrdom of S. Laurence, see Stadler, Seiligen- 
lexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. ii, p. 485. 

' It is believed that the church of the SS. Apostoli dates from the Constantinian period, 
with which opinion, however, Armellini does not agree ; nor is the passage in the Liber 
Pontificalis, which would attribute it to Julius I (887-40), quite convincing ; but the 
church was certainly restored by Pelagius I and John Til about the middle of the sixth 
century. It was rebuilt in 1420, and again in 1702. Stephen V and Martin II restored 
the church, and a portico was added to it by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, afterwards 
Julius II (Armellini, p. 139 ; Marucchi, p. 390; Nibby, p. 108 ; Adinolfi, ii, p. 16). 

* The date of S. Philip's death is variously given between the years 54 and 90. 
The relics of his body were formerly for many years venerated at Hierapolis ; they were 
brought later to Constantinople, and thence to Rome. At the latter place they were 
placed in the church dedicated to the SS. Apostles. The Heiligenlexikon says, 
* Wahrscheinlich wegen der oben genannten Widmung dieser Basilica an alle Apostel 
wurde ehedem am 1. Mai zugleich das Fest aller Apostel begangen.' 



YE SOLACE OF PILGKIMES 103 

& innocencu.^ This philippe was martired in surry and aftir translate 
to rome and J^is iames martired at ierlm and eke brout to rome. Of f»ese 
seyntis basilidis cirini & naboris fynde we but litil writyng but }?at J^ei were 
ded for cristis sake in a cyte fei clepe ebredunensi« * and aftirward in tyrae 
of pees translate to rome. Of fis nazariws and eke of celsus fynde we 
J>us wrytyn. That f>is nazarit^s was bore in rome his fadir hith affricani^s 
his modir perpetua both we? J^ei baptized be J?e handis of seynt petir. He 
him selue was baptized and lerned in f>e feith be Ipe labour* of seynt clement. 
Aftir good instruccioun of seynt clemcTit he went frow all ytaile be placens 
and melane and so ouyr pe mouwtis til he cam in {vsmns euyr preching J?e 
feith of ou? lord ihu. And in frauwce in a cyte fei clepe cunelle a worfi 
womaTi of ]?e town toke hir child on to his lernyng whech J>ei clepe celsus. 
Whom he baptized and taute him Ipe feith & so forth, both f>ei went up in to 
itaile whe? he prechid pe name of crist for whech preching nero comauwded 
Ipai he schuld be led in a schip in to J>e myddis of Ipe see and \)ere )?rowe in. 
So was he seruyd and celsus eke. The tempest roos aftirward whech was 
likly to ouyr turne pe schip and ]>ei whech we? in Ipe schip sey J^ese seyntis 
walkyng on Ipe see and cryed ful so? on ]?is wise. We haue synned a geyn 
J?e god of nazariws wherfor we schul dey. And to pe seynt Ipe cried }>us. 
Thou holy man nazarius help us in ou? nede and we schal lede pe to what 
hauene fou wilt. He answerd a geyn. Beleue je ]?at my god may saue 50U. 
They seide J?ei beleued. Tho entred he pe schip and blessed hem in cristis 
name and charged hem to kepe hem fro pe doctrine of nero deueles. Sone 
aftir sesed pe tempest and fei sette him up on J^e lond whe? he went 
and prdchid as he ded be fore. Thus cam he to melan whe? he fond 
in prison geruase and prothase whose confort he was euery day. This 
aspied of on anolim^s whech had banched hem pe cite a non at J^e precept of 
nero he comau?ided hem to be heded.' 



^ SS. Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor, and Nazarius were Eoman soldiers; they were 
imprisoned in the time of Diocletian on account of their belonging to the Christian faith. 
Their jailer Marcellus was, with many others, converted by them. They were martyred by 
order of the Emperor Maximian, and their bodies thrown to wild beasts, which refused to 
touch them. They were then honourably buried by their fellow Christians (Stadler, 
Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. ii, p. 511). " Embrun. 

^ The S. Nazarius usually coupled with S. Celsus, whose story is related by our 
chronicler, is not the S. Nazarius mentioned in the last note. The confusion arises from 
the two saints having a common festival day, June 12. The accepted history 
regarding him differs slightly from that of our author, who is however generally correct. 
His father Africanus, for instance, is said to have been a heathen. Noticing the difference 
in the religion of his parents, S. Nazarius was divided in his opinions ; until at last he 
was inclined to the Christian faith, and was baptized by S. Linus. His father endeavoured 
to bring him back to the pagan religion, but in vain ; finally, under threats of persecution, 
and at both his parents' wish, he left Rome, proceeded to Piacenza and thence to Milan 



104 YE SOLACE OF PILGKIMES 

Of )3e stacion at seynt petir cherch. cap xuiii. 

The satirday in Ipe first weke is "jpe staciouTi at seynt petir cherch of whech 
we spoke mech before but sum pety fingis left we for to plant in whanne Ipe 
staciouwes come for conneniens of J>e book. The? is a place ioyned to f>at 
f. 391 r cherch whech )?ei clepe uaticaniig . / Uaticani^g was a hous in Ipe hethen 
lawe in whech hous J>e prestes of fat la we had answere of certeyn materes of 
whech J)ei made inquisicion. For uates in latyn tunge is as mech to sey as 
a prophete and canus is «ld so it souwdith an elde prophete. P^auentu? 
J>e deueles wold not jeue answere but to he? elde seruauwtes to cause ])e o))ir 
junger men to dwelle J?e more stabily in he? errouris with gret desire 
to come sumtyme to knowlech of swech preuy J)ingis. This place is sumtyme 
in many legendes cleped in monte uaticano in Ipe mouTit uaticane and 
J?e cause is for it stant hangi»ig on a hill. It is also cleped in templo 
apollinis for appollo is "jpe sunne and J^is temple was in special consecrate to pe 
sunne. In J)is same place wliech is cleped uaticanws was seynt petir byried 
and many oJ>ir popes as he? legendis be? witnesse for linus J)at was pope 
next seynt petir he was byried Ipere first & aftir translate be on called 
gregory bischop of hostie on to J>at same place. Cletus his successou? was 
byried ])ere alsoo, and so was anacletus euaristus sixtus thellophorus iginii^s 
. and pius and many oJ)ir mo whech made pe place of ful grete fame.^ 



Of pe staciow at sea maria in domnica. cap xix. 

The secuwde Sunday of lenton is pe stacioun at a cherch of ou? lady ]5ei 
clepe it sea maria in dompnica ^ ye place is cleped so as I suppose in }?ese 

where he met SS. Gervasius and Protasius. The rest of the account given of him in this 
MS. is correct. SS. Nazarius and Celsus were martyred in the year 68, and buried 
by the Christian community at Milan. Their resting-place was revealed to S. Ambrose, 
who found the body of S. Nazarius quite incorrupt and emitting a pleasant odour. 
S. Ambrose buried the bodies in the church of the SS. Apostoli. Parts of the relics of the 
two saints were distributed to various towns ; one was given to the church of S. Giovanni 
in Fonte in Kome (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. vi, p. 503). 

1 Regarding the crypt, Muffel says that there was great pardon at the altar under 
which half the bodies of SS. Peter and Paul lay, but that : ' man sperret die gruft selten 
auf von siind wegen, die do geschehen mochten, dan es ist daselbst finster' (p. 23). 

^ The church of S. Maria in Dominica is the only one which still retains the old title 
dominicum. It is thought by some to occupy the site of the house of S. Ciriaca, 
which stood in the Castra Peregrinorum. The name in navicellis is considered both by 
Annellini and Marucchi to be modem, and not to be found before the sixteenth century, 
when Leo X substituted the present boat, now in the Piazza, for the ancient one ; but 
from our MS. we see that the name was in general use in Rome at the time of Nicholas V, 
and possibly for some time before that. The church was restored by Pascal I in 817. 
Leo X, when he was still a cardinal, reconstructed it from designs furnished by Raphael or 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRTMES 105 

eld bokes be cause J^e staciou^i falleth on fe Sunday. For at f)is day 
J>e romanes clepe it a nojjir name sea maria in nauicellis. And ))is is 
J?e cause whi )?ei clepe it soo as Ipei sei f>ere. Be fo? fe dore of ]?is cherch 
stant a boot al of marbil as weel mad as )?ou5 it were tymbir with ribbis and 
rou?^d holis where f>e ores schuld goo and nauis in he? langage is a schip and 
nauicella a litil schip whech we clepe a boot and of pis same nauicelle berith 
]?at cherch his name at J^is day. Dyuers opiniones herd I J>ere of J?is schip 
summe seid j^at a certeyn seynt cam be myracle rowyng to rome in f>at same 
but \>e seynt es name pei told not ne mech othir ping whech I inqwyryd. 
Othir men seid f>at f>e uernicle cam in pe same schip ouyr pe se fro ierlm 
probaciou^ ne writyng alegged J?ei non and ferfor 30 schul haue pese 
opiniones rith as I haue. I may w^l be leue ))at be pe grete powere of god 
a ston myth flete on pe watir but wheithir J^is ston ded so or nowt I put it 
in dout. We rede weel fat at pe comau7^dmewt of pe prophete helyse a grete 
exes hed fleted in pe watir whech was not a gayn kynde as seith sei^it austin 
in pe secund book de mirabilibws sac? scWptur for pe watir as he seith J^ere 
is more myty for to here an heuy Jjing J?an is pe eyir. For grete trees fat 
pe eyir wil not here pe watir wil here hem. So J>at pe watir aftir his 
iwuestigaciouTi hath natu? of pe eyir in -pariie and in partie natu? of pe 
erde. For he himselue asayed fis ping whech I schal telle 50U. A grete 
ston frowyn in pe watir / teyid with a rop whech to men myth not meue ne f. 391 v 
draw scarsely whan it lay on pe erde ma7^ schal meue it esely whan it is in 
pe watir. Wherfor fis doctou? cowcludith fat a ston or yrnn to flete is not 
ageyn kynde but partie it is born be kynde and party born be myracle. 



Of pe stacion at seynt clemew-t cherch. cap xx. 

The munday in pe secuwde weke is pe stacion at a cherch of seynt cle- 
ment * in whech cherch restith his body and fese bodies, of seiwt ignace pe 

perhaps Bramante. The portico is said to have been designed by Michelangelo. It was 
finally restored by Cardinal Riario Sforza in the pontificate of Pius VII (Armellini, 
p. 398 ; Marucchi, p. 217 ; Nibby, p. 371 ; Adinolfi, i, p. 350). 

^ It is believed that S. Clement constructed an oratory in his own house, remains of 
■which have been discovered in the third or lowest level (near the Mithraeum) under 
the present church dedicated to the saint. This oratory was replaced by a basilica, in 
which the Council of 417 was held, and in which S. Gregory read two of his homilies 
in 590. That the church was very ancient is proved by the existence of the slave's 
collar, mentioned by De Rossi in Boll. dHArch. Crist, 1863, p. 26 sq. This basilica, 
as is well known, was entirely destroyed by Robert Guiscard in 1084, and the present 
church was erected over the ruins. For the history of the discovery of the earlier basilica 
in 1857 and its excavation, see S. Clement, Pope and Martyr, and his Basilica in Borne, 
by J. Mullooly, O.P., Rome, 1873 ; Adinolfi, vol. i, p. 305 ; Armellini, p. 191 ; Marucchi, 
p. 287 ; Nibby, p. 170. Muffel says (p. 42) : *und vor der thur ligen zwen sten, darauf 
man vil heiligen hat gemartert.' 



106 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

martir,^ sei?it lazar seynt ciriak and opir moo. The? is schewid eke J>e stole 
of seint demerit his chales and mech oj^ir ping. Of Ip'is same pope wil we 
telle 50U sum Ipingis whech a? in doute a mong?s many men. For summe sey 
J?at he was pope * next petir and summe sey fat too were be fo? him. Also 
his legend seith fat he was biried in fe se and lith J»e? on to f is day and 
fis book seith he lith at rome. Al fis fing wil ask declaraciouw. As for 
fe first mate? je schal undirstand fat seynt petir whil he leued chase to 
prestes of his f e on hith linus f e of ir hith cletus and mad hem his uikeris 
general graunting hem power on with inne f e wallis of rome f e of ir with 
oute to gouerne f e cristen puple. And f is was f e cause whi he ded f us for 
he wold haue mo? leiser to coitemplaciouw and to connercioun of f e puple. 
But whan he schuld deye he took clement be f e hand and comitted on to 
him f e flok whech criste had comitted to him. Al f is is co^iteyned in a 
epistel whech f e same demerit wrote on to seynt iame bischop of ierlm. But 
whanri petir was ded cleme7^t wold algate prefer? f ese too men be fore him 
be cause f ei had so grete powe? in his maistires time. And f is meknesse of 
clement was gretely alowid of hem fat we? fan postes of f e cherch. So 
linws reyned xi ^ere and certeyn dayes and cletus regned of ir xi 5ere. And 
clement aftir hem ix 5ere and certeyn dayes. This is f e treuth of f is mate?.' 
As touchyug f e of ir poynt who fat he cam to rome 50 schul undirstand 
fat aftir tyme he had conuerted mech puple in rome he was exiled be 
comauwdment of traiane f e emperou? on to an yle whe? many cristen men 
we? exiled and aftir he had fere do many myracles and bylid many cherches 
traiane sent f idir a duke whech comaunded fat schipmew schuld take and 
lede him in to f e depe of f e see teye an ankyr a boute his nek and f rowe 
him in to fe see fat cristen men schuld not worchip his body as a god. 
Thus was it doo in dede but too of his disciples Cornelius and phebus kneled 
on f e brynk and prayed ou? lord fat f ei myth see f e body of f is martir.' 
And sodeynly f e se be thre myle with drow him and f ei all went on f e bare 
sond tyl f ei came fere he was f rowe whe? f ei fonde a hous al of marbill 
f. 392 r arayed be f e handis of auTigelis and his body restiTig f er in. / Tho had f ei 

^ S. Ignatiua (Theophorua) was Bishop of Antioch. Stadler gives a long account of 
his interview with Trajan, who afterwards ordered him to be sent to Rome to suffer 
martyrdom in the amphitheatre. He arrived in Rome on the last day of the games, and 
was thrown to the wild beasts. His relics are preserved and revered in the church of 
S. Clement, to which they were translated {SdligenlexiJcon). 

^ '£t quant Pierres dut morir il ordena I de ses disciples qui ot' (avoit) *a non 
Clemens k tenir la chaiere aprbs lui; mais il ne la vost onques tenir, ainz constitui 
Linum son compaignon, qui la tint tant comme il vesqui, et puis constitui il Cletum, qui 
autresei la tint toute sa vie ; et quant il furent mort andui, Clemens meismes tint la 
chaiere etfu apostoiles de Rome' (Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou Tresor, pp. 80-1). 

^ There is no mention of Cornelius and Phebus in Stadler, but Suiius speaks of them in 
the Life of S. Clement ( Fitae Sanctorum, vol. xi, p. 657). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 



107 



a reuelacioun J>at J^ei schuld not beie him a wey. And [jus euery jere 
uii dayes at his feest was pe se Jpus bare on to pat day f)at J?is legend was 
wrytin and sum what aftir. In iustinianes tyme fe emperou? and in pope 
nicholas tyme pe first an holy man cleped seint cyrille brout Ipia body oute 
of f>e se be reuelacion & leyd it at fe cherch of his name.^ Eke fe same 
cyrille with in fewe dayed dyed and is biried in pe same cherch doying many 
miracles.^ 



Off f>e stacion at seynt balbine. cap xxi. 

Anothir station is pere on J>e tewsday folowyng at a cherch J?ei clepe 
seiT^t balbine ' it stant on a hiii in pe south side of rome munkis j^ei be as 
I suppose J?at dwell Ipere and it is now pe title on to f>at wor]?i man of J>is 
lond cardinal & arschbiscop of 5ork.^ This same balbine was doutir to 

^ SS. Cyrillus and Methodius are known as the Slavorum Apostoli for their labours in 
converting the Slavonian race to Christianity. S. Cyrillus's first name was Constantine ; 
he came of a good family of Thessalonica. His travels took him as far as the Crimea, 
whence he brought the relics of S. Clement to Rome. He died about 878 or 879 in 
a cloister in Rome, and was buried with his companion at S. Clement's, where their tomb 
is still shown in the lower church (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 

2 The various accounts of the life of S. Clement are most conflicting. The date of his 
tenure of the papacy, and the order in which he came after S. Peter, are even disputed. 
The generally accepted version is that he was the son of Faustinus (Faustus), a Roman 
citizen of the Caelian Hill region. Some say that he was a Jew by birth, for the reason 
that in his first Epistle to the Corinthians he says he is of the race of Jacob, which state- 
ment, however, may easily have a spiritual meaning. Others think that he came from 
Philippi, and that he was originally a pagan, from a passage in S. Paul's Epistle to the 
Philippians, ch. iv, ver. 3, &c. The account here given of his martyrdom is the generally 
accepted version (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 

^ The church of S. Balbina was founded in the time of Gregory I on the Aventine ; it 
is mentioned in the synod held in 594 in the time of the Emperor Maurice. That part 
of the Aventine on which it stands is called Alheston or Asheston, and is supposed to 
be the site of the mutatorium Caesaris. The church was restored by Leo III, and 
again in 1489 by Cardinal Marco Barbo (nephew of Paul II), who altered its character 
entirely (Armellini, p. 146; Marucchi, p. 173). 

* The following is a list of English cardinals during the reign of Henry VI (Notes and 
Queries, Series 8, vol. xii, pp. 2 and 71) ' — 



Name. 


See. 


Created by. 


Died. 


Henry Beaufort. 
John Kempe.* 
Henry Bowet. 
Henry Chicheley. 
John Stafford. 


Bishop of Winchester. 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Archbishop of York. 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 


Martin V, 1426. 
Nicholas V, 1452. 
During Henry VI's reign. 

1428 (?). 
Eugenius IV, 1434. 


AprU 11, 1447. 
March 22, 1454. 
October 20, 1423. 

1443. 

1452. 



* For John Kempe, above referred to, see Isaacson, Story of the English Cardinals, 
p. 110 sq., London, 1907, from which it appears that he was appointed Archbishop of 
York in 1426, Cardinal Priest by Eugenius IV in December, 1439 (while Archbishop of 
York), thus taking precedence of Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury. On the death 

P 2 



108 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

a worf>i maw of rome whom )?ei clepid qwjrinus. This same qvvirinws had 
in prison at comauwdmewt of }?e emp^rou? a man of rome whech had be 
mey? of f>e cite fei cleped him hermes. This qwyrjw sey J>is worthi man 
suffir prison and cheynes fus paciently for cristis cause he seid on to him. 
I haue grete wondir of )?e J>at hast bo? swech office in f>e cite and were a man 
endewid with grete good f)at pon hast forsake f>e holy religioun of ou? goddis 
and newly take a secte whech ledith ail his loueres to losse of he? good 
slauwd? of he? name and orible deth. This hermes answerd fus ageyw. 
AVith inne fewe jeres I had ]>e same oppinion and I scorned hern fiat J^us 
reklesly lost he? good as me f)out and wilfully ruwne on to he? deth. For 
1 supposed be fore ]?at pere was no lyf aftir J^is lif and men whan f>ei deyed 
went neythir to peyne ne to ioye. Tho f is qwyrinws seid on to hermes. 
If fou can schewe me be ony euydens Jjat ]>ere is a lif aftir J>is lif is spent 
fan wold I encline mjn eres to ]>i doctrine. Hermes seid. If f>ou wilt goo 
to alisauTidre pope * of the cristen men he schal lerne ])e J^is skole bettyr 
fan I can. Whan qwyryne herd f>e name of alisauwd? he cried with a loude 
voys and seide. Now cursed be fat prest whech hath deceyued f us many 
men. I seide to f e fat f ou schuld be sum opiw euydens or be sum trewe 
witnesse proue me fere is a lif after f is is do and f ou namest to me a cursed 
maw a renegat a maw gretely noised with wischcraft and swech of ir wrecchid- 
nesse for whech noyse he lith bouwde in my prison. But f is schal I do for 
f i wordis. The wil I schette sewirly in prison & him schal I bynde with 
dobil cheynes and hardyly f e doris schul be schet wel I now. If he come to 
f e f is nyth or f ou to him fan wil T be leue fat crist is a uery god and eke 
fat fere is a nof ir lif aftir f is swete on to his loueres and bittir on to his 
enmyes. This f ing whech he supposid impossible was do in dede for at 
f. 892 V mydnyth / met f ei both in fere and fan was f is qwyryne baptized and his 
doutir both cleped balbina whom f is same alisauwd? had cured fro greuous 
siknesse. Qwyryne is biried in f is same cherch and balbine eke but sche 
berith fe special name for aftir deth of hir fade? as it is seid sche spent al 
hir patWmonie in biggiwg of holy places and sustenauws of po? men.* 

of Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury, he was translated to that see in 1452, and pro- 
moted in the College by being raised to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of S. Ru6na, and 
constituted legate a latere. He was twice Lord Chancellor, held three bishoprics, both 
archbishoprics, and is buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his tomb still exists. He 
was therefore Cardinal of S. Balbina from December, 1439, to July, 1452. 

' S. Balbina was bom during the reign of Hadrian ; she was the daughter of Quirinus, 
the custodian of Pope Alexander I. Quirinus informed his prisoner that he had a grown- 
up daughter, beautiful, but disfigured by a hideous sore (struma) on her neck. Having 
heard of the miracles of the Pope, Quirinus promised that he would become a Christian if 
Alexander would help his daughter. The Pope ordered him to bring her to his presence, 
and laid the chains (hojas) with which he was bound about her neck. On this a youth 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 109 

Of }>e staciow at semi cecile. cap xxii. 

Wednysday in J^e same weke is f>e staciouT* at seint cecile in transtibir.^ 
It is clepid transtibir for tibir goth be twix rome and j^at. For J?is transtibir 
is a cite wallid be Ipe selue on ]?e west side of tibir and so is c'lviisiS leonina 
of whech we spoke be fore in pe first capitule of fis secund part. This 
transtibir hath a cherch of ou? lady ful famous and a cherch of seynt crisogon 
a couent of f)e menourzs & a hous of chanones and a hospital of seint edmuwd 
pe kyng.'^ Now in J)is capitule wil we speke of seynt cecile place a fayre 
cherch it is and a fay? place hanging Iperon of chanones in whech place stant 
5et J?e bath in whech sche dyed. In f>is cherch lith sche and tiburcius her 
husbond ualeriantts his brojpir and urbane as manifest writyng is Ipere in 

(an angel), with a burning torch in his hand, appeared ; after ordering the damsel to 
remain a virgin throughout her life, he vanished again. From that hour she was healed, and 
father and daughter with all their household were baptized. Quirinus suffered martyrdom ; 
Balbina is said to have lived a pious life and to have died in peace in the year a.d. 
130. According to other accounts, she also suffered martyrdom (Stadler, Seiligen- 
lexiJcon). 

^ The church of S. Cecilia was founded on the site of her martyrdom. It is mentioned 
in the fifth century. The convent was founded by Pascal I, who also rebuilt the church 
and translated the remains of the saint from the Catacombs of S. Callixtus in 822. (In 
1695 the sarcophagus of Pascal was opened ; this event has been described by Baronius, 
Ann. Eccl., ad ann. 821, pp. 12-19 ; and by Bosio, Hist, passionis S. Caeciliae, p. 155.) 
After the first mention in the fifth century it is recorded, in the Liber Pontificalis, that 
on Nov. 22, 545, Pope Vigilius, while celebrating the feast-day of the saint, was 
surprised in this basilica by Anthemius Scribo, who had been sent from Constantinople 
by the Empress Theodora to capture him. The church was restored in 1283, and the 
altar and the confession are the work of Arnolfo^ who also worked at S. Paul's outside 
the Walls (not to be confounded with Arnolfo di Cambio). The restorations of 1599 and 
1823 did much to alter the character of the church, but the last restoration of Cardinal 
Rampolla in 1901 has, on the other hand, done much to restore its archaeological interest 
(Armellini, p. 179 ; Marucchi, p. 438 ; Nibby, p. 155). 

^ Armellini says that there was formerly a small oratorio in Trastevere dedicated to 
S. Edmund, near the church of S. Giovanni Battista dei Genovesi. Martinelli says it 
was built * a quodam Anglo '. Piazza {Ensevolagio Romano, ovvero delle Opere Pie di 
Roma, 1699, p. 81) says; *01tre al sudetto Spedale (di S. Toma Cantuariense) ne fu 
istituito uno in Trastevere dietro la Chiesa di S. Grisogono da un Mercante Tnglese, per 
i suoi Paesani, dedicandolo con una chiesa a S. Edmondo Re d'Inghilterra, ad uso e 
benefizio in particolare dei Mercanti Inglesi, e Marinari, che veniuano da si lungo 
viaggio a Roma. Lo Spedale, con le sue entrate, fh soppresso & unite al sudetto Maggiore 
di San Tommaso Cantuariense, e questo al nominate Collegio Inglese. La chiesa di 
S. Edmondo, che per I'antichitk minacciaua rouina, fu ultimamente fatto demolire da 
Alessandro VII, e transferite le S. Reliquie, che vi erano, con la sacra supellettile, et 
obbligo di Messe, alia medesima chiesa di S. Tommaso ; et accib non si perdesse il culto 
e la memoria di quel S. Rb, si eresse ivi un altare al medesimo, ove vi si conserva e vi si 
espone nel di della festa una sua reliquia.' See also the short note in Passeroli's Tesori 
nascosti delV Alma cittci di Roma, 1625, p. 605, translated into German by Albert 
Resmarus, Abgebildetes neues Rom, Arnheim, 1661, p. 121). The text of the marble 
inscription relating to the suppression of the oratorio of S. Edmund, on May 29, 1664, 
will be found in Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese di Roma, torn, vii, p. 182, No. 378. 



no YE SOLACE OF PILGItlMES 

tablettis. This sey I for suwime men seid to me f>at sche lith at seynt 
gregoryes but f>e writing at semi ceciles is mo? elder fan is he? writyng. 
Wei wote I j^at sche was slayn in hir owne place and byried in ciwiiterio 
kalixti as writing berith witnesse in pe same ci/mterie 5et in Ipe hard marbil 
and as me J^inkith it was ful connement to translate hir on to hir owne place 
namely whaw seynt urbane a non aftir hir deth consecrat hi? dwelli^ig place 
on to a cherch. Of j^is glorious martir cecile many uotabil J)i7igis fynde we 
wrytyn of whech suwme wil we reherse schortly Ip&i Ipe comendacioun of f>e 
seynt schuld not slepe and pe labou? of pe rederes schuld not be long. First 
rede we f)at sche ba? pe gospel of ou? lord euyr at hir breest whech wordes 
are dyuersly undirstawd at dyuers clerkis. Summe sey fat sche ba? pe gospel 
materialy wrytyn in hir bosum fat sche myth rede it whan sche wold. Othir 
pere be whech sey fat f is f ing is undirstawd f us fat sche bare f e preceptis 
and f e couwceles of ou? lord whech ar writin in f e gospel freschly in hir 
mynde fat sche schuld not offende god for ignoraunce. Both f ingis ded sche 
as I suppose fat is to sey sche f out on f e comaundmentis and couwcellis of 
cnst whech is most nedful. For f 0U5 a maw write or be? hem and do not 
feraftir it is litil mede on to him. So f is is f e bettir part for to haue hem 
deuly in mynde. And f 0U5 it be not f e betir part for to be? hem up on him 
5et sey we fat it is a good part. For we rede fat f e holy faderes of f e cherch 
ba? f e material gospel a boute with hem whe? f ei went. In specmle rede I of 
f. 393 r seynt barnabe fat he ba? f e gospell / of matbew with him al his lyue and 
whanw he was ded it was leyd with him in f e graue and fouwdy^i hool many 
jeres aftir in tyme of zeno f e emperou?. We rede also of an holy munk 
cleped serapion ' fat he ba? f e gospel wit5 him whe? he went. And be cause 
fat gospell comauTideth to hem fat wil be perfith fat f ei schuld ^eue a wey 
al he? good f is man keping f is couwcel on fe streitest maner mad him selue 
naked to cloth of ir men. Thei fat met him enqwired of him who had so 
spoiled him and he seid f e gospel. Al f is is seid to make prof fat it is ful 
likly fat f is holi martir and uirgine seiwt cecile bare a boute wit5 hir f e 
material gospel. This mayde was cause of conuercioun of f ese too bref er 
tiburciws and ualerian and of many of ir. Sche was homely with auwgeles 
and hardy on to f e deth wherfo? f e cherch hath hir in ful grete reuerens 
both at rome and he?.* 

* Possibly the S. Serapion who was afterwards Bishop of Thinuis in the Nile Delta, 
a friend of S. Athanasius and of S. Anthony. He was at the Council of Sardica in 348, 
and died in 358. There whs another Serapion, an Englishman, who devoted his life to 
the ransoming of those Christians who had become prisoners of the Moors. Eventually 
he was crucified, and tortured to death in Algiers, in the year 1240. He was canonized 
by Benedict XIII in 1728 (Stadler, Heilirjenlexikon). 

^ S. Cecilia is believed to have been contemporary with Urban I (223-30), and to have 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 111 

Of j?e stacio?^ at sea niaria &cera. cap xxiii. 

On pe )?ursday in ]?at same weke is J>e staciouw at a cliercli of ou? lady 
whech J3ei clepe sea maria transtiberim J>at is to sey in englisch Seynt mari 
ouyr tibur for it stawt ouir pe watir wbe? seint cecile stant. This place in 
eld tyme was ordeyned to refresching of knytis aftir he? labour whan fei 
were falle in age.^ On Ipat same day f>at crist was born pere sprong in J>is 
same place too wellis of oyle whech run all Jjat day plenteuously in to tibur. 
These too welles be ^et pere in ful grete reuerens. But whi J?ese wellis schuld 
rewne mo? oile f>an oj^ir lycou? is assigned J)is cause a mong?s clerkis for 
oyle Ipei sei signifieth mercy and J)at lord was come whech brout with him 
a lawe ful of mercy. Of ))is conueniews be twix oyle and mercy speke clerkis 
in he? bokis and sey J?at euene as oyle ouerspredith all maner licouizs so Ipe 
mercy of oure lord houyth a boue all his werkis. Who may susteyne his real 
power or make resistews a geyn his ordinauws. Who can sey J^at he is 
onrithful in his iugeme^itis or ellis indiscrete in his gouernauws. Alle fese 
blasphemes schul we ley a side and knele to ou? lord and J?ank him for he 
hath set pe oyle of mercy be fo? al his werkis. Wil 30 se fe maner of makyng 
of oyle. Smale sedes smale frutes are pressed ful sore f>at Ipia swete lycou? 
schuld be had. Crist was in J>is world in reputacion of pe world but a smale 
frute but whan he was pressed on )?e crosse grete plente of mercy ran owt to 
ou? redempciouw. Wil 50 se f>e excesse of f>e new lawe in mercy. The persona 
in moises lawe f)at gadered drye stikkis on ])c haly day was stoned to fe deth. 
The woman in )?e newe lawe taken openly in a uoutry was preserued and fat 
be Ipe iugemcTit of ou? lord ihu mercyfully fro J>e deth. The? was y5e for y5e 
and toth for totli and ioynt for ioynt he? is "pe couwcel of meknesse openly 
inioyned p^ / comauwdith in J)is wise. If a man smyte pe on pe o cheke f. 393 v 
profir him pin oj^ir. Opynly crieth salamoTi in his epithalami of pe mercy 

been martyred about the year 230 in the reign of Alexander Severus (222-35). Some 
authorities hold that her death occurred during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-80). 
She is believed to have been of noble birth and to have been a Christian from her child- 
hood. The beautiful story of her conversion of her husband Valerian and his brother 
Tiburtius will be found in Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; see also Surius, Vitae Sanctormriy 
vol. xi, p. 638, Turin, 1879. 

1 The church of S. Maria in Trastevere is the first large church in Rome dedicated to 
the Virgin, Prima aedes Deiparae dicata, the earliest being S. Maria Antiqua. It is 
said to have been founded by S. Callixtus, by permission of Alexander Severus, in 222, on 
the site of the Taberna meritoria, a hospital for old soldiers, and to have been abandoned 
(luring the persecutions. It was reconstructed by Julius I in 840, and took the title of 
SS. Callixto e Giulio. In 828 Gregory IV attached a large Augustinian convent to the 
church. It was restored by Leo IV about 848, by Benedict III (857-8), and in 1189 
almost completely rebuilt by Innocent III, to whom we owe the fine mosaics ; it was 
again restored by Nicholas V, Pius V, and Clement XI, and finally by Pius IX in 1870 
( Armellini, p. 414 ; Marucchi, p. 428 ; Nibby, pp. 140, 488). 



112 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

of ou? lord spekyng in )3is mane?. Oyle largely spred a brod [^at is ]?i name. 
The name of ihu is oyle largely spred a brood spred in heuene spred in erde 
spred in helle. In heuene he 5eueth seyntis more ioye j^an euyr pei deserued. 
In erde he loueth men J>at loue not him and doth good on to hem J^at despise 
him. In helle he proporcioneth nowt J?e peyne to J?e malice of J^e synne. 
This is ou? byleue }>at soules in hell haue lasse peyne J)aw fe be worthi. 



Of \>e stacion at seynt uitale. cap xxiiii. 

Friday in \>e secund w«ke is pe stacion at a chercb dedicate in f)e worchip 
of seynt uitale. A ful desolate place it is and al in ruine as pere be many 
moo.^ This same man uitale was fader on to f)oo holy seyntes geruase and 
prothase martires mad for ou? lordis sake in f>e cyte of melane. This uitale 
was in so grete reuerens at melan J>at he was chose to be on of fe consules 
whech had gou^rnauns of al J>e puple for a 5ere. He was turned on to crist 
and his wif alsoo cleped ualeria be suggestion of cWsten men J>at come fro 
rome. So happed him to go in felauchip of a, grete iuge J>ei clepid paulin^^s 
on to fat cite cleped rauewna to haue a sessiou7^ up on certeyn defautes. 
Whan J?ei we? come f>idir J)is paulynits 5aue sente^is up on a cristen man of 
craft a leche wbos name was urciane. But whann })is uitale sey him walk 
to his deth with ful heuy cbe? be cause he had no counfort he cried loude 
on to him J>at al J»e puple myth here. Be ware urciane ]?at J?i hert fayle 
not now for Ipan art Ipou hurt with Ipe arow of dispey? whech wounde schal 
nemV be hoi. Think what counfort fou hast goue oJ>ir men in he? gret 
myschef and with Ipai same consolacion cou^ifort now J>i self. For ]?ese 
wordis }>is man went boldly on to ]>e tormentis and paciently suffered his 
deth. Aftir his marti:^dam uitale took pe body and biri^d it with grete 
worchip. The iuge sent aftir him to jeue answere to pia offens but he wold 
not come. He seide he was a cristen man and aftir pe comaundment of 
crist he had doo a dede of obediens in byrying of his broJ?ir. Paulinas was 
wroth with J)is answere made him to be brout be fore him and hangin on to 
a gebet to loke if he wold reney ' J^at new opinion whech he had take. But 
whan he sey him stabil in pe feith he comaunded him to be led to a palme 

* S. Vitale is the very ancient church of the titulus Vestinae, the name of a pious 
Boman matron. It was dedicated by Innocent I between the years 401 and 412, and 
raised to a title in the name of Vitale and his sons Gervasius and Protasius. It is 
mentioned by S. Gregory, and was restored in 1475 and 1595, under Sixtus IV and 
Clement VIII. There are some traces of the old construction in the exterior walls, 
so that it is believed that the present church has been erected directly over the ancient 
one. It is in the Via Nazionale (Adinolfi, ii, p. 260 ; Armellini, p. 244 ; Marucchi, p. 878 ; 
Nibby, p. 768). ^ reney, renay, obs. ; Fr. renter, to abjure, renounce. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 113 

tre whech tre was halowed on to J^e deueles and but if he wold offer encense 
pere at )?at tre he comaunded his officeres ]?at )?ei schuld make a dep graue 
and byry him f»ere al qwik.' A prest of J?at hethen lawe whech ^aue couwcel 
on to pe iuge fat j^is maw schuld J>us be ded was a non a rested / of J>e f. 394 r 
deuele and uii dayes he lay crying. Thou brennyst me uitale. The uii day 
he ran in to a flood and so mad an ende of his lyf. The wif of fis same 
martir clepid ualeria aftir pe deth of hir husbond rood hom a gayn on to 
melan and happed be J?e wey sche fond certeyn men in a wood whech mad 
hei* sacrifice pere. Thei spoke to hir for to ete and drynk of swech uitaile 
as was offered on to ]300 mauraentis. But sche refused it wherfo? J>ei bete 
hi? BOO ]?at unneth ^ myth sche be caried be her semauTztis on to melan with 
inne iii dayes aftir hir spirit was separat fro pe body & so sent to god. 



Off pe staciouTi at marcelline and petir. cap xxu. 

Satirday in pe same weke is pe stacion at a cherch dedicat on to too 
seyntis on hith marcelline pe ojjir hith petir.' This petir was in prison be 
cause he beleued in crist undir a keper J>ei clepid archemii^s. This 
archemi^g had a doutir uexed with a wikkid spirit. Petir seid on to 
archeme his keper ]5at if he wold beleue in crist his doutir schuld sone be 
hool. Archemye answerd. I haue grete meruayle of j^i foli. Crist ))i god 
not withstanding ]?at Jjou art euery day bete for his cause and sufferist eke 
mech oJ>ir penauws of prison and of jrun may not delyuyr pe. Petir 
answerd fat it was best to his soule fus with peyne and tribulaciow for to 
plese crist. Tho seid archemiws on to petir. I schal bynde pe in prison 
and ley on pe irun I now if f>ou can breke oute of prison fan wil I be leue 

^ The date of S. Vitalis is not very certain, as the Epistle of S. Ambrose, which gives 
most of the evidence regarding him, is not quite clear on the point. The period, however, 
must be between a.d. 60 and 180. He was a soldier by profession, but it is not known 
why he left Milan to go to Ravenna. The name of the physician whom he befriended 
and buried was S. Ursicinus (Stadler, Jleiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, April, vol. iii, 
p. 562). 

* uneath, uneasily. 

^ The Church of SS. Peter and Marcellinus is very ancient, and was built in the 
Via Labicana over a temple of Isis. It is mentioned in the sixth century. Armellini 
gives an inscription, found in 1750, which would tend to show that the church dated from 
Pope Siricius (384-98), but in the Liher Pontijicalis it is said : 'Fecit etiam Gregorius 
tertius de novo ecclesiam Sanctorum Marcellini et Petri prope Lateranam.' It is quite 
clear that this must refer to a restoration, or perhaps entire rebuilding, for the church is 
mentioned (as is said above) in the time of Gregory the Great (cf. Grisar, Storia di Boma 
e dei Papi, t. i, p. 254). The church was reconsecrated by Alexander IV in 1266, 
restored by Paul IV (1555-9) ; being in a ruinous state it was entirely reconstructed by 
Benedict XIV (1740-58), who had been its titular Cardinal (Armellini, p. 326 ; Marucchi, 
p. 351 ; Adinolfi, ii, p. 80 ; Nibby, p. 586). 



114 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

on J?i lord crist. This man petir Ipus strongly bouwde appered sodeynly on 
to archemye clad al in whit and a tokne of fe crosse in his hand. The same 
houre archemie doutir was hool and ])e same archeme with his wif & all his 
houshold be leuyd in ou? lord. Tho sent f)ei aftir marcelline J^e preest 
whech baptized hem alle. A grete iuge of rome clepid serenus called )?is 
marcelline and petir on to his presens and aftir he? constau?it confessiouw 
comaunded hem to prison. Marcelline was put in a derk hous whe? was 
neythir mete nor lith alle pe floi* strowid with broke glas and he bare leggis 
and feet. Petir was stokkid in a noj^ir hous strongly schette and barred. 
Eut an aungell of ou? lord was sent fro heuene whech clad marcelline with 
clothis delyuerid him and petir eke and brout hem on to archemie hous. 
Whan J)is iuge serenus herd sey })at f>ei were delyuered oute of prison and 
receyued J^us in J>e hous of archemye he comaufided J>e same archemye and 
his wif to be )3row to dede with stones. Marcelliue and petir he iuged to 
be led to J?e blak wood and \)ere to be heded. He f'at smet of he? hedis say 
he? soules with schining cloj^is arayed with perle and precious stones of 
auwgellis born up in to heuene and in his last dayes he repent him of his 
f. 394 V euele dedes ded gret penauns / and was baptized his name was dorotheus.^ 



Off pe stacion at seynt laurews. Cap. xxui 

The fird Sunday of lenton is pe stacion at Ipe principal cherch of seynt 
laurens whech stant oute of ]>e wallis of rome in a feld J?ei clepe in agro uerano 
fat is to eey in J>e somer feld. For uer in he? tonge is as mech to sey as 
somer. It is sumtyme seyd of seyntis }?at ly J?ere f>at f>ei were byried iuxta 
arenarium. Arenarium is a place whe? men digger sond and in sothnesse 
in f is same place was sumtyme diggid mech sond to make he? mortar in rome. 
Now haue f ei found a newe ueyn of sond mo? north on to seynt anneys ward. 
This same feld longed sumtyme to a blessed widow f>ei cleped cyriaca whech 
jaue al ]?at possessiouw on to J?e seruauwtis of seynt laurens. "We redyn in 

1 S. Marcelline was a priest, and Peter an exorcist of the Roman Church. Many other 
martyrs suffered with them, the numbers of the same varying from forty-four in the 
Acta Sanctorum— the names of two, Thomajus and Rogatus, being given — to 400 in an old 
Martyrologium of Treves. They were martyred during the persecution of Diocletian in 
the year 304. The name of their judge is given variously as Serenus and Severus. The 
place of their death, formerly known as the silva nigra, was afterwards renamed the 
silva Candida. Their bodies were buried, by a matron named Lucilla, on the Via Labicana, 
in which work of piety another matron named Firmina is said to have helped ; they were 
afterwards removed to the Catacombs of S. Tiburtius. Constantine built a church on the 
spot in their honour, which church ranked as the second of the seven having a cardinal's 
title. It was destroyed by the Saracens and was not reconstructed, but was united with 
the Bishopi-ic of Porto by Callixtus II. Later, a cemetery in Rome was named after the 
two saints (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 115 

martines cronicle f»at constantine f>e emperou? let make ]?is cherch of seini 
laurens and all fat uoute be neth Ipe aute? whe? seiwt laureris lith with 
mech precious f>ing whech is not pere now for as w^e seid ofte a boue pese 
cherches haue be spoiled of tirauTitis ]?at haue conquered rome. This blessed 
emperou? constantine J^at spent so mech good in worchip of god and seyntis 
hath ful grete reward perfor as we suppose. O fing in f e worchip of seynt 
laurens wil we reherse who he rewardith his seruauntis. There was an 
emperou? of rome cleped herry whech had a wif called radegund?s. These 
two p^rsones leued in swech perfeccioun f)at both be o consent kept he? 
maydenhed to god. So aftirward at storing of Ipe deuele f>is emperoui* fel in 
a gelosie a geyn his wif demyng of hir ofir wise f>an it was. So at his 
comaundment pe lady was constreyned fat sche schuld goo bare foot on a 
gad of yrun reed hoot to proue pere hir innocens. Sche mad hir redy and 
blessed hir with swech wordis. Euene as I am not defiled of herry ne of 
non ofir man so crist f ou be myn help. Thus went sche saf with outen 
harm ouyr pe hoot yrun saue fat pe emperou? smet with grete ire. Sone 
aftir f is pe emperou? deyed and a grete multitude ^ we? gadered be fore an 
hermytes lious to be present at pe emTperouris deth. The hermyte inqwired 
of hem whidir f ei schuld and f ei answerd to se pe em^erouris ende. He 
comaunded hem be uertu of pe passion of ou? lord crist fat f ei schuld come 
a geyn f e same weye and telle him in what plith f e emperou? deyed. Thei 
come a geyn and gaf him f is answere. Oure iornay f ei seid is spent in 
wast for fat brent laurens cam forth with a potte and f rewe it in f e balauns 
whech weyid down fat fals suspicioun and fat fals iugement a geyn his wif 
and alle of ir trespaces whech he had doo. In uery treut f is emperowr of 
grete deuocioun whech he had to seynt laurens had offered at his cherch a 
chalys of so grete wite fat it was mad with / to eres for to lift it esily whech f. 395 r 
was mad of pu? gold. The deueles in here goyng as f ei told f is hermyte 
pullid a wey on of f oo eres. This reuelacion was found soth for it was 
noted fat in fat same hou? f e emperou? deyed f e ere of f e chalis eke was 
founde broke. This storie is rehersed he? to magnifie seint laurens and eke 
sumwhat to enbelching of f e book. 



Off f e stacion at seint mark. Cap xxuii. 

On munday aftir f e f irde Sunday is f e stacion at a cherch of seynt 
marc ^ but his body lith not fere for it lith at uenys. In f is cherch ly f e holy 

' * f fendis ', in margin of MS. ; ? of fiends. 

^ The church of S. Mark goes back to Pope S. Mark (886-7), and is mentioned in an 
inscription of 348, where it is called de Pallacine. Cicero mentions this locality in his 
oration Pro Sexto Boscio Amerino, who was killed ad halneaa palacinas. The chui-ch 

Q2 



116 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

martires abdoii & senen whech were slayn for cristis loue at rome undir Ipe 
tyme of decius.* He fond hem in a cyte whech f>ei clepe corduba for Ipere 
were J>ei accused for tresou7z.be cause fei byried )?oo men J?at were killid for 
cnst. Decius comaunded hem to be bouTide strongly with yrun cheynes and 
to be led so to rome be fore his chare. And be cause fei had be in office 
undir J?e empi? of rome and we? men of sotil wit and of plenteuows possession 
he comauTided hem to ape? be fore Ipe senate in a hous fat stood in pe 
capitol lowe be ]>e grourid cleped in ou? legendis in tellude. Thei we? 
brout in as \>ei we? take for pei were smale kyng^5 in perse in which perse 
stawt f>is cite corduba. Thei we? brout in to pe senat in ful good aray in 
cloJ?is of gold and precious stones. Alle J>e senate meruailed of hem to se so 
goodly men and so weel arayed J?us sore bounde with cheynes. Thoo spak 
decius on to ]>e senat on pis maner. Be holde f>ese men seres for J^ei be open 
enmyes on to J?e empi? fauoureres of tretoures and renegates whech haue for 
sake ou? lawe. He comauTxded j^an to on ualeriane )?at he schuld led hem 
to J)e temple of f>e Bunne for to make her offeryng fe? if )?ei wold not he 
comaunded hem to be deuoured of wilde bestes. Tho ualerian mad hem 
naked and led hem to ]>e temple of Ipe sunne compelled hem to offyr but pei 
despised Ipe maumewt and spatillid Iperat. Than were J?ei beten with staues 
clobbid with leed led forth in to ]5at place whe? martires we? tormewtid and 
put on to hem too leones awd iiii beres. The bestes runne on to hem first 
with a rage but whan ))ei cam on to hem J^ei wex tame lay down be he? feet 
as doggis. Tho J?e iuge comauwded he? hedes to be smet of and he? bodies 
J)rowin be fore ])e maumerit. So lay pei iii dayes in despite of cristen 
feith. Aftir J300 iii dayes a dekne cleped qwyryne lift up he? bodies ba? hem 
horn to his hous closed hem fere in a fay? uessel of led J>at fei schuld not 
rote & biried in J>e ground ful priuyly in Ipe same hous. In constantines 
tyme ]>e noble emp«rou? fese same martires appered on to a cristen man pei 
told him whe? he schuld fynde hem and so we? fei translate in to a cymyteri 
cleped ponciane. 

was rebuilt by Gregory IV in the ninth century ; to him we owe the apse and the 
mosaics ; it was altered by Paul II, and lastly by Cardinal Quirini in the year 1727 
(Armellini, p. 327 ; Marucchi, p. 884 ; Nibby, p. 821). 

