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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 475-485 August 21, 1920 



YUMAN TRIBES OF THE 
LOWER COLORADO 



BY 
A. L. KROEBER 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS 
BERKELEY 



Bancroft Library 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

NUMBER 1. Myths of the Southern Sierra Miwok, Samuel Alfred Barrett 1-28 

NUMBER 2. The Matrilineal Complex, Eobert H. Lowie 29-45 

NUMBER 3. Linguistic Families of California, Roland B. Dixon and A. L. 

Kroeber 47-118 

NUMBER 4. Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico, Leona Cope 119-176 

NUMBER 5. Yurok Geography, T. T. Waterman _ 177-314 

NUMBER 6. The Cahuilla Indians, Lucile Hooper 315-380 

NUMBER 7. The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian, Paul Radin .... 381-473 

NUMBER 8. Yuman Tribes' of the Lower Colorado, A. L. Kroeber 475-485 

INDEX .. - 487-491 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 475-485 August 21, 1920 



BY 

A. L. KROEBER 



Besides the Mohave and Yuma, who are well-known tribes still 
living in some numbers about Needles and Yuma, five or six other 
tribes of Yuman lineage once occupied the banks of the lower Colorado 
river. Of these half dozen, only the Cocopa and Kamia retain their 
identity, and the latter are few. The others are extinct or merged. 
In order, upstream, the Yuman tribes of the river were the Cocopa, 
Halyikwamai, Alakwisa, Kohuana, Kamia, Yuma, Halchidhoma, and 
Mohave. The following discussion of this string of peoples refers 
chiefly to the less known ones among them and is based on information 
obtained from the Mohave and on statements in the older literature. 

COCOPA 

The Cocopa, called Kwikapa by the Mohave, held the lowest courses 
of the river; chiefly, it would seem, on the west bank. They have 
survived in some numbers, but have, and always had, their principal 
seats in Baja California. They are mentioned in 1605, and seem to 
be Kino's Hogiopa or Bagiopa in 1702. 

HALYIKWAMAI AND AKWA'ALA 

The Halyikwamai, as the Mohave call them, are the Quicama or 
Quicoma of Alarcon in 1540, the Halliquamallas or Agalecquamaya 
of Onate in 1605, the Quiquima of Kino in 1701-02, the Quiquima 
or Jalliquamay of Garces in 1776, and therefore the first California 
group to have a national designation recorded and preserved. Onate 
puts them next to the Cocopa on the east bank of the Colorado, Garces 
on the west bank between the Cocopa and Kohuana. Garces estimated 



476 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 16 

them to number 2000, but his figures on the population of this 
region are high, especially for the smaller groups. It seems impossible 
that three or four separate tribes should each have shrunk from 2000 
or 3000 to a mere handful in less than a century, during which they 
lived free and without close contact with the whites. 

The discrepancies between the habitat assigned on the left bank 
by one authority and on the right by the other, for this and other 
tribes, are of little moment. It is likely that every nation on the river 
owned on both sides, and shifted from one to the other, or divided, 
according to fancy, the exigencies of warfare, or as the channel and 
farm lands changed. The variations in position along the river, on 
the contrary, were the result of tribal migrations dependent on 
hostilities or alliances. 

The Mohave, who do not seem to know the name Quigyuma or 
Quiquima, say that the Halyikwamai survive, but know them only 
as mountaineers west of the river. West of the Cocopa, that is, in 
the interior of northernmost Baja California, they say is Avi-aspa, 
"eagle mountain," visible from the vicinity of Yuma; and north of 
it another large peak called Avi-savet-kyela. Between the two moun- 
tains is a low hilly country. This and the region west of Avi-aspa is 
the home of the Akwa'ala or Ekwa'ahle, a Yuman tribe whose speech 
seems to the Mohave to be close to the Walapai dialect, and different 
from the Diegueno. They were still there in some numbers about 
thirty years ago, the Mohave say. They rode horses; they did not 
farm. They were neighbors of the Kamia-ahwe or Diegueno, and 
occasionally met the Mohave at Yuma or among the Cocopa. 

The Halyikwamai, according to the Mohave, adjoined the Akwa'ala 
on the north, nearer the Yuma, and like the Akwa'ala were hill 
dwellers. They also did not farm, but migrated seasonally into the 
higher mountains to collect mescal root, vadhilya. They did not, in 
recent times, come to the river even on visits, evidently on account of 
old feuds between themselves and the Yuma and Kamia. In the last 
war expedition which the Yuma and Mohave made against the Cocopa 
about 1855 the Akwa'ala and Halyikwamai were allied with the 
Cocopa. 

It would seem therefore that the Halyikwamai or Quigyuma or 
Quiquima are an old river tribe that was dispossessed by its more 
powerful neighbors, took up an inland residence, and of necessity 
abandoned agriculture. 



1920] Kroebcr: Yitnian Tribes of the Lower Colorado 477 



ALAKWISA 

The country of the Alakwisa is occasionally mentioned by the 
Mohave in traditions, but the tribe seems to have been extinct for 
some time, and fancy has gathered a nebulous halo about its end. 
Here is the story ;is told by an old Mohave. 

' When I was young, an old Mohave told me how he had once come home- 
ward from the Cocopa, and after running up along the river for half a day, saw 
house posts, charcoal, broken pottery, and stone mortars. He thought the tract 
must still be inhabited, but there was no one in sight. He ran on, and in the 
evening reached the Kamia, who told him that he had passed through the old 
Alakwisa settlements. His Kamia friends said that they had never seen the 
Alakwisa, the tribe having become extinct before their day, but that they had 
heard the story of their end. It is as follows. 

' ' There was a small pond from which the Alakwisa used to draw their drink- 
ing water, and which had never contained fish. Suddenly it swarmed with fish. 
Some dug wells to drink from, but these too were full of fish. They took them, 
and, although a few predicted disaster, ate the catch. Soon women began to 
fall over dead at the metate or while stirring fish mush, and men at their 
occupations. They were playing at hoop and darts, when eagles fought in the 
air, killed each other, and fell down. The Alakwisa clapped their hands, ran up, 
and gleefully divided the feathers, not knowing that deaths had already occurred 
in their homes. As they wrapped the eagle feathers, some of them fell down 
dead; others lived only long enough to put the feathers on. 

' ' Another settlement discovered a jar under a mesquite tree, opened it, and 
found four or five scalps. They carried the trophies home, mounted them on 
poles, but before they reached the singer, some dropped lifeless, and others fell 
dead in the dance. So one strange happening crowded on another, and each 
time the Alakwisa died swiftly and without warning. Whole villages perished, 
no one being left to burn the dead or the houses, until the posts remained stand- 
ing or lay rotting on the ground, as if recently abandoned. So the Kamia told 
my old Mohave friend about the end of the Alakwisa. ' ' 

Fabulous as is this tale, it is likely to refer to an actual tribe, 
although the name Alakwisa may be only a synonym of story for 
Halyikwamai or some other familiar term of history. 



