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BOMBAY rra now 


vJ( L ^i.3u8. k.S" 




FROM 1900 TO 1935 









From VAchaspati Misras TattvavaisaradJ, Vijnana 
Bhiksu's Yogavartika and Bboja's 



Professor of Sanskrit, Muir Central College, Allahabad* 





Price 1£ Rupees. 
( All rights reserved ). 






Printed at the " Tatty a-Vivechaka Press. 


The translation now placed before the public was prejjared' 
«o long ago as 1895 ; and the vicissitnides through which the 
manuscript has passed has made it absolutely impossible 
for it to undergo any revision. So what is presented 
here is the work of a mere neophyte in the mysteries of 
Sanskrit Philosophical translation; and the translator would 
therefore, at the very outset, offer his apologies to the 
reader, for his providing for him what he himself considers 
a rather poor fare. It may however be added, as an exten- 
auating circumstance, that the printing of the old * copy ' was 
allowed to be continued in view of the undertaking given to 
the late Mr. Tukaram Tatya — an undertaking from which 
the translator oould not free himself. 

The chief fault of the present translation lies in the fact 

that it is not readable by itself. This has been due to the 

extremely obscure character of the original, a character which 

is inseparable from all works dealing with subjects, the 

whole truth with regard to which cannot be given out to the 

6 public/ Imperfect as it is, it is expected that it may help, 

to a slight extent, future workers in the same field. 

By way of atoning for this deficiency of the translation, 

it is proposed to give here a readable resume of the teachings 

of the Yogasutras. 

* Yoga' has been defined as the ' nirodha * of the * vritti ' of 
the 4 chitta ' brought about by ' Practice * and * Freedom from 
Attachment ' ; and the only explanation that will make this 
intelligible to the ordinary reader is that yoga consists in the 
•controlling of the mind ; — though it must be admitted that 
the definition in this form becomes philosophicallj inaccurate; 


as the ' chitta ' of the original is something different from 
'mind', and 'nirodha', by which is meant 'withdrawal' or 
•inhibition' different from 'control.' Bnt all the accurate, 
renderings of the definition that have been attempted in 
English have only helped to make the original less intelligible. 
This ' control of the mind ' becomes yoga only when the 
* mind ' is so far ' controlled* that it abides in its own pnre 
form of consciousness* 

The functions or operations of the Chitta (Mind) are fivefold 
— Right Cognition, Wrong Cognition, Supposition, Sleep, and 
Remembrance. Right Cognition is of three minds — Percep- 
tional, Inferential and Verbal. Wrong Cognition is mistaken 
conviction brought about by some defect either in the cogni- 
tive agency or in the cognised object. Supposition (or Im- 
position ) is distinguished from Wrong Cognition by the fact 
that while the latter is rectified by subsequent Right Cognition, 
the former is such that it persists all through worldly 
existence, just as tenaciously as any ordinary cognition; to 
this class belong all those popular errors of regarding 
Intelligence as a quality of the Soul, and so on. Remem- 
brance is cognition brought about by impressions left by 
previous cognitions. By * Sleep ' is meant the cognition of 
pleasure that we have during sound sleep. 

Yoga or Meditation is of two kinds — unconscious or abstract 
and conscious or concrete. In Conscious Meditation, also called 
Salambana or Sabija, the object meditated upon is dis- 
tinctly or directly apprehended ; that is to say, in this medita- 
tion the inhibition of the mind enables the agent to directly 
apprehend the object on which he is meditating — for 
instance, some form of personal divinity. In Unconcious 
Meditation, also called ISiralambana or IKirbija, on the other 
hand, there is a complete inhibition of all the functions of 
the mind, wherein the agent loses all consciousness of things 


outside himself; he is literally self-conscious, not indeed 
conscious of his self as apart from other selves, but of the 
Self and that alone as One, Absolute, Eternal, Unchanging* 
The effect of the former is visible or perceptible, consisting of 
the experiencing of desirable pleasures, and finally actually 
perceiving the Divinity; this last perception puts a stop to all 
kinds of pain, and thereby gradually leads to final Release. 
Unconcious Meditation also leads to final release; but imme- 
diately and directly; and it does not stand in need of any 
intervening processes. 

This raises an interesting question: when the man has 
reached the stage of conscious meditation, what becomes 
of his past Karma —If he obtains final Release all at once, 
is all his Karma wiped off at one stroke ? If not, how can he 
obtain perfect Release ? The answer to this lies in the fact 
that Karma is divided into three classes — (1) the Prdrabdha 
or commenced, those whose machinry has been set in motion 
towards their fruition in the present life ; (2) the Sanchita 
or Accumulated — those that are lying latent, like seeds 
stocked up in the granary, for fruition in future 
lives ; and (3) Kriyamdna or Being done, — those that are 
being done in the present life. Now there is nothing that 

can stop the machinery that has been set going; the tree that 
has sprouted must grow, to some extent at least, — the effects 
of the Prdrabdha karma must be experienced. With regard 
to the sanchita however the case is different: the seeds 
may be deprived of their germinating power under the in- 
fluence of extreme heat or cold ; in the same manner 
the accumulated karma can be rendered ineffective by 
the force of wisdom. Lastly over the kriyamdna the 
agent has full control. Hence when the man reaches the 
stage of concious Meditation, he accelerates the fruition of his 
• Prarabdha ' Karma, renders ineffective the ' sanchita, ' and 
being entirely free from personal desires, does not acquire any 


dkarma or adharma, and thus has no kriyamana; and the 
Prarabdha Karma being only limited, as soon as that has 
become exhausted, Release is attained. This is what happens 
in Conscious Meditation. Unconcious Meditation, on the 
other hand, is so powerful in its action that it tends to exhaust 
the Prarabdha also, not indeed, by wiping it off, but by making 
it ineffective by depriving it of such auxiliaries and aids dur- 
ing present life without which it cannot being about its 
effects. In fact this is what is meant by Karma being 
destroyed or burrd. As a matter of fact, in bringing about 
its results the Prarabdha stands in need of the aid of such 
auxiliaries as Ignorance, Egotism, Attachment and Long- 
ing after life, on the part of the agent; hence when the agent 
has by practice of meditation become free from these 

* Obstacles ' or ' Troubles', — he makes his Prarabdha 
■entirely ineffective; and so attains Final Release im- 
mediately. In Conscious Meditation, there is some personal 
motive present, however pure, it may be; and so long as this 
is so, Egotism is there; and hence Prarabdha reinaijiing 
effective, the Release is obtained, it is true, — but only after 
Pr&rabdha has become exhausted by actual experiencing of its 
fresnlts. . 

Of Conscious Meditation there are four kinds — which have 
been regarded as the four stages in the advancement towards 
meditation. All the four are not necessary for all men. If the 
aspirant has succeeded in reaching the higher stage he need 
«ot revert to the lower; and this for the simple reason that 

* the ends of the latter will have been served by the former ' 
{Yoga-Bhashya). Then again, all these four stages are to' 
be practised with reference to one and the same 'object 
4of meditation'; as if one wavers from one to the other object 
fche ' process will lose much of its force. With regard to 
the skrae object however the aspirant must proceed from the 
grosser or more easily perceptible aspects of it to the subtler 


or imperceptible aspects; and thus by the time he has 
passed through the four stages, the object is present before 
him in all its aspects. 

These four kinds are — (1) the 'Argumentative,' whereby the 
aspirant is enabled to apprehend all the past, present and 
future aspects of the ordinary perceptible kind, of the object 
of his devotion-such f. i. as the elements and the sense-organs ; 
(2) the Deliberative — whereby he is enabled to apprehend the 
ordinarily imperceptible aspects of that object; as for instance, 
Nature, Intelligence, Self-consciousness and the Rudimentary 
Elements. (3) the Joyous — whereby contemplating the object 
of devotion the aspirant feels a peculiar blissful sensation; 
and (4) the Selfconscious — whereby the aspirant comes to 
look upon himself as one with the object of devotion, 

A distinction is made between what is called the human 
self, — which forms the twenty-fifth ' principle' in the con- 
stitution of the Universe, whereof Nature, Intelligence, 
Self-consciousness, the eleven organs, the five rudimentary eld- 
ments and the five gross elements are^the other, twenty-four 
c principles ' — and the Supreme Self, on the ground that the 
latter is far more subtle than the former; as the human self is 
directly perceived in the aforesaid fourth stage of Conscious 
Meditation, while that of the Supreme Self we can have no 
direct knowledge; the only conception that we can have of it 
is what we may form out of our ideas of such qualities (if 
'qualities' they can be called) as Absolute exchangeability, 
Indivisibility and the like. The contemplation of the self 
(human) is possible during the aforesaid egoistic meditation; 
this is what is spoken of in Sankhya and Yoga works as 
* Sattvapurushanyatakhyati ' (the discernment of the distinc- 
tion between the self and the other principles). The medita- 
tion of the supreme Self however is spoken of only in 
sutral. 23. 


It is not very easy to find what part this 'supreme self/ or 
* God ' plays in the cosmogony of Yoga. He is nowhere 
spoken of as the 'creator'; nor even as the consciousness per** 
meating through all existence. He is spoken of only as an 
object of devotion, devotion to whom leads to highest results. 
In this respect the 'god* of the Yogin appears to hold the 
same position as the ' devata ' of the Mimamsaka, who posits 
the ' devata ' only as one to whom the prescribed sacrifices can 
be offered ; He has no other function at all. Later writers 
on Yoga were conscious of this; hence when dealing with the 
sutra defining God simply as 'that self which is ever un- 
touched by the five kinds of troubles, Ignorance and the rest, 
fcs also by virtue, vice and their modifications' they proceeded 
to supplement this by additional accounts of the Godhead 
obtainable from other sources, chiefly Ved&ntic. For instance, 
Vijnana Bhiksha gives the following description : — 'His 
powers and omniscience are equalled or excelled by none ; 
He is the Lord or Spiritual Chief and Father of all the gods, 
Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra; is the imparter of spiritual 
vision to the gods, in his character of the Inner Guide 
(Conscience ? ) and fcfctf though the Vedas. Pranava — 'Om' 
is His name; Devotion to Him consists in contemplation of 
Him, beginning with the reciting of the Pranava, and ending 
in the direct perception of His Effulgence. (Yogas&rasangraha 
pp. 27-28.) 

The ' Conscious ' Yogin also has been classed under 
four heads, in accordance it would seem, with the above- 
mentioned four stages of Conscious Meditation : viz : : 
(1) The PrathamakalpikcLi one who is at the first 
stage, who is still practising the Argumentative form of 
meditation, wherein he looks upon all ordinary things of the 
world as true under ordinary conditions, and so forth. (2) the 
Madkubhumika — one occupying the honeyed or sweet stage — 
is one who has come to realise that the characters that he is 


generally accustomed to attribute to things are not real, bat 
merely imposed upon them by usage; he looks upon the very 
essence of things, as free from all inch impositions; for this 
reason he is called ' Ritamhbaraprajna ' (of truth-supporting 
knowledge); and this stage is called 'Madhumati' (Eoneyed) 
because it makes the aspirant feel extremely happy. (3) the 
'Prajn&jyoti'— of bright Intelligence — who has won com- 
plete control over all subtle entities from Nature downwards; 
it is into this stage that the aforesaid 'Joyous' meditation 
enters. (4) the Attkr&ntabhavaniya — one who has passed 
beyond all that has to be experienced — is one who has reached 
the aforesaid 'self-conscious' meditation. The highest stage 
of this has been called 'Dharmamcgha — Samadki ' 'Cloud of 
Virtue* — which is thus described : — All desire for occult 
powers having been renounced, there immediately follows the 
discernment of the Self from Nature; and thus all Ignorance 
and consequent evils having disappeared, there appears in 
the mind of the aspirant a feeling of satiety, a sense of 
'enough', with regard to all external things, gross and subtile 
alike ; this is the step that leads to the highest unconscious 
meditation and hence has been called ' Dharmamegha ' — that 
which showers dharma i. «., such virtue as omniscience and 
the like; when arrived at this stage the aspirant becomes a 
Jivanmukta, a Living Adept. 

Abstract or Unconscious Meditation is of two kinds— the 
Updyapratyaya and the Bhavapratyay*. The Up&yapratyaya 
Meditation is that which is accomplished by practice, during 
present life, of the various means prescribed in the 
Shastras. Such means are faith, energetic concentration of 
the mind, constant contemplation, meditation and discern; 
ment born of Conscious Meditation. These five lead to 
Unconscious Meditation through Absolute Dispassion; and 
when all this is employed with great energy there then comes 

vm rasrAejc. 

about Unconscious Meditation. Bat even though the agent is 
not sufficiently energetic, if he is devoted to God, he obtain* 
the same results. * Devotion to God ' is a very potent factor 
in this, in as mnch as it pats an effective end to all evils that 
impede the progress of meditation. The, Bkampratyaya 
meditation is that which is accomplished daring present life, 
bat by force of practices carried on daring preceding lives. 
This belongs to sach persons as are either * Videhas ' — i. e. 9 
Bodiless Beings, sach as Hiranyagarbha and the like, who 
carry on all their functions by means of the subtle body, and 
do not need the gross body— or 4 Prakritilayas, ' or those who 
have attained to the position of the godhead alter having 
worked up their way through the several * coverings * or • ob- 
stacles ' to their upward progress, in the shape of Nature 
and its modifications. As this passage upward cannot be 
completed in only one life, it is not possible in the case of 
Conscious Meditation, which must come about as soon as its 
details have been fulfilled, — after which there is nothing to 
delay the accomplishment of the meditation; all this therefore 
being finished in a single life. It is for this reason that 
Conscious Meditation has not been divided into Up&yapra* 
tyaya and Bhavapratya : it is always Up&yapratyaya. 

Though Unconcious Meditation is of the form of Inhibition, 
yet, while being practised, it develops in due course fresh 
powers and faculties at each step; and through these the 
Meditation develops itself in due time; as each faculty appears 
it reduces the force of opposing faculties tending to retard 
the required Inhibition of Mind, until true knowledge is 
finally attained. Thus it is that in the final stage of Uncon- 
cious Meditation all contending forces and faculties are laid 
at rest, and all evils having ceased, there remains no force in 
the opposing Prarabdha Karma of the aspirant. The mind 
thus having all its functions duly performed and inhibited, 
melts away along with all its products, into its source. 

. FRBFACfl. IX- 

This absolatt sleep of the mind constitutes the Isolation 
(Release) of the Self. 

The reader who is interested in tracing unity among the 
diverse philosophical systems will be interested to find that 
wHters on Yoga have tried to reconcile the view that Release 
is obtained by Meditation with the theory that it can be 
obtained by trne knowledge alone. Both views are correct ; 
both Yoga and Jnana lead to release, each in its own 
way and independently of the other. Bnt one who wonld 
seek to obtain it by means of true knowledge, would also 
have to practise that mnch of Concrete Meditation which leads 
to the discernment of the self from other things* 

This closes our stndy of the first section. The second 
section deals with the means— SAdhana— of Yoga. 

Aspirants to Yoga are divided into three classes — (1) 
• AxurukshA — • one desirous of climbing ', (2) • Yunj&na 9 — 
one engaged in the practice, and (3) * Yogftrudha '—one who 
has attained Yoga; and for each of these distinct means or 
methods are laid dawn. We may recall here the description 
of the last given in the BhagavadgitA VI. 4 :— " One is said 
to be Yog&rftdha when he ceases to become attached to any 
action or to any objects of sense, and when he has given up 
all desire lor fruits of actions. 19 

Those who belong to this highest class have passed through 
all the preliminary stages during their previous lives, 
find at once attain the highest Yoga ; all that is needed 
for such people is constant Practice and Dispassion; they do 
not need the external diciplinary yoga. The Practice* 
meant here is the • endeavour to fix the mind in unflinching 
concentration ' ; and * Dispassion ' is the feeling oi * enough ' 
that one has with regard to objects of enjoyment ; it is not 
mere absence of passion or attachment. It is of two kinds, 


the inferior kind haying its origin in onr knowledge of 
defects in the objects, and the higher consisting in onr dis- 
regard for all such objects, not because of any. undesirable 
elements in them, but because of these being 'not self 9 . 

As the means tending to the accomplishment of the aforesaid 
Exercise, the books lay down six methods called ' parikarma.* 
These are — (1) Peace of mind, brought abont by friendly feel- 
ings towards happy beings, sympathy: with the suffering, joyous 
regard for the ^virtuous and sympathetic disregard for the 
vicious; — (2) Functioning\towards objects — consisting of the 
sensing of superphysical objects of sense; — (3) Joy out Res- 
plendent function— tranquility of mind brought about by the 
recognition of Buddhi, and of the Self as distinct from it;— 
(4) Contemplation of dispassioped minds — of such people as 
Narada and the like; — (5) Looking [upon ordinary cognitions 
as those of dream or sleep t — and (6) Contemplation of the 
object of worship in the form of some divinity. Stress has 
hot been laid upon the order in which the last two* have to 
be practised. Practice and Dispassion are means to both 
Conscious and. Unconscious Meditation. 

For? the second-class yogin, the Yunj&na, has been pres- 
cribed what may be called * Diciplinary Yoga. ' The highest 
form of this consists of— ( 1 ) Religious Austerity^ the habi. 
tuating of one's body to the bearing of the 'pairs of oppo- 
sites', — (2) Study of works teaching Final Release, and 
silent repitition of the Pranava and such other Man- 
tras ; — and ( 3 ) Devotion to God — the offering of one's ac- 
tions to the Lord, and the renouncing of all desire for fruits 
of actions. 

The direct purpose served by this Diciplinary Yoga is the 
attenuation of the five kleshas 9 troubles or obstacles,— in the 
shape of— ( 1 ) Ignorance— the regarding of the non-eternal 


as eternal, ( 2 ) Egotism— the identifying of the Self with the 
not-self ;— ( 3 ) Affection — ( 4 ) Aversion,— and ( 5 ) Attach- 
ment to life — fear of death. These five have been called 
' Viparyaya ' by the Sankhyas, under the names respectively 
of — Tamas, Moha, Mahamoha, Tamisra, and Andhatamisra. 
Among them, Ignorance is the source of the other four. All 
these distnrb the mind, and as snch are impediments to Me- 
ditation. The attenuation of these lies in their being render- 
ed incapable of putting obstacles in the way of right di- 
scernment of the Self from the Not-self. 

The abovementioned Diciplinary Yoga purifies the mind, and 
thereby all chance for vice being removed, the cessation of vice is 
followed by the cessation of its effects in the form of Ignorance 
Ac. All these — Ignorance and the rest — having been attenuat. 
ed by the force of Diciplinary Yoga, the course of Bight Dis- 
cernment being no longer impeded, the Self comes to be right- 
ly known ; there being no chance for the further operation of 
Ignorance and the other * troubles/ the Agent arrives at the 
stage known as that of the ' Jivanmukta.' He continues, 
however, to live for a while, in order to afford opportunity for 
the working up of his prdrabdha Karma, on the exhaus- 
tion of which, — and on all the rest of his karma having been 
rendered inoperative by the absence of their necessary auxi- 
liaries, Ignorance &c, — there is no more need for the Self to 
be born again ; It therefore experiences no more pain — It is 
in the state of Absolute Bliss or Release. 

When we understand the real source of * bondage, ' the 
process of ' Release ' becomes more intelligible. As a matter 
of fact all virtue and vice are the result of Ignorance, Ego- 
tism, Affection, Aversion and Attachment to Life ; and we 
know also that it is only virtue and vice that are the sources 
of the fruits of past actions, in the shape of birth, experiences 
during life and so forth ; these experiences giving rise to 

*ti PREFA08. 

pleasure and paio, the Self becomes bound up in these* 
When therefore, the root of all this evil, Ignorance, is destroyed 
by the right Discernment of the Self form the Not-self, all evils 
attendant npon that root-evil, cease forthwith* Thus there 
being no cause left, the effects, virtue and vice, cannot appear; 
and as these evils are necessary auxilliaries to the fruition of 
that portion of the past karma which has not been set in mo* 
tion, all these latter are rendered ineffective ; and those al- 
ready set in motion having been exhausted, there is no farther 
occasion for the Self to undergo experiences, — whereupon it 
becomes * free, ' • released. ' 

For the aspirant of the lowest class, the man of the ordina- 
ry life, there are eight c means to yoga, ' These are — ( 1 ) 
Yama, Bestaint, consisting in harmlessness, truthfulness, res* 
pect for other's property, continence, and freedom from avarice, 
( 2 ) Niyama or obligation, consisting of religious austerities, 
study, contentment, purity and adoration of god. These two 
have been regarded as purely extrinsic and as such chiefly 
purificatory in their character. (3) A tana f Posture ;— much 
undue importance has been attached to this factor of Yoga by 
later writers ; but Patanjali contents himself by the simple 
statement, that ' Posture ' ( for yoga ) is that which i* most 
conducive to fixity and comfort.' ( 4 ) Pr&n&yama, Regulation 
of Breath — the effect of this is more or less physiological in 
character, ' physiology ' pertaining also to the inner spiritual 
centres of energy. ( 5 ) Praty&h&ra, Abstraction, consists in 
the withdrawal of the mind and the sense-organs from their 
reaj>ective objects. These five have been regarded as ' exter- 
nal ' factors, exercising a more or less exterior influence, 
dealing as they do with the controlling of the body, breathing 
and the senses* The next three have been called ' internal,' at 
exercising an inaer influence, and hence of greater importance, 
bearing upon the mind directly. These are— (6) Dh&ranfi, 
steadiness, fixing of the mind to a definite point in space 

PREFACE, liil 

occupied by the Divinity that forms the object of meditation,- 
such for instance as the lotas of the heart, the centre of the brain 
and so forth. (1) Dby&na, contemplation, consists in the conti- 
nuous flow of the conception of the object of meditation ; when 
we have formed this conception, if it continnes to occupy 
our mind, without any break, we are said to be * contem- 
plating. 9 (8) Sam&dhi, Meditation Proper. When the 
aforesaid contemplation becomes free from all notions of dif- 
ference ( between the Agent himself, and the object of Medi- 
tation ), and the mind becomes completely merged into the 
form contemplated, we have what has been called ' Samadhi. 

The third section deals with the Occult Powers. Though 
these have been described in detail, yet Patanjaii defiuitely 
asserts that these are to be regarded as ' Powers ' or Perfec- 
tions only so long as the man is in the ordinary worldly state; 
they are great ' obstacles ' in the way of the accomplishment 
of Pure Meditation : — * Samddhdvupasargd vyutthdne siddha- 
yah y These have been described with a view chiefly to show to 
the«aspirant that even such sources of pleasure are not things 
to long for — they are as imperfect in their character as the 
ordinary pleasures of the world. 

The fourth and the last section deals with Kaivalya or 
Mukti. This we have already explained above. 

Bibliographical Information pertaining to the Yogasutra. 

1. Yogasatras by Patanjali — printed with commentaries 

at Calcutta, Bombay and Benares. 

2. Bhashya of Vyasa— commentary on ( 1 ) printed in Be- 

nares, Bombay Sanskrit Series, and Calcutta. 

3. Tattvavaisharadi by Yachaspati Mishra commentary on 

No. ( 2 ) — printed along with it in Bombay 
Sanskrit Series, and also in Calcutta and Benares. 

4. P&tanjalarahasya — commentary on No. (3 ) — not print- 

ed. Mss. available. 

6. Bajamartanda by Bhojadeva — a brief commentary on 
No. ( 1 ) — translated by Dr. Bajendralal Mittra, 
and printed in the Bibliotheca Iudica. 

6. Yogavartika by Vijnanabhiksu — commentary on ( 1 ) 

and parts of ( 2), printed in the * Pandit.' Benares* 

7. Y ogamaniprabha Commentary on (1), printed in Benares 

8. Yogachandrika — commentary on ( 1 ) — printed in Be- 


9. Nagesha Bhatta's commentary on ( 1 ) — printed in the 

4 Pandit ' 
- 10. Narayana Tirtha's commentary on (1) — not printed; 
available in Mss. This is a work of exceptional 
merit and usefulness. 

11. English Translation of ( 1 ), with English commentary 

by M. N. Divedi — printed by the Bombay Theo- 
sophical Publishing Fund. 

12. English Translation of ( 1 ) and ( 2 ), here offered to 

the public, and also in course of preparation by 
Mrs. Annie Besant and Bhagavan Dasa, and yet 
another by Dr. Woods ( for the Harvard Oriental 
Series ). 

13. Hindi Translation of (1) and (2)-- printed at Moradabad. 





An English Translation— by Gisghutha Jha, m.i 4 


Com. : — May the resplendant Lord of Serpents, the many- 
hooded One, protect as,— He administering Toga, while 
himself equipped with it, having a body of pare white, delight- 
ing in a serpentine body, the fountain-head of all wisdom, 
whose troubles are at an end, holding, as he does, terrific 
poison, — One who having renounced his original body, is born 
in this world for the manifold benefits of human-kind. 

Sutra (1) : — Now (begins) the exposition of Yoga. 

Com.: — Atha denotes ' Adhikarc? i.e. the commencement of 
a topic. (The meaning of the Sutra being i) The Science of the 
instruction of Yoga is to be understood to have begun (here). 

Yoga is Samddki, Meditation ; but (this meditation) is a 
property of the internal organ, common to all its various 
stages. The stages or states of the internal organ are: (1) The 
Fickle (Kshipta), (2) The Infatuated (Mugdka), (3) Voluptuous 
or Distracted (Viks/ripta), (4) The One-pointed (Ek&gra), 
and (5) The Controlled (Niruddhd). From among these, the 
meditation in the Voluptuous or Distracted state of the inter- 
nal organ, being subordinate to the voluptuousness or dietrac- 


tion, has no place on the side of Yoga (proper). That 
(meditation) however which belongs to the one-pointed internal 
organ, enlightening the true and agreeable object, destroying 
the troubles, loosening the bouds of action, and bringing one 
face to face with Control proper — such meditation is called 
the Conscious (Samprajndta) Yoga. This is attended by 
Argumentation, Deliberation, Joy and Egoism. 

' The entire subjugation of all the functions (of the internal 
organ) constitutes what is called Unconscious or Abstract 
(Asamprajndta) Yoga. 

Notes :— At the outset it may be stated that the translation follows 
the interpretation of Vachaspati Mis.a, modified in places by that of Vi- 
jn&na Bhikshu. 

* Yoganusdsand" — Dr. Bajendra Lai Mitra has been apparently misled by 
a wrong reading of the Bhashya— having read it as ■« yoganw? asbnam" nam 
s&stram" he makes the oommentator explain the word (" yog&'nusasana") as 
being the specific name of the work. There is no il nama" in the Bh&shya. 
however ; hence the meaning of the Bhashya is as given in the translation. 
If however we accept Dr. Mitra's reading (and it is by no means a bad read- 
ing), his interpretation would be the most appropriate. But Vachaspati 
Misra evidently rejects this reading ; using, as be does, the root meaning of 
the word anusasana, to point to the prior authorship of Hiranyagarbha, 
with regard to the science of Yoga. It is remarkable that Dr. Mirta should 
have overlooked this faot when quoting from the Tattwa-vaU'atadi 

« Veditayvam" (" to be understood") by the disciples (Vij-Bhilrehu). This 
word is made by Vachaspati Misra to mean that though the object to be ex- 
plained is Yoga (practical) and not the science, yet the pupil is to understand 
the latter as the topic taken in hand, because practical Yoga itself can be 
explained only by means of the science ; and as such the final aim of the 
exposition comes to be practical Yoga itself. 

u Sa Chd &c." Cha^tu (but). Though etymologicaUy the word yoga=Sa» 
madki, yet this latter is only a part of Yoga (as will be explained later on). 
'* Stages" — The Madhwnati and the rest, to be explained below. 'Meditation* 
(Samddhi) is only the root-meaning of the word yoga % the real meaning being 
' the suppression of the functions of the internal organ. 1 

" Property of the internal organ"— this is added in order to -set a side the 
view that the functions belong to the Spirit. Chitta is Buddhi, the Internal, 
Organ ; for certainly no cognition can belong to the unohanging eternal 
Intelligence ( Chiti-S'akti )• 

The Rshipta abounds in Rajas, the Mugdha in Tamas, and the 
Vikshipta in Sattwa. The One-pointed or Concentrated Btate is that is 

PAD A I— SUTRA 2. 9 

which all the functions of the internal organ have ceased, and only the 
Sanskara (residue of the actions ) is left behind. 

«« True and agreeable object " (** Saddh&tam artham ")— The particle BhUa 
precludes all superimposed (and hence false ) objects ; and "Sat" is employed 
in order to preclude the functions of Sleep which abound in Tamas, and 
as such, causing pain, cannot be called *' agreeable. " 

"Enlightening. M — The prefix pra denotes direct perception. 

In order to define the Yoga above mentioned we the next 
aphorism — 

Sutra (2y. — Yoga is the suppression of the functions 
of internal organ. 

Com.: — Since the word 'all' does not appear before 'func- 
tions, Conscious or Concrete meditation also becomes includ- 
ed in the name ^yoga? 

The internal organ is made np of three attributes, — in as 
much as it has the characters of truth, activity and inertia. 
Sattwa in the form of the internal organ, when intermixed 
with Rajas and Tamas, comes to be attached to power and 
the objects ( of sense ). Sattwa again, when mixed up with 
Tamas, tends towards sin, ignorance, non-dispassion (or 
attachment) and non-power ( or weakness ). The same Sattwa 
'lastly everywhere shinning, on having its covering of illusion 
removed, when tinged by Rajas, tends towards virtue, know- 
ledge, dispassion and power. The same Sattwa however, 
when passed beyond the taint of Rajas, fixed in its own form, 
consisting purely of discriminative knowledge of Matter 
and Spirit, tends towards contemplation, called '• Cloud of 
Virtue. " This is what is called " Supreme Contemplation " 
by the Dhyanis. 

The Sentient Faculty (or Intelligence proper), the Un-. 
changing and the Immobile — having the objects presented 
to Itself, is pure and endless; and It consists in the attribute 
of Sattwa. For this reason discriminative kuowledge is con- 
trary to this ( since such knowledge is modifiable, mobile, 
non-intelligent, finite and impure ). 



For this reason, tbe internal organ— having become in- 
different to the sentient faculty, (naturally) suppresses the 
aforesaid discriminative knowledge; and when in this condi- 
tion, it centres itself in mere residuum ( Sanskara )• This is 
" Seedless Meditation" — and because nothing else is cognised 
in this state, therefore it is called " Unconscious M or Abstract 
( asamprajn&ta ). 

Thus is Yoga— of the form of the suppression of the func- 
tions of the internal organ — two-fold. 

Hotes:— "Functions" Promina and the rest are to be described hereafter. 
f4tf" — If Yoga were defined as the suppression of all the functions &c, then 
Oonsoious Meditation would be excluded; because such meditation is not 
totally free from such functions of the internal organ as abound in pure 
Sattwa. The definition given however includes this Meditation also, in as . 
much as there too we have the suppression of the functions of Rajas & Tamas* 

«' Truth do, "-—representing Sattwa, Bajas and Tamas respectively. These 
characteristics however imply the others also — viz, happiness and buoyancy 
( of Sattwa ), remorse and unhappiness ( of Bajas ), and sluggishness ( of 
Tamas ). This three-fpld character of the internal organ is laid down in 
Oftder to explain the three stages of it mentioned above. ( The Kshipta de» ) 

" Intermixed with Bajas and Tamas " — in equal quantities* This represents 
the Distracted ( Vikshipta ) stage. 

* When mixed up with Tamas "—representing the Infatuated ( mugdha ) 

" Ignorance "—Mistaken knowledge. 

" Tinged with Rajas "—representing the Active ( Kshipta ) state. 

" Passed beyond the taint do. "— Representing the fourth stage of the in- 
ternal organ. Here ends the application of the definition to Conscious Me- 

« The Sentient faculty do. "—This laying down of the propriety of the 
sentient faculty and the impropriety of discriminative knowledge serves as 
an introduction to the supreme suppressive ( unconscious) Meditation which 
leads to the rejection of discriminative knowledge, and the acceptance of the 
Sentient Faculty pure and simple. 

« Pure "—because free from impurities in the shape of pleasure, pain and 
she like. 

» Having objects presented to herself "—This is added in order to meet the 
objection that ' the sentient faculty ( 1 ) cognising the various objects of 
i and ( 3 ) accepting and rejecting the various forms of such objects,— 

PABA I — BUTRA 3. 5 

eannot be said to be either pore or endless*. The objection would have held 
good if the sentient faculty took upon itself the various forms &o. Bat such 
is not the fact ; it is Buddhi, the internal organ, whioh assumes the various 
forms of the objects of sense, and presents these as such to the sentient faculty , 
which latter being by its very nature immobile, is untouohed by these. The 
possibility of such cognition by a Faculty itself untouched by the objects, will 
be explained later on. 

11 For this reason (fie. 1 '— From here begins the application o! the definition 
toUnconsoiouB Meditation. 

" Seed-leu "—devoid of the seeds, Birth, life and experience &c 

The definition of Yoga then comes to be this : Yoga is that particular state 
of the internal organ, in which its functions ( in the form of Pramana and 
the rest ) have been suppressed. 

The internal organ being in that condition. — and as such 
there being a complete absence of objects, — what is the charac- 
ter of the Purusha — being as it is of the nature of the 
cognition of Buddhi (the internal organ)? 

Reply : — 

Sutra (<?): — Then there is an abiding of the spectator 
in its own form. 

Com. : — "The abiding in its own form" is then, as in beati- 
tude (identical with) the sentient faculty. In the (ordinary) 
waking state however, the sentient faculty, though being the 
same, is not (exactly) the same. 

Notes:— The present Sutra is introduced in order— (1) to show the motive 
for the said Yoga. (2) to complete the definition of Yoga, and (3) to show the 
unchanging oharaoter of the Purusha. 

The sense of the question may be thus rendered, in the words of Vijn&na 
Bhikshu: "When the internal organ is in the condition of Abstract Medita- 
tion, then in what character does the Purusha stand — being as it is of the 
form of the cognition of Buddhi, i. e. its witness ? Does it even then, as in 
the ordinary waking state, stand in the form of illuminiation (prak&s'*),— 
its non-perception being due to the absence of objects? or does it then become, 
like a log of wood, non-illuminating ?" The aphorism replies, admitting the 
former of these two alternatives* 


T/ien"— during Abstract Meditation,— and not daring the ordinary wak^ 
ing state. 

" As in beatitude "—This is added in order to^shew that the motive is no 
other than the removal of pain in the form of the functions. 

u In the waking <&c" — This is added in anticipation of the following objec- 
tion : " The sentient faculty abiding in its form during meditation, brings 
about absence of pain and non-abiding in it in the ordinary state, and as such 
bringing about pain, would become modifying ; and if suoh a difference were 
set aside, there would be an identity between the meditative and the waking 
states." The sense of the reply is that the unchanging sentient faculty never 
swerves from its nature, but continues the same in all the states — waking or 
meditative. The only difference however is, that in the waking state, the 
Intelligence does not shine so well as it does during Meditation or Beatitude. 

"Abiding &c" — The unconditioned and pure form of the Purusha is pure 
intelligence (a sentient faculty),— the calm and the active &o. due to the 
predominance of the one or the other of the attributes being only its condi- 
tioned form, like the redness of the orystal due to its proximity to a* red 
flower ; as the orystal regains its pure whiteness on the removal of the red 
object, so on the removal of the functions of the internal organ, doee the 
Purusha regain its unalloyed abiding in its nature. The unchanging Purusha 
is of the nature of pure light, during meditation, as well as during the waking 

In comparison with Abstract Meditation, Concrete Meditation is to be taken 
along with the waking state. 

How then ? On account of the objects having been present- 
ed, — 

Sutra (4): — At other times, conformity to the functions, 

Comr. — In the waking state the functions of the Purusha are 
indentical with those of the internal organ. Hence the Sutrai 
"Perception is one and cognition or knowledge is Perception." 

The internal organ, like the magnet, affecting by mere, 
proximity, being the object of perception, becomes the self of 
the Purusha, the Lord, Therefore the cause of the Purnsha's 
perception of the functions of the internal organ is its eter- 
nal connection therewith. 
Notes:— "At other times"—ln. the waking state. 

