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Full text of "The young folk's cyclopædia of games and sports ;"

*U!BRARYOf 

















UNIVERJ/^ 



O 



STANDARD CYCLOPAEDIAS FOR YOUNG OR OLD 

CHAMPLIN'S 

YOUNG FOLKS' CYCLOPEDIAS 

By JOHN D. CHAMPLIN 

Late Associate Editor of the American Cyclopcedia 
Bound in substantial red buckram. Each volume complete 
in itself and sold separately. I2mo, $3 oo per volume, 

COMMON THINGS 

New, Enlarged Edition, 850 pp. Profusely Illustrated 

"A book which will be of permanent value to any boy or girl to 
whom it may be given, and which fills a place in the juvenile library, 
never, so far as I know, supplied before." Susan Cooltdge. 

PERSONS AND PLACES 

New, Up-to-Date Edition, 985 pp. Over 375 Illustrations 
" We know copies of the work to which their young owners turn 
instantly for information upon every theme about which they have 
questions to ask. More than this, we know that some of these copies 
are read daily, as well as consulted; that their owners turn the leaves 
as they might those of a fairy book, reading intently articles of which 
they had not thought before seeing them, and treating the book simply 
as one capable of furnishing the rarest entertainment in exhaustless 
Quantities." N. Y. Evening Post. 

LITERATURE AND ART 

604 pp. 270 Illustrations 

"Few poems, plays, novels, pictures, statues, or fictitious characters 
.hat children or most of their parents of our day are likely to inquire 
about will be missed here. Mr. Champlin's judgment seems unusually 
sound.*' The Nation. 

GAMES AND SPORTS 

By JOHN D. CHAMPLIN and ARTHUR BOSTWICK 
Revised Edition, 784 pp. 900 Illustrati6ns 

" Should form a part of every juvenile library, whether public or 
.private." The Independent. 

NATURAL HISTORY 

By JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, assisted by FREDERICK A. LUCAS 
725 pp. Over 800 Illustrations 

" Here, in compact and attractive form, is valuable and reliable in- 
formation on every phase of natural history, on every item of interest 
to the student. Invaluable to the teacher and school, and should be ~n 
every teacher's desk for ready reference, and the children should be 
taught to go to this volume for information useful and interesting." 
Journal of Education. 

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 



THE 



YOUNG FOLKS' CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



GAMES AND SPORTS 



BY 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN 

LATB ASSOCIATB BDITOR Of THE AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 
AND 

ARTHUR E. BOSTWICK 
tCUtb numerous Illustrations 




NEW YORK 
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 



Copyright, 1890, 

BT 

HENRY HOLT & CO. 




M 
G3ST 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



THE YOUNG FOLKS' CYCLOPEDIA OF GAMES AND SPORTS is a 
compendium of recreations of all kinds, including indoor and out- 
door games and plays, athletic and rural sports and pastimes, chem- 
ical and mechanical experiments and amusements, and every similar 
thing that can interest a wide-awake boy or girl. Like the other 
volumes in the Young Folks' Series, it is in cyclopaedic style, a 
novelty in a work of this kind, rendering its articles easy of refer- 
ence, and combining other advantages never before united in a 
similar volume. Intended primarily for the family, for the use of 
children and youth of all ages, it will be of equal value to the 
adult, as it includes the official rules, given word for word, of ath- 
letic sports and standard games, and the official records of athletic 
meets and events, thus making it a work of reference for the settle- 
ment of disputed questions relating to such matters. To insure 
accuracy, such articles as require it have been revised by competent 
experts. 

Among the features of the work are a brief historical sketch of 
each game or sport, the description of foreign varieties of each, a 
full illustration of the text by accurate plans and diagrams, and a 
system of etymology, as in the other volumes of the series, giving 
the derivation of names and technical terms. While the " padding" 
characteristic of too many such works has been rigorously excluded, 
the endeavor has been to make the explanations full enough for 
simplicity and clearness. Unlike many other works on sports and 
games published in this country, which are merely reprints of Eng- 
lish books, this cyclopaedia has been written for American use from 
the American standpoint, even such a game as Cricket being treated 
as it is played in the United States. 

While the illustration is very full, no picture has been inserted 
for its own sake, or otherwise than as an aid to the understanding 
of the text or the elucidation of different periods of games and 
sports. 



iv PREFACE. 

A large number of works on sports and kindred subjects, in 
many languages, have been consulted and freely used in the prepara- 
tion of this book, which is believed to be more comprehensive in its 
scope than any other similar publication. The editors are indebted 
to Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Bros, for permission to print the foot- 
ball rules of the University Athletic Club, and the official rules of 
other athletic sports. 

In the present edition the description and rules of all such sports 
as baseball, football and tennis have been brought carefully down 
to date, the articles on cycling and golf have been greatly enlarged 
in view of the increased popularity of both, and other changes have 
been made to increase the value of" the book. 

NEW YORK, January 10, 1899. 



NOTE. Through an oversight of the editors, credit was not given 
in the earlier editions to Mr. Dan Beard for sundry devices and sug- 
gestions derived from the "American Boys' Handy Book," and to 
Messrs. Munn & Co., publishers of the Scientific American, for several 
illustrations. 



THE 



YOUNG FOLKS' CYCLOPEDIA 



GAMES AND SPORTS. 



ds printed in LETTERS LIKE THESE are explained in their alphabetical places. 

references C. C. T. and C. P. P., are to the " Young Kolks' Cyclopaedia of Common 
Things," and the "Young Folks' Cyclopaedia of Persons and Places," companion volumes to 
this, which explain a great deal not coming within the plan of this book. 



A B C. A game played by any 
number of persons with a pack of 
CARDS, on each of which are a letter 
of the alphabet and a picture. The 
pack is placed face upward on the 
table, and each player in order names 
an object in the picture on the top 
card which begins with the letter on 
that card. Any one who cannot do so 
in less that one minute is out. No 




Agon Board ready for Playing. 

ADJECTIVES. A game played by 
any number of persons. One writes 
a letter, leaving blank spaces for the 
adjectives, and then asks the other 
players, in order, to furnish the miss- 
ing words without knowing what 
has been written. The letter is then 
read aloud. The game may be varied 
by leaving blanks for other words 
than adjectives, but in that case each 



one must name an object which has 
already been named. When all the 
players but one are out, that one 
takes the card, and the other cards 
one by one are treated in like man- 
ner, beginning in each case with the 
player who took the previous card. 
He who takes most cards is the 
winner. 
ACTING CRAMBO. See CRAMBO. 






**:* 



Position of Men at End of Game. 

player must be told what part Oi 
speech he is expected to supply. 

AGON, or the QUEEN'S GUARDS. 
A game played by two persons on a 
six-sided board like that represented 
in the pictures. Each player has 
seven pieces, a Queen, which is 
slightly higher than the others, and her 
six Guards. Each places his Queen 
on the corner space in front of him, 



AIR-PUMP 



AIR-PUMP 



and the guards are then arranged 
alternately on the outermost row as 
shown in the first illustration. The 
object of the game is to get a Queen 
into the ce; .ter with herGuards ranged 
on the six spaces around her.as shown 
in the second figure, and the player 
whofirst gets his pieces in thisposition 
wins. The players move alternately 
after the first move has been decided. 
Any piece may be moved one space 
forward or sideways, but never back- 
ward. If any Guard gets between 
two hostile pieces so that the three 
form a straight line on adjacent 
spaces, such Guard must be taken up 
for the next move, and placed some- 
where on the outermost row. If the 
Queen gets in a similar situation she 
must likewise be taken up, but she 
may be placed anywhere on the 
board. 

In playing, it is well to try to ar- 
range the pieces so that several of 
the enemy's Guards can be taken up 
in succession, rather than to throw 
back one piece alone, for in the latter 
case that piece is often able to secure 
a good position. As no piece can be 
moved backward he who has a man 
in the rear has an advantage. It is 
a good plan to keep one man back 
and hurry the others forward, keep- 
ing them together as close as pos- 
sible. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. None but the Queens must oc- 
cupy the center space. 

2. Of two or more pieces liable to 
be thrown back at one time, the 
Queen, if she be one, must be taken 
up first, and the others may be 
taken in any order the player chooses, 
the removal of each piece counting 
as a move. 

3. If a piece be touched prepara- 
tory to moving, it must be moved or 
the move be lost. 

4. If the six Guards are placed in 
the circle surrounding the center 
space, leaving the Queen outside, the 
player of them forfeits the game. 

AIR-PUMP, Experiments with an. 
The common air-pump is described 




in C. C. T. A simpler one may be 
made with a large glass jar or bottle, 
closed with a rubber stopper having 
a hole through it. Into the hole put 
a short piece of glass tubing, over the 
end of which fit a piece of rubber 
tubing, about an inch 
and a half long (See 
Fig. I). Exhaust the 
lungs, apply the mouth 
to the tube and suck. 
Pinch the rubber tube 
tightly to prevent air 
entering the bottle, and 
after exhausting the 
lungs again, repeat the 
process. If the air is to 
Fig. i. b e k e p t exhausted for 
some time, a pinch-cock (see CHEM- 
ICAL EXPERIMENTS) should be fast- 
ened to the rubber tube. In this 
way about three-quarters of the air 
can be removed from the jar. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

1. Put into the jar a small vaseline 
or other wide-mouthed bottle, with a 
piece of thin rubber cloth 

tied over the top. On ex- 
hausting the air, the cloth 
will bulge up like a bal- 
loon (See Fig. 2). This 
is caused by the air trying 
to get out of the bottle, 
owing to the lightening of 
the pressure above it. 

2. Instead of exhausting 
the air, condense it, by 
forcing the breath into the 
bottle, pinching the rub- 
ber tube between breaths, as before. 

The rubber cloth on the 
small bottle will bulge in- 
ward (see Fig. 3), owing 
to the increased pressure 
above it. 

3. Replace the short 
glass tube with a longer 
one, c, having a jet b (see 
CHEMICAL EXPERI- 
MENTS) on the end inside 
the jar. Exhaust the air 
as before, and then keep- 
ing the rubber tube pinched, hold the 
jar upside down, and put the end of 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 



AIR-PUMP 



ALCOHOL 




Fig. 4- 



the rubber tube into a glass of water 
d. On releasing the tube the water 
will spirt up through the jet into 
the bottle, making a little 
fountain (See Fig. 4). 
This is because the pres- 
ri|i sure of the air on the 

All surface of the water in 

the bowl forces it up 
into the jar, where the 
pressure is less. 

4. Turn the glass tube 
so that the jet will be 
outside, seeing that the 
tube nearly reaches the 
bottom of the jar. Pour 
[fir in water enough to cover 
an inch or two of the 
end. Put the rubber 
tube over the jet, and 
condense the air in the jar, as in Ex- 
periment 2. Quickly pull off the 
rubber tube, and a foun- 
tain like that in Experi- 
ment 3 will play from 
the jet (See Fig. 5). 

5. In the vaseline 
bottle used in Experi- 
ments I and 2, or a 
similar one, fit a stopper 
and jet like those used 
on the large jar in Ex- 
'periment 4. Partly fill 
it with water, place it 
inside the jar, exhaust 
the air, and a fountain 
will play from the jet. 

(See Fig. 6). Fi e- 5- 

6. In the vaseline bottle put a bent 
tube reaching nearly to the bottom 

on the inside and about 
as far down on the out- 
side. Put enough water 
into both bottle and jar 
to cover well the ends of 
the tube. Exhaust the 
air. All the water will be 
forced out of the bottle. 
Let in the air again. 
More water will run in 
from the jar than was in 
the bottle to begin with. 

Steam vacuum. A partial va- 
cuum may be produced also by 





Fig. 6. 



means of steam. If a little water be 
boiled in a flask, the steam will drive 
out all the air, and if the flask be 
then corked and cooled by placing 
it in water the steam will condense 
to water, leaving nothing in its place 
but a little cool water-vapor. The 
cork must be put in carefully, and 
the flask withdrawn from the heat at 
the same time, otherwise the steam 
might force the cork out again. By 
connecting the cork by means of 
rubber tubing with another bottle or 
jar, the air in the latter may be 
greatly rarefied and many of the 
above experiments tried. If a toy 
rubber balloon, with no air in it, be 
fastened to the under side of a glass 
tube passing through the cork, so 
that it will be inside of the flask 
when it is corked, the balloon will 
swell up and fill the flask as soon as 
the flask is cooled ; the outside air 
rushing in to fill the vacuum made 
by condensing the steam. 

ALCOHOL, Experiments with. 
(Read CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS). 
Alcohol is described in C. C. T. To 
make it, mix about a quarter of a 
glass of molasses with a glass and a 
half of water, add a little yeast, and 
set the liquid in a warm place for 
two or three clays. During this time 
it will ferment and bubbles of gas 
will rise from it, which may be col- 
lected if the liquid is in a corked 
flask with a delivery tube leading to 
the bottom of a jar. The gas is 
CARBONIC ACID, as may be shown 
by shaking it with lime-water. The 
liquid now has alcohol in it, which 
must be separated from it by DIS- 
TILLING. Instead of condensing 
the vapor at once, however, it is first 
led into a bottle which is kept at a 
little below the boiling point of water, 
by being heated over a water bath. 
Most of the steam condenses in this 
bottle, but the alcohol, which will not 
condense at so high a temperature, 
goes on to the next bottle, which is 
kept in ice-cold water. Test the 
liquid thus obtained by trying to light 
some of it on a glass rod. If it will 



ALICE IN WONDERLAND 



ALL FOOLS' DAY 



not burn, it is not strong enough, 
and must be distilled over again. 
Not more than a quarter of the 
liquid must be boiled away, for by 
that time most of the alcohol is 
gone from it. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

1. Try to dissolve different sub- 
stances in alcohol. It will be found 
that oily or gummy substances, which 
will not dissolve at all in water, will 
do so in alcohol. 

2. Mix equal quantities of alcohol 
and water together, after measuring 
each in a graduated tube. The 
liquid will shrink in mixing so that 
the mixture will not measure as 
much as the sum of the two quan- 
tities. 

3. Drop alcohol on the still sur- 
face of a basin of water. There will 
be a little dimple, or pit, where it 
strikes, because the heavier and 
stronger fluid on the surface around 
it pulls it away. 

4. Put a teaspoonful of raw white 
of egg in a glass, and pour on it 
about a tablespoonful of alcohol. It 
will be cooked, as if by heat. 

5. Fill a glass with alcohol and into 
it drop a very little of any aniline dye 
in the form of powder. These dyes 
may be obtained of a druggist. The 
dye will descend into the fluid in a 
colored thread which will branch 
out into two or more, and these in 
turn will divide, so as to resemble 
the growth of a plant. If the alco- 
hol be contained in a tank with par- 
allel glass sides (see PRISM), the 
phenomenon may be thrown on to a 
screen with the HELIOSTAT, and as 
the lens reverses the object the col- 
ored threads will appear to grow up- 
ward, thus increasing the resem- 
blance to a tree. 

ALICE IN WONDERLAND. A 
game played by any number of per- 
sons, with 52 cards bearing pictures 
of characters in the story of that 
name. The cards are divided into 
three sets : 16 picture-cards with a 
star in the corner, numbered from i 
to 16; the same picture-cards with- 



out the star, numbered in like man- 
ner ; and 20 cards without pictures, 
numbered from I to 20. In each set 
the cards rank according to their 
numbers, but a star card is higher 
than any other, and a plain picture- 
card is higher than a plain numbered 
card. At the beginning of the game, 
each player is given seven cards. 
The eldest hand leads. If he lead a 
picture card, the next must play its 
mate (from the other picture-set), if 
possible ; otherwise a card from the 
same set. If a plain numbered card 
be led, the next player must play 
another of that set. If he have no 
card of the set led, he may play what 
he chooses. Each in turn plays in 
like manner, but if a picture card has 
been played it must be followed by 
its mate if possible, even if the lead 
was a plain card. If more than one 
picture card has been played, the 
first must be mated first, if possible. 
When each has played one card, he 
who played the highest card takes 
the trick and leads for the next one. 
When the hands have been played, 
each scores 10 points for each pair 
among the cards he has taken, 20 
for Alice and 20 for the Pool of 
Tears, if he have them ; and he who 
has taken most cards scores 10. The " 
player with the greatest number of 
points wins the game. 

ALL FOOLS' DAY. April Fool 
candy can be made by dipping balls 
of cotton in melted chocolate, so that 
they will look like chocolate-creams, 
or by covering a lead pencil, cut in 
half, with frosting so that it will look 
like white candy. 

April Fool cake can be made by 
covering a tin pan, turned upside 
down, with frosting, and an April 
Fool custard by lining a glass closely 
with white or yellow paper and cov- 
ering it with tissue paper on which 
there is a little white of egg beaten 
to a froth. An April Fool pie is 
made of ordinary pie-crust either 
with nothing but air within it, or 
stuffed with sawdust. Coarse yellow 
soap cut into pieces makes very good 



ALL FOOLS' DAY 



ALL FOURS 



April Fool cheese. These decep- 
tions served once or twice during a 
meal will be almost certain to catch 
some one. An April Fool whistle 
can be made as shown in the illustra- 
tion, and filled with flour, which 
will fly into the face of any one who 
tries to blow it. A B (Fig. i) is a 
tin tube, stopped by two pieces of 
cork. One at the end has holes in 
it and a glass tube through it, as 
shown in Fig. 2. The other figures 
explain themselves. 

The oldest April Fool trick was to 
send some one on a fruitless errand, 



generally for some absurd or impos- 
sible thing, such as a " stick with 
only one end," a " crooked straight 
edge," etc. This trick was generally 
practiced on some young apprentice, 
and he was sent in search of the ob- 
ject from one place to another till he 
was tired. Sometimes he was sent 
to a shoemaker for some " strap oil," 
which was generally understood to 
mean a thrashing with a strap. 

History. The origin of the cus- 
tom of deceiving people on the first 
of April is unknown, though many 
have tried to explain it. Some say 




Fig. i. 



Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

April Fool Whistle. 




Fig. 4. 



that the sending boys on silly er- 
rands is to commemorate the send- 
ing out by Noah of the dove, when 
it found nothing to rest on. Others 
connect it with the Hindoo feast on 
March 31, called Huli, which is cele- 
brated in a similar way. The custom 
seems to have been taken to England 
and Germany from France, where 
an April fool is called Potsson 
d ' Avril (April fish). Some think 
that this refers to the fool's allow- 
ing himself to be caught like a fish, 
but others say it is a corruption of 
Passion d' Avril (April passion or 
suffering), and that the custom of 
sending people about on fruitless 
errands arose from an old Morality, 



or Miracle Play, representing Christ 
sent backward and forward between 
Herod and Pilate. In France, even 
the highest dignitaries condescended 
to take part in the sport. It is re- 
lated that a high ecclesiastic gathered 
a great crowd to hear him preach on 
the first of April, and, when he had 
ascended the pulpit, made the sign 
of the cross, cried out "April Fool!" 
and went down again. In Scotland 
the April fool is called a "gowk" 
(cuckoo). 

ALL FOURS (Called also Old- 
Sledge, Seven-Up, and High-Low- 
Jack). A game played with a full 
pack of CARDS, which rank as in 
Whist. It is usually played by two 



ALL FOURS 



ALL FOURS 



persons, or by four acting as part- 
ners, as in Whist ; but it may be 
played also by three or four persons 
without partnership. In the two- 
handed game, the dealer gives each 
player six cards, three at a time, and 
turns up the next card as trump. If 
it be a knave he scores one point at 
once, as further explained below. 
The non-dealer then looks at his 
hand. If he is satisfied with it, he 
says " I stand," in which case play 
begins at once ; but if not, he says 
" I beg." The dealer may then 
either say " Take one," allowing his 
opponent to score one point before 
play begins, or he may lay aside the 
trump and deal three more cards to 
each, turning up the next as a new 
trump. If the new trump is of the 
same suit as the old, three more cards 
must be dealt again to each player, 
and so on till a trump card of a 
different suit is turned. This is 
called " running the cards for a new 
trump." In playing, suit must be 
followed if possible, except when the 
player chooses to trump. The points 
that may be made in one hand are 
four, as follows : 

High. The holder of the highest 
trump out scores one point. 

Low. The original holder of the 
lowest trump out scores one point, 
whether he takes the trick containing 
it or not. 

Jack. The player that wins the 
trick containing the knave of trumps, 
or who turns it up as trump when 
dealing, scores one point. 

Game. The player whose tricks 
contain cards the sum of whose values 
is the greatest, scores one point, 
counting 



Ace 

King 

Queen 

Knave 

Ten 



as 



4 
3 

2 
I 

IO 



The other cards count nothing toward 
Game ; hence a hand may be played 
when no Game is made, neither 
player holding either court cards or 



tens. If there be a tie, that is, 
when each player holds an equal 
number for game, it is scored by the 
eldest hand. It may happen that a 
single card may score more than one 
point, or all four points ; thus, if a 
player hold only one face card, the 
Knave of trumps, and his opponent 
have no face card, trump, ten, nor 
Ace, the Knave will score High, Low, 
Jack, and Game. He who first scores 
seven points, wins. 

In the three and four handed 
games only the player at the dealer's 
left has the option of " standing " or 
" begging," as in the two-handed 
game, and the method of playing is 
the same. If new cards are dealt, 
they must be dealt to each of the 
players. In the four-handed game, 
each may play for himself, or two, as 
partners, against the other two. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. In cutting for deal, the Ace 
counts as the highest card. 

2. If the dealer expose any card 
but his own, or make a misdeal, he 
must deal again. 

3. The points must be scored in 
the order, High, Low, Jack, Game ; 
thus, if the players stand six to six in 
the score, and one has High, while 
his opponent has the other three, the 
one that has High goes out. But 
when Jack is turned up as trump, it 
must be scored immediately, thus 
taking precedence of all other points. 

4. A turned-up Jack is to be 
scored, even if the opponent begs, 
and the trump is thus changed. 

5. No one may beg more than 
once in a hand, but if the hands are 
unsatisfactory after the cards have 
been run, a new deal may had by 
agreement of all the players, or they 
may agree to run the cards again ; 
but no suit can be trump that has 
already been turned as such in the 
same hand. 

6. Should the same suit be turned, 
in running the cards, till the pack 
has all been used, there must be a 
new deal. 

7. In the four-handed game, only 



ALL FOURS 



ALL FOURS 



the dealer and the player on his left 
may look at their cards before the 
latter decides whether to stand or 
beg, and, if he begs, the others may 
not look at their hands till the dealer 
tells whether he will " give one," or 
run the cards for another trump. 

The game is called All Fours from 
the points that can be made in one 
deal ; High, Low, Jack, Game (or 
more commonly High-Low-Jack), 
from the names of the points ; and 
Seven-Up, from the number of points 
that win the game. 

Pitch. A kind of All Fours, in 
which no trump is turned, the first 
suit led being considered the trump 
suit. The eldest hand thus has the 
privilege of leading or pitching the 
trump, from which the game gets its 
name. The method of playing is the 
same as in All Fours, except that 
there is no begging. In case of a 
tie for Game, too, neither player can 
score Game. With these changes, 
the rules are the same as in All 
Fours. 

Auction Pitch (called also Com- 
mercial Pitch). A kind of All Fours, 
in which the trump card is not 
turned, but led or pitched by the 
player making the highest bid for the 
privilege. The game may be played 
by any number of persons, usually 
not more than eight. After the deal 
the eldest hand, who is called the 
seller, asks each in turn, going to- 
ward the left, what he will bid for 
the privilege of pitching the trump. 
Each bids as many points as he 
thinks he can make, and each has 
but one bid. 

The seller, who has the last say, 
may either sell to the highest bid- 
der that is, permit him to pitch the 
trump or he may decline to sell 
and pitch the trump himself at the 
same price offered by the highest 
bidder; but he is not obliged to out- 
bid him. If he accept the bid, he 
adds the number of points bid to his 
own score at once before playing 
begins. The player who has won 
the privilege must lead a card of the 



suit he has made trumps, and the 
game proceeds as in All Fours. The 
player who pitches the trump, 
whether it be the highest bidder or 
the seller, scores, if successful in 
playing, all the points he may make ; 
but if he fail to make as many points 
as the highest bid, that number of 
points is deducted from his score and 
he cannot count any of the points 
made in that hand. If no bid is 
made the seller must pitch the trump. 

The scoring is usually done by 
giving each player ten to begin with, 
subtracting what he wins, and add- 
ing what he loses, so that the winner 
is he who first gets rid of all his 
points. The score can be very readily 
kept by writing two X's, each of which 
stands for five. For the first point 
the middle of one X can have a ring 
drawn around it, and one of the arms 
can be crossed off for each point 
made afterward. 

Pedro Sanchp, or Sancho Pedro. 
A kind of Auction Pitch in which 
the dealer sells the privilege of mak- 
ing or pitching the trump, and the 
players may bid over and over again 
in turn, till all are satisfied. Any 
number of persons may play, but six 
or eight is the most convenient num- 
ber and makes the best game. The 
cards are dealt as in All Fours, but 
nine or twelve cards instead of six 
may be dealt to each player, by agree- 
ment, if the number be small. High, 
Low, and Jack count each one point, 
as in All Fours, but Low counts for 
him who takes it, not for the original 
holder. Game, too, counts one point, 
but is won by the player who takes the 
ten of trumps. The five of trumps 
(called Pedro) counts five points, and 
the nine of trumps (called Sancho) 
nine points, each in favor of the player 
who wins the trick containing it. 
The game is usually for fifty points, 
and is scored as in Auction Pitch. 
The points must be scored in the 
order High, Low, Jack, Game, Pedro, 
Sancho. 

Dom Pedro. When a Joker, or 
blank card, is used in this game, it is 



ALLITERATION 



8 



AMALGAMS 



called Dom, and the game Dom 
Pedro. No matter what suit is 
trumps, the Joker is always a trump, 
though it may be taken by any other 
trump; but, though the lowest trump, 
it cannot score for Low. It is scored 
last in order, or below Sancho, and 
counts the one who wins it fifteen 
points. When the game is played 
with a Joker, it is for 100 points. 

Sancho may be omitted from the 
game, which is then called Pedro. 

California Jack. A kind of All 
Fours played usually by two or four 
persons. After the deal, the dealer 
turns the rest of the pack (called the 
stock) face upward, and the exposed 
card is the trump. He then either 
slips the trump into the middle of the 
pack, or shuffles the cards after which 
they remain face upward on the table. 
After each trick is taken, the dealer 
gives the top card of the stock to 
the winner, and one card to each of 
the other players in order, to the 
left, holding each card face upward. 
Thus each continues to have six 
cards in his hand as long as the 
stock lasts. The points are High, 
Low, Jack, and Game, as in All 
Fours. As all the pack is used, 
High will always be the Ace, and 
Low the two of trumps. The latter 
counts for the taker, not the original 
holder as in All Fours. He who 
first makes ten points wins. 

The chief feature of this game is 
the fact that the topmost card of the 
stock is always visible, and if it is a 
high one each player wishes to take 
the trick, so as to get it. Hence 
there is some interest in playing 
each trick, whereas in all other kinds 
of All Fours a player cares to take 
only tricks containing cards that 
count. Care must be taken not to 
expose any but the top card of the 
stock. 

ALLITERATION. A game played 
by any number of persons, each of 
whom is required to write a story in 
which each word shall begin with a 
given letter of the alphabet. The 
stories may be required to be of ** 



same length, as agreed on before- 
hand, or a given time may be 
allowed for writing. When all have 
finished, the stories are read aloud, 
and he whose story is the best, as 
decided by a majority of the players, 
is declared the winner. 

ALPHABETICAL TRAVELS. A 
game played by any number of per- 
sons. Each of the players, who sit 
in a row, tells, in order, to what place 
he will travel and what he will do 
there, always using for principal 
words (such as nouns, adjectives, 
and verbs), those beginning with a 
single letter of the alphabet. The 
first player takes A, the second B, 
and so on. Thus the players, in 
order, may say: 

" I am going to Africa, to Ask an 
Arab for Apricots." 

" I am going to Boston to Buy 
Baked Beans." 

" I am going to California to Cut 
Curious Capers." 

" I am going to Damascus to Dine 
on Delicious Doughnuts." 

" I am going to Elizabeth to Eat 
Eggs Egotistically.'' And so on 
through the alphabet. 

Any one unable to give a sentence 
of this kind may be required to pay 
a forfeit, or a score may be kept, the 
successful ones being given one 
point. In this case the company 
may be divided into sides. The 
method of playing must be agreed 
upon beforehand. 

ALUM, Experiment with. Heat a 
small quantity of crystalline alum in 
an earthenware crucible. It will turn 
to a white powder, and expanding 
will overflow the crucible. (See also 
CRYSTALLIZATION.) 

AMALGAMS. Compound of mer- 
cury with other metals. Mercury 
dissolves most metals at ordinary 
temperatures, as may be seen by ex- 
periment. The amalgam is often 
made more quickly if the metal be in 
the form of scrapings or powder, and 
if both it and the mercury be heated. 
Three curious kinds of amalgam are 
formed in the following experiments : 



AMMONIA 



AMMONIA 



1. Sodium Amalgam. Into mer- 
cury contained in a glass dish put 
some thin strips of sodium and stir 
with a glass tube. The metals will 
unite with a crackling noise and a 
flame. As drops of metal are fre- 
quently thrown out it is best to cover 
the dish while the action is going on. 
The appearance of the amalgam 
varies according to the proportion of 
sodium used. Thirty parts of mer- 
cury to one of sodium form a solid 
mass. If three or four times as 
much mercury is used the result is a 
thick liquid, and with quantities be- 
tween these two extremes the amal- 
gam is a more or less thick paste. 

2. Ammonium Amalgam. Half 
fill a test tube with a strong solution 
of sal-ammoniac in water and pour 
into it a small quantity of sodium 
amalgam. The liquid will expand 
and push itself out of the tube in a 
pasty, frothy mass. This has been 
supposed by some persons to be an 
amalgam of mercury and the metal 
ammonium, which is believed to be 
present in ammonia. It breaks up 
soon into mercury and ammonia. 

3. Gold Amalgam. Suspend a 
piece of gold leaf in a bottle con- 
taining mercury. The mercury 
vapor will amalgamate with the gold, 
turning it gradually gray. (The use 
of mercury for extracting gold from 
its ore is described in C. C. T., arti- 
cle GOLD). 

AMMONIA, Experiments with. 
(Read article on CHEMICAL EXPER- 
IMENTS). Ammonia is described in 
C. C. T. The common ammonia 
water sold at drug stores is ammonia 
gas mixed with water. The gas can 
be obtained from this, by heating it 
in a flask, the delivery tube from 
which passes to the top of an inverted 
jar, since the gas is lighter than air. 
A piece of red litmus paper, held at 
the mouth of the jar when it is full, 
will turn blue (see TEST PAPERS). 
The gas cannot be collected over 
water because it dissolve- in water so 
easily. 

Another way to obtain the Fas is 



to mix a teaspoonful of pulverized 
sal-ammoniac \\ith twice as much 
freshly slaked LIME, first allowing 
the lime to cool. Add just enough 
water to make the mixture lumpy 
when stirred. Heat it gently in a 
flask, collecting the gas as before. 
The ammonia in this case comes 
from the sal-ammoniac, which is 
composed of chlorine and ammonia. 
The chlorine prefers the lime to the 
ammonia, and so lets the latter 
escape. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

I. The Ammonia Fountain. Fill 
a bottle with ammonia gas as de- 
scribed above, and stop it with a 
cork through which passes a small 
glass tube, ending in 
a jet inside the bottle. 
Dip the exposed end 
of the tube into a 
glass of water, and 
after a time the water 
will spurt up into the 
bottle of ammonia, 
forming a little foun- 
tain. The reason is 
that water and am- 
monia have a great 
liking for each other. 
The gas in the tube 
dissolves in the water 
into which it projects, 
and the pressure of 
the air on the surface 
of the water in the 
glass forces it up to 
take the place of the dissolved 
ammonia. Thus more gas is dis- 
solved, and so the fountain keeps 
on playing till all the gas is gone. 
It often takes a long time to start 
the fountain, because the tube is 
filled with air, and the action does 
not begin till the ammonia reaches 
water. The experimenter will have 
to wait patiently, or he may hurry 
matters by pouring a little water 
into the tube. If the water in the 
glass be colored with red litmus, it 
will turn blue as it enters the am- 
monia (see TEST PAPERS). The 
experiment will succeed better if the 




AMMONIA 



10 



ANAGRAMS 



a 



ammonia be perfectly dry, so it may 
be passed through a drying bottle 
before collecting. See that the cork 
and tube are perfectly tight, or the 
fountain will not play. 

2. To Burn Ammonia. To burn 
a jet of ammonia gas it must be 
surrounded by OXYGEN. Connect 
the delivery tube d from the drying 

bottle to a long glass jet 
around which is placed 
an argand lamp chim- 
ney, as shown in the 
figure, the top of the 
chimney a being on a 
level with the top of the 
jet. It will be found im- 
possible to light the am- 
monia gas flowing from 
the jet unless a current 
of oxygen be passed 
through the lamp chim- 
ney from a tube b, when 
it will take fire with a 
yellow flame. Instead of surrounding 
the ammonia with oxygen, the two 
gases may be mixed, by passing a 
stream of oxygen through strong am- 
monia water in a flask or bottle. Heat 
the flask, and the mixed gases can 
then be lighted at its mouth. 

3. Sal-ammoniac. Into the bot- 
tom of a glass pour a few drops of 
strong ammonia water, and shake it 
about so that it will wet the sides of 




Argand 
Burner. 




Sal-ammoniac Cloud. 

the glass. Into another glass pour, 
in like manner, HYDROCHLORIC 
ACID; place a sheet of paper over 
one glass and then put the other 



on it, bottom upward. After waiting 
a moment, pull the paper away, 
when the glass will fill with a dense, 
white cloud. This cloud is formed 
of particles of sal-ammoniac, which 
is made of chlorine and ammonia. 

4. Ammonia from Cheese. Am- 
monia may be obtained from cheese 
in the following manner. Place in a 
test tube a bit of cheese and some 
caustic potash, and heat over an 
alcohol lamp. The odor of ammo- 
nia will soon be perceived, and if a 
piece of turmeric paper be held over 
the tube it will be turned brown, 
showing that an alkali is present. 
The ammonia is formed by the union 
of the nitrogen and hydrogen which 
are present in cheese. 

ANAGRAMS. A game played 
with printed letters of the alphabet, 
like those used in playing LOGO- 
MACHY. Each player forms a word 
and then, mixing the letters compos- 
ing it, gives it to his right-hand 
neighbor, who is required to arrange 
the letters again in their proper 
order. This is the usual method, 
but as thus played Anagrams is 
rather an amusement than a game. 
It may be played as a game by re- 
quiring each player to give his word, 
at the same time, to each of the 
others. Whoever guesses all his 
words soonest, or guesses most of 
them in a given time, is declared 
winner. In this method no two per- 
sons have exactly the same list of 
words to solve. That all may be 
equal in this respect, some one not in 
the game may give the words to all. 

Forming Anagrams has long been 
a favorite amusement, and much in- 
genuity has been shown in trans- 
forming a word, by changing its let- 
ters into another defining it or related 
to it in some way. Some of the 
anagrams made in this way are as 
follows : 

Telegraph. Great help. 

Reformations. To sin far more. 

Old England. Golden land. 

The following was made by Dean 
Swift 



ANAMORPHOSES 



II 



ANAMORPHOSES 



Transubstantiation, Sin sat on a 
tin tar tub. 

The game of Anagrams is called 
in France Le jeu de mots (the Game 
of Words), and is played with bits 
of wood or bone resembling DOMI- 
NOES, having a capital letter on one 
end and a small one on the other. 

Alphabet Game. A kind of Ana- 
grams, where, instead of the actual 
letters of the word to be guessed, the 
guesser is given an arrangement of 
dots, single ones representing conso- 
nants, and double ones vowels. Thus, 
the word "Philadelphia" would be 
denoted thus : 



The guesser is allowed to ask " Is 
it a city ? " " Is it a person ? " or 
any similar question which can be 
answered by " Yes " or " No." The 
number of these questions can be 
limited by agreement. This game is 
called in Germany Das Buchstabir- 
spiel (the Letter Game). 

ANAMORPHOSES. Drawings in 
which the objects represented are 
twisted out of shape, but can be seen, 
in their proper proportions by using 
some special device. The simplest 
kind can be made as follows. Sup- 
pose Fig. I is the picture to be trans- 
formed. Divide it into squares, as 
shown. Then draw a straight line 
a<$(Fig. 2) equal to the side^4 /?of the 
square, divide it into the same num- 




Fig. i. 



ber of parts, and draw lines from each 
point of division to some point below 



as V. Draw VS parallel with the 
base line, and from any point S on 




Fig. 2. 

it draw a line to the point a. At the 
places where this crosses the other 
lines draw parallels to the base line. 
The figure a c db will now be divided 
into the same number of parts as the 
original square, but of a different 
shape. The picture is now re-drawn 
in this new figure, placing in each 
part what was in the corresponding 
square. The greater the number of 
squares into which the original pic- 
ture was divided, the more accurately 
this can be done. By looking at the 
distorted picture from a point near 
the paper just above V, it will appear 
in its right shape. This point varies 
according to the positions of the 
points V and S, but is easily found 
by trial. 

Another way of drawing the same 



12 



ANGLING 



kind of anamorphosis is to prick pin- 
holes in the original picture so as to 
trace the outlines, and then hold it 
upright just in front of a candle so 




that the light shining through the 
pin-holes forms the picture on a sheet 
of paper laid before it on the table. 
The outlines are then traced on this 



sheet by following the illuminated 
lines with a pencil, and the picture 
is afterward rilled in in detail. If 
the original picture be removed and 
the distorted one looked at with the 
eye placed exactly where the candle 
was, it will be seen in its proper 
shape. (See Fig. 3.) 

Anamorphoses are sometimes 
made, which appear of their proper 
shape when viewed in a cylindrical 
or conical mirror. Such distorted 
pictures can often be bought at toy 
stores, but they are very difficult to 
draw properly. 

ANGLING, or FISH POND. A 
game played by an even number of 
persons, who angle for toy tish with 
a miniature pole and hook and line. 
The fish, which maybe made to look 
like real fish, or may be simply little 
pieces of wood, are fitted with rings 




Angling. 



about 1-16 of an inch in diameter, 
and have on them numbers in regu- 
lar order. For four players, about 




" Fish." 

forty fish, are generally provided. 
The players sit opposite each other, 
and each is given five fish for his 



" private pond," which are placed in 
front of him, while the rest are put 
in the middle of the table to form the 
" large pond." 

The game begins by two of the 
players fishing in each other's ponds, 
each holding his pole, and trying to 
lift one of the fish by passing the 
hook through the ring. The first 
one to do so cries, " Caught ! " and 
his opponent takes the fish in his 
hand, while the successful angler 



ANORTHOSCOPE 



ANORTHOSCOPE 



guesses whether its number is odd 
or even. If the guess be correct he 
takes the fish into his own pond, and 
the same pair fish again as before, 
but in the large pond. As long as 
one of them is successful, the same 
pair continue to fish, alternately in 
each other's ponds and the large 
pond. When there is a wrong guess, 
the fish is put into the large pond, if it 
has been taken from a private pond, 
and into the opponent's pond if from 
the large pond, and the next two 
players begin to fish. If the players 
catch fish at the same time, the one 
who first calls out "Caught," is 
given the preference. If both call at 
once, he who guesses correctly is 
preferred, and if both guess correctly, 
the fish are returned to their respec- 
tive ponds for another trial. The 
game is ended when any pond, large 
or private, is empty, and he wins who 
has most fish. If two have the same 
number, the sum of the numbers 
marked on the fish decides the game. 
When only two play, each private 
pond should contain ten fish. 

Angling is much played as a PRO- 
GRESSIVE GAME. When it is thus 
played, an increased number of fish 
is needed ; each player may be pro- 
vided with a rod and line, or there 
may be two for each table. 

ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, AND 
MINERAL. See TWENTY QUES- 
TIONS. 

ANORTHOSCOPE. An optical 
toy which distorts figures viewed 
through it. It consists of two discs, 
on one of which the figure to be 
viewed is painted, while in the other 
there are slits through which the 
observer looks, as in the ZOETROPE. 
The discs are so arranged as to 
revolve in opposite directions, and 
the disc bearing the figures is made 
transparent, so that it may be seen 
by holding it up toward the light. 
The figures are usually so drawn 
that when viewed by the unaided eye 
they are unrecognizable, but when 
placed in the anorthoscope they are 
restored to their proper shape. The 



arrangement and results of the toy 
depend somewhat on the relative 
velocity of the disks. We will sup- 
pose that the disk bearing the slit is 
made to revolve once, while that 
with the figure does so four times. 
Then there must be four slits in the 
front disk, arranged thus -J-, and, 
whatever figure may be drawn on 
the other disk, five distorted figures, 
all alike, will be seen by looking 
through the slits. ' The illustrations 
on page 14 show the appearance of 
two designs, first as seen with the 
naked eye, and then through the slits. 

The reason why the toy produces 
this effect will now be given. First 
suppose there is only one slit in the 
front disk, and only a dot, instead of 
a picture, on the other. Suppose the 
disk to start with the dot just behind 
the slit. As the back disk turns four 
times as fast as the front one, the dot 
will pass behind the slit four times 
before they get around into the same 
position again. Thus the eye will 
see five dots on the rear disk instead 
of one. If there are four slits at 
right angles the result will be the 
same, for each will pass the dot in 
the same place as the others. But 
there cannot be more than four. The 
same will be true of a large figure as 
of a dot, but each of the multiplied 
figures will be shut together, like a 
fan, so as to extend only one-fifth as 
far around the circle as before. That 
is, supposing the circle to be divided 
into 360 degrees, if the picture extend- 
ed around sixty degrees, it will appear 
in the anorthoscope to extend over 
only twelve degrees. This shutting 
together is a consequence of the rapid 
movement of the rear disk past the 
front one. If this reduction in size 
took place in all directions, the figure 
would be the same shape, only 
smaller, but it takes place in only one 
direction, that is, around the circle, 
hence the figure is twisted out of 
shape. 

A/iy figure may be drawn on the 
disk so that it will appear in its proper 
shape when viewed through the an- 



ANORTHOSCOPE 



ANORTHOSCOPE 



orthoscope. Suppose the figure to 
be that of a card as shown in the 
illustration. Draw lines from the 
center of the disk through the angles 
of the card, and others to the points 
I, 2, 3, etc., at intervals of any de- 
sired number of degrees, say five, as 



in the plan on page 15. The position 
of the card should be so arranged 
that the lines passing through the 
corners will be multiples of five de- 
grees apart. (The degrees may be 
laid off with a curved scale, called 
a protractor, sold by any dealer 




Anorthoscope Designs. 



in drawing materials.) Then draw 
an equal number of lines from the 
center, twenty -five degrees apart 
to the points i', 2', 3', 4', etc., repre- 
senting the first lines opened out like 
a fan. Take any line of the figure, 
and measure the distance, from the 
center, of the point where it crossed 
each of the radii first drawn, and 



make a dot on the corresponding 
new radius at just that distance. 
For instance, measure the distance 
from the center to the left-hand cor- 
ner on the radius drawn to i, and then 
lay it off on the radius drawn to i'. 
Join all the dots so made by a curved 
line, and do the same with all the 
other lines of the figure. Care must 



ANORTIIOSCOPE 



ARCHERY 



be taken that the original figure does 
not take up more than one-fifth of 
the disk ; otherwise the adjoining 
figures, as seen in the anorthoscope, 
will overlap. 

Anorthoscopes can be made which 
will multiply the figure seen as many 
times as desired, shutting it together 
to a corresponding degree. The 
number of figures seen is always one 
greater than the number of revolu- 
tions the back disk makes while the 
front one is going around once, and 
the number of slits, always one less 
than the number of figures, must be 
disposed at equal distances around 
the disk. Thus, if it makes eight to 
the front disk's one, nine figures will 
be seen, each of which reaches only 
one-ninth as far around the circle as 
the original. In this case there must 
be eight slits. 

The anorthoscope may be made to 
work in many other ways besides the 
one described here. If the disks re- 
volve in the same direction the num- 
ber of revolutions can be so adjusted 
as to combine several figures into 



Plan for Drawing. 

one, instead of expanding one into 
several. By slightly varying these 
figures an effect is obtained like that 
of the ZOETROPE. 

The anorthoscope is not commonly 
sold at toy stores. The disks can 
easily be made as above described, 



but it is more difficult to make the 
disks revolve at exactly the proper 
rate. This can be effected by means 
of cog-wheels arranged as shown in 
the illustration. If the number of 
cogs on the larger of the two parallel 
wheels be four times that on the 
smaller, the latter will revolve four 





Wheels for Anorthoscope. 

times as fast. The number on tin 
crank-wheel is immaterial. The ai- 
rangement can be made at any 
machine shop. 

The anorthoscope is the invention 
of Prof. Plateau, a Belgian scientist. 
The name is from the Greek anor- 
thos, crooked, and xkopein, to see. 

ARCHERY. The best bows are 
made of a single piece of Italian or 
Spanish yew, or of two pieces joined 
at the handle, but good bows are 
made also of lancewood or ash. A 
good bow is largest in the middle 
and tapers toward the ends, which 
are usually tipped with horn with 
notches to hoid the cord. The force 
required to draw a 28-inch arrow to 
its head in any bow measures that 
bow's strength, which is expressed in 
pounds. Ttie distance to the head 
of such an arrow is 27 inches, so if a 
4O-pound weight, tied to the middle 
of a bow string, will pull it just 27 
inches below the bow (held horizon- 
tally), the latter is a 4o-pound bow. 
The best arrows are made of red 
deal wood with a piece of harder 
wood fastened to them at the point 
or " pile." At the opposite end three 
strips of feather are glued, to make 



ARCHERY 



16 



ARCHERY 



the arrow fly accurately. Sometimes 
the feathers are cut in triangular 
shape and sometimes they are 
curved. The latter method, called 
balloon feathering, is generally con- 



sidered the best, though perhaps not 
the easiest. The best arrows are 
made in England, and their weight 
is expressed in English shillings and 
pence. The regulation length is 28 




Bracer and Glove. 



inches for six-foot bows, and 25 for 
women's bows, which are from four 
and a half to five feet long. 

Thimbles of leather (called " finger 
stalls "), open at the end, are usually 
worn on the forefinger, middle-finger, 




Target. 

and third finger of the right hand, so 
that the finger tips may not be blis- 
tered by the bow-string. They 
should fit closely and should be of 
as thin material as will properly 



guard the fingers. Other forms of 
protection for the fingers may be 
substituted. Many archers wear also 
a " bracer," or arm guard of hard 
leather, fastened by straps to the left 
arm near the wrist, to protect it from 
the bow-string. A leather or tin 
case called a quiver may be fastened 
to the archer's belt to hold his arrows, 
and a tassel of worsted is appended 
to wipe the dirt from them. The 
targets used in archery matches are 
made of a pad of straw covered on 
one side with cloth, and hung on a 
tripod so that its middle is about 
four feet from the ground. In the 
center is a gilt, or yellow spot, called 
the gold (or sometimes the " bull's 
eye"), and around this in order are 
bands of red, blue, black, and white. 
The archer scores a larger or smaller 
number as he strikes one or another 
of the colors. Thus : 

An arrow in the rjold generally counts 9 
" " " " red " *' 7 

" " " " blue " " 5 

" black 3 

" " " " white " i 

The score is sometimes kept by 
pricking the shots on a card shaped 
like a target, as shown in the illus- 
tration on page 17. 



ARCHERY 



ARCHERY 



The targets most used in England 
were formerly supported on Butts, 
walls of sodded earth serving as 
backing for discs of paper. Butts 
should be 6 feet high and 8 feet long. 
Instead of the backing of straw sold 
at toy stores, a box filled with earth 
may be used. Another simple kind 
of target is a " clout," or disc of 
pasteboard, stuck in the cleft end of 
a stick, the other end of which is 
pushed into the ground. 

An archer's equipments are often 
kept in a cupboard called an Ascham, 
after Roger Ascham, a writer on 
archery. It is shaped like a small 
wardrobe, about six feet high and 
three wide. About three feet from 



the bottom is a shelf with holes in it, 
in which are supported the bows 
and arrows, while hooks on the sides 
bear the bracer, gloves, and other 
necessary articles. 

Roving. Instead of firing from 
the same point, archers sometimes 
move about and shoot at improvised 
targets, which is called " roving." 
One of the party of archers selects a 
tree, or other object, to be shot at, 
and he who hits it is allowed to 
choose the next one. If no one hits 
it, he whose arrow falls nearest is 
allowed the choice. 

Hunting. Expert archers say 
that hunting with a bow and arrow 
is a more fascinating sport than 




Score Card. 



hunting with a gun. The shooting 
makes no noise, and so does not 
frighten the game. Shooting at 
wild game requires more skill than 
shooting at an ordinary target. Good 
practice for shooting at birds may be 
obtained by using a black rubber 
ball, about four inches in diameter, 
suspended by a string from the limb 
of a tree. 

The rules governing archery 
matches or " meetings " are given 
below. 

The first thing for the beginner in 
archery is to learn to " string" his bow 
properly ; that is, to fit the bow string 
to it so that it will be ready for use. 



When unstrung the bow is nearly 
straight. The bow-string has a loop 
at each end like that in the illustra- 
tion. Slipping the larger loop over 
one end of the bow held upper- 
most, and sliding it down below the 
" nock " or groove for the string, the 
archer fits the smaller one into the 
lower nock, and then taking the 
middle of the bow in his right hand 
presses the lower end of the bow on 
the ground in the hollow of his right 
foot, the back of the bow next to the 
foot, as shown in the illustration. By 
then pulling with the right hand and 
pushing with the left, near the upper 
end of the bow, it will be bent, and 



ARCHERY 



18 



ARCHERY 



at the same time the left hand can 
push the upper loop into its nock. 




Bow-string Loop. 

The bow-string should be two or 
three inches shorter than the bow. 
In a strung bow the string should 
be about six inches from the wood at 
the middle in a six-foot bow, and 
correspondingly nearer in a smaller 
one. When the bow has been 
strung the archer holds it upright by 
its middle in his left hand, and 
taking an arrow in his right, fits its 
notch to the middle of the bow- 
string, the shaft being on the left 
side of the bow and resting on the 
left hand. He then hooks the first 
three fingers of his right hand around 
the string, so that it rests on the 
finger-balls, the end of the arrow 
being between the first and second ; 
and extending the left arm, pulls the 
string with the right, at the same 
time drawing the arrow with it till 
its head nearly touches the bow. 
Then both string and arrow are re- 
leased, by unhooking the fingers 
gently, and the shot is made. The 
best posture for the archer, while 
shooting, is with the left side toward 



the target, the body nearly erect, 
and the feet about six inches apart. 
The best archers hold the bow up- 
right while shooting, but lean the 
top a little to the right, which keeps 
the arrow in place and enables 
the string to be drawn more 
easily. 

Accuracy in shooting depends 
chiefly on three things : the draw, 
the aim, and the release. It requires 
long practice to draw the arrow and 
string back steadily, and if this is not 
done, a good shot cannot be made. 
The arrow should be drawn back to 
a point just under the chin, and not 
to the eye, which the beginner may 
think is necessary for a correct aim. 
It is of no use to " sight " along the 
arrow, for it does not fly straight to 
the mark, but describes a curve in 
the air. If the arrow is pointed 
directly at the target, except at very 
short distances, it will strike the 
ground in front of the mark. This 
is equally true of a firearm ; the bul- 
let moves in a curve, not a straight 
line, but it moves very fast, and so, 
except for very long distances, the 







I 1 ,--** 

, 15 / 

'Ij, // 





Stringing. 

curve is very flat, and the gun or 
pistol can be aimed at the mark. 



ARCHERY 



ARCHERY 



But the arrow moves much more 
slowly, and sixty yards away from 
the target it must be pointed above 
the target. The point which the 
arrow-head must seem to cover at 
any particular distance is called the 
" point of aim " for that distance, 
and is best learned by trial. The 
string should always be drawn back 
to the same spot before taking aim, 
otherwise the arrow-head would seem 
to the eye to cover different points. 
The best plan is to draw the arrow 
back three-fourths of its length, then 
pause an instant to take aim, and then 
draw it the rest of the way and loose 




Shooting. 

it. The release, or loosing the ar- 
row, requires great care, as it is easy, 
in letting go, to move the arrow to 
one side, thereby destroying the aim. 
The fingers should slip easily from 
the string, and should not follow it. 
One who hopes to become a good 
archer should practice the draw, the 
aim, and the release, till he has per- 
fect command of them, and should 
always perform them in the same 
way, never changing to try experi- 
ments. 

At archery club meetings, the con- 



testants generally take turns, each 
shooting three arrows at a turn, un- 
til each has shot a number previously 
agreed upon. This entire number is 
called a " round." The rounds gen- 
erally shot are : 

The " York Round," consisting of 
72 arrows at 100 yards. 
48 ' 80 ' 

24 " " 60 ' 

144 arrows. 

The " American Round," consisting of 
30 arrows at 60 yards. 
30 " 50 ' 

30 ' 40 

90 arrows. 

The " Columbia Round" (for women), consist- 
ing of 

24 arrows at 50 yards. 
24 " 40 

24 " 3 

72 arrows. 

Where a large number are to 
shoot, several targets are used, and 
the contestants are divided into par- 
ties, each of which uses the same 
target throughout the match. 

RULES FOR ARCHERY MEETINGS. 

1. A Field Captain shall be ap- 
pointed who shall have entire control 
of the ranges, targets and order of 
shooting, and he shall appoint a 
Target Captain for each target, who 
shall direct the order of shouting at 
his target. 

2. Each Target Captain shall ap- 
point a Scorer and a Herald to act 
at his target. The Scorer shall keep 
a record of each arrow shot, upon 
blanks provided for the purpose by 
the association. The Herald shall 
announce the result of each shot. 

3. An arrow must remain in the 
target until the value of the " hit " is 
recorded, otherwise the " hit " shall 
not be counted. 

4. The targets shall be four feet 
in diameter, and placed on easels, 
the center of the "gold " being four 
feet from the ground. 

5. The " gold " shall be 9 T ' 5 in 
diameter, and each ring shall be 4 T 8 ff 
inches in width. 

6. The value of colors shall be : 



ARCHERY 



20 



ARCHERY 



Gold, 9 ; red, 7 ; blue, 5 ; black, .3 ; 
white, I. 

7. In case an arrow cuts two 
colors, it shall count as having hit 
the inner one. 

8. All disputes shall be referred 
for decision to the Captain of the 
target where they arise. 

9. Every archer shall shoot with 
arrows bearing his mark, and every 
arrow leaving the bow shall be 
deemed as having been shot, unless 
the archer can reach it with his bow 
while standing inside the line from 
which he is shooting. 

10. No person, unless competing 
for prizes, shall be allowed within 
the bounds of the Archers' grounds 
during the progress of the shooting. 

Cross-Bow. The ancient cross- 
bow is described below, under His- 
tory. The modern toy is a bow 
fixed on a gun-stock, and fired by 
a trigger like that in the illustration. 
The bow-string, when drawn, is 
hooked over the trigger and the 
arrow is placed in a groove. The 
trigger, which turns on a pivot, is 
held at the bottom by an elastic 
band, which keeps it in position. 




Cross-bow. 

The arrows shot by a cross-bow 
are properly called bolts, and are 
shorter than those shot from a long- 
bow. Pieces of wood three or four 
inches long, loaded at the head by 
driving in a nail, make good bolts. 

A small cross-bow, often called a 
watch-spring gun, can be made by 
using a piece of watch-spring for a 
bow. The spring should be about six 
inches long. Little arrows, or shot, 
may be used in such a gun, which 



will carry about 50 feet. In firing 
shot, fit the gun with a tin barrel 
made of a blow-gun tube. A stick 
fitting loosely in it has the bow- 
string passed through a hole in its 
rear end. The spring may also be 
arranged as shown in the illustration 
on page 21. The stick must be so 
long that when the bow is bent the 
end does not pull out of the tube. 

Elastic Cross-bow. This bow is 
made of a stiff piece of wood, as it is 
not intended to bend. Its convex 
side is toward the shooter. The 
string is made of strong india-rubber 
cord whose elasticity sends the arrow 
or bolt. 

History. The bow and arrow 
were in use ail over the world in 
times so ancient that we have no 
record of them. This is proved from 
arrow-heads dug up in many places ; 
and from other things found with 
them we know that they were made 
long before men were acquainted 
with the use of metals, in the Stone 
Age, so called because all weapons 
and tools were then made of stone. 
These ancient arrow-heads, some- 
times six inches in length by two in 
breadth, were used both in war and 
in hunting enormous wild animals 
now extinct. The earliest records 
we have tell of skilled archers among 
the Asiatic nations and the Egyp- 
tians ; and the first explorers of the 
American continent found the natives 
expert in the use of the bow. Among 
the best archers of antiquity were the 
Persians, Parthians, Numidians, and 
Cretans. The archers in the Persian 
army were so numerous and let fly 
such clouds of arrows that a Persian 
once boasted to a Greek that they 
would darken the sun at mid-day. 
The Greeks and Romans employed 
foreign archers. The poet Virgil 
describes an archery match where a 
bird tied to a mast was the target. 
One marksman cut the string with 
his arrow, and as the bird flew away 
another killed it. 

Archery was practiced in England 
from the earliest times, but the Sax- 



ARCHERY 



21 



ARCHERY 



ons and Danes used the bow prob- 
ably only for hunting. The illustra- 
tion from an old manuscript shows an 
ancient Saxon bow and arrow. The 
Normans, however, made it a military 
weapon, and their archers won the 
battle of Hastings, which brought 
England under Norman rule. From 
this time the English long-bowmen 



became the most famous in the world, 
and did much toward making their 
country great and powerful. The 
kings of England were so anxious 
that skill in archery should not de- 
cline, that they frequently discour- 
aged and even forbade other amuse- 
ments and exercises. The price of 
bows was regulated by law. In the 




Watch-spring Gun. 



reign of Edward IV. dealers were 
compelled to sell them at three shil- 
lings and fourpence each (about 83 
cents), but in Queen Mary's time the 
price was fixed at six shillings and 
eightpence ($1.56) for the best bows, 
and two shillings (50 cents) for an 
inferior kind. 



Roger Ascham, an Englishman, 
who wrote, in 1544, a book on arch- 
ery called " Toxophilus " (the bow- 
lover), gives directions for shooting 
which are much the same as those 
approved by good archers to-day. 
He says that the ancient style of 
drawing the bow was to the right 




Egyptian Archer. 



breast, but he prefers that it be 
drawn to the ear, the method of the 
English archers. He advises young 
archers to shoot at lights in the 
night, that they may learn to look at 
the mark in aiming, and not at the 
arrow. 

Ancient archers were skilled in 
shooting long distances. By an act 



of Parliament passed in the reign 
of Henry VIII., persons who had 
reached the age of twenty-four years 
were forbidden to shoot at any mark 
less than 220 yards' distance. But 
the statement, often made, that a 
good archer could hit a peeled willow 
wand at 300 yards, is believed by 
expert modern archers to be an 



ARCHERY 



22 



ARCHERY 



absurdity. Prince Arthur, son of 
Henry VII., was a fine shot with the 
bow, and from him good marksmen 
were frequently called Arthur. Henry 
VIII., while attending an archery 



meeting, was so pleased with the 
shooting of a Londoner named Bar- 
low, who lived at Shoreditch, that he 
gave him in jest the title of " Duke 
of Shoreditch," and the captain of 




Saxon Bow and Arrow. 



the London archers was long known 
by this name. In 1583,3! a grand 
shooting match, the " Duke," with a 
retinue of mock marquises and earls, 
and a throng of about 7000 follow- 
ers, all quaintly dressed, paraded in 
London. 

The cross-bow or arbalast, which 
came into use about the nth century, 
was more in vogue on the continent 
of Europe than the long-bow; but 
in England the archers disliked the 
new weapon, because it took less 
skill, and laws were passed against 
it. It consisted of a short bow fixed 
at the end of a stock somewhat like 
a gun-stock, on the top of which was 
a barrel slit so as to let the string be 
pulled back until caught by the trig- 
ger. When the trigger was pulled, 
the string was released and springing 
through the slit drove the arrow out 
of the barrel. 

The best arbalasts had steel bows, 
and required the aid of a crank to 
draw them. They shot short arrows, 
called bolts or quarrels, so swiftly 
and with such force that they often 
pierced heavy armor. The cross- 
bow was the most deadly weapon in 
the world before the invention of 
fire-arms. The use of the bow sur- 
vived long after that event, but when 
the improvement of musketry caused 
the bow to be given up as a weapon, 
archery became merely an amuse- 
,nent and remains so at the present 



day. In 1844 there was a great re- 
vival of the sport in England, and 
there are now in that country more 
than eighty large clubs, some of 




Arbalast. 

which are centuries old. In the 
United States scientific archery has 
only recently come into favor, though 
the bow has always been used as a 



ARMY SOLITAIRE 



ARMY SOLITAIRE 



toy. In 1879 was formed a National 
Archery Association, which holds 
meetings every year and awards gold 
medals as prizes. 

ARMY SOLITAIRE. A SOLI- 
TAIRE game of CARDS, played with 
one full pack. The first card taken 
from the pack, whatever it may be, 
and the similar cards of the other 
suits are called foundation cards. 
These cards whenever they ap- 
pear are placed to form the 
corners of a square of nine cards, 



places being reserved for them till 
they appear. From these founda- 
tions, " towers," one of each suit, 
must be built up by placing on each- 
in order the other cards of the same 
suit up to the King. If the founda- 
tion card is an Ace, the tower will 
thus include all the cards, but other- 
wise not. Other cards than the foun- 
dations are placed to form the five 
remaining cards of the square, till all 
the places are occupied. After that, 
a card may be placed on any of them 




Shooting at the Butts with the Cross-Bow. 



which ranks just above or just below 
it, without regarding suit. If a card, 
which will go on neither the towers 
nor in the " reserve corps," as the 
other piles are called, is turned, it 
must be laid aside to form " stock." 
The top card of any pile of the re- 
serve corps may be placed on any 
other pile, either a tower or another 
reserve pile, if it belongs there. 
Thus, a Ten on a reserve pile may 
be put on a Nine of the same suit on 
a tower; or on a Nine or Knave of 
any suit on another reserve pile, and 



when any pile of the latter is entirely 
used, the top card of the stock is 
taken to fill the vacant space. When 
all the cards are used, the stock is 
shuffled and played. This is usually 
done only once, but sometimes the 
player continues to do so till he com- 
pletes his towers, measuring his skill 
by the number of shufflings of the 
stock. Skill is required in arranging 
the reserve corps so that it will best 
aid the building of the towers. The 
game is often more difficult with a 
small tower to build (as when a Nine 



ARTIFICIAL WOOD 



24 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



or Ten is the foundation) than with a 
higher one, for the useless cards clog 
the reserve corps. Sometimes, in- 
stead of stopping at the King, the 
towers are built higher, going on 
with the Ace, Two, Three, etc., till 
the whole suit is used, ending with 
the card just below the foundation 
card. Sometimes the reserve piles 
are built only downward instead of 
in either direction. This game of 
Solitaire is said to have been much 
played by the soldiers during our 
Civil War. 

ARTIFICIAL WOOD. A solution 
of copper in strong ammonia has the 
property of dissolving woody fibre. 
To make it, half fill a quart bottle 
with ammonia and put into it a 
bunch of straight copper wires, of 
such a length that about half will be 
above the water. They should be 
allowed to stand thus several months, 
the bottle being shaken occasionally 
and the cork removed for a few 
minutes once in a while to admit 
more air, which is necessary to the 
formation of the solution. 

Cut old newspapers into disks 
about an inch in diameter, and clip 
the disks on the edges so that they 
can be readily molded to a curved 
surface. They may now be partially 
dissolved in the solution, and will 
then adhere closely to form a solid 
mass, like wood. 

The disks are best put in shape 
over a mold. For instance, if a thin 
glass flask be used, they can be 
molded over its surface, and then 
the flask can be broken by a sudden 
blow, leaving a wooden bottle when 
the fragments are removed. The 
solution should be poured, a little at 
a time, into a flat dish, and frequently 
renewed. The disks are soaked in 
it for a few minutes, till they feel 
slippery, and then molded over the 
bottle. Rubber finger-tips may be 
used to prevent injury to the fingers 
from the strong ammonia. After 
one layer has been applied, another 
is put on, till the desired thickness is 
obtained. In the same way, after a 



little practice, other articles may be 
made. The paper disks are not 
simply stuck together, like paste- 
board, but form a solid wooden mass, 
and may be soaked in boiling water 
without coming apart. 

ATHLETIC GAMES, properly 
speaking, include all manly sports 
requiring physical strength, such as 
BASE BALL, FOOT BALL, FENCING, 
and the like, but in the ordinary use 
of the term it means only those in 
which each man contends for him- 
self alone. The sports in which 
several work together as a " team " 
are treated under their own titles. 
In this article are described only 
those feats included in the champion- 
ship contests of athletic societies, to- 
gether with a few additional ones 
sometimes seen at collegiate and 
other contests. The games usually 
found on the programmes of the 
Amateur Athletic Union, the chief 
athletic association in the United 
States (see p. 38), are as follows: 

ico yards dash, 220 yards dash, 
One-quarter mile run, One-half mile 
run, and the One mile run ; also, 
Running five miles. 

Hurdle racing, 120 yards with hur- 
dles 3 ft. 6 in., 220 yards with hurdles 
2 ft. 6 in. 

Walking one mile, Walking three 
miles, Walking seven miles. 

Running high jump, and the 
Broad jump. 

Pole leaping, Putting the shot, 
Throwing the hammer, Throwing 
56 Ib. weight, Bicycle racing, Indi- 
vidual Tug of War, and Tug of War 
with teams of five men. 

Each of these games is called an 
"event." 

Rule I. Officials. Section I. All 
amateur meetings shall be under the 
direction of : A Games Committee, 
One Referee, Two or more Inspect- 
ors, Three Judges at Finish, Three 
or more Field Judges, Three Time- 
keepers, One Judge of Walking, One 
Starter, One Clerk of the Course, 
One Scorer, One Marshal. 

Sec. 2. If deemed necessary, as- 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



sistants may be provided for the 
Judge of Walking, the Clerk of the 
Course, the Scorer, and the Marshal, 
and an Official Announcer may be 
appointed. 

Rule II. The Games Committee. 
The Games Committee at any club 
meeting shall be composed of mem- 
bers of the Club holding the meet- 
ing. 

This Committee shall have juris- 
diction of all matter not assigned by 
these rules to the Referee or other 
games officials. (See also Rule XV). 

Rule III. The Referee shall de- 
cide all questions relating to the 
actual conduct of the meeting, whose 
final settlement is not otherwise 
covered by these rules. 

He alone shall have the power to 
change the order of events as laid 
down in the official programme, to 
add to, or to alter the announced 
arrangement of heats in any event. 

Rule IV. The Inspectors. It 
shall be the duty of an Inspector to 
stand at such point as the Referee 
may designate ; to watch the com- 
petition closely, and in case of a 
claim of foul to report to the Referee 
what he saw of the incident. 

Such Inspectors are merely as- 
sistants to the Referee, to whom they 
shall report, and have no power to 
make any decisions. 

Rule V. The Judges at Finish 
shall determine the order of finish- 
ing of contestants, and shall arrange 
among themselves as to noting the 
winner, 2d, 3d, 4th, etc., as the case 
may require. 

Their decision in this respect shall 
be without appeal, and in case of 
disagreement a majority shall govern. 

Rule VI. The Field Judges 
shall make an accurate measurement, 
and keep a tally of all trials of com- 
petitors in the high and broad jumps, 
the pole vault, the weight compe- 
titions, and the tug of war. 

They shall act as judges of these 
events, and their decisions shall like- 
wise be without appeal. In case of 
disagreement a majority shall govern. 



In all weight competitions and jumps 
for distance, a small flag, placed in 
the ground, shall denote the best 
throw or jump as the contest pro- 
gresses. 

Rule VII. The Timekeepers 
shall individually time all events 
where time record is called for. 
Should two of the three watches 
mark the same time and the third 
disagree, the time marked by the two 
watches shall be accepted. Should 
all three disagree, the time marked 
by the intermediate watch shall be 
accepted. 

Theflas/t of the pistol shall denote 
the actual time of starting. 

In case only two watches are held 
on an event, and they fail to agree, 
the longest time of the two shall be 
accepted. 

Rule VIII. The Starter shall 
have sole jurisdiction over the com- 
petitors after the Clerk of the Course 
has properly placed them in their 
positions for the start. 

The method of starting shall be by 
pistol report, except that in time 
handicap races the word "go " shall 
be used. 

An actual start shall not be ef- 
fected until the pistol has been pur- 
posely discharged after the competi- 
tors have been warned to get 
ready. 

When any part of a competitor 
shall touch the ground in front of his 
mark before the starting signal is 
given, it shall be considered a false 
start. 

Penalties for false starting shall be 
inflicted by the Starter, as follows: 

In races up to and including 300 
yards, the competitor shall be put 
back one yard for the first and an- 
other yard for the second attempt ; 
in races over 300 yards and including 
600 yards,~two yards for the first and 
two more for the second attempt ; 
in races over 600 yards and including 
1000 yards, three yards for the first 
and three more for the second at- 
tempt; in races over 1000 yards and 
including one mile, five yards for the 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



26 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



first and five more for the second at- 
tempt ; in all races over one mile, ten 
yards for the first and ten more for the 
second attempt. In all cases the 
third false start shall prevent his com- 
peting in that event. 

The Starter shall also rule out of 
that event any competitor who at- 
tempts to advance himself from his 
mark, as prescribed in the official 
programme, after he has given the 
warning to " get ready." 

Rule IX. The Clerk of the 
Course shall be provided with the 
names and the numbers of all entered 
competitors, and he shall notify them 
to appear at the starting line before 
the start in each event in which they 
are entered. 

Rule X. The Judge of Walking 
shall have sole power to determine 
the fairness or unfairness of walking, 
and his rulings thereon shall be final 
and without appeal. 

He shall caution any competitor 
whenever walking unfairly ; the third 
caution to disqualify, except that he 
shall immediately disqualify any com- 
petitor when walking unfairly during 
the last 220 yards of a race. 

He shall control his assistants, and 
assign to them such of his duties as 
he may deem proper. 

Rule XL The Scorer shall re- 
cord the order in which each com- 
petitor finishes his event, together 
with the time furnished him by the 
Timekeeper. 

He shall keep a tally of the laps 
made by each competitor in races 
covering more than one lap, and shall 
announce by means of a bell, or 
otherwise, when the leading man en- 
ters the last lap. 

He shall control his assistants, and 
assign to them such of his duties as 
he may deem best. 

Rule XII. The Marshal shall 
have full police charge of the enclo- 
sure, and shall prevent any but offi- 
cials and actual competitors from 
entering or remaining therein. 

He shall control his assistants, and 
assign them their duties. 



Rule XIII. The Official An- 
nouncer shall receive from the Scorer 
and Field Judges the result of each 
event, and announce the same by voice 
or by means of a bulletin board. 

Rule XI V. Competitors shall re- 
port to the Clerk of the Course im- 
mediately upon their arrival at the 
place of meeting, and shall be pro- 
vided by that official with their proper 
numbers, which must be worn con- 
spicuously by the competitors when 
competing, and without which they 
shall not be allowed to start. 

Each competitor shall inform him- 
self of the time of starting, and shall 
be promptly at the starting-point of 
each competition in which he is en- 
tered, and there report to the Clerk 
of the Course. 

Under no condition shall the at- 
tendants be allowed to accompany 
competitors at the start or during any 
competition except in match races, 
where special agreements may be 
made. 

Rule XV. Protests against any 
entered competitor may be made ver- 
bally or in writing to the referee, or 
a member of the Games Committee, 
before or during the meeting. If 
possible the Committee shall decide 
such protest at once. If the nature 
of the protest or the necessity of ob- 
taining testimony prevents an imme- 
diate decision, the competitor shall 
be allowed to compete under protest, 
and the protest shall be decided by 
the Games Committee within one 
week, unless its subject be the ama- 
teur standing of the competitor, in 
which case the Games Committee 
must report such protest within forty- 
eight hours to the Secretary of the 
A. A. U. 

Rule X VI. Track Measure- 
ment. All distances run or walked 
shall be measured upon a line eighteen 
inches outward from the inner edge 
of the track, except that in races on 
straightaway tracks the distance shall 
be measured in a direct line from the 
starting mark to the finishing line. 

Rule X VII. The Course. Each 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



competitor shall keep in his respec- 
tive position from start to finish in 
all races on straightaway tracks, and 
in all races on tracks with one or 
more turns he shall not cross to the 
inner edge of the track, except when 
he is at least six feet in advance of 
his nearest competitor. 

The Referee shall disqualify from 
that event any competitor who will- 
fully pushes against, impedes, crosses 
the course of, or in any way interferes 
with another competitor. 

The Referee shall disqualify from 
further participation in the games, 
any contestant competing to lose, to 
coach, or in any way impede the 
chances of another competitor either 
in a trial or final contest. 

Rule XVIII. The Finish of the 
course shall be represented by a line 
between two finishing posts, drawn 
across and at right angles to the sides 
of the track, and three feet above 
which line shall be placed a tape 
attached at either end to the finishing 
posts. A finish shall be counted 
when any part of the winner's body, 
except his hands or arms, shall touch 
the tape at the finish line. The tape 
is to be considered the finishing line 
for the winner, but the order of fin- 
ishing across the track line shall de- 
termine the positions of the other 
competitors. 

A description of each of the stand- 
ard events, except the Bicycle race 
and the Tug of War, which are de- 
scribed separately, will now be given. 
A list of the best records in each is 
given in the Appendix. 

Men who engage in athletic sports 
for a money prize or for a portion of 
the gate receipts are termed profes- 
sional athletes, and are not allowed 
to compete in amateur contests. The 
National Amateur Athletic Union 
has adopted the following definition 
of an Amateur : 

" One who has not entered in an 
open competition ; or for either a 
stake, public or admission money or 
entrance fee ; or under a fictitious 
name ; or has not competed with or 



against a professional for any prize 
or where admission fee is charged ; 
or who has not instructed, pursued 
or assisted in the pursuit of athletic 
exercises as a means of livelihood, or 
for gain or any emolument ; or whose 
membership of any Athletic Club of 
any kind was not brought about or 
does not continue, because of any 
mutual understanding, express or 
implied, whereby his becoming or 
continuing a member of such Club 
would be of any pecuniary benefit to 
him whatever, direct or indirect, and 
who shall in other and all respects 
conform to the rules and regulations 
of this organization, will^ be con- 
sidered an Amateur." 

An open competition is one in 
which any one who wishes may enter. 

Walking. It is very difficult to dis- 
tinguish between walking and run- 
ning, and on this account many so- 
called " walking matches " are made 




Slow Stride. 

what is called " go as you please" 
matches; that is, the contestant is 
allowed to walk, run, jump, or move 
in any way he chooses, so long as he 
receives no aid. To be what is 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



28 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



called a " fair " walker, the athlete 
must touch both heel and toe to the 
ground, first the former and then the 




Free Stride. 



latter, he must not bend the knee 
while his foot is on the ground, and 
he must never have both feet in the 
air at once. The difficulty experi- 
enced in justly deciding whether a 



walker is fair or not has led to many 
disputes. A fast walk, following the 
rules, is not a graceful gait nor a 
natural one, and can be learned only 
by practice. The illustrations show 
two different kinds of strides. 

Running. Running any distance 
from 100 to 400 yards is called 
" sprinting," while covering all dis- 
tances of a mile or over is termed 
long-distance running. To make 
quick time, especially in sprinting, a 
good start is essential, and many 
methods of starting have been 
adopted by skilled runners. Some 
crouch down, placing the left foot 
forward, holding the right arm out, 
and the left parallel with the right 
leg; some stand with both heels 
together, jumping forward at the 
flash of the pistol, and others stand 
with one side in advance of the other. 
(Not allowable by U. A. A. rules.) 

It has been found almost impossi- 
ble to time a short run with perfect 
accuracy. The timing is done with 
a " stop watch " which is arranged 
with a long, fine pointer-hand, which 
moves completely around its dial once 
every minute, and with a small spring 




Start of Foot Race. 



at the side by pressure on which the 
watch can be started or stopped at 
any instant desired. 

The timer starts his watch on see- 
ing the flash of the pistol, and stops 
it when the man he is timing crosses 



the mark. The time can then be 
read off. A pointer, however, can- 
not be made to travel uniformly. It 
goes by little jumps, and until re- 
cently the jumps were made every 
fifth of a second. The time, there- 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



29 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



fore, was doubtful by this amount, 
for when the watch was stopped it 
could not be told whether the hand 
had just finished a jump or was 
about to start on a new one. In a 
fifth of a second a good sprinter moves 
about two yards, and races are often 
won by a few feet. 

Jumping. There are four kinds of 
jumps, the running high, the running 
broad (or long), the standing high, 
and the standing broad (or long). 

The high jumps are made over a 
light bar supported on pegs inserted 
one inch apart in two upright posts. 
The pegs project on the side of the 
posts away from the jumpers, so 
that if the jumper strike the bar with 
his foot he will simply lift it from 
the pegs and not be thrown down. 
Sometimes in practice a cord, 
weighted at each end, is used in- 
stead of a bar, but this is not 
allowed in match contests. 

At each succeeding round the bar 
is raised usually an inch, but some- 
times more. In the standing broad 
jump the contestants are sometimes 
permitted to hold dumb-bells or 
weights in their hands, but in the 
ordinary broad jump this is not 
allowed. Where, however, this is 
done, the jumper casts the weights be- 
hind him while in mid-air and is thus 
carried forward a greater distance. 

The rules of the National Amateur 
Athletic Union governing jumping 
are as follows : 

Section i. A fair jump shall be 
one that is made without the assis- 
tance of weights, diving, somersets, 
or hand springs of any kind. 

In all handicap jumps the scratch 
man shall be entitled to try last. 

Sec. 2. The Running High Jump. 
The Field Judges shall decide the 
height at which the jump shall com- 
mence, and shall regulate the suc- 
ceeding elevations. 

Each competitor shall be allowed 
three trial jumps at each height, and 
if on the third trial he shall fail, he 
shall be declared out of the com- 
petition. 



Competitors shall jump in order as 
placed in the programme ; then those 
failing, if any, shall have their second 
trial jump in a like order, after which 
those having failed twice shall make 
their third trial jump. 

The jump shall be made over a 
bar resting on pins projecting not 
more than three inches from the up- 
rights, and when this bar is removed 




High Jump. 



from its place it shall be counted as 
a trial jump. 

Running under the bar in making 
an attempt to jump shall be counted 
as a "balk," and three successive 
" balks" shall be counted as a trial 
jump. 

The distance of the run before the 
jump shall be unlimited. 

A competitor may decline to jump 
at any height in his turn, and by so 
doing forfeits his right to again jump 
at the height declined. 

Sec. 3. The Standing High Jump. 
The feet of the competitor may be 
placed in any position, but shall 
leave the ground only once in making 
an attempt to jump. When the feet 
are lifted from the ground twice, or 
two springs are made in making the 
attempt, it shall count as a trial 
jump without result. 

With this exception the rules gov- 
erning the Running High Jump shall 
govern the Standing High Jump. 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



Sec. 4. The Running Broad 
Jump. When jumped on earth, a 
joist five inches wide shall be sunk 
flush with it. The outer edge of this 
joist shall be called the scratch line, 
and the measurement of all jumps 
shall be made from it at right angles 
to the nearest break in the ground 
made by any part of the person of the 
competitor. 

In front of the scratch line the 
ground shall be removed to the depth 
of three and the width of twelve 
inches outward. 

A foul jump shall be one where 
the competitor in jumping off the 




Long Jump. 

scratch line makes a mark on the 
ground immediately in front of it, 
and shall count as a trial jump with- 
out result. 

Each competitor shall have three 
trial jumps, and the best three shall 
each have three more trial jumps. 

The competition shall be decided 
by the best of all the trial jumps of 
the competitors. 

The distance of the run before the 
scratch line shall be unlimited. 

Sec. 6. The Standing Broad 



Jump. The feet of the competitor 
may be placed in any position, but 
shall leave the ground only once in 
making an attempt to jump. When 
the feet are lifted from the ground 
twice, or two springs are made in 
making the attempt, it shall count as 
a trial jump without result. 

In all other respects the rule gov- 
erning the Running Broad Jump 
shall also govern the Standing Broad 
Jump. 

Sec. 7. The Three Standing 
Broad Jtimps. The feet of the com- 
petitor shall leave the ground only 
once in making an attempt for each 
of the three jumps, and no stoppage 
between jumps shall be allowed. In 
all other respects the rules governing 
the Standing Broad Jump shall also 
govern the three Standing Broad 
Jumps. 

Sec. 8. Running Hop, Step and 
Jump. The competitor shall first 
land upon the same foot with which 
he shall have taken off. The reverse 
foot shall be used for the second 
landing, and both feet shall be used 
for the third landing. 

In all other respects the rules gov- 
erning the Running Broad Jump 
shall also govern the Running Hop, 
Step and Jump. 

(In the Running High Jump a 
line called a balk line is sometimes 
drawn three feet in front of the bar, 
and if the competitor passes this he 
is credited with a trial, whether he 
actually attempts to jump or not.) 

In the running broad jumps, the 
space cleared depends partly on the 
way in which the spring is made, and 
partly on the impetus gained by the 
run. Before 1 870 almost every cham- 
pionship contest was won with a 
jump of less than 20 feet, but now 
many a one who is a good sprinter 
can clear that distance. Some au- 
thorities think the reason for this is 
that jumpers now take longer and 
swifter runs than formerly, and that 
the impetus thus gained carries them 
a greater distance. 

In both the high jumps, some 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



jumpers draw their legs up under 
them, straightening them forward as 
they pass the bar, and others swing 
them to one side as they clear it. 

In running for a jump, the last few 
steps should be slightly shorter than 
the usual stride. 

Hurdle Racing consists in a com- 
bination of running and jumping. 
These races are usually either 120 
yards or 220 yards in length, the num- 
ber of hurdles to be leaped being ten. 
The height varies from 2 feet 6 inches 
to 3 feet 6 inches, and the hurdles 
are placed at equal distances along 
the course. The contestants start 
together as for a running race, leap- 
ing each hurdle as it is reached. 
Skilled runners take exactly three 
steps between every two hurdles in 
the 1 20 yard course and always 
springing from the same foot. 

Each hurdle, as it is reached, is 
cleared at a single stride, the jumper 
usually jumping from his right foot 
and landing on his left. He thus 
continues down through the hurdles, 
keeping his stride as in ordinary 
running, the only difference being 
that in every third stride he leaps 
into the air a sufficient height to 
clear the hurdles. 

The rule of the National Amateur 
Athletic Union for hurdle races is as 
follows: 

Different heights, distances, and 
number of hurdles may be selected 
for hurdle races. 

In the 1 20 yards hurdle race, ten 
hurdles shall be used ; each hurdle 
to be three feet six inches high. 
They shall be placed ten yards apart, 
with the first hurdle fifteen yards 
distance from the starting point, and 
the last hurdle fifteen yards before 
the finishing line. In the 220 yards 
hurdle race ten hurdles shall be used, 
each hurdle to be two feet six inches 
high. They shall be placed twenty 
yards apart, with the first hurdle 
twenty yards distant from the start- 
ing mark, and the last hurdle twenty 
yards before the finishing line. 

In hurdle races of other distances 



and with different numbers of hur- 
dles, the hurdles shall be placed at 
equal intervals, with the same space 
between the first hurdle and the 
starting point and the last hurdle 
and the finishing line, as between 
each of the hurdles. 

In making a record it shall be 
necessary for the competitor to jump 
over every hurdle in its proper posi- 
tion. 

Pole Leaping consists in leaping 
with the aid of a stout wooden pole. 
The pole is generally made of ash, 
about 1 1 inches in diameter, and 




Pole Leaping First Position. 



fifteen feet long. It should be quite 
smooth, and shod with an iron 
point at one end. To leap with 
the pole, the athlete stands holding 




Pole Leaping Second Position. 

it as in the first illustration, the arms 
being bent and the hands the dis- 
tance of the shoulders apart, the right 
hand toward the iron-shod end of 
the pole. Both palms may be up- 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ward, or that of the right hand 
downward. The jumper then ad- 
vances the right foot, and places the 
shod end of the pole on the ground 
at as great a distance as he deems 
expedient without moving his feet or 
hands, as in the second position; 




Pole Leaping Third Position. 

then, looking toward the end of the 
pole, he springs forward and passes 
on the left side of the pole, as figured 
in the third and fourth positions, 
his whole body being held as nearly 
as possible in a straight line. As 
his feet touch the ground he brings 




Pole Leaping Fourth Position. 

the pole to the first position again. 
The leap may be made with the left 
foot and hand advanced, in which 
case the leaper passes the pole on 
the right. 

The high jump with the pole is 
made in like manner, save that when 



the athlete is directly above the barrier, 
he loosens his grasp on the pole, and 
pushing it back, allows it to fall on 
one side while he himself descends 
upon the other. 

To leap a distance or clear an ob- 
stacle, the jumper takes his position 
about 50 feet from the spot where 
he is to make his leap ; then, holding 
the pole directly in front of him with 
the pointed end raised a foot or more 
from the ground, advancing slowly 
at first, and then more quickly, he 
approaches the spot at a run, and 
keeping his eye fixed on the place 
where he has determined to plant his 
pole, sets it into the ground and 
makes his leap into the air at the 
same instant. The rules of the Na- 
tional Amateur Athletic Union for 
pole vaulting are similar to those for 
jumping. 

Putting the Shot. This contest 
consists in balancing the "shot," 
usually an iron ball weighing sixteen 
pounds, on the hand, held just over 
the shoulder, and then by throwing 
the weight of the body forward and 
straightening the arm, hurling the 
weight forward as far as possible. 

The rule of the National Amateur 
Athletic Union regarding this feat is 
as follows : 

The shot shall be a solid sphere, 
made of metal and weighing at least 
16 or 24 pounds, as the event may 
call for. 

It shall be put with one hand, and 
in making the attempt it shall be 
above and not behind the shoulder. 

The competitor shall stand in a 
circle seven feet in diameter, on four 
feet of the circumference of which 
shall be placed a board four inches 
high, at which the competitor must 
stand when the shot leaves his 
hand. 

A fair put shall be one where no 
part of the person of the competitor 
shall touch in front of the circle or 
on the board in making the attempt. 

A put shall be counted as foul if 
the competitor steps over the front 
half of the circle or on the board, 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



33 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



before the measurement of his put is 
made. 

The measurement of all puts shall 
be made from the nearest mark made 
by the shot to a point on the circum- 
ference of the circle, on a line with 
the object mark and the center of 
the circle. 

Foul puts and letting go the shot 
in making an attempt shall be counted 
as trial puts without result. 

A board similar to the one in front 
may be used at the back of the circle. 

The order of competing and num- 
ber of trials shall be the same as for 
the running broad jump. Shots shall 
be furnished by the Games Commit- 
tee. Any contestant may use his 
private shot, if correct in weight and 
shape ; in which case the other con- 
testants must also be allowed to use 
it, if they wish. 

Putting the shot is interesting as a 
display of strength, but no one should 
try it who has not developed his mus- 




Putting Shot First Position. 

cles by other means, as the exertion 
required is very violent. 

Throwing the Hammer. This is 
an old Scotch game, and, like putting 
the shot, requires a large amount of 



strength and skill. The term " ham- 
mer" is rather misleading. It is 
simply a metal ball into which is 
fastened a supple hickory handle. 




Putting Shot Second Position. 

The thrower grasps the handle near 
the end with both hands and whirling 
the ball around his head once or 
twice at arm's length, suddenly loos- 
ens his hold and allows it to fly 
through the air. 

The rules of the Amateur Union 
governing this event are as follows : 

The hammer-head shall be a metal 
sphere. The handle shall be of 
wood, the length of handle and head 
combined shall be four feet, and the 
combined weight shall be at least 
sixteen pounds. 

All throws shall be made from a 
circle, seven feet in diameter. 

The competitor may assume any 
position he chooses in making an at- 
tempt. 

A fair throw shall be one when no 
part of the person of the competitor 
shall touch outside of the circle in 
making the attempt. 

A throw shall be counted foul if 
the competitor steps over the front 
half of the circle before his throw is 
measured. 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



34 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



Foul throws and letting go of the 
hammer in an attempt, shall count as 
trial throws. 

The measurement of all throws 
shall be made from the nearest mark 
made by the head of the hammer, to 
a point on the circumference of the 
circle, on a line with the object mark 
and the center of the circle. 

The order of competing and num- 
ber of trials shall be the same as 
prescribed for the Running Broad 
Jump. 

Hammers shall be furnished by 
the Games Committee. Any con- 
testant may use his private hammer, 




Throwing Hammer. 

if correct in weight and shape; in 
which case the other contestants 
must also be allowed to use it, if they 
wish. 

The thrower, in some contests, is 
allowed to run as far as he pleases 
before throwing the hammer, so long 
as he does not cross the " scratch 
line " from which the measurement 
is made. Sometimes he is allowed 
to run a fixed distance, as seven feet, 
and sometimes he is permitted to 
turn around once before throwing. 
Some throwers hold the hammer in 
one hand, and some in both. 



Throwing the 56-lbs. Weight. 
Like the hammer, this weight i? 
thrown with a handle, but instead of 
a straight stick, an iron ring or tri- 
angle, about six inches in diameter, 
is fastened to the weight by means of 
an iron staple. In this way the 
weight can be lifted and swung like 
a pail or a basket. In some contests 
the thrower is allowed to follow the 
weight on throwing it, and some- 
times a run is allowed. The weight 
is sometimes thrown from between 
the legs, and sometimes from the 
side. Sometimes the contest is to see 
how high, and not how far, the weight 
can be thrown, and it is then said to 
be " thrown for height." 

The Amateur Athletic Union rules 
for this event are as follows : 

Section i. The weight shall be a 
sphere made of metal, with a metal 
handle attached. Their combined 
weight shall be at least fifty-six 
pounds, and the combined height 
shall be sixteen inches, but no flexi- 
ble attachment will be allowed. 

All throws shall be made from a 
circle seven feet in diameter. 

The competitor may assume any 
position he chooses in making an 
attempt. 

Foul throws and letting go the 
weight in an attempt shall count as 
a trial throw without result. 

The order of competing and num- 
ber of trials shall be the same as 
laid down for the jumping contests. 

Sec. 2. In Throwing for Dis- 
tance. A fair throw shall be one 
where no part of the person of the 
competitor shall touch in front of 
the circle in making an attempt. 

A throw shall be counted foul if 
the competitor steps over the front 
half of the circle before his throw is 
measured. 

The measurement of all throws 
shall be made from the nearest mark 
made by the sphere of the weight, to 
a point on the circumference of the 
circle, on a line with the object mark 
and the center of the circle. 

Sec. 3. In Throwing for Height, 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



35 



ATHLETIC 'GAMES 



a barrel-head three feet in diameter 
shall be suspended in the air. 

A fair throw shall be one where 
no part of the person of the competi- 
tor shall touch in front of the circle 
in making an attempt, and where 
any part of the weight or handle 
touches any part of the barrel-head. 

A foul throw shall be one where 
the competitor touches outside the 
circle before letting go the weight. 

The measurement of all throws 
shall be from a point on the ground 
drawn directly under and parallel to 
the lowest point of the barrel-head. 

The order of competing and num- 
ber of trials shall be the same as for 
the running broad jump. Weights 
shall be furnished by the Games 
Committee. Any contestant may 
use his private weight, if correct in 
weight or shape ; in which case the 
other contestants must also be 
allowed to use it, if they wish. 

Besides these standard games, the 
following are sometimes included : 

Throwing the Base Ball. The 
thrower is generally allowed to run 
a certain distance before he throws, 
and the distance is measured from 
the line where he delivers the ball to 
the place where it strikes. This 
contest is seldom found on the pro- 
grammes at athletic games of the 
present day. 

Kicking the Football also finds a 
place in many college athletic exhibi- 
tions. The competition is sometimes 
for accuracy and sometimes for dis- 
tance, and the ball is kicked either 
from the hand or from the ground 
according to agreement. When the 
contest is for accuracy, two tall posts 
are set in the ground twenty feet 
apart, and between these a cross- 
bar is fastened at a height of ten 
feet from the ground. The contest- 
ants then take their stand behind a 
line twenty-five or thirty yards from 
the poles, and the contest lies in see- 
ing who can cause the greatest num- 
ber of balls to pass between the posts 
and over the bar, in a given number 
of kicks. 



Tossing the Caber. This is a 
Scotch feat, and is a feature of 
Caledonian games. It is, however, 
seldom an event in the meetings of 
American athletic associations. 
The caber is the trunk of a young 
tree and is heavier at one end 
than at the other. The athlete 
holds it perpendicularly, large end 
upward, balanced against the chest, 
and running, endeavors to toss it 
so that it falls on the large end 
and turns over. It is usually made 
so large that at first none of the con- 
testants can perform the feat, and 
then a piece is sawn off each time, 
after all have tried, until some one 
succeeds. If more than one is suc- 
cessful, the one who tosses the caber 
farthest is the winner. 

The Sack Race is a race between 
contestants enveloped up to the neck 
in cloth bags or sacks. Such a race 
is usually held to furnish amusement 
for the spectators, but sometimes as 
a genuine athletic sport. 

High Kicking. A tin plate is sus- 
pended horizontally by three strings, 
like the pan of a balance, from an arm 
arranged to slide up and down an 
upright post. The pan is raised 
gradually higher and higher until 
only one of the contestants is able to 
touch it with his foot. A high kick 
may be made either running or stand- 
ing, and jumping may or may not be 
allowed. The conditions are fixed 
by the club holding the contest. 

AThreo-Legged Race. This race, 
like the sack race, is run chiefly for the 
amusement of the spectators. The 
athletes run in pairs, the left leg of 
one being fastened to the right leg of 
the other, both at the knee and ankle. 
The men are obliged to keep perfect 
step, and with practice are able to 
attain considerable speed. 

Wheelbarrow Race. Sometimes 
in games held for amusement merely, 
the contestants are required to wheel 
wheelbarrows. The sport is increased 
when the racers are blindfolded. 

Records. When a person has per- 
formed one of the standard athletic 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



feats and has been properly timed or 
his distance properly measured, such 
time or measurement is said to be his 
record. The athlete who has made 
the best record for a given feat is 
said to " hold the record." There is 
much difference of opinion as to 
what a " record " is, some thinking 
that the measurement of any feat at 
any time is enough to make it good, 
while others insist that the feat must 
be performed at a public meeting 
and under the superintendence of 
proper officers. Many so-called re- 
markable records are accounted for 
by the fact they were improperly 
timed -or made on badly measured 



tracks. It is generally agreed, 
also, that a running record must 
be made at one of the standard 
distances (see above), and that it is 
absurd, for instance, to talk of the 
best record at 155 yards. Any one, 
if this were allowed, might make him- 
self a champion by running some 
particular distance which no one had 
been timed on before. A list of the 
usual championship games has al- 
ready been given. The record 
rules of the National Amateur Union 
are as follows : 

A new record at any distance in 
walking, running or hurdling, in or- 
der to stand, shall be timed by at 




;;mt; ;; -: 



Greek Foot Race. 



least three time-keepers, and a new 
record at jumping, pole vaulting, or 
in the weight competitions, shall 
be measured by at least three meas- 
urers. 

The Amateur Athletic Union will 
not recognize any new record, unless 
a report of it is made to the Secre- 
5ary of the Union, properly supported 
by the affidavits of the time-keepers 
or the measurers, as the case may 
be. 

History. Among the ancients 
athletics were held in high esteem. 
The grand athletic contests of the 
Greeks are described in C. P. P., in 



the article OLYMPIA. (See also the 
history of GYMNASTICS.) 

Athletic games have always been 
in favor in England. In the reign 
of Henry II., the youth of London 
had assigned them, near the city, 
fields where they practiced " leaping, 
wrestling, casting of the stone, and 
playing with the ball." 

Henry V. was fond of athletics, 
especially of running, and is said to 
have been " so swift a runner that 
he and two of his lords, without 
bow or other engine, could take 
a wild buck in a large park." 
Henry VIII. excelled in throwing 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



37 



ATHLETIC GAMES 



the hammer, and his secretary, 
Richard Pace, advised noblemen's 
sons to devote themselves to athletic 
sports, " and leave study and learn- 
the children of meaner 

But with the rise of what 
"the new learning," some 

began to speak slightly 
of athletics, and even Roger Ascham 
in his book on Archery says that 
" running, leaping, and quoiting be 
too vile for scholars." The upper 



ing to 
people." 
is called 
scholars 



classes became divided in opinion on 
the subject, but athletic sports con- 
tinued in favor with the common 
people. In a poem, published in 
1608, a shepherd is made to say : 

" I can both hurle and sling, 
I run, I wrestle, I can well throw the bar." 

The illustrations, taken from an 
old manuscript, show favorite trials 
of strength in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth. 

Athletic sports were usually prac- 




Sports in Queen Elizabeth's Time. 



ticed also on church festivals, but the 
Puritans objected to them and from 
that time became opposed to all 
such sports. James I. issued in 1617 
a " Book of Sports," in which he 
named those that were lawful on Sun- 
day. When this was re-published by 
Charles I. it was severely condemned 
by the Puritans. When the Stuarts 
were restored, however, foot racing, 
wrestling, and other such contests 
were revived. 

Great annual athletic meetings 
were held before the Norman con- 



quest in different parts of England, 
in very ancient times. One of 
these, at Bath, is described by Addi- 
son in the Spectator (Vol. II., 161). 
These meetings.which were generally 
in connection with fairs, lasted almost 
until the present time, and gave rise 
to modern athletic associations. In 
the i8th century, besides these rustic 
meetings, people began to walk and 
run on wagers or for prizes, and per- 
sons of high rank, who for many cen- 
turies had looked down on such exer- 
cises, sometimes took part in them. 



AUCTION 



THE AUCTIONEER 



Many of the contests were ridiculous, 
as for instance when there was a race 
between cripples, or a man on stilts 
raced with a runner, or when a jockey 
bearing a man on his shoulders con- 
tended against a fat man. Some 
accounts of records made in those 
days are absurd. For instance, a 
man is said to have walked 102 miles 
in twelve hours. But athletic sports 
did not become popular with all 
classes till the present century, dur- 
ing which they have been reduced to 
a system, especially in England and 
the United States. 

There are now in the United States 
several thousand athletic societies, 
many of which have gymnasiums, 
some of them elegantly equipped. 
There are more than twenty such 
clubs in New York City alone. The 
New York Athletic Club, formed in 
1868, has a large club-house contain- 
ing bowling alleys, swimming tanks, 
and one of the largest and best gym- 
nasiums in the country. Nearly every 
college in the United States has its 
athletic association and gymnasium. 
The college clubs are united in the 
Intercollegiate Athletic Associa- 
tion, and this, with most other ath- 
letic associations in the country, is 
governed by the rules of the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union, which regulates 
nearly all the athletic contests held in 
the United States. 

The first association of the kind 
was the National Association of 
Amateur Athletes of America. A 
few years ago dissensions arose 
in this association, and in October, 
1887, a large number of the clubs 
withdrew and united under a new 
organization known as the Amateur 
Athletic Union. The two associa- 
tions continued thus for two years, 
but in the summer of 1889 they 
united, retaining the new name of 
the Amateur Athletic Union. 

AUCTION, a game played by any 
number of people with counters, rep- 
resenting money, and cards, on each 
of which is a picture of some article 
to be sold by auction, with its de- 



scription and supposed money value. 
One of the players is chosen for 
auctioneer, and the counters are dis- 
tributed equally among the others. 
The auctioneer then takes the cards 
and reads the description of the first 
article to be sold. The players bid 
for it, as in a real auction, and it is 
sold to the highest bidder, who puts 
the counters representing the price 
by themselves in front of him. The 
auctioneer then sells the next card 
and so on till all are sold. The 
player who has made the best bar- 
gains wins, and this is found out by 
counting the value of the articles he 
has bought, and that of the counters 
he has paid, which are in a pile in 
front of him. He wins, whose pur- 
chases exceed in value the price paid 
for them by the greatest amount. 
If a player bid more money than he 
has, it is a Bluff Bid. Unless he 
succeeds in getting the article, no 
notice is taken of it ; but if, when he 
is called upon to pay, he is unable to 
do so, he must return one of his 
cards to the auctioneer. If he have 
none, he must return the first one he 
purchases. 

AUCTIONEER, THE, a game 
played by any number of persons, one 
of whom acts as auctioneer. Each of 
the other players writes on a slip of 
paper the name of some article, and 
folds it once. The auctioneer then 
marks one of the slips, adds a blank 
one, and mixes them all in a hat. 
Each of the company draws a slip, 
and he who gets the blank slip is put 
up at auction by the auctioneer, 
each player bidding the article on his 
slip. The holder of the marked slip 
bids last, and the person bid for is 
sold to him. He may then require 
his purchase to perform some feat, 
and then the game is repeated. The 
auctioneer, instead of marking a slip, 
may simply open one and look at 
it, afterwards accepting the bid of 
the person who draws it when- 
ever it may be offered. One slip 
always remains in the hat. The 
auctioneer should look at it, and if 



AUNT SALLY 



39 



AUTHORS 



it be the blank or the marked slip, 
the players must draw again. The 
auctioneer should give a comical de- 
scription of the person to be sold, 
praising his appearance and good 
qualities. 

AUCTION PITCH. See ALL 
FOURS. 

AUNT SALLY, a game played by 
any number of persons, who throw 
sticks at the head of " Aunt Sally," 
a block of wood shaped and painted 
to resemble the face of an old col- 
ored woman. This is placed upon a 




MISS ALCOTT 




LITTLE WOMEN 


LITTLB WOMEN 
LITTLE MEN 
OLD-FASHIONED GIRL 
EIGHT COUSINS 


LITTLE MEN 
OLD-FASHIONED GIRL 
EIGHT COUSINS 
MISS ALCOTT 



Aunt Sally. 

pole set into the ground, and decor- 
ated with an old woman's cap. A 
dress is then put upon the figure and 
a tobacco pipe is stuck into the 
mouth. Sometimes pipes are stuck 
into the ears also. 

The players stand about twenty- 
five feet from the figure, and, in 
turn, throw sticks, twenty inches to 
two feet in length, at Aunt Sally's 
head, trying to break the tobacco 
pipes. The side pipes count, each, 
one point, and the front one, two 
points. He who scores most points 



in a given number of throws is the 
winner. 

AUTHORS, a game played by any 
number of persons with cards, on 
which are printed or written the 
name of an author and the titles of 
several of his works. The printed 
cards may be bought at toy stores, 
but much amusement may be had 
by writing them out, introducing re- 
cent books and new authors The 
same titles, including that of the au- 
thor, are on as many cards as there 
are titles, but arranged in different 
order, and the name at the top, 
which is in larger letters than the 
others, is called the name of the 
card. All the cards with the same 
words on them, taken together, form 
a book. Thus two of the cards in 
one book may appear as follows : 



In this book there would evidently 
be five cards. Sometimes there are six 
or more cards in a book, but all the 
books in the pack are of the same size, 
and there are usually twenty books 
in a pack. Sometimes the cards have 
numbers at the top, which are the 
same for all of the same book. The 
cards are distributed evenly by any 
one of the players, and then the one 
on the dealer's left calls by name for 
any card he wants from some one of 
the other players. If the player asked 
has the card he must give it to him : 
and the first player then calls for 
another card, and continues thus to 
call for cards till he asks for one 
which the other player does not have ; 
then the privilege of asking passes to 
the next player at his left, and so on. 
As soon as any one succeeds in get- 



BACHELOR'S KITCHEN 



40 



BACKGAMMON 



ting into his hand all the cards in a 
book (which is the object of the 
calling), he lays them down together, 
near his place, and none of them can 
be called for any more. The calling 
goes on till all the pack is then dis- 
tributed into books, and then he who 
has most books wins. When the 
cards are numbered, the winner is 
determined sometimes by adding 
the numbers on the books taken, 
the one who has the highest sum 
winning. 

By listening attentively to the calls 
of the other players, one can generally 
get a very good idea of how the cards 
lie, and ask accordingly. If a player 
has called successfully for a card and 
has not laid aside the book containing 
it, the others know he still has it, and 
the next player, if he has been watch- 
ful, will call for the card. Again, 
if a player asks another for a card 
and is refused, all the others know 
that neither of them has it. In gen- 
eral, after calling for cards he is sure 
he can get, a player should try to 
complete the books in his hand that 
are most nearly full. 

History. Authors is possibly de- 
rived from an old English game 
called " Spade, the Gardener," played 
with a pack of ordinary cards, from 
which all cards below the tens have 
been thrown out. 

Each of the four kings is given a 
name, and the other cards of the 



suit are regarded as his family. Thus, 
the King of Spades is called Spade, 
the Gardener ; the Queen, Spade, 
the Gardener's Wife ; the Knave, his 
son; the Ace, his servant, and the Ten, 
his dog. In like manner, the King 
of Clubs is called Club, the Constable; 
the King of Hearts, the Good Natured 
Man, and the King of Diamonds, 
Vicar Denn. Each of these has also 
his wife, son, servant, and dog. The 
object is to get all the cards into 
one hand, and when all a player's 
cards are gone he retires from the 
game. 

The earliest similar game played 
with special cards seems to have 
been " Doctor Busby," where the 
cards had pictures representing num- 
bers of various " families,"each family 
constituting a book. The game of 
Doctor Busby is still sold at toy 
stores, but Authors, and similar 
forms of the game, are more popular. 
Among the similar games, all played 
in the same way, are " Famous Men" 
(where one book consists of Inven- 
tors, one of Soldiers, one of Artists, 
and so on), " Queens of Literature" 
(where all the authors named are 
women)," Poets," and "Gems of Art " 
(where each book contains the names 
of pictures in some famous art gal- 
lery). There are similar games in 
French and German, devoted not only 
to Authors but to familiar things to 
aid in learning the languages. 



B 



BACHELOR'S KITCHEN, a 

game played by any number of per- 
sons, who sit in a row, all except one, 
who goes from player to player, ask- 
ing each what he will give to the 
bachelor's kitchen. When all have 
answered, the leader asks each all 
sorts of questions. The one ques- 
tioned must give as his answer the 
name of the article he agreed to con- 
tribute. If he gives any other an- 
swer, or laugh, he must pay a forfeit. 



When the questioner has succeeded 
in making any one laugh, or is satis- 
fied that he cannot do so, he goes on 
to the next. 

BACKGAMMON, a game played 
by two persons, each with 1 5 pieces, 
or men, and 2 dice, on a board like 
the one shown below. The men, of 
two colors, are usually the same as 
those used in checkers, and a back- 
gammon board is generally made, 
for convenience sake, on the inside 



BACKGAMMON 



of a checker board. The board is 
divided into two pairs of tables by a 
line through the middle called the 
bar (which is a raised partition when 
the game is played inside a checker- 
board), and each player has a home, 
or inner table, and an outer table. 
In the cut, A is Black's home or in- 
ner table, and B his outer table ; and 
C is White's home, or inner table, 
and D his outer table. Each table 
has six points in it, of two colors 
placed alternately, generally black 
and white or black and red. The 
points in the inner table, beginning 
at the edge of the board, are some- 
times given French names, as the 
ace, deuce, trois, quatre, cinq, and 




Backgammon Board. 

six points, but in the United States 
they are more commonly called by 
the numbers from one to six. For 
convenience sake, the numbers in 
the illustration are continued across 
the board to 12. The point num- 
bered 7 is sometimes called the bar 
point. The men are set as in the 
illustration, part of them being, it 
will be noticed, in the enemy's tables. 
The object of each player is to get 
his own men around into his own in- 
ner table, where he can play them 
off, as will be shown hereafter. In 
doing this, the two move in opposite 
directions, Black from White's inner 
table into White's outer table, then 
across into his own outer table, ami 



finally into his own inner table, or 
following the course C D B A in the 
cut, while White moves in the direc- 
tion A B D C into his home or inner 
table. The moves are decided by 
throwing DICE, of which each player 
has two. When a player makes his 
throw, he calls out the number of 
points on the top of the dice (as 4- 
2, 6-3, or double 4) and then plays 
any of his men a number of points on 
the board equal to the number 
thrown. He may play one man as 
many points as are on the two dice, 
or he may play each number with a 
different man. If he throws two 
like numbers (called doublets) he 
plays double what he throws. For 
instance, if he throws two 4's he has 
the right to play four 4*5 instead of 
two, and these moves may be made 
all together or separately. If the 
point at which any move ends is oc- 
cupied by two or more hostile men, 
that move cannot be made, and if the 
player cannot move at all, he must 
wait till his next turn. If the point 
has only one hostile man on it, it is 
called a blot, and the move can then 
be made (which is sometimes called 
hitting the blot). The man so hit, 
or captured, is taken from the board, 
or placed on the bar. Its owner can 
make no move till he has entered his 
piece again in his opponent's inner 
table, by playing it as if it were on a 
point just before the ace point. If 
each point on this table has two or 
more hostile men on it the player 
whose man is up cannot play at all 
till his opponent has moved some of 
them. Generally, leaving a man un- 
covered, that is, leaving only one 
man on a point, should be avoided, 
and when doublets are thrown, the 
men are usually moved in pairs for 
this reason ; but skillful players often 
make blots on purpose, either because 
they are willing to take the risk in 
order to move their men quicker, or 
in order that the men, when taken 
up, may enter anew, and gain the 
enemy's rear so as to be able to cap- 
ture his men. When all a player's 



BACKGAMMON 



BACKGAMMON 



men have reached his inner table, he 
begins to play them off the board, 
which is called casting off, throwing 
off, or bearing off. In casting off, 
the pieces count according to the 
point they are on. For instance, 
throwing 5 and 2 entitles a player to 
cast off one man from his five point 
and one from his two point, or one or 
both the numbers may b'e played as 
moves. It is an advantage to keep 
the points in the table covered as 
evenly as possible, so that every 
throw of the dice may be of use. If 
there are no men on the proper point, 
and no move can be made, men from 
a lower point may be thrown off. 
The player who first throws off his 
men wins the game. If his oppo- 
nent has thrown off any of his men, 
a victory counts as a single game, or 
hit ; if he has not thrown off any, it 
counts as a double game, or gam- 
mon ; and if he has a man up, or one 
in either of the winner's tables it 
counts as a triple or quadruple game 
(as agreed on), or backgammon. 
Skillful players will often make dif- 
ferent moves according as they wish 
to make a gammon or a hit. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The first move is decided by 
lot ; each player throws a single die, 
and the one that gets the highest 
number plays first, having the privi- 
lege of moving from these throws, 
taken together, or of throwing as 
usual, as he pleases. 

2. If a man is taken from any 
point, it must be played, and when it 
has been placed on a point and left, 
the move cannot be made over again. 

3. If the owner of a man that has 
been taken up cast off another man 
before entering the one taken up, 
all the men so cast off must be 
treated as if they had been taken up. 

4. If a player throw and play out 
of turn, and his opponent has thrown, 
the move can be changed only by 
consent of both players. 

First Plays. 
The following, which are usually 



considered the best first moves in 
playing for a hit, will be understood 
by reference to the illustration at the 
beginning of the article. In all these, 
it will be seen that the object is, first 
to cover important points in the play- 
er's own tables, and then to get his 
men out of the enemy's tables. 

1. If double aces are thrown (the 
best of all first throws), two men 
should be moved from the player's 6 
to his 5 point, and two from his 8 to 
his 7 point, as it is desirable to pre- 
vent the enemy from gaining these 
points. 

2. Double 6's ; two men from I to 
7 in the opposite tables and two from 
the opposite 12 to the player's 7. 

3. Double ,3's; two from 8 to 5, 
and two from 6 to 3, in the player's 
tables, thus protecting the 5 and 3 
points. 

4. Double 2*s ; two from 6 to 4 in 
the player's tables, protecting the 4 
point, and two from I to 2 in the 
opposite tables, thus advancing one 
step toward getting out of the ene- 
my's tables. 

5. Double 4*5 ; two from I to 5 
in the opposite tables, and two from 
the opposite 12 to the player's 9. 

6. Double 5's ; two from the op- 
posite 12 to the player's 8 and then 
to his 3. 

7. 6 and ace ; one from opposite 
12 to the player's 7, and one from 8 
to 7, thus securing the bar point. 

8. 6-2; one from the opposite 12 
to the player's 5. (In this and simi- 
lar plays, where two moves are made 
at once, it must be remembered that 
the two are distinct, and that if one 
is blocked it cannot be made. But 
either number may be played first, 
and thus a block may often be 
avoided or a hostile man taken.) 

9. 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, and 5-4 ; in each 
case play one from the opposite ace 
point as far as it can go. 

10. 5-3; one from 6 to 3, and one 
from 8 to 3 in the player's tables. 

11. 5-2; two from the opposite 
12 ; one to the player's 8, and one to 
his ii. 



BACKGAMMON 



43 



BACKGAMMON 



12. 5-1 ; one from the opposite 12 
to the player's 8, and one from the 
opposite ace point to 2. 

13. 4-3 ; two from the opposite 12 ; 
one to the player's 9, and the other 
to his 10. 

14. 4-2 ; one from 8 to 4, and 
one from 6 to 4 in the player's 
tables. 

15. 4-1 ; one from the opposite 12 
to the player's 9, and one from the 
opposite ace point to 2. 

16. 3-2 ; two from the opposite 
12 ; one to the player's 10, the other 
to his ii. 

17. 3-1; one from 8 to 5, one from 
6 to 5 in the player's tables. 

1 8. 2-1 ; one from the opposite 12 
to the player's n, and one from the 
opposite ace point to 2. 

Russian Backgammon, or Trie- 
Trac, a kind of backgammon in 
which the men are not set on the 
board in the beginning, but are en- 
tered, as if they had been taken up. 
Both players enter in the same table 
and move in the same direction. 
The player may move before enter- 
ing all his men, but if a man be taken 
up, it must be entered before any- 
other play can be made, and if this 
is impossible its owner loses his turn. 
If doublets are thrown, after playing 
them the numbers on the opposite 
sides of the dice are also played, and 
then the player is allowed another 
throw ; thus he can keep on playing 
so long as he throws doublets and 
can make his moves. But if he can- 
not make any move his play must 
stop. The privilege of playing the 
numbers on the opposite side of the 
dice is sometimes not given to the 
first throw of doublets. It is some- 
times extended by letting any one 
who throws an ace and a two play 
doublets of them and both of the 
opposite numbers (six and five), and 
then, after playing them, throw 
again. The rules are the same as 
for ordinary backgammon. 

Spanish Backgammon, or Jac- 
quet. In this form of the game there is 
no taking up, and a single man there- 



fore can hold a point. Each player 
places his men in five rows of three 
each in his opponent's inner table. 
The first man moved must be carried 
into the player's own inner table be- 
fore another is moved, but after that 




Abacus. 

the men can be moved in any order 
the player chooses. 

History. The origin of backgam- 
mon is unknown. It is said to have 
been invented about the loth century, 
though a similar game was played 
by the ancients on a board called an 
Abacus. It was first called Tables, 




Backgammon in the ijth Century. 

and is mentioned under this name 
by Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Bacon. 
In monkish Latin it was called Tab- 
ularum Ludus (Game of Tables). 
The tables were not always as they 
are now. In the illustration, show- 
ing two players of the I3th century, 



BAGATELLE 



44 



BAGATELLE 



the form at that time is plainly shown . 
There is no bar on the board and 
there seem to be but eight points. 
In the I4th century the board was 
divided like ours, but the points were 
of only one color. There were many 
ways of playing, in some of which 
three dice were used and the men all 
set in the opponent's inner table. 
Tables was one of the indoor games 
that James I. recommended to his 
son Prince Henry in his book of 
advice called " Basilikon Doron " 
(The Royal Gift). The word back- 
gammon is thought by some to be 
from the Welsh and to mean little 
battle. Others think it is Saxon and 
means back-game, from the setting 
back of the men when taken up ; and 
others still that it is Danish and 
means the tray game, from the shape 
of the board. In Germany it is 
called Puff (Clatter), probably from 
the rattling of the dice or the pieces 
on the board. The French Tric- 
Trac, which is the same in German, 
and was anciently called tick-tack in 
English, is named in the same way. 
In Germany, backgammon is also 
called Brettspiel (board-game), and 
so is draughts. 

BACK-HANDED EUCHRE. See 
EUCHRE 

BADMINTON. See LAWN TEN- 
NIS. 

BAGATELLE, a game played by 
any number of persons with cues and 
balls like those used in BILLIARDS, 
but smaller, on a table something 
like a small Billiard table, cushioned 
only at the sides, or on a cloth cov- 
ered board, which can be laid on an 
ordinary table. Nine balls, two of 
which are colored, are used. At the 
lower end of the table are nine holes, 
numbered in order, and in front of 
the holes is a spot a on which one of 
the colored balls, often called the 
King Ball, is placed. At the upper 
end of the table is another spot, b, and 
between it and the holes a line called 
the string line, as in Billiards. Each 
player in turn plays his eight balls 
one by one, the colored one first, by 



placing each on the spot behind the 
string line and striking it with his 
cue, as in Billiards, 
toward the holes. 
The object is to 
place the balls, in- 
cluding the King 
Ball, in the holes, 
and the player scores 
the numbers of such 
holes as he can fill, 
the colored balls 
counting double. 
Thus the highest 
score would be 62, 
made by filling all 
the holes, the colored 
balls being in the 
Nine and Eight 
holes. Such a score 
is very unusual. He 
wins who scores most 
points in a number 
of rounds agreed up- 
on before the game. 
If any ball rebounds 



J o 





1 


e 1 


1 <* 




1 





Bagatelle 
Board. 



beyond the string line, it must be 
removed from the board till the next 
player's turn. At 
the end of each turn 
the board is cleared, 
and the King Ball 
placed on its spot, 
as in the beginning. 
The three-ball game 
of BILLIARDS may 
be played on a Baga- 
telle board, caroms 
counting one each, 
and each hole its 
proper number as in 
ordinary Bagatelle. 