* It is not clear whether SS. Abdon and Sennen came of their own free will to Rome, 
or whether they were brought in triumph from Persia by Decius as suhreguli of that 
country, and were then martyred on account of their adherence to the Christian faith. 
Probably the latter was the case ; the wording of the MS. — ' to be led so to Rome be fore 
his chare ' — also gives that impression. The rest of the account agrees with the authori- 
ties, except that they were possibly buried in the cemetery ad ursum pileatum. Stadler 
mentions a marble relief bearing their names and portraits, and says that their heads each 
bear a crown and a Persian cap (cf. the illustration in the Acta Sanctorum, p. 130). 
The acts of these martyrs, however, are late in date, and cannot be accepted as authorita- 
tive (Stadler, HeiligenlexiJcon ; Acta Sanctorum, July, vol. vii, p. 130). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGKIMES 117 

/Of ))e stacion at a cherch clepecl seint potewciane. cap xxuiii. f. 395 v 

Tewisday in J>e same weke is ]?e stacion at a cherch dedicate in J>e name 
of an holy uirgine cleped potenciane.^ Sche was doutir on to an holy man 
disciple of seiwt petir whos name was pudens.'^ Hir modir hith sabinella 
hir sistir hith praxedis of whom we schal speke of aftir. This noble womari 
potenciane was lerned of hir fader in pe lawe of crist and educate in perfith 
lif on ]>e best mane?. Aftir }?e deith of hir fader be pe couTicel of pius pe 
pope & of anothir holy man ny of hir kin cleped pastor ^ sche mad hir hous 
a cherch and ail hir seruauTitis J^at wold be cristen sche mad hem fre and 
relesed her bondage be pe consent of praxede whech was hi? sistir. Aftir 
many good dedis do god gaf hir reward of hir good werkys for sche deyed 
pe xiiii kalend of June and is byried in pe cymyterie cleped pWscille. In f>is 
same cherch of seynt pote>iciane ar iii f>ousand bodies of seyntis pe most part 
martires for crist. In J?is cherch is a chapel with an ante? and a aungeli 
depeynted be pe auter on pe wal and on pe rith hand in pe cornere is a grete 
hole as mech as a man may sitte in whech was mad be myracle in J^is wise. 
Petir whan he was in prison at instauns of his frendis was late loos not 
knowyn on to pe gayleres. Tho fled petir on to fis same hous. And a non 
as he cam in pe wal jaue him as mech place as he myth hide his body in. 
The gayleres whech had take charge of his bodi folovvid and sey hym nalJt 
be cause he was hid in Jje wal but J)ei sey a fayre jong maw standyng pere 
whech was petires auwgeli to him ]?ei spak & inqwired of him if he say ony 
man |?at had neuly broke prison. He answerd on to hem in J^is mane?. 
I haue merueile he sayde {)at je se him naut and he sittith he ]pe? in pe 
corne?. Thus be bewreying of pe auwgell was petir take and led a geyn to 

* The church of S. Pudenziana, like that of S. Prassede (ch. xlviii), is said to have been 
founded on property belonging to the family of Pudens, but to have been separated from 
the latter by the Vicus Patricius (Via tJrbana). It was founded in the second century 
under S. Pius I, and took the name of titulus Pastoris or Pudentis. The term lector de 
Pudentiana occurs on a sepulchral monument of the year 884, when Ricimer and Cle- 
arcus were consuls. The church was restored under Hadrian I ; Gregory VII in the 
eleventh century ; Innocent II, twelfth century ; by Cardinal Gaetani, sixteenth centiuy ; 
and lastly by Cardinal Bonaparte (Adinolfi, ii, p. 240 ; Armellini, p. 565 ; Marucchi, 
p. 864 ; Nibby, p. 677). 

2 S. Pudens from the earliest authorities appeai-s to have been a Roman senator ; he 
was the son of Punicus and Priscilla, and the friend of SS. Peter and Paul at Rome. 
His mother founded the earliest Christian cemetery. He was twice married. It is not 
quite certain which was the first wife, but the name of one wife was Claudia, a Briton 
by birth, who bare him two sons, SS. Novatus and Timotheus (2 Tim. iv. 21) ; the name 
of the other was Sabinella, the mother of SS. Pudenziana and Praxedis. S. Pudenziana 
is the first maiden recorded to have taken the veil, and is believed to have died in peace 
about the middle of the second century, after a life of piety (Stadler, Heiligenlexikonf 
vol. iv, p. 1005 ; Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iv, p. 296). 

3 See note 3, p. 74. 



118 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

prison. Here may men inqwire of me whejjir it was Ipe wil of god ))at petir 
schuld skape fro pnson or nowt. That it was his wil pei may proue be ]?e 
grete myracle whech god ded for him whamie he hid him in f)e wal. Whi 
Bchuld f>oo stones 5eue place to hide peteres body but if god wold J?at petir 
schuld be hid. And whi wold he petir schuld be hid but )?at j^e gaileres 
schuld not fynde him. On pe oJ)ir partye men may argw and sey ]?at it was 
goddis wil he schuld be take be cause he sent a auwgeii to telle pe keperes 
whe? he was and j^e testimoni of a auyigel is more expresyue J>at it was goddis 
wil pSi.nn is pe meuyng of stones. To J>is difficulte sum men answer* in general 
fat ofte tyme god sufferith summe men to haue here desi? as for a tyme and 
r jet hath he ordeyned an oJ?ir ende for hem in his / prouidens. So may we sey 
of petir )?at peraue?^tu? he was a ferd of deth whech was ordeyned for him 
and up on )?at fere he preyed god he myth be excused fro ]?oo bittir tormentis 
for we rede so of crist ]?at he prayed on to his fader for pe same ente^it and 
oure lord sent him warny7*g be pe first myracle J>at his prayeres were 
acceptable in pe sith of god and be pe secu?^de myracle he mad him to haue 
knowlech pat it was goddis wil he schuld turne a geyn to pn'son and pere 
abide pe deth whech was ordeyned for him. This same processe is grouTided 
in pe gospel! where oure lord saide to petir whan J>ou were jong f>ou girt pe 
& went whidir f)ou wold but whan ))ou art agid a noj^ir man schal gird pe 
and lede pe whidir f)ou wilt nowt. This seid ou? lord menyng herby f)at 
sumtyme petir schuld be suffered for to do as he wold and sumtyme he schuld 
be led to do f>at he wold not. In J^is same cherch is a chapel with an auter 
at whech auter was do f)at grete myracle )?at I telle. There stood a prest 
at messe sumtyme in swech plith p^rauentu? as was not pleasauTis to god 
and swech tyme as he schuld receyue pe sacramerit pe same sacrament 
sodeynly fled a wey fro him and fel on a marbil ston. On to f>is day it lith 
still incorporat on to pe ston hard as ston saue it hath a no]?ir colon? fan pe 
ston.^ In fis same cherch eke is pe stool on whech crist satte whan he mad 
his maunde. 

Of pe stacion at a cherch of seint sixt. cap xxix. 

Wednysday in fat same weke is pe stacion at a cherch dedicate to seynt 
sixte. At f is cherch dwelle cloos nuwnes whech haue on of pe y mages of ou? 
lady fat seynt luke peyntid as f ei sey.^ This sixte was a pope * in rome in 

* In speaking of the miracle of the host which fell out of the priest's hand, MufFel says 
that the host is red and the stone white. He also speaks of the miracle of S. Peter hiding 
in the cavity in the wall (p. 43). 

* Under Leo III there existed, near the very ancient title of S. Sixtus, two monasteries, 
S. Cesano de Corsas or Corsarum, afterwards called in Turrim or de Palatio, and 
S. Simmetrius. Leo IV united them under the title of SS. I^immetrius and Cesarius 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 119 

f>at same tyme )?at seynt laurens lyued ]?e? for he was maystir on to seynt 
laurens. He was bore at atenes pe nobil studye of grece and taute Ipere in 
philosophic on pe best mane?. Aftirward cam he to rome and pere for his 
nobil conuersacioun he was chose to fat dignite hed of f>e cherch. Decius 
herd of his lif and eke of his disciples sent aftir him in to a hous cleped 
in tellude al be nyth. But when he was a rested pis noble man sixtus he 
seide on to his clerkis. BreJ^nn myn beth not a ferd. Alle pese seyntis 
)?at deyed be for us ]?ei suffered J^oo tormewtis with grete paciens J?at J^ei 
schuld pe more sikirly come to pe euyrlastyng lif. Ou? lord ihu suffered 
swech deth for us to 5eue us exaumpil of ful grete sikirnesse. And with 
a lowde uoys he seid. Come forth and folow me let no man be a ferd of 
peynes. His disciples answered. We fadir schul go with pe. Whidir 
schuld we go but pere ou? fadir goth. Thus we? J?ei led be fore decius and 
he spak on to him in ]?is m&ner. Knowist J?ou sixte whi ]:>ou art called and 
whi J3at ou? officeres haue brout pe to ou? presens. Sixtus answered )5at he 
knew it week / Decius said on to him. If J^ou knowe it wel make f)i clerkis f. 396 v 
for to knowe pe same f)at f>ou may lyue and )?i clerkis be encresed. Sixtus 
answerd. Treuly se? I do and haue do ful grete bysynesse J?at my clergi 
schuld be encresed. Go make sacrifise said decius yanne on to him, to ou? 
goddis fat be immortale and fou schal be in oure lawe prince of aft pe 
prestes. I haue sayde sixtus mad sacrifise to god omnipotent and to ou? 
lord ihu crist haue I offered a clene boost and undefiled in pe miwzsterie of pe 
cherch. Decius saide on to him. ^eue counsel to fin age as we counsel pe 
so f ou take heed at fi welfare and at pe helth of f i clerkis. Sixtus answerd. 
On to fis day haue I joue hem swech counsel fat fro f e dep pit of helle I haue 
be euyr bisi with al my labou? to kepe hem. Decius was wrooth and seid 
on to him. Make sacrifise on to ou? goddis or elles f ou schal be exaumple 
to alle f 00 fat despise ou? goddis. Sixtus saide. Rith now I saide on to f e 
fat I haue made sacrifise to ou? god in heuene and to ou? lord ihu crist for 
ofir sacrifise wil I non make. Thoo decius comaunded his knytis fat f ei 
schuld lede him to f e temple of mars whech stood fann uia appia fast by 
fat place cleped domine quo uadis and if he wold not offer he bad hem bryng 
hiw a geyn and put him in mamortines prison whech stant fast by f e capitol. 
In his ledyng he jaue swech exhortaciones on to his lederes fat yei despised 
he? lord and beleued in ou? lord ihu crist. Othir ofiiceres be cause he wold 
not obeye brout him on to mamortines prison. And whan he was fere seint 
laurens bis disciple cam on to him with swech wordis. Whidir wilt fou 

Corsarura, and the church was called S. Maria Corsarura. In 1219 the monastery was 
given to Dominican nuns, and took the name of SS. Domenico e Sisto (Armellini, p. 332 ; 
Marucchi, p. 168 ; Nibby, pp. 209, 719). 



120 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

fader goo with oute J?i son, J)ou we? neuyr wone to offir with oute a seruaunt 
ne neuyr make no sacrifise but if fou had a ministir. What seest )?ou in me 
J?at schuld displese Ipi fadirhood. Hast J)ou founde me on kynde or ellis 
ontrewe. Take now trewe experiens whej^ir fou haue chosen a trosti 
mimstir or nowt. To me hast Jjou comitted to mim'ster J?e sacrame^it of 
cristis body on to J^e puple, to me hast fou comitted mimstraciouw of f>e 
sacrameritis and now denyest to me felauchip of f)i martirdam. Aftir many 
oJ>ir wordis whech seint Ian r ens had seynt sixt saide on to him. I forsake 
fe not son in no maner wise but I do Ipe to wite fat gretter tormentis ar kept 
for Ipe. We as aged men haue chosen a wey of esy batayle the as a 5ong man 
abydyn gretter tormentis whech ]?ou schal suffir. Aftir iii dayes fou schal 
folow me. Helie left helise be hind him whan he was raueschid to heuene 
and took no uertu fro him. Aftir )?ese wordes was sixtus brout on to 
ualeriane "pe iuge and he comaunded him to be led to martis temple with 
f. 897 r his deknes felicissimi^g & agapititg and ]>ere he? he/dis to be smet of. This 
ende made Ipia holy pope *} 



Of fe stacion at cosmas & damianws. cap xxx. 

Thursday in f>e same weke is \>e stacion at a cherch of cosmas and damia- 
nus fast be J^at place whech was clepid t^mplum pacis. ^ There resten eke 

^ S. Sixtus, after a very short reign (257-8), was arrested in the cemetery of S. Cal- 
lixtus and martyred, together with SS. Quartus, Felicissimus, Agapitus, Januarius, Vin- 
centius, Magnus, and Stephanua. This was done by order of the Emperor Valerian, 
shortly before his departure on a journey to the East. Pope S. Stephen I appointed 
Sixtus his archdeacon, and nominated him as his successor. Before the outbreak of the 
persecution in which he suffered, he had taken the precaution of placing the heads of 
SS. Peter and Paul in safety (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Duchesne, Liher Pontificnlis, 
vol. i, p. 155 ; Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. ii, p. 124). 

^ The church of SS. Cosmo and Damian was founded about 526 by Felix IV, who 
incorporated in it two pagan temples. Owing to the rise in the level of the ground in the 
Forum, Urban VIII raised the level of the floor of the church ; he removed the old 
entrance doors, and replaced them on the higher level. The old altar, however, can still 
be seen in the subterranean crypt. The church was formerly designated in silice and 
in tribus fatis. The first name refers to the selce pavement ' ubi cecidit Simon Magus *, 
the second to a name given to that part of the Forum from a statuary group of the three 
Fates (Armellini, p. 195; Adinolfi, i, p. 412 ; Marucchi, p. 355; Nibby, p. 182). *Da3 
ist an dem Tempel gewest Rumoli, darnach ist der tempel Antonini gestanden des 
keysers und Faustina und die seulen des Tempels sten noch eins teyls do und ein 
Bchwipogen stet do pey S. Lorentzen, heist Tripolis, do man die drei stet gewan, do 
wurd er gemacht, do sind vil schoner merbelpild ' (Muffel). The name Tripolis (probably 
a corruption of in trihus fatis) puzzles Vogt, and he thinks the arch meant is that of Titus. 
This, however, is some distance off, and the remains of the Arch of Fabius have more 
recently been discovered near this spot. Could it by any chance have been still standing 
in 1452 ? There are the remains of ' vil schoner merbelpild ' scattered all around, including 
the memorial erected by the Senate in memory of the grandchildren of Augustus, &c. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 121 

J?e bodies of mauricii exupii & candidi f)at were gouernouris of a legion sent 
fro thebes ^ on to rome to maximiane pe emp^rou? whech wer eke martires 
for crist undir J)at same tyraunt. These to hreprin cosmas ^ were lechis of 
craft & born in arabye f)is grace of f>e holy goost pei had f)at whom so euir pei 
fond seek ]?ei cured hym a non with oute^i ony cost of Ipe pacient. Lisias 
fat was president of pe cyte called hem on to him and inqwired of hem her 
names. Thei said )?ei hith cosmas and damianus. Thre breJ>Wn eke Ipei had 
as Ipei said * ]jci had * ^ whos names fei cleped antimus leonciws euprepii^5. 
AUe were sent aftir and whan J?ei were come he comauwded hem to do sacri- 
fise to ydoles. Thei wold not. Wherfo? he comaunded hem to be tormented 
with hot yrnes both in her handis and he? feet. In fese peynes Ipei fankid 
god with mery chere as J)ou5 pei had no torme^it suffered. Tho pe iuge bad 
J>ei schuld be bouwde to gidir with strong cheynes and so to be J)row in pe se. 
Thus were f>ei serued and be pe myty hand of god delyuered for sodeynly )?ei 
stood be fore pe iuge a geyn. Grete wondyr had pe iuge of fis delyuersiuns 
and seyd on to hem. Tech me }>is wichcraft whech ^e use and I schal be 
felaw with 50U? werkis. A non as he had seid pese wojdes deueles appered 
uisibily and bete him J)at he was fayn to chauTige his langage and sey on to 
cosmas & his hreprin on ]pis mane?. I pray 30U 50 seyntis of god pray for 
me. A non as f>ei prayed for his help pe deueles fled fro hym. Tho pe 
iuge turned on to his errou? a geyn sayde on to his assessouris, Take heed 
now who wrooth oure goddis we? with me be cause I was in purpose to for- 
sake hem. Thoo bad he J)ei schuld be J)rowe in a grete fire but be pe myth 
of ou? lord it was sone qwenchid and pe\ sone delyueryd. Tho wold he J?at 
pe puple schuld frow hem to ded with stones but f>oo stones turned a geyn 
to pe J?roweres and hurt hem greuously. Than we? ]?ei hange on a tre and 
men redy with scorgis for to bete hem but J>e beteres we? wery er pe seyntes 
we? sory. Than we? f>ei teyid on to a tre and men redy with arowis to 
schote hem to pe deth. The arowes hurt pe puple and pe scheteres pe 
seyntes had no harm. Thus last of alle he comauT^ded he? hedis to be smet 
of and he? bodies we? left J>at doggis and woluys schuld ete hem. But cristen 

Also, at this period, a considerable part of the Regia was still standing (Muffel, 
p. 44). 

^ The massacre of the Christians of the Theban Legion, which took place in 802, is 
fully described in Stadler. The account rests on the strongest evidence, and occurred 
at Octodurum (Martinach) in the Rhone Valley. It appears that the fate of the martyrs 
was brought about by their refusing to sacrifice to heathen gods, when preparing to start 
on a campaign. Mauritius is described as the Commander of the Legion, Exsuperius 
(not Exupius) as the Campidudor, and Candidus as the Senator militum. S. Moritz 
takes its name from S. Mauritius (Acta Sanctorum, September, vol. vi, p. 309). 

* * & damian«^ * in margin of MS. 

3 From * to * interlineated and struck through in MS. 

R 



122 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

men pn'uyly caried hem and biried hem with grete worchep.^ Felix pe uiii 
pope* ded make he? cherch in rome as it is writyn ]}ere in uers of whech 
f. 397 V summe schul be rehersed / here. These ]?ei be. Aula dei claris radiat 
speciosa metallis martiribus medicis populis spes certa salutis Optulit hoc 
domino felix antistite dignum. Thus mene J>ei in englisch. The halle of 
god schynyth and )?at ful fay? with metall. With martires and leches to ])g 
puple hope of uery helth Felix offered it to ou? lord ful worj^i on to J)e 
mytyr.'^ 

Of J)e stacion at seiwt laurews in lucina. Cap xxxi. 

Friday in J>e f)ird weke is f>e stacion at seynt laurens in lucina a fayre 
cherch it is and a cardinales place ioyned ])erio for Ipis cheich is his tytle.' 
The? lith J>e body of seynt lucyne whos ground f)is was and many mo in 
rome.'* The? is eke pe cheyne with whech se'mt laurens was bounde in 
prison and many o]pir relikis. Here may men know wel )?at j^is blessed 
martir laurens suffered mech fing for crist er J?at he was rested. For he was 
bounde in pWson whech tynie he cured al Ipe blind men })at cam on to him. 
Thus rede we fat on lucillus a hethen man was in pnson with him and for 

^ The account of SS. Cosmo and Damian, as given in the MS., agrees with the accepted 
authorities. They are called by the Greek Church dvapyvpoi, because they were willing 
to heal the sick without fee or reward. They lived in this manner for some years 
in Aegea in Cilicia, and were martyred in that province by order of Lysias the governor 
thereof. This took place probably about the year 287. At the time of the Crusades an 
order of knighthood was established in their honour, the members of which lived according 
to the rule of the Basilians, whose duty it was to care for sick pilgrims and to release 
prisoners. It did not, however, have a long existence (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta 
Sanctorum, September, vol. vii, p. 428). 

^ The remainder of this inscription, which still exists, is as follows : *In qua plus fidei 
lux pretiosa micat f Venite x Sacro ^ Crevit honore locus + Munus ut aetheria ^ Vivat 
in arcepoli.' The portrait in mosaic of Felix IV (not VIII) was restored in 1660, 
unfortunately out of all resemblance to the original, which was probably a true likeness. 

^ The church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina was founded in the fourth century. Lucina was 
a pious Roman matron, who converted her house into this basilica, which she constructed 
at her own expense. It was a station church in the sixth century, was restored by 
Benedict IE about 685, then by Hadrian I in 780, and later by Celestine III, who 
reconsecrated it in May, 1196. Although it retains its old mediaeval porch, the interior 
was entirely remodelled in the seventeenth century. It was originally known as the 
Titulus Lucinae, under which name it is mentioned at the end of the fifth century. In 
July, 1872, several tombs of the eighth century were discovered near the church, while 
carrying out some works at the Palazzo Fiano. One of the epitaphs is of the time of 
Hadrian I (783), and refers to a deacon named Paul, who was present at the Boman 
Synod of that year (ArmelHni, p. 309 ; Marucchi, p. 405 ; Nibby, p. 801). 

* The Mart. Rom. says of S. Lucina, that she was a disciple of the Apostles SS. Peter 
and Paul, that she devoted her property and spent her life in helping Christians 
who were in need, in visiting those confined in prison, and burying the remains of the 
martyrs. The name is mentioned in many of the Acts of the Saints, but at widely 
different periods (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 123 

|?out and schame felle in swech weping f>at lie lost his sitli. Laurens said on 
to him f)at if he wold be leue in ou? lord ihu crist he schuld haue his sith 
a geyn. Lucille sayd ))at he beleued. Tho laurens baptized him & mad him 
hool of blyndnesse. Aftir f)is many blynde men cam on to him for helth and 
he put his handes up on hem and holed hem. This was Ipe pnncipal cause 
whi ypolitus ^ his kepe? beleued in ou? lord and forsoke att J^e ydoles redy 
to take martirdam as he ded. For after Ipe deth of seynt laurews he was 
drawe to dede with wild hors. Of seynt laurens speke we no mo? now for 
we talked mo? largely of him be fore. 



Of Ipe stacion at seynt susanne. Cap xxxii. 

Satirday in J^e J^irde week is Ipe stacioun at a cherch of seynt susa^ine fast 
by Ipe place whech is cleped terme diocleciane^ )5at is to sey pe bathis 
of diocleciane for Ipis diocleciane mad J>e? a ful solempne paleys Ipe wallis 
and archis and many uoutis stand at Ipia day. The? were housis undir pe 
ground rennyng with kunditis of cold watir whe? lordis refreschid hem in 
somyr for Ipe sunne is passing bote pere. The? we? houses eke a boue 
pe ground in whech runne hot cunditis and pere abiden pe lordis in cold 
wedir. This paleys was gret & occupied mech lond, and on pe west side 
perof stant J>is place of seynt susanne. A fai? cherch it is and a praty place 
annexid perto fer fro ony dwelleres half a myle on sum side on sum side a hoi 
myle. This place is newly 5oue to pe freris whech be cleped hermytes of seynt 
austyn pere dwell now iiii for J^e place is not grete. This pope nicholas sith 
he was pope translate pe body of seynt susanne ' fro seynt peteres / kirk on f. 
to fis same as an englisch frere told me whech was on of hem Jjat bare 
hir. And pe ston ))at was up on hir is bo? ]:>idir eke on whech J^ese uers 
be wrytyn. Olim presbiteri gabini filia felix Hie susanna jacet in pace 
patri sociata.* Thus mene f ei in ou? tonge. Sumtyme of a prest gabine pe 

^ See note 2, p. 82. 

^ The church of S. Susanna is said to have been founded, late in the third century, in two 
houses which belonged to Pope S. Caius and his brother S. Gabinius, the father of 
S. Susanna. It was known under the name ad duas domos, and was in front of the 
Forum of Sallust. The name ad duas domos was altered to inter duas lauros in the 
Liber Pontificalis, but some excavations carried out in 1880 have disclosed the remains 
of ancient Roman houses of the third century on which the church stands. This would 
tend to show that the former name is correct (Adinolfi, ii, p. 328 ; Armellini, p. 637 ; 
Marucchi, p. 380 ; Nibby, p. 732). 

^ Nicholas V, elected Pope March 19, 1447, died March 24, 1454. 

* S. Gabinius (or Gabinus) was the father of S. Susanna, and the brother of the Pope 
S. Caius. He was a learned man, and the author of several treatises against the heathen 
religion. On the death of his wife he entered the priesthood ; he then devoted himself 
principally to the instruction of catechumens. He suffered martyrdom under Diocletian. 

R 2 



124 YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 

douter rych Here susanne gche lith in pes coupled to hlr fader. Of f)i3 
susanne I mad iuqwisicion * of pin s uDaDno * ^ what sche was for sum men 
supposed )?at it had be susanne of j>e elde lawe whech was wyf to ioachira 
and doutyr on to helchie whech was accused ful wrongfully of too prestes 
and delyudred with grete myracle be daniel pe prophete. These men 
J>at seyd ]?us had a colou? for he? opinione ]?at J>e story of f>is same susanne 
is red f)at same day in pe epistel of Ipe messe. But a nojjir opinion was told 
me whech was sayd me J>at )>is susanne was wif to seynt alexe son to 
eufermyane a grete lord in rome whech dwelt in Ipe mount aduentyne 
for ]>ere was his paleys and now it is a cherch of sei^it sabyn and a couent of 
frere prechouris. That sche was a prestir doutyr is not inconuenient for so 
was seynt pernel. Seynt alexe whan he had wedded he? he took his leue of 
hi? ful pWuyly in his chambir and sche aftir J^at tyme lyued a ful solitary lyf 
plesing god with fastyng and prayer and so endewred al hi? lyf.^ 



Of fe staciow at ierlm in seiwt cruces. cap xxxiii. 

The iiii Sunday of lenton is fe stacion at a chapel undir seynt cruces 
called ierusalem of whech we spak be fore. We saide ]?e? J?at f>is was 
]>e conclaue of seynt helyn whech at hi? instauTis was halowed in worchep of 
J?e crosse and cleped ierlm as a memorial of hi? noble labou? fat both sout & 
fond ]>e crosse at ierlm. For whan constantine was baptized of siluestir and 
J)is same heleyne turned on to pe feith a non with a gret deuocion sche went 
on to ierlm to seke pe crosse whech ou? lord hyng on. Whan sche was com 
J>idir and pe iewes had knowyng J?at sche had newly receyued pe feith 
of ou? lord J?ei we? a ferd and seid a mougis hem. What wil f)is*lady 
do hope 5e. On of hem wh^ch hith judas said on to hem. I wote ful wel fat 
sche wil inqwyre of us where Jmt crosse is in whech ihu crist'was hangin. 
Be ware fat non of 50U be wrey fis couwcel for if je doo oure lawe is 
distroyed and all ou? forfaderes customes schul turne to nowt. Zacheus 
whech was my grau/itse? said on to my fadir and my fadir told it on to me. 

He is said to have been a relative or connexion of that emperor, and to have come from 
Dalmatia originally (Stadler, Beiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. iii, p. 128). 
'Da selbst lygt Sant Susanna \md ir vater' {Ein Biichlin, &c., p. F ii, Strassburg, 
1500, B.M.). 

* From * to * struck out and interlineated in MS. 

" S. Susanna, virgin martyr, was daughter to S. Gabinius and niece to S. Caius, Pope. 
Owing to her having taken a vow of virginity, she refused to enter into matrimonial 
relations with the adopted son of Diocletian, and her chastity was miraculously protected 
by an angel. She suffered great torments with unshaken fortitude, and was beheaded in 
her own chamber about the year 296 (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon', Acta Sanctorum, August, 
vol. ii, p. 624). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 125 

Thus saide he on to me whan he schuld dey. Take heed son at my wordis 
if pere be mad ony inqwyraurice of J?e crosse whech ihu hing up on rather 
}?an })ou schal deye telle hem where it is for fro J?at tyme ]5at it is fouwde 
schal neuyr ou? naciou% stand in worchip but al ))at worchip whech / whcoh ^ f. 398 v 
we had schal turne on to fe cristen feith. I said )?at tyme on to my fadir. 
Sith ou? naciou92 knew wel J^at he was crist whi wold J>ei put him on 
J^e crosse. My fade? answerd herto and saide. God knowith I consented 
neuyr on to Jjat deth but oft spak I a gayn hem J)at conspired his deth. But 
J)e pnncipal cause of his deth was J^at openly he prechid a geyn J?e uices 
whech J?e pharisees usen. But Ipis is sikir |?at }?e fird day aftir his passion 
he ros fro f)e deth and fourty dayes aftir f>at resureccioun was he seyn who 
he went up in to heuene not only of his disciples but of many oJ)ir of ou? 
nacioun. And J>ese myracles were cause J?at steuene pi brofir be leued in 
him and prechid of him openly j^at he was messias whech ou? lawe seith 
schuld come for whech preching pei stoned him to pe deth. Therfor son be 
J?ou wa? f)at fou blaspheme not pe name of ihu ne speke no euele of non of 
his disciples. "Whan pe iues herd iudas telle f)is tale f»ei said, pis ping 
herd we neuyr or now but whan we come in presens of pe qween loke J^ou 
talk not so large. Sone aftir f>is eomunicacion )?ei come be fore pe qween 
sche inqwired whe? pe crosse was but non of hem wold make knowlech wherfor 
sche comau^ided hem to be brent. Thoo in grete fere )?ei accused iudas and 
said to pe qween ]?at he was most pryuy to })is mate? where pe crosse and 
many of)ir f>ingis were hid. Tho lete sche hem alle goo and on to iudas sche 
said. Deth or lyf may fou chese but if j5ou telle me where pe crosse is f)ou 
schal dey. He answerd & saide. Now is it ij c jere sith it was hid I was not 
J?ann) bore ne many ^ere aftir who wold 56 desire J)is J>ing of me. Tho was 
he put in a dep pitte and kept J^ere with oute mete and drynk wenyng to him 
J?at he schuld deye pere for hungir. Than he asked mercy and promised pat 
he schuld telle hi? where it was. Whann he had brout hir to pe place he 
set him on his knes and praied ou? lord god Jjat he schuld fynde it. 
Sodeynly aftir his praye? al pe erde qwakid and out of certeyn riftis cam 
oute smek whech smelled swetter fan ony spis. Tho iudas lift up his handis 
for ioye and cried with a loude uoys. Now knowe I uerily J?at J?ou crist art 
sauyou? of fis world. Thei doluen xx passes & {oundjn iii crosses att iii 
bore J>ei in to pe cite and a boute non of J?at same day pere was a ded maw 
brout on a here, iudas took crosse and laide it on pe man & hie roos not 
J)o took he pe secund and he lay still f>an pe )?ird and he roos. Wherby J^ei 
knew wel J?at was pe crosse whech crist halowid with his blood. Tho fouTide 
J»ei pe nayles and sche receyued hem with ful grete reuerens. Mech ping is 
^ ' whech ' struck out and interlineated in MS. 



126 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

writin of Jjis stori whech I leue now for I wil make declaracion of oJ)ir 
staciones whech be at ofir places.^ 



f. 399 r Of J>e stacion / at a cherch cleped quatuor coronatorwm. Capitlm xxxiiii. 

Munday in Ipe fourt weke is fe stacion at a cherch of iiii corojiatoris on 
a hiil on pe rith hand as we goo to seyn ion lateranensis on to whech cherch 
eke is annexid a fai? place longyng on to a cardinale.'^ In J?is cherch lith Ipe 

^ The story of the Invention of the Cross follows the usually accepted version, and 
needs no remark ; but the life of S. Helena is of such interest to our nation that something 
may be said about her in this place. Her full name was Flavia Julia Helena; she was 
the wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Constantine the Great. The date and 
place of her birth are both uncertain. Some authors, especially the British, say that she was 
bom in Britain at York or Colchester, and that she was the daughter of King Coilus. 
Others fix her birthplace at Treves. The principal reason for accepting the former 
theory is that Constantine is believed to have been born in Britain. But even this is 
uncertain, as some authorities, notably Pagius and Tillemont, assert that he was bom at 
Naissus (Nissa) in Servia. And it is curious that Bede never mentions the fact of his 
having first seen the light in our country. The only certainty is that Constantius 
Chlorus, who was co-emperor with Diocletian, died in Britain. Some German authorities 
have asserted that Treves was the birthplace of S. Helena, but the grounds for this 
statement are even weaker than the grounds for the first-mentioned theory. As early 
as the sixth century Drepana in Bithynia was said to be the real place where she was 
born, and both Nicephorus and Procopius support this view. This town was on the 
Bosphorus, and was afterwards renamed Helenopolis after the empress. The probable 
date of her birth was a.d. 248, and S. Ambrose — who was a boy of five years of age 
when Constantius Chlorus died — says that she was of humble extraction, and was the 
manageress of a postal station when Constantius first met her. S. Ambrose, as the son 
of a prefect, may very easily have heard this from his own father. Eutropius, an 
imperial private secretary, in his Roman history states that after the death of 
Constantius, his son Constantine, born of a humble marriage (ex ohscuriore matrimonio) , 
was elected emperor in Britain ; and he must have known the facts, as he was a Court 
official who accompanied Julian the Apostate to Persia. Some pagan writers even 
assert that Constantine was illegitimate, filius spurius, but this can hardly be true, and 
the statement is attributable to their hatred of the Christian empress. Had this been 
the case, the aristocratic and proud Diocletian would hardly have cast his eye on 
Constantius's natural son to succeed him after his death ; nor would the son have dared 
to call his mother Aiufusfa. Nor would Eumenides in his panegyric have presumed to 
say to him : Thou hast deserved the empire through thy birth ; imperium nascendo 
meruisti. S. Helena was eventually divorced by Constantius, and settled at Treves. 
Eutropius, in speaking of this, calls her the uxor of the emperor, and uses the words 
diremptis prioribus coniugiis in speaking of the divorce. Coins and inscriptions also 
bear witness to a legal union. So far as is known, Constantine was her only son. She 
died, at the age of eighty, in the year 328, at Byzantium or Nicomedia. Her body was 
brought to Borne by Constantine's orders (^t&.dlQTt Seiligenlexikon', Acta Sanctorum, 
August, vol. iii, p. 548). 

' The church of the SS. Quatuor Coronati existed on the Caelian Hill from the fourth 
or fifth century; it was rebuilt by Honorius I in the seventh, and by Leo IV in the 
ninth century. There is a convent attached to the church, but the history of the four 
martyrs is very obscure. After the sack of Rome by Robert Guiscard, Pascal II rebuilt 
the church ; it was again restored under Martin V, by Cardinal Carillo, and later by 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 127 

body of on marius ]^at cam fro perse and took his martirdam in rome. The? 
lith his wif eke whech hite martha and his too sones on hith audifax an of)ir 
abacuk alle iii martires eke.^ These foure coronatoures were grauouris of 
ymagery and entayle most speciali in stoon. Thei founde first pe ma.ner 
of werkyng in hard stones both of sawing grauyng and pulching at it is 
seide at rome. Dyuers oppiniones be of he? names sunirae sey pere we? but 
fou? whech hith f)us seuerus seuerianws carpoforus & uictorinits. Sum 
sey ])ere we? .u. claudiws nichostrat^6S castoriws simphoriani^s & simpliciws. 
The names of pe iiii first myth not be fou^ide and Iperfor pe cherch sette in 
f>ese .u. for pei were martirized f>e same day. Diocleciane mad a grete 
ter/zpil in whech he wold make a grete simulac? of pe sunne with cart and 
hors and al pe aray as pe poetes feyned. For J?ei feyned psit pe Bunne 
ridith in a chare of iiii wheles and pe mone in a cart of to wheles and mech 
ofir J>ing. But to J)is entent say we f>is, Diocleciane had found a noble 
ueyn in pe erde of a precious ston J>ei clepe thaso he did clepe both 
philisophres and grauoures and told hew his a uys j^at he wold haue a chare 
grauen in J^is ston with iiii wheles and iiii hors and a man standing in pe 
chare whech schuld represent J^e sunne. These iiii coronatourz^ were 
presented on to him a mongis many o]?ir werkmen as most parfith and most 
sotil in ymaginacion. But J>ei wer pn'uy cristen men and f>at f)ei schuld 
werk J^ei wrout it in pe worchip of crist and seyntis elles wold J?ei no j^ing 
graue. Grete strif was pere many day be twix pe philisophres and pe 
werkmen in what maner J>is ston schuld be kit. So at pe comaundment of 
diocleciane pere we?^ on a day sex hundred werkmen and xx with too 
philisophres & euer was pere gret strif be twix hew. These iiii coronatoures 
stood, be side and ded naut to pe werk. Thoo pe philisophres chalanged hem 
and seid on to hem. What is J^e cause fat 50 obeye not on to pe comaund- 
ment of pe most goodly and mekest prince diocleciane. Claudius spak for 
hem. We wil not blaspheme him ]?at mad us ne we wil do no swech werk 
in whech we schuld be found gilty in his sith. The philisophres said )?an 
on to hem. It semeth fat je be cristen men. Thei answerd all with o 

Pius IV. Two Popes, Leo IV and Stephen VI, were elected in it (Adinolfi, i, p. 327 ; 
Armellini, p. 571 ; Marucchi, p. 223 ; Nibby, p. 682). 

^ SS. Marius and Martha came from Persia to Rome with their sons SS. Audifax and 
Abacuk, and suffered martyrdom during the reign of Claudius (268-70). Marius is 
sometimes called Marcus, Marin us, Maras, and Maris. Abacuk has many variants, 
such as Abachum, Abbacuc, Abacuc, Abachuch, Arabacuc, Ambacum, Ambacu, Abacen, 
and Nabuchum. The father and the two sons were taken prisoners at Ostia, and cruelly 
tortured before martyrdom ; the mother was thrown into a well. They are sometimes 
(in Germany) venerated as the three physicians (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon; Acta Sanc- 
torum, January, vol. ii, pp. 214 and 1136. 

^ ' gade ' (?part of 'gadered ') in margin of MS. The rest of the word is cut off. 



128 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

uoys. Treuly are we cristen men. Thoo pe philisophres chose o)?ir werk- 
men whech mad an ende with inne xxx daies. And whan )>is werk was 
brout be fore Ipe sith of J?e emperou? he merueiled Iperot and seid. This 
f. 899 V haue f>ei made ]?at are hald so gret / maisteres in J^is craft. The philisophres 
answerd. Holi pnnce J?o men of whom 50 speke ar cristen men and be 
magik wene for to make all men subiect on to hem. Diocleciane said. 
If J?is be soth we schul haue experiens and J^e same hou? he comaiided on 
lampadiws to do execuciou?^ up on hem. First he cleped hem and schewid 
al mane? tormewtry and inqwired of hem wheidir J?ei wold do sacrifise to Ipe 
immortal goddis or nowt. Thei wold not do his comauwdme^it as J>ei saide. 
Tho mad he hem naked to be betyn with scorgis and a crier in f>e betyng 
cried Jjus. The pr^ceptis of pnnces schuld ^e not despise. In J?at same ou? 
lampadius was obcessid with a deuele and eue in his sete he rent him selue 
and deyde. His wif and his eyir ruwne to Ipe paleys crying ueniauwge of 
Jjese wicchis. Tho Ipe emp^rou? comauwded J)at J^ei alle schuld be wou?id in 
led and so Iprowjn in tybir. But with in fewe dayes a cristen man cleped 
nichodemws lift up Ipe bodies and biried hem in his hous.^ 



Off J>e sisicion at s laurews in damasco. xxxu. 

Tewisday in Jjat same weke is f>e stacion at a cherch cleped laurencii in 
damasco. This cherch stant fast be campflou?.^ But whi it is clepid in 
damasco I haue not lerned ^et wel wot I ]?at damascus was sumtyme pe 
principal cite of surry. On cleped eleezer steward of abrahames houshold 

^ Much doubt lias always existed as to the names of the four crowned martyrs, but the 
generally accepted ones are Severus, Severianus, Carpophorus, and Victorinus. They 
were beaten to death with clubs, and their remains thrown to the dogs, which, however, 
refused to touch them. After being watched for five days, they were honourably burled 
in the Via Labicana. As their names were unknown, Pope Melchiades ordered that they 
should be venerated under the name of the Quatuor Incoronati (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; 
Acta Sanctorum, November, vol. iii, p. 748). 

'^ The church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso was erected by Pope S. Damasus near the 
ruins of the theatre of Pompey in the year 880. It was restored by Hadrian I and 
Leo III, and entirely reconstructed when Cardinal Riario built the adjoining palace of 
the Cancelleria. Up to this time the front of the church faced on the Via del Pellegrino, 
and, according to De Rossi, consisted of a double portico and three aisles with two rows 
of columns. Armellini adds, * ma ci6 che rendeva caratteristica e degna di rilevanza la 
distribuzione architettonica interiore dell' aula, era la posizione della nave cosi-detta 
trasversa, la quale non correva innanzi all' abside, come in tutte le altre basiliche, ma 
dietro alia medesiina a modo di portico, cosicchfe tutto I'edifizio era cinto ed abbracciato da 
portici.' This construction is described by Pope Damasus in his verses on the church, 
the text of which has come down to us. Bramante's work of the fifteenth century was 
finally restored by Valadier in the nineteenth (Armellini, p. 812 ; Marucchi, p. 419 ; 
Nibby, p. 291). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 129 

he mad it, summe men clepe him a nolpir name and so he hith damascus but 
f)is may not be drawe in no colon? to namjng of J>is cherch. The glose * up 
on ysai up on J^is text Omis damasci seith J^at in J^is same place where J?e 
cite of damasc stant cayn killid abel his broj^ir, and as seynt gregori seith 
eu^ry wikkid man may be clepid cayn and euery good man J>at sufferith 
paciently persecucion abel. Wherfor J?is tyrauwt deci^^s was lich a nolpir 
cayn and J^is martir laurens lich a nojjir abel but whe)?ir }?at seynt laurews 
suffered ony tormentri in J^is place or nowt I am in doute. If he ded J?an 
myth it be called Ipe place where cayn killid his brof>ir. But a nyher 
euydens may we make of f»is place. For damascus is as mech for to sey as 
a blodi feld now f>is cherch stant ny in f)e most multitude of houses and 
dwelleres of rome. It is for to suppose uerily J^at many a martir was killid 
in )?at place be cause it was ny J>e puple )?at ^ei schuld be mo? a ferd to 
receyue cristen feith Ipertor was it called f e blodi feld whech in surry tong 
soundith damascus. A mougis all ojjir seintis whech restyn in J>is cherch 
])ere lith an holy pope* cleped damasus for ]?at mara sum sey it schuld be 
cleped laurencii in damaso not in damasco as J>ei clepe pe cherch of balbyne 
saluatoris in balbina for f»e cherch is of pe saluator crist and f>is mayde 
balbyne lith pere }?eifor Ipei clepid it soo. This damasus J^e pope ded mech 
))ing / in Ipe cherch aftir tyme )?at he was pope. First Eoute he c«rteyn f. 400 r 
seyntis and translate hem and mad uers up on he? graues for he was a grete 
uercyfiou?. He ordeyned eke at instauws of seynt ierom ]?at psalmes schuld » 
be songe both nyth and day. And J>ese too uers at pe psalmes endes wrote 
seynt ierom on to him desiryng of him pa,t att pe cherch schuld be bouwde to 
f>e same obs^ruauTis, glona patri &cra.^ 

^ gloss, or commentary. 

^ S. Damasus I, a Spaniard by descent and a Koman by birth, was born about the year 
306, and was appointed Archdeacon of the Eoman Church in 355. He followed his 
predecessor Liberius into exile, but soon returned to Eome, and on the death of Liberius 
was elected to succeed him in October, 366. The opposition party, who held to the 
emperor, elected the Deacon Ursinus (Ursicinus) as antipope ; a struggle took place, 
which led to bloodshed. Eventually Ursinus was banished from Kome to Gallia. 
S. Damasus worked hard to restore union to the Church, which was then much divided on 
account of the Arian and other heresies. Councils were held in Rome in 868 and 370, and 
he was present at the great Council of Constantinople in 381. He did much for the 
beautifying of Eome ; he built some churches, restored others, and decorated many of 
the tombs of the martyrs. His finely-lettered inscriptions are still universally admired. 
He was a friend of S. Jerome, and asked him to revise the Vulgate. As our chronicler 
says, he ordered that psalms should be sung morning and evening in daily prayer ; also 
that at the end of each psalm the doxology, Gloria patri, &c., should be sung. He died 
on Dec. 10, 384, aged 80 ; his remains were found in 1639 in a church built by him 
on the Via Ardeatina ; they were placed under an altar in the church of S. Lorenzo 
in Damaso in 1645. Two editions of his works (in 1688 and 1754) have been published 
(Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 



130 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 



Off J>e stacion at sei^it paules cap xxxui. 