"Identical &c"— that is to say — as in the case of the crystal and the red 
flower, so in that of the Purusha and the internal organ, olose proximity 
leads to a notion of identity ; and this leads to the imposition of the f unc- 

PADA I — SUTRA 4. 7 

ttom of the internal organ on the Purusha— e. g. " I am happy Ac," Though 
this imposition too is only a function of the internal organ, and as such does 
not affect the true nature of the Purusha, yet the presentation of the Purusha 
in the colours of the internal organ leads to the notions of 'wrongness' 
« agency/ 'discriminative wisdom' &c, with regard to the Purusha, which is, 
by its very nature, free from all these. This point is dealt with at lenght in 

<* Hence the Sutra c£c."— This Sutra is attributed by Vdohaspatl Misra as 
well as by Vidnyana Bhikshu, to Panchasikha Aeharya, the great master of 

The question started by the first part of this Sutra is— How can the percep- 
tion be one and the same, in the case of the internal organ and that of the 
Purusha ? For, the perception of the internal organ is no other than the 
function with regard to the various objects of sense and to discriminative 
knowledge, — a funotion inferred to be insentient on account of its owing its 
origin to insentient Nature ; whereas the perception of the Purusha must be 
other than this — being simple cognition in the form of pare intelligence. 

To this the second part replies — " Cognition is Perception." The Sameness 
or oneness spoken of is with regard to the fleeting (appearing and disappeaar- 
ing) cognition, to whioh the term is ordinarily applied. Intelligence is the 
Purusha' a nature, not its cognition (as the question presupposes), amenable 
as it is to inference from sacred texts, and not to ordinary perception. By 
this it is shown that in the waking state the final cause is Ignorance, whioh 
also leads to the connection of the Purusha with the internal organ, whioh in 
its turn leads to the idea (in the Purusha) of ownership, and thence of ex- 
perience (pleasure and pain). 

"Th$ internal organ like the magnet &c."— This is added in anticipation of 
the objection that the fact of the connection of the internal organ with the 
Purusha helping towards the experience of the latter, would prove the 
modifying character of the Purusha. The sense of the Bhasha is that the 
internal organ is not in contact with the Purusha, but only in proximity with, 
it ; and this proximity too is neither in space nor in time, ( becauee Purusha 
is unconnected with these, being eternal and omnipresent), but only in the 
form of Capability. And the faculty o£ expeiience (of the Purusha), and that 
of being the object of experience (of the internal organ) cannot be denied ; 
with this last point in view it is added — u being the object of perception" i.e. 
having developed into the form of the various objects of sense, Sound &c— 
and as such becoming objects of experience, 

"Of the purusha"— Though experience, being of the form of the objects of 
sense, is really a function of the internal organ, yet it is spoken of here as 
belonging to the Purusha, on account of the identity of the funotions of th« 
two (in the waking state). 


Thus it is proved that though there is no real contact of the PttrnsfaA wltli 
the internal organ, yet there applies to it the character of participating in 
the benefits offered by the internal organ, as also that of being unchanging. 

" The Cause of the Purusha's <&".,— This is added in anticipation of the 
following objection : "The idea of ownership, leading to experience, has been 
said to be due to Ignorance ,— -but to whioh cause do you attribute the action 
of this Ignorance ? There must be some cause for this." The sense of the 
reply is that the cause is no other than an ( hypothetical ) eternal connection 
( between the eternal Purusha and the eternal Ignorance ), which is like 
the relation of the seed and the sprout. 

The internal organ being manifold, the objects of suppression, 

Sutra (5): — the functions, are five-fold, painful 
( and ) non-painful. 

Oom: — The "painful" are causes of pain — the frpitful ground 
for the aggregate of the karmic residua. And the " non-painful" 
have knowledge for their object, and are opposed to the action 
of the Attributes. The non-painful ones falling in the current 
of the painful ones, though occurring within two painful ones, 
are still non-painful ; similarly are the painful ones, occurring 
among non-painful ones, called " painful/' 

Residua of one kind are those brought about by the functions 
of the same kind, and also the functions by the residu — this 
wheel of function and residua is incessantly revolving. 

Thus the internal organ, having attained to this condition, 
and its action having ended, stands equal to the Spirit, or is 

These functions being painful, and non*painful, are five-fold. 

llotOS.—"Ktesahttukah" is explained by Vaohaspati Misra as also meaning 
— "caused by the troubles— Asmita &e." "Knowledge"— Knowledge discrimi- 
native of the Spirit and the Attributes ; hence <* opposed to the action of the 

"The painful ones falling dc."— This is added, in order to meet the follow- 
ing objection: "All individuals being bora with passions and attachments, 
they are all possessed only of the painful functions ; and no non-painful ones 
are possible among a host of the other kind ; consequently to assert that the 
painful functions are suppressed bj the non-painful once, and these latter 

PADA I — SUTBA 6 & 7. 

again by the higher Dispassio i, is a mere waste of words, Vijnana Bhikshu 
however explains it as anticipating the following objection, " The author of 
the aphorisms has laid down the advisability only of the Dark (the painful) 
and the Good (the non-painful) functions, and he has altogether ignored those 
of a mixed character." The reply serves to include these latter in the two 
mentioned in the aphorism. 

" Residua dc"— With a view to describe the effects of the funotions of the 
internal organ, the commentator begins here with the mention of the cause 
of the troubles of Be- birth. 

" Of one kind <£c"— ^The two kinds here spoken of are the 'painful* and 
the ' non-painful.' 

" Thus the internal da."— Thus i.e. being of the nature of the karmic cycle. 

" In this condition" — Having been suppressed i.e. during meditation. 

" Is turning 1 * — Till the completion of the suppression. 

11 Stands equal to the spirit "—This in the case of a living adept— the Jivan- 

° Is dissolved" '—In the case of the ordinary beatitude. The former dis- 
appearance of the internal organ is called its Sarupandsa ( i.e., the destruc- 
tion of the internal organ with its form), and the latter the Arupan&sa 
( without form ). 

Sutra (6): — Right Notion, Misconception, Fancy, Sleep 

and Memory. 

Com: — Among these ( i.e. the five-fold fcmctions of the 
internal organ just named ) — 

Sutra (7): — Perception, Inference, Testimony are the 
right Notions. 

Coiw:— The internal organ being affected by the external 
object through the path-way of the sense-organs, there arises 
a functioning thereof, having the aforesaid external thing for 
its object, and having as its principal concern the ascertainment 
of a certain specific aspect of the object, which naturally par- 
takes of the generic as well as of the specific. Such a function 


constitutes the Right Notion, called Perception. The effect 
of this Right Notion is the cognition of the function of the 
internal organ — the cognition belonging to the Spirit, and 
being co-ordinate or identical ( with the Bnddhi ). The Spirit 
is the joint-cogniser with the internal organ. This we shall 
explain later on. 

Of the object of inference there is a certain relationship 
which is common to all homogenous objects, and dissociated 
from the heterogenous ones ; the function, having this relation 
for its object, concerned chiefly with the ascertainment of the 
generic (character of things), is Inference. As for example— 
The planets have motion, because they approach different 
regions, like Ohaitra ; — the Vindhya Mountain having no 
such approach, has no motion.' 

A certain object, having been either perceived or inferred by 
an authoritative person, is verbally expressed for the sake of 
transferring that cognition to another person. The function 
having, through words, such a thing for its object, is Testimony 
for the listener. That Testimony fails which is based on 
the assertion of an untrustworthy speaker, who has neither 
seen nor inferred an object truly. If however, the original 
speaker has seen and inferred an object truly, then the 
testimony becomes infallible. 

Notes : (1) " Cognition of the function of the internal organ " — The form of 
the function is — " This is ajar\" whereas that of the cognition is — < I per- 
ceive the jar* 

(2) u Is co-ordinate or identical dtc." — This is added in anticipation of the 
following objection : 'The cognition being in the Spirit, it cannot be the effect 
of a function of the internal organ.' The sense of the reply is that the cognition 
of the Spirit is not produced ; what happens is that the intelligence of the 
Spirit, being reflected in the mirror of the internal organ, is stamped with the 
character of the objective form then predominating in the Buddhic function. 
Thus then, this intelligence being identical with the internal organ, with 
which again the function is identical, — both come to have a common 
substrate ; and as such the cognition of the Spirit is quite rightly said to be 
the effect of the function ( Vide Aph. I — 4. ) 

(3) "Having as its principal concern &c." — This serves to differentiate 
Perception from Inference. Though the generic character of things also, 
appears in Perception, yet this is always subordinated to the specific. 

PADA I — SUTRA 8. 11 

This definition of Perception implies direct cognition fof all kinds, thus 
applying also to discriminative knowledge. 
<c Joint Gogni&er." — In anticipation of the following objection : — 
'All external percepation has been seen to be of the form of the object; Spirit 
on the other hand, being unchanging, can never take any objective form; under 
these circumstances, how can the Spirit be said to be the witness of the func- 
tion of the internal organ ? Or, secondly, how can the cognition of the Spirit 
be identical with the said function V The sense of the reply is that though 
the real cogniser is the internal organ, yet the Spirit becomes its co-partner 
( in the manner explained in note 2. ) 

(4) te Later on "— i.e. in Sutra I V. 21 . 

(5) << Common to the homogenous " — This differentiates the definition from 
all kinds of Contradictory Inference. 

(6) " Dissociated from the heterogenous "—This sets aside the Too Broad 
General and Partial Inferences. 

(7) "Relationship"— This relationship is constituted by the Middle Term, 
the mark or the characterestic. — This sets aside the Incomplete Inferenoe. 

(8) il concerned Chiefly <&c" — This differentiates the given definition from 

(9) ** An authoritative person '* — The authority, meant here, implies the 
possession of the knowledge of truth, mercy, and the extreme subtlesensitive- 
ness of the sense-organs. 

(10) " If the original speaker dc."— This is added in order to validate the 
authority of the S/nritis, where the original speaker is said to be God Himself* 

Sutra (8): Misconception is false notion, abiding in a 
form, which is not that (of the object). 

Com: — This is not a right notion ; because, it is always set 
aside by right notion, which has for its object something really 
existing in the external world. It has been always seen that 
a right notion always sets aside a wrong one; e.g. the percep- 
tion of the double moon is set aside by the subsequentive 
of the single moon. 

It is this that constitutes the five-fold Illusion or Nesci- 
ence:— (1) Ignorance, (2) Egotism, (3) Attachment, (4) 
Envy, and (5) Tenacity of life— the five Troubles. These five 


have also the respective names of : (1) lamas (Darkness), (2) 
Moha ( Illusion ), (3) Mohamoha ( Great Illusion, ), ( 4 > 
(TmeVa)and (5) AndAatamisra. The (Blinding Darkness) 
This will be defined in connection with the impurities of the 
internal organ. 

Notes : (1) " Abiding <&.,"— This includes « DoubW 

(2) " Fake notion "—Serves to set aside "Fancy;" beoanse people ordi- 
narily aot professedly in accordance with * Fancy," but never with 
« False Notion." 

(8) " Ignorance <£c"— Cf. Sankhya-Karika. 

Sutra (9): — Fancy is (a notion) founded on a know- 
ledge conveyed by words, but of which there is no 
object (corresponding in reality). 

Com: This cannot be included either within Right Notion, 
or within Misconception. Because though it has got no object 
corresponding in reality, yet its acceptance in usage is seen to 
be based on the power of the knowledge of words. As for 
example, the assertion— " Intelligence is the form of the 
Spirit" If the Spirit is nothing more than intelligence, then 
what would be named and qualified by what? It is only when 
there is such nomination or qualification that we have the 
function. — e. g. " Chaitra's cow." Similarly — " The Spirit, 
having all objective properties alienated from it, is devoid of 
action; " and — " Bana sits, will sit, and sat. " With regard 
to absence of motion, however, only the meaning of the root is 
signified. Similarly again, " Spirit has the property of non- 
production", — the qualifying adjunct here implying merely the 
negation of production, and not any property belonging to the 
Spirit: and for this reason, ( in the example given) the quali- 
fication is a fancied one, on which the said usage is based 

PABA I — SUTBA 9. 13 

Notes :— (I) <r This cannot Jh. 9t — This is added in order to guard against 
the possibility of Fancy being included in Testimony, (because based on a 
knowledge of words), or in Misconception (because devoid of an object). The 
two qualifications in the Sutra are such that the first precludes Fanoy from 
Misconception, and the second from Bight Notion. 

(2) If the Spirit dc— The meaning of this is: Sometimes difference is 
perceived in identity, and at others identity in difference ; and Fanoy con- 
sisting in the appearance of such false difference and identity, cannot be said 
to be Bight Notion ; nor can it be called Misconception, because that would 
go against usage, 

(3) " What" and •• What d&T— The object qualified, and, the qualifica- 
tion. Because there can be no qualification, when the qualified and the* 
qualifier are identical. 

(4) u We have the function" — i.e. funotion in the shape of signification 
by sentence, — the verbal signification. 

(5) " Similarly ^c"— Another example of Fanoy. 

(6) " Objective properties "—Such as mobility &c belonging to earth and 
the other like external objects. 

(7) * Devoid of action "—This is called Fancy t because according to the 
Sankhya there can be no property of the character of mere negation; and aa 
such the property mentioned cannot be said to belong to the Spirit. 

(8) "Bdna site <&?."— The third example ( a popular one). In the sentence 
«' Bdna Site dc" what is implied by < sits &o.' is a mere sequence of time, as 
in the case of "he cooks." 

(9) " With regard to the absence of motion <&?."— This is said in anticipation 
of the following assertion of the objector — " All right, we may accept the 
qualification of the ' bdna ' by the action of * sitting ' ( with the aforesaid 
sequence of time), which is certainly other than the bdna itself." The sense 
of the reply according to Vijnana Bhikshu is that in the case of the Fancy 
with regard to the "absence of motion," the only real signification 
consists in the meaning of the root qualified by the various tenses. The 
4 nominative agenoy,* and 'the tense with reference to the agency' &c. are all 
fancied; because the action of the form of 'absence of motion 1 cannot belong 
to the bdna. Vachaspatimisra however explains thus : — " The absence of 
itself is assumed in the first place, then follows a whole series of assumptions 
with regard to its affirmative character, and the sequence of time with refer- 
ence to it." 

(10) «' Similarly dc" — This last example is oited with the following fact in 
View:—" The assumed negation, like affirmation, appears as if referring to all 
the Spirits ; and it is not a property apart from the Spirit itself." 


Sutra (10): — Sleep is the function having for its object 
the conception of negation. 

Com: — And this is a particular kind of conception*, because 
it is recalled in the waking state How? In this inauner: 
" (1) 1 have slept well; my happy mind brightens my intellect* 
(2) I have slept ill; my mind wandering listlessly, has become 
worthless. (3) I have slept like a log of wood; my limbs are 
heavy; and my tired mind is lazy and seems to be absent.' 
This recalling by a person on waking would not have been, if 
there were no knowledge of any conception; the reminiscences 
connected with sleep could not have the conception for 
their object. Therefore Sleep is a particular conception ; and 
this too, like all other conceptions, ought to be suppressed 
during meditation. 

Notes :—«Recalting"—i.e. (in all its details). These details are exemplified 
in the following sentences. 

(2) t( I have slept &c" — The three kinds of sleep described owe their difference 
to the preponderance of one or other of the three attributes during sleep 
e, g. The first shows a preponderance of Sattwa over Rajas and Tamas 
(2) that of Rajas over Sattwa and Tamas, and (3) that of Tamas over 
the other two. 

(3) •« Ought to be suppressed"— Because abounding in Tamas it is con- 
tradictory to both kinds of meditation. 

Sutra (11): — Memory is the non-relinquishment of an 
object that has been cognised. 

Com: — Does the internal organ remember the cognition, or 
the object? The cognition, — coloured by the cognised (object), 
and (as such) manifesting (or illuminating) the forms of both 
the cognised (object) and the cognition, — produces an im- 
pression, (sanskdra) of the same character. And this impres- 
sion, being of the same form as its cause, brings about a 
recollection of the same character, partaking of both the 
cognised and the cognition. 

PADA I — SUTRA 11. 15 

Of these, the cognition has got the form of the cognition for 
its principal factor; and Memory or Recollection has got the 
form of the cognised for its precedent. 

This Memory is two-fold — ( 1 ) One whose object to be 
remembered is assumed, and (2) the other whose object is not 
assumed. Daring a dream we have the former, whereas in 
the waking state, we have the latter. 

All kinds of Memory owe their existence to the prior ex- 
perience of Right Notion, Misconception, Fancy, Sleep and 

All these functions are constituted by pleasure, pain and 
illusion. These three will be explained under 4 Klesa \ 
Attachment belongs to pleasure and envy to pain ; while 
bellusion is ignorance. All these functions are to be suppress- 
ed — their suppression leading to one of the two sorts of 

Notes:— (1) Memory differs from the preceding functions in this that the 
aforesaid functions lead to the cognition of strong and unseen objects, where- 
as Memory can never go beyond the field of past experience. 

(2) '• Of the same character** — i. e« Partaking of the character of the cognise 
as well as the cognition. 

(8) * Of these, the cognition dc"—Grahana (literally) = Holding, or accept- 
ing ; and certainly no holding is possible of an object already held ; conse. 
quently the characteristic of the oognition here noted, implies the province 
of cognition (pratyaya or Jnana) to be restricted to strange and unseen objects. 
The use of the word Buddhi is here ambiguous. Here it = Jnana \ and not 
antahkarana, as usual. 

(4) "Memory has got <&c." — This precedence of the cognised object is the 
same as the fact of its having already been the object of some foregoing func- 
tion. Thus then the definition of M em ^ry comes to be the function having 
for its object something that has already been the object of a foregoing func- 
tion. And this is the '• non-relinquishment" (of an object already cognised by 
a foregoing function) mentioned in the aphorism. 

(5) "This Memory is two-fold"— This is added in order to meet the asser- 
tion that in a dream memory is found to be touohing unknown regions. 
The sense of the reply that what we find in a dream is not real recollection 
but only a semblance thereof. 

(6) "Assumed?'— i. e. not really existing. 


What is the means for the suppression of these ? 

Sutra (12): — By Exercise and Dispassion, ( follows ) 
their suppression. 

Com: — The river of the internal organ flows both ways. 
It flows for good, and it flows for evil. That which has its 
mouth at Isolation, and its bottom in Discrimination, flows 
for good. Where-as the one having its mouth at Rebirth 
and its bottom in Non-discrimination, flows for evil. 
Among these, the flow of (worldly) objects is thinned by 
Dispassion; and the flow of discrimination is opend by the 
Exercise of discriminative vision. Thus we see that the suppres- 
sion of the functions of the internal organ is dependent upon 
both of these. 

Notes. :— " Saving its mouth do" — i.e. Having its end in Isolation and its 
current flowing through discrimination of Spirit from Matter. 

(2) " Thinned" — Damned i.e. stopped. 

Sutra (13): — Exercise is the effort towards quietness. 

Com: — "Quietness" (Sthiti) is the calm flow of the internal 
organ clear of its functionings. And Exercise consists in an 
effort for this i.e. an undaunted courageous and spirited endea- 
vour, consisting in acting upto the means of attaining the 
aforesaid calmness. 

Notes:— (1) "Clear of its functionings"— -i.e. of the Foul and Dark func- 
tions. This is added by the commentator in consideration of Concrete 
Meditation which abounds in Goodness. 

(2) « Acting upto the means "—The means are Restraint and the rest to 
be described in Sec, II. 

Sutra ( 14 ) : — But it is of firm ground when 
attended to for a long time unremittingly and with 
proper devotion. 

PADAI— SUTRA 16. 17 

Com. : — Being attended to for a long time, and unremit- 
tingly — and brought about by penance, celibacy, knowledge 
and faith, and as such endowed with proper devotion — it 
becomes steadfast ; that is to say, its object is not then easily 
sappressed by the impressions of the agitative stage. 

Notes :— { 1 ) The " but " of the aphorism points to the following difficulty 
in the mind of the author : Exercise being bound up with its eternal con- 
tradictory, the impressions of the Agitation stage, how can it lead to calm- 
ness? In reply, the aphorism lays down the steady charaotex of exercise 
when aooompained by the qualifications herein enumerated* 

Sutra ( 15 ) : — Diapassion is the ( VafikdrasanjnA ) 
Consciousness of being the subjugator, belonging to one 
who is devoid of any thirst for perceptible and 
scriptural objects. 

Com. : — When one becomes devoid of any desire for the tem- 
poral perceptible objects — women, food drink and wealth, — and 
for the scripturahobjects-the attainment of heaven, dis-embodi- 
ment, dissolution in Nature, — then his internal organ, noticing 
the objective discrepancies even in the relation of celestial and 
terrestrial objects, attains to the name of Vasikdrasarynd 
which, on the strength of the recognition of discrepancies, is 
of the nature of 8TTPTPT, i.e., free from all faults of attach- 
menk ( And this Vasikdrasanjnd or consciousness of being 
the subjugator, is Dispassion. ) 

Notes:— (1) The internal organ, notioing the discrepancies, becomes 
indifferent to the various objects of sense, and to this indifferenoe is given the 
name of Vasikarasajna. 

( 2 ) " Discrepancies of objects " — i.e., the fact of their being subject to the 
three kinds of pain. 

The other kinds of Dispassion will be described later on. 

Sutra (16): — Indifference to the attributes, being 
conducive to the knowledge of the Spirit, is the high- 
est ( form of it ). 


Com. : — (1) The agent who recognises discrepancies in 
temporal and spiritual objects, and hence becomes dispassion- 
ate, and ( 2 ) one whose internal organ has been calmed 
by supreme discrimination due to the purity of spiritual ex- 
ercise, and who has hence become detached from the attributes 
constituting the manifested and the unmanifested forms of 
matter; — these two indicate the two kinds of Dispassion. 
Of these, the latter is the sole effalgence of wisdom, on the 
appearance of which, the agent equipped with knowledge, 
reflects thus : " I have attained to what I had to attain,— 
the objects to be destroyed, the troubles, have been 
destroyed, — cut off is the thickly interwoven chain of 
metemspsychosis, whose unbroken range causes the death of 
the born and the birth of the dead/' 

Dispassion is the highest stage of knowledge ; and the 
necessary concomittant of this alone, is Isolation. 

Notes : (1) " Purity "—Freedom from Foulness and Darkness. 

(2) "One whose internal organ do"— This qualification is what ii 
technically called « Oloud of Virtue. " 

(3) " Two kinds of Discission."— The first form is possible when the 
internal organ is left contaminated with a particle of Foulness, having all 
Darkness completely washed away by the excess of Goodness. This may 
belong even to the Taushtikas ( those whose aim ends in the nine forms of 
contentment ), who thereby attain to M dissolution into nature. " [ Of. 
Sdnkhyakdrikd : " Vairdgytit prakritUaygah <fco. &c." 

(4) Sols effulgence of wisdom "—The egpithet " sole " precludes all objecti- 
vity from this Dispassion. This second form is free even from the slightest 
contamination of Foulness, and hence rests glorying in pure Goodness. 
Hence its "Effulgence." Though effulgence forms the very nature of the) 
internal organ, yet as this latter abounds in the impurities of Foulness and 
Darkness, the effulgence becomes shrouded. When however the impurities 
have been washed off, there is full effulgenoe, all in all. 

(5) «• Equipped with knowledge"— -Besting in the meditation, "oloud of 
virtue, " on the attainment of spiritual effulgenoe just spoken of. 

PADA I — SUTRA 17. 19 

(fl) <* What I had to attain "—i.e., Isolation ; because under the circum- 
stances, there is only the impression, deprived of its root. 

(7) " The objects to be destroyed &o, "—The following assertions are the 
reasons for the proceeding declaration. Vide 11-12, 11-13, IV-29 and IV-31. 

Question : — " When the agent has suppressed his internal 
organ through the two means (just described ), how can the 
meditation be said to be Conscious ? " 

( Answer ) : — 

Sutra (17) : — Conscious, because attended with the 
forms of argumentation, deliberation, joy, and egoism. 

Com. : — (1)" Argumentation " jis the gross perception of 
the internal organ, with regard to its object : whereas 
(2) " Deliberation " is subtle in its nature. (3) "Joy" is 
delight. (4) " Egoism " is the partial cognition of identity. 

Of these, the first followed by the other four constitutes 
the Argumentative Meditation ; the second, devoid of Argu- 
mentation, the Deliberative ; the third without Deliberation 
the Joyful. The fourth without this, is purely Egoistic. All 
these forms of meditation are concrete. 

Notes :— (1) ** Gross perception "—the H perception" is called •• gross" 
because the objects are such. Suoh objects are the Gods contemplated as 
having four arms, yellow cloth &c. Ac. 

( 2 ) " Subtle "— i^. Deliberation has for its objects the subtle primary 
elements, and the rest, 

( The first two refer to the perceived ) 

(3) <« Joy "—refers to the instrument (the senses). The perception of 
the internal organ with regard to the gross senses, constitutes u Joy. " The 
senses are the products of Self-consciousness in which the attribute of 
Goodness predominates ; and goodness is pleasant ; therefore the senses are 
also pleasing ; consequently the perception by means of these is «• Joyous. '* 

(a) "Cognition of partial of identity**- -this describes meditation with 
regard to the perceives. 


Now, what is the nature of Unconscious or Abstract 
meditation and what are the means to it ? 

Beply: — 

Sutra (18): — The other, preceded by the practice of 
the cause of suspension, is that in which the residua 
alone remain behijid. 

Com: — When all the functions have been suspended and 
the residua alone remain behind, then we have a supression 
of the internal organ, which constitutes (a form of) medita- 
tion, called the Unconscious or Abstract. 

Of this the means is the highest] form of Dispassion (see 
above). And, because an exercise based on an object would 
not be capable of being fit for its accomplishment, therefore the 
objectless (or immaterial) cause of suspension is mttde the basis 
here ; and this cause is devoid of any material object. (Conse- 
quently) the internal organ, preceded by the practice thereof, 
becomes immaterial, as if non-existing. This Immaterial or 
seedless meditation is what is called the Unconscious or 
the Abstract. 

Notes: (1) "Suspension 1 * — i.e. of the functions. 

(2) "Preceded fa/"— Caused or brought about by. 

(8) "And pecause <§c."-r-This is added in order tp show why t^e lower 
forms of Dispassion cannot be the cause of Unconscious Meditation. As a rule, 
the oause is of the same nature as the effect ; hence we cannot postulate the 
material Dispassion as a cause of the immaterial meditation, which can 
be due only to the immaterial effulgence of wisdom. Therefore the cauee of 
the Immaterial Abstract Meditation, is "the oloud of virtue" Meditation, 
which owes its existence to pure Goodness following on the complete des- 
truction of the impurities of Foulness and Darkness,— and which also is 
Immaterial on account of the rejection of all material objects, and as such 
rests in itself • 

(4) "As if non-existintf'— because of the absenpe oj Its effects, the Taiious 

(5) "Seedless" — i.e. beyond the range of the seeds, the troubles, the actions 
and the desires. This is the literal meaning, as given by Vachaspati Misra; 
the real meaning being that given in the translation. 

PADA I— SUTRA 20. 21 

This ( meditation ) is of two kinds — The Bhavapratyaya 
( caused by the world ) and the Updyapratyaya ( caused by 
the means). Of these the latter belongs to the Yogis. 

Sutra(19): — The world-caused belongs to the Disem- 
bodied and to the Resolved-into-Nature. 

Com. : — To the Disembodied — u e. the celestial beings — 
belongs the World-caused ( Bhavapratyaya ). These ( be- 
ings), — experiencing isolation as it were, by means of their 
internal organs aided by their residua alone, — carry over 
the residual fructifications which are cognate therewith. 
Similarly the Resolved-into-Nature experience isolation as 
it were, on the dissolution into Nature of the internal organ 
in its full activity ; ( and this experience continues only ) 
so long as the internal organ, by its inherent authority 
does not return ( to its work ). 

Notes : (1) " Caused by the means " i.e. by the means prescribed in the 

(2) " Disembodied "—Thus described by Vachaspati Miara : * Thinking 
either one of the elements or one of the senses to be their spirit, con- 
templating on these, and hence having their internal organs coloured by 
a desire for these, and consequently on death, dissolving either into the 
senses or the "(subtle Elements ), their internal organs consisting only of 
the Residua, and finally devoid of the six-sheathed ( material ) body*. 

(3) " Experiencing isolation as it were by means do. " — the similarity be- 
tween isolation and the state of the internal organ of the Disembodied 
depends only on the fact of the latter being devoid of its functions ; the 
dissimilarities consisting in the fact of the internal organ being in activity 
and bearing a balance of the former residua. 

(4) * Carry over Etc. "— i. e. are born again. 

(5) '< In futt activity "— i. e. having its ends un-fulfilled. The ends of 
the internal organ would be fulfilled only on the accomplishment of 
discriminative knowledge. 

Sutra (20): — Of others, preceded by faith, energy, 
memory, meditation and discrimination. 

Com.: — To the yogis belongs the Means-caused ( Upa- 
yapratyaya). "Faith," confidence of the mind like the loving 


mother, sust ains the Yogi. " Energy " accrues to an agent 
endued with faith and desirous of discrimination ; and on the 
energetic attends " Memory"; on this the mind rests peacefully 
in contemplation; and to one of calm mind comes Discri- 
mination; by means of which he comes to recognise things 
in their true colours. By constant practice of this, and by 
means of Dispassion with regard thereto, is brought about 
Unconscious or Abstract Meditation. 

Notes (1) " Faith " <&?.— Confidence in the senses &c are not faith be- 
cause it is based on illusion, henoe it is specified " of the mind ". 

(2) " Sustains "— «». e. keeps him from erring paths and keeps him fixed 
to the one true path of salvation. 

(3) '* Memory " — is explained by Yaohaspati Misra as * Dhyana ' (con- 
templation ). 

(4) «• Bests do "—this also implies the various stages of Meditation 
Restraint and the rest to be described hereafter. 

(5) •* Discrimination "—-so far we have the ingredients of concrete me. 
ditation. The meditation following this is Abstract meditation, 

(6) " Is brought about dc. " — suppression following on the discriminative 
knowledge of the Spirit puts a stop to the activity of the internal organ, 
whose ends have been all fulfilled by that time. 

The nine yogis are such as have their means mild, mo- 
derate and excessive. E. G. (1) One of mild means, (2) Of mo- 
derate means, and (3) Of excessive means ; of these again the 
first is of three kinds : (1) The mildly— dispassionate, (2) 
the moderately —dispassionate and (3) the ardently — dis- 
passionate. There are similar divisions of the moderate- 
means and the excessive — means. 

From among these, for those of excessive means ( is laid 
down). — 

Sutra (21): — the ardently — dispassionate, proximate, 

Com : — is the accomplishment of meditation, as well as 
its end. 

PADA I— SUTRA 23. 23 

Notes: (1)— H MOd means <&."— These "means "are Faith and the 
test just described. 

(2) M Mildly dispassionate"— Vaohaspati Misra explains u Satnvega" as 
Vairagya" . <Dispassion '—Though Bhojadeva and Vijnana Bhikshu 
both explain it as «' energetio exertion " or " impetuosity "—The mildness 
or the exoessiveness of these is due to prenatal causes* 

(3) •• Its end?'-— The abstract meditation as the effort of oonorete meditation, 
and Isolation as that of the former. 

Sutra (22) : — A further distinction, on acconnt of 
the mild, the moderate and the excessive. 

Com: — There is a distinction farther than this, such as: 
(I) The midly — ardent, (2) the moderately— ardent, and (3) 
the excessively — ardent. On account of this distinction, the 
accomplishment of meditation and its ends, is near to one of 
excessive means when mildly-ardently-dispassionate, nearer 
to him when moderately-ardently-dispassionate, and nearest 
to him when excessively-ardently-dispassionate* 

Question: — "Is the extreme proximity of meditation due to 
this (above mentioned) cause alone? or is there any other 
means to its attainment ? " 

Answer : — 

Sutra (23) : — Or by devotion to God. 

Com: — The Supreme God, being attracted by the devotion 
(of the yogi) favours him by mere prescience. And from 
this prescience also accrues to the agent, the accomplishment 
of meditation and its ends. 

Notes: (1) " Attracted"— brought faoe to face. 

(2) u Prescience " in the form :— «• May the devoted agent attain to his 
desired end"— Suoh is the form of the prescient favour as explained by 
Vaohaspati Misra. 

(3) "Mere prescience"— That is by His sheer will without any form of 


Question : — " Who is this God, distinct from Nature and 
Spirit ?" 

Answer: — 

Sutra (24) : — God is a distinct spirit, untouched 
by afflictions, actions, deserts and impressions. 

Corn : "AfflictioHs/'-Ignorancc and the rest. "Actions,"good 
and evil, — the effects of these are the " Deserts," — and desires 
in accordance with these, are the •'Impressions''; though these 
reside in the internal organ, yet they are attributed to the 
Spirit, who is the experiencer of their results ; just as defeat 
or victory really belonging to the soldiers, is attributed to 
their leader. That particular Spirit, who is untouched by 
such experience, is God. 

Though there are many master-adepts who have attained 
to Isolation, — (yet) such have attained to Isolation after hav- 
ing cut off the three bondages ; whereas the connection of 
God with these has neither been nor ever will be. We do 
not know of any preceding bondage of God, as we do of the 
emancipated; nor is any future bondage possible for God, as 
it is for the Resolved-in-nature. He is ever Isolated and 
ever Supreme. 

(Question): "This eternal supremacy of God, due to supreme 
goodness, — has it any proof, or is it incapable of proof ?" 

(Answer) : Its proof lies in the Scripture. 

(Question) : What is the proof for this Scripture ? 

(Answer) : It lies in its supreme goodness. The connection 
between these two, — Scripture and jte supreme character, J]-, 
resident as they are in God's Buddhi, — is eternal. From 
Scripture, it comes to this : that God is ever the Lord and 
ever emancipated. 

And this supremacy of His is free from equality or excess, 
because it is never exceeded by any other supremacy ; what- 
ever should exceed it, would become that itself. Hence 
wherever there is the final stage of supremacy, that is God. 

PAPA I—SUTRA 24. 25 

Nor is there *toy supremacy equal to it Because when there 
are two things equally supreme (contending) with regard to a 
desired object, (one saying) u may this be new" and (the other 
contending) a may this be old*' — then (in such a case) only one 
(tan be fulfilled, and as such there wonld result the resistence 
of the will of another, which would imply the lesser character 
of his supremacy. And farther, to two equal persons cannot 
belong the simultaneous accomplishment of the desired object, 
— the objects being contradictory. Therefore He whose sup- 
remacy is free from equality and excess, is God ; and He is a 
distinct Spirit. 

(Notes : (l) u Though there an many matter-adepts <fe?."— The objection hara 
met is bated on the following Sutra* of Kapiia,— I, 99, V f X— It. (Vide 
Rajendralal Mitra's Toga Sutras), 

(3) "The three bondage*"— (1) The natural bondage of the Resolved-la 
nature, (2) The modificatory bondage of the Disembodied, and (8) The* 
Bight-hand bondage of the oelestials. 

(8) "Lie* in supreme goodness"— The Lord has reoourse to supreme goodness 
for the foUowing reasons: God has no possessive relation with the goodness 
of the internal organ which is due to Ignorance ; He only desires to save the 
three-fold-bound spirits from the oyole of death, by instructions with regard^ 
to wisdom and virtue ; but such instructions are not possible without the 
assistance of wisdom and aotlon, whioh latter is not possible without having 
reoourse to Goodness washed clear of aU taint of Foulness and Darkness, 
This is the purity that is implied by the epithet ••supreme" (PrakrishtaU 
One is said to be subjeot to Ignorance when he does not recognise it as 
suoh. One however who recognises Ignorance as ignorance and governs his 
actions accordingly, oannot be said to be subject to ignorance. 

(4) "Eternal Supremacy"— This epithet is added to meet the objeotion o( 
mutual subserviency; whioh is said to be no fault, when in connection with 
two Sternal Entities. 

(5) "What is the proof for this scripture ? "—Perceiving the InfaUibUity of 
the MantraSdstra and the medical science, we must acknowledge the force 
of God's intellect, dear of all taint of Foulness and Darkness, as shining every- 
where. Similarly the Soripture, consisting of instructions for the highest 
bliss, and owing its compilation to God, must be attributed to the excellence 
Of his Goodness. And when Goodness reigns supreme, there is no room for 
doubt and deception. Thus then the validity of the soripture is based upon 
the excellence and supremacy of Goodness, (of. Nyayasutra— II— i— 6$ 
Kt. Seq.) 