Mississippi, a kind 
of Bagatelle played 
with a bridge or row 
of stalls which is 
placed on the board 
just in front of the 
holes. The stalls 
are numbered from 
one to nine, but no 
ball is allowed to 
hits the side of the 



/f \ 


n 


T 


^nnnnnnnnn 





Mississippi 
Board. 



score unless it 

board before entering them. 



BAGATELLE 



45 



BALANCING 



Tivoli, a simpler form of Bagatelle, 
played on a board about four feet 
long and eighteen inches wide, hav- 
ing a channel at one side up which a 
marble is shoved with a stick. The 
upper end of the board is curved, 
and this end is raised slightly during 
the game, so that the marble rolls 
down the board, and after bounding 
from the iron pins with which it is 




Tivoli. 

studded, stops either in a hole in the 
board or in one of several compart- 
ments at the bottom. The holes and 
compartments are all numbered, so 
that the player must score some- 
thing. But in some forms of the game 
there is a channel on the other side 
of the board also, so that if the mar- 
ble is played with too much force it 



rolls around the rim and goes into 
the opposite channel, scoring noth- 
ing. There is often a King Ball also, 
which, if knocked down, increases 
the score. 

Railroad Bagatelle, a kind of Tivoli 
in which the balls are rolled down 
an inclined trough running from side 
to side of an upright frame by the 
side of the board, which is usually 
square, and contains numerous pins 
and several numbered holes or stalls, 
as in the common game. At the 
foot of the " railroad " a movable 
switch is sometimes placed, which 
delivers the ball in any desired direc- 
tion. A spiral tube of wire some- 
times takes the place of the trough or 
railroad. 

Tivoli is called in France Billard 
Anglais (English Billiards), and 
forms of it are also known as 
" Cockamaroo " and " German Bil- 
liards." The word Bagatelle is 
French, and means a trifle. Tivoli is 
the name of a place near Rome, where 
a stream rushes through a cave or two 
and is divided up so as to make many 
waterfalls. Possibly the eccentric 
course of the ball suggested the name. 

BALANCES. See SCALES. 

BALANCING. In beginning to 
practice, balance at first a pole five 
to ten feet long on the end of the 
forefinger held horizontally, or on the 
outstretched palm of the hand. As 
the pole tips to one side, move the 
hand slightly to that side, so as to 
keep it always beneath the whole 
pole. The eye should be fixed on 
the top of the pole, where its motion 
is most easily seen. When the 
learner can balance one pole, he 
should try another of a different size. 
It will be found that the taller the 
pole, the more easily it is balanced. 
It is almost impossible, for instance, 
to balance a lead pencil for the reason 
that when the tall pole leans an inch 
to one side it is still almost verti- 
cal, while the lead pencil, in leaning 
an inch, inclines very perceptibly. 
Other objects may now be tried. In 
balancing an object of irregular 



BALANCING 



46 BALANCING EXPERIMENTS 



shape, as a chair on one of its legs, it 
should first be supported with the free 
hand and moved about till the bal- 
ancer finds that the center of gravity 
is nearly over the point of support. 
Objects may be balanced also on the 
chin, the nose, or other parts of the 
body, the only difficulty being that 
these cannot be moved so easily and 
quickly as the hand. Balancing is 
excellent train- 
ing for the eye 
and muscles. 

Several per- 
sons with the 
same number of 
poles of equal 
size may play a 
balancinggame. 
At a signal each 
balances h i s 
pole on his right 
palm, and he 
who keeps his 
pole up longest 
scores a point. 
The players 
then balance on 
the left palm, 
then on the 
right and left 
forefingers, suc- 
cessively ; the 
other fingers, 
the nose, the 
chin, and on any 
other parts of 
the body they 
may agree upon. 
He who scores 
most points is 

Ancient Balancer, the winner. 
Skilled balanc- 
ers, who make a profession of ex- 
hibiting their powers, perform 
many wonderful feats. The Jap- 
anese are especially skillful. Good 
balancers can poise many objects 
one above another, or several ob- 
jects at the same time on differ- 
ent parts of the body. The illus- 
tration from an old manuscript 
shows a skilled balancer in the I4th 
century. 




BALANCING EXPERIMENTS 
AND TOYS. These all depend on 
the principle that if the center of 
gravity of a body be below its point 
of support it cannot be overturned. 

I. Stick two penknives in a lead 




Fig. i. 

pencil, one on each side (Fig. i). The 
pencil may then be balanced on the 
finger. If disturbed, it will not fall, 




Fig. 2. 

but will rock backward and forward 
till it is at rest again. 

2. To balance a coin edgewise on 
the point of a needle. The needle is 
fastened in the cork of a bottle. The 
coin is firmly fixed in a slit cut in 



BALANCING EXPERIMENTS 47 BALANCING EXPERIMENTS 



another cork, in which two forks are 
stuck, as shown in Fig. 2. 

3. Fill a quart bottle with water and 




place on the rim of the neck a cork 
in which two forks are stuck, as in 
Fig. 3. The water may now be 
poured out of the bottle, 
the cork remaining bal- 
anced. 

4. The Tumbler. 
This is a toy, consisting 
of the figure of a man, 
made of pith or some 
other light substance, 
standing on the flat side 
of a half bullet. This 
figure cannot be over- 
turned, but insists on 
Fi standing upright. Fig- 

ures of soldiers called 
"Prussians," constructed in this 
way, were once sold in Paris (See 





by passing a rod over them, would 
at once start up again. The figure 
of a dancing master thus mounted is 
called the " bowing beau." 

5. The Prancing Horse, This is 
a figure of a .horse having fixed to it 
a weight by a bent wire, as in 
Fig. 5. If the horse's hind legs be 
placed on the edge of a table, the 
weight being beneath it, he will not 
fall forward but prance up and down, 
if rocked. The toy can be made by 
cutting the figure from light wood. 

6. The Dancing Class. An ex- 
periment in balancing, performed 
with two bottles, two knives, and a 




Fig. 5- 

Fig. 4). They were formed into 
ranks, and being made to bow down 



Fig. 6. 

wine-glass. The corks of the bottles 
are sharpened at the top to an edge, 
and the knives and wine-glass of 
water are balanced on them as shown 
in Fig. 6, which can be done after 
a few trials. Any small, heavy ob- 
ject, such as a small key, is now 
tied to the end of a thread and low- 
ered into the water. The added 
weight will cause the wine-glass to 
descend, and, by moving the key up 
and down, the glass may be made to 
dance as it were on the blades of the 
knives. 

7. A weight may be balanced 



BALL JUGGLING 



48 



BALL JUGGLING 



with the aid of a nail and key, if ar- 
ranged as shown in Fig. 7. 




Fig. 7. 

BALL JUGGLING, tossing a ball 
from one hand to another in various 
ways, as an amusement, or a training 
for the eyes and muscles. The best 
balls for the purpose are of hollow 
brass, two inches in diameter. Any 
balls of about this size may be used, 
such as tennis balls, but they must 
all be exactly equal in size and weight. 
By mastering each of the 
following exercises before 
the next, any one who pos- 
sesses patience, and gives 
time to practice, may be- 
come a good ball-juggler. 

I. Vertical Fall. (Fig. 
I.) This is simply throw- 
ing the ball up so that it 
will fall directly into the 
hand, which must not be 
moved sidewise. The ball 
must be thrown three or 
four feet into the air. Both 
hands must attain equal 
skill. 

2. Inside Fall. (Fig. 2.) Throw 
the ball with the right hand so that it 
will curve as if the left hand were to 
catch it, but, instead, move the right 




Fig. i. 



hand to the left to receive it. The ball 
should always fall in exactly the same 
place, so that it can be caught with 
the eyes shut. Repeat with the left 
hand, curving the ball to the right. 
3. Outside Fall. Same as the In- 




Fig. 2. 

side except that the hand is held 
across the body and the ball curved 
to the outside, being caught with the 
hand in its natural position. The 
inside and outside falls should be 
practiced alternately. 
4. Parallel Fall. (Fig. 3.) The 
Vertical Fall is 
performed with 
the hand in its 
natural position, 
then in that of 
the other, that is, 
held across the 
body. The falls 
in the two posi- 
tions alternate. 

5. Outside and 
Inside Fall. 
(Fig. 4.) The 
ball is thrown 
in a curve from 
the right hand 
to the left and back, alternately. 
First, the curve is made three feet 
high, and then it is lowered gradu- 
ally till the ball moves in a straight 
line from one hand to the other, form- 
ing the Horizontal Pass (Fig. 5). 

6. Double Vertical Fall. (Fig. 6.) 
The Vertical Fall with both hands, a 
ball in each. They are first thrown 




Fig. 3. 



BALL JUGGLING 



49 



BALL JUGGLING 



up alternately so as to keep one or 
the other always in air, and then 





Fig. 4. 

both at once, to exactly the same 
height. 

7. Double Inside FalL (Fig. 7.) 
The Inside Fall with two balls one in 





Fig. 

each hand. The tracks of the balls 
would naturally cross, and that they 
may not interfere that of the ball 

from the right hand 

is made higher than 

the other. 

8. Triple Pass. 
(Fig. 8.) The same 
as the last, with the 
addition of a third 
ball.which simply fol- 
lows in the path of 
the others. The in- 
troduction of a third 
ball will complicate 
matters and require 
even more practice 
than the preceding 
exercises. 

9. Triple Over 
and Under Pass. Like the last (Fig. 
9), except that one of the balls from 
the left hand to the right is sent 
higher than either of the others, so 




Fig. 6. 



that one ball is always seen moving 
from left to right above two others, 




Fig. 7- 

which are changing hands in a lower 
curve. 

10. Shower. (Fig. 10). The balls 



J* 

/ ^--OK. \ 

(/ XX 




Fig. 8. 

follow exactly the samp path, going 
from one hand to the other by the 




Fig. 9- 



Inside Fall and back by the Horizon- 
tal Pass. Showers can be performed 



BALL JUGGLING 



BALLS AND BALL GAMES 



with two, three, or four balls. A two- 
ball shower may be performed with 
one hand, in which case either the 




Fig. 10. 

Inside or Outside Fall is used, and 
one of the balls, after being caught, 
is carried by the hand back to the 




Fig. ii. 



throwing place, while the other is in 
the air. 





ii. Fountains, combinations of 
the Inside and Outside Falls. In the 



Single Fountain (Fig. ii), a ball is 
used by each hand and with each the 
outside fall is performed. In the 
Double Fountain (Fig. 12), each hand 
showers two balls, and the balls do 
not pass from one hand to the other. 

The natives of the South Sea 
Islands are said to be very skillful at 
ball juggling, using small round 
fruits, or balls made of rolled leaves, 
and keeping as many as five in the 
air at once. Sometimes, also, a sort 
of bat, made of a stick of wood with 
a short cross-piece at the end, is 
used to strike the ball, instead of 
tossing it up with the hand. 

BALLS AND BALL GAMES. 
Games in which a ball is used have 
been played since the most ancient 
times. Greek and Roman writers 
tell different stories about the inven- 
tion of such games, but probably 
none of these are true. The ball, is 
such a simple toy, and so easily made, 
that it has doubtless been used by all 
nations from the earliest times, and 
it is not necessary to suppose that it 
was derived by them all from one 
tribe or people. It was known to 
the Egyptians, and the picture, from 
an old wall-painting, shows a game 
played by them, in which two of the 
players sat on others' backs. Homer 
describes in the " Odyssey " a game 
of ball played by a Greek princess 
and her companions to the sound of 
music. The Greeks called the ball 
Sphatra, from which we get the word 
sphere, and the Roman name for it 
was Pila. Both nations were very 
fond of playing with it, and both had 
many games, in most of which a 
small ball was thrown from one 
player to another. The Greeks val- 
ued it so highly that they had special 
teachers of the game in their gymna- 
siums ; and the Athenians erected a 
statue to a skillful ball-player named 
Aristonicus. The Emperor Augus- 
tus was fond of the sport, and after 
his time it was commonly played just 
before taking a bath, in a room at- 
tached to the bathing house, The 
Romans also played with a large ball 



BALLS AND BALL GAMES 



BANDILORE 



like a foot-ball, called Follis, but 
they seem to have thrown instead of 
kicked it. In one game, called Har- 
pastum (from a Greek word meaning 
to snatch), each player tried to get 
possession of the ball, as in modern 
FOOT-BALL. In Brittany, a game like 
Harpastum was played till modern 
times with a sort of foot-ball stuffed 
with hay, called Soitle. Two com- 
munes usually fought for it, each try- 



ing to carry it home, and men were 
so often maimed and wounded in 
the struggle that the game was sup- 
pressed by law. The Australian na- 
tives have a similar game, where a 
ball of opossum skin is " hunted 
out" as in FOOT-BALL and then strug- 
gled for. They call it Marn Gook, 
In another class of games, played with 
a large ball, the players try to put it 
across the enemy's boundary instead 





Egyptian BalL 



of carrying it within their own. The 
Greek eptkoinos (common ball) was 
of this class, as are the modern Hurl- 
ing and FOOT-BALL. The former, 
which is an Irish sport, consists in 
trying to carry by hand a large ball 
across the opposite boundary, which 




Roman BalL 

may be distant by several miles. The 
struggle for possession of the ball is 
often severe and the game is very 
rough. No ball game played with a 
stick, like HOCKEY, POLO, or CRO- 
QUET, was known in Ancient Greece 



or Rome, and this kind of .game 
seems to have originated in the East. 
The bat and ball games, such as 
CRICKET, BASE BALL, and CAT, 
seem to be still later, like the vari- 
ous TENNIS games, including Racket, 
Fives, and HAND BALL, where the 
ball is sent against a wall. But all 
these forms of Ball have so many 
points in common that it is difficult 
to trace their history, and authorities 
generally differ as to the exact course 
of their development. What is 
known of each is told in the separate 
article treating of it. The illustra- 
tion, from a painting in the baths of 
Titus, shows four persons playing 
some kind of a ball game before en- 
tering the bath. 

BANDILORE, a toy consisting of 
two discs joined at the center and 
having a string wound between them. 
The player takes one end of the 
string and allows the bandilore to 
fall, revolving as the string unwinds. 
Just before it reaches the end of the 



BARBERRY BUSH 



BAROMETER 



string he gives it a quick jerk up- 
wards, and the spin it has acquired 
will then wind the string in the op- 
posite direction, and cause the toy to 
ascend. It can thus be kept moving 
up and down, as long as the player 
pleases. 

History. The origin of the Bandi- 
lore is not certain- 
ly known, though 
some say it was 
invented to amuse 
an East Indian 
princess. It was 
brought in 1790 
from Bengal to 
England, where it 
became fashion- 
able under the 
name of the 
"Quiz." Thence 
it was taken to 
Normandy, where 
it was called "Jou- 
jou." Soon after- 
ward it became the 
fashion in Paris. 
The toys were made of all kinds of 
materials, from sugar to gold, and 
some of them were as large as dinner 
plates. The Duke of Orleans gave to 
a French lady a Bandilore set with 
diamonds, valued at 2400 livres. The 
toy is now known in France as Z'.Zs#2/- 
grant (The Emigrant), because it was 
in favor with the nobility at the begin- 
ning of the French Revolution, when 
many of them were forced to emigrate 
to other countries. 

BANJO, Experiments with. See 
VIOLIN. 

BARBERRY BUSH, a singing 
game played by any number of 
children. All join hands in a ring, 
and circle around, singing: 



Bandilore. 



They then stop, and rubbing their 
hands together to imitate the wash- 
ing of dishes, sing: 

This is the way we wash our clothes, 
Wash our clothes, wash cur clothes, 
This is the way we wash our clothes, 
So early on Monday morning. 

The players then circle as before, 
singing the chorus with " Tuesday " 
substituted for Monday. So the 
game goes on, the successive verses 
being generally as follows : 

This is the way we iron our clothes, 
So early on Tuesday morning. 

This is the way we scrub our floor, 
So early on Wednesday morning. 

This is the way we mend our clothes, 
So early on Thursday morning. 



This is the way we sweep the house, 
So early on Friday morning. 

This is the way we bake our bread, 
So early on Saturday morning. 

This is the way we go to church, 
So early on Sunday morning. 



The chorus is repeated before each 
verse, with the insertion of the proper 
day of the week. 

Sometimes the Mulberry bush is 
mentioned instead of the Barberry 
bush. The last line is also sung, 

All of a Monday morning, 

or 

All on a frosty morning. 

BAROMETER. The barometer 
and its history are told of in C. C. T. 
To make a mercury barometer, take a 
glass tube four feet long, and about 
a quarter of an inch in inside diame- 
ter, and bend it into a U shape, at 
about afoot from one end, so that the 
longer branch shall measure at least 
33 inches. Make the bend gradually, 
allowing several inches at the turn 
(see directions for glass working, 
under CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS). 



Here we go round the bar-ber - ry bush, the bar - ber - ry bush, the bar-ber-ry bush. 









Here we go round the bar-ber - ry bush so ear - ly on Mon - day morn-ing. 



BASE BALL 



53 



BASE BALL 



Seal the long end air-tight by melt- 
ing it, and then fill that end with 
mercury by pouring it little by little 
into the short end, then turning 
the tube so that the mercury will 
run around the bend. This will re- 
quire much patience, as the long end 
of the tube is full of air which finds 
difficulty in bubbling past the heavy 
mercury in a small tube. The tube 
and mercury should both be warmed 
so as to be dry, and the mercury 
must be perfectly clean. When the 
long end of the tube and the bend are 
full, hold the tube upright and the 
mercury in the long end will fall a 
little way, leaving an empty space 
at the top. If it does not, pour a 
little mercury out of the short end. 
The distance between the level of 
the mercury in the short end and that 
in the long end will be about 30 inches. 
To measure the height readily, and 
so tell whether the barometer is ris- 
ing or falling, fasten the tube to a 
smooth board by bands of cloth, 
tacked at the ends, and nail to the 
board, between the branches of the 
tube, a three-foot rule. Then if the 
mercury in one branch stands at 4 
inches, and the other at 33^ inches 
the difference, in this case 29^ inches, 
is the height of the barometer. 

BASE BALL, a game played by 
eighteen persons, nine on a side, on 
a field marked with bases as in the 
diagram. 

The field and implements are fplly 
described in the appended rules. 

The players on the side in the 
field are named the Pitcher and the 
Catcher (who together are often 
called the " battery "); the First, Sec- 
ond, and Third Base-keepers or Base- 
men ; the Short-Stop ; and the Right, 
Center, and Left Fielders. The three 
last mentioned are called the Out- 
field ; the others, the In-field. Be- 
fore the game the two leaders or cap- 
tains usually decide by lot which 
shall have the choice of innings, and 
the winner may choose to go to the 
bat or into the field. In match 
games the captain of the home club 



has choice of the innings. The 
players on the side that goes to the 
field, who are often called the "outs," 
take up the positions shown on the 
diagram. Each baseman generally 
stands near his base ; the other 
players may vary their positions con- 
siderably, except the Pitcher, who, 
while delivering the ball, must stand 
within certain limits, as shown in 
Rules 8 and 29 below. 

The Pitcher now throws the ball 
toward one of the other side, called 
the " Batsman," who stands at home 
base. If the Batsman strike at the 
ball without hitting it, he is said to 
have made a " strike. " If the ball is 
" good," that is, passes over the 
home base not higher than the Bats- 
man's shoulder and not lower than 
his knee, it is counted a "called 
strike," although he make no attempt 
to hit at it. A strike is also called, 
as a penalty, on the batsman in cer- 
tain other cases. (See Rule 43, be- 
low.) 

If the ball is not good and the 
player does not strike at it, it is said 
to be a " ball, " or a " called ball." 
All " strikes " and " balls " are called 
by an umpire, who stands near the 
Batsman and decides each point as 
it comes up. (Two umpires are 
sometimes necessary. See Rule 56, 
below.) If the player strike the 
ball and it fall within the lines in 
the diagram called the " foul lines," 
it is said to be a " fair ball," and 
the player becomes a " base-runner " 
and immediately starts toward the 
"first base." If the batted ball be 
a " ground hit " to the infield, the 
player getting the ball should throw 
it quickly to the First Baseman. 
Balls hit along the ground to the 
outfielders are seldom thrown to 
First Base, because the runner 
would reach the base long before the 
ball. It is oftentimes a better play 
to throw the ball to some other base 
when there are other runners on 
base. This will be explained later. 

If the Batsman can touch first 
base before the Baseman standing 



BASE BALL 



54 



BASE BALL 



on the base catches and holds the 
ball, the former is said to have 
" made his base," and remains there ; 
otherwise he is said to have been 



" put out," and he does not bat 
again until the eight other players 
on his side have had their turn " at 
the bat." If, however, the ball, 




\ 


IN 


6^6" /* 


/ 


V 


+5 S Q 
C 2 o 

D 3 


^ip9| 


/ 


d ^ 


Ca 


x X ^ 


/ 


* lt >' 


\ 


Q 


\ <5r x ' x \ 

\ ^CATCHEE ^^ 
X \ ,'' UMPIRE* \ x 


/ \ 


] 


* c 


X >'D 


x' 


a 







/ 


^ Q N 


a 















r| 


/ 


s 


\ S 


T 


' ' 




L 


\ L - ' 


,' Catcher a Fence V 


o 


M 






A 




Diagram of Field. 



>w 



when struck, instead of being fair, 
falls outside the foul lines it counts 
for nothing, unless it be caught on 
the " fly " by one of the other side, 
which puts the Striker out. The 
Striker cannot make his base on it, 



and it is neither a strike nor a ball. 
When a ball is just touched by the 
bat and flies directly back of the 
Batsman, it is called a " foul tip." 
Sometimes a foul tip is hard to 
tell from a simple strike. If three 



BASE BALL 



55 



BASE BALL 



strikes are called by the umpire, the 
Striker must run for his base, and the 
ball, after it passes the home plate, 
is treated just like a fair ball struck. 
If the Catcher catches it and holds 
it, or if he can get it to first base be- 
fore the Batsman, the latter is out. 
If four balls are called, the Batsman 
is allowed to " take his base " that 
is, to run to first base without any 
hindrance. 

Sometimes the batsman soh ;t s the 
ball that, although he is himself put 
out, he enables a base-runner to reach 
another base. He is then said to 
have made a " sacrifice hit." 

When a player either has been put 
out or has made his base, another 




Shoe Plate. 

one of the same side takes his place 
as Batsman. The striking order is 
decided before the game and re- 
mains the same throughout. When 
a base-runner has reached first base, 
his object is to pass in succession 
second, third, and home base, and if 
he succeed in reaching the last- 
named without being put out, he 
scores one run for his side. He can 
be put out, after he has reached first 
base by being touched with the ball 
in the hands of one of the opposite 
side while he is not touching a base, 
and in other ways as told in Rule 
50; but these do not often occur. 
He cannot be put out while he 
is standing on a base ; but as two 
players cannot occupy the same base 



at the same time, he must leave the 
base before the base-runner follow- 
ing him reaches it. When a player 
is thus compelled to leave his base, 
he is said to be " forced." A base- 
runner usually keeps close to his base 
while the ball is near him, but when 
it is in the hands of the Pitcher or 
the Catcher he " leads off " a short 
distance toward the next base, so as 
to be ready to run to it should the 
Batsman strike a fair ball. When a 
foul ball is struck, all base-running 
after the ball leaves the bat is void, 
and the runners must return to the 
bases from which they started, re- 
touching the bases they have just 
left. Sometimes a base-runner can 
make his next base by leading off 
and then running while the ball is 
being thrown by the Pitcher to the 
Catcher, hoping to reach the base 
before the latter can throw the ball 
to the Baseman. This is called 
" stealing a base." If the ball is 
thrown to the Baseman before the 
runner makes his base, he may then 
try to return to his former base, if it 
has not been occupied by another 
player. The basemen on each side 
of him then usually try to put him 
out by throwing the ball from one to 
the other, while they walk toward 
each other, keeping the runner be- 
tween them till one is near enough to 
touch him. This is called " run- 
ning out between bases," but it does 
not happen often with skillful play- 
ers. Sometimes, in such a case, 
the runner will manage to slip past 
one of the basemen and make his 
base. In any case where there is a 
dispute as to whether a man has been 
put out or not, the umpire decides, 
as he does in all disputed points 
throughout the game. Sometimes a 
baseman, after putting out a man, 
can get the ball to another base 
in time to put out someone else, or 
a fielder, after catching a fly and 
thus putting the striker out, may 
throw out a base-runner. These and 
similar cases are called "double- 
plays. " If three men are thus put 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



out, it is a " triple-play," but this 
occurs very seldom. When the 
Catcher lets a ball from the Pitcher 
pass him (called a " passed ball "), 
and the back-stop is placed at ninety 
feet back of the home plate, the 
runner may take as many bases 
as he is able. When the back-stop 
is not so placed, only one base is al- 
lowed. Sometimes the Batsman will 
strike the ball so far that he can 
safely run to second or third base, or 
even around to home base. In the 
last case he makes a " home run," 
while at the same time sending in 
all the base-runners ahead of him, if 
any are on base at the time. Thus, 
by a skillful hit when the bases 
are " full," a Batsman may enable 
four runners to score. As soon as 
three players are out, the sides 
change places, and, if no one has 
reached home base, the score for 
that inning of the side that has just 
left the bat is nothing, no matter 
how many men may be on bases. 
The game goes on as before with the 
sides reversed, and when three men 
of the second side have been put out 
the first inning is ended. In any 
inning that man goes first to the bat 
whose name follows, in the batting 
order, that of the one who last com- 
pleted his time at the bat (not the 
one who was out last or the one who 
went to the bat last) in the previous 
inning. 

The game consists of nine such in- 
nings, and the side that scores the 
most runs is the winner. If the same 
number of runs has been scored 
by each side at the end of the ninth 
inning, a tenth must be played, or 
more, if necessary, till the game 
is decided. Each inning is divided 
into halves, during each of which a 
different side is at the bat. At the 
end of an entire inning, when the 
sides have been at the bat the same 
number of times, the innings are said 
to be " even" ; but when the side 
that struck first has been at the bat 
once more than the other, the innings 
are said to be " uneven." If the 



side that would go to the bat last is 
ahead at the middle of the ninth or 
any subsequent inning, the last half 
of that inning is omitted, as it could 
not affect the result of the game, but 
only increase the winners' score. 
Similarly, if the side last at bat scores 
the winning run before putting out 
its three men, the rest of the inning 
is omitted. 

If a player reaches his base, he 
does so either because he made so 
good a hit that the best fielding 
could not have put him out, or 
because one of the fielders did not do 
his duty. In the former case, the 
Batsman is said to have made a base- 
hit, or a two-, three-, or four-base hit, 
as the case may be ; in the latter case, 
the fielder is said to have made an 
" error." Likewise, a fielder that 
allows a base-runner to make a new 
base, when he might have stopped 
him, makes an error. A run made 
entirely without the aid of errors 
on the opposite side is called an 
" earned run." Errors, base-hits, and 
earned runs are scored, not because 
they count in deciding the results, 
but because they serve to show 
whether a game is won by the skill 
of the winners or the carelessness 
or bad playing of the losers ; and 
they also show which are the best 
players on a side. They are more 
carefully considered under Scoring. 

The Catcher. This player usually 
wears gloves, made for the purpose, 
to protect his hands, a cage, or 
mask, of strong steel wire over his 
face, and sometimes a padded 
body protector, as in Figure I. 
When there are no men on bases, 
and the batsman has less than two 
strikes, the Catcher usually stands 
back and takes the Pitcher's balls on 
the first bounce, or allows them to 
strike the high board fence at his 
rear without trying to catch them. 
When the Batsman has two strikes, 
the Catcher stands close to him 
(called playing close to.or behind, the 
bat), so that at the next strike he 
may catch the ball on the fly, and so. 



BASE BALL 



57 



BASE BALL 



put the striker out. When there 
is a man on third base, he also 




Catcher. Fig. i. 

plays close to the bat, so as to give 
the base-runner no chance to reach 




Catcher. Fig. 2. 



home. He keeps on the lookout to 
see that no men " steal " bases, and 



tries to " throw them out " if possi- 
ble. He tries to catch those foul 
balls that are struck to the Batsman's 
rear, and any fair balls that fall but 
a short distance in front of the 
Home-plate. When a fair ball falls 
between Catcher and Pitcher, or in 
any other case where it is doubtful 
which player should take a ball, the 
captain of the side calls out the 
name of the one he wishes to catch 
it. Besides these duties, the Catcher 
generally acts as Home-Baseman. 




Pitcher. 

The Pitcher. His chief duty is to 
throw his ball so that the Batsman 
will find difficulty in striking it. For 
this purpose he often throws the ball 
in a curve, so that the Batsman is 
puzzled to know just where it will 
cross the home-plate. This is done 
by giving the ball a twist as it 
is thrown. A swiftly moving ball 
pushes the air in front of it into 
a sort of elastic cushion, and if the 
ball is twisting at the same time the 
cushion will be a little more elastic on 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



one side than on the other, pushing 
the ball slightly sideways, and thus 
making its path a curve. By mak- 




Straight Delivery. 

ing the ball twirl in one direction or 
another,the skillful Pitcher can curve 
it to the right or to the left upward 




In-Curve. 

or downward, so that only a bats- 
man of equal skill can strike it at all. 
The illustrations show the positions 
of the hand and body for various 
curves. It requires 
much judgment to 
make a curved ball 
pass over the 
Home-plate, for 
when it leaves the 
Pitcher's hand it 
seems as if it were 




going to pass to 
one side. That the 
Catcher may not 
be puzzled as well 
as the Batsman, 
the Pitcher makes 
signals, usually by 
moving his hand or 

Straight Delivery. jl ead ' to Jell the 

Catcher how the 

ball is to be curved. When he is 

.pitching the ball, he must not step 




In-Curve. 



outside of the lines that determine 
his position, as laid down in the 
rules. While engaged in pitching the 
ball the Pitcher must also keep close 
watch of the base-runners, trying to 
put them out by throwing the ball to 
the bases when 
they are off 
their guard. 
He should also 
be ready to 
" back up" the 
Catcher, or 
stand behind 
him, when the 
ball is thrown 
in from the field 
to put a runner 
out at home. 
Sometimes he 
backs up the 
First Baseman 
in like manner. 
The Pitcher 
must not pre- 
tend to deliver 

the ball without doing so. If he 
does, he is said to have made a 
" balk," and the Batsman is allowed 
to go to first base. (See Rule 32.) 

TJie Baseman. 
The principal duty 
of the Baseman is 
to guard his base 
and be ready to 
put out any base- 
runner who is try- 
ing to make it. 
The First Base- 
man usually does 
this simply by 
catching the ball 
and touching his 
base before the 
runner the 
others, in most 
cases, put the run- 
ner out by touch- 
ing him with the 
ball before he 
reaches the base. 
When, however, the runner is 
" forced " the basemen need only 
touch the base before the runner 




Out-Curve. 



BASE BALL 



59 



BASE BALL 



while holding the ball. The base- 
men also act as fielders, and render 
assistance, when 
they can, in back- 
i n g up other 
players. 

The Fieltkrs. 
The duty of the 
fielders is to catch 
all fair and foul 
balls they can " on 
the fly," and to 
" field " or throw 
all balls as quickly 
as possible to the 
proper place. This 
place varies ac- 
cording to the 
state of the game 
and the position 
of the fielder. If 
there is no man on Third Base, 
and there is one on First and 
on Second Base, the ball goes 
either to Second or Third Base, ac- 




Drop. 




a man's scoring. But if the fielder 
sees he cannot possibly get the ball 
to Home Base in time, he throws 




Short Stop. 

it to one of the other bases. Or, if 
there are already two out, he may 
throw it to First Base, knowing 
that no matter if there is a man on 




Batsman. 



Fielder. 

cording to the chances for inter- 
cepting the runner. If there is a 
man on Third, the ball is usually Third Base his run cannot count after 
thrown to Home Base, for it is j the third out. It requires careful 
of the first importance to prevent i judgment in the fielder to know ex- 



BASE BALL 



60 



BASE BALL 



actly what to do in many cases, and 
he must decide instantly, as a sec- 
ond's delay might lose the game. An 
out-fielder may be idle during a great 
part of the game, but he must be 
ready to act at any moment, and on 
no account allow a ball to pass him. 
The Short Stop is an in-fielder, 
placed where batsmen are very apt 
to strike their balls, as experience 
shows. 



The Batsman. The Batsman 
strives to strike his ball in the place 
where it is least expected, or where 
it will be hardest to reach. If he sees 
that the Pitcher is giving him a good 
ball, he usually strikes at it, for it will 
be counted as a strike whether he 
does so or not ; but a bad ball he lets 
pass him, unless he sees that he can 
make a good hit with it. As soon as 
the Batsman strikes a ball he runs, 



HARVARD. 



10 




If 



B-A 



Z 



el 



F-S 



ss 



Hill 
'"* 



F-S 



c. 



B 



rl 



C-4 



F-R 



B-A 
2. 



F-S 



F-R 



llf 



K-H-A 
Z 



S-H 



in 



Total, 






Grand Total, 



i 



10 



/o 



5" 



Umpire,* Time, . 



without waiting to see whether it be 
foul or fair, returning to his bat if the 
umpire decides it to be foul. In 
striking, some batsmen swing the 
bat and others merely push it against 
the ball. Usually the striker steps 
forward just as he hits, to give more 
force to his stroke. 

The Base Runner is usually aided 
by the advice of a " coach," one of 
the men on his own side, who must 



stand outside the 50 foot line (see 
diagram.) When running for a base a 
good player often finishes by throw- 
ing himself at full length, and sliding 
toward it, either feet-foremost or 
head-foremost, thus avoiding the 
touch of the baseman. Skillful base 
runners have signals by which they 
inform the batsman when they are 
going to " steal" a base, thus en- 
abling him to hit to better advantage. 



BASE BALL 



6l 



BASE BALL 



For instance, if a runner on First 
Base tries to steal Second Base, the 
Second Baseman will run to protect 
his base, leaving the field open, and 
a hit between the two bases will be 
a good one. Much of the success of 
the game depends on skillful base- 
running. 

Score. The principal duty of the 
Scorers, of which there are generally 
two, one for each side, is to keep 



record of all the runs and outs as 
they occur, so as to be able to tell 
at any time the state of the game. 
They usually do still more than this, 
keeping a complete record of the 
progress of the game, as will be shown 
below. The score is kept in a blank 
book prepared for the purpose, of 
which there are various forms. One 
page of one of them is represented 
below. It will be seen that the names 



10 



SrA 



ss 



M-8 



P-A 

i 



S-A 



B 



S-A 
Z 



4 



B-B 






fee 



rf 



-s-A 

3 



z 



+C. 
3 



F-2 
z 



of 



fl-A 



P-A 



If 



F-S 

1 



Total, 



Grand Total, 



Z 



1 



If- 



Scorers ,__ 



Tale, 



of the players, in the order in which 
they come to the bat are arranged in 
the first column. Opposite them, in 
the second, are abbreviations show- 
ing their positions. These differ 
with different Scorers, but those given 
below are Catcher, H ; Pitcher, P ; 
1st baseman, A ; 2<i baseman, B ; 3d 
baseman, C ; Short-stop, S ; Right 
fielder, R ; Left fielder, L ; Center 
fielder, M. Each of the next ten col- 



umns is devoted to the runs and outs 
of an inning. In the other columns, 
in order, are recorded the total runs 
of each player, his base hits, the men 
he has put out, the men he assisted 
to put out (called "assists "),and his 
errors. As soon as the first Batsman 
leaves the Home-plate, the Scorer's 
work begins. If the Batsman is put 
out the Scorer writes in the first 
inning-column, opposite the player's 



BASE BALL 



62 



BASE BALL 



name, what looks like a fraction. 
Below the line is the number of the 
out (in this case, I). Above is an 
abbreviation telling how he was put 
out. If he was put out by one of the 
players throwing the ball to a base- 
man, the letters denoting those play- 
ers are used, separated by a dash ; 
thus, P B means that the Pitcher 
threw the ball to the 2d baseman. 
K means " struck out " ; f., a fly 
catch ; 1, f., a foul fly ; and b. b., first 
base taken on called balls. If, in- 
stead of going out, the Striker makes 
a base, he must have made a base 
hit, or someone, on the opposite 
side, made an error. If the former, 
the mark -+- is put down for a single 
base, for a two-base hit, or f'~ 
a three-base hit. If the latter, a dot 
is put opposite the erring player's 
name in the error column on the 
other page. When a player scores, 
a dot is put opposite his name in the 
inning column. At the close of the 
game the total runs, base hits, put- 
outs, and assists are summed up 
from the score and entered in their 
respective columns. To sum up the 
put-outs, the number of times a 
man's letter appears, after a dash, is 
entered in the put-out column on the 
opposite page, for if R B for in- 
stance appears opposite a man's 
name, that man was put out of 
course by the Second Baseman on 
the opposite side. The total num- 
ber of put-outs for each side in an 
even nine-inning game is 27, and if 
they foot up more or less, there has 
been some mistake. The " assists " 
are summed up by treating, in like 
manner, the letters before the dashes. 
The assists need not number 27 
altogether, for some men are put out 
without assistance, as when a fly is 
caught. When the score is published 
only the columns that are lettered 
at the top are given. Often two 
columns of base hits are entered ; 
one of "base hits" simply, the 
other of " totals." In the former 
each hit is counted as one, whether 
for one or more bases ; in the latter 



a two-base hit is counted as 2, and a 
three-base hit as 3. This is all that 
a young scorer will care to do, but 
the National League rules require 
still more. When the score is an- 
nounced to the public, as by printing 
it in a newspaper, of course only final 
figures are given. The standard 
method is to give the players' names 
in one column, and then in succes- 
sive columns the number of times 
at bat, runs, base hits, sacrifice hits, 
put-outs, assists, and errors. This 
is followed by a summary giving the 
score in each inning, and a large num- 
ber of particulars, such as bases 
stolen, home-runs, double and triple 
plays, called balls, wild pitches, etc. 
What are called the batting and field- 
ing percentages of the players are 
often calculated at the end of a series 
of games. The former is the percent- 
age of base hits in the total number 
of times at the bat ; the latter the 
percentage of " chances accepted " 
in the total number of " chances 
offered." The chances offered to a 
fielder are found by adding his put- 
outs, assists, and errors ; the chances 
accepted, by subtracting the errors 
from this sum. Thus, if a player 
has put out 25 men, assisted to put 
out 1 8, and made 9 errors, he has 
had 52 chances, of which he has 
accepted 43, and his fielding per- 
centage is f| X ico, or nearly 83 per 
cent. 

The proper scoring of errors is 
very difficult, especially as there the 
scorer has no time to wait and think. 
Good scorers often differ as to 
whether a base has been gained by 
a hit or an error, and their scores 
would therefore read differently in 
this respect. The rules given below 
contain some directions on this 
point. To be able to take the score 
of a ball game properly adds much 
to its enjoyment, and spectators 
often amuse themselves in this way. 
The score given above is that of a 
game between the Yale and Harvard 
university nines, and from it may be 
read a very good account of the 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



game. The reader will see that the 
first Harvard player made a run, 
though" not on a base hit. The 
second struck a ball to the second 
baseman, who threw it to first base, 
putting him out ; the third struck to 
third base with a like result, and the 
fourth struck to the first baseman, 
who picked up the ball and made 
the third out, ending the inning. 

Rules of the Game. The rules 
given below are substantially those 
adopted by the National League and 
the American Association of Profes- 
sional Base Ball Clubs. Those parts 
which refer to matters of discipline 
are omitted. Many of the rules 
apply to match games between or- 
ganized clubs, and therefore do not 
apply to cases where sides are chosen 
just before the game, but it can be 
seen at a glance which rules thus 
apply. 

THE BALL GROUND. 

RULE I. The Ground must be 
an inclosed field, sufficient in size to 
enable each player to play in his posi- 
tion as required by these rules. 

RULE 2. To lay off the lines 
governing the positions and the play 
of the game known as Base Ball, 
proceed as follows : 

From a point, A, within the 
grounds, project a right line out into 
the field, and at a point B, 154 
feet from point A, lay off lines B C 
and B D at right angles to the line 
A B ; then, with B as center and 
63-63945 feet as radius, describe 
arcs cutting the lines B A at F and 
B C at B G D at H and B E at I. 
Draw lines F G, G E, E H and H F, 
and said lines will be the containing 
lines of the Diamond or infield. 

THE CA TOMER'S LINES. 
RULE 3. With F as center and 
90 feet radius, describe an arc cut- 
ting line F A at L, and draw lines 
L M and L O at right angles to F 
A ; and continue same out from F 
A not less then 90 feet. 

THE FOUL LINE. 

RULE 4. From the intersection 
point, F, continue the straight lines 



F G and F H until they intersect 
with the lines L M and L O, and 
then from the points G and H in the 
opposite direction until they reach 
the boundary lines of the grounds. 

THE PLA YERS* LINES. 

RULE 5. With F as center and 
50 feet radius, describe arcs cutting 
lines F O, F M at P and Q; 
then, with F as center again and 75 
feet radius, describe arcs cutting F 
G and F H at R and S ; then from 
the points P, Q, R and S draw lines 
at right angles to the lines F O, F 
M, F G and F H,and continue same 
until they intersect at the points T 
and W. 

THE CAPTAIN AND COACHEK'S 
LINE. 

RULE 6. With R and S as cen- 
ters and 15 feet radius, describe arcs 
cutting lines R W and S T at X and 
Y, and from the points X and Y 
draw lines parallel with lines F H 
and F G, and continue same out to 
the boundary lines of the ground. 

THE THREE-FOOT LINE. 

RULE 7. With F as center and 
45 feet radius, describe an arc cut- 
ting line F G at I, and from I out to 
the distance of 3 feet draw a line at 
right angles to F G, and marked 
point 2 ; then from point 2, draw a 
line parallel with the line F G to 
a point 3 feet beyond the point G, 
and marked 3 ; then from the point 
3 draw a line at right angles to line 
2, 3, back to and intersecting with 
line F G, and from thence back 
along line G F to point I. 

THE PITCHER'S PLA TE. 

RULE 8. With point F as center 
and 60.5 as feet radius, describe an 
arc cutting the line F B at a point 4, 
and draw a line 5, 6, passing through 
point 4 and extending 12 inches on 
either side of line F B ; then with 
line 5, 6, as a side, describe a paral- 
lelogram 24 inches by 6 inches. 

THE BASES. 

RULE 9. Within the angle F, 
describe a square the sides of which 
shall be 12 inches, two of its sides 
lying upon the lines F G and F H, 



BASE BALL 



64 



BASE BALL 



and within the angles G and H 
describe squares the sides of which 
shall be 15 inches, the two outer 
sides of said square lying upon the 
lines F G and G I and F H and H I, 
and at the angle E describe a square 
whose sides shall be 15 inches and 
so described that its sides shall be 
parallel with G I and I H and its 
center immediately over the angular 
point E. 

THE BA TS MAN'S LINE. 

RULE 10. On either side of the 
line A F B describe two parallelo- 
grams 6 feet long and 4 feet wide 
(marked 8 and 9), their length being 
parallel with the line A F B, their dis- 
tance apart being 6 inches added to 
each end of the length of the diagonal 
of the square within the angle F, 
and the center of the length being 
upon said diagonal. 

RULE II. The Home Base at F 
and the Pitcher's Plate at 4 must be 
of whitened rubber, and so fixed in 
the ground as to be even with the 
surface. 

RULE 12. The First Base at G, 
the Second Base at E.and the Third 
Base at H must be of white canvas 
bags, filled with soft material and 
securely fastened in their positions 
described in Rule 9. 

RULE 13. The lines described in 
Rules 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 must be 
marked with lime, chalk, or other 
suitable material, so as to be dis- 
tinctly seen by the umpire. 

THE BALL. 

RULE 14. SECTION i. Must 
not weigh less than five nor more 
than five and one-quarter ounces 
avoirdupois, and it must measure 
not less than nine nor more than 
nine and one-quarter inches in cir- 
cumference. 

SEC. 2. For each championship 
game two regulation balls shall be 
furnished by the home club to the 
umpire for use. When the ball in 
play is batted to foul ground and 
out of sight of the umpire, the other 
ball shall be immediately brought 
into play. As often as one of the 



two in use shall be lost a new one 
must be substituted. 

THE BA T. 

RULE 15. Must be entirely of 
hard wood, except that the handle 
may be wound with twine or a 
granulated substance supplied, not 
to exceed eighteen inches from the 
end. 

It must be round, and it must not 
exceed two and three-quarter inches 
in diameter in the thickest part, nor 
exceed forty-two inches in length. 

THE PL A YERS AND THEIR 
POSl TJONS. 

RULE 16. The players of each 
club in a game shall be nine in num- 
ber, one of whom shall act as cap- 
tain, and in no case shall less than 
nine men be allowed to play on each 
side. 

RULE 17. The players' positions 
shall be such as may be assigned 
them by their captain, except that 
the pitcher, while in the act of de- 
livering the ball to the bat, must 
take the position as defined in Rules 
8 and 29. 

RULE 18. Players in uniform 
shall not be permitted to occupy 
seats on the stands, or to stand 
among the spectators. 

RULE 19. SECTION i. No player 
shall attach anything to the sole 
or heel of his shoes other than the 
ordinary base ball shoe plate. 

SEC. 2. The catcher and first 
baseman are permitted to wear a 
glove or mitt of any size, shape, or 
weight. All other players are re- 
stricted to the use of a glove or mitt 
weighing not over ten ounces, and 
measuring in circumference, around 
the palm of the hand, not over four- 
teen inches. 

PL A YERS 1 BENCHES. 

RULE 20. The players' benches 
must be furnished by the home club 
and placed upon a portion of the 
ground outside of and not nearer 
than 25 feet to the players' lines. 
One such bench must be for the ex- 
clusive use of the visiting club, and 
one for the exclusive use of the 
home club. 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



THE GAME. 

RULE 21. SECTION i. Every 
championship game must be com- 
menced not later than two hours 
before sunset. 

SEC. 2. A game shall consist of 
nine innings to each contesting nine, 
except that 

(a.) If the side first at bat 
scores less runs in nine innings than 
the other side has scored in eight 
innings, the game shall then ter- 
minate. 

(if.) If the side last at bat in 
the ninth inning scores the win- 
ning run before the third man is out, 
the game shall terminate. 

A TIE GAME. 

RULE 22. If the score be a tie at 
the end of the nine innings, play shall 
be continued until one side has 
scored more runs than the other in 
an equal number of innings, pro- 
vided, that the side last at bat scores 
the winning run before the third man 
is out, the game shall terminate. 

A DRAWN GAME. 

RULE 23. A drawn game shall 
be declared by the umpire when 
he terminates a game on account of 
darkness or rain, after five equal 
innings have been played, if the score 
at the time is equal on the last even 
innings played ; except when the side 
that went second to bat is then at the 
bat, and has scored the same num- 
ber of runs as the other side, in 
which case the umpire shall declare 
the game drawn without regard to 
the score of the last equal innings. 

A CALLED GAME. 

RULE 24. If the umpire calls 
" Game" on account of darkness or 
rain at any time after five innings 
have been completed, the score shall 
be that of the last equal innings 
played, except, that the side second 
at bat shall have scored one or 
more runs than the side first at 
bat, in which case the score of the 
game shall be the total number of 
runs made. 

A FORFEITED GAME. 

RULE 25. A forfeited game shall 
be declared by the umpire in favor 



of the club not in fault, at the request 
of such club, in the following cases : 

SECTION i. If the nine of a club 
fail to appear upon the field, or being 
upon the field, fail to begin the game 
within five minutes after the umpire 
has called " Play " at the hour ap- 
pointed for the beginning of the 
game, unless such delay in appearing, 
or in commencing the game, be un- 
avoidable. 

SEC. 2. If, after the game has 
begun, one side refuses or fails to 
continue playing, unless such game 
has been suspended or terminated 
by the umpire. 

SEC. 3. If, after play has been 
suspended by the umpire, one side 
fails to resume playing within one 
minute after the umpire has called 
" Play." 

SEC. 4. If a team resorts to dila- 
tory movements to delay the game. 

SEC. 5. If, in the opinion of the 
umpire, any one of the rules of the 
games is willfully violated. 

SEC. 6. If, after ordering the re- 
moval of a player, as authorized by 
the Rules, said order is not obeyed 
within one minute. 

SEC. 7. If, because of removal 
of players from the game by the 
itmpire, there be less than nine 
players in either team. 

SEC. 8. If, when two games are 
scheduled to be played on the same 
afternoon, the second game be not 
commenced within ten minutes of 
the time of completion of the first 
game. The umpire of the first 
game shall be the timekeeper. 
NO GAME. 

RULE 26. " No game " shall be 
declared by the umpire if he shall 
terminate play on account of rain or 
darkness before five innings on each 
side are completed. Except in a 
case when the game is called, and 
the club second at bat shall have 
more runs at end of its fourth 
innings than the club first at bat 
has made in its five completed 
innings; in such case the umpire 
shall award the game to the club 



BASE BALL 



66 



BASE BALL 



having made the greatest number of 
runs. 

SUBSTITUTES. 

RULE 27. SECTION i. In every 
championship game each side shall 
be required to have present on the 
field, in uniform, a sufficient number 
of substitute players to 'carry out the 

E revision which requires that not 
:ss than nine players shall occupy 
the field in any innings of the game. 
SEC. 2. Any such player may be 
substituted at any time by either 
club, but a player thereby retired 
shall not thereafter participate in the 
game. 

SEC. 3. The base-runner shall 
not have a substitute run for him 
except by the consent of the captains 
of the contesting teams. 

CHOICE OF INNINGS CONDITION OF 
GROUND. 

RULE 28. The choice of innings 
shall be given to the captain of the 
home club, who shall also be the 
sole judge of the fitness of the 
ground for beginning a game after 
rain, but, after play has been called 
by the umpire, he alone shall be the 
judge as to the fitness of the ground 
for resuming play after the game has 
been suspended on account of rain. 

THE PITCHER'S POSITION. 

RULE 29. The pitcher shall take 
his position facing the batsman with 
both feet square on the ground, and 
in front of the pitcher's plate; but in 
the act of delivering the ball to the 
bat, one foot must be in contact 
with the pitcher's plate, defined in 
Rule 8. He shall not raise either 
foot, unless in the act of delivering 
the ball to the bat, nor make more 
than one step in such delivery. 

A FAIRLY DELIVERED BALL. 

RULE 30. A Fairly Delivered 
Ball to the bat is a ball pitched 
or thrown to the bat by the pitcher 
while standing in his position and 
facing the batsman, the ball so 
delivered to pass over any portion of 
the home base not lower than the 
batsman's knee nor higher than his 
shoulder. 



AN UNFAIRLY DELIVERED BALL. 

RULE 31. An Unfairly Delivered 
Ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher, 
as in Rule 30, except that the ball 
does not pass over any portion of the 
home base, or does pass over the 
home base, above the batsman's 
shoulder or below the line of his 
knee. 

BALKING. 

RULE. 32. A Balk shall be : 

SECTION I. Any motion made 
by the pitcher to deliver the ball 
to the bat without delivering it. 

SEC. 2. Any delivery of the ball 
to the bat while his (pivot) foot 
is not in contact with the pitcher's 
plate, as defined in Rule 29. 

SEC. 3. Any motion in deliver- 
ing the ball to the bat by the pitcher 
while not in the position defined 
in Rule 29. 

SEC. 4. The holding of the ball 
by the pitcher so long *s, in the 
opinion of the umpire, to delay the 
game unnecessarily. 

SEC. 5. Standing in position and 
making any motion to pitch without 
having the ball in his possession, ex- 
cept in the case of a "block-ball," 
as provided by Rule 35, section 2. 

When the pitcher feigns to throw 
the ball to a base he must resume 
the above position and pause mo- 
mentarily before delivering the ball 
to the bat. 

If the pitcher fails to comply with 
the requirements of this rule the 
umpire must call " A balk." 

SEC. 6. The making of any mo- 
tion the pitcher habitually makes in 
his method of delivery, without his 
immediately delivering the ball to 
the bat. 

SEC. 7. If the pitcher feigns to 
throw the ball to a base and does 
not resume his legal position and 
pause momentarily before delivering 
the ball to the bat. 

DEAD BALLS. 

RULE 33. A Dead Ball is a ball 
delivered to* the bat by the pitcher 
that touches any part of the bats- 
man's person or clothing while 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



standing in his position without be- 
ing struck at, or that touches any 
part of the umpire's person or cloth- 
ing while he is standing on foul 
ground without first passing the 
catcher. 

RULE 34. In case of a foul strike, 
foul hit ball not legally caught out, 
dead ball, or base-runner put out for 
being struck by a fair-hit ball, the 
ball shall not be considered in play 
until it is held by the pitcher stand- 
ing in his position and the umpire 
shall hare called play. 

BLOCK BALLS. 

RULE 35. SECTION i. A Block 
is a batted or thrown ball that is 
touched, stopped, or handled by any 
person not engaged in the game. 

SEC. 2. Whenever a block occurs 
the umpire shall declare it and 
the base-runners may run the bases 
without being put out until the ball 
has been returned to and held by the 
pitcher standing in his position. 

SEC. 3. In the case of a block, if 
a person not engaged in the game 
should retain possession of the ball, 
or throw or kick it beyond the reach 
of the fielders, the umpire should 
call " Time " and require each base- 
runner to stop at the last base 
touched by him until the ball be re- 
turned to the pitcher standing in his 
position and the umpire shall have 
called " Play." 

THE BA TSMAWS POSITION-ORDER 
OF BA TTING. 

RULE 36. The batsmen must 
take their position within the bats- 
man's lines, as defined in Rule 10, in 
the order in which they are named 
in the batting order, which batting 
order must be submitted by the 
captains of the opposing teams to 
the umpire before the game, and 
this batting order must be followed 
except in the case of a substitute 
player, in which case the substitute 
must take the place of the oiiginal 
player in the batting order. After 
the first inning the first striker in 
each inning shall be the batsman 



whose name follows that of the last 
man who has completed his turn 
time at bat in the preceding inning. 

RULE 37. SECTION i. When 
their side goes to the bat the players 
must immediately return to the 
players' bench, as defined in Rule 
20, and remain there until the side 
is put out, except when called to the 
bat or they become coachers or sub- 
stitute base-runners ; provided, that 
the captain or one player only, 
except that if two or more base- 
runners are occupying the bases 
then the captain and one player, or 
two players, may occupy the space 
between the player's lines and the 
captain's lines to coach base-runners. 

SEC. 2. No player of the side " at 
bat," except when batsman, shall 
occupy any portion of the space 
within the catcher's lines, as defined 
in Rule 3. The triangular space 
behind the home base is reserved for 
the exclusive use of umpire, catcher, 
and batsman, and the umpire must 
prohibit any player of the side " at 
bat" from crossing the same at any 
time while the ball is in the hands 
of, or passing between, the pitcher 
and catcher, while standing in their 
positions. 

SEC. 3. The players of the side 
"at bat "must occupy the portion 
of the field allotted them, but must 
speedily vacate any portion thereof 
that may be in the way of the ball, 
or any fielder attempting to catch or 
field it. 

THE BA TTING RULES. 

RULE 38. SECTION i. A Fair 
Hit is a ball batted by the batsman 
while he is standing within the 
lines of his position that first 
touches " fair " ground, or the per- 
son of a player, or the umpire, while 
standing on fair ground, and then 
settles on fair ground before passing 
the line of first or third base. 

SEC. 2. A Foul Hit is a similarly 
batted ball that first touches " foul " 
ground, or the person of a player, or 
the umpire while standing on " foul " 
ground. 



BASE BALL 



68 



BASE BALL 



SEC. 3. Should such " fair hit " 
ball bound or roll to foul ground, 
before passing the line of first or 
third base, and settle on foul ground, 
it shall be declared by the umpire a 
foul ball. 

SEC. 4. Should such " foul hit " 
ball bound or roll to fair ground and 
settle there before passing the line 
of first or third base, it shall be 
declared by the umpire a fair ball. 

RULE 39. A foul tip is a ball 
batted by the batsman while stand- 
ing within the lines of his position 
that goes foul sharp from the bat to 
the catcher's hands. 

RULE 40. A bunt hit is a ball 
delivered by the pitcher to the bats- 
man who, while standing within the 
lines of his position, makes a deliber- 
ate attempt to hit the ball so slowly 
within the infield that it cannot be 
fielded in time to retire the batsman. 
If such a " bunt hit " goes to foul 
ground a strike shall be called by 
the umpire. 

BALLS BATTED OUTSIDE THE 
GROUND. 

RULE 41. When a batted ball 
passes outside the grounds, the 
umpire shall decide it Fair should it 
disappear within, or Foul should it 
disappear outside of the range of the 
foul lines, and Rule 38 is to be con- 
strued accordingly. 

RULE 42. A fair batted ball that 
goes over the fence shall entitle the 
batsman to a home run, except, that 
should it go over the fence at a less 
distance than two hundred and 
thirty-five (235) feet from the home 
base, when he shall be entitled to 
two bases only, and a distinctive line 
shall be marked on the fence at this 
point. 

STRIKES. 

RULE 43. A Strike is : 

SECTION i. A ball struck at by 
the batsman without its touching 
his bat ; or, 

SEC. 2. A fair ball legally de- 
livered by the pitcher, but not struck 
at by the batsman. 

SEC. 3. Any intentional effort to 



hit the ball to foul ground, also in 
the case of a " bunt hit," which 
sends the ball to foul ground, either 
directly, or by bounding or rolling 
from fairground to foul ground, and 
which settles on foul ground. 

SEC. 4. A ball struck at, if the 
ball touches any part of the bats- 
man's person. 

SEC. 5. A ball tipped by the 
batsman, and caught by the catcher, 
within ten feet from home base. 

RULE 44. A Foul Strike is a ball 
batted by the batsman when any 
part of his person is upon ground 
outside the lines of the batsman's 
position. 

THE BATSMAN IS OUT. 

RULE 45. The Batsman is Out : 

SECTION i. If he fails to take 
his position at the bat in his order of 
batting, unless the error be dis- 
covered and the proper batsman 
takes his position before a time " at 
bat " is recorded, and, in such case, 
the balls and strikes called must be 
counted in the time "at bat" of the 
proper batsman, and only the proper 
batsman shall be declared out, and 
no runs shall be scored or bases run 
because of any act of the improper 
batsman, provided, this rule shall 
not take effect unless the out is 
declared before the ball is delivered 
to the succeeding batsman. Should 
batsman declared out by this rule be 
sufficient to retire the side, the 
Proper batsman the next innings is 
the player who would have come 
to bat had the players been out by 
ordinary play. 

SEC. 2. If he fails to take his 
position within one minute after the 
umpire has called for the batsman. 

SEC. 3. If he makes a foul hit 
other than a foul tip, as defined in 
Rule 39, and the ball be momen- 
tarily held by a fielder before touch- 
ing the ground ; provided, it be not 
caught in a fielder's hat or cap, or 
touched by some object other than a 
fielder before being caught. 

SEC. 4. If he makes a foul strike. 

SEC. 5. If he attempts to hinder 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



the catcher from fielding or throw- 
ing the ball by stepping outside the 
lines of his position, or otherwise 
obstructing or interfering with the 
player. 

SEC. 6. If, while the first base 
be occupied by a base-runner, three 
strikes be called on him by the 
umpire, except when two men are 
already out. 

SEC. 7. If, after two strikes have 
been called, the batsman obviously 
attempts to make a foul hit, as in 
Rule 43, section 3. 

SEC. 8. If, while attempting a 
third strike, the ball touches any 
part of the batsman's person, in 
which case base-runners occupying 
bases shall return as prescribed in 
Rule 49, section 5. 

SEC. 9. If he hits a fly ball that 
can be handled by an infielder while 
first and second bases are occupied, 
or first, second and third with only 
one out. In such case the umpire 
shall, as soon as the ball is hit, 
declare infield or outfield hit. 

SEC. 10. If the third strike is 
called in accordance with section 4, 
Rule 43. 

SEC. 11. The moment a bats- 
man is declared out by the umpire, 
he (the umpire) shall call for the 
batsman next in order to leave his 
seat on the bench and take his posi- 
tion at the bat, and such player of 
the batting side shall not leave his 
seat on the bench until so called to 
bat, except as provided by Rule 37, 
section I, and Rule 52. 

BASE-RUNNING RULES. 

RULE 46. WHEN THE BATS- 
MAN BECOMES A BASE-RUNNER. 

The Batsman becomes a Base- 
runner : 

SECTION i. Instantly after he 
makes a fair hit. 

SEC. 2. Instantly after four balls 
have been called by the umpire. 

SEC. 3. Instantly after three 
strikes have been declared by the 
umpire. 

SEC. 4. If, while he be batsman, 
without making any attempt to 



strike at the ball, his person or cloth- 
ing be hit by a ball from the pitcher 
unless, in the opinion of the umpire, 
he plainly avoids making any effort 
to get out of the way of the ball 
from the pitcher, and thereby permits 
himself to be so hit. 

SEC. 5. Instantly after an illegal 
delivery of a ball by the pitcher. 

An illegal delivery of the ball is 
made if the pitcher's pivot foot be 
not in contact -with the rubber plate 
at the time of the delivery of the 
ball, or if he takes more than one 
step in delivery, or if, after feign- 
ing to throw to a base, he fails to 
pause momentarily before deliver- 
ing the ball to the bat. 

BASES TO BE TOUCHED. 

RULE 47. The base-runner must 
touch each base in regular order, 
viz., first, second, third and home 
bases, and when obliged to return 
(except on a foul hit) must retouch 
the base or bases in reverse order. 
He shall only be considered as 
holding a base after touching it, 
and shall then be entitled to hold 
such base until he has legally 
touched the next base in order or 
has been legally forced to vacate it 
for a succeeding base-runner. How- 
ever, no base-runner shall score a 
run to count in the game until the 
base-runner preceding him in the 
batting list (provided there has been 
such a base-runner who has not 
been put out in that inning) shall 
have first touched home base with- 
out being put out. 

ENTITLED TO BASES. 

RULE 48. The base-runner shall 
be entitled, without being put out, 
to take the base in the following 
cases: 

SECTION I. If, while he was bats- 
man, the umpire called four balls. 

SEC. 2. If the umpire awards a 
succeeding batsman a base on four 
balls, or for being hit with a pitched 
ball, or in case of an illegal delivery 
as in Rule 46, section 5 and the 
base-runner is thereby forced to 
vacate the base held by him. 



BASE BALL 



70 



BASE BALL 



SEC. 3. If the umpire calls a 
"Balk." 

SEC. 4. If a ball, delivered by 
the pitcher, pass the catcher, and 
touch the umpire, or any fence or 
building within ninety feet of the 
home base. 

SEC. 5. If, upon a fair hit, the 
ball strikes the person or clothing of 
the umpire on fair ground. 

SEC. 6. If he be prevented from 
making a base by the obstruction of 
an adversary, unless the latter be a 
fielder having the ball in his hand 
ready to meet the base-runner. 

SEC. 7. If the fielder stop or 
catch a batted ball with his hat or 
any part of his uniform except his 
gloved hand. 

RETURNING TO BASES. 

RULE 49. The base-runner shall 
return to his base, and shall be en- 
titled to so return without being put 
out : 

SECTION i. If the umpire de- 
clares a foul tip (as defined in Rule 
39), or any other foul hit not legally 
caught by a fielder. 

SEC. 2. If the umpire declares a 
foul strike. 

SEC. 3. If the umpire declares a 
dead ball, unless it be also the fourth 
unfair ball and he be thereby forced 
to take the next base, as provided in 
Rule 48, section 2. 

SEC. 4. If the person or clothing 
of the umpire interferes with the 
catcher, or he is struck by a ball 
thrown by the catcher to intercept a 
base-runner. 

SEC. 5. The base-runner shall 
return to his base if, while attempt- 
ing a strike, the ball touches any 
part of the batsman's person. 

WHEN BASE-RUNNERS ARE OUT. 

RULE 50. The Base-runner is 
Out: 

SECTION i. If, after three strikes 
have been declared against him 
while batsman and the catcher fail 
to catch the third strike ball, he 
plainly attempts to hinder the 
catcher from fielding the ball. 

SEC. 2. If, having made a fair 



hit while batsman, such fair hit ball 
be momentarily held by a fielder 
before touching the ground, or any 
object other than a fielder ; 
PROVIDED, it be not caught in a 
fielder's hat or cap. 

SEC. 3. If, when the umpire has 
declared three strikes on him while 
batsman, the third strike ball be 
momentarily held by a fielder before 
touching the ground ; PROVIDED, it 
be not caught in a fielder's hat or 
cap, or touch some object other 
than a fielder before being caught. 

SEC. 4. If, after three strikes or a 
fair hit, he be touched with the ball 
in the hand of a fielder before he 
shall have touched first base. 

SEC. 5. If, after three strikes or a 
fair hit, the ball be securely held by 
a fielder while touching first base 
with any part of his person be- 
fore such base-runner touches first 
base. 

SEC. 6. If, in running the last 
half of the distance from home base 
to first base, while the ball is being 
fielded to first base, he runs outside 
the three-foot lines, as defined in 
Rule 7, unless to avoid a fielder 
attempting to field a batted ball. 

SEC. 7. If, in running from first 
to second base, from second to 
third base, or from third to home 
base, he runs more than three feet 
from a direct line between such 
bases to avoid being touched by the 
ball in the hands of a fielder ; but in 
case a fielder be occupying the base- 
runner's proper path in attempting 
to field a batted ball, then the base- 
runner shall run out of the path, and 
behind said fielder, and shall not be 
declared out for so doing. 

SEC. 8. If he fails to avoid a 
fielder attempting to field a batted 
ball, in the manner described in 
sections 6 and 7 of this rule, or if 
he, in any way, obstructs a fielder 
attempting to field a batted ball, or 
intentionally interferes with a thrown 
ball ; PROVIDED, that if two or more 
fielders attempt to field a batted 
ball, and the base-runner comes in 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



contact with one or more of them, 
the umpire shall determine which 
fielder is entitled to the benefit of 
this rule, and shall not decide the 
base-runner out for coming in con- 
tact with any other fielder. 

SEC. 9. If, at any time while the 
ball is in play, he be touched by the 
ball in the hands of a fielder, unless 
some part of his person is touching 
a base he is entitled to occupy ; PRO- 
VIDED, the ball be held by the 
fielder after touching him. 

SEC. 10. The base-runner in 
running to first base may overrun 
said base, without being put out for j 
being off said base, after first touch- ; 
ing it, provided he returns at once 
and retouches the base, after which 
he may be put out as at any other 
base. If, in overrunning first base, 
he also attempts to run to second 
base, or after passing the base he 
turns to his left from the foul line, 
he shall forfeit such exemption from 
being put out. 

SEC. ii. If, when a fair or foul 
hit ball (other than a foul tip as 
referred to in Rule 39) is legally 
caught by a fielder, such ball is 
legally held by a fielder on the 
base occupied by the base-runner 
when such ball was struck (or the 
base-runner be touched with the ball 
in the hands of a fielder), before he 
retouches said base after such fair 
or foul hit call was so caught ; 
PROVIDED, that the base-runner 
shall not be out, in such case, if, 
after the ball was legally caught as 
above, it be delivered to the bat by 
the pitcher before the fielder holds 
it on said base, or touches the base- 
runner with it; but if the base-run- 
ner, in attempting to reach a base, 
detaches it before being touched or 
forced out, he shall be declared 
safe. 

SEC. 12. If, when a batsman 
becomes a base-runner, the first 
base, or the first and second bases, 
or the first, second and third bases, 
be occupied, any base-runner so 
occupying a base shall cease to be 



entitled to hold it, until any follow- 
ing base-runner is put out, and may 
be put out at the next base, or by 
being touched by the ball in the 
hands of a fielder in the same man- 
mer as in running to first base at any 
time before any following base- 
runner is put out. 

SEC. 13. If a fair hit ball strike 
him before touching the fielder, and, 
in such case, no base shall be run 
unless forced by the batsman becom- 
ing a base-runner, and no run shall 
be scored or any other base-runner 
put out. 

SEC. 14. If, when running to a 
base, or forced to return to a base, 
he fail to touch the intervening base, 
or bases, if any, in the order pre- 
scribed in Rule 47, he may be put 
out at the base he fails to touch, or 
being touched by the ball in the 
hands of a fielder in the same man- 
ner as in running to first base ; PRO- 
VIDED, that the base-runner shall not 
be out in such case if the ball be 
delivered to the bat by the pitcher 
before the fielder holds it on said 
base, or touches the base-runner 
with it. 

SEC. 15. If, when the umpire 
calls " Play," after any suspension of 
a game, he fails to return to and 
touch the base he occupied when 
"Time" was called before touching 
the next base ; PROVIDED, the base- 
runner shall not be out, in such case, 
if the ball be delivered to the bat by 
the pitcher before the fielder holds it 
on said base or touches the base- 
runner with it. 

WHEN BA TSMAN OR BASE-RUNNER 
IS OUT. 

RULE 51. The umpire shall 
declare the batsman or base-runner 
out, without waiting for an appeal 
for such decision, in all cases where 
such player is put out in accordance 
with these rules, except as provided 
in Rule 50, sections 10 and 14. 

COACHING RULES. 

RULE 52. The coacher shall be 
restricted to coaching the base- 
runner only, and shall not be allowed 



BASE BALL 



BASE BALL 



to address any remarks except to the 
base-runner, and then only in words 
of necessary direction ; and shall 
not use language which will in any 
manner refer to, or reflect upon a 
player of the opposing club, the 
umpire or the spectators, and not 
more than one coacher, who may be 
a player participating in the game, 
or any other player under contract to 
it, in the uniform of either club, shall 
be allowed at any one time, except, 
that if base-runners are occuping two 
or more of the bases, then the cap- 
tain and one player, or two players 
in the uniform of either club, may 
occupy the space between the 
players' lines and the captains' lines 
to coach base-runners. To enforce 
the above the captain of the opposite 
side may call the attention of the 
umpire to the offense, and, upon a 
repetition of the same, the offending 
player shall be debarred from further 
participation in the game, and shall 
leave the playing field forthwith. 

THE SCORING OF RUNS. 

RULE 53. One run shall be scored 
every time a base-runner, after hav- 
ing legally touched the first three 
bases, shall touch the home base 
before three men are put out. 
(Exception) If the third man is 
forced out, or is put out before 
reaching first base, a run shall not 
be scored. 

GENERAL DEFINITIONS. 

" Play " is the order of the umpire 
to begin the game, or to resume play 
after its suspension. 

" Time " is the order of the umpire 
to suspend play. Such suspension 
must not extend beyond the day of 
the game. 

" Game " is the announcement by 
the umpire that the game is ter- 
minated. 

An " Inning" is the term at bat of 
the nine players representing a club 
in a game, and is completed when 
three of such players have been put 
out, as provided in these rules. 

A " Time at Bat " is the term at 
bat of a batsman. It begins when 



he takes his position and continues 
until he is put out or becomes a base- 
runner; except when, because of 
being hit by a pitched ball, or in case 
of an illegal delivery by the pitcher, 
or in case of a sacrifice hit purposely 
made to the infield which, not being 
a base-hit, advances a base-runner 
without resulting in a put-out, except 
to the batsman, as in Rule 45. 

" Legal " or " Legally " signifies as 
required by these rules. 

SCORING RULES. 
BA TTING. 

No time at bat shall be scored if 
the batsman be hit by a pitched ball 
while standing in his position, and 
after trying to avoid being so hit, 
or in case of the pitcher's illegal 
delivery of the ball to the bat which 
gives the batsman his base, or when 
he intentionally hits the ball to the 
field, purposely to be put out, or if he 
is given first base on called balls. 

A base-hit should be scored in the 
following cases : 

When the ball from the bat strikes 
the ground within the foul lines and 
out of reach of the fielders. 

When a hit ball is partially or 
wholly stopped by a fielder in 
motion, but such player cannot 
recover himself in time to handle the 
ball before the striker reaches first 
base. 

When a ball is hit with such force 
to an infielder that he cannot handle 
it in time to put out the batsman. 
(In case of doubt over this class of 
hits, score a base-hit and exempt the 
fielder from the charge of an error.) 

When a ball is hit so slowly 
toward a fielder that he cannot 
handle it in time to put out the 
batsman. 

That in all cases where a base- 
runner is retired by being hit by a 
batted ball, the batsman should be 
credited with a base-hit. 

When a batted ball hits the per- 
son or clothing of the umpire. In 
no case shall a base-hit be scored 
when a base-runner has been forced 
out by the play. 



BASE BALL 



73 



BASE BALL 



FIELDING. 

Where a batsman is given out by 
the umpire for a foul strike, or where 
the batsman fails to bat in proper 
order, the put-out shall be scored to 
the catcher. In all cases of " out " 
for interference, running out of 
line, or infield fly dropped, the 
" out " should be credited to the 
player who would have made the 
play but for the action of the base- 
runner or batsman. 

An assist should be given to each 
player who handles the ball in assist- 
ing a put-out or other play of the 
kind. 

And generally an assist should be 
given to each player who handles or 
assists in any manner in handling 
the ball from the time it leaves the 
bat until it reaches the player who 
makes the put-out, or in case of 
a thrown ball, to each player who 
throws or handles it cleanly and 
in such a way that a put-out results, 
or would result if no error were 
made by the receiver. 

ERRORS. 

An error shall be given for each 
misplay which allows the striker or 
base-runner to make one or more 
bases when perfect play would have 
insured his being put out, except 
that " wild pitches," " bases on 
balls," bases on the batsman being 
struck by a " pitched ball," or in 
cases of illegal pitched balls, balks 
and passed balls, all of which com- 
prise battery errors, shall not be 
included in said column. 

One Old Cat, a kind of base ball 
played by any number of persons. 
The Home base is the only base, and 
the positions of the players are Bats- 
man, Catcher, Pitcher, and any num- 
ber of fielders, called First Field, 
Second Field, and so on. The 
striker keeps his place till he is put 
out. He is out if a fair fly or a foul 
bound is caught, all balls being fair 
that strike in front of the base, or if 
the Catcher catch, the ball after his 
third strike. If the ball is not caught 
at the third strike he has three more, 



and no strikes are counted except 
those actually made. When the 
striker is put out he takes the place 
of the lowest fielder. Each fielder 
then rises one step in rank, and First 
Field becomes Pitcher, while Pitcher 
takes the Catcher's place, and 
Catcher goes to the bat. Some- 
times, when a fair ball is caught, 
the fielder who makes the catch 
is allowed to go to the bat at once. 
The Batsman takes the lowest place 
as before, but only those lower than 
the successful fielder rise in rank. 

One Old Cat is sometimes varied 
by having two bases. Home and 
First Base, and making the Bats- 
man run to the latter and back when 
he strikes a fair ball. If he does so 
without being put out at Home, 
he scores a run. There is no First 
Baseman. 

Two Old Cat. This differs from 
One Old Cat only in having two 
Batsmen, to whom the ball is pitched 
alternately, the Catcher for one act- 
ing as Pitcher for the other. The 
fielders are partly behind one Bats- 
man and partly behind the other. 

Single-Handed Base, a kind of 
Base Ball resembling One Old Cat, 
with a First Base, except that there 
is a First Baseman, who can put the 
striker out as in the regular game. 
No count is kept of runs ; but if the 
Batsman reaches his base safely the 
Baseman goes to the bat, and the 
two thus alternate till one of them is 
put out. When there is an out, the 
players change positions as in One 
Old Cat, except the Baseman, who 
continues at his post, and alternates 
with the new Batsman. 

History. Games of ball in which 
a feature is running from one base or 
goal to another have probably been 
played for a long time, and games of 
some sort in which a bat is used are 
stiil older (see CRICKET). The illus- 
tration, from an old manuscript, 
shows a game of " club ball " in the 
I4th century. In 1748 the family of 
the Prince of Wales are said to have 
played " Base Ball," and in 1798 



BASE BALL 



74 



BATTLEDORE, ETC. 



Miss Austen in one of her novels 
speaks of a game of the same name 
as being played by girls. A game of 
" Base Ball " is still played in Eng- 
land, by little girls, in which the 
striker hits the ball with her hand, 
and then runs from one goal to 
another, while those on the opposite 
side strive to hit her with the ball by 
throwing it while she is between 
bases. Another English game of 
Base Ball, played by boys or men, is 




Club Ball in the I4th Century. 

called Rounders. It has been said 
many times that American Base 
Ball is derived from Rounders, but 
some writers deny this, and the only 
ground for the assertion seems to be 
the similarity of the games, which 
have, very likely, a common origin. 
Similar games are favorites in other 
European countries. In Dentches 
Ballspiel (German ball) the field is 
nearly square and the striker stands 
on one of the sides. There are but 
two bases, and the striker runs from 
one to the other and back. If the 
ball is thrown at him and hits him, 
while running, he is out. The last 
one out can call for three strikes, as 
in Rounders. The French " Balle 
au Camp " (Camp Ball) is also like 
Rounders, except that the ball is 
struck with the hand, no bat being 
used. The shape of the field (called 
the Camp) and the number of bases 
vary in different places. In a form 
of the same called Balle Empoisonte 
(Poisoned Ball), the base-runner may 
kick the ball out of his way, but must 
not touch it with his hands, it being 
considered " poisoned." 

The first regular Base Ball club 
in the United States is believed 



to have been the " Knickerbocker " 
of New York, formed in 1845. 
Others soon followed, a uniform 
set of rules was adopted by a 
convention of clubs it) 1857, and in 
1858 " The National Association of 
Base Ball Players " was organized. 
In 18593 rule was passed forbidding 
paid players to take part in matches, 
but this was often broken, and in 
1868 it was repealed. In 1871 the 
first association of paid or " profes- 
sional " players was formed, and 
now there are several such. The old 
" National Association " is not now 
in existence, and the principal asso- 
ciations of amateur players are the 
various college associations. Base 
Ball is now widely known as the 
American national game, and it is the 
only outdoor game that is played al- 
most exclusively in the United States. 
The principal difference between the 
present game and its earlier forms 
is that while at first the pitcher was 
compelled to pitch or toss the ball 
to the striker, as his name shows, he 
is now allowed to throw it. The 
result is that the ball is harder to hit 
and fewer runs are made. For- 
merly, in a match game, it was not 
unusual for each side to make thirty 
or fortv runs. 

BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLE- 
COQK, a game played by any num- 
ber of persons. The implements 
are shown in the accompanying 
figures. The Shuttlecock is usually 
made of cork loaded with lead, or 
sometimes of rubber, and crowned 
with feathers. The Battledore is 
sometimes made entirely of wood, 
but better of parchment stretched 
over a wooden frame, and it is often 
strung with twine or catgut, like a 
lawn TENNIS racket. The object of 
the game is simply to prevent the 
Shuttlecock from falling to the 
ground by striking it from one 
player to another with the Battledore. 
The shuttlecock has in the air a spin- 
ning motion caused by the feathers. 
In whatever direction it is struck, it 
always turns so that the cork goes 



BEAN BAGS 



75 



BELL AND HAMMER 



foremost, for the same reason that a 
vane points toward the direction 
from which the wind is blowing. 
The Germans call this game Feder- 
ball (Featherball). As they play it, 
he who lets the Shuttlecock fall loses 
a point, and when thirty points have 
been lost the game is ended ; he who 
has lost fewest points being the win- 
ner. The French call the game le 
volant (The Flyer). The Chinese, 
who are very skillful players, strike 
the shuttlecock with the sole of their 




Battledores and Shuttelcocks. 



feet. Badminton, a game played 
also with Battledores and a Shuttle- 
cock, is noticed at the end of the 
article on lawn TENNIS. 

History. The game was played 
at least 500 years ago. In the I7th 
century it was a fashionable game. 
In a comedy printed in 1609 occur 
the words, " To play at shuttlecock 
methinks is the game now." The 
Battledore is named after a similar 
instrument once used for beating 
clothes in washing. The word 
(sometimes spelled Battledoor) is 
thought by some to be the Spanish 
batallador, a combatant, but it is 
more probably related to the words 
bat and beat. The Shuttlecock is 
so called because it is driven back- 
ward and forward like a shuttle in 
weaving. Some think it is for 
Shuttle cork, and some that it is called 
a cock on account of its feathers. 

BATTLE GAME, THE. See 
Fox AND GEESE. 

BEAN BAGS, a game with cloth 



bags, partially filled with beans, 
played by any number of persons. 
After choosing sides, the players 
stand in two lines facing each other. 
Each line has a chair or table, at 
each end, on one of which are piled 
half the bean bags. At a signal, the 
player in each line nearest his pile of 
bags seizes them one by one and 
passes them along the line ; as they 
reach the other end of the line they 
are placed on the chair or table at 
that end, and the side which first 
transfers all its bags wins the game. 
Each player must have hold of only 
one bag at a time, and must hold 
that in only one hand at a time, 
passing it from one hand to the other 
and from that to the next player in 
order. If a player pass a bag 
wrongly, or drop it, his side loses 
the game. There should be an um- 
pire to decide all disputed questions. 
This game of bean bags is more 
amusing when it is played with bun- 
dles of clothes-pins loosely tied to- 
gether, as it is difficult to hand the 
clothes-pins down the line without 
dropping some of them. 

BELL AND HAMMER, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
with counters, dice, and five cards, 
which bear respectively the figures 
of a White Horse, an Inn, a Bell, a 
Hammer and a Bell and Hammer 
together. The dice bear not only 
numbers, but also blanks and the 
figures of a bell and hammer. One 
of the players is chosen as cashier, 
who distributes an equal number of 
counters to each. He then sells by 
auction, to the one who bids the 
highest number of counters, the five 
cards, separately. The counters thus 
paid are placed in the middle of the 
table to form the pool, to which each 
player pays four counters more. The 
players then throw the dice in order, 
the cashier first and then the others 
in any order he may choose, but the 
same order must be preserved dur- 
ing the game. If any one throw all 
blanks, each player must pay one 
counter to the holder of the White 



BEZIQUE 7 

Horse, but if with the blanks the 
Bell or Hammer, or both, be thrown, 
the holder of the corresponding card 
must pay one to the White Horse. 
When numbers are thrown with the 
Bell or Hammer the cashier pays 
their sum in counters from the pool 
to the holder of the corresponding 
card ; when numbers and blanks are 
thrown, the cashier pays the amount 
of such numbers from the pool to the 
thrower. Where the sum of the 
numbers thrown exceeds the number 
of counters in the pool, nothing is 



5 BEZIQUE 

paid from the pool, but the player 
who would otherwise have received 
pay pays the excess to the holder of 
the Inn. After the Inn has begun 
thus to receive, if all blanks are 
thrown, the players do not pay, as 
before, but the White Horse pays 
one to the Inn. If Bell or Hammer, 
or both, be thrown with blanks after 
the Inn begins to receive, the holder 
of the corresponding card pays one 
to the Inn. The game is won by the 
player having the largest number of 
counters at the close of the game. 




Bell and Hammer Implements. 



The game ends when some player 
takes all the counters in the pool, 
and such player acts as cashier for 
the next game. Bell and Hammer 
is much played in Germany, where it 
is called Glocke und Hammer (Bell 
and Hammer) or Schimmel (Horse). 
BEZIQUE, a game of CARDS 
played by two, three, or four persons, 
with as many EUCHRE packs as there 
are players. The two-handed game 
will be described first. The cards 
rank as follows : Ace, Ten, King, 
Queen, Knave, Nine, Eight, and 
Seven. The players cut for deal and 
the highest deals eight cards to each ; 
three, two, and three at a time. The 
cards that are left are called the 
stock, and are placed where each 
player can reach them. The dealer 
turns up the top card of the stock 
as a trump and lays it near the stock. 
Should it be a seven, he scores ten. 
The non-dealer now leads any 



card he chooses, and his opponent 
follows, but he is not obliged to fol- 
low suit nor to win the trick. The 
winner of the trick scores ten for 
every Ace and every Ten in the trick, 
and may also lay on the table in 
front of him any group of cards 
that is named in the list given below, 
scoring the proper number of points 
for it. This is called making a decla- 
ration, and the cards so laid down 
are said to be declared. They are 
still part of his hand, though they 
remain on the table, and he may 
play them like the others. After 
the declaration, if there is any (other- 
wise immediately after the trick is 
taken),the winner adds to his hand the 
top card of the stock, and his oppo- 
nent takes the next one; thus each has 
eight cards as at first. The winner 
of the last trick leads, and the play- 
ing, declaring, and drawing go on 
till the stock is exhausted. After 



BZIQUE 



77 



BZIQUE 



this no more declarations may be 
made, and each player takes into his 
hand those of his cards that still lie 
on the table. In the subsequent play 
suit must be followed, and the second 
player in each trick must take it if 
he can. The winner of the last trick 
scores ten. 

The cards are then dealt again and 
the game goes on as before, till one 
of the players has scored the winning 
number of points. This is agreed 
on before the game, but is usually 

JOOO. 

The groups of cards that may be 
declared, and the points that may be 
scored for each, are as follows : 
Seven of trumps counts 10 

[This card may be exchanged for 
the trump card, if the holder choose, 
instead of being laid on the table.] 
A Common Marriage (King and 

Queen of any suit but trumps) 

counts 20 

A Royal Marriage (King and 

Queen of trumps) counts 40 

Bezique (Queen of Spades and 

Knave of Diamonds) counts 40 
Double Bezique (two bziques) 

counts 500 

Four Aces count 100 

Four Kings 80 

Four Queens 60 

Four Knaves 40 

A Sequence (Ace, Ten, King, 

Queen, and Knave of trumps) 

counts 250 

Players are not obliged to make a 
declaration if they do not wish to do 
so. The same card can be declared 
more than once if the second group 
so declared is of a different kind 
from the first. Thus, if a Bezique 
is lying on the table, a King of 
Spades may be laid down and mar- 
ried to the Queen that forms part of 
it, and afterward four Kings may be 
declared by putting down three 
more Kings, but a King or Queen 
can count in only one marriage, and 
an ace or face card in only one group 
of four ; a Double Bezique counts as 
a group of a different kind from 
a Bezique, and therefore may be 



formed by adding one Bezique to 
another already declared. At least 
one card of a group must be laid on 
the table for the first time when it 
is declared ; thus, if four Kings and 
a Bezique lie already on the table, 
one of the Kings cannot be married 
to the Queen in the Bezique. So, 
also, cards may be added to a Royal 
Marriage to form a Sequence, but 
if a Sequence is declared first, the 
Royal Marriage it contains may not 
be declared afterward. Any number 
of groups may be declared at once 
when they are entirely separate, but 
not when one or more cards appear 
in more than one group. When the 
Seven of trumps is exchanged for the 
trump card as explained above, the 
latter is placed among those of the 
player's cards that are held up, and 
must not be declared till he has won 
another trick. Of course no card 
can be declared that has been played 
in a trick. 

In playing, the beginner must 
think of two things ; the value of 
his cards in making declarations, and 
their power to take Aces and Tens. 
If the player has no declaration to 
make and cannot take an Ace nor a 
Ten by winning a trick, it is rather 
a disadvantage to him to win it. As 
suit is not followed, except at the 
end of the game, it is unsafe to lead 
an Ace or a Ten, as they will prob- 
ably be trumped. Yet it is often 
better to do this than to play a 
King or Queen that has not yet 
been married. By carefully watch- 
ing his opponent's play, especially 
that from the declared cards, a 
player may often judge correctly the 
strength of his hand. 

Scoring the Aces and Tens is often 
left till the end of the hand, when 
each player, gathering up the tricks 
he has taken, reckons them all at 
once ; but it is simpler to score for 
them as they are taken. The score 
may be kept with pencil and paper, 
but score cards like the one in the 
illustration are commonly used, hav- 
ing three pointers, for tens, hundreds. 



BEZIQUE J 

and thousands. In the figure the 
score marked is 3520. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

I. If either player is dealt less than 
eight cards the number must be 




Bezique Marker. 

made up from the stock, or the non- 
dealer may call for a new deal, if he 
has not seen his hand. 

2. If the dealer gives his adversary 
more than eight cards, the latter must 
not draw till he has played all but 
seven. If the dealer gives himself 
more than eight, the other may draw 
the surplus cards and place them on 
the stock. 

3. If the dealer shows a card in 
dealing, the other player may call for 
a new deal. 

4. If a player draw out of turn, his 
opponent may add twenty to his own 
score, or take twenty from that of 
the offender, unless he has drawn his 
own card before noticing the mistake. 

5. If a player draw two cards at 
once, his opponent may look at their 
faces and give the offender whichever 
he pleases. 

6. There is no penalty for showing 
the wrong card by mistake, or for 
leading out of turn, but, if the other 
player has not followed such a lead, 
he may correct it if he wishes. 

7. Neither player may look at the 
tricks already played. 

8. If a player revoke after the cards 
on the table have been gathered up, 
or if he refuse to take a card that is 
led, when he can do so, his opponent 
shall score all Aces and Tens in the 
last eight tricks. 

9. A mistake in scoring, or an 



3 BEZIQUE 

omission to score, may be corrected 
at any time during the hand. 

Three-Handed Bezique. Three 
EUCHRE-packs are used, and each 
one plays for himself. Triple Bezique 
(three Queens of Spades and three 
Knaves of Diamonds) counts 1500, 
and the game is usually for 2000 
points. 

Fou r-H anded B eziq ue. Four 
packs are used, and the players may 
play as partners or each for himself. 
In the former case a player may de- 
clare when his partner takes a trick, 
and Beziques in the hands of part- 
ners may be declared as Double or 
Triple Beziques. In playing the 
last eight tricks in Four-Handed 
B6zique the winner of the previous 
trick and his left-hand opponent 
sometimes play by themselves, and 
then the other two play in like man- 
ner. The players should agree be- 
forehand whether this is to be done. 

In Three and Four Handed Be- 
zique the rules are the same as in the 
two-handed game, except that if a 
player lay a card on the table by 
mistake or lead out of turn he must 
leave the exposed card on the table, 
and cannot use it in declaring. But 
if all the other players follow a 
wrong lead, it cannot be changed, 
and there is no penalty. 

Bezique Panache. In this form 
of the game, four Aces, four Kings, 
four Queens, or four Knaves, do not 
count when two or more of them are 
of the same suit. 

Bezique is also played sometimes 
without turning up any trump, and 
the trump suit is that of the first 
Marriage that is declared, which is 
thus necessarily a Royal Marriage. 

Bezique probably originated in 
France, where the name is spelled 
Bdsigue. It was introduced into 
Paris in 1826, but had been a favor- 
ite in some of the French provinces 
for a long time before. The word 
Besigue is derived by some from the 
German besiegen (to conquer) ; and 
by others from the Latin bijugum (a 
yoke), from the yoking together of 



BEZIQUE 



79 



BEZIQUE 



two cards in the Bezique and the 
Marriages. 

Sixty-Six, a kind of Bezique. In 
the two-handed game one pack is 
used, from which all cards below the 
Nine are left out. Each player is 
dealt six cards, three at a time, and 
the only groups that can be de- 
clared are Common and Royal 
Marriages, which count as in ordi- 
nary Bezique. A player who de- 
clares a marriage must lead one of 
the declared cards. The cards 
count as follows to the winner of 
the trick containing them : 
Ace ... 1 1 Queen ... 3 
Ten ... 10 Knave . . 2 
King ... 4 Nine . . . o 

When a player has scored 66 it 
counts him one point toward game, 
and the remaining cards in hand are 
not played. If he makes 66 before 
his opponent scores 33 it counts him 
two points, and if before his oppo- 
nent wins a trick, three points. The 
scoring must be done mentally. He 
who first makes seven points wins 
the game. When a player thinks he 
can make 66 without drawing any 
more cards, he may turn down the 
trump, if he has the lead, and draw- 
ing ceases. This is called closing, 
and may take place even at the open- 
ing of the game, before a card has 
been drawn. After the trump is 
turned down, the cards are played 
as if the stock were exhausted, suit 
being followed and the second player 
being obliged to take the trick if 
he can. In closing, the last trick 
counts nothing. If the player who 
closes fails to make 66, his opponent 
scores two points, and if a player 
close before his opponent has won 
a trick, and fails to make 66, his 
opponent scores three points. When- 
ever a player announces that he has 
made 66 his opponent may look at 
the cards to see whether he is cor- 
rect. It will be seen that the two 
together cannot make less than 130. 
If this is evenly divided, so that each 
has 65, neither scores, but the win- 
ner of the next hand scores an extra 



point. In all other respects Sixty 
Six is played like Bezique, and the 
rules are the same. The Nine of 
trumps can be exchanged for the 
trump card, like the seven in Be- 
zique, but counts nothing. 

Three-Handed Sixty-Six. The 
dealer gives each of the other players 
six cards, but none to himself, and 
when the hand is played scores the 
same number of points as the win- 
ner of the round, but the dealer is 
not allowed to score his seventh 
point. The game is frequently 
played thus in Germany. 

Four-Handed Sixty-Six. The 
sevens and eights are added to the 
pack, and partners are decided upon 
by dealing the cards, face upward, 
until aces have fallen to two of the 
company, who must play together. 
The player who received the first 
ace deals first. The whole pack is 
dealt, and the last card, which is 
turned as trump, is the dealer's prop- 
erty. There is thus neither drawing 
nor closing, and there is also no de- 
claration of marriages. The players 
must follow suit if possible ; other- 
wise, they must trump if they can ; 
and when trumps are led, each must 
try to take the trick. The last trick 
counts ten. If at the end of the 
round the winning partners have 
scored 66 it counts them ona 
point toward game, if 100, two 
points, and if they have won every 
trick, three points. He who takes 
the Ten of trumps scores a point at 
once, thus winning the game if he 
have six points, though his opponents 
may be ahead in other respects. In 
Germany there are forms of this 
game called Mariage (Marriage) and 
Sechsundsechzig (Sixty-six) and the 
four-handed game is called Kreutz- 
martage (Cross-marriage). 

Pinocle, a kind of Bezique played 
with two packs from which all the 
cards but the Aces, Tens, Kings, 
Queens, Knaves, and Nines have 
been discarded. In the two-handed 
game each player receives twelve 
cards, four at a time. The game is 



BILLIARDS 



80 



BILLIARDS 



1000 points, toward which the cards 
that are won in tricks count as in 
Sixty-Six, and the groups of cards 
that are declared, as in Bezique, with 
the additions and exceptions noted 
below. In this game Bezique is 
called Pinocle, a group is called a 
Meld, and declaring is called meld- 
ing. 

Double Pinocle counts 300 



A Sequence 
Eight Aces 
Eight Kings 
Eight Queens 
Eight Knaves 



150 

count 1000 
800 

" 600 
400 



The Nine of trumps is treated like 



the Seven in Bezique, and when the 
stock is exhausted the last twelve 
tricks are played like the last eight 
in Bezique. Only one Meld can be 
made at a time, and a Pinocle, if 
melded, cannot be used as part of a 
Double Pinocle. In all other respects 
the game is played like Bezique. 

Three-Handed and Four-Handed 
Pinocle. The cards are all dealt, 
four at a time; suit must be fol- 
lowed, and the trick taken, if possible. 
At the beginning of the game, each 
player in order, beginning at the 
dealer's left, melds what he has, and 
the meld is noted, but cannot be 




Fig. i. Position in Playing Billiards. 



added to his score till he has taken a 
trick. In the four-handed game 
each plays his first card before thus 
melding. When four play the game, 
they may play as partners or each 
for himself. 

BICYCLING. See CYCLING. 

BILLIARDS. Billiard tables origi- 
nally were six feet wide by twelve 
feet long, with openings cut through 



the cushion rails at each corner and 
at the centers of each side rail. 
Pockets of worsted network were 
attached to these openings, into 
which the balls would drop. The 
table now generally in use, however, 
is the carom table, without pockets. 
Tables five feet by ten are used by 
the great experts in their match con- 
tests, while public rooms, hotels, 



BILLIARDS 



8l 



BILLIARDS 



clubs, and private houses are mostly 
fitted with four and a half by nine 
tables. Pocket tables of both these 
sizes are still used for pool. Smaller 
tables are built to order to suit pur- 
chasers. 

Billiard balls are usually made of 
ivory, but sometimes of a patent 
composition. Composition balls are 
cheaper than ivory but are little used 
for billiards, though generally for 
pool. Standard billiard balls are 2f 
inches in diameter. Pool balls vary 
in size from 2^ to 2f inches. 

Cues are from 4 feet 6 inches to 4 
feet 9 inches in length, and are from 
i| inches to i| inches in diameter at 
the butt, and vary from ^ to f of an 
inch in size at the top ; and varying in 
weight from 12 to 21 ounces. Figs. 
I, 2, and 3 show the various ways 
of holding the cue, which should be 




o 



Fig. 2. An Alternate Position of Left 
Hand. 

held loosly when preparing for the 
stroke, and never " grabbed " except 
when making a " draw " (see below). 
In billiards proper, there are 
four balls, two white, one being 
distinguished from the other by a 
black spot, and two red, one dark 
and the other light ; but experts 
and professional players usually 
play games in which only three balls 
are needed, two white and one red. 
Each carom table has on it two 
spots, along an imaginary line drawn 
lengthways through the centre from 
the middle nails or " sights " in 
the head and lower cushions : the 
first, opposite the second "sight," 
is sometimes called the light red 



spot, the second, opposite the sixth 
"sight," the dark red spot, because 
they mark the positions of those 
two balls in the opening of the 
American four-ball game. On 
pocket tables there is a third spot 
three inches from the lower cushion, 
on which the white ball not played 
is placed on opening the game and 
after being pocketed ; and other spots 
are used for playing pool and the 
English game. A line supposed to 
be drawn across the table through 
the light red spot is called the 
string-line, because it is used in 
" stringing " for lead that is, choice 
of balls and first play : each player 
plays a ball from within this line 
at the head of the table against 
the cushion at the foot, and he whose 
ball stops nearest the head cushion 
on the return wins the choice. 

Four Ball, or American Garnet 
This game is now played on a carom 
table for 34 points up. But the 
game may be for any number of 
points agreed upon. The leader 
plays his ball from within the string 
line, so as to pass the dark red ball, 
but not rebound past it or strike it. 
His opponent then plays his ball in 
like manner, attempting to strike the 
white ball, and one of the red balls. 
If he strike the two balls, it is called 
a carom, and counts one point. If 
he strike all three balls, he counts 
two. The striker's ball may rebound 
from a cushion any number of times 
before the carom is completed. As 
long as the striker can carom he can 
continue his hand or inning. The 
obligation to hit the white ball first 
holds only in the opening stroke, and 
afterwards during the game each may 
play his ball at any of the other 
balls. 

Three-Ball Billiards, or French 
Caroms- There is but one red ball, 
which is " spotted " on the lower 
spot. One white ball is placed on 
the upper spot, and the player who 
has first turn places his ball not 
more than six inches from it and 
within the string. The first player 



BILLIARDS 



82 



BILLIARDS 



must hit the red ball with his own 
before striking his opponent's ball 
(though only at the opening stroke, 
as in the four-ball game). In other 
respects the game is like the four- 
ball game. 

The best recorded run at the three- 
ball carom game is 1531, made by 
Maurice Vignaux in Paris, France, in 
1880, in a match contest played with 
George F. Slosson of New York. 

Harvey McKenna, in playing an 
exhibition game in Boston, Mass., in 



1887, made a run of 2572, but the 
critics and experts of the world do 
not accept this as a record. The 
best run at the four-ball carom 
game, 1483, was made by I. McDev- 
itt in New York, in 1868. 

In match games, a space 4$ inches 
square at each corner of the table 
is called the "crotch," and when the 
centers of both object-balls are 
within a crotch, the player is not al- 
lowed to make more than three 
caroms unless he force one of the 




Fig. 3. Using the Bridge. 



balls out of the crotch. This rule is 
to prevent players from making long 
runs in the corner of the table, as 
can be done by one of moderate 
skill. 

Balk Line Game. Four lines 
are drawn on the table each at a 
distance of eight to fourteen inches, 
as may be agreed, from one of the 
cushions, forming eight compart- 
ments or spaces. Not more than 
two successive caroms can be made 



on object balls the centers of which 
are within any one of these spaces. 

All these games can be played by 
three persons, if they use alternate 
white balls, or four if they are di- 
vided into sides, those on the same 
side using the same ball in turn. 

Pocket Game. This game is 
played on a six-pocket or a four- 
pocket table, the side pockets being 
sometimes omitted. If the cue-ball 
strikes the obiect-ball so as to drive 



BILLIARDS 



BILLIARDS 



it into a pocket, or " pocket " it, it is 
a " winning hazard " and counts a 
point. If a player tries to pocket a 
ball and fails and does not carom, 
his inning comes to an end. Car- 

O 




Fig. 4. 

oms count as in the ordinary game, 
and the winner must make 100 
points. 

Practical Suggestions. The art 
of playing billiards is not so much 




Fig. 5- 



the art of making the balls go as 
they are aimed, as of overcoming 
their tendency to go as they are 
limed. If a ball strikes another ball 




Fig. 6. 

or a cushion, its natural tendency 
is to rebound at the same angle that 
it struck on; for instance, (See Fig. 4) 
if the ball strikes the cushion on the 
line AO, its natural tendency is to 



go off to A' : if struck along BO it 
goes to ', and if along CO to C'\ 
but suppose that while your ball is 
at B another ball that you want to 
hit after striking the cushion is at A', 
then you must strike the ball at B on 
its right side, as to give it a spinning 
motion which will prevent its run- 
ning out as far as B' . Or if you 
wanted it to come nearer the mid- 
dle of the table, say to C, you should 
give it the opposite spinning motion 
by striking it on its left side. The 




Fig. 7 . 



same would be true if the cue-ball 
were to first strike another ball in- 
stead of striking the cushion. The 
effect of side twist on the rebound of a 
ball, either from another ball or from 
a cushion, is to make it bound farther 
to the side on which the cue struck 
it. In addition to the twists toward 
the side, a ball can be given a twist 
forward or backward. If a ball is 
struck by the cue square in the cen- 
ter, as at A (Fig. 5) and strikes the 
object-ball square in the center, the 



BILLIARDS 



84 



BILLIARDS 



cue-ball will part with all its motion 
to the object-ball and will stop still, 
the object-ball going on in the same 
line. But if the cue-ball is struck 
above the center, as at C, it gets an 
extra twist forward which will make 
it follow the object-ball, and if it is 
struck on one side as well as above 
the center, it will not follow straight, 



but will follow toward that side, so 
that it may strike a second ball on 
that side of the table of the object- 
ball ; thus (See Fig. 6), A being 
twisted forward and to the right 
does not stop at B, but follows on 
to the right to A', and the object 
ball B goes on to B' . 

The reverse of this is true when A 




Fig. 8. 



instead of being struck above the 
center is struck below, as at B (Fig. 
5), but not pushed. It gets a 
backward twist. The ball B in 
Fig. 6 would go on to B' and A 
would roll back to its original posi- 
tion at A. This stroke needs prac- 
tice, however, as, if the cue does 




not leave the ball as soon as it has 
struck it, but pushes it a little, the 
twist will be destroyed. This back- 
ward twist is generally termed a 
" draw," and the forward one a 
" follow." The side twist is some- 
times termed "English." 

It is very seldom that the balls 
are in such positions that strokes can 
be made without follow, draw, or 
twist. The art of playing billiards 
is not so much the art of starting the 
cue-ball straight for the object, as of 
starting it with just the proper twist 
to make it behave as you wish after 
it has struck the object. 



If the cue is held as in D (Fig. 
5), it makes a " jump " stroke and 
causes the ball to bound into the 
air. The position marked E is 
called massJ and makes the ball roll 
backward, or move on a curve. The 
manner of holding the cue in the masst 



is shown in Fig. 7. Both jump and 
masst are too difficult for beginners. 
If the cue-ball strikes the object- 
ball squarely in the center, it is called 
a " full ball "; if it barely scrapes the 
edge it is a " fine ball," and balls 
between these extremes are called 



BILLIARDS 



BILLIARDS 



" half ball," " quarter ball," and so on. 
(See Fig. 8). The dotted lines show 
how the object-ball will move after 
each of these shots. In general, the 
more widely the object-ball, after 
being struck, departs from the first 
direction of the cue-ball, the less the 
cue-ball will depart from its first 
direction, but the force with which 
the cue-ball is struck has much to do 
with the result. The harder the cue- 
ball is struck, the more will it depart 
from its first direction, as in Fig. 9, 
where i shows the hardest stroke, etc. 
These strokes should all be prac- 
ticed by the beginner, who will learn 
by experience the result of each. 

The diagrams, Figs. 10, n, 12, and 
13, show various shots, which, in 
some shape or other, are constantly 
offering. The full lines show the 
path of the cue-ball before it strikes 
the object-ball ; and the broken line, 
its course after it has bounded from 
the object-ball. 

Fig. 10 shows two shots : in the 
left hand one, the ball a must be 
struck forcibly above the center and 
just graze b. In the right hand one, 
the cue-ball d must strike e half-ball. 
In Fig. it, the cue-ball g on the left 
must be struck sharply on the left 
side below the center. The one in 
the middle (a simple " follow shot ") 
shows how a carom can be made, 
even when the three balls are in a 
straight line ; the cue-ball a must be 
played forcibly at b, the merest shade 
to one side. Then b will strike c 
on the other side and pass to that 
side of it ; c will go to the cushion 
and come back to meet a, which 
will follow on to it. In the shot on 
the right, d must be played high on 
the left side, full at e. 

In Fig. 12, the cue-ball a on the 
right hand must be played low on 
the right side. The cue-ball on the 
left, d, must be played forcibly on 
the right side below the center. 

In Fig. 13, the ball a on the left 
must be played high on the right side, 
striking b as a three-quarters ball; 
the cue-ball on the right must be 



played very low on the right side so 
as to hit between e and the cushion, 
striking both at nearly the same in- 
stant. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

These are usually changed slightly 
[or each particular match. The ones 
given below are simplified from those 
generally observed. 

1. In stringing for lead, if a 
player's ball touch his opponent's 
after the latter has stopped, the 
former loses choice and lead. If the 
balls strike while both are moving 
the players must string again. In 
stringing, one ball must not reach 
the bottom cushion before the other 
is in motion. 

2. In the lead, if the ball led do 
not pass the dark red ball, or if it 
bound back past it, or if it jump 
from the table, or strike either red 
ball, the leader's opponent may take 
the lead instead, or he may place 
the offender's ball five inches from 
the center of the lower cushion, or 
require him to lead over again. 

3. Should the first player fail to hit 
the white ball first, or if any player 
during the game fail to hit a ball, a 
point is added to his opponent's score. 

4. If a player's ball goes off the 
table, a point may be added to his 
opponent's score, and the ball re- 
mains off the table until its next turn. 
But, in the three ball game, no forfeit 
is required, and the ball is " spotted." 
If possible it is placed on the spot at 
the head of the table ; if that be oc- 
cupied, on the spot at the foot, and, if 
the latter be occupied, in the center 
of the table. 

5. Balls forced off the table shall 
be spotted as above, but each ball 
must be placed on its own spot if 
possible. The cue-ball if it go off 
the table must be played from the 
string, as at the opening of the game. 
When the cue-ball is thus played 
it must not be played directly at any 
ball or cushion behind the string line. 

6. Should a player play with the 
wrong ball, he cannot count, and the 
position of balls must be transposed, 



BILLIARDS 



86 



BILLIARDS 



unless the player has made his sec- 
ond stroke before the error is dis- 
covered ; in which case he may con- 
tinue to play with the same ball, or 
have the balls changed. But at the 
end of the run the position of the 
balls must be transposed. 

7. Should both white balls be off 
the table together and a player pick 



up the wrong one, and play with it, 
the stroke is good. 

8. The striker must not play till 
every ball on the table is at rest. 

9. The cue must be withdrawn 
before the cue-ball touches the object- 
ball. 

10. The cue must touch the ball 
but once. 




Fig. 10. 



Fig. ii. 



11. The player must keep at least 
one foot on the floor while playing. 

12. No player can score by a play 
violating any of the four preceding 
rules. 

13. If the cue-ball is touching 
another ball the player must play 
first upon some other ball than the 
one the cue-ball touches. 

In the Three Ball game the balls 



are generally " spotted " when the 
cue-ball touches another, and the 
striker plays as in opening the game. 
14. If the cue-ball touch two balls 
or more so that it is impossible to 
play first on some other ball, the 
balls must be spotted as at the begin- 
ning of the game, and the player 
whose turn it is may choose whether 
he or his opponent shall lead. 



BILLIARDS 



BILLIARDS 



Pool, a game played on a pocket- 
table, in which the object is not to 
carom, but to pocket the balls. 
There are several kinds. 

Fifteen Ball Pool. There are fif- 
teen object-balls, colored, and marked 
with numbers from I to 15. The 
deep-red ball, which bears the highest 
number, is placed on its usual spot, 



and the others are placed close to- 
gether to form a triangle of which it 
is the point, the base of the triangle 
being toward the lower cushion. 
Any number of persons may play, 
all using the same white ball, in an 
order decided by lot before beginn- 
ing. The first player plays the 
cue-ball from within the string line; 








Fig. 12. 



after that it is played from wher- 
ever it may be, unless it leaves the 
table, when it must be played from 
within the string line. A player 
scores the number of the ball or 
balls that he pockets, unless he 
pocket one or more object balls and 
the white ball, in which case the 
object-balls must be placed on the 
dark-red spot or directly behind it, 



while three points are deducted 
from the player's score. Three 
points also are deducted from the 
score of any one who misses a bali, 
or plays his ball so that it leaves 
the table. As in ordinary Billiards, 
an inning ends only when the player 
fails to score. A player may play 
against any object-ball, even when 
the cue-ball touches it, and the cue 



BILLIARDS 



83 



BILLIARDS 



need not leave the cue-ball before it 
strikes the object-ball. Every pocket- 
ed ball remains pocketed'xcept the 
white, as described above, so 120 is 
the highest number of aggregate 
points that can be made. 

Rules of the Game. Billiard rules 
8, 10, 11, and 12 apply to this game, 
and in addition the following: 

1. When the cue-ball is played 
from within the string line, it can 
be played directly at no ball in the 
string. But if all the object-balls 
are in the string, the one nearest 
the line may be spotted and played 
on. 

2. If the player move his ball be- 
fore making his stroke, it shall be 
considered a stroke. If he move an 
object-ball, either before or after a 
stroke, he loses his hand and the 
moved ball must be replaced. 

3. If a player play out of turn, the 
balls shall be replaced; and he can- 
noi count unless he make more than 
one stroke before the mistake is dis- 
covered, when the play is good. 

Pyramid Pool. This differs from 
Fifteen Ball Pool only in the manner 
of counting. Each ball pocketed 
counts one point, and 15 is therefore 
the highest score that can be made. 
The rules are the same as those of 
Fifteen Ball Pool. The score is 
often kept by placing each ball, as it 
is pocketed, in a frame, containing 
a sort of trough for each player. 
Whenever a player pockets the white 
ball, or misses a shot, one of the 
balls in his trough is replaced on 
the table. 

Pin Pool. Five small wooden pins 
are set up in the centre of the table; 
each having a number marked on the 
table beside it, as in the figure. 
4 

3. 5. 2. 
I 

The pins are placed about 2J< 
inches apart so that the balls can pas: 
between them without touching. 
The object of the players is to over- 
turn the pins, or move them at least 
two inches from the spots where 



they were placed. Two white balls 
and one red are used ; the red ball is 
spotted about five inches from the 
ower cushion and one of the white 
Dalls is placed on the dark red spot. 
After the order of play has been 
determined by lot, each player draws 
a little ball from a bag, or is given 
one by some person not a player. 
These balls are numbered in order, 
and are called the private balls. 
Each player keeps secret the num- 
ber on his private ball till he has 
overturned pins the sum of whose 
numbers, with that on his ball, 
exactly equals 31, when he wins 
the game. But if the sum is more 
than 31, he is said to be "burst " 
and is out of the game, unless he 
claim what is called" the privilege." 
In this case he draws a new private 
ball, and, after choosing between the 
old and new, discards one of them 
and continues in the game. 

The game is begun thus. After 
the white and red ball have been 
spotted^as explained above, the lead- 
er plays at either with the remain- 
ing white ball from within the string 
line, or he may place his own ball 
upon the spot at the head of the 
table, and the next player must then 
play. The second player and the 
others after him may play at or with 
any of the three balls, red or white. 
Pins must not be played at directly, 
but must be overturned by a rebound 
of the cue-ball from a cushion or an 
object-ball, except when two balls 
are in contact, when either may be 
played directly at the pins. If a 
player knock down the four outside 
pins in one shot, leaving the middle 
one standing, he wins the game at 
once, no matter what his score is. 
All pins knocked down are replaced 
before the next shot. 

Rules of the Game. I . No player 
may claim privilege after the next 
stroke has been made. 

2. When a player claims privilege, 
his order in playing is not changed. 

3. If a player miss, pocket his ball, 
or cause it to leave the table, it must 



BILLIARDS 



89 



BILLIARDS 



be spotted five inches from the cen- 
ter of the lower cushion ; or, if that 
spot is occupied, on the dark-red 
spot ; or, if that spot is occupied, on 
the light-red spot. 

4. If a pin be knocked down, and 
a ball roll into its place, the pin must 
not be replaced till the ball is moved 
in course of play. 

5. A pin is considered knocked 
down when it has been moved two 
inches, even though it remain upright. 

6. Pins must be knocked down by 
rebound of the cue-ball from a cush- 
ion or an object-ball ; or by an ob- 
ject-ball so set in motion, except 
when two balls are in contact, when 
either can be played directly. 

History. Little is known of the 
origin of Billiards, some authorities 



saying that it was invented in France, 
others ii>/ermany, and still others in 
England.** It seems to have been 
derived from BOWLS or Pall Mall 
(see CROQUET) ; and it is said that 
Henrique Devigne, who lived in the 
time of Charles IX. of France, first 
gave it form and rule. Louis XIV. 
was advised by his physician to prac- 
tice the game after eating, to aid di- 
gestion, and since his time it has 
been a favorite in France. It was 
played in England certainly as early 
as the 1 6th century, for Shakespeare 
in "Antony and Cleopatra," makes 
Cleopatra say, " Let us to billiards." 
In the earliest times the game was 
played by driving a ball through a 
ring which turned on a pin fastened 
in a table or on the floor. A game 




Ancient Billiards. 



called Rural Billiards is still played 
thus in England. When it began to 
assume the present form, the balls 
were struck or pushed with a sort of 
mace, but about 1789 the cue came 
into general use. When the game 
was first played in the United States, 
the use of the cue was forbidden to 
all but skillful players, lest the cloth 
on the table should be injured. This 
was before the introduction of leather 
cue tips which are now used every- 
where. The top of the table, now of 
slate or marble, covered with cloth, 
was formerly of wood. The cush- 
ions were first stuffed with list, then 
made of india rubber, and now they 
are generally of a combination of 
various substances as suggested by 
Michael Phelan, an American player 
and billiard-table manufacturer. In 
the old form of cushions the ball 



sank in a little way, so that it never 
bounded correctly; but the modern 
cushions are comparatively hard on 
the outside, with an elastic backing. 
A table was once made in this coun- 
try with cushions stuffed with curled 
hair. 

The game was introduced into the 

United States in the first years of 

this century, and it is nowplayed more 

here than in any other country in the 

world. The early tables all had 

pockets; pocketing a red ball counted 

3, a white ball 2 ; caroming on the 

2 reds counted 3, and on a red and 

a white, 2, so that it was possible, 

and not unknown, for a single stroke 

to count 13. The game was ico 

points up. This game began to go 

| out of use about 1860, as cushions 

! were improved by Phelan, and con- 

j sequently longer rolls and more com- 



90 BILLIARD BALL AND CUES 



plex caroms were possible. First the 
side pockets were left off the tables, 
and, by about 1870, the corner pock- 
ets disappeared too. Meantime how- 
ever, the French, the best players 
in the world, had used smaller tables, 
without pockets, so as to make com- 
plex caroms. 

The games already described are 
those now generally played in the 
United States. The English game em- 
ploys not only caroms but winningand 
losing hazards, as in the old Ameri- 



can game, but both kinds of hazards 
score in the player's favor. Other 
games played in England are the 
White winning game, the White los- 
ing game, the Red winning game.and 
the Red losing game, in all of which 
caroms do not count at all. In Ger- 
many a kind of pool is played called 
Wurst Partie (The Sausage Game), 
because the balls are placed in a line 
supposed to look like a sausage. 
The Russians have a kind of billiards 
called Carline or Caroline which re- 




Billiard* in 1610. 



sembles the American game, and 
very many other kinds are played 
in different countries. 

The word Billiards (French Bil- 
lard} is from the French btlle, a 
ball. Carom or Carrom is from the 
French Carambole, meaning the 
same thing. The origin of this last 
word is unknown, but some think it 
is a corruption of Quatre Bottles 
(four balls). In England a carom is 
called a cannon. The word cue is 
the same as the French queue, which 
means a tail or handle. 



