(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Youngstown cook book"

Class JDLllX- 

Book_liLi 

Copyright }l? 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT. 



'•i?'K\>i 



YouNGSTOWN Cook Book 

COMPILED BY THE LADIES OF THE 
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

YOUNGSTOWN. OHIO 



'We may live without poetry, music and art; 
We may live without conscience, and live without heart ; 
We may live without friends ; we may live without books ; 
But civilized men can not live without cooks. 
He may live without books— what is knowledge but grieving ? 
He may live without hope— what is hope but deceivmg? 
He may live without love— what is passion but pmmg ? 
But where is the man that can live without dining ?"—Luc//e. 



1905 
THE VINDICATOR PRINTING COMPANY 

YOXJNGSTO^VN, OHIO 



LIBRARY of CONGRESS 
Two Cooies Received 

JAN 8 1906 

CoDyriym Entry 

CLASS a, XXc, No. 

COPY B. 



-f 



^^\^ 



^h 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1905, by the 

LADIES OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, OF YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



PREFACE 



Cooking is an art which is capable, more than any other, of 
ministering to the comfort and enjoyment of hfe. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that from the earhest times great attention and 
study have been bestowed upon its cuhivation. 

The cook book made its appearance among the first Hspings 
of Hterature. Archistratus, who was the guide of Epicurus in his 
pleasures, and enjoyed the reputation of inventing made dishes 
first, attempted to pursue, for the use of posterity, the rules he 
successfully followed in preparing feasts for the philosophers or 
statesmen who ate his fish done in oil and wine and fragrant herbs. 
His task was a comparatively easy one ,as the variety of food — 
meat or vegetable — that found its way to the table of the Greeks 
of his time was by no means great, and the field widened with 
each of his successors, as wealth, refinement, and commerce in- 
creased the wants of men, at the same time they afforded oppor- 
tunities for supplying them. 

In our own language there were cook books before Chaucer 
sung, or Tyndal translated the Bible, and with each generation 
they have increased in number and improved in quality. 

It is not pretended that they can make good cooks give that 
skill and knack which are in part almost genius, and in part the 
result of early training and careful practice. There are rules, 
however, which it may require skill to follow, but which, if fol- 
lowed, will prepare for the table dishes which will gratify the 
appetite and please the palate, without offending the stomach. 

It has been the aim of cook books to gather these rules as 
the results of the experience of those who were at the time most 
celebrated for the mastery of their art ; and the ladies of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Youngstown offer to the public this their 
contribution to kitchen literature. All the receipts are known to 
be good, as they are used by the most experienced housewives. 
No pains have been spared to make this book meet the needs of 
the time, and it is confidently believed that it is without any serious 
faults, either in what it offers, or in what it omits, in the way of 
rules for the guidance of cooks. It has been a work involving 
great expenditure of time and labor, and the compilers do not see 
wherein there is anything lacking, or they could have done better. 
They now offer it to housekeepers everywhere, asking for it a 
fair trial, and unhesitatingly promise no failures where the 
receipes are faithfully followed. 



Measures for Housekeepers 



Wheat flour — One pound is one quart. 

Indian meal — One pound two ounces is one quart. 

Butter, when soft — One pound is one quart. 

Loaf sugar, broken — One pound is one quart. 

White sugar, powdered — One pound and one ounce is one quart. 

Best brown sugar — One pound two ounces is one quart. 

Ten eggs — Are one pound. 

Flour — Eight quarts are one peck. 

Liquids — Sixteen large tablespoonfuls are one-half pint. 

Eight large tablespoonfuls — Are one gill. 

Four large tablespoonfuls — Half a gill. 

Two gills — Are half a pint. 

A common-sized tumbler — Holds half a pint. 

A common-sized wine glass — Half a gill. 

Seventy-five drops — Are equal to one teaspoonful. 

Three cupsfuls of sugar — One pound. 

Five cupfuls of flour — One pound. 



The Youngstown Cook Book 



SOUPS 

REMARKS. 

Good Stock is the basis of all soups and gravies. When made 
in large quantities a stock pot is necessary, otherwise an enamelled 
kettle of fair proportions answers. 

Use the shin of beef, the knuckle of veal and breast of mutton 
or lamb. It is not necessary to have the best cuts of meat or fowl 
but it should always be fresh. Cut the meat into small pieces and 
crack the bone, use cold water and let stand for awhile on the back 
of the stove before starting to boil. Allow one quart of water 
to every pound of beef ; let simmer slowly for six to eight hours. 
As it boils, a scum will rise which should be removed. Strain oflf 
the stock and set away to cool ; when cold, remove the fat which 
forms a cake on the top of the stock. On this account stock should 
always be made the day before it is wanter. In cool weather it 
is well to make enough to last several days. In clear or cream 
soups use lamb, vear or chicken stock. All vegetables for soup 
should be boiled soft before adding to the soup. In using onions 
to saute them, first in a little butter, colors and adds to the flavor. 

Beef Stock. — Six pounds hind shin of beef, six quarts of 
cold water, ten pepper corns, ten cloves, one carrot, one turnip, 
two small onions, four pieces celery, a sprig of herbs and parsley, 
a tablespoonful of salt ; cook as for consomme letting it stand at 
least an hour before putting on stove. For thick soups bones 
or meat left from steaks or roasts may be used, being careful to 
remove all burned parts ; put about one pound of raw meat with it. 

Stock for Soup. — Have a large pot on the back of the stove 
— put in lean beef either after having been cooked or before — in 



6 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

the proportion of one pound of beef to one quart of water ; add 
pork rinds with all the fat taken off — this may cook slowly for 
two or three days — when cold, skim off all the fat and put into 
another vessel. This stock may be used for all soups in which 
meat broth is required. By adding for thickening either barley, 
rice, sage, macaroni or vermicelli, it will make any of these soups. 
— Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Consomme. — Four pounds hind shin of beef, three pounds 
knuckle of veal, a three pound chicken, six quarts of cold water, 
one carrot, one turnip, two onions, six stocks celery, twelve pepper 
corns, twelve cloves, a sprig of parsley, a bay leaf, a sprig of 
marjoram, thyme, one tablespoonful salt. Let this stand for two 
hours, then put on back of the stove allowing an hour to have it 
come to a boil. Then let it simmer gently for five hours, straining 
and squeezing out the juice from the meat, let it stand until cold, 
skim oft' all the fat, put a piece of tissue paper on it to absorb the 
remaining fat, clear the soup with one white of egg and shell to 
every quart of soup. Let it boil ten minutes stirring constantly 
until it comes to a boil, then pour in one-half cup of cold water, 
let it stand on the back of the stove ten minutes, strain it through 
a cloth or sieve. If you wish to keep the stock, pour into Mason 
jars. The natural fat on the top protects it. By a stock of celery 
it means a single piece. Always allow one quart of water to one 
pound of meat with bone and little fat for soup stock. 

Beef Soup. — Boil a soup bone about four hours. Then take 
out meat into a chopping bowl, put the bones into the kettle, slice 
very thin one small onion, six potatoes and three turnips into the 
soup ; boil until all are tender ; have at least one gallon of soup when 
done. It is improved by adding crackers rolled or noodles just 
before taking off. Take the meat that has been cut from the 
bones, chop fine while warm, season with salt and pepper, add one 
teacup of soup saved out before putting in the vegetables, pack 
in a dish and slice down for tea or lunch when cold. — Mrs. C. 
D. Arms. 

Tomato Stock. — One bushel tomatoes, three dozen green 
peppers (seeds removed), one peck of cooking onions cut all into 



SOUPS 7 

pieces. Put into a kettle — with tomatoes and onions — enough 
water to keep them from sticking to the kettle ; let them boil until 
thoroughly cooked, then strain ; put liquor on again removing all 
scum. Can in Mason jars, air tight. Use half and half with meat 
stock for soup. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Corn Soup. — Cover a small soup bone with two quarts of 
cold water, add the corn cut from four large ears, six medium 
sized tomatoes cut up, a half pint of lima beans ; let boil slowly 
three hours. One-half hour before dinner pour in one quart of 
milk, reserving a small quantity to mix with a tablespoon ful of 
flour, stir in to make the soup the consistency of cream ; add a 
little chopped parsley, pepper and salt. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Corn Soup. — Shank of veal, one onion, one dozen ears of 
fresh corn, one quart of rich cream, two tablespoonfuls of flour. 
Boil the veal the day before wanted ; the following morning skim 
off all the fat and set it on the fire. One hour before serving tie 
a small onion in a muslin bag and add it to the soup leaving it in 
long enough to flavor. Cut the corn from the ear, putting it in 
soup thirty minutes before serving, season with pepper and salt 
and the cream and flour ; let come to a boil stirring constantly. — 
Mrs. IV. S. Bonnell. 

Puree of Corn. — One-half dozen ears of corn grated, one 
and one-half pints of veal or chicken stock, one onion, one pint 
cream, a little flour to thicken, butter, pepper and salt. Boil corn 
in one cup of water until done ; then put through the colander 
into stock ; cut up onions and cook a little while in the stock. Put 
cream into sauce pan, let come to a boil, season with pepper, salt 
and butter. When stock is boiling, stir in a little thickening. 
Cook thoroughly, stirring all the time ; then strain through a fine 
sieve, — Miss Kate Arms. 

Tomato Soup. — One quart of tomatoes, one onion, two 
ounces of flour, four ounces of butter, two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, two of salt, one-third of a teaspoonful of Cayenne pepper, 
three pints of water, one-half pint of milk. Boil tomatoes and 
onions in water for three-quarters of an hour. Have salt, pepper, 
sugar, butter and flour rubbed smoothly together like thin cream ; 



O THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

boil ten minutes boiling milk separately. When both are boiling, 
pour the milk into the tomatoes to prevent curdling; serve with 
squares of toasted bread. — Mrs. IV. J. Hitchcock. 

Puree of Tomatoes. — One quart of tomatoes, one quart of 
milk, one pint of water. Boil water and tomatoes together 
twenty minutes, then add the milk and one teaspoonful of soda ; 
let it boil up after adding milk and soda. Season as you do oyster 
soup with butter, salt and pepper. Pour through a collander into 
a tureen. — Miss Sally Arms. 

Black Bean Soup. — Soak one and one-half pints of beans 
in cold water over night. In the morning, drain off the water, 
wash the beans in fresh water and put into a soup kettle with four 
quarts of good beef stock from which all the fat has been removed ; 
set it where it will boil slowly but steadily till dinner or three 
hours at the least. Two hours before dinner, slice in an onion 
and a carrot; some think it improved by adding a little tomato. 
If the beans are not liked whole, strain through a colander and 
send to the table hot. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Black Bean Soup. — Two cups of black beans soaked over 
night. Boil slowly all the next morning, strain at noon and add 
one-half can of tomatoes, one large or two small onions and four 
cloves ; cook this until four o'clock, then add two strips of bacon, 
cook until six o'clock, strain, thicken if necessary, serve with 
slices of lemon in each dish. — Mrs. IV. S. Bonncll. 

Oxtail Soup. — Put into a kettle — with about one gallon of 
cold water and a little salt — two oxtails. Skim off the froth when 
the meat is well cooked, take out the bones and add a little onion, 
carrot and tomato. It is better made the day before using so that 
the fat can be taken from the top. Add vegetables the next day 
and boil an hour and a half longer. — Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Chicken Okra Soup. — Take two quarts of good veal or 
chicken stock, to this add one coffee cup of the light meat of cold 
chicken cut in dice, one cup of okra sliced thin, and one cup of 
tomato cut fine. Add these to the stock and cook for twenty 
minutes ; season with salt and pepper. 



SOUPS Q 

Noodle Soup. — Take a large shank of beef, pour over it more 
than sufficient cold water to cover letting it boil slowly until the 
meat falls to pieces or from five to six hours, removing the scum 
as It rises. Set it away to cool. The following day remove the 
fat and put the soup on the fire with two medium sized onions 
sliced fine ; pepper and salt to season ; let it cook thirty minutes 
and strain. From three to five hours before serving, beat to- 
gether two eggs until light and work into them with a pinch of 
salt— enough flour to make as stiff a dough as can be rolled out ; 
roll very thin and sprinkle with flour, let stand on the moulding 
board until about one-half hour before serving, when roll the 
dough into a close roll and slice down fine with a sharp knife. 
Shake the noodles apart well, put into the soup and boil from 
twenty to thirty minutes.— Mrs. Henry Wick. 

French Vegetable Soup.— To a leg of lamb, moderate size, 
take four quarts of water, of carrots, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, 
cabbage and turnips take a teacup each chopped fine; salt and 
pepper to taste. Let the lamb be boiled in this water, let it cool, 
skim off all the fat that rises to the top. The next day boil again, 
adding the chopped vegetables ; let it boil three hours the second 
Q\2i\.—Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Mock Turtle Soup.— Boil a calf's head with a sHce of ham 
until it falls to pieces, strain and set away to cool. The next day 
skim well, take a soup bunch of vegetables well boiled, strain, and 
mix with the calf's head liquor with a little of the meat from the 
head. Boil an hour before using. Take two tablespoonfuls of 
brown flour, moisten and stir into the soup before putting in the 
force meat and egg balls. After putting in the force meat balls, 
let it boil up and dish right away having in the tureen a gill of 
sherry wine, two hard boiled eggs cut in thin slices and two lemons 
cut in thin slices. 

To Make the Force Meat Balls.— Two ounces of veal, one 
ounce of pork, two ounces of cracker crumbs, salt, pepper and 
either parsley or summer savory to taste; one yolk of tgg, two 
teaspoonfuls of cream. Mix well and make the size of a hickory 
nut. 



10 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

To Make Egg Balls. — Two hard boiled yolks of eggs ; mix 
with the raw yolk of one egg a little flour. Roll the size of a 
hazel nut. — Mrs. IV. J. Hitchcock. 

Julienne Soup. — Take the shank of a fore quarter of beef, 
more than cover with cold water ; let it come to a boil slowly, then 
skim. Let boil slowly for five or six hours, strain through the 
collander pressing all the juice from the meat, then strain again 
through a sieve. When cold, remove all the fat and add the 
liquor from one onion, one medium sized carrot and half a small 
turnip. Boil in enough water to cover for twenty minutes, then 
take one-half carrot, one-half small turnip ; slice in thin slices, 
then in fine shreds with a sharp knife, the pulp of one large tomato 
cut up and one tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley. Add this 
to the soup and simmer slowly for about twenty minutes ; season 
with salt and pepper. 

Chicken Gumbo. — Take a nice fat chicken and fry it brown, 
using plenty of flour ; have your okra cut fine ; put a tablespoon 
of lard in your soup pot — which should be lined with porcelain 
or the soup will be dark. Put in the cut okra with about one 
tablespoonful of flour, stir it constantly for five or ten minutes, 
put in your fried chicken, pour on enough boiling water sufficient 
to make your soup ; salt and pepper to taste, and after boiling hard 
for about fifteen minutes, set on the back of the stove and let 
simmer gently for one hour. Have ready some plain boiled rice 
seasoned only with salt ; put some into each plate before serving 
the gumbo. 

Chicken Soup. — Make a stock of one chicken, cut up the 
chicken and break the bones ; cover with cold water ; season with 
salt and pepper corns, one onion, one celery stock ; let stand one 
hour, then simmer slowly five hours, strain, cool and skim ofif fat, 
strain through a cloth to make very clean. Veal can be used in 
same manner and this makes a good white stock for all cream 
soups. Heat the stock boiling hot, whip one pint of cream until 
stifif, put one-half of it into the soup tureen, pour half of the soup 
boiling hot over it and beat it, then the rest of the soup and all the 



SOUPS 1 1 

cream, only partly stirring it to have it foamy and creamy on top ; 
serve at once. 

Number Nine Soup. — Heat one quart of chicken stock with 
a piece of cheese the size of an egg, grated, butter the size of a 
walnut, salt and pepper to taste and a teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley. Cook ten minutes, add one cup of cream into which 
previously has been stirred the yolks of two eggs. Gradually 
add the stock to this cream and then heat all together. Pour over 
water crackers and serve. — Miss Eliza Wick. 

Onion Au Gratin Soup. — Put into a sauce pan a piece of 
butter the size of a walnut and when very hot add three fair sized 
onions sliced thin ; stir and cook until a light brown, then pour 
over these two quarts of good beef stock, let cook about five min- 
utes, then add one cup of grated fresh cheese. Have ready in a 
casserole, three-inch squares of toasted bread, allowing a square 
of toast for each person to serve ; pour the soup and cheese over 
this and set into the oven until the cheese is melted ; serve in 
casserole. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Almond Soup. — Two knuckles of veal, four quarts of water, 
four ounces of almonds before chopping, four pepper corns, four 
cloves and small onion ; one tablespoonful of salt and a little 
parsley. About an hour before taking off, put in the seasoning, 
let it boil down to about two pints and a half; let cool, remove 
the fat and when ready for use heat to boiling. Thicken with a 
tablespoonful of corn-starch rubbed smoojh in a tablespoonful of 
butter. The last thing before serving add half a pint of hot cream. 
Let it just come to a boil. Chop the nuts, sprinkle in the tureen 
and pour in soup and rub very fine. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Puree of Peas. — Boil one quart of shelled peas in boiling 
salt water to cover until tender, mash through a collander. Heat 
one quart of stock, add peas, thicken with one tablespoonful of 
flour rubbed smooth with one tablespoonful of butter; season; 
heat one cup of cream, strain together through a puree sieve into 
tureen. A few leaves of mint boiled in stock is liked by some. 

Cream of Spinach. — Rub a pint of cooked spinach through 
a sieve, add to it a quart of stock, cook together two level table- 



12 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

spoonfuls of butter and four level tablespoonfuls of flour and add 
carefully to the hot stock. Season with salt and pepper, strain 
through a sieve, reheat, add a cup of hot cream and serve. — Mrs. 
M. I. Arms, Jr. 

Cream of Celery. — Take the outside pieces from a whole 
bunch of celery, break them into boiling salt-water enough to 
cover, add one onion, and when boiled tender pour into it about 
a quart of hot white stock. After cooking about ten minutes put 
through the colander ; reheat, season with butter, salt and pepper ; 
heat a pint of thick cream — saving a cup of it to whip — strain 
soup and cream together into tureen and put the whipped cream 
on top. — Mrs. M. I. Arms, Jr. 

Cream of Asparagus. — Remove the tips from two bunches 
of asparagus, cut the remainder of the bunches into pieces and 
put on to boil with a quart of white stock ; let it simmer about half 
an hour, fry one small onion in two tablespoonfuls of butter, re- 
move the onion and stir smooth into two tablespoonfuls of flour. 
Add a cupful of the soup gradually, then add the mixture to the 
remainder of the soup ; season ; strain the whole through a puree 
sieve, add one pint of heated cream and the asparagus tips (boiled 
until tender in salt boiling water) ; serve at once with croutons. 
Canned asparagus can be used. 

Puree of Salmon. — Shred as fine as possible one can of 
salmon keeping out all the bones and skin ; pour off every drop 
of oil ; heat one quart of cream with one teaspoonful each of salt, 
white pepper and maize. Thicken with two tablespoonfuls of 
flour and one of butter rubbed smooth together, add the salmon, 
cook about ten minutes and strain through a puree sieve. — Mrs. 
Henry Garlick. 

Puree of Oysters or Clams. — Two quarts of shelled oys- 
ters or clams boiled in their own liquor until tender ; thicken with 
two tablespoonfuls of butter stirred smooth with two table- 
spoonfuls of flour; add more than an equal quantity of heated 
cream, season with salt, paprika and one-half teaspoonful of onion 
juice. Serve in bouillon cups with whipped cream on \.o\i.— Mrs. 
C. F. Hofer. 



SOUPS 13 

Clam Chowder. — Two dozen clams chopped fine, six small 
potatoes sliced thin, small piece of onion, one-quarter pound salt 
pork chopped, one pint water and pint cream, one cup rolled 
cracker, butter the size of an egg, salt and pepper to taste. Scrub 
the shells of the clams, place in a pan in the oven until they open ; 
strain all the juice, remove the clams from the shells. Put the 
clam juice — after straining — and water, potatoes and pork to 
cook ; skim often ; let them cook until potatoes and pork are 
tender ; add clams, butter and seasoning, let boil a few minutes. 
A little tomato can be added if liked. Before serving, add hot 
cream and cracker crumbs, let come to a boil and serve. — Mrs. 
J. M. Bonnell. 

Bisque of Clam. — Twelve large clams, one small onion, two 
tablespoonfuls of butter, two tablespoonfuls of flour, two cupfuls 
of milk and one cup of cream ; salt and pepper to taste. Wash the 
clams thoroughly with a brush and clean water ; put them into 
a large sauce-pan, cover with one cup of boiling water and put 
the cover on the sauce-pan. Let them cook until the shells open, 
take the clams from the shells and chop them very fine, return to 
the liquor, let it come to a boil, then press through a coarse sieve. 
Add the onions to the milk and scald it ; rub the butter and flour 
together until smooth ; add a little of the scalded milk to this roux 
and when smooth add it to the remaining milk. Take out the 
onion, stir the milk until it thickens and season to taste, being 
very careful regarding the salt as the clams are salt. When ready 
to serve add the clam pulp and one cupful of the clam liquor — 
which has been put through the sieve, add the cream — ^beat with 
a Dover egg beater to make the soup foam — and serve at once. 
Care must be taken not to boil the soup after the clams are added 
as it will curdle. — Miss Isahelle McCurdy. 



FISH 



REMARKS. 

In selecting fish care should be taken that the flesh is firm to 
the touch — that no impression is left by the fingers — the eyes 
bright, the gills red and the scales not easily rubbed ofif. 

If the flesh is flabby and the eyes sunken, the fish are stale. 

They should be thoroughly cleaned, washed and sprinkled 
with salt. Most kinds of salt fish should be soaked in cold water 
for twenty-four hours, the flesh side turned down in the water. 
To boil fish, soak them in a cloth and put in cold water with 
plenty of salt. Most fish will boil in thirty minutes. Before 
broiling fish, rub the gridiron with a piece of fat to prevent it 
sticking. Lay the skin side down first. 

Boiled Fish. — Fill the fish with a stuffing of boiled pork and 
bread crumbs, season with salt and pepper, sew in a cloth, put in 
cold water enough to cover, salt it, and if liked add three table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar ; boil slowly for thirty minutes and serve with 
drawn butter or caper sauce. 

Baked Fish. — A four or five pound trout, one quart of to- 
mato pulp, one quart bread crumbs, a little less than a pint of 
onions chopped fine, four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, black 
pepper, Cayenne and salt to season, Worchestershire sauce two 
tablespoonfuls, anchovy sauce one tablespoonful. Mix tomatoes, 
bread crumbs, onions, butter, the sauces and seasoning together, 
stufif the fish and sew up. The remainder of the stuffing spread 
on the outside of the fish. Bake two hours. — Mrs. J. L. Wick. 

Baked White Fish. — Prepare a stuffing of fine bread 
crumbs, a little salt and pepper ; season with sage, parsley, pepper 
and salt. Fill the fish with the stuffing, sew it up, sprinkle the 
outside with salt, pepper and bits of butter, dredge with flour and 
bake one hour ; baste often. Serve with e^gg or parsley sauce. 



FISH 



15 



Oven Broiled Fish.— After fish is properly cleaned, take 
out the bone. Begin at the tail and work towards the head, with 
your fingers work out the bone keeping fingers near the bone and 
pushing the flesh away. Put the skin side down on a piece of 
brown paper in a baking pan, sprinkle with salt, pepper and add 
a little butter. Bake, allowing ten minutes to the pound. When 
ready to serve, divide into pieces with pan-cake spoon. Lift from 
the pan leaving the skin sticking to the paper, add a little piece 
of butter to each piece and a little lemon and parsley. White fish 
is best— Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Fish Stuffed with Oysters. — One tablespoonful of butter 
to a cup of cracker crumbs. Mix butter and cracker crumbs to- 
gether and season well with salt and pepper. Drain the liquor 
from one pint of o>sters and mix with the crumbs. Fill a two and 
a half pound fish with the oysters one by one. If there are any 
crumbs left over, press inside of the fish, sew up the fish, leave on 
the head and tail. After stuffing, skewer and tie with a cord in 
the shape of a letter S, sprinkle plentifully with salt, pepper and 
flour, score the back and put in thin slices of salt pork, have small 
pieces of pork in the bottom of the dripping-pan, lay on the fish 
and set in the oven to bake, allowing ten to fifteen minutes to the 
pound. 

To Broil Salmon. — The steaks cut from the center of the fish 
are best. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, spread on a little butter 
and broil over a clear but slow fire; pour over maitre d'hotel 
sauce and serve quite hot. 

Broiled Fish. — Clean, wash and thoroughly dry the fish, 
split down the back, rub wire broiler with butter, place on the 
fish and broil over clear fire — the inside exposed to the fire first, 
then the skin side. When nicely browned and thoroughly cooked 
through, place on a hot platter, season with salt, pepper and piece 
of butter, garnish with quarter lemons and parsley or serve with 
maitre d'hotel sauce. 

To Plank Fish. — A board for planked fish should be made 
of hard wood — oak is best — about eighteen inches long, twelve 
inches wide and two inches thick, and slightly hollowed in the 



l6 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

center to hold the fish. Put the plank in the oven until very hot ; 
split the fish down the center of the back, wash and clean well, 
sprinkle thoroughly on both sides with salt and pepper and place 
on the board skin side down. Baste often with melted butter. 
Time required for baking about one-half hour. Serve on the 
plank, garnish with parsley and sliced lemon. 

Fillets of White Fish. — Take a good sized white fish and 
after cleaning wipe dry, cut into pieces two inches by three inches 
large, season well with salt and pepper on both sides ; beat to- 
gether one egg and one-half cup of milk. Dip each piece into this 
mixture, then into very finely rolled and sifted bread crumbs. 
Place in a frying basket and fry in deep, hot lard until a rich 
brown ; garnish with parsley and sliced lemon and serve with sauce 
tartare. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Brook Trout. — Remove the intestines and fins — but not the 
head of the fish — wash and wipe dry. Place on a wire broiler and 
broil over a clear fire, turning often and taking care not to burn 
the fish. When done spread on a little partly melted butter ; 
squeeze over a little lemon juice, and a sprinkling of chopped 
parsley. Season with salt and pepper. Serve very hot. 

To Boil Salt Mackerel. — Soak for twenty-four hours, then 
pour over it cold water, set on the fire and as it commences to boil 
take it off ; drain and serve with drawn butter. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

To Broil Salt Mackerel. — After soaking sufficiently, hang 
up over night to drain ; broil slowly the skin side down ; sprinkle 
with pepper and lay pieces of butter over the top. Serve hot. — 
Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Smelts Fried. — Scrape carefully with a knife, wash in salt- 
water, drain, and dry each one separately with a towel ; beat up one 
egg with three tablespoonfuls of milk, dip each smelt into this, 
then into cracker meal well salted and peppered, place a few at a 
time in a wire basket and fry in deep, hot lard until a light brown, 
drain in the colander or on heavy brown paper, cover hot platter 
with a napkin, arrange smelts on this, garnish with quarter lemons 
and parsley and serve with sauce tartare. 



FISH 



17 

Broiled Smelts.— Clean carefully and with a sharp pointed 

knife split open and remove the intestines, wash in salt and water, 

drain and dry, season with salt and pepper, spread with butter and 

broil quickly over a clear fire. Add more butter and serve quite 
hot. 

Flsh Chowder. — Take a small piece of pork, cut in squares 
and put in the bottom of a kettle. Then take your fish (about 
three pounds will make a good sized chowder) cut it into pieces 
(larger squares than the pork), lay enough of these on the pork 
to cover well, then a layer of potatoes, next a layer of Boston 
crackers split, on this pepper and salt. Above this put a layer of 
pork and repeat the order given above until the materials are all 
exhausted. Let the top layer be buttered crackers ; pour on boiling 
water until covered and cover the kettle. Keep boiling half an 
hour ; five minutes before dinner, dredge well with flour and pour 
on a pint of milk. This will make the genuine Rye beach fish 
chowder.— il/;'.y. C. H. Gilman. 

Cream Salmon. — Boil two pounds of salmon until tender 
m salt and water, put one-half teacupful of cream into a double 
boiler and thicken with three tablespoonfuls of corn starch, one 
teaspoonful of chopped parsley, half a teaspoonful of chopped 
onion, a little celery sauce, cayenne pepper, white pepper and a 
sprig of mace. Take three eggs, beat them lightly and mix with 
the picked salmon, butter the mould well ; place this mixture in 
and steam one hour. Dressing is one teacupful of milk, a little 
piece of onion, little mace, season to taste, thicken with the yolks 
of three eggs and three tablespoonfuls of butter. Pour into the 
center of the mold. 

Creamed Fish.— Boil a white fish weighing four pounds in 
salted water. When done remove the skin and flake it leaving 
out the bones. Boil one quart of thin cream, mix butter size of a 
w^alnut with three tablespoonfuls of flour and stir it smoothly in 
the cream, adding two or three sprigs of parsley, half an onion 
chopped fine, a little cayenne pepper and salt; stir over the fire 
until it thickens. Butter ramekin dishes and put in alternate 
layers of fish and dressing; sprinkle bread crumbs over the top 
and bake until brown. 



lo THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Cod Fish on Toast.— Take a bowl full of shredded cod fish, 
put this in cold water in a skillet, let it come to a boil, then turn 
into a colander to drain. Turn into a skillet again with a little 
cold milk, season with butter and pepper, stir smooth a table- 
spoonful of flour with a little cold milk added and let it boil for a 
moment; turn this onto buttered toast on a platter. — Mrs. R. 
McMillan. 

Cod Fish Balls. — Pick fine one quart bowl of cod fish, let it 
simmer on the back of the stove a little while ; then boil six good 
sized potatoes, mash fine and mix, while hot, with the fish 
thoroughly ; season with pepper, salt and butter ; add three eggs 
well beaten and drop in hot lard ; serve in a napkin ; lay the napkin 
on a platter and the balls on the napkin to absorb the grease. — 
Mrs. George Haney. 

Fish Balls. — Two cups of fish, four large potatoes, two eggs, 
two teaspoonfuls of butter, a little pepper ; tear up the cod fish into 
small pieces, the finer the better ; put raw potatoes in a kettle with 
fish on top ; cover with boiling water and cook until the potatoes are 
tender. Drain ofif the water and mash together well ; add butter, 
pepper and perhaps a little salt. Beat eggs together and then beat 
lightly into the fish and potatoes and mix up lightly. Have ready 
hot lard and drop in the mixture a small spoonful at a time until a 
nice brown. Serve with napkin under them. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Fish Cakes. — One pint of salt cod fish picked fine, two pint 
bowls of whole raw potatoes. Put together in cold water and boil 
until the potatoes are thoroughly cooked. Drain oflf all the water, 
mash with a potato masher, add a piece of butter the size of an 
egg, two well beaten eggs and a little pepper. Mix well with a 
wooden spoon. Have a frying pan ready with boiling lard or 
drippings, into which drop the mixture by spoonfuls and fry 
brown. Do not freshen the fish before boiling. — Mrs. Wm, 
Edwards, 



SHELL FISH 



REMARKS. 



Oysters are in season from September to May, but clams are 
considered good the year around. All shell fish should be 
strictly fresh. In choosing lobsters take the tail and pull it away 
from the body. If it is elastic and springs back, the lobster is 
fresh. Crabs should be alive when cooked to insure their freshness. 

Oysters on the Half Shell — Scrub the shells thoroughly 
and open by pushing a short knife blade around the edge of the 
shell and prying it open ; remove half the shell and carefully loosen 
the oyster from the other half ; drain off the liquor and remove any 
pieces of shell that might have broken in the opening; fill plates 
with finely chopped ice and place from four to six oysters on each 
plate, according to size. Serve a quarter of lemon on each plate 
and pass horse-radish, Oscar or mignonette sauce, also thin slices 
of spread brown bread and butter. 

Oyster Cocktail. — Drain the oysters in a colander, and for 
eight medium sized oysters, take two teaspoonfuls of home-made 
catsup, two teaspoonsful of lemon juice, one teaspootiful of Wor- 
cestershire sauce, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of grated horse- 
radish, three drops of tobasco sauce and one-half teaspoonful of 
salt. Mix well together, thoroughly chill and serve in cocktail 
glasses. This amount will only serve one person. . 

Stewed Oysters — Take one quart of liquid oysters, put the 
liquor (a teacupful for three) in a stew pan and add half as much 
more water, salt, a good bit of pepper, a teaspoonful of rolled 
cracker for each. Put on the stove and let it boil; have your 
oysters ready in a bowl ; the moment the liquor boils, pour in all 
your oysters, say ten for each person, or six will do. Now watch 
carefully and as soon as it begins to boil take out your watch, 



20 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

count just thirty seconds and take your oysters from the stove. 
You will have your big dish ready with one and one-half table- 
spoonfuls of cream or milk for each person. Pour your stew on 
this and serve immediately. Never boil an oyster in milk if you 
wish it to be good. — Dchnonico. 

Fried Oysters — Take large oysters, wash and drain, dip them 
into flour, put into hot frying pan with plenty of lard and butter, 
season with salt and pepper, fry brown on both sides. Fried in 
this way are similar to broiled oysters — Miss Belle Robbins. 

Fried Oysters. — Drain the oysters and cover well with finest 
of cracker crumbs, season with salt and pepper, let them stand 
one-half hour, then dip and roll again in the meal ; fry brown in 
a good quantity of lard and butter. — Mrs. Mary Bentley. 

Panned Oysters — Arrange in a dripping pan rounds of deli- 
cately toasted bread, pour over each piece just enough of the 
oyster liquor to moisten. Onto each piece of toast put as many 
oysters as it will conveniently hold. Sprinkle with pepper and salt 
and small piece of butter ; roast in a quick oven until oysters begin 
to shrivel, add a little melted butter and serve quite hot in the 
tins they are roasted in. 

To Roast Shelled Oysters. — The large oysters are prefer- 
able for roasting. Use those that are fresh and unopened ; scrub 
and wash with a brush the shells well, then lay in baking pan 
deep side of shell down and roast in a quick oven or on the top of 
the stove until the shells crack open. Remove the upper half of 
the shell, season oysters with salt, pepper and a little hot, melted 
butter and serve immediately as they soon become cold. 

EscALLOPED Oysters — Take three pints of fresh oysters, have 
a pudding dish buttered, sprinkle the bottom with crackers rolled 
fine, then put in a layer of the oysters, sprinkle salt and pepper 
over them, then cracker crumbs and small pieces of butter, con- 
tinuing to do this until all the oysters are used, having cracker 
crumbs and butter on the top. Bake three-quarters of an hour in 
a brisk oven. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 



SHELL FISH 21 

EscALLOPED Oysters — Put a layer of bread crumbs in baking 
dish, then a layer of oysters, then small pieces of butter and sprinkle 
of salt, and so on until the pan is full. Beat one egg light, 
add enough cream to make one cupful and pour on the top after 
the dish is full ; have a layer of crumbs on top ; use plenty of 
butter and all the liquor of the oysters. — Miss Caddie Boris. 

To Broil Oysters — Select good sized oysters that are fresh, 
drain in colander, dip each one in melted butter, place in a fine 
wire broiler and broil over a clear fire, season with salt, pepper 
and more melted butter. Serve hot on slices of toast slightly 
buttered and dip for a second only in hot water. — Mrs. Henry 
Wick. 

Oyster Pot Pie. — Have ready nice, light raised biscuit 
dough cut into small squares, season the oysters well with butter, 
pepper and salt, thicken them with a little flour. Drop in the 
pieces of dough and boil until done. These may be baked in the 
oven in a pudding dish allowing the dough to brown on top. — 
Mrs. John McCurdy. 

Oyster Pie — Line a deep dish with pastry, fold a towel in the 
dish, put on the top crust and bake ; stew the oysters, add a little 
thickening and a well beaten egg. When the pastry is done, 
remove the top crust, take out the towel and pour in the oysters ; 
put the cover on and serve. Both pastry and oysters should be 
ready at the same time. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Oyster Pie — Allow one can of oysters for two pies, roll out 
yoar pastry and put in your pie pan or dish, then put in oysters 
and cut up a piece of butter — the size of an egg for each pie — into 
small pieces ; season with salt and pepper. Sprinkle a table- 
spoonful of flour in each and roll out a top crust. Bake from 
three-quarters of an hour to one hour.— il/;'.y. H. B. Wick. 

Oysters on Toast — To one quart of oysters washed and 
drained, add ihret pint^ of milk, put in a kettle on the stove and 
stir it to prevent burning; have ready a tablespoonful of flour 
stirred smooth in cold milk or cream ; add this and season with 
pepper, salt and butter to taste. Cook a few minutes and pour 
over buttered toast on a platter. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 



22 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Oyster Patties — Line small pattie pans with puff paste; 
into each pan put six oysters, piece of butter, pepper and salt, 
sprinkle over a little flour and hard boiled eggs chopped (allow- 
ing about two eggs for six patties), cover with an upper crust, 
notch the edges and bake. Serve either in the pans or remove 
them to a large platter. — A4iss Laura Wick. 

Oyster Patties — Make patties from rich puff paste by cut- 
ting with a goblet into tarts; bake and while hot fill with the 
oysters prepared in the following manner : Drain a pint of oysters 
in the colander, add to the liquor sufficient water to make one 
quart of liquor ; set on the stove until it boils, then add the oysters, 
let them boil well, then add pepper, salt and a lump of butter the 
size of an tgg. Just before taking from the fire, stir in three table- 
spoonfuls of rolled cracker, then fill the patties. This will make 
twelve patties. 

Oyster Fritters — One and one-half pints of sweet milk, one 
and one-quarter pounds of butter, four eggs (the yolks must be 
beaten well together,) to which add milk and flour, then stir the 
whole well together, then beat whites to a stiff froth and stir them 
gradually into the batter ; take a spoonful of the mixture, drop an 
oyster into it and fry in hot lard, let them be light brown on both 
sides. Clams can be used instead of the oysters. 

Oyster Croquettes — Take the hard end of the oysters, leav- 
ing the other end in nice shape for a soup or stew ; scald them, 
then chop fine and add an equal weight of potatoes rubbed through 
a colander. To one pound of this add two ounces of butter, one 
teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, half a teaspoonful 
of mace and one-half gill of cream ; make in small rolls, dip in Qgg 
and grated bread and fry in deep lard. — Mrs. W. J. Hitchcock. 

Sliced Oysters. — Put the oysters — with as little liquor as 
possible — in a kettle with a little salt and let them scald ; then 
scald the liquor from the oysters with vinegar and spices and 
pour over the oysters when cold. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Creamed Oysters with Celery. — Put three tablespoonfuls 
of butter into a sauce pan and as soon as it is hot, add one cup of 
celery cut in small pieces ; simmer for fifteen minutes, then add 



SHELL FISH 23 

one-half cup of oyster liquor, one-half cup of cracker crumbs, 
one-half cup of cream, and salt and paprika to taste; let this just 
come to a boil, then pour in a pint of oysters ; leave them in long 
enough for the edges to curl, then serve on toast or crackers. 

Devilled Clams. — Chop fifty clams very fine, take two to- 
matoes, one onion, chop equally fine, a little parsley, thyme and 
sweet marjoram, a little salt, pepper and bread crumbs, adding 
the juice of the clams until the mixture is the consistency of 
sausage ; put it in the shells with a lump of butter on each, cover 
with bread crumbs and bake one-half hour. 

Steamed Clams. — Scrub clams well in several waters, let 
them stand in a big pan of water with a handful of salt, put in 
an iron pot with a cup and a half of cold water, a pinch of salt 
and a little pepper ; cover, let boil about six minutes after it 
begins to boil. Place clams whose shells have opened onto a 
hot platter, serve with seasoned melted butter in a cup with a 
little of the clam broth. 

Boiled Lobster. — Boil small live lobster in boiling water for 
twenty minutes; when cold, open and serve in shells with either 
French or mayonnaise dressing. 

Broiled Lobster. — Lobster to be tender should be taken 
while alive, washed thoroughly, then with a sharp knife split 
down the middle of the back from the head to the extreme end of 
the tail ; remove the sand-bag, break the large claws, fill the meat 
from them into the body of the lobster, spread with butter, place 
on a double broiler and broil over a quick fire, the meat side near 
to the fire. When nicely browned, sprinkle with salt and pepper 
and serve immediately with hot, melted butter. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Devilled Lobster. — Five pounds of lobster boiled, one pint 
of cream, two tablespoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one tea- 
spoonful of mustard, salt and pepper. Boil the cream in the 
double boiler, when boiling add flour and butter rubbed to a 
cream, salt, pepper and mustard; cook two minutes, add lobster 
cut in pieces rather small, cook one minute. Fill the shells, cover 
with bread crumbs and grated cheese, put in a dripping pan and 
brown in a hot oven until the cheese melts — about twenty 
minutes. — Mrs. P. B. Oiven. 



24 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Lobster Cutlet. — Mince the flesh of lobster fine, season 
with saU, pepper and spices ; melt a piece of butter in the sauce 
pan, mix with it one tablespoonful of flour, add the lobster, 
finely chopped parsley, mix with some good stock, remove from 
the fire and stir into it the yolks of two eggs, spread out the 
mixture and when cold cut into cutlets. Dip carefully into 
beaten egg, then into fine baked bread crumbs, let them stand an 
hour, repeat and fry a rich brown ; serve with fried parsley. 

Lobster Chowder. — Three pounds of lobster chopped not 
very fine, three crackers pounded very fine; mix crackers and 
lobster together and add butter the size of a small egg, a little 
salt and red pepper, work all well together; boil one quart of 
milk and pour this gradually over the paste, stirring all the time, 
then put in the chopped lobster, boil up and serve at once. — Mrs. 
H. W. Ford. 

Lobster a la Newburg. — One pint of lobster, one-quarter 
pound butter, one cup cream, three yolks of eggs, one-quarter cup 
sherry, salt and pepper to taste. Melt butter and lobster and salt 
and pepper ; when lobster is heated, add the cream ; when the 
cream is smoking hot, stir in the beaten yolks of the eggs as 
rapidly: as possible ; when sauce thickens, add the wine. — Miss 
Isabelle McCurdy. 

Lobster a la Newburg. — Take the meat of a three-pound 
lobster (previously boiled), cut into blocks, rub one table- 
spoonful of flour smooth with one-quarter pound of butter, add 
one gill of cream and the yolks of four hard boiled eggs rubbed 
smooth ; stir over the fire until it begins to thicken. When taken 
from the fire, add salt, cayenne pepper and four tablespoonfuls 
of sherry wine. — Mrs. Rarer. 

Stuffed Lobster. — Boil a lobter from twenty minutes to 
one-half hour according to size; when cold, take the meat from 
the shell and cut up fine ; leave the front of the shell in one piece 
being careful not to break ofif the whiskers, saving the legs to 
garnish the back; cook together in a skillet three tablespoonfuls 
of butter and two of flour, add three tablespoonfuls of chopped 
onion and two of chopped parsley, then add the lobster meat, take 
one quart of cream beaten together with the yolks of three eggs, 
add this to the mixture and if not sufiiciently moist, enough more 



SHELL FISH 2< 

cream to make very, very soft, grate over a dash of nutmeg, 
the juice of one lemon, season with salt and paprika, let stand 
until very cold, then fill the shells and cover with seasoned butter 
crumbs and flakes of butter on top, brown in the oven and serve. 
This recipe is for about ten very small lobsters.— Mr^ C F 
Hofcr. 

Lobster Rissoles.— Boil the lobster, take out the meat, 
mince it fine, pound the coral smooth and grate, for one lobster, 
the yolks of three hard boiled eggs, season widi cayenne pepper 
and a little salt; make a batter of milk, flour and well beaten 
eggs — two tablespoonfuls of milk and one of flour to each egg. 
Beat the batter well, mix the lobster with it gradually until stiff 
enough to roll into balls the size of a walnut ; fry in fresh butter 
or best salad oil and serve. 

LoGSTER Croquettes.— Chop the meat from two boiled lob- 
sters fine, a heaping tablespoonful of butter, a small teaspoonful 
of flour and a teaspoonful of finely chopped onion fried a light 
brown ; pour in three-quarters of a pint of cream, part at a time 
so It will not be too moist, put in about three teacups of lobster 
meat, let it boil up, season wath salt and paprika, make as soft 
as possible; let it get cold, season with a teaspoonful of lemon 
juice, form in pyramid shaped croquettes and cook in deep lard ; 
garnish with small lobster claws.— Mr^. M. I. Arms, Jr. 

Soft Shell Crabs.— Lift the shell and extract the spongy 
substance on the back and pull off the loose shell on the other 
side which is called the "apron;" if sandy, wipe with a damp 
cloth but do not let them lie in water; dip them in beaten egg 
and cracker crumbs and fry about ten minutes in hot lard, drain 
and serve hot with sauce tartare. Some prefer them fried plain. 

Crab a la Newbhrg. — A/[elt two tablespoonfuls of butter, 
stir in two tablespoonfuls of flour and one cup of cream stirred 
thick and smooth, add two cups of crab meat flaked, let it heat 
over boiling water ten or fifteen minutes, add salt, paprika and 
lemon juice to taste. Just before serving, stir in the yolks of 
two eggs beaten with one-quarter cup of cream and let it cook 
until the eggs are thoroughly blended. 

Scallops a la Poulette. — One pint of scallops, one cup of 
milk, two egg yolks, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one cup of 



26 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

cream, two tablespoonfuls of flour, two tablespoonfuls lemon 
juice, one-quarter tablespoonful of salt and pepper, one table- 
spoonful of chopped parsley. Cover the scallops with cold salt 
water and let stand one hour ; drain and cover with boiling acidul- 
ated water and let stand five minutes ; let drain and dry, melt butter 
without burning, add the flour stirred until smooth and well 
cooked, add milk stirred until smooth, add the cream and the 
scallops, cook until the sauce thickens, add lemon juice, salt, 
pepper and parsley. Serve at once on toast. 



MEATS 



REMARKS. 

In selecting beef choose that of a fine, smooth grain, of a bright 
red color and white fat. 

The flesh of good veal is firm and dry and the joints stiff. 

The flesh of good mutton or lamb is a bright red with the 
fat firm and white. 

If the meat of pork is young, the lean will break on being 
pinched; the fat will be white, soft and pulpy. 

Roast Beef. — The best pieces for roasting are the sirloin 
and standing rib. Pour a very little water into the dripping pan 
with which baste the meat frequently while roasting; also turn 
it that all sides may cook alike; roast in a quick oven allowing 
fifteen minutes to each pound; when done, take up the meat, 
pour off the fat from the gravy and thicken with a little flour 
mixed smooth with a little cold water, let it boil and send to the 
table in a gravy dish. Do not salt the roast until a short time 
before removing from the oven as salt extracts the juice. Some 
prefer the beef basted only with the beef drippings. 

Yorkshire Pudding to Serve with Roast Beef. — Three 
eggs well beaten, to which add nine tablespoonfuls of flour, a 
small teaspoonful of salt and beat up with milk until about the 
consistency of thick cream. This batter pour into the pan in 
which the beef has been roasted having enough grease (which 
must be hot) to bake it. Bake in a quick oven.— Mr.?. Wm. 
Bonnell. 

Boiled or Stewed Beef. — Take a piece of beef from the 
shoulder weighing five or six pounds and cut into pieces as large 
as your fist; put into a kettle and a little more than cover with 
cold water ; when it comes to a boil, set it back on the stove and 
let simmer gently for about three hours keeping it covered, 
when the meat is tender, thicken the gravy with butter rubbed 



28 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

smooth with a Httle flour until the consistency of thick cream ; 
place meat on a platter and pour gravy over. 

Beef Steak Broiled. — Choose sirloin or tenderloin steaks 
from one to two inches thick, lay on a gridiron and broil over a 
clear fire ; when done put on a warm platter with plenty of butter, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper. Beef steak should be eaten as soon 
is cooked to be in perfection. Thin slices of salt pork or break- 
fast bacon broiled and served with the steak is an improvement. 
— Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Beef Steak Fried. — Steaks for frying should be cut thinner 
than for broiling ; put part lard and part butter into a skillet, let 
it get very hot, put in the steak, season with salt and pepper and 
let fry until nicely browned ; lay on a hot platter and make a 
gravy to pour over the meat by pouring into the frying pan a 
little hot water ; slice raw onions thin, lay on the steak and pour 
the hot gravy over them and serve immediately. — Adrs. W. S. 
Bonnell. 

Beef Steak with Oysters. — Broil a sirloin or tenderloin 
steak, season, take one quart of oysters, drain off all the liquor, 
put them int a stew pan with half of a small cup full of butter, 
or less butter and a little sweet cream, salt and pepper enough to 
season ; let them boil and turn them over the steak on the platter. 
Oysters broiled and laid on the steak are very nice. — Mrs. M. 
I. Arms. 

A New England Boiled Dinner. — Select a thick piece of 
corn beef from the round of shoulder weighing from six to eight 
pounds. Wash in cold water and put over the fire in a large pot 
with sufficient cold water to cover it three or four inches. Set 
the pot where its contents will slowly reach the boiling point and 
boil very gently for four hours from the time it is first placed on 
the fire. After the meat is put on to cook, peel a dozen medium 
sized potatoes, four turnips, scrape four carrots and four pars- 
nips ; trim and wash a firm head of cabbage, cut its stalk out 
without breaking and bind with a tape to keep whole while cooking. 
As fast as the vegetables are prepared, lay them in cold water 
until needed for cooking. If onions are used, they should be 
boiled in a separate sauce pan. When the meat begins to boil, 
the scum which rises to the top should be carefully skimmed oflf 



MEATS 29 

and a medium sized red or green pepper put into the pot. The 
pot should be large enough to hold both meat and vegetables. 
The vegetables are to be added to the meat in proper succession 
allowing time for each kind to cook ; carrots, parsnips and 
turnips about two hours ; cabbage and onions one hour ; potatoes 
one-half hour. When the boiled dinner is cooked, the meat is 
placed in the middle of a large platter and the vegetables ar- 
ranged around. A piece of salt pork is sometimes boiled with 
the beef. 

Rolled Beef. — Remove the bone and fat from a sirloin 
steak cut about one inch thick, lay out flat and spread with a 
rich bread stuffing with a few scraps of any kind of cold meat 
and a very little salt pork chopped fine ; roll carefully to pre- 
vent dressing from pushing out at the sides, tie firmly with a 
cord, dredge well with flour, salt and pepper ; have a little hot 
fat in the skillet, put the roll into this turning until all sides are 
brown ; then remove to a baking pan, slice one onion, one small 
carrot very thin, two tomatoes cut up and a teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley ; lay on top of the beef, add a little stock to the 
pan and roast slowly about two hours, basting often. When 
done, if gravy is not thick enough, add a little flour ; remove the 
string before serving. 