. W'The connection between these two dc."— This meets the objeotion that 
the Soripture, being an effect of excellence and as suoh leading to the inference 

26 *0Cf A-DAftASA»A. 

thereof, beoomes a form of infetenoe, and not Testimony. The reply triefttt*/ 
feat the Scripture indicates excellence, not by its character of an effect, but 
by means of the eternal relation of the denoter and the denoted* That is to 
say the excellence resides in God's Buddhi, and the Scripture too, being 
denotative of it, resides therein* 

( 7 ) " JK comes to tote"— Scripture, implying the excellence of God's Buddhi 
leads to the following conclusion. 

And farther, — 

Sutra (25);— In Him is the highest limit of the 

seed of omniscience. 

Com: — The seed of omniscience is the cognition of the 
parvitude ( or smallness ) and magnitude ( or largeness ) of 
the perception of supersensorious objects, past, present and 
future, individually as well as collectively. And that per- 
son is omniscient in whom this seed has grown to its 
titmost extent There is a gradual progress of the seed of 
omniscience because it has various degrees, like Dimension 
(parimdna ). That person in whom wisdom attains its limit, 
is omniscient; and this is a particular Spirit. 

The above inference, ending in only a general conclusion, 
is not capable of denoting any particular being; consequently, 
the knowledge of particular names is to be looked for in 
the Scripture. 

For God, though there is no selfish motive, yet there is the 
motive of mercy for the creatures,— ( being of the form ) " By 
means of instructions in wisdom and virtue, I shall rescue all 
transmigratory spirits, at the periodical and the final dis- 
solution". As is declared: "The first Knower, Lord and Great 
Sage, with a view to creation, in his mercy, taught the 
Science to the enquiring Asuri '\ 

Notes: (1) "The above inference Ac":— This assertion precludes the 
fosslblity of the name 'God* being applied to the various masters o! the 
Various philosophies— e. g. Buddha &o. 

(2) * Particular names ":— Such as Siva, Sakti &o. 

(3) « A$ is declared de."i— by Panohasikha, The « Great Sage " is KapUa 
an incarnation of Vishnu, 

PA0A I— SUTRA 27. £7 

,. And such a one is— 

Sutra (26): — the Greatest of even the earliest ones, 
because unconditioned by time. 

, Com: — The early great ones are all conditioned by time 

One, for whom time does not appear as a condition, is the 

instructor and hence the greatest of even the earlier ones; and 

as (the existence of snch a one ) is established, in this cycle, 

by superiority, so should it be understood with reference to 

the past cycles also. 

Notes: (1) " The early great ones ":— e. g. Brahma, Vishnu &o. 

The aphorism serves to distinguish the supreme God from His earliest 
manifestations, Brahm&» Vishnu and others. 

Sutra (27). — His indicator is the Pranavcu 

Com: — God is the indicated of the Pranam. 

{Question): 'Is denotation of it based on convention, or 
is it inherent in it, like the light of the lamp' ? 

{Reply): 'The relation of this indicated (the God) with the 
indicator (the pranava) is inherent Convention due to God 
only represents objects, already existing ; as for example, the 
natural relation of the father and son is expressed by con- 
vention as "This i* the father, and that his son." I a other 
cycles also, convention is always dependent upon the (in- 
herent) faculties of the indicator and the indicated. The" 
masters of scripture declare the relation of word and meaning' 
to be eternal because of the eternal character of universal 
agreement (in convention.) 

Hbtes: (l) "In other cycles too etc"— This is added in anticipation 
of the following objection: •Word being an effect of Nature, is resolved 
together with its power into its oause, on Dissolution ; consequently when 
the Great Principle <fec, would be produced again in due oourse, there 
could be no previous power on whloh the new nomenclature would be based." 
The reply means to say that though the word with its power has onoe 
become resolved into its oause, yet when the word is again brought forth, the 
power inherent in it comes along with it. And it is in accordance with 
•be previous relation of the word and its denotation, that God lays down 
the conventional names for the new cycle. 

(9) " JL^raemeitf"— with regard to long standing usage. 

Vox ike yogi who has recognised the character of the indicator and the 


Sutra (28) its repetition, and the contemplation 

of its meaning. 

Com : The repetition of the Pranava and the contempla- 
tion of its denotation— God. In its manner then the in- 
ternal organ of the yogi, who repeats the pranava 
and reflects on its meaning, becomes concentrated ; as is 
declared : M After repetition, one should have recourse to 
meditation ; and after meditation, again he should take to 
repetition. Through perfection in repetition and meditation 
the supremff spirit lightens " (Vishnu Purana- ) 

Notes : (1) "Becomes concentrated"— and then follows the direct perception 
of the supreme spirit; and hence the higher dispassion, and finally, 
Abstract meditation. 

(9) " After repetition " of the pranava* 

What more accrues to him ? 

Sutra (29) : — Hence the cognition of " reversed per- 
ception" and absence of obstacles. 

Com: — All the obstacles — disease and the rest — cease to 
exist, by virtue of devotion to God. And to him belongs the 
perception of his real character. " As God is a Spirit, pure, 
blissful, isolated and free from troubles, — so also is this spirit, 
the counter-cogniser of Buddhi (intellect) " — such being the 

Notes:— (i) M Reversed perception <fe."— Vaohaspati Mlsra explains this as 
the Spirit subject to illusion ; and interprets the aphorism thus : Thence acornes 
to him the cognition of the real oharaoter of the spirit of contradictory per- 
ception (£. e. the spirit under illusion). And this is quite in keeping with the 
JBhashya which explains as " Stoarupadarsanamapyasya bhavati " ( " to him 
accrues the perception of his real oharaoter " ). The interpretation of the 
Bhojavritti is very subtle, very inviting; and I quote the explanatory note of 
Dr. Bajendralal Mitra: "The natural function of the senses is to extend out t 
wards in order to receive the impressions of external objects and carry them to 
the sensorium, but that being suppressed by the Yogi, the senses turn inwards 
and find their object within, and therefore the function is called • reversed * 
or reflex, The object of this roundabout way of description is to say thai 
the senses hold communion exclusively with the soul." The final upshot of 
both the interpretations is the same, the only difference lying In the inter- 
pretation of the epithet pratyak, the Yaohaspatya making it—contradictory 

*ADA I— SUTRA 30. 89 

knower (suhjeet to illusion) ; and the Bhojavrltti, explaining It as * turned 
back " (inwards instead of outwards). Henoe the words *' reversed perception " 
hare been placed within inverted ooxnmas in the Sutra— thus admitting of 
both interpretations. 

(3) « Seal character M — L e. spiritual oharaoter. 

(8) M Pure w — i. e. unchanging and henoe free from rise and fall. 

(4) * Jbolaied "—Free from the effeots of virtue and vioe. 

(6) * ZYtmKes "—Birth, life and experience. 

(6) « Counter-cogniser of the intellect "—Though the supreme spirit and 
•he spirit in general are both similar, yet there is some difference in simila- 
rity, and this epithet serves to point out that dissimlarity. 

The contemplation of one object leads to a cognition of its similars. So by 
the contemplation of one's human spirit, there arises the recognition of the 
supreme spirit* 

Question ; Which are the obstacles, and what the agitations of the 
Internal organ ; and how many are they ? 

Sutra (30): — Disease, Languor, Doubt, Careless- 
ness, Sloth, Worldly-minded ness, Mistaken Notions, 
Missing the Point, and Instability; — these causing 
'the distraction of the internal organ are the 

Com : — The obstacles, the distractors of the internal organ 
jure nine. These are possible only in the company of the 
functions of the internal organ, which latter too are not pos- 
sible without these. " Disease "—disorder of the humours, 
fluids and the senses. " Languor " — incapability of the inter- 
nal organ to work. " Doubt " — cognition touching both ends 
of a subject — * this may be, this may not be '. "Carelessness" 
—non-reflection on the means of meditation. "Sloth" — 
Inactivity of the body and mind, due to lethargy. " Worldly- 
mindedness "—desire with regard to the connection of the 
internal organ with sensorious objects. "Mistaken Notions" — 
contrary or false cognition. "Missing the Point'* — non- 
acquirement of the state of meditation. " Instability n — the 
unfixed character of the internal organ with regard to the 
stages already acquired. The mind would become steady for 
the accomplishment of meditation. 


These are the distractors of the internal organ, the niner 
imparities of meditation, also called the "Enemies" and 
" obstacles " of meditation. 

Sutra (31) : — Pain, Irritation, Trembling, Inspira- 
tionand Expiration are the companions of distractions. 

Com : — " Pain " — the natural, the terrestrial and the celles- 
tiai Pain is that, being struck by which living beings try for 
its exterpation. " Irritation " — agitation. of the mind, due tp 
non-fulfilment of desire, " Trembling " — that which shakes 
the body. " Inspiration " — is that breath which touches 
(draws) the external air ; and " Expiration " is that which 
expels the internal air. 

These are the companions of distractions. These happen to 
those whose minds are distracted ; and not to those whose 
minds are at peace. 

Notes :— (1) " Pain "—The " natural " pains are the diseases of the body 
and the like ; "terrestrial pains " are those that axe due to earthly beings, 
such as serpents, tigers &o ; and " celestial pains " are suoh as are due to tha 
influences of planets and the like. 

(2) " Trembling " — Disturbs the posture, and thence the mind. 

(3; « Ifupirotion"— Disturbs tha • ESohaka* and "expiration the" Ptonfoa. 

Sutra (32): — For their prevention, exercise on 
one principle. 

Com : — One ought to apply the internal organ fixed upon 
one single principle, for the prevention of distraction. One 
whose internal organ consists in mere cognition based upon 
several objects, and transitory, such a one's internal organ can 
never be concentrated, and as such must be distracted. If 
however it is drawn away from all other objects, and fixed on 
any one object, then it becomes concentrated, and hence not 
based on several objects. 

One who thinks the internal organ to be concentrated when 
it is found to consist in an uninterrupted flow of similar cogni- 
tions, — for him, if concentration is a property of the current of 
the internal organ, then (there is the objection that) such a 

PApAI— BUTBA 32. 81 

enrrent cannot be one, because it is momentary. If however 
the concentration be said to belong to the cognition, only so 
far as the current is concerned, — then (there is the objection 
that in that case, the whole of this (enrrent), consisting either 
in the current of similar cognitions, or of dissimilar ones, 
would be fixed upon several objects, and as such concentrated ; 
and as such there could never be any distraction of the internal 
organ. Therefore it must be concluded that the internal 
prgan is one, and has many objects. Again if by the one 
internal organ were brought about unconnected and hete- 
rogenous (or dissimilar) cognitions then, one cognition would 
remember the object perceived by another cognition, and one 
would experience the effects of the karmic residua gathered 
by another cognition. Such a cognition, even if in any way 
fixed, would imply the rule of "the cowdung and milk- 

And further, if the internal organ were different, then the 
( Bauddha would fall into the danger of ) having done away 
with the cognition of his self. How ? *• I am touching what 
I had seen," " I am seeing what I had touched " — such a 
cognition is present to the agent as being identical, though 
the cognitions themselves are different How would this 
consciousness of a single cognition, the cognition of the 
identical self,— existing in several and altogether dissimliar 
internal organs — rest itself upon a single conscious agent ? 
This consciousness of personal identity is quite perceptible 
to the agent ; and certainly the force of perception is not 
affected by any other proof ; for all other proofs owe their 
strength in usage to perception alone. 

Therefore the internal organ is one, fixed upon various ob- 
jects, and is steady. < 

* Motes;— M One principle "— i. e. GocU 

, ($) " Based upon several objects"— Th*t is beginning and ending in tbe semg 
blanoe of the objects themselves, be these one or many, and not extendin- 
to others* 

c (3) " Trdnsitory"— This epithet is added in order to preclude the possibility 
of the internal organ perceiving another object after having poroeived onu 


object already. A momentary organ can never perceive more than one 
qbjeot. In the yoga syitem however the internal organ not being momen- 
tary is capable of running over many objeota in a single moment; and as 
*noh it is subject to distraction • 

(4) « One who thinks Ac. M — The opinion of a section o! the nihilists who 
hold that though no distraotion is possible in a single momentary internal 
organ, it would be possible in an everlasting ourrent of the internal organ. 

(5) M Such a current cannot be one "—That is one and connected with many 
cognitions, as they happen to come forth* Suoh a one cannot be momentary: 
and anything other than this, the nihilist denies* 

(6) <' The cowdung and the pudding "— i. e. the vulgar reasoning that the 
oowdung is the pudding, because both owe their existence to the cow. 

Question. For some, this system lays down the "purifier". 
Whence is this ? 

Sutra (33): — The peacefalness of the internal 
organ through friendliness, compassion, complacency 
and indifference in regard to pleasure and pain, and 
virtue and vice. 

Com:— One ought to bear friendship towards all the beings 
that may be enjoying pleasure ; compassion towards the 
distressed ; complacency towards the virtuous ; and indiffer- 
ence towards the vicious. To one who thus bears himself, 
accrues pure virtue; thence the internal organ becomes 
cheerful (peaceful); and being cheerful, it becomes concea* 
trated, and attains to steadiness. 

NotesMU M ^^« >r ^ ,, ~^ e « The toton ^^ M ' ' wnioh the purifica- 
tions are laid down, 

(2) «• Friendliness "—Removes envy. 

(3) "Compassion "—The thought of removing another's pain removes the 
sinful desire of harming others. 

(4) " Complacency "—Towards the virtuous, removes envy* 

(5> •• Indifference "—Removes anger. 

(6) " Pure virtue "— i. e. Abounding in goodness. 

Sutra (34): — Or by expulsion and retention of breath. 

Com:— The throwing out of the internal air through the 
nostrils, by a special effort, is "Expulsion;" 'Retention' is 
the regulation of breath. By these two means also is one to 
bring about steadiness of the internal organ. 

PADA I — SUTRA 35. 33 

Sutra (35):- : -Or Cognition resulting from sensuous 
objects may be the cause of steadiness. 

Com: — Of one who concentrates (his mind) on the tip of the 
nose, the consciousness of snperphisical odonr is the disposi- 
tion of smell; by concentration on the tip of the tongne, the 
consciousness of taste ; that of colour, in the palate ; that of 
toncb, in the centre of the tongae ; and that of sound at the 
base of the tongue. These dispositions, when produced, bind 
the internal organ to steadiness, remove all doubt, and become 
the means of meditative wisdom. A similar objective cog- 
nition is to be understood with regard to the cognitions of the 
sun, the moon, the planets, the gems and the like. 

Though all principles, got at through the various sciences^ 
inferences and the instructions of teachers, are always true, — 
because all these agents have the capacity of expounding only 
true principles, — yet, so long as even a single portion thereof 
has not been amenable to one's own sense-organs, the whole 
of it appears far removed, and as such does not bring about 
the steadiness of the internal organ with regard to such subtle 
entities, as Isolation and the like. Therefore for the sake of 
strengthening the scientific, inferential and tutorial doctrines, 
one should always try to directly perceive any one of the 
particulars. And when a particular portion of the imparted 
doctrine has been directly perceived, then the agent gains 
faith in even the subtlest elements thereof, ending in Isolation. 
For this reason is this (objective congnition) called " the 
perfection or embellishment of the internal organ." 

With regard to the non-fixed (t. e. stray) cognitions, when 
there has been produced the Consciousness of having subdued 
(VasUdrasanjna) with regard thereto, then would it (the in- 
ternal organ) be capable of directly perceiving the various 
objects. And on this will follow unimpeded, faith, energy,, 
memory and meditation. 


Sutra (36):— Or the sorrowless, luminous.-* 

Cam: — Add "disposition when produced causes the steadiness 
of the internal organ" — this much has to be continued (from 
the last aphorism). The perception (or consciousness) of the 
internal organ belonging to one who fixes on the lotus of the 
heart, is of two kinds: (1) The " sorrowless", the objective, and 
(2) the pure egotism or self-consciousness which latter disposi- 
tion is also called the "luminous"; whereby the internal 
organ of the yogi attains to steadiness. The internal organ in 
its goodness is effulgent and like the sky; and the disposition 
due to the purity of steadiness therein, develops into the form 
of the brightness of the sun f the moon, the planets and the 
precious gems. Similarly, the internal organ, fallen upon 
egotism or self-consciousness, becomes similar to the still 
waters of the ocean, calm and endless; in connection herewith 
is declared: "(The agent), having thought of the atomic self, 
has the notion of, I am." 

Notes:-(l) "SorrwleesS^rttiumi pain. 

(2) "Lotus of the heart"— There is a lotus, between the stomach and 
sternum, with its faoe downwards ; the yogi has to turn it upwards by means 
of the Rechaka, and oonoentrate his mind upon it. Within the lotos the 
Smhutnnd nodi has its rise ; and since this Nddi is the place assigned to the 
internal organ, therefore by fixing upon this lotus, the yogi attains to con- 
sciousness of the internal organ. 

(8) "Like the Sty"— That is, extending everywhere. 

(4) "Similarly <&>."— -Having explained the condition of the Internal organ 
(whioh is an effect of egotism) the commentator now explains that egotism 

(5) "CoZm"— ». e, devoid of the waves of Rajas and Tama*. 

(6) "Pure egotism"— Not like many brightnesses, spoken of with referene* 
to the preceding. 

(7) "As is declared?'— By Panohasikha. 

*ADA I— SUTRA 37. 35 

Sutra (37)— Or the internal organ having for its 
object the passionless. 

Com: — The internal organ of the yogi, coloared by its 
object, and the internal organ of persons devoid of attachment, 
attain to steadiness. 

Notes:-(L) "Attoohmvnff'—i. e. Longings for the objects of sense. 

Sutra (38) — Or that depending on knowledge resul- 
ting from dream or sleep. 

Com: — The Yogi's internal organ, depending on the know- 
ledge in dreams, or that in sleep, and becoming of the same 
form as these, attains to steadiness. 

Motes:— (1) "Slap"—*, e., one abounding in Sattva. 

(The knowledge referred to in the Sutra is such as the vision in a dream of 
the particular form of a particular God and so on). 

Sutra (39):— Or by meditating according to one's 

Com: — One onght to meditate upon the object which is 
most to his liking. The internal organ, having acquired 
steadiness in that, will be able to attain to it elsewhere also. 

Notes:— (1) "Th* c^ec* and A?."— That is the form of any particular God 
or Goddess whioh beet suits the agent's fancy. 

Sutra (40): — His mastery extends from the minutest 
atom to infinite magnitude. 

Gmi—By thinking (or applying the mind) on minute 

36 / Y0GA-DABA8ANA. - 

objects (the Yogi) acquires steadiness (with regard to objects ) 
np to the minutest atom ; and by thinking on the gross 
objects he attains to the steadiness of the internal organ, ex- 
tending to the utmost limit of infinity. Thus then (to the 
Yogi) who runs over both these ends, belongs non-bafflement 
(or non-disturbance) ; and this is supreme * Mastery." The, 
internal organ of the Yogi, having become accomplished 
through this mastery, no longer stands in need of the purifica- 
tions brought about by practice (or exercise). 

- Notes :— (1) Now— What are the form and the object of the consciousness 
of the internal organ, which has attained to steadiness ? This is described 
in the next Sutra, 

Sutra (41) : — To him of over-powered functions, like 
that of a clear gem, there is, — with regard to the 
cogniser, the means of cognition, and the cognised 
— the modification, consciousness or state of simila- 
rity, identity, or cosubstantiation with these, of 
that which rests in them. 

Com : — " To him of over-powered functions " — To one whose 
cogitations have been suppressed. " Like that of a clear gem" 
only cites an example. As a rock-crystal, affected by the 
forms of the several objects (presented to it), appears similar 
to them ; so the internal organ, being affected by its object, the 
"cognised/* and thereby assuming its character, appears in the 
same form. That which is affected by minute elements, 
assumes their character, and as such appears in the same 
form ; similarly that which is affected by a gross object, 
assumes its character and hence appears in a gross form ; 
and lastly, in the same manner, that which is affected by the 
various modifications of the universe, assumes the character 

PAPA I — SUTRA 42. 37 

of snch modifications, and as such appears in the same form* 
In the same manner, we should find with regard to the 
* Means of cognition," i.e. the sense-organs. (The internal 
organ) affected by the sense-organs, assumes their character 
$nd as each appears in the form. Similarly, when it is 
affected by the coguising agent as its object, it acquires his 
character and as such appears form; and in the same manner 
becoming affected by the Free Spirit, it becomes identical 
therewith, and hence appears in that form. 

Such is the character of the internal organ, similar to that 
of transparent jewels, consisting in its identity, on cosnbs- 
tautiation, — in matters relating to the coguiser, the meaus of 
cognition and the coguised, i. e. to the spirit, the sense-organs 
and the elements, — with these (cogniser &c), of that which 
rests in them (in this case the internal organ itself). And 
this is called the Samapati (condition, modification or con- 

Notes:— (1) «Of over-powered functions"— i.e, free from all taint of 
Tamos and Rajas* 

(2) "Minute object*"— This includes all entities, from Nature down to 
the rudimentary elements. 

, (3) "Modification* of the Universe"— A\\ objeots, animate or inanimate* 

Sutra (42) : — The argumentative condition is that 
which is mixed with the modification of words, mean- 
ing and understanding (or idea.) 

Com: — As for example, we find that with regard to the 
three aspects — 'cow' the word, 'cow' the meaning or object, 
and 'cow' the knowledge or idea — we have an undifferentiated 
or joint perception, though the three are really distinct from 
one another. Where however, they are differentiated, there 
are some properties of the word, others of the meaning, 


and others again of the idea, — Such is the way of their dif- 
ferentiation. If the object 'cow\ rising to the contemplative 
consciousness of the yogi engaged in the aforesaid (fanci- 
ful perception), happens to be affected by the modification 
of word, meaning and idea, then it becomes of a mixed np 
condition, and is called the "argumentative." 

Note :— (1) We fanoy the identity of the object <eow' and the word when 
pointing to the animal as a *cow\ and this identity is further transferred to 
the idea of the animal in the mind of the speaker and the listener. 

When on the other hand, in the contemplative conscious- 
ness, which is free from all notions of verbal convention 
as well as from all modification of knowledge due to valid 
testimony and inference, — then there appears the object in 
its own real form, characterised by nothing bat this form 
alone ; and that condition is the "Non-argumentative. " This 
is the highest perception ; and it is the root of valid testimony 
and inference, both of these arising from it. Such a perception 
cannot be said to occur in the company of knowledge due to 
assertion and inference. Therefore the perception of the 
yogi due to non-argamentative Meditation, is unmixed with 
any other kind of right notion ; and the anthor explains the 
definition of this non-argamentative condition, by means of 
the following aphorism :— 

Sutra (43): — The non-argumentative is that in 
which, on the dissolution of memory, the meaning 
(or object,) alone, is apparent, and which appears as 
if devoid of its own identity. 

Com.: — All verbal convention, fancy with regard to know- 
ledge due to testimony and inference, and memory, having 
been dissolved, — the consciousness, coloured by the form of 
the object of cognition (acceptance), forsakes, as it were, 
that form of its own which is constituted by the acceptance) 

PAPA I— SFTBA 48. 80 

or cognition, and becomes solely of the form of the object 
— i. e. assumes the form of the object of (acceptance or) cog* 
nition ; and this (consciousness) is the non-argumentative 
condition . Thus has this been explained already (in the pre- 
fatory remarks to this aphorism). 

The object of this condition is the universe of objects, ani- 
mate or inanimate y which consists (respectively) in the object 
as a whole (in the case of animate objects) or in a particular 
agglomeration of minute particles (in the case of inanimate 
objects), and which gives rise to a unitary consciousness (i. e. 
the consciousness of the object as a single whole). This 
particular agglomeration (the gross object,) is the common 
property of the minute particles (constituting it) ; and as such 
constituting their very nature, it is inferred from the manifested 
effect (the notion of the object as a wholeX and presents 
itself, through agencies leading to its manifestation ; and dis- 
appears on the appearance of other properties (of the same 
particles). This same property (described above ) is called 
the " component " (whole), which is • one, large, small, tan- 
gible, active, and transient ' ; it is by means of such 
component wholes that all business is carried on. One to 
whom such a particular agglomeration is nothing (and the 
object of abstract perception ), and whom a minute (or subtle) 
cause is imperceptible (even to abstract undeterminate per- 
ception ), — to such a one, there being no component whole, 
all knowledge would be false — false knowledge having been 
defined as " notion abiding in a form which is not that of the 
object" (aph. 7). And under the circumstances there being no 
object, what could be his true knowledge ? Whatever object 
is perceived has been decided to be a component whole. 
Therefore it must be admitted that there is a component whole, 
bearing the usage of largeness &c, which becomes the object 
of the non-argumentative condition. 

40 Yoga-darasana; 

Notes :— 0) "Which gives rise to unitary consciousness"—*, e. the notion . 
of the perceived object as one complete whole in itself. 

(2) ,l This particular agglomeration <&c"— The object as a whole is the 
common property of each and every one of the particles constituting it and 
not of any one set of them. That is to say each constituting atom 
has in itself the miniature, so to say, of the object as a whole. 

( 8 ) " Which consists respectively in the object as a whole do. " the epithet 
" giving rise to a unitary consciousness " is direoted against the Vaibhashika 
▼low of every object being only an agglomeration of particles, which denies 
the existence of any object as a complete whole in itself. The epithet 
•• whioh consists in the object as a whole " is direoted against the Yogaohara 
Idealistic view that nothing exists save the 'idea.' And lastly the epithet 
"which consist? in a particular agglomeration of particles** is direoted 
against the atomic theory of the Vaishesikas. 

(4) •« Inferred from the manifested effect 1 * — It may be here noted that 
the Bhashya here is driving at the " Effeot— an— Entity " theory of the 
Sankhya philosophy ; itf asmuoh as the atom is said to carry in itself the 
miniature of its effect, the object constituted by it. 

(5) " On the appearance of other properties " — i. e. When the partioies 
have the property of the ' jar ' then there is the jar ; when however any 
foreign cause produces in the same partioies the property of ' Kapala ' ( a 
piece of the jar ) then the former objeot, the jar, disappears. 

(6) '< One to whom tuoh dc" — Aooording to the Bauddhas the agglomeration 
of the partioies though insignificant is yet perceptible to the indeterminate 
or abstract perception; whereas the subtile cause is not perceptible 
even to such a perception. Vaohaspati misra reads — "Yasya punaravastukah 
prachayavUashahS " ; and this reading has been followed in the translation. 

Sutra (44) : — By this, the deliberative and the non- 
deliberative, as pertaining to subtile objects, are also 

Com :— Of these that condition is called the * deliberative * 
which pertains to the snbtile Elements, whose properties 
have been manifested, and which are characterised by a 
notion of their place, time and canse. Of this also that 
which appears as the object of Meditative consciousness is 
such a subtile element as is qualified by an apparent pro- 
perty, and amenable to Unitary consciousness ( see above ). 
On the other hand, the " non-deliberative " condition is that 

PADA I — SUTUA 45. 41 

.which appertains in all ways and by all means to such 
subtile objects as are free from the specialisation of all 
properties past, present, and future, and yet accompanied 
.by all properties, and containing them. Being of such 
character, the subtile Element by means of this same 
.form becomes an object ( of perception ), and as such 
colours ( or affects ) the form of meditative consciousness. 
When this consciousness loses its own identity (form) and 
consists solely in the object, it is called the "non-deliberative." 
Of these the " argumentative " and the " non-argumentative " 
appertain to gross (extended) objects, whereas the "delibera- 
tive" and the " non-deliberative " appertain to the subtile 
ones. Thus also by this very "non-argumentative" (conditioq) 
has been described the destruction of faqcy with regard 
to both. 

Notes : — (1) w A notion of place, time and cause " — The causal series is thus 
laid down : the Earth-atom from the five rudimentary Elements abounding 
in the odoriferous Element, and so on. 

(2) « Of this that which appears dc. "—This points out the similarity 
between the '< deliberate " and the " argumentative " of the last aphorisom. 

(8) " In all ways by all means <&c." — That is, in all the forms of red, green, 
yellow <fcc. and by the notions of plaoe, time and cause. This implies that 
the atoms are not affected by the limitations of time, — not even through the 
properties begun in time as is implied by the Epithet " S&ntodita" But 
for all this, the atom is related to the properties (*' Sarvadharmanupatishu ") 
as being their substratum. 

(I) * Fancy with regard to both "—The fancy of word and meaning with 
, regard to the "non-deliberative" and the •• non-argumentative ; " and not 
the •• deliberative and the non-deliberative " as Vijnana Bhikshu explains ; 
beoause the deliberative is free from tue aforesaid fancy. 

Sutra (45) :— The Subtile objectivity terminates in 
the indissoluble. 

Cbm:— Of the Earth — atom the odoriferous Element is the 
subtile object; of the Aqueous, the taste-Element; of the 
Fiery, the colour — Element; of the Aerial, the tactile Element ; 


of Space (dkdsa), the sound-Element ; of these (the rudi- 
mentary Elements), again, self-conscionsness is the subtile 
object; of self-consciousness, the k< dissoluble" (Buddhi); of 
this Buddhi too the subtile object is the "Indissoluble" (Na- 
ture). And there is no subtile entity beyond the "Indissoluble/ 
If it be urged that— "The Spirit is such a subtile entity,*'— - 
we reply — true; the subtility of the Spirit (with regard to 
Nature) is not of the same character as that of Nature over 
Buddhi. "What is it then?" Spirit is not the material cause 
of the "dissoluble," though it is an instrumental cause. 
Therefore the subtilest of the subtile terminates in Nature. 

Notes: (1) "Not the material causes'* — The series of comparative subtility 
Is based on the fact of the subtiler being the material cause of the immediate 
grosser object, and is as much as Spirit is not the material cause of anything! 
its subtility is of quite a different order, not to be considered here. 

Sutra (46): — These verily constitute "seeded" me- 

Com: — These four conditions have external objects for their 
seed; consequently the meditation is seeded. Among these, 
that with regard to gross objects, is " argumentative " and 
"non-argumentative," and that with regard to subtile objects, 
is " deliberative'' and "non-deliberative," — thus four-fold has 
meditation been numbered. 

Sutra (47):— On the purity of the non-deliberative, 
internal perspicuity. 

Com:— "Purity" consists in the steady current— untainted 
i by Tamas and Rajas and hence clear of the principle of 
spiritual consciousness, consisting in brightness (or illumi- 
nation ) and free from the touch of all masking impurities. 
When this purity accrues to non-deliberative meditation, then 
to the yogi belongs "internal perspicuity," — i. e. a clear cons- 
cious vision, irrespective of all sequence, with regard to real 

PADA I— SUTRA 48. 43 ^ 

object*; as is declared: "The wise reaching to theperspi- v 
cuity of consciousness, look upon all beings, as a man on a 
moantain top does upon those on the ground below, — thinking 
of (other) beings, while being himself unthinkable.' 1 

Notes: (1) "Irretpectixt of sequence."— 4. e. Simultaneous, perceiving alfr 
objects at one stroke. 

Sutra (48) : — Therein consciousness is truth-bearing. 

Com: — During the aforesaid condition, the consciousness of 
the meditative one, has the name of "truth-bearing;" and 
this name is applicable literally; because such consciousness 
rapports truth alone, there being not a trace of untruth ; as 
is declared; "By valid testimony, by inference, and by a 
respectful exercise of contemplation, bringing about his cons- 
ciousness, one attains to supreme union (yoga)! 9 

And this again — 

Sutra (49): — has its subject different from those of 
revealed and inferential consciousness, because it 
refers to particulars. 

Com: — "Revealed" — the knowledge due to the scriptures ; 
this refers to generals; for certainly the scripture can never; 
denote particulars. Why? Because, the word (on which 
revelation is based) has not its usage based on particulars. 
Similarly inference also refers to generals alone ? (The 
typical form of inference being)— where approach is, there is 
access, and where there is non-approach, there is no access. 
Inference leads to conclusions only by generalities. There- 
fore there can be no particularity which can be the object of 
either revelation or inference. Nor is this subtile, veiled 
(occult) and magnificent object (of meditation) amenable to 
ordinary perception. Nor, lastly, can we deny the existence 


of such a particular, as nnproved. Therefore this particular, 
object — whether pertaining to the subtile Elements or to 
Spirit— -is amenable to meditative consciousness alone. There- 
fore the aforesaid consciousness has an object different from 
those of revealed and inferential consciousness, because it 
appertains to particulars, . 

Sutra (50); The impression or residum due to this 
is contradictory to other impressions. 

Com: — The impression (residuum) arising from meditative 
consciousness obstructs the residuum of impression produced 
by the worldly condition (Vyutthana). And the impressions 
of the worldly condition having been suppressed, the cogni- 
tions due to these are no longer produced; and these cogni- 
tions being suppressed, meditation comes forward; then 
follows meditative consciousness, and in its wake, the 
impressions pioduced by that consciousness. Thus everytime 
a new residuum o„f impressions is produced giving rise to 
a fresh supply of consciousness, which again in its turn 
would bring about fresh impressions. (Question): "Where- 
fore will this excess of impressions not afford power i. e< 
function, or capacity to the internal organ"? {Reply): The 
impressions brought about by the aforesaid consciousness do 
not give power to the internal organ; because they are the 
means of the removal of pain; in fact they serve to separate 
the internal organ from its fnnctionings; for the functionings 
of the internal organ has its termination discriminative 
in wisdom. 

What occurs to thisP (Reply): 

Sutra (51): — On the suppression of this also,all being 
'suppressed, (there is) meditation without a seed. 

PAD A I — SUTRA 51. 45 

Com: — And this is an obstacle not only to meditative cons- 
cionsness, bat also to all impressions produced by this cons- 
ciousness. Why? Because the impressions produced by 
suppression always obstruct those produced by meditation. 
And the existence of impressions, produced by the suppressive 
mind, is to be inferred from the experience of the sequence 
of time with regard to the suppressed state of the internal 
organ. The internal organ resolves itself into its own per- 
manent Prakriti ( nature, ) along with all the impressions, 
produced by the waking, the suppressed and the meditative 
conditions, partaking of isolation. Therefore such impres- 
sions are obstacles to the activity of the internal organ, and 
as such do not lead to its continuance. And thereby the in- 
ternal organ, divested of its functions, desists along with the 
impressions of the isolated state ; — and on the suppression of 
this, the Spirit abides in its own form, and hence is called 
pure and liberated. 

Notes (l) " Impressions produced by suppression "—That it by that whioh 
wpprasaes the aforesaid consciousness* 



The Yoga belonging to one of pacified mind, has been 
expounded. Now begins the ( consideration of the question) ; 
'How would one whose mind is in the waking (worldly) state, 
achieve Yoga V 

Sutra (1): — Asceticism, Study, and Resignation to 
God constitute Active a Preliminary Yoga. 

f Com. : — Yoga is not achieved by the non-ascetic. Asceticism 
is a means (to Yoga), because without asceticism it is im- 
possible to distend the (bonds of) impurities, entangled in 
the meshes of sensuous objects, and intermixed with endless 
Actions, afflictions, and desires. And the asceticism (here 
meant ) is the undisturbed or unchecked peace of mind which 
is to be striven after by the yogi — such has been declared 
in the scriptures. "Study" — the repetition of the sacred 
words, as the Pranava and the rest, or the study of the science 
treating of Liberation. . > 

" Resignation to God " — the offering of all actions to the 
Supreme Teacher or venerable ( God ), or the relinquishment 
of their fruits. 

Notes :— " And ascelieum Sec. "—The Commentator here distinctly 
denies the theory of pennance and the like religious austerities being 
the means to Yoga. In his opinion a peaceful equilibrium of mind 
alone can lead to Yoga. 

" Study "— Aph. 44 of Chap. II would support the second interpreta- 
tion of the Corny. 

And this Active Yoga— - 
Sutra ( 2 ) : — Is for the contemplation of Samadhi 
and for the attenuation of distractions. 

Com : — Active Yoga, being striven after, leads to the 
cognition of Samddhi, and attenuates the distractions \ 

PADA II — St'TRA 4. 47 

fend the distractions, being thus attenuated, are bound 
to have their roots burnt up as it were by the fire of wisdom, 
and thas to be deprived of their productive capacity. 
They having been attenuated, the descriminative knowledge 
of the difference between the material attributes and the 
Spirit, being untainted by distractions, and thus constituting 
the subtle consciousness; — has its functions finished, and 
is fit for the dissolution ( literally, retrograde progress ). 

Notes :— ( 1 ) " Subtle "—because beyond the reach of the senses, 
( 2 ) " Functions *' — The production of various effects. 

Now what are the distractions, and how many are they ? 

Sutra (3): — Ignorance, Egoism, Desire, Aversion, 
and Attachment are the five distractions. 

Com : — " Distractions " — that is to say the five miscon- 
ceptions (I — 8). These issuing forth strengthen the power 
(capacity) of the attributes, establish the various modifications, 
lay open the current of cause and effect, and lastly, depend- 
ing upon mutual aid, bring out the fructification of Karma. 

. Notes— (1") "Mutual aid"— V&chaspati Mis'ra explains this as 
being the mutual dependence of actions and distractions, the one 
giving rise to the other, by turns. Vijnana Bhiks'm and others 

• explain it as that between the five distractions themselves — Ignor- 

. ance producing Desire, Desire Ignorance and so on. 

Sutra (4): — Ignorance is the breeding ground for 
those that follow — ( whether they be ) dormant, weak, 

intercepted, or operative. 

Com : — Here " Ignorance " is the " breeding ground n i e., 
the productive ground of the following : — i.e., Egoism and the 
rest which are assumed to be of four kinds— dormant, weak, 
intercepted and operative. 

38 YOG A-D A RASA N A . 

Of these, what is dormancy ? It is the germinal condition 
of the distractions abiding in the mind only by their 
latent potency ( i. 0., not yet existing in reality ). The 
awakening of these consists in their proximity to their res- 
pective objects. For one, however, who has wisdom, and the 
seed of whose distractions has been burnt up, — this does not 
exist, even, on the presentation of the object. For, whence 
the spronting of a burnt seed? For this reason, the expert, 
whose distractions are at an end, is called the " Ckaramadeha" 
( Lit The Last-body ). It is only in such a body, and no 
where else, that distractions attain the fifth condition — 
wherein the seed has been burnt. In that condition the 
existing distractions have their productive faculty burnt op, 
and hence even on the proximity of the objects they have 
no awakening. Thus has been described " dormancy " as 
also the non-production of the burnt seeds. 

" Weakness " is (now) described : Distractions become 
weak, by being put down by contrary practices. Similarly 
on being intercepted again and again, they appear again by 
means of their respective forms, — and are thus said to be 
** intercepted". How? Because anger is not seen simulta- 
neously with attachment. For certainly anger does not 
operate at a time when there is attachment. And farther, 
the fact of attachment existing with regard to one object 
does not lead to the inference of the absence of attachment 
with regard to (all) other objects. For the assertion that 
" Chaitra is attached to one woman " does not lead to the 
conclusion that "he has an aversion towards all other 
women " ; all that is meant by the former assertion is that 
attachment is already in operation with regard to the parti- 
cular woman, whereas with regard to other women it has onty 
got a potency to become operative at some futnre time. And 
such a ( distraction endued with a future potency ) becomes 

p£da n— sutra 4. 49 

either dormant or weak or intercepted. That which is already 
operating with regard to its object, is said to be "operative". 

All these do not go beyond thermits of distraction. 
Which distraction then, is intercepted, dormant, weak " or 
operative ? This will be explained later on. True — bat they 
have been said to be " intercepted &c. " only with regard to 
their particular phases. As it is suppressed by contrary 
agencies, so it is rendered manifest by its manifesting causes. 

All these distractions are forms of ignorance. Why ? 
Because Ignorance pervades through all of them. The form 
that Ignorance gives to an object, by that form alone do 
the distractions abide ; and they are found to exist simulta- 
neously with misconception, as well as to disappear with 

Notes : ( I ) "It it only 7 in such a body do.": This anticipates the 
question why the " burnt-seed " was not mentioned as one of the 
conditions of distraction. The reason given is that the condition 
in question is found oniy in the case of the wise one who is in his 
last body and is not going to be born again, — hence as there is no 
production of the distraction in this condition, Ignorance cannot be 
the productive soil for it. 

( 2 ) " All these do not go beyond &c. "—This is said in anticipation 
of the objection that as the " operative " ones alone are the distrac- 
tors, why should the others be called " distractions " at all ? 

The reply is that as the others too have a. latent potency of becom- 
ing operative in time, on the presentation of suitable objects, they 
are also included in the denotation of the word " distraction ". 

" Which distraction then is dbc. " — If all are the same, wherefore the 
different names ? 

( 4 ) " Such a one becomes dormant $c. "—When a certain distraction 
is operating, the distraction equipped with a latent future potency 
becomes dormant with regard to a certain object, weak with regard 
to another, and intercepted with regard to a third. For certainly 
it cannot be said to be non-existing ; as in that case its appearance 
at any future time would be impossible. 

( 5 ) " Intercepted "— " Those afflictions are said to be 4 intercepted ' 
which remain with their powers overcome by a particularly potent 
passion, as desire when the prevailing passion is aversion, or aver- 


«ioa whea the prevailing passion is desire, being opposed to 
each other, they cannot dominate at the same time, ( one must for 
the time intercept the other ) " — Bhoja ( Mitra ). 

( 6 ) u JBy its manifesti^ causes"— Such as continued brooding over the 
distracting objects. 

44 Manifested "— i. e. rendered operative. 

The form of Ignorance is now described 


Sutra (5) : — Ignorance is the notion of the identity of 
the eternal, the pure, tUe joyous and the spirit, with 
that which is non-eternal, impure, painful and 

Com : — The cognisance of eternality in non-eternal effects 
e.g. 'the permanent earth', 'permanent the heavens to- 
gether with the moon and stars ', ' Immortal the celestial 

Similarly there is a cognition of purity in the impure 
and disgusting body : it being declared : " on account et the 
position, the seed, the constituents and also on account of 
death, and lastly on account of purity being imposed upon 
it, — the learned have declared the body to be impure." 
e. g. " Beautiful like the fresh moon, this girl appears ad if 
her limbs were made up of honey and ambrosia, or as if she 
had emerged from the moon ; and she r having eyes like 
the blue lotus leaves, by means of her love-ful eyes, enlivens 
as it were, the living world " : — (in this) what has any 
\ relation to what? (A. The whole is altogether an uncon- 
nected whole). Thus we find that there is a mistaken notion 
of purity with regard to impure things. Similar to this i» 
the idea of virtue in vice, and that of useful in the useless. 

In the same manner, the notion of pleasure in pain will 
be spoken of in aphorism 15 of section IL The idea of 

PADA II — SUTRA 5. 51 

pleasure in the pain spoken of in the aphorism referred to is 

Similarly, the idea of spirit in the non-spirit, snch as in 
the external accessories, sentient as well as insentient, — or 
in the body which is the substratum of experience, — or in 
the mind, the accessory of the spirit. In this connection it 
is declared: "Taking the manifested or anmanifested 
accessories to be his self, he rejoices in their prosperity, think- 
ing such prosperity to be his own ; and deplores their 
calamity, thinking it to be his own ; — such a one is altogether 
deluded." ( Panchasikhdchdrya), 

Snch is Ignorance, having fonr feet as it were, the root of 
all the series of troubles, as also of all karmic residua, 
together with their fructification. Like the words Amitra 
and Agoskpzdd) Ignorance (Avidya) is a positive 
entity. As the word ' Amitra ' does not denote the 
absence of a friend, nor % single friend, but it denotes 
something contradictory thereto, — an enemy ; — and again 
as the word Agoskpada does not denote the absence of the 
Joot-print of tke cow, nor the single foot print of the cow ; on 
the other hand, it denotes something quite other than these two, 
—a particular country ; in the same manner Ignorance is 
neither right- conception* nor tke absence of right conception, — 
it is quite an independent idea by itself, opposed to know- 
ledge or wisdom. 

Note : — (1) " External accessories."— Accessories related to the 
body — such as father, mother, child, bed, clothes <&c. 

(2) " Manifested and the unntanifested &c."— The manifested ones are 
the animate accessories— parent, son, brothers ; and the nnmanifested 
ones are the bed, clothes &c, the inanimate ones. 

(3) The sense of the last parapaph is that though formed of the 
two particles a ( = not) and Vidyd ( =knowlcge), the word Avidyti, does 
not mean simple absence of knowledge but a conception quite distinct 
therefrom. Just as the word Amitra, formed by a (=not) and micro* 
(» friend) does not mean either absence of friend, or a single friend (the 


compound in this being broken up as Na Mitvo y asm at), but simply 
something opposed to both of these, an enemy ; and similarly the 
-word Agoshpada formed by a ( = not) and goshpada ( = foot-print of a cow) 
does not mean what the constituent particles directly denote, bat it 
forms the name of a country. 

Sutra (6) :— Egoism is the identifying of the power 
that sees with the power of seeing. 

Com : — Spirit being the " power that sees ", and the mind 
the u power of seeing ", — the conception of the identity of 
these two constitutes the distinction of egoism. It is only on 
the non-discrimination of the two quite anblended and distinct 
powers of the evjoyer and enjoyed that enjoyment arises ; 
when however, the true nature of the two has been ascer- 
tained, there follows isolation, and all enjoyment disappears. 
This has been thus declared: "Not perceiving the spirit, 
which is above mind, and which is distinct from it by reason of 
its form, character, wisdom and the like, — one forms of the 
idea of self therein (in the mind) only through stupidity" — 

Notes : — " Distinct from it dc " — the " form" of the spirit is eternal 
purity as distinct from the impurity of the mind ; its " character " is 
that of a witness as apart from the partial nature of the mind ; and 
lastly spirit has wisdom ( i.e., the sentient faculty) as apart from the 
mind which is radically insentient. 

Sutra (7) : — Desire is that which dwells on pleasure. 

Com: — Desire is the hankering after pleasure or its 
means, preceded by a rememberance of the pleasure, belonging 
to one who has had experience of that pleasure. 

Sutra (S) : — Aversion is that which dwells on pain. 

Com : — Aversion consists in the anger, desire for removal, 
of pain or its means, preceded by a remembrance of pain, — 
belonging to one who has had experience of that pain. 

PADA II — SUTRA 9. 53 

Sutra (9) • — The well-known (distraction), that which 
flows in the current of its own residua, and which 
is well known to the learned even, is Attachment 
(or Tenacity of Life). 

To all living beings there is the constant selfish wish — 
* May I not cease to be.' * May I continue to exist.' And 
snch a selfish desire does not belong to one who has not 
experienced the experience. This is the distraction called 
" Attachment (to Life)/' which flows in the current of its own 
residua. To the lowest worm just born there is a fear of 
death, consisting In a consciousness of its (coming) annihila- 
tion, not borne out by either perception or inference, or valid 
testimony ; — and as such it testifies to the pangs of death 
experienced in previous births. As this distraction is found 
among the extremely stupid, so is it found to be known to «***»?, 
the learned also; because the aforesaid residua, resulting *" 

from the experience of the pangs of death, is common 
to both the expert and the stupid. 

Notes :— (1) " The learned," here are those that have studied the 
S'fistras theoretically, not those that have arrived at the truth; for as 
far as the latter are concerned, all trace of Ignorance is burnt up by 
the fire of wisdom, and as such there can be no distraction, which 
is only an effect of Ignorance. 

The meaning of the Bhashya is thus put by Dr. Mitra : "It 
(cbhinit&sa) proceeds from the memory of former experiences; and since 
none has in this life experienced the pain of death, it must follow that 
the fear of death is the result of the unconscious memory of the 
experience of a former state of life — and this fear is the cause of 
attachment to life." 

Sutra (10) These, the subtile ones, should "be sup- 
pressed by retrogression. 

Com : — On the dissolution of the active mind of the Yogi, 
the aforesaid five distractions, having their seeds nearly 
burnt up, disappear together with it (the mind). 


Notes:— (1) " Diuolution"— of the mind into its immediate cause, 
egoism. This dissolution of the effect into the cause, is what is meant 
by "retrogression;" and it may be added that this is only another 
name for Absolute meditation. 

Of those that still continue, and have attained to the 
condition of the seed.— 

Sutra (11): — Of these, the functions are to be 
suppressed by contemplation. 

Com : — The gross functions of the distractions, having been 
attenuated by active yoga, are to be suppressed by contem- 
plative wisdom, till they become Subtile, ie. till they have 
their seeds nearly burnt up. Just as the dust in a piece of 
cloth is at first shaken off, and the finer kinds then removed 
by finer means, — so in the same manner, the gross functions 
of the distractions have small adversaries, whereas the subtile 
ones have great adversaries. 

Notes :— (1) " That still continue "-— that are not yet burnt. 

(2) " Gross functions** — those that are in active operation. 

(3) " Adversaries tf — i.e. means of suppression or destruction; — the 
small adversaries of the gross functions are to be — (1) attenuated by 
Active yoga, (2) have their seeds nearly burnt up by contemplative 
wisdom (and thus made subtile) and then lastly, (3) suppressed by 
retrogression — i.e. by Absolute meditation. 


Sutra (22):— ?The residua of actions have their ongin 
in distractions, and are felt in the manifest or the 
unmanifest life. 

Com: — Of these, the residua of virtuous and vieious deeds 
give birth to desire, avarice, stupidity and anger ; and this 
residuum is felt either by the manifest birth or by the unmani- 
fest one. Of these that which is brought about by ardent 
repetition of mantras or by asceticism or by meditation, — or 
that which is accomplished by a proper attendance oa (or 

PADA II — SUTRA 13. 55 

devotion to) the great ones — The Lord, the elemental Gods, 
the great Rishis, — such a residuum of virtuous actions, bears 
immediate fruit. In the same manner, the repeated harms 
that are done to the fearing, the sick and the helpless, or to 
one who has confidence in the agent, or to the great ascetics 
— -such a residnnm of vicions actions also bears immediate 
fruit. As the Nandisvara Knmara, having relinquished the 
human modification, was transformed into a god, and so also 
Nahusha the Lord of the gods, having relinquished his own 
form, was transformed into a beast. Of hellish beings there 
is no Karmic residuum which is felt in the manifest birth ; 
and for those whose distractions have ended, there is no 
Karmic residnnm to be felt in the nnmanifest birth. 

Notes.-— Manifest life is the present life, and unmanifest life is the 
future life. 

Sutra (13) : — The root existing, its fruition (consists 
in) birth, life (or age) and experience. 

Com: — It is only when the distractions exist that the Karmic 
residnnm begins its fruition and not when the root in the shape 
of distractions has been destroyed. As for example, the rice 
in the paddy, is capable of sprouting up only when it is 
surrounded by the chaff, and has its seeding faculty undestroyed ; 
and not when the chafi has been removed and the seeding 
faculty destroyed. Similarly the Karmic residuum is fit 
to sprout up into fruition only when hemmed in by distract- 
ions, and not when the distractions have been removed, or 
when its seeding faculty has been destroyed by the fire of 

This fruition is threefold. Birth, Age and Experience. la 
this connection we have to consider the following questions. 
Is a single action the cause of a single birth, or does a single 

PAD A II — SUTRA 13. 57 

On the other hand, that which is felt by the manifest birth, 
being the cause of experience alone, is said to origiuate a 
single fruition ; or when it is the cause of life and experience 
both, then it is said to originate a two-fold frnition as in the 
Case of Nandisvaraor Nahusha. The residual longings (V&san&) 
(teased by the experience of the fruition of actions and distra- 
ctions from time immemorial turn the mind into one aggregate 
whole ; and the mind beiug thus variegated appears like a 
fishing net spread over with knots (which in the case of the 
mind wonld be the various residua as above described); thus are 
these residua said to be preceded by (caused by) many births. 
It its the Karmic residuum alone that is said to be of oue 
birth. The impressions or tendencies (sanskdras), which 
cause the memory (or remembrance), are the residual lon- 
gings (Vdsand), and are eternal. 

The "ouebirth" Karmic residuum is both of certain 
and uncertain fruition. Of these, this rule (the rule of being 
4€ of one birth") holds only in the case of the residuum experi- 
enced in the mauifest birth, whose fruition is certain, and 
not in that of the residuum experienced in the manifest 
birth whose fruition is uncertain. Because in the case 
of the latter there are three courses : (1 ) The destruction of 
that which has been done, but has not borne results, (2) the 
inclusion (of the secondary oue«s) in the primary action, (3) 
the long continuity (of the secondary ones) as hemmed in by 
the primary action whose fuuctiou is certain. As an example 
of the Jlrst we have the destruction in the present life of the 
black (evil) actions by the white (good) ones. In this con- 
nection it is declared " In this world actions are to be con- 
sidered two-fold; the aggregate of good actions destroys 
the evil ones; therefore desire to perform good actions ; 
the wise ones declare actions for thee in this present 
(birth)." To exemplify the second: "There may be little 


( of evil ), mixed up ( with the good ), removeable, and beara- 
ble; it is not capable of reducing the good ones ; — why ? 
Because the quantity of the good is much, wherein this ( evil ) 
is hidden, and which is sure to bring about a slight 
harm even in heaven ". ( PunchaUkhdckarya ). To exemp- 
lify the third course — '« The long continuance of the 
secondary action hemmed in by the primary one whose 
fruition is certain " — How ? Because it is only for the actiou 
experienced in the unmanifest birth, whose fruition is certain, 
that the cause of manifestation has already been said to .be 
death, which is not the case with that which is experienced in 
unmanifest birth, and whose inuiioti is uucertaiu. This 
latter kind of actions may either be destroyed or dissolved 
( mixed up with the more important actions ), or lastly long 
continue to exist as hemmed in ( by those important 
actions ), — so long as it is not turned towards frnitiou by its 
manifesting cause, in the form of some similar action. And 
it is for this uncertainty of the time, place and cause of 
the fruition of actions, that the course of action is said to be 
curious «nd unintelligible. As the secondary cannot be set 
aside by the primary, therefore we postulate the " One-birth n 
karmic residua. 

Notes: (1) " Lose all confidence 1 '' &c— The order of the fruition of 
Karmic residua being uncertain, the agent could not assure himself 
■whether the evil or the good actious of his would produce results; 
and hence people would hesitate to give up a presently gratifying 
evil action for the sake of future happiness. 

(2) " The residual longings dc. " — This anticipates the following 
objection. * If the residual impressions too were " of one birth " 
like the Karmic residua, then the eternality of these longings ( men- 
tioned in aph. 10 Sec. 4 ) would become contradicted*. The sense 
of the reply is that .the mind becoming variegated by the innumerable 
actions of various kinds, extending from time immemorial, these 
variegating residual longings must bo regarded as belonging to "many 
births " and not confined, like Karmic residua, to "one birth " alone 
For if this were not the case, then a celestial or a bestial form after 
the human one, would not be explicable, as during human life it is 

PADA n — SUTRA 14. 59 

Mot possible to have such, residaal longings as would effect the divine 
or the bestial existence. 

(3) " To exemplify the third How ?" — This question is based on 

the following doubt — ' Death has been just said to bo the only mani- 
festing cause of Karmic residua, and now we find it asserted that the 
secondary action hemmed in by the primary one can long continue 
Without fruition; and certainly as during this long-continuity, many 
deaths would intervene, the two assertions appear to contradict each 
other'. The sense of the reply is that the manifestation of the parti- 
cular set of actions meant here, is due not to death, but to a different 
motion similar in nature to the action in question. 

Sutra (14): — They have pleasure or pain for their 
fruit, according as their cause is virtue or vice. 

Com: "They " = birth, age and experience, having virtae 
for their cause, have pleasure for their fruit; and when they 
have vice for their cause, then they have pain for their fruit. 
As this pain consists in contrariness ( to the agent's wishes ), 
so also in the course of the pleasurable enjoyment of an object, 
there is pain for the yogi. 

Note : (1) " There is pain for the yogi "— because pain has been defin- 
ed as something that goes against the agent's wishes and as sensual 
pleasure is opposed to the yogi's wishes; so all sensual pleasure is 
really pain for him. 

How do you explain this fact ? ( Reply : ) 

Sutra (15) :— To the wise, all is pain, — because of 
the adverse functions of the Attributes, and of the 
pains of consequence, anxiety and impression. 

Com: (I) The experience of pleasure, belonging to all 
persons, is infused with passion, and dependent upon 
animated and inanimate means; thus in this case there is the 
Karmic residua born of passion ; similarly the agent avoids 
the means to pain, and is deluded ( or infatuated ),— so 

60 ' Y0G-DAR8ANA. 

there is the Karmic residuum born of aversion and stnpefac- 
tion. As is declared : "No enjoyment is possible without 
killing some beings", — thus there is the bodily Karmic 
residuum born of the slaughter, and it has already been 
declared that all sensual pleasure h Ignorance, pleasure 
consists in the peace resulting from the satisfaction of the 
senses with regard to sensuous objects, and pain consists in 
the want of peace resulting from fickleness. And certainly 
the satisfiction of the senses cannot be brought about by 
repeated enjoyment; why ? Because the passions grow by 
repeated enjoyment, as does also the pertness of ! 
the senses. Consequently repeated enjoyment cannot be the 
means of pleasure. Thus then if a person desiring pleasure, 
is infused with ( a desire for ) sensuous objects and hence 
becomes entangled in the mire of pain, — it atfords a parallel 
to the case of one who, fearing the bite of the common 
scorpion, is stung by a serpent. This "pain of consequence" 
( i. e. the pain that follows as a result of pleasure ), being 
contrary ( to the wish ), troubles the yogi even in a state of 
pleasure, ( because he m knows that it will end in pain ). 

II Now, what is the nature of the " pain of anxiety M ? All 
men have the experience of anxiety, infused with aversion* 
and depending uppn animate and inanimate causes — thus 
there is Karmic residuum born of aversion; and again with 
a view to the means of pleasure, the agent acts by body, 
words and mind, and thereby favours or harms another; and 
this favouring or harming of others brings about an aggregate 
of virtue and vice, — this Karmic residuum proceeds from 
avarice and delusion; and this is what is called the "pain 
of anxiety." 

What is the " pain of impressions " ? The residuum of 
pleasurable impressions proceeds from an experience of pleasure 
and that of painful impressions from the experience of pain. 

PADA II— 8UTRA 15. 61 

Similarly, when either pleasure or pain is experienced, as 
fruits of actions, then again follows the stock of Karmic resi- 
duuui. Thus this everlasting flow of the current of pain, 
consisting in contrariness ( to his wishes ), makes the yogi 
anxious; why ? Because the wise is like the eye-ball; jnst as 
a fine thread of wool pat in the eye gives pain by mere 
•touch, which it does not do in other parts of the body, so do 
the aforesaid pains give pain to the eye-ball-like yogi alone, 
and to no other agent. On the other hand, the agent who 
relinquishes the pain caused by his own actions which he 
has borne,and again hears that which has been relinquished, — 
and who is on all sides hemmed in by Ignorance as it were 
in the form of the mental fanction variegated by everlasting 
residual longings,-and lastly, who has the idea of 'self ' and 
'mine' with regard to the objects to be avoided ( the body, 
wife and children &c ), — such an agent, whenever he is born, 
is flooded over by threefold pain, brought about both by 
extrinsic and intrinsic causes. Thus then, seeing his own 
self as well as all other beings hemmed in by the everlasting 
current of pain, the yogi takes refuge in proper Descrimina- 
tion, which has the power of destroying all pain. 

For the further reason of " the adverse character of the 
functions of the Attributes, all is pain to the wise." The 
Attributes of the Buddhi consisting in enlightenment, action 
t ( or energy ) and idleness, depending upon mutual help, give 
rise to the quiesceut, passionate or delusive cognition, partak- 
ing of ( the character of) the three Attributes. And the 
functioning of the Attributes being fickle, the mind is said 
to be quickly modifying. The forms as well as the / "unctions, 
in their excess, are contradictory to one another; whereas 
those that are in their ordinary condition cooperate with 
those that are in excess. Thus, these Attributes, depending 
npon one another, bring about the ideas of pleasure, pain and 


delnsion; therefore each of them has the character of all the 
three; their difference depending upon the predominance and 
subserviency ( of one or the other of them ). And thus all 
is pain to the wise. 

Of this aggregate of pains, the prodnctive seed is Ignorance; 
and the cause of the absence of this is Eight Discrimination. 
As the science of medicine has four parts — viz : the disease, 
the cause of the disease, cure, and medicine, — so this science 
also has four parts-viz : metempsychosis ( birth ), the cause 
of this, Liberation, and the means of liberation; and of these, 
Metempsychosis, abounding in pain, is # to be avoided; the 
connection of Matter and Spirit is the cause of what is to 
be avoided; the removal of the connection consists in absolute 
and final separation; and the cause of this separation is Bight 
Discrimination. In this connection, the form of the avoiding 
agent can not be said to be either avoided or accepted; for if 
it were avoided, that would lead to the theory of self-annihila- 
tion; and if it were accepted, then it would lead to the 
" cause " theory; ( consequently ) by denying both ( avoidabi- 
lity and acceptability) we land on the theory of the "eternal", 
which constitutes right discrimination. 


Notes (1) "Animate and inanimate " — wife and children, and beds 
and clothes <fcc. 

(2) "Infatuated " — on account of not being able to discard them. 

(3) "No enjoyment without lulling $c" — Cf. the " HorU^ y xm$j^q *> 
such as the death of insects &c. caused in cooking and so on. 

(4) " It has been declared Ignorance" — supply. •' by us, at the 

time of explaining the four forms of Ignorance." 

(5) "Pleasure consists &c" — wise people do not wish for that which gives 
only temporary pleasure; what they strive after is permanent pleasure 
in the end, and not after the temporary pleasure which ends in pain— 
Cf. the Bhagavadgita-R Wl^^fi^M ic£ ^ c# Pleasure consists in con- 
tentment, and it is continued dissatisfaction alone which renders oven 
pleasures painful. Cf.Bhartrihari— 

PADA II — SUTRA 15. 63 

*' The pain of anxiety " — Vachaspati Mi.<ra remarks that the 
eomincntator docs not go into the details of this because it is too 
-well known to need any dilatory expounding; and more so because 
the pain of anxiety is similar to that of " Consequence" mentioned 
before, — the reason for mentioning them separately is that the pain 
of anxiety differs from that of consequence in as much as the former 
is painful all along, in the beginning, in the middle and in the end, 
whereas the latter is painful only at the end. 

(0) " Passions grow by repeated enjoyment "— Cf. Manu — 

(8) " The forms and functions in their excess dc " — The " forms " are the 
eight. forms of Buddhi — viz: (1) virtue, wisdom, dispassion, power, 
vice, ignorance, passion and imbecility; and the functions are three — 
viz : pleasure, pain and delusion. The sense is that it is only when 
all of these are in the height of their power and equally ready for 
function, that they contradict one another — E. G. when both virtue 
and vice are in power, thou they contradict each other; if however 
one of them is in its ordinary form, then it co-operates with the stron- 
ger one. This has been added in anticipation of the objection that a 
single entity cannot be pleasurable and painful as well as delusive. The 
meaning is — "There is hardly any one thing which is not made of these 
three qualities, as obviously there is nothing which is free from being 
the source of pleasure, pain and delusion to different parties, and ( at 
times ) by turns to the same party." ( M.N. Dvivedi ). All objects 
are made up of the three Attributes; the only difference being that 
the object that is pleasurable at first sight is abounding in the qua- 
lity of goodness and so on. [ In this connection, the reader must look 
up-the Sdnkhya — Tattva — Kuumudi, under Karikfis : XII and XIII ]. 

(9) " The form of the avoiding agent &c." : If the form of the agent— i.e. 
the self — were avoided or suppressed, there would result the annihila- 
tion of self, and certainly no sane person would strive after such self- 
annihilation. Secondly, if it were accepted ( effected ); then it would 
follow that being a caused entity, it must have a cause, and be an 
effect, and thus transient and destructible; and this theory would do 
away with Liberation which means only Immortality; and certainly no 
.immortality would be possible for the caused self. Thirdly if both the 
above alternatives were denied, then would self come to be eternal. 

[ " The object of this aphorisim is to establish that everything con- 
nected with worldly life is painful, and the yogis should therefore 
shun them all. To prove this it is first shown that all joyous actions 
are followed by pain. There must be . a change after the enjoyment 


of pleasure; and as there is an increase of desire from enjoyment, there 
must be frequent disappointments, and they inflict pain even in the 
act of enjoyment; there is always a dread of something that may 
disturb it, and so it is not unalloyed. Then all actions and all impres- 
sions leave behind residua in the field of the thinking principle, and 
they revive sensations of pleasure and pain. And lastly, the three 
qualities are adverse to each other, and therefore they create dis- 
turbances and cause pain. The conclusion is a state of pessimism, 
from which the only relief is to be had by totally cutting himself off 
from all worldly affairs. This pessimism forms the basis of all the 
leading systems of Indian Philosophy, and is not unknown to Europe. " 


The four-folduess of this Science is now explained : 

Sutra (16) : Avoidable is the pain not yet come. 

Com : — The pain that has passed has already been spent up 
by Experience, and as such cannot come within the range of 
avoidability. The pain that is present is, during the niomentof 
its existence, ready lor experience, and as such cannot at any 
other moment, be avoided For this reason it is that paiu 
alone which is not yet come, that gives pain to the eye-ball- 
liue yogi, and none else ; and it is this pain that is to be 
warded off. 

The cause of that which is to be avoided is now laid down : 

Sutra (17) : — The conjunction of the Spectator 
and the Spectacle is the cause of that which is 
to be warded off. 

Com : — "The Spectator"= the Spirit, the coguiser of Buddhi; 
"The Spectacle "= All the properties that exist in the "good- 
ness" of Buddhi. Such a spectacle, resembliug a magnet, 
and operating by mere proximity, through its visibility comes 
to be the Spirit's "own" — (the spirit being) the Lord, of the 
form of (pure) consciousness. (Because) The Sdttvic Buddhi 

PADA n— SUTRA 17 65 

(consciousness) becomes the object of experience and action 
(of the Spirit) ; and acquiring its existence through another 
form, becomes dependent upon another, though by itself it 
is independent, on account of its being for another's purpose. 
Of these two, the spectator and the spectacle, the connection 
brought about for a purpose, is the cause of that which is 
to be avoided ue. — of pain. And it has been declared : "By 
avoiding the cause in the shape of connection therewith (with 
Bnddhi) this would be an absolute remedy for pain"-(Panchasi- 
kha). Why ? Because, we know the remedy for the 
cause of pain, the avoidable — e. g. the sores of the feet being 
capable of being pierced, and the thorn being capable of pier* 
ciog, the remedy hereof lies in not putting the foot on * 
thorn, or putting it on it, doing so with shoes. One who knows 
these three facts, and has recourse to the remedy, does not 
experience the pain caused by the pricking of the thorn. 
Why ? Because of the capability of recognizing the threefold- 
ness. Similarly with regard to the case in question, the 
Attribute of goodness is the object of pain caused by that of foul- 
ness, the causer of pain — Why ? Because the action oi pain- 
ing must fall on an object ; and the action of paining (in the 
present instance) falls on the object of the attribute of Good- 
ness; and not on the Cogniser (the Spirit) who is non- 
modificable and devoid of action. Because the Spirit has objects 
presented to himself (by Buddhi), therefore when the attribute 
of goodness (the spiritual consciousness) is afflicted, the 
Spirit too, on account of His dependence on its form, becomes 

Notes :— (1) "Such a spectacle res&embling a magnet dc." :— It has already 
been explained under aph. 4, Sec. I, how the Sattvic Buddhi, though 
untouched by the sentient faculty, yet through its clearness, taking 
in the reflection thereof, appears as if endowed with intelligence, and as 
such experiences the various objects of sense. And it is for this 
reason that the spectator enjoys the pleasure etc. presented to himself 
by the consciousness which has taken the. form of the particular 



U$ *" YOflA-D AR ASAlffA* 

objects 6f sense. And such a spiritual consciousness becomes to ow* 
jform, as it were. Because it becomes the object of the spectator'* 
experience and action, on account of its existing at that time, ft* 
another form" ; and so though naturally independent, It becomes de* 
pendent on the spirit, on aecount of its being for another's purpose^ 
The author has added "in another form," in anticipation of the objec- 
tion that spiritual consciousness being naturally-illuminative, cannot 
be the object of any experience &e. The sense of the reply (implied 
by the epithet Anyagvartipena &c.) is that if the consciousness were 
really of the form of inteligence, then only would it be self-tflumina? 
live ; but as a matter of fact it "has its existence in a forrn which ft 
other than that of intelligence"— i.t.the non-intelligent form-its apparent 
intelligence being due to the reflection therein of the. spirit's imtelH* 
gence. And as such it is quite fit to become the object of the spirit'^ 

(2) "The attribute of goodness is the object of pain" do.— This is in antick 
pation of the following objection: — "In the example cited we hare) 
three members— (1) the pierced foot <2) the piereing thorn, and (8) 
the remedy, the wearing of shoes. But in the case in question* Wf 
do not find three members, because it is the Buddhi alone which is both 
the afflictor and the afflicted (as the pain is caused by the foul- 
ness of the Buddhi and is experienced also by the Buddhi, whose 
afflictions the spirit takes upon himself); and so there is no parallellisja, 
between the instance and the point at issue" • The sense of the reply 
Is that here also we have three members — (1) the afflictor, in the shape 
of foulness, (2) the afflicted in that of Goodness, and (8) the remedy, 
fhe separation of Buddhi from the Spirit— That is to say, though Bu» 
ddhi is one, yet it is threefold, being made up of the three Attributes. 
The reasons for not making the spirit, the afflicted, are next given ; 
the chief of which is that, being unmodifiable, the spirit can never he 
the substrate of any action ; and as such the action of ( pain' falls not 
upon Him, but on the modifying Buddhi ; but in as much as the spirit 
depends for his experience, on the form of Buddhi wherein his iteltt* 
gence is reflected,— Be appears as if He himself were the afflicted. 

The fpnn of the Spectacle is now described : 
Sutra (18): — The spectacle is of the nature of 
illumination, activity and inertia; it consists of 
the elements and the sense-organs ; it is for the, 
purpose of experience and emancipation. 

PADfc II--6UTR* 18, tt 

~ €ato— "Goodness" is of the nature of "illumination? '; "tfoul- 
wss" 0f the nature of "activity/' and "Darkness" of the nature of 
"inertia." Thus, these Attributes principally coloured by on* 
another, having the properties of (and capable of) connection' 
and separation, with their respective forms accomplished by 
tiiutual help,— and though mutually subservient yet, having 
tfeeir respective capabilities unmixed, — capable of wielding 
tleir capabilities with regard to homogeneous and hetergeneous 
effects— having their respective proximity(functions)maQifested 
At Che time of their respective predominance (activity or ope- 
ration) — and though gunas (subservient) yet, having their 
existence inferred as included in the primary, — having these 
faculties employed in the accomplishment of the spirit's ends 
•—helping by mere proximity, and thus resembling a piece of 
magnet, — tod even in the absence of any predisposing causes 
(such as virtue and the rest), following in the wake of any one. 
of themselves (the one that happens to be the predominating 
attribute with regard to the effect in question), — come to be 
denoted by the name of Pradhana (Primordial Matter), ; and 
tiro is also called the "spectacle." 

. -This i( Spectacle " " consists of the elements and the sense- 
organs" ;— e>. modifying in the form of the elements, i.e. y the . 
&fth and the rest, in their gross as well as subtile forms ; and . 
similarly modifying into the form of the sense-organs — the ear 
and the rest, in their gross as well as subtile forms. This is 
not without a purpose; on the contrary it operates only with a ' 
view to a distinct purpose ; consequently, the spectacle is "for 
the purpose of the experience and emancipation" of the Spirit. 
Qf these, "experience' 9 consists in the ascertainment of the 
forms of the desirable and the undesirable, not differentiated ; ' 
and "emancipation" is the ascertainment of the nature of the 
experience. Besides these two, there is no other perception. 
As is declared, — "Even on the existence of three active Attri- 
butes* he (the unwise one) recognises the various natural dis- 

68 tOQA-DAASAHlfA; * 

positions (virtue &c.) as presented to the fonrtb, the inactive 
Spirit, similar as well as dissimilar (to the attributes), the 
witness of their operations ; and as such does not think any 
other form of perception possible." — (Panchaaifiha). 

(Question :) How are these two, experience and emancipa- 
tion,— brought about as they are by Buddhi, and also existing 
therein— referred to the Spirit ? (Reply :) Just as victory 
or defeat, really belonging to the fighting soldiers, are refer*- 
ed to their master ; because he enjoys the fruits thereof ; so 
also bondage and emancipation, really belonging to the 
Buddhi, are referred to the Spirit, because He is the enjoyer 
of the fruits of both. Bondage is the non-accomplishment of 
the soul's purpose, belonging to the Buddhi ; and the accom- 
plishment of the same purpose constitutes emancipation. 
By this (It is established that) perception, memory, inference 
or assumptions (Uha), (Apbha)^ right knowledge, attachment 
—all belonging to Buddhi, are assumed to exist in the 
Spirit ; because he is the enjoyer of the fruits of these. 

Notes -.—"Though mutually subservient &c"— Though on the occasion 
of an effect abounding in peace (hence an effect of the goodness 
principally) foulness and darkness have subordinate places, yet this 
does not give rise to an admixture of their functions. Though everything 
is a product of the three attributes, yet in a peaceful object, the 
predominating influence is that of goodness; and so on. 

(2) "Homogeneous and &c. 9 '—Though the principal material cause 
is necessarily homogeneous, yet, the auxilliary and the secondary 
causes are heterogeneous also. 

(3) "At the time of their respective predominance"— It the effect to 
be produced be a divine body then the predominating attribute is that 
of goodness ; in case of a human body, that of foulness, and in the case 
of a bestial body, that of darkness ; in each case the secondary causes 
being the other two attributes. <4 Pradhana M == <4 Pradhanatva." 

(4) "And though subservient jc."— This is said in anticipation of the 
following objection:— "The predominating attribute, having come tor- 
ward, may be the capable one, but how does that prove the existence 
of its auxilliaries?" The sense of the reply is that though the auxilia- 
ries have not yet come forward, yet their existence as included in the 


Primary one is inferred on account of the nature of the attributed 
being such that they are never disconnected from each after, and 
always act conjointly with one another* 

(5) " Even on the existence &c„"^A. quotation from Panchasikba. 
The Spirit is dissimilar to the Attributes in as much as He is 
free from the attributes, and is discriminative, non-objective, and 
non-productive &c., and He is Similar to them in as much as he is, 
With them, uncaused, eternal &C, (cf. S&nMiyarK&rikarfa *p\H Q3 fo 

a i ^Mifa^n r *r 5*^11 

(6) "He is the enjoyer."— Spirit, as the enjoyer, has been ex- 
plained in aph. 4, sec I, and will be described in aph. 34, Sec. III. (For 
parallel passages from the Smritis see, Yoga vartika and Tippani p. 146.) 

Now begins the consideration of the ascertainment of the 
different forms of the Attributes, which make up the 
" Spectacle.' — 

Sutra (19): — The specific and the unspecific, the solely 
mergent, and the non-mergent — are the stages 
of the Attributes. 

Com:— Of these, Ak&sa, Air, Fire, Water and Earth, 
the five elements are the specific (directly evolved effects) of 
the unspecific sound, touch colour taste and odour (respective- 
ly). Similarly the ear, the skin, the eye, the tongue and 
the nostril, — the sensational sense-organs, — as also speech, 
the hands, the feet, and the two excretory organs — the five 
organs of action, — and lastly the universal mind— (all these 
eleven) are the specific (effects) of the unspecific 
form of Self-consciousness. This sixteen-fold specific modifi- 
cation belongs to the Attributes. The " uuspecific" are six: 
viz: the rudimentary sound, the rudimentary touch, the 
rudimentary colour, the rudimentary taste, and the rudimentary 
odour, — having respectively one, two, three, four and five 
characterestics are the five " unspecific;" and the sixth is 


Self-consciousness, pure and simple. Tbede are the xn& 
specific modifications of Mahat ( = Baddhior consciousness) 
itself, which is capacity (capability of fulfilling the soul's 
purpose) pare and simple — That which is above the unspecific 
—is the " solely mergent " spiritual consciousness, — in 
this, taking tbeir stand, the unspecific modifications reach 
their highry developed states; and also when dissolving; 
they take their stand, in the same simple capacity, on the 
spiritual consciousness, and finally resolve themselves into 
the unmanifested and non-mergent primordrial Matter, 
(Nature) which is beyond existence and non-existence, as abo 
beyond the existing and the non-existing (effects.) 

This (consciousness) is the "solely mergent" modifica- 
tion of the Attributes; and the "non-mergent" modifier 
tion is that which is beyond capacity and incapacity. In 
the non-mergent condition, the soul's purpose is not the 
cause; because in the beginning of the non-mergent condition 
the soul's purpose does not act as the propelling cause; 
therefore the soul's purpose is not the cause thereof. And 
because this is not brought about by the soul's purpose, 
therefore it is called " eternal." In the begining of thef 
three particular states (the solely mergent, the unspecifia 
and the specific) the propelling is by the soul's purpose, which 
becomes their cause; whence these three are called "non* 
eternal.' 9 The Attributes on the other hand, partaking of 
the properties of all of these, neither dissolve,nor are prodaeadv 
They however appear as if endued with the properties of 
birth and dissolution, through (their connection with) til* 
different individuals, past, present & future, which have the* 
property of connecting themselves with the Attributes; jastf 
as Devadatta is said to be becoming poor or deteriorating, 
because his cattle are dying; so it is only the death of the > 
cattle, and not the destruction of his own form, that con* 

pada h-hhitba ©. n 

•fcStnfceslriB poverty. This case is exactly similar (to thai 
Of the apparent birth and death of the Attributes.) 

The solely mergent, existing in close proximity to the 
non-mergent, and originating therein, becomes divided there- 
from, — because of the infringibility of the order of 
sequence ; for certainly the sequence ifl never broken'; 
fimilarty the six nnspecific modifications origipaU 
ing iii the solely mergent become divided therefrom 
in accordance with the fixed order of sequence of the 
modifications. In the same manner, the elements and the 
sense — organs, originating in these nnspecific ones, become 
divided therefrom. As has been declared above : **There is 
nothing beyond the specific " — t. «., of the specific there is no 
further toiodlfication into any other object. Later on^ we 
shall explain their modification into a condition characterised 
by virtue. 

Votes:— (I) Eating, one, tteo % &C." The sound has the characteristic 
<>f sound alone, touch that of touch and sound,colour that of colour touch 
and sound, taste that of taste and the preceding three, and lastly 
odour of odour and the preceding four. 

; W'Mahat itself &c." : 'Itself is added in order to show the 
relative importance of Mdhat. 

(8) 4i Beyond existence &c " : The meaning is that the three attri* 
bates in equilibrium (which is Prakriti) are not capable of fulfilling 
(fce soul's ends, and as such Prakriti is said to be "beyond existence' 1 
— i. e., without the capacity spoken of above ; nor is it merely a 
hypothetical assumption, not really existing, hence it is said to be 
* beyond non-existence." 

(4) " Devadatta (fec. w — Just as the improvement or otherwise of the 
tattle is an attribute to the owner (who is not directly connected wit!} 
the improvement or otherwise); so the origin and dissolution of the 
various modifications appear as if belonging to their cause, the 

(5) " The infringibility of the order of sequence 9 '— The order is thus 
laid down in the Sankhya-Karika: ^^[^l<f > S4^K^W ! gm^ tipm * 
dtem Prakriti, Mahat, from Mahat, self^ensciousiiess ; and from this 


last the sixteen "); and since this order can never be broken 9 that 
"solely-mergent," Buddhi (mahat) is the immediate modification of the 
Primordial matter. 

The " spectacle " has been described; now commences the 
determination of the form of the "spectator." 

> » 

Sutra (20) : — The spectator is absolute sentience, and 
though pure, (still) beholds intellected ideas. 

Com : — * Absolute sentience " = *. e. the faculty of per- 
ception pare and simple, unalloyed with qualifications 
( illumination ) ; this is the counter-cogniser of conscious- 
ness. He is neither similar nor dissimilar to it. He is 
not similar. Why ? Because consciousness appertaining 
to known as well as unknown objects, is modifiable; 
its objects — cow, jar and the like, — being known and un- 
known, prove it to be modifying. The fact of the Spirit 
having every object always known to him implies his 
unmodifying character. Why ? Because, (1) consciousness* 
which is also the object of the Spirit, cannot be both 
the perceiver and the non-perceiver. Thus is % established 
the fact of every object being always known to the Spirit; 
which further proves his unmodifying nature. And further 
(secondly) consciousness is for another's purpose, because 
of its operating conjointly (with the sense-organs, the 
sensuous objects and self-conscionsness ) ; the Spirit on 
the other hand, exists for his own purpose. And {thirdly) 
again consciousness, being capable of ascertaining all the 
objects, ( peaceful, passionate or dark), is made up of the 
three Attributes, and as such, is insentient ; the Spirit on 
the other hand is the spectator of the three Attributes* 
For these reasons the Spirit is not similar to conciousness. 
Then let it be dissimilar. No ; it is not altogether dissimilar 

PADA II— SUTRA 21. 73 

either. Why? Because " though pare, still it beholds 
intellected ideas " — t • e., because it perceives the ideas 
belonging to consciousness ; and thus perceiving appears 
similar to it, though really it is not so ; as has been declared. 
" The faculty of the experiencing agent, anmodifying and 
non-transferable, appears as if transferred to the modifying 
object, and falls in with the function there of ; and (the same 
faculty),— endued only with an imitation of the Bnddhic 
function which has been coloured by the touch of sentience, — 
and as such really untainted by the Buddhic functions, — is 
called the function of knowledge" — PanchasihhdehArya. 

Notes:—** Though pure, still beholds <fcc," of 1—4. 

Sutra (21): — Only for his purpose is the being 
of the spectacle. 

Cam: — The spectacle becoming the object of the Spirit 
whose form is sentience pure and simple, — the being i.e., the 
form of the spectacle is for his purpose. On the accom- 
plishment of experience and emancipation, the (insentient) 
form of the spectacle, attaining to its existence through an- 
other form (the sentient form of the spirit reflected therein), 
is no longer seen by the Spirit The destruction of the form 
would lead to the destruction of the spectacle; but it is not 

' Notes : (1) The "destruction 6c." The objection means that the 
spectacle being one and the same for all spirits (on account of Nature 
being one), if it is destroyed in the case of one, it must be so in the 
ease of all, and this would create the anomaly of the emancipation of 
a single spirit bringing about that of all others. The reply is that 
the spectacle is not destroyed for the emancipated Spirit; he only 
ceases to perceive it; and his sentience not being reflected in Buddhf , 
he ceases to feel any pleasure or pain &c., the results of his connec- 
tion with the Attributes of Buddhi. Cf. Sdnkhya—Karika. 



Why ? 

Hutra (22): — Destroyed in the case of one whose 
purpose has been fulfilled, it is not destroyed, for 
she is common to others besides him. 

Com : — Though the spectacle is destroyed with regard to 
the one Spirit whose purpose has been fulfilled, yet it is not 
destroyed, because it is common to other spirits. Though it 
is destroyed with regard to the expert soul, still not having 
its purpose fulfilled with regard to the inexpert ones, it be- 
comes the object of the sentience of these latter; and as such 
it still continues to acquire its existence through another's. 
Thus the faculties of the seer and the seen being eternal, their 
ever-lasting connection has been described. As has been 
declared : — "The objects possessing certain properties being 
eternal, the connection of the properties themselves too is 

The next aphorism has been called forth by a desire to lay 
down the form of the conjunction (just spoken of) : — 

Sutra (23) : — Conjunction is the cause of the recogni- 
tion of the natures of the faculties of itself and 
that of its Lord's. 

Com :— The Spirit, the Lord, becomes conjoined with his 
spectacle, for the sake of perception. Hence, the apprehen- 
sion of the spectacles through such a conjunction is experience; 
on the other hand the recognition of the nature of the sjteota- 
tor is emancipation. The conjunction having its end in 
perception, this latter is said to be the cause of disjunction; 
and non-perception being contradictory to perception, it is 
said to be the cause of conjunction. Here perception is not 
the cause of emancipation, beeause the absence of noof 

p±da n— 8UTRA 23, 75 

perception leads to the absence of bondage; and this is 
ewumdpation. And because the existence of perception leads 
to its negation, non-perception, the canse of bondage, — 
therefore the cognition of perception is said to be the canse 
of Isolation. 

Now, what is this 'non-perception' ? (1) Is it a previleged 
office of the Attributes ? or (2) is it the non-production of 
the principal mind which has presented objects to its sentient 
Lord *• e. the want of perception in his spectacle ? or (3) 
is it the fact of the attributes resting in the purpose (experi- 
ence and emancipation) ? or (4) Ignorance with its mind 
being suppressed (j. e. t becoming similar to its cause, Nature), 
is the productive seed (in the form V&sana) of its mind (and 
thus in this case non-perception being the residual longing 
of Ignorance) ? or (5) on the destruction of the impression 
(Saask&ra) of fixity (stkiti), the manifestation of the impres- 
sion of motion ? In this connection it has been declared : 
" The Pradh&na, continuing in its fixity, and as such not 
producing any modifications, would become the non-Pradh&na 
(i. £., the non-cause, the inefficient cause); similarly continu- 
ing in its mobility, its modifications would become eternal, 
and thus too would it become uon-Pradh&na (because the 
character of the Pradh&na consists in producing modifications 
and thence affording experience for the spirit, and in time 
dissolving it, and bringing about his emancipation). It is 
only when it operates both ways (both by fixity and mobi- 
lity), that it is called Pradh&na, not otherwise. The same 
consideration holds respecting other causes. Or (6) the 
power of the spectacle (experience &c.,) alone is non-percep- 
tion — so say some ; on the strength of the Sruti : "The operation 
of the Pradhana is for the information of the soul." The 
spirit capable of apprehending all that is to be cognised, does 
not perceive anything, prior to the operation of Nature ; and 


then too the spectacle, which is capable of producing all 
effects, is not perceived ; and this is non-perception. 

(7) Some people assert that non-perception is the property of 
both (the spectator spirit, and the spectacle). In this case 
the perception of the spectacle, though constituting its very 
nature, is yet recognised as the property of the spectacle 
only through the cognition of the spirit (because without the 
reflection of the sentience of the spirit, no conscious perception 
is possible) ; similarly though the perception does not consti- 
tute the nature of the spirit, yet it appears to be the property 
of the spirit, through the cognition of the spectacle (because 
without the reflecting spectacle no perception is possible). 

(8) Lastly, some people assert non-perception to be the con- 
sciousness of the perception. 

All these alternatives are mere fancies of the scientific 
mind. In this connection, the great number of alternatives 
has a common object in reference to the conjunction of all the 
souls with the attributes. 

The conjunction of the retrogade sentience with its own 
spiritual consciousness (is such that) 

Sutra (24) : — its cause is Ignorance ; 

Com : — that is, the residual longings of misconceived ideas. 
Spiritual consciousness, coloured by the residual longings of 
misconceived notions, attains to the effectual condition of 
spiritual discrimination, and again returns (to its 
operations) with full-pledged powers. When however it ends 
in spiritual discrimination,then it attains its highest limit of 
effectiveness and having its office thus fulfilled it ceases to 
act; and hence being devoid of perception, does not return 
to its operation, there being no cause of bondage. 

pada n— SUTRA 25. 77 

' A certain person (the Nihilist) jokes at emancipation 
through the example of an impotent husband: — "The impotent 
person being exhorted by his yonng wife in this manner — 
My dear, my sister has children, wherefore have I not 
got any ? — replies to her thus : 'when I am dead, then will 
1 produce children for thee.' In the same manner the know- 
ledge when present not accomplishing the suppression of the 
mind, what hope is there of its accomplishing it when it it- 
self will have been destroyed? " In reply to this says a certain 
sect of the masters (of our Science) : " The suppression of 
the consciousness itself constitutes emancipation, the said 
suppression resulting from the absence of the cause of 
non-perception, — this non-perception, the cause of bondage, 
disappearing on (right) perception," 

Thus then it is the suppression of the mind that constitutes 
emancipation; and as such, wherefore this inopportune mental 
aberration (of the Nihilist.) 

Note : — (1) This aphorism decides in favour of the fourth out of the 
eight alternatives just noticed. 

That which is to be warded off is pain, the cause of which 
has been declared to be Conjunction together with its causes. 
Now it remains to describe the process of avoidance. 

Sutra (25) : — From its absence, there is absence of 
conjunction, (which is) avoidance ; and that is the 
Isolation of the spectator. 

~ Cam: — From the absence of non-perception, there is 
absence of the conjunction of the spirit and spiritual consci- 
ousness, — that is to say, the absolute cessation of bondage. 
This is "avoidance," and "it is the isolation of the spectator " 
—that is, the non-mixture of the spirit, the non-conjunction 


with the attributes. On the disappearance of the cause of 
pain, there is cessation of pain which is (its) avoidance ; and 
after this, the spirit abides in his own form. 

Now, what is the means for getting at this avoidance ? 
Sutra (26) : — Undisturbed discriminative knowledge is 
the means of avoidance. 

Com: — "Discriminative knowledge" is the recognition of 
the difference between the Spirit and the Attributes. And this 
knowledge becomes disturbed by the non-cessation of false 
knowledge. When however this false knowledge has its 
seeding faculty burnt up, and as such ceases to procreate, then 
flows the lucid current of the discriminative knowledge 
belonging to Goodness (sattva), free from the impurities of 
pain, and abiding in supreme wisdom, the high pedestal of 
Vasikdra Dispassion {vide above). And this undisturbed 
discriminative knowledge is the cause of avoidance, whence 
follows the burning up of the seeding faculty of false know- 
ledge, which thus ceases to procreate. This is the highway of 
Emancipation, the means of the avoidance (of pain). 

Sutra (27) : — For him the consciousness to the utmost 
stage is seven-fold. 

Com: — "For him" refers to one who has discriminative 
knowledge. " Seven-fold" — On the removal of the envelop- 
ing impurities of Buddhi, no further cognition being brought 
about, — the consciousness of the wise one becomes only seven- 
fold. These grades are :~(1) The avoidable has been known, 
there is nothing more of it to be known ; (2) the causes of 
the avoidable (pain) have been attenuated, there is nQthing 
more of them to be attenuated; (3) the avoidance has been 

# PADA II— SCTKA 28. 79 

directly perceived by means of suppressive meditation; (4) 
the means of avoidance in the shape of discriminative know- 
ledge has been accomplished. Such is the fourfold effected 
end of consciousness. The end of mind again is threefold : 

(1) The office of spiritual consciousness has been fulfilled ; 

(2) the attributes devoid of rest like stones fallen from the 
mountain-top, turned towards dissolution into their cause, 
disappear together therewith ; and of these dissolved ones 
there is no more production, for want of any purpose — (3) 
in this state! the spirit, outgrowing all attributive connection, 
pure and shining in his own pristine form, becomes isolated. 

The spirit, witnessing this sevenfold consciousness, to its 
utmost stage, is called " Adept" And even on the retrogade 
procreation of the mind, he is emancipated and becomes 
"adept." because of his having gone beyond the range of the 

Discriminative knowledge becomes the means to avoidance, 
only when fully accomplished ; and since this accomplish- 
ment is not possible without some means, therefore now 
commences the consideration of such means. 

Sutra (28) : — On the decay of imparity through the 
practice of the accessories of yoga, there is an 
enlightenment of consciousness, till discriminative 
knowledge is accomplished. 

Cam : — * Accessories of yoga w : the eight, about to be 
described ; through the practice of these, results the decay 
of impurity in the shape of the fivefold misconception ; and 
on this decay, results the manifestation of right knowledge. 
As the accessories come to be practised, the impurity 
becomes gradually attenuated ; and as this decay, so is the 


increase of the brightness of consciousness, dependent upon 
the order of the decay ; and this brightness goes on gradually 
increasing " till discriminative knowledge results" — that is 
to say till the recognition of the nature of the Spirit and the 

The practice of the accessories of Yoga is the cause 
of the disjunction of impurity, as the axe is of the (dis- 
junction of the) object cut ; and it is the cause of the attain- 
ment of discriminative knowledge, as virtue is of pleasure 5 
and in no other way can it be a cause. How many are 
these causes said to be in science ? They are nine — e. g. 
(1) Utpattikarana the originative (2) " Sthitikarana 
(fixitive), (3) "abhivyaktikarana" (manifestive), (4) * c vik&rfc- 
karana" (modificatory), (5) "Pratyayakarana" (cognitive), (6) 
"Aptikarana" (approaching), (7) "Viyogakarana" (disjunctive), 
(S) "Anyatvakarana" (Differentiative), and (9) "Dhritikafran* 
(up-holding). To exemplify these severally— (1) the mind of 
consciousness; (2) the soul's purpose of the mind, and 
food of the body; (3) light and the consciousness thereof, 
of f orm or colour; (4) other objects, of the mind, and fire of 
the food to be cooked; (5) the knowledge of smoke, of the 
knowledge of fire; (6) the practice of yogic accessories, of 
discriminative knowledge; (7) the same practice, of imparity; 
(8) the goldsmith of the gold; and similarly of a singl e 
mental f unction [ = vritti (feminine)], Ignorance is the 
cause of its stupefaction; aversion of its painfullness, desire 
of its pleasurableness, true knowledge of its impartiality; (9) 
the body of the sense-organs, and vice versa, the great ele- 
ments of the bodies, and these latter of one another,— the 
animal, the human and the divine bodies upholding, one ano- 
ther. These are the nine causes. As occasion presents 
itself, these are to be applied to other objects also. Bat the 
causal efficiency of the practice of the accessories of yoga 

PADA H— SUTBA 30. 81 

is; only twofold (i.e., the disjunctive and the procuring, 
s *s mentioned above, before the enunciation of the forms of 

The accessories of yoga are next described t 

Sutra (29) : — Restraint (or Forbearance), Observance, 
Posture, Regulation of Breath, Abstraction, Con- 
• centration, Contemplation, and Meditation — are the 
eight accessories. 

Com :— We shall now describe in due order, the form and 
practice of these. 

Sutra (30): — Forbearance consists in harmlessness 
truth, abstinence from theft, continence and 
freedom from avarice. 

Com : — Of these "harmlessness*=»in no way and at no time 
wishing ill to any living being. The following restraints 
and observances have all of them abstinence for their root, 
and being included in its accomplishment, are performed only 
for the proper performance thereof ; — i. e., they are practised 
only in order to clarify the aforesaid abstinence. It has been 
thus declared : "As the Brahmana performs many penances, 
so does he become alienated from the cause of harm to others 
*wid thus brings about the. same harmlessness duly clarified." 

"Truth" — consists in word and mind corresponding to 
facts — that is word and mind both tallying with objects as 
seen, inferred or heard (from authentic sources). A word is 
spoken for the transference of one's thought to another, and as 
such if it is not deceptive or mistaken, or devoid of compre- 
hension (unable to be comprehended by the listener), (then it is 


true);— it is so only when it is used for the good of others^ 
and not for their evil. If being spoken as . such (as a truth) 
it leads to the injury of others, then it would not be truth; it 
would be a sin ; and by this semblance of virtue (the agent) 
would suffer endless trouble. Therefore one ought to toil 
the truth with *a due consideration of the good of all 

Theft consists in the acceptance of objects from others, 
in a manner contrary to the prescribed forms (of gift). . The 
abstinence from this in the shape of absence of desire therefor, 
is " Asteya" 

"Continence" — the control of the secret generative organs. . 

"Freedom from avarice" consists in the non-acceptance of 
any objects, on account of a due sense of the discrepancies 
therein, in the shape of trouble attendant upon its acquirement, 
protection, waste or consumption, attachment, and malevolence 
(towards other competitors). 

Notes:— «TmW— Cf. Manu: 

These, however, are — 

Sutra (31) :— the Great Penance, when in all stages, 
the above are not conditioned by ( are irrespective 
of ) class, place, time and convention. 

Com : —of these, harmlessness conditioned (or limited) by 

class-the killing of fish, and nothing else, by fishermen (which 

is wrongly tolerated by people). "Conditioned by place"— as 

•'I will not kill in a sacred place'; "conditioned by time"— 

v 'l will not kill on the 14th duy of the fortnight or on other 

PADA n— SUTRA 32. 83 

sacred days; and lastly the harralessness " conditioned by con- 
gelation," [belonging to one who is above the three kinds of 
"slaughter" just mentioned], — as " I shall fcill (animals) for 
the sake of the gods and the Brahmanas, and not otherwise;" 
or again killing is allowable for the warrior caste, in battle, 
and nowhere else. ' Harmlessness and the rest, not conditioned 
hj these — class, place, time and convention — are to be always . 
practised, in all stages — i. 0., with regard to all objects ; and 
thud being free from any sort of restriction, they are called 
the Great Penance, belonging to all stages. 

Sutra (32): — The observances are — purification, con* 
tentment, penance, study and devotion to the 

Cam :— Of these, "purification" the external, consists in 
the removal of impure objects by means of clay and water 
Ice., and the internal^ in the removal of the imparities of the 
mind. "Contentment" — the absence of any desire for acquir- 
ing things other than those that are near at hand. "Penance"- 
the bearing of the "pair of opposites," — siich as hnnger and 
thirst, heat and cold, sitting and standing, complete and 
formal silence (the former consisting in not expressing one's 
ideas even by gestures, and the latter in mere absence of 
articulate speech); and the penances proper, are the Krichhra\ 
the Chandrayana &c, "Study"— the study of the sciences 
dealing with emancipation, or the repitition of the Pranava. 
4C ©evotion to the Lord" — the offering of all actions to the 
supreme and venerable. " Seated on the bed or wandering on 
the road, if he is calm on having his doubts and misgivings 
removed, and looking upon the destruction of the seed of 
metempsychosis, — such a one would be the eternally emanci- 
pated, the experiencer of th$ joys of. immortality." In this 


connection it has been declared : "Thence the right know- 
ledge of the retrogade sentience, and the removal of obstacles" 
{Yoga-mtra. 1-29). 

Of these, when Restraints and Penances— 

Sutra (S3): — are obstructed by questionables, the 
constant pondering of the opposites (is necessary). 

Com : — When the Brahmana is obsessed by the question?- ; 
ables, — harmfalness and the rest (to be described in the 
next aphorism, — such as " I will kill my malefactor," "I shall 
tell an untruth," "I shall take hold of his property," "I will 
be vulgar with his wife/' "I will be master of his holdings," — 
he becomes obstructed by the glaring fever of questionables 
leading to evil ways, the neophyte is to ponder over the 
opposites thereof — u e., he should think thus : Boiled in the 
terrific fire of metempsychosis I have taken refuge in the virtues 
of yoga, through charity and love towards all beings; so if I 
revert to the questionable paths after having once given them 
up, then I would be acting like a miserable cur— reverting 
to the relinquished, just as the dog licks up the vomitted 
food. The same process is to be applied to the other aphorisms 
as well (i. &, those treating of purification and the rest). 

Sutra (34) : — The questionables are slaughter (harmful- 
ness) and the rest; — u (and whether these are) 
done, caused to be done, or approved of (abetted); 
(whether) preceded by (caused by) covetousness, 
anger or delusion; (whether) slight, moderate or 
excessive, — they (always) have pain and ignor- 
ance for their endless fruits" — thus is the ponder- 
ing upon (their) opposites. 


Com .—-Slaughter is threefold, being either done, caused to 
be done, or abetted, — each of these again is three fold : (1) 
caused by convetoasness i . e , for the sake of the flesh or the 
skin ; (2) by anger — t. e. 9 thinking the object to be one's 
injnror; (3) by delusion — i. «., thinking that virtue will result 
therefrom (as the slaughter in sacrifices). Covetonsness 
anger and delusion too are three fold : being slight moderate 
or excessive. Thus there are 27 forms of slaughter. The 
slight &c, again are each threefold : the slight, the moderate- 
slight and the excessive-slight ; and again the slight-mode- 
rate, the moderate-moderate, the excessive-moderate ; and 
lastly the slight-excessive, the moderate-excessive, and the 
excessive-excessive. Thus slaughter becomes, eightyone-fold. 
Again in accordance with decision, doubt and collectivity 
(1) when it is decided that fish is to be killed ( (2) when it is 
doubtful whether the fish or the goat is to be killed ; and (3) 
when both of them are to be killed, ) it becom es innumerable, 
because of the innumerability of living beings. The same 
divisions are to be applied to untruth and the rest also. 

" These questionables have pain and ignorance for their 
endless fruits" — thus is to be the pondering upon their oppo- 
sites. — e. g., the killer first of ail cripples the powers of 
the animal to be slaughtered (by binding it fast to some pole 
&c.,) then gives it pain by letting fall some weapon, and then 
deprives it of its life even. Then from the crippling of its 
power results the crippling of the powers of the killer's 
accoutrements (or accessories), both animate (wife &c.) and 
inanimate (bed, food &c.) ; from the animals pain results his 
own misery in hell, and during future brute existence (the 
necessary consequence of slaughter) ; and the loss of life leads 
to his continuous existence on the brink of death (on account 
of some incurable disease) (during which state), though wish- 
ing to be dead, he still breathes, on account of there being a 
fixed time for the fruition of pain (as death would save him 

PAPA - II— -SUTRA 40. 87 

Sutra (38) : — Continence being confirmed, the attain* 
ment of vigour — 

'Corn i — By the attainment of this, the Yogi raises to 
perfection the irrepressible qualities (the powers); and 
becoming perfected he is able to infuse wisdom into his 

Sutra (39) : — Non-covetousness being confirmed, 
knowledge of the how and wherefore of births. 

Com : — Supply " accrue to him." "Who was I ? How 
wasl ? What is this (birth) ? How is this ? What shall I 
J>e? How shall I be?" — Such longings after knowing 
fill about his past, present and future births, become by 
themselves satisfied. 

Now we speak with regard to the Observances. 

fiutra (40) .—From purity, disgust for one's owp 
body and non-intercourse with others. 

Com: — Being disgusted with his body the Yogibeginsl puri- 
fications ; but finding the body to be full of discrepancies, he 
loses all attachment thereto, and thus becomes "self-controll- 
ed" (Yatt). And further (there is) "non-intercourse with 
others"— looking upon the nature of the body, and desiring to 
give up his own body on account of not finding it purified 
even on being washed with clay and water, — how" can such a 
pne have intercourse with the extremely dirty bodies of 
Others? - 


And also 

Sutra (41) : — Purity, complacency, concentration, 
subjugation of the senses, and fitness for 
communion with the Spirit — (all accruing) to 
the thinking principle {Lit. Goodness). 

Com : — From purification results the "purity" of the think- 
ing principle (mind), thence its complacency, thence its 
concentration, thence its subjugation of the senses, and 
finally its fitness for spiritual communion, — all these result 
from the confirmation of purity. 

Sutra (42) : — From contentment, superlative felicity. 

Com : — As has been declared : "Whatever constitutes the 
desirable pleasure in this world, and whatever great pleasure 
there is in heaven, — all these do not compare with the 
sixteenth part of the felicity attendant upon the suppression 
of desires," 

Sutra (43): — From penance, after the decay of im- 
purities, the occult powers of the body and the 

Com : — As soon as penance is accomplished, it destroys 
the enveloping impurity ; and from the removal of this enve- 
loping impurity result the occult powers of the body (Buoy- 
ancy and the rest) and of the senses (hearing and seeing at 
great distances &c.) 

Sutra (44) :— From study, communion with the desired 

PADA II— &UTBA 47. 89 

Cam s — To one given to study, the Gods, the sages and the 
perfectons, all become perceptible, and are ready for hit 

Sutra (45): — From devotion to the Lord, the 
accomplishment of meditation. 

Com : — Meditation is accomplished for one who has offered 
np all his connections with the Lord ; and by this accom- 
plishment, he rightly knows all that is good for him, in 
other places, in other bodies and at other time; thence hit, 
consciousness perceives all things rightly. 

Restraints and observances, together with the attendant 
powers, have been described ; we now speak of Posture of the 

Sutra (46) : — Posture is that which is steady and 

Cam: — And there are : the (1) Padmdsana (lotus) (2) Veerd- 

sana (heroic), (3) Bkadrdsana (decent), (4) Svastikdsana (like 

the mystic sign) (5) Danddsana (staff), (6) Sopairay&sana 

(supported) (7) Paryankdsana (bedstead), (8) Krauncha- 

nishadasana (seated heron), (9) Hastanishdddsana (seated 

elephant), (10) Ushtranishadasana (seated camel), (11) Sama- 

iansthanasana (evenly balanced), (12) Stkirasukhdsana (the 

steady and pleasant) i. e. % in accordance with one's pleasure, 

and so forth. 

Note.— Fop the definitions of these postures, the reader is referred 
to the Hatha-yoga-pradipika." 

Sutra (47): — By slackening of effort, and the con* 

temptation of the infinite. 


Cow:— "Supply — u it (posture) is accomplished." On the 
cessation of effort, posture is accomplished ; and there is 
no quivering of the body. Or, the mind contemplating on 
the Infinite accomplishes Posture* 

Sutra (48): — Thenoe, Non-Embarrasment by the 
pairs (of opposites). 

Com : — By the accomplishment posture, the Yogi is not 
embarrased by the pairs of opposites— sach as heat and 
cold &c. 

Sutra (49) : — Thereupon, the Regulation of Breath, — 
the controlling of the course of inspiration and 


Com :— On the accomplishment of posture, results the 
Regulation of Breath, which consists in the interruption 
(stoppage) in the course of inspiration (the inhaling of air) 
and expiration (the exhaling of the inhaled air). 

And that again 

Sutra (50): — is an external, internal or stationary 
function,— regulated by place, time and number, 
— protracted or subtile (long or short). 

Com:— The interruption, preceded by expiration, is external; 
and that again, preceded by in inspiration, is internal ; 
the absence of both is the third, the stationary function, 
attainable by a single effort ; just as a drop of water placed 
on a heated stone— slab, becomes shrivelled from all sides, 
so is the absence of the two (inspiration and expiration). 

pada n— sutra 51. 91 

AH these three are " regulated by place" , — "This particular 
place is its object " ; " regulated by time " — as characterised 
by the measures of time; "regulated of number "> — the first 
stroke is to consist of so many inspirations and expirations ; 
in the same manner the second stroke of the overpowered 
(breath) is to consist of so many ; in the same manner the 
third, so the slight, so the moderate, so the excessive, — such 
is the regulation by number. And this regulation of Breath 
when practised, is protracted or subtile (long or short). 

Sutra (51) : — The fourth is dependent on the recog- 
nition of the outer and inner spheres. 

Cam : — The " outer sphere " regulated by place, time and 
number being passed over, so also the inner sphere regulated 
in the same manner, being passed over, — both being protra- 
cted as well as subtile — that which is preceded by these, 
and consists of the subjugation of the stages in the social 
stoppage of then two, — is the fourth kind of Regulation of 
Breath. The third is the interruption untouched by any 
object, no sooner began than regulated by plage, time and 
number, — being protracted and subtile ; and the fourth is 
the interruption preceded by the indication of the first two, 
brought forth by the subjugation of the stages, through tha 
recognition of the objects of exhalation and inhalation ; such 
is the difference between the 3rd and 4th (the third is not 
preceded by the cognition of any object, and is brought about 
by a single effort, whereas the fourth is preceded by the 
recognition of objects and is only amenable to long continued 

M0t6 :— The 1st the Extirnal, the Exhalation is the R6chaka. 
The 2nd the Internal, Inhalation— is the Puraka. 
The 3rd is the Kurabhaka 1st kind, 
and 4th Do. 2nd kind. 


Sutra (52) : — Then is destroyed the envelope of light. 

Com : — Of the Yogi practising the regulation of breath, the 
action enveloping right knowledge is destroyed. This is thus 
described — "The net of great delusion enveloping the illumi- 
native goodness, turns it towards evil deeds." This light- 
enveloping and birth-causing action of the Yogi is attenuated 
by the practice of the regulation of breath, and is decaying 
every moment. As has been declared : " There is no penance 
above the regulation of breath ; because there-from results 
the removal of impurities and the illumination of know* 

And also, 
Sutra (53) :— -the fitness of the mind for concentration. 

Com : — This also results from regulation of breath alone, 
in accordance with the aphorism : "Or by the expulsion and 
retention of breath" — {Yoga-Sutra — 1-34.) 

Now what is Abstraction ? 

Sutra (54) : — Abstraction is the assumption, as it were, 
by the senses of the original nature of the mind,from 
want of application to their (respective) objects. 

Com : — On the absence of application to their respective 
objects, results the "assumption, as it were, of the original 
nature of the mind" — that is to say, on the suppression of 
the mind, the senses also becoming suppressed, do not stand 
in need of any other means, like the control of other senses 
(i.e., one sense being suppressed by a certain means, the sub- 
jugation of the other senses stands in need of other means ;) 

PADA II— SUTRA 55* 83 

bot on the suppression of the mind, that of the senses follows 
directly. Just as the bees fly along with the chief of the black 
bees, and rest after he has rested, so on the suppression of 
the mind, the senses become subjugated — and this constitutes 

Sutra (55) : — Thence the complete subjugation of 
the senses. 

Com : — "The subjugation of the senses consists in the non- 
hankering after the various sensuous objects, sound and the 
rest" — so say some. Hankerling is attachment, that which 
alienates the agent from his advancement. The applications 
not contradictory (to scripture) is allowable (so this applica- 
tion, free from any that is contradictory to the scrupture, 
constitutes sabjngation, according to others). The optional 
communion with objects (is subjugation) — say others, (That 
is, the senses turning towards and touching objects only when 
desired by the agent). Others again assert the subjugation 
of the senses to consist in perception of sound and the rest, 
free from pleasure and pain,- through the absence of attach- 
ment and aversion. It is total non-perception (absence of 
sensation) due to concentration — says Jaig-ishavya. Thence 
(from abstraction) follows this highest form of subjugation — • 
viz., suppression of the mind, the senses being subjugated it 
does not, as in the case of subjugation of the senses, stand in 
need of any other means due to any effort of the Yogi. 




The five outer means having been described, the author 
now proceeds to explain Concentration* 

Sutra (1) : — Concentration is the fixing of the mind 
to a certain locality. 

Com :— It is the fixing of the mind solely through its 
function, on the navel, the lotns of the heart, the light in the 
brain, the tip of the nose, and the tip of the tongue &c. % or 
on external objects. 

Sutra (2) : — Contemplation consists in the uninterru- 
pted current of cognition thereof. 

Com: — i e., the uniform flow in that place of the cognition 
reposing in the object contemplated. That is to say, contem- 
plation is untouched by any other cognition. 

Note :— "In that place" i.e., in the places mentioned in the preced- 
ing aphorism. 

Sutra (3) : — The same, enlightening the object alone, 
and devoid of its own identity as it were, is Medi- 

Com: — When Contemplation is conscious of the form of the 
object, and appears as if devoid of its own character of consci- 
ousness, then on account of its being infused with the charac- 
ter of the contemplated object, it becomes meditation. 

Note : (1) "On account of Ac."— This is added in anticipation of 
the objection that becoming devoid of its own character, it would 
lose its enlightening power. 

PAD A III— 8UTBA 6. 95 

These three Concentration, Contemplation and Meditation 
together constitute Sanyama : 

Sutra (4) : — The three together constitute Sanyama. 

Com.-— The three means having a single object, are called 
Sanyama, which thus is the technical name for the three 
tafcen collectively. 

Sutra (5) : — From success therein results the lucidity 
of consciousness* 

Com: — By mastering Sanyama, results the lucidity of 
meditative consciousness. As Sanyama becomes established 
so does meditative consciousness become lucid. 

Sutra (6) : — It is applied by stages. 

Com : — Sanyama is applied to another stage only when it 
has mastered the preceding one. Sanyama can never attain 
to the final (highest) stage, by jumping over the intermediate 
•stages, without conquering these latter. (The condition of 
the perceived object being the lowest stage, that of the 
organ of perception the intermediate stage, and that of the 
perceiver, the final stage). And without its attaining to the 
highest stage, whence the lucidity of consciousness? For one 
who has through divine favour conquered the following 
stages, it is not necessary to practise Sanyama with regard to 
the preceding ones. Why ? Because the objects of this 
latter will have already been cognised through the former. 
In the knowledge of the order of the stages — that this stage 
preceded that — yoga is the only guide. Why ? Because it 
has been declared: "Yoga is to be recognised by yoga; from 
yoga does yoga proceed; one who is not confused by yoga, h& 
ever delights in yoga." 


Sutra (7):— The three are more intimate (directly 
effective) than the former ones. 

Com: — The three-Concentration, Contemplation and Medi- 
tation — are more directly effective in accomplishing concrete 
meditation, than the former ones. Restraint and the rest. 

Hotes : "Intimate"— "Antaranga"— i. *., more closely related.*'. «., 
directly effective. 

Sutra (8) : — It is still foreign to the seedless. 

Com: — The preceding intimate triad of means is foreign to 
the seedless (abstract) meditation ; Why ? Because Abstract 
meditation appears only when the three are absent. 

Sutra (9) : — Suppressive (or interceptive) modification 
is the conjunction of the mind with the moment 
of suppression, on the overthrow and prevalence 
of the dis tractive (waking) and suppressive im- 
pressions (respectively). 

Com: — The dis tractive impressions being the properties 
(material effects) of the mind, are not identical with cogni- 
tion, and as such are not suppressed by the suppression of 
the cognition (in fact, they always outlive the cognitions of 
which they are the impressions; it is only the material 
cause whose suppression causes that of the effect also) ; 
the suppressive impressions also are properties of the mind; 
— the (respective) "overthrow and prevalence" of these — i. e. % 
when the distractive impressions are wasting, and the suppres- 
sive impression gaining ground, then the moment of sap- 
pression conjoins with the mind. Thus the constant change 
of impressions, occurring in the mind is suppressive modiflca- 

FAD A III— SUTRA 12. 87 

tion. And then the mind has only the impressions left 
behind, — as has been explained under suppressive (abstract) 
Meditation (I. 18). 

Notes : (I)— Dr. Mitra construes as pratyanirodhena niruddhah, 
and takes it with the following diittadharmdli. Bub the translation 
follows the interpretation ot' Vachaspati Misra, who thus introduces 
the passage: "The impressions caused by distractive cognitions (i.e., 
those of the waking state) would cease on the cessation of the waking 
state, and as such for its cessation we would not stand in need of the 
suppressive modification." The sense of the reply is given in parenth- 
i above. 

Sutra (10) : — Its flow becomes tranquil from residual 

Com : — From suppressive residua results the tranquil flow 
of the mind, which depends on the expertness in the practice 
of suppressive residua. When those residua become dulled, 
the residua having suppression for their property are over- 
thrown by those whose property is distraction. 

Sutra (11) : — The destruction and enlivenment (respec- 
tively) of the multifunctionality and concentration 
of the mind is (its) meditative modification. 

Com i — Multifuctionality is a property of the mind, and 
80 is Concentration ; the meaning is that there is destruction 
or decay of multifuctionality and enlivenment or rise of 
Concentration ; both of these are correlated to the mind which 
holds them as its properties. Thus this mind, co-rrelated to 
its co-natural ( or identical ) properties, — the aforesaid decay 
and rise, — becomes collected or pacified; and this is its 
"meditative modification." 

Sutra (12) : — Then again, the concentrative modifica;- 

tion of the mind is th&t in which both the reppres- 

sed and the revived are equally recognised. 


Com: — Of one whose mind is pacified, the foregoing cogni- 
tion is the 'reppressed/ and the following one similar thereto 
is the * revived ' ; and the meditative mind, correlated to the 
two is the same ( i. e., collected or concentrated ). Thus this 
is the * concentrative modification' of the mind to which 
the cognitions are related as its properties. 

Sutra (13) : — This also explains the modifications of 
property, time and condition, in the elementary 
substances and flie seive-orgaus. 

Com : — " This "— i.e., the aforesaid modifications of the mind 
— explains the modifications in the elemeutary substances and 
the sense-organs, — of property, time and condition. 

Of these the " modification of property " consists in the 
reppression and rise of the distractive and suppressive pro- 
perties in the object having those properties (i.e., in their 
respective causes). 

The "modification of time" is the suppression of its 
threefold character — i.e., characterised by the three limitations 
(of time). This suppression, first of all relinquishing the 
limitation of futurity, and not passing over its property-nets, 
becomes conjoined with the limitation of the present, 
wherein it becomes manifested in its true colour. This 
is its second limitation ; nor is this disjoined from the 
limitation of the past and future. Similarly, distraction 
(the waking state), of threefold character — i.e., characterised 
by the three limitations (of time),— relinquishing the limitation 
of the present, and not passing over its property-ness, 
becomes conjoined with the limitation of the past; — this is 
its third limitation ; nor is this disjoined from the limita- 
tions of the present and the future. Similarly again, distrac- 
tion becoming accomplished, and (thereby) relinquishing its 

PADA III — surRA 13. 9& 

limitation of futurity ', and not passing over its property-ness, 
becomes related to tbe limitation of the present, wherein 
its manifesting in its trne colours, begins its operations. 
This is its second limitation; nor does it get free from the 
limitations of the past and the future. So again suppression, 
and also distraction. 

In the same manner, the ** modification of condition " — 
(is that) wherein, during the moments of suppression, the 
suppressive residua are strengthened, and the distractive 
residua are weakened. This is the modification of the condi- 
tion of the properties. 

Among these, the modification of the object having the 
properties, is by means of these properties; that of the 
properties is by means of the limitations ; and lastly that 
of the limitations by means of the conditions. 

Thus the function of the attributes does not even for a 
moment exist without the modifications of property, time and 
condition ( i. e., it is constantly producing modifications ); 
because the function of the attributes is ever mobile ; and 
the cause of operation has been said to be the subordinate 
character of the attributes. 

Thus in the elementary substances and the sense-organs, 
owing to the distinction between the property and the object 
having it, there are three kiuds of modifications. In reality 
however, the modification is one only. Because the property is 
only a iorm of the object possessing it ; and as such the above 
is only the consideration of certain modifications of the 
object, through the properties (ie. 9 through the modifications 
of the properties). Hence, during the past, present and 
fntnre states, what becomes of the property present in the 
object (which holds it) is only a change in its position 
(form), and not any change of the (constitutent) matter. 


As for example, to a golden vessel on being broken, and 
made to undergo a change, the only change that happens 
is that of form, and not that of the gold itself. 

Says another (the Banddha holding the complete identity of 
the property and the object possessing it) : "The object is no- 
thing more than the property, in as much as it does not go 
beyond the former material ; for if the object continued its 
existence through the various modifications (of the property), 
then it would in reality become unchangeable.'* 

( To this we make the following reply : ) — There is no harm 
in this. Why? Because, we do not assert its absolntenets. 
Thus all the three worlds recede from manifestation (*>., recede 
from present activity and become the past), simply because 
of the denial of the (unchangeable) eternity (of mundane 
objects). And though receded (become past), still it exists, 
because of the denial of its destruction ; its minuteness 
is due to its correlation {i.e., resolution into its cause) ; and 
from its minuteness results imperceptibility. The property, 
having the modification of time, existing in the various 
limitations (JLakshana, of time), becoming past, and thus 
becoming conjoiued with the limitation of the past, is not 
disjoined from the limitations of the present and the future ; 
similarly the future, joined to the limitation of the future, 
is not disjoined from those of the past and present} and 
lastly the present, joined to the limitation of the present, 
is not disjoined from those of the past and the future. 
(That is to say every individual limitation is accompained 
by the other two) Just as, because a man is attached to 
a certain woman, it does not follow that he has an aversion 
for other women. 

Here, in the modification of time (limitation), all the 
limitations occuring together, there would result an 

FADA III — SUT*A 13. 101 

admixture of limitations. If this is urged as an objection, 
then we make the following reply: The character of the 
property having been established, we have to describe its 
different limitations ; for certainly its special character 
belongs to the property not only at the present time, 
(bnt it has the same character even in the past and the 
future). For otherwise the mind would not have attach- 
ment for its property, because attachment does not exist 
when there is anger. And further, the simultaneous relation 
of any individual with the three limitations, is not possible; 
by degrees however there is the manifestation of it, by 
means of its manifesting cause. As has been declared : 
** The excessive manifestation, of forms and those of functions 
are opposed to one another, but the genuine ones act in 
consort with the excessive manifestations" (vide-this quotation 
onder II — 15). Therefore, there can no admixture (as has 
been urged by the objector). 

As from the activity of attachment with regard to a 
certain object, it is not inferred that it does not exist any- 
where else, — the fact being that it is related to the latter 
too, in a general way, — so the same is the case with limitation 
(lakthayia)'. It is the property, and not the object possessing 
the property, that has the three limitations : The properties, 
manifested {present) as well as well as unmanifested, 
(past and future ), attaining to the various conditions (of 
weakness, strength and the like), are said to have been 
changed — but this change is only in (condition), not in 
matter. Just as a single line in the place of hnudreds, 
becomes hundred, in the place of tens a ten, and in the 
place of units a unit ; and again, as a single woman is called 
mother, daughter and mother-in-law (according to circum- 
stances, the woman remaining the same ). 


Against the theory of the "modification of conditions/* some 
people have raised the objection that in that case there would 
be an unchangeable eternality ( for objects and their pro- 
perties); because, a property is said to be in the future 
when, being removed from the range of the activity of the 
limitation, it does not carry out its own operations ; when it 
carries on its operations, it is said to be in the present, and 
lastly, when it has ceased after having operated, it is said to 
be in the past. — And thus we find that the limitations and the 
conditions of the properties and the objects having them are 
unchangeably eternal. This is the objection urged, 

(We reply): — This is not a sound objection; because though 
the object having an attribute is eternal, yet there is quite a 
variety of the forms of the suppression (or over-throw) of the 
attributes themselves; just as the destructible (suppressive), 
agglomeration ( earth and the rest ) is a mere property of 
the indestructible (irrepressible) sound, odour &c. (rudi- 
mentary elements) ; similarly the reppressible merqent 
(Linga, the Buddhi) is a mere property of the irrepressible 
(Attributes) Goodness and the rest. Thus their modification is 
attributed to these (e. «., the properties Budihi, Earth Ac). 
Here we have the following instance : The object clay, ac- 
quiring a property other than that of a lump, becomes modified 
by the property,into the form of a jar;and this form of the jar, 
relinquishing the future limitation, attains to the present one, 
and thus becomes modified by limitation ; and lastly, the jar mo- 
mentarily becoming new and old, acquires the modification of 
condition. The change of the properties of an object is a 
condition; and the change in the limitation of the property 
is also a condition; thus the change in matter is only one 
(i.e , the modification of condition); but this has been shown in 
its various divisions (i. e., though there is in fact only one 
modification, that of condition, still the other two — that of 
property and limitation have been explained separatelyi 

TADA III— SUTRA 13. 108 

though really being the only particular forms of that of con* 
cBtioa alone). The same consideration is to be applied to all 
- other objects. 

All these modifications of property and limitation and con- 
dition never outgrowing the form of the object, the modifica- 
tion is one alone, and this includes all the other particular 

Now what do you mean by " modification " ? Modification 
consists in the appearance of fresh properties for a certain object, 
following on the cessation (or rep j session) of the former ones. 

Notes : (1) "It becomes manifested in its true colour"— The suppres- 
sion, that was future ere this, becomes the present now ; the one kind 
of suppression does not cease to be suppress ion in order to make room 
for the other suppression. 

(2) "Subordiimte character of the attributes.*' We find in daily life 
the servants always acting tor their master; similarly the fact of 
goodness &c. being of the same subordinate nature (like the servant), 
accounts for their constant activity. 

(8) "And not any cliange of tlie constituent matter. 1 ' because if the 
change took place in the matter, then the object undergoing a momen- 
tary change, would never be recognised as the same. 

(4) " If the object continued its existence through the various modi' 
fixations &c." If the object were so, then it would be equally related 
to the past and the future as well, and thus would result its eter- 
nal ity and unchangeable!) ess, like that of the sentient faculty; and 
certainly this will not be palatable to the Bauddha objector either. 

(5) " We do not assert its absoluteness," If like that of sentient 
faculty we also asserted the absolute eternality of the objects, then 
would the objection apply to us; as it is however, we do not make any 
such assertion. In fact we go so far as to assert the cessation of the 
activity of all the three worlds, to say nothing of particular objects. 

(6) "Denial of its destruction" — The reasoning is this:— What is 
non-existent never operates, as sky-flowers; the three worlds however 
do operate; and as such they can never be said to be non-existent. 
Thus though we deny their absolute eternality, yet as they are never 
entirely destroyed, this modified eternality may be asserted of them. 

(7) il Minuteness." In anticipation of the objection that the object 
being never destroyed, wherefore do we not perceive objects of the 

104 YOCJl-DARSAtfA. 

past ?— the reply is that thoir imperoeptlbility is due to their haying 
been resolved into their respective causes. 

(8) • 'Otherwise, the mind loould not liave attachment Ac. It is only 
after anger has passed off that the mind is found to have attachment; 
and thus if attachment did not latently exist there in its future state, 
whence its later appearance ? For certainly anything that is non- 
existent can never be brought into existence. 

(9) "Though the object Jiuving an attribute is eternal Ac," Though 
the object (Purusha) as well as the attributes (goodness &c.) are 
equally constant entities, still the latter being amenable to periodical 
appearance and reppression, and as such having modifications, can not 
be said to be unchangeably (absolutely) eternal. The sentient faculty 
is not so; and hence it is said to be absolutely eternal. 

Among these— 

Sutra (14) : — The subject is that which is correlated to 
the properties of tranquility, activity, and latency 

Com : — The property is only the faculty of the subject, 
characterised by capability; and its existence being inferred 
from the variety of its eftects, it is found to be manifold with 
regard to the one subject. 

Of these the present (active) property, its own activity, 
becomes differentiated from the other properties, — the tranquil 
(past) and the latent (future) ones. When however it is 
correlated only in a geuerai form, then consisting merely of 
the form of the subject, wherefrom should it differentiate ? 
Thus the properties of the subject are three — the tranquil, 
the active and the latent. Of these the tranquil are those 
that have receded after having done their work; those that 
-*. are operating are the active; both of these precede the fntnre; 
the past precedes the present. Wherefore are not the present 
ones said to precede the past ones? Because among these two 
there is no order of precedence ; as the order of precedence 
that we find between the past and the future is not found in the 

*ADA m— SUTRA 14. 105 

Case of the past with regard to the present. Therefore there 
is nothing that precedes the past. For this reason the future 
precedes the present (this in accordance with the theory of the 
con tinned existence of the effect latent in the cause, before iti 

Now which are the latent ones? (Reply) Everything 
'having the character of everything. With regard to this 
it is declared : (3) *' Among the immovable objects we find 
the universality of the effects in the form of the different 
tastes, belonging to Water and Earth; similarly of the impa<£v- 
ables with regard to the movable, and vice term " Thus the 
genus not being suppressed (or else the various effects would 
not be recognised )> everything has the nature of everything. 
Though this is so, yet their manifestation is not simultaneous, 
'because of the manifestation being conditioned by place, time, 
«nd form. That which is correlated to these manifested and 
.unnianifested properties, and which has both the general 
(belonging to the subject) and the special character (of the 
property), — such a correlative is the subject. One (the 
Yog^chara) however who asserts t he property j ;o be uncon- 
nected (with anything else, because he denies the existence of 
*my subject other than the properties of cognition and the 

like), for him there would be no experience. Why ? Because 
the actions performed by a certain idea (or cognition) can- 
not transfer its effect to the other idea (for according to these 
-theorists there is nothing except ideas, and these are momen- 
itary); and again there could be no memory of the action; 
<for an object seen by one ( idea ) cannot be remembered by 
finother. Because of the recognition of objects (previously 
rperceived), there must be a subject correlative (to the various 
; modifications of the object), which is recognised as the same, 
< after its properties have undergone a change. Therefore it 
r cannot be rightly held that all that exists is mere unconnected 



Notes {1) "Existence being inferred &c" — The sense is that of » 
single subject the property of the form of capability is seen to be 
manifold— the capability lying latent in its cause. 

, (2) " When liowever it is correlated &c." This addition establishes 
the differentiation of the un manifested cause. 

(8) "Among the immovable objects &c": — In the joint modifications 
of Earth and Water— the trees and the like— we find the various kinds 
of taste &c. ; that of the immovable in the movable we find in the 
modifications of air, water &c, in the animal body ; that of the mov- 
able in the immovable — in the enlarging of the pomegranate by being 
sprinkled with blood. 

Sutra (15). — The change of order is the cause of the 
versatility ( or changeableness) of modifications. 

Com: — "The modification of one subject should be one 
only " — this being urged, (we reply) that the change* of 
order can be the cause of the versatility of the modifications. 
As for instance, the proper order is — dust of clay, lump 
of clay, the jar-clay, the clay of the broken jar, and the 
clay of the small pieces. The proper order is the mention 
of the following property next to the one that precedes 
it — e.g.y the luigp^ disappearing, the jar appears — such is 
the order of the modification of property. , The • order of the 
modification of limitation — as the present" state of the jaT 
after its future* t^e rpa&t jlfrte of the lump r kfter its present ; 
as for the pftftt,j thof'e.^ fifrwrder. because when there is suc- 
cession, then only* jean* fcher&*ft>d an order; but there is no 
succession of -tluj past ; : Jh^pftjre there is order only of the 
first two limitations (the present and the future). Similarly 
the order of the modification of condition — *.^.,;the oldness 
of the jar after its ■> newness ; and this oldness being 
manifested by tfi^e order of the series of moments, attains 
to final manifestation. This is the third modification, 
above those of the property and its limitation. 

TADA in— 8UTBA, 16. 1U7 

. These various orders, acquiring their form on the differen- 
tiation of the subject and the property,— certain properties 
also become subjects with reference to certain other properties. 
When however there is the idea of identity (of the property) 
in the subject, — and thus that property being mentioned 
thereby (e.g., fay naming the subject), — then the order 
appears to be one only. Of the mind, the properties are two- 
fold — the perceived and the unperceived ; of these the former 
are the cognitions, and the latter, the objects themselves, 
these, having their objective character got at by means of 
inference are seven : (1) suppression ( the state of absolute 
meditation inferred from the disappearence of all residua) 
(2) Virtue (and vice, inferred from the resulting pleasure 
and pain), (3) Residual Impressions (inferred from memory),, 

(4) Modification (inferred from the mobility of the attributes), 

(5) Life (the effort to live inferred from breathing),, 

(6) Movements (action inferred from the activity of the various 
senses), and (7) Capability or Power (the latent condition 
of the effects, existing in their causes). — these are the sevea 
properties of the mind, devoid of perception .. 

Henceforward begins the consideration of the objects of 
sanyama, for the accomplishment of the ends of the yogi 
equipped with all the accessories. 

Sutra (16). — The knowledge of the past and future 
(i» acquired) through sanyama over the three- 

Com : — From sanyama, over the modifications of property, , 
time and condition, accrues to the yogi the, knowledge of 
the past and the future. Sanyama has been defined as con- 
sisting in concentration, contemplation and meditation 
taken together. Hence the three modifications being per- 


ceived, the yogi accomplishes the knowledge of the past *nd 
future related thereto. 

Sutra <17). — The word, the objected denoted by it and 
its idea are commingled with one another, ori 
account of their being mistaken for one another i 
hence by sanyama over the distinct provinces 
of each of these, (arises) the comprehension of the 
cry of all creatures. 

Com : — The organ of speech has its purpose solely with 
the letter pronounced ; the organ of hearing has the modifica- 
tion of sound for its object ; and the word finally is perceptible 
through the apprehension of the letters taken collectively. 
The letters, not coming in simultaneously, and hence not 
aided by one another, do not affect the word; and as such not 
giving rise to (any idea), but eacli of them appearing and* 
disappearing by turns — are severally said to be incapable of 
forming the word. Every one of the letters, forming a wdrd, 
— capable of a host of denotations (when taken severally), yet 
when correlated with the accompanying letters, and bebce 
becoming manifold, become so placed that each of them is 
confined to the particular word by the other [i.a, the single 
letter ga has the capability of denoting gau, gana, gaura Ac., 
so long as it is taken by itself; but as soon as the letter ga is* 
joined with the letters au, &c, it becomes manifold ; and each 
of the two letters serves to confine the other to the particular 
word in question. Thus ( we see that ) the various letters, 
depending on the order of succession become characteris- 
ed by the convention of meaning, and thongh capable of 
all sorts denotations, yet becoming subordinated to the 
ga and the au, denote the particular object with the dewlap 
&c. {i.e. the cow). Thus the cognition of the unity of these,-* ' 

PA0A III — 8UTRA 17. 109 

<fcs characterised by conventional meaning, and having the 
order of utterance drawn together (i.e. considered collectively) 
--is said to be the denotative name for the object named. 
Thus a single word, — being the object of a single cognition, 
being put forth by a single effort, devoid of any distinction (be- 
tween the letters) (and hence also) of the order and of letters, 
belonging to consciousness, brought forth by the action of 
the last letter (as helped by the impressions left in the 
liaemory, of the preceding ones), — is cognised as a real 
entity by the popular mind correlated with the impressions of 
Everlasting linguistic usage, by means of the letters, uttered 
Mrxth a view to express the objects to others, and heard by the 
listener. And the disintegration of this word (into its letters) 
in due to the notion of convention, — (the popular idea being 
that) the denotator of the object is such and such a particular 
fcrrangeraent of so mauy letters. 

Convention is a form of Rttnembrance consisting in the idea 
of the mutual identity between the word and what is denot- 
ed by it : that is convention is of this form; — the ward is the 
Meaning and the meaning is the word (an idea of identity). 

' Thus then; these three-the word, the object denoted by it 
and the idea,-become commingled on account of being 
mistaken for another — 'cow' the word, 'cow' the object, 'cow* 
the idea; and one who knows the distinction of these, knows 
everything. Every word has the force of a sentence: the 
word 'tree* implies its existeuce ; for certainly existence cannot 
be denied to any object. Similarly there is no action without 
the means; so the word "cooks" implies all the agencies 
pertaining to it ; the further mention of the agent, the 
object and the instruments (Chaitra, the rice and fire) being 
made only in order to specify these; and further we find single 
words used for sentences — the word " srotriya " for "studies; 
the Vedas," the word " lives " for " holds life." In a sentence, 
there is an expression of the meanings of words, ( thus*; 


there being the expression of the meaning of a sentence in a 
word, and that of the meaning of the word in a sentence, 
there is a confusion and) the word is to be broken up (into its 
constituent parts) and then explained as to which part of it 
expresses the verb, and which the nominative ( as the word 
'srotriya is broken up into "one (nominative) who studies 
(verb) the Vedas ( accusative ). Or otherwise, in the case of 
aiwh (meaning by itself, both horse and thou breathedst) ancl 
ajapayah ( — the milk of the ski — goat, and also, thou hast 
suppressed ), there being a confusion of the name and thq 
verb (as shown by the two meanings of each), how conld 
these be explained either with regard to the verb (if it were 
taken as a name) or to the nominative (in case it were taken 
as a verb )? the distinct province of these word, meaning and 
idea — e.g., "the house is ivhitening" — the word signifying 
the verb (icilta) ; and " the house is white"— here the word 
(heta) signifies the noun (so much for the word); (secondly) its 
meaning is that consisting in the verb or in the noun ; and 
(thirdly) the idea is that which apprehends the aforesaid 
meanings. Why ? Because in convention the idea has only 
one form, being based on the identity of the signification — 
"this is that," — the "white object" being the object of the word 
as well as of the idea. [That is to say, in the above example 
the idea is that of the house in front being a white one, what* 
ever may be the words in which the idea is expressed]. And 
this object under its modifications is accompanied neither by 
the word, nor by the idea. Similarly the word and the idea 
do not accompauy each other. The consciousness of the dis- 
tinct province of each being in the form — 'the word is different 
from the meaning which again is different from the idea/ 

From the Sanyama over this distinction, accurues to the 
Yogi, the comprehension of the cry of all creatures. 

(Notes : (1) " In a sentence there is <fcc."— This is said in antieipa*- 
tion of the objection: "If the word is capable of expressing the mean* 


log of a sentence, why should there bo a sentence at all ?" The 
sense of the reply is that the use of a single word witnout any verb 
8fcc, is Very often ambiguous, hence the necessity of the sentence. 

Sutra (18) : By the mental presentation of the impre- 
ssions, the knowledge of previous births. 

Com :— Impressions are of two kinds. ..(1) Those in the form 
of theresidnal longings, the cause ot memory and the afflic- 
tions, and (2) those in the form of virtue and vice, leading to 
fruition. Both of these kinds, accomplished in the former 
birth, are the properties of the mind, imperceptible, like 
Jfiaodification, movement, suppression, power, life ( the proper- 
ties of the mind spoken of above, 111,15). The Sanyamt 
over these is capable of rendering the impressions appareut ; 
nor is sach presentation possible without a cognition of their 
time, place and cause (of the previous birth ). Thus the 
knowledge of the previous birth accrues to the yogi through 
the mental presentation of the impressions. Iu the case of 
others too there is a similar knowledge of another's birth, 
following on the mental presentation of their impressions. 
In connection with this we have a story : — Discriminative 
knowledge accrued to the revered Jaigishavya, possessing, 
through the mental presentation of the impressions, a 
knowledge of the orderly modification of his birth extending 
over ten Pralayic creations. The revered Avatya, thus spoke 
to him : " Through ten Kalpic creations having your consci- 
ousness unrepressed, you must have come across the pains 
due to birth in a hellish or a brutish womb ; and being born 
again and again among men and the gods, which of the two, 
pleasure and pain, did you find in a greater amount ?" Jaigi- 
shavya thus replied : " I, having my consciousness unrepres- 
sed through ten cycles, and coming across the pain due to 
hellish and bestial births, and being born again and again 


among gods and men, whatever I experienced, all I think 
to be solely pain.*' Says the revered Avatya. " This un* 
surpassed pleasure of contentment consisting in mastery 
over Nature that thou hast...dostthon include this also 
tinder pain ? " Replied the revered Jaigishavya : " This pleasure 
of contentment is excellent as compared with sensuous 
pleasure ; in comparison with isolation however, this also is 
pain. Because this pleasure of contentment is a property of 
Bnddhi, and as such abounds in the three attributes ; and all 
consciousness partaking of the three attributes, has been pat 
under the head of 'what should be avoided.' Then, content- 
ment is said to be pleasure because the strings of desire 
being of the nature of pain, on the removal of these, there is 
unrestricted pleasure. 

Sutra (19): — With reference to cognition, the know- 
ledge of another's mind. 

Com : — -From the Sanyama over cognition— i.e. from the 
mental presentation of the cognition (of others), results the 
knowledge of other's minds* 

Sutra (20) :— But not along with its object, that nofc 
being the object. 

Com : — The Yogi knows the mind of another, as attache! 
to something ; but he does not know that "it is attached to 
that particular object." Because that which is the object 
of another's mind, is not the object of the Yogi's mind; it ia 
only another's cognition (or mind) that is made the object of 
the mind of the Yogi. 

Notes :— (1) This aphorism is explained by Vijnana Bhikshu as a 
part of the Bhashya. 

JPAIU III.— SUIAA^ 21-32. 11* 

jSutra (21):— From Sanyami with reference to the 
shape of the body, its visibility being suspended, 
and thus its connection with occular light being 
severed, — there is disappearance. 

Com : — From the Sanyama with regard to the shape of the 
body, the visibility of the shape becomes suppressed; and on 
this suspension, the connection of the body with the light of 
•{other people's) eyes ceafces; and thence results the disappear- 
ance of the Yogi, The disappearance of sound and the rest 
are to be explained in the same manner. 

Sutra (22) : — Karma is active and dormant ; and by 
' Sanyama over this, results the knowledge of the 
f «nd; as also by portents. 

Com : — The Karma resulting in life is of two kinds : the 
active and the dormant; the active is similar to a wet piece of 
cloth spread over the ground, which dries up in a very short 
time; whereas the dormant is like the same piece of cloth tied 
up in a bundle, drying up in a long time ; or again, the active 
is like fire in dry straw helped by the wind, burning it comple- 
tely in a very short time; and the dormant is similar to the 
same fire when placed in various parts of the heap of straw, 
burning it in a long time* In this way the Karma " of one 
birth," bringing about life, is of two kinds— the active and the 
dormant. s 

By Sanyama over these, results the knowledge of death. 
•^As also by portents™— portents are threefold; corporeal^ ele- 
mental and celestial. Of these the * corporeal' is that, for 
-instance, when closing the ear one does not hear the -internal 
sounds ( produced in the stomach by breathing), or when one 
does not see any light ^n closiug the eyes. Similarly the 


4 elemental ' is that when one beholds the attendants of the 
Death-god ; or when one all on a sadden sees his dead fore- 
fathers; and the ' celestial ' is that when one suddenly beholds 
the heaven, or the Perfect Ones, or anything contrary to the 
ordinary course of events (is a portent). By these portents 
too one knows his end to be near at hand* 

Sutra ( 23 ) : — In friendliness and the rest) (superhu- 
man ) powers. 

Com :— Friendliness, mercy, and complaisance are the three 
Emotions or (feelings). Of those, by the feeling of friendliness 
towards all happy creatures, one acquires the power 6f 
friendliness By feeling mercy for the distressed creatures he 
acquires the power of mercy. And by feeling a complaisance 
towards the righteous, he acquires the powers of complaisance. 
The Sanyama consisting in meditation ( contemplation and 
concentration ) proceeding from these emotions, results in 
such powers as have their faculties unrepressed. With regard 
to vicious persons one has indifference, and not any feeling ; — 
thus in this case there is no meditation and as such no po- 
wer proceeds from indifference, because of the absence of any 
Sanyama with reference to this. 

Sutra ( 24 ) :— In powers, the power of the Elephant 

and the like. 

Com : — From Sanyama over the power of the elephant, re- 
sults elephantine power ; from that over the power of Gowda 
a garuda-like power ; and from that over the ]K>wer of 
the air, the air-like power. 

*ADA HI— SUTRA 25-26. 115 

Sutra f 25 ) i— From the application of the light of the 
(Luminous) disposition, (results) the knowledge 
of the subtile* the intercepted and the remote. 

. Com ; — The Extremely Luminous disposition of the mind 
has already been explained (in I — 3ft). The yogi applying 
the light of this disposition ( i. e. y the inner light ) to the 
subtile intercepted or remote objects, acquires the knowledge 
of these ( objects ), 

Sutra (26): — From Sanyama in the Sun h the know- 
ledge of the worlds. 

< dm: — The details of this are as follows :. There are seven 
worlds ; From Avichl to the summit of the Meru is the 
Uarth ( 1 ). From the Meru to Dhruva ( the Polar star ) the 
Starry Region occupied by the planets, and stars 
(2 ). Above that is the fivefold Celestial Region ( 3 ) — 
the MAhendra being the third of these, the fourth being the 
Fr&j&patya or Maharloka ( the Luminous Region ); the three- 
fold Br&hma — the Janaloka ( productive Region ) Tapoloka 
( Region of austerities ) and the Satyaloka ( the Region of 
Truth). These are thus described :— " The r three-regioned 
Brahmalokay then the great Fraj&patyaloka, then the 
M&hendra Heaven, then the Sky with the stars, and 
lastly the Earth with the various creations. " Placed 
above the Avichi y are the six great Hellish Regions,. 
Mahakala, Ambarisha, Ranrava, Maharaurava, Kaleya 
Sutra and AndhatAmisra> — respectively placed in the Earth, 
Water, Fire, Air, Space and Darkness ; and in these are born 
several creatures with long leases of life therein, and who, 
have acquired the experience of pain by their own deeds. 
Under these are the seven Nether Worlds : Mah&tala, Rasa- 
tala, Atala> Sutala, Vitaia, Talatala, and P&tftla. This ous 


Earth consisting of the seven continents, * s the eighth ^ 
in the centre of which is the Land of the Mountains, the 
Golden Mem, whose peaks are those of silver, emerald, rock- 
crystal, gold, and jewels. The Southern region of the 
sky here is of the colour of the bine lotus through the colour 
of the emerald peak ; the Eastearn white, the Western clear, 
the Northern goldeu. On the Northern side of this is the 
Jdrnbu tree, whence this particular continent is called the 
Jambudwipi. On account of the movement of the Sun, it'i*' 
aIwayg_to uched b y night arid day. To the North of this are 
three mountains, four thousand miles high, having bine and 
white peaks. Within these mountain-ranges are three conn- 
tries, each 72.000 Miles — Hamanaka, Hiranmaya and the 
Uttara Kuru. To the South are the Mountains Nishadha, 
Hemakuta and Hima, extending over 4,000 Miles ; within' 
these are three countries each 72,000 miles — The Harivan£&, 
Kimpurtisba and the Bh&rata. To the East of Meru are the 
Bhadras was extending upto the Malyavan mountains; and to the 
West are the Ketum&las extending upto the Gandhamftdana 
mountains. In the centre is the Ilavrita. Thus are the 8*000 
miles on each side of Meru surrounded by its half ( wherefore 
Meru becomes their centre). Such is the Jambudurip* 
extending over JP0,000 miles ; surrounded by the salt Ocean, 
twice its size. Thenceforth follow the other continents— S'&ka, 
S'uka, Kranncha, S'&lmala, Magadha, and Pnshkara— each 
twice the size of the other; as also the seven Oceans — like 
heaps of oil-seed, interspersed with several mountains — o£ 
Sugercane- juice, Wine, Butter, Curd, Gruel, Milk, Pare Water* 
Thus the seven continents, — resembling so many bangles* 
surrounded by the seven Oceans, together with the mountains 
visible and invisible, reach the extent of 4,00,00,00,000 miles. . 

