O Gate City
The Yuma County Chamber of Commerce
F«9»r"« Print S!iop. Yjra« Arizona
' C , 'wV. a.^*'
The Gate City of the Great Southwe^
Published by the Yuma County Chamber of Commerce
Yuma County Chamber of Commerce
John W. Dorrington President
F. R. Pugh .... Fir^ Vice-President
Isaac Polhamus . . Second Vice-President
E. F. Sanguinetti Treasurer
O. F. Townsend Secretary
Geo. H. Rockwood . . AssiSant Secretary
John Gandolfo A. Mode^
John Stoffela L. W. Alexander
H. V. Clymer Harry BrownSetter
Jerry Millay W. A. Bowles
J. M. Molina A. F. White
H. C. Haupt Frank Hodges
T. W. Underhill J. E. Ludy
^ ^ iiffnrHiinrft* ^ ^
As a result of the campaign of publicity, inaugurated some months ago by
the Yuma County Chamber of Commerce, fir^ by sending Mr. W. E. Lynch
with an exhibit to the Texas State Fair at Dallas, Texas, and later by send-
ing Mr. O. F. Townsend with a similar exhibit to the Territorial Fair at
Phoenix; next by publishing extended articles in the Los Angeles papers and
other publications, the intere^ed attention of inquiring hundreds has been at-
traded to the fair and fertile fields of Yuma County, and our promoters of
publicity have been deluged with reque^s for literature furnishing the informa-
tion desired. This pamphlet, therefore, has been compiled, from all available
sources of information, to meet the exigency created by the flood of que^ons
to be answered. Nothing unique or original or voluminous has been attempt-
ed. We have aimed to furnish a compendium of "fads and figures" that may
be endorsed by the moS conservative without reservation and accepted by the
moS skeptical without hesitation as entirely authentic and accurate.
The truth about Yuma County is good enough. There is no need of em-
bellishment or exaggeration; although, in a country where, truly, it may be
" Every prospedl pleases
And only man is vile,"
while what is written may be "nothing but the truth," it is impossible, in the
limits of these pages, to write "the whole truth."
Anyway, dear intere^ed reader, come and see for yourself, and, without
doubt, when you have seen, you will be ready to exclaim, as did one of old,
"The half was never told me."
THE YUMA COUNTY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
Members of Yuma County Chamber of Commerce.
George A. Duke, Solicitor and Colledlor.
Alexander, L. W.
Ap John, Dr. Henri.
Bailey, D. L.
Balsz, J. M.
Bell, T. B.
Benjamin, V. C.
Blaisdell, F. G.
Blaisdell, H. W.
Bowles, W. A.
Bridge, G. M.
Byrnes, A. C.
Clark, J. L.
Clymer, Dr. H. V.
De Corse, Sam.
De Vore, D. M.
Donaldson, C. E.
Donkersley, H. H.
Dorrington, J. W.
Dorrington, George E.
Duke, George A.
Durme, W. J.
Dyer, C. C
Foster, A. M.
Gandolfo, John, Jr.
Godfrey, Isaac P.
Hall, D. W.
Haupt, H. C.
Hodges, P. B.
Hodges, Ed D.
Huffman, John L.
Ingraham, F. L.
Ingram, E. A.
Johnson, O. C.
Jordan, T. A.
Ludy, J. E.
Lyon, W. H.
McPherson, R. A.
Meeden, C. V.
Moffat, J. P.
Molina, J. M.
Molloy, Thomas D.
Polhamus, J. M.
Post, M. E.
Pugh, F. R.
Rockwood, George H.
Sanguinetti, E. F.
Shorey, W. H.
Stahl, L. C.
Townsend, O. F.
Townsend, Albert W.
Underbill, T. W.
Utting, C. H.
White, A. F.
Wilder, U. G.
Woodman, W. W.
f itma QInimtii.-3lt^ Unrattnu au^
LOCATION AND AREA.
The southweSern corner of Arizona is occupied by Yuma County. Mo-
have County lies to the north, Maricopa and Pima Counties to the eaS; So-
nora, Mexico, is its southern neighbor, and the Colorado River washes its
entire w^e^ern border, and separates the Territory horn California. It com-
prises an area greater than that of Vermont, or New Hampshire, or Massa-
chusetts, and would make a state equal in extent to the combined areas of
Delaware, Connedticut and Rhode Island. Its acreage approximates ten
thousand square miles, or about six and a half million acres.
The general topography of the County may be described as a high table,
or mesa, land, sloping from an elevation of four or five thousand feet, in the
northeastern corner, to a low plain scarcely I 00 feet above sea level, in the
southwestern corner. The Bill Williams River, a tributary of the Colorado,
forms the northern boundary; and the erratic Gila winds its tortuous, turbulent
way, from east to west, for more than 1 00 miles, through the entire width of
the County, and pours its tribute of waters into the mighty Colorado behind
"Prison Hill" at Yuma. The Colorado, deep, silent, mysterious, red with the
silt gathered hom many soils, washes the County for 225 miles from north to
south along the western border.
THE SOIL CONDITIONS.
Probably one-half the area of the County lies within the valleys of these
three great rivers. The soil of the valleys is a rich alluvial deposit, formed by
the accumulation of ages, and varies in color from a dark chocolate to a light
sandy loam. The whole sedion, in prehistoric times, was a vast lake, or cup-
like depression, with the mountains forming the rim, with a gap in the rim on
the southern side, through which the Colorado breaks its way to the gulf.
The bottom of the cup is filled with the washings and erosions of ages, to
which has been added the decomposed vegetation of later aeons.
The soil of the mesa, or table, lands is somewhat different from that of the
valleys, being looser and coarser, with niore iron in its composition, and being
filled with small pebbles of undecomposed granite. Under the blaze of the
desert sun, as one flies across these waterless mesas, behind the iron horse,
they look wa^e, desolate, barren; but put water on them, and lo! a transfor-
mation as complete and almo^ as sudden as any in the fabled experience of
Street Scene in Yuma During Hay Marketing Season.
Alladin with his wonderful lamp. And here at Yuma one sees a literal ful-
fillment of the words of Holy Writ: "The desert shall rejoice and blossom as
The valley lands are alluvial, composed of the finer particles of the washings
from the mountains, and the decayed vegetable accumulation of countless
years. There is pradlically no bottom to the soil, in richness it is unrivaled
on the American Continent, and experts declare that a scientific analysis of the
soil shows it to be similar in charader to that of the Nile Valley in Egypt,
and the Colorado River has not inaptly been spoken of as "the American
Jeweler and Optician
THE MORNING SUN
Yuma's Only Daily Newspaper
MULFORD WINSOR. Editor
THE YUMA SUN
Southwe^ern Arizona's Be^ Weekly Newspaper
SUN PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY, Yuma, Arizona
Souvenir Po^ Cards, Souvenir Views, Figures of
the Great Laguna Dam, Souvenir Curios, Indian
Baskets, Navajo Blankets. :::::::::::::::::
Yuma Stationery Company, Yuma, Arizona
W. C. GREEN, F. L. PROCTOR,
President. General Manager.
Cananea Cattle Company
SIR RICHARD II, ANXIETY IV,
LORD WILTON AND GROVE III
^ Largest Herd in the United States.
^ Every Animal of Pronounced Beef Type.
^ Well Known All Over America as the " Colin
Cameron Registered Hereford Herd."
CHOICEST ISLAND STRAINS
Registered in Island and American Stud Books.
Unequalled for Children. Prices Made on Application.
COLIN CAMERON, ^cso^.
Sbr CEnlnraitn Siitrr.
DRAINAGE BASIN-EXTENT AND CHARACTER.
The Colorado River drains portions of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada,
Nevs^ Mexico, California and Arizona. Including its principal tributary, the
Green, it is 2000 miles long and has a drainage basin of over 225,000
square miles, ranking in size as the second drainage basin in arid America.
The basin of the Colorado includes several features of peculiar interest:
The Grand Canyon, made famous by Pow^eH's explorations and writings; the
Gila River, probably the muddiest and one of the most torrential streams in
the w^orld; Roosevelt Dam, one of the very highest dams ever built, now be-
ing constructed at Tonto Basin near Phoenix, Arizona; the Salton Basin, a
great inland sink, 280 feet below s^a level, which in recent years has been
dry, but is now receiving the total flow of the Colorado as it probably did in
ancient times. Indeed, there is unmistakable evidence that it was once a part
of the Gulf of California.
Scene on the Colorado River, Showing a Ferry Boat in Mid Stream.
SILT CARRIED BY THE COLORADO.
To the thoughtful observer who ^ands at the head of Bright Angel Trail
and looks into the mighty abyss, which, lacking an adequate name, we simply
call the Grand Canyon, the que^on mu^ occur, "How was this excavation
made, and what has become of the material excavated?" The tiny rivulet
which he sees nearly lo^ in the sand, and which men sometimes call the
mighty Colorado, has been running there for ages. Each year with its puny
^rength it carries away a few particles of rock from those mighty walls. As
it flows it breaks, and granulates, and pulverizes these fragments until when it
reaches the lower valleys, it drops its load, and man speaks of this little frag-
ment which the upper country each year contributes as ninety million tons of
sediment or seventy square miles of soil one foot deep.
Where once the Gulf of California extended is now solid land, the Delta
of the Colorado; and further up are smaller valleys on the margin of the river,
all built up by the river. This soil, the combined produd: of the varied re-
gions comprised in the 225,000 square miles of the basin of the Colorado, is
not surpassed in fertility by any portion of the earth's surface that has been
cultivated by the hand of man, including the valley of the Nile itself. This
fad; has been demon^ated by crops raised by the settler as well as by the
analysis of the chemi^.
The silt carried by the river has been measured and analyzed during the
pa^ three years by the Reclamation Service, and before that by the Agricul-
tural Experiment Station of the University of Arizona. These measurements
show that the silt carried down each year amounts to about 90,000,000 tons
(dry weight). It contains large amounts of potash, phosphoric acid and nitro-
gen. The value of the nitrogen alone, at the price paid for it in commercial
fertilizers, is $1.25 per acre-foot of water, or $5.00 per four acre-feet, the
amount used yearly in irrigating an average crop. Indeed, the great problem
is not how to enrich the soil, already the mo^ fertile in the world, but how to
keep the fertilizer off the land. There is too much. This is no joke. The
problem of disposing of the mud has been the rock on which have split the
various private companies which have undertaken to use the waters of the
Colorado for irrigation. Only the hand of Uncle Sam, dealing with the river
as a whole and m a large way, is able to cope with it properly. By darnming
the river, sufficient fall is obtained to dispose of the mud by sluicing.
The problem of irrigating land from the Colorado River may be resolved
into four fadors: Fir^, to put the water on the land; second, to keep the
flood water off; third, to drain such portions of the lower land as may become
water-logged by seepage water; fourth, to dispose of the mud. As compared
with the fourth, the other problems are insignificant; but the second is in itself
an expensive task, as any one will recognize who takes a look at the levees
now being con^rucfted by the Reclamation Service. A portion of these levees
has already been te^ed by the flood of November 29th, 1905, which has
been exceeded but once so far as known.