Wednysday in Ipe same weke is Ipe stacion at f)e cherch of seynt paule 
whech stant with out J?e wallis on ]>e south side of rome of whech we spoke 
be fore but summe addiciones wil we sette here rith for conformite of ]>q 
book. There ly in Jjis cherch as f>ei sey fat dwelle Ipere a f)ousand of J)oo 
iwnocentis whech were killid for crist. There lith thimotheus J>at was 
disciple on to paule and titus eke whech was his disciple alsoo. These to 
men receyued notable epistelis fro seynt paule and hem both mad he 
bischoppis on of hem in asie ]>e of>ir in europe as seith f>e glose up on fe 
same episteles. The? lith eke in yis cherch seini maurw* seynt approniane 
and seynt archemie felix eke Ipe martir fat blew down many mawmewtis. 
Audactws \)e martir simplicius f>e martir faustinws beatrix lucia geminianus 
ciriacus largus & smaragdus and many ofir of whech it we? al to longe to 
write here pe passiones.^ There is J?e bed of seynt ananie whech baptized 
seynt paule in fe cite of damasc. The bed of seynt steuene Ipe first martir, fe 
arme of seiwt anne modir to ou? lady, pe arme of seint nicholas bischop of 
bare, fe arme of fe woman samaritane J>at jaue crist drynk at fe welle. 
There stant also a pile? whech stood in pilates hous on whech stood lith 
what tyme crist was bete pere summe sey fat crist was hound on to fe same. 
In f is same cherch lith seynt pla ^ whech lent paule a cloth whan he schuld 
be ded. And be cause fat story longith directly to f e apostel paule for fat 
cause wil we reherse it he?. Whan paule was condempned to f e deth he was 
led forth in to f e feld out of rome for f e place where his lied was smet of is 
out of rome iii myle. In f e gate of rome whech is cleped porta capena or 
ellis porta sci pauli f is woman plautille whech was lerned be him in f e lawe 
of god met pere with him. Sche wept ful sore tok hir leue and comendid hir 
to his prayeres. Paule saide on to hir. Fare wel plautift doutyr of euer- 

^ Of this long list of saints whose relics are to be found in S. Paul's, S. Timothy 
sufifered martyrdom in Ephesus in the year a.d. 97. His relics were brought to 
Constantinople in 366, and afterwards a part of them were sent to Rome. S. Titus, his 
colleague, died in Crete at the advanced age of ninety-four, and was buried at Gortyna. 
His head is at S. Mark's, Venice, but his other relics appear to have been lost. S. Maurus 
and S. Appronianus will be found mentioned in the Seiligenlexikon ; the story of Felix 
and Adauctus is also found in that work. The three saints Simplicius (Simplicianus), 
Faustinus, and Beatrix suffered in the persecution of Diocletian in 802 or 303, and were 
buried by Lucina in the cemetery ad ursum pileatum on the road to Porto. At the 
cemetery near Ponte Galera the name of S. Beatrix can still be seen. S. Lucia was 
an aged widow, who with S. Geminianus was also martyred under Diocletian about 308. 
SS. Cyriacus, Largus, and Smaragdus perished in the same persecution ; a short account of 
S. Ananias exists in Stadler, Seiligenlexikon. 

' ? plautilla ; the rest of the word is cut off. 



b 



f 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 131 

lastjDg helth but of ^ fing I pray pe lende me a kerclii with whech I may 
hide myn eyne whann) I schal lese myn hed. Thoo took sche him a kerchi 
and he bare it forth with him and whan his hed was smet of he sprad it with 
his owne handis and gadered J?e blood. Aftir fat gadering J»e kerchi was 
sodeynly at rome in plautiil hand. Sche / was a knowe aftirward J^at sche f. 400 v 
say petir-and paule who ])ei came in to rome arayed with cloJ)is of gold and 
crownes on he? hedes. Sche schewid eke hem f>at were at his deth )?e 
wympil al blody whech was bront hir to rome longe er fei myth com Jjider.'* 



Off Ipe stacion at s martyn in montibus. cap xxxuii. 

Thursday in J?at same weke is J^e stacion at a cherch cleped sci martini 
in montibiea ' whe? seynt siluester lith & ])ere is his stole his uestment & his 
sandalys. In f)is cherch lyn eke many ojjir seyntis. There be dwellyng at 
pis place certeyn freres cleped carmelites for he? ord?be gan in J^e hill cleped 
carmele whech stant in palestin. This martyn was pope * in ]?at same tyme 
)?at on paule patn'ark of Constantinople sette grete scisme in pe cherch. For 
he held Ipat heresie whech puttith but o wil in J?e persone of ou? lord ihu 
crist. Alle fe testimonies of fe old faderes of f>e cherch he refused fe 
embassiatoures J>at were sent fro rome to undirtake him of his grete defautes 
he despised. Thoo fat we? of fe trew opinion he bet hem pn'soned hem 

^ ? o = one. 

2 This beautiful story of S. Plautilla will be found in the Heiligenlexikon. She is 
believed to have been a Roman lady of good family, the sister of the Consul Clemens, and 
the mother of Flavia Domitilla. She died in peace (date uncertain), and her remains 
are said to rest in the church of SS. Nereo and Achilleo. Some relics of her are at 
S. Bartholomew (Stadler, Heiligenlexikcin ; Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. v, p. 172 ; vol. vii, 
p. 818). The traditional site of the occurrence is shown in Plate III of De Rossi's Piante 
iconograjlche di Boma. It is marked with a cross and the words ' ap ha»c cruceni 
S. Paulws puta defnnctus velum mulieri reddidit'. The cross appears in Plate II, but 
not in Plate IV, nor afterwards. In all three (IT, III, and IV) a bridge, and a chapel on 
the bank of a small stream, are shown close by the site of the cross. 

5 The church of S. Martino ai Monti was constructed in the baths of Trajan, it is said 
(in the Liber PontiJicaUs), by S. Sylvester. In early times it was known as the titulus 
equitii, from the name of the owner of the property on which it stood. But it soon took 
the name of the Pope who dedicated it, and was then called titulus S. Silvestri. In it 
was held the synod against Hippolytus, Callixtus, and Victorinus in the year 324. Pope 
Symmachus, in the fifth century, erected another building over the old Basilica of 
S. Silvester, and dedicated it to S. Martin, Bishop of Tours, and to S. Silvester. The older 
church remained buried underground, and was only accidentally discovered in the 
seventeenth century. The basilica was rest(5red in the reigns of Hadrian I, Sergius II, 
and Innocent III. Leo IV decorated it with paintings and mosaics. In the sixteenth 
century. Cardinal Diomede Caraffa rebuilt it ; under Pius IV, S. Carlo Borromeo restored 
the ceiling. In 1650 the General of the Carmelites, Antonio Filippini, spent his whole 
patrimony of 70,000 scudi in beautifying the church. The fafade was renewed in 1676 ; 
finally, Cardinal Zelada again restored the building at great expense (Adinolfi, ii,p. 121 ; 
Armellini, p. 459; Marucchi, p. 319; Nibby, p. 543). 

S 2 



132 YE SOLACE OF PILGPJMES 

exiled hem so fat many -pleintis come to rome fro many sundri parties of J^e 
world f>at sum remedy schuld be ordeyned to f>is sore. Thoo j^is same pope * 
martyn mad a congregacion at rome of a hundred bischoppis and fyue and 
"jpere he c^mdempned ]>e heresie of J^is paule. The em^erou^ whech )>at tyme 
dwelt at Constantinople was infecte with f)is same heresie and he sent his 
chetou?^ in to ytaile to make a scisme a geyn martyn Ipe pope. * This was 
asaied be many menesbut euyr oure lord god was a protect ou? on to his trew 
seruauwt for ou? lord wold not suffer Ipe hertis of his puple to hate f)is man 
J>is holy preste martyn. Tho ]?is chetoure whech hith olympus turned him 
to an horible fraude and feyned "pat of deuociouTi he wold be hoseled of pope * 
martynes hand and in fis feynyng he had mad comenaunt with him fat bare 
his swerd fat whech tyme f e pope * was bisi to hosil f is maw his s^ruauwt 
with his swerd schuld sle f e pope.* But ou? lord god mad f is jong ma.n 
blynd al fat messe tyme for to lette fat cursed dede as he swore aftir a fo? 
f e puple. The helth of rithful men as seith dauid is of ou? lord and ou? 
lord is a protectour of rithful me^i in tyme of tribulacion. The emp^rou? 
aftir f is sent down a nof er officer and he took f is pope * and led him in to 
cersone or ellis tersone an ylde in f e see fere deyid f is man in grete tribu- 
lacion for rith of f e cherch. There dede he many myracles for whech f ei 
tra^islate him to rome.^ The same day is f e stacion at a cherch of seynt 
siluester whe? fat his hed is and eke fe bed of seynt ion baptist and in fis 
place dwelle cloos nurines whech haue f e keping of f e baptistes bed.* Many 

^ escheator, chamberlain. 

* S. Martin I was elected Pope July 5, 649 ; died Sept. 15, 655. Olympius, the 
chamberlain to the Emperor Constans, was sent to Italy as exarch, and appears to have 
met with his death in Sicily (Anastasius, In Vit. Mart.). The account given here agrees 
with that of the usually accepted authorities (Smith, Dictionary of Christian Biography ; 
Stadler, SeiligenlexiJcon ; Duchesne, Liher Pontificalis, vol. i, p. 33-6 ; Surius, vol. xi, 
p. 421). 

^ The church of S. Silvester was originally known as S. Dionysius inter duos hortos or 
cata Pauli. The Liber Pontificalis, in the life of Paul I (757-67), says that he built the 
church and monastery in his own house in honour of SS. Sylvester and Stephen I, both of 
•whom were popes, but that he dedicated the church to S. Dionysius. Perhaps the church 
had been commenced by his brother and predecessor Stephen II, as will be seen from the 
Acts of SS. Degna and Emerita (Martinelli, op. cit, p. 356). Mallius confirms this in 
de Abb., c. xxxi. The church was called inter duos hortos on account of the gardens in this 
neighbourhood in the Middle Ages. Considerable remains of antiquities, amongst them 
some of Mithraic worship, have been found here from time to time ; many of them are 
preserved in the courtyard in front of the church. It is now known as S. Silvestro in 
Capite, because the relic of the head of S. John Baptist is preserved here. In the tenth 
century the church was a very important one, and was given possession of the Column 
of Marcus Aurelius, which no doubt helped to save that monument from destruction. 
Innocent III restored the church in the twelfth century; the campanile is of his date. 
The church was altered by Clement VIII, restored by Clement XI a century later, and 
bestowed upon the English Catholics by Leo XIII in 1890 ( Armellini, p. 220 ; Marucchi, 
p. 395; Nibby,p. 713). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 133 

men sey pat J?is hed is at amyas ^ and fei must understand Tpere is no more 

at amyas but fe nethir chauyl ^ for al J?e ofir/ part of Ipe hed is mad off. 401 r 

goldsmytis werk. So 50 may se uerili fat Ipe principal part of baptistes hed 

is at rome. 



Of Ipe stacion at seiwt eusebie. cap xxxuiii. 

Friday in fat weke is Ipe stacion at seynt eusebie ' and f is cherch was Ipe 
title of fat honorable fade? herry bischop of wynchester fat deyid now late.* 
On to f is cherch is annexid an abbey of munkys I wot not uerili now of 
what ordir. To fis cherch f e same cardinal at his deth be set good 
ornamewtis and fay? ieweles whech are schewid fere at f e stacion to grete 
worchip of englisch men. Off fis eusebie elle f e teld stories of f e cherch 
fat he was a preest in rome swech tyme as constantine was emperou? not he 
grete constantine baptized of siluester but his son whech was defiled with 
f e arrianes heresi and was rebaptized eke of a bischop hith eusebius f e 
grettest fauto? of fat scisme. This same emperou? constantine had so fret 
f e pope * at fat tyme whech hith liberius fat he was fauourable on to fat 
heresi. For fis rede we fat at fe comau?^dme7lt of fis emp^rou? fis pope * 
liberiits was sodeynly lift up in a chare and caried oute of f e cite in to an 
yle whe? he was exiled iii jere. He f us exiled f e cherch at rome be his 
consent chosen a new pope * clepid felix whech man was grete enmy to f e 
arrianes for a geyn hem he sette a gret couwcel at rome in whech councel 
he reiecte too men fautourts on to f e emperou?. On of hem hith ursaciits 
f e of ir hith ualent. And wha?e f ei were f us put oute of f e councel f ei 
laboured on to f e emperou? fat he schuld depose fis felix and clepe him 
liberius a geyn on fat condicion fat he schuld 5eue fauou? to her heresie. 
Whan he was come a geyn fis liberies he ded as f ei desired and ^aue grete 
fauou? on to hem. At fat tyme fis blessed preest eusebius of whom fis 
present capitule is mad stood up manly and defended f e trew feith euene 
in f e presens of fis constantine and seid fat he was ful sory fat liberius 
hed of f e cherch schuld f us falle in to heresie. Constawtine was wroth with 

^ ? Amiens. 

* jowl. Obs. form. 

^ The church of S. Eusebius is very ancient, having been constructed in the fourth 
century in the house of the saint ; it is mentioned in the fifth century. It was restored 
by S. Zacharias, Hadrian I, Leo III, and Gregory IV, entirely reconstructed in 1238 
under Gregory IX, and again in 1711 and 1750. Gregory XVI abolished the title and 
transferred it to S. Gregory, but Pius IX restored it (Armellini, p. 232 ; Marucchi, 
p. 842 ; Adinolfi, i, p. 290 ; Nibby, p. 214). 

* This was Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, who was nominated Cardinal of 
S. Eusebius, May 24, 1426 ; received the hat at Calais, March 25, 1427 ; died April 11, 
1447. This last date is important in the chronology of this book. 



134 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

pe wordis of J^is man and comaunded him to be sperd up in his owne hous 
in a smal corne? wbech had in brede no mo? f)an iiii fete. There continued 
J?is holy man in grete constauns and deuoute prayeres many monthis and 
in f>is tribulacion deyid and went on to oure lord J>e xix kalend of septembir. 
Too deuoute prestes gregor'ius and orosiws took up his body and bore it to 
J>at place eleped cimitmum kalixti and byried it J?ere. Thei sette eke f)is 
title on his graue. The sepulture of eusebi pe man of god/ Whan con- 
stantine herd f>at J>is gregory had byried eusebius body he comaunded J?at 
f. 401 V he sehuld be sperd in J>e same uout and dey pere for hungir / but orosius 
his felaw caried him oute be nyth and counforted him 5et deyed he with 
inne fewe dayes and was byried in J^e same uout next seynt eusebye. 



Off pe etacion at a cherch clepid nichoZaws in carcere. xxxix. 

Satirday in |?at same weke is J>e stacion at a cherch eleped ses nicholaus 
It soundith in ou? tunge seynt nicholas in J>e prison. For J>is 



prison was mad be juliane apostata for cristen men & now is it mad a cherch 
in worchip of seynt nicholas where as J>ei sey is seint nicholas arme and his 
pontifical. The? is eke fe arme of seynt alex and a grete part of seynt 
fraunceys habite. There lith eke at ]>e dore al Ipe body of a gandir whech 
was worchipid as for a god swech tyme as a gander had wakid pe keperes 
of pe capitol whan pe kyng of ynglond had conqwered al saue pe capitol.^ 
Be cause ]?is cherch is dedicate to seynt nycholas sumwhat of his lyf wil we 
expleite he?. In his childhod he had J^at p^rfeccioun fat he began to fast 
twyes in pe weke for on wednysday and friday he wold in pe cradili soke 
but onys pus be gan in him pe gret perfeccion of abstinens. Whan his 

1 There are no less than fifty-three saints named S. Eusebius, and the one mentioned 
by our chronicler appears to be a Roman priest, who was a zealous opponent of Arianism 
during the reign of the Emperor Constantius. He was imprisoned for seven months in 
a small cell in his house before he died. He was buried in the Catacombs of S. Callixtus 
(Stadler, Heiligenlexihon ; Acta Sanctorum, August, vol. iii, p. 166). 

' The church of S. Nicola in Carcere was constructed about the sixth century in the 
Forum Olitorium, over the ancient Temple of Piety, in the district known as ad elephan- 
tum. It takes its name from a prison, mentioned by Pliny (N. JBT., vii, c. 36) : * et locus 
ille eidem consecratus deae C. Quinctio M. Acilio Coss. Templo Pietatis exstructo in illius 
carceris sede, ubi nunc Marcelli theatrum est.' The remembrance of the theatre lasted, 
for it is mentioned again in the Life of Hadrian I {Lib. Pont, in Adr. v. i) : * deductisque 
elephant© incarcerem publicum illic coram universo populo examinati sunt.' The church 
was restored by Felix IV, Boniface IV, Nicholas III, and Alexander VI, and was altered 
to its present form in 1599 by Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (Armellini, p. 475 ; Maruc- 
chi, p. 517 ; Nibby, p. 557 ; De Rossi, Bull. d'Arch. Crist, 1873, p. 82. 

' MufiFel, without mentioning the name of the church, says : ' Item daselbst sind die 
zwen abtgotter die man den gensen gemacht hat die Rom behielten ' (erhalten = retten) 
* do man eingrub unter dem Capitolium ' (p. 54). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 135 

frendis we? ded he saued iii maydenes fro fe filth of leccherye jeuywg hem 
grete habundauws of his good whe? he fulfilled \>e cou»iceli of ou? lord fat 
seid to his disciples. But if 56 forsake al J?at 56 haue 56 may not be my. 
In f»is dede eke he fled f>e most perilous* of ueynglorie whan) he wold do it 
so pryuyly. He was chosen bischop with onten ony symonie. He ministred 
in his office with oute ony couetise. He halp marineres in p«rellis of pe 
see. He multiplied ])e whete Jjat was seld to his parischones. Many oJ?ir 
Ipingis ded he whech are customable in f)is lond to be rehersid both in latyn 
and in englisch.^ 



Off J?e siacion at s petir ca xl. 

On pe passion Sunday is pe stacion at pe cherch of seiwt petir of whech 
place mech ping was seid be fore but sum f>ing was left to sette in here. 
There is a ymage of ou? lady in a chapeli and it doth many miracles in 
special to hem J?at haue pe hrennjng feuy?. Mech offeryng is J»«/*too and 
grete pardon graunted to aH J?at uisite fat place. There is eke a noJ>ir 
ymage of ou? lady depeynted on a wal in pe cherch and be cause J?ei had 
hange iudas roop be fore he? sche stert a wey with indignaciouw and sodeynly 
appered in a bare wal be side and f>at wal whe? sche was depeynted is bare 
as neuyr pictu? had be pere.^ Eke pere is pe fird ymage of ou? lady in pe 
porch as we come in and a iew seyng cristen men do grete reuerens perto 
I not with what instrume^it he smet it but in uery sikirnesse pe blood ran 
owt fro pe ymage whech is poyntid on a wal jet is pe blod sene both of pe 

^ ' uys ' in margin of MS. 

'^ S. Nicholas was born at Patara in Lycia, the names of his parents being Epiphanius 
and Johanna. His uncle was Nicholas, Bishop of Myra ; the nephew, after travelling as 
a pilgrim to Jerusalem and Mount Sion, was also elected bishop of the same place in suc- 
cession to one Johannes, who held the see between the uncle and the nephew. He was 
a man of great piety and charity, and performed many miracles. He attended the Coun- 
cil of Nicaea ; after that event he travelled to Rome, passing through Bari on the way. 
He died at Myra on December 6, between 345 and 352. His body was translated to Bari 
in Apulia in the year 1087. He is generally shown in art with three golden apples in his 
hand. These refer either to three maidens whom he saved from a life of sin, or to the 
fact that at the Council of Nicaea he upheld the dogma of the equality of the Three 
Persons in the Trinity (Stadler, Seiligenlexihon ; Beatillo, Eistoria della vita, dei 
miracoli, &c. del S. Nicold di Mira. 

^ For a similar account of the fresco of our Lady miraculously moving its position 
when the rope with which Judas had hanged himself was shown to it, see MufFel, p. 20. 
That this rope was actually preserved at S. Peter's see the following : * Item in detta 
chiesa il capresto con che Giuda s'impichb avendo tradito Christo (xjio) ' (Rucellai, II 
Giuhileo, &c., Arch. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, p. 567); and 'Also, nigh unto the altar 
where the pope consecrateth the emperor, hangeth the cord of Judas Iscariot * (Nichob, 
Marvels of Rome, p. 129, Vatican Cod. 4265, xiv cent.). 



136 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

f. 402 r ymage where it was smet and^ eke on a mar/bil ston whidir J?at it sprang.* 
The? is a ston up on whech petir wept aftir tyme he had deneyed his maystir. 
We rede of him )?at at euery tyme whan he remembrid pis negacion euyr 
wold he wepe wherfo? was he fayn euyr to here a sudary in his bosum. 
There is a ston alsoo on whech ]?e emperou? of rome schal receyue his crowne. 
The? is f>e bason in whech pilat wasched his handis. On of yo firti plates 
for whech crist was seld is Ipere alsoo. At pe qwe? dore is f>at place whech 
\>ei clepe limina Sj^ostoloium where ar wretyn swech uers. Hie petre diuini 
tribuebas fercula urbi Sepius hoc loco sacrificans ihu xpo. Hec domus est 
aquile seu petri presulis almi.^ This is J>e sentens of ]?ese uers. Here petir 

^ This legend is not quite clear, as there is a slight confusion in the text. Here follows, 
however, another version : * Item, vor sauct peters muwster do is unser lieben frowen Marie 
der iungfrow ein pild gemalt nnd eyn verzweiffelter spiler flfichet do der iungfrow maria 
und warff sie mit einem stein do ist ein wfinderzeichen geschehen das do bl&t usz dem 
pild is geflossen und gespriitzet uff ein stein als man das zeichen noch sicht uff dem stein 
und ist ein eisen getter daruber gemacht und an der selben stat brach der teufFel dem 
spiler den hals ab und fiirt yn hin mit leib und sele yn die ewigen helle ' {Ein Buchliiif 
&c., Strassburg, 1500, p. cii v). Another version of this miraculous fresco in the porch 
of S. Peter's is from Muffel (p. 19) as follows. The person is said therein to have been 
a mercenary, who had lost three gulden at play ; in his anger he threw a stone at our 
Lady's breast. The picture shed sixteen drops of blood, still to be seen on the marble 
floor below, and the author adds : * ist geschehen do man zalt von Crist gepurt tausent 
vierhimdert & xl jar.' (A few years only before our author wrote his account, and only 
twelve years before Muffel's work.) 

2 Armellini (p. 562) gives a similar inscription as having been seen in the fourteenth 
century at S. Prisca, and says : ' Nel decimo quarto secolo tuttora si leggeva nell' archi- 
trave della porta di quella chiesa la seguente iscrizione, che Pietro Sabino, autore di quel 
medesimo secolo, vide incisa lUteris antiquis {Codex Marcian. lat. x. 195, p. 303) : 
Haec domus est aquilae seu Priscae virginis almae 

Quos lupe ? paule tuo ore vehis domino 
Hie petre divini tribuebas fercula verbi 
Saepius hocce loco sacrificans domino ' ; 
and adds : * L'epigramma come risulta dallo stile e del medio evo.' De Rossi in the 
Sylloge of Petrus Sabinus gives this inscription, saying : * N® 165. Supra lanuam tempi! 
S. prisce. In Aventino. Antiquis litteris marmori InCisis. Haec domus est Aqui- 
lae &c.'; adding the following note: * Periit. Unus Sabinus epigramma integrum de- 
scripsit. Marinius e schedis Terribilinii dedit mutilum et corruptum, adnotans ; " fortasse 
spectare ad aetatem Callisti III qui aedem S, Priscae instauravit (Mai, 1. c. p. 148, 3), 
cuius est epigramma sequens N® 166. Sed Sabinus testatur carmen incisum esse mar- 
mori litteris antiquis, saeculi, opinor, noni vel decimi"* (v. 2, cf. Aratorem, de Actihus 
Apost. II, V. 485 : 

* Paule rapax dedit hoc benedictio lacob 
Nomen habere tibi ; quid iam remanebit in orbe 
Quod non ore trahas, postquam solertia Graia 
Cessit et invictas in dogmatae vincis Athenas ? ' 
(De Rossi, Inscriptiones Christianae Urhis Romae, vol. ii, p. 443.) Whoever put up the 
inscription in S. Peter's — copying that of S. Prisca, where the Apostle is believed to have 
preached and baptized — would appear to have left out the second line altogether, not 
understanding the curious epithet lupus as applied to S. Paul. The expression seems also 
to have astonished Armellini. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 137 

of goddis word J>ou 5aue ful largely Ipe mete Oftyn in f)is same place fou 
mad saciifise to crist. This is Ipe hous of aquile or of Ipe hyest bischop petir. 



Off pe stacion of seint grisogonus. cap xli. 

The moneday in passion week is f»e stacion ouyr tibyr at a clierch dedicat 
to seyn grisogoni^s.^ There is Ipe arme of james Ipe apostel whech was 
jebedeus son. Of Ipis grisogoni^s we spoke sumwhat be fo? in Ipe title of 
seynt anastase. There teld we who he cou9^fortid hi? with his noble episteles 
he? wil we telle be what tribulacion he went to heuene. Diocleciane mad 
him to stand be for him for he had herd so mech of J>is man f>at he wold haue 
expmens of his wisdam. Aftir many wordis had be twix hem too of crist 
and of }>e feith diocleciane saide. Take up on Ipe dignite of a meyhir J?at is 
to sey f»at ali J^oo men J)at are arested in lpa,t ward where ]?ou dwellist schul 
be undir Ip'i iurisdicion. Take up on f)e eke at ou? 3ifte fat worchip J>at Ipou 
schal be prmcipal consul and gouernou? of al J)i kynrod. We desire of Ipe 
no mo? for al J>ese rewardes but J?at ]?ou wilt do worchip and offir to ou? 
goddis. Grisogonus answerd in J)is maner. O god in heuene with my mynde 
I worchip and with clene dedis I serue. These fals ymages of 50U? goddis 
whech ar not elles but cophres for deueles to dwell in, I despice and forsake 
for euyr. Diocleciane in grete angir comaunded f>at he schuld be led to 
a place cleped ad aquas gradaias f)at is to sey in englisch to ]>e grecyd wateris 
and 'pere his hed to be smet of. These greced waterys ar a pitte fast by 
seynt georgis whe? a fayre spryng comth sodeynly out of pe ground and 
sodeyiily entreth a geyn in to Ipe ground and pe pitte is so dep })at a mylle 
hous whech stant be neth is not as hy as pe erde. Othir sey f>at )?ese aque 
gradate we? ouyr tibyr but f ei telle not where. Aftir his hed was smet of 
J>ei f)rew his body in pe flood but aftirward it was founde be an holy prest 
/)?ei clepe him 5oilus. He lift up pe body and biried it pryuyly in his hous f. 402 v 
in a cubicle undir pe ground. His hed was founde aftir as fay? and fresch 
as it was pe hou? of his deth. pis hed he ioyned to J^e body and euene xxx 

^ The church of S. Crisogono is believed to date from the Constantinian period. It is 
mentioned in the fifth century ; Gregory III in 781 restored the roof, and adorned the 
walls and the apse with pictures. (For the recent excavations and discovery of frescoes 
in the subterranean church, cf. Prof. Marucchi's paper on this subject in the Journal of 
the B. and A. A. Society). Giovanni da Crema, Papal Legate to England under Hono- 
rius II, was titular cardinal in 1128 ; he restored the church, as also did Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese in 1623. Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, was titular of S. Criso- 
gono, as was Cardinal Gioacchino Pecci when he was elected Pope, taking the name of 
Leo XIII (Armellini, p. 202 ; Marucchi, p. 452 ; Nibby, p. 190). 

T 



138 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

days aftir grisogonws deth pia same prest 5oilus as for a spectal reward 
receyued deth of his bodi and eterne lif of his soule.^ ^ 



Off pe stacion at seint ciriac. cap xlii. 

Tewisday is J?e stacyon at a cherch of seynt cyriac fast by Ipe batthes of 
diocleciane a litil chapel it is and ful desolat neuyr open in j^e ^er but fat 
day as I suppose.^ 3^* is pis place a title of a cardinal vvhech is on of foo 
uii Ip&t longyn to seynt mari maior. This ciriacus was a dekne with seynt 
marcell J>e pope* whom dioclecian with many oJ)ir cristen men dampned 
on to Ipe deth and prolongid her lyf on fis condicion J>at pei schuld dig sond 
and here it on her bakkys on to fat same place where his bathis we? in 
makyng. A mongis fese laboureres was an eld cristen man cleped saturnyn 
whech myth not labou?. This same ciriac of grete charite halp pe eld man 
and bare pe birdenes of f>at man and his owne eke. And f is labou? performed 
he with gret ioye syngiwg deuoute ympnys and holy psalmes swech as pe 
cherch used at f>oo dayes. The meyhir of rome whech was at fat tyme sent 
a knyt cleped approuyan to arest f ese men and bryng hem to his consistory. 
"Whan he had a rested hem and schuld lede hem forth he herd a loude uoys 
in pe ejY crying swech wordis. Come je blessed men of my fade? and receyue 
fat kyngdam whech was be bote 50U fro f e hegjnnjng of f e world. For f is 
cry was f is same approuiane conuerted on to f e feith baptized & not long aftir 

^ The life of S . Chrysogonus, as generally accepted, differs entirely from that given by 
our chronicler. He is generally associated with S. Zoilus, and they were martyred in 
Aquileia in North Italy, during the persecution of Diocletian. The Mart. Rom. (in 
which only S. Chrysogonus is mentioned) says that after a long imprisonment in Rome he 
was taken to Aquileia, beheaded there, and his body cast into the sea. The fishes bare 
his body to land, so that it could receive Christian burial. His head is preserved in the 
church dedicated to him in E-ome; his body, however, is at Venice. There is no mention 
of S. Anastasia or of the aquae gradatae in Stadler. Another authority places them near 
Aquileia, probably on the road to Grado (JReiligenlexikon ; Sertoli, Antichitcl di Aquileia, 
pp. 9-11). 

^ S. Zoilus was a priest in Aquileia, who buried S. Chrysogonus in his own house, after 
the martyrdom of the saint. It is stated that when he laid the decapitated head with the 
trunk, they were miraculously joined together again. He suffered in Aquileia, and his 
relics are still venerated there (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon). 

^ The site of S. Ciriaco was discovered in 1874, in some excavations which were carried 
out between the Ministry of Finance and the Female Orphan Asylum of the Termini. 
It consisted formerly of a church and a monastery, dates from the time of S. Marcellus, 
was restored under Hadrian I, Leo II, and Gregory IV, but was for some unknown reason 
abandoned and fell to ruin in the sixteenth century. Lonigi says that the church had 
fallen in his time. 'Giace hora quasi distrutta dentro la vigna dei padri di S. Maria 
degli Angeli' (Adinolfi, ii, 264; Armellini, p. 189). ' % Zu unser liebew frowe/r invio- 
lata dye kirch heist ouch zum Sant Ciriaco' {Ein Bilchlin, &c., Strassburg, 1500, p. E vi, 
B.M.) ; and on p. F ii we find : * Zu sant ciriaco lygt by dem pallast den man nennet 
Thermes die kirch ist zergangen.' 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 139 

ded for Ipe confession of ou? lord crist. In J^oo same dayes J?e doutyr of 
dipcleciane archemia was vexid with a wikkid spirit whech spirit cried with 
inne hi? horribily. But if cyryac come hedyr ellis wil I not go oute. 
Ciriac was sent aftir and whan he was come he comaunded f>e deuele be J^e 
uertu of pe passiou?^ of ou? lord ihu f)at he schuld uoide J?at place and seke 
a new hostage. The deuele answerd him ageyn and saide. If fou put me 
oute of J>is body assygne a new place whe? I schal dwelle. Ciriac saide on to 
him. Lo he? is my body enter J^erin if f)ou may. The deuel said a gayn. 
Thi body is so crouch id ' and so blessid ))at pere may I not come. But of 
o ping I warne pe. If f^ou putte me oute fro ]pis mayde here, I schal cause 
pe to seke me at babilon. Tho he comaunded him to uoide and he a uoided 
so was pe mayde hool and aftir baptized in pe name of crist. But whan Jiis 
ciriac wened to a dwelled pesibily in his hous in contemplacion as he desired 
sodeynly came a message? fro/fe kyng of perse on to diocleciane praying f. 403 r 
him to send him cyriac whech cured his douter for as he wrote his welbeloued 
doutir cleped iobiane was obcessid with a deuele whech deuele cried with inne 
lii? {jat he wold neuyr uoid but if fis ciriac came. Than at pe prayer of 
diocleciane cyriac was sette in a schip and sailed in to perse and so forth 
caried to babylone. Whan pe mayde was brout on his presens pe deuele 
with inne hi? cried loude. I haue mad pe wery ciriac. And ]?is holy man 
answerd. I am not wery but eu^r redi to obeye pe gouernaurts of god. ^et 
quod J^e deuel haue I brout pe where I desired f>ou schuld be. Ciriac saide 
on to him. Mi lord ihu crist comaumleth pe fat )?ou leue f)is maide. The 
deuele cried. O dredful name J^at f)us constreyneth me to goo. And with 
]?at word he went out and left pe mayden hool. Tho ciriac baptized pe kyng 
and pe qwen and he? doutir with many mo. He refused pe 5iftis }3at pe kyng 
profered him and cam hom a geyn to rome. Sone aftir his comyng deyid 
f)is dioclecian, maximian his son was emperowr aftir him whech killid his 
sistir archemie be was ^ sche was cristen. Tho called he ciriac & mad for to 
be drawe naked bounde with chenes a grete weye rith be fo? his chare. Tho 
he hing him with his felawis largus and sraaragdus and pored hoot pik on he? 
hedis. Last of alle he comau?ided hem to be hedid.^ 

^ crutched, from crux. Hence the term Crutched Friars. ' ? cause. 

' S. Cyriacus is said to have suffered martyrdom in Rome about the year 303, in the 
persecution of Diocletian, together with SS. Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty other Christians. 
He worked many miracles ; as related by our chronicler, he is said to have delivered 
Arthemia (Artemia), the daughter of Diocletian, of an evil spirit. He was then sent to 
Sapor, King of Persia, whose daughter Jobia was siniilarly afflicted. The result of the 
miracle in delivering the latter is said to have been that the king was baptized with 
430 others, and that when S. Cyriacus returned to Rome he was barbarously tortured 
and martyred by order of Maximian. All this, however, is disputed, and the BoUandists 
point out that the name of the daughter of Diocletian was Valeria and not Arthemia. 

T 2 



140 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Of ]>e stacion at seynt marcelL cap xliii. 

Wednysday folowing is ]?e stacion at a chercli of seint marcell fast by Ipe 
columpne where fat same marceli lith and J^e hedes of cosmas and damianus.* 
There lith eke Ipe noble emperour' focas ]:»at gaf leue to bonefas J»e pope * {)at 
])e grete temple of fals goddis schuld be consecrat to all seyntis.^ This cherch 
stawt by a grete memorial of rome whech is cleped columpna. Columpna is 
as mech to sey as a pile? for in ))is pile? whech is a gret hy ]?ing and rou^id 
mad of dyuers stones was grauyn and jit it apperith mech peroi all ]>e stories 
of Ipe batail of troye. This pile? is of swech fame Ipere p&t on of J^e grete 
kynrodis of rome haue her name peroi and comow/ily on of Ipe cardinales is of 
J>is kynrod he ]?at is now den of Ipe cardinalis hith prosper de columpnis. 
And pope martyn eke was of f)is kynrod. Eke a noJ>ir worthi man of ordir 
of heimytes of seynt austin a notabil clerk as skole men know wel I now 
whech J>ei clepid egidius he was of )?is kynrod.^ But of Ipis marceli wil we 
telle sum what be cause ]?is cherch is dedicat to his name. This marcellus 
was pope of rome in time of maxenciws and for be cause he halowid a cherch 

Baronius also in his Annals says that there was no Sapor, King of Persia, during the 
reign of Diocletian. It is generally accepted that S. Cyriacus suffered martyrdom under 
Maximian (286-305 and 306-10), and that he was a deacon under S. Marcellus (308-9), 
so his and his companions' martyrdom probably occurred about 309, and not in 
303. They were buried on the Via Salaria near the gardens of Sallust, and afterwards 
were removed to a cemetery on the Via Ostiensia (Stadler, Heiliyenlexikon \ Acta 
Sanctorum, August, vol. ii, p. 327). 

^ The title of S. Marcello is very ancient, as it was founded in the fifth century. It 
was enriched by Leo III, Hadrian I, and Gregory IV ; and the body of S. Marcellus, 
which was translated there in the ninth century, was found there in the restoration of 
1869. Up to 1519 the orientation of the church was in the opposite direction to the 
present line; the alteration was made in that year by Sansovino (Adinolfi, ii, p. 277 ; 
Armellini, p. 324 ; Marucchi, p. 394 ; Nibby, p. 316). 

' * Ouch is hie dat heufft van sijnt Foco des keysers ' (Ritter A. von HarflF, Pilgerfahrt 
in den Jahren 1496-9, p. 27 (Coin, 1860). There are several saints named Phocas, 
who, of course, have no connexion with the emperor of that name. The relic here 
mentioned is either that of S. Phocas the gardener-saint of Sinope (not to be confused 
with S. Phocas, Bishop of Sinope), or of S. Phocas who was martyred at Antioch. There 
was formerly a church dedicated to the former not far from the Tre Fontane, but it has 
disappeared (Stadler, Seiligenlexikon). 

' As regards the members of the Colonna family mentioned in the chronicle, the 
following notes may be of interest. At the election of Nicholas V, Prospero Colonna 
was beaten by only one vote, according to a letter from Fra Cruelles, Prior of the Catalan 
Monastery of S. Lorens del Mont {Melanges arcMol. vol. xxiii, p. 419). Prospero Colonna 
was made Cardinal of S. George in 1426, and died in 1463. Oddo Colonna was elected 
Pope as Martin V in 1417, and died in 1431. Egidio Colonna was a well-known writer 
in his day. Cf. Intorno ad una enciclopedia sconosciuta di Egidio Colonna ed al 
plagio fattone dalV inglese Bartolomeo Glanville. Rendiconti della R. Ace. dei Lincei, 
Bene iv, Classe di sc. morali, 1. 2. 18 Genu. 1885. Cod. Q. 5, Bibl. Angelica ; Tille, A. 
Eine mittelniederdeutsche t/bersetzung des Tractatus de Regimine Principum von Egidius 
Romanus {Zeitschrift fiir die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, Ivii. 3, 1901). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 141 

in worchip of ou? lady whech was a dwelling place of a blessid woman clepid 
lucyna whech cherch is called sea maria in uia lata J)at is to sey semi mari 
in f)e brood stre/te and for pat cause fe forseid maxencit^s fat he had turned f. 403 v 
Jjis woma^enes hous to a cherch he ded make of f)at cherch a comouw stabil 
and coTidempned pe same pope for to serue bestes f>er« al his lyue. In Jjis 
same place he deyid and was biried in fe cimiterie clepid pnscille.^ This • 
pope marcelle ordeyned xu cardinales in rome only to baptize men and to 
birie hem. So semetli it J>at cardinales at j^at tyme were not of swech 
dignyte as Ipei be now for f)ei were ))ann ordeyned as for curates for pia same 
pope * was be fore siluest^r and on to f>at tyme })at siluester cam J^e officeres 
of J>e cherch were nat endewid in swech dignite as J>ei be now. And be 
cause J?at f)is man was pe first J)at ordeyned cardinales and before Ipis man 
we rede not of fis name pernor if pe rederes wil consent I wil declare here 
pe noumbir of pe cardinales pe dignite pe office and eke pe titles. Al J?is 
wil I drawe oute of martynes cronicle euene be ordre as he seith. Thus 
writith he fat euene as ou? lord in heuene hath iii ierarchies of auTigellis 
ordeyned to his seruyse so pe pope whech is cristis uike? in erde hath iii 
ierarchies of cardinalis ordeyned to his mimstracioTi. The first ierarchie is 
of cardinal bischopis. The secunde of cardinal prestis. The fird of cardinal 
deknes. Cardinal bischoppis are pere uii cardinal prestis xxuiii cardinal 
deknes xui. The uii cardinal bischoppis a? fese. The bischop of hostie 
whech is worthiest of all for be his handis pe pope neUly chosin receyuyth 
his consecraciow. The bischop portuense is pe secund. The bischop 
albanens^g pe f>ird. The bischop sabinenszs is pe fourt. The bischop prenes- 
tine pe u. The bischop see ruffine is pe ui. The bischop tusculane pe uii. | 
These uii be pe popes * uikeris for to serue him at pe auter in pe cherch 
cleped lateranensis on Sundays and on grete festis. U. Cardinal prestis be 
pere xxuiii distincte on to of>ir iiii cherches to euery cherch uii. | These be 
pe uii intitled to pe cherch of seynt petir. The cardinal of seynt mary 
transtiberim. The cardinal of seynt griso^onits in pe same place. The 
cardinal of seyn cecili in pe same transtiberim. Tlie cardinal of seynt 

* S. Marcellus was Pope from 808 to 309 (or 310), and succeeded S. Marcelliuus. 
Owing to the similarity of the names there is some confusion in regard to these two popes 
and the dates concerning them. According to the Liber Pontijicalis, the Holy See was 
about this time vacant for seven years ; according to other authorities, from three to three 
and a half years. S. Marcellus was a Roman by birth, the son of Benedictus, and lived in 
the Via Lata. He founded the Catacombs of Priscilla on the Via Salaria, and created twenty- 
five new tituli or Christian parish churches. He became a Christian about the time of the 
Emperors Galerius, Maximian, and Constantius Chlorus. He was savagely flogged and 
expelled from the city. This is proved by his epitaph. He appears to have returned 
shortly afterwards, and to have been condemned to labour in the public stables, where 
he died. He was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla (Stadler, Ueilujenlexikon ; Acta 
Sanctorum, January, vol. ii, p. 3 ; Duchesne, Liher Pontijicalis^ vol. i, p. 164). 



142 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

anastase. The cardinal of seyiit lauiens in damasco. The cardinal of seynt 
marc. The cardinal of seynt martyn in montibits. | These be pe uii f)at 
serue to seyn paules cherch. The cardinale of seint sabiiie. The cardinal 
of seynt prisce. The cardinal of seint balbine. The cardinal of f)oo seyntis 
nerei & achillei. The cardinal of semi sixte. The cardinal of semi marcelle. 
The cardinal of seint sasanne. | These be j^e uii cardinal prestes ]:»at serue 
at seiwt laure7^s. The cardinal of seint praxed. The cardinal of seint petir 
ad uincula. The cardinal of seint laurens in lucina. The cardinal of seynt 
cruces at ierlm. The cardinal of seint steuene in celio monte. The cardinal 
of jon and paule. The cardinal of quatuor coronator?/m. | These be Ipe 
f. 404 r uii cardinal )?at serue at seint / mari maior. The cardinal of f>e cherch 
dedicat to \>e xii apostles. The cardinal of seint ciriac in Ipe bathis. The 
cardinal of seint euseby. The cardinal of seynt potencian. The cardinal of 
seint uitale. The cardinal of marcellini and petri. The cardinal of seint 
clement. | These be J^e cardinal deknes ordeyned to fe mimsteri of oul? fader 
J?e pope * in nounibir ]>ere be xui. The cardinal of j^e cherch of ou? lady 
called in domnica or ellis in nauicellis he is Ipe first and archdekne of his 
felawis. The cardinale of seynt lucie whech stant in f»e gret paleis fast bi 
septisolium. The cardinal of seynt mari none. The cardinal of cosme and 
damiani. The cardinal of seynt adriane. The cardinal of seynt george. 
The cardinal of seint mary by f>e grek skole. The cardinal of seint mari in 
porticu. The cardinal of seynt nicholas in careers. The cardinal of seynt 
aungel. The cardinal of seyn eustas. The cardinal of seynt mari in aquario. 
The cardinal of seint mari in uialata. The cardinal of seint agas. The 
cardinal of seint lucie whech is cleped in caput suburre. The cardinal of 
seint qwirit. 

Off ye stacion at s appollina?. xliiii. 

Thursday in passion weke is f>e stacion at a cherch cleped seint appollina?.* 
This same was disciple on to seynt petir and whan his maystir had lerned 
him J>e lawe of god he sent him to rauenne to preche Ipere ])e cristen feith. 
AVhan he was come to rauenne he holid a grete lordis wif of greuous seknesse 
and aftir baptised both hir and hir husbond. The iuge of j^e cite hering J^is 
sent aftir him and compelled him to offir to J>e goddis but he wold not 
consent for he saide on to pe iuge J>at it had be mech bettir fat gold and )?at 
siluyr whech hing be fore Ipe goddis to spend it in clothis in mete and in 

* The church of S. Apollinare was constructed near the Stadium of Severus, and 
is known to have existed under Hadrian I. It was called de Archipresbyteratu. The 
present church is an entire reconstruction of Benedict XIV (Armelliui, p. 186 ; 
Marucchi, p. 501 ; Nibby, p. 106). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGPJMES 143 

drynk for sustenauns of pore men. The comauwded fe iuge to his mini'stris 
J^at for f>is blaspheme a geyn he? goddis ]?ei schuld bete him with battis as 
long as fei fouTide in him ony lif. So half ded half on lyue pei left him his 
disciples cam J?an and caried him to a womarines hous Ip^ was cristen ])ere 
with inne ui monthes he was mad hool. Than went he to a cite f>ei clepe 
classensis whe? he cured a noble man whech myth not speke and a jong 
mayden he delyu^red fro a wlkkid spirit whech was with inne hir. For ]?ese 
myracles Ipere we? turned on to f>e feith of ou? lord crist mo ]:an u hundred 
men wherfor )?e paynemes bete him with grete battis forbedyng him fat he 
schuld not reherse Ipe name of ihu. He for febilnesse lying on J>e erde 
rehersid euyr Ipe more pe blessed name ihu. Tho mad pei him to go with 
bare feet up on brennawd coles where he prechid with grete constauTis J^e 
name and Ipe uertu of ou? lord ihu. Than banched f>ei him J)at cite. In f)at 
tyme Ipe duke / of rauenne had a doutyr greuously seek he sent for apollinare f. 404 v 
Jjat he schuld cure his doutyr and at f»e first entre of pe seynt j^e doutir was 
ded. Than saide pe duk. I wold J3ou had neuyr entred mjn hous for at 
f i comywg j^e grete goddis ar wroth with me )?erfor is my doutyr ded. 
Appollina? answerd on to J^e duk. Drede pe not but o J?ing graunt me f»at 
if f>i doutyr lyue f)ou schalt not let hi? to serue him f>at mad hir. Aftir J^e 
faderis graunt pe mayde roos up heyl and sound with outew ony maledye. 
The emperou? of rome herd of ]?ese meruelous werkis whech were wrout be 
appollina? comauwded his officeres ]?at })ei schuld compelle him to do sacrifise 
on to here goddis or ellis fei schuld banych him pe cuntre. Aftir many 
passiones and tribulaciones )?is holi man was couwcelled of cristen men for 
reformaciouTi of his helth to dvvelle for a tyme a mongi*' myselles ^ whe? he 
was aspied and neuly so betyn f>at with inne uii dayes he sent his soule to 
his make?.^ 

^ The meaning of this word is obscure. One possible deiivation is from miselli, poor, 
miserable folk, from which our word measly comes ; the same word misellis occurs in Capgrave's 
Life of S. Gilbert of Sempringham, E. E. Text Society, No. 140 of 1910, ch. iv, p. 67, 
1. 31 ; the meaning given in the glossary of that work is 'lepers'. (In the Middle Ages 
this term ' measly' was synonymous with lepers.) The difficulty arises : would his friends 
have counselled him to dwell for a term with people of this description, * for reformation 
of his health ' ? There is a French word musel, which means one who muses, a contem- 
plative person, which term would readily apply to hermits. Again, S. Apollinaris is * 
believed to have visited Burgundy at some time or other, and therefore may have lived 
at Mussy-l'fiv^que in that province. After he left Classis, however, he went to Dalmatia, 
and thence returned to Classis only to be martyred there. The word Moslim or Mussulmen 
is out of the question, as it is not found so early ; in fact, our chronicler always uses the 
word ' Sarsines ', or Saracens. One possible explanation is suggested in the following note. 

