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Full text of "Your weeds and your neighbor's : part 2 distribution of our weeds"

VOLUME II. NUMBER 10. 

Bulletin No. 22 
west "v^ne/O-iisri^. 

S^ridultut^kl ^xperirqerjt $tktior) 

MORGANTOWN, W. VA. 



YOUR WEEDS AND YOUR NEIGHBOR'S. 
Part 2. 

DISTRIBUTION OF OUR WEEDS. 
BAD POINTS OF WEEDS. 

WEEDS AS FODDER FOR STOCK. 

CHEMICAL WEED EXTERMINATORS. 



FEBRUARY, 1892. 




CHAKLESTON : 
Moses W. Donnallt, Public Printer. 
1892. 



BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE WEST VIRGINIA 
UNIVERSITY, 



District. 


Name of Regent. 


P. O. Addrew. 


I. 


J. B. SOMMERVILLE, 


Wheeling. 


2. 


CLARENCE L. SMITH, 


Fairmont. 


3- 


PEREGRIN HAYES, 


Glenville. 


4- 


JOHN C. VANCE, 


Clarksburg. 


5- 


JOHN G. SCHILLING, 


Spencer. 


6. 


EDWARD A. BENNETT, 


Huntington. 


7- 


WIRT A. FRENCH, 


Princeton. 


8. 


M. J. KESTER, 


Union. 


9- 


J. F. BROWN, 


Charleston. 


IO. 


THOS. J. FARNSWORTH, 


Buckhannon. 


ii. 


JOSEPH MORELAND, 


Morgantown. 


12. 


JOHN A. ROBINSON, 


Patterson's Depot. 


13- 


DR. W. W. BROWN, 


Kabletown. 



MEMBERS OF THE STATION COMMITTEE 



JOHN A. ROBINSON, JOHN G. SCHILLING, 

JOSEPH MORELAND, THOS. J. FARNSWORTH, 

• DR. W. W. BROWN. 



President of the University, Treasurer, 

E. M. TURNER, LL. D., JOHN I. HARVEY. 

STATION STAFF. 



JOHN A. MYERS, Ph. D., . . . . Director. 

CHAS. F. MILLSPAUGH, M. D., Botanist and Microscopist. 

A. D. HOPKINS Entomologist 

RUDOLF LE ROODE, Ph. D., . Chemist. 

D. D. JOHNSON, A. M., . . . Agriculturist. 

SUSIE V. MAYERS, : . Stenographer and Book-keeper. 



YOUR WEEDS AND YOUR NEIGHBOR'S. 



C. F. MlLXSPAUGH, M. D. 

My idea in issuing Bulletin No. 12 on the Canada Thistle, in De- 
cember, 1890, was not only to call attention to that most pestilential 
and obnoxious weed, and to stimulate the farmers of this State to a 
deeper interest in the weeds of their neighborhood; but also to gain 
their co-operation in determining the extent of such growths in the 
State, as well as their ideas of the best methods of procedure in re- 
lation to weeds, special and general. How far I have succeeded 
these bulletins will show. Suffice it to say, however, that I feel just- 
ified in remarking that I do not think any Station in the Union ever 
gained so many willing and painstaking answers to any set of ques- 
tions, or have awakened so much interest among their farming com- 
munities as we have in this. Hearty co-operation has been un- 
stintedly gained, and all requests for sample weeds promptly and 
kindly granted. For all of this, I wish to heartily and publicly ex- 
press the thanks of this Station, and hope that my efforts to tabu- 
late these answers will resultjn placing all this material before you 
in a satisfactory and easily understood form. 

This bulletin contains a digest of the material received arranged by 
sections and counties, in order that the weeds should be more or 
less grouped according to their alliance to each other, as to char- 
acter of soil, nature, altitude and geographic position. In studying 
this method of grouping, it must be borne in mind, that I have in 
most part used only the matter received from my correspondents; 
that their observations are generally confined to their limited neigh- 
borhoods; that their ideas differ according to their methods of farm- 
ing and the crops and stock they raise; and that many years of con- 
stant and personal travel and observation only could solve the 
many problems offered by the weed and filth question. 

This artificial grouping is as follows: 

(1) Valley Counties: /. e. Such as lie in the eastern Pan Handle 
of the State and on the eastern slopes and foot-hills of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, comprising the fertile valleys 1 of the Potomac, 
Cacapon, Opequon and Shenandoah Rivers, and the ridges and 
slopes of the North and South Fork, Patterson's Creek, Big Piney, 



178 

Jersey, North River, and Great North Mountains, viz: Jefferson, 
Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire, Hardy, Mineral, Grant and Pen- 
dleton. 

(2) The North-eastern Mountain Counties: i. e. such as lie in or 
near the north-eastern stretches of the higher Alleghanies, the Rich, 
Laurel, Cheat, Shavers, East and Dry Fork Mountains; and the 
valleys of the Forks of Cheat and Tygart's Valley Rivers, viz: 
Tucker and Randolph. 

(3) The Eastern Mountain Counties: i. e. Those that lie on or 
near the higher Eastern Alleghany ranges and Lower Rich and 
Cheat, as well as Elm, Buffalo Bull, Buffalo Lick, Beaver Lick, 
Cranberry, Big Clear Creek, Elk, Peeter's and Pott's Mountains, and 
the valley of the Greenbrier River, viz: Webster, Pocahontas, 
Greenbrier, Summers and Monroe. 

(4) The Northern Counties: /. e. Such as lie along the northern 
or Penns) 7 lvania boundary line, and Lower Cheat and Monongahela 
Rivers, viz: Preston, Monongalia, Marion and Taylor. 

(5) The Northwestern Ohio River Counties, comprising such as 
lie in the upper Pan Handle of the State and on the banks and ter- 
races of the Ohio River, as far South as the mouth of the Little 
Kanawha, viz: Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Tyler, 
Pleasants and Wood. 

(6) The Western Ohio River Counties: Comprising the bal- 
ance of such as lie along the Ohio, and the mouths of the Great 
Kanawha, Guyandotte and Big Sandy Rivers, viz: Jackson, Mason, 
Cabell and Wayne. 

(7) The North Central Counties: Comprising all the central 
counties lying more or less north of the Great Elk River, and con- 
stituting the principal water shed of the Little Kanawha and Mo- 
nongahela, viz: Barbour, Harrison, Doddridge, Upshur, Lewis, 
Ritchie, Wirt, Roane and Braxton. 

(8) The South Central Counties: Comprising those lying south of 
the Great Elk River and north of the Guyandotte and Spruce Fork 
Mountains, through which flow the New, Gauley, Elk, Big Coal 
and Great Kanawha Rivers, viz: Putnam, Kanawha, Clay, Nich- 
olas, Fayette, Lincoln, Boone and Raleigh. 

(9)The Southern Boundary Counties: i. e. Those drained by the 
Guyandotte and Big Sandy Rivers, viz: Logan, Wyoming, Mc- 
Dowell, Mercer. 



179 



LIST OF OBSERVERS. 



Name. 

1. J. F. Woodyard, 

2 T. D; Ross, 

3. Luther Haymond, 

4. C. W. Stump. 

5. J. W. Biller, 

6. J. D. Fry, 

7. Smith A. Day, 

8. R. H. Douglass, 

9. L. C. Applegate, 

10. J. W. Stevens, 

11. L. H. Wilcox, 

12. G. V. Forinash, 

13. J. W. Boggess, 

14. S. A. Frankhauser, 

15. W. T. Wooley, 

16. John Baird, 

17. A. J. Bonafield, 

18. J. L. Curtis, 

19. J. A. Deeds, 

20. D. Bassel, 

21. A. J. Bissett, 

22. C. M. Maxon, 

23. FrankS Evans, 

24. B. F. Curry, 

25. A. E. Roush, 

26. J. R. Stout, 

27. H. Manley, 

28. F. Gillman, 

29. W. C. Boor, 

30. Wallace Robinson, 

31. J. F. Bryant, 

32. Dr. G. L. Nye, 

33. Amos Jolliff, 

34. J. W. Miles, 



Place. 

Parkersburg, 

Canton, 

Clarksburg, 

Slanesville, 

Summit Point, 

Summit, 

Elizabeth, 

Douglass, 

Wellsburg, 

Laurel Point, 

Farmington, 

Lorentz, 

Lumberport, 

New Martinsville, 

Odaville, 

Elm Grove, 

Tunnelton, 

Wellsburg, 

Jumping Branch, 

Lost Creek, 

Littleton, 

Lost Creek, 

N. Cumberland, 

Hamlin, 

New Haven, 

Bridgeport, 

Eldora, - 

Davisville, 

Barracksville, 

Frankford, 

Waverly, 

Hurricane, 

Uniontown, 

Overhill, 



County. 

Wood. 
Marion. 
Harrison. 
Hampshire. 
Jefferson. 
Jefferson. 
Wirt. 
Jackson. 
Brooke. 
Monongalia. 
■ Marion. 
Upshur. 
Harrison. 
Wetzel. 
Jackson. 
Qhio.l 
Preston. 
Brooke. 
Summers. 
Harrison. 
Wetzel. 
Harrison. 
Hancock. 
Lincoln. 
Mason. 
Harrison. 
Marion. 
Wood. 
Marion. 
Greenbrier. 
Wood. 
Putnam. 
Wetzel. 
Upshur. 



i8o 



Name. 



Place. 



County. 



35. 


J. M. Hendricks, 


Mohlers, 


Jefferson. 


36. 


Sidney Haymond, 


Quiet Dell, 


Harrison. 


37. 


J, M. Metheny, 


Terra Alt a, 


Preston. 


38. 


John Waustreet, 


Leopold, 


Doddridge. 


39. 


J. T. Davis, 


Vadis, 


Lewis. 


40. 


J. N. Rhorbough, 


Camden, 


Lewis. 


41. 


Jefferson Robinson, 


Wallace, 


Harrison. 


42. 


M. V. Hurst, 


Wilsonburg, 


Harrison. 


43. 


A. H. Snider, 


Iloult, 


Marion. 


44 


Adam Fisher. 


Moorefield, 


Hardy. 


45. 


E. M. Reid, 


Medley, 


Grant. 


46. 


Edwin Burgess, 


Laural Dale, 


Mineral. 


47. 


W. J. Knott, 


Molers, 


Jefferson. 


48. 


B. M. Jones, 


Morgantown, 


Monongalia 


49. 


M. A. Bickar, 


St. Joseph, 


Marshall. 


50. 


J. W. Snediker, 


Pleasant Valley, 


Marshall. 


51. 


C. R. Pickening, 


Lone Cedar, 


Jackson. 


52. 


J. P. Clark, 


Burning Springs, 


Wirt. 


53. 


E. J. Humphreys, 


Belleville, 


Wood. 


54. 


James Dickson, 


West Liberty, 


Ohio. 


55. 


E. A. Garten, 


Forest Hill, 


Summers. 


56. 


D. C. Hudkins, 


Overfield, 


Barbour. 


57- 


C. O. Eberhardt, 


Tyner, 


Wood. 


58. 


S. W. Hartley, 


Masontown, 


Preston. 


59. 


William Taylor, 


Endicott, 


Wetzel. 


60. 


J. A. Jolliff, 


Endicott, 


Wetzel. 


61. 


J. Hunter Robinson, 


Patterson's Depot, 


Mineral. 


62. 


John Tabb, 


Oakton, 


Berkerley. 


63. 


C. H. Hartley, 


Adamsville, 


Harrison. 


64. 


B. Mollohon, 


Replete, 


Webster. 


65. 


E. S. Ball, 


Peniel, 


Roane. 


66. 


Jos. Kelso, 


Concord, 


Hampshire. 


67. 


John W. Rauch, 


Martinsburg, 


Berkeley. 


68. 


J. W. Shropshire, 


Burning Springs, 


Wirt. 


69. 


Daniel Kuhns, 


Endicott, 


Wetzel. 


70. 


John W. Boyd, 


Franklin, 


Pendleton. 


71. 


John S. Pancake, 


Romney, 


Hampshire. 


72. 


D. C. Greene, 


Grass Lick, 


Jackson. 


73. 


J. P. Post, 


Good Hope, 


Harrison. 


74. 


Isaac Smith, 


Jerry's Run, 


Wood. 


75. 


C. S. Wilcox, 


Sandy, 


Jackson. 


76. 


M. S. Hall, 


Ritchie C. H. 


Ritchie. 


77. 


W. S. McGregor, 


Highland, 


Ritchie. 


78. 


John M. Daniel, 


Shenandoah Junct 


, Jefferson. 


79. 


Marion Hollis, 


Gsrrardstown, 


Berkeley. 


80. 


N. Bacon, 


Talcott, 


Summers. 


81. 


H. Scott &H. B. Barbor 


, Princeton, 


Mercer. 


82. 


Mary Stowasser, 


Union Ridge, 


Cabell 



i8i 



Name. 



Place. 



County. 



83. 


R. W. Means, 


Knottsville, 


Taylor. 


84. 


J. b. Mairs, 


Pocotaligo, 


Kunawha. 


85. 


W. L. Dunn, 


Cashmere, 


Monroe. 


86. 


Jas. Sellards, 


Adkin's Mills, 


Wayne. 


87. 


J. P. Lynch, Jr. 


Mr. Clare, 


Harrison. 


88. 


J no. Myer, 


Florence, 


Randolph. 


89. 


W. H. Ruble, 


Fountain Springs, 


Wood. 


90. 


J. W. Brown, 


Clarksburg, 


Harrison. 


91. 


A. F. Davis, 


Rippon, 


Jefferson. 


92. 


D. B. Sheetz, 


Three Churches, 


J lamps'-.ire. 


93. 


E. B. Benson, 


Terra Alta, 


Preston. 


94. 


Thos. B. Prickett, 


Barracksville, 


Marion. 


95. 


Jos. Ogden, 


Wallace, 


Harrison. 


96. 


B. A. Powell, 


Morris, 


Wirt. 


97. 


T. K. Massie, 


Concord Church, 


Mercer. 


98. 


William Mead, 


Stone Coal, 


Wayne. 


99. 


Elihu Ward, 


Lee Bell, 


Randolph. 


100. 


J, Graham & J. B. Ayres, Clayton, 


Summers. 


101. 


D. W. McKune, 


Jerry's Run, 


Wood. 


102. 


J. J Coffindaffer, 


Jarvisville, 


Harrison- 


103. 


W. H. Hyatt, 


Smithton, 


Doddridge. 


101. 


Chas. S iff ens, 


Blennerhassett, 


Wood. 


105. 


B. F. Ball, 


Elizabeth, 


Wirt. 


106. 


H. D. Baber, 


Fayetteville, 


Fayette. 


107. 


Austin Robinson, 


Knoxville, 


Marshall. 


108. 


S. S. Shaver, 


Bulltown, 


Braxton. 


109. 


John Stanbaugh, 


Egjon, _ 


Preston. 


110. 


J. J. McKinney, 


Reedsville, 


Preston. 


111. 


Martin L. Cox, 


Loudenville, 


Marshall. 


112. 


G. W. Long, 


Wick, 


Tyler. 


113. 


H. Moore, 


Newton, 


Roane. 


114. 


James L. Fitzgerald, 


Evergreen, 


Upshur. 


115. 


R. F. Hughes, 


Eldora, 


Marion. 


116. 


E. McKee, 


Paradise, 


Putnam. 


117. 


George Fuss, 


Hedgesville, 


Berkeley. 


118. 


G. M. Mounts, 


Murphy's Mills, 


Wood. 


119. 


James Horn, 


Capon Bridge, 


Hampshire. 


120. 


A. F. Conaway, 


Barracksville, 


Marion. 


121. 


J. P. Campbell, 


Garfield, 


Jackson. 


122 


Enoch Nutter, 


Pepper, 


Birbour. 


123. 


Jenkins Miller, 


Pine Grove, 


Wetzel. 


124. 


Jacob Shamp, 


New Nartinsville, 


Wetzel. 


125. 


P. E. McNemar, 


Alk ire's Mills, 


Lewis. 


126. 


Thomas Mclntire. 


Bloomery, 


Hampshire. 


127. 


E. M. Hartley, 


Masontown, 


Preston. 


128. 


E. Hoff, 


Berea, 


Ritchie. 


129. 


G. W. Perdue, 


Bramwell, 


Mercer. 


130. 


W. C. Moore, 


Mountain Cove, 


Fayette. 



182 



Name. 



Place. 



County. 



131. 


Barney Siebert, 


Meighen, 


Marshall. 


133. 


J. A. Sandige, 


Beets, 


Fayette. 


133. 


J. T. Jackson, 


Clio, 


Roane. 


134 


J. A. Davis, 


Evelyn, 


Wirt. 


135. 


M. M. Dent, 


Reedy Ripple, 


Wirt. 


136 


A. Looney, 


Looneyville, 


Roane. 


137. 


J. W. Ferrell, 


Looneyville, 


Roane. 


138. 


D. H. Arrick, 


Welcome, 


Marshall. 


139. 


Chas. F. Eagle, 


Lobelia, 


Pocahontas 


140. 


F. B. Wilcox, 


Wilding, 


Jackson. 


141. 


Oliver Scott, 


Table Rock, 


Raleigh. 


142. 


G. M. Rodgers, 


Columbia Sul. Sprs 


, Greenbrier. 


143. 




Blandon, 


Kanawha. 


144. 


T. Stalling, 


Medley, 


Grant. 


145. 


Thos. Alderson, 


Johnson's Cross R'c 


sMonroe. 


146. 


H. C. Hyer, 


Lloydsville, 


Braxton. 


147. 


George Parker, 


Clio, 


Roane. 


148. 


S. W. Wiles, 


Amblersburg, 


Preston. 


149. 


G. W. Gander, 


Clio, 


Roane. 


150. 


Silas C. Hatcher, 


Egeria, 


Raleigh. 


151. 


S. A. McCarty, 


Lobelia, 


Pocahontas. 


152. 


J. P. Thompson, 


Williamsburg, 


Greenbrier. 


153. 


George C Whiting, 


Summit Point, 


Jefferson. 


154. 


Henderson Gross, 


Gazil, 


Kanawha. 


155 


Sibert Speek, 


Hedgesville, 


Berkeley. 


156. 


H. W. Frye, 


Wardensville, 


Hard}'. 


157. 


James Binns, 


Independence, 


Preston. 


158. 


J. C. Mann, 


Pickaway, 


Monroe. 


159. 


C. W. Morris, 


Reedy, 


Roane. 


160. 


G. W. Williams, 


Trout Valley, 


Greenbrier. 


161. 


C. S. Jones, 


Piedmont, 


Mineral. 


162. 


A. F. Cochran, 


New Martinsville, 


Wetzel. 


163. 


F. F. Randolph, 


New Milton, 


Doddridge. 


164. 


S. C. Gist, 


Wellsburg, 


Brooke. 


165. 


John L. Babb, 


Greenland, 


Grant. 


166. 


James W. Benner, 


Leetown, 


Jefferson. 


168. 


Jacob McLean, 


Belington, 


Barbour. 


169. 


Fremont McClure, 


Squire Jim, 


McDowell. 


170. 


Gen. John McCausland, 


Grimm's Landing, 


Mason. 


171. 


Dice Bennett, 


Dillon's Run, 


Hampshire. 


172. 


J. L. Knight, 


Maggie, 


Mason. 


173. 


L. D. Anderson, 


Walkersville, 


Lewis. 


174. 


Chas. W. Morris, 


Tornado, 


Kanawha. 


175. 


George E. Moray, 


Rock Gap, 


Morgan. 


176. 


C. W. Coyle, 


Charlestown, 


Jefferson. 


177. 


C. W. Henshaw, 


Middleway, 


Jefferson. 


178. 


Jefferson Stephens, 


Adkin's Mills, 


Wayne. 


179. 


John Price, 


Proctor, 


Wetzel. 



Names. 

180. W. D. Zinn, 

181. G. W. Annon, 

182. John W. Hawkins, 

183. Wm. H. T. Lewis, 

184. B. W. Knode, 

185. E. J. Owings, 

186. Booth Bond, 

187. John Menear, 

188. John L. Roderick, 

189. W. H. Woodull, 

190. David Simmons, 

191. Joseph Hill, 

192. S. H. Secrist, 

193. J. C. Miller, 

194. J. W. Miller, 

195. W. S Goodwin, 

196. S. N. Smith, 

197. Col. McKinney, 

198. James Wilmoth, 

199. Alex. Clohan, 

200. E. L. Nuzum, 

201. A. F. Slaughter, 

202. A. J. House, 

203. A. D. Hopkins, 

204. D. D. Johnson, 

205. C. L. Jones, 

206. John Bacher, 

207. James W. Lake, 

208. J. A Evans, 

209. B. D. Gangwer, 

210. A. & R. McLeod, 

211. John Ferguson, 

212. M.'Byrnside, 

213. Austin J. Hatcher, 

214. Marshal A. Johnson, 

215. L. Owens, 

216. S. D. Stump, 

217. William H. Smith, 

218. Chas. L. Davis, 

219. Henry Keadle, 

220. William L. Knotts, 

221. D. S. Hartman, 

222. H. P. Collett, 

223. George White, 

224. M. Morris, 

225. M W. Morrison, 

226. B. F. Maloney, 

227. R. N. Fout, 



183 




Place. 


County. 


Phillippi, 


Barbour. 


Thornton, 


Taylor. 


Centre Point, 


Doddridge. 


Kabletown, 


Jefferson. 


Rippon, 


Jefferson. 


Holiday's Cove, 


Hancock. 


Aberdeen, 


Lewis. 


Independence, 


Preston. 


Mount Storm, 


Grant. 


Beaver Mills, 


Nicholas. 


Walnut Grove, 


Roane. 


Gazil, 


Kanawha. 


Maysville, 


Grant. 


Wellsburg, 


Brooke. 


Barboursville, 


Cabell. 


Texas, 


Tucker. 


Rockville, 


Preston. 


Hebron, 


Pleasants. 


Kerens, 


Randolph. 


Martinsburg, 


Berkeley. 


Garfield, 


Jackson. 


Belgrove, 


Jackson. 


Reedy, 


Roane. 


Kanawha Station, 


Wood. 


Long Reach, 


Tyler. 


Mannington, 


Marion. 


Deer Walk 


Wood. 


Kanawha Head, 


Upshur. 


Raleigh C. H., 


Raleigh. 


Parkersburg, 


Wood. 


White Sul. Springs 


;, Greenbrier. 


Schultz, 


Pleasants. 


Carpenters, 


Putnam. 


Egeria, 


Raleigh. 


Johnson's Cross R'd 


sMonroe. 


Odaville, 


Jackson. 


Higginsville, 


Hampshire. 


Hazleton, 


Preston. 


Fort Spring, 


Greenbrier. 


Pickaway, 


Monroe. 


Grafton, 


Taylor. 


Confidence, 


Putnam. 


Hendricks, 


Tucker. 



White Sul. Springs,Greenbrier. 
Silverton, Jackson. 

Peniel, Roane. 

Sedan, Hampshire. 

Purgitsville, Hampshire. 



Name. 

238. T. H. Morris, 

229. Geo. A. Alexander, 

230. A. E. Black, 

231. Geo. W. Wells, 

232. J. T. Harvey, 
233 , 

234. Ben F. Sivert, 

235. A. T. Meek, 

236. V. B. Frame, 

237. J. H. Teagarden, 

238. Jacob Weaver, 

239. Jno. W. Sions, 

240. Kben Langfitt, 

241. C. B. Shrevo, Jr., 

242. A. A. Welton, 

243. Isaac Knotts, 

244. J. H. Mandeville, 

245. John S. Barnes, 

246. Edwin Hollister, 

248. E. W. Barnes, 

249. J. E. Clarke, 

250. A. (). Donovan, 

251. N. D. McLain, 

252. John Stout, 

253. .Lewis M. Pritchard, 

254. P. E. Reed, 

255. L. D. Hambric, 

256. C. S. Hatcher, 

257. G. M. Nettles, 

258. Charles E. Davis, 

259. Amos Jones, 

260. John'M. Gribble, 

261. M. L. Knight, 

262. W. Guseman, 

263. D. S. Minear, 

264. Patrick Haman, 

265. C. R. Hanaman, 

266. T. S. Colter, 

267. Strother Hatten, 

268. Dr.M. J. Hopkins, 

269. Eli Crouch, 
270. 

271. Frank Ralphsnider, 

272. H. W. Schell, 

273. J. D. Rardon, 

274. George A. Porterfield, 

275. F. M. Horner, 

276. Robert Davis, 



184 




Place. 


County. 


Rockport, 


Wood. 


Milton, 


Cabell. 


Les, 


Wirt. 


Cornwallis, 


Ritchie. 


Blaine, 


Mineral. 


Springfield, 


Hamphsire. 


Glen Easton, 


Marshall. 


Barracksville, 


Marion. 


Frametovvn, 


Braxton. 


Blake, 


Wetzel. 


French Creek, 


Upshur. 


Old Fields, 


Hardy. 


Fairview, 


Hancock. 


Overhill, 


Upshur. 


Petersburg, 


Grant. 


Grafton, 


Taylor. 


Indian Mills, 


Summers. 


Ritchie 0. II., 


Ritchie. 


Welch Glade, 


Webster. 


Countsville, 


Roane. 


Hemlock, 


Upshur. 


Fowler's P. 0-, 


Brooke. 


Blandville, 


Doddridge. 


Wall ce, 


Harrison. 


Walnut Grove, 


Roane. 


Valley Fork, 


Clay. 


Tate Creek, 


Braxton. 


Ken tuck, 


Jackson. 


Elmira, 


Braxton. 


Rockport, 


Wood. 


Gray's Flat, 


Marion. 


Leopold, 


Doddridge. 


Meadland, 


Taylor. 


Henqr, 


Preston. 


St. Georges, 


Tucker. 


New Hope, 


M rcer. 


Elizabeth, 


Wirt. 


Newville, 


Braxton. 


Egypt, 


Wayne. 


Upper Tract, 


Pendleton. 


Crickard, 


Randolph. 


Princeton, 


Mercer. 


Gray's Flat, 


Marion. 


Greenland, 


Grant. 


Ravenswood, 


Jackson. 


Charlestown, 


Jeffe-son. 


Dayton, 


Harrison. 


Basnett, 


Marion- 



Name. 

377. G. W. Putnall, 

278. Camden Trimble, 

279. Jas. A. Thomas, 

280. John A. Chew, 

281. J. W. Boggles, 

282. T. C. Hammet, 

283. Joseph McMurran, 

284. Obed Babb, 



185 




Place. 


County. 


Williamstown, 


Wood. 


Pepper, 


Harbour. 


Flat Run, 


Marion. 


Charlestown, 


Jefferson. 


Lumberport, 


Harrison. 


Schultz, 


Pleasants, 


Shepherdstown, 


Jefferson. 


Greenland, 


Grant. 



1 86 



DISTRIBUTION OF OUR WEEDS. 



The first question propounded in Bulletin No. 12, was: "What 
are the worst weeds in your neighborhood? Please write them in 
the order of their obnoxiousness beginning with the worst. 7 ' 

This question was answered by 284 observers, whose observations 
with my own, are compiled in the following summaries of the tables 
at the end of this bulletin; which will present many points of in- 
terest to those who desire to study them. 

The numbers in the column headed "Observer," refer back to the 
same numerals set against the names in the list of observers on 
pages 179-85, which gives the locality in the county as well. The nu- 
merals set opposite the observer's number in the tables refer to the 
order in' which he considers the weeds bad, i. e , observer 183, who 
is found to rtside near Kabletown, in Jefferson, judges the Blue 
Thistle to merit the first rank as a bad weed in his neighborhood; 
that Dog Fennel ranks second; that the Ox-eye Daisy ranks third; 
and so on throughout his list. 

The small figures following the names of the weeds and raised 
above the line refer in all cases in this work to the same numbers in 
the Descriptive List of Weeds forming Part 3 of this bulletin, where 
the weeds are treated of specifically and more at length. 

Valley Counties. — Table 1*. 

It will be seen that in the Valley Counties, the Blue Thistle is 
reported from each; that it is more frequently considered a bad 
weed than any other plant mentioned; and that it is given standing 
as the worst weed by 18 out of 38 reporters. 

Note the fact that the Glenn Weed 15 and Water Cress 11 run out 
after passing through Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, they not be- 
ing again reported. The Naked Weed 112 runs out in Hampshire. 
The Ox-eye Daisy" though mentioned in all counties of the table is 
more particularly considered in Grant and Hampshire than in any 

of the others. 

•_ 

♦These tables are placed at the end of this Bulletin, 



187 

Northeastern Mountain Counties— Table 2. 

From reports it will be seen that Yarrow"" is considered the worst 
weed in this region; the Ox-eye Daisy 09 ranging second and Broom 
Sedge 191 third. The Blue Thistle 125 so prominent in the Valley 
Counties, also extends into these; while the Broom Sedge, 191 which 
will appear as one of the principal weeds westward, seems to end its 
eastern course with these counties, not passing as yet into the Val- 
ley Counties to any extent. 

Eastern Mountain Counties. — Table 3. 

In the eastern Mountain Counties, the Wild Carrot 59 is according 
to the table considered the worst weed, although the Ox-eye Daisy 99 
is reported more frequently. 

In our journey toward the south and west, through these tables, 
the Broom Sedge 191 is now become to be considered more frequently 
as a bad weed, as is also the Buck Plantain. 159 The Blue Thistle 125 
and Canada Thistle 108 still remain as dreaded plants, while the 
Teasle, 70 Sand-briar, 132 and Blue, 80 and White Devils, 79 which we 
will grow sadly well acquainted with as we pass westward through 
the State, are noted here in their easternmost extension. 

Northern Counties. — Table 4. 

According to the table, the Ox-eye Daisy 99 is considered the worst 
weed in the Northern Counties, being the first mentioned by 19 out 
of 25 observers. Broom Sedge 191 ranks second, and Bitter Dock 167 
third. 

The peculiarities of this section are as follows: The total absence 
of any report of Wild Carrot 59 " in Marion County, while every ob- 
server in Taylor County, which lies adjacent, reports the weed. 
The absence of report upon the Common Thistle, 105 except in Pres- 
ton County; the promiaance given to the Iron Weed 72 in Marion 
County, while none but myself think it a bad weed in any other; 
and the utter ignoring of the Spanish Needle, 95 which is known to 
be very prevalent throughout the region. 

Were the Teasle 70 better known by name, it would doubtless have 
been reported upon more frequently, as it is quite common in these 
counties. The Blue Thistle 125 and Canada Thistle 108 so frequently 
reported in the previous sections are entirely absent in this. 

North-Western Ohio Kiver Counties — Table 5. 

From the tabulation compiled as reported, the Wild Carrot 59 is 
decided upon as the worst weed in the North-western Ohio River 
Counties, the second worst the Ox-eye Daisy 99 and Bitter Dock 167 
the third. 

The Sand-briar 132 does not seem to receive the number of votes 
here that it should, as I feel certain that it bids fair to be the very 



i88 

worst weed throughout the extent of the River Counties. Wild 
Flax 138 is intruding its spikes of yellow flowers throughout this sec- 
tion, the little notice it has received being in all probability due to 
the lack of knowledge concerning its names as given in my query. 
The Canada Thistle 108 is shown to extend only to Marshall County, 
which I judge to be correct. Golden Rod 77 is doubtless rightly con- 
sidered as to its range and greatest prevalence. Broom Sedge 191 sub- 
stantially begins to be a pest in Pleasants and as will be seen by the next 
following table continues to the southern limit of the State ; future 
tables will show its progress eastward from the river counties. The 
White Devil 79 and its sister species the Blue Devil 80 also begin their 
obtrusive frequence here, and will be found further on to receive 
more attention in the southern and central counties. Why Wetzel 
County should proclaim so plainly against Spanish Needles 05 while 
the balance of this district is silent, can only be answered by the 
supposition that the observers of that county are probably more in- 
terested in sheep as wool producers than those of the other counties. 
Wood here begins the complaint against the Wild Sweet Potato 127 
that is taken up with more vehemence as we pass on southward and 
eastward. Yarrow 98 receives considerable attention in this section, 
but it is not even mentioned in the counties farther down the river. 
The Buck Plantain 159 a perfect nuisance from here on, receives its 
merited attention. 

Southern Oliio Biver Counties. — Table 8. 

In the southern tier of Ohio River Counties, the Blue Devil 80 is 
shown to reach its rank of King-of-bad-weeds there, having for 
its consort the Broom Sedge, 191 *nd its retinue Bitter Dock, 167 
Cockle-bur, 90 and Spanish Needles. 95 From this line of reports, we 
must judge that our observers live mostly upon the fertile bottom 
lands of the River. Our surmise is sustained by the absence of re- 
ports on Sorrei 188 and Oinquefoil. 47 

The Ox-eye Dais}', 99 up to this date, seems to have ceased in its 
progress down the river after passing through Jackson County, and 
to seek here an eastern extension, as the following tables will show. 
The Wild Carrot 59 spreads downward one county farther before 
moving east. Wing Stem 93 a weed that seems to come down the 
feeders of the Ohio, is probably not reported to greater extent on 
account of the lack of a name being known for it. The Sand-briar 132 
would probably have received more attention had we gained more 
reporters in Cabell and Wayne; though I judge from personal ob- 
servations that it turns eastward at about the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha in Mason County. Why the White Devil 79 should lack 
consideration in Jackson and Mason I can not decide, as it is cer- 
tainly quite prevalant in both. 

Northern Central Counties — Table 7. 

In tabulating the Northern Central Counties, I have been forced 



to leave out Calhoun and Gilmer, as I have no reports whatever 
from them. My own observations there are on record among my 
notes, but without the corroboration of others there I do not feel 
like using them in this table. 

An examination of the table will show that Broom Sedge 191 is en- 
titled to the first rank as a bad weed in this section; the Sand- 
briar 132 * second; and the honors of the third place equally divided 
among Blue Devils, 8 Ox-eye Daisies" and Elders. 013 

The points of interest developed by the table are as follows: The 
Canada Thistle 108 is only to be found in two counties, viz: Harrison 
and Doddridge; the Teasle 70 in Barbour, Harrison and Upshur. 
Field Garlic 178 is only complained of in Barbour. The Wild Sweet 
Potato 127 appears only to be a nuisance in the westernmost counties 
of the section; while the Blue Devil 80 does not become particularly 
obnoxious until south of the northern tier of the section, which 
bounds also the Northern Couuties where this weed is not particu- 
larly prevalent. 

Southern Central Counties — Table 8. 

The meagre reports from the Southern Central Counties with 
absence of any from Boone, render the standing of the worst weeds 
somewhat uncertain, Broom Sedge 191 might, however, be consid- 
ered the worst, with the Ox-eye Daisy 00 second, and White Devil 79 
third. 

Southern Boundary Counties — Table 9. 

The absence of any reports whatever from Logan and Wyoming 
Counties, and the meagre returns from Raleigh and McDowell, 
render remarks upon this table too unsatisfactory. They are, there- 
fore, omitted. 

Summary — Table 10. 

The three worst weeds in the State are, therefore, Ox-eye Daisy, 99 
Broom Sedge, 101 and Wild Carrot, 69 according to those who have 
weeds to deal with. All things considered, however, the Canada 
Thistle, 108 Broom Sedge, 191 and Blue Thistle, 125 prove to be the 
worst according to the discredit of bad points. 

From the foregoing tabulations, and the tables of bad points, I 
have been able to select the following, as the fifty worse weeds of 
this State: 



i go 



THE 25 WORST WEEDS. 



Ox-eye Daisy," 
Broom- Sedge, 10 



Pasture Thistle, 10 * 

Burdock, 10 * 

Bitter-Dock, 107 

6. Wild Carrot," 

7. Elders, 86 

8. Iron weed, 7 ' 

9. Yarrow, 98 

10. Buck Plantain, 15 ' 

11. Cockle-bur, 90 

12. Blue Thistle, 12 * 

13. Rag Weed, 88 

14. Spanish Needles,'* 

15. White-top, 82 

16. Sand-briar, 132 

17. Sorrel, 168 

18. Garlic, 178 

19. White Devil, 7 ' 

20. Blue Devil, 86 

21. Canada Thistle, 108 

22. Morning Glory, 126 

23. Wild Sweet-potato, 1 ' 

24. Dog-fennel, 97 

25. Cinquefoil, 47 



(Chrysanthemum Leucanthe- 

mum, L.) 
(Androp«gon Scoparius, L.) 
(Cnicus lanceolatus, L.) 
(Arctium Lappa, L. ) 
(Rumex obtusifolius, L.) 
(Daucus Carota, L.) 
(Sambucus Canadensis, L ) 
(Vernonia Noveboracensis (L.), 

Wild, and altissimus, Nutt.) 
(Achillea Millefolium, L.) 
(Plantago lanceolata, L.) 
(Xanthium Canadense, L.) 
(Echium vulgare, L. ) 
(Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, L. ) 
(Bidens bipinnata, L.) 
(Erigeron annuus, L.) 
(Solanum Carolinense, L.) 
(Rumex acetosella, L. ) 
(Allium vineale, L.) 
(Aster latcriflorus(L.), Britt. var 

hirsuticaulis, (Linol), grag.) 
(Aster Cordifius, L., var laevig- 

atus, Port., 
(Cnicus arvensis (L.), Hoffm.) 
(Ipomoea purpurea (L.), Lam.) 
(Ipomoeapandurata (L.), Meyer.) 
(Anthemis Cotula, L. ) 
(Potentilla Canadensis, L.) 



Several others might be added to this list, which, however, is al- 
ready almost too bulky to handle. Such weeds as the Naked- 
weed, 112 Skeleton- weed, 112 Devil's Grass, 112 or Hog-bite; 112 (Chon- 
drilla juncea, L.);'the Glenn-weed, 15 Glen-pepper, IS Crowd-Weed, 1 * 
or English Peppergrass: 15 (Lepidium campestre,); Chess: 196 (Bro- 
mus secalinus, L. & racemosus, L.); and numerous others, which 
we will treat at length in Part 3 of this bulletin. 



igi 



SECONDARY LIST OF WORST WEEDS. 



26. Briars/"' 

27. Mullein, 1 ' 6 

28. Wild Cotton, Milk Weed, m 
Wild Parsnip, 63 
Indian Hem, 117 
Poke Weed, 105 
Teasle, 70 
Golden Rod, 77 
Smart Weed, 169 
Horse Weed, 113 
Wild Flax, 138 
Indian Mallow, 2S 
Fox Tail, 190 
Crab Grass, 189 
Elecampane, 85 
Stick Seed/ 1 
Corn Cockle, 20 
Beggar's Lice, 95 

Jimson Weed, 135 
Shepherd's Purse, 13 
Tar Weed, 5i 
Wing Stem, 93 
Spiny Amaranth, 101 
Tall Ragweed,* 7 
Nigger Head, 91 



(Rubus villosus Ait. & Canadensis, 

L-) 
(Verbascum Thapsus, L.) 
(Asclepias Syriaca, L.) 
(Pastinaca sativa, L.) 
(Apocynum androsaemifolium,L.) 
(Phytolacca decandra, L.) 
(Dipsacus sylvestris, Mill.) 
(Solidago juncea, Ait.) (mostly.) 
(Polygonum) (several species.) 
(Lacuta Cnadensis, L.) 
(Linaria vulgaris, Mill) 
(Abutilon Avicennae, Gaertn.) 
(Setaria glauca, (L.) Beauv.) 
(Panicum sanguinale, L.) 
(Inula Helenium, L.) 
(Desmodium (numerous species.) 
(Lychnis Githago, L.) 
(Bidens frondosa, L. & Connata, 

MuhL) 
(Datura Stram L. & Tatula, L.) 
(Capsella Bursa-pastoris, L.) 
(Cuphaea petiolata, (L.) Koehne.) 
(Actinomeris alternif olia, (L. )D. C. 
(Amarantus spinosus, L.) 
(Ambrosia trifida, L.) 
(Rudbeckia hirta, L.) 



192 



BAD POINTS OF WEEDS. 



Plant species like animals are in a constant state of strife with 
each other. They are all provided with some means more or less effi- 
cacious of both gaining a livelihood and perpetuating their species. 
Those first procuring a foothold in any given locality have a nat- 
ural tendency to crowd out others, the larger tend to smother the 
smaller or prevent their seeds from germinating properly; the per- 
ennials to supersede the annuals; and the most profuse seed bearers 
to gradually occupy most of the space near the parent plant. 

In considering the bad points of weeds, I shall calculate them 
much as a fancier would the good points in his pet animal, but of 
course reversed, for it is easily understood that all those attributes 
that are good points in a useful plant, naturally become bad attri- 
butes when that plant exists as a weed. 

The ten principal bad points are as follows: 

l. Prevalence. 

This point I have determined from the preceding pages, which 
give substantially the observations of my reporters throughout the 
^State; they are necessarily incomplete. In the following tables of 
bad points, this one is of course arbitrarily averaged from that 
source for the whole State. Any one of the weeds may be high in 
prevalence in one locality and very low in another. Such a weed 
as the Rag Weed 88 can be easily understood to merit (10) the 
highest grade, as it is found every where in the State and plentiful 
wherever it grows. Others are not so readilv rated. 

2. Seeding Capacity. 

Some weeds are known to produce great quantities of seed, others 
but little, this point is easily understood and almost always readily 
determined. 

3. Dissemination of Seeds. 

A wide difference exists among plants as to the power they may 



193 

possess of self-distributing their seeds. Some have no known 
method of accomplishing this end, others have peculiarly efficient 
means. The gradation between that plant whose seed pods simply 
fall with the plant unopened, and that which has no pod, but whose 
surrounding tissues actually spread back out of the way while the 
seeds in the meantime produce feathery sails with which the least 
zephyr will waft them long distances and finally drop them point 
downward to the soil, is very gradual. The former plant would 
merit but a single (i) point here, while the latter would readily 
score ten (10). 

4. Root and Stem Propagating 1 . 

Under this rubric are scored all methods for plant reproduction 
except by its seed. Some plants have actually no method of repro- 
duction except by seed, whereas others like the Canada Thistle 108 
are capable of plentifully reproducing without. 



5. Resistence to Eradication. 

There is no use of explaining this point to those who have toiled 
and sweat over the Common Elder ", the Sumach 34 and the 
Sand -briar 132 , or who have smiled as they struck the weakling 
with their hoe and turned its tender roots upward to the pitiless 
sun. 

This point is really a combination of points i, 3, and 4. 



6. Aggressiveness. 

The persistence of a weed to spread in spite of hard labor ex- 
pended against it; the rapidity of its traversing an extended area and 
its determined effort to occupy the soil to the exclusion of useful 
plants; together with other items of like nature, go toward making 
such weed an aggressive one. 

7. Robbing the Soil. 

Some weeds extract from the soil to aid in their nutrition much 
more of those elements needed by the farmer to support his crops 
than others. We have at this station done all that time would allow 
us to get at this matter thoroughly in regard to weeds. In the table 
of points, I have expressed this quality of robbing the sod by the 
'same range of figures as other points, but here the figures also mean 
dollars and cents as will be understood by reading Part 1 on weeds 
as Fertilizing Material. For example, I rate Iron Weed 72 as 10 as 
we know it to remove $10.63 worth of fertilizing matter from the 
soil per dry ton; the Broom Sedge 191 is rated as 3 as it robs the 
farmer of $3.03 worth of the substances needed for his crops. 



194 
8. Recognition of the Plant. 

Those weeds that are well known by the farmer wherever he sees 
them, like the Rag Weed 88 are considered low (2) in this bad qual- 
ity; while such plants as are newly coming into our farms take 
higher values in this regard, as many farmers fail to know the plants 
or recognize their bad qualities when they see them. None, how- 
ever,' have been ranked higher than eight (8) as they will be known 
in some sections of the State if not in others. 

9. Longevity. 

Some weeds live but a short time even if left to themselves, not 
even meriting the rank of an annual; others live one or two years; 
others a few seasons, and others seem to have a tendency of out- 
living the farmer himself; their rank in point here is therefore usnal- 
ly easy to decide upon. 

10. Obnoxiousness. 

Some weeds have other bad qualities beside their mere presence 
where they are not desired. Some take a high rank under this 
head as dangerous poisons either to man or domestic animal; such 
as the Cow's Bane 63 , Wild Parsnip 62 , Green Hellebore, Laurel, 
Stagger Bush, Indian Tobacco 115 , etc; others have briars or strong 
prickles which tear the clothing or wound cattle; others have seeds 
that injure the quality of wool, or render animals restive, or restless 
and ill from irritation; like Burdock 104 , Spanish Needles 95 - 96 , Beg- 
gar's Lice 41 , some Grasses etc; others still yield a sticky substance 
that utterly ruins wool in the market; as the tar weed 54 , etc. All 
these are qualities that tend to alter the points in the scale of obnox- 
iousness. 

There are numerous other bad points in weeds that deserve more 
or less consideration; but I have carried the matter as far as nec- 
essary, and consistent in the table appended. Such points may be 
mentioned, however, as a matter for thought. They are: 

Recognition of Seed. 

This is a point of great interest and of frequent use in our labor- 
atory, and one also very useful indeed to the Agriculturist. This 
point in connection with 

Separation of Seed, 

that is to say the ease or difficulty attending the separation of the 
weed seed from that of useful plants, would certainly be very de- 
sirable thing for every farmer to know, that he might be able not 
only to recognize but to separate all weed seeds from his sowings. 



195 

Both, however, would require great pains, time and labor, as well 
as some relatively costly apparatus. I deem it more important, 
therefore to work toward a seed control in the State than to attempt 
to teach the farmer that which he has no time to learn nor put in 
practice. As to seed grown by himself, he will naturally see to it 
that it is kept free from weeds should he look out as usual for his 
own interests. Another point might be made upon 

The Vitality of Weed Seeds. 

But as I have as yet had no time at this Station to thoroughly test 
the matter, I prefer not to treat of this doubtful question. 

Forage "Value. 

This point might also be made a subject of comparison had our 
Chemist had more time for such analyses as would be necesary. As 
it is, the chapter upon that subject must suffice at least for the 

present. . . , 

The chances of a weed harboring fungi or injurious insects might 
also be considered here had our publication been delayed a suffi- 
cient length of time to carry on such investigation. 

We feel assured, however, that we have presented the subject as 
fully as we could do it justice, and hope that it will teach those who 
desire to learn something at least of the methods that might be fol- 
lowed to gain a knowledge of the true nature of weeds. 

Many of the conditions change in different localities; we have 
therefore in the table attempted to average them as nearly as pos- 
sible for the whole State. 



ig6 








. 


Fj 


- H. . 


-3~ 

a a 


> 


MM 


a 


>> 


O — K 




3 




Z d 


- S"s 


2'-- 


1 Is 


3 


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Zj 






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a qj r: c 




£ 


1 

K3 


3" 


OS 


M 


- U B 


s 
- 

IO 


6 




4 


O H 


Ox-eye Daisy (i)* 


6 


IO 


8 


6 


8 


IO 


10 78 


Broom-sedge (2) 


6 


8 


10 


8 


IO 


IO 


3 


4 


8 


10 77 


Thistle (3) 


8 


10 


10 


5 


4 


4 


10 


2 


6 


5 6 4 


Burdock (4) 


6 


6 


8 


2 


6 


5 


IO 


2 


8 


10 63 


Bitter-dock (5) 


6 


10 


4 


4 


4 


2 


IO 


4 


8 


4 56 


Wild Carrott (6) 


6 


10 


8 


2 


10 


10 


IO 


6 


8 


10 80 


Elders (7) 


5 


5 


2 


10 


10 


4 


7 


2 


10 


4 59 


Iron- weed (8) 


8 


6 


4 


4 


4 


4 


IO 


2 


4 


4 50 


Yarrow (9) 


7 


8 


6 


2 


4 


6 


IO 


5 


6 


6 60 


Buck Plantain (10) 


7 


10 


6 


2 


6. 


10 


? 


6 


8 


6 6if 


Cockle-bur (1 1) 


6 


6 


7 


4 


5 


5 


to 


5 


4 


5 57 


Blue Thistle (12) 


6 


10 


6 


10 


8 


10 


IO 


6 


10 


10 86 


Rag-weed (13) 


10 


10 


4 


2 


5 


8 


7 


2 


2 


6 56 


Spanish Needles (14) 


10 


8 


8 


2 


2 


10 


<7 
/ 


2 


4 


10 63 


White-top (15) 


10 


4 


4 


4 


7 


5 


? 


5 


3 


5 47t 


Sand Brier (16) 


8 


4 


4 


4 


10 


10 


? 


5 


8 


10 63-j- 


Sorrel (17) 


8 


8 


4 


4 


2 


2 


7 


6 


8 


4 53 


Field Garlic (18) 


6 


5 


4 





IO 


IO 


? 


2 


4 


!0 5if 


White Devil (19) 


8 


7 


5 


5 


IO 


IO 


9 


4 


4 


8 70 


Blue Devil (20) 


8 


7 


5 


5 


IO 


IO 


8 


4 


4 


8 71 


Canada Thistle (21) 


4 


TO 


10 


10 


IO 


IO 


7 


4 


10 


10 85 


Morning Glory (22) 


6 


4 


4 


2 


4 


5 


? 


2 


2 


8 37t 


Wild Sweet Potato (23) 


8 


4 


4 


8 


4 


6 


? 


3 


8 


8 53t 


Dog Fennel (24) 


8 


5 


4 


2 


4 


2 


? 


6 


6 


4 4if 


Cinquefoil (25) 


8 


3 


3 


8 


5 


5 


? 


4 


10 


5 Sit 


Briars (26) 


8 


4 


2 


10 


10 


8 


9 


2 


IO 


TO 73 


Mullien (27) 


4 


4 


2 


4 


3 


4 


? 


2 


4 


5 32f 


WildCotton,M'kW'd(28; 


6 


8 


10 


2 


4 


4 


8 


2 


2 


4 5o 


Wild Parsnip (29) 


6 


10 


6 


4 


6 


8 


? 


2 


6 


8 5 6t 


Indian Hemp (30) 


5 


6 


10 


4 


4 


6 


7 


5 


6 


6 59 


Poke Weed (31) 


6 


4 


2 


6 


4 


4 


20 


1 


6 


4 57 


Teasle (32) 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


10 


? 


5 


6 


10 55t 


Golden Rod (33) 


10 


6 


6 


4 


4 


4 


7 


2 


4 


5 52 


Smart Weed (34) 


6 


10 


2 


4 


4 


4 


? 


2 


2 


6 4of 


Horse Weed (35) 


4 


8 


10 


3 


4 


4 


10 


5 


3 


6 57 


Wild Flax (36) 


2 


6 


2 


2 


2 


6 


IO 


7 


5 


icr 52 


Indian Mallow (37) 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


4 


? 


2 


2 


8 28f 


Fox-tail (38) 


10 


6 


2 


2 


10 


10 


IO 


2 


2 


6 60 


Crab Grass (39) 


10 


6 


2 


2 


10 


10 


IO 


2 


2 


10 64 


Elecampane (40) 


2 


8 


10 


4 


4 


4 


? 


2 


4 


4 42f 


Stick Weed (41) 


5 


6 


6 


4 


3 


4 


9 


2 


2 


10 51 


Corn Cockle (42) 


3 


5 


2 





2 


5 


? 


2 


2 


10 3if 


Beggar's Lice (43) 


4 


6 


6 


2 


4 


4 


? 


2 


2 


8 38f 


Jimson Weed (44) 


4 


10 


4 


2 


2 


2 


? 


2 


4 


4 34t 


Shepherd's Purse (45) 


4 


8 


2 





4 


5 


? 


2 


2 


4 3it 


Tar Weed (46) 


5 


3 


2 


4 


4 


6 


? 


6 


5 


6 4 if 


Wing Stem (47) 


3 


10 


5 


4 


6 


4 


IO 


8 


5 


4 5»t 


Spiny Amaranth (48) 


2 


4 


4 


5 


6 


10 


? 


6 


5 


10 5of 


Nigger Head (49) 


3 


4 


3 


2 


6 


10 


? 


2 


4 


10 4 4 f 


Tall Rag Weed (50) 


6 


6 


3 


3 


4 


4 


? 


4 


5 


4 39t 



*These figures refer back to the Tables of Worst Weeds on mi. 190-91 



197 



Weeds as Fodder for Stock. 



One of the questions askedof my observers was: "Do you consider 
any of your weeds good fodder, if so which, and for what animals." 

In answer to this question 98 reporters treated it with silence, 
doubtless judging the question too absurd to require reply of 
any kind; 103 answered briefly "none;" while 70 stated pos- 
itively that "Rag Weed 88 is good fodder for sheep if carefully and 
properly cured." The balance of the answers were scattered and 
will be found elsewhere in their place. A number stated some 
plant or plants that pigs or horses would eat, but I judge that they 
hardly consider these as actually falling under the head of fodders. 

Cattle will not refuse to take both Buck Plantain 139 and the Com- 
mon Plantain 158 along with the grass upon which they are browsing, 
neither will they refuse Broom Sedge, 191 Stick Weed, 79 and numer- 
ous others while these are young and fresh, but I doubt if they 
would thrive were they turned in upon any of these plants alone. I 
am sorry not to be able to state this positively, but our analyses have 
not yet reached these weeds. 

Many weeds might be excellent fodder were it not for the bitter 
principles or milk and beef infecting substances that they contain. 
Some weeds actually refused outright in a green state by cattle, are 
eaten readily when they are properly cured with the hay, yet they 
can hardly be classed as fodders, for cattle could not thrive on them 
alone. Horses are known to be fond of nibbling at or even eating 
quite a quantity of Wild Lettuce, 113 Iron Weed/ 2 Oak leaves, 
Briars, 45 Burdock 101 or Hickory leaves; and I saw a cow last summer 
deliberately walk up to a Jimson Weed 135 and eat several mouthfuls 
of the leaves with evidence of pleasure at her taste; yet we would 
not class these plants as; proper animal food. 

It is a well known fact that animals often seek in the plants that 
surround them the remedies needed for their slight ailments, evi- 
dencing a reasoning power far beyound their supposed intelligence. 
Some act of this sort — like the cow and the Jimson Weed, — might 
mislead some into the supposition that such chosen plant was con- 
sidered by the animal to be good fodder. 

Some Wild Grasses and plants of our forests are really excellent 
food for cattle, prominent among them the Wild Pea Vine (137) 
and Deer Tongue Grass. There are some sections of the State 
where the woods abound in these and other natural foods rich in 



ig8 

nitrogen, whereon cattle flourish excellently well; but these plants 
can hardly be called weeds as very few of them ever show the least 
tendency to intrude upon the cultivated soils of the farm. 

As to the question of carefully cured Rag Weed 88 being good 
fodder for sheep, in which so many of my correspondents concur: I 
can readily understand this weed to be a good fodder, for sheep 
seem by nature to require considerable bitter substance for their 
health- and well being; and Rag Weed shows at the same time by 
the analysis of our Chemist a large per cent, of nutritive substances, 
in fact nearly as much as the average Timothy Hay. In point of 
fact, if Timothy Hay was worth $10 per ton as fodder for sheep, Rag 
Weed would be worth $8.25 for the same purpose. This would 
hardly prove true in case of other animals, unless it might be for 
stet rs whose beef was not intended for market at the time of such 
feeding. I noticed upon several farms in Randolph County last 
season a large number of dark colored stacks in fields where there 
were also a number of stacks of hay. Upon examination, I found 
these to consist almost exclusively of Rag Weed, and upon inquiry 
as to its use was told by the farmer that he always cut and carefully 
cured the Rag Weed of his stubble fields and stacked it in his sheep 
pastures near his hay; and further added that often sheep would re- 
main at the Rag Weed stacks for days at a time utterly ignoring the 
presence of the hay. 

One of my correspondents states in good faith that "Ox-eye 
Daisy" is better fodder for cattle than Clover if cut when in bloom." 
We must differ with this statement, for it is known not even to be 
as good, for if clover was worth $20 per ton, Ox-eye Daisy would 
only bring $14. go at the same rating. Then again as a matter of 
taste, if he should buy a ton of each for his cattle and allow them 
free access to both, his $20 hay would be all gone before the Ox-eye 
Daisy was touched, and the cattle would be apt to wait until they 
were sure no more clover was forthcoming before they would even 
look at the cheaper article. I would not grow Ox-eye Daisy upon 
any such statement as that of my correspondent, nor would you 
upon my statement of its nutritive value as compared with clover. 
The Ox-eye Dais)' is a weed; it has been proven to be the worst 
weed in the State, that is enough to settle the fact that it is worse 
than useless to us. 

Ox-eye Daisy might be worth something as fodder if we could 
import it from some country at the other end of the earth, properly 
cured, and all the seed guaranteed to be positively dead. 

Our Chemist has anahyzed other weeds to determine their nutri- 
tive value, all of which will be found in Part 3 of this Bulletin under 
the consideration of the weeds themselves. 

There is no doubt but that these careful analyses that we are now 
instituting at this Station might show a few weeds to be passable 
fodder. I will conclude, however by stating positively that there is 
not a weed in this State worth cultivating as fodder for stock. 



199 



The Use of Chemicals as Weed Exterminators. 



In answer to my question: "Do you ever use any chemical or like 
remedy against weed growth, if so, what, and for what weeds?" One 
hundred and eighty-five correspondents answered "No," and sixty- 
five left the question unanswered. 

Among the specific answers, most of the reporters mention the 
use of salt to kill Elders, Dock, Iron Weed, Plantain, Canada 
Thistle, Ox-eye Daisy and Cinquefoil; while one stated positively 
that "salt will not kill Docks." Salt may be used for this purpose 
in four ways (l) By cutting off the larger plants at the summit of 
the root a few inches beneath the ground and throwing in the cavity 
so made a large handful. If this is thoroughly and carefully done, 
I can easily understand that it might prove very effective indeed. (2) 
By sowing salt freely about over the weedy spots after surface cutting 
the growth. This method might kill some weeds, but can not prove 
satisfactory in general. (3) By proceeding as before, but turning in 
stock to feed where the salt was strewn, this would probably bene- 
fit the stock, but would generally fail to kill the perennial weeds. 
(4) By pouring cold or hot brine upon the cut ends of weeds or 
their roots. In this case, if the soil was quite loose and the method 
thoroughly carried out, it might prove very effective indeed. Salt 
will certainly kill vegetation, but it must be used in great quantity 
and would therefore be applicable only to very limited areas indeed. 

Lime used profusely has often met with partial success as a weed 
exterminator. Its use on weeds growing in soils known to be lacking 
in that element would serve a double purpose as the weeds would be 
of a nature to be most badly effected by its use ; while the land 
would be thereby improved for crops needing it. 

The use of coal oil or kerosene as a weed exterminator can not be 
recommended as it will prove too costly, and at the same time only 
effective when poured liberally upon small areas of soil. 

Sulphuric Acid will kill any weed of no matter of what nature, 
yet strong as it is, it must be applied directly to each individual 
root-stock whose eradication is desired, thus rendering the process 
a tedious and costly one. The Sulphates of metals, like sulphate 
of zinc, (white vitriol), sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), etc., might 
be used in the same way, and prove efficacious, but the cost is to be 
considered. 

Experience and experiment have conclusively proven that any 
extended use of chemicals as weed killers is always attended by 
more expense and labor than the results can possibly compensate for. 















Table 1- 


200 

-Valley Counties. 


















H 

O 
U 


> 

w 

PQ 
O 


b 

en 

H 

3 

5 


u 

CO 

> : 

a 

a 
co 

3 


b 
en 

H 
ed 
X) 
nJ 

c 
en 

'J 


o 

X) 


% 
Q 

CO 

w 

O 


1 

CO 

0) 


to 

CO 

<u 

S-i 

u 

1-1 

V 


"35 
o 




cs 

D 

5 


CO 

a 

CD 

to 

br 

o 

3 


"b 
w 

-3 
H 

l-l 

ca 
O 

pq 

2 

8 


_^ 


o 

>■• 

pq 

I 

5 


a, 
'S 

CO 

cd 

Ph 

% 

8 
6 


12 
o 
o 
U 

c 
)-l 

o 

U 

2 

9 


a, 



5 

3 


-a 

flO 
CO 

y, 
'S 

CO 

J) 

6 


a 
cd 

to 

■vi 

o 

pq 

7 

2 


O 

Ih 
i-l 

OS 

7 
3 

3 

4 
5 

5 


ca 

to 

i 

8 


u 



1-4 
1) 

pq 
i 


cfl 
U 

— 

U 
he 

4 


-d 
u 

CO 

& 

l-l 

s 

I 
4 


CO 



EH 

6 
4 


3 
> 
o 

U 
a; 

9 

IO 


a 

o 

CO 

CD 

0) 


5 

6 

35 

47 

78 

91 

153 

176 
177 
183 
184 

Au- 
thor. 


2 
1 
I 
I 
] 
F 

I 


2 
I 
I 

2 
5 

3 


3 

4 
3 
3 
3 

2 

4 


2 
I 

2 

2 

3 
I 

5 
4 


i 

3 
6 

3 

2 


3 

3 

7 

4 


I 
2 

[ 

5 


2 

4 
i 


3 

5 

i 
3 

3 


2 
2 


CD 

PQ 


62 
67 
79 
117 
155 
199 
Au- 
thor. 


I 

3 

2 
I 

I 


2 

4 


d 

b.O 
O 


175 

Au- 
thor. 


2 

I 






4 
4 
i 


2 
I 

I 

3 
2 

3 
I 

I 


4 




5 

2 


3 

i 

2 

3 

2 

4 


2 

I 

3 

2 


2 




2 
2 

3 








£ 


4 
66 
71 
92 
119 
126 
171 
216 
226 
227 
233 
Au- 
thor. 


5 

i 
3 

2 

3 

2 

I 

3 
i 




3 

5 











Table 


1- 


-Valley Counties. - 


—Continued. 














I 




L 

'o 






















°c/) 
















b 








> 

w 

m 

o 


t/j 


T3 
U 
0) 

C 

3 


CU 

Cfi 

H 
tl 


ed 

3 


en 

Q 


T3- 


in 

w 

o 


00 




t-i 

i-i 

cd 

u 


I) 
CI 

a 


4) 
en 


o 
o 


3 

Cfl 

i-l 

cd 

Cm 


A 


cd 

a 

cd 


£ 


td 


eu 


b/o 
T3 

0) 

en 

a 


3 

cu 

-1 


LJ 


o 

PLi 

u 

cu 

en 




5 
o 
J 
*-> 


o 
u 


i 


td 

CI 

cd 
U 


2 
5 


2 




Cd 


V-l 

o 


32 

1 


bo 

o 

Q 


i-i 

cd 



T3 

ffl 


2 
£ 


G 
cd 

„->., 

n 
3 


J* 
o 

pq 




2 
4 


<n 

cd 
u 


o 

o 

PQ 

5 


a 
U 






o 

U 


■ft 




44 






156 


3 




i 




5 










4 
















2 
















239 


4 








2 




















3 


5 








i 












46 


3 














I 
























2 


4 








U; 


61 










3 


































I 


2 




>H 


161 


3 








2 








I 
























5 


4 






CI 


232 


4 








I 








3 












2 




















S 


Au- 












1 






































thor. 


i 

i 








2 








3 
4 


1 




6 


5 








4 












3 


2 




45 






144 












1 


















I 






















165 


i 




4 




2 






6 


3 






5 






7 


8 




















188 










I 








































4-J 

Cl 


192 


2 








I 




B 




3 












4 






















242 


4 








I 








2 






3 






6 
















5 




o 


272 
















2 














3 


I 




















284 3 








I 








2 




















4 














Au- 


















































— 


thor. 


i 








2 








3 








4 






5 










1 




I 


— 




o 


70 


7 








2 








I 
































a 


268 


4 








2 








I 


5 






3 
























P- 














1 



































202 



Table 2. — Northeastern Mountain Counties. 



H 
Z 

o 
u 


OBSERVER. 


X 
cd 

1 


o 

u 


CO 
0.) 

"O 
0) 
V 

Z 

X! 

en 

'8 

CO 


'8 
d 

o 

W 


CO 

a 




J-l 


u 

o 

Q 

u 


CD 

CO 

H 

CD 

3 


Q 

u 

>-, 
u 

'A 




o 

u 

a 

U 
|d 

1 


o 



"o 

u 
3 

cr 1 

U 


CD 
u 

u 

o 
CO 


-a 
cd 

0) 


CD 

o 


195 
222 
263 
Author. 


I 


2 
I 


3 

i 


-! 
3 


5 

4 
4 


2 


3 

2 


i 
3 


3 

2 










A. 


88 

99 

198 

269 

Author. 




I 

4 

2 
2 

2 


4 


5 
i 

3 


3 

3 

4 




I 


2 

3 
i 
i 




2 


3 


4 


5 



203 



Table 3 — Eastern Mountain Counties. 









s 








en 




















g 








"b 








H 






-- 




^1h 








c^ 


ic 










"u 






~ 


cd 


ft 


H 

% 

O 
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> 
w 

CO 

pq 


cb 
be 

CD 

CO 

a 

o 
o 

u 


G 

a 

Cli 

u 

3 


o 

u 
j-i 
Cd 


i/j 
'3 
Q 

CD 
>. 
CD 

X! 


S-i 

cd 

i-i 

pq 

S3 
cd 


-a 

CD 
CD 

CO 

'a 

cd 


CD 

!-! 

o 


"8 


% 

a 
a 

CD 

be 
o 


u 

o 

P 

CD 


CO 

u 




CD 

ft 

CD 

3 


0) 

be 

cd 


o 
o 
■d 

M 

3 



In 
H 

u 


P 

H 

rt 
cd 

a 

Cti 


> 

CD 

P 

CD 

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■-- 


CO 

cd 

CD 


o 

a 
so 

0) 




Ph 

CO 
> 


T3 
cd 
CD 

5 
be 
bo 


u 


O 


CQ 


pq 


>H 


O 


CO 


CO 


CO 


o 


P 


M 


pq 


pq 


« 


pq 


u 


'.■■>■ 


H 


pq 


2 


u 

cu 


64 


i 


2 


3 


4 






































246 


4 




I 




2 


3 
































Author 


2 




3 




I 




















! 








— 




CO 










































Cd 














































o 


139 






3 








I 


2 


5 


4 
























cd 
o 


151 




2 




3 












i 
























O 














































Ph 




2 




3 


i 














4 








5 
















30 






142 








2 




i 












3 


4 




















152 






i 


2 












4 


3 
























160 








I 




2 








4 




3 




















CD 


210 








4 




5 




3 


2 






6 




i 
















o 


218 

223 

Author 


4 
5 


5 
2 


7 

2 
2 

3 


3 
3 

i 


4 
4 


6 
6 






8 




5 
6 


7 




2 


i 

i 
i 


3 

4 




7 










19 






CO 


55 


i 




2 












3 


























a; 

a 


80 




2 


3 


i 




































a 


100 






2 


i 






3 




4 


























3 

CO 


244 
Author 


3 

5 








2 








4 












i 
i 




2 


3 


4 








85 




3 




2 






















i 














o 


145 


i 


5 


3 














4 








2 


5 














O 

3 


158 
214 
219 


i 
4 


4 




3 
3 


I- 










4 








3 


i 

2 








2 


2 


5 



204 





Table 4- 


-Northern Counties. 


















o 




























O 








"jo 
































































cti 




































■*-» 




P 
o 


> 
w 

PQ 


IS 

H 

c 
c 

6 




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g 


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o 

p' 

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Q 

CU 


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U 

be 


o 

k-l 

1-1 


o 

o 
o 

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3 


O 

u 

u 

U 


To 


c 

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a 

cti 
u 




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s 

Q 

O 


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QJ 

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0) 

CP 
G 




Ph 
a; 

V 

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C/j 

2 


M 

i-H 


u 


O 


U 

i 


2 


1 

3 


° 


pel 


>H 


23 


H 


PQ 


o 


ra 


u< 


CJ 


1 


PQ 




17 






37 






3 


4 




2 
























58 








2 






I 


3 




















93 








I 










2 


















109 




3 


4 


I 








2 


















B 


110 


5 






2 








6 




i 


3 


4 










O 


127 


3 


4 




I 








2 
















03 


148 




4 


3 


I 






5 


2 


















fin 


157 
187 
196 
217 
262 


5 
2 

4 


3 


2 

4 

2 

3 


I 
I 

I 


5 
i 


3 


4 

2 




3 
3 

2 






i 












Author. 






3 


I 
I 


i 


2 

4 




4 
2 




3 




5 

2 










g.-s 

d 13 


10 

48 




° M 




































§ 


Author. 








I 


8 


6 




4 


5 


3 




2 


7 

















2 




3 




I 
















4 




2 








11 




i 


3 














4. 






2 






5 




27 




i 




3 










2 


5 




6 


4 








28 




4 


4 


i 




6 












5 


3 






7 




43 


























2 




3 

4 


T 


.2 


94 












5 








3 




i 


2 








115 






2 


i 




5 








4 






3 






S 


120 
205 




i 


4 

2 


i 




3 






3 


4 






2 










259 




4 


3 


i 
















2 










271 




3 


4 


















2 


I 










276 




i 


3 




















2 










Author. 








i 




4 






5 






3 


2 










83 








2 




7 




3 


6 


4 




5 








I 


i»i 


181 






4 






5 




2 




3 




i 










o 


220 








I 




2 




5 




3 




4 










i-~> 
rt 


243 








I 




4 




2 




5 




3 










H 


261 
Author. 






tR 


I 
2 

9 C 




4 
*5 


>* 


3 
i 

T A 


4 






3 






2 




Total 




6 n 


T J,„ 


1 








■ J 1 - ^ T 


-)- A .-)- A W J .i X 


1 7| 1 2 i 


4 





205 




H 


Table 5— Northwestern Ohio Rivar Counties. 


Ph^^ co 1j"5^ ',.2 « 


~0 °cn 

y? bfl rt « a, i !R g . g 2 2- rfl. 

^ «u g ^ - ^ 3 fl « > g « 


5 
3 
J 
J 


m 1 e g s S g" a .s .2 I s | g 


« S fl rt^^fl £ x > 


o ! 


23 * 2 3 4 5 C a 






o 


j5S' 34 ' 1 I 5 i , 3 




ni 


240 3 




U 


9 I 2134 







18 2 l 




o 
l-l 


164 31 2 4 




-i 


193 1 2 

250 32 4 1 6 5 


3 4 5 

I 
1 j 




1 




6 


16 1 5 3 


2 46 





54 1 3 2 


4 

1 




49 1 2 


3 4 ! 


^ 


50 3 4 J 


2 

6 




107 2 4 5i 3 




111 1.3 H ' 2 






131 3 2 


1 


r^-. 


138 2 1 3 4 


1 




234 1 3 2 


1 4 




14i 3 6 


2 4 5 




21 4| 3 


5 2 1 




S3 5 1 324 


6 




59 3 4 7 5 


6 2 1 


T^ 


60 5 4632 


1 


N 


69 3 2 


1 5 4 


< 


123 3 5 6 1 2 


4| 


124 453 2 6 


1 5 




162 2 


4 3 




179 1 


2 3 




237 6 32 


1 4 5 


0. 


112 5 1 3 


24 6 


e 


- 2041 247 6 

1 1 


5 «| 5 | 



206 



Table 5— Northwestern Ohio River Counties.— Continued. 

















1 






..., 








1 


















: 


















I 






To 


















"<S: 




























u 






-- 














cti 


V 














« 


£ 










s 


7j 


•- 




CO 








%> 


u 


S 1 


o 


~3 












H 

Z 
P 

o 
o 


> 

W 

CO 

M 

O 



D 

"o 

O 


ft 


0) 


5 

O 

C/3 


I 



in 

S-. 




:-! 

m 

'J 

1 


2 
H 

X) 
cd 



n 

u 


3d 
o 



Q 

u 

1) 

3 


1-1 

u 

T3 


H 

c 
o 

r< 

H 


U 


w 

Cd 

a: 

H 


u 

cd 

-: 


\* 

pq 
-a 

6 
co 
10 


01 

c3 

,2! 

>, 
u 

x 

o 


u 

en 

g 




PQ 


'3 
a 

cd 

s 

u 
3 
PQ 


T3 
V 

he 

(V 1 

— 1 


> 

1 


u 
u 

en 

5 

03 

ft 

CO 


u 
o 

pq 


1° 

3 

Lid 
i 

o 



U 


> 

3 
O 


> 
u 

Q 

u 

g 

3 


"3 • 

o I 
l 






C/5 










































































































197 










5 


i 






4 












2 














3 


6 




C/3 


211 










2 








4 










3 














i 5 


























































Pn 






















































1 






I 






-! 












2 




3 




















- 




28 
31 
53 










5 


3 














7 
i 


2 

I 
2 




5 


2 


6 
3 

5 
3 
4 

2 












4 
4 




57 
74 
89 




4 

2 

5 






2 


2 
1 
















I 




3 
i 


I 














T3 


101 




i 








3 
















4 




















O 
O 


104 






1 






5 












2 




4 


6 


3 

4 
4 
3 




7 
8 














£ 


118 












2 
















i 




















203 










5 














I 


3 




2 




















206 












2 
















i 






1 
















209 








I 
















3 

1 


2 




















228| 
















































258! 










I 
























2 












i 




Au- 


















































thor. J 








1 


3 














i 


4 


5 






2 





































207 




























Table 6— Southern Ohio River Counties. 








"b 


















£ 


•o 
































gj 


S 








a 






"v 


03 
U 








r b 


s 


> , 
















o 


O 


(D 


~g 






o* 


">, 






CO 


-3 








<d 


1) 


m 






» 


^ 




— I 


> 


3d 
o 
o 

Q 

M 


0) 


be 

0> 

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a 


'3 

Ed 


> 
Q 


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0) 


o 
i-i 

i-i 

u 


'ft 

3 

Q 
aj 


a. 

o 

H 


CO 


H 
O 

a 


S3 




- 


a 

u 

•fi 


> 

bo 
cd 


(J 




3 

ho 

c 



2 


u 


u 

Q 
u 


c 
a 


*« 


-J 



CD 

O 


3 


J3 
1 




o 
u 


rid 
o 

pq 


3 


3 
o 
o 
J 


3 

1 


k 

O 


.3 


c 

01 

1/3 


a 

u 


G 
cd 




1) 

V-, 

M 
O 

fi 


bo 

c 


"3 

H 


3 
| 


I-. 
O 


cr 1 

a 
U 





15 


be 



P 


w 

j— 1 








3 


3 


4 


















__ _ 






















8 


r 










15 


2 








I 


3 










4 




























51 












3 


I 


2 








4 


5 
























72 


2 


3 


i 












































75 


2 




i 


3 
















:4 


























121 








2 






1 




3 






4 


5 






















g 


140 




3 


2 














1 


4 


























J2 


200 


I 




3 




4 


2 






5 








6 
























201 


I 


5 


4 




3 










2 






























215 
224 
256 
273 

Au- 


2 

6 

2 


4 


2 

3 


4 
i 

5 


i 
i 


4 
6 




3 

2 


7 

5 


3 




5 

7 
3 


1 

4 
























thor. 


3 


4 








2 




I 


5 














~ 


















25 






3 




i 


4 










2 


5 
























B 


170 




3 


2 




i 


5 


4 










6 
























o 
cti 


172 






4 






6 


3 






2 




5 




I 




1 


7 














m 


Au- 


















































thor. 














I 






2 










3 


4 


5 


6 












— 1 


82 






2 


3 




4 












5 






6 








1 










"3 


194 


4 




5 












3 












1 










2 


6 






u 


229 


6 


5 


4 






3 

6 






2 






4 
7 
















5 


1 


2 




aj 


86 


3 




a 


98 






2 


















3 


4 
















1 






>1 


178 


7 




4 






5 












1 




3 














2 


6 




£ 


267 


2 




i 






3 












I 4 














, 






5 


e 











Table 7 


—Northern Central Counties. 








>< 

H 

z 

o 
u 


w 
> 

w 

CO 

. pq 
O , 


"is 

03 

XJ 

W 


2*! 
O 


Q 
u 

pq 


03 

cd 


3 

JQ 

XJ 
G 

cd 
C/3 


u 

b£ 

03 

C/3 

s 


o 
)-l 

3 


4-1 


u 
u 
cd 

u 

xJ 
I 


o 

1-4 

cd 


<3> 
(fl 

'3 

Q 

a; 

o 


o 

■~t 

.a 

^2 

u 



U 


'5 

: Cd 

o 


cd 

'o 


o 

4— 1 

cd 
O 

CD 

1 


Si 

u 

o 

X) 
ii 

pq 
i 


to 

lH 

CO 

pq 

2 

3 

2 

4 

2 

4 
i 

i 

i 


X 

CO 

^a 
H 
cd 

cd 

H 

TO 

CJ 

3 
i 

6 
4 


u 

xl 

03 

QJ 

CO 

'5 

cd 
G, 

6 
3 

3 
4 

3 


T3 

c 
o 

lH 

1 — 1 
2 

3 


4 

- 

co 
-H 

H 

c 
o 

a 
S 



U 

2 


OC o 

X) z 

03 ( 

03 < 

£<= 

bo s 

cd 2: 

X P 

2 

3 

4 
-1 


_ "> 

H 0» 

3 Q „ 

5 03 S 

I- 

- 

I 


03 

c 
c 

03 

u ^ 
2 be 

Q- 

1 
1 


» 

r 


o 

X3 

pq 


56 
122 
168 
180 


i 

2 

I 


2 


3 


4 
I 


5 
3 

2 
I 


4 


5 


3 


6 

6 

4 


2 


' 4 
3 


4 




d 
o 

ca 


3 
20 
22 
26 
36 
41 
42 
63 
73 
87 
90 
95 
102 
252 
275 
Au- 
thor. 


3 
i 

2 

3 
3 
i 
i 

1 
i 

i 

5 




4 
3 

i 


3 

i 

i 

6 

i 
4 

2 

4 

2 
2 

2 


2 

5 

4 

4 
5 
i 

i 
5 
3 
4 

2 

3 
6 


6 
3 

2 

4 
6 




i 
4 

4 

5 

3 
3 

3 


2 
2 

5 

2 

2 
3 


.5 
i 






oj 

rs 

X) 

'a 
o 

Q 


38 
103 
163 
182 
251 
260 


2 

3 






3 
5 

4 
i 


i 

i 

2 


2 


4 


2 


I 

5 


i 
3 






CO 

P 
c/i 

03 


12 
34 
114 
207 
238 
241 
249 
Au- 
thor. 

39 

40 

125 

173 

186 

Au- 

tin r»-r» 


2 
2 

2 

2 




6 
5 

4 


3 
4 

2 

5 

2 

5 
I 
I 

2 

2 


2 

I 

4 
i 

3 

3, 
i 

3 

3 
4 
3 
3 
3 


3 

5 

5 
4 


4 

5 
5 


4 
3 
i 

i 

i 

3 

4 
i 




5 
3 

2 

4 





209 





Table 7- 


Northern Central Counties 


Contir 


ued. 








w 

> 

w 

CD 

PQ 
O 


~C0 
l-< 

V 


3* 

o 
o 

Q 

u 
V 

ffl 


o 
W 

H 


t-H 

;.0 


(1) 
CO 

a 



o 

:-. 

PI 


O 

!-. 

ea 
U 


o 

u 

4 

1 
I 

2 


X 

'3 

9 

0) 
X 

o 

I 

3 
6 

3 

6 

4 
4 

4 


M 

S3 

o 
o 
U 

I 

2 


3 
(3 

Pk 

J« 
o 

S3 

PP 

5 
i 

2 

4 
5 


1} 

OS 


ti 

' V 

P-H 


"6 

M 

o 

Ph 

CO 

b 
4 

7 

7 
4 
3 

6 


o 


2 


X 

u 

c-: 

cq 
i 

2 
I 


© 

"•1, 

X 

IS 
H 

Rj 

r.: 



a 

to 

•■-; 

| ; 

"'. 

:" 
Cu 

6 


(U 

(t) 



6 
4 

2 

I 


3 
a 







1) 

.: 

U 

S3 

M 

2 
2 

I 

1 

2 
2 

4 

2 
I 

5 

i 

i 
i 
i 

4 

4 
4 

2 
2 
2 

5 

2 
2 

I 


> 

Q 
u 

1 




3 




2 

4 


to 

Pm 
1 


76 

77 

128 

231 

245 


2 

3 

4 


3 

4 


— 


I 

3 
i 

I 

2 

2 


2 
2 

3 
3 

4 
5 
5 

5 
3 
3 
3 

3 


I 

4 




7 
52 
68 
96 
105 
134 
135 
230 
265 
Au- 
thor. 




65 
113 
133 
136 
137 
147 
149 
159 
190 
202 
225 
248 
253 




5 

2 
2 
2 

4 




3 

5 
•3 

3 

3 


3 

2 
I 

3 
4 
3 




4 
4 

i 
3 

5 


3 
5 

2 




i 

4 




'5 

6 
5 
3 

4 


2 






5 
3 

2 

6 

3 


I 


108 
146 
236 
255 
257 
266 








6 

5 

i 


4 
3 

6 

3 
i 

2 




3 

1 i 
i 


5 
i 

5 
3 


5 

2 


4 
4 

4 












3 

2 

5 


2 


4 
3 



2IO 



Table 8 — Southern Central Counties. 



H 

z 

O 

u 


> 

w 

CO 

O 


're 

Q 

k 

C 




he 

-o 
m 
.0 

a 

o 
o 

V-l 

3 
3 

2 

5 
5 


o 

a 

4 
4 


o 
X 

H 
d 



E 

E 

o 
U 

i 


'S 

d 
p 
J 

2 


> 


u 

tx 

re 

4 
6 

4 

2 
I 


XI 

<u 

u 
o 
U 

5 
3 

2 
2 

2 

I 

6 


d 

d 

O 

Q 

5 
6 

i 
3 

2 

4 


in 
U 

-a 
u 

0) 

% 
'£ 

re 
CO 

6 
7 

4 

2 

4 


0) 
CO 

d 

4 
4 

4 

i 


T3 

U 
0) 

d 
o 

J-. 

1— 1 

3 

2 


> 

U 

<u 

d 

2 

2 
6 

I 


"tfi 

•- 
J 

W 
i 


■> 
u 

Q 

OJ 

2 
I 

7 


03 

XJ 
SO 

4 

2 


— 

o 

/) 

i 

5 
i 


d 

o 

ffl 

— 
3 

2 

3 




£ 

d 

d 
Ph 


32 

116 

212 

227 

Author 


I 
3 


2 

I 
I 




r3 

d 


84 
143 
154 
174 
191 
Author 


. i 
5 

i 




i 
3 

4 

3 
5 


3 




3 




u 


254 






3 






rt 

"o 
u 


189 
Author 


2 

3 




Id 


106 
130 
132 
Author 


3 

2 
2 




i 
i 
3 
3 










o 

c 

'J 


24 




1 


4 










3 










2 










5 



211 



Table 9 — Southern Boundary Counties. 















S 




to 

ei 

05 






i 




am 








cd 




>-, 




a 


03 


T3 




5 




S 










>H 


> 




en 

'3 

Q 

4) 
>i 
1) 






be 

-a 

0) 


V 




7j 
n 


* 


o 

l-c 


i-i 


a 
3 


"a, 




H 


en 




o 


s 

M 


(J J 

s 

o 


J3 

"3 


"cu 


Q 
>-< 

-u 


S d 

cr 1 ^ 


l-H 

X) 

-a 


a) 


H 

CD 




o 
u 


o 




O 


CO 


3 


o 

V-l 


C/3 


o 


n 

5 


c;l 


c3 
C/3 


u 
o 
U 


5 




bjo 




14li i 


2 


3 


4 












o> . 




150 


2 


4 


.5 


i 


s 




6 


















208 








3 


i 


2 


4 


















81 


5 


I 




4 




3 




2 


6 




7 






o 

CD 




97 


4 








2 


I 






3 












129 


3 










I 




2 




4 


5 






8 




264 
270 


2 
2 


3 




4 


5 
4 


I 






3 


6 


7 
i 






































































o 
Q 

o 


































169 


3 






2 


6 








4 




7 


i 


































s 



























212 



Table 10— Summary of the Worst Weeds, According to 

to the Tables. 

The following weeds were voted worst the number of times set op- 
posite their names: t 



Ox-eye Daisy" 


55 


Rag Weed 58 


5 


Broom Sedge 1 " 1 


3o 


Burdock 101 


4 
3 
3 


Wild Carrot" 


22 


Canada Tnistle 108 


Blue Thistle 1 " 


19 


Field Garlic 178 


Sand-briar 1 * 2 


15 


Dog Fennel 97 


3 


Elders " 


H 


Golden Rod 77 


3 


Blue Devil 84 


H 


Common Thistle 104 


3 


Yarrow 98 


13 


Wild Hlax 138 


2 


Sorrel 108 


12 


Teasle 70 


2 


Buck Plantain'*' 


11 


Wing Stem 9:i 


2 


Bitter Dock 167 


9 


Glenn Weed 15 


2 


Briars 1 ' 


8 


Water Cress 11 


2 


White Devil 79 


7 


Wild Sweet Potato 157 


1 


Spanish Needles'* 


5 


Cinquefoil 17 


2 


Cockle-bur 90 


5 


Smart Weed 109 


2 


White Top 82 


5 


Iron Weed 72 


1 



The following is a complete list of weeds reported as BAD, with 
the number of times each was so reported: 



Ox-eye Daisy 99 
Broom Sedge 191 
Wild Carrot 59 
Yarrow 98 
Buck Plantain 15 ' 
•Bitter Dock 167 
Sand briar 132 
Spanish Needles" 
Elders 00 
Cockle bur 90 
Blue Devil 80 
Blue Thistle 12 * 
Wild Sweet Potato 127 
Teasle 70 
Sorrel 168 
White Top 82 
Dog Fennel' 7 
Iron Weed 72 
Canada Thistle 1 " 
Briars 48 
Rag Weed' 1 
Burdock 101 



147 Common Thistle 105 

145 White Devil 79 

97 Field Garlic 178 

94 Cinquefoil 47 

73 Wild Flax 138 

66 Glenn Weed 15 

64 Wild Parsnip 62 

61 Wing Stem 93 

53 Naked Weed 112 

53 Golden Rod 77 

46 Water Cress 11 

45 Boar Thistle 10 * 

37 Corn Cockle 20 

33 Wild Lettuce 113 

31 Beggar's Lice 41 

28 Nigger Head 91 

27 Jimson Weed 135 

25 Smart Weed 169 

22 Wild Poppy 8 

20 Sweet Clover" 

20 Tall Rag Weed 8 * 

19 Morning Glory 136 



18 

H 

14 
11 

9 
8 
8 
7 
5 
5 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1