The following table gives the higher and lowe^ ^ages of the river each
year for the pa^ twenty-eight years, as observed on the gage at Yuma. This
gage was established in 1877 by the Southern Pacific Railroad, and has
been observed by the Southern Pacific Railroad or by the United States Ge-
ological Survey continuously up to the present time.
The regular annual rise of the Colorado, caused by melting snow in Colo-
Dec. 3 1
May 3 1
June 1 3
Jan. 4 .
Dec. 3 1
Feb. 1 3
Dec. 2 1
May 3 1
Jan. 1 3
a. Said to be higheil flood for seventeen years preceding.
b. Higheil flood recorded.
rado, Utah and Wyoming, begins sometime during May and la^s about two
months. Floods coming at other times than during the spring months are gen-
erally from the Gila. This treacherous stream at its mouth is dry mo^ of the
time. Occasionally it sends down sudden heavy floods, and in 1 89 1 it swept
away the town of Yuma, which was then unprotected by levees. In the Gila
Basin there are several good reservoir sites, by means of which the floods can
be controlled and the water used for irrigation. The Roosevelt Dam for the
Tonto Reservoir above mentioned is now being conitrudted, and others are
THE DISCHARGE OF THE COLORADO.
During ordinary seasons the Colorado discharges at low water about 3000
second-feet (cubic feet per second), and at high water from 50,000 to 75,-
000 second-feet. During the flood of 1 89 1 it reached a discharge of about
125,000 second-feet. The annual discharge of the Colorado, without the
Gila, is about 1 0.000,000 acre-feet. This is sufficient to irrigate two or three
million acres of land, and this amount of good land is available.
W. D. SMITH,
Irrigation Engineer, United States Reclamation Service.
The Colorado River
ESTABLISHED IN 1870
The "ARIZONA SENTINEL"
Published in Yuma, the Gate-
way of the Great Southwest
IS THE PIONEER OF
ARIZONA WEEKLI ES
FOR THIRTY-SIX YEARS CONTINUOUSLY PUBLISHED
WITHOUT MISSING AN ISSUE
J. W. DORRINGTON
EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR
T. L. McCutchen D. L. Bailey
Yuma Drug Store
Drugs, Medicines and Fine Chemicals, Toi-
let Articles, Perfumes, Soaps,
Rubber Goods, Etc.
High Grade Cigars
MAIN STREET ' TELEPHONE 39
Follow the crowd to the
New York Department
Yuma's Leading, Up-to-Date
Dry Goods, Clothing and Shoe
House~the real Bargain Center
One Price 'Che Store thai Saves 2/ou Monei/" Strictly Cash
Colorado River Lumber Company
Alex Durward, Manager
3ea/er in Jill Jlinds of
Builders' Hardware, Placer, Lime and Cement
Office, Corner Third Street and Madison Avenue Yuma, Arizona
THE COLORADO RIVER-HOW IT IS BEING DIVERTED TO
YUMA COUNTY'S GREAT BENEFIT.
Under the above headlines the Chri^mas number of the Arizona Republi-
can contains a rather brief but mo^ comprehensive article on Yuma and Yu-
ma County, from which we quote the following:
"Gateway to the Southwe^, Key to the Valley of the American Nile," is
the manner in which the modesl resident of Yuma headlines his description of
the advantages of his home locality. And it's so. For years Yuma has ^rug-
gled under the malign spread of the ancient blanket ^ory. Now the weather
bureau has found many places much hotter in we^ern localities that smugly
have arrogated superior climatic attractions to themselves, and Yuma is becom-
ing known not for heat, but for the probability that lies ahead that soon will
she become one of the garden spots of the world. One of the greatest rivers
on earth flows pa^ her gates, and back of her are scores of thousands of acres
of rich land, needing only the touch of water to become fruitful in the higheS
degree. The climate is hot in summer, though of the kind that brings no sun-
^rokes, and the heat, coupled with the lack of winter fro^s, enables the farmer
to grow in perfection almost every fruit that can be found in the tropic and
That Yuma has more than mere hope on which to base dreams of a great
future is shown by the fadl that hundreds of men, driven even by night under
the eledlric lights, are toiling upon the constiudlion of a Government dam
across the Colorado, twelve miles above the city. Officially it is the Laguna
Dam. A part of its construcftion is charged against the California side of the
river, where, at the start, it will irrigate about 15,000 acres, largely to the
benefit of the Yuma Indian Tribe. If the Government ever takes over the
Imperial Projedt, on the lower border of California, it is possible that one of
the largest canals ever known will lead away from the California end of the
dam. But as far as now known, the main attribute of the strucfture will be
the diversion of water for the irrigation of 73,100 acres lying around Yuma,
Arizona. These lands will be called upon to repay the Government their
part of the cost of construction, but their value will be so much increased that
the burden is expeded to be a light one— less than $40 an acre.
There is no expectation of making the Laguna Dam a storage enterprise.
The river takes care of that itself, for its flow, fed by the melting snows from
the mountains of Colorado, is greatest m summer, the time of greatest need.
The dam will simply divert. Bedrock is an unknown quantity, impracticable
to reach. So the construction will be a weir, similar to three that have proved
effective across the Nile, in Egypt. It will back the water for ten miles,
though the water depth at the weir will be only ten feet. Safety will be as-
sured by the use of sheet piling, and the building of steel and masonry walls
across the river between the natural rock abutments. The dam will be only
nineteen feet in extreme height above the river bed, but will be a mile long-
to be exad, 5470 feet. The main canal on the Arizona side will be fifty
feet in width, with a depth of eight feet. Though the Colorado is, next to
the Gila, the muddied ^ream in the Southwe^, it is believed that the Gov-
ernment engineers have found a practicable plan for ridding the water of moft
of the silt held in solution, by means of flushing gates below a settling basin,
into which the water is admitted only by skimming from the comparatively
clear surface of the river. One of the harden engineering problems solved
was that of passing the Gila river, which enters the Colorado from the ea^.
Scene on the Colorado River, Showing the Draw Bridge at 'l uma Open for a Steamer to Pass
just above Yuma. This will be done by means of three ten-foot concrete
tunnels, steel lined, their top§ several feet below the bottom of the river channel.
Beside the land to be irrigated by this canal, in the vicinity of Yuma are
about 90,000 acres that can be brought under cultivation by raising water
from the river. It is proposed to irrigate 25,000 acres of these lands by rais-
ing water from the main canal on the Arizona side, power being furnished by
ele(5lrical energy generated at or near the dam.
In the low lands in the river bottom near Yuma now is being constru<fled a
long levee that will save the farms from overflow in time of high water.
Twelve miles of this levee is already under construcftion.
THE FAMOUS HEALTH RESORT-The Agua
Caliente Springs of Arizona.
Rest for the Exhausted
Cure for the Invalid
The Agua Caliente Springs of Arizona Was Given the
Above Award on Its Own Merits
ALTHEE MODESTI, Proprietor
Rooms Large, Comfortable
and Well Ventilated
Daily Stage and Mail, except Sunday,
from Sentinel on S. P. Railroad. Private
Telephone Line Conneds Hotel with Sen-
tinel Station. Good Sleeping Accommo-
dations and Meals at Sentinel.
Both Winter and Summer Resort
Water Contains Wonderful Curative and
Recuperative Properties, Especially Adap-
ted to the Cure of Rheumatism and All
DR. THOMAS J. PUGH
Yuma County Hospital
South Main Street
Yuma :: :: :: :: Arizona
Ideal Location, Clean, Sanitary.
Abundance of Fresh Air and Sunshine.
Excellent Accommodations for Private
Experienced Hospital Nurse in attendance
The Yuma Climate is particularly fine for
pulmonary affections and rheumatism.
O. C. JOHNSON W. A. BOWLES
JOHNSON & BOWLES
Wholesale and Retail
Fancy Groceries, Shelf Hardware, Tobacco and Cigars. Harness
Department in Connexion; Competent Harness Maker
in Attendance. Agents for Studebaker Wag-
ons and Giant Powder Co., Conn.
Prices the Same to All.
Night Phone at Parlors, 96 Day Phone 62
Office Open All Night
F. W. Murphy, Manager and Embalmer.
With Johnson & Bowles, Undertakers.
Lady Assistant Corner Third and Main Streets
Yuma Heights Fruit Co.
Was awarded medals at the St. Louis
World's Fair as follows:
Gold Medal for Grape Fruit
Silver Medal for Grapes
Bronze Medal for Cantaloupes
WE BEAT THE WORLD ON EARLY FRUIT
Already irrigating a comparatively small expanse of land back of Yuma and
down the river are several canals, locally controlled, that will probably be ac-
quired by the land owners under the terms of the Irrigation Adt. One of
these canals secures its water through the lift from the Colorado at Yuma.
Up the Gila River, within the County, are a number of farming communities
with small irrigation sy^ems. One of the earlier water borage projects known
was commenced on the Gila years ago, but went to pieces before adtual con-
^rudion was begun. It is a curious facft that few corporate irrigation enter-
prises ever have been successful. This South Gila Projedt is now being re-
Stiir f uma Pr0;?flt.
In a fine article entitled, "The Eden Makers," in the American Magazine
for March, the current year, Julian Willard Helburn has this to say of the
"The Yuma Projedt has made more trouble than any of the others. The
irrigable area is relatively small, but the Colorado River is the bigge^ and
mo^ intradtable that the Reclamation Service has yet had to harness. Not
content with the bad habits of our We^ern breams, it has borrowed some
hoary wiles from the Nile and the Ganges. From its 225,000 square miles
of basin, it drains annually eleven million acre feet of water and a good deal
of land as well. It's the dirtied river in the country; the Missouri and the
Rio Grande are limpid by contrast. In flood time it carries 1,500,000 tons
of silt pa^ Yuma every day. This silt is so fine that it does settle entirely on
landing forty-eight hours, so rich that it brings $4 an acre as fertilizer, and so
thick that it unfits the water for almo^ any use.
"The Colorado tears its way through the Grand Canyon and similar coun-
try, all conspicuously lacking in reservoir sites, to a point a few miles above
Yuma, where it issues onto the flatted of flat deltas. Here the river loses its
speed and deposits its silt. The deposits have gradually built up its bed, so
that it runs from Yuma to the sea on a natural aquedudl, a cup-topped ridge
high above the surrounding country. When the floods come, in the early
summer, it spills over and inundates the valley for miles, covering it with a
layer of silt. During the re^ of the year the land is parched.
"The conditions are exadtly those of the Nile Valley. The date palm,
which grows nowhere else on the Continent, flourishes here. So do the olive
Offices of the United States Reclamation Service, Yuma.
and the pineapple. The growing season la^s 365 days in the year. Yuma
oranges, Yuma vegetables ripen two weeks or more before those of the re^
of the country. Given irrigation, the Valley, with its steady heat and inex-
haustible soil, will be literally a forcing bed, one great unglazed ho'house.
"The task of the Reclamation Service was three-fold: To induce the river
to give over its starve-and-surfeit method of water-supply in favor of steady ir-
rigation; to store water without a reservoir site, and to distribute water no bet-
ter adapted to ordinary irrigation works than cold molasses.
