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Full text of "zad23"




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Instructional Objectives :i-*-Ld) iJIoaVi - I 

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Specific Diagnosis : a_b>*I! ( _ ? ^a~>«~ti] I ^jz~~* _ Y 
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iSjij^ j-iJl U* J IwaJlj JjsJIj (^iJ) 

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ji j^aUll tjw w*UM_*Jl ^__4j jl r j—* v^*-^ (J! i*-^' J" — -2 

( Jp C-^-Ul j-<ai«i V J| t^L^js^l *-J>y> SysllaJb ii%»Jl olJ ol^-idl 

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Control :Jx»waJl 

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IJLa J iu^Jl *~Lp jf JLj .J^Vi <>jil J* vJLsCJI _*j*JjcJI il«jJl 

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g^dlj t^UUjVl oU^UJl OUi t^U/tfl gfdl :U* tOis-t-f 

Correlational Studies ; iJaUj^l oU.ljjJl ^r^ 1 

oJi* Ok ■ 5 j> s ^ 1 iUj^f jju <y uitdl \Sy.j^ u-^ 1 j^* J Oji^Ul 

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JUi^l . ^UJI OUil Jj^" >' ^-^ ^ lc^ e 11 ■ • • **^L> 
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<L*JL (Jjdl U*p J-f-i Jkf j ijs? *X\J Jji <-Lv*' i/*^* £fj 

Cognitive Domain ( \ A e n <. fjL) J j*U - J2*ii jUll J vJlA* Vl «, a; .. ^it 

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J £j>*ll s^Ullj oUJUll JSJS J* JjOiJl > tf>-ll i-i* J-*i 
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IJUb J-^wj .L«rU A^xJ^\ jj*i d-^ /Jdl U»* J«-J ^1 
^>-j bjb«ll i-p>3l JJLiM <>• l*^i iL-i>' »t^ J* <> (i^ 1 
: ^ LtJ ob ^%* J tfy-ll ••** ^-^-J •* U * J| ^ JjJI ^ L -> JI 

Knowledge of Specifics I a^JI olirf>ljll ji o}L*atfdl *»^w _ I 

ULdl oU^Ull Lu j^o" ^11 fcJbJU olo^jJl Ji ftiJl »-U j^' 

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4 3jOj£ oUJk^j Jj— -j J* gjtej Terminology : oUJl***ll - ^ 
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wjt ^1 jt&Vl J j»\Jai\ ^j&u pjJ&j a^U* J **-**«s~ilj «>*^l 

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. *Jl . . . iihkil ipU^-Vl 

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jlisilj cJ&yJ>y> Ja-Au (J L^pLjI i_-£ ^1 <LLu«^l CjLJUjJ! jl 
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J -ula>c~<l c_^ <^iJI dl»«ii S-pyj ,_j*Jj : Criteria ot£»*il _ I 
O^ljilj Jlj>(jIJIj *<pLllj *ljVlj giUpij olkUJl > <*&M 
J* j^l-L i^U-l Olsons' tv-ljJl S^ai l^U.tJ ^Jl t'oLjkJlj 
^U^-! jf s? Jp iiu*- jWjtej J»LU jt t ^» J** jl i,it **J« 

(i*«Jl oL-jITj Jji»-j ^j .-Methodology ^^1*1 1 ^dl ^,—Ld 
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: jw- J J| iiiJl oJU «— iJj 

ipLiVt ji-^Jl '-^j t>~~ila!!j <r'*/ t 'l '-V*J i*A*2JI t iS : ^*J t*jlj^l 
ol^kJl 5iyw J,l jrJtJj .-Theories and Structures ^ij oljiaJl-t 

i^Lsdilj -JmlJl hja-jj tA_ — Jl ijjJaJlj (i-julj^Jl) i_jLHj_Jl 

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j i*JLJI Ui*JI oijl^ilj oljOiil jtff ^iwj ^jsJll II* Jic 
oUjSCc ji»Cj a-Uap y'L-.l J| dUi i^*w -iij . <Li-*aJl < .«. J Udl *L«>jVl 

JjJ»J ti-~-jjil (w-^ilj £t_*Hlj 1-JI-L-ftVlS" lJ-^5" 4-*JLicll iJLuJl 

^LJiJl <j i*-di Jjiailj iw-jJtii oljU^*^! f-jjj tJJL-jj ( _ r jj-dl 
J i>»^idl cjUjJUII JLi^-l Jp JLdl ajji J| i _jU i i»-Vl >wj 

Lfkij J* ojj^^^iJL Ijjli O^i Of 0j-> tlfi-« olil^iVlj l^*4*J <~*-» ail* 
jrf ejOiJt oJL* ^ JV JH-n*i(l <2^£i • (Sj*"^ J LA' J^ oUjJUll {j* Uj-aj 

JUdl Lf-— ^j jJl ol>i_4Jl Vj-j J^jj : Translation *>>J! - f 

L^U- fjjkui jjJl jl^iVlj (jUilj ^-^sbjJl iilS 1 J* Jailrf. d~j>»j 
tjjs oiU i?-^! Jp -_Lcll sjjj ^Ujj tiJUsVl oUjJUil i*,^* 

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ZAjj ojU^ jf t »_*Ull jf olijjjcdl (j^*j 4pLrf> ».sIp15 i<jj^i 

t iwU-l oWU i^>U- 3_^«j Jl wtjil jj^l Jj>^ j' nS}*^ 
£jl . . . L;^JI ^Ul Jl ijJl&'ill ttUl ^ M <*^» **:s J 
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jj ^-^SCr tOj-^u^' (jo j>lkJl ^ji j^e *i~>w S-ioi-l ii-^Jl 

Jbcil ^oJ Uy Wj^Ul oIj-aSJI a*j*>^? ^»«j : Interpretation jwiJl 
ii-jw V*lj-> «^ lfrU..lT jjl jl&Vl pJaw SjIpI J* l^sli jj£J 

j\ (.\fS- jijJC *j-i5J>j <l^-i-» *~-l>s jl ti^bU *l*xil <ul> i«ol 
. U siU (J oijljjl oUjJUll ^jAjsUj j) t <~*s X>Ja> O j - * -«a <" jf*-** 
jl£»Vlj jUil iA-U* J* SjJuJlj ojU jwiJl aJLp rjk—Jj 
Jp ui^cilj i!Jb-lj o-b-ji - JU*«Jl £>«*j* a^Ht Lf^* J*--' <jr' 
^Jl i-jjJlillj l~~?J\ jl&Vl Ju J~wJlj tlfW iwliJl OU^UI 

-Up U^jJaJ *— *-ljJl olj-UM Jp J-Ajj : Extrabolation jUSc-Vl - 
wJ_^ -li U Azz~>\j tSllwil oUyUll jjU Jp Ijili 0j5J jJUdl 

J t J^Ji OlJU tfj.1 Jj+iJ tilUJl jf tOl^-JI yl^*^ t*M 
t-Jlj-i-l J ^ »JUv ,y <jA^^ fJ-2Ji *i* yj— i ■& ^ ^JJ 

. J»«ll M^wiJ 4jjUa3^lj ijPU^Vl 

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<-i»jil J j\f* sjf *--?» tij-tdl (-iJil JjJaJl t£f*~* o*£ ^}j 

jf SjJLl t l c -»->JUj tJJ-l fjJb— ; aKJL* jJUdi o-lj-i it «-j^ ^ 
^ UJbat. jj£» jf v_»£ J^iadl v c£^£ t^' JL-JI of <^f tuijJt«!)Ul 

Analysis :JJU*dl <,|>^«« :U»tj 

iJjSU.1 iJjVl LjjIj^-T j\ Uj^Lc- J| i*LcIt ajlil 5jJ^ 5JL* jAj 
4j">U silp JJaJI Jjl~u *Mi^ (j-~"^ **Hl a *^* ^*r^ ^W *^ 

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(Jp Ajj-ii (J Ji tU ij-^iaJ ij—^jjjl stj^-Vl Jb~L£ jj jl t^j^ip 

*ljVl Jp iJiJI oljUllj JJUJ-I Jp 'dljjl oljLJi Oy j=?*Jl 
tiijjjl jl ijP-^^-^iiJ iw(L»Vl j-^U«Jl JuJ^ j\ tjJaJl olj>-jj 

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j-l^l jf 4' -a^H Ja . J» 3 &>■ Hr*^ 'c*** «r* J fb J 1 ' J** *****' 

4_JLp Jp bL»»l ,<■> fell *JU* r-L^u-Lf tC/jLClJJ iJjJ»- 

jf tJjkuJ.1 i»-l • tf OL*Vl igj\jr* **-\ — • oU^I j> '£*^"' 