2 S. Apollinaris was the first Bishop of Ravenna, where he was sent by S. Peter 
to preach the Gospel. As he came from Antioch to Rome with the Apostle in the reign 
of the Emperor Claudius he is believed by some to be by birth a citizen of Antioch, and 
to have been one of the disciples. The Bollandists fix the date of his mission to Ravenna 



144 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Off J?e stacion at semt steuene in celio monte. cap xlu. 

Friday in passitsn weke is j?e stacion at a cherch of seynt steuene wliecli 
stant in a hiil J>ei clepe there mons celius .^ This hiii was famous be fore 
crist for a grete conqwerowr cleped tullius hostilius dwelt J^e? and a famouse 
poete alsoo had his dwellyng ])ere. On fis hill sted a teraple consecrat to swech 
goddis as ]?e poetes clepe faunes. But seynt ierom and o])ir cristen clerkis 
writiw })at Ipere be certey^i spiritis whech apperen sumtyme in forme of men 
sumtyme in o)?ir forme and mad certeyn toknes be whech toknes men knew 
)?ingis J)at schuld falle aftirward. And pei pat appered f)us and spoke not 
were cleped faunes. Of)ir we? per-e and spoken half hors half men as a man 
may rede be pe auctorite of seynt ierom in pe lif of seynt antonie whe? he 
seith psii on of hem was taken in constantines tyme and brout qwik to grete 
alisaundr where al pe puple sey him. Tho deyed he and was salted and 
caried on to antioche J^at pe emperou? myth se him. But now to purpos. 
This temple sumtyme dedicat to J>ese faunes is now coTisecrat in worchip of 
seynt steuene and )3is was pe cause as I suppose for he had be fore no special 
place in rome dedicate to him ferj>er mo? I haue red in summe cronicles Jjat 
seynt Sebastian distroyed pe fals maumewtes f>at stood in f)at temple and 
aftir pe grete p^rsecucion of diocleciane & maxmiane whan J^ei we? ded 
cristen men halowid )?is temple to seynt steuene. This same seint is worf»i 

as occurring in the year a.d. 46. S. Peter Chrosologus (Chrysostom), Bishop of Ravenna, 
says {Serm. 128) that S. Apollinaris had on several occasions shed his blood for the faith, 
and had desired nothing so much as to die for it, but that our Lord had kept him long 
in the service of the Church, and had not permitted him to be condemned to death by his 
persecutors. From this many say that he never sutfered martyrdom, but the Mart. Bom, 
calls him martyr, and fixes the date of his death as July 23, a.d. 75, in the reign of 
the Emperor Vespasian. S. Apollinaris preached in many lands : in Lombardy, in Moesia, 
in Thrace, and on the Danube. His travels in Moesia may possibly have given rise to the 
word 'myselles' (see preceding note) (Stadler, Heiligenlexihon ; Acta Sanctorum, July, 
vol. V, p. 328). 

^ S. Stephen in Celio Monte is the church on the •Caelian now known as S. Stephen 
the Round. But the latter name (up to the twelfth century) was given to the small 
round church (Temple of Vesta) near the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin on the banks 
of the Tiber, which was first dedicated to S. Stephen, and afterwards to S. Maria del 
Sole. The codex of Turin, that of Camerarius, as well as that of Signorili, all agree on 
this point; when the church was visited by Alexander VII, we read: ' ecclesia 
S. Stephani rotundi supra flumen.' But after the name was changed, the term rotundas 
was applied to the church on the Caelian. The date of the construction of the latter is 
the subject of some controversy. It is said to have been built by Pope Simplicius in the 
fifth century. Armellini does not agree with those who believe the building to be 
originally pagan, but is of opinion that it is a Christian work, both in plan and con- 
struction. He quotes Huebsch, Die altchristlichen Kirchen, pp. 36-7, in favour of this 
view, to which De Rossi in La Basilica di 8. Stefano rotondo, Rome, 1886, also adheres. 
Marucchi, on the other hand, is inclined to think that it was part of the macellum 
magnum (Adinolfi, i, p. 336 ; Armellini, p. 631 ; Marucchi, p. 219 ; Nibby, p. 727). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 145 

ful mech worcliip for he was f>e first martir J?at deyed for crist he cam at it 
semeth of a ful good stok for he )?at fond ]?e crosse at coartacion of seynt 
helyn was broj^ir to seynt steuene . First hith he iudas and whan he was 
conuerted by po grete / miracles do be f»e crosse seynt helyn mad him to be f. 405 r 
cristen, and cleped his name qwiriak.* "We fynde eke in elde annuales yat 
he was aftir f)at chosen bischop of ierlin. We rede eke of se'ini steuene })at 
his hed is at cane. For at Ipe last sege of ierlm a monk cleped odo a nor- 
mau7^t of birth cam fro ierlm to rome & what for lettms of lordis J?at he 
brout what for grete Jpingis fat he ded he gat seynt steuenes hed and brout 
it on to cane. This was do Ipe ^ere of ou? lord as ou? cronicles sey a 
mi Ixxxxui. 



Off Ipe stacion at s ion portlatiw. cap. xlui. 
Satirday of palme Sunday J^e uigil is Ipe stacion at a cherch dedicate to 
seint ion euangelist we clepe Ipe fest jon portlatin, for pere is a gate in rome 
cleped porta latina and fast by J>is gate on Ipe rith hand is a litil chapel 
where ]:at pis ion euangelist was put in a tonne of brennyng oyle.^ "Whi 
J)is gate is cleped porta latina for pat strete goth to a lond whech is cleped 
Ipe latyn lond for Ipere be gan Ipe latyn tonge. On Ipe ofir side of ]?e strete is 
sette a fai? cherch in worchip of Ipia same seynt but it is but seldom open for 
J>ere be no dwelleres Iperon. In Ipis chapel is an auter and undir Ipe autere 
a hole whe? men crepe Iporw for grete cause as summe sey J^ere for as oftyn 
as a maw goth forw so often he delyueryth sum soule fro purgatory. In J?* 
same place suffered jon pe euangelist his martirdam. He prechid first in 
asie and f>ere be cause he wold not cese of preching pe gouernou? undir pe 
empgrou? domiciane put him in prison and sent a lettyr on to pe emperou? 
whech dwelt f»an at rome in whech lettir he informed him J?at he had on of 

^ There is some confusion about S. Judas Quiriacus (Cyriacus), Bishop of Jerusalem. 
He was probably not the S. Cyriacus converted by S. Helena, and said to have been 
martyred by Julian the Apostate ; it is knawn that there was no bishop of that name in 
Jerusalem in Julian's time. Some authors therefore make him Bishop of Ancona, where 
he is now the patron saint of the city. But there was a Bishop Judas — who was killed 
in a rising of the Jews about the year 133— under the Emperor Hadrian. He possibly 
assumed the name Quiriacus, on account of the detestation in which his own name was 
held by Christians. He is mentioned by Theodoricus Pauli as having suffered martyrdom 
in Hadrian's reign (Stadler, Seiligenlexihon ; Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. i, p. 439). 

2 S. Giovanni a Porta Latina is a very ancient church, founded by Pope Gelasius I in 
the fifth century, rebuilt by Hadrian I in 772, and again restored in the twelfth and 
sixteenth centuries. According to Crescimbeni {Storia di S. Giovanni a porta Latina, 
p. 203 sq.), Leo II attached it to S. John Lateran. From Lucius II to Boniface VIII 
it belonged to the Benedictines ; it was then transferred to the Trinitarians, and now 
belongs to French Franciscans ( Armellini, p. 272 ; Marucchi, p. 170 ; Duchesne, Liber 
Pontificalis, p. 608 ; Nibby, p. 269). 

U 



146 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

fe disciples of crist in pWson whech disciple hith jon a man he seid of 
meruelous cowu^rsacion for a wicch he was as he seid ful of sorsry a defiler of 
holy places a despiser of )?e grete goddis. Domician wrot on to J>is president 
a geyn ]:>at he schuld send him to rome. Thus cam he to rome & prechid in 
]>e grete halle at lateranensts and for his preching was despised of fe romanes. 
For first J>ei mad al f>e he? of his hed to be schaue lich a fool fan put J»ei 
him in a tu^ine of brasse ful of boiling oyle wlie? he skaped be grete miracle 
for he went fro Ipai tormentrie as his lif saith a noynted and not hurt. This 
miracle meued so J^e emperou? }>at he wold not sle him but exiled him in to 
pathmos. The romanes as we fynde write were not wroth for f)at \)e apostoles 
prechid of crist and of his grete werkis for Ipei refused no god but receyued 
all goddis of all naciones of alle sectis on to worchip. But f)is was cause of 
he? rebellion a geyn crist for pei had mad a la we f>at no man schuld be 
receyued as for a god but if it were first approbat a mongis Ipe senatourts. 
f. 405 V And be cause f)e apostoles prechid of cristis deite er tyme pat he / was appro- 
bat for a god a mongis hem })is was cause of her indignacion. A noJ?ir 
cause was fere for pei saide ^ was a proud god for he wold be god a lone and 
receyue non ofir on to felauchip of his deite. But now to ou? first purpos. 
The modir of jon pe euangeliste salome whech was on of foo women fat 
folowid crist in his preching herd sey fat hir son ion was in prison at rome 
cam to rome for to se him and counforte him. But er sche cam ion was 
exiled and sent forth to pathmos. Tho went sche in to campanie a cuntre 
of itayle f e? deyed sche and was biried fast by a cite f ei clepe uerulane.'^ 
Aftir for grete miracles fat sche ded and eke for appermg of james hir son 
whech saide to a holy man in reuelacion fat it was goddis wil his modir 
schuld ly in mo? solempne place sche was lift up and translate to f e cite.^ 



Off f e stacion at lateranens/s. cap xluii. 

On palme Sunday is f e stacion at seynt ion lateranensts of whech cherch is 
seid mech f ing be fore and fewe memoriales left to rehers he?. This mech 
we sey fat it is f e use of cristen men to be gadered at her modir cherch fat 
day and be fe? in fat solempne procession whech crist exaumpled him selue 
and be cause fat f is cherch is f e eldest cherch of f e world f erfor is it con- 
uewient fat f is solempne pr<7cession schuld be at f e eldest cherch. This pro- 
cession was first begunne be oure lord and cow-tinued be f e apostoles on to f e 

^ * he ' or * Christ ' omitted here in MS. ^ Veroli. 

' Nothing is known of S. Salome, mother of S. John Evangelist and S. James, except 
that she was one of the pious Galilean women who purchased spices for our Lord's body, 
and was an eyewitness of His crucifixion and resurrection. It is believed that she died 
at Jerusalem (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon \ Acta Sanctorum, October, vol. ix, p. 485). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 147 

tyme ]?at pei deyed and so forth be succession of oj^ir faderes fis good usage 
is come to us. For seiwt austiw jeuith us swech a reule in his book de mori- 
hus ecdesie ]?at alle ]?oo good usages whech ar worchip to god and encrees ^ 
whan we can not se hem growndid in scripture we schul suppose fat crist 
taut hem his apostoles and pel taute hem ofir faderes and so is ]>e good 
custome come down to us. I sey not pis for cause f>at J?is procession is not 
in scriptu? for I wote weel fe gospell telleth fall pleyn who crtst cam to 
ierusalem and who pe puple with grete worchip receyued him. But I sey 
J^is J?at we fynde not in scriptu? ]?at f>e apostoles kept J)is procession aftir J^e 
deth of crist in places where J^ei abod J>at tyme of pe 5ere and jet is it ful 
likly J>at pei ded so. I may be leue eke J>at be cause seynt gregory sette 
pe s^ruyse of pe cherch in order }?at fis same day at fis same cherch he 
sang J^ese newe songis and said pese noble orisones now used in pe cherch 
and so ordeyned }?at J^e stacion schuld jerly be kept. We rede of o certeyn 
addicion to f)is seruyse mad be a noble man called theodulphus bischop of 
orgliauns ]5at he mad J'ese uers Gloria laus & honor &cr.^ The cronicle 
tellith of him J^at he was accused falsly on to pe eniperou? lodewyk of certeyn 
defautes and pe emperou? in grete ire comau9^ded him to prison at angoye. 
Happed of palme Sunday pe emperou? to be pre/sent in J^at ' and in pro- f. 406 r 
cession to go forby J^at same hous in whech J>is bischop was in prison. Tho 
]?is bischop loked out at a wyndown and asked silens and pese uers whech 
he had mad be fore he sang with so grete melodye fat pe emperou? meuyd 
of pite comauwded him to be delyuered fio prison and restored to his dignite. 



Off pe stacion at sei^it praxede. cap xluiii. 

The moneday aftir palme Sunday is pe stacion at seynt praxedis a fat? 
cherch it is and a place of murz-kis annexid fertoo.* This seynt praxede 

^ * of good ' in margin of MS. 

^ Theodulphus, Bishop of Orleans, lived at the end of Charlemagne's reign and the 
beginning of that of Louis le D^bonnaire. He was bishop at the time of the Council of 
Frankfurt in 794. He was chosen by Charlemagne to sign his will in 811, and by Louis 
in 816 to receive the Pope, who was coming to crown the emperor at Rheims. The 
incident mentioned by our author is fully described by Moreri. Theodulphus died about 
821 or 822 ; for Jonas, his successor in the bishopric of Orleans, was sent on a mission to 
Pope Eugenius II by Louis in 824 (Moreri, Dictionnaire hutorique). 

8 ?city. 

* The church of S. Prassede is said to have been built on a property belonging to the 
family of Pudens. The title is first mentioned about the end of the fifth century. It was 
largely restored in the ninth century by Pascal I, to whom we owe the mosaics. It 
was also repaired by S. Carlo Borromeo, who was titular of the church, and finally 
restored in the eighteenth century (Adinolfi, ii, p. 129 ; Armellini, p. 555 ; Marucchi, 
p. 828 ; Nibby, p. 670). 

u2 



148 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

was sistir to seynt potenciane a rich womsLn a louer of god a grete refrescher 
of pore men. This cherch was hir halle and in )?e myddis was a welle 
whech welle sche and hir seruauwtes filt o day with blood of martires J)^ 
were ded for crist.^ The wett is now closed with a rownd ston and grated 
a boute with irun. We rede in ]?e cronicles f)at in ]?is praxedis cherch ly 
byried ii mi martires and iiii hundred. This is writyn in f>e marbil as we 
come in at pe dore. There is eke a chapeil on J^e rith hand with an ante? 
in whech ante? lyth seint ualeyntyn- and undir J>e ante? is a pes of })at 
pile? to whech crist was scorgid. It is a met^erd of length Ipe fairest blew 
marbili J)at ony man may se. The? sei we in ]?e sacristie a fay? uernycle 
whech seynt petir ded make as "pe abbot seid to us and kept it al his lyf but 
whan he deyed he 5aue it to ]?is mayde and many olpir j^ingis. For pere is 
a grete pees of f>e holy crosse mo? )?an a fote long and ii unch brood and 
a unch )?ik in schap of a crosse with his transuersal and his standard. 
There be eke iii of J>oo J>ornes pt were in cristis bed pei be white of colou? 
and too unch of length. This same day eke is pe stacion at a no]?ir cherch 
dedicat to f)ese seyntes nereus and achilleus .^ These to men conuerted an 
holy mayden on to crist whech hith domycelle. This mayde was nes to 
domician pe emperou? and for hir hie kynrod hir beute & hir good aray 
sche was desired of a 5ong lord cleped aurelian for to be his wif but pese too 
men J>at were hir cubiculeris and baptized of seynt petir stered here lady 
fat sche schuld no husbond receyue. The preisid on to hir pe grete uertu 
of uirginite pe grete mede J>at longith perto in heuene. Eke fei told hir 
of pe grete dauwgeris in mariage of pe onstedfast loue be twix sum men and 

^ S. Praxedis was daughter of Pudens and sister of S. Pudentiana. She lived a life of 
piety and charity ; caring for the imprisoned and persecuted Christians while they lived, 
and collecting their remains and burying them when they were dead. She sold all she 
possessed to give to the poor, and died in peace (Stadler, Heiligenlexihon ; Acta 
Sanctorum, May, vol. iv, p, 296). 

^ The S. Valentine here referred to was a priest, who sufiFered martyrdom in the reign 
of Claudius (Gothicus). The martyrdom took place in Eorae before the Porta Flaminia. 
For centuries there was a church near the spot dedicated to him, in which his relics 
were preserved. This church was founded by S. Julius, Pope, and restored by Theodore ; 
in the seventeenth century only a few ruins showed where it had once existed (Stadler, 
Heiligenlexihon; Acta Sanctorum, February, vol. ii, p. 751). 

^ The church of SS. Nereus and Achilleus was originally known under the name of the 
Titulus Fasciolae, from a fasciola, or bandage, which fell from a wound on the foot of 
S. Peter during his flight from Rome, after his escape from the Mamertine prison. It is 
first mentioned in an inscription of a.d, 471, which relates to a priest who was the father 
of Felix III. The church was restored by Leo III about 800 ; the mosaics are of his 
period. At the end of the thirteenth century the church was almost abandoned, and the 
principal relics were removed by Gregory IX to S. Adriano. About the end of the 
fifteenth century Sixtus IV repaired it, but it again fell into decay. Finally it was 
restored by Cardinal Baronio in 1597, and the relics were brought back with great 
solemnity (Armellini, p. 467 ; Marucchi, p. 163). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGBIMES 149 

here wiues who "put men in he? wowyng J^at trete jong women in pe best 
mane? aftirward rebuke hem and bete hem in pe werst \ Sche answered on 
to pe suasiones of ]?ese men & seid sche had good mynde f>at hir owne fader 
was ful gelous & f)at sche wist hir modir haue ful many an heuy day. In 
J»is pletyng be twix mariage and uirginite sche eonsentid to J^ese men both 
to receyue cristendam and eke to kepe hir bodi clene. / He f>at wold a f. 406 v 
weddid hir aspied J^is and compleyned to pe emp^rou? so be his comauwd- 
me?*t pe maide with hir couwcellourts were exiled on to an yle fei clepe 
ponciane. Aftir were f>ei all iii slayn for our lordis cause pQ too men lost 
her hedes pe uirgine was sperd in a hous wi-th ofir maidenes and brent with 
impetuous fy?.^ 

Of pe stacion at seiwt prisce. ca xlix. 

Tewisday in palme weke is pe stacion at a cherch dedicate to seint prisca 
uirgin and martyr. Ther is a place undir pe ground whe? seiwt ' ofte tyme 
saide masse & pere is schewid his stole & his girdil and many oJ)ir relikkis.* 
This mayde was bore in rome doutir to a consul fay? of body fayre? in soule. 
In claudii^s tyme pe emperou? died sche for confession of pe feith. Whan 
sche was brout first be fo? pe emperou? he had merueyle of hir beute and 
svvech wordis he seid on to hir. O god appollo grete is J^i myth f>at can make 
so fayre a cieatu? to pe plesauns of man. Thoo he enqwirid of hir religion. 
Sche saide on to him f>at euery day sche mad offering on to hir god with 
outen spillyng of blood. He undirstood not hir wordis but mad hir to be 
led in to pe temple of appollo pere to make hir offering. Sche cam to ]?at 

^ ' gise ' in margin of MS. 

^ S. Nereus and Achilleus were servants of Flavia Domitilla, and were baptized by 
S. Peter together with her, her mother Plautilla, and two maids. The cause of their martyr- 
dom appears to have been their conversion of their mistress, who was betrothed to one 
Aurelian. She was in the habit of spending much time on her toilet and the care of her 
person; one day Nereus said to her: 'O Domitilla, how happy wouldst thou be, wert 
thou to spend as much time in beautifying thyself for thy heavenly bridegroom.' This 
speech impressed the maid, and eventually she joined the Christian faith, taking vows of 
lifelong chastity. All three were exiled to Ponza near Terracina, and were martyred 
there by the Consul Memmius Rufus. Their bodies were brought to Rome by S. Auspicius, 
and buried on the property of S. Domitilla in the Via Ardentina (Stadler, Heilnjenlexikon ; 
Acta Sanctorum, May, vol. iii, p. 4 ; vol. vii, p. 707). 

^ ? peter. 

* The church of S. Prisca is beheved to be on the site of the house of Aquila and 
Prisca, where S. Peter is said to have preached and baptized. The Tilulus Aquilae 
et Priscae is found in the fifth century, and|an abbey of Greek monks was attached to it 
later. The church was consecrated by Pope S. Eutichianus in 280, restored by Hadrian I 
in 772, and by Callixtus III about 1455. Cardinal Giustiniani repaired it from the 
designs of Carlo Lombardo of Arezzo; finally, Clement XII altered it to its present form 
in 1784 (Armellini, p. 560; Nibby, p. 675; Marucchi, p. 180). 



150 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

place where appoUo was honowred swecli a orison sclie mad ])cre as it is 
reported. loye be to pe fader of heuene on fe I calle and f)e I pray J^is 
place J?at is used with mech onclennesse ageyn J^i worchip and ]>[ comau^id- 
meni )?ou with ]?i myty hand distroye })at )?e emperou? may know and all f>e 
puple }?at we schuld not worchep but only Ipe. Sone aftir J>ese wordis we? 
saide a non J?e erde schoke many houses of Ipe cite broke but speaaly J^is 
appollo fell down sraal as sond ]>e )?ird part eke of his temple fel down with 
him. Tho comauTided claudiws j^at j^ei schuld bete hir. In he? betyng sche 
]?ankid god. Blessed be ))0u lord sche saide fat hast ordeyned euyrlastyng 
mede to hem J>at trost in Ipe. A uois was herd fro heuene in f)at same tyme 
whech saide. Counfort pe doutir in god for aftir schort peyne folowith long 
reward. Many tormentryes suffered f)is mayden betyn nakid with scorgis 
rased hir body with hokys and euyr Ipe next day was sche found hool put 
a mongis wilde bestis and not hurt in fe myddis of a grete fi? and not brent. 
AUe J?ese tormen tries suffered sclie with gret paciens. Last of alle sche lost 
hir heed for cristis loue and wan heuene ioying j^ere with crist hir loue.* 



Off ])e stacion at seini maria maior. ca 1. 

Wednysday in })at weke is Ipe stacion at seynt mari maior of whech place 
we haue spoke mech for we had a special chapet? J^^rof whan we spoke of 
J»e uii pWncipal cherchis also on Ipe wednysday in Ipe first weke of lenton 
whan J>e stacion was J>ere. Now for to reherse ony Iping Ipat is seide be 
f. 407 r fore but if^ haue sum newe circumstauTice or sum newe / addicion is but 
ueyn. For J^is cause I wil reherse here a short chronicle whech gregoriws 
turonenszs' tellith in worchip of oure lady to J>is ende J>at euery w man 
or woma^i whech is by si to edifye ony hous or oratorio to hir worchip doth 
to hir and to hir eon ful grete plesauns. The story is J?is. He seyth ]?at 

' S. Prisca (Priscilla) was the daughter of a Roman of consular rank, and is the proto- 
martyr of the West. She is believed to have suifered at the early age of 13, during 
the persecution of Claudius. On her refusing, even after torture, to worship heathen gods, 
she was taken out to the third milestone of the Via Ostiensis and there beheaded about 
the year 50. Here she was buried, and hei- remains were translated to the church 
named after her by Pope S. Eutichianus (Stadler, Heiliyenlexilon ; Acta Sanctorum, 
January, vol. ii, p. 183). 

' Gregory of Tours was one of the most famous bishops and writers of his day, and 
flourished in the sixth centuiy. He succeeded Euphronius as bishop in 572 or 574, and 
was present at the Synod of Paris in 577. He made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he 
formed a friendship with S. Gregory ; he died on Nov, 17, 595. He wrote a history of 
France in ten books, many other works on the lives of the saints, and some theological 
commentaries. According to Moreri the best edition of his works was that by Dom 
Thierri Ruinart, Benedictine, in the year 1699 (Dictionnaire historique). 



YE SOLACE OF HLGRIMES 151 

gret constantyn biggid a ful solempne cherch in constantiuople in worchep 
of ou? lady. The disposicion of Ipe place asked grete pileres and hye to be? 
up Ipe werk. Now was it f»e usage J?an and so is 5et at rome f>at \>ei mad 
no piler in no swech solempne werk but al of o ston. For a man may se 
f>ese pileres at J?is day too fadum a bout and more and of fifti fete hy or mo? 
and al of o ston. Swech stones had constantyn ordeyned for his costful 
hous and whan Ipei were redi to be rered f)ei mad redy her trises and he? 
pullynes lynes and robynettis but pe pileres myth not be reisid. There was 
grete care be twix J?e werkme so Ipe maistir of hem a deuoute man of lyf as 
it is writiw prayed on to ou? lady specialy Ipai sche schuld send good speed 
on to ]?is werk for it was mad in honou? of hir. The nyth folowyng sche 
appered on to him and bad him go on to J^e petite skole Ipere beside oute of 
J>at skole sche bad him chese ©ate * iii fauTites ^ for Ipei thre and he schuld 
reise up j^ese pileres with oute ony more help f)us sche behite him. The 
mason ded hir comauwdment and aH: ping came to haude as he wolde. 
Here may men se fat edificacion of swech houses in erde plesith pe seyntis 
in heuene and J?at may we know be Ipis tokne whan ]?ei hem selue wil send 
help Ipertoo. 

Of fe stacion at seiwt jon lat^ranewsw. li. 

On mauwde J>ursday is pe stacion at seiwt jon lateranensw and a grete 
cause whi for pere is pe bord on whech crist mad his mauwde of fis mate? 
J>an wil we speke in J)is capitle for we haue said be fo? of })is cherch al )?at 
euyr we can. Crist be fore his passion comaunded too of his disciples 
petir and jon to go in to ierlm be fore him and ordeyne pere for his soper 
fat he with his disciples schuld ete pe paschal lomb er he departed fro hem. 
He sent hem to a man in pe cite whos name pe euangelistis expresse not 
but oure elde clerkis sei fat he was on of cristis disciples and f is euydens 
fei make perfor fat cnst bad hem sey f e maistir sent hem f idir. Be f is 
general message f ei sei is undyrstand fat f is man fat held f is hous was on 
of hem fat beleued in crist. For it was a comon use a mongis his loueres 
for to sey ou? maistir was pere or ou? maystir said soo. This name was 
singlerly appropriat on to him for he forbade fat non of his discipiles schuld 
clepe ofir maistir on was he? maistir he saide whech is in heuene. The 
tokne whereby f ei schuld know f is man whe? crist wold suppe he told hem 
on f is mane?. Whan ^e come in to / f e cite he seid ^e schal se a man be f . 407 y 
fore 50U with a uessel of watir in his nek. Folow him and in what hous 
fat he entreth sey to f e maw fat oweth f e hous fat f e maistir wil fat he 

^ * oute ' struck through and interlineated in MS. ' * fauntes ' = children. 



152 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

shew 50U J>e place whe? he schal hold his soper. Thus as J^ei saide J^ei fond 
and ail J>ing was arayed as he? maystir prophecied. It was a ful godly 
sith to se ou? lord ihu with his xii come down in to Ipe cyte. It is to suppose 
f)at summe of Ipe Ixxii disciples were f»e? to do seruise on to ou? lord and 
to J)o xii. For we rede in seynt marciales lif ^ ]?t pis same marcial was on 
of Ipoo disciples whech was ])&t nyth with ou? lord in Ipat same hous and 
ordeyned for ])e soper whech was made pere. We rede Ipat he brout all pe 
watir with whech crist wasched Ipe aposteles feet whan pe mete was redy. 
Jon J?e euangelist as sum men write cam to ou? lord for he was most 
familiar with him and saide on to him. Se? je may sappe whan 50 will. 
The bord f»at Ipei ete on was not fer fro Ipe ground as su>yane men writyn 
for Ipei hem self sotyn on Ipe ground at he? sope? for J?is was f>e usage in 
elde tyme and jet it is in pe lond of palestin whe? ierusalem standith as 
many laboured men sey. But who so euyr it be at j^is day it was so Jeanne 
as we fynde writy«*. The bord J?at J^ei ete on was sware mad of dyuers 
peses & fe mesure of eu^y sware as bonauentu? de liita xpi seith was too 
braches and iii fyngeris. A brache in ytaile is called a mesure with whech 
J>ei mete cloth and of ou? mesure I hald it iii quai-teres of a jerd so f>e 
swares of J>is bord on euery side we? in mesu? a jerd and half and a handful 
saue a unch J>at is to sey iii unch. Thus sete pei iii on ech side and ion in 
cristis lappe and all ete f)ei of disch and as we seide be fo? f>is same bord 
is at Jjis same cherch of whech we speke now. 



Oif ye staeion at seynt cruce. caplm Iii. 

On good friday is pe staeion at seynt crucis where J>at a grete partye of 
pe crosse is schewid and be cause Jjat in many cuntres of pe world ar schewid 
peses of pe holy crosse and men haue m«rueyle who swech a tre schuld 
extend him selue in to so many partes, eke as grete merueyle haue J>ei ]?at 
fo peses be not lich for summe haue o colou? and suwme haue a noJ?ir, j^ese 
doutis of }?ese men causen me to declare here J?is matere. As for pe first 
I rede in pe lif of seint heleyne f>at whan sche had founde pe crosse sche 
mad certeyn peses to be cut of and foo brout sche to rome to hir son with 
many opir relikes so J?at it semeth J^e tre was grete and myth be dyuyded 

1 S. Martial was the first Bishop of Limoges. One version says that he died in the 
latter half of the third century, and that he was contemporary with the Emperor Decius ; 
this statement is to be found in the history of Gregory of Tours (Hist, i. 28). The 
account here given of him by our chronicler is open to doubt ; the question has given rise 
to much discussion. The Bollandists leave it open, and say that S. Martial lived either 
in the first or in the third century (Stadler, Heiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum, June, 
vol. V, p. 535). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 153 

in to many partes. I rede alsoo in elde bokes ])&t whan a pese was cut fro 
fis tree J»e tre grewe a gayn on to fe same quawtite it was be fore. God 
ou? lord hath multiplied so many / dyuers fingis in J>is world and it is f. 408 r 
lesse merueile fonj he werk pe game maner in fat tre whech was instrument 
of ou? sauaciouw. As touching }>e o)?ir mater of dyuers colouris of Jjis tre 
je schal undirstand )>at ]>e crosse was mad of iiii sundry trees J>at is to sey 
palme cadre cipresse and olyue. A uers of elde fad^ris tyme berith witnesse 
of "piB ligna crucis palma cedrus cipressus oliua. He seith ]?us J>e trees of 
J>e crosse we? palme cedre cipresse and oliue. Whech was )?e standard 
whech pe transuersale or whech Ipe title is ful hard to know but I wil 
reherse 50U myn opinion. The oliue was fe hi tre )?at stood up rith and 
bare al his body. This is f>e cause whi J>at I suppose so for I rede f>at seth 
schuld a brout Ipe sed peroi fio paradise and at fe comauTidment of f>e 
aungel whech tok it him he sette it on his fader graue whech was adam. 
I rede eke ]3at J>is tre was hew be salamon to be a bem in pe temple but it 
wold not acorde. I rede eke fat pe queen of saba whan sche say fis tre 
sche proficied peroi and seid fat a kyng of fat lond schuld be hanged on f e 
same tre. Than for fe gretnesse of fe tre be cause he was ^ he was 
ordeyned for a bem I be leue uerily fat f is was f e tre of f e crosse fat stood 
rith up. Ther was a stok also sette in f e erde as we rede and in f is stok 
was a gret morteis in whech f is long tre stood fe more sikir. This stok 
was of fe cedre as we suppose for fis cause for fe cedre wil neuyr rote 
pertor f ei sette fat tree in f e ground wenywg fat f e crosse schuld a stande 
be many agis to here witnesse fat swech a man for treson was ded at 
ierusalem. This seid f ei and purposed fat hated crist but ou? lord turned 
f e mate? an of ir wey. For whan f ei sei in who grete deynte cristen men 
had all f 00 f ingis fat touchid his body a non of pure enuye f ei hid hem 
all. The cipresse for it is swete of sauou? was fat tree to whech f 00 blessed 
handis we? nayled. The title a boue in whech was writyn in iii man«r 
langages ihc nazarenws rex iudeorwm was mad of f e palme fat haue we red 
in elde bokes for ail uictores we? wone to be? fe palme aftir her uictori 
and be cause crist had conqwered fan all f e powe? of helle pernor f ei sette 
fis tre al a boue in tokne of uictorie. His enmyes sette it not to fat entent 
but god stered hem to sette it soo f 0U3 it we? a geyn he? entent. He? 
haue we expressid f e parties of f e crosse as we myth if ony man haue sey 
ferfer in fis mate? we grucch not fow ou? sentens be leid be side and 
bettir be receiued. Of f ese fou? parties of f e crosse spekith f e holi apostil 
paule ad epli-5, loke je be roted and grounded in charite he seith fat je may 
comprahende whech is f e length and f e brede f e heith and f e depnesse. 
struck through and interlineated in MS. 
X 



154 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Up on j^is seith semi austyii pat cristis hed was sette hie on f)e crosse }>at 
f. 408 V a cristen man schuld euer a mongis aH / oj^ir )?ingis haue his hert most 
specialy lift up to heuene. In pe brede of pe crosse whe? cristis handis 
were nayled is undirstand as he seith J?at oure werkis schuld be in pe 
honou? of crist. The length of pe crosse causeth in us ]?at euene as pe body 
of crist had pere his tormentrie so a cristen man schuld suffir sumwhat for 
pe loue of god and remission of his synnes. The stok be nej>in whech is hid 
in pe erde maketh us to be leue J^at ou? lord hath do mo? for us f)aw we 
can cowceyue. 

Of pe stacion at seiwt ion lat^rane. cap liii. 

Satirday on pas euene is pe stacion at seynt ion laterane and pere is leid 
an ymage of crist in a graue and mech o]?ir ping doo to pe worchip of cristis 
sepultu? of whech sepultu? we wil sey sumwhat to edificacion of pe rederes. 
Aftir tyme J?at crist was ded ou? lady and maudelen and hir too sisteris & 
jon euangelist a bood still be pe crosse and pere abood til knytis cam and 
broke pe thies of pe too }?eues and on to f)at tyme fat lougius had put 
pe spere on to cristis hert. Aftir pe knytis were goo J)ei abode stille til 
ioseph abarimathia & nichodemws and oJ?ir mo com with ladderis and of>ir 
instrumewtis to take ou? lord down. Joseph took down pe rith hand and 
nichodemws pe lift J)us losed J>ei aH pe body and leid it on pe ground and pe 
hed in ou? lady lap and maudelen sat and kissid pe feet. Longe it was or 
f>ei coude gete leue of ou? lady for to biry him. But at J^e last be instauws 
of jon sche suffered him to be byryed. The sepultu? of crist was a round 
hous hewyn in a hill of ston whech ston was in his ueynes sumwhe? red and 
sumwhe? whit. The hous was no hier fan a man myth touch with his hand. 
On pe est side was pe entre ferto on pe north side was a graue mad be craft 
mete for a mannes body uii fete of length and iii span fro pe pauyment. 
This was mad for ioseph and in fis was crist layd. Aftir fat crist was 
biried ioseph abarimathie desired fat ou? lady schuld go dwelle at his hous 
but hir counceli foute it was to fer fro ierlm. Than desired mary maundelen 
to haue ou? lady on to hir herborow sche alleggid a gret allectyf ^ fat it was 
fe pnncipal logging of crist. To fis wold not jon consent to whom ou? lady 
was comended for he seid it was mo? conuenient fat sche schuld be loggid 
in f e cite for fis cause for f ei had told her frendis before whan f ei went to 
f e crosse fat f ei schuld come to f e cite a gayn. Therfor maudelen said ion 
I hope f ou wilt not forsake my modir at fis tyme for we wil go and be loggid 
with f e same man whe? ou? maistir suppid last. Thus cam f ei forw 
f e cite and many of here frendis met with hem f ei saide f ei were ful sory 
^ allective = allurement, inducement. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 155 

f)at ihu was so ded ne J?ei we? neuyr gilty in pe mate? ne neuyr consenting 
perio. Thus is crist biried and ou? lady brout on to J^is Iious where |?at 
/ crist had mad his mauwde. f. 409 r 



Off f>e stacion on pase day. cap liiii. 

On pase day is pe stacion at seynt mari maior whe? seiwt gregori sang on 
pe same day on whech a gret myracle fel pere for whech myracle pia stacioTt 
was sette pere for euyr on Jjis day. Thus sede we in seint gregori lif ]?at on 
pase day he sang messe at ]?is same cherch and ali pe puple deuoutly herd 
his messe. So happed it at pe last ende of masse whan he seid pax domini 
sit semp uobiscum whilis pe qweer was in silens an aungeH with a lowd uoys 
answerd and said. Et cum spm'^u tuo. No wondir fouj fis man were 
deuoute in his writyng whan ou? lord had so grete tendirnesse ouyr him ]?at 
he wold send aungeli to do him seruyse. For we rede eke J?at a no))ir tyme 
an aungeii mimstred at his masse as is treded more largely in J>at capitle of 
seint Sebastian. For J)is miracle was ordeyned a statute in f>at cherch }?at 
if pe pope singe pere pe qwere schal not answe? whan he seith pax domini. 
And treuly whej>ir )?ei do so euyr or nout I wot not ueryly but J^is herd I )?at 
at dyuers masses be note pe qwer saide all iii agnus dei with misere? nobis 
and not with dona nobis pacem as we do. Thus haue I descryued on to 50W 
pe stacions of lenton for of J?oo staciones be fo? lenton or of f>oo |)at are 
in hestern weke we spoke not for to causes. O cause is for pe staciones in 
lenton ar more comendid and more used. A noJ)ir cause is for att ])00 
cherchis ar stacions in lenton also saue to, on is sea maria rotunda, a no}>ir 
is seynt pancras and of f>ese both wil we speke now in J^e pird part. 

These be J^e capitles of })is secund part be fore. The prologe. Off pe cherch 
clepid seynt peteres caplm i. Off pe cherch cleped seynt paules cap ii. OSpe 
cherch of seynt Sebastian cap iii. Off pe cherch cleped lateranenst* cap iiii. Off 
pe cherch of seynt cruce cap u. Off pe cherch of seynt laurens cap ui. Off 
pe cherch cleped maria maior cap uii. Off pe stacion at seynt sabine cap uiii. 
Off f>e stacion at seynt george cap ix. Off pe stticion at jon & paule cap x. Off 
pe stacion at seynt triphonis cap xi. Off Jje stacion at seynt jon lat^ranensts 
cap xii. Off pe stacion at seint petir ad uincula cap xiii. Off pe stacion at 
seint anastase cap xiiii. Off pe stacion at seynt mari maior cap xu. Off pe 
stacion at seynt laurens pauispern cap xui. Off pe stacion at pe xu 
aposteles cap xuii. Off pe stacion at seynt petir cherch cap xuiii. Off 
pe stacion at sea maria in dompnica cap xix. Off pe stacion at seynt 
dementis cap xx. Off pe stacion at seint balbyne cap xxi. Off pe stacion 
at seint cecile cap xxii. Off pe stacion at sea maria transtiberim cap xxiii. 
Off pe stacion at seint uitale ca xxiiii. / Off pe stacion at seint marcellin f. 409 v 

x2 



156 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

and petir cap xxu. Off Ipe stacion at seynt laurens ca xxui. Off Ipe 
stacion at seynt mark ca xxuii. Off J?e stacion at seynt potenciane 
ca xxuiii. Off J>e stacion at seywt sixte ca xxix. Off f>e stacion at semiis 
cosmas and damianws ca xxx. Off Ipe stacion at sei^^t laure7^s in lucina 
ca xxxi. Off pe stacioTi at seynt susanne ca xxxii. Off pe stacion 
in iemsalera at seiwt cruce ca xxxiii. Off Ipe stacion at a cherch clepid 
quatuor coronator«*w cap xxxiiii. Off Ipe stacion of seynt laurens in 
damasco ca xxxu. Off Ipe stacion at seynt paules ca xxxui. Off }>e 
stacion at seint martyn in montibw* ca xxxuii. Off Ipe stacion at seynt 
eusebie cap xxxuiii. Off Ipe stacion at seynt nicholas in careers xxxix ca. 
Off pe stacion at seynt petres ca xl. Off pe stacion at seynt grisogonws cap 
xli. Off pe stacion at seiwt ciriac cap xlii. Off pe stacion at seint marcelle 
cap xliii. Off pe stacion at seynt appollina? ca xliiii. Off pe stacion at 
seynt steuene in monte cello ca xlu. Off pe stacion at seynt jon portlatyn 
ca xlui. Off pe stacion at Isiteranenais ca xluii. Off J^e stacion at seynt 
praxede ca xluiii. Off pe stacion at seint prisce ca xlix. Off pe stacion 
at seyn mari maior cap 1. Off pe stacion at lateranensis cap li. Off pe 
stacion at seynt cruce cap lii. Off pe stacion at lateranensis cap liii. Off 
pe stacion on pase day caplm liiii. 



Here heg'mnyth pe f>ii*d part of oJ)ir cherches in Rome prologus. 

Thus fer haue we brout ou? entent yat we haue descry ued all foo places 
where staciones be holde in lenton now wil we telle sum notable f>ingis of 
oJ?ir cherches in rome swech as be famous. Ou? purpos was in pe hegbinyng 
of J?is werk to a mad but too parties peroi and so it is writyn but )?is secund 
part schuld a be ouyr prolix. Therfor men councelled me of )?ese of)ir 
cherches whech schul now come in hand to make a special part be him selue 
so schal pe werk be concluded in a ternarie for f)at noumbir is halowid as 
we sey in ou? diuinite be cause ou? feith prechith on to us thre persones in 
o godhed. Ou? lord god alsoo hath made his miwistres aungelles and sette 
in swech perfeccion ]?at fei be distiwcte in to iii ierarchies and euery ierar- 
chie distiricte in to iii ordres. Eke ou? lord hath dyuyded al fis world in to 
iii parties fat is to sey asie europe and affrik. Al J)is is said for pe perfec- 
cioun of J>is noumbir iii and mech mo? ping myth be seid J^erof if men wolde, 
specialy if ))ei wold take couricell of a book whech ysidre mad and it is 
entitiled de more. The orde in J)is werk folowyng schal be J?is. First wil 
we speke of all pe cherchis of oure lady whech wil com to rememberauiis 
and J)ann) of o)?ir cherches whech stand in fame and speaaly of hem of whom 
f. 410 r we fynde / ony notable wrytyng. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGEIMES 167 

Off sea maria rotunda, caplm i. 

There is a cherch in rome whechwas clepid sumtymepaTitheonnowit is clepid 
8ca maria rotunda * or ollio aoa maria rotuyida * * or elles sea maria ad martires. 
It is clepid sea maria rotunda for it is a round hous with oute pile? and ]?at of so 
grete widnesse and so grete heitli fat it is wondir who fei myth rere it. The 
sey J?e? comouwly and I fonde it wrytin Jjere J>at J?ei mad a grete hitt of erde 
as brod and as hy as }?ei wold haue Ipe hous and in f)is hiH J?ei byried mech 
mony whan J>e hous was mad, pei joue pe puple leue to cary oute Ipe erde 
and for her cariage to take |?e mony whech ]>ei fond. In uery sikirnesse 
I sei a uout mad at rome a ful fayre hous whech is a eele? at seiwt thomas 
hospital euene of fis same mane?. It is cleped eke f)is cherch sea maria ad 
martires for it was halowid not only in worchip of ou? lady but in worehip 
of an martires. Martires is seid singule?ly & non confessouris for Ipe cherch 
said not of confessoures fan. There was in rome a pope* clepid boneface 
Ipe fourt a blessid man of lyf and grete in reputacion. This man was pope 
in tyme of focas ]>e emperou? sone aftir seiwt gregory for aftir gregory was 
sabin?«s a ^ere and uili raonthis and fanne bonefaci^s t^rcius not fully a jere 
so J?at be my counting fis bonefacii<5 iuius was in pe jer of our lord ui 
hundred and u. This boneface prayed Ipe emperou? focas fat he schuld jeue 
him f is temple whech was cleped be fo? pantheon fat is to sei a temple of 
all goddis for pan is as mech to sey as al and theos god or goddis. The 
principal cause whech meued f e pope* was fis for f e wikkid spiritis fat 
had receyued grete offering! s fer« of f e puple whil f ei were in errou? sey 
f e same puple had forsake hem and we? turned on to crist of gret malice 
whech f ei haue, hurt f e puple in morownyngts and euenes with meruelous 
maledies. And be cause fis cherch stant in fe best of rome wher most 
puple dwellith ferfor fis pope* of grete pite was f e more bisi to seke 
remedy a geyn fis myschef. So aftir f e emperoures graunt he mad ail f e 
maume^itis with in f e hous to be broke clensid f e hous of aH offices fat 
were with in longing to swech cerymonics as f e hethen puple used. Aftir 
fis doo he called att f e cristen puple of rome and in here prcsens halowid 
f e place saide f er^ a messe and hosild f e most part of fe puple. Tho mad 
he a constitucion of f e cherch fat fis day fro fis tyme schuld be as holy as 
cristemasse day and ali f e puple schuld come and do reucrens to god and 
too att seyntis fat all f e necligenses whech falle in / f e long jere schuld be f. 410 v 
amendid with solempnite of fis fest. Summe croniculeris write fat boneface 
set fis feest f e xu day of may and on of f e gregories aftirward chauwged it 

1 From * to * struck through and interlineated in MS. 



158 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

and set it f>e first day of nouembir for J)is cause. For grete multitude of Ipe 
cuntre cam to rome at f)is feast and uitaile Ip&t tyme of j^e 56? was passing 
scarse wherfor lie sette it at fis tyme whan corn and wyn is in moost plente.* 



Off ara cell cherch of ou? lady, cap ii. 