All this with its position fixed, is contained in the J&ggt 
which is the atomic part of Matter, as the firefly in the*ky< 
Among the nether regforts, in the 'Oceans, and among ?the 

PADA III— SUTRA 26. 317 

mountains, live A suras, Gandharvas, Kumaras, Kimpnrushas* 
Yakshas, Rakshasas, Bhutas, Pretas, Pis&cbas, Apasm&rakas, 
Brahmarakshasas, Ktishmandas and the Vinayakas. In the 
continents live the righteous gods and men. The Sumern 
is the garden house of the gods. In this are the parks, — 
Misra, Nandana, Chaitraratha, and Sumanasa. The assembly 
of the gods is the Sudharma; their city the Sudarsana, the 
palace the Vaijayanta. 

The planets and the stars, bound to the Pole Star, and 
having their motions manifested by the constant action of the' 
wind, and placed above the Mern, keep constantly revolving. 
The inhabitants of the Mahendra are the six Divine Beings — 
Tridasbas, Agnishw&ttas, Yamyas, Tnshitas, Aparinirmitavasa- 
varti and the Parinirmitavasavarti, — all these Vrindarakas ;• 
have an irresistible will, endued with the eight powers, 
3flqyaucy and the rest, their span of life extending to a kaJpa; 
they rejoice in sexuality, and are endowed with bodies 
born without sexual intercourse, have loving apsaras 
for their wives. In the Prajapatya Maharloka live the five 
Divine Beings — the Kumudas, the Ribhavas, Pratardanas, 
of the Anjanabkas, and the Prackitabhas. These having the 
great elements under their power, live in contemplation upto 
a thousand Kalpas. In the first, Janaloka, of Brahma, there 
are the four divine beings, the Brahmapurohitas, the 
Brahmakayikas, the Brahmamahakayikas, and the Amaras — 
these have command over the elements and the sense-organs,. 
In the second, the Tapoloka, of Brahma, there are the three 
Divine beings-— the Abhaswaras, the Mahabhaswaras, 
and the Satyamahabhaswaras — having command over the,, 
elements, the senses and Nature — having their span of life^ 
double of one another; all living on contemplation, their' 
semen withheld, their knowledge unobstructed in the higher 
regions, and in the lower regions having the "objects . alL 
unveiled to their view. In the third, the Satyaloka of Brahmft, 


there are four Divine Beings— the Achy utas, the Snddhaniva** 
sas, the Satyabhas, and the Sunjuasanjis. These have no 
houses of their own, and abiding in themselves, living one 
over the other, commanding Nature, live so long as the 
creation lasts. Of these, the Achyutas rejoice in the bliss 
of argumentative meditation, the Suddhanivasa in the bliss of 
contemplative meditation, the Satyabhas in the content . 
plation of pnre bliss; and the Sanjnasanjais rejoice in that of 
pnre Egoism. These four exist in the three worlds (*. e* are 
not mukta.) 

In fact all these seven worlds belong to BiahmA. Th* dis- 
embodied ones and those that have been resolved into Nature 
however continne in the line of Emancipation and have no 
place in the ordinary world. 

All this is to be directly perceived by the yogi, by Sanyo* 
ma in the Sun ; as also by that in others. The Sanyama ia 
to be practised so long as these are not perceived. 

Sutra (27) :— In the moon, the knowledge of the 
Starry Regions* 

Com : Through Sanyama in the moon the yogi is to know 
the position of the Stars. 

Sutra (28) :— In the Polar Star, the knowledge of their 

Com : — By Sanyama in the Polar Star one is to know the 
motion of the stars. By Sanyama applied to the upper firma- 
ment one is to know them. 

Sutra (29):— In the circle of the navel, the knowledge 
of arrangement of the body. 

PAD* III— 8UTR1 30-33. 110 

Com :~By Sanyama in the navel-circle, one is to know the 
arrangement of the body. In the body there are three hu- 
' moors — Wind, Bile and Phlegm; and there are seven 
' eubatancete — skin, blood, Aesb, sinews, bone, marrow and se- 
men — thes£ being named in order of externality (the -most 
external being placed first )• 

Sutra (30): — In the throat-pit the cessation of hunger 
and thirst* 

Com : — Below the tongue there is a thread, below which is 
the throat below which is the pit, by the Sanyama of which, 
hunger and thirst cease to trouble the yogi. 

Sutra (31) :— In the tortoise4ube } .steadiness. 

Com .-—Below the abovementioned pit there is a tnbe of 
the shape of a tortoise (placed like a serpent or the alligator), 
by Sanyama whereof, the yogi attains to a steady position. 

Sutra (32): — In the coronal light, vision of the Perfect 

Com : — Under the skull there is a hole effulgent with 
lisht— by Sanyama whereof there is vision of the Perfeet 
Ones, wandering midway between the Earth and Heaven. 

Sutra (33) : — Or, from intuition ( or insight), every- 

Com : — Intelligence is the Emancipator, — the forerunner of 
discriminative knowledge, as the Dawn is of Sunrise. On the 
production of intuitional insight, the yogi comes to know 


Sutra (34) :— In the heart, knowledge of mind. 

Com :r— In this city of Brahma ( the body ) there is a pit, 
, the lotas-like hoase — therein resalts consciousness* from the 
Sanyama whereof, results the knowledge of mind. 

Sutra (35) : — Experience is the undifferentiated concep- 
tion of the attribute of goodness and the Spirit 
which, are quite unconnected ; ( and this expe- 
rience) being for another's purpose, the knowledge 
of the Spirit arises from the /Sanyama on his own 

Com: — The attribute of Sattva belonging to the Bud- 
dhi, and being of the. nature of illumination, suppresses 
. Rajas and Tamas, which are equally related to Sattva — 
and thus develops into the cognition of the difference of the 
"attribute of Sattva and the Furusha. The Spirit, being essen- 
tially pure, and solely consisting of intelligence, is absolutely 
dissimilar to the modifying attribute of Sattva. The un- 
differentiated conception of these two which are absolutely 
unconnected, is the Soul's Experience, — all objects being 
presented to him. This experiential conception of the attri- 
bute of Sattva being for another's purpose, is perceptible. 
That which is distinct therefrom ,-i.e. the Soul's conception con- 
sisting of pure intelligence, — by Sanyama over this, there arises 
knowledge having the Soul for its object. The Soul is not 
perceived by the spiritual conception constituted by the sattva 
of Buddhi. In fact it is the Soul itself that perceives the 
conception based on its own nature ; as has been declared— 
*' Whereby is one to know the knower ? " (Brihad TJpa.).' 

Note:— (2) " The Soul is not perceived <fcc."— because it is Intelli- 
gence that perceives the insentient, not vice versa* 

PADA HI— SUTRA 36-38. 121 

Sutra (36) : — Thence proceed intuitional cognition, 
audition, touch, vision, gustation and olfaction. 

Com : — From intuition proceeds the cognition of the snbtile, 
intercepted, remote, past and future objects; from audition 
proceeds the hearing of celestial sounds; from touch the 
cognition of celestial touch ; from vision the consciousness of 
celestial form ; from gustation, the cognisance of celestial 
taste, and from olfaction the cognisance of celestial smell ; — 
these are produced for ever. 

Sutra (37) : — These are obstacles in ( the way of) me- 
ditation; but perfections in the dis tractive (waking) 

Com : — These — i.e- intuition and the rest appearing in one of 
meditative mind, — become obstacles; because they go against 
descriminative knowledge ; but appearing in those of 
distracted minds, these are so many perfections. 

Sutra (38) : — From relaxation of the cause of 
bondage, and by a knowledge of the method of 
passing, ( proceeds ) the entrance of the mind into 
another body. 

Com : — Of the fickle and unsteady mind, the confinement 
in the body is due to tl»e force of karmic residua. The relaxa- 
tion of this karma wuich is the cause of bondage is brought 
about by the force of meditation. The knowledge of the me- 
thod of passing of the mind too is produced by medita- 
tion. On the decay of karma, and by the knowledge of the 
process of his own mind, the yogi infuses his mind into other 
bodies, after extracting it from his own. The mind thus in* 


fused becomes correlated to the senses; jast as the bees fol- 
low their chief both when flying out and flying in, so the 
mind entering into another body is followed by the senses. 

Sutra (39) : — From the subdual of uddna, ascension 
and non-contact with water, mud) thorns and the 

Com : — The function of the aggregate of the senses, charac- 
terised by Prana and the rest, constitutes Life, Its action is 
fivefold : (1) The Prdna, extending from the heart and pro- 
ceeding by the mouth and the nostrils ; (2) the Samdna, ex- 
tending to the navel, so called from its levelling tendency; (3) 
the Apdna,, extending to the soles of the foot, so called from 
its declining or descending tendency; (4) the Uddna,extending 
to the head, so called from its ascending tendency ; (5) the 
pervading Vyana. Of these Prdna is the chief. From mastery 
over Uddna results non-contact with water, mud, thorns, &c, 
as also ascension at the time of death. The operator attains to 
it in the character of Vasi (master). 

Sutra (40) : — From mascery over Samdna, effulgence. 

Com : — One who has subdued the SamSna barns (after 
death ), by the fire raised out of his own body. 

Sutra (41) : — From Sanyama over the relation between 
the organ of hearing and &kasa, perfect audition. 

Com : — All auditory organs as also all sound have their 
abidance in Ak&sa ; as has been declared : " Those 
who have their audition extending over equal areas, have it 
limited to one area" ( Panchisikha ), (ue. all organ of hearing 

PADA III— SUTRA 4243-. 123 

exist in Akasa ). This is the characteristic of Akasa, as also 
is unveiledness. Similarly, there being no covering for the 
unbodied, Ak&sa comes to have the property of omnipresenee. 
The organ of hearing is inferred from the perception of sound 
of two persons, deaf and otherwise s one perceives the sound, 
and the other does not. Therefore it is only the organ oi hearing 
which has sound for its object. To one who has practised 
Sanyama over the relation of the organ of hearing and Akasa, 
accrues perfect audition. 

Sutra (42) :— From the Sanyama over the relation of 
the hody and Akasa, ( results ) passage through 
space, from the acquisition of levity like that of 

Com : — Wherever there is body, there is also A&ksa, be 
cause it is this latter that gives it room. The relation between 
these is that of approach ; from having Sanyama over this and 
thereby subduing the relation, and acquiring the levity of light 
objects like cotton down to the atom, and thereby subduing 
the aforesaid relation, the yogi becomes buoyant ; and by this 
buoyancy the yogi is able to walk on the surface of water; and 
also supporting himself by the spider's thread,he wanders in the 
luminous rays of the Sun ^aud thence proceeds his uuobstructed 
passage in space. 

Sutra (43): — The external, unthought of junction (of 
the mind ) is the " Great Incorporeal '* ; thence 
the falling off of the veil of illumination. 

Com : — The junction of the mind outside the body is called 
the " incorporeal " Dharana. It is called " kalpita (thought 
of) when it is only the external function of the mind abiding 
in the body. When on the other hand, it is the external 


function of the mind outside the body, and as such indepen- 
dent of it, — then it is called the " Akalpita " ( nnthoaght of). 
Out of these two the yogi by the "thought," accom- 
plishes the " unthought " Great Incorporeal, by means of 
which he enters other bodies. From this Dharana results the 
falling of the veil— the threefold fnnction of afflictions and 
karma, originating in foulness and darkness — of the Baddhic 
goodness which has the nature of illumination. 

Sutra (44): — Mastery over the elements, from the 
Sanyama with reference to grossness, character* 
subtlety, concomitance and usefulness. 

Com .-—The specific qualities sound and the rest, belonging 
to the Earth &c, together with the properties of shape 
and the rest, are named " gross; " this is the first form of 
the elements. The second form is their respective generic 
characteristic : — JS. G. shape for the Earth, viscidity for the 
Water, heat for Fire, velocity for Air, omnipreseuce for 
Akasa, — all this is what is included in the term " charac- 
ter. " The specific forms of these generic ones, are Sound 
and the rest. As has been declared: " Of these (elements) 
included in one class (that of "Element"), the only" differentia- 
tion is through their distinguishing properties." In this 
system, Substance is the aggregate of the generic and specific 
characteristics. Because the aggregate exists in a two-fold 
manner— (1 ) One in which the distinct names of the con- 
stituent members are suppressed — as ■ body, * 'tree ' * forest,' 
' crowd ' &c ; and ( 2 ) that in which the constituent members 
are mentioned — as f both men and gods', — of which one 
portion are the * men f and the other the 4 gods ; ' and it is 
only by means of these two portions, that it is called an 
" aggregate/' Again the aggregate may be through differ- 
ence as well as non-difference, ( 1 ) as ' the grove of mangoes ', 

PADA III— SUTRA 44. 125 

' a crowd of Brahmanas ' ( the genitive case always implying 
difference) ; ( 2 ) as " mango-grove * ' Brahmana-crowd ' 
(there being non-diflerence of the aggregate from its 
constituent members ), This again is two-fold : ( 1 ) Those 
that have their constituent members separated from another, 
and (2) those whose constituent members are not so 
separated. As examples of the first we have * forest ' 
* crowd* &c (where the members forming the crowd 
exist separately ); and as those of ( 2 ) we have, ' tree ', ' body ' 
and the like ( which, have these members consisting in them* 
selves). Of these, Substance belongs to this second kind 
of aggregates — so holds Pataojali. Thus has been explained 
the " form." 

Now what is the subtile form of these ? ( Reply : ) The 
Rudimentary Elements, from which the gross Elements take 
their rise. The only constituent member of these is the atom, 
consisting of the generic and specific (characteristics ); and 
thus these form an aggregate of the class of those having their 
constituent members coexisting. The same case holds, with all 
rudimentary elements. This is the third, " Subtlety. " 

Now begins ( the consideration of) the fourth form of the 
elements : The attributes being of the nature of illumination, 
activity and inertness correlated to the character of their respec- 
tive effects, — are mentioned by the word " concomitance." 

Their fifth form is "usefulness", fruition; the character of be- 
ing for the purpose of experience and emancipation belonging 
to the attributes, and the attributes being related to the ele- 
ments, gross as well rudimentary, as also to the elemental 
objects (jar, cow &c), — all come to have a purpose. 

Thus then from Sanyama over the above-mentioned five 
forms, results the perception as well as the subdual of these. 
Of these, by subduing the five elemental forms, the yogi be- 
comes the " conqueror of the elements " ; and therefrom the 


elements along with Nature follow the dictates of his will- 
just as the cow follows its calf. 

Sutra (45) : — Therefrom proceed Attenuation and the 
rest ; as also perfection of the body, and the non- 
destruction of its functions. 

Com: — Of these, Attenuation is that whereby the Yogi becomes 
atomic; Levity or Buoyancy is that whereby he becomes light; 
by Illimitability he becomes great; by Pr dpti{ A pproach)he ton - 
ches the moon by the finger-tip; " Irresistible Will "is the non- 
frustration of desires, whereby he sinks in and rises to the surface 
of the earth as in water; by " Subjection " he becomes the sub- 
duer of the elements and other objects, being himself unsubdued 
by others; by " Supremacy " he becomes the dispenser of the 
origin, dissolution and position of the elements; "Fulfilmeut of % 
Desires " is the truthfulness of one's determination — i.e., the 
disposition of the elements and their causes in accordance with 
his will or determination. Though having the power, he 
does not change the nature of things (does not make a moon 
of the sun and so on). Why ? Because of their having been 
determined by the will of the Primeval Perfect Being (God) of 
the irresistible will. These are the eight Perfections or 
Occult Powers. 

" The perfection of the body " will be explained in the next 


"The non-obstruction of its functions" — the earth does not 
obstruct, by its shape, the actions of the yogi's body, in as 
much as he enters even the stone ; the viscid water wets him 
not ; nor does the hot fire burn him ; nor does the fast wind 
move him ; and lastly even in the unveiled Akasa, he has his 
body veiled, in as much as he is invisible even to the Perfect 

PADA III — SUTBA 46-47. 127 

Sutra (46) :— -Beauty (symmetry of form ), Loveliness, 
Strength, and Adamantine Toughness (of the bcdy) 
constitute Bodily Perfection. 

Com : — (The Yogi is) beautiful, lovely bright, with superb 
strength, and with an adamantine body. 

Sutra (47) : — From Sanyama with regard to perception, 
nature, egoism, concomitance and usefulness, re- 
sults mastery over the sense-organs. 

Com : — Sound and the rest in their generic and the speci- 
fic forms, constitute the perceived ; the function of the senses 
with regard to this is perception-, and this does not consist in 
the perception of the generic form alone ; for how could the 
mind perceive any object together with its specific forms 
which has not been perceived ? 

" Nature " — substance — sense-organ — is the aggregate 
" with coexisting constituents, " of the specific and generic 
( effects ) of the Buddhic Sattva which is of the nature of 

Their third form is self-consciousness consisting in "egoism" 
—the generic form of which the senses are the specific forms. 

The fourth form are the Attributes, of the nature of Illumi- 
nation, Activity and Inertness, consisting in ascertainment (the 
property of Buddhi, ) which is constituted by the three attri- 
butes ; — whereof the sense-organs together with self-con- 
sciousness, are the modifications. 

The fifth form is the character of the Attributes, — that of 
being for the soul's purpose. 

From gradually performing Sanyama over these five 
forms, the yogi subdues each of them separately — and from 
thitf fivefold conquest proceeds the mastery ever the senses. 


Sutra (48) : — Therefrom (proceed) fleetness like that of 
mind, un-instrumental perception, and complete 
mastery over Nature. 

Com : — The acquiring of the supernatural movement of the 
body is " Fleetness like that of mind. " 

" Uninstrumental perception " is the functioning of the 
senses of the Incorporeal ( yogi ) in accordance with the time, 
place and object desired by him. 

" Mastery over Nature " is supremacy over all the modifica- 
tions of Nature. 

These three perfections are called "Honey-like," and pro- 
ceed from the aforesaid mastery over the five sense-organs. 

Sutra (49) : — Just as one has distinctive knowledge of 
the attribute of Satlva and Spirit, (their results) 
supremacy over all conditions, and also omni- 

Com : — To one who rejoices in the supreme effulgence ( the 
High Vashikara ) of Buddhic goodness freed from all taint of 
Foulness and Darkness ; — and who thus abides solely in the 
distinctive knowledge of Goodness and Spirit, — to such a one 
accrues the " supremacy over all conditions " — u e., all kinds 
of attributes, active and passive, repair to the absolute vision 
of their Lord, the Knower of the Field — (Spirit). "Omni- 
science " — the simultaneous discriminative knowledge of the 
universal attributes, existing: in their past, present and future 
states. This is the Vishoka (Sorrowless ) Perfection, by at- 
taining to which, the yogi becoming omniscient, wanders 
about, on the falling off of the bondage of distractions ( or 
afflictions ). 

PADA 111— SUTRA 50-51. 129 

Sutra (50): — From indifference even thereto, follows 
Isolation, the seed of evils having been destroyed. 

Cam : — When on the decay bf trouble and actions, the yogi 
cogitates thus — " this distinctive cognition is a property of 
goodness which is among the avoidables, and the Soul is un- 
modifying and pare, other than Goodness " — then of this dis- 
attached yogi, the seeds of trouble becoming unproductive, 
like tbe burnt paddy-seed, disappear together with the mind* 
And those having disappeared, the Soul does not again expe- 
rience the three-fold pain. Thus the isolation of the Soul 
consists in his absolute separation from the attributes whose 
purpose has been fulfilled, and who are manifested in the 
form of the function of karmic troubles; then alone results the 
soul's abidance in his own pure — i.e. pure Sentience. 

Sutra (51): — (There should be) avoidance of associa- 
tion with, and pride in, celestial temptations, for 
there is possibility of reccurrence of evils. 

Com : — There are four kinds of yogis : — ( 1 ) Prathama* 
kalpika ( neophyte of the first stage ), ( 2 ) the Madhupratika, 
( 3 ) The Prajn&jyoti, and ( 4 ) The Atikrantabhavaniya: Of 
these, the one whose light ( of intuition ) has begun to operate 
is the first. The second is the " truth-supporting-wisdom. " 
The snbduer of the elements and the sense-organs is the 
third, — one who has taken protective measures towards that 
which has been felt ( the conquest of the senses ), and equip- 
ped with the means for the accomplishment of that which is 
to be felt ( the vishoka &c. ). . The fourth is one who has gone 
beyond feeling ; the one purpose of such a one is the retro- 
grade activity ( dissolution ) of the mind ; and to him belongs 
the sevenfold knowledge of the last stage, 

180 •' yog4-darsana; 

; To the Brahmana directly perceiving the Madhumati stage, 
the gods— perceiving the purity x>f his goodness — invite 
him to the powers : " Well ! come and enjoy yourselves 
here V Desirable are these pleasures ! And desirable is this 
girl t This drag stops old age and death I Airy is this con* 
veyancel These are the Kalpa-trees ! Sacred is the celestial 
Ganga ! Perfect are the ' great Rishis ! Excellent olid 
agreeable are the Apsaras ! Supernatural the. Eye and the 
Ear J Adamantine the body ! Thou hast acquired a right to 
all this by thy qualities,— so come and have recourse to this 
nnuying undecaying abode, loved of the Gods. " 

Being thus invited, the yogi is to think over the faults 
of attachment in this manner : '* Being broiled in the 
fire of metempsychosis, and passing through the dark 
abyss of 'birth and death, I have somehow or other ac- 
quired this light of yoga, the dispel ler of the darkness of 
troubles. , Of this light the airy objects ( of sense ) bom 
of desire, are the opponents. So how am I, having acquired 
this light, to be deceived by a miragic longing for the 
sensuous objects, and thus make to bum in myself the dying 
embers of the fires of metempychosis ? So good bye* to you 
all dreamy sensuous objects, the desired of poor people ! " 
In this determined attitude the yogi is to sit for me- 
ditation. Having avoided association, he is also to avoid 
pride — t. e., ( he is not to take pride ) in the fact of his being 
invited even by the gods, because steeped in this pride and 
considering himself safe, he will not perceive himself caught 
np by the hair by Death. And then will negligence, — look* 
ing for another hole ( discrepancy ) in his conduct, and only 
suppressive by constant watchfulness, fiuding the above loop- 
hole, — will enliven the ( sleeping ) afflictions. Thence the 
possibility of evils. Thus for one who avoids both association 
•and pride, the contemplated end will be strengthened, afcd 
the end to be contemplated will come up to the front. 

PADA HI— SUTflA 52-53, 131 

i$tf ra (53).' — Prom Sanyama over the inoments and 
their order, the knowledge born of discrimination. 

. Com: — As the smallest division of matter is the atom, so. tie- 
smallest division of time is thzmoment-which is the time taken 
by the motion of an atom from one place to another ; and the 
uninterrupted flow of this is " order. " Of moment and its 
order there is no aggregate ; therefore Day, Month 4c. are 
only aggregates of so many cognitions ( each coming in one 
moment,). Thus Time is devoid of reality, being a mere 
creation of the mind; bnt being correlated to the verba) cognK 
tions, it appears as a distinct entity to ordinary people in the 
distracted state. The 'Moment thus becoming objective (i. e. 9 
an entity in itself ) becomes also related to the ( assnmed ) 
order ; this order consists in the non-interruption of two mo- 
ments, — to this (order) the time-knowing yogis give the name 
'Time.' Two moments cannot occur together ; for no ordeu ia 
possible for any two things occurring simultaneously. Order i& 
the sequence of the following moment from tke preceding one* 
Th erefore the present is the only moment y these being none 
either past or future ; and as such there is no collective term 
for it ( as Time ). The future and the past moments ( those* 
that are popularly so called ) are to be explained as referring 
to the different modifications. Thus by means of a single mo-* 
ment does all the world experience modifications ; and all the 
properties are mere encumbrances on this single moment. 

By the Sanyama over this moment and its order, there is 
direct perception of these, and thence proceeds the knowledge 
born of discrimination. 

The particular object of the knowledge is now described : 

Sutra (53): — Therefrom results the knowledge of 
the ( difference of ) two similars, when that dif- 


ference is not marked out by kind, character of 

Com :— Two similar objects ressembling each other in 
position and character, the ground of difference exists in the 
difference of kind, — as in the case of the cow and the horse. 
When there is similarity of position and kind, then it exists in 
that of character — as the Kalakshi cow,aud the Swaatimati cow 
Of two fruits of the same kind and character, the ground 
of difference lies in the difference of their position— one above 
and the other below (in a tre e). If however^afcHfietime of 
coming across the first, the mind of^thSagent is absorbed 
in the other, and as such the fgstone also is brought over 
to the place of the second, then the order of position becomes 
inexplicable by the ordinary process; but it comes from dis- 
criminative knowledge free from all doubt. How? The 
place occupied by the first fruit is different from that 
occupied by the second fruit ; and these two fruits differ by 
the recognition of their respective positions; and the ground 
of difference between these two is the recognition of their res- 
pective positions. By this example it is shown that the 
Yogi recognises the difference between two atoms similar in 
kind, character and position, by the direct perception of the 
time and place related to the first atom, the perception of 
the place of the second atom being due to impossibility of the 
former place being occupied by the seQond atom simulta- 
neously with the first 

Others on the other hand describe the process thusi— *It is 
the final specific property that produces the knowledge of 
difference. But in this oase also the ground of difference is 
the difference in position and character, as also the difference 
in shape and kind. The difference in time is amenable to the 
perception of the yogi only." Hence it has been declared : 

PADA III— SUTRA 54-55. 138 

" There is no real difference, in the absence of the differences 
of shape and kind " says Vdrshaganya. 

Sutra (54): — The knowledge born of discrimination 
is emancipative, omni-objective, semper-objective 
and simultaneous. 

Com: — "Emancipative " — Intnitional or non-experiential 
{vide III. 33) c « Omniobjective "—there is nothing that is not 
perceptible to it. 

** Semper-objective " — knowing everything in all forms and 
conditions and at all times, past, present and future. 

"Simultaneous" — perceiving every thing in every way, 
at the same moment. 

Such is the knowledge born of discrimination, in its com- 
plete form. The light of yoga is a part hereof, so long as 
it is accomplished by resting on the " honeyed" stage. 

To one who has acquired discriminative knowledge or to 
one who has not there accrues. 

Sutra (55) : — Islation on the equality of the purity of 

Goodness and Sod. **£&"£, S ^ % K* 

Gom : — When Buddhic Goodness being washed clear of all 
taint of Fonlness and Darkness, and having its aotivity restric- 
ted to the recognition of the difference of goodness and the sonl, 
the seed of troubles is burnt up, and then the Buddhi becomes 
similar to the Soul in purity. The purity of the Soul consists in 
the absence of all imposed experience. Under such circum- 
stances, results Isolation to the perfect as well as to the im- 
perfect, — to one who has discriminative knowledge, and to one 
who has not. On the attainment of wisdom by one who has 
burnt up the seeds of trouble there is no need for anything. Per- 


fections born of meditation as well as wisdom, are all included 
in the said Sattwic parity. As a matter of fact however wisdom 
dispels the want of perception or ignorance, on the suppres- 
sion whereof the resultant troubles cease to come forth ; and 
the absence of the troubles leads to absence of karmic 
fruition. In this state, the attributes, having all their 
functions finished, do not present themselves again to the 
goal's sight, — and in this lies the Soul's Isolation. In this 
state the Soul becomes isolated, shines in the pnre effulgence 
of his own pristine form. 


Section IV. 

of Isolation. 

Sutra (1) : — The occult powers are produced by birth, 
herbs, incantations, austerities, or Meditation. 

Com : — The Power due to birth is brought about by corpo- 

freal change. " By herbs: " t. g., the medicinal preparations 

hi the house of the Asnras (e e., Pdtdla ). " By incantations" 

Such as the acquirement of " Molecularity " ( Animd ), the 

capability of approaching the sky. " By austerities " thd 

accomplishment of desire, e. g. 9 being capable of attaining to 

any desirable form, the yogi moves about here, there and 

everywhere, in accordance with his own unimpeded will. The 

Powers due to Meditation have already been described. 

•-.. Notes :■—( 1 ) "Corporeal change 9 '— Sometimes the actions of the yogi 
in his earthly life are developed to such an extent that he is directly 
born among the gods, with a celestial body, and as such molecularity 
and the rest come to him naturally. 

( 2 ) " Have been described "—in the foregoing section. 

Of the body and the sense-organs, developed into another 
kind, — 

Sutra ( 2 ) : — The transformation into another kind 
( results ) from the transmutation of the material 

• Com : — The previous form having been disolved, the produc* 
•tion of the following change is due to a re-arrangement of the 
constituent particles. The material causes of the body and the 
sense-organs, in helping their modifications or effects, by 
means of transmutation, depend upon such instrumental 
•causes as virtue and the rest. 

* Notes :— ** Transmutation of the material cause " — The material 
cause of the body are the five elements Earth and the rest, and that 
of the sense-organs is SeU-co&seiott#ne&8 ; and the * transmutation ' 



mentioned in the aphorism consists in there-arrangement of the various 
particles making up such causes. It is this transmutation, brought 
about by the past actions (virtuous or otherwise, of the agent), 
which leads to the change of the kind of body and the sense-organs. 
e.g., various deeds tend to transmute the particles .of the elements 
Ac., in such a manner as to bring about a eelestial body for the agent* 

Hutra (3): — To the material causes, the instrument is 
non-efficient ; from it (proceeds) the piercing of 
the covering, — as in the case of the husbandman. 

Com : — The instruments in the shape of virtue &c, are no 
helps to the mutations of the material causes ; for certainly 
the cause is not urged by the effect. How then ? " From it 
proceeds the piercing of the covering tfc." As the husband* 
man, — desiriug to irrigate, from a full supply of water in one 
field, another field in the same plane, or in one lower or 
higher, — does not carry the water by means of his hands, 
but only cuts through the bunds, on the opening of 
which the water of itself flows through the adjoining field ;— 
so in the same manner, virtue pierces the covering of the 
material causes, in the shape of vice, on the removal whereof, 
jbhe material causes of their own accord, supply their various 
modifications. Or again, as the same husbandman in the 
same field is not capable of supplying either liquid or solid 
ingredients to the root of the paddy ; what he does is to 
remove from the field all foreign weeds and plants, on the 
removal whereof the ingredients of themselves enter into the 
paddy-roots ; so in the same manner, virtue is only the cause 
of the suppression of vice — purity and impurity being diame- 
trically opposed to each other — and it is no cause in the 
operation of the material cause. In this connection Nandiswara 
and others, should be quoted as examples. On the other 
hand vice also only tends to suppress virtue ; and then 
follows the change into impurity — e.g. Nahosha changed 
into an Ajagara serpent and the like. 

PADA IV — SUTRA 4-6. 1 37 

' When the yogi creates (for himself) niany bodies, then, 
have all of these one and the same mind, or has each of these 
a separate mind ? Reply : 

Sutra (4 ): — The created inter nal organs proceed from 
Self-consciousness alone. 

Com : — The yogi produces the created internal organ with 
the help only of Self-consciousness, the cause tf internal or- 
gans. Consequently each body has a ( separate ) internal 

Sutra ( 5 ) : — In the diverse tendency of the many, the 
impelling internal organ is one. 

Com : — " How should the action of many internal organs 
follow the tendency of the one internal organ ? " — (thinking 
thus, the yogi ) makes one internal organ such as urges the 
others to action. Th.rice follows the diversity of action. 

Notes :— ( 1 ) " In the preceding aphorism, the question having been 
solved as to how a single individual can provide thinking principles 
for many bodies, tho question arises as to how can many thinking prin- 
ciples act in concert and preserve the unity of the creator ? If this 
unity be not admitted, there would be so many independent indivi- 
duals, each following the bent of his own mind ; and the idea of one 
individual acting as many without any loss of individuality would be 
lost. This doubt is removed by the explanation that the thinking 
principles provided to the many are in reality one, and entirely con- 
trolled by the primary thinking principle ( that which is related to 
the occult power displayed), of which they are more scintilla- 
tions " — Rajendra Lai Mitra — " Yogasutras '* 

Sutra ( 6 ) : — Thereof the contemplation-born is with* 
out impressions or residua. 

Com : — The created internal organs are of five kinds, the 
occult powers beiug due to ( 1 ) birth, ( 2 ) herbs, ( 3 ) incau- 


tations, ( 4 ) austerities and ( 5 ) meditation. Of these, the 
iuternal organ which is brought abont by contemplation, is 
withoat residua, — that is to say, it is free from all teud ency to ! 
attachment and the like ; and for this reason it has no con* 
section with virtne and vice ; because the yogi has had all 
his troubles ended ; for others ( besides the yogi ), there is an 
a ccumulation of karmic impressions. 

Notes :— ( 1 ) " And for this reason &c. " — The connection of virtue 
and vice being due to attachment &c. 

Sutra (7): — The actions of the Yogi are neither white 
nor black ; those of others are of three kinds. 

Com : — The classes of actions are fourfold — (1) the black, 
(2) the white-black, (3) the white, — and (4) the non-white- 
non-black. Of these the black kind belongs to the evil- 
minded. The white-black, is performable by external means ; 
and in connection with this, the accu mulation of karmic resi- 
dua is due to the infliction of pain and doing of kinduess to 
others ; the white one belongs to those given to penance, study 
and contemplation ; this kind, being confined solely to the 
internal organ, cannot be performed by external means, and 
as such, is not due to the infliction of pain on others. The 
"Non-wbite-non-black " belougs to the Sanyasis, whose 
troubles are at an end and who are equipped with the final or 
highest body only. Of these, to the Yogi belongs the non-white 
l^** 1 because he has renounced all desire for fruition — , and the non- 
wjiite — because of non-acceptance. Those of other beings, 
are of the former three kinds. 

Notes :— (1) " The Black'* &c.,— The « black ' being due to Darkness 
leads to pain snch as animal slaughter ; the * white-black ' being due 
to Foulness leads to pleasure ending in pain, as the offering of sacri- 
fices and tKb like ; the * white ' due to pure Goodness leads to- 

PAD A IV— SUTRA 8-9. 139 

unalloyed pleasure, such as study, contemplation and the like; the 
fourth is beyond the reach of the attributes, and as such free from 
' both pleasure and pain. 

(3) "Because he has renounced $c" — He is untouched by the eflects of 
virtuous deeds because he has renounced all desire for their effects in 
the shape of future aggrandisement; and he is free also from the 
effects of the vicious actions because such he never performs. 

(8) " Infliction of pain and doing of kindners &c."— As for instance in a 
sacrifice, much pain is inflicted on the animals that take part therein ; 
and kindness is shown when the priests are handsomely paid for their 

Sutra (8) : — Thence is the manifestation of the im- 
pressions or residua which are suitable to its 

Com : — " Thence" t.£.,from the threefold action " which are 
suitable to its fruition" — i.e 9 suitable to the particular fruition 
of actions of particular kinds ; that is to say, those residua 
that help the fruition of the action, — of these alone there is the 
manifestation. For a celestial or godly action, in its func- 
tion, can never lead to the manifestation of the infernal, the 
bratal or the human residua; on the contrary, what is mani- 
fested or enlivened (thereby) is only the residua that are con- 
formable to celestial existeuce. The same consideration hoick 
respecting the hellish, the bestial and the human (actions). 

Notes:— <1) Of particular Hnd* "—i.e. f actions either virtuous or 

Sutra (9) :-- On account of the uniformity of memory 
and impressions (residua), there is sequence or 
uninterruptibility of relation, even after breaks 
by class, locality and time. 