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Ll*JLcJl J^-'j-il JUi»V i-UJl oUUjJI iuJ» *« jii iw-b-* 
blj-» iul-iiVl iU-^il Ju«^ v £-b~ ^iil <jJ-\ ^ i4JkJ*A\ 

ot>Li*Ji ^jj^ tij^y iLi>-ij ^j^~ *jaJI i}*^ <JjJ» j^jj^ k ^- > ^ 

i Jjj«it j^Jl Jlf J j^}\ iiLw« jf ^^ tL^U-^lj Representations 

jJJJ it~>w t oLUwjl j^- olj-iil J-^ai <Jy*J>l j-*Jl *Lj) jlikll p-^*-> - 1 



* * 

^J\ J *us (jji fLti tj^JJ JbJLiJl J*j^JI jJL" c^i Jyd! 
it-* t^^OJI fUkJl (O* t5-U iJjJb ^ tJC dl IJU ^ J'&i^l 

it-U> Is^liUj t4-Jb>-b t(jij^> 4-JLp x>iaJ J*- J./^' J-»^ •— *»J^- 
Lil ^jA $y&\ J*l ^jJlj information - Processing - system oU^Ull 
4iU- <U« JiX ^J^j ^Uai s j iJ & J^*Jt j4*~i i 1^ t^y (iUJl 
^j^iJl «^ij 4lL»*j ^LiJl J J-ii^-J tj>-b _p«i Jfi- ^jUU 

aJ_» df fw^lj-Jl jj^J . aJLJjiJlIj i-^lil JUj^flj oU>LiJl J* 

t jlJUl ^1 jf olJJI 3ji\ aIILa JjU3 tJiJI j*^U V^UU 
iyjjl ,jSUi j^3 4^^-iu-llj u-^lll iJ^LJl (_i^sj Jp ajJiJl j£ jj-Li 
«u5Ctf tJJUi i3ji- Jl t iV" ^'j^ *~^ si-^ 1 4*^ JiJ^ o- 4 



.*tJl 



«yT <jL~e ,3^ ^ igyw JUJ A*if J JAkil J>srj J^^mJ t*J-Jl 

^jb^»pj ijJH\ iljij j^JA\ i^Lw. j4 Jj ^ Jj t ^U jxJ J* <jj*M 

. . idadl J^-LiJl CjUL*p 



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iW jjusj /uifasi jrf M J** ° f ^ C^- ^ J ^ 
)Jl p t L- ^ ,>5i ij* ysj ^ Vj s^ 1 M * & & 

ii* J v ^ 4 s ^^ '*"' ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ - 9 jbj^ jju J *i~Ji > °>^ ! ^ J^ r 11 r*- 1 
, b f fi h-j *«**. L u*/ ^ j~u j^ ^ W -> 4 ^ 

. i>tju SJuOp oUsLli 

4 j^l ^Jt U^ ,>_ *J^1I ^^ cHr* ** *** J ^' 

Enactive representation stage : J**iJ J~*^ ^j-* - ' 
^Jl ±>^ ,X£±\ V- 11 ^ ^ ** ^-A 1 aI * 0i 

JjLSJJ i^jUH ^ It: J* ^ ^ > ^ *i* J* V <-V*. 



^•ve 



Ikonic representation stage : ^jj^a&S JJU^JI *&•*«« «, w> 

j^klil y |«3jJl J*j tJ*iJl * cf ^l J^ icon ajj-^aJl J^d 4-uh*Ji 
V| i4jjj-aJI S^IJJI jjialj tilU-jil aJLa J jyll j*Jl ojyr t^JJI _/*-£)! 

i^-LL. iU-JLI «Ju j| .olyiJl jl-j <ulidlj w>jl£iSl£ ilijiVl pJfrJ 

. <U>-L> -UP oLUjJI J-4 U *±>-j* y (Jj jl oijjuju 

Symbolic representation stage <j j*jJl J-i*^) iU-y - -»*■ 
J ky&\ JrJ\ f-^^" ^ '^ Ji> o^ ,/rj^l ^ yi J~* 

1LJI Jir ^Jl oUjl*il ^.^j jl&Vl ujUt ^ 4&£ Ji j^JL, U 
<L-y JI (J-«-*Jl J^*Jl iU-^_« y !>UJ JilU JikJU t-kii JJUxH 

of U^l ^u V dUi uf VJ tc5>J' J^ 1 ^^ cijj-^ 1 Js^ 1 

jf ^gjw Jj 4iai* i£y>j\ J~*^' J* Vj*ll -CUUp J j-rfSOi Xil^Jl 

JJUjJi JU J j^rboi J| iiUJVIj (jL53l u^UiJlS") tij^adl JJUjJI jf 
>c JpUiJI i>liL ti/te)! J>-1jJI J^*^' ^M-*^ ^vyj '-^* • t5>jJ' 



ni 






• H j, ^ %J\ g >ji}\ JaLl- j^Ji j-usJi &~r J^ ^ *«W 
jp aJi £. JpUJi <$>•> J=^Ji a*v J^ u^- J * W- 1 otf>di 

J^ VrjU-l fcJI £• J r* i ~' J*^ J ^ ^ ^ • ^ -^ ^A 
^bo w~^ j£j i&#*\ J-U=J» ^Ll^ f-^^-i ^ '^ ^v 

-jl ol^rjil y Uj ?CJLdl - i^Ld 1 Q^ [ J V^* t^' JJ-^ 1 >* 
cjla ^j 'C4 3 if+J^j Jl-tVi j^i" <i> <> ^J 1 ^ ,4*11 ^ 

J±i $ o.P <> -^ |JU -^^ ^^ f*^ 1 ^~" ^^ 

Jij .^ Jb- J* JikUj jJUJJ i~Jb f^ 51 ^^ J*-i ^ 

<^Vl oLJdlj t i_-bil o^Uttllj iJJjJl Ali^^il Ji> ^& 

.oljLrf-Vij oUUu-Vls" :>l>il 

j* Jj^ 1 5/il ol>Jl Jj i-j^ll Ji U ii^^ J JUtVl pi*- t 

*U( 4JI&I ^yjl jjijj ^ viJJJJ iiUJLl »I* J J^ 1 j^ 31 (>* 

4 ,UiVU jr ^Jlj ij^Jlj ^^Ij J—Jlj ijaJI oULL^ JLi^Vl 

nv 



jis-^ JUJbf Xp U-UJ^iSf OjSJ jf ^£c jJl o^l i}Ja)\ ^ 
AJ&\ , gy..^- Jp [ptf JikJl J& <l ^ .ii*l>lj ;>tLl ii^kSl 

^ JjJal Lwaii 01 !>&> J-aia!l '-'./"i / <Ji* (io-LaJl oli^UJlj xUJl 
t -U-S3l) ((d)) j-UJl ^y> ^i «"\ji iJjJl of ^j-^i Oi <*-!*■ >-- «.^aj tj>-l 

.(Elkind t HVn 

c^~~ tjUi^^/l JbcJl ^JL-I jLip! Jj^dl j-vJl oL.lj:> *>*-iJ. 
# Ju ^ J, t( . f i,;V JbiVl iiy ^*i V IJU jS3 .yi ^ Li ^ 1 

ji OU-^aJ t *-UllJj ^^11 sOij '•jjj'. iSji le^" ' r*-^-» J^LaJ -LP'J 

Jjp L^*JiJj ol^lL &JI *LpI JUil <Jp tw-ji ^JJLSJJ <,< *U* <Jj** 

OrcU-^il (J i*»Uwj t-JLicJIj oLi^i/l J* JUi?Vl IjJi j4— ; _p*J 

Ob tjj-«il j^Jl ol—ljj «j*Lj I4JL* ijjhx ,jJI jt&Vl ^-y- 
4<*jUJI 4-*/*^' ^-ri A* (J*^ 'J - *^' ^"f^L?i <j^' oJbjJL-l ol^iLl 

<U»jAJ ^j j^o djS^j U l_—hUj aJj.A>- oI^-#«j «JL«!)^J JjJ^ Of *lail 

Jyd! _jaJI CLjs J-^— J tolls' <j-Jj <L-J #jJL| 0_^J Of 1--^ (jf 

<*jJj jiiajj iJ»sll j J"" oljJli j V*i ' *— ~-»b-« (5**J "i'»"J plJbwl»*l 



UA 



JU cUSOr IJL* 015 lib ?vr^ *> U ^ ^ s ^ ^ jjM ^' 

oy£ of v-jt i^i 'J* o#j ^ -^ ^ ^^ ^-^ ^ 

BMaJI ^ X*di 4fc ^>" ^ ^ Jl ^' G^ ^ ^ U 

" . ?aJL*JI UUb J iyljdl 

j 5 ^, ^ o^, l-U ,^l ^ oLU jU^ U^jJ o^ *» 

Ija^t (Inhelder et d, 1974) O^rW 1 u^l a^ ^ ^ t ^ kdl 
^ydJ U%* .oUUJl .1* J frr-dl a* **" ^ ^' ^ 
^ t ^ ^kJI / of (Elktad. 1976) x&\ ay. ^ ^ ^ 

