Skip to main content

Full text of "The yucceae"

See other formats

! f'JJiTf 





i/A v$aOSANCElfj> 

>& * 

aqq. ^o q.dodaa -[enuu^ q^uaa^ J.T qq. 

The Yueeeae. 


Issued July 30, 1902. 





The large family Liliaceae has been subjected to very 
different treatment by the writers who at various times 
have monographed it or attempted to indicate a natural 

> sequence for its genera. The tribes Aloineae and Yuccoi- 
deae, respectively African and American, were treated to- 

-4 gether by Mr. Baker f with the implied recognition of 

^ close affinity, the principal synoptic differences between 
them consisting in the succulent leaves and gamophyllous 
perianth of the former, and the less succulent more fibrous 
leaves and distinct perianth segments of the latter, in 
which he includes Yucca, Hesperaloe, Herreria, Beau- 
carnea, and Dasylirion.\ 

Bentham and Hooker also place the aloids and yuccoids 

^ close together, characterizing the tribe Dracaeneae, in 
which the latter are included, by its mostly distinct perianth 

V segments, U and including in it Hesperocallis, Hesperaloe, 
Yucca, Nolina (Beaucarnea), and Dasylirion, of the New 

* Presented in abstract, with lantern illustrations, before the Botan- 
ical Society of America, at its New York meeting, June 28, 1900, and 
before the Academy of Science of St. Louis, Feb. 3, 1902. 

t Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 148. (1881). 

J 1. c. 152. 

Genera Plantarum. 3: 750, 777. (1883). 

t The generic descriptions show that the segments are connate into 
a tube in Hesperocallis , Dracaena, Cordyline, Milligania, and some species 
of Astelia, and barely united at the base in Yucca. 1. c. 778. 




World, and Dracaena, Cordyline, Astelia and Milligania, 
of the Old World, while the South American Heireria is 
removed to another tribe. 

Professor Engler,* who treats the Aloineae as pertaining 
to a group placed at a considerable distance from the 
Dracaeuoideae, includes in the latter the Old World Dra- 
caeneae, of the genera Cohnia, Cordyline, Astelia, and 
Milligania, with perianth segments connate at base, and 
the New World groups Nolineae, of the genera Nolina and 
Dasylirion, and Yucceae, of Yucca and Hesperaloe, with 
the segments distinct. f Hesperocallis is very properly 
removed to another group. 

The present paper deals only with this group Yucceae of 
Engler, and includes the principal conclusions reached in 
an intermittent herbarium, garden and field study extend- 
ing over the last sixteen years, in the course of which nearly 
all of the spontaneous species have been examined and 
photographed in their native homes and many of them in- 
troduced or reintroduced into cultivation in this country 
and Europe from definitely located sources. 

In its alliance, the group Yucceae is characterized by the 
possession of similar subequal withering-persistent petaloid 
perianth segments, a 3-celled ovary with more or less in- 
truded dorsal false septa, many ovules 2-ranked in each 
cell, a subterete elongated embryo obliquely placed across 
the seed, and germination with arched cotyledon.} 

* Natiirl. Pflanzenfamilien. II Teil. 5 Abteil. 19, 70. (1888). 

t It is to be observed that, with most writers, Engler speaks of the 
segments as free or somewhat united at base, in his generic description 
of Yucca. 1. c. 70. 

J In all of the genera of this group, in germination the cotyledon as- 
sumes an arched form, with the seed remnant on or in the soil (from which 
it is ultimately raised in some cases), instead of directly carrying this 
up on its end as it commonly does in Liliaceae. See The Garden. 8 : 
300. /. Gard. Chron. n. s. 24: 216. Lubbock, Contr. Knowl. of Seed- 
lings. 2 : 578, 613. Copeland, Bot. Gaz. 31 ; 419. /. 3. 



The genera constituting the group appear to admit of 
most natural limitation as follows : 

Flowers oblong or narrowly campanulate, scarcely 15 mm. wide, rosy- 
red or greenish: filaments shortly adnate to the petals below, 
slender, erect, inflexed at apex; anthers oblong: style filiform, 
minutely papillate about the scarcely enlarged stigma. Hesperaloe. 
Flowers globose or broadly campanulate, spreading to a width of 50 to 
100 mm., white or creamy, often tinged with green, bronze or 
violet : filaments clavately enlarged ; anthers shortly sagittate. 
Style filiform, abrupt; stigma capitate, long-papillate : filaments ad- 
nate to the petals below, erect. Hesperoyucca. 
Style stout or wanting, gradually if at all narrowed; stigma openly 
perforate, not papillate, more or less deeply 6-notched : fila- 
ments mostly outcurved at apex. 
Perianth polyphyllous, or the segments barely connate at base, 

to which the filaments are slightly attached. 
Segments of perianth thick, mostly inflexed: style wanting: 
nectar glands in walls of ovary small. Clistoyucca. 
Segments thin and petaloid, spreading at night: style evi- 
dent : nectar glands large but mostly inactive. Yucca. 
Perianth gamophyllous and tubular below, the stamens inserted 
in its throat, otherwise as in Yucca. Samuela. 

HESPERALOE Engelmann. 

Perianth oblong or narrowly campanulate, of subequal 
closely applied distinct oblong succulent segments out- 
curved at tip. Filaments adnate to base of perianth, 
slender, erect, inflexed at apex; anthers oblong, introrse. 
Ovary ovoid, shorter than the long slender style ; stigma 
not enlarged, minutely papillate and perforate. Fruit 
capsular, globose-oblong, rugose-veiny, 3-celled, 6- 
valved at least above, the valves with short solid erect 
beak. Seeds thin, flat: albumen not ruminated. 
Subacaulescent plants with filiferous-margined long con- 
cave striate scarcely pungent smooth leaves, and loosely 
panicled few-branched inflorescence. 


Flowers rosy-red or salmon-colored. H. parviflora. 

Flowers green, tinged with purple. . H. funifera. 


H. TARVIFLOKA (Torrey) Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. 
Herb. 2: 436. (1894.) 

H. yuccaefolia Engelmann, Bot. King. 497. (1871). Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis. 3 : 55. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1871 : 1516. Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 18 : 231. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 250. 

Yucca (?) parviflora Torrey, Bot. Bound. 221. (1859). Baker, Gard. 
Chron. 1870:923. 

Y. paviflora Hemsley, Garden. 8 : 132. 

Aloe yuccaefolia Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7:390. (1867). Gard. 
Chron. 1870:1092. 

Usually cespitosely suckering. Leaves arcuately spreading, 1 to 1.25 
m. long, something over 25 mm. wide, striate-ridged on the back. In- 
florescence 1 to 1.25 m. high, the few branches divaricate, glabrous and 
subglaucous. Flowers fascicled above the bracts, on soft articulated 
rosy pedicels, ephemeral, rosy, tubular, mostly about 35 mm. long; style 
long-exserted. Capsule something over 25 mm. long; seeds 5X 8 
mm. Plate l,f. 1. 

Southwestern Texas; between the Rio Grande and the 
southern part of Valverde County, Kinney County, and 
the western part of Zavalla County. Plate 84, f. 1. 

One of the puzzling plants brought in by the naturalists 
of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, col- 
lected between the mouth of the Pecos and the Nueces, was 
described by Dr. Torrey * under the name Yucca? parvi flora, 
the description of the filifcrous Yucca-like leaves and of 
the inflorescence being good, but that of the flowers and 
fruit indifferent, the perianth noted as "white? ", and 
the unripe fruit as " doubtless fleshy." 

In his enumeration of the known forms of Yucca in 1870, 
Mr. Baker, referring to dried specimens in the Kew herba- 
rium, as well as to the original description, characterizes the 
plant in much the same way, but observes that the flower is 
more like that of an Ornithogalum of the Pyrenaicum 
group than that of its neighbors of the genus Yucca. 
Mention is also made of the peculiarity of the flowers in an 
article on Yucca by Mr. Hemsley, who, evidently through 
a typographical error, calls the species Y. paviflora. 

* Emory, Kept. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. 2. Botany of the Boundary 
by John Torrey. 122. Referred to in this paper as " Bot. Bound." 


Before these articles by Baker and Hemsley were pub- 
lished, living specimens had been sent to Dr. Gray, and an 
examination of flowers which these bore in the Harvard Bo- 
tanical Garden showed the generic distinctness of the plant 
from Yucca, and so strong a resemblance to the true 
Aloes of Africa that Dr. Gray did not hesitate to transfer it 
to the genus Aloe, under the new and descriptive specific 
name yuccaefolia. The redescription shows that the flow- 
ers are pale red and the fruit capsular. 

Recognizing sufficient differences between this American 
Ywcca-leaved and Twcca-fruited Aloe and the African 
plants properly representative of that genus, Dr. Engel- 
mann* created for it the genus Hesperaloe, in 1871, 
noting that the leaves, pollen and seeds are those of Yucca, 
the perigone and pistil are those of Aloe, and the filaments, 
adnate at base and geniculate upwards, resemble those of 
Agave. This description was repeated by Mr. Baker the 
same year, the specific name yuccaefolia, introduced by Dr. 
Gray, being employed in both instances. 

The original specific name proposed by Dr. Torrey was 
restored, in combination with the generic name Hesperaloe, 
by Professor Coulter in his account of the botany of west- 
ern Texas, in 1894. 

Notwithstanding its beauty and unusual characters, little 
is known of this plant in its typical form, aside from the 
original observations of Torrey, Gray, Baker and Engel- 
mann. The only herbarium specimens that I know 
of were collected by Wright: in June, 1849, be- 
tween the Nueces river and Elm creek and on the 
banks of the latter ; apparently in the autumn of the same 
year, on hills of Devil's river; and May 15, 1851, between 
the Leona and Nueces. f 

* King, Eept. U. S. Geol. Explor. Fortieth Parallel. 5. Botany, by 
Sereno Watson. 497. Referred to here as "Bot. King." 

f For the localities represented by specimens contained in the Gray 
herbarium, I am indebted to Miss Mary A. Day. 


In April, 1900, while passing a day in San Antonio, 
Texas, I observed a lltsperaloe planted in one of the plazas 
of that city, which in its long arching concave filiferous 
leaves, oblong Aloe-red flowers with white styles pro- 
truding for a distance equal to one-third or one-half the 
length of the perianth, and very short anthers, agreed with 
the description and scanty available herbarium material of 
//. yuccarfolia, and from this plant, offsets of which are now 
growing in the Missouri Botanical Garden, the following 
notes have been made. 

The flowers are ephemeral, and their original appearance 
would scarcely be guessed from the withered remains after 
they have fallen, or from such herbarium material as is 
usually seen. Though the buds are erect, the soft, rosy 
articulated pedicels ultimately arch over, so that the ex- 
panded flowers are horizontal or more frequently pendent. 
In texture they are suggestive of Lapageria, and this re- 
semblance, notwithstanding their smaller size and some- 
what different form, is increased by their beautiful 
outward shading with rose-color, on a creamy ground 
color which prevails on the inner surface. The firm 
succulent distinct but closely appressed segments of 
the perianth are about half a millimeter thick in the 
middle and outwardly recurved near the end, which, as 
in Yucca, is tipped with a minute tuft of white hair- 
like papillae. The inner segments are 8 or 9 mm. 
wide, and the outer segments a little narrower. The white 
or rosy slightly tapering filaments are adnate to the seg- 
ments for a short distance and then stand erect, with 
the very slender apex abruptly incurved so as to make 
the oblong versatile anthers suberect and introrse, close 
against the filaments, with their abundant bright yellow 
powdery pollen exposed toward the style. The conical- 
ovoid greenish ovary is very slightly 6-grooved, and the 
white style, somewhat tapering and triquetrous near the 
base, soon becomes filiform and terete except for three 


faint grooves which persist to the very inconspicuously 
3-lobed perforate somewhat fimbriate stigma. The ovary 
possesses three large plane septal nectar glands, passing 
outward at top into conducting grooves which open at the 
base of the pistil, and the abundant secretion of which, 
when not removed, drips to the mouth of the pendent 
flower so that toward the end of the day, when the flower 
closes, the anthers, style and perianth are gummed together 
into a nearly inseparable mass. The ovules resemble in 
shape and arrangement those of the capsular species of 
Yucca, and the erect capsule and thin flat black seeds are 
equally suggestive of this section of Yucca. 

H. parviflora Engelmanni (Krauskopf) Trelease. 

H. Engelmanni Krauskopf, Notice to Botanists, etc., Aug. 1878 [cir- 
cular]. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 250. (1879). Baker, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:231. Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 
2 : 436. 

H. yuccaefolia Garden. 18 : 188. 20 : 71, 361. 21 : 324. Gard. Chron. 
n. s. 18 :87, 109, 199. /. 34. Andrt, Rev. Hort. 58 : 64. Hooker, 
Bot. Mag. iii. 56. pi. 7223. 

Flowers oblong-campanulate, about 25 mm. long; styles scarcely ex- 
-ceeding the perianth. Plates l,f. 2. 2. 

Southwestern Texas, about the head of the west fork of 
the Nueces river. 

In 1878, Mr. E. Krauskopf, of Fredericksburg, Texas, 
issued an advertising circular mentioning H. yuccaefolia 
and offering for sale plants of a Hesperaloe which he 
had brought from the western dry branch of the Nueces 
river and for which he proposed the name H. Engelmanni. 
The flowers are described as bell-shaped, red, with short 
thick style and anthers as much as a quarter of an inch 
long, whereas in H. yuccaefolia the latter are said to be 
several times shorter than the filiform style. Specimens of 
this supposed second species were sent to Dr. Engelmann, 
through Lindheimer, and are noted in his herbarium as 
having been collected by Meusebach, though they are evi- 
dently of the collection referred to by Krauskopf. 


Some time after this, John Saul, of Washington, sent 
flowers of Hesperaloe, from the Nueces river, to the editor 
of The Garden, under the name of H. yuccaefolia* and 
at about this time the genus seems to have gone into one 
or more English gardens, probably from this source. f 
The same form apparently was again introduced into En- 
gland in 1888, % but I have not learned from what source. 

Dr. Watson, in his revision of the North American 
Liliaceae, shortly after the discovery of H. Enrjelmanni, 
mentions this proposed species as from the same region as 
//. yuccaefolia, but imperfectly known, though perhaps 
to be distinguished by the more slender and flexuous 
branches of its inflorescence, smaller bracts, twice longer 
anthers, and stouter included style scarcely longer than 
the ovary. A similar equivocal mention was made in 
1880 by Mr. Baker, of H. Engelmanni, which is ignored 
by Professor Engler, but distinctly recognized by Pro- 
fessor Coulter in his Botany of western Texas, in connec- 
tion with the earlier species. 

So far as the evidence goes, all of the Hesperaloe culti- 
vated in Europe, and to which reference has been made 
above, belongs to this second form, and may perhaps have 
been derived from Krauskopf 's original collection. 

In May, 1900, a plant procured some three years before 
fromMr.P.J.Berckmans,1f and itself possibly derivedfrom 
Krauskopf, originally, came into bloom at the Missouri 

* Garden. 18: 188. From the phraseology of a quotation from Mr. 
Saul, it may be inferred, perhaps, that the plant bearing these flowers 
was derived originally from Krauskopf. 

t See The Garden. 20: 71, 361. 21: 324, where a plant is said to 
hare been in continuous bloom from July 1881 until May 1882, with 
promise of continuing to flower for another month or two. Gard. Chroa. 
n. s. 18 : 87; 109, 199. /. 34. 

I Curtis's Bot. Mag. iii. 56. pi. 7223. 

Engler & Prantl. 1. c. 71. 

1 See Berckmans, Gard. Monthly. 1883: 323. Wiener 111. Gart.- 
Zeit. 11 : 268. 


Botanical Garden, and continued to flower until well into 
the fall. The first flowers which opened, though shorter 
than those of the San Antonio plant referred to H. parvi- 
flora, and consequently broader relatively to their length, 
possessed the conspicuously exserted white style and short 
anthers (scarcely over 2 mm. long) of that species. After 
the first few flowers, those which opened were relatively 
much broader, because of a considerable actual shortening, 
so that the expression bell-shaped, which has been used for 
H. Engelmanni, might be applied to them, and the style 
was not exserted, merely reaching to the mouth of the 
perianth, and, in fact, was slightly shorter than the 
stamens. Except for having their anthers a very little 
shorter, these flowers are the counterpart of a well-pre- 
served specimen of the original of H. Engelmanni sent to 
Dr. Engelmannby Lindheimerin 1878, though the included 
style of the latter is a little longer than the stamens. Still 
later flowers of the same plant, while preserving the short 
broad form, again had the style a little exserted (Plate 2). 

As in typical H. parviflora, the leaves, which are deeply 
concave and with free marginal fibers, differ in width, as 
indeed, is usual in the genus Yucca, and the inflorescence, 
which in vigorous plants has a few spreading branches, 
may sometimes be simple, in either case the fascicled 
flowers continuing to develop in succession for many 
months, and varying from deep rosy-red, when well lighted, 
to a salmon-color, when shaded from strong light. 

For the present, this short-flowered plant, with the style 
included or very slightly exserted, and which seems to come 
from a point a little north of but very close to the known 
range of H. parvijlora, appears to be varietally separable 
from the latter in these characters, and should bear the 
name Engelmanni given to it as a specific name by Kraus- 


H. funifera (Koch) Trelease. 

H. Davyi Baker, Kew Bull. 1898 : 226. 

//. Engelmanni Baillou, Hist, des PI. 12 : 511. Urbina, Cat. PI. Hex. 

Yucca funifera Koch, Belg. Hort. 12:132. (1862). Lemaire, 111. 
Hort. 13:99. (1866). Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:228. 

Agave funifera Lemaire, 111. Hort. 11 : Misc. 65. [66a]. (1864). 

Often cespitose. Leaves larger, at length less concave, often with 
much coarser marginal fibers. Inflorescence 2 to 2.5 m. high, few 
branched near the top. Pedicels and flowers purplish green, glaucous, 
the latter about 25 mm. long; style scarcely exserted. Capsule 25 to 50 
mm. long, with strong beak, the false septum evanescent or protruding 
into the cell only toward the base, where it forms a large thin tooth ; seeds 
6X9 mm. Plates 3. 4,f. 1. 81, f. 8. 

Northern Mexico, between the Rio Grande and the Sabinas, 
and, apparently, in the state of San Luis Potosi (Pringle, 
3911). Plate 92, f. 1. 

The Engelmann herbarium contains a fruiting fragment, 
at first referred to Yucca but afterward to ffesperaloe, col- 
lected in 1847 by Dr. Wislizenus at Cerralvo, northeast of 
Monterey. Similar capsules were brought by Dr. Parry, in 
1878, from the plains between Monterey and the Rio 
Grande." The herbarium of the Field Columbian Museum 
contains excellent specimens of the same plant from Buste- 
mente, in the State of Nuevo Leon, collected by Henry W. 
Wood in July, 1900. In 1891, Mr. Pringle made good 
leaf and fruit specimens, representing the same genus, at 
the Hacienda de Angostura, east of San Luis Potosi, which 
were distributed as IT. Engelmanni, under the number 
3911, and so referred to by Bail! on. 

In March, 1900, when going over the Mexican Interna- 
tional railroad, north of the Sabinas river, I observed a 
considerable quantity of what was evidently a Hesperaloe, 
with persisting capsules of the preceding year, which came 
down to the railroad only on the higher ridges through 
which cuts had been made. Toward the end of April, 
when the plants had begun to bloom, I visited this region 
again, and some six kilometers south of Peyotes collected 


herbarium specimens and viable seeds of the plant. This 
Hesperaloe appears to be the same as the herbarium material 
referred to, though neither foliage nor flowers accompany 
the capsules first collected, and the few flowers distrib- 
uted by Mr. Pringle from further south are not in very 
satisfactory condition while the marginal threads, which 
are slender in the many plants seen by me, are very thick, 
triquetrous, wavy and rigid on his leaves. 

This species, the at first very concave leaves of which 
may be as much as 40 mm. wide and nearly 2 m. long, 
finely striate-grooved on the back and with long con- 
spicuous marginal fibers, as in the other representatives 
of the genus, produces a divaricately few-branched, tall 
panicle, on which, fascicled in the axils of the bracts, are 
borne the oblong ephemeral flowers. Unlike those of 
H. parvi flora and its variety Engelmanni, both of which have 
pedicels and flowers ranging from a creamy tint through 
salmon-color to typically a beautiful shade of red sugges- 
tive of Aloe and Gasteria, the flowers and short pedicels of 
this species are noted by Mr. Pringle as being " purplish, 
shading to whitish," and in the plants observed about Pe- 
yotes were of a dingy purplish green and decidedly glau- 
cous, the spreading flowers being about 25 mm. long, with 
stamens and style included and of about equal length, 
and the anthers 5 to 7 mm. long. The globose to broadly 
oblong solid-beaked capsules are strongly transversely 
reticulate- veined, and the thin black seeds are like those of 
the other species. 

In 1898 Mr. Baker described, under the specific name 
Davyiy a green-flowered Hesperaloe from " California? " 
which had been sent him by Mr. J. Burt Davy from the 
garden of the University of California at Berkeley. Mr. 
Davy tells me that no record is found of the source of the 
seeds from which this was grown. Dr. F. Franceschi, of 
Santa Barbara, California, states that two original plants 
were raised, one of which flowered in 1898, yielding the 



material on which Mr. Baker's description was based, while 
the other was secured by Dr. Franceschi, who has since 
sent vigorous suckers from it to Kew and to the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, these suckers having formed after the 
plant bloomed. It is not improbable that the seeds from 
which these plants were raised were derived from Mr. Pr in- 
gle's collection of 1891, and the living plant which I have 
examined shows, as would hardly have been expected from 
Mr. Baker's description, leaves at first as concave as those 
of the other species of Hesperaloe, and quite indistinguish- 
able from those of the plants seen below Peyotes, so that 
it seems safe to refer all of these specimens of the Mexican 
table land to //. Davyi, which appears therefore to be 
rather widely distributed and which differs markedly from 
the Texan forms in the color of its flowers. 

Many years ago the Tonels introduced into European 
gardens a plant which seems never to have flowered there, 
and which was mentioned a number of times under the gar- 
den name Yucca funif era. No Yucca is yet known which 
possesses channeled filif erous dorsally striate leaves com- 
parable to those of Y. funif era as described, and though its 
apparent complete disappearance from cultivation makes its 
identity a matter of conjecture only, the foliage description 
so well fits this Mexican species of Hesperaloe as to leave 
little doubt in my mind that the latter should bear the name 
H. funif era . 

HESPERO YUCCA (Engelmann) Baker. 

Perianth broadly campanulate, of subequal distinct thin 
broadly lanceolate concave segments. Filaments evidently 
adnate to perianth below, clavate, suberect; anthers didy- 
mously cordate. Ovary oblong-ovoid or obovoid, mostly 
longer than the short slender style; stigma capitate, long- 
papillate, minutely perforate. Fruit capsular, incompletely 
6-celled, 3-valved through the laciniate false septa. Seeds 


thin, flat ; albumen not ruminated. Subacaulescent 
plants with straight needle-pointed rough-margined flat 
leaves, and ample panicle. 

H. WHIPPLEI (Torrey) Baker, Kew Bull. 1892: 8. Tre- 
lease, Eept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 208. pi. 16, 23. 

Yucca Whipplei Torrey, Bot. Bound. 222. (1859). Baker, Gard. 
Chron. 1870:828. 1871 1 1516. n. s. 6: 196. /. 42. n. s. 23: 796. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 230. Palmer, Amer. Joum. Pharm. 50 : 
687. Garden. 27 : 266. 35 : 561. /. Engelmann, Bot. King. 497. 
Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:54, 214, 372. Watson, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 14 : 254. Bot. Calif. 2 : 164. AndrS, Rev. Hort. 58 : 67. 
/. 13, Smith, Gard. Chron. iii. 13 : 749. Coville, Contr. U. S. 
Natl. Herb. 4: 203. Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna. 7:359. Tre- 
lease, Eept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 164. pi. 11,12, 54. Gard. & For. 
8 : 414-5. /. Hooker, Bot. Mag. iii. 65. pi. 7662. Land of Sun- 
shine. 11 : 251. /. Orcutt, West Amer. Scientist. 6 : 134. 

Y. Whipplei glauca Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 14 : 197. 

Y. Whipplei graminifolia Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 230. 

Y. aloifolla Torrey, Pac. R. R. Rept. 4 : 147. 

Y. fllamentosa Home and Flowers. II 2 : 12. /. 

Y. graminifolia Wood, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1868 : 167. 

Y. Ortgiesiana Roezl, Belg. Hort. 1880 : 61. 

Y. Engelmanni Gard. Chron. n. s. 14 : 43. (1880). 

? Y. Californica Greenland, Rev. Hort. 1858 : 434. Lemaire, 111. 
Hort. 10 : after pi. 372. (1863). 13 ; 96. Gard. Chron. n. s. 
5 : 794, 829. 

Simple or, in the mountains, frequently cespitose. Leaves ascending, 
rigid, .3 to 1 m. long, about 15 mm. wide, plano-convex, subtriquetrous, 
or keeled on both faces, sometimes falcate, striate, glaucous, keenly but 
finely denticulate, with very slender pungent end spine. Inflorescence 2 
to 5 m. high, oblong, long peduncled, glabrous. Flowers Yucca-like, 
pendent, fragrant. Capsule about 5 cm. long: seeds 6 to 7X8 mm. 
Plates 4, f. 2. 5. 81, f. 9. 

California, from the mountains above Monterey to the 
vicinity of Alamo, lower California; eastward to the vicin- 
ity of San Bernardino Plate 84, f. 1. 

Yucca WJiipplei is the name proposed by Dr. Torrey, 
and still commonly employed, for a plant which, when in 
bloom, forms one of the most striking and beautiful fea- 
tures of the Coast-range vegetation of southern California. 


From all other Yuccas it differs in the slender style rising- 
abruptly from the top of the ovary and capitately enlarged 
into a papillate stigma, and in possessing somewhat gluti- 
nous pollen, as well as in certain capsular characters, which 
led Dr. Engelmann * to give it the sectional name Hespero- 
yucca, which both Mr. Baker and the writer have proposed 
to employ as a generic name. 

Though the mountain and valley forms vary greatly in 
amplitudeof panicle, etc., only one species of Hesperoyucca 
appears capable of characterization, and this has long been 
in cultivation in European gardens, partly under the name 
Yucca Whipplei and partly under the name Y. Calif arnica* 
which has further been applied to very diverse things. 
If it were certain that the brief foliage description given by 
Greenland in 1858 really refers to this plant, the specific 
name Californica has a slight priority over the name 
Whipplei, which though written in 1858 was not published 
until the following year, but the propriety of this substitu- 
tion of name is open to considerable question. 

Y. graminifolia f Wood, from the vicinity of Los Angeles, 
though the leaves are described as more flaccid, can hardly 
refer to other than the typical form, which to the north of 
Los Angeles becomes very large, and the name is not there- 
fore applicable to the plant that is abundant about San 
Bernardino, e. g. at Arrowhead Springs and in the Cajon 
pass, as I at one time thought might be the case. J This 
latter plant very frequently has the flowers shaded with 
purple or violet, and it was to one of the most pronounced of 
these tinted forms that M. Andre in 1884 applied the name 
Y. Whipplei violacea, though the name stands for too 
inconstant a character to have more than horticultural 

* Bot. King. 497. (1871). 

t This name had been applied, in 1837, to the plant subsequently 
named Dasylirion graminifolium. 

J Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 17, 23. 
Rev. Hort. 56 : 324. pi. 


No other species of this type could have been collected 
about San Diego, where H. Whipplei occurs in abundance, 
by Roezl, who in 1869 reintroduced it into European gardens 
through De Smet, under the name Y. Ortgiesiana, so that 
there appears no doubt as to the proper reference of this 

On April 3d, 1858, Professor Newberry collected leaves 
of a plant growing in tufts on rocks ' ' at the mouth of 
Diamond river, at the eastern end of the grand canon of the 
Colorado, in northern Arizona, which neither Professor 
Torrey* nor Dr. Engelinann could distinguish from those of 
this species as collected by Bigelow at the Cajon pass in 
California. The single leaf of Newberry's collection in the 
Engelmann herbarium is glaucous, falcate, elongated and 
scarcely to be referred elsewhere, but the locality is so 
far from the known range of this species on the other side 
of the desert as to warrant doubt as to the correctness of 
the record, and I know of no confirmation of this isolated 

CLISTOYUCCA (Engelmann) Trelease. 

Perianth oblong to globose, of nearly distinct thick ob- 
long or lanceolate segments often incurved at end. Fila- 
ments nearly free, thickened, mostly outcurved above; 
anthers sagittate, horizontal. Ovary ovoid, tapering to the 
transiently stellate 6-lobed openly perforate stigma. Fruit 
dry, spongy about a papery core, 6-celled, indehiscent. 
Seeds rather thin, flat, nearly round ; albumen not rumi- 
nated. Large tree, with short thick and pungent rough- 
margined leaves and compact sessile panicle from an ovoid 
large-bracted bud. 

C. arborescens (Torrey) Trelease. 

Yucca Draconis (?) arborescens Torrey, Bot. Whipple. 147. (1857). 
F. brevifolia Engelmann, Bot. King. 496. (1871). Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis. 3 : 47, 213, 371. Palmer, Amer. Journ. Pharm. 50 : 587. 

* Ives, Kept, upon the Colorado river of the West. Part IV. Botany. 


Parry, Amer. Nat. 9: 141. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 252. 
Bot. Calif. 2: 164. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 221. 
Gard. Chron. n. s. 3 : 492. n. s. 26: 18. iii. 1: 772. /. 145. 
Land of Sunshine. 10: 1. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 : 193. 
pi. 6-9, 21. Schiraper, Pflanzengeographie. 669. /. 369. 
Y. arborescens Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 163. pi. 5, 49. 
(1892). Coville, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 4: 201. frontispiece. 
Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna. 7: 353-8. frontispiece and pi. 13. 
Sargent, Silva. 10: 19- pi- 502. 

Large at length much branched rough-barked tree. Leaves spread- 
ing, less than .3 m. long, 15 mm. wide, plano-convex or triquetrous, 
striate, minutely denticulate, very rigid, pungently pointed. Inflorescence 
sessile, dense, often scabrous-hispid. Flowers sometimes puberulent, 
greenish-white, 25 to 50 mm. in diameter. Fruit ovoid, erect or var- 
iously directed, 50 to 100mm. long; seeds 10X12 mm. across, 1 to 1.5 
mm. thick. Plates 6. 7. 85, f. 10. 87, f. 1. 

Mohave desert, California, to Detrital valley, Arizona, 
and the Beaverdam mountains, Utah. Plate 84, f. 2. 

The Joshua tree of the Mohave desert region, the largest 
and most imposing of the Yucceae of the United States, 
which was first called Yucca Draconis (?) arborescens by 
Torrey, subsequently Y. brevi folia by Engelmann, and 
which is now commonly known as Y. arborescens, differs in 
its collective flower and fruit character about as much from 
typical Yuccas as does Hesperoyucca. In separating it from 
Yucca, I have thought best to apply to it as a generic name 
the sectional name Clistoyucca under which Dr. Engel- 
mann* separates it from the other species of Yucca, since 
there can be no question as to the applicability of that 
name to this particular tree, though Dr. Engelmann f sub- 
sequently found it desirable to add Y. gloriosa to this sec- 
tion, to which the writer J afterwards added Y. gigantea. 
Only the one species is known. 

YUCCA Linnaeus. 

Perianth open-campanulate, of nearly distinct thin lanceo- 
late or ovate-lanceolate segments. Filaments nearly free, 

* Bot. King. 496. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 3 : 47. 
t Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 3:213. 
J Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9 : 142. 


thickened and outcurved above ; anthers short, sagittate, 
soon horizontal. Ovary oblong, mostly longer than the stout 
oblong or swollen style ; stigma unequally 6-lobed, openly 
perforate. Fruit nearly or quite 6-celled: erect, capsular, 
6-valved above, and with thin seeds with the albumen not 
ruminated ( Chaenoyucca) ; variously pendent or erect, 
soon drying about a papery core, indehiscent, with thin 
seeds without rumination ( Heteroyucca} ; or pendent, bac- 
cate mostly about a papery core, indehiscent, with very thick 
seeds having the albumen ruminated ( Sarcoyucca ) . 
Acaulescent or arboreous plants occasionally of large size, 
with flaccid and pointless or usually rigid and very pungent 
entire, minutely denticulate, orfiliferous leaves, and mostly 
ample panicle. 

The true Yuccas, which (including Clistoyucca ) , in con- 
trast with his section ffesperoyucca, Dr. Engelmann* treated 
under the sectional name Euyucca, have for many years 
been in cultivation in considerable numbers, and hence 
under the eyes of both gardeners and botanists, but no ad- 
ditions have been made to the number of known spontane- 
ous species within recent years f except by the separation 
or rehabilitation of what had passed for varieties, forms or 
synonyms of described species, though some twenty years 
ago a number of hybrids, referred to below under Y. 
gloriosa, were introduced into cultivation, and it is certain 
that within the next few years our gardens will be still 
further enriched by many artificial hybrids between the 
known species. 

This genus is not only larger than any of the others of 
the group Yucceae, but has a much greater geographical dis- 
tribution, extending southwards from the great bend of the 
Missouri river to the table land north of the City of Mex- 

* Hot. King. 496. (1871). Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 34. 

t T. Pringlei Greenman, distributed from Mt. Ajusco, Mexico, in 1897 
(Pringle, No. 6669), was subsequently shown by Mr. Greeuman to be 
Furcraea Bedinghausii.Proc. Amer. Acad. 83 : 474. (1898). 


ico, and, after a break of unknown extent, into the center 
of Central America, and eastwards to the Atlantic coast and 
the Bermudas and eastern Antilles. The capsular species 
are the prevalent northern form, and reach from South 
Dakota to the Mexican state of Durango, and from the 
Atlantic coast to Nevada, with the exception of the Great 
Lake region and the upper Mississippi river and its tribu- 
taries from the east. The baccate species with papery core 
are of the southern Rocky Mountain and western region, 
reaching the Pacific coast in the southern part of California 
and at the extremity of Lower California, and are the preva- 
lent form of the high table land of Mexico. A single spe- 
cies with coreless fleshy fruit appears to be restricted to the 
southern Atlantic coast of the United States, a small part 
of the Gulf coast, and some of the islands to the east, 
though it has given rise to a marked variety in the isolated 
peninsula of Yucatan ; and a single species with the foliage 
of this outlying species but forming a core in the fruit 
occurs in Central America, where, though abundantly culti- 
vated, its distribution is unknown. Several species and 
many varieties are known only in gardens, and two species 
with very aberrant fruit are of local distribution on the 
southeastern seacoast of the United States. Plate 99. 


Fruit erect, capsular, dehiscent. Seeds thin, flat, margined: albumen 
not ruminated. CHAKNOYTJCCA. 

Leaves finely filiferous (entire in forms of the second). 
Style oblong, white. 

Inflorescence a long-peduncled panicle (subracemose in 
some garden forms of Y. flaccida). 

Leaves lanceolate or spatulate, often plicate, at most 
very narrowly lined with gray or brown next the mar- 
ginal threads. 

Leaves rigid for the group, rather coarsely curly- 
flliferous, subspatulate. Segments of young fruit 
regularly convex. y. filamentosa. 

Leaves more flexible and attenuate, with finer 
etraighter threads. Segments of young fruit 
with angular facets. y. flaccida. 


Leaves linear or linear-spatulate, white-margined. 

Leaves grass-like. Eastern Texas. Y. tenuistyla. 
Leaves more rigid and spreading. Western. 

Low. Seeds small. Y. constricta. 

Arborescent. Seeds very large. Y. radiosa. 
Inflorescence racemose or branched close to the leaves. 
Not arborescent. 

Leaves as in the last. Y. angustissima. 

Leaves lanceolate, often short. Y. Sarrimaniae. 

Style swollen, green. 

Inflorescence racemose or branched close to the leaves. 
Leaves linear, rather stiff. Seeds large. Y. glauca. 
Leaves grass-like, flexible. Y. Arkansana. 

Inflorescence panicled on a long scape. Leaves as in the 
last or wider. Y. Louisianensis. 

Leaves with a distinct thin yellow or brown horny finely denticulate 
Capsule mucronate, with flat-backed valves. 

Arborescent. Leaves linear to lanceolate. Y. rigida. 

Acaulescent. Leaves lanceolate. Y. rupicola. 

Capsule attenuate-beaked, with round-backed valves. 

Arborescent. Leaves linear. Y. rostrata. 

Fruit (so far as known) indehiscent. 

Fruit erect or pendent, soon drying. Seeds thin, flat, slightly mar- 
gined : albumen not ruminated. HBTKROYUCCA. 
Leaves finely denticulate, softly green-pointed. Y. gigantea. 
Leaves at most sparingly denticulate or filiferous, pungent. 
Leaves broad, rigidly ascending or spreading. Fruit mostly 
pendent. Y. gloriosa. 
Leaves more elongated, recurved. Fruit erect so far as 

Inflorescence close to the leaves, the latter relatively 

broad. Y. recurvifolia. 

Panicle long-stalked. Leaves narrower. Y. flexilis. 

Leaves crowded, regularly arcuate. Y. DeSmetiana, 

Fruit pendent, fleshy and edible. Seeds thick, often convex, nearly 

or quite marginless : albumen ruminated. SARCOYTTCCA. 

Fruit coreless, with purple pulp. Ovary stalked. Leaves with 

sharply denticulate horny border. Y. aloifolia. 

Fruit with a papery core and greenish or yellowish-white pulp. 

Ovary sessile. 

Leaves very minutely denticulate, not filiferous, flat or 
plicate. T. elephantipes. 

Leaves soon more or less flliferous, concave. 

Margin at first slightly denticulate. Leaves thick and 
firm, scabrid Y. Treculeana. 

Not denticulate. 


Thin, flexible: threads sparing, fine. Y. Schottii. 
Thick, rigid, with usually coarse threads. Leaves 
narrow, smooth. Small tree. Y. brevifolia. 
Leaves relatively broader, usually smooth. 
Large trees. 

Panicle narrow, pendent. Y. australis. 

Panicle broad, erect, to recurved Y. valida. 
Leaves large, very coarsely filiferous, the back 
very scabrous except in the last. 

Acaulescent. Flowers very large for the 

genus: style elongated. 1". baccata. 

Arborescent. Flowerg of average size. 

Style elongated. Y. macrocarpa. 

Style short. Y. Mohavensis. 


A. Fruit erect, capsular, dehiscent. Seeds thin, flat, margined: albu- 
men not ruminated. Chaenoyucca. 

1. Leaves finely flliferous at the margin (entire in aberrant garden 
forms of the second). 

2. Style oblong, white, 

3. Inflorescence a long-peduncled panicle (reduced to a simple ra- 
ceme in aberrant forms or secondary inflorescences of the second). 

4. Leaves lanceolate or spatulate, often plicate, not conspicuously 

Y. FILAMENTOSA Linnaeus, Sp. PL 319. (1753). 
Walter, Fl. Carol. 124. Michaux, Fl. 1:196. 
Pursh, Fl. 1 : 227. Gawler, Bot. Mag. 23. pL 
900. Redout^, Liliacees. 5. pi. 277-8. Haworth, 
Syn. PI. Succ. 70. Gambold, Amer. Journ. Sci. 
1819 : 251. Mordaunt, Herb. Gen. 4. pi. 258. 
Elliott, Bot. S. C. and Ga. 1 : 400. Frost, Plants 
Abbeville Distr. 317. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 98. 
Porcher, Resources So. Fields and For. 530. 
Curtis, Bot. N. C. 56. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. 
St. Louis. 3 : 52, 214. Baker, Gard. Chron. 187O: 
923. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 227. Britton & 
Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 427. /. 1027. Holler's Deutsche 


Gartner-Zeit. 11: 361. /. Mohr, Contr. U. S. Natl. 
Herb. 6: 441, as to southern localities. 

Tuca foliis fllamentosis. Morison, Plant. Hist. 2: 419. Sect. 4. pi. 

23. (1680). 
Juca Americana fllamentosa. Hunting, Waare Oeftening der Planten. 

471. /. (1682). Naauwkeurige Beschryv. der Aardgew. 663. (1696). 
Yucca Virginiana, foliis per ambitum apprime fllatis. Plukenet, 

Almag. Bot. 396. (1696). Raius, Hist. Plant. 8: 573. (1704). 
Yucca foliis lanceolatis etc. Trew. PI. Sel. 9. pi. 37. (1754). 
Yucca foliis lanceolatis acuminatis integerrimis margine fllamentosis. 

Gronovius, Fl. Virgin. 152. (1739). 53. (1762). 

Acaulescent, cespitosely suckering. Leaves rather firm, generally 
stiffly erect or spreading, about half a meter long, usually something 
over 25 mm. wide, narrowed above the base, attenuate or typically 
abruptly acute, occasionally somewhat pungent, green or a little glaucous, 
the back frequently roughened in lines; marginal threads rather thick 
and curly for the group. Inflorescence 1.5 to 3 or 4 m. high, long- 
pedunculate, glabrous or very exceptionally puberulent. Flowers white, 
usually tinged with cream color or green or rarely browned, expanding 
50 to 75 mm. ; style white, elongated, at most slightly swollen, 3-grooved. 
Capsule apple-green and with regularly convex carpels when maturing, 
50 or 60 mm. long and brown when ripe: seeds glossy, 4 to 5X 7 mm. 
Plates 8-12. 79. 87. 

In a generalized sense, a species usually of the coastal 
plain of the southeastern Atlantic region, from Tampa, 
Fla., to above Charleston, S. C., and extending back to 
northwestern Georgia, west-central North Carolina, 
southwestern Alabama, and the gulf coast of Missis- 
sippi. Plate 87, f. 1. 

The principal forms appear separable as follows : 

Leaves of medium size, little recurved. Y. filamentosa. 

Variegated with white or yellow. f. variegata. 
Outer leaves attenuate, recurved, the inner very broadly 

lanceolate, erect. var. media. 

Leaves narrow, very spreading. var. patens. 

Leaves very long, attenuate, recurving. var. bracteata. 

Leaves very broadly spatulate, not recurved. var. concava. 


Synonymy as above. 


Leaves 25 to 40 mm. wide, gradually acute, rather rigid, striate, the 
outer rarely recurving. Petals broad, acute. Capsules rather narrowly 
cylindrical. Plates 8.12,f.l. 

West-central North Carolina to southeastern South Caro- 
lina, Florida from Jacksonville to Tampa, and doubtless in 
the intervening country. Plate 85, f. 1. 

Y. FILAMENTOSA VARIEGATA Carrierc, Rev. Hort. I860: 

215. Naudin, Plantes Feuill. Colors'. 1. pi. 51. 

Lowe, Beautiful Lvd. Plants. 105. pi. 51. Garden. 
1:152. /. 27 t :266,309. 32:600. Gardeners' Chron. 
n. s. 7 : 341. * n. s. 13 : 594. n. s. 23 : 803. 

? T. ftlamentosa aurea elegantissima Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 5 : 389. 

T. filamentosa bicolor Hort. 

T. recuroifolia Park & Cemetery. 11 : 184. /. 

Leaves margined and striped with various shades of white and yellow. 

A garden sport, or series of sports, the color extremes of 
which should doubtless bear distinctive horticultural names. 

Y. FILAMENTOSA PATENS Carriere, Rev. Hort. I860 : 216. 

Y.filamentosa Mohr, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 6: 441, in part. 

Leaves rather rigidly spreading, 15 to 20 mm. wide, gradually attenu- 
ate to a sharp point. 

From northwestern to southeastern Georgia. Plate 85, 
f- 2. 

Y. FILAMENTOSA BRACTEATA Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis. 3:52-3. (1873). Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 
14:254. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 228. 
? Y. filamentosa maxima Carriere, Kev. Hort. 1860:213. 

Very large, with elongated leaves, the outer recurved, mostly large 
foliaceous scape bracts, more frequently puberulent panicle sometimes 
nearly 5 m. high, and more attenuate petals. Capsule narrowly oblong, 
mucronate-beaked. Plate 9. 

About Charleston, S. C., and doubtless along the adja- 
cent Georgia coast, where it is sometimes seen in cultivation. 


Simulating in aspect or bract characters cultivated forms of 
Y. flaccida. Plate 86, f. 1. 

Y. FILAMENTOSA coNCAVA (Haworth) Baker, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 18:228. (1880). 

Y. concava Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 34. (1819). Lemaire, 111. Hort. 

Y. fllamentosa latifolia Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 8 : 52. ( 1873). 

General characters of the type, into which it appears to pass, but the 
usually very plicate abruptly acute or obtuse leaves deeply concave and 
spatulately enlarged to a width of as much as 100 mm. Plates 10. 79, 

About Charleston, S. C., to below Savannah, Ga., at 
Salisbury, Md., and doubtless in much of the intervening 
coast region. Plate 86, f. 2. 

Y. FILAMENTOSA MEDIA Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860:213. 
/. 47-8. 

Y. fllamentosa laevigata Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 8 : 52, 54, 
214. (1873). Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 1 254. Baker, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 228. 

Y. fllamentosa Journ. of Hort. 52 : 271. /. 

? Y. flaccida Lindley, Bot. Reg. 22. pi. 1895. Baker, Kef. Bot. 5 . 
text to pi. 323. 

? Y. puberula Baker, Ref. Bot. 5 .pi. 322, not text. 

? Y. glauca Baker, Ref. Bot. 5 .pi. 315. 

Leaves rather thinner, the outer gradually more attenuate and re- 
curved, the inner broadly lanceolate ; the marginal threads straighter. 
Inflorescence mostly puberulent and sometimes tomentose. Plate 11. 

A garden form, passing towards Y. flaccida glaucescens 
and Y. Louisianensis. 

Y. FLACCIDA Haworth, Suppl. PL Succ. 34. (1819). 
Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13: 99. Baker, Gard. Chron. 
1870: 923. Ref. Bot. 5. pi. 323. 

Y. puberula Haworth, Phil. Mag. 1828 : 126. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 
pi. 21. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 18 1 99. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 
Y. filamentosa flaccida Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 ; 52, 214. 


(1873). _ Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 254. Baker, Journ. Linn.. 
Soc. Bot. 18 : 228. Garden. 58 : 447. /. 

1'. filamentosa puberula Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:228. (1880). 

Y.fllamentosa Gattinger, Tenn. Flora. (1887). 58. (1901). 86. Mohr, 
Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 6 : 441, as to northern localities. Garden. 
68 : 445. /. Park and Cemetery. 11 : 184. /. 

r. Meldensis Garden. 8 : 147. (1875). 

Acaulescent, cespitose. Leaves thin, flexible, the outer almost 
always recurved, 10 to 40 mm. wide, elongated lanceolate, very 
gradually long attenuate, mostly plicate, with fine long and rather 
straight thin marginal fibers except in two threadless garden forms. 
Panicle mostly pubescent. Maturing capsule dull grayish-green, the 
carpels variously and irregularly flattened in places, as if shaved off with 
a knife ; when ripe, broad, usually constricted, and mostly flaring above : 
seeds rather dull, larger, 7 to 8 X 8 to 10 mm. Plates 12-1 7. 76. 79. 

Asheville, N. C., to Gadsden and Anniston, Ala., in and 
near the mountains. Plate 87, f. 2. 

Occasional simple racemes are produced from small 
lateral crowns, when the main crown is in bloom (Plate 
13), as has been observed on some species of Agave, and 
one depauperate garden form produces an unbranched main 

An interesting winter adaptation of the foliage of this spe- 
cies is readily observed in the North whenever the tempera- 
ture remains for any time below the freezing point, for at 
and below this temperature the spreading unflexed middle 
leaves, which are ordinarily somewhat concave, have their 
margins rolled inwards so as nearly or quite to meet at 
the center, though they scarcely become involute in the 
proper meaning of that word. (Plate 14). 

The numerous intergrading garden forms of Y. flaccida 
seem capable of most natural arrangement as follows : 

Petals broad, acute or acuminate. Panicle mostly pubescent. T. flaccida. 
Inflorescence a raceme. f. orchioides. 

Petals usually more lanceolate, attenuate. 
Leaves flliferous. 

Panicle very pubescent. var. glaucescens. 

Leaves transiently variegated. f . lineata. 


Panicle mostly glabrous. var. grandiflora. 
Leaves without marginal threads. 

Panicle pubescent. f. exigua. 

Panicle glabrous; petals blunter. f. Integra. 

Y. FLACCIDA Haworth. 
Synonymy as above. 

Leaves rather green, scarcely 25 mm. wide, very flexible. Panicle 
moderately pubescent to glabrous. Petals usually broad and rather 
short. Plate 16. 

The commoner wild form. 

Y. Meldensis of gardens appears to differ only in having 
more spreading panicle branches, in which it agrees with 
some garden forms of Y. filamentosa. 

Y. flaccida orchioides (Carriere) Trelease. 

T. orchioides Carriere, Eev. Hort. 1861 : 370. /. 89, 90. Lemaire, 
111. Hort. 13 : 99. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1122. Engelmann, 
Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 43. 

A depauperate garden form with stiffer more erect nearly threadless 
leaves, and racemose inflorescence. 

Y. flaccida glaucescens (Haworth) Trelease. 

Y. glaucescens Haworth, Suppl. PL Succ. 34. (1819). Sweet, Brit. 

Fl. Gard. pi. 53. Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 1859:41. 

Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13:98. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870:923. 

Hemsley, Garden. 8 : 132. 
Y. filamentosa glaucescens Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 228. 


Y. filamentosa Antwerpensis Baker. Z. c. 

Y. orchioides major Baker, Bot. Mag. iii. 33. pi. 6316. (1877). 
Y. flaccida Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859 : 555. /. 11 9, 120. 
Y. filamentosa Baker, Ref . Bot. 6. pi. 324. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 

3. pi. 10. Amer. Florist. 8:55. /. 

A more glaucous form, with the leaves mostly broader and erect until 
a later period, almost tomentose panicle, and more attenuate petals. 
Plates 12, f. 2. 13-15. 17, f. 1. 76, f. 2. 79, f. 2. 

The common form of American gardens. 


Y. flaccida lineata Trelease. 

A garden sport, apparently of var. glaucescens, but in habit more resem- 
bling T. filamentosa media, having the young leaves striped with dingy or 
yellowish white, the variegation soon fading for the most part. 

Cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden and said to 
have come from Haage & Schmidt in 1881. Doubtless it 
is this by which the variegated form of Y. filamentosa 
proper is represented in many gardens. 

Y. flaccida exigua (Baker) Trelease. 

Y. exigua Baker, Ref. Bot. 5. pi- 314. (1872). Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
18 : 223. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 43. 

A garden form of var. glaucescens with the leaves without marginal 

Y. flaccida grandiflora (Baker) Trelease. 

Y. filamentosa grandiflora Baker, Ref . Bot. 5. pi. 325. (1872) 
Y. filamentosa maxima Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:227. (1880). 
Y. filamentosa Garden. 1:152./. 12 1 72. /. Gartenflora. 24:372. 
f. Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 13: 119. /. Step, Favourite Flowers. 
4. pi. 272. 

Scarcely more than a large sometimes glabrous form of var. glauces- 
cens, in aspect resembling Y. filamentosa bracteata. 

Y. flaccida Integra Trelease. 

Y. glauca Sims, Bot. Mag. 53. pi. 2662. (1826). Regel, Garten- 
flora. 8 : 36. Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 1859 : 43. Lemaire, 
111. Hort. 13 : 97. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 43, 
53. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1122. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 

Scarcely more than a narrow-leaved glabrous form of f . exigua. 

The name employed by Sims is antedated thirteen years 
by Y. glauca Nutt. 

The filiferous-leaved " bear grasses " of the southeastern 
Atlantic States are not easily disposed of in an attempt to 
monograph the genus to which they belong, partly because 
they are more commonly seen in cultivation than in a state 
of nature, partly because of their interblending characters, 


and partly because of generalized earlier descriptions. One 
of the representatives of this group (probably true Y. fila- 
mentosa) was introduced into Europe about 1675, and 
Y. filamentosa was one of the four Yuccas known to Lin- 
naeus a century later, his description of it reading merely 
"foliis serrato-filamentosis," and the only figure cited by 
him * being very unsatisfactory. 

That two species, Y. filamentosa and Y. flaccida, are 
separable, appears certain, as is also true of Engelmann's 
conclusion f that the filamentosa of Linnaeus was th 
form to which that name is here applied ; but I have found 
it possible to fix only an approximate geographical range 
for either, and the garden forms are not separated as 
sharply as is desirable, nor so as to prevent some of them 
from obscuring the demarcation line between the species. 
It is not improbable that some of them represent hybrids 
between the latter. 

44. Leaves linear or linear-spatulate, white-margined. 

Y. tciiuistyla Trelease. 

Acaulescent. Leaves rather soft and mostly recurving, often a little 
scabrid on the back, about .5 m. long and 10 to 15 mm. wide, dark green, 
lanceolate, long-attenuate, scarcely pungent, white-margined, finely 
flliferous. Inflorescence about 1 m. high, panicled at some distance above 
the leaves, glabrous or slightly puberulent. Flowers with narrower, 
more pointed segments : style oblong, white, often deeply parted. Capsule 
stout, even : seeds glossy, 7 to 8 X 8 to 10 mm. Plates 17,f. 2. 18. 19. 

Southeastern Texas, from about Galveston (Lindheimer, 
May, 1843), to Sealy (Trelease, Harvey), and New 
Braunfels (Lindheimer, June, 1845), at the latter place 
associated with Y. Arkansana, which it closely resembles 
in foliage. Plate 92, f. 1. 

Some of the Lindheimer material in the Engelmann her- 

* Morison, Plant. Hist. 2 : 419. 
t Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 52. 


barium consists of loose flowers, some of which have a 
short thick green style, while others have the style 
longer, slenderer, and white; while the fragments of in- 
florescence are equally suggestive of mixed material, some 
of which was from racemes while the rest represent pan- 
icle branches. Field observation the present season, and 
material received from Mr. J. Eeverchon, of Dallas, and 
Mr. J. A. Harvey, of Sealy, confirm the conclusion reached, 
that the grass-leaved Yuccas of eastern Texas comprise three 
species, Y. ArJccmsana, Y. Louisianensis, and the one 
here characterized. 

Y. CONSTRICTA Buckley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
1862:8. Gray, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1862:167.- 
Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:213. Bot. 
Gazette. 7 : 17. 

? Y. alba-spica Koch, Belg. Hort. 12: 111. (1862). Rev. Hort. 1865 : 
151. 48 : 432. ? Flore des Series. 17 : 110. f. 1612. Engelmaun, 
Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 213. Garden. 8 : 147. 
Y. angustifolia Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860 : 20. /. 3, 4. 1864 : 151. 

Garden. 8: 134. /.Bray, Bot. Gaz. 32:280, in part*. 
F. glauca Bray, 1. c. 271. /. 18, in part*. 

Low or acaulescent. Leaves rather rigidly divergent, about 10 mm. 
wide, whitish green, the white margin soon shredding into fine threads. 
Inflorescence about 1.5 m. high, rather amply branched at top. Flowers 
white, globose-campanulate, with broad segments : style white, more or 
less tumid. Capsule constricted, flaring above, dark, with a ridge over 
each false septum: seeds 5 to 6X 7 to 9 mm. Plates 20. 21, f. 1. 83, 

Seward County, Kansas, to the Pecos river region of 
Texas. Plate 92, f. 2. 

Among other plants from western Texas which Mr. S. B. 
Buckley characterized about forty years ago was a Yucca 

* As is more clearly shown in a print from his negative, furnished me 
by Professor Bray, than in his published figure, the latter represents two 
species, Y. glauca, with simple racemes in full bloom, and Y. constricta, 
with branched pedunculate inflorescence still in bud. 


which he called Y. constricta, and described as being shortly 
caulescent with leaves similar to but shorter than those of 
the Rocky Mountain species now called Y. glauca, long- 
stalked panicle, and capsules constricted in the middle. 
When Dr. Engelmann raised to specific rank the arborescent 
species that replaces this to the west, under the name Y. 
elata,* he was particular to exclude from it Y. constricta, 
which he regarded as a caulescent form of Y. glauca; but 
this conclusion, which did not accord with the description 
of fruit and inflorescence given by Buckley, was subsequently 
changed by himf and has not been followed by other writers, 
who have considered F. data and Y. constricta to be syn- 
onymous, t 

From observations made about Putnam, Texas, in 1892, 
and at various points west of San Antonio in 1900, 1 should 
say that Y. constricta is quite distinct from both the pre- 
ceding and the next species, differing from the former in 
its narrower and firmer leaves and more ample inflorescence, 
and from the latter in its usually very short stem, smaller 
constricted dark capsules, and much smaller seeds. 

Among a number of plants selected by Mr. James Gur- 
ney a few years since in Seward County, Kansas, for the 
demonstration of the great variability in the leaves of 
Y. glauca, is one which in foliage could hardly be dis- 
tinguished from the usual form of that species, or the 
somewhat broader-leaved variety by which the latter is 
represented in that part of Kansas, but which, on blooming 
in the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1900 produced a 
rather ample long-pedunculate panicle of pure white flow- 
ers, with white styles, which began to expand with the 

* Bot. Gazette. 7 : 17. (1882). 
f Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:213. 

% Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. Sargent, Silva. 10 : 27. 
Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 : 207, under T. glauca stricta (= Y. Ar- 


first flowers of Y. jlaccida, which they closely resemble, and 
at the end of the flowering period of Y. glauca and its va- 
riety stricta. It is hard to see how this plant can be 
separated from Y. constricta. What appears to be the same 
has been collected by Dr. Kleinschmidt at Mt. Kiowa, Okl., 
and the character of the intervening country is such as to 
make its extension probable from southwestern Kansas ta 
the Pecos river of Texas, while Professor Bray's photo- 
graph referred to above shows it to be a characteristic 
plant of the staked plains. 

Y. RADIOSA (Engelmann) Trelease, Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 

3: 103. (1892). 

Y. angustifolia radiosa Engelmann, Bot. King. 496. (1871). 
Y. angustifolia data Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 50, 51. 

(1873). Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 253. 
F. elata Engelmann, Bot. Gaz. 7 : 17. (1882). Coulter, Contr. U. S. 

Natl. Herb. 2 : 437. Garden. 86: 573. Gard. & Forest. 2: 568. 

/. 146. 9 : 313. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3 : 164. pi. 9. 4 : 201. pi- 

10,15, 22. Bot. Mag. iii. 55. pi. 7650. 
Y. constricta Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. Sargent, Silva. 

10:27. pi. 504. In part. 
Y. angustifolia Havard, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 8 : 470. 

Caulescent, the larger trees reaching a height of 5 to 7 m., simple or 
with a few short branches at top. Leaves pallid, rather rigidly diver- 
gent, long, 3 to 10 or rarely 13 mm. wide, white-margined and soon finely 
and copiously filiferous. Inflorescence large, panicled on a long ex- 
serted peduncle, glabrous. Flowers white, bell-shaped, with lanceolate 
attenuate segments : style white, oblong. Capsule oblong, smooth, not 
or rarely constricted, with ribless convex valves, straw-colored: seeds 
rather dull, 8 to 10X 12 to 15 mm. Plates 21, f. 2. 22. 83, f. 5. 

Southern Arizona to the Rio Grande, as far as the big 
bend, and south to about the city of Chihuahua. Plate 
93, f. 1. 

In describing the Yuccas for Watson's Botany of the 
Fortieth Parallel, Dr. Engelmann characterized an arbores- 
cent plant with large panicles and lanceolate petals under 


the name Y. angustifolia ft. radiosa, which varietal name, 
two years later, he replaced by the varietal name elata which 
was still later applied specifically by him. 

With Mr. Baker, and against the opinion of Engelmann, 
Professor Sargent identifies this plant with the earlier 
Y. constricta of Buckley and applies the latter name to it. 
As has been stated above, however, there is reason to 
believe that Y. constricta is really a distinct species of more 
eastern and northern range, and to the present one the name 
radiosa, first used varietally by Engelmann, is applicable as 
a specific name. 

As in Y. glauca, the fruit of this species is stout, oblong, 
and unusually symmetrical among the capsular species, and 
it is here very smooth and of a clear straw-color at matur- 
ity, and the seeds are exceptionally large. The leaves, 
which are usually about 6 mm. wide, occasionally reach a 
minimum of 3 mm. and a maximum of about 12 mm., but 
both the broad- and narrow-leaved trees occur associated 
with the usual form, from which they do not appear other- 
wise distinguishable. 

So far as can be told from young leaves from Mr. Baker, 
in the Engelmann herbarium, Y. polyphylla Baker,* 
which its author subsequently f treated as a synonym of 
Y. radiosa, under the name Y. constricta, is more 
likely to have been based on an immature and aberrant 
garden seedling of Y. fiUfera than one of the representa- 
tives of this group, since the leaf possesses a distinct 
brown margin, very different from the white margin of 
Y. radiosa and its allies, which at most very exceptionally 
has a narrow brown line between the white border and 
the green body of the leaf. Though Y. alba-spica (or 
albospica as it is commonly written) seems to refer to the 

* Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1088. 

t Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. 


preceding rather than the present species, the latter 
is doubtless now in cultivation under that name. * 

For some reason this very striking Yucca does not ap- 
pear to have been collected or commented on by the bota- 
nists of the original boundary survey, though it is 
abundant in the Rio Grande valley about Presidio. The 
botanists of the later survey seem to have passed in by for 
Y. glauca, which I have not seen from so far south. 

33. Inflorescence racemose or branched close to the leaves. Sub- 
acaulescent plants. 

Y. angustissima Engelmann, in herb. 

Y. glauca Coville, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 4 : 202. 

Y. radiosa Coville, 1. c. 203, 277. 

Y. elata ? Merriam, N. A. Fauna. 7: 358. 

Acaulescent, from thick horizontal root-stocks. Leaves as in the 
narrowest forms of Y. radiosa and Y. glauca, 2 to 5 mm. wide, .2 to .4 m. 
long, pungent, white-bordered, very freely and often curly-filiferous 
below. Inflorescence glabrous, 1 to 1.5 m. high, racemose, or short- 
branched below. Perianth segments rather short, mostly acutely lan- 
ceolate : style as in the preceding. Capsule scarcely exceeding 50 mm. in 
length, rough, brown, constricted, with a median rib on each valve : seeds 
glossy, 5 to 7 X 7 to 8 mm. Plates 23, f.l.24,f.l. 83, f. 6. 

Southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and north- 
western Arizona, in the region of the Colorado river. 
Plate 93, f. 1. 

In habit, this species, which is briefly referred to without 
name by Professor Sargent, f recalls the narrow-leaved form 
of Y. glauca as found, for example, about Albuquerque, 
N. M., or the narrowest-leaved forms of Y. radiosa, when 
the latter is acaulescent. From the former it differs in its 
more frequently branched inflorescence, oblong (white ?) 
style, and smaller capsule and seed ; and from the latter in 
never becoming a tree and in its subsimple inflorescence, 
smaller, rougher and darker, constricted capsules, and muck 

* See Baker, Kew. Bull. 1892 : 8. 
t Sargent, Silva. 10 : 28. Note. 


smaller seeds. Specimens examined: "Deserts of the 
Colorado river" (Bigelow in 1853 and 1854); Grand 
canon region, Ariz. (Tourney in 1892, Trelease in 1901); 
'* Arizona" (Palmer, 799); "Southern Utah, northern 
Arizona, &c." (Palmer in 1877); St. George, Utah 
(Palmer in 1870) ; and La Verken, Utah (Jones, 5180). 

Y. Harrimaniae Trelease. 

Acaulescent, often cespitose. Leaves linear to spatulate-lanceolate, 
usually 6 to 15, or even 40 mm. wide, thin but firm, rigidly spreading, 
glaucous, or green with age, concave, pungent, narrowly brown-bor- 
dered, with relatively coarse, at length circinate, white marginal fibers. 
Inflorescence .25 to .5 m. high, simple, flowering from close to the base, 
glabrous. Flowers greenish, large, with broad often obtuse segments : style 
slender. Capsule brown, broadly oblong, about 40 mm. long, constricted, 
flaring above, the valves sometimes attenuate-mucronate : seeds 4 to 5X 5 
to 6 mm. Plates 28. 29. 83, f. 10. 

Utah: Cedar City (Parry, July 6, 1874), Near King- 
ston (Jones, 5322), Helper (Trelease in 1899 and 1901), 
to western Colorado: Cimmaron (Baker, 281), on 
gravelly hillsides. Plate 93, f. 1. 

A very distinct species, often flowering when the leaf- 
rosette is not over a span wide, the broadly spatulate 
foliage of these small plants being strikingly unlike that of 
any other mature Yucca. My first acquaintance in the 
field with this plant resting upon the detention of our 
train at Helper, Utah, because of a washout, on the 
return of the Harriman Alaska Expedition, I take pleas- 
ure in dedicating it to our hostess on that occasion, Mrs. 
Edward H. Harriman. 

22. Style stout, green. 

3. Inflorescence racemose or branched close to the leaves. 

Y. GLAUCA Nuttall, Eraser's Cat. no. 89. (1813). Pit- 
tonia. 2: 115. Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 
2:437. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4:205. 
6. pi. facing p. 7. Schimper, Pflanzengeographie. 


677. /. 384. Bush, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 6: 122, 

133. _ Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 427. /. 1026. - 

Bray (in part*), Bot. Gaz. 32 : 271. /. 18. 

Y. angustifoliaPursh, Flora. 1 : 227. (1814). Nuttall, Gen. 1 S 218. 

Sims, Bot. Mag. 48. pi- 2236. Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 

3. 41. _ Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 99. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 

923. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 226. Engelmann, Bot. King. 496. 

Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 50. Palmer, Amer. Journ. Pharm. 50 : 

587. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 253. Gard. & Forest. 2 : 

244, 247. /. Garden. 58 : 446. Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3 : 163. 

pi. 8) 51. Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 12 : 35. Bray (in part*), Bot. 

Gaz. 32 : 280. 

? Y. Hanburii Baker, Kew. Bull. 1892 : 8, 217. Gard. Chron. iii. 11 : 
749. _ Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 17 : 433. 

Subacaulescent or with branching prostrate stem. Leaves rather 
rigidly divergent, 6 to 12 mm. wide, pallid, white-margined, soon finely 
but usually sparingly flliferous. Inflorescence 1 to 2 m. high, simple or 
with an occasional short included branch, floriferous from near the base, 
glabrous. Flowers greenish-white, globose or oblong, campanulate 3 the 
segments varying from broad and acute to longer and more attenuate ; 
style green, tumid. Capsule large, oblong, usually not constricted, 
somewhat roughened, brown: seeds very glossy, 7 to 9 X H to 13 mm. 
Plates 23, f. 2. 24, f. 2. 25. 83, f. 9. 

Central South Dakota and southern Wyoming, to north- 
west Missouri, Central Kansas and the vicinity of Santa Fe, 
New Mexico. Plate 93, f. 1. 

The usual form from Trinidad southward is prevailingly 
narrower-leaved than that of the north and east. 

This low capsular bear-grass or soap-weed of the central 
Rocky Mountain region and northern plains, is almost in- 
variably marked by a simple inflorescence, not carried on 
a scape above the cluster of leaves. Only exceptionally 
are any branches formed on the panicle, and then these, 
which are toward its base, are very small and few in num- 
ber, though when the developing inflorescence has been 
injured a greater development of these potential rudiment- 
ary basal branches is observed. 

* See note under Y. constricta above. 


European gardens contain, under the name Y. angusti- 
folia, plants which are very different from the Yucca so- 
called by Pursh. In 1860, Carriere,* giving Y. albo-spica 
as a synonym, described and figured one such plant, with 
long-exserted glabrous panicle and rather broad filiferous 
leaves, which, with Mr. Baker, f I should more readily refer 
to Y. constricta than elsewhere, and Mr. Baker t states 
that Y. flexilis also occurs in gardens under this name. 
From the original description, Y. Hanburii possesses 
quite the inflorescence of Y. glauca; but has the leaves 
a little rough on the back and with a line of brown between 
the green tissue and the marginal line of white. I should 
have thought of connecting with it the narrower leaves of 
the preceding species, because of these characters, had not 
the Kew authorities given me positive assurance that the 
two are very distinct. 

Y. glauca stricta (Sims) Trelease. 

r. stricta Sims, Bot. Mag. 48. pi. 2222. (1821). Bommer, Journ. 

d'Hort. Prat. 3:41. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 18 : 95. Baker, Gard. 

Chron. 1870 : 923. Hemsley, Garden. 8 : 130, 132. /. As to Sims 

citation only. 
r. angustifolia stricta Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 227. (1880). 

As to Sims citation only. 

Of the habit of the northern form of Y. glauca, but of more vigorous 
growth, and with longer, more erect stem. Leaves very long, 12 mm. or 
less wide, at first somewhat glaucous, the entire white margin quickly 
shredding into slender fibers. Inflorescence usually tall, occasionally 
simple but typically paniculately branched within or close to the cluster of 
leaves. Flowers greenish white, often purple-tinted, varying from glo- 
bose to oblong-campanulate, and with correspondingly short and blunt or 
acutely attenuate perianth segments: style greatly swollen at base, green. 
Capsule and seeds unknown. Plates 26. 27. 

Seward County, Kansas, and doubtless elsewhere on the 

In 1821, Dr. Sims applied the name Yucca stricta to a 

Rev. Horticole. 1860 1 20-22. /. 3-4. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. 
1. c. 224. 


filiferous-leaved plant, said to have been introduced a few 
years before from the Carolinas, by Mr. Lyon, and to have 
been confused, up to the time of its description, with Y. 
angustifolia* (for which the prior name Y. glauca is now 
commonly employed). The good illustration that he gives, 
and which is copied by Hemsley, shows, as the description 
indicates, that the plant is quite of the habit of Y. glauca , 
with similar narrow leaves and violet-tinged greenish flowers 
having the swollen green stigmas of Y. glauca; but the 
panicle is much branched below, the rather long branches 
reaching about to the top of the uppermost leaves, and the 
flowers are subglobose, with broad blunt perianth segments, 
in neither of the latter respects, however, differing from 
some specimens of Y. glauca. 

Yucca stricta, ever since its establishment, has been a 
puzzle to botanists, partly because no plant exactly cor- 
responding with Sims' figure seems to have been reported 
since then, and partly because M. Carriere,f and following 
him, Mr. Baker, % confused with it a garden plant, which, 
in fact, appears to be Y. Louisianensis. In his article in 
The Garden, Mr. Hemsley copies the original illustra- 
tions of both forms, though treating them as pertaining 
to one species. Both Baker and Hemsley mention her- 
barium specimens collected by Drummond in Texas and 
near New Orleans, as representing their Yucca stricta , 
which Mr. Baker subsequently called Y. angustifolia var. 
Y. stricta || and which cannot well be the stricta of Sims or 
of Carriere, but is what is here called Y. Arkansana or 
Y. tenuistyla, or both. It is interesting to note that 
although much collecting has been done in the South 
Atlantic region since the time of Sims' publication of 
Yucca stricta, no green-styled species of the alliance of 

* On this see Nuttall, Genera 1 : 218. (1818). 

t Rev. Horticole. 1859 : 466-470. /. 101-2. 

J Gard. Chron. 1870 : 923. 

Garden. 8 : 130, 132, 140. (1875). 

|| Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:227. (1880). 


the Kocky Mountain Y. glauca has been found in that 
region, the nearest approach being the Gulf plant here 
called Y. Louisianensis. 

A few years since, Mr. James Gurney, Head Gardener of 
the Missouri Botanical Garden, was struck with the variety 
of foliage and difference in vigor of growth shown by the 
soap plants of Seward County, in extreme southwestern 
Kansas, and he selected for the Garden and for Tower 
Grove Park a considerable number of plants to show the 
differences. Some of these plants, which have made a 
remarkably rapid growth, have now come into bloom. 
They differ considerably both as to their tendency to form 
a short trunk and in breadth and flexibility of foliage, 
though in this latter respect coming within the known 
range of variation of Y. glauca , and to an equal extent in 
inflorescence, the variation in the two characters, however, 
not appearing capable of connection. While some of 
the plants produce a simple inflorescence, indistin- 
guishable from that of Y. glauca , others almost exactly 
match the original figure of Y. stricta, and still others, 
with the same compound inflorescence, have the branches 
originating at about the top of the leaves instead of in the 
leaf -cluster. There seems to be little doubt that these 
plants represent the true stricta of Sims, and that the At- 
lantic States locality assigned to this when it was published 
rests upon some sort of error. Although, as has beer* 
said, the cultivated plants produce either simple or branched 
inflorescence, the prevalence of the latter in those which- 
are strongly developed, and the rareness of branching in 
the usual form of Y. glauca, make it desirable to recog- 
nize this form varietally. 

Y. Arkansana Trelease. 

f. angustifolia mollis Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 50, 51. 

(1873). Watson, Proc. Arner. Acad. 14:253. 
T. glauca mollis Branner & Coville, Ann. Kept. Geol. Surv. Arkansas- 

for 1888. 4 : 224. 


Y. stricta Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 923. Hemsley, Garden, 
g . 132. As to herbarium citations, in part. 

Y. angustifolia stricta Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:227. As to 
herbarium citations, in part. 

T. glauca stricta Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 : 206. pi. 22. 
Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 2 : 437. 

Y. recuroifolia ? Nutt. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 5: 156. 
Aspect and foliage of Y. tenuistyla. Inflorescence about 1 m. high, 
racemose or very rarely with a few branches, glabrous. Flowers with 
mostly greenish-white broad and obtuse segments : style green, usually 
very tumid below. Capsule little flaring, smooth: seeds dull, 7 to 
8 X 10 mm - Plates 30.31. 83, f. 7. 

From about Catoosa, I. T. (Bush, 1278) and Little 
Rock, Ark. (Engelmann, May 1837) to the vicinity of San 
Antonio, Tex. Plate 88, f. 2. 

The specific name Arkansana, here used, is applied in 
deference to the prevalent American practice in nomencla- 
ture, Engelmann's varietal name mollis (1873) having been 
similarly used under Y. gloriosa by Carriere, in 1860. 

33. Inflorescence amply panicled on a long scape. Foliage of the 
preceding or wider. 

Y. Liouisianensis Trelease. 

Y. filamentosa Riddell, N. O. Med. & Surg. Journ. 8 :763. Baflnes- 
que,Fl. Ludovic. 18. Gray, Manual. [6 ed.]. 524. Britton, Man- 
ual. 269. As to the Louisiana citation. 

Y. stricta, Y. stricta elatior, and Y. stricta intermedia Carrifcre, Eev. 
Hort. 1859 : 390, 466. /. 101-2. 

Of the aspect of the preceding, or, when the inner leaves are dilated, 
of Y. filamentosa media. The flaccid green leaves 10 to exceptionally 
40 mm. wide, white bordered sparingly flliferous. Inflorescence an ex- 
serted glabrous or mostly pubescent panicle. Petals broad to attenuate. 
Style variously tumid aiid deep green, to pale and oblong. Capsule 
stout and short, angular in developing, as in Y. flaccida: seeds 6 to 7 X 6 
to 10 mm. Plates 32-34. 83, f. 8. 

Louisiana (Alexandria, Ball 558; Minden and Alden 
Bridge, Trelease) to northern Texas (Jefferson, Tretease; 
Dallas, Reverchon; Texarkana, Trelease) and southeastern 
Indian Territory (Atoka, Butler; Standley, Ferriss; 
Poteau, Trelease). Plate 92, f. 1. 

Apparently a western derivation of the same stock as the 


^eastern Y. filamentosa and Y. flaccida , to both of which it 
bears some relationship, while apparently distinct from 
either. At Dallas, where Mr. Reverchon has long culti- 
vated this and Y. rupicola , spontaneous hybrids occur, with 
the leaf -margin neither denticulate nor filiferous. 

11. Leaves not flliferous, with a distinct thin horny, finely denticulate 

2. Capsule mucronate, with flat-backed valves. 

Y. rigida (Engelmann) Trelease. 

r. rupicola rigida Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 8 : 49. (1873). 
Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 253. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 18 : 223. 

Caulescent, reaching a height of 3 to 5 m., simple or elongately few- 
branched above. Leaves glaucous, thin but rather rigidly spreading, 
about 25 mm. wide, mostly concave, often with scabrid ridges, slender- 
tipped but very pungent, the yellow margin minutely denticulale. Inflo- 
rescence rather large, panicled close to the branches, glabrous. Flowers 
not very large. Capsule oblong, thick-walled, rough, not constricted, 
the flat valves tipped with short outcurved points : seeds very dull, 4 to 5 
X 6 to 6 mm. Plates 35. 36, f. 1. 84,f.l. 

Mexico, from central Chihuahua to eastern Durango. 
Plate 93, f. 2. 

The Engelmann herbarium contains two specimens (nos. 
A. and 477) of a Yucca collected in 1847 by Dr. Gregg, in 
a dry valley between Mapimi and Guajuquilla, in northern 
Mexico, which he noted as from 5 to 10 feet high, and which 
possesses glaucous denticulate-margined rather narrow 
leaves which in the herbarium appear quite rigid. In 
revising the Yuccas, Dr. Engelmann, recognizing a certain 
comparability of these specimens with Y. rupicola, desig- 
nated them by the varietal name rigida, under that species, 
evidently mistaking Gregg's note on the height of the 
plants for that of the scape, instead of the trunk, which 
it really appears to have referred to. Within recent years, 
the same plant has been collected (and sometimes referred 
to this variety) by Wilkinson (134715, 224209), Rae and 
Hough (4220), and Pringle (165) in the Santa Eulalia 
mountains, near the city of Chihuahua. 



South of Torreon, along the Mexican Central railroad, 
particularly from about Picardias to about Jalisco, this 
small tree is abundant, on or near the rocky hillsides, and 
conspicuously contrasted with accompanying Y. Treculeana 
bv its very glaucous narrower foliage. It may be that small 
trees between Monterey and Saltillo, visible from the Mexi- 
can National railroad, extend its range to the east. 

Yucca rigida, the specific name of which is descriptive 
only when its dried leaves are compared with those of Y. 
i-upicola, is one of the handsomest tree Yuccas, in its foli- 
age. The slender trunks are commonly simple, but occas- 
ionally once or more forked, with elongate branches. When 
well developed the leaves are from .3 to .6 m. long, 20 to 30 
mm. wide, and, as would scarcely be inferred from herba- 
rium material, decidedly concave up to the very slender 
pungent terete point ; both surfaces are closely ridged and 
often minutely roughened, and the bright yellow margin, 
though occasionally nearly smooth, is usually finely den- 
ticulate, so as to possess a keen cutting power. Though, as 
has been said, the plant forms a low tree when developed, 
a few specimens have been seen bearing panicles when still 
practically acaulescent, as is also true of Y. radiosa about 
El Paso. The panicles are loosely branched shortly above 
the crown of leaves, and the very hard oblong capsules, 
about 50 mm. long and 25 mm. in diameter, are parted 
about to the middle into 3 valves which are conspicuously 
flattened or even concave on the back, and with short out- 
curved apical points, and the inner or placental dehiscence 
is very narrow, so that the small thin black seeds escape 
only when jarred out edgewise. 

Dr. Engeimann would doubtless have given specific rank 
to this tree, had he not misapprehended its relation in size 
and field appearance to the typical acaulescent often twisted- 
leaved Y. rupicola, which, in contrast with it, he called 
variety tortifolia. The foliage and capsular characters 
added above leave no room for question as to its specific 
distinctness from the latter. 


Y. X rigida Deleuil, described by M. Andre*,* is a garden 
hybrid obtained from Y. gloriosa fertilized by Y. cornuta 
(which is considered to be a synonym of Y. Treculeana), 
and, as the name rigida, being preoccupied, cannot be re- 
tained for it, it may be named, after its originator, Y. X 
Deleuili, in case, as seems desirable for convenience of 
reference, it and other hybrids are to be designated by 

Y. RUPICOLA Scheele, Linnaea. 23:143. (1850). Le- 
maire, 111. Hort. 13: 96. Baker, Gard. Chron. 
1870: 828. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 
3: 48. Garden. 1: 161. Watson, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 14 : 253. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 
222. Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 2 : 436. 
Bot. Mag. iii. 7172. Reverchon, Gard. & 
Forest. 6: 64. Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 163. 
pi. 51. 

Y. rupicola tortifolia Eugelmann, 1. c. 

Y. lutescens Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1858 : 579. 

Y. tortilis Hort. 

Y. contorta Hort. 

Acaulescent. Leaves glaucous, pungent, firm or flaccidly spreading, 
often twisted, .3 to .5 m. long, 25 to 30 mm. wide, the yellowish finely 
denticulate margin soon turning brown. Inflorescence glabrous, panicled 
mostly above the leaves. Flowers white or greenish: style white or 
greenish, oblong, often 3-sided. Capsule thin-walled, with flat or con- 
cave mucronate valves : seeds rather dull, 5 to 6 X 7 to 9 mm. Plates 
37-39. 84, f. 2. 

South-central Texas, from Tarrant County southwest- 
ward to and probably across the boundary. Plate 93, f. 2. 

One of the early discoveries of Lindheimer (1845), and 
Tre'cul (1848-9), sufficiently distinct from all of its con- 
geners. Dr. Engelmann designated it as a. tortifolia, to 
distinguish it from his /3. rigida, spoken of above, with the 
statement that it is cultivated under the two garden names 
given in the synonymy. 

* Revue Horticole. 55: 110. (1883). 67: 81. (1895). 


In speaking of Y. rupicola and what he called its 
variety rigida, Dr. Engelmann* refers to intermediate 
specimens collected by Wright in " Eastern New Mexico " 
(no. 1909). The leaves of this number in the Torrey 
herbarium (Plate 37), it is true, are very hard to distinguish 
from narrower herbarium leaves of Y. rigida, but the cor- 
responding sheet in the Gray herbarium (Plate 38} clearly 
represents a crown of the acaulescent Y. rupicola with 
inner leaves, narrower and less twisted than the outer 
leaves probably were. A similar intermediate specimen in 
the Engelmann herbarium, collected by Wright in April or 
May 1850, on " Hills of the Blanco " is from the region of 
and accompanied by unmistakable, though detached, leaves 
of Y. rupicola j to which I should refer all of these speci- 

22. Capsule attenuate-beaked, with round-backed valves. 

Y. rostrata Engelmann, in herb. 

Of the aspect of T. radiosa. Caulescent, at length 3 m. high, simple 
or short-branched at the crown. Leaves very numerous, rigidly diver- 
gent, scarcely 10 mm. wide, a little glaucous, flat or biconvex, striate, 
thin, very pungent, the yellow margin minutely denticulate. Inflores- 
cence ample, with subincluded base or mostly exserted, glabrous. Flowers 
white, umbonate at base : style white, attenuate. Capsule oblong-ovoid, 
thick-walled, with convex valves long-attenuate and spreading above: 
seeds rather dull, 4 to 5X 6 to 7 mm. Plates 36, f. 2. 40-42. 84, f. 3. 

Northern Mexico, from northern Chihuahua to the 
Sabinas valley in eastern Coahuila. Plate 93, f. 2. 

In 1852, Dr. Bigelow, of the boundary survey, collected 
a Yucca with narrow denticulate leaves, somewhat resem- 
bling ]T. rigida, at Bufatillo, said to be in a volcanic moun- 
tainous region near Presidio del Norte, and what may pos- 
sibly have been the same thing on sand hills thirty miles 
below San Elizario, both along the Rio Grande, and 
on gravelly hills at Los Moros. In August, 1880, Dr. 
Edward Palmer collected leaves, capsules, and seeds of ap- 

* Trans. Acad Sci. St. Louis. 3 : 50. 


parently the same thing at Monclova, in the State of Coa- 
huila. To these latter, Dr. Engelmann attached the manu- 
script name Y. rostrata, descriptive of the long-attenuate 
apex of the fruit. 

While passing between Eagle Pass and Monterey, in 
company with Professor Sargent and Mr. Canby, in March 
1900, my attention was attracted by a narrow-leaved 
Yucca that was cultivated at C. P. Diaz and in station 
yards along the Mexican International railroad, and that 
was found forming a natural low forest about Peyotes, on 
the water-shed between the Rio Grande and Sabinas, where, 
on subsequent visits, in April and August, I was able to 
study it in detail. 

Among Yuccas this is conspicuously loosely rooted in the 
soil, so that large plants are easily removed. The trunks 
vary in height from about .3 m. to an observed maximum 
of about 3m., the usual height being about 2m., and the 
wood is extremely soft and spongy. When the old 
leaves are removed, the diameter of the stem is usually .15 
or .2 m., and it is not dilated except where the roots start 
from the base. Older plants are sometimes branched at the 
top, but the branches remain short, so that these trees 
usually possess several subapical crowns of leaves, rather 
than a series of separated elongated branches, like those 
of many other arborescent species. 

The leaves are very numerous, radiating in every direc- 
tion from the top of the stem in an oblong or usually nearly 
globose crown some 1.25 to 2 m. in diameter, and, although 
thin, they are sufficiently rigid rarely to become arched from 
their own weight, as they are in the species of N^olina, like 
JW. longi folia, with similar foliage. They are flattened or a 
little biconvex, quickly contracted from a broad base and then 
very narrowly lanceolate, measuring about 6 mm. at the nar- 
rowest point and 12 mm. at the widest, which is about one- 
third their length below the grooved, acute, pungent apex. 
They are somewhat glaucous, occasionally slightly twisted 


and striately veined, and with a very narrow bright yellow 
horny margin that bears numerous very minute teeth, like 
those of Y. rupicolaand Y. rigida. The old leaves, closely 
reflexed against the stem, persist for many years as a straw- 
colored thatch-like covering, and the denuded lower stem 
is lozenge-marked by the leaf-scars and does not develop a 
thick bark. 

The glabrous panicle ranges from .5m. long to more than 
twice that length, and is raised on a stalk 30 to 50mm. 
thick, which, though sometimes barely protruding from the 
leaves, is more commonly exserted for a length about equal 
to that of the branched part, and is sparingly bracteate, the 
narrow green lower bracts gradually passing into the dingy 
floral bracts. The common outline of the flower-cluster is 
attenuate-ovoid, but not infrequently the lower part of the 
cluster, like the top, is unbranched, the uppermost and 
lowest flowers then standing in the axils of the bracts of 
the main stem. 

The rather large waxen pendent white flowers, which are 
very rarely somewhat purple-tinged, expand from 50 to 75 
mm. They are slightly umbonate at base, on short curved 
pedicels which rarely reach their own length. The segments 
of the perianth are lance-obovate, the inner whorl somewhat 
crenulate, and the outer narrower, thicker and subentire. 
The stamens, which are somewhat clavately thickened and 
spreading near the top, are coarsely papillate-pubescent, 
as in other species of the genus. The narrowly oblong 
conical ovary is green, and the attenuate white style con- 
siderably surpasses the stamens and ends in three slightly 
notched lobes. 

The erect or suberect very firm-walled capsule, measur- 
ing about 25 X 50 mm., is oblong-acuminate with the atten- 
uate upper third of the convex carpels somewhat spreading 
in dehiscence, and is raised on a concavely obconical base, 
corresponding to that noted for the flowers, from the top of 
which remnants of the withered perianth commonly de- 


pend. The seeds are black, thin, margined, and rather 

Of somewhat the aspect of Y. radiosa, but with more 
rigid and denticulate not filiferous leaves, this species rivals 
in gracefulness of habit the Nolinas of Mexico and the 
grass-trees (Xanthorrhoea) of the South Sea, both of which 
it far surpasses in beauty of inflorescence, and it should 
prove a desirable addition to regions like California, Madeira 
and the Mediterranean countries, where it will prove hardy, 
and to some of the gardens of which I have been able to 
send viable seed. 

AA. Fruit indehiscent (so far as known). 

B. Fruit soon drying, erect, spreading or pendent. Seeds thin, flat, 
slightly margined: albumen not ruminated (but surface of seed often 
somewhat grooved). Heteroyucca. 

1. Leaves finely denticulate, softly green-pointed. Large tree. 

Y. GIGANTEA Lemaire, 111. Hort. 6. Misc. 91. (Nov. 1859). 
13:92. Rev. Hort. I860 : 222. Engelmann, Trans. 
Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 212. Baker, Gard. Chron. 187O: 
1184. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 224. Hemsley, 
Garden. 8: 134. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
9:141. pi. 40-42. 

At length a rough-barked branching tree 10 m. or more high. Leaves 
rigidly spreading or somewhat flexuous, green, glossy, plicate, with soft 
green tip, over 1 m. long and often 100 mm. wide, scabrid margined. In- 
florescence compact, close to the leaves. Flowers resembling those of 
Y. gloriosa. Fruit apparently soon drying. 

This species, if more than a form of Y. elephantipes, was 
first described from young specimens cultivated in European 
gardens, and again, in mature form, from a large tree cul- 
tivated in the Azores. It does not appear to be known in 
a state of nature. In habit and foliage, except for larger 
dimensions, it resembles Y. elephantipes, but if the notes 
on the spontaneous Azorean fruit are accurate, possesses 
fruit comparable with that of Y. gloriosa, and it may be a 
hybrid, Y. elephantipes being doubtless one parent, in this 
x;ase ; but it is very doubtful as anything but a form of Y. 


11. Leaves 'at most sparingly denticulate or flliferous, pungent. 
Lower plants. 

2. Leaves broad, rigidly ascending or spreading. 

Y/ GLORIOSA Linnaeus, Sp. PL 319. (1753). Walter, FL 

'Carol. 124. Michaux, Fl. 1 :196. Duhamel, Arbres 

et Arbustes. 3. pi. 35. Bryant, Flora Diaetetica. 

.16. Pursh, Fl. 1:228. Elliott, Bot. S. C. & Ga. 

1 : 400. Baker, Gard. Chron. 187O : 1184. Engel- 

'mann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:38, 211, 213. 

Koch, Dendrologie. 2 2 :343. Carriere, Rev. Hort. 

49:287. /. 48. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 

J14 : 251. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. 

.Sargent, Silva. 1O:23.^Z. 503. Gard. Chron. iii. 

'28 : 262. /. 77. Garden. 49 : 218. /. 

(Y. acuminata Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 2. pi. 195. (1827). Bommer, 

\Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 1859 : 42. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13:95. 

Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870:1123. Ref. Bot. 5. pi. 316. Engel- 

mann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 40. Garden. 8:133. Gard. 

Chron. n. s. 4:110. 

Y. gloriosa acuminata Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1868 : 157. Baker, Journ. 

Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 226. 
Y. integerrima Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 2 : 267. (1812). 

~*Yuca, sive lucca Perana. Gerarde, Herball. 1359. /. (1597). 
Yuca foliis Aloes. Bauhin, Pinax. 91. (1623, 1671). Morison, Plant. 

Hist. 2:419. Sect. 4. pi. 23. (1680). Pontedera, Anthologia. 295. 

pi. 6.f. n. (1720). 

Yuca sive lucca. Parkinson, Paradisus Terrestris. 434. /. (1629). 
Yucca, sive lucca Peruana. Johnson in Gerarde, Herball. 1543. /. 
, (1636). Raius, Hist. Plant. 2: 1201. (1688). 
Juca gloriosa. Hunting,, Waare Oeff. der PI. 471. pi. (1682). Naauw- 

keur. Beschryv. der Aardgew. 663. (1696.) 
Yucca; foliis Aloes. Boerhaave, Index Alter PI. Hort. Lugd.-Bat. 

2:132. (1720, 1727). 
Cordyline foliis pungentibus integerrimis. Van Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prod. 

22. (1740). 
Yucca foliis margine integerrimis. Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 130. (1737) 

Hort. Ups. 88. (1748). 

Shortly caulescent and cespitose or the trunk 3 to 5 m. high and with 
several branches. Leaves slightly glaucous when young, smooth or the 
dorsal lines roughened, rather thin but rigid, often concave near the in- 
rolled purfgent usually dark apex, about .5 m. long and 50 mm. wide, the 


usually brown margin at first with a very few distant rarely persistent 
minute teeth, when developed entire or occasionally with a few detach- 
ing slender fibers. Inflorescence mostly narrowly paniculate, the base 
often not exserted, glabrous or exceptionally puberulent. Flowers 
creamy white, often tinged with red or violet : ovary often with a slight 
suggestion of basal stipe; style oblong, white, frequently 3-divided. 
Fruit obovoid-oblong, mostly pendent, with six prominent ridges, the 
thin exocarp soon drying about the core : seeds glossy, 5 to 6 X 6 to 7 
mm., slightly grooved as if the albumen were ruminated. Plates 43-46. 
80, f. 4. 

Coast and " sea islands," from South Carolina to north- 
eastern Florida, on the sand dunes. Generally planted and 
in places escaping, in the eastern Gulf region. Plate 94, 


The typical form and what is called here variety plicata 
are the only spontaneous forms of this species of which I 
have knowledge. It has been in cultivation since 1596 
(Gerarde, Herball, 1359. /.), and to-day is represented by 
a considerable number of garden forms, several of them 
hardy further North than any other species except Y. flac- 
cida, Y. filamentosa, and Y. glauca. Some of these 
approach the following two species while others, scarcely 
presenting mature characters, are but tentatively placed 
anywhere; and a number of imperfectly described gar- 
den hybrids add to the difficulty of properly understand- 
ing Y. gloriosa. The following key, including these hy- 
brids, may serve for the naming of the forms : 

Leaves not or little plicate, usually concave only toward the end. 
Leaves rigidly spreading. 

From slightly glaucous becoming green, A to .8 m. long, 40 to 
50 mm. wide. Y. gloriosa. 

Dwarf and smaller-leaved. f . minor. 

More persistently glaucous. 

Somewhat falcate. f. obliqua. 

With whitish median variegation. f. medio-striata. 

Outer leaves somewhat recurving. 

Leaves but transiently glaucous. var. robusta. 

Persistently glaucous. f. nobilis. 

Leaves narrower. f . longifolia. 


Leaves conspicuously plicate toward the end, mostly very concave, not 


Rather persistently glaucous. var. plicata. 

Tall (1.5 to 3 m.) Leaves at last greener. f. superba. 

Leaves dark green, persistently denticulate. f. maculata. 

Leaves purplish. Y. X DeleuiU. 

Leaves greener, very broad. Y. X sulcata. 

Leaves olive-green, scarcely pungent. T. X Carrierei. 

Y. GLORIOSA Linnaeus. 
Synonymy as above. 

Acaulescent or not tall. Leaves broad, entire, green, neither recurved 
nor plicate, plane or very openly concave. Plates 43. 44. 

The most common form of the Sea Islands of South 
Carolina and Georgia. 

Y. GLORIOSA MINOR Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860:361. 
Truffaut, Rev. Hort. 1869:474. Baker, Ref . Bot. 
5. pi. 319. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. 

? T. acuminata Garden. 27 :266. /. 

T. rubra Hort. 

A garden form, smaller in every way. Plate 45. 

Y. GLORIOSA OBLIQUA (Haworth) Baker, Gard. Chron. 

187O : 1184. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. 
T. obliqua Haworth, Syn. PL Succ. 69. (1812). Lemaire, 111. Hort. 
13:95. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 40. Koch, Den- 
drol. 2 2 :345. 

A form with glaucous leaves somewhat twisted to one side. 

Y. GLORIOSA MEDIO-STRIATA Planchon, Fl. des Serres. 23. 
pi. 23 93-4. (1880). Gard. Chron. n. s. 13: 716. 
Belg. Hort. 31 : 36. Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 6 : 156.' 

Y. gloriosa medio-picta Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1880 : 259. 
A garden sport with a median whitish stripe on the leaves. 

Y. GLORIOSA ROBUSTA Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1868. 158. 

? T. acutifolia Truffaut, Rev. Hort. 1869 : 320. Belg. Hort. 1870 : 24. 
Y. gloriosa recurvata Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 1184. 
Y. gloriosa Gawler, Bot. Mag. 31. pi. 1260. Redoute, Liliacees. 6. 
pi. 326-7. 


Intermediate between Y. gloriosa and T. recurmfolia, with the outer- 
most of the evanescently glaucous usually slightly plicate leaves somewhat 
stiffly recurved. 

Y. GLORIOSA NOBILIS Carriere, Rev. Hort. I860 : 360. 1868 : 

T. Ellacombei Baker, Ref. Bot. 5. pi. 317. (1872). Engelmann, 
Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:41. Garden. 4:356. 8:134, 147. 16: 
196, 214, 216, 236, 257, 285. Gard. Chron. iii. 2: 111. 

Y. gloriosa Ellacombei Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:226. (1880). 

Y. gloriosa Gardening 111. 22: 155. /. 

Leaves scarcely plicate, glaucous, the outer recurved, sometimes 
twisted to one side. 

An intermediate form, differing from f . robusta in its 
more persistently glaucous leaves. M. Carriere (Eev. 
Hort. I860: 361) recognizes a sub-variety parviflora of 
this variety. 

Y. GLORIOSA LONGIFOLIA Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1862 : 234. 

J. longifolia Hort. in part. 

r. glaucescens Eev. Hort. 1 : 266. 2 : 111. Baker, Kew Bull. 

Y. gloriosa glaucescens Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860:360. Baker, 

Gard. Chron. 1870:1184. 
? F. Brasiliensis Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 8. 

Scarcely differs from var. noUlis except in its leaves when young 
being narrower, though in age they are said to reach a width of 75 mm. 

Y. GLOEIOSA PLICATA Carriere, Re v. Hort. 1860:359. 
Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:39, 40. 
Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. 

Y. gloriosa Maund, Bot. Gard. 3. no. 2 8 6. Elliott, Bot. S. C. & Ga. 

1 : 400. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 94. Garden. 81 : 16 1. /. 45 : 45. 

/. 49 : 332. /. Gard. Chron. n. s. 19 : 820. /. 157. iii. 8 : 692. /. 

136. iii. 15:304. pi. Amer. Florist. 8:61. /. Rept. Mo. Bot. 

Gard. 3. pi. 6. Gardiner, Journ. of Hort. 62:487. f. 126. 
Y. plicata Hort. 
r. plicata glauca Hort. 
Y. plicatilis Hort. 
Y. glauca Hort., in part. 

Differs from the type in having the more permanently glaucous usually 
shorter and hence relatively broader concave leaves evidently plicate to- 
ward the apex. 


" Sea islands " of Georgia and South Carolina, with the 

Y. GLORIOSA SUPERBA (Haworth) Baker, Gard. Chron. 
1870 : 1184. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. Ella- 
combe, Garden. 8:147. 

T. superba Haworth, Suppl. 36. (1819). Bot. Register. 20. pi.. 
1 690. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 94. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis. 3:41. Ellacombe, Gard. Chron. iii. 2:111. 
r. gloriosa Gard. Chron. n. s. 12: 500, 688. /. 118. Kept. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 8. pi. 7. Garden. 33 : 202. /. 58 : 446. /. 

A cultivated form of var. plicata, becoming 3 or 4 m. high, with greener 
leaves. Plates 46 J.I. 84, f. 4. 

Y. GLORIOSA MACULATA Carriere, Kev. Hort. 1859 : 389, 
430. Koch, Dendrol. 2 2 :345. 

A low garden form, with the plicate dark green leaves persistently a 
little roughened on the margin : the varietal name referring to a mottled 
variation of the usual red tinging of the flowers. 

22. Leaves more elongated, recurved. 

Y. RECURVIFOLIA Salisbury, Parad. Lond. pi. 31. (1806). 

Nuttall, Gen. 1 : 218. Pursh, Fl. 1 : 228. Elliott, 

Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1:401. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 

13:94. Curtis, Bot. N. Car. 56. Baker, Gard. 

Chron. 1870:1184. Ref. Bot. 5.pL 321. Hemsley, 

Garden. 8 : 133, 136. /. Koch, Dendrol. 2 2 : 344. 

Gardiner, Journ. of Hort. 42 : 246. /. 
1". gloriosa recurvifolia Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 39, 40. 

(1873). Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 225. Amer. Garden. 

11: 661, 666. /. 
T.recurva Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 69. (1812). Gard. Chron. n. s. 

18 : 689. Garden. 16 : 528. 47 : 337. /. Gardening 111. 18 : 230. /. 

22 : 485. /. 

r. obliqua Regel, Gartenflora. 8 : 36. 17 : 161. pL 580. 
r. pendula Greenland, Rev. Hort. 1858 : 433. /. 128. Carriere, Rev. 

Hort. 1859:488. /. 104. Annales d'Hort. et de Bot. 2:93. 

Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 8. Garden. 1 : 238. /. 
J. gloriosa Riddell, N. O. Med & Surg. Journ. 8 : 763. Lloyd & 

Tracy, Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. 28: 71, 91. 
r. gloriosa mollis Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860: 362. Baker, Gard. 

Chron. 1870:1184. 


Y. gloriosa planifolia Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 39, 41. (1873). 
Y. filamentosa variegata Park & Cemetery. 11 ; 184. /. 
Y. variafolia Garden. 16:257. 

Shortly caulescent, branching. Leaves at first somewhat glaucous, 
nearly plane, long, flexible, recurved, about 50 mm. wide, often slightly 
plicate above, narrowly yellow- or brown-margined, often with a very 
few microscopic teeth, at length entire or slightly flliferous. Panicle 
narrow, the scape often included. Styles shouldered. Fruit erect, 
oblong, with 6 winged ribs mostly infolded over the nectarial grooves : 
seeds rather dull, 6 to 7X 7 to 8 w&-> the surface less grooved. Plates 
46. 47. 84, f. 5. 

* Sea islands " and adjacent coast of Georgia, and on 
Dauphin, Ship and Breton islands, between the mouth of 
the Mobile and the mouth of the Mississippi river. Plate 
94, f. 2. 

This species appears to have been in cultivation since 
1794, and, like the preceding, is represented by many gar- 
den varieties, among which some of the described hybrids 
already referred to are placed in the following key : 

Leaves neither variegated nor very broadly margined. Y. recurvifolia. 

Bracts blackish- or purplish-brown. f. tristis. 

Leaves dark green, 75 mm. broad. Y. X Andreana. 

Leaves with conspicuous brown margin. f. rufocincta, 
Leaves variegated. 

With broad yellow margin. f. marginata. 

With median yellow band. f . variegata. 

With median reddish stripe. f. elegans. 

Short and broad with pale or purplish stripes. Y. X dracaenoides. 


Synonymy as above. 

Leaves soon becoming dark green, greatly elongated, very much 
recurved. Plates 46, f. 2. 47, f. 1. 84, f. 5. 

The usual wild form. 

Y. recurvifolia tristis (Carriere) Trelease. 

Y. gloriosa tristis Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1860 : 303. Koch, Dendrol. 

2 2 : 345. 
A form with blackish-purple bracts. 


Y. RECURVIFOLIA RUFOCiNCTA Baker, Gard. Chron. 187O : 

T. rufocincta Haworth, Suppl. 37. (1819). Regel, Gartenflora. 8: 37. 
Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 95. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 

Y. gloriosa rufocincta Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:225. (1880). 

A low form with rather pronounced accentuation of the reddish- 
brown margin. 

Y. recurvifolia marginata ( Carriers) Trelease. 
Y. gloriosa marginata Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1880: 259. 
T. gloriosa marginata aurea Carrifcre, 1. c. 260. 
Y. gloriosa elegans marginata Gard. Chron. n. s. 10:667. (1878). 

Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 5 : 76. 
Leaves bordered with yellow, and often also rosy tinted. Gardens. 

Y. recurvifolia variegata (Carriere) Trelease. 
Y. pendula variegata Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1875 : 400. 
Y. gloriosa variegata Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1880 : 260. Gard. Chron. 

1873:6. iii. 6 : 276, 305. 

Y. pendula aurea Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1877 : 249. 1879 : 404. 
? Y. recurva elegantissima, Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 5 : 460. (1880). 
? Y. glaucescens variegata Hort. 

A garden sport with median yellow stripe. 

Y. recurvifolia elegans Trelease. 

Y. gloriosa elegans variegata. Belg. Hort. 1880:63. Gard. Chron. 

n. s. 16:439. 

r. gloriosa variegata Belg. Hort. 1884 : 33. 
Y. gloriosa recurvifolia, fol. var. Rodigas, 111. Hort. 30: 13. pi. 475. 


Differs in having the median stripe reddish. 

Y. FLEXILIS Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859:398. /. 89. 
Horticulturist. 14 : 548. /. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 
97. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870:1183. Journ. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 18:224. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis. 3 : 41 Koch, Dendrol. 2 2 : 345. Hemsley, 
Garden. 8:129, 134. /. 
Y. Mexicana Hort., in part. 

Shortly caulescent. Leaves mostly transiently glaucous, nearly plane, 
long, narrow (20 to 40 mm.), little if at all plicate, occasionally a little 


persistently denticulate or filiferous, flexible, at least the outer recurved. 
Panicle loose, exserted on a long scape. Style somewhat shouldered. 
Fruit unknown. 

A many-formed plant, apparently known only in gar- 
dens. Plate 47, f. 2. 

The principal forms and the comparable named hybrids 
may be separated as follows : 

Leaves plane or little concave, bright glossy green, recurved. T. flexilis. 

Taller (1 or 2 m.). Leaves pale green. . f. ensifolia. 

Leaves somewhat falcate. f. tortulata. 

Leaves evidently flliferous in age. f. Hildrethi. 

Leaves glaucous, little recurved. f. patens. 
Leaves concave, pale green. 

Outer leaves recurved. f. semicylindrica. 

Leaves all strict. f . Peacockii. 

Leaves scarcely pungent. f . Soerhaavii. 

Leaves pale-striate, flliferous. T. X striatula. 

The following garden hybrids, with flexible leaves less 
than 25 mm. wide, might be sought here : 

Leaves flat, entire. 

? J. X Massiliensis. 

? r. X ensifera. 

Leaves flat, often denticulate. T. X laevigata. 

Leaves very concave. T. y^juncea. 

Y. FLEXILIS Carriere. 
Synonymy as above. 

Dwarf. Leaves long and narrow, loosely recurved, bright glossy 

Known only in gardens, where, according to M. Carriere, 
it is sometimes erroneously called Y. acuminata, Y. sten- 
ophylla, Y. longi folia, and Y. angusti folia. It is also in 
part the Y. gloriosa of gardens. 

Y. flexilis Peacockii (Baker) Trelease. 

F. Peacockii Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 223. (1880). Kew 
Bull. 1892: 8. Wiener 111. Gart.-Zeit. 6 : 320. Garden. 19:226. 

Scarcely appears to differ except in the numerous leaves being stricter. 


Y. FLEXILIS ENSIFOLIA (Greenland) Baker, Journ. Linn. 

Soc. Bot. 18: 224. (1880). 

F. ensifolia Greenland, Kev. Hort. 1859: 433. /. 1 29. Baker, Gard. 
Chron. 1870: 217. Ref. Bot. 5. pi. 318. Engelmann, Trans. 
Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 41. Hemsley, Garden. 8 : 134. /. 
Y. Eylesii Hort. 

Taller (1 to 1.5 m.) with less recurving, soon pale green, somewhat 
concave, entire leaves. 

Y. flexilis Hildrethi Trelease. 

Differs from f . ensifolia chiefly in having its frequently somewhat fal- 
cate leaves usually finely flliferous in age. Plate 41, f. 2. 

Cultivated, from unrecorded source, and escaped, at the 
place of Mr. J. A. Hildreth, at St. Augustine, Fla., where 
it is said to bloom through the winter and where the spec- 
cimen photographed was observed in flower at the end of 
May, simultaneously with Y. aloifolia, though it has 
never been known to set fruit. 

Y. flexilis tortulata (Baker) Trelease. 

Y. tortulata Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 1122. Engelmann, Trans. 

Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 41. Hemsley, Garden. 8: 133. 
F. gloriosa tortulata Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 226. (1880). 
T.falcata Garden. 16:369. (1879). 

Y. flexilis falcata Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:224. (1880). 
T. undulata Hort., in part. 

Differs from f. ensifolia chiefly in being shorter-stemmed and with 
the green leaves flatter and somewhat falcate, and from Y. gloriosa 
minor in its longer outer leaves being reflexed. 

Y. FLEXILIS SEMICYLINDRICA Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 

18:224. (1880). 
F. semicylindrica Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 1217. 

Differs from f . ensifolia in its firm and deeply concave narrower leaves 
(less than 20 mm. wide). 

Y. flexilis Boerhaavii (Baker) Trelease. 

r. Boerhaavii Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1217. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 

18:224. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:41. 
Chiefly differs from the preceding in its flat scarcely pungent leaves. 


Y. flexilis patens (Andre) Trelease. 

T. patens Andri, HI. Hort. 17:120. /. (1870). Gard. Chron. 


r. pruinosa Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1122. Garden 8: 133. 
Y. gloriosa pruinosa Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:226. (1880). 

A garden form, said to have come from China, with less arched glau- 
cous slightly rough-margined leaves: approaching some of the forms 
of r. gloriosa. 

Y. gloriosa, Y. recurvifolia, and Y. flexilis, the last 
two of which have frequently been treated as forms or 
varieties of the first-named, present a number of interesting 
and suggestive peculiarities when studied comparatively. 

Y. gloriosa occurs spontaneously among the sand dunes 
of a restricted portion of the southeastern Atlantic coast, 
where it is often intimately associated with Y. aloifolia 
and one or more forms of Y. filamentosa. Y. recurvifolia, 
except for one isolated group of stations, is known from a 
still more limited part of the same coast. Y. flexilis is 
known only in gardens, and its source appears to have been 
as unknown to its describer as it is to those who now 
cultivate it. 

About these three so-called species, have clustered in 
horticultural literature a considerable number of cultivated 
forms, sometimes treated as varieties of one or the other 
and sometimes specifically named, all of them entire-leaved 
with the exception that the margin is more or less persist- 
ently a little roughened or denticulate or a little filiferous 
in several of them, and all, so far as I have observed rec- 
ords, flowering usually in late summer or later, occas- 
ionally well on to the end of the season. 

These forms are not infrequently aberrant when placed, 
from the appearance of a character usually present in some 
other of the three species than the one under which the 
given form goes on the general assemblage of its characters. 
This interblending of characters in some of the variants of 
plants so distinct in their typical forms as Y. gloriosa, Y. 



recurvifolia and Y.flexilis are, suggests the possibility that 
the connecting varieties may really be of hybrid origin. 
Opposed to this supposition, however, are the absence of 
any recorded history of their source or origin ; the fact 
that they have appeared in cultivation and are classed with 
plants likewise of garden origin or long cultivated and in 
their other forms giving evidence of considerable variabil- 
ity ; and, particularly, the facts that, except for Y. aloifolia, 
the Yuccas spontaneously fruit with extreme rarity away 
from their native home unless, as seems not to be the case 
in European gardens where these forms have made their 
appearance, a moth (Pronuba yuccasella} upon which their 
pollination almost absolutely depends has been introduced 
with them, and that most persons who have tried to fertil- 
ize the plants of this genus have met with little or no sus- 
cess. Still, suggestion of such hybrid origin has been 
made,* and the most positive proof is at hand that along 
the Mediterranean coast, at least, skilful operators can not 
only intercross these so-called species but can also hybrid- 
ize them reciprocally with other very distinct species both 
of the baccate and capsular sections of the genus. Thus, 
for instance, M. Deleuil, of Marseilles, in and subsequent 
to 1874, crossed Y. aloifolia variegata and Y. alba-spica 
(whatever that may be), Y. aloifolia variegata 5 with Y. 
pendula (or recurvifolia}, Y. plicata (or gloriosa plicata} $ 
with Y. angustifolia vera (or glauca}, Y. plicata with Y. 
X laevigata { = aloifolia variegata X alba-spica}, Y. pli- 
catayvfitkY.jilamentosa, Y. plicata $ with Y. Treculeana, 
Y. cornuta (or Treculeana} <j> with various species, Y. 
aloifolia variegata with Y. angustifolia vera, Y. gloriosa 
longifolia (or Y. flexilis glaucescens ?) $ with various spe- 
cies, Y. X laevigata % with Y. filamentosa, Y. cornuta and 

* Ellacombe, for instance, supposed the T. Ellacombei of gardens, 
which I take to be synonymous with Y. gloriosa nobilis, to be a probable 
cross between Y. recurvifolia and the garden form known as T. gloriosa 
euperba. Garden. 16: 257. 


Y. plicata, and Y. angustifolia vera$ and Y. TreculeanaQ 
with various species; and I have knowledge that within 
recent years a very large series of reciprocal crosses have 
been effected by Mr. Carl Sprenger between these sub- 
entire-leaved forms as well as between them and both 
baccate and capsular species, and within the latter groups.* 
In Texas, also, spontaneous hybrids between Y. rupicola 
and Y. Louisianensis appear to occur. 

Everything considered, therefore, the garden intermedi- 
ates between Y. gloriosa, Y. recurvifolia and Y. flexilis 
may at least quite as properly be looked on as being the 
probable results of occasional unrecorded crossing between 
these forms as merely very aberrant sports. Few of them 
appear now procurable, but as far as a knowledge of them 
can be obtained from the brief descriptions, the known hy- 
brids of M. Deleuil are capable of natural arrangement 
under one or the other of these so-called species. 

With respect to the latter, themselves, the same line of 
inquiry suggests itself. The garden Y. flexilis , though in 
its typical form much narrower- and greener-leaved and with 
more elongately pedunculate and lax panicle, appears mor- 
phologically to represent only an extreme development of 
Y. recurvifolia, with which, except that it lends itself read- 
ily to the coordination of a number of forms in this respect 
comparable with those similarly grouped under Y. recurvi- 
foUa, it would logically be connected. The latter itself 
presents to the eye a blending of the characters of Y. glori- 
osa and Y. flaccida, which led one of the best students of 
woody plants, Koch,t to suggest some years since that it 
may be a hybrid between Y. gloriosa and Y. Jilamentosa, 
under which name he doubtless meant the recurved-leaved 
plant here called Y. flaccida. No greater reason exists for 

* On the results reached by M. Deleuil see Eevue Horticole. 52 : 226. 
55 : 109. 58 : 63. 67 : 81. /. 21-23. Gard. Chron. n. s. 18 : 807. 
t Dendrol. 2 2 : 344. 


the rejection of this supposition than in case of the similar 
one that intermediates between IT. gloriosa, Y. recurvi folia 
and Y. flexilis may be the results of various intercrossing, 
since the possibility of crossing Y. gloriosa and Y. flaccida 
has been demonstrated by some of the experiments referred 
to above; and M. Deleuil's selection of 150 very diverse 
seedlings from a single one of his crosses gives reason to 
suppose that on the one hand a number of different aber- 
rants of these species might have come from even one cross 
seeding, while on the other hand several well verified hybridi- 
zations between Y. gloriosa and Y. flaccida might perhaps 
fail to produce typical recurwfotia. The occurrence of the 
latter along the South Atlantic coast of the United States, 
while it suggests the spontaneous hybrid origin of the typi- 
cal form of this species, does not preclude the possibility 
that the same form, and particularly its aberrant varieties, 
may have originated by a comparable process in gardens, 
where, in fact, they are alone known at present. 

Though Y. gloriosa and Y. fllamentosa are typically 
very dissimilar in aspect as well as in technical characters, 
I have seen side by side on the sand dunes of Tybee Isl- 
and, Georgia, an acaulescent plant of the spontaneous 
variety plicata of the former and a normal plant of the 
form of the latter known as var. concava, so similar in 
foliage appearance that it was only on close approach that 
the thinner texture and freely filiferous margin of the 
leaves of the latter served for its recognition, and I should 
be even more disposed to believe Y. gloriosa plicata a 
hybrid between Y. gloriosa and Y. filamentosa concava 
than to accept the suggestion of Koch concerning Y. re- 

As to Y. gloriosa, I have long thought that I saw in its 
characters somewhat of a blending of those of Y. filamentosa 
and Y. aloifolia,ihe leaves having something of the firmness 
and thickness of texture of the latter, and something of the 
thinness and concavity of the former or its variety, with. 


frequent vestiges of the marginal characters of both ; while 
in the color, shape and texture of the perianth, the slight 
stipe at base of the ovary, the sometimes rather short 
shouldered style, the mostly pendent indehiscent fruit with 
thin exocarp drying about a papery core, and the often 
venously grooved if not truly ruminated seeds, Y. gloriosa 
holds even more nearly the mean between the two species 

The suggestion of a spontaneous hybrid origin of Y. 
gloriosa offered by this blending in it of the characters of 
the two other species with which it is most closely associ- 
ated, would be less strong if Y. gloriosa behaved in general 
like a normal species of the genus, if it were of greater 
geographic distribution, or if it occurred in places thor- 
oughly isolated from the assumed parents. 

As has been said, though locally rather abundant, 
Y. gloriosa as a spontaneous plant is limited, so far as is now 
known, to a very restricted region about the Carolina 
and Georgia coast. It is, moreover, a very unusual species 
in its life processes. In the arid region of the Mexican 
table-land, the Yuccas are known to be largely dependent 
for their blooming season upon necessary rainfall, so that 
a given species, though usually fairly regular, may bloom 
in aberrant years at any time between midwinter and mid- 
summer, and the Pronuba moth which serves as pollinator 
appears to show a similar susceptibility to moisture in the 
soil, and commonly emerges from the pupa state synchron- 
ously with the flowering of the Yuccas. Y. gloriosa, how- 
ever, growing in a region where the other Yuccas bloom 
pretty regularly during a rather limited part of the 
spring, when the Pronuba flies, differs from these species 
in flowering usually in late summer and autumn, though 
exceptional flower clusters appear to be developed at almost 
any season of the year, and the only instances that I cer- 
tainly know of in which its fruit has been observed were 
once when early blooming plants cultivated in Washington 


bore fruit,* once when Dr. Mellichamp found fruit on a 
plant which had bloomed simultaneously with T. filamen- 
tosaj and a third instance observed by me on Tybee Island 
in May last, (Plate 44, f. 2} on a plant which must have 
bloomed just about as T '. filamentosa was coming into 
flower. The species, therefore, is all but restricted for its 
propagation to vegetative methods, by which its present dis- 
tribution along the sand dunes can fairly well be explained, 
since the well-budded thick subterranean shoots possess 
great vitality. 

What has been said of the ecology of Y. gloriosa might 
be repeated almost verbatim for Y. recurvifolia, which is 
likewise autumnal-flowering, and the fruit of which, 
barring several rather questionable statements in gardening 
journals, to my knowledge has never been observed until 
Dr. Mellichamp, in the summer of 1901, found plants fruit- 
ing in cultivation in the neighborhood of Charleston, and 
furnished the material from which the description and 
illustration here published were drawn. The occurrence 
of Y. recurvifolia on several islands between the delta of 
the Mississippi and the mouth of the Mobile river, which is 
not connected with the present question, may, perhaps, 
have been brought about by currents transporting rhizome 
fragments derived from plants cultivated somewhere along 
one of the rivers opening on the northern shore of the 

These ecological considerations suggest with force that 
if species in the time-honored use of that term, Y. gloriosa 
and Y. recurvi 'folia, so far as their spontaneous forms are 
concerned, are of unexpectedly restricted distribution in a 
region where their congeners are widespread, and that they 
manifest a surprising disharmony with their surroundings 
which, because of the rigid pollination requirements of all 
of this genus but aloifolia, has thrown them into almost 

* Engelmann, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 3: 211. 
t Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 : 199. 


absolute dependence upon vegetative methods of propaga- 
tion; though they continue to flower profusely, and because 
of the unusual if aberrant period over which their bloom- 
ing extends they now and then fruit, and they are shown 
to be so fertile under skilful artificial pollination that there 
is little reason to doubt that they would fruit regularly if 
they bloomed when the Pronuba was about ; while over 
the great territory lying between the Atlantic and Pacific 
and the big bend of the Missouri river and central Mexico, 
the other Yuccas have held so close a relation with their 
pollinators as to be very fruitful under all ordinary circum- 
stances. The ecological facts stated, however, are con- 
sistent with the morphological suggestion that Y. gloriosa 
may be a hybrid between Y. aloifolia and Y. filamentosa, 
and the two considerations appear to constitute so strong 
an argument for the acceptance of the a priori theory 
advanced, as to throw the burden of proof upon any who 
would still regard gloriosa as a species in the ordinary 
sense, though for purposes of classification it, as well as 
recurvifolia and flexilis, may continue to be treated as 

222. Leaves crowded, regularly and rigidly arcuate. 

Y. DE SMETIANA Baker, Gard. Chron. 187O : 1217. Joura. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 222. Kew Bull. 1892 :8. 

? Y. Helkinsi Hort. 

Caulescent, at length with a trunk 2 or 3 m. high. Leaves rigid, evenly 
and stiffly recurved, becoming .4 m. long and 25 mm. or more wide, pur- 
ple tinged, entire or slightly rough-margined at base, not pungent. Flow- 
ers and fruit unknown. Plate 48. 

A garden plant ascribed to Mexico, which when small is 
very suggestive in appearance of a lily because of its 
crowded arching not at all concave leaves : quite unlike any 
other Yucca, and perhaps not of this genus. No positive 
record exists of the source of the plants of this species cul- 

* The substance of these conclusions was presented at the Denver 
meeting of the Botanical Society of America, in August 1901. 


tivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden, but they are be- 
lieved to have come from northern Mexico, many years ago r 
through Dr. Parry. 

B. B. Fruit pendent, fleshy and edible : seeds thick, often convex, nearly 
without a thin border; albumen evidently ruminated. Sarcoyucca. 

I. Fruit coreless, purple-fleshed. Leaves with denticulate horny border. 

Y. ALOIFOLIA Linnaeus Sp. Plant. 319. (1753). Walter, 
Fl. Carol. 124. Michaux, Fl. 1 : 196. Pursh, Fl. 
1 : 228. Nuttall, Gen. 1 : 218. Riddell, N. O. Me<L 
and Surg. Journ. 8 : 763. De Candolle, PI. Grasses. 
1. pi. 20. Redoute,Liliace'es. 7. pi. 401-2. Sims, 
Bot. Mag. 4O. pi. 1700. Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. 
Prat. [ii]. 3:18. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13:92. 
Curtis, Bot. N. C. 56. Baker, Gard. Chron. 
1870 : 828. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 221. Kew 
Bull. 1892 : 7. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 
3 : 34, 211. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14 : 251. 
Wood & McCarthy, Journ. Elisha Mitchell Soc. 
1885-6:125. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
3 : 162. pi. 7,44. 4 : 182. pi. 18. Webber, Kept. 
Mo. Bot. Gard. 6:91. pi. 45-7. Sargent, Silva. 497 Hemsley, Bot. Bermudas. 69. 

Kearney, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 5 6 . Index. 

Y. aloifolia stenophylla Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. [ii]. 3 : 19. 

r. gloriosa Nuttall, Gen. 1 : 218. Bartram, Travels. 69-70, and French 

ed. 1 : 139-142. ? Chapman, West. Journ. Med. & Surg.1845 : 480. 

Rev. Hort. 58:508. Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13:109. 

Hemsley, Bot. Bermudas. 69. 
r. Draconis Elliott, Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1 : 401. 
r. serrulata Haworth, Suppl. 32. (1819). Regel, Gartenflora. 8 : 35. 

Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 93. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 

3 : 37. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:221. 
Y. crenulata Haworth, Suppl. 33. (1819). Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 93. 

Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870:828. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:221. 

Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 37. 
? Y. armata Steudel, Nomencl. 2: 795. [ed. 2]. (1841.) 

? Aloe Juccae foliis. Sloane, Cat. PI. Jamaica. 118. (1696.) 
Aloe Americana juccae foliis arborescens. Commelin, Praelud. Bot. 
64. /. 14. (1703.) 


Aloes Floridana procerior. Plukenetius, Amalth. Bot. 10. (1705). 
Aloe Yuccae foliis caulescens Floridana. Plukenetius, Amalth. Bot. 

10. (1705). Almag. 19. pi. 256. f. 4. (1696, 1700). 
Aloe; Americana; folio Yuccae; arborescens. Boerhaave, Index Alter 

Plant. Hort. Lugd.- Bat. 2 : 181. (1720, 1727). 
Yucca arborescens, foliis rigidioribus, rectis, serratis. Dillenius, 

Hort. Elth. 2:435..pZ. 323. (1732). 
Yucca foliorum margine crenulato. a. Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 130. 

Cordyline foliis pungentibus crenulatis. Van Eoyen, Fl. Leyd. Prod. 

22. (1740). 

Low slender tree, somewhat short-branched above and often cespi- 
tosely suckering. Leaves flat, rather thick, rigid, denticulate on the 
margin, very pungently brown-pointed. Inflorescence usually close to 
the leaves, compactly panicled. Flowers creamy, tinged with green or 
purple toward the base; ovary shortly stipitate; style short, not con- 
tracted, oblong or a little tumid, abruptly starting from the ovary. Fruit 
oblong-prismatic, nearly black, coreless, with dark purple pulp; seeds 
glossy, round or oval, often acute at one end, 5 or 6 X 6 or 7 mm. 
Plates 49-50. 84, /. 6. 

Virgin Isles, Jamaica, eastern coast of Mexico (Vera 
Cruz), the Bermudas, Atlantic and Gulf States southward 
from about Pamlico Sound ; and occasionally escaping from 
cultivation as far inland as Monroe in northwestern Louisi- 
ana. Plate 95, f. 1. 

The principal forms of this species, which has been cul- 
tivated in Europe since 1605 and which differs from all 
other Yuccas in its stipitate ovary and coreless purple-pulped 
fruit, commonly formed without Pronuba aid, may be dis- 
tinguished as follows : 

Panicle glabrous. 

Leaves rigid, ascending, usually 25 to 40 mm. wide when developed. 
Green throughout. Y. aloifolia. 

Purplish tinged. f . purpurea. 

Yellow-margined. f. marginata. 

With yellow and white center, and often red variegation, f . tricolor. 
Leaves recurving. 

Leaves 40 to 50 mm. wide. Stem tall. 

Branching above. var. Draconis. 

Branching at base. f . conspicua. 

Leaves 10 to 20 mm. wide. Stem low. 


Leaves smooth, little denticulate. var. arcuata. 

Leaves rough-margined. f. tenuifolia. 

Leaves with red and yellow central stripe. f . Menandi. 

Panicle tomentose. var. Tucatana. 

Y. ALOIFOLIA Linnaeus. 

Synonymy as above. 

Mostly simple, with slender trunk. Leaves not recurving, very rigid 
and pungent, green, often a little glaucous when young. Plates 43. 44. 
S0,f. 6. 

The common wild form, cultivated in Europe at least since 
1696. According to Mr. Fawcett, though it grows near 
the Kingston gardens, at an elevation of 680 ft., it is more 
commonly found in Jamaica between 2,000 and 5,000ft. 
above sea-level, whereas in the United States it is a seaside 
plant or of the coast lowlands, and never found far above 

Y. ALOIFOLIA PURPUREA Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 
221. (1880). 

Y. Atkinsi Hort. 

A purplish-leaved garden form, perhaps more properly placed under 
var. arcuata. 

Y. ALOIFOLIA MARGINATA Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 
[ii]. 3:19. (Jan. 1859). 

Y. serrulata argenteo marginata Regel, Gartenflora. 8:35. (Feb. 1859). 

Y. aloifolia variegata Naudin, PI. Feuill. Col. 2. pi. 52. (1870). Gard. 
Chron. n. s. 13 : 8 1. 18 : 407. Meehan's Monthly. 9 : 196. /. Car- 
riere, Rev. Hort. 50:18, 104. 

Y. variegata Hort. 

Y. aloefoliaversicolor Carriere, Rev. Hort. 50: 104. (1878). 

Y. versicolor Carriere, Rev. Hort. 50 : 18. (1878). 

A garden form with the leaves green at center, bordered and striped 
with various shades of yellow and white, and often tinged with red at 
least when young. No doubt separable into at least three forms capable 
of being fixed by selection: one with yellow margin, one with added 
white stripes, and one with a fairly persistent additional tine of red on the 
back near the border. 


Y. ALOIFOLIA TRICOLOR Bommer, Journ. d'Hort.Prat. [ii], 

3:19. (Jan. 1859). 

? Y. aloifolia roseo-marginata Regel, Gartenflora. 8:35. (Feb. 1859). 
T. quadricolor Greenland, Rev. Hort. 1859:434. Carriere, Rev. Hort. 

50:18,104. 51:404. 

T. quadricolor variegata Carridre, Rev. Hort. 45:405. (1873). 
T. medio-picta Carriere, Rev. Hort. 60:104. (1878). 
? T. picta Hovey, Garden. 11 :208. (1877). 
? Y. lineata lutea Hort. 

? Y. Stokesi Garden. 12:134. (1877). 83:487. 
Y. tricolor Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 221. (1880). 
Y. aloifolia quadricolor Gard. Chron. n. s. 18 : 245. (1882). 

A garden sport of the preceding with a median yellow or white band 
bordered with green, and likewise tinged with red when young. 

Neither of these variegated forms comes true to seed, and 
the intensity of the variegation, particularly the red, is apt 
to change with age and season. Knowledge of the garden 
synonyms is so indefinite that some of those marked with a 
question may be wrongly placed, and what is called f . 
Menandi below may perhaps be identical with one of them. 

Y. ALOIFOLIA DRACONIS (Linnaeus) Engelmann, Trans. 
Acad. St. Louis. 3:35. (1873). Baker, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 221. 

Y. Draconis Linnaeus, Sp. PL 319. (1753). ? Bot. Reg. 22. pi. 

1894. Lamarck, Encycl. Meth. 1. pi. 243. Bommer, Journ. 

d'Hort. Prat. 8:40. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870:828. /. 154. 

Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 93. 

Y. Haruckeriana Crantz, De duabus Draconis arb. bot. 29. (1768). 
Y. Draco Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859 : 389. 

Tacori. Clusius, Exot. 48. (1605). J. Bauhinus, Hist. Plant. 1 : 405. 

Draconi arbori afflnis, Americana. C. Bauhinus, Pinax. 506. (1623, 

? Aloe purpurea levis. Hunting, Phytogr. Curios. 20. /. 94. (1702, 

Aloe Americana Draconis folio serrato. Commelin, Praelud. Bot. 42, 

67. /. 16. (1703). 
Aloe; Americana; folio Draconis serrato. Boerhaave, Index Alter 

Plant. Hort. Lugd.-Bat. 2 : 129. (1720, 1727). 
Yucca Draconis folio serrato, reflexo. Dillenius, Hort. Elth. 2 : 437. 

pi. 324. (1732). 


Yucca foliorum margine crenulato. ft. Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 130. 
(1737). Hort. Ups. 88. (1748). 

Trunk branching above, rather tall, leaves broad and long, more flex- 
ible and somewhat arched, less pungent. 

As far as it is known to me Y. Draconis, taking the figure 
of Dillenius as representative of it, is properly placed under 
Y. aloifolia, with the differential characters given. It 
appears to have been cultivated in Europe since 1605, but 
it is not impossible that much of the earlier Draconis, like 
that of gardens to-day, was the Central American Y. ele- 
phantipes, the fruit and flower characters of which are 
quite different from those of Y. aloi folia, though the 
foliage is of the same general type. 

Y. ALOIFOLIA CONSPICUA (Haworth) Engelmann. Trans. 
Acad. St. Louis. 3:35. (1873). Baker, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:221. 
r. conspicua Haworth, Suppl. 32. (1819). Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 r 

92. Houllet, Kev. Hort. 60 : 388. 

1*. aloifolia flexifolia Bommer, Journ. d'Hort. Prat. 3 : 19. (1859). 
y. Mezicana Hort., in part. 

Trunks clustered. Leaves broad and lax, recurving, softly green 

A form of the preceding, frequent in European gardens 
and said by Baker to be represented by wild [escaped?] 
plants from the vicinity of Cuernavaca, on the Pacific 
slope of Mexico (Bourgeau, no. 1408). 

Y. aloifolia areuata (Haworth) Trelease. 

r. areuata Haworth, Suppl. 33. (1819). Regel, Gartenflora. 8 : 35. 
Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 93. Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 828. Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:221. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 


Short-stemmed from a prostrate caudex. Leaves less than 25 mm. 
wide, .3 to .5 m. long, smooth, the margins less denticulate than usual. 

A garden form , doubtless derived from the Carolina coast 
region, and seemingly of shaded places. 


Y. aloifolia tenuifolia (Haworth) Trelease. 

Y. tenuifolia Haworth, Suppl. 34. (1819). Regel, Gartenflora. 8 : 35. 
Leraaire, 111. Hort. 13 : 93. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 
221. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 37. 

Habit of the preceding, the leaves frequently faleate, often purplish, 
with somewhat roughened dorsal ridges and very sharp but fine marginal 

A cultivated form, doubtless of the coast region, and 
found by the writer in April 1901 escaped along the 
shady roadside near the Grant-Pemberton monument at 
Vicksburg, Miss. in which city, however, the usual cul- 
tivated plant is typical aloifolia. 

Y. aloifolia Menandi Trelease. 

A sport, seemingly of f . tricolor, with the rigidly much recurved leaves 
about .3 m. long, 5 to 10 mm. wide, somewhat rough on both margin and 
dorsal ridges, of a deep green, with yellow and occasionally red median 
band or lines narrow on the upper surface but, as in forma tricolor, 
occupying a large part of the lower surface. Plate 50. 

Purchased from Mr. W. A. Manda (from the Louis 
Menand collection) in July 1901, under the name Y. quad- 

Y. aloifolia Yucatan a (Engelmann) Trelease. 

Y. Yucatana Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 $ 37. (1873). Baker, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 221. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
3:162. .pZ. 45. 

Trunks clustered from the base, as much as 7 m. high. Leaves rather 
flexible. Inflorescence tomentose. Stamens shorter than in the type. 

Yucatan, collected by Schott (706) in 1865 at the ruins 
of " Nohpat " or " Najput." 

From all of the other baccate Yuccas, Y. aloifolia, in 
the 'comprehensive sense, differs obviously in its evidently 
stalked ovary and coreless purple-fleshed fruit. Its geo- 
graphical distribution is such as to lead to the conclusion 
that it may have originated in the eastern islands of the 
West Indian group, from which it may have spread, by aid 
of ocean currents, to the Atlantic states and Bermudas, 
and, by way of Jamaica, to the Mexican coast, isolation 


on the peninsula of Yucatan having given opportunity for 
the differentiation of the marked variety named after that 

11. Fruit with papery core and white or yellow flesh. 
2. Leaves very large and thin, minutely denticulate. 

Y. ELEPHANTIPES Regel, Gartenflora. 8: 35. (Feb. 1859). 
Y. Guatemalensis Baker, Ref. Bot. 5. pi. 313. (1872). Kew Bull. 

1892 : 7. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 222. Engelmann, Trans. 

Acad. St. Louis. 3:38. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Card. 3:162. 

4:184. pi. 1,2, 19. 5 : 165. Gard. Chron. iii. 18 : 519, 523. /. 


Y. Lenneana Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 7. 
? r. aloifolia Regel, I. c. 34. 
Y. Mooreana Hort. 
r. Ghiesbreghtii Hort. 
Y. Roezlii Hort. 

Yucca ? Schlechtendal, Linnaea. 17 : 270. 
Dracaena Lenneana Hort. 
D. Lennei Hort. 
D. Ehrenbergii Hort. 
D. Fintelmanni Hort. 
D. yuccoides Hort. 

Usually with several trunks from a swollen base similar to that of No- 
Una, rough barked in age. At length a large tree 8 or 10 m. high, com- 
pactly branched above. Leaves rigidly spreading, clear green, glossy, 
plane or a little plicate, with soft green tip, .5 to 1 m. long, 50 to 75 mm. 
wide, scabrid-margined and sometimes a little roughened on the dorsal 
ridges. Inflorescence panicled close to the leaves, glabrous. Flowers 
white or creamy: style short, oblong. Fruit oblong-ovoid: seeds nearly 
circular, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter. Plates 51. 82, f. 1. 84, f. 7. 

Central America, where it is universally cultivated, flower- 
ing from February to April, and common elsewhere in gar- 
dens; but the exact place of its nativity remains to be 

According to Mr. Baker, Y. Mooreana is a garden name 
for a small-flowered form, and Y. Ghiesbreghtii, for one 
with more rigid and scabrous leaves. From Koch's state- 
ment,* this species appears to have been cultivated in 

* Belg. Hort. 1862:110. 


European gardens under the erroneous name Y. Calif or- 

I do not find herbarium material or published records 
showing the native home of Y. elephantipes, and though it 
is cultivated everywhere in the interior as a hedge or door- 
yard plant, it is not wild in Guatemala between Puerto 
Barrios and San Jose', nor in Honduras between Puerto 
Cortez and Santa Cruz de Yohoa, and a gentleman who 
has traveled extensively in Salvador and is familiar with 
the plant reports it as occurring in that republic only in 
cultivation. Doubtful reports locate it in the mining 
region back of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and near the 
Atlantic coast about Bluefields, Nicaragua, the latter 
being more probable, as it is more likely to belong to the 
Atlantic slope than the South Coast. In foliage it is 
much like Y. aloifolia Draconis, the flowers of which, 
however, are different. It is probably this species which 
occurs, in small specimens, in the gardens of Belize, where 
the poetic negroes and Caribs call it " May-pole." The 
Mexican specimens collected by Schiede and Deppe in 1829 
at the Hacienda de la Laguna (about five leagues south of 
Jalapa, according to a note published by Schiede*) were 
doubtless obtained from a cultivated plant, though Schlech- 
tendal (Linnaea. 17 : 270) speaks of its frequent occur- 
rence and mentions the names isote and palmita as applied 
to this Yucca. 

Throughout Guatemala and Honduras, this tree is known 
as " Izotef," and while it is chiefly cultivated as a rather 
poor hedge plant, the flowers are prized as a table vege- 
table and they are frequently exposed for sale in the mar- 
kets of Guatemala City and other towns, the usual method 
of employing them being to fry them with eggs. No use 
appears to be made of the leaf -fiber, other cordage mate- 

* Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 222. Schiede, Linnaea. 4 : 232. 
t See Jauregui, Vicios del lenguaje y proviiicialismos de Guatemala. 
340. (Guatemala, 1893). It is erroneously called T. gloriosa. 


rials being abundant and apparently more easily manufac- 

M. Pittier informs me that in Costa Rica, everywhere on 
the central plateau as well as on the Pacific slope a Yucca 
called "Itavo " or " Itabo " is cultivated as a hedge plant 
and its flowers sold for the table, and it is doubtless this 
species, though I have been unable to see material repre- 
senting it. 

22. Leaves from sparingly denticulate becoming sparingly filiferous, 
thick and firm. 

Y. TRECULEANA Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1858 : 580. 1861 : 
305. 1863:13,55. 1869 :406./. 82. Baker, Gard. 
Chron. 187O: 828. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 226. 
Kew Bull. 1892:8. Lemaire, 111. Hort. 13:97. 
Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:41, 55, 210, 
212. Rev. Hort. 59: 368. /. 74. Garden. 1 : 161. 
7:11. 8:131. 12: 328, 369. pi. 94. 35:585./. 
Sargent, Silva. 1O : 9. pi. 498. Gardening. 4 : 371. 
/. Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 2:436. 
Havard, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 23 : 37. 

Y. aspera Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petropol. 1858:24. Gartenflora. 8:14, 
35. Engelmaun, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:37, 210, 212. 

F. longifolia Buckley, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1862:8. Gard. Monthly. 17: 
69. Gray, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1862:167. 

T. Vandervinniana Koch, Belg. Hort. 1862: 131. 

Y.argospatha Verlot, Rev. Hort. 1868: 393. Belg. Hort. 1870:23. 

Y, contorta Hort. 

Y. cornuta Hort. 

Y. agavoides Hort. 

Simple or loosely few branched tree usually under 5 m. high. Leaves 
thick and rigid, very concave, blue-green, shagreen-roughened, pungent, 
.9 to 1.25 m. long, 25 to 50 mm. wide, brown margined, entire or irregu- 
larly denticulate, soon becoming sparingly and finely flliferous. Inflores- 
cence usually short-stalked, glabrous, with large bracts below. Flowers 
white, occasionally tinged with purple : style slightly contracted, short: 
stamens quickly hooked. Fruit oblong : seeds 5 X 6 to 7 mm. Plates 52- 
54.84,f. 8. 

South central Texas, southward to Torreon and Tam- 
pico. Plate 95, f. 2. 


Two fairly distinct morphological and geographically sep- 
arate forms of this species, which appears to be the " palma 
loca " (scattered palm) of the Mexicans, are found, and 
these may be separated as follows : 

Leaves long and slender. Flowers rather small. T. Treculeana. 

Leaves broader. Flowers larger. var. canaliculata. 

Y. TRECULEANA Carriere. 

Synonymy as above. 

The long- and slender-leaved small tree of the Texas 
region, from New Braunfels west to beyond Devil's river 
and south to about Torreon, Mexico. Plates 52. 84, f .8. 

Y. Treculeana canaliculata (Hooker) Trelease. 

Y. canaliculata Hooker, Bot. Mag. iii. 16. pi. 5201. (I860). Baker, 

Gard. Chron. 1870: 1217. Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 

8 : 43. Garden. 1 : 152. 8 : 134. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 


T. canaliculata pendula Koch, Belg. Hort. 1862 : 131. 
T. recurvata Hort, in part. 
T. revoluta Hort. 

r. undulata Koch, Belg. Hort. 12 : 132. (1862). 
r. Treculeana undulata Hort. 

The broader-leaved plant of the chapparal of the coast 
region from about Corpus Christi, Tex., to the vicinity of 
Tampico, Mex., and, in the foot hills, to about Monterey, 
Mex. Plates 53. 54. 

The descriptive garden synonyms of both species and 
variety apparently pertain to young plants. In two trade 
lists, issued respectively in September 1901, and January 
1902, Mr. Carl Sprenger of Naples includes the names 
Y. Treculeana glauca and Y. Treculeana undulata, 
but without indication of the characters of the plants, 
so that it is possible here merely to call attention to them. 
The second name probably refers to the form called Y. 
undulata by Koch. 

222. Leaves with conspicuous marginal fibers. 
3. Leaves thin and flexible, the fibers slender. 


Y. SCHOTTII Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3:46, 
(1873). Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14:252. 
Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:228. Trelease, 
Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4:185. pi. 3. Sargent, Silva. 
10:17. pi. 501. In part. 

Y. macrocarpa Engelmann, Bot. Gazette. 6:224. (1881). 7:17. 
Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 8. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3 : 162. 
pi. 46. 
? Y. Mazeli Chabaud, Belg. Hort. 1882 : 222. Wiener 111. Garten- 

Zeit. 11 : 347. Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 8. 

Arborescent, rarely over 3 or 4 m. high, simple or few branched above. 
Leaves blue-green, smooth, rather rigidly divergent, thin, concave, pun- 
gent, 20 to 40 mm. wide, very finely and often sparingly filiferous. In- 
florescence densely panicled close to the leaves, very tomentose or rarely 
nearly glabrous. Flowers subglobose. Fruit oblong, mostly large: 
seeds 7 X 9 mm - Plates 55. 85, f. 1 . 

Southern Arizona, especially about Benson and Nogales, 
and as far into the Mexican state of Chihuahua at least as 
Colonia Garcia. Flowering in late summer. Plate 96, 


When, in 1882, Dr. Engelmann described fuller material 
of the Arizona Yucca which he had named Y. macrocarpa 
the year before, he was so impressed with the resem- 
blance of its tomentose panicle to the fragments of inflo- 
rescence in the Torrey herbarium accompanying the leaves 
of what he had called Y. 8chottii, that he suggested that 
the latter might possibly be only a short-leaved form of 
the same species. This suggestion has been adopted by a 
number of recent writers, who, irrespective of a prior use 
of the name macrocarpa in the genus, have come to look 
upon Y. macrocarpa Engelm. as a synonym of Y. Schottii. 

This Y. Schottii of recent writers is abundant to the west 
and northwest of Nogales, as far, at any rate, as the vicin- 
ity of Benson and the Pajarito mountains, and there be- 
comes a small tree two or three meters high, most frequently 
unbranched ; and it is especially marked among the Yuccas 
of the region by the bluish-green color and thinness of its 
smooth concave finely filiferous brown-margined leaves, and 


the usual dense tomentose pubescence of its panicle which 
is closely branched in the crown of leaves, though on occa- 
sional unmistakable specimens of this species nearly or 
quite glabrous panicles are seen. 

Though mentioned as a Mexican plant by Mr. Hemsley,* 
he gives only the original locality of Schott, near the boun- 
dary, and Professor Sargent, f who states that it ranges 
southward through Sonora, gives no details of its distribu- 
tion in Mexico. Specimens and photographs of the only 
Yucca observed in the Cape region of Lower California by 
Mr. Brandegee, which he has kindly allowed me to see, do 
not show that this is distinguishable from Y. Schottii of 

Leaves of Y. Mazeli, collected in the Thuret garden at 
Antibes by Mr. Alwin Berger, are scarcely to be compared 
with any species known to me except Y. Schottii, though 
they differ from those of the latter that I have seen in being 
persistently a little denticulate. 

Y. Schottii Jaliscensis Trelease. 

T. Treculeana ? Rose, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 5:241. 
F. Schottii Urbina, Cat. PI. Mex. 353. 

A stout large branched tree, with leaves sometimes very large. 
Scarcely otherwise distinguishable from the type, and, like it, blooming in 
late summer or autumn. Plate 56. 

Chiquilistlan to Zapotlan, Jalisco, Mex., frequent in 
hedges but of undetermined spontaneous range. Plate 
96, f. 1. 

In speaking of Mexican fiber plants, Dr. KoseJ mentions 
one known as isote," which he doubtfully refers to 
Y. Treculeana and states is common on the table lands of 
western Mexico. A leaf of isote bought by him in the 
market of Guadalajara (E. B. 68), which he was kind 
enough to let me examine, though measuring 75 X 750 

* Biol. Centr.-Amer. 3 : 371. 

t Silva, 10 : 17. 

J Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 5 :241 


mm. and therefore much larger than usual in Y. Schottii, 
is not otherwise different from the leaves of that species. 
In 1892 Mr. Marcus E. Jones collected and photographed 
a Yucca at Chiquilistlan, to which he gives the local name 
" desoti, " which is doubtless merely a phonetic variant 
of isote or izote ; and good specimens, evidently of the same 
species, were made by Mr. Pringle at Zapotlan (no. 4392) 
and distributed under the name Y. Schottii. 

While the herbarium specimens of this izote of the 
Mexican state of Jalisco are hardly referable elsewhere 
than to Y. Schottii, Mexicans in the vicinity of the Pajarito 
mountains, west of Nogales, assured me that the true 
Y. Schottii of that region is not the izote that they knew 
further south, which, as they asserted, is a larger, more 
branched tree. Photographs taken by Mr. Jones, in fact, 
show this to be true, at Chiquilistlan, as does the accom- 
panying plate from photographs taken by me in 1901 at 
Zapotlan, where, though very abundant in the suburbs, in 
hedge-rows, etc., the izote appears to occur only as a culti- 
vated plant. The much larger size, stout trunk enlarged 
below, more branched habit, and rather more staring 
leaves, are the only characters by which I am able to dis- 
tinguish it from Y. Schottii^ so that at most I should call 
it a variety of the latter. The tree figured by Dr. Eose* 
from a photograph taken in the vicinity of the city of 
Mexico, and supposed to represent the izote, is doubtless 
Y. australis. 

33. Leaves thick and firm, with usually coarser fibers. 
4. Leaves narrow, falcate, smooth. 

Y. BREVIFOLIA Schott, in Torrey, Bot. Bound. 221. 
(1859). Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3: 46. 
Y. puberula Torrey, Bot. Bound. 221. 

Shortly caulescent, scarcely reaching a height of 2 m., mostly cespi- 
tose. Leaves green, smooth, rigidly divergent, often falcate, thick, plano- 
convex, very pungent, .3 to .6 m. long, 6 to 25 mm. wide, the margin freely 

* 1. 38. 


Uliferous. Inflorescence panicled close above the leaves, glabrous. 
Flowers apparently rather small, with tapering style. Fruit baccate, 
large: seeds 9 to 10 X 10 to 12 mm. Plates 57-59. 

About Nogales, Arizona, on the Santa Cruz river, and in 
the rugged mountains west of that city. Flowering in 
May. Plate 96, f. 2. 

In the course of his work connected with the original 
survey of the boundary between the United States and 
Mexico, Mr. Arthur Schott collected, in the upper Santa 
Cruz valley, and near the boundary monument in the Sierra 
del Pajarito, a small arborescent Yucca, for which he pro- 
posed the manuscript name Y. brevifolia. His specimens 
were referred to Y. puberula Haw., in 1859, by Dr. Tor- 
rey, who, however, printed Schott' s proposed name as a 
synonym. In 1873 Engelmann, recognizing that they do 
not represent the Y. puberula of Haworth, which is an 
acaulescent plant scarcely differing from typical Y. flaccida, 
proposed for them the name Y. Schottii, with the remark 
that Mr. Schott " may possibly have mixed the fruit of 
Y. baccata with the foliage of the new plant; but the 
leaves appear so peculiar that there can scarcely be a doubt 
about the distinctness of the species to which they be- 

The fragmentary specimens collected by Schott, by which 
and his notes and sketches alone his Y. brevifolia appears 
to be represented in herbaria, consist of a sheet in the Torrey 
herbarium, bearing smooth, stoutly pointed, very thick and 
rigid leaves cut off above the base, about 25 mm. wide, 
plano-convex except toward the pungent apex where they 
are somewhat concave, and with long slender straight mar- 
ginal fibers; panicle fragments, some of which are glabrous 
and others softly tomentose ; flowers, the bases of which 
are pubescent, suggesting that they probably belong with 
the pubescent pedicels ; and a glabrous branchlet bearing 
an immature fruit which may have been either erect on an 
.ascending branch, or, as is more likely, pendent from a 


drooping one : and a sheet in the Engelmann herbarium 
with a similar leaf, two glabrous panicle fragments, and 
several detached flowers which appear to have come from 
them. Schott's notes and sketches in the Engelmann 
herbarium show that the trunks were 1.75 to 2.5 m. high, 
the leaves about .3m. long, and the panicle lax with pen- 
dent fleshy fruit. 

It has long been evident that if, as Dr. Engelmann 
thought doubtful, these fragments belong together, they 
represent a species very different from any Yucca which 
has been found by later collectors, and that the leaves can 
scarcely be compared closely with those of any recognized 
species, so that in August 1900, and April 1902, I took 
occasion to revisit the original localities, respectively a few 
miles to the eastward and a few miles to the westward of 
Nogales, where, as I had hoped, the species was found in 
abundance, though, as is usually true in such cases, vary- 
ing to a surprising extent from the original fragmentary 

Y. brevifolia, as it occurs rather sparingly in the canons 
of the Pajarito and adjacent ranges, to the west of Nogales, 
and abundantly among the low hills between that city and 
the Santa Cruz river, to the east, is most commonly cespi- 
tose and often acaulescent, though it not infrequently forms 
a trunk 1 to 1.5 m. high, and the thick apple green abun- 
dantly filiferous leaves, which are frequently f alcately curved 
to one side, are usually about .75 m. in length, but vary in 
this respect, and especially in width, which, commonly 
about 20 mm., may reach 30 mm., or be reduced to 5 or 6 
mm. Unfortunately none of the plants flowered ia 1 900 and 
my second visit was too early in the season, so that neither 
flowers nor good fruit could be obtained, but a few pan- 
icle remnants from previous years, branched rather loosely 
shortly above the leaves, though not so laxly as is shown 
in the sketches by Mr. Schott, glabrous, and showing 
where the fruits had disarticulated, leave little doubt that 


the inflorescence is typically glabrous ; and fruit-bases and 
seeds show that the fruit is baccate. 

If, as now seems more probable than ever, the Torrey 
sheet of Y. brevifolia contains parts of two species, Schott's 
name may best apply to what Dr. Engelmann considered 
the most characteristic part, the leaves, particularly as the 
name Schottii has now become current for the remainder. 
The later Y. brevifolia, Engelmann (1871), as has been 
stated above, is now proposed as the type of the genus Clis- 
toyucca under its first published (varietal) name arborescens. 

44. Leaves relatively broader, usually smooth. 

Y. AUSTRALIS (Engelmann) Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 3: 162. pi. ?, 4. (1892). 

Y. baccata australis Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 44, 46. 
(1873), in part. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14:252. Baker, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. 

T. ftlifera Chabaud, Rev. Hort. 48:432. /. 97, (1876). Carriere, 
Rev. Hort. 56 : 53. /. 12, 13. Garden. 10: 554. /. Gard. & For- 
est. 1 : 78. /. 13,14. Baker, Kew Bull. 1892 : 8. Gard. Chron. 
iii. 3 : 743, 751. /. 97, 100. Amer. Florist. 8 : 59. /. Urbina, Cat. 
PI. Mex. 353. 

T. canaliculata filifera Fenzi, Bull. R. Soc. Tosc. di Orticult. 14 : 278. 
pi. 9. (1889). 

2 T. periculosa Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870 : 1088. 

? T. baccata periculosa Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 229. 

? T. polyphylla Baker, Gard. Chron. 1. c. 

? T. circinata Baker, Gard. Chron. 1. c. 

? T. baccata circinata Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 230. 

? T. scabrifolia Baker, Gard. Chron. 1. c. 

? Y. baccata scabrifolia Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:230. 

? Y. fragiltfolia Baker, Gard. Chron. 1. c. 

? Y. baccata fragilifolia Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:230. 

? Y. baccata Hystrix Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 230. (1880). 

Y. Treculeana Rose, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 5. pi. 38. 

Dasylirion aloefolium Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1884 : 53. 

A large thick- and rough-stemmed tree, at length much branched. 
Leaves rigidly spreading, pungently stout pointed, green, usually about 
.3 m. long and 25 mm. wide but occasionally of double these dimensions, 
thick, piano- or concavo-convex, smooth or exceptionally a little scabrid 
on the dorsal angles, somewhat sparingly rather coarsely flliferous. In- 
florescence on an exserted peduncle, oblong, pendent, with pendent 


branches, glabrous. Flowers creamy white, rather small ; style short,, 
constricted? stigma deeply 6-lobed. Fruit oblong: seeds 7X7 to 8 
mm. Plates 60. 61. 85, f. 2. 

Tablelands of Mexico, from southern Coahuila, central 
Nuevo Leon and western Tamaulipas to Queretaro and, 
perhaps, the Federal District, where, at least, it occurs as 
an introduced plant. Plate 96, f. 2. 

Fragmentary specimens of the large tree Yuccas of north- 
ern Mexico, which are locally called palmas, in contrast 
with the smaller narrow-leaved species, like Y. rostrata and 
Y. radiosa, which are known by the diminutive names 
palmita or palmilla, were collected about Saltillo by Dr. 
Gregg, as early as 1846, and near Parras by Dr. Thurber, 
in 1853. In his personal narrative,* John Eussell Bartlett, 
United States Commissioner on the United States and 
Mexican boundary survey of 1850-1853, speaks of these 
large trees and gives a figure representing a branched 
tree, evidently 8 or 10 m. high, with a number of 
erect stalked panicles. This is the form which Dr. 
Torreyf refers to under Y. baccata, though he considers 
the single leaf and immature fruit collected by Thurber as 
insufficient to warrant either the description of a new 
species or its positive identification with his Y. baccata 

About 1860, Roezl and Galeotti sent seeds of many 
decorative Mexican plants to European dealers, by whom 
they were distributed, and among these were seeds of one 
or more of the large Yuccas, which were soon cultivated in 
a number of gardens in the southern countries, in part 
under the dealers' name Y. fill f era. Ten years later, Mr. 
Baker provisionally published the names Y. periculosa, 
Y.polyphylla, Y. circinata, Y. scabrifolia and Y. fragili- 
folia, for plants cultivated in England by Mr. "Wilson Saun- 
ders,but concerning the origin of which nothing is said, and 

* Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents. 2 : 490-1. (1854). 
t Bot. Bound. 222. (1859). 


in connection with these provisional species he mentions the 
Thurber material as representing still another, but without 
giving it a name. 

Both the Gregg and Thurber specimens in 1873 were 
unmistakably referred to his Y. baccata australis by Dr. 
Engelmann, who suggests as possible synonyms the group 
of provisional species of Baker and the undescribed Y. fili- 
fera of gardens. 

In 1876, one of the plants raised from Roezl's Mexican 
seed flowered near Hyeres, France, and was figured under 
its garden name, Y. filifera, by Chabaud, who adds 
Y. albospica* (which appears in large part to be Y. con- 
stricta) and Y. canaliculata (which is properly a form of 
Y. Treculeana) as synonyms. Accompanying notes by 
Carriere,t who suggests its possible generic separability 
from Yucca, show that it then occurred further in garden* 
as Y. Parmentieri \ and Y. Japonica. 

It has also been grown as Dasylirion aloefolium^ and the 
complication of its nomenclature is increased by the addi- 
tion of the genus Roezlia of Roezl (not of Regel) as 
synonymous with Y. Jilifera,\\ and this name and Lilies 
(sometimes also spelled Liliurn) have been somewhat cur- 
rent in gardens and horticultural papersU for Y. Parmen- 
tieri , under which name, as stated above, Y. filifera has 
been cultivated, though Lilia regia, Lilium regium, Roez- 
lia regia, and R. bulbifera of gardens are properly syn- 
onymous with the real Y. Parmentieri, which is also known 
as Y. argyropTiylla, Y. Toneliana, and Y. Pringlei, and 

* See Engelmann, Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 8 : 37, 210. Belg. Hort. 

t Rev. Hort. 48 : 423, 432. 

J Engelmann, I. c. 3 : 37. 

Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1884 : 53. 

|| Chabaud, I. c. 

1 See Gartenflora. 10 : 264, 298. Belg. Horticole. 13 : 327. 38 : 133. 
Gard. Chron. n. s. 11:656. Rev. Hort. 59 : 353. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 
iii.47. pi. 7170. 


is really Furcraea Bedinghausii , a species which also 
possesses a number of other generic as well as specific 

In his synopsis of Aloineae and Yuccoideae, Mr. Baker,* 
recognizes the Yucca baccata australis of Engelmann, with 
Y.JiliferasiS a synonym, treating his own periculosa, circin- 
ata, scabri folia and fragilifolia as separate varieties of Y. 
baccata, and adding to this species another garden variety, 
under the name Hystrix, while he places his Y. polyphylla 
as a synonym under what is here called Y. radiosa. 

Since the publication of the papers referred to, knowl- 
edge of this tree has increased greatly, and there can no 
longer be any doubt as to its specific separability from both 
Y. baccata and Y. marcocarpa (Torrey), and although it 
is unfortunate that an established name is displaced there- 
by, there is no reason why the tree should not be designated 
by the name australis which Dr. Engelmann first applied 
to it varietally, unless one of Mr. Baker's provisional 
names, all of which refer to plants still unknown in a 
wild state and comparable with immature forms of other 
species, should ultimately prove, contrary to his own 
opinion, to refer to the same plant, in which case it ante- 
dates this name of Engelmann. 

Yucca australis, as here understood, forms large forests 
in the valleys about Monterey, and is especially abundant 
immediately to the north of that city between Chipinque and 
Topo Grande, and though there are many breaks, these 
forests continue in open places along the Mexican National 
railroad to the vicinity of San Luis Potosi, and even as far 
south as the vicinity of the city of Mexico some trees occur. 
On the Mexican Central railroad it is seen, accompanied by 
Y. Treculeana and Y. rigida in varying quantity, about La 
Mancha and thence south to about Syinon. For the sake 
of verification, Parras was visited, and it may be said that 
Thurber's material certainly represents the tree that is com- 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18:229. (1880). 


mon about Monterey, since no other comparable plant occurs 
about Parras, and the same species is common about Sal- 
tillo, where Gregg's leaves were collected, though a very 
different plant, some leaves of which, however, might be 
mistaken for some of those of this species, accompanies it in 
the mountains south of that city. It is also seen from about 
San Luis Potosi to the edge of the table-land, and from 
.Monterey it reaches southeastwards as far as the central 
part of the state of Tamaulipas. 

Throughout the large area covered by these observa- 
tions, and which is doubtless capable of extension, Y. 
australis is distinguished from all of its congeners by the 
possession of a long rather narrow panicle hanging straight 
down from the cluster of leaves, on a quickly arched base, 
even before anthesis ; and as this character is as marked in 
the fruiting clusters and even in the old inflorescence re- 
mains of former years as in the flower clusters, the recog- 
nition of the species is very easy throughout most of the 
territory in which it grows.* Typically it becomes a large 
much and loosely branched rough-barked tree, but in culti- 
vation it often attains gigantic proportions before Branch- 
ing, with an extent of many feet of the trunk covered by 
still green leaves, as in the streets of C. P. Diaz; and in 
the high dry region along the Tropic of Cancer, as about 
Moctezuma, a low short-branched form occurs, sometimes 
not over 3 or 4 m. high, but with a trunk a meter or more 
in diameter. Though usually designated simply as palma, 
it seems to be sometimes called palma de San Pedro, and 
sometimes palma samandoca. 

Y. VALIDA Brandegee, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 2: 208. pi. 11. 
(1889). Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 162. 

Similar in dimensions, habit, foliage, floral details and fruit, to the pre- 
ceding. Inflorescence broadly ovoid, close to the leaves, continuous in 

* The erect panicle shown in Bot. Mag. iii. 47. pi. 7197, was produced 
on a log from about Monterey, and therefore doubtless of this species, 
but is quite unlike anything I have seen in nature, among thousands of 
trees examined. 


direction with the branch, hence either erect, horizontal, ascending or 
downwardly turned. Plates 62-67. 85, f. 3. 

Central Lower California, and on the high table land 
of central Mexico in the states of Durango, Zacatecas and 
San Luis Potosi. Plate 97,f.l. 

Reference has been made to a figure by Bartlett,* rep- 
resenting somewhat sketchily a large branched tree with 
erect panicles, supposed to illustrate the largest Yucca of 
the region between Parras and Saltillo, and of which speci- 
mens were collected by Dr. Thurber on the boundary 
survey. This figure has been commonly discredited since 
the pendent inflorescence of Y. australis has been known, 
though a trunk of the latter, sent to Kew from about Mon- 
terey by Mr. Pringle in 1888, bore in 1890 a panicle not 
unlike those shown by Bartlett, f and Dr. Barroeta of San 
Luis Potosi once sent to Dr. Engelmann a sketch show- 
ing a merely arched inflorescence. 

Among the plants studied by him in Lower California^ 
Mr. Brandegee found a tree Yucca which he named Y, 
valida, publishing a very inadequate description and a 
reproduction of a Kodak photograph showing a tree with 
short thick trunk quickly breaking into a number of erect 
secondary stems apparently some 8 or 10 m. high. 

About Durango, Mexico, in April, 1900, I observed 
Yuccas of the simpler trunk form assumed by Y. australis., 
and with similar foliage and flowers, which attracted my 
attention by their relatively short and thick spreading pan- 
icles, markedly different from the elongated and pendent 
flower-clusters of the latter species. So far as inflorescence 
could be seen, this proved to be the only species of this 
type along the Mexican Central railroad between about 
Canitas and Chicalote, and it forms great forests on the 
elevated red lands about Gutierrez, Fresnillo and Calera. 
where it often assumes the low compact form noted for 

* Personal Narrative. 2:490-1. (1854). 
t Baker, Bot. Mag. iii. 47. pi. 7197. 


Y. auxtralis to the eastward in the same latitude and alti- 
tude, some of the short main trunks measuring fully 2 
meters in diameter. 

So far as I can see, this species, which differs from 

Y. australis chiefly in having its panicles continuous in 
direction with the branches that bear them, and hence 
either erect, oblique or horizontal, is the same as that 
described from Lower California under the name Y. valida 
by Mr. Brandegee, who has kindly allowed me to see his 
type material of that species ; and if so its range crosses 
both the Sierra Madre mountains and the Gulf of Califor- 
nia, though I do not know that it has been collected in the 
intervening state of Sinaloa. Because of the curly threads 
on its leaf margin, it is known as the palma china, or 
curly Yucca, and toward San Luis Potosi it is associated 
with the palma samandoca ( Y. australis}, which appears 
to be entirely absent from the highlands of Zacatecas, 
though it replaces Y. valida to the east of the city of San 
Luis Potosi. 

444. Leaves large, very coarsely filiferous, the back very scabrous 
except in the last. 

Y. BACCATA Torrey, Bot. Bound. 221. (1859). Baker, 
Gard. Chron. 1870 : 923. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
18 : 229. Engelmann, Bot. King. 496. Trans. Acad. 
St. Louis. 3:44. Andr(S, Rev. Hort. 59 : 368. /. 
73, 75. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 14:252. 
Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 2 : 436. Havard, 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 1885 : 516. Bull. Torrey Bot. 
1. 22 : 119. 23: 37. Coville, Contr. U. S. Natl. 
Herb. 4: 202. Merriam, N. A. Fauna. 7: 352. pi. 
12. Gard. Chron. iii. 28: 103. /. 27. Garden, 
16 : 516. /. 35 : 585. /. 55 : 81. /. Britton & 
Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 426. /. 1025. ? Kept. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. 1870 : 418. pi. 25. Belg. Hort. 3O : 
266. 111. Hort. 2O : 23. pi. 115. 
Low, usually from a stout prostrate short-branched caudex. Leaves 

rigidly spreading, bluish green, about .6 m. long and 50 mm. wide, con- 


cave, shagreen-roughened, narrowly brown-bordered, coarsely flliferous. 
Flowers very large for the genus, oblong-campanulate, the lanceolate 
segments about 75 mm. long: style slender, elongated, gradually taper- 
ing; stigmatic lobes short. Fruit very large (as much as 200 mm. long), 
mostly conical-ovoid, with adnate calyx-disk and filament bases : seeds 
7 X 9 to 10 mm - Plates 68-69. 85, f. 4. 

Trinidad, Colorado, to Silver City, N. Mex., and west 
to southern Nevada. Plate 97, f. 2. 

This, the first discovered of the western fleshy-fruited 
Yuccas, differs from the species which have been confounded 
with it in its prostrate caudex, the crowns of which rarely 
rise much above the earth, its very large pendent flowers, 
and its decidedly conical large fruit with the base of the 
perianth adnate as a conspicuous disk, and the bases of the 
filaments forming fleshy papillae, as in Y. aloifolia. A 
note by Dr. Palmer* on the uses made of Y. baccata by 
the Indians, and many of the published references under 
this name, may refer to the next species, while the Yucca 
baccata of the Pacific coast is what is here called Y. 

Y. MACROCARPA (Torrey) Coville, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 
4:202. (1893). Havard, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 
23 :37. 

T. baccata macrocarpa Torrey, Bot. Bound. 221. (1859). 

Y. baccata australis Havard, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 8 : 470, 516. 

Arborescent, subsimple, becoming 3 to 5 m. high. Leaves yellowish- 
green, .5 to 1 m. long, 40 to 50mm. wide, usually rough, concave, coarsely 
flliferous. Panicle glabrous or occasionally pubescent, the bracts at first 
often brownish. Flowers mostly more globose and smaller (the perianth 
segments usually about 40 mm. long). Fruit oblong, not usually as 
large as in Y. baccata: seeds 5 to 6 X 6 to 8 mm. Plates 70. 71 85 
f. 5. 86, f. 2. 

Las Cruces, N. M., to the Dragoon pass, Ariz., northern 
Chihuahua, and the vicinity of Presidio. Plate 98, 

On the plains of western Texas, near the Limpio, and in 

* Amer. Journ. Pharmacy. 50: 586. (1878). 


the vicinity of Presidio del Norte, Dr. Bigelow is said to 
have found a Yucca 3 to 5 m. high, with leaves almost 
exactly like those of Y. baccata, and longer though not 
thicker fruit, for which Dr. Torrey proposed the name of 
Y. baccata macrocarpa. In 1871, Dr. Engelmann* merged 
this form with Y. baccata, noting that though northward a 
low plant, this species becomes a tree farther south ; but in 
his notes on the genus, published two years later, f he 
accords names to two forms of Y. baccata, the typical sub- 
acaulescent, large-flowered and long-styled plant, which he 
calls forma genuina, and the southern branched arborescent 
plant with smaller flowers and shorter style, which he calls 
variety australis, noting that certain California specimens 
are intermediate in foliage between the northern and south- 
ern extremes. 

In discussing the plants collected or studied by the 
Death Valley expedition, Mr. Coville applied the name Y. 
macrocarpa to the baccate tree Yucca of southern Cali- 
fornia and southern Nevada, with the qualification that 
though he had not had an opportunity to investigate the 
identity of this Mohave Desert species with the West 
Texas form to which Dr. Torrey had applied the name 
varietally under Y. baccata, they were supposed to be the 
same ; and Dr. Merriam accepted this conclusion in his 
account of the distribution of the tree in the Death Valley 

On the occasion of the flowering of a Yucca trunk re- 
ceived by the New York Museum of Natural History from 
Sierra Blanca, Texas, Professor Sargent, J in publishing a 
figure of it, expressed the opinion that the specific name 
macrocarpa should be limited to this tree of western Texas; 
and the next year he proposed for the California plant 

* Bot. King. 496. 

t Trans. Acad. Sci, St. Louis. 3 : 44. 
J Gard. & Forest. 8 : 301. /. 42. (1895). 
Gard. & Forest. 9 : 104. 


the name Y. Mohavensis, and followed the conclusions 
then reached in his subsequent treatment in the Silva * of 
the two forms, the Yucca macrocarpa in both instances 
being the tree which occurs about Sierra Blanca with the 
true Y. macrocarpa but possesses a gamophyllous perianth 
and is here treated as one of the types of the genus 
Samuela . 

Though leaves resembling those of Y. baccata have occa- 
sionally been brought in from the general vicinity of El 
Paso, Texas, and the adjacent parts of New Mexico, out of 
the range of Y. baccata, together with some photographs 
showing a tree-like growth, and flowers of smaller size than 
those of Y. baccata, the absence of herbarium material rep- 
resenting the original collections of Y. baccata macro- 
carpa indicated the desirability of making collections of all 
of the arborescent Yuccas of the great bend of the Eio 
Grande, and for this purpose, in August, 1900, I drove 
from Marfa, on the Southern Pacific railroad, to Presidio, 
on the river, finding at intervals the plant of El Paso and 
New Mexico, and, in sandy places, Y. radiosa (which 
seems not to have been noted by the boundary botanists), 
but, rather unexpectedly, no trace of the Sierra Blanca 
tree figured by Professor Sargent as Y. macrocarpa. The 
latter, then, may be eliminated as certainly not the plant 
to which the name macrocarpa was applied by Dr. Torrey, 
though the latter also occurs at Sierra Blanca. 

Yucca macrocarpa, as it occurs in the vicinity of Presidio 
and thence in general west to south-central Arizona and 
north to Las Cruces, when seen from a distance resembles 
considerably Y. Treculeana, though usually of a yellower- 
green foliage than that species. The trunk very rarely 
branches, and is usually 2 or 3 m. high, though occasional 
specimens are seen exceeding 5 meters. Its concave stiff 
leaves are usually .6 or .9 m. long and about 40 mm. wide, 
though sometimes reaching a length of over a meter, and, 

* Silva. 10: 13. pi. 499. 15. pi. 500. 


as in Y. baccata, they are rough like shagreen on the back 
and frequently on the upper surface as well, and very 
coarsely .gray filiferous. The flowers and fruit are as de- 
scribed by Dr. Torrey, though the latter varies greatly in 
form and size. Specimens in the Engelmann Herbarium, 
collected by Dr. Wislizenus between El Paso and Chihuahua, 
show that to this extent the Y. baccata australis of Engel- 
mann included this species, though in large part it referred 
to other things, principally what is called Y. australis above. 

Y. MOHAVENSIS Sargent, Gard. and For. 9: 104. (1896). 
Silva. 10: 15. pi. 500. 

Y. macrocarpa Coville, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 4:202. (1893). In 
large part. Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna 7:358. pi. 14. 

Y. baccata Watson, Bot. Calif. 2 : 164. Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 3 : 162. pi. 2, 48. 4 : 185. pi. 20. Amer. Florist. 8 : 57. f. 
Orcutt, West Amer. Scientist. 6 : 134. 

Y. schidigera Roezl, Belg. Hort. 1880 : 51. 

Habit and general characters of the preceding. Style very short, 
contracted. Fruit mostly smaller. Plates 68. 81 , f. 6. 

Western Arizona and Southern Nevada to the vicinity of 
San Diego, California, and Alamo, Lower Calif ornia, and as 
far north as Monterey, where Parry first collected it. 
Plate 94, f. 1. 

Though the principal observed difference between this 
and the preceding lies in the style, which is contracted and 
short in the one, and elongated in the other, the great area 
of desert country lying between their known respective 
localities makes it desirable to recognize them as distinct 
species. From the locality there can be no doubt that 
what Roezl collected near San Diego in 1869 and sold to 
De Smet under the name of Y. schidigera was Y. 
Mahavensis, which Dr. Engelmann regarded as intermediate 
between Y. baccata and its variety australis as understood 
by him. 

In addition to the names applied in this paper as syn- 
onyms or otherwise to various species of Yucca or other 


yuccoid genera, the following, mostly spurious, Yuccas are 

to be accounted for : 

Y. acaulis HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 :289. (1815). 

Said by Engelmann (Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 55) to be a Fourcroya, 
and by Baker (Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18 : 231) to consist of leaves of an 
Agave or Fourcroya and flowers of a Yucca. It is said by the describer to 
be called locally "maguay de Cocuy," and to occur abundantly near Car- 
acas and Cumana. The ovary is said to be superior, but the filaments are 
described as dilated at base and the flowers are particularly compared 
with those of Agave Cubensis ( now called Furcraea Cubensis) which Hum- 
boldt elsewhere (Pol. Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. 2 :472. ed. 
3. transl. by Black) states is called "maguey de Cocuy" in the provinces 
of Caracas and Cumana, so that it is doubtless F. yeminispina Jacobi, 
which has the marginal prickles bifid, as those of Y. acaulis are said to be. 
1'. acrotricha Schiede, Linnaea. 4 : 230. (1829). 

Briefly described from foliage specimens only, and subsequently and 
correctly named Dasylirion acrotricha by Zuccarini (PI. Nov. v. min. cogn. 
4 : 223, 1). 
1'. aletriformis Haworth, Phil. Mag. 1831 : 415. South Africa. 

Obviously, from the locality, if correctly given, not a Yucca, but as yet, 
so far as I know, unplaced. 
Y. angustifolia Karwinsky in Sweet, Hort. Brit. 707. (1839). [ed. 3]. 

Is Y. stenophylla Steudel, mentioned below. 
I". Barrancasecca Pasquale, Cat. R. Orto Bot. di Napoli. 108. (1867). 

From the statement that the leaves are fibrillate at end, it may be in- 
ferred that this plant, cultivated in the Naples garden, is a Dasylirion, 
but its leaves, which are described as 1 meter long and 3 to 4 cm. wide, 
and by implication entire, are large and differ in their fibrillate end from 
those of the described species of that genus with entire leaves. 
y. Boscii Desfontaines, Tableau de 1'Ecole de Bot. du Jard. du Boi. 
28, 274. (1815). [ed. 2]. 

This catalogue name, without description and doubtfully placed 
under the genus Yucca by its author, is now by general consent referred 
as a synonym to Agave geminiflora Gawler. Nuttall (Trans. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. 5 : 156), refers to it as from Upper Carolina, 
y. graminifolia Zuccarini, Cat. Hort. Monac. 1837. 

Referred to the genus Dasylirion under the same specific name by 
Zuccarini (Allgem. Gartenzeit. 1838. Plant, nov. vel min. cogn. 4: 
225. pl.l. Neumann, Rev. Hort. ii. 4:250). I am indebted to Pro- 
fessor Radlkofer for bits of the type from Zuccarini's herbarium, at 
y. horrida Steudel, Nomenclator. 2: 795. (1841). [ed. 2]. 

Mentioned by name only, ascribed to Humboldt, and stated to be a 
synonym of Y. spinosa, which is referred to below. 


Y. longifolia Karwinsky in Schultes, Syst. Veg. 17 2 : 1715. (1830). 

This was referred to the genus Dasylirion, under the same specific 
name, by Zuccarini (Allgem. Gartenzeit. 1838. PI. nov. v. min. cogn. 
4 : 224. pi. 1. Regel, Gartenflora. 8 : 37), and afterward and apparently 
correctly to Beaucarnea, under the same name, by Baker (Lond. Journ. 
Bot. 1872 : 324). Herasley (Biol. Cent.-Amer. 3 : 372) uses the same 
specific name under the equivalent genus Nolina. Professor Radlkofer 
has kindly sent me specimens from the plants still cultivated at Munich, 
from Karwinsky's seeds. 
Y. pitcairnifolia Karwinsky in Sweet, Hort.Brit. 707. (1839). [ed. 3.] 

Published without description but ascribed to Mexico, and from the 
specific name perhaps the plant collected by Karwinsky to which Zucca- 
rini (Allgem. Gartenzeit. 6 : 258) gave this specific name under the genus 
Dasylirion, from which in 1840 he transferred it to Hechtia under the 
specific name glomerata, (Plant, nov. v. min. cogn. 4: 240. pi. 6). 
Y. rubescens Pasquale, Cat. R. Ort. Bot. di Napoli. 108. (1867). 

A catalogue name only, not capable of being placed. 
F. serratifolia Karwinsky in Schultes, Syst. Veg. 17 2 : 1716. (1830). 

This was correctly referred to Dasylirion, under the same specific 
name, by Zuccariui (Allgem. Gartzenzeit. 1838. Plant, nov. v. min. 
cogn. 4 : 225). I am indebted to Dr. Radlkofer for specimens from 
plants still cultivated in Munich, from Karwinsky's seeds. 
1'. spinosa HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 : 289. (1815). 

The original specimen of this, from Actopan, Mexico, in the Berlin 
herbarium, is said by Engelmann (Trans. Acad. St. Louis. 3 : 24, 55) to 
be composed of the flowers of Yucca, similar to those of Y. Treculeana 
(which occurs in that region) and the leaves of Dasylirion acrotrichum. 
It would be very far-fetched to apply this name, based on foreign leaves, 
to Y. Treculeana, over which it has long priority. 
F. stenophylla Steudel, Nomenclator. 2 : 795. (1841). [ed. 2]. 

This name, without description, which is substituted for Karwinsky's 
name F. angustifolia, pertains to a Mexican plant, which might equally 
well belong to Yucca, Beaucarnea, or Dasylirion, and concerning which I 
have been able to get no information. 

The following artificial hybrids which Mr. Sprenger pro- 
poses fully characterizing shortly, but which can not be 
placed even in the analytical key given above, are included 
by him in two trade lists, issued respectively in September, 
1901, and January, 1902 : 

1'. X albella Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. 

Y. X elegantissima Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (Y. ftlamentosa major $ X 
F. gloriosa). 


F. X Elmensis Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (F. Jilamentosa major $X 5". 


Y. X Guiglielmi Sprenger, Lists 1,2. ( Y. Jilamentosa 9 X 1~- 

y. X Imperator Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (F. Jilamentosa major 9 X 5 ~- 

gloriosa glauca pendula~) . 
Y.X miacea Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (Y. Jilamentosa ? X " ^ rupcs- 

tri* " [rupj'cota] ). 

F. X magnifica, Sprenger, Lists 1,2. (Y.flaccida $ X Y. gloriosa}. 
Y. X margaritacea Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (F. Jilamentosa and F. 


1'. X praecox, Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. ( F. Jilamentosa and F. gloriosa'). 
Y. X Treleasii Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. 
F. X viridijlora Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. 
F. X Vomerensis Sprenger, Lists 1, 2. (F. aloifolia 9 X Y - gloriosa). 

SAMUEL, A Trelease. 

Perianth openly campanulate, salver- or funnel-form, of thin broadly 
lanceolate segments the narrowed bases of which are connate into a 
distinct conical or cylindrical tube. Filaments thick, inserted in the 
throat, outcurved above; anthers sagittate, horizontal. Ovary narrowly 
oblong, longer than the oblong 3-grooved style ; stigma unequally 6-lobed, 
openly perforate. Fruit 6-celled, pendent, baccate about a papery core. 
Seeds thick, marginless, with ruminated albumen. Low but rather 
thick trees with large rigid pungent coarsely filiferous leaves and ample 
large-bracted panicle the branches of which long end in broad bract- 
covered buds. 

Two trees to which, as it chances, no published specific 
names are applicable, though of the general habit, floral 
plan and fruit and seed characters of the baccate Yuccas, are 
distinguished from all known Yuccas in having the perianth 
distinctly tubular and gamophyllous below, with the sta- 
mens becomingfree only at its throat; and these characters, 
marking a very great deviation from the floral structure of 
Yucca proper, seem to necessitate their separation from 
that genus, and the provision for them of a new genus, 
which is dedicated to my little son, Sam Farlow Trelease, 
who, in the springs of 1900 and 1902 accompanied and 
materially aided me in a field study of both species of 
this genus and of the Mexican and Central American 


The species may be differentiated as follows : 

Perianth-tube conical, under 10 mm. long. g. Faxoniana. 

Perianth-tube 12 to 25 mm. long. g. Carnerosana. 

S. Faxoniana Trelease. 

Yucca australis Trelease, Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 : 190. pL 4, 5. 

Coulter, Contr. U. S. Natl. Mus. 2 : 436, in part. 
r. macrocarpa Sargent, Gard. & Forest. 8 : 301, 305. /. 42. 9 : 104. - 

Silva. 10 : 13. pi. 499. 

Arboreous, 1.5 to 5 m. high, .3 to .6 m. thick, simple or few branched 
at top. Leaves 50 to 75 mm. wide, 1 to 1.25 m. long, openly concave to 
the end, shagreen-scabrid only on the dorsal angles if at all, coarsely 
flliferous but at length with only a few persistent short pectinate threads 
near the apex and a cobwebby mass of detached fibers at base. Panicle 
short stalked, broadly pyramidal, rather loosely branched, with very large 
persistent at length brittle white bracts. Flowers expanding 50 to 100 mm., 
white; perianth tube scant 10 mm. long. Fruit oblong-ovoid, 25 to 76 
mm. long and 25 mm. in diameter. Plates 69-71. 78, f. 2. 81,f. 11. 

About Sierra Blanca, Texas, and presumably extending 
southwards into Mexico. Plate 94, f. 2. 

Travelers who pass Sierra Blanca, in western Texas, by 
daylight, are usually interested in the scattering forest of 
low Ywcca-like trees covering the surrounding country, a 
number of which are planted about the section-house and 
in what was formerly a very attractive collection of succu- 
lents at the railroad station. 

In the absence of type material or any collections from 
the type localities, these trees have been considered to 
represent 'the Yucca baccata macrocarpa of Torrey, and, 
under the name Y. macrocarpa or its partial synonym 
Y> australis, are described and figured in several places. 
Associated with them are numerous specimens of Y. radiosa 
and, in smaller numbers, the true Y. macrocarpa of the 
great bend of the Rio Grande, which, as has been shown 
above, is a well-marked species and preserves all of the 
floral characters of a true Yucca; and, as indicative of their 
probable range to the southward, it may be mentioned that 
they are accompanied by Agave applanata, which, in its 
typical form, is not known elsewhere in the United States. 


As it occurs from a little way east of Sierra Blanca to 
the vicinity of Malone, this tree is usually 2 or 3m. high, 
rarely reaching 5 meters, and the thin-barked stem, which 
may reach a diameter of about half a meter, very rarely 
branches, though occasionally one or two ascending 
branches are produced. Well developed plants, even if 
small, differ conspicuously from those of Yucca macrocarpa 
in their rounder head and the usually greater number of 
their spreading leaves, which, smooth or at most slightly 
roughened on the occasional dorsal angles, are of a crab- 
apple green, openly concave to the very short stout spine, 
and though at first coarsely filiferous, later have only a few 
short pectinate thickish fibers toward the tip, while the 
remainder become detached to the base, where they remain 
in a loosely cobwebby mass between the leaves, which in age 
become reflexed and normally persist as a thatch on the 
trunk even to its base. On vigorous plants the leaves 
attain a width of 75 mm. and a length of 1.25 m. 

This species, which is well described by Professor Sar- 
gent, under the name Yucca macrocarpa, I take pleasure in 
dedicating to Mr. C. E. Faxon, whose excellent figures of 
it in the Silva faithfully represent its technical characters. 

S. Carnerosana Trelease. 

A simple or rarely slightly branched tree, 1.5 to 6 m. high, at length 
.7 m. in diameter. Leaves as in the last. Panicle on a stout white- 
bracted stalk, densely branched close above the leaves, glabrous or 
exceptionally tomentose. Flowers expanding 75 to 100 mm. ; the cylin- 
drical tube 12 to 25 mm. long. Fruit oblong, 50 to 75 mm. long, 40 mm. 
in diameter : seeds 7 to 9 X 8 to 10 mm. Frontispiece to article and 
plates 72-75. 76,f. 1, 77. 81, f. 12. 83, f. 2. 

Northeastern Mexico, from the Carneros pass to about 
Catorce and Cardenas. Plate 94, f. 2. 

Some years since, Mr. C. G. Pringle made characteris- 
tically excellent herbarium specimens of a tree which 
forms large forests about Carneros, Mexico, which were 
distributed as doubtfully representing a variety of Yucca 


fiaccata. These specimens (nos. 2841, 3912), represent 
another species of Samuela, which, from near the city of 
Saltillo extends southwards, on the mountain slopes and in 
the higher valleys, to some distance below the Tropic of 
Cancer, and is especially abundant in the higher valleys 
about Carneros pass, where the Mexican National railroad 
crosses the mountains south of Saltillo, and about Las 
Tablas on the Tampico branch of the Mexican Central. 

Like the preceding species, this is a low round-headed 
tree, very rarely bearing one or two short branches at the 
apex, and thus in marked contrast with the branched 
shorter-leaved Y. australis which accompanies it in 
small numbers about Carneros and elsewhere. The leaves 
vary considerably in thickness, and the thinner ones are 
usually a little plicate though they are still thick and rigid. 
The very thick fibers of the leaves distributed by Mr. 
Pringle are exceptional. The axis of inflorescence, which, 
though usually erect, is sometimes arched over by the 
weight of the enormous panicle, is unusually succulent and 
devoid of fiber, so that a stalk as thick as one's wrist can 
be severed by a single cut of a pocket-knife. A striking 
feature of both species of the genus, but particularly 
marked in 8. Carnerosana, is the compact depressed bud, 
as much as 100 mm. in diameter, in which each branch of 
the panicle ends until blooming is far advanced. Even 
from a distance, the pure waxen-white fragrant flowers, 
which remain expanded to an unexpected degree during 
the daytime, are marked by their cylindrical tube which 
gives them the appearance of those of Polianthes, though 
the ovary is free from the perianth, as in other Liliaceae. 
The fruit of both species, like that of the baccate Yuccas 
of the southwest, is usually greenish-yellow, though some- 
times tinged with red or purple, and the soft sweet pulp is 



In contrast with the Aloineae, the Yucceae possess very 
fibrous leaves comparable with those of the agavoid Amaryl- 
lidaceae, and local use is made of the fiber* almost every- 
where that the plants grow. In the southeastern United 
States, and as far west as the Indian Territory, the leaves 
of species of Yucca of the filamentosa group, commonly 
called " bear-grass," are much used for domestic purposes 
such as making seats for chairs and especially hanging meat, 
for which they are so much prized in the country that the 
plants are commonly tolerated as weeds in cultivated fields 
from which other wild plants are eradicated. In Mexico 
and our southwestern states the fiber of several of the bac- 
cate species is crudely cleaned and put to various local uses, 
cordage included. f The long leavesof " palma loca " ( Y. 
Treculeana), with coarse fiber, and "izote" ( Y. Schottii 
Jaliscensis} , with fine fiber, are apparently of considerable 
use in this manner, respectively in the eastern and western 
parts of Mexico. About the Carneros pass, where it is 
very abundant, Samuela Carnerosanais similarly used, and 
Dr. Millspaugh informs me that Ifesperaloe funifera is re- 
ported as planted for its fiber about Bustemente, in the 
Mexican state of Nuevo Leon. The fiber of Hesperoyucca 
is said by Palmer (/. c.)to be fine and excellent. Cleaning 
the fiber of all of these plants appears to be attended with 
the general difficulties that make the commercial preparation 
of Agave fibers unsatisfactory, but I have seen machine- 
cleaned fiber of Yucca australis that appeared fairly good, 
and it may be that notwithstanding its shortness the fiber 
of these abundant large palma trees of the Mexican table- 
land will ultimately be used in quantity for the cheaper 
kinds of bagging, etc. 

* See Naudin, Kev. Hort. 1855: 141-9. Porcher, Resources of So. 
Fields and Forests. 530-1. 

t Palmer, Amer. Journ. Pharmacy. 50 : 586. 


The trunks of the species of Yucca, Clistoyucca and 
Samuela are occasionally used for palisade construction, 
and in the Carneros pass I have seen houses built almost 
entirely of material obtained from S. Carnerosana, the 
walls of palisade-like trunks set on end, and the roof 
thatched with the leaves. Attempts have been made to use 
the fiber of Clistoyucca for paper-pulp,* of which a fair 
grade can be made notwithstanding the gumminess of the 
tissues ; and the trunks have sometimes been turned into 
coarse veneers for wrapping bottles, etc., as is commonly 
done with soft dicotyledonous woods like the cottonwood. 

The group generally seems to possess the saponifying 
properties of the Agaves, so that the stems and root stocks 
are not infrequently used as amoles,^ and a considerable 
quantity of vegetable soap is claimed to be made from Y. 
baccata, Y. glauca, and, judging from illustrations in ad- 
vertising matter, Y. radiosa. 

Notwithstanding their stiff-pointed leaves, the species 
which grow in the south western grazing country are attract- 
ive to cattle in the flowering season, and the animals often 
display some dexterity and no little courage in riding down 
the smaller trees or otherwise getting at their succulent 
flower -clusters, which are further gathered and carried in to 
be fed to sheep and other animals in some cases, as, for 
instance, in the Carneros pass, where I have seen large 
cart loads of the great panicles of /Samuela Carnerosana 
being taken to the hamlet for this purpose. In their early 
stages, too, the inflorescence of Yucca, Hesperoyucca and 
Samuela is said to be either boiled or roasted and used 
for human food or even eaten raw.t Like the crowns of 
'* sotol " (Dasylirion} , the nearly fiberless trunks of the 
southern Samuela are decorticated or split open so that they 
can be eaten by stock. 

* Palmer, 1. c. Shinn, Amer. Agriculturist. 1891 : 689. Land of 
Sunshine. 10*1, and advertisement, 
f See Palmer, I. c.- 
J See Palmer, 1. c. The Garden. 24: 104, frpm N. Y. Tribune. 


As a rule, the fruits of the baccate species of Yucca and 
of Samuela are promptly eaten by birds, rats, etc., but 
domesticated animals are said to like them, and, being quite 
sugary, they are enjoyed by the Indian and Mexican chil- 
dren, who commonly call them figs or dates. All that I 
have tasted possess, in combination with their sweetness, a 
characteristic bitterness, which makes them somewhat un- 
palatable, and those of the Rocky Mountain and Mexican 
region possess a rather viscid pulp which renders them 
unpleasant to handle when broken. My friend Mr. Bur- 
bidge has compared the fruit of Yucca aloifolia with black- 
currant jam with a little admixture of quinine, its purple 
color no doubt strengthening the suggestiveness. 

The seeds of the baccate species are said to be purga- 
tive, though Palmer (I. c.) says that the seeds of Clisto- 
yucca and Hesperoyucca are ground and eaten, either raw 
or as "mush; " and Gambold (Amer. Jour. Sci. 1819: 
251) states that the pounded roots are used as a fish poison. 
It would be interesting to have their active principles de- 

All of the species, when used in the right way, are of 
decorative value. Y. filamentosa, Y. flaccida, Y. gloriosa, 
Y. recurvifolia, Y. glauca, Y. baccata, and Y. Harri- 
maniae appear to be hardy as far north as St. Louis, and 
Y. Treculeana is reported frost-hardy at Angers, France 
(Garden. 12: 369), but the other species, so far as tested, 
demand a climate scarcely less mild than that of our 
southern states, California or the Riviera. 


Little can be said as to the origin or mode of specializa- 
tion of the Yucceae. They are characteristic xerophytes, 
even those which grow in the moist climates frequently 
having a preference for dry places, such as sand dunes. 
Their underground parts are frequently fleshy and very 
tenacious of life, their stems hold a considerable amount 


of moisture, and their leaves are well guarded against 
undue transpiration. Like other arboreous Liliaceae, their 
larger representatives produce the impression of being the 
culmination of a vegetative type perhaps formerly of wide 
distribution, but now barely able to hold its own except 
in desert regions where competition between plants is 
less than elsewhere, while structural adaptation enables 
them to endure the rigors of this last resort, in a 
sense, therefore, recalling the bald cypress (Taxodium) 
among conifers, which for similar reasons has betaken 
itself to the other extreme of deep swamps. I know of no 
ecological explanation of the filif erous shedding of the leaf- 
margins of many species. 

The dissemination arrangements of the Yucceae are of 
the more highly specialized types. Many species, consti- 
tuting the genus ffesperaloe, Hesperoyucca, and the capsular 
section of Yucca, are wind-disseminated, with thin flat 
seeds lifted from time to time out of the suberect capsules 
by gusts of wind. In Clistoyucca the indehiscent mature 
fruit is spongy and light and apparently adapted to being 
blown about by the desert winds after the manner of blad- 
der-fruits or tumble-weeds. Yucca gloriosa and Y. recur- 
vifolia possess fruits which do not dehisce, though their 
seeds are thin and flat ; nor do they become edible in ripen- 
ing, but dry to a firm almost wooden consistency, 
out of harmony with any usual mode of dissemination. 
All of the baccate species of Yucca and the two species of 
Samuela have fleshy edible fruits at maturity, and their 
abundant endosperm suggests an adaptation to the dry 
regions, in which all of them, so far as known, live, with 
the exception of Y. aloifolia, and, perhaps, Y. elephantipes. 
That they have been derived from thin-seeded capsular 
species seems more probable than the reverse, and the 
coreless fruit of the seaside Y. aloifolia suggests its 
independent fruit specialization rather than a genetic con- 


nection with the desert species, which possess a firm, 
parchment-like core immediately about the seeds. 

The pollination relations of nearly all of the group are 
among the most peculiar and exclusively restricted thus far 
discovered. Hesperaloe secretes much nectar and appears 
adapted to birds, as are the Cape aloes, to which it bears 
no inconsiderable resemblance in its flowers. The other 
genera are sparingly if at all nectariferous, though all have 
septal glands, which are rather small in Clistoyucca, but 
verv large in the others. Yucca aloifolia, again in an 
exceptional way, appears to be freely self -fertile, but self- 
seeding is very unusual with all of the other species of 
this genus, as it appears to be with Hesperoyucca, Clisto- 
yucca and Samuela. These, so far as known, depend for 
their pollination upon small moths belonging to the tineid 
genus Pronuba, of which one species (P. syntlietica) is 
known only in connection with the single species of Clisto- 
yucca, one (P. maculata, and its variety aterrima), with 
the single species of Hesperoyucca, and the only other 
known species (P. yuccasella) accompanies the various 
species of Yucca across the continent and has a known 
north and south range from the great bend of the Mis- 
souri river to central Mexico. These moths are not known 
to feed, in the larval stage, on anything but the developing 
seeds of the plants named ; so that the mutual dependence 
of moth upon plant and of plant upon moth appears to be 
absolute, no doubt, taken in connection with the other 
ecological peculiarities of the yuccoids, a fact of the 
greatest suggestiveness, but the bearing and meaning of 
which has as yet escaped both botanists and entomologists. 
That the flowers were formerly pollinated otherwise appears 
to be indicated by the presence of nectar-glands, which 
now appear to be useless. 

The Jong perianth tube of Samuela, a type of struc- 
ture usually connected with pollination by some insect of 
corresponding tongue-length, for which the nectar is thus 


kept from shorter-tongued insects, is so closely applied 
about the lower part of the ovary, as, apparently, to make 
it impossible for any insect to reach the bottom of the 
latter, with even a very slender tongue. Though the 
actual pollination of this genus is yet to be observed, it is 
effected by Pronuba yuccasella, at least in 8. Faxoniana, 
in the flowers of which pollen-laden females of the moth 
were discovered by my son and myself in April, 1902, and 
the only explanation of the highly specialized tubular peri- 
anth I can suggest is that, restricting the access of the 
ovipositing moths to the upper half or two-thirds of the 
ovary, it may limit the number of eggs that they can lay 
in a given pistil, to the advantage of the plant. 


Unless otherwise stated, the illustrations are from pho- 
tographs by the author. Where two illustrations occur on 
a plate, the upper or left-hand is referred to first. 

Frontispiece to article. Samuela Carnerosana, in the Carneros Pass, 

Plate 1. 1, Hesperaloe parmflora, cultivated in San Antonio; 2, H. 
jparviflora Engelmanni, cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Plate 2. Flowers of Hesperaloe parviflora Engelmanni, natural size. 
from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Plate 3. Hesperaloe funifera, at Peyotes, Mex. 

Plate 4. 1, Hesperaloe funifera, capsules from Peyotes, natural size ; 
2, Hesperoyucca Whipplei, capsules from Arrowhead Springs, Cal., natural 

Plate 5. Hesperoyucca Whipplei, and its flowers, reduced, at the sum- 
mit of the Cajon Pass, California. 

Plate 6. Clistoyucca arborescens, at Hesperia, California. 

Plate 7. Clistoyucca arborescens, flowers, reduced, and fruit, natural 
size, at Hesperia, Cal. 

Plate 8. Yucca filamentosa, at Sanford, Fla., and flowers, natural size. 

Plate 9. Yucca filamentosa bracteata, cultivated at Brunswick, Ga. 

Plate 10. Yucca filamentosa concava, in sand dunes, Isle of Palms, 
S. C. 

Plate 11. Yucca filamentosa media, cultivated in Tower Grove Park, 
St. Louis. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 12. Partly grown fruit of Yuccas cultivated in the Missouri 


Botanical Garden, natural size. I, Y. filamentosa ; 2, Y. flaccida glau- 

Plate 13. Yucca flaccida glaucescens, cultivated in the Missouri Bo- 
tanical Garden. Producing racemose secondary inflorescences, in addi- 
tion to the central panicles. 

Plate 14. Yucca flaccida glaucescens, cultivated at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, showing thermotropism of inner leaves. 1, Normal 
position of leaves, at a temperature slightly above the freezing point ; 
2, Leaves inrolled, at 26 F. 

Plate 15. Yucca flaccida glaucescens, cultivated at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 16. Yucca flaccida, near Anniston, Ala. 

Plate 17. Capsules, natural size. 1, Yucca flaccida glaucescens, 
cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden; 2, Y. tenuistyla, Industry, 
Tex., Lindheimer. 

Plate 18. r?(cca tenuistyla, near Sealy, Tex. 

Plate 19. Yucca tenuistyla from near Sealy, Tex. Small sized flowers, 
natural size. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 20. Yucca constricta. 1, Cultivated at the Missouri Botani- 
cal Garden from Seward Co., Kas. ; 2, Near Uvalde, Tex. 

Plate 21. Capsules, natural size. 1, Yucca constricta, Cline, Tex. ; 
2, Y. radiosa, Benson, Ariz. 