Planked Steak. — Broil a sirloin steak two and one-half 
inches thick. Have ready, cooked and hot, one dozen potatoes 
mashed, one can of peas, one dozen small onions and three car- 
rots. Place this steak on a hot plank and pipe the potatoes around 
it through a pastry tube, then put the other vegetables inside the 
ring of potato. Brush over the potatoes and onions with beaten 
yolks of eggs diluted in milk and set the whole into the oven 
long enough to reheat the potatoe and brown the edges delicately. 
Remove the plank from the oven, cover the edges with a napkin 
and serve on a platter at once. — Mrs. R. McCurdy. 

Beef a la Mode. — Take a round of beef, remove the bone 
from the middle, also all the gristle and tough parts about the 
edges ; have ready one-half pound of fat salt pork cut into 
strips as thick and long as your finger, prepare a nice dressing 
the same as for stufling a turkey. With a thin, sharp knife make 
perpendicular incisions in the meat about one-half an inch apart, 
thrust into them the pork and work in with them some of the 



30 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

dressing ; proceed thus until the meat is thoroughly plugged. Put 
it into a baking pan with a little water at the bottom, cover tightly 
and bake slowly four hours. Then uncover and spread the rest 
of the dressing over the top and bake until a nice brown. After 
taking up, thicken the gravy and pour over the beef ; it should 
be sliced horizontally ; it is good either hot or cold. — Mrs. John 
McCurdy. 

A LA MODE Beef. — Three pounds of beef, raw, chopped fine, 
two slices of bread chopped fine, two eggs well beaten, one cup of 
milk, one tablespoonful of black pepper, one tablespoonful of 
salt, a piece of butter the size of an egg ; bake two and a half 
hours, slice and eat cold. — Mrs. T. H. JVilsoii. 

Beef Omelet. — Three pounds of beef, three-quarters pound 
suet chopped fine, salt, pepper and a little sage, three eggs, six 
Boston crackers rolled ; make into a roll and bake. — Mrs. W. S. 
Mattheivs. 

Beef Omelet. — Three pounds beef chopped fine, three eggs, 
one pint bread crumbs, one tablespoonful of salt, one tablespoonful 
pepper, one tablespoonful butter, sage to taste. Mix together and 
mold into a loaf, place in a pan with hot water enough to keep 
from burning and stufif bits of butter around it ; cover until nearly 
done, then let it brown. Bake about two hours. — Mrs. E. L. 
Kanengeiser. 

Beef Brawn. — Take a nice boiling piece of beef, boil until 
quite tender ; when cool, remove the bone, chop fine, strain the 
liquor in which the beef has been boiled, let it stand until cool, 
skim off the fat and add to the liquor the chopped beef ; season 
with salt, pepper and a little butter and sage or sweet marjoram 
if liked. Let it simmer until almost dry, press into a dish, when 
entirely cold slice. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Si'iCED Beef. — Take a piece of round and cut out the bone; 
tie a string around it to keep it firm ; take four ounces of salt- 
petre finely powdered and rub into the meat ; put into a crock, 
cover and let stand two days. Next rub thoroughly with salt, 
return to the crock and let it stand eight days ; then take an 
ounce of powdered mace, a grated nutmeg, one ounce pepper, 
one-half ounce of cloves light weight. Miz these spices well to- 
gether with one pound of brown sugar ; rub this thoroughly 
through the beef, which will be ready to cook the next day. 



MEATS 31 

Then fill the opening with herbs, take one-half pound of beef suet, 
flatten it by pounding with the rolling pin, lay it in a broad earthen 
pan with the suet under and over the meat. Over this put a shee^ 
of white paper and cover with a plate, set it in a hot oven and 
cook five hours or until it is thoroughly cooked. It is excellent 
cold. — Mrs. IV. J. Hitchcock. 

MiGNONS OF Beef. — Cut a pound of well trimmed tender- 
loin into five slices, remove the skin and press into round shapes ; 
brush with oil or melted butter and broil about six minutes on 
both sides ; season, salt, pepper, butter and chopped cress. Place 
on a platter around a pile of small potato balls cooked a la maitre 
d'hotel. — Mrs. IV. J. Sampson. 

Devilled Beef. — Take slices of cold roast beef, lay them 
on hot coals and broil ; season with pepper, salt, and serve while 
hot with a small lump of butter on each piece. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Hamburg Steak. — Put through a meat grinder small pieces 
of beef, either from the round or shoulder ; when ground, to one 
pound of meat add one teaspoonful of salt and one-half tea- 
spoonful of pepper ; form into small cakes with the hand and either 
broil on both sides over a clear fire or saute in half lard and 
butter. Have some nicely browned sauted onions, place a spoonful 
on each meat cake and serve very hot. 

To Cook a Fillet of Beef. — Procure a nice fillet of beef, 
sear the outside in a hot pan to retain the juices. Thin slices of 
salt pork may be laid over the beef and baste with a cup of beef 
stock in the bottom of the pan. Half an hour is sufficient time if 
oven is hot as should be. Serve with mushroom sauce. — Mrs. J . 
H. McEwen. 

Mushroom Sauce. — Put a tablespoonful of butter in a 
sauce pan. Stir in a tablespoonful of flour and cook. Add half 
a cup of beef stock and a part of the juice from a can of mush- 
rooms. Add pepper and salt and a few drops of lemon juice. Put 
in mushrooms and simmer a few minutes. — Mrs. J. H. McEzven. 

Ground Beef for Breakfast. — Procure a good round steak 
and cut in pieces and put through a meat grinder ; put this into a 
skillet over a hot fire and stir constantly until all particles are 
just cooked enough to not be rare; season with a little salt and 
pepper and a small piece of butter and serve very hot ; if allowed 
to stand will become tough and hard. 



32 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Hash. — Chop fine cold boiled or roast beef, veal or mutton ; 
take out any particles of gristle ; pare and cut into small dice cold 
boiled potatoes; mix together half .and half, put into a porcelain 
lined skillet, season well with salt and pepper, almost cover with 
cream and let simmer slowdy fifteen or twenty minutes or long 
enough for the cream to thicken ; add a small piece of butter just 
before taking from the fire. A little stock can be used instead of 
the cream. Let fry to skillet and serve brown scrapings with it. 
It is a mistaken idea that good hash can be made from any kind 
of meat. 

Corn Beef Hash. — Proceed the same as for beef hast, using 
the corn beef. 

To Cure Beef or Tongues. — Six pounds salt, three pounds 
sugar, one-quarter pound saltpetre, four gallons of water. Scald 
the mixture, skim it, and when cold put the beef into it. The 
round to be used for drying should be taken out at the end of 
three weeks and either smoked or dried. The tongues can be 
left in for a longer time. — Airs. J. G. Butler. 

Smoked Tongue. — Soak them over night, if very hard, 
longer ; cover with water, boil slowly three or four hours or until 
tender ; peel ofT the skin while warm, when cold slice thin. 

Braised Tongue. — Take a fresh beef tongue and make a 
hole in the little end of it, put a cord through and draw the big 
and little ends of the tongue together and tie firmly. Put the 
tongue in a kettle and cover with sfood rich stock, season with 
pepper and salt and boil slowly until tender (about two hours.) 
Set ofif the stove and let the tongue lay in the stock until cold. 
(The stock will do for soup.) Then skin the tongue, put in a 
kettle with a pint of very rich beef stock, one gill of Madeira 
wine, one cup of onion, carrot and a stock of celery (chopped 
fine and fried in a teaspoonful of melted butter) and half a cup 
of ripe tomatoes. Let simmer slowly for one-half hour and 
serve. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Dried Beef in Cream. — Shave the beef very thin, pour over 
it boiling water, let it stand for a few minutes ; pour this ofif and 
pour on good rich cream ; let it come to a boil ; if you have no 
cream use milk and butter and thicken with a very little flour. 
Season with pepper and serve on toast or not, as you like. — Mrs. 
W. S. Bonnell. 



MEATS 33 

Frizzled Beef. — Shave dried beef very thin, put into a 
frying pan when good and hot ; put in the beef and shake or stir 
until heated through ; season with pepper. Serve in this way, or 
just before serving beat one egg Hght and stir in. 

To Cure Tongues. — Scald together three quarts salt, one of 
molasses, one of brown sugar and two ounces of saltpetre in six 
quarts of water; strain into a jar; when cold, wash and trim your 
tongues and drop them into the brine keeping them covered by 
putting a plate over them. Let them remain at least six weeks 
in the brine, when they may be taken out, wiped dry and strung 
ready for smoking. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Devilled Kidney. — Prepare two beef kidneys, cut up and 
parboil one hour. In an iron frying pan fry four slices of bacon and 
one onion until all are well browned; then put in the pieces of 
kidney and brown that also ; season with a teaspoonful of salt 
and a little thyme and a pinch of powdered nutmeg; dredge all 
well with flour, add one cup of tomato, one cup of water, cover 
closely and simmer slowly one hour. — Nezv Orleans. 

To Devil Meats. — To "devil" anything is to make it very 
hot by means of cayenne pepper, black pepper, mustard, etc., as 
well as by fire. Cold meat is devilled by sprinkling it with mixed 
cayenne, black pepper and salt, then rubbing the meat with 
French mustard and making it hot through over a grid-iron. 
Sometimes the pepper, etc., is mixed with butter, the meat cut 
in gashes and the mixture inserted in the gashes, then grilled. 
Drum sticks of fowls should be cut in gashes long-ways, the 
mixture inserted — say French mustard and cayenne — then but- 
tered and grilled. 

VEAL 

Roast Veal. — Take a loin of veal, make a stuffing the same 
as for roast turkey, fill the flank with the stuffing and secure it 
firmly onto the loin ; rub the veal with salt, pepper and a little 
butter, put it into a pan with a little water; while roasing, baste 
frequently, letting it cook until thoroughly done, allowing two 
hours for a roast weighing from six to eight pounds ; when done, 
remove the threads before sending to the table. Thicken the 
gravy with a little flour. 



34 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Veal Cutlets. — Cut into nice pieces, season, dip in egg, 
then bread crumbs with a httle lemon and parsley chopped fine ; 
have plenty of grease in your pan hot; fry brown on one side, 
then turn over, make a rich brown gravy in another vessel and 
serve; garnish with parsley and lemon. — Mrs. Francis. 

Veal Cutlets. — Choose the cutlets from the round, cut 
about one-half an inch thick, brush them with egg, season, fry a 
light brown in lard and butter, pour over gravy made by pouring 
into a sauce pan a cupful of cream. — Mrs. Jonathan Warner. 

Veal Loaf. — Three pounds veal, ground fine, one-quarter 
pound salt pork with the veal, one cup rnilk, two eggs, one table- 
spoonful of black pepper, one tablespoonful salt, crumbs of two 
large slices of bread, butter the size of an egg. Bake two and 
one-half hours. Mix the veal, pork, bread crumbs, salt and pepper 
well together, add butter melted, then the milk ; last, the eggs 
beaten. Mix all thoroughly with hands ; let stand in pans to 
cool. — Mrs. J. M. Bonncll. 

Veal Loaf. — Three pounds raw veal chopped very fine, three 
eggs beaten very lightly, three tablespoonfuls cream ; mix the 
eggs and cream together, four pounded crackers ; mix with veal 
one teaspoonful pepper, one large tablespoonful salt, one large 
tablespoonful parsley or sage. Bake two and one-half hours in 
a deep pan ; put cracker crumbs, a little butter and some water 
on top. — Mrs. Frederick C. Evans. 

Veal Omelet. — Three pounds veal chopped fine, six table- 
spoonfuls rolled crackers, two eggs, three tablespoonfuls cream, 
pepper, salt and butter; mix into a loaf, spread with butter, egg 
and flour and bake about one hour. 

Veal Croquettes. — Mince veal fine, mix one-half cup of 
milk with one teaspoonful flour and piece of butter the size of 
an egg; cook until it thickens, stir into the meat, roll into balls, 
dip in egg with a little milk stirred in, roll in brown bread crumbs, 
fry in hot lard. 

Veal Birds. — Remove the fat, skin and bone from very 
thin slices of veal, then pound until one-quarter inch thick, trim 
in pieces 2H by 4 inches, chop the trimming fine with a square 
inch of salt pork ; for each two birds add half as much more 
bread crumbs as you have chopped meat. Season high with 



MEATS 35 

salt, pepper and sweet herbs, lemon juice, paprika and onion 
juice ; moisten with a little hot water, add an egg beaten, spread 
the mixture on each slice of veal nearly to the edge, roll up tightly 
and facten well with tooth pick, dredge with flour, salt, pepper 
and saute a golden brown in butter, then half cover with cream 
and cook very slowly until tender. Serve on toast, garnish with 
toasted points, lemon and parsley. 

Veal Cheese. — Take equal quantities of sliced boiled veal 
and sliced boiled tongue ; pound each separately in a mortar adding 
butter as you do so; mix them in a stone jar, press it hard and 
pour on melted butter; keep it covered in a dry place. When 
cold, cut in thin slices for tea or lunch. 

Scotch Gallops. — Cut veal into thin slices, beat with a 
pounder, dip them into yolk of egg and fry brown ; have ready 
warm to pour over them, one-half pint of gravy, two large spoon- 
fuls of cream, the yolk of one egg, a very little flour and butter 
stirred smooth ; season, stew until of a fine thickness. 

Mock Terrapin. — Half a calf's liver, season and fry brown, 
hash it but not very fine, flour it thickly, then add a teaspoonful 
of mixed mustard, a little cayenne pepper, two hard boiled eggs 
chopped fine, a lump of butter the size of an egg, a teacup of 
water ; let it boil a minute or two. Cold veal will do as well as 
liver. — Mrs. R, W. Tayler. 

Pate de Veau. — Of veal, three and one-half pounds of fat 
and lean, a slice of salt pork about one-half pound, six small 
crackers powdered very fine, two eggs, a bit of butter the size of 
an egg, one tablespoonful of salt, one of cayenne pepper, one of 
black or white pepper, one grated nutmeg ; chop the meat all very 
fine and mix the ingredients thoroughly, put in a dripping pan 
with a little water, make it into a loaf, bake about two hours 
basting it constantly; leave it to get cold and slice as head- 
cheese. — Mrs. R. IV. Taylor. 

Broiled Calves' Liver with Bacon. — Procure a nice calf's 
liver, wash and cut in thin slices, broil over a clear fire with thin 
slices of breakfast bacon ; season with butter, salt and pepper. — 
Mrs. W. Scott Bonnell. 

Veal Hash. — Take a teacupful of boiling water in a sauce 
pan, stir into it an even teaspoonful of flour wet in a tablespoonful 



36 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

of cold water, and let it boil five minutes ; add one-half tea- 
spoon of black pepper, as much salt and two tablespoonfuls of 
butter and let it keep hot but not boil. Chop the veal fine and 
mix with half as much stale bread crumbs, put into a pan and 
pour the gravy over it ; then let it simmer ten minutes. Serve 
this on buttered toast. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Fillet of Veal (Roasted in the Pot). — Remove the bone 
and fill the cavity with a force-meat made of bread crumbs, a 
very little salt pork, chopped fine, sage, pepper, salt and ground 
cloves ; lay in the pot a layer of slices of salt pork, put in the 
fillet, fasten with skewers, coover in the same manner, pour over 
a pint of good stock, cover down close and let it cook slowly two 
or three hours ; then take off the cover, let it brown and serve. 

Veal Steak. — Beat them until tender, then broil over clear, 
hot coals until a nice brown on both sides, season with salt, 
pepper and butter, send to the table while hot. A gravy made 
by stewing in a little hot water pieces of veal with a few oysters 
or mushrooms, seasoned, and poured over the steak is very nice. 

Breaded Veal Chops with Tomato Sauce. — Have the 
chops cut one-half inch thick from the loin of veal, dip into 
beaten egg and then into finely sifted bread crumbs, saute in half 
butter and half lard or sausage drippings. Serve with tomato 
sauce, poured over on hot platter. 

MUTTON AND LAMB 

Boiled Leg of Mutton. — Put on in cold water with a little 
salt, boil two hours and a half; make a sauce of melted butter — 
a piece of butter the size of an egg stirred with a tablespoonful of 
flour well, then stir into it a pint of boiling water with a little 
parsley chopped fine ; put into a sauce tureen on the table and 
garnish the dish with boiled cauliflower and parsley. 

Ragout Mutton. — Take two pounds of the shoulder of 
mutton, cut the meat into pieces about two inches square ; to 
this add one large onion cut up, about five medium sized potatoes 
and two small carrots cut in slices ; more than cover with water 
and cook until all are tender, then thicken the gravy with a little 
flour and butter stirred smooth together; season with salt and 
pepper. 



MEATS 



37 



Haricot Mutton.— Loin chop, fry until brown, dredge with 
flour, put into boihng water, or if you have it, weak soup, cut 
carrots into small pieces, then simmer for two hours, season with 
pepper and salt. Steak cooked in the same wav is very nice. — 
Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Breast of Mutton and Green Peas. — Select a breast of 
mutton not very fat, cut it into small square pieces, dredge it 
with flour and fry a fine brown in butter; add pepper and salt; 
cover it with water and set it over a slow fire to stew until the 
meat is perfectly tender; take out the meat, skim off all the fat 
from the gravy and just before serving add a quart of young 
peas previously boiled with the strained gravy and let the whole 
boil gently until the peas are done. 

Mutton Chops. — Have them trimmed from fat and skin, 
dip each one into beaten egg, then in pounded cracker, fry in hot 
lard or drippings. It is still better to bake them very slowly in 
the oven. — Mrs. John McCurdy. 

Roast Lamb. — Choose a hind quarter of lamb, stuff it with 
fine bread crumbs, pepper, salt, butter and a little sage. Sew 
the flap firmly to keep in place, rub the outside with salt, pepper, 
butter, a little of the stuffing and roast two hours. Serve with 
mint sauce. 

Crown Roast of Lamb. — The loin and ribs of lamb are 
required for this roast; have the butcher split the bones between 
the chops, then trim each bone down to the fleshy part of the 
chop ; he should also cut off each bone to equal lengths, then form 
a circle of the chops and tie firmly together. Roast as you would 
a leg of lamb, basting frequently. When done, place on a hot 
platter, fill the center with green peas (previously cooked and 
seasoned with salt, pepper and butter), remove the string from 
the meat and cover each chop end with a paper frill. 

To Grill a Shoulder of Lamb. — Half boil it, score it and 
cover it with egg crumbs and parsley seasoned ; broil it over a 
very clear and slow fire or brown in an oven. Serve with tomato 
sauce. 

Breaded Lamb Chops. — Grate plenty of stale bread, season 
with salt and pepper, have ready some well beaten egg, have a 
spider with hot lard ready, take the chops one by one, dip into 



38 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

the egg, then into the bread crumbs, repeat it as it will be found 
an improvement; then lay separately into the boiling lard, fry 
brown and then turn, to be eaten with currant jelly or grape 
catsup. 

Broiled Lamb or Mutton Chops. — Cut the loin into chops, 
remove a part of the fat and broil ; season with salt, pepper and 
butter. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

PORK 

Roast Pork. — Procure a joint of fresh pork, score the skin 
in narrow strips ; prepare a stuffing of fine bread crumbs, pepper 
and salt, and make incisions between the ribs and fill them with 
the stuffing, rub the joint well with sage, pepper, salt and bread 
crumbs. It will require about three hours to roast. Skim the fat 
from the gravy, thicken with a little flour and serve in a gravy boat. 

To Roast Young Pig. — Should be about six weeks old and 
should be killed two or three days before cooking ; after thoroughly 
cleaning ; soak from one to two hours in weak salt and water and 
let it hang over night. Make a stuffing of fine bread crumbs 
seasoned with butter, salt, pepper and sage, fill the pig full and 
sew up ; fasten the legs to the side of the pig to give it a good 
shape, salt and pepper the outside and rub on a little melted butter ; 
baste often until done. They are nicer baked in a brick oven than 
a stove ; bake for three or four hours ; the skin when done should be 
of a rich brown color and crisp. — Mrs. Jonathan Warner. 

Spare Ribs Baked and Broiled. — Season well with salt and 
pepper, bake in a quick oven three-quarters of an hour, baste often 
while baking. After taking up the ribs, pour ofif the fat from 
the gravy and thicken with a little flour. If liked, sprinkle a little 
sage over before baking. To broil crack the bones and broil over a 
clear fire taking care that the fire is not hot enough to scorch them. 
— Mrs. M. Adelia Wick. 

Pork and Beans. — Take two pounds of side pork, not too 
fat nor too lean, to two quarts of marrow-fat beans ; put the beans 
to soak the night before you boil them in a gallon of milk-warm 
waterj after breakfast, scald and scrape the rind of the pork and 
put on to boil an hour before putting in the beans. As soon as 



MEATS 39 

the beans boil up, pour off the water and put on one gallon of 
fresh water ; boil until quite tender adding more water if necessary. 
Great care must be taken that they do not scorch. When nearly as 
stiff as mashed potatoes, put into a baking dish, score the pork and 
put in the center. Brown in the oven one hour. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Pork and Beans. — Put the beans to soak in cold water the 
night before using; the next morning parboil them, strain out of 
that water into a crock, put a small piece of salt pork in the 
center, pepper well and pour on boiling water until covered. They 
will be baked ready to eat in five hours. They are much improved 
by staying in the oven all day. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Pork Chops or Tenderloin. — Cut thin and cook thoroughly ; 
broil or fry plain or dip into yolk of egg and bread crumbs. Season 
with salt and pepper. 

Sausage. — To ten pounds of ground meat, four ounces of salt, 
one of pepper, half an ounce of powdered sage. Grind the meat 
very fine, the tenderloin is best but a fresh ham mixed with the 
tenderloin makes it very nice. Pack well in a stone jar. — Grandma 
Wick. 

Broiled Pigs Feet. — Take the feet from young pigs, cut off 
the toes, single well, split and soak for twenty-four hours in good 
strong salt and water ; then scrape thoroughly ; boil until tender ; 
when cold, place on a wire gridiron and broil over a clear fire, sea- 
son with salt, pepper, butter and serve with quarters of lemon. 

Pigs Feet Hash. — Singe and scrape the feet, then wash clean 
and put them into salt and water to soak over night, then scrape 
again until they are perfectly clean and boil them till the meat 
falls from the bones ; chop with a knife, season with salt and 
pepper, pack in a crock and if the weather be cool it will keep 
some time. It can be sliced and eaten cold or put into a skillet 
and fried until brown. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Pigs Feet Pickled. — Chop off the toes, soak over night in 
salt water; in the morning scrape well, boiling till tender; then 
take from the liquor, put into a croock, sprinkle with salt and to 
one dozen feet put two tablespoonsful of whole pepper, two grains 
of cloves and two of broken cinnamon ; while the feet are hot, cover 
with good, strong cold vinegar, cover and they will be ready for use 
in two or three days. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 



40 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Scrapple. — Clean and scrape a pig's head thoroughly, having 
previously removed the eyes, ears and the entire jaw, let stand in 
salt and water over night, then boil until the flesh falls from the 
bones and chop fine with a little sage, salt and pepper, and return 
to the liquor ; add enough sifted corn meal to thicken, simmer until 
of the consistency of soft mush — not too thick to pour; put it in 
pans, when cold and stiff, slice and fry. 



HAMS 



REMARKS. 

For boiling, always select an old, small ham. 

For broiling, choose one recently cured. Cold boiled ham 
should be cut as thin as possible, it is said so thin as to cover an 
acre. Grated ham is very nice on sandwiches. For luncheon, cold 
ham may be sliced very thin and rolled. 

Roast or Baked Ham. — Boil a good sized ham three hours. 
Then take off the rind or skin and put in dripping pan. Put over it 
one cup of sugar and one pint of vinegar and stick cloves into 
the ham. Bake one hour. — Mrs. W. S. Bonncll. 

To Boil Ham. — Clean a ham well, tie in a cloth, put into 
cold water, cover up tight, boil hard five hours, then let stand until 
perfectly cold, never taking off the cover until cold. This is 
nice sliced. — Mrs. Ann Hughes. 

Virginia Hams. — First wash well the hams in warm water; 
now place it in the boiler with say from eight to ten gallons of 
cold water ; at the commencement of cooking you will be careful to 
only simmer very slowly for the first hour, then after steadily and 
regularly boil until the ham is soft and well done. To cook thor- 
oughly a ten pound ham requires say four hours and other sizes 
in like proportion. Remove the skin while the ham is warm. If 
you do not find this good you need not blame me. Virginia hams 
should be kept ten days after boiling before slicing cold. — Scott. 

To Broil Ham. — Cut thin slices about one-quarter inch 
in thickness, trim carefully the outside edges, lay on a gridiron 
and broil ; while hot, sprinkle over it a little pepper and put 
pieces of butter on the top. 

To Render Lard. — Procure the finest of leaf lard, and after 
washing and scraping clean, cut into small pieces, put into a 
kettle with a very little water to prevent burning, let it cook slowly 



42 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

until the fat is entirely drawn out and the pieces are brown and 
crisp and sink to the bottom of the kettle ; strain carefully through 
a cloth, tie up and set away. 

Hog's Head Cheese. — Clean a hog's head thoroughly, boil 
until tender ; when it falls to pieces take out the bones, season with 
salt and pepper, press into a crock ; when cold slice. — Mrs. M. I. 
Arms. 

To Fry Salt Pork. — Salt pork, with as little lean as possible, 
is best; slice thin and dip each slice in flour fried to a delicate 
brown in a hot skillet ; serve at once. 

To Salt Ham or Shoulders. — For every one hundred 
pounds of ham, take six ounces of salt-petre, two quarts of mo- 
lasses and ten pounds of salt ; mix well together, rub the hams 
with the mixture thoroughly, let them stand three weeks, then turn 
over and rub again. They will soon be ready for use. 



POULTRY 



REMARKS. 

Young, plump and well fed but not too fat poultry are the 
best. The skin should be fine grained, clear and white, the breast 
full-fleshed and broad, the legs smooth. The birds must be heavy 
in proportion to their size. 

As regards duck and geese, their breasts must also be plump, 
their feet flexible and yellow. For boiling, white legged poultry 
must be chosen because when dressed their appearance is by far 
the most delicate. The greatest precaution ought to be taken 
to prevent poultry from getting at all tainted before it is cooked. 
It should be killed and dressed from eight to ten hours before 
cooking. Care must be taken to cook poultry thoroughly. 

Boiled Turkey. — Soak it in salt and water for an hour and a 
half to make it white ; make a stuffing of bread crumbs and about 
half the quantity of suet, a little parsley and a little lemon peel 
chopped fine ; scald the parsley in order to have it green ; put all 
of these into the breast, tie lightly in a cloth and boil ; a young 
turkey will boil in two hours, an older one will require, of course, 
a longer time. Garnish with parsley and lemon cut in slices. Serve 
with white sauce which is made as follows : 

Take one cup of butter and melt it and while in the sauce 
pan shake in three tablespoonsful of flour until well mixed, then 
add one quart of milk stirring all the time till it boils. — Mrs. 
Francis. 

Roast Turkey. — A turkey weighing not more than eight or 
nine pounds (young) is the best. Wash and clean thoroughly 
wiping dry as moisture will spoil the stuffing ; take one small loaf 
of bread grated fine, rub into it a piece of butter the size of an 
e.gg, one small teaspoonful of pepper and one of salt, sage if liked ; 
rub all together and fill the turkey, sewing up so that the stuffing 
cannot cook out ; always put the giblets under the side of the 



44 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

fowl SO they will not dry up, rub salt and pepper on the outside, put 
into a dripping pan with one tea-cupful of water basting often, 
turning it till browned all over. Bake about three hours ; have left 
in the chopping bowl a little stuffing, take out the giblets and chop 
fine, after taking out the turkey, put in a large tablespoonful of 
flour and stir until brown. Put the giblets into a gravy boat and 
pour over them the gravy. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

To Broil Turkey. — Select a very young and tender turkey 
— no others are fit for broiling. After washing and wiping dry. 
split down the middle of the back, open, pound a little to flatten 
out, then place on a broiler over a clear fire, the inside of the 
turkey towards the fire first ; keep turning until nicely browned 
and cooked through ; put into hot pan and work into the fowl 
butter slightly warmed, and salt and pepper. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Turkey, Chicken or Duck Hash. — Pick the meat from the 
bone of any cold, left over fowl ; add to this an equal amount of cold 
stuffing and enough of the gravy or cream to moisten, let it cook 
for a few moments only, season and serve. 

Roast Duck. — Prepare the same as for turkey, adding to the 
dressing two or three finely chopped onions. Serve with apple 
sauce. 

Roast Goose or Gosling. — Two ounces of onions and half as 
much green sage chopped fine, and one coffee-cupful of bread 
crumbs, a little pepper and salt, the yolks of two eggs. Do not quite 
fill the goose but leave room to swell ; roast from one and one- 
half to two hours and serve with gravy and apple sauce. 

Roast Chicken. — Split down the back, season with salt and 
pepper and plenty of butter ; pour a little water into the pan and 
while baking baste often, turning the chicken so as to nicely 
brown all over. When done, take up the chicken, thicken the 
gravy with a little flour and serve in a gravy boat. Chickens 
are nice stuffed and baked in the same manner as turkey. 

Fried Chicken. — Joint young tender chickens, if old, put in 
a stew pan with a little water and simmer gently till tender ; season 
with salt and pepper, dip into flour and fry in hot lard and butter 
until nicely browned ; lay on a hot platter and take the liquor in 
which the chicken was stewed, turn into the frying pan with 



POULTRY 45 

the brown gravy, stir in a little flour, when it is boiled stir in a 
teacup of sweet rich cream and pour over the chicken. — Mrs. M. 
I. Arms. 

To Broil Chicken. — Only young- tender chickens are nice 
broiled. After cleaning and washing them, split down the back, 
wipe dry, season with salt and pepper and lay them, inside down, 
on a hot gridiron over a bed of bright coals. Broil until nicely 
browned and well cooked through, watching and turning to pre- 
vent burning; broil with them a little salt pork cut in thin slices. 
After taking them from the gridiron, work into them plenty of 
butter and serve ; garnish with tlie pork, slices of lemon and 
parsley. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

To Broil Chicken. — Split them down the back and season 
with pepper and salt. Lay them over a very clear fire and at a 
great distance. Let the inside lie next the fire until it is about half 
done, then turn them and let them be of a fine brown. Let your 
sauce be good gravy with mushrooms and garnish with livers 
broiled, the gizzards cut, slashed and broiled with pepper and 
salt, or this sauce : Take a handful of sorrel, dip in boiling water, 
drain it and have ready half a pint of good gravy, a shallot shredded 
small and some parsley boiled very green. Thicken it with a 
piece of butter rolled in flour and add a glass of red wine. Then 
lay your sorrel in heaps around the fowls and pour the sauce over 
them. Garnish with lemon. 

This quaint recipe is taken from "The Art of Cookery" by 
Mrs. Glasse Alexandria, 1812. — Mrs. A. E. Kauffman. 

Fricassed Chicken. — Cut and joint the chickens into small 
pieces, cover with water and boil till tender ; then season with salt 
and pepper, mix three tablespoonsful of flour smooth with butter 
the size of an ^gg; stir this into a little of the gravy, then turn 
onto the chicken ; let it boil and serve by turning on a platter over 
slices of bread or fresh soda biscuits cut in halves. 

A Pretty Way of Stewing Chicken. — Take two fine 
chickens, half boil them, then take them up in a pewter or silver 
dish. Cut up your fowls, separate all the joint bones one from 
another and then take out the breast bones. If there is not liquor 
enough from the fowls, add a few spoonsful of the water they were 
boiled in, put in a blade of mace and a little salt. Cover close with 
another dish, set it over a stove or chafing dish of coals, let it stew 



46 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

until the chickens are cooked enough and then send them hot to 
the table in the same dish they were stewed in. This is a very 
pretty dish for a sick person ; for a change it is better than butter 
and the sauce is very agreeable and pretty. You may do rabbits, 
partridges or moor game in this way. — Mrs. A. E. Kanffman. 

A Nice Way To Cook Chicken. — Cut the chicken up, put 
into a pan and cover with water ; let it stew as usual, when done, 
make a thickeneing of cream and flour, add butter, pepper and 
salt, have ready a nice short cake, baked and cut into squares, 
rolled thin as for crust ; lay the cakes on the dish and pour the 
chicken and gravy over them while hot. — Mrs. R. IV. Taylcr. 

Chicken Pie. — Stew the chicken and make the gravy the day 
before as hot chicken will make the lower crust soggy. Make pie 
crust as for any pie, roll lower crust very thin, sprinkle the pan 
well with flour to make the crust brown quickly, take the large 
bones out of the chicken, put into pie with cold gravy and cover 
with upper crust ; have oven hot at first so lower crust will cook 
before the chicken can melt and soak in ; then a slower oven and 
bake three-quarters of an hour. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Chicken Pie Crust. — Three cups of flour, one and one-half 
cups of lard, one cup of water, two teaspoons of salt ; rub three- 
quarters of a cup of lard into the flour — not until fine but leave it 
in lumps ; add salt and wet with the water, then roll the rest of the 
lard in. Two chickens prepared and boiled, as you would for 
stewed chicken, until tender ; for gravy mix two tablespoonfuls of 
flour and two of butter until smooth ; thicken the gravy with this, 
season to taste, boiling a few minutes after thickening. Let the 
chicken and gravy stand until cool before putting on the crust and 
baking. Bake one-half hour. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Chicken Pot Pie. — Cut and joint a fat chicken, cover with 
water and let it boil gently until tender ; season with salt and pepper 
and thicken the gravy with two tablespoonsful of flour mixed 
smooth with piece of butter the size of an e.gg ; have ready nice light 
bread dough, roll out, cut with a biscuit cutter about an inch 
thick ; let rise and when very light drop this into the boiling 
gravy (having previously removed the chicken to a hot pltter), 
cover, and let it boil from one-half to three-quarters of an hour. 
To ascertain whether it is done or not, stick into one of them a 



POULTRY 



47 



fork and if it comes out clean, it is done. Lay on the platter with 
the chicken, pour over the gravy and serve.— Mr^. Henry Wick. 

Chicken Pudding.— Cut up the chickens and stew until ten- 
der, then take them from the gravy and spread on a flat dish to 
cool— having first seasoned them well with butter, pepper and 
salt ; make a batter of one quart of milk, three cups of flour, three 
tablespoons of melted butter, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one 
teaspoonful of cream tartar, a little salt. Butter a pudding dish 
and put a layer of the chicken on the bottom and then a cupful 
of the batter over it ; proceed until the dish is full ; the batter must 
form the crust. Bake an hour and serve the thickened gravy in a 
gravy boat.— Mrj. John McCnrdy. 

Chicken Cheese.— Boil two chickens until tender, take out 
all the bones and chop the meat fine, season with salt, pepper and 
butter ; boil down the liquor the chickens were boiled in until there 
remains only enough to make the chopped meat quite moist ; put 
the meat into a mold of any shape that is desirable or convenient ; 
when cold, turn out and cut in slices. It is excellent for picnics 
or for hmch.— Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Minced Powls.— Remove from the bones all the flesh of 
either cold roast or boiled fowls ; clean it from the skin and keep 
covered from the air until ready for use ; boil the bones and skin 
with three-quarters of a pint of water until reduced quite half, 
strain the gravy and let cool ; next (having first skimmed off all the 
fat) put it in a clean saucepan with a half teacup of cream, three 
ounces of butter well mixed with one tablespoonful of flour ; keep 
these stirred until they boil; then put in the fowl (finely minced) 
with three hard boiled eggs chopped and sufiicient salt and pepper 
to season. Shake the mince over the fire until just ready to 
boil, dish it on hot toast and serve. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Chicken en Casserole.— A casserole is an earthenware, fire- 
proof dish that can be used for baking in the oven. A nice, fat, 
tender chicken — suitable for roasting— is the best ; split down the 
back, put in the casserole about two tablespoonfuls of butter, when 
it melts, lay in the chicken the inner side down; lay over this 
some very thin slices of salt pork, a carrot, potatoes and a small 
turnip (all cut in small balls with a vegetable cutter), an onion 
sliced, eight or ten button mushrooms, season with salt and pepper. 



48 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Fry all together until the chicken is a rich brown, turning occas- 
ionally that all sides are browned alike, then dip off any super- 
fluous fat, and pour in a cup of good stock, cover closely and let 
simmer gently in the oven for one hour. Now remove tlic chicken, 
imjoint it and if there is not sufficient gravy add a little stock, let 
it boil and thicken with a very little flour. Place the chicken back 
in the casserole for a few moments only and serve in the casserole. 

Chicken Timbals. — The breast of two raw chickens ground 
in a meat cutter several times until very fine. Stir in one pint of 
carem a little at a time and the whites of three eggs. Grease 
timbal cups thoroughly, fill two-thirds full, set in pan of water 
(half way up tins), cover pan closely and cook twenty minutes. 
Sauce : One pint of cream, one cup of chopped nuishrooms, heat ; 
thicken a little with flour, season with salt and pepper. — Mrs. J. 
H. McEwen. 

Chicken Timbals. — Boil and grind fine one chicken ; boil 
and wash one pint of Italian chestnuts, make a rich cream sauce and 
boil chicken and nuts together in the cream ; season highly. Before 
taking off the stove stir in the yolks of two eggs ; put some truffles 
in the bottom of timbal moulds and fill with the paste ; set moulds 
in hot water until ready to serve. Serve with cream sauce. — Mrs. 
Fox, Saegertozvn. 



GAME 



Wild Turkey.— Wild turkeys are much finer than the domes- 
tic birds. Select one that is young and tender, stuff with chestnuts, 
season well with salt and pepper and roast with frequent bastings. 

To Roast Venison.— Roast a haunch of venison as you would 
a loin of veal and about as long. If you choose, make a plain 
dressing and stuff it ; baste often while baking. 

Broiled Venison Steak.— Broil quickly over a clear fire and 
when sufficiently done pour over two tablespoonsful of currant 
jelly, melted with a piece of butter, pepper and salt. Eat 
while hot on hot plates.— Mr.y. JV. J. Hitchcock. 

To Cook Venison.— Broil as you would a beefsteak rare; 
have ready a gravy of butter, pepper and salt and a very little 
water; heat the gravy without boiling, score the steak all over, 
put it in the gravy and cover tight; keep hot enough to steam 
the meat and send in a covered dish to the table. — Mrs. R. W. 
Tayler. 

Prairie Chicken. — Broil over a quick fire, season with salt, 
pepper, lemon juice and butter well worked in; serve on giblet 
toast, which is made by boiling to a paste the livers of any game 
bird with as many chicken livers as needed, mash to a paste with 
some of the water in which they were cooked, a little sherry is 
added with pepper, salt, and a teaspoonful of butter spread on thin 
slices of buttered toast. 

To Roast Partridges, Pheasants or Quail.— Pluck, singe, 
draw and truss them, season with salt and pepper, roast for about 
half an hour in a brisk oven basting often with butter. When 
done place on a dish together with bread crumbs fried brown and 
arranged in small heaps. Gravy should be served in a tureen 
apart. 



50 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Broiled Quail or Woodcock. — After dressing, split down 
the back, sprinkle with salt and pepper and lay on a gridiron, the 
inside down. Broil slowly at first. Serve with cream gravy — Mrs. 
G. B. Woodman. 

To Roast Wild Duck or Teal. — After dressing soak them 
over night in salt and water to draw out the fishy taste; then 
in the morning put them into fresh water, changing several times 
before roatsing. Stuff or not as desired. Serve with currant 
jelly. 

To Roast Wild Fowl. — The flavor is best preserved without 
stuffing. Put pepper, salt and a piece of butter into each ; wild 
fowl require much less dressing than tame. They should be 
served of a fine color and a rich brown gravy. To take off the 
fishy taste which wild fowl sometimes have, put an onion, salt and 
hot water into the dripping pan and baste them for the first ten 
minutes with this, then take away the pan and baste constantly 
with butter. 

Reed Birds. — Select long, sweet potatoes of even size, wash, 
dry and cut in two lengthwise, scoop out the inside leaving a 
shell one-quarter inch thick. Take a reed bird or half a squab, rub 
it with a pinch of salt, lay in one shell and cover with the other ; 
tie them together with a string, cover each potato with a strip of 
pork and place them in a buttered baking pan. Put in an oven for 
thirty minutes, remove the pork at the end of that time, brown for 
five minutes, remove the string but leave each cover in place. 
Serve on a hot napkin. 

Roast Pigeons. — They should be dressed while fresh. If 
young they will be ready for roasting in twelve hours. Dress 
carefully and after making clean, wipe dry and put into each 
bird a small piece of butter dipped in cayenne. Truss the wings 
over the back and roast in a quick oven, keeping them constantly 
basted with butter. Serve with brown gravy. Dish them with 
young watercresses. 

Pigeon Compote. — Truss six pigeons as for broiling. Grate 
the crumbs of a small loaf of bread, scraps one pound of fat bacon, 
chopped thyme, parsley and onion and lemon peel fine, grate a lit- 
tle nutmeg and season with salt and pepper. Mix it up with 
two eggs, put this force meat into the craws of the pigeons, lard 



GAME 



51 

the breasts and fry brown. Place them in a stew pan with some 
beef stock and stew them three-quarters of an hour, thicken with 
a piece of butter rolled in flour. Serve with force meat balls 
around the dish and strain the gravy onto the pigeons. 

PiGEONN Pie.— Dress and wash clean, split down the back and 
then proceed as for chicken pie.— Mr^. IV. S. Bonnell. 

Fillet of Birds or Fowls.— Cut off the breast of birds, fry 
or broil, season and serve in overlapping slices around a pile of 
fresh mushrooms, fry and mix with the stewed livers of the birds 
and enough rich brown gravy to moisten the whole. 

Jugged Hare or Rabbit.— Cut up as you would chicken for 
stewing and fry brown, dredge with flour, put into boiling water 
to simmer about two hours. Fry onions brown. Put into a bag 
mace, allspice, lemon peel and parsley. Put the bag, the onions 
and a little jelly into the stew, season with salt and pepper, garnish 
with force meat balls the same as for roast veal.— Afr^. Wm. 
Bonnell. 

Fried Rabbit or Squirrel.— After the rabbit has been thor- 
oughly cleaned and washed, put it into boiling water and let it 
boil for about ten minutes, drain and when cold cut it into joints, 
dip into beaten egg and then into fine bread crumbs seasoned with 
salt and pepper. When all are ready, fry them in butter over a 
moderate fire fifteen minutes. Thicken the gravy with an ounce 
of butter and a small teaspoonful of flour. Give it a minute's 
boil, stir in two tablespoonfuls of cream, dish the rabbit and pour 
the sauce over it and serve quickly. 

Stewed Rabbit. — Skin and clean the rabbit, cut into pieces, 
put a quarter pound of butter into a stew pan and turn the pieces 
of rabbit about in it until nicely browned, take out the meat, add 
one pint of boiling water to the butter, one tablespoonful flour 
stirred to a paste in cold water, one tablespoonful of salt and a 
little grated onion, if liked. Let this boil up, add the meat stew 
slowly till the rabbit is tender ; serve hot. 



VEGETABLES 



REMARKS. 



Green vegetables should be cooked the same day they are 
gathered. All vegetables should be washed before using, except 
corn and peas, which should be husked and shelled with clean 
hands and not washed as some of the sweetness is thereby ex- 
tracted. Reject stale and withered ones. They should be put in 
boiling water with a little salt and only just time allowed to cook 
them, as they should be sent to the table as soon as done. 

In boiling vegetables the great point is not to let the boiling 
stop. An^ vegetable peeled should be thrown into cold water until 
it is wanted to boil. Green vegetables are better color if not 
covered with the lid to shut in the steam. Try vegetables with a 
fork; if tender, they are done. Old potatoes should be put into 
cold water, new potatoes into boiling water. 

Steamed Potatoes. — Potatoes are much more nutritiuos and 
palatable if properly steamed, than boiled. Wash clean, place in 
a steamer over boiling water and steam rapidly, otherwise will not 
seem done no mtter how long they have been cooked. They should 
steam until the skins crack and the fork will easily penetrate them. 
Do not take from the steamer until time for serving or they will 
become too solid. Skin and serve. 

Baked Potatoes. — Take medium sized potatoes. Wash clean, 
have a hot oven. Bake for twenty minutes to one-half hour, do 
not leave the oven door open one second ; if you do, your potato 
skins become soft ; crisp skin to a boked potato is the best part of 
it. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Mashed Potatoes. — Wash and cut into halves or quarters, 
put into boiling water, boil one-half hour. When done pour off 
all the water, add salt, mash perfectly smooth, then add a little 
cre^m if you have it, if not, milk, and beat well with fork or spoon. 
The beating makes them light. — Mrs. H. B. Wick, 



Vegetables 53 

To Cook New Potatoes.— Remove the skin by scraping with 
a knife. Boil, in water to cover, with a little salt. When done 
drain off the water, let stand for a few moments on the back of the 
stove to dry off, then half cover with cream seasoned with salt and 
pepper. Allow the cream to boil up around the potatoes for a few 
moments and add, the last thing before serving, a small piece of 
butter. 

Grilled Potatoes.— Take cold boiled potatoes, peel and slice 
them in slices one-third of an inch thick. Dip them into dis- 
solved butter, place on a gridiron over a very clear fire, grill 
them until nicely browned underneath, then turn them and when 
a nice color, put them on a heated dish. Sprinkle with salt and 
pepper and serve very hot. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Stewed Potatoes.— A watery potato is preferable to a mealy 
potato for stewing and when the Peerless can be obtained they 
are the best. Boil with the skins on the day before using. When 
ready to use, pare them and cut into small dice but do not chop 
them. Put into a porcelain lined skillet, cover with good cream^ 
season with salt and pepper, let the cream boil up around them 
until the consistency desired, stirring occasionally but carefully. 
Just before serving, add a little piece of butter. — Mrs Henry 
Wick. 

Potatoes au Gratin.— After following the above recipe, 
place the potatoes in a porcelain baking dish, sprinkle the top 
with finely sifted bread crumbs and tiny pieces of butter. Grated 
cheese can also be added over the top of the potatoes if liked. Set 
in a hot oven long enough to brown. 

Saratoga Potatoes.— Peel and slice on a slaw cutter into cold 
water, wash thoroughly and drain. Spread between the folds of 
a clean cloth, rub and pat until dry. Fry a few at a time in boiling 
lard; salt as you take them o\\\..—Mrs. Henry Garlick. 

Home Fried Potatoes.— Take cold boiled potatoes, chop 
fine. Have your frying pan hot with a little sweet lard or roast 
beef drippings. Stir and fry quickly until brown. Serve hot as 
soon as done. Good.— ^F. Scott Bonnell. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes.— Put into your frying pan about two 
ounces of butter and when melted slice fine into this two onions 
and fry until half done. Then add about a quart of cold boiled 



54 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

potatoes sliced, with a little chopped parsley and two ounces of 
butter, salt and pepper to taste. Stir and toss gently until the 
potatoes are all fried a nice brown color. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Duchess Potatoes. — Mash five potatoes nicely, add one table- 
spoonful of butter, two tablespoonfuls of cream and the yolk of one 
egg, pepper and salt to taste. Press through a pastry bag in nice 
shapes on a greased pan, brush over with &gg and bake a nice 
brown. — Mrs. D. C. Stewart. 

Waldorf Potatoes. — One quart of chopped boiled potatoes, 
one tablespoonful of grated onion, one large teaspoonful of salt, 
almost one pint of rich cream. Let bake in baking dish one-half 
hour. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

French Fried Potatoes. — Pare small raw potatoes, cut in 
halves, then each half in quarters lengthwise. Put a handful into 
a frying basket, immerse in boiling hot lard until a delicate brown, 
drain in the colander, season with salt and pepper. If your lard 
is too hot, the potatoes will become too brown before cooking 
through. If not hot enough will soak up the grease and become 
soggy. Serve at once. 

QuiRLED Potatoes. — Peel, boil, mash and season as mashed 
potatoes. Then put them into a colander, pressing them through 
into the dish you wish to serve them in. Set in the oven and 
brown. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Fried Raw Potatoes. — Pare large potatoes, cut in slices 
quarter of an inch in thickness. Have hot in the skillet drippings 
or lard and butter mixed. Cover the bottom of the skillet with 
sliced raw potatoes. When a light brown on one side, turn. Keep 
covered while cooking. Season with salt and pepper. — Mrs. R. 
McMillan. 

Potatoes Roasted With Meat. — Pare medium sized pota- 
toes, and about one-half hour before the roast is done, place in 
the dripping pan with the roast of meat. Baste with the gravy 
and serve around the roast. 

Escalloped Potatoes With Cheese. — Put a layer of thinly 
sliced cold boiled potatoes into a fireproof dish, season with salt 
and pepper and cover with a layer of grated cheese, add another 
layer of potatoes and so on until all are used. Pour over all a 
white sauce made with a cupful of cream thickened with a tea- 



VEGETABLES 5 5 

Spoonful of flour, a small piece of butter and one egg. Sprinkle 
the top with bread crumbs and bake in a slow oven one-half hour. 
— Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

EscALLOPED Potatoes. — Put alternate layers of sliced cold 
boiled potatoes and slices of hard cold boiled eggs into a baking 
dish. Cover with cream, finely grated bread crumbs over the 
top and a piece of butter. Let cook in oven about one-half hour. 
—Mrs. H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Potato Croquettes or Balls. — Four large mealy potatoes 
cold. Mash them in a pan with two tablespoonfuls of fresh melted 
butter, a pinch of salt, a little pepper, one tablespoonful of cream 
and the beaten yolk of one egg. Rub it together for about five 
minutes or until very smooth. Shape the mixture into balls about 
the size of a walnut, or small rolls. Dip them into an egg well 
beaten and then into the finest sifted bread crumbs. Fry them in 
boiling lard. — Miss Sallie Arms. 

Potato Ribbons. — Wash and peel large potatoes. Let them 
lie in cold water for few moments, cut them into ribbons round 
and round like an apple and keep the strips as nearly as possible 
of one width. They must not be too thin or they will break. Frv 
them in plenty of smoking hot fat until they are lightly browned. 
Drain them on a wire sieve and sprinkle a little salt and pepper 
over them. Serve on a hot dish. 

Sweet Potatoes. — (To boil, to fry, to bake.) — Sweet po- 
tatoes require more time to cook than common potatoes. 

To Boil. — Take large fine potatoes, wash clean, boil with the 
skins on in plenty of water but without salt. They will take at 
least one hour. Drain off the water and set them for a few minutes 
in a tin pan before the fire or on the stove that they may be well 
dried. Peel them before sending to the table. 

To Fry. — Choose large potatoes, boil them, and then having 
taken off the skins, cut the potatoes in slices and fry in butter 
or in nice drippings. 