Sigel and'Koking,) g^jSj >*- j&3 * J^ ^ -^ l **-* 

^ ^Ul cr^ 1 ^j t4 *" L * U5 "^ ^ ^ - rJl ^ ^ 

9 i* jurt ^ ^ ^ <tt ^ cm-) «M- '*J« t^ 



w\ 



L^UjJb—l ^t Cj\jJc}\ v_— >■ ijal C->tg>-j JjlP <il j^ f«^^l (J* 4JL3J-I 
(Hall, t cJjJw (j«<*»^; J^-lj JJi y'>*i ^ ^4 Ts^i i ~"* > " '^-""J-^l *JaJi 

. 1970) 

t _ 5 *-Jb k^-~*- t«-iijjj #La)I ljjjj> Ojjij t.{Jj*±\ >*-J' £ij~^ <J (*^ J *^'j 
^L-JL i^j^- iU-yi JSwJ a— jjdi JJ U ol_^~» of (Bloom, 1968) *^L 

^-jlJii JUisf aUiaI Sjliu-1 ^^^ <)f (Kohlberg, 1968)r-^Jj£ ^dj 1^ 
oyljj IS[ ii^j-dl oljlflij oUj-^ll ^ JbJbJL; iJlJiii^/l JJ U 
j^J i^Ls-l oLaI^I i-w /^xx wL~>*j t i— ijJlII <J u. wUl! *»UiSl .^J 
Hunt cJU l^ *U ^1 oL-ljjJI *Jti J^jj . oljljilj oLp^ajil oJU 
•Lft ^ji«* £Jj jSU 4i\ (Hunt, 1969, Pines, 1979)j_iuj (^"H) 

0l jJuj ^jaII j*Jl pij-~* *^J>i ^jA ^jyS lJ&jj> j» U 4ijVlj 

i«j^J-l JjJb djiZju *4*t^" U*^>-UU . ilLJ.1 8-La i-U<»j j^--U- «_ii^> 

* * 

yy c5^' *jr^"' V 1 ^*! J^*-i 1*^* VlJ-x r^i*i '-^*J tiijlil* oi>jij J^Lj 
olj->- JJ i«_^II ajL?- cjI_^< ebji fj^y^i JikJU t<jj*il JikJl ji J 

J a^JU <!«>■ yt US *— iLai (jj-j^ J^*^ *yrji *^^' JjJ Jj*r ^JUl 
ylji ^ <uf ^aj llaj t(Kohlberg, 1968) j>-\ ^U_^ j* J^ j*^' 
Ai^ jf Critical experience f^y tyf-n syrj ^ JJj oH\ jj>- 
(CJarizio J_^l _^*JI ,*ej-j" Jl^f J If^UJj l^JUi tiy^Jl d^j^ »«J->-j 
*JU- J^>- JikJI 4-jU ^JUlj t *>Uu ^UJI wJJU 4 et al, 1978) 



W« 



Li" tJU^-»Jlj *-**Jlj j~~*J!j iJ^arJlj >-~jjA\ J* Sj.i*J! iw^-^j 
(Hartly, /JcJlj iilj^lj •LJVl J* <J>tf jj*u iil^il ^Uil w~X 
ti y_yk j^*J Jp iw,ljjJl aUll *JiJ jf tl^>-Ul (j^*; c^jij 1971) 
JLjUjc pjj~~J <_)■£• J-** (,4-v<?bylij JL—L-Vl pUJl JL£ J JLsUijj 
Jyi\ L^x li£*j . il^ll o-U I4-U (^^kJ (jJl ^-aLUU ^^AkJl w_jL-51 
CjIjI—* «-^-L _p»i J* iilLkil i-i-Jl olj-tilj JLwljjJl iljll *Ja^" oL 

. -JUdl IJL» m,j~^ (J^ -^Uj Ujj t *-f»Uj 
Language Development (jJjaUI j*ill 

iiJJl o/3j 4^UJlj <^' Oh *Vj^ «^*N vr-i ^J 'JyJ>' y^ 

^ JjVl j+iH\ J^U f ai^-e JikJl of < J^l yJ\ ^ e^ Uj 
dU^o <J^~»- t<o Ja^i! JUl p* <UUJ J iJaiJJ! j^ ihy>L\ 3 J" *<j"1->- 

i|>»^Jl flkJl J_4 of ^i V J&j .<3ykj fkj u~*kj £~~iJ 
Ijjl* JikJl jJJo ^ tCtiiJl Ji U iiydl J> J^ UjO; ^>JJI 
to,** j- JjVl i~Ji i.L; ^ *ljal ^jtji>-^l f^ f^J J^ J* 
^»j t iUiJl ^L-5b fju ^f t-utj J If— 1 — ; j}\ o^Vl £&l f-V. 
w_A-^l Jp Jikil JjOi ihyj . iilS" ^iUJl JUkf X* ^-UI UU Sy*lt 
tL5 wyl j^j l/ w -r !l j^Ldl oLUfr ^fr Jr-Jl J <u-U; ^J iiiJI 
Jl\ t0i J-ll^ i^ilJl iLcVl ^ liUL" ^f UjJJ cJ j«UJ ^^u 
Jp 3j0i ^fj 4 v JL*. ^JJI ^>JI J iJUij U»li; J^f *1*^ cj^ ! 

. itljiilj i-iibil J!)U- ^y *V<^ ^LiS'l 

j_«Jl oLUp ujLtf-^J J^IJ-I j»IJti«l-'l Jl oiid Oj-ia>«ll ^>i 



ws 



«.Ult Ipr^l J*^ ^k-j jJl oLKJl :Op Jp bUis-l dUSj njyS\ 

The one word stage ; SJb-IjJl i*KJl iU-j* _ f 
C-~>- tJikJI aL>- j*a 5JWI i»Jl J|i~ * (j eilp ib-jil eJU fjlJ 

^ juif ^j <u*JVij fUdij ^^11 Jp ijui oUKJi5T tjiui 
. «ji ... tt_-**- j t_~*Jj 'J-^t? 'Hj 'J^ action vei * s J**Ji Jl 

^ Ljiy«j jjJl *LiVl a,j,o.....'j ib-^l «JU Jib JU-IJI J| cfJJi ayuj 
uV * JUiVl jjA-iJl <y> £_> £* kl* iiil^dlj c J*«Jlj J«iJi Jj^1» 

gJ5lj <wiS jlaJ _^*j JilaJl Tj-^i U.L*» tL^4P _/ws~U ^5l jl <Uu^ J[ 

<U ; „f?IL Uj*p aJU-^U «,1a oUlS 1 ^....t'j .8. . .JS1 Of -Uji . . . /u^r 

^jviusJJ JL»-f »«Js>ls£ U-LUi tOlJJl jl jj^Vl <Li»Ut ^jj c\j^ i,iy^\ 
v_jslj£ LjJ^Pj tjjdl r-jU 1 wUJJl J «C«Pj Jlj *JU i«?-Jj» i«i£u Aj 
Oji £j>-\ J] ASjP ^ JUlj'Vl (J 41-Pj JP ^ <Jp 1 4-JLSCJl aJ^- -uJij 
Jjjjs ^ oJUJL^j tiJKiL J*iil i»Ljjl Jl j^-ij IJlAj .Jb-L iiLlw/Vi 

s^Ji .:..,„>U j\ ijjj-£}\ sL-iVl Jl ajLi^J : «S^» iUS 1 JiiaJI ^a>«i«j 
i]j>*z» *— >■ t^i J| 5jLi*>U ««jL-j i»K ^Ji*i-j jl ^x \£ tL^-^" 

illjjlj J»j*'Jl Jp j'il-jj.l ajyll *JlP Jl a^Uail «JL* i^«Jj . 0!)^^P (_^i 

WT 



t JljjJU afljJl f-**=ll ij*lfr JU-bj t ^J\ jJ j3! 4--UVI ^Uli 

The Two word stage ; ,jc*JK3l iU-^ _ lj 
jjcuK J^»j t^iVv) V^l ^-Jl ui^CU ju IJ JiWl ^k: j 

(JjL-— bbj Jj4j JD t4«xiil jl. A— «yl 4*-^ J^ _/wCdJ l^^aju .4 

(jcJKII ib-^* J JikJl w_— ^jj . i_-*15lj ^UkJl tf Ojjil ^ jwcil 
J| jj± ^JJI yVi .ajsr-^Jl {Op Jl JjLS^J ^1 jf'UUl f>4 ii UJ 
iJUJlj ijliji £-JI ^ y» JbakbU i^jJL (jj^r Jjj^j iSj^ t-& 

LJ>tyj SjjUb j_j_a-iJt ^yJJl j_«Jl ^ f^Jl IJ-A jj-!J ."-AvflJlj 
jAj tiijl J jjjfcJl Jp p=jJi OjjAJL J^ I JUtVi -UP ijPU^Vl 