Off ara celi we spoke be fore in })e first party and told who it was sum- 
tyme octauian chaumbir whech he dismitted fro him and halowid it on to god. 
This cherch as j^ei sey pere is spectaly consecrat on to ou? lady be cause )?e 
same emperou? on cristmasse-day saw a uiigin appering in Ipe sunne and in 
hir arme a child. This uision of cristis birth whech was schewid to octauian 
J?e day of his birth was nout only schewid in rome but in o]?ir places of )?e 
world. For as I haue red when f>e sterre appered to f>e iii kyngis in ynde 
pere appered with J^e sterre a child with a crosse and seid on to hem fat f>ei 
Bchuld seke ])e newe kyng born at bethlem. For )?e progenie ^ of f>ese kyngts 
had ordeyned certeyn men to wayte aftir J)is, meuid be a prophete J?ei called 
balam whech was in ])e tyme of moises. This is seid undir auctorite of 
Btrabus in his notes super maitheum.^ We rede also in ofir cronicles f»at 
ieremie ]>e prophete in Ipe captiwite of ierlm fled in to egipt where he told 
to "pe kyng of egipt J^at whan a mayde bare a child in f>e lond of iude all fe 
ydoles of egipt schuld fall down and be distroyed. These wordes of ieremye 
were in so grete auctorite in egipt \>&i f>e prestis of fe temple pere in 
memphis ded peynt a ymage of a mayde and in hir lap a child and sette it 
in a pryuy place of Ipe temple as for a special memorial. Tholome ]>e grete 
astronome? whech was kyng of egipt aftir a studiows man to lerne strauwge 
f>ingis inqwired of Ipe prestis what fis ymage ment and he had of hem non 
olpir answe? but )?at f>e holy prophete ieremie told swech a fing on to he? 
elderes and fei be leued ueryly it schuld be as he seide. This place J?at is 
J?us consecrat in worchip of ou? lady is not clepid with OMten cause pe auter 

* S. Maria della Rotonda, or ad Marty res, was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV on 
May 18, 608. In 655 Constans II, who removed so many treasures from Rome, stripped 
the roof of its gilt bronze tiles and removed them to Constantinople; this work of 
destruction was completed in 1632 by Urban VIII, who melted down the remains of the 
bronze roof for the baldacchino of S. Peter's. The church was repaired by Benedict II in 
684, Gregory III in 735, Anastasius IV in 1153, and Eugenius IV in 1434. Pius IV 
repaired the great bronze doors, and Urban VIII restored the fa9ade in 1634, adding two 
clumsy campanili which were afterwards removed. The Volto Santo was kept here for 
centuries in a chest locked with thirteen keys, of which each Rione of the town possessed 
one (Armellini, p. 346 ; Adinolfi, ii, p. 407 ; Marucchi, p. 412 ; Nibby, p. 406). 

' ancestors. 

' Walafridus Strabo (807-49) was the author of the Qlossa ordinaria (see Migue, 
Pat. Lat., cxiv, col. 73). 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 159 

of god for ]?at uirgine was pe first aute? fat receyued fe flesch and \>e blood 
of ou? lord ihu whech flesch and blood a mongis cristen men now is ministred 
on euery auter. In ]?is cherch are wrytyn )?ese uers. Hac ara celi sibilla 
sermone fideli Quern genus bumanum colat instruit oc tauianum. Hec e 
uirgo parens ait hie deus est homo parens Hie rex fin e carens tu rex homo 
flos uelut arens. This is pe sentens of J^ese uers as I undir stand. This is 
fe aute? of heuene where sibille wit^ wordis ful trewe Off him fat alle men 
schul worchip mad ... 

(Part of MS. missing here.) 

/ stand of fe lowe? wisdam whech is sent fro god. A nofir part of hir f. 411 r 
pictu? is fat sche is euyr peyntid 5ong. For wisdam is neuyr eld but euyr 
new and new offered to ou? soule. Sche halt a speie in hir hand to signifie 
fat f ei whech be endewid with wisdam schuld be redy euyr to defende hem 
fro f e perilous temptaciownes of f e deuele. Gorgones heed berith sche in 
hir breest. These poetes feyne fat f e? were thre monstres fat is to sey 
men or women mis schapin for f ei thre had but o hed and on eye whech 
monstres a conqwerou? as f ei feyne his name was perseus killid. But be for 
his conquest he borowid f e spere of f is same pallas and eke hir scheld fat 
was mad of cristal. Al f is is feyned to f is entent fat a wise ma schal euyr 
haue dreed in his breest for to be wa? and redy a geyn alle f e fraudes of 
ou? enmy whech may transfigure him selue in to what schap fat he wil. 
Many mo similitudes ar writen be twix f ese to myuerue and wisdam but 
I wil leue hem and sent 50U if je list to lerne mo? of f is mate? on to a book 
cleped mithologie fulgencii.^ 

* The church of S. Maria sopra Minerva was erected over a temple dedicated to that 
goddess, the cella of which could be traced in the adjoining convent until the sixteenth 
century. S. Zacharias, about the year 750, granted it to Greek Basilian nuns, who, 
however, abandoned it. It was given in 1370 by the Senate and people of Rome to the 
Dominicans of S. Sabina, and was entirely reconstructed. The interior was restored and 
redecorated at great expense in 1849-54, but unfortunately in the most florid style. 
This is all the more to be regretted, as this is the only Gothic church in Rome which 
retains to any extent its original style (Armellini, p. 406 ; Marucchi, p. 514 ; Nibby, 
p. 414 ; Masetti, Memorie storiche delta chiesa di S, Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, 1855). 
Part of the temple existed at the time our author wrote, for Muffel says: 'iat der 
abtgotter tempel gewest, Minerfa genannt, ein gar herlich kloster, die ist ein ^ottin 
gewest der streit, der wafFen, und des alten tempels stet nur noch ein stuck' (p. 61). 
Fulgentius Plauciades (who must not be confused with Fulgentius Ruspensis) lived 
about A.D. 520, and is believed to have been Bishop of Carthage. He was the author of 
three books of mythology, addressed to a priest named Catus. A book of the allegories 
of Virgil, addressed to Chalcides the grammarian, is also attributed to him (Moreri, 
Dictionnaire historique). 



160 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Of fe cherch cleped marie anuriciat. cap u. 

Marie anunciat is a wol fayre cherch whech stant in pe feld as we go fro 
scala celi * on to seiwt sebastianes a myle fro \>e o place and a myle fro f>e 
ofir. It siscnt now with outen ony dwelle? and jet hath it a fayre litil 
place annexid ]>erto. Saue at J>e dedicacion of J>e place whech is in "pe fest 
of anuwciacion of ou? lady J>an be sum folk abydyng pere.'^ Off J?is place we 
fynde swech wrytyng. An holy man dwelt pere sumtyme J>at seruyd god 
and oure lady in ful solitary lif and be cause pe place was of f)at fest of ou? 
lady whech is clepid anuwciacion whan f)at gabriel cam fro heuene and teld 
oure lady f)oo gracious tydynggis pe sauacion of al pe world he had in f)is 
place grete deuociou^. Up on a day ou? lady appered on to him and seide 
J?at what man in clene lif deuoutely wil uisite ]?is place he schal neuyr com 
in pe peynes of purgatoric .^ Many o]>ir J»inggis be seid pere of J^is place 
whech I may wel be leue be cause J^at J^is fest of ou? lady is a solempne and 
a principal fest aftir myn opinion for on J)is day nowt only was oure lady 
gladid with tydynggzs of gabriel but many oJ)ir pingis fel in J?is feest as 
a grete uersifyoui* witnessith in certeyn uers whech folow here. Salue festa 
dies que uulnera nostra coherees Angelus est missus est passus in cruce 
cristus. Est adam factus & eodem tempore lapsus Ob mmtum decime cadit 
abel fratris ab ense Offert melchisedec ysaac supponit^^r aris Est decolatus 
Xpi baptista beatus Petrus ereptus iacobus sub herode peremptus Corpora 
scorwm cum Xpo multa resurguTit Latro dulce tamen per Xpm suscipit 
f. 411 V amen. / This is pe sentens of j^ese uers. Heil Jjou festful day )?at puttist 
our* wouTides away. This day pe aungel was sent crist on pe crosse was bent. 
Adam was mad ))is day and turned to pe synful way. For fals tithyng we 
say cayn killid abel fis day. Melchisedech with abraham mette with bred 
and wyn he him grette. Ion baptist f>is day was ded for treuth he lost his 

^ Tre Fontane. 

2 The church of S. Maria Annunziata (Nunziatella) is near the Via Ardeatina, about 
three miles from the city. It was consecrated by Honorius III in 1220, probably on the 
site of an older church (Nibby, Bintorni di Roma, f. iii, p. 561). There used to be an 
old pilgrims' road from Tre Fontane to this church, and thence on to S. Sebastiano. The 
latter part of it exists, and is still much used on the day of the Annunciation, and on 
the first Sunday in May. There are some catacombs close by, with some interesting 
frescoes. Inside the church, which is now in an abandoned condition, will be found some 
remains of its former importance. In the apse there is a fine fresco (much restored) of 
the Quattro Cento, the subject being the Annunciation. There is a cosmatesque pavement 
in front of the high altar and a cosmatesque tabernacle in the sacristy, both of which 
appear to belong to the restoration of Honorius III. There is an ancient stone altar in 
the sacristy which probably was in the older church, and the dedicatory inscription 
of Honorius III is still in situ, on the interior wall of the building (Armellini, p. 729). 

^ * purgatorie ' crossed through in MS., but quite legible. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 161 

hed Petir fro prison was drawe and james ]?is day I slawe. Many men owt of 
pe ground Else ))is day both hool and ^ The feef on cristis rith hand herd 
ful good tytand ^. 

Of \>e cherch clepid marie transpodium. ui. 
Marie transpodium is a cherch of ou? lady in ]>e cyte leonine whe? seynt 
petir cherch stant whi it is called transpodium treuly I coude not lerne for 
Ipe dwelleres ar wroth a non if men ask ony questiones.' Trans is as mech 
to sey as ouyr and podium a lenywg ioyned in ou? langage it souTidith ouyr fe 
lenywg what lenywg was he? or whi it is clepid soo treuly I caw not gesse. 
This mech I say Ipe^, too pileris on to whech petir & paule were bounde and 
bete for Jjei taute fe feith of on? lord ihu. Thus were pe holy apostoles ofte 
tyme serued whan pel cam first on to a cyte and prechid J^e name of crist a 
non J>ei were had in to J^e couwcel and betyn naked and forbodyn )?at J)ei 
schuld no more nemel* cristes name on to pe puple. Off f)is maner 
chastising were many dyuers uses a mongzs dyuers naciones. I haue red )?at 
summe iuges a mongis pe hethen men suffered he? tormewtouris to bete men 
with outen mesu? ef)ir tyl pe beter was wery or ellis til he }?at was betyn was 
ded. For peae ondiscret iuges oure lord god comaunded his puple in pe old 
testament )?at pe iuges schuld not suffir men to be betyn undiscretly for ou? 
lord put on to hem a reule Jjat pei schuld not passe xl lacch. Off f>is mate? 
spekith sei/it paule ful pleynly as a man f>at had gret experiens of J>is mate? 
in J^e secund epistel ad coriwthios and seith on J^is mane?. A iudeis quin- 
quies quadragenas una minws accepi. In englisch he seith ]3us. Of J^e iewis 
fyue sithis fourty lasch on lesse I took. These schort wordis wil I expresse 

^ ' sound ' in margin of MS. ^ tidings. 

^ The church of S. Maria Transpontina was known under no less than ten names, of 
which Armellini gives us nine, as follows : In capite portieus, in capite pontia, trans- 
pontem, transpadina, transpontina, traspadina, in transpondina, transpondine, and 
in cosmedin. The tenth, in turrispadina, is given by Signorili. The existing church, of 
the same name, was built on quite a different spot, and most authorities agree that the 
old church was near the Castle of S. Angelo, though Adinolfi thinks (reasoning from the 
name) that it was nearer the old bridge which no longer exists, and was on the platea 
castelli mentioned in documents of the Middle Ages. Writers disagree as to under whose 
pontificate the old church was pulled down in order to rebuild it on another site. Donati 
(Roma vetus et recens, I. II, c. 9, p. 871) says that it was done by Alexander VI ; Felini, 
in his treatise, p. 60, and Alveri {Roma in ogni stato, p. 2*), think it was Pius IV ; the 
annotators of the Bollario Vaticano give Sixtus V ; Torrigio {Grotte Vaticaue, p. 134) 
says that it was where the ditch of the castle was in his time, and that it was pulled 
down by Pius IV in July, 1564, in order to rebuild the bastions of the fortress. Adinolfi 
thinks that Felini and Alveri are probably right in the view they take (Adinolfi, La 
portica di S. Pietro, ossia horgo, nelV etd, di mezzo, p. 67 ; Armellini, p. 348 ; Nibbj, 
p. 485). One of the meanings of podium, given by Ducange is hill or castle : can the 
meaning transpodium possibly be the church across or beyond the Castle of S. Angelo ? 

* obs. =^ to name. 

Y 



162 . YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

to 50U in large? langage. The iewis hated paule gretly be cause he forsok 
he? secte and be leued in crist wherfor oft tyme ])ei called him to couwcelt 
and bete him for his preching. The noumbir of his scorgingzs he telleth he? 
fyne sithis he seith. The maue? he telleth eke eche tyme had he fourty lacch 
saue on )?at is to sey ech tyme xxxix. Be cause her lawe comaunded J)at 
))ei schuld not passe xl lacch and fei hem self wold be hald mercyful f>ou5 J^ei 
were not soo Iperfor J^ei 5oue him on lasse })an ])e lawe comauwded. Thus had 
))e seruauntis of ou? lord mech aduersite in Jjis world for whech aduersite Ipei 
be now gretly enhaunsed in heuene. 



f 412 r / Of f>e cherch cleped sea maria de palma. cap uii. 

Marie de palma is a cherch in J»e hey wey as we go fro porta appia on to 
sebastianes cherch.^ This is a praty litil cherch & a place annexid ]>ertoo 
where is comouwly a tauerne to f>e couwfort of pilgrimes. Whi it is clepid 
de palma I lerned not but a maner of gessing I haue for pere left ou? lord 
ihu seint petir whan he sent him a geyn to rome to receyue his deth in 
confirmacion of cristen feith. And be cause conquerouris in eld tyme wered 
pe palme for uictori pernor pe cherch applieth J? is langage on to martires 
seying f>at aftir he? deth pei are worthi pe palma f)at is to sey to be clepid 
uictores as maystires ouyr pe fleschly lustis, & ouyrcomerts of temptaciones 
of pe world, pe deuel, and greuous tyrauntes. Be jond f)is cherch not fer 
litil mo? pan a boweschote sta'W-t a crosse J>ei clepe it domine quo uadis. Ther 
met ou? lord with petir whan he fled his martirdam.'^ Petir knew him weel 

^ The chui-ch of S. Maria de palma is the one so familiar now under the name of the 
Domine quo vadis. It is first mentioned as the church * ubi Dominus apparuit', and 
appears to have been known as early as the ninth century. As time went on it was 
called de palma, ad palmas, ad passus, plantarum, ad traneitum, of which terms 
Armellini says : * , . . alcune delle quali si referiscono all' apparizione storica, altre ad una 
pietra sulla quale sono scolpite due impressioni di piedi nelle quali la pietk dei pellegrini 
dell' etk di mezzo ritrovb le orme miraculose del Salvatore. Di questa pietra non si trova 
perb alcuna allusione se non nei secoli posteriori.' Finally, in the fourteenth century it 
was generally known as S. Maria de^Ze Palme or del Passo, and this name continued till the 
sixteenth or seventeenth century. In the E. E. Text Society's vol. No. 25 for 1867, p. 7, 
will be found, in the Vernon MS. (fourteenth century) on the Stacions of Eome, a passage 
in which the church is called the Palmalle, or footsole. The church was rebuilt in 1620 
under Clement VIII, and the fa9ade is due to Cardinal Barberini in 1637 (Armellini, 
p. 704 ; Marucchi, p. 515). 

^ It will be noticed that our chronicler fixes the precise spot of the meeting at a bow- 
shot's distance from the church, and that this spot was then marked by a cross, and 
called the Domine quo vadis. It is now marked by the small circular chapel built by 
Cardinal Pole. MufFel agrees with our author, and says that the first altar, where 
Christ, beMing the cross, appeared to Peter, is 700 paces from the spot where He 
disappeared, leaving the mark of His feet on the stone, where a church has been built 
to record the place. Then follows a curious legend about another small church in this 
neighbourhood : ' Item so ist ein capellen unser liben frawen auch auf dera weg gen 



YE SOLACE OF PILG RIMES 163 

and asked of him whidir he wold goo. Oure lord saide he went to rome 
a gayn to be crucified. Thoo was petir gretly rebukid and on? lord saide on 
to him )3anne. Go pou to rome a gayn. Thus walkid pei fro }>at crosse on 
to f)is cherch ou? lord and he to gidir and sodeynly at f>at place where J)is 
cherch stant ou? lord passid fro him. And Ipere was a ston sumtyme in J)at 
cherch kept undyr f>e auter wher Ipe steppes of ou? lordis bare feet are 
impressid but be cause ]>e place is desolat saue whan pil grimes be J^e? f>erfor 
is J^is ston born to seynt sebastianes and per it lith in pe sacristie men may 
se it whan )?ei wil. Crist as it semeth was a meth * man for pe steppis be 
rith large. | Here may men enqwire of me of f>is apparicion of crist for it 
was aftir his ascension wheythir his body was pere or nowt, or elles an auwgeil 
appered in his stede. | Of J?is mate? is grete difficulte a mongis dyuynes. Be 
fo? pe incarnacion J)ei sey jjat f)oo appariciones we? mad be aungelles 
representyng pe persone of god and doyng pe message of god. Aftir pe 
incarnacion pere is no doute but J?at crist appered in his manhod uisibily 
on to ali jjat wold se him. Be twix pe resurrexion and pe ascencioun is seid 
also J>at crist appered in his uery body glorificat whech body myth enire 
Jjorw wali and bord & no J>ing lette it for {jat body had J?anfi) and jet hath 
pe iiii precious J^ingis whech f»ei clepe dotes J?at is to sey subtilite |)at no 
ping may hold it, agilite fat al f>ing may here it, impassibilite J?at it may 
suffer neythir deth ue seknesse, clernesse eke with whech pe dul undistanding 
of pe body is a uoyded. So up on ]?is ou? doctouris put in doute J^oo appariciones 
aftir his ascencion wheithir ^o were ^ f)oo were in cristis body assumpt or 
ellis be pe ministeri of an aungeli summe hold pe o part aum pe oplr, but 
I be leue / fat pe manhod of crist myth aftir his ascensioun appe? on to petir f. 412 v 
pow^ it were so fat petir say not pe godhed. If f is posicion be ony fing 
a geyn pe feith or a geyn scriptu? I wil gladly reuoke it. 



Of pe cherch clepid sea m de pplo. ca uiii. 
Sea maria de pop?^lo is a fay? litil place' in rome fast by a gate cleped 
porta flaminea on pe north side of rome whech place is inhabit with freres 

Sant Sebastian, do eiu ratter gain weib dem teufel wolt geben haben, der in reych machen 
solt, do stig sein weib ab dem rosz unci pettet vor dem altar unser frawen und entschliff, 
do sasz die junckfraw Maria in des beibs' (Weibs) 'gestalt hinder in und do era dem 
teufel wolt antburtten, do floch der teufel und die fraw ward also erlost von dem teufel 
von der junckfraw Maria ' (Mufifel, p. 89). 

^ mighty, large or great in stature. 

* Struck through and interliueated in MS. 

' A small oratory was founded by Pascal II in 1099 on the site believed to be Nero's 
tomb. A larger church was built in 1227. This was restored by Sixtus IV and completed 
by Julius II. Alexander VII modernized the church, and it is now known as S. Maria 
del Popolo (Armellini, p. 389 ; Marucchi, p. 515 ; Nibby, p. 456). 

Y 2 



164 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

cleped hermytes of seynt austyn. The fame of J^is place ros for f>is cause. 
The wikkid emperou? of roine clepid nero ded many grete wrongis to f>e cite 
for whech dedis he had ful grete enmyte. The last wrong he ded on to hem 
he mad his men to sette a grete part of rome on fy? sum sey ]?e romanes 
compleyned on to him J)at her stretes were narow and whan he had brent 
half rome he seid on to hem f>at J>ei had space I now to make her stretis 
more large. Summe sey J>at he red who gret lamentacion was mad at troye 
whan it was on fi? and for f)at cause he fyred rome to loke what lame^itacion 
pe puple schuld make. This dede was cause fat J>e puple roos and compelled 
pe senatoures to gadei- he? couneell to loke what remedye myth be had a geyn 
J>e wikkid desires of f)is tyrauTit. The counceii answerd J?at he was cursed 
and incorrigibil wherfor f)ei determyned J?at with grete strength J?ei wold 
sle him. This cam to neroes ere and be nyth he fled on to J?is same place 
whech is clepid sea maria de populo & yere he killid him selue with a swerd 
as it is openly peynted in ]?at place. But o]?ir cronicles sey J)at as he went 
for to hide him a mongis )>e uynes and f)e buschis he herd too or thre chorles 
J>at sote be a fyre speke of pe emperou? and on of hem sayde. Be my trouth 
and I wist wher he were I schuld sone be sikyr of him. Nero herd fis and 
)?out it schuld be grete derogacion to his name if he wer ded of a chorlys 
hand J^erfor with a gret scharp stake he persed him self to Ipe hert. This 
was Ipe end of pe man aftir ou? cronicules. Many dayes aftir j^is was doo 
pe deueles )?at kept his body ded mech harm at J^is gate J?at )?e? myth no 
man erly ne late go ne entir be J?is wey but he were gretly hurt. So in pope * 
pascalis tyme pe puple of rome compleyned gretly of ]3is greuauns and he 
comaunded f)at pe same puple schuld fast iii dayes and pray god to send sum 
remedy a geyn f)is tribulacion. On pe f>ird nyth ou? lady appered on to J^e 
pope * ad seyde he must go with procession of pe puple on to pe gate on pe 
north side of rome clepid flaminea f»e? in a uyne ^erd schuld he fynde many 
walnot trees and undir pe grettest tre of ail pere schuld he fynde pe body 
of wikkid nero. This body sche bad him he schuld take up and brenne. | 
pe tree schuld he dig up rote an all and where pe tree stood make an auter 
f. 413 r in pe worchip of hir/ whech is qween of heuene and modir to god. This 
pope * pascale made pe auter as he was comaunded and gaf to pe place many 
relikes I wote weel of dyuers seyntis pere be mo? f)at * xl eythir of her flesch 
or of her bones or cloj^is or sum o))ir f>ing. The fayrest iewel is^ f>e? is a ymage 
of ou?, lady depeynted of seynt luk it is but half a ymage fro pe naule upward 
in a blew mantel! ribaned with white and gold enterfered pe uisage of it large 
and brood and pe mantell Jjrow ouyr hir hed in hir lift hand hir child clad 
in red. There be mo y mages in rome of luk is peynti/ig f>an pis but f>is is 
* ? than. ^ 'h' struck out in MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 165 

gretly soute.^ For euery satirday comth mech puple j^idir and pe cardinales 
and courtisanes uisit ]?is place deuly not withstanding it is not open ne J?ei 
se it nowt. On pe friday be fo? J?e fourt Sunday in lenton fan is it set open 
and grete multitude of puple is ]>ere at yat openyng and so is it kept open 
on day lith on to J?e Sunday aftir pas whech is called in albis, euery day f>at 
tyme is pere grete pres of romanes but moost on Satirday aftir noon for be for 
noon pel uisit Ipe saluatou? at seynt ion lateranensis. Whi J?is place is cleped 
sea maria de pplo or who j^is ymage cam in to f»at place now schal je here. 
In f)e tyme of f>e ix pope * gregorie it were betir seid in tyme of J>at pope * 
whech was clepid gregorie f>e ix fett a grete pestilens in rome for euyr whan 
deth comth to J)at cite J>ei dey with grete speed and mech wayling and CF3'ing 
is pere. So in J?is popes tyme and in J^is pestilens J?e puple of rome ru?2ne 
hool on to f^e popes presens and prayed with gret instauns fat he wold 
ordeyne a procession and comaund \>e puple for to prey on to god fat fis 
ueniaunce myth sese. The pope * graunted hem her peticioun and saide he 
wold go with hem and haue a sermone and syng masse him selue. pe place 
of her stacion fat day he assigned him selue he wold haue fe stacion he saide 
at fat place of ou? lady whech was neuly bikkid be his predecessou? pascale. 
And to multiple mo? deuocioun in f e puple he wold brynge on of f o ymages 
fat seint luke depeynted and ofiPere it and gyue it to fe place for euyr. Al 
f is promisse rehersid was do in dede f e pestilens cesed f e ymage is fere stille 
and be cause f e pope * gaue f e ymage at instaunce of f e puple and graunted 
eke grete pardon to f e same place at f e same instaunce f erfor is it clepid 
sea maria de populo.'^ 

Of f e place cleped sea m de penis iwferni. ca ix. 

There is a place *fast by seynt georges entitiled eke*^ on to ou? lady and 
f ei clepe it f e? sea maria de penis inferni. Who f is name cam up red I fere 

^ This description of the miraculous picture is absolutely correct in every detail. It is 
still preserved over the high altar of the church, and was originally in the chapel of the 
Sancta Sanctorum, until it was brought here by Gregory IX as described by our chroni- 
cler. In Mid Lent a procession is formed in the church and the picture is exposed. It 
remains open to view until the Tuesday following the first Sunday after Easter {in alhis), 
when it is again covered. It is much blackened with age, but there is a good copy (old) 
behind the high altar, from which it can be studied better. Muffel mentions this picture 
also, and says (p. 53, ed. Vogt) : * do ist gar ein andechtig unser Frawen pild, das sand 
lucas gemacht hat, sol ir gleich sein.* Also in the oldest German Mirabilia (about 1476) 
we find : ' Czu unser lieben Frawen de populo ... do ist unser lieben Frawen pilt, hat Sc. 
Lucas gemalet.' 

^ Mufifel's account of the foundation of this church agrees in all particulars with the above ; 
except that he says, as regards the origin of the name : ' die capellen ward gantz gepauet 
von allem volk nur in eim tag, und darumb wurd sie geheissen Maria de populo ' (p. 53). 

8 From * to * interlineated in MS. 



166 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

schortly in J)e same cherch on p)is mancr.^ Ther was a dragon in rome of 
f. 413 V grete qua7^tite whech killid mech puple/ and seynt siluester bond him be 
neth J>e ground an hundred passe & 1. & called J»at place libera nos de penia 
inferni and grauwted Iperto pardon xi ml jere. This is wrytyn on a table 
in ]?at litil cherch. But in Ipe lif of seynt siluester is more large talkyng of 
J>is mate?. Ther fynde I wrytyn Ipat aftir tyme siluester had conuerted con- 
stawtine and ouercome Ipe xii iewis J)at heleyn brout fro ieilm conueried hem 
and heleyn eke aftir J?is fe bischoppis of ])e maume?itis in rome came with 
a grete compleynt on to constantin and told him who f»at dragon ]7at had be 
in a pitte many day and do but litil harm now sith constantin was cristen 
had slayn moo pan iii hundred persones. This saide )?ei to make J^e emper- 
ou? be leue })at her goddis were wroth for he was cristen and in her wreth 
ded f>is ueniaumie. Siluester was sent aftir and he undirtok in J^e name of 
ou? lord to ordeyn remedye a geyn j?is perel. The bischoppis of Ipe temples 
whe? ydoles were worchiped p9'omitted on to constantin ]>B.t if siluester 
ordeyn for ]?is dragon he do no more harm ]?ei all wil be conuerted to crist. 
Siluester continued a day or too in fastyng and prayer. Thoo appered on 
to him seynt petir and saide Ipe^e wordes. Be not a ferd siluestir for to do 
as I shal sey Ipe. Thou and too of J^i prestes goo boldly down to pe dragon 
he lith be net he in J>e erde I hundred passe & 1. Take lith with J»e and 
whan ]?ou seest him sey on to him J^ese wordis. Ou? lord ihu crist born of 
a uirgine crucified and biried whech ros up pe Ipird day fro deth and sittith 
on J?e rithand of pe fader aftirward schal come and deme both qwik and 
dede he comaundeth Ipe dragon J)at })ou do no harm he coraaumleth Ipe 
sathanas J>at f>ou abide him here in Ipis same place on to ])a,t same tyme J>at 
he schal come to pe doom.'^ Whan J?ou hast said fese wordes take a J^reed 

• S. Maria de penis inferni was on the same site as the church of S. Maria Liberatrice, 
and was built on or near the ruins of S. Maria Antiqua which has been so recently 
excavated in the Forum. The existence of the interesting ancient church, now brought 
to light by the demolition of S. Maria Liberatrice, was well known, and the frescoes had 
been seen and described more or less correctly before the demolition was determined upon 
(see Armellini). It is not known when the church of S. Maria Antiqua was abandoned, 
bnt it is believed to have occurred about the end of the eighth or beginning of the ninth 
century. The more modern church was constructed, according to Marucchi, in the six- 
teenth century, and was restored by Cardinal Lante in 1617. But it seems clear from 
our author that a church existed there in the fifteenth century, that it was a station 
church, and that there was an inscription in it which explained the origin of the title de 
penis inferni (Armellini, p. 857 ; Marucchi, p. 247 ; Nibby, p. 877). 

^ Graf quotes the Storia di 8. Silvestro, ed. by Michele Melga, Naples, 1859, which 
says that Peter speaks as follows to S. Silvester : * Incontanente che tu, Silvestro, 
giugnerai alio dragone, e tu dirai cotali parole : Jesu cristo, nato della Vergine per virtti 
dello Spirito Santo, e quale fu crocifisso e sopellito, e riuscitb dalla morte ; el quale andb 
in cielo, e siede dalla mano dritta del sue padre ; el quale verrk nella fine del mondo 
a giudicare e giusti e peccatori, si ti manda, comandando, Settanas, el quale abita in 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 167 

and bynde his mouth to gidir and with a ryng fat hath a crosse graue ferin 
fou schalt sele Ipe knot and make al sikir. Seynt siluest^r ded as petir 
comauwded and aftir his dede cam cute saaf and hool. Too wicchis pere 
were fat folowid siluestir in to fe pitte for to se who he wold werk and fei 
had be ded of fe blast of fis beest but f>at siluestir prayed for hem. Thei 
too seying fis miracle we? turned to ciist and all fe forsaid bischoppis with 
mech ofir puple. Tho siluester ded stop J?is hole and set fis cherch in J>e 
hole clepid it as we said be fo? and ^aue on to it swech indulgence as is eke 
rehersed. 



Of }>e cherch cleped sea m iuxta scolam grecorwm. ca x. 

A nothir cherch of ou? lady called sea maria iuxta scolam grecorww is 
rith in fe weye as we go to seynt paules or we come at fe mount aduewtyn 
fe cherch stant on Ipe lift hand and scola grecorwm on J?e rith hand.* This 
same/ scola grecorum is a grete hye lonnd hous whech stood on white f. 414 r 
pileres of marbiii now it is al wallid with til for fe pileris be ^e ar wasted. 
In fis skole was exercise of lerny-Tig in ail fe uii scienses for mech of oure 
lernyng cam fro fe grekis and for ]:at cause fe grekis held open skole at 
rome in her langage. That fe seuene sciens were taute as weel in J?e greke 
tonge as in fe latyn tonge witnessith fe lif of seynt austyn where it is seid 
fat f e same austyn hated f e gi'ek lettms and loued f e latyn. The cherch 
Ip^ BtRnt be for f is skole is dedicat on to oure lady and in f is cherch as we 
fynde writyn taute * seynt thomao of cauntirbyry * ^ philosophie and rethorik 
to hem fat wold come. For he was exile uii 5ere & in his exile he dwelled 
sumpart at rome.' Be fore f e dore of f is cherch stant a grete round ston 

questa cava, si debbi aspettare di qui alia fine del mondo, e non debii nuocere a persona* 
{Roma nella memoria, &c., Appendix to vol. ii, p. 585). 

* The church of S. Maria iuxta Scholam &raecam or Graecorum, or t» Cosmedin^ was 
erected on the ruins of an ancient temple of Ceres and other gods. It is recorded in the 
sixth century as a diaconia. The title of the church arises from the number of Greek 
merchants and seamen who traded and worked in the vicinity ; in the eighth century the 
bank of the river here was called the Hipa Graeca. Adrian I rebuilt the church, and after 
this it took the name of in Cosmedin (a derivative oi Kocftuy, to ad(M-n), a title it shared 
with S. Maria in Transpontina, a church at Naples, and another at Ravenna. It was 
restored in the ninth century by Nicholas I, and by Callixtus II in the twelfth. Three 
Popes were elected here, Gelasius II, Celestine III, and Benedict XII, antipope. The 
front was added by Cardinal Albani in 1718 (Armellini, p. 391; Marucchi, p. 270; 
Nibby, p. 867). ^ From * to * struck through in MS. 

^ ' In ecclesia see marie de scola grecorum ubi sanctus martir Thomas tenuit schulas 
sunt septem anni indulgencie ' {Bodl. MS., Dighy, fol. 10). 
* At a chapel . of ure ladi. 
per held scole seint Thomas of Cawtarburi ' 
(E. E. Text Society, 18C7. Vernon and Porkington MS., Siacions of Some, p. 28). 



168 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

and ]3at is mad aftir pe figure of a mannes face. This ston calle J^ei J^ere os 
iusti. This ston was enchauwted sumtyme be swich craft J^at what man 
cam to Ipis ston or woman and swore a trew oth in ony mater ]?at he we? 
charged of he schuld putte his hand in pe mouth of J>is ston & pulle it oate 
esely. And if so were fat liis oth were fals he schuld neuyr pulle oute his 
hand with oute grete hurt. Therfor was J?is ston cleped os iusti pe rithful 
mouth.* 



Of sea m iwperatWx de imperiali. ca xi. 

A nothir memorie of oure lady is as we go to lateranensis at a corner & 
pat is cleped imp^ratrix de impmali J^e emperesse of pe empi?. There is 
a fayre ymage peynted on a wal in honour* of ou? lady whech ymage spak 
sum tyme to a pope comau9^dyng him to do hir reuerens as he ded to othir. 
The story seith rith f)us. There was a pope in rome cleped celestin^g qmntus. 
This pope had so grete deuocion in ou? lady ]?at be fore euery ymage of hir 
he wold tary and sey an aue maria. This used he many 5eres. So in his 
tyme was gadered a grete couTicell at seynt jon lat^rane for reformaciouTi 
of pe cherch and )?is pope * rode in a morownyrig with his hreprin pe cardinales 
comownyng of certeyn materes fat were purposed in pe counceii liauy^ig no 
consideracion at J>is ymage ne doyng no reuerens Iperioo. Sche stood fan 
openly peynted on pe wal as sche doth now but sche was not housed as sche 
is now. "Whan pe pope * was sumwhat passed and goo pe ymage of ou? lady 
cried with a lowde uoys and seyde. Celestine what offens haue I do to pe 
fat f ou wilt not do me f e same seruyse whech f ou art wont to do to all my 
sisteres. Remember f e wel who fere is no ymage in my name but f ou wilt 
with glad chere tary be fore it and with deuoute hi^ sey fere f e same wordes 

* This stone was at one time believed to be a magical work of Vergil, and was called 
Bocca della Veritk for the reason given in the text. But, according to the MirahiUa, it 
was formerly known as the rota, for we find : * In portion eiusdem' (S. Maria in Cosmedin) 
'est magna rota lapidea ad molae formam, cui foramina quinque adsunt, quasi oris, 
narium, et oculorum, et vocant Bocca della Veritk.' See Graf, Jtoma nella memoria, &c., 
vol. ii, p. 139. See also article by Ersilia Lovatelli-Caetani in the Nuova Antologia, 
cxvii, 1891, pp. 152-9. In the MirahiUa also occurs the following passage : 'Ad sanctam 
Mariam in fontana templum Fauni quod simulacrum locutus est luliauo et decepit euni.' 
This refers to the story of the widow who entrusted her property to Julian the Apostate, 
and was robbed by him. She demanded that Julian should be sworn in presence of 
an idol she had found in the Tiber, an image of Mercury. When Julian, by order of the 
Pope (whose chaplain he was !), introduces his hand into the mouth of the idol and 
swears, his hand is caught in the closing mouth, and his guilt thereby proved (Grraf, 
vol. ii, pp. 135 sqq.). * Una pietra tonda a modo di macina con uno viso iutagliatovi dentro 
che si chiama la lapida della veritk, che anticamente aveva virtti di mostrare quando una 
donna avessi fatto fallo al suo marito' (Rucellai, II Giuhileo deli^ anno santo 1450, 
Archiv. St. Pat., 1881, vol. iv, fasc. iv, p. 580). 



a ( 



hi ' struck through in MS. 



YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 169 

whech gabriel saide to me. The pope * was al astoyned descended of his hors 

kneled down deuoutly be fore Ipe ymage mekely asked forgyfnesse and deuly 

saide / fere swech orison as he used. Tho named he J?is place ad scam mariam f. 414 v 

imperatric^m de imperiali pe place of seynt mari emperesse of Ipe empire. 

He grauwted eke to ait f)oo f>at uisite J^is place with deuocion a ml 3ere and 

u hundred.^ 



Of Ipe cherch cleped sea m de c^msolacione. ca xii 

There is a nojpir litil cherch fast by J>e capitol entitiled on to ou? lady 
whech pei clepe sea maria de consolacione.'^ In J^is cherch as it is seid seynt 
bemard used mech to sey his dutes both seruyse dyuyne and uoluntarie 
deuociones. He wold eke wayte him tyme whan he myth solitarie knele» 
be fore |?is ymage and loke peron f>an wolde he with grete deuocion haue hig 
meditaciones be him self. Aftir grete custom of [?is noble exercise up on a day 
he kneled and lokid on p\a ymage. And saide be fore hir })is ympne. Aue 
marie stella and whan he cam at pis uers Monstra te esse matrem sodeynly 
be gret myracle pe ymage put hir hand on to hir breest and jurist hir breest 
so J?at too or thre dropes of mylk sprang in bernardis face. More fynde 
I not of J?is place.* 

* The church of S. Maria Imperatrix has entirely disappeared. In a note (p. 165) 
Nichols says : • S. Gregory in Martio is identified with the little chapel of S. Maria 
Imperatrice, which lately existed in the garden of the English sculptor Warrington Wood, 
at the Villa Campana, in the angle between the Via S. Giovanni Laterano and the Via 
SS. Quattro.' This agrees exactly with the position described in the MS. Armellini 
gives the same indication of its existence in the Villa Campana (now built over), and 
adds that Mellini read, in an inscription, a legend stating that the image of the Virgin 
had miraculously spoken to S. Gregory (not to S. Celestine). In another place (p. 447) 
he says that the image was transferred to S. Maria delle Grazie, a small oratory attached 
to the Lateran Hospital (Nichols, Marvels of Rome, p. 165, n. 382 ; Armellini, pp. 286, 
447). In the Church of SS. Cosmas and Damian there is a written tablet connecting 
the miracle with S. Gregory ; Marucchi, in the index of his book (p. 518), says that it 
happened to S. Gregory. There is no mention of the occurrence in the article on S. Celes- 
tine in Stadler's SeiligenlexiJcon. ' Item zu sant Marcellino lygt hinter unser frowen 
capell keyserin im wingarten ' (Ein Bilchlin, Strassburg, 1500, p. E iiii B.M, p. E iii v, 
Bodleian copy). See also Muffel, p. 18 ; also cf. Adinolfi, vol. i, pp. 218, 802. 

2 Our author can hardly be referring to the church now called S. Maria della Consola- 
zione, inasmuch as Armellini and Marucchi agree that it was built in 1470. There was, 
however, a miraculous picture of the Virgin in the Vicus Jugarius, in the portico of the 
granaries of the Mattel. Whether there was an oratory or not, is not quite clear in 
Bruzio's narration, as quoted by Armellini (Armellini, p. 388 ; Marucchi, Appendix, 
p. 518). 

' This story of S. Bernard is found in chronicles of his Order, but, as Stadler says, such 
accounts can only be accepted as legendary. It was believed in the Middle Ages that the 
saint owed his honeyed eloquence to his having drunk from the Blessed Virgin's breast 
(Stadler, Seiligenlexikon). 



170 YE SOLACE OF PILGRIMES 

Of J»at chercli clepid sea maria in porticu. cap xiii. 

A no]?ir place Ipere is consecrate to ou? ladi wheeh pei clepe sea maria in 
porticu seint mary in Ipe porch.^ In J?is place dwelled sumtyme a worthi 
womaw called galla. Sjnacus a gret lord of rome was hir fader. Sche leued 
in J?e tyme of pe first pope J»at hith jon and in Ipe dayes of pe emperou? 
iustiniane whech was justines son. This woman aftir f>e deth of hir fader 
was endewyd with grete richesse and spent Ipoo goodes left on to hir in noble 
uses pWncipaly to J?e worchip of god. Sche hir selue eke leued in gret con- 
templaciouTi comittirig pe gouernsinns of hir houshold on to hir seruauTitis. 
Up on a day as sche sat at mete on of hir maydenes went to fe seler for to 
fech wyn and sodeynly up on a pile? whech bo? up Ipe hous sche sey a grete 
brithnesse and in pe myddis of f»is lith a fai? ymage of ou? lady. The mayde 
sore astoyned ran in to hir lady and told hir of f)is meruelous sith. Sche 
res with gret hast and loked Ipe lith sey sche wel but ymage sche sey non. 
Hir couTiceH gaue hir J?is reed that to pe byschop ^ schuld she goo and telle 
him pleynly J)is J'ing newly fallen. So to pe paleys lateranenszs sche goth 
for pere lay pe byschop ^ )?anne pere told sche him of J?is apparicion desired 
of him he schuld come J^idir him selue. The byschop ^ consented to hir desire. 
He wold first he seid haue his confessou? and dispose him to swech heuenely 
sitis. He cou9^celed hir eke to do pe same and J)is do he seid streit he wil 
go with hir. Thei cam hom on to galla hous nout alone ' with cardinales 
patWarkes and bischoppis with pe senatoures and mech puple of rome. 
"Whan pei we? pere . . . ^ 



Csetera desunt. 

^ The church of S. Maria in Porticu is also called S. Galla, having been founded by 
S. Galla, daughter of Sjrmmachus, mentioned by S. Gregory in his Dialogues (lib. IV, 
cxiii). It was consecrated by S. John I in the time of Theodoric. The portico from 
which it takes its cognomen was known in the Middle Ages by the name of the Porticus 
Gallatorum, The church was rebuilt by Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in the year 1073, 
and was restored by the Odescalchi family in the eighteenth century. The miraculous 
fresco was removed by Alexander VII to the church of S. Maria in Campilelli, with 
which this church must not be confused (Armellini, p. 860 ; Nibby, p. 857 ; Marucchi, 
Appendix, p. 506). 

' ' pope ' erased, ' byschop ' substituted in another hand in MS. 

' ' but * in margin of MS. 

* S. Galla was the daughter of Symmachus, who, together with Boethius, was executed 
during Theodoric's reign. She was widowed shortly after her marriage, and Fulgentius 
Kuspensis addressed his letter de statu viduarum to her. After the miraculous apparition 
of the Blessed Virgin she converted her house into a church. She then retired to a cell on the 
Vatican, and gave all her wealth to the poor. She bore with patience great suffering, due 
to an incurable disease ; and, after a life of charity and piety, died about the middle of the 
sixth century (Stadler, Seiligenlexikon ; Acta Sanctorum^ October, vol. iii, p. 147). 



INDEX 



A. 

Abacuk, p. 127. 

Abdon and Sennen, martyrs, 

p. 116 and note 1 ; persecuted, 

p. 116 ; brought before senate, 

p.ll6 ; tortured and martyred, 

p. 116. 
Abel, p. 129, p. 160. 
Abraham, p. 128, p. 160. 
Accius, p. 6 note 1 ; the poet 

and J. Caesar, p, 25. 
Acilius, M., Consul, p. 134 

note 2. 
Acquedotto Sabattino, p. 47 

note 1. 
Adam, p. 153, p. 160. 
Ad aquas gradatas, p. 137 and 

note 1, p. 138. 
Ad lunam, p. 11 note 1. 
Adriani templum (Castel S. 

Angelo), p. 12. 
Ad ursum pileatum, cemetery 

of, p. 20, p. 130 note 1. 
Aegea, p. 122 note 1. 
Africa, p. 156. 
Africanus, a writer in Gor- 

dian's reign, p. 54. 
Africanus, father of S. Naza- 

rius, p. 103 and note 2. 
Agapetus converts Justinian, 

p. 58. 
Agapitus, deacon, p. 120. 
Agatha, cemetery of, p. 20. 
Agnello, of Ravenna, p. 70 

note 1. 
Agrippina, p. 42 note 3. 
Agro Verano, cemetery of, p. 

20 ; St. Lawrence's Church 

there, p. 80, p. 82 note 2, 

p. 114. 
Ahasuerus, p. 28. 
Ahaz, Kome founded during 

reign of, p. 5. 
Alaric, his invasion, p. 57. 
Albanenses, summoned by 

Romulus to Rome, p. 6. 
Albani, cardinal, p. 167 notel. 
Albany, king of, p. 4. 
Albeston, p. 107 note 3. 
Albula, old name of Tiber, 

p. 4 ; battle of, p. 28. 
Alcuin, p. 67 note 2. 
Aldobrandini, Cardinal Pietro, 

p. 134 note 2. 
Alet, in Burgundy, Peter, 

bishop of, p. 93 and note 1. 
Alexander, de naturis rerum, 

p. 27 note 1. 



Alexander, pope, grants in- 
dulgence at S. Peter's, p. 62. 

Alexander, pope, p. 108 ; cures 
Balbina and converts Quiri- 
nus, p. 108. 

Alexander I, pope, imprisoned, 
p. 98 and note 2; miracu- 
lously delivered, p. 98 ; heals 
his jailer's daughter, p. 98, 
p. 108 note 1. 

Alexander III, pope, p. 47 
note 1. 

Alexander IV, pope, p. 80 
note 1, p. 113 note 3. 

Alexander VT, pope, p. 46 
note 3, p. 83 note 2, p. 134 
note 2, p. 161 note 3. 

Alexander VII, pope, p. 109 
note 2, p. 144 note 1, p. 163 
note 3, p. 170 note 1. 

Alexander, senator of Con- 
stantinople, p. 80 ; builds 
oratory at Jerusalem to S. 
Stephen, p. 80; dies and is 
buried, p. 80. 

Alexander Severus, emperor, 
a Christian, cf>nquers Xerxes, 
his arch, p. 18, p. 41 note 1, 
p. 53, p. 69 note 1, p. 101 
note 1, p. 110 note 2. 

Alexander the Great and 
Alexander Severus confused, 
p. 101 note 1. 

Alexander the Great, King of 
Macedon, p. 18 ; receives the 
gymnosophists, p. 30 ; would 
destroy Athens, p. 31 ; pre- 
vented by Anaximenes, p. 81, 
p. 144. 

Algiers, p. 110 note 1. 

Almachia, p. 47 note 2. 

Alta Semita, p. 43 note 1. 

Altars in S. Peter's, p. 62 and 
note 2. 

Ambrose's JExameron, p. 29. 

Amelia (or Emilia), p. 4 note 2. 

Amilius, King of the Latins, 
p. 4 ; killed by Romulus, 
p. 5. 

Amphitheatres, p. 17 ; (tmphi- 
theatrum Castrense, p. 76 
note 1. 