To Bake. — Bake as the common potato except give them a 
longer time. 

Sweet Potato Croquetts. — Four good sized sweet potatoes 
equal three cups of potatoes. Boil with the jackets on, skin and 



56 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

press. Mash while still hot, mix one tablespoonful of butter, one 
tablespoonful of cream, one teaspoonful of salt, one-quarter tea- 
spoonful of pepper. Mix over a fire in a sauce pan until the po- 
tatoes come away from the sides of the pan. Turn out into a flat 
dish, when cool form into cork shaped croquettes. Cover with 
egg and bread crumbs and fry in smoking hot fat. — Miss Isabella 
McCurdy. 

Turnips. — Pare and cut in pieces, put them into boiling water 
with a little salt. Boil for an hour and a half ; when quite tender, 
drain, set on the back of the stove for a moment to evaporate the 
water and then mash fine. Season with butter, pepper and salt. 
(Some use cream which makes them very nice.) Stir them over 
the fire until they are thoroughly mixed. Turnips should be 
served hot. — Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Creamed Turnips. — Pare the turnips, and cut into dice; put 
directly into cold water; then cook in salted boiling water until 
tender; drain them, pour over them a white sauce made in the 
proportion of one tablespoon of butter to two of flour melted 
together, and mixed with hot milk or cream. — Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

Beets. — Boil with the skins on as they bleed if cut previous to 
boiling. Young beets will cook tender in one hour. Winter beets 
will require three or four hours' boiling. Make a dressing of a 
little water, butter, pepper and salt with a little weak vinegar. 
Some do not add vinegar until at the table. 

Green Corn on the Cob. — Take ofif the oustide leaves and 
the silk, letting the innermost leaves remain on until after the corn 
is boiled, which renders the corn much sweeter. Boil for half an 
hour in plenty of water, drain and after removing the leaves and 
silk, serve. 

Green Corn Roasted on the Ear. — Spread ears of green 
sweet corn with butter, pepper and salt. Lay them in a dripping 
pan and set as close as possible before clear hot coals. Turn the 
ears as they brown until all are browned and serve hot or set 
the pan in a very hot oven and brown the corn. 

Green Corn Pudding. — One quart of milk, five eggs, two 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one tablespoonful of white sugar, 
one dozen large ears of corn. Grate the corn from the cob, beat 
the whites and yolks of the eggs separately, put the corn and 



VEGETABLES py 

yolks together, stir hard and add the melted butter, then the milk 
gradually, stirring hard all the time. Next the sugar and then 
the whites and a little salt. Bake slowly, covering the dish at first. 
It will bake in about one hour.— Afr^. John McCurdy. 

Green Corn PuDDiNc.-Twelve ears of corn, one pint of 
milk, two eggs beaten separately, two tablespoonfuls of flour one 
of melted butter, pepper and salt. Mix together, cutting the whites 
through. Bake thirty to thirty-five minues.— Mr^. P. B. Owen. 

Lima Beans.— Shell, wash and put into boiling water with a 
little salt. When boiled tender, drain and season them and either 
dress with cream or a lump of butter and let simmer for a few 
moments. 

String or Butter BsANS.-String and cut them into pieces 
one-half inch long. When boiled tender, drain, season and dress 
with cream. 

Boiled Onions.— Skin them thoroughly. Put them to boil; 
when they have boiled a few moments, pour off the water and 
add clear cold water and then set them to boil again. Pour this 
away and add more cold water, when they may boil till done. This 
will make them white and clear and very mild in flavor. After they 
are done, pour off all the water and dress with a little cream, salt 
and pepper to taste. 

Stuffed Onions.— Select large common onions, peel them 
and a little more than cover them with water slightly salted. When 
tender, drain and remove with a sharp knife, from the center of 
each, the core, being careful not to break the onion. Fill this 
space with cold chicken veal, butter, sweetbreads chopped very 
fine, season well. To a cupful of chopped meat add four table- 
spoonfuls of cream or soup stock, a piece of butter the size of a 
walnut, two tablespoonfuls of fine bread crumbs. Set on the 
stove to heat and stir in one egg. Fill the space in the onion with 
this dressing, cover with fine bread crumbs, sprinkle with salt and 
pepper. Set in the oven lopg enough to brown. 

Saute Onions.— Pare and slice them, let them stew for a 
httle while in hot water, then drain the water off, season and fry 
brown in drippings. 

Fried Onions.— Slice Spanish or Bermuda onions very thin. 
Let stand in ice water one hour, then lay on a clean cloth as Sar- 



58 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

atogo potatoes would be treated. Fry in deep lard very hot. 
Season with salt and pepper. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Spinach. — Good spinach requires washing and close pick- 
ing. Boil twenty minutes in boiling water. Drain, season with 
butter, pepper and salt and garnish the dish with slices of hard 
boiled eggs. 

Spinach. — Boil and chop. Put into a squeezer, mix with 
seasoning and cream ; put into moulds. After turning out cover 
with hard boiled eggs chopped, and sprinkle over the top. — Mrs P. 
B. Ozvens. 

Stewed Celery. — Clean the heads thoroughly. Take off the 
coarse, green, outer leaves. Cut in small pieces and stew in a 
little broth. When tender, add some rich cream, a little flour and 
butter enough to thicken the cream. Season with pepper, salt 
and a little nutmeg, if that is agreeable. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Peas. — Shell, wash in cold water, cook them until tender. 
Take from the water with a skimmer and season with butter, 
pepper and salt. Some prefer cream added. 

Asparagus. — Cook only the tender, green stocks. Cut them 
of equal length and boil in water with a little salt till tender. 
While the asparagus is cooking, prepare some nicely toasted bread, 
lay the asparagus on the toast and season with butter, salt and 
pepper or pour over a little cream previously scalded. Asparagus 
can also be served with a hoUandaise sauce. 

Parsnip Stew. — Threee slices of salt pork, boil one hour 
and a half ; scrape tive large parsnips, cut in quarters lengthwise, 
add to the pork and let boil one-half hour. Then add a few potatoes 
and let all boil together until the potatoes are soft. The fluid 
in the kettle should be about a cupful when ready to take off. — 
Mrs. M. Adelia Wick. 

Fried Parsnips. — Wash parsnips, scrape and boil them till 
tender. Then cut in slices, dip into flour and fry a light brown 
with butter and lard enough to prevent sticking. 

Baked Tomatoes. — Cut in slices good fresh tomatoes (not 
too ripe). Put a layer of them in a dish suitable for baking, then 
a layer of bread crumbs, and so on until the dish is full. Bake 
one hour. A little grated onion can be added if liked. — Mrs. 
Sydney Strong. 



VEGETABLES 59 

Browned Tomatoes. — Take large round tomatoes and halve 
them, place them the skin side down in a frying pan in which a 
very small quantity of butter and lard have been previously melted. 
Sprinkle them with salt and pepper and dredge well with flour. 
Place the pan on a hot part of the fire and let them brown thor- 
oughly ; then stir and let them brown again, and so on until they 
are quite done. They lose their acidity and their flavor is su- 
perior to stewed tomatoes. 

Baked Tomatoes. — Fill a deep pan (as many as will cover 
the bottom) with ripe tomatoes. Round out a hole in the center 
of each, fill up with bread crumbs, pepper, butter and salt. Put 
a teacup of water in the pan and bake until brown. Send to the 
table hot. — Mrs. W. Scott Bonnell. 

Stuffed Tomatoes. — One dozen round, smooth tomatoes, 
one pint of boiled rice, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth 
teaspoonful of pepper, one pint of chopped pecan nuts. Cut a 
slice off of the stem end and with the fingers press out the seeds. 
Stuff the tomatoes with the mixture, heaping in the center. In 
pan put slice of onion, the centers taken out of the tomatoes, salt, 
spoonful of celery seed and two tablespoonfuls of butter. Add 
one tablespoonful of flour mixed with a little water (to make 
smooth) to sauce in pan. Thicken, press through the colander, 
pour over the tomatoes and bake in a moderate oven forty minutes, 
basting often with melted butter. — Mrs. J. D. Wick. 

Stuffed Tomatoes. — Take ten smooth, round, medium sized 
tomatoes, wash them and cut from the smooth end of each a thin 
slice. With a spoon remove as much of the inside or pulp of the 
tomato as possible, being careful not to break through the skin. 
Arrange each one in baking pan, sprinkle inside of each with 
salt, pepper and small bits of butter. Put the pulp of the inside 
of the tomato into a chopping bowl with one small onion, a tea- 
cupful of bits of cold chicken, veal or lamb chopped fine. Season 
high with salt, paprika and a little butter. Fill the tomatoes each 
full with this dressing, first draining off the juice. Have some fine 
bread crumbs highly seasoned, place a teaspoonful of the crumbs 
on each tomato with a bit of butter. Pour the remainder of the 
dressing in the baking pan. Bake in oven from one-half to three- 
quarters of an hour. Remove carefully to hot platter with griddle 
cake turner and pour around the dressing. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 



60 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Stewed Tomatoes Served With Green Peppers. — Put to 
soak in strong salt and water, green peppers with small end pre- 
viously cut off and seeds removed from the inside. Let soak 
over night or from ten to twelve hours. Wash tomatoes, pare, 
slice and put over to stew. When cooked perfectly soft, strain 
through a sieve, season with salt and butter to taste, drain the 
peppers, place on a platter and fill them with the stewed tomatoes ; 
but not until the time of serving. 

Broiled Tomatoes. — Select large fine tomatoes and do not 
peel. Slice half an inch thick and broil in a wire gridiron over a 
clear hot fire. Have ready in a cup some hot butter seasoned with 
pepper, salt and half a teaspoonful of made mustard. As soon 
as the tomatoes are done, dip each piece in this mixture and lay 
upon a hot platter. When all are dished, heat what remains of 
the seasoning to a boil, pour over them and serve at once. 

Tomatoes a la Creme. — Pare and slice ripe tomatoes and to 
one quart of fresh ones or a pound can, stew until perfectly 
smooth, season with salt and pepper and add a piece of butter 
the size of an egg. Just before taking from the fire, stir in one 
cup of cream with a tablespoonful of flour stirred smooth in a 
part of it. Do not let it boil after the flour is put in. Have ready 
in a dish pieces of toast, pour tomatoes over this and serve. — Miss 
Laura Wick. 

Fried Tomatoes. — Scald and peel three large tomatoes. Slice 
in thick slices, dip in cracker crumbs and fry in butter, repeating 
with sufficient butter each time to brown them. Make a cream 
sauce and pour over them. — Miss Isahclle McCnrdy. 

Brussels Sprouts. — Remove the outside leaves, let stand in 
salt and water for one hour. Boil in boiling salt water about 
half an hour putting in a pinch of soda to keep green. Drain 
well, place where they will keep warm. Melt two tablespoonfuls 
of butter, season with salt and pepper, pour over the sprouts and 
serve. — Mrs. M. I. Arms, Jr. 

Cauliflower. — Soak in salt and water one-half hour. Then 
boil in water with a little salt about one-half hour or until tender. 
When done, drain and pour over a dressing made of cream 
slightly thickened and season with salt and pepper. 



VEGETABLES 6 I 

Cauliflower au Gratin. — Soak cauliflower (the flower side 
down) in salt and water one hour, which will draw out any worms 
or dirt. Then boil until tender in slightly salted water. Place 
in a baking dish, partly cover with rich cream dressing and sift 
over the top fine bread crumbs and a generous allowance of grated 
cheese. Place in the oven to brown. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Boiled Cabbage With Corn Beef.— Cabbage is best boiled 
with corn beef. Break each leaf apart and wash separately. Put 
in with the beef about three-fourths of an hour before serving. 
Let it boil until tender, drain well, season with salt, pepper and 
butter and serve with the corn beef. 

Fried Cabbage. — Chop a head of cabbage quite fine. Have a 
skillet on the stove, take a large iron spoonful of butter or fryings, 
put in the skillet and let get hot. Then put in the chopped cabbage 
and cover it with a lid and let cook slowly for twenty minutes. Then 
season with pepper and salt and let it cook without a lid until 
dry, stirring it quite often to prevent burning. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Hot Slaw. — Slice cabbage on a slaw cutter, put into a spider 
with a little water, cover and let steam for a short time. Drain, 
then add a small piece of butter, salt, pepper and one-half cup of 
cream. When the cream boils, add one-half cup of vinegar (pre- 
viously boiled) and serve. Another way is after steaming the 
cabbage, stir into it two well beaten eggs with one teaspoonful of 
mustard stirred smooth into the egg. Season with salt, pepper 
and butter. 

A Hot Dish of Cabbage.— Wash carefully a nice firm and 
very fresh cabbage and remove the outer leaves and any thick 
stems. Now sHce it thinly across, rinse these slices well in salt 
water, dry them thoroughly in a clean cloth and fry in butter for 
five minutes stirring constantly. Then pour over them two spoon- 
fuls of vinegar, a good half-pint of stock with seasoning to taste 
and let them stew steadily in a covered pan until the cabbage is 
done and tender. Then drain well and serve piled on a hot dish. 

Salsify or Vegetable Oysters.— Wash and scrape them 
thoroughly, and as you wash tliem throw' them into a bowl of cold 
water. Cut into pieces about half an inch long; boil three-quar- 
ters of an hour. When tender, pour olT all the water, season with 
pepper and salt, a small lump of butter and enough cream to 



62 



THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 



almost cover them. If no cream, use milk with more butter and 
thicken like gravy with a little flour. They are nice served on 
toast.— Mr J. M. Adelia Wick. 

Mushrooms Broiled. — Gather them fresh, pare and cut off 
the stems, dip them in melted butter, season with salt and pepper 
and broil on both sides over a clear fire. Serve on toast. 

Creamed Mushrooms. — To one pound of mushrooms take 
butter half the size of an Qgg. Put the butter in the skillet and 
when hot put in the mushrooms. Cover and let steam, taking 
care that they do not get very hot or it will toughen them. Steam 
for ten or fifteen minutes, then pour in one cup of best cream and 
let simmer for ten minutes without the cover or until the cream 
has become quite thick. Have a hot platter with rounds of thinly 
sliced bread toast. Arrange the mushrooms on the toast and pour 
a little of the cream gravy over each slice of toast. Then take 
red Spanish peppers, have them where they will get warm (not 
hot, or they will shrivel up), cut in strips or nice shaped pieces and 
lay a piece on top of each slice of toast and mushrooms. Put a 
fringe of parsley around the dish and serve. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

To Cook Canned Mushrooms. — Pour off the liquid, pour 
over them a little cream, season and let them simmer for a short 
time. Nice served on broiled steak. 

Mushrooms and Tomatoes. — Butter half the size of an egg, 
one teaspoonful of chopped onion browned in the butter, one can 
of mushrooms cut in pieces, or one pint of fresh mushrooms, one 
can of tomatoes without the juice, one-half cup of olives chopped, 
six eggs beaten slightly, then stirred in until just cooked. Season 
with salt and pepper. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Fried Egg Plant. — Pare and slice them thin. Then sprinkle 
each with salt and let them stand for about one hour piled up with 
a w^eight on them. Then dip each piece into egg well beaten, then 
into flower and fry a light brown in lard and butter. — Mrs. R. Mc- 
Millan. 

Stuffed Egg Plant. — Cut an &gg plant in half, scoop out the 
pulp to one-half inch wall ; chop the pulp, one small onion and a 
little green pepper fine. Saute in two tablespoonfuls of butter 
ten minutes without browning. Add an equal amount of bread 
crumbs, the yolks of two eggs and enough strained tomato pulfx 



VEGETABLES 63 

to moisten the mixture. Season with salt and pepper, turn into 
shells, cover with cracker crumbs stirred into two tablespoonfuls 
of butter. Bake in a moderate oven one hour. — Mrs. W. J. 
Sampson. 

Summer Squash. — Pare and cut into pieces about an inch 
square. Let boil or stew three-quarters of an hour, drain and mash 
well. Put in a little butter ; season with salt and pepper. 

Hubbard Squash. — Cut into squares and bake in the shell 
as you would sweet potatoes, or pare, stew and dress like summer 
squash. 

Macaroni With Tomatoes. — Boil one-half pound of maca- 
roni till tender. Pour off all the water, then add one-half cup of 
sweet cream, one-third of a cup of butter, pepper and salt. Let 
simmer for a short time but be careful that it does not become 
much broken. Turn into a vegetable dish. Have ready one pint 
of stewed tomatoes seasoned with butter, salt and pepper and 
pour over the macaroni. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Macaroni and Tomato Lscalloped. — Cook one-half pound 
of macaroni in salt water until tender ; drain and rinse with cold 
water. To one quart can of tomatoes add a round tablespoonful 
of butter, a tablespoonful of vinegar and a few grains of red pepper 
to make it quite hot. Put the macaroni in a buttered baking dish 
and strain the tomatoes over it pressing all through but the seeds. 
Grate some cheese over the top and a little inside, and set in the 
oven to heat and brown. — Mrs. Ida Canfidd. 

Macaroni. — Take about two dozen sticks or macaroni, put 
into two quarts of boiling salt water and let boil until very tender. 
Will take about forty-five minutes. When tender pour into a 
coolander and let cold water run through it for a minute. Have 
one pint of good beef or chicken stock hot in a skillet on the 
stove ; put the macaroni in and let simmer for one-half hour very 
slowly with a lid on. Then take a baking dish and put a little 
macaroni in, then sprinkle a little grated cheese, then more maca- 
roni, then more cheese, and so on until you have put it all in. Then 
pour the stock over. Sprinkle a little cheese over the top, set in 
a slow oven and let brown. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Mac.\roni or Spaghetti au Gratin. — Break into pieces 
three-quarters of an inch long, macaroni or spaghetti; wash and 



64 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

put on the stove in a stew pan covered with salt water. Boil until 
tender keeping covered with water (spaghetti requires a little 
longer boiling than macaroni). Then drain ofif the water, add 
almost a cup of grated cheese, cover with cream and when the 
cream scalds, stir in the beaten yolk of one egg, a piece of butter 
almost the size of an egg and let all cook until it thickens. Then 
turn into a baking dish, cover the top with grated cheese and 
brown in a quick oven. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Macaroni Croquettes. — Let a cup of macaroni (broken 
fine) boil in rapidly boiling salt water until tender. Drain and 
rinse in cold water. Make a sauce of two tablespoonfuls of 
melted butter, three of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of 
paprika and a cup of milk, cream, soup stock or tomato puree. 
Add the macaroni and two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese. Mix 
thoroughly and let cool. Dip in egg and bread crumbs and fry 
in hot lard. — Mrs. P. B. Ozven. 

Artichokes. — First soak the artichokes in strong salt and 
water for some time and afterwards rinse them in several waters 
in order to expel the insects. Cut the stocks even and trim away 
the longer leaves. Boil them in plenty of boiling salt water with 
the tops downward and let them remain until the leaves can easily 
be drawn out. Serve hot with Hollandaise sauce. The leaves 
should be pulled out with the fingers and dipped into the sauce, 
the tender end of the leaf only being good. Time to cook, if young, 
about one-half hour. Allow one artichoke for each person to serve. 

Stuffed Peppers. — Twelve sweet peppers, five slices of bread 
spread with butter, using one pint of bread, one tablespoonful of 
butter, one teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley 
and one pint of chopped peanuts, one slice of onion in baking pan 
with water and one tablespoonful of butter. — Mrs. Rorcr at St. 
Louis Exposition. 

Stuffed Peppers. — Sweet peppers are best for stuffing and 
are prepared by cutting ofif the cap or cover at the stem end, remove 
the seeds and then plunge them into boiling water for one moment. 
Fill them with a nice sausage meat, rub each pepper with a little 
melted butter, set them in a dripping pan and let them roast for- 
thirty minutes in a slow oven. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 



VEGETABLES 65 

Stuffed Cucumbers. — Peel large cucumbers. Then cut in 
half lengthwise and take out the seeds. Fill with a force meat 
made of equal parts of bread crumbs and finely chopped meat, a 
little onion, well seasoned with salt and pepper. Line a sauce 
pan with thin strips of salt pork and cold veal and a few slices of 
onions and carrots. Pour over a little stock and bake until tender. 
— Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Fried Apples. — Take ^arge, sour, juicy apples, wash them 
and remove the core but do not pare. Slice the apples into slices 
about one-half inch thick, sprinkle well with granulated sugar 
and fry in hot butter until a rich brown. Nice to serve with 
roast pork. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Fried Apples. — Take nice cooking apples, wash them clean 
and slice in thin slices. Have butter boiling hot in the spider. 
Put in the apples, sprinkle with sugar and fry until a nice brown, 
stirring them occasionally to prevent burning. Serve with meats. 
— Mrs. M. I. Anns. 



SALADS 



REMARKS. 

Everything to be used in salads should be of the freshest, 
and all salads served very cold. Lettuce or cress, young, crisp 
and dry. Oil — wliich forms the chief part of salad — should be 
perfectly fresh and, like perfectly pure butter, is almost, if not 
absolutely, tasteless. Do not dress salad until it is wanted. 

There is an admirable Spanish proverb about dressing salads, 
which says, "It requires three persons to mix a salad — a spend- 
thrift to turn in the oil, a miser to pour in the vinegar and a 
madman to stir it together." 

Chicken Salad. — To two large boiled fowls (cold), take 
two large heads of celery or four small ones. Having removed 
all the skin and fat, cut the meat from the bones into very small 
pieces. It is best not to mix the dressing with the salad until 
just before it is to be eaten. Put into a porcelain kettle the gravy 
from the chicken, one-half pint of vinegar, one-half pint of sweet 
oil or melted butter, one large tablespoonful of Coleman's mus- 
tard, one small teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one teaspoonful of 
salt, the yolks of eight eggs beaten and stirred in just before 
taken ofif, one teacupful of cream stirred into the dressing when 
cold. Mix together with a silver fork and garnish with celery 
tops. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Chicken Salad. — Two large chickens boiled until tender 
(cold), two large heads of celery or three small ones. Cut the 
celery and chicken into small pieces but do not chop them. In 
cooking the chicken let the water boil away until there is not 
more than a teacupful. Save this and the fat that is with it and 
put in the dressing. Put this on the stove with half a pint of 
strong vinegar, one gill of mixed mustard, one-half teaspoonful 
of white pepper, two teaspoonfuls of salt, a very little cayenne 
pepper (not more than one-eighth of a teaspoonful). When hot, 
stir in the yolks of ten eggs well beaten. When thick, take from 



SALADS 67 

the fire and when cold add one-half pint of thick cream and one- 
half pint of olive oil. If the chickens are very fat, less oil will 
answer. Some prefer half butter. When cold, mix with the 
celery and chicken. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Chicken Salad. — Two large boiled fowls (cold), two large 
heads of celery or four small ones. The dressing is the yolks of 
six hard boiled eggs mashed, one-half pint of sweet oil or butter, 
one-half pint of vinegar, one gill of mixed mustard, one small 
teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one small teaspoonful of salt, 
two raw eggs well beaten and one-half cup of cream. — Mrs. H 
B. Wick. 

Chicken Salad. — Take two hard boiled eggs, lay them in 
water until quite cold. Put the yolks into a small bowl and mash 
them very fine adding the yolks of two raw eggs, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one large tablespoonful of dry mustard and a very little 
cayenne pepper. Stir this well, always one way. When well 
mixed, add a very little sweet oil, stirring all the time. After 
this is mixed, put in more, a very little at a time, until you have 
used a third of a bottle. Then add a large spoonful of vmegar 
or lemon juice, then more oil as before, using in all two-thirds of 
a bottle. Then another spoonful of vinegar. When well mixed 
it must be very light and a nice color. Set on the ice for two 
or three hours. Not more than twenty minutes before using the 
salad, mix it and prepare for the table by putting with the meat 
about half the dressing. Stir it up well and then pour onto the 
meat one wine-glass of best vinegar. Stir this up well. It will 
turn the chicken very white. If it requires a little more salt add 
it now. Place the chicken in the center of a flat dish large enough 
to lay lettuce or celery around the meat. Wipe the lettuce as 
dry as you can, lay around the meat, then with a spoon put the 
rest of the dressing on the lettuce. — Mrs. Wm. J. Hitchcock. 

Sweet Bread Salad. — Boil the sweet breads twenty minutes. 
Then drop them into cold milk, split them and fry brown in butter. 
Break in small pieces with lettuce and mix with the dressing. 
Make a dressing with the yolks of two eggs, two tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar, two teaspoonfuls of mixed mustard, the least bit of 
sugar, one bottle of olive oil poured into this with a thread sized 
stream, stirring all the time. The dressing for salmon salad is 
also nice for this. — Mrs. W. Scott Bonnell. 



68 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Sweet Bread Salad. — Soak sweet breads in salt and water 
for one hour. Rinse in fresh water and boil one-half hour in salt 
and water. Then drop in cold milk and whiten. When thoroughly- 
cold, cut into dice. Take fresh, crisp lettuce leaves and wipe 
dry. Shred about one-half the quantity of lettuce that you have 
of sweet breads, cover with mayonnaise dressing and serve on 
crisp lettuce leaves very cold. — Mrs. C. H. Booth. 

Lobster Salad. — To a three-pound lobster take the yolk of 
one egg. Beat very lightly. Then take the yolks of three hard 
boiled eggs (cold) and add to the raw yolk, beating all the time. 
Add gradually — a few drops at a time — one-half bottle of the 
finest olive oil still stirring all the time. Then add one and one- 
half tablespoonfuls of the best English mustard, salt and pepper 
to taste. Beat the mixture until light, add a tablespoonful of 
strong vinegar. Cut the lobster into small pieces and mix with 
it salt and pepper. Pour over it the dressing just before sending to 
the table. Garnish with the white of egg (boiled), celery tops 
and the small claws. — Mrs. W. J. Hitchcoock. 

Salmon Salad. — For a pound can of California salmon. 
Garnish with lettuce. Make a dressing of one small teacupful 
of vinegar, butter half the size of an egg, one teaspoonful of 
Coleman's mustard, one-quarter teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, 
one-half teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, two eggs. 
When cold, add one-half teacupful of cream and pour over the 
salmon. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Shrimp Salad. — Boil fresh shrimps in water slightly salted. 
When cold, remove the shells and serve on lettuce leaves with 
mayonnaise dressing. 

Lettuce Salad. — Select fine, crisp leaves of the head let- 
tuce, wash thoroughly and drain. Serve with French or mayon- 
naise dressing. Lettuce leaves are nice sprinkled well with finely 
grated cheese and served with French dressing. 

Potato Salad. — Slice cold boiled potatoes and to one quart 
of sliced potatoes, one small grated onion and one tablespoonful 
of finely chopped parsley. Mix all together with mayonnaise or 
French dressing. Garnish dish with nasturtium leaves and 
blossoms. Serve very cold. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 



SALADS 69 

Potato Salad. — Cut a dozen cold boiled potatoes into fancy 
shapes one-quarter of an inch thick. Mix with some flakes of 
cold boiled fish (halibut, cod or salmon) and pour over them a 
salad dressing made with six tablespoonfuls of melted butter or 
salad oil, six tablespoonfuls of cream or milk, one teaspoonful of 
salt, half that quantity of pepper and one teaspoonful of ground 
mustard. Into this mix one cupful of vinegar. Boil well, then 
add three raw eggs beaten to a foam. Remove directly from the 
fire and stir for five minutes. When thoroughly cold, turn over 
the salad. Garnish with slices of pickled cucumber, beet, hard 
boiled egg and fresh parsley. 

Celery Salad. — Wash the white part of celery, drain and 
dry with a towel. Cut into pieces about one inch long and just 
before serving, mix with mayonnaise dressing. 

Cheese Salad. — One pint of cream, one tablespoonful of 
gelatine, one cup of grated cheese. Whip the cream after it has 
been measured, then add cheese and lastly the gelatine after it 
has been dissolved in water. Serve in individual molds. Use 
hard boiled eggs cut in two (the round way). Cherries, or any- 
thing to carry out color scheme one may desire, putting colors in 
the bottom of the mold. Turn out on lettuce and serve with 
mayonnaise dressing. — Mrs. R. D. Gibson. 

Cream Cheese Salad. — Take two Philadelphia cream cheese. 
Mash with two tablespoonfuls of cream. Mix well with two dozen 
finely chopped pimolas and one-half teacup of finely chopped 
blanched almonds. Mold, slice and serve on crisp lettuce leaves 
with French dressing. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Egg Salad. — Hard boiled eggs twelve, cream one-half pint, 
butter the size of an egg, a little parsley chopped fine, flour one- 
half tablespoonful. Take cream, butter, parsley and flour ; mix and 
then cook until thick. Slice eggs and after each layer of eggs 
add one of bread crumbs, over which pour cream to cover. When 
the dish is full, bake until brown and garnish with parsley. — 
Mrs. J. C. Crew. 

Vegetable Salad. — Take equal quantities of the white part 
of celery, string beans, carrots, onions, turnips and tomatoes. 
Cook until tender in salt and water. The string beans, carrot and 
turnip cut into small pieces. Set on the ice until thoroughly 
chilled and serve with either French or mayonnaise dressing. 



70 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Cauliflower Salad. — Boil a cauliflower in boiling, well 
salted water. When cold, cover with French dressing highly 
seasoned with pepper, salt and onion juice. Let stand on ice, 
basting frequently with the dressing. Serve whole in a nest of 
lettuce leaves ; pour dressing over it. — Mrs. M. I. Arms, Jr. 

Orange or Grape Fruit Salad. — Pare the fruit and cut 
into quarters with a sharp knife, removing all the thin, white skin 
and saving all the juice. Pour over the fruit a French dressing 
to which the juice has been added and let stand until thoroughly 
chilled. Serve in nests of lettuce leaves or leaves of romaine. — 
Mrs. C. F. Hofer. 

Ham Salad. — Soak half a tablespoonful of granulated gela- 
tine in one tablespoonful and a half of cold water, then dissolve 
in three-quarters of a cup of hot chicken liquor. Strain over one 
cup of cooked ham chopped fine and stir standing in ice water 
until the mixture begins to thicken. Fold in one cup of thick 
cream beaten stiff. Add also a few grains of paprika and salt, if 
needed. Mold in a ring mould. At serving time turn from the 
mould, fill in the center with lettuce leaves. Serve with mayon- 
naise dressing. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Asparagus Salad. — Drain the liquor from a can of asparagus. 
Put in a deep dish, cover with French dressing highly seasoned, 
to which has been added a small teaspoonful of grated onion. Set 
on ice for three or four hours, dipping the dressing occasionally 
over the asparagus. Serve on leaves of crisp lettuce. — Mrs. C. 
H. Booth. 

Lorraine Salad. — Place in the center of a dish sliced to- 
matoes, sliced cucumbers, shredded sweet red peppers and a very 
little onion. Take four hard boiled eggs, mash thoroughly with 
a fork and mix well with French dressing. Pour this over the 
salad. Place a row of water cress around the salad and on the 
outer edge of dish the inside leaves of head of lettuce. Serve 
very cold. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Pineapple Salad. — Peel and cut into dice enough pine- 
apple to make a pint and bury in ice for an hour. Lay crisp let- 
tuce leaves on a chilled platter, put a spoonful of pineapple dice 
on each leaf and serve with a mayonnaise dressing into which has 
been stirred one part of whipped cream to three parts of dressing. 
Garnish with halved walnuts. — Mrs. IV. J. Sampson. 



SALADS 71 

Tomato and Romaine Salad. — Select the center crisp leaves 
of romaine. Take firm, round, ripe tomatoes quartered and place 
on the romaine. Then add a liberal amount of chives chopped 
fine. Serve cold with French dressing. 

Cherry Salad. — Remove the stones from ripe, Morilla cher- 
ries. Replace the pits with blanched hazel-nuts. Make cups of 
small head lettuce leaves and fill these with the cherries covered 
with French dressing. — Mrs. H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Artichoke Salad. — Use the artichoke hearts — which can be 
purchased in bottles. Let them stand in French dressing from 
six to eight hours until thoroughly seasoned. Then serve on 
crisp lettuce leaves with fresh French dressing poured over. — Mrs. 
H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Fruit Salad. — Pears, peaches, pineapples, cantaloupe, cher- 
ries, oranges, grapefruit and bananas are fruits to be used in this 
salad, and use sparingly of the latter. Cut the fruit into small 
balls, cubes or any fancy shapes with vegetable cutter. Prepare a 
mayonnaise dressing of two-thirds mayonnaise and one-third 
whipped cream mixed. When the fruit and dressing are very 
cold, mix carefully and serve on crisp lettuce leaves. English wal- 
nuts cut into small pieces can be added, if liked, before mixing 
the salad. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Tomato Aspic. — One can of tomatoes, one pint of stock, 
three-fourths of a box of gelatine, one-half medium sized onion, 
three or four stocks of celery, one bay leaf, salt and paprika. Put 
gelatine to soak in enough cold water to cover it. Put on tomatoes 
with onion, celery, bay leaf, salt and paprika and let cook slowlv 
for half an hour. Strain through a puree sieve and add to the 
stock. Heat together again and add the gelatine, which has been 
dissolved by some of the hot liquid. Pour into individual molds, 
or one large one, and serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise 
dressing. Use plenty of salt and paprika as tomatoes are not good 
without high seasoning. — Mrs. C. H. Booth. 

Cucumber Aspic. — Take one pint of cucumber juice; reduce 
to one-half pint by boiling. Add two tablespoonfuls of lemon 
juice, one teaspoonful of onion juice, season high with white 
pepper and salt. Take a little of the cucumber pieces and dis- 
solve one tablespoonful of gelatine and pour the hot mixture over 



72 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

it. Use a little drop of liquid green coloring water to make it 
green. Pour into individual molds and serve on lettuce leaves 
with mayonnaise dressing. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

String Bean Salad. — String and wash the beans. Then 
boil in well salted water until tender. When cold, marinate with 
two tablespoonfuls of vinegar and three of oil. Highly season 
with salt and paprika. Let stand for one hour. Serve on lettuce 
with French dressing. 

To Serve Cucumbers. — Cucumbers are never nice when 
stale and medium sized ones with the skin green are best. If soft 
to press, they are wilted and not fit for use. To dress cucumbers : 
First peel, then cut into very thin slices, let stand in ice water for 
half an hour, which will make them crisp. Drain and serve with 
French dressing to which has been added a little grated onion. — 
Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Lettuce Salad. — Two heads of lettuce, two hard boiled eggs, 
two teaspoonfuls of butter, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one tea- 
spoonful of white sugar, one-half teaspoonful of made mustard, 
one teaspoonful of pepper, four tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Rub 
the yolks of the eggs to a powder, add sugar, butter, pepper, salt 
and mustard and let it stand five minutes. Then beat in the 
vinegar. Cut the lettuce with a knife and fork. Put into a bowl 
and mix in the dressing by tossing with a fork. — Miss Maria 
Wells. 

Cabbage Salad. — Six tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, two table- 
spoonfuls of butter, six tablespoonfuls of vinegar, two teaspoon- 
fuls of mixed mustard, beat three eggs, salt and pepper to taste. 
Cook until like a custard. When cold, pour over the cabbage 
chopped fine. — Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

Cabbage Salad. — Cut the cabbage very fine and put into a 
dish in layers with salt and pepper between. Then take two tea- 
spoonfuls of butter, two of sugar, two of flour, two of mustard, 
one cup of vinegar and one tgg. Stir all together and let it come 
to a boil on the stove. Pour it hot over and mix well with the 
cabbage. Cover up. This will keep well a week or until used up. 
— Mrs. Wm. Edwards. 

Cold Slaw. — Choose a good solid head of cabbage and cut 
a part of it fine with a slaw cutter. Pour over this, just before 
serving, a dressing made in the same manner as for salmon 
salad. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 



SALADS 73 

Cold Slaw. — Half a head of cabbage chopped fine. Bring 
half a cup of vinegar to a boil, beat the yolks of four eggs and 
one-half cup of butter together and one tablespoonful of mustard. 
Add them to the vinegar and let it thicken on the stove. Pepper 
and salt to taste. When cold, add one cup of cream or milk. Mix 
thoroughly with the cabbage just before putting on the table. 
— Miss Maria Wells. 

Cabbage Slaw. — One-half pint of sweet cream, two eggs, 
butter to taste, a little vinegar. Slice cabbage very fine, pepper 
and salt. Bring the dressing to a scald and pour over it. Stir well 
and bring to the table. — Mrs. W. S. Matthews. 



Sauces and Relishes for Meats 



Melted or Drawn Butter. — Cut two large spoonfuls of 
butter into small pieces and put it into a sauce pan with a large 
spoonful of fiour and ten of new milk. When thoroughly mixed, 
add six large spoonfuls of water. Shake it over the fire until it 
begins to simmer, shaking it always the same way. Then let it 
stand quietly and boil up. It should be of the consistency of rich 
cream and not thicker. — Mrs. E. S. Gregory. 

Parsley Sauce. — Wash a bunch of parsley in cold water. 
Then boil it about six or seven minutes in salt and water. Drain 
it. Cut the leaves from the stocks and chop them fine. Have 
ready some melted butter and stir in the parsley. Allow two 
small tablespoonfuls of leaves to one-half pint of butter. Serve 
with boiled fowls and fish. 

Fish Sauce. — One-quarter pound butter, one and one-half 
tablespoonfuls of parsley (chopped fine), one-half teaspoonful of 
salt, a pinch of pepper, juice of two lemons. Cream the butter 
well, beat in salt, pepper and lemon juice. Add parsley and 
serve. — Mrs. IVm. J. Hitchcock. 

Tomato Sauce. — Stew one-half dozen tomatoes with a little 
chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste. Strain and when it 
commences to boil, add a spoonful of flour stirred smooth with 
a tablespoonful of butter. When it all boils, take up. — Mrs. G. 
W. Haney. 

Tomato Sauce. — Melt one tablespoonful of butter, add one 
tablespoonful of flour, and slowly one cup of strained tomato, one- 
half teaspoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful of sugar, one- 
quarter teaspoonful of white pepper and one clove. — Mrs. IV. D. 
Euwer. 

Mint Sauce. — Chop three tablespoonfuls of green mint and 
add a heaping tablespoonful of sugar and half a cofifeecupful of 
vinegar. Stir while heating and serve when cold with roast lamb. 
— Mrs. John McCurdy. 



SAUCES AND RELISHES FOR MEATS 75 

Mint Sauce. — Wash the mint very clean, pick the leaves 
from the stalk and chop them fine. Pour onto them vinegar 
enough to moisten the mint well. Add fine sugar to sweaten. — 
Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Egg Sauce. — Three ounces of butter beaten with one ounce 
of flour. Stir into it one pint of boiling water, salt and pepper. 
Cook fifteen minutes. Pour into a sauce boat having hard boiled 
eggs sliced or chopped in it. — Mrs. Wm. J. Hitchcock. 

Oyster Sauce. — One pint of oysters cut small. Boil for five 
minutes in their own liquor, a cup of milk, a tablespoonful of 
butter rubbed smooth in a tablespoonful of flour, salt and pepper. 
Let it boil. 

Celery Sauce. — Pick and wash two heads of celery, cut 
them into pieces one inch long and stew them in a pint of water 
with one teaspoonful of salt until the celery is tender. Rub a 
large spoonful of butter and a spoonful of flour well together. 
Stir this into a pint of cream, put in the celery and let it boil up 
once. Serve hot with boiled poultry. 

Mushroom Sauce. — One tablespoonful of butter, one table- 
spoonful of flour, a cup of stock and one-half cup of mushrooms ; 
salt and pepper. Brown the butter, add flour, stir until smooth, 
add stock and when smooth strain. Add the mushrooms and 
season when the sauce has thickened. Pepper and Worcestershire 
sauce to taste. — Miss Isahelle McCurdy. 

Browned Mushroom Sauce. — Put into a hot frying pan 
three tablespoonfuls of butter. When brown, stir in one-half of 
a small onion (sliced) and two or three slices of carrots. Let 
brown thoroughly. When done skim out the onion and carrot. 
Then pour into the brown butter the liquor from a can of mush- 
rooms and two cups of good beef stock. When boiling, thicken 
with enough flour (previously stirred smooth with a little cream) 
until the consistency of good, thick cream. Strain and add the 
mushrooms cut into small pieces. Let boil again and serve. 
Fresh mushrooms can be used in place of the canned mushrooms 
and are much better. 

Sauce Tartare. — Take a cup of mayonnaise, beat into it a 
tablespoonful of minced parsley, a teaspoonful each of minced 
cucumber pickles, minced capers, two small spoons of French 



y6 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

mustard, six drops of lemon juice and eight drops of onion juice. 
A LA Maitre d'Hotel Butter. — Cream one-half cup of 
butter, add one-half teaspoonful of salt, dash of pepper, one-half 
tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley and one-half tablespoonful 
of lemon juice very slowly. — Airs. W. J. Sampson. 

ViLLEROY Sauce. — Take an equal quantity of butter and flour.. 
Mix well and stir it over the fire in a sauce pan until highly colored. 
Then stir in one pint of meat broth, a few mushrooms and a pinch 
of sweet herbs or vegetable bunch. Let the mixture simmer 
for fifteen minutes ; then strain through a fine hair sieve and 
boil until slightly reduced. When ready to serve, thicken the 
sauce with the yolks of two or three eggs. A good sauce for 
sweet-breads. — Oscar. 

Hollandaise Sauce. — This sauce is difficult to make so that 
it will not curdle. To make it, use a double boiler but do not let 
the water get more than warm. If too hot, it will spoil the sauce. 
Put in the upper boiler the yolks of three eggs and stir them a 
little. Then add a cup of butter bit by bit, letting each melt and 
become incorporated with the eggs just as each drop of oil is in 
mayonnaise. Stir steadily and constantly, and above all do not 
try to hurry the sauce or it will separate. Squeeze a lemon, 
carefully remove all the seeds and measure out two thirds of it. 
When the butter and eggs are worked together perfectly, lift the 
boilers from the fire but leave them together so that the sauce 
cannot get a chance to cool. Add salt, pepper and drop in, little 
by little, the lemon juice. 

Bread Sauce for Game. — Sift two cupfuls of dried bread 
crumbs. Put on the fire a pint of milk and a small onion (sliced). 
When the milk is scalded, remove the onion and add enough of 
the fine crumbs to thicken it. Season with a tablespoonful of 
butter, one-half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and nut- 
meg. Put the coarse crumbs into a pan with a tablespoonful of 
butter and saute a light brown stirring all the time. Add a dash 
of paprika. Serve the fried crumbs on the dish with the game: 
Serve the sauce in a sauce boat. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Mayonnaise Dressing. — Take the yolk of one &gg, beat with 
an tgg beater until it begins to look foamy, not enough to make 
it light. Then add olive oil, a drop at a time, until it begins to 
thicken. Press the juice from one lemon into a cup; put a level 



SAUCES AND RELISHES FOR MEATS 'J'] 

teaspoonful of salt in and a little paprika and a small half tea- 
spoonful of mustard. Then begin to add this mixture to the 
oil and ^^g, a few drops of the mixture, then a little more oil, 
until it gets very stiff. You will have about one-half pint when 
done. Just before using, beat four tablespoonfuls of thick cream 
to a stiff froth and fold lightly into the mayonnaise. — Mrs S. 
Stevenson. 

Mayonnaise Dressing. — Beat the yolk of three eggs; add 
slowly two cups of olive oil, thinning with lemon juice or vinegar. 
Will require about two lemons or about one-half cup of vinegar. 
One-half teaspoonful of salt, a liberal sprinkle of paprika. To 
mix, use Dover beater. Last, fold in the well beaten whites of 
two eggs. — Mrs. IV. D. Euzver. 

French Dressing. — To three tablespoonfuls of best salad 
oil use two of vinegar (some prefer the Tarragon), two salt 
spoonfuls of salt, one of paprika. Beat the salt and the paprika 
into the oil until thoroughly dissolved. Then add vinegar and 
beat again. For some salads a little onion juice is an improvement. 

Mustard for Table Use. — One-half teacup of vinegar ; put 
on to boil. Butter the size of a walnut, one teaspoonful of salt, 
one tablespoonful of sugar, one-half teacup of Coleman's mustard 
mixed with a little cold vinegar. — Mrs. C. D. Anns. 

French Mustard. — Three ounces of salt, two ounces of 
grated horseradish, one clove of garlic, one quart of boiling vine- 
gar. Let it remain mixed twenty-four hours ; strain and mix with 
flour of mustard to thickness required. 

To Brown Flour. — Sift some fiour and spread on a plate and 
set in the oven, stirring it frequently so that it may be burned all 
through the same. Nice for thickening or coloring soups and 
gravies. Put in a jar and keep well covered to keep any length 
of time. 

Apple Sauce.— Pare, core and slice sour, juicy apples. Stew 
them with sufficient water to prevent burning. When done, mash 
them through a colander. Sweeten to taste. Add a tiny piece 
of butter and a little nutmeg or lemon if liked. 

Cranberry Sauce. — One quart of cranberries, one quart of 
water and one pound of white sugar. Make a syrup of the water 
and sugar. After washing the berries clean — and picking out all 



78 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

poor ones — drop them into the boihng syrup. Let them cook from 
fifteen to twenty minutes. They are very nice strained. 

A Quick Mayonnaise Dressing. — Break the yolk of an egg 
into a small, deep bowl (the egg must be perfectly fresh so that 
it stands up stiff and firm). Add four tablespoonfuls of best 
salad oil, one of Tarragon vinegar, one-half teaspoonful of salt 
and whip with an egg beater until thick. A thick mayonnaise is 
the result. Mustard, cayenne pepper, paprika may be added if 
desired. This makes enough dressing for one-half dozen plates 
of salad. 

Horse-Radish Sauce. — Take the roots, wash and scrape 
clean, grate fine, cover with strong vinegar, put into a bottle and 
keep well corked or it will lose its strength. 

Baked Pears or Peaches. — Take either the fresh or the 
canned fruit, pared, cut through the center and cored. Lay in a 
porcelain lined pan the hollow side up. Fill the cavities with 
sugar and small bits of butter and a little ground cinnamon. Pour 
over one-half cup of water and bake in the oven until waxy. 

Gooseberry Relish. — Two quarts of gooseberries, two 
oranges cut in cubes (rind left on), one-half pound of raisins, one 
pint of water, three pints of sugar. Cook twenty minutes or until 
quite thick. — Mrs. J. H. McEwen. 



EGGS AND OMELETS 



To Boil Eggs.— If they are wanted quite soft, pour over 
them boiling water until well covered and let them remain on the 
back of the stove for five minutes. For hard boiled eggs let them 
boil ten minutes. — Mrs. AI. I. Anns. 

To Poach Eggs.— Break the eggs separately into a saucer, 
and after the water in the sauce pan has boiled slip the eggs one 
by one into the water. Throw carefully with a spoon a little of 
the water over each to whiten and do not let them cook too hard. 
When done, take out with a skimmer and lay on slices of buttered 
toast. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and put a small piece of 
butter on each egg. 

Poached Eggs in Aspic. — Make a good strong veal or 
chicken stock. Put a small slice of cold boiled ham or tongue in 
the bottom of individual dishes. Pour over this a little of the 
stock and let stiffen. Then place on each a poached egg and pour 
over more stock to which has been added a little slice of green 
pepper, pimento and chopped olives. Set on ice until ready to 
serve. — Mrs. H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Poached Eggs with Mushrooms. — In slightly salted boiling 
water deep enough to cover, break ten eggs and do not let the 
water boil again, but dip up over the eggs until the whites are 
set. Have ready ten slices of nicely browned toast with edges 
neatly trimmed, butter them. Take up the eggs carefully, place 
on the toast, season with salt and pepper and on the top of each, 
place a fresh mushroom previously sauted in butter to a delicate 
brown. Pour over a brown mushroom sauce and serve on a hot 
platter or individual plates. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Fried Eggs. — Have in a skillet some pork drippings boiling 
hot. Break the eggs into this carefully — not breaking the yolks 
— and fry them until the vv^hite hardens. If preferred, turn and 
fry on both sides. Season with salt and pepper. 



80 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Scrambled Eggs. — Take eight or ten eggs. Have ready in 
a skillet butter quite hot. Drop in the eggs and stir well all the 
time until they harden a little. Season with salt and pepper. — 
Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Scrambled Eggs with Mushrooms. — Cut one-half can of 
mushrooms into thin slices. Beat five eggs without separating 
until the yolks and whites are blended only. Add five tablespoon- 
fuls of cream. Mix well. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter in a 
chafing dish and when hot, add half can of mushrooms. Cook 
until they are heated and begin to delicately brown. Then turn 
in the five beaten eggs. As soon as they begin to cook, stir and 
continue stirring until they have cooked to the desired consis- 
tency. Season when about half cooked with one-fourth tea- 
spoonful of paprika, a teaspoonful of salt and serve at once. — Mrs. 
R. McCurdy. 

Mexican Eggs. — A quart can of tomatoes, two onions and 
eight eggs. Let the onion (finely minced) cook in the tomatoes 
until it is soft. Break into this the eggs, stir them through it. 
Season well with salt and paprika and serve on slices of toast. — 
Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Hard Boiled Eggs. — Place the eggs in cold water in a sauce 
pan. Bring the water to a boil and let the eggs boil for ten minutes. 
After the water comes to the boiling point, take out the eggs and 
let them get cold in cold water. When cold, immediately remove 
the outer shell, but do not cut up hard boiled eggs for garsishing 
purposes until close upon the time they are wanted as the yolks 
dry up and soon become discolored. 

Shirred Eggs. — Break the eggs in a porcelain dish or in indi- 
vidual dishes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and bits of butter 
on top, and set in the oven until the whites harden. Serve quite 
hot in the dish in which they are cooked. 

Devilled Eggs. — Boil the eggs fifteen minutes and drop into 
a pan of cold water as soon as they are taken out of the pot. This 
allows the shells to be removed without breaking the whites. Cut 
into halves and take out the yolks. Mix with a little vinegar, 
mustard, salt, pepper, melted butter, onion and celery seed. Rub 
to a smooth paste and fill the cavities in the whites. The cuplike 
white of the egg can be made to stand by cutting a small portion 



EGGS AND OMELETS 8 1 

from the round ends. Devilled eggs may be served cold or 
garnished with butter and baked a few moments and served hot. 
— Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Cheese Omelet. — Two tablespoonfuls of butter, one table- 
spoonful of flour, three eggs, one cup of cheese, one-half cup of 
milk, one-half teaspoonful of salt. Melt butter, add flour, stir ; 
add warm milk slowly stirring ; separate the eggs, add salt to the 
whites, beat each, add cheese, stir two minutes, add yellows, then 
whites. Pour in buttered dish, bake twenty to twenty-five minutes. 
It should puff up in six or seven minutes if oven is hot. — Mrs. 
Robert McCurdy. 

Omelet. — Beat the yolks and whites of eight eggs separately 
until light. Then beat together, add a little salt, and one table- 
spoonful of cream. Have in the omelet pan a piece of butter. 
When the butter is boiling hot, pour in the omelet and shake 
until it begins to stiffen and then let it brown. Fold double and 
serve hot. — Miss Em. Arms. 

Omelet. — Take four eggs, whites and yolks beaten separ- 
ately, three tablespoonfuls of cold water stirred into the yolks. 
then fold in the beaten whites. Have omelet pan very hot with 
small bits of butter. Put in omelet and let stand on the stove until 
it sets. Then put in the oven until dried on the top, which takes 
about four minutes. Serve with cream sauce. — Mrs. W. S. 
Bonnell. 

Eggs a la Creole. — Beat four eggs until blended only, add 
four tablespoonfuls of cream or stock. Brown a teaspoonful of 
onion finely chopped in butter, add one and one-half cups of to- 
matoes drained, then cook for eight minutes. Add one table- 
spoonful of sliced mushrooms and one tablespoonful of red pep- 
pers. Season. Pour in eggs and cook as for scrambled eggs. 
Serve on round pieces of toast or sauted bread. — Mrs. Robert 
McCurdy. 

Baked Omelet. — Set one-half pint of milk on the fire and 
stir in one-half cup of flour mixed with a little cold milk and salt. 
When scalding hot, beat the yolks of six eggs and add them. Stir 
in the whites and set immediately in the oven. Bake twenty 
minutes and serve as soon as done. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 



82 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Bread Omelet. — One cup of bread crumbs wet with a little 
milk, salt and pepper. Let stand until soft. Beat eight eggs light. 
Heat the skillet, adding a large lump of butter. Mix the bread 
and eggs, pour into the skillet and after the eggs harden, divide 
in the middle. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Egg Omelet. — For six persons take four eggs, separate the 
yolks from the whites, pour boiling water over one-half slice of 
stale bread ; press most of the water out of the bread. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs and add them to the bread and beat together. 
Then add a few spoonfuls of milk and salt and pepper to taste. 
When the frying pan is hot, butter it well ; have the whites beaten 
to a stiff froth and just before putting into the pan, stir in the 
whites gently. When a nice brown, cut it in quarters, turn and 
brown on the other side. Then serve hot. 

Spanish Omelet. — For making omelets a perfectly clean, 
porcelain lined frying pan is best. Place in the pan a piece of 
butter the size of a small egg. Beat four eggs until well mixed 
but not stiff. Add a little salt. When the butter is melted, pour 
the eggs into the hot frying pan and as it cooks raise the edges 
carefully with a knife, keeping the cream part towards the center 
until it partially stiffens. The moment it is thickened or set, have 
ready one onion, one green pepper and one ripe tomato, all chopped 
together, well seasoned and sauted for a few minutes in hot butter. 
Spread this hot mixture over the center of the omelet, fold and 
serve at once. Omelets should be eaten immediately after they 
are cooked or they will become tough. Grated cheese or chopped 
ham, stewed tomatoes or mushrooms can be used in this omelet 
instead of the Spanish mixture. — Mrs. IV m. H. Hudnnt. 



CHLESE 



REMARKS ON RAREBITS. 

The ordinary American factory cheese is best for rarebits 
because it grates easily, melts quickly and mixes well with the 
other ingredients. The more quickly they are eaten after they 
are cooked, the better they are. 

Welsh Rarebit. — Two and one-half pint cups of grated or 
finely cut cheese, one teaspoonful of mustard even, one-half glass 
of bass ale or three tablespoonfuls of cream, one saltspoonful of 
salt, cayenne pepper to taste, one teaspoonful of butter just melted 
in the chafing dish. Pour in cheese, add seasoning, stir in ale or 
cream slowly. Stir until the rarebit becomes stringy. Serve at 
once on thin slices of toast. Light cheese — not too rich — is best 
to use. — Mrs. IV. J. Sampson. 

Golden Buck. — Take of good, sharp American cheese, one 
pound; chop (not grate) it until reduced the size of a pea. On 
it sprinkle separately a sprinkle of cayenne pepper and a generous 
though not heaping teaspoonful of salt and dried mustard. Mix 
well together after having drained all into a scrupulously clean 
galvanized frying pan. Then pour over the cheese a tumbler full 
of old stock ale. The fire must be clear but not too brisk so that 
the temperature may be gradually raised to the melting of the 
cheese. Stir constantly but gently with a circular motion from the 
circumference of the pan to the center until the cheese is all dis- 
solved into a creamlike consistency and the bubbles are rising 
freely. Mix in one v/ell beaten fresh egg, stir again for a minute 
and a half and then pour over hot toast. The toast must have 
been previously prepared in this way : Slice evenly and of the 
thickness of one-half inch bread about twenty-four hours old. 
Toast a nice brown, cut off the crust and arrange on a platter. 
Pour over the cheese and serve a poached egg placed on each piece 
of toast. — Lawrence Barrett. 



84 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Golden Buck. — Golden Buck is a Welsh rarebit with a 
poached egg laid on it. 

Yorkshire Rarebit. — A Yorkshire is a Golden Buck with 
a slice of broiled or fried bacon laid on the poached egg. 

Brandy Cheese. — Allow one-half tumbler of brandy to one 
pound of best cheese. Grate the cheese, mix well with the brandy 
and press hard into a crock with a potato masher. Cover with 
thin paper dipped in brandy. When wanted for use, slice. — Miss 
Sallie Arms. 

Sage Cheese. — Pound in a mortar the young sage leaves 
until you have extracted the juice. Proceed then as for brandy 
cheese. 

Cottage Cheese or Smearcase. — Set in the warm oven of 
a stove where it is not too hot, a gallon crock of sour milk. Let 
stand until the milk separates. Then pour into a clean, white 
cloth and let it hang until the liquor is all drained out, which will 
be about twenty-four hours. Do not squeeze as this toughens it. 
Then take the curd and mix with it sweet cream until the consis- 
tency desired. Some like it quite creamy. Season to taste with 
salt and pepper. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Cheese Boulettes. — One and one-half cupfuls of American 
cheese, one tablespoonful of flour, whites of three eggs, one table- 
spoonful of Parmesan cheese, one-quarter teaspoonful of salt, 
one-eighth teaspoonful of paprika. Grate the American cheese 
very fine, add the Parmesan and the seasonings. Mix well. Add 
the whites of the eggs beaten stifif and dry. Add the flour, form 
into small balls, roll in bread crumbs and fry in deep smoking fat. 
— Miss Isahelle McCurdy. 

Cheese Crusts. — Cut bread into strips one inch wide and 
four to five inches long and one-half inch thick. Cover with grated 
cheese. Season with salt and pepper and set in a hot oven to 
brown. 

Cheese Stew. — Place some pieces of cheese cut up very small 
in a tin with a little butter. Stir it about until all is mixed. Season, 
and stew until the cheese and butter are of one consistency. Some 
add a very little Worcestershire sauce. Serve very hot in a tin. 



CHEESE S5 

Cheese Straws. — Two ounces of butter, two of flour, two 
ounces of grated cheese. Season with salt and cayenne pepper. 
Rub the butter and cheese well into the flour, add the seasoning 
and sufficient yolk of egg to make this whole into a stiff paste. 
Roll out thin and cut into strips four or five inches long and one- 
half inch wide. Bake. 

Toasted Crackers and Cheese. — Take round or square 
fresh crackers ; spread lightly with either French mustard or 
Coleman's mustard mixed with a little vinegar. Season with salt 
and pepper and then thoroughly cover with a good white Amer- 
ican cheese grated. Set in a hot over vmtil the cheese melts. 
Serve at once. 

Cheese Balls to be Served with Salad. — One cup of 
grated cheese, mix with the white of one egg. Season with pap- 
rika. Roll in a ball the size of a hickorynut. Then roll the balls 
in fine bread crumbs and fry in deep lard. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 



LUNCHEON DISHES 



Chops a la Maintenon. — Six French chops, one table- 
spoonful of flour, one tablespoonful of butter, four tablespoonfuls 
of mushrooms, four tablespoonfuls of stock, one tablespoonful of 
parsley, salt, pepper and Worcestershire sauce. Have chops cut 
into not less than one inch thick and Frenched. With a sharp 
knife, cut the chops in two down to the bone. Melt the butter, 
add flour, stir until smooth and well cooked. Add mushrooms 
and parsley ; stir until heated. Take from the fire ; cool. When 
ready to broil chops, fill the spaces with mixture, pressing the 
edges carefully together. Broil eight minutes and serve with 
mushroom sauce. — Miss Isabelle McCurdy. 

Pressed Chicken. — Boil two chickens until tender. Take 
out the bones and chop the meat fine. Season with salt, pepper 
and butter. Boil down the liquor the chickens were boiled in until 
there remains only enough to make the chopped meat quite moist. 
Put the meat into a mold of any shape that is desirable or con- 
venient. When cold, turn out and cut in slices. It is excellent 
for picnics or lunch. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Chicken Croquettes. — One cold boiled chicken chopped 
fine. Then take a pint of sweet milk and when the milk is boiled, 
stir into it two large tablesponfuls of flour made thin in a little 
cold milk. After the flour is well cooked with the milk, put in a 
piece of butter the size of an &gg, add salt and cayenne pepper. 
Stir all well into the chicken. Roll up with your hand into balls 
and dip first into an tgg beaten up, then into crackers rolled fine, 
and fried in hot lard or tallow (fresh tallow, half and half lard, 
is very nice). — Miss Laura Wick. 

Chicken Croquettes. — Take cold veal, chicken or sweet 
breads, a little of each or separately. Cut very fine a little fat and 
lean of ham ; half the quantity of the whole of bread crumbs, two 
eggs, butter the size of an tgg, pepper, salt and a little mustard. 
Knead like sausage meat, adding a little cream. Form into 



LUNCHEON DISHES 87 

shapes, dip in egg and then in rolled cracker crumbs. Fry in lard 
until a light brown. Dry them in the oven. Celery or mushrooms 
are an improvement. — Mrs. E. W. McClure. 

Chicken Livers and Bacon. — Wash the chicken livers 
thoroughly, dry them, and season well with salt and pepper. Then 
place on skewer alternate livers and then strips of breakfast bacon. 
Either broil over a clear hot fire or set in a pan and roast in the 
oven. They should be well cooked through and require about 
fifteen or twenty minutes' time. 

Salmi of Beef or Duck. — One cup of cold beef or duck cut 
into small pieces. One tablespoonful of butter, one cup of gravy 
or stock, one-quarter cup of currant jelly, two tablespoonfuls of 
claret, one tablespoonful of flour, one tablespoonful of tomato cat- 
sup, one tablespoonful of stuffed, stoned olives. Salt and pepper 
to taste. Melt butter and brown ; add flour, stir until smooth and 
brown. Add stock, olives, currant jelly, catsup, salt and pepper. 
When sauce begins to thicken, put in the meat and cook it until 
it is entirely heated through. — Miss Isabelle McCurdy. 

Scotch Woodcock. — Six hard boiled eggs coarsely chopped, 
two tablespoonfuls of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, one table- 
spoonful of anchovy paste, one-half pint of milk, a pinch of 
cayenne pepper. Cook butter and flour together until they bubble. 
Add milk and stir until smooth. Put in the anchovy paste and 
the cayenne and one minute later the eggs. Simmer three 
minutes and serve on toast. 

Calf's Liver Pate. — Chop two pounds of calf's liver fine, 
also a scrap of salt pork. Mix into fine herbs, bay leaf, pepper, 
salt and two eggs. Line a bread tin with strips of salt pork. By 
buttering the tins it will stay in place. Mix the eggs with the 
minced liver and set in a pan of hot water. Cover and bake four 
hours. — Mrs. W. G. Pollock. 

Cecils. — One cup of cold beef chopped fine ; add seasoning 
of salt, pepper and grated onion, also two tablespoonfuls of bread. 
Soak in milk and the yolk of one egg. Melt one tablespoonful 
of butter in a griddle and add the meat mixture. Stir over the 
fire for two minutes. Then take from fire, form into balls, dust 
with flour, dip in beaten egg, then in cracker crumbs and fry in 
deep fat like a doughnut. Serve with cream or tomato sauce. — 
Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 



88 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Marrowbones. — Have the bones cut into pieces two or three 
inches long. Scrape and wash them very clean, spread a little 
thick dough on each end to keep the marrow in, then tie each one 
in a piece of cheese-cloth and boil them for one hour. Remove 
the cloth and paste and place each bone on a square of toast. 
Sprinkle with salt and a little red pepper and serve very hot. The 
marrowbones can be boiled without being cut. The marrow then 
remove with a spoon and place on squares of hot toast. — Mrs. C. 
F. Hofer. 

Marrowbones. — Have the bottom of the bones cut so that 
they will stand upright. Cover the ends where the marrow is with 
a flour and water thick paste. Boil them in a sauce pan but do 
not let the water come higher than half way up the bone. Time to 
boil rather more than an hour. Serve a hot dry toast with them. 
The marrow should be scooped out and quickly spread lightly 
over the toast and then freely sprinkled with salt and pepper. — 
English Cook Book. 

Frog Legs. — Only the hid legs are fit for cooking. After 
skinning them, let stand in salt water for one-half hour. Then 
wipe dry, dip in milk, then fiour or finely sifted bread crumbs and 
saute in half lard and half butter until a delicate brown, or fry in 
deep, hot lard. Season with salt and pepper and send to the table 
very hot with quarters of lemon. 

Sweet Breads Fried or Baked. — Calf's or lamb's sweet- 
breads are the best. Soak in cold salt and water one hour. Then 
parboil for five or ten minutes according to their size. Take them 
out and throw them into cold milk (this whitens them) and let 
them get quite cold. Take them out of the milk and trim them 
from skin and flap. Then dip in an Qgg beaten up with three table- 
spoonfuls of milk. Dip in finely rolled bread crumbs and fry them 
to a nice golden brown color. Can be also served with a rich 
brown gravy. If the sweet-breads are especially large, are nice 
baked in the oven. Do not bread crumb but cover them with 
slices of bacon. Baste often with melted butter. When done, take 
out and serve with a rich brown sauce poured over. 

Devilled Kidneys. — Prepare two beef kidneys, cut up and 
parboil one hour. In an iron frying pan fry four slices of bacon 
cut into small pieces and one sliced onion until all are well 
browned. Then put in the bits of kidney and brown that also. 



LUNCHEON DISHES Sq 

Season with a teaspoonful of salt, a little cayenne, a pinch of 
powdered nutmeg. Dredge all with flour, add one cup of tomato 
and one cup of water. Cover closely and simmer slowly one hour. 
— New Orleans. 

A Luncheon Suggestion. — A luncheon suggestion when 
tomatoes are in season is to serve the oyester cocktails in tomato 
shells. Select small firm tomatoes, have them ice cold, scoop out 
the center and fill with the oysters and seasoning. 

Anchovy Toast. — Put a tablespoonful of butter into a sauce 
pan and set this in a larger dish of hot water ; add a tablespoonful 
of curry powder and a dash of cayenne. As soon as the butter 
has melted and the water in the outer vessel is boiling, pour in 
two well beaten eggs mixed with half a tablespoonful of anchovy 
paste. Keep stirring until the mixture thickens a little, then re- 
move at once from the hot water to prevent curdling. Spread on 
toasted bread. 

Baked Bananas. — Clip the ends and slit the skin from end 
to end and sprinkle with sugar and bake about fifteen minutes. 
Serve hot. 

Creamed Mushrooms. — Peel one pound of fresh mushrooms, 
cut up. Melt three tablespoonfuls of butter in blazers, add mush- 
rooms, cover and cook eight minutes. Add one tablespoonful of 
flour ; stir until smooth and thoroughly cooked. Add one cup of 
cream; season. When sauce is hot and has thickened slightly, 
add one tablespoonful of sherry. — Miss Isahellc McCiirdy. 

Mushroom Saute. — Prepare mushrooms and dredge with 
flour. Melt three tablespoonfuls of butter, add mushrooms, a few 
drops of onion juice, salt and paprika. Cook six minutes; then 
add one-third of a cup of boiling water and simmer four minutes. 
Sprinkle with chopped parsley, lemon juice and serve on toast. — 
Miss Isabelle McCurdy. 

Cucumber Farci. — Four medium sized cucumbers, one 
P ranco- American game pate, three tablespoonfuls of cream, one 
tablespoonful of sherry, one teaspoonful of salt, six drops of onion 
extract, one cupful of cooked chicken, one tablespoonful of chop- 
ped parsley, one cupful of chicken stock, one teaspoonful of Wor- 
cestershire sauce, one-fourth teaspoonful of paprika. Peel the 
cucumbers and cut into halves lengthwise. Mix the chopped, 



go THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

cooked chicken carefully with the game pate, cream, pepper, salt 
and onion extract. Add lemon juice if more seasoning is desired. 
Scoop out the seeds from the cucumber with a spoon, fill the 
spaces with a force-meat mixture. Put the shells in a shallow 
baking pan and cover with the hot stock. Add the wine and bake 
twenty or thirty minutes, basting often. Before taking from the 
oven, cover with browned bread crumbs and bake two minutes 
longer. Serve with sauce Hollandaise on lettuce leaves. — Miss 
Isabelle McCurdy. 

BouDiN. — One pound of raw chicken (breast), put through 
a sausage grinder four or five times so that no fibre remains. One- 
quarter pound of salt pork ditto; two eggs, one teaspoonful grated 
onion, one-half teaspoonful grated nutmeg, one teaspoonful of 
salt, one-half can of mushrooms chopped fine, one-half can of 
mushroom liquor. Put mushrooms in with chicken, add salt, 
grated onion, eggs beaten together; mix. Put into a mold and 
steam two hours. Serve with white sauce. — Mrs. James L. 
Botsford. 

Fried Roe. — Let stand in salt and water for twenty minutes ; 
wash well and plunge into boiling water and boil ten minutes. 
Then throw into cold water, slightly salted, drain, wipe dry, season 
with salt and pepper and fry in hot fat to a fine brown. 

Ham Rarebit. — Toast circular pieces of bread a delicate 
brown and spread them first with butter and then with potted 
ham. Lay on each a thin slice of cheese and a little prepared 
mustard. Put the rounds on a baking tin and stand in 3 hot oven 
until the cheese melts. Serve immediately on a napkin on a hot 
platter. Garnish with parsley or individually with a doily under- 
neath. 

Ham Mousse. — Two cups of grated, cold boiled ham, one- 
half box of Cox's gelatine dissolved in warm water, one cup of 
cream whipped stiff, juice of one lemon, cayenne pepper. Mix 
ham, lemon juice, pepper, add cream and gelatine. Pour in a 
mold and slice cold. — Mrs. R. McCurdy. 

Ham on Toast. — Boil one-quarter pound lean ham, chop 
fine, mix with the yolks of three eggs well beaten, one ounce of 
butter, two tablespoonfuls of cream, a little cayenne pepper; stir 
over the fire until it thickens, spread on hot toast. 



LUNCHEON DISHES 9I 

A Dressing for Ham, Good for Lunch. — One tablespoonful 
of French mustard, one tablespoonful of tomato catsup, one table- 
spoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of sherry wine, to four thin 
slices of ham made hot. A good chafing dish recipe. — Mrs. A. E. 
Kauffman. 



FOR THE CHAFING DISH 



REMARKS. 

The chafing dish is invaluable for serving a hasty luncheon ; 
after-theatre bites, or the Sunday night tea. and nowhere does 
it do better service than in the sick-room, where small quantities 
quickly prepared, and served hot will often tempt the invalid's 
appetite. 

Sardines on Toast. — One dozen sardines ; one tablespoonful 
of butter ; two tablespoonfuls of anchovy paste ; one tablespoonful 
of sauterne, and a little tobasco sauce. Drain, and remove the 
skin of the sardines, put in the butter, anchovy paste, tobasco, and 
sauterne. Lay in the sardines carefully and when well heated 
through, serve each on a tiny strip of toast. 

Dried Beef. — One-half pound of chipped dried beef ; two 
tablespoonfuls of butter ; one-half pint of cream ; one tablespoonful 
of flour ; one egg. Put the butter in the chafing dish ; when hot 
add the beef; fry until brown, then add the cream. Cream the 
flour with a little cold milk ; then stir it in ; add one egg. Serve 
on toast. 

Pigs in Blankets. — Drain and wipe nice large oysters. Cut 
bacon in thin slices, and put one oyster in each slice of bacon, 
fastening together with a tooth-pick. Cook in hot blazer until 
crisp. Serve on round pieces of buttered toast. 

Calf's Liver and Bacon. — The bacon or ham should be cut 
in thin slices. Put the bacon into the chafing dish ; when fat is 
cooked out, draw the bacon to one side. After rolling in flour, 
and seasoning, put in the liver, and cook until brown and tender, 
turning often. Serve a slice of bacon on each slice of liver. 

Broiled Mushrooms. — One quart of button mushrooms ; one 
tablespoonful of butter. Melt a little of the butter, add the mush- 
rooms. Cook about ten minutes, or until tender, turning often; 
season ; add the rest of the butter, and serve hot on toast. 



FOR THE CHAFING DISH 93 

Blanquette of Chicken. — One pint of cold chicken, cut 
into dice ; one-half cup of chicken stock ; one tablespoonful of 
butter ; one heaping tablespoonful of flour ; yolks of two eggs ; one- 
half cup of cream ; parsley, salt, pepper, little nutmeg, cloves. 
Stir the butter into the flour; before it browns add the stock, stir 
a few minutes, add a little lemon juice, white pepper, salt slightly, 
grating the nutmeg, pinch of ground cloves, and cream. Boil up 
once, and add the chicken. Reduce the flame, and simmer eight 
minutes ; then add eggs, well beaten, stir in chopped parsley, and 
serve at once. 

Vension. — Take some small pieces of vension, put in your 
chafing dish ; salt and pepper, and add small piece of butter ; a 
tablespoonful of currant jelly; a gill of currant or other wine; a 
gill of boiling hot water ; cover and let boil for five minutes. — Mrs. 
^F. /. Hitchcock. 

Scrambled Eggs. — Five eggs; one tablespoonful of butter; 
one teaspoonful of salt ; a pinch of pepper. Beat the eggs in a 
bowl sufficiently to blend the whites and yolks. Melt the butter, 
and turn in the eggs ; stir until creamy. Season. 

Eggs with Cheese. — Six eggs; three tablespoonfuls of 
grated cheese ; one large tablespoonful of butter ; one teaspoonful 
of onion juice, or grated onion; one saltspoonful of paprika, and 
a little salt. Mix the cheese, butter, onion, paprika and salt in 
the hot pan, and stir until the cheese is melted. Break the eggs 
into a bowl ; pour them onto the cheese. Reduce the flame of the 
lamp and stir until done. Serve on hot toast. 



SANDWICHES AND CANAPES 



REMARKS. 



To make sandwiches properly, the bread should be about 
twenty-four hours old. Use a bread board, and sharp knife for 
cutting the sandwiches. If the butter is a little warm it will spread 
much easier and prevent the bread from crumbling. Spread the 
butter on the loaf before cutting each slice, and slice very thin. 
The shape of the sandwiches is a matter of taste, but the easiest 
to handle are the long narrow ones, or those cut diamond-shape, 
from which the crust has been removed. 

Meat Sandwiches. — Ordinary sandwiches from cold boiled 
ham, roast beef or lamb, are made by putting thin slices of meat 
between thin slices of bread and butter, and adding plenty of 
pepper and salt and sometimes mixed mustard. 

Egg Sandwiches. — Cut some thin slices of bread and butter, 
sprinkle them on the buttered side with mustard and chopped 
watercress. Cut some hard boiled eggs into thin slices ; cover one 
side of bread and butter, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and cover 
the other one over it. Trim the edges with a sharp knife, and cut 
into nice little triangular pieces. Wrap the sandwiches in lettuce 
leaves and then in wax paper, if wanted for travelling. 

Mushroom Sandwiches. — Cut mushrooms into small pieces 
and simmer in butter until tender (over-cooking toughens.) 
Season with paprika and salt, and add enough cream to make a 
good consistency for spreading. Allow it to just boil up ; add a 
little lemon juice, and spread between thin slices of toast. 

Club Sandwiches. — Prepare squares of toast with all crust 
removed. Broil very thin slices of ham or bacon, place on these a 
crisp lettuce leaf, spread with mayonnaise dressing, then a thin 
slice of the breast of chicken, slightly salted. Place then between 
the squares of toast and serve hot on folded napkin. — Mrs. 
Henry Wick. 



SANDWICHES AND CANAPES 95 

Anchovy Sandwiches. — Chop up into little pieces, but not 
too small, some anchovies. Also chop up an equal quantity of 
hard boiled eggs ; mix with mayonnaise dressing, and spread be- 
tween thin slices of bread, the crust all removed, and cut in dia- 
mond shape. 

Indian Sandwiches. — Pound two ounces of cold chicken 
with one ounce of cold ham or tongue. Moisten then in a stew 
pan with a little stock. Add a dessertspoonful of curry powder, 
and if liked a little hot, a little cayenne pepper. Let it simmer for 
ten minutes ; mix into smooth paste, and make into sandwiches 
by spreading between thin slices of bread. 

Tomato Sandwiches. — Tomato sandwiches are most re- 
freshing in hot weather. Cut some thin slices of bread and butter, 
sprinkle these with mustard and cress. Cut some thin slices of 
tomato, parallel with the core to avoid having rings from the core 
dropping out. Mix thin slices lightly in a good French dressing, 
lay these slices on the bread, sprinkle with mustard and cress, and 
cover over with the other slice of bread and butter. Cut these 
slices into squares or triangles with a very sharp knife, and place 
carefully on a dish. Place a border of parsley around the dish and 
ornament with some small round red tomatoes. Keep on ice until 
served. 

Cucumber Sandwiches. — Pare and chop fine fresh cucum- 
bers. To three parts of cucumbers, add one part of pimentos, also 
chopped fine. Salt well, and drain over night. Spread thin slices 
of bread with butter, then with mayonnaise, then spread on cu- 
cumbers and pimentos mixed. Place on this another piece of bread 
spread with butter. Cut into squares or triangles, trim the edges 
neatly, cutting ofif all crust. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Onion Sandwiches. — Use Spanish or Bermuda onions. Slice 
very thin, let stand in a good French dressing for three or four 
hours, and then drain. Sprinkle with pimentos and lay between 
thin slices of bread spread with butter. Trim the edges with a 
sharp knife and keep in a cool place until ready to serve. — Mrs. 
W. J. Sampson. 

Swiss Cheese Sandwiches. — Slice Swiss cheese very thin, 
spread with French mustard ; sprinkle with salt, and put between 
slices of bread and butter, with crust well trimmed off. 



96 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Jam Sandwiches. — Before cutting from the loaf, spread 
bread with butter, cut thin, and then into round shapes with 
bread cutter. Spread with raspberry jam, put together and serve. 

Brown Bread and Cheese Sandwiches. — Cut some thin 
slices of brown bread without crust. Mix thoroughly some soft 
cream cheese with chopped cress, and a little mayonnaise dressing. 
Put a layer of this between slices of bread and serve. 

Lettuce Sandwiches. — Wipe dry, crisp fresh lettuce leaves, 
place on slice of bread and butter. Spread with mayonnaise 
dressing, then lay on another slice of bread and butter, and trim 
with sharp knife into any fancy shapes. 

CANAPES 

Potted Meat Canapes. — Cut rounds of bread with biscuit 
cutter, and toast them or drop them two or three at a time into 
boiling fat. When golden brown lift them out with a wire spoon 
and drain on tissue paper. Open a can of potted tongue, ham or 
chicken, rub the contents to a pulp with the yolk of an egg. 
Season if desired, and spread on the rounds of bread. Set a pimola 
in the center of each, and serve as a first course. Anchovies and 
sardines may also be served in this form, omitting the egg, and 
flavoring with a few drops of lemon juice or Worcestshire sauce. 

Caviare Canapes. — Cut thin slices of bread and butter in 
fancy shapes with cutter. Spread with best imported caviare and 
equeeze over this a liberal supply of lemon juice. Have ready 
finely chopped parsley, two beets, the sifted yolk of hard boiled 
eggs. Arrange these in circles on the canapes ; then garnish with 
the white rings of hard boiled eggs, beets cut in fanciful shapes, 
and a pimola in the center of each. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Sabdine Canapes. — Skin and bone a box of sardines, and 
mash to a paste. Add lemon juice, salt and red pepper, and 
minced parsley to taste, and spread on thin slices of bread and 
butter. Cut in fancy shapes with a tin cutter. 

Anchovy Canapes. — Cut thin slices of bread into rounds. 
Toast and spread with anchovy paste, which can be purchased at 
the grocer's. Chop the whites of cold boiled eggs very fine ; sift 
the yolks of the eggs ; arrange these in alternate circles around 
the top of canape, placing a ring of hard boiled white of egg in 
center with a whole anchovy curled in the center of that. 



BREAD, YEAST AND ROLLS 



REMARKS. 

There is nothing truer to be said than that bread is the staff 
of Hfe, and to insure its being good great care should be taken in 
the preparation. First the flour must be excellent ; the yeast must 
be fresh (otherwise the bread will be flat or sour) ; the batter 
must be of the right consistency and temperature (luke warm). 
When the yeast is ready, put in and keep in a warm place until 
light. The kneading should be thorough and just the proper 
amount of flour used in stiffening. Small loaves are generally 
considered preferable and should be quite light before being put 
in the oven. The oven should be of even temperature and is all 
important. Bake slow and the length of time according to the 
size of the loaves. After baking, leave exposed to the air until 
thoroughly cold. Then put away in a clean stone crock and keep 
covered. 

Yeast. — A double handful of hops, one-half dozen large po- 
tatoes. Boil together in one-half gallon of water until done.' Strain 
and mash onto one-half cupful of ginger, small cup of flour and 
one cup of brown sugar, and half a cup of salt. Let stand until 
cool then add one cupful of good yeast. The next day cork up 
tight in a jug. — Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Yeast. — Take two good-sized potatoes, grate them raw. Add 
one-half teacup of white sugar, one teaspoon of salt, a little ginger. 
Pour over the mixture one-half pint of boiling water in which one 
tablespoonful of hops has been boiled. Save half a cup each time 
to start anew. — Mrs. Wm. Edwards. 

Yeast and Bread. — Boil six medium-sized potatoes in a lit- 
tle more than three pints of water. When done, mash and add 
one quart of flour and scald with the boiling water. When cool 
put in one cent's worth of baker's fresh yeast. Stir it down quite 
often through the day and it will be ready for use by night. 



98 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

For the Bread. — Put the flour into a wooden bowl as it will 
keep warm better in that than in tin. Take a quart of new milk 
(if skim milk is used it must be scalded in summer) and a tea- 
cupful of the yeast. Pour into the flour and thicken with a little 
of it. Wrap the bowl up in a woolen blanket and keep in a warm 
room. Make up in the morning as soon as it is perfectly light. 
Add salt and knead it thoroughly and mold over into the pans. 
Be careful not to let it get too warm. — Mrs. Sidney Strong. 

Yeast and Bread. — Take ten large potatoes. Pare and put 
them in kettle with three quarts of water. Put a pint of hops in 
a thin muslin bag in the same kettle with the potatoes. Boil until 
potatoes are soft. Then pour the water from this kettle boiling 
hot over a pint of flour in a crock. Squeeze all the strength from 
the hops. Mash the potatoes, add a quart of cold water to them 
and put through a colander into the crock and add one-half teacup 
of salt, a cup of sugar, one tablespoon of ginger. Let it stand for 
two days until it stops fermenting and settles. Then put into a 
jug, cork tight and keep in a cool place. — Mrs. M. Adclia Wick. 

For the Bread. — Pare and boil six good-sized potatoes, drain 
off the water, mash fine and pour over them about three pints of 
cold water and run through a colander. Add flour imtil this is 
a thin batter. Then put in a coflfeecup of yeast from the jug. Let 
stand until it rises, then stir into flour as much as you can with 
spoon, and let rise again. Work in enough more flour to make 
as stiff as bread and let rise third time. When light this time work 
out into loaves and let rise. All the flour must be sifted. — Mrs. 
M. A delta Wick. 

Yeast and Bread. — Two handfuls of hops, two of flour, one- 
half dozen large potatoes, one cup of sugar, one teaspoonful of 
ginger. Boil the hops and potatoes and pour the hop water onto 
the flour scalding hot. Mix with the other ingredients. When 
cool, add a teacupful of yeast. It will be ready for use in twenty- 
four hours. 

For the Bread. — Take five small potatoes, a little over two 
quarts of water. Boil till done. Three iron spoonfuls of flour in 
crock. Pour enough of potato water on flour to get all the lumps 
out. Put potatoes through colander and pour on remainder of 
potato water. When luke warm stir in yeast. Wrap up warm 
and rise until morning. In the morning put in a little salt and 



BREAD, YEAST AND ROLLS 99 

enough flonr to make still. Knead well and let rise. Then knead 
again and make into loaves. Let rise and hake.— Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Five Hour Bread.— One cake of Fleishman's yeast broken 
up and dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of luke warm water. Take 
one-half pint of morning's milk into which put one tablespoonful 
of salt. Scald with one pint of boiling water; when luke warm 
add the dissolved yeast ; then stir in three pints of sifted Pittsburg 
flour and knead for fifteen minutes. If this quantity of flour is 
not sufficient to keep the dough from sticking to the board add on 
the start-out a little more flour. The dough should be satiny and 
full of bubbles when sufficiently kneaded. With a small brush 
dipped in melted butter grease the pans; put in the dough and 
then go over that with the brush. Cover well first with towel and 
then with a flannel blanket and let stand to rise three hours in 
temperature of seventy-five degrees. Mold into loaves, kneading 
slightly. Brush with butter, set to rise for one hour in same tem- 
perature. Allow forty-five minutes for baking bread ; twenty-five 
minutes for rolls and biscuit. This recipe makes two loaves of 
bread and two pans of biscuit. — Mrs. Hal stead, Cincinnati. 

Bread With a Starter.— One large or two small potatoes 
and all the water to pint or more ; squeeze through ricer, add one 
small handful of sugar, two of salt, one pint of water and a pint 
jar of starter. Also a cake of "Yeast Foam" dissolved in a cup 
of warm water. Have the water just luke-warm before adding 
yeast and starter. Let stand over night. In the morning put flour 
near the fire, stir up sponge, take out a jar full for next time, set 
sponge on the stove until just luke-warm, then add flour and knead 
fifteen minutes. Let that rise very lig-ht before making into 
loaves. This recipe makes three loaves of bread and a pan of 
biscuit. Let the loaves rise well and bake in a slow oven from 
three-quarters to one hour. — Mrs. P. B. Oiven. 

Five Hour Bread. — For each loaf : One-half pint of milk, 
one-half pint of water, one teaspoonful salt and a little sugar, one 
cake of compressed yeast. Dissolve yeast in three tablespoonfuls 
of tepid water. Scald milk and set aside to cool. Add the \yater 
and when mixture is cool, add dissolved yeast, also salt and sugar. 
Stir in enough flour to knead. Knead tvv^enty-five minutes. Set 
to rise about three hours. When light make into loaves and put 
to rise about one hour. Bake in moderate oven. — Mrs. Wm. A. 
Smith. 



100 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Graham Bread. — One pint of sweet milk, one cup of sponge, 
three tablespoonfuls of molasses, one teaspoonfiil of soda. Mix 
up soft and let rise until light, not too long, and bake. — Mrs. J. G. 
Butler. 

Graham Bread (Stirred). — One bowl of sponge, one bowl 
of luke-warm water, one scant teacup of sugar, one level teaspoon 
of soda, graham flour to thicken enough to drop from spoon. If 
bread sponge has not been prepared for white bread, dissolve one- 
half cake of yeast in luke-warm water, add wheat flour and warm 
water enough to make one-half bowl ; let this stand until bowl is 
full. — Miss Caddie Boris. 

Boston Brown Bread. — Take three teacups of corn meal. 
Stir into it two cups of boiling sweet milk. When cold add one 
teacup of molasses, one cup of wheat flour and one cup of sour 
milk. Into the sour milk stir well one teaspoon of soda ; add 
one-half teaspoonful of salt. Steam three hours. — Mrs. C. H. 
Gilman. 

Boston Brown Bread. — Five cups of graham flour, three 
cups of sour milk, one-half cup of brown sugar wet with water 
and teacup filled with Orleans molasses, two teaspoonfuls of soda, 
one teaspoonful of salt ; mix, let stand ten minutes and bake three- 
quarters of an hour. — Mrs. D. C. Stewart. 

Boston Brown Bread. — One cup brown sugar, one cup of 
sour milk, one teaspoon soda in milk, one tgg, butter size of an &gg, 
a little white flour, a little salt, a few raisins floured. Make a 
stiff batter with graham flour and steam in cans for two hours and 
a half. To make three times this rule, put in three quart cans and 
set in steamer. It is just as good heated over. — Mrs. Ida E. 
Canfield. 

Brown Bread. — One and one-half cups of baking molasses, 
one and one-half cups sour milk, one cup of currants, one cup of 
corn meal, two cups of graham flour, three cups of wheat flour, 
salt to taste and one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in hot water. 
Steam four hours in .small cans. This makes four loaves in one 
pound cans. — Mrs. M. C. Wick. 

Steamed Brown Bread. — Two cups of corn meal, one cup 
graham flour, one pint of sour milk, three-quarters of a cup of 
molasses, teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls soda. Steam two 



BREAD, YEAST AND ROLLS lOI 

hours in baking powder cans. One cup of raisins may be added 
if desired. — Mrs. Frederick G. Evans. 

Light Biscuit. — In kneading bread set aside a small loaf for 
biscuits. Into this work a heaping tablespoonful of lard and butter 
mixed and a teaspoon of sugar. The more it is worked the whiter 
it will be. As it rises mold it down twice before making into 
biscuit. Roll out and cut with a biscuit cutter. The dough should 
be quit soft. — Mrs. John McCurdy. 

Light Biscuit. — Take about as much dough, after it is light, 
as would make a good-sized loaf of bread. Put in a pie pan. Mix 
in that a small cup of lard and butter, more lard than butter. One 
tablespoon of fine sugar. Do not put in any more flour, never mind 
if sticky. Then let rise very light, keeping in a warm place. Roll 
out about one-half inch thick without molding. Bake in rather 
quick oven. Will bake in fifteen or twenty minutes.— Mr^. M. I. 
Arms. 

Light Biscuit.— One pint of milk, butter size of an egg, two 
eggs, thre-quarters of a cup of yeast. Let rise over night.— Mm 
Belle Robbins. ^^>«<444^ 

Buns. — One cake of conirtM^ yeast, one and one-half cup| of 
sugar, three eggs, one pint of new milk, scalded, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one-fourth of a cup of butter. Put sugar and sah into 
broken eggs and beat until very light; put in butter, pour over 
the hot milk and when mixture is luke-warm add the yeast dis- 
solved in a little water. Then sift in flour to make batter, (about 
three cups), and beat ten minutes. Let it stand in a warm place 
about three hours and then add flour to make dough a little softer 
than bread and knead well. After standing again until light (about 
three hours) roll out dough in a sheet, cut with a round cutter, press 
a raisin in the middle of each clear down to the bottom. Spread 
top with butter and sprinkle over a mixture of cinnamon and sugar 
(one tablespoonful of cinnamon to two of sugar). Let stand until 
very light and bake. The same dough may be used for finger 
rolls, omitting cinnamon and sugar for the top.— Mr^. /. H. Mc- 
Ewen. 

Potato Biscuit.— One cup of boiled mashed potatoes, one 
cup of sugar, one cup of Baker's yeast, two eggs. Stir all to- 
gether, set to rise in the evening— next morning add three-quarters 



102 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

cup of melted lard, and flour enough to make a dough not too siff 
(indeed rather soft). After rising light, probably an hour, cut 
lightly off without farther kneading, make into small biscuits; 
let rise again, when light bake in hot oven. To wash over with 
beaten egg before baking improves in appearance. — Mrs. A. E. 
Kauffman. 

Graham Biscuit. — May be made from a lof of the bread in 
the same way, also, from the recipe of sweet rusk, using white 
flour in setting the sponge over night. — Mrs. John McCurdy. 

Sweet Rusk. — One pint of warm milk, new is best, one-half 
cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two eggs, one teaspoonful of 
salt, two tablespoonfuls of yeast ; make a sponge with milk, yeast 
and enough flour to make a thin batter and let rise over night. In 
the morning add the sugar, butter, eggs and salt, well beaten up 
together with enough flour to make a soft dough. Let it rise 
again, then make into round balls and rise a third time. Bake in a 
moderate oven. — Mrs. John McCurdy. 

Tea Rusks. — One-half pound of sugar, one-quarter pound of 
butter, three pounds of flour, one cup of light yeast, one quart of 
sweet milk. — Mrs. E. C. Wells. 

Rusk. — A piece of dough the size of a small loaf ; one cup of 
shortening, two parts of lard and one part of butter ; two eggs ; one 
and one-half cups of sugar. When ready for oven spread the 
top lightly with melted butter and sift on a little sugar. Bake a 
light brown. — Mrs. George Cornell. 

French Rolls. — One pint of milk come to a boil, one-half 
cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one cup of yeast stirred into a 
sponge, when light knead up stiff, add one cup of milk put in just 
when light, roll out, cut with a round cutter, butter one-half side 
and lay the other over. Bake fifteen minutes. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Parker House Rolls. — Scald one pint of sweet milk ; when 
cool add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, two tablespoonfuls butter, 
one cake Fleishman's yeast, pinch of salt. Make up in the morn- 
ing. Let it rise and then work up. Let it rise again, roll out thin, 
cut them out, butter the tops, fold it over ; let rise again and bake 
in a quick oven. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 



BREAD, YEAST AND ROLLS IO3 

Finger Rolls. — Take a small piece of very light bread dough 
and roll with the hand on molding board until about as large 
around as your finger and about five inches long. Lay in a greased 
pan about one inch apart and let rise until very light then bake in 
a medium oven. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Bread Sticks to Serve With Soup.— Cut bread about twen- 
ty-four hours old into strips six inches long and one inch wide. 
Place in a dripping pan and set in oven turning until all sides are 
browed alike — a light rich brown. 

Pulled Bread. — Take bread that is moist, remove all the 
crust and pull apart in strips as near as possible to two inches 
wide and four inches long. Place in a baking tin and set in the 
oven. Let stand until thoroughly browned and hardened through. 

Corn Bread. — Two cups corn meal, one cup of flour, one cup 
of sugar, two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of lard, two cups of sour 
milk, pinch of soda, two teaspoons baking powder. Mix sugar 
and lard together, add beaten eggs, put soda in milk; add milk, 
flour and corn meal; last the baking powder mixed in a little of 
the flour and corn meal. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Corn Bread. — Two cups of corn meal, one cup of flour, one 
cup of sour milk, one &gg, one teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, a little salt, a little melted butter, sweet milk enough 
to make a stiff batter. Bake half an hour. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Corn Bread. — Three cups of corn meal, one and one-half 
cups of flour, one and one-half cups of sweet milk, five eggs, four 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a little sugar. — Mrs. Mary Bentley. 

Corn Bread. — One cup of corn meal, two cups of flour, one- 
half cup of sugar, three-fourth of a cup of melted butter, one cup 
of milk, three eggs, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. — Mrs. 
G. B. Woodman. 

Corn Bread Without Eggs. — Two cups of corn meal, one 
cup of flour, two cups of milk, two tablespoonfuls of melted 
butter, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, two teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Fried Bread. — To one pint or a large coflfee cup full of milk, 
take two eggs, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of 
cream tartar, or one teaspoonful of baking powder, flour enough 



104 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

to make a thin batter, cut dry bread in very thin shoes, if the shoes 
are large out in two or three pieces, have hot some lard or drip- 
pings, dip the bread in the batter and fry ; when light brown on 
one side, turn the other. Serve hot. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Fried Bread. — One tablespoonful of sweet light dough, make 
it into a thin batter with one cup of sweet milk ; add three or four 
eggs, one and a half cups of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, cut light 
bread into slices, dip them into the batter and fry in hot lard, 
sprinkle with powdered sugar and garnish with jelly. — Mrs. John 
C. Wick. 

Toast. — The object of toasting bread is to extract all its 
moisture. Turn each side of the bread to the fire for a few minutes 
until warmed, then turn about the first side at some distance from 
the fire, slowly toasting it until it is of a nice brown color, then 
turn the other side, moving slowly until thoroughly toasted but 
not burned in any place. The coals should be clear and hot and the 
toast should be served as soon as done on a warm plate. — Mrs. Geo. 
W. Haney. 

Cream Toast. — Place the cream to heat, mix a teaspoonful 
of flour smoothly with a little cream, stir it in and let it come 
just to a boil, with a small piece of butter the size of an tgg to a 
quart of cream and some salt. Place your toast on a deep dish and 
pour your gravy over it. 

Mock Cream Toast. — Melt in one quart of morning's milk 
about two ounces of butter, a large teaspoonful of flour, freed 
from lumps and the yolks of three eggs beaten light. Beat these 
ingredients together for several minutes, strain the cream through 
a fine hair sieve and when wanted beat it slowly, beaten constantly 
with a brisk movement. It must not boil or it will curdle and lose 
the appearance of cream. When hot dip the toast if not sufficiently 
seasoned with butter, add salt. Send to the table hot, the cream 
not taken up with the toast but in a gravy bowl. 

Sweibach. — One cake of yeast; take three cups of flour and 
put in two cups of sweet luke-warm milk and a little salt. Put 
this flour, milk and yeast together and let stand two hours until 
raised; then take three-quarters of a cup of butter, one-half cup 
of sugar, two eggs; rub butter and part of flour together; flour 
enough to make as stiff as bread and work together well. Raise 



BREAD, YEAST AND ROLLS 10$ 

it again about three hours ; put in pans and raise again about two 
hours. Bake slowly to allow it to rise in oven ; then cut into 
small slices and brown in oven. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Mush and Fried Mush. — Into boiling water, with a little 
salt, stir corn meal slowly, sifting it into the water a very little at 
a time, until it is about the consistency of a batter. Stir it until it 
is perfectly free from lumps, then set it on the back of the stove 
and let it boil slow for one hour. Eat either cold or warm with 
milk, or drop by the spoonful into hot drippings and fry brown 
on both sides. — Mrs. Jonathan Warner. 

Croutons.— Cut bread into slices, butter it, cut it into long 
strips then into squares. Put on top of pan in oven until it 
browns. To serve with soups. 



BISCUIT AND HOT CAKES 



Soda Biscuit. — One quart of flour, two teaspoonf uls of cream 
tartar, one of soda, a piece of butter the size of an egg, one and a 
half cups of sweet milk; mix very thoroughly the flour, cream 
tartar, butter and salt then add the milk and soda. Roll out and 
bake in a quick oven ten minutes. — Mrs. E. S. Gregory. 

Baking Powder Biscuit. — To one quart of flour mix in 
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one teaspoonful of salt ; then 
rub in three-fourths of a cup of butter and lard. Stir in with a 
spoon enough sweet milk to make as soft dough as you can con- 
veniently roll out. Bake in quick oven. — Mrs. M. I. Anns. 

Drop Biscuit (Soda). — One pint of sweet milk, one-half tea- 
cupful of butter, one teaspoonful of soda, in the milk ; two tea- 
spoonfuls of cream tartar thoroughly mixed in a pint of flour, two 
well beaten eggs, a large teaspoonful of sugar ; mix quickly, add- 
ing enough flour to make it a little stiffer than cup cake. Bake in 
well buttered gem pans. Make graham biscuit in the same way, 
using twice as much sugar and one-third wheat flour. — Mrs. John 
McCurdy. 

Drop Biscuit. — Rub into one quart of flour one-half teacup 
of butter, one small teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder, enough sweet milk to mix with a spoon. Drop on 
buttered pans. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Graham Biscuit. — One pint of sweet milk, one-half cup of 
butter, one-half cup of sugar, two eggs, flour enough to make 
stiff with a spoon, baking powder, drop on buttered tins. — Mrs. 
Mary Bentley. 

Graham Gems. — One cup of milk and one and a half cups of 
graham flour, a pinch of salt, one tablespoonful of sugar, one 
spoonful of baking powder. — Mrs, G. B. Woodman. 



BISCUIT AND HOT CAKES 



107 



Graham Gems. — One and a half cups of sour milk, one-half 
cup of sugar, one egg, butter the size of an egg, one small tea- 
spoonful of soda, flour enough to make a batter. Bake slow — 
Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Muffins.— Six eggs, beat whites and yolks separately; but- 
ter size of two eggs; (or one-half cup) one cup of sugar; beat 
butter and sugar to a cream; three cups of sweet milk; three 
heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder in three pints of flour. Bake 
in mufiin rings. — Mrs. W. D. Euzver. 

Graham Muffins. — Two cups of graham flour, one cup of 
milk, one-third of a cup of sugar, one egg, butter size of an egg, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking pawder ; bake in rings twenty or thirty 
minutes in a hot oven. — Mrs. Sidney Strong. 

Graham Muffins. — One quart of graham flour, two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, 
one egg, one tablespoonful of sugar, one-half teaspoonful of salt, 
milk enough to make a batter as thick as for griddle-cakes. — Mrs. 
C. H. Gilman. 

White Muffins.— One teacup of milk, three cups of flour, 
two eggs, one-half cup of sugar, piece of butter the size of an 
egg, baking powder. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Muffins. — Three eggs, one cup of sour cream, one-half cup 
of butter, one teaspoonful of baking powder, four cups of flour. — 
Mrs. Mary Bentley. 

Muffins. — One large tablespoonful of butter, two small 
tablespoonfuls of sugar, two eggs, one cup of milk, three tea- 
spoonfuls baking powder, flour to make stiff batter. Bake in gem 
pans. — Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

Corn Gems. — Two cups of corn meal, two cups of flour, two 
cups of sweet milk, two eggs, three heaping teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup of sugar. 
Bake in gem pans. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Sally Lunn. — Six cups of flour, six eggs well beaten, four 
tablespoonfuls of baking powder, one-half cup of granulated sugar, 
one-half cup of melted butter, one quart of milk ; salt to taste. — 
Mrs. W. Scott Bonnell. 



I08 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Waffles. — Four eggs beaten separately, one quart of milk» 
a piece of butter the size of an egg, melted ; three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, a little salt, enough flour to make rather thick 
batter. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Flannel Rolls. — One cup of flour, one cup of milk, one egg, 
well beaten — this quantity makes five rolls ; put into cups one- 
quarter inch deep. Bake three-quarters of an hour. — Mrs. W. 
Scott Bonnell. 