. ^yOJl ^^1 ^IkJU UJi^Jl v*Vi Jl jJii U 
More than two - word stage : jc-JS" y> JS%\ il»-^* _ _>■ 

aU-^. *Jb J| tU S^So ^p _^wdJ a UL-S _^Sl jf oU5 vi»^J ^y ii!j^ 
LpL-^yj i*Dl Jpl^i. iiyJll <y Jbjll Jp <£*kj <■ »«*i-^- iSj*l> j* 

-isU <«. «>■ at-ijj^dl)) Jp ej-Uil aJU-^LI «d» j, — -Z <*L~~>- tlf^jj 

i*»UU O^-^sJl JiPiy plJukwl Jp ijjli JikJl jAiJ tJ^jJIj JJj«JIj 

ju j ^ ^ ji jwi u (JJ^- 4^^ '^ u ) cH 1 t>"3j (^ 
t JikU ^UJI SjJuJl ji J! ^uii 1/ 4 <»ljic-.lj ^ydJl f UtJ) j^k; 

•Jut .Iosni-I Jl 4* ^ji d-^ 1 ^' 'fi^ j^ iJf s *Vh^ £ 3 hy^ 
As. <.jlSoi IjJS b\ .i«UJl \jiUi opI^I ^p JuiJ o^U-, J Opljiil 

wr 



t ajA* J* i— «li-lj 4JllJl 4i~JI (ju Li JikJl XP (^JUu tiiJUl flJlii 
e^i jf *i[ ti*»Jl IJU Jm *bf ^y> i-»«UU Jit j^l ^ p*J\ (Jtfj 

, dJU j JLaj aJjJLP o!tl~J j-C~j j^jJJI 

: iiUI w'L^'J oUjA 

^, <Jj (J J^vijU^" tj\~~Jj 0^*1^1 Jl^l J* j^2>-Ulj ftJjiaJl r-^j 

-0»J J5jj t«lS"JJl OuJ» ywij" j JU-I J> L5j . <jJLII wjI—^I oUL-p 

(Skiner, 1957; oJJl U^j£\ J U^fj iiJI J^lyJl jjs Jp ^yUJl 

Oj~~±j (.Aj^^iil ^-Jl Jp ^>-Vl t _ r ^«Jl -^}j ijj>- jMowrer, 1960) 

.(Lenneberg, 1967; Chamsky, 1972) ^US'Vl lJu J ^aVI jj-JI LfcJl 

». ^>-^j t ^JUcJl ^yi fjj t4_*JJl i_jI_j51 aJL*^ ji Oj~~Jl iSji 

ylyJIj SlS'UJ.l^ liitf jJLdl f-ljif U £**£ jJl tl^b A^plilj Jvlyi! 

ti^tA^Jl CjIj-^VI ^to] jj*- lj.sl* JuikJl ^-m2j UjLLni .JjJaJIj iwjUaJIj 

jl oU-lSvil oJla (JUjI JU- ( jm t "cLj jj 1 |. ^o .. „ .. i ^Jl oLJISjI -xJJai) fji 

Jj )j Lf 4 La Jj VjCj OjJLil Jl AjJL t <U!Lj (J .AjLJI (_£j»klJI Ja«-Jl ry> \^-\Zi\ 

Uf t lf*l*Jj if-Lill iJLiu.il oUL-Jlj f Us>jVl (j Ujjj-b- jl^S^J JUj>I 
. Lj^JLsJ pJdf-j J. : i:..-ll J Ljij-b»- JL^I JJLi U t Ujj j*j 

(J t^jJUl t-^L-^l /y jUiaJI Cr^J tj-»^JI jV 4 <-aj /-«« (J Ja-'-' J 4 Cw 
IJLi .^J-rfJl IJL* (J L_jiLJ IjjJ VJ Jjydlj alS'UJtl OLI*^- iw~sJj V (JP" 

Language acquision i«JJl ^L^TV i^Jai Sbf 3j>-j ( _ ? SLw>j-ij ,j^_^i; 
tjikll L^w»— j jJl aUL| ^jJJI oLkail A^-bwj ^j>«^ device (LAD) 



jji\ ^ *uyj ttiJi ^ ^ &? *" a = iuJ1 ^ ^ s 

\ * ., ill ItxNI .f i-JU i^LiTil lid .LiUl 4J tjU 

t L>- sx^ij 5- J *w -^ ^ ^ JuWl ^ 

.^ ^ju ^jji ^b ?&* J 5 >b^ 

^JU» Jl r U ^ iU£l if (Mc Neill, 1970) J^U ^ 

^ O.i-H UH>* Of \^ -^ J u*^ & 4 S >^» ^ ^ 

ou>ii ^ J ^ -^ -^ ^ c^ 1 °^ ^^ 

_ JlJP j e i\ K Of <tfH ^ ^ 2?* ^ ^> f ^b !>ji« 

■ W-* ^ -k>" ci 51 ^ <>** ^ tiiiJl 
: ^joll JwJtj <#-^ ! ^*^' 

jrtWi ^j * v^' ^^ ^ <J ^^ ^ ^ ^ Ul °T 4 

.LiJJ^Ij Jl^lj /J=Jij aLi ^b J^b ^^^ l ^' J t^> b 
.(Cazden, 1966; Nelson, 1973) ^Vi jUI^Jl ^ -^J J^b 



^JU! f Ul jjoJI J! C ^ oL-b^Jl ^ L^ 



I j^ j^~i 



jl w^ C^-^ 1 f U1 ^- U1 <3* G^-^ — -V— LT ^ 



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J\A J iiyiJI JjjiJl (jf ^T ISJ i^U^j t<£?*Ul •J-»!& *bf Ol— ^ 

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S^U t»^s-LaJ jjii yjJlj jliJl j^Ux* illjL? t^JbJl <Jp *JkJL*LJ ^jJl 

t_ijbiil rj>^*H uya-ucil JjJ^ (J 1 * j*&3ij i <u«JUiI!j tijjj^JI uilUAjl 
jj^Jjcdl «.*Vjjb Jbjj; ^ Jb V Jj <,ia& *Aj*p w-J»lj£ ^1 oljljllj 

JL^a^JLlij *bj 3 AjaLcJI _ 4 j ,». J ,, k i)I <uL»jJI |»j»L-J jl <— - £ & tl^^*!* 
.1* ojJLSJL oijJJij t&aiJlj 4jU^3b j j^w ,. *.' l L^-Uol jiy; jjjt ja^^h-aII 

j4JydS» Jw tie_P' i»Uj^L ijlj^Vl ^ Jj ^ SI 4 Jaii AS^ail (Jiji? 

Jp v_JUdl J UjJuli; ^iUi £Jj t«Uji/s8 jlyVi ,y> ^Ss tjiijJLJljj 
j#. J^^xij ^ JLoIl 0! ?Vj^' ~^>^-i»« if?-lj^j tiJLJ-! * t =L;_yw9 

0| ^^Ls<aj»jjl »JLa jj_^iaj ,Jp Aj*^Us> JUll JIpLj i_i^j c Jbcil Jl* 
IJl* J -d^c- ttai ^y 4l5^x Lc_j t t? «-iJI >*Jl CjL^liJ jiu; *l*il JjjJj 
L« IJL»j .*JuJl sU^I J -(j^ _^c J-f~y tJ--a»T j^J Jp JUll 

(Erikson 1960 - 1963) Ujh-^jjI >^* ^^-^1 j*^l J^'y 

iol \\j S(^-i ^1 j_y— «Jl .T>~^ ljjJb>- U-iji Jjt AJf J| (.-^Jji ZiJ^, 

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\£ nJj <ut JiJWl *i°& *^ J (JpVI U^ij t UVlj t^l) 3^LiJ| 
L*LJl ^f ^U^-l JL- J ^^-^1 j*Jl J! J& Jj t^ijy J*i 
_ ,^-ii j*i» J^i *!**■ L« l«i*j tSj-ojU (JUiJI ki^l^l ^y> jli#[ j a m^j 
^ IJ-&JI Jp jj— ^ijf JUoj Psychosocial Development .^Uij-I 

J5 (jl C^^iJ * .yJLJl >«-J' iJl^-ol ill—" •y» LJjIjSJ Li»*^ _ Ufljl -Ujji 

. (^j-Jlj jr^-l 6jU\ gbj\ *J\£*\ ^U cfr^ J^S 

J*~J 41m>u«ii jX oUjI ^»^-j-; aiuiipl ,1* *Uj 4?-iajT tJ&a^Jj] .Aj 

.\J~* o>£. of j^Jl IJLA Jbjf U lil iaJUI _^JI *i>^ J| JL&'VI 

Js-lj^ J&£Jj .j-*iU (J^Jt ttV*"-^ J ^JJ^J '^Jb-^Jlj iLLJl J^-IJ^L 
si-»sssiw)) ijii\ cfJUlc "^ J JUL tSj^-wsj <LJb iJL»p (Jj— S^jjjl j*J| 

L^Lpj^ia »_« J^ cJ-jcU tiJLeJjl l ^LnZ>~)i\ _ ^~«jaJI a-o.' J I J^-IJ, 

•aV^ji ^.) sail ^ ^-u^vi jjii. aaju ^u^i :jjVi &*->! 

A sense of trust versus a sense of mistrust (j-^ - <>*W j4*~^^ t^J 

K^j 4 AtJLj 4 — ij iSiiU jJjJI Jikil ^L-rf-l jl Uj— ^Jji (►*-]*. 

ij^jjl a_yull ^ LjiiaJ t SL?- j^ J,jVl i~JU ^ ijh^aJl ^l^ai>«JLSl ^l— <l 

^Jl Ji'ljJ! 5>^ L^V t^L-s-Ml li^ Ji« L^i jjJaj 01 t— «?r ^i i>-jJ-l 

tisydJ A*-«iL*> VI 4jL>-L>- ijyat (J ft-fcJ- 6, JilaJl -UJaj C~>- t/V J>- i\ (J* 



^ 3^1 -Js V i,> i- J ti-_ ^JJI Jiyi of ^u ^ ^ of H\ 

jjjSo 4-L* of (^»«J Ji «. lc^=- c/.j^^kj A ^ Cj . *^' fi" 1 *' l-^-'j J-^S-" 

Jp ^—^ i o| t yUl oly-JI J ^yw JSl jJJC A2i!U ^L^-Vi 

.ll-i ^ii ji>^l Jp Jl5i^l jjJb- jV 4 JjVl fcJl *Uf jJ»j ^ 

(ol>- ^*SJI &-j j±* j^lsJl >JJI ^) ^iilj 
A sense of Autonomy versus a sense of shame and doubt 

jp j^*j t 4, uu isy— aJ of &->i «a* J j*ut ^-ii^i 

AjS^JL. J»Uf i-jLir Ji *pJUL dUij ijlJJI cbli^l o.L*-l o^t 
UpL~. ojjj °v^ JUpVI ( _ r iwj *bf J aAL 4-pj U*>1>- ^XZ (.tiju 

tcJ-j Ju \*\j*> iU^il o»U J A^-l^ Jftkll of Oj— ^ijf tJjLJ ■ C/.J^^ 
^jJu-, dilij ^l^ail IX* J* tJto Of Up hSj^ y^ J* Jikll 

j*>u^i y >.>" J tiJb-^i <a* j ji±*\j\ jj* v^f j^jj 

. jik» JLLj J| 

i^jJ Jp oJipL-i V «.sly J*ju> *Lij L- J*j« Jiki! ^L-JI of 
^U. if JiUI >ly; N 5JU-I a JU Ju J ^V iJ^tiz-^L ^t-*-Vl 
jyJUilj jjJJIjJI J^ v^ ^-^ tl t: *-* fijfij ^J* jM*' Jr* *^ 
«-ku-i U «_/w ^ r><jH ^^ 'J^ 1 <^j-^ ^y** -U- 1 ^ £fJ 

jUJ> J^ail tj_iil l-U j-. IjjJLs- ol <.«Cjt ^U^»Vi ^ Uj t «0 ^UJl 

J! vUaJl J^iaJl U^ ^J>" JUi tiOJljJl iUl wJL-f ji ^Up 



.>-■ U jtftJl ^ -Jju* f J^j i-c-L f .u ^ r~- jf ^ ^ ^ 1 - u ' 

J^LL ^ t !oU jlJJl ^' °^ ^ ■*■ ^ C^"* ** jf 

j\ jj~ — o- -> l ^ ^ ^ ^ i q" • • • i - UJi 

.•fiUL ^L^Vl y>J '^r ^ bJ! ^ 

A sense of initiative versus a sense of guilt (£Aj~ C— 

Jt>U^VL ^L^t iU r ) a,U! aU^ J JAJI -~-^. 
IJU, <^j -IJu -upj J---J ^Ul ^ *U- *y 0U lil (Jlf 

jikii ^ii a** iiju ji'jw c-^iii, ^u^fi '^y Jl l ^ LI 
j^ ^ jijji J*>u^ o-^ 1 ^ cH 1 -^ 31 ^ s?* '^ 

OlJI^ll v^JL ^JJl r UI jj-aJI b> J^j .ty-lj ^ o-^ 1 



t ;ji2*. U*^ j JikJl i3Ufl ib-y ^* iSblll il^y jj .^il>Vl 
hJ-S y L~ b-^ *^ ,i U J 1<L ** ^-^ 4 ^ ^ C^ ^ ' t ^ i 

A sense of industry versus a sense of inferiority 

olj^waJi Jp v^ 1 cJ ^Ij^fJ V^ 1 ^ US-^ cM U^ ^ ^ 

KJlj J-**Jl* t-L-^l j^^k; dUij t^illl jlUJt j fljlfj ^Ijt^il 

^w-j ^Ji >~* a~~ .^ J- Ju^^J^ J^^-" 1 

\ftLj .JikJl XP ^^iJlj ^WOJ! jyj^, j>. ^1 j*Vl 4 a^yi 

^> iiisa o^JUiij ^Jijji j^o-l .«j* j! j^ji ij* j* t^ 1 

^ jlil V *^S v^ ^ , JikU ^1 j-JI J *-i >/ 
. ;^U xij stJ- i jj^JI i^U^Vlj i^jJ-l v~iJl ^U^ 1 

;L>w* >; %rj ^i^J J^i.1; ^l-^i *^y J J^ 1 t^dJ 

ji\ -i^ii jU;ij t *bV» J sjbi^i -j*u^j *-.i~?-\ J^ ^ t «uii j* 
^il^ilj wJI/p^I ^U^l J>j oU^UJl J^ ^ 1/ ^ <-Al£ 



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id ^ >^ ^^ y J ,i^ii a* J jakii ^ 

-^ ^ Jjjj ^h ^^ ] f* ^ o*- ^ r*± ^ 

ji, ^ JikJi ^ ^ J u~Uib -WVi ^ V» -*>- ^ 

^ " (S ^ ii.tJI ^ vr* V^< ^ 

A sense of identity versus a sense of identity confusion 

tAJ ; ^> ^ ^ ->- <w» ^ ^ -^ ^ ^ v ^; 

IUI IJL. J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "^ tUbUl ^^ 

'^ jA lr u ^ y f u j*-» ^ ^~ ;^~* 

\ySyj ^ ^ ^^ JU *^ ° Ui ^ 1 ^ ^ tA> « ' 

^^j",, jf Role Confusion (JJ jJl ^>^» O^.jl *r— i ^ ^> 
j»ljll Jii Of a- • c^ 1 B ^ °^ ^ U J ^ ^^ ^ 



IA^ 



jb-b*d! IJL* iJUi-l (^aj *i' tiL>-J.I «i* J cr~^"' "J 1 -?-^ ^-J* "^"^ ^ 

OJ . iLill Cj\_f~J\ J l-Ui*Jj i>jJW9 j^t ij»\ J-Uj Jj t J~S r- J-l J 

4J^ic LfcUjI jL$H\ ilU-Vl Jp iUr^I J t*l*-. uf ^ ^Jt 

jJl i^Jl iubtjll yfclk* ^ Cji_pilSl »1» j^j .U*JI <^_? <c"l-l£~.j 
A sense of intimacy versus a sense of isolation (i~- T « 

jjl iUJl VwJl iL-jJl jjJb ^ ^j^ 1 ol JJ-^JI II* J jj-Xjf 
A*-\J.\ ^jA^. J^*Jl (3U>-V <>«^j tijili uV t^L-s-Vi li* Ji^ jJy 

^jjJl jjj ^bf J <«U^i Jl cP>. i^AJi ^Vl UjJIj oiJUl ,y j& 

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.j>^\ J *— &> jl~ iVl Ljj 

(OM&Jl j^»-j fa 

A sense of generativity versus a sense of self absorption 

jLikVl ^U-Jf jf ^ ^_pi J&j . L« AfJb- sJ-Jjj"s <jp *>4Jl 

^L-^VI jf fc^UJVl J* Ijj^ai* (j-J ^L^-Vl iJL» of VI tr-lsVlj 
l^^l jJl JJtiiJlj p-illj j^J-1 J* J j>JI ^^L-f Jl j^. i'jJjlSL 
ujjj *bl J UJL ^Jl i^fA-l <il5 (Jp (^jiaUj t Jldl J~i-I J| aji «-UJf 

<|js-lij ^JJl ^—-jJl JajMj ..1^*11 4jM^af {J i3jLL»j .Utcj r-jjj -UL5' 

ol^-.) ^-UU ^t— VI J-U. J-«l&Jl ^L-^VI :JuWl a^ll 
A sense of integrity versus a sense of despair . (J*l2i3t 

jV tlf»-_^-Ijj iLL—Jl a~«Jl U-Lil L^y^ il>-ll a-ia jl^-^J 
ijilj ik-LJl sblilj jlJUl Jt&ii-Vlj SjXIl ialll J j*& ^jj-^r 
j* iLs-^il oJLa J i^iJl .AS'kj .<3^-l r^Vlj ?t?-tJ! il^Jlj iliu-il 
Ljii iijJUj t l^l^SL 4jL>- Sjj^ Lijj ijjjji-l ,U>-I »UUI <j ai^L^o 

Jp iw-UxJl (j oIjjw Ij-^J 0**^' -^'y^' fj^i -^ <^-" o* - ^ j_^*-iJl 

(Havighurst, 1972) :j*Jl w-JUa- riyt 

is^s-Li JjJU- jU«Jl o__^J Jp jj — Syjl ?rJj^ <4* X»J>j (_$JJl (^3-1 ^^i* 



^fc; \£xj ( ba* ^JLkr l^ JS" JbJ/ ij^ «- Jl M- 1 bj* 

yij .i-^Li iija* I4JUSU jUJ[ J JJLL jdl iUjll ^3 ^jJl J^'J-I 



. (J^ij j^ 1 (i^ -M) gV-^ 1 ^^ -^ r^" - 4 

• (tr'l? J* ' ut— ; ^ ^J ^i/*- 8 ) v-Mr' lij^l j*^" - @ 

: kM\ wJUail <> 4Jb-Jll «JUb £^3 
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, v LJ-lj ib^'j i*ly»ll J V* 1 ^ ol ^ X^- • 

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v -.^b ^I^JI jp <>^) J^ 1 ^^ J^'- * 

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( &* r« Jiu ^) s>lli xtjii &v '.^j 



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. iJjdlj a-pU^-MI CjUIjiJNI ip-l_y»_ » 
. Wy> *Vk«3- •"-"'WO' OUi - 1 

^1 Ajilj wiSltjJLi ALU ii5 ijj-^ tj^Jl «k_JUaj» |»_ > ^io l _ J k*i 

•V> cJLcLi JL--U1I ^^Ij »-»j>Jlj ol^l iUI Jp ^opLj 
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, *J»-Uf- iJlJLil 4jU£Jb 



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J_»l£J! »_jLJ»jjJIj wolJLII J~4^j v>*ill AjLa5CJL ^L^ifl jf J[ 

1>U ^l£^b (jr^wiJi ^jJll p-UJl j*»L-> 4 (Hamaehek, 1979) 

»-Lu jJtjJ ^^5^ cjLS' j£ij '(^^l - i - p v-Jlj^ - ' °-^* ijij^ ci c5t^ 

^v^i jJl oJljiJI ^^ Jp iJbJI ob-^ail <^k; Uj ?jj^l1I IJIa j 

• oyf^j {X*-*" l/* 1 ^ r s?y o* i*-**^ 

J jjiJtx^ (i->o 4,J>JUcdl a^ISCJ i-jJl ajjL-^. c~J JtliJl IIa ^y 
(Symonds, ^Xty^^ ,Jy, -&j ■ V*-*^ oU»LiJl J ^U*U-^ jlJi« 
J| i^U-l ^a n^lj.1 ^t^ki! -U> Uj~i oU-U-l Jtff jf 1968) 

iL-J.\ «j_a J < JQJl jV- t 4_^-jU-j <_i*aii J^-b v-j-tlJ oU*Lil 

J*>U- ^ Vi UjUJl ^ V ^Jl *tkJlj JL»-Vl U*p i-jU J u-iy. 

*^*-*r ^!>U9 (»lf-7 aJ^" cr*^' £1-2 <-^ (t-^-*^ (j^O -j*^' J*^' 

ty .-ll < t i4^ '--J'— *f t ^^ ^^ tiiJb^ii v*jjdl oUs>LiJl J 

oUj^ ji^jj t»ljVl J-sUj ^1 jl^J-t ^-Uj 4^-i^iJ J*\j*S^ 

.IS'jXJL* IJjUJ *lil v>JLSa^ oUbLiJ jj^j tie-yx* 4-P-ji Jst^ 

io'i/Ui'^l ^* ^-aiJI ^y S^-L'j- T 

iju^vij <Ju*]i oU'l^^/i u-uJ [j%> h\&» i-jjiii JsCjl: 

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-i^dl ap^J Jl dUS Jyt; JlJj . * r *^> &£■ JUilVl Vw-Jlst-I iJw J r-liil 

l^u-jbr Jp N jiiyw U**S"» o^UiJVlj y4iil J* y£j$\ J| Jb'Ul 
•_p tl_^l iijiVl J^sl jf (Fromm, 1968) *jji (jjjj . «4~wi; ijiw^j 
IjJLo L tjf-lil\ J j^&cJla IjJUJ ji-UI jjlyVl dWjf j^j* tj^j— iit 
jp juStJl Jl <i _ r -jJdl *XcJl "fj> JS}i IJt*j tl^li jj*JJI «JI*p i-.jU 

. ^MJl JUi^l wJULI ^ jtff Jydl JULI 

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.UusuaJI 4>Ji« _^P 4«.^»« Ji Jf&J (J 

*jL ^L-s-Vl Jl «. JuijJl ;U- J jj>- irbf jU^I of j-u 
j_^p i»-U-l sJu f LSI ^ <u£c IjS^ JUL I Jk^j . L|J ^jfi-y jf- 

■«.^La."j t(jwL*dl *-« JLJ.I lf«JL tail 4j^I i»^*Ji OJIS" Ujj teJLi^J 

* * * > 

J^ail /^t t t)i..5,' .4 <uLp Oy^Ly** [aj i*^*j 4J1P «-» U «i~>- jj-* t-jljio 

j^L-L-j-I uSJJj tjjvJjd.1 e^/j* (jjj olJUl f^fi* jj*J ^Jl JJL-jJI 
ijS'jJLJl oLU»i«-'yi iiLJ JjJ (iJJS ^gA) J* 0^-^ • 'Sr^J^' {♦■rkk*^ 
Jb-l ^ U ?L^J *_jjpjll ^p oLUtu-."yi l^J Is t JjcII ^ jJ-A j^Jl 

iju J^f jl JUil Jp >«_J» sj^J t^* i_J^Pjil j^ iijLJl Uj^J i _f^"ji 

j\ $y& cjLUo^'VI oJLa t_o>-Lrf» jj^ijj tiu** i£ji~* oLU«iw«l ,jJ^j 
<CP j-UaJ ,jJI obL^-^l jj^axj jL *lcJJ ^jw jl «-!*■ iJJUJLJ tOli 

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J.L Jp «_>«JLxSlj 4<_pjJl JptcJij «. c \ s — s>^J( Jp iJljJl iaL-Z)V!5 iSjuj^, 
»«Jl . . . sjlipf jj^H ftuiVlj t<wL jvijuil iiUij i-^-l J^ JLijll 

. aJIJUI ajU^JL ^L-s-^Ij jUJVl Jp JLcdl -i*L«j 
: 3#w»!j j&\ja> (jwJjcL! Jaj*j>„ j 

Jipiy JJb; jf JUil Jp «--*£ lii . Ujy^-J JU- J .ApSyiil ail Judl 

<Uw»l_pl jjjJ-li .Li ,«-Lcll iljjw ^ja j£\zj oy '•ry-fy. >- r — »Lul iJyLJl 

Loaf -^ Jk t<cl*» Jipljij jwU^ «.j^,s J *X*il Lf*^i (jJl ijliJlj 

J Ji*ljiJl si* Ji£j . o «Jjdl U A*yw Jp Jikll -IpLJ jjJI (j^kJl 

O** c*** 'U^La jclisj J~i*j C~;tf y*J Jp UfJ alj Ujj^-j JU- 

j^ 4^ij t oUjj JUil *UxaI £*fy» aJI **$i3l jj JikS! ^s. ia^*- 
. l^plkl Jp <uIpj! .Up- aJIjuJL ^U-^-Vl ^ tiJli <$>■ 

^ JLsLl Ji (_5Jji -l» tJlplyJl )JL* Ji* i»l»l of (jA*^! t?jf -*i» 
aj^.J-1 (Ju J--i^Jl *— -j* I^aj tAJlikJl <cLL>i~»l aSIpIj tJikJl Aj^ 
JikJl ~ic J, t iJUk)l (ij* 1 ^ ^ SiJoJ.1 i»*^ljJl JLpl^iJlj pJiJlj 
<:LWLiJ L-jU Jp SjOilL. *$jj \^H <."<>, J~\>, ^U-^-Ml ^^ j-« l.by< 

d» Uj i<b *»Li]l aJaX— JJ Aj t_JjPy* jA LC «CJ_^4 *j^> (J iUlS' Ajy>»J 
■y> Joj» |JJ (^Jjj ?-U»Jl9 , i«^>u^Ji oliSy A—L-J-L3 rtXdl ^p ol-ul 

tHamachek t >iL r i;L*U) J_1a1I ^ Juy. J! iji}* j£*>\j ^UJl 



jjJaJj JUkVl -Up ^y^U-Vl ^vSLtdl ji 4--lj-b *U Oii t c--» / |>^iUj 

j _ a .;.. U oL^ .:..< 4j^L» ;w»jj Uai-lj ^aJI 4S^jJl oli jl^i jl i -fa«> 

Preconventional level : ^Jt-i&Jl JJ U ^^J,! l. f 

j* <—J>J U Jp *L Jlpl^l «JlA j— 4jj . Ckallj ^i^yttJlj jl}\j joJU 
AjJUci-l SjiJl ,Jp *Lj Jl i^lj^lj i r <U*JlS' 6 4-j*JU 4jiU *JUj ^y JiJl 

jJUll j\ <^Vl jf ^VlS" t oL*-Jlj opljili (ill; jJUu ^* 1^ *ua jjl 

iW* bx ^cli-^ <j;jX«JlI l«i* ^ a -^ JJ .Ji^j/I jji-UiljJl Jl 

• 4^UaJlj ij£*Ji j^w <t*-j^l il>-^<i » ^ 
The punishment obedience orientatic 

^Jl iolil ^JlsJl ^~~^ \j£ ff \jt>- J*UI «l>jll «JU JAk ^u 

JiJaJl j»jjfc dO <-J| Jji ji lif L-^-j (i^LbJl J| (.pf lij k- iljUl 
,j» if. *z+zj jdl «j£Jl jf ikLJJ UUjjj i^UjJJ Lrf ii!&>>Vi _/»ljVl 

* yf^'j"^' ^^r-^' ^j^ 1 *k»v» - t 
The Instrumental - relativist orientation 

p. ^1 JUiVl ^ tt-J-l JUiVl uf liU^Ii »JL» J JiJaJl ^ 



Conventional level r^jj&ll ^j&J^*,*^ 

j^*t? *<*Vij i*UHj s>-Vi owy ^>uJLi si* J *>!i ^ 
dlL-u 4 I^U hjU g& j* ^r* ^ri ^ A 31 u^i 'W *•**» 

jjl oUUM jf ^U-iVl j+Js JtsU c^j >.kM -W^b W*j 
:6j~J^ 1 O^-^- 1 i£^' '•** Cr-*^ • l » 5 - : ^ p»** 

The Interpersonal concordance or «good boy - nice girl orientation 

KiJJIj i^U~j *^ VI £_Uj JtjaL iU-^i) *J> J JikJl ?-U 

iU-^.1 *!* J j>J( ( p£j . i>iU £>& ,>* J*^ 1 J* '-r'ri U J* U~=b 

The «Iaw and order* orientation 

"iii ^rl^l r Ul! ^I-Jl u^ d~- c*^ (£>* U* j^l ^J J 
Otf Cj^ j *U^b U1i *U>I -i* J ^b Cv^ V 31 f 1 ^ 1 >^ 
jiJLil^l oUU^-L «l»lJ>V iLrM «i Ul *^-> i j r 1 ^ 1 '■** 



1*1 



Post conventional, autonomous or principled level 

■ ^Sllj e^jLJ.1 Jb_b*J U**^lj )-l^»- (Jj^-JLl Id* (J iJ}\ JJLj 
.il^jVi »Vy*j ipL»4-l »~^ -JUo*JiI ^P J^*Xj il^ ^J~*Ji Oi*^' 

The social - contract, legalistic orientation 

sljjlj #JjJI 4. ; .. ..,.1 ^y» p£-jj\ fj& (, » l |,gi,,i^ Jt— «^«il .il^s| ' §; C?*J 

J* ,j-Jj j_^Uil «7-jjJ J*- JLStJl J| ijiJl : ^j viJJJJ . wwiJLJl 

4y.L<al 4_JUiP OIjj*£j «-j_^ (J «j~*J 4_Jlx*I <J-Pj 4 L?J*"' 8^-is 

J.UJI . ^suVi . ^jdi *fjdi 5JU y _ n 

The Universal - ethical - principale orientation 

tw~*~>- l^J k— 'IwaJI iJusOji t^JlJJI OJ-I-UI Oj«jLst«j 4j.SU/« .ip JLo.t^J 

A-1£J! p^pL-il iU-y> ^ iaJU-^II oJL& (jl . fjj.1 J* OUJL »PJbj 
jLJl iyrjZ tiyill f^r^J iiji' — 'V J^J-I <J 3t_jl — Llj AJI-Ui! iL«LtJI 

jail ^UjJI a — .y J J*UJl Jp ^ jl5 lil ^ i*>tU ^^p.iil jLJ 

l^—^sf Ji \yj£~i jl ,j5^X ^-Ul -u^l s\jft bUp! — I <UUp jlSC* ii jj jl 



^T 



^jJij ol£, f >, uf U* v£ f t iU Sjtf f t «fcu t/j ^ ^Vu 
jf ^^UJ ^ .*.U .til ^L l*Ui -tf 0^ OO^ 1 5 "^ 
: J%&\ tJ i 6* $ y^ 1 ^U-^ 1 V-^ ^ "^ 0* Vrir 
^U*i3 >>* V ^ -Ou* olSU f >. Ot J.UJI > v* - * 
j^ ^>JI , JjVi il>->l) *Jj>-U ^ U * LJI *> *"*" ^ 

. (iplkilj v-Ai-Jl 

.(^Ijiil ^i ^i ^^ *M') 
^U^ ^ ljr"% il^Jl «# '«lr^ V*^- oI ^ ^ "*■ 

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(Ravitz, 1963;_Trow, 1968; Boocock, 1972; Urevick, 1974; Rosenbaum, 

:Ji 1/ ^» 1976; Kieret al,. 1977) 

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Jy- ijjwaj dJJij i*t=i>lJ ^ — *" v 1 *^ 1 '-ij^aJ iijjjl «JbJl Jp 

^JLi (Findly and Brian, 1971) OU^j Jjci f->-\j Jij I -La 
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. 1974) 

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,etai., 1978) 

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(Silber- jU Jw- j^j lis and Brophy, 1974; Helton and Oakland, 1977) 
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. and Brophy, 1974) 

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.(Adams and Cohen, 1974; Lerner and Lerner, 1977) 

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(Henderson and long, 1973 De Meis and <J*iio> U-L^-l olj^ y 

.Turner, 1977) 

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l^LLcj oUykll £*■ si-s*- a* V 1 ^ 1 ^ >^" f-^ > t^ J^jjjj 
(Thorindike, .If*-*** J* l)-^ 1 ^ «Jj4 v£^' j*^ i ^ £ ^^J 
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(Finn, 1972; Dusek, 1975; Draun, 1976; Wil- ,oow» jn* ff ^*r>w5 

.trock and Lumsdaime, 1977) 

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J J_jju; J yjj ts_JLLU ^Ui-Vl ^ji-Vl jf ^ tj^ ty-j-iil 
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LJIoijI lo_~»iJ f£« » tgj IjJij olji-i ajjI oij.aJL^I <L«ui i—ljju 1978) 

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. (iUfcU-l) ^j*£~Ai_ •CU-jjjJi GiJ 5 ^) J^-*" t^£ ^ "** f"->^'j i(i>L»i~.\) 

ii>LU»c— Vf ij^u jij*> ^ ' us*i^"' y.j*^. V*^*" *^* ,_** — * 

^ V[ t ^U-l JS Ji_>^ ^. «l)f (_pUJI ^ <>• >%j ^^V! ,j^*r" «JJ J 

^» U_j£s-lJl fUj . *taVI iSy- — * (J ji>*^' J 1 ^ >' <^W o^AUail ai* 

c^UUc— VI ^^isj l#-# bjj^ ^^ oL-ljAj yVl l-U J* <-ijSpl J>4 
. . . ^>UJU ^jUJU iajl^JU fcJlilli JjVl i.Uw-Vl Ji>^ t ^Ij-ix 

ij-lp^l (j O^-t; ^Jji—ii l-i* jl_J 4 ajj«ll j^ C->bb>X_-Vl *bl ^£y-~* 

(Skinner, J3*; <_i^_« ^1 oUUc—VU $~SS Jfi- j-sli ^ p-Uil jlS" ^JLS" 
C*« JjUr^-j (JL» 1957; Amrel, 1967; Logan and Wagner, 1965) 

Jl tPi; c?-Ul j^Ll jt ^U-l Alt h\yA ^UJI ■_*>? ^ 
jj> ij£* cj\j£» J-J«i ^ wiUijtA-Sy — J! JoUVI jiw v-4? jl wiU*»| 
>~~>y-y oljJu ci-Uw y ti»UV( ai-*> J* aversive stimuli L$J »-^*>* 
^iy ii^LJi £_£> C~^ ^jS^LJl J>UJt a* <**W£i ^lj>*) *-fc» 

A-_i jp^ J«-j «.Lu^ ^^-jv i,Uc_-Vl >-J5 J| tp>_ ti-Ul jviLl jf itiiU-li 



i»_j»-jj Jj_dJI /yXX t ft „.>.,..a,T.I I IJli ^^J • ^«£' OljJ**S" (U-*J i«^J 
4 Jj-LiJl jjJl jl tc-Jj-^aJ! jl t iJL^SUi iaJUaJlS filial ijlip ol^JU 
.1 <b*-l Jl jl /»UJajl sC*5 4jJL*> ^jU* oIjJUj ?Jl , . . oJb-LiJl 4>waJl jl 

t JL» 4_jUp ji (jjU^I jj*-*-^ _/^l JUJ^i (jl Jj La sLj^I j-Xs£j 

jUI -ya 4_lP /»-^i La /ipj <uljial— il (J 4a-T .II oUly^-j! Jp i-jMjJJ 

^jjl iJJ-JI ijir Jl ^pfj ^^JjsJ p-J>j Jp j^iLl li* J^ 1JU . ilSjJL. 

f * 5 

(Jl C^'J 'it 4 ^' *-J>^\ {j* * S_L=»- lilj tLjU^I IjjAd j«pl . 4;i t_*PjJ 

jo^ t 4jUL« _p«j Jpj . Ul* LUp _^pI 44J (wPjj V (jJUl iJjJLJI uJS" 
«ulJi«swl (J -us-iil oUI^-al Jp «-U) 4 ^JLa ji'y^ ji t-*^' »— >li*i ,/w-I 
( _ f »Jju /w?j Jp j^il IJu jit lit* . A-Sji- ;lil <y ^P p->w U Jpj 
•ja cio>- li[j tUU-l blip _ / ^pI t4-s V^j^' -C* ■^A- ^ v -^ Jl cS^'J 
. LJL. I_)jJj«j _/^pl *v i_jjp J.I ilji-JI ijji; J^ ^iij t y»Jl«dl *~J>jl\ 

t—iS 1 Ijl L.O...M blip l|iJb»- j-Iajj <, Oub»<Ll«( jl (wSwj jjJjJ lij ^ri^*'' 'jij** 
t_i? IS} LjLsi-i LUp _^i«j; 4-jL^iGl oJUaJl' wJLiJ 0[j . oLUc-rf'VI jj-asu 

s f 
jj| 4-oLi«Jl Ol will «^-~4j /j>X t ^Jij) Oljj«iL *U»-rf j^u j^jpj 

ijlisJl Ol-Sil jviJ C~~>- <.4jjJU 4;jUp OljJUj s2jl 4^lSp Olj-t* 

(JUj jji t i]jJUI J US \J\ gw' jJI ^jIjJ-I J cj\jA\ Jl i^jVl 
jl <J\->j^}\ 4VoJUa3I jl «_-i J ^atJl5' iJjL* i^LSp f*iJ^ ^J J J' ij^^ 
oU«Jl ol^-iLl Uf ,^JI . . .i^l jf v^iyJl jf pUkJI ^ OUyLl 

Jp SjJJaJl Lp^^Ja -iow dJJLC V ^jjl dj^ljJ-l jf Olj-ill ^^3 ti^jJliJl 



Jjf ^U* jjjlc jjdl jf JaJjt lij tLl^l tij^Wl yL4*5l j*ill Oj&j 

o^ t Li£i lyts Lu* Tjgi* jj^. tv't^i iu*aU iiiaJi v*uli 

jf (j^zi ^JJI sj-^aJU t^jJL-. Jjf (_jU* jrviX UjXil jl JaJjl li| tUL 

* t f * 

^lip ^.lytJl jf ^UkJl y jU/M oV 4LJ— kj& LuLSp Ij~» >%, 

S&j t elj— Jb- J* ijU* jf ^iji>«J <J^ Olj-IU jJJxj jl j^Lc (iJ^U! 
Os t^t* (j-^l Oj-^ai .1,- Jauj; / j># ^Jl «?jVl CjI^^JJ UJ» 

* < e ' * * * 

!i[ t LJL- L^Jtf Ij^j tfUUl (*i-l&> *Jj3l IJ>1 Ij^b* LjUl ljj*» ^-^ 

* # * 

L^^Jlj Z*+Z>1\ oL~-)il J ^liJJ £*LiJi |»IJi^-.!>U Ijiau 

,L*Ly 

(Skinner, 1938) jLiL,j (Thomdike, 1913) JJLlJijjJ uy XiJ 

Jl ^ij, V ^f tSjj^JU VU* ^ v 11 * 31 ° T ^ Estes 1944) cr^'j 



jf j^l o_M ^jjj .Ujl/: J-U* c_J li| J^Vl Ifwjj L^ 

Uyly c_-£ t (Ellis et al, 1979) kl**C\J& •kj.r 1 Cr*-^ ^>^ J J^r 
UUi J jl>" ^Jl J^lyJl kj ?i*j^l »i* 1«» tVUi v UJl jJiJ 

_ Consummatory responses C.h^-1 olU^NU <. i-i&l oll»*J L^jli* 
J\j tsr JLl JUftlj ^yJlj J^Vl S!>UI ^b otl^-Nt ^j 
t jbJLi y^ J* v-jUJU jitdJ 5-*^ -V^jsi jf *A>' ^^-^ ^-^ 
v, frj-Jl ii-A jf JJiuli y >\ i£-*jZ* j-* ^ ^Jul^i <^iJl j-*Vl 

L^v*^ •>-• 'V 1 -^ 1 <>* f^ 1 '-^ ^^ -^ oUUf^-Vl 
jjj jlas (Solomon, 1964) ^Jlj i^aJ! *li-i iSJ^I Lp!**j .VrjW 
(Beach et ^jl>«JI X* <^rl J^ 1 ^ 1 J t£>» J^ ^>- V 1 ^ 1 <^ 

ioUijJ-i cy Jb - JbJI -^ ^^ ^^"^ <y - u -- ujl ^ a1 ' 1956) 

(Masserman, 1943; Klee, ij^iilj s->*CJlj «2i*-Jlj £>lv*Jlj 4 Jills' 
pJli j~j 1944 Masserman and Pechtel, 1953; Myer and Ricci, 1968) 
oULks-.NI jWjW^jf Jji ^&Jl jf tUj*P oUjjJI si* 
L|iS ^ i-»w .i^wil U>Vl oU-U-1 ^Lib. 3**Jl oli 4^jLJI 

(Church, 1969; Bertsch, (jpAJS ^Jatu fU^I S^Uiil *i* Oai?- 
CL-^JI J V'L^VI ^^L*^-^ 1 u^*f ^^ !i l U ^W" 'j^ 1 ^ 1972 > 



jf Jyjj t JL*.UU OlU^-Vl A, jfe ^Ui ^»Ji J-p v 15 *^ 
jl^SS ^U^JI oV-U« jjtJl IJL> ^ lij -Us->Jt j' VLrVifl 

JJbdl Jl Ujlolj tgJlsJt 8 JU Ji* £»y f0* ja p*J\ J* 

bjbs. JSVl tiJUil olUw-Vlj culjji lij iL-i *k-~«j i^j Cki 
jjJiJ yf i-lji t( jU-Vl j^t»< J ^U*3l >r>M ^jte ^^ 

Jf jf J^& i-Jjl^Jl aJ^ 1 (Ja*» £«& C~taj t^Wr^' ^i*~" <~ r Jt- u 

s^UI fc ^liJl j4l Sj-i :^ *i-sJ; J*ljp W J* «-»>* V^i 
u u*Ji pjUij iii^ 1 ii^s-V'j *-A*Ji J^" «jk *l*»M *~*^ 

j^sl—ljj J S-u»iP oW_/rlj ^U^J ^>>>- j^-Ul ^iii-1 

Y1« 



s_i£i! JjOu> jjjUj (i-9- 4 0jlj^u-i l_p j\ iVl IJLa i*j«c;ij 4( ^U«J| jjii 
CjbL^U-jl (ju 4~—Sv£ 4JtA^ >^?-^J t ^--*" ^ w— >U«Jl ««-J> tji . ^"--J 

. JLJliJI <- AMfl J ^ ■> . : , J ^Ij cSyVl 4_JU^|5^I io-WaJl ^* oLU*w-»Vi 

, (Korsk, 1962; Azrin, 1963; Storms et al, 1965; Bee, 1966) 

SJLi \j£-S *J^»- t4#wJl «JL» O-U" i»j^j (j^-Ul ( w&so ^Uj IJL* 

sJL* jij <, -%iU« «>J (J* ^laajl _^vAI »j~*ju JauJ j (™«xl! jl Ij»L?-jj <•*•*& 
iLLUl! jj[ \jLj9jjj iKjbjJs «^ (^UaJI _/ul! SJLJ /J-^LsJ 4Pw-Xi S^-J&JI 

:<JUI 
(Church et al 1967) Iaj£ x SJUiJl = ^U*Jl Sj—i 

<uLjnju*I isLil