KOHUANA 

The Kohuana or Kahuene of the Mohave are Alarcon 's Coana and 
the Cohuana or Coguana of Onate, who found them in nine villages 
above the Halyikwamai. Kino seems to mean them by his "Cutgana." 
Garces in 1776 called them Cajuenche, placed them above the Hal- 
yikwamai and below the Yuma, and estimated that there were 3000 
of them. Their fortunes ran parallel with those of the Halchidhoma, 
and the career of the two tribes is best considered together. 



478 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 16 



KAMIA 

Next above were the Kamia, also recorded as the Comeya, Quemaya, 
Comoyatz, or Camilya. There is much confusion concerning them, 
owing to the fact that besides the farming tribe on the river, who 
alone are the true Kamia of the Mohave, the Southern Diegueno call 
themselves Kamiai, and the Mohave call all the Diegueno "foreign 
Kamia." It is however well established that a group of this name 
was settled on the Colorado adjacent to the Yuma. 



YTJMA 

Above the Kamia were the Yuma, who call themselves Kwichyana 
or Kuchiana and are known to the other Yumans by dialectic variants 
of the same name. They are the Hukwats of the Chemehuevi, the 
Hatilshe of the Apache (this term however includes other Yuman 
tribes also), the Garroteros of some Spanish authors. Garces esti- 
mated their population at 3000. Kino seems to have been the first 
author to call them Yumas. He puts them at the confluence of the 
Gila and Colorado, with settlements reaching up the affluent to the 
vicinity of 114 15' or perhaps twenty miles in an air line, and down 
the main stream about the same distance, say to the Mexican boundary. 
The Cutgana whom he mentions as a separate nation, west of the 
Halyikwamai and associated with them, are more likely the Kohuana 
than the Kuchiana- Yuma. 



HALCHIDHOMA AND KOHUANA 

The Halchidhoma or Halchadhoma, as the Mohave know them, 
were unquestionably at one time an important nation, suffered reverses, 
and at last lost their identity among the Maricopa, although there are 
almost certainly survivors today with that tribe. Onate found them 
the first tribe on the Colorado below the Gila. Kino brings them above 
the Gila. They had no doubt taken refuge here from the Yuma or 
other adjacent enemies, but can have profited little by the change, 
since it brought them nearer the Mohave, who rejoiced in harrying 
them. Garces makes them extend fifteen leagues northward along the 
river to a point an equal distance south of Bill Williams fork. He 
was among them in person and succeeded in patching up a temporary 
peace between them and the Mohave. -He calls them Alchedum or 



1920] Kroeber: Yuman Tribes of the Lower Colorado 479 

usually Jalchedun, but they can scarcely still have numbered 2500 
in 1776, as he states. 

The Mohave report that the Kohuana and Halchidhoma once lived 
along the river at Parker, about halfway between the Mohave and 
Yuma territories. The period must have been subsequent to 1776, 
since the location corresponds with that in which Garces found the 
Halchidhoma, whereas in his day the Kohuana were still below the 
Yuma. Evidently they too found living too uncomfortable in the 
turmoil of tribes below the confluence of the Gila the Mohave say 
that they lived at Aramsi on the east side of the stream below the 
Yuma and were troubled by the latter and followed the Halchidhoma 
to the fertile but unoccupied bottom lands farther up. If they had 
been free of a quarrel with the Mohave, their union with the Hal- 
chidhoma brought them all the effects of one. 

It must have been about this period of joint residence that the 
Halchidhoma, attempting reprisals, circled eastward and came down 
on the Mohave from the Walapai mountains. In this raid they cap- 
tured a Mohave girl at Ahakwa'-a'i whom they drove to their home 
at Parker and then sold to the Maricopa. Subsequently in an attack 
on the latter tribe, the Mohave found a woman who, instead of fleeing, 
stood still with her baby, and when they approached, called to them 
that she was the captive. They took her back, she married again, 
and had another son, Cherahota, who was still living in 1904. Her 
half- Maricopa son grew up among the Mohave, and, becoming a shaman, 
was killed near Fort Mohave. This indicates that he reached a 
tolerable age. 

But the preponderance of numbers and aggressions must have been 
on the side of the Mohave, because they finally _ crowded both Hal- 
chidhoma and Kohuana south from Parker, back toward the Yuma. 
The Halchidhoma settled at Aha-kw-atho 'ilya, a long salty "lake" or 
slough, that stretched for a day's walk west of the river at the foot 
of the mountains. The Kohuana moved less far, to Avi-nya-kutapaiva 
and Hapuvesa, but remained only a year, and then settled farther 
south, although still north of the Halchidhoma. 

After a time, the Mohave appeared in a large party, with their 
women and children. They would scarcely have done this if their foes 
had retained any considerable strength. It was a five days' journey 
from Mohave valley to the Kohuana. The northerners claimed the 
Kohuana as kinsmen but kept them under guard while the majority 
of their warriors went on by night. They reached the settlements of 



480 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 16 

the Halchidhoma in the morning, the latter came out, and an open 
fight ensued, in which a few Halchidhoma were killed, while of the 
Mohave a number were wounded but none fell. In the afternoon, the 
Mohave returned pitched battles rarely ended decisively among any 
of these tribes and announced to the Kohuana that they had come to 
live with them. They also invited the Halchidhoma to drive them 
out ; this the latter were probably too few to attempt. For four days 
the Mohave remained quietly at the Kohuana settlements, doctoring 
their wounded. They had probably failed to take any Halchidhoma 
scalps, since they made no dance. The four days over, they marched 
downstream again, arrived in the morning, and fought until noon, 
when they paused to retire to the river to drink. The Halchidhoma 
used this breathing space to flee. They ran downstream, swam the 
river to the eastern bank, and went on to Avachuhaya. The Mohave 
took six captives and spoiled the abandoned houses. 

After about two days, the Mohave account proceeds, they went 
against the foe once more, but when they reached Avachuhaya found 
no one. The Halchidhoma had cut east across the desert to take refuge 
with the Hatpa-'inya, the "east Pima" or Maricopa. Here ends their 
career; and it is because of this merging of their remnant with the 
Maricopa, that, when the Mohave are asked about the latter tribe, 
they usually declare them to have lived formerly on the river between 
themselves and the Yuma : the Halchidhoma are meant. There can be 
little doubt that the Maricopa too were once driven from the river to 
seek an asylum among the alien and powerful Pima ; but the Spanish 
historical notices place them w r ith the latter people on the Gila for so 
long a time back, to at least the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
that their migration probably far antedates the period which native 
tradition traverses. 

The Mohave decided to stay on in the land above Aha-kw-atho 'ilya 
which the Halchidhoma had possessed, expecting that the latter would 
return. They remained all winter. There is said to have been no 
one left in the Mohave country. In spring, when the mesquite was 
nearly ripe, and the river was soon to rise, thus opening the planting 
season, the Mohave went home, traveling three days. The Kohuana 
went with them under compulsion, but without use of violence. 

For five years the Kohuana lived in Mohave valley. Then they 
alleged an equally close kinship with the Yuma and a wish to live 
among them. The Mohave allowed them to go. Ten days' journey 
brought them to their ancient foes. After four years of residence 



1920] Kroeber: Yumnn Tribes of the Lower Colorado 481 

there, one of their mimlter was killed by the Yuma and his body hidden. 
His kinsmen found it and resolved to leave as soon as their going 
would not be construed as due to a desire for revenge an interpreta- 
tion that might bring an immediate Yuma attack upon them. They 
waited a year; and then their chief Tinyam-kwacha-kwacha, "Night- 
traveler," a man of powerful frame, so tall that a blanket reached 
only to his hips, led them eastward between the mountains Kara'epa 
and Avi-hachora up the Gila. They found the Maricopa at Maricopa 
Wells, recounted the many places at which they had lived, and asked 
for residence among their hosts. Aha-kurrauva, the Maricopa chief, 
told them to remain forever. 

So runs the Mohave story, the date of which may be referred to the 
period about 1820 to 1840. In 1851 Bartlett reported 10 Cawina 
surviving among the Maricopa. But this was an underestimation, as 
a further Mohave account reveals. 

About 1883, the same Mohave who is authority for the foregoing, 
having been told by certain Kohuana who had remained among the 
Mohave, or by their half-Mohave descendants, that there were kinsmen 
of theirs with the Maricopa, went to Tempe and there found not only 
Kohuana but Halchidhoma, although the Americans regarded them 
both as Maricopa. The Kohuana chief was Hatpa'-ammay-ime, 
' ' Papago-f oot, " an old man, whom Ahwanchevari, the Maricopa chief, 
had appointed to be head over his own people. Hatpa- 'ammay-ime had 
been born in the Maricopa country, but his father, and his father's 
sister, who was still living, were born while the Kohuana spent their 
five years among the Mohave. He enumerated 6 old Kohuana men 
as still living and 10 young men 36 souls in all besides a few children 
in school. 

These statements, if accurate, would place the Kohuana abandon- 
ment of the river at least as early as 1820; and this date agrees with 
the remark of an old Mohave, about 1904, that the final migration of 
the tribe occurred in his grandfather's time. It does not reconcile 
with the fact that a son of the Mohave woman taken captive by the 
Halchidhoma who are said to have fled to the Maricopa ten years 
earlier than the Kohuana was still living in 1904. In any event, in 
1776 both tribes were still on the Colorado and sufficiently numerous 
to be reckoned substantially on a par with the Yuma and Mohave ; in 
1850, when the Americans came, they were merged among the Mari- 
copa, and of the seven or eight related but warring Yuman nations 
that once lined the banks of the stream, there remained only three 



482 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Etlin. [Vol. 16 

the Cocopa, Yuma, and Mohave and a fragment of a fourth, the 
Kamia. The drift has quite clearly been toward the suppression of 
the smaller units and the increase of the larger a tendency probably 
of influence on the civilization of the region, and perhaps stimulative 
in its effects. 

MOHAVE 

The Mohave, Garces' Jamajab, call themselves Hamakhava. Their 
territory was Mohave valley, which extends from the canyon through 
which the river flows at Needles peaks to somewhat above Fort Mohave. 
Most of the lowlands are on the eastern side of the river, but a glance 
at a topographic map suggests that the course of the stream through 
the valley has been shifting. At present part of the tribe has been 
settled on a reservation downstream about Parker. Being a historically 
well-known people, the Mohave need not be considered here. 

WALAPAI 

Between Mohave valley and the Grand canyon, the Walapai may 
have owned or claimed land down to the eastern or southern bank of 
the Colorado. But they are a mountain, not a river people. In fact 
the shores of the stream are uninhabitable in this forbidding stretch 
of raw furrowed rock. The Walapai therefore fall outside the scope 
of this review. 

HISTOEICAL IDENTIFICATIONS 

The native information now accumulated allows the valuable find- 
ings of the Onate expedition of 1605. as related by Escobar and by 
Zarate-Salmeron, to be profitably summarized, reinterpreted, and 
compared with the later data. 

In Mohave valley, a ten days ' journey from the mouth of the river 
as the natives then reckoned and still count Onate found the 
Amacavas or Amacabos. This tribe has therefore occupied the same 
tract for at least three centuries. Their "Curraca," or "Lord" is < 
only kwora'aka, "old man." Onate went downstream five leagues 
through a rocky defile the canyon at the foot of the Needles peaks 
and emerged in Chemehuevi valley, where other members of the same 
nation were living. This is the only reference, historical or from native 
sources, which puts the Mohave actually in Chemehuevi valley. So 
far as their present memory goes, they used to gather mesquite in 
Chemehuevi valley, but maintained no settlements there. 



1920] Knxbt-r: Yiiiinin Triht* ,,f tin- l.,,,r, r Colorado 483 

Below Ihr Mohave. evident ly in the region about Parker or beyond. 
( )fiatt' encountered an allied nation of the same speech, the Bahacechas. 
This name seems unidentifiable. Their head, Cohota, was so named 
for his office: he was tin- koliota or entertainment chief of the Mohave. 

On the River of the Name of Jesus, the Gila, Oiiate found a less 
affable people of different appearance and manners and of difficult 
speech, who claimed twenty villages all the way up the stream. These 
he calls Ozaras, or Osera, a name that also cannot be identified. The 
Relation gives the impression that this tribe stood apart from all those 
on the Colorado. They do not seem to be the Maricopa, whose speech 
even today is close to that of the river tribes. The most convincing 
explanation is that they were the Pima or Papago, or at least some 
Piman division, who then lived farther down the Gila than subse- 
quently. This agrees with the statement that they extended to the 
shores of the sea; and with Escobar's suspicion, based on the recollec- 
tion of two or three words, that they were Tepeguanes : that is, of the 
Piman group. 

Along the Colorado from the Gila to the ocean, all the Colorado 
nations were like the Bahacechas in dress and speech, that is Yumans. 

The first were the Halchedoma, or Alebdoma, in 8 pueblos; the 
northernmost alone was estimated to contain 160 houses and 2000 
people ; the nation to number four or five thousand. 

Next came the Cohuana in 9 villages, of 5000 inhabitants, of whom 
600 followed the expedition. 

Below were the Agalle, Haglli, or Haclli, a "settlement" of 5 
rancherias, and near-by the Halliquamallas or Agalecquamaya, of four 
or five thousand souls, of whom more than 2000 assembled from their 
6 villages. The former cannot be recognized in any modern tribe 
and may have been part of the Halyikwamai. 

Finally, in 9 pueblos, reaching down to where the river became 
brackish five leagues above its mouth, were the Cocopa. 

The mythical island Ziiiogaba in the sea sounds as if it might be 
named from "woman," thenya'aka in Mohave, and ara, "house." Its 
chief tainess Cinaca Cohota is certainly " woman-Jto/iotfa. " "Acilla," 
the ocean, is Mohave hatho'ilya. Other modern dialects have "s" 
where Mohave speaks "th." The name Esmalcatatanaaha applied 
by the Bahacecha chief Otata to a fabulous large-eared race, analyzes 
in modern Mohave into asmalyka, "ear," and a reduplication of 
tahana, "very," "indeed," "large." It is clear that the languages 
of the Colorado have changed comparatively little in three centuries. 



484 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 16 

The same permanence applies to the speech of the Ch.umash of the 
Santa Barbara archipelago : the discoverer Cabrillo 's forms tally 
rather closely with the data obtained in recent decades. 

Apart from the Ozara on the Gila, Onate thus found six or seven 
Yuman nations on the left bank of the Colorado. Five of these are 
familiar, one or two appear tinder unknown designations, and the 
Yuma and Kamia are not mentioned. Possibly they remained on the 
California side of the river and thus failed of enumeration. But if 
the foreign Ozara held the Gila to its mouth, there would have been no 
place for the Yuma in their historic seats. 

Kino, who visited the river only from the mouth of the Gila down, 
in 1701-02, reports these tribes : above the Gila, the Alchedoma ; from 
the Gila confluence down, as well as up that stream, the Yuma ; next 
below, the Quiquima the Halyikwamai; not definitely located, but 
near the last and apparently intimately associated with them, the 
Cutgana probably the Kohuana. At the mouth of the Colorado were 
the Hogiopa or Bagiopa. When on the lowest reaches of the river, 
he speaks of ' ' Quiquimas, Cutganas, and Hogiopas who had come from 
the west and from the southwest." Elsewhere he mentions them as 
the people next south from the Quiquima and speaking a different 
language. He appears to have encountered no Hogiopa villages on the 
east bank. The Hogiopa are evidently the Cocopa. North and north- 
west from the Quiquima, apparently off the river, he puts the Coanopa 
or Hoabonoma (?), who are unidentified. Five tribes thus appear 
under more or less recognizable names. 1 

The chief changes in the century between Onate and Kino are the 
following. The non-Yuman Ozara have disappeared from the Colorado. 
Their place at the mouth of the Gila has been taken by the Yuma. 
The Halchidhoma have moved from below to above the Gila. 

Alarcon's data, the earliest of all for the region, are unusually 
valuable in their picture of customs, but give few names of tribes and 
scarcely allow of their exact geographical placing. The Quicama, 
Coana, and Cumana are mentioned. The Cumana (Kamia?) are not 
positively identifiable. The Quicama and Coana are of course the 
Halyikwamai and Kohuana. As the Quicama were the farther down- 
stream of the two, but had other tribes possibly the Cocopa and 
Akwa'ala between them and the sea, it seems as if they may already 
have been occupying their precise historic tracts at this early period. 

i Bolton, editor and translator of Kino, suggests that the Coanopa be con- 
strued as the Kohuana, and the Cutgana as the Kuchiana or Yuma. This puts 
on Kino the onus of having divided the Yuma into two differently named tribes. 



1920] Kroeber: Yuman Tribes of the Lower Colorado 485 

As regards life, many well-known elements of the later culture are 
mentioned by Alarcon : maize, beans, squashes or gourds, pottery, 
clubs, dress, coiffure, berdaches, cremation, intertribal warfare, atti- 
tude toward strangers, relations with the mountain tribes; as well as 
characteristic temperamental traits, such as enthusiasm ; stubbornness 
under fatigue or provocation; and a generally ebullient emotionality 
whether of anger, alarm, or friendship. 

Alarcon and Melchior Diaz in 1540, Onate in 1605, Kino in 1702, 
Garces in 1776, accordingly found conditions on the river much as 
they were when the Americans came. The tribes battled, shifted, and 
now and then disappeared. The uppermost and lowest were the same 
i'or three hundred years: Mohave and Cocopa. Among the conflicts, 
customs remained stable. If civilization developed, it was inwardly; 
the basis and manner of life were conservative. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ALARC6N, FERNANDO DE. Eelacion, 1540. In English in Hakluyt, Voyages, in, 

1600; reprinted 1810; in French in Ternaux-Compans, Voyages, tx, 1838. 
BARTLETT, J. R. Personal Narrative, etc., 1854. 
BOLTON, H. E. Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1916. 

. Father Escobar's Relation of the Onate Expedition to California. 

Catholic Historical Review, v, 19-41, 1919. 
' . Kino's Historical Memoir of Pimeria Alta, 1919. 
COUES, ELLIOTT. On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, the Diary and Itinerary of 

Francisco Garc6s, 1900. 
ESCOBAR: see BOLTON. 
FACES, PEDRO: see PRIESTLEY. 
GARCES, FRANCISCO: see COUES. 
KINO, EUSEBIUS: see BOLTON. 
ONATE: see ZARATE-SALMER6N. 
PRIESTLEY, H. I. The Colorado River Campaign, 1781-1782, Diary of Pedro 

Fag6s. Publications of the Academy of Pacific Coast History, in, 135- 

233, 1 plate, 1913. 
ZARATE-SALMER6N. Relacion. Translated in BOLTON, Spanish Exploration in the 

Southwest, and in Land of Sunshine, xi, no. 6, 1899; XH, nos. 1, 2, 1900. 



INDEX* 



Africa, post-marriage residence in, 
34; avuncular relationships in, 39, 
4.",. 

Agalecquamaya. See Halyikwamai. 

A giille (Hacfli, Haglli), 483. 

Alitrna, 137, 153. 

Akwa'ala (Ekwa'ahle), 475, 484. 

Alakwisa, 475, 477. 

Aldit'doma, Alchedum, Alebdoma. 
See Halchidhoma. 

Aleut, 139, 153. 

Algonkiii (Algonquin), 112. 129. 

Amacabos (Amaeavas), 482. 

Anglo-Ewe, 39. See also Ewe. 

Annals (historical "calendars"), 121. 

Apache, 32. 

Arapaho, 33, 112. 

Arcturus, 121. 

Arikara, 135, 155. 

Assiniboine, 33. 

Athabascan, 51, 97, 113. 

Australia, post -marriage residence in, 
34, 38, 43. 

Autobiography of a Winnebago In- 
dian, 381-473; youth, 385; mode 
of life, 386, 391, 398, 406, 412, 424; 
social customs, 393, 405, 446, 463, 
466; ideals and spiritual beliefs, 
388, 395, 396, 410, 417, 430-449, 
451; fasting, 386, 388, 395, 450, 
454; feasting, 395, 420, 430, 437, 
463; peyote, 430-449; shamanism, 
400, 421, 455; precepts, 450-473. 

Avunculate, 31, 35-42; use of term, 
35; summary of details, 40; as evi- 
dence of diffusion, 43; as evidence 
of independent growth, 44; not 
necessarily a feature of matronymy, 
45. 

Bagiopa. See Hogiopa. 

Bahacechas, 483. 

Bakongo, 34, 39. 

Banks Islands, avuncular relations 
in 37, 43. 

Bannock, 135, 155. 

Bantu, 34, 39, 43. See also Bakongo; 
Herero. 

Barrett, S. A., 1. 

Bayou Lacomb, Louisiana, residence 
of Choctaw Indians, 31. 

Beliefs. See Myths; Origin beliefs. 

Bella Coola, 135, 149. 

Beothuk, 155. 

Big Lagoon, 264. 

Blackfoot, 33, 129, 155. 

Bows and arrows, 358, 398. 

Burial customs, 343. 



Cahuilla Indians, The, 315-380; .11 \ i 
sions: habitats, 316; myths, 317, 
364-378; ceremonies: religious, 
328, 348; burial, 344; initiation 
and puberty, 345, 347; shamanism, 
333; spiritual beliefs, 339, 342; 
songs, 344; social orders, 349; 
social and hygienic customs, 349, 
355; war-like and legal usages, 
355-356; mode of life and indus- 
tries, 356-360; dogs, 361; kno^vl- 
edge, 362; bibliography, 379. 

Cahuilla, Desert, 316 passim. 

Cahuilla, Mountain, 316, 348. 

Cahuilla, Pass, 316, 333. 

Calendars of the Indians North of 
Mexico, 119-176; types of, 139- 
144; areas of distribution, 145; 
regional types of, 146; similarities 
in types of, due to diffusion or like 
conditions, 147; types of, listed by 
tribes, 149, 153, 155; map showing, 
opp. 119; types of, used by the 
Cahuilla, 362. See also Annals; 
Day; Equinoxes; Events; Month; 
Moon; Solstice; Stars; Summer; 
Sun; Tides; Time-reckoning; Week; 
Winter ; Year. 

Calendrical system, 120. 

California, linguistic families of, 47- 
118; map showing distribution of, 
opp. 47; location of Yurok in, 182, 
maps showing, 183. 

Camilya. See Kamia. 

Carrier, 155. 

Cawina, 481. 

Ceremonial nomenclature, 146. 

Ceremonies, 345, 347, 395, 400, 430; 
Eagle, 348; mourning, 328; sol- 
stitial, 142. 

Chehalis, 144. 

Chemehuevi, 316. 

Cheyenne, 33. 

Chilcotin, 148. 

Chilkat, 143. 

Chimariko, 54, 103. 

Choctaw, 31, 35, 36, 135, 155. 

Chontal (linguistic kinship), 103. 

Chumash (linguistic kinship), 54, 103, 
484. 

Clans, 349; misuse of term, 29. 

Clothing (dress), 357, 485. 

Coahuilla reservation, 316. 

Coana. See Kohuana. 

Coanopa (Hoabonoma?), 484. 

Cocopa, 316, 475, 482, 483, 484, 485. 

Coguana (Cohuana). See Kohuana. 



* Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn., Vol. 16. 

[487] 



Index 



Colorado, Yuman Tribes of the 
Lower, 475-485. 

Comanche, 130. 

Comeya (Comoyatz). See Kamia. 

Constellations, 121. See also Stars. 

Cope, Leona, 119. 

Costanoan, 54, 100. 

Cree, Eastern, 33, 155; Plains, 127, 
155. 

Creek, 31. 

Cremation, 485. 

Cross-cousin marriage, 40. 

Crow, 31, 41, 42. 

Culture. See Cahuilla; Calendars; 
Myths; Winnebago; Yuman tribes; 
Yurok. 

Cumana, 484. 

Cupeno, 316. 

Cutgana. See Kohuana. 

Dakota, Eastern, 33, 132, 155; Sisse- 
ton, 155; Teton, 155. 

Day, and its subdivisions, 124; diur- 
nal periods, 126. 

Delaware, 155. 

Del Norte county, 182. 

Diegueno (Kamia-ahwe), 141, 149, 
476, 478. 

Dieri, 38. 

Dog Eibs, 124, 155. 

Dipper, 126. 

Dixon, Roland B., and Kroeber, A. L., 
47. 

Domingo (Sunday), 124. 

Dress (clothing), 357, 485. 

Dry lagoon, 265; plate showing, opp. 
312. 

Eagle ceremony, 348. 

Economic importance of winter sol- 
stice, 142. 

Ekwa'ahle. See Akwa'ala. 

Equinoxes, 121. 

Eskimo, 121; Central, 33; Copper, 
135; Greenland, 123; Kaniagmiut, 
141, 144, 153; Lower Yukon, 155; 
of Melville Peninsula, 136; Point 
Barrow, 123, 132, 155; south of the 
Yukon delta, 155; of the Ungava 
District, 132, 137, 141. 

Esselen, 54, 103. 

European influences on time-reckon- 
ing, 124. 

Evening star, 121. 

Events, seasonal, basis for time- 
reckoning, 123; solar, 136; terres- 
trial, 136. See also Lunar phases; 
Lunations. 

Ewe, 34. See also Anglo-Ewe. 

Families, Linguistic, of California, 
47-118. 

Father-sib, 20. 

Fiesta week, mourning ceremony of 
the Cahuilla, 328. 

Fijians, 37. 



Food, 185, 356, 392, 485. 

Fox, 155. 

Freshwater lagoon, 264; plate show- 
ing, opp. 310. 

Future life, ideas about, 342. 

Gabrielino, 316. 

Games, 360. 

Garroteros. See Yuma. 

Genetic relationship of linguistic 
families, 50. 

"Gentes, " misuse of term, 29. 

Geography, Yurok, 177-314. 

Glossary of Indian words, 26; 48- 
118; 125-168; 177-314. 

Greenland, methods of time-reckon- 
ing in, 122. 

Gros Ventre, 33. 

Guinea, Upper, avuncular relation- 
ship in, 39. 

Haclli (Haglli). See Agalle. 

Haida, 32, 44, 135, 149, 155; Masset, 
131, 149; Skidegate, 131, 149. 

Halchadhoma (Halchedhoma). See 
Halchidhoma. 

Halchidhoma (Alchedum, Alebdoma, 
Halchadhoma, Jalchedun), 475, 478, 
480, 481, 493, 484. 