"Stopping the inundations was a simple though expensive undertaking, a
matter of raising the walls of the natural aquedudt too high for the river to
spill over. The Colorado and its tributary, the Gila, are being lined with miles
and miles of earthern levees, the first perfecft levees ever built. They are con-
structed on a three to one slope, that is, their width at base is six or seven
times their height. This means absolute resistance to the water, but at so
great an expense for material that it has never been attempted before.
"The storage problem was hidden at first by the existence of a beautiful
natural reservoir site, a long basin at the edge of the hills, just above Yuma.
The engineers intended to throw a storage dam across the mouth of the basin,
until they called in the diamond drills to find bed rock. The drills went down
through nine hundred feet of unvarying silt. The silt didn't quit at nine hun-
dred feet, but the drills did. It seemed that they were hunting the bottom of
a second Grand Canyon, filled to the brim with the scourings of the first.
"The tremendous pressure on a storage dam, of course, makes a bed rock
foundation indispensable. The engineers went up stream hunting a site. They
reached the point where the Colorado is formed by the confluence of the
Green and the Grand, without finding one. Finally they found their sites— a
dam for the Grand in the Gore Canyon, in Northwestern Colorado; a dam
for the Green in Wyoming. For a projedt on the Mexican boundary they
had had to go more than half way to Canada for their water supply. When
the project is complete the mighty Colorado, the sculptor of the Grand Can-
yon, will cease to exist; it will be merely the outlet channel for the reservoirs
of the Reclamation Service.
"To utilize the broth that does duty for water in the Colorado, the Recla-
mation engineers took a leaf from the cook book. They determined to let the
river—the whole Colorado River— settle, and pour it off. The delusive reser-
voir site was available as a settling basin. It would not support a storage dam
—but they knew more than one way to skin a cat. They are building a dam
of the India weir pattern, a flat sill of masonry, 267 feet wide and nineteen
feet high, across the channel. The silt goes under it, the water goes over it.
But its immense weight and spread keeps it in place, and while it does not
stop the water, it banks it up six feet above low water level, making a ten
mile lake in the natural basin and allowing the water to slacken and partially
to settle. In the brief respite not much of the silt is really deposited, yet the
top foot of water becomes comparatively clear and the canals, heading lateral-
ly on the sides of the basin just above the dam, draw off this top foot and no
more. Simple, really, isn't it?
"In the Yuma Projed: international difficulties begin to complicate the phys-
ical obstacles. By the terms of our treaty with Mexico the Colorado is a
navigable stream, and any diversion of its waters is a menace to navigation
and a breach of treaty. No one but a few weatherbeaten ducks ever dreamed
of navigating the Colorado, and for all the Mexican Government cares we
might divert its waters to Medicine Hat. But the lower Colorado delta, be-
low the Mexican line, is marvelously rich, unimproved land, even richer than
the Yuma Valley, and quite naturally has passed from the ingenuous Latin-
Americans to the hands of American promoters. These gentlemen, seeing
their potential water supply gliding down the Reclamation canals, are pressing
Mexico to call a halt on the Yuma Project.
"If she does, the Reclamation Service will quote Adam's retort to Eve,
'You bit first.' The California Development Company was organized a few
years ago to irrigate the Imperial Valley of California by a canal from the Col-
orado, and applied to the War Department for permission to head its canal
on the river just above the Mexican line. The War Department had no ju-
risdidlion and replied that it didn't care in the lea^ possible degree what the
company did. This the company took for permission. Then the Yuma Pro-
jedt was launched. The company sniffed trouble afar, obtained a license from
Mexico and moved its canal head across the border. Wherefore, if the treaty
is to be observed, Mexico will be held to the fir^ accounting.
"But these bickerings are likely to be forgotten in the shadow of a great
cata^rophe. Forsaking its old bed, the Colorado is pouring down the Cali-
fornia Development Company's canal into the sunken Imperial Valley, from
which there is no exit. There are fears that the stream cannot be turned,
and that the whole valley is doomed. Treaty or no treaty, the lower delta
will get no water till the great sunken cup is full and the river spills back into
its old course. But that is a ^ory by itself."
PROGRESS OF THE WORK.
The National Reclamation Adt was passed June, 1902. During 1903-4
the surveys for this projedt for the reclamation of the valley lands of the Colo-
rado and Gila Rivers were made by the engineers of the United States Rec-
lamation Service. When the news came that the surveys and estimates had
been approved, and the sum of $3,000,000 set aside by the Secretary of the
Interior for the purpose of construdting this great irrigation work, all Yuma
Yuma Office of J. G. White & Company, Laguna Dam Contradors.
Baizes Cold Storage
D^resh SBeef. Veal. 3Cutton, Pork.
Sausage, S^ologna. Jiead Cheese,
Salt and jill Jiinds of S^repared
SfCeals. J2ive and 2)ressed Chick-
ens and KJtirkeys. 5^resh Creamery
Sautter a Specialty.
Single or Double
Open or With Tops.
Will Carry Parties to
Mining Camps or
Furnished at Reason-
ji 3ine 3iearse in Connection
LOUIE ESSELBURN, Prop.
Fir^ St., Between
Main and Madison
Telephone 236 Yuma, Arizona
Wells, Fargo & Co.
Express Carriers Express Forwarders.
3rom Ocean to Ocean and jicross the Seas.
Over 40.000 Sfiiles of Service.
Sssues Sxpress S/fioney Orders. J ay able Jlnyiohere.
O. F. Townsend, Agent, Yuma, Arizona.
Owned by W. H. Lyon
Ely Fop (21,395) 7587 England
Bred by Martin Pate Ely Combs
Sire: Ely Oak, Mo. (1 7,331)
Dam: Ely Fancy (28,47 I )
by Ely Harold (11,367)
For breeding purposes, apply at
W. H. LYON'S, Mode^i Block.
went wild with delight. The hopes and dreams of years were nearing reali-
zation. The Yuma County Water Users' Association was organized to ren-
der assistance in furthering the enterprise. The bids were in due time
advertised and opened, first for the construction of the great Laguna Dam, to
J. G. White & Company, of New York, and later for the building of a sec-
tion of the levee on the Colorado River, to Miller & Peasley, of Los Angeles.
The latter firm has completed its contract, and at this writing has a sub-con-
tradt with J. G. White & Company, at the Laguna Dam Site. The work is
progressing rapidly and steadily, and will probably be completed before an-
other flood season. Bids for construding other sections of the levee have been
advertised and contradls let to Yuma Valley farmers, who will in this way re-
ceive a double benefit. Before many months the entire Valley to the line of
Old Mexico will be under the protecftion of levees, and the disastrous floods
of former years will have become "ancient history."
It will probably be two years and a half more before the entire system of
irrigation in Yuma County will be finished, and ready to turn the life-giving
waters upon the eager waiting land.
Right here, we send an urgent invitation to the possessors of good Ameri-
can brain and brawn, to come and help us celebrate, for great will be that
day for Yuma and Yuma County.
Q^lxt f uma (Enuntg Mnttr Users'
The Yuma County Water Users' Association is an association of individ-
uals, duly incorporated under the laws of the Territory of Arizona, claiming
the right to the use of water and owning lands within the area to be supplied
by the works of the Government. It was formed to assure the Government
that the land owners will apply for water from the irrigation works, and that
they will so adjust the exiting claims to the use of water, that the administra-
tion of all the water available for the lands under the projedl, whether supplied
from private or from Government irrigation works, shall be under one control,
viz, that of the water users themselves. This organization is necessary, in or-
der that there may be supervision over the di^nbution of water to lands in
private ownership, as contemplated by Se<flion 6 of the Reclamation A<ft.
Persons joining this Association are required (1) to agree to turn over to
the management of the Association the water which they have heretofore ap-
propriated, to be administered in connedtion with the additional water supply
furnished from the Government irrigation sy^em. (2) They agree to make
their former water rights as well as the Government water rights appurtenant
to the lands irrigated. (3) They agree to pay the charges for the water
rights required by the Reclamation Adt. (4) They agree that their land
shall be security for the Government charge for water, and that such charge
shall be a lien on the land, which the Association may enforce, if they do not
pay for the water. (5) They agree to dispose of the lands they own in ex-
cess of the limit of land in private ownership permitted to apply for water from
the Government system.
The Association is managed diredtly by the water users themselves, and
through the officers eledled by them. It will have the admini^ering and di^ri-
bution of all the water furnished by the Government sy^em. Each member
will receive his proportional part of the entire supply in the hands of the Asso-
ciation, not in excess of the amount necessary for the proper cultivation of this
land, as beneficial use only shall be the basis, the measure and the limit of the
The Association in its contrad with the Secretary of the Interior has bound
itself and agrees to guarantee the payment for the Government con^rudtion
and will enforce colledtion from its shareholders, by means of the lien on their
lands, if necessary. Each shareholder derives a benefit from this lien, as it
protedts him again^ the possibility of being required to pay for a shiftless
neighbor's water right, for without the lien the Association would be required
to assess each member for any deficiency. The total co^ of the water right
will amount, according to the e^imate, to about $35 per acre irrigated. It is
entirely possible, however, that as the con^rudlion work proceeds this co^
may be somewhat increased or lessened, although an effort has been made to
cover all contingencies. The price will range near $35 per acre, this to be
paid for according to the provisions of the Reclamation Adt and regulations of
the Secretary of the Interior, in ten annual in^allments after the first delivery
of water, or, what is still more likely, after the harvesting of the first year's
The annual charge for maintenance and supervision of this canal sys-
tem will be very low and probably materially less than one dollar per acre.
There will be no charge for interest, profit, or taxes. Any land owner within
the Yuma Projedt who desires to acquire a water right must become a mem-
ber of this Association and subscribe to all the requirements of membership,
and afterwards make application to the Government for a water right, when it
is ready to receive such.
R J. MILLER,
Secretary Yuma County Water Users' Association.
Clean. lOell D'tirnished S/looms. 8u-
ropean SPlan. Sood Sample Slooms
3ree. ^irsl-Claxs Slestaurant Con-
nected with 3(otel. 3ree Slus, to and
3ierbert Sirown 7. Si. Stiley
.... Dairy. . . .
A. H. KENT
Pure Milk and
J. P. Moffat
Riley & Co.
Real E^ate, Mines
Office at Uelepfione 1 7
Jiotel Sandolfo IJuma. Jirizona
Blacksmi thing and all
kinds of Wood
Main Street Yuma, Arizona
The People's Paper.
JOHN STOFFELA. PROPRIETOR
Fancy and Wet Goods, and
Reading Room and Light Lunches
Opposite Freight Depot
Main Street Yuma, Arizona
"See Shorey About It''
A. L. DeMund
TDholesale and Sietail
Pine and Redwood
^ Po^s, Shingles and Building Ma-
terials of All Kinds. ^ Mouldings and
Mill Work. ^ Builders' Hardware.