BILLIARD BALL AND CUES, ex* 

periment with. Place two billiard 
cues side by side on the table, so as 
to make a railway on which a billiard 
ball may roll. The small ends of 
the cues should touch, while the 
large ends are so far apart that the 
ball may be just placed between 
them. If a ball be now placed on 
the cues at the small ends, it will run 
to the large ends, apparently rolling 
up hill, though it really descends 
slightly, as will be seen by observing 
it closeity. 



BIRDS FLY 



BLIND MAN S I'.'JFP 



BIRDS FLY| a game played by 
any number 01 persons, generally 
young children. One of the players 
calls out " Robins Fly " or " Cats 
Fly " (using the name of any bird or 
animal he chooses), at the same 
time holding up both his hands. If 
the creature mentioned be one that 
can fly, all the others raise their 
hands also, but if it cannot fly, all 
keep their hands down. Those who 
raise their hands when they ought 
not, or keep them down when they 
should raise them, pay forfeits. In 
France this game is called Pigeon 
Vole (The pigeon flies), and in 
Germany its title is Alles was 
Federn hat fli'egt hoch (Everything 
which has feathers flies high). 

BLACK ART. See GUESSING 
THE SIGN. 

BLACKNESS, Experiment on. 
No paint nor substance in the world 
is perfectly black, for they all reflect 
a little light ; but a design or figure 
may be made as follows, which will 
be nearly so, appearing even darker 
than the surface of black velvet. 
Paint a pasteboard box black on the 
inside, or cover the inside with dead- 
black cloth. Cut a small hole in the 
cover, not larger than one-tenth its 
area, and then holding the box so 
that no light enter the hole directly, 
it will appear intensely black. If 
the hole be shaped to represent 
some figure, an imp, for instance, 
and the outside of the cover coated 
with black cloth or painted black, 
:he figure will appear dark in con- 
trast even with its black background. 
The reason is that almost no light 
at all reaches the inside of the box, 
which is accordingly nearly quite 
black. This kind of black is called 
" Chevreul's Black," after a French- 
man who invented the method of 
producing it. 

BLACK PETER, a game of 
CARDS played by any number of per- 
sons, not exceeding twelve. At the 
beginning, if necessary, one or more 
small cards are thrown out of the 
7"Ck, so that those that remain may 



be divided evenly among the players. 
They are then dealt, one at a time, 
and the last is turned up as trump. 
The cards rank as in WHIST. The 
object of the game is to take neither 
Black Peter (the Knave of Spades) 
nor the last trick in the hand, and 
with these exceptions it makes no 
difference who takes any of the 
tricks, except to decide the lead. 
Each player's score is credited with 
10 points in the beginning, and at the 
end of each hand one point is sub- 
tracted from the score of the player 
who took Black Peter, and one from 
him who took the last trick. He 
whose score is first reduced to noth- 
ing is the loser, and is also called 
Black Peter, while he who has the 
highest score is the winner. Some 
amusing penalty for Black Peter to 
pay may be agreed on beforehand. 
(See FORFEITS.) 

BLIND MAN'S BUFF, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
one of whom is blindfolded by tying 
a handkerchief over his eyes. The 
object of the blind-man is to catch 
one of the others. If he guess cor- 
rectly the name of the one caught, 
that one must take his place as blind- 
man ; if the guess be wrong, he must 
try to catch some one else. The 
players usually try to mislead the 
blind-man and turn his attention in 
various ways. 

RULES OF THE CAME. 

1. One who has been caught may 
be touched by the blind-man any- 
where above the waist, but must not 
be pinched nor made in any way to 
utter a sound. 

2. The blind-man must make his 
guess in one minute, or let the cap- 
tive go. 

3. No capture shall count that is 
made while looseness of the hand- 
kerchief allows the blind-man to see, 
no matter how little. 

4. If any player is fairly held, even 
for an instant, he is caught, and must 
not try to get away, but a mere touch 
does not count. 



BLIND MAN'S BUFF 



92 



BLIND MAN'S BUFF 



Still Pond, a kind of Blind Man's 
Buff in which the players do not run 
about, but keep each in one place, 
without making the slightest noise. 
The blind-man gives them time to 
take what positions each wishes, and 
then cries " Still Pond ! " (or, some- 
times, " Still Proving, no Moving,") 
after which no one but him may 
move, or make a noise. The players 
generally prefer to hide under tables 
or on chairs, but one may often stand 
still in the middle of the room with- 
out being found. The rules are the 
same as for common Blind Man's 
Buff. 

Seven Steps, a variation of Still 
Pond, in which each of the players is 
allowed to take not more than seven 
steps to escape from the blind-man. 
The steps may be taken at any time 
after he calls " Still Pond ! " In 
other respects the game is played like 
Still Pond. 

French Blind Man's Buff. The 
players form a ring, hand in hand, 
and the blind-man stands in the 
middle holding a wand, or cane. 
The players dance around him till he 
raps on the floor. When they stop, 
he holds out the cane, and the one 
to whom it points must grasp the 
end. The blind-man then asks any 
three questions he pleases, all of 
which must be answered in a 
changed voice. The blind-man 
guesses who is talking ; if he is right, 
the two change places; but if he is 
wrong, the players dance about him 
again, and the game goes on. This 
is also called Blind Man's Wand, 
Buff with the Wand, Indian Buff, 
and, in New York, Peggy in the 
Ring. 

Blind Man's Buff with Numbers, 
a form of the game in which the 
players, who are all numbered, sit 
around the room, while the blind- 
man stands in the middle. He calls 
out two numbers, and their owners 
must change places, the blind-man 
trying to catch them as they do so. 
No one can be caught after he has 
taken his seat. In this yfQf> the 



blind-man does not have to guess 
the name of the one that he catches. 
Sometimes, instead of numbers, the 
players take the names of towns, 
and the blind-man calls out, for 
instance, " Let New York go to 
Chicago," when he wishes the players 
with these names to change places. 
Jingling, a kind of Blind Man's 
Buff, played by any number of per- 
sons in a square place, inclosed by 
ropes, tied to corner-stakes. One of 

| the players, who is chosen "Jingler," 
or " Bell man," has his hands tied 
behind his back and a bell fastened 
around his neck, while all the others 
are blindfolded. The blind-men try 

! to catch the Jingler, guided by his 
bell, and the Jingler tries to deceive 

j them in every way he can. Two 
blind-men often seize each other, 

j each believing the other to be the 
Jingler. When any player succeeds 
in catching the Jingler, the two 
change places. In England, Jin- 
gling matches are popular at country 
fairs. If the Jingler can avoid his 
pursuers for a given time, he is the 
winner, otherwise the prize is given 
to the blind-man who catches him. 
The size of the space or " ring " in 
which the game is played, depends 
on the number of players and their 
agility. A few trials will usually 
determine the proper size. If the 
Jingler keeps too long from being 
caught, it is too large ; if he is 
caught too soon, it should be larger. 
In some parts of England a pig is 
placed in the ring instead of the 
Jingler, and the blind-men are 
armed with whips. He who hits 
the pig becomes its owner. The 

i sport is usually more amusing to the 
spectators than to the contestants, 
as they are apt to give each other a 
sound beating before any one suc- 
ceeds in hitting the pig. 

Spoons, a kind of Blind Man's 

| Buff in which the blind-man holds a 
large tablespoon in each hand. The 
other players circle around him till 
he cries " spoons ! " when he ad- 
vances and tries to guess who any 



BLIND MAN'S BUFF 



93 



BLIND MAN'S BUFF 



player is, by touching him with the 
spoon only. If he guesses correctly 
the player takes his place, otherwise 
the players circle around him as be- 
fore. 

History. Blind Man's Buff is a 
very old game. The Greek youths 



played it, calling it muia chalkl 
(brazen fly). The old English name 
for it was Hoodman Blind. People 
often wore head-dresses called hoods, 
and the blind-man turned his over his 
face, while the others used theirs to 
strike him with, as shown in the illus- 




Hoodman Blind. 



tration, taken from an old manuscript 
in the Bodleian library at Oxford. 
It was also sometimes called Harry- 
racket and Hoodwink. The English 
had other blindfold games, one of 
which is shown in the second illus- 
tration. The French call it Colin 



Maillard, which, it is said, was the 
name of a warrior in the loth cen- 
tury, who continued to fight in a 
battle after both his eyes were put 
out. His full name was Jean Colin, 
and he was surnamed Maillard 
(Mallet-wielder) from his favorite 




An Old English Blindfold Game. 



weapon. The Germans have several 
names for the game, among which 
are Blinde Kuh (Blind Cow), and 
Maus v Finstern (Mouse in the 
Dark). The Italians call it Mosca 
Cieca (Blind Fly) ; the Norwegians, 
Blind Thief, and the Poles, 



Man. French Blind Man's Buff fs 
called in Germany Blinde Kuh im 
Kreise (Blind Cow in the Ring), or 
"Piep." The name Blind Man's 
Buff is probably from the blows, or 
buffets, that the blind-man gets from 
his companions. 



BLIND MAN'S SINGING 



94 



BLOWPIPE 



BLIND MAN'S SINGING 
SCHOOL, a game played by any 
number of persons, one of whom is 
blindfolded and takes the part of 
teacher, while the others personate 
scholars. The scholars sing the 
scale, each singing one note, in or- 
der, to the syllable " Ah." They 
can sing correctly or not, as they 
please. When the teacher thinks 
he recognizes a voice, he says 
" Stop ! " and, calling the scholar 
by name, makes some correction or 
criticism. If the name is given in- 
correctly the singing goes on ; but 
if it is right, the scholar and 
teacher must change places. After 
the new teacher is blindfolded, the 
pupils must change seats, so that 
they cannot be recognized by the 
directions from which their voices 
come. 

BLOCKADE, a SOLITAIRE game 
of CARDS, played with two full packs. 
The Kings and Aces are placed in 
two rows as they come from the 
pack. On the Kings, families are 
built by piling downward, and on the 
Aces, upward. Cards which cannot 
be so used are placed in rows of ten 
each, face upward, on the table, one 
row directly below another. Any 
card in the upper or lower row may 
be used in bui'ding, or any card 
having an empty space above or 
below it. Those having other cards 
above and below them are said to be 
blockaded, and cannot be used. 
When all the possible cards have 
been played at any time, the spaces 
must be filled in regular order from 
the pack. The player has the privi- 
lege of using one blockaded card in 
building, after the pack is exhausted. 

BLOTTING-PAPER, Experiment 
with. Fill a goblet to overflowing 
with water, lay over it a thick sheet 
of blotting-paper, and on this place a 
pane of glass, or a plate. After the 
water has soaked a little into the 
paper the goblet will adhere to it so 
strongly that it may be picked up by 
the glass and even made to stand out 
sidewise from it. The reason is that 



the blotting-paper soaks out some of 
the water from the inside of the 
glass, reducing the pressure there, 
and so the pressure of the air outside 
holds goblet and glass together. 

With care the glass or plate can 
be dispensed with and the experi- 
ment performed with the paper alone. 
BLOWPIPE, Experiments with 
the. The ordinary blowpipe is a 
metal tube shaped as shown in the 
illustration. When the short end 
(which is usually made of platinum 
to prevent its melting) is 
placed in a flame and the 
mouth applied to the other 
end, a long, pointed, very- 
hot tongue of flame is pro- 
duced by blowing. The 
flame may be that of a 
candle, an alcohol lamp, or 
a gas burner. If a candle 
is used, the wick is bent 
over at right angles so as 
not to interfere with the 
blowpipe. If gas is used, 
a flat brass tube is slipped 
over the burner as shown 
in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 represents 
the blowpipe flame. Blowpipes, 
burners, and everything needed for 
the experiments described in this 
article can be bought 
of any dealer in 
chemical supplies. 
The flame, as shown 
in Fig. 3, consists 
of a central blue 
part, B, and an 
outer part A, of an- 
other color. Either 
of these parts may 
be made larger at 
the expense of the 
other by varying the 
force of the breath, as will be found 
by experiment. 

Blowing. It is often necessary to 
keep the flame steady for several 
minutes. In order to do this, the 
operator must be able to take breath 
through his nose, while blowing 
The effort should be simply to keep 
the cheeks constantly distended, 



Fig. i. 

Blow- 
pipe. 




BLOWPIPE 



95 



letting their elasticity drive the air 
out through the pipe. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

I. Melting. Take a small platinum 
wire or a bit of lime, and hold it in 
various parts of the blowpipe flame. 
(Objects may be so held by a pair of 
platinum forceps.) The wire will shine 
more brightly in some places than 




Fig. 3- 

others, and it will thus be found that 
the hottest part of the flame is just at 
the tip A (Fig. 3), where it is almost 
invisible. Hold various substances, 
bits of glass, stone, or metal in this 
part of the flame, and it will be found 
that some melt easily in it, while 
others do not. 

2. Oxydizing. Near the end of a 
strip of fine charcoal make a cavity 
by pressing the edge of a coin on it 
and turning it around. Put in the | 
cavity a bit of lead or antimony and 
hold it in the tip of the flame A. 
The heat will oxydize it, that is, 
cause it to unite with the oxygen of 
the air. A colored film or coating 
of the oxide will form around the 
metal. Other metals may be tried 
in the same way. Some will form 
colored films and others will not. 

3. Reducing. Mix together small 
equal qualities of dry washing soda 
and lead oxide. Put a little in the 
charcoal cavity, and heat it in the 
inner blue part of the flame, near the 
tip B, regulating the flame so that \ 
the mixture is surrounded by it. 
After a time little globules of lead 
will be seen in. the mass. It may 
then be cooled, put with water into 
a little mortar and broken up, when 
the beads of lead can be picked out. 



The lead came from the lead oxide, 
whose oxygen left it to unite with the 
gases of the blue flame. This is 
called reducing and the blue flame is 
called the reducing flame. Oxides 
of other metals may be treated in like 
manner. 

Borax Beads. Fix a piece of 
platinum wire in a cork for a handle, 
and make a little loop at the end 
of the wire. Heat the loop red hot 
and dip it into powdered borax, some 
of which will stick to it. The borax 
may now be melted to a transparent 
bead, which will remain on the wire 
loop. This bead has the property of 
dissolving many of the oxides of 
metals, which give it different colors, 
as may be seen by trial. A minute 
speck of oxide is sufficient. If the 
bead be then held in the reducing 
flame, the metal may often be ob- 
tained from the oxide, forming a glob- 
ule in the center of the bead, whence 
it may be taken out, when cool, by 
breaking with the hammer. 

BLOW THE FEATHER, a game 
played by any number of persons 
sitting in a square around a stretched 
sheet, which they hold just below 
their mouths. On the sheet is placed 
a feather, which each must try to 
keep away from him by blowing it 
toward some one else. If it touches 
any one he pays a forfeit. The 
game is played also by persons sit- 
ting around a table and trying to 
keep the feather in the air by blow- 
ing it. If any player allow it to fall 
to the table in front of him, or to 
touch him, he pays a forfeit. 

The game is sometimes called 
" French and English," in which 
case the players divide into two 
parties, which sit on opposite sides 
of the room. The room is divided 
into two "Camps " by a line drawn 
through the ' middle. Each side 
chooses a champion, who strives to 
blow the feather so that it will fall 
to the ground in the opposite Camp. 
When one succeeds, the other be- 
comes a prisoner and leaves the 
game. He is replaced by a second 



BLUE VITRIOL 



96 



BOAT-BUILDING 



champion, and the game goes on till 
all on one side have been taken 
prisoners. 

BLUE VITRIOL, Experiments 
with. Blue Vitriol, or Sulphate of 
Copper, is described in C. C. T. under 
VITRIOL. If the blue liquid left in 
the flask in making SULPHUR DI- 
OXIDE be evaporated over a water 
bath, crystals of blue vitriol will 
finally appear. 

1. If a crystal of blue vitriol be 
heated in a test-tube, it will turn to 
a white powder, and water will con- 
dense in the upper part of the tube. 
A drop of water on the powder will 
at once restore the original blue 
color. 

2. Make a strong solution of blue 
vitriol, and dip into it a knife-blade, 
carefully cleaned and free from 
grease. In a few minutes, copper 
will be deposited on the blade, mak- 
ing it look as if made of that metal. 

BOAT-BUILDING. Toy boats 
may either have hulls built of sep- 
arate pieces or be cut out of a solid 
block. The latter method, being the 
easier, will be described first. The 
best wood to be used is even- 
grained, well-seasoned yellow pine. 
The dimensions of the block used for 
naking a cutter yacht may be two 
/eet long, five inches wide, and five 
inches deep, but the size and pro- 
portions may of course be varied to 
suit the builder. The block is first 
planed and squared, and then 
straight lines are drawn from end to 
end along the middle of two oppo- 
site sides. The ends of these are 
connected by similar lines across the 
ends of the block. All these lines 
must be carefully measured and 
drawn. On the side chosen for the 
deck a line is drawn across the mid- 
dle at right angles to the long line, 
and then the deck plan is laid out as 
in the diagram. The curved lines 
must pass through the ends of the 
cross line, but their shape may be 
varied to suit the builder, provided 
the sides are exactly alike. 

The first part to be shaped should 



be the " counter," or overhanging 
stern, which is made as shown in 
the diagram at the place marked 
" After end of the block of timber." 
Curves representing sections across 
the hull at different points are now 
drawn on paper, and pieces of card- 
board called section molds are cut out 
to fit them. The block is turned deck 
downward, and the wood cut away 
with chisel and gouge till it fits the 
proper piece of cardboard at each 
place. As the wood nears its final 
shape care should be taken not to 
cut away too much, and the molds 
should be applied frequently. Be- 
sides these cross sections, lengthwise 
sections may also be used, which will 
make the work still more accurate. 
Both sections are shown in the dia- 
grams, and others may be tried exper- 
imentally by the builder, or copied 
from the lines of large yachts. The 
diagrams at the top and bottom of the 
page show a method of laying them 
off from a drawing. The lowest fig- 
ure show? the sweep of the lines from 
bow to stern at different levels, the 
outside lines denoting their shape at 
the top and the inside ones near the 
keel. A set of horizontal lines for the 
different levels are then made as 
shown in the square figure to the 
left, which must be just as high as 
the block used. To find the shape 
of the cross section at any place, for 
instance the third vertical line from 
the right (marked C in the upper- 
most figure), measure off the dis- 
tance of each curved line from the 
center, on the same line at the bot- 
tom of the page, and lay off the 
respective distances on their corre- 
sponding levels at the left. When the 
points so formed are joined, a curved 
line will result like that marked C in 
the small figure at the top, and this 
will be the shape of the section at C. 
In the same way the sections at the 
other vertical lines may be found 
and molds made fr.om them. 

The fullest part of the hull should 
be at the " midship section," or just 
half way between the stem and stern. 



BOAT-BUILDING 



97 



BOAT-BUILDING 




AT. 1 AT. 



How to Plan a Boat. 



BOAT-BUILDING 



98 



BOAT-BUILDING 



The hull is now turned over and 
hollowed out with gouges, leaving 
the sides thick at first, and thinning 
them gradually. The upper half 




Arrangement of Masts. 

inch of the sides should be made 
very thin, for bulwarks, and a ledge 
should be left just below for the 
deck to rest upon. This is made of a 
thin piece of pine, cut to the proper 
shape. Some boats require a false 
keel to make them float properly. 
This is of lead, shaped in a mold 
made of three laths nailed together 
to form a narrow channel, which 
with the dimensions given above 
must be an inch and a half in depth 
and three-eighths of an inch thick. 
The channel is stopped at the ends 
with wood, so as to be exactly the 
length of the boat's keel. Six or 
eight nails are driven into the bot- 
tom of the mold, so that they will 
project from the lead keel when 
molded, and enable it to be fast- 
ened to the boat. The bottom of the 
mold should therefore be thin, so 
that it can easily be pulled away 



from the nails. The mold is now 
filled with melted lead, which is 
taken out when it has hardened, and 
may then be shaped with a plane, as 
if it were of wood. The lower end 
of the false keel, at the bow, should 
be rounded. 

Before nailing down the deck, holes 
must be bored in it for the mast and 
rudder. The hole for the mast in a 
boat of the size described should be 
half an inch in diameter, and eight 
inches from the bow. A similar 
hole must be bored part way through 
the bottom of the hull to fix the 
lower end. The mast should be 
half an inch in diameter, and is best 
made of pine. It is made in two 
parts, the lower of which must meas- 
ure, between the deck and the top- 
mast, just three times the greatest 
width of the vessel, in this case fif- 
teen inches. Adding four inches for 
the part below the deck, and two and 
a half for the mast-head, the total 
length becomes twenty-one and a 
half inches. The mast must be 
rounded with a plane, or by whit- 
tling, and the mast-head (the upper 
two and a half inches) must be whit- 
tled down to half its diameter, to join 
it to the topmast. A quarter of an 
inch at the top must be made still 
smaller. The topmast is fastened to 




Ribs, Keel, and Keelson. 

the lower mast by two " caps," seen 
in the illustration, the lower one rest- 
ing on the lower part of the reduced 
portion, and the upper one fitting 



BOAT-BUILDING 



99 



BOAT-BUILDING 



the narrowest part. These may be 
made of hard wood or of brass. Be- 
fore fixing the mast in the .place pre- 
pared for it, about a dozen brass 
rings are placed on it. A cross-tree 
of flattened brass wire equal in length 
to the width of the boat is fastened 
at the top of the lower cap, and, 
through holes drilled in the ends, 
cords pass from the top of the mast 
to the bulwarks. These are called 
stays. The arrangement of these 
and other parts of the rigging for a 



cutter yacht is shown in the figure. 
(For definitions of the various terms 
used, and hints on rigging different 
styles of boats, see the article on 
SAILING.) The bowsprit should have 
a length of about twice the beam, 
and a notch should be cut in the stem 
of the boat to receive it. 

Instead of having a hull hollowed 
out of a block of wood, the boat 
may be built up like a real one. The 
keel is first made, then the stem and 
stern posts are set up, and then the 




I. Mast 

a. Topmast 

3. Bowsprit. 



Jib. 

Foresail. 

Mainsail. 

Topsail. 

Gaff. 

Boom. 

Shrouds. 



Topmast Shrouds. 
Runner. 
Preventer. 
Topmast Stay. 
Forestay. 

Bobstay. 
Boom Lifts. 
Ensign Halyards. 
Mainsail Halyards. 
Throat of Mainsail. 



22. 

3- 

4- 

2 5- 
26. 

27- 

B& 



Crosstree. 

Leech of Mainsail. 

Mainsheet. 

Tiller. 

Companion. 

Bulwarks. 

Hull. 

Ensign. 

Burgee. 

Foresheet. 



ribs, which are sawed out of wood 
with a scroll saw, in curves, which are 
given by the cardboard models de- 
scribed above. The ribs are fitted in 
notches in the keel, held in place by 
glue, and then a strip of wood called 
the keelson is laid along the inside 
and nailed down to both ribs and 
keel, as shown in the figure. Then 
flexible boards, not more than one- 
eighth of an inch thick, are nailed 



over the ribs with fine brads, to form 
the planking, the cracks between be- 
ing filled in with putty. The rest of 
the construction is the same as with 
hollowed-out boats. 

Sai7s. Patterns should first be 
cut from paper and adjusted in place, 
and, when these have been cut to the 
proper shape, they should be copied 
in white muslin. Each sail should 
be hemmed around the edges. The 



BOBCHON 



100 



BOILING 



luff of the mainsail is sewed to the 
rings on the mast, and its upper edge 
is fastened to the gaff by cords. The 
lower edge is fastened to the boom 
only at the corners. 

BOAT RACING. See ROWING. 

BOBECHON, a game played by 
any number of persons with the toy 
shown in the illustration, which is 
made as follows : Make a tight 
roll of flannel or cloth, about three 
inches high and half an inch in di- 
ameter, and secure it by winding 
thread around it. Sew this to the 
center of a circular piece of fur or 
very thick cloth, an inch and a 
half in diameter, so that it will stand 
upright on this circle as a base. 
This toy is called the Bobechon. It 




Bobechon. 

is placed upright in the center of an 
ordinary dinner plate, and a small 
coin is laid on the top of the flannel 
roll. The object is to remove both 
Bobechon and coin from the plate 
with a flexible rod or cane, like the 
end of a fishing rod. The coin need 
not keep its place on the flannel roll, 
so long as both it and the Bobechon 
fall clear of the plate. The players 
take turns, and he who succeeds 
most times, in a number previously 
agreed upon, is the winner. 

The task seems an easy one, but 
it is really very difficult, as will be 
seen on trial. If the rod be applied 
near the base, the Bobechon with its 
coin may be slid along till it reaches 
the slop:'ng edge of the plate, and if it 



is then given a push, the coin will fall 
off into the plate. If, on the other 
hand, the rod be now applied to the 
upper part of the toy, it will tip over, 
throwing the coin outside, but itself 
falling on the plate. The proper 
way is to press the end of the rod on 
the farther edge of the plate so that 
it curves downwards, as shown in 
the second figure, the lower part of 
the curve touching the flannel roll 
just where it is sewed to the circle. 
The Bobechon is then pushed slowly 
along till it reaches the sloping edge, 
when by a peculiar twist of the rod, 
learned only by practice, both it and 
the coin can be thrown without the 
plate. The toy is shown in the up- 
per part of the cut ; the way of re- 
moving it in the lower. 

Bobechon is a French game, and 
is said to be much used by sharpers 
in that country, who, being prac- 
ticed, can always succeed, while their 
victims, who think the task very easy, 
always fail. 

BOILING, Experiments in. I. 
The boiling of water is described in 
C. C. T. in the article STEAM. It is 
best observed by filling a test-tube 
(see CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS) a 
quarter full of cold water, and hold- 
ing the lower end in the flame of 
an alcohol lamp or Bunsen burner. 
Little bubbles will first form and 
stick to the sides of the tube. By 
and by these will disappear, and 
other little bubbles, like white specks, 
will form in the lower part of the 
liquid, and rise toward the top, but 
will disappear before they get there. 
These rapidly increase in numbers 
and size and go higher and higher., 
till finally they burst from the top, 
when it is seen that they consist of 
steam. When they vanish before 
reaching the top a simmering or 
" singing " noise is heard. After- 
ward the noise is the bubbling sound 
of boiling. The first formed bubbles, 
which stick to the sides, are com- 
posed of air, which was dissolved 
in the water. The others are com- 
posed of steam, but as fast as they 



BOILING 



101 



BOILING 



get further away from the heat of 
the flame they condense back to 
water, making the sound of simmer- 
ing. By and by the water gets so 
hot all the way through that they 
can rise out of the top. 

2. Buy a small chemical thermo- 
meter, which is simply a thermome- 
ter without any tin case, so that it 
can be put into liquids to get their 
temperature. The scale is marked 
directly on the glass tube. One can 
be made by taking an ordinary ther- 
mometer, scratching the divisions of 
the scale on the tube with a diamond, 
or a sharp file, and then removing 
the bulb and tube from the case. 
Put the thermometer into water be- 
fore it begins to boil, being careful 
that it does not touch the bottom or 
sides of the vessel. As the water 
gets hotter, the mercury will rise 
until it boils, when the thermometer 
will stand at about 212, if it has a 
Fahrenheit scale, or at 100 if it is 
Centigrade (See THERMOMETER, in 
C. C. T.). Chemical thermometers 
usually have the Centigrade scale, 
but if the one used has been made 
from an ordinary thermometer it will 
probably be Fahrenheit. This tem- 
perature is called the boiling point. 
If you now try to make the thermo- 
meter rise higher by continuing to 
hold it in the boiling water, you will 
find it impossible. No matter how 
much the heat is increased, the mer- 
cury will not rise any more, but the 
water will simply boil away faster. 
The reason is, that as soon as the 
water begins to boil all the heat is 
used in turning it to steam and not 
in raising its temperature. 

3. Boil some water for ten or fif- 
teen minutes ; let it cool and then 
heat it again with the thermometer 
in it. By keeping it very still, you 
will probably find that it can be 
raised several degrees above the boil- 
ing point, without causing it to boil. 
If some scraps or filings of metal be 
now cast into it the water will at 
once begin to boil, and the mercury 
will fall to the boiling point. The 



reason is that water with air dis- 
solved in it boils sooner than pure 
water, and by boiling it once the air 
is driven out, so that at the second 
heating it rises higher than 212. 
But when scraps of metal are 
dropped in they carry air with them, 
and boiling begins. 

4. Find the boiling point of water 
with various substances for instance 
salt or sugar dissolved in it. In all 
cases it is higher than the boiling 
point of pure water. The reason is 
that it takes some heat to separate 
the water from the salt or sugar 
when it is turning to steam. 

5. Boil water in a glass flask, and 
while it is boiling cork the flask 
tightly, and remove it at once from 
the flame. When it stops boiling 
pour cold water over the flask, and 
it will begin to boil again. This 
may be done several times. The 
same result will follow if the flask be 
plunged into cold water. The rea- 
son is that when a flask of boiling 
water is corked the space above the 
water is filled with steam, when this 
steam is turned to water by being 
cooled some of the pressure is re- 
moved from the surface of the water, 
which, accordingly, begins to boil 
again, since it is easier for the bub- 
bles of steam to get out of the water. 

6. Some time when you go up on 
a high mountain, take with you a 
chemical thermometer and an alco- 
hol lamp, and find the boiling point 
of water there. It will be lowef 
than 212. This is because not stf 
much air is pressing on the water on 
the summit as in the valley below. 
Sometimes the height of mountains 
is measured by finding the boiling 
point of water on their summits. On 
a mountain 6000 feet high, water 
boils at about 200 Fahrenheit, in- 
stead of 212. 

7. Find the boiling points of other 
fluids than water. It will be found 
that some are higher and some are 
lower, and that it is impossible to 
boil some of them at all oils for 
instance. 



BOOKBINDER 



102 



BOOK NOTICES 



8. Pour a little ether into a test-tube 
<ind hold it in the hand. The heat of 
the hand will cause it to boil, its boil- 
ing point being only 99 Fahrenheit. 

9. Mix together water and bisul- 
phide of carbon, both previously 
heated to 113 Fahrenheit. The 
mixture will at once begin to boil. 
This is because, contrary to the 
usual rule, a mixture of these two 
liquids boils at a lower temperature 
than either of them separately. 

10. Weight a piece of ice as large 
as the tip of the little finger, by tying 
a bit of lead to it, so that it will sink 
to the bottom of a test-tube of water. 
Incline the tube and hold it in a flame 
so that the upper part of the water 
will be heated. The water above 
the ice may thus be boiled while the 
ice remains unmelted. The reason 
is that the water is a poor conductor 
of heat. If the ice be above the 
place where the heat is applied, the 
experiment does not succeed, because 
hot water, being lighter than cold, 
ascends and melts the ice. 

BOOKBINDER, a game played 
by any number of persons, who sit 
in a circle, each holding a book on 
the back of his clenched fists. One, 
who has been chosen bookbinder 
and stands in the middle of the 




Manner of Holding Rook. 

circle, goes to any player and seizing 
that player's book attempts to rap 
his knuckles, which the holder of the 
book tries to avoid by pulling back 
his hands quickly. If the book- 
binder succeed in this, the player 
whose knuckles he raps changes 
places with him ; otherwise, he re- 



places the book and tries to do the 
same with someone else. The book- 
binder may pretend to seize a book 
without actually doing so, and if the 
holder pulls away his hands so that 
the book fall, he must take the lead- 
er's place as if his knuckles had been 
rapped. The leader can make this 
game very exciting if he run quickly 
from one to another, pretending to 
take up one book and then seizing 
another, thus keeping the players 
constantly on the lookout. 

BOOK NOTICES. A game played 
by any number of persons, each of 
whom has a pencil and sheet of 
paper. The players usually sit 
around a taMe, and each begins the 
game by writing at the top of the 
paper the pretended title of a book. 
The papers are then folded so as to 
hide what has been written, and 
passed to the left. Each then writes, 
just under the hidden title, the word 
" or " and follows it by a pretended 
sub-title. After this, the following 
are written in like manner, the pa- 
pers being folded and passed, after 
each writing, as before. (3) The 
word "by," followed by a person's 
name (generally that of one of the 
players); (4) the words "author 
of," followed by another title ; (5) 
the word "or " followed by another 
sub-title ; (6) a pretended critical 
notice of the book ; (7) the name 
of a newspaper or magazine. 

The number of titles and notices 
may be increased at the pleasure of 
the company. When the papers are 
finished they are passed to the left 
again, and read aloud, one by each 
player; or one of the company may 
be chosen to read them all. An ex- 
ample of one of the papers thus writ- 
ten is as follows : " The Witch's 
Fate; or, A Treatise on Soap Boil- 
ing, by James M , author of The 

Heavenly Bodies; or, What I Found 
in My Hat. This work, by its pro- 
found learning and fascinating style, 
can scarcely fail to place the author 
in the same rank with Shakespeare. 
London Times." 



BOOMERANG 



103 



BOOMERANG 



BOOMERANG, a flat curved piece 
of wood, used as a missile. When 
held by one end and thrown, it 
moves in a curve, and if thrown 
skillfully can be made to return to 
the place from which it started. 
Several boomerangs can be made, as 
shown in the illustration, from a 
piece of hickory wood, 1, half an inch 
thick, by steaming it thoroughly, 
and then bending it so that the sides 





Making Boomerang. 

are nearly at a right angle. The wood 
can be held in shape by tying it, till it 
is dry, and then strips about a quarter 
of an inch thick may be sawed from 
it, each of which when shaped with a 
knife will be a boomerang. The 
shape is shown at 2, and the end- 
wise view, when it is sawed across 
the middle, at 3. A single boom- 

ng may be cut or sawed from 
* lat piece of wood, but it will 

apt to split. A small boom- 



erang may be cut from pasteboard, 
and sent by placing it on a book 
with one end projecting over the 
right edge. The book is held in 
the left hand and the end of the 
boomerang struck with a ruler or 
paper-cutter held in the right hand. 
The best pasteboard boomerangs are 




Sending a Paper Boomerang, 
about an inch long, and can be 
snapped with the forefinger from the 
edge of a book. To throw a wooden 
boomerang accurately requires great 
skill, and can be learned only by 
practice. The instrument is held 
like a club in throwing it, the con- 
vex side outward. A large open 




Australian Throwing a Boomerang. 

space should be taken for the trial, 
since the boomerang may curve in an 
unexpected direction. 

The boomerang is used as a 
weapon by the natives of Australia, 
who throw it with great skill, making 
it strike an enemy in the back, while 
he is advancing toward them. 



BOSTON 



104 



BOSTON 



BOSTON, a game of CARDS, 
played by four persons with a full 
pack. The cards rank as in Whist. 
The pack is usually shuffled only at 
the beginning of the game. Before 
each succeeding deal it is cut, each 
player having the right to do so once, 
the dealer last. Shuffling is omitted 
that cards of the same suit may be 
kept together. The dealer gives each 
player thirteen cards, four, four, and 
five at a time. The eldest hand may 
now say " I pass," or undertake to 
win five or more tricks (called " bid- 
ding"). Each player, in turn, has 
the same privilege, but each must 
pass if he cannot bid to take more 
tricks than any one before him. 
When a player bids, the one that 
bid just before him may bid higher 
if he can, before the next one to the 
left has the privilege. If all the 
players pass, there is a new deal. 
Otherwise the bidding goes on 
around the table till all but one pass, 
but no one that has already passed 
may bid. The remaining bidder 
names the trump, and playing be- 
gins, the eldest hand leading. If the 
bidder wins as many tricks as he bid, 
or more, he scores the number of 
points shown in the table given be- 
low; otherwise each of the other 
players scores that number. In- 
stead of bidding to take a certain 
number of tricks, a player may bid 
" Great Misery " or " Little Misery," 
and he may do this when he has al- 
ready passed. He who bids Great 
Misery must play his cards so as not 
to take a single trick. If he take 
one, he loses. He who bids Little 
Misery must discard one card, and 
play the other twelve without taking 
a trick. In either case there is no 
trump. A player may bid either 
Great or Little Misery Ouverte 
(French for Open), in which case he 
must lay his cards face upward on 
the table and play them in that man- 
ner. These bids rank differently, as 
is shown in the following list of bids, 
where they are given in their order, 
beginning with the lowest : 



1. Five Tricks, or Boston. 

2. Six Tricks. 

3. Seven Tricks. 

4. Little Misery. 

5. Eight Tricks. 

6. Nine Tricks. 

7. Great Misery. 

8. Ten Tricks. 

9. Eleven Tricks. 

10. Little Misery Ouverte. 

11. Twelve Tricks. 

12. Great Misery Ouverte. 

13. Thirteen Tricks or Grand 
Slam. 

When all the players pass, instead 
of having a fresh deal, what is called 
Misery Partout (Misery All) is some- 
times played by agreement. In this 
case there is no trump, and each 
tries to take as few tricks as he can. 
Each scores 10 for every trick he has 
less than each of the others. Thus, 
if A takes four tricks ; B the same ; 
C three and D two, since D has one 
less than C, two less than B, and 
two less than A, he scores 50. C 
scores 20, in like manner, and A and 
B score nothing. 

The following table shows the 
number of points to be scored by a 
player taking all the tricks he bid, or 
more : 



U) 

'-. ' 

y g 


TRICKS TAKEN. 


H W 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


IO 


II 


12 


'3 


5 


12 


12 


13 


13 


14 


M 


14 


15 


15 


6 




IS 


16 


16 


I? 


18 


'9 


2O 


20 


7 






18 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


26 


8 








23 


24 


26 


28 


29 


3' 


9 










32 


34 


36 


39 


41 


10 












42 


45 


48 


5* 


II 














63 


68 


72 


12 
















106 


"4 


3 


















1 66 



If a player does not take as many 
tricks as he bid, he is said to be " put 
in for " the number of tricks that are 
wanting, and each of the other play- 
ers, all whom play against him, score 
the number of points he is " put in 
for." The following table shows 
what his opponents score in each 
c;\se: 



BOSTON 



105 



BOSTON 



Ba 


TRICKS "Pur IN FOR." 


H W 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


ii 


12 


*3 


5 


ii 


31 


3 1 


4 


5 


















6 


'5 


24 


35 


45 


55 


66 
















7 


19 


29 


40 


5 


60 


73 


82 














8 


23 


34 


46 


56 


67 


78 


89 


no 












9 


33 


44 


57 


68 


80 


92 


103 


"5 


127 










10 


44 


56 


70 


82 


94 


107 


119 


132 


MS 


'57 








ii 


67 


80 


95 


109 


"3 


138 


'Si 


165 


180 


194 


208 






12 


"3 


130 


148 


165 


182 


200 


217 


234 


252 


270 


286 


304 




"3 


177 


198 


222 


241 


262 


28 4 


35 


326 


348 


369 


39 


412 


433 



The bidder of Little Misery loses 
or wins 20 points ; of Great Misery, 
40; of Little Misery Ouverte, 80; 
and of Great Misery Ouverte, 160. 

The score may be kept with count- 
ers, in which case they are divided 
equally among the players at the be- 
ginning. If the bidder win, each of 
the others gives him as many count- 
ers as the points he wins; if not, he 
gives each of them as many as the 
points he loses. 

Boston is often played with two 
packs, in which case while the dealer 
is giving cards from one pack his 
partner turns up the top card of the 
other. The suit of the turned-np 
card is called "First Preference"; 
that of the same color, " Second 
Preference "; while the two remain- 
ing suits are called common suits. 
When a player bids anything but a 
Miser)', his left-hand neighbor may 
say" I ' eep," meaning that he under- 
takes to win the same number of 
tricks by making one of the prefer- 
ence suits trump. This is called 
" playing in color." The next player 
may say " I keep over you," meaning 
that he undertakes to do the same 
with the turned-up suit as trump. 
This is called " playing in trump." 
A bid in color is always preferred to 
a common bid of the same rank, and 
one in trump to one in color. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. In cutting for deal, the lowest 
deals. 

2. If there be a misdeal, or the 
dealer expose any of the other play- 
ers' cards, there must be a new deal. 

3. If two packs are used they 



must be used alternately for dealing. 

4. If a player deal out of turn or 
with the wrong pack, and complete 
the deal unnoticed, it must stand; 
and the player at his left deals next. 

5. No player who passes may 
afterward bid during the same hand, 
unless he bids a Misery. 

6. If a card be led or played out of 
turn, it must be taken back into the 
owner's hand, unless the whole trick 
has been played. 

7. Cards so taken back, or other- 
wise exposed must be played when 
they are called for, unless playing 
them would cause a revoke. 

8. Only the last trick may be 
looked at. 

French Boston, or Boston de Fon- 
tainebleau. In bidding, the suits 
rank as follows, beginning with the 
highest : Diamonds, Hearts, Clubs, 
Spades. Each bidder must name 
with his bid the suit he purposes to 
make trumps (except of course in 
the case of a Misery, when there is 
no trump), and the same bid in a 
higher suit is given preference over 
it. The bids to win a certain num- 
ber of tricks are called Six Levees, 
Seven Levees, and so on, and the 
Grand Slam is called " Chelem," or 
'' Grand Boston." There are two 
new bids : " Picolissimo " (ranking 
between Seven and Eight Levees), 
in which the bidder discards one 
card as in Little Misery, but tries to 
win one trick, neither more nor less ; 
and " Grand Boston on the Table," 
in which the bidder exposes his hand 
and tries to win every trick. The 
highest bidder, if he has bid to take 



BOSTON 



106 



BOTTLE TRICK 



not more than ten tricks, may call 
for a partner or " Whister." Any 
player that is willing to aid him may 
answer " Whist," and the two to- 
gether must then take three more 
tricks than the number that was bid. 
The partners share in profit and loss. 
If two or more players answer 
" Whist," that one is accepted who 
sits nearest the bidder's left hand. 

The number of points or counters 
won or lost by the bidder is shown 
in the following table: 

Five Levees (Boston), . . . . 10 

Six Levees, . 30 

Little Misery, ....*.. 75 

Seven Levees, 50 

Picolissimo, 100 

Eight Levees, 70 

Grand Misery, 1 50 

Nine Levees, 90 

Little Misery on the Table, . . 200 

Ten Levees, no 

Grand Misery on the Table, . 250 

Eleven Levees 130 

Twelve Levees, 150 

Chelem, or Grand Boston, . . 400 
Chelem on the Table, .... 600 

The above figures are for the 
cases where Clubs or Spades are 
trumps. If Hearts are trumps 10 
must be added to each number, and 
if Diamonds are trumps, 20 must be 
added to each number. For every 
trick taken beyond the number bid, 
5 must be added. 

The Ace, King, Queen, and 
Knave of Trumps are called honors. 
If the successful bidder hold the 
majority of them, each one that he 
has more than his opponents counts 
as an extra trick. Thus, if he hold 
three honors to his opponents' one, 
he is said to be "two by honors," 
and scores for two extra tricks. If 
he hold all the honors, he is " four 
by honors," and scores for four 
extra tricks. Honors do not count 
as tricks bid ; for instance, if a 
player bid Six Levees, and take only 
five tricks, he loses, even if he have 
four honors. In all other respects, 
French Boston is played like the 



common game. The player who 
plays alone, without a Whister, is 
sometimes said to play " Independ- 
ence." 

History. Boston is said to have 
originated in this country. Some 
writers say that it was taken to 
France by Benjamin Franklin and 
named after his native city. French 
authors say that the terms " Misery " 
and "Independence" refer respec- 
tively to the sufferings of the Amer- 
icans in the Revolution and the 
cause for which they fought. Boiteau 
says: " Boston is the North American 
Whist ; it was born in the war of 
independence; it is a political mani- 
festo." However this may be, Bos- 
ton has never been a popular game 
in this country, but became a great 
favorite in France, and was much 
played in Paris in the first half of 
this century. It is similar to other 
French games, and is probably of 
French origin, the name Boston 
and the terms " Independence," etc., 
being introduced at the time of the 
American Revolution. Boston is 
played in Germany and England also 
under the same name. 

BOTTLE LIFTED WITH A 
STRAW. A bottle may be lifted 
with a stout straw, if it be bent and 
arranged within the bottle as shown 
in the illustration on next page. 

BOTTLE, to Crawl into- Lay a 
bottle on the floor with the neck 
toward an open door. Say that you 
propose to try to crawl into it, if the 
audience will keep so still as not to 
disturb the experiment, and talk and 
act any hocus-pocus you please about 
the difficulties and dangers of the 
experiment. Make a fuss about ar- 
ranging your dress, etc., etc. Go in- 
to the open room and face the audi- 
ence, squint hard at the bottle, alter 
your position once or twice, get on 
your hands and knees, get up and ad- 
just the bottle again, go out again, 
and after just enough fuss, but not 
too much, crawl in to the bottle. 

BOTTLE TRICK. To pick up 
a handkerchief from the floor by the 



BOTTLE TRICK 



107 



BOUTS-RIMES 



teeth while balancing a bottle on the 
head : Bow the head well forward, 




Lifting Bottle with a Straw. 

and place an empty claret or cham- 
pagne bottle on the crown. Gradu- 




on both knees. Bend forward with 
the arms in advance, and parted 
about two feet, until they touch the 
floor. Extend the legs one by one 
backwards, swing forward between 
the arms so that most of the weight 
is on them. Seize the handkerchief 
by the teeth (Fig. 2), or the tongue 




ally lower the body on one leg (Fig. 
l), and come to a kneeling position 



Bottle Trick Fig. 2. 

may assist, and rise as you descended. 
The bottle will invariably fall a little 
out of the perpendicular, but with a 
little practice can be easily kept in 
balance. The handkerchief should 
be bunched high, and placed about 
four feet in front of the body when 
upright. 

BOUTS-RIMES (pronounced boo 
re-mdy), a game in which each player 
writes on a slip of paper four or 
more words that rhyme alternately, 
as boy, long, toy, strong. The slips 
are mixed ; each player draws one, 
and must then write a verse whose 
lines end, in order, with the words he 
has drawn. The number of words 
and the order in which they rhyme 
may be varied by agreement of the 
players at the beginning of the game, 
and the subject of the verses may 
also be given out, increasing the dif- 
ficulty of the task. 

History. This game is French 
in origin, as its name shows. It is 
said to have been originated in 1648, 
by the poet Dulos, who was accus- 
tomed to write the rhymes of his 
sonnets before he filled in the other 
words. His friends, amused at this, 
devised a game on the same plan, 
and it became very popular in French 
society. Bouts-Rimes means rhymed 
ends. The Germans call it Endreim- 
spiel (end-rhyme-play). The follow- 
ing verses are said to have been 
written by Horace Walpole, on 



BOWLING 



108 



BOWLING 



drawing the four words, brook, why, 
crook, I: 

THE GENTLE SHEPHERD. 

I sits with my toes in a brook. 
And if any one asks me for why, 

I hits 'em a rap with my crook, 
And " 'tis sentiment kills me," says I. 

Machine Poetry f a kind of Bouts- 
Rimes where the rhymes are given 
by the holders of several cards. A 
pack of playing cards is dealt to the 
company in order, one at a time. 
One player begins by throwing out 
any card and calling out a word. 
The players who hold the correspond- 
ing cards in the other three suits do 
likewise, in order, to the left, each 

fiving a word to rhyme with the 
rst player's. The player of the 
last card must make a stanza of four 
lines ending with the four words in 
the order in which they were given. 
.If a player hold more than one card 
of the same kind he may play them 
one after the other, or wait till the 
second round, as agreed by the com- 
pany before the same begins. In- 
stead of having all the rhymes in the 
stanza the same, two may be given 
alternately, or in any way the play- 
ers choose. Sometimes the first 
player makes the " poetry " instead 
of the last player, and the game may 
be varied in other ways. 

Instead of giving simply a word, 
the players may each furnish an en- 
tire line of the stanza. 

Another method is for one player 
to select a sonnet from the works of 
any poet, and then read aloud, in 
order, the final words of each line, 
waiting after each till every player 
has composed a line ending with 
that word. The players thus com- 
pose poems the last words of whose 
lines are alike, but which differ 
widely in other respects. 

BOWLING, the game of bowls, 
originally played on smooth turf, but 
now more generally on long, narrow 
platforms called alleys. The alleys, 
about 60 feet long and 4 feet wide, 
are usually constructed of narrow 
strips of yellow pine, set edgewise, 



and made very smooth and nearly 
level. At the lower end is a de- 
pressed space, commonly floored 
with tan-bark or sawdust, and 
padded at the back to break the 
force of the balls, which are returned 
to the players by an attendant. The 
pins used are about 1 5 inches around 
at the thickest part, and 15 or 16 
inches high. Balls (bowls) are of 
different sizes, to suit the taste of 
the players, varying from 5 to 10 
inches in diameter. 

Ten Pins, the game of bowls most 
common in the United States. The 
pins, ten in number, are set up on 
spots arranged in a triangle, as 
shown in the figure : 

o o o o 

o o o 

o o 

o 

The pin at the point of the triangle, 
which is toward the player, is called 
the King Pin. The players take 
turns, and continue to bowl in the 
same order during the game, which 
lasts until each has had ten turns. 
Each player scores one point for 
i every pin he knocks down, and is al- 
lowed to bowl three balls in each 
turn, unless he knocks down all the 
pins before he has used that number, 
in which case his play ceases. If he 
overturn them all with one ball 
(called making a " ten-strike ") he is 
said to have a " double spare," and 
whatever he makes with the first two 
balls in his next turn counts on the 
former turn as well as on the latter. 
Thus, if a player make 10 with his 
first ball, he stops playing. If, in his 
next turn, he make with the three 
balls 4, 2, and 3 respectively, he 
scores 16 for his first turn and 9 for 
his second, the 4 and 2 counting 
twice. If the first ball of the second 
turn also make a ten-strike, then the 
first of the third turn counts as part 
of each of the three turns. If the 
pins are down after two balls have 
been played, the player has a " single 
spare" or "spare," and reckons in 
the same way what he makes with 



BOWLING 



109 



BOWLING 



the first ball of his next turn. If a ' 
spare or double spare be made in the ; 
tenth turn, the player rolls one or | 
two extra balls. If a player make a 
spare, a cross is marked opposite his 
score for that turn ; if he make a 
double spare, a double cross is used. 
This way of scoring, which is some- 
times called " counting old and new," 
is generally used, but the players 
may agree on any other ; for instance, 
if a player make a ten-strike, the pins 
may be set up again, and he may 
finish rolling his three balls before 
the next player takes his turn. 

The scores are usually kept with 
chalk on blackboards at the side of 
the alleys. He wins whose score is 
the highest at the end of the game. 
The players may be divided into two 
sides, in which case the points made 
by those on each side are added to 
determine the winning side. Where 
there are two alleys, the players use 
them alternately, and the pins are set 
up on one alley, while bowling is go- 
ing on at the other. Where there 
are only two players, they often bowl 
at the same time on different alleys, 
but they should change alleys at the 
end of each game. 

Rules. The following rules are 
substantially those of the Amateur 
Athletic Bowling League, which 
have been adopted also by the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union. Those relating 
merely to matters of discipline have 
been omitted : 

1. The game adopted to be played 
by clubs belonging to this League, 
shall be what is known as the Amer- 
ican Ten Frame Game. 

2. In the playing of match games 
there shall be a line drawn upon the 
alleys sixty feet from the head or 
front pin. 

3. In the playing of match games, 
any wooden ball may be used that 
does not exceed twenty-seven inches 
in circumference. 

4. The game shall consist of ten 
frames on each side, when, should 
the number of points be equal, the 
play shall be continued until a ma- 



jority of points upon an equal num- 
ber of frames shall be attained, which 
shall conclude the game. All strikes 
and spares made in the ten frame 
shall be completed before leaving the 
alley and on same alley as made. 

5. In playing all match games, ten 
players from each Club shall con- 
stitute a full team. 

6. Players must play in regular ro- 
tation, and after the first inning no 
changes can be made except with 
the consent of the Captains. 

7. In match games two alleys only 
are to be used ; a player to roll but 
one frame at a time, and to change 
alleys every frame. 

8. The umpire shall take great 
care that the regulations respecting 
the balls, alleys, and all rules of the 
game are strictly observed. He shall 
be the judge of fair and unfair play, 
and shall determine all disputes and 
differences which may occur during 
the game. 

9. In all matches the umpire shall 
be selected by the Captains of the 
respective teams, and he shall per- 
form all the duties in Rule 8, except 
recording the game, which shall be 
done by two scorers, one of whom 
shall be appointed by each of the 
contending clubs. 

10. Neither umpire, scorer, or 
player shall be changed during the 
match, unless with the consent of 
both Captains, except for reasons of 
illness or injury, or for a violation of 
these rules, and then the umpire 
may dismiss any such transgressors. 

11. No person except the Captains 
shall be permitted to approach or 
speak with the Umpire, scorers, or 
players during the progress of the 
game, unless by special request of 
the Umpire. 

13. Should either Club fail to pro- 
duce its players within thirty min- 
utes after the game is called, the 
Club so failing shall admit a defeat, 
and the game shall be considered as 
won, unless the delinquent Club fail 
to play on account of the recent 
death of one of its members, and 



BOWLING 



no 



BOWLING 



sufficient time has not elapsed 
to enable them to give their oppo- 
nents due notice before arriving at 
the place appointed for the match. 

14. A player must not step on or 
over the line in delivering the ball, 
nor after it has been delivered, until 
it leaves the alley. Any ball so de- 
livered shall be deemed " foul," and 
the pins (if any made on such ball) 
shall be placed in the same positions 
as they were before the ball was 
rolled. It is also considered a foul 
ball if any part of the person should 
touch any part of the alley beyond 
the line before the ball leaves the 
alley. All foul balls shall count as 
balls rolled. 

1 5. Should any ball delivered leave 
the alley before reaching the pins, or 
any ball rebound from the back 
cushion, the pins, if any, made on 
such balls shall not count, but must 
be placed in same position as they 
were before the ball was rolled. All 
such balls to count as balls rolled. 

1 6. In all match games, two per- 
sons to act as Judges shall be chosen, 
one by each Captain, who shall take 
their positions at the head of the 
alleys and see that the pins are 
properly set up, and that no one in- 
terferes with them in any way until 
the player is through rolling. They 
will immediately report to the Cap- 
tains any irregularities that they may 
notice during the game. 

24. A regulation pin must be used 
in match playing. Each pin to be 
from fifteen to sixteen inches in 
length, fifteen inches in circumfer- 
ence at the thickest part, and two 
inches across the bottom. 

26. In match games the dead 
wood must be removed from the alley 
after each ball. Should a pin fall on 
the removal of the dead wood, it is 
to be re-spotted. 

27. Sufficient space shall be ' al- 
lotted to the participants in the game, 
to which none but members of the 
teams shall be admitted. 

Nine Pins, a bowling game in 
which the king pin is omitted, and 



the object is to leave one pin stand- 
ing. He who does this in three balls 
or less scores one, and as each has 
ten turns, no more than ten points 
can be made. 

Cocked Hat, a bowling game in 
which only the three corner pins of 
the triangle are set up. The method 
of playing is the same in Ten Pins. 
The player scores a point for each 
pin he overturns, and " spares " are 
played as in Ten Pins. The game 
is difficult, as the three pins are so 
far apart that it is hard to knock 
more than one at a time. 

Four Back, a bowling game in 
which only four pins are set up, 
forming a straight line across the 
rear of the alley. Each pin knocked 
down counts one point, and Spares 
are scored as in Ten Pins. 

Parlor Ten Pins. There are sev- 
eral forms of Ten Pins to be played 
in the parlor. In one, pins about a 
foot high are set up at one end of 
the room, and bowled at from the 
other with balls about the size of 




TEN 
Parlor Ten Pins with Elastic Cord. 

Croquet balls. In another a minia- 
ture alley four or five feet long is 
used, which can be placed on a table. 
The pins are about three inches 
high and the balls the size of mar- 



BOWLING 



III 



BOWLING 



bles. In still another, a post stands 
by the side of the pins with an arm 
projecting over them, and from 
the arm a ball is hung by a string. 
The player swings the ball against 
the pins so as to overturn them. In 
Germany this is played as a lawn 
game, the post being two or eight 
feet high and the pins ordinary ten- 
pins. It is called there Wurfkegel- 
spiel (Throw-Bowling). In another 
form the pins stand on a triangular 
frame which can be placed on a table. 
The ball is fastened to one of the 
angles of the frame by an elastic 
cord. The player holding the ball 
stretches the cord about fifteen feet 
and then releases.it, so that the ball 
will strike the pins. Another kind is 



played on a board like a BAGATELLE 
board, the balls being moved by a 
spring. In all these forms of the 
game the method of scoring may be 
the same as in regular Ten Pins, or 
a special method may be agreed on 
by the players before the game. 

History. The game of bowls, 
still a favorite in England and Scot- 
land, was practiced as early as the 
twelfth century. It is played on a 
bowling-green, on which the turf is 
closely shaven and rolled, surrounded 
by a shallow trench. A small round 
white ball, called the Jack, is placed 
at one end, and the object of the 
players is to roll their bowls so that 
they shall stop near as possible to 
this mark. The bowls, which are of 




Bowling in the i3th Century. 



hard wood, six or eight inches in di- 
ameter, are not quite round, but a 
little one-sided (sometimes they are 
loaded with lead on one side), so 
that a peculiar twist is needed to 
make them go where wanted. The 
players are generally divided into two 
sides, and each man on each side has 
two bowls. The side whose bowls 
stop nearest the Jack counts one 
point in the game for each bowl. The 
number of points to be considered 
the game is decided before bowling 
begins. 

The earliest form of this game is 
shown probably in the accompany- 
ing illustration, taken from an Eng- 
lish manuscript of the thirteenth 
century, in which the object rolled at 
is a pin pointed at the top. The 



French called this form of the game 
Carreau (paving stone), from the 
square stone upon which the pin 
was set. 

Bowls was a favorite with the 
Dutch, and the early citizens of New 
York (then New Amsterdam) used 
to play it on the ground still called 
Bowling Green, near the lower end 
of Broadway. In Paris, the game 
was played on the ramparts of the 
city, which were hence called Boule- 
vards (from boule, a ball), a name 
now given to the streets that oc- 
cupy their site. Bowling alleys 
were first built at noblemen's houses 
in England. Henry VIII. had sev- 
eral constructed at the Palace of 
Whitehall. They became popular 
and many were built in London, but 



BOXING 



112 



BOXING 



as they grew to be places of resort 
for bad characters, many laws were 
made against them, and finally, in 
1728 they were abolished, and the 
statutes against them were not re- 
pealed till 1845. 

Our game of Ten Pins is derived 
from an old English form of bowls 
called Kayles, Cayles, or Keiles, a 
corruption of the French Quilles 
(cones, from the shape of the pins) 



still played in France under that 
name. The Kayle pins were set in 
a row and were of various numbers. 
Sometimes a stick was thrown at 
them instead of a ball. Kayle pins 
were afterwards called Kettle or Kit- 
tle pins, and then Skittle-pins, and a 
bowling game called Skittles is still 
a favorite in England. There were 
also other bowling games. Nine 
Pins, the original form of Ten Pins, 




Kayles. 



or the game as we play it, came into 
favor after the abolition of alleys in 
England. It was also known there 
as Long Bowling and Dutch Rub- 
bers. The tenth pin is said to have 
been added to evade a law prohibit- 
ing the sport because it was used for 
gambling. 

There are a few ten-pin alleys 
in London, but this form of the game 
is not played much outside of the 
United States. There has recently 
been a great revival of interest in 
bowling in some parts of the Eastern 
States. Near New York many places 
have regular bowling clubs, which 
are sometimes formed into county 
leagues, and play regular series of 
games annually for the champion- 
ship. 

BOXING, the art of fighting with 
the fists. The boxer's hands are 
usually covered with gloves padded 
on the back with hair two or three 
inches thick to prevent injury from a 
blow. 



Correct Position. The boxer usu- 
ally stands with his left foot advanced, 
and on a line with his adversary, his 
right being in the rear and turned 




Boxing Gloves. 

slightly outward, resting his weight 
chiefly on the right leg. The fists 
are closed, not too tightly, and the 
arms are held as shown in Fig. I. 

Advancing and Breaking Ground. 
In advancing the right foot is never 
put before the left, as in walking, but 
follows it, falling nearly on the place 



BOXING 



BOXING 



from which the left was raised. Thus 
in advancing and retreating the two 
feet keep at about the same dis- 




Fig. i. 

tance. Retreating is called " break- 
ing ground," and is always per- 
formed by first moving the right 
foot backward and then drawing the 
left back to the place just occupied 
by the right. 




Fig. 2. 

Both on Guard. The boxers stand 
so facing each other that the left 
fist of one is on a level with the 
other's wrist and their left toes are 
15 to 1 8 inches apart. Thelefthand 
is used for striking when the oppo- 
nent is just within distance, and the 
right when he is close. A skillful 
boxer makes his blows from the 



shoulder, and renders them more 
effective, when he wishes, by throw- 
ing the weight of his whole body 
forward (Fig. 2). Blows made by 
swinging the arms like a windmill 
should never be used by a beginner. 
The learner should take care never 
to hit fiercely when out of distance, 
as it jars the muscles. The left foot 
and hand should be kept well in 
front, and after delivering a blow the 
boxer should move to the right, thus 
keeping away from his opponent's 
right arm. 

Guards. Blows may be met by 
" guarding " or " stopping." The 
former means receiving an adver- 




sary's blow on the right or left arm 
as the occasion demands, the latter 
is planting a sudden blow which pre- 
vents the opponent's hit from reach- 
ing its destination. Thus, if the 
boxer sees that his enemy is about to 
deliver a body-blow with his left, he 
may guard with the right, or stop 
the intended hit by delivering a quick 
blow at the adversary's face before 
he can get his head down, which 
would be his natural position in de- 
livering the blow. In guarding the 
blows should be caught on the 
muscles of the forearm slantingly, 
and never, if possible, on the bone. 
To be a skillful boxer it is best to 



BOXING 



114 



BOXING 



take lessons of one who is proficient 
in the art, as it is difficult to teach it 
on paper. 

The four principal blows made use 
of in boxing, with their recognized 
guards, will now be described. They 
are 

1. Left hand at the head. 

2. Left hand body-blow. 

3. Right hand at the head. 

4. Right hand body-blow. 

The first is met by leading off in 
like manner at the opponent's head, 
at the same time throwing up the 
right or guard arm to catch his blow 
(Fig. 3). Care must be taken not to 
obstruct the sight, for the boxer 
must never take his eye from his 
opponent. Each boxer thus makes 
the same blow (Fig. 4), and the same 
guard at once. This movement, 
which is very common, is called the 
" double lead and stop." 




Fig. 4 . 



In guarding the left hand body- 
blow, the boxer should bear in mind 
that it will fall on his left side and 
therefore must be taken on his left 
arm. The right arm must therefore 
be put up at once and the left arm 
dropped across the body, keeping the 
elbow well into the side and the fore- 
arm braced firmly against the ribs. 
As the blow is taken the boxer should 
" break ground " a little. 



For a right hand blow at the head 
the usual guard is to raise the left 
elbow quickly, pointing it nearly in 
the direction of the coming blow, and 
at the same time drop the left fist 
toward the body, turning the palm a 
little outward. Leaning forward the 
boxer catches the blow on the fore- 
arm, near the elbow, and and at the 
same time retires slightly. 

To guard the right hand body- 




Fig. 5. 

blow, the left hand is dropped 
almost at full length, the fist touch- 
ing the inner side of the left thigh, 
and at the same moment the shoulder 
is raised quickly toward the chin 
rounding the whole upper arm over 
the chest, and slightly turning the 
left side (Fig. 5). The heart and the 
whole of the left side are thus com- 
pletely shielded. 

Feinting, pretending to strike one 
blow when another is intended. A 
feint may be made by an actual 
movement of the hand, or simply by 
glancing at one place and then strik- 
ing at another. 

Ducking. A movement of the 
head in sparring, called "head-work " 
or " ducking," generally accompanies 
a counter (explained below), the head 
being bent toward the hand which 
delivers the counter. The rule is 
always to duck in the opposite di- 
rection from the enemy and not to 
raise the head till the boxer is out of 



BOXING 



BOXING 



his reach. 
" ducks." 



There are three distinct 



I. The duck to the right, allowing 



a blow to 
(Fig. 6). 



pass by the left ear 




Fig. 6. 



2. To the left, letting a blow pass 
to the right. 

3. Forward, lowering the head so 
that the blow passes directly over it. 
(Fig. 7). 




The boxer must be careful not to 
duck too soon, or his opponent will 



have time to change the direction of 
his blow. When ducking the oppor- 
tunity should always be taken to de- 
liver a blow at the same time. 




Fig. 8. 

Counters. A " counter " is a blow 
given by a boxer when he sees his 
adversary about to strike, and is 
accompanied by a motion to ward off 




Fig. 9. 

the opponent's attack. In a " plain " 
or "straight" counter both boxers 
strike at once with the same hands. 
The blows may both take effect 
(Fig. 8) or both men may duck 
(Fig 9). In a "cross counter" as 
one boxer leads off the other strikes 
across the former's arm. The 
right hand cross-counter is given by 



BOXING 



116 



BOXING 



stepping in 10 to 15 inches as the 
opponent leads at the head, ducking 
to the left, turning the body so as to 
bring the right arm well up, and 
striking with it over the opponent's 
outstretched left. The blow is natu- 
rally delivered upward at the jaw or 
chin, and the fist performs a quar- 
ter circle to the left (Fig. 10). To 
master this blow constant practice 
and great agility are required. 

Body-Blows. Though the head 
and face are the main points of at- 
tack, the boxer should never let pass 
an opportunity to strike his adver- 
sary's chest or stomach. Such op- 




Fig, 10. 

portunities will generally offer when 
the opponent is leading at the head 
with either of his hands. When he 
does so, instead of ducking, guard- 
ing or countering at his head, the 
boxer should aim a blow at his body, 
but as this necessitates stepping in 
closer, it should be certain that there 
is plenty of room behind fora retreat. 
A feint at the heacl.when a body-blow 
is intended, often causes the opponent 
to throw up his right arm, thus ex- 
posing himself. In giving a left 
hand body-blow, duck to the right 
(Fig. 6) ; in a right hand blow to the 
left, to avoid a possible counter. 
The right hand blow does not re- 
quire such a long step forward as 
the left. 



Upper Cuts. These blows should 
always be given when an opponent, 
trying to get in a body-blow, lunges 
forward with head in advance of his 
body. Drop the left fist a little and 
draw the arm back as far as possible ; 




Fig. ii. 

then swing it up quickly between the 
opponent's hands so as to strike his 
chin or nose (Fig. 1 1 ). The blow is 
aided by swinging the body upward. 




Fig. 12. 



A skillful boxer often tempts his ad- 
versary to try an upper cut by throw- 



BOXING 



117 



BOXING 



ing his head forward, and then, duck- 
ing, gives a heavy left hand body- 
blow, so an upper cut should rarely 
be tried against a clever adversary. 

Side Step. This is executed by 
ducking smartly to the right as the 
opponent steps in, passing rapidly 
under his left arm by a movement 
like a run and jump combined, and 
facing him again by turning sharply 
to the left. This is an effective way 
of avoiding furious rushes, but must 
be as quick as lightning, and re- 
quires long practice. In Fig. 12 the 
boxer on the right is just getting out 
of reach by the side step. 

In-Fighting. This takes place 
when a boxer succeeds in getting 
both his arms inside his opponent's, 
when he can give several blows in 
rapid succession, striking by swing- 
ing the shoulders forward and not by 
drawing the arm back (Fig. 13). 




Sometimes a boxer leads with two 
blows in succession, striking with 
left hand at the face, for instance, 
and then with the same hand, or with 
the right hand, at either face or body. 

The beginner should practice each 
blow and guard separately, slowly at 
first, and then increasing in rapidity, 
returning to the position of guard 
after each blow. 

The boxer should avoid getting ex- 
cited, should fix his eyes on his op- 



ponent, and should try to tell by his 
movements what his intentions are. 
He should never do the same thing 
twice in succession. In some boxing 
contests wrestling forms a part, but 
in others it is forbidden. In general 
a boxer should avoid getting to close 
quarters with a heavier adversary, 
and with a taller opponent should 
direct his blows at the body. 

Supplementary Exercise. Prac- 
tice with Indian clubs and dumb- 
bells (see GYMNASTICS) is good for 
the boxer, but his special exercise is 
that known as " punching the bag." 
Three kinds of bags are commonly 
used ; the first or heavy bag, weighs 
10 to 20 pounds and is made of 
chamois skin or kid stuffed with 
horse-hair. It is suspended from the 
ceiling by a rope. The method of 
using it is to set it swinging and then 
follow it about, hitting it as it moves 
away from the boxer. The heavy 
bag should not be used by a beginner. 
The light or flying bag is of inflated 
India rubber. The object is never to 
let the bag get past without hitting 
it, and as it flies about very rapidly, 
this is excellent training for quick 
movement. The third bag is the 
one most generally in use. It resem- 
bles the flying bag, but is attached to 
the floor as well as to the ceiling and 
does not require quite as much 
agility to hit. 

Boxing is valued highly as an 
exercise and also because it trains 
the learner to use his fists in his own 
defence, which he may at some time 
or other have occasion to do. 
Thomas Hughes, in his story of 
" Tom Brown's School Days at 
Rugby," says : " Learn to box then, 
as you learn to play cricket and foot- 
ball. Not one of you will be the 
worse, but very much the better for 
learning to box well. Should you 
never have to use it in earnest, there's 
no exercise in the world so good for 
the temper, and for the muscles of 
the back and legs. " Boxing matches 
now form part of many of the indoor 
meetings of athletic associations. 



BOXING 



118 



BOXING 



RULES, 

The following are the boxing rules 
of the National Amateur Athletic 
Union : 

1. In all open competitions the 
ring shall be roped, and of not less 
than 12 ft. or more than 24 ft. 
square. 

2. Competitors to box in light 
boots or shoes (without spikes) or in 
socks. 

3. Weights to be bantam, 105 Ibs. 
and under ; light, 135 Ibs. and under ; 
middle, 158 Ibs. and under. 

4. In all open competitions the 
result shall be decided by two judges, 
with a referee. A timekeeper shall 
be appointed. 

5. In all competitions the number 
of rounds to be contested shall be 
three. The duration of the rounds 
in the trial bout shall be limited to 
three minutes each. In the " finals " 
the first two rounds shall be three 
minutes each, and the final round 
four minutes. The interval between 
each round shall be one minute. 

6. In all competitions, any com- 
petitor failing to come up when time 
is called shall lose the bout. 

7. Where a competitor draws a 
bye, such competitor shall be bound 
to spar such bye for the specified 
time, and with such opponent as the 
judges of such competition may ap- 
prove. 

8. Each competitor shall be en- 
titled to the assistance of one second 
only, and no advice or coaching 
shall be given to any competitor 
by his second, or by any other per- 
son, during the progress of any 
round. 

9. The manner of judging shall be 
as follows : The two judges and the 
referee shall be stationed apart. At 
the end of each bout each judge 
shall write the name of the competi- 
tor who, in his opinion, has won, and 
shall hand the same to an official ap- 
pointed for the purpose. In the cases 
where the judges agree, such official 
shall announce the name of the win- 
ner, but in cases where the judges 



disagree, such official shall so inform 
the referee, who shall thereupon him- 
self decide. 

10. The referee shall have power 
to give his casting vote when the 
judges disagree, to caution or dis- 
qualify a competitor for infringing 
rules, or to stop a round in the event 
of either man being knocked down, 
provided that the stopping of either 
of the first two rounds shall not dis- 
qualify any competitor from com- 
peting in the final round. And he 
can order a further round, limited to 
two minutes, in the event of the 
judges disagreeing. 

11. That the decision of the judges 
or referee, as the case may be, shall 
be final. 

12. In all competitions the deci- 
sions shall be given in favor of the 
competitor who displays the best 
style and obtains the greatest num- 
ber of points. The points shall be: 
for attack, direct clean hits with the 
knuckles of either hand on any part 
of the front or sides of head, or 
body above the belt ; defense, guard- 
ing, slipping, ducking, counter- 
hitting, or getting away. Where 
points are otherwise equal, consider- 
ation to be given the man who does 
most of the leading off. 

13. The referee may, after caution- 
ing the offender, disqualify a com- 
petitor who is boxing unfairly, by 
flicking or hitting with the open 
glove, by hitting with the inside or 
butt of the hand, the wrist or elbow, 
or by wrestling or roughing at the 
ropes. 

14. In the event of any question 
arising not provided for in these 
rules, the judges and referee to have 
full power to decide such question or 
interpretation of rule. 

History. Boxing was said by the 
Greeks to have been invented by 
Theseus ; and Pollux, Hercules, and 
other Greek heroes are described as 
excelling in, it. It was one of the 
important features of the Olympic 
games (C. P. P., article OLYMPIA.) 
Instead of boxing gloves, the ancients 



BOXING 



119 



BREATH FIGURES 



used the cestus, an arrangement of 
leather strips wound around the 
hand and sometimes up the arm as 
far as the elbow. These were some- 
times loaded with lumps of lead and 
were very dangerous. In ancient 
boxing contests the right arm was 
used chiefly for striking and the left 
for warding off blows. 

The Romans liked to look at exhi- 
bitions of boxing, but considered it 
undignified to take part in them. 
Boxing was revived in England in 




Cestua. 

the eighteenth century, when it be- 
gan to be called " the noble art of 
self-defense." A teacher of boxing 
named Broughton, who is said to 
have invented the boxing-glove at 
this time, gave public exhibitions of 
his skill in a theater, which he built 
for the purpose. Boxing contests 
without gloves, called prize-fights, 
were also held, but they became so 
brutal that laws were passed against 
them, and at present boxing is prac- 
ticed by respectable people only as 
a form of athletic exercise. It is in 



favor principally in England and the 
United States. 

Savate. The French are not 
skilled in the English system of box- 
ing, but practice a kind called Savate, 
in which the head and feet, as well as 
the fists, are used for attack and de- 
fense. It is said that those skilled in 
the method have defeated some of 




Savate. 

the best English boxers, whose 
guards, though perfect against a 
blow from the fist, would often be 
no defense at all against one from 
the foot. The sailors of the French 
navy are trained every day in Savate, 
in which they are very expert. 

BREATH FIGURES, Experiments 
on. l. Trace a figure with the fin- 
ger on a pane of glass. Nothing 
will be seen until the plate is breathed 
on, when the figure becomes visible. 

2. Lay a coin on a freshly polished 
plate of glass or metal. After sev- 
eral minutes remove the coin and 
breathe on the metal, when an image 
of the coin will appear. The result 
will be the same if the coin is polished 
instead of the plate on which it is 
laid. 

3. Breathe on the surface of a 
pane of glass which has been in con- 
tact for several years with an en- 
graving. In many cases the lines of 
the engraving will become visible on 
the glass. 

Explanation. On the surface of 
all solids gathers a layer of gas, 
vapor, and fine dust, which is re- 
moved by polishing and altered by 



BREATH PORTRAITS 



120 



BUCK 



the contact of other solids. If the 
object be breathed upon the breath 
will condense more easily on some 
parts than others, according to the 
state of this layer, and any marks 
made on it will hence become visible. 
BREATH PORTRAITS. To finely 
powdered fluor spar add enough 
sulphuric acid to make the mixture 
of the proper thickness to be used as 
ink. With a quill pen, write or draw 
with it on the surface of plate glass. 
After the fluid has been on the glass 
five to ten minutes wash it off with 
water. The surface of the glass 
under it will be slightly eaten away, 
but so little that it will not be noticed 
unless the glass is breathed upon, 
when the design or writing will stand 
out clearly. The effect is very striking. 
BROTHER, I AM BOBBED, a 
trick, in the form of a game, in which 
any number of persons take part. 
Two persons, to act the part of 
"brothers," are selected, of whom 
one must not have played the game 
before. The brothers are blind- 
folded and kneel back to back, and 
the other players stand around them 
in a circle, each with a knotted hand- 
kerchief. The " brother " who does 
not understand the game is told that 
the players are to hit one of the 
brothers with a handkerchief from 
time to time, and the one hit is to 
cry out " Brother, I am bobbed ! " 
The other must then respond, " Who 
bobbed you ? " and the first must 
guess who hit him. He is told that 
if the guess be correct the person 
who struck him will have to change 
places with him. When the game 
has begun, however, the " brother " 
who knows the trick removes the 
handkerchief that covered his eyes, 
and, knotting it, strikes his compan- 
ion. When asked, "Who bobbed 
you ? " the latter of course makes a 
wrong guess. This is kept up till 
the victim suspects that he is de- 
ceived. The " brother" who knows 
the trick should occasionally cry out 
" Brother, I am bobbed," to keep up 
the illusion. 



In France this game is called 
" Frtre, on me bat " (Brother, some 
one strikes me). 

BRUNETTE AND BLONDE, a 
SOLITAIRE game of CARDS, played 
with two packs. The first eight 
cards played are laid in a row, and 
on each of them are placed others in 
descending order, but of different col- 
or alternately. Thus, on a red nine a 
black eight must be placed ; on this 
a red seven, and so on. Whenever 
the Aces appear they are placed in a 
row by themselves, and on them are 
built families in ascending order, 
without regard to suits, except that 
no card must be placed on one of the 
same color. The families may be 
built up by using cards as they come 
from the pack, or the top cards of the 
piles. All cards that cannot at once 
be used are laid aside to form stock, 
which can be shuffled and relaid 
twice. If the families can be com- 
pleted thus, the player wins. 

BUCK, a game played by two per- 
son, one of whom places his arms 
across his breast, or rests them on 
his knees, and bends forward, rest- 
ing his head against a fence, tree, or 
wall. This is called " giving a back." 
The other player sits astride the back 
of the first, and holding up one or 
more fingers, says, " Buck, Buck, 
how many horns do I hold up ? " 
The first player guesses, and if his 
guess is correct the two change 
places ; but if the guess is wrong, the 
rider gets down, leaps on again, and 
holds up one or more fingers again 
with the same question. So the game 
goes on as long as the players choose. 
The " buck " is sometimes blindfold- 
ed, and a third person often acts as 
umpire, to see that there is fair play. 

History. This game is very old. 
Petronius Arbiter, a writer in the 
time of the Roman Emperor Nero, 
describes a man playing it with a 
boy. The boy " mounting as on horse- 
back, smote his shoulders with his 
open hand, and laughing said, 'Bucca, 
Bucca, quot sunt hie? ' ' (Bucca, 
Bucca, how many are here ? ) 



BURIED WORDS 



121 



BUTTON, BUTTON 



In another form of the game, a child 
hides his head in another's lap, and 
the latter says : 

*' Mingledy, mingledy, clap, clap, clap, 
How many fingers do I hold up? " 

or some similar rhyme. The game, 
in all its forms, is probably related 
to MORA. 

In France a game resembling this, 
called Les Metiers (The Trades), is 
played. The player who makes the 
back chooses a trade and the name 
of something connected with it, for 
instance, shoemaking and wax. The 
trade is announced, but the article 
kept secret. Each player in turn 
must then say, as he mounts the back, 
" A good shoemaker must have good 
leather," or " good pegs," or any- 
thing else he pleases. Whoever 
mentions the word chosen by the 
player who makes the back must 
take his place. 

BURIED WORDS, a game played 
by two or more persons, one of whom 
gives a sentence in which a word is 
concealed by being formed partly of 
one of the words in the sentence, 
and partly of one or more imme- 
diately following. Thus the word 
" London " is concealed or " buried " 
in the sentence, " Do not let the rain 
fall on Don Carlos," as will be seen 
if the proper letters be capitalized, 
thus, " Do not let the rain falL ON 
DON Carlos." The one who gives 
out the sentence must state that the 
buried word is the name of a city, per- 
son, flower, article of food, or what- 
ever it may be, and the first one who 
guesses it correctly scores a point. 
The guesser then gives out another 
sentence, and the game goes on for 
any length of time agreed on, or till 
some orte has scored a certain num- 
ber of points. After a little practice 
words can thus be buried very skill- 
fully. The hardest ones to guess 
are those in which pronouncing the 
words gives no clew. Thus in the 
following, " buried fruits," the former 
can be guessed by pronouncing the 
sentence slowly, while the latter can- 
not : 



"Some, fairy OR ANGEI must 
have done this." " The baboon and 
aPE ARe both curious animals." 

The best plan m burying a word 
is first to see whether it contains an- 
other word within it. Thus in bury- 
ing the word " Orange " it is seen 
that the word " rang " is so contained. 
A sentence must now be constructed 
with the word " rang " in it, while 
the word just before must end with 
" O," and that just following begin 
with " e." Thus : " They danced a 
fandango, rang Edward's door bell, 
and behaved very wildly." It will 
be seen that the word is thus " buried " 
much more deeply than in the other 
example given. 

A somewhat similar game, played 
in Germany, is there called Worte 
Verbergen (Word-hiding). The title 
or first verse of some well-known 
song or poem is selected by one of 
the players, who, in answer to any 
question, returns a reply including its 
first word. To a second question he 
gives an answer containing the first 
two words in succession, and so on, 
till the line is guessed. Thus, sup- 
pose the song " A life on the ocean 
wave" be chosen. The following 
may be the questions and answers : 

Q. How do you do ? 

A. A little better, thank you. 

Q. Where do you spend the sum- 
mer? 

A. In the country. I enjoy a life 
spent outdoors. 

Q. Who was your grandfather ? 

A. He was the celebrated Dr. 
Bobus, who sacrificed a life on the 
altar of science by visiting the North 
Pole. 

By this time the title will probably 
be guessed by the repetition of the 
word " life." The most difficult lines 
to guess are of course those contain- 
ing small and frequently used words 
at the beginning. 

BUTTON, BUTTON, a drawing- 
room game, played by any number of 
persons. The players sit in a circle 
around the leader, who stands holding 
a button between his hands, the palms 



BUTTONS 



122 



BUZZ 



of which are pressed together. The 
others hold their hands in the same 
manner, and the leader goes to each 
in turn, saying, " Hold fast what I 
give you," passing his hands between 
those of the player he addresses, and 
gives the button, while doing this, to 
any one of the players he chooses, 
but without showing to whom he 
has given it. When he has made 
the round of the circle, he says to 
each player in turn, " Button, But- 
ton, who has the button ? " and each, 
as he is asked, must guess. Then the 
leader calls out, " Button, Button, 
arise," and the holder of the button 
stands up. This game is usually 
played by very young children, an 
older one acting as leader, In some 
parts of the United States a ring is 
used, and the corresponding verses 
are, 

" Biddy. Biddy, hold fast my gold ring 
Till I go to London and back again. 

Another form used is, "Fox, Fox, 
who's got the box ? " 

BUTTONS, a game played by any 
number of children, each of whom 
has a button. The players stand in 
line and toss their buttons at a hole 
in the ground about twelve feet dis- 
tant. They then take turns in play- 
ing, beginning with the one whose 
button came nearest to the hole, and 




Method of Holding the Hand in Button. 

try, by striking the buttons with the 
thumb as they lie on the ground (see 
illustration), to drive them into the 
hole. When any one succeeds, the 



button he drives in becomes his prop- 
erty. When he misses, the next one 
takes his turn. The hand is held 
stiffly in playing, the thumb being 
extended, and the motion is made 
with the whole hand, 

Spans, a button game played by 
two persons. The buttons are thrown 
against a wall, and if a player's but- 
ton falls within a span of his oppo- 
nent's he may aim at it as described 
above. If he strike it, he wins it. A 
span is the distance from the end of 
the thumb to that of the little finger 
when the hand is extended. 

BUZZ, a game played by any 
number of persons. The players sit 
in a circle, and, beginning at any 
point, call out the numbers, one, 
two, three, etc., in order. Instead of 
the numbers in writing which the 
figure 7 is used, and also of those 
that are multiples of seven, the word 
" Buzz " must be spoken. Thus, 
Buzz must be substituted for 7, 14, 
21, 27, 28, 35, 37, 42, 47, 49, and so on. 
For the seventies. Buzz-one, Buzz- 
two are used, and for 77, Buzz-buzz. 
Any one that mentions such a num- 
ber by name, or says Buzz in the 
wrong place, or calls out a wrong 
number, must pay a forfeit, and then 
begin the game anew by calling out 
" One ! " If the one whose turn it 
is waits longer than while any one 
counts five he must pay a forfeit. 
Buzz should not be played by seven 
people, for then one of them would 
always have to say buzz when his 
turn came. 

Buzz-Fizz, the game of Buzz, with 
the addition that every multiple of 
three is called " Fizz," of five, 
" Quack," and of eleven, " Cock-a- 
doodle-doo. " Where a number con- 
tains two or more of these as a fac- 
tor the names of all the factors are 
given, the smallest first. Thus, 15 
would be " Fizz-Quack "; 77, " Buzz- 
cock-a-doodle-doo "; and 105, " Fizz- 
Quack-Buzz." 



CALAERASELLA 



123 



CALABRASELLA 



C 



CACHINOLE. See SQUAILS. 
CALABRASELLA, a game of 
cards played by three persons, with 
a pack from which the tens, nines, 
and eights are excluded. Each player 
is dealt twelve cards, two at a time, 
and the four remaining in the stock 
are placed face downward on the 
table. After the deal, the eldest hand 
has the choice of " passing" or 
" playing." If he say " I pass," the 
player at his left has the same op- 
tion, and so on. If all pass, the hand 
is abandoned and the deal passes to 
the left. The first player who says 
" I play," must play against the two 
others as partners. Before he plays 
he may ask for any Three he chooses, 
and the holder must give it to him, 
receiving a card in exchange. If no 
one has the Three asked for, he 
must not demand another, but if he 
have all the Threes in his own hand 
at the beginning of the game he 
may ask for a Two. He then dis- 
cards from one to four cards and 
selects an equal number from the 
stock, first announcing the number 
of cards he will put out. He must 
discard at least one card, and must 
show to the other players the cards 
he takes in. The playing then be- 
gins, the eldest hand having the 
lead. There are no trumps, and 
suit must be followed if possible. In 
playing, the cards rank as follows : 
Three (highest), Two, Ace, King, 
Queen, Knave, Seven, Six, Five, 
Four (lowest). The winner of the 
last trick takes also the discard (in- 
cluding any cards of the stock that 
are left). Each Ace taken counts the 
winner of the trick 3 points, and 
each Three, Two, King, Queen, or 
Knave, i point. The last trick 
founts 3 points. Either side scores 
what it has made in excess of the 
other side, each of the partners 
scoring the whole number of points 
made by their side. Thus, if the 
partners have 22 points and the 



single player 13, each of the former 
scores 9 points. The number of 
points to be played for is agreed on 
aefore the game. 

The eldest hand should say, " I 
play," if he have a fair hand. 
Try to win as many counting cards 
as possible, especially Aces, which it 
must be remembered may be taken 
in play by either Threes or Twos. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The players cut for deal, and 
the lowest Calabrasella card deals. 

2. In case of a misdeal, the same 
player deals again. 

3. If the Discard contain too few 
cards the partners may either throw 
up the hand or require the single 
player to correct the mistake ; if it 
contain too many, the single player 
loses the tricks to which he cannot 
play. 

4. If the single player demand a 
Two when he has not all the Threes, 
the partners may throw up the hand 
if they choose. 

5. If a card is asked for and not 
obtained, and it is found not to be in 
the stock, the single player may ask 
for it again and then alter his dis- 
card. 

6. If the single player expose a 
card, or lead or play out of turn, 
there is no penalty, but the mistake 
must be corrected unless the trick 
has bern completed. If one of the 
partners expose a card, the single 
player may call on him to play it at 
any time. If either of the partners 
lead out of turn, and the error is dis- 
covered before completing the trick, 
the single player may call on the 
right leader to lead a particular suit ; 
or, if it is his own lead, he may thus 
call a suit at the first opportunity. 

13. If a player revoke, he must 
forfeit nine points. 

14. No trick can be looked at after 
it is taken. 

CALIFORNIA JACK. See ALL 
FOURS. 



CALL-BALL 



124 



CAMERA OBSCURA 



CALISTHENICS. See GYMNAS- 
TICS. 

CALL-BALL, CALLIE BALL, or 
BALLIE-CALLIE, a game of ball 
played by any number of persons, 
with a hard rubber ball. The ball 
is thrown against a wall by one of 
the players, who at the same time 
calls out the name of one of the 
others. The player named must 
strike the ball as it bounds back, 
calling another name as he does so. 
If he miss it he must pick it up, and 
call "Stand!" whereupon the other | 
players, who have begun to run as j 
soon as he makes the miss, stand [ 
still. He throws the ball at one, 
and if he strikes him that one must 
throw the ball at the wall, as before. ! 
If he miss the player at whom he 
throws, he must place himself against 
the wall while the others throw the 
ball at his back in turn, as in- ROLY 
POLY. 

This game was common in New 
England many years ago, and is 
still played in Austria. The English 
poet Herrick alludes to a similar 
game in his lines : 

" I call, I call ; who doe ye call ? 
The maids to catch this Cowslip ball. 

In the Middle Ages boys and 
girls played a kind of call-ball where 
he who obtained possession of it 
threw it to the one he loved best. 

CAMERA LUCIDA, an arrange- 
ment to aid in drawing the outline 
of small objects. There are several 
kinds, but the simplest is made as 
follows : 




paper on the table between yourself 
and the object, and on the farther 
edge of the paper rest the edge of a 
pane of glass. Incline the glass 
toward you, and presently you will 
see in it the reflection of the object to 
be drawn. At the same time you 
will see the paper through the glass. 
The glass may now be rested against 
a book to keep it in position. Hold 
your pencil on the paper under the 
glass and see whether you can see 
the reflection and the pencil point 
plainly at the same time. If either 
of them looks double while you are 
fixing your eyes on the other, it 
shows that the object is either too 
far away or too near. Move the 
book on which it rests backward and 
forward until you can see both 
the reflection and the pencil point 
plainly. Keeping the eye perfectly 




Fig. i. 



Sit at a table in front of the object, 
which should be supported on a 
book (Fig. i). Lay a sheet of white 



Fig. 2. 

still, the outline of the reflection can 
now be followed on the paper with 
the pencil, and thus a very exact 
picture can be drawn. The picture 
will be of the same size as the object, 
hence only small objects, like flowers, 
insects, coins, or small wood-cuts, 
can be used. To draw large objects 
or landscapes by tracing in the same 
way, a CAMERA OBSCURA may be 
used, as in PHOTOGRAPHY, but a 
large Camera Lucicla is sometimes 
arranged as in Fig. 2. The words 
CAMERA LUCIDA are Latin for Light 
Chamber. 

CAMERA OBSCURA, To make 
a rough camera, take a little paste- 



CAMERA OBSCURA 



125 



CAMERA OBSCURA 



board box (Fig. i), like those in 

which pens are sold, and make a 

pinhole in the middle of the cover, 

working the pin about fit 

to enlarge the hole a 

a little. Remove one 

end of the cover, and 

in the corresponding 

edge of the box cut 

a notch just large 

enough to see through 

into the box when 

the cover is on. On 

a sunny day, hold the box with the 

pinhole toward any bright object 

and look down into the end through 

the notch, holding the eye close, 

so that no light can get in except 

through the pinhole. A picture 

will be seen on the back of the 

box, inside, in which the bright 

parts of the landscape can be eas- 




ily distinguished. The picture will 
grow clearer as the eye becomes 
accustomed to the light. By moving 
the box so that the pinhole turns in 
a different direction, the picture will 
change. The smaller the pinhole 
is, the less blurred the picture will 
be, but it will be also less bright. 
With a hole about T J ff of an inch in 
diameter the picture will be quite 
bright, but so blurred that it is hard to 
tell different objects from each other. 
The box should not be more than 
an inch deep, as the farther the back 
is from the pinhole, the less distinct 
the picture will be. In the evening, 
such a camera will give an excellent 
picture of a lamp or candle, and even 
of a person's face held very near a 
bright light. The way the picture 
is made may be understood by look- 
ing at Fig. 2, where the lines rep- 




Fig. 2. 



resent rays of light from different 
parts of an object passing through 
the pinhole and striking the back of 
the box. When the cover is taken 
from the box, rays from all parts of 
the object strike every part of the 
box at once and are mixed together, 
hence there is no picture, but only a 
white blur. 

A camera which will make the 
picture bright without blurring it may 
be made by using a glass lens (See 
LENSES, EXPERIMENTS WITH). 
These experiments show how a lens 
will throw a picture, and the picture 
can be seen to better advantage if the 
lens be fixed in a hole in the side of 
a box. The observer may work at 
the picture through a hole in the top 



of the box, or the back of the box 
may be made of thin white paper, so 
that the picture will show on the 
other side. There is a certain dis- 
tance from the lens for every object, 
where its image will be plainest, so 
it is a good plan to make the back 
of the box so that it can be slid in 
and out. Find the distance at which 
the lens makes the plainest picture of 
near objects before choosing the box, 
and then select one of the right 
depth. Remove the back, and saw 
off the edges so that it can be made 
to slip in as far as desired. Nail a 
stick to it to serve as a handle by 
which it may be pulled in and out. 

Hat Camera. A camera can be 
made also from a stiff felt or silk hat, 



CAMPHOR 



126 



CAMPING OUT 



if it have a ventilating hole in the 
top of the crown. If there are more 
than one of these holes, all but the 
central one may be stopped with 
paper. A piece of thin paper is then 
pinned over the bottom of the hat, 
which is held with the top toward 
the part of the landscape to be ob- 
served. A black shawl is thrown 
over the hat and the observer's head, 
but care must be taken that it does 
not hang over the ventilating hole. 

CAMPHOR. Experiments with, 
I. Place a piece of gum camphor on 
water. After a time it will begin to 
move about on the surface, and will 
continue its motion till it is dissolved. 
The reason is that it dissolves more 
rapidly at some places than at others, 
so that the surface of the water pulls 
more strongly on-it in one direction 
than in another. The bit of cam- 
phor may be set on fire, and will then 
burn as it moves about. 

2. Dust lycopodium powder over 
the surface of a dish of water by 
shaking it in a muslin bag. The 
water should be covered with a very 
faint layer of the powder. Dip into 
the water the end of a rod or stick 
of gum camphor. The lycopodium 
at once moves back from the cam- 
phor, and begins to revolve in several 
wheel-shaped figures. 

In order that this experiment may 
succeed the vessel and water must 
be quite clean, and the day should 
be dry and fine, so that the camphor 
film will evaporate soon after it forms. 

3. Dissolve a bit of camphor the 
size of a pea in a drachm of benzine. 
Keep the solution in a phial in whose 
cork a pin is stuck, head downward, 
so that it protrudes into the liquid. 
Fill a concave microscope slide with 
clear water, and touch the surface 
with a little of the benzine-camphor 
liquid on the head of the pin. The 
drop, viewed through the microscope, 
behaves very curiously, little drops 
detaching themselves from its sides 
and moving about in all directions. 

4. Pour a thin layer of water into 
flat-bottomed shallow dish. Cut a 



rod of gum camphor one-quarter 
inch square, following the grain of 
the gum, which can be seen on hold- 
ing it up to the light. Touch the 
bottom of the vessel with this stick, 
and the water around it will be 
thrown into waves or ripples, which 
will continue till the end of the stick 
is dissolved away. The reason is 
that the water is first drawn up 
toward the stick as it would be 
toward the finger or a glass rod. 
But, a film of camphor forming on its 
surface, this is altered so as to act 
toward the stick as mercury would 
toward glass, that is, the water is 
depressed. It recovers itself, and 
the action goes on very rapidly. 

5. Place a piece of gum camphor 
in a tightly stoppered bottle, and let 
it stand awhile in a warm room. 
Then set it close to a window and 
the side next the window will become 
covered with minute camphor crys- 
tals. This is because the camphor 
evaporates, and the coolness caused 
by the window condenses the vapor 
again. It was once thought that the 
light influenced the crystallization, 
but it will take place at night in the 
same way. Marks on the glass, invisi- 
ble before, will often be shown by the 
arrangement of the camphor crystals, 
just as those on window panes often 
are by frost crystals. Thus, if the 
interior of the bottle be wiped out 
roughly with a moist cloth, and then 
allowed to dry, the crystals are apt 
to form along the lines made in wip- 
ing. (See also BREATH FIGURES.) 

CAMPING OUT. One kind of 
camping may be in connection with 
a WALKING TRIP, the campers 
spending their nights in a tent in- 
stead of at a hotel or farm-house, 
and preparing their own meals. 
Each person may carry about twenty 
pounds of luggage in a knapsack or 
haversack, or in a roll, whose ends are 
joined to make a ring which is 
thrown over the shoulder, as shown 
in the illustration. Each should 
take a rubber blanket, a woolen 
blanket, a change of clothing, towel, 



CAMPING OUT 



127 



CAMPING OUT 



soap, comb, and toothbrush, besides 
his share of the general luggage, 
which includes the tent, cooking 
utensils, hatchet, and food. An 
easier but more expensive way is to 
have all the luggage carried in a 
wagon, leaving the walkers free. A 
larger tent and more implements can 
thus be carried, and the expense is 
usually not great if divided among 
several. It is often a good plan to 
buy a horse and cart for such an 
expedition, selling both at the end of 
the journey. If the camp is not to be 
moved, the tent may be still larger, 
and many useful fixtures, such as 




Fig. i. The Camper Loaded. 

tables, a stove, an oven, bedsteads, 
etc., can be set up by any one of 
ingenuity. 

Location. A camp should be on 
dry ground, sloping so as to give 
drainage, and near good drinking 
water. Favorite sites are on moun- 
tains, at the edge of woods, on the 
bank of a lake, or on the seashore. 

Expenses. These vary at the pleas- 
ure of the camper, and according to 
the number in the party. Mr. John 
M. Gould, in his book on " How to 
Camp Out," relates that three boys, 



including himself, once went on a 
twelve days' camping trip and spent 
but one dollar apiece during that 
time. They " carried coffee, sugar, 
pork, and beef from home, and ate 
potatoes three times a day." Frank 
E. Clark, in an account of three 
weeks' camping on the seashore, 
gives the following list of expenses 
for six persons : 

Tent for three weeks . . $ 9.00 
Provisions taken with us . . 22.00 
Stove and cooking utensils . 15.00 
Fresh provisions bought at the 

beach 15.00 

Incidentals . 20.00 



Total $81.00 

or $4.50 per week for each camper. 

In general, the expense depends 
almost entirely on the way in which 
the campers are willing to live. 

GIRLS' CAMPS. What has been 
said above applies also to campers 
of the other sex, or of both sexes, 
except that ladies must not be ex- 
pected to bear any hardships. A 
party of girls, in charge of an older 
woman may camp together very 
pleasantly in not too wild a coun- 
try, hiring a man to do the hard 
work, such as pitching the tent. 
When the campers are of both 
sexes, the ladies will naturally be 
allotted the cooking and other 
housework, while the men do the 
rougher work. 

Insects. Campers are often an- 
noyed by mosquitos and black flies, 
especially in the woods, and, where 
these pests exist, mosquito netting 
must be taken for protection at night. 
Many preparations for keeping in- 
sects away by applications to the 
face and hands are to be bought, but 
most old campers prefer to drive 
them away by making what is 
called a " smudge." A fire is built 
to windward of the camp and smoth- 
ered with wet wood and damp leaves, 
so as to make a dense smoke. 
The " smudge " is disagreeable, but 
is a welcome relief after insects. 

Rainy Days. If the rain is a cold 



CAMPING OUT 



128 



CAMPING OUT 



one, it is often necessary to build a 
fire just outside the tent, but it 
is difficult to keep one alive in a 
hard storm. If there is a stove 
in the camp, it may be brought 
inside the tent, the pipe projecting 
through the door, but unless this is 
on the leeward side the smoke will 
be blown back into the tent. An- 
other way is to build a fire in a hole 
just outside the tent and conduct the 
smoke through a trench under the 
tent, covered with flat stones, the 
crevices being cemented with clay. 
It is difficult to make this smoke- 
tight, but when it is so, it warms the 
tent well. 

Each one of the campers should 
have his special duties assigned him. 
This may be done on trial at first, till 
it is seen for what work each is best 
fitted. Thus, in a camp of three, 
one may do the cooking, and another 
the dishwashing, while the third has 
general charge of the tent and its 
surroundings. 

Tents. The material is usually 
heavy drilling or duck for large tents. 
The simplest kind is a Shelter-tent, 
which consists merely of pieces of 
cloth with buttons and buttonholes 
at the edges, by which several can 
be fastened together. The button- 
holes are near the edge, and the 
buttons several inches nearer the 
center. The pieces carried by the 
soldiers of the United States army 
in the Civil War were about five feet 
square. They can be fastened to- 




Fig. 2. Shelter Tent. 

gether, and put up in various ways ; 
for instance, by throwing two over a 
ridge pole supported on two forked 



uprights, and fastening them at the 
bottom, by driving pegs through the 
buttonholes, or through loops of rope 
sewed there for the purpose. If two 
more pieces be buttoned across the 
ends, the tent is entirely inclosed. 
The tent poles and pegs are not car- 
ried, but cut at the spot where the 
tent is pitched. A shelter-tent (Fig. 2) 
is the best to use where the campers 
walk from place to place and carry 
all their own baggage. An end piece 
may be made to fit the end exactly, 
and sewed to one of the side pieces 
instead of buttoning it, if desired. 
The tent should usually be pitched 
with a right angle at the roof, but 
the angle must be sharper in rainy 
weather. Shelter-tents may be made 
also of rubber, which are perfectly 
waterproof, but heavy to carry. 

An A tent, or Wedge-tent (Fig. 4) is 
pitched overaridge pole like a shelter- 
tent, but is made all in one piece. A 
common size is about 
seven feet high, seven feet 
long, and eight feet wide. 
One end is usually closed, 
while the other has an 
opening in the middle, 
closed by a flap hanging 
on the inside. Around 
the bottom of the tent is 
sometimes hung a strip 
of cloth called a sod-cloth, 
to keep out draughts and 
prevent the edge of the 
tent from touching the 
ground and rotting. Fig;. 3. 
Around the edge are also Tent Pin< 
sewed loops of rope called " beck- 
ets," through which wooden pins 
(Fig. 3) are driven into the ground, 
when the tent is pitched. 

The best tent for a permanent 
camp, or one where the heavy lug- 
gage is carried from place to place 
on a wagon, is the Wall-tent (Fig. 5). 
This is shaped like a house, with side 
walls about four feet high, and ridge 
pole about nine feet from the 
ground. At the corners of the eaves 
and at every seam along their sides 
loops of rope are fastened, and 



CAMPING OUT 



129 



CAMPING OUT 



through each of these is passed a 
rope called a " guy," about ten feet 
long, knotted at one end so that it 
will not slip through the loop. The 
other end is passed around a peg 
driven into the ground at such a dis- 
tance that the guy will have the 
same slope as the roof, and so keep 
the roof stretched. That the guys 
may be tightened easily, pieces of 
wood called " fiddles " are used, 
about five inches long, two inches 



wide, and an inch thick, having two 
holes bored through them three 
inches apart, just large enough to 
admit the rope. The end of the guy 
is passed through one of these holes 
and back through the other, and 
then knotted. The loop thus made 
is passed around the peg, and the 
guy is then tightened by pulling up 
the fiddle as high as it will go. 
Around the bottom of the tent, 
which also has a sod-cloth, are beck- 




Fig. 4. " A " Tent, or Wedge-tent. 



cts, through which pegs are driven. 
A second roof called a " fly " is used 
with a wall-tent to keep out the rain, 
since the roof is not sharp enough to 
shed rain by itself. It passes close 
over the ridge pole, but is lifted seve- 
ral inches above the inner roof at 
the eaves, and projects about a foot 
beyond it. It is kept stretched by 
guys whose pegs are driven into the 
ground some distance beyond those 
of the roof. The end poles of an A 



or wall-tent should have iron pins at 
the top, which fit into holes in the 
ridge pole, and the latter should 
have ferrules on the ends to prevent 
splitting. The end poles should be 
made too high for the tent at first, as 
it stretches with use. At first, the 
poles can be sunk in the ground a 
little way to make them short 
enough. Tent pins should be of 
tough wood, and have a notch near 
the top to hold the rope. 



CAMPING OUT 



'30 



CAMPING OUT 



A shallow trench must be dug 
completely around the tent, after it 
is pitched, to carry off the water in 
case of rain. If the tent is on a hill- 
side, no trench need be dug at the 
lower side. In a permanent camp, a 
board floor may be laid in the tent. 

Shelters. In the woods, shelters 
of poles and boughs are often used 
instead of tents. The simplest is 
made by placing a ridge pole across 
two forked uprights and then leaning 



poles and boughs against it from one 
or both sides. A rustic cottage (Fig. 
6) may be made by trimming the 
branches from four trees standing as 
nearly as possible at the corners of 
a square, leaving part projeciing as 
a rest for cross poles, thus forming a 
framework. These cross poles are 
tied to the uprights with willow 
withes, and then branches are woven 
in by passing them inside one pole, 
outside the next, and so on. A roof 




Fig. 5. Wall-tent 



slanting in one direction is made in 
the same way and thatched with 
grass so as to shed water. If four 
trees cannot be found in the proper 
position, upright posts set in the 
ground may be substituted for one 
or more of them. 

Sleeping. The simplest way to 
sleep in camp is on the ground, laying 
on it first a rubber blanket and then a 
woolen one. Evergreen boughs or 
dried leaves may be placed underneath 



the rubber blanket to make a bed, 
and the whole may be raised above 
theground byabedstead of polessup- 
ported on forked sticks. One of the 
best camp beds is a light folding cot 
(Fig. 7), covered with canvas, which 
may be bought at a furniture store. In 
a permanent camp a double mattress 
may be laid on the floor of the tent, 
over a rubbef blanket, making room 
for several sleepers. Each camper 
must have one rubber blanket and 



CAMPING OUT 



CAMPING OUT 



one woolen one. A pillow adds 
greatly to comfort, but must be dis- 
pensed with if each carries his own 
luggage. In any case, beds and bed- 



ding must be carried out of the tent 
and thoroughly aired every morning. 
Unless a mattress is used, the camp- 
er's bones will be apt to ache for one 




Fig. 6. Framework of Rustic Cottage. 



or two nights, but he will soon get 
accustomed to his hard bed. The 
camper may also sleep in a hammock 
when the weather admits of sleeping 
in the open air. There is usually 
hardly room for one inside the tent. 



Cooking. The simplest way to 
cook is over a wood-fire in the open 
air. A kettle may be hung over the 
fire from a cross bar resting on two 
forked uprights, and any food th?t 
requires boiling can thus be pre- 




Kig. 7. Camp Cot. 



pared. Broiling can be done by 
holding the food in small pieces over 
the coals with sharp sticks if a grid- 
iron has riot been brought. For 



frying, the fire is built over a smooth 
stone, and scraped away from it when 
the stone is sufficiently heated. The 
stone is then carefully wiped, and is 



CAMPING OUT 



132 



CANDLE 



usually hot enough to fry several 
fish, or the flat stone may be placed 
on the top of a fireplace made of 
stones, and used for cooking while 
the fire is under it. An oven for bak- 
ing can be built of stones. Where 




Fig. 8. Stone Stove. 

there is clay, one can be made by 
covering with it a cask or barrel em- 
bedded in a bank. A fire is built in 
the barrel, which both burns it away 
and bakes the clay hard, making the 
oven. Such an oven is used by first 
building a fire in it and then scraping 
the fire away, and putting in the food 
to be baked. In every permanent 
camp, an ice box should be provided 
for provisions. This may be made 
by sinking an ordinary dry goods 
box or barrel in the ground, and if 
the box is sunk deep enough, ice 
may be dispensed with. A hole 
should also be dug at some distance 
from the tent where all kinds of swill 
and refuse may be thrown and cov- 
ered with earth every few days. The 
supply of food to be taken to camp 
depends largely on how much the 
campers expect to provide for them- 
selves by hunting or fishing. Eggs 
and milk can often be obtained from 
a neighboring farm house. The 
necessaries for most campers are 
bread or crackers, coffee or tea, sugar 
and salt. Where the campers walk 
from place to place carrying their 
own luggage, food must generally 
be bought from day to day wher- 
ever it can be obtained. Where the 
camp is permanent, the stock of pro- 
visions is limited in size and variety 



only by the purses of the campers 
and the ability of the one who does 
the cooking. A small stove is often 
necessary in a large camp, and many 
different kinds of camp stoves are 
now to be bought. A kerosene 
stove is always useful in making a 
cup of tea or coffee at short notice, 
or in cooking on a rainy day. 

CANDLE-MAKING. Very good 
tapers can be made with old candle- 
ends, a little tin pan, such as are 
used for baking muffins, a lead-pen- 
cil, some tin-foil and some string. 
Make a mold by shaping tin-foil 
around the pencil. Melt some of 
the candle-ends in the pan by hold- 
ing it over a lighted candle-end, 
and then pour the wax into the 
mold, into which a piece of string 
has been put for a wick. Hold 
the mold upright till the wax has 
set and then lay it aside for a few 
moments, after which the tin-foil 
can be unwound, leaving a little wax 
taper. Larger ones can be made 
by using something larger to shape 
the mold, an old chair-rung for in- 
stance. 

A mold may be made also of a 
rolled sheet of note-paper tied with 
string, and stopped at one end with 
a cork. The wick should be fast- 
ened at one end to the cork with a 
tack, and at the other to a match or 
bit of wood, laid across the roll. If 
the mold be made thus, of paper, 
the tallow must be allowed to 
thicken a little before it is poured in, 
or it may soak through. 

If a large candle is to be made, 
the tallow is most easily obtained by 
melting beef or mutton fat cut into 
bits, and skimming out the pieces 
of thin skin and tissue from it. If 
desired, wax may be melted and 
used in the same way. 

CANDLE, Experiments with, 
The candle flame is described in the 
article FlRE (C. C. T.), and a few 
experiments with it are given there. 
Others will now be told about. 

A tallow candle about an inch 
and a quarter in diameter is the 



CANDLE 



133 



CANNONADE 



best for these experiments, though 
an ordinary one will answer. Such 
a tallow candle may be made accord- 
ing to the directions in the article on 
CANDLE-MAKING. 

Experiment I. Take a piece of 
wire gauze like that used for strainers 
or window screens, and press it down 
on the candle flame. The flame will 
not pass through the gauze, but will 
flatten out beneath it, so that one can 
look down into the center of it. The 
space inside, where there is no fire, 
will thus be seen plainly. The 
reason that the flame cannot pass 
through the gauze is that the wires 
conduct the heat away very rapidly, 
cooling the flame so much as to put 
it out before it can get through. 

Experiment 2. Let the candle 
burn till the wick in the flame is 
quite long and then blow it out with 
a quick puff. If the air is still, a 
stream of smoke will rise from the 
wick. Touch a lighted match to 
this smoke half an inch or so from 
the candle, and the flame will run 
down to the wick, lighting the candle 
again. Sometimes the smoke can 
be lighted an inch or more from the 
wick. The reason why this smoke 
burns, is that it is the gas which 
forms the candle flame, and which 
continues to rise from the wick for 
a few seconds after the flame is put 
out. 

Experiment 3. Blow out the can- 
dle as in Experiment 2, and hold the 
gauze so that the stream of smoke 
will rise through it. Light it above 
the gauze, and it will run down to 
the gauze, but will not pass through 
it. (See also CARBONIC ACID, 
Exp. ii.) 

Experiment 4. Bring a plate 
quickly down on the candle flame 
and raise it at once without moving 
it sidewise. The flame will leave a 
ring of soot on the plate. This is 
because the empty space in the mid- 
dle of the flame deposits no soot. 

Experiment 5. Place a lighted 
candle-end on the table and put a 
glass dish or goblet over it. It will 



burn dim and finally go out. This 
is because it has used up all the 
oxygen in the air under the dish. 

Experiment 6. Stick a lighted 
candle-end on a bit of wood, so that 
it will float upright in a pail of water. 
Then press a glass tumbler down 
over it, pushing it to the bottom of 
the pail. The candle will burn 
under water as long as it has oxygen 
enough. The air under the tumbler 
prevents the water from entering 
and putting out the candle. Try 
the same experiment, using, instead 
of a tumbler, a lamp-chimney with 
the hand held tightly over the top. 
After pushing it down to the bottom 
of the pail, remove the hand so that 
the water can push the air out at the 
top. The water will rise inside the 
chimney, carrying the candle with it. 

Experiment 7. Thrust the head 
of a match very quickly into the dark 
center of a candle flame. It will 
melt but not burn. This is because 
there is no air in the inside of the 
flame. 

CANNONADE, a game played on 
a circular board with marbles and a 
TEETOTUM, which can be spun like 
a humming TOP. Around the edge 
of the board are six little wooden 
towers called castles, protected by 
wires on all sides except toward the 
middle of the board, where about 
15 marbles are placed. One of the 
players is chosen as Gunner, and 
each of the others selects a castle. 
Each one begins the game with an 
equal number of counters, and each 
castle-owner bets as many as he 
pleases on his castle. The Gunner 
then spins the teetotum in the midst 
of the marbles, and the teetotum 
and marbles dash about the board 
knocking down some of the castles. 
A wire screen around the edge of 
the board prevents their leaving it. 
When the teetotum has stopped, the 
owner of each fallen castle pays to 
the Gunner his stake, multiplied by 
the figure which came uppermost on 
the teetotum, or twice as much if all 
the castles were knocked down. 



CANOEING 



134 



CANOEING 



The owner of each castle that re- 
mains standing receives twice his 
stake from the Gunner. Each 
player acts as Gunner in turn. If 




Cannonade Board. 

there are fewer players than castles, 
each in succession takes two or 
more. Instead of the method of 
scoring described above, any other 
may be agreed on by the players, be- 
fore the game. A simple method is 
for the Gunner to score one for each 
fallen castle, and for each owner of a 
castle left standing to score two. 
The only skill shown is in making 
the teetotum spin as long as pos- 
sible. 

In another form of the game, pins, 
like Ten pins, are placed on the 
board, among which the top spins, 
knocking down some of them. 

CANOEING. Canoes are light 
boats sharp at both ends, and pro- 
pelled by a paddle, the boatsman 
looking toward the bow. Pleasure 
canoes, in general, are of two kinds : 
paddling canoes and sailing canoes. 
Canoes may be built of bark, skins, 
canvas, paper, wood, or metal. 
The length of open canoes varies 
from 10 to 17 feet, the breadth from 
2 to 3 feet, and the depth is 8 or 9 
inches. The paddler kneels on a 
cushion on the bottom of the canoe. 
The decked canoe usually has a keel 



and ribs of oak, and bulkheads near 
either end. It has a board floor, a 
seat for the paddler, and movable 
back and foot boards. The double 
bladed paddle is of 
pine or spruce, from 
six to twelve feet 
long, and jointed in 
the center for con- 
venience of stowage 
and to aid in feath- 
ering. 

To enter a canoe 
without upsetting re- 
quires caution. It is 
best to place one 
foot on the bottom, 
then one hand on 
either gunwale, then 
both feet on the bot- 
tom, and sit down as 
soon as possible, 
bearing most of the 
weight on the hands 
until seated. The paddle is held in 
both hands, and the boatman dips the 



Canoe : Side View, Top View, and 
Cross Section. 

blade so as nearly to cover it, as far 
forward as he can reach on one side 




Canoe Paddles. 

of the boat, and then draws it steadily 
back, thus propelling the boat. With 



CANOEING 



135 



CANOEING 



a single paddle all the strokes are on 
the same side of the boat till the pad- 
dler changes for rest, and 
the boat is steered by giv- 
ing the paddle a twist at 
the end of the stroke. 
With the double paddle 
the strokes are made on 
alternate sides, thus keep- 
ing the course straight. 
The unused blade will be 
in position to make the 
second stroke when the 
first is finished. The blades 
of a double paddle are 
usually set at right angles 
so that the one not in the 
water will always cut edge- 
wise through the air, and 
the wrist must therefore be turned 
slightly just before putting the blade 



to swim. In canoe races, "upset 
races " are often included, where 




Canoeist Using Double-bladed Paddle. 




Method of Holding Double-bladed 
Paddle. 

into the water. Short paddles must 
be held almost perpendicularly in the 
water. The paddle 
can be managed bet- 
ter by sitting high, 
but there is more 
danger of upsetting. 
In racing, the seat is 
generally placed near- 
ly on a level with the 
deck. In order to 
be prepared for an 
upset, the canoeist 
should practice fall- 
ing out and getting 
into his place again 
from the water. He must dress 
lightly, and should not attempt to 
paddle a canoe without knowing how 



is required, at a 
the course of the 



each contestant 

given signal, in 

race, to overturn his canoe, scramble 

in from the water, and go on to the 

finish. 

The sailing canoe has either a 
keel or a center board, which is now 
often made to fold up like a fan, 
when not in use. The sail may be 
either the lug, leg-of-mutton, or 
lateen (see SAILING). Two or three 
battens (thin strips of wood) are 
sometimes fastened across the lower 
part of the sail. A canoeist has 
estimated that the use of these bat- 
tens enables a canoe to carry more 
sail, in the ratio of 7 to 5. Battens 
make the sail set flatter. The masts 




Sailing Canoe. 

are very light, and can be taken down 
in a moment. The yard and boom 
are generally of some light wood. 



CANOEING 



136 



CANOEING 



The rigging is as simple as possible, 
and so arranged that the canoeist 
need not leave his seat to work it. 
There is usually a rudder, managed 
with foot steering gear when the 
canoeist sits or lies in the bottom, as 
formerly in England ; but in this 
country usually by a tiller fastened 
to a yoke near the hatch, where it is 
close at hand. The English have 
now generally adopted the American 
plan. The rudder should be hung 
so that it will extend below the keel 
and keep its hold on the water, even 
when the canoe lifts her stern clear 
at every wave. 