Com: — The beginning of the fruition of the action leading 
to the feline birth, is always enlivened or manifested by the 
particular manifesting cause whieh leads to its manifestation ; 


and as such, if this fruition, — even though removed or inter- 
rupted either by hundreds of species or by great distance, 
or by hundreds of cycles, — again happens to become mani- 
fested only through its own special manifested causes ; then 
\t becomes vivid by taking hold of the residua brought 
about by the previous experience of feline birth. Why ? 
Because, of these (residua), the only manifesting cause is 
an analogous action, even though they may be removed 
therefrom ; and in this manner there is an uuinterruptibility 
or continuity of relation (between the residua and its aualogons 
manitesting action). Why ? Because "of the uniformity' of 
memory aud the impressions", (That is to say) — As the expe- 
riences, so the impressions; and these latter are exactly similar 
to the Karmh residua; aud lastly as the residua, so the 
memory (or Instiuct). Thus we see that memory or instinct 
is due to impressions removed therefrom by class, locality 
and time. This memory again produces impressions. Thus 
these impressions due to memory are manifested -by the force 
ot the attainment of the function of Karmic residua. Con- 
sequently, even of the interrupted (actions and fruition) the 
sequence is established, on account of the uniuterruptibility 
of the causal relation. 

Notes: — (1) " These are exactly similar to the Karmic residua" — The 
purport is that, as th" apurva, tlio Unseen Force, though produced by 
transitory actions, is yet lasting and capable of bringing about it# 
effects after a time ; so in the same manner impressions, though pro- 
duced by fleeting experiences, are yet lasting. 

(2) •• attainment o/ the function &c. "— i.e., by the rousing or 
vivifying energy of the karmic residua. 

(3) " According to the prececliug aphorism, the residua of the 

former births are the causes of manifestation of certain effects ; but 

since concomitance is necessary between cause and effect, while the 

intervention of many dissimilar births between two similar causes 

an interruption, it may be urged that residua are not the cause of 

memory, as alleged. The objection is met by saying that the memory 

remains, and therefore the sequence is, obviously, not broken " 


PADA IV — SUTRA 10. 141 

Sutra (10) —Besides there is no beginning about them, 
because of the eternity of desire. 

Com : — Of these residua there is no beginning, because of 
the eternity of desire. The selfish desire — " may I not cease 
to exist," " may I live" — met with in every individual, can- 
not be said to be natural (product, and as such not eternal). 
Why ? (Because), How else, would there be, — for the newly 
born infant who has not yet experienced death — any fear of 
death, which is due only to aversion and pain ? For certainly 
a natnral object does not admit of a cause (instrumental cause). 
The fact therefore is, that the internal organ chained to 
eternal residua, through certain causes, gets hold of. some of 
the residua, and then comes forward for the experience of the 

Other theorists have asserted that the internal organ is 
expansive and contractible, like the jar-and-mansion lamp; 
and as such, it is of the same form as that of the body ; and 
thus would be explained its existence in this interrim, as also 
its rebirth. The Masters however lay down that, what is expan- 
sive and contractible is only the function of the internal organ, 
which of itself is omnipresent. This (internal organ) again 
is dependent on causes such as virtue and the like. The 
cause again is of two kinds — external and internal ; the former 
is such as is due to bodily means — e. g., hymn-singing, charity 
and reverence; the latter depending on the internal organ 
alone,— e. g., faith and the like. As is declared : "The pas- 
times of the Yogi, friendship and the like, are naturally 
independent of external means, and (as such) bring about the 
highest virtue " Of these two causes, the mental is the 
stronger. Why ? Because, what can supersede wisdom and 
dispassion ? who can render the Dandaka forest bare by 
bodily action, without mental strength? and who can drink 
Tip the ocean, like Agastya ? 


Notes: — (1) " Bow el$e... aversion and pain": Supply here: 'if yaw 
do not accept the residua of pain caused by death, which occurred in 
the previous births'— This objection is levelled against the atheists 
who assert that everything is the product of nature, and deny the 
existence of anything eternal. 

(2) " For certainly a natural cbject dc. " — anything that is due to mere 
nature cannot be dependent on any cause, like the heat of lire. 

(3) " The internal organ through certain causes Ac. " — Such a cause if 
the action whoso time of function happens to arrive at the time being. 

(4) " Gets hold of Sec. "— i. e., such residua become manifested. 

(5) " Like the jar—d— mansion lamp " — The light of a lamp is contrac- 
ted or expands, according as it happens to be placed in a jar or in a large 
house; similarly the internal organ, through its substrate being either 
that of a feline or an elephantine body, would contract or expand, 
and as such would bo small or large accordingly; and such the mind 
can be. said to bo of the same size as the body it happens to 
occupy. This theory is opposed to the atomic character of the 
mind, as laid down by Kanada and his followers. The view of the 
author himself is that the mind is neither atomic, nor dependent on 
the size of its substrate; but it is vast, or omnipresent. 

(0) " Its presence ^c."— During cyclic dissolution the mind is said to 
be living in the subtle body, and hence of the same form ; and it is this 
subtle body equipped with the aforesaid mind which takes its birth 
again in the following cycle. Thus according to these theorists, such 
existence of tho internal organ between two births can only be ex- 
plained by making the mind depend for its form on the body it occu- 
pies ; according to the author however the mind is omin present, and as 
such there is no difficulty in explaining any facts with regard to it. 

(7) •' The highest virtue "— i. e., the white action (see above). 

Sutra (11). — Being held together by cause, effect, 
substratum and support, the absence cf these would 
produce their absence. 

Com : — "Cause" — From virtue results pleasure, and 
from vice paiu ; from pleasure proceeds attachment and from 
pain aversion ,• thence follows endeavour ; aud the agent act- 
ing through this endeavour, by mind, words and body, tends 
to favour one individual aud hurt the other; thence follow 

PAI>A IV— SUTRA 11. 143 

virtue and vice, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, 
—this operation constitutes the wheel of metempsychosis ; 
of this ever-turning wheel, the guiding force is Ignorance; 
the root of all troubles. Such is the " cause." 

" The effect " is that on which is based the existence of 

virtue and the rest ; (for) there is no production of that 

which never before existed. The mind, equipped with its 

* facul ties, is the " substratum " of the residua ;*aa when 

1* the faculties of the mind have been destroyed, the 
residum cannot continue to exist, for want of a substratum. 

That with a view to which an object enlivens a particular 
residuum, is the " support " of such a residuum. 

Thus, all residua, being held together by these-— cause, 
\ effect, substratum and support—, when these latter cease to 
exist, there follows the absence of the residua based upon 

Notes :— (1) The aphorism answers the question— how can tho 

eternal be undone ? The purport of the reply is that, since desires 

are the sum total of cause, effect, substratum and support, one has 

to remove those conditions which produce desires, and that removal 

I ipso facto removes desires. 

(2) "There is no production &?." — This is added in order to meet 
the following objection : " How can there be any permanent conglomer- 
ation of the cause with the offect? Or again, how can the absence of 
the effect lead to the absence of the cause ? For certainly the cause 
exists even during the absence of the effect." The sense of the 
reply is that, wo deny the production of any entity that never exist- 
ed ( see Sankhyakarika—9 ). All that we attribute to tho present cause 
is the faculty of manifesting the effect which has all along lain latent 
in its material cause. And of course the permanent conglomeration of 
the causo with the effect becomes quite compatible when considered 
with reference to the effect in its latent state. 

(Objection) : — ' There is no production for a non-entity ; nor 
is there any destruction of an entity ; under the circumstances, 
how would the residua, beiug entities, be undone ? "— (Keply) — 


Sutra (12) : — Past and Future exist in real nature, in 
^y^ * consequence of the difference in the conditions of 
the properties. 

Com : — That which is to be is the '[future", and that which 
has been is the " past ", and that which is fulfilling its 
> function is the present. These three are cognisable by (Yogic) 
cognitiou. If these did not exist in reality, then there 
would he no cognition, without an object. Therefore the past 
and the future do exist in reality. And further, if the agency 
bringing about the effects of actions— partaking either of 
enjoyment or of Isolation — were a nonentity, then the endea- 
vour of experts with a view to — i.e., by means of — that 
(agency) would be inexplicable. The cause is capable only 
of exhibiting to the present time the already existing effect 
(lying latent), and not ot bringing forth an altogether- new 
entity. A perfectly established cause only helpa the effect 
in a particular way, but does not produce any thing new. 

An object is always endowed with a number of properties ; 
and such properties exist in accordance with different condi- 
W" tion s. And though the present, being related to a certain 
individual, exists materially, yet the same cannot be said with 
reirard to the past and the future. How then ? The future 
exists in its manijestible (that which is to be manifested) form; 
as the past exists in the individual that has been. The mani- 
festation of form is only possible for the conditions of the 
present ; and it is not possible for those of the past or of the 
future. And during the existence of our condition, it is quite 
compatible that the other two conditions should exist in close 
relationship with the (same)- object ; hence the existence of 
the three conditions is not preceded by their non-existence. 

PADA IV — SUTRA 13-14* 145 

Sutra (13) : — They are individualised (manifested) or 
subtile and consist in attributes. 

Com : — The aforesaid properties, having the three condi- 
tions, consist in the individualised — i. <?., in the present — 
and in the subtile — i. i., the past and future, these latter form- 
ing the six nonspecific elements. All these however are 
ouly particular formations of the Attributes, aud hence, in 
reality, are of the nature of these Attributes. As says the 
authoritative injunction : "The highest form of the Attributes 
does not come within the range of vision ; what does come 
within visual range is altogether insignificant, like (Maya)." 

Motes : (1) — " The simple proposition in this aphorism is that all 
properties are mere modifications of the three primary Attributes 
(Goodness, Foulness, and Darkness) circumstances may make them sab* 
tile or gross ; bat, whether one or the other, they consist of nothing 
bat the three Attributes... modified in some form or another. They are 
mere modes of being, but not radically different beings." — Mitra. 

(2) " The six non-specific Ac. " — The Yogavartika does not admit of 
this reading 

(3) " Injunction" — This quotation is said to be from a work on 
Sankhya by the Rishi Varshaganya, named in the Sankbya Tattwa— 

If all objects on the Attributes, how do yon explain 
(the singular use, such as) "one word," "one sense"? Reply : 

Sutra (14): — From unity of modification (results) the 
one-ness of a thing. 

Com : — Of the Attributes, — capable of illumination, activity 
and inertness — and of the nature of the means of perception 
(grahana), — there is one modification though the form of a 
sense — organ, constituting the ear, a seuse-orgaiu and of (the 
same attributes) being of the nature of the object of perception 
there is auother modification through the form of sound, 
making sound the object; of sound and the rest, ressem- 


bling each other in form, there is one modification, the earth- 
atom, having for its components the rudimentary elements ; 
and of these (sound &c.) again, there is another modification 
the earth, — the cow, the tree, the mountain and the like ; 
similarly among the other elements, there cau be only a single 
common modification, based on their respective properties, 
viscidity, heat, elasticity (pranumitwa) and spaciousness 

" There is no object which is not accompained by an idea ; 
on the other hand, we have ideas not accompained by any 
object such as those occuring in a dream " — The Nihilists who 
in this manner set aside the reality of the form of the object 
asserting, as they do, that ' the object is only the creation of 
an idea, like objects of a dream, and it does not exist in 
reality' ; — how can these persons be believed who despise and 
abandon the reality of the object, on the strength of the 
untruthful knowledge of vikalpa,...the object which has by 
means of its inherent capability presented itself before him in 
its real form ? 

Wherefore is this improper — ? Reply: 

Sutra (15) : — Notwithstanding the samenesB of the 
object, the course of the two are distinct, from 
diversity of the internal organ. 

Com :— A single object, occupying many internal organs, 
is (said to be) 4 common' ; and this (object) is not due to the 
agency of a single internal organ (or mind), nor to that of 
many minds ; it exists by itself. How ? Because of the 
diversity of minds, notwithstanding the sameness of the 
object. That is to say, even on the sameness of the object, the 
mind has the idea of pleasure, through virtue, and also the idea 

PADA IV — SUTRA 15. 147 

of pain from the same object, through vice ; from the same 
the idea of delusion, through ignorance ; and lastly from that 
very object, the idea of indifference through right vision. 
Under such circumstances, to whose mind can such an object 
owe its existence ? Certainly it is not likely that the object 
created by one mind should affect another mind. Conse- 
quently of the object and the idea (or cognition),— distinct 
from each other on account of their respective characters 
of the cognisable and the cogniser. — the course is distinct j 
and there is not the slightest tinge of any confusion among 

According to the Sankhya view again, the object is endowed 
with the three Attributes ; and the function of the Attributes 
is mobile ; hence the object is related to the minds through 
the instrumentality of virtue and the rest, and through its 
different forms, becomes the cause of the different cognitions, 
appearing in accordance with the aforesaid instruments. 

Notes : (1) A simple object gives rise to different ideas in different 
minds, through the difference in the action of the three Attributes 
(Vide Sankhya- tattva-kaumudi—, 7 and Bhoja's commentary. — "On be- 
holding an attractive woman, pleasure is felt by an amorous person, 
pain by her rival, and disgust by an ascetic. 

(2) " and certainly it u not likely dc."— For if it were so, the one per- 
son's cognition of redness would produce the same idea in the minds 
of all persons. 

Some people have thus declared : "The object is coexistent 
with cognition, because it is cognisable, like pleasure and the 
like " — These people by this means set aside the commonality 
(of object and cognition, mentioned above), and thus deprive 
the object by of its character, at all times, past as well as 

( To these subjective Idealists it is replied.)— 


Sutra (16) : — Nor is the object dependent upon a single 
mind; — (because) what would it be when not 
cognised by that ? 

Com : — If the object depended upon a single mind, then, 
if that mind were either confounded or suppressed, then 
the form of the object would not be apprehended thereby; 
nor would it be amenable to any other mind 
(being dependent upon the former alone) ; and as such it 
would become " uncognised " (apramdnaka) ; i.e., its character 
would not be comprehended by any one ; under such circnm- 
stances, what would the object be ? Then again,being connected 
with the mind, whence would it be produced ? Those parts 
pf the object which were not present (before the particular 
mind) would cease to be ; similarly the non-perception of 
the back (of a certain animal) would lead to the non-cognition 
of the stomach as well. For these reasons, the object must be 
independent, common to all perceiving agents. Minds too are 
independent and act differently with regard to each person^ 
From the connection of these two ( object and mind) results 
cognition (or perception), which constitutes the experience of 
the person. 

Note : (1) This aphorism, which is left oat by Bhoja* is meant to 
meet the following objection : " Granted, that the object is distinct 
from the cognition ; even then the object, being insentient, could not 
lead to the recognition of itself without cognition by which it is 
illuminated or manifested ; and as such the object can exist only 
along with cognition and not at any other time" — The difficulty is 
met by the aphorism by propounding the question — whence is the object 
produced ? If from the cognising agent, then is this agent, the cogni- 
sing mind, one or many ? The latter alternative is impossible 
because opposed to general experience. If, however, the object were 
the result of a single mind, then on that particular mind ceasing 
to take notice of the object, the object would cease to exist ; and it 
Would not be possible for any other person to notice it ; which is 
opposed to all common experience. 

PADA IV— SUTKA 17-19. 149 

SUtra (17) : — A thing is known or unknown, in conse- 
quence of the necessity of the mind being tinged by it. 

Cam :— The object, beiug of the natnre of a magnet, connects 
with itself and tinges the mind, which is of the nature of 
soft iron. The object whereby the mind is tinged, is knoivn ; 
and all objects besides this are unknown ? Thus on account 
of the object being known and unknown, the mind is modi- 

Notes : — ( 1 ) " Being of the nature of a magnet &c, " — Like the mag- 
net, the object is devoid of all action in itself, bnt draws the iron-like 
active mind to itself by means of the sense-organs and tinges it— i.e., 
moulds it into its own form. 

, (2 ) "On account of the object being known &c. " — i. e., If the mind 
were not modifiable, the fact of the object being known or unknown 
would be inexplicable. This fact also serves to distinguish the mind 
from the spirit to whom all objects are always known. 

He to whom such a mind itself is an object, to such a one — 
Sutra 18:— The functions of the mind are always 
known, for its presiding spirit is unmodifiable. 

Com: — If like the mind, the spirit also were liable to 
mutation then would its objects also, in the shape of the 
functions of the mind, be known and unknown, like sound 
and other objects. But the constant consciousness and 
perceptibility of the mind leads to the inference of the 
immutable (or constant) character of its presiding spirit. 

The following question may arise — The mind itself may be 
illuminative of itself as well as of the objects, like fire ; 
against this it is declared — 

Sutra (19): — It is not self-illuminative, since it is 


Cow:— As the other senses,as well as sonnd and other objects, 
being perceptible, are not self-illuminative, so should also the 
mind be understood to be. Nor can fire be an instance here; be- 
cause the fire does not illuminate its non-illuminated form. 
Moreover illumination is seen to follow the connection of the 
illuminated and the illuminator ; but such connection is not 
possible with regard to one's own form. And again, the as- 
sertion that " the mind is self-illuminating " literally means 
that it is not cognisable by any person. — e. ff. 9 Space ( Ak&sa) 
existing in it own nature, can never exist in any other object. 
But the actions of all living beings are seen to follow from the 
consciousness of the activities of their mind— e. ff., " I am 
angry, " " I am afraid, " " in this is my attachment, and to 
this my aversion, " — such consciousness would not be explica- 
ble, if the mind were not perceptible, 

(1) " Moreover illumination is seen to follow &c" — All action is 
based on the relation of the actor, the action and the instrument; as 
cooking is based on the relation of the cook, the action of cooking and 
the article cooked ; similarly illumination being an action, most also 
be based on a similar relation ; but such relation is only possible 
among different objects and not in a single object. 

(2) " But the actions of all living beings &c " — " This meets the 
theory of tho non-perceptibility of the mind ( by the spirit )• 

Sutra (20) : — Two ( objects ) cannot be cognised at one 

and the same time. 

Com: — At one and the same time, it is not possibe to cognise 

one's own form as well as that of others. The Nihilists hold 

that the action, effect and cause (origin, action and instrument) 

are all identical. 

Note :— The meaning of the aphorism is that the mind cannot 
perform the two acts of perception and self-knowing at the same 
time, and therefore it is obvious that it cannot by itself be the 
cause of intelligence. 

PADA IV — surBA 21. 151 

It may be held that the raiod suppressed by its own nature 
is cognised by another mind, following close upon it. 


Sutra (21) : — (If; cognition by another mind (be postu- 
lated ), — there would be an infinity of cognitions 
and also an admixture (or confusion) of memory. 

Com : If the mind were perceived by another mind, then 
whereby would the cognition of that cognition be perceived ? If 
by another cognition, and this last too by a fourth and so on, 
then we would be landed on a regressus ad infinitum, — and 
there would also arise a confusion of memory ; for, so many as 
there are perceptions of cognitions to cognitions, as many 
would be the ( corresponding ) memories. And from this ad- 
mixture would result the non-ascertainment (i.e., uncertainty) 
of any one memory. Thus (we find that) the Nihilists h&ve 
confounded everything, by denying spirit as the ( one ) cogni- 
ser of (all) cognitions. These Nihilists again assuming cogni- 
ser-ship at random, cease to be logical. Some of them assume 
a mere entity, and hold that there is a certain entity which dis- 
cards the present five skandhas or 4 bodies ' and takes to other 
skandhas ; and having asserted this much, they fight shy of 1* 4 
the same ( entity ) : Thus " for the sake of the dispassion of 
the form of great disgust for the skandhas, and for that of the 
non-production or suppression thereof, I will lead the continent 
life under a preceptor, " — having said this, they again turn 
to suppress the very existence of the entity. The Sankhya, 
Yoga and the other systems declare that the word " swa ", 
denotes the lord of the mind, the spirit, the cogniser. 

Notes: (1 ) " Suppressed by its own nature 1 ' — i. e., on account of 
its destructibility. 

(2) " Confusion or admixture of memory" — because on one idea 
being called to memory all its attendant ideas would arise to infinity ; 
because the series of cognitions would be unbroken on account of all 


of them being equally related to one another; and the memory of one 
cognition would hold with it the whole series; and it would be 
impossible to determine which is the particular idea that has been 

(3) "Suppress the very existence of the entity"— i.e., by denying the 
spirit, they strike at the root of the denotation of the word "IV 
Here Vijnana Bhikshu: " These Nihilists by so doing become quite 
illogical, because on the one hand they deny the existence of the 
cogniser (the spirit), and on the other they accept and strive after 
spiritual beatitude &c." 

How ? 

Sutra (22) :— The non-transitional spirit (obtains) the 
consciousness of its own cognition , when it takes 
its form. ^ 

Com : — The sentient faculty, unmodifying and unchanging, 
being reflected in the modifiable (the mind), falls in with its 
functions; and the function of the cognition (or understand* 
ing) is said to be identical with that of the internal organ 
(mind), on accounts of its ( the reflected sentient faculty ) 
merely imitating the function of the mind which has attained 
the form of the superimposition of the sentient faculty. As 
is declared : ".Neither the nether world, nor mountain caves 
nor darkness, nor the crevices of the ocean, — (none of these,) 
is the cave where the eternal Brahma is concealed; the wise 
call it the function of the mind, " pure and simple*" 

[Note :— The aphorism is capable of a double interpretation, 
the difference resulting from the construction of •' tadakar&pattyd.' 9 
The clause may be taken to mean : (1) " When the soul takes Us form " 
(i. e.) when the soul takes the form (of the mental function), and (2) 
44 When the mind takes the form of the Soul." At first sight the order of 
the sutra would favour the first interpretation, and Professor Dvivedi 
accepts this interpretation which is also noticed by Dr. Mitra as 
being based on the interpretation of some " later commentators. 
But a little consideration will stow that the second interpretation is 
the proper one. Because as the Bhashya says, when the soul is reflec- 
ted in the n>ind, it is the reflecting object that should take the form 


?i isa 

d the reflected object, not otherwise. 80 it must be the mind that 
feakes the form of the soul -which is " unchanging " (apratisankrama), 
»nd as such cannot take the form of any other object. Vachaspati 
Misra favours this Interpretation. He explains the aphorism 
thus : "The soul's consciousness of its own cognition (results) when 
the mind takes its form, — i. e., when the mind becomes the substratum 
of the reflection of the sentient faculty, and as such takes its form. 
As for example, even without any action of the moon, the clear rip- 
pling water reflecting the disc of the moon manifests the moon also as 
moving; in the same manner, even without any action of the sentient 
faculty, the mind reflecting the image of the sentient faculty mani- 
fests the sentient faculty as being active through its ( the mind's) 
action, &c, and attaining to its character of the experienced, supplies 
the sentient faculty with the character of the experiencer." 

The force of the argument here depends upon the distinction made 
between intelligence (sentient faculty) and the function of the under* 
standing (cognition); for the soul, though intelligence itself, does not 
exercise any function. 

It is for this reason that it is held (that)—- 

Sutra (23) : — The mind tinged by the seer and the 
seen, is (able to perceive) all objects. 

Com : — The mind is tinged by the cognisable object, and 
being itself an object, is conjoined by the subjective (knowing) 
sonl to its fnnctions; thus does the mind become 'tinged by the 
seer and the seen';— j. «., eulivened by the object and the 
subject, and fallen in with the forms of the sentient and 
the insentient,-and appearing non-objective thongh really 
objective, and sentient though really insentient, — 'resembling 
the rockery stal/ — is said (to be able to perceive) all objects. It 
is for this reason that certain people being led away by 
this similarity of the mind, have declared it as alone 
sentient Others again hold that all this is mere mind ; 
any other object, cow or pot &c together with its cause docs 
not exist. All these (theorists) deserve to be pitied. Why ? 
Because for their mistake, there is a ground in the shape 


of the mind enlivened by every kind of form. Consequently 
in meditative consciousness the object cognised being a re- 
flection, is distinct from it (the mind), because of its (the 
mind) being its substratum. If this object were only the 
mind, then how would the form of cone ions n ess be ascertained 
by consciousness itself ? For these reasons, it is the Spirit 
by whom is determined or ascertained, in consciousness, the 
reflected object Thus then those alone are the right thinkers 
who differentiate the cogniser, the cognition and the cognised 
in their respective characters, — (basing the differentiation) 
on the difference iu the mind as enlivened by each of them 

Notes :-(l) "Byth* $ubj*tiv* soul to it$ functions "— W— Of the soul. 
Tho f unotion of the soul is nothing more than its reflection in the 

Wherefore is this ? ( Reply : ) 

Sutra (24) ; — Though variegated by innumerable 
impressions, it exists for another, because it operates 
by association. ^ ^ ^^M « P ^f 

Com : — The mind, thongh variegated by innumerable impres- 
sions, yet exists for another's purpose, — that is to say, for the 
experience (or enjoyment) and liberation of others, not for 
its own purpose, because it operates by association, like a 
house* Themiud* operating as it does by association, can 
never exist for itself. For certainly, a mind operating for 
pleasure is not for its own pleasure : nor is wisdom 
for its own wisdom ; on the other hand, both of these 
are for another's purpose. Ihis - another * is the aool 
with a purpose — the purpose being experience and libera* 
tiou, and not any and everything other than mind. If 
the Siuilist were to bring forward any object at random 
(as being the ** other " tor whose sake the aiind operates), 

PADA n^-BUTRA 25. 15$ 

atl such objects wonld be found to be operating by association 
and afranch* existing for the sake of something else. The 
particular " another/ 9 the soul, just spoken of does not operate 
by association. 

Jfote:-(l) Mind for "pleasure Ac"— ".Pleasure" here implies 
experience, and "wisdom " liberation. 
With this aphorism, of Sankhyakarika XVII. tiTOTOfal* &c. 

Sutra (25) :— For the knower of the difference, (there 
is) cessation of all thought of the nature of self. 

Com : — As in the rainy season, from the sprouting forth of 
grass is inferred the existence of the seed, so in the same 
manner, when we find a certain person horripilating and 
shedding tears of inward pleasure, we infer the existence of 
its seed in the shape of some peculiar deed, partaking of the 
nature of Bliss, done in the past (and now bearing its 
fruit). For such a one the natural hankering after the 
nature of self is (continually) operating. The absence 
of such deeds leads to what is thus declared : "hav- 
ing renounced his own nature, by reason of some defici- 
ency, there arises a liking for the sceptic view and 
aversion to the standard doctrine; during this state is a han- 
kering after the nature of self, in this form : Who was I ? 
How was I? What is this ? How is this ? Who shall I be? 
How shall I be ? This hankering ceases for one who attains 
discrimination. Why ? Because this is a curious modification 
of the mind; the soul however, in the absence of Ignorance, is 
pure, untainted by the properties of the mind. Therefore, for 
such an expert the hankering after the nature of self ceases. 

Notes :— (1) " The sceptic view &c."— t. e. t The Nihilist's sceptic 
position— viz : " There is no super-physical result of actions 
because of the non-existence of any super-physical region." The 
standard doctrine is the one expounded here. 


Sutra (26) : — Then the mind is turned towards die* 
crimination, and is bowed down by Isolation. 

Com : — The mind, that was bowed down by objects and 
bent towards ignorance, now becomes otherwise— L e., bowed 
down by isolation and bent towards discriminative knowledge. 

Notes: — "Now"— when the mind has become conscious of the 

Sutra (27) :— In the intervals thereof, there are other 
cognitions, due to impressions. 

Com : — In the intervals of the mind, being bent toward s 
the discrimination of itself, flowing in the current of the dis- 
crimination of matter and spirit, there are other cognitions 
snch as, u I exist/' " This is mine, " " I know " or a I do not 
know." Whence ? From the fading seeds, the foregone im- 

Motes : (1)— " Bent towards discrimination of itself"— L e., of the 
mind from the sentient faculty; Yachaspati Misra explains "Pratyaya" 
as that which cognises — i. e., the mind. 

(2)— "Flowing] in the current dc."— This explains the preceding 
epithet— 'bent towards the discrimination of itself.' 

(&}— "Foregone impressions"— i.e., the fading impressions of the 
former waking state. 

During the progress of isolation, when in the intervals the mind 
rests from meditation, it is beset with some worldly ideas, sprouting 
from the non-fading impressions of the former waking state. Snoh. 
Ideas are impediments and should be avoided. 

Sutra (2&):— The destruction of these should be as 
already described in the case of the distractions. 

Com: — As the distractions, on the destruction of their 
sprouting faculty, cease to be capable of sprouting op, so in 
the same manner, the foregone impression having its sprout- 

PADA IV— SUTRA 2». 157 

itog faculty burnt ap by the fire of wisdom, ceases to give 
birth to consciousness (or cognition). The impressions due to 
wisdom however depend npon the destruction of the opera- 
tive capacity of the mind ; and therefore these are not con- 
sidered here. 

Notes : (1)— " As already described in the case of the distractions ''—in 
8ec II, 10-11. 

(S)— " Impressions due to wisdom"— i.e., to Supreme Dispassion. 
As these would naturally fall off on the destruction of the 
capacity of mind, so the means of the extirpation of these are not 

SfUra (29) :— To the disinterested in even illumination 
or discriminative knowledge (accrues) exclusive 
discriminative wisdom leading to the meditation 
called the "Cloud of Virtue/' 

Com : — When snch a firahmana loses all interest in illumi- 
nation even — i. e., who desires nothing even from that, and 
becomes indifferent to it, — to him accrues exclusive discrimina- 
tive wisdom ; and thus the seed of metempsychosis being des- 
troyed, no more cognitions are produced ; and thns proceeds the 
meditation called the "Cloud of Virtue." 

Notes:— (1) "Non-aspiring dc."— One -who has no desire for any of 
the fruits proceeding from "illumination" by which is meant "the 
light of knowledge" resulting from discriminative recognition of the 
twenty-six elements of the Sankhya system; this illumination is des- 
cribed in Sutra 49, sec. III,. 

(2)—" Cloud of Virtue "—i.e., the condition in which all Virtues are 
showered down. h 

<«)— The meaning of the Sutra is: "When after this illumination, the 
Yogin works entirely without any attachment or desire, he reaches the 
state of supreme non-attachment wherein the light of the soul breaks 
out in full." (Dvivedi) The sense is that though the Yogin may not 
wish for any reward, still the reward comes. 



Satra (30) :— Thence the cessation of distraction* and 
Com:— On the attainment thereof, the distractions, Ig- 
norance and the rest, are destroyed from their very roots, 
the good and bad actions also are pnt a stop to; and on 
the cessation of distractions and actions, the wise one 
becomes liberated, while living. Wherefore ? Because mis- 
conception is the sole cause of worldliness. For certainly np 
one has ever witnessed the birth of one whose misconcep- 
tion has been removed. 

Notes: (^"Thereof "-i.e., of the meditation called "Cloud of 

(2)— .« From their roots "—The roots being the several kinds of im- 

(8)— " Is liberated' '—Because the cause of birth, life and experience, 
is the karmic residua enlivened by actions, distractions and impressions. 
Of the Vaiseshika Butra^Vttaragajanmcidarsan&t ("On account of the 
non perception of the birth of one free from attachment).' 9 

" On the appearance of the (aforesaid) Cloud there results a com- 
plete cessation of all afflictions and all works ; there is no longer any 
sense of affliction left in the mind of the Yogi; and he has neither any 
desire for work, nor any residua of former works left in his mind." — 


Sutra (31) : — Then, in consequence of the infiniteness 
of the knowledge free from all coverings and im- 
purities, the knowable becomes small. 

Com : — The infinity of knowledge results from its being 
free from the obscurations of action and distraction. The 
faculty of knowledge, suppressed under the obscuring Tamas, 
is only occasionally uncovered and rendered operative by 
{Rajas) and then becomes capable of cognising. Under the 
circumstances, when it becomes clear of all impurities and 
obscurations, then results its infiniteness. And from the 

PADA IV — SUTRA 32. 159 

infiniteness of knowledge,, the knowable becomes small — like 
the firefly in the sky* In this connection it is declared : " The 
blind man pierced the gems, the finger less one joined them 
together, the neckless one wore it, and the tongueless one 
praised it" 

Notes : (1)—" In this connection it is declared &c— Says Vachaspati 
Misra t " It may be objected—' granted that the Cloud of Virtue is the 
cause of the cessation of actions and distractions together with their 
impressions; but why should not the Yogin be born again even when 
this cloud exists ?' The reply is given by the quotation. ( The sense 
of the reply being that) if the effect be produced even on the removal 
of the cause, then the piercing of gems by the blind and the other 
circumstances mentioned in the quotation would also be possible." 

Vijnana Bhikshu however explains the quotation as a peculiar 
assertion of the Bauddha who says that such an ominiscience as is 
above described, is as great an impossibility as the circumstances 
mentioned in the quotation. 

Sutra (32) : — Thereupon follows the termination of 
the succession of the modifications of the Attri- 
butes, which have accomplished their end. 

Com : — On the appearance of the Clond of Virtue, end 
the successive modifications of the Attributes whose ends 
have been fulfilled. Because (Attributes), that have fulfilled 
experience and liberation, and whose succession has ended, 
dare not tarry a moment longer. 

Note :— This aphorism meets the objection that, though actions 
and distractions would end, still the attributes, from their very mobile 
nature, would continue to undergo modifications and thus produce birth* 
experience <&c. The sense of the reply is that the nature of the Attri- 
butes is such that when once their purpose (the experience and libera- 
tion of the soul) has been fulfilled, they cease to operate, with regard 
to that particular soul.— of the concluding Bankhya Karika*. 


What is this succession ? (Reply : ) 

Sutra (33) :— The succession is the counterpart of the 
moment perceptible at the end of the modification. 

Com :~ The succession, consisting in the intervals of 
moments, is perceived by the end of modification. For the 
oldness of a new piece of cloth, at its end (destruction), does 
not follow without the consciousness of the successive moment 
(of its duration). This succession is seen to exist even with 
regard to eternal objects. The eternality is two* fold — the 
unchanging eternality, and the modifying eternality. Of these 
"the unchanging eternality belongs to the Soul and the modify- 
ing eternality to the Attributes. That object is eternal the 
modifications whereof do not destroy its real form. And 
as the forms of both Soul and the Attributes are not destroyed, 
therefore both of them are eternal. With regard to the pro- 
ducts of the Attributes — Buddbi and the rest — the succession, 
perceptible at the end of the modification, has its own end 
perceptible; whereas it has not its end perceptible in the case 
of the eternal objects, ; the Attributes themselves with regard 
to the unchanging eternal, the liberated souls, existing in their 
own form, the existence of the form is perceived in succession ; 
and here too, the succession, having its end non-perceptible, 
is assumed through the action of existence, — the assumption 
being based up on " word." 

Question : — " Of this Universe, existing in the Attributes by 
its existence and progress, is there an end to the succession or 
not ? " Reply : — This indeed is unanswerable ! Why ? The ques- 
tion admitting of an absolute reply is such as * Will all that is 
born, die ? ' (The reply is) : "Oh ! Yes." On the other hand, 
there is another question (not admitting of an absolute reply) 
such as " will every object that dies be born ? The answer 
to this question must be a qualified one viz., the wise one 
whose desires have been destroyed and who has attained dis* 

PAD A IV— SUTKA 34. l$l 

crimination, will not be born ; others besides such a one, will 
be surely born. Similarly on being asked 'Is the hnman 
species the highest or not ? ' the reply must be given in a 
qualified form : The human species is higher than the other 
animals, whereas it is not so in comparison with the 
Gods and the Rishis. The question " Has the universe an 
end or not ? " is unanswerable directly ; because (the reply ;) 'for the wise one (above mentioned), there is an end 
to the continuance of the universe, — not for any other.' For 
this reason, if the reply were based on any one of the two, i. e., 
if the reply were given directly — yes or no — without qualifica- 
tion, there would be a mistake. Hence the aforesaid question 
must be broken up (before being answered.) 

Notes : (1) — " The word " succession " is explained in this ap- 
horism to mean the following of one momont after another. The 
object is to say that the lapse of time is reckoned by the succession 
of one moment after another, though there is a break between them 
one totality is divided into many parts only for facility of reckon- 
ing." — Mitra. 

It has been declared that Isolation follows at the end of 
the succession of the capacity of the Attributes. This Isola- 
tion is now described : 

Sutra (34) : — The repression of the Attributes, devoid 
of the soul's purpose, is the Isolation; or it is the 
sentient faculty abiding in itself. 

Com : — The repression (or inverse resolution) of the Attri- 
butes of the nature of cause and effect, that have fulfilled 
experience and isolation, and are (hence) unable to serve any 
further purpose of the soul, is Isolation. The sentient faculty 
of the soul abiding in itself, i.e., disconnected from the 
attributes of Buddhi, is pure; aud (such a sentient faculty) 
continuing for ever in that condition, constitutes Isolation, 



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