Flannel Rolls. — One quart of sweet milk, four eggs, one 
teaspoonful of salt, flour to make a batter like good thick cream. — 
Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Flannel Cakes. — One pint of sour milk, one pint of sweet 
milk, two eggs beaten separately, a little salt, one quart of flour ; 
beat the whites and stir in just before baking; before putting in 
the whites, stir in a small teaspoonful of soda. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Flannel Cakes. — Three eggs, one quart of sweet milk, about 
one quart of flour, a small teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls 
of baking powder; beat the yolks and half of the milk, salt and 
flour together ; then the remainder of the milk ; at last the whites 
of the eggs well beaten. A teacup of boiled rice is an improve- 
ment. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Flannel Cakes. — One quart of thick sour milk, three eggs, 
one teaspoonful of soda, a little salt, flour enough to make a batter. 
Break the yolks into the milk, then stir in the flour; add the 
soda dissolved in a little milk and when just ready to bake stir in 
the whites well beaten. Do not stir very much after putting in 
the whites. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Griddle Cakes. — Sift together two cups of flour, three and 
one-half level teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half teaspoonful 
salt; beat yolks of two eggs until light, add one and one-fourth 
cups of milk, stir into flour mixture until perfectly smooth. Just 
before baking add whites of eggs and one teaspoonful of melted 
butter. — Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

German Puffs. — Two cups of sweet milk, two cups of flour, 
three eggs and a little salt. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Breakfast Puffs. — One pint of milk, one pint of flour, two 
eggs, lump of butter the size of an egg and a pinch of salt; put 



BISCUIT AND HOT CAKES IO9 

the flour after sifting in a pan and the butter in the middle of the 
flour, break in the eggs and work the butter and eggs thoroughly 
into the flour then gradually add the milk until you have a smooth 
batter. Bake them in French-roll pans. They take but a few 
minutes to bake. — Mrs. R. IV. Tayler. 

Rice Cakes. — One cup of milk, one-half cup of boiled rice, 
three eggs ; fry on a griddle. — Mrs. G. B. IVoodman. 

Newport Breakfast Cakes. — Six eggs, six spoonfuls of 
sugar, three pints of milk, one-half cup of butter, six teaspoonfuls 
of cream tartar, three teaspoonfuls of soda ; stir stiff. Makes six 
loaves. — Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

PopovERS. — One egg, one teacup of rich sweet milk, one 
teacup of flour, a little salt ; put a large tablespoonful of batter in 
each cup and bake in a quick oven. Eea warm. — Mrs. Wm. 
Lawthers. 

PopovERS. — One cup of sweet milk, one cup of flour, one egg ; 
put all together and beat for a long time with an tgg beater. — Miss 
Laura Wick. 

Long Cake. — One quart of flour, three teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, a small teaspoonful of salt ; put this through a sieve three 
or four times and to this put enough sweet cream to make a soft 
dough, or in place of the cream, can be used a piece of butter the 
size of an tgg and sweet milk. Mix with a spoon, roll out about 
an inch thick, score and bake in a dripping pan in a quick oven for 
a few minutes. — Miss Laura Wick. 

English Tea Cake. — Take a light bread dough, enough for 
a small loaf, mix with it one tablespoonful of lard, one of sugar, 
one large spoonful of currants; let rise again until very light; 
then bake; cut into round slices and toast them; butter while 
hot. — Mrs. Wm. Bonnell. 

Buckwheat Cakes. — To one quart of warm water stir in 
buckwheat flour to make a stiff batter, one small handful of white 
flour, teaspoonful of salt and one cup of good strong yeast; let 
rise over night ; in the morning thin the batter with a little warm 
water and bake on a griddle. — Miss Belle Robbins. 

Corn Meal Muffins. — Three pints of corn meal, one pint of 
flour, two eggs, eight teaspoonfuls of baking powder. — Kent 
House, Chautauqua Lake. 



no THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Wheat Muffins.— One quart of flour, five teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, two tablespoonfuls of butter, five eggs, milk 
enough to make a thick batter. — Kent House, Chautauqua Lake. 

Buckwheat Cakes.— Mix a batter of buckwheat flour and 
warm water and a Httle salt, making it a little thicker than you 
want it when ready to bake. Soak half a yeast cake for one hour 
in a half cup of warm water. Add this to the buckwheat batter 
and set in a warm place to raise over night. In the morning pour 
all but about one teacupful out in a pan. Take a good half cup 
of sour milk and half a teaspoonful of baking soda. Mix together 
and pour in your pan of batter, add a tablespoonful of sugar and 
bake on a hot griddle. Batter can be kept for a long time by leav- 
ing a cupful of the batter to start with at night. Do not pour any 
of the batter that has the soda and sour milk back in your vessel 
that you raised them in as it would sour and spoil your batter 
and you would have to start over again anew. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 

Corn Meal Cakes. — One-half cup of corn meal scalded over 
night, with perhaps a little over one-half pint of boiling water. In 
the morning mix in yolk of egg ; then heaping teaspoon of baking 
powder ; a little white flour and milk to make a stiff batter ; a little 
salt. The last thing mix in carefully the white of an egg. — Mrs. 
G. S. Peck. 

English Muffins. — One quart of water, one cake of yeast, 
a little sugar, a teaspoonful of salt. Let them raise until quite 
light. Put in muffin rings set onto a greased dripping pan, let 
rise again. Bake on both sides. When done split, toast and 
butter. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 



PASTRY 



REMARKS. 

In making pastry it is all important to have good butter and 
good lard and both must be chilled until perfectly firm. Pastry is 
better made in a cool place and ice water used for mixing. Do not 
touch with the hands until ready to roll out and then as little 
as possible. Use a knife for mixing. Pastry can be kept for 
several days by setting in a very cold place. In baking do not have 
a hot oven but bake moderately slow. With the exception of mince 
pie, all pastry should be eaten the day it is baked. This will keep 
a week and then heated before serving. 

Puff Paste. — One pound of flour, five ounces of flour for the 
board and rolling pin ; half a pound of butter, half a pound of lard, 
two gills of ice water. Sift the pound of flour in a two-quart bowl, 
cut the butter and lard through it with a knife into pieces about 
the size of an unshelled almond ; scatter the water over the whole 
and mix lightly with the knife. Flour space on the board twenty- 
four inches long by eighteen wide. Put the rough dough in the 
center of this space, flour the pin and roll the dough nearly large 
enough to cover the flour. With a small sieve, sift a light, barely 
perceptible coating of flour over the whole sheet. Then fold it in 
thirds lengthwise and across, making a piece about eight inches 
long and seven inches wide. Turn it over and put more flour 
under it and over the board ; roll it out again, sift it with flour and 
fold. Roll it out the third time, sift and roll lightly in the form 
of a scroll. Cut it across the center, lay it on a plate and leave it 
on the ice for fifteen minutes or longer, when it is ready for use. — 
Boston Cook Book. 

Quick Puff Paste. — One pound of butter, one pound of 
flour, one teaspoon salt, nearly one cup of ice water. Have flour 
very cold. Divide the butter into four parts. Rub into the flour 
with the salt (one-quarter) or one part butter; add water to make 



112 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

your paste mix and handle lightly. Roll into one sheet then spread 
this with the second part of butter, sprinkle a little flour, fold over 
and roll again ; spread the third part of butter and proceed as be- 
fore; roll over, roll again and spread with the last or fourth 
quarter of butter ; fold, roll and cut into pieces sufficient to make 
your pie, or what you wish. Pastry must be very cold, it is best 
to make it in a cold room, and the oven should be very hot. — Mrs. 
A. E. Kauffman. 

Pie Crust. — One pound of flour, three-fourths of a pound of 
shortening (part butter, part lard), one cup of cold water, a pinch 
of salt, cut shortening into flour well before adding water. Put 
on board, roll, then fold. Roll and fold a number of times. Keep 
in icebox a long time. — Mrs. P. B. Owen. 

Pastry. — To one cup of water add one-half cup of lard, a 
little salt and some flour. Mix together with a knife. When stiff 
enough, roll out on a board, spread on with a knife a layer of lard 
and sift over a little flour. Roll all together and then roll out on 
the board again, repeating this for three or four times. The entire 
amount of lard used for one cup of water should be about two cups. 
This will make three pies. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Mince Meat. — The meat should be boiled the day before it is 
prepared for pies. Boil one large fresh tongue until tender. Sea- 
son when put on with one large spoonful of salt and one small 
spoonful of pepper ; boil almost dry. Do not take off the skin vmtil 
you are ready to use it. Boil also five pounds of lean beef tender. 
Save the liquor from the beef (which should be boiled down to 
about a pint) and put in when mixing three pounds of suet, 
one-half peck of Greening apples ; chop all of them very fine separ- 
ately ; then mix and add one-half cup of butter cut fine, a little salt, 
a quart of Orleans molasses, four pounds of granulated sugar, two 
quarts of boiled cider, one tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, one 
of cloves, one of mace and two nutmegs (grated) ; four pounds of 
seeded raisins, three of currants and one of citron (cut fine) ; the 
grated rind and juice of two oranges, one pint of French brandy 
and one pint of Madeira wine. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Mince Meat. — Two pounds of lean beef boiled. When cold 
chop fine ; one pound of suet minced to a powder, five pounds of 
juicy apples (pared and chopped), two pounds of raisins (seeded), 
two pounds of sultanas or seedless raisins, two pounds of currants, 



PASTRY 1 1 3 

one-half pound of citron (chopped), three tablespoonfuls of cin- 
namon, two tablespoonfuls of mace, one tablespoonful of allspice, 
one tablespoonful of fine salt, one grated nutmeg, three pounds of 
brown sugar, one-half gallon of sweet cider, one-half pint of 
brandy. Mince meat made by this recipe will keep till spring. — 
Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Mother's Mince Meat. — Six pounds of meat, two pounds 
of raisins, two pounds of currants, one and one-half pounds of 
citron, one pint of whiskey or brandy, twice as much apples as 
meat. Sweeten to taste. Spices and cider. — Mrs. Orrin Jacobs. 

Pumpkin Pie. — Pare and slice a ripe pumpkin, stew gently 
until tender and rub through a sieve. To three quarts of pumpkin, 
when cold, add one quart of rich milk or one pint of milk and one 
pint of cream, ten eggs well beaten, three tablespoonfuls of ground 
ginger, two tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, sugar to taste. Bake 
slowly one hour. — Mrs. W. J. Hitchcock. 

Pumpkin Pie. — Four heaping tablespoonfuls of strained 
pumpkin, four level tablespoonfuls of sugar, one saltspoonful of 
salt, one-half teaspoonful of ginger, one-half teaspoonful of cin- 
namon, one pint of milk and cream, two eggs beat well. This is 
sufficient for one pie. — Mrs. R. McCnrdy. 

Pumpkin Pie. — Two large tablespoonfuls of boiled pumpkin, 
one tgg, one-half heaping teaspoonful of ginger, one-quarter 
heaping teaspoonful of cinnamon, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
milk or cream to thin like custard. This is enough for one rather 
small pie. — Mrs. P. B. Oiven. 

Pumpkin Pie. — One pint of pumpkin, one egg, enough cream 
or new milk to thin. — Mrs. C. A. Ensign. 

Pumpkin Pie. — To two cups of steamed pumpkin add one 
cup of rich sweet milk, one-half cup of molasses, one-half cup of 
sugar, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one tablespoonful of 
ginger, one teaspoonful of salt, two eggs beaten very light, a little 
mace, cinnamon, clove and nutm.eg. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Squash Pie. — One pint of stewed squash, five eggs (whites 
and yolks beaten separately) one quart of milk, one-half tea- 
spoonful of mace, one-half teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoon- 
ful of ginger, one cup of white sugar. Beat all well together. — 
Mrs. C. H. Gilman 



114 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Cream Pie. — One pint of cream, one scant teacup of sugar, 
one teaspoonful of vanilla, whites of four eggs whipped to a stiflf 
froth. Beat all together and pour into a pie plate lined with 
pastry. Bake as you would custard pie and eat very cold. — Mrs. 
T. H. Wilson. 

Cream Pie. — Sugar one cup, butter the size of an egg, milk 
one-half cupful, flour (measured after sifting) two cups, eggs 
two, baking powder two teaspoonfuls, vanilla one-half tea- 
spoonful. 

Custard for this pie : Milk (boiled) one pint, sugar, one cup, 
eggs two, cornstarch three heaping tablespoonfuls, vanilla one 
teaspoonful. When the milk comes to a boil add the cornstarch 
dissolved in cold milk ; then when thick add the eggs and sugar 
that have been stirred together. Add vanilla after taking custard 
from stove. Divide cakes and put in custard. — Mrs. J. H. Wick. 

Custard Pie — For one pie : Three eggs, one pint of milk, 
sugar and nutmeg to taste. Reserve the whites of two eggs for 
the top, which beat to a stiff froth, sweeten and when the pie is 
baked, spread on the top and put into the oven until it browns. — 
Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Apple Custard Pie. — Two eggs, four or five apples (grated), 
a little nutmeg, sweeten to taste ; one-half pint of new milk or 
cream. Pour into pastry. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Lemon Pie. — Two lemons, juice and rind grated, two cups 
of white sugar, one cup of cream or rich sweet milk, two table- 
spoonfuls of cornstarch mixed with the yolks of six eggs. Bake 
in a rich crust, beat the whites to a stiff froth with eight table- 
spoonfuls of pulverized sugar. Spread on the top of the pies and 
brown. This will make two pies. — Mrs. Frank Wick. 

Lemon Pie. — Three eggs, one grated lemon, one cup of sugar, 
one-half cup of water, two spoonfuls of flour. Bake. Beat the 
whites separately and add sugar (not quite as much as for frost- 
ing). Put into the oven and brown a little. — Mrs. W. S. Matthews. 

Lemon Pie. — Enough for two pies : Boil three cups of sugar 
and three cups of water as you would for frosting. Mix five 
tablespoonfuls of flour smooth with a little cold water. Stir this 
into the boiling syrup. A piece of butter the size of an Qgg, yolks 
of four eggs beaten light and stirred into juice and grated rind 



PASTRY 115 

of three lemons. Cover the top with a meringue made of the 
whites. — Mrs. IV. S. Bonnell. 

Lemon Custard Pie. — Grate the rind of one lemon, squeeze 
the juice into one and one-half cups of sugar, butter the size of 
an egg, one tablespoonful of flour and the yolks of four eggs. Stir 
all together as for cake and pour over it one pint of boiling milk. 
Beat the whites separately and stir in after it has cooled a little. 
Then bake in the crust as you would a custard pie. — Mrs. J. C. 
Butler. 

Lemon Custard Pie. — One grated lemon, four eggs, taking 
two of the whites for frosting, one and one-half cups of sugar, 
two cups of water, two tablespoonfuls of flour mixed with a little 
water, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter and a little salt. Cover 
with the frosting when partly cool and return to the oven two or 
three minutes. — Mrs. T. Baldzvin. 

CocoANUT Pie. — For two pies : Beat four eggs separately, 
one quart of milk, one-half teaspoonful of sugar, one cocoanut 
(grated). — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Coco.\NUT Pie. — Two cocoanuts (grated), three and one- 
half cups of milk, one and one-half cups of sugar, whites of ten 
eggs Makes two pies. — Mrs. G. B. Woodtnan. 

Cocoanut Pie. — One cocoanut grated in three pints of milk, 
six eggs, sweeten to taste. This makes three pies. — Mrs. Win. 
Lawthers. 

Apple Pie. — Fill the pie crust with sour, juicy apples pared 
and sliced thin. Put on the upper crust and bake until the apples 
are soft. Then remove the upper crust, adding sugar to taste, a 
small piece of butter and a little grated nutmeg. Stir this well 
through the apple and replace the crust. 

Cracker Pie. — Seven soda crackers soaked in cold water. 
three pints of milk, one whole egg and yolks of three, two or three 
lemons. Grate the peel and put in the juice, sweeten to taste before 
adding the lemons. Beat the whites of the eggs with the sugar for 
the meringue to be spread on and browned after the pies are baked. 
— Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

Peach Pie or Coddle. — Line a deep dish with soda biscuit 
dough or pie crust one-quarter of an inch thick. Fill with peaches 



Il6 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

pared, sprinkle with sugar and a little flour, and if not too juicy 
add about two tablespoonfuls of water. Put on the upper crust, 
secure the edges and bake. Eat with cream. — Mrs. Jonathan 
Warner. 

Rhubarb Pie. — Peel the stalks and cut into pieces one-half 
inch long. Let stand in cold water for one hour. Then drain 
off the water, mix well with sugar (one cup of sugar to a pie) and 
let stand for a short time. Bake between two crusts. — Mrs. M. 
I. Arms. 

Cherry or Berry Pie. — Stone the cherries, fill into the crust, 
add sugar to taste and a little flour. Put on top crust and bake. 
Berry pie the same. 

Delicate Pie. — Stew the apples sufificient for four pies, one- 
half pound of butter, six eggs beaten separately, one pound of 
sugar. Flavor with lemons, the apples being quite cold before 
adding the eggs. Bake as a tart pie. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Raisin Pie. — One lemon, juice and yellow rind, one cup of 
raisins, one cup of water, one cup of rolled crackers. Stone the 
raisins and boil in water to soften them. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

A Tart Pie. — Line a pie pan with pastry. Put into this rich 
apple or peach butter. Cut thin strips of pastry and lay across the 
top about an inch apart. Then bake. 

Tarts. — Use the best of puff paste. Roll it out a little thicker 
than for pie crust and cut with a large biscuit cutter twice as many 
as you intend to have of tarts. Then cut out of half of them a 
small round in the center of which will leave a circular rim of crust. 
Lift this up carefully and lay on the large pieces. Bake in patty 
pans and fill with any kind of preserves, jam or jelly. 

Cheese Cakes. — Take one-quarter pound of butter, six 
ounces of sugar, two lemons, four eggs and two good sized cold 
potatoes. Rub the sugar on the lemons before you cut them and 
rub off as much as you can of the yellow rind. Then melt the 
butter in a basin in the oven. Throw sugar into the hot butter 
which will dissolve it. Get it smooth with a spoon, squeeze in the 
juice of the two lemons, beat the eggs and mix in and add enough 
cold potatoes to make the whole into a pulp, only do not add the 



PASTRY 117 

potatoes until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved. Roll out some 
good pastry and put into patty pans. Then fill with this mixture 
and bake in the oven. 

Lady Locks. — Roll puff pastry, and cut into strips about eight 
inches long and one inch wide ; fold this strip around a tin mold 
shaped like a horn ; bake in hot oven. 

Filling. — One pint cream, one-fourth box of gelatine, about 
two tablespoonfuls sugar (or to taste), and flavor. Whip cream, 
add dissolved gelatine, sugar and flavoring, let stand until chilled 
— when it is ready for use. — Mrs. A. E. Kauffmann. 



PUDDINGS 



Plum Pudding. — One pound of raisins (stoned), one pound 
of currants washed and dried ; one pound of rich beef suet minced, 
one pound of stale bread crumbs, one pound of flour. Mix the 
bread crumbs, flour and suet together. Beat six eggs well and 
add to them a pint of sweet milk, a teaspoonful of soda in the milk. 
Beat the eggs and milk with the suet and flour for some time. 
Then stir in the currants and raisins, mixed in well as you pro- 
ceed. Mix in also one-quarter pound of candied orange and lemon 
peel cut in small pieces, one ounce of powdered cinnamon, one- 
half ounce of powdered ginger, one grated nutmeg and a little 
salt. Add a glass of rum or brandy. Either bake or boil according 
to taste. Bake nearly two hours. If boiled, pour into a cloth, tie 
the cloth allowing a little room to swell, and boil for six hours. It 
is better boiled. Serve with sauce. — Mrs. E. C. Wells. 

English Plum Pudding. — One pound of currants and one 
pound of raisins ; dredge with flour ; one-half pound of beef suet 
and one pound of bread crumbs, one-quarter pound of citron, eight 
eggs, one-half pint of milk, a gill of wine, or brandy, a large cup 
of brown sugar and one of molasses ; mace and nutmeg to your 
taste. It requires six or seven hours to boil. Turn it several times. 
Beat the whites of six eggs and put in the last thing. Use currants 
if you like them. — Mrs. Win. Bonnell. 

English Plum Pudding. — One cup suet chopped fine, one 
cup raisins, one cup currants, one cup sweet milk, three cups flour, 
two measures even full of baking powder. Scald the bag before 
putting in the pudding and tie quite loose. Steam three hours. 
Dressing : One pint of water thickened with one teaspoonful of 
corn starch, one cup of sugar rubbed into one-half cup of butter, 
one tgg; flavor with brandy. — Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Plum Pudding. — One pound of suet chopped fine, one pound 
of raisins (stoned), one pound of currants, one small loaf of bread 



PUDDINGS 119 

(crumbed), ten eggs, one pound of flour, one nutmeg, one tea- 
spoonful of ginger, a little salt, a wine glass of brandy. Should 
be very thick. Mix in one-half pint of milk, add more if needed ; 
two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon. Boil eight hours. — Mrs. Win. 
Lazvthers. 

Christmas Plum Pudding. — Ten eggs, one pound of white 
sugar, one pound of raisins, one pound of currants, one pound of 
citron, one pound of suet (light weight), one loaf of baker's bread 
(grated), one pint of sweet cream, one lemon grated and juice, 
one-half nutmeg (grated), two tablespoonfuls of ginger, one wine- 
glass of brandy, one wine glass of wine, three tablespoonfuls of 
sifted flour. Mix in the order written. Boil eight hours turning 
frequently. It can be boiled the day before it is needed and 
steamed when wanted. Serve with wine sauce — M. 

Fig or Date Pudding. — Two pounds of fruit, six ounces of 
bread crumbs, six ounces of suet chopped fine, six ounces of sugar, 
three eggs. Beat the yolks and sugar together, spices to taste, one 
wine glass of brandy. Add the fruit, suet, bread crumbs and 
whites beaten to a froth. Steam fully two hours. Eat with date 
pudding sauce. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Date Pudding. — Three eggs, one and one-quarter cups of 
sugar, three cups of bread crumbs, one cup of chopped suet, one 
pound of seeded dates (chopped fine), one wine glass full of water, 
one pinch of salt. Mix and steam three hours. Dressing: One 
cup of sugar, butter the size of a walnut, two cups of water, one 
tablespoonful of flour. Cook and flavor with vanilla. — Mrs. J. C. 
Crew. 

Prune Pudding. — Stew half a pound of prunes until soft ; 
press through a colander and add one cup of powdered sugar, the 
whites of five eggs beaten very stiff. Put into a dish and brown 
in the oven. Serve at once with cream. — Mrs. H. IV. Ford. 

Prune Pudding. — One cup of prunes chopped fine, one-half 
cup of sugar, whites of three eggs. Mix eggs and prunes to- 
gether. Bake in a pan of hot water twenty minutes. — Mrs. G. S. 
Peck. 

Prune, Date or Fig Souffle. — Twelve large prunes, whites 
of five eggs, one and one-half cups of powdered sugar, one-half 
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one-half teaspoonful of flour. Cook 



120 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

the prunes and chop fine. Beat the whites of the eggs very stiff. 
Stir into them sugar, through which the flour and cream of tartar 
have been sifted. Add prunes, put into a mold, set in a pan of 
water and bake in a very slow oven for twenty-two minutes. Serve 
with an egg custard sauce. Figs or dates can be used in place of 
the prunes. — Mrs. H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Revere House Pudding. — One cup of raisins (seeded and 
chopped), two-thirds of a cup of salt pork chopped fine, one cup 
of molasses, one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour, one tea- 
spoonful of soda, three and one-half teaspoonfuls of dark spice. 
Steam three hours and serve hot with sauce. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Plain Currant Pudding. — One and one-half teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder, one pint of flour, one cup of sugar, one cup of 
sweet milk, two eggs, butter the size of an egg, one cup of Zante 
currants well washed and dried. Bake, then spread the top with 
butter and sprinkle with ground cinnamon. Serve hot with wine 
sauce. — Miss Jennie Arms. 

Wedding Cake Pudding. — Two-thirds of a cup of molasses, 
one cup of chopped raisins, one of cream or of suet chopped fine, 
one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour, one teaspoonful of soda, 
salt. Steam three hours. — Mrs. E. S. Gregory. 

Molasses Pudding. — One cup of molasses, one cup of sour 
milk, one cup of chopped suet, one cup of currants, one teaspoonful 
of soda, a little clove, allspice and cinnamon. Enough flour to 
stiffen. Steam one and one-half hours. — Mrs. W. J. Lawthers. 

Suet Pudding. — One teacupful of molasses, one of suet, one 
of sweet milk, two cups of raisins, two and one-half cups of flour, 
one teaspoonful of ginger, one of cinnamon, one-half teaspoonful 
of allspice, one-half teaspoonful of nutmeg, one teaspoonful of 
soda. Boil or steam. Make sauce same as for plum pudding. — 
Mrs. W. J. Lawthers. 

Suet Pudding. — One cup of chopped beef suet, one cup of 
molasses, one cup of milk, three cups of flour, one egg, one tea- 
spoonful of salt and three-fourths of a teaspoonful of soda. Mix 
well and steam two hours. One cup of raisins. Serve with 
liquid sauce flavored with nutmeg. — Mrs. Wni Edzvards. 



PUDDINGS 121 

Suet Pudding. — Three and one-half cups of flour, one cup of 
suet, one cup of raisins, one cup of molasses, one-half cup of brown 
sugar, one-half cup of currants, one cup of milk, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one egg. Steam four hours. 
The sauce is one tablespoonful of corn starch, two tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, a pinch of salt. Flavor with 
nutmeg and brandy. When cold, stir the beaten white of one egg 
in. — Mrs. Orrin Jacobs. 

Suet Pudding. — One cup of molasses, one cup of chopped 
suet, one egg, one cup of raisins, two cups of flour, one-half cup 
of chopped English walnuts, one teaspoonful of soda. Mix to- 
gether, put in dish and steam two hours. Serve with egg sauce. 
—Mrs. H. W. Ford. 

Graham Pudding. — Two cups of graham flour, one cup of 
molasses, one-quarter cup of sugar, one cup of sour milk and one- 
half teaspoonful of soda or one cup of sweet milk and two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder, one-half cup of chopped raisins, one- 
half cup of English currants. Steam two to two and one-half 
hours. Serve with hot sauce. — Mrs. W. H. Hudnut. 

Graham Pudding. — One cup of sweet milk, one cup of mo- 
lasses, one cup of fruit, two cups of graham flour, two teaspoonfuls 
of soda. Steam two hours. Serve with lemon sauce. — Mrs. E. 
L. Kanengeiser. 

Blackberry Pudding. — Butter and lard together the size of 
an egg, one cup of sugar, one egg. Beat sugar, butter, lard and 
egg together. One cup of sweet milk, two teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder. Stir thick with berries. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Raspberry Pudding. — To one quart of flour take a piece of 
butter the size of an egg and a little salt with three teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder. Rub the butter into the flour, milk enough to 
stiffen about as stiff as biscuit. Roll out and spread on raspberry 
jam. Roll up, wrap in a cloth and steam two or three hours. To 
be eaten with sugar and cream. — Miss Kate Arms. 

Honeycomb Pudding. — One cup of molasses, one cup of 
brown sugar, one cup of sweet milk, one heaping cupful of flour, 
one tablespoonful of butter, one teaspoonful of soda, three eggs 
beaten separately; beat whites to a stiff froth and stir in gently 
just before putting in the molds. Put into individual molds and 
steam. Serve with cream. — Miss C. Boris. 



122 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Buckeye Pudding. — One cup of raisins well floured, one cup 
of molasses, one cup of warm water, two and one-half cups of 
flour, one desert spoonful of soda (level), yolks of two eggs. 
Steam two hours and serve with hard sauce or brandy sauce. This 
pudding can be steamed as often as desired or until it is all used 
up. — Mrs. R. D. Gibson. 

Chocolate Pudding. — One quart of milk, twelve tablespoon- 
fuls of bread crumbs, eight tablespoonfuls of chocolate, the yolks 
of four eggs. Put the milk and bread crumbs on the fire, let them 
get moderately warm. Beat sugar, yolks and chocolate and stir 
them into the milk. One tablespoonful of corn starch. Let it get 
boiling hot, then turn in a dish with the whites beaten with sugar 
on top and bake a light brown. — Mrs. J. C. Butler. 

Chocolate Pudding. — One egg, one-half cup of sugar, on^ 
tablespoonful of butter, one cup of milk, two cups of sifted flour, 
two squares of melted chocolate, two teaspoon fuls of cream of 
tartar, one teaspoonful of soda and a little salt. Mix butter, sugar 
and well beaten eggs together. Add the milk, then the flour into 
which has been sifted the cream of tartar, then the melted choco- 
late. Then add the soda dissolved in a little of the milk — which 
should be saved from the cupful. Put the mixture into a buttered 
mold or pail with a tight cover and place in a kettle of boiling water. 
Keep the kettle boiling two hours. 

Sauce. — One cup of cream whipped ; add one well beaten 
egg, three-fourths cup of sugar; flavor to taste. — Mrs. W. J. 
Sampson. 

Apple or Peach Pudding. — Pare and quarter fine sour ap- 
ples and half fill a gallon crock with them. Take light bread 
dough, roll half an inch thick. Cut small places for the air to 
escape and spread over the apples as you would an upper crust 
for a pie. Cover and set on the back of the stove and let it cook 
slowly for a short time. Then move it forward, cooking in all 
about one-half hour. Eat with sugar and cream. Peaches can 
be used in the same manner. — Mrs. M. Adelia Wick. 

Apple Pudding. — Two cups of flour, two cups of milk, four 
eggs beaten separately ; pare and core enough apples to cover the 
bottom of the pudding dish. Bake a little and pour the batter over 
them and bake again. Serve with pudding sauce. — Mrs. Mary 
Bent ley. 



PUDDINGS 123 

Apple and Bread Pudding. — Put a layer of buttered bread 
on the bottom of a well buttered dish with chopped apples, sugar 
and grated bread and butter. Fill up with alternate layers. — Mrs. 
John Morris. 

Apple Sago Pudding. — Put the fruit into a pan either whole 
or in quarters. Sprinkle three or more large tablespoonfuls of 
sago over the top. Fill with water and bake until the apples are 
done. — Mrs. Wm. J. Hitchcock. 

Sago Pudding. — Two large spoonfuls of sago or tapioca 
boiled in one quart of water. The peel of one lemon, a little nut- 
meg. When cold, add four eggs and a little salt. Bake about one 
hour and a half. Eat with sugar and cream. 

Orange Pudding. — One quart of milk, three eggs, two desert 
spoonfuls of corn starch. Use the yolks, corn starch and milk and 
make a boiled custard. Let it stand until cold. Pare and slice 
four oranges in a dish with two cups of sugar. Pour the custard 
over the orange, stir all together ; then put the whites, well beaten 
with a little sugar, on the top of the whole. Set in the oven for 
a few moments to brown and let get very cold before serving. — 
Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Orange Pudding. — One-half box gelatine, one and one-half 
cups of sugar, one and one-half pints of cream, juice of four 
oranges. Dissolve sugar in juice, add gelatine (previously 
melted), let stand until stiff. Then add cream beaten stiff. Beat 
all together for five minutes and put into a mold. — Mrs. H. B. 
Wick, Elyria. 

Tapioca Pudding. — Take ten tablespoonfuls of tapioca, wash 
it in warm water, drain off the water and put the tapioca in a pan 
with a quart of rich milk. Set the pan over a kettle of boiling 
water and stir it until it thickens ; then add two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, six of white sugar, one lemon (grated), or flavor to taste 
with good lemon or vanilla extract. Remove the pan from the 
fire and having beaten four eggs very light, stir them into the 
mixture. Pour it into a buttered dish and bake three-quarters of 
an hour. Serve with rich cream or custard sauce. — Mrs. T. 
Baldwin. 

Tapioca Pudding. — One cup of tapioca, soak on the back of 
the stove two hours in one quart of water. Butter a pudding dish 



124 THE YOUNGSTOVVN COOK BOOK 

well and line the bottom with pared and cored apples. Season the 
tapioca with a spoonful of sugar, a very little cinnamon or nutmeg, 
and salt. Pour it over the apples and bake until the apples are 
thoroughly done. Eat with sugar and cream. — Mrs. E. S. 
Gregory. 

Cracker Pudding. — One cup of cracker crumbs, one quart 
of milk, five eggs, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one-half tea- 
spoonful of soda. Serve with sauce for cracker pudding. — Miss 
Maria Wells. 

Batter Pudding. — One pint of milk, three and one-half table- 
spoonfuls of flour, three eggs beaten separately. Make a batter 
of flour, milk and salt ; stir in the beaten yolks and then the whites 
very gently and slowly, leaving the greater part on top. Bake 
in a slow oven three-fourths of an hour. Serve with rich sauce. — 
Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Cake Pudding. — Two cups of sour milk ; put first into a dish, 
two teaspoonfuls of soda, two eggs well beaten. Beat this to- 
gether, stir thick with cake crumbs. If not fruit cake, add any kind 
of fruit. Steam. Eat with wine sauce. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Cottage Pudding. — One cup of sugar, one cup of milk, one 
^^^> two tablespoonfuls of butter, one pint of flour, two teaspoon- 
fuls cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of soda. Serve with wine 
or brandy sauce, — Mrs. E. S. Gregory. 

Canary Pudding. — Three eggs, the weight of the eggs in 
butter and sugar, the weight of two eggs in flour. Bake. Eat with 
cream. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Delmonico Pudding. — Sitr three tablespoonfuls of corn 
starch into one quart of boiling milk and let it boil two minutes. 
Beat the yolks of five eggs with six tablespoonfuls of sugar, flavor 
and stir in the corn starch. Put the whole in a dish and bake it. 
Beat the whites of the eggs and stir into them three tablespoonfuls 
of sugar and when nicely done, spread on the top and bake a light 
brown. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Corn Starch Pudding. — Three tablespoonfuls of corn starch, 
four eggs. Beat the whites to a stifif froth. Boil the milk, add corn 
starch. When it thickens, take from the fire, add the whites of the 
eggs well beaten stirring very hard. Pour into a mold and set 
away to get cold. Take one pint of milk, the yolks of four eggs 



PUDDINGS ^25 

and make a soft custard, add sugar and flavor to taste. Pour over 
the pudding when served. — Mrs. M. C. Wick. 

Green Corn Pudding.— Use the same as for vegetable pud- 
ding, adding a large teacupful of sugar and eat with liquid sauce. 
— Mrs. John McCurdy. 

A Good Plain Pudding.— Cover the bottom of a covered pud- 
ding dish with pieces of bread soaked in milk ; then a layer of 
chopped apples or berries ; add sugar and spice if liked. Proceed 
till the dish is full, having bread at the top. Moisten all well with 
milk and bake three hours closely covered.— Mr^. John McCurdy. 
Almond Pudding.— Turn boiling water onto three-quarters 
of a pound of sweet almonds. Let it remain until the skin comes 
off easily. Rub with a dry cloth. When dry, pound fine with 
one large spoonful of rose-water. Beat six eggs to a stiff froth 
with three spoonfuls of fine, white sugar. Mix with one quart 
of milk three spoonfuls of pounded crackers, four ounces of 
melted butter and the same of citron cut into bits. Add almonds, 
stir all together and bake in a small pudding dish with a lining and 
rim of pastry. This pudding is best when cold. It will bake in 
half an hour in a quick oven.— Af r.y. G. W. Haney. 

Delicious Pudding.— Bake a common sponge cake in a flat 
bottomed pudding dish. When ready for use, cut into six or eight 
pieces, split and spread with butter and return them to the dish. 
Make a custard with four eggs to a quart of milk, flavor and 
sweeten to taste. Pour over the cake and bake one-half hour. The 
cake will swell and fill the custard.— Afr^. Frank Wick. 

Rice Pudding Without Eggs. — One small teacupful of rice, 
one quart of milk, one teacupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, 
a grated nutmeg. Bake for two hours, stirring often.— Mm Laura 
Wick. 

Rice Pudding. — One quart of milk, one pinch of salt, small 
one-half cup of sugar, butter size of a walnut, small one-half cup 
of rice. Nutmeg and raisins in when half done. Bake in a slow 
oven one and one-half or two hours. — Mrs. J. M. Ozvcn. 

Steamed Rice.— One-half pint of rice, one quart of new 
milk, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of butter. ^ Pick 
the rice and wash, then add one-half the milk and place within the 
steamer over a kettle of boiling water. Stir often so that the nee 



126 



THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 



will be evenly swollen and when the milk is all absorbed, add the 
remainder. Steam one hour. When done, add salt and butter and 
dress with sugar and cream, when nice as dessert. In cooking, use 
a new, bright pan or porcelain dish to preserve the whiteness of 
the rice. — Mrs. G. W. Haney. 

Rice. — One pint of rice well cleaned, three quarts of cold 
water, three teaspoonfuls of salt. Let the water come to a boil, 
put in the rice and boil it fast twenty minutes. Then with a per- 
forated dipper, dip it into a farina kettle (double) containing a 
pint of rich, sweet milk. Let it simmer until needed. — Mrs. John 
Mc Curdy. 

Boiled Rice. — One cup of rice washed, one small teaspoonful 
of salt, one quart of boiling water. Cook in double boiler rapidly 
for twenty minutes. Pour off all the water, cover tightly and re- 
turn to fire and cook twenty minutes longer. The water in under 
boiler must boil rapidly all the time. Rice cooked in this way will 
have every grain separate. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Snow Pudding. — Dissolve one box of Cox's gelatine in one 
pint of cold water. When soft, add one pint of boiling water, the 
grated rind and juice of two lemons, two and one-half cups of 
sugar, whites of five eggs well beaten. Let it stand until cold and 
commences to jell, then beat in the whites of eggs. Sauce: One 
quart of rich milk, the yolks of five eggs with two extra eggs 
added. Add one-half cup sugar and flavor with vanilla. — Miss 
Laura Wick. 

Brown Betty. — Grease a pudding dish. Put into this a layer 
of nice cooked apples (sliced), then a layer of bread crumbs with 
sugar sprinkled over and small bits of butter. For three apples 
use one cup of bread crumbs, one-half cup of sugar and a piece 
of butter the size of an egg. Put a layer of bread crumbs on top. 
Bake. It is nice either with or without cream. 

Strawberry Shortcake. — One quart of flour, one heaping 
tablespoonful of butter and lard mixed, three teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder, one pint of milk, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt. 
Bake in deep jelly cake or pie pans. Split the cakes and between 
the layers spread the strawberries, sprinkle with sugar. Eat with 
cream. Other berrier or peaches sliced and put between the layers 
are nice. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 



PUDDINGS 127 

Orange, Peach or Strawberry Shortcake. — One-third of 
a cup of butter, one small cup (teacup) of sugar, three eggs beaten 
separately, one-fourth of a cup of milk, one heaping teacup of 
flour, one heaping teaspoonful of baking powder. Stir butter and 
sugar together until light ; then add yolks of eggs, then milk, then 
flour with baking powder and lastly the whites of eggs. Bake 
about ten or fifteen minutes in not too hot an oven. Bake in two 
layers and spread between and on the top the following : Six to 
eight large and nice oranges quartered and cut, two cups of sugar ; 
put sugar over the oranges and let stand. When cake is hot. 
spread as directed above. — Boston Cooking School Magazine. 

Excellent Baked Apples. — Take ten or twelve good sized 
juicy apples, pare and core. Butter a baking dish and put in it 
the apples. Fill these cavities with sugar. Take a half teacupful 
of butter and a tablespoonful of flour, rub together until smooth. 
To this put enough boiling water to make it thin enough to cover 
each apple. Grate over them nutmeg. Bake in a slow oven one 
hour or more. Can be eaten with meat or used as a dessert with 
cream.— il/r^. R. McMillan. 

Blushing Apples. — Eight large red apples ; core and boil 
tender. Remove skin, if necessary, scraping the red from skin and 
coating them. Pour over them orange sauce and whipped cream, 
if you have it. Orange sauce is one cup of sugar, one-third of a 
cup of water. Add juice of two oranges, strain, cook four or five 
minutes. — Mrs. R. McCurdy. 

Cherry Puffs. — Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, two eggs, one 
cup of milk, one-half cup of butter, two cups of flour, one cup of 
chopped fruit. Steam one-half hour in cups one-half full. Sauce : 
Use the juice from one bottle of canned cherries, one-half tea- 
spoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of corn starch. Mix corn 
starch with a little of the juice and stir into the remainder of the 
juice and butter. Cook for a short time. — Mrs. Riddle, 
Saranac Inn. 

Raisin Puffs. — One-half teacup of sugar, one-half teacup of 
milk, two eggs, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a pinch of 
salt, flour enough so that the batter will drop from the spoon. Stir 
in a cup of seeded and chopped raisins. Butter teacups and fill 
half full of the batter. Set the cups in a steamer, put on the cover 



128 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

and steam one hour. This will make six or seven ciipfiils. — Mrs. 
G. S. Peck. 

Peach Gateaux. — Scoop out the center of a medium sized 
sponge cake. Fill with sliced peaches mixed with pulverized sugar 
to taste. Cover with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with 
sherry. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Peach Meringue. — Put on to boil a scant quart of new milk, 
omitting half a teacupful, with which to moisten two tablespoon- 
fuls of corn starch. When the milk boils, add corn starch, stir 
constantly and when it commences to thicken remove from the fire. 
Add one tablespoonful of perfectly sweet butter, let cool ; then beat 
in the yolks of three eggs until the custard seems light and creamy. 
Add one-half teacupful of fine sugar. Cover the bottom of a well 
buttered baking dish with ripe juicy peaches that have been pared, 
stoned and halved. Sprinkle two tablespoonfuls of sugar over the 
fruit. Pour the custard over gently and bake in a quick oven 
twenty minutes. Draw it out and cover with the well beaten 
whites of the three eggs. Sprinkle a little fine sugar over the top 
and set in the oven until browned. Eat warm with sauce or cold 
with cream. 

Jim Crow. — Put New Orleans molasses in a fryingpan and 
let it boil until thickened — when it should be half an inch deep. 
Slice bread as for the table, remove the crust and cut into squares 
or oblong pieces. Butter and lay them in the boiling molasses and 
let them become crisp. Take them from the syrup, pile on a platter 
and serve hot. Spanish dish. 

Indian Pudding. — Made of Rhode Island or Southern white 
meal. Butter a deep pudding dish. One cup of meal, one and one- 
half cups of molasses, one cup of scalded milk poured hot onto the 
meal, three pints of cold milk. Mix well and add one cup of cold 
water, then don't stir. Bake slowly four hours. — Mrs. Aiken. 

Peach Pudding. — Pare the peaches, then stew them whole in 
a rich syrup until tender. Place the peaches in a baking dish 
pouring over them the syrup. Cover with a crust made of bread 
dough rolled out thin (which has stood until quite light), then 
let it rise again and bake. Serve hot with sugar and cream. — Mrs. 
Henry Wick. 



PUDDING SAUCES 



Pudding Sauce.— Rub well together until light four table- 
spoonfuls of light brown sugar and two ounces of butter ; stir into 
a teacup of boiling water quickly and well until it is dissolved ; add 
a wine glass of wine and brandy mixed. On no account omit 
stirring constantly until well dissolved or it will lose its lightness. 
Add grated nutmeg to taste. Serve hot. 

Pudding Sauce. — One cup of sugar, the yolk of one egg well 
beaten with the sugar, four tablespoonfuls of boiling milk. Add 
the whites well beaten. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Pudding Sauce. — Rub to a cream two cups of sugar with 
three-fourts of a cup of butter, flavor to taste. Float the dish in 
boiling water until well heated. Pour one-half pint of boiling 
water on it just before serving. — Mrs. J. J. Murray. 

Sauce for Date or Fig Pudding. — Three eggs beaten 
separately. Add to the yolks enough granulated sugar to make 
them thick ; add the beaten whites and a wine glass of brandy. — 
Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

Sauce for Cracker Pudding.— One cup of sugar, one-half 
cup of butter, one egg, one teacpoonful of grated nutmeg, one 
lemon (outside grated), three tablespoonfuls of boiling water.— 
Miss Maria Wells. 

Pudding Sauce. — Yolks of two eggs beaten very stiff. Add 
one cup of pulverized sugar and a little brandy or whiskey ; then 
beat the whites of the two eggs very stiff and fold into the yolks 
just before serving. — Mrs. F. G. Evans. 

Montrose Sauce. — One heaping tablespoonful of gelatine, 
one-fourth cup of pulverized sugar, one pint of cream, yolks of 
three eggs, one teaspoonful of vanilla. Cover the gelatine with a 
little cold water and soak one-half hour. Put the cream to boil in 
a double boiler. Beat eggs and sugar together until light. Add 



130 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

to boiling cream and stir until it thickens (about one minute), add 
the gelatine, stir until dissolved, take from the fire and add vanilla 
and two tablespoonfuls of brandy and four of sherry. Stand in 
a cold place. — Miss Frank Jones, Toledo. 

Chocolate Sauce. — One pint of cream whipped. Add beaten 
whites of three eggs. To be used for chocolate pudding or on top 
of soup. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Dumpling Sauce. — Mix two teaspoonfuls of flour with 
three-fourths of a cup of butter. Stir into it three-fourths of a 
pint of boiling water, add one cup of maple sugar. Let it cool 
and flavor with one tablespoonful of good vinegar. — Mrs. J. J. 
Murray. 

Lemon Sauce. — One-half cup of butter, one cup of sugar, 
yolks of two eggs, one teaspoonful of corn starch. Beat the eggs 
and sugar until light. Add the grated rind and juice of one lemon. 
Stir the whole into three gills of boiling water until it thickens 
sufficiently for the table. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

Lemon Sauce. — One large tablespoonful of butter, one small 
tablespoonful of flour, one cup of sugar, grated rind and juice of 
one lemon. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Wine Sauce. — One cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one wine 
glass of wine. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add nutmeg 
to taste. Pour the wine over it, set the bowl in a pan of warm 
water and do not stir it at all. — Mrs. T. H. Wilson. 

Sherry Sauce. — Rub to a cream one cup of fine sugar and 
one-half cup of butter with a little grated nutmeg. Add one-half 
pint of brown sherry. 

Cottage Pudding Sauce. — To four tablespoonfuls of sugar 
put one of flour and two of butter and stir to a cream. Then pour 
over it nearly a pint of boiling water stirring very fast. Add 
extract of vanilla or lemon. If you wish extra nice, add the 
beaten white of one egg. — Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

Syrup of Roses. — Make a strong syrup of white sugar, throw 
in two handfuls of rose leaves. Give it a good boil, strain when 
half cool. Eat with buns, fritters, etc. 



PUDDING SAUCES I3I 

Cake Pudding Sauce. — Two cups of sugar, a piece of butter 
the size of an egg and two eggs. Stir butter, sugar and yolks to- 
gether. Whites well beaten stirred in the last thing. — Mrs. W. 
S. Bonnell. 

Hard Sauce. — Cream a piece of butter the size of an &gg, 
add powdered sugar and beat with a spoon until it is thick and 
light. Then add the juice of one lemon and beat again. If it is 
not stifiF enough, add more sugar. When done, it shall be stiff 
enough to heap in a pile upon a dish. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 



FRITTERS AND DUMPLINGS 



Fritters. — One pint of sweet milk, five eggs beaten separ- 
ately, one teaspoonful of salt. Make about as thick as flannel 
cakes. Drop a spoonful at a time in boiling lard. — Mrs. C. D. 
Arms. 

Fritters. — Two eggs, one cup of milk, a little salt, and flour 
enough to make a stiff batter. Drop into boiling lard and eat hot 
with syrup or sweetened cream. — Mrs. IV. S. Lazvthers. 

Fritters. — One cup of milk, one cup of flour, three eggs. — 
Miss Laura Wick. 

Apple Fritters. — Four eggs to one quart of sweet milk, one 
teaspoonful of soda, two teaspoonfuls cream of tartar, flour enough 
to make a rather stifif batter. Pare and cut apples in thin slices 
and mix into the batter. — Mrs. W. S. Lazvthers. 

Apple Fritters. — Three eggs, one cup of flour, one of milk. 
Bake on a griddle a little thicker than flour cakes. Pare the ap- 
ples, cut in thick slices and bake in the oven. While hot lay a 
piece of apple on each fritter, sprinkle sugar over the top of each 
apple. Serve. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Cream Fritters. — One and one-half pints of flour, yolks of 
four eggs, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, shortening of lard 
and butter together the size of a hickorynut. Milk enough to make 
it a thick batter. Drop in hot lard and fry or dip pieces of apple 
into the batter before frying. Eat with butter and sugar sauce. 
—Mrs. M. C. Wick. 

CoRNMEAL Fritters. — One pint of cornmeal, one-half cup of 
milk, one teaspoonful of salt, one ^gg, one pint of wheat flour, one 
teaspoonful of soda. 

Corn Fritters. — Take six ears of sweet corn, cut and scrape 
them (or if they are old it is better to grate them) . Beat separately 
the whites and yolks of five eggs ; stir all together with salt. Fry 
in cakes using plenty of butter. — Mrs. Sydney Strong. 



FRITTERS AND DUMPLINGS I33 

Corn Fritters. — Eight ears of corn (grated), two eggs 
whites beaten separately, one-half cup of sweet cream, one table- 
spoonful of flour, butter the size of a walnut, salt and pepper to 
season. Drop into a little hot lard a small spoonful at a time. — 
Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Corn Fritters. — To a can of corn add two eggs well beaten, 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one-half tea- 
spoosful of pepper; mix thoroughly. Have the pan hot. Put in 
two tablespoonfuls of lard and drop in the corn in large spoonfuls. 
Cook brown. — Miss Maria Wells. 

Corn Fritters. — Grate one and one-half dozen ears of corn, 
add one cup of milk, three eggs, one spoonful of flour, a little salt 
and pepper. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Clam or Oystet Fritters. — (See under Shell Fish.) 

Parsnip Fritters. — Four parsnips boiled and mashed fine; 
add three well beaten eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sifted flour, 
butter the size of an egg, teacup of milk and salt to taste. Upon 
a buttered griddle drop the mixture and bake after the style of 
flannel cakes. Serve quite hot. — Mrs. G. W. Haiiey. 

Spanish Puffs. — Put into a sauce pan a teacupful of water, 
a tablespoonful of powdered sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt and 
two ounces of butter. While it is boiling, add sufficient flour for 
it to leave the sauce pan. Stir in, one by one, the yolks of four 
eggs, drop a teaspoonful at a time into boiling lard, fry them a 
light brown. Eat with maple syrup. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Apple or Peach Dumplings. — Pare and core fine juicy ap- 
ples. Then take light bread dough, cut into round pieces half an 
inch thick and fold around each apple until well covered. Put 
them into a steamer, let them rise, then set the steamer over a pot 
of boiling water and steam. Eat with butter and sugar or cream. 
Use peaches in the same way. — Mrs. M. Adelia Wick. 

Baked Apple Dumpling. — Cook apples almost entirely 
whole, coring or not as you may prefer. Melt butter and sugar in 
a baking pan, and having inclosed them in a good paste, bake. 
Baste them constantly. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 



134 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Apricot Fritters. — Take a can of apricots, select the finest 
ones for the purpose of making fritters. Drain off the syrup, 
make them as dry as possible by turning them on a cloth and 
letting them stand some time. Next cover the pieces with finely 
powdered sugar and dip them quickly into a thick batter. Fry in 
very hot fat. 

Rice Compote. — One- fourth pound of rice, one quart of new 
milk, one teaspoonful of salt ; wash the rice thoroughly, put in a 
double boiler with the milk and salt ; cover and let it boil until 
tender stirring occasionally or until the milk is well thickened 
around the rice. Each grain should be plump. Set in a mold 
until cold. Then turn out onto a glass dish and pour around it a 
rich preserve of peaches, pairs or apricots. Cold, this makes a 
nice dessert, or can be served hot as an accompaniment for meat. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES 



REMARKS. 



Ices can be made at home comparatively cheap with a freezer, 
which now can be obtained at reasonable prices. Directions come 
with each machine. For freezing ices use one part coarse salt, two 
parts of ice the size of a walnut. Pack the cream pail firmly 
above the height of the cream. For three pints of cream pour over 
the ice in the freezer one and one-half pints of water and for every 
additional quart of cream add one-half pint of water after the 
packing. 

Boiled Custard. — Allow five eggs to one quart of milk, a 
tablespoonful of sugar to each egg, set the milk in a kettle of 
boiling water until it scalds ; then, after dipping a little of the milk 
onto the eggs and beating up, turn into the scolded milk and stir 
until it thickens. Flavor to taste. 

Baked Custard. — One quart of milk, five eggs, a pinch of salt, 
sugar and flavor to taste, boil the milk ; when cool stir in the beaten 
eggs and sugar, pour into cups, set them in pans of water and 
bake; if baked too long will become watery. — Mrs. Jonathan 
Warner. 

Lemon Custard. — Four eggs, leave out the white of one, one 
cup of sugar, one cup of cold water, one- grated lemon, a small 
piece of butter, one tablespoonful of cornstarch ; bake as custard : 
after it is baked, cover it with the beaten white and pulverized 
sugar ; return to the oven ; bake a light brown. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Floating Island. — One quart of milk, five eggs and five table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, scald the milk, then add the beaten yolks, first 
stirring into them a little of the scalded milk to prevent curdling ; 
stir constantly until of the right consistency ; when cool, flavor ; let 
it get very cold, and before serving beat up the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth, and stir into them a little fine sugar and two table- 
spoonfuls of current jelly; dip this onto the custard. 



136 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Coffee Custard. — One-half pint of rich cream, one-half cup 
cold coffee, four eggs, sugar to taste. — Mrs. Frank Wick. 

Russian Cream. — One quart of milk, one-half box of gel- 
atine, the yolks of four eggs, one and one-half cups of sugar ; 
make a boiled custard, beat the whites to a stiff froth, stir in lightly 
while the custard is hot, add a teaspoonful of vanilla pour into a 
mold ; make the day before using. — Mrs. T. H. Wilson. 

Velvet Cream. — Two tablespoonfuls of strawberry jelly, two 
tablespoonfuls of currant jelly, two tablespoonfuls of pulverized 
sugar, whites of two eggs, beaten stiff, then whip the cream, fill 
a wineglass one-half full of whipped cream, and fill the glass with 
the above mixture beaten to a cream. — Mrs. Fred Lcivis. 

Italian Cream. — One quart of whipped cream, four wine- 
glasses of wine and juice of one lemon mixed with sugar, one 
ounce of gelatine, sweeten to your taste and beat all well together ; 
keep cool. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Bavarian Cream. — One quart of cream sweetened and flav- 
ored and whipped to a froth ; add nearly one-half paper of sparkling 
gelatine dissolved in water, pour into molds and nearly or quite 
freeze it; the dish may be lined with lady-fingers if preferred. — 
Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

Persian Cream. — Dissolve gently one ounce of gelatine in a 
pint of new milk and strain. Then put it in a clean saucepan with 
three ounces of sugar and when it boils stir in one-half pint of 
good cream; add this liquid, at first by spoonfuls only, to eight 
ounces of jam or rich preserved fruit ; mix them very smooth and 
stir the whole until it is nearly cold, that the fruit may not sink 
to the bottom of the mold ; when the liquid is put to the fruit and 
stirred until nearly cold, whisk them briskly together, and last of 
all throw in, by very small portions at a time, the strained juice 
of one lemon. Put into a mold and let it stand at least twelve 
hours in a cold place before serving. 

Genoese Cream. — One quart of milk, six eggs, one table- 
spoonful of cornstarch dissolved in only enough milk to wet it ; 
boil with butter the size of an egg and stir into the boiling milk ; 
add three tablespoonfuls of sugar ; let it scald ; when cool add one 
quart of whipped cream, vanilla to taste; line a dish with lady- 
fingers, split and dipped in wine to make stick to dish; mix 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES I37 

chopped almonds into the custard ; pour slowly into the dish ; 
scatter almonds and lady-fingers over the top. 

Pink Cream. — Three gills of strawberry or currant juice, mix 
with one-half pound of powdered sugar, one-half pint of thick 
cream ; whisk until well mixed ; serve in a glass dish. 

Pineapple Ice. — Having pared and sliced a sufficient number 
of very ripe pineapples, cut the slices into small bits, put them 
into a deep dish or tureen, sprinkle among them powdered loaf 
sugar, cover them, and let them set several hours in a cool place. 
Then have ready a syrup made of loaf sugar dissolved in a little 
water, allowing to every two pounds of sugar a pint of water with 
half the white of an egg, and boiled and skimmed until quite clear. 
Get as much pineapple juice as you can by squeezing through a 
sieve the bits of pineapple (after they have stood some hours in 
the tureen). Measure it, and to each pint of boiled syrup allow 
a pint of juice. Mix them together while the syrup is warm from 
the fire, then put it into freezer and proceed in the usual manner. — 
Miss Leslie. 

Blanc Mange. — Put on to boil one quart of new milk, adding 
four tablespoonfuls of sugar ; as soon as it boils up once remove 
from the fire and when nearly cold stir in one ounce of gelatine 
which has been dissolved in as small a quantity of water as possible. 
Flavor with lemon or vanilla and put into mold to stiffen. Eat with 
cream, sugar and jelly. 

Syllabub. — One pint of sweet cream, one large spoonful of 
white wine ; sweeten to taste with powdered sugar, flavor with 
lemon or vanilla ; beat with a large spoon, and as fast as the froth 
arises take it off; put into a whip bowl, or cover jelly in glasses 
with it. If the weather is hot it will be necessary to cool the 
cream by placing it on ice before attempting to beat it, or the 
froth will not rise. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Charlotte Russe. — Beat the yolks of four eggs and stir them 
into one pint of scalding milk. Boil like custard and set away to 
cool. Pour a large cup of warm water over a half box of gelatine, 
set it on the stove but do not let it get hot ; beat the whites of the 
eggs very light and add enough pulverized sugar to make stiflf; 
then whip one pint of good cream and stir into the custard; then 
the whites flavored with vanilla ; then the gelatine well dissolved. 



138 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Mix thoroughly and set away to cool (about two hours). Line 
your dish with either sponge cake or lady-fingers, and fill with the 
mixture. Let it stand five or six hours. — Miss Sallie Arms. 

Charlotte Russe. — One quart of thick cream, one pound of 
sugar, one ounce of gelatine, twelve eggs. Whip the cream to a 
thick froth, beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together ; then 
add the whipped cream, then the beaten whites ; flavor with vanilla 
and last put in the gelatine dissolved in water, then pour immed- 
iately into your dishes prepared with cake (sponge) and let it 
stand in the cold one hour to harden. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Charlotte de Russe. — Soak one-third of a box of gelatine in 
enough milk to cover. Take one pint of rich cream cold and whip 
to a perfectly stiff froth ; beat the whites of three eggs until light ; 
then stir eggs and cream carefully together ; stir in five table- 
spoonfuls of pulverized sugar ; flavor to taste ; then add the gela- 
tine, which has been previously soaked, stirring in carefully. Pour 
all into a mold and set on ice to stiffen. Before serving turn from 
mold onto a platter and arrange lady-fingers around. — Mrs. Mar- 
tyn BonnelL 

Frozen Peaches and Cream. — Choose nice ripe peaches, but 
perfectly sound, peel and slice them ; mix them with sugar and 
cream to taste. Freeze. 

Ice Cream. — Two quarts of good cream, one-half pint of milk, 
fourteen ounces of white sugar, two eggs ; beat the eggs and sugar 
together as for cake, before mixing with the cream, flavor to suit 
the taste. Place the can in the freezer and put in alternate layers 
of pounded ice and salt ; use plenty of salt to make the cream freeze 
quickly ; stir immediately and constantly, stirring rapidly as it be- 
gins to freeze, to make it perfectly smooth, and slower as it gets 
pretty stiff. As the ice melts draw off the water and fill up with 
fresh layers. — Mrs. Timothy Baldwin. 

Ice Cream. — One and one-half pints of milk in a double 
boiler; when hot add one good tablespoonful of Bermuda arrow- 
root ; cook until thick, strain and cool. One quart whipped cream ; 
add this to milk and beat until smooth ; flavor and sweeten to taste. 
Mrs. Fox, Sagertown. 

Chocolate Ice Cream. — For one gallon of ice cream grate 
fine about one-half cake of Baker's chocolate; flavor with vanillt 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES 139 

and stir in the chocolate. Proceed as for ice cream. — Mrs. John 
C. Wick. 

Strawberry Ice Cream. — One quart of cream, one pint of 
strained strawberry juice, one pint of sugar; mix the sugar and 
juice together, then stir in the cream. Freeze. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

TuTTi Frutti. — One quart of rich cream, one and one-half 
ounces of sweet almonds, chopped fine ; one-half pound of sugar ; 
freeze and when sufficiently congealed, add one-half pound of 
preserved fruits with a few white raisins chopped and finely sliced 
citron. Cut the fruit small and mix well with cream. Freeze like 
ice cream. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Frozen Tapioca Pudding. — Soak one-half cup of pearl tapi- 
oca in a quart of milk over night ; put in a double boiler and cook 
just until soft with enough sugar to sweeten ; when cool add 
vanilla and one pint of cream, turn into mold and pack in ice and 
salt for four hours. Serve with hot caramel sauce. — Mrs. Robert 
Bentley. 

Frozen Pudding. — To two gallons of vanilla ice cream add 
when nearly frozen one cup of chopped English walnuts, one cup 
of candied cherries chopped, one-half cup of chopped candied pine- 
apple, the fruit all having been prepared and soaked for several 
hours in one large cup of sherry wine and two tablespoonfuls of 
Jamaica rum. — Miss Isabel McCurdy. 

Frozen Egg Nog. — Six eggs, one-half pound of sugar, one- 
half pint of brandy, one small wine-glass of rum, three pints of 
cream. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together until it 
is a froth ; add the brandy and rum, then the cream ; after starting 
to freeze add the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. — Mrs. 
Geo. D. Wick. 

Frozen Egg Nog. — Yolks of three eggs, whites of five, whip- 
ped to a stiff froth, one quart of cream, one wine-glass of brandy 
and a little rum. Sweeten to taste. — Mrs. W. W. Bonnell. 

Maple Mousse. — One cup of maple syrup, yolks of four eggs 
stirred into syrup, cook until thick; when cold stir into this, one 
quart of whipped cream and whites (beaten) of four eggs. Pack 
and still freeze three hours. — Mrs. Fox, Sagertoivn. 



140 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Maple Sugar Mousse. — One pint of cream whipped, one cup 
of maple syrup, one egg; beat egg and sugar, then add whipped 
cream ; let stand four hours packed in ice and salt. — Mrs. IV. H. 
Hudnut. 

Fruit Mousse. — One quart thick cream, one teaspoon vanilla, 
one-half cup of granulated sugar. Whip cream, add sugar and 
vanilla, stir in candied cherries, pineapple jam, Sunshine strawber- 
ries ; put into a tin vessel and place in a larger vessel, pack in ice ; 
three cups of ice to one of salt ; set twenty minutes to freeze ; open 
and stir away from the sides once or twice. — Mrs. J. M. Bonnell. 

Pineapple Mousse. — Dissolve one ounce (or less) gelatine in 
three-quarters of a cup of cold water ; after one hour add one cup 
of boiling water, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, the juice of 
one lemon, one can of shredded pineapple and a little pink color- 
ing. Stir until it begins to thicken, then add one cup of whipped 
cream, put in mold and bury in ice and salt for two hours. — Miss 
Arabella J. Euwer. 

Cafe Parfait. — Boil one cup sugar and one-half cup of water 
until syrup spins a thread. Beat whites of three eggs to stifif, 
dry froth, then add syrup gradually beating all the time until cold ; 
add one pint of whipped cream and one-half cup of very strong 
coffee ; mix well. Freeze as ice cream ; f reez very quickly — eight 
or ten minutes. Serve whipped cream on top. Serve six persons. 
— Mrs. Robert Bentley. 

Cafe Parfait. — Put three-quarters cup of sugar and one-half 
cup of water over the fire ; cook without stirring until the soft ball 
stage is reached. Have ready one-half cup of hot black cofifee. 
Pour the coffee very carefully into the beaten yolks of four eggs 
and then very slowly add the hot syrup, beating all the time. Return 
the mixture to the fire in a double boiler and stir and cook until it 
slightly thickens ; then set the dish in icewater and beat until 
cold ; then gently stir into it one pint of thick cream beaten stiff 
with wire egg beater ; put in melon mold, fill to overflowing ; pack 
in equal parts of ice and salt and let stand three or four hours. 
Serve in small glasses with whipped cream on top. — Mrs. C. H. 
Booth. 

Orange Souffle. — One quart of cream, one pint of orange 
juice, one pound sugar, one-half box of gelatine, yolks of six 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES I4I 

eggs. Cover the gelatine with one-half cup of cold water and soak 
one hour, then add one-half cup of boiling water and stir until 
dissolved. Mix the orange and sugar together until they form a 
syrup. Beat the yolks of eggs to a cream ; whip the cream. Now 
mix the syrup and yolks together in a tin basin, stand the basin in 
a pan of ice water, strain the gelatine into it and stir carefully 
until it begins to thicken ; then stir in lightly and hastily the whip- 
ped cream ; turn into an ice cream mold ; pack in salt and ice and 
freeze two hours. This should be frozen as hard as ice cream. — 
Miss Frank Jones, Toledo. 

Bisque Tortoni. — One quart double cream whipped ; yolks of 
ten eggs ; one-quarter pound powdered sugar ; beat eggs stiflf, add 
sugar ; cook over water until it coats spoon ; beat until cool ; add 
cream, powdered macaroons and sherry ; pack in ice and salt three 
hours ; sprinkle macaroons over top. — Mrs. P. B. Ozvens. 

Coupe St Jacques. — Cut equal quantities of pineapple, pears, 
peaches, apples, oranges and bananas into cubes ; add same pro- 
portion of sweet cherries, sweeten to taste and pour over them to 
about half cover, maraschino. Set on ice until very cold then 
serve in champagne glasses with a tablespoonful of lemon or 
orange ice on top of each glass. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Frozen Apricots. — Remove the skins from a quart can of 
apricots and cut in small pieces ; add one quart of water and two 
cups of sugar ; stir until the sugar is dissolved. Freeze, and allow 
the mixture to stand an hour or two after freezing before it is 
served. — Miss Arabella Euwer. 

Apricot Sherbert. — One pint of orange juice, one pound of 
sugar, one quart can of apricots ; mash apricots through colander ; 
freeze ; three cups of ice to one cup of rock salt. — Mrs. Robert 
Bent ley. 

Lemon Ice. — One quart of water, juice of four lemons, one 
pound of sugar; strain the mixture and just before freezing add 
the beaten whites of two eggs. — Miss Lizzie Bonnell. 

Lemon Ice. — One-half pint lemon juice, one-half pint of 
water, one pint of strong syrup. The rind of the lemon should be 
rasped ofif before squeezing with lump sugar which is to be added 
to the juice. Mix the whole together, strain after standing an 
hour and freeze. Beat up with a little sugar the whites of two 



142 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

or three eggs, and, as the ice is beginning to set, work this in 
with the spatula, which will much improve the consistency and 
taste. Orange ice the same. — Mrs. Mary Bentley. 

Strawberry Ice.— One quart of strawberries, one quart of 
water, one pint of sugar, juice of two lemons; add sugar and 
lemon juice to strawberries, mash and set aside for one hour; 
then strain through a fine sieve; add water and freeze. Have 
berries very ripe.— Mr.y. /. D. Wick, St. Louis. 

Pineapple Cream. — Chop one can of pineapple fine, add one 
cup of sugar and cook twenty minutes ; soak one-third of a box 
of gelatine in enough cold water to cover until dissolved; add 
strained juice and if necessary enough hot water to make one 
pint of liquid ; when it begins to set beat until light and then add 
the beaten whites of three eggs with three tablespoonfuls of sugar 
beaten into eggs ; beat again and add one pint of cream after it is 
whipped ; put in mold and set away to cool ; turn onto plate and 
serve with lady-fingers around. — Mrs. Myron C. Wick. 

Raspberry Water Ice. — Take one quart of red raspberries, 
one quart of water, the juice of three lemons, one pound of sugar ; 
add the sugar and lemon juice to the berries ; stir and let stand for 
one hour ; put through a sieve ; add the water, turn into a freezer 
and iv&tz&.—rMrs. H. B. Wick, Elyria. 

Claret Ice. — Three pints of water, four cups of sugar. Boil 
ten minutes, let cool. Put the juice of three lemons and one orange, 
three-fourths of a quart bottle of claret, add sugar to taste. Add 
the white of one tgg beaten stifiF ten minutes before done. — Mrs. 
R. Bentley. 

Roses Glace Daintee. — One-half package of gelatine soaked 
in one and a half cups of white wine for thirty minutes, then set 
the bowl into boiling water until the gelatine is dissolved. Add 
one-half cup of sugar, a few drops of orange flower water to flavor, 
a few drops of spinach extract to color a delicate green, strain and 
set away to cool. When it begins to thicken beat in one pint of 
whipped cream. Add two ounces of candied rose petals, turn into 
square mold and when set, turn out on lace paper mat on crystal 
dessert platter. Garnish with roses. The same can be made using 
violets. — Miss Isabel Mc Curdy. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES I43 

Lemon Sherbert. — One and one-half pints of water, one 
and one-half pints of sugar, six oranges, two lemons. Boil water 
and sugar fifteen minutes, add juice of oranges and lemons, cool 
and freeze. Use three cups of ice to one of rock salt. — Mrs. J. M. 
Bonnell. 

Rose Glace. — One-half package of gelatine soaked in one and 
one-half cups of white wine for thirty minutes ; then set bowl into 
boiling water until gelatine is dissolved ; add one cup of sugar, a 
few drops of orange flower water to flavor ; a few drops of spinach 
extract to color a delicate green ; strain and set away to cool ; 
when it begins to thicken beat in one pint of whipped cream and 
two ounces of candied rose petals ; turn into a mold and when set, 
turn out on platter and garnish with roses. — Mrs. Fox, Saeger- 
town. 

Cranberry Sherbert. — One quart of cranberries, one pint of 
boiling water, one pint sugar, juice of two lemons ; pour boiling 
water on cranberries ; cook until cracked open, strain, add sugar 
and juice of lemons. Freeze. — Mrs. J. D. Wick, St. Louis. 

French Strawberries. — Fill glass sherbert cups one-half 
full of strawberries cut into halves ; sprinkle with sugar and fill 
up with strained orange juice. Set cups in pans of cracked ice 
and salt for two hours or longer. 

Strawberry Sauce for Ices. — Strain the juice from a quart 
jar of preserved strawberries, set on the stove and boil until the 
consistency of maple syrup ; when cool add three tablespoonfuls of 
sherry wine ; let stand on ice until ready for use. — Mrs. Henry 
Wick. 

Chocolate Sauce for Ice Cream. — Two ounces of choco- 
late, two cups of granulated sugar, add two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, one-half cup of water and a piece of cinnamon one inch 
long; cook to soft ball stage, remove cinnamon and pour hot over 
each serving of ice cream. It will candy. — Mrs. Riddle, Saranac 
Inn. 

Lemon Jelly. — One box of gelatine ; pare five lemons thin 
and squeeze out the juice ; break up one small stick of cinnamon 
add a little orange peel, one and one-half pints of sugar, then 
pour on one pint of cold water and let it soak for three hours. 
Put in the kettle with three pints of boiling water, stirring until 



144 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

the gelatine is dissolved. Then let it simmer for about half an 
hour. Strain through a bag into jelly-molds and let it cool. — Mrs. 
William Bonnell. 

Lemon Jelly. — One pound of sugar, one-fourth of a pound 
of butter, six eggs, juice of two lemons and rind of three lemons. 
Beat thoroughly together ; cook until as thick as boiled custard. — 
Mrs. IVilliam Lazvthers. 

Wine Jelly. — To a package or an ounce of gelatine, pour on 
a pint of cold water ; put in one or more lemons and let them soak 
for two hours, then add one quart of boiling water ; when it is 
cooled off a little, put in one-half pound of sugar, and add one pint 
of white or Madeira wine. Strain through a flannel bag. To be 
made the day before using. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

A Dish of Snow. — Grate a cocoanut leaving out the brown 
part. Heap it up in the center of a handsome dish, and ornament 
with fine green leaves such as peach or honeysuckle. Serve it up 
with snow cream made in this way : Beat the whites of five eggs 
to a stiff froth, add two large spoonfuls of fine white sugar, a 
large spoonful of rose water or pineapple. Beat the whole well 
together and add a pint of thick cream. Put several spoonfuls over 
each dish of cocoanut. — Mrs. Geo. W. Haney. 

Apple Float. — One cup of pulverized sugar, one cup of 
cream beaten to a stiff froth, five eggs beaten light, one lemon, four 
large apples grated, three tablespoonfuls of gelatine dissolved in 
warm water. Fills one quart bowl. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Apple Snow. — Ten good-sized apples, the whites of ten eggs, 
rind of one lemon, one-half pound of fine sugar; peel, core and cut 
into quarters ; put into a saucepan with lemon peel and sufficient 
water to keep from burning — less than one-half pint. When ten- 
der take out the peel, beat the apples to a pulp, let cool, stir in 
the whites of the eggs previously beaten ; add sugar and continue 
whisking till the mixture becomes quite stiff ; heap on a glass dish ; 
garnish with strips of bright-colored jelly. To be served with 
cream. 

Apples. — Two pounds of apples pared and cored, sliced into 
a pan ; add one pound of sugar, the juice of three lemons and grated 
rind of one. Let boil about two hours, turn into a mold. When 
cold serve with thick cream. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND ICES I45 

Chartreuse D'Oranges. — Make a very clear orange jelly 
with one and a half pints of water, six oranges, sugar to taste, one 
wine-glass of sherry, one and one-half ounces of gelatine ; divide 
three or four oranges into quarters and with a sharp knife remove 
every vestige of skin of any sort — also the seeds ; have two plain 
molds, one about one and a fourth inches more in diameter than 
the other; pour a very little of the jelly at the bottom of the large 
mold, place in this a layer of orange quarters (if too thick split in 
two lengthways), cover with more jelly, but only just enough to 
get a smooth surface ; set on ice to set ; when it is quite firm, put in 
the small mold inside of the large one, taking care to place exactly 
in the middle, so that the vacant place between the two molds be 
exactly of the same width ; in the vacant place put more orange 
quarters, filling up with jelly until the whole space is filled up ; place 
the mold on the ice, and proceed to whip one pint of cream with 
one-half ounce of dissolved gelatine, and some sweetened orange 
juice, which must be added to it a very little at a time, else the 
cream will not rise in a froth ; when the cream s ready and the 
jelly set, remove the inner mold by pouring warm water into it, 
and fill up the space of the chartreuse with whipped cream. Set 
on ice for an hour, turn out and serve. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Syrup for Ice Cream. — Put a large funnel over a quart 
Mason jar, lay a small piece of cheese cloth in it and then put in 
two pounds of granulated sugar in funnel. Press one pint of 
strawberry juice from fresh, ripe berries, make a small hole in the 
center of the sugar and pour the juice into it, letting it drip into 
the jar. When it is done dripping, pour the juice again over what 
sugar is left in the funnel and let drip through again. When done 
it should be about the consistency of honey. To every cup of juice 
add three tablespoonfuls of Madeira wine or any liquor that is 
preferred. Put in a bottle and seal. Keep in a cool place. If kept 
cool, will keep any length of time. 

Raspberries or pineapples or other small fruits could be used 
in the same way. — Mrs. S. Stevenson. 



BEVERAGES 



Coffee. — Coffee is much better mixed, one part Java to one 
part Mocha, or one part Java to one part Rio. Wash and pick over 
carefully and dry off in a moderate oven for some time, then 
brown fast in a quick oven, watching closely, and stirring often 
to prevent any of the grains becoming too brown. When of a 
nice rich brown, stir in a piece of butter about the size of a walnut 
and bottle tight. To brown coffee fresh every day is much nicer. 
Allow one tablespoonful of ground coffee to each person and one 
extra spoonful to every six ; put into the coffee pot, beat up an 
egg light with a little cold water, pour a part over the grounds 
and mix up well ; if eggs are plenty, use all the egg, as it will 
make the coffee much richer. Next pour on the boiling water, 
allowing for each person one pint ; set on the front of the stove 
until it boils, then set back where it will boil slowly for twenty 
minutes. — Mrs. Jonathan Warner. 

Vienna Coffee. — Leach or filter the coffee through a French 
filter, or any of the many coffee pots that filter instead of boiling 
the coffee; allow one tablespoonful of ground coffee for each 
person, and one extra for the pot. Put one quart of cream into 
milk boiler, or, if you have none, into a pitcher in a pail or boiling 
water ; put it where the water will keep boiling, beat the white 
of an egg to a froth, then add to the egg three tablespoonfuls of 
cold milk, mix the egg and cold milk thoroughly together ; when 
hot, remove the cream from the fire and add the egg and cold milk ; 
stir it all together briskly for a minute or two, and then serve. 
This will give a cup of coffee very nearly equal to that we drank 
at the Vienna bakery at the Centennial. — Mrs. Henry Ward 
Beecher. 

Iced Cafe au Lait. — Add enough cold black coffee to milk 
to give it the desired strength and flavor. Sweeten to taste and 
let it stand on ice until ready to serve. Serve it in glasses instead 
of cups. Any coffee left from breakfast prepared in this way 



BEVERAGES I47 

makes a refreshing and acceptable drink for luncheon in summer. 
— Century Cook Book. 

Tea. — Take best Oolong or Japanese tea, one or two teaspoon- 
fuls to each person, according to the strength desired ; put it into 
an earthen pot, previously rinsed with boiling water, and set it on 
a moderately hot stove ; keep at the boiling point, but not boiling, 
for ten minutes, add as much boiling water as is needed and take 
to the table.— Mr.y. R. McMillan. 

Iced Tea. — The most delicious and sustaining beverage that 
can be drank in warm weather, is good, strong tea, cooled down 
with lumps of ice. It should be only slightly sweetened, without 
milk, and flavored with a few slices of lemon. 

Tea Punch. — One quart of tea made in the proportion of 
four teaspoonfuls of Ceylon tea to one quart of boiling water, five 
tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, two tablespoonfuls of orange juice, 
tw^o cupfuls of sugar — granulated — one pint of appolinaris water. 
Stir the lemon and orange juice together, put these in a puncn 
bowl with the tea, the appolinaris water, and a couple of large 
pieces of ice. If possible add a handful of raspberries or pine- 
apple dice. — Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

Chocolate. — Boil one quart of new milk in double-boiler ; 
grate one-half cake of Baker's chocolate ; make a paste with a 
little hot water, stir in slowly ; add to this gradually the hot milk ; 
sweeten to taste, putting sugar in the paste ; also a little vanilla. 
Add part of the cream preparation, which is made thus : Beat 
the whites of three eggs very stiff ; add a little sugar to the 
whites, but not as much as for icing; to this add one pint of 
whipped cream. Boil chocolate, milk and cream oreoaration until 
thick and smooth. The other half of whipped cream is to be 
used on top of cups. — Mrs. W. Scott Bonnell. 

Chocolate. — To a small cup of new milk use a heaping tea- 
spoonful of grated chocolate, scant teaspoon of sugar — propor- 
tion for one person. Put milk on in double-boiler to get scalding 
hot ; mix chocolate and sugar in a bowl, put several teaspoonfuls 
of chocolate extra, to make it a little richer. Take some hot milk 
and stir chocolate and sugar smooth, then gradually add this to 
hot milk ; cook twenty minutes. A drop or two of vanilla is some- 
times added at the last. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 



148 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

For Chocolate and Soups. — One pint of cream whipped; 
add beaten whites of three eggs. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Chocolate. — Take one and a half quarts of good milk and 
one-half pint of cream to one-fourth of a pound of grated choco- 
late ; let the milk and cream come to a scald. After mixing the 
chocolate with a little cold milk, stir it into the scalding milk and 
let it simmer for fifteen minutes, adding one-fourth of a cup of 
sugar and stirring occasionally. — Miss Jennie Taylor. 

Iced Chocolate. — Any of above recipes can be used for iced 
chocolate by serving in glasses and adding broken ice.. 

Cocoa. — Cook two tablespoonfuls of cocoa with the same 
amount of sugar, and water enough to moisten. When the cocoa 
has dissolved, and boiled up once, add a cup and a half of scalded 
milk and cook ten minutes ; add one-half cup of cream, one-half 
teaspoonful of vanilla, a pinch of powdered cinnamon and a tea- 
spoonful of sherry. Beat with an egg-beater to blend the flavors. 

Cocoa. — Dissolve a teaspoonful of cocoa in half a cupful of 
boiling water, then add a half cupful of boiling milk and boil it 
for one minute, stirring vigorously all the time. Sweeten to 
taste. — Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Mock Cream for Tea and Coffee. — To a pint of milk take 
the yolk of one egg, put on the fire and let come to a scald. It is 
improved by adding a little cleam when it is cool. — Mrs. R. Mc- 
Millan. 

Whipped Cream for Coffee. — Set rich, sweet cream on ice 
until it gets very cold, or to the freezing point ; then whip until 
light. — Mrs. Timothy Baldwin. 

Portable Lemonade. — Rasp with a quarter of a pound of 
loaf sugar the rind of a fine juicy lemon; reduce the sugar to a 
powder, and pour it on the strained juice of the fruit. Put into 
a jar. To be used when desired. 

Small Beer. — Three quarts of hops ; boil in a kettle until the 
strength is out ; take a quart of warm water and thicken to a 
batter with flour, and stir in a glass of yeast ; let rise. Put two 
quarts of molasses into a crock and pour the strained hop water 
over, adding the yeast. Let rise over night, skim, strain and pour 
off in the morning. Flavor with one and a half tablespoonfuls of 



BEVERAGES 149 

wintergreen, three-fourths of a tablespoonful of spruce. Bottle, 
and let it stand in a warm place over night. The next morning 
set where it is cool. — Miss Lide Wick. 

KuMYS. — One and one-half pints of milk, one-half pint of 
warm water, one tablespoonful of sugar, one tablespoonful of 
home made yeast. Let stand twenty-four hours or until it begins 
to thicken, then bottle.— Mr.y. /. M. Bonnell. 

Unfermented Grape Wine. — One quart of juice to one pint 
of water, and one-half pint of sugar. If the juice is very sour 
add a little more sugar. Bottle hot, cork tight, and seal. — Mrs. E. 
S. Kanengeiser. 

Grape Juice. — Wash the grapes and pick from the stem ; 
cover with cold water and cook until tender. Let this drip 
through a cheese cloth bag over night. (I always squeeze it out as 
soon as cold.) Then measure the juice. Allow one-half cup of 
sugar to every two quarts of juice. Then boil the juice alone for 
twenty minutes ; add the sugar and boil ten minutes. Bottle and 
seal. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Cherry Bounce. — Put one bushel of wild cherries in a wine 
cask. Pour over these five gallons of French spirits ; let stand three 
months ; then add two gallons of water and four pounds of white 
sugar. Filter or strain the bounce when drawn off and it is ready 
for use. — Mrs. Riddle, Saranac. 

Currant Wine. — One quart of juice, two of water and two 
pounds of sugar; mix well in stone jars and let it work two or 
three weeks without disturbing. Then skim, strain and put up 
tight in a cask or bottles. Should not be opened for six months. 
— Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

PofVSPBERRY Vinegar. — Take one-half bushel of raspberries, 
put them in a crock and cover with vinegar, not too strong. Let 
stand twenty-four hours, then strain, adding one pound of sugar 
to a pint of juice. Let it boil twenty minutes; then bottle. — Mrs. 
Henry Wick. 

Egg Nog. — Three pints of rich milk, six eggs beaten separ- 
ately, one gill of whiskey ; stir the yolks into the milk, add whiskey 
and one-half nutmeg grated ; sweeten to taste, then add the whites 
of the eggs, the last thing. — Miss Belle Robbins. 



150 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Cafe Cabinet. — One pint of vanilla ice cream, one pint of 
appolinaris water, two large tablespoonfuls of condensed coffee, 
or one pint of very strong coffee^ for the latter sugar is necessary. 
Stir before putting in the ice cream, and afterwards but a little. 
Add plenty of cracked ice. This is to be served in glasses, or with 
a spoon, as a drinkable. — Mrs. Robert Bentley. 

Temperance Drink. — One glass of Jamaica rum, three- 
fourths of a glass of strained lemon juice, and one-half a glass of 
pure maple syrup ; shake together ; bottle, keep on ice until wanted. 
Serve in tall punch glasses half filled with shaved ice. Dilute with 
water if too strong. 



CAKES 



REMARKS. 

Use the best of materials for cake. The pulverized sugar 
should always be sifted. Sift the flour. Beat the whites and 
yolks of eggs separately. When fruit is used, sprinkle with flour. 
Stir butter and sugar to a cream. If baking powder is used sift 
it well through the flour. While the cake is baking, no air must 
be permitted to get into the oven unless when necessary to look at 
the cake as it is apt to make it fall. The heat of the oven should 
be even and regular. When cake is done, it can be tested by stick- 
ing a clean broomstraw into it ; if nothing adheres to the straw, the 
cake is done. 

Black Cake, — One pound of flour, one and one-half pounds 
of brown sugar, one pound of butter, twelve eggs (or leave out part 
of the eggs and use the same quantity of molasses), one teaspoon- 
ful of soda, three pounds of currants, four pounds of seeded 
raisins, one pound of citron, two nutmegs (grated), one tumbler 
of brandy, one teaspoonful of ground cloves and cinnamon each. 
Bake in a large loaf three or four hours. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Black Cake. — One pound of flour, two and one-half pounds 
of sugar, one pound of butter, six eggs. Same quantity of 
molasses as eggs measure ; one teaspoonful of soda, three pounds 
of currants, four pounds of raisins, one pound of citron, two nut- 
megs, one teaspoonful of mace, one pint of brandy, one teaspoonful 
of cloves and cinnamon each. Bake two and one-half hours. — 
Mrs. IV. S. Bonnell. 

Black Cake. — One pound of butter, one pound of sugar, one 
and one-half pounds of flour, three pounds of currants, three 
pounds of raisins, one-half pound of citron, eight eggs, one and 
one-half teacupfuls of molasses, one teacupful of sour milk, one- 
half teaspoonful of soda, one small tumbler of brandy, one-half 



152 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

tumbler of Madeira wine, one-half ounce of salt, one-half ounce 
of mace, one-half ounce of cloves, one nutmeg, one pound of 
almonds blanched and chopped. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Wedding Cake. — One pound of fine sugar, one pound of 
butter, one-half pound of citron chopped fine, one pound of flour, 
one pound of currants, twelve eggs, one and one-fourth pounds of 
raisins (seeded and chopped), one tablespoonful of cinnamon, two 
tablespoonfuls of nutmeg, two tablespoonfuls of cloves, a wine- 
glass of best brandy. Stir to a cream the butter and sugar, add the 
beaten yolks of the eggs and stir all well before putting in one- 
half the flour. Then add spices, next the whipped whites stirred in 
alternately with the rest of the flour. Last the fruit and brandy. 
Bake three hours in a slow oven. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Fruit Cake. — Three cups of sugar, one and one-half cups of 
butter, one and one-half cups of sweet cream (not rich), six eggs 
beaten separately, five cups of flour, raisins, citron and nutmeg, 
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Stir in part of a handful of 
flour. — Mrs. H. Morse, Poland. 

Fruit Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup 
of sweet milk, two and one-half cups of flour, whites of seven eggs, 
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one pound raisins, one pound 
figs, one pound dates, one pound of almonds, one-fourth of a 
pound of citron. Blanch the almonds and cut fine. Mix baking 
powder well through the flour. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Fruit Cake Without Butter and Eggs. — On cup of mo- 
lasses, one cup of brown sugar, one cup of lard, one cup of cold 
coffee, two teaspoonfuls of soda (one in the coffee and one in the 
molasses), one tablespoonful each of cloves and cinnamon, one-half 
a nutmeg, four good cups of flour, one pound each of raisins and 
currants, one-fourth of a pound of citron and half a cup of nuts 
chopped. Flour the fruit to keep them from settling at the bottom. 
This makes two good-sized loaves.. — Mrs. J. CanHeld. 

Fruit Cake. — One cup of butter, one cup of brown sugar, 
one cup of molasses, one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour, 
four eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, one and one-half teaspoonfuls 
cream of tartar, two pounds of raisins (seeded and chopped), nut- 
meg, cinnamon and cloves, a tablespoonful of brandy. — Mrs. T. 
H. Wilson. 



CAKES 153 

White Fruit Cake. — Three cups of sugar, one cup of butter, 
one cup of sweet milk, four cups of flour, two teaspoonfuls cream 
of tartar, one of soda, whites of twelve eggs, one pound of raisins, 
one-half pound of citron. — Mrs. W. S. Matthews. 

Fruit Cake. — Seed and chop one-fourth of a pound of dates. 
Mix witth them one cup of seeded raisins and dust them with one- 
half cup of flour. Dissolve a level teaspoonful of baking soda 
in two tablespoonfuls of hot water. Add it to half a pint of thick, 
sour cream ; stir a moment, then add one cup of brown sugar, half 
a tumbler of currant or strawberry jelly, a tablespoonful of cin- 
namon, one tablespoonful of allspice and two cups and a half of 
flour. Mix well and bake in a greased square bread pan for one 
hour in a slow oven. Keep in a cake box one week before cutting 
and if the cream is thick and sour, it will be equal to plain friut 
cake. — Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

HiCKORYNUT Cake. — Two teacupfuls of sugar, one-half cup 
of butter, one cup of thin cream, three and one-half cups of flour, 
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted through the flour, and 
six eggs beaten separately. One pint of chopped hickorynuts.— 
Mrs. J. C. Wick. 

Walnut Cake. — One cup of butter, one cup of milk, two 
cups of granulated sugar, three cups of flour, one cup of black wal- 
nuts chopped, three eggs, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. — 
Mrs. C. A. Ensign. 

Spice Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one-half 
cup of milk, five eggs, two cups of flour, a teaspoonful each of 
cinnamon, allspice and nutmeg, essence of lemon, three teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder. — Mrs. M. C. Wick. 

Spice Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup 
of milk, the yolks of eight eggs, three cups of flour, three tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder, one teaspoonful each of cinnamon, 
nutmeg, cloves and allspice. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Spiced Chocolate Cake. — Four eggs (save the whites of 
two for icing), one and one-half cups of sugar, one-half cup of 
butter, one-fourth cup chocolate, one cup sour milk, two and one- 
half cups of flour, one teaspoonful of soda, two teaspoonfuls of 
cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves, one teaspoonful of allspice, 
Bake in loaf or layer tins. Icing: One cup of sugar, one-half 



154 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

cup of chocolate. Boil until it hairs. Beat in eggs, flavor with 
vanilla. — Mrs. E. S. Kanengeiser. 

Devil's Cake. — One cup of granulated sugar, two-thirds of a 
cup of butter, two eggs all beaten together and one cup of milk ; 
two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, two-thirds of a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla, two and one-half cups of flour. Then take one- 
half cake of Baker's chocolate, one cup of sugar, one-half cup of 
milk, yolk of one egg. Boil till thick. When cool, stir into cake 
proper. — Mrs. P. B. Owen. 

French Loaf Cake. — Two cups of sugar, three cups of fresh 
butter, two cups of sweet milk, six eggs, ten cups of flour, one 
wine-glass of wine, one of brandy, three nutmegs, one teaspoonful 
of soda, one pound of raisins, one-fourth pound of citron. — Mrs. R. 
McMillan. 

Chocolate or Jelly Cake. — One cup of melted butter, three 
cups of sugar, four and one-half cups of flour, one of milk," six 
eggs. This will make two cakes. For chocolate cake use one cup 
of sugar, one-half cup of cream, one cup of chocolate. — Mrs. R. 
McMillan. 

Chocolate Cake. — Whites of eight eggs, three-fourths of a 
cup of butter, three-fourths of a cup of sweet milk, two cups of 
sugar, three cups of flour, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 
Icing: One cup of grated chocolate, one and one-half cups of 
sugar, one cup of sweet milk. Boil it until it stiffens in water. 
Be careful not to burn. — Mrs. E. C. Wells. 

Chocolate Cake. — Boil together until it thickens one-fourth 
of a cake of grated chocolate, one egg and half a cup of milk. 
When partly cooled, stir into the following just before putting into 
pans : Stir one cup of sugar, one heaping tablespoonful of butter 
to a cream; add one-half cup of milk, one egg well beaten, two 
heaping cupfuls of flour and two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder. Flavor with vanilla and bake in two layers. Filling : One 
square of chocolate, two-thirds of a cup of sugar, four tablespoon- 
fuls of milk and one egg. Boil until it thickens and add grated 
cocoanut and vanilla. — Mrs. F. W. Powers. 

Jam Cake.— Three-fourth of a cup of butter, one cup of 
brown sugar, four eggs, one teaspoonful of cloves, one teaspoonful 
of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of soda, four tablespoonfuls of sour 



CAKES 155 

milk, one and one-half cups of flour, one cup of jam. Cream the 
butter and sugar, then put in the yolks of eggs, then the spices. 
Dissolve soda in milk, then stir in, add whites of eggs, then flour, 
then the jam (strawberry is best). — Mrs. R. Zimmerly. 

Jelly Roll. — Sugar one cup, flour one cup, baking powder 
one teaspoonful, sweet milk six tablespoonfuls, eggs three. Bake 
and while warm spread jelly on under side of cake and roll. — Mrs. 
J. C. Crew. 

Rolled Jelly Cake. — Four eggs, one cup of sugar, one small 
cup of flour, one teaspoonful cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful 
of soda, a pinch of salt. This will make two cakes. Spread thin 
on long tins. This will not break in rolling if there is not too 
much flour. When done, turn onto a cloth. — Mrs. J. CanHeld. 

Sponge Cake. — The weight of twelve eggs in sugar and half 
the weight in flour. Add one extra e§,g. Grate the rind of two 
lemons, squeeze the juice of one and put in the juice the last 
thing, the eggs and sugar to be well beaten together. Add the 
flour and lemon and bake immediately. This requires a quick 
oven. — Grandmother Wick. 

Sponge Cake. — Whites of seven eggs, yolks of five eggs, as 
much cream of tartar as will go on the very end of the handle of 
the teaspoon, one cup of sugar sifted two or three times, one cup 
of flour sifted six times. Beat up the yolks and put on the ice. 
Beat whites, add sugar, cream of tartar, then yolks of eggs, and 
lastly flour. Flavor to taste. Bake thirty or thirty-five minutes 
in a very slow oven. — Mrs. C. H. Booth. 

Sponge Cake. — One pound of sugar, three-fourths of a cup 
of flour and ten eggs. Beat whites very stiff, mix yolks and sugar 
together until light, then add the whites and flour alternately. 
Bake carefully. — Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Sponge Cake. — Ten eggs, two cups of sugar, two cups of 
flour and one lemon. Eggs beaten separately and then together. 
After beating eggs together, add sugar and beat again thoroughly. 
Add lemon and flour, stir quickly and lightly and put in the oven. 
— Mrs. James Squire. 

Sponge Cake. — Two cups of sugar, two and one-half cups of 
flour, six eggs, six tablespoonfuls of water, three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder. Beat the whites to a stifif froth, mix the yolks 



156 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

and sugar thoroughly. Then add whites. Stir for ten minutes. 
Add flour well mixed with baking powder. Flavor with lemon. — 
Mrs. Mary Bentley. 

Mother's Sponge Cake. — Eight eggs, one pint of sugar, one 
pint of flour, one teaspoonful of vanilla flavoring : Beat eggs 
separately. When yolks are very light, add sugar. Beat fifteen 
minutes, then add the flour and the whites, stirring together as 
lightly as possible. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Easy Sponge Cake. — Three eggs beaten one minutes. Add 
one and one-half cups of sugar, beat five minutes ; one cup of 
flour beaten one minute, one-half cup of cold water and another 
cup of flour in which has been mixed two teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder. Beat one minute. Bake in a slow oven. — Mrs. Wm. 
Edwards. 

Rolled Sponge Cake. — One cup of sugar, one cup of flour, 
three eggs, lemon juice, one teaspoonful of baking powder. Spread 
with jelly and roll as soon as removed from the oven. — Mrs. M. 
C. Wick. 

Plain Cake. — Cream one-half cup of butter, add one cup of 
sugar gradually, then one Qgg beaten light. Add first a little milk, 
then a little flour until you have mixed one cup of milk with two 
cups of flour and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Add one 
teaspoonful of vanilla or nutmeg and bake in a moderate oven. To 
be eaten hot and fresh. Frosting for same : One cup of sugar, 
one-fourth of a cup of water; boil until it waxes and pour over 
the slightly beaten white of one tgg. — Mrs. G. S. Peck. 

Gold Cake. — The yolks of eight eggs and one whole egg, one- 
half cup of butter, one and one-half cups of sugar, three-fourths 
of a cup of milk, two cups of flour, one teaspoonful of cream of 
tartar, one-half teaspoonful of soda. — Mrs. T. H. Wilson. 

Gold Cake. — Sugar one and one-half cups, butter one-half 
cup, milk one cup, flour (measured before sifting) two and one- 
half cups, yolks of eggs four, baking powder three teaspoonfuls. 
— Mrs. J. L. Wick, 

Silver Cake. — Whites of eight eggs, two cups of sugar, two- 
thirds of a cup of butter, one-half cup of sweet milk, three cup.s 
of flour, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, one-half teaspoonful 
of soda. — Mrs. T. H. Wilson. 



CAKES 157 

White Cake. — Butter one-half cup pressed in solid, sugar 
two cups granulated, flour two and one-half cups, baking powder 
two even teaspoonfuls, water one cup, whites of four eggs, vanilla. 
Cream the butter and sugar, add the flour mixed with baking 
powder. Stir until like corn meal, then add water and whites of 
eggs, then flavoring. Beat well after cake is mixed. Bake in 
three layers in hot oven fifteen or twenty minutes. Use with 
this Minnehaha filling. — Mrs. J. D. Wick, St. Louis. 

White Cake. — Stir to a cream one cup of butter with two 
of powdered sugar, add the whites of six eggs beaten to a stiff 
froth, one cup of milk, three cups of flour, two teaspoonfuls Gx 
baking powder. Flavor with rose or lemon extract. — Mrs. C. H. 
Gilman. 

Delicate Cake. — Two cups of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, 
three-fourths of a cup of butter, three cups of flour, whites of 
eight eggs, three small teaspoonfuls of baking powder, sliced cit- 
ron. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Railroad Cake. — One cup of sugar, one cup of flour, three 
eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, one-half teaspoonful 
of soda and one teaspoonful of cream of tartar. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Dolly Varden Cake. — Two cups of sugar, two-thirds of a 
cup of butter, one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour, three 
eggs, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful cream of tar- 
tar ; flavor with lemon. Bake one-half of this in two pans. To the 
remainder add one tablespoonful of molasses, one cup of chopped 
raisins, one-half cup of currants, a piece of citron chopped fine, 
one teaspoonful of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Bake in two 
pans and put in sheets alternately with a little jelly or white of an 
egg beaten to a froth. — Mrs. W. Lawthers. 

Marble Cake. — For white part : One cup of butter, three 
cups of sugar, five cups of flour, one-half cup of sweet milk, one- 
half teaspoonful of soda, the whites of eight eggs, flavor with 
lemon. The dark part : One-half cup of butter, two cups of 
brown sugar, one cup of molasses, one cup of sour milk, four cups 
of flour, one teaspoonful of soda.the yolks of eight eggs, one whole 
egg, soices of all kinds. Put in a pan first a layer of dark, then 
a layer of light and finish with a dark layer. — Mrs. Frank Wick. 



158 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

White Mountain Cake. — Two cups of sugar, one-half cup 
of butter, one-half cup of sweet milk, six eggs (save the whites 
of two for frosting), one quart of flour not very full, three tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. — Mrs. M. I- Arms. 

White Mountain Cake. — One cup of butter, three cups of 
sugar ; work the butter to a cream ; four cups of flour, one tea- 
spoonful cream of tartar, one-half teaspoonful of soda in one-half 
cup of milk. Whites of ten eggs. Flavor with lemon. — Mrs. 
Fred Lewis. 

Almond Custard Cake. — One pound of sugar, one-half 
pound of butter ; cream well. Five eggs, one cup of sweet milk, 
two teaspoonfuls cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of soda, one 
pound of flour. Custard : One cup of thick sour cream, two cups 
of sugar, one pound of sweet almonds blanched and chopped fine. 
Flavor with vanilla. Mix and spread between the layers. — Mrs. 
W. S. Matthews. 

Layer Cake. — One and one-half cups of sugar, one-half cup 
of butter, one-half cup of milk, two cups of flour, whites of six 
eggs, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. The dark part : One 
cup of sugar, two-thirds of a cup of butter, yolks of six eggs, two 
cups of flour, one-half cup of brandy. Chop fruit, raisins and cur- 
rants and add enough of it and spice to taste. Two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder. Put together with soft frosting a layer of light, 
one of dark, another of light. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Gentlemen's Favorite. — One-half cup of butter, two cups 
of sugar, seven eggs beaten separately. Two cups of flour, two 
tablespoonfuls of water, two small tablespoonfuls of baking-pow- 
der. For jelly : One tgg, one cup of sugar, three grated apples 
and one lemon ; stir until it boils and let cool before using. Spread 
between layers. — Mrs. John D. Morris. 

Pineapple Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, 
one cup of milk, three cups of flour, whites of six eggs and 
yolks of four, three teaspoonfuls of baking-powder well mixed 
through the flour. Bake in jelly-cake pans. Grate a pineapple, 
sprinkle with sugar, spread between the layers. Pineapple jam 
may be substituted. Frost the outside. Beat two tablespoonfuls 
of pineapple into the frosting. — Mrs. John Morris. 



CAKES 1 59 

Federal or Queen's Cake. — One pound of flour, one pound 
of sugar, one-half pound of butter, four eggs, one teacup of cream, 
one pound of fruit, one nutmeg. — Mrs. W. Edwards. 

Cocoanut Cake. — One and one-half tumblers of sugar, one 
tumbler of flour, whites of eight eggs, large spoonful of cream of 
tartar, half a teaspoonful of salt. Put together with soft frosting. 
Sprinkle with grated cocoanut, Cover the top with the same. — 
Miss Laura Wick. 

Cocoanut Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of fine sugar, 
one cup of milk, three of flour, three teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der, the whites of eight eggs. Bake in four jelly cake pans and 
put together with soft frosting and grated cocoanut. Frosting : 
Beat the whites of five eggs and five teaspoonfuls of fine sugar 
to each egg, the juice of one lemon. This requires a thorough 
beating. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Orange Cake. — Make a silver cake and bake in jelly cake 
pans ; one large orange grated, one cup of sugar, one egg (one 
large or two small ones). Cook all until a jelly and spread be- 
tween the layers. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Orange Cake. — One cup of sugar, one cup of flour, four 
eggs, one teaspoonful of baking powder. Bake in jelly cake pans 
and put together with a paste made as follows : Juice and part 
rind of one orange, one-half cup of sugar, one egg. Heat until 
it thickens. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Never Fail Cup Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of 
sugar, three cups of flour, four eggs, one cup of sweet milk, two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Pound Cake. — One pound of flour, three-fourths of a pound 
of butter, one pound of sugar, ten eggs, one nutmeg and a little 
wine or brandy. — Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

Ice Cream Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one 
cup of milk, three cups of flour, whites of five eggs, three tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Bake in thin layers. Three small 
cups of sugar dissolved in a little water and boil until done for 
candy ; cool a little and pour over the unbeaten whites of eggs 
and beat together half an hour. — Mrs. G. Borts. 



l60 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Corn Starch Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, 
two cups of flour, one cup of corn starch, one cup of milk, whites 
of seven eggs, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one-half tea- 
spoonful of soda or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. — Miss 
Laura Wick. 

Bread Cake. — Three teacups of light bread dough, three 
teacupfuls of sugar, three eggs, one cup of butter, a small wine 
glass of brandy, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved, one teaspoon- 
ful of cinnamon, two nutmegs. Mix sugar, brandy, butter and 
spices together as for cake ; then add dough, one handful of flour, 
one teacupful of seeded raisins, one teacupful of currants. When 
well mixed together, put in a pan and let rise quite light before 
baking. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Moravian Light Cake. — Mash alone one cup of fresh boiled 
potatoes ; mix with this one cup of sugar and one cup of thin 
yeast. Mix at 4 o'clock in the afternoon in summer, or at noon 
in winter. Let it rise until 9 in the evening, then add one scant 
cup of butter, two well beaten eggs, one-third of a cup of milk, 
a little salt, flour enough to make quite a soft dough ; knead and 
let rise until morning, then divide into five or six parts. Pat out 
flat on plate or pie pans. Let rise again and bake in a quick 
oven. Before putting them into the oven, make thumb-holes all 
over them ; fill with butter sugar, cinnamon and nutmeo-. Sprinkle 
white sugar over the top and bake. — Miss Hamilton, Philadelphia. 

Coffee Cake. — Two cups of flour, two teaspoonfuls of bak- 
in gpowder, three even tablespoonfuls of sugar, one-half teaspoon- 
ful of salt ; sift together. One cup of milk, one e^s;;, one table- 
spoonful of melted butter. Spread in a pan, sprinkle with sugar 
and cinnamon and bake twenty minutes. — Mrs. C. H. Booth. 

Scotch Cake. — One pound of sugar, one pound of flour, 
three-fourths of a pound of butter, one pound of raisins (seeded 
and chopped), one-fourth of a pound of citron, nine eggs, one 
lemon rind grated and the juice, one wine glass of brandy, fruit 
added last. Bake fully two hours. — Mrs. A. E. Kanifmann. 

Blueberry Cake. — One cup of sugar, butter the size of an 
egg mix together. One cup of sweet milk, one pint of flour, two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one cup of ripe berries well 
sprinkled with flour. — Mrs. W. H. Hiidnut. 



CAKES 



i6i 



Blueberry Tea Cake. — Two cups of flour, one scant cup 
of milk, one-half cup of sugar, one egg, small piece of butter 
(melted), two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Look over one 
pint of blueberries and with a little sugar add the last thing. 
Bake in one large loaf about two inches thick. Serve hot. It 
is nice to split it when eating and spread with butter. — Mrs. C. 
H. Booth. 

Gingerbread Without Eggs.— One pint of molasses, one 
of milk, one-half pint of shortening, one tablespoonful of soda, 
one tablespoonful of ginger.— Afr^. S. /. McElevey. 

Soft Gingerbread. — Two eggs well beaten, one-half cup 
of melted butter, one cup of sugar, one cup of molasses, one cup 
of sour milk (in this dissolve two level teaspoonfuls of soda), 
two level teaspoonfuls of ginger, three cups of flour, then add 
one cup of raisins. — Mrs. J. S. Pollock. 

Soft Gingerbread. — One-half cup of sugar, one-half cup 
of butter, one cup of molasses, one teaspoonful each of cin- 
namon, ginger and cloves ; two teaspoonfuls of soda, dissolve m 
a cup of boiling water; two and one-half cups of flour and no 
more, two well beaten eggs stirred in the last thing before 
baking. Bake in gem pans or a loaf. This may seem too thin 
but do not change recipe and it will be O. K.—Mrs. Fox, Sae- 
gertown. 

Soft Gingerbread.— One teacup of sugar, one teacup of 
butter, three eggs, one cup of molasses, one cup of sour milk, one 
tablespoonful of ginger, one-half teaspoonful of nutmeg, four 
cups of flour, two teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved in a little of the 
milk. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Gingerbread.— One cup of sugar, one cup of butter, one 
cup of molasses (the best Orleans), three cups of flour, one cup 
of sour milk or cream, three eggs, one tablespoon even full of 
soda in the milk, one tablespoon rounding full of ginger, one 
tablespoonful of cinnamon.— Mr.?. W. D. Euwer. 

Soft Gingerbread.— One cup of sugar, one cup of butter, 
one cup of sour cream, one cup of New Orleans molasses, four 
cups of sifted flour, one tablespoonful of ginger, two table- 



l62 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

spoonfuls of soda, the grated rind of one lemon, three eggs well 
beaten. Stir butter and sugar together, then add eggs, milk and 
flour. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Good Gingerbread. — Two eggs well beaten, three-fourths 
of a cup of molasses, one-half cup of butter, three-fourths of a 
cup of sour milk, two and one-half cups of flour, two teaspoon- 
fuls of ginger, two teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved and stirred into 
the molasses. Bake twenty minutes. — Mrs. Sydney Strong. 



ICING FOR CAKE 



Marshmallow Icing.— Stir five tablespoonfuls of pure 
gum arable into a scant half cupful of cold water ; then stir in a 
half cupful of powdered sugar^ and when this is dissolved, put 
over the fire in a porcelain lined sauce pan and boil steadily until 
a little dropped in cold water forms a soft ball between the thumb 
and forefinger. Have the white of an tgg beaten stiff enough 
to stand alone, and strain the hot mixture into this, beating the 
white of the egg steadily as you do so. Flavor with vanilla ; dip 
a knife in hot water, and with it spread the marshmallow filling 
on the cake. 

Boiled Icing.— One and one-half cups of sugar; put to 
this two tablespoonfuls of water. Let it boil on back of stove 
until it is waxy, or stringy ; then add whites of two eggs.— Mr^. 
Fred Lewis. 

Boiled Icing.— Whites of four eggs, beaten stiff; one pint 
of sugar, melted in water, and then boiled; add to it the eggs, 
and beat until cold.— Mm Carrie McClure. 

CocoANUT Cake Frosting.— Beat the whites of five eggs 
to a stiff froth and for each egg add one teaspoonful of pul- 
verized sugar. Beat in the sugar until stifif. Spread the layers 
of cake with frosting, then sprinkle over a liberal amount of 
fresh, grated cocoanut and cover top and sides of cake with 
frosting, then grated cocoanut. — Miss Laura Wick. 

TuTTi Fruitti Frosting.— One-half teacup of water, three 
cups of sugar, whites of two eggs; boil sugar and water until 
very thick and waxy ; beat the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and 
pour the syrup over them, beating all till cool. Then add one- 
half pound of almonds, chopped fine; one small half teacup of 
large white raisins, and a little citron, sliced thin. Very nice for 
sponge cake. — Miss Lide Wick. 



164 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Chocolate Icing. — One-half cake of Baker's chocolate 
grated fine, two-thirds of a cup of sugar, one-half cup of milk or 
cream ; boiled and stirred to a paste. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Frosting. — Beat the whites of five eggs and five teaspoon- 
fuls of fine sugar to each egg, the juice of one lemon ; this re- 
quires a thorough beating. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Lemon Cream for Cake. — Two lemons grated, rind and 
all, one-quarter pound of butter, one-half pound of sugar, six 
eggs ; beat the eggs very light ; heat the butter, sugar and lemon, 
stir in the eggs slowly ; let the mixture boil a few minutes, stir- 
ring constantly ; when cold, spread on the cakes as you would 
jelly. — Miss Gertrude Jones, Washington City. 

Fig Dressing for Cake. — One pound of figs cup up fine, 
one cup of sugar ; cover sugar with water and boil until waxy, 
then add the figs and cook until a paste ; spread between layers 
of cake while the figs are warm, and when the cake is cold. A 
tablespoonful of sherry wine stirred into the figs improves them. 

Minnehaha Filling. — One and one-half cups of sugar, 
one-third cup of water ; boil until it spins a good thread ; then 
pour on well beaten whites of two eggs. Stir until thick and 
cool. Frost top layer, then add to frosting two-thirds cup of 
raisins snipped with scissors. — Mrs. J. D. Wick, St. Louis. 

Caramel Frosting. — One cup of light brown sugar ; one 
teaspoonful of butter ; one-fourth cup of water ; cook until it 
ropes ; stir until it begins to grain ; then add one teaspoonful of 
vanilla. Spread quickly on cake. 



SMALL CAKES 



Cream Cakes. — One cup of hot water, one-half cup of 
butter ; set on the stove in a tin dish, and when it boils, add one 
cup of flour and cook until quite thick. Take off and let cool. 
Add three well-beaten eggs, one small one-half teaspoonful of 
soda, drop into a pan, a small teaspoonful in each place. Leave 
quite a space between each. Bake twenty-five minutes in a cool 
oven. 

Cream for Cakes. — Scald two cups milk, add two eggs, three 
tablespoonfuls of flour, three-fourths of a cup of sugar. Flavor 
to taste. Cook quick by setting pail in boiling water. Cut the 
cakes open and fill with the cream. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Cream Puffs. — Boil one pint of water, rub together one- 
half pound of butter with three-fourths of a pound of sifted flour ; 
stir into the water while boiling. When it thickens like starch 
remove from the fire. When cool stir into it ten well beaten 
eggs, and one small teaspoon of soda. Drop the mixture onto 
buttered tins with a large spoon. Bake until a light brown, in 
a quick oven. When done, open on one side and fill with mock 
cream, made as follows : One cup of fine sugar, four eggs, one 
cup of flour, one quart of milk. Beat eggs to a froth ; stir in the 
sugar, then flour. Stir them into the milk while boiling. Stir 
till it thickens. Then remove from the fire and flavor with lemon 
or vanilla. It should not be put into puffs until cold. — Mrs. G. 
W. Haney. 

Cream Puffs. — One-half cup of butter ; melt it in one cup 
of boiling water, and boil ; stir in one cup of flour while boiling ; 
cool ; stir in three eggs, one after another, without beating. Drop 
on buttered tins, and bake from twenty to thirty minutes. 

Filling for Puffs. — One pint of sweet milk ; one-half cup 
of sugar ; one egg ; about two tablespoonfuls of corn starch. — Mrs. 
R. Zimmerly. 



l66 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Cream Drops. — Three- fourths pound of sugar ; three-fourths 
pound of flour; one-half pound of butter; one-half pound of 
currants ; four eggs ; beat whites of eggs very light, and add last. 
Flavor with grated rind of lemon ; drop on tins and bake in slow 
oven. — Mrs. A. E. Kauffmann. 

Chocolate E'Claires. — One and three-fourths cups of flour, 
three-fourths of a cup of butter, one-half pint of water. Boil the 
butter and water together and stir in the flour by degrees while 
boiling. Let it cool, add five eggs, one at a time, without beating, 
until thoroughly stirred in, one-half teaspoonful of soda. Drop 
the mixture in tins, about half as large as liked when baked, and 
bake in a quick oven. When cold, make a hole in the side with a 
knife and fill with the following cream : One pint of milk, one- 
half cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of corn starch, three eggs ; 
dissolve in a little milk. Beat eggs and sugar together, stir in 
the corn starch, then stir into milk while boiling. Flavor. Take 
one-half cake of grated chocolate, two-thirds of a cup of sugar, 
one-half cup of cream. Boil and stir to a smooth paste ; then 
with a knife spread on the outside of the puffs. — Mrs. Henry 
Wick. 

Meringues, a la Creme with Candied Cherries. — Beat 
the whites of six eggs until foamy, add half a teaspoonful of 
cream of tartar, and beat until dry; fold into the mixture one 
cup and a half of powdered sugar, and one teaspoon of vanilla 
extract. Cover one-half inch boards with oiled paper, a tack at 
each end; put the mixture in large spoonfuls upon the paper, sift 
a little sugar over the top, and bake in a very moderate oven 
about forty-five minutes, to dry, rather than bake. The instant 
the board is removed from the oven, remove the tacks and invert 
the paper and meringues. Take from the paper, scoop out the 
soft center, sprinkle them on the inside with sugar and return to 
the oven to dry. Fill with whipped cream sweetened and 
flavored; add candied cherried here and there. — Mrs. J. M. 
Bonne II. 

Meringues. — Whites four eggs, beaten stiff; one pound of 
pulverized sugar, added very slowly. Flavor to taste. Two table- 
spoonfuls arrowroot; try in quick oven. Bake on oiled paper in 
pans. If they do not raise add more arrowroot. These are ex- 
cellent filled with ice cream or jam. — Mrs. W. S. Pollock, Cleve- 
land. 



SMALL CAKES 167 

Hermits. — One and one-half cups of sugar, one scant cup 
of butter, two and one-half cups of flour, one and one-half cups 
of chopped raisins, one-half cup of sour milk, three eggs, one- 
half teaspoon soda, one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, one-half tea- 
spoon nutmeg. Drop in the pan with a spoon. — Mrs. Mason 
Evans. 

Cookies. — Three eggs, two cups of sugar, one cup of butter, 
one-half cup of milk, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, little 
less than a quart of flour, drop in pan to bake. — Mrs. H. W. Ford. 

HiCKORYNUT Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, 
four cups of flour, one-half cup of sour milk, one cup of chopped 
nuts, and one small teaspoonf ul of soda, three eggs ; dip in 
sugar. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Almond Cookies, — Two pounds of butter, three pounds of 
sugar, one pound of shelled almonds, one dozen eggs, one tea- 
spoonful of ground cinnamon, one-half teaspoonful of soda, a cup 
of boiling water, one lemon grated; mix butter, sugar, yolk of 
eggs, lemon, cinnamon and hot water ; beat the whites, take three 
parts, mix also one-half of the almonds, and as much flour as it 
will hold; roll them and brush with the whites of eggs. Before 
putting in the almonds and sugar, almonds must be scalded, 
dried and cut fine. Bake in a moderate oven. — Mrs. John Morris. 

"Birdie's" Cookies. — Two cups of white sugar, one cup of 
butter, one-half cup of sweet milk, three eggs, whites and yolks 
beaten separately, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Make 
dough very soft. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

Lemon Cookies. — One-half cup of butter, one-half cup of 
lard, two cups of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, two eggs, three 
large teaspoons of baking ammonia dissolved in a little of the milk 
warmed, five cents' worth of oil of lemon, one teaspoonful of salt, 
flour to roll stiff. Cut them out, and prick with a fork before 
baking. — Mrs. C. A. Ensign. 

Jumbles. — Two cups of sugar, one cup of butter, four 
teaspoonfuls of sweet cream, one teaspoonful of cream tartar, 
one-half teaspoonful of soda ; knead with flour just stiff enough 
to roll. After they are cut, dip one side in fine sugar, three eggs. 
— Mrs. C. D. Arms. 



l68 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Jumbles. — One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three eggs, 
stir light as for cake; enough flour to roll out; blanch almonds 
and separate them, pressing the halves into the cookies before 
baking them. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Brownies. — Cream one-third cup of butter, add one-third 
cup of powdered sugar, one-third cup molasses; one tgg well 
beaten, and seven-eights cup of bread flour ; then add one cup of 
pecan nuts broken finely. Bake in lady finger tins with half the 
meat of a pecan on each cake. — Mrs. W. J. Sampson. 

Sand Tarts. — One pound of sugar, one pound of flour, ten 
ounces of butter, yolks of three eggs. Roll thin, wash with 
whites of egg, stew with finely cut almonds or peanuts, cinnamon 
and sugar. Bake in moderate oven. — Mrs. A. E. Kaiiffmann. 

Oat Flake Cakes. — Two cups of any brand of rolled oats, 
one cup of sugar (soft A), or fair brown, one cup of butter, three 
cups of white flour, two-thirds cup of sour milk, and one tea- 
spoon soda. Flavored with a handful of one-half raisins and 
dates chopped very fine. Rub the oat flake all up fine, add the 
sifted flour, then raisins and dates, rub the shortening in as for 
pie crust, then moisten with the sour milk, roll thin, and sand 
with granulated sugar. — Mrs. D. C. Stezvart. 

Sugar Cakes. — Three cups of sugar, one cup of butter, one 
cup of sour cream, one nutmeg, three eggs, one teaspoonful soda, 
(leave dough very soft). — Mrs. W. D. Enzver. 

Scotch Cookies. — Two cups of sugar, one cup butter and 
lard mixed, one cup of sour milk, one-half cup of molasses, two 
eggs, one teaspoon each cinnamon and ginger, one teaspoon soda 
in the sour milk, three pints flour. — Mrs. IV. D. Euzver. 

Ginger Cookies. — Two cups of New Orleans molasses, one- 
half cup of butter, one-half cup of lard, one cup of milk, flour to 
thicken, four teaspoonfuls of soda, one tablespoonful of ginger, 
other spices to suit the taste ; mix molasses, lard, butter, milk, 
soda and ginger. Put on the fire and let warm, but not get hot ; 
then add the flour and let it stand over night. Bake in a moderate 
oven. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Ginger Cookies. — Two cups of molasses, (Orleans), one 
cup of butter, one egg, two teaspoons of soda, two teaspoons 
of ginger (scant), flour enough to roll stiff. — Mrs. George 
Borts. 



SMALL CAKES 169 

Ginger Cookies. — Three eggs, one cup of sugar, beat light ; 
two-thirds cup of butter and lard mixed, one cup of molasses, 
three teaspoons soda dissolved in boiling water, one teaspoon of 
ginger, sift flour. Much nicer to mix and let stand in cellar over 
night. — Mrs. D. C. Stewart. 

Ginger Gems. — One-half cup of brown sugar, one cup of 
molasses, one-half cup of butter, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one 
teaspoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cloves, two teaspoon- 
fuls of soda dissolved in boiling water. Flour to thicken. Two 
well beaten eggs. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Ginger Crackers. — One pint of molasses, one-half pound 
of butter, melted, one-half teaspoon soda dissolved in a spoon of 
hot water, one cup of sugar, a little ground ginger if desired, 
flour to make stiff; roll very thin; bake on tin. — Mrs. A. E. 
Kauffmann. 

Ginger Snaps. — Three pounds of flour, one pound of butter, 
one quart of molasses (best Orleans), one-half pound sugar 
(brown), one ounce ginger, one ounce of cinnamon, one-half 
ounce cloves. Roll thin. These are very good, and will keep a 
long time if kept in a dry place. — Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Ginger Snaps. — One full cup of shortening, two cups of 
brown sugar, two of molasses ; boil together a short time and 
then let cool. Sift four cups of flour with one-half tablespoonful 
of ground cloves, one-half tablespoonful of cinnamon, one table- 
spoonful of allspice, two of ginger, one nutmeg, last of all, one 
teaspoonful of soda dissolved in hot water ; then let cool. It is 
better to use one part butter. Make in small rolls with hand, 
then cut in pieces the size of a hickory nut, giving them plenty 
of room in the pans to spread. Bake in a moderate oven. Let 
them cool before taking out of the pans. — Mrs. Jane Hughs. 

Raised Ginger Snaps. — One cup of butter, two cups of 
molasses, one cup of milk, four teaspoonfuls of soda, one table- 
spoonful of ginger ; stir up stiff over night ; bake in a hot oven. 
—Mrs. R. J. Wick. 

Ginger Snaps. — One cup of butter heaping full, one cup of 
sugar, one cup of molasses, one-third of a cup of cold water 
poured over the sugar, two teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved and 
added to the molasses, two teaspoonfuls of ginger, if it is fresh ; 
flour enough to roll very thin. — Mrs. Sidney Strong. 



I/O THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Soft Ginger Cakes. — One pint of molasses, one-half pint 
of milk, almost one-half pint of melted butter, one tablespoonful 
soda, one tablespoonful of soda put in the molasses ; put in the 
molasses ; one tablespoonful of ginger. Mix up quickly and soft. 
— Miss Belle Robbins. 

Ma'am Polly's Ginger Cakes. — Six pounds of flour, one 
pound of butter, two tablespoonfuls of ginger, yolks of two eggs, 
one pint of buttermilk, one spoonful of soda, one spoonful of 
pulverized alum (boil the alum in one-half pint of water three 
minutes), one-half gallon of molasses. Make up your dough, 
roll one-half inch thick. Bake ten minutes. 

Taylor Cakes. — Six ounces of brown sugar, six ounces of 
butter, one pint of baking molasses, one-half pint of thick milkj, 
one and one-half pounds of flour, one ounce of baking soda, two 
tablespoonfuls of cinnamon. Warm the butter and molasses to- 
gether. Drop on tins and bake in a quick oven. — Adr. Paul Wick. 

Taylor Cakes. — One ounce baking soda dissolved in one- 
half pint of thick milk, five eggs, and one-half pound of sugar 
well beaten in ; one pint molasses and one-half pound butter. To 
make a soft batter will require about one and one-half pounds of 
flour. Drop and bake on tins about eight on ten minutes. — Mrs. 
A. E. Kauffmann. 

Graham Cookies. — Two and one-half cups of graham or 
whole wheat flour, two cups of brown sugar, one cup butter, one- 
half cup of hot water, one teaspoonful of soda, one large spoon 
rich cream ; roll thin. — Miss Caddie Boris. 

Cinnamon Cookies. — Two cups of sugar, one cup of butter^ 
three eggs ; beat the yolks and whites separately ; one-half tea- 
spoon of soda dissolved in one-half cup of cream, flour sufficient 
to roll lightly m the hand, and press in fine sugar and cinnamon. 
— Mrs. Wni. Lawthers. 

Fried Cakes. — Two cups of sugar, one cup of buttermilk 
(or sour milk), one teaspoon of soda dissolved in the milk, one 
even tablespoonful of melted lard, a little grated nutmeg, two 
eggs, flour to make stiff enough to roll out. Put flour in pan, 
make a hole in center and mix together. — Mrs. J. S. Pollock. 



SMALL CAKES I7I 

Fried Cakes. — One and one-half cups of sugar, one cup of 
sour milk, two eggs, two scant tablespoonfuls melted butter, half 
nutmeg grated, one teaspoon cinnamon, one teaspoon salt, one 
teaspoon soda. Make a little stiffer than biscuit dough, roll out 
a quarter of an inch thick, and cut out with fried cake cutter with 
hole in center. Fry in hot fat. — Mrs. E. L. Kanengeiser. 

Fried Cakes. — Two cups of sugar, two eggs, five table- 
spoonfuls of melted butter, one pint of milk, three teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder; mix soft. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Fried Cakes. — One cup of sugar, one cup of milk, three 
eggs, four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, two teaspoonfuls of 
cream tartar, one teaspoonful of soda ; mix as soft as possible ; 
have lard hot before putting in cakes to fry. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Doughnuts. — One cup of sugar, four tablespoonfuls of 
melted butter, two eggs, one cup of milk, one quart of flour, three 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, extra flour to roll ; flavor with 
nutmeg. Fry in hot lard. — Mrs lohii D. Wick. 

Raised Doughnuts. — Three teacups of sugar, one cup of 
butter, one cup of lard, four cups of milk, two cups of yeast, one 
nutmeg, four eggs and a little salt ; sponge them, putting in all 
the ingredients of flour and milk, and add the remainder in the 
morning; if you have not a soft yeast, set a sponge in the 
morning; when light, roll out about an inch in thickness, cut 
with a wine glass, let rise again before frying. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Doughnuts. — One cup of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, two 
eggs, three tablespoonfuls of melted butter, two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, flour to roll, cut in balls, and roll in fine sugar 
while hot. — Mrs. Wm. Lawthers. 

My Grandmother's Crullers. (1823). — Three eggs, three 
tablespoonfuls melted butter, nine tablespoonfuls of sugar. Flavor 
with nutmeg or cinnamon; mix quite stiff and roll in rather thin 
sheet. Cut in shapes with a jagging iron and fry in boiling fat. 
They cook very quickly. — Mrs. E. L. Kanengeiser. 

Rich Crullers. — Ten tablespoonfuls of lard, ten table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, five eggs, a little salt, nutmeg, flour enough 
to roll— Mrs. H. B. Wick. 



1/2 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Plain Crullers. — Four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 
four of sugar, two eggs, one-half teacup of buttermilk or sour 
milk, a teaspoonful of nutmeg. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Chocolate Kisses. — Beat until light the whites of ten eggs, 
add slowly twenty-four teaspoonfuls of fine sugar, and when 
smooth, four tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate, one-half tea- 
spoonful of vanilla. Bake fifteen minutes. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 

Maccaroons. — One-half pound of almonds blanched, one- 
half pound of loaf sugar, whites of eggs, one by one. Pound the 
almonds in a mortar, occasionally putting in a little rose water to 
moisten ; add sugar. Beat the eggs until they are very stiff, then 
add enough of the mixture to make a paste. Take a little flour 
in your hands and mold them into small cakes. Bake a few 
minutes in a moderately hot oven. The top of the oven should 
be the hottest. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Maccaroons. — One pound of almonds in the shell, three 
eggs, one-half pound of white sugar; soak the almonds in hot 
water, remove the skins, grate or pound and mix with rosewater, 
beat the eggs to a stifif froth, add sugar and almonds, drop on 
buttered pans with a spoon. — Mrs. J. H. BiishneU. 

Hickory Nut Maccaroons. — Whites of six eggs, beaten 
stiff. Stir into these, very lightly, one pound of icing sugar 
sifted, two tablespoonfuls of sifted flour, with one-half teaspoonful 
of baking powder, mixed in the flour, and one pound of hickory 
nut meats chopped fine. Drop on greased sheets and bake in 
moderate oven ten or fifteen minutes. If not enough flour add 
another spoonful, but no more. — Mrs. R. Bentley. 

Creole Kisses. — Whites of three eggs, one-half pound of 
sugar, one-half pound of pecan nuts. Put the whites in a bowl, 
beat, then add sugar and beat more, not with an egg beater but 
with fork or spoon. Beat until dry (thirty or forty minutes), 
then add the nuts and one-half teaspoonful of milk. Put brown 
paper in pan and drop the kisses ; let them bake until they crack 
and then place in the upper part of oven until they become a light 
brown. — Mrs. W. H. Hudnut. 

Peppernuts. — Three pounds of powdered sugar, twelve eggs, 
three tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, three teaspoonfuls of allspice, 
three teaspoonfuls of cloves, one-half teaspoonful mace, six tea- 



SMALL CAKES 173 

spoonfuls baking powder, three teaspoonfuls of lemon extract. 
Chop fine three-fourths of a pound of citron, candied lemon and 
orange peel, red pepper to taste. — Mrs. T. R. Akin. 

German Christmas Cakes (Lebkuchen). — One pound 
of strained honey, one-half pound of molasses, one pound of 
almonds chopped very fine, one-half pound of sugar, one-half 
pound of citron chopped fine, one tablespoonful of cinnamon, one 
teaspoonful ground cloves, one teaspoonful ground nutmeg, one 
teaspoonful of soda, small glass of whiskey. Warm the honey 
and molasses, pour over sugar and spices, then add whiskey, 
flour and soda. Roll out, cut in small oblongs and bake. When 
cold, ice with white boiled icing. — Mrs. T. R. Akin. 

CocoANUT Drops. — One-half pound of grated cocoanut, one- 
half pound of sugar, whites of three eggs. Bake on paper ; drop 
the cakes a little distance from each other. — Mrs. R. IV. Tayler. 

Springerll — Four pounds of powdered sugar, sixteen eggs, 
beat one hour. Two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, scant tea- 
spoonful of anise oil, flour to make very stifif. Mold and dry over 
night and bake in a slow oven next morning. (The molds can 
be bought for the Christmas cakes in any large department store)., 
—Mrs. T. R. Akin. 



CANDIES 



CocoANUT Candy. — Grate very fine a sound cocoaniit; 
spread it on a dish and let it dry naturally for three days as h 
will not bear the heat of an oven and too oily for use when freshly 
broken. Four ounces will be sufficient for a pound of sugar, but 
more can be used to pleasure. To one pound of sugar take one- 
half pint of water, a very little of white of egg, and then pour 
over the sugar. Let it stand for a short time, then place over a 
very clear fire and let it boil for a few moments. Then set it 
aside until the scum has subsided. Clear it off and boil the sugar 
until very thick, then put in the nut, stir and mix it well and do 
not quit for an instant until it is finished. The pan should not 
be placed on the fire but over it as the nut is liable to brown with 
too fierce a heat. 

CocoANUT Balls. — Mix well one cup of grated cocoanut and 
one cup of confectioners' sugar. To this add one-half table- 
spoonful of water and one-half tablespoonful of lemon. Form 
into balls. — Miss E. E. Evans. 

Cocoanut Balls. — One-half cup of grated chocolate, one- 
half cup of confectioners' sugar, one cup of cocoanut well mixed 
and moistened with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of water and 
one-half tablespoonful of vanilla. Form into balls. — Miss E. E. 
Evans. 

Chocolate Caramels. — Two cups of sugar, one cup of warm 
water, one-half cup of grated chocolate, three-fourths of a cup of 
butter. Let boil without stirring until it snaps in water. Pour 
into pans and let cool. — Mrs. M. C. Wick. 

Chocolate Caramels. — One-half pound of grated chocolate, 
two teacupfuls of sugar, one-half cup of milk and water, a lump 
of butter, one teaspoonful of alum. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Chocolate Pralines. — Four cups of brown sugar, two cups 
of milk, one cup of English walnuts, butter size of a walnut, one 



CANDIES 175 

tablespoonful of vanilla, a square of baker's chocolate grated. Boil 
sugar and milk ten minutes, then add butter. Boil until it gathers 
in water (but not crack). Stir while boiling and after it is taken 
off until it begins to thicken. Then add nuts and vanilla. Pour 
on buttered platter and cut in squares. — Mrs. D. C. Stezvart. 

Chocolate Fudge. — Two cups of granulated sugar, one cup 
of sweet milk, one-half cake of chocolate, butter size of a walnut, 
vanilla flavoring. Stir while cooking and when it is boiled, till 
it hardens when tried in water, take from the stove and beat hard 
until nearly cold. Then pour into pans until cold. 

Almond Candy. — Proceed in the same way as for cocoanut 
candy. Let the almonds be perfectly dry and do not throw them 
into the sugar until they approach the candying point. 

To Candy Nuts. — Three cups of sugar, one cup of water. 
Boil until it hardens when dropped in water, then flavor with 
lemon. It must not boil after the lemon is put in. Put a nut on 
the end of a fine knitting needle, dip in the syrup, take out and 
turn on the needle until it is cold. If the candy gets cold, set on 
the stove for a few moments. Malaga grapes and oranges 
quartered may be candied in the same way. — Miss Sallie Arms. 

Sugar Candy. — Six cups of white sugar, one cup of vinegar, 
one cup of water, a tablespoonful of butter put in at the last with 
one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in hot water. Boil without 
stirring one-half hour. Flavor to suit the taste. — Mrs. C. H. 
Gilman. 

Cream Candy — Four cups of sugar, two cups of water, three- 
fourths of a cup of vinegar, one cup of cream or rich milk, a 
piece of butter the size of an &gg, two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, a 
pinch of soda. Let it boil until it cracks in water. Put into pans ; 
when cool enough to work, work until very light. — Miss Jennie 
Arms. 

Maple Candy. — Four cups of maple syrup. Boil until it 
cracks in water but do not stir. Just before taking from the fire, 
put in a piece of butter the size of an egg. If preferred waxy, do 
not let it cook so long. 

Butterscotch. — Two cups of molasses, one cup of sugar, 
one-half cup of butter. Boil until done. — Miss Hattie Arms. 



176 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Marsh MALLOWS. — Dissolve one-half pound of gum arabic in 
one pint of water. Strain. Add one-half pound of granulated 
sugar. Place over the fire and stir constantly until the sugar 
is dissolved and the mixture takes the consistency of honey. Add 
graduallly the whites of four eggs well beaten, stirring the mix- 
ture steadilv until it will not stick to the fingers. Pour into a 
pan slightly dusted with starch. When cool, divide into small 
squares. 

Salted Almonds. — Blanch one pound of shelled almonds by 
pouring boiling water over them and letting them stand a few 
moments, when the skin can be easily removed. Place almonds 
in a dripping pan, set in the oven and when hot put over them in 
little bits a piece of butter the size of an egg. Stir well to cover 
all the nuts with butter and keep in the oven until a light brown 
and crisp. Then sprinkle liberally with salt. Keep in a dry 
place. 



Canned Fruits, Preserves and Jellies 



REMARKS. 



All fruits should be fresh and ripe. Granulated sugar should 
always be used and also a porcelain kettle. Put the bottles in 
a pan or kettle of cold water, place on the stove until the water 
is boiling before filling with the fruit. Do not use an iron spoon. 

In preserving, a pound of sugar to one pound of fruit. For 
canning, three-fourths of a pound of sugar to one pound of fruit 
and a little water. Preserved fruits can be put in tumblers or 
small jars covered with egg papers or melted wax run over. In 
canning fruit great care should be taken to have the jars perfectly 
air tight. Keep in a cool, dark place. 

To Can Peaches. — Pare and halve the peaches, pack them in 
tin cans as close as they can possibly be put. Make a syrup of 
six pounds of sugar to one gallon of cold water. Let this stand 
until well dissolved, then pour the cold syrup over the peaches 
until the cans are even full, after which solder it oerfectly tight. 
Place the cans in a boiler, cover well with cold water, set it on 
the fire and let the water boil five minutes. Then take the cans 
out and turn them upside down. One gallon of syrup will do one 
dozen cans. 

Rich Canned Peaches. — Pare and stone peaches about 
enough for two jars at a time (if many are pared they will be- 
come dark colored standing), rinse in cold water, then cook in 
a rich syrup of sugar and water about fifteen or twenty minutes, 
or until they are clear. Put into your jars all that part not broken, 
fill up with the hot syrup (about as thick as corn molasses) and 
seal. Same syrup will do to cook two or three more jars. After 
the syrup becomes dark, this with broken peaches, can be used 
for marmalade or peach butter. 

Same rule can be used for pears, plums and all light fruits 
that you desire rich. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 



178 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Green Gage Plums. — After stemming and washing the 
fruit, fill the jars full, placing them in a boiler of cold water, 
just enough not to have the water boil over the top of the jars 
into the fruit. After boiling one-half hour, or until the fruit 
begins to be tender, lift out the jars and turn off the juice that 
may accumulate into a porcelain kettle, and sufficient sugar to make 
a rich syrup. When it boils, fill up the jars, let them stand in the 
boiling water ten or fifteen minutes longer, then lift out one at a 
time and seal. All kinds of plums are nice put up in the same 
way. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Cherries. — Take Morello cherries, wash, and remove the 
pits, allow a pound of sugar to one pound of fruit. Make a syrup 
of sugar with the juice and sufficient water to cover the cherries. 
Boil from five to ten minutes, turn into bottles and seal. Some 
prefer one pint of sugar to one quart of pitted cherries. — Mrs. C. 
D. 'Arms. 

Strawberries. — Procure fresh, large strawberries when in 
their prime but not so ripe as to be very soft. Hull and weigh 
them. Take an equal weight of sugar, make a syrup and when 
boiling hot pour in the berries. A small quantity should only be 
done at a time. If crowded they will become mashed. Let them 
boil about twenty minutes or half an hour. Turn into tumblers 
or small jars and seal wath egg papers while hot. — Mrs. M. I. 
Arms. 

Quinces. — Select fair, mild apple quinces (the inferior ones 
can be used for jelly or marmalade), pare and cut into quarters, 
removing the core. For each pound of them take three-fourths of 
a pound of sugar, a quart of cold water ; dissolve the sugar in the 
water over a moderate fire. Let it boil, then remove from the fire ; 
when cool, put in the quinces. If there is not more than enough 
water to cover them, more should be added so the syrup will be 
thin. If too rich the quinces will be hard and shrink. Boil them 
gently until a broom straw will go through them itself. Keep 
them covered while boiling that they may be light colored. Put 
in bottles and seal. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

To Can Pumpkin. — Cut the pumpkin in halves and steam. 
When thoroughly cooked scrape from the shell and put through 
the colander. For every cup of pumpkin add three-fourths of a 
cup of granulated sugar, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one-four^th 



CANNED FRUITS, PRESERVES AND JELLIES 1 79 

of a teaspoonful of ginger. Cook until quite thick. Put in Mason 
jars. For pumpkin pies. — Mrs. C. A. Ensign. 

Pineapple Preserve. — Pare and core and cut in small slices 
on a slaw cutter. To a pound of pineapple put one pound of 
sugar. Let it boil twenty minutes, put in jars and cover with 
egg papers. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Pineapple Jam. — Pare, core and grate fine on a grater. Then 
proceed as for pineapple preserve. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Raspberry Jam. — Allow one pound of sugar to a pound of 
berries, and one pint of currant juice to five pounds of berries, 
adding one extra pound of sugar for each pint of currant juice. 
Mix the berries and sugar in layers, then mash with potato masher. 
Add currant juice and let boil one-half hour. Put in tumblers 
and cover with egg papers while hot. Make blackberry, straw- 
berry and currant jam in the same way, omitting the currant 
juice. — Mrs. M. L Arms. 

Strawberry or Raspberry Jam. — To one pound of berries 
allow one and one-fourth pounds of sugar. Heat an earthen bowl 
hot on the stove, then remove it from the stove and put into it 
the berries and sugar and beat them hard with wooden spoon for 
as much as an hour and a half. Do not cook at all. Put in jars 
with egg papers. — Miss Jennie Bonnell, England. 

To Can Raspberries and Blackberries. — To a quart of 
berries allow one pint of sugar. Boil fifteen minutes and put in 
air-tight jars. — Mrs. M. L Arms. 

Cherry Jam. — To each pound of cherries allow three-fourths 
of a pound of sugar. Stone them, and as you do so. throw the 
sugar gradually into the dish with them. Cover and let them set 
over night. Next day boil slowly until the cherries and sugar 
form a smooth thick mass. Put up in jars. — Miss Leslie. 

Grapes. — Stew, wash and weigh tlie fruit. For preserves 
add one pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. For canning, one- 
half pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Remove the pulp, put 
the skins and pulp in separate dishes. Cook the pulp and strain 
through a sieve, then add the skins and sugar. For canning 
cook fifteen minutes. For preserving a little longer. — Mrs. R. 
McMillan. 



i8o 



THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 



Grape Jelly. — Grapes to be used just before they are ripe 
and just turning. Stem the grapes and sHghtly cook them. Then 
strain and take a pint of sugar to a pint of juice. It makes the 
jelly of a light red color and much finer flavored than ripe grapes. 
—Mrs. P. T. Caldivell. 

Apple Jelly. — Peel two dozen Golden Pippins. Boil 
them with one quart of water and half an ounce of isinglass. 
When the isinglass is dissolved and the apples reduced to a pulp, 
strain. Add the juice of a lemon and the grated rind with a 
pound and a quarter of loaf sugar. Boil together twenty minutes 
and strain. — Miss Lizzie Bonnell. 

Apple Jelly. — Quarter the apples and cover them with water. 
Cook and strain them and to a pint of juice put three-fourths of 
a pound of sugar. Boil twenty minutes and flavor with lemon 
or vanilla. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Crab Apple Jelly. — Procure the Siberian crab. Select those 
that are perfectly formed, wash in water and pour over them just 
enough water to cover. Let them cook until soft, then strain 
through a jelly-bag. Add one pound of sugar to one pint of 
juice and let boil twenty minutes. 

Currant Jelly. — Choose your currants before they are too 
ripe. Wash clean and then strain the juice from them through 
a jelly-bag (without cooking them) by mashing them with a 
potato masher, put a pound of sugar to one pint of juice. Boil 
twenty minutes. Seal with egg in tumblers. Another way of 
making this is to let the juice boil twenty minutes before adding 
the sugar. After adding the sugar, let it boil up for a few 
moments. 

Orange Marmalade. — Separate the pulp from the skin. 
Boil the skin until very tender, then chop fine. Separate as 
much as possible the white part from the yellow, using only the 
yellow. Then to one pound of pulp and skins add one pound of 
sugar. Boil twenty minutes. — Miss Lizzie Bonnell. 

Orange Marmalade. — Six oranges, three lemons ; slice them. 
Add three pints of water to each pint of fruit. Let oranges and 
lemons stand in the water over night. Next day cook until tender. 
Let stand twenty-four hours, then add one pint of sugar to each 
pint of fruit. Cook until it jellies, but not too thick. — Mrs. S. J. 
McElevey. 



CANNED FRUITS, PRESERVES AND JELLIES l8l 

Orange Marmalade. — Six oranges, one lemon, six quarts 
of water, six pounds of sugar ; slice oranges very thin ; put in a 
crock and let stand in the water over night ; boil half away and 
then add sugar and boil until yellow. — Mrs. F. G. Evans. 

Orange Marmalade. — Two dozen Messina oranges, one 
dozen lemons. Wash the fruit, slice up as thin as possible, remove 
all seeds, cover closely for thirty-six hours. Add the water and 
boil two hours from time of boiling. Add the sugar and boil 
again one hour from time of boiling. — Mrs. T. R. Aiken. 

Green Grape Conserve. — Three pounds of green grapes, 
seed, eight cups of sugar, one-half pint of raisins and the juice of 
two lemons, one pint of water and stuffed English walnuts. Boil 
twenty minutes. Conserve can be made of any fruit. Especially 
fine of strawberries. — Mrs. D. C. Stewart. 

Sunshine Strawberries. — Strawberries three pounds, sugar 
three pounds, boiling water two cups. Add the sugar and water 
together until it spins a thread, then add strawberries, cook fif- 
teen or twenty minutes after they boil. Then spread on large 
platters, place in the sun until the strawberry is very thick, then 
put in Mason jars. — Mrs. J. L. Wick. 

Quince Marmalade. — Ten pounds of ripe, yellow quinces. 
Wash clean, pare and core them and cut them into small pieces. 
To each pound of quinces allow half a pound of white sugar. Cut 
the parings and put into a kettle with enough water to cover 
them. Boil slowly until quite soft ; then, having put the quinces 
with the sugar into a porcelain kettle, strain over them through 
a cloth the liquid from the parings and cover. Boil the whole 
over a clear fire until it becomes quite smooth and thick, keeping it 
covered except when you are skimming it, and watching and 
stirring closely to prevent sticking at the bottom. Pour into 
porcelain dishes and when cold can be sliced. 

Apple Marmalade. — Twelve pounds of apples, three pounds 
of brown sugar, three lemons. Boil slowly. Mash well. — Mrs. 
R. W. Tayler. 

Apple Jam. — Ten pounds of best cooking apples; pare and 
slice. Seven pounds of loaf sugar and the juice of three lemons, 
rind of one lemon. Boil all together slowly, stir and mash well. 
When they become clear put into molds. The apples should be 
put in water to preserve their color. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 



1 82 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Apple Butter. — One-half bushel of Pippin apples, one gallon 
of sweet fresh cider. Cook together thoroughly and put through 
a colander. Place on the fire and add six pounds of white sugar. 
Stir constantly while cooking to prevent burning. In the course 
of two or three hours, take a little out in a dish and if it has a 
watery appearance it should be cooked longer or until quite thick. 
—Mrs. R. McMillan. 

Plum Butter. — One-half peck of plums, one-half bushel of 
sweet apples. Cook the apples and plums in separate kettles 
until quite soft, only putting in enough water to prevent sticking 
to the bottom of the kettle. When soft, put through a colander 
and then to each pound of mixture allow three-fourths of a pound 
of white sugar. Let it cook for a short time and bottle. — Mrs. C, 
D. Arms. 

Peach Butter. — To one bushel of peaches allow from eight 
to ten pounds of granulated sugar; pare and halve the peaches. 
Put in the kettle and stir constantly (to prevent sticking to the 
kettle) until perfectly smooth and rather thick. A part of the 
peach stones thrown in and cooked with the peaches give it a nice 
flavor and they can be afterwards skimmed out. Add the sugar 
a short time before taking from the fire. Put in jars and cover 
tight. Peaches for butter should be neither too mealy nor too 
juicy. 

To Preserve Watermelon Rind. — After cutting your rind 
properly, boil it in clean water with vine leaves between each 
layer. A piece of alum the size of a hickory nut is sufficient for a 
kettle full. After boiling it put it into ice water to cool. Then 
repeat this a second time, each time putting it to cool, each time 
boiling one hour. Prepare the syrup with one and one-fourth 
pounds of sugar to each pound of fruit. Green ginger boiled in 
the water you make your syrup, will flavor it, or three lemons to 
six pounds of fruit. If the syrup thickens too fast, add a little 
water. The rind should be boiled in the water until clear and 
green. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

To Preserve Watermelon Rind. — Soak the fruit in salt 
water three days, in fresh water three days. Boil in alum water, 
soak in fresh water over a day and night, changing the water 
several time. Boil in ginger water. To one pound of fruit add 



CANNED FRUITS, PRESERVES AND JELLIES 1 83 

one and one-fourth pounds of sugar and put in ginger and mHce, 
Flavor with oil of lemon. — Miss Lide Wick. 

Brandied Fruit. — Take two quarts of California brandy. 
Put it into a crock at the beginning of the fruit season. Commence 
by putting in the brandy one pound of pineapples (pared and 
quartered and then sliced on a slaw cutter very thin). To each 
pound of fruit add or.e pound of granulated sugar. The next 
fruit in turn is strawberries. Add this same proportion. Then 
follow cherries (which are stoned), raspberries, currants, black- 
berries, peaches and plums, etc. Add to the brandy without cook- 
ing and to each pound of fruit, one pound of sugar. Add also one 
pound each of raisins and citron, the latter sliced thin. Stir fre- 
quently to dissolve sugar. Keep the crock covered and in a cool 
place. 

Spiced Gooseberries. — Six quarts of berries, nine pounds 
of sugar, one pint of vinegar, one tablespoonful each of cinnamon, 
allspice and cloves. Dissolve half the sugar, put in berries, cook- 
ing for an hour and a half. Then put in remainder of sugar and 
just before taking from the fire add spices and vinegar. — Mrs. S. 
J. McElevey. _ 

Chipped Pear Marmalade. — Eight pounds of pears, peel 
and slice very thin. Eight pounds of white sugar, one-half pound 
of green ginger root (scraped and cut fine), four lemons boiled 
whole in clear water until soft enough to run a straw through ; 
slice very thin. Put pulp and rind of lemon with the pear, ginger 
root and sugar. Boil one and one-half hours. — Mrs. T. R. Akin. 

Ginger Pears. — Eight pounds of pears (hard), eight pounds 
of sugar, one-fourth pound of ginger root (green), juice of six 
lemons and rind of two. Let sugar boil up with one and one- 
half pints of water, add ginger, lemon and pears cut in quarters. 
Boil slowly about three hours. — Mrs. A. E. Kauffmann. 



Pickles, Catsup and Spiced Fruits 



Cucumber Pickles. — Make a brine of salt and water, put in 
the cucumbers, and let them remain twenty- four hours ; take cider 
vinegar, put in the pickles, let come to a boil, then remove from 
the fire and have ready cider vinegar sweetened and spiced to 
taste with allspice, sticks of cinnamon, whole black pepper, nu;stard 
seed, celery seed and raw ginger ; when heated pour over the 
pickles, add grape or cabbage leaves. Grated horseradish may be 
used also. — Airs. John Morris. 

Cucumber Pickles. — Make a brine of salt and water, put in 
the cucumbers and let them remain nine days, pouring off the 
brine and scalding it every second day. On the ninth day, take 
some cider vinegar, which, if very strong, dilute with one-third 
water ; have it boiling hot and pour over the pickles, having first 
covered them with vine or cabbage leaves ; then take cider vinegar 
and sweeten, say from one and one-half poimds to two pounds of 
sugar to one gallon of vinegar. Have ready the spices and put all 
into the vinegar. While heating turn off the first vinegar and pour 
this over them. Exclude them entirely from the air. If like, add 
grated horseradish. — Airs. John D. Morris. 

Cucumber Pickles. — Take small cucumbers, put them in a 
large stone jar; to a four-gallon jar full put enough water to 
cover. One quart of salt and alum the size of a walnut. Turn off 
the brine and scald every day, putting it on boiling hot for nine 
days. Then wash, and soak over night, if too salt. Put into jars 
or bottles ; add whole cinnamon, cloves, mace, allspice and peppers 
(green peppers preferred). Scald the vinegar and pour on hot. 
— Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Easy Cucumber Pickles. — To one gallon of vinegar add one 
cup of salt and one cup of mustard dissolved in vinegar. Pour the 
vinegar without heating over small cucumbers, and they are ready 
for use in a few days. — Mrs. L. T. Sampson. 



PICKLES, CATSUP AND SPICED FRUITS 1 85 

Yellow Pickles. — One-half pound of white mustard seed, 
one-quarter pound of black mustard seed, one ounce of tumeric, 
one-quarter ounce of cayenne. The above quantity for a six- 
gallon jar of pickle. White cauliflower cut, white cabbage sliced 
fine and long, one-half dozen large onions sliced fine, one-half 
dozen small onions whole, one-half dozen small cucumbers whole, 
one-half dozen large cucumbers cut. If they can be procured, 
nasturtium, radish pods, string beans and green grapes. Put all in 
brine for twenty hours. Then strain and pour on boiling vinegar 
sufficient to just cover the pickle, into which has been put the 
above spices and turmeric. Mix a pint bowl of mustard as for the 
table, and add after the pickle has cooled. To get the required 
quantity of vinegar, measure the brine when turned off. The 
vinegar should only just cover the pickle. — Mrs. G. W. Hale, 
Chicago. 

English Chow-Chow. — One-quarter of a peck of green 
beans, one quart of small onions, one quart of green sliced tomatoes, 
two dozen small cucumbers, one dozen small green peppers, one 
dozen chopped red peppers, one cauliflower, two ounces of white 
mustard seed, the same quantity of black mustard seed, one-half 
pound of yellow ground mustard, one-fourth of a teacupful of 
sweet oil, one tablespoonful of turmeric powder, one teaspoonfulf of 
celery seed. Scald the beans, onions, peppers, cauliflower, toma- 
toes and cucumbers in vinegar and drain through a colander. Then 
place in a jar; put on the fire fresh vinegar sufficient to cover the 
pickle, and put into it all the seed and two-thirds of the ground 
mustard. Let it boil some minutes, then mix the remainder of the 
mustard, the tumeric and oil together. Stir in, and let boil up once 
and pour over the pickle. — Mrs. C. Hazeltine. 

Tomato Chow-Chow. — One-half bushel of green tomatoes, 
one dozen onions, one-half dozen green peppers, all chopped fine. 
Sprinkle over the mess one pint of salt; let is stand over night, 
then drain off the brine ; cover it with good vinegar, let cook one 
hour slowly, then drain and pack in jars. Take two pounds of 
sugar, two tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, one of allspice, one of 
cloves, one of pepper, one-half cup of ground mustard, one pint 
of grated horseradish, and vinegar enough to mix them. When 
boiling hot, pour over the mess packed in a jar and cover tight. 
Then it is ready for use and will keep for years. — Mrs. H. B. 
Wick. 



1 86 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Chow-Chow. — For this take the large overgrown cucumbers, 
pare and remove the seeds, chop and sprinkle with a little salt, and 
let stand over night to drain. For one gallon take about half as 
many chopped onions, and two red peppers with seeds removed, 
chopped ; mix them fresh with the cucumbers, sprinkle through the 
mess about two tablespoonfuls celery seed ; place in granite kettle, 
cover with vinegar, add one cup of sugar, only scald, that the 
crispness may be retained ; fill bottles and seal while hot with 
parafine. — Mrs. W. D. Euiver. 

Cucumber Pickle. — Take one gallon of water and one scant 
pint of salt; let boil and pour over the pickles boiling hot. Let 
stand twenty-four hours, drain and make fresh brine same as be- 
fore and pour over boiling hot the second morning. Third morn- 
ing scald the same brine and pour over boiling hot. Fourth morn- 
ing wipe the pickles dry; take strong cider vinegar (enough to 
cover pickles), a lump of alum the size of a walnut, a little sugar, 
white mustard seed, whole cloves, red or green peppers torn up or 
a little cayenne pepper, a bunch of celery cut up and a little celery 
seed. Boil all together and pour over pickles hot. — Mrs. F. W. 
Powers. 

Chow-Chow. — To one peck of tomatoes, add three good-sized 
onions, six peppers with seeds taken out, chop together and boil 
three minutes in three quarts of vinegar. Drain and throw this 
vinegar away. To three quarts of new vinegar scalding hot, add 
two cups sugar, one cup of mixed mustard, one tablespoonful 
whole cloves, one tablespoonful salt; pour over tomatoes and put 
away for use. — Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Piccalilli. — One-half ■ bushel of green tomatoes, one-half 
peck of onions; slice, sprinkle salt through them and let stand 
over night. In the morning drain off the water. Put over the 
fire with enough weak vinegar to cover. Let simmer slowly until 
a little tender, but not cooked to pieces. Drain in a colander and 
put a layer of the pickle in a jar. Sprinkle over black mustard 
seed, ground pepper, cinnamon, cloves and allspice, and a little 
sugar. Continue in this way till the jar is filled. Sprinkle plenty 
of spice over the top. Pour over cold strong vinegar. Cover 
tight, and set away. — Mrs. M. I. Arw^_ 



PICKLES, CATSUP AND SPICED FRUITS 1 87 

Sweet Piccalilli. — Take tomatoes just turning, wash 
and without paring slice thick. Put into a crock, with salt 
sprinkled between the layers, and let stand over night. In the 
morning drain and make a rich syrup of vinegar, sugar, and spice, 
cinnamon, mace and cloves. Put a few of the tomatoes into the 
syrup, and let them simmer slowly. Take out before they are 
cooked to pieces, and put into a crock on the back of the stove. 
Continue in this way with the tomatoes until all are used. If the 
syrup gets too thin, make fresh. Pour over the tomatoes, and 
cover tight. — Mrs. M. I. Arms. 

Piccalilli. — One peck of green tomatoes, one dozen onions, 
six red peppers, one-half ounce of ginger, one-quarter of an ounce 
of mace, one tablespoonful of black pepper, one box of mustard, 
five cents' worth of celery seed, mustard seed to taste, one pound 
of brown sugar. Slice tomatoes, onions and peppers, put in a 
jar with salt mixed well through. Let stand twenty-four hours. 
Drain off and boil in vinegar (after adding the spices) until 
clear. — Mrs. E. W. McClure. 

Piccalilli. — Pick over carefully two cabbages, chop fine, 
and pint of chopped onion ; stir in a handful of salt, and let stand 
twenty-four hours. Into a quart of vinegar stir a pound of 
brown sugar, and a tablespoonful each of ground mustard, pepper, 
mace, allspice, celery seed, cinnamon, and turmeric ; stir this into 
the onion and cabbage, turn into a preserving kettle, and cook 
ten minutes ; when cold pack in jars. — Mrs. S. J, McElevey. 

Tomato Piccalilli. — One peck of green tomatoes, one-half 
peck of onions, six green peppers, and two red ones. Slice and 
drain over night with a little salt; then cover with vinegar and 
cook until tender. To the vinegar add two pounds Cor more) 
sugar, cinnamon, cloves, allspice, mace, all whole. At the last 
horseradish cut in small pieces. — Mrs. W. D. Einver. 

Piccalilli. — One peck green tomatoes, one dozen onions, 
one-half ounce ground mace, one-half ounce ground ginger, one 
tablespoonful black pepper, one-fourth pound of mustard, one 
pound of brown sugar, six small red peppers, mustard seed to 
taste. Put tomatoes and onions in a jar in layers ; let stand for 
twenty- four hours, covered with salt; drain liquid off, add one 
gallon of vinegar scalded, with spices poured over when cold. 
— Mrs. J. L. Botsford. . 



Io6 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Mixed Pickles. — Cut the solid part of large seed cucumbers, 
drop them in water slightly salted, over night ; take an equal 
number of onions, or more, boil in salted water until nearly tender. 
You can add cauliflower, beans, green cantaloupe, etc., after 
cooking in salted water, same as onions. You do not cook the 
cucumbers first. After draining mix all together by putting in 
layers in granite kettle ; sprinkle plentifully with celery seed and 
small pieces of red peppers. Take about two tablespoonfuls of 
turmeric and double that of mustard ; mix in cold vinegar and pour 
over the kettle ; cover all with vinegar, add sugar to taste, about 
two cupfuls to the gallon ; boil till nice color, but not long enough 
to lose their crispness ; make the syrup the desired thickness by 
adding mixed cornstarch a little at a time just before taking off 
the stove. — Mrs. W. D. Euwer. 

Cold Pickle. — One peck of ripe tomatoes, chop and drain ; 
two cups of chopped onions ; two cups of chopped celery ; four 
sweet peppers chopped ; one-half cup white mustard ; one-half 
cup celery seed ; one-half cup of salt ; two cups of granulated 
sugar ; two teaspoonfuls black pepper ; two teaspoonfuls of cinna- 
mon ; two pints of vinegar. Can up airtight in glass jars. (Can 
tomato juice for soups.) — Mrs. E. L. Kanengeiser. 

HiGDON. — One-half bushel of green tomatoes, two large heads 
of cabbage, one-half dozen green cucumbers, one dozen onions, one 
dozen green peppers, chopped fine and prepared as piccalilli, all 
except the chopped pepper, which is put in after scalding. Use 
ground cinnamon, allspice, and cloves, a little black mustard seed, 
and celery seed, one gallon of vinegar and four pounds of granu- 
lated sugar, scalded in vinegar. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Green Tomato Mince. — One peck green tomatoes (chopped 
fine) ; add two pounds of raisins; five pounds of sugar; boil until 
thick, then add two tablespoonfuls ground cinnamon, two table- 
spoonfuls of cloves, two tablespoonfuls of salt, one pint of vinegar. 
Can while hot. — Mrs. J. C. Crew. 

Chopped Tomatoes. — To one gallon of tomatoes, chopped 
fine, take one teacupful of salt, sprinkle, and let stand over night. 
Drain through a colander, then add one tablespoonful of ground 
cloves, one of allspice, two of cinnamon, three of ground mustard, 



PICKLES, CATSUP AND SPICED FRUITS 1 89 

two of black pepper, four of green pepper, chopped fine, one head 
of cabbage. Cover with cold vinegar. Three or four onions if 
liked. — Mrs. John Morris. 

Chili Sauce.— Twenty-four ripe tomatoes, twelve green 
peppers, eight onions, eight teacupfuls of vinegar, eight tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, four tablespoonfuls of salt, four teaspoonfuls of 
cloves, four teaspoonfuls of cinnamon. Chop the onions and per- 
pers fine ; slice and peel the tomatoes ; boil two or three hours until 
it is the right consistency. Use less peppers if you don't like it 
hot. — Mrs. Mason Evans. 

Chili Sauce.— Eighteen ripe tomatoes, pared; three green 
peppers, one onion, one cup of sugar, two and one-half cups of 
vinegar, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, 
one "teaspoonful of cloves. Cook the tomatoes tender ; chop the 
onions and peppers very fine. Mix all and cook a few minutes.— 
Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Chili Sauce.— One dozen ripe tomatoes, four green peppers, 
one large onion, one cup of vinegar, one tablespoonful of sugar, 
one teaspoonful of ground allspice, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one 
teaspoonful of pepper. Boil half an hour, then put in bottles while 
hot, and cork tight.— Mr^. E. C. Wells. 

Oil Pickle. — Six dozen cucumbers, four quarts of onions, 
both sliced very thin ; salt and let stand three hours ; drain. Dress- 
ing : One cup of olive oil, one tablespoonful of white mustard and 
one tablespoonful of black mustard seed, one tablespoonful of cel- 
ery seed, two quarts of vinegar. Mix all with the vinegar. Pack 
the onions and cucumbers in jars and pour over them the dressing 
cold. Add vinegar if not sufficient to cover.— Mr^. John Sampson. 

Stuffed Peppers. — Put the peppers in salt and water for a 
few days, then remove the seeds. Chop cabbage and sprinkle with 
salt. In a few hours, drain the water from the cabbage, and 
season with mustard or celery seed, or a mixture of each. Fill 
the peppers with the cabbage and seed, and sew them up. Cover 
with hot vinegar. — Mrs. C. Haseltine. 

Martinoes.— Pick from the vines before they get tough ; put 
them in a weak brine for three days, then let them drain, and- 
pour over them boiling vinegar, spiced with cloves and cinnamon. 
— Mrs. J. J. Murray. 



IQO THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Red Cabbage and Cauliflower. — Pull the loose leaves, 
quarter the cabbage, put them in a large jar with alternate layers 
of salt and cabbage, and let them stand for several days; then 
scald some vinegar, with pepper-corns, mace and cinnamon in 
proportion of an ounce each to a gallon of vinegar ; add a small 
piece of alum, and turn this over the cabbage in the brine, which 
should remain with it. Cloves and allspice are good, but turn the 
cabbage darker. The vinegar should be scalded three or four 
times, and poured over the cabbage to make it tender. Cauliflower 
is pickled in the same way. 

Uncooked Tomato Catsup. — One peck ripe tomatoes, peeled 
and chopped fine ; then put to drain in colander for several hours, 
stirring often. To this add two roots of horseradish, grated, two 
green peppers, remove the seeds and chop fine ; three stalks of 
celery chopped ; one cup of onion chopped ; one-half cup each of 
salt and mustard seed ; one teaspoonful black pepper, one tea- 
spoonful ground mace ; one teaspoonful ground cloves ; two tea- 
spoonfuls cinnamon ; one cup of sugar ; one quart of vinegar. Mix 
all together thoroughly, and put in wide mouthed bottles, cork and 
seal. — Mrs. Robert Bentley. 

Tomato Catsup. — To one gallon of ripe tomatoes, add two 
tablespoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, two of ground mustard, one 
dessert spoon of cloves, one pint of good cider vinegar, a half 
teacupful of sugar. Boil slowly for three hours. Do not add the 
spice until nearly done, as it is more liable to burn. — Mrs. John 
Morris. 

Tomato Catsup. — One gallon of tomatoes, one pint of vine- 
gar, two tablespoonfuls of salt, two of black pepper, two of mus- 
tard, one of cloves, one dozen onions, sliced fine. Boil all together 
till quite thick ; strain through a colander. Bottle and cork tight, 
and keep in a cool place. — Mrs. T. H. Wilson. 

Tomato Catsup. — One bushel ripe tomatoes, one pint of 
salt, one pound of sugar, one-half gallon of vinegar, one and one- 
fourth pound of mixed spices ; buy by the box ; let cook until 
thoroughly seasoned with spices ; two dozen onions cut in small 
pieces, four or five green peppers cut in small pieces, four or five 
horseradish roots cut in small pieces. Mash mixture through a 
sieve. — Mrs. J. L. Botsford. 



PICKLES, CATSUP AND SPICED FRUITS IQI 

Cucumber Catsup. — Boil and grate full-grown cucumbers, 
sprinkle with salt and let stand over night; then pour out all the 
water, season with celery seed and add vinegar until about the 
consistency of the cucumber when grated. Bottle for use. — Mrs. 
C. Hazeltine. 

Cucumber Catsup. — Two dozen large cucumbers, two dozen 
white onions, one tablespoonful of black pepper, one teaspoonful 
red pepper, three red peppers. Cut all up fine, sprinkle with salt 
and let drain until morning, then mix the spices in ; boil the vine- 
gar and let it cool before putting on the pickle. Put in glass jars 
and close tight. — Mrs. E. IV. McChire. 

Gooseberry Catsup. — Five pounds of berries, two and one- 
half pounds of sugar, boil down until as thick as apple butter ; 
add cinnamon and cloves to taste, a pinch of salt, one pint of vine- 
gar. Strain through a hair sieve and bottle. — Mrs. Henry Wick. 

Grape Catsup. — Five pounds of grapes boiled in a little water 
and put through a colander, three pounds of sugar, one pint of 
vinegar, one tablespoonful of ground cloves, one of cinnamon, 
one of pepper, one-half tablespoonful of salt. Boil until a little 
thick. Bottle and seal. — Mrs. C. D. Arms. 

Sweet Pickled Watermelon Rind. — Prepare the rinds and 
put into weak vinegar and water for twelve hours, then boil them 
tender in the same water; drain well and prepare to a pint of 
vinegar one pound of sugar, mace, allspice, cloves, stick cinna- 
mon ; put the rinds in a jar and pour this over them. — Mrs. R. W. 
Tayler. 

Sweet Canteloupe Pickle. — Pare them and cover with 
vinegar, after cutting in pieces ; pour oflf the vinegar and to every 
pint put three-fourths of a pound of brown sugar, a little cloves, 
allspice and mace ; let it boil a few minutes ; throw in the canta- 
loupe ; take it out as soon as it looks clear, put in a jar and pour 
the boiling mixture over them. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

Nasturtums. — Take those that are small and green, put them 
in salt and water, changing it twice in the course of a week. When 
you have done collecting them, turn off the brine and turn on 
scalding vinegar with a little alum in it. 

Spiced Plums. — One peck of plums, seven pounds of sugar, 
spice to taste ; let boil down thick ; before taking from the fire add 
one pint of vinegar. — Mrs. G. B. Woodman. 



192 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Spiced Grapes. — Eight quarts of seeded grapes, two ounces 
of ground cloves, two of cinnamon, three and one-half pounds of 
sugar; boil two hours.— Mr^. Win. Lazvthers. 

^'piCED Grapes. — Boil and strain through a colander, to re- 
move the skins and seeds, six pounds of grapes and add to the 
grapes three pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, two table- 
spoonfuls of cinnamon, one each of cloves and mace ; boil one hour. 
— Airs. C. Hazeltine. 

Spiced Cherries. — Four pounds of cherries, two pounds of 
sugar, one tablespoonful of cinnamon, one of cloves ; heat one 
pint of vinegar ; pour on hot, three days in succession. — Mrs. Win. 
Lazvthers. 

Pickled Cherries. — Pit the cherries. To one quart of fruit 
add one pint of sugar, and one-half pint of vinegar. To six 
quarts of cherries add one-fourth cup of whole cloves and a scant 
fourth pound stick cinnamon. Scald the liquor daily for four days 
and pour over the fruit. 'Do not boil the fruit. — Mrs. W. J. 
Sampson. 

Pickled Plums. — Wash the plums clean and put into jars, 
and for two quarts of plumbs make a rich syrup of two pounds of 
sugar, one pint of vinegar, with spice ; put tlie plums in a jar and 
pour over them the hot syrup. — Miss Kate Anns. 

Spiced Gooseberries. — Six quarts of berries, nine pounds of 
sugar and one pint of vinegar, one tablespoonful each of cinnamon, 
allspice and cloves. Dissolve half the sugar, put in berries cook- 
ing for one hour and a half, then put in remainder of sugar and 
just before taking from the fire add spice and vinegar. — Mrs. S. 
J. McElevev. 

Spiced Pears or Peaches. — Ten pounds of fruit, five pounds 
of sugar, one-half pint of vinegar ; mace, cinnamon and cloves 
tied in a bag ; boil the pears until clear ; then scald thoroughly in 
the syrup, boil it down and pour over the pears. — Mrs. W. S. 
Matthews. 

Spiced Apples. — Three pounds of apples, pared, four pounds 
of sugar, one quart of vinegar, one ounce of stick cinnamon, half 
an ounce of cloves ; boil the sugar, vinegar and spices together ; 
put in the apples when boiling and let them remain until tender. 



PICKLES, CATSUP AND SPICED FRUITS 1 93 

Take out, put into a jar; boil down the syrup until it is thick and 
pour it over. 

Pickled Peaches. — One gallon of vinegar, four pounds of 
brown sugar; take cling-stone peaches, rub them with a flannel, 
stick two or three cloves in each ; put them into a glass or earthen 
vessel and pour the liquor onto them boiling hot ; cover them and 
let stand for a week or ten days, then pour off the liquor and boil 
it as before, after which return it boiling to the peaches, which 
should be covered closely. Let the vinegar and sugar in the 
first place just come to a boil. — Miss Laura Wick. 

Spiced Peaches. — Three pounds of sugar to one pint of good 
vinegar, a teacupful of broken cinnamon, one tablespoonful of 
cloves whole, a very little mace; this will spice about one peck 
of peaches. Put all in a kettle and simmer slowly fifteen or twenty 
minutes. The fruit should be pared. When done put in small jars 
and cover with egg papers. — Mrs. R. McMlilan. 

Spiced Peaches. — Pare, and if very large, halve one peck 
fine Crawford peaches. To one pint of vinegar allow three pounds 
of white sugar, and of this make a rich syrup; drop into the 
syrup a small handful of broken cinnamon, a very little cloves and 
mace and a few pieces of ginger root ; when boiling add as many 
peaches as the syrup will cover and let them simmer about ten 
minutes, then take out carefully with a spoon, put into jars, then 
cook more peaches in the same syrup ; when all cooked, make fresh 
syrup and pour over them in the jars.— Mr^. M. I. Arms. 



COOKERY FOR THE SICK 



Beef Tea. — Very nice beef tea is made by cutting up tender, 
juicy beef into pieces about one inch square; put into a strong 
bottle, cork tightly and set in a kettle of cold water. Boil it about 
two hours ; the fluid then obtained will be of the pure nutriment of 
the meat, and the tonic effects are powerful. 

Beef Tea. — Cut raw beef into small pieces, cover with cold 
water and set on the back of the stove where it will not boil, until 
all the juice is extracted from the beef. When wanted for use 
skim off all the fat, strain, season, and let come to a boil. — Mrs. 
R. McMillan. 

Veal or Mutton Broth. — To each pound of meat add one 
quart of cold water, bring it gently to a boil ; skim it and add salt ; 
simmer the broth about three hours. A little rice may be boiled 
with the meat. When cold skim off all the fat. 

Chicken Broth. — Take part of a chicken, joint it and cover 
with water ; let it boil closely covered until the meat drops from the 
bones, then skim off the fat, strain, and season with a little salt, 
and if liked add a teaspoonful of rice, and let boil until the rice 
is cooked. 

Scraped Beef. — Take a good piece of raw steak, lay it on a 
meat board, and with a knife scrape into fine bits ; after removing 
all hard and grisly parts put it into a pan over the fire and let it 
remain just long enough to become thoroughly heated through, 
stirring it up from the bottom occasionally ; season with a little 
salt. This is very nutritious, and quite palatable. 

To Prepare an Egg. — Beat an egg until very light, add sea- 
soning to the taste, and then steam until thoroughly warmed 
through, but not hardened. This will take about two minutes. 
An egg prepared in this way will not distress a sensitive stomach. 



COOKERY FOR THE SICK IQS 

Milk Porridge. — Make a thin batter of white flour and cold 
milk and stir it into boiling milk with a little salt. Let it boil 
for a few minutes, stirring all the time. 

Panada.— Shave very thin soft parts of light bread into a 
bowl, put in a piece of butter the size of a large hickorvnut, grate 
over this some nutmeg, pour on boiling water, cover and let 
stand a few minutes. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Panada.— Break the soft part of a stale loaf of bread in 
pieces, and soak in cold water for an hour, then mash ; put it on 
the fire, with a little salt, butter and sugar to taste, and cook 
slowly for an hour ; add two yolks of eggs beaten, with two table- 
spoonfuls of milk. 

Oat Meal Gruel.— Put two large spoonfuls of oatmeal, wet 
in cold water, into one pint of boiling water, boil it gently one-half 
hour, skim, and add a little salt, sugar and nutmeg. 

Port Wine Jelly.— Melt in a little warm water one ounce of 
isinglass, stir into it one pint of port wine, adding two ounces of 
sugar, an ounce of gum arable and half a nutmeg, grated ; mix all 
well and boil ten minutes, or until everything is thoroughly dis- 
solved; then strain and set away to get cold. 

Barley Water.— Soak one pint of barley in lukewarm water 
for a few minutes, then drain ofif the water. Put the barley in 
three quarts of cold water, and cook slowly until the barley is quite 
soft, skimming occasionally. This barley water, when cold, flavor 
with a little jelly or lemonade. 

Rice Milk.— Pick and wash the rice carefully; boil it in 
water until it swells and softens ; when the water is partly boiled 
away, add some milk. It may be boiled entirely in milk, by setting 
the vessel in which the rice is in, in boiling water ; sweeten with 
white sugar, and season with nutmeg. It also may be thickened 
with a little flour or beaten egg. 

Flaxseed Tea.— One-half pound of flaxseed, one-half pound 
of rock candy, and three lemons pared and sliced ; pour over this 
two quarts of boiling water ; let it stand until very cold ; strain 
before drinking. This is good for a cough.— Mr^. H. B. Wick. 

Appleade.— Cut two large apples in slices, and pour on them 
one pint of boiling water ; strain well and sweeten. Ice it before 
drinking. 



196 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Blackberry Syrup. — One quart of blackberry juice, one 
pound of sugar, one-half ounce of nutmeg, one-half ounce of 
cinnamon, one-fourth of as ounce of cloves, one-fourth of an 
ounce of allspice. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

ToASTWATER. — Toast Stale bread until quite brown, but do 
not burn it ; put it into a large bowl, and pour over it boiling 
water ; let it stand for an hour or so, strain and put in a piece of 
ice before drinking. 

Toast. — Toast bread until a nice brown all over, taking great 
care not to burn ; butter each slice, dip into hot water, or pour 
over each piece enough sweet cream to moisten it. 

Blackberry Wine. — To one gallon of mashed berries add 
one quart of boiling water and let it stand twenty- four hours ; then 
strain them, and to every gallon of juice add three pounds of brown 
sugar. Put in a jug or demijohn and cover with a thin piece of 
muslin until October, then bottle it off. — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 

Wine Whey. — Sweeten one pint of milk to taste, and when 
boiling throw in two wine-glasses of sherry : when the curd forms, 
strain the whey through a muslin bag into tumblers. 

Arrowroot Custards. — Boil a pint of milk, and while boiling 
stir into it one large spoonful of arrowroot mixed smooth with a 
little cold milk ; add a little salt ; let it boil three or four minutes, 
then let it cool, and add a couple of beaten eggs, sugar, and nut- 
meg to the taste, and set it where it will get scalding hot, stirring 
all the time. As soon as it boils up turn it into custard cups. 

Cracked Wheat. — To one quart of hot water take one small 
teacup of cracked wheat and a little salt ; boil slowly for half an 
hour, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Serve with cream 
and sugar or new milk. 

Raw Egg — Break a fresh egg into a glass, beat until very 
light, sweeten to taste and add two tablespoonfuls of port wine, 
then beat again. 

Fine Hominy. — Put to soak one pint of hominy in two and 
one-half pints of boiling water over night in a tin vessel with 
a tight cover ; in the morning add one-half pint of sweet milk and 
a little salt. Place on a brisk fire in a kettle of boiling water ; let 
boil one-half hour. 



COOKERY FOR THE SICK 1 97 

Oat Meal Mush. — Sift into boiling water, with a little salt, 
oat meal until about the consistency of common mush ; let it boil 
one-half hour. 

Blackberry Cordial. — Warm and squeeze the berries ; add 
to one pint of juice one pound of white sugar, one-half ounce of 
powdered cinnamon, one- fourth ounce of mace, two tpa^Doontuls 
of cloves. Boil all together for one-fourth of an hour; strain 
the syrup, and to each pint add a glass of French brandy. Two 
or three doses of a tablespoonful or less will check any slight 
diarrhoea. When the attack is violent, give a tablesnoonful after 
each discharge until the complaint is in subjection. It will arrest 
dysentery if given in season, and is a pleasant and safe remedy. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 



Amount of Refreshments Required for Entertaining 
Fifty Guests. — Five chickens and twelve heads of celery for 
salad. One hundred sandwiches. One and one-half pounds of 
coffee. Three pints of cream. Two molds of jelly and five loaves 
of cake. For scalloped oysters : One gallon of oysters, two pounds 
of crackers, and one pound of butter. Five dozen biscuits. Two 
and one-half pounds of butter. Eight pounds of ham boiled and 
two pounds of butter for one hundred mixed ham sandwiches. — 
Mrs. S. J. McElevey. 

To Clean Paint. — Tea leaves may be saved from the table 
for a few days, and when sufficient are collected, steep, not boil, 
them for half an hour in a tin pan. Strain the water off through 
a sieve, and use this tea to wash all varnished paint. It removes 
spots, and gives a fresher, newer appearance than when soap and 
water is used. For white paint, take up a small quantity of whit- 
ing on a damp piece of old white flannel, and rub over the surface 
lightly, and it will leave the paint remarkably bright and new. 

To Mend Broken Dishes. — Take one-fourth of a pound of 
white glue, break the pieces fine, put in a bottle, and add muriatic 
acid enough to cover the glue; cork the bottle tightly, and place 
where it will be warm until the contents have become liquid of thf 
consistency of thin molasses. To mend an earthen or glass dish, 
see that the edges are clean ; then warm the parts until they are so 
hot that you can scarcely hold in your hands, but do not heat so hot 
as to burn the cement. With a flat stick apply the cement to the 
edges as quick as you can, put them together, and let another 
person tie them tightly. When this is done, put the mended dishes 
on a shelf in a warm room until the cement has become thoroughly 
dry and hard. — Mrs. C. H. Gilman. 

To Raise the Pile of Velvet. — Cover a hot smoothing-iron 
with a wet cloth, hold the velvet firmly over it ; the vapor rising 
will raise the pile of velvet with the assistance of a light whisk. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 1 99 

Put one or two red peppers or a few pieces of charcoal into 
the pot where ham, cabbage, etc., is boiUng, and the house will not 
be filled with offensive odor. 

To Wash Oil-Cloths. — In washing oil-cloth, never use any 
soap or a scrub brush ; it will destroy an oil-cloth that should last 
for years, in a short time. Use instead warm water and a soft 
cloth of flannel and w^pe off with water and skim milk. 

Baking PovvoiiR. — Eight ounces of soda, eight ounces of 
flour, seven ounces of tartaric acid ; sift well together. — Miss Eliza 
Powers. 

Soft Soap. — Eighteen pounds of potash to twenty pounds of 
grease ; boil until the scraps are eaten up, then pour into a barrel 
and fill it with cold water ; stir it well every day until it thickens, 
which is generally two weeks. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Soap. — Four and one-half pounds of soda ash, two pounds 
of lime, two ounces of borax ; boil in three gallons of water half 
an hour, then pour it into a tub to settle ; clean the kettle and put 
in seven pounds of clean grease while the lye is settling; then 
pour off the lye into the kettle and boil two or three hours ; put 
five gallons of water into the tub to settle, and then throw in 
occasionally from that, as it rises, to keep from boiling over. — 
Mrs. A. B. Maximll, Leetonia O. 

To Clean Straw Matting. — If white straw matting is 
washed twice during the summer in salt and water — a pint of salt 
to half a pailful of warm soft water — and dried quickly with a 
soft cloth, it will be long before it will turn yellow. A thin coat of 
varnish applied to straw matting will make it much more durable, 
and keep the matting looking; fresh and new. White varnish 
should be used on white matting. When varnished it will not 
need to be washed. Be sure and have the varnish thin, or the 
matting will crack. 

To Clean Tinware. — Tinware looks much nicer when 
washed in hot water with milk instead of soap, and will not require 
rough scouring, which soon wears oif the tin. 

To Take Mildew from Linen. — Rub the spots with soap ; 
scrape chalk over it and rub it well; lay on the grass in the 
sun ; as it dries, wet it a little ; it will come out with two apphca- 
tions, — Mrs. R. W. Tayler. 



200 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

A Cheap Paint. — Take a bushel of unslacked lime and slack 
it with cold water; add to it twenty pounds of Spanish whiting, 
seventeen pounds of salt, and twelve pounds of sugar ; strain the 
mixture through a wire sieve, and it will be ready for use after 
reducing with cold water. This is intended for the outside of 
buildings ; put on with a white-wash brush. For inside walls, 
take as before, one bushel of unslacked lime, three pounds of 
sugar, five pounds of salt ; prepare as above, and put on with a 
brush. 

Another Paint. — Take about a peck of unslacked lime, slack 
it in hot water; add about six pounds of lard, or any kind of 
grease ; put in about two pounds of glue and one pound of Spanish 
whiting, a few handfuls of salt. Apply it while hot. 

To Revive Withered Flowers. — Dip the stems (after cut- 
ting about one-half inch from them) into boiling water, and, by the 
time the water is cold, the flowers will revive. 

To Get Rid of Flies. — Take one-half teaspoonful of black 
pepper in powder, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one tea- 
spoonful of cream; mix well together, and place in a room on a 
plate where the flies are troublesome. 

To Get Free from Ants. — Sprinkle quick-lime on the win- 
dow-sills, or wherever they get in ; camphor gum wrapped in paper 
and laid around when they are thick, will also drive them away. 

To Wash Muslin Dresses in Delicate Colors. — They 
should not be washed with soap. The best fluid to wash them in 
is rice water, made by boiling one pound of rice in one gallon of 
water ; reserve a quart of the water for starching ; then wash the 
dress in the remainder ; rinse in clear or slightly blued water ; then 
starch the dress in the remaining quantity of rice water and iron 
quickly. 

To Dye Blue on Cotton (Two and one-half pounds). — 
One ounce of oxalic acid, one ounce of Prussian blue, put together 
in a bottle of soft water two or three days before using ; shake often 
so as to dissolve ; when ready to use, put in a brass kettle plenty 
of cold water and the solution ; when it comes to a boil, put in your 
rags a few minutes, and rinse around. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 201 

To Dye Yellow (One and one-half pounds). — Six ounces 
of sugar of lead, four ounces of bichromate potash ; dissolve each 
in a pail of hot water ; dip your rags, first in the lead and then in 
the potash ; dip the yellow in hot lime-water for orange, and blue 
in yellow for green. — Mrs. R. McMillan. 

For Coloring Scarlet That Will Not Fade. — To six 
pounds of woolen goods take three ounces of cochineal, three 
ounces cream tartar, and three ounces of solution of tin ; dissolve 
the cream tartar in enough water to set the goods ; scald the goods 
in the same water half an hour ; soak the cochineal in =^ft water 
over night; when ready to color, let the cochineal scald, but not 
boil, using goods out of cream tartar water, and put in cochineal 
solution ; let them scald several hours ; goods ought then to be 
dark color ; drain out of that ; add solution of tin to same liquid, 
put in the goods and let them remain until the coloring is all 
absorbed.— Mr.y. R. McMillan. 

To Clean Marble. — Take two parts of common soda, one 
part of pumice stone, and one part of finely powdered chalk ; sift it 
through a fine sieve, and mix it with watery then rub it well all 
over the marble, and the stains will be removed; rub the marble 
over with salt and water. 

To Clean Tinware. — The best thing for cleaning tinware is 
common soda ; dampen a cloth, dip it in soda, rub the ware briskly, 
after which wipe dry. 

To Wash Hair Brushes. — Dissolve a piece of soda in warm, 
not hot, water; dip the bristles only of the brush once in, then 
rub a little soap on them, and continue dipping the brush in and out 
(taking care that the water does not get to the back of the handle) 
till it becomes white and clean; then dip into cold water in the 
same manner ; shak and wipe with a cloth, and lay before the fire, 
bristles down, to dry. 

To Clean Cut Glass. — Having washed cut glass articles, 
let them dry, and afterwards rub them with prepared chalk and a 
soft brush, carefully going into all the cavities. 

Indelible Ink. — To one tablespoon of rain water, one-half 
teaspoon of vinegar, add a piece of lunar caustic three inches long ; 
shake well together ; put on to your cloth a little milk and soda 



202 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

(to a tablespoon of milk, a piece of baking soda as large as a 
grain of corn) ; iron smooth and write immediately. — Mrs. C. D. 
Arms. 

Iron Rust. — This may be removed by salt mixed with a 
little lemon juice; put in the sun; if necessary use two appli- 
cations. 

Mildew. — Dip the stained cloth in buttermilk, and lay in 
the sun. 

Bleaching Process. — Ten cents worth of chloride of lime, 
dissolved in enough water to cover well ; when dissolved, pour 
into a large tubful of water; saturate the cloth well with water 
before putting into the lime-water ; rinse around well with a stick 
until the cloth gets white all over; let it stand one-half hour; 
then wash out in clean water and boil. — Mrs. Win. Bonnell. 

To Clean Kid Gloves. — Pour naphtha in a bowl, enough to 
wash one glove ; dip in the glove, and rub every part as hard as 
you would in washing a rag ; draw on the hand immediately, and 
rub until dry with a clean towel ; proceed in the same manner 
with the other glove, using clean naphtha. 

To Clean Brittania Ware. — It should first be rubbed with 
a woolen cloth and sweet oil, and then washed in water and suds, 
and rubbed with soft water and whiting. 

To Clean Mirrors. — Never wash a mirror with a cloth, but 
after removing all the dust from a mirror and frame with an old 
silk handkerchief or feather duster, dampen a piece of soft paper 
and rub the surface of the mirror till perfectly clear and free from 
spots, then wipe off all the moisture with a soft dry paper and 
the mirror will be as clear as glass can be, without motes or 
streaks, as is the case when it is washed and polished with a 
cloth. 

To Purify a Sink. — Sinks will, in hot weather, become 
foul ; it is almost impossible for any one to help it unless some 
chemical preparation is used. Dissolve copperas — one pound in 
four gallons of water. Pour over the sink three or four times. 

To Soften Hard Water. — An ounce of quick-lime dis- 
solved in nine quarts of water, and the clear solution put into a 
barrel of hard water; the whole will become soft when cleared. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 203 

Paste for Cleaning Brass and Other Metals. — Take 
oxalic acid one part, rotten stone six parts ; mix with equal parts 
of oil and spirits of turpentine to a paste. 

Management of Gold Fish.— One fish to one quart of 
water ; use the same kind of water, whether spring or river water ; 
change daily in summer ; every other day in winter ; use shallow 
rather than deep vessels, with small pebbles in the bottom (to 
be kept clean) ; keep in the shade and a cool part of the room ; use 
a small net rather than the hand when changing the water ; feed 
with cracker, the yolk of egg, lettuce and flies every third or 
fourth day and put a little in at a time. Do not feed at all from 
November to the end of February, and but little for the three 
following months. 

To Keep Different Things. — Pack grapes in cotton. Keep 
crumbs and pieces of bread in an earthen vessel, in a cool, dry 
place, well covered. Put fresh lard or suet in tin vessels. Salt 
pork in unglazed earthenware. Preserves or jellies in glass, 
china or stoneware. Cabbage, buried in the ground, roots up- 
ward. Salt in a dry place ; meal in a cool, dry place ; ice in the 
cellar, wrapped in flannel ; vinegar in wood or glass. 

Moths in Carpets. — Take a coarse crash towel, wring it out 
in clean water, spread it smoothly over the carpet, then iron it 
dry, repeating the operation on all suspected places and those 
least used. Then, by placing a few crumbs of sulphur under the 
edges of the carpet, the result is accomplished. 

Cement.— Two ounces of acetic acid, one ounce of best white 
glue— the acid dissolves the glue. Put in a wide-mouthed bottle, 
with a brush always ready. Good for everything. Fix like a 
mucilage bottle. It dries directly. 

Excellent Cologne.— Rose-geranium water, one quart; oil 
of rose geranium, two ounces ; oil of rose verbena, two drachms ; 
oil of bergamot, two drachms; oil of jessamine, one ounce; oil 
of lavender, Eng., one drachm ; extract of mille fleur, one ounce. 
This recipe requires five quarts of alcohol. 

Household Uses of Ammonia. — For washing paint, put a 
tablespoonful in a quart of moderately hot water, dip in a flannel 
cloth, and with this simply wash off the woodwork. No scrub- 
bing will be necessary. For taking grease from any fabric, use 



204 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

the ammonia nearly pure, then lay white blotting paper over the 
spot and iron lightly. To clean silver, mix two teaspoonfuls in a 
quart of hot soapsuds. Wash the ware with an old brush. For 
cleaning hair brushes, shake the brush up and down in a mixture 
of one teaspoonful of ammonia to one pint of hot water. Then 
rinse in cold water and stand them in the wind or a hot place to 
dry. For washing finger-marks from mirrors or windows, put a 
few drops of ammonia on a moist rag, and rub quickly. If you 
wish your house plants to flourish, put a few drops into every 
pint used in watering. A teaspoonful in a basin of cold water 
will add much to the refreshing effects of a bath. Nothing is 
better than ammonia and water for cleaning the hair. In every 
case rinse ofif the ammonia with clear water. 

Carpet Cleaning Recipe. — Two and one-half cakes of ivory 
soap, eight ounces of washing soda, four ounces of powdered 
borax. Boil in one gallon of water until dissolved ; add four 
gallons of water to this and let cool. — Mrs. W. S. Bonnell. 

To Wash Windows. — It is said that windows washed in 
water, to which a little bluing has been added, will show a fine 
brilliance and keep fresh longer than when washed in the usual 
manner. 

For Sting of Wasp or Bee. — Most efficacious and speedy in 
results is a plaster of clove oil and common salt. It seems to 
counteract the effects of the poison immediately. — Mrs. A. E. 
Kauifmann. 

The Best Thing to Take Mildew Out of Linen. — Rub 
soap well into the moistened linen. Then scrape fine some 
common chalk and rub that also into the linen. Lay on the grass. 
As it dries, moisten again and again, if necessary. The mildew 
usually disappears very rapidly with this treatment. — Mrs. A. E. 
Kauifmann. 

To Clean Tiles. — Add one tablespoonful of kerosene to 
pail of hot water for scrubbing tiles and it will both cleanse and 
show up their colors to perfection. 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISON 



The following list gives some of the more common poisons 
and the remedies most likely to be on hand in case of need : 

Acids. — These cause great heat and sensation of burning 
pain from the mouth down to the stomach. Remedies : Magnesia, 
soda, pearl ash, or soap dissolved in water; then use stomach- 
pump, or emetic. 

Alkali. — Best remedy is vinegar. 

Ammonia. — Remedy: Lemon juice or vinegar. 

Alcohol. — First cleanse out the stomach by an emetic, then 
dash cold wated on the head, and give ammonia (spirits of 
hartshorn). 

Arsenic. — Remedies : In the first place evacuate the stomach, 
then give the white of eggs, lime water, or chalk and water, char- 
coal, and the preparation of iron, particular hydrate. 

Laudanum. — Same as opium. 

Belladonna. — Give emetics, and then plenty of vinegar and 
water, or lemonade. * 

Morphine. — Same as opium. 

Charcoal. — In poisons by carbonic gas, remove the patient 
to the open air, dash cold water on the head and body, and stimu- 
late the nostrils and lungs with hartshorn, at the same time rub- 
bing the chest briskly. 

Corrosive Sublimate. — Give white of egg freshly mixed 
with water, or give wheat flour and water freely, or salt and water. 

Creosote. — White of eggs and emetics. 

Lead. — White lead and sugar of lead. Remedies : Alum ; 
cathartics, such as castor oil and epsom salts, especially. 



206 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Mushrooms when Poisonous. — Give emetics and then 
plenty of vinegar and water, with doses of ether if handy. 

Nitrate of Silver (Lunar Caustic). — Give a strong solu- 
tion of common sah and then emetics. 

Opium. — First give a strong emetic of mustard and water, 
then strong coffee and acid drinks ; dash cold water on the head. 

Nux Vomica. — First emetics and then brandy. 

Oxalic Acid (Frequently mistaken for Epsom salts). — 
Remedies : Chalk, magnesia, or soap and water, and other 
soothing drinks. 

Prussic Acid. — When there is time administer chlorine in 
the shape of soda and lime. Hot brandy and water, hartshorn 
and turpentine are also useful. 

Snake Bite, Etc. — Apply immediately strong hartshorn, 
and take it internally ; also give sweet oil and stimulants freely ; 
apply a ligature tightly above the part bitten, and then apply a 
cupping-glass. 

Tartar Emetic. — Take large doses of tea made of galls, 
Peruvian bark, or white oak bark. 

Verdigris. — Plenty of white of eggs and water. 

White Vitriol. — Give the patient j)lenty of milk and water. 

A Cure for Whisky Drinkers, — Sulphate of iron five 
grains, magnesia ten grains, peppermint water eleven drachms, 
spirit of nutmeg one drachm ; twice a day. 



MEDICAL HINTS 



If a man faints, lay him on his back and let him alone. 

If any poison is swallowed, drink instantly half a glass of 
cool water with a heaping teaspoonful each of common salt and 
ground mustard stirred into it. This vomits as soon as it reaches 
the stomach, but for fear some of the poison might remain, swal- 
low the whites of two raw eggs, or drink a cup of strong coffee — 
these two being antidotes for a greater number of poisons than 
any dozen other articles known, besides the advantage of their 
being at hand ; if not, a pint of sweet oil, or lamp oil, or drip- 
pings, or melted butter or lard are good substitutes, especially if 
they vomit quickly. 

Cure for Hydrophobia. — Take elecampane root and boil in 
fresh milk; give it to the patient, who should fast after taking; 
give a second and third dose on alternate days. This remedy has 
been known to effect a cure even after the spasms have commenced. 

To Cure Hoarseness. — Saturate a flannel cloth with glycerine 
and spread on the chest ; in half an hour the hoarseness will be 
relieved. — Mrs. Sydney Strong. 

Cough Syrup. — One quart of water, one pint of molasses, 
and a handful of hops (tied in a cloth) ; boil them together until 
reduced one-half ; when cold, add one teaspoonful of paregoric to 
each cup of syrup ; dose, one tablespoonful. — Mrs. J. G. Butler. 

Whooping-Cough Syrup. — One ounce of boneset, one ounce 
of slippery elm, one ounce of flaxseed ; simmer together in one 
quart of water until the strength is entirely extracted ; strain care- 
fully ; add one pint of molasses, one-half pound loaf sugar ; simmer 
all together and when cold, bottle tight. One teaspoonful at a 
dose. — Mrs. G. W. Haney. 

Simple Cholera Preventive. — An eminent physician says 
the surest preventive of Asiatic cholera is sulphur. Put one-half 



208 



THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 



teaspoonful of flour of sulphur into each of your stockings ; never 
go out with an empty stomach ; eat no fresh bread or sour food. 
This is not only a preventive in an epidemic in cholera, but also in 
many other epidemic diseases. 

Good Salve for Burns. — One-fourth of a pound of tallow ; 
one-fourth of a pound of lard, one-half pound of oxide of zinc, one 
ounce of camphor gum ; mix by heating over a slow fire. — Mrs. 
M. I. Arms. 

A Cure for Warts. — Wet the brimstone end of a match, and 
rub on to the wart, repeating until the wart is removed. — Miss 
Lide Wick. 

Diphtheria. — Tar put between two layers of cloth and tied 
on the neck. 

A Good Tonic. — Ten cents worth of comfrey, elecampane, 
spikenard, Columbia root, wild cherry bark and burdock, one-half 
paper of hoarhound, five cents Avorth of rattle root, one quart of 
strained honey, or two pounds of sugar ; cover with water and 
steep ; pour off and repeat the operation until you have a gallon ; 
when cold, add one quart of whisky. Dose, one tablespoonful 
three times a day. — Mrs. H. B. Wick. 

Croup. — One teaspoonful of powdered alum, mixed with 
two teaspoonfuls of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of molasses. 

Cure for Burns and All Kinds of Sores. — One-half pound 
of white lead, one half pound of red lead, two ounces of camphor 
gum, one-half ounce of oil of spike, one and one-half pints of olive 
oil. Put these all together in a brass kettle ; simmer over a stove 
two hours, being very careful not to burn ; stir it constantly. — Mrs. 
M. I. Arms. 

The best thing to stop the bleeding of a moderate cut instantly 
is to cover it profusely with cobweb, or flour and salt — half and 
half. 

If the blood comes from a wound by jets or spurts, be spry, 
or the man will die in a few minutes, because an artery is severed. 
Tie a handkerchief loosely around, near the part, between the 
wound and the heart ; put a stick between the handkerchief and 



MEDICAL HINTS 209 

the skin, and twist it around until the blood ceases to flow ; keep 
it there until the doctor comes. If in a position where a handker- 
chief cannot be used, press the thumb on a spot near the wound, 
between the wound and the heart ; increase the pressure until the 
blood ceases to flow, but do not lessen the pressure for an instant 
before the physician arrives, so as to glue up the wound by 
coagulation or cooling and hardening of the blood. 

If your clothes take fire, slide the hands down the dress, 
keeping them as close to the body as possible, at the same time 
sinking to the floor by bending the knees. This has a smothering 
effect on the flames. If not extinguished, or great headway 
gotten, lie down on the floor and roll over and over; or better, 
envelope yourself in a carpet rug, bed cloth, or any garment you 
can get hold of, always preferring woolen. 

If the body is tired, rest ; if the brain is tired, sleep. The 
three best medicines in the world are warmth, abstinence and 
repose. 

Cough Syrup.— Two ounces of snake-root, two ounces of 
squills, one ounce of fennel seed, two ounces of juniper berries, 
two ounces of senna, one-half ounce of anise seed, two ounces of 
Columbia root; to the entire amount two gallons of water; boil 
down to one-fourth ; set off to cool. Strain through a cloth, and 
add one pint of whisky and one quart of molasses.— Mr.y. Allen 
Boyle, Salem, Ohio. 

Camphor Ice.— One and one-half ounces of spermaceti, one- 
half ounce of white wax, four tablespoons of olive oil, heated to- 
gether; when dissolved, add six drachms of camphor gum. 

Mustard Plasters.— Mustard plasters mixed with sweet oil 
(or better, camphorated oil), will not blister, will give quick re- 
lief in case of cold on the lungs, pleurisy, pain in the back, etc. 
White of an egg is also good to mix with mustard, but lacks the 
heating properties of the oil. 

Camphorated oil is an excellent remedy for cold-sores, chapped 
hands and lips, mumps, sore throat and chest, bruises and sore- 
ness in general. It is prepared by putting into sweet oil all the 
camphor gum it will dissolve. 



210 THE YOUNGSTOWN COOK BOOK 

Every household, especially where there are children, should 
always keep ready a bottle of linseed oil, mixed with lime water, 
to use in case of burns, scalds, etc. Apply immediately to the 
burnt part, saturating a piece of cotton thoroughly, and covering 
closely from the air. Any druggist will prepare it, or it can be 
prepared by pouring water on a small piece of lime and, after it 
is slacked, stirring the water into the oil until it is rather thick. 



Order of Departments 

Page 

Soups 5 

Fish 14 

Shell Fish 19 

Meats 27 

Hams 41 

Poultry 43 

Game 49 

Vegetables 52 

Salads 66 

Sauces and Relishes for Meats 74 

Eggs and Omelets 79 

Cheese 83 

Luncheon Dishes 86 

For the Chafing Dish 92 

Sandwiches and Canapes 94 

Bread, Yeast and Rolls 97 

Biscuit and Hot Cakes 1 06 

Pastry 11] 

Puddings 118 

Pudding Sauces 1 29 

Fritters and Dumplings 1 32 

Custards, Creams and Ices 135 

Beverages 1 46 

Cakes , 151 

Icing for Cake 163 



Small Cakes 1 65 

Candies 1 74 

Canned Fruits, Preserves and Jellies 177 

Pickles, Catsup and Spiced Fruits I 84 

Cookery for the Sick \ 1 94 

Miscellaneous Recipes 1 98 

Antidotes for Poison 205 

Medical Hints 207 




JAN 8 1906 



h ) i\waxxj k-.Aru. 



\ K^jn> 



A 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 





014 480 530 6 •