Amulius, p. 4 and note 2. 

Amyas (? Amiens), p. 183. 

Anacletus, pope, consecrates 
Ara Celi, p. 42, p. 61 note 1, 
p. 66 note 2, p. 104. 

Anastasius, emperor, p. 57. 

Anastasius II, emperor, p. 58 

z 2 



Anastasius IV, pope, p. 158 
note ]. 

Anaximenes and Alexander, 
p. 31. 

Anchus (or Anthus) Marcins 
Meduliensis conquers the 
Latins, p. 13 ; annexes the 
Aventine, p. 14. 

Ancona, p. 145 note 1. 

Angoye (? Anjou), p. 147. 

Anguilla S. Petri, p. 17, p. 22 
and note 4 ; height of, p. 28 ; 
Caesar buried in ball on sum- 
mit thereof, p. 23 ; inscrip- 
tion on, p. 23 and note 1. 

Anolinus, p. 108. 

Anonymus Magliabecchianus, 
p. 47 note 1, 

Anthemius Scribo, p.l09 note 1. 

Anthony, emperor, succeeds 
Macrinus, p. 58. 

Antinius, p. 121. 

Antioch, Church of, older than 
Rome, p. 60 ; history of, p. 
89, p. 106 note 1, p. 140 note 
2, p. 143 note 2, p. 144. 

Antonine, emperor, bridge of, 
p. 12 ; arch of, p. 19. 

Antoninus Pius, emperor, p. 
50 note 2. 

Apocrypha, p. 88. 

Apollo, see Phoebus, p. 85 ; 
origin of name, p. 85, p. 86 
note 1 ; temple of, p. 104, 
pp. 149-50. 

Appius, p. 53. 

Appius Claudius, builds Porta 
Appia, p. 8. 

Approvyan, a knight of Rome, 
p. 138. 

Apronian, p. 85 note 1. 

Apulia, p. 135 note 2. 

Aqua Crabra, or Dannata, p. 9 
note 3. 

Aqueduct, curious remark 
about, p. 79. 

Aquila,pp. 136-7, p. 149 note 4. 

Aquileia^ p. 100 note 1, p. 188 
note 1, p. 188 note 2. 

Aquilinus, Mayor of Rome, 
p. 93 ; persecutes SS. Tryphon 
and Respicius, p. 94. 

Aquitaine, p. 57 note 1. 

Arabia, p. 121. 

Ara Celi, description of, p. 89 ; 
Octavian meets sibyl at, p. 40 ; 
his vision at, p. 40 ; altar 
erected, p. 41 ; inscription of, 
p. 41 ; steps of, p. 42, p. 158. 



172 



INDEX 



Arcadius and Honorius, em- 
perors, p. 57, p. 66 note 2. 

Arch, of Alexander Severus, 
p. 18 ; — , of Antonine, p. 19 ; 
— , of Gallienus and Salonina, 
p. 10 note 3 ; — , of the 
Golden Bread, p. 19 ; — , of 
the Hand of flesh, p. 19 ; — , 
of Noe (the Colonnacce), p. 3 
note 2 ; — , of Ootavian, 
p. 19 ; — , of Piety, p. 19 and 
note 1 ; — , of Priscus Tar- 
quinius, p. 45 ; — , of the 
Senators, p. 19; — , of Theo- 
dosius, Valentinian, and Gra- 
tian, pp. 18-i9; — , of Titus 
and Vespasian, p. 19 ; — ^ of 
Triumph, p. 19 ; — , painted 
with the story of the I)omine 
quo vadis, p. 21. 

Archemia, daughter of Dio- 
cletian, p. 139; killed, p. 139. 

Archemius, p. 113, p. 114. 

Arches of Rome, the, p. 20 
note 1. 

ArcMpreshyteraUi de, title of 
Church of S. Apollinare, p. 142 
note 1. 

Arco di Oro (or Aurea), p. 3 
note 2. 

Arenarium, p. 114. 

Arezzo, p. 149 note 4. 

Arius, his death, p. 56. 

Aries, p. 68 note 1. 

Amolfo, p. 109 note 1. 

Amolfo di Cambio, p. 109 
note 1. 

Amulph, emperor, p. 59, 

Arthemia, daughter of Dio- 
cletian, p. 139 note 3. 

Arvagia, p. 47 and note 2. 

Asbeston, p. 107 note 3. 

Aschhausen, von, Johann Gott- 
fried, Prince-Bishop of Bam- 
berg, p. 42 note 3. 

Asgarus, King of Edissa, p. 
65. 

Asia, conquered, p. 48, p. 145, 
p. 156. 

Athenais, p. 97 note 1. 

Athens, saved by Anaximenes, 
p. 31, p. 71 note 2, p. 119. 

Atrium of S. Peter's, p. 46 
note 2. 

Atticus, the patriarch, p. 97 
note 1. 

Audifax, p. 127. 

Augustine, the second, Hugo 
de St. Victor described as, 
p. 60 note 1. 

Augustinian convent of S. Try- 
phon, p. 92 note 1. 

Augustinus, de Roma, p. 93 
and note 2. 

Augustus, p. 29 note 1 ; mauso- 
leum of, p. 42 and note 3; 
derivation of word, p. 43. 



Auralian, emperor, his perse- 
cution, p. 55. 

Aurelian, betrothed to Flavia 
Domitilla,p.l48,p.l49note2. 

Author, writes work called 
Concordia, p. 92 ; was an 
Austin friar, p. 92 and note 4. 

Aventinus, King of Albany, 
p. 4 ; builds city on Aventine, 
p. 4. 

Avignon, p. 132 note 1. 



B. 



Babylon, p. 189. 
Balam, a prophet, p. 158. 
Bamberg, p. 42 note 3. 
Barabbas, an Arian, sudden 

death of, p. 57. 
Barberini, cardinal, p. 162 

note 1. 
Barbo, Cardinal Marco, p. 107 

note 3. 
Bari, p. 135 note 2. 
Baronio, cardinal, p. 148 note 3. 
Baronius, p. 109 note 1. 
Baronus, p. 41 note L 
Basilians, p. 122 note 1 ; nuns 

of order, p. 159 note 1. 
Basilica, ad Corpus, p. 80 

note 1 ; — , Apostolorum^ p. 67 

note 3 ; — , Eudoxiana, p. 96 

note 1 ; — , Heleniana, p. 76- 

note 1 ; — , Major, p. 80 notel ; 

— , S. Mariae ad Praesepe, 

p. 83 note 2 ; — , Sessoriana, 

p. 76 note 1 ; -— , Siciniana, 

p. 83 note 2 ; — , Ulpia, p. 49 

note 2. 
Basilides, martyr, p. 102. 
Bath, the emperor's, p. 47 

note 1. 
Beaufort, Henry, cardinal, 

p. 107 note 4, p. 133 and 

note 4. 
Beauvais, Vincent de, p. 77 

note 2. 
Bede, p. 58, p. 126 note 1. 
Belial, p. 51 note 2. 
Belinus and Brennus, kings of 

England, p. 28 and note 3; 

former driven out of England 

becomes Duke of Brittany, 

p. 28 note 3. 
Bells, the first ever made are 

at S. John Lateran, p. 74. 
Belphegor, p. 51 note 2. 
Benedict II, pope, p. 122 note 3, 

p. 158 note 1. 
Benedict III, pope, p. 11 note 5, 

p. Ill note 1. 
Benedict VII, pope, p. 76 

note 1, p. 77 note 2. 
Benedict XII, antipope, p. 167 

note 1. 
Benedict XIII, pope, p. 110 

note 1. 



Benedict XIV, pope, p. 66 

note 2, p, 76 note 1, p. 83 

note 2, p. 113 note 8, p. 142 

note 1. 
Benedictines, p. 42 note 1 ; at 

S. Paul's, p. 6Q, p. 145 note 2. 
Benedictus, father of S. Mar- 

cellus, p. 141 note 1. 
Benno, cardinal, p. 77 note 2. 
Berengaria, of France, con- 
demned for heresy, p. 59. 
Berengarius I, emperor, p. 59 ; 

— , II, emperor, p. 59; — , 

III, emperor, p. 59. 
Berenice (S. Veronica), p. 64 

note 1. 
Berillus, p. 86. 
Bethlehem, p. 158. 
Bias, p. 44 and note 3. 
Bible of S. Jerome, p. 67 and 

note 2. 
Biennius, p. 44 and note 3. 
Bishop of Jerusalem, p. 80. 
Bithynia, p. 126 note 1. 
Blanck,Stephanus, p. 46 note 8. 
Bocca delta Veritd, p. 168 

and note 1. 
Boethius, p. 45, p. 170 note 4. 
Bollandists, the, p. 68 note 1, 

p. 139 note 3, p. 143 note 2. 
JBollario Vaticano, ^ p. 161 

note 3. 
Bologna, p. 45 note 3. 
Bonaparte, cardinal, p. 117 

note 1. 
Bonaventura, de vita Christi, 

p. 152. 
Boniface III, pope, p. 157. 
Boniface IV, pope, p. 36 note 1, 

p. 58, p. 61, p. 134 note 2, 

p. 140, p. 157 and note 1, 

p. 158. 
Boniface VIII, pope, p. 71 

note 1, p. 87 note 4, p. 101 

note 2, p. 145 note 2. 
Borghese, Cardinal Scipio, p. 67 

note 3, p. 89 note 1, p. 137 

note 1. 
Bosio, p. 21 note 2, p. 109 

note 1. 
Bosphorus, p. 126 note 1. 
Bowet, Henry, p. 107 note 4. 
Boys (? Boethius), p. 45. 
Brache ( = Braccio), a measure, 

I yard long^ used in Italy, 

p. 152. 
Bramante, p. 61 note 1, p. 104 

note 2, p. 128 note 2. 
Brazen tablets of Rome, treaty 

with Jews on, p. 49. 
Brennus (see Belinus), builds 

Milan and Pavia, fights 

Romans and captures city 

except Capitol, p. 28 ; accepts 

large ransom, p. 29. 
Brescia, Chiu-ch of S. Peter at, 

p. 41 note 1. 



INDEX 



173 



Bridges of Rome {see Pons), 

p. 13 note 1. 
Britain, p. 28 note 3. 
Brittany, p. 28 note 3. 
Brunelleschi, Filippo, p. 38 

note 2. 
Brutus, kills Caesar, p. 25. 
Bruzio, p. 169 note 2. 
Bufalini, his plan of Rome, 

p. 11 note 5. 
Byzantium, p. 126 note 1. 
Byzantius, p. 90 note 1. 

C. 

Caballus, description of, p. 29 ; 
the woman wound about with 
a serpent, p. 29 and note 6, 
p. 30 note 2 ; explanation of 
same, p. 31. 

Caesar. See Julius Caesar. 

Caetani - Lovatelli, Countess 
Ersilia, p. 168 note 1. 

Caiaphas, his prophecy, p. ^7. 

Cain, p. 129, p. 160. 

Callixtus, pope, p. 53. 

Callixtus, synod against, p. 131 
note 8. 

Callixtus II, pope, p. 114 note 

1, p. 167 note 1. 
Callixtus III, pope, p. 149 

note 4. 
Camarians, p. 6. 
Camerarius, p. 144 note 1. 
Camese, p. 3 note 4. 
Campania, p. 146. 
Campanians, p. 6. 
Campflour (fiampo dei Mori), 

p. 128. 
Cancelleria, palace of, p. 128 

note 2. 
Candidus, p. 121. 
Cane (Caen), p. 145. 
Cannapara, p. 17 note 4. 
Canterbury, p. 83 note 1. 
Cantharus, description of, p. 46 

and note 3, p. 47 note 1. 
Caphargamala, p. 80. 
Capitol,description of, pp. 26-7; 

great wealth in, p. 27 ; origin 

of name, p. 26 note 1, p. 36 

note 1, p. 42 note 1, p. 51 note 

2, p. 119, p. 134 note 3, p. 169. 
Capitoline Mu8eum,p.20 note 5. 
Cappadocia, p. 88 note 2, p. 88. 
Caraffa, Cardinal Diomede, 

p. 131 note 3. 

Cardinals, ordained first by 
S. Marcellus, p. 141 ; at first 
of little importance or dignity, 
p. 141; constitution of College 
and list of same, pp. 141-2. 

Carillo, cardinal, p. 126 note 2. 

Carinus, emperor, p. 55. 

Carmel, p. 181. 

Carmelites, p. 131. 

Carnival at Rome, the, p. 51 
note 2. 



Carolingian Bible, p. 67 note 2. 

Carpophorus, p. 127, p. 128 
note 1. 

Cartagena, p. 29 note 2. 

Carthage, p. 159 note 1. 

Cassius, kills Caesar, p. 25. 

Castel S. Angelo, p. 12 and 
note 1 ; miracle at, p. 12, p. 47, 
p. 61, p. 161 note 3. 

* Castelle Augustall ', mauso- 
leum of Augustus, p. 42. 

CastelUim Aureum, p.28 note 1. 

Castle of Crescentius, p. 18. 

Castorius, p. 127. 

Castra Peregrinorum, p. 104 
note 2. 

Catacombs, p. 8, p. 17, p. 18, 
p. 20 ; discovery of Priscilla C. 
in 1590, p. 21 note 2, p. 22 ; 
meaning of word, p. 69 ; con- 
nexion of with neighbouring 
macella, p. 69. 

Catacombs of S. Callixtus, p. 
109 note 1, p. 110, p. 120 
note 1. 

Cataline, p. 17 ; palace of, p. 17. 

Catholiccm, name for diction- 
ary in Middle Ages, p. 34 and 
note 1 ; error in same re- 
garding the Salvatio Romae, 
p. 34. 

Cato, his school (schola Grae- 
corum), p. 17, p. 45. 

Catus, p. 159 note 1. 

Celanenses, summoned by Ro- 
mulus, p. 6. 

Celestine I, pope, p. 86 note 1. 

Celestine III, pope, p. 122 note 
3, p. 167 note 1. 

Celestine V, pope, p. 168, p. 
169 note 1. 

Celienne, keeper of Caelian 
hill, p. 15. 

Celsus, martyr, p. 102. 

Cemeteries, p. 20. {See Cyme- 
tery.) 

Cemetery of S. Callixtus, p. 8, 
p. 68 and note 1 ; description 
of, p. 68 ; S. Peter's chapel in, 
p. 69 ; forty- six popes and 
S. Cecilia buried there, p. 
69 ; great pardon of, p. 69 ; 
reasons for making it, p. 69, 
p. 120 note 1. 

Centaurs, p. 144 ; one caught 
and brought to Alexander the 
Great, p. 144. 

Ceres, and Tellus, temple of, 
p. 17 note 4; — , temple of, 
p. 167 note 1. 

Chains of S. Peter, brought to 
Rome, p. 97; miraculously 
joined to Roman chain, p. 98. 

Chalcedon, Council of, p. 57. 

Chalcides, p. 159 note 1. 

Chapters, of Part I, p. 2 ; — , of 
Part II, pp. 155-6. 



Charlemagne, emperor, p, 59, 

p. Q7 note 2; takes part of 

nail used at Crucifixion from 

S. Croce, p. 77, p. 147 note 2. 
Charles II, the Bald, emperor, 

p. 59. 
Charles III, the Fat, emperor, 

p. 59. 
Charterhouse, monks of the, 

p. 83. 
Cherson (or Terson), p. 132. 
Chiaramonte Gallery, of the 

Vatican, p. 74 note 3. 
Chicheley, Henry, cardinal, 

p. 107 note 4. 
Chilon, p. 44 and note 3. 
Chosroe, King of Persia, killed, 

p. 58. 
Chrysogonus, bishop, p. 99. 

Churches. 
S. Adrian, p. 21, p. 148 note 3. 
S. Agnes (* Anneis '), p. 11 and 

note 2, p. 76 ; ward of, p. 114. 
S. Alexis, p. 45 note 2. 
S. Anastasia, p. 13, pp. 99-100 

and note 1, p. 100. 
S. Andrew, p. 89 note 1 ; 

monastery of, ib. 
S. Angelo, portico of, p. 25 note 

4 ; — , bridge of, p. 12 note 1, 

p. 47 note 2 ; — , castle of, p. 12 

note 1, p. 161 note 3. 
S. Anthony, p. 85. 
S. Apollinaris, p. 20, p. 142 and 

note 1. 
SS. Apostoli,region of, p. 1 8 note 

4, p. 102 and notes 3 and 4. 
S. Balbina, p. 107 and note 3, 

p. 129. 

S. Bartholomew, p. 131 note 2. 

S. Basilius, p. 49 note 2. 

S. Bibiana, p. 20 and note 8. 

S. Boniface, on Mons Canalis, 
p. 15 and note 1. 

SS. Callixtus and Julius, old 
name of S. Mary in Trans- 
tiber, p. lllnotel; Cemetery 
of S. Callixtus, p. 8, p. 68 and 
note 1 ; S. Peter's chapel in, 
p. 69, p. 69 note 1, p. 120 
note 1, p. 134 note 1. 

S. Caterina ai Funari, p. 28 
note 1. 

S. Cecilia, p. 109 and note 1. 

S. Celso and Giuliano, near 
arch of Alexander Severus, 
p. 18 and note 3, p. 18 note 4. 

S. Chrysogonus, p. 109, p. 137 
and note 1 ; relics therein, 
p. 137, p. 138 note 1. 

S. Ciriacus, p. 138 and note 8 ; 
a small desolate place, p. 138 ; 
cardinal of, attached to 

5. Mary Major, p. 138; site 
discovered in 1874, p. 138 
note 8 ; church abandoned in 
sixteenth century, ib. 



174 



INDEX 



S. Clement, p. 74 note 3, p. 105 
and note 1 ; Council of 417 
held there, ib., p. 107 note 1. 

SS. Cosmo and Damian, p. 92 
note 2, p. 120 and note 2; 
built by Felix IV, p. 120 
note 2; also called in silice 
and in tribus fatis, p. 120 
note 2, p. 169 note 1. 

S. Constantia, p. 11 and note 2. 

S. Croce, p. 76 and note 1 ; 
built by Constantia, p. 76 ; 
relics therein, p. 76 ; chapel 
of S. Helena, p. 77 ; women 
only allowed therein on 
March 20, p. 77 ; reason why, 
p. 77 ; legend of Pope Syl- 
vester II's Mass, p. 77 and 
note 2 ; Passion play held on 
Good Friday outside church, 
p. 79. 

S. Dionysius inter duos hortos 
(S. Silvester), p. 132 note 3. 

S. Edmund the King, hospital 
of, p. 109 and note 2. 

S. Eusebius, p. 133 and note 3 ; 
Henry Beaufort, cardinal, 
presents ornaments to church, 
p. 138. 

S. Felix in Pincis, p. 11 and 
note 5. 

S. George, p. 21, p. 87 and 
note 4, p. 137, p. 140 note 3, 
p. 165. 

S. Gregory, p. 89 note 1, p. 188 
note 3 ; monastery of, p. 18, 
p. 44, p. 45. 

S. Gregory in Martio, name 
for S.Mary Imperatrix, p. 169 
note 1. 

S. Helen, p. 20 ; altar of, at 
Ara Celi, p. 41 note 2. 

Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, 
p. 64 note 1. 

S. James del Portico, or Scossa- 
cavalli, p. 25 and note 3. 

S. James * in Gales ', p. 67. 

S.John Baptist, of the Genoese, 
p. 109 note 2. 

S. John Evangelist, chapel of 
{in olio), p. 9. 

S. John of the Florentines, 
p. 18 note 4. 

S. John in Fonte, p. 103 note 8. 

S. John ad laniculum, p. 8 
note 8. 

S. John Lateran, p. 33 note 1, 
p. 86 note 1 ; chapel oiSancta 
Sanctorum,Y>- 36 note 1, p. 49 ; 
treasures given by Constan- 
tine, p. 50, p. 63 note 1; 
description of, p. 7 1 and note 1 ; 
S. Gregory's library, p. 71 ; 
the baptistery, p. 71 ; chapel 
of S. John Baptist closed to 
women, p. 71 ; chapel of 
S. Mary of the Ring, p. 72 ; 



Constantine's council cham- 
ber, p. 72 ; miracle of crucifix, 
p. 72 ; description of the 
church, p. 73 ; heads of 
SS. Peter and Paul shown, 
p. 78 and note 1 ; Hiram's 
pillars, p. 78 ; relics, p. 78 ; 
hall where S. John preached, 
p. 74 ; S. Gregory's pulpit, 
p. 74 ; the cloister, p. 74 ; the 
sedes stercoraria and legend 
of Pope Joan, p. 74 ; the 
Scala Santa, p. 75 ; chapel 
above forbidden to women, 
p. 75; our Saviour's chapel 
and the Volto Santo, p. 75, 
p. 76 note 1, p. 77 note 2; 
station at, p. 94 ; ranks as 
first church in the world, 
popes crowned there, p. 94; 
Constantine's palace and re- 
signed by him to S. Silvester, 
p. 94, p. 126, p. 145 note 2 ; 
station and procession on 
Palm Sunday, p. 146 ; another 
station at, p. 151 ; relic of the 
board of the holy maunde, 
pp. 151-2 ; station at, p. 154 ; 
the * sepulchre ' there, p. 154, 
p. 168 ; Council at, p. 168. 

S. John at the Latin Gate, 
p. 145 and note 2 ; chapel of 
S.John in oZto,p.l45 ; church 
practically deserted, p. 145 ; 
hole under altar for penitents 
to creep through, p. 145. 

SS. John and Paul, pp. 89-90 
and note 1, p. 90. 

S. Julian, p. 20 and note 3. 

S. Laurence in Damasco, p. 18, 
p. 128 and note 1 ; derivation 
of name of church, pp. 128-9, 
p. 129 note 2. 

S. Laurence fuori, outside the 
Walls, p. 20, p. 79 ; descrip- 
tion of, p. 80 and note 1 ; 
SS. Laurence and Stephen 
buried there, p. 80 ; transla- 
tion of S. Stephen, p. 80 sq. ; 
list of other saints buried 
there, pp. 81-2 ; relics and in- 
dulgences, pp. 82-3 ; station, 
p. 114. 

S. Laurence in Lucina, p. 19, 
p. 82 note 4, p. 122 and note 8 ; 
site belonged to S. Lucina, 
p. 122. 

S. Laurence in Panisperna, 
p. 17, p. 101 ; derivation of 
name, p. 101 and note 2 ; also 
called in Formonso or For- 
moso, p. 101 note 2. 

S. Lorenzo del Mont, Catalan 
monastery of, p. 140 note 3. 

SS. Marcellinus and Peter, 
p. 17, p. 113 and note 3, p. 169 
note 1, 



S. Marcellus, p, 140 and note 1, 
near the columpna of M. Au- 
relius, p. 140 ; orientation of 
church changed by Sansovino, 
p. 140 note 1. 

S. Mark, p. 19, p. 115 note 2 ; 
also called de Pallacine, ib. 

S. Mark's, Venice, p. 130 
note 1. 

S. Martin in Montihits, p. 131 
and note 3; dedicated to S. 
Martin of Tours and S. Sil- 
vester, or perhaps to S. Mar- 
tin, pope, p. 131 note 1 ; Sy- 
nod of 324, p. 131 note 1. 

S. Mary, of the Angels, p. 138 
note 3 ; — , of the Annuncia- 
tion, p. 160 and note 2 ; be- 
tween Tre Fontane and S. 
Sebastian, p. 160 ; vision of 
our Lady to hermit dwelling 
there, p. 160 ; — , Antiqua, 
p. 166 note 1 ; — , de Anulo, 
chapel of, p. 72 note 8 ; — , 
of Ar^ Celi, p. 39, p. 42 note 
1, p. 158 ; called Octavian's 
chamber, its altar and inscrip- 
tion thereon, pp. 158-9; — , 
in Canipitelli, p. 170 note 1 ; 
— , in Cannapara, p. 22 note 
2 ; — , of the Capitol, p. 42 
note 1 ; — , of Consolation, 
p. 169 and note 2 ; near 
Capitol, p. 169 ; account of 
S. Bernard's vision of the 
Blessed Virgin, p. 169 ; — , 
in Cosmedin, p. 144 note 1, 
p. 167 and note 1 ; — , Cor- 
sarum, p. 118 note 2 ; — ^, in 
Dominica, p. 104 and note 2, 
also called in naviceUis, p. 
105 ; only church in Rome re- 
taining title of Dominicum, 
p. 104 note 2 ; — ^, of Grace, 
p. 169 note 1 ; — , Imperatrix 
de Iwperiali, p. 168 ; its 
position, and account of mi- 
raculous fresco, p. 168 ; also 
called S. Gregory in Martio, 
p. 169 note 1 ; — , Inviolata 
{In Via Lata), p. 138 note 3, 
p. 141 ; — , Major, p. 16, p. 
63 note 1 ; description of, p. 
83 and note 2 ; the first 
church in Rome dedicated to 
our Lady, p. 84 ; also called 
S. Mary in Superaggio, p. 88 
note 2 ; miracle of the snow, 
p. 84 ; relics and indulgences, 
p. 85 ; miracle which hap- 
pened in 1452, p. 88 note 2 ; 
station at, p. 150 ; miracle at, 
p. 151 ; — , of the Martyrs, 
Smother name for the Pan- 
theon, p. 87, p. 157, p. 158 
note 1 ; — , over Minerva, 
conclave at, p. 26 ; records 



INDEX 



175 



of Tiber floods at, p. 26, p. 
159 and note 1 ; erected over 
temple to Minerva, p. 159 
note 1 ; — , the New, p. 19, 
p. 22 ; — , of the Palm, p. 8, 
p. 162 and note 1 ; origin of 
name, p. 162 ; now known as 
the Domine quo vadis, p. 162 
note 1 and 2; apparition of 
our Lord to S. Peter, pp. 
162-8 ; — , de penis infer ni, 
p. 21, p. 165-6, p. 166 note 1 ; 
— , of the People, p. 9 note 3, 
p. 11, p. 16 ; Nero's palace 
close by, p. 17, p. 163 and 
note 3 ; site of Nero's death, 
p. 164 ; haunted, p. 164 ; ap- 
parition of our Lady to Pope 
Pascal, p. 164; he destroys 
body and grave of Nero to 
found church on site, p. 164 ; 
S. Luke's picture of the Vir- 
gin, p. 165 notes 1 and 2 ; 
procession there to stay the 
plague, p. 165 ; — , of the 
Portico, p. 170 and note 1; 
apparition of our Lady to 
Galla's servant, p. 170 ; — , 
the Round, p. 18, p. 19 and 
note 1 ; another name for 
Pantheon, p. 37, p. 46 note 
8, p. 58 ; description of, 
p. 157 r mode of building 
dome, p. 157 ; also called S. 
Mary of the Martyrs, p. 157 ; 
Pope Boniface obtains leave 
to consecrate the Pantheon, 
p. 157 ; destroys idols there- 
in and fixes feast day for the 
church, pp. 157-8, p. 158 note 
1 ; — , iuxta Scholam Graeco- 
rum, p. 9 note 3, p. 167 and 
note 1 ; church opposite the 
Schola, p. 167 ; S. Thomas of 
Canterbury teaches here, p. 
167 ; the Bocca della Veritdby 
pp. 167-8 ; now called S. Mary 
in Cosmedin, p. 167 note 1 ; 
a diaconia, p. 167 note 1 ; — , 
of the Sun, p. 144 note 1 ; 
— , Transpontine, p. 25 note 
3, p. 47 note 2, p. 161 and 
note 3 ; in the Leonine city, 
p. 161 ; pillars at which SS. 
Peter and Paul were scourged, 
p. 161 ; its ten different 
names, p. 161 note 3; the 
original church was near Cas- 
tel S. Angelo, p. 161 note 3, 
p. 167 note 1 ; — , Transtiber, 
p. 69 note 1, p. Ill and note 
1 ; formerly a knights' hos- 
pital, p. Ill note 1 ; legend 
of wells of oil, p. 111. 
S. Menna, p. 92 note 3. 
S. Michael, p. 22 note 2. 
S. Moritz, town of, named 



after S. Mauricius, p. 121 

note 1. 
SS. Nereus and Achilleus, p. 

131 note 2, p. 148 and note 3. 
S. Nicholas in Car cere, statue 

of gander at, p. 29 and p. 

184 ; church, description of, 

p. 134 and note ; relics at, p. 

134. 
S. Pancras, p. 7, p. 20, p. 155. 
S. Pastor, p. 74 note 3. 
S. Paul outside the Walls, p. 

21 ; site known as Tiortus 

Lucillae, p. 22, p. 63 note 1 ; 

description of, p. 66 and note 

2 ; number of pillars, p. 66 ; 

high altar at east end, p. 66 ; 

reason why pilgrims enter 

church at west door, p. 67 ; 

indulgences, p. 67 and note 
1 ; miraculous crucifix and 

Bible of S. Jerome, p. 67, p. 
88 note 2, p. 92 note 8; list 
of saints buried there and 
relics, p. 130 and note 1. 
S. Paul's, London, p. 67 note 2. 

S. Peter, p. 12 note 1 ; cover- 
ed with metal taken from the 
' great palace ', p. 16, p. 17, 
p. 22, p. 25 note 8, p. 46 and 
note 3 ; the place called 
Paradise, p. 46 note 3 ; pave- 
ment in front of, p. 47 ; de- 
scription of church, p. 61 and 
note 1 ; dimensions of and 
spaces between pillars, p. 61 ; 
pillars from Solomon's tem- 
ple, p. 61 ; steps leading to 
church, dimensions of same, 
pp. 61-2 and note 1, p. 62 ; 
number of altars, p. 62 and 
note 2; indulgences, p. 63 
and note 1 ; principal altars, 
seven in number, p.' 63 ; to 
whom dedicated, p. 63; an- 
cient portraits of SS. Peter 
and Paul at high altar, p. 62 
note 2 ; relics, p. 63 ; the 
Vemacle,pp. 63-4; inscription 
on one of the pillars of Solo- 
mon's Temple, pp. 65-6 and 
note 1 ; stone on which bodies 
of SS. Peter and Paul were 
weighed and divided, p. 66, 
p. 71, p. 92 note 2 ; Constan- 
tine's work in foundations of 
church, p. 95 ; station at, p. 
104 ; body of S. Susanna 
translated from, p. 123 ; sta- 
tion at, p. 135 ; chapel of S. 
Mary of the Fever, p. 135 ; 
fresco of our Lady miracu- 
lously changes its position, p. 
185 and note 3 ; another 
miraculous fresco of the 
Blessed Virgin in the porch, 
p. 135 ; the Limina Apodolo- 



rum, and inscription tliere, 
p. 136 and note 2, p. 158 
note 1, p. 161. 

S, Peter at Brescia, p. 41 note 1. 

S. Peter in Carcere, p. 63 note 2. 

S. Peter in Montorio, p. 70 note 

S. Peter ad Vincula, p. 22, 
p. 96 and note 1 ; also called 
Basilica Eudoxiana, p. 96 
note 1. 

S. Prassede, p. 22, p. 147 and 
note 1 ; was the liouse of 
Praxedis, p.l48; well in same 
filled with martyrs' bones, p. 
148 ; chapel of pillar of the 
flagellation, p. 148; other 
relics, p. 148. 

S. Prisca, p. 149 and note 4 ; 
S. Peter's chapel underground 
there, p. 149 ; church on site 
of house of Aquila and Prisca, 
p. 149 note 4. 

S. Pudenziana, p. 74 note 3, 
p. 117 and note 1 ; three 
thousand bodies of saints, p. 
117 ; the cavity in the wsJl 
where S. Peter was hidden, 
p. 117 ; miracle of the sacra- 
ment, p. 118. 

SS. Quatuor Coronati, p. 126 
and note 2. 

S. Saba, p. 15 note 1. 

S. Sabina, p. 14, p. 15 note 1, 
p. 17, p. 20, p. 45 note 2 ; 
description of, p. 86 and note 
1, p. 124, p. 159 note 1. 

S. Saturninus, p. 21 and note 
1, p. 92 note 2. 

S. Saviour, hospital of, p. 74 
note 3. 

S. Saviour in Balbina, another 
name for S. Balbina, p. 129. 

S. Saviour in tellumine, p. 22 
note 2. 

S. Sebastian, p. 20, p. 67 and 
note 3 ; description of, p. 68 ; 
altar of S. Fabian, p. 68 ; of 
S. Sebastian, p. 68 ; legend of 
the angel ministering at S. 
Gregory's Mass, p. 68 ; cata- 
combs under the church, p. 68 ; 
reasons for making the same, 
p. 69 ; SS. Peter and Paul laid 
here to conceal their bodies 
during troubled times, p. 69, 
p. 71, p. 160 and note 2, p. 162 
note 2, p. 162. 

S. Sebastian, cemetery of, p. 20, 
p. 22. 

S. Silvester, p. 17, p. 182 note 3. 

S. Sixtus, p. 18, p. 118 and 
note 2 ; picture of B. Virgin 
by S. Luke here, p. 118 ; for- 
merly known as SS. Dominic 
and Sixtus, p. 118 note 2 ; the 
monastery of S. Cesario de 



176 



INDEX 



Corsas, or Corsarum, near it, 
p. 118 note 2. 

S. Sophia, at Constantinople, 
p. 58. 

S. Stephen, Basilica of, p. 92 
note 2. 

S. Stephen the Round, or in 
Celio Monte, p. 16, p. 144 and 
note 1 ; on site of temple of 
Fauns, p. 144 ; idols of temple 
destroyed by S. Sebastian, 
p. 144 ; name of S. Stephen 
the Round first belonged to 
temple of Vesta, near Tiber, 
p. 144 note 1 ; disagreement 
amongst authors whether 
building was originally pagan 
or Christian, p. 144 note 1. 

S. Susanna, also called ad duas 
domos, and inter diias lauros, 
p. 123 and note 2 ; its solitary 
and deserted condition, p. 123. 

S. Thomas, region of, p. 18 
note 4 ; hospital of, present 
English College, p. 109 note 2, 
p. 157. 

S. Tryphon in posterula, de- 
scription of, p. 92 and note 1. 

S. Ursus, p. 18 and note 4, p. 25. 

S. Ursus, Cemetery of, p. 20. 

S. Valentine, p. 148 note 2. 

S. Victor, monastery of at Paris, 
p. 59 note 1. 

S. Vitalis, p. 112 and note 1 ; 
desolate state of, p. 112. 

S. Vitus ad lunam,ip. 11 note 1. 

S. Vitus and Modestus, keys of 
Tivoli hanging there, p. 11 and 
note 1. 

Cicero, p. 9 note 3, p. 14 note 1 ; 
palace of, p. 17, p. 115 note 2. 

Cilicia, p. 122 note 1. 

Circus, Flaminius, p. 28 note 1 ; 
— , Maximus, p. 46 note 1 ; — , 
Prisci, p. 43, p. 43 note 2. 

Ciriaca, cemetery of, p. 80 
note 1. 

Cirinus, martyr, p. 102. 

Ci vitas Leonina, p. 61, p. 109. 

Clare, or Stoke Clare, in Eng- 
land, p. 83 note 1. 

Clarus, emperor, p. 55. 

Classensis, Classis, p. 143. 

Claudia, p. 117 note 2. 

Claudius, a law writer, p. 53. 

Claudius, emperor, palace of, 
p. 1 7 ; temple of, p. 90, p. 143 
note 2, p. 149, p. 150 note 1. 

Claudius II, emperor, p. 55, 
p. 127 note 1, p. 148 note 2. 

Claudius, martyr, p. 127, p. 127. 

Clearcus, p. 117 note 1. 

Clemens, consul, p. 131 note 2. 

Clement V, pope, p. 71 note 1. 

Clement VII, pope, p. 71 note 1. 

Clement VIII, pope, p. 112 



note 1, p. 132 note 3, p. 162 

note 1. 
Clement XI, pope, p. Ill note 

1, p. 132 note 3. 
Clement XII, pope, p, 18 note 

3, p. 71 note 1, p. 149 note 4. 
Cleobulus, p. 44 and note 3. 
Clermont, p. 68 note 1. 
Cletus, pope, p. 104, p. 106; 

succeeds Linus, p. 106 and 

note 2. 
Cloaca^ the, p. 68 note 2. 
Cluny, abbey of, founded, p. 59. 
Coilus, king in Britain, p. 126 

note 1. 
Cola di Rienzo, p. 71 note 2. 
Colchester, p. 126 note 1. 
Cologne, martyrdom of 11,000 

virgins at, p. 57, p. 57 note 1. 
Colonna, Federico, Duke of 

Palliano, p. 11 note 1 ; family 

of, p. 140 ; Prospero, cardinal, 

p. 140 and note S; Egidic, 

p. 140 and note 3 ; Oddo 

(Martin V), p. 140 note 3. 
Colonnacce, in Forum of Ner va, 

known as * Arch of Noe ', p. 3 

note 2. 
Colosseum, description of, p. 33, 

p. 3-4 note 5 ; origin of name, 

p. 36, p. 90. 
Colossus, the image of the, 

p. 35 note 1 ; remains of, 

taken to the Lateran, p. 36 

and note 1. 
Columpna, the, p. 132 note 3, 

p. 140. 
Commodus, p. 36 note 1. 
Conclaves, held at S. Mary 

over Minerva, p. 26. 
Concord and Pity, temple of 

(Venus and Rome), p. 22. 
Concordia, temple of, p. 21, 

p. 22 note 2. 
Concordia, title of a book 

written by author, p. 92 and 

note 4. 
Concordianum cemetery, p. 20. 
* Conk ' of Constantine, p. 49. 
Conrad, emperor, the first of 

the German line, p. 59. 
Conrad I, emperor, p. 59. 
Conrad II, emperor, p. 59. 
Conservatori, palace of the, 

p. 86 note 1. 
Constans II, emperor, p. 132 

note 2, p. 134 note 1, p. 158 

note 1. 
Constantia, cured of leprosy, 

p. 76 ; builds S. Croce, p. 76, 

p. 90. 
Constantine the Great, em- 
peror, p, 11 note 2 ; his palace 

{jfee Lateran palace), p. 17 ; 

statue at Lateran not of him, 

as believed, p. 31, p. 33 note 1 ; 

gives S. Silvester lordship 



over Rome, p. 35 ; goes to 
Constantinople, p. 85 ; his 
* conk ', p. 49 ; baptized there- 
in, p. 49 ; great treasures 
given by him to St. John 
Lateran, p. 50 ; his birth, 
p. 55 ; becomes emperor, p. 55 ; 
some say he was an Arian, 
p. 55 ; canonized by Greek 
Church, p. 55 ; founds S, Pe- 
ter's, p. 61 note 1 ; gives 
dominion to bishops of Rome 
in spiritual matters, pp. 60-1, 
p. 62 note 2 ; founds S. Paul's, 
p. 66 note 2 ; his baptistery, 
p. 71 and note 1 ; his Council, 
p. 72; his daughter cured, 
p. 76 ; founds S. Croce, p. 76 
note 1 ; founds S. Lawrence, 
p. 80 note 1 ; founds S. John 
Lateran and digs in foun- 
dations thereof, p. 94 ; his 
principal palace, p. 94; resigns 
it and dominion over west to 
S. Silvester, p. 94 ; retires to 
Constantinople, p. 94 ; makes 
eight laws on eight days after 
his baptism, pp. 94-5 and 
note 2, p. 95 ; founds S. Peter's 
and digs in foundations there 
also, p. 95, p. 114 note 1, 
p. 115, p. 116, p. 124, p. 126 
note 1, p. 144, p. 151, p. 166. 

Constantine II, emperor, an 
Arian, p. 55 ; his miserable 
end, pp. 55-6, p. 133, p. 134. 

Constantine III, emperor, p. 
58. 

Constantine IV, emperor, p. 58. 

Constantine V, emperor, p. 59. 

Constantine VI, emperor, p. 59. 

Constantine, original name of 
S. Cyril, p. 107 note 1. 

Constantinople, p. 46 note 8 ; 
Council of, p. 58 ; Church of, 
claims to be principal, p. 61, 
p. 97 note 1, p. 102 note 4, 
p. 109 note 1, p. 129 note 2, 
p. 130 note 1, p. 151, p. 158 
note 1. 

Constantius Chlorus, emperor 
with Galerius, p. 55 ; conquers 
Spain, goes to Britain, marries 
Helena, dies at York, p. 55, 
p. 126 note 1, p. 141 note 1. 

Consuls, ceremonies at choice 
of, p. 26. 

Cordova, p. 29 note 2. 

Corduba, p. 116. 

Cornelius, pope, p. 68 note 1, 
p. 70. 

Cornelius, disciple of S. Cle- 
ment, p. 106 and note 3. 

Coroboam, one of the founders 
of Rome, p. 4. 

Coronation stone of the em- 
perors, p. 136. 



Corsini chapel in S. John 
Lateran, p. 77 note 2. 

Council, of Constantinople, 
p. 58, p. 120 note 2; — , of 
Nicaea, p. 59, p. 135 note 2; 
— , of Constantine, p. 72 ; — , 
of 417 A.D. at S. Clement'8, 
p. 105 note 1; — ^, at Eome, 
p. 120 note 2. 

Cradle of our Lord at S. Mary 
Major, p. 85. 

Crescembeni, p. 145 note 2. 

Crescentius, castle of, p. 18, 
p. 92 note 1. 

Crete, p. 130 note 1. 

Crimea, p. 107 note 1. 

Cross, Invention of the, p. 126 
note 1. 

Cruellea, Fra, p. 140 note 3. 

Crusades, p. 122 note 1. 

Cuccagna, sport of, p. 51 note 
2. 

Cultivation, Italian and Eng- 
lish methods compared, p. 6 
and note 2. 

Cunelle,acityinFrance,p. 103. 

Cura'cius, p. 53. 

Curiaca, p. 82. 

Curiacus, cemetery of, p. 21. 

Custodia Mamortini, p. 21. 

Cybele, apparition of to M. 
Agrippa, p. 37 ; wife of Saturn, 
mother of Neptune, Jupiter, 
and Pluto, p. 37 ; Pantheon 
built in honour of, p. 38. 

Cyriaca (see Curiaca), p. 114. 

* Cymetery', Ad ursum pilea- 
tum, p. 20, p. 116 note 1, 
p. 130 note 1 ; — , Agathae, 
p. 20; — yConcordianiim, I). 20; 
— , Curiaci, p. 21 ; — , Felicis, 
p.20 ; — , Fdicitatu,^. 21 ; — , 
Sermetis et Domitillae, p. 21 ; 
— , Intra duos lauros, p. 20 ; 
— ,In Agro Verano,'p.20 ; — , 
Kalepodii, p. 20 ; — , Kalixti, 
p. 20, p. 134; — , Ponciani, 
p. 21, p. 116; — , Praelextati, 
p. 20; — , Priscillae, p. 20, 
p. 117, p. 141 and note 1; 
— , S. Sebastianr, p. 20 ; — , 
Tihurtii, p. 114 note 1 ; — , 
Trasonis, pp. 20-1 and note 1 ; 
— , Ursi, p. 20. 



Dacian, ruler of Persia under 

Diocletian, p. 88. 
Da Cunha, cardinal, p. 98 

note 3. 

Dafrosa, p. 85 note 1. 
Dalmatia, p. 123 note 4. 
Damascus, p. 128. 
Damasus, pope, p. 129 and 

note 2. 
Daniel, prophet, p. 124. 



INDEX 

Daniel, book of, paraphrased by 
Eudosia, p. 97 note 1. 

Danube, the, p. 143 note 1. 

David, p. 132. 

De Bleser, Chanoine, p. 88 
note 1. 

Decius, emperor, p. 54, 
murders Philip, p. 54, p. 68 
note 1, p. 82 note 2, p. 93, 
p. 94 notel,p. 102, p.ll6and 
note 1, p. 119, p. 129, p. 152 
note 1. 

Delia Porta, Giacomo, p. SI 
note 1. 

Delta of the Nile, p. 110 note 1. 

Desiderius, p. 59. 

Diadumenes, p. 54. 

Diocletian, emperor, p. 55 ; his 
persecution, p. 55, p. 68 note 2, 
p. 73 note 2, p. 76 note 3, 
p. 88 note 2, p. 88, p. 100 
note 1, p. 103 note 1, p. 114 
note 1 ; baths of, p. 123 and 
note 2, p. 123 note 4, p. 124 
note 2, pp. 127-8, p. 130 note 
1, p. 137, p. 138 note 1, 
p. 139 and note 3, p. 144. 

Dionysius, uncle of S. Pancras, 
p. 73 note 2. 

Dioscorus, p. 57. 

Domine quo vadis, p. 8, p. 26, 
p. 119; church of, p. 162 
note 1 ; formerly known as 
S. Maria de Palma, p. 162 
note 1 ; in time of author the 
chapel of Cardinal Pole was 
called so, p. 162 note 2, and 
marked by a cross, p. 162. 

Dominicans, p. 159 note 1. 

Dominicum, title of, p. 104 
note 2. 

Dominicus de Arecio (Arezzo), 
his book de montibusy p. 13 
and note 2 ; his account of the 
Palatine, p. 13 ; his de viris 
illustiihuSy p. 43, p. 45, p. 49. 

Domitian, emperor, orders S. 
John to be tormented and 
exiled, p. 9 ; palace of, p. 17 ; 
colossal head of, p. 36 note 1 ; 
some say that Pantheon was 
built in his reign, p. 39, p. 69 
note 1, p. 145, p. 148. 

Domitilla, cemetery of, p. 21, 
p. 149 note 2. 

Donnerpruck, German name 
for Bridge of S. Angelo, ori- 
gin of name, p. 47 note 2. 

Donus, pope, p. 47 note 2. 

Dorotheus, p. 114. 

Dotes, p. 163. 

Douai, p. 57 note 1. 

D'Outremeuse, Jean, p. 19 
note 1. 

Drepana, p. 126 note 1. 

Duchesne, MonsignorL., p. 47 
note 2, p. 77 note 2. 
A a 



177 



Ebredunensis (Embrun), city 

in which S. Basilides and 

others were martyred, p. 103. 
JEcclesiastica, kistoria, p. 65. 
Edissa, people allowed to bring 

S. Thomas's body to, p. 18, 

p. 53, p. 65. 
Egypt, p. 158. 
Einsiedeln, the Anonymiis of, 

p. 92 note 3, p. 101 note 1. 
Eleazar, Jewish ambassador to 

Rome, p. 48. 
Eleazar, Abraham's steward, 

p. 128. 
Elephantum, ad, district of, 

p. 134 note 2. 
Elijah (Helie), p. 120. 
Elisha(Hely8e),prophet,p.l05, 

p. 120. 
Emilia, p. 4 note 2. 
E-nperor's bath, the, p. 47 and 

note 1. 

Enenkel, p. 9 note 4. 
Ennius, poet, p. 14 note 1, p. 