Plate 22. Yucca radiosa, at Benson, Ariz. Fruiting plants and an 
exceptionally symmetrical young plant. 

Plate 23. 1, Yucca angustissima, a type sheet in the Engelmann her- 
barium ; 2, Yucca glauca, near Albuquerque, N. M. 

Plate 24. Capsules, natural size. 1, Yucca angustissima, from near 
the Grand Canon, Ariz. ; 2, Yucca glauca, from Mauitou, Col. 

Plate 25. Yucca glauca, cultivated in the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Plate 26. Yucca glauca stricta, cultivated in Tower Grove Park, 
St. Louis, from Seward County, Kas. 

Plate 27. Flowers of Yucca glauca stricta, natural size, from the 
preceding. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 28. Yucca Harrimaniae, at Helper, Utah. 

Plate 29. Yucca Harrimaniae, Helper, Utah, Capsules, natural size. 

Plate 30. Yucca Arkansana, near Fort Worth, Tex. 

Plate 31. Yucca Arkansana, near Dallas, Tex., fruiting plants. 

Plate 32. Yucca Louisianensis. l, Near Jefferson, Tex.; 2, Near 
Texarkana, Tex. 

Plate 33. Yucca Louisianensis, Hughes Springs, Tex. 

Plate 34. Yucca Louisianensis, Hughes, Tex. 1, Form with slen- 
derer, paler style; 2, Form with very tumid dark green style, slightly 

Plate 35. Yucca rigida, near Picardias, Mex. 

Plate 36. Capsules, natural size. 1, Yucca rigida, from Picardias, 
Mex. ; 2, Yucca rostrata, from Peyotes, Mex. 


Plate 37. Yucca rupicola? Aberrant sheet of Wright, no. 1909, in 
the Torrey herbarium. 

Plate 38. Yucca rupicola, the more normal Gray herbarium sheet 
of Wright, no. 1909. 

Plate 39. Yucca rupicola. 1, Flowering plant, on limestone hills a 
few miles west of Fort Worth, Texas; 2, Flowers, slightly reduced, of 
plant cultivated by Mr. J. Reverchon, from same locality. 

Plate 40. Yucca rostrata, at Peyotes, Mex. Flowering plants. 

Plate 41. Yucca rostrata, at Peyotes, Mex. The upper figure show- 
ing the lozenge-shaped leaf-scars. 

Plate 42. Yucca rostrata, at Peyotes, Mex. fruiting plants. The 
foreground is occupied by Agave heteracantha. 

Plate 43. Yucca gloriosa, in the sand dunes of Tybee Island, Ga. 

Plate 44. Yucca gloriosa, Tybee Island, Ga. 1, Smooth-barked 
trunk, with roots, exposed by the shifting of the sand; 2, With partly 
grown fruit, photographed in May. 

Plate 45. Yucca gloriosa minor, cultivated in the Missouri Botanical 
Garden. At the left are Y. aloifolia, with narrow leaves, and Y. elephan- 
tipes, with broad more flexible leaves. 

Plate 46. 1, Yucca gloriosa superba, fruit and cross section, natural 
size, cultivated in Washington, D. C. (Schott); 2, Yucca recurvifolia, 
fruit, natural size, cultivated at Bluffton, S. C. (Mellichamp, in 1901). 

Plate 47. 1, Yucca recurvifolia (2 m. high), cultivated in the National 
Cemetery, Vicksburg, Miss. ; 2, Yucca flexilis Hildrethi, escaping, at St. 
Augustine, Fla., photographed in May. 

Plate 48. " Yucca De Smetiana," cultivated in the Yucca tower 
of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Plate 49. Yucca aloifolia. 1, Associated with Ipomoea Pes-Capreae, 
on the dunes of South Beach, St. Augustine, Fla. ; 2, Overgrown with 
SmilaXf on the dunes of Tybee Island, Ga. 

Plate 50. Yucca aloifolia Menandi, type plant cultivated at the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 51. Yucca elephantipes. 1, A large tree, at El Florido, Guate- 
mala; 2, The dilated base of a tree, at Chiuautla, Guatemala. 

Plate 52. Yucca Treculeana. 1, In flower, cultivated at C. P. Diaz, 
Mex. ; 2, In fruit, near Peyotes, Mex. 

Plate 53. Yucca Treculeana canaliculata. Cultivated in the Alamo 
Plaza, San Antonio, Tex. 

Plate 54. Yucca Treculeana canaliculata. Cultivated at the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 55. Yucca Schottii, west of Nogales, Ariz., photographed in 
August : the second figure, from near the boundary monument in the 
Sierra del Pajarito. 

Plate 56. Yucca Schottii Jaliscensis. " Izote ", in the suburbs of 
Zapotlan, Mexico, photographed in September. 

Plate 57. Yucca brevifolia. The mixed type-sheet, in the Torrey her- 


barium. The leaves are representative of Y. brevifolia, and the inflor- 
escence, apparently, of Y. Schottit. 

Plate 58. Yucca brevifolia, toward the Santa Cruz river, to the 
northeast of Nogales, Ariz. 

Plate 59. Yucca brevifolia. Tree about 2 meters high, with panicle 
axis from preceding year, near Nogales, Arizona. 

Plate 60. Yucca australis. The original sheet of Thurber's collection 
from Parras, Mex., in the Torrey herbarium. 

Plate 61. Yucca australis. 1, In fruit, at Parras, Mex.; 2, In 
flower, near Topo Chico, Monterey, Mex. 

Plate 62. Yucca valida. Old hedgerows, near Durango, Mex. 
Plate 63. Yucca valida, near Gutierrez, Mex. 

Plate 64. Yucca valida. 1, Near Gutierrez, Mex., with Opuntia leu- 
cotricha in the foreground ; 2, Near Camacho, Mex. 

Plate 65. Yucca valida, near Gutierrez, Mex. The lower partrof the 
trunk, some years before, had been decorticated without killing the tree, 
over the lower part of which a new bark has formed. 

Plate 66. Yucca valida. Flowers, somewhat reduced, from near 
Gutierrez, Mex. 

Plate 67. Yucca valida. Type sheet, from San Gregorio, L. Cal., in 
the Brandegee herbarium. 

Plate 68. Yucca baccata, in the Grand Canon, Ariz. The fruit is 20 
cm. long. 

Plate 69. Yucca baccata. Fruit of the preceding, natural size (fore- 
shortened), showing the basal disk. Photographed by P. T. Barnes. 

Plate 70. Yucca macrocarpa. Flowering plant, near Sierre Blanca, 

Plate 71. Yucca macrocarpa. Fruiting plants, in the type region, in 
the great bend of the Rio Grande. 

Plate 72. Yucca Mohavensis, at Drake, Ariz. The right-hand figure 
has a very characteristic plant of Fouquiera in the foreground. 

Plate 73. Samuela Faxoniana, near Sierra Blanca, Tex. Character- 
istic round-headed trees. 

Plate 74. Samuela Faxoniana, a partly sterile fruiting plantj with 
persistent bracts, and a plant beginning to bloom, near Sierra Blanca, 

Plate 75. Samuela Faxoniana. Leaf tips and partly grown fruit 
(showing the fleshy base and short split tube of the perianth), from 
Sierra Blanca, Tex., natural size. 

Plate 76. Samuela Carnerosana, in the Carneros Pass, Mex. Full 
blown trees, and the foliage head of a young plant. 

Plate 77. - - Samuela Carnerosana. Flowering and fruiting trees in the 
Carneros Pass, Mex. The partly sterile inflorescence is conspicuous 
even in fruit, because of its persistent large bracts. 

Plate .78. Samuela Carnerosana in the Carneros Pass, Mex. 1, 
Fruiting tree; 2, Early stage of flowering, showing the large bracts and 
the buds in which the panicle branches at first end. 


Plate 79. Samuela Carnerosana, from the Carneros Pass, Mex., 
natural size. 1, Inflorescence bud; 2, Flower, with nearer part of 
perianth removed, and half grown fruit with the persistent split perianth 
tube upwards of 2 cm. long. 

Plate 80. 1, Samuela Carnerosana, in the Carneros Pass, Mex.; 2, 
Yucca flaccida, var., cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden. Both 
reduced. The perianth differences of the two genera are well shown. 

Plate 81. Samuela Carnerosana, in the Carneros Pass, Mex. 1, A 
trunk decorticated by slashing it on the two sides and tearing the leaves 
down, exposing the pulpy interior for stock to feed upon; 2, A fruit, 
somewhat reduced, showing the split dried perianth tube. 

Plate 82. Yucca elephantipes, at Chinautla, Guatemala, and Samuela 
Faxoniana, at Sierra Blanca, Texas. Flowers, reduced about one-third. 

Plate 83. Seeds of Yuccas, natural size.* 1, Y. Jilamentosa con- 
cava, Isle of Palms, S. C. (Trelease) ; 2, I", flaccida glaucescens, culti- 
vated at the Missouri Botanical Garden ; 3, T". tenuistyla, Industry, Tex. 
(Lindheimer) ; 4, Y. constricta, Uvalde, Tex. (Trelease); 5. Y. radiosa, 
Presidio, Tex. (Trelease) ; 6, Y. angustissima near Grand Canon, Ariz. 
(Trelease); 7, Y. Arkansana, New Braunfels, Tex. (Lindheimer); 8, 
r. Louisianensis, Atoka, Ind. Ter. (Butler) ; 9, Y. glauca, N. W. Mis- 
souri (Bush); 10, Y. Harrimaniae, Helper, Utah (Trelease). 

Plate 84. Seeds of Yuccas, natural size. 1, Y. rigida, Picardias, 
Mex. (Trelease); 2, Y. rupicola, New Braunfels, Tex. (Lindheimer); 3, 
Y. rostrata, Peyotes, Mex. (Trelease) ; 4, Y. gloriosa superba, cultivated 
in Washington, D. C. (Schott); 5, Y. recurvifolia, cultivated at Bluffton, 
S. C. (Mellichamp) ; 6, T. aloifolla, Bluffton, S. C. (Mellichamp) ; 7, 
Y. elephantipes, cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden; 8, Y. Tre- 
culeana, New Braunfels, Tex. (Lindheimer). 

Plate 85. Seeds of Yucceae, natural size. 1, Yucca Schottii, Pinal 
Mts., Ariz. (Pringle); 2, Y. australis, Parras, Mex. (Trelease); 3, 
Y. valida, Gutierrez, Mex. (Trelease) ; 4, Y. baccata, Grand Cafion, Ariz. 
(Trelease); 5, Y. macrocarpa, near Presidio, Tex. (Trelease); 6, Y. 
Mohavensis, Drake, Ariz. (Trelease); 7, Hesperaloe parviflora, Texas 
(Wright) ; 8, H. funifera, Hacienda de Angostura, Mex. (Pringle, no. 
3911); 9, Hesperoyucca Whipplei, Arrowhead Springs, Calif . (Trelease) ; 
10, Clistoyucca arborescens (Palmer); 11, Samuela Faxoniana, Sierra 
Blanca, Tex. (Trelease); 12, S. Carnerosana, Carneros Pass, Mex. 

Plate 86. Germination of Yuccas, natural size. 1, T. radiosa; 2, Y. 

Plate 87. Germination of Yucceae, natural size. 1, Clistoyucca ar- 
borescens; 2, Samuela Carnerosana. 

Plates 88-99. Geographical distribution of Yucceae. Stations noted 
by the author are indicated by a X> aod the general range known to him 
is shown by horizontal shading. Many gaps require filling. 

* The figures in this and the following plates are numbered from left 
to right in the several rows, beginning with the uppermost. 



(Synonyms in Parenthesis. ) 

Agave applanata 117 

Cubensls (114) 

geminiflora 114 

funifera (36) 

heteracantha 127. pi. 42 
Aloe Americana, Comm. (88, 89, 91) 

Juccae follls, Sloane. (88) 

purpurea levls, Hunt. (91) 

yuccae follls, Pink. (89) 
Aloe yuccaefolia (30, 31) 
Aloes Floridana, Pluk. (88) 
Alolneae 27, 28 
Astella 27, 28 
Beancarnea (27) 

longifolia (115) 
Chaenoyucca 43, 44, 46 
Cllstoyucca 29, 41, 123, 124 

arborescens 41, 103, 121, 122, 125, 129. 

pi. 6, 7, 86, f. 10, 87, f. 1, 88 
Cohnla 28 
Cordyline 27, 28 

Cordyline foliis pungentibus, Van 
Eoyen (72, 89) 

Dasylirion 27, 28, 114, 121 

acrotrlchuin 114, 115 

aloefolmm (103, 105) 

graminlfohum 40, 114 

longlfohum (115) 

pitcalrnifolium (115) 

serratlfollnm 115 
Dracaena 27, 28 

Ehrenbergli (94) 

Flntelmannl (94) 

Lenneana (94) 

Lennei (94) 

yuccoides (94) 
Dracaeneae 27,28 
Dracaennideae 28 
Draconl arborl affinis, Bauh. (91) 

Euyncca 43 

Fouqniera 128. pi. 72 
Fnrcraea Bedinghausii 43, 106 

Cubensls 114 

gemlnlspina 114 

Ilechtia glomerata 115 

Herreria 27,28 

Hesperaloe 27, 28, 29, 31, 123, 124 

Davyl (36, 37) 

Engelmanni (33, 36) 

fnnifera 29, 36, 120, 125, 129. pi. 3, 4, 
f. 1, 83, f. 8, 96 

parviflora 29, 30, 125, 129. pi. l,f. 1, 
85, f. 7, 83 

Engelmanni 33, 125. pi. l,f. 2, 2 

yuccaefolia (30, 33) 
Hesperocallis 27, 28 
Hesperoyncca 29, 38, 123, 124 

Whipplel 39, 120, 121, 122, 12E, 129. pi. 

4, f. 2, 5, 86, f. 9, 88 
Heteroyucca 43, 45, 71 

lucca, Park. (72) 

Perana, Gerarde (72) 
Peruana, Johnson (72) 

Jnca Americana, Munt. (47) 
gloriosa, Munt. (72) 

Lilla regia (105) 
Lillum regium (105) 

Milllgania 27, 28 

Nollna 27, 28, 71 

longifolia 69, 115 
Nolineae 28 
Pronuba maculata 124 

aterrima 124 

synthetica 124 

yuccasella 82, 85, 87, 89, 124, 126 

Roezlia bulblfera (105) 

regla (105) 
Samuela 29, 116, 122, 123, 124 

Carnerosana 117, 118, 120, 121, 125, 

128, 129. Frontispiece, pi. 76-79, 

80, f. 1, 81, 86, f. 12, 87, f. 2, 98 

Faxoniana 112, 117, 125, 128, 129. pi. 

73-76, 82, f. 2, 86, f. 11,98 
Sarcoyncca 43, 45, 88 

Tacori, Clus. (91) 
Taxodium 123 



Xanthorrhoea 71 

Yuca, Park. (72) 

ioliis Aloes, Bauh. (72) 
folila fllamentosis, Moris. (47) 
Perana, Gerarde. (72) 
Yucca 27, 28, 29, 42, 120-124. pi. 99. 
acaulls (114) 
acrotrlcha (114) 
acuminata (72, 74, 79) 
acatifolla (74) 
agavoldes (96) 
alba-splca (54, 57) 
X albella 115 
albospica (57, 82, 105) 
aletrlformls (114) 
aloefolla versicolor (90) 
aloifolia (39) 45, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 88, 

89, 90 (94) 110, 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 

129. pi. 46, 49, 84, f. 6, 95 

arcuata 90, 92 

Menandi 90 

tenulf olia 90 

conspicua 89, 92 

Draconis 89. 91, 95 

conspicua 89 

flexifolla (92) 

marginata 89, 90 

Menandi 90, 93, 127. pi. 50 

pnrpurea 89, 90 

quadrlcolor (91) 

roseo- marginata (91) 

stenophylla (88) 

tennlfolia 90, 93 

tricolor 89, 91 

varlegata (82, 90) 

Yucatana 90, 93 

X Andreana 77 

angustlfolla (54, 56, 60, 79, 82, 83, 114) 

elata (56) 

mollls (63) 

radlosa (56) 

strlcta (61,64) 

angustlsslma 45, 58, 126, 129. pi. 23, 

/. 1, 24, f. 1,83, f. 6, 93 
arborescens (41, 89) 
arcuata (92) 
argospatha (96) 
argyrophylla (105) 
Arkansana45, 53, 54,55, 62, 63, 126, 

129. pi. 30, 31, 83, f. 7, 92 
armata (88) 
aspera (96) 
Atklnsl (90) 
australls 46, 100, 103, 108-9 (117) 119, 

120, 1-28, 129. pi. 60, 61, 85, f. 2, 96 
baccata46, 109 (113, 119) 121, 122,128, 

129. pi. 68, 69, 86, f. 4, 97 

Yucca baccata australls (103, 105-6, 119, 

111, 113) 

clrclnata (103) 

fraglllfolla (103) 

gennlna (111) 

Hystrix (103, 106) 

macrocarpa (104, 110, 111, 117) 

periculosa (103) 

Hcabrifolia (103) 

Barrancasecca (114) 

Boerhaavii (80) 

Boscli (114) 

Braslliensis (.75) 

brevlfolla (41) 46, 100 (103) 127, 128. 

pi. 67, 68, 69, 96 ^ 
California (39, 95) 
canallculata (97, 105) 

fillfera (103) 

pendula (97) 

X Carrierel 74 

circinata (103, 104, 106) 

concava (49) 

conspicua (92) 

constricia 15, 54 C56) 123, 123. ;..' _.'/, 

21,f. 1, 83, f. 4, 92 
contorta (67, 9fc) 
cornuta (82, 9 '.) 
crenulata (88) 
XDeleuili 67, 74 
De Smetiana 45, 87, 127. pi. 43 
X dracaenoldes 77 
Draco (91) 
Draconis (88,91) 

arborescens (41) 

elata (56,58) 

X elegantlsslma 115 

elephantipes 45, 71, 92, 94, 123, 127, 

129. pi. 45, 51, 82, 84, f. 7 
Ellacombel (75) 
X Elmensls 116 
Engelraanni (39) 
X ensifera 79 
ensllolla (80) 
exlgua (52) 
Eylesll (80) 
falcata (80) 
fllamentosa (39) 44, 46, 47 (48, 49, 

60-53, 64) 81, 82, 83, 87, 116, 120, 122, 

125, 126. pi. 8, 12, 89, 91 

Antwerpensls (51) 

aurea elegantlsslma (48) 

blcolor (48) 

bracteata 47, 48, 125. pi. 9, 90 

concava 47, 49, 84, 125, 129. pi. 10, 

82, f. 1,90 

flacclda (49) 

glaucescens (51, 82) 

grandillora (52) 



Yucca fllamentosa laevlgata (49) 

latlfolia (49) 

major (115, 116) 

maxima (48, 52) 

media 47, 49, 125. pi. 11 

patens 47, 48. pi. 89 

paberula (50) 

varlegata 47, 48 (77) 

flllfera(103, 104-6) 

flacclda 44, 49, 60, 51 (51) 83, 84, 116 

122, 126. pi. 16, 91 

exigua, 52 

glaucescens, 50, 51, 126, 129, pi. 

12-15, 17, 80, f. 2,83, f. 2 

lineata, 50. 

grandiflora, 51, 52 

exigua, 51 

Integra, 51 

Integra, 52 

lineata 52 

orchioides 50, 51 

flexllls 45, 78, 79, 81, 83, 87 

Boerhaavii 79, 80 

enslfolia 79, 80 

falcata (80) 

Hlldrethl 79, 80, 127. pi. 47, f. 2 

patens 79, 81 

Peacockil, 79 

semicyllndrlca 79, 80 

tortulata, 79, 80 

folils Aloes (72) 

follls lanceolatis (47) 

folils margine integerrimis (72) 

lollorum marg. cren. (89, 92) 

fragilifolla (103, 104, 106) 

funifera (36, 38) 

Ghiesbreghtli (94) 

glgantea 42, 45, 71 

glanca 45 (49, 52, 54,58) 59 (75). 82, 121, 

122, 126, 129. pi. 23, f. 2, 24, f. 2, 

25, 83, f. 9,93 

mollis (63) 

stricta (55) 61 (64) 126. pi. 26, 27 

glancescens (51,75) 

varlegata (78) 

gloriosa 42, 45, 72, 73, 74 (74-6, 79) 81, 

84, 85, 87, 88 (95) 115, 116, 122, 123, 

127. pi. 43, 44, 94 

acuminata (72) 

elegans marginata (78) 

variegata (78) 

Ellacombei (75) 

glauca pendnla (116) 

glaucescens (75) 

longlf olia, 76, 82 

macnlata 76 

marginata (78) 

aurea (78) 

Yucca gloriosa medlo-plcta (74) 

medio-striata 73, 74 

minor 73, 74, 80, 127. pi. 45 

mollis (64,76) 

nobilis 75 


obllqna 73, 74 

planifolla (76) 

plicata 73, 74, 75, 82, 84 

maculata 74, 76 

superba 74, 76 

prulnosa (81) 

recurvata (74) 

recurvifolla (76) 

fol. var. (78) 

robnsta 73, 74, 75 

longifolia 73 

nobilis 73 

rofoclncta (78) 

snperba 76, 127, 129. pi. 46, f. 1, 

84, f. 4 

tortulata (80) 


varlegata (78) 

gramlnif olia (39, 114) 

Guatemalensls (94) 

X Guiglielmi 116 

Hanburii (60) 

Harrimaniae 45, 59, 122, 126, 129. pi- 

28, 29, 83, f. 10, 93 
Harnckerlana (91) 
Helkinsi (87) 
horrida (114) 
X Imperator 116 
integerrima (72) 
Japonica (106) 
X juncea 79 
X laevigata 79, 82 
Lenneana (94) 
XlHiacea (116) 
lineata lutea (91) 
longifolia (75, 79, 96, 115) 
Lonisianensis 45, 54, 62, 64,83, 126,129. 

pi. 32, 33, 34, 83, /. 8, 92 
lutescens (67) 
macrocarpa 46 (98) 110 (113, 117), 117, 

128-9. pi. 70, 71, 85, f. 5, 86, f. 2, 98 
X magniflca 116 
X margaritacea 116 
X Masslllensls 79 
Mazell (98-9) 
medio-picta (91) 
Meldensis (50,51) 
Mexicana(78, 92) 
Mohavensls 46, 110, 112, 113, 128, 129. 

pi. 72, 85, f. 6, 98 
Mooreana (94) 
obllqua (74, 76) 



Yncca orchioldes (51) 

major (51) 

Ortglesiana (39,41) 
Parmentierl (105) 
parvlflora (30) 
patens (81) 
pavillora (30) 
Peacockii (79) 
pendula (76, 82) 

aurea (78) 

varlegata (78) 

periculosa (103. 104, 106) 
Fernana (72) 
plcta (91) 
pltcairnlfolia (115) 
plicata (75, 82-3) 

glauca (76) 

plicatllis (75) 

polyphylla (57, 103, 104, 106) 

X praecox 116 

Pringlel (43, 106) 

prninosa (81) 

pubernla (49, 100) 

qnadricolor (91, 93) 

variegata (91) 

xadiosa 45, 56 (58) 104, 117, 121, 126, 

129. pi. 21, f. 2, 22, 83, f.6, 86, f. 

recurva (76) 

elegantlsslma (78) 

recurvata (97) 

recurvifolia 45, 48, 64, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, 

83, 84, 86, 87, 122, 123, 127, 139. pi. 46, 


elegans 77, 78 

marginata 77, 78 

ruf ocincta 77, 78 


variegata 77, 78 

revolnta (97) 

rlglda 45, 65 (67) 106, 126, 129. pi. 35, 

36,f.l, 84,f.l, 93 
Koezlil (94) 
rostrata 45, 68, 104, 126, 127, 129. pi. 

36, f. 2, 40, 41, 42, 84, /. 5, 93 
rubescens (115) 
rubra (74) 
rofoclncta (78) 
rupicola 46, 67, 83, 116, 127, 129. pi. 37, 

38, 39, 84, f. 2, 93 
rigida (65, 67) 

Yucca rupicola tortifolia (66-7) 

scabrlfolia (103, 104, 106) 

schidigera (113) 

Schottil 46, 98 (99, 100) 101, 103, 127, 
128, 129. pi. 65, 67, 86, f. 1, 96 

- Jaliscensiu 99, 120, 127. pi. 66, 96 

semicylindrlca (80) 

serratifolia (115) 

serrulate (88) 

argent eo -marginata (90) 

splnosa (114-5) 

stenophylla (79, 114-5) 

Stokesl (91) 

X stria tula 79 

strlcta (61, 64) 

elatior (64) 

intermedia (64) 

X sulcata 74 

auperba 76 

tenuifolia (93) 

tenulstyla 45, 63, 62, 126, 129. pi. 17 
f.2, 18, 19, 83, f.S, 92 

Tonellana (105) 

tortilis (67) 

tortulata (80) 

Trecnleana 45, 82, 83, 96, 97 (99, 103) 
106, 112, 115, 120, 122, 127, 129. pi. 62, 
84, f. 8, 95. 

canaliculate 97, 127. pi. 63, 64, 


glauca (97) 

undulata (97) 

X Trelcascl 116 

tricolor (91) 

nndulata (80, 97) 

valida 46, 107, 128, 129. pi. 62-67, 86, 
f. 3, 97 

Vandervinnlana (96) 

variafolla (77) 

variegata (90) 

versicolor (30) 

Virglnlana (47) 

X virldlflora 116 

X Vomerensis 116 

Whipplei (39) 


graminlfolla (39) 

vlolacea (40) 

Yacatana 93 
Yucceae 27, 28 
Yuccoldeae 27 

KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. LOT. GAKI>., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GAKD,, VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 



KKI J T. Mo. BOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. >lo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


REI-T. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


REFT. Mo. BOT. GA.KD., VOL. 13. 


BEPT. Mo. Box. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VO 


KKPT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. IJOT. GA.KD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 20. 



KEPT. Mo. BUT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


. Mo. BOT. GARIX, VOL. 13. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 24. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KKPT. Mo. BOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 27. 




SEPT. Mo. BOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 

TLATE 29. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GAHD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE so. 


IIEVT. Mo. EOT- GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE si. 


REFT. Mo. BOX. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 34. 


EEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 35. 


KBIT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 36. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 37. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATK 40. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GAHD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 41. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 42. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 43. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. is. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

m*s -.,.w 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 47. 


. Mo. HOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 48. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GA.RD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 49. 


KEPT. Mo. HOT. GAED., VOL. is. 

PLATE 50. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATB 52. 


REFT. Mo. Box. GAED., VOL. 13. 


REFT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 65. 


REFT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATB 58. 


REFT. Mo. BOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 63. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GAUD., VOL. is. 

PLATE 64. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GAUD., VOL. is. 



REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 67. 


REFT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 71. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 72. 


. Mo. EOT. GAKD., VOL. is. 

PLATE 73. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 74. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 75. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 76. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 77. 


REPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 78. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PtATE 79. 


REFT. Mo. Box. GAKD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 80, 


REFT. Mo. Box. GAKD., VOL. 13. 


KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


UEIT. Mo. HOT. GARU., VOL. 13. 




^~~^ AfttffttfA 



KEPT. Mo. HOT. GAKD., VOL. 13. 







KEPT. Mo. HOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 


: c D c L 

"- C 


t<& ^-j 
/' ' 
& T&J ^~ 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 86. 


REFT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 87. 


KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 88. 




KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 




EEPT. Mo. EOT. GAHD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 90. 



REFT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

YUCCA FILAMENTOSA and varieties. 


KEPT. Mo. Box. GA.RD., VOL. 13. 

I-LATE 92. 




KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 93. 




KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 94. 


a -5 f * \ M * T i N.BAK. 

,. 1 \ { J 

, . U W 1 . 


REPT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 

YUCCA ALOIFOLIA, in the United States. 


KEPT. Mo. DOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 96. 


fs~- r ^J^ 



KEPT. Mo. Box. CARD., VOL. 13. 

PLATE 97. 



REPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 13. 



REFT. Mo. feo-r. CARD., VOL. 13. 


Horizontal shading indicates the range of capsnlar species, and vertical shading, 
of baccate species. 


University of California 


405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 

I MI iilrfl 


(VC| I 

I /Or-* I 

^-- f h d_ s 

A vtf-l!BRAR 

000 864 741 4 

^vi/ .f 





? S 


I I 

= s 


1 1 

^EyNIVERS/4 ^ 


^ ^ 

! I 

^ 5 
s o 

* I 


g S'-Wj ^ - 

<rj]]ONVSOi^ V/S^AINU 


5 s v J5" c <? >*v_ 

^- 3* 

^tn ^