C|[ Paints and Oils. ^ Lime and Ce-
ment. ^ Agent for Pittsburg Patent
Fencing and Mahhoid Roofing
YUMA TELEPHONE NO. ARIZONA
f uma QlUmat^^
The climate of Yuma, always an interesting theme, especially among the
people of the East who have formed their ideas concerning it from the widely
circulated yarns emanating from alleged humorists, is herewith intelligently dis-
cussed by Mr. S. Hackett, official head of the United States Weather Bureau
at this Nation. Mr. Hackett says:
"In an inquiry regarding Yuma the flrA que^ion asked is one concerning
temperatures, and the manner in which such interrogatories are made brings
Yuma Heights Sanitarium.
out the fadl that the fable of John Phoenix's soldier and widely circulated tales
of the would-be humori^s have had more weight m forming the erroneous
opinions generally held of Yuma's climate than the experiences of residents
and the accumulated record of fadts and figures collecfted by the Weather
Bureau during twenty-five years.
"The weather we experience can neither be expressed in degrees Fahren-
heit nor put into figures for comparison with those of better known and more
humid climates, but is contingent upon preceding weather conditions and the
changes therefrom, diet and clothing being largely relative.
"Occasionally a visitor ^ops off at Yuma for a few days in midsummer,
who, having his sy^em fortified by a generous diet and wearing clothes for
protection again^ the cool wave always imminent in other localities, fairly siz-
zles in his own accumulated heat, and goes away to publish the fad that the
weather here nearly killed him.
"Again, thermometric readings do not express the temperature felt by ani-
mal life here. We might term these readings adual temperatures and the
sensation of heat or cold as felt by animal life the sensible temperatures.
Neither of these is reducible to the other except by the application of a coef-
ficient varying as the amount of humidity in the air.
"During twenty-six years the adtual temperature has risen upon some day in
June, July or Augu^ to maxima, on four occasions to 1 1 6 degrees, on three
occasions to 1 I 7 degrees, and once a temperature of I 1 8 degrees was re-
corded, h will be noted that these temperatures occurred only eight times in
twenty-six years, and we think the assertion safe that there was no suffering
or loss of dome^ic animals from the heat. An adtual temperature of 1 1 6 de-
grees was recorded upon June 24th, 1902, and men continued their work in
the harve^ fields without discomfort to themselves or the working stock, or
without even knowing that high temperatures were being recorded; yet during
the last six days of September of the same year people complained some of
the heat and the adtual maximum temperatures recorded upon those days were
each below 1 00 degrees. So it will be seen that conclusions drawn from
comparisons of Yuma's climatic figures with those of more humid climates.
East or West, are unreliable and misleading.
"The next question in the order asked is: 'Does it ever rain?' Yes; the
rainfall at Yuma is a shade under three inches per year, which is just about
enough to keep the dust laid.
" 'What about your frightful sand storms?' They are a myth. Occasionally
we have maximum wind velocities of thirty to forty miles per hour, and some
dust is raised, as would be the case elsewhere except upon the ocean, but
tornadoes are never known, and the continuance of wind storms is rarely
more than twelve hours, and buildings or trees are never injured by their
"With rarely any approach of closeness or sultriness, that condition so well
known and dreaded, Yuma, because of proximity to the Gulf of California,
also escapes that other extreme known as aridity, which so discomforts men or
animals and retards the development of plant life.
"With minimum temperatures rarely low enough to injure the most delicate
plants, with no frosts, Yuma basks m the sunshine of a winter as beauliful as
any in the world, and as the warm weather of summer approaches, the Gulf
of Californm gives us breezes as soft and cooling as ever rippled the Aegean,
or made music through the palms of the Ionian Isles."
Orange Avenue, Yuma.
S^ntl anb Probuflinns.
[Ejctradls from Reprint of Field Operations, Bureau of Soils, 1902, enti-
tled "Soil Survey of the Yuma Area, Arizona," by J. Garnett Holmes.]
LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES OF THE AREA.
The part of the Colorado River Valley covered by this survey occtp es
the extreme southwe^ern corner of Arizona. The area is a long, narrow ^rip
beginning at the Town of Yuma emd extending southwest along the Colorado
River. It is bounded on the east and south by a bluff or river terrace from
forty to sevent>'-five feet high that separates the bottom lands from a high,
level mesa. This mesa is cut by the river at Yuma and comes to within a
mile of the river just south of the limits of the survey. Across the river to the
northward is the State of California, and west of the river where it flows
nearly south is Lower California, a Territory of the Republic of Mexico. The
area comprises in all about 1 00 square mileS, or 63,469 acres.
PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.
The valley as a whole is a plain gently sloping to the southwest, broken
only by the local occurrence of sand dunes, gullies, lagoons, or old river beds.
These minor departures from grade interfere with agriculture chiefly in that
they make preparation for irrigation expensive. In some places, as in the areas
where sand dunes are mapped, economical cultivation is at present impractica-
ble, but most of the land requires very little leveling to prepare it for irrigation.
This area forms a part of the eastern upper end of the Colorado River
Delta. The entire valley is made up of sediments, and consists of a great
bed of sand, overlain and interstratifled with layers of finer material, left by
the river as it shifted its course from one side of the valley to the other. The
soils are not diredly traceable to the rock whence they were derived, as the
Colorado drains an immense area and has a great number of tributaries, any
one of which may be chiefly responsible, at different seasons, for the sediment
carried by this lower part of the ^eam. About seventy-five per cent of the
lands of the valley are overflowed and a layer of sediment added to the soil
each year. The deposition has been much greater near the present ^ream
Yuma Valley Corn Field.
Foster's Sprint Shop
Uhe Onltf Sxelusioe ^ob Sprinting Office in ^unia
Robert L. Morton
Jill DCinds of
Sarvti/iHg and Jl»saying
U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor
C. jO. Miekaon
Yuma Photo Co.
Viewing in any part of the County
neatly done on short notice.
Enlarging to order.
Kodaks and supplies for sale.
Kodak finishing for the trade.
Kodaks for rent free.
SfCain Street ^uaia. Jirizona
Opposite the Diew ^orA Store
The Insured Light Co.
924 Santa Monica Ave., Los Angeles, Cal.
We manufadlure all kinds of Hydro-carbon
Gas Machines, Systems, and Post Lamps
for street lighting and constru(5tion work; also
do novelty and model work.
Represented by Parks & Harris, Plumbers
Phone 102 : : : : : : : : Yuma, Arizona
Yuma Ice Co>
Manufadturers of Distilled
Bottlers of Soda Waters
and Agua Caliente Min-
Agents for Wieland and
YUMA . - ARIZONA
Scene at the Colorado River Landing, Foot of Main Street, Yuma.
bed than farther back, so that the lands immediately bordering the stream are
higher and covered by only a few mches of water durmg flood season, while
those farther back may in places stand under seven or eight feet of water.
The soils of the valley have a common origin, and therefore differ mainly
in texiure. As a result principally of this difference in texture the soils are
now found to contain widely varying amounts of soluble mineral matter and
humus. All of the soils, even the heaviest, are underlain at a few feet by
sand, which extends to unknown depths. This sand is in places quite coarse,
but the greater part is very fine and of the nature of quicksand. When this
very fine sand is found on the surface, it forms the fine sandy loam.
The following five types of soil were recognized: Imperial sand. Imperial
sandy loam, Gila fine sandy loam, Santiago silt loam, and Imperial loam.
The Imperial sand occupies about fourteen square miles, or 14.3 per cent
of the total area surveyed. It is found skirting the sandy mesa and in isolated
areas throughout that part of the valley that is not subjedted to overflow.
Excepting the dunesand phase of this soil, the surface is comparatively level.
Along the mesa the soil is formed diredly by the wearing down of the mesa,
the sand as the coarser produd of weathering being deposited along its base.
The other areas are of river sand that, unlike the same material over the
greater part of the valley, has no covering of finer sediment deposited upon it.
Every rainfall of any extent adds to the sand soil along the mesa, showing
plainly its process of formation.
The Imperial sand is a loose, mcoherent reddish-brown sand. Along the
mesa it is in places not more than three or four feet deep, underlain by a sandy
loam; the sandy loam subsoil representing the soil that was formed by the ad-
mixture of sand from the mesa and loam from the river when the overflow
reached the base of the mesa. The sand has since been deposited upon this
sandy loam. The adlion of the wind has transformed large areas of this valu-
able sand soil into dune lands, with sand dunes often from five to twenty feet
The co^ of leveling such land, with level land at the present prices, would
not pay, and the development of these rougher areas will naturally be post-
poned until the more level areas have been brought under cultivation and val-
ues have risen to a point that will warrant the inve^ment of the considerable
amount of money necessary to fit the soil for irrigation.
Alfalfa is the only crop that has been grown commercially upon this soil,
although it is an admirable soil for the growth of truck crops, such as sweet
potatoes, melons, onions, etc. Like most sandy soils, it is well drained and
free from alkali.
Slacking Hiy in Yuma Va!le)'.
IMPERIAL SANDY LOAM.
The Imperial sandy loam, like the Imperial sand, is situated principally in
the part of the valley not at present subject to overflow. The surface of this
soil is usually comparatively level, requiring very little work to prepare it for
irrigation. It has been formed by the admixture of sediment from the river
with coarser material transported from the higher land surrounding the valley.
This soil is a loose, friable brown sandy loam of good texture, easy to culti-
vate, and requiring little cultivation to maintain good tilth. It is usually under-
lain by sand at a depth of from three to four feet. In some places, however,
two or three feet of loam intervene between the soil and the sand subsoil.
The water table of the entire valley is high, being on an average but ten
feet below the surface, and this soil, owing to a high capillary power, has in
places accumulated considerable alkali. Not only has the soil a high capillary
power, but water moves through it quickly, making the total amount of water
evaporated from its surface quite large. For these reasons, if the soil is left
uncultivated the accumulation of alkali is rapid, but under cultivation with irri-
gation the accumulation is avoided by the presence of the surface mulch and
the ready leaching out of the salts.
Alfalfa, sorghum, barley, and kindred field cropjs sure the only ones that
have as yet been grown to any extent on this soil.
GILA FINE SANDY LOAM.
The Gila fine sandy loam is found in a long, narrow ^rip skirting the river,
and in other parallel ^rips which probably represent the margins of former
river courses. The surface is level and usually covered with a dense growth
of arrow weed, willows, etc, This soil is formed of the particles of sediment
first deposited by the overflow water, the finer particles of silt and clay being
carried farther inland or down^ream and deposited in stiller water.
The Gila fine sandy loam is a fine sand having the properties of a sandy
loam. The particles are nearly all of uniform size, making a soil of high cap-
illary power and one through which water not only moves long di^ances but
also with great rapidity. It is easily cultivated and remains in good tilth for a
long time. The surface soil is from three to twenty feet deep and is underlain
by a coarser river sand.
Owing to its high capillary power and the nearness of the water table to
trie surface over mo^ of the areas of this soil, the greater care mu^ be taken
to prevent the rise of alkali after the removal of the natural vegetation. With
proper care, however, it should be one of the mo^ produ<5tive soils of the
Crops of almoft any kind suited to the climate do exceptionally well on this
soil. Alfalfa is the principal crop grown. Very little of this soil is at present
DR. H. V. CLYMER
Rooms 52 and 53
Hours - - - 2:00 to 4:00
J. A. KETCHERSIDE
Physician for S. .P. Co.
Office: Baker Block
HENRI AP JOHN, M. D.
Physician and Surgeon
DR. J. F. TEUFERT
Room 5 1 Gandolfo Hotel W
Office Hours \
9 a. m. to 5 p. m.