In England canoeists generally lie 
down in the bottom of the canoe, 
while in this country they sit on 
deck except when sailing before the 
wind. Canoe sailing differs in some 
respects from ordinary boat sailing. 
(See SAILING.) If the canoeist can- 
not hold his boat upright by his own 
weight he should " luff " so as to 
ease her a little, and if that does not 
answer he should slack the main 
sheet. If it blows very hard he 
should take in sail altogether. 

Many canoes have sliding seats, 
made in two pieces, the upper slip- 
ping sidewise over the lower to 
either side so that the crew can sit 



away out to windward and balance 
the boat in a far heavier wind than 
would otherwise be possible. In 
tacking, the canoeist throws his 
weight forward and to leeward, 
shifting it as the canoe passes the 
wind's eye. Jibing is more danger- 
ous in a canoe than in a sailboat, 
the canoeist being obliged to shift 
his weight suddenly to avoid over- 




Camp-stove for Wood. 

turning. More than one hundred 
pounds of ballast may be carried in 
a sailing canoe in bags of about 25 
pounds each. As much as 175 
pounds was formerly carried, but at 
present the most expert canoeists 
rarely carry ballast when racing. 

Unless a canoe is very well bal- 
lasted, sail should never be kept on 
it when the sea is high enough to 




Fig. i. Frame of Canoe Tent. 



break on board. The canoe should 
never be allowed to get broadside to 
the wind, except when it is abso- 
lutely necessary, as in turning. In 
heavy water, the course should be 
zig-zag, and heavy seas must be 
dodged. If it is necessary to take a 



wave, it must be done with the end 
of the canoe toward it, and the canoe 
should be allowed to slide sidewise 
down the back of the wave. In run- 
ning before the wind, the canoeist 
removes the back board, and, when 
it is necessary, stops the canoe's 



CANOEING 



137 



CAPACITY FOR HEAT 



headway by back strokes of the pad- 
dle. If the bows run under water, 
the halyards must be let go at once. 
The paddle should always be ready 
for use, and it is well to have a cork 
belt at hand. If the canoe should 
capsize, the canoeist must climb 
over it, let go the main halyard, haul 
on the down-haul, and get the main- 



sail on deck, before trying to right 
the craft. In beaching a canoe, the 
sail must first be taken in, the rud- 
der triced up and the hatch taken 
off. The canoeist then leaps out in- 
to shallow water with the painter, 
and hauls the boat on shore. Some 
special forms of tents for use by 
canoeists on their excursions are 




Fig. 2. Canoe Tent. 



shown in the following illustrations, 
of which Fig i shows the frame of a 
canoe tent, Fig. 2 a canoe tent with 
its canvas cover, and Fig. 3 a tent 
for use on shore. 

History. Canoes were used by 
the natives of all parts of North 
America before its discovery by Eu- 
ropeans. The Indians made their 



canoes either of birch bark or of 
hollow logs, and paddled them with 
great speed. In British America on 
the Pacific coast the natives use 
canoes of cedar logs with extended 
prows, and with curious figures 
painted on the sides. Some of them 
are very large ; one in the National 
Museum at Washington being 59 




Fig. 3. Shore Canoe Tent. 



feet long, 8 feet wide, and 4 feet 8 
inches deep. In Canada canoe clubs 
for recreation have existed since the 
days of New France. About 1854 
the improved civilized canoe was 
introduced into England by John 
Macgregor, Esq., of London. Then 
it was imported to this country by 
W. L. Alden, who founded 



York Canoe Club in 1871, and since 
that time the popularity of the sport 
has increased rapidly all over the 
Northern United States and Canada. 
CAPACITY FOR HEAT, Experi- 
ments on. i. In a bullet-mold make 
bullets of lead, zinc, tin, sulphur, and 
antimony. Prepare a cake of wax 
or paraffine, about half an inch thick, 



CAPPING VERSES 



138 



CARBON 



by melting it and pouring it into a 
pan, and then lay the cake across 
the top of a tumbler. Put the bul- 
lets into boiling water for a few min- 
utes and then place them all at once 
on the cake of wax. They will melt 
it and some will fall through, but 
some much more quickly than others. 
Still others will get only half-way or 
quarter-way through the wax. This 
is because they contained different 
quantities of heat, although they were 
all at the temperature of boiling water. 

2. Weigh out the same amount of 
lead, sulphur, and copper scraps, and 
put them all into boiling water, or 
into hot oil, so that they will have 
the same temperature. Fill three 
glasses with water at the same tem- 
perature, and put the lead into one, 
the sulphur into another, and the 
copper into the third. Stir the water 
in each continually, and test from 
time to time with a chemical ther- 
mometer. The water containing 
the sulphur will be hottest, and that 
with the copper next, while that into 
which the zinc was put will be the 
least hot. The reason is the same as 
that given for experiment i. 

CAPPING VERSES, a game 
where one player quotes a line of 
poetry, and the next a line in the 
same metre rhyming with it, which 
will make sense. In this way an en- 
tire poem is made of separate quota- 
tions by the company. This game 
can be played in this form only by 
those who are very familiar with poe- 
try, but almost any one with pencil 
and paper may cap verses, if allowed 
to consult all the volumes he desires. 
The paper may be passed from one 
player to another, each adding a line, 
or each may make an entire poem. 

CARBON, Experiments with. 
(Read CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS.) 
Carbon is described in C. C. T. To 
obtain it, the gases must be driven 
off by heat from some substance con- 
taining carbon, hydrogen, and oxy- 
gen. Such things are called hydro 
carbons, and include most vegetable 
substances. 



1. Arrange the apparatus as if to 
make oxygen, and half fill the igni- 
tion tube with powdered bituminous 
coal. On heating it a gas will be 
collected over water which is ordi- 
nary illuminating gas, but impure. It 
may be lighted in the jar in which it is 
collected, but the jar must not stand 
an instant mouth upward, cr the gas 
will escape, being lighter than air. 
What remains after all the gas is 
driven off is a form of carbon called 
coke. 

2. If the tube is filled with shav- 
ings of wood instead of coal, what 
remains after the gas is driven off is 
the form of carbon called charcoal. 

3. Put spirits of turpentine into an 
alcohol lamp, light the wick, and 
cover it with a wide-mouthed jar, just 
raising one edge of the jar above the 
table by placing a bit of wood under 
it. The lamp will give off black 
smoke in volumes, which will collect 
on the inside of the jar. This is the 
form of carbon called lampblack. 

4. Hold a piece of charcoal under 
water. It will rise to the surface if 
allowed to do so, and if held down 
will give bubbles of air. Heat an- 
other piece red-hot for some time 
and then put it quickly under water. 
Few bubbles will rise and the char- 
coal will remain under of itself. The 
reason is that charcoal is very porous 
and contains much air, unless this is 
driven off by heat. 

5. Fill an inverted glass test tube 
with AMMONIA and hold it over a 

saucer of mercury, the 
mouth of the tube in 
the mercury. Heat a 
L I piece of charcoal red- 
Hi hot, and hold it under 
I the mercury till it is 
I cool. Then put it up 
I into the tube. It will 
I absorb the ammonia, 
I and the pressure of the 
air outside will then 
force the mercury up 
into the tube to take its place. 

6. Put some powdered charcoal 
into a bottle filled with SULPHUR- 




CARBONIC ACID 



139 



CARBONIC ACID 



ETTED HYDROGEN and shake it 
about. The bad odor of the gas 
will disappear. 

7. Put two pieces of raw meat 
about an inch square side by side on 
the ground, covering one .with 
powdered charcoal. Place a heavy 
box over the two, so that no animal 
can get at them. If the weather be 
not cold, the uncovered piece will 
spoil in a few days, while the one 
covered with charcoal will give off 
no bad odor. 

8. Arrange apparatus as if to make 
OXYGEN, but put into the ignition 
tube about a teaspoonful of red 
oxide of mercury and charcoal, mixed 
together. Heat, and collect over 
water, the gas which is formed. On 
the sides of the tube will be found 
little drops of mercury. The reason 
is that the charcoal has taken away 
oxygen from the oxide of mercury 
and left the mercury behind. The 
charcoal and oxygen form carbonic 
acid gas, which is the gas that was 
collected over water. 

CARBONIC ACID, Experiments 
with. (Read CHEMICAL EXPERI- 
MENTS). Carbonic acid gas is de- 
scribed in C. C.T. It can be made 
by burning charcoal or wood, 
but is then mixed with nitrogen 
from the air. (See C. C. T.) It 
may be made pure as shown in Ex- 
periment 8, under CARBON, but a 
better way is to arrange apparatus as 
for making HYDROGEN, putting in, 
instead of zinc, a handful of small 
lumps of marble, as big as peas. 
Either sulphuric or hydrochloric acid 
may be used, but the latter is better. 
Instead of marble, old mortar, pieces 
of oyster shells, or limestone will j 
answer, though not so well. The 
carbonic acid comes from the marble, 
which is carbonate of lime. 

I. Place the delivery tube in a 
glass of lime water so that the gas 
will bubble up through it. The lime 
water will soon become milky. This 
is caused by the formation of car- 
bonate of lime in minute particles. 
If the current be continued long 



enough the water will become clear, 
but if it is boiled it will grow milky 
again. 

2. Blow into a glass of lime water 
through a glass tube or the stem of a 
clay pipe. The lime water will 
become milky from the cause ex- 
plained above, because we breathe 
out carbonic acid gas from the lungs. 
A stream of air blown" into lime 
water from a bellows will not make 
it milky, unless the room is very 
close and a good many people have 
been breathing in it. 

3. Carbonic acid is so much 
heavier than air that it will remain in 
an uncovered jar. Into a jar of it 
dip a lighted match, bit of burning 
paper, or lighted candle. Each will 
be put out, as if by water. 

4. Place a lighted candle in an 
empty glass and put it out by pour- 
ing a glass of carbonic acid over it. 

5. Pour carbonic acid into a wide 
mouthed jar or deep preserve dish, 
nearly filling it. Blow a soap bubble, 
throw it into the jar or dish and it 
will float on the gas. 

6. Fasten to a wire a piece of 
MAGNESIUM ribbon about six inches 
long, light it, and put it into a jar of 
carbonic acid. It will not be put out 
but will burn, leaving a quantity of 
white and black flakes in the jar. 
The white are magnesium oxide. 
The black are carbon from the car- 
bonic acid. 

7. Arrange a wire stand for sev- 
eral candles, one above the other. 
Light them and cover them with a 
tall jar. The candles will burn dim 
and then go out, the top one first, 
and then the others, one by one. 
Carbonic acid is formed by their 
burning, but it is so hot that instead 
of being heavier than air as when 
cold, it is lighter, and rising to the 
top puts out the upper candles first. 

8. Collect the breath over water 
by blowing through a tube, into a 
jar, arranged as described under 
CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS. Place 
a piece of glass over the mouth of 
the jar and then, turning it right side 



CARBONIC ACID 



CARDS, AND CARD-GAMES 



up, set it on a table. A taper may 
now be extinguished by lowering it 
into the jar, or any of the experi- 
ments performed with gas made 
from marble and sulphuric acid may 
be repeated. 

9. Pour into a flask or large bottle 
a strong solution of caustic soda, 
filling about one quarter of it. On 
this carefully pour pure water, letting 
it run down the inside of the flask, so 
that it will float in a thin layer on 
the soda. Instead of water one may 
use kerosene oil, which does not re- 
quire care in pouring, as it cannot 
help floating. Make carbonic acid 
gas, as described above, and fill the 
rest of the bottle with it. Have 
ready a cork, pierced by a tube 
having an empty toy balloon attached 
to the lower end. When the bottle 
is full of the carbonic acid, insert the 
cork so chat the balloon is within the 
flask. Then shake the flask, so as 
to disturb the layer of water or oil 
and bring the gas into contact with 
the soda. The balloon will at once 
become distended and may even 
burst, if the bottle is large enough. 
The reason is that caustic soda ab- 
sorbs carbonic acid very readily, and 
the outside air rushes into the bal- 
loon to fill the place of the absorbed 
gas. 

10. Make a solution of carbonic 
acid gas, by passing it into water, and 
put some freshly gathered leaves into 
a flask of it. Stand the flask upside 
down, in a shallow dish of water, 
and set it in bright sunlight. Little 
bubbles will be seen to form on the 
leaves and rise from them gradually 
until they collect in the upper part of 
the flask. After a clay or so, place a 
piece of glass under the mouth of 
the flask and turn it right side up. 
The gas collected is oxygen, as will 
be seen by ligh'ing a splinter, blow- 
ing it out so as to leave a glowing 
coal, and then dipping it into the 
mouth of the flask. The oxygen 
came from the leaves, which take in 
carbonic acid and breathe out oxy- 
gen, just as we take in oxygen and 



breathe out carbonic acid. (See 
PLANTS in C. C. T.) 

ii. On some bits of marble in the 
bottom of a glass jar, pour sulphuric 
or hydrochloric acid. Carbonic acid 
will be made which will rise and fill 
the jar, driving out the air and over- 
flowing gently like water. The room 
should be very still. Lower a candle 
which has been lighted for some 
time into the jar. If this is done 
carefully the vapor from the wick 
will continue to burn for a few 
seconds above the surface of the 
heavy gas, though the flame on the 
wick itself is put out. By quickly 
raising the candle it can be lighted 
again. 

CARDINAL'S HAT, THE. A 
game played by any number of per- 
sons, who take the names of Red- 
cap, Blue-cap, Yellow-cap, etc. A 
player who takes the part of the Car- 
dinal accuses one of them of stealing 
his cap, when the following dialogue 
ensues : 

Player. "Not I, sir." 
Cardinal. " Yes, you, sir." 
Player. " Not I, sir." 
Cardinal. " Who then, sir ? " 
Player. " Yellow-cap, sir," 
giving the assumed name of any 
player he chooses, who is then in turn 
accused by the Cardinal. If any one 
name a color not chosen by any 
player he must pay a forfeit. Some- 
times a piece of wood, representing 
the hat, is actually hidden, and the 
Cardinal tries to find where it is by 
rapping the fingers of each player 
with his cane. 

A similar game to this, called 
" The Abbot of St. Gall has lost his 
nightcap," is played by children in 
Switzerland, and an old English 
game called " The Parson has lost 
his fuddling cap " was also probably 
like it. 

CARDS AND CARD-GAMES, 
Cards used in playing card-games 
are printed on sheets of cardboard, 
which are afterward cut apart. Their 
manufacture is described in the Cyclo* 
paedia of Common Things. They 



CARD-GAMES 



141 



CARDGAMES 



are usually made rectangular, though 
sometimes with rounded corners, 
and are generally 3^ inches long, by 
2^ inches wide. They are put up in 
collections of fifty-two cards each, 
which, taken together, are commonly 
called a pack (Italian pacco, a packet) 
of cards. In some parts of the 
southern United States, however, a 
pack is still called a deck of cards, 
the term used in England two or 
three centuries ago, which had its 
origin probably from the fact that 
the cards are piled regularly one 
over another (the word deck being 
from the Anglo-Saxon decan, to 
cover). Shakespeare uses the word 



in King Henry VI. (Part in., Act v., 
sc. i), where he says, 

" The king was slyly finger'd from the deck." 

While a full pack of cards al- 
ways consists, in America and in 
England, of fifty-two cards, smaller 
packs, for playing special games, 
are sometimes put up. Thus, a 
Euchre, Ecarte, Piquet, Bezique or 
Pinocle pack contains only thirty- 
two cards, the twos, threes, fours, 
fives, and sixes of each suit being 
left out. In the United States an 
extra card, sometimes blank and 
sometimes printed with a suitable 
device, called the Joker or Imperial 







i. The Sun. 



2. Time. 



3. Tower Struck 4. Last Judgment, 

by Lightning. 



Cards of Charles VI. 



Trump, is generally put into each 
Euchre pack, making thirty-three. 
It is frequently added also to each 
full pack, making fifty-three in all ; 
but as this card is used only occa- 
sionally, it is not considered as be- 
longing to a pack, and in this book 
a pack of cards is always understood 
to mean fifty-two cards. 

The cards in every pack are divided 
into four groups of thirteen, called 
suits (because in each they follow in 
regular order), each of which is dis- 
tinguished by a special mark or sym- 
bol. Two of these suit-marks, or 
symbols, called Hearts and Dia- 
monds, are red ; and two, Clubs and 



Spades, are black. The origin of 
their names will be explained under 
the history of cards. In each suit, 
three cards the King, the Queen, 
and the Knave, or Jack are picture 
cards, called face, figure, or court 
cards, and sometimes also honors. 
The other ten are numeral cards, 
called pip, point, or spot cards, be- 
cause they are marked by pips, or 
spots, numbering from one up to 
ten. The card with one spot or pip 
is called the Ace, and the Two-spot 
and the Three-spot are sometimes 
called respectively the Deuce and the 
Tray ; but ordinarily the cards are 
named as in the following table : 



CARD-GAMES 



142 



CARD-GAMES 



RED SUITS. BLACK SUITS. 
Hearts. Diamonds. Clubs. Spades. 



Ace - - - 




Four 



Three - - 



Two 



The Ace of Spades has generally 
on it the name and address of the 
manufacturer, and in England, where 
the government taxes cards, a stamp, 
showing that the tax has been paid, 
is also put upon it. In some 
countries the Ace of Diamonds is the 
stamp card. If the value of the 
cards followed their natural order, 
the King would be the highest card, 
and the Ace the lowest ; but in 
Whist the Ace is lowest only in cut- 
ting, and outranks the King in play- 
ing, and in other games it has differ- 
ent values. In Cribbage only, is the 
Ace the lowest card in playing. In 
some games the Tray is the best 
card, and in others, the Five-spot, the 
Ten-spot, etc. These variations in 
the value of cards have much to do 
with the differences in games. 

CUSTOMS AND TERMS. 

In almost all card games, certain 
customs and terms are common. 
These are described here to avoid 
repetition, and are not explained in 
the article on any particular game, 
unless they differ, in that game, from 
the ordinary rule. 

Shuffling, the mixing of the cards 
before playing a game. This is usu- 
ally done by the dealer, who holds 
part of the pack loosely in one hand, 
and slides in the rest of the cards 
with the other, so as to mix them 
thoroughly. Expert players have 
other ways of shuffling, which may 
be learned by practice. Each 
player has a right to shuffle, if he 
chooses, before the dealer, but it is 
generally done by the dealer only. 
The cards should be shuffled before 
each deal. 

Cutting, the dividing of the pack 
by one of the opposite players, so as 
to insure a fair deal. After shuffling, 
the dealer lays the pack near his 
right-hand neighbor, who lifts off 
part of the cards, and places them 
on the table beside the rest of the 
pack. The dealer then puts the re- 
mainder upon the part lifted off, 
and takes up again all the cards, 



CARD-GAMES 



CARD-GAMES 



which are then ready for dealing. 
In cutting, at least as many cards as 
there are players must be lifted, and 
at least that number must be left in 
the pack. The dealer has no right 
to shuffle again after the cards have 
been cut. As cutting was originally 
an attempt to prevent cheating, it 
may be omitted in many games, 
though any of the players has a 
right to demand it. Sometimes the 
person to whom the pack is offered 
for cutting, taps it with his finger, 
meaning that he is willing to omit 
the cut. 

Dealing. The distribution of the 
cards to the players is called dealing; 
and he who distributes them is called 
the dealer. The dealer must be 



selected before either shuffling or 
cutting. This is usually done by 
cutting for deal ; that is, each player 
lifts part of the pack, showing the 
bottom card of what he has lifted, 
and he whose card wins has the 
right to deal. In some games the 
lowest and in others the highest card 
cut determines the deal, and in some 
the value of the cards in cutting 
differs from that in playing. In- 
stead of cutting for deal a card may 
be given to each player, face upward ; 
he that has the winning card be- 
coming the dealer. In some games 
the cards are dealt one by one till 
some particular one appears, and the 
player to whom that card falls is 
dealer. Any one of these methods 




5. Emperor. 



6. Empress. 



Naibis. 



7. Pope. 



8. Hermit. 



may be adopted in any game, by 
agreement. 

When the cards have been shuffled 
and cut, the dealer takes the pack 
in his left hand, and with his right 
gives one or more at a time (accord- 
ing to the game) to each player in 
regular order, beginning with the 
one at his left. In some games all 
the cards are dealt, in others part of 
the pack is left. The deal is an ad- 
vantage in games where the trump 
card is part of the dealer's hand, as 
will be explained below, and in some 
other games for special reasons. 
The cards are usually dealt several 
times in the course of a game, and 
each player deals in turn, the deal 



around the table to the 



passing 
left. 

Misdeal, a mistake made in deal- 
ing. In most games the cards are 
divided equally, so that the dealer 
gives the last one to himself. If the 
last card falls to any one else, he has 
made a misdeal. When any player 
discovers that he has not the proper 
number of cards, or when any of his 
cards are dealt to him face upward, 
he may demand a fresh deal. In 
games where the deal is an advan- 
tage the dealer is usually punished 
for his mistake by giving it to his 
left-hand neighbor, but in other 
games the same player usually deals 
after a misdeal. 



CARD-GAMES 



144 



CARD-GAMES 



Hand. The cards that are dealt 
to each player are called his hand, 
and those that are left, if any, are 
named the stock, or talon. Where 
the hands are large it is better for 
each player to arrange his cards by 
suits, but this should be done so as 
to avoid giving his opponents any 
information. When each has played 
all his cards, a hand is said to have 
been played, and there is a new deal. 

Trump. In most card games, 
after the deal, the dealer turns face 
upward a card, which is called the 
trump-card, or trump. Sometimes 
this is the last card dealt, in which 



case it forms part of the dealer's hand, 
and may be taken up with his other 
cards, after one round has been 
played. Sometimes it is the top card 
of the stock, or is taken from the 
middle of the stock, and in some 
games one of the players, usually the 
dealer, is allowed to exchange one 
of his cards for the trump card. 
Cards of the same suit as the trump 
are called trumps, and usually rank 
above those of other suits. Thus, 
the lowest trump is a higher card 
than an Ace or King of any other suit. 
When the Joker is used, it is always 
a trump, and is the highest card in 







9. Seven of Cups. 10. Seven of Swords. n. Seven of Money. 12. Seven of Clubs. 

Italian Cards. 



the pack. In some games, one or 
more cards of other suits are re- 
garded as belonging to the trump 
suit, as is explained in the articles 
on those games. All but the trump 
suit are called lay suits, and a card 
of any such suit a lay card. 

Playing. After the trump has 
been turned and each player has 
arranged his cards, the one on the 
dealer's left, who is called the eldest 
hand, plays one of his cards face 
upward, and each player follows in 
order, to the left, until all have 
played. The cards so played are 



called a trick, and the one who plays 
the first card in the trick is said to 
have the lead, and is called the 
leader. In most games each must 
play, if he can, a card of the same suit 
as the leader ; this is called follow- 
ing suit. If he cannot follow suit 
he may play what he pleases, which 
is often called renouncing, and if he 
then chooses to play a trump, it is 
called trumping or ruffing. If he 
renounce when he is able to follow 
suit, it is called revoking. The 
player making a revoke may be pun- 
ished for his offense in various ways. 



CARD-GAMES 



145 



CARD-GAMES 



In some games a player is allowed to 
trump even if he can follow suit. 
The trick is the property of the one 
playing the highest card of the suit 
led, unless one or more players 
trump, in which case the highest 
trump played takes the trick. The 
player taking the trick then has the 
lead for the next one. Each keeps 
his tricks in a pile near him, face 
downward. 

Discarding. In some games a 
player is required or allowed to re- 
move one or more cards from his 
hand. This is called discarding. 
The discarded cards are usually 



placed either in or under the stock, 
or by themselves, face downward. 

Score. Each player must keep 
count of the number of points he 
has made, which is called keeping 
score. The points are determined 
differently in different games. Some- 
times they are so few and so easily 
remembered that each can keep 
score mentally, but pencil and paper 
are usually required. In some 
games score is kept with two cards, 
by placing one partly over the other, 
so as to show a number of pips cor- 
responding to the points won. Score 
cards of several different kinds can 







13. Seven of Cups. 



14. Seven of Swords. 15. Seven of Money. 
Spanish Cards. 



16. Seven of Clubs. 



be bought, some of which are for 
use in one particular game, and 
others in various games. In some 
games score is kept by means of 
counters or "chips," which are usu- 
ally round flat pieces of ivory, bone, 
or celluloid. 

Four counters, or chips, are some- 
times used for scoring up to ten 
points, being arranged as shown 
below. It will be noted that a single 
counter placed at the top always 
counts three, but at the bottom five. 



o 

oo 
ooo 
o o o o 

o 

O 

o 
ooo 



9 

10 



00 


ooo 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

00 

o 



For the numbers from ten to 



twenty an oblong counter is some- 
times laid above the others, thus: 




000 

and so on. 

Partners. In many card games 
each player wins or loses by himself, 
but in many others, where there are 
four players, two play against two, 
and in a few this is the only way of 
playing. Those who play together 
are called partners, and sit opposite 
each other. Only one score is kept 
for the two, and their tricks are 
placed in the same pile, for they win 
or lose together. 

Partners are sometimes decided 
on by cutting, the two who cut 



CARD-GAMES 



146 



CARD-GAMES 



the highest cards playing together 
against the other two. 

HISTORY OF CARDS. 

Playing cards were probably first 
made in Italy in the I4th century. 
The Chinese say that they were 
invented in the reign of their em- 
peror, Se-un-ho, in 1120, and some 
European writers have tried to prove 
that they were first brought into 
Europe from India by the Gipsies, 
while others have asserted that 
they were introduced into Spain by 
the Moors, but there is no positive 
evidence to support any of these 
theories. The common story that 
they were invented in 1392 for the 



amusement of the French king, 
Charles VI., grew out of a record, 
found among the royal accounts, of 
a payment made to a painter for 
" three packs of cards in gold and 
various colors, and ornamented with 
several devices, to carry before the 
lord our king for his amusement." 
But this shows that cards were then 
well known, rather than that they 
were then first made, and that these 
were special ones painted finer than 
usual for the personal use of the king. 
Some cards, said to be part of one 
of these packs, are preserved in the 
Paris Library (see I, 2, 3, 4), but the 
best authorities consider them Vene- 
tian cards of the I5th century. 




17. Seven of Hearts. 18. Seven of Leaves. 19. Seven of Bells. 

German Cards. 



20. Seven of Acorns. 



It is now generally conceded by 
the latest writers on the subject, that 
cards originated in Italy (probably in 
Venice) about 1350. The first packs 
were probably wholly of figure or 
picture cards, containing no numeral 
or pip-cards, and were purely em- 
blematic that is, representing some 
person or symbol. These cards, 
called Naibis (a term supposed by 
some to be derived from the Arabs, 
and still preserved in the Spanish 
name for cards, naypes), had noth- 
ing to do with games of chance, but 
were intended for instructive amuse- 
ment, like the game of Authors and 
many similar games played by young 
folks to-day. Some of the writers of 



that century prohibit the playing by 
children of Dice and other games of 
hazard, but recommend Naibis. 
These Naibis, or emblematic cards, 
differed somewhat, according to time 
and country, but generally were 
partly of full-length figures, illustra- 
tive of some corrdition of life, such 
as an Emperor, an Empress, a Pope, 
a Hermit (5, 6, 7, 8),) and partly of 
symbolic designs, such as the World, 
the Sun, the Moon, a Tower struck 
by Lightning, the Last Judgment, etc, 
as in those of Charles VI. Each 
one had at the top a number in Ro- 
man numerals, and at the bottom, 
below the design, its name, generally 
in French. Exactly how many Nai- 



CARD-GAMES 



147 



CARD-GAMES 



bis were in a pack originally is not 
known, but the number probably 
differed at different times. 

Toward the end of the I4th cen- 
tury it is supposed that these instruc- 
tive cards were adapted, by certain 
changes, to the use of older persons, 
in the hope of restraining them from 
playing Dice and other games of haz- 
ard. Part of the original Naibis be- 
ing selected, certain other cards, in- 
tended to teach a moral lesson, such 
as Death, Temperance, the Devil, 
and the Last Judgment, were added, 
making the whole number of such 
cards 22. To these were added 56 
other cards, divided into four suits 
of fourteen cards each, each suit 
made up of four picture or coat-cards 
(corrupted into court-cards), repre- 
senting a King, a Queen, a Cavalier, 
and a Valet, or man-servant, and of 
ten numeral, or pip-cards,' numbered 
from one to ten. These additions 
made the full pack consist of 78 
cards, divided into five suits, the 22 
Naibis forming a suit by themselves, 
superior to the other four suits. For 
this reason they were sometimes 
called also atuttt (French atouts, 
above all), and trionfi (French trz- 
omp/ie.i, triumphs), from which comes 
our word trumps. The pack of cards 
thus made was called by the Italians 
Tarocchi, because used to play the 
game of that name, and by the 
French Tarots. 

The use of cards spread rapidly 
throughout Europe, but different peo- 
ple soon began to alter the mode 
of combining them and their sym- 
bols, according to their own notions. 
In Florence, the number of emblem- 
atic cards was increased to 41, mak- 
ing 97 in all. In Bologna, the pack 
was reduced to 62, and finally the 
first of the five suits, the emblematic 
cards, was thrown out altogether and 
one coat-card, or honor, was dropped 
from each of the remaining suits, 
making the pack 52, the number now 
generally in use. The coat-card 
generally omitted was the Cavalier, 
but the Spaniards, who would not 



allow the figure of a lady on their 
cards, dropped the Queen, and the 
Germans sometimes kept an upper 
and a lower Knave in place of the 
Queen and Knave. The Spaniards 
also threw out the four Ten-spots, 
making the pack to consist of but 48 
cards. In the early cards, the figures 
on the honors bore some resemblance 
to the persons they were intended to 
represent, but about the reign of 
Henry VII. of England, they began to 
take the grotesque forms which have 
since been most popular. Most 
English and American cards still 
show the costumes of Henry VII. 
and Henry VIII., though the full 
length figures have mostly given 
place to busts, printed double, and 
in reverse, on each honor, that the 
card may be the more easily known, 
whichever way it may be thrown on 
the table. Attempts to produce a 
better type of figures on cards have 
generally met with failure, as most 
card players prefer the ancient style. 
Toward the latter part of the I5th 
century, the French began to name 
the Kings, Queens, and Knaves on 
their cards, giving them historic or 
legendary titles, such as La Pucelle, 
(The Maid, that is Joan of Arc), 
the Dukes of Burgundy and Nor- 
mandy, etc., and Helen, Venus, La 
Sybille, etc. About the time of 
Henri IV., the Kings were generally 
called David, Alexander, Caesar, and 
Charlemagne ; the Queens, Rachel, 
Argine, Pallas, and Judith ; and the 
Knaves, Hector, Lancelot, Roland, 
and Hogier ; and these names were 
afterward generally employed until 
the custom ceased. At the time of 
the French Revolution, when royalty 
was discarded, the signs of royalty 
were removed from the French 
cards ; the Kings were replaced by 
sages and philosophers, the Queens 
by emblematic figures of virtues and 
liberties, and the Knaves by warriors 
or Roman heroes. Napoleon had 
these changed for artistic designs 
by the painter David, but after the 
Emperor's downfall the people pre- 



CARD-GAMES 



148 



CARD-GAMES 



ferred to go back to the old style. 
Other attempts, in later times, to 
make cards vehicles of information, 
to teach arithmetic, grammar, geog- 
raphy, history, mythology, etc., have 
also failed. 

The signs or marks of the four 
suits of cards have varied in different 
countries. The earliest used in 
Italy were coppe (cups, 9), spade 



(swords, 10), denart (money, 11), 
and bastoni (clubs, 12). These were 
called by the Spaniards copas (cups, 
13), espadas (swords, 14), oros or 
dineros (money, 15), and bastos 
(clubs, 16). The Germans early 
employed other marks ; herzen or 
roth (hearts, 17), laub or griin 
(leaves, 18), schellen (bells, 19), and 
eicheln \acorns, 20). The French, 





23. Oamel. 



Hindoo Cards. 



24. Horse. 



during the second quarter of the 
1 5th century, adopted the signs 
of cceurs (hearts), carreaux (dia- 
monds), trtfles (trefoils), and piques 
(pikes). The trtfles were taken 
probably from the German eicheln 
or acorns, which they somewhat 
resemble ; &&& piques from the Ger- 
man grun, or leaves, though they 



got their names from a fancied re- 
semblance to a pike head. These 
marks have since been generally 
adopted by all other nations, except- 
ing the Spaniards, who still use the 
old Italian marks. Other symbols 
have, however, been in vogue at 
different times, the Germans, about 
the beginning of the I5th century, 



CARD-GAMES 



H9 



CARD-GAMES 



using animals, flowers, fruit, etc. 
One old German set has for suit 
marks dogs, falcons, stags, and 
ducks ; another, rabbits, parroquets, 
pinks, and columbines ; and a third, 
lions, monkeys, parrots, and pea- 
cocks. In 1862, during the Civil 
War in the United States, cards 
were printed in New York with 
eagles, shields, flags, and stars for 
suit marks, and a colonel, the God- 
dess of Liberty, and a major, for 
King, Queen, and Knave. The 
English seem to have adopted all the 
French suit marks together with 
the French names for the two red 
suits, but to have taken the Italian or 
Spanish names for the two black 
suits, calling trefles clubs, a transla- 
tion of the Italian bastoni or the 
Spanish bastos ; and piques spades, 
which is derived from spade or es- 
padas, the Italian and Spanish words 
for swords. 

Cards were at first made much 
larger than now, some of the early 
German ones being seven by four 
inches. They were, too, sometimes 
made square, and sometimes circu- 
lar. Hindoo and Persian cards are 
often circular, about 2^ inches in di- 
ameter, though those used in Tehe- 
ran are generally of the European 
size and shape. Hindoo cards are 
sometimes of eight suits of twelve 
each and sometimes of ten suits of 
twelve each. The suit marks are 
birds, swords, suns, moons, etc. 
(21, 22, 23, 34). Persian cards have 
generally 96 in the pack, with suns, 
moons, harps, sabres, etc., for suit 
marks. Chinese cards are long and 
narrow, from 2^ to 2 inches long by 
I to \\ wide (25, 26). They are 
printed with black ink on thin white 
cardboard, and the backs are black, 
red, or plain white. Japanese cards 
are much like the Chinese, differing 
only in their marks. 

The earliest card game played is 
supposed to have been Tarocchi, in- 
vented at Venice, played with 78 
cards, called from it Tarocchi cards, 
or. in French, Tarots. This was 



followed by the Florentine game of 
Minchtata, played with 97 cards; 
by the Bolognese game of Taroc- 
chino, with 62 cards, and by the 
Venetian game of Trappola, with 40 
cards. Frusso (Flush), Bassetta, 
and Primtera, were also other early 
Italian games. Primiera, called in 
Spain and England Primero, and in 
France Prime and Ambtgu, was the 
ancestor of our Brag and Poker. In 
Germany, one of the earliest games 
played was Landsknecht spiel (Foot- 
soldiers'-game), called in French 
Lansquenet. The oldest Spanish 
game is probably Ombre (Hombre, 
man), called Omber in England, 
where, as well as in France, it was 





25. Court Card. 26. Pip Card. 

Chinese Cards. 

once much played. There were 
many modifications of it, among 
them Quadrille and Solitaire. Eng- 
land has no national game of cards, 
unless Whist may be so considered, 
the games played there being de- 
rived from Italy, Spain, or France. 
Primero, one of the earliest, was 
fashionable from the reign of Henry 
VIII. to that of James I. It was suc- 
ceeded by a game called Mauve ; 
then came Gleek, Omber, Quadrille, 
Reversis, and Bassett ; and finally 
Ruff, and Honors, which, about 
1650, led to Whist. The card games 



CASINO 



ISO 



CASINO 



usually played now are described in 
special articles in this book. 

CASINO, or Cassino, a game of 
CARDS played best by four persons, 
but sometimes by two, three, five, 
six, or even more. The players may 
be divided into two sides, or play 
each for himself. The dealer deals 
from a full pack four cards, one at a 
time, to each player and lays four 
more face upward on the table, either 
as he deals or all at once. When 
the players' cards are gone, four 
more are dealt to each one until the 
pack is used up, but none are put on 
the table except at the first deal. 
The leader (or elder hand) can take 
not only all cards of the same value, 
among those on the table, but also 
any cards the number of whose 
spots, added together, equals his. 
Thus a Nine will take not only all 
other Nines on the table, but at the 
same time a Five and a Four ; a Six 
and a Three ; a Seven and a Two : 
an Eight and an Ace ; a Four, a 
Three, and a Two ; or any other 
cards which will make nine when 
their spots are added. Face cards 
can take only corresponding face 
cards. If the leader has no card that 
will take anything, he must lay some 
card on the table, but if he has left 
in his hand a card that will take the 
card laid down, in connection with 
others on the table, he can make a 
pile of the cards he is able to take, 
at the same time announcing to the 
other players with what card he 
means to take them at a subsequent 
time, though not necessarily his next 
turn. If the cards so piled form a 
single group it is called " building," 
if several groups, it is " calling," or 
duplicating. Thus if a player com- 
bine a Six from his hand with a Two 
and an Ace on the table, and say 
" Nine," it is only a "build," but if 
he include in the pile a Nine-spot on 
the table or another group the sum 
of whose spots is nine, he must say 
" Nines " (using the plural) and it is 
a "call." The cards of neither a 
build nor a call can be taken separ- 



ately by pairing, but an adversary 
may raise a build in amount by the 
addition of another card, while a call 
cannot be raised. A call must be 
taken by the card it represents, either 
alone or with other similar piles. 
The second player may likewise take 
what he can with his card, or build, 
or call, remembering in either case 
that a build can always be treated 
like a single card, while a call can- 
not. 

If he can do none of these things 
he must lay down a card with the 
others. The players in turn have 
the same choice till the pack is ex- 
hausted. When the pack has been 
played, he who takes the last trick 
takes also the rest of the cards on 
the table. Each player then counts 
his points according to the table 
given below : 
Big Casino (the Ten of Diamonds) 

counts 2 

Little Casino (the Two of Spades) I 

Each Ace I 

The greatest number of Cards . 3 
The greatest number of Spades . i 

Besides this, when a player has 
taken all the cards on the board at 
once (except at the end of the game) 
it is called a sweep, and counts I. 
A sweep is generally marked by 
facing or turning over one of the 
cards in the pile of tricks belonging 
to the player who makes it, so that, 
when the points are counted at the 
end of the hand, there is no trouble 
in remembering it. 

The person or side first making 
ten points usually wins the game ; 
but when only two persons or sides 
are playing, the count is sometimes 
made by giving to him who makes 
the greatest number of points in a 
hand only the difference between his 
points and those of his opponent, 
while the latter scores nothing ; thus, 
if A has 8 and B has 5, A scores 3 
and B nothing; while if they are 
equal, neither scores. If three play 
in this way, the two lowest add their 
points and subtract their sum from 
the highest, and no one scores when 



CAT 



CAT 



this sum equals or exceeds the 
highest. The game is made longer 
by counting thus, but it can hardly 
be done when more than three are 
playing separately, as usually no one 
could score. 

In playing Casino, when no card 
on the table can be taken it is best to 
lay down face cards. These are of 
the least use in one's own hand and 
the hardest to take on the table, 
since no combinations can be made 
with them. Care should be taken in 
laying down an ace, for in taking it 
with another ace your opponent wins 
two points for the final count at 
once, and it is also the easiest card 
to combine. It would be better even 
to lay down Big Casino, for that can 
be taken only by a ten. After the 
learner has played the game once or 
twice other suggestions will soon 
offer themselves. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The tricks must not be examined 
nor counted before all the cards are 
played. 

2. If the dealer show a card before 
any of the four in the middle are 
dealt, or if he dealt too many or too 
few cards to any one, he must deal 
again. 

History. The word casino is 
Italian and means little house. Club 
houses where people meet for amuse- 
ment are often called casinos, and 
this game may have been so named 
because it was a favorite at such 
places. 

Kapak, or Russian Casino. In 
this form of the game the Knave 
counts ii, the Queen 12 and the 
King 13. There is no "building." 
Sweeps are called " Kapaks," and 
Big Casino and Little Casino are 
called respectively the " Good Ten " 
and " Good Two." Clubs count 
instead of Spades, as in ordinary 
Casino, and the " Good Two " (Little 
Casino) is the Two of Clubs. In all 
other respects Kapak is played like 
ordinary Casino. 

CAT, a game played by any num- 
ber of persons with a piece of wood 



called a Cat. The Cat is a piece of 
wood about six inches long and \y z 
or 2 inches thick, sharpened at both 
ends. If it is laid either on level ground 
or with one end projecting over a 
hole, and the end be struck down 
quickly with a bat, it will rise in the 
air, twirling, 
and may then 
be struck away 
The Cat. with the bat. 

The game may 

be played in various ways. In the 
simplest, a large ring is made and 
one player, standing within it, strikes 
the cat as described above. If it fall 
within the ring, he is out and another 
player takes his place. If it fall out- 
side he guesses how many lengths of 
the stick it is from the center of the 
ring. The distance is then measured, 
and if it is less than his guess, he is out; 
but if not, he scores that number of 
points and has another turn. After 
as many rounds as have been agreed 
upon, the player scoring the most 
points wins. 

Another way of playing is to make 
as many holes in the ground as there 
are players on a side ; the holes are 
made as nearly as possible in a circle 
and at equal distances. A player, with 
a bat, stands at each hole, and all 
the players on the other side stand 
ouside the circle. One of the bats- 
men strikes the Cat, and then all run 
around the circle. Every time they 
reach new holes the side scores one 
run. The next player in order then 
strikes the Cat, and so on. But if a 
player on the other side can throw 
the Cat between any two holes be- 
fore the player who has left one of 
them reaches the other, the runner 
is out, and when one or more play- 
ers are out (whichever has been 
agreed) the sides change places. 
When each side has been at the bat 
the number of times previously agreed 
upon, the game is ended, and the side 
that has made most runs wins. 

This game is very old. It was 
known to the Venetians in the i6th 
century. It is a common sport also 



CAT'S CRADLE 



152 



CAT'S CRADLE 



in Hindostan, where it is called 
Gulli Danda. It may have been 
taken to India by Venetian traders. 
CAT'S CRADLE, a game played 
by two persons with a string, four or 
five feet long, whose ends are tied 
together. The string, which is held 




Fig. i. 



on the hands of one of the players, is 
removed by the other, and so on al- 
ternately ; it assuming a different form 
each time. Some of the variations, of 
which there are many, are shown in 




Fig. 2. 

the illustrations. The player who 
begins holds his hands in front of him 
with the palms toward each other, and 
the string passing around the backs. 
He then takes a turn around the 




Fig. 3- 

string with each hand so that it also 
passes across each palm. He then 
passes the middle finger of his right 



hand under the part that crosses the 
opposite palm, and pulls it back as 
represented in Fig. I. After he has 
done the same thing with the left 
middle finger, the string appears as 




Fig. 4- 

in Fig. 2. The second player now 
seizes the upper strings, with the fin- 
ger and thumb of each hand, as 
shown in Fig. 3, pulls them over the 
outside string, and pushing them up 




Fig. 5- 

inside, takes the strings off in the 
shape shown in Fig 4. Other varia- 
tions are shown in the illustrations 
which follow. Each is made from 
some previous arrangement by one 




Fig. 6. 



player's taking the string from the 
hands of the other. The proper 
way of doing this may be studied 
out by the learner, who may also 



CATCH THE TEN 



153 



CAYENNE 



invent many of new figures to suit 
himself. The different arrangements 
are often called by special names. 
In Germany some of them are " The 
Single Cross." " The Double Cross." 
" The Water " and " The Violin." 
History. This game, which is 




Fig. 7. 

probably of great antiquity, is found 
in nearly all parts of the world. 
The Dyaks, or natives of Borneo, are 
very skillful at it, making many kinds 
of puzzling figures, and the Maoris 
of New Zealand are also fond of it. 
The latter call it Mam', the name of 




Fig. 8. 

their national hero, by whom they 
say it was invented. Its various pat- 
terns represent incidents in Mani's 
life, and other events, forming a kind 
of pictorial history of the country. 

CATCH THE TEN, or Scotch 
Whist, a game of CARDS played by 
two to eight persons with a pack 
from which the Twos, Threes, Fours, 
and Fives are omitted. If it is nec- 
essary, one or more of the Sixes may 
also be left out, that the cards may 
be equally divided. The cards rank 
as in Whist, except in the trump 
suit, where the Knave is higher than 
the Ace. When two persons play, 
three hands of six cards are dealt to 
each, which must be kept separate 
and played in the order in which 
they are dealt. When three play, 
two hands are dealt to each in like 



manner. When more than this num- 
ber play, each is dealt one hand, the 
cards being divided evenly. In all 
cases the last card is turned for 
trump. Six persons may play in two 
partnerships of three each or three of 
two each ; and eight may form two 
sides of four each or four of two 
each. The players must sit so that 
no two on the same side are together. 
The cards are played as in WHIST. 
Each card above the party's share in 
the tricks taken scores one toward 
game. Thus, if three are playing 
each one's share of cards is 12, and 
if one of them takes 5 tricks (15 cards) 
he scores three points. In like man- 
ner, if four are playing, two against 
two, and one side take 6 tricks (24 
cards) they score 6, the share of the 
party being 18. In addition, the five 
highest trumps count for those who 
take them as follows : 

Knave, n 

Ace, 4 

King 3 

Queen, 2 

Ten, 10 

It will thus be seen that the prin- 
cipal object of the game, aside from 
making tricks, is to take the one con- 
taining the Ten of Trumps, for the 
Knave, being the highest card, can- 
not be taken from its owner. 

Hence the name " Catch the Ten." 
He who has the Ten should try to 
save it by playing it on a trick already 
taken by his partner, or by trumping 
with it. If a player have the two 
highest trumps, he should lead them, 
in hope of catching the Ten, or of 
enabling his partner to save it. In 
other respects the rules for playing 
are similar to those of Whist. If a 
player revoke, his side loses the game. 
CAYENNE, a game of CARDS, 
played by four persons, two against 
two, with a full pack. The cards 
are dealt as in WHIST, and the dealer, 
after turning the last as trump, de- 
cides which of four games shall be 
played. These are called respec- 
tively, " In Suits," "Grandissimo," 
" Cayenne," and " Nullissimo." The 



THE CENTAUR 



154 



CENTRIFUGAL FORCE 



game In Suits is like WHIST except 
that the dealer turns clown the trump 
card and makes a new trump, and 
every trick more than six counts 2 
points. In the Cayenne game the 
turned trump is retained and the odd 
tricks count 4 each. In the Grand- 
issimo game there is no trump, and 
the odd tricks count 6 each. 

Nullissimo is like Grandissimo ex- 
cept that the object is not to take 
tricks, and the odd tricks count 4 
apiece to the opposite side. The 
Ace, King, Queen, Knave, and Ten 
are called Honors. Three Honors 
count 2, Four Honors 4, and Two 
Honors 6. It will be seen that the 
more difficult the game the more 
valuable are the tricks. If the dealer 
has a long suit and knows he can 
get the lead, he will probably choose 
to play Grandissimo. If he has a 
very poor hand he will choose Nul- 
lissimo. 

CENTAUR, THE, a diversion in 
which two boys or men personate a 
Centaur, a creature of Greek mythol- 




Fig. i. The Centaur. 



ogy, half man and half horse. One 
player stands erect, and the other, 
behind him, bends his body so that 
his back is horizontal, and holds 
the first player's hips with his hands, 
as in Fig. i. A table-cover or shawl 
is thrown over the second player and 
pinned around the waist of the first, 



and a tail, like a horse's, is made of 
strips of cloth or paper and pinned 
to the shawl in the rear. The Cen- 
taur should hold a bow and arrow in 
his hand, and have a cloak thrown 
loosely over his shoulder and over 
one arm, while the other is bare (See 
Fig. 2). Two Centaurs may engage 




Fig. 2. The Centaur. 

in a combat, but this requires some 
practice. There should be signals 
arranged between the front and rear 
performer, so that the latter will 
know what to do, and the two should 
also practise the ordinary paces of 
the horse, such as walking, trotting, 
and galloping. Imitation hoofs of 
pasteboard may be made and fast- 
ened over the shoes. 

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE, Experi- 
ments on^ i. Tie a stone or any 
other heavy object to the end of an 
elastic cord and swing it around in a 
circle by the other end of the cord. 
The cord will be stretched. The 
reason is that the stone strives to 
move in a straight line ; the cord 
confines it to a circle, hence the stone 
stretches the cord in its effort to get 
away. This outward pull exerted 
by the stone is generally called cen- 
trifugal force (Latin centriim, centre, 
and fitgo, to fly). Let go the cord 
and the stone will fly off as if it had 
been thrown in the direction in which 
it was moving when it was released. 



CHARACTERS 



155 



CHARACTERS 



2. Half fill a quart pail with water, 
tie a cord about two feet long to the 
handle, and swing the pail in a circle. 
The water will not fall out, even 
when the pail is upside down. The 
reason is that its centrifugal force 
makes it press against the bottom of 
the pail. 

3. Take the same pail, and after 
twisting the string tightly, allow it 
to untwist, spinning the pail horizon- 
tally, or use a TWIRLER to make it 
spin. The water will heap itself up 
against the sides of the pail, leaving 
a hollow in the centre. The faster 
the pail spins, the higher the water 
will be at the edge, and as it stops 
spinning the water surface will grow 
level again. 

4. Put into the pail equal quantities 
of water and some kind of oil that 
will float on it. Spin as before, and 
the water will seek the edge of the 
pail, leaving the oil within. It is on 
this principle that machines are made 
to separate the cream from milk in a 
few minutes. 

5. Suspend a small fish-globe by 
tying a string around the top, which 
should have a groove. Spin it as 
before, and then pour into it about a 
tumblerful of water. The water 
will leave the bottom entirely, and 
form a ring around the middle of the 
globe. 

6. Wet a TOP and then spin it. 
The water will be thrown off in spray 
from all sides. 

CHARACTERS. The name of two 
different games. I. A game played 
by any number of persons, one of 
whom leaves the room while the 
others agree on some historical char- 
acter he is to represent. He is then 
called back and each player asks 
him a question or makes a remark 
to him as if he were the character 
agreed upon. From these questions 
he must try to guess what character 
he is supposed to represent, and if 
he succeeds, the person whose ques- 
tion enabled him to do so must 
represent the next character. 'The 
questions are usually put so as to 



puzzle the guesser as much as possi- 
ble. For instance, if Washington be 
the character agreed upon, one player 
may ask, " Do rifle balls bound from 
you as if you were made of rubber? " 
(referring to his remarkable escape 
in the French and Indian war) ; 
another, " Do you think mid-winter 
the best time for crossing rivers ? " 
(referring to the passage of the Dela- 
ware) ; and another, " Have you 
outgrown your early fondness for 
destroying fruit trees?" Instead of 
historical characters, persons well 
known to all the company are some- 
times selected, which often makes the 
game more amusing. 

II. A game in which each player is 
given one letterof the name of an his- 
torical character, the players seating 
themselves in the order in which the 
letters occur in the name. Each one 
then selects another character whose 
name begins with the particular let- 
ter assigned to him, and the player 
sent out, being re-called, tries to 
guess each of these by questioning 
the others one by one, in any order 
he pleases. He is not to be told 
whether or not he has guessed aright, 
but when he thinks he has found out 
several he may guess the name of the 
character agreed on by the company 
and must be told whether this guess 
is correct. If it is not, he must find 
out more initial letters and try again. 
The player whose letter enables him 
to guess correctly must take his 
place as guesser for the next game. 
If the name selected has more let- 
ters than the number of players, 
several of them may take two or 
more, and if there are more players 
than letters, part or all of the name 
may be repeated ; but the guesser 
must be told, in the first case, which 
players have more than one letter, 
and the order of those letters, and, 
in the second case, which player has 
the last letter of the name. 

Century Court, a kind of Charac- 
ters, in which the person who leaves 
the room is given the name of a 
whole century instead of a single 



ACTING CHARADE 



I 5 6 



CHECKERS 



character. On his return he is 
charged with all the crimes of the 
century and praised for all its good 
men or events. As in the game just 
described, this goes on till the person 
guesses the century he is supposed 
to represent. 

ACTING CHARADE, a play, the 
scenes of which represent respect- 
ively the syllables of some word and 
the whole of that word. Thus, the 
word may be carpet, when there 
would be three scenes, representing 
the words Car, Pet, and Carpet. The 
different scenes may be parts of the 
same play, or each may be complete 
in itself. Acting charades may be 
learned from printed books, like other 
plays, but usually the performers 
merely agree on the plot and fill in 
the dialogue to suit themselves, as 
the play goes on. 

For an evening's amusement, the 
company may be divided into two 
parties, each with a leader. One of 
the parties acts a charade while the 
other forms the audience and tries to 
guess the word represented, and 
then the parties change places. 

A word or syllable may be acted 
by being actually represented, or by 
being mentioned frequently. Thus, 
the syllable " car," in the above exam- 
ple may be acted by representing the 
interior of a car, with passengers 
and conductor, though the word 
itself is not once spoken, or any other 
scene may be given in which a car is 
a subject of conversation. Of these 
two methods, the former is the best 
where it is possible. Charades are 
most enjoyable when there has been 
least preparation. Scenery and cos- 
tumes should be made from the 
materials nearest at hand. The 
leader should act as stage manager 
and the other players should obey 
him exactly. He should tell each 
what to do, taking advice and sug- 
gestions from the others, but always 
deciding himself on the course to be 
followed. It is better merely to in- 
dicate the general plot, leaving the 
players tp use what words occur to 



them at the moment. Two persons 
can thus often make a very comical 
dialogue without any previous re- 
hearsals, and, as all are equally with- 
out preparation, a failure is not dis- 
graceful. 

CHECKERED GAME OF LIFE, 
a game played by two persons on a 
checkered board, with counters and 
a TEETOTUM. The squares bear 
numbers and also pictures descrip- 
tive of different events in a man's 
life, beginning with his birth and 
ending in various ways, some success- 
ful, others not, the object being to 
reach the Temple of Fame at the top 
of the board. The players each 
enter in turn a counter in the first 
square, and their course of play is 
determined entirely by twirling the 
teetotum, there being no skill in the 
game. He who first reaches the 
Temple of Fame wins. 

This is the type of a great number 
of games, all probably derived from 
Backgammon or Patches!, and many 
having for an object the combination 
of instruction with amusement. The 
oldest of such games was probably 
the Game of Goose, which was play- 
ed as long ago as 1800. This was 
called in France Jeu de I'Oie (Game 
of Goose), and in an old French col- 
lection many similar games are de- 
scribed, among them those of " His- 
tory," " The Revolution," " The 
Atlas," "The Navy," and "The 
Monuments of Paris." 

CHECKERS (called Draughts in 
England), a game played by two 
persons, each of whom has 12 pieces 
or men, on a checkered board divided 
into 64 squares of two colors, gener- 
ally black and white. It may be 
played either on the black squares, 
as it usually is in America, or on the 
white squares, as it always is in 
England, but on whichever color it 
is played, the board must be so placed 
that a square of the same color shall 
be in the lower left-hand corner. In 
the accompanying diagrams, for con- 
venience of illustration, the game is 
supposed to be played on the white 



CHECKERS 



157 



CHECKERS 



squares. The checkers, or men, 
which are also of two colors, and 
are all equal, are arranged at the 
beginning of the game in three lines 
on each side, as shown in Fig. I : 

The players take turns in moving, 
and each has but one move at a 
time. The men are moved diagon- 
ally (corner-wise), one square at a 
time, either to the right or to the left, 
but always forward. If, however, 
a man reaches the last line of squares 
on the opposite side of the board, it 
becomes a King, is covered by having 
another one put upon top of it (or 
sometimes by turning it over, if it is 
made with a crown on the 
under side), and it may then 
move either backward or 
forward, but still only one 
square at a time. When 
two hostile men meet each 
other, the one having the 
move can capture the other, 
if there is a vacant square 
next beyond it, by jumping 
over it into that square. The 
man thus jumped is removed 
from the board. If several 
men are exposed with a va- 
cant square behind each, 
they may all be jumped at 
once and all removed from 
the board, the capturing man 
being left on the last square 
occupied. If a man be in a 
position to be taken, the 
player having the move must 
capture it. If he neglect to 
capture it and make some 
other move, the opponent may let 
the move stand and remove from 
the board the man which ought to 
have made the capture. The man 
thus forfeited is said to be huffed, 
or " blowed," sometimes accom- 
panied with the gesture, and the 
player who thus huffs has then the 
right to make his own move, for the 
act of huffing does not count as a 
move. If, however, the player having 
the right to huff prefers not to do so, 
he may insist on his opponent's 
capturing the piece, and then the 



man improperly moved must first be 
replaced on the square from which 
he was moved. As two or three 
men may sometimes be captured at 
once, the player neglecting to take 
all of them may be huffed by his 
opponent. This often happens to 
young players, who do not readily 
see all the men which may be jumped. 
The object of the game is to capture 
all the men of the opposite player, 
or to block them so that they cannot 
move. If, towards the close of a 
! game the two players are so evenly 
I balanced that neither can win 
I as, for example, when each has 



m v m " m -= mm. 




Checker Board. 
Fig. i. Arrangement of Men. 

one king the game is said to be 
drawn. 

The Move. The player who occu- 
pies such a position on the board that 
in the ordinary course of play he can 
force his opponent's men into a con- 
fine H position is said to " have the 
move." There are several ways of 
finding out who has the move, 
which will be learned easiest by 
playing with some one who under- 
stands the game, or by playing 
through the games given below. 
When one has not the move, one can 



CHECKERS 



I 5 8 



CHECKERS 



often win it by skillful playing. Hav- 
ing the move does not mean having 
the first move, for the first player 
has no advantage over his oppo- 
nent. The second player really has 
the move, but it is of no advantage 
to him so early in the game. Dur- 
ing the game the move is sometimes 

with one and sometimes with 

the other side, but the skillful 
player will generally keep it 
at the close of the game. 
It is customary to number 
the squares of the board in 
the way shown in Fig. 2, 
as the moves of the game 
are always given by num- 
bers, as in the columns be- 
low. By playing through 
these games, the beginner 
will easily learn what are the 
best moves on each side. 

Openings. There are a 
great many ways of begin- 
ning the game of Checkers. 
These, which are called 
" openings," have generally 
received special names. 
Some of them are given 
below : 
The Ayrshire Lassie : 

ii 15 2420 

8 ii 2824 

The Bristol : 

1 1 1 6 24 20 

1 6 19 

Sometimes any game begun by 
the move ii 16 is called Bristol. 
The Cross : 

ii 15 2318 

The Defiance : 

1115 23 *9 

914 2723 

The Dyke : 

ii 15 22 17 

1519 
The Fife : 

ii 15 23 19 

914 22 I/ 

59 
The Glasgow : 

ii 15 23 19 

8 II 22 17 

ii 16 



The Laird and Lady : 

1115 2319 

8 II 22 17 

913 

The Maid of the Mill : 

II 15 22 17 

8 ii 1713 

1518 







Checker Board. 
Fig. 2. Method of Numbering. 

The Old Fourteenth : 

1115 2319 

8 ii 22 17 

4-8 
The Invincible : 

1115 24 19 

The Single Corner : 

1115 2218 

The Souter : 

1115 2319 

9 14 22 17 

6-9 
The Whilter : 

1115 2319 

9 14 22 17 

7 ii 

The Will o' the Wisp : 
1115 2319 

913 

The " Bristol " was so named by 
the player Anderson in compliment 
to the checker players of Bristol, 
England. The " Defiance " is so 



CHECKERS 



159 



CHECKERS 



named because it prevents the 


GAME II. 


formation of the " Fife " game. 


BLACK. WHITE. 


The " Dyke " is so called because 


9 to 14 22 to 18 


in many of its positions the men are 


ii " 15 18 " 9 


formed in lines. The " Fife " was 


5 " 14 2 5 " 22 


named in 1847 after Wylie, a player 


15 " 19 23 " 16 


from Fifeshire, Scotland. The 


12 " 19 24 " 15 


" Glasgow " was named in like man- 


10 " 19 22 " 17 


ner from Sinclair of that city in 1828. 
The " Laird and Lady," " Maid of 


6 " 10 27 " 24 
16 " 15 17 " 10 


the Mill," and " Souter " (shoemaker) 


7 " 14 29 " 25 


were named from people whose favor- 
ite openings they were. The " Old 


8 " II 2$ " 22 
14 " l8 22 " 17 


Fourteenth " was the fourteenth 


l8 " 22 17 ' 14 


game in Sturges's work on checkers. 


22 " 25 21 ' 17 


The " Whilter " (a Scotch word, 


25 " 29 17 13 


meaning a confusing change), and 


4 " 8 32 ' 27 


the " Will o' the Wisp " are named 


3 " 7 24 ' 20 


from the unexpected plays they 


15 " 18 14 9 


often introduce. 


19 " 23 26 ' 19 


Sample Games. In these games 
Black is supposed to be at the top 


l8 " 22 27 ' 24 

White wins. 


and White at the bottom of the 


GAME III. 


board. Care should be taken to 


WHITE. BLACK. 


crown each man that reaches the 


22 tO 1 8 II tO l6 


king-row. GAME T> 


2$ " 22 10 " 14 




24 " 20 i 6 " 19 


BLACK. WHITE. 




II tO 15 22 tO 1 8 


23 


' ID 12 " 19 


15 " 22 25 " l8 


18 


'15 7 " 10 


8 " n 29 " 25 


20 


' 16 14 ' 18 


4 " 8 25 " 22 


29 


'25 9 ' 14 


12 " 16 24 " 20 


27 


'24 5 ' 9 


10 " 15 27 " 24 


24 


'20 8 12 


16 " 19 23 " 16 


31 


'27 i 5 


15 19 24 " 15 


15 


' II 10 " 1$ 


9 " 14 18 " 9 


22 


1 17 l8 " 22 


ii "25 32 " 27 


17 


I 22 " 31 


5 " 14 27 " 23 


II 


'8 4 " ii 


6 " 10 16 " 12 


16 


7 3 10 


8 " ii 28 " 24 


i 


'6 31 ' 24 


25 ' 29 30 " 25 


6 


'13 5 ' 9 


29 ' 22 26 " 17 


13 


'6 2 ' 9 


II ' 15 20 " l6 


3 


'26 9 14 


15 ' 18 24 " 20 


26 


'22 14 ' 18 


18 ' 27 31 " 24 


22 


' 17 19 " 23 


14 ' 18 16 " ii 


28 


' 19 15 " 24 


7 ' 16 20 ' ii 


17 


' 14 


18 ' 23 ii ' 8 


Drawn. 


23-27 8 ' 4 


RULES OF THE GAME. 


27 ' 31 4 ' 8 


I. The choice of men and the first 


31 '27 24 ' 20 


move in the first game must be de- 


27 ' 23 8 ' ii 


cided by lot ; the most common way 


23 ' 18 ii ' 8 


is for one of the players to hold one 


1 8 '15 Black wins. 


of the men in his hand, and let the 



CHECKERS 



160 



CHECKERS 



other guess whether it is black or 
white. The winner of the choice 
has the right either to play first or to 
call upon his opponent to do so. 
After the first game, the men should 
be changed each game, so that each 
player shall use the black and the 
white by turns, and not become so 
accustomed to either as to be unable 
to use the other, and the first move 
is to be taken by turns, whether the 
game be won or drawn. 

2. Neither player must touch the 
squares of the board nor point at the 
board with his finger, and never 
touch a piece unless he means to 
move it. 

3. If the men get out of 

place, a player may first tell 

his opponent that he intends 
to replace them and then do 
so ; but if, after they are set 
right, a player touches a 
piece, it being his turn to 
play, he must move it, if 
possible. 

4. When a man is in a 
position to be taken, the 
player having the move must 
capture it ; and the opposite 
player may insist on his do- 
ing so, or may huff the man 
having the right to capture, 
as he chooses. After huff- 
ing, the player may then 
make his own move. 

5. No matter how long a 
man has been liable to cap- 
ture, it may at any time be 
huffed, or the opponent may at any 
time be obliged to capture it. 

6. When two or more men are 
liable to capture, the player having 
the move may take whichever he 
chooses ; for example, if one can be 
captured in one way and two in 
another way, he may take either the 
one or the two. 

7. If a player delays moving more 
than three minutes, his opponent may 
request him to play ; and if he does 
not move within five minutes after 
being requested to, he loses the game. 

8. When, n^ar the close of the 



game, only a few men are left, the 
player having the stronger force may 
be compelled at the pleasure of the 
referee to finish within a certain num- 
ber of moves ; and, if he cannot do 
this, the game is declared drawn. 
[For example, if two kings remain 
against one king, the referee might 
require the former to win in twenty 
moves that is, twenty on each side.] 
Give-Away, or the Losing Game, 
a game having the same moves and 
rules as checkers, in which the player 
who first gets rid of all his men wins. 
The object of each player is to force 
his opponent to capture as many men 
as possible, and, by opening his own 




Fig. 3. Polish Checkers. 

game freely, especially the squares in 
his king-row, to compel him to make 
kings. It is thus the opposite of 
checkers. Although not so difficult 
to play as the latter, it requires con- 
siderable skill and attention to play 
well. Great care is necessary to 
keep the move, for the player who 
has it ought to win. 

Polish Checkers, The board and 
the men are arranged as in common 
checkers and the moves of the men 
are the same that is, always for- 
ward diagonally, and one square at 
a time ; but in capturing, the men 



CHECKERS 



161 



CHECKERS 



have the privilege of jumping either 
forward or backward. When a man 
reaches the opposite King-row, it is 
crowned a king as in the other game, 
but it has far greater powers, similar 
to those of a bishop in chess. It 
may move not only one square at a 
time, backward or forward, but it 
has also the privilege of passing over 
several squares, and even the whole 
length of the diagonal, when the 
passage is free, at one move. The 
method of capture, both of the men 
and of the kings, may be explained 
easiest by Fig. 3, the game being 
supposed to be played on the white 
squares, as it generally is in Europe. 
If White has a man at 20, 
and Black has unsupported 
men at 16, 7, 6, 14, 23, and 
24, White, having the move, 
may capture them all and 
finish at square 20 again. 
In this long jump or succes- 
sion of jumps, White, it will 
be noticed, enters the oppo- 
site King-row at 2, but does 
not stay there, for he is 
obliged to keep on jumping 
until he has captured all the 
men which can be taken ; 
and he does not thus win the 
right to be made a king, as 
that can be only when the 
man remains in the King- 
row. Good players will take 
advantage of this, when they 
cannot keep thei 1 " opponent 
from getting into their King- 
row, and by putting a man or two 
in the way of capture, lead him out 
of it again into the middle of the 
board. It is sometimes good play to 
throw away even three men, espec- 
ially toward the end of a game, to 
keep the enemy from getting a King. 
The men jumped must not be re- 
moved from the board until the cap- 
turing man has finished and is at 
rest, because the latter cannot pass 
twice over any square with a man on 
it, but must stop behind that man 
which, but for this rule, it might 
jump. But a vacant square may be 



passed or repassed several times in 
the course of one move, provided 
that no man is leaped a second time. 
The king has even more power than 
the bishop in chess, for in moving 
he may not only pass from one end 
of the board to the other, but in 
capturing he may also make angles. 
For instance (Fig. 4), if a king stand 
at 1 8, he may move to any square on 
the line from 4 to 29, or from 5 to 
32. Again, if a White king stands 
at 31 and Black men or kings are at 
22, 6, 16, and 24, the former captures 
them all by jumping to the squares 
13, 2, 20, and 27, where he rests. 
From this it will be seen that 







Fig. 4. Polish Checkers. 

though the common man can jump 
a piece only when there is a vacant 
space next beyond it, the king can 
pass to any empty square on the 
diagonal. The king having so great 
power can keep out of his opponent's 
way much more easily than in com- 
mon checkers, and with skillful 
players many games are drawn. If, 
at the end of a game, White has only 
one king while Black has three, 
White can draw the game if he can 
get on the central line between 4 and 
29, and know how to play properly. 
If he cannot get on the central line. 



CHECKERS 



162 



CHECKERS 



Black may win in several ways, but 
the game is drawn if he does not do it 
in fifteen moves. When a player who 
has only one king, while his oppo- 
nent has a king and two men, offers 
to crown the two men so as to oblige 
him to win in fifteen moves, the 
opponent must accept the offer or 
the game is drawn. When at the 
end of a game, one party has a king 
and a man against three kings, it is 
best to sacrifice the man as soon as 
possible, as the game is more easily 
defended by a king alone. When 
two men of one color are so situated 
that an opponent can move between 










Fig. 5. Pyramid. 

them, and thus be in a position to 
leap either way, it is called a lunette. 
This situation happens much oftener 
in the Polish than in the common 
game, and it is frequently a snare 
laid by good players to catch the 
unskillful ; for by moving into the 
lunette in hope of catching one of his 
opponent's men the poor player often 
finds himself entrapped and forced to 
lose several of his own. With these 
few exceptions the rules of Polish 
checkers are the same as those for 
common checkers. This game is 
usually played on the continent of 
Europe on a board with 100 squares, 



each player having 20 men arranged 
in four rows ; but in Germany it is 
often played as in America on a 
common checker-board of 64 squares, 
with the usual number of men. 

Pyramid, a game in which the men 
are arranged in the form of a pyra- 
mid, as in Fig. 5. The moves are 
always diagonally forward, and hos- 
tile men must be jumped as in check- 
ers, but the man jumped is not 
removed from the board. The 
player's object is to form his men in 
the same pyramid that was occupied 
at first by his enemy, and he who 
does this soonest wins. This is the 
simplest game that is played 
on a checker-board, though 
considerable skill may be 
shown in moving the men 
and getting threm in position. 
Hal ma, or Hoppity, a kind 
of PYRAMID played on a 
checker-board of 256 squares 
by two or four persons with 
men shaped like the Pawns 
in CHESS, though common 
checkers may be used, as 
shown in Fig. 6. In the two 
handed game each player 
has 19 men which are placed 
closely together in opposite 
corners of the board, as in 
Fig. 6, occupying both dark 
and light squares. The play- 
er's object, as in Pyramid, is 
to move his own men into 
the places of their opponents, 
but either friends or enemies can be 
jumped, and in any of the possible 
eight directions, which increases the 
interest. The simple move can also 
be made in any direction. In play- 
ing, an arrangement of the pieces in 
a row with an empty space between 
each two, into which a man may 
jump, is called a ladder, because a 
piece can sometimes go from one 
end to the other in a single move, 
by a series of leaps. Ladders should 
be arranged as much as possible 
where they will aid the player's own 
men, and avoided where they will 
help his opponent. The game may 



CHECKERS 



I6 3 



CHECKERS 



be divided into three parts, the first 
part called the Gambit, which con- 
sists in getting all the men outside 
the squares originally occupied ; the 
second or Melee, when the opposing 
men are mingled ; and the third or 
Packing, getting the pieces into order 
on the opposite side. When four 



persons play, each has but 13 men, 
arranged in the same kind of a 
figure as in the two-handed game. 
Each may play for himself, or the 
opposite players may be partners, in 
which case each tries to help the 
other as much as possible, instead 
of hindering him. 




















































Fig. 6. Halma. 



Japanese Checkers. This is 
played on a board like the one in the 
figure made from one of 100 squares 
by joining alternate pairs, forming 
oblong figures, which are the only 
ones used in playing (See Fig. 7.) 

Each of the players, who sit oppo- 
site, has 9 men like Pawns in chess, 
though ordinary checkers may be 
used, as in the illustration, and also 



a Mikado, and a Daimio. The Mi- 
kados and Daimios are like the men 
in shape, but of different size, the 
former being the larger. Each 
player places five men in the row 
nearest him, and four men with the 
Mikado in the second row, the 
Mikado being in the middle, as 
at M in the diagram. No man 
can jump the Mikado, but for the 



CHECKERS 



164 



CHECKERS 



first one that reaches the King-row 
a Daimio is substituted, who is al- 
lowed to jump the Mikado. In all 




Fig. 7. Japanese Checkers. 



other respects the game is precisely 
like ordinary checkers. 

History. The game of checkers 
is supposed to be older than chess. 
A game somewhat like it was known 
in Egypt more than four thousand 
years ago, and pictures representing 
King Rameses II, called Sesostris 
by the Greeks, who lived about 1400 
B.C., playing it with some of the 
women of his household are still to 
be seen on the walls of his palace at 
Thebes. One of these is shown in 
the accompanying illustration, in 
which only the edge of the board is 
seen, but the checkers are like little 
ten-pins. 

Other forms of Egyptian checkers 
are shown in the following, taken 
from pictures on temples or from real 
pieces found in the tombs. Some 
of these are made of ivory and 
some are earthenware ; and some of 
them have heads of cats, dogs, and 



other animals. How the Egyptians 
played the game is not known, but 
the modern Egyptians play it just as 
we do. It was not 
known in Europe 
until about the 
sixteenth century, 
when it is sup- 
posed to have been 
brought from the 
East. The word 
checkers is derived 
from the squares 
of the board. 
Draughts me; ns 
simply moves. In 
Italy the game* is 
called dama, and 
in Germany Da- 
men, both of which 
mean ladies; and 
in France it is 
called Le jeu de 
dames, the Ladies' 
Game. In all these 
countries, where 
the Polish game is 
mostly played, the 
king is called the 
queen. The prin- 



cipal draught-games played by the 
ancients were the Ludus Latrun- 
culorum (Soldiers' Game) of the 
Romans, and the Plinthion or Poll's 




Rameses II. playing Checkers. 

(noTug) of the Greeks. In both of 
these a man could be captured only 
by placing an opponent's man on 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 165 CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



each side of him. The Greeks called 
the men Dogs. The donkey boys 
in Cairo, Egypt, play a game like 
this, and some think Alexander the 
Great carried it to Egypt. The Chi- 
nese have a Checker game called 
Wei-Chi (Game of Circumvention), 
in which a man is taken by being 
surrounded with four hostile men. 
Captain Cook found the Sandwich 
Islanders playing a Checker game 
with black and white pebbles on a 
board of 14 by 17 squares. Some 
writers think that our Checkers is 




Egyptian Checkers. 

not derived directly from any of the 
ancient games, but is a lower form 
of CHESS, which in its turn was de- 
veloped from an old Hindoo Draught 
game. 

CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS. 
These should be tried if possible in 
a room used for nothing else, in the 
attic, the cellar, or an outbuilding. 
Old clothes must be worn, or, better 
still, an apron with sleeves, made to 
cover the whole body. A plentiful 
supply of water should be at hand. 
An old table or a large packing box 
may be used to try the experiments 
on. The different experiments are 
told about in separate articles, but 
processes used in all or several of 
them are described here to avoid 
repetition. 

Heating. This may be done by an 
ordinary alcohol lamp, or, where there 
is gas, with a Bunsen burner (Fig. i), 




Fig. i. Bunsen 
Burner. 



to be bought at a chemical ware- 
house, which gives a hot flame with- 
out much light. An ordinary lamp 
or gas flame would 
deposit soot on the 
vessel heated. A 
home-made Bunsen 
burner can be ob- 
tained by inverting a 
glass funnel over a 
gas jet as shown in 
Fig. 2. The gas 
mixes with air and 
burns without smoke. 
When gas is used the 
burner is connected with an ordinary 
gas burner by rubber tubing. When 
a glass vessel is to be heated it 
should be placed on a piece of wire 
gauze, shaped to 
receive the bot- 
tom. The gauze 
is laid on an iron 
ring with three 
legs by which it 
is held over the 
lamp. These 
rings, called 
tripod stands, 
(Fig. 3) can be 

bought, but four . 

c . Fig. 2. Home-made 

pieces of strong g Bunsen Burner> 

wire laid cross- 
wise, their ends resting on blocks of 
wood, will do. To heat the contents 
of a vessel slightly, it is placed over 
a water bath, which can be made of 





Fig. 3. Tripod Stand. 

a tin patty-pan with a cover of tin 
in which a hole has been cut with 
strong scissors. The hole must be 
the same size as the bottom of the 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 166 CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



flask or bottle to be heated. Partly 
fill the pan with water, put the flask 
in the hole, and then boil the water. 
Class working. To bend glass- 
tubing hold it in the tip of the lamp 
flame as shown in the picture, turn- 




Fig. 4. Bending Glass Tube. 

ing it slowly around and moving it 
forward and backward to heat a con- 
siderable length of it. The sense of 
feeling will tell when it can be bent. 
Bend it slowly and carefully, remov- 
ing it from the flame, and putting it 
back when it needs to be softened 
more. Practice will enable any one 
to make a good bend. Do not bend 
at a right angle but make a succession 
of gradual bends, carrying the tube 
around in a curve. To make a glass 
jet, heat as before, draw the ends of 
the tube straight apart till the heated 
part is about as large as the lead in a 
pencil. When cool, scratch this neck 
with a file, when it will easily break. 
Two pieces of glass tubing may be 
united by melting the ends and press- 
ing them together, but a better way 
is to use a piece of rubber tubing, 
which makes a flexible joint. Ordi- 
nary tubing can be broken squarely 
off by first making a scratch with a 
three-cornered file, and then break- 
ing it. If the glass and the working 
tool be kept wet with spirits of turpen- 
tine, tubes can be filed completely 
apart or a hole can be bored through 
a sheet of glass with a rat-tail file. 



Collecting Cases under Water. 
Fill a pan with water deep enough to 
cover entirely the jar in which the gas 
is to be collected, when laid on its side. 
Lay the jar on its side till it is full of 
water, and then turn it mouth down- 
ward, the opening being kept 
under water. The water will not 
run out of the jar. If there is 
the least bubble of air in it the 
filling must be done over again. 
Support the jar on two strips of 
wood, so that its mouth will still 
be under water, or stand it on a 
tin saucer, turned upside down, 
having a hole cut in its side and 
one in its bottom, as shown in 
Fig. 5. Fasten to the end of the 
glass tube leading from the bottle 
in which the gas is made, a piece 
of rubber tubing about two feet 
long. Push the end under the 
saucer through the hole in the 
rim, and up in into the jar through 
the hole in the top. As the gas is 
made, it will bubble through the wa- 
ter to the top of the jar, where it 
collects, pushing the water gradually 
out at the bottom. 

Filtering. To separate a powder 
from a liquid it is necessary to use 
filter paper which may be bought in 
small circular pieces. Fold one of 
the pieces, A, as shown in Fig. 6 at 
B, expand it as at C, and placing it in 
a glass funnel, as at D, pour upon 
it the mixed liquid and powder. The 




Fig. 5. Collecting Gases under Water. 

liquid will slowly pass through the 
paper, leaving the powder behind. 

Gas-holder. Where gases are to 
be kept in any considerable quan- 
tity, a gas-holder is needed. It may 
be bought of a dealer in chemist's 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



167 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



materials, or made as follows. Take 
two tin pails, one about two inches 
less in diameter than the other, and 
several inches shorter. Remove the 
handles of both, and have a tinman 
cut a hole in the bottom of the 
smaller pail, soldering to it a tube 
about an inch long, and just large 
enough to fit tightly the size of 
rubber tubing you wish to use. Fill 
the larger pail with water, and press 
the other down into it, letting the 
air escape through the tube. When 
all the air is replaced with water, 
slip a piece of rubber tubing over the 
tin tube and connect it with the bottle 




Fig. 6. Filtering. 

where the gas is making. As the 
gas enters the upper pail, the pail 
will rise in the water. When enough 
has been collected, close the rubber 
tube with a pinch cock, to prevent 
the gas from escaping till it is wanted. 
When gas is wanted, remove the 
pinch cock and place a slight weight 
on the upper pail. Another kind of 
gas-holder which can be bought, is 
made of rubber, like a bag. 

Corks. Choose corks that are cut 
across the grain rather than with it, 
as they are tighter. Corks may also 
be made tighter by dipping them in 
melted paraffine. To fit a glass tube 
in a cork, bore a hole in the cork a 
little smaller than the tube, using a 



sharp knife or, better, a cork-borer 
(see list below). Moisten the tube, 
and work it through the hole. Rub- 
ber stoppers with one or more holes 
may be bought, and the holes not in 
use may be plugged with pieces of 
glass rod. When they get hard they 
may be softened by soaking them in 
turpentine. Ordinary corks may be 
softened and made easier to bore by 
rolling them under foot. 

The chief things needed to perform 
the experiments described in this 
book, besides those mentioned above, 
are given below in an alphabetical 
list, with the prices for which they 
can usually be obtained, though these 
vary a good deal. 

A R TICLES FOR CHE MIC A L EXPERI- 
MENTS. 

Alcohol. Price, about 60 cents a 
quart. 

Alcohol Lamp. Price, 30 to 50 
cents. 

Ammonia Water. Strong. Price 
about 40 cents a quart. 

Antimony. Price, 20 cents a 
pound. 

Balance. Useful for weighing, 
but not necessary, as the druggist 
will weigh substances in the desired 
amounts when they are bought. 

Bismuth. Ask for metallic bis- 
muth. Price, about 20 cents an 
ounce. 

Bisulphide of Carbon. Be care- 
ful not to bring it near a flame, as its 
vapor is very inflammable. Price, 20 
cents a pound. 

Bituminous Coal. This can be 
obtained of a blacksmith, if no dealer 
is near. 

Blue Vitriol or Copper Sulphate. 
Price, 8 cents a pound. 

Caustic Soda. Price, 15 cents a 
pound. 

Chalk. Ask for carpenter's chalk, 
Blackboard crayons are not made 
of real chalk. Price 3 cents a 
pound. 

Chlorate of Potash. Price, 25 cents 
a pound. 

Copper. Scraps can be obtained 
of a plumber. Old cartridge shells 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



1 68 



CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



Fig. 7. 
Deflagra- 
tion 
Spoon. 



may be used. Price of clippings at 
a chemist's, 40 cents a pound. 

Cork Borers. In sets of 6 ; price, 
about $i. 

Deflagration or Co m bus t i on 
Spoon. Price, 15 cents. One can 
be made by attaching to a 
wire a piece of chalk with 
a hollow scooped in it. 

Drying Bottle, a bottle 
to dry gases. The stopper 
must have in it two tubes. 
The one by which the gas 
enters reaches nearly to 
the bottom, the other by 
which it leaves is short. 
Fill the bottle with lumps 
of unslaked lime, or with 
pumice stone soaked in 
strong sulphuric acid. 

Dutch Leaf. In "books"; 
price, 15 cents. 

Files. About 6 inches long; 
price, 30 cents. 

Filter Paper. Price, from 8 
cents to 82 cents per hundred 
sheets, according to size. 
Fish Globe. Price, about $r. 
Flasks. Half-pint size, 15 cents 
apiece. The flasks in which olive 

oil sometimes is sold can , , 

be used. 

Fluor Spar. Price, ^o 
cents a pound. 

Funnels. Price, about 
10 cents apiece. 

Glass Tubing and rods 
(ask for soft glass). 
Price, 35 cents a pound, 
j'j inch inside diameter 
is about the size needed 
for tubes, but if rubber 
stoppers are used the 
tubes should be bought 
to fit the holes in the 
stoppers. 

Gold Leaf. In "books"; 
price, 40 cents. 

Graduated Tube or "graduate." 
Price about 50 cents. One good 
enough for the experiments in this 
book can be made by scratching lines 
on a test tube a quarter of an inch 
apart. 



c.c. 

62' F. 

ioe=H> 



70^30 
60-||-40 



Hydrochloric Acid (ask for it 
"chemically pure"). 20 cents a 
pound. 

Ignition Tubes, for making oxy- 
gen. Price, 20 cents. 

Iodine. Price, 35 cents an ounce. 

Iron Sulphide. Price, 15 cents a 
pound. 

Jars, or wide-rnouthed bottles. 
Fruit jars or pickle bottles can be 
used. " Bell jars " or receivers cost 
from 45 cents to $5, according to 
size. 

Jets of glass ; directions for mak- 
ing given above. 

Lamp Black ; directions for mak- 
ing in article CARBON. 

Lead, Sugar of, or Acetate of 
Lead. Deadly poison. Price, chemi- 
cally pure, 10 cents an ounce. 

Lime, unslacked (caustic lime). 
Price, 5 cents a pound. 

Lime Water. Made by dissolv- 
ing a little unslacked lime in water 
and letting it stand till clear. 

Lime, Chloride of, or " bleach- 
ing powder." Price, 10 cents a 
pound. 

Litmus. Price, 10 cents an ounce. 

Magnesium Ribbon. Price, 75 
cents an ounce. 

Manganese Dioxide, or black ox- 
ide. Price, 15 cents 
an ounce. 

Marble, lumps of, 
can be obtained at a 
marble cutter's for lit- 
tle or nothing. 

Mercury. Price, 60 
cents a pound. 

Mercury, Red Ox- 
ide of. Price, 10 
cents an ounce. 

Nitric Acid, chem- 
ically pure. Price, 17 Fig 9 _ 
cents a pound. Cock. 

Phosphorus. Price, 
15 cents an ounce. Keep in a bot- 
tle of water, and never touch with 
the naked hand. 

Pinch Cock, for closing rubber 
tubing. Price, 30 cents. 

Potassium. Price, 50 cents a 
drachm. 




CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 



169 



CHESS 



Rubber Stoppers. Price, $2.25 per 
pound. Get them to fit the flasks 
and bottles you intend to use. 

Sal Ammoniac, Price, 10 cents a 
pound. 

Sugar of Lead. See Lead. 

Sulphur. Price, 5 cents a pound. 
Comes in two forms : roll or stick 
sulphur, called also brimstone, and 
flowers of sulphur, or powdered 
sulphur. 

Test Tiibes. Size 5 X f inches. 
Price, 35 cents a dozen. Old medi- 
cine phials will sometimes serve the 
purpose. 




Fig. io. Test Tube and Holder. 



Thistle Tube. Price, about 1 6 
cents. 

Test Tube Holders. (A folded 
strip of paper, passed around the 
tube, is a good substitute). 

Tin. Pure tin-foil. Price, io 
cents an ounce. Common tin-foil 
often has lead in it. 



Fig. it. Thistle Tube. 

Tripod. Small size. Price, 20 
cents. 

Turmeric Paper. Price, 80 cents 
a quire. A few cents worth is all 
that is needed. 

Turpentine, Spirits of. Price, 20 
cents per pint. 

U-shaped l^ubes. Price, about io 
cents each. 

Universal Support (see Fig. 12.) 
Price, $2. 

Watch Spring, old, to be obtained 
of any watchmaker. 

Wax, yellow. Price, 45 cents a 
pound. 



Wire. All kinds to be bought at 
a hardware store. 

Wire Gauze. Price, a few cents 
a foot. 




Fig. 12. Universal Support. 

Yeast. Small yeast cake, costs 2 
cents at a grocery. 

Zinc, granulated, for making hy- 
drogen. Price, 30 cents a pound. 
Clippings of old zinc will do. 

CHESS, a game played by two 
persons on a board containing 64 
squares, of two colors arranged al- 
ternately, generally black and white 
or red and white. Each player has 
1 6 chess-men, of a different color, 
each consisting of eight " Pieces " and 
eight " Pawns." The Pieces are 
King, Queen, two Rooks or Castles, 
two Bishops, and two Knights, and 
each of these has a Pawn, or soldier. 
The men are generally carved figures, 
but sometimes round, flat pieces, with 
the figures of the men on the top. 

At the beginning of the game the 
board should be so placed as to 
have a white square at each player's 
right. The lines of squares running 
up and down the board are usually 
called " files," those from right to 
left " ranks " or lines, and those 
cornerwise " diagonals. " By a simple 
system, each square on the board 
has a name taken from the piece 
commanding it at the beginning of 
the game. This is most easily shown 
in the following diagram, Fig. I ; 



CHESS 



170 



CHESS 



It will be seen that the square on 
which the King stands at the begin- 
ning of the game is named the King's 
square, the one in front the King's 
2d, next the King's 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 
7th, and 8th. These count the same 
from the other side of the board, so 
that one player's King's 8th square 
is the other player's King's square. 
The Queen's squares are named in 



the same way ; and the Bishops, 
Knights, and Rooks are named 
King's Bishop, Knight, or Rook, or 
Queen's Bishop, Knight, or Rook, 
according as they stand on the King's 
or the Queen's side. The Pawns 
are named after the pieces in front 
of which they stand, thus: King's 
Pawn, Queen's Pawn, King's Bish- 
op's Pawn, Queen's Rook's Pawn, etc. 



b S -a- & 


b S -*H-& 


bs-a-b 


bS'5 


bg'X 


bS'3'X 


bg'lX'X 


bS'H'X 


Q.R.8. 


Q.Kt.8. 


Q.B.8. 


Q.8. 


K.8. 


K.B.8. 


K.Kt.8. 


K.R.8. 


Q.R.7. 


Q.Kt.7. 


Q.B.7. 


Q.7. 


K. 7 . 


K.B. 7. 


K.Kt.7. 


K.R.?. 


E-H-& 


E-ix-6 


E-3-& 


E-b 


E'X 


E-a-x 


E'iX'X 


-a-x 


Q.R.6. 


Q.Kt.6. 


Q.B.6. 


Q.6. 


K.6. 


K.B.6. 


K.Kt. 6. 


K.R. 6. 


Q.R.5. 


Q.Kt.s. 


Q.B.S. 


Q.s. 


K. 5 . 


K.B.5. 


K.Kt.s. 


K.R.s. 


s-H-b 


s-ix-0 


s-a-0 


s-5 


s-x 


S'3'X 


S'lX'X 


S-H-X 


Q.R.4- 


Q.Kt.4. 


Q.B.4. 


Q-4. 


K. 4 . 


K.B. 4. 


K.Kt.4. 


K.R. 4. 


9-H-& 


9-r& 


9-a-e> 


9-5 


'9'X 


'9'a'X 


9-X'X 


'9'H'X 


Q.R.3. 


Q.Kt.3. 


Q.B.3. 


Q-3. 


K. 3 . 


K.B.3. 


K.Kt.s. 


K.R.3. 


M'H-5 


^x-0 


z-a-5 


^5 


^a 


4-a-x 


^x-x 


'^'H'X 


Q.R.3. 


Q.Kt.s. 


Q.B.s. 


Q.s. 


K.3. 


K.B. 2. 


K.Kt.s. 


K.R.s. 


8-H-5 


8'lX-fc 


8-a-& 


'8-5 


'8'X 


8'a'x 


8-WTX 


'8'H'X 


Q.R.Sq. 


Q.Kt.Sq. 


Q.B.Sq. 


Q.Sq. 


K.Sq. 


K.B.Sq. 


K.Kt.Sq. 


K.R.Sq. 



Fig. i. Method of Notation. 



The following are the abbrevia- 
tions used : 

K ------ King 

Q ..... Queen 

B Bishop 

Kt. - - - - Knight 

R Rook 

P ..... Pawn 

Sq. ..... Square 

Ch. or 4-, - - Check 



Dis. Ch. - - Discovered Check 

J - - - Checkmate 

X - - - - takes 

A move is described by giving 
the name of the piece and the 
square to which it is moved. 
Thus, Q to K.B. 4, or simply Q 
K.B. 4, means that the Queen is 
moved to King's Bishop's fourth 
square. 



CHESS 



171 



CHESS 



In the diagrams in this article the 
pieces will be designated thus : 

King, .... <& 



Queen, . . 

Bishop, . . 

Knight, . . 

Rook,. . . 



J. 



Pawn, 



At the beginning of a game the 
men are set as in Fig. 2. 

By means of this simple notation 
games not only can be completely 
described on paper in a brief space, 
but they can be played by telegraph 
or post, the contestants be- 
ing hundreds or thousands 
of miles apart. Very skillful 
players are also thus enabled 
to play games blindfolded, 
the moves being described to 
them as they are made. Paul 
Morphy, a celebrated Ameri- 
can player, could carry on 
eight games at once in this 
way, without seeing any of 
the boards. 

The first move being de- 
cided, the players take turns, 
each moving one man at a 
time. The men are moved 
each in a different way, as 
described below, but no piece 
except the Knight can pass 
over another man in mov- 
ing. When a man can be 
moved to a square occupied 
by a hostile man, the move 
can be made, and the hostile 
man, which is said to be taken, 
or captured, is removed from the 
board. A man is said to " com- 
mand " any square to which it can 
move, and a man that can be cap- 
tured is said to be " en prise " 
(French for "in position to be 



taken "). Each player's object is to 
"checkmate" his opponent's King, 
and to effect this he endeavors to 
weaken his enemy's force by captur- 
ing as many of his men as possible. 
How the King is checkmated will be 
described below. 

MOVEMENTS OF THE MEN. 

King. The King can move but 
one square at a time (except in cast- 
ling), but this move may be forward, 
backward, sidewise, or diagonally in 
either direction. Unless he is on the 
edge of the board he thus commands 
eight squares. The King is the only 
piece that cannot be taken. When 
the square on which he stands is 
commanded by an enemy's piece 
he is said to be " in check." He 
is not allowed to move into check, 
even to take a man, and a square on 
which he would be in check is there- 
fore said to be " guarded." When 








WHITE. 

Fig. 2. Method of Setting the Men. 

either player moves any of his men 
so as to put his opponent's King in 
check he must cry " check ! " as a 
warning, and the King is then said 
to be " attacked." If a player checks 
by moving out of the way a piece 
that was between the King and the 



CHESS 



172 



CHESS 



checking piece, it is called a " dis- 
covered check." If, at the same 
time, the moved piece also gives 
check, it is called a " double check." 
The player whose King is in check 
must either move him out of check, 
move a man between him and the 
checking piece, or capture the latter. 
When none of these things is possi- 
ble, the King is checkmated, and his 
side has lost the game. As stated 
above, the object of each player is to 
checkmate his opponent, and all the 
moves are made with this end in 
view. When the King, though not in 
check, cannot move without going 




Fig. 3. Moves of the Knight. 

into check, and his owner can move 
no other man, there is said to be a 
" stalemate," and the game is consid- 
ered drawn. 

Once only, in the game, the King 
has the privilege of making, with one 
of the Rooks, under certain condi- 
tions, a double move called " castling." 
Castling may be performed on either 
the King's or the Queen's side of the 
board. If on the King's side, it is 
done by moving the King to K.Kt's 
square and then placing the King's 
Rook on K.B's square ; if on the 
Queen's side, by moving the King to 
Q.B's square, and then placing the 



Queen's Rook on Queen's square. 
This move has a double object : to 
remove the King from danger and to 
bring the Rook into play. The condi- 
tions under which the move may be 
made are as follows : The King must 
not have moved ; must not be in 
check ; and must not pass, in making 
the move, over or on to any square 
attacked by any man of the enemy ; 
the Rook must not have moved ; and 
there must be no piece between the 
King and the Rook with which he 
castles. 

Queen. The Queen, the most 
powerful of the pieces, can move in 
a straight line in any direc- 
tion, forward, backward, side- 
wise or diagonally over as 
many squares as are unoccu- 
pied. Thus, if she is in the 
middle of the board, and the 
way is clear, she commands 
27 squares, as will be seen by 
trial. 

Rook. The Rook, or Castle, 
which is next in power to the 
Queen, can move backward, 
forward, or sideways, but not 
diagonally, as many squares 
as the way is clear. He thus 
commands 14 squares, and is 
the only piece whose range is 
not lessened by being placed 
on a corner square. 

Bishop. The Bishop can 
move diagonally forward or 
backward, but only on squares 
of the same color on which he stood 
when the game began. One of a 
player's Bishops is therefore always 
on white squares, and the other al- 
ways on black squares. 

Knight. The Knight can move 
one square either backward, forward, 
or sidewise, and then one diagonally. 
Thus the Knight in the middle of 
the diagram (Fig. 3), can move to 
any of the squares marked with a 
Knight. It is possible for the 
Knight to move thus in succession 
to every square of the board, occu- 
pying each square only once. This 
is called the Knight's Tour. One 



CHESS 



173 



CHESS 



way of performing it is shown in 
Fig. 4. 

The Knight can move whether the 
squares he passes over are clear or 
not, and he is the only piece which 
can thus leap over another man when 
moving. When a Knight gives check 
therefore, it is useless for his oppo- 
nent to move another piece between 
him and the King. The Knight is 
too the only piece which can be 
moved at the opening of the game, 
as it can leap over the Pawns which 
close the whole of the second rank. 
Unless the Knight can be captured, 
his check always forces the attacked 
King to move, as the Knight can 
leap over any blocking man. 



6 SB 8 

a la SB a 

E JK K 

K, a s a 
H a E w 

a x a a 



Fig. 4. Knight's Tour. 

Pawn. The Pawn moves straight 
forward in the file on which it stands ; 
its first move may be either one or 
two squares, but after that it moves 
only one square at a time. When a 
Pawn while being moved two squares 
passes over a square commanded by 
a hostile Pawn, the latter is not de- 
prived of its privilege of capture and 
may take it just the same as if the 
Pawn had remained in the attacked 
square. This is called taking en 
passant (Fr., in passing). In cap- 
turing, the Pawn takes one step 
diagonally, to the right or the left, to 
the square occupied by the man 
taken, and after that continues on 
that file until it makes another cap- 



ture. When a Pawn reaches the last 
square of the file on which it is mov- 
ing, it is said to be "Queened," and 
receives the power and name of a 
Queen or of any other piece the 
owner chooses, except the King. 

The player must at once notify his 
opponent as to whether the Pawn has 
become a Queen, Knight, Bishop, 
or Rook, as it sometimes happens 
that the making of a Knight would 
win a game which a Queen would 
only lose or draw. A player may, 
therefore, toward the end of a game, 
have two or more Queens, two 
Bishops on the same color, etc. A 
second Queen is often indicated by 
replacing the Queened Pawn by a 
Rook turned bottom upwards 

When two of the player's Pawns 
are on the same file, they are said to 
be " doubled," and when one stands 
alone, and unprotected by other 
Pawns, it is called an " Isolated 
Pawn." A Pawn which is obstructed 
by no hostile Pawn, either on the 
same file or on those to the right and 
left, is said to be a " Passed Pawn." 

The Exchange. When a player 
by taking an opponent's piece exposes 
one of his own to capture, he is said 
to " make the exchange." In mak- 
ing exchanges the relative value of 
the pieces and Pawns must be care- 
fully considered. Aside from the 
added values which certain positions 
give to the men as the game advan- 
ces, the following rule gives the 
average value of each class of men : 

The Queen is equal in value to two 
Rooks; to two Bishops and a Knight ; 
to two Knights and a Bishop ; or, 
nearly to eight Pawns. 

A Rook is equal to a Bishop and 
one or two Pawns, or to a Knight 
and one or two Pawns. 

Bishops and Knights are of nearly 
equal value ; each is equal in value 
to three Pawns. The relative value 
of Bishops and Knights depends 
greatly on the more or less crowded 
condition of the board. When the 
lines are open the long stride of the 
Bishop gives him an advantage, but 



CHESS 



174 



CHESS 



in a close position, the leap of the 
Knight, together with the greater 
difficulty of calculating on his move- 
ments, increases his value beyond 
that of the Bishop. 

The value of the Pawns is greatly 
increased as they approach the Queen 
row. 

Drawn Games, It has already 
been explained that a stalemate is a 
drawn game. Other ways in which 
the game may be drawn will now be 
described. 

i. When a player with an infe- 
rior force finds an opportunity to 

BLACK. 



9, in 




- 5- White to play and mate in two moves. 



give such a check that his opponent, 
either upon moving his King or in- 
terposing a piece, subjects himself to 
a continued series of checks, it is 
called "perpetual check." 

2. Where there is not force enough 
to effect a mate. 

3. Where one player has force 
enough to mate, but is not skillful 
enough to do so in the required fifty 
moves (see Rule 21). 

4. Where both players continue to 
repeat the same series of moves 
through fear of each other. 

The moves and general character 



of the game have now been told, but 
it can be learned only by actual play. 
It is advisable to castle early in the 
game, and on that side upon which 
the King can be best protected from 
attack. The King's side is usually 
adopted for the reason that there are 
fewer pieces on that side to get out 
of the way. 

General Observations. The King 
becomes specially valuable when the 
other principal pieces have been 
taken. It is good play to check early 
in the game if by so doing castling 
is prevented, but it is bad play ever 
to check without an object. 

, When a player's King is 

checked, he should interpose, 
if possible, some piece that at- 
tacks the checking piece, but 
never one of greater value. 

The Queen being the most 
valuable of the pieces, care 
must be taken that she is not 
placed on an open file or di- 
agonal in line with the King, 
permitting the enemy to pin 
her with a Bishop or Rook. 
The Queen not being able to 
move from the line, since the 
King would be left in check, 
has to exchange. This is 
called "losing the exchange." 
The same term is used also 
when a Rook is exchanged 
for a Bishop or Knight. 

The Rook can do little at 
the opening of the game, but 
later, especially after the 



Queens have been exchanged, it is a 
very important piece. 

The Bishop is of especial value in 
attacking a Knight or Rook. The 
King's Bishop being of special value 
by reason of his power of attacking 
the opposing King at the beginning 
of the game, should, if possible, be 
retained, whilst, it would be well to 
endeavor to exchange a Queen's 
Bishop for the opponent's King's 
Bishop. 

The Knight should not be allowed 
to get to the side of the board, as his 
power is much lessened there. The 



CHESS 



175 



CHESS 



Knight often opens the game, and a 
skillful player can make him a very 
powerful piece. 

In playing the Pawns the player 
should try to obstruct the way of the 
enemy and keep his own clear. The 
Pawns united have great power, but 
separated very little. The player 
who has Pawns at the end of a 
game, while his enemy has none, 
generally wins. The most important 
parts of a game are the beginning 
and ending, and a few special cases 
of these will be described. 

The following are illustrations of 
the use of the names and ab- 
breviations, and also of the 
check and checkmate : 

First : Suppose the men to 
be as in Fig. 5. 

If it be White's turn to play 
he can mate in two moves, as 
follows : 



2. 5. to a. 5 ais. 

3. R. frQ. sq. tal 

4. R.-K. 6 + 
5- R.-K. 4 + 



shown in Fig. 6, called the Tread- 
mill : 

WHITE. BLACK. 

1. Kt. to B. 3 4- P. takes Kt. (forced). 

2. B. to B. 5 dis. + K. to K. 4. 

sq. takes B.+ R. takes R. 
K.-Q. 5. 
K. B. 4. 

6. R. B. 4 -f K. Q. 3. 

7. R.-B. 6 -f K.-K. 4 . 

8. R. K. 6 etc. 

and draws by Perpetual Check, the 
Rook going ' round like a wheel, 
while the King steps from one rung 
of the ladder to the other. 

GAME FOR PRACTICE. 

The beginner who has no experi- 



WHITE. 

1. Q. K.R. sq. 

2. Q.XR. mate. 

1. Q.-K.R. sq. 

2. R.XR. mate. 



BLACK. 

i. Either R.XR, 



i. R. moves else- 
where. 



White plays for his best 
move i, Q. K.R.sq. Now, 
if Black with one of his Rooks 
takes one of the white Rooks, 
White plays 2, Q. XR., and 
can now say " check," for his 
Queen commands the square 
on which the black King is, 
and would take him, were he 
any other piece. The black 
King having now no piece 
which can be interposed, and two of 
the three adjacent squares being 
occupied by his own pieces and the 
third being likewise attacked by the 
hostile Queen, the King is check- 
mated. If, instead of moving a 
Rook to the end of square, Black 
plays one of his Rooks but one, two, 
or even five squares, then one of the 
white Rooks captures it and mate is 
given in the same manner. It is 
evident that the black Pawn cannot 
be moved, because the King would 
then be in check of the white Queen. 

An example of Perpetual Check is 



a 




WHITE. 

Fig. 6. The Treadmill. 

enced player for a teacher will learn 
much about the moves and the dif- 
ferent situations by playing, on the 
board, the following practice game, 
making each move slowly and care- 
fully, and trying thoroughly to under- 
stand the reasons given for it. 

The game, with the comments on 
the different moves, is from the trea- 
tise on Chess by Howard Staunton. 

WHITE. BLACK. 

1. P. to K. 4. i. P. to K. 4. 

2. B. to Q.B. 4. 2. B. to Q.B. 4. 
This constitutes the King's Bish- 
op's opening (see following). 



CHESS 



I 7 6 



CHESS 



3. Q.toK.R. 5 . 

This threatens to checkmate Black 
by taking the K.B. Pawn with the 
Queen, and also threatens K.'s Pawn, 
but it is rarely right to play the 
Queen so soon. Black easily protects 
himself by the following move : 
3. Q. to Q. 2. 

4. Kt. to K.B. 3. 4. P. to Q. 3. 
Here, White attacks Black's K. 

Pawn again, but Black again defends 
it by bringing up another man. 

5. Kt. to K.Kt. 5. 

This brings three pieces to attack 
Black's K.B.P., which is defended by 
only two. 

5. Kt. to K.R. 3. 

Black here defends by bringing up 
a third piece. A skillful player would 
probably make instead an attack in 
another place, for instance by threat- 
ening White's Queen with Kt. to 
K. B. 3. 

6. Kt. to Q.B. 3. 

This move threatens to attack the 
Queen at Q. 5. 

6. P. to Q.B. 3. 
Black guards against the attack. 

7. Castles. 7. Castles. 
(Moving the K. (In the same way.) 

to K.Kt.'s sq. 
and the R. to 
K.B.'s sq.) 

As a rule, beginners should castle 
early in the game. 

8. P. to Q.'s 3. 8. Kt. to Q. 2. 

Black acts wisely here in not at- 
tacking the Queen at once by playing 
Q.B. to K.Kt. 5. 

9. K. to K.R. sq. 

The object of this move is to 
strengthen White's attack on the 
opposite King. He wishes to throw 
forward his K.B. Pawn, but while 
the King stands on Kt.'s sq. moving 
the Pawn would expose the King to 
check from the opposing Bishop. 
Therefore, he moves his King as 
above. 

9. Kt. to K.B. 3. 

This forces White to move his 
Queen, and makes Black's King 
secure, for a time. 

10. Q.toK.R. 4. 10. P. to Q. 4. 



Very well played, for if White 
does not take this Pawn with Pawn 
his Bishop is driven back ; while, if he 
does take it, he gives Black a chance 
to attack the white Queen with K.Kt. 
ii. P. takes Q. P. u. Kt. to K. B. 4. 

This forces White to move his 
Queen, and there is but one square 
to which he can move her, all the 
others being attacked. 

12. Q.toK.R. 3. 12. Kt.toK.6. 
Black thus attacks at the same 

time White's Q. with his B., and R. 
with his Kt. 

13. Q. to K.R. 4. 

Instead of this he might have 
moved his foremost Pawn to Q.'s 
6th, threatening the black Queen, 
but the Queen might then have re- 
treated to her own square, where she 
would be safe. 

13. Kt. takes R. 

14. Q.Kt. to K.'s 4. 

Black exposes his Kt. to capture 
(see move 17), and White therefore 
simply exchanges his Rook for his 
enemy's Knight. This is called " the 
exchange." White loses the ex- 
change in this instance because a 
Rook ranks above a Knight. But 
in return for this loss he is enabled 
to attack the black King again. 

14. P. to K.R. 3. 

If Black had taken Kt. with Kt., 
White would have checkmated by 
taking K.R. P. with Q. If he had 
taken Q.P. with P., White would 
have checkmated in two moves by 
taking Kt. with Kt., checking, and 
then K.R. P. with Q., checkmating. 

15. P. to Q. 6. 

White defends himself by keeping 

up the attack. This is better than 

to move back the threatened Knight. 

15. B. takes P. at Q. 6. 

If Black had taken the Knight 
with Pawn instead, he would have 
lost the game. White would have 
taken P. with his Q.'s B., and check- 
mate would follow, as the learner 
can discover in a few minutes' study. 

16. Kt. to K.B. 3. 16. Kt. takes Kt. 

17. Q. takes Kt. 17. K. to R.'ssq. 

1 8. K. to Kt.'s sq. 



CHESS 



177 



CHESS 



White loses time here. His ob- 
ject is to take the Knight, but the 
Knight cannot escape and it would 
have been better to try to prevent the 
advance of Black's K.B. Pawn. 

18. P. to K.B. 4. 

19. Q. to K. 2. 

It wou d have been better to play 
Q. to K.R. 4, for now Black is likely 
either to release his Knight, or gain 
another piece in return for him. 

19. P. to K. 5. 

20. Kt. to K.Kt.'s 5. 

If Black should now try to take 

the Knight, he would lose the game. 

20. Kt. takes K.R. P. 

Black has now contrived to free 
the Knight. 

21. P. takes P. 21. P. takes P. 

22. Q.to K.R. 5. 

Having lost a Rook, White can- 
not afford to take the Pawn with 
his Queen and exchange Queens. 
He prefers to try and gain a Rook 
for his Knight. 

22. Kt. toK.Kt. 5. 
Black does not attempt to prevent 

him. 

23. Q. to K.Kt. 6. 

White had better have checked 
with his Kt. at K.B. 7, as he in- 
tended. 

23. B. to K.B. 4. 
Black might safely have taken the 

Kt. with his K.R.P.' 

24. Q. to K. R. 5. 

White could have gained the 
Rook for his Knight by giving check 
with the Knight, but then he would 
have had to exchange Queens, and a 
Queen would be a greater loss to 
him than to Black, since White's 
force is smaller. 

24. P. to K.Kt. 3. 
This prevents White from ex- 
changing the Knight for the Rook, 
and he retires. 

25. Q. to K.R. 4. 25. B. to Q.B. 4. 
The Black threatens to take 

White's Q. by first taking K.B. P., 
and to prevent it White must move 
his Queen or interpose his Q. 
Bishop. 

26. B. to K. 3. 



This costs White two pieces for 
one (see next three moves), but the 
other course would have been as bad. 

26. B. takes B. 

27. P. takes B. 27. Q. takes Kt. 
White can now be beaten by any 

experienced chess player. 

28. Q. to K.'s sq. 28. Kt. takes P. 

29. Q. toQ.B. 3(ch.) 29. K. to R. 2. 

30. Q. to Q. 2. 30. Q.R. to Q.'s sq. 

31. Q. to K. 2. 31. B. to K.Kt. 5. 

32. Q. to K.'s sq. 32. Kt. takes KKt.'s F 

33. K. takes Kt. 33. B. to K.R. 6. 

Black thus gives a double check. 

34. K. takes B. 34. R. to B. 6 (ch.) 

35. K. to R. 2. 35. Q to R. 4. (ch.) 

36. K. to Kt. 2. 36. Q. to Kt. 5 (ch.) 

37. K. to R. 2. 37. R. to R. 6. 

Checkmate. 

Black thus wins the game in 37 
moves. 

OPENINGS OF GAMES. 

Some of the different ways of 
beginning the game have received 
special names, and a few of these will 
now be given. It will be noted that 
in most of them the King's Pawn is 
moved first. This is because it clears 
the way not only for the King, but 
for the Queen and the King's Bishop. 
The Knight's Opening. 

WHITE. BLACK. 

1. P. to K. 4 P. to K. 4. 

2. Kt. to K.B. 3. 

The King's Bishop's Opening. 

1. P. to K. 4. P. to K. 4. 

2. B. to Q.B. 4. 

The Queens Bishop's Pawn's 
Opening. 

1. P. to K. 4. P. to K. 4 

2. P. to Q.B.3 

The King's Gambit. 

1. P. to K. 4. P. to K. 4. 

2. P. to K.B. 4. P. takes P. 
The word Gambit is derived from 

an Italian term used in wrestling, 
meaning a tripping up. In the above 
opening, and similar ones, a Pawn 
is placed where it may be taken, so 
that the player losing the Pawn will, 
by reason of the loss of time caused 
to his opponent, be able to bring his 
strong pieces into position and will 
regain the Pawn, perhaps with in- 
terest, at a later stage of the game. 



CHESS 



178 



CHESS 



If the opponent take the offered 
Pawn, that constitutes the Gambit, 
but he often refuses so to do. There 
are many Gambits, known generally 
by the names of the players who 
devised them. The King's Gambit, 
given above, is considered one of the 
safest openings for beginners. There 
are numerous variations of all these 
different openings, and numerous 
methods of defense. For instance, 
in the Knight's opening, Black may 
make any of the following for his 




1 r w/m. y if wffi/?,. ^ mm. 



HI * m. 




7. White to play and mate in four moves. 



second move. Each has been favored 
by skilled players. 

Q.Kt. toQ.B. 3. 

P. to Q. 3. 

K.Kt. to B. 3. 

or Q.Kt. to B. 3. 
If this last move is followed by 

WHITE. BLACK. 

3. B. to Q.B. 4. 3. B. to Q.B. 4. 
the opening is called the Giuoco 
Piano (Italian for Plain Game). 

ENDINGS OF GAMES. 

A game may end in various ways. 
If a player have a Queen and King 
against a King, he should win easily. 
With a Rook and King against a 
King, he should win in not more 



than 20 moves. With a King, 
Bishop, and Knight only against a 
King the game can be won also, but 
it requires some skill to do it, and 
the checkmate can be given only in 
a corner of the color on which the 
Bishop is running. With a King 
and one or two Knights only, or 
with a King and one Bishop only, 
checkmate cannot be given, and the 
game is drawn. The method in 
each case is to drive the opposing 
King to the edge of the board. With 
a King and two Bishops 
against a King this is much 
harder to do, but it can be 
done in about 30 moves. He 
who desires to become a skill- 
ful player should study the 
different cases that occur at 
the end of a game, examples 
of which can be found in 
any handbook or treatise on 
Chess. 

PLA YING WITH ODDS. 

In a game between a skilled 
player and a beginner, the 
former often gives the latter 
odds, that is, does, or agrees 
to do, something to his own 
disadvantage so that the con- 
test may be more nearly even. 
Sometimes he plays with a 
" Ringed Pawn," that is, he 
marks one of his Pawns by 
putting a ring over it, or in 
some other way, and agrees 
to checkmate with that particular 
Pawn. If he cannot do so, he loses 
the game. Sometimes the experi- 
enced player " gives the Pawn and 
move," that is, he takes his King's 
Bishop's Pawn from the board, and 
allows his opponent to move first. 
In like manner he sometimes gives 
Pawn and two moves, two Pawns 
and a move, a piece and one or more 
moves, or any of these without the 
move (see Rule 5). 

CHESS PROBLEMS. 

Chess Problems consist of certain 

arrangements of pieces, with which 

it is required to checkmate in a 

given number of moves. The study 



CHESS 



179 



CHESS 



of these problems is a great aid to 
the Chess player, and books have 
been published which contain noth- 
ing else. To show what they are 
like three problems are given below. 
The learner should try hard to solve 
them before looking at the answers. 

First Problem (Fig. 7). 
I. White. K. to Q.B. 5. 

It will be seen by a little study 
that the only piece Black can move 
is his King, and the only move the 
King can make without go- 
ing into check is K. to K. 5. 

2. White now moves B. to 
K.Kt. 2 (check). 

Black's only move is K. to 
K. 4 (retiring to his former 
post). 

3. R. to Q.B. 2. P. takes .R. 
(Black's only move.) 

4. White moves Queen's 
Pawn two squares (as he is 
allowed to do, since it has 
not yet moved), and check- 
mates. 

Second Problem (Fig. 8). 
White. Q. Q.B. 8. Now 
if Black moves his Queen or 
the Knight at - Q.R. 4, to 
Q.B. 5, White plays his 
Knight to Queen's sq., 
checkmating, because the 
black piece just played 
blocks the square previously Fig. 8, 
guarded by the Knight. 

If Black move the Knight at 
K. 4 anywhere, he leaves the 
Pawn at Q. 6 unguarded and 
White plays 2, R. takes P., mate. 
If Black move his Queen in any 
other way than to Q. B. 5, or if he 
move his Bishop anywhere, then 
White plays the Kt. at B. 7 to 
Q. 5., or Q.Kt. 5, giving check- 
mate, as the Kt. cannot be taken on 
account of discovering a check from 
the Queen. 

Third Problem (Fig. 9). The 
following ingenious position, by the 
great chess master Petroff, aptly il- 
lustrates the moves of the Knight in a 
crowded board. The disastrous re- 
treat of Napoleon (the Black King) 



from Moscow, in 1812, the harass- 
ing of his troops by the Cossack 
cavalry (the white Knights), the 
crossing of the river Berezina (the 
white diagonal tunning from K.R. 
sq. to Q.R. 8), and the final blow de- 
livered by the Russian emperor in 
person, are graphically depicted. 
The White K.R.'s sq., K.R. 8 sq., 
and Q.R. sq., represent St. Peters- 
burg, Paris, and Moscow respect- 
ively. 







White to play and mate in two moves. 
SOLUTION. 

WHITE. BLACK. 

i Kt. to Q. 2, giving double check and forcing 



the Black K. to go to his Rook' 



3 Kt trom y. 2 to Kt. sq. -J- 

4 Kt o R. 2 4- K. o Kt. 4. 

5 Kt o R. 3 4- K. o R. 3. 

6 Kt o Kt. 4 4- K. o R. 2. 

7 Kt o Kt. 5 4- K. o Kt. sq. 

8 Kt o R. 6 4- K. o B. sq. 
o Kt o R. 7 4- K. o Q. 2. 

10 Kt o Kt. 8 + K. o K. 2, 

11 Kt o B. 8 4- K. o B. sq. 

12 Kt o Q. 7 4- K. o Kt. sq. 

13 Kt o K. 7 -j- K. o R. sq. 

14 K.Kt. 3, discovering check and ma e. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

The following rules, in substance, 
are used by all Chess players in the 
United States, being condensed from 
those adopted by the FiftK American 
Chess Congress. 



oR. 6. 
o Kt. 5. 



CHESS 



i So 



CHESS 



1. The Chess board must be so 
placed that each player has a white 
corner square nearest his right hand. 

2. A deficiency in number, or a 
misplacement of the men, at the be- 
ginning of the game, when discov- 
ered, annuls the game. 