Halliquamallas. See Halyikwamai. 

Halyikwamai (Agalecquamaya, Halli- 
quamallas, Jalliquamay, Quicama, 
Quicoma, Quigyuma, Quiquima), 
475, 476, 477, 483. 

Hamakhava. See Mohave. 

Hano, 135, 149. 

Hare, 155. 

Hatilshe. See Yuma. 

Hatpa-'inya. See Maricopa. 

Herero, 34. 

Hidatsa, 31. 

Hoabonoma (?). See Coanopa. 

Hogiopa (Bagiopa), 475, 484. 

Hokan family, establishment of, 54; 
discussion, 103-112; scope of, 112. 

Hooper, Lucille, 315. 

Hopi, 32, 35, 36, 41, 44, 45, 123, 149. 

Hottentots, 39. 

Houses, 123, 357, 385, 392; Yurok 
house names, 208, 209-213; Yurok 
houses, views of, opp. 290, 292, 302, 
306, 308, 314. 

Huchnom, 143. 

Hukwats. See Yuma. 

Humboldt county, 182. 

Hupa, 137, 184, 256. 

Industries, 184, 219, 359-360, 385, 
386, 391, 398. 

Initiation ceremonies among the 
Cahuilla, 345. 

Intercalation, 122. 

Iowa, 35, 155. 

Iroquois, 31, 36, 45, 155. 

' ' Iskoman, ' ' 54, 103. See also Hokan. 



[488] 



Index 



Jalchedun. See Halchidhoma. 

Jalliquamay. See Halyikwamai. 

Jamajab. See Mohave. 

Jemez, 135, 149. 

Juaneno, 130, 316. 

Kahuene. See Kohuana. 

Kai, 40. 

Ksii^ani, 128. 

Kamia (Camilya, Comeya, Comoyatz, 
Quemaya), 475, 478. 

K:miia-ahwe. See Diegueno. 

Kaniagmiut, 144, 153. 

Kansa, 130, 155. 

Karok, 184, 255, 307; language, 54, 
103. 

Kato, 114. 

Khasi of Assam, 35, 45. 

"Kin," use of term, 30. 

Kinship, mode of reckoning, 29, 67. 

Kiowa, 124, 130, 155. 

Klamath, 143. 

Klamath river, 179, 182, 227, 255; 
plates showing views of, opp. 288, 
290, 294, 300, 302, 304, 306. 

Kohuana (Cajuenche, Coana, Cogu- 
ana, Cohuana, Cutgana, Kahuene), 
475, 477, 479, 480, 481, 483, 484. 

Koskimo, 132, 149. 

Kroeber, A. L., 47, 475. 

Kuchiana. See Yuma. 

Kwakiutl, 132, 149. See also Kos- 
kimo, Nakwartok, Nimkish, Ma- 
malelekala. 

Kwichyana. See Yuma. 

Language, 47-118, 179. 

Legal usages, 223, 356, 412. 

Lenape (Lenni Lenape), 130, 155. 

Lillooet, 143, 153. 

Linguistic Families of California, 47- 
118; map showing, opp. 47. See 
also Algonkin; Athabascan; Ho- 
kan; Iskoman; Penutian; Eitwan; 
Shoshonean; Yukian. 

Loucheux, 155. 

Lower Thompson band, 153. 

Lowie, Eobert H., 29. 

Luiseno, 137, 149, 316. 

Lunar phases, lunations, basis of 
month, 121, 128. 

Lutuami, 114. 

Mackenzie tribes, 121. 

Maidu, 135, 139, 155; of California, 
140; language, 54, 100. 

Makah (Makaw), 135, 141, 149. 

Makonde, 34, 39. 

Malecite, 127, 155. 

Mamalelekala, 132, 149. 

Mandan, 31, 155. 

Maricopa (Hatpa-'inya), 478, 479, 
480, 481, 483. 

Mariposa (Southern Sierra) Miwok, 
myths, 1. 



Marriage, 353, 405; cross-cousin, 40; 
marriage precepts, 463; post-mar- 
riage customs, see Matrineal Com- 
plex. 

Matriarchate, 45. 

Matrilineal Complex, The, 29-45. 

Matrilineal descent, 31 ; not regularly 
accompanied by matrilocal factor, 
34. 

Matrilineal inheritance, 31; among 
the Herero, 39. 

Matrilocal residence, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
35; not necessarily a feature of 
matronymy, 44. 

Matronymy, 34, 35; relation of 
avuncular customs to, 37, 43; 
matrilocal residence or avunculate 
not necessarily features of, 44. 

Melanesia, post-marriage residence in, 
34; avuncular relations in, 37, 38, 
43. 

Menomini, 36. 

Micmac, 134, 155. 

Miwok, 48; of the Southern Sierra: 
myths of, 1-28. 

Modoc, 148, 153. 

Mohave (Hamakhava, Jamajab), 316, 
475, 478-482, 485; permanence of 
speech, 483. 

Moieties, 349. 

Montagnais, 155. 

Month, 128; length of, 129. See also 
Lunar phases. 

Moon, 123, 128, 362; recognition of 
the phases of, 129. 

Morning star, 121. 

Mother-sib, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37. 

Muskokee, 155. 

Myths, 186, 192, 200, 209, 228, 317, 
364-378, 477; in abstract form, 24. 
See also Yurok, myths of. 

Myths of the Southern Sierra Miwok, 
1-28. 

Nah-ane, 155. 

Nakwartok, 132, 149. 

Nandi, 40. 

Nascapee, 125. 

Natchez, 155. 

Navaho, 32, 36, 124, 155. 

Netchilli (Netchillik), 126, 149. 

New Hebrides Islands, avuncular re- 
lationships in the, 37. 

Night, divisions of the, 126. 

Nimkish, 132, 149. 

Nomenclature, 148; ceremonial, 146. 

Nootka, 122, 128, 149. 

Northern Plains tribes, 31. See also 

, Mandan; Hidatsa; Crow. 

Northwest Coast Indians, 31, 37, 121. 
See also Pacific Coast tribes. 

Notched sticks, historical "calen- 
dar," 121. 

Oceania, 34. 



[489] 



Index 



Ojibwa, 155. 

Omaha, 33, 36, 155. 

Onondaga, 155. 

Origin beliefs, 2, 190, 317, 364. 

Orion's belt, 121. 

Orthography and phonology, of the 
Yurok, 179. 

Osage, 148, 155. 

Osera. See Ozara. 

Oto, 35, 155. 

Ovambo, 34. 

Ozara (Osera), 483, 484. 

Pacific Coast tribes, 32. See also 
Tlingit; Tsimshian. 

Paiute, Southern, 316. 

Palaihnihan, linguistic kinship, 48. 

Papago. See Pima. 

Patrilineal complex, 40. 

Patrilineal system substituted for 
matrilineal system in Melanesia, 
38. 

Patrilocal residence, 32, 33. 

Pawnee, 36, 137, 155. 

Pen languages, 100, 101. 

Penutian (linguistic) family, estab- 
lishment of, 54; discussion of, 55- 
98; geography and historical inter- 
relations of, 98-102; relation to 
Yukian, 117-118. 

Peruvians, 127. 

Peyote, 430-449. 

Phonology and orthography, of the 
Yurok, 179. 

Pima (and Papago), 140, 155, 483; 
the "east" (Maricopa), 480. 

Piskwaus, 149. 

Place names, Yurok. See Yurok place 
names. 

Plateau tribes, 121. 

Pleiades, 121. 

Porno (linguistic kinship), 54, 103. 

Pottery, 359, 485. 

Powell, classification, and map, of the 
linguistic families of America, 48. 

Precepts of the Winnebago, 450-473. 

Property rights, 223, 356. 

Puberty -ceremonies, 345, 347. 

Pueblo Indians, 31, 32, 139. See also 
Hopi; Ziini; Sia. 

Quemaya. See Kamia. 

Quicama (Quicoma, Quigyuma, Qui- 
quima). See Halyikwamai. 

Quileutes, 130. 

Eadin, Paul, 381. 

"Ritwan" family, establishment of 
the, 54; discussion of, 112-113. 

Salinan, linguistic kinship, 54. 

Salish, 149. 

Samoans, 37. 

Saturday, 124. 

Sauk, 155. 

Saulteaux, Northern, 132, 155. 



Seasonal events, basis of time reck- 
oning, 123. 

Seasons, 132; names for, 133; num- 
ber of recognized, 133. 

Seminole, 136, 155. 

Seri, linguistic kinship of, 103. 

Serrano, 316. 

Shamanism, 333, 400, 421, 455. 

Shasta, Shastan, linguistic kinship, 
48, 54, 103. 

Shasta-Achomawi, 48. 

Shoshonean, 54, 114-115, 316. 

Shushwap, 143, 153, 155. 

Sia, 32. 

"Sib," use of term, 30. 

Sibless or patronymic groups, avun- 
cular relationships among, 39. 

Siciatl, 149. 

Sioux, 36, 38. 

Slavery, 155. 

Social orders, 349. 

Solar events, basis of time reckon- 
ing, 136. 

Solstice, 122; observation of, 122; 
summer, 123; winter, 122. 

Solstitial ceremonials, 142. 

Songs, enemy, 344. 

South America, calendrical svstem 
in, 127. 

Southeastern tribes, 31. See also 
Choctaw; Creek; Timucua; Yuchi. 

Southern Sierra Miwok, Myths of 
the, 1-28. 

Spence's Bridge band, 153. 

Spirits, 23, 200, 364, 388, 397, 410, 
431, 451. 

Stars, 121, 363. See also Arcturus; 
Dipper; Orion's belt; Pleiades; 
Ursa Major. 

Stlatlumn, 125. 

Stone lagoon, 264; plate showing, 
opp. 310. 

StsEelis, 143, 153. 

Summer solstice, 123. 

Sun, 123; dial, 125; houses, 123. 

Sunday, 124. 

Supernatural beings in the form of 
rocks, 21, 297. 

Tahltan, 155. - 

Tepeguanes, 483. 

Tequistlatecan, 103. 

Terrestrial events, basis of time 
reckoning, 123, 136. 

Tewa, 36, 123, 149. 

Thompson, 143, 153. 

Thonga, 38, 39. 

Tides, ebb and flow of, 126. 

Time reckoning, methods of, 120; 
basis of, 121-124; units of, 124- 
139; variability in mode of desig- 
nating, 130. See also Day; Week; 
Month; Seasons; Year; Calendars. 



[490] 



Index 



Timucua, 31, 128. 

Tlingit, 32, 38, 43, 140, 153, 155. 

Tolowa, 184. 

Tongans, 37. 

Torres islands, avuncular relation- 
ships in, 37. 

Trinidad bay, 182; plates showing 
views of, opp. 284 and 314. 

Trinity river, 182, 255; plate show- 
ing view of, opp. 304. 

Tsekehne, 155. 

Tsilkoh'tin, 155. 

Tsimshian, 32, 143. 

Tusayan, 149. 

Unalit, 155. 

Ungava district, methods of time 
reckoning in, 122. 

Ursa Major, 121. 

Ute, methods of time reckoning 
among, 125, 132, 155. 

Uti languages, 99, 101. 

Vasu institutions, 37. 

Fasii-like privileges, 39. 

Wailaki, 114. 

Walapai, 482. 

Wappo, 53, 116. 

Washo, 104. 

Waterman, T. T., 177. 

Wilson Creek, 182, 227; plate show- 
ing views at the mouth of, opp. 
286. 

Week, 126. 

Winnebago, 35, 36, 130, 155. See 
also The Autobiography of a Win- 
nebago Indian. 

Winter-counts, historical ' ' calen- 
dars," 121. 

Winter solstice, 121; economic im- 
portance of, 142. 

Wintun, 54, 100. 

Wiyot, 54, 112. 

Wyandot, 127, 136. 

Yana, 54, 103. 

Yao, 39. 

Year, 136; solar, 137; methods of cor- 
rection of count, 137. 

Yokuts, 136; language, 48, 54, 100. 



Yosemite Valley, myths of, 21; glos- 
sary of place names, 26. 

Yuchi, 31, 155. 

Yuki, Yukian, 52, 113, 115-118. . 

Yuman Tribes of the Lower Colo- 
rado, 316, 475-485; history since 
1605, 482; culture of, 485. See also 
Agalle; Akwa'ala; Alakwisa; Al- 
chedoma; Amacabos; Bahacechas; 
Cawina; Coanopa; Cocopa; Gum- 
ana; Diegueno; Halchedhoma; Hal- 
rlmlhoma; Halyikwamai; Hogiopa; 
Kamia; Kohuana; Maricopa; Mo- 
have; Ozara; Pima; Tepeguanes; 
Walapai; Yuma. 

Yuma (Garroteros, Hatilshe, Huk- 
wat, Kuchiana, Kwichyana), 316, 
475, 478, 480, 481, 484. 

Yuman, linguistic kinship, 48, 54, 
103. 

Yurok, 142, 149; characteristics, 201; 
descent and inheritance among, 
223; terms of direction and posi- 
tion, 193, 194; geographical con- 
cepts, 189, map, 192; geographical 
expressions, list of, 194; descrip- 
tive geography, 226; houses and 
ceremonial places, views of, opp. 
290, 292, 302, 306, 308, 314; house 
names, 208, lists of, 209-213; idea 
of the world, map showing, 192; 
language, 54, 112; location of ter- 
ritory, 182; mode of life, 184; 
myths and religious beliefs, 186, 
189-193, 200, 209, 228 (also notes 
on descriptive geography, and 
legends under plates) ; phonology 
and orthography of, 179; place 
names, 179, 186, 195, 197, 214-218, 
list of, 273-283, glossary of, 187- 
189, 198, 199, map showing distri- 
bution of, opp. 186; property rights 
among, 218; towns and settlements, 
distribution of, 200, list of, 206- 
207; sites, plates showing, opp. 286, 
288, 294, 300, 302, 304, 312, 314. 

Yurok Geography, 177-314. 

Zufii, 32, 35, 36, 123, 149. 



[491] 



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Kxoeber. Pp. 1-12. May, 1911 - .10 

2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Palute Language, by T. T. Water- 

man. Pp. 13-44, plates 1-5. November, 1911 46 

3. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language, by A. L, Kroeber. Pp. 45-96, 

plates 6-20. November, 1911 _ _ 65 

4. The Ethnology of the Salinan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97-240, 

plates 21-37. December, 1912 1.75 

5. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-263. August, 1913 _ .25 

6. Notes on the Chilula Indians of Northwestern California, by Pliny Earle 

Goddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 38-41. April, 1914 .30 

7. Chilula Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 289-379. November, 1914 1.00 

Index, pp. 381-385. 

Vol. 11. 1. Elements of the Kato Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-176, plates 

1-45. October, 1912 _ 2.00 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Diegueno Language, by A. L. Kroeber and J. P. 

Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 _ 10 

3. Sarsl Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 189-277. February, 1915 1.00 

4. Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 279-290. Febru- 

ary, 1915 _ _ ~ _ .10 

5. Dichotomous Social Organization In South Central California, by Edward 

Winslow Gifford. Pp. 291-296. February, 1916 ..._ 05 

6. The Delineation of the Day-Signs In the Aztec Manuscripts, by T. T. Water- 

man. Pp. 297-398. March, 1916 _ _ _ 1.00 

7. The Mutsim Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary of De la Cuesta, 

by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 399-472. March, 1916 _ _ .70 

Index, pp. 473-479. 
VoL 12. 1. Composition of California Sbellmounds, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 

1-29. February, 1916 _ .30 

2. California Place Names of Indian Origin, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 31-69. 

June, 1916 _ _ 40 

3. Arapaho Dialects, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 71-138. June, 1916 .70 

4. Mlwok Moieties, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 139-194. June, 1916.._ .55 

5. On Plotting the Inflections of the Voice, by Cornelius B. Bradley. Pp. 195- 

218, plates 1-5. October, 1916 _ 36 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS (Continued) 

6. Ttibatulabal and Kawaiisu Kinship Terms, by Edward Winslow Clifford. 

Pp. 219-248. February, 1917 .30 

7. Bandolier's Contribution to the Study of Ancient Mexican Social Organiza- 

tion, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 249-282. February, 1917 .35 

8. Miwok Myths, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 283-338, plate 6. May, 

1917 _ .55 

9. California "Kinship Systems, A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 339-396. May, 1917 .60 

10. Ceremonies of the Porno Indians, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 397-441, 8 text 

figures. July, 1917 _ _ .45 

11. Porno Bear Doctors, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 443-465, plate 7. July, 1917 .25 

Index, pp. 467-473. 

VoL IS. 1. The Position of Yana in the Hokan Stock, by E. Sapir. Pp. 1-34. July, 

1917 35 

2. The Yana Indians, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 35-102, plates 1-20. February, 

1918 .75 

3. Yahi Archery, by Saxton T. Pope. Pp. 103-152, plates 21-37. March, 1918 .75 

4. Yana Terms of Relationship, by Edward Sapir. Pp. 153-173. March, 1918 .25 

5. The Medical History of Ishi, by Saxton T. Pope. Pp. 175-213, plates 38-44, 

8 figures in text. May, 1920 ..._ 45 

Vol.14. 1. The Language of the Salinan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 1-154. 

January, 1918 1.75 

2. Clans and Moieties in Southern California, by Edward Winslow Gifford. 

Pp. 155-219, 1 figure in text. March, 1918 .75 

8. Ethnogeography and Archaeology of the Wiyot Territory, by Llewellyn L. 

Loud. Pp. 221-436, plates 1-21, 15 text figures. December, 1918 2.50 

4. The Wintun Hesi Ceremony, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 437-488, plates 22-23, 

3 figures in text. March, 1919 75 

5. The Genetic Relationship of the North American Indian Languages, by 

Paul Radin. Pp. 489-502. May, 1919 .15 

VoL 15. 1. Ifugao Law, by R. F. Barton. Pp. 1-186, plates 1-33. February, 1919 2.00 

2. Nabaloi Songs, by C. R. Moss and A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 187-206. May, 1919 .20 

VoL 16. 1. Myths of the Southern Sierra Miwok, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 1-28. March, 

1919 _ SO 

2. The Matrilineal Complex, by Robert H. Lowie. Pp. 29-45. March, 1919 .15 

3. The Linguistic Families of California, by Roland B. Dixon and A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 47-118, map 1, 1 figure in text. September, 1919 76 

4. Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico, by Leona Cope. Pp. 119-178, 

with 3 maps. November, 1919 76 

5. Yurok Geography, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 177-314, plates 1-16, 1 text 

figure, 34 maps. May, 1920 2.00 

6. The Cahuilla Indians, by Lucile Hooper. Pp. 315-380. April, 1920 75 

7. The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian, by Paul Radin. Pp. 381-473. 

April, 1920 1.00 

8. Yuman Tribes of the Lower Colorado, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 475-485. 

August, 1920 25 

Vol. 17. 1. The Sources and Authenticity of the History of the Ancient Mexicans, by 

Paul Radin. Pp. 1-150, 17 plates. June, 1920 1.75 

2. California Culture Provinces, by A. L. Kroeber (In press) 

Volumes now completed: 

Volume 1. 1903-1904. 378 pages and SO plates _ 14.25 

Volume 2. 1904-1907. 393 pages^and 21 plates '. 3.60 

Volume 3. 1905. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, 344 pages 3.50 

Volume 4. 1906-1907. 374 pages, with 5 tables, 10 plates, and map 3.50 

Volume 5. 1907-1910. 384 pages, with 25 plates 3.50 

Volume 6. 1908. 400 pages, with 3 maps 3.60 

Volume 7. 1907-1910. 443 pages and 50 plates _ 3.50 

Volume 8. 1908-1910. 369 pages and 28 plates 3.50 

Volume 9. 1910-1911. 439 pages 3.50 

Volume 10. 1911-1914. 385 pages and 41 plates _ 3.60 

Volume 11. 1911-1916. 479 pages and 45 plates 3.50 

Volume 12. 1916-1917. 473 pages and 7 plates 5.00 



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