DR. THOMAS J. PU(
Physician and Surgeor
Makes a specialty
of treating diseas-
es of women and
Office at Residence, on Main Street, 1
Third and Fourth. Phone No.
Wupperman & Wupperman
Notary Public. Typewriting
Offices: Wupperman Building i
Yuma - - - Arizona j
PETER T. ROBERTSON
Office in Cotter Building
Yuma - - - Arizona
C. L BROWN
New Candolfo Building
Yuma - - Arizona
TIMMONS & BAXTER
Pra(ftice in all the Courts of the Ter-
ritory. Special attention to Min-
ing and Land Laws
P. O. Box 401 . FirA Slreet. South Side
O. F. TOWNSEND
W. H. ELLIOTT
Deputy United States Mineral
Plans, EL^hmates and Surveys
R. R. THORNTON
Architedl and Superintendent
Plans and Specifications
made to order on
Office; FirSl Avenue and Orange Avenue
SANTIAGO SILT LOAM.
Like nearly all the other soils of the valley, the Santiago silt loam is com-
posed of deposits laid down by the Colorado River. It differs from the Gila
fine sandy loam only in that the particles of soil are finer being the intermedi-
ary soil between the Gila line sandy loam and the Imperial loam. It is well
decomposed, contains much organic matter, and is very rich in plant food.
The surface covering of grayish to dark-brown friable silt loam has a depth of
from eighteen to thirty inches and is underlain by fine sandy loam or sand.
Taking into consideration the shifting nature of the river and the fad that all
the overflow lands are con^antly subjedted to change, the exigence of areas of
this and other soils in the overflow part of the valley may not be at all perma-
nent. A few years of deposition of loam or sand, caused by a change in the
bed of the river, would be sufficient to obliterate present soil boundaries and
Only about six square miles of the Santiago silt loam were found m the val-
ley, the occurrence of the type being limited to a small di^ridt in the neigh-
borhood of the large bend in the river. This soil has a level surface and in
its natural condition is covered with wild hemp, arrow weed, annual grasses
and willows. A small proportion of the Santiago silt loam contains injurious
amounts of alkali and nearly all contains at lea^ a small amount.
None of this soil is now cultivated, but experience with like soil in other
Main Street Residence, Yuma.
regions has shown it to be well suited to all common field crops, as well as to
some special crops. It is on a similar soil in Orange County, California, that
mo^ of the celery produced in that County is grown, while it is one of the
mo^ important bean soils of Ventura County, in the same State.
The Imperial loam occupies by far the large^ proportion of the area sur-
veyed. Wherever the overflow water is comparatively ^ill for any length of
time this soil is deposited, and hence mo^ of it is found as a covering for the
other soils of the overflowed di^ri(5t. Its surface is comparatively level, except
for the intersecting gullies and channels. Should the overflow area be protedl-
ed by embankments, very little difficulty would be experienced in leveling the
entire area of this soil for irngat.on.
The Imperial loam is a ^icky, pla^ic, chocolate-brown loam, composed of
finely divided particles of mineral matter and a considerable proportion of or-
ganic matter. The surface soil ranges from one to six feet in depth and is
undedain by a coarse to fine sand. Much of the soil that is not overflowed
already contains an excessive amount of alkali, and wherever the soil is five
feet or more in depth the greatejt care must be exercised if future accumula-
tion is to be prevented. It is the soil most liable to become alkaline under
cultivation and irrigation.
Residence of P. B. Hodges, Orange Avenue, 'i uiii
Some small areas of this soil lying above high water have been successfully
cultivated to alfalfa, sorghum, and other field crops. The type is vs^ell adapt-
ed to the growing of wheat, corn, and alfalfa when cut for hay and not pas-
tured. When used for pasture the soil packs very hard and the alfalfa is
killed. At present the greater part of the area of this soil is overflowed annu-
ally and cannot be cultivated with any certainty of success until this water is in
some manner kept off.
There are other que^ions of great importance to be considered when farm-
ing is begun in interest, such as the kinds of crops to be grown and the rota-
tion to be followed so that the soils may retain their great fertility. The
Colorado River has often been called the Nile of North America. The sed-
iment carried by both these rivers is very rich in plant food, making it well-
nigh impossible to impoverish lands irrigated with their waters. Lands along
the Nile have been cropped for centuries, and yet when they receive their
full quota of rich sediment they produce crops m abundance. The climate of
the Upper Nile region and of this Lower Colorado River country are in many
ways similar, so that many of the crops which have thrived for centu-
ries in Egypt would no doubt prove profitable here. Already adtive ^eps
have been taken by the Department to introduce some of these crops. The
farmers of this di^ricft should do everything in their power to make these intro-
dudions a success, as they may mean the difference between success and fail-
ure of the agricultural indu^ry for much of this area.
It is on the overflowed part of the valley that especial care should be taken
in beginning cultivation and where particular study should decide the kind of
crops to be grown after the complicated problem of reclamation is solved. In
clearing the land of native vegetation care should be taken not to allow the
land to ^and without a covering of some kind unless cultivation is begun im-
The fir^ problem here is the control of the overflow water. Until this
water is effedlually in hand no farming worthy of the name can be done. To
control the overflow it will be necessary to con^rucfl a dike or levee along the
river, to connedt with the mesa land below, of such height and ^rength as to
keep out the river. As has been previously ^ated, the ground water of the
valley rises and falls with the river, and some places are now overflowed six to
eight feet. The confining of the river would cause it to rise higer in the chan-
nel, so that the ground water over the present overflowed part of the valley
would have several feet of head, thus bringing it near to or above the surface.
This would necessitate the in^allation of a drainage sy^em, with a pumping
plant at the lower end of the valley to lift the water above the levee and back
into the river. This leveeing and draining would be expensive, but since the
8d Sngram, ^. Jl. Donovan.
Yuma Land and Stock
Sncorporated under the
jOaws of jtrizona
Capital Stock, paid up
Importers of Holstein Cattle.
JACK DUNNE ED DUNNE
DUNNE BROTHERS, Proprietors
Yellowstone and Richland Rye Whiskey
International and Havana Cigars
otlj^ f uma iEimttng §>Ux
Published every day
at 40c a month.
'S'rr §i|nrpy Abnut 4lt.
Morns & lapia
. A. Duke
Ihe Best in
On We^ Side of Main Street
' - - ARIZONA
subsoil is usually quite porous the drains need not be close together, and the
natural fertility of the soil, together with the advantages of abundant water
and almo^ tropical climate, would certainly make such reclamation a paying
The date palm is generally conceded to be the crop which, by long culti-
vation in a similar region in Africa, has become peculiarly adapted to the
soils and climate of such an area as this. Date palms will thrive in soil having
as much as three per cent of alkali. Experiments are now being carried on
in the Salt River Valley to teit the Algerian date palms in Arizona, and the
present season some experiments will be made with Egyptian cotton in the
Colorado Delta. Other crops from parts of the globe with a similar climate
should be tried until a new agriculture, consi^ling of crops which it is impossi-
ble to grow in the colder part of the United States, shall be developed. Such
an indu^ry should yield to the farmers a revenue far greater than that now
derived from the almo^ exclusive growing of alfalfa and the raising of ^ock.
our.g i^aie r 'dim 1 ree at ^ uma.
Scene on Yuma Heights Fruit Ranch.
f uma I|ngl)t0 Jrutt Saurl|.
W. A. Cheney, Superintendent of the Yuma Heights fruit farm, furnishes
the following statement of the products of the farm:
Grape fruit, 300 boxes per acre.
Grapes (twenty pound crates), 4000 crates per acre.
Lemons, 400 boxes per acre.
Oranges, 300 boxes per acre.
Apricots, 4000 boxes per acre.
Figs, 4000 boxes per acre.
Cantaloupes (sixty to crate), I 00 crates per acre.
Cucumbers, 500 dozen per acre.
Tomatoes, 6000 per acre.
Watermelons, 1 000 per acre.
Squash, 8000 per acre.
All under irrigation, supply of water pumped from power house in town,
over two miles.
P^ara m\h (^mptB.
Judge Thacker, a prosperous farmer of Yuma Valley, says: "I have two
acres in Bartlett pears. The trees are. about eight years old. In 1903, 1 sold
from said orchard $550 worth of fruit; in 1904, $801 worth; in 1905,
$645 worth, besides having all I wanted for dome^ic use and preserving.
"I also have one-half acre in grapes, and sell from $300 to $325 worth
"Each year I have raised barley that threshed twenty-seven and one-half
sacks per acre, and alfalfa that cut ten tons per acre per annum."
3h? iatr f aim.
The date palm is known to have been one of the earlier trees cultivated
by man. Its hi^ory is coextensive with that of civilization itself. From time
immemorial it has been one of the greater boons nature has be^owed upon
Loading a Car oi Yuma Valley Honey tor Shipment.
the nomadic tribes of Southern Asia and Northern Africa. The Biblical
writer of the Book of Exodus, in the account of the wanderings of the Israel-
ites in the wilderness, says: "And they came to Elim, where were twelve
wells of water and three score and ten palm trees, and they encamped there
by the waters."
The date palm has been grown for many years m various portions of the
United States and Mexico. We are doubtless indebted to the early Mission
Fathers for its introdudlion to American soil. They planted the date palm at
the Catholic Missions from Florida to Mexico through Southern New Mexico,
Arizona and California, wherever climatic conditions were found favorable,
and the plantings of those early days remain until the present time, in Sonora,
and are ^ill producing a good quality of fruit.
Row of New Cottages on Third Avenue.
The Mexicans of Sonora are wont to say: "El datil es el arbol de pouve-
nir"~"The date is the tree of the future." And truly it is the tree of the future
for Southern Arizona. The climate conditions here are so similar to those of
the regions where the date is known to flourish, there is a fair prosped; that
date culture will become an important indu^ry of the arid regions of the
The date palm has been grown at Yuma for more than forty years, and
THE BEST ALWAYS
CHAN & CHAS. SING
YOU DON'T NEED
how we make mother's
bread as it is made to
sell and is a self adver-
tiser. Try it once and
you'll become a customer
E. A. Ingram, Prop.
J. H. WILLIS
P. 0. Box 955
Modesti Bldg., Main and First
Sanguinetti Bldg., Main and Second
8d and SBen 3iodqes. S^roprielors.
Remodeled and Refurnished
Throughout by the New Man-
agement. The Dining Room Is
Now the Fine^ One in Yuma,
and We Invite the Public Pat-
ronage. Dining Room Open at
All Hours until 7 p. m. Lunch
Room Open All Night. Free
Sample Room in Connexion.
jlbstracts and Certificates of Uitle.
Only Complete Set of
Hotel Gandolfo Building, Yuma
Jlbstraet SBooAs in '2/uma County.
Uhos. 2>. SKolloy,
SPltone Dlo. 94 '^uma. jlrizona
M. S. Darling
2)arling's Siargain Store
Sc and ICe Counters
Watch Inspecftor S. P. Ry. Co.
Second Street, 5-ive 2)oors TDest of
*l)uma : : : jlrizona
some of these early plantings have been bearing for nearly twenty years.
Numerous specimens of bearing date trees may be seen in and around Yuma.