3. If a player, undertaking to give 
odds of a Piece or Pawn, neglect to 
remove it from the board, his adver- 
sary, after four moves, has the choice 
of going on with the game, or begin- 
ning it again. 

4. When no odds are given, the 
players must take the first move of 




WHITE. 

Fig. 9. Retreat of Napoleon. 

each game alternately, drawing lots 
to see who shall begin the first game. 

5. The player who gives the odds 
has the right to move first, unless 
otherwise agreed. Whenever a 
Pawn is given it must be the King's 
Bishop's Pawn. 

6. A Piece or Pawn touched must 
be played, unless, a man not being in 
proper position, the player, before 
touching it, gives notice of his inten- 
tion to arrange it by uttering dis- 
tinctly the words " J'adoube " (I re- 
place). But a Piece or Pawn over- 
turned or displaced accidentally may 
always be touched to put it back. 



When the player's hand has once 
quitted the piece moved, the move 
must stand. 

7. While a player holds the Piece 
or Pawn he has touched, he may play 
it to any square to which it may 
legally move. 

8. Should a player touch one of 
his opponent's men without giving 
notice that he is only arranging it, 
he must take it, if he can, and if 
not, he must move his King ; but if 
he can do neither, then there is no 
penalty. 

9. If a player touch more than one 

of his own men, he must 
move either one that his op- 
ponent may name. 

10. If a player take one of 
his adversary's men by mak- 
ing a false move, his opponent 
may compel him to take it 
with a man which can legally 
take it ; or, to move his King. 

11. Should a player take 
one of his own men with 
another, his adversary may 
compel him to move either. 

12. If a man be played to 
a square to which it cannot 
legally be moved, the player's 
adversary may require him to 
move the man legally, or to 
move his King. 

13. If a player make two 
moves in succession, the ad- 
versary may take his choice 
as to which one shall stand. 

14. Penalties can be enforced only 
at the time an offense is committed, 
and before any move is made there- 
after. 

15. A player cannot castle (i) if 
the King or Rook have been moved, 
(2) if the King be in check, (3) if 
there be any piece between the King 
and the Rook, (4) if the King pass 
over any square attacked by the ad- 
versary. For attempting to castle 
illegally, the player doing so must 
move either the King or Rook, as his 
adversary may dictate. 

1 6. If a player touch a Piece or 
Pawn that cannot be moved without 



CHESS 



CHESS 



leaving the King- in check, he must 
replace the Piece or Pawn and move 
his King, but if the King cannot be 
moved, no penalty can be inflicted. 

17. No penalty can be enforced 
for any offense committed against 
these rules in consequence of a false 
announcement of " check," nor in 
consequence of the omission of such 
announcement, when legal " check " 
be given. 

18. If the King has been in check 
for several moves, and it cannot be 
found how it happened, the player 
whose King is in check must take 
back his last move, and free the King 
from check ; but if the moves made 
after the check are known they must 
all be taken back. 

19. A willful displacement or over- 
turning of the men forfeits the game. 

20. Every Pawn which has reached 
the last line of squares must be im- 
mediately exchanged for a Queen, or 
any other piece the owner may 
choose, except a King, even though 
all the pieces remain on the board. 

21. If a player remain at the end 
of the game with a Rook and Bishop 
against a Rook, with both Bishops 
only or with the Knight and Bishop 
only, or if it be doubted near the end 
of a game, whether it will be a win 
or draw, or a win be possible, but 
the skill to force the game question- 
able, then either player may demand 
that the fifty following moves be 
counted. If, at the end of these 
fifty moves on each side, no check- 
mate has been given, the game is 
drawn. 

22. If a player agree to checkmate 
with a particular Piece or Pawn, or 
on a particular square, or engage to 
force his adversary to stalemate or 
checkmate him, he is not restricted 
to any number of moves. 

Give-away Chess. A form of the 
game which has recently come into 
use. Not requiring so much deep 
thought, and being full of sudden 
and unlooked-for surprises, it offers 
a quie't relaxation after the tiring 
head work of a game of regular Chess. 



The Give-away game differs from 
the ordinary one in this, that a play- 
er must invariably take a man when 
offered. When two or more men 
can be taken, the player has a choice, 
except when the King is in check ; in 
such case the checking piece must 
be taken, and in any event the King 
must be gotten out of check. The 
game is won in two ways. When a 
player is unable to force his antagon- 
ist to mate him, or gives him " sui- 
mate," as it is called. Secondly, 
when he forces his antagonist to 
capture all his men, leaving his King 
alone on the board. 

A good player strives to get rid of 
his Pawns as rapidly as possible. 

Fifteen or twenty moves may be 
easily calculated ahead in this game 
on account of the large number of 
forced moves. 

It differs greatly from the Give- 
away game in CHECKERS, because 
in the latter game he who has, at 
the end of the game, the superiority 
of force can win, whereas in the 
corresponding Chess game it is not 
possible to say whether it is best to 
hold a lesser or greater number of 
pieces than your antagonist. 

Four-handed Chess. This game 
is now played in all the principal 
clubs on both sides of the Atlantic. 

It is played on a board which 
may be described as an ordinary 
Chess board taken for a center, to 
which is added four other boards, 
placed one on each side. These 
added boards are but three squares 
deep, that is, they have each 24 
squares. The whole has, therefore. 
1 60 squares. 

A player sits at each of the sides 
of the board, the two players facing 
each other playing as partners, and 
the move changes from the player 
who has just moved, to his opponent 
on the left. Two sets of men are 
used, the one black and white and 
the other red and blue, the red and 
black being used by one pair of 
partners, and the blue and white by 
the other pair. The men are set in 



CHESS 



182 



CHESS 



the same manner as in the two- 
handed game, with the exception 
that the Kings are placed upon the 
right of the Queens, and the men are 
moved as in the ordinary game. No 
international code has, as yet, been 
adopted for this variety of the game, 
although several books upon the sub- 



ject have been published in England 
and Germany. The rules here given 
are those in use in New York, and 
differ but slightly from those of 
Europe. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

I. Before beginning a game an 
agreement must be arrived at as to 



^ 



.ss^s ss^s ssssss ills Ii 

i H IB m IP 

mm Jm mm Jim jim ^m 
** k " k ""l k 



WHITE. 

Four-handed Chess Board. 



whether the games shall be consulta- 
tion ones or not. It not, then perfect 
silence regarding the play must be 
maintained between the partners 
under penalty of the loss of the game. 
2. The men are placed in the two 
first rows of the four wings of the 
board in the same manner as in 



ordinary Chess, except that the Kings 
must all be placed on the right of 
Queens ; the Kings, therefore, do 
not face each other as in the regu- 
la'r game. 

3. The three rows of the -wings 
form the territories of the four Kings, 
and the 64 squares of the main 



CHESS 



183 



CHESS 



board forms the neutral or fighting 
ground. 

4. The Pawns may be moved one 
or two squares on the first move of 
each, afterwards but one. A Pawn 
having reached the other side of the 
board, remains blocked. [In Europe 
the rule is that the Pawn changes 
direction upon reaching the four- 
teenth rank. The question, however, 
is of very little importance, since the 
chance of a Pawn in the four-handed 
game reaching the other side of the 
board is not one in a thousand.] 

4. A Pawn having pushed against 
another Pawn or piece, no matter to 
whom it belongs, cannot move until 
the obstacle is removed, or a man 
should be, or come upon, the con- 
tiguous diagonal so that it may be 
taken by it. 

5. Pawns are Queened only upon 
the King row of one of the enemies' 
territories. These squares can only 
be reached by the Pawns moving 
diagonally when capturing the ene- 
my's men. As soon as a Pawn 
reaches one of the three ranks of 
the enemy's territory, it changes its 
direction of motion and moves to- 
ward the King row of the territory 
just reached. At the same time it 
receives a great increase in power, for 
it can capture a man on any of the 
four contiguous diagonals. If, how- 
ever, by reason of taking a man it 
returns to its own territory, or to the 
neutral ground, then it loses its added 
force and takes up its original direc- 
tion. This change of the force and 
direction of the Pawn causes no con- 
fusion, as its position proclaims its 
power. 

6. The game is won only when 
both the opposing Kings are check- 
mated. 

7. When one of the Kings has 
been checkmated, his pieces are dead 
for the time being, and none of them 
can be captured or the squares upon 
which they stand be occupied by a 
man, either friend or foe. 

8. A King is not officially in check 
until his turn comes to move. 



9. A King is not mated until his 
turn comes to move, when, if in 
check and unable to get out of it, he 
is checkmated. 

10. A partner is not required to 
cover a check to his partner's King, 
nor is he prevented (interdicted) 
from moving one of his pieces and 
thereby uncovering a check upon his 
partner. 

1 1 . A checkmate having been re- 
leased by one partner removing a 
piece, or otherwise, the other part- 
ner having to move also before the 
checkmated King, cannot take one 
of the latter's pieces, as the check- 
mate is not officially annulled until 
the mated King's turn comes to 
move. 

12. Castling is permitted in this 
game, but cannot be made use of 
until the game is far advanced. 

13. When one of your antagonists 
is checkmated, his men being dead, 
your King may move to and remain 
upon any square commanded by the 
dead pieces. The moment, how- 
ever, the mate is released, your King 
comes into check and must be got- 
ten out when your turn comes to 
move. This rule does not apply to 
Kings, which cannot be brought 
into close proximity at any time. 

Method of Play. If great care be 
not taken in the opening, mate will 
be given on the third or fourth move. 
The opening move generally adopted 
is Pawn to Q.B. 3 for the first three 
players, and P. to K. 3 by the fourth 
player. This move of P. to Q.B. 3 
is made in preference to the old 
move of i, P. to K. 3, because it is at 
once defensive and attacking. The 
fourth player is compelled to play i, 
P. to K. 3, to prevent getting into 
trouble. 

A check in this game is much 
more to be feared than in an 
ordinary game, for the reason that 
the partner of the man who gives 
the check seizes the opportunity to 
inflict all the damage he can upon 
the one who is in trouble. The great 
aim, therefore, of a player of this 



CHESS 



184 



CHESS 



game, is to endeavor to have a check 
threatened against one or both of his 
opponents' Kings and keep his own 
King so covered up that his oppo- 
nents cannot give him check. Un- 
like the ordinary two-handed game, 
the Queens are brought out in the 
early part of the game because their 
power of giving check is very great. 
Before making a move, the partner's 
position must be carefully examined 
as well as the player's own, and if he 
see that the former is in greater 
straits than himself he is called upon 
to sacrifice himself and aid his friend. 
Ability and promptness in doing 
this is considered one of the great 
virtues in Four-handed Chess. 

The King's Rook's Pawn moved 
two squares is a strong defensive 
move and is frequently made as a 
second or third move. 

A double check by each of the 
opponents must be carefully avoided, 
as the result is often a mate. 

The order of succession of the 
moves must be carefully considered, 
as a failure to observe which of the 
opponents will first move will spoil 
a player's calculations and result in 
disaster. 

History. The origin of Chess has 
been claimed by many nations and 
ascribed to various persons. Some 
writers say that it was invented by 
Japhet, the son of Noah ; others by 
King Solomon, the Greek Palamedes. 
Han-sing, a Chinese Mandarin, Shat- 
reuscha, a Persian astronomer, etc. 
But these stories are purely imag- 
inary. 

Thanks to the recent researches 
of Dr. Forbes, all doubts have been 
set at rest, and the best modern 
writers concur in the belief that the 
game is of Hindoo origin. Dr. 
Forbes has discovered in Hindoo 
literature documents dating back to 
3000 years B.C., describing a game 
which certainly represents, in a 
primitive form, the modern game of 
Chess. It was called Chaturanga, 
which means Four Parts, because it 
was played by four persons. The 



board had 64 squares, as now, but 
all of the same color. Each player 
had four Pawns and four Pieces 
King, Elephant, Horse, and Ship, 
corresponding to our King, Bishop, 
Knight, and Rook. The moves were 
at first determined by throwing 
DICE, but afterward the player 
moved which he pleased. The King, 
Horse, Ship, and Pawns moved like 
our King, Knight, Rook, and Pawns, 
but the Elephant (our Bishop), 
could advance only two squares at a 
time. The Hindoos took the game 




One of Charlemagne's Chessmen. 



to Persia, where the name was cor- 
rupted to Shatranj, and from that 
country it spread to Arabia, and 
thence to Europe, being probably 
taken first to Spain by the Moors. 
But before the game left India the 
number of players was reduced to 
two, each with a double set of men 
as at present. Instead of having two 
Kings, however, one of them was re- 
duced to a mere counselor or general 
(our Queen), who was allowed to 
move only one square diagonally. 
During the Middle Ages, but at what 
times is not known, the powers of 
the Bishop and Queen were increased, 



CHESS 



185 



CHESS 



the Pawns were allowed to jump two 
squares at the first move, and cast- 
ling was introduced. 



The names of the Chessmen vary 
in different countries, though the 
principal piece is everywhere called 




Ancient Chess Kings. 



the King, and the second, Queen or 
Lady. The latter, as has been said, 



was originally a minister or general, 
called in Persian Farz or Firz, 




Modern Chessmen. 



which in Europe became Farzia or this was corrupted into Vierge 
Fercia. Some say that in France (Virgin), and thus the piece came to 



CHESS 



1 86 



CHESS 



be called Dame (Lady). The Per- 
sian Pil (Elephant) became in Ara- 
bic Al-Fil, and in Spanish Alferez. 
The French Fou (fool) is corrupted 
from the same word. The German 



Ancient Chessmen. 

name is Laufer (runner), and the 
pieces are called Bishops in no lan- 
guage but English. The Hindoo 
Roka (ship) becomes our Rook and 
the Italian Rocca. The latter word 



means a rock or fortress, so the 
piece is called also Castle in English, 
Tour (tower) in French, and Thurm 
(tower) in German, and is made to 
look like a Tower. The Cavalry 
piece, which was a Horse in India, 
has become a Knight in English and 
Cavalier in French, though it is still 
made like a Horse's head. The Ger- 
mans call it Springer (leaper). The 
Pawn was first called Foot Soldier, in 
French Pzon, whence our Pawn. 
The Germans call the Pawns Bauern 
(peasants). 
The game itself is called in French 




Game of Chess with Living Chessmen. (See page 188.) 



checs, and in German Schach, 
which, with our word Chess, are 
probably all from the Persian Shah, 
King, though some say they are from 
the old Hindoo name of the game, 
Chaturanga. The word checkmate 
is probably from the Persian Shah- 
mat (the King is dead). 

From its earliest history Chess has 
been a favorite game with great men. 
Timur or Tamerlane, the Tartar con- 
queror, invented what he called the 
"Great Game," on a board of no 
squares, and invited the principal 
men to play with him in every town 



he entered, sending them away with 
presents, whether he lost or won. 
The Caliph Haroun Al Raschid, sent 
to Charlemagne a fine set of Chess- 
men, one of which is shown in the 
illustration. The game was a fav- 
orite also with Voltaire, Napoleon, 
Frederick the Great, and many other 
celebrated persons. 

Chess is said to be the only game 
now considered harmless by all relig- 
ious sects, but in the Middle Ages 
it was often condemned with other 
games by the rulers of the church. 
In the countries most remote from 



CHESS 



18? 



CHESS 



European influence it is still played 
in the old way, with the original 



Hindoo or Persian moves ; but in 
most parts of the world it is played 




The Automaton Chess Player. (See page 188.) 



as with us. A great many books 
have been written about it, one of the 
first of which was by Abul Abbas, a 
physician of Bagdad, in the year 899. 
The first to bring Chess into public 
notice in this country was Benjamin 
Franklin, who also wrote an essay 
on "The Morals of Chess." The 
game was little played here, how- 
ever, before 1825. In 1858 Paul 
Morphy, an American, was Chess 
champion of the world, and he is 
considered by some the finest player 
that ever lived. 

The forms of Chessmen have varied 
from time to time. The Persians 
and Arabs, and other Mohammedan 
peoples, being forbidden by their 
religion to have images of any kind, 
usually made their pieces in rude 
shapes, though sometimes with an 



Europe, they assumed many shapes, 
some of which are shown in the pic- 




The last figures on page 185 



approach to a figure. In Christian j show examples of modern Chessmen^ 



CHIVALRY 



1 88 



CHLORATE OF POTASH 



In the Middle Ages the game was 
sometimes played by numarchs with 
living Chessmen in a court yard paved 
to represent a Chess board, as shown 
on page 186. A circular chess-boaid 
was sometimes used in old times. 
The numbers in the illustration cor- 
respond to the following names : I, 
King; 2, Queen; 3, Rock (Rook); 
4. Aliin (Bishop); 5, Knight; 6, 
Pawn. 

A so-called Automaton Chess 
Player was first exhibited in Vienna, 
in 1769, by Wolfgang von Kempe- 
len, an Austrian mechanician, and it 
was bought about 1805 by John 
Maelzl, who brought it to this 
country. It consisted of a figure of 
a Turk seated behind a box which, 
when opened, appeared to be nearly 
full of machinery that was supposed 
to move the figure, but it was after- 
ward discovered that a man ingeni- 
ously concealed in the box was the 
real player. The man could tell what 
pieces were moved by means of little 
magnets under the board, which rose 
or fell as the squares were occupied 
or not, the Chessmen containing 
pieces of iron. In 1842 the automa- 
ton was bought by a gentleman in 
Philadelphia, and in 1854 it was de- 
stroyed by fire in that city, but sev- 
eral imitations of it have since been 
exhibited, in which the figure was 
called by various names, such as 
" Mephisto " and " Ajeeb." It is of 
course impossible to make a mere 
machine which will play a game like 
Chess. 

CHIVALRY, a game played by 
two persons on a board like that in 
the figure. The squares are alter- 
nately light and dark, and the letters, 
spots, and stars are gilt. Each 
player has twelve pieces like Pawns 
in CHESS and eight others, slightly 
different, called Knights. Each 
places his common pieces on the 
two rows of spots nearest him, and 
his Knights on the squares marked 
K. , and the players take turns in mov- 
ing, the object being to occupy the 
two opposite gold stars with any two 



pieces. Both Knights and men have 
three kinds of moves. 

1. The common move, by which 
the piece advances one square in any 
direction, like the King in CHESS. 

2. The canter, by which a piece 
leaps a friendly piece to the next 
space beyond in any direction, pro- 
vided that space is vacant. The 
leaped piece remains on the board. 
The same piece can make as many 
canters as it wishes in one move, 
but is not obliged to canter at all. 

3. The jump, by which a piece 
leaps an enemy's piece in any direc- 
tion, provided there is a vacant space 
just beyond. The jumped piece is 
removed from the board. The jump 























Chivalry Board. 

must be made, if there is a chance, 
and as many as possible must be 
made by the same piece in one move. 

The plain pieces can move, canter, 
or jump, but can never combine two 
of these methods in one play. The 
Knights can combine the canter and 
jump, provided that all canters pre- 
cede all jumps, but cannot combine 
a simple move with either of the 
others. The game differs from 
CHECKERS in allowing a piece to 
pass over one on the same side. It 
is entirely a game of skill. 

CHLORATE OF POTASH, Ex- 
periment with. Melt a teaspoonful 
of chlorate of potash in a test-tube. 



CHLORINE 



189 



CHOOSING SIDES 



and when it begins to boil drop into 
it a bit of charcoal the size of a pea. 
The charcoal will take fire and jump 
about in the tube. The reason is 
that heating the chlorate of potash 
sets free the OXYGEN in it, and it is 
this that causes the charcoal to burn 
so vividly. 

CHLORINE, Experiments with. 
Chlorine gas is described in C. C. T. 
The easiest way to make it is to put 
a few teaspoonfuls of chloride of 
lime in the bottom of a glass jar, 
and pour on it just enough dilute sul- 
phuric acid to cover it. Chlorine 
will at once begin to be formed, and 
owing to its weight will remain in 
the jar if a piece of paper be placed 
over the mouth to prevent draughts. 
The experimenter must avoid breath- 
ing the gas, as it is very irritating to 
the lungs. If it be desired to keep 
the jar clean, the chloride of lime 
maybe put into a small wide-mouthed 
bottle, like a vaseline bottle, which is 
lowered into the jar by a string tied 
around the neck, and the sulphuric 
acid is then poured into the small 
bottle by means of a funnel. When 
enough gas has been made to fill 
the jar, the little bottle is withdrawn 
by means of the string. The chlo- 
rine, made in this way, comes from 
the chloride of lime. Chlorine may 
be prepared in several other ways, 
but the one just given is the simplest. 
In making and experimenting with 
this gas, it is best to stand in a 
draught, so that what escapes may 
be carried awav from the experi- 
menter. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

i. One-third fill a small jar of 
chlorine with water ; then place the 
hand tightly over the mouth of the 
jar and shake the contents a few 
minutes. It will be found that the 
hand sticks to the jar, as if the air had 
been partially pumped out by an air 
pump (C. C. T.). The reason of this 
is that water dissolves chlorine easily 
and thus makes the pressure in the 
jar less than that of the air without. 

Note. Owing to the attraction of 



chlorine for water it often gets laden 
with moisture, and to insure the 
success of some of the following ex- 
periments, the gas may have to be 
dried. This may be done by shaking 
in the jar several bits of pumice stone 
wet with strong sulphuric acid. 

2. It will be found impossible to 
burn a jet of chlorine in the air, but 
it may be burned in hydrogen, using 
the apparatus described in the arti- 
cle OXYGEN, for burning oxygen in 
hydrogen. 

3. Lower a burning candle, or a 
lighted wood-splinter, into a jar of 
chlorine. It will continue to burn, 
but will give off a dense black smoke, 
The reason is that chlorine likes 
hydrogen but not carbon (see C. C. 
T.). Candles and wood contain 
both these elements, so the chlorine 
unites with the hydrogen and throws 
off the carbon in a cloud of black 
particles. 

4. Dip in oil of turpentine a bit 
of cotton fastened to the end of 
a piece of wire. Heat it by holding 
it over a stove for a moment, and 
then plunge it into a jar of chlorine. 
If it has been warmed enough it will 
take fire, burning with a dense black 
smoke. 

5. To bleach with chlorine. Hang 
in a jar of chlorine a bit of colored 
cloth, or a flower, and the color will 
be taken out. Ink spots can be re- 
moved from cloth or paper in the 
same way. It is necessary that 
either the chlorine or the article to 
be bleached be slightly moist, as dry 
chlorine will not bleach. A solu- 
tion of the gas, called chlorine water, 
may be prepared as in experiment I, 
and can be used for bleaching or as 
a disinfectant. Pour some on any 
ill-smelling or colored substance, and 
in most cases the bad odor, or the 
color, will disappear. 

6. Into a jar of chlorine sprinkle 
powdered antimony. It will take fire 
as it enters the gas. 

CHOOSING SIDES, or Choos- 
ing Up. In many games where 
the players are divided into two 



CHOOSING SIDES 



190 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



opposite parties, some way of choos- 
ing sides is necessary. In most 
cases two captains are first agreed 
upon. The captains decide which 
shall have first choice, and then, in 
turn, choose the other players, one 
by one. As soon as a player is 
chosen he stands near his captain. 
The first choice is determined by 
lot, and there are many ways of 
deciding it, some of which are given 
below. 

I. By drawing cuts. One captain 
holds in his hand a long and a short 
piece of paper or wood, of which he 
shows only the ends. The other 
draws one of them, and the player 
holding the short piece has first 
choice. 

II. By throwing up a coin. One 
captain throws a coin into the air 
while the other cries either " head " 
or '' tail." If the side of the coin 
which he mentions comes uppermost, 
he has first choice ; otherwise, the 
tosser has it. The side with the 
date on is always considered the 
head ; the other the tail. 

III. In games played with a racket, 
the racket is used as the coin is 
above, except that the cries are 
" rough " and " smooth," correspond- 
ing to the rough and smooth sides 
of the racket. 

IV. In games played with a bat or 




Fig. i. Choosing Sides. 



stick of any kind, like baseball or 
hockey, the first choice is often de- 
cided thus: One of the captains, A, 
holds the bat upright, and throws it 
to the other B, who catches it in one 
hand, also holding it upright. A 
then grasps the bat in one hand 
above where B is holding it and as 
Icose to B's hand as possible. B 
then lets go and grasps the bat above 
A's hand in like manner. Thus they 
go on in turn, and the one who holds 
the bat nearest its end (as in Fig. I, 
without letting his hand reach be- 
yond it), has first choice. A hand is 
judged to be below the end of the bat 
when a stick laid across that end, 




Fig. 2. Choosing Sides. 

as in Fig. 2, does not touch the 
hand. 

V. A number of playing cards 
equal to that of the players, half red 
and half black, may be shuffled and 
then dealt one to each. The holders 
of black cards play on one side, and 
those of red cards on the other. 

VI. One of the captains shuts his 
eyes or turns his back on the other, 
who holds up as many fingers as he 
chooses and says " Odd or even ? " 
If the first named captain answer 
correctly, he has the first choice ; if 
not, the other has it. 

CHRISTMAS SPORTS. Christ- 
mas Day, the 25th of December, is 
celebrated throughout the Christian 
world by the giving of presents in 
different ways, which will be de- 
scribed separately. 

Christmas Trees. The present 
are hung on an evergreen tree, which 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



191 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



is decorated and lighted with candles. 
The best Christmas trees are of 
spruce, but hemlock, cedar, or any 
evergreen may be used. A symmet- 
rical and graceful tree should be 
selected, one whose limbs incline up- 
ward but little, and stout enough to 
bend but slightly when laden with 
presents. 

Stands to keep the tree upright 
may be bought in cities, but one can 
easily be made from an old packing 
box by nailing strips of wood across 
to hold it in place, as shown in the il- 
lustration. If the tree is tall, the box 
should be weighted by filling with 
stones, or sand, after it is put in its 
place. A sheet or rug should be 
spread on the floor to catch candle 




Manner of Fastening Tree. 

drippings, and another one over 
the box and close around the 
tree. 

Decoration. Many beautiful or- 
naments of glass or metal are to be 
bought at toy-shops for tree decora- 
tion ; others may be made at home. 
Almost anything bright colored or 
shining looks well on a Christmas 
tree. Pasteboard cut into odd shapes 
and covered with gilt or colored 
paper, bits of new tin or looking 
glass, or small fruits, may be used 
with effect. Pop corn strung on 
thread and intertwined among the 
branches looks well. Fruit or nuts 
may be painted with gold paint, or 
covered with gilt paper, and hung to 
the tree with colored ribbon. 



Lighting. Trees are usually 
lighted with colored tapers, about 
three inches long, fastened to the 
branches with holders. The best 
holders are fitted to a wire, which 





Candle Holders. 



in most cases. 



has at the lower 
end a colored ball 
the weight of which 
keeps the candle 
upright. Others 
are fastened to the 
branch with sharp 
ends but have the 
disadvantage that 
a motion of the 
branch tips them. 
Both kinds are 
shown in the cut. 
The candles should 
be distributed as 
evenly as possible. 
A row of candles 
along only one 
branch looks bad 
Each candle should 
be lighted and allowed to burn a 
few seconds before putting it in place. 
In placing the candles, it should be 
seen that all loose things above them 
are trimmed off, so that there is no 
danger of fire. One or two extra 
candles should be provided to light 
the tapers with, and a sponge or rag 
saturated with water to extinguish 
any that appear likely to set fire to 
the tree. It should be the sole busi- 
ness of one person, while the tree re- 
mains lighted, to take charge of the 
sponge, and each candle, as it burns 
down into the socket, should be put 
out. A tree may be lighted with gas 
by having a gas-fitter run pipes up 
the back of the trunk and along the 
branches, but nothing equals the 
effect of tapers. There should be 
plenty of them : a small tree six feet 
high should have not less than 50, 
and larger sizes in proportion. A 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



192 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



tree twelve feet high would need 
about 400 candles. 

Presents. The presents may be 
hung on the tree, or placed on the 
box and floor beneath. Presents on 
the tree are fastened to the branches 
by strings or ribbons, which are to be 
cut by the one who removes them. 
Each present should be marked 
plainly with the name of giver and 
receiver, which should be read aloud 
when they are taken down. Instead 
of a Christmas tree, the presents are 
sometimes hung on a ladder, on the 
rounds of which tapers are fastened, 
the presents and decorations being 
hung to it just as to a tree. The 
ladder should be wound with a green 
wreath before decorating. A Christ- 
mas ladder is much more easily pre- 
pared than a tree, and looks very 
well. 

Christmas Ship. Presents may 
be hung also on a toy ship instead 
of on a tree. The ship may be 
bought at a toy shop, and the pres- 
ents should be placed inside and 
hung on the masts and rigging, which 
are wound with greens and decorated 
with tapers. Or the model of a 
floating ship may be made, water 
being represented by green cloth, 
beneath which, under the ship, is a 
box, where the presents are stowed, 
and from which they can be taken 
out through the hatchways. 

Bran Pie. Presents are some- 
times given in a large imitation pie, 
which is placed on the table Christ- 
mas morning. The presents, wrapped 
in paper, are put into a large pan 
and the spaces between them filled 
with bran or sawdust. The top is 
covered with pie crust, which is 
browned in the oven, provided none 
of the presents can be injured by 
heat. Another way is to make the 
top of the pie of thick brown paper. 
When set on the table, part of the 
crust is removed and the presents 
are taken, one by one, out of the 
bran. 

Stockings. Small Christmas pres- 
ents are often put into stockings, 



hung by the fireplace on Christmas 
eve, larger ones being laid on chairs 
near by. Sometimes a large stock- 
ing, several feet long, made especially 
for the purpose, is hung up to receive 
all the presents. 

Santa Claus. Santa Claus may 
be personated by a boy or man 
dressed in a thick fur coat, cap, and 
gloves, and stuffed out with pillows 
so as to look very fat. His face 
should be so muffled that only eyes 
and nose are visible, and his nose 
and cheeks should be colored red 
with carmine. 

There are several effective ways 
of having Santa Claus enter the room. 
One way is for him to rattle a string 
of sleighbells just outside, first very 
softly, and then louder and louder as 
if his sleigh were approaching ; finally 
he cries " Whoa! " and then enters 
the house through a window if it 
can be arranged ; otherwise through 
the door. He may carry the presents 
on his back in a pack, or they may 
be already arranged on a tree for him 
to distribute. 

Another way is to place a wooden 
mantel in front of a door, and cover 
the upper part of the doorway with 
cloth, so that the whole looks like a 
chimney-piece. Santa Claus can 
thus enter the room through the 
fireplace under the mantel, as if he 
had come down the chimney. A 
chair should be placed at one side of 
the doorway, behind it, and Santa 
Claus should step down from it, so 
that to those on the other side he 
will appear to be descending from the 
roof. He may carry all his presents 
at once, or, if there are too many, 
leave them in the " chimney," and 
return now and then for a fresh 
supply. Large stockings may be 
hung on either side of the imitation 
chimney-piece, into which he may 
cram the presents, which are then 
taken out by some one else and dis- 
tributed. The one who takes the part 
of Santa Claus should talk in a gruff 
voice as he gives the presents, mak- 
ing remarks appropriate to each one. 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



History. The celebration of a day 
as the birthday of Christ was begun 
very early. By some it is said to 
have been instituted by Pope Teles- 
phorus, who lived early in the second 
century. At first different days were 
kept in different parts of the world, 
the Eastern churches observing gen- 
erally some day in April or May. In 
the fourth century learned men were 
ordered to determine the exact birth- 
day of Christ, and they settled on 
the 25th of December, which has 
since been adopted by all Christians, 
though it is probable that that was 



not the day after all. It is said that 
this date was originally celebrated 
at Rome because a heathen festival 
called the Saturnalia had been held 
at that time, and so the common 
people would not have to change 
their time of revelry. During the 
middle ages Christmas was cele- 
brated by the performance of re- 
ligious plays called " mysteries " or 
" moralities," where different people 
took the parts of the Virgin Mary, 
Joseph, King Herod, etc. These 
plays are acted even now in some 
parts of Germany, and the illustra- 




The Star-bearer, Mary and Joseph, and the Angel. 



tions show the costumes of some of 
the characters. The festival was 
also the time for singing, dancing, 
and all kinds of revels. " Feasts of 
Fools and Asses," as they were 
called, were held, in which every- 
thing serious was burlesqued. These 
were sometimes called " December 
liberties." In Germany and the 
North of Europe the season became 
especially devoted to children. In 
England the Christmas festivities in 
every large house were in charge of 
a " Lord of Misrule," or " Abbot of 
Unreason," and they continued till 



Candlemas Day, February 2. In 
every house was built a great fire of 
logs, the largest of which, called the 
" Yule log " (Yule being the ancient 
Saxon name for Christmas), was 
brought into the house with great 
ceremony. Among the favorite 
Christmas games were giving rid- 
dles, HOT COCKLES, Snap Dragon 
(See HALLOWEEN), FORFEITS, and 
dancing. The Christmas dish was 
a boar's head, which was brought in 
on a silver platter with much cere- 
mony. The custom of decorating 
houses and churches with greens is 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



194 



CHRISTMAS SPORTS 



said to have been derived from the 
ancient Druids, who thought that if 
a green branch was suspended in 
the house the good spirits of the 




Satan. 

woods would take refuge in it dur- 
ing the cold of winter. The Puri- 
tans disapproved of Christmas rev- 
elry, and put a stop to it largely 
when they came into power. The 
last " Lord of Misrule " in England 
is said to have been appointed in 
1627. 

In many parts of Europe it is cus- 
tomary for a man with a mask over 
his face, dressed in outlandish fash- 
ion, to go the rounds of the houses in 
a village, pretending that he is going 
to punish bad children. This char- 
acter is called Ruprecht in Germany, 
Krampus in lower Austria, Hans 
Trapp in Alsace, and has other names 
in other places. Sometimes he ac- 
companies a man dressed as St. 
Nicholas or Santa Claus, or a girl 
dressed as the Christ-child, who 
brings presents. 

The Christmas tree is supposed to 
be derived from the old German leg- 



end that the world was a great tree 
whose top was in Paradise. It was 
first decorated in honor of the god- 
dess of spring while the Germans 
were still pagans. At the time of 
the Reformation, the Protestants, 
who wished to break away from all 
Roman Catholic customs, adopted 
this tree for their Christmas festivities 
instead of the Presipio, or manger, 
which is still used largely in Roman 
Catholic countries. Some Presipios 
cost large sums of money and rep- 
resent the Holy Family gathered 
around the infant Jesus, while angels 
sing in the clouds above. Presipios 
are used in churches and in private 
houses, just as we have Christmas 
trees for Sunday - schools and at 
home. 

In Poland, Christmas gifts are 
hidden in various places thoughout 
the house, and the members of the 
family search for them. In Sweden 
and Denmark presents are wrapped 
up in all sorts of queer ways, some- 
times in bundles of hay or wool, and 
thrown in at doors or windows at 
unexpected times. The packages 
are called Jueklapps (Christmas 
boxes). Each one is labeled with 
the name of the person for whom it 




The Three Kings. 

is intended, and sometimes a verse 
or quotation is added. 

Settlers from different countries 
brought their various customs with 
them to this country, so our cele- 
bration of Christmas is made up of 



CIRCULAR SAW 



195 



CLAP IN AND CLAP OUT 



those of several nations. The Eng- 
lish brought theirs to Virginia, the 
Dutch to New York, and the Swedes 
to Delaware. In New England, 
owing to the opposition of the Puri- 
tans to the celebration of the day, it 
was not observed at all in old times. 
The Christmas tree is taken from 




The Pharisees. 

Germany, and the legend of Santa 
Claus (St. Nicholas) was brought 
by the Dutch to New York. In the 
South the day is made the occasion 
for setting off fire-crackers and fire- 
works, which makes it seem much 
like Fourth of July in the North. 

CHROMOTROPE. See FOURTH 
OF JULY. 

CIRCULAR SAW, a toy consist- 
ing of a disk of tin, through which 
are bored two holes from an inch to 
an inch and a half apart, and equi- 
distant from the center. A string 



two or three feet long is passed 
through each of these holes, and the 
ends tied. Holding one end in each 
hand so that the disk is in the mid- 
dle, the player twirls the disk till the 
string is well twisted, and then pull- 
ing his hands apart, forces the string 
to untwist and spin the disk. At 
the moment when all the twist is out 
of the string the hands are brought 
slowly together again, and the disk 
goes on twirling, twisting the string 
in the opposite direction. By pull- 
ing the hands apart again, the disk 
will spin in the opposite direction, 
and it can thus be kept on spinning 
as long as the player chooses. Teeth 
can be cut on the edge of the disk to 
imitate a circular saw. The edges 
of the holes in a tin saw cut the 
string, so similar toys are sometimes 
made of stiff pasteboard, but these 
are not so durable. The saws are 
sometimes called water cutters, be- 
cause, when the edge is made to 
touch the surface of the water in a 
basin, a shower of spray is sent out. 
The toy may be made of any con- 
venient size, but it is usually from 
three to six inches in diameter. 

CLAP IN AND CLAP OUT, a 
game played by any number of boys 
and girls. The boys stand each be- 
hind a chair, and the girls go into 
another room. One of the players, 
who acts as keeper of the door be- 
tween the two rooms, asks one of 
the boys to choose a girl. The door- 
keeper then opens the door and calls 
the girl thus chosen, who must sit 




Circular Saw. 



down in one of the chairs. If she 
sit in front of the boy who chose her, 
he kisses her and she keeps her seat, 
but if not, all the boys clap their 
hands as a sign that she is wrong, 



and she must leave the room again. 
The door-keeper asks another boy 
to choose, and the game goes on 
till all the chairs are filled. The 
boys then leave the room, the girls 



CLIPPED SQUARES 



196 



COASTING 



stand behind the chairs, and the 
game is repeated. The play is often 
varied by calling in three or four at 
a time. 

CLIPPED SQUARES, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
with paper and scissors. Each 
player cuts a square, and then clips 
it into four pieces by two straight 
cuts of the scissors. He then mixes 
the pieces and passes them to the 
player on his left. All the players 
now try to arrange the bits so as to 
make the original square, and at the 
expiration of five minutes, or any 
other period agreed on beforehand, 
those who have been successful score 
one point. Each one now passes 
his pieces to the left again, and so on 
till each has had before him all the 
clipped squares, in regular order. 
He who has scored most points is 
the winner. The time limit must be 
arranged according to the skill of 
the players. If no one has solved 
his puzzle at the expiration of the 
time it should be longer ; if almost 
all have succeeded, it should be 
made shorter. 

The task of putting the pieces to- 
gether seems very simple at first, 
but in reality it is difficult. The four 
pieces can be put together in no less 
than 256 different ways, only one of 
which forms a square. 

The game can be played as a 
SOLITAIRE by simply clipping a 
square and then trying to put it to- 
gether again, which will be found 
almost as difficult as though the 
clipping had been done by another 
person. 

CLUB SWINGING. See GYMNAS- 
TICS. 

CLUMPS, a guessing game played 
by any number of persons. Two of 
the players, who act as captains, 
choose sides, and then each captain 
sends one of his men out of the room. 
The two thus sent agree on the 
name of any person or object, real 
or fictitious, to be guessed by the 
rest of the company. Each of the 
two then sits down among the 



players of the opposing side, who 
try to guess the object that has been 
selected, by asking him questions, to 
which he is permitted to reply only 
" yes," " no," or " I do not know." 
The players on the side that succeeds 
first in guessing announce the fact 
by clapping their hands, and the 
winning captain can then choose a 
man from the defeated side. Two 
men are then sent out again, and the 
game may go on till all but one of 
the players on one side have been 
chosen, when it must cease, because 
two on a side at least, are necessary, 
one to ask questions, and one for 
the enemy's side to question. As 
this generally takes a long time, an 
hour may be agreed on beforehand, 
when the players are to be counted, 
and the side with the greater number 
wins. The sides are often called 
Clumps. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The two Clumps must sit in 
separate rooms or, if this is impossi- 
ble, at opposite ends of the same 
room. 

2. The questioning shall begin at 
exactly the same time on each side, 
by any signal that may be agreed on. 

3. To avoid confusion, the captain 
on each side shall put the questions 
for his Clump, which may be sug- 
gested to him by members of the 
Clump in any order. 

4. If any question is put in such a 
form that it cannot be answered by 
"yes," "no," or "I do not know," 
no answer at all shall be made. 

5. As soon as the subject is guessed 
each of the questioned players shall 
return to his own Clump, unless he 
be the one chosen by the winning 
side. 

6. Neither of the captains shall be 
chosen. 

COASTING. (See C.C.T., Sleigh). 
There are three principal ways of 
riding on a sled ; sitting, lying, or 
kneeling on one knee, each of which 
positions has its advantages. In 
sitting, if the rider runs against any- 
thing his feet bear the shock, but he 



COASTING 



197 



COASTING 



cannot easily take a run in starting. 
In lying flat, the coaster starts by 
holding his sled upright in both 
hands, taking a short run, then 
stooping and throwing himself face 
downward on the sled. Besides the 
advantages gained by such a start it 
is easier to steer in this position, but 
he is more apt to be hurt in a col- 
lision, since his head is foremost. 
Many coasters prefer the third 
position, kneeling on one knee, or 
jitting sidewise on the rear of the 
3led, and steering with one leg, 
which is trailed behind. This is the 
best plan when more persons than 
one are on the same sled. All sit 
upright but the hindmost one, who 
does the steering. The steersman 
should keep a sharp lookout ahead 
for curves and obstacles of all kinds. 

On a hill crowded with coasters, 
it is the duty of those who are walk- 
ing up to keep out of the way of the 
sliders. A coaster should never 
descend a hill on which there is a 
vehicle going either way, and if 
there is much passing, there should 
be no coasting there at all. In many 
places coasting on such hills is for- 
bidden by law, but in some towns 
certain streets are set apart specially 
for the use of coasters. 

The two chief kinds of sleds are 
the high and the low, the former 
sometimes called cutters, and the 
latter in some piaces " pickerel " or 
" pig-stickers." The former have 
runners of open framework, shod 
with iron ; the latter have solid wood 
runners shod with bars of steel, 
fastened only at the ends. The run- 
ners of the high sleds curve upward 
sharply in front, while those of the 
low ones curve but slightly and end 
in a sharp point. The low sleds are 
best suited for a coaster lying flat, 
and for smoothly worn hills, while 
the others are fitted for tracks on 
which the loose snow is an inch or 
so deep. The sleds called " bobs " 
or " double rippers " are formed by 
joining two ordinary sleds of the 
same height by a plank ten to twenty 



feet long. This plank is fastened 
firmly to the rear sled, and pivoted 
to the forward one so that it will 
turn freely. The steering is usually 
done with the forward sled ; if it 
projects beyond the plank, the 
steersman lies at full length and 
holds the curved ends of the runners 
one in each hand, thus being able to 
turn the rudder-sled in whichever 
direction the bob is to be steered. 
Sometimes the pivot on which the 
sled turns is brought up through the 
plank and fitted with a lever, so that 
the helmsman may sit upright as he 
steers. A short bob may have both 
sleds fixed, and be steered behind, 
like an ordinary sled, and sometimes 
the guiding is done with an extra 
runner, something like the rudder of 
an ice-boat. In any case, the last 
passenger on the bob starts it by 
running and pushing, and jumps into 
his seat just as the proper speed is 
attained. 

Some bobs are expensively made 
of fine wood, beautifully polished 
and fitted with cushions for the pas- 
sengers. There is usually a hand- 
rail on each, by which the coasters 
may hold on. 

Accidents in coasting, as in other 
sports, occur usually through heed- 
lessness or neglect. With a single 
sled, the coaster is responsible only 
for his own safety, but in " bobbing " 
a load of from four to ten passengers 
are at the mercy of the steersman, 
and they should be careful to ride 
with no one who is not clear-headed 
and prudent. If the hill is a proper 
one and the bob or sled is well 
steered, coasting is as safe as any 
other sport. 

Coasting has undoubtedly been fol- 
lowed as a sport in cold countries 
from the most ancient times in some 
rude form or other. Even animals 
practise it, the otter being very fond 
of sliding down slippery banks either 
of mud or snow, on his belly. The 
sport was probably first reduced to 
a system in Russia. (See the history 
of TOBOGANNING.) 



COBALT CHLORIDE 



198 



COINS 



COBALT CHLORIDE, Experi- 
ments with. I. Write on a piece of 
paper with an ink made of cobalt 
chloride dissolved in water. The 
marks will be nearly invisible till 
heated, when they will turn greenish 
blue. 

2. Draw a landscape in ordinary 
ink, afterward filling in the leaves 
and grass with cobalt chloride. The 
picture will represent winter or sum- 
mer according as it is damp or dried. 

COHESION FIGURES. Figures 
formed by dropping oil on water. 
Let a drop of pure sperm oil fall into 




Oleographs of Tallow and Lard. 

a basin or plate full of water. The 
drop will quickly enlarge into a cir- 
cular film of oil, which breaks at the 
edges into ragged holes. Finally the 



center becomes filled with little holes, 
forming curious figures. The film 
continues to change for about half an 
hour. Castor oil gives smaller figures, 
and in general every kind of oil gives 
figures of a different shape. These 
figures can be preserved by laying a 
piece of glazed paper carefully on 
the surface of the water after the 
film has assumed the desired shape. 
The paper is then laid on an inked 
plate, or an inked roller is passed 
over it. The ink sticks to the paper 
except where the oil has made it 
greasy, hence the cohesion figures 
appear in white on a black ground. 
These are sometimes called oleo- 
graphs. The illustrations show oleo- 
graphs of tallow and lard. 

COINS, Tricks with. i. Head 
or Tail. To tell blindfold whether 
a spun coin falls head or tail upward. 
The coin used must be prepared by 
cutting on the edge of one face a 
minute notch causing a little point of 
metal to project. When the coin is 
spun, if it goes down with the notched 
side underneath, this point will catch 
on the table causing the coin to fall 
suddenly, instead of gradually as it 
otherwise would. With a little prac- 
tice the two sounds may be easily dis- 
tinguished. 

2. To rub One Coin into Two. 
Previously stick a coin with wax 
underneath a table, close to the edge. 
Borrow a similar coin and rub it 
violently with the ball of the thumb 
against the edge of the table. The 
fingers will thus naturally be beneath 
the table, and the waxed coin can 
easily be removed at any time and 
added to the one that is being 
rubbed. 

3. The Wandering Coin. Have 
ready two coins each slightly waxed 
on one side. Borrow a similar coin 
and secretly exchange it for one 
of the waxed ones, which is then 
laid on the table, waxed side upper- 
most. Draw two cards from a 
pack, and take them in the same 
hand with the other waxed coin, 
which will thus stick to the under- 



199 



COINS 



most. Lay this card on the table near 
the coin which is already there and 
cover that coin with the other card, 
pressing lightly on it so that it will 
stick. A coin may now be made 
to appear under whichever card the 
performer wishes, for if he bends the 
card slightly upward in lifting the 
coin will not stick to it ; otherwise it 
will. To the audience it will appear 
as if there were but one coin, which 
the performer caused at will to pass 
from one card to the other. 

4. The Animated Coin, Have 
ready a long piece of black thread, 
to one end of which is fastened a bit 
of wax. The waxed end lies on the 
table in front of the performer ; the 
other is held by an assistant in an 
adjoining room. On the table stands 
an ordinary goblet. The performer 
borrows a coin, and contriving to 
stick the wax to it throws it into the 
goblet, calling on the spectators to 
ask it questions which it will answer 
by jingling in the glass. It may be 
agreed that one clink shall mean 
" yes " and two " no." The assistant 
must be near enough to hear the 
questions, and answers them, ac- 
cording to his fancy, by pulling the 
thread, making the coin jump up and 
down in the glass. 

5. Coin and Card. Balance a card 
on the tip of your forefinger. On 




Coin and Card. 




top of it balance a coin about the 
size of a nickel five cent piece. Hit the 
edge of the card a smart horizontal 
blow with some object like a pencil, 
or snap it with your finger, if you can 



do it directly forward without tend- 
ing to drive the card up or down, 
and the card will fly away, leaving 
the coin balanced on your finger. 
6. Coin and Goblet. Support a 




'Coin and Goblet. 

glass goblet upside down on two 
coins, as shown in the picture, on 
a table covered with a cloth. Place 
a third coin within, and ask the com- 
pany to remove it without touching 
or removing the glass. This may 
be done by scratching on the cloth 
near the glass. 

7. Coins in Water. Fill a glass 




Coins in Water. 



goblet brimful of water, and then 
ask the company how many coins 



COIN COPYING 



200 



COMMERCE 



':an be dropped in without spilling it 
over. The guesses will all be too 
fimall, for a surprising number can be 
Out in if it be done carefully. 

COIN COPYING. To obtain an 
'ixact copy, in copper, of a coin or 
neclal, first make a mold of wax or 
Blaster of Paris. A wax mold is 
nade by pressing the coin down on 
i piece of warm wax, brushed over 
vith sweet oil to prevent sticking. 
\ plaster of Paris mold is made by 
itting a little paper rim around the 
:oin and pouring into it a mixture of 
Dlaster of Paris and water, which will 
'icon become hard. In this case the 
:oin should be brushed over with 
,'iweet oil for the same reason as 
before. The mold must then be 
covered thickly with finely powdered 
graphite, which can be obtained by 
crushing either graphite stove black- 
ing or pencil leads. When the mold 
is well covered with a thin layer of 
this, it is attached to the negative 
wire of a battery and hung in a solu- 
tion of copper sulphate (blue vitriol). 
The positive wire of the battery is 
attached to a copper coin suspended 
in the same vessel. The electric 
current will decompose the copper 
sulphate depositing copper on the 
mold. After a time the layer of 
copper may be pulled off the mold, 
and its lower surface will be an exact 
copy of the coin from which the 
mold was made. The process is ex- 
actly like that of ELECTROPLATING. 

COIN WINDMILL. A coin can be 
made into a toy windmill with the 
aid of two pins. Lay the coin flat 
on a table or on the knee and press 
the points of the pins against opposite 
edges, keeping the pins exactly in 
the same straight line. The coin 
may now be lifted by the pins, but if 
it hangs vertically this shows that it 
is not perfectly balanced, and another 
trial must be made. When it is 
properly balanced it will keep hori- 
zontal as it is lifted. By blowing 
on one side, the coin may now be 
made to spin very rapidly between 
the pins. 



COLLISION BALLS, Experiments 
with. Take half a dozen large glass 
marbles and paste a little strip of 
leather to each so that it may be sus- 
pended by a thread. The paste 
should be slightly moistened gum 
tragacanth, which, though it does 
not hold the leather to the glass when 
wet, sticks strongly after it dries. In- 
sert a broom straw between theleather 
and glass before the paste is dry, 
and afterwards, when it is removed, 
a hole will be left for the thread. 
These glass balls must be hung side 
by side on a frame or to the edge of 
a table or shelf. They should just 
touch each other, without pressing 
against each other at all. 

EXPERIMEN TS. 

1. Draw aside the end ball and 
let it fall against the next. All the 
balls will remain at rest save the 
one at the other end which will fly 
off. As it falls back against its 
neighbor the first one will fly aside 
again, and so the end balls will con- 
tinue to move alternately. Soon the 
middle balls will begin to move a 
little and at the end the whole half- 
dozen balls will sway to and fro 
slightly. If the balls were perfectly 
elastic the middle balls would never 
move, but always remain still as 
at first. The first ball struck is 
squeezed together a little, and ex- 
panding, squeezes its neighbor, and 
so on till the last ball is reached, 
which, having no neighbor, flies 
aside. 

2. Draw aside the two end balls 
and let them fall together. The two 
balls at the opposite end will fly off 
together. 

COMMERCE, a game played by 
any number of persons, with one or 
more full packs of cards, according 
to the size of the company. The 
dealer gives each player five cards, 
two and three at a time, and then 
deals five others face upward on the 
table. The latter are sometimes 
called the " widow." The player at 
the dealer's left may exchange any or 
all of his cards for an equal number 



COMMERCE 



201 



COMPASS 



in the widow, placing those he dis- 
cards face upward on the table with 
those he leaves, or he may "pass," 
that is, decline to exchange. The 
next player in order has the same 
privilege, and so on till each has had 
two chances, but any player who 
passes on the first round must do 
the same on the second. The hands 
are then shown, and he who has the 
lowest retires from the game. The 
value of the hands is the same as in 
DRAW POKER. At the close of the 
next hand another player retires, and 
so on till only one is left, who is the 
winner. Sometimes, if the company 
is large, two or three players retire 
each time instead of one. In this 
case, if more than one player is left 
at the end, he who has the highest 
hand wins. There are many varie- 
ties of this game ; some of the most 
common of which will be described. 

A retired player is sometimes 
allowed to enter the game again if 
he can induce an active player to 
speak to him. In this case the 
player who so speaks must retire 
from the game. 

Sometimes a player does not retire 
until he has twice 
held the lowest 
hand. 

The game is of- 
ten played with- 
out any widow. 
Each player in 
turn must either 
trade, barter, or 
stand. In trad- 
ing, the player ex- 
changes one of his 
cards for the top 
card of the remain- 
ing pack, the re- 
jected card being placed under the 
pack ; in bartering, he exchanges a 
card with his left-hand neighbor ; if 
he is satisfied with his hand as it is, 
he says " I stand." No player's 
left-hand neighbor may refuse to 
barter, unless he intends to stand. 
In bartering, each may select the 
card he wishes to exchange, but may 



not see the other player's card till 
the change is made. When any 
player stands, trade and barter cease, 
and the hands are shown at once. 

When parties are given at which 
this game is played, it is customary 
for the hostess to give one or more 
prizes to the winners. Sometimes 
a boy's prize and a girl's prize are 
offered, in which case the boy and 
girl holding the lowest hands respec- 
tively retire at the end of each round. 

Three-Card Commerce. Each 
player is dealt three cards, and the 
hands are as follows in the order of 
their value, beginning with the high- 
est : 

1. Tricon, three cards of a kind. 

2. Sequence, three cards in succes- 
sion. 

3. Flush, three cards of the same 
suit. 

4. A Pair, two cards of a kind. 

5. Point, the greatest number of 
pips on the cards held, counting the 
Ace as eleven, and face cards ten 
each. 

COMPASS, A simple mariner's 
compass may be constructed as fol- 
lows. Magnetize an ordinary knit- 




Home-made Compass. 

ting needle, E (see MAGNETS), and 
pass it through a small cork, F, from 
side to side, so that the cork is exactly 
in the middle of the needle. Thrust 
a pin lengthwise through the same 
cork, and then stick in it two sharp- 
ened matches, C, so that they project 
downward diagonally. On the ends 
of the matches fix balls of wax. The 



COMPLIMENTS 



202 



COMPRESSED MAN 



whole arrangement can now be 
balanced on a thimble, D, by resting 
the point of the pin in one of the 
little holes on the top. If the knit- 
ting needle is not horizontal, pull it 
through the cork to one side or the 
other, or alter one of the wax balls. 
The whole is placed in a common 
earthenware pudding dish, T, and 
covered with a pane of glass. A disk 
of paper, A, with the points of the 
compass marked on it, may be fixed 
under the needle, when the whole 
arrangement will appear like the 
illustration. For experiments with 
the compass see MAGNETS. 

COMPLIMENTS, a game played 
by any number of persons, who sit 
in a circle. One of the players begins 
by wishing that he were some animal, 
bird, or other object, living or not, as 
he may choose. He asks his right- 
hand neighbor to give a reason for 
this choice and the answer must not 
be complimentary. He then asks 
the same question of his left-hand 
neighbor, who must return a com- 
plimentary reply. Each player makes 
a similar wish in turn and asks the 
same questions of his neighbors. 
Should any one's answer be compli- 
mentary, instead of uncompliment- 
ary, or the reverse, the offender must 
pay a forfeit. 

For example, suppose the player 
wishes to become a dog. His right- 
hand neighbor may give as a reason, 
" That you may indulge your pro- 
pensity for making hideous noises"; 
and his left-hand neighbor may say, 
" Because of the faithfulness, intelli- 
gence, and noble character of the 
animal." 

COMPRESSED MAN, THE, a 
trick performed by two boys. One 
asks the other if he is willing to be 
compressed to half his height, and the 
two then retire from the room. One 
stands in front of the other and two 
poles are placed on their shoulders 
to imitate the poles of a bier or 
stretcher. A small pillow is placed 
across the poles behind the rear boy, 
who leans his head back upon it and 



rests his arms at full length along 
the poles, which must be long enough 
to allow his hands nearly to reach 
the back of the forward boy. Boots 
are placed on his hands, and then 
his arms are covered with a blanket. 




Fig. i. Compressed Man. 

This arrangement causes him to 
look as if he were carried by two 
men on a stretcher, reduced to a 
heighth of about three feet. The 
spectators will not notice at first that 




Fig. 2. Compressed Man. 

the rear bearer's head is invisible, or 
they will think that it is underneath 
the stretcher, concealed by the 
blanket. 
Fig. i shows the arrangement 



CONDUCTION OF HEAT 



203 



THE CONFESSOR 



before the blanket is put on ; Fig. 2, 
the appearance afterward. An " ex- 
tended man " can be made in a sim- 
ilar manner by placing the boots on 
sticks held in the hands of the rear 
performer, but the effect is not so 
striking. While the performers are 
absent from the room one of them 
should saw a piece of wood, while 
the other should groan, and a little 
sulphur may be burned to excite the 
interest of the spectators. 

CONDUCTION OF HEAT, Experi- 
ments on. I. Take a copper wire, 
an iron wire, and a glass rod, and 
dip them in melted wax, so as to 
form a coating on each. Lay them 
on a table with the ends projecting 
about two inches over the edge and 
crossing each other. Hold an alco- 
hol lamp under the place where they 
cross so as to heat them all equally. 
The conduction of the heat along 
the rods can be traced by the melt- 
ing of the wax, which will take place 
fastest on the best conductor of heat. 
Beyond a certain point on each rod 
the wax will not melt. This is be- 
cause the heat escapes from the air 
on all sides of the rod, so that there 
is not enough left to melt the wax 
beyond that point. The wax, how- 
ever, will be melted much farther on 
a good conductor than on a poor 
one. 

2. To the lower surface of an iron 
rod stick at intervals, by means of 
wax, balls of wood or bullets. Heat 
one end of the bar in an alcohol 
flame and the balls will drop off one 
by one as the wax is melted, begin- 
ning with the one nearest the flame. 
If bars of different substances be 
used, it will be seen that some of 
them conduct the heat of the flame 
faster than others. 

3. Hold a scrap of paper beneath 
a wooden penholder so that half is 
in contact with the wooden handle 
and half with the metal part that 
holds the pen. Hold the penholder 
and paper over the flame of an alco- 
hol lamp, and the part touching the 
wood will be charred, while that un- 



der the metal is yet white. This is 
because the metal conducts the heat 
more quickly than the wood does. 

4. Place one within another two 
tin pails, of such sizes that when to- 
gether there will be a space about 
two inches wide between them. Fill 
this space, including that at the bot- 
tom, with old newspaper crumpled 
into balls and packed in very tightly. 
Fill the inside pail with water at 
100 Fahrenheit, put on the cover, 
pack the space above it with paper, 
and then put on the -outer cover. 
This arrangement makes a vessel 
which conducts heat very slightly. 
If the water is tested after several 
hours its temperature will be only a 
degree or two lower, whereas water 
in an ordinary pail will cool to the 
temperature of the room in the same 
time. 

5. Water may be boiled in a paper 
box, as shown in the illustration, ow- 
ing to the fact that the heat is all 




Boiling Water in a Paper Box. 

required to boil the water, so that 
the paper is kept below the charring 
point. 

THE CONFESSOR, agame played 
by any number of persons, one of 



CONSEQUENCES 



204 



CONTUMACY 



whom is chosen as confessor and the 
others personate penitents. Each 
of the players is given a pencil and a 
slip of paper. The confessor writes 
on his slip what he wishes to con- 
sider the capital sin, and, then, ad- 
dressing the player at his left desires 
him to confess his sins, at the same 
time handing him a TETOTUM. The 
penitent spins the tetotum. on a 
table, and the number that it turns 
up shows how many sins he must 
confess. He writes them on his paper 
and hands k to the confessor, who 
reads the sins aloud, and then pro- 
ceeds to the next player on the 
right. Any player who confesses 
the capital sin, or any one of the 
sins that have already been confessed, 
must pay a forfeit. The name of the 
capital sin is not told to the company 
till all have confessed. Then, if 
desired, another confessor is chosen 
and the game goes on, entirely new 
sins still being required, on penalty 
of a forfeit. The game is made 
more amusing if the confessor and 
the penitents act out their parts. If 
it is so agreed before the game, any- 
one who laughs may be made to pay 
a forfeit. 

CONSEQUENCES, a game played 
by any number of persons, each with 
pencil and paper. The players 
usually sit around a table and the first 
writes at the top of his paper an ad- 
jective describing a man, then folds 
the paper over the word so as to 
hide it, and passes it to his left-hand 
neighbor. Each then writes, just 
under the hidden word, the name of 
a man, either a historical character or 
some acquaintance, and folding the 
paper, passes it as before. After this 
the following things are written in like 
manner, the paper being folded and 
passed after each. (3) An adjective 
describing a woman. (4) A woman's 
name. (5) Where the man and 
woman met. (6) What he said. 
(7) What she replied. (8) What 
the consequences were. (9) What 
the world said. When all these 
have been written, the papers are 



mixed in the middle of the table, 
and each player draws one which he 
must read aloud ; or, all the papers 
may be read by one player, chosen 
for the purpose. The reader fills in 
the words necessary to make a con- 
nected story. 

The names of the players are 
often used with amusing effect. 
For instance, one of the papers may 
read, " The gentlemanly Henry VIII. 
and the slovenly Mary B , met in 
the Metropolitan Museum. He 
said, ' Do you like apples ? ' and 
she replied, ' Not on Sundays.' The 
consequence was a tremendous ex- 
plosion, and the world said, ' What 
else could you expect ? " 

The words and sentences written 
may be varied as agreed on at the 
beginning of the game. For in- 
stance, " What he gave her " and 
" What she gave him " are often put 
in. In its simplest form the game 
consisted of writing merely a man's 
name, a woman's name, where they 
met, and the consequences. 

A different way of playing the 
game is for the players to write each 
of their words or sentences on a 
separate card or slip of paper, num- 
bering them as above. The slips are 
then gathered in piles, each pile 
containing those of one number, 
and each player draws one from 
each pile, arranges them in order, 
and reads the story that results. 
Or, if there are just as many players 
as piles, each may be given one, and 
then each, in the order of the num- 
bers, may read one of his cards. 

The game may be played many 
times with the same cards if each 
pile is shuffled after every read- 
ing. Sometimes words or sentences 
printed on cards of different colors 
are sold at the toy shops, to be used 
in playing this game or similar 
ones. 

CONTUMACY, a game of cards 
played by three persons with a 
EUCHRE pack. The players cut for 
deal, and he who cuts the lowest 
card gives three cards to each player. 



COPENHAGEN 



205 



CORN AND BEANS 



Beginning with the eldest hand, each 
may then discard his hand, if not 
satisfied with it, and call for a new 
one. No one can discard part of a 
hand, and when any player has said 
he is satisfied he must keep his hand. 
Each of the other players may thus 
draw two new hands, and the dealer 
may draw three. The dealer then 
leads from any suit he pleases, and 
names another. The other players 
are expected to play in the named 
suit, taking just as if they were fol- 
lowing suit. Thus, if the dealer 
lead the Five of Clubs and says 
" Hearts," the Six of Hearts will take 
the trick, but the Six of Clubs will 
not. If either player wish to play a 
suit which has neither been named 
nor played, he can do so, but to take 
the trick his card must be the second 
one above the card which would 
otherwise take it. He may play thus 
from choice or because he cannot do 
otherwise. In either case he is said 
to be " contumacious." It will be 
seen that the first contumacious 
player in any round has two suits to 
choose from, but one at third hand, 
where the second hand has already 
been contumacious, has but one. 
Thus, if the dealer lead the Four of 
Spades, and say " Hearts," and the 
second player (choosing to be con- 
tumacious) play the Six of Clubs, the 
third, if he also is contumacious, 
must play a Diamond higher than 
the Seven to take the trick. But in 
the named suit (Hearts), a Seven 
would take it. The dealer continues 
to lead till the hands have been 
played. He must not name the 
same suit twice in succession, nor 
must he name the suit he leads. 
The cards rank as in ECART&, the 
Ace being between the Ten and 
Knave. The Ace of Spades is a 
special card, and is not allowed to 
win a trick in contumacy. When 
played in the named suit it has its 
ordinary value, but when led it must 
always take the trick. 

COPENHAGEN, a game played 
by any number of persons, who stand 



in a circle holding a rope whose ends 
are tied together. One of the play- 
ers stands in the middle of the ring, 
and tries to slap the hands that hold 
the rope, using only one of his own 
hands at a time. The players must 
always hold the rope with at least 
one hand, and can try to escape being 
slapped only by changing hands 
rapidly, taking hold first with one 
and then with another. If anyone's 
hand is slapped or he lets the rope 
go altogether, he must take the place 
of the one in the ring. As the game 
is often played, a girl tries to slap 
only boys' hands and a boy only 
girls' hands, and when a hand is 
slapped the players kiss as they 
change places. 

CORK, Experiment with a. Place 
in the neck of a wide-mouthed bottlt 
a cork considerably too small for it 
and try to blow it into the bottle. 
Instead of going in, it will generallj 
fly out. The reason is that the 
blowing compresses the air within 
the bottle and this, recoiling like a 
spring, drives the cork out. To suc- 
ceed, the experiment must be tried 
with bottle and cork perfectly dry so 
that one will not stick to the other. 

CORK, The, a game in which the 
players try to knock a cork from the 
top of a bottle. The bottle is placed 
on a table and the cork set loosely on 
the neck so that it can easily be 
knocked off. Each player in turn, 
standing on the opposite side of the 
room, holds his arm directly before 
him, with forefinger extended. He 
must then walk slowly toward the 
bottle and with a single movement of 
the arm knock off the cork without 
disturbing the bottle. The player 
wins who succeeds in doing this the 
greatest number of times in a num- 
ber of turns previously agreed upon. 
The task, though seemingly easy, is 
really difficult. Most players will 
strike above the cork, the reason 
being that he has an involuntary fear 
of hitting the bottle. 

CORN AND BEANS, a game 
played by any number of persons, 



COTTON 



206 



COUNTING OUT 



one of whom, called the Professor, 
reads questions from a card, while 
the others hold cards bearing the 
answers. The Professor's card 
bears any number of questions, 
usually forty, on historical or other 
subjects, and there are the same 
number of other cards each con- 
taining the answer to one of the 
questions. After a Professor has 
been chosen, the answer-cards 
are distributed equally among the 
others. A quantity of corn and 
beans, for use as counters, is also 
distributed equally. The Professor 
begins by reading any question he 
chooses. The holder of the answer 
must cry " Corn ! " and all the oth- 
ers must cry " Beans ! " If the 
holder cry first, he reads the answer 
and hands the card to the Professor. 
If one or more cry " Beans " first, he 
must give each of them a corn or 
bean and hold the answer-card till 
the question is asked again. If any 
one cry either " Corn " or " Beans " 
wrongly, he must give a corn or bean 
to each of the others. If the Profes- 
sor ask a question which has already 
been answered, the first one to dis- 
cover it cries " Corn and Beans," and 
changes places with the Professor, 
who becomes an ordinary pupil. The 
game lasts until the Professor has all 
the answer-cards. Should any one 
pay out all his corn and beans, he 
must borrow of a neighbor. The 
first one to dispose of his answer 
cards is called the " Model Scholar "; 
the first one out of corn and beans, 
the " Bankrupt," and the player hav- 
ing most corn and beans at the end 
of the game, the " Millionaire." 

COTTON, Experiment with. 
Take a glass nearly full of alcohol, 
and as much loose cotton wool as 
can be held in an ordinary stiff hat. 
Put the cotton into the alcohol, a 
little at a time, pushing it down with 
a glass rod slowly, so that the alcohol 
will have time to soak it thoroughly. 
It will be possible to put all the cot- 
ton into the glass without making 
the alcohol run over. The reason is 



that the cotton really takes up very 
little room, as would be seen if it 
were squeezed or pressed together 
very tightly. 

COUNTING OUT, deciding who 
shall be leader of a game, or take 
some special part in it. In this 
country the one who takes such a 
part is called " It." In England he 
is sometimes called " He," in France 
Le (It), and in Germany he is said to 
be daran (in). Sometimes to be It 
is a desirable thing, and sometimes 
not. When it is desirable, the 
players often shout " I choose to be 
It," or some similar form of words, 
and he who shouts first is given the 
post. When it is undesirable, it is 
often agreed that all shall run to 
some tree or gate, and that he who 
gets there last shall be It. The 
question is often decided by lot in 
some of the various ways described 
under CHOOSING SIDES. Sometimes 
one of the players numbers the 
others, counting from one to seven 
and then begining again. Each 
seventh player drops out, till finally 
only one is left, who must be It. 
But the most common method is by 
"counting out rhymes," of which 
there are a great number. The 
players stand in a row, and one recit- 
ing the rhyme, points to them in 
order, indicating one at each word. 
He to whom the last word falls, 
drops out of the line, and the rhyme 
is thus repeated till only one is left, 
who must be It. The counter-out 
of course points to himself in the 
proper order. Most counting out 
rhymes have a whole word for each 
beat or accent, but, some have more 
than one, and in this case some 
counters-out point once for each 
word, and others once for each ac- 
cent. Thus in the lines, 

Little boy driving cattle, 
Don't you hear his money rattle, 

some persons point only for the 
accented words in the second line, 
while others point for each word. 
Several of the most common count- 



CRAMBO 



207 



CRAMBO 



ing-out rhymes are given below. 
Most of them have almost countless 
variations. 

Overy, uvery, ickory, Ann, 
Fillisy, follasy, Nicholas John, 
Queevy, quavy, Irish Mary, 
Stingalum, stangalum, Buck. 

Eeny, meeny, mona, my, 
Barcelona, bona, stry, 
Kay bell, broken well, 
We, wo, wack. 



Intery, mintery, cuter}', corn, 
Apple seed, briar thorn, 
Wire, briar, limber lock, 
Three geese in a flock ; 
One flew east, one flew west, 
One flew over the cuckoo's nest, 
O-u-t, out ! 

One, two, three, four, 
Lily at the kitchen door, 
Eating grapes off the plate, 
Five, six, seven, eight. 

Monkey, monkey, bottle of beer, 
How many monkeys are there here ? 

One, two, three, 

Out goes he (or she). 

Stick, stock, stone dead, 

Set him up, set him down, 

Set him in the old man's crown. 



Onery, twoery, dickery, davery, 
Hallibone, crackabone, tenery, lavery, 
Discontent, American pine, 
Humble-ey, bumble-ey, twenty-nine. 

One-i-zol, two-i-zol, zig-i-zol, zan, 
Bobtail, vinegar, tickle, and tan, 
Harum-scarum, Virgin Marum, 
We, wo, wack. 

COURT TENNIS. See TENNIS. 
COVENTRY, The Earl of. See 

EARL OF COVENTRY. 

CRAMBO, a game played by any 
number of persons, who try to guess 
a word by means of another which 
rhymes with it. One of the players 
thinks of a word, and then tells the 
others what it rhymes with. The 



players who guess do not speak the 
words that occur to them, but tell 
their meaning. Thus, one chooses 
the word pin, and says, " I think of 
a word that rhymes with tin." An- 
other asks, " Is it a part of the face ? " 
and the answer is, " No, it is not 
chin." " Is it a loud noise ?" "No, 
it is not din," and so the game goes 
on till the word is guessed. Those 
guessing often try to make the 
meanings they give hard to under- 
stand, so that most of the guessing 
is on the other side. If the one 
who thinks of the word cannot 
understand his questioners he may 
ask them to repeat the question dif- 
ferently. The guesses need not be 
made by the players in order. 

Acting Crambo, or Dumb Crambo, 
a kind of Crambo in which, instead 
of telling the meaning of the words 
that are guessed, the players act 
them in dumb-show. Two of the 
company generally choose sides, and 
one side leaves the room, returning 
to act its guesses after being told 
what the chosen word rhymes with. 
The acting may be done by one per- 
son and be simply a movement of 
the hand or body; as, for instance, 
in guessing the words " shake " or 
" bend," or the whole side may act 
a long CHARADE. Sometimes a 
game played in this way will last a 
whole evening. The game of QUES- 
TIONS AND ANSWERS is also some- 
times called Crambo, but it is quite 
different. 

History. The name Crambo was 
given in old times to several rhyming 
games. The Spectator speaks of 
" those who play at Crambo or cap 
verses." The word means a rhyme, 
and is said to be from the Latin 
crambe (repetition). This word 
meant cabbage in Greek, and came 
to signify a tiresome repetition 
through the proverb, " a cabbage 
twice boiled is death." 

The natives of the Samoan Islands 
in the Pacific Ocean play a kind of 
Crambo. A traveler there says: " One 
party would choose the names of 



CRIBBAGE 



208 



CRIBBAGE 



trees, and another the names of men. 
Those who sided with the trees 
would say, ' There is the Tan tree ; 
tell us a name which will rhyme 
to it.' " 

CRIBBACE, a game of CARDS 
played by two, three, or four persons, 
with a full pack. Two-handed six- 
card Cribbage, the common game in 
this country, will be described first : 

Points. The following is a list of 
the points that can be made in Crib- 
bage. 

A pair (two of a kind, as two 
Queens or two Eights) counts 2. 

A pair royal (three of a kind) 
counts 6. 

A double pair royal (four of a 
kind) counts 12. 

A sequence (three or more cards 
in succession, of the same suit or 
not), counts as many points as there 
are cards in it. In a sequence the 
Ace counts below the Two, and not 
above the King. Any number of 
cards the sum of whose spots is 15 
(counting face cards as 10), counts 2. 
A Knave of the same suit as the 
trump card counts i (called " one for 
his nob"). Turning up a Knave as 
trump counts the dealer 2 (called 
" two for his heels "). A flush (four 
or five cards of the same suit), counts 
4 or 5 as the case may be. 

The deal is determined by cutting 
(see CARDS ), and six cards are dealt 
one by one to each player. Each 
now takes out two cards from his 
hand to form what is called the Crib. 
This is the property of the dealer, 
but he must not look at it till the 
hand is played ; the four cards that 
form it are placed by themselves, 
face down, on the table. The non- 
dealer now cuts the pack, and the 
dealer turns up the top card of the 
lower pile as trump. Beginning 
with the non-dealer, the players in 
turn then lay down their cards, one 
by one, face upward, each making a 
pile of his own. As each card is put 
down, its owner calls out the sum of 
the spots on all the cards which 
have been played (face cards count- 



ing 10) ; thus, A may put down a 
Six and say "six," B a Seven and 
say "thirteen" and A a Queen and say 
"twenty-three." When thirty-one 
is reached the counting begins over 
again. If either one makes exactly 
thirty- one he scores two points, and 
if neither can do so he who comes 
nearest.it scores one, which is called 
a " go." Thus, taking up the play 
of A and B where we left it, sup- 
pose B plays a Five and calls out 
" twenty-eight." If A has nothing 
lower than Four he must say " Go," 
meaning that B can score one for a 
Go, as he has come nearest 31. If 
B can play again, he must do so 
before scoring, and if he can make 
31 he scores two instead of his Go. 
He who plays the last card in the 
hand also scores one. In playing, if 
any of the groups in the above list 
are formed, except a flush, he who 
plays the last card in the group 
scores for it but the cards must be 
played in succession. The cards of 
sequence may be put down in any 
order ; thus, 2, 5, 3, 4, would be 
counted by the one playing the last 
card as a sequence of four (2, 3, 4, 5) ; 
and if the next player should then 
play an Ace, he would count a se- 
quence of five (i, 2, 3, 4, 5). The 
same cards can be counted again to 
make a higher group : thus, if A 
plays an Eight, and B another Eight, 
making a pair and scoring two. A 
may play a third Eight, making with 
the other two a pair-royal, and scor- 
ing six. But when thirty-one is 
reached, all making of groups must 
begin anew. Fifteen counts only at 
the beginning of play; thus if A plays 
a Six, B a Ten, and A a Five, A 
cannot call the Ten and the Five 
fifteen. Making points during play is 
called, from the mode of counting, 
" P e g m g-" When play is over, 
each gathers up his hand and reck- 
ons up the points in it. The non- 
dealer counts his first, and is said to 
" have first show." This is an ad- 
vantage, especially at the end of a 
close game, when he who has first 



CRIBBAGE 



209 



CRIBBAGE 



show often wins. The cards must 
be spread on the table face upward, 
so that both players may see. In 
reckoning, the trump card counts as 
part of each hand. All the cards in 
one group cannot be counted as part 
of a larger group as in playing, but 
any number less than the whole can 
be so counted. Thus, if a player 
have three Queens he can count them 
only as a pair royal and not as 
separate pairs also ; and if he have 
for instance, Nine, Ten, Knave, Queen, 
he can count only a sequence of four 
and not the separate sequences of 
three. But if he have Nine, Ten, and 
two Knaves, or Nine, two Tens, and a 
Knave, he can count two sequences 
of three, only two cards -being the 
same in both groups. This is called 
a double sequence of three, and evi- 
dently scores eight, counting the pair. 
A double sequence of four would in 
the same way count ten. So, too, 
with one Five and three face cards, 
three fifteens can be formed, and 
with two Fives and two face cards 
four fifteens. 

The dealer counts his Hand 
before looking at his Crib, and the 
Hand and Crib are reckoned 
separately. The trump card is 
counted with the Crib also, and the 
Crib is reckoned like the Hand, ex- 
cept that a flush of four does not 
count in it. In counting fifteens the 
score is added to the word fifteen ; 
thus, if a player has three of them he 
says he has fifteen-six, and if five 
of them, fifteen-ten. Experienced 
players reckon their hands very fast, 
and this part of the game is excellent 
training in addition. After the 
reckoning, the players deal alter- 
nately, until one has made 61 
points, which wins the game. The 
score may be kept simply with pencil 
and paper, but it is usual to mark it 
with pegs on a Cribbage board like 
that in the illustration. In marking, 
each player uses one side of the 
board, his peg traveling the outside 
row of holes, returning by the inside 
row, and finishing in the end hole. 



Each player usually has two pegs, 
and the points are marked with them 
alternately, so that the number of 



Cribbage Board. 

holes between them always shows 
the last score that was made. 

The game will be made clearer by 
carefully playing through the follow- 
ing sample hand. Suppose the cards 
to be dealt and that they are dis- 
tributed as follows, A being the 
dealer. 

A puts in the Crib a pair of Eights, 
because they form a group with 
nothing else in his hand, and because 
the Crib is his own. If it had been 
B's Crib he would have hesitated 
before giving his opponent a pair. 
B should put in his Seven and Queen, 
leaving himself a flush. The cards 
in brackets thus form the Crib. B 
cuts, and A turns up the Five of 
Clubs. 

B leads with his Four of Clubs, say- 
ing " four." 

A plays his Four of Spades, saying 
" eight" (and scoring two for a 
pair). 

B (having no Seven to make 15) 



CRIBBAGE 



210 



CRIBBAGE 



plays his Six of Clubs, saying " four- 
teen." 

A plays his Five of Hearts, saying 
" nineteen " (and scores three for 
the sequence 4, 5, 6). 

B his Nine, saying " twenty-eight." 
A (having no card that will make 
with this 31, or less), says " Go " (and 
B scores one). 

A plays his King, saying " ten." 

B his Knave, saying "twenty." 

A his Six, saying " twenty-six " 

(and scores one for the last card). 

The score in pegging thus stands 6 

for A to I for B. B, having first 

show, spreads out his hand. The 



O 
O O 



* * 



*.* 

? 
4, 4. 

* * 



* * 

* * 



V 

X 



trump card makes one fifteen with 
his Knave, another with his Four and 
Six, and his Nine and Six make a 
third. His cards and the trump card 
are all clubs. Therefore his score is 
" fifteen-six ; a flush of five makes 
n, and one for his nob makes 
12." A has two fifteens in his own 
hand, and can make two more by 
using the trump. His Four, Five, and 
Six, with the trump, give him a 
double sequence of three as before 



shown. His score is " fifteen-eight, 
and a double sequence of three 
makes 16." The points in the crib 
are " fifteen-six and a pair makes 
eight." A's total score for the hand 
is 30, and B's is 13. 

Five-Card Cribbage. Each player 
has five cards, two of which he dis- 
cards for the Crib as before, leav- 
ing him only three. The method of 
play is the same as in the six-card 
game, except that when thirty-one is 
reached, play stops, and the remain- 
ing cards are not put down. A 
flush of three counts in the hand, but 
not in the crib, where it must consist 
of five cards as before. In opening 
this game, the non-dealer is allowed 
three points to begin with. Five- 
card ci ibbage is considered a more 
difficult game than six-card. It re- 
quires more skill, and is preferred by 
many players. 

Three-Handed Cribbage f a kind of 
Cribbage played by three persons, 
each on his own account. Each has 
five cards, and an extra one is dealt 
to the crib, to which each adds one 
card. The board for this game is 
three-sided. 

Four-Handed Cribbage, a kind of 
Cribbage played by four persons, in 
partnerships of two. Each is dealt 
five cards and discards one for the 
crib. The one at the dealer's left 
cuts for the trump and begins to 
play, and the others follow in suc- 
cession to the left. The method of 
playing and the rules are the same 
in three-handed and four-handed as 
in two-handed cribbage, but more 
care is required, the greater the num- 
ber of players. The board for four- 
handed is like that for two-handed 
cribbage. The counting is done by 
one player on each side, and neither 
of the others may touch the pegs. 

Skill in Cribbage is shown both in 
laying out, or discarding, for the 
Crib, and in playing the cards. In 
the former the player must bear in 
mind to whom the Crib belongs. If 
it were his own he would not object 
to discarding a pair or a fifteen, 



CRIBBAGE 



211 



CRIBBAGE 



whereas if it were his opponent's he 
would probably prefer to spoil his 
own hand rather than to give his 
enemy an advantage unless he were 
very far ahead. In Five-card Crib- 
bage it is considered of more impor- 
tance to " balk " or spoil an oppo- 
nent's Crib, than to keep good cards i 
for one's own hand, since the Crib 
is larger than either hand. As re- 
gards sequences a player should 
avoid discarding close cards for his 
opponent's Crib, and choose them 
for his own. It is a good plan to j 
retain a sequence in hand if possi- 
ble, as there is a good chance of the ! 
turn-up card's making it a double 
sequence. 

In playing, the best card to lead is 
one below a Five, as the adversary 
cannot then make fifteen. A good 
player frequently declines to make a 
pair or small sequence, suspecting 
that his opponent desires him to do 
so that he may then make a pair 
royal, or larger sequence. For the 
same reason, if it is possible to make 
either fifteen or a pair the former 
should be chosen. Numbers which 
vould enable the adversary to make 
fifteen and a pair, or a thirty-one 
and a pair, at the same time, should 
be avoided. Thus a player should 
never count fourteen or thirty with 
an Ace, thirteen or twenty-nine 
with a Two, twelve or twenty-eight 
with a Three, and so on. 

In counting the hand, beginners 
often overlook points. They should 
therefore look over the hand syste- 
matically, taking fifteens first, for in- 
stance, sequences next, and then, in 
order, pairs, flushes, and nob. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The player who cuts the lowest 
card deals, Ace counting as low. 

2. There must be a fresh cut for 
deal after each game, unless a rub- 
ber is to be played, when the deal 
alternates throughout the rubber. 

3. The cards must be dealt one at 
a time. If two are dealt at once, the 
dealer may correct his mistake, if he 



can do so by moving only one card, 
otherwise there must be a new deal. 

4. If the dealer expose one of his 
adversary's cards, or give either too 
few or too many cards, the adversary 
may take two points and call for a 
fresh deal, but he must do so before 
looking at his hand. Except that if 
too few cards have been given the 
non-dealer, he, after looking at his 
hand, may ask to have it completed, 
instead of demanding a new deal. 

5. If a player deal out of turn, and 
the error is discovered before the 
trump is turned, there must be a new 
deal by the proper person, but if the 
trump has been turned the deal is 
good. The one who should have 
dealt deals next, and so on alter- 
nately as if no mistake had been 
made. 

6. The dealer may insist on his 
adversary discarding first. 

7. If a player discard, having too 
many cards, his adversary may score 
two, and either call for a new deal 
or draw the surplus card from his 
opponent's hand. 

8. If a player discard, having too 
few cards, he must play out the hand 
with the number he has. 

9. If a player take back a dis- 
carded card, his opponent may score 
two and call for a new deal. 

10. The Crib must not be touched 
during play. 

11. If the dealer turn up more 
than one card for trump, the non- 
dealer may take his choice of them. 

12. If the dealer turn up a Knave, 
and neglect to score for " his heels " 
before he has played, he loses the 
two points. 

13. No card that is properly played 
can be taken up again, but if one is 
laid down, making the count more 
than 31, it must be taken back, and 
there is no penalty. 

14. If a player say " Go " when he 
has a card that can be played, his 
opponent may require it to be played, 
or mark two points. 

15. In reckoning, a player's Hand 
or Crib must remain in full sight till 



CRICKET 



212 



CRICKET 



his opponent is satisfied that the 
count is correct. 

16. If a player score too much, the 
adversary may correct him and add 
the same amount to his own score. 
If he score too little, the adversary is ] 
not bound to correct him. 

17. A player's pegs must not be | 
touched by his opponent, except to ! 
correct a false score ; nor by himself, 
except in scoring. If he displace his 
foremost peg he must put it behind 
the other. 

1 8. When a player has quitted his 
peg, he cannot alter his score. 

CRICKET, a game of ball, played 
usually by 22 persons, 1 1 on each 
side. It is played on a field arranged 
as in the diagrams below. Two I 
" wickets " are set up, 22 yards apart, ; 
each consisting of three upright sticks 
called stumps, 27 inches high, so 
close together that the ball cannot 
pass between them. Across the top 




generally decided by lot, and the 
game is then begun by the players of 
the side that has the field taking 
positions round the wickets.while two 
of the other side take position one in 
front of each wicket, inside the Pop- 
ping Crease, with bats like those in 
the illustration. The duty of each 
of these players, who are called Bat- 
ters, is to keep himself from being 
put out as explained below, and to 
make as many runs as possible. 

The players on the fielding side 
take whatever positions in the field 
their captain directs. There are al- 
ways a Bowler and a Wicket Keeper, 
but the positions of the other men 
vary with the opinions of the captain 
and the changes of the bowling. The 
first diagram shows an arrangement 
of the field for fast bowling and the 



II 



10 



U. 



s. 



U. 



Fig. i. Field for Fast Bowling. 



S. S., Strikers ; U. U., Umpires ; i, Bowler ; 2, 
Wicket-keeper ; 3, Point : 4, Slip ; 5, Third man 
up ; 6, Cover point ; 7, Mid-off ; 8, Long-off ; 
9, Long-on ; 10, Mid-on ; n, Short-leg. 



x. Pad. 2. Wicket. 

Cricket Implements. 



Bat. 



of each wicket are placed two pieces 
of wood called bails. In front of 
each wicket and 4 feet from it is a 
line marked on the ground called a 
Popping Crease, and in line with 
each wicket is a Bowling Crease 
similarly marked, 6 feet 8 inches 
long, having at its end short lines at 
right angles to it called Return 
Creases. The choice of innings is 



s. 



10 



II 



Fig. 2. Field for Slow Bowling. 

S. S., Strikers; U. U., Umpires; i. Bowler; a, 
Wicket-keeper ; 3, Longstop ; 4, Point ; 5, Slip ; 
6, Cover slip ; 7, Cover point ; 8 Mid-off ; 9; Mid- 
on ; 10, Short leg ; n, Long leg 

second one for slow bowling. The 
names of the various positions in 
which the captain distributes his 



CRICKET 



213 



CRICKET 1 



men, as he deems most advanta- 
geous, vary slightly in different places, 
but are usually those given in the 
diagrams of the field inserted below. 

The Bowler begins play by deliver- 
ing the ball at the opposite wicket, 
standing with one foot behind the 
Bowling Crease. The Batter tries to 
protect the wicket by striking the 
ball with his bat. If the ball neither 
is struck nor hits the wicket, the 
Wicket Keeper returns it to the 
Bowler. If any part of the wicket is 
knocked down, the Batter is " out," 
and another takes his place, and so 
on in an order decided on by the 
captain of the batting side. If the 
player strike the ball far enough he 
may run to the opposite wicket, 
changing places with the batsman 
there, who runs at the same time 
with him. If the two cross the pop- 
ping creases of the wickets toward 
which they run, or put the bat inside 
them before either wicket is knocked 
down (either by the ball thrown by a 
fielder or by a fielder with the ball in 
hand), they together score one run. 
Otherwise the one who leaves the 
knocked-down wicket is out, unless 
they have crossed, when he who 
approaches it is out. The players 
may make as many runs as they can, 
crossing to and fro several times, and 
scoring one for each run. A player 
who is out takes no farther part in 
the game until all on his side are out. 
The side wins which makes the 
greater number of runs in two in- 
nings, or sometimes in one inning, if 
it be so agreed. An inning is com- 
pleted when both sides have been at 
the bat and have been put out. 
When the Bowler has bowled a cer- 
tain number of balls (generally five 
in England and Canada, and six in 
the United States) at one wicket, the 
Umpire calls " over," and the next 
" over " is bowled at the opposite 
wicket, the fielders all changing their 
places correspondingly. 

Besides the- ways of putting out 
the Batter that have been mentioned 
he may be put out by a fielder's 



catching and holding the batted ball 
before it strikes the ground, by his 
knocking down his own wicket, when 
in the act of playing the ball, stopping 
the ball with his body, or in other 
ways described in the rules below. 
The batsman and wicket keeper, 
when playing against fast bowling, 
generally have the legs protected by 
guards, and wear buckskin gloves. 
The size of the bats and ball is 
regulated by the first and second 
rules below. The duties of some of 
the players will now be described in 
detail. 

The Bowler. The Bowler is the 
most important player on the field. 
He sometimes varies his balls, like 
the Pitcher in BASE BALL, deliver- 
ing some fast, some slow, some with 
one twist and some with another, so 
as to puzzle the batter. But as a 
rule a fast or slow Bowler will stick 
to his particular style, as his field is 
set for that style only, and a change 
of even one ball might prove ex- 
pensive. The figure shows the 
courses of the balls as delivered by 
different bowlers. The ball usually 
bounds once, and the place where it 
bounds is called the " Pitch." If the 
ball is pitched close to the batsman, 
it is called " full pitched " ; if it 
pitches sooner than a full pitched 
ball it is " short pitched," and if later, 
" over-pitched." A ball that does 
not hit the ground before reaching 
the batsman is called a " full ball." 
A short pitched ball, reaching the 
wicket by a long bound, is a " long 
hop " ; an over-pitched ball, which 
can be hit back or "driven," is a 
" half volley " ; one that strikes the 
ground just where the batsman's bat 
is, is a " Yorker," and one which keeps 
close to the ground after it pitches, 
is a " shooter." One which bounds 
several times is a "grounder" or 
" sneaker." Grounders and full balls 
are too easily played by good bats- 
men to be used often, but are some- 
times effective. If the bowling be 
fast, the ball will move in almost a 
straight line from the Bowler's hand 



CRICKET 



214 



CRICKET 



to the Pitch ; if slow, in more or less 
of a curve. In underhand bowling, 
formerly more used than now, the 
ball rises from the Bowler's hand in 
a very decided curve. This is called 
"lobbing." The different twists 



given the ball make it bound high or 
low or to one side as the Bowler may 
wish, the ball rolling slightly on the 
ground during the instant it touches 
it, and so varying its direction as it 
rises. The Bowler suits his balls to 



Fast Round-arm. 



Medium Pace. 




Slow Round-arm. 




Low Underhand (Lobs). 



Break in from Leg. 



Screw Ball. 
Different Kinds of Bowling. 



the Batsman, trying to give him 
those hardest for him to play. He 
should hold the ball with his fingers, 
not in the hollow of the hand, take a 
short run before delivering the ball, 
and " pitch " it as near to the Bats- 



man as the latter's style of hitting 
will allow. If the Bowler send the 
ball outside the limits of the opposite 
Bowling Crease, it is a " wide ball " ; 
if he does not follow the rules in 
delivering it, it is " no ball," and in 



CRICKET 



215 



CRICKET 



either of these cases, when the um- 
pire so calls it, at least one run is 
scored for the opposite side (see 
Rule 13). After an "over" has 
been bowled by one player another 
Bowler takes his turn. Sometimes 




The Bowler. 

the same player acts as Bowler 
and Wicket Keeper alternately. If 
an " over " is bowled without a run 
being made, it is called a " maiden 
over " or " maiden." Besides deliver- 
ing the ball, it is also the Bowler's 
place to watch for chances to put 
the Batsman out at the wicket near 
which he stands. 

The Batter. The Batter wears 
leg pads and gloves, both of which 
should fit easily. He should select 
a bat to suit his size, and should 
practice with the same one with 
which he intends to play in a match. 
Heavy bats send the ball farther 
than light ones, when given the 
same speed, but as it requires greater 
strength to give them that speed, the 
Batter, when in doubt as to weight, 
should choose the lighter of two 
bats. The Batsman should stand 
easily, with his two heels not more 



than a few inches apart. Before the 
Bowler delivers the ball the Bat- 
ter should "take guard," as in the 
illustration. The stump nearest the 
Batter is called the " leg stump," the 
other outside one the " off stump," 
and the third the " middle stump." 
If the Batter hold his bat directly 
before the middle stump, he is said 
to " take middle," if in front of both 
the middle and leg stumps, to " take 
middle and leg" for guard. The 
bat should be held about three inches 
inside the popping crease. The right 
or " pivot " foot should be placed as 
near as possible to the wicket with- 
out being in the way of any part of 
it. The object of thus taking guard 
is to find out where to place the feet 
so as best to guard the wicket with 
the bat. 

As the Bowler begins to run be- 
fore delivering the ball, the Batter 
straightens himself, raising his bat 
slightly, and when the ball is de- 
livered he draws the bat back to the 
bails of the wicket, where he holds it 
till he is ready to strike. If he lean 
slightly toward the wicket, in strik- 
ing, he is said to " play back," while 
if he lean toward the ball he " plays 
forward." In general the former is 
better, especially for learners, as it 
gives a longer time to see the ball. 
The skillful Batter plays forward or 




Taking Guard. 

back according to the way in which 
the Bowler gives him the ball, and 
the beginner can best learn by ex- 
perience which to do in any case. 
In general, he should so bend his 



CRICKET 



216 



CRICKET 



body that the bat strikes the ball 
about one-fourth the length of the 
blade from its end ; that is, in the 
thickest part. When the Batsman 
"has command of the pitch," that 
is, can nearly reach with his bat 
(held straight) the spot where the 




Preparing for Action. 

ball bounds, he should play forward, 
always holding the bat close to the 
ground, so that the ball will not go 
underneath as it rises from the 
bound. The reason for playing such 
balls forward is that any twist the 
Bowler may have given the ball, that 
it may bound in an 
unexpected direc- 
tion, has not time 
to act. The hits 
which a Batter may 
make are given dif- 
ferent names, ac- 
cording to the di- 
rection and manner 
of striking the ball. 
If it is hit toward 
" Point," " Cover 
Point," or into the 
" Slips," it is a 
" cut "; if it is hit 
forward on the 
" half volley " it is 
a "drive"; if it is hit to the "on 
side " back of the wickets, it is a 
" leg hit," and if it is sent in this 
direction by allowing the ball to hit 
the bat, it is a " draw." 

The Batter at the opposite wicket 
should be ready to run, but must be 
careful not to do so till the ball is out 



of the Bowler's hand. He may get 
a start by beginning to run as soon 
as the ball is delivered, but should 
not go so far that he cannot return 
in time to save his wicket if no hit 
is made. Neither need run unless 
he wishes, but if one runs the other 
must, otherwise a wicket 
would be left unguarded. 
It is best for the Batter 
to decide whether to run, 
when the ball is hit in 
front of the wicket, and 
for his partner to decide 
when the hit is behind 
the wicket. 

The Wicket Keeper. 
This player always wears 
leg pads and gloves. He 
stands in a stooping po- 
sition behind the wicket, 
varying his distance from 
it according to the swiftness of the 
bowling, but he must not stand 
over it, or with hand or foot in front 
of it, till the ball has passed the 
wicket or been struck. After that 
he may stand where he chooses, but 
if the Batsmen are running he should 




Playing Forward. 

so stand that the ball will be thrown 
in to him over the wicket, which he 
will thus be able to put down with- 
out turning around. He should also 
be on the watch for a chance to put 
down the wicket when the Batter is 
not on his ground (called " stumping 
out"). As soon as he receives the 



CRICKET 



217 



CRICKET 



ball from the Bowler he should re- 
turn it easily. If the Wicket Keeper 
allow a ball that has not hit the bat 
to pass him, and so give the Bats- 
man a chance to make a run, such a 
run is called a " bye." If the ball hit 
the Batsman's person (not his bat or 
hand) and he make a run, 
it is a " leg- bye." As the 
Wicket Keeper has a bet- 
ter view of the field and 
the ball than any other 
player, he is generally the 
captain of the team, and 
directs, or communicates 
with the other Fielders 
and the Bowler, by a sys- 
tem of signs previously 
agreed upon. 

Point is the most im- 
portant of the remaining 
fielders, as he has more 
chances for catches than 
the others. In case of a hit he often 
" backs up " the Wicket Keeper, or, 
if it is a long one, runs out toward 
the fielder nearest the ball, in case 
there should be a short throw. 

The duty of the Long Stop is 
principally to prevent byes. When 



other chance of putting it down 
quickly. Of late years owing to the 
increasing skill of Wicket Keepers, 
the custom of playing a man in this 
position has been almost entirely 
given up, the extra man thus gained 
being used elsewhere. The posi- 





The Cut. 

the Batsmen are not running he re- 
turns the ball to the Wicket Keeper, 
but in case of a run he sometimes 
throws to the Bowler in hope of put- 
ting a man out at the opposite wicket. 
Sometimes he throws directly at the 
nearest wicket, where there is no 



Playing Back. 

tions of all the fielders are varied by 
the captain in many ways to suit 
different styles of bowling and strik- 
ing, so that the field looks quite 
differently at one time and another. 
Only the Bowler, Wicket Keeper, 
and Long Stop keep about the same 
places. These changes of position 
are directed by signs from the cap- 
tain. 

Scoring. A sample score card is 
given on pages 220-221. 

The runs are kept by making 
opposite the player's name marks 
which are summed up in the 
" Total " column after he is out. 
Abbreviations often used in the 
" Out " column and elsewhere in 
the score are : 

b. bowled 

c. caught 
st. stumped 

l.b.w. leg before wicket 
h.w. hit wicket 
w. wides 
n.b. no balls 
B. byes 
l.b. leg byes 

The runs made or allowed for 
Wides, No Balls, Byes, and Leg 
Byes are kept separately at the 



CRICKET 



218 



CRICKET 



bottom of the score, and added to 
the Grand Total for the innings. 
In the Out column the name of the 
person who put the Batsman out is 
always mentioned, and if he was 
caught out, the Bowler's name is also 




Leg Hit. 

put down, since his bowling con- 
tributed to the result. 

The right half of the score card 
consists of a Bowling Analysis, 
which is made as follows : opposite 
the name of each Bowler a record is 
kept of each of his balls. If it 
results in neither a run nor in 
putting down a wicket it is re- 
corded by a dot ; If runs are 
made from a ball, the number of 
such runs appear in place of the 
dot. If a wicket is put down, the 
letter W is put in place of a dot. 
" Wides " and " No balls " are 
kept record of by themselves and 
all are footed up at the close of 
each inning. Thus a " Maiden 
Over" appears thus ::: or (:.: if 
only five balls are allowed). An 
Over where two runs were made 
from the second ball and none 



from the third would be 



on the 



record. If the last ball put down 
the wicket, it would be shown by 
the mark ' ' ^ Sometimes, in case 
of a Maiden Over, the letter M is 
made by joining the dots, so that 



Maidens can be counted up more 
quickly in running the eye over the 
record. The following are the 
rules of Cricket as adopted by 
the Marylebone Cricket Club of 
London, they contain the latest 
revisions and the famous altera- 
tions of 1889. 

The M. C. C. rules govern the 
play of all matches in England 
and Australia. In the United 
States they are generally followed 
except that six balls instead of 
five are bowled to the Over. The 
Cricketers' Association of the 
United States has adopted cer- 
tain modifications of the M. C. 
C. rules, but in no case are the 
changes of much importance. 

I. A match is played between 
two sides of eleven players each, 
unless otherwise agreed to ; each 
side has two innings, taken alter- 
nately, except in the case pro- 
vided for in Law 53. The 
choice of innings shall be de- 
cided by tossing. 

2. The score shall be reckoned by 
runs. A run is scored : i. So often 
as the Batsmen after a. hit, or at any 
time while the ball is in play, shall 
have crossed, and made good their 




Wicket Keeper. 

ground, from end to end. 2. For 
penalties under Laws 16, 34, 41, and 
allowances under 44. Any run or 
runs so scored shall be duly recorded 
by scorers appointed for the purpose. 
The side which scores the greatest 



CRICKET 



219 



CRICKET 



number of runs wins the match. No 
match is won unless played out or 
given up except in the case provided 
in Law 45. 

3. Before the commencement of 
the match two umpires shall be ap- 
pointed, one for each end. 

4. The ball shall weigh not less 
than five ounces and a half nor more 
than five ounces and three-quarters. 
It shall measure not less than nine 
inches nor more than nine inches and 
one quarter in circumference. At j 
the beginning of each innings either 
side may demand a new ball. 

5. The bat shall not exceed four 
inches and one-quarter in the widest 
part ; it shall not be more than 
thirty-eight inches in length. 

6. The Wickets shall be pitched 
opposite and parallel to each other at 
a distance of twenty-two yards. 
Each Wicket shall be eight inches in 
Width and consist of three stumps, 
with two bails upon the top. The 
stumps shall be of equal and suffic- 
ient size to prevent the ball from 
passing through, twenty-seven inches 
out of the ground. The bails shall 
be each four inches in length, and 
when in position on the top of the 
stumps shall not project more than 
half an inch above them. The 
Wickets shall not be changed dur- 
ing a match, unless the ground be- 
tween them become unfit for play, 
and then only by the consent of both 
sides. 

7. The Bowling Crease shall be in 
a line with the stumps; six feet 
eight inches in length ; the stumps 
in the center ; with a return crease 
at each end, at right angles behind 
the Wicket. 

8. The Popping Crease shall be 
marked four feet from the Wicket, 
parallel to it, and be deemed unlim- 
ited in length. 

9. The ground shall not be rolled, 
watered, covered, mown, or beaten 
during a match, except before the 
commencement of each inning and 
of each day's play, when, unless the 
in-side object, the ground shall be 



swept and rolled for not more than 
ten minutes. This shall not prevent 
the batsman from beating the ground 
with his bat nor the batsman nor 
bowler from using sawdust in order 
to obtain a proper foothold. 

10. The ball must be bowled ; if 
thrown or jerked the umpire shall 
call " No ball." 

11. The bowler shall deliver the 
ball with one foot on the ground be- 
hind the Bowling Crease, and within 
the Return Crease, otherwise the um- 
pire shall call " No ball." 

12. If the bowler shall bowl the 
ball so high over or so wide of the 
Wicket that in the opinion of the 
umpire it is not within reach of the 
striker, the umpire shall call " Wild 
ball." 

13. The ball shall be bowled in 
Overs of five balls from each Wicket 
alternately. When five balls have 
been bowled, and the ball is finally 
settled in the bowler's or wicket- 
keeper's hands, the umpire shall call 
" Over." Neither a " No ball " nor 
a " Wide ball " shall be reckoned as 
one of the " Over." 

14. The bowler shall be allowed 
to change ends as often as he pleases, 
provided only that he does not bowl 
two Overs consecutively in one in- 
ning. 

15. The bowler may require the 
batsman at the Wicket from which 
he is bowling to stand on that side of 
it which he may direct. 

1 6. The striker may hit a "No 
ball " and whatever runs may result 
shall be added to his score ; but he 
shall not be out from a " No ball " un- 
less he be run out or break Laws 26, 
27, 29, 30. All runs from a " No 
ball " otherwise than from the bat 
shall be scored " No balls," and if no 
run be made, one run shall be added 
to that score. From a " W T ide ball " 
as many runs as are run shall be 
added to the score as " Wide balls," 
and if no run be otherwise obtained 
one run shall be so added. 

17. If the ball not having been 
called " Wide " or " No ball " pass the 



CRICKET 



220 



CRICKET 



striker without touching his bat or 
person, and any runs be obtained, 
the umpire shall call " Bye "; but if 
the ball touch any part of the strik- 
ers person (hand excepted), and any 
run be obtained, the umpire shall 
call " Leg bye." such runs to be 
scored " Byes " and " Leg byes " re- 
spectively. 

1 8. At the beginning of the match 
and of each innings the umpire at 



the bowler's Wicket shall call " Play "; 
from that time no trial ball shall be 
allowed to any bowler on the ground 
between the Wickets, and when one 
of the batsmen is out, the use of the 
bat shall not be allowed to any per- 
son until the next batsman shall 
come in. 

19. A Batsman shall be held to be 
" out of his ground " unless his bat 
in hand or some part of his person 

SCORE 



Bowlers. 



Wides 



Overs, with runs &c. from each ball. 



t/KU2i*tJ/ 



M 



M 



M 



252 



M 



M 



MMK4 



M 



M 



Summary Of Rnwlinp, Z Innings o_ 



_c.c. 



Bowler*. .t^^S\g^=l^ Bowlers. *, ^ I" ^ I^I^^UJ 



3t 



/^ ? //r <3 2 /,j- // 



Total 



r ^ ^- fi^s^JZ, (ffa t*nM< 



MarkB for Iiolin; AnaljsU 



ILR. J&A- J*s 



Kutt. BI/M, Wda and Ab laU da rut ajftct UuiUm Overt. 



be grounded within the line of the 
Popping Crease. 

20. The Wicket shall be held to be 
" down " when either of the bails is 
struck off, or if both bails be off when 
a stump is struck out of the ground. 

The Striker is out 

21. If the Wicket be bowled down, 
even if the ball first touch the 
striker's bat or person : " Bowled." 

22. Or if the ball from a stroke of 



the hand or bat, but not the wrist, 
be held before it touch the ground 
although it be hugged to the body 
of the catcher : "Caught." 

23. Or if in playing at the ball, 
provided it be not touched by the 
bat or hand, the striker be out of his 
ground and the Wicket be put clown 
by the Wicket keeper with the ball or 
with hand or arm with ball in hand: 
" Stumped." 



CRICKET 



221 



CRICKET 



24. Or if with any part of his 
person he stop the ball, which in the 
opinion of the umpire at the bowler's 
Wicket shall have been pitched in a 
straight line from it to the striker's 
Wicket and would have hit it : "Leg 
before Wicket." 

25. Or if in playing at the ball he 
hit down his Wicket with his bat or 
any part of his person or dress: 
" Hit Wicket." 

CARD. 



26. Or if under pretense of run- 
ning or otherwise either of the 
batsmen willfully prevent a ball 
from being caught : " Obstructing 
the field." 

27. Or if the ball be struck or be 
stopped by any part of his person 
and he willfully strike it again, ex- 
cept it be done for the purpose of 
guarding his Wicket, which he may 
do with -his bat, or any part of his 



Order 



Batsmen. 



Runs as scored. 



How and. where 
put out.. 



Innings 



/i, .Ji jh/ie 



\o 0& 



2jl_ 



10 



11 



9~f- Wf^ifc 



12 



Remarks_ 



ItfLnA 



won by.... ............ . ............ by 



Total f rom^he bat- 



Bye 



M.o balls 



Total of _ 



Total for the Match 



Runs at the fall of each wicket 
Order of coining out 
(by numbers) 



or hiti) from built called at utta or 
enter batman't 



Ha ballt are tcortd at Vfidu or Xo ball* and do not 



person except his hands : " Hit the 
ball twice." 

Either Batsman is out 

28. If in running or at any other 
time while the ball is in play he be 
out of his ground and his Wicket be 
struck down by the ball after touch- 
ing any fieldsman, or by the hand .or: 
arm with ball in hand of any fields- 
man : " Run out." 

29. Or if he touch with his 



or take up the ball while in play, un- 
less at the request of the opposite 
side : " Handle the ball." 

30. Or if he willfully obstruct any 
fieldsman : " Obstructing the field." 

31. If the batsmen have crossed 
each other, he that runs for the 
Wicket which, is put down is out ; if 
they have, not crossed, he .that has 
left the Wicket which is put down is 
o-,t. 



CRICKET 



222 



CRICKET 



32. The striker being caught no 
run shall be scored. A batsman 
being run out, that run which was 
being attempted shall not be scored. 

33. A batsman being out from any 
cause the ball shall be " dead." 

34. If a ball in play cannot be 
found or recovered, any fieldsman 
may call " Lost ball," when the ball 
shall be " dead " ; six runs shall be 
added to the score ; but if more than 
six runs have been run before " Lost 
ball " has been called, as many runs 
as have been run shall be scored. 

35. After the ball shall have been 
finally settled in the Wicket keeper's 
or bowler's hand, it shall be dead ; 
but when the bowler is about to de- 
liver the ball, if the batsman at his 
Wicket be out of his ground before 
actual delivery, the said bowler may 
run him out ; but if the bowler throw 
at that Wicket and any run result, it 
shall be scored " No ball." . 

36. A batsman shall not retire 
from his Wicket and return to it to 
complete his innings after another 
has been in without the consent of 
the opposite side. 

37. A substitute shall be allowed 
to field or run between Wickets for 
any player who may during the 
match be incapacitated from illness 
or injury, but for no other reason, ex- 
cept with the consent of the opposite 
side. 

38. In all cases where a substitute 
shall be allowed, the consent of the 
opposite side shall be obtained as to 
the person to act as substitute and 
the place in the field which he shall 
take. 

38. In case any substitute shall be 
allowed to run between Wickets the 
striker may be run out if either he or 
his substitute be out of his ground. 
If the striker be out of his ground 
while the ball is in play, that Wicket 
which he has left may be put down 
and the striker given out, although 
the other batsman may have made 
good the ground at that end, and 
the striker and his substitute at the 
other end. 



40. A batsman is liable to be out 
for any infringement of the laws by 
his substitute. 

41. The fieldsman may stop the 
ball with any part of his person, 
but if he willfully stop it otherwise, 
the ball shall be " dead" and five 
runs added to the score ; whatever 
runs may have been made five only 
shall be added. 

42. The Wicket keeper shall stand 
behind the Wicket. If he shall take 
the ball for the purpose of stumping 
before it has passed the Wicket, or if 
he shall incommode the striker by 
any noise or motion, or if any part of 
his person be over or before the 
Wicket the striker shall not be out 
excepting under Laws 26, 27, 28, 29, 
and 30. 

43. The Umpires are the sole 
judges of fair or unfair play, of the 
fitness of the ground, the weather, 
and the light for play; all disputes 
shall be determined by them, and if 
they disagree the actual state of 
things shall continue. 

44. They shall pitch fair Wickets, 
arrange boundaries where necessary, 
and the allowances to be made for 
them, and change ends after each 
side has had one innings. 

45. They shall allow two minutes 
for each striker to come in and 
ten minutes between each innings. 
When they shall call play the side 
refusing to play shall lose the match. 

46. They shall not order a bats- 
man out unless appealed to by the 
other side. 

47. The umpire at the bowler's 
wicket shall be appealed to before 
the other umpire in all cases except 
in those of stumping hit Wicket, run 
out at the striker's Wicket or arising 
out of Law 42, but in any case in 
which an umpire is unable to give a 
decision he shall appeal to the other 
umpire whose decision shall be final. 

48a. If the umpire at the bowler's 
end be not satisfied of the absolute 
fairness of the delivery of any ball he 
shall call " No ball." 

48b. The umpire shall take espe 



CRICKET 



223 



CRICKET 



cial care to call " No ball " instantly 
upon delivery : " Wide ball " as soon 
as it shall have passed the striker. 

49. If either batsman run a short 
run the umpire shall call "One 
short," and the run shall not be 
scored. 

50. After the umpire has called 
" Over " the ball is " Dead," but an 
appeal may be made as to whether 
either batsman is out ; such appeal, 
however, shall not be made after the 
delivery of the next ball nor after 
any cessation of play. 

51. No umpire shall be allowed to 
bet. 

52. No umpire shall be changed 
during a match unless with the.con- 
sent of both sides except in case of 
violation of law 51 ; then either side 
may dismiss him. 

53. The side which goes in second 
shall follow their innings if they have 
scored 80 runs less than the oppo- 
site side. 

54. That on the last day of a match 
or if a one day match at any time, 
the in-side shall be empowered to 
declare the innings at an end. 

One Day Matches. I. The side 
which goes in second shall follow 
their innings if they have scored 60 
runs less than the opposite side. 

2. The match unless played out, 
shall be decided by the first innings. 

3. Prior to the commencement of 
a match it may be agreed that the 
over consist of five or six balls. 

Single Wicket. A kind of Cricket, 
which may be played by two or more 
persons on a side. There is but one 
Wicket and one striker at a time, and 
a bowling crease or stump 22 yards 
in front of the wicket. The laws are, 
where they apply, the same as the 
above, with the following alterations 
and additions. 

I. One Wicket shall be pitched as 
in Law 6 with a bowling stump oppo- 
site to it at a distance of twenty-two 
yards. The bowling crease shall be 
in a line with the bowling stump and 
drawn according to Law 7. 



five players on a side bounds shall 
be placed twenty-two yards each in 
a line from the off and leg stump. 

3. The ball must be hit before the 
bounds to entitle the striker to a 
run, which run cannot be obtained 
unless he touch the bowling stump 
or crease in a line with his bat, or 
some part of his person, or go beyond 



them and return to the 



popping 



crease. 

4. When the striker shall hit the 
ball one of his feet must be on the 
ground behind the popping crease, 
otherwise the umpire shall call " No 
hit," and no run shall be scored. 

5. When there shall be less than 
five players on a side neither byes, 
leg-byes, nor overthrows shall be 
allowed, nor shall the striker be 
caught out behind the Wicket nor 
stumped. 

6. The fieldsman must return the 
ball so that it shall cross the ground 
between the Wicket and the bowling 
stump or between the bowling stump 
and the bounds ; the striker may run 
till the ball be so returned. 

7. After the striker shall have 
made one run, if he start again he 
must touch the bowling stump or 
crease and turn before the ball cross 
the ground to entitle him to another. 

8. The striker shall be entitled to 
three runs for lost ball and the same 
number for ball willfully stopped by 
a fieldsman otherwise than with any 
part of his person. 

9. When there shall be more than 
four players on a side there shall be 
no bounds. All hits, byes, leg-byes, 
and overthrows shall then be allowed. 

10. There shall be no restriction 
as to the ball being bowled in overs, 
but no more than one minute shall 
be allowed between each ball. 

Wicket, a kind of Cricket once 
much played in parts of the United 
States. The Wicket is low and 
broad, the bail being four or five feet 
long on stumps about six inches 
high, placed one at each end. The 
ball is larger and softer than a Cricket 



2. When there shall be less than | ball, and the bat shaped something 



CRICKET 



224 



CRICKET 



like a hockey stick with a large flat 
end, or a lacrosse stick having its 
lower end entirely of wood instead 
of being strung. The method of 
playing was similar to Cricket. It has 
not been played much since 1865. 

The largest individual scores at 
Cricket are as follows : 

England, 485, A. E. Stoddart, 
Hempstead, Aug. 4, 1886. Austra- 
lia, 328 (not out), W. Bruce, Mel- 
bourne, Jan. 19 and 26, 1884. 
Canada, 204, A. Browning, Ottawa, 
July i, 1880. United States, 182 
(not out), C. S. Farnum, Philadel- 
phia, July ii, 1885. 

The largest recorded total scores 
in one inning are as follows : 

British, 920 runs, Orleans Club, 
Rickling Green, England, Aug. 4-5, 
1882. 

American, 418, Germantown Club, 
Philadelphia, June 18 and 28, 1887. 

History. Cricket was probably 
at first a mere game of bat and ball, 
without the Wicket, and French au- 
thors say it was derived from the 
French Crosse, which is also called 
Criquet. The name is probably 
from the Saxon Cric, a crooked stick, 
referring to the early bats, which 
were curved, instead of straight as 
now. In the wardrobe account of 
King Edward I. for the year 1300, is 
an item in which is mentioned playing 
at Creag, supposed to have been an 
early form of Cricket. At first the 
only players seem to have been bats- 
man and bowler ; fielders appear for 
the first time in a picture of 1344. 
In the 1 5th century the game was 
called " Hondyn and Hondoute " 
(Hand in and Hand Out), showing 
that there was then an In and an 
Out side. Under this title it was 
among the games forbidden by Ed- 
ward IV. in 1477, as interfering with 
the practice of archery. The first 
appearance of the present name is in 
1593, in a lawsuit about a piece of 
ground, in which a man testified that 
he had played " at Crickett " there 
fifty years before. Early in the i8th 
century the game became popular, 



being played by all classes of people, 
and in 1751 Frederick, Prince of 
Wales, died from a hit with a Cricket 
ball while playing at Cliefden House. 
It was a favorite especially in the 
southern counties of England, and 
matches between players in the dif- 
ferent counties began to be held, 
which have continued to the present 
day. There are now Cricket clubs 
in every village in England, and it is 
known as the national game of that 
country. 

I n the early history of cricket, as has 
been said, the Wicket did not exist. 
A circular hole was used instead, 
into which the ball was bowled. 
The first Wicket consisted of one 
stump only 18 inches high, then a 
second was placed two feet from it, 
and they were connected by a cross- 
bar. The hole was still retained 
between the stumps. About 1775 
the third stump was added, and the 
Wicket was gradually made smaller, 
till in 1817 it reached its present size. 
The bats were made first with a 
sweeping curve, the present straight 
bats coming into use about 1825. 
The bowling was always underhand 
till 1 785, when round arm or straight 
arm bowling was introduced. It 
was declared unfair, but since 1825 
has been adopted, and in 1864 all re- 
strictions as to the height of the arm 
in bowling were removed, causing a 
revolution in the game, by giving 
much greater power to the bowler. 

In the United States it has been 
played since the middle of the i8th 
century, but it has never been popu- 
lar. The earliest recorded match 
in this country was between eleven 
men from London and eleven from 
New York, and was played on May 
I, 1751, where Fulton Market now 
stands, in New York city. The 
New Yorkers won. A club was 
formed in Boston in 1809, and Benja- 
min Franklin took to Philadelphia 
from England a copy of " The Laws 
of .Cricket," still in possession of a 
club in that city. Cricket is now 
played principally in and about Phil- 



CROOKED MAN 



225 



CROOKED MAN 



adelphia, though there are 150 organ- 
ized clubs in the United States, and 
in 1878 the Cricketer's Association of 
the United States was formed. Base 
Ball has always been more popular 
here. Ball players say that Cricket 
is too slow, since a game generally 
lasts a whole day or even two days, 
whv,.eas a hall game is over in a few 
hours. 

Since 1859, English and Australian 
Cricketers have made several tours 
in the United States and Canada 
and have as a rule been victorious. 
Matches are played annually be- 
tween the United States and Canada 
in which the former generally gets 
the best of it. In 1874 and 1875 a 
Philadelphia team won a silver cup 
at Halifax and Philadelphia, respec- 
tively, against British and Canadian 
teams. In 1878 and 1882 Austra- 
lian teams came to this country and 
won or drew every match they 
played ; in 1879 two English teams 
met with similar success, and during 
this year an Irish team won every- 
where except in Philadelphia, where 
it was badly beaten ; but in 1884 a 
Philadelphia team won eight matches 
in England, losing five and drawing 
five. In 1885 a strong English team 
received, at Philadelphia, the first de- 
feat inflicted on organized English 
cricketers in this country, but in 1886 
another English team won every 
match they played in the United 
States. " In 1887 a Canadian team 
visited Great Britain and played 
eighteen matches, winning four, los- 
ing five, and drawing nine-." 

" In 1888 an Irish team was suc- 
cessful everywhere in this country 
except in Philadelphia, where they 
were twice defeated." 

" In 1889 a second Philadelphia 
team visited Great Britain playing 
twelve matches, of which it won four, 
lost three, and drew five." But 
attempts to arouse general interest in 
the sport in the United States have 
met with little success. 

CROOKED MAN, a game played 
by any number of persons, in which 



each player jumps from one to 
another of a series of pictures drawn 
on a floor or pavement. The pic- 
tures illustrate roughly the nursery 
rhyme : 

" There was a crooked man. 
He went a crooked mile, 
And found a crooked sixpence 
Against a crooked stile ; 
He bought a crooked cat, 
Who caught a crooked mouse, 
And they all lived together in a little 
crooked house." 

There are seven pictures, represent- 
ing the words at the end of each 
line ; that is, a man, a milestone, a 
sixpence, a stile, a cat, a mouse, and 




Crooked Man Diagram. 

a house. These are drawn with 
chalk close together in any desired 
order', and each is surrounded with 
a circle. One of the players takes 
his place in the middle of the group 
of pictures, and the others sing the 
rhyme to any well-known tune which 
can be made to fit it, for instance 
"John Brown's Body." At the last 
word of each line he must jump to the 
corresponding figure. The verse is 
then repeated, and this time he 
must jump to the figure just before 
it is mentioned, giving a second 
jump at the proper word. While 
the last line is sung, he must step 



CROQUET 



226 



CROQUET 



from one figure to the other as fast 
as he can, going over them all, and 
ending on the last at the last word. 
If he jumps to a wrong figure, puts 
his feet outside the circles, turns 
quite around, or jumps before the 
proper time, he must pay a forfeit. 
The players take turn in jumping 
like the first. 

This game is played in a slightly 
different form by German students. 

CROQUET. A lawn game played 
with mallets and balls, on a field set 
with nine or ten wire arches or 
wickets, and two Stakes, generally 
of wood. An ordinary Croquet set 
contains eight balls, each of a differ- 
ent color or marked by a different 
colored ring, and eight mallets, each 
similarly marked, to correspond with 
the balls. The two stakes also are 
painted with rings of the same col- 
ors, arranged in the same order. 

The arches and stakes are set in 
various ways, for the most common 
of which see Fig. I, in which the un- 
broken line marks the course of the 
ball from the starting point to the 
lower stake, and the dotted line its 
return path. If played on an un- 
limited field, as a park, or lawn, the 
boundary is designated by a white 
cord fastened to stakes, A, B, C, D. 
Any ball passing beyond this border 
may be returned for play to the point 
where it left the field. The dotted 
inner border F, G, H, I, represents a 
line 30 inches from the outer border, 
and when the field has a fixed bor- 
der, made by placing boards four or 
five inches high (not more) on edge 
around it, balls, having passed to, or 
over this border, are placed on this 
inner line for convenience of striking. 
On grounds without a lawn, this in- 
ner line is marked by a slight scratch 
in the soil. The letters e, e, e, e, rep- 
resent corner pieces 18 inches long. 
This style of ground, with fixed bor- 
der, and field carefully scraped and 
sanded and rolled, was for many 
years (till 1889) the standard field of 
the National Association. 

The game may be played by two, 



four, six, or eight persons, but two 
or four make the best game. 

Four-handed Croquet is played 
exactly like the two-handed game, 
except that each player has but 
one ball, so that the two balls on 
one side are played by partners in- 
stead of by the same person. In Six 



Lower Stake . 




Starting ny 
Point 

Stake 



D 

Fig. i. Croquet Ground. 

and Eight-handed Croquet each 
player has a ball, and there are two 
sides as before. The order of play 
must be decided on before the game 
is begun and kept the same through- 
out, no one playing directly after any 
of his partners. The length of time 
required for a Six or Eight ball game 
is such that it is rarely engaged in. 
When two play, each player uses two 
balls ; when more than two, each 
player generally has but one ball. In 
all tournament contests by members 
of the National Association there are 
two players, each playing two balls 
(see Scientific Croquet below), 
but friendly or social games, so 



CROQUET 



227 



CROQUET 



called, have four players, each, of 
course, using one ball, the first and 
third, and the second and fourth, be- 
ing partners. The following de- 
scription is of the two-handed game. 

The players take turns, each using 
his two balls alternately, in the order 
of their colors on the stakes. The 
first play may be decided by lot. 
Play is begun by placing the ball 
half-way between the starting stake 
and the first arch, and striking it 
with the mallet, generally so that 
it will pass through the first arch. 
If, however, the arches are nar- 
row, a good player rarely attempts 
to make the first arch at the outset, 
but strikes so as to leave his ball at 
the lower end of the field, or at some 
distance from the starting point, pre- 
ferring to wait till he has all the balls 
in play and then, by their help, make 
several arches, as described below. 
The player's object is to pass through 
each of the arches in turn, strike the 
opposite stake, called the turning 
stake, and then return to the starting 
stake in like manner, by the path 
shown in Fig. I. A ball after hav- 
ing been struck from the starting 
point is generally regarded " in 
play," whether such ball has made 
the first arch or not. Early rules 
recognized the " booby " as one who 
attempted, but failed, to make the 
first arch, but this term is now 
discarded. 

When a player's ball passes 
through an arch, or hits the lower 
stake, he is said to " make a point." 
When his ball, from a stroke of the 
mallet, hits another, either friend or 
foe, it is said to " roquet " it. This 
gives the privilege of roquet-croquet, 
which must be taken, and is done by 
placing the player's own ball in con- 
tact with the roqueted ball, and then 
striking the former so as to move, 
however slightly, the roqueted ball 
and sending his own by the same 
stroke a greater or less distance as 
may be desired. After making a 
point, and also at the beginning of 
every turn, the player has the privi- 



lege of roqueting any ball he may 
choose, but no ball can be roqueted 
more than once in any turn unless a 
point be made. Then the player's 
ball is said to be " alive " on all the 




Position by Split Shot. 



balls, and when he has played on all, 
he is " dead " on them. There are 
two ways of taking roquet-croquet. 
The one above described is called 
"loose" croquet, because neither ball 
is held during the stroke. The other 
is " tight " croquet, when the playing 
ball is placed against the roqueted 
ball, and held either between the 
fingers or by the foot so that when it 
is struck the object ball moves in any 
desired direction. If the struck ball 
moves from the hand or from under 
the foot, it is called a "flinch " and play 
ceases. The hand is used upon care- 
fully prepared grounds to prevent the 



CROQUET 



228 



CROQUET 



indentations made by holding a ball 
firmly under the foot. 

The privilege of roquet-croquet, 
being continued after every point 
made, enables a skillful player to 
make several arches, frequently the 
entire round from start to finish, in 
one turn. This is called " making 
a run," in which sometimes only one 
ball is " used," either his own or his 
opponent s, but so placed each time 
beyond the arch to be made that 
when the playing ball passes through 
the arch it can use the other to get 
in front of the next arch (called 
" getting into position "). 



In loose Croquet, roquet-croquet 
be taken by means of several 
kinds of strokes, or " shots," so 
called: " follow shots," in which one 
ball follows the other more or less 
closely according to the skill of the 
player ; " split shots " (Figs. 2 and 4), 
in which they move in different direc- 
tions, and " slice shots " (see Fig. 3). 
In Figs. 2 to 6 the player's ball is 
lettered A and the roqueted ball B, 
except in Fig. 4, where C shows the 
direction of the mallet-stroke, and 
A and B that of the balls respectively. 
In the " slice shot," the object ball is 
only slightly displaced or made only 





Fig. 3. Slice Shot. 



to shake, this latter being deemed suf- 
ficient to prevent the player from 
losing his shot, for if either of these 
shots be attempted and the object 
ball be not moved play ceases, and 
the struck ball may be returned or 
not (according to the wish of the 
opponent) to the position it had be- 
fore the stroke. In the follow shot, 
the balls will roll off together if the 
stroke be slow and pushing, but if it 
be sharp and quick, only the object 
ball will go to any great distance. 
By varying the direction and speed 
of stroke, a skillful player can send 
each of the balls exactly where he 
wishes them to go. 

Many players have one end of their 
mallets made of soft rubber, by an 
ordinary stroke of which both balls 



will go the whole length of the field 
together. 

When a player's ball has made all 
the points in the game except strik- 
ing the finishing stake, it is called a 
Rover, but remains in the game to 
assist his other ball till it also be- 
comes a Rover. Rovers can be put 
out only by partners, and when a 
Rover is thus made to hit the stake, 
and his partner, without removing 
the other ball from the field, fails to 
hit the stake on the next shot neither 
is regarded as out. They must go 
out in successive shots by the same 
player. A Rover has no additional 
privilege of play on account of being 
a Rover. 

Suggestions. In Croquet, the 
skillful player tries to keep his own 



CROQUET 



229 



CROQUET 



balls together as much as possible 
and to separate those of his oppo- 
nent. That one of the enemy's balls 
played last (called the " innocent 
ball," because it can do no harm 
till three others have had their turns) 
can be used and left near either of a 
player's balls without danger, but 
the other ball (called the " guilty " 
or " danger " ball) should either be 
sent to a distance after it has been 
used, or so placed that the wire of 
an arch or a stake will be between 
it and the other balls. In the latter 
case it is said to be " wired." Figs. 
5 and 6 show two different methods 
of wiring. 

When his ball is wired, a skilled 
player may, provided the ball be far 
enough from the wire to allow it, 
make what is called a " jump shot," 
by striking the ball downward so 
that it bounds over the wicket. 
When no obstruction prevents one 
ball from hitting another the shot is 
said to be " open." Bold and con- 
fident players, especially in friendly 
or social contests, frequently take the 
danger ball with them in making 
a run, "tying it up," or "wiring" it, 
just before an attempt to make the 
difficult center or basket arch (some- 
times called also the cage. This 
style of play is universally adopted 
by skilled players). A player should 
not try to roquet the danger ball at 
all, if by missing it he would give it 
a better chance for play than it had 
before. At the end of a play, or at 
the beginning, when there is little 
chance of a run, the player should 
place his ball where it will aid his 
other ball. 

Field and Implements. Croquet 
is usually played on closely shaven 
turf, but skilled players prefer a 
ground of rolled earth, sanded (very 
slightly) to hold the balls. The size 
of the field varies from 40 by 60 to 
60 by loo feet, the latter being un- 
necessarily large ; the match games 
of the National Association are 
played on fields about 45 by 80 feet. 
The arches or wickets are often as 



wide as 6 or 7 inches, but on the 
grounds of clubs belonging to the 
National Association they are only 
3| inches wide, making it difficult for 
a ball to make its arch unless it be 
directly in front of it. The wickets 
are sunk about 6 inches in the ground 
and usually set in buried blocks of 
wood to make them more firm. The 
inside measurements of Fig. i are as 
follows : The stakes are 7 feet from 
the middle point of the end border, 
with five arches in a straight line be- 
tween them, the center one being a 
double one, formed of two arches 
placed 1 8 inches apart and set cross- 
wise of the ground. It is 7 feet 
from each stake to the first arch, 
which is 7 feet from the second arch. 
The side arches are about 14 feet 
from the second arches nearly or 
quite at right angles. But in case 
the field selected should be of dif- 
ferent dimensions from those given 
above, any similar setting of arches, 
with proportionate distances, will 
prove satisfactory. [For diagram 
and construction of grounds adopted 
in 1889 by the National Association 
see Scientific Croquet.} The mallets 




Fig. 4. Split Shot. 

are made in various styles and sizes, 
and of different materials, according 
to the owner's taste, there being no 
restriction in any respect. Those 
approved by the National Associa- 
tion either have solid heads of box- 
wood, brass-ringed, 7 to 7$ or 8 



CROQUET 



230 



CROQUET 



inches long by 2 to 2\ inches in 
diameter; and handles from 8 to 15 
inches long, or have hard rubber ends 
firmly ringed with brass rings shrunk 
on, these ends screwing on to a 
center piece of beautiful wood, into 
which the handle screws, so as to be 
readily taken apart for convenience 
in carrying (see Fig. 7). 

Though short-handled mallets like 
those just described are now pre- 





Fig. 5. Wiring by Direct Roquet 
Croquet. 

fered by skilled players, the ordi- 
nary mallet handles are from 3 to 
4 feet long, so that the player may 
strike his ball without stooping. The 
ordinary balls are of wood, lignum 
vitae being the best, but balls of 
various compositions are used. The 



National Association has adopted 
hard rubber balls, 3} inches in diam- 
eter, so that in passing through a 
wicket a ball has only one quarter of 
an inch of spare space, or an eighth 
of an inch on each side. The colors 
adopted are the national colors, red, 
white, and blue, and always in that 
order, therefore easy to be remem- 
bered. The fourth ball is the natural 
color of the rubber, black, and fol- 
lows in order ; so that red and blue 
are partners, and black and white 
their opponents. Metal or wooden 
spring " clips," so called (patent 
clothes fasteners are excellent for the 
purpose), colored to correspond with 
the balls, are placed on the tops of 
the arches to determine without dis- 
pute the arch through which the ball 
of corresponding color must next 
pass. 

[Balls and clips can be very easily 
painted by using a solution of white 
shellac in alcohol, and mixing with 
this as wanted, Chinese vermillion 
for red, Prussian blue with a little 
zinc white for a light blue, and zinc or 
flake white for white, painting with 
separate brushes and mixing colors 
in separate dishes. Thus painted 
they will dry in a few minutes and 
wear for several days.] 

Scientific Croquet, As played by 
experts the game differs from ordi- 
nary croquet in many particulars, 
some of which have been hinted 
at in the previous description. To 
be full in all respects, we append 
the description of the grounds 
adopted in 1889 by the National As- 
sociation, and also the rules amended 
to June, 1890. [Although the grounds, 
as here described, are those upon 
which all tournament contests shall 
be played, some clubs, owing to 
the expense required to change, still 
adhere to the style as given in 
Fig. i.] 

The plan of the ground is as shown 
in Fig. 8. A full-sized ground is 
45 by 80 feet ; the ground to be 
raised two inches at the border, the 
slope extending thirty inches into 



CROQUET 



231 



CROQO,.* 



the field, the base of which is the 
boundary line. The stakes or posts 
are to be one inch in diameter, and 



one and one-half inches high, situ- 
ated at the base of the rise at the 
center of the width of the grounds. 






Fig;. 6. Wiring by. Split Shdt. 



The first wicket to be seven feet from 
the post ; the second seven feet from 




Fig. 7. a a. Brass Rings ; , center piece 
of wood screwing into the hard rub- 
ber ends. 

the first, each on a line extending 
though the middle of the field. The 
side arches to be five feet from the 



foot of the rise On a line with the 
second arch from each stake ; the 
cage, or double wicket in the 
center, to be eighteen inches long 
and three and three-eighth inches 
between the wires, and set at right 
angles with a straight line drawn 
from stake to stake. The border at 
the top of the slope is to be made of 
maple or other hard wood, about 
four by six inches, laid flat to serve 
as a cushion, whence caroms can be 
made. The corner pieces to be of 
same material and eight feet long, 
inside measurement. All arches ex- 
cept the center arch to be three and 
one-half inches in the clear. 



CROQUET 2 

In this game four balls make a 
set, and two or even three games of 
four balls each, thus accommodat- 
ing eight or twelve persons, may 
be played on the same ground, and 
with but little confusion or interrup- 
tion, provided one set of balls is 




Fig. 8. S S, Stakes ; a a, Boundary ; 
continuous line going, dotted line 
returning. 

colored, another set numbered, and 
the third marked with rings to dis- 
tinguish the sets and the players. 
This is frequently done in the West- 
ern States, where the grounds are 
covered, and play is enjoyed regard- 
less of cold or storm outside. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

The following are the rules adopted 
by the National Croquet Association 
of America : 

I. Interfering with Players. No 
player or other person shall be per- 
mitted to interfere with the result of 
a game by any word or act calcu- 
lated to embarrass the player, nor 



2 CROQUET 

shall any one except a partner speak 
to a player while in the act of strik- 
ing. 

2. Order of Colors. The order 
of colors shall be Red, White, Blue, 
Black. 

3. Mallets. There shall be no re- 
striction as to kind or size of mallet 
used one or two hands may be 
used in striking. 

4. No player shall change his 
mallet during a game without per- 
missio'n of his opponent, except in 
case of accident, or to make a " jump 
shot." 

5. Should a ball or mallet break 
in striking, the player may demand 
another stroke, with a new ball or 
mallet. 

6. Clips or Markers. Every player 
shall be provided with a clip or in- 
dicator of the same color as his ball, 
painted on one side only, which he 
must affix to his arch next in order 
in course of play, before his partner 
plays, with the painted side toward 
the front of the arch. Should he fail 
to do so his clip must remain upon 
the arch it rested on before he 
played, and he must make the points 
again. Should he move his marker 
beyond or back of the point he is for, 
his attention must be called to such 
error before he plays again, other- 
wise it shall stand. Should a player 
put a ball through its arch, he must 
move the corresponding clip to its 
proper arch before the next ball is 
played, otherwise the clip remains 
as before. 

7. Opening of Game. All games 
shall be opened by scoring from an 
imaginary line through the middle 
wicket and playing toward the turn- 
ing stake. The balls must be so 
played that they rest below the first 
arch from the turning stake, and if 
dislodged, must be replaced all 
balls being in play from where they 
rest, the ball nearest the stake play- 
ing first. 

8. Balls How Struck. The ball 
must be struck with the face of the 
mallet, the stroke being delivered 



CROQUET 



233 



CROQUET 



whenever touching the ball it moves 
it. Should a stake or wire inter- 
vene, the stroke is not allowed, unless 
the ball is struck at the same time, 
and if the ball is moved, without 
being struck by the face of the mal- 
let, it shall remain where it rests, 
and should a point (or roquet) be 
made, it shall not be allowed, except 
by the decision of the umpire as to 
the fairness of the shot. All balls 
moved by a foul shot may be re- 
placed or not at the option of the 
opponent. 

9. When making a direct shot 
(i. e. roquet) the player must not 
push or follow the ball with his 
mallet ; but when taking croquet 
from a ball (two balls being in con- 
tact), he may follow his ball with the 
mallet ; but must not strike it twice. 

10. If a player strikes his ball be- 
fore his opponent has finished his 
play, the stroke shall stand, or be 
made over, at the option of the op- 
ponent. 

11. Should a ball rest against or 
near a wire, and the umpire or other 
person agreed on should decide that 
in order to pass through the arch, an 
unfair or push shot must be made, 
it shall not be allowed if made. 

12. Foul Stroke. Should a player 
in making a stroke move with his 
mallet any other than his object 
ball, it shall be a foul, and his 
play ceases, and all balls moved 
shall be replaced as before the stroke 
or remain where they rest, at the op- 
tion of the opponent. 

13. If a dead ball, in contact with 
another ball, moves on account of 
the inequality of the ground, while 
playing the other ball, away from it, 
the player does not lose his shot.' 

14. Balls When not to be 
Touched. A ball must not be touched 
while on the field, except after a ro- 
quet, when it is necessary to place 
it beside the roqueted ball for the 
purpose of croquet, or to replace it 
when it has been moved by acci- 
dent except by permission of the 
opponent. 



15. Roquet and Croquet. A ball 
roquets another when it comes in 
contact with it by a blow from the 
player's mallet, or rebounds from a 
wicket or a stake ; the border also 
when it comes in contact with it 
when croquet is taken from another 
ball. 

1 6. A player after making a ro- 
quet shall not stop his ball for the 
purpose of preventing its hitting an- 
other. Should he do so his play 
ceases, and all balls shall be re- 
placed as before the stroke, or re- 
main, at the option of the opponent. 

17. Roquet gives to the player the 
privilege of croquet only, and play 
must be made from the roqueted 
ball. 

1 8. If a player in taking a croquet 
from a ball fails to move it, such 
stroke ends his play, and his ball 
must be returned, or left where it 
stops, at the option of the opponent. 

19. A player, in each turn of play, 
is at liberty to roquet any ball on 
the ground once only before making 
a point. 

20. Should a player croquet a ball 
he has not roqueted, he loses his 
turn, and all balls moved by such 
play must be replaced to the satisfac- 
tion of the umpire, or adversary. 
Should the mistake not be discovered 
before the player has made another 
stroke, the play shall be valid, and 
the player continue his play. 

21. In taking croquet from a ball, 
if player's ball strikes another to 
which he is " dead," such stroke 
does not end his play. 

22. If a player roquets two or 
more balls at the same stroke, only 
the first can be roqueted. 

23. Making of Points. A player 
makes a point in the game when his 
ball makes an arch or hits a stake in 
proper play. 

24. If a player makes a point, and 
afterwards at the same stroke roquets 
a ball, he must take the point, and 
use the ball. If the roqueted ball is 
beyond the arch, as determined by 
Rule 45, and playing ball rests through 



CROQUET 



234 



CROQUET 



the arch, the arch is held to be first 
made. [Note. While this is not 
mathematically correct, the rule is so 
made to avoid disputes and difficult 
measurements.] 

25. If a ball roquets another, and 
afterwards at the same stroke makes 
a point, it must take the ball and 
reject the point. (See note to 
Rule 24.) 

26. A player continues to play so 
long as he makes a point in the 
game, or roquets another ball to 
which he is in play. 

27. A ball making two or more 
points at the same stroke, has only 
the same privilege as if it made but 
one. 

28. Should a ball be driven through 
its arch, or against its stake by cro- 
quet or concussion, it is a point made 
by that ball, except it be a Rover. 

29. Playing on Dead Ball. If a 
player play by direct shot on a dead 
ball, all balls displaced by such shot 
shall be replaced in their former posi- 
tion, and the player's ball placed 
against the dead ball on the side 
from which it came ; or all balls shall 
rest where they lie, at the option of 
the opponent. 

30. If a player, in making a direct 
shot, strike a ball on which he has 
already played, i. e. a dead ball, his 
play ceases. Any point, or part of a 
point or ball struck, after striking the 
dead ball, is not allowed. And both 
balls must be replaced in accordance 
with the preceding rule. A dead 
ball displaced by other than direct 
shot shall not be replaced. 

31. If playing ball in passing 
through its arch strike a dead ball 
that is beyond the arch, as deter- 
mined by Rule 45, the ball shall not be 
considered a dead ball if playing ball 
rests through its arch, and the point 
shall be allowed. 

32. Balls Moved or Interfered 
with by Accident or Design. A ball 
accidentally displaced, otherwise than 
as provided for in Rule 12, must be 
returned to its position before play 
can proceed. 



33. If a ball is stopped or diverted 
from its course by an opponent, the 
player may repeat the shot or not as 
he chooses. Should he decline to 
repeat the shot, the ball must remain 
where it stops, and, if playing ball, 
must play from there. 

34. If a ball is stopped or diverted 
from its course by a player, or his 
partner, the opponent may demand 
a repetition of the shot if he chooses 
Should he decline to do so, the ball 
must remain where it stops, and, if 
playing ball, must play from there. 

35. If a ball, while rolling, is 
stopped or diverted from its course 
by any object inside the ground, not 
pertaining to the game or ground, 
other than provided for in Rules 33 
and 34, the shot may be repeated or 
allowed to remain at the option of the 
player. If not repeated the ball must 
remain where it stops, and, if playing 
ball, play from there. 

36. Balls in Contact. Should a 
player, on commencing his play, find 
his ball in contact with another, he 
may hit his own as he likes, and then 
has subsequent privileges the same 
as though the balls were separated 
an inch or more. 

Concerning Botindary. [The boun- 
dary is a line extending around the 
field, usually thirty inches from the 
border and parallel with it.] 

37. A ball shot over boundary line 
or border must be returned at right 
angles from where it stops before 
play can proceed. 

38. A ball is in the field, only when 
the whole ball is within the boundary 
line. 

39. No play is allowed from be- 
yond the boundary line, except when 
a ball is placed in contact with an- 
other for the purpose of croquet. 

40. If a player strikes his ball when 
over the boundary line, he shall lose 
his stroke and the balls shall be re- 
placed or left where they stop, at the 
option of the opponent. 

41. If a player roquet a ball off the 
field by a direct shot his play ceases, 
and the roqueted ball is placed on the 



CROQUET 



235 



CROQUET 



boundary opposite the point where 
it lay before being thus hit. But if a 
ball off the field is hit from a croquet 
the hit shall not be allowed, the ball 
shall be properly replaced in the field, 
and the play shall not cease. 

[The three following rules apply to 
grounds square-cornered and with- 
out slope.] 

42. The first ball driven over the 
boundary line into a corner must be 
placed on the corner at the intersec- 
tion of the two boundary lines. 

43. If a ball, having been struck 
over the boundary line, is returnable 
at the corner, another ball being on 
or entitled to the corner, it shall be 
placed on that side of the corner on 
which it went off. 

44. If two balls, having been shot 
over the boundary line, rest directly 
behind one another at right angles 
with boundary line, they shall be 
placed on the line alongside of each 
other in the direction from whence 
they were played off. This can oc- 
cur only when the centers of the two 
balls rest directly behind one another 
at right angles with the boundary 
line. 

45. Ball When Through an 
Arch. A ball is not through an 
arch when a straight edge, laid 
across the two wires on the side from 
whence the ball come, touches the 
ball without moving the arch. 

46. Balls When in Position. If 
a ball has been placed under an 
arch, for the purpose of croquet, it 
is not in position to run that arch. 

47. If a ball be driven under its 
arch from the wrong direction, and 
rests there, it is not in position to 
run that arch in the right direction. 

48. If a ball shot through its arch 
in the right direction, rolls back 
through or under that arch, the 
point is not made, but the ball is in 
position if left there. 

49. Hitting Ball while Making 
Wicket. The cage wickets may be 

made in one, two, or more turns, 
provided the ball stops within limit 
of the cage. 



50. Any playing ball within, or un- 
der, a wicket, becomes dead to ad- 
vancement through the wicket from 
that position, if it comes in contact 
with any other ball by a direct shot. 

51. Rovers. A Rover has the 
right of roquet and croquet on every 
other ball once during each turn of 
play, and is subject to roquet and 
croquet by any ball in play. 

52. Rovers must be continued in 
the game until partners become 
Rovers, and go out successively, and 
a Rover that has been driven against 
the stake cannot be removed to make 
way for the next Rover. 

53. Playing Out of Turn, or 
Wrong Ball. If a player plays out 
of his proper turn, whether with his 
own or any other ball, or in his proper 
turn plays the wrong ball, and the 
mistake is discovered before the next 
player has commenced his play, all 
benefit from any point or points 
made is lost, and his turn of play 
forfeited. All balls moved by the 
misplay must be returned to their 
fonTier position by the umpire or ad- 
versary. If the mistake is not dis- 
covered until after the next player 
has made his first stroke, the error 
must stand. 

54. Points Remade. If a player 
makes a point he has already made, 
his marker not being on that point, 
and the mistake is discovered before 
the proper point is made, the play 
ceases with the shot by which the 
wicket was remade, and the marker 
remains where it stood at the begin- 
ning of this play. All balls shall be 
left in the position they had at the 
time the wicket was remade. If not 
discovered before the proper point is 
made, the points so made are good, 
and play proceeds the same as if no 
error had been made. 

55. Error in Order of Play. If 
any error in order is discovered after 
a player has struck his ball, he shall 
be allowed to finish his play provided 
he is playing in the regular sequence 
of his partner's ball last played. In 
case of dispute as to proper sequence 



CROQUET 



236 



CROQUET 



of balls, it shall be decided by the 
umpire ; if there is no umpire, by lot. 
No recourse shall be had to lot un- 
less each party expresses the belief 
that the other is wrong. 

56. At any time any error in order 
is discovered, the opposite side shall 
follow with the same ball last played 
(the proper sequence) ; but before 
playing, their opponents shall have 
privilege to demand a transposition 
of adversaries' balls. 

Example. Black plays by mistake 
after Red the error is not discov- 
ered Blue plays in the proper se- 
quence of his partner Red, and see- 
ing that Black has just played, is 
thus led to believe it the innocent 
ball, and upon concluding his play 
leaves Black by Red. Now if error 
in order is discovered the player of 
Red and Blue can demand that the 
position of Black and White be trans- 
posed. 

57. Changing Surf ace of Ground. 
The surface of grounds shall not be 
changed during a game by either 
player, unless by consent of the um- 
pire, and if so changed at the time of 
playing the shot shall be declared 
lost. 

58. Direction through Wickets. 
In making all side or corner arches, 
the playing ball shall pass through 
them toward the center. 

59. Penalty. If a rule is violated, 
a penalty for which has not been 
provided, the player shall cease his 
play. 

TERMS USED IN CROQUET. 

To Roquet. To hit with one's own 
ball another ball for the first time. 

To Croquet. To place player's 
ball against the roquetted ball and 
then striking his own ball, moving 
both. 

In Play. A ball is in play so long 
as points are made, or balls hit, in 
accordance with the rules. 

Points. See Rule 24. 

Dead Ball. A ball on which the 
player has played since making a 
point. It is then dead to the player 
till he makes another point. 



Direct Shot Roquet. This is a 
direct shot, whether the ball in pass- 
ing to its destination does or does 
not carom from a wire, a stake, or 
the border. 

Drive or Block English " Rush." 
A roquet played so as to send the 
object ball to some desired spot. 

Slice or Cut. To drive the object 
ball to a desired position, by causing 
player's ball to hit it on one side. 

Run. The making of a number 
of points in the same turn. 

Set up. To locate the balls, so as 
to afford facility for making the next 
point or run. 

Wiring. To leave the balls so 
that the next player finds a wire or 
stake between his ball and the object 
ball. 

Object Ball. The ball at which 
the player aims. 

Jump Shot. Striking the ball so 
as to make it jump over any obstacle 
between it and the object aimed at. 
To do this, the ball should be struck 
with considerable force on the top 
just back of the center. 

Guilty or Danger Ball. The 
next ball to play on the adversary's 
side. 

Innocent Ball. The last played 
ball of the adversary. 

Rover. A ball that has made all 
the points except the last. 

Loose Croquet. Striking a ball 
when it is in contact with another, 
where it has been placed for the pur- 
pose of Croquet, thus moving both 
balls. 

Tight Croquet. Holding with the 
hand or foot a ball placed against 
another for the sake of croquet, thus 
allowing only the latter to be moved. 

Carom. Rebounding from an arch, 
a stake, a ball, on the border. 

Variations. The most important 
variation in the game is the " tight 
croquet," which is often substituted 
at pleasure for the roquet-croquet or 
" loose croquet." This method, em- 
ploying either the hand or the foot, 
has been already described. In the 
early form of the game the tight 



CROQUET 



237 



CROQUET 



croquet was the usual method, but 
it has long been discarded by scien- 
tific players, except in the Western 
States, where it is carried to a high 
degree of skill. The word " croquet " 
as formerly used, always meant the 
tight croquet, but is sometimes used 
by modern players to designate loose 
croquet. To avoid confusion the ap- 
propriate adjective should be used. 
Some of the preceding rules can be 



Pall Mall. 



construed and used only in " loose 
croquet." All others may be used 
for tight croquet, and adopted there- 
fore. The Western Clubs use the 
rules of the National Association 
herein published, which are sufficient 
for all purposes. Tight croquet 
gives a splendid chance for showing 
skill in placing balls, accurate hitting, 
and driving balls, as the act of cro- 
quet leaves the playing ball near 
where the roqueted ball rested. 

Dead Ball Game. In this a ball 
is after the first turn never alive on 







any ball if such ball has been once 
hit since making an arch. This 
form of the game is rarely played 
because of its great difficulty. 

Parlor Croquet. Croquet sets for 
use in the parlor are sold at toy 
shops. The hoops are mounted on 
stands so that they will stand up- 
right on the floor, and hoops, mal- 
lets, and balls are all 
smaller than those used 
in the lawn game t the 
mallet handles being 
usually from one to 
three feet long. Some- 
times, however, a bil- 
liard or other level 
cloth-covered table, 
with elastic border, is 
fixed with arches and 
stakes, like a diminutive 
croquet field. This af- 
fords an opportunity for 
much skill with short- 
handed mallets and 
ivory balls, and as an 
indoor amusement is 
next to billiards. 

History. It is 
thought that croquet is 
derived from the an- 
cient game of Paille- 
Maille (Ball - Mallets) 
which was played in 
France as early as the 
1 3th century, and which, 
under the name of Pall 
Mall, was fashionable 
in England in the time 
of the Stuarts, and has 
given its name to one 
of the principal streets 
in 'London. Pall Mall, 
or Mall, was played 
with a mallet, a ball, 
and two hoops, or a 
hoop and a stake. . From the name 
of this game is derived our word 
pell-mell. 

Croquet, as it is now played, was 
taken to England from Ireland, 
where it was introduced from France. 
The illustration shows a kind of cro- 
quet played in that country in 1826. 



\ 



p 



Croquet i n 

France in 

1826. 



CROSS QUESTIONS 



238 



CRYSTALLIZATION 



It was first played in Ireland as a 
fashionable game about 1852, and in 
England about 1856. It was intro- 
duced into the United States about 
1865, and for many years was the 
most popular of lawn games ; but of 
late it has been almost superseded in 
England, and in many parts of the 
United States, by Lawn TENNIS. 
Since its introduction into the United 
States croquet has been much modi- 
fied. The number of arches has been 
increased, their positions have been 
changed, and the size of the ground 
has been diminished. In 1882 the 
National Croquet Association was 
organized in New York* And since 
that year it has held annual tourna- 
ments. The clubs in the Association 
are mostly from New England and 
the Middle States. The chief 
Western clubs, whose style of play 
is slightly different, have never been 
represented, though they have been 
invited. 

The Association has fine grounds 
at Norwich, Conn., where the annual 
tournaments have been held since 
1883. Cottage City, Martha's Vine- 
yard, is a great place for croquet 
during the summer season. The 
grounds there are among the finest 
in the country, and it is a general 
practice ground for many during the 
summer who participate afterwards 
in the annual tournament at Nor- 
wich. 

CROSS QUESTIONS, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
who sit in a circle. Each puts a 
question to his fight hand neighbor, 
and receives an answer. Each of 
the players in turn then repeats aloud 
the question that his left hand neigh- 
bor asked of him and the answer 
that his right hand neighbor gave. 
In order that the result may be more 
amusing, it should be agreed before- 
hand what kind of questions are to 
be asked. For instance, it m;iy be 
agreed that each is to ask why his 
neighbor does a certain thing, real Or 
fictitious. Thus B asks C, on his 
right hand, " Why do you sit so near 



the fire ? " C answers, ' Because I 
like the heat." A asks B, " Why 
did you fall into the water yester- 
day?" and he replies, ''Because I 
went too near the edge." When it is 
B's turn, he must tell A's question 
and C's answer, thus, " Why did you 
fall into the water?" "Because I 
like the heat," and so on. 

The game is often played by giving 
the right hand neighbor a predica- 
ment and the left-hand a solution, 
and then telling the predicament that 
comes from the left and the solution 
from the right, It is then called 
Predicaments. 

CRYSTALLIZATION, Experi- 
ments in. I. Dissolve salt in water 
till it will hold no more, and then dip 
a slip of glass into the solution, so 
that When it is removed it will be 
wet with the liquid. Watch the 
glass, holding it in the sun, and 
presently little specks will appear in 
the film of liquid. These will grow 
larger, and others xvill appear, until the 
glass is covered with crystals of salt. 
If the formation is watched through 
a magnifying glass it will be more 
interesting; 

2. Try, in the same way, other sub- 
stances which will dissolve In water, 
such as sugar, washing soda, sal am- 
frioniat, chlorate of potash, or alum. 
The crystals formed by each sub- 
stance have their own shape and 
method of formation"} some branch- 
ing out over the glass like the growth 
of a plant. 

3. Project the growing crystals on 
the Wall by holding them before a 
lens in a beam of light from a HELI- 
OSTAT, as directed under MAGIC 
LANTERN, and the crystals will ap- 
pear enormous and seem to grow 
very rapidly. 

4. Dissolve in hot water as much 
alum as it will hold, and place in the 
solution any object you wish to cover 
with crystals. Set the solution in a 
quiet place, and in a few hours crys- 
tals of alum will be deposited on all 
of the objects. In this way baskets 
made oT iron wire may be covered, 



CRYSTALLIZATION 



239 



CUP AND BALL 



or dried grasses may be made to look 
as, if laden with frost. 

5. Fill one third of a bottle or jar 
with silicate of soda, often called 
" soluble glass," and the rest with 
clear water, and shake till the two 
fluids have thoroughly mixed. Then 
drop into the bottom of the jar crys- 
tals, the size of a pea, of one or more 
of the following substances : alumi- 
num sulphate, potash alum, proto- 
sulphate of iron, copperas, or blue 
vitriol. If the jar is large several 
may be used. Set the jar in a quiet 
place and in a few hours a growth of 
crystals will begin from each sub- 
stance, branching upward like vege- 
tation, but different in each case. 
When the growth has reached the 
surface it may be stopped by pour- 
ing water gently into the jar, which 
will carry off the soluble glass grad- 
ually in the overflow. The crystals 
may thus be preserved, but if the jar 
is to be moved a layer of sand quar- 
ter or half an inch thick must be put 
into the bottle to begin with, the 
crystals of alum and the other sub- 
stances are pressed down into this 
with a glass rod, and are thus held 
firmly in their places. 

6. Put a twig or bit of a shrub in 
a jar, stem upward. Drop a few 
crystals of benzoic acid on a plate 
of hot iron, and invert the jar over 
them. The crystals will turn to va- 
por which will crystallize again on 
the shrub in a form resembling hoar 
frost. 

7. Dissolve in a quantity of hot 
water, sufficient to half fill the glass 
or tube in which the experiment is to 
be tried, ten times its weight of hypo- 
sulphite of soda. Having warmed a 
tall narrow glass, or test-tube, by 
means of boiling water, pour the 
solution slowly into it. Make a simi- 
lar solution of acetate of soda and 
pour carefully in above the first solu- 
tion, on which it will float. On this 
pour a layer of boiling-hot water. 
Allow the solutions to cool slowly, 
and then lower into the glass a crys- 
tal of hyposulphite of soda on the 



end of a thread. It will pass through 
the upper solution without disturb- 
ing it, but as soon as it reaches the 
lower one, that one will crystallize at 




Crystallization. Experiment 7. 

once. A similar crystal of acetate of 
soda is now lowered into the upper 
solution which then crystallizes in 
like manner. 

CUP AND BALL, a game played 
by one or more persons with a 
wooden or ivory ball connected by a 
string with a shallow cup, just large 
enough to fit the ball, on the end of 
a handle about a foot long. The 
other end of the handle is pointed 
and made to fit a corresponding hole 
in the ball. The game consists in 
trying to catch the ball in the cup. 
The player, taking the cup by its 
handle, throws the ball upward in the 
air and catches it in the cup as it 
falls. This is easily done after 
sufficient practice. If more than one 
person play, each has a trial in turn, 
and he who catches the ball after a 
stated number of trials, agreed on 
beforehand, is the winner. When 
the player can easily catch the ball 
in the cup, he should try to do so by 
sticking the pointed end of the handle 
in the hole. The illustration shows 



CUPID COMES 



240 



CURLING 



the cup held in position to catch 
the ball on the point. This requires 

freat skill, for to do it the ball must 
e given a twirling motion around 
the axis passing through the hole. 
In catching the ball in the cup, the 
latter must be placed under the ball 
and lowered quickly, so that the two 
are both moving in the same direc- 
tion as the ball strikes it ; otherwise 
the ball is apt to bound out of the 




Cup and Ball. 

cup. In France the cup and ball is 
called Le Bilbouquet (Ball-bouquet). 
Henri III., King of France, and his 
courtiers were fond of playing with it, 
and it came into great favor again in 
the reign of Louis XV. In that time 
a gentleman of fashion always carried 
a cup and ball of ivory, and even 
actors and actresses appeared on the 
stage in tragedy bearing the toys. 
Says a French writer: "It must 
have been rather amusing to hear 
Orestes or Phedra breathing forth 
tragic fury with cup and ball in 
hand." Its popularity in France was 
still great at the time of the Revolu- 
tion, when it was succeeded in favor 
by L' Emigrant. (See BANDILORE.) 
CUPID COMES, an alphabetical 
game played by any number of per- 
sons, each of whom tells how Cupid 
Comes, in answer to a question. The 
answers must begin with the letters 



of the alphabet in order, and must 
all end in " ing." Thus, the first 
player says to his neighbor " Cupid 
Comes." The neighbor asks " How 
does he come ? " and the first 
player replies, for instance, " An- 
gling." The second player then says 
to the third : " Cupid Comes," and, 
in answer to the same question, re- 
plies " Boiling." So the game goes 
on till the alphabet is exhausted. 
Sometimes it is then repeated, the 
answers ending in " ly." Cupid then 
is said to come Amiably, Bravely, 
Cautiously, etc. Sometimes the 
letter A is used by all the players in 
the first round, B in the second 
round, and so on. The game thus 
lasts longer. In this case, any one 
who gives an answer already given 
must pay a forfeit. 

CURLING, a game played on the 
ice by any number of persons, divided 
into two sides, who try to slide stones 
as near as possible to two points 
called " Tees." A rink or course is 
laid out on a piece of strong ice 
about 7 yards wide and not less than 
50 yards in length. At the opposite 
ends of the rink, 38 yards, apart, are 
two small holes called " Tees," 
around each of which a circle 14 feet 
in diameter is drawn. The space 
inside of this circle is called the 
" brough " or " tee-head," and two 
smaller circles are drawn inside to 
make measurement more easy. 
Four yards behind each Tee a hack 
is cut in the ice, or a piece of corru- 
gated iron, called a "crampit," 3^ 
feet long by i foot in width, is placed 
for the player to stand on when de- 
livering his stone, making the whole 
distance played 42 yards. Seven 
yards in front of each Tee is a mark 
called the hog score, and if any stone 
fails to pass this it is called a " hog." 
Curling stones are made of various 
kinds of granite, and weigh from 30 to 
50 pounds each. They are flattened 
spheres in shape, not more than 36 
inches around and not higher than 
one-eighth their greatest circum- 
ference. The handles are made of 



CURLING 



241 



CURLING 




iron or brass, nickel or silver plated, 
with a grip for the hand of ebony, 
hardened rubber or ivory, screwed to 
a bolt running through the stone. 
Each player has a pair of curling 
stones, and the sides are divided by 
lots into sets of two opponents each. 
Each pair of opponents play their 
stones alternately, 
and then the next 
pair plays. Each 
player tries to slide 
his stone as near to 
the Tee as possible, 
and also to knock 
away any of his op- 
ponents' stones that 
have already been 
played. In delivering, 
the stone is slightly 
raised from the ice 
and then slid along 
toward the furthest 
Tee, with more or 
less force as the oc- 
casion requires. It is 
better play for the 
first shot to lie three 
feet in front of the 
Tee than one foot 
behind it, as the for- 
mer may be " touched 
up " (driven nearer 
the Tee) and the lat- 
ter " touched out " 
unless well guarded. 
Each player, besides 
trying to knock his 
opponent's stones out 
of the " brough," tries 
to guard his own 
side from danger of 
being knocked out. 

When a stone hits 
the inside of another 
and bounds in toward 
the Tee it is called an " invvick," and 
when it strikes the outside of another 
and knocks the latter inward it is 
called an "outvvick." The skillful 
player, also by sliding his stone with 
a twist, causes it to describe a curve 
and thus sometimes reaches the Tee 
in spite of the fact that another stone 




Curling Rink. 



appeared directly in its way. When 
a stone on the Tee is knocked out of 
the circle by another which remains 
within it the shot is called a " chap 
and lie " ; when a stone on the Tee is 
partially guarded by another outside, 
and yet an opponent succeeds in 
knocking it off, he is said to " chip the 
winner." If a stone is very near the 
Tee, those on the same side as its 
owner strive to place their stones so 
as to protect it from the enemy's 
attacks. When all have played, the 
distances of the various stones from 
the Tee are determined with the aid 
of the " broughs." Every stone that 
is nearer the Tee than any on the 




Curling Stone. 

opposite side scores one point or one 
" shot," as it is called. Each one 
then takes a turn at the opposite Tee 
in the same order as before, and the 
game thus goes on till one of the 
sides has won. 

The way in which a game shall be 
won depends on agreement made 
beforehand. It may be done by the 
side that first scores 21 or 31 shots, 
or the one that scores most shots in 
21 or 25 "ends" or innings; or by 
the one that is ahead at the end of 3 
or 4 hours play. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

I. Four yards behind each Tee a 
circle 18 inches in diameter shall be 
drawn, on the left hand side of the 
line joining the Tees, and just touch- 
ing it. In this circle each player 
must stand when playing his stone 
at the more distant Tee, if he be 
right-handed. If left-handed he 
must stand in a similar circle on the 
right of the central line. 



CURLING 



242 



CURLING 



2. No stone shall count that is 
without the farther edge of a circle, 
or " brough " drawn with a radius of 
7 feet from the Tee as a center. 

3. A straight line called a " hog 
score " is drawn across the rink at a 
distance from each Tee equal to one- 
sixth the entire length of the rink. 
Every stone not reaching this line is 
called a " hog," and is taken off the 
ice except it strike another stone 
lying on the line. 

4. No stone shall be changed after 
the beginning of a game, unless it be 
broken, in which case the largest 
piece is scored for the play in which 
it was broken. 

5. If the played stone rolls and 
stops on its side or top it shall not 
be counted, but put off the ice. 

6. If the handle parts from the 
stone in playing, the player must 
keep hold of it, otherwise he shall 
not be entitled to replay his shot 
turn. 

7. No player must cross the rink, 
or go on it except when sweeping in 
accordance with the following rule. 

8. Both parties may sweep the 
rink ; the player's party while the 
stone is moving from the middle line 
to the Tee, and the opposite party 
after it passes the Tee. All sweep- 
ing must be from side to side, and 
no sweepings must be left in front of 
a sliding stone. 

9. If a player's stone be obstructed 
by his own party it shall be put off 
the ice ; if by the opposite party it 
shall be placed where the skip of 
the side to which it belongs may 
direct. 

10. If a player play out of turn his 
stone may be stopped and returned, 
but if the mistake is not discovered 
till the stone is at rest, the opposite 
party is allowed the choice of letting 
the shot stand and adding one to 
their score, or of declaring the round 
void. 

11. If a player play a wrong stone, 
it may be stopped and returned, but 
if allowed to come to rest, it shall be 
replaced by his own. 



12. No shot shall be measured till 
the end of the round. 

13. The "skips" or captains of 
the two sides have exclusive control 
each of his own party. Each, when 
it is his turn to play, appoints some 
other player to take temporary 
charge. The skips decide on the 
order of play, direct where their men 
shall stand, and how they shall sweep, 
and decide disputed questions. If 
they cannot agree, the dispute shall 
be referred to an umpire or some out- 
sider. No one but the skip on his 
own side shall address any player in 
the act of sliding his stone. 

History, Curling originated in 
Scotland, where it has been a favorite 
for three hundred years. It is played 
there by all classes of people, a 
wealthy landowner sometimes acting 
as skip for one party, while the leader 
of the other is a common laborer. 

The game was first played on this 
continent at Montreal about the 
beginning of this century, being in- 
troduced there by Scotchmen. It 
is now played in all parts of the 
United States wherever a sheet of 
ice can be had, Americans having 
rapidly become experts at the game. 
Owing to intense cold and snow- 
storms in Canada covered rinks are 
mostly used, lighted and used in the 
evening as well as by daylight. The 
unwritten laws of curling against any 
gambling or betting on the game, or 
profanity on the ice, are very em- 
phatic and rigidly enforced. The 
Grand National Curling Club of 
America, organized in 1867, and 
having now 44 associated clubs, has 
clone a great deal toward populariz- 
ing the game, and reducing it to a 
science in this country. Matches for 
several championship medals are 
played for annually under its aus- 
pices. The records in the oldest of 
these, that for the Gordon medal, are 
given in the appendix. Besides these 
" rink medals," others called " point 
medals" are contended for, the ob- 
ject being to play perfectly certain 
shots, such as " inwicking," " out- 



CURVE OF DESCENT 



243 



CYCLING 



wicking," " chap and lie," and " chip 
the winner." 

Curling stones are greatly im- 
proved of late years both in appear- 
ance and usefulness, the best being 
made from granite quarried at Ailsa- 
craig, a barren island on the Scottish 
coast. They are known as gray, 
blue, and red hones. The word 
" Curling " applies to the curves in 
which skilled players send their 
stones to avoid obstacles. Similar 
games are known in Holland as Cal- 
luiten, in Flanders as hisblocken 
(ice-blocks), and in Germany as Eis- 
kugeln (ice-balls). 

CURVE OF QUICKEST DE- 
SCENT. The shape of the trough 
down which a marble will roll in 
the shortest time from one point 
to another is not a straight line, 
as one might think, but a curve 
called a cycloid. Such a trough 
can be made as follows : To draw 
the cycloid, procure a circular piece 
of board or thick pasteboard, a ruler, 
or straight board more than half 
as long as the circumference of the 
circle, and some sheets of blank 
newspaper. The size may be as 
large as desired, but a good one is 
made by taking a circle two feet in 
diameter and a ruler about four feet 
long. Lay the paper on a smooth 
floor and the ruler upon it. Cut a 
notch in the edge of the circle to 
hold the point of a lead pencil. Lay 
the circle on the paper with the 
notch touching the ruler, place the 
pencil point in the notch, and roll the 
circle along the ruler, taking care 
that it does not slide at all. The 
curve drawn by the pencil held in the 
notch is a cycloid. When the notch 
has reached the top, that is, when the 
circle has rolled half-way around, 
stop. To make the trough, take a 
strip of pine wood an inch wide and 
thin enough to bend easily. Bend it 
to the curve, as it lies on the floor, 
and hold it in shape by sticking pins 
into the floor on each side of it. Then 
lay down a stiff piece of wood, also an 
inch wide, parallel with the ruler and 



touching the curve at the point where 
the drawing was stopped. Fasten 
the curved and straight strips to- 
gether by nailing pieces of lath from 
one to the other, so that the curved 
piece will keep its shape. Set the 
arrangement upright, the straight 
piece forming the base, and glue 
strips of paper along the side of the 
curved piece to form a trough. It 
will be found that a marble will roll 
down this curve quicker than down 
any other line connecting the same 
points. To show this, troughs can be 
made of various shapes, including 
one straight line. If marbles be held 
at the top of these and released all 
at the same time, the one on the 
cycloid will always get to the bottom 
quickest. 

Another curious thing about this 
curve is that a marble takes the same 
time to roll to the bottom of it, no 
matter where it starts. For instance, 
if one marble be held at the top 
and another half-way down, and 
both be released at once, the upper 
one will strike the lower one just as 
it gets to the bottom. This curve is 
often called the Brachistochrone, 
from the Greek brachistos, shortest, 
and chronos, time. 

CYCLING. The early forms of 
bicycle are described in the article 
j VELOCIPEDE (C. C. T.). About a 
' thousand varieties of bicycles and 
tricycles are now made, but they all 
belong to five or six classes or types. 
They have frames of steel, but gener- 
ally the rims of the wheels, and 
sometimes the handle-bars, are of 
wood, and the wheels have hollow 
rubber tires which are inflated with 
air. The pedals, by which the feet 
operate the wheels, have rubber bars 
or steel plates, and the axles revolve 
on what are called " ball bearings," 
that is, the axle rests near its ends, 
and revolves, on rows of little steel 
balls to lessen the friction, as shown 
in Fig. I. The bicycles now almost 
universally used are of the type 
originally for a short time called the 
" rover," from the name of the first 



CYCLING 



244 



CYCLING 



one of the kind that became popular. 
They were also known as" safeties," 
although there were other types of 
so-called safety bicycles, the name 




Fig. I. Ball Bearings. 



being given to almost any bicycle 
which differed in shape and con- 
struction from the high or " ordi- 
nary " bicycle. The French still 
call the type " bicyclettes." The 
wheels are generally of the same size, 
28 inches in diameter, and 26 or 24 
for children. The rear one drives 
and the front one steers. The pedals 
are in the middle between the 
wheels, and are generally connected 
with the rear wheel by a chain, 
although in chainless wheels some 
other device, such as a rod with 
gears at the ends, is substituted. 
Bicycles for women have the upper 
cross tube of the frame curved down- 
ward toward the bottom bracket so 
as to remove everything in the way 
of a skirt. The small-wheeled cycle 
was originally called a " safety " be- 
cause there was less danger of a 
fall from it than from the type of 
wheel then in common use that 
with a very large wheel in front. 
The old type still retains the name 
of " ordinary," though it is no 
longer used. It had no gear, and 
the cranks to which the pedals are 



attached were directly on the axle 
of the large wheel. The " Star," 
which was a transition form, had 
the small wheel in front, and the 
large wheel was worked by levers, 
as seen in Fig. 3. The early safeties, 
of the Kangaroo type, which was 
practically a small " ordinary," were 
often called " dwarf " bicycles be- 
cause the front wheel was much 
smaller than in the ordinary kind. 
Another kind of safety bicycle, called 
the "Otto," after its inventor, de- 
serves notice only as a curiosity, be- 
ing unlike other bicycles in having its 
wheels side by side, thus resembling 
a tricycle without its small wheel. 
The rider's seat was placed between 
them, above the axle, and he was 
supposed to keep his balance by the 
way he worked the pedals. There 
was a prop behind to strike the 
ground if the machine tipped back- 
ward. This kind of bicycle has 
never been used in the United States 
and but rarely in England. It re- 
quires special practice to ride it. 




Fig. 2. "Ordinary" Bicycle. 



The Tandem bicycle is intended 
to be ridden by two persons tandem 
that is, one in front of the other. 
Both riders work pedals, connected 



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245 



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with the axle of the rear wheel by two 
chains. The machine may be con- 
structed so that it may be steered by 
either or both riders. When the 
front seat is adapted for women's 
use, having a drop-frame, the tandem 
is called a " combination " tandem. 
Bicycles for three, four, or more 
riders are also occasionally made. 
They are called, respectively, " trip- 
lets," "quadruplets," "quintuplets," 
etc. It is possible to attain great 
speed on them, as the gear can be 
made very high. 

Tricycles. The tricycle is a three- 
wheeled machine which can be 
ridden by either girls or boys. It 
is safe, and runs very easily and 
smoothly. It is used by women and 
elderly people, especially in England. 
The kind shown in Fig. 6 is the one 
now generally in use. One of the 
first to become popular was known 
as the " Cripper " type, said to have 



had a race with these machines in 
New York in 1888, but they havenever 
been used practically, except perhaps 
to give practice in rawing. Another 





Fig. 3. Star Bicycle. 

been named from Robert Cripps, a 
famous English rider. 

Tandem tricycles are also occa- 
sionally used. The " Sociable " tri- 
cycle has its two seats side by side, 
instead of one in front of the other. 

One kind of tricycle, called the 
" Road Sculler," is worked by the 
hands by an action similar to row- 
ing. Several professional oarsmen 



Fig. 4. Safety Bicycle. 

curious tricycle, for use on a railway 
track, is shown in Fig. 9. The 
wheels have flanges like car wheels, 
and the small wheel is directly be- 
hind one of the large ones, so as to 
run on the same rail. 

Various fittings and 
equipments are used on 
almost all cycles, espe- 
cially if the rider is taking 
a long trip. A cyclom- 
eter is an arrangement 
connected with the wheel, 
usually fastened to the 
front axle, which shows 
the distance traveled by 
the cycle. A lantern is 
generally required to be 
carried at night ; it is se- 
cured sometimes to the 
hub of the forward wheel, 
to the fork-side, but more 
generally on the head, just 
below the handle bars. 
Lanterns serve the double 
purpose of showing the 
rider the condition of the road in 
front of him, and of preventing colli- 
sions by making his coming known 
to others. They are usually oil 
lamps with powerful reflectors, but 
electric lamps with portable batteries 
have been made, and one kind uses 
acetylene gas, which is generated as 
it is wanted by chemical means. 
Bells or alarms are carried to give 



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246 



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warning of the cycle's approach. 
Some make a continuous noise, like 
an electric bell, or clock alarm, 
while others give a single stroke, and 




Fig. 5. Ladies' Bicycle. 

still others can be operated in either 
way. They are generally operated 
by pressing a lever. Instead of a 
bell, a whistle was formerly much 
used, but most local regulations now 
require a bell. 

An arrangement of steel and 
leather straps for carrying baggage 
is usually attached to the cycle on 
a long trip. One of the devices used 
is shown in Fig. 14. 

The rider should carry with him 
also a tool bag (Fig. 15), containing 
a wrench, an oil can, a piece of cloth, 
chain lubricant, and a tire-repairing 
kit, for use in keeping his machine 




Fig. 6. Tricycle. 



in order and repairing it in case of 
accident. 

Bicycle riding can be learned in 
cities in special riding-schools es- 
tablished for the purpose, but it is 



possible to learn on an ordinary road, 
and some think this preferable, be- 
cause after learning on a smooth 
floor it is difficult, at first, to ride in 




Fig. 7. Tandem Tricycle. 

the street. The learner may get on 
his bicycle at first while an assistant 
holds it, mounting not being prac- 
ticed till later. The first thing to be 
learned is the balance, which is ac- 
quired only by practice. The great 
art consists in turning the forward 
wheel very slightly toward which- 
ever side the bicycle begins to fall. 
It is necessary to have aid at first 
from some experienced rider, though 
some authorities advise that the 
balance be learned by riding down a 
very gentle incline without placing 




Fig. 8. Tandem Safety. 

the feet on the pedals at all. When 
the learner can make the descent suc- 
cessfully, he may begin to use the 
pedals, at first merely placing his 
feet on them, and gradually begin- 
ning to use a little force. The foot 



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247 



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should not be held rigidly when 
pedaling, using force only on the 
down stroke, but the crank should 
be pushed forward at the top of the 
stroke and back at the bottom. In 
order to do this the heel should be 
dropped at the top and raised at the 
bottom. This is called "ankle mo- 
tion." 

Position. The rider sTiould sit 
erect unless he wishes to attain a 
high speed, is running against the 



wind, or is mounting a hill, when it 
lightens the work somewhat to lean 
forward over the handles. The 
handles should be held lightly, and 
the rider should practice steering 
with one hand. It is possible also 
to ride without touching the handles 
at all, guiding the bicycle simply by 
altering ihe balance. The bicycle 
can be slowed by using the brake or 
by " back pedaling," that is, by 
pressing down on each pedal slightly 




Fig. Q; -Railvvay tricycle. 



as it rises, A skillful rider can thus 
regulate his speed when descending a 
moderate hill, exactly as he wishes. 
In learning to use the brake, it Should 
be applied cautious!^ at first, , The 
sole of the shoe may be used as a 
brake by applying if to the front tire 1 ; 
care being taken to place it side- 
ways, so that the t6e will hot be 
drawn into the fork. This requires 
much care and skill. 
" Coasting " is riding downhill 



without touching the pedals, the feet 
being on the " Coasters," which are 
rests fastened on the front fork, or 
on the crown of the fork itself. Skill- 
ful, ft clefs Coast swiftly down steep 
hills. The learner should not try it 
till he has practiced level riding for 
seven or ,eig.ht weeks, and should 
then begin bn a gentle, smooth in- 
cline; A bicycle should never be 
used to coast on a rough hill or an 
unknown hill, nor on a hill where 



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248 



CYCLING 



there are other vehicles. The rider 
should never let the machine get 
beyond his control. 

Mounting and Dismounting, Dis- 
mounting is better learned before 
mounting, as it is easier. To dis- 




Fig. lo. Cyclometer. 

mount by the pedal, which is the 
usual . method, the rider slows his 
machine, and as the descending pedal 
reaches its lowest point he steps' oft 
from it, throwing the other leg" over 
the frame. Mounting by the pedal 
is the reverse of this, anil. is the 
only method that can -be used on a 
woman's wheel. 

To learn to mount from the step 
the rider should learn tO'steer. the 
machine while standing on the step, 
without trying to gain the saddle. 
When he can do this he should slide 
gentle into the saddle while the ma- 
chine is moving slowly. 

Tricks. Many fancy tricks which 
can be learned only by imitation and 
practice are performed by skilled 
bicyclists on their machines. They 
include vaulting in and out of the. 
saddle, dismounting by throwing 
one leg over thehandles, riding side- 
saddle, and balancing the machine 
on one wheel. Bicycle olubs often 
perform many difficult evolutions to- 
gether, going through a sort of drill. 

Rules of the Road. After the in- 



troduction of the bicycle there was 
some doubt as to its rights and 
privileges on the road, but the courts 
of nearly every State have ruled that 
it is a vehicle, with all the rights of 
one. In most large places bicycles, 
like other vehicles, are not allowed 
on sidewalks. Cycles approaching 
each other or other vehicles are 
obliged to turn out to the right, and 
a cycle overtaking another vehicle 
passes it oh its left. If there is no 
room to pass unless the other vehicle 
turn aside, the cyclist should ring 
his bell, and where the room for 
passage is very narrow, he must dis- 
mount and lead his cycle past the 
other vehicle. In the evening the 
lantern should always be lighted. 

Bicycles are most used in the 
neighborhood of cities or large 
towns, where there are hard, smooth 
roads. Tours or trips on bicycles 
should be planned with reference to 
theconditioh of the roads; and, to aid 
in this, bicycle guides are now pub- 
lished, by many of the State divi- 
sions of the League of American 
Wheelmen giving lists and descrip- 
tions of practicable routes. 




Fig. ii. Cycle Bell. 

Tires. The .modern pneumatic 
tires are a source of trouble to many 
wheelmen, as they are apt to be 
punctured, which lets out the air and 
makes it almost impossible to ride 
on them. They are of two kinds 



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249 



CYCLING 



double-tube and single-tube. In 
v the former an inner tube of thin 
rubber holds the air, while a thick 
outer one takes the wear, and in the 
latter the two tubes aft united into 
one. Each form has its advocates. 
Many so-called " unpuncturable " 
tires are made ; but, in general, if a 
tire is elastic and easy-riding, it is 
easily punctured ; if tough and hard, 
it is non-elastic and hard to ride. 
Every rider should learn how to re- 
pair slight punctures, and should 




Fig. 12. Lamp and Luggage Carrier. 



carry with him one of the numerous 
outfits sold for that purpose. 

Gear. With the old-fashioned 
" ordinary " wheel the relation be- 
tween the revolution of the pedals 
and the speed of the wheel depended 
wholly on the diameter of the front 
wheel. The larger the wheel the 
further the machine would travel 
for one turn of the cranks. Hence 
the speed was limited by the size of 
the wheel. With the modern form, 
as the cranks are not fastened to the 
axle of the wheel, this relation 
depends on the relative sizes of the 
front and rear sprockets, and is not 
so limited. The larger the front 
sprocket is in proportion to the 
rear one, the higher the possible 
speed. What is called the "gear " 
of a wheel is a distance equal to the 
diameter of the old " ordinary," that 



will go as far in one turn of the 
pedals. It is found by multiplying 
the diameter of the wheel (generally 
28 inches) by the ratio of the number 
of teeth on the front to those on the 
rear sprocket. Thus, if the front 
sprocket has 20 teeth and the rear 
one 8, the gear is 28 x Y~> or 70 ; 
that is, the wheel corresponds to 
an old " ordinary " with a front 
wheel 5 feet 10 inches in diameter. 
The higher the gear the slower it is 
necessary to move the feet, but the 
greater the pressure that 
has to be put on the 
pedals. High gears make 
hill climbing more diffi- 
cult. Most gears are be- 
tween 60 and 76, and 
the lower ones are better 
for the general rider, 
though each one must de- 
cide by experience which 
will suit him best. 

Bicycle Racing. Races 
on bicycles are now in- 
cluded among the events 
of almost every outdoor 
athletic meeting. See 
ATHLETICS. Great speed 
has been attained on these 
machines. A bicycle can 
not only go faster than a horse 
for a short distance, but it can keep 
up with one for a long distance. 
The League of American Wheelmen, 
which is the only national associa- 
tion of bicyclists in this country, 
though there are numerous local 
clubs, has now more than 100,000 
members. It was formed in 1880 
to secure the rights of riders in the 
courts, and, having done this, is now 
turning its attention to the improve- 
ment of 'highways. It has a division 
in nearly every State, the chief officer 
of which is called a Consul. It pub- 
lishes a weekly paper called the " L. 
A. W. Bulletin/' which is sent to each 
member for twenty-five cents. The 
following rules are condensed from 
those of the League governing 
bicycle racing, which have been 
adopted also by , the National 



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250 



CYCLING 



Amateur Athletic Union, are as 
follows : 

RULES FOR BICYCLE RACING. 

Records. The standard table of 
recognized records shall be 1-4, 1-3, 
1-2, 2-3, 3-4, I mile, and all even 
miles upward ; no intermediate dis- 
tances. 

Records against time may be 
made at an open meeting, or in 
private, and with or without pace- 
makers. 

The Board will consider flying- 
start only in records against time ; 
standing-start only in competition 
records. 

A competition record must be 
made in a race between men. 

Records made with the assistance 
of other than recognized cycling 
machines, propelled by man power, 
will be recorded separately. 

In unpaced events, or dufing un- 
paced record trials, there shall be no 
pacing devices, and only the rider 
making the trial shall be on the 
track. 

Tracks. Tracks shall be meas- 
ured on a line drawn eighteen inches 
out from a well-defined, fixed and 
continuous inner curb or pole ; no 
record shall be allowed on a track 
otherwise measured. 

Machines Excluded. The Board 
reserves the right to exclude from 
the racing path any and all machines 
which, in its judgment, do not 
come within the commonly accepted 
meaning of the term "bicycle," 
either by peculiarity of construction 
or by undoubted mechanical advan- 
tages which they may possess. 

Road Racing. The League of 
American Wheelmen regards racing 
on the public highways as an unlaw- 
ful practice, and refuses to recognize 
and legislate for such form of the 
sport except to forbid the competing 
together therein or pacemaking one 
for the other, of amateurs and pro- 
fessionals. 

Should any part of a road race 
be run upon the track, such part 



immediately becomes subject to 
track rules. 

TRA CK RULES. 

Officials; their Powers and Duties. 
The officers of all race meetings 
and cycling events shall be a referee, 
who must be an amateur wheelman, 
three judges at the finish, three time- 
keepers, one starter, one scorer, one 
clerk of the course, with assistants 
if necessary, and one umpire for each 
turn of the track, or more, at option 
of the referee. The referee, judges, 
and clerk of the course shall consti- 
tute the Executive Board. 

The referee shall have general 
supervision of the race meeting. 
He shall give judgment on protests 
received by him, shall decide all 
questions or objections respecting 
foul riding or offenses which he may 
be personally cognizant of, or which 
may be brought to his attention by 
an umpire or other officer. 

The judges shall decide the posi- 
tions of the men at the finish. In 
case of disagreement the majority 
shall decide. 

The timekeepers shall compare 
watches before the races are started, 
and shall note any variance ; they 
shall each time every event, and in 
case of disagreement the intermedi- 
ate time of the three watches shall 
be the official time. Time shall be 
taken from the flash of a pistol. In 
case two watches of the three mark 
the same time, that shall be the 
official time. 

The scorer shall record the laps 
made by each competitor, the order 
of the men at the finish as given him 
by the judges, and the time as given 
him by the timekeepers. He should 
indicate the commencement of the 
last lap by ringing a bell as the 
riders pass over the tape for the 
final lap, but the riders must keep 
count of the laps for themselves. 

It shall be the duty of the starter, 
when it has been reported to him by 
the clerk of the course that all the 
competitors are ready, to see that 



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CYCLING 



the timekeepers are warned, and, 
before starting the men, to say, 
" Mount " ; in a few seconds after 
to say, " Are the timers ready ? 
Are the starters ready ? " and, if no 
reply to the contrary be given, to 
effect a start by a report of a pistol. 
Should the pistol miss fire, the start 
may be made by the word " Go." 
The starter shall announce to the 
competitors the distance which they 
are to ride. The starter may, at hi* 




Fig. 13. Tool Bag. 

discretion, put back for a distance 
any competitor starting before the 
signal is given. In case of a false 
start, the competitors shall be called 
back by the starter by the ringing of 
a bell or pistol fire and restarted. 

In case of a fall or accident within 
thirty feet of the scratch line, the 
contestants shall be recalled by the 
starter by the ringing of a bell or 
pistol fire, and the race started over 
again. 

The clerk of the course shall call 
competitors in ample time for each 
event, and see that they are provided 
with numbers properly worn. He 
shall report the contestants to the 
scorers, see that they are on their 
appointed marks, and call the num- 
bers for the scorers as they cross 
the line at the end of each lap. 

It shall be the duty of the umpire 
to stand at such part of the field as 
the referee may direct, to watch 
closely the riding, and immediately 
after each race to report to the 
referee any unfair riding he may see. 

Positions. The drawing for posi- 
tions in each event shall be done by 
the promoters of the meeting, and 
the positions of the men shall appear 



on the programme. When it be- 
comes necessary to draw for posi- 
tions on the grounds, the work shall 
be done by the clerk and starter in 
conjunction. In heat races the 
winner of a heat shall take the pole 
(or inside position) the succeeding 
heat, and the other riders shall take 
their positions in the order assigned 
them in judging the last preceding 
heat. When two or more riders 
make a dead heat, they shall start 
for the succeeding heat in the same 
positions with reference to the pole 
that they occupied at the finish of 
the dead heat. 

When races are run in heats and 
a final, the winner of the fastest heat 
shall take the pole in the final, the 
winner of the second fastest heat 
the next position, and so on. If 
more than one qualifies for the final 
from each heat, the second man in 
fastest heat shall be next outside 
the winner of slowest heat, and so 
on. Only the winners of positions 
in the trial heats, as stipulated by 
the terms of the race, shall compete 
in the final. 

No one shall be allowed in a final 
because of a foul or an accident in 
a trial heat. 

Should two or more riders make 
a dead heat of any qualifying place 
in a trial heat, they shall both be 
allowed to enter the final heat, ex- 
cept in the National Championship. 
Should two or more riders make a 
dead heat of any final, or a dead 
heat for second or any lower place 
for which there is a prize, they may 
decide by lot who shall take the 
prize, or may again ride the distance 
to decide the race, at the discretion 
of the referee. 

Starts. All starts shall be from 
the inside of the track, and, except 
in a flying-start event, shall be from 
a standstill, with the left hand 
toward the curb, and the machines 
shall be held in position by an 
attendant (the front wheel touching 
the starting line) until the signal is 
given by starter. Attendants, when 



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252 



CYCLING 



pushing off competitors, must keep 
behind the mark from which the 
competitors actually start. Should 
any part of the attendant touch the 
track in front of the mark, the com- 
petitor may be disqualified. Unless 
excused by the referee, every rider 
who enters in a handicap race must 
start in same. 

Finish. The finish of all races 
shall be judged by the first part of 
the front wheel which touches the 
tape fastened flat on the ground at 
the winning post, and no rider 
shall be allowed a finishing posi- 
tion who abandons the track and 
afterward returns and crosses the 
tape. 

Riding. Riders shall pass on the 
outside (unless the man passed be 
dismounted), and must be at least 
a clear length of the cycle in front 
before taking the inside, but on 
entering the homestretch in the last 
lap of a race, the foremost rider or 
riders must keep to that part of the 
track first selected ; and the hind- 
most rider or riders, when there is 
sufficient room to pass on the inside 
or anywhere on the homestretch 
without interfering with others, shall 
be allowed to do so. A rider shall 
not change from the inner to the 
outside of the track during any part 
of a race when another rider is so 
near that in altering his position he 
interferes with or impedes the prog- 
ress of the rider. No rider shall 
touch another. 

No rider during a race shall turn 
his head to look, backward, remove 
his hands from the handle-bars, or 
otherwise ride in a careless or un- 
skillful manner, thereby imperiling 
the safety of other riders. 

Competitors may dismount dur- 
ing a race at their pleasure, and may 
run with their cycles if they wish to, 
but they must keep to the extreme 
outside of the path whenever dis- 
mounted. If a rider be dismounted 
by accident, or to change his 
machine, an attendant may hold his 
Machine while he mounts it, and he 



shall so mount at the extreme out- 
side of the path. 

Time Limits. The referee may 
place a time limit on any race except 
handicap, team, and lap races. The 
time limit shall not be announced 
to the contestants until their arrival 
at the tape, preparatory to the start 
of the race. If the competitors 
finish within the limit, they shall 
receive the prizes. If they fail to so 
finish, and the referee is convinced 
by their riding and the time that 
they endeavored to reach the limit, 
he may award the prizes. 

Pacemaking. A general pace- 
maker may be put in any race by 
the race promoter, having previously 
notified the referee of the fact. He 
shall assist no single rider, but shall 
act to increase the speed of the race 
in general. He shall, if a single 
rider only, be entitled to any place 
or prize he may win, if he starts 
from the scratch, or may be re- 
warded by a special prize, within the 
limits of the class. 

Tandems, or pacing machines 
carrying more than two riders, may 
be put in to pace competitions only 
by -written consent of the member of 
the Racing Board in charge of the 
district. 

Track Privileges and Decoriim. 
No person whosoever shall be 
allowed inside the track except the 
officials of the meet. The handi- 
cappers of the meet shall at all 
times, however, have track privi- 
leges. Authorized persons shall 
wear a badge. Competitors or 
pacemakers not engaged in a race 
actually taking place shall not be 
allowed inside or on the track. No 
one shall be allowed to " coach " 
competitors on the track. No 
shouting or remarks by trainers or 
attendants to encourage certain 
riders or disconcert others shall be 
permitted. 

Choice of Machines and Costumes. 
Choice or change of machine and 
choice of costume shall not be 
limited except that shirt shall not 



253 



CYCLING 



bare shoulders, and breeches must 
reach to the knees. 

In races distinctly stated on the 
programme of events to be for a 
particular class of machine, this rule 
shall not apply so far as choice and 
change of machine are concerned. 
Safety bicycle races shall be limited 
to machines whose driving wheel 
does not exceed thirty-six inches in 
diameter. 

Competitors to Wear Numbers. 
Every competitor shall receive in 
the dressing-room a number, corre- 
sponding with his number on the 
programme, which must be worn 
on his back or right shoulder dur- 
ing the race. He shall inform him- 
self of the times at which he must 
compete, and wait the call of. the 
clerk in the dressing-room. 

Definition of, Races. A novice 
race is open only to those who have 
never won a prize, in a track race, 
and shall be the first race of the 
meet. A novice .race is a class race. 

A class race is only open to those 
who, *ip to date of the closing 06 the 
entries, have not won the first: posi- 
tion in a track race or trial ". beat in 
the same or better time than the 
class under consideration! In all 
class races the time limit-.shall J^e 
the time of the class. .; .If -the com- 
petitors fail to finish within the limit, 
and it is a good day, good track, and 
there are pacemakers, the referee 
shall declare it no race. If they fail 
to finish in the time limit, and there 
are no pacemakers, or it is not (in 
the judgment of the refejee) a good 
day, or it is not a good track, and 
the referee is convinced by their rid- 
ing that they endeavored to reach 
the limit, and were not able to do so 
because of the absence of any one or 
all three, conditions, he may award 
the prizes, ; 

Jn a lap race the position, of the 
first three men shall be. taken at the 
finish of every lap.. .The first i,nap 
shall score three .points, the second 
man shall score two points, and the- 
third man shall score one point,, arid 



no others shall score. The contest- 
ant who crosses the line first at the 
finish shall, for that lap, score four 
points. The competitor who scores 
the greatest number of points shall 
be declared the winner, but any con- 
testant, in order to secure a prize, 
must ride the entire distance and be 
within 150 yards of the finish when 
the first man crosses the tape at the 
end of the last lap. The i5O-yard 
mark must be marked by a flag. 

In a team race the positions of all 
the riders starting shall be taken at 
the end of the race. 

The first man shall count a num- 
ber of points equal to the number of 
men starting, the second one less, 
and so on. 

The team scoring the greatest 
number of points shall be declared 
the winner. 

A team shall be limited to three 
riders, each of whom shall have been 
a member of the club, entering the 
team for at .least three months pre- 
vious to date of event. Each team 
member must also have resided 
within five miles of the city or town 
where the club has its headquarters 
for at least six months previous tp 
the date of contest. . ' ,' 

In a heat race t(ie position of 
each rider must be taken at the 
finish of each heat.' The first man 
shall count a number equal to that 
of the contestants in the first heat, 
the second man shall count one less, 
the third two less, and on on. The 
competitor who scores the greatest 
number of points shall be declared 
the winner. 

Or, as an alternative, which must 
be stated on the programme as rule 
or alternative, in running a heat 
race, such event may be conducted 
under the rule outlined below: 

When the race is best two out 
of three heats,, the ; winner is .not 
reached. until one rider _has won two 
heats, either through virtue of finish- 
ing first or by the, disqualification of 
a competitor, or competitors who 
may finish . in , ,f ront and Jose such 



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254 



CYCLING 



position or positions through ruling 
or rulings of the referee. The 
second and other prizes shall be dis- 
tributed according to the standing 
of the rider in the summary, heat 
winners to be placed before all those 
who have occupied lesser positions, 
and in case two riders are tied by 



finishing an equal number of times 
in the same position, the one occupy- 
ing the best position in the conclud- 
ing heat shall be awarded the prize. 
In every heat a rider must finish 
within 150 yards of the winner or be 
adjudged distanced. In case a rider 
fails to win one heat in three, he will 




Fig, 14. English Cycle Post, 



be disqualified from any subsequent 
heats that may be necessary to de- 
cide the prizes. 

Entries in a consolation race shall 
be limited to those who have not 
won a prize in any event of the 
meeting ; provided, however, if only 
a single prize is given in the team 
race, members of the winning team 
shall not be considered to have won 
a prize and shall be eligible to the 
consolation race, 

In a pursuit race the conditions 
must be printed on the programme 
or announced to the spectators. 



In a handicap race the marks 
must be printed on the programme, 
and the men must start from the 
marks assigned by the hanclicapper 
in trial heats and finals. 

In. middle-distance races (10 to 
100 miles) the terms and conditions 
must be printed on the programme. 

Igntfra'nce of Rales No Excuse. 
Ignorance of any of the foregoing 
rules will riot he considered a valid 
excuse for violation. 

ff&ferpi The early history of the 
bicycle and the tficycle is given in 
the article Velocipede, in C. C. T. 



CYCLING 



DANCING IMP 



Since the introduction of the bicycle 
proper (about 1876), so many im- 
provements have been made in it that 
it is now a very impor- 
tant machine and has 
found many uses which 
were once scaicely 
thought of. One of the 
greatest differences be- 
tween the modern bicycle 
and the old velocipede 
is in the construction of 
the wheels. They were 
formerly made like those 
of a carriage, with 
stout wooden spokes, the 
weight resting on each 
spoke in turn as it came 
underneath the hub. Now 
the spokes are of steel 
wire, and the weight is 
supported by the spokes above the 
hub, which is hung, as it were, from 
the rim of the wheel. Thisplan, which 
is called the " suspension principle," 
by enabling the builders to make 
light wheels, has done much toward 
perfecting the modern bicycle. 
Many grown people use cycles now 
for health as well as recreation ; 



many travel long distances on them ; 
they are used in delivering letters 
and parcels, and in England and 




IS- Military Cycle. 



Germany soldiers are trained to ride 
the military cycle. Cycling has be- 
come a very popular pastime, and 
has grown to be something beyond 
mere boy's sport. Bicycles were 
first made in the United States in 
1878, and hundreds of bicycle 
manufactories are now situated in 
this country. 




D 



DANCING 
IMP. Join tight- 
ly with sealing 
wax the halves 
of a walnut shell 
from which the 
kernel has been 
removed. Fast- 
en alittle wooden 
doll, three or 
four inches long, 
by threads to the 
nut, weighting 
the doll frith shot 
or otherwise, so 
that the nut will 
float in water 
with as little of 
its shell above 
the surface as possible. Make a 



Dancing Imp. 



hole with an awl in the lower side 
of the nut and float it in a jar of 
water, filled within an inch or two of 
the top. Tie a piece of India-rubber 
cloth tightly over the top of the jar. 
If the India-rubber be now pressed 
with the finger the doll will sink, and 
when the pressure is removed it will 
rise again. This is because the pres- 
sure forces some water into the nut 
through the hole in the bottom, and 
the additional weight is just enough 
to sink it. This toy is called also 
Ludion or Bottle Imp, and small 
ones were sold on the streets of New 
York in 1889 under the name of 
" McGinty," being supposed to il- 
lustrate the popular song " Down 
went McGinty to the Bottom of 
the Sea." 



DICE 



256 



DICE 



DEVIL ON TWO STICKS. See 

FLYING CONE. 

DIBS. See JACK STONES. 

DICE (plural of die), small white 
cubes of ivory, bone, or celluloid, 
used in gaming. Each of the six 
faces or sides of a die is marked by a 
different number of black spots or 
dots, from i to 6. The dots are so 
arranged that the sum of the dots on 
opposite sides is always seven ; that 
is, the One and Six, the Two and 
Five, and the Three and Four are 
opposite each other. As in cards, 
the one, two, and three-spots are 
often called respectively, the Ace, 
Deuce, and Tray. In playing, one pr 
more of the dice are shaken and 
thrown from a dice-box upon a table. 
This is called a throw, and the num- 
bers on the uppermost faces of the 
dice are said to have been thrown. 
The throw is unfair if a die rolls on 
the floor ; if any one touches it while 
it is rolling on the table ; if it is 
tilted on edge against some obstacle ; 
or if one die rests on the top of 
another. 

Dice are used to determine the 
moves in games like Backgammon 
and Parchesi, but several games may 
be played with them alone. 

Raffling or Raffles, a game of 
dice, played by any number of per- 
sons with three dice. Each, in turn 
throws till he throws two numbers 
alike, called a Pair. When all have 
thrown, he who made the highest 
throw wins. Pairs rank according 
to the number of spots on the paired 
dice, and a triplet, or three of a kind 
ranks higher than any Pair. Thus, 
a pair of Fives is higher than a 
pair of Fours, but three Twos is 
still higher. 

Centennial, a game of Dice played 
by two or more persons, each for 
himself, or by partners, two or three 
on a side. The players use three 
dice at a time, and not only the 
numbers thrown, but the sum of any 
two or of all of them counts toward 
the score. The object is to score the 
lumbers from I to 12 in order, and 



then, the numbers in reverse order 
back to i. Each player may throw 
until he, fails to score, when the 
turn passes to the left. Each player 
keeps his score by writing the num- 
bers on paper as he makes them, 
and then crossing them out in re- 
verse order. He whose numbers are 
crossed out first wins the game. 
Several numbers may be scored in 
one throw : thus I, 2, and 3 score 
all the numbers, up to 6. Part- 
ners have only one score between 
them, and the numbers thrown 
by each count toward it. 

Help Your Neighbor, a game of 
dice played by any number of per- 
sons, with one die. Each player 
marks the numbers i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, on 
paper. The. one who begins the 
game then throws the die and marks 
out of his figures the number he 
throws ; and he continues throwing 
as long as he can mark off the number 
thrown. When he throws a number 
that he has already marked off, the 
player on his left crosses it off his own 
score, and then takes his turn. Each 
player does likewise, and he whose 
score is all crossed off first wins. 
If, in the course of the game, neither 
a player nor his left-hand neighbor 
have the number that is thrown, 
the nearest player on the left who 
has it marks it off. 

Draw Poker. The players use five 
dice, which are first thrown at one 
cast, and then any or all of them 
may be thrown again ; just as in the 
card game each player may draw 
new cards. The " hands " are the 
same as in ordinary DRAW POKER, 
save that there is no Flush and 
that there can be five of a kind, 
which ranks above four of a kind 
and is the highest possible hand. 
The highest hand wins the pool. 
As every one sees the hands of all 
1 the other players, there is no " bet- 
ting." 

Multiplication. Three dice are 
thrown by each player, who, leaving 
the highest on the table, throws th 
other two again, and then the low- 



DICE 



257 



DICTIONARY 



est of these is thrown a third time. 
The sum of the first two is multiplied 
by the third, and the player whose 
result is the highest wins the game. 

Vingt-et-Un. Two dice are used, 
and each player throws as many 
times as he wishes. He, the sum of 
whose throws is nearest 21, is the 
winner. But if any one throw more 
than 21 he loses. Vingt-et-Un is 
French for Twenty-one. 

Dice with Eight Sides. Dice 
formed of four-sided pyramids, fas- 
tened base to base, have recently 
been invented in France. Each die 
has thus eight sides, on which are 
marked numbers from two to nine. 
The value of a throw is the product 
of the numbers thrown ; thus, with 
two dice it may be anywhere from 
four to eighty-one. These dice 
are intended to be used by children, 
to make them familiar with the multi- 
plication table. They are called also 
octahedral dice, from the Greek 
okto, eight, and hedron, side. 

History. Dice have been known 
since the earliest times. The Greeks 
said that they were invented by 
Palamecles at the siege % of Troy. 
Plutarch says they were devised by 
the Egyptians ; and bone or ivory 
dice have been found in Thebes, 
Egypt, similar to those now in use. 
They are mentioned by Homer in the 
Odyssey, in the Rig Veda (one of the 
sacred books of the Hindoos), and in 
other ancient writings. The Greeks 
and Romans gave to the various 
throws the names of heroes and 
gods, the best being called Venus, 
after the goddess ,of love. The 
game was very popular in Rome, 
where rich men, in the latej days of 
the empire, sometimes staked their 
fortunes on a single throw. The 
Romans used two kinds of dice ; 
tali, made of the huckle bones from 
the legs of sheep and goats, or to 
imitate them, and tessercz, cubical 
like our dice. The ends of the tali 
were left blank because they were 
so narrow, and the four other sides 
Were numbered I, 3, 4 and 6. With- 



out the numbers the tali were played 
like our JACK STONES. Dice con- 
tinued to be played so widely in 
Europe that in the Middle Ages there 
were in France academies where 
dice games were taught, and the 
makers of dice formed a separate 
company. They were many times 
forbidden, because used for gamb- 
ling, and it is said that CARDS were 
originally devised to turn people's 
attention from them. A curious dice 
box once in use in England is shown 




Old English Dice-box. 

in the illustration. The dice used in 
it had no spots at all, and the value 
of the throw depended on where they 
fell when put into the funnel-shaped 
tube at the top. 

Dice made of huckle bones, or to 
imitate them, are still used in Eastern 
countries, where the different throws 
are given names, as among the 
ancients. Thus the Arabs call the 
Ace " Thief," the Three " Lamb," 
and the Six " King "; and the Turks 
call the Three " Peasant " and the 
Four " Knight." 

The origin of the word die is not 
certainly known, though in some 
form it appears in every language in 
Europe. The late ' Latin form was 
dadus, which some think is from 
datus (a thing given or thrown forth) 
and some from the Arabic dadd, a 
die. 

DICTIONARY or VERBARIUM, a 
game played with pencil and paper, 
by any number of persons, who try 
to see which can make the largest 
number of words from the letters 
composing a larger word, called the 
Head-word. The word to be used, 



DICTIONARY 



2 5 8 



DISTILLATION 



which should contain as many vowels 
and as few double letters as possi- 
ble, is first agreed upon, and each 
player writes it plainly at the head of 
his sheet of paper. Each then writes 
all the words he can think of, that 
can be made from letters in the 
Head-word. Those beginning with 
its initial letter are taken first, and a 
given time (usually from two to five 
minutes) is allowed in which to write 
them. At the end of that time the 
players count their words, and he 
who has made the longest list reads 
it. Any word that is on all the lists 
counts nothing, but other words 
count each as many points as the 
number of players who have omitted 
it. Afterwards each of the other 
players reads any words on his list 
that have not been marked. All 
words are crossed out as they are 
read. After this, words beginning 
with the second letter of the Head- 
word are written, and so on till the 
last letter has been reached. The 
player who scores the greatest 
number of points wins. 

The game may often be made 
more interesting by choosing sides, 
but the sides should contain the 
same number of players, otherwise 
an omission would add more to the 
score of one side than to that of the 
other. The game is excellent train- 
ing for rapidity of thought. The 
player's ability to write long lists of 
words quickly, increases greatly with 
practice, so that a beginner is almost 
always defeated. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

I. At the beginning the players 
must agree as to what classes of 
words are allowable. One of the 
standard dictionaries may be selected, 
and any word allowed that can be 
found in it ; or, no word may be 
allowed that the writer cannot de- 
fine correctly. This prevents put- 
ting down groups of letters that 
sound like words, in hope that they 
may be in the dictionary. It must 
also be settled whether plurals in s 
and different moods and tenses of the 



same verb are to count as separate 
words or not. 

2. No letter may be repeated in 
any of the words, unless it is also re- 
peated in the Head-word. 

3. A time-keeper shall be selected 
who shall keep his watch open before 
him. No one shall write before the 
time-keeper says " begin," nor after 
he says " stop. " 

The word Verbarium is Latin and 
means a place where words abound. 
The game is sometimes called in 
New England " Androscoggin." 

DIFFRACTION GRATING, Ex- 
periment with a. Paint one side of 
a square of glass with India ink or 
liquid blacking, so that light cannot 
shine through it, and then, with the 
point of a needle, rule parallel lines on 
it about one-tenth of an inch apart, 
scratching quite through the layer of 
black. Look through this glass at a 
candle flame, or the edge of any 
bright object, standing about twenty 
feet from it. Move the glass toward 
the eye and from it till it is at the 
proper distance, when one or more 
rainbow colored spots will be seen 
on each side of the flame. These 
spots can often be seen by half clos- 
ing the eyes, and looking at the flame 
through the eyelashes, which thus 
take the place of the grating. The 
colors are produced by the interfer- 
ence of the light passing through the 
various scratches in a way which can- 
not be explained here, for want of 
room. 

DISTILLATION. The process of 
distillation is described in C. C. T. 
under ALCOHOL. To make a sim- 
ple still to distill water (See CHEMI- 
CAL EXPERIMENTS) fit a flask or 
test-tube with a stopper and de- 
livery tube connecting with a flask or 
bottle (Fig. i). The first flask or 
tube is partially filled with water and 
supported or held over an alcohol 
lamp, and the second stands in a 
basin of cold water. The water 
should come up much farther around 
the bottle than shown in the illustra- 
tion. When the water in the first flask 



DISTILLATION 



259 



DISTILLATION 



begins to boil, the steam passes over 
to the second flask, where it con- 
denses. The cold water in the basin 
must be replaced as fast as it begins 
to get warm. 

A better way is to keep the cold 
water continually changing so that 



it will never grow warm. This can 
be arranged as follows. Fasten to- 
gether two or three argand lamp- 
chimneys with putty or plaster of 
Paris, so as to form a long tube as 
shown in Fig. 2. Close each end with 
two-holed rubber stopper or cork. 




Fig. i. Simple Still. 



Through one of the holes in each 
pass a glass tube so that it runs 
through the lamp chimneys with- 
out touching the sides. Support 
this arrangement about six inches 
from the table by placing it on two 



blocks of wood. Connect one end 
of the glass tube with a kettle in 
which the water is to be boiled, and 
under the other place a cup to 
receive the distilled water. The 
tube should incline a little toward 




Fig. 2. Home-made Still. 



this cup. In the other hole of 
each stopper put a short glass tube, 
connecting the lower one with a cold 
water faucet and the other with a sink. 
The lamp chimneys will thus be kept 
full of cold water, constantly chang- 



ing. A bath tub is a good place in 
which to set up the still, for then the 
escaping cold water cannot possibly 
harm anything. 

For method of distilling alcohol, 
See ALCOHOL, EXPERIMENTS WITH. 



DOI.LS 



260 



DOMINOES 



DOLLS. The manufacture of 
dolls is described in C. C. T. Many 
games can be played with dolls, some 
of which will be described. 

Doll Show. Several children 
meet in one place, each bringing her 
dolls. Prizes should be offered for 
the prettiest doll, the most neatly 
dressed doll, the doll who has trav- I 
eled farthest, and so on, at the i 
pleasure of the exhibitors. All i 
present should vote on the award, | 
and the doll receiving the greatest 
number of votes is given the prize. 

Paper Dolls. The paper dolls 
sold at toy shops are merely colored 
pictures printed on thick paper, . 
which are to be cut out with scis- 
sors. Any picture can be cut out 
and used as a paper doll, but if it is 
not on stiff paper it must have j 
another thickness fastened to it to 
stiffen it. Paper soldiers, bought at 
the stores in sheets, may be cut out 
and stiffened in the same way. 
Paper dolls and soldiers may be 
made to stand up by fastening them 
with glue or brads to the side of a 
small block of wood. Wooden 
button-molds make the best stands : 
stick a thin sliver of wood into the 
hole and then glue the paper doll to 
it. Paper furniture also may be | 
bought at toy shops. After it is i 
cut out it must be bent into shape 
and fastened by pasting down flaps ] 
which are cut out with it. Simple i 
articles of furniture can be made by | 
drawing them on thick paper, Bristol 
board, or card-board, and then cut- 
ting them out. The places for bend- 
ing are cut half through with a sharp 
knife. The cut must be made in 
each case on what is to be the out- 
side of the corner. 

Vegetable Dolls, Dolls can be 
made of corn husks by putting a 
number of them together and tying 
thread around the neck and waist. 
The arms are formed of a separate 
piece of twisted husk drawn through 
the body crosswise, and both arms 
and legs are wound with thread to 
make them stiff. Another kind of 



doll may be made with an ear of 
corn for a body, a small green apple 
for a head, hair of corn silk, and 
bonnet and dress of husks. 

Still other kinds are formed with 
inverted flowers for dresses and seed 
vessels for heads, fastened together 
with thread. In all these cases, the 
eyes, nose, and mouth must be 
marked with ink. 

DOMINOES, flat pieces of ivory or 
bone, generally backed with ebony, 
used in playing various games. 
They are usually about two inches 
long, one inch wide, and a quarter of 
an inch thick. The face, which is 
commonly white, is divided by a line 
into two squares; each of which either 
is blank or has on it from one to six 
round spots or pips, grouped like 
those on DICE. A domino having 
the same number.of spots in each of 
its squares is called a doublet. 
Others are named from the number 
of spots in both squares : thus, the 
Four-six has four spots in one square 
and six in the other. A single spot 
is often called Ace, and two and 
three spots are called Deuce and 
Tray, as in CARDS. 

Twenty-eight Dominoes are used 
in playing games, the spots being 
arranged as follows : Double-blank, 
Blank-ace, Blank-two, Blank-three, 
Blank-four, Blank-five, Blank-six ; 
Double-Ace, Ace-two, Ace-three, 
Ace-four, Ace-five, Ace-six ; Double- 
Two, Two-three, Two-four, Two 
five, Two-six ; Double Three, Three- 
four, Three-five, Three-six ; Double- 
Four, Four-five, Four-six ; Double- 
Five, Five-six ; Double-six. The 
picture shows them all but the 
blanks. 

In the ordinary game of Dominoes, 
which can be played by from two to 
four persons, the Dominoes are first 
mixed as they lie on the table backs 
upward, and then each player draws 
seven. If any are left, they form 
what is called the "pool." Each 
usually stands his Dominoes on their 
sides in front of him on the table, 
placing them in a curved line, spots 



DOMINOES 



261 



DOMINOES 



inward, so that the other players can- 
not see them. The player having 
the highest doublet leads by placing 
any Domino he pleases on the table, 
face upward. The player on his left 
must then play a Domino one of 
whose squares matches one of its 
squares. The two are placed in 
line, with the matched ends touch- 
ing, and then each player in order to 



the left must match in like manner 
one of the ends of the line thus formed, 
as in the illustration. If a doublet is 
played, it is often placed crosswise 
instead of endwise in the line. If 
any one cannot play, and any Domi- 
noes remain in the pool, he must draw 
them, one by one, before his neigh- 
bor's turn, till he can play or till the 
pool is gone. The player who first 




Dominoes. 



gets rid of all his pieces cries " Domi- 
no "and scores the sum of the spots 
on his opponents' remaining Domi- 
noes. If it happens that no one can 
play, while each has Dominoes left, 
the game is said to be blocked, and 
he who has the smallest number of 
spots on his remaining Dominoes 
scores as before. When " Domino " 
is announced, or the game is blocked, 



the Dominoes are mixed again, each 
draws seven, as before, and the game 
goes on. He whose score firs* 
reaches 100 usually wins the game; 
but the necessary number may be 
made greater or less by agreement. 
Sometimes the game is varied by 
allowing no drawing after each has 
taken his seven Dominoes. 

Muggins, a game of Dominoes 



Domino Game. 



in which each player draws five at 
the beginning. If any one plays so 
that the sum of the spots on the end 
squares of the line is 5, 10, 15, or 20, 
he scores that number of points. If 
the leader play a Domino, the sum of 
whose spots is five or ten, he scores 
in like manner. Thus if a Four is at 
one end and a Two at the other he 
who can match the Two with a Two- 



six scores to, since the sum of the 
end spots will equal that number 
after his play. So also if a Double- 
four is sfl*one end and any one plays 
a Double-six on the other he scores 
20. In other respects Muggins is 
like the ordinary game. 

Bergen Game, a game of Domi- 
noes in which each player draws six 
at the beginning. When a player 



DOMINOES 



262 



DOMINOES 



makes both ends of the line alike, he 
is said to make a Double Header, 
and scores two. When he plays so 
that there is a doublet on one end, 
and the other end is of the same 
value he is said to make a Triple 
Header, and scores three. He who 
announces " Domino," scores one. 
If the game is blocked, the player with 
the smallest number of spots on his 
remaining Dominoes scores one, but 
the holder of a doublet cannot score, 
even if he have less spots than the 
others, unless all have doublets, when 
he who has the smallest number of 
doublets scores. If all have the 
same number of doublets, he scores 
that has the lowest. The number of 
points in this game is small, usually 
10 or 15. 

Matadore, a game of Dominoes in 
which the pieces, instead of being 
matched, are placed so that the sum 
of the spots on touching ends of two 
Dominoes is always seven. Thus a 
Five must join a Two, a Six an Ace, 
and so on. The Double-blank, and 
the three Dominoes with seven spots 
(the Six-ace, Five-two, and Four- 
three) are called Matadores, and can 
be played at any time. It will be 
noted that only a Matadore can be 
played to a blank. Each playe/ 
draws three Dominoes at the begin- 
ning of the game, and he who has the 
highest doublet, or the highest piece, 
if there are no doublets, leads. If any 
one cannot play, he must draw Domi- 
noes one by one in succession from 
the pool till he can play, or till the 
pool is gone. He must play if he can. 
But when only two persons play the 
game, three Dominoes must be left 
in the pool, so that neither player 
may know exactly what the other has. 
The scoring is the same as in the 
ordinary game. In Matadore the 
player with the smallest number of 
Dominoes usually tries to block the 
game by playing blanks. Has oppo- 
nents can prevent him by playing 
only Dominoes that match blanks 
already on the table. 
Tidley-Wink, a game cf Domi- 



noes, played by four, six, or eight per- 
sons. Each draws three Dominoes 
to begin with, and the one with the 
highest double leads it. The other 
players follow, in order, each match- 
ing the Domino played just before 
him, as in the ordinary game. Any 
one who cannot play must wait till 
his turn comes again. Any one who 
plays a Double is allowed to play 
another Domino to it, if he can, be- 
fore the next player takes his turn. 
He who first gets rid of his three 
Dominoes calls out " Tidley-Wink," 
and wins the game. 

Poker. Each player is given five 
Dominoes and the game proceeds as 
in DRAW POKER with cards, save 
that there is no drawing. The 
hands, in the order of their value, be- 
ginning with the highest, are 

1. An Invincible. Five Doubles, 
or Four Doubles and a Six. 

2. A Straight Six. A sequence of 
sixes, as Six-Two, Six-Three, Six- 
Four, Six-Five. 

3. Four Doubles. 

4. A Straight Five. 

5. A Full. Three Doubles and 
two of a suit. 

6. A Straight Four. 

7. Three Doubles. 

8. A Flush. Five of a suit not in 
sequence. 

9. A Pair. Two Doubles. 

10. The highest Domino in a hand 
that is none of the above. A Double 
always ranks above any other. 

Card-games with Dominoes. Sev- 
eral games commonly played with 
cards may also be played with Domi- 
noes. In this case the larger num- 
ber on each Domino shows the suit, 
and the other number the rank in 
the suit. Thus, a doublet stands at 
the head of each suit, and the suits 
do not contain the same number of 
Dominoes. The Five-suit consists 
of Double-five, Five-four, Five-three, 
Five-two, Five-ace, Five-blank, and 
the Two-suit contains only Double- 
two, Two-ace, Two-blank. But the 
trump-suit contains all the Dominoes 
that bear the number of that suit, 



DOMINOES 



663 



DOMINOES 



whether the other number be smaller 
or larger ; thus, if the Three-suit 
is trumps the cards in it rank as 
follows : Double-three, Three-six, 
Three-five, Three-four, Three-two, 
Three-ace, Three-blank. Of course 
those trump-cards that would ordi- 
narily be counted in other suits must 
be omitted from these suits; thus, in 
the case just given, the card next be- 
low the Six-four is the Six-two, be- 
cause the Six4hree (or Three-six) Is 
a trump. 

Domino Euchre, the doublet of 
the trump suit is Right Bovver ; the 
next lower doublet is Left Bovter; 
but when Blank is trump the 
Double-Six is Left Bbwef; the 
player who draws the lowest Domino 
is termed the dealer. After th'e 
drawing for deal the Dominoes are 
mixed again and each player in turn, 
beginning at the dealer's left-, draws 
five, The dealer then turns face Up* 
ward one of the Dominoes that fe-- 
main, and its lafger number sh6fl% 
the trump'SUit, He that orders up, 
takes up, assists, or makes the trump, 
always leads, but in other, respects 
the game is played as it is with Cards. 

Domino Rouhc6i This can .be 
played by not more than four per- 
sons. When two or three play, the 
Dominoes in the po6l are ofteVi 
divided in more than one Dummy or 
Dumby (that is extra hand), so that 
each has the privilege of taking one, 
even if the player before him has 
already done so. When four play* 
there is only one Dummy, but it con- 
sists of seven pieces. The dealer is 
chosen, the trump 'turned, and the 
Dominoes drawn as in Domino 
Euchre ; in other respects the game 
^s played as it is with cards, 

Bingo, the game of SiXTV-^SlX 
played with Dominoes by two per- 
sons. Each player draws seven 
Dominoes at first, and orte more 
after each trick, as in the (rard-'game. 
The blanks count as seven spots; 
and the Double^blank, tfhich is 
called Bingo, is the highest Domino, 
taking even the Double of trumps. 



The game consists of seven points. 
He who first makes 70, scores one 
toward game. If he make 70 before 
his opponent make 30, he scores 2, 
and if he make 70 before his oppo- 
nent has won a trick, he scores 3. 
If a player capture the Double of 
trumps with Bingo he scores one. 

In reckoning the 70 points, the 
Double of trumps counts 28, and all 
Other doubles and trumps according 
to the total number of the spots, but 
the remaining Dominoes have no 
value, The winner of a trick may 
announce or declare certain combi- 
nations a$ in the card game, These, 
With the points they count toward 70, 
are as follows t 

Two Doubles, 20 

Three " 40 

Four " $0 

Five * 6b 

Six " 70 

if Bingo be among the doubles, 
the group counts to more, In other 
respects the game is played like 



History t Dominoes are said by 
different writers to haVe been in- 
vented by the Hebrews, Greeks, or 
Chinese; They were introduced into 
France from Italy about 1750, and 
irnto England some years later, A 
ctomiho was a black cloak or hood 
worn by monks* and some think the 
name of the game is derived from 
the fact that one side of the Domino 
is usually black. Other writers sug- 
gest that the game was allowed in 
convents, because it was so simple, 
and that the monks, on playing their 
last piece, said in Latin " Benedica- 
mat Domino" (bless the Lord), 
which was afterward shortened into 
Domino. A story is told also of a 
monk who played the game against 
the commands of his superior, and 
for punishment was obliged to re- 
peat a Latin psalm, and from the 
word Dommo in it, he afterwards 
named the game ; but all these deri- 
vations seem rather fanciful. 

Domino Whist. See SEVENS AND 
EIGHTS. 



DONKEY 



264 



DOUBLE PENDULUM 



DONKEY, a game played by any 
number of people, who try, blind- 
fold, to fasten a tail on the picture of 
A tailless donkey. The picture, 
which is about four feet square, is 
Dinned on the wall at one end of a 
room, and each player in turn, stand- 
ing at the other end, is blindfolded 
Mnd given a cloth tail and a pin with 
'vhich to fasten it to .the picture. He 
who first fastens the tail in the right 
place wins. This is a difficult feat, 
and the sight 'of the donkey 
covered with tails, 'some pinned 
to his head and others to his 
legs, creates a great deal of 
amusement. Donkey Parties 
are sometimes given, at which 
this game is the principal enter- 
tainment. The player is some- 
times informed by the laughter 
of the company as to whether 
he is at the right place or not 
and hence may be guided to 
the proper spot, so sometimes 
the game is. made more difficult 
by requiring him to pin the tail ^ 
to the part of the donkey he 
touches first. . . ^ 

DO.UBL JUMP, a SOLI- Vj| 
TAIRE game of CARDS, played ' 
with onq full pack. The cards 
are laid down in one long row. ^ 
Whenever the player sees two 
cards of the same suit, or of the 
same value, separated by two 
other cards, -he may take up 
the one toward the left, and 
place it on the other. This is 
called a double jump, since the . 
two cards between are passed 
over. A jump brings new cards 
next one another and may giv.e 
at once an opportunity for another 
jump. , When the top car.d of a pile 
thus. corresponds with another, two 
cards distant, the whole pile goes 
with the top card in its jump. . .The 
object, is. thus to. .bring all the cards, 
into one pile. When but..three piles 
are., -left, only one need, be jumped, 
and when -but two, one can be placed 
OB. the other. if the top cards corre- 
spond in suit or value. 



DOUBLE PENDULUM, Experi- 
ments with the. Suspend a small 
glass funnel by setting it in a hole in 
a board or flat cork about three 
inches in diameter, hung by strings 
as in the picture. These strings are 
united above the funnel at r. The 
whole arrangement is suspended 
from the ceiling or from a frame, by 
two strings, tied to hooks about four 
feet apart, and united below at the 
funnel. The funnel should hang as 




Double Pendulum. 

closely to the table as possible at its 
centej. Tie the two supporting 
strings together frrmly at one fourth 
thejr length from the funnel. Fill 
the'funnel with sand, and then hold 
it a'tpne corner of the.table, stopping 
up the tube with one finger. Let it 
g6 and -it will swing off in a curve, 
which .will be marked on the table 
by the sand. Tie-the strings in a 
different place. and. the curve will" be 
different. By careful trial,- 



DOUBLETS 



265 



DOUBLETS 



curious curves can thus be traced. 
These curves are called Lissajous's 
curves, after the Frenchman who dis- 
covered them. They are the same 
that are produced in the experiment 
of VIBRATING RODS. 

DOUBLETS, a writing game 
played by any number of persons. 
Two words of the same number of 
letters are first agreed upon, and each 
of the players endeavors to connect 
them by a column of other words 
called " links," each of which shall 
differ from the one before it by only 
a single letter. Thus " Cat " and 
" Dog " may be connected in many 
ways, of which two examples fol- 
low : 

Cat Cat 

Cot Pat 

Cog ' Put 

Dog Pug 

Dug 

Dog 

The object of the game is to make 
as few links as possible. There are 
several methods of scoring. Thus, 
the player who makes the greatest 
number of links may score nothing 
and each of the others one point for 
each link less than this ; or, the one 
who has the least number of links 
may score a number previously 
agreed on, and each of the others as 
many points less as he has less links. 
The best plan in joining the 
doublets is to write them side by 
side and then work downward from 
each. Thus, suppose the words 
agreed on are Hand and Legs. 
When these are written side by side, 
it is seen that the H in Hand must 
be turned into an L, which is done by 
writing " Land." The G in Legs 
must become an N, so " Lens " is 
written underneath. The word 
" Lend " now completes the chain, 
which reads 

Hand 

Land 

Lend 

Leans 

Legs 
In this case, as in the first example 



given, each link forms a step to- 
ward the desired end, every change 
being from one of the letters of the 
first doublet to the corresponding 
one of the second ; but sometimes 
this is impossible. Thus if Chin and 
Head are the Doublets only one of 
the letters of either can be substi- 
tuted at once for the corresponding 
one of the other. This is the N in 
Chin, which can be changed to D, so 
that the words stand : 

Chin Head 

Chid 

Looking now at the word Head, it 
is seen that the letter E must be 
turned into H. The first letter of 
a word whose second is H, is likely 
to be S or T. Take the word Shed 
and it can be connected with Head 
as follows : 

Head 

Heed 

Seed 

Shed 

After trying in vain to connect 
chid and shed the former link is 
rejected, and a new road tried. The 
first letter of chin is turned to S mak- 
ing Shin, and the connection is soon 
made as follows : 

Chin 

Shin 

Ship 

Shop 

Shod 

Shed 

Seed 

Heed 

Head 

The game of Doublets makes also 
an interesting SOLITAIRE game. The 
easiest doublets to connect are those 
in which the vowels in one corre- 
spond in position to vowels in the 
other, and consonants to consonants. 
The difficulty increases also with the 
length of the words. 

Doublets was invented and named 
by the author of " Alice in Wonder- 
land," whose assumed name was 
" Lewis Carroll." He wrote a book 
on the subject, giving many interest- 
ing examples of doublets connected 



DRAUGHTS OF AIR 



266 



DRAUGHTS OF AIR 



by links. It is said, however, that a 
similar game was played in this 
country before the appearance of 
this book. 

DRAMATICS. See PRIVATE 
THEATRICALS. 

DRAUGHTS. See CHECKERS. 

DRAUGHTS OF AIR, Experi- 
ments on. i. Open on a crack the 
door between a cold room and a 
warm one, and hold a lighted candle 
at various heights, close to the 
crack. No windows must be open 
in either room. At the top of the 
door the flame will be blown toward 
the cold room, and at the bottom 
toward the warm room. About 
half-way up there will be a place 
where the flame is blown very little, 
or not at all. The reason is that 
cold air, being heavier than warm 
air, flows into the warm room along 
the floor, and forces the warm air 
out at the ceiling. Instead of a 
candle flame, smoke from what is 
called " touch paper " may be used 
to show the direction of the currents. 
Touch paper is made by dipping un- 
glazed paper in a solution of salt- 
petre. When dry, it burns with 
smoke but not with flame. 

2. Cut in the top of a tight shal- 
low pasteboard box two holes, each 
about an inch in diameter, and place 
over each an argand lamp chimney. 




Experiment 2. 

In one hole stand a candle cut to 
such a length that it will project 
about half an inch above the top. 
Light the candle, and then hold 



burning touch paper over the other 
lamp-chimney. The smoke, instead 
of rising, will go down one chimney, 
and after it has filled the box will 
rise through the other. The reason 
is that the burning candle makes a 
draught up its chimney and if the 
box is tight so that no air can get in 
through cracks, to supply the place 
of what is going out, air must come 
down the other chimney. 

3. Hold the hand tightly over the 
chimney where the draught is down- 
ward. The candle in the other 
chimney will begin to burn feebly 




Experiment 3. 

and smoke, and will go out if there 
are no cracks for air to get in. The 
reason air does not get to it down its 
own chimney is that the upward 
draught there is too strong. 

4. Another way of trying Experi- 
ments 2 and 3, is to hang in an ordi- 
nary lamp chimney a partition cut 
out of tin, shaped as in the picture. 
The candle is set a little to one side 
of (he chimney, and there is then an 
upward draught on one side of the 
partition, and a downward draught 
on the other. The candle may be 
put out as in Experiment 3. 

5. Bore several holes through a. 
board, and enlarge some of them at 
one end so that they will be conical 
in form. Suspend a square of paper, 
by a string, two or three inches from 
the board, and from the other side 



DRAUGHTS OF AIR 



267 



DRAW POKER 



blow through the holes at it. On 
blowing through a straight hole, the 
paper will be carried back, but on 



Experiment 5. 

blowing through a conical hole from 
the small end, the paper will hang 




Experiment 6. 

perfectly still. If a lighted candle 
be used instead of the paper, the 
flame will even be directed toward 




the board when blown at through a 
conical hole. The reason is, that 
the breath is kept together in a 
stream by the straight hole, whereas 
it disperses to all sides in the conical 
hole, and carries with it some of the 
air on the other side of the board so 

I that a slight return current is caused. 

I This principle is used in ventilating 
rooms where it is desirable to avoid 
a direct draught. 

6. Cut out a spiral like the one de- 
scribed in the article FOURTH OF 
JULY, and suspend it over a lamp 




Experiment 7. 

as shown in the illustration. The 
up-rush of hot air will cause it to 
twirl. 

7. A wheel cut out of paper in the 
shape shown above will also twirl in 
a draught of hot air, or when fanned 
as shown in the illustration. 

DRAW POKER, a game of cards, 
played by from two to six persons, 
with a full pack. Five cards are 
dealt to each, one at a time, and then 
each in turn, beginning at the deal- 
er's left, may discard any or all of 
these, and call for as many new ones 
as he discards, which the dealer 
must give him from the top of the 



DRAW POKER 



268 



DRAW POKER 



stock. This is called drawing. The 
player who holds in his hand the 
highest group of cards, after draw- 
ing, is the winner. 

The groups are as follows, begin- 
ning with the lowest : 



* 

4*4 

+ * + 
4*4 



i. A Pair. Two cards of the 
same rank (accompanied, of course, 
by three other cards, as each player 
holds five). 




2. Two Pairs (accompanied by 
one other card). 



X 

' 

4. 4. 

* * 



O 



3. Three of a Kind, or a Triplet. 
Three cards of the same rank (with 
two other cards). 



S 




*** 







* + 







+** 



o o 
o o 

00 

o o 



:*: 
:*: 



4. A Straight. Five cards in regu- 
lar order, not all of the same suit. 
In counting straights, the ace ranks 
either below the Two or above the 
King, but must stand at the end. 
Queen, King, Ace, Two, Three is, 
therefore, not a straight. 



** 






o o 



5. A Flush. Five cards of the 
same suit, not in regular order. 




6. A Full House, Full Hand, or 
full. Triplets and a Pair together. 



* * 

4* 
^. 



O 



o <:> 



4 4 
4.4 
4*4 
4 4 



7. Four of a Kind. 



*** 

*** 

* 4- 

8. A Straight Flush. A Straight, 
with cards all of the same suit. 

When Straights are not counted, 
as is very rarely the case, a Straight 
Flush ranks as a common Flush, and 
is beaten by a Full and by Fours. 
Of two groups of the same kind, 




9 




- 4 




* * 


<? 








* 4 


<? 




4 4 




* 4 



BEATS 



+*+ 

*4.* 

*** 



4 4 



that containing the highest card is 
the higher, If the two highest cards 
are the same, then the next to the 
highest decide the rank, and so on. 
If the groups be exactly the same, 
the other cards of the hand deter- 
mine which shall win. When there 
is no group, the hand having the 




highest card wins, if the two highest 
are the same ; then two next highest, 
etc. 

The score in Poker is kept with 
counters, or "chips," usually round, 
flat pieces of ivory or bone. There 



DRAW POKER 



269 



DRAW POKER 



are several methods, but the follow- 
ing is the simplest : 

At the beginning of the game, the 
counters are divided equally among 
the players. Each, before looking at 
his hand, must put in the middle of 
the table a number of counters, agreed 







O 









o 












oo 




?0? 















O /s v 


















O 




O 




o 







BEATS 


* 




*** 

*** 

*** 

*** 




*4. 4> 

X 




*** 

A A 




* * 
* 
* * 



on beforehand, and which is the 
same for each hand during the game. 
This is called the "ante" (Latin 
ante, before), and the antes together 
form the pool. When the drawing 
is finished, the eldest hand may 
either say, " I stay out," in which 
case he takes no further part -in the 
hand, or. he may place any number 
of counters, up to a limit agreed on 
before the game, commences, in the 
pool; more or less according to the 
_strengttj of his hand^. This is called 
lii$ "bet." The player" at his left 
'jnay stay out, .or he may place in the 
'pool the same number of chips as 
nis neighbor (which is called " see- 



BEATS 




"A pair of Kings. 



A pair of Tens. 



ing"), or he may put in more (which 
is called "raising" or " going bet- 
ter "). The third piayer may stay 
out, see* or raise the second player, 
and so on, with each in turn, one 
.or more times around, 'either- till all 
* but one of the players stay out, .when 
~*that one takes the pool without-show- 
ing his hand, or till' all the 4 playe-rs 
in the game have "seen " the one 
1 'that raised last. In the latter case, 
they are said to " call " the player 
that made the last raise (or the eldest 



hand, if no raise was made), who 
must then show his hand. If none 
of the others has a better hand, they 
let him take the pool without show- 
ing their hands ; otherwise the higher 
hands are shown and the winner 
takes the pool. The game may be 
played a certain length of time, and 
when it is over he wins that has 
most counters. 

Sometimes they who wish cards 
in the beginning of the game are re- 
quired to add to their antes. Some- 
times "the players also make bets 
before they have drawn. Sometimes 
the ante is large or small, as the 
eldest hand chooses. A common 
method is to require each to ante 
twice as much as the eldest hand, 
who makes good the rest of the ante 
at his next turn, unless he stays out. 

A player often bets high on a 
weak hand,, in hope that the others, 
thinking he has a strong one, will 
prefer to stay out. This is called 
"bluffing." -It is often possible to 
detect a bluff- by watching a player's 
expression, unless he be -very skillful 
at concealing his thoughts. The 
only part of Poker in- which skill can 
be shown is in discarding. If a pair 
is dealt to a player, he should gener- 
ally discard the other three cards, 
hoping to dra~w another of the same 
kind. If he hold four of a suit, he 
should often discard the fifth, hoping 
for -a Flush. By noticing how many 
cards a player calls for, some idea 
may often be gained of the strength 
of his hand. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. If any player be given more or 
less -than five cards there must be a 
new deal, provided the mistake is 
noticed before -that player looks at 
his-handi otherwise, the.deal is good, 
and the player whose hand is .wrong 
must stay out.- 

2. A41 the players must discard 
before cards are given to any one. 

3. Discarded cards must be piled 
face downward in* front ofthe next 
dealer, and must not be touched. 

4. If any player be given more 



DRIVING 



270 



DRIVING 



cards than he asked for, the dealer 
must draw one of them and return 
it to the stock ; but if the player look 
at his hand before noticing the mis- 
take, he must stay out. 

History. Poker is derived from 
Primero or Prime, one of the oldest 
card games, which was a favorite as 
early as 1500. It was played in vari- 
ous ways, but generally four cards 
were dealt to each player, and the 
principal groups were Flush, Prime, 
and Point. ' Flush was the same as 
in Poker, Prime was one card of 
each suit, and Point was reckoned 
as in PlQUEl\ but with different 
values for the cards. When a player 
"raised the ante" he Was said to 
"vye." Shakespeare represents King 
Henry VIII. as playing Primero with 
the Duke of Suffolk. Primero was 
elaborated in France, in the I7th cen- 
tury, into Ambigu, in which the 
Straight, the Straight Flush, Four of 
a kind, and Three of a kind, were in- 
troduced. About this time a game 
called Post and Pair, derived from 
Primero, was played in the west of 
England, and from this came Brag, 
on which Hoyle wrote a treatise in 
1751. In the game of Brag each 
player said " I brag," as he raised 
another player. Our Poker is siniply 
the English Brag with variations. 

DRIVING. The beginner should 
practice with a single horse. The 
driver in America sits on the right 
side of the vehicle, and if entering 
from the left should get in before his 
companion to avoid passing over or 
under the reins, which should always 
be in some one's hands unless an at- 
tendant be at the horse's head. 

The horse should always be re- 
strained from moving off Until the 
driver gives him an indication to 
start. Many horses acquire the 
habit of starting when they hear any 
one get into the vehicle, from being 
struck with the whip by the driver 
as soon as he starts The horse, 
expecting the lash, starts up to 
avoid it. To drive in the English 
style the driver should hold the 



reins in his left hand, leaving the 
right free to hold the whip or to 
assist in turning or guiding the horse, 
or when a strong pull is necessary. 
The right rein, D, should be held be- 
tween the first and second, or second 
and third fingers, and the left, N, be- 
tween the forefinger and thumb, the 
ends passing through the palm of the 
hand under the fingers. (See Fig. i) 
The knuckles of the hand should 
be turned to the left, The horse is 
guided by pulling the rein on the side 
toward which he is to turn, which 
may be doiie by twisting the hand 
Up Or down, or by pulling the re- 
quired rein with the right hand, 

The reins should be held short 
enough to enable the driver to check 
the horse quickly without leaning 




fa"r back or taking a fresh hold, but 
not so short that he is obliged to 
lean too far forward or extend his 
arm awkwardly. The left elbow 
should be held Well back and low 
down and the arm allowed to play 
lightly from the shoulder. The right 
hand is used to hold the whip and to 
steady and guide the horse. It is 
best for the driver to sit high, .for 
this enables him to give a steady pull 
on the reins when necessary. To 
make the horse go faster, he should 
be encouraged with the voice, the 
Whip being used only when neces- 
sary. The use of the whip depends 
a great* deal on the horse; some ani- 
mals will not bear it at all, while 
others cart Scarcely be made to go 
Without it. Some horses' Will go best 
With a tight rein, and some with a 
loose one ; but the driver should 



DRIVING 



271 



DRIVING 



always "feel" the horse's mouth. 
To stop a horse the word " whoa ! " 
is generally used, the driver at the 
same time pulling steadily on the 
reins. All sudden starts and stops 
should be avoided, as the result is to 
give those in the vehicle an un- 
pleasant jerk. 

Driving a Pain The horse on the 
right is called the off horse and the 
one to the left the near horse. These 
terms arose from the custom of the 
driver's walking on the left hand 
side of his team, whence the left 
horse was near him and the right 
one farther off. Most of what has 
been said above applies also to driv- 
ing a pair, but in addition the driver 
must see that each horse does his 
share of the work, as some horses 
have a habit of shirking. The driver 
should watch the traces, and, if he 
sees that one of the team keeps his 
side loose, while the other's are tight, 
the offender should be touched with 
the whip. 

Driving Tandem. Two or more 
horses are sometimes driven one in 
front of the other. The forward 
horse in this case is called the leader, 
and the one next the carriage the 
wheeler. A horse, to make a good 
leader, must be specially trained, 
otherwise he is apt to step over the 
traces or to turn around and face 
the wheel-horse. Tandem driving 
is the most difficult kind and should 
not be attempted by a beginner. 

Four-in-Hand. Fig. 2 shows the 
method of holding the reins in driv- 
ing four-in-hand. N L is the near 
leader's rein, O L is the off leader's, 
N W the near wheeler's, and O W 
the off wheeler's. Directions for 
driving four-in-hand cannot easily be 
given in print, but showing the 
method of holding the reins may be 
worth while. The guiding and 
steadying is done with the right 
hand as in pair horse driving. 

Rule of the Road. When two 
vehicles meet, each turns to the 
right. In England the rule is to 
turn to the left, thus giving the driver 



who sits on the right a full view of 
the vehicle he passes, so as to avoid 
collision. It may be that the opposite 
rule was adopted in America because 
when the country was newly settled, 
the roads were narrow and poor, so 
that it was more necessary for the 
driver to see to his outer wheels than 
his inner. It is always better for 
a beginner to turn too soon rather 
than to wait, for sometimes the 
vehicles are approaching each other 
faster than he thinks. If one of the 
drivers sees that the spot where the 
vehicles are likely to meet is bad for 
passing, he should stop at the right 
side of the road, and the other should 
then drive quickly past him, so that 
he will have to wait as short a time 
as possible. Care must be taken in 
turning corners, or in passing a cross- 
road, lest there be a collision. When 
a vehicle is overtaken, it should be 
passed to the left, unless it is a 
heavily laden wagon on the left of 
the road, and no other vehicle is ap- 
proaching, when it may be passed on 
the right. If a vehicle overtake 
another in a narrow road, the for- 
ward one should either keep ahead, 
or, if the driver does not wish to do 
so, he should turn to the right and 




let the other pass. If he does neither, 
the one in the rear should call to him 
and ask him politely to do one or the 
other. 

Accidents. Collisions will usually 
be avoided if the above directions are 
followed. The other common acci- 
dents are runaways, and the giving 
way of some part of the harness. 



DRIVING 



272 DROP THE HANDKERCHIEF 



The reader is referred to what is said 
of runaways in the article on RIDING. 
When a horse runs it is usually safer 
to remain in the vehicle than to jump 



out ; many more people have been 
injured by the latter than by the 
former course. If a horse acts un~ 
easy or stops without apparent rea- 




son, it is very likely that something is 
the matter with the harness. In such 
a case the driver should alight at once 
and see what the matter is. If the 




harness breaks, it may usually be 
fastened with twine, so that it will 
hold till he can drive home, or if 



not to be had the check rein may be 
taken off and utilized, or the throat 
lash even may be useful. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show two curiosi- 
ties of driving, the first a proposed 
vehicle where the horse is beneath 
the cart ; the second a proposed 
chaise to be run by a spring or other 
motor attached to the rear wheels. 

DROP THE HANDKERCHIEF, a 
game played by any number of chil- 
dren, who stand in a ring, facing 
inward. One of the boys, chosen for 
the purpose, walks or runs around 
the outside of the ring, holding a 
handkerchief in his hand, which he 
drops behind some girl. As soon as 
she sees it, she must pick it up and 
run after him. If she catches him, 
they kiss, and she returns the hand- 
kerchief for him to drop again ; but 



DUCHESS OF LUYNES 



273 



DUCK AND DRAKE 



if he can make the circuit of the ring 
and stand in the space she left, she 
must take his place. She then drops 
the handkerchief behind some boy, 
who runs after her, and the game 
goes on as before, a girl always drop- 
ping the handkerchief behind a boy, 
and a boy behind a girl. The player 
who drops the handkerchief may run 
around the circle in either way, and 
the one behind whom it is dropped 
must always follow in the same 
direction. Sometimes a player does 
not see that the handkerchief is lying 
behind him, in which case the drop- 
per simply runs around the circle, 
picks up the handkerchief, and hand- ] 
ing it to him, takes his place. No 
player may tell another, by word or 
sign, that the handkerchief is lying 
behind him. The player who drops 
the handkerchief sometimes says, as 
he runs around the circle, 
" I dropped my handkerchief yester- 
day, 

I found it to-day, 

I list it, I lost it, 

I threw it away." 
DUCHESS OF LUYNES, a SOLI- 
TAIRE game of CARDS, played with 
two packs. The first four cards 
dealt from the pack are placed in a 
row, face upward, and the fifth and 
sixth are laid aside to form Stock. 
Four more are laid on the first four, 
and two more in the Stock, and so on 
till the pack is used. The player's 
object is to form eight piles of fami- 
lies, downward from four Kings, and 
upward from four Aces, following 
suit. For this purpose the top card 
of any pile may be used in course of 
play, or the top card of the Stock. 
But when the top card of a pile is 
used, its place is not supplied from 
the pack, the next card being placed 
where it would have been if the pre- 
ceding had not been used. When 
the pack is exhausted, the Stock can 
twice be shuffled and relaid, and then 
Stock and piles can be shuffled and 
relaid in four piles, omitting the Stock. 
DUCK, or DUCK ON THE ROCK, 
a game played by any nunlber of 



persons, each with a stone, about the 
size of a man's two fists, called a 
Duck. One of the players, chosen 
by lot, places his Duck on a stone 
with a smooth top, and stands near 
it, while the others take their position 
behind a line eight or ten yards dis- 
tant, and try to knock it off with 
their Ducks, each in turn. As soon 
as each has thrown his Duck, he 
runs up to it and watches his chance 
to carry it back to the line. If the 
one whose Duck is on the rock can 
touch any of the others while carry- 
ing back his Duck, before he reaches 
the line, the one so caught must take 
the catcher's place, putting his own 
Duck on the rock. But if the Duck 
is knocked from the rock, its owner 
must replace it before he can touch 
any one. 

In playing this game, if the owner 
of the Duck on the rock is skillful, he 
can often keep three or four of the 
other players out of the game by 
preventing them from picking up 
their Ducks. In this case the only 
means of relief is for some one to 
strike the Duck from the rock, for 
then its owner is helpless till he has 
put it back. 

Emperor, a kind of Duck, in which 
a wooden figure called the Emperor 
is placed on the top of a post about 
1 8 inches high. A player called the 
Prime Minister stands near it. The 
; .other players have each a wooden 
ball like a croquet ball. The game 
j is played exactly like Duck, the play- 
j ers trying to knock the Emperor off 
| his post by throwing or pitching balls 
at him. The game can be continued 
for a specified time, at the end of 
which he who has been Prime Min- 
ister the least number of times, or 
has hit the Emperor the greatest 
number of times, is victor. 

DUCK AND DRAKE, or Skipping 
Stones, a game played by any num- 
ber of persons, each of whom throws 
a flat stone into the water so that it 
will rebound. He whose stone skips 
the greatest number of times is the 
winner. The stone should be held 



DWARF 



274 



EARL OF COVENTRY 



between thumb and forefinger and 
given a slight whirling motion so 
that it will strike the water with its 
flat side and not edgewise. The 
Greek boys played this game with 
flat shells or pieces of tile, and called 
it epostraktsmos (Tile Skipping). In 
English, " to play at ducks and 
drakes," has come to mean spend- 
ing one's money extravagantly. 

DUMBBELLS. See GYMNASTICS. 

DUMB CRAMBO. See CRAMBO. 

DWARF, THE, an amusement 
in which two persons take part. 
One of them stands behind a table 
and places his hands on it, while the 
other stands behind the first and 
passes his arms around him as in 
Fig. i. The head and body of the 
second person and the legs of the 
first are hidden by curtains, which 
is easily managed if the table be 
placed in a doorway. Shoes are 




Fig. i. 

then placed on the hands of the 
first player, and a child's trousers, 
or kilt skirt over his arms. A 
jacket is put on over his shoulders 



and the arms of the hidden player, 
and an excellent imitation of a dwarf 
is thus formed. (Fig 2.) The face 
should be disguised as much as pos- 





Fig. 2. 

sible, and the dwarf may be dressed 
fantastically to represent a Turk or 
Moor. A third person should act 
the part of exhibitor, giving a comic 
account of the dwarf's history. The 
dwarf may deliver a speech, appro- 
priate gestures being made by the 
player who furnishes the arms. The 
gestures are apt to be ludicrous, as 
the second player usually has trouble 
in fitting his action to the words of 
the first. The dwarf can dance and 
perform many remarkable feats, 
such as rubbing his head with his toe, 
or putting both feet in his mouth at 
once. 



E 



EARL OF COVENTRY, THE, a 

game of CARDS, played with a full 
pack. All the cards are dealt. The 
eldest hand leads any card he 



chooses, saying "There's a good 
King," or " There's a good five" (or 
whatever card it may be). The 
next player to the left who has a 



EARS 



275 



EASTER EGGS 



card of the same rank plays it saying 
" There's another good as he." The 
third and fourth are then played in 
like manner, with the words : 
"There's the best of all the three," 
and " There's the Earl of Coventry." 
The player of the fourth card leads, 
and so the game goes on, the player 
who first gets rid of all his cards 
being the winner. 

EARS, Experiments with the. i. 
Let one person be blindfolded and 
sit in a chair, folding his arms. Let 
another hold two coins between the 
thumb and forefinger of the right 
hand, and put the left forefinger be- 
tween them so that they will click 
together when the finger is suddenly 
pulled out. Let him thus make a 
click in various places near the 
blindfolded person, while the latter 
guesses the direction from which 
the sound comes. It will be found 
that he can tell easily so long as the 
sound is nearer one ear than the 
other, but whenever it is made in 
any spot equally distant from both, 
he cannot tell where it is. 

2, Tie about three feet of twine at 
the middle to the knob of a poker. 
Twirl the ends of the twine around 
the forefingers, and stop up the ears 
with these fingers. If the swinging 
poker be knocked against the wall, 
or struck with anything, the person 
holding it will hear deep tones like 
those of a bell. If a silver table spoon 
be used instead of a poker, the sound 
of a higher-toned bell will be imitated. 

3. Have a tinman solder two 
pieces of iron wire 

to two disks of 
tin, a, b, each large 
enough to cover the 
ear, in the shape 
shown in the pic- 
ture. When the 
disks are pressed to 
the ears and the 
point c, where the 
wires join, is ap- 
plied to any sound- 
ing body, the sound will be much 
magnified. 




Experiment 3. 



4. Let one person hold to his ears 
the ends of a piece of waxed thread 
six or eight feet long. Let a second 
person hold the thread stretched by 
its middle point and taking the two 
parts of the thread together between 
his thumb and forefinger, near the 
others' face, rub them along, keep- 
ing the thread taut. The result will 
be a sound like thunder in the ears 
of the first-named person. If the 
rubbing be with jerks, and some- 
times done with the finger-nail, the 
sound of short, cracking thunder 
will be imitated. 

EASTER EGGS, colored and or- 
namented eggs, used as presents or 
playthings at Easter. The eggs, 
called also pasque, pace, or paas 
eggs, are usually colored by being 
boiled in dye, of which various colors 
may be bought at any druggist's. 

An egg may be colored also in a 
pretty pattern by sewing it up 
tightly and smoothly in a piece of 
common calico, and then boiling it. 
If the calico be not of fast colors, the 
pattern will be reproduced on the 
egg shell. Eggs too may be gilded 
by painting them over with gum or 
varnish and then laying on gold leaf. 
The " gold paint " sold by druggists 
will produce a similar effect though 
not so brilliant. Colored eggs may 
be ornamented by drawing designs 
on them with tallow, or any greasy 
substance, before boiling. The dye 
will not color the parts touched by 
t^e grease, and the design will there- 
fore appear in white. More delicate 
designs may be drawn by scratching 
with the point of a needle, or the 
blade of a penknife, after the egg 
has been dyed. If the eggs are 
boiled hard, they may be kept any 
length of time. If preferred, the 
eggs may be " blown " before they 
are dyed. This is done by making 
a small hole in each end, applying 
the mouth to one of them, and blow- 
ing the contents of the egg out of the 
other. The tallow design should be 
drawn before blowing, that the shell 
may not be broken, and care must 



EASTER EGGS 



276 



EASTER EGGS 



be taken not to crush it in dyeing. 
Egg shells may be engraved by 
drawing designs on them with melted 
wax, or varnish, and then dipping 
them in strong vinegar. The vinegar 
will eat away the shell except where 
it is protected by the wax, and when 
the wax or varnish is removed, the 
design will be in relief. Wax can 
be removed by scraping ; varnish by 
washing with alcohol. If the egg be 
dyed before removing the wax, the 
design will be in raised white lines on 
a low colored ground. In this case 



the vinegar must be washed off be- 
fore dyeing. 

The eggs may also be decorated 
by pasting little pictures, such as 
may be bought at toy stores, over 
the shells, and the eggs, when fin- 
ished, may be placed in little nests 
of moss and twigs. They are some- 
times served in a tin pan filled with 
sand, in which the eggs are buried. 
This is often called an " ostrich 
nest." Blown eggs may be strung 
on ribbons and hung up for orna- 
ments. One way of playing with the 




Quaint Easter Eggs. 



eggs is for some one to hide them in 
different parts of the house on the 
evening before Easter, and for the 
rest of the family to look for them. 
They become the property of those 
who find them. 

In some parts of England and 
Holland, and in many places in this 
country, especially the parts settled 
by the Dutch, the cracking of pasque 
eggs is a common sport on Easter 
Monday. One person holds his egg, 
the small end upward, in his hand, 
and lets another try to break it by 
striking his downward upon it. Af- 



ter several taps, one generally breaks ; 
the cracked one belongs to the victor, 
who keeps on trying other eggs until 
his own is broken. A small, sharp- 
pointed egg is generally best for this 
sport, and sometimes one egg will 
break a dozen others before giving 
way itself. In Washington, in the 
White House grounds, children play 
games with their Easter eggs by 
rolling them down hill. Two roll 
their eggs together, and he whose 
egg is unbroken takes the other, if it 
is cracked. Sometimes several thou- 
sand children play thus at one time. 



EASTER EGGS 



277 



ECARTE" 



Egg-rolling on Easter is also com- 
mon in Germany, where tracks of 
sticks, laid side by side, are made for 
the eggs. The sport begins at mid- 
night on Easter-even, and lasts till 
about three o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Not only eggs, but apples also, 
and little cakes, are used. In Bohe- 
mia, children roll many eggs in a 
row, letting them start all at once, to 
see which will reach the bottom of 
the hill soonest. In the north of 
England, Easter eggs are also played 
with like balls, by tossing them up in 
the air. 

In Germany a number of eggs are 
placed in a basket and one person 
tosses them, one by one, into another 
basket filled with soft shavings, while 
another runs to a spot agreed on, 
and back again. He who does his 
task the sooner wins the eggs. 

In Ireland, the game we call " Go 
BANG " is played by sticking eggs in 
the sand. It is there called " Bunch- 
ing Eggs." 

Easter eggs are sometimes dressed 
as dolls, faces being marked or 
painted on them. They may be 
made also into other quaint shapes, 
(see illustration). Artificial Easter 
eggs, some of them large and filled 
with candies, may be bought at con- 
fectioners. 

History. The custom of Easter 
eggs is very old, and is thought by 
some writers to be derived from the 
ancient Egyptians, who regarded 
eggs as a sacred emblem of the re- 
newal of mankind after the Del- 
uge. The early Christians seem to 
have regarded eggs as symbols of 
the resurrection of the dead, since 
the chicken escapes from the shell as 
from a tomb. In old times as many 
as twenty dozen richly decorated 
eggs were piled on one dish and 
kept on the table during Easter 
week. Every one who came to the 
house was invited to eat an Easter 
egg with the host, and it was con- 
sidered impolite to refuse. In Spain 
and Italy public sports with eggs 
formed part of the Easter festivities. 



In Russia, people call on their friends 
on Easter, as we do. on New Year's 
Day,-. and exchange eggs with them. 
In Persia, a festival of eggs is cele- 
brated on New Year's Day. 

ECARTE (a-car-tay), a game of 
CARDS played by two persons, with 
a EUCHRE pack. The cards rank as 
usual, except that the Ace comes be- 
tween the Knave and the Ten, in- 
stead of above the King. Five 
cards are dealt to each player, three 
and two, or two and three at a time, 
and the top card of the stock is 
turned up as trump.^ Should it be a 
King the dealer scores one. If the 
non-dealer is satisfied with his hand, 
he leads at once ;. if not, he says, " I 
propose," or sometimes, " Cards," 
meaning that he wishes to exchange 
part or all of his hand. The dealer 
may say " I refuse," in which case 
play begins, or he may say " I ac- 
cept," and then each lays aside as 
many cards, face downward, as .he 
wishes to exchange. Putting aside 
the trump, the dealer first gives his 
opponent as many cards from the 
stock as he has discarded, and then 
does the same to himself. If the 
non-dealer is still dissatisfied, he 
may propose again and again, until 
he gets a hand that suits him or 
until the dealer refuses. 

Before play begins, if either 
player holds the king of trumps, he 
says " King" and scores one point. 
The non-dealer now leads, and the 
cards are played, suit being followed 
if possible. The second player in a 
trick must always win it if he can, 
and, if he can do so in no other way, 
he must trump. 

The player who wins either three 
or four tricks is said to gain the 
point, and scores one. If he win all 
five, he gains the vole and scores 
two. If the elder hand play without 
proposing and fail to gain his point 
his opponent scores two, whether he 
make point or vole. In like manner, 
if the dealer refuse, and fail to gain 
his point, his opponent scores two. 
This applies only to the first pro- 



CAKT 



278 



posal and refusal of a hand. After 
one discard there is no penalty for 
playing without further proposal or 
for refusing a second proposal. He 
who first makes five points wins the 
game. 

The hands which should be 
played without proposal are called 
Jeux de Regie (regulation plays), and 
are learned by heart by skillful 
players. 

They are as follows : 

1. All hands with three trumps. 

2. Hands with two trumps, that 
contain also three cards of a suit, or 
any three cards whose average value 
is high. 

3. Hands with one trump which 
contain also King, Queen, and Knave 
of a suit ; four of a suit, one being 
King; three of a suit, one being 
King or Queen, and the fifth card 
being a Queen. 

4. Hands with no trump, which 
contain four face cards or three 
Queens. 

Good players rarely lead trumps in 
Ecart unless they have three or 
more, and the Jeux de Regie are 
therefore based on the number of 
trumps and not on their value, since 
a low trump is as good as a high one 
for trumping in. It will be seen that 
aside from the number of trumps, 
the Jeux de Regie depend first on 
the value of the other cards in the 
hand, and, secondly, on whether they 
are all of one suit br not. Similar 
reasons should decide the dealer to 
refuse a proposal. But a player with 
the King of trumps in his hand, with 
other cards that make him certain of 
winning his point, should propose 
for one card ; for there is a chance of 
the opponent refusing, and then he 
would gain two points instead of one. 
Usually, good players discard at 
least three cards at first, when they 
propose, and throw out all except 
trumps and Kings. 

Since the trick must be won, if 
possible, it is usually good play to 
lead the highest of the strongest 
suit, that the opponent may be 



forced to trump. A skillful player 
changes his method of play accord- 
ing as he wishes to make only a 
point or the vole, or sees that he can- 
not make the point and wishes to 
prevent his adversary from making 
the vole. In the last case he tries to 
make one trick, rather than risk 
anything for the chance of taking 
more. 

More may be risked when the 
dealer is within one of going out, 
since it then makes no difference 
whether he make one point or two. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. If there be a misdeal or any of 
the non-dealer's cards be exposed, 
he may call for a new deal. 

2. If a player omit to announce 
the King of trumps before playing his 
first card, he loses the right to an- 
nounce it. 

3. A proposal or refusal cannot be 
taken back, nor can more cards be 
taken than the number first an- 
nounced. 

4. Discards must be placed face- 
downward on the table and cannot 
be looked at afterwards. 

5. If either player take more or 
less cards than he discards, or if the 
dealer give more or less than were 
asked for, his opponent may demand 
a new deal. If he choose, he may 
correct the number by drawing a 
card from the hand if it is too large, 
or by adding to it from the stock, if 
it is too small. 

6. If the dealer accept when there 
are not enough cards in the stock to 
give each as many as he wishes, 
the non-dealer is entitled to all he 
has asked for ; or, if there are not 
enough, to as many as there are left. 

7. The dealer may accept on con- 
dition that there are enough cards 
for both. 

8. If a card be led in turn, or be 
played to, it cannot be taken back. 

9. If a player revoke, or fail to win 
the trick when he is able, his oppo- 
nent may require the hands to be 
played again. 

10. An omission in the score must 



ECHO 



279 



EGGS 



be corrected before the next trump 
is turned. 

History. Ecarte" is a French game, 
and gets its name from the verb 
tcarter, to discard, from the privilege 
given to the players of discarding 
cards from their hands. It is said to 
be a modification of Triomphe, which 
gave rise also to Whist. Some say 
that the game, taken to Louisiana by 
the French, was the origin of the 
American game of Euchre. 

ECHO, a game played by any 
number of persons, one of whom is 
ch6sen to tell a story, .and the others 
take the names of various characters 
or objects that are to be mentioned 
in it. When the story teller men* 
tions the assumed name of a player 
once, that ptayer must repeat it twice, 
and if it is mentioned twice in succes- 
sion, it must be repeated once* Any 
player who does not echo his name, 
or who repeats it the wrong number 
of times, must pay a forfeit. The 
object of the story teller is to make 
his story so entertaining that the 
players will forget to echo. If the 
story is to be about a fight with a 
wolf, for instance^ the', nam'es as- 
sumed by the players might be hun : 
ter, gun, powder, bullet, knife* cave, 
rock, tree, etc.; or if a shipwreck is 
the subject, the names might be ship; 
captain, mate, mast, Sail, tiller, keel, 
passenger, wave, \vind> etc. This 
game differs little from that of STAGE 
COACH, where the players rise and 
turn around when their names are 
mentioned, instead of echoing them. 

ECHOES, Experiments on. Ech- 
oes are caused by the reflection of 
sound from some object, as the side 
of a house, a rock, or a hill. 

i. To measure the distance of the 
object which produces the echo. 
With his watch in harid let a person 
shout a single short syllable, as "Ha ! " 
or " Oh ! " and count the nurriber of 
seconds before it. returns. As sound 
travels about if 2$ feet a second, the 
number of seconds multiplied by 
If25 gives the distance traVe'letl by 
the voice in going to the object and 



back, and half of this is the distance 
of the object causing the echo. If 
the echo- is returned by an object 
only a few hundred feet away, so 
that the time is only a fraction of a 
second, the following method should 
be employed. Call out " Ha ! " and 
repeat the word just as you hear the 
echo, being careful to pronounce the 
syllable just with the echo and not 
after it. This will be possible with 
a little practice. Do this ten or 
twelve times, observing the number 
of seconds, between the first call and 
the last echo* Suppose that this was 
seveh seconds and that the syllable 
were called ten timesv Then each 
echo took seven-tenths of a second, 
and the distance; found a before, 
is about 394 feet. 

EGGS, Experiments with. i. 
Take two eggs of the same size, one 
raw and the other hard-boiled. Sus- 
pend them to nails or gas-futures by 
fixirtg an elastic band around each, 
lengthwise, and fastening a string to 
the band at one end of the egg. 
The bands should be broad enough 
to .clasp th'e egg firmly. Twist the 
Sf rings to the same degree; and then 
allow them to untwist at the same 
finie, so as to cause both eggs to 
spin around. The hard-boiled One 
will continue to do so for some time, 
but the raw egg will soon stOp ; The 
reason is that the contents of the 
latter are liquid and not connected 
with the shell. Only the shell is set 
twirling by the untwisting string, and 
the friction of the mass inside soon 
stops it. 

2. Spin on a plate the same eggs 
used in Experiment i. The hard- 
boiled egg Will spin easily and is 
easily stopped. The raw one is hard 
to set spinning, but after it has once 
begun, if the egg be" stopped by plac- 
ing the palni of the hand on it, it 
will start spinning again as soon as 
the hand is removed; The reasoti is 
that, though the shell is stopped, the 
liquid interior of the egg keeps up 
its motion' arid'starts the shell again 
as s'oOn as it is released. The egg 



EGGS 



280 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



will sometimes begin thus to spin 
again after it has been held several 
seconds. 

3. Make a strong brine of salt and 
water and it will be found that an 
egg will float on it. Try to float the 
egg in pure water, and it will sink 
to the bottom. Now, pour brine 
through a glass funnel to the bottom 
of the vessel, and the water and egg 
will ; both rise, floating on the brine. 
When the vessel is full, the egg will 
be suspended just between the brine 
and the water, half of it in ea"ch. 

4- Shake -an egg till the mem- 
brane inclosing the yelk is broken. 
The yelk will sink below the white, 
making the lower end heavier, and 
the egg will then stand on end with- 
out aich Columbus is said to have 
puzzled some Wise men for a long 
time by telling them an egg could be 
stood on end. After they had tried 
lo do it in vain, he showed them 
how, by breaking 'the shell a little 
by tapping the end on the floor. 
But if he had known this experi- 




^ _fxperirnent_5>. .. : -.. 

frierit, he could '.have. done it without 
"even breaking the sfiell. 

5. Remove the shell from a hard- 
boiled egg, and select a wide- 



mouthed water-bottle, with a neck 
a little smaller than the egg. Thrust 
into the bottle a burning piece of 
paper, and a moment later place the 




Experiment 6. 

egg, end down.jn the mouth of, the 
bottle, "it will be forced into the bot- 
tle by the pressure of the outside air, 
that within haying been rarified "by 
the heat of the burning paper. 

6. Take two egg-cups of the size 
intended for holding the egg to be 
eaten from .the shell. Stand one on 
a table In front of you, and the other 
just beyond it. Blow suddenly and 
smartly where the egg and cup 
touch, directly in front of you. With 
luck, your breath, added to the air 
under the egg, will lift the egg and 
tumble it over into the second cup. 

.ELECTRIC BATf ERIES,.Expen- 
merits^ with. Some electric batteries 
.are described v in the '' article ti Elec- 
riai"y,\in C. C T. The most" coixi- 
raoti Hi)3s~_can te; _ Jboji'ght,' ready 
made,, of dealers .in "telegraph, sup- 
plies. The following experiments 
will aid in understanding their work- 
ing: 

I. Fill a glass three-quarters full 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



281 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



of water, and mix with water the 
about two tablespoonfuls of sulphu- 
ric acid. Put into the glass a strip 
of copper and a strip of zinc, each 
about three or four inches long and 
an inch wide. Bubbles of HYDRO- 
GEN begin to rise from the zinc, as 
in the experiment in making that 
gas. No such bubbles rise from the 
copper, because the acid does not 
act on it. Now touch together the 
tops of the two strips. Immediately 
most of the bubbles rise from the 
copper instead of the zinc, because 
an electric circuit has been com- 
pleted ; a current flows through the 
acid from the zinc to the copper, and 
the bubbles are attracted to the lat- 
ter in a way that cannot be explained 
here. They are still caused by the 
acid acting on the zinc, not on the 
copper ; for if the strips are left in 
the liquid long enough the zinc, 
not the copper, will be eaten 
away. 

2. Take the zinc from the liquid, 
or dip a fresh piece into the liquid for 
a few seconds, to clean the surface, 
and then rub a little mercury over it, 
making it look bright and silvery. 
Repeat Experiment i, and no bub- 
bles at all will rise from the zinc, 
whether it touches the copper or not. 
If it does not touch the copper, 
neither will be eaten away by the 
acid ; but if the two touch, the zinc 
will be eaten away as before. Zinc 
thus prepared is said to be amal- 
gamated. 

3. Instead of touching the zinc and 
copper together, touch one end of a 
wire to one of them, and the other 
end to the other, No matter how 
long the wire is, as soon as they are 
connected by it, bubbles will begin 
to rise from the copper. In this case 
the wire forms part of the electric 
circuit. Take two wires, each twenty 
feet long or so, and touch one end to 
each metal. Let another person go 
into an adjoining room, and there 
touch together the other ends of the 
wires. When he does so, bubbles 
Will rise from the copper. It is pos- 



sible, by arranging signals, to make 
thus a sort of TELEGRAPH. 

4. If the two ends of the wires be 
attached to a GALVANOMETER 
(arranged for use with a strong cur- 
rent), the turning of the needle 
will show that electricity is passing 
through it. If a nail be wrapped in 
a piece of paper, and the wire wound 
about it a dozen times, the nail will 
be found to be a MAGNET while the 
current is passing. 

5. Keep the wire connected with 
the galvanometer and it will be seen 
that the needle is turned less and 
less, until finally it almost comes 
back to its north and south position, 
showing that the current is growing 
weaker. If this does not happen 
before one piece of zinc is eaten 
away, replace the first with another 
piece. There are two reasons why 
the current grows weaker. First, 
the acid is used up ; and secondly, 
the copper gets covered with bubbles 
of hydrogen, which stick to it. 

6. In like manner try strips of 
various metals first in one liquid and 
then in another. It will be found, 
by using the galvanometer, that 
almost any two metals, immersed in 
any acid or salt liquid, give an elec- 
tric current, which is generally more 
powerful if one of the metals is 
strongly acted on by the liquid and 
the other not. 

Gravity Battery. This is the 
easiest effective battery to make. 




Gravity Battery. 
Take a glass preserve-jar, and bend 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



282 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



a strip of zinc into a cylinder half 
as high as the jar, and just small 
enough to slip into the mouth. The 
zinc must be amalgamated either 
before or after the cylinder is made. 
With a pair of pliers bend the zinc 
outward in various places around the 
top of the cylinder so that it will 
catch on the edge of the jar and 
hang in it. Then take a sheet of 
copper small enough to lie flat in the 
bottom of the jar, and a piece of cop- 
per wire about a foot long, covered 
with India rubber, or some substance 
resembling it. This can be bought 
of a dealer in telegraph supplies, but 
if none is at hand coat the wire by 
dipping it in melted wax three or 
four times. Wire insulated with 
silk will not do. Scrape away about 
two inches of the coating, make a 
hole in the edge of the copper, and 
insert the wire, bending it over and 
hammering it down to make a good 
connection. Put into the jar crystals 
of sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), 
broken into pieces as large as hazel 
nuts, making a layer about half an 
inch thick. Lay the copper plate 
flat on this layer and then put in 
about two inches more of the sul- 
phate. Put the zinc cylinder in place 
and bring the coated wire from the 
copper through its inside. Fasten 
another wire to the upper part of the 
zinc. This wire neea not be insu- 
lated. The wire attached to the 
copper is called the positive wire of 
the battery, and the other the negative 
wire. When the battery is to be 
used, the jar is filled with water, and 
a little sulphuric acid or common 
salt is put in to start the action. 
This battery will work steadily for 
months, only requiring to be filled up 
with water as fast as it evaporates, 
but it must be kept still and not 
shaken. It can be bought ready- 
made in various forms, one of which, 
used by the Western Union tele- 
graph company, is shown in the 
illustration. 

Another form of this battery is 
made by laying the copper plate on 



top of the sulphate of copper and 
covering it with a layer of clean sand 
or sawdust about an inch and a half 
thick. 

The gravity battery does not be- 
come weaker and weaker, because 
as fast as the sulphate of copper in 
the water is used up more of it is 
dissolved from the layer in the 
bottom. Instead of bubbles of hy- 
drogen, a thin layer of copper is 
deposited on the copper plate, which 
of course does not hinder the work- 
ing of the battery. Sulphate of zinc 
is produced by the eating away of 
the zinc, but it dissolves in the water, 
floats on the heavier solution of 
sulphate of copper and does not 
interfere with it. For this reason 
the name " Gravity " is given to the 
battery, because in it the two liquids 
are separated by their weight. In 
the second form described, the sand 
aids in keeping them apart. 

Grenet Battery. This is made of 
plates of zinc and gas carbon in a 
mixture of sulphuric acid and bichro- 




Grenet Battery. 

mate of potash. The cells are usu- 
ally made like bottles with wide 
necks, and hence it is often called 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



283 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



the " bottle battery." The zinc is so 
made that it can be pulled up out of 
the liquid with a rod, when not in 
use. The liquid, which is used in 
some other batteries also and is often 
called " battery fluid," is made as fol- 
lows : Dissolve two pounds and a 
quarter of bichromate of potash in 
one gallon of warm water and when 
it has cooled add a pint of sulphuric 
acid. It requires renewing from 
time to time. The Grenet battery is 
very strong when the fluid is fresh. 
It weakens somewhat soon after- 
wards, and then keeps steady for 
many weeks, provided it is not used 
continuously. 

Leclanche Battery. These cells 
are generally sold as square glass 
bottles G having in the middle a rod 
C of carbon packed in a mixture M 
of various substances, and in one 
corner a rod of zinc Z. The carbon 
rod has fastened to its top a copper 






Leclanche Battery. 

cap L to make the connections more 
easily. The bottle is filled with a 
strong solution of sal-ammoniac in 
water. This battery lasts many 



months without attention, but can 
be used only for a few seconds at 
a time. It weakens rapidly, but 
recovers just as rapidly when not in 
use. 

Bunsen Battery. A rod of carbon 
is contained in a porous earthenware 
cup filled with nitric acid, and this, 
in turn, is placed in a glass jar of 




Bunsen Battery. 

sulphuric acid diluted with about four 
times its volume of water. A zinc 
cylinder surrounds the porous cup. 
The nitric acid gives off disagree- 
able fumes, so this battery is not 
pleasant to use, though one of the 
strongest known. The fumes may 
be lessened by putting nitrate of 
ammonium into the acid, or, for the 
acid the " battery fluid " used in the 
Grenet cell may be substituted. The 
Grove battery differs from the Bun- 
sen only in having a platinum plate 
instead of the carbon rod. 

Uses of Different Batteries. The 
Gravity battery can be used for al- 
most any purpose. The Grenet gives 
a good current for a short time, the 
Leclanche is used where the current 
passes for only a few seconds at a 
time, as in electric bells, and the 
Bunsen where a very powerful con- 
tinous current is wanted, as in elec- 
tro-plating. 

It is not necessary to use insulated 
wire in making connections about the 
batteries, but it is better to do so, 
because otherwise, when two wires 
happen to touch, they will make a 
connection which is not wanted. 
Ordinary copper wire can be cut 
with a strong pair of scissors. Wire 
is sold in numbered sizes, whose di- 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



284 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 



ameter is shown by the accompany- 
ing picture of a wire gauge. There 
are various ways of fastening wires 
to the battery-plates and to each 
other. The simplest is to make a 
hole in the plate with an awl, insert 




Wire Gauge. 

the wire, bend it over, and hammer 
it down tight. To fasten one wire 
to another simply twist each around 
the other ,ntvl hammer or pinch them 
together with pliers. Wires and 



plates should be scraped bright with 
a knife wherever connections are 
made. Brass " binding screws " for 
making connections are sold by deal- 
ers in telegraphic supplies and are 
very convenient. They should be 
screwed ; tightly. Much de- 
pends on making good, tight, 
clean connections, and too 
much care cannot be taken 
with them. 

Whenever zinc plates are 
used they should be amalga- 
mated frequently. To see 
whether the task has been 
properly don,, immerse the 
plate for a minute in the acid, 
and if any bubble arise from 
it, the amalgamation, in the 
spot where it appears, is not 
perfect. 

When a battery is quite 
strong it may be tested, to see 
if it is in working order, by 
holding one wire against a 
common file, and drawing the 
other quickly over the rough 
surface. A stream of sparks 
will fly from the file if the current 
be good. 

Connections. One jar with its 
plates of metal and liquid is generally 
called a cell or element. The power 




V 

Binding Posts and Screw. 




of a battery is different according to 
the way in which its cells are con- 
nected. They may be connected 
" abreast," or " tandem," or in a 
combination of the two. What this 
means will be understood by looking 



at the diagrams. In Fig. I, where 
the cells are connected " tandem," 
every copper plate of one cell is joined 
to the zinc of the next, leaving one 
zinc unconnected at one end and one 
copper at the other, between which 



ELECTRIC CLOCK ALARM 285 ELECTRIC CLOCK ALARM 



is the telegraph wire or whatever the 
current is to pass through. In Fig. 
2, where the cells are " abreast," all 
the zincs are connected together, and 



all the coppers. In Fig. 3 the cells 
are in two sets, the three cells in each 
set being abreast and the two sets 
tandem. In Fig. 4 the cells in each 




Fig. i. 



set are tandem and the two sets 
abreast. In each of the figures the 
zinc is marked Z and the copper 
C, and the direction of the current 
is shown by arrows. Which of 




Fig:. 2. 

these arrangements gives the strong- 
est current depends on the resistance 
it has to overcome. Where this is 
very great, as in electroplating, or in 
the electric light, the tandem arrange- 
ment is best ; but when it 
is small, the other is best. 
The exact arrangement 
can always be calculated by 
expert electricians, but for 
a beginner the best plan is 
to find it out by trying various 
ways. 

ELECTRIC CLOCK 
ALARM. Any clock may be 
simply fitted with an alarm 
which will ring by electricity. 
The alarm is an ordinary elec- 
tric bell, which may be bought 
of a dealer in electric supplies. 
The battery to operate it may 
also be bought or may be 
made (see ELECTRIC BATTERIES). 
In a block of wood fix an upright 
piece of thick iron wire, so that it 
will stand as high as the top of th 



clock face. Around this wind one of 
the wires from the battery so that 
the end will project three or four 
inches horizontally. Bend about an 
inch at the end, at right angles. By 
setting the block of 
wood in front of the 
clock face, and sliding 
the wire spiral up or 
down the iron wire, the 
end may be brought 

opposite any desired 

"~ r "" figure, and the bent part 

may be so arranged that 

the minute hand will 

pass over it while the 

hour hand will strike it. The 

other battery wire is connected 

with one of the wires of the 

bell, and the other bell wire 

with any of the metal parts of 




Fig. 4- 



the clock. When the hour hand 
reaches the desired hour it touches 
the bent wire, and the current, pass- 
ing, rings the electric bell. The 



ELECTRIC INDUCTION 



286 



ELECTRICITY 



bent wire must then be removed, so 




Electric Clock Alarm. 

that it will not obstruct the hour 
hand. 

ELECTRIC INDUCTION, Experi- 
merits on. i. Wind insulated wire 
in five or six layers around a large 
spool, or around a roll of pasteboard 
half an inch in diameter, and wind a 
similar coil on a roll large enough to 
slip over the first. Connect the ends 
of the first to the wires of a GALVAN- 
OMETER, and those of the second to 
an electric battery. Suddenly slip 
the larger wire over the smaller and 
the galvanometer needle will move to 
one side but will quickly come to rest 
again. Pull the coil away suddenly 
and the needle will move to the other 
side. The reason is that when a 
wire through which a current is pas- 
sing is moved nearer another wire or 
is pulled away from it, a current, 
called an induction current, passes in 
the second wire while the first is mov- 
ing; the induction current varies in 
direction according as the wires ap- 
proach or recede ; and this is why 
the needle moves in opposite direc- 
tions in the two cases. 

2. Place the larger coil around the 
smaller one while the circuit in the 



former is broken, and then close the 
circuit. The needle will move in 
the same direction as when the coil 
was approached. Open the circuit 
again. The needle will move as if 
the coil were taken away. To open 
and close the circuit quickly a " key " 
may be used made as described under 
TELEGRAPH. 

3. Connect the large coil with the 
galvanometer and the small one with 
the battery and repeat all the fore- 
going experiments. The results will 
be the same. 

4. Instead of the coil attached to 
the battery, use a strong bar magnet. 
When it is thrust into the coil the 
needle will move one way, and when 
it is removed it will swing the other 
way. If the opposite pole be used, 
the direction of these swings will be 
reversed. Some think the reason the 
magnet behaves exactly like a coil of 
wire with a current passing through 
it, in this and other cases, is that 
oach particle of iron in the magnet 
has a little electric current running 
around it. 

In this last experiment a little 
dynamo-electric machine was made, 
on exactl) the same principle as those 
which furnish the currents for the 
electric lights in our streets. In the 
large dynamos electro-magnets are 
used, and the coil moves instead of 
the magnet. 

ELECTRICITY, FRICTIONAL, 
E:.pe;imentc with, Frictional elec- 
tricity, or electric f y produced by 
rubbing, is described in C. C. T. 
under ELECTRICITY. The experi- 
ments which follow should be tried 
in a perfectly dry room. Moisture 
in the air always lessens the effects 
and often entirely prevents them. 

Experiments. I. Warm a rubber 
comb and then rub it briskly for a 
few seconds with a silk handkerchief 
or woolen cloth. It will then attract 
small, light objects, such as bits of 
paper, feathers, or wool. The best 
plan is to tear paper into bits about 
a quarter the size of the little fin- 
ger nail, and hold the comb over a 



ELECTRICITY 



287 



ELECTRICITY 



pile of them, bringing it gradually 
nearer until the paper flies up to it. 
After each bit has clung to the comb 
for some time it will drop away. 
Try the same experiment with a glass 
rod and a stick of sealing wax. Cut 
little figures out of tissue paper and 
place them beneath a sheet of glass 
held by books as shown in the illus- 
tration. By rubbing the top of the 




Experiment i. Electric Dancers. 

glass with flannel they may be made 
to jump up and down. 

2. Make two balls, the size of a 
pea, of pith or paper, and hang them 
with sewing silCto pins on the edge 
of a shelf. Present the comb or glass 
rod to one of these. It will first be 
attracted, and after clinging to the 
rod for a while will fly away. Soon 
after it will be attracted again, and 
so on. The reason for this is that 
the comb has on it only positive 
electricity. It therefore attracts the 
negative electricity in the pith ball, 
but when the ball has clung to the 
comb a short time its negative elec- 
tricity unites with some of the posi- 
tive electricity on the comb, leaving 
only positive, which is repelled by 
that on the comb. 



3. Try the same experiment with 
the glass rod. 

4. Rub the glass rod with silk, and 
when it has driven the ball away, 
present to the ball the comb rubbed 
with flannel. It will attract the ball. 
The reason is that glass rubbed with 
silk has on it positive electricity, 
while the comb rubbed with flannel 
has negative electricity. 

5. When the pith ball is repelled, 
present to it the flannel with which 
the comb was rubbed and it will be 
attracted. This is because the rub- 
bing cloth always has on it the kind 
of electricity opposite to the sub- 
stance rubbed. 

6. Rub the glass rod with flannel 
and then with silk, and it can be 
seen by using the pith ball, as above, 
that its electricity is different in these 
two cases. 

7. Hang the glass rod in a sling 
or stirrup of wire, suspended by 
strong sewing silk. Rub it with silk 
and then present the silk to one end. 
It will be attracted by the silk, for 
the reason given in Experiment 5. 
Present to it another glass rod 
rubbed with silk. It will be re- 
pelled. 

8. Take a large, strong sheet of 
drawing paper, heat it thoroughly, 
and lay it on a wooden table. Rub 
it with a piece of woolen cloth till it 
sticks to the table, and then place a 
bunch of keys in the middle of the 
paper. Raise the paper by two 
corners and let some one present his 
finger to the keys, when a bright 
spark will pass from one to the other. 
In dry weather, with careful heating 
and handling of the paper, the spark 
may be nearly an inch long. 

9. Electrify a toy rubber balloon 
by striking it with a piece of flannel, 
or a catskin. When so electrified, 
it can be made to stick to the wall or 
ceiling. Two electrified balloons sus- 
pended from the same point will re- 
pel each other and hang at an angle. 

10. Seal a platinum wire in one 
end of a glass tube by holding the 
wire in the tube and turning it about 



ELECTRIC LIGHT 



288 



ELECTRIC MACHINE 



in the flame of a spirit lamp. Touch 
tne end of the wire to an ELECTRO- 
SCOPE, and pour warm mercury into 
the tube drop by drop. The bits of 
gold leaf in the electroscope will fly 
apart, showing that the friction of 
the mercury on the glass has devel- 
oped electricity. 

The article ELECTRIC MACHINE 
tells how to produce larger amounts 
of frictional electricity, and the article 
LEYDEN JAR tells how to collect it 
in quantity. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT. The sim- 
plest arrangement for producing the 
arc light is as follows : Procure two 
rods of gas carbon, such as are used 
for street electric lights (see figure). 
These may be bought of a 
dealer in electric supplies. 
Around the middle of each 
wind five or six times a piece 
of copper wire several inches j 
long, so as to leave free about 
three inches at each end of 
the wire. File one end of the | 
wire to a point and fix it i 
firmly in the board which is 
to form the base of the light, j 
Insert the other end in a bind- j 
ing post screwed in the same j 
board. The rod is thus sup- j 
ported horizontally about two ! 
inches above the board. Fix j 
the other rod in the same j 
way, with its end just touch- ' 
ing that of the first rod. On i 
the other end of each rod slip j 
a piece of rubber tubing two 
inches long so that the rods 
can be handled when the cur- 
rent is passing. The spiral 
of wire around each rod should 
be tight enough to hold them 
lightly together, but loose 
enough so that the rod can 
be moved backward and for- 
ward with a twisting or screw- 
ing motion. The end wires 
of an electric battery are now 
connected to the binding posts. 
The more powerful the battery the 
stronger will be the light, but at 
least from 20 to 40 Bunsen cells 



Car- 
bon 
Rod. 



must be used. As soon as the 
current passes through the rods 
of carbon they will fly apart a 
little way and the electric light will 
appear between them. After a little 
time they burn away, so that it is 
necessary to push them nearer, by 
taking hold of the part protected by 
the rubber tubing. 

To produce the incandescent light, 
pass the current of an electric bat- 
tery through a fine platinum wire an 
inch long. It will be heated and 
give off light. This shows the prin- 
ciple of the incandescent light. The 
lights commonly in use have a slen- 
der charred thread instead of wire, 
and are surrounded by a globe from 
which the air has been removed, so 
that the thread cannot burn away. 

ELECTRIC MACHINE, a machine 
for the production of FRiCTluNAL 
ELECTRICITY. A simple one may 
be made as follows. Bore a hole in 
the bottom of a smooth glass jar, 
by using a broken rat-tail file kept 
wet with turpentine. Fit a cork or 
wooden stopper in the mouth of the 
jar, bore a hole in the middle, and 
through this and the hole in the bot- 
tom of the jar fit tightly a wooden 
axle. Both holes must be exactly 
in the middle, so that the jar will re- 
volve evenly when the axle is turned. 
Nail an upright piece to each end of 
a board a little longer than the jar, 
and in each bore a hole large enough 
for the axle to turn easily. Support 
the jar between these uprights, and 
fix a crank-handle to one end of the 
axle, so that the jar may be revolved. 
If a piece of flannel be now pressed 
against the jar while it is turned, 
electricity will be developed. To 
collect the electricity, saw off a piece 
of broom handle a little shorter than 
the jar, round off the ends, and stick 
in it a straight row of pins, about a 
quarter of an inch apart. Cut off 
the heads with a stout pair of scis- 
sors and file the ends to a point. 
Then cover the whole piece of wood 
smoothly with tin-foil. Support this 
arrangement so that the points of all 



ELECTRIC MACHINE 



289 



ELECTRIC MACHINE 



the pins nearly touch the jar. The 
wood must be supported on glass, 
so that none of the electricity may 
escape to the ground. This may be 
done by boring a hole in the middle, 
and fitting into it the neck of a bottle, 
previously filled with sand or shot to 
make it stand steady. If, now, the 
flannel be pressed on the glass jar, 
on the side opposite the points, and 
the handle turned, the electricity will 
be gathered by the points and col- 
lected on the piece of wood covered 
with tin-foil, which is often called the 
"prime conductor." When the hand 



is presented to the prime conductor, 
a spark will fly between them. To 
save the trouble of pressing the flan- 
nel against the glass by hand, a 
" rubber," made of leather stuffed 
with curled hair, may be fastened to 
an upright, so as to press continually 
against the jar. The rubber should 
be as long as the jar, and about an 
inch wide. To hold it against the 
glass, drive a nail under the jar and 
pass an elastic rubber band around 
this and the upright piece on which 
the cushion is supported. A piece 
of silk, oiled on the outside, is often 




Simple Electric Machine. 



fastened to the cushion and drawn 
over the top of the jar nearly as far 
as the collecting points. This pre- 
vents the electricity on the glass from 
escaping into the air before it reaches 
the collecting points. In case the 
cushion rubber is used, it should be 
smeared with an AMALGAM made by 
melting together equal parts of zinc 
and tin and then adding two parts 
of mercury. The mixture is pow- 
dered in a mortar before it is quite 
cold, and then made into a paste 
with lard. 

The picture shows a simple ma- 
chine made with a little more care, 



but easily put together with any one 
who can use tools. A is the base, 
15 the supporter of the rubber, D the 
glass cylinder, E the a\le, F the 
crank, G the prime conductor, and 
H its support. 

The electricity collected by the 
points will be positive electricity. 
Negative electricity collects on the 
rubber, and may be gathered if the 
rubber has a wooden back coated 
with tin-foil. In this case the col- 
lecting points must be joined to the 
earth by a chain or wire. The 
whole machine must be kept very 
warm and dry or it will not work at 



ELECTRIC MACHINE 



290 



ELECTRIC MACHINE 



all. This is because moist air is a 
good conductor of electricity, which 
therefore escapes on all sides as soon 
as produced, instead of collecting on 
the prime conductor. 

Experiments with the Electric Ma- 
chine. I. Make an insulating stool 
by placing a board on four inverted 
tumblers of thick glass. Let a person 
stand on this stool, and touch the 
prime conductor, while the machine is 
working. He thus becomes charged 
with electricity. If he is lightly 
charged, his hair will begin to stand 
on end. If another person, standing 
on the ground, now presents his 
hand to the charged person, a spark 
will pass between them. This ex- 
periment may be varied in many 
amusing ways ; for instance, one 
may try to shake hands with the 
person on the stool, when a spark 
will pass between their fingers, or 
he may touch the tip of the other's 
nose or his ear. 

Electric Breeze. 2. Fasten a pin, 
or other point, on one end of the 
prime conductor with a bit of wax, 
taking care that no wax gets between 
the pin and the conductor. When 
the machine is working, a little 
breeze will blow from the point of 
the pin. This may be felt by hold- 
ing the face or hand in front of the 
point, or seen by holding a candle 
flame there (Fig. I). The breeze is 




Electric Breeze Fig. i. 

caused by the repulsion of electrified 
particles of air from the point. It 
will be found impossible to draw a 
spark from the point, because its 



electricity is thus carried away by 
the air so fast that enough does not 
collect to make a spark. This is the 
reason that it is necessary to have 
all parts of the prime conductor 
smooth and round except the collect" 
ing points. If there are any rough- 
nesses on it, the electricity will pass 
off quietly from them and no spark 
can be obtained. 

3. Stand a lighted candle on the 
prime conductor and point a pin at 
it ; it will show that there is also a 




Fig. a. 

breeze from the pin when held in the 
hand (Fig. 2). 

4. Let a small jet of water flow 
through a tube of brass or other 
metal. Connect the tube with the 
electric machine, and the water will 
sp : rt out in all directions, the elec- 
trified drops repelling one another. 

5. Paste parallel strips of tin foil 
on a pane of glass, and connect them 
alternately on the two sides so as to 
make one continuous conductor, pass- 
ing backward and forward, from side 
to side. With a sharp pointed knife 
or a knitting-needle draw a figure or 
design on the glass by scraping 
through the tinfoil. Connect the 
strip of tinfoil with the prime con- 
ductor at the top and the ground at 
the bottom, and work the machine. 
The electricity will pass along the 
strip, making a spark every time it 
has to jump one of the places where 
the foil was scraped away, and thus 
the design will appear in lines of 
light. An arrangement of this kind, 



ELEC. DECOMPOSITION 



291 



ELEC. DECOMPOSITION 



mounted on a stand, is shown in 
Fig. 3- 




Fig. 3. 

ELECTRICAL DECOMPO- 
SITION, Experiments on. i. De- 
composition of 'Water. Connect the 
end wires of an electric battery, by 
means of platinum wire, to bits of 
platinum foil about an inch long by 
quarter of an inch wide. A hole 
should be punched in one end of the 
foil, the wire inserted, bent over, and 
hammered down so as to hold the 
foil tight. The wire is then bent 
so that it holds the foil up 
straight, and placed in a glass 
finger bowl or broad dish of 
some kind. The dish is filled 
with water mixed with a little 
sulphuric acid to help it conduct 
the electric current. The water 
must cover the foils and no kind 
of wire other than platinum must ^ 
touch the water, lest the acid 
should act on it. Fill two test- 
tubes with the acidulated water, 
Snd invert them over the foils, 
the mouths beneath the water, 
taking care that no air enters. When 
one tube has been inverted, one per- 
son should hold it while the other is 
being prepared. The tubes may be 
held in place, if desired, by pinning 
strips of paper tightly around them 



and hanging them by string to the 
edge of a shelf, or by a clamp stand, 
which can be bought of a chemical 
dealer. Such dealers generally have 
for sale the complete apparatus de- 
scribed above (see illustration), but 
it is quite easy to make it. When 
the electric current flows, bubbles of 
gas begin to rise from the platinum 
foil, which are caught in the test 
tubes. The amount of gas collected 
over the foil connected with the neg- 
ative pole of the battery is about 
twice as great as that collected over 
the other. When sufficient has been 
obtained, place the thumb under 
each tube, lift it out and turn it 
mouth upward. The gas which col- 
lected fastest will burn with a blue 
flame when a lighted match is ap- 
plied to it. It is HYDROGEN. The 
other will cause a spark on the end 
of a wood splinter to burst into 
flame. It is OXYGEN. The electric 
current broke up or decomposed the 
water into these two gases. If the 
bubbles do not rise at first it is prob- 
able that all the connections are not 
good, or else the battery is not strong 
enough. It is best to use several 
cells, connected tandem (see ELEC- 
TRIC BATTERIES). 

Hydrochloric Acid. The appara- 




Decomposition of Water. 

tus described above cannot be usev. 
for this because CHLORINE is one of 
the gases produced, and it would eat 
away the platinum ; so pieces of gas 
carbon are used instead. This can 
be obtained of dealers in electrical 



ELECTRICAL TOUCHSTONE 292 



ELECTROPHORUS 



supplies. A glass tube, bent into U 
shape, is filled with the acid, to which 
some common salt is added to pre- 
vent the chlorine from being dis- 
solved as soon as it appears. A 




Decomposition of Hydrochloric Acid. 

piece of carbon is hung in each 
branch of the tube and each is con- 
nected with one pole of the batter)'. 
When the current passes, chlorine 
appears at the pole A and hydrogen 
at B. 

Salts. Almost all salts (see C. C. 
T.) can be decomposed by electricity 
into an acid and a base. The salt 
used is dissolved in water and decom- 
posed in a U tube, as described 
above. The production of an acid 
in one tube and an alkali or base in 
the other can be shown by means of 
TEST PAPERS. Salts which have a 
metal for one of their components 
deposit that metal on one of the 
poles. Experiments in the decom- 
position of such salts are described 
under ELECTRO-PLATING. 

ELECTRICAL TOUCHSTONE, 
an electrical toy. Powder finely part 
of a stick of red sealing wax and 
some stick sulphur, and mix the two 
until the mixture has a yellowish 
pink color. Then tie up the powder 
in a muslin bag, so that when the 
bag is shaken a cloud of the sulphur 
and wax dust may be produced. 
Next, mark on a sheet of vulcanized 
rubber with bits of various metals. 
The marks will of course be invisi- 
ble, but by dusting the sulphur and 



wax over the rubber they at once 
become visible, the wax gathering 
along the lines made by the some of 
the metals, and the sulphur along 
those made by the others, so that 
some appear traced in red and the rest 
in yellow. The metals whose lines 
appear in red are zinc, iron, mag- 
nesium, and cadmium ; those whose 
marks attract the yellow powder are 
tin, nickel, silver, antimony, bismuth, 
platinum, copper, and gold. The 
reason of all this is that when the 
powders are mixed the particles are 
electrified, the sulphur negatively and 
the wax positively. The part of the 
rubber over which the metal passes 
is also electrified, positively by some 
metals and negatively by others, and, 
as the rubber is a non-conductor, 
the electricity remains along the 
lines. When the powder is dusted 
on the plate, then the wax is at- 
tracted to the negative lines and the 
sulphur to the positive. 

Other powders than those given 
above may be used ; a mixture of 
red lead and sulphur being often em- 
ployed. The experiment succeeds 
still better if the vulcanized rubber 
rests on a sheet of tin foil of the same 
size. Instead of using metals the 
lines may be traced with the knob 
of a charged LEYDEN JAR. 

The name Electrical Touchstone 
was given the device by its inventor, 
Prof. Guthrie, from the stone called 
the touchstone, used by jewelers to 
test the purity of the precious metals. 

ELECTROPHORUS, an arrange- 
ment for obtaining larger quantities 
of FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY than 
can be got simply by rubbing. It 
consists of a plate of metal resting 
on some non-conductor. The sim- 
plest way to make one is to cut out 
a circular piece of tin and fit a non- 
conducting handle to it by melting 
the end of a roll of sealing wax and 
sticking it in the middle of the tin. 
Warm a pane of ordinary window 
glass and rub it briskly with silk, so 
as to electrify it. Then press the tin 
down on it. touch the finger to the 



ELECTROPHORUS 



293 



ELECTROPHORUS 



upper surface of the tin, remove the 
finger and lift the tin, as shown in 
the figures. On presenting the ringer 
to the tin an electric spark can now 
be drawn from it. It is better to lay 
the glass on some metal surface, for 
instance, the top of a stove, or a 



piece of looking-glass may be used, 
since that has metal on the under 
side. 

A better electrophorus can be 
made as follows. Have a smooth 
piece of board, about a quarter of an 
inch thick, sawed into the shape of a 




Simple Electrophorus. 



circle, a foot in diameter, and then 
round off the sharp edges with a 
knife, finishing with sand-paper so 
that there shall be no rough places 
or angles about it. Bore a hole in 
the center, in which fit a glass rod or 
piece of tubing for a handle. Glue 
tin foil to this wooden disk, com- 
pletely covering it, being careful to 
smooth it down so that there is not 
the least roughness. The lower part 
may be of glass, as before, of vulcan- 
ized sheet rubber, or of resin melted 
and molded in a flat cake. The 
mode of working is the same. The 
electrophorus can be used for charg- 
ing a Leyden jar as well as an ELEC- 
TRIC MACHINE. The working of 
the apparatus is as follows. The 
electricity in the glass plate pulls 
apart the two kinds of electricity in 
the tin, attracting one to the under 
surface, and repelling the other to 
the upper surface. If the tin were 
now simply lifted off the plate the 
two kinds would unite again, but by 
touching the upper surface with the 
finger, before lifting, the kind on that 
surface is drawn off, leaving the tin 
charged with only one kind of elec- 
tricity. If the finger remains on the 
tin after it is lifted, the electricity 
drawn off goes back again, and the 
tin shows no electrification. A sim- 



ple electrophorus can also be made 
thus. Take a lacquered tea-tray 
about a foot long, and cut out a sheet 
of thick wrapping paper, large enough 
to cover the level part of the tray. 
Gum strips for handles at each end 
of the paper. Place the tea-tray on 




Tea Tray Electrophorus. 

two tumblers, and after heating the 
paper as hot as possible without 
charring it, lay it on a table and vio- 
lently rub it with a dry clothes brush. 
Then place the paper on the tray, 
touch the tray, lift the paper, and on 
presenting the finger again to the 



ELECTRO-PLATING 



294 



ELECTROSCOPE 



tray a spark may be drawn from it. 
This may be repeated several times 
without rubbing the paper again. 

ELECTRO-PLATING. To plate 
with silver, dissolve equal quantities 
of nitrate of silver and cyanide of 
potassium in water, separately, and 
mix the two solutions. (Great care 
must be taken with the cyanide of 
potassium, as it is very poisonous.) 
The liquid will become turbid owing 
to the formation of a precipitate. 
Add more of the cyanide solution till 
this precipitate almost, but not quite, 
disappears. The solution now con- 
tains cyanide of silver. Place in the 
solution a piece of silver (such as a 
coin), and the article to be plated, 
connecting the coin with the positive 
pole of an ELECTRIC BATTERY, and 
the article with the negative pole. 
The article to be plated must first be 
thoroughly cleaned with ammonia, 
to remove grease. The electric cur- 
rent will decompose the cyanide of 




Electro-plating. 

silver, depositing the silver on the 
article to be plated. The silver thus 
deposited has its place taken by part 
of the coin, which is slowly dissolved. 
The plating will be done faster the 
more powerful the battery. If sev- 
eral cells are used, they should be 
connected tandem (see ELECTRIC 
BATTERIES). When the coat of sil- 
ver is as thick as desired, the article 
is removed and polished with whit- 
ing. The best metals to plate are 
brass or copper, or the alloys called 
German silver and Britannia metal, 
of which plated forks and spoons are 
commonly made. Most other metals 
have to be coated with copper before 
they can be silver plated. Iron can 



be covered with copper by simply 
putting it in a solution of BLUE 

VITRIOL. 

Cold-Plating. The process is the 
same as that just described, except 
that chloride of gold is used instead 
of nitrate of silver, and a gold coin 
is attached to the positive pole of the 
battery. 

Nickel-Plating. The same proc- 
ess is used, except that the solution 
is formed of salts of nickel, dissolved 
in water. A piece of nickel may be 
suspended from the positive pole, 
but it is sufficient to add salts of 
nickel to the solution as fast as it 
becomes weakened. 

The figure shows the arrangement 
of apparatus for any kind of plating, 
a, a, a, are bits of the metal used, 
B, B, B, the articles to be plated, d 
and e two metal rods, and D the bat- 
tery. 

ELECTROSCOPE, an instrument 
for showing whether or not a body is 
charged with electricity, and, if so, 
whether it is positive or negative. 
A simple one can be made as fol- 
lows. Take a flask or bottle, clean 
and dry it, and insert in the cork a 
piece of glass tubing about an inch, 
long. Cut a disk of tin or zinc, 
about an inch and a half in diameter, 
and drill two holes in it, one at the 
center and the other near the edge. 
Have one end of a brass or copper 
wire soldered in the central hole. 
Fill the glass tube with shellac, 
softened by warming, and before it 
is hard run the wire through it so 
that the disk is an inch or so above 
the tube. The lower end of the wire 
is cut off and bent at right angles so 
that it will be about in the middle of 
the bottle when the cork is in place. 
Now gum to the sides of the hook 
made by thus bending the wire, two 
leaves of " Dutch Metal " (which 
can be bought of a sign-painter), 
each half an inch broad and long 
enough to reach within an inch of 
the bottom of the bottle. The cork, 
with its wire, is now inserted in the 
bottle. 



ELECTROSCOPE 



295 



ELEPHANT 



To ascertain whether a body be 
electrified, bring it near the disk 
without touching-. If it be elec- 
trified, the leaves of Dutch metal 
will fly apart, for the charged body 
draws near itself one kind of elec- 
tricity and repels the other to the 
leaves. The leaves, being both thus 
charged with the same kind of elec- 
tricity, repel each other. But this 
does not tell us what kind of elec- 
tricity the body possesses. To find 
out this, the electroscope must be 
charged by touching the disk with a 
body whose kind of electricity is 
known. For instance, we know that 
wax rubbed with flannel is electrified 



negatively. By touching the disk 
with a piece of wax so rubbed, we 
cause the leaves to diverge, and on 
removing the wax they should re- 
main apart for some time, if the in- 
strument has been well made. By 
now bringing the body to be tested 
near the disk, without touching it, the 
leaves will either collapse or fly 
farther apart. If the former, the 
body is positive ; if the latter, nega- 
tive. 

Instead of this the electroscope 
may be charged by touching it with 
the body to be tested, and then a 
body whose electricity is known may 
be brought near it. If the body is 




Electroscope. 



large it may be connected with the 
electroscope by a wire, one end of 
which is fastened to the disk by 
hooking it in the hole in the edge. 

The electrical pendulum, or sus- 
pended pith ball, may also be used 
as an electroscope, as described in 
the article on FRICTIONAL ELEC- 
TRICITY. 

ELEPHANT, THE, a diversion in 
which two persons imitate an ele- 
phant. One stands behind the other, 
as in Fig. i, both bending their 
bodies so that their backs are hori- 
zontal, and the rear one rests his 



head and his hands on the one in 
front of him, as shown in the illus- 
tration. The first one holds a black 
cane with a curved handle to rep- 
resent the elephant's trunk, and the 
second has in each hand a roll of 
white paper for tusks. The tusks 
must be long enough to project in 
front of the trunk. A gray shawl is 
now thrown over both boys, two 
pieces of gray cloth are pinned in 
the proper places for ears, and 
round bits of white paper, with 
black spots in the middle, are fas- 
tened on for eyes (see Fig. 2). As 



ELEPHANT 



296 



ELEPHANT 




Fig. i. 




Fig. 2. 



theanimnl walks, the trunk should be 
swayed slowly to and fro. A show- 
man, gaudily dressed in colored 
shawls, with a white turban, should 
accompany the elephant, and ex- 
hibit him to the company. It adds 
to the amusement if the showman 
pretends to speak in the Hindoo lan- 
guage, and what he says is explained 
to the audience by an interpreter. He 
can also lie down and let the elephant 
walk over him and perform other 
tricks usually shown in menageries. 



Sports like this were common in 
England in old times, as is shown 




Man Dressed as a Deer. 



ELLS OF CLOTH 



297 



EUCHRE 



by the illustration, taken from 
an old manuscript. One man is 
seen dressed as a deer, while 
another beats a drum for him to 
dance. 

ELLS OF CLOTH, a children's 
game played by any number of boys 
or girls, two of whom represent a 
weaver and a merchant, while the 
others are called ells of cloth. The 
ells stand in a row, holding hands, 
and stretching apart as widely as 
possible. The cloth is then said to 
be unfolded. After making a bar- 
gain with the weaver, the merchant 
" measures " the cloth by taking hold 
of each ell by his hands. He then 
goes away, as if to get his money, 
whereupon each of the other players 
turns to one side, and clasps the one 
in front of him tightly around the 
waist, the weaver taking his place at 
the head of the line. On the mer- 
chant's return he is told that his 
cloth is folded and that he must un- 
fold it. He then tries to make one of 
the players loosen his hold, by seizing 
the weaver's hands and pulling him 
about. As soon as any one lets go, 
he must stand on one side, and the 
game begins again. It may be con- 
tinued till only one ell of cloth is left, 
or for any time the players choose. 
Sometimes those who let go are re- 
quired to pay a forfeit. 

ENGLISH AND AMERICANS. 
See TUG OF WAR. 

ETCHING, The preparation, by 
etching, of plates from which pictures 
are printed, is described in C.C.T., 
under ENGRAVING. Directions for 
etching an autograph or design 
deeply on brass or copper are given in 
this book in the article NITRIC ACID. 
To etch on glass, cover it with a 
thin layer of wax, as directed in 
that article, and scratch the design 
to be etched, as in the case of the 
metal. In an old saucer mix a tea- 
spoonful of powdered fluor-spar with 
enough sulphuric acid to make a 
paste. Place the glass, waxed side 
down, over the saucer and then heat 
the mixture gently for two or three 



hours. The heat must not be great 
enough to melt the wax, and the 
saucer must be placed so that the 
fumes arising from the paste will not 
be breathed by any one, as they are 
poisonous. A good place is on the 
hearth of an open fireplace, or at the 
back of a range provided with a 
hood for the escape of the odors of 
cooking. When the glass is re- 
moved, the wax must be cleaned off 
with turpentine, and the design will 
be seen etched in the glass. The 
etching is done by the fumes of 
hydro-fluoric acid, which rise from 
the saucer and eat into the glass 
where it has been exposed by scrap- 
ing away the wax. 

EUCHRE (yoo'-ker), a game of 
CARDS, played by two, three, or four 
persons, with a pack from which all 
cards lower than the Seven are ex- 
cluded. In the lay suits, the cards 
rank as in WHIST, but in the trump 
suit the Knave, which is called the 
Right Bower, is the highest card. 
The other Knave of the same color 
is called the Left Bower, and ranks 
next, both the Bowers being higher 
than the Ace. Thus, if Clubs are 
turned as trumps, the Knave of 
Clubs is the highest card, the Knave 
of Spades next, the Ace of Clubs 
next, and then the other clubs follow 
in the usual order. The Left Bower 
is also regarded as a trump in fol- 
lowing suit. In the two-handed 
game, which will be described first, 
the dealer gives each player five 
cards, two and three at a time. He 
may give the two cards or the three 
cards first, but he must not give, for 
instance, two to his opponent and 
then three to himself. After dealing, 
he turns the top card of the stock 
face upward as trump. The non- 
dealer looks at his hand, and, if he 
thinks he can take three tricks, says 
"I order it up." The dealer then 
takes the trump into his own hand, 
and discards his weakest card, 
placing it under the stock. If he is 
not strong enough to order it up, he 
says " I pass." The dealer may then 



EUCHRE 



298 



EUCHRE 



either take up the trump as if it had 
been ordered up, saying, " I take 
it up," or he may pass, turning 
the trump card face downward, 
and saying, " I turn it down." 
If the dealer pass, his opponent 
can now name any suit he chooses 
as trumps except the one turned 
down, saying, for instance, " I make 
it Spades," or, " I make it Hearts." 
If he does not choose to make 
the trump, he may pass again 
and the dealer is given a chance to 
do so. If the dealer does not make 
the trump there must be a new deal. 
As soon as the trump is ordered up 
or taken up, or a new trump is 
made, play begins. Suit must be fol- 
lowed, but when this cannot be done 
anything may be played. If the player 
that orders up, takes up, or makes a 
trump, win three tricks, he scores a 
point. If he fail to win three tricks 
he is euchred and his opponent 
scores two points. If either player 
take all five tricks, he is said to make 
a " march," and scores two points. 
Four tricks count no more than three 
tricks. Each player usually keeps 
score by means of two of the small 
cards that were thrown out of the 
pack, either a two and a three, or a 
three and a four, placing one on the 
other so as to show as many pips as 
he wishes. 

Three-Handed Euchre. Each 
player in turn has the option of 
passing or ordering up, beginning at 
the dealer's left, and if each passes 
and the dealer turns it down, each 
has a chance to make the trump, 
as in two-handed euchre. If a 
player order up, take up, or make 
the trump, his two adversaries gen- 
erally play together against him, and 
if they euchre him, each scores two 
points. Because two often play thus 
against one, the three-handed game 
is often called "cutthroat euchre." 
In the three-handed game a march 
usually counts three. The play varies 
according to the score. Thus, when 
A, B, and C are playing, if A takes 
up the trump, and C has already 



three points, so that two more would 
put him out, it is for B's advantage 
to let A make a point rather than 
join with C to euchre him. 

Four-Handed Euchre. This is al- 
ways played in partnership, two 
against two. Each player has a 
chance to adopt or make the trump, 
as before, but the dealer's partner 
must say " I assist," instead of " I 
order it up," if he wishes his partner 
to take the trump card into his hand. 
If a player thinks, before playing 
has begun, that he has a strong 
enough hand to do without his part- 
ner's aid he says, " I play it alone," 
and his partner takes no further part 
in the hand. If he makes all five 
tricks alone, he scores four points ; 
if he makes less than three tricks, he 
is euchred, and the adversary scores 
two points. 

In playing the game the beginner 
should remember that to order up 
the trump requires a stronger hand 
than to take it up, since in the latter 
case the trump card is taken into his 
own hand; in the former, into that of 
an opponent. 

In making a trump, other things 
being equal, make it the other suit of 
the same color as the one turned 
clown (called " making it next in 
suit "), if opposed to the dealer, 
otherwise make it one of the other 
suits (called " crossing the suit "). 
The reason for this is that as the 
dealer and his partner both passed, 
it is likely that neither of them had 
one of the bowers, and the same 
cards will be bowers if the trump is 
made " next in suit." 

The lead depends largely on what 
the actions of the other players show 
their hands to be. Thus, if the 
dealer has taken up the trump, the 
eldest hand should not lead trumps, 
but when (in playing the four 
handed game) the eldest hand's part- 
ner has ordered up or made the 
trump, the eldest hand should lead 
his best trump. 

A skillful player will vary his play 
according to the state of the score. 



EUCHRE 



299 



EUCHRE 



Thus, if the dealer and his partner 
are four to their opponent's one 
(called a " bridge ") the eldest hand 
often orders up upon a weak hand, 
thus preventing one of the other side 
from playing alone, gaining four 
points, and thus winning the game. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. Players must cut for deal, and 
the lowest deals, the Ace ranking 
below the two. 

2. If the dealer give any one too 
many or too few cards, there must 
be a fresh deal, unless the misdeal 
was caused by an interruption from 
his opponent. 

3. If a card is exposed during the 
deal, there must be a new deal un- 
less one of the players has looked at 
his hand, but the deal is not forfeited. 

4. If a player deal out of turn, his 
deal is good if the mistake is not dis- 
covered before the first lead. 

5. The dealer has not discarded 
till he has placed his rejected card 
under the stock. Before he has done 
so he may change his discard, but 
afterwards he may not touch it. 

6. If a card be led by mistake 
before the discard, it cannot be 
taken back. 

7. A player making the trump 
cannot change it after naming it. 

8. A player may play alone only 
when he orders up, takes up, or 
makes a trump, or when his partner 
assists, orders up, or makes a trump. 

9. He may not play alone after 
passing a trump or the making of a 
trump, nor when his opponents 
adopt or make the trump. 

10. A player cannot announce, 
after the lead has been made, that 
he will play alone. 

11. The partner of one who plays 
alone must place his cards face 
downward on the table and let them 
so remain during the hand. 

12. After the trump card has been 
taken up, the dealer must tell its 
suit to any one who asks, but he need 
not tell what card it is. 

13. Any card that is exposed, or 
played out of turn and taken back, 



must be played whenever its holder is 
called upon to do so by his opponent, 
unless such a play would be a revoke. 
But if a trick has been completed 
from such a lead it must stand. 

14. If a player revoke or refuse to 
play an exposed card on call, his op- 
ponents may score two points and 
the offender may score nothing that 
he has made in that hand ; but if a 
revoke is discovered before the of- 
fender plays again, the only penalty 
shall be to treat the wrongly played 
card as exposed. 

Railroad Euchre. A Joker is ad- 
ded to the pack, ranking always as 
the highest trump. If a player de- 
cides to play alone, he may call for 
his partner's best card, and discard 
one from his own hand. Either of 
the opponents is then allowed to 
play alone on the same conditions, 
and if a euchre is made under these 
circumstances, the score is four 
points. If the Joker is turned as 
trump, the next card also must be 
turned to decide the trump suit, but 
the Joker may be taken in hand, in- 
stead of the trump card, if the trump 
is taken up or ordered up. 

Set-back Euchre. This may be 
played by two or more persons, each 
for himself. At the opening of the 
game each player's score is credited 
with five points. When he makes a 
point it is subtracted from the score, 
and when he is euchred he is set 
back two points, which are added to 
his score. He whose score is first 
reduced to nothing, wins. 

Six-Handed Euchre. Three per- 
sons play in partnership against 
three others. The players sit so 
that no two partners shall be 
together. No trump is turned, but 
each of the players in order, begin- 
ning at the dealer's left, has the 
option of passing or bidding for the 
privilege of naming the trump, 
stating as his bid the number of 
tricks he thinks he and his partners 
can take, and the suit he wishes for 
trumps. Thus, he may say " I bid 
three on Spades," meaning that with 



EUCHRE 



300 



EVERLASTING 



spades for trumps he undertakes to 
win three tricks. If a player cannot 
raise a previous bid he must pass. 
The suit of the highest bidder be- 
comes the trump, and he also leads. 
If the players on his side win the 
number of tricks that he bid, they 
score that number of points ; if they 
fail, the opposite side score the same 
number. No more than the bid can 
be scored, though more tricks be 
taken. The game is usually 25 
points. Sometimes these are credit- 
ed to each side at the outset and the 
score kept as in Set-back Euchre. 
Sometimes two sevens are thrown 
out of the pack before the game, so 
that all the cards are dealt, but often 
they are retained, and, after dealing, 
the two cards that are left (or three, 
if a Joker is used) are placed, face 
downward, on the table. These 
cards, called the Widow, are the pro- 
perty of the highest bidder, and he 
may exchange any or all of them for 
an equal number of his own cards. 
The method of scoring, and the use 
of the Widow and Joker must be 
settled by agreement at the begin- 
ning of the game. 

Some players admit the playing of 
lone hands, in which case the score is 
counted as in Napoleon, ten points 
being won or lost. He who plays a 
lone hand must announce it before 
looking at the Widow. 

Napoleon, a kind of Euchre played 
by from two to seven persons. The 
players bid for the privilege of making 
the trump, as in Six-handed Euchre, 
but no one tells what suit he bids on 
but the highest bidder, who an- 
nounces the trump just before lead- 
ing. Each one plays for himself. 
The score is usually kept with 
counters, which are divided equally 
among the players before the game 
begins. If the highest bidder win 
the number of tricks he bid to make, 
each of the others gives him that 
number of counters; if he fail, he 
gives that number to each of them. 
If he bid to take all five tricks, he 
must say " Napoleon," in which case 



the number of counters won or lost 
is ten, or double the bid. If the 
highest bidder lead again after win- 
ning the number of tricks he bid to 
make, he must play all five tricks out, 
and if he do not take them all, he 
loses. The number won or lost in 
this case is but five, since he did 
not bid Napoleon. Instead of using 
counters, the score may be kept as 
in Six-handed Euchre. 

When seven play this game, the 
four six spots must be added to the 
pack ; when four or less play, the 
sevens, or the sevens and eights, may 
be rejected. When the game is 
played by four people in partnerships 
of two, it is called French Euchre. 
In this case the game is fifteen 
points, which are scored as in Six- 
handed Euchre. 

Back-Handed Euchre. The play- 
ers hold their cards with the faces 
toward the table, so that each sees 
all the hands but his own. Each 
one plays at random, and of course 
following suit is impossible. The 
game can be made very amusing, a 
player sometimes making a trump, 
when all but himself can see plainly 
that he has not a single card of that 
suit. But there is also more chance 
for skill than might be supposed, for 
by looking carefully at the other 
hands, a player may gain some idea 
of his own. 

History. Some writers say that 
Euchre was first played by French 
settlers in Louisiana, and that both 
the game and its name are corrup- 
tions of the French CART. 
Others think it was first played in 
Pennsylvania, and still others that 
it had its origin in Germany. It 
seems certain that the Bowers were 
so called from the word Bauer 
(peasant), a name sometimes applied 
in Germany to the Knaves. Where- 
ever it originated it is now played 
more in the United States than in 
any other land. 

EVERLASTING, a game of cards 
played by any number of persons 
with one or more full packs. All 



EVERLASTING 



301 



EXCELSIOR 



the cards are dealt one by one, and 
each player, without looking at those 
given him, places them, face down- 
ward, in a pile in front of him. The 
one at the left of the dealer then 
plays his cards, in the middle of the 
table, one by one, as they come, till 
he throws out a face card or an Ace. 
If it is an Ace, it is said to " call for " 
four cards from the next player ; if a 
King, three ; if a Queen, two ; and if 
a Knave, one ; that is, that player 
must begin to throw out the proper 
number of cards one by one, but if 
he throws out an Ace or face card 
before completing the number he 
must stop and let his left hand neigh- 
bor play to that card. If any one 
plays all the cards called for, without 
putting down a face card or Ace, all 
the cards on the table become the 
property of the player next before 
him. Thus, suppose A plays an 
Ace, which calls for four cards as 
explained above ; if B plays those 
four cards without putting down an 
Ace or face card A takes the trick, 
but if B's second card, for instance, 
is a Queen, he must stop and let C 
play to that Queen. The lower face 
cards take most tricks, since they 
call for fewer cards, and the chance 
of the next player's turning up a face 
card is therefore less. But as no 
one may look at his cards, but is 
obliged to play them as they come, 
skill does not enter into the game at 
all. When any player takes a trick, 
he places it face downwards, under 
his pile, and the game thus goes on 
till some one has taken all the cards, 
thus becoming the winner. This 
rarely happens in a short time, and 
it is best to agree beforehand on an 
hour when the game is to cease. 
The one that has the largest pile is 
then the winner. 

RULES OF THE GAME, 

1. No one may change the order 
of cards in his pile or in the middle 
Df the table. 

2. When all a player's cards are 
gone, he is out of the game. 



EXCELSIOR, a SOLITAIRE game 
of CARDS, played with a full pack. 
The cards are dealt one by one, to 
form a figure like that below. They 
are placed on the numbered spaces, 
in order, except when an Ace or 
King appears. The Aces must be 
laid on one of the spaces marked A, 
beginning at the top, and Kings in 
like manner are put in the spaces 
marked K. When the last numbered 
space is filled, the player puts his 
next card on the first space again, 
and so goes on piling cards over and 
over again on the numbered spaces, 
till all the cards are dealt. The 
Aces and Kings, placed separately as 




Excelsior. 

explained above, are called Foun- 
dation cards, and the player's object 
is to build piles on them, by suits, in 
regular order, upward from the Aces, 
and downward from the Kings. In 
dealing, if any card fall on one of the 
four corner piles that can be used at 
once in building, it may be so used. 
But if such a card fall on one of the 
side piles, it can only be used when 
that side pile adjoins the Foundation 
card on which it belongs. In either 
case, when a card is so taken, 
another is at once dealt in its place. 



EYES 



302 



EYES 



After all the cards have been dealt, 
any top card can be used in building. 
The top card on any corner or side 
pile may be placed on any other of 
those piles whose top card is just 
above or just below it in rank, and 
of the same suit. The cards may 
be examined at any time. The 
cards in the side and corner piles 
may be twice redealt. If, after they 
have been played the third time, the 
piles on the Foundation cards can 
be completed, the player has won ; 
otherwise, he has been defeated. 

EYES, Experiments with the^ 
The eyes are described in C.C.T. 

1. Hold up the forefinger about a 
foot from the face, and look at an 
object beyond it, a tree for instance. 
The forefinger will appear double. 
Then look at the forefinger, and 
the tree will appear double. The 
reason is that when the two eyes 
are looking at the forefinger the 
right eye sees the tree on the right 
side of the finger, and the left eye 
sees it on the left side. When 
they are both looking straight at the 
tree, each sees the forefinger in a 
different place. If one eye be cov- 
ered it is impossible to see either 
forefinger or tree double. 

2. Place two bits of white paper on 
a table, about two feet apart. Cover 
the left eye, and with the right look 
steadily at the left piece of paper, at 
the same time walking slowly back- 
ward. A snot will be found where 
the ngnt nancl bit ot paper will dis- 
appear. By looking with the left 
eye at the right hand bit, the left 
hand bit can be made to vanish in 
like manner. By moving the head 
ever so little forward or backward 
the bit of paper will be made to 
appear again. The nearer the pieces 
are together the nearer the eye has 
to be placed to them to make one 
disappear. If, instead of bits of 
paper on a table, pencil dots two 
inches apart on a sheet of paper be 
tried in the same way, one will van- 
ish when the paper is held about six 
inches from the eye. In each case 



the reason is that the retina of every 
person's eye has a blind spot in it, 
and when the image of the paper or 
pencil dot falls directly on that spot, 
it cannot be seen. 

3. Hold the eye two or three- 
inches from the perpendicular edge 
of some object seen against a bright 
background, part of a window sash, 
for instance, or, if it be night, a ruler 
leaning against the shade of alighted 
lamp. Shut one eye, and holding the 
edge of a sheet of paper close to the 
other move the paper to and fro. 
The edge of the object will seem to 
move out to meet it. Repeat the 
same thing, standing about twenty 
feet away from the window sash or 
ruler, and the edge will appear to 
shrink away from the paper. 

4. Let one person hold a candle, 
lamp, or some other bright object in 
front of another's eye. He will see 
in the eye three reflections. One is 
from the outside of the eyeball, 
another from one surface of the lens 
inside the eye, and the third from the 
other surface of the lens. 

5. Cut out of black paper two ex- 
actly similar figures, crosses for in- 
stance, and place them side by side, 
almost touching, on a sheet of white 
paper. Hold them about three 
inches in front of the eyes, and three 
figures will be seen instead of two. 
The middle one consists of two, the 
image of the right hand figure, as 
seen by the right eye, being added to 
that of the left hand figure as seen 
by the left eye. 

6. To see stereoscope pictures 
without a stereoscope. The stereo- 
scope is described in C. C. T. Hold 
a stereoscope picture before the eyes 
and by fixing them as if to look at a 
distant object make the picture ap- 
pear double, as in Experiment I. 
With practice, the eyes can be so 
controlled that the two pictures 
nearest each other can be made to 
overlap and melt into one. in which 
objects will stand out just as when 
seen through the stereoscope. 

7. Place a scrap of colored paper 



EYES 



303 



EYES 



or cloth on a gray ground, and look 
steadily at it for about a minute. 
Snatch the scrap away and in its 
place will be seen a spot of exactly 
the same shape but a different color. 
If the scrap is green, the spot will be 
red, which is the complementary or 
opposite color to green ; if yellow 
the spot will be violet. If, instead of 




Fig. i. Experiment 7. 

pulling the paper away, the eye be 
directed to the ceiling, the spot will 
be seen there. These spots, which 
are often called "ghosts," are caused 
by the action of light on the retina. 
The accompanying figure (Fig. i) is 
a good one to experiment on. Look 
at it steadily for some time and then 
look at the ceiling, where it will short- 
ly appear in black on a white ground. 

8. Light a splinter of wood, and 
whirl it about in a dark room. It 
will seem like a circle of fire. This 
is because the image of the lighted end 
remains in the eye while it is being 
twirled around. For other experi- 
ments, showing that images remain 
in the eye for a fraction of a second, 
see THAUMATROPE, ZOETROPE, and 
Chameleon TOP. 

9. In a room in which there is no 
other light, hold a candle before one 
eye, closing the other. The candle 
must be moved up and down a little 
on one side of the eye and two or 
three inches from it. Presently there 



will appear black shadows on a red- 
dish ground, looking somewhat like 
leafless trees. These are the shadows 
of the blood-vessels on the retina. 

10. Hold a pin so near the eye 
that it appears quite blurred. Look 
at it in the same position through a 
pinhole in a piece of paper, and it 
will be seen distinctly. In this way 
a pinhole in paper may be used 
to look at other small objects. It 
does not magnify them, but enables 
us to hold them much closer to the 
eye than we otherwise could. 

11. Roll up a sheet of paper and 
look through it with one eye, keep- 
ing the other open. Hold up the 
left hand in front of the other eye, 
close to the farther end of the roll, 
and you will seem to be looking 
through a hole in your hand. 

12. Divide a white pasteboard 
disk into an even 

number of sec- 
tions and black- 
en every other 
one, as shown 
in Fig. 2. Spin 
the disk rapidly 
by means of a 
TWIRLER and 
by looking at it 
steadily it will 
appear tinted, 
the color changing w jth the speed of 
rotation. The disk generally ap- 
pears greenish first, and then pinkish. 
Another way of performing the ex- 
periment is to cut away sectors from 
a black disk and then rotate it be- 
tween the eye and a cloudy sky. 
The sky will gradually assume 
different tints which vary with the 
speed of the disk. None of these 
colors are real, but caused by the ex- 
citement of the optic nerve by a rapid 
succession of darkness and light. 

13. Cut in a piece of cardboard 
two square holes, each about half an 
inch square and a quarter of an inch 
apart. Procure a number of bits of 
glass of various colors, about an inch 
square, and fasten two behind the 
holes in the cardboard by means of 




Fig. 2. 
Experiment 12. 



EYES 



304 



EYES 



elastic bands. Buy of an optician 
what is called a double-refracting 
prism, a piece of Iceland-spar or j 
calc-spar which makes objects seen | 
through it appear double. Hold the 
card up to a window or lamp and 
look through a prism at it. Each 
colored hole will appear double, and 
by holding the prism at the proper 
distance, one color can be made to 
overlap the other, so that the eye 
sees a mixture of the two. Note 
what this is. Now unfasten the bits 
of glass and look through both to- 
gether at the light. The mixed 
color is entirely different from that 
obtained before. The reason is that 
in the first case one color really 
added its effect to the other, whereas 
in the second case the color seen is 
merely that remaining after each 
glass has strained certain colors out of 
the sunlight. Thus, suppose blue and 
yellow glass be tried. A mixture of 
pure blue and yellow light makes 
white, so the color seen through the 
prism will be whitish gray. But, 
when looked through together the 
glasses will appear green, because the 
rays of light are the only ones which 
will pass through both yellow and 
blue glass. In the same way red and 
green appear orange by the first meth- 
od and dark green by the second ; red 
and blue seem first violet and then 
deep red ; and yellow and red appear 
first orange-yellow, then orange-red. 
14. Darken the room and admit a 
little daylight (not direct sunlight) 
through an opening. With this throw 
the shadow of a rod or other object 
on a white wall or screen, and light 
a candle, so as to throw a second 
shadow. Alter the size of the open- 
ing through which daylight is ad- 
mitted, so as to make the two 
shadows as nearly as possible of the 
same intensity. The shadow thrown 
by the candle is really white, since it 
is the only part of the wall on which 
pure daylight shines alone, yet by 
contrast it appears blue. If it be 
looked at through a roll of black 
cardboard or paper the part of the 



wall about it will continue to appear 
blue, even when the candle is put 
out, but on removing the roll from 
the eye, it seems white again, and 
cannot be made to look blue except 
by lighting the candle a second time. 
15. With a pair of compasses 
draw six or eight concentric circles, 
as near one another as possible. 
Make four dots, dividing the outer- 
most circle into equal parts, and then 
join these dots by straight lines, 
drawn with the aid of a ruler. (Fig. 
3.) These lines will appear to be 
curved inward. This is because they 
cross the circles at different angles. 




Fig. 3. Experiment 15. 



and the judgment of the observer 
cannot help attributing this, in part, 
to the curvature of the line. 

16. Hold horizontally, a little be- 
low the eyes, a rod about a foot long, 
with its near end six or eight inches 
from the face and its opposite end 
pointing directly away. Look at the 
near end, and the two images of the 
rod will appear like a V, with the 
point toward the face. Fix the eyes 
on the farther end, and the V will 
have its point away from the face. 

17. Press the closed eye with the 
finger tip close to the nose. A dark 
spot with a light border will be seen 
on the other side of the eye. If the 
eyeball be pressed on the outside the 
spot will be seen on the inside. 



EYES 



305 



EYES 



1 8. Rub or press the closed eyes for 
some time, and designs and spots of 
various shapes and colors will be seen 
changing of themselves or accord- 
ing to the varying pressure. These 
spots are all caused by the excitement 
of the optic nerve by pressure. 

19. Draw a number of lines con- 
verging to a point toward either the 
right or the left, and then draw sev- 
eral upright lines of the same length 
across these as in Fig. 4. If any one 




Fig. 4. Experiment 19. 

who does not know, be asked which 
is the largest of the upright lines, 
he will be apt to point out the one 
crossed by the greatest number of 
the converging lines. 

20. After reading for some time 
with one side toward a window, close 
the eyes alternately, and it will be 
seen that the paper of the book has 
a greenish tinge when seen by that 
eye alone which was next to the 
window. This effect is stronger if 
the light be very bright. 

The reason is that the light, shin- 
ing through the blood-vessels in the 
eyelid, tries that part of the eye that 
appreciates red, and so a white page 
appears to it slightly tinted with the 
complementary or opposite color, 
green. 

2 1 . Observe the letter S in a book, 
for instance the one just given. The 
bottom and top seem to be of about 
the same size. Turn the book up- 



side down and look at the same 
letter. What is now the bottom 
appears much the smaller part. 
The reason is that the eye tends to 
magnify the upper part of a figure. 
For this reason the lower half of the 
S's are usually made a little larger 
than the upper, to balance this ten- 
dency, but when the letter is inverted 
the larger half is now at the top and 
so looks larger still. 

22. Cut out two pieces of paper of 
exactly the same size, shaped as in 




Fig. 5. Experiment 22. 



Fig. 5, and place them as there 
shown. The eye will usually judge, 
at first sight, that the lower is the 
longer. If the pieces be made of 
different colors, to distinguish them, 
and their places be changed, one will 
seem to have decreased and the other 
to have increased. 

23. Make a pinhole in a card and 
hold it three or four inches before 
the eye. Hold a pin-head as close to 
the eye as possible and it will be 
seen, upside down, in the pinhole. 
This is because, though the pin is 
much too near the eye to form an 
image on the retina, the ray of light 
through the pinhole causes it to cast 
a shadow there. This shadow is 
upright, whereas the images of ob- 
jects are inverted, so, as they appear 
right side up, the shadow appears up- 
side down. If several pinholes be 
made instead of one, the pin-head 
will be seen in each one of them, be- 
cause each ray of light throws a 
separate shadow of the pin-head on 



EYES 



306 



EYES 



a different part of the retina. Any 
object of similar size may be used in- 
stead of the pin, and if it be moved 
in any direction the shadow will be 
seen to move in the contrary direc- 
tion. If the eyelashes be allowed to 
fall over the eye, their shadows will be 
seen to move upward in the pinholes. 
24. Look at Fig. 6. The horizon- 
tal lines appear to be nearer to- 
gether at the middle than at the 
ends, but this is not so. They 
are quite straight and parallel. 



The appearance is due entirely to 
the diagonal lines above and below 
them. 

25. Look at anything having a 

| regular pattern, such as a piece of 

figured cloth or calico, or better still 

a piece of wire netting or the seat of 

a cane-bottomed chair. By relaxing 

the eyes so that they will be fixed on 

1 a point beyond the object, the two 

| images of the figured surface may 

' be made to appear to slide one over 

the other, and by practice may be 







Fig. 6. Experiment 24. 



made to stop where the observer 
pleases. If he thus causes the im- 
age of each figure to coincide with 
the one next to it, the surface will 
seem farther from his eye and the 
figures larger. If he causes the 
images to overlap still more, so that 
each falls on the second one from it, 
the effect will be increased, and so 
on. If he fixes his eye on a point 
nearer him than the surface, the 
latter will appear nearer, and the 



figures smaller. If the observer 
cannot direct his eyes to one point 
while noticing another he should hold 
his finger either in front of the sur- 
face or behind it, and look directly at 
it, trying at the same time to watch 
the figures on the surface. 

This experiment requires consid- 
erable practice, and some peopl 
find it more difficult than others. 
When properly done the effect is 
striking. 



FAMOUS NUMBERS 



307 



FANORONA 



the image on the retina is dis- 
torted. 

27. View a straight line, a, through 



26. Darken the room and cover 
one window with cloth or paper 
having the figure of a cross cut 
through it. Look steadfastly at this 
for a few seconds and then look at 
the wall of the room. The "after 
image " of the cross will be seen. 
If the eye be now directed, with- 
out moving the head, to one of the 
corners of the room the arms of 
the cross will appear twisted so 
that the cross will look thus *f or 
thus J^. 

This is because the eyeball is 

twisted a little in turning it toward Fig. 7. It will appear to broaden 
the corner of the room, so that as it nears the eye. 




Fig- 7. Experiment 27. 
a pinhole, o, in a card, as shown in 



F 



FABA-BAGA. See BEAN BAGS. 
FAGGOTS. See Fox AND 

GEESE, II. 

FAMOUS NUMBERS, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
each of whom writes a number on a 
slip of paper. The slips are mixed in 
a hat, and each player draws one. 
Each in order must then explain for 
what the number he drew is famous, 
or pay a forfeit. For instance, the 
number three may be said to be 
celebrated on account of the Three 
Graces. Two for Shakespere's 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." Ten 
for the Council of Ten, and so on. 

FANORONA, a game played by 
two persons, with 22 white and 22 
black pieces or men, arranged on a 




Fanorona Board. 

board like that shown in the diagram. 
The players sit opposite each other, 
and take turns in moving. A piece 



may be moved to any adjacent un- 
occupied angle, forward, backward, 
diagonally, or to either side. If, 
when any move is made, a piece is 
face to face with one of the enemy's, 
no vacant space being between, all 
of the enemy's pieces extending in 
unbroken line in the direction of 
attack are captured and removed from 
the board. If the line is interrupted 
by a vacant space, or hostile piece, 
the men are captured only as far as 
such space or piece. He who suc- 
ceeds first in capturing all his oppo- 
nents' pieces wins the game. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

1. The first player is allowed only 
one move. 

2. After the opening of the game, 
each player is allowed to move, using 
any piece he pleases, so long as he 
continues to capture. When he 
ceases to capture, his opponent be- 
gins his turn. 

3. A player must not return at 
once to a point he has just left. 

4. A player must not capture in 
any direction immediately after mak- 
ing a capture in the opposite direc- 
tion. 

Fanorona is the national game of 
the natives of Madagascar, who have 
reduced it to a science. In Mada- 
gascar a defeated player is not al- 



FARM YARD 



308 



FEELING 



lowed to play his second game on 
the same footing as the first, but 
must play a new form of it, called 
Vela. In this form the defeated 
player plays first, and the other ex- 
poses to capture such pieces as he 
chooses, till seventeen have been 
taken, but these can be taken only 
one at a time. Until the entire num- 
ber are captured, the owner of them 
can make no captures. The game 
then goes on as in the ordinary way. 
A defeated player is allowed to play 
only the Vela game, till he has won 
a victory. 

FARM YARD, THE, a trick in the 
form of a game. One of the com- 
pany, chosen as leader, tells the 
others that they must sit in a circle, 
and each personates some animal. 
He says that he will first whisper in 
the ear of each what noise he is to 
make, and that all must rise and 
make their noises at a given signal. 
He then whispers to each, directing 
them all to remain quiet, except one, 
whom he tells to bray like a donkey. 
When the signal is given, the victim 
of the trick rises and brays, while 
the others sit still. 

FARRAGO. See SYNTHESIS. 

FAST RUNNERS, a running game 
played by any odd number of per- 
sons. All but one are arranged in a 
column by pairs, all facing toward 
the same end of the column. The 
remaining player stands alone at the 
head of the column, and at a signal 
from him the two at the foot divide 
and run on the outside of the lines 
past the head, after which they take 
different directions. If the one at the 
head can catch either before they 
meet again and join hands, that one 
must take his place, and he becomes 
the partner of the other, standing 
close to the head of the line. If the 
couple join hands before either is 
caught, they stand close to the head, 
and the unsuccessful runner is at the 
head again. At the signal the couple 
now left at the foot begin to run in 
like manner, and so on till the play- 
ers are tired. Neither of the runners 



can be touched until he has passed 
the head of the column. 

In Germany this game is called 
Fang Schon (Begin now), and in 
Russia "It Burns," from the cries of 
the runners. In Belgium it is called 
" Bride and Bridegroom," and in 
Suabia Brautlauf (The Bride Chase). 
These last names seem to show that 
it is derived from the old custom of 
requiring the bridegroom to carry off 
the bride by force, or pretend to do so. 

FEELINC, Experiments on, i. 
Cross the forefinger and middle fin- 
ger of one hand, and with the tips 
feel a marble or small pebble held in 
the palm of the other. It will feel as 
if there were two marbles. The 
reason is that the marble is felt at 
the same time by the two sides of the 
fingers which are usually farthest 
from each other, and the mind can- 
not help concluding that there are 
two marbles. The best way of per- 
forming the experiment is to let some 
one else cross his fingers, shut his 
eyes, and guess how many marbles 
he feels. If more than one held in 
the hand, guessing becomes still 
more difficult. 

2. Prick a person's hand with two 
pins held very close together. It 
will be found that he cannot tell 
when you use two points and when 
only one, provided the points touch 
him exactly at the same time. On 
some parts of the body the pins may 
be held about half an inch apart be- 
fore the two separate pricks can be 
feels. The reason is that the nerves 
of the skin form a network which is 
much closer in some places than in 
others. Where the meshes are very 
large the nerves cannot distinguish 
two sensations which are very near 
together. If blunter points be used 
than those of pins, the effect is more 
striking. 

3. Take a long hair, and with the 
thumb and forefinger of one hand 
pull it through those of the other, 
first in one direction and then in the 
other. It will be found that it slips 
easily one way and will scarcely slip 



FEMME SOLE 



309 



FEMME SOLE 



at all in the other. The reason is 
that each hair is covered with a kind 
of scales which grow in one direc- 
tion, and it is therefore easier to rub 
the hand over it one way than the 
other, though the scales cannot be 
seen with the naked eye. The direc- 
tion in which it is easiest to stroke 
hair is always down, or from the root, 
hence it is always possible to tell by 
feeling which end of a hair grew 
nearest the root. 

4. Fill one glass with water almost 
as warm as the hand can bear, 
another with cold water, and a third 
with lukewarm water. Hold one 
hand in the warm water and the 
other in the cold water for about 15 
or 20 seconds, and then put them 
into the lukewarm water. It will 
feel warm to the hand which has 
been in the cold water, and cold to 
the other. The reason is that we 
cannot really tell the temperature 
of objects by the touch, but only 
whether they are warmer or colder 
than ourselves. 

5. Put a piece of iron and a piece 
of wood into the ice box of a re- 
frigerator, and let them remain sev- 
eral hours, long enough for both 
to get ice cold. Then take them in 
the hand, and the iron will feel colder 
than the wood. Put them in a 
moderately warm oven for half an 
hour, and feel them again. This 
time the iron will be the warmer. 
The iron may be even too hot to 
hold, while the wood can be taken 
up easily. The reason is that iron is 
a better conductor of heat than wood. 
Heat therefore goes from the iron to 
the hand, when it is hot, faster than 
it does from the wood, and iron takes 
heat away from the hand faster when 
it is cold. 

FEMME SOLE, a game of CARDS, 
played by three persons with a full 
pack. The deal is determined by 
cutting, the lowest card indicating 
the dealer. He separates a EUCHRE 
pack from the full pack, and deals 
eleven cards, one by one, to each of 
the other players and ten to himself. 



He then takes the remaining cards 
of the full pack, called the Stock, 
shuffles them, and gives them to the 
player on his right to cut. The card 
cut determines the trump suit, and 
the dealer then takes the Deuce of 
that suit from the stock, to complete 
his own hand. There is thus in play, 
besides the regular Euchre pack, one 
Deuce, which, as the trump changes, 
is sometimes of the trump suit and 
sometimes not. It always ranks as 
the highest card in the pack, except 
when played in its own suit, where 
it is lowest, as in Whist. The high- 
est trump is the Queen, called Femme 
Sole (a French term used in law to 
mean an unmarried woman). The 
eldest hand now leads any card ex- 
cept the Deuce. Suit must be fol- 
lowed, if possible (except that the 
Deuce may be played out of suit), 
and the trick must be taken, if possi- 
ble. The winner scores one for the 
trick, which he takes into his own 
hand, making the hands equal again 
by giving to each of the other players 
one of his cards, according to the 
following plan : 

1. If one of the others holds 
Femme Sole, and the other the 
Deuce, he gives to the holder of each 
card a card in its suit. 

2. If the two should be in the 
same hand he gives a card in the 
Deuce suit to that hand, and placing 
the Deuce in the stock, substitutes 
for it any other Deuce he pleases, 
telling what it is, as he does so. 
This is called " clearing the Deuce." 
To the third player he gives any card 
he chooses. 

3. If the Deuce and Femme, or 
either of them, are in his own hand, 
he gives a trump to the player with 
the highest trump, and any card to 
the other player. 

4. Should he not be able to do as 
he should, he may give out any card 
he pleases, but then is not allowed 
to score for the trick. 

The winner shuffles and cuts the 
stock for a new trump after each 
trick, but there is no fresh deal till 



FENCING 



310 



FENCING 



the close of the game, which is won 
by the first player who makes eleven 
points. 

The general rules for playing are 
as in WHIST. It is best to lead from 
a long suit, and in giving out after 
each trick, low cards should be cho- 
sen. Deuce is least valuable when 
it is unsupported by other 
cards of the same suit, for 
then, by leading that suit, 
an opponent may force the 
holder to play it, when it 
will be taken, being low in 
its own suit. When a player 
gets the privilege of " clearing the 
Deuce," therefore, he should select, 
as the new Deuce, one of whose suit 
the holder of the Deuce has very few. 

FENCING, exercising with foils. 
Fencing foils are tipped with metal 
or gutta percha buttons, so that no 
injury can result from a touch, but 
both contestants usually wear leather 
jackets to protect them in case a 
button should break off, and each 



resting under the wrist. The foil 
should be held lightly, but so that the 
fingers will take an instantaneous 
grip, (see Fig. 2.) The various move- 
ments in fencing, which are chiefly 
called by French names, will now be 
described. By carefully learning 
their names, and practicing them, 





Fig. i. Fencing Mask. 



has over his face a mask of wire 
gauze (see Fig. i) and a padded 
glove on his right hand. 

The foil should be held with the 
hilt (or handle) flat in the han-d, the 
thumb being stretched along the 
upper side, a.nd the pommel, or end, 



Fig. 2. Holding FoiL 



beginners will soon be ready to apply 
them and vary them in actual con- 
tests, when parrying or thrusting. 
The principal kinds are the Engage, 
the Guard, the Thrust, and the 
Parade. The Engage is a position 
where the adversaries' foils touch 
each other ; the Guard is a position 
of the foil intended to protect its 
holder; the Thrust is a forward mo- 
tion of the foil toward the opponent 
in an endeavor to touch him ; and 
the Parade is a movement of the 
foil to parry, or turn aside, a thrust. 
Any of these positions or movements 
may be in Prime, Seconde, Tierce, 
Carte (or Quart). Quinte, Sixte, Half 
Circle or Octave (words derived from 
the French numerals from I to 8), 
according to the way in which the 
foil is pointed and held, as will now 
be explained. What are called the 
lines of defense are illustrated by 
Fig. 3, which is supposed to show 
the body of the fencer's opponent 
divided into quarters by two lines, a 
horizontal and a vertical. The space 
on the right is called the outside, and 
that on the left the inside, and the 
quarters, called the ' lines of de- 
fense," are thus the Inside high, 
Outside high, Inside low, and Out- 
side low. Each of these quarters 
may be defended by two different 
positions of the foil. In each the 
sword-hand is supposed to be oppo- 
site the center and the foil extending 
into the quarter to be defended. 
Before engaging in a regular con- 



FENCING 



FENCING 



test, the fencers must practice some 
of the most common positions and 
movements. Each fencer first as- 
sumes what is called the first posi- 
tion, by placing the right heel in the 
hollow of the left foot, and holding 
the foil just below the hilt, between 
the thumb and fingers of the left 
hand, so that it hangs at the left side 
(Fig. 4). The right arm hangs down 
easily and the right side is turned 
toward the opponent. The fencer 
then takes " second position " (Fig. 




Fig. 3. Lines of Defense. 



5), by bending his right arm across 
his body, and taking the foil by the 
hilt, and "third position" (Fig. 6), 
by raising both hands above the 
head, sliding the foil through the left 
thumb and fingers till they hold it 
near the button. Both knees are 
now slightly bent till they are directly 
above the toes, and the fencer steps 
out about two feet with his right 
foot, the knees being kept bent. The 



foil is now released with the left 
hand and brought down so that the 
point appears to cover the oppo- 
nent's left eye. The right arm, 
which holds the foil, is bent, the el- 
bow drawn in, and the hand on a 
level with the chest. To balance the 
right arm and foil, the left arm is 
still held up in a curve, the palm to- 
ward the right, and about as high as 
the top of the head. The body is 
upright and supported on both legs. 
The fencer is now " on guard in 
carte " (see Fig. 7). 

The guard " in tierce " differs from 
this only in reversing the hand, so 
that the nails are half-turned down- 
ward, and in stretching the arm a 
little outward, to cover the outside 
of the body. When two fencers en- 
gage in carte (see Fig. 8), each has 
his foil on the right of his adver- 
sary's, that is on his adversary's 
inside, so the guard of carte is 
called an " inside guard." In the 
engage of tierce the foils touch on 
the other side, it being an " outside 
guard." When a fencer shifts his 
foil from carte to tierce, or vice versa, 
he is said to "disengage." This is 
done in carte or tierce by lowering 
the foil just enough to clear the ad- 
versary's, and raising it on the other 
side. In engaging, the foils are 
crossed at a point about nine inches 
from the point. The most common 
guards, besides those already de- 
scribed, are those of half-circle and 
octave. The half-circle guard is an 
inside low guard, usually to protect 
against a thrust in second or low 
carte (see below). To take it, the 
hand is raised to the left shoul- 
der, the elbow turned in, and the 
point of the foil is held on a level 
with the adversary's waist. The 
octave is a low outside guard, gener- 
ally used against the thrust of octave 
(see Fig. 9). The hand is raised to 
the chest, with the point of the foil 
on a level with the lower part of the 
adversary's chest. In disengaging 
from the guards of half-circle and 
octave, the foil is slipped over that 



FENCING 



312 



FENCING 



of the opponent, not under, as in 
tierce. 

Thrusts. The usual thrusts are 



made by means of the half longe (or 
lunge) and the longe. To make the 
half-longe, the fencer stands on 





Fig. 4. First Position. Fig. 5. Second Position. Fig. 6. Third Position. 



guard and first straightens the right 
arm, bringing the hand up as high as 
his face, and additional impetus is 



gained by throwing the left hand 
down, palm outward, so that the arm 
is parallel with the leg ; simultane- 




Fig. 7. On Guard in Carte. 



ously, the left knee is straightened 
and the weight of the body thrown 
on the right leg, without moving 



either foot from the ground. The 
full longe is made in like manner, 
but by also stepping forward with 



FENCING 



313 



FENCING 



the right foot as the weight is thrown 
on it (see Fig. 10). Reversing these 
movements so as to bringthefenceron 
guard again, is called " recovering." 



When the fencer, being on guard, 
wishes to advance, he moves the right 
foot forward about a foot, and in- 
stantly, almost at the same time, fol- 




Fig. 8. Engaged in Carte. 



lows with the left, so that the dis- 
tance between his feet remains the 
same. In retiring, the left foot 
makes the first movement. 



The thrusts usually take their 
name from the .position of the fencer 
when he makes the longe. Thus 
the straight thrust in carte is made 




Fig. 9. Guard of Octave. 



'from the engage in carte. Whenever 
the fencer sees that his opponent is 
not " covering " or protecting him- 
self, there is said to be an " open- 



ing." In like manner, the semi- 
circle thrust (also called low carte) 
is made from the semicircle guard, 
and the octave thrust in like manner, 



FENCING 



FENCING 



The thrust in carte over the adver- 
sary's arm is made from the guard 
in tierce and differs from the thrust 
in tierce only having the nails turned 
upward. The thrust in second is 
made from the engage of tierce 
by dropping the point of the foil 
under the adversary's wrist. The 
fencer sometimes recovers from a 
thrust to the same guard as before, 
and sometimes to a different one. 
What is called the Time-thrust is 
made when an adversary is dilatory 
or not well covered. It is made 
by opposing the adversary's foil 
strongly, and then longing quickly. 

Parades. The simplest parades 
are those of carte and tierce, which 



are called upper parades. That of 
carte is made from guard in carte by 
throwing the' hand about six inches 
inward making an upward turn with 
the wrist, and at the same time 
drawing the foil back slightly, thus 
throwing off the opponent's foil. 
The point of the foil, the body, and 
the legs should be kept in the same 
plane while executing the movement. 
The parade in tierce is likewise macie 
from the guard in tierce by stretch- 
ing the arm obliquely downward to 
the right about six inches. The 
parades of octave and half-circle are 
performed by bringing the foil into 
the positions of the octave and half- 
circle guards, and there turning aside 




Fig. 10. The Longe. 



the opponent's foil. The parade of 
prime is made from the engage of 
tierce by bending the arm and wrist, 
raising the hand to the chin, draw- 
ing the arm inward at the same time, 
and pointing the foil toward the 
lower part of the opponent's chest. 
Counters, or Round Parades. 
These are performed by following 
the foil of the adversary in a small 
circle. For instance, being engaged 
in carte, if the fencer's opponent dis- 
engage he follows the latter's blade 
closely with his own by moving the 
wrist only, so as to join him again 



in carte. The parade of countei 
tierce is made in like manner, only 
in the reverse direction. The half- 
circle, octave, and other counters are 
made similarly. 

Feints, movements intended to 
deceive an adversary and force him 
to uncover himself. The feint of 
One, Two (sometimes called by the 
French name Une, Deux) is per- 
formed by two disengagements. 
For instance, when disengaging from 
carte to tierce, if the opponent takes 
the guard of tierce, the fencer may 
quickly disengage back to carte and 



FENCING 



315 



FENCING 



longe. The same feint in reverse 
order can be performed when en- 
gaged in tierce. The feint of One, 
Two, Three (or Une, Deux, Trots) 
is performed in like manner by three 
disengagements, the last accom- 
panied by a longe. 

Cut over the Point, a movement 
executed by a fencer when his oppo- 
nent holds his hand low and the 
point of his foil high. Being engaged 
in carte, it is performed by raising 
the wrist so as to pass the foil over 
that of the adversary without expos- 
ing the body by moving the arm. 
At the same moment the thrust of 
carte over the arm is given. This is 



called the cut over the point from 
carte to tierce (see Fig. 11); that 
from tierce to carte is performed in 
like manner. 

Appels, Beats, and Glizades. 
These are movements intended to 
confuse an adversary. An appel is 
performed by beating on the floor 
with the right foot : a beat, or beat 
on the blade, is executed by sharply 
striking the adversary's foil ; and a 
glisade by gliding the foil along that 
of the opponent, at the same time 
extending the arm. 

The Salute. Previous to a fencing 
contest it is customary for the fencers 
to go through certain movements as 




Fig. ii. Cut over Point. 



a form of courtesy (see Fig. 12). 
These movements are also useful as 
exercises for the learner. The first 
three positions having been taken as 
already described, the fencers take 
guard in tierce, each with his foil out 
of the line of his opponent's body, 
and then each beats twice with his 
right foot. One then asks the other 
other to thrust first, whereupon the 
latter longes in carte, but without 
touching the body, by this means 
measuring his distance. After the 
one who thrust has recovered, each 



brings his right foot up to the hollow 
of the left, drops his left hand, and 
brings his right hand under his chin, 
with the foil raised vertically. He 
then pet forms the parades of carte 
and tierce, bringing his hand under 
his chin again, at the close of each ; 
then by a circular movement of both 
hands passes quickly' to the guard of 
carte. The one who first thrust, 
now makes six disengages. At 
each disengage from carte to tierce, 
his opponent parries in tierce, at the 
same time turning the hand, nails 



FENCING 



FENCING 



downward, and dropping the point 
of his foil. When the thruster takes 
guard in tierce the opponent en- 
gages, at the same time making an 
appel. Each disengage back to 
carte is similarly met, the foil being 
turned in a half circle, nails up, af- 
ier the parry. After making the six 
disengages thus, the fencer feints 
One, Two, without thrusting, re- 
covers in tierce, brings his right foot 
into the hollow of his left, and drops 
his left hand to his side. He then 
asks his opponent to thrust, and the 
whole salute is performed again, 
the movements being interchanged. 



Skilled fencers do not put on the 
mask till after finishing the salute. 

The Assault. A regular fencing 
contest in which each fencer tries to 
touch the other by using any of the 
movements described, in any order. 
In the assault each fencer should 
look steadily in his opponent's eyes, 
so as not to betray the movements 
he intends to make. It is well to act 
at first on the defensive to discover 
what are the favorite thrusts or 
feints of an adversary. At the same 
time the latter should use all the 
different movements, as much as 
possible, in order not to give such 




Fig. 12. The Salute. 



information. A good fencer must 
not only be able to longe, recover, 
advance, and retreat quickly, but 
must also have what is called a good 
opposition ; that is, he must always 
stand with his right side toward his 
adversary, and cover himself well 
with his foil. He must be able, by 
the pressure of his adversary's foil 
on his own, to tell what the latter 
intends to do, and must be able and 
ready to take advantage of all open- 
ings his adversary gives, without 
giving any himself. 

The following examples serve to 



show how some of the movements 
already described are used, and 
would be good for beginners to 
practice. 

Ex. i. The fencers engage in 
carte. 

A drops his point and thrusts in 
low carte. 

B thrusts straight. 

A parries B's thrust in carte, and 
thrusts again in low carte. 

B parries, disengages to tierce, 
and thrusts carte over the arm. 

A parries, and having disengaged 
returns a thrust in carte. 



FENCING 



317 



FENCING 



B parries in carte, then drops his 
point and thrusts in low carte. 

Ex. 2. Engaged in carte. 

A retreats. 

B advances, keeping on guard in 
carte. 

A retreats again. 

B advances, disengaging to tierce. 

[B should advance at the same 
moment that his adversary retreats, 
and when the latter advances he 
should retreat.] Being engaged in 
carte again, 

A thrusts in carte. 

B forms the parade in carte and 
delivers its straight thrust. 

A thrusts in carte again. 

B throws it off as before, and, dis- 
engaging to tierce, thrusts carte over 
the arm. 

A disengages and thrusts carte. 

B parries in carte, disengages, 
thrusts carte over the arm. 

A parries, and thrusts in tierce. 

B makes the parade in tierce, and 
delivers a straight thrust. 

Ex. 3. Engaged in carte. B holds 
guard low and point high. 

A cuts over the point and thrusts 
carte over the arm. Engaged in 
tierce. 

B disengages and thrusts carte. 

A parries with octave. 

B disengages over A's arm as he 
recovers, and thrusts in low carte. 
Engaged in carte. 

A feints One, Two, and thrusts. 

B forms counter-parade in carte, 
and gives a quick return thrust in 
low carte. 

A makes an appel, at the same 
time beating on B's blade, and then 
thrusts straight carte. 

B parries, and disengages. 

A counters, performs a glizade, 
drops his point, and thrusts in octave. 

It is good practice for one of the 
fencers to make all his thrusts, 
feints, etc., while the other simply 
remains on guard, using the proper 
parades as he needs them. The 
second fencer should then thrust and 
the first parry. 

In fencing matches, the contes- 



tants fence for a stated time, and he 
that makes the greatest number of 
hits in that time is declared the win- 
ner. The hits are sometimes re- 
quired to be within certain lines, 
which are chalked on the breast. 
If one fencer hit the body and the 
other the mask at the same time, 
only the hit on the body is counted. 
If one of the fencers drop his foil, 
any hit made by his adversary, after 
seeing the foil drop, is not counted, 
but a hit is good if made before see- 
ing it drop. 

RULES. 

The following rules for fencing 
matches are those of the Amateur 
Athletic Union, and were adapted 
from the rules of Adolph Ruze of 
Paris. 

1. Jury. The jury is formed of 
at least three members, who judge 
without appeal. 

2. Position. The jury must place 
themselves on both sides of the 
fencers, looking toward their chests, 
so as to judge as well of the value of 
the touch as of its artistic quality. 

3. Director of the Competition. 
A director shall be chosen from 
among the members of the jury, who 
shall always give the signal to begin 
the assault. 

4. Stopping the Assault. When 
any member of the jury shall call 
" Halt ! " the contestants must take 
the first position and lower the points 
of their foils. 

5. Formation-of the Bouts. Com- 
petitors to fence according to draw- 
ing. The committee in drawing 
lots for the preliminary bouts will 
endeavor to arrange them so that 
members of the same club shall not 
be drawn against each other. In 
the finals, however, the order of 
bouts will be No. I to fence with 
No. 2, and so on through the list. 

6. Odd Number of Contestants. 
Rule to be " miss and out " i.e. the 
beaten contestant retires entirely 
from the contest. If the number of 
the contestants is odd, one of the 
defeated will be drawn to fence th 



FENCING 



FENCING 



odd man ; if beaten, the odd man 
retires also. 

7. Winner of Bout, The con- 
testant making the first five touches 
to win his bout. 

8. The Question of Artistic 
Merit. The jury in deciding the 
bout can add one point to the losing 
contestant if they think his general 
form in fencing superior to his oppo- 
nent. Should the score, by addition 
of this one point be made equal, they 
shall fence for three more points. 
This method of judging is based 
upon the idea that the contest is 
intended as an exhibition of skill 
rather than the mere securing of 
points. 

9. Value of a Touch. Touches 
to count only when made upon the 
body within the limits defined by a 
cord sewed on the fencing jacket, 
under supervision of the committee. 
Any contestant, however, who shall 
turn his back on his adversary, during 
a bout, shall forfeit one point for 
each offense. 

10. The Avoided Touch. When- 
ever there is a clear intention on the 
part of the one touched to avoid the 
point, either by a movement of arm 
or body, his adversary shall score 
one point. 

1 1 . Slap and Touch. A touch is 
of no value when the point is twisted 
on the body after the slap of the foil. 

12. Foul Touches. A touch, 
whether fair or foul, stops the riposte 
(the return thrust). 

13. Simult aneoiis Attack. 
Double-touches, occasioned by both 
contestants lunging at the same time, 
are considered bad form, and in case 
of second offense, one point shall be 
deducted from each contestant. This 
punishment consists in increasing the 
fatigue, imposing upon both con- 
testants the obligation of regaining 
the point taken away. 

14. Validity of the Attack in the 
Double-touch. From the point of 
view of skill, the party attacking with 
the hand high and in opposition is 
always in the right, and his blade 



should be parried by the party at- 
tacked, in order to avoid the double- 
touch. 

The stop touch is allowed when 
the attack is in the low line and not 
in opposition. 

Double-touches are in general an- 
nulled. 

15. Renewal or Delay of the 
Attack. The touch scored in the 
renewal or in the delay of the attack 
is valuable if the parry made to the 
first attack has not been followed by 
a riposte, or when the riposte has 
been slow. 

1 6. Corps-a-Corps. The jury 
stop a corps-a-corps as soon as 
made, since it may serve to cover 
irregularities. 

17. Of Contestants at Close Quar- 
ters. When one of the contestants 
shall be driven into a corner, the 
director shall halt and replace them 
so as to leave ample space behind 
each, and so that the precept " to 
retreat is not to flee " may be ap- 
plied. 

1 8. Disarmament. A disarma- 
ment shall not count a touch, but a 
touch scored immediately following 
upon a disarmament shall count. 

19. Changing Fencing Hand. 
Each contestant must fence through- 
out the contest with the hand he 
begins with. 

20. Costume. Each competitor 
shall wear a dark fencing jacket and 
dark trousers, so that the white 
chalk marks can be easily seen. 

Each competitor shall also wear 
in the foil contest a fencing belt not 
exceeding four inches in width. 

21. Space. Space allowed con- 
testants to fence in shall be thirty 
feet in length. 

22. Conclusion. See that the 
meetings do not relapse into a hand- 
to-hand struggle, that it be an exact 
representation of the art and beauty 
of fencing. 

History. Fencing was practiced 
in ancient times as a means of 
attack and defense with swords, and 
exhibitions of it were given in the 



FENCING 



319 



FENCING 



Roman arenas by gladiators. It 
afterwards fell into disuse when the 
custom arose of protecting the body 
by heavy armor, but when anror 
was abandoned it came again into 
fashion. The continual brawls and 
contests between factions in Italy 
made it a necessary part of every 
one's education there, and Italians 
became very expert fencers. It was 
imported thence into Spain, France, 
and England. The sword used by 
the Italians was the rapier, which 
was long and flexible, with a sharp 
point, but no cutting edge, and 
modern fencers always use foils 
shaped like the rapier unless some 
other shape is specially mentioned. 



Fencing may be practiced with a 
broadsword, bayonet, or stick, but 
the method in these cases differs 
somewhat from that described 
above. In the old Italian school of 
fencing there were eight kinds of 
parries, called primo, secondo, ttrzo, 
etc. (first, second, third, etc.), and 
from these the French terms now 
used are derived. The early Italians 
and Spanish aided the management 
of the sword with the dagger and 
cloak, and allowed the fencer to 
shift his position to the right and 
left in making his defense ; but when 
fencers became more expert, and 
attacked with greater velocity, the 
dagger and cloak became an incum- 




Fig. 13. Fencing about 1600. 



brance rather than an aid. The 
rapier became a favorite sword for 
duels, since it was the fairest to both 
sides, as it depended least on mere 
brute force. Before its introduc- 
tion into England in Elizabeth's 
reign, duels were fought without re- 
gard to equality of arms, and any 
advantage, fair or unfair, was seized 
upon at once. Though dueling is 
wrong, fair fighting is to be preferred 
to unfair, so the introduction of 
fencing with the rapier did much for 
civilization. Now that duels are not 
fought, there is no use for the rapier 
as a weapon, since soldiers do not 
wear it, but fencing with the foils 
is still a favorite exercise, and fenc- 
ing with the heavy swords used by 



soldiers is, of course, taught them. 
Fig. 13, taken from an old German 
book, published in the I7th century, 
shows two fencers of that date. 

Authorities say there is no single 
exercise which combines so many 
advantages, as fencing, since it brings 
into play the muscles of every part 
of the body, expands the chest, dis- 
tributes the circulation equally, and 
gives delicacy of touch, while render- 
ing the hand steady and light. In 
1536 a book on the art of fencing 
was published by a Venetian named 
Marozzo, and since his time many 
works on the subject have appeared, 
one of the best of which is the little 
handbook in the " All England " 
series (1889). 



FIFTEEN IN A ROW 



320 



FIFTEEN PJZZLE 



FIFTEEN IN A ROW, a SOLI- 
TAIRE game of CARDS, played with 
two full packs. At the beginning of 
the game all the cards are laid on 
the table, faces upward, in rows of 15 
each, the last row containing but 14. 
The cards of each lower row lie 
partly on those of the next row 
above. The player's object is to 
build up the cards in families, by 
suits, upward from four Aces (one of 
each suit) and downward from the 
four corresponding Kings. For this 
purpose one can begin with any in- 
dependent card, that is, any card 
that has no other resting on it. Any 
independent card may also be placed 
on any other independent card of the 
same suit, just above or just below 
it in rank. At the beginning of the 
game only the cards in the lowest 
row are independent, and if there 
are no Kings or Aces there, and none 
can be freed, they may be taken from 
the next higher row and their places 
filled by pushing up the cards just 
below, until one King and one Ace 
have been obtained to begin building 
up the families. When all the cards 
have been removed from any line it 
is called a Street, and any indepen- 
dent card may then be placed in it. 
If the families can be completed the 
player wins. 

FIFTEEN PUZZLE, a SOLITAIRE 
game played with fifteen numbered 




Fifteen Puzzle. 

blocks of wood in a shallow box, 
arranged as in the figure. 

The object is, having first arranged 
the blocks in any order desired, to 
bring them into the order represented 



above simply by sliding them past 
one another, without taking any from 
the box. We learn by the rule of 
permutations in arithmetic that 15 
numbers can be arranged in r.o less 
than i, 307,674,368,000 different ways. 
In half of these arrangements the 
game can be won, and in half it can- 
not. To find whether any given 
arrangement can be solved or not, 
write the figures on the blocks in a 
straight line, as they occur in the 
box, and then bring them back to 
order by changing the places of two 
adjoining ones at a time, as illus- 
trated below. If it requires an even 
number of changes, the game can be 
won from the arrangement, if an odd 
number, not. Thus suppose the ar- 
rangement is as follows : 

Write the numbers thus, 12375 
4 6 8 9 14 15 12 13 10 n. Find 
the number of changes, two by two, 
necessary to correct the order. To 
bring the Four into place it must 
change places, first with the Five and 
then with the Seven, that is, two 
changes are required. In like man- 
ner, the number of changes required 
to bring each of the numbers, in 
order, into its proper order will be 
found to be: 

To bring the 4 into place 2 



7 

10 
n 

12 

'3 ' 



Total, 16 

an even number. 

The game can therefore be won by 
this arrangement. 

The player must remember that 
each number must be changed only 
with an adjoining one ; thus, it would 
not give a correct result to exchange 
the Four and Seven at once, and call 
that one change. The best plan is 
to write the numbers on bits of paper, 
so that they can be shifted about 
easily. 

Trial will show that although the 
necessary number of changes varies 



FILBERTS 



321 



with different ways of changing, it 
will always remain even or odd, as 
the case may be. The reason that 
the arrangements with an even num- 
ber of changes are the only soluble 
ones is that the blocks can be moved 
about only in such a way as to give 
an even number of changes. The 
learner can convince himself of this 
by trial, remembering always to ar- 
range the blocks so that the right 
hand lower corner is vacant, before 
counting the changes. As any even 
number of changes can be made, 
any odd arrangement can be brought 
down to that in which there is only- 
one more change necessary ; but one 
being still an odd number, that 
change can never be made. Thus, 
if the last line reads 13, 15, 14, while 
the rest of the blocks are in order, it 
is impossible to win the game. 

The Fifteen game was invented 
in this country, and became very 
celebrated about 1880. Before its 
properties were studied many people 
wasted a great deal of time in trying 
to win it from impossible arrange- 
ments. 

FILBERTS, Experiments with. 
Minute dents are often seen in the 
ends of filberts. These dents are 
the ends of very small channels 
which lead completely through the 
nut. If one of them be pricked with 
a pin and the end of a hair inserted, 
it "is possible, with great care and 
patience, to push the hair quite 
through the nut. Necklaces of fil- 
berts, strung on hairs in this way, 
have been made, but the experiment 
succeeds only after many trials and 
with great patience. 

FIRE-DRAWINGS. Make a solu- 
tion of saltpetre in water and with 
a splinter of wood draw designs, 
figures, or letters on a piece of un- 
glazed paper. When dry, the paper 
will appear as if nothing were on it. 
If a glowing coal be now touched to 
part of the design it will take fire, 
burning with a good deal of smoke, 
but no flame, and the fire will trace 
out the design marked on the paper, 



not burning any part untouched by 
the saltpetre. The design, of course, 
should not be interrupted, but must 




Fire Drawing. 

be in continuous lines. The illus- 
tration represents the drawing of an 
elephant thus made. 

FISH, FLESH AND FOWL. See 
THREE ELEMENTS. 

FISHING. Fishing with hook 
and line is called angling, from 
angle, the old name for a hook. 

Hooks are of various shapes and 
are generally known by the name 
of the place where they were originally 
made, as the Limerick or Aberdeen 
hooks ; by the name of the maker, as 
the Kirby or O'Shaughnessy; or by 
the fish they are intended to catch, 
as Bass, Salmon, or Trout hooks. 
Among the hooks shown on the next 
page are the New York trout and 
bass hooks (Figs. 1 1 and 1 2), the Kirby 
bowed (Fig. 4). the Carlisle (Fig. 13), 
the Aberdeen (Fig. 7), the Kinsey 
(Fig. 2). and the Sneck (Fig. 9). 
Hooks may be either hollow-pointed, 
like the Limerick (Fig. 3), or bowed, 
like the Kirby (Fig. 4), but Kirby 
hooks are also made hollow pointed. 
As a rule a straight hook is the best ; 
that is, one whose point is in line with 
the shaft and not kirbed or bent to 
one side, for it more surely hooks the 
fish. Most kinds of hooks are now 
made with ringed ends, flatted ends, 
knobbed ends, or plain ends. Lime- 
rick hooks formerly always had plain 
ends, but are now made also with 




Fig. i. Gang-hooks. Fig. 2. Kinsey hook. Fig. 3. Limerick hook. Fig. 4. Kirbjr 
hook. Fig. 5. Barbless hook. Fig. 6. Snap-hook, open. Fig. 7. Aberdeen hook. 
Fig. 8. Snap hook, shut. Fig. 9. Sneck hook. Fig. 10. Treble hook. Fig. 11. New 
York trout hook. Fig. 12. New York bass hook. Fig. 13. Carlisle hook. Fig. 14. 
Sizes of hooks, i to 16. 

322 



FISHING 



FISHING 



ringed ends, as shown in Fig. 15. 
The Barbless hook (Fig. 5) has, 
instead of a barb, a sharp piece of 
wire extending across the opening of 
the hook, making it almost impossi- 
nie for a fish to escape after he has 
once hooked himself, but such hooks 




Fig. 15. Sizes of Hooks. 

are little used. The snap-hook (Fig. 
8) has two hooks, which are set to- 
gether like a trap, and which spring 
apart (Fig. 6) after they are in the 
fish's mouth, thus holding him 
securely. The treble hook (Fig. 10) 
consists of three hooks fastened to- 



gether. Several treble hooks are 
often placed one bdow the other in 
what are called " gangs " (Fig. i). 
Figs. 14 and 15 show the sizes 
of hooks and the numbers denoting 
them. Some kinds of hooks are in- 
tended to be used without bait. 
The spoon-hook, of which two kinds 
are shown in Fig. 16, has on it a 




Fig. 16. Spoon-hooks. Fig. 17. Squid. 

piece of polished metal shaped some- 
thing like the bowl of a spoon. 
When it is drawn rapidly through 
the water the spoon twirls, and as it 
flashes along attracts the fish, which 
snaps at it and is caught by the 
hook. This kind of fishing is called 
trolling and is successful with blue 
fish, lake trout, pickerel, and other 
fish. For pickerel fishing several 
hooks and artificial flies are often 
fastened to the spoon. The line is 
fastened to a spoon-hook by a little 
swivel so that when the hook twirls 
it does not twist the line. 

The hook used in blue-fishing has 
its shank covered with a cigar-shaped 
piece of white metal called a squid 
(Fig. 17), which is sometimes cov- 
ered with eel-skin, with the silvery 



FISHING 



FISHING 



side outward. The squid, which is 
often shaped like a little fish, glistens 
when drawn through the water, and 
attracts the fish just as the spoon- 
hook does. 

Snells. The end of the hook is 
generally attached to a piece of fine 
silkworm gut called a snell, which, 
being hard to see under water, pre- 
vents the fish from discovering that 



a line is fastened to the hook. 
Kooks may be bought already at- 
tached to snells, which are either 
single or double. Instead of snells, 
some hooks are fastened to gimp 
(a kind of coarse thread), and hooks 
for catching very large fish are at- 
tached to wire. 

Lines. Fish-lines are made of 
linen, hemp, silk, or hair, and cheap 




Fig. 18. 




Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 
Floats. 



ones of cotton. For small lake or 
pond fish, linen or hemp is gen- 
erally used, and for salmon or 
trout, braided silk or silk and hair. 
In fishing from a boat, in a lake or 
on salt water, the line is generally 
held in the hand, but in fishing from 
shore it is usually attached to a rod. 

Sinkers and Floats. The sim- 
plest sinkers are little pieces of sheet 
lead fastened to the line by pounding 
them around it, or bullets cut in half, 



and the simplest floats are ordinary 
bottle corks tied to the line, but one 
can buy both floats and sinkers. 
Most floats are made of cork and 
quill, and are intended to be fast- 
ened to the line at both ends. Fig. 
1 8 is called an "egg-shape" float, 
and Fig. 19 a " barrel shape." Fig. 
21 shows adjustable floats, with the 
manner of placing them on the line. 
P'igs. 22-24 show different shapes of 
sinkers. 



FISHING 



325 



FISHING 



Rods are made of any tough and 
elastic wood. For fly-fishing, split 
bamboo is best : for other kinds of 
fishing, lancewood, ash, or hickory 




Figs. 22, 23, 24. Sinkers. 

may be used. A good bamboo rod 
weighs from 4 to 12 ounces and is 
from 8 to 13 feet long. What are 
called double-handed rods, for catch- 




Fig. 25. 
Ring Guide. 



Fig. 26. 
Tie Guide. 



ing large salmon, may be 20 feet long 
and weigh two or three pounds. 
Rods are usually made in sections or 
joints, which can be taken apart and 
carried easily. In the simplest kind 
of still-fishing, the line is fastened 
directly to the end of the rod, but it 
is better to wind it on a reel, fixed on 
the rod where the angler can reach 
it, running the line through little 
guides on the rod, till it reaches the 



tip. The length of the line can thus 
be varied at will by winding up the 
reel. The guides through which the 
line passes are either "ring guides " 
(Fig. 25), being fastened to xhe rod 
by rings around it ; or " tie guides " 
(Fig. 26), which are tied to the rod. 

Reels are of many kinds. Most of 
them are operated by turning a 




Fig. 27. Automatic Reel. 

handle, but there are " automatic " 
reels containing a spring A, which 
winds the line when the angler 
presses a lever C (see Fig. 27). 




Fig. 28. Home-made Reel. 

The line passes through the guide 
B, and the reel is fastened to the 



FISHING 



326 



FISHING 



pole at D. A home-made reel 
(Fig. 28,) can be constructed by 
fastening an ordinary spool between 
the prongs of a forked stick which 
are tied together at the top with 
string or wire. The spool is fitted 
with a crank made of wire. 

Bait. The bait may be some- 
thing on which the fish naturally 
feeds, or anything resembling it. The 
bait used for each kind of fish is 
described below. The most com- 
mon baits for fishing near shore are 
the ordinary earth-worm (called 
angle-worm because it is so often 
used in angling), live minnows, the 
grubs or larvas of insects, grass- 
hoppers, and artificial flies. In some 



places, especially in Europe, what 
are called " pastes " are used for 
bait. There are many kinds, some 
of the most common being made of 
wheat boiled in milk, or bread and 
bran softened with water and made 
into balls. In salt water fishing, 
sand-worms, pieces of raw fish, clam, 
lobster, and the little crabs called 
" fiddlers," are also commonly used. 
For most fishes the bait should be 
put on so as to conceal the hook as 
much as possible, but some are so 
greedy that they will bite even at a 
hook without bait. In baiting with 
worms, the hook should be run 
through the worm lengthwise until 
it is hidden, leaving a little hanging 




Fig. 29. Fly-book. 



from the point. Small fis"h are 
usually placed on the hook by pass- 
ing the hook through the body at the 
mouth and out at the tail. Artificial 
flies are also permanently attached to 
hooks, and are used for catching fish 
that will jump from the water at 
insects. The flies of which Anglers 
usually keep a variety, in cases called 
fly-books (Fig. 29), can be bought, 
or made at home, the materials being 
feathers, fur, hair, silk-worm gut. silk, 
and tinsel. The beginner may learn 
to tie his own flies from some ex- 
perienced fly-fisher, but flies may be 
bought so cheaply that most anglers 
prefer to buy them ready-made at the 
fishing-tackle stores. They are not 
always made to imitate natural ones 



exactly, though anglers differ as to 
whether fish bite better at imitations 
or not. Sometimes trout will rise at 
almost anything. Fly fishing is de- 
scribed more fully below. 

Nets. The only net used by 
sportsmen is the landing net, to take 
a fish out of the water when it has 
been brought to the surface by means 
of the hook and line. It is merely a 
small net stretched over a hoop of 
wood or metal, and provided with a 
wooden handle. 

A small net, called a scoop-net, 
much like a landing net, is frequently 
used to catch little fish in brooks, by 
boys for amusement and by older 
fishermen to obtain bait. A good 
scoop-net can be made by binding 



FISHING 



327 



FISHING 




Fig. 30. 
Head of Fish Spear. 



together the ends of the prongs of a 
forked sapling to form a hoop, leav- 
ing the main 
stem for the 
handle, and 
then sewing 
around the hoop 
a bag of mos- 
quito-netting. 

Spears. Eels, 
pickerel, and 
many other fish 
are sometimes 
taken with 
spears (Fig. 30), 
especially in 
winter, through 
holes in the ice, 
in the manner 
described below. 
The spear gener- 
ally used is 
shown in Fig. 30. 

Spearing fish is thought by many 
to be good sport, but anglers gener- 
ally condemn it, and in some States 
the law prohibits taking certain kinds 
of fish in this way. 

Fly Fishingi Before fishing with 
the artificial fly, the angler must first 
learn how to "cast" or throw the 
lines so that the fly will settle on the 
water just where he wishes, in imita- 
tion of a real fly. Skillful fly-casters 
can throw out more than ninety feet 
of line with accuracy, but in practice 
thirty feet is generally all that is 
wanted, and the beginner should 
use but nine or ten feet. Fly-casting 
can be learned on any level spot of 
ground, as well as near the water. 
To begin with, a small piece of wood, 
about an inch square, should be tied 
to the end of the line instead of bait. 
Holding the rod in the right hand, 
the reel on the under side, the learner 
draws out about eight feet of line 
with his left hand and then, holding 
the piece of wood in his left hand, 
raises the rod with his right till the 
line is taut. He then releases the 
wood and the elasticity of the rod, 
aided by a slight upward motion, 
throws the line over the angler's head 



where it straightens out behind his 
back. This is called the " back cast." 
Before it touches the ground bet- 
ter before the end is lower than his 
head the rod is moved forward, 
casting the line straight out in front. 
The forward motion is made chiefly 
by the wrist. For the second back 
cast the line is raised directly from 
the ground, without taking hold of 
the piece of wood again. The line 
should be lengthened gradually, till 
twenty or thirty feet can be cast, and 
the learner should also practice cast- 
ing at a mark, which may be any 
small object on the ground. In fish- 
ing from the bank of a stream it is 
important to know how to make the 
back cast without letting the line 
drop below the head, for otherwise it 
is likely to catch in bushes or shrubs. 
The beginner should, if possible, seek 
instruction from an angler when 
learning to cast the fly ; once seeing 
it done is worth many pages of 
printed instructions. 

In actual fishing, the angler casts 
his fly time after time till a fish rises 
to the surface and seizes it. Some- 
times the fish will not bite unless the 
fly is dropped directly over their 
heads. As soon as the fly is taken, 
the angler must " strike," that is 
raise the pole with a sudden jerk, to 
drive the hook into the fish's jaws, 
otherwise the fish may release the fly 
without hooking himself. When the 
fish is hooked it will try to get free, 
and here the skill of the angler 
shows itself. After allowing the 
fish to tire itself by lashing to and 
fro, and letting it unwind plenty of 
line from the reel, the fisherman 
draws it in by turning the reel crank, 
whenever the fish is tired enough to 
permit. But with a strong fish, he 
must sometimes let the line run out 
to prevent its being broken. This 
alternate pulling in and releasing is 
called "playing." Sometimes it is 
kept up for hours, until the fish is 
near enough to be taken from the 
water with a landing net, or, if it 
be a very large fish, with a big hook 



FISHING 



328 



FISHING 



on the end of a rod, called a gaff. 
" Flaying " a fish is the angler's great 
sport. A fish may escape, after be- 
ing hooked, by tearing itself from 
the hook, by breaking the line, or by 
cutting it against sharp rocks, and 
the angler should take care that the 
fish is not allowed to give a sharp 
and sudden pull. 

Fish Spearing through Ice. A 
board shelter or cabin, of convenient 
size, which can be moved about from 
place to place on the ice, is some- 
times built. It may be just large 
enough for the fisherman to sit in, 
say four feet high, and four feet 
square at the bottom, sloping to two 
feet square at the top, and usually 
has no floor (see Fig. 31). It must 




ig. 31. Frame of Spearman's Cabin. 



be quite dark, so that the only light 
comes up through the ice, thus enab- 
ling the fish to be seen clearly. The 
fisherman sits on a box or block of 
wood, holding in his hand the spear, 
which has barbed tines. The handle, 
of spruce or light pine, and 9 to 12 
feet long, projects through a hole 
in the top of the shelter, the light 
being shut out by a loose piece of 
cloth, tacked to the edge of the hole, 
and fitting closely around the spear 
handle. The cloth should be large 
enough to allow the spear to move 
from side to side of the hole, by 
wrinkling. In the middle of the 
cabin a hole about a foot in diameter 



is cut through the ice. Through 
this the fisherman lowers a line, hav- 
ing on its end a decoy fish. This 
may be easily made of a piece of 
pine, painted white, with the back 
dark gray, fitted with tin fins, and 
weighted with lead. The line is 
fastened to its back by a bent 
pin, and by experiment the fins can 
be so arranged that when the line 
is pulled up the fish will move ahead, 
as if it were swimming. The fisher- 
man continues to move this decoy 
about in the water until he sees that 
it has attracted a fish. The decoy is 
now gradually lifted with the left 
hand and the spear is slowly lowered 
with the right till it is about a foot 
above the fish's back, when it should 
be given a sudden thrust. The line 
may be thrown over the knee and 
the spear managed with both hands. 
If the fish is caught, it should be put 
outside the door of the shelter. A 
cabin like the one described is com- 
fortably warm, even when the ther- 
mometer is very low outside. Some 
fishermen build cabins having floors, 
seats, and a small charcoal or oil 
stove, so that a whole day can be 
passed in them. The best times for 
fish-spearing through ice are just 
before and just after sunset, during 
a snow-storm, or when the day is 
partly cloudy. 

Snaring. Fish can be snared 
through the ice from a shelter like 
that used for spearing. The pro- 
cedure is exactly the same, save 
that instead of a spear the fisherman 
uses a slip-noose made of fine copper 
or brass wire attached to the end of 
a line. The line must not be jerked 
with too much force, or the wire 
snare may cut the fish in two. Trout 
can be snared in like manner with 
horsehair nooses. In most of the 
States it is forbidden to snare or spear 
trout, bass, and other food fish ; and 
anglers generally regard with dis- 
favor any method of capture except 
with hook and line. 

A mode of fishing sometimes pra- 
ticed in the Southern States is called 



FISHING 



329 



FISHING 



Five or six empty jugs 
are tightly corked, and floated in the 
water. To the handle of each is 
fastened a line about five feet long, 
fitted with a sinker and a baited 
hook. As the jugs float with the cur- 
rent, they are followed and watched 
by the fisherman. When a fish is 
hooked, the jug to which the line is 
fastened begins to bob up and down 
and darts about in all directions. 
Such a jug is at once pursued and 
the fish hauled in. 

A device used by fishermen, in 
tending several set lines on the ice, is 
called a tip-up. In its simplest form, 
a stick is laid across the ice hole, and 
to it is fastened at right angles an- 
other stick a foot or two long, having 
the line fastened to one end, and on 
the other a small red flag. The 
flag rests on the ice till a fish is 
hooked and then it is waved up and 
down by the struggles of the fish, at- 
tracting the notice of the fisherman. 

The following is a list of the 
principal game-fish of the United 
States, with a few words about each. 
The appearance of most of them is 
described in C. C. T., in separate 
articles. 

FRESH-WA TER FISH. 

Dace. Among the first fish usually 
caught by boys in fresh water are 
the various minnows sometimes 
called shiners and chubs, the most 
common of which is the dace or 
roach. The dace is found in most 
of the brooks and ponds in New 
England and the Middle States, and 
is caught with a light rod, and worms 
or artificial flies as bait. 

Sun fish, also called " Sunny," 
" Pumpkin seed," Pond Perch, Roach, 
and Bream. It is found in brooks 
over a large area in the United States 
(sometimes in salt tidal rivers), and 
is good eating. It is caught with 
small hooks and tackle, and worms 
as bait, and will also take the arti- 
ficial fly. The blue sunfish, blue 
bream, or copper nosed bream is 
fished for in the Southern States with 
artificial flies and affords good sport. 



The common bream of Southern 
waters is sometimes caught with a 
bait made of brown bread and honey. 

Yellow Perch. This favorite of 
young fishermen is common in most 
parts of the Eastern States, and 
furnishes sport most of the year 
round, being taken in summer with 
worm or minnow bait. In winter 
it is fished for through holes cut in 
the ice, the bait then used being the 
white grub found in decayed wood. 
In the spring the perch will rise to 
the fly. In weight the perch rarely 
exceeds two pounds, though speci- 
mens have been caught of twice that 
weight. 

Pike-Perch. This fish sometimes 
called the Glass Eye, Wall eyed Pike, 
Ohio Pike, or Ohio Salmon, though 
it is neither pike nor salmon, is 
found in the Southern States, the 
great lakes, Western New York, and 
Canada. In Canada it is called the 
Doree, and another Canadian fish of 
the same species is called the Sandre. 
The pike-perch is bold and greedy 
and is readily taken with the hook, 
witH almost any small fish for bait. 
In Lake Champlain it is sometimes 
caught by trolling. The weight of 
the pike-perch is from one to five 
pounds. Its flesh, which is white, is 
highly esteemed in the West. 

Pickerel. The Pike or Pickerel 
family includes the Muskallonge or 
Maskallonge (sometimes called the 
'Longe),andthe Northern Pickerel, of 
the great lakes; the Common Pickerel, 
found in all the ponds and streams 
of the Northern and Middle States ; 
the White Pickerel of the Ohio and 
other western rivers ; and the Black 
Pickerel of Pennsylvania. They are 
all distinguished by length of body. 
The muskallonge, which, though of 
the pike family.is not a gigantic pike, 
as some think, attains sometimes a 
weight of 50 and even 80 pounds. 
The pike seldom grows to be more 
than three feet long, but the muskal- 
longe has been known to attain seven 
feet, especially in the Michigan lakes 
and in 'he upper waters of the Mis- 



FISHING 



330 



FISHING 



sissippi River. The finest muskal- 
longe are caught in Rice Lake, 
Canada, and good-sized ones, though 
not the largest, in the St. Lawrence 
River. They are generally caught by 
trolling with a spoon. The common 
pickerel or pond pike is perhaps the 
commonest of all game fishes in the 
United States. It weighs, on an 
average, about five pounds. All the 
pickerel are voracious, and destruc- 
tive not only to small fish but to 
frogs and water rats. There are 
many modes of catching them, and 
they will take almost any kind of 
bait, but they are caught best by 
trolling with a gorge hook, or fishing 
with a snap hook. 

Cat-fish, Bull-head, Bull Pout, or 
Horned Pout. These, which are 
nearly related, are found in all North 
American waters. Cat-fish are found 
in the great lakes and in the West 
as well as in salt water, and bull- 
heads in most all fresh water. They 
have no scales, the skin being either 
naked or protected by large plates. 
The largest cat-fish weigh 150 
pounds. The flesh of the smaller 
kinds is rich, and in some places is 
considered a great delicacy. All the 
cat-fish are greedy biters, and will 
take almost any kind of bait. The 
ordinary bull-heads of the Eastern 
States are caught on muddy bottoms 
with worms as bait ; they bite best 
at night. The kind called " channel 
cat," found in the West and South, 
is very gamy and caught with heavy 
tackle and minnow bait. In the 
Southern States " jugging," described 
above, is a favorite method with the 
negroes of catching cat-fish. 

Black Bass is found in many 
lakes and streams east of the Rocky 
Mountains, and is much prized as a 
game fish. It is often caught with 
minnows, frogs, or grasshoppers, or 
by trolling with a Spoon hook, but 
rises readily at an artificial fly. The 
rods used are about 10 feet long and 
stiffer than those used for trout. 
In weight the black bass runs from 
two to four pounds for full grown 



fish, in Northern waters. Specimens 
have been taken weighing seven 
pounds and more. In the South, the 
fish are much larger. Florida bass 
have been caught exceeding twenty 
pounds. The colors of the black 
bass vary in different waters ; they 
have received many local names. 
They are called Trout in most parts 
of the South, Chubb in Virginia, and 
Welshmen in the Carolinas. 

Eels bite freely at worms, or bits 
of meat, and are also taken by 
spearing and by " bobbing." Eel 
bobs are made by stringing angle- 
worms in a bunch on a piece of 
stout thread at the end of an ordinary 
fish line. The eels bite at the bunch, 
and, their teeth becoming entangled 
in the thread, they are drawn ashore. 
Eels bite best at night and frequent 
muddy bottoms. Salt water eels are 
often captured in a sort of trap called 
an eel-pot. 

The Sucker is very commonly 
found in fresh waters in the North- 
ern States and is well know to country 
boys. It bites readily at angle-worm 
bait, and is often caught through the 
ice in winter. A favorite mode of 
capturing suckers is by means of a 
slip-noose of horsehair or copper 
wire, and they are also speared. 

Carp was imported from Europe 
about 1855, and is now found in 
many Eastern waters, and also in 
California and Oregon. It frequents 
muddy waters, and is not readily 
captured by angling, though it will 
sometimes take worms, artificial flies, 
and a bait of flour paste. 

Chub, Honey-head, or River Chub. 
This fish is widely distributed in fresh 
waters. It takes the hook readily, 
and is caught with worms or min- 
nows, the tackle used being the same 
as for black bass. 

Grayling. This fish is found 
along the Northern border of the 
United States, and catching it is con- 
sidered fine sport. It is best caught 
with a fly, but bites also at worms 
and insects. 

Salmon. The true salmon if 



FISHING 



331 



FISHING 



caught chiefly in Canadian rivers, and 
in the Penobscot River of Maine, 
from about the middle of May to the 
end of July, while on the way up 
from its annual visit to the sea, to 
deposit its spawn or eggs in fresh 
water. The fish deposit their eggs 
in the gravelly bed of the upper parts 
of the rivers in the autumn and then 
return to the sea. The young fish, 
when first hatched, are called Pinks 
or Paer, in their second year Smolts, 
and in their third Grilse. In fishing 
for salmon, artificial flies of various 
kinds are used. 

Trout. The Speckled, Brook, or 
Mountain Trout, which ranks second 
only to the salmon as a game fish, 
also migrates, or visits the sea, when 
it is possible for it do so. It is found 
in clear, cold streams and lakes ; and 
is caught with angle-worms, artific- 
ial flies, and minnows. In meadow 
brooks and mountain streams the 
fish caught do not average more than 
a pound in weight ; but, in the rivers 
and lakes of Maine and Canada, 
speckled trout of four to six pounds 
are not uncommon, while speci- 
mens have been caught weighing ten 
pounds. The lake trout is found in 
the great lakes, where it is often 
called the Mackinaw trout, and in the 
lakes of Northern New York, New 
England, and Canada. In the great 
lakes it sometimes reaches a weight 
of forty pounds; but in the other 
localities named it is much smaller. 
The lake trout is taken by trolling 
with minnow or spoon bait, and also 
by still-fishing near the bottom in 
deep water. 

White Fish, found in the great 
lakes, is much prized for food. It is 
caught usually in nets called " pound 
nets," from 500 to 1000 feet long. 
The net is stretched on poles, and 
ends in a pocket or trap, into which 
the fish swim and are caught by 
thousands. 

SA L T- WA TER FISff. 

The Ciinner, also called the Salt- 
water Perch, Chogset, Burgall, Nib- 
bier, and Blue Perch, is found in 



great numbers along the coast of the 
United States. It is usually one of 
the first salt water fish caught by 
boys, and will bite readily at almost 
any bait. Clams' heads are often 
used. Light tackle is employed. 
Gunners often annoy fishermen very 
much by nibbling off their bait, 
when they wish to catch larger fish. 

Flat Fish are more gamy than 
the cunner, and excellent eating. 
They have flat bodies and large 
mouths. The tackle and bait are 
like those used forcunners. 

Flounder. This fish is taken all 
along the Atlantic coast, and bites 
best in spring and autumn. It is 
caught either with light tackle and 
clam or lobster bait, or in set-nets, 
and sometimes by spearing at night. 

Striped Bass, or Rock Fish. 
Though" a sea fish, it enters tidal riv- 
ers to spawn, and often runs up 
fresh water streams in search of 
food. Next to the members of the 
salmon family it is considered the 
best game fish in the United States. 
It attains sometimes seventy or eighty 
pounds, but those weighing about 
eight pounds have the best flavor. 
It bites at nearly every kind of bait, 
and even at a white rag or bit of 
cotton, and it can also be caught with 
the artificial fly. A line baited with 
small fish is often cast directly into 
the surf, as in fly-casting. In troll- 
ing for it, the best bait is the min- 
now. Great care is necessary in 
landing the fish after it is hooked, 
for it is very strong, makes long and 
rapid runs, and is not easily tired. 
The Sea Bass, also called Black-fish, 
is caught on the coast of the Northern 
States in May, June, and July. It is 
sometimes caught from the shore, 
but generally from boats at some 
distance from land. It bites best at 
the turn of the tide, and is caught 
with black-fish tackle, and clams or 
shrimp for bait. 

Sea Chub. This fish is common in 
the South and occasionally appears as 
far north as New York. It was found 
there in abundance during the visit 



FISHING 



332 



FISHING 



of Gen. Lafayette to this country in 
1836, and hence is often called the 
Lafayette. It is prized as a delicacy. 

Weak Fish. It is found on al- 
most all the coasts of the United 
States between June and December. 
In the South it is often miscalled 
Trout, which fish it much resembles 
in flavor. Its weight is generally 
from a few ounces up to seven or 
eight pounds, and it is asserted that 
sometimes weighs 25 to 30 pounds. 
It is caught during flood tide, usu- 
ally with clarn bait. A large hook 
of tine steel is used on account of the 
fish's large mouth and soft jaws. The 
same tackle is used as for black bass. 
Weak Fish must be eaten within 
three or four hours after it is caught, 
as its flesh soon gets soft. Some say 
that the name " Weak," was given 
because the mouth is easily'torn by 
the hook ; some that it is a corruption 
of "Wheat Fish," since it is caught 
when wheat is ripe ; and others 
assert that it is corrupted from the 
originaHndian name, Squeteague. 

Sheepshead. This is naturally a 
Southern fish, but is taken along the 
coasts of the Northern States from 
June till October. It generally weighs 
seven or eight pounds, but sometimes 
as much as seventeen. It has a head 
sloping abruptly to the snout and 
large oblong scales ; is of a dull silver 
color with coppery gleams, and has 
five dark arched bands across the 
back and tail. Its head and forehead 
are black and the chin is marked 
with patches, which, with its peculiar 
profile and prominent teeth, give it 
a fancied resemblance to the head of 
a sheep. It a wary and hard fish to 
hook and to land. Sheepshead is 
delicious eating and highly prized by 
epicures. Special hooks are made 
for sheepshead fishing ; clam, crab, 
or fiddler bait is the best. Sheeps- 
head are found about wrecks, sunken 
timbers, the piles of wharves, or on 
a rock bottom, and hand-line fishing 
is commonly practiced, though the 
use of rod and reel affords better 
sport. 



Scup, or Scuppog. It is called 
also the Porgie, Porgy, or Paugie, and 
is found all along the Atlantic coast. 
It is caught generally from a row boat 
with a hand line, a medium sized 
hook, and a sinker heavy enough to 
carry it to the bottom. Clam bait is 
commonly used, though the fish bite 
well at shrimp. 

Blue-fish. It is called also the 
Skipjack, and sometimes the Horse 
Mackerel, or the Snapper, is found 
on the American coast from Brazil to 
Massachusetts, and is common also 
in Europe. Full-grown Blue-fish 
are one to three feet long, and weigh 
four to ten pounds. They are usually 
caught with a squid, as described 
above, trolled from a sailboat, or 
thrown out and drawn in from shore. 
They often run in " schools," through 
which the fishermen sail to and fro, 
trolling their lines, and taking the 
fish with great rapidity. They swim 
near the surface, and leap at any 
living thing they see. When fresh 
from the water they are delicious eat- 
ing, but their delicate flavor is lost if 
they are kept more than a few hours. 
Small blue-fish are caught from 
the shore in New England, during 
the early autumn, with light tackle 
baited with clams or minnows, at 
which they bite greedily. 

Mackerel are commonly taken in 
seines, but may be caught in much 
the same way as blue-fish, though 
the squids used are smaller. They 
will bite also at hooks baited with 
small bits of mackerel skin, or even 
with bits of white or red cloth. 

Smelts. These fish are taken 
along the coast north of New Jersey 
in large seines, but will bite also at 
hooks. They run up the rivers to 
spawn like salmon, and in Maine and 
the British provinces they sometimes 
pass their lives wholly in fresh water. 
Smelts are caught in Maine, through 
the ice, with what is called the " um- 
brella tackle," consisting of an ar- 
rangement made like an umbrella 
frame without the handle. To the 
end of each rib hangs a short line 



FISHING 



333 



FISHING 



with a hook, and the whole is sus- 
pended from a fish-pole by a single 
line, fastened at the place where the 
top of an ordinary umbrella handle 
comes through. 

Herring. This fish, which runs 
into the mouths of all the northern 
and northeastern rivers of America, 
is greatly sought for food. It is usu- 
ally caught with a net, but may. be 
angled for with an artificial fly in the 
spring. It is colored blue above and 
silvery white below. The shad, which 
is of the same family as the herring, is 
likewise generally taken with a net, 
but can sometimes be caught with 
the fly, affording excellent sport. The 
shad is a dusky blue above, with 
brown and green tints. His sides 
are silvery white, with a tinge of. cop- 
per color. It is considered by many 
the most delicious of all table fish. 

Tantog, or Black-fish. It is found 
from South Carolina to Massa- 
chusetts Bay, and is usually caught 
best near rocks, sunken wrecks, or 
deserted docks. The grounds it 
frequents are often " baited " by 
throwing crabs or clams into the 
water, in hopes of enticing it to come 
there to feed. Black-fish usually 
weigh two to ten pounds. The 
ordinary bait is soft clams, fiddler 
crabs, or bits of lobster. Two hooks 
are generally used, with snells of 
twisted gut, one twelve, and one 
fifteen inches long. Either hand- 
lines or rods are used. 

Fish caught in deep salt water, 
such as the Cod, Haddock, Whiting, 
and Halibut, are not usually classed 
as game fish, being caught chiefly 
for a livelihood. They are some- 
times taken for spprt, but this con- 
sists merely in the frequency of the 
biting, for they offer little resistance, 
and are hauled in by mere strength. 
They are all found everywhere north 
of New York, and pleasure parties 
are sometimes formed to catch them. 
Cod and. haddock are caught off 
Block Island, on the Rhode Island 
coast, salted clams or pieces of fish 
being used for bait. The line is a 



heavy cotton one from 400 to 600 
feet long, with a sinker weighing 
twelve ounces or more, and very 
large hooks. 

FISH LA ws. 

Most of the States have laws 
regulating the fishing for food and 
game fish. Thus, it is forbidden to 
capture trout, bass, and other fish 
by netting or spearing, or in any 
way except with hook and line. 
Fishing is permitted only during cer- 
tain months, which are called the 
"open season." TheState,county,and 
town laws are frequently changed, 
and, therefore, the table which follows 
is probably not quite exact. Some 
States forbid taking fish under a cer- 
tain size or weight. In general, the 
purpose of the law is to forbid fishing 
methods that will destroy the supply. 
Heavy fines, and even imprisonments, 
are the penalties for violating the fish 
laws ; but anglers consider it a point 
of honor to obey the laws and to 
influence others to obey them. The 
laws apply to fishing in private 
waters as well as in those that are 
public. The following table shows 
when fish are in season in States 
where the catching of such fish is 
regulated by law. To find what fish 
are in season in "any particular 
month, the reader must look down 
the column under the name of the 
month. The fish, opposite whose 
names there is a black line in that 
column, are then in season. The 
shorter black lines mean first half of 
the month, when printed toward the 
left ; and last half when toward the 
right. By beginning with the fish's 
name ami following the line toward 
the right, it can be seen, in like 
manner, during what time it can be 
legally taken. For instance, the 
table shows that the trout season in 
Illinois begins on February 15, and 
ends on June 15. These' times 
are only approximately correct, as 
legislatures are constantly changing 
them. The sportsman to be abso- 
lutely safe should therefore make 
special inquiry in each case. 



FISHING 



334 



FISHING 





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Iowa 


Maine (by citizens) 






























Massachusetts 1 


and Minnesota [ 
Michigan and New York ... 













_ 





New Hampshire (with hook and line) 
(in anyway) 
New Jersey 


New Mexico 
North Carolina / 
















- 




West of the Blue Ridge ) 
Ohio 








^^_ 












Pennsylvania (speckled) 














-" 






(Lake) 




Vermont 



































- 


Salmon. 


Illinois 




. 











- 
















Maine (with hook and line) 
" (in all ways) 




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Massachusetts 


Ohio 


Pennsylvania 


Black Bass. 







__ 





















Illinois 































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New Hampshire 




Vermont 






















Grayling. 




















New Hampshire 
Shad. 
California 


































Blue Fish. 
In Southern Waters 
















In Northern Waters 


Shad. 
On North Atlantic Coast 


Mackerel. 
Weak Fish. 
Sheepshead. 


I n Northern Waters 


Sea Bass. 
In Southern Waters 




Black Fish. 
Muscalonge. 
Dakota 












Pike and Pickerel. 










^ 




















New Hampshire 









FISHING 



335 



FISHING 



Perch. 

Maine ..4.... . 

New Hampshire 

Herring. 

District of Columbia 

Smelt. 

Maine (except by hook and line). 

Massachusetts . . 



Trespassing". If the bottom of a 
stream is owned by any one, as it is in 
some cases, the owner alone has the 
right to fish in it, even if it is deep 
enough to float a boat. If it is not 
deep enough for boats, then the right 
belongs to the owner of the land on 
the nearest bank, no matter how 
wide the stream might be. In tide 
water, the right to fish belongs to 
the State, and it is usually free to all; 
but in some cases the State grants it 
to particular persons. When a per- 
son fishes in water without the per- 
mission of the one who owns the right 
to do so, he is a trespasser. What 
has been said on this subject, under 
HUNTING, applies to fishing also. 
Some States have made special laws 
on this subject, but in general the 
law is as it has been given above. 

History. The earliest tribes of 
men caught fish with what are 




Fig. 32. Ancient Bronze and Stone 
Gorges. 

called gorges (see Fig. 32), pieces of 
pointed stone about an inch long, 
and having a groove in the middle 



for the line. The bait was put on so 
as to cover the gorge, which turned, 
after it was swallowed, across the 
fish's gullet and held it fast. One 
of these gorges, dug up in France, 
was used in what is called the Stone 
Age, before man understood the use 
of metals, and is estimated to be 
eight or nine thousand years old. 
Later, in the Bronze Age, gorges of 
bronze were used, and then hooks 
of bone and of bronze (see Figs. 33- 




Fig. 33. Ancient Bone Hooks. 

34). The Indians of California used 
hooks made of shell (Fig. 35). On 
the coast of France hooks are some- 
times made of thorns, and the Piute 
Indians use the spine of a cactus. 
The Bible shows us that the use of 
hook and line was known, very early, 
to the Jews. The question in the 
book of Job, "Canst thou draw out 
Leviathan with a hook ? " is supposed 
to refer to it. The prophet Isaiah 
says, " The fishers also shall mourn, 
and all they that cast angle in 
the brooks." Among the ancient 
Greeks and Romans angling was 
much practiced, and Antony and 
Cleopatra and the Emperor Trajan 
were fond of it. The sport has 
always been a favorite with many 
great men, among them Lord Nelson, 
Sir Walter Scott, and Sir Humphrey 



FISHING 



336 



FLAT-BOATING 



Davy. More than a thousand books 
on angling have been written in 




Fig. 34. Ancient Double and Single 
Bronze Hooks. 

English alone, the first of which, by 
Juliana Rerners, was mirilished in 




Fig. 35. Snell Hook. 

1496. One of the most celebrated 
is " The Compleat Angler," by Isaac 



Walton, a noted angler, which first 
appeared in 1653 and has been repub- 
lished many times. The fifth edition 
(1676) was accompanied by a second 
part, giving instructions for fly fish- 
m g by h' s adopted son Charles 
Cotton, and the two are now always 
printed together. 

FISH POND. See ANGLING. 

FIVES. See RACKETS. 

FLAT-BOATING. Broad, flat-bot- 
tomed boats, called flatboats, bear- 
ing a wooden cabin, are used on 
shallow rivers and inlets by sports- 
men. A flatboat is easily built by 
any one with a taste for carpentry 
The hull should be about 14 feet 
long, 6 feet wide, and 18 inches 
deep, of two-inch pine planks, with a 
bottom of half-inch boards nailed on 
lengthwise. The whole should be 
calked with oakum and painted with 
coal-tar. The cabin is a framework 
covered with thin plank, and is about 
five feet high, and six feet square. 
In front of the cabin two oar-locks 
are fastened, which may be made of 
notched boards, and near the bow a 
small mast is set up. Another oar- 
lock, for the steering oar, is placed 
at the stern. The boat is propelled 
by rowing, and sometimes also by a 
square sail. It is slow, but its object 
is simply to furnish shelter to the 
sportsman, and enable him to move 
about from place to place in search 
of fish or game. It can float in 
water too shallow for a rowboat. 
A simpler kind of flatboat, which 
has been named a Crusoe-raft, is a 
raft of logs, joined together by cross 
strips, fastened by wooden pegs 
driven through auger holes. On the 
raft is a sort of tent made of bent 
saplings, covered with cloth, like the 
top of an old-fashioned emigrant 
wagon. For oars, long poles, with 
flat boards at the ends, may be used, 
and the tent should be floored with 
small sticks and partially filled with 
hay or straw. Such a raft may be 
built in the woods, floated down a 
river, and then abandoned, the boat- 
ing party returning by rail. A flat- 



FLOUR 



337 



boat journey is a kind of CAMPING 
OUT on the water and the outfit should 
be much the same as for a camp on 
land. An oven of stones may be 
built on the boat, so that cooking 
may be done on board. 

FLOUR, an Explosion with. Any 
fine flour can be used in this experi- 
ment, but the best is ordinary corn 
starch. Nail together two boards, 
each about eighteen inches square, in 
the shape of a V, so that they make an 
angle of about 60 degrees. Lay the V 
on its side and at the top of the angle, 
fasten a candle by a wire, so that it 
projects into the space within the 
boards about an inch. Place within 
the V about a handful of corn starch, 
and, having lighted the candle, blow 
the starch toward the angle vigor- 
ously with an ordinary bellows. A 
dense cloud of flour will rise at the 
angle, and as it passes the candle it 
will take fire with a sudden puff, 
making a mass of flame. If the 
cloud does not catch fire at first it is 
probably because it is not thick 
enough. This can be remedied by 
using more corn starch, or blowing 
it more vigorously. 

To blow the side out of a box 
with an explosion of this kind, remove 
one side of a wooden box about eight 
or ten inches square, and replace it 
with thick brown wrapping paper, 
gummed on tightly. Bore a hole in 
one of the lower corners to admit the 
bellows nozzle, and another in the top 
for ventilation. Put in a handful of 
corn starch through the hole in the 
top, and lower a lighted candle 
through the same hole with a wire, 
bending the wire so that the candle 
will hang within the box. Blow with 
the bellows through the lower hole, 
and after a few trials an explosion 
can be produced which will blow 
out the paper side of the box. 

The reason why flour explodes 
thus, when it is in the form of a 
cloud, is that then each particle 
is surrounded by oxygen enough to 
burn it (see FIRE, in C. C. T.), and 
yet the particles are near enough for 



the fire to pass from one to the other 
so that they flame up all at once. 

FLOWERS, Changes of Color in. 
Pour some common ether into a 
wine-glass, and to it add about one- 
tenth its bulk of strong ammonia 
water. This mixture has the prop- 
erty of changing the colors of many 
flowers when they are dipped into 
it. Some whose colors are red or 
violet, such as the red geranium, the 
violet, the periwinkle, the lilac, the 
rose, and the heliotrope, are turned 
bright green. The upper petal of 
the violet sweet pea becomes dark 
blue and the lower petal green. The 
streaked carnation becomes brown 
and bright green. White flowers 
generally turn yellow or orange, 
but yellow ones are not changed. 
The action of the liquid is so quick 
that flowers can be spotted simply 
by sprinkling it over them. Similar 
changes can be produced by using 
ammonia alone, through not so quick- 
ly. The ammonia may be poured on 
a glass plate and covered with an in- 
verted dish, containing the flowers. 
Asters acquire an aromatic odor 
when thus treated. The colors of 
flowers which have been turned 
green in either of these ways may 
be somewhat restored by placing 
them in a vessel over hydrochloric 
acid. (See also SULPHUR.) 

FLUORESCENCE, Experiments 
on. See QUININE. 

FLY AWAY, a game played by any 
number of persons, with marbles, 
and an upright frame, seven inches 
high, on which are hung five small 
weights by elastic cords. The cords 
are kept stretched by fastening the 
weights to a cross bar near the 
ground, but, if one of the weights is 
struck by a rolling marble, it is un- 
fastened and the elastic pulls it up 
quickly, so that it seems to fly away. 
The players take turns in rolling one 
or more marbles at the frame, and 
when a weight is struck the player 
scores whatever number is written 
above it. In another form, the 
weights are replaced by little boards 



FLYING CONE 



338 



FOOT BALL 



which, on being struck with the 
marbles, turn over, showing a comi- 
cal picture on the other side. 

FLYING CONE, or Devil on Two 
Sticks, a toy consisting of two cones 
joined at their points (see A, in illus- 
tration), and made to spin in the air 



RIGHT HAND 




Flying Cone. 

by means of a string a yard long, 
fastened by two sticks, each about 
two feet long. The toy is first laid 
on a table with the string under it, the 
player holding one of the sticks in 
each hand. The cone being near 
the right-hand stick, the player lifts 
that steadily so as to make the cone 
revolve. By tossing it up a little way 
the string can be brought back to 
the same point, and by repeating the 
process the cone is made to spin very 
rapidly. The skillful player can then 
toss it high into the air, and catching 
it, make it dance on the tightened 
string, cause it to roll up one of the 
sticks to his arm, and perform many 
other feats. 

History, This toy had its origin 
in China, where peddlers use it to 
announce their approach by its hum- 
ming. The Chinese form is much 
larger than ours, and consists of two 
cylinders of metal or bamboo united 
by a thin stem. The string makes 
a running knot around the stem, and 
no sticks are used in spinning it. 
On its introduction into Europe, 
early in this century, it assumed its 



present form. In France, where it 
it called Le diable (The Devil), it 
was at one time so popular that, says 
a French writer, the toys " were 
made of the most valuable woods 
and even of glass. They were played 
with in parlors and on roofs, in 
public places and 
promenades ; the 
sport was not con- 
fined to children, 
but ladies and even 
persons of emi- 
nence strove to ex- 
cel in it, often to 
the great risk of 
the glass and por- 
celain in parlors, 
and often, too, with 
danger to the heads 
of the passers by, 
when the Devil was 
sent from afar by 
an inexpert player." 
The English 

scientist, Maxwell, a professor in the 
University of Cambridge, devoted 
much time to studying the move- 
ments of the Double Cone in the 
air, and succeeded in completely 
explaining it mathematically. 
FLYING TOP. See TOPS. 
FLY THE GARTER. See LEAP 
FROG. 

FOLLOW MY LEADER, a game 
played by any number of persons, 
one of whom is chosen as leader, 
while the others follow him and do 
whatever he does. The players 
form in line behind the leader, who 
generally begins the same by doing 
some simple thing like leaping, hop- 
ping, or shouting. If any of the play- 
ers fail to perform any of the leader's 
feats, that player must fall behind 
all those who were able to do so. 
The game may be made exciting by 
a good leader, but he should be care- 
ful not to lead his followers into 
danger. 

FOOT AND A HALF. See LEAP 
FROG. 

FOOT BALL, a game played by 
22 persons, 1 1 on each side, with a 



FOOT BALL 



339 



FOOT BALL 



large oval ball, usually of inflated 
rubber with a leather cover, on a 
field 330 feet long and i6ofeet wide.- 



At each end is a goal made of two 
posts i8i feet apart, with a crossbar 
10 feet from the ground. The 



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Goal Line. Goal Line. 




(18^ feet.) 








( Goal. ) 








160 feet. 






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25 yard-line Limit of Kick-out. 


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Touch in Goal. 


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Touch in Goal. 



Diagram of Field. 



posts project several feet above the 
crossbar. The end boundaries of 
the field are called goal lines. The 



space beyond these lines, on either 
end and between the extended side 
lines, is called a Goal. The space 



FOOT BALL 



340 



FOOT BALL 



outside the side lines and between 
the extended goal lines is called 
Touch, and the space at the corners 
of the field, between the extended 
goal and side lines, is called Touch- 
in-Goal, as shown in the figure. 
Usually the field is marked also with 
cross-lines every five yards, to aid 
the referee in determining how far 
the ball has advanced. These lines 
give the foot-ball field the look that 
has led to its popular name of " the 
gridiron." Two of them, the fifth 
from each goal respectively, are 
called the "25-yard lines." All the 
lines are marked with lime. Each 
party or " team " consists of eleven 
persons, namely, seven Rushers or 
Forwards, a Quarter Back, two 
Half Backs, and one Full Back or 
Goal Tend. The opposing players 
face each other, and each side tries 
to carry or kick the ball toward the 
opposite goal, and either to touch 
the ball to the ground behind the 
goal (called "making a Touch- 
down ") or to kick it over the cross- 
bar between the goal posts (called 
" kicking a Goal "). In general, the 
Rushers try to carry the ball for- 
ward and also to protect the Half 
Backs and Full Back, who do all the 
kicking. 

The Center Rusher or " Snapper- 
back," should be a large, powerful 
man, but it is not necessary that he 
should run fast. His neighbors on 
either side are called " Guards," 
those next to these the " Tacklers," 
and the farthest ones the " End 
Rushers," who must be good gen- 
eral players and fine runners. The 
Quarter Back's position is the most 
responsible on the field, as it rests 
with him to determine the direction 
of the playing, and at critical mo- 
ments he may even change the cap- 
tain's policy. When the ball is held 
by the enemy the Quarter Back plays 
as a Rusher or Half Back. The 
best players in this position have 
usually been rather small men. The 
Half Backs should possess coolness 
and pluck, and must run, kick, and 



tackle well. The Full Back must be 
a long kicker and fine tackier, so 
that it will be almost impossible for 
a hostile man to pass him. The 
captains usually direct the play of 
their men by secret signals pre- 
viously agreed upon. 

The leaders of the sides toss up 
before the game, and the winner 
takes either the " kick-off " or the 
choice of goals. 

The players on each side now 
stand with their backs toward their 
own goal the seven Rushers in a 
line, the Quarter Back just behind, 
then the Half Backs a few yards 
away, and finally the Full Back a 
dozen yards or so to the rear. The 
side having the " kick-off " places 
the ball in the center of the field, and 
one of that side kicks it toward the 
opposite goal. As soon as it is kicked 
it is said to be " in play." Before 
that, all on the kicking-off side stand 
behind the kicker, and all on the 
opposite side must stand at least 10 
yards before the ball. The player 
who next gets possession of the ball 
has the choice of kicking it, of run- 
ning with it, or of throwing it to 
some other player on his own side, 
but he must throw it sideways or 
back, never straight or diagonally 
forward. If he run with it, the 
opposed players may try to stop him 
by seizing or "tackling" him any- 
where above the knees. He may 
try to keep them off by pushing 
with his open hand, but not with his 
closed fist. It requires skill as well 
as strength to stop a good runner. 
Sometimes four or five men will be 
unable to hold him, while at others a 
small player will stop a large one 
almost instantly. If he be tackled, 
and the ball fairly held, he must say 
" Down," and a player on his side, 
usually the Snapper-back, then puts 
the ball on the ground for a " scrim- 
mage." The opposing rushers form 
in two lines, facing each other, each 
on their own side of the place where 
the ball was down. The Snapper- 
back takes the ball and " snaps " it 



FOOT BALL 



341 



FOOT BALL 



(see note under Rule 6) back to the 
Quarter Back, who passes it io an- 
other player on his own side. That 
player may then try to carry it 
through the opposing rush line or 
kick it, but if in three successive 
" clowns " by the same side the ball 
is not advanced 5 yards, or taken 
back 20 yards, it must then be 
kicked, or surrendered to the oppo- 
nents on the next failure to advance. 
When a ball is kicked, anyone on 
the opposite side who catches it 
fairly, without stepping from his 
place, at the same time making a 
mark with his heel on the ground, 
may have a " free kick." The op- 
ponents may then come up to that 
mark, but must not pass it till, after 
retiring as far as he wishes, the one 
who made the catch kicks it. He 
may take a " drop-kick," or a 
" punt," or hold the ball for a " place- 
kick " (all of which are described 
in Rule 2, below), but if he takes 
a place-kick the opponents may 
advance, or " charge," as soon as 
the ball touches the ground. When 
in the course of the game a player 
succeeds in getting the ball near 
enough to his opponents' goal, he 
may try to kick a goal, which he may 
do in any way except by a punt, or he 
may touch the ball down in Goal, 
which iscalled making a Touchdown. 
His side must then make a " Try at 
Goal," either by a place-kick or a 
punt-out as described in Rules 24 
and 25. When a side has the ball, 
but is hard pressed, near its own 
goal, it may gain a temporary advan- 
tage by taking the ball back across 
the goal line and making a Safety 
touchdown, or " Safety," as described 
in Rule 4 (d). The ball can then be 
carried straight out, not more than 
25 yards from the goal line, and 
kicked. Till it is so kicked the op- 
posing side must not come nearer 
the goal line than 25 yards. A 
" Safety " counts against the side 
making it, but if the ball is kicked 
or carried across the goal line by 
one of the opposite side and then 



comes into possession of the owners 
of the goal, who touch it down, it is 
called a Touchback, and does not 
count against them. If the ball 
crosses the side lines, or " goes in 
touch," it is put in play again, as 
described in Rule 22. 

During the game every player is 
either " off-side " or "on-side" and 
only those " on-side " can take active 
part in the game. Rule io tells 
when a player is off-side and how 
he is put on-side again. The ball 
must be either " in play " or " dead," 
and while it is " dead " no play may 




I .. j 

Ju 



Drop Kick. 



be made. For instance, when a 
Safety has been made, the ball is 
dead till it is put in play, according 
to rule, by a kick-out. Till it is so 
put in play, the player holding it 
may not run with it, kick it, nor 
throw it, and the opposing players 
must make no effort to get pos- 
session of it. Rule ii gives all 
the cases where a ball is dead. All 
disputed points during a match game 
are decided by a referee, an umpire, 
and a linesman, as described in Rule 
29. In a practice game one person 
often does duty for all three. 

A game consists of two halves, 
each 35 minutes long, with a ten- 
minute intermission ; and the side 
scoring the greatest number of 



FOOT BALL 



342 



FOOT BALL 



points wins. The points are deter- 
mined by the Goals, Touchdowns, 
and Safeties as explained in Rule 26. 
The details of the game will be 
better understood by studying the 
rules given below. 

The balls used for playing are of 
various kinds. The Rugby, once 
used in all foot-ball games in this 
country, is oval, and consists of an 
India-rubber bladder with a leather 
case. The English Association ball 
has also a bladder and case, but is 




Foot Balls. 

round. These different kinds of ball 
are made in various sizes, from 20 to 
33 inches in circumference. Foot- 
ball players now usually wear canvas 
jackets lacing in front, and trousers 
of fustian or some other stout ma- 
terial, padded over the knees and 
thighs. Long woolen stockings are 
worn, and sometimes the Forwards 
use shin-guards. Slices are of 
leather or canvas, with leather-strips 
or spikes on the sole. The Quarter 
Back, Center Rush, and Full Back 
often wear simply knit jerseys. 

Foot-ball Rules. Substantially as 
adopted in 1898 by the University 
Athletic Club:* 

EQUIPMENT, OFFICALS, ETC. 

RULE I. (a) The game shall be 
played upon a rectangular field, of 
dimensions described in the preced- 
ing article. 

(b) The game shall be played by 
two teams of eleven men each. 

(L~) The officials shall be a referee, 
an umpire, and a linesman. 

(//) The foot ball used shall be of 
leather, enclosing an inflated rubber 

* In the same year associations of Western and 
Southern colleges adopted rules of their own 
which differ slightly from these. 



bladder. The ball shall have the 
shape of a prolate spheroid. 

DEFINITION OF TERMS. 

RULE 2. (a) A Drop-Kick is 
made by letting the ball drop from 
the hands and kicking it the instant 
it rises from the ground. 

(t>) A Place-Kick is made by 
kicking the ball after it has been 
placed on the ground. 

(c) A Punt is made by letting the 
ball drop from the hands and kick- 
ing it before it touches the ground. 

(d) A Kick-Off' is a place-kick 
from the center of the field of play, 
and cannot score a goal. (Rule 8.) 

(e) A Kick-Out is a drop-kick, 
place-kick, or punt made by a player 
of the side which has made a safety 
or a touchback. 

(f) A Free Kick is a term used 
to designate any kick when the op- 
ponents are restrained by rule from 
advancing beyond a certain point. 

RULE 3. (a) The ball is Out of 
Bounds when it or any part of the 
player who holds the ball touches 
the ground on or outside the side 
line or side line extended. 

(b) If the ball is kicked so that it 
goes out of bounds before crossing 
the opponents' goal line, it shall be- 
long to the opponents. If, however, 
it strikes any player who is on-side, 
and then goes out of bounds, it shall 
belong to the player who first ob- 
tains possession of it. 

RULE 4. (a) A Touchdown is 
made when the ball in possession of 
a player is declared dead by the 
Referee, any part of it being on, 
over, or behind the opponents' goal 
line. 

(b) The point where the touch- 
down is marked, however, is not 
where the ball is carried across the 
line, but where the ball is fairly held 
or called " down." 

(c) A Touchback is made when 
the ball in possession of a player 
guarding his own goal is declared 
(lead by the Referee, any part of it 
being on, over, or behind the goal 
line, provided the impetus which 



FOOT BALL 



343 



FOOT BALL 



sent it to or across the line was 
given by an opponent. 

(d) A Safety is made when the 
ball in the possession of a player 
guarding his own goal is declared 
dead by the Referee, any part of it 
being on, over, or behind the goal 
line, provided the impetus which 
caused it to pass from outside the 
goal to or behind the goal line was 
given by the defending side. 

RULE 5. A Punt-Out is a punt 
made by a player of the side which 
has made a touchdown to another 
of his own side for a fair catch. 

RULE 6. (a) A Scrimmage takes 
place when the holder of the ball 
places it upon the ground and puts it 
in play by kicking it forward or 
snapping* it back. 

(b) If, after the snapper-back has 
taken his position, he should volun- 
tarily move the ball as if to snap it, 
the scrimmage has begun. 

(c) When snapping the ball back, 
the player so doing must be on-side, 
the hand or foot used in snapping 
the ball excepted. (Rule 10.) 

RULE 7. (a) A Fair Catch con- 
sists in catching the ball after it has 
been kicked by one of the opponents 
and before it touches the ground, or 
in similarly catching a punt-out by 
another of the catcher's own side, 
provided the player, while making 
the catch, makes a mark with his 
heel. It is not a fair catch if the 
ball, after the kick, was touched by 
another of his side before the catch. 
Opponents who are off-side shall not 
interfere in any way with a player 
attempting to make a fair catch, nor 
shall he be thrown to the ground 
after such catch is made unless he 
has advanced beyond his mark. 

(b) If a side obtains a fair catch, 
the ball must be put in play by a 
punt, drop-kick, or place-kick, and 
the opponents cannot come within 
ten yards of the line on which the 
fair catch was made ; the ball must 

* Snapping the ball means putting it back by 
hand or foot with one quick and continuous 
notion from its position on the ground. 



be kicked from some point directly 
behind the spot where the catch was 
made, on a line parallel to the side 
line. 

RULE 8. A Goal is made by kick- 
ing the ball in any way, except by a 
punt, from the field of play over the 
crossbar directly over one of the up- 
rights of the opponents' goal. 

RULE 9. Charging is rushing 
forward to seize or block the ball or 
to tackle a player. 

RULE 10. (a) In a scrimmage no 
part of any player shall be ahead of 
the ball when it is put in play. 
(Exception under Rule 6, c.) 

(b) A player is put off-side if the 
ball in play has last been touched by 
one of his own side behind him. 
No player, when off-side, shall touch 
the ball except on a fumble or a 
muff, nor shall he interrupt or 
obstruct an opponent with his hands 
or arms until again on-side. No 
player can, however, be called off- 
side behind his own goal line. 

(<:) A player being off-side is put 
on-side when the ball has touched 
an opponent, or when one of his own 
side has run in front of him, either 
with the ball, or having been the last 
player to touch it when behind 
him. 

(d) If the ball, when not in pos- 
session of either side, is touched 
when inside the opponents' ten-yard 
line by a player who is off-side, it 
shall go as a touchback to the de- 
fenders of that goal. 

RULE ii. The ball is Dead: 

(a) Whenever the Referee or 
Umpire blows his whistle or declares 
a down. 

(b) When the Referee has declared 
that a down, touchdown, touchback, 
safety, or goal has been made. 

(c) When a fair catch has been 
heeled. 

(d) When it has been downed 
after going out of bounds. 

RULE 12. (a) The length of the 
game shall be 70 minutes, divided 
into two halves of 35 minutes each, 
exclusive of time taken out. There 



FOOT BALL 



344 



FOOT BALL 



shall be ten minutes' intermission 
between the two halves. 

(b) The game shall be decided by 
the score at the end of the two halves. 

(c) Time shall not be called for 
the end of a half until the ball is 
dead, and in case of a touchdown, 
the try-at-goal shall be allowed. 

(d) Time shall be taken out 
whenever the game is unnecessarily 
delayed or while the ball is being 
brought out for a try-at-goal, kick- 
out, or kick-off, or when play is 
for any reason suspended by the 
Referee or Umpire. Time shall be- 
gin again when the ball is actually 
put in play. 

(<?) No delay shall continue more 
than two minutes. 

RULE 13. (a) The captains shall 
"toss up " before the beginning of 
the game, and the winner of the toss 
shall have his choice of goal or kick- 
off. The ball shall be kicked off at 
the beginning of each half. When- 
ever a goal, following a touchdown, 
has been tried or a goal from the 
field has been kicked, the side de- 
fending that goal shall kick off. 
The teams shall change goals at the 
beginning of the second half. The 
same side shall not kick off at the be- 
ginning of two successive halves. 

(b) At kick-off, if the ball goes out 
of bounds before it is touched by an 
opponent, it shall be brought back 
and kicked off again. If it is kicked 
out of bounds a second time it shall 
go as a kick-off \p the opponents. 
If either side thus forfeits the ball 
twice, it shall go to the opponents, 
who shall put it in play by a scrim- 
mage at the center of the field. 

(c) At kick-off, if the ball is kicked 
across the goal line and is there 
declared dead when in the posses- 
sion of one of the defending side, it is 
a touchback. If it is declared dead 
thus in possession of the attacking 
side, it is a touchdown. 

(d) At kick-off and on a kick from 
a fair catch, the opposite side must 
stand at least ten yards in front of 
the ball until it is kicked. On a 



kick-out, the opposite side cannot 
stand nearer the goal than the 25- 
yard line, except on a kick-out made 
after a drop-kick upon the first down 
inside the 25-yard line, when the 
15-yard line is the restraining mark. 
(See Rule 23, exception.) 

RULE 14. (<0 The side which 
has a free kick must be behind the 
ball when it is kicked. 

(b) In the case of a kick-off, kick- 
out, or kick from a fair catch, the 
ball must be kicked a distance of at 
least ten yards towards the oppo- 
nents' goal from the line restraining 
the player making the kick, unless it 
is stopped by an opponent ; other- 
wise the ball is not in play. 

RULE 15. (a) Charging is law- 
ful, in case of a punt-out or kick-off, 
as soon as the ball is kicked ; and 
the opponents must not charge until 
the ball is kicked. 

(b) In case of any other free kick, 
charging is lawful: (i) When the 
player of the side having the free 
kick advances beyond his restraining 
line or mark with the ball in his pos- 
session ; (2) When he has allowed 
the ball to touch the ground by 
accident or otherwise. 

(c) If such lawful charging takes 
place, and if the side having the 
free kick fails to kick the ball, then 
the opponents may line up five yards 
ahead of the line which restrained 
them before charging. In that case, 
the side having the free kick must 
kick the ball from some point 
directly behind its mark, if the free 
kick resulted from a fair catch, 
and in other cases from behind the 
new restraining line. 

RULE 1 6. (a) The snapper-back 
is entitled to full and undisturbed 
possession of the ball. The op- 
ponents must neither interfere with 
the snapper-back nor touch the ball 
until it is actually put in play. 

(b) In snapping the ball back, if 
the player so doing is off-side, the 
ball must be snapped again, and if 
this occurs again on the same down 
the ball goes to the opponents. 



FOOT BALL 



345 



FOOT BALL 



(r) The man who snaps back and 
the man opposite him in the scrim- 
mage cannot afterward touch the 
ball until it has touched some player 
other than these two. 

(if) If the man who puts the ball 
in play in a scrimmage kicks it for- 
ward, no player of his side can touch 
it until it has gone ten yards into the 
opponents' territory, unless it be 
touched by an opponent. 

(<?) The man who first receives the 
ball when it is snapped back shall 
not carry the ball forward beyond 
the line of scrimmage unless. he has 
regained it after it has been passed 
to and has touched another player. 

RULE 17. (a) Before the ball is 
put in play no player shall lay his 
hands upon, or by the use of his 
hands or arms interfere with, an op- 
ponent in such a way as to delay 
putting the ball in play. 

(b\ After the ball is put in play, 
the players of the side that has the 
ball may obstruct the opponents with 
the body only, except the player run- 
ning with the ball, who may use his 
hands and arms. 

(c) The players of the side not hav- 
ing the ball may use their hands and 
arms, but only to get their opponents 
out of the way in order to reach the 
ball or stop the player carrying it. 

RULE 18. (a) Before the ball is 
put in play in a scrimmage, if any 
player of the side which has the ball 
takes more than one step in any 
direction, he must come to a full 
stop before the ball is put in play. 

When the ball is put in play by a 
scrimmage : 

(b) At least five players of the side 
having the ball must be on the line 
of scrimmage. 

(c) If five players, not including 
the quarter back, are behind the line 
of scrimmage and inside of the posi- 
tions occupied by the players at the 
ends of said line, then two of these 
players must be at least five yards 
back of this line, but all of these 
players may be nearer than five 



two of them are outside the positions 
occupied by the players at the ends 
of said line. 

RULE 19. A player may throw, 
pass, or bat the ball in any direction 
except toward his opponents' goal. 

RULE 20. (a) If a player having 
the ball is tackled, and the move- 
ment of the ball stopped, or if the 
player cries " clown," the Referee 
shall blow his whistle, and the side 
holding the ball shall put it down for 
a scrimmage. 

(b) As soon as a runner attempt- 
ing to go through is tackled and 
goes down, being held by an oppo- 
nent, or whenever a runner having 
the ball in his possession cries 
" Down," or if he goes out of bounds, 
the Referee shall blow his whistle, 
and the ball shall be considered 
down at that spot. 

(c) There shall be no piling up 
on the player after the Referee has 
declared the ball dead. 

RULE 21. (a) It, in three con- 
secutive downs (unless the ball 
crosses the goal line), a team has 
neither advanced the ball five yards 
nor taken it back twenty yards, it 
shall go to the opponents on the 
spot of the fourth down. 

{b) When a distance penalty is 
given, the ensuing down shall be 
counted the first down. 

RULE 22. If the ball goes out of 
bounds, whether it bounds back or 
not, a player of the side which 
secures it must bring it to the spot 
where the line was crossed, and 
there either 

(a) Touch it in with both hands at 
right angles to the side line and then 
kick it ; or 

(b) Walk out with it at right 
angles to the side line, any distance 
not less than five nor more than 
fifteen yards, and there put it down 
for a scrimmage, first declaring how 
far he intends walking. 

RULE 23. A side which has 
made a touchback or a safety must 
kick out, from not more than twenty- 



yards to the line of scrimmage if ) five yards outside the kicker's goal. 



FOOT BALL 



346 



FOOT BALL 



If the ball goes out of bounds before 
striking a player, it must be kicked 
out again, and if this occurs twice in 
succession, it shall be given to the 
opponents as out of bounds on the 
tvventy-five-yard line on the side 
where it went out. At kick-out, the 
opponents must be on the twenty- 
five-yard line or nearer their own 
goal, and the kicker's side must be 
behind the ball when it is kicked. 
Should a second touchback occur 
before four downs have been played, 
the side defending the goal may have 
the choice of a down at the twenty- 
five-yard line, or a kick-out. 

RULE 24. (a) A side which has 
made a touchdown must try at goal, 
either by a place-kick or a punt-out. 

(b) After the try-at-goal, whether 
the goal be made or missed, the ball 
shall go as a kick-off at the center 
of the field to the defenders. 

RULE 25. (a) If the try be by 
a place-kick, a player of the side 
which has made the touchdown 
shall hold the ball for another of his 
side to kick at some point outside 
the goal on a line parallel to the side 
line passing through the point where 
the touchdown was declared. The 
opponents must remain behind their 
goal line until the ball has been 
placed upon the ground. 

(fi) If the try-at-goal is to be pre- 
ceded by a punt-out, the punter shall 
kick the ball from the point at which 
the line parallel to the side line, and 
passing through the spot of the 
touchdown, intersects the goal line. 
The players of his side must stand 
in the field of play not less than five 
yards from the goal line. 

(c) The opponents may line up 
anywhere on the goal line except 
within the space of ten. feet on each 
side of the punter's mark, but they 
cannot interfere with the punter. If 
a fair catch be made from a punt- 
out, the mark shall serve to deter- 
mine the positions as the mark of 
any fair catch, and the try-at-goal 
shall then be made by a place-kick 
from this spot, or any point directly 



behind it. If a fair catch be not 
made on the first attempt, the ball 
shall go as a kick-off at the center of 
the field to the defenders. 

(d) The holder of the ball in any 
place-kick may be off-side or out of 
bounds without vitiating the kick. 

RULE 26. The following shall be 
the values of plays in scoring: Goal 
obtained by touchdown, 6 points ; 
goal from field kick, 5 points ; touch- 
down failing goal, 5 points ; safety 
by opponents, 2 points. 

RULE 27. (a) No one having 
projecting nails or iron plates on his 
shoes, or wearing upon his person 
any metallic or hard substance that 
in the judgment of the Umpire is 
liable to injure another player, shall 
be allowed to play in a match. No 
sticky or greasy substance shall be 
used on the persons of the players. 

(b) A player may be substituted 
for another at any time at the, dis- 
cretion of the captain of his team, 
and the player who has been re- 
placed cannot return to the game. 

(c) There shall be no tripping or 
tackling below the knees. 

PENALTIES. 

RULE 28. A foul is any violation 
of a rule. [The latest rules prescribe 
minutely the penalties for each kind 
of foul. In general, when the of- 
fending side has the ball, it is pun- 
ished by being made to surrender it 
to the other side; if not, the ball is 
advanced from 5 to 15 yards.] 

DUTIES OF OFFICIALS. 
I. The Referee. 

RULE 29. The Referee is respon- 
sible for the enforcement of Rules 
I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (a and b) ; 7 (except 
as relates to interference, throwing 
catcher, and positions of players); 8, 
ii, 12, 13 (except </) ; 14, / 16, e; 
19, 20 (a and b); 21, 22, 23 (except 
as relates to positions of players) ; 
24, 25 (except as relates to positions 
of players and interference) ; 26. 

In making his decisions the 
Referee must recognize and allow 
precedence to any penalty inflicted 
by the Umpire fora foul. 



FOOT BALL 



347 



FOOT BALL 



The Referee's decisions are final 
upon all points not specified in the 
duties of the Umpire. 

The Referee shall see that the ball 
is properly put in play, and he is 
judge of its position and progress. 

At the beginning of a game and 
after time has been taken out, he shall 
ascertain from each captain that his 
team is.ready, before ordering play. 

He is sole authority for the score 
of the game and is judge of forfeit- 
ure of the game under the rules. 

The Referee may appeal to the 
Umpire and Linesman for testimony. 
//. The Umpire. 

The Umpire is responsible for the 
enforcement of all rules whose in- 
fringement is punishable by a dis- 
tance penally or by the surrender of 
the ball to the opponents, except 13, 
b ; 16, e ; 19. and 23, viz. : Rules 6, 
c; 9, 10, 13 (f; 14 a; 15, 16, (except 
#) ; 17, 1 8, 20 c; 27. 

The Umpire is judge of the con- 
duct of the players, and his decision 
is final regarding such fouls as are 
not specifically placed within the 
jurisdiction of the Referee. 

The Umpire is judge of charging, 
and of the positions of players when- 
ever the ball is put in play. 

He may appeal to both the Ref- 
eree and Linesman for testimony in 
cases of fouls seen by them. 

The Umpire shall not blow his 
whistle nor declare the ball dead, 
nor call time, except to grant a 
penalty for a foul committed. 
///. The Linesman. 

The Linesman shall, under the 
supervision of the Referee, mark 
the distances gained or lost in the 
progress of the play. 

He shall be provided with two 
assistants, who shall remain outside 
the field of play and who shall use, in 
measuring distance, a rope or chain. 

The Linesman shall, under the 
direction of the Referee, also keep 
the time and shall notify the captains 
of the time remaining for play, not 
more than ten nor less than five 
minutes before the end of each half. 



History. Foot ball was a favorite 
game in ancient Greece and Rome. 
The game comes to us from England, 
where it has been played for cen- 
turies. It was customary at one 
time for the different villages in the 
Midland counties to play against 
each other, and desperate strug- 
gles often took place which some- 
times grew into riots and produced 
long and bitter feuds. Foot ball was 
early played at the great English 
schools, and at each of them new 
features were introduced, till several 
forms of the game were developed. 
About 1860, foot-ball clubs began to 
be formed near the large cities, and 
on May 8, 1866, these clubs sent 
delegates to a convention, and 
adopted rules, excluding features of 
the school games that were consid- 
ered too rough. Foot ball, as thus 
played, did not become popular in 
this country till about ten years after 
the adoption of these rules. 1111875 
Harvard and Yale played their first 
game of foot ball with Rugby rules, 
and soon afterwards the game be- 
came a favorite at other colleges. 
The game just mentioned was played 
with eleven men on a side, and this 
is the number that the present col- 
lege rules allow, though in the 
years 1878 and 1879 it was played 
with fifteen on a side. The game 
is played in this country from about 
the 1st of October till the end of 
November. The last official foot- 
ball guide contains records of 77 
school and college teams and of 
6 others,, chiefly from athletic 
clubs. To play foot ball well re- 
quires strength, skill, and cour- 
age, and an English general once 
attributed much of the pluck of 
the English troops to their experi- 
ence of the game. It is very rough, 
and often results in injury to the 
players, but the roughness is now 
restrained, by strict rules, within 
reasonable limits, and a slight degree 
of danger adds to the fascination of 
the game for most persons. There 
are no professionals, or paid foot-ball 



FORFEITS 



348 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



clubs, and the game is seldom played 
by men more than twenty-five years 
old. 

FORFEITS, a game played by any 
number of persons, in which articles 
given up by each of them are 
restored on the performance of 
some difficult or ridiculous feat. 
Usually the forfeits have been paid 
in a previous game, as punishment 
for breaking some rule. One of the 
players, who has been selected as 
judge, sits in a chair, while another, 
who must know to whom the forfeits 
belong, holds them over the judge's 
head one by one, saying : " Heavy, 
heavy, what hangs over your head ? " 
The judge then asks, " Fine or 
Superfine ? " to which the other 
answers " Fine," if the owner of the 
forfeit is a boy, or, " Superfine," if a 
girl, adding, " What shall the owner 
do to redeem it ? " The judge then 
tells what the owner must do to get 
back his property. Sometimes in- 
stead of the first question the follow- 
ing is used : " Here is a forfeit, 
a very fine forfeit. What shall be 
clone to redeem it?" A few of 
the most common tasks are given 
below. 

Forfeits for either boys or girls : 

1. Plow out a candle as it is passed 
rapidly back and forth before the 
mouth. 

2. Place a candle at one end of 
the room, and then walk toward it 
blindfold from the other, and blow it 
out. 

3. Laugh in one corner of the 
room, sing in another, cry in the 
third, and whistle in the fourth. 

4. Bow to the prettiest person in 
the room, kneel to the wittiest, and 
kiss the on? you love best. 

5. Count any required number 
backward. 

6. Pay a compliment to each per- 
son in the room. 

7. Hop around the room on one 
foot. 

8. Kiss your shadow. 

9. Answer " No " to a question 
from each one of the company. 



10. Answer five questions without 
saying " yes" or " no." 

11. Make a courtesy to each girl in 
the room, and a bow to each boy. 

12. Make a speech on any subject 
assigned by the judge. 

13. Repeat a sentence after the 
judge without making a mistake. 

F)rfeits for boys only: 

1. Crawl under the table on all 
fours and bark like a dog. 

2. Stand on your head, or try to 
do so, in the middle of the room. 

3. Hold one foot in your hand, and 
hop on the other around the room. 

4. Join your hands and jump 
through your arms. 

5. Sit on the floor and rise without 
the aid of your hands. 

5. Pick three coins from the floor 
with your teeth. 

7. Jump up and catch in your 
teeth a piece of paper pinned on the 
wall just above your head. (Some- 
times called " browsing.' 1 ) 

8. Kiss the sole of each shoe. 

9. Balance a ruler on your chin or 
nose. 

Forfeits for two persons : 

1. Each holds a lighted candle, 
and they pass and repass each other, 
while they hold the following dia- 
logue, without smiling : 

" The King of Morocco is dead." 
" Sad news ! Sad news ! " 
" Alas ! " 
" Alas ! " 

2. Two or more boys are "trussed" 
(see TRUSSING GAME) and placed in 
a row. The end boy is pushed over, 
and they all go clown like a row of 
building blocks. 

3. Hop on one foot from one end 
of the room to the other, and back. 
He who does this in the quickest 
time redeems his forfeit ; the other's 
is returned to the pile. 

4. Two are blindfolded, and re- 
quired to start from opposite corners 
of the room and shake hands. 

FORTUNE-TELLING, a sport in 
which one person pretends to fore- 
tell what is going to happen to 
another. If this is done merely as a 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



349 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



game, it often furnishes much harm- 
less amusement. Games of SOLI- 
TAIRE are often played as fortune- 
telling games, and others are de- 
scribed in the articles on HALLOW- 
E'EN, and SPORTS WITH FLOWERS 
AND FRUIT. 

A simple fortune-telling game is 
played with a disk of paper over 
which turns a pointer. The pointer 
may be cut out of wood, and 
fastened to the center of the 
disk with a pin, on which 
it can turn easily. The pin 
should be bent as in the 
cut so that the pointer will 
not rub against the paper. 
Around the edge of the disk 
are numbers in regular order, 
and on a separate piece of paper 
are written sentences predicting good 
or evil fortune. For instance : 

" You will inherit a large sum of 
money." 

" You will marry a widow 60 years 
old." 

" You will move to California with- 
in a year." 

Some of the sentences may also be 
warnings. For instance : 

" Beware of a red-haired boy." 

" Keep away from Twenty-third 
street." 

Indeed, the sentences may be varied 
almost infinitely to suit the writer. 
They must be numbered in order to 
correspond with the numbers on the 
disk. The players, one by one, set 
the pointer in motion, and each, not- 
ing the number opposite which it 
stops, seeks his fortune in the sen- 
tence opposite the corresponding 
number. Sometimes the sentences 
are written directly on the disk, but 
it is not possible to have much variety 
in this way. A numbered disk can 
be used with various sets of sen- 
tences. 

Fortune-telling with Cards. I. A 
method which, like the one above, 
requires no skill is to place face up- 
ward, in a row, four Kings, if the 
person whose fortune is told be a 
girl, or four Queens, if it be a boy. 



The boy or girl gives to each card the 
name of an acquaintance, calling 
them after boys, if they are Kings, 
and girls, if Queens. The names 
are usually kept secret till the close 
of the game. The fortune-teller now 
takes the cards one by one as they 
come from the pack, and lays one 
oeneath each of the four Kings or 
Queens, then four others on these, 
and so on. Whenever he deals an 
Ace or face card (called a " turning 
card ") he turns the King or Queen 
above it a quarter-way around, so 
that when four turning cards have 
fallen on the pile below any King or 
Queen it will be turned completely 
around. When one has been thus 
turned quite around, the fortune- 
teller announces that the person 
whose name it bears is the "best 
friend " of the one whose fortune is 
told. He then continues, in the same 
way, till the other three complete 
their turns. The one whose fortune 
is being told is informed, in order, 
that these are : 

The one whose best friend he is ; 

The one he loves best ; and, 

The one he is to marry. 

Sometimes when one card has 
made a complete turn, the pack is 
gathered up, the Kings replaced, and 
the operation begun anew. Thus it 
may happen that the same card 
turns first twice, thrice, or even four 
times. The Kings or Queens must 
all be turned in the same direction, 
so that one which has turned a 
quarter-way around can be told from 
one three-quarters around. The 
best direction is that in which the 
hands of a watch move. Double- 
headed cards must of course be 
marked to distinguish one end from 
the other. 

II. Another method, which re- 
quires quickness and skill in the for- 
tune-teller, is to deal the cards slowly 
face upward on the table just as they 
come from the pack, and by attaching 
some meaning to each one to pretend 
to predict the future. This shouM 
be done as quickly as possible and 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



35 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



can be made very amusing. Each 
fortune-teller should decide on a 
system of his own ; but some of the 
usual meanings attached to cards 
are as follows : 

King or Queen man or woman. 

Knave boy or villain. 

Red face-cards blondes. 

Black face-cards brunettes. 

Diamonds wealth. 

Hearts love. 

Clubs violence, war, or force. 

Spades hard work. 

Thus, suppose the cards to fall as 
indicated below, the fortune-teller 
might talk somewhat in this way. 




The words suggested by the cards 
are in italics. " You will have a 
slight quarrel (i) with a dark man, 
(2) and will have to spend a great 
deal of money (3) to get out of your 
trouble, but a light woman (4) will 
fall deeply in love (5) with you, and 
give you all you want. But her love 
will grow less (6) and less (7), until 
finally she will run off with a dark 
haired villain (8), and leave you to 
work for your living." 

Fortune-Telling by Dots, The 
person whose fortune is to be told is 
directed to make four horizontal 
rows of pencil dots, without count- 
ing the number in each. The for- 
tune-teller now counts them, and 
makes opposite each row a single 
spot if its number is odd, or two 



spots, if even. Thus, if the rows of 
dots are as follows : 



o 







the fortune-teller would place his 
spots as shown at the right, forming 
a sort of figure. There are sixteen 
possible kinds of these figures and 
each is given a name, as shown 
below. 

The usual method is for the in- 
quirer to ask a question, which is 
answered by the fortune-teller in 
accordance with the figure resulting 
from the dots. The meaning of the 
figures is further explained below. 

I. Gain : A distinguished suitor, 
riches, a wish fulfilled, a happy re- 
sult, regaining lost property, many 
friends, new clothes, sickness cured, 
etc. 

- 2. Loss : Extravagance, dancing, 
music, unfaithfulness, deceit, false 
friends, bitter enemies, thieves, etc. 

3. Joy : A betrothal, a pleasant 
change, victory, advancement, and 
honor, etc. 

4. Sorrow : Quarrels with friends, 
an unfortunate speculation, an 
anonymous letter, shipwreck, an 
accident, sickness, etc, 

5. Union, or Harmony : Hopes 
fulfilled, the discovery of treasure, 
advancement, plots, conspiracy. 

6. Captivity : Something caught 
or reached, an interrupted journey, 
buried goods, a mine, treacherous 
love, death, honor attained, etc. 

7. White : Good fortune, a short 
life, a happy marriage, increase of 
wealth by silver, certainty. 

8. Red : Wounds, death in a 
foreign land, bad fortune, fire. 

9. The Public : Mingled good and 
bad luck, enemies and friends, much 
work, tears, and journeys. 

10. The Road : also both good 
and bad. In case of right manage- 
ment all will turn out well, otherwise 
badly. 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



351 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



11. The Dragon's Head : A good 
sign, though what is wished for will 
meet many obstacles. 

12. The Dragon's Tail : A bad 
sign, desolation, bereavement. 

13. Great Luck : The full attain- 
ment of all wishes, wealth, honor, 
love, etc. 

14. Little Luck : Good fortune, 



though not as great as the above, a 
moderate amount of success, etc. 

15. The Maiden : Success in even 
a less degree than the last. 

16. The Youth : Bad luck in a less 
degree than Number 12. 

From what has been given above, 
the skillful fortune-teller will be able 
to return an elaborate answer to any 



Gain. 
5 



Loss. 
6 



Joy. 
7 



Sorrow. 
8 



Union. 
9 



Captivity. 
IO 



White. 
ii 



Red. 

12 



The Public. 
13 



The Road. 
14 



The Dragon's Head. 
IS 



The Dragon's Tail 
16 



Great Luck. 



Little Luck. 



The Maiden. 



The Youth. 



question. It is a good plan, espe- 
cially if the result shows nothing but 
evil, to try again, and combine the 
two results in one prediction. 

Palmistry, fortune telling by 
means of the palm of the hand. 
Different parts of the hand are 
called "mountains" and named 
after the seven planets known to the 
ancients, including the sun and 
moon. The lines on the palm also 
are given names. Both " moun- 



tains " and lines are shown in the 
cut. 

The mountains have different 
meanings according as they are 
high or low ; the lines according 
as they are complete or broken, as 
shown in the following table : 

THE LINE OF COMPLETE. BROKEN. 

Life Long Life Short Life 

The Liver Health Sickness 

The Brain Wisdom Stupidity 

The Table Evil Good 



FORTUNE-TELLING 



352 



FOURTEEN 



Venus 
Jupiter 
Saturn 
The Sun 



THE MOUNT OF HIGH. 

Love 
Honor and 

Rank 
Riches 
Good for- 
tune 

( Luck on a 
The Moon ] 

Mercury Adroitness 

( B a d for- 
Mars - - ? tune in 

( war 

History. In ancient times most 
people believed that certain persons 
could predict the future. Fortune- 



journey 



LOW. 
Hate 
Humble 
condition 
Poverty 
Bad fortune 

111 fortune 
on a jour- 
ney 

Blundering 
Good for- 
t u n e in 
war 




i. Mount of Venus. 2. Mount of Ju- 
piter. 3. Mount of Saturn. 4. Mount of 
the Sun. 5. Mount of Mercury. 6. Mount 
of the Moon. 7. Mount of Mars. 

A. Line of Life. B. Line of the Liver. 
C. Line of the Brain. D. Line of the 
Table. 

telling was carried on regularly at 
the temples of some of the Greek 
gods, the most celebrated of which 
was that of Apollo at Delphi (see C. 
P. P.). The Roman fortune-tellers, 
called harusptces, were consulted be- 



fore undertaking any public enter- 
prise. They pretended to tell for- 
tunes by examining the bodies of 
slaughtered animals or fowls, by the 
flight of birds, by the appearance of 
the heavens, and by all sorts of signs 
and omens. In the Middle Ages the 
favorite method of fortune-telling 
was by Astrology (science of the 
stars, from Greek aster, star, and 
logos, a word), a pretended science 
by which events were foretold from 
the appearance and positions of the 
planets. The people called Gipsies 
often tell fortunes for money, gener- 
ally by means of palmistry. With 
the increase of education belief in 
real fortune-telling has disappeared, 
though ignorant or foolish people 
are now and then deceived by some 
rogue, who pretends to be able to 
tell them about the future. Fortune- 
telling is now used by sensible people 
merely as a game. At fairs, a girl, 
dressed usually as a Gipsy, often 
tells fortunes for money, and, if she is 
clever, is sometimes very successful. 

FOUNTAIN, To make a. In the 
side of an ordinary wooden pail, 
close to the bottom, bore an auger 
hole, and plug it with a cork or rub- 
ber stopper through which passes a 
glass tube about two inches long 
(see CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS). 
Put the pail on a high shelf, and at- 
tach to the glass tube enough rubber 
tubing to reach to the nearest sink, 
or out of doors. At the end of the 
rubber tube fasten a glass jet. If 
the pail be tilled with water and the 
rubber tube closed with a pinch-cock, 
the fountain will play when the cock 
is opened. 

FOURTEEN, a SOLITAIRE game 
of CARDS, played with two full packs. 
Five rows of five cards each are first 
laid out at random to form a square. 
If in any row, either crosswise or up 
and down, there are two cards the 
sum of whose pips is 14, they must 
be taken out, and their places filled 
with the next two in the pack, in the 
same order in which the cards were 
first laid down. The Knave, Queen. 



FOURTH OF JULY 



353 



FOURTH OF JULY 



and King count respectively as II, 
12, and 13. If no cards can thus be 
removed, two may exchange places, 
but this cannot be done twice in 
succession and is allowed only before 
the pack has all been used. When 
the pack is exhausted, the lower row 
is taken up, shuffled, and used to fill 
the spaces in what remains of the 
square. Then the next row is 
treated in like manner. If this can 
be continued till all the cards are 
gone, the game is won. 

FOURTH OF JULY, or Indepen- 
dence Day, the anniversary of the 
signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. It is a National holiday, 
and is made the occasion of many 
sports, chief among which, for boys, 
are the discharge of fire-crackers and 
fire-works. 

Decoration. The colors for Fourth 
of July decorations are of course the 
National colors, red, white, and blue. 
Foremost among the decorations 
should be a large United States flag 
(C. C. T.), to be raised on a staff on 
or near the house. The flag has a 
piece of rope sewed along the edge 
next the Union, the ends of which 
project a little and are made into 
loops. When the flag is to be raised, 
the ends of the halliards are fastened 
to these loops, and the flag is then 
pulled to the top of the pole, when 
the halliards are fastened below 
around a cleat near the bottom. 
The illustrations show the process of 
raising (Fig. i), and the appearance 
of the flag when raised (Fig. 2). 

The proper time to raise the flag 
is at sunrise, when it should be given 
a national salute; as many guns as 
there are States in the Union. Fire- 
crackers, or even torpedoes.will do for 
this, if you have no cannon. Other 
flags, of all sizes, may be draped about 
a house in many ways. A rosette may 
be made of a flag by laying it flat on 
the floor (Fig. 3), pulling the middle 
of one edge down (Fig. 4), and then 
pinning together the halves of that 
edge (Fig. 5). The flag is then 
arranged in rough folds from the 



center to the outside of the rosette, 
and projecting corners are pinned 
under, so as to make the edge cir- 
cular (Fig. 6). The whole must be 
pinned together firmly as it lies 01* 
on the floor, and then it can be fast- 
ened with tacks to the wall of the 




Fig. i. 

house. If, instead of one flag, two 
be pinned together lengthwise, so 
that the unions adjoin, the stars will 
be at the center of the rosette. Many 
other designs can thus be formed of 
one or more flags, by any one with 



FOURTH OF JULY 



354 



FOURTH OF JULY 



ingenuity. Strips of colored bunting 
may be arranged in festoons, or 
wound spirally about the posts of 
verandas. Little flags, about six 
inches long, can be utilized by fast- 
ening then in rows, or arranging them 
to form figures or letters. Patriotic 




Fig. 2. 

mottoes may be made of letters cut 
out of red and blue paper, and framed 
in flags. For the interior of the 
house, red, white, and blue flowers 
are the best decoration. Portraits of 
eminent Americans, draped in flags, 



may be displayed on the walls, and if 
there is in the house some relic of the 
Revolution, an old sword or musket, 




Fig. 3- 

for instance, it should be brought out 
and similarly draped. 

Evening Decorations. In the even- 
ing the house and yard may be illumi- 




Fig. 4- 
nated; that is, brilliantly lighted. 



nated; that is, brilliantly lighted. 
The simplest way to illuminate a 




Fig. 5. 

house is to open wide all the blinds 
and curtains and place one or more 



FOURTH OF JULY 



355 



FOURTH OF JULY 



lights in each room. The house 
may be made more brilliant by plac- 
ing candles in the windows. Cross 
bars are often made to fit on the in- 
side of the sash, and on these, bits of 
candle about three inches long are 
fastened in rows. Colored designs 




may be cut from tissue paper and 
hung in the window, with lights 
directly behind them. Designs made 
thus can be pasted on the panes and 
will give the effect of stained glass at 
a distance. They can be washed off 
afterwards with hot water. Chinese 
or Japanese lanterns are very effec- 
tive. The usual way of arranging 
them is on strings, or wires, which 
are festooned from one tree or post 
to another. 

Fire-crackers and Fire-works. 
These are ' described in C. C. T. 
The noise of fire-crackers, when 
set off in packs, is much increased 
by placing them under a box or bar- 
rel. When fired singly, the knot 
at one end of the pack must be 
untied, and the crackers can be then 
easily pulled out, one by one. It is 
usually better to break off part of the 
fuse before lighting, as the end 
burns slowly and is apt to go out. 
If the cracker is to be exploded in 
the air, it should be held in the hand, 
and thrown just as the fuse has 
burned clown to the end. Many 
fuses burn by fits and starts, so one 



should never bend down close to a 
cracker to see whether or not the 
fuse has gone out. Persons have 
been seriously injured by the explo- 
sion in their faces of crackers, 
especially of cannon-crackers, an 
accident with which might be 
serious. Poor crackers may be 




Fig. 7. Fizzer. 



made into " fizzers " by breaking 
them in two, placing on the ground, 
and applying a piece of punk to the 
broken place, taking care that the 
fingers are not in the way of the 
flame which shoots out. A fizzer 
may be held in the thumb and finger, 
in such a way that the flame cannot 
reach the hand, from whichever 
end of the cracker it may issue. 
Fire-crackers may be fired by elec- 
tricity, by winding around the fuse, 
close to the cracker, a piece of plati- 
num wire connected with an ELEC- 
TRIC BATTERY. When the circuit 
is closed the wire will be heated red- 
hot, lighting the fuse and exploding 
the cracker. The wire should be 
connected with the battery before 
trying to fire the cracker, to see 
whether it will heat it red-hot. If 
not, either the wire is too large or 
the battery not strong enough. 
Very fine iron wire will do as well as 
platinum if it can be obtained, and 
is not so expensive. To explode 
the cracker instantaneously, which 
is not done by the above method, a 
needle must be passed through it, 
and the wire threaded through the 
hole thus made, instead of being 
wound around the fuse. For an 



FOURTH OF JULY 



356 



FOURTH OF JULY 



ordinary exhibition of fire-works, a 
post must be prepared for tire-wheels, 
and a trough for rockets. It is a 
good plan to have the wheels fastened 
to the post all ready to light, and to 
see that they revolve easily, so that 




there will he no trouble when even- 
ing comes. If it should be necessary 
to start the wheels, as it often is, it 
should be remembered that they turn 
in the opposite direction from that 
of the sparks. The rocket trough 
can be made of two boards, each 




Fig:. 9- 

above five feet long and four inches 
wide, nailed together at right angles 
along the edges. It is leaned against 
a fence, and the rockets are placed 
in it, one by one, just before firing 
(Fig. 8). Tripod rockets require no 



trough but stand alone, the stick 
being made in three pieces, which 
open out to form legs like those of a 
three-legged table (see Fig. 9). 

Fire-crackersandfire-worksareusu- 
ally lighted by punk, which is made 
of any substance which will smolder 
slowly without flaming. One kind 
may be made at home by soaking 
strips of ordinary thick pasteboard 
in salt and water, and other kinds 
may be bought. Instead of punk, 
pieces of exploded fire-crackers may 
be used. It can be put out by rub- 
bing the lighted part off on a stone. 

Chromotropesi revolving colored 
designs, lighted from behind. 
They consist of two parts, a fixed 
and a moving part. The fixed part 
(Fig. 10) may be almost any design, 




Fig. 10. 

cut out of thick paper ; the moving 
one (Fig. 11), which revolves behinc 




it, is painted with transparent colors 
on oiled paper in a spiral pattern. 



FOURTH OF JULY 



357 



FOURTH OF JULY 



Or it may be composed of strips of 
colored tissue paper pasted on a 
background of white tissue paper. 
The moving part is stretched on a 
barrel hoop, across which a lath is 
nailed (Fig. 12). A hole is bored 




Fig. 12. 

through the center of the lath so 
that the whole can be made to re- 
volve on a nail in an upright post, 
close behind the fixed design. One 
or more lamps are held just behind 
theChromotrope, and then the barrel 
hoop is spun around by a person 
standing at one side. The effect is 
very pretty, as the changing colors 
are seen through the holes in the 
fixed piece, and forms a good sub- 
stitute for fire-works. Chromotropes 
made of glass are often shown on 
screens by means of the MAGIC LAN- 
TERN. The word Chromotrope is 
from two Greek words, chroma, 
color, and trepein, to turn. It is 
sometimes called, also, "Chinese fire- 
works." The inventor, Mr. Allen, an 
Englishman, called it " pyreido- 
trope," from the Greek pur, fire, 
idein, to see. and trepein, to turn. 

Another kind of Chromotrope con- 
sists of three disks which partially 
overlap, as shown in Figs. 13 and 14. 
Each disk has several different colors, 
and as the disks revolve the colors 
appear to change. These can be 
mpHe on a large scale for exhibition 



on the Fourth of July in the same 
way as those described above, by 




Fig. 13. Front View. 

stretching oiled paper or tissue paper 
over barrel hoops. 




Fig. 14. Rear View. 

Day Fire-works, colored paper cut 
into different shapes and scattered 
through the air in various ways. 
The simplest way is to throw them 
from a window. Descriptions of 
some kinds are given below, and 
others can easily be devised. 

I. The Whirligig. A square 
piece of paper is cut and folded to 



FOURTH OF JULY 



358 



FOURTH OF JULY 



make a windmill as shown in Fig. 15. 
A pin is passed through the mid- 




15- 



die, the point is bent into a hook, 
and to it is fastened a slight weight, 
like a very small pebble, or a shot, 
wrapped in tissue paper and hooked 
to the pin. When such a whirligig 
is thrown from a window it will spin 
rapidly as it falls, and a number of 
them of various colors, falling at once, 
make a pretty sight. 

2. Spirals. These can be cut 




Fig. 16. 

from circular pieces of paper as 
shown in Fig. 16, and then pulled 




rig. 



out, as in Fig. 17. When dropped, 
they too will spin around. 



3. Shreds of gilt or silvered paper : 
and stars, circles, or other figures of 
the same material may be thrown 
into the air in great numbers. 

4. Bombs. Another way of dis- 
charging Day Fire-works is by means 
of a bomb, which consists of from 
four to eight whalebones fastened 
to two curtain rings. The rings are 
tied together with three strings. The 
whalebones are fastened tightly to 
the lower ring but the ends are 
merely caught under the upper one, 
so that a slight knock will dislodge 
them (see Fig. 18). 

Quantities of paper fire-works are 
secured very loosely around the top 




Fig. 18. 

ring, so that when the whalebones 
are released they will be thrown 'in 
all directions. There are several 
ways of setting the bombs off. One 
is to fasten a string to the lower ring, 
pass it through the upper, and then, 
holding the end, drop the bomb, giv- 
ing the string an upward jerk just as 
it reaches its full length. Another 
is to pass it over an upright fixed 
pole, arrange the string as before, 
pass it over a pulley at the top, and 
haul up the bomb. When the top 
ring hits the pulley, the whalebones 




Fig. 19. 

will be dislodged and the fireworks 
will fly (see Fig. 19). 

Balloons. Large balloons are de- 
scribed in C. C. T. Toy balloons, 



FOURTH OF JULY 



359 



FOURTH OF JULY 



made of tissue paper, which can be 
bought at toy stores or made at 
home.are often sent up on the Fourth. 
Home-made balloons are constructed 
by pasting together gores cut out of 
tissue paper and shaped as in Fig. 20. 




Fig. 20. 

One of these is folded lengthwise 
down the middle and a second placed 
on it so that only a little margin of 
the first shows ; this margin is lapped 
over and pasted to the second, which 
is then folded lengthwise like the 
first. The desired number of gores 
is pasted together thus, and then the 
free edges of the first and last are 
pasted, thus forming the complete 
balloon. The shape of the balloon 
depends on the shape and number of 
the gores. Different shapes are shown 
in Figs. 21, 22, and 23. The length of 




Fig. 21. 

the line A B, allowing for pasting, 
multiplied by the number of gores, is 
the circumference at the neck, and 



that at the largest part may be found 
in like manner. The length of the 
balloon will be somewhat less than 
that of the gores, The best shape 
for a balloon is as nearly spherical as 
possible. A narrow balloon, or one 




Fig. 22. 



with a neck, takes fire easily. When 
the tissue paper has been pasted, a 
circle of wire the size of the opening 
at the neck, is made, with two cross 
pieces at right angles, and fastened 
by lapping the paper over it and 
pasting. A paper loop is pasted at 




Fig. 23. 

the top of the balloon, and a small 
ball of lamp-wick, about an inch 
thick, is rolled together and fastened 
by