16. 
Ephesus, p. 73, p. 130 note 1. 
Epiphanius, p. 135 note 2. 
Erythraean Sibyl, p. 40. 
Esquiline, p. 11 note 1 ; — 

gardens, p. 76 note 1. 
Esther. See Hester, p. 28. 
Estodius (Escodius), an old 

chronicler, his works lost, p» 

3 and note 1. 
Eudoxia, asks for S. Stephen's 

body, p. 81, p. 97 note 1, p. 

97 ; brings S. Peter's chains 

to Rome, p. 97. 
Eufermian, palace of, p. 14, p. 

15 note 1, p. 17, p. 86, p. 

124. 
Eugenius, pope, buried at S. 

Mary Major, p. 85. 
Eugenius II, pope, p. 147 

note 2. 
Eugenius III, pope, p. 83 note 

2, p. 86 note 1. 
Eugenius TV, pope, p. 107 

note 4, p. 158 note 1. 
Eumenides, p. 126 note 1. 
Euphronius, Bishop of Tours, 

p. 150 note 3. 
Eupolemy, Jewish ambassador 

to Rome, p. 48. 
Euprepius, p. 121. 
Europe, p. 156. 
Eusebius, perverts Constan- 
tine II, p. 55 ; Arian bishop 

of that name, p. 133. 
Eusebius, pope, p. 66 note 2. 
Eusebius, p. 34 note 3, p. 41 

note 1, p. 68 note 1. 
Euticen, p. 57. 
Eutichianus, pope, p. 149 

note 4. 



178 



INDEX 



Eutropius, p. 6 note 1 ; Im- 
perial private secretary, p. 
126 note 1. 

Evander, builds city on Pala- 
tine, flying to Rome after 
killing father, p. 4 ; brings 
Palantes from Reati to Rome, 
p. 14 ; or had a son called 
Palante, p. 14. 

Evaristus, pope, p. 104. 

Even tins, p. 98 note 2. 

Bocamerony by S. Ambrose, p. 
29. 

Exupius, p. 121. 

F. 

Fabias slays Remus, p. 6 and 

note 1. 
Fabricius, bridge of, p 13. 
Fastingong Sunday (Quinqua- 

gesima), p. 15. 
Fauns, temple of, p. 144 ; na- 
ture of, p. 144, p. 168 note 1. 
Fausta, mother of S. Anasta- 

sia, p. 99. 
Faustinus, p. 107 note 2. 
Faustulus, finds Romulus and 

Remus, p. 5. 
Feast of ad vincula Si Petri 

ordained, p. 67. 
Felicissiraus, p. 120. 
Felicitas, cemetery of, p. 21. 
Felix, cemetery of, p. 20. 
Felix II, pope, p. 133. 
Felix III, pope, p. 148 note 3. 
Felix IV, pope, p. 21 note 1, 

p. 92 note 2, p. 120 note 2, 

p. 122 note 2, p. 134 note 2. 
Female orphan asylum, p. 138 

note 3. 
Ferdinand and Isabella, p. 70 

note 1. 
Filippini, Antonio, p. 131 

note 3. 
Firmina, p. 114 note 1. 
Flaminia, origin of word, p. 

43. 
Flavia Domitilla, p. 181 note 

2, p. 149 note 2. 
Flavia, Julia Helena, full 

name of S. Helena, p. 126 

note 1. 

Flavian, p. 85 note 1. 
Floods. See Tiber. 
Flora, temple of, p. 25. 
Florence, p. 4 note 2 ; cathe- 
dral of, p. 38 note 2, p. 62 

note 2. 
Forum of Sallust, p. 123 note 

2 ; — , Olitorium, p. 134 note 

2 ; — , Romanum, p. 166 

note 1. 
Foundation of Rome, p. 4 

note 1. 
France, p. 28 note 2, p. 64 

note 1; history of, by Gregory 

of .Tours, p. 160 note 3. 



Franciscans, p. 42 note 1, p. 

70 note 1 ; — , French, p. 145 

note 2. 
Frankfort, Council of, p. 147 

note 2. 
Frederick I, emperor, p. 60. 
Frederick II, emperor, p. 52, 

p. 60 ; his bad life, depose! 

by pope, p. 60. 
Frederick III, emperor, p. 10 

note 3. 
French Franciscans, p. 145 

note 2. 
Fulgentius, mythology of, p. 

159; — , Planciades, p. 169 

note 1 ; — , Ruspensis, p. 169 

note 1, p. 170 note 4. 
Furius Camillus, p. 28 note 2. 



G. 



Gabriel,, archangel, p. 71, 

p. 160, p. 169. 
Gaetani, cardinal, p. 117 note 

1. 
Gaius Publius, p. 42 note 1. 
Galatians, S. Paul's Epistle to, 

p. 96. 
Galerius, emperor with Con- 

stantius, p. 55, p. 141 note 1. 
Gales, in Spain, p. 74. 
Galla, p. 170 note 4, p. 170. 
Gallia, p. 68 note 1, p. 129 

note 2. 
Gallicanus, p. 7Q note 2. 
Gallienus, arch of, p. 11 note 

1 ; also said to be called 

Decius, p. 54, p. 82 note 2. 
Gallinas albas, ad, p. 43 note 

1. 
Gallus, p. 54. 
Galys (? Galicia), conquered by 

Rome, p. 48. 
Gamaliel, p. 80; buries S. 

Stephen, p. 80 ; appears to 

Lucianus, p. 80 ; article on in 

Heiligenlexikon, p. 80 note 2. 
Gates of Rome, p. 7 sq. 
Geese, story of saving of Capitol 

by, p. 28 and note 4; statue 

of one at S. Nicola in Carcere, 

p. 29, p. 134 and note 3. 
Gelasius, pope, p. 69, p. 88 note 

2, p. 146 note 2. 
Gelasius II, pope, p. 167 note 

1. 
Gemicius, p. 68. 
Gerbertus, name of Silvester 

II, p. 77 note 2. 
Germano, Father, his excava- 
tions, p. 90 note 1. 
Germany, p. 28 note 2, p. 127 

note 1. 
Gervasius, p. 12, p. 43 ; his de 

otiis imperialibus, p. 64. 
Gervasius, son of S. Vitale, 

p. lOa, p. 112. 



Giacomo da Voragine, p. 9 

note 4, p. 96 note 2. 
Giacomo della Porta, p. 61 

note 1. 
Giamberti, Giacomo, architect, 

p. 10 note 3. 
Gilbert, afterwards Pope Sil- 
vester II, strange legend of, 

p. 77 seq. 
Giotto, p. 87 note 4. 
Giovanni da Crema, p. 137 

note 1. 
Qiuhileo delV anno Santo, 1450, 

a MS., p. 62 note 2. 
Giustiniani, cardinal, p.l 4 9 note 

4 ; — , palace, p. 29 note 6. 
Glanville, Bartholomew, p. 140 

note 3. 
Glausus, one of the founders of 

Rome, p. 4. 
Glodius, p. 54. 
Gnesen, a town in Poland, 

p. 45 note 3. 
Godfrey of Bouillon, p. 59. 
Godfrey of Viterbo, pp. 28-9, 

p. 41 note 1, p. 50 note 2, 

p. 90 note 3. 
Gordian, emperor, p. 54. 
Gorgon, p. 159. 
Gortyna, p. 130 note 1. 
Gospel of S. John, on our 

Lord's unduly aged appear- 
ance, p. 64. 
Grandison, Bishop of Exeter, 

p. 67 note 2. 
Gratian, his bridge, p. 18 ; his 

character, p. 13 ; his arch, 

p. 19. 
Greeks, their attempt to steal 

bodies of SS. Peter and Paul, 

p. 70. 
Gregory,Bishop of Ostia, p.l04. 
Gregory, pope, his prison at 

S. John Lateran, p. 72 ; 

miracle of crucifix there, 

p. 72. 
Gregory, pope, buried at S. 

Mary Major, p. 85. 
Gregory I, pope, p. 107 note 3. 
Gregory II, pope, p. 76 note 1, 

p. 89 note 1. 
Gregory III, pope, p. 118 note 

3, p. 137 note 1, p. 158 note 1 
Gregory IV, pope, p. 21 note 1, 

p. 87 note 4, p. Ill note 1, 

p. 116 note 2, p. 133 note 3, 

p. 138 note 3, p. 140 note 1. 
Gregory VII, pope, p. 6Q note 2, 

p. 117 note 1, p. 170 note 1. 
Gregory IX, pope, p. 86 note 1, 

p. 183 note 3, p. 148 note 3, 

p. 166 note 1. 
Gregory XI, pope, p. 88 note 2. 
Gregory XIII, pope, p. 101 

note 2. 
Gregory XVI, pope, p. 183 

note 3. 



INDEX 



179 



Gregory, a priest, p. 134. 
Gregory Turonensis, p. 68 note 

1, p. 150 note 3, p. 152 note 1. 
Guienne, p. 57 note 1. 
Gymnosophists, p. 30; received 

by Alexander, p. 80. 



Hadrian, emperor, temple of, 
p. 12 ; palace of, p. 17, p. 25, 
p. 145 note 1. 

Hadrian and Trajan, emperors, 
palace of, p. 48. 

Hadrian, pope, p. 59. 

Hadrian I, pope, p. 11 note 5, 
p. 21 note 1, p. 90 note 1, 
p. 96 note 1, p. 117 note 1, 
p. 122 note 3, p. 128 note 2, 
p. 131 note 3, p. 133 note 3, 
p. 134 note 2, p. 138 note 3, 
p. 140 note 1, p. 142 note 1, 
p. 146 note 2, p. 149 note 4, 
p. 167 note 1. 

Hadrian IV, pope, p. 90 note 1. 

Hay of the manger of Bethle- 
hem at S. Mary Major, p. 85. 

Heinrich I, emperor, p. 59. 

Heinrich II, emperor, p. 59. 

Heinrich III, emperor, p. 59. 

Heinrich IV, emperor, p. 59. 

Heinrich V, emperor, p, 60. 

Helchie, father of Susanna, p. 
124. 

Helena, a king's daughter, wife 
of Constantius, p. 55. 

Helenopolis, p. 126 note 1. 

Helie. See Elijah. 

Helpidius, p. 86. 

Helyse. See Elisha. 

Henry VI of England, p. 1 
note 2, p. 107 note 4. 

Heraclius, emperor, p. 58 ; con- 
quers Persia, p. 58. 

Heraclius, a philosopher, p. 97 
note 1. 

Hercules, son of Saturn, builds 
city under Capitol, called 
Valery, p. 4. 

Hermes, Mayor of Rome, im- 
prisoned for Christianity, p. 
108 ; converts his jailer, Qui- 
rinus, p. 108. 

Sermetis et Domitillae, ceme- 
tery, p. 21. 

Hermits of S. Austin, pp. 92-3, 
p. 123, p. 164. 

Herod, p. 160. 

Herod Agrippa, slays S. James 
and imprisons S. Peter, p. 97. 

Herod Antipas, slays S. John 
Baptist, p. 97. 

Herod of Ascalon, slays the 
Innocents, p. 97. 

Herod Metallarius, father of 
S. Sabina, p. 86 and note 2, 
p. 87. 



Herods, how to distinguish 

between, pp. 96-7. 
Herry, German emperor, p, 59 ; 

suspects his wife Radegund, 

p. 115 ; persecutes her, p. 115 ; 

dies, and is saved by S. Law- 
rence's interposition, p. 115. 
Hescodius, p. 3 note 1. 
Hesiod, p. 3 note 1. 
Hester (Esther), married to 

Ahasuerus, p. 28. 
Hezekiah,Kingof Judah,p.53. 
Hierapolis, p. 84 note 8, p. 102 

note 4. 
Hilary, pope, p. 11 note 1, p. 79 

note 2. 
Hildebrandi Vita et gesta, p. 

77 note 2. 
Hills of Rome (see Mons), 

general account of, p. 16 notel. 
Hippolytus, martyr, p. 81, p. 

123. 
Hippolytus, Synod against, p. 

131 note 3. 
Hiram, pillars of, p. 73. 
Sistoria Antiochena, p. 89. 
Holy Cross, altar of the, at 

S. Peter's, p. 63. 
Honorius, emperor, p. 29 note 

2, p. 66 note 2, p. 80. 
Honorius and Arcadius, joint 

emperors, p. 57. 
Honorius and Theodosius, 

joint emperors, p. 57. 
Honorius, pope, p. 60 ; buried 

at S. Mary Major, p. 85. 
Honorius I, pope, p. 11 note 2, 

p. 126 note 2. 
Honorius II, pope, p. 137 

note 1. 
Honorius III, pope, p. 20 note 

4, p. 66 note 2, p. 80 note 1, 

p. 86 note 1, p. 160 note 2. 
Honorius IV, pope, p. 86 note 1. 
Horace, p. 14 note 1. 
Hortus Lucillae, p. 67. 
Hospital of S. Spirito, p. 17. 
Hospital of S. Thomas, p. 157- 
Howard, cardinal, p. 90 note 1. 
Hugo de S. Victor, p. 59 and 

note 1. 
Hygeia, statue of, p. 29 note 6. 

I. 

Iginius, pope, p. 104. 
In agro verano, cemetery, p. 20. 
Indulgences at S. Paul's, p. 67. 
Indulgences at S. Peter's, p. 

68 and note 1. 
Innocent I, pope, p. 112 note 1. 
Innocent II, pope, p. 117 

note 1. 
Innocent III, pope, p. 98 note 

3, p. Ill note 1, p. 131 note 
3, p. 132 note 3. 

Innocent IV, pope, p. 42 note 1, 
p. 71 note 1. 

A a 2 



Innocent VI, pope, p. 71 note 1. 
Innocent X, pope, p. 71 note 1. 
Innocentius, martyr, p. 103. 
Innocents, slain by Herod of 

Ascalon, p. 97 ; relics of, p.l30. 
In tellure, p. 22 and note 2, 

p. 116, p. 119. 
Intra duos lauros, cemetery, 

p. 20. 
Invention of the Cross, p. 126 

note 1. 
Irene, p. 68 note 2. 
Isaac, p. 160. 
Isidore, Bishop of Seville, 

chronicle of, p. 29 and note 2, 

p. 156. 
Isidore, Bishop of Cordova, 

p. 29 note 2. 
Isis, temple of, p. 118 note 3. 
lude (? ludaea), p. 158. 

J. 

Jam (or Cam), son of Noah, 
father of Belus, King of Surry 
(? Assyria), p. 8. 

Janiculum, p. 3 notes 8 and 4, 
p. 70 note 1. 

Janus, son of Noah, also called 
lonicus, founds Janiculum, 
p. 3 note 8, p. 3 note 4, p. 13. 

Japhet, son of Noah, ancestor 
of the Romans, p. 3. 

Jeremiah, p. 158. 

Jerusalem, S. Helena's chapel 
at S. Croce so called, p. 77, 
p. 124. 

Jerusalem, town of, captured 
by Turks, p. 60, p. 64 note 1, 
p. 88 note 2, p. 97 note 1, 
p. 105, p. 135 note 2 ; Quiriac, 
Bishop of Jerusalem, p. 145 
and note 1, p. 146 note 8, 
p. 152, p. 154, p. 158, p. 166. 

Jews, treaty with Romans, 
p. 48. 

Joachim, husband of Susanna^ 
p. 124. 

Jobiane, p. 139 and note. 

Johanna, p. 185 note 2. 

Johannes, Bishop of Myra, 
p. 135 note 2. 

Johannes, a priest, p. 85 note 1. 

Johannopolis, p. 66 note 2. 

John, a holy man, founds 
S. Mary Major, p. 84 ; buried 
there, p. 85. 

John the Deacon, p. 77 note 2. 

John, pope, p. 57. 

John I, pope, p. 170 and note 1. 

John III, pope, p. 102 note 3. 

John VIII, pope, p. 66 note 2. 

John XII, pope, p. 92 note 1. 

John XXI, pope, p. 45 note 3. 

Jonas, Bishop of Orleans, p. 147 
note 2. 

Joppa, town of, p. 88 note 2. 



180 



INDEX 



Joseph of Arimathea, p. 64, 
p. 154. 

Jourmanus, emperor, succeeds 
Julian the Apostate, p. 56 ; 
his strange death, p. 56. 

Jovinane (Jovianus), emperor, 
succeeds Julian, p. 91. 

Judas and S. Helena, p. 124, 
p. 145 and note. 

Judas Iscariot, rope of, p. 135 
and note 3. 

Judas Maccabeus, p. 48 ; sends 
embassy to Rome, p. 48, p. 49 
note 2. 

Jude (Judaea), p. 158. 

Julia (see Verus), p. 53. 

Julian the Apostate, emperor, 
p. 26, p. 56 ; permits Jews to 
rebuild Temple, p. 56 ; exiles 
Valentinian, p. 56, p. 85 
note 1 ; persecutes SS. John 
and Paul, p. 90 and note 3 ; 
killed, p. 91, p. 126 note 1, 
p. 134, p. 145 note 1, p. 168 
note 1. 

Juliana, wife of Alexander, 
Senator of Constantinople, 
p. 80 ; asks leave to remove 
husband's body, p. 81 ; re- 
moves S. Stephen's by mis- 
take, p. 81. 

Julius Caesar, palace of, p. 17 ; 
ashes buried on Anguilla 
S. Petri, p. 23 ; inscription 
on same, p. 23 and note 1 ; 
account of his life, p. 24 ; 
surveys the world, p. 24 ; his 
victories, p. 24 ; corrects the 
calendar, p. 24 ; his modesty, 
p. 25 and note 1 ; his death, 
p. 25; inducted as Pontifex 
Maximus on March 6, p. 28, 
p. 39. 

Julius I, pope, p. Ill note 1. 

Julius II, pope, p. 18 note 3, 
p. 61 note 1, p. 96 note 1, 
p. 163 note 3. 

Julus, p. 53. 

Juno, temple of, on Capitol, 
p. 28, p. 42 note 1 ; statue 
of, suckling infant Hercules 
{see Pope Joan fable), p. 74 
note 3. 

Jupiter, temple of, p. 21, p. 26 
and note 1 ; figure of on 
Capitol, p. 27, p. 28, p. 33 
note 1, p. 91. 

Justin, emperor, p. 57, p. 170. 

Justinian, emperor, converted 
from Arianism, p. 57 ; his 
code and building of S. Sophia, 
p. 58, p. 107, p. 170. 

Justinian, the younger, em- 
peror, Narses rebels against 
him, p. 58. 

Justinian II, emperor, exiled 
for heresy, p. 58. 



Justinus, the historian, p. 29 

note 1. 
Justinus, a priest, p. 82 and 

note 2. 
Juvenal, p. 84, 

K. 

Kalipodii, cemetery of, p. 20, 
p. 69 note 1, p. 73 note 2. 

Kallixtus, cemetery of, p. 20. 

Kempe, John, Archbishop of 
York and Cardinal of S. Bal- 
bina, p. 107 and note 4; Car- 
dinal-bishop of S. Rufina in 
1452, p. 107 note 4. 

King's Lynn, p. 1 note 2. 

Knights, appointed by Romu- 
lus, p. 7. 

L. 

* Lady Rose *, temple of the, 

p. 28 notel. 
Lampadius, p. 128. 
Lanfranc, archbishop, p. 83 

note 1. 
Langton, Stephen, archbishop, 

p. 137 note 1. 
Lante, cardinal, p. 166 note 1. 
Largus, p. 189. 
Lateran, legend regarding 

origin of name, p. 9 and note 

4. 
Lateran church. See S. John 

Lateran. 
Lateran hospital, p. 169 notel. 
Lateran palace, p. 17, p. 33 

note 1, p. 71 note 1, p. 76 note 

1, p. 146, p. 170. 
Laterani, palace of the, p, 71 

note 1. 
Latin tribes, conquered by 

Anchus Martins Meduliensis, 

p. 13. 
Latini, Brunette, p. 4 note 2. 
Latium, p. 145. 
Laurence (or Lupa), nurses 

Romulus and Remus, p. 5 ; 

why called Lupa, p. 5 and 

note 1. 
Legenda aurea, of G. da Vora- 

gine, p. 95 note 2. 
Leo I, emi)eror, p. 57. 
Leo II, emperor, p, 58, exiled 

and mutilated, p. 58. 
Leo III, emperor, p. 58. 
Leo IV, emperor, p. 59. 
Leo I, pope, the Great, p. 57, 

p. 66 note 2, p. 96 note 1. 
Leo II, pope, p. 87 note 4, 

p. 138 note 3, p. 145 note 2. 
Leo III, pope, p. 66 note 2, 

p. 90 note 1, p. 107 note 3, 

p. 118 note 2, p. 128 note 2, 

p. 133 note 8, p. 140 note 1, 

p. 148 note 3. 
Leo IV, pope, p. 92 note 8, 



p. Ill note 1, p. 118 note 2, 

p. 126 note 2, p. 131 note 3. 
Leo X, pope, p. 74 note 3, 

p. 104 note 2. 
Leo XIII, pope, p. 101 note 2, 

p. 132 note 3, p. 137 note 1. 
Leoncius, p. 121. 
Leonine city, the, has three 

gates, p. 7, p. 12 and note 1, 

p. 109, p. 161 and note 8. 
Leontius, p. 97 note 1. 
Lewis, son of Charlemagne, 

emperor, p. 59. 
Lewis. II, emperor, p. 59. 
Lewis III, emperor, p. 59. 
IjCX Begia, the, p. 71 note 2. 
L'Huet, p. 41 note 1. 
Liber Pontificalis, p. 47 note 2, 

p. 77 note 2. 
Liberius, pope, p. 84, p. 129 

note 2, p. 183. 
Libraries, p. 22. 
Library of S. Gregory, p. 71. 
Licinian palace, p. 85 note 1. 
Limina- apostolorum, the, p. 

186. 
Limoges, p. 68 note 1, p. 152 

note 1. 
Linus, pope, p. 104, p. 106 ; 

succeeds S. Peter, p. 106. 
Lisias, p. 121. 
Livia, wife of Augustus, story 

of the white hen, p. 43. 
Livy, p. 1, p. 6 note 1 ; his 

account of the Aventine, p. 

14. 
Lodewick (Lewis), emperor, 

p. 147 and note 2. 
Lombardo, Carlo, architect, 

p. 149 note 4. 
Lombardy, p. 143 note 2. 
Longinus, p. 154. 
Lonigi, p. 138 note 8. 
Lothair, emperor, p. 59. 
Louvain, p. 57 note 1. 
Lucan, p. 43. 

Lucanians, summoned by Ro- 
mulus to Rome, p, 6. 
Lucianus, his vision, p. 80. 
Lucilla (or Lucina), garden of, 

p. 22 ; her vision of S. Se- 
bastian, p. 22, p. 114 note 1, 

p. 122 note 1, p. 122 note 2, 

p. 141. 
Ludllae hortus, p. 67, p. 70. 
Lucillus, p. 122. 
Lucina, Catacombs of, p. 66 

note 2, p. 130 note 1. 
Lucinia Eudosia, p. 97 note 1. 
Lucius II, pope, p. 145 note 2. 
Lycia, p. 185 note 2. 
Lydda, a city in Palestine, 

p. 88 note 2. 
Lydia conquered, p. 48. 
Lyon, p. 57 note 1. 
Lysias {see Lisias), p. 122 note 

1. 



INDEX 



181 



M. 

Macellum Liviae, p. 11 note 1, 
p. 83 note 2 ; — , near Cata- 
combs of Callixtus, p. 69 ; 
— , magnum, p. 144 note 1. 

Maderno, p. 61 note 1. 

Mahomet, p. 58. 

Mainz, p. 59 note 1. 

Mallius, Petrus, p. 132 note 3. 

Malta, p. 21 note 2. 

Malvezzi, Giacomo, p. 41 
note 1. 

Mamertine prison, p. 21, p. 63 
note 2, p. 119, p. 148 note 3. 

Mammaea, mother of Alexan- 
der Severus, p. 18; converted, 
p. 18, p. 53. 

Manasseh, king of Judah, p. 
53. 

Manes, originator of Mani- 
chaean heresy, p. 55. 

Manichaean heresy, p. 55. 

Manilius, p. 53. 

Manus carnea, arch of, p. 19. 

Mappa, early plan of Rome 
called so, p. 2 note 1. 

Marcellus, theatre of, p. 134 
note 2. 

Marcellus, a jailor, p. 103 
note 1. 

Marcianus, emperor with Va- 
lentinian III, p. 57. 

Marco Polo, of Venice, his 
travels, p. 1. 

Marcus Agrippa, sent to con- 
quer West, p. 87; then to 
quell Persian rebellion, p. 
37 ; his vision, p. 37 ; Cybele 
orders him to build Pantheon, 
p. 38 ; puts down rebellion 
and returns, p. 38 ; builds 
Pantheon, mode of construc- 
tion, p. 38 and note 2. 

Marcus Aurelius, p. 29 note 6 ; 
statue of, p. 31 ; not of Con- 
Btantine as believed, p. 31 
and note 3 ; popularly called 
* Septimosephero ', p. 36 and 
note 1, p. 110 and note 2 ; 
column of; p. 132 note 3. 

Marcus Aurelius Victor, p. 10 
note 3. 

Marcus (or Quintus) Curtius, 
p. 33 and note 1. 

Margaret of Anjou, p. 1 note 2. 

Mariana (or Marrana), stream, 
p. 9 note 3. 

Marius, martyr, p. 127. 

Mars, p. 4 and note 2 ; temple 
of near Porta Appia, p. 19, 
p. 21, p. 26, p. 119. 

Martha, said to be the name 
of the woman who helped our 
Lord with the sudary on the 
way to Calvary, p. 64. 



Martha, martyr, p. 127. 
Martin, his chronicle, p. 45, 

p. 55, p. 70, p. 115, p. 141. 
Martin I, pope, p. 131 and 

note 3. 
Martin V, pope, p. 93, p. 126 

note 2, p, 140 note 3. 
Martinach, p. 121 note 1. 
Martinus (Macrinua), emperor, 

p. 53. 
Martinus Polonus, p. 45 note 

3, p. 74 note 3. 
Mary Magdalen, p. 154. 
Mass of S. Gregory and the 

angel, p. 68. 
Mattei, granaries of the, p. 

169 note 2. 
Maundeville, Sir John, his 

travels, p. 1. 
Maurice, emperor, p. 58, p. 

107 note 3. 
Mauricius, p. 121. 
Mausoleum of Augustus, p. 

42 and note 1. 
Maxentius, emperor, pp. 140-1. 
Maximianus (Maximinus), 

emperor, p. 54, (with Dio- 
cletian) p. 55, p. 68 note 2, 

p. 103 note 1, p. 121, p. 139, 

p. 139 note 3, p. 144. 
Maximus, emperoi", p. 97 note 1 . 
Melchiades,pope,p. 1^8 note 1. 
Melchisedek, p. 160. 
Memmius Rufus, consul, p. 

149 note 2. 
Memphis, p. 158. 
Mercury, temple of, p. 22 note2. 
Metaphrastes, p. 88 note 2. 
Methodius, p. 3 note 1. 
Michael, emperor, p. 59. 
Michelangelo, p. 61 note 1, 

p. 104 note 2. 
Milan, built by Brennus, p. 

28, p. 68 note 2, p. 103 and 

note 3 ; S. Vitale consul of, p. 

112 and note 1, p. 113. 
Milk of our Lady, relic at S. 

Mary Major, p. 85. 
Minerva, p. 159 and note 1. 
Ministry, of Finance, p. 138 

note 3 ; — > of Marine, p. 92 

note 1. 
Mithraeum, at S. Clement's, 

p. 105 note 1. 
Moesia, p. 143 note 2. 
Mohammedans, in Spain, p. 76 

note 1. 
Monasterium dominae Bosae, 

p. 28 note 1. 
Monastery of S. Gregory, p. 18, 

p. 44, p. 45. 
Monothelite heresy, p. 58. 
Mens, Aventinus, p. 11 note 1 ; 

origin of name, p. 14 ; also 

called Quirinal, p. 14 and 

note 4, p. 15 note 1, p. 17, 

p. 45, p. 51 note 2, p. 86, 



p. 107 note 3 ; j — , canalisy 
position of, pp. 14-15 and 
note 1 ; sports held there in 
Carnival, p. 15, p. 51 note 2, 
p. 52 ; — , Capitolinus, p. 15, 
p. 26 ; — , Cavalleus ad 
S. Alexium, p. 15 note 1 ; — , 
Celius, p. 15 and note 1, 
p. 73 note 2, p. 107 note 2, 
p. 126 note 2, p. 144; — , 
laniculug, p. 8 notes 8 and 4 ; 
origin of name, p. 8 ; position 
of, p. 13, p. 15 note 1 ; — , 
lanuarius ad S. Sulavam, 
p. 15 note 1 ; — , luvenalis, 
or nivalis, where the Romans 
would have slain Vergil, p. 16 ; 
— , Palatinus, built on by 
Evander, p. 4 ; accounts of 
Dominicus de Arecio, Solinus 
and Varro, p. 13 ; in Palatio 
maiori, p.l5 note 1 ; — ,Quiri- 
nali8,-p. 14 note 4 ; — ,Biveali8, 
p. 15 note 1 ; — , S. Stephani 
in celio monte, p. 15 note 1 ; 
— , Satumia, another name 
for Capitoline, p. 15 ; — , 
Superaggius, p. 16, p. 84 ; — , 
Tarpeia, another name for 
Capitoline, p. 15 ; — , Testa- 
rum, or Testaccio, p. 8 note 1, 
p. 15 note 1 ; — , Vaticanus, 
p. 12 note 1, p. 104. 

Montaigne, sees heads of SS. 
Peter and Paul, p. 73 note 1. 

Montgomery, John, p. 1 note 2. 

Moses, rod of, p. 73 ; the law 
of, p. Ill, p. 158. 

Mount Sion, p. 135 note 2. 

MuflFel, Nicholas, p. 10 note 3. 

Mullooly, Father, his excava- 
tions, p. 105 note 1. 

Munitor, elder brother of 
Amulius, p. 4 ; exiled, p. 4 ; 
meets Romulus and Remus, 
p. 5. 

Mutatorium Caesaris, p. 107 
note 3. 

Myra, p. 135 note 2. 

MyselUs, p. 148 notes 1 and 2. 

N. 
Nabor, martyr, p. 102. 
Naevius, Cn., a poet, p. 14 

note 1. 

Naissus (Nissa), p. 126 note 1. 
Nanus, p. 83 note 1. 
Naples, p. 27 note 1; taken, 

p. 60, p. 167 note 1. 
Narbonne, p. 68 note 1. 
Narses, p. 68. 
Naumachia, p. 47 note 2. 
Navicella, the, p. 105 note 1, 

p. 104. 
Nazareth, pillars from, at 

S. John Lateran, p. 71. 
Nazarius, martyr, p. 102 ; 



182 



INDEX 



miracle and martyrdom of, 
p. 103. 

Neptune, specially honoured in 
Pantheon, p. 39. 

Nero, legend regarding birth 
of frog,p. 9 and note 4 ; builds 
pons Neroniana, and many 
other works, p. 12 ; his palace 
of the Lateran, p. 17 ; another 
near SS. Marcellinus and 
Peter, p. 17 ; another near 
S. Spirito, p. 17 ; another near 
S. Mary of the People, p. 17 ; 
death of, p. 17 ; his secretariat, 
p. 26 ; his necromantic prac- 
tices, p. 26, p. 86 note 1, p. 42 
note 2 ; circus of, p. 61 note 1, 
p. 69, p. 96 note 1, p. 103, 
p. 163 note 3, p. 164. 

Nerva, arch of (see Arch of 
Noe), p. 42 note 3 

Nevius, p. 14. {See Nae- 
vius.) 

Newman, cardinal, p. 87 note 4. 

Nicene (Nicaea), Council of, 
p. 59, p. 88, p. 185 note 2. 

Nicephorus, emperor, p. 59. 

Nicephorus, p. 126 note 1. 

Nicholas I, pope, p. 107, p. 167 
note 1. 

Nicholas III, pope, p. 45 note 3, 
p. 134 note 2. 

Nicholas IV, pope, p. 21 note 1, 
p. 64 note 1, p. 83 note 2 ; 
buried at S. Mary Major, 
p. 85. 

Nicholas V, pope, p. 20 note 8, 
p. 61 note 1, p. 75 note 1, 
p. 83 note 2, p. 104 note 2, 
p. Ill note 1, p. 123, p. 140 
note 3. 

Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, 
p. 135 note 2. 

Nicodemus, Gospel of, p. 64 
note 1 ; preserves our Lord's 
winding-sheet, p, 65 ; assists 
at His burial, p. 65, p. 154. 

Nicodemus, buries the four 
crowned saints, p. 128. 

Nicomedia, p. 88 note 2, p. 126 
note 1. 

Nicostratus, p. 127. 

Nile, delta of the, p. 110 note 1. 

Noah, builds Babylon, sails for 
Italy, and dies at Rome, p. 3 
and note 2 ; arch of, see Arch 
of Noe. 

Norfolk, p. 1 note 2. 

Norwich, p. 1 note 2. 

Numa Pompilius, king, his 
reign and laws, coins money 
first, p. 58 and note 1. 
Numerianus, emperor, p. 55. 
Numitor, p. 4 note 2. 
Nunziatella, the church of and 
catacombs, p. 160 note 2. 

Nfimberg, p. 10 note 3. 



0. 

Octavian, palace of, p. 17 ; arch 
of, p. 19 ; conquers world and 
establishes peace, pp. 89 and 
40 note 1 ; his beauty, p. 39 ; 
Senate wish to deify him, 
p. 39 ; consults sibyl of Tibur, 
p. 40 ; meeting with her at 
Ara Celi, p. 40; his vision, 
p. 40 ; refuses deification and 
erects altar, p. 41 and note 
1 ; his tower near Porta 
Flaminia, p. 42 ; received 
with seven acts of worship, 
p. 45 ; principally worshipped 
in Rome on August 1, p. 97; 
his chamber, p. 158, p. 159. 

Octavilla, p. 73 note 2. 

Octodurum, p. 121 note 1. 

Odescalchi, family of, p. 170 
note 1. 

Odo, p. 145. 

Olympias, palace of, p. 17, p. 
22 ; wife of Philip of Mace- 
don, p. 101 note 2. 

Olympius, sudden death of at 
Carthage, p. 57. 

Olympius, chamberlain to Em- 
peror Constans, p. 132 and 
note 2. 

Omnis tei^ra (Testaccio), sports 
on Quinquagesima Sunday, p. 
15 ; hill of, p. 16, p. 50 ; why 
so called, p. 50 and note 2 ; 
full description of sports, pp. 
50-1 and note 2 p. 51. 

Oratorio della Pietk dei Fioren- 
tini, p. 18 note 4. 

Ordo Romanus, p. 12 note 1. 

'Orgliauns' (Orleans), p. 55, 
p. 147 and note 2. 

Origen, p. 18 ; comes to Rome, 
converts Mammaea, p. 18, p. 
53, p. 88. 

Orleans, named after Aurelian, 
p. 55, p. 147 and note 2. 

Orosius, p. 41 note 1, p. 184. 

Orsini, cardinal, p. 66 note 1. 

Ortus Lucillae, p. 22. 

Os lusti (Bocca della Veritk), 
p. 168. 

Osbert, p. 83 ; — , of Canter- 
bury, p. 88 note 1 ; — , of 
Clare, p. 83 note 1 ; — , Pick- 
engham, p. 83 note 1. 

Ostia, derivation of name, p. 8, 
p. 70, p. 92 and note 8, p. 127 
note 1. 

Otto I, emperor, p. 59 ; marries 
Athelstane's sister, p. 59. 

Otto II, emperor, p. 59. 

Otto III, emperor, p. 59, p. 77 

note 2. 
Otto IV, emperor, p. 60. 

Our Lady's altar, at S. Peter's, 
p. 63. 



Outremeuse, Jean d', p. 19 

note 1. 
Ovid, de Fastis, p. 11 note 1, 

p. 13 ; his description of the 

Avenfcine, p. 14. 
Oxburgh, p. 1 note 2. 
Oxford, Council of in 1222, p. 88 

note 2, p. 91 note 1. 
Oxford, John, Earl of, and his 

son Aubrey executed, p. 1 

note 2. 

P. 

Pagi, p. 41 note 1. 

Pagius, p. 126 note 1. 

Palace, of Cataline, p. 17 ; — , 
of Claudius, in ruins near 
Pantheon, p. 17 ; — , of the 
Conservatori, p. 36 note 1 ; 
— , of Domitian, p, 17 ; — , of 
Eufermian,p. 17; — ,thegreat, 
p. 16, p. 45 ; — , of Hadrian, 
p. 17 ; — , of Julius Caesar, p. 
17; — , the Lateran, p. 17, 
p. 146 ; — , of Nero, p. 17 ; 
— , of Octavian, p. 17 ; — , 
Olympiadis, p. 17, p. 22 ; — , 
ofRemus(orVenus),p.l7; — , 
of Romulus (Tempi umpacis), 
p. 16 ; — , of Titus and Ves- 
pasian, p. 17 ; — , of Trajan, 
p. 17, p. 49 note 2; — , of 
Trajan and Hadrian, p. 48 ; 
— , of TuUius Cicero, p. 17. 

Palaces of Rome, general ac- 
count of, p. 18 note 1. 

Palacinae balneae, p. 115 note 
2. 

Palantes, p. 14. 

Palatine, p. 3 note 4. 

Palatium Licinianum, p. 20 
note 4. 

Palazzo Fiano, p. 122 note 3. 

Palazzo Venezia, p. 42 note 1, 
p. 70 note 1. 

Palestine, p. 88 note 2, p. 97 
note 1, p. 131, p. 152. 

Palla Sansonis, the, p. 36 note 
1. 

Pallas, p. 159. 

Palmaria, island of, p. 99. 

Pammachius, p. 90 note 1. 

Panis aurei, arch of, p. 19. 

Pantheon, p. 17, p. 27 note 8, 
p. 87 ; mode of building, p. 88 
and note 2, p. 46 note 3 ; con- 
verted to Christian use, p. 58, 
p. 157. 

Panvinius Onofrius, p.46 note 3. 

*Papie' (Papias), p. 34 and 

note 3. 
Paris, p. 57 note 1, p. 59 note 
1, p. 68 note 1, p. 83 note 1, 
p. 150 note 3. 
Pascal I, pope, p. 63 note 2, 
p. 92 note 3, p. 104 note 2, 
p. 109 note 1, p. 147 note 4. 



INDEX 



183 



Pascal II, pope, p. 126 note 2, 

p. 163 note 3, p. 164. 
Passion play, in front of S. 

Croce, on Good Friday, p. 79. 
Passionarium, name for a 

martyrology, p. 102 and note 

Pastor, Titiilus of, p. 74 and 
note 3, p. 117. 

Patara, p. 135 note 2, 

Patmos, S. John exiled to, p. 9, 
p. 146. 

Patriarchum, a name for the 
Lateran, p. 71 note 1. 

Paul I, pope, p. 132 note 3. 

Paul II, pope, p. 107 note 3, 
p. 115 note 2. 

Paul III, pope, p. 42 note 1. 

Paul IV, pope, p. 113 note 3. 

Paul V, pope, p. 83 note 2. 

Paul, tomb of Deacon, p. 122 
note 3. 

Paul, Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, p. 131. 

Paulinus, p. 112. 

Paulinus, a patrician, p. 97 
note 1. 

Pavement before S. Peter's, 
how constructed, p. 47. 

Pavia, built by Brennus, p. 28. 

Pecci, Cardinal (Leo XIII), 
p. 137 note 1. 

Pelagius, pope, buried at S. 
Mary Major, p. 85 ; changes 
date of worship of Octavian 
and dedicates it to S. Peter, 
p. 97, p. 102 note 3. 

Pelagius II, pope, p. 80 note 1. 

Perpetua, mother of Nazarius, 
p. 103. 

Perseus, p. 159. 

Persia, conquered, p. 18 ; re- 
volt of, p. 87, p. 100 note 1, 
p. 116 and note 1, p. 126 
note 1, p. 127, p. 139 and 
note 3 ; Sapor, king of, p. 139. 

Pesaro, p. 34 note 8. 

Peter, Bishop of Alet in Bur- 
gundy, p. 98 and note 1. 

Petrus Mallius, p. 47 note 1. 

Phacee, King of Israel, Rome 
founded during his reign, p. 5. 

Philip, emperor, believed to 
have been a Christian, p. 41 
note 1 ; church of S. Peter at 
Brescia dedicated in his reign, 
p. 41 note 1, p. 68 note 1, 
p. 98. 

Philip the elder and younger, 
emperors, p. 54. 

Philip II, emperor, an icono- 
clast, p. 58. 

Philip, King of Macedon, p. 101 
note 2. 

Philippi, p. 107 note 2. 

Phocas, emperor, p. 58 ; permits 
consecration of Pantheon, 



p. 58 ; grants precedence to 

Roman Church, p. 61, p. 95 

note 2 ; called S. Phocas, his 

head at S. Marcellus, p. 140 

and note 2, p. 157. 
Phoebus, temple of, p. 25 ; 

origin of name, p. 25 ; statue 

of in Colosseum, p. 35 ; deri- 
vation of word, p. 35. 
Phoebus, a disciple of S. 

Clement, p. 106 and note 3. 
Phrygia, p. 94 note 1. 
Phrygia salutaris, p. 73 note 2. 
Piacenza (Placens), p. 108 and 

note 3. 
Piazza Navona, p, 51 note 2. 
Pietatis, arch of, p. 19. 
Piety, temple of, p. 134 note 2. 
Pigna, fountain of the, p. 46 

note 8. 
Pilate, p. 64 note 1, p. 75, 

p. 130 ; his bason, p. 136. 
Pillars of the Annunciation, 

p. 71. 
Pincian hill, p. 11. 
Pincis, gives bis name to hill, 

p. 11. 
Pittacus, p. 44 and note 3. 
Pius, pope, p. 104. 
Pius I, pope, p. 117 note 1, 

p. 117. 
Pius IV, pope, p. 126 note 2, 

p. 181 note 3, p. 168 note 1, 

p. 161 note 3. 
Pius V, pope, p. 74 note 3, 

p. Ill note 1. 
Pius VII, pope, p. 104 note 2. 
Pius IX, pope, p. 80 note 1, 

p. Ill note 1, p. 183 note 8. 
Placidia, p. 76 note 1, p. 80 

note 1. 
Platea Ci(sfelli, p. 161 note 3. 
Plato, his journey, p, 1. 
Platonia, the, at S. Sebastian, 

p. 67 note 3. 
Plautilla, story of, p. 180, 

p. 131 note 2. 
Plautilla, mother of Flavia 

Domitilla, p. 149 note 2. 
Plautus, p. 14 note 1. 
Pliny, p. 134 note 2. 
Poland, p. 45 note 3. 
Pole, cardinal, p. 162 note 2. 
Politanes, summoned by Ro- 
mulus to Rome, p. 6. 
Pompey, theatre of, p. 128 

note 2. 
Ponciane (Ponza), island of, 

p. 149. 
Pons, Adrian! , p. 12 ; — , An- 

tonini, p. 12 ; — , Fabricii, p. 

13 ; — , Gratiani, p. 13 ; — , 

Milvius, p. 12, p. 12 ; — , Nero- 

nis, p. 12 ; — , Senatorum, p. 

13 ; — , Theodosii, p. 13 ; — , 

Valentiniani, p. 13. 
Ponte di S. Angelo, called 



DonnerprucJc, reasonof same, 
p. 47 note 2. 

Ponte Galera, p. 130 note 1. 

PontelH, architect, p. 70 note 1. 

Pontianus, cemetery of, p. 21. 

Potitifex Maximus, bow in- 
ducted, p. 28. 

Pontius, martyr, p. 54. 

Ponza, p. 149 note 2. 

Pope Joan, fable of, p. 74 and 
note 3. 

Porta, Appia, p. 8 note 1, p. 8 
and note 3, p. 19, p. 20, p. 
21 ; — , Asinaria (Laterana), 
p. 9 and note 4 ; — , Aurelia, p. 
12 and note 2, p. 63 note 2 ; 
— , dello Brunoso, p. 12 note 
1; — , Campania (S. Paolo), 
p. 8 and note 1 ; — , Capena 
(S. Paolo), p. 8 note 1, p. 66 ; 
— , CoUatina, p. 12 and note 
1 ; — , Colina (CoUina), p. 12 
and note 1 ; — , Flaminia, p. 
7, p. 12 ; Ootavian's tower 
near, p. 42, p. 148 note 2, p. 
163, p. 164 ; — , Labicana or 
Lavicana, p. 10; — , Laterana 
or Asinaria, p. 9 ; — , Latina, 
p. 8, p. 20, p. 145 ; — , Lavi- 
cana (Labicana), p. 10, p. 
79 ; — , Maggiore, p. 10 note 
2 ; — , Metronia (Triconia), 
stream passing through tower 
of, p. 9 ; — , Nomentana, p. 
11; — , Pinciana, p. 11; — , 
Portuensis, p. 12 ; — , S. Gio- 
vanni, p. 10 note 1 ; — , S. 
Lawrence, p. 10 ; also called 
Taurina or Tiburtina, p. 10 ; 
— , S. Pancras, p. 12 note 2 ; 
— , S. Paul, p. 7 ; also called 
Capena and Campania, p. 8 
and note 1 ; miracle of S. 
Silvester at, p. 8, p. 50 note 
2, p. 66, p. 130 ; — , S. Peter 
in Adriano, p. 12 note 1 ; — ^ 
Salaria, p. 11, p. 82 note 2; 
— , della Salciccia, at Viterbo, 
p. 10 note 3 ; — , Taurina (S. 
Lawrence), p. 10 ; — , Tibur- 
tina (S. Lawrence), p. 10 ; — , 
Triconia (Metronia), p. 9. 

Portico of S. Angelo to Vati- 
can, p. 25 note 3. 

Porticus Oallatorum, p. 170 
note 1. 

Porto, p. 114 note 1, p. 181 
note 1. 

Posterulas iujcta, p. 92 note 1. 

Pratellus, one of the naked 
men of the Caballus, p. 29. 

Pretextatus, cemetery of, p. 
20. 

Pretextatus, father of S. Ana- 
stasia, p. 99. 

Pretorian Guard, p. 68 note 2. 

Priscilla, cemetery of, p. 20; 



184 



INDEX 



discovery of in 1590, p. 21. 

note 2, p. 141 note 1. 
Priscilla, p. 117 note 2. 
Priscus Tarquinius, arch of, 

p. 45 and note 2 ; circus of, 

p. 45. 
Probns, emperor, p, 55. 
Procate, father of Amilius, p. 

4. 
Procopius, p. 12 note 1, p. 126 

note 1. 
Prosper, notary to Pope Leo, 

p. 57 and note 1. 
Protasius, p. 103, p. 112. 
Provence, p. 57 note 1. 
Publius, husband of S. Ana- 

stasia, p. 99 and note 1, p. 100. 
Publius Gaius, p. 42 note 1. 
Pudens, p. 117 note 2 ; dis- 
ciple of S. Peter, p. 117, p. 

147 note 4. 
Punicus, p. 117 note 2. 
Puriandrus, p. 44 and note 8. 
Pyramid of Cestius, p. 8. 
Pythagoras, p. 1. 

Q. 

Quinctius, C, consul, p. 1S4 
note 2. 

Quintilius, emperor, p. 55. 

Quintus Curtius, see Marcus C. 

Quiriacus, Christian name of 
Judas, who found the Holy 
Cross, p. 145. 

Quirilla, p. 82. 

Quirinal, p. 43 note 1 ; — 
palace, p. 63 note 2. 

Quiiini, cardinal, p. 115 note 
2. 

Quirinus, another name for 
Romulus, p. 7. 

Quirinus, a deacon, p. 116. 

Quirinus, jailer of Pope Alex- 
ander I, p. 98 and note ; his 
conversion, p. 98. 

Quirinus, jailer of Hermes, p. 
108 ; endeavours to persuade 
his prisoner to abandon the 
Christian faith, p. 108; is 
converted, together with his 
daughter Balbina, by a mira- 
cle, p. 108. 

R. 

Radegund, empress, p. 115 ; 

her ordeal, p. 115. 
Rakes, see Cultivation, p. 6 

note 2. 
Rampolla, cardinal, p. 109 

note 1. 
Raphael, p. 61 note 1, p. 104 

note 2. 
Ravenna, p. 69 note 1, p. 77 

note 2, p. 113 note 1, p. 140, 

p. 141 note 2, p. 167 note 1. 
Rea, daughter of Munitor, p. 4 ; 

gives birth to Romulus and 



Remus, p. 4 and note 2 ; fate 
of, p. 5. 

Reati, p. 4 note 2. 

Reatyne, p. 14. 

Redempta, pp. 100-1. 

Reggio, p. 57 note 1. 

Remus, slain, p. 4 ; captured 
and brought to Munitor, p. 5 ; 
death of, p. 6 and note 1 ; 
where buried, p. 8 ; palace of, 
p. 17, p. 50 note 2. 

Rheims, p. 147 note 2. 

Rhodes, p. 35 note 1. 

Rhone, valley of, p. 121 note 1. 

Riario, cardinal, p. 128 note 2. 

Ricimer, p. 117 note 1. 

Riez, p. 57 note 1. 

Ripa Greca, p. 167 note 1. 

Robert Guiscard, p. 105 note 1, 
p. 126 note 2. 

Romanus, a knight, p. 82. 

Rome, date of foundation of, 
p. 5. 

Romen, daughter or cousin to 
Aeneas, flies from Troy to 
Italy, Rome named after her, 
p. 4. 

Romula, pp. 100-1. 

Romulus, born, p. 4 ; comes to 
Munitor in search of Remus, 
p. 5 ; kills Amilius, p. 5 ; 
calls various nations to Rome, 
p. 6 ; appoints senators and 
knights, p. 7 ; taken up to 
heaven, p. 7 ; called Quirinus, 
p. 7, p. 14; together with 
Celienne fights the Latin 
tribes, p. 15 ; palace of, p. 16, 
p. 52 ; temple of Romulus, son 
of Maxentius, p. 92 note 2. 

Romulus and Remus, found 
Rome, p. 3 ; exposed, p. 5, p. 
5 note 1 ; found by Faustulus 
and Lupa, p. 5 ; dispute be- 
tween brothers, p. 6 ; their 
burial-place, p. 47 and note 2. 

Romulus posthumus, p. 53. 

Rouen, p. 59 note 1. 

Rucellai, a pilgi-im of 1450, p. 
62 note 2. 

Ruinart, Dom Thierri, p. 150 
note 3. 

Rulers of Rome, chapter on, 
p. 52. 

S. 
Sabinella, p. 117 and note 2. 
Sabines, summoned to Rome by 

Romulus, p. 6 ; rape of Sabine 

women, p. 7. 
Sabinus, pope, p. 157. 
Sacramentarium of S.Gregory, 

p. 88 note 2. 
Sages, the seven, p. 44 and 

note 3. 

Saints. 
S. Abacuk, p. 127 and note 1. 



SS. Abdon and Sennen, p. 116 
and note 1. 

S. Adauctus, p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Agapitus, p. 120 note 1. 

S. Agnes, p. 76 and note 1 ; 
h^r ward, p. 114. 

S. Alexander I, pope, p. 98 
note 2, p. 108 note 1. 

S. Alexis, buried in Church of 
S. Boniface, p. 15 and note 1, 
p. 17, p. 86, p. 124, p. 134. 

S. Amator, p. 64 note 1. 

S. Ambrose, writes book in 
honour of Emperor Gratian, 
p. 13^; his JExameron, p. 29, 
p. 55, p. 56, p. 103 note 3, 
p. 113 note 1, p. 126 note 1. 

S. Ananias, p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Anastasia, martyred, p. 55 ; 
buried at S. Croce, p. 76 ; 
feast of, p. 76; a wealthy 
Christian, p. 99 ; wedded to 
a heathen, lives apart from 
him, p. 99 ; imprisoned, p. 99 ; 
her judge struck blind, p. 99 ; 
banished to Insula Falmaria, 
p. 99 ; martyred, p. 100 and 
note 1, p. 137, p. 138 note 1. 

S. Andrew, his altar at S, 
Peter's, p. 63. 

S. Anne, p. 130. 

S. Anteros, pope, p. 68 note 1. 

S. Anthony, p. 110 note 1, p. 
144. 

S. ApoUinaris, p. 57 note 1 ; 
disciple of S. Peter, p. 142 ; 
goes to Ravenna, p. 142 ; tor- 
mented, p. 143; his miracles, 
p. 143 ; again tortured and 
banished, p. 143; raises duke's 
daughter from dead, p. 143 ; 
martyrdom, p. 143 and note 2. 

S. Appropinanus, p. 131 and 
note 1. 

S. Archemius, p. 180. 

S. Athanasius, p. 110 note 1. 

SS. Attica and Artemia, p. 76 
note 2. 

S. Audactus, p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Audifax, p. 127 and note 1. 

S. Aurea, p. 92 and note 3. 

3. Auspicius, p. 149 note 2. 

S. Austin, his account of the 
Sibyl and Augustus, p. 40 ; 
writes against Manichaeans, 
p. 55, p. 56 ; writes de civitnte 
Dei, p. 57 ; dies, p. 57 ; his 
body translated to Pa via, p. 58, 
p. 60, p. 80 ; hermits of, 
p. 92; hiB de mirahilibus sacr. 
Script, p. 105; hermits of, 
p. 123 ; his de moribxis eccle- 
siae, p. 147, p. 154 ; hermits 
of, p. 164, p. 167. 

S. Balbina, hill of, p. 16; 
daughter of Quirinus, her 
charity, p. 108 note 1, p. 108. 



INDEX 



185 



S. Barnabas, his body found 
with S. Matthew's, p. 57, 
p. 110. 

S. Basilides, p. 103 note 1. 

S. Beatrix, p. 180 and note 1. 

S. Benedict, his altar at S. 
Paul's, p. 67 ; vigil of, p. 
77. 

S. Benedicta, p 91 note 1. 

S. Bernard, crusade of, p. 60, 
p. 169 and note 3. 

S. Bibiana, her head at S. Mary 
Major, p. 85 and note 1. 

S. Bryde, spoken to by crucifix 
at S. Paul's, p. 67. 

S; Caius, p. 68 note 2, p. ]23 
note 2. 

S. Callixtus, pope, p. 69 note 1 ; 
founds S. Mary Transtiberina, 
p. Ill note 1. 

S. Candidus, p. 121 and note 1. 

S. Carpophorus, p. 127, p. 128 
note 1. 

S. Charles Borromeo, p. 181 
note 8, p. 147 note 4. 

S. Cecilia, p. 7 ; martyred, 
p. 54 ; buried in cemetery of 
Callixtus, p. 69 ; married to 
Tiburtius, p. 109 ; martyred 
in her own house and buried 
in Catacombs, p. 110 and 
note 1 ; her piety, p. 110. 

S. Celestine, pope, p. 169 note 1. 

S. Cesarius, buried at S. Croce, 
p. 76 and note 3 ; his feast, 
p. 76. 

S. ChrysogonuB, p. 7 ; see chap- 
ter on S. Anastasia, pp. 99- 
100 and note 1, p. 109 note 
2 ; persecuted by Diocletian, 
p. 137 ; tempted to abjure 
Christianity, p. 187 ; refuses, 
and is martyred ad aquas 
gradatas, p. 137, p- 188 note 1. 

S. Ciriaca, p. 104 note 2. 

S. Ciriacus (Cyriacus), p. 106 ; 
p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Ciriacus, deacon of Pope 
S. Marcellus, p. 138 ; perse- 
cuted by Diocletian, p. 138 ; 
casts out devil from emperor's 
daughter, p. 139 ; baptizes 
her, p. 139 ; is sent to Baby- 
lon, p. 139 ; casts out devil 
from king's daughter, p. 189 ; 
baptizes king and his family, 
p. 139 ; martyred by Maxi- 
mian, p. 139 and note 3. 

S. Clement, baptizes Nazarius, 
p. 103 ; third pope after 
S. Peter, p. 106 and note 2 ; 
hisEpistle to S.James, p. 106 ; 
his meekness, p. 106 ; exiled 
by Trajan, p. 106 ; martyred, 
p. 106 ; miracle of, p. 106, 
p. 107 note 2 ; body trans- 
lated, p. 107. 



S. Concordia, p. 82 note 2. 

SS. Cosfno and Damian, come 
from Arabia, p. 121 ; tor- 
mented and martyred by 
Lysias, pp. 121-2 and note 1 ; 
relics of, p. 140. 

S. Crispinianus, p. 91 note 1. 

S. Crispus, p. 91 note 1. 

S. Cyprian, p. 68 note 1, p. 97 
note 1. 

S. Cyriacus, p. 130 note 1. 
See S. Ciriacus. 

S. Cyrillus, p. 107 and note 1. 

S. Cyrinus, p. 108 note 1. 

S. Damasus,pope,p. 128 note 2, 
p. 129 and note 2. 

S. Demetria, p. 85 note 1. 

S. Denis, his books translated, 
p. 59, p. 68 note 1, p. 182 
note 8. 

SS. Digna and Emerita, p. 132 
note 8. 

S. Dominic, p. 86 note 1 ; 
miraculously saved, memorial 
thereof, p. 87. 

S. Domitilla, p. 149 note 2. 

S. Dunstan, p. 83 note 1. 

S. Edward, p. 83 note 1. 

S. Eudosia, p. 97 note 1. 

S. Eusebius, a priest during 
reign of Constantine II, p. 133 ; 
imprisoned, dies in prison, 
p. 184 and note 1. 

S. Fabian, pope, buried at 
S. Sebastian, p. 68 and note 1 ; 
elected pope by a miracle, 
p. 68 ; orders first martyr- 
ology to be compiled, p. 68. 

S. Faustinus, p. 180 and note 
1. 

S. FelicissimuB, p. 120 note 1. 

S. Felix, martyr, p. 130 and 
note 1. 

S. Felix, pope, p. 92 and note 2. 

S. Firmin, p. 68 note 2. 

S. Focas, p. 140 note 2. 

S. Francis, p. 134. 

S. Gabinus, p. 123 and note 4, 
p. 124 note 2. 

S. Galla, p. 170 and notes 1 
and 4. 

S. Gamaliel, p. 80 note 2. 

S. George, his head ahown, 
pp. 87-8 and note 1, p. 88; 
was he apocryphal? p. 88 and 
note 2 ; decision of Nicene 
Council, p. 88 ; born inCappa- 
docia, kills the dragon and 
converts the king, p. 88 ; tor- 
mented and martyred, p. 88 ; 
patron saint of England, 
pp. 88-9 ; apparition of at siege 
of Jerusalem, p. 89. 

SS. Gervasius and Protasius, 
p. 108 note 3. 

S. Giminianus, p. 130 and note 
1. 

Bb 



S. Gregory, p. 11 note 1, p. 11 
note 5 ; miracle in his time at 
Castel S. Angelo, p. 12, p. 83 
note 1 , p. 65 ; his altar at S. 
Peter's, p. 68 ; his body, p. 63, 
p. 63 note 2 ; his Mass and the 
angel, p. 68 ; orders stations 
to be held, p. 85, p. 88 note 
2, p. 89 note 1; his 40th 
homily on Redempta, p. 100 ; 
reads homily at S. Clement, 
p. 105 note 1, p. 110, p. 112 
note 1, p. 113 note 8, p. 129, 
p. 147, p. 150 note 8 ; miracle 
of the angel, p. 155, p. 157, 
p. 169 note 1, p. 170 note 1. 

S. Helen, her body translated, 
p. 59, p. 76 note 1 ; presents 
relics to S. Croce, p. 77 ; her 
chapel called Jerusalem, p. 
77, p. 79; goes to Jerusalem 
in search of the cross, p. 124 ; 
Judas reveals where it is 
hidden, p. 125, p. 126 note 1, 
p. 145 and note 1, p. 152, 
p. 166. 

S. Hippolytus, p. 82 note 2. 

S. Ignatius, p. 106 and note 1. 

S. Isidore, p. 29 note 2. 

S. James, his miraculous ap- 
pearance to his brother, p. 74 ; 
killed by Herod Agrippa, 
p. 96, p. 97, p. 102 ; martyr- 
dom, p. 108 ; relic of, p. 187, 
p. 146 note 8, pp. 160-1. 

S. Januarius, p. 120 note 1. 

S. Jerome, speaks of Pyth»- 
goras's travels, p. 1 ; his own 
travels in Palestine, p. 1 ; 
writes de didanciis loconinty 
p. 1, p. 41 note 1, p. 56; dies 
at Bethlehem, p. 57 ; his Bible, 
p. 67 and note 2; his body at 
S. Mary Major, p. 85 ; his 
remark on Origen's works, 
p. 88, p. 90 note 1, p. 12» 
note 1, p. 129, p. ''44. 

S. John Baptist, chapel of, 
closed to women, p. 71 ; relics 
of, p. 78 ; garment of at S. 
Croce, p. 77 ; slain by Herod 
Antipas, p. 97 ; head of, 
p. 182 and note 8, p. 160. 

S. John Chrysostom, his body, 
p. 63, p. 97 note 1. 

S. John of EphesuB, p. 34 note 3. 

S. John Evangelist, martyr- 
dom, p. 9, p. 84 note 3; relics 
of, p. 78 ; preaches before 
Domitian, p. 74 ; gives picture 
of our Lord to Polycarp, p. 76, 
p. 91 note 1 ; put in tun of 
boiling oil, p. 145 ; imprisoned, 
p. 145 ; Domitian oitlers him 
to be sent to Rome, p. 146 
and note 8 ; exiled to Patmos, 
p. 146, p. 152, p. 154. 



186 



INDEX 



SS. John and Paul, p. 76 note 
2, p. 91 note ; in Constan- 
tia*s household, p. 90 ; in- 
herit her property, p. 90 ; 
Julian the Apostate, hearing 
this, sends for them, p. 90 ; 
they refuse to come, p. 91 ; 
Terentianus orders them to 
sacrifice, they refuse, p. 91; 
martyred, p. 91 ; buried in 
their own house, p. 91 ; they 
cast out devil from son of 
Terentianus, who is converted, 
p. 92. 

S. John I, pope, p. 92 note 2, 
p. 170 and note 1. 

S. Joseph, his hose at S. Mary 
Major, p. 85. 

S. Judas (Quiriacus), p. 145 
note 1. 

S. Julius, pope, p. 148 note 2. 

S. Largus, p. 130 and note 1, 
p. 189 note 3. 

S. Laurence, disciple of Sixtus, 
p. 8 ; martyrdom of, p. 22, 
p. 54 ; his shoulder, a relic, 
p. 73, p. 75 note 1 ; relic of at 
S. Croce, p. 77 ; buried with 
S. Stephen, p. 80 ; miracle of, 
on arrival of S. Stephen's 
body, p. 81, p. 82 note 2; 
vision of, p. 83, p. 97 ; his 
torment and martyrdom, 
p. 101 and note 2 ; saves soul 
of Emperor * Heriy ', p. 115 ; 
disciple to S. Sixtus, p. 119 ; 
joins him in his martyrdom, 
p. 120; his chains at his 
church in Lucina, p. 122 ; 
his miracles, p. 123, p. 129. 

S. Lazarus, p. 106. 

S. Leo, p. 57 note 1 ; his altar 
at S. Peter's, p. 63 ; his body, 
p. 63. 

S. Linus, p. 103 note 3. 

S. Longius (? Longinus), p. 92. 

S. Lucia, p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Lucina, p. 63 note 2, p. 122 
note 3. 

S. Luke, prepares to paint 
portrait of our Lord, p. 75 ; 
finds it painted by an .angel, 
p. 75 ; picture given to Poly- 
carp, p. 76 ; his picture at 
St. Mary Major and his arm, 
p. 85 ; his picture at S. Mary 
of the People, p. 164, p. 165 
and note 1. 

S. Magnus, p. 120 note 1. 

S. Mamert, Bishop of Vienne, 
p. 57. 

S. Marcellinus, baptizes Peter's 
jailer, p. 114 and note 1 ; 
martyred, p. 114. 

S. Marcellinus, pope, p. 141 
note 1. 

S. Marcellus, pope, p. 138, p. 



189 note 3 ; elected in time 
of Maxentius, p. 140 ; dedi- 
cates S. Mary in Via Lata, 
p. 141 ; church made a stable, 
p. 141 ; condemned to work 
in same, and dies, p. 141 ; is 
the first to institute cardi- 
nals, p. 141 ; body found 
during alterations of 1869, p. 
141 note 1. 

S. Marius, p. 127 note 1. 

S. Mark, pope, p. 115 note 2, 

S. Martha, p. 127 note 1. 

S. Martial, p. 152 note 1. 

S. Martin, octave of, is the 
feast of dedication of S. 
Peter's, p. 63 ; and of S. 
Paul's, p. 67. 

S. Martin, pope, p. 131 ; calls 
Council, p. 132 ; emperor 
sends Olympius to assassinate 
him, p. 132 ; exiled to Cher- 
son, and dies, p. 182 and 
note 2. 

S. Martinianus, relics of, p. 63 
and note 2. 

S. Matthew, his body and that 
of S. Barnabas found with his 
Gospel, p. 57 ; his body at S. 
Mary Major, p. 85. 

S. Mauricius, p. 121 note 1. 

S. Maurus, p. 180 and note 1. 

S. Menna, p. 92 and note 3. 

S. Methodius, p. 107 note 1. 

S. Monica, p. 92 ; translation 
of, p. 93. 

S. Nabor, p. 103 note 1. 

S. Nazanup, p. 103 note 1. 

SS. Nazarius and Celsus, p. 
103 note 1. 

SS. Nereua and Achilleus, p. 
149 and note 2. 

S. Nicholas, p. 130, p. 184; 
his life of abstinence and vir- 
tue, p. 134 ; patron of mari- 
ners, p. 135 ; chosen bishop, 
p. 135 and note 2. 

SS. Novatius and Timotheus, 
p. 117 note 2.i 

S. Nympha, p. 94 note 1. 

S. Pancras, p. 7 ; feast of, p. 
51 note 2, p. 70; head of, p. 
73 and note 2. 

S. Papias, p. 34 note 3. 

S. Pastor, perhaps brother of 
Pius I, p. 74 note 3. 

S. Paul, head of carried away 
and hidden, p. 67 ; martyr- 
dom and burial, p. 70 and 
note 1, p. 80 and note 2, p. 
91 note 1 ; legend of Plau- 
tilla, pp. 130-1 ; his Epistle 
to the Ephesians, p. 158, p. 
161. 

S. Peter, picture of his meet- 
ing with our Lord, p. 21 ; site 
of his crucifixion, p. 48, p. 63 



note 2 ; crucifixion again men- 
tioned, p. 69 and note 1, p. 
70 ; burial, pp. 69-70, p. 75 
note 1 ; persecuted by Herod 
Agrippa, p. 96 ; miraculously 
delivered, p. 96 ; chains found 
by Eudoxia, p. 96 ; Augus- 
tus's feast-day dedicated to 
him, p. 96 ; baptizes Africa- 
nu3 and Perpetua, p. 108 ; 
appoints his successor, p, 106 
and note 2 ; miraculously 
hidden in S. Pudenziana, p. 
117 ; concealment revealed, 
p. 117 ; stone on which he 
wept, p. 136, p. 137, p. 142, 
p. 143 note 2, p. 148, p. 149, 
p. 149 note 4, p. 151, p. 160, 
p. 162 and note 2, p. 166 
and note 2. 

S. Peter, companion to Mar- 
cellinus, converts his jailer, 
p. 113 ; martyred, p. 114 and 
note. 

SS. Peter and Paul, p. 46; 
their bodies divided, p. 68, p. 
66 ; laid in the Catacombs, p. 
69 ; heads shown in Holy 
Week, p. 73 and note 1, p, 
98 note 1, p. 117 note 2, p. 
120 note 1, p. 122 note 4 ; 
appear to Plautilla, p. 131, p. 
161. 

S, Peter Chrysologus (Chryso- 
stom), p. 143 note 2. 

S. Petronilla, relics of, p. 63 ; 
called also S. Parnel, p. 
124. 

S. Philip, p. 102 and note 4 ; 
martyrdom of, p. 103. 

S. Phocas, p. 140 note 2. 

S. Plautilla, p. 131 and note 2. 

S. Polycarp, brings S. Luke's 
picture of our Lord to Rome, 
p. 76. 

S. Praxedis, p. 117 and notes 
1 and 2, p. 148 and note 1. 

S. Prisca (Priscilla), daughter 
of a consul, p. 149 and note 
4 ; accused of being a Chris- 
tian, p. 149 ; refuses to sacri- 
fice, p. 150 ; tormented and 
martyred, p. 150 and note 1. 

S. Processus, relics of, p. 63 
and note 2. 

S. Prosper, p. 57 note 1. 

S. Pudens, p. 117 note 2, p. 
147 note 4. 

S. Pudenziana, p. 117 notes 1 

and 2, p. 148 and note 1. 

S. Quartus, p. 120 note 1. 

SS. Quatuor Coronati, hill of, 
p. 16 ; martyred, pp. 127-8, 
p. 128 note 1. 

S. Quiriacus, p. 145 note 1. 

S. Quirilla, p. 82 note 2. 

S. QuirinuB, p. 108 note 1. 



INDEX 



187 



SS, Redempta and Romula, pp. 
100-1, p. 101 note 1. 

S. Respicius, p. 94 and note 1 ; 
raises maa from dead, p. 93 ; 
martyred, p. 94. 

S. Romanus, p. 82 note 2. 

S. Sabina, p. 87 note 2 ; daugh- 
ter of Herod Metallarius, p. 
86 ; married to Valentine, 
and friend of Seraphia, p. 86 ; 
Seraphia martyred, p. 86 ; 
Berillus attempts to pervert 
her, p. 86 ; tried and mar- 
tyi-ed, p. 87. 

S. Salome, p. 146 and note 3. 

S. Saturninus, p. 21 note 1. 

S. Sebastian, vision of, p. 22 ; 
martyred, p. 55 ; his altar, 
p. 68 and note 2, p. 144. 

S. Seraphia, p. 87 note 1. 

S. Serapion, p. 110 note 1. 

S. Severus, p. 127, p. 128 note 1. 

S. Severianus, p. 127, p. 128 
note 1. 

S. Silvester, miracle of, p. 8 ; 
made lord of Rome, p. 35 ; 
destroys idols at Colosseum, 
p. 86 ; contest with the devil, 
p. 36 and note 1, p. 62 
note 2 ; divides relics of 
SS. Peter and Paul, p. 66, 
p. 71 and note 1 ; conse- 
crates Lateran, miracle, p. 
73 ; preaches to Constantine, 
inscription recording this, 
p. 74 note 1 ; consecrates 
S. Croce, p. 76, p. 77 ; given 
dominion over West, p. 94, 
p. 124, p. 131 and note 8, 
p. 132 and note 3, p. 141, 
pp. 166-7, p. 166 note 2. 

S. Simnjetrius, p. 118 note 2. 

SS. Simon and Jude, altar at 
S. Peter's, p. 63 ; their bodies, 
p. 63. 

S. Simplicius, p, 130 and note 1. 

S. Sixtus, pope, martyred, p. 8, 
p. 54, p. 81 ; born at Athens, 
p. 119 ; comes to Rome, elected 
pope, p. 119 ; persecution of, 
p. 119 ; refuses to sacrifice, 
p. 119 ; martyred, p. 120 and 
note 1. 
S. Smaragdus, p. 130 and note 1, 

p. 139 note 3. 
S. Stephanus, p. 120 note 1. 
S. Stephen, pope, where buried, 
p. 68, p. 79 note 2, p. 120 
note i, p. 132 note 3. 
S. Stephen, protomartyr, p. 79 
note 2 ; buried with S. Lau- 
rence, p. 80 ; first buried by 
Gamaliel, p. 80 and note 2 ; 
place revealed in vision, p. 80 ; 
removal of body, p. 80 and 
note 2; oratory of, at Jeru- 
salem, p. 80 ; body placed in 



silver chest, p. 80 ; removed 
to Constantinople, p. 81 ; sent 
to Rome, p. 81 ; finally trans- 
lated to S. Lawrence's, p. 81, 
p. 97 and note 1 ; his martyr- 
dom, p. 125, p. 130 ; brother 
to Judas (Quiriacus), p. 145; 
his head, p. 145. 

S. Susanna, translation of, 
p. 123 and note 4 ; formerly 
believed to be Susanna of the 
Old Testament, p. 124; her 
piety, p. 124 and note 2. 

S. Swithin, p. 85 note 1. 

SS. Thomajus and Rogatus, 
p. 114 note 1. 

S. Thomas, his body brought to 
Edissa, p. 18. 

S. Thomas of Canterbury, arm 
and vestment of, at S. Maiy 
Major, p. 85 ; his hospital 
(the present English College), 
p. 157, p. 167 and note 8. 

S. Tiburtius, martyred, p. 54. 

S. Timothy, p. 130 and note 1. 

S. Titus, p. 130 and note 1. 

SS. Tryphoii and Respicius, 
p. 93; S. Tryphon baptiz-d, 
p. 93 ; cures child, p. 98 ; 
raises man from dead, p. 98 ; 
martyred, p. 94 and note 1. 

S. Tryphonia, p. 82 note 2. 

S. Urban, martyred, p. 54 ; con- 
secrates Church of S. Cecilia, 
p. 110. 

S. Ursicinus, p. 118 note 1. 

S. Valentine, p. 148 and note 2. 

S. Valerian, martyred, p. 54. 

S. Veronica, her altar, p. 61 
note 3, p. 64 note 1. 

S. Victorinus, p. 127, p. 128 
note 1. 

S. Vincent, p. 75 note 1 ; relic 
of, at S. Croce, p. 77. 

S. Vincentius, p. 120 note 1. 
S. Vitale, father of SS. Ger- 
vasius and Protasius, p. 112 ; 
consul at Milan, p. 112 ; con- 
version of, goes to Ravenna, 
p. 112; encourages a Christian 
on way to death, p. 112 ; tried, 
and cruelly martyred, p. 113 
and note 1. 
S. Ysidore, p. 55. 
S. Zoilus, p. 137, p. 138 and 
note 2. 

Salaria, curious reversal in de- 
rivation of name, p. 11 note 8. 

Sallust, p. 45 ; forum of, p. 123 
note 2 ; gardens of, p. 139 
note 3. 

Salome, mother of S. John 
Evangelist, p. 146 and note 3. 

Salvatio Romae, made by Ver- 
gil, p. 27 ; description of, p. 27 
and note 3. 

Bb2 



Samaritan woman, the, p. 180. 
Samson, p. 86 note 1 ; palla 

of, the, p. 36 note 1. 
Sancta Sanctorum, p. 165 

note 1. 
Sangallo, p. 61 note 1. 
Sansovino, p. 140 note 1. 
Sapor, King of Persia, p. 189 

note 3. 
Saracens, defeated owing to 

vision of S. George, p. 89, 

p. 114 note 1. 
Sardica, council of, p. 110 

note 1. 
Saturn, builds a city on Capi- 

toline, p. 8 ; Janus deified in 

his time, p. 18. 
Saturnia, a town on the Capi- 

toline hill, p. 15. 
Saturninus, p. 138. 
Scala Celt, p. 70, p. 160. 
Scala Sancta, p. 75. 
Scipio Borghese, cardinal, p. 89 

note 1, p. 187 note 1. 
Scola Oraecorum, p. 17, p. 167 

and notes 1 and 3. 
Scola Xantha, p. 44 note 2. 
Secretariat of Nero, p. 26. 
Sedes (or Sella) Stercoraria, 

p. 74 and note 3. 
Sem, son of Noah, ancestor of 

Medes, Persians, and Greeks, 

p. 3. 
Senate, choose Agrippa to sub- 
due Persia, p. 87; wish to 

deify Augustus, p. 89. 
Senators, appointed by Romu- 
lus, p. 7 ; arch of the, p. 19. 
Seneca, p. 44. 
Sennen, see Abdon, p. 116 

note 1. 
Septimosephero, name for sta- 
tue of M. Aurelius, p. 81 
note 8. 

Septizoniiun, p. 18, p. 22, p. 44; 
derivation of name, p. 44 and 
note 1 ; seven wise men lived 
there, p. 44 and note 8. 

Sepulchre, description of the 
holy, p. 154. 

Sepultures, of Romulus and 
Remus, p. 47, p. 60 note 2, 
p. 70 note 1. 

Seraphia, p. 86. 

Serapion, p. 110. 

Serenus (Severus), p. 114 and 
note 1. 

Sergius II, pope, p. 181 note 3. 

Sergius III, pope, p. 71 note 1. 

Sergius IV, pope, p. 77 note 2. 

Servia, p. 126 note 1. 

Servius Tullius, agger of, p. 88 
note 2. 

Sessorian palace, p. 76 note 1. 

Seth, p. 153. 

Sette Sale, the, description, 
p. 16 note 8. 



188 



INDEX 



Severian, governor of Carta- 
gena, p. 29 note 2. 

Severianus, p. 127, p. 128 
note 1. 

Severius, p. 127, p. 128 note 1. 

Severua Afer (Septimius), p. 
44 note 1. 

Severus Alexander, p. 18; 
stadium of, p. 142 note 1. 

Seville, p. 29 note 2. 

Sforza, Riario, Cardinal, p. 104 
note 2. 

Sheba, Queen of, p. 153. 

Sibyl of Tibur, consulted by 
Augustus, p. 40; fasts and 
meets emperor, p. 40, p. 159. 

Sicanians,summoned by Romu- 
lus to Rome, p. 6. 

Sicily, conquered, p. 60, p. 132 
note 2. 

Signorili, p. 144 note 1, p. 161 
note 3. 

Silice, in, see Church of SS. 
Cosmo and Damian. 

Silva Candida, p. 114 note 1 ; 
silva nigra, ibid. 

Simon Magus, constructs the 
Cantharus, p. 46, p. 120 note 2. 

Simphorianus, p. 127. 

Simplicius, pope, p. 20 note 4, 
p. 144 note 1. 

Simplicius, p. 127. 

Sin ope, p. 140 note 2. 

Sion, p. 80. 

Siricius, pope, p.. 113 note S> 

Sixtus, p. 54. 

Sixtus, pope, p. 104. 

Sixtus III, pope, p. 80 note 1, 
p. 83 note 2, p. 86 note 1. 

Sixtus IV, pope, p. 11 note 1, 
p. 36 note 1, p. 96 note 1, 
p. 98 note 3, p. 112 note 1, 
p. 148 note 3, p. 163 note 3. 

Sixtus V, pope, p. 74 note 3, 
p. 83 note 2. 

Slave's collar, from S.Clement's, 
p. 106 note 1. 

Sleepers, the seven, awakened, 
p. 57. 

Smaragdus, p. 139 and note 3. 

* Solace of pilgrimes ', title of 
this book, p. 2. 

Solinus, his de tnirahilihus 
mundi, on date of name of 
Rome, p. 3, p. 4 ; his account 
of the Palatine, p. 14. 

Solomon, pillars of the temple 
of at S. Peter's, p. 61 ; in- 
scription on, p. 65 and note 1, 
p. 66 ; Hiram's pillars for, 
p. 73 ; epithalamium of, p. Ill, 
p. 153. 

Solon, p. 44 and note 3; his 
laws adopted by Numa, p. 63. 

Sophia, empress, p. 58. 

Spain, conquered, p. 48. 

Sports, on omnis terras p. 15; 



description of, p. 61 and note 

2. 
Stadium of Severus, p. 142 

note 1. 
Stafford, John, cardinal, p. 107 

note 4. 
Stations, origin and meaning 

of, p. 85. 
Stefaneschi, cardinal, p. 87 

note 4. 
Stephen II, pope, p. 132 note 3. 
Stephen III, pope, p. 11 note 1. 
Stephen VI, pope, p. 126 note 2. 
Strabo, p. 158 and note 3. 
Sudary, a name for the Ver- 

nacle, p. 64. 
Suetonius, his saying of Caesar, 

p. 25. 
Sun, temple of the, p. 34 note 

5. 
Suspicius, p. 63. 
Sylvester II, pope, p. 76 note 

1, p. 77 note 2. 
Symmachus, p. 170 notes 1 and 

4. 
Symmachus, pope, p. 11 note 2, 

p. 90 note 1, p. 131 note 3. 
Synnada, in Phrygia, p. 73 

note 2. 
Synod, of 694 a.d., p. 107 

note 3. 
Sy racusans, help Saturn to build 

Rome, p. 4. 

T. 

Taberna, meritoria, p. Ill note 
1. 

Tacitus, emperor, p. 56. 

Tamese, nephew of Janus, helps 
to build city of Janiculum, 
p. 8. 

Tarpeian rock, p. 26 note 1. 

Temple, of Ceres, p. 22 note 2 ; 
— , of Concordia, p. 21, p. 22 
note 2 ; — , of Concord and 
Pity (Venus and Rome), 
p. 22 ; — , of Flora, p. 25 ; — , of 
Hadrian, p. 25 ; — , of Jeru- 
salem, p. 90 note 3 ; of Juno, 
p. 42 note 1 ; — , of Jupiter, 
p. 21, p. 26 and note 1, p. 28 ; 
— , of Mars, p. 26 ; — , of Mer- 
cury, p. 22 note 2 ; — , of 
Minerva, p. 26 ; on west side 
of Capitol, p. 28 ; site of 
Caesar's murder, p. 28; — , ot 
Phoebus, p. 25 ; — , of the 
Sun, p. 34 note 5 ; — , of Tellus, 
p. 22 note 2 ; — , of Venus, 
p. 22 ; —, of Vesta, p. 21, 
p. 28, p. 44 note 2, p. 144 
note 1 ; — , of * ye lady rose*, 
p. 28. 

Temple-Leader, John, p. 62 
note 2. 

Temples, * turned to service ot 
saints,' p. 25. 



Templum pads, or palace of 

Romulus, p. 17, p. 120. 
Templum solis et lunae, p. 44 

note 1. 

Templum felluris, p. 22 note 2. 
Terence, p. 14 note 1. 
Terentianus, kills SS. John and 

Paul, p. 91 ; is converted, p. 92. 
Terme Diocleziane, p. 123. 
Termini, p. 138 note 3. 
Terracina, p. 76 note 3, p. 149 

note 2. 
Terson, see Cherson, p. 132. 
Testaccio, sports on, p. 51 and 

note 2. 
Thales, p. 44 note 3. 
Thaso, a precious stone, p. 127. 
Theatre, of Alexander, p. 18 ; 

— , of Anthony (Marc), p. 18 ; 

— , of Flaminius, p. 18 ; — , of 

Nero, p. 18 ; — , of Pompey, 

p. 18 ; — , of Tarquin, p. 18 ; 

— , of Titus and Vespasian, 

p. 18. . 
Theatres of Rome, general 

account of, p. 18 note 1. 
Theban legion, the, p. 121 note 

1. 
Thebes, p. 121. 
Thellophorus, pope, p. 104, 
Theodolphus, Bishop of Or- 
leans, p. 147 and note 2. 
Theodora, empress, p. 109 note 

1. 
Theodora, p. 29 note 2. 
Theodore, pope, p. 148 note 2. 
Theodoric, p. 57, p. 92 note 2, 

p. 170 note 4. 
Theodoricus Pauli, p. 145 note 

1. 
Theodosius, emperor, his arch, 

p. 18, p. 34 note 3, p. 56, 

p. 66 note 2. 
Theodosius II, emperor, p. 29 

note 2 ; with Honorius, p. 57 ; 

with Valentinian, p. 57. 
Theodosius III, emperor, p. 58, 

p. 81, p. 97 and note 1. 
Theodulus, p. 98 note 2. 
Thermes, a palace, name for 

baths of Diocletian, p. 138 

note 3. 
Thessalonica, p. 107 note 1. 
Thetford, p. 1 note 2. 
Thmuis, in Egypt, p. 110 note 

1. 
Tholome (? Ptolemy), p. 158. 
Thrace, p. 143 note 2. 
Tiber, p. 9 note 1 ; bridge, 

keys of, p. 10 note 3, p. 46 

note 8, p. 47 note 2. 
Tiberius, emperor, receives the 

naked philosophers, p. 29 and 

note 5 ; believed to have been 

baptized, p. 41 note 1 ; 

Tiberius and the Sudarium, 

p. 64. 



INDEX 



189 



Tiberius II, emperor, p. 58. 

Tiberius III, emperor, p. 58. 

Tibur (Tivoli), in subjection to 
Rome, p. 10. 

Tiburtius, pp. 109-10, p. 110 
note 2. 

Tillemont, p. 126 note 1. 

Timotheus, disciple of S. Paul, 
p. 130 note 1. 

TUulus, Aquilae et Priscaej 
p. 149 note 4 ; — , Eqaitiiy 
p. 131 note 3; Fasciolae, 
p. 148 note 8; — , Ludrtae, 
p. 122 note 3 ; — , Pammackii, 
p. 90 note 1 ; — , Pastoris, 
p. 74 and note 3, p. 117 note 1 ; 
—',Pudentin, p. 11 7 note 1 ; — , 
S. Silvestri, p. 131 note 3 ; — , 
— , Vestinae, p. 112 note 1. 

Titus, was he baptized ?, p. 41 
note 1. 

Titus Accius, p. 6 note 1. 

Titus and Vespasian, where 
buried, p. 16 ; palace of, p. 17 ; 
arch of, p. 19. 

Titus, disciple of S. Paul, p. 130 
and note 1. 

Tomassetti, his article on Pope 
Joan fable, p. 74 note 3. 

Torre cartularia, p. 22. 

Toulouse, p. 68 note 1. 

Tours, p. 68 note 1. 

Tower Hill, p. 1 note 2. 

Towers, in walls of Rome, p. 7 ; 
number of, p. 8. 

Trajan, palace of, p. 17 ; 
Trajan and the widow, 
pp. 19-20 and note 1 ; his 
arch, p. 19, p. 49 note 2, 
p. 98 note 2, p. 106 and note 
1 ; baths of, p. 131 note 3. 

Trajan and Hadrian, palace of, 
p. 48, p. 49 note 2. 

TVanstiberine city, p. 3 note 3 ; 
three gates of, p. 7, p. 51 note 
2, p. 109 ; Aquae gradatae 
said by some to be in, p. 137. 

Trasonis, cemetery of, p. 20. 

Tre Fontane (Scala Cell), 
p. 140 note 2, p. 160 and note 
2. 

Treaty, between Jews and 
Romans, table of, p. 48 ; con- 
tents of same, p. 49. 

Treves, p. 114 note 1, p. 126 
note 1. 

Tribus Fatis, in, see Church of 
SS. Cosmo and Damian. 

Trinitarians, p. 145 note 2. 

Triphonia, virgin martyr, p. 82. 

Triumphalis, Arcus, p. 19. 

Trogus Pompeius, p. 29 and 
note 1. 

Troy, p. 46 note 3, p. 140, 
p. 164. 

Tudenham, Sir Thomas, the 
author's patron, p. 1 and note 2. 



TulliuB and Caesar, p. 25 note 

Tullius (Cicero), p. 45. 
Tullius Hostilius, overcomes 

the Albans, p. 16, p. 53, 

p. 144. 
Turin Library, MS. in p. 22 

note 4 ; catalogue of, p. 74 

note 3 ; codex, p. 144 note 1. 
Tusculans, summoned by 

Romulus to Rome, p. 6. 
Tyrrell, William, p. 1 note 2. 

U. 

Ulpia, Basilica, p. 49 note 2. 

Urban, p. 109, p. 110 note 2. 

Urban V, pope, p. 71 note 1. 

Urban VIII, pope, p. 20 note 
4, p. 61 note 1, p. 98 note 3, 
p. 120 note 2, p. 158 note 1. 

Urcian, p. 112. 

Ursacius, p. 133. 

Ursicinus (Ursinus), p. 129 
note 2. 

Ursus, cemetery of, p. 20. 

Ursus Togatus, p. 20 note 5. 

V. 

Valadier, p. 128 note 2. 

Valens, emperor, p. 56 ; an 
Arian, p. 56. 

Valent, an Arian in time of 
Constantino II, p. 133. 

Valentine, husband of S. Sabi- 
na, p. 86. 

Valentin ian, his arch, p. 19. 

Valentinian, emperor with 
Valens, p. 56 ; previously an 
oflficer with Julian the Apos- 
tate, p. 56. 

Valentinian the younger, em- 
peror, p. 56, p. 66 note 2. 

Valentinian III, emperor with 
Theodosius II, p. 56, p. 76 
note 1, p. 96 note 1. 

Valentinus, p. 87 note 1. {See 
Valentine.) 

Valeria, wife of S. Vitale, p. 
112, p. 113. 

Valeria, daughter of Diocle- 
tian, p. 189 note 3. 

Valerian, emperor with Gal- 
lienus, p. 54; blinded by 
King of Persia, p. 54, p. 82 
note 2, p. 120 note 1. 

Valerianus, p. 109, p. 110 and 
note 2. 

Valerianus, p. 116; a judge, 
p. 120. 

Van Winghen, Philip, p. 21 
note 2. 

Van den Wyngaerde, Anthony, 
his plan of Rome, p. 11 note 6. 

Varro, p. 4 ; describes Pala- 
tine, p. 18 ; Aventine, p. 14 ; 
Capitoline, p. 16; and Caelian, 
p. 16. 



Vatican, palace, p. 61; S. 
Peter buried at, p. 69 ; origin 
of name, p. 70, p. 92 note 3 ; 
derivation of word, p. 104. 

Velabrum, p. 87 note 4. 

Venice, p. 59 note 1, p. 115, p. 
138 note 1. 

Venus, temple of, p. 22. 

Vergil, mentions Evander, p. 
4, p. 14 and note 1, p. 15; 
goes invisible to Naples, p. 1(J 
and note 1 ; makes the Sal- 
valio Somae, p. 27, p. 27 and 
note 2 ; his prophecy, p. 27 ; 
his great knowledi^e, p. 27 
and note 1, p. 159 note 1, 
p. 168 note 1. 

Vernacle, altar of, p. 68, p. 64 
and note 1 ; said to have come 
in Navicella, p. 105. 

Verulane (Veroli), in Cam- 
pania, p. 146 and note 2. 

Verus,emperor,p.20note5,p. 53. 

Vespasian, said to have been 
baptized, p. 41 note 1, p. 143 
note 2. 

Vespasian and Titus, where 
buried, p. 16 ; palace of, p. 17; 
arch of, p. 19. 

Vesta, temple of, p. 21, p. 28, 
p. 144 note 1. 

Vestina, p. 112 note 1. 

Veterius, p. 58. 

Via, Appia, p. 68 note 1, p. 119 ; 
— , Ardeatina, p. 10 and note 
2, p. 129 note 2, p. 149 note 
2, p. 160 note 2; — , Aurea, 
or Aurelia, p. 69 note 1 ; site 
of S. Peter's martyrdom, pp. 
69-70, p. 78 note 2 ; — , dei 
Banchi, p. 18 note 8 ; — , del 
Pellegrino, p. 128 note 2 ; — , 
della Pedacchia, p. 42 note 1 ; 
— , della Ripresa, p. 42 note 
1 ; — , della Scrofa, p. 92 note 
1 ; — , Labicana (Lavicana), 
p. 118 note 8, p. 128 note 1 ; 
— , Lata, p. 141 note 1 ; — , 
Nazionale, p. 112 note 1 ; — , 
Nomentana, p. 98 note 2 ; — , 
Ostiensis, p. 8, p. 21 ; site of 
S. Paul's martyrdoii), p. 70, 

p. 189 note 8, p. 150 note 1 ; 

— , Papale, p. 18 note 4 ; — > 

S. Giovanni in Laterano, p. 

169 note 1 ; — , SS. Quattro 

Coronatl, p. 169 note 1 ; — , 

Salaria, p. 21 note 1, p. 1S9 

note 8, p. 141 note 1; — , 

Tiburtina, p. 80 note 1 ; — , 

Urbana, p. 117 note 1. 
Victor, va&rtyr, p. 102. 
Victor Emanuel, p. 42 note 1. 
Victorinus, martyr, p. 127, p. 

128 note 1. 
Victorinus, synod against, p. 

131 note 3. 



190 



INDEX 



Vicfit^ Jngariug, p. 169 note 2 ; 

— , Pairieiuf, p. 117 note 1 ; 

— , Ursui Pileatug, p. 20 note 

4. 
Vigilius, pope, p. 109 note 1. 
TiUa Campana, p. 169 note 1. 
Villa della Porta, p. 21 note 1. 
Villa Medici, p. 11 note 5. 
Viterbo, keys of, p. 10 note 8. 
Volto Santo, p. 158 note 1. 
Volusianus, j). 54, p. 64. 



W. 



length 



Walls, condition of, p. 7 i 

of, p. 7 and note 2. 
Warrington Wood, p. 169 note 

1. 



Wolf, the brazen, of the Capitol, 

p. 36 note 1. 
Women, why not admitted to 

certain holy places, p. 77 and 

note 1. 
Woodhouse, Alice, p. 1 note 2. 



Xantha, Schola, p. 44 note 2 
Xerxes, King of Persia, p. 18. 



Ynde (? India), p. 158. 
York, p. 126 note 1. 
Ypolitus, see Hippolitus. 
Ysidore, Bishop of Spain, chro- 
nicle of, p. 29, p. 156. 



Zacchaeus, p. 64 note 1, p. 124. 

Zaoharias, father of S. John 
Baptist, his head, p. 73. 

Zacharias, pope, p. 87 note 4, 
p. 133 note 3, p. 159 note 1. 

Zacharias, book of, paraphrased 
by Eudosia, p. 97 note 1. 

Zebedeus, p. 137. 

Zelada, cardinal, p. 131 note 3. 

Zeno, emperor, p. 57, p. 110. 

Zibaliiini Quai'esimale, p. 62 
note 2. 

Zodiac, signs of at the Colos- 
seum, p. 35. 

Zoilus, p. 137, p. 188 note 2. 



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