It will grow upon nearly all kinds of soils where there is sufficient irrigation
and the requisite amount of heat. Lean sandy soils of the desert with a small
percentage of clay and charged with alkaline salts are the be^ for date culture.
The amount of fruit produced in a single season by Arizona seedlings seven
years old is recorded as upwards of 200 pounds. A large experiment garden
has been e^ablished at Yuma under the auspices of the University of Arizona,
in which are being grown many varieties of dates from Spain, Persia, Arabia,
and other date centers of the Old World. This garden, planted less than a
year ago, in a few years will be one of the showplaces of Yuma.
Stacks of Yuma Valley Hay.
®b^ f uma (Eii-ii^trrattitr i3at^ Orrbarft
The United States Department of Agriculture has undertaken, in co-opera-
tion with the Territory of Arizona, a series of investigations upon various relat-
ed subjects, such as that of grazing, a study of Colorado River water, and the
importation and culture of the date palm. The latest co-operative work un-
dertaken IS that relating to the date palm, the Department agreeing to provide
imported off-shoots of desirable varieties of date palms, the Arizona Station
agreeing to provide for their subsequent care.
in accordance with this arrangement, an orchard was established at Tempe
some years ago. In extension of the work at Tempe, a new co-operative or-
chard, on similar lines, was started one mile southwest of Yuma, in the flood
Yuma Date Palm Tree, Loaded With Ripened Fruit.
plain of the Colorado River, in May, 1905. An appropriation of $1300
was granted in March, 1905, by the Twenty-third Legislative Assembly, and
ground was broken May 1, 1905, on a most desirable tract of seven an.d
one-fifth acres generously donated for this purpose by Mr. O. F. Townsend,
Secretary of the Yuma County Chamber of Commerce, of Yuma.
Three consignments from Algeria, Tunis, Egypt and Persia, numbering I 52
trees, in fifty-eight varieties, were planted in May and June, and have made
S'hone 2S 9. G. S3ox 2S 7
P. B. Hodges & Co.,
TOholesale and Sletail SDea/er.s in
Jill JCinda of ^resh
and Cured Sfleata
^re,sA ^ish and Oys-
ters in Season
Gandolfo Hotel Bidg., Yuma, Ariz.
IS fa^ taking rank
with the better known
camps of the Territory.
the Hecla Mining
Company and the
Company are among
the mo^ prominent
of the adtive mines of
the di^icft. These
companies all have
their offices m Yuma,
and buy their supplies
and material there.
3(. C. 3iaupt. President
2). J2. S'e'Vane. Secretarti
directors: 3i. C. Siaupt. 2). J2. 2)eVane, S- S. 2)evine. S. 5i. Sleese,
3. S- SKartin. 9eo. Slarable. f^ffwp.s SBizze/ and 8. S- Carulhers
Sidewalk, Building and other concrete work
10. e. Sreene. J! ^. SKoson,
S^re&ident. Seneral Silanager.
Sir Richard 2nd, Anxiety 4th, Lord Wilton
and Grove 3rd drains predominating
Larger Herd in the United States.
Every Animal of Pronounced Beef Type.
Well Known All Over America as the Colin
Cameron Regi^ered Hereford Herd.
CHOICEST ISLAND STRAINS
Regi^ered in Island and American Stud Books.
Unequalled for Children.
Prices Made on Application,
COLIN CAMERON, Tucson, Arizona
satisfadtory progress since that time. After planting, alfalfa was sown between
the rows of date trees.
It is believed that the demon^ration of early commercial varieties in this or-
chard, which represents several millions of acres of Colorado flood plain and
delta lands, will have noteworthy influence upon the development of this region.
A small cottage has been built on the ground, and Mr. Ed L. Crane is in
charge of the orchard.
ARIZONA GOVERNOR'S DATE PALM REPORT.
In the last annual report of the Secretary of the Interior, Governor Kibbey,
of Arizona, had the follov^ng to say of date palms and their culture in the
For six years past the Arizona Station, m co-operation with the United
States Department of Agriculture, has been engaged in the establishment of
the most valuable old-world varieties of date palms in Arizona. The Tempe
date orchard, with twelve acres planted, now contains about 600 living trees,
including 1 00 varieties. The oldest of them, planted in July, 1 900, has pro-
duced three small crops of fruit, and this year (1905) about twenty varieties
are bearing. As these sele(fled trees come into bearing under Southwestern
conditions it will be possible to judge of the varieties best suited to the climate
and soil of the region as well as to our commercial and market requirements.
The Tempe orchard has already demonstrated the practicability of import-
ing and planting choice varieties of date palms on a large scale, and opera-
tions there will serve as a guide in the seledtion of trees for the planting of
commercial orchards in the future. Several kinds have already been found to
successfully ripen their fruit in the Salt River Valley, while others have been
observed not to mature their fruit with the heat there available. The later
varieties may be found suitable for hotter distrids, such as Salton Basin, while
the earliest kinds may be found available for still cooler localities than near
Tempe. It is now certain that the date palm is destined to be a valuable as-
set in the arid, sub-tropical valleys of the Southwest, producing a staple com-
mercial fruit now entirely imported from foreign countries.
During the current year another orchard has been started near Yuma, in
the alljvial bottom lands of the Colorado River. In this very favorable loca-
tion it is not unlikely that the commercial outcome will be even better than at
Yuma Valley Residence.
Tempe, the soil being unsurpassed in quality, water abundant and the season
longer than at Salt River Valley.
It is of interest in this connedtion to note the points of resemblance between
the Colorado and the Nile, whose valley has been the home of the date palm
from time immemorial. Both rivers rise in the distant mountainous countries,
their lower courses traverse sub-tropical and rainless deserts, and they empty
into land-locked arms of the ocean at a little less than thirty-two degrees north
latitude. Like the Nile the Colorado is subjedt to an annual summer flood,
which overflows great areas of its alluvial border and delta lands. While cli-
matic conditions along the Colorado are somewhat less severe than in Lower
Egypt, yet the two regions have a number of produdts in common. Among
these are Alfalfa, wheat, the sorghum cane, the date palm, fig, olive, orange
and pomegranate, cotton, melons and sugar cane.
The success attending the culture of dates at Tempe, showing the encour-
aging harve^ of two years ago, led up to their introducftion not only in the
Imperial Valley proper, but also at the north end, at Mecca. That success is
certain is felt, with all the pa^ hi^ory of success in dates at Yuma and at
Hanlon's, at the canal intake.
NUTS FOR THE OLD TIME DESERT.
The Bureau of Plant Indu^ry has ju^ begun to furnish California and Ari-
zona with millions of seeds and sprouts of the pistachio tree, an innovation
which, to California and Arizona, is equally as important as the introduction
in that region of the orange, the Tokay, Malavoise, and the Muscat grapes
and the olive.
The planting of pistachio trees in Southern California and Arizona is con-
sidered more important even than the recent introduction of dates into this
Territory. The pistachio nut now grows in Arabia, Persia, Egypt and Tur-
key. It is about the size of an almond. The meat is green, and of delicate
and appetizing flavor. The Arabs, Persians and Turks think a lamb, duck,
chicken, turkey or goose roaited and buffed with pi^achios a rare delicacy,
and those Europeans who have eaten of such dishes pronounce them une-
It is, however, used more extensively as an ingredient of candies, sherbets,
sweets, ice cream and pa^ry. It became known generally in this country at
the World's Fair at Chicago, at which time it was introduced as one of the
ingredients of Turkish nougat candy. It is the higher priced nut in the
American market, coding twice as much as the coitlie^ papershell pecans and
three times as much as the be^ almonds.
The advantages of the pi^achio nut is that it is a desert growth. It sends
forth a long tap root, which Srikes deep below the soil to the moisture under-
lying desert sands. The introduction of dates in Arizona put miles of waste
land into profitable use, but the date will r.ot thrive too far from streams or
wells. The pistachio tree will grow in the hot, arid desert, and will yield
from $800 to $ 1 000 an acre.
In getting these nuts for planting, the Bureau of Plant Industry found a su-
perior variety, with kernels twice as large as those of ordinary almonds. The
Bureau has 500 young pistachio trees in Arizona, and is planting several mil-
lion more.— Washington Post.
A BIG POTATO.
In the season of I 903 George Crowley, Yuma Valley, grew a sweet po-
tato which weighed 42 3-4 pounds. It was so big that it would not go into
the mouth of a barley sack. This potato was on exhibition for some weeks
PROFIT IN ALFALFA.
On his ranch about twelve miles below Yuma, W. H. DeBerry has one
40-acre field of alfalfa from which, during the season of 1903, he cut 160
tons of hay, which sold in Yuma for $1 1.50 per ton. He also harvested
from the same piece 6700 pounds of alfalfa seed, which he sold for thirteen
cents per pound. On the same forty he pastured eighty head of cattle for
six months, the going price for such pasture being one dollar per steer per
month. The total income from this forty acres for the twelve months was
$3181, or $79.53 per acre.
Bert L. Nunnaley has a ranch near the river, eleven miles below Yuma.
During the year 1902 Mr. Nunnaley had about 1-3 of an acre of sweet po-
tatoes. This crop had but one irrigation, yet he harve^ed ninety-five sacks,
weighing 1 05 pounds each, which he sold in Yuma for 1 1 -2 cents per
pound. Income, 1-3 acre, $149.63.
IDEAL GRAPE CONDITIONS.
Conditions about Yuma are ideal for raisin growing. TTie vine produces
well and the grower is absolutely certain that weather conditions will be favor-
able for drying. In California a considerable per cent of the late crop is lo^
because of fall rains. Yuma almo^ never has any rain during the grape season.
LEMONS AND LIMES.
Grape fruit, figs, the lemon and the date palm are now producing at Yuma,
and the produdl is truly wonderful. Yuma lemons have a higher percentage
of juice and acidity than those of any other region in the world. During all
the time that Americans have lived in this region, say fifty years, no frost has
occurred to severely injure the lemon or orange trees. Lemons and limes re-
quire a more moderate climate and a higher winter temperature than any othe
Tule Laguna, in Yuma Valley.
W. C. Horan's Stage Line
Stages Leave for:
Leonard's Camp at 8:30 a. m.
C. D. Co/s at 8:30 a. m.
Picacho at 7:00 a. m.
Laguna Dam at 8:00 a. m.
Telephones: Office 78, Barn 90
Office, corner Main and Jones Sts.
Mo^ Desirable Residence
Location m Yuma. Lots are
cheap and can be purchased
on easy terms.
Apply to JNO. M. SPEESE, Yuma, Ariz.
THE EYES OF THE WORLD
Are looking to the Great SouthweS, and Yuma County, Arizona,
Is the Garden Spot of that favored Sedlion. Here are
No fogs, no freezes, no bad ^orms, no droughts,
No crop failures from any cause.
Here the skies are clear, the sunshine bright, the climate
Like spring-time all the time, except a few
Warm days in summer time, when the heat is more tolerable then
Than in more humid sections North and Ea^.
Here the soil is as rich and produdlive
As that of the famous delta of the Nile.
Two cereal crops per year are easy,
And quite the usual thing.
Likewise eight to ten cuttings per year of Alfalfa,
Besides pumpkins and watermelons galore.
Not to speak of citrus and orchard fruits and berries.
Dates, pomegranates, and pomelos.
Yuma County fruit and truck growers ship
From two to six weeks ahead of California growers.
And get top prices in the markets; Yuma County oranges bring
$3.00 more per box in New York City than the California produdl.
Yuma County took fir^ prizes on Wheat, Alfalfa, Lemons, and Grape-fruit,
At the World's Fair at St. Louis; and la^ but not leaft,
Yuma County has under conSrucftion by the U. S. Reclamation Service
A Great Irrigation Sy^em to co^ $3,000,000.00.
If you don't believe all this, come and see for yourself.
Or take our word for it, and vsaite for prices of lands.
Address, THE YUMA EXCHANGE AND REALTY CO.,
Room 1 8, New Gandolfo Building, Yuma, Arizona.
species of the citrus family, and they are more sensitive to climatic changes
than any other fruits. Yet long years of experience in the door yards and or-
chards of Yuma prove that here are found ail the requisites for the successful
cultivation of both.
CONTROLS THE RAINFALL.
It is not too extravagant to say that in this Valley man harvests his rainfall,
as he does his crops, and uses it when he needs it. In this Valley each man,
as it were, lets the rain come on his farm when he wants it, and turns it off
when he has had enough.
The li^ of fruits that can be successfully grown in the vicinity of Yuma is a
very long one. As especially desirable for profit to the producer, the follow-
ing may be mentioned: Apricots, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, nedarines,
grapes, pomegranates, almonds, olives, oranges, lemons, limes and grape fruit.
Alfalfa is the moA certain crop grown in the world; it never fails and is al-
ways marketable. Once seeded, it grows year after year, for how long is not
known. The olde^ field near Yuma is twelve years old, and as good as ever.
COTTON AS AN EXPERIMENT.
The Experiment Station proposes to raise cotton in Arizona and the exper-
iments along this line will be made under the auspices of the University. A.
Y. Greer will have charge. The place seleded for cotton growing is near
Yuma. The Government owns some land in the we^ern pau-t of Yuma,
which is being used by the Experiment Station of this city. It is proposed to
plant this tradl in Egyptian cotton, which is a very high grade, long-fibre cot-
ton. This produd brings top-notch prices and can be grown on a very small
area. It is native to the Nile country and has never been successfully grown
elsewhere, consequently the experiments will be watched with unusual intere^.
There is every prospecft, however, that the cotton will thrive near Yuma, as
shown by experiments which have been made there during the pa^ three
years by Thomas H. Kearney, who has been in the employ of the Govern-
ment during that time. Mr. Kearney planted three acres to Egyptian cotton
and a fine yield resulted. Then, to see if the cotton was like that grown in
the Nile country, he took some to Cairo, Egypt, and there obtained a top-
notch price from a cotton buyer, who ^ated that he supposed the cotton to
have been grown in the Nile country, as it was of an unusually high grade.
The experiments la^ year were a failure, owing to the overflow of the river,
which washed everything away.
If cotton growing at Yuma proves a success, it will mean much for that re-
gion, as cotton can be marketed readily for cash. The Experiment Station
will make a thorough demon^ation.— Tucson Citizen.
In February, 1 905, Mr. J. W. Alexander, who farms on W. H. Lyon's
ranch, planted some yellow seed corn which he had brought from Missouri.
He gathered corn from this planting the latter part of July, and immediately
planted seed of this new corn. The la^ of November he gathered corn
raised from the seed grown from the fir^ planting. A fine heavy yield was
gathered from both plantings.
Baled Hay in Yuma Valley.
The que^ion of the produdiveness of irrigated lands has long ago been set-
tled in the affirmative. No portion of the country where the farmer depends
on rainfall can compare with that in which he is absolute ma^er of the mois-
"The Quality Store"
T|iirt, ^rbaffnrr Sc Harx (Elnthtug
^trtfiim auft ICtnu l^atB
l^auau m\h llalk-(§urr i^Iuira
2. auft M. (Enllara
Cheap for Cash Only!
Now Placed on the Market for the First Time
This Addition is located upon a
high, level prominence overlooking
the old Town of Yuma on the
north, the verdant Valley of the
Colorado on the we^, and the green
banks of the Gila River on the ea^,
at an elevation of about 89 ft. above
the valleys and the old townsite.
For further information apply to T. A. White, Box 363, Yuma, Arizona
Old Government Hermitage
Wines, Liquors and Cigars
Agent for Anheuser-Busch Beer
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ •
Stoffela Building, Main Street, Yuma, Arizona
Pioneer Livery and
Main Street - - - Yuma, Arizona
^ Livery, Trucking and Hauling of All Kinds
^ We make a Specialty of Outfitting for Long Trips
Phones 47 and 48 Phones 47 and 48
Field of ^ oung Corn in Yuma Valley.
In all irrigated countries the soil produdts are rich in nutritive values. This
seems to be part and parcel of plant and grain growth.
Some sections are more adapted to stock fattening than others, perhaps, be-
cause of an added richness in the food, but the greater contributing cause is
the climatic conditions. All that portion of Arizona adjacent to Yuma, and
subject to irrigation by the waters of the Colorado River, as diverted by the
United States Government Dam at Laguna, is specially adapted for ^ock fat-
tening, for both the foregoing reasons.
The silt of the Colorado River carries a fertilizing value each year of $3.57
per acre, as determined by repeated Government analyses, insuring for all time
the same nutritious food grown today.
The mo^ convincing proof that the climate could not be improved upon is
in the fadt that for year after year cattle have been fattened here for the Los
Angeles and San Francisco markets, and the critical buyers bear evidence
that, not only is the beef as good, but that it is made in less time than in any
other portion of Arizona. 1 his would be the theoretical conclusion, and it is
corroborated by adtual trial in the feed lots and pa^ure fields.
Another point of advantage to the Yuma irrigated land as a fattening cen-
ter is its proximity to the be^ breeding ground of the world—that is, the bor-
derland of Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, from which cattle can
always be had at Kansas City prices less the freight.
These ranges of Arizona are now producing cattle not surpassed anywhere.
The largest pedigreed registered Hereford herd in America is located in this
borderland. Established in 1 882 by Colin Cameron, it has been continuously
owned by him until sold, in 1 903, to Colonel W. C. Greene. The winners
at the Chicago and Kansas City fat stock shows, as well as at Denver, have
been range raised cattle. The phenomenal gains made by the Denver win-
ners on beet pulp and alfalfa will be greatly surpassed when the Government
irrigating works, new well under way, are completed.
The Cananea Cattle Company offers not only pure bred cattle, but the
best class of steers for maturing on the rich feed of the Yuma Valley farms.
It is said that hiAory repeats itself. In the days long gone by, Yuma was
the principal diolributing point for all Arizona. That was before the advent
of "the Black Horse Cavalry''~the railroad. Goods were shipped by ocean
Reamer via the Gulf of California to the mouth of the Colorado River; thence
by steamboat up the Colorado to Yuma and other points north as far as Nee-
dles. The greater portion was landed at Yuma, and from here it was freight-
ed in immense freight wagons by from ten to twenty mule teams across the
stretches of cacftus and sand to Tucson and other Arizona points.
Freighting and steamboating were profitable industries m the good old days.
A new era dawned when the first Southern Pacific train pulled into Yuma,
on December I 5th, 1878.
At present, Yuma is dependent for transportation chiefly upon the Southern
Pacific Railroad. From El Paso, this route lies by way of Tucson, down the
Gila Valley to Yuma, where it crosses the Colorado River, and proceeds
westward to Los Angeles and the Pacific Coa^.
Another trans-continental line will some day be built through Yuma, for the
reason that this is the mo§t direcft route from the Ea^ to the WeS, and be-
cause the beit available crossing on the Colorado River is at Yuma. The
Rock Island and the Gould intere^s have long been seeking a terminal point
on the Pacific, and will some day get it— doubtless at San Diego. Knowing
this, a road conne<fling Yuma and San Diego has been projedted and sur-
veyed, and at no di^ant day will be built—that or some other. It will be im-
possible to keep San Diego bottled up always, and Yuma and San Diego
will yet clasp hands and rejoice together.
A branch of the Santa Fe quite recently has been built through the north-
ern portion of Yuma County, from Wiclcenburg in a southwe^erly diredlion to
a crossing on the Colorado River some miles above Yuma. Several thriving
new towns have sprung up on this road. Among these are Parker, where
the road crosses the river, and Wendendale. This will further the more rapid
development of the mining* mtere^s of Yuma County.
The building of the dam, and the diversion of the water for irrigation, will
close the Colorado River to navigation. It is anticipated that a line of rail-
road from Parker to Yuma will be found not only advisable but necessary,
and what ought to be will be. Then will hi^ory repeat itself, and Yuma will
One of the Big Colofado River Steamers.
again be a great di^ributing point, and will be— not in prospecfl but in fad—the
Gate City of the Great Southwe^.
A NEW RAILROAD.
Late news is to the effed that definite plans have been formed that will
give San Diego the eastern railway outlet she has so long coveted. The El
Paso and Southwestern, which is now completed between El Paso and Ben-
son, is controlled by the Copper Qyeen management. This concern has a line
from Phoenix to Florence, and it is stated that the connecting link will be com-
pleted in the near future. It is then proposed, it is alleged, to build on through
to the coast, with San Diego as a terminal; and it is further stated that the
management is confident of completing the line within two years. There is no
question as to the ability of the company to furnish funds for the enterprise,
the Phelps-Dodge Company, owners of the El Paso and Southwestern, hav-
ing the immense revenues of the Copper Queen mines and smelters of Bisbee
and Douglas at their command. The parent road, the El Paso and South-
western, is unique in standing among railroads in the fact that it bears not a
dollar of indebtedness in bonds or otherwise. With the driving of the last
spike the last dollar owing by it was paid.
As has been previously shown, two routes have been under consideration
by this road to the coa^; one from Benson, its present terminal, to Phoenix,
Yuma and San Diego by way of Imperial, and an alternative route from Fair-
banks, nine miles we^ of Tomb^one, direcflly we^ to Yuma and Imperial,
thence on to San Diego. The la^ named route has been reconnoitered for
the second time within the pa^ year, and in view of the ^rong hold over the
Phoenix territory held by the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific sy^ems, it would
seem the more likely route of the two to be adopted by the El Paso and
Southwe^ern in its march to the coa^ for the acquisition of the coming orien-
tal traffic—Arizona Sentinel.
"ALEXANDRIA OF THE AMERICAN NILE."
Because of the similarity of soil, produdions, climate and topography, "Yu-
ma Valley" has frequently been likened to the delta of the Nile, and the Col-
orado River to the great river of Egypt. A writer in the Los Angeles Times,
referring to these fads, predidted that at the Needles would be built another
Cairo, and that Yuma would be the Alexandria of the American Nile. Be
that as it may, no other town of Arizona, or, indeed, of the Great Southwe^,
is so admirably located for the making of a city as Yuma.
Qyeen of the desert, she sits enthroned upon an oasis overlooking the mighty
and my Serious Colorado. She has no rival town nearer than Tucson, 250
miles on the eaS, and Los Angele, 248 miles on the we^; and because of the
advantages of her location, never will have.
As the population of the County increases, and as its resources, agricultural,
mineral, and otherwise, reach greater development, other towns will spring up.
ALEXANDER & CO.,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN
Corner Third Street and Madison Avenue
We also carry the best brands of Liquors, Cigars, etc ^ Special
attention given to all outside orders. ^ Give us a call and we will
make you welcome, and also show you the fine^ ftock of goods in
the ccajntry, at prices to suit you. ^ Don't forget the number—
PHONE 66 PHONE 66
SOLE AGENTS FOR =^=
Alhambra Water, John Deere Farming Implements, Lightning
Hay Presses and Engines, besides Specialties
on Numerous Other Articles.
MAIN STREET, BRANCH STORE
Between 2d and 3d. Phone 31 Fort Yuma, Cal. Phone 24
Jose M. Molina
DRY GOODS, CLOTHING, GROCERIES,
PROVISIONS, SEEDS. BARLEY, HAY AND
GRAIN. GLASSWARE. CROCKERY, HARD-
WARE AND MINERAL SUPPLIES
^ n ^
■^ The Cheapen Business House in the Place. ^ Goods
Delivered to Railroad Depots, Steamer Landings and to any
other place in the city free of charge.
FRANK KELSO JOHN L. BALSZ
The Arizona Club
Kelso & Balsz, Proprietors
Di^ributors of the Greater
lowstone"— the Only Barrel
Goods We Handle. All
the leading brands in Case
Goods. Imported and
Dome^ic Cigars. Pab^
Blue-Ribbon Bottle Beer.
Wieland's Beer on Draught.
NEAR S. P. DEPOT ■ - YUMA, ARIZONA
on all sides of Yuma, and they will grow and become prosperous centers of
trade, but none of them will be rivals— they will all be under tribute to Yuma.
Yuma is now, and has been for years, the base of supplies for a large
scope of country, and already does an extensive wholesale as well as retail
trade. The volume of business done here in a year is well up toward the
million mark, and the demands of trade are constantly growing.
NEARNESS TO COAST RESORTS.
It does not require the ken of a seer to foresee, along with the completion
of the Panama Canal, and the development of Northern Sonora, the building
of a railroad line from Yuma to the Gulf of California. Some far-sighted
Huntington will then build a net-work of tradlion lines to the gulf, and give
Yuma a coast resort within easy reach. Everybody in the West knows of the
immense importance to Los Angeles of the near-by beach resorts.
YUMA'S FUTURE GREATNESS.
The future of Yuma is secure. The splendid courage of the people who
have held on through all those trying years when Government irrigation was
only a dream, their abiding faith in the possibilities of the soil, and their unfal-
tering confidence in the permanency and importance of Yuma as the center of
the commercial activity of this se<5tion, are the stable foundations of her future
greatness. There are men in Yuma who have made all they have, and have
inve^ed all they have made, in Yuma. Yuma's intere^s are their intere^s,
and they will ^and or fall with her. iMany of these "old timers" have not a
dollar inve^ed outside of Yuma County. Many others, in later years, have
come here with money, and have become as prominently and permanently
identified with the material intere^s and advancement of Yuma County, as
those to the manor born. These have shown their faith in the future of Yuma
by making large and permanent inve^ments.
A YEAR'S GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT.
Yuma has had no boom, as yet; though there has been a steady influx of
people into Yuma and vicinity, who, with few exceptions, have acquired per-
manent holdings, and are constantly adding to their investments. The growth
of the town in the past year has been constant and of a substantial chara<5ter.
Real estate has more than doubled in valuation. The mesa south of the bus-
iness sedion, which was bare and broken a year ago, is now dotted with
pretty cottage homes environed in flowers and clinging vines. A year or two
ago there was one principal residence street, with only a few good houses on
that. It was wide and bordered with orange and pepper trees, and called
Orange Avenue, but had no sidewalks until the past six months. Orange
Avenue now has sidewalks its entire length, to the corporate limits of the
town. Other streets, notably Second Avenue and Third Street, have been
cut through, graded and leveled. Main Street is now^ supplied with concrete
sidewalks from one end to the other. The spirit of improvement is abroad,
and there will be nothing to hinder its onward march.
YUMA'S PUBLIC SCHOOL.
Bonds in the sum of $35,000 have been authorized by vote of the prop-
erty holders, to aid m building a fine new public school to cost $50,000.
Yuma has an excellent corps of teachers under the supervision of one of the
most capable and energetic school superintendents in the Territory. With the
handsome quarters in contemplation, and the splendid equipment to be pro-
vided, Yuma will have a school system second to none in the Territory.
People looking to Yuma for a future home may come assured of the best
common and high school advantages for their children.
There is also a free reading room in Yuma, kept up by contributions, under
the auspices of the Total Abstinence League. This will in time give place
doiibtless to a public library.
THE YUMA WOMAN'S CLUB.
One of the sub^antial and useful in^tutions of Yuma is "The Yuma
Woman's Club," composed of thirty-five of the leading ladies of town. This
View of a Secflion of Yuma Along llie Colorado River.
Looking Down Main Street, Yuma.
is a literary, social and civic club, which, besides contributing much to the
social life of the town, has grown to be a power in all that concerns its edu-
cational, social and moral interests.
The adivity of the Civic Department of this club has resulted in a cam-
paign for a "cleaner Yuma." The principal ^eets are now supplied with
trash cans, and a city ordinance compels their use, and likewise prohibits ex-
ped orating on the sidewalks. As ladies vote in school eledions in the Terri-
tory, they generally hold the balance of power— and use it— to the great
advantage of the schools, and Yuma is not an exception to this rule.
The Yuma Woman's Club is urging the improvement of a city park, tree
planting, flower culture, and many other measures that will add to the beauty
of the town, and to its desirability as a place to make a home.
FRATERNAL ORDERS IN YUMA.
The fraternal orders are nearly all represented by flourishing lodges.
Among these are the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Workmen,
Fore^ers, Red Men, Eagles, Elks, Woodmen, Good Templars and the Span-
ish-American Alliance. These orders do a va^ amount of good work in their
lines, and the fadt that these orders each include a large membership is fairly
indicative of the character of the citizenship to be found here.
The Workman Lodge owns a handsome building with hall on second floor,
the lower floor being fitted up as flats for rent. The Knights of Pythias are
planning the erecftion of a Caitle Hall on a site owned by them. The Elks
own a fine lot in the business center of town, and will some day build a hand-
some lodge home. Members of these orders who contemplate coming to
Yuma may be assured in advance of finding congenial fraternal affiliations.
YUMA'S BUSINESS INDUSTRIES.
The present business life of Yuma is
Barber Shops 5
Billiard Hall 1
Boot and Shoe Shops 3
Broom Fadory 1
Cigar Fadtory 1
Concrete Con^udlion Company _ 1
Crockery and Glassware Dealers 4
Drug Stores 2
Eledlric Light Plant 1
Furnishing Goods Stores 4
Grocery Stores 10
Hardware Stores 4
Hotels __- 3
Laundry (Steam) 1
Livery Stables 2
Lumber Yards 2
Meat Markets 4
Millinery Stores 3
News and Stationery Stores 2
Newspapers (Weekly) 3
Oil, Paint and Glass Dealers 3
Photographic Studios 2
Plumbers and Tinsmiths 3
Soda and Bottling Works 2
Telephone Sy^em I
Truck and Transfer Lines 3
Watchmakers and Jewelers 3
Wells-Fargo Express 1
Wholesale and Retail General Stores.
Blacksmith Shops 3
Brick Yard 1
Candy Fadlories 2
Civil Engineers 3
Cold Storage Plants 4
Contradors and Builders 6
Dry Goods Stores 6
Fruit and Cigar Stands 5
Furniture Stores 2
Ice Plant I
Lodging Houses 4
Massage and Manicuring Parlor. 1
Merchandise Broker 1
Monthly Magazine 1
Newspapers (Daily) 2
Newspaper and Job Offices 4
Painters and Paper Hangers 4
Pumping Plants 3
Real Eftate Agents 10
Retail Stores, Many
Second Hand Store I
Stage Lines 2
Toy Dealers 5
We^ern Union Telegraph 1
f uma 3lu&tan S^s^ritctttnn.
The Yuma Indian Reservation is juS across the Colorado River on the
California side. No inconsiderable amount of trade comes to Yuma from these
people. They are very good workers, earn good w^ages—the men as common
laborers, the women as hired servants or washer women—and, as they have
few ideas of accumulating property, or saving money, what they make is freely
spent, flr^ for the bare necessities of life, then for whatever ^rikes their fancy.
They revel in bright colors, and their ityle of coatume varies only m the kalei-
doscopic color combinations used in making them.
Among the familiar and pidluresque sights on the Greets of Yuma are the
Indians who come over from the Reservation to sell their wares— beadwork,
toys and curios of many kinds. The groups of squaws with their wares spread
out in the yard at the passenger depot is a source of intere^ and amusement
to the touri^s going through on the train. The impression of Yuma produced
is not always favorable, as it seems incongruous to associate such scenes with
an up-to-date, modern town.
The Indians are gradually learning the ways of the white man— not always
an improvement on the ways of the Indian. Through the good work of the
Indian schools, the generation now growing up are learning the arts of peace
and indu^y. The mo^ of them are ChriSianized, and there is comparatively
little immorality among them.
The Yuma Indian Reservation comprises a fine body of tillable land that
will come under the Yuma Proje(5t. It is expecfted that before many months
a home^ead will be allotted to each Indian, and the residue of the land
thrown open for settlement. All this territory, v/hen opened and settled, will
be tributary to Yuma.
SII|^ iffnrt f uma Slufttau ^dtnnL
An inSitution that contributes no small amount to Yuma is the Fort Yuma
Indian School. This is a Government in^itution, and aside from the good it
is doing in civilizing the Indians of the surrounding country, it should, and does,
receive the hearty support of the community as a' business proposition. The
cash payments by the Superintendent amount to about $2000 per month, be-
sides many extra payments m the way of new buildings, etc. Ju^ now ad-
vertisements are out for about $10,000 worth of building material. A very
large part of this money finds its way into the business channels of Yuma.
The school brings a number of officials and others here every year, and in
this way helps to advertise the country. A number of the employes have
made permanent investments in the town and country. The school is one of
the points of intere^ to touriSs and other visitors.
One particular service (of many) that this school has done for the commu-
nity, might be mentioned the absolute proof by demon^ation that the wor^
alkali ground here can be reclaimed and made to be the mo^ produdtive; and
with no other aid than Colorado River water. A few years ago the Super-
intendent decided that he mu^ have at lea^ a small school farm. The only
Fort Yuma Indian School Buildings and Grounds
available ground near the school was the alkali flat at the foot of the hill. This
looked like a pretty hard proposition, and there were memy to prophesy that
nothing could ever be grown there; but the Superintendent had faith. He in-
^alled a pump, leveled the land and began operations. The firit year little
was raised, but by sy^ematic and scientific leaching, the alkali was soon con-
quered, and now there is no more fertile soil m the whole valley.
While there is not a great deal of alkali in the Colorado Valley, there are
some spots. None are worse, few as bad, as the Indian School ground was
before cultivation began. In^ead of the Colorado water bringing alkali to the
ground it will completely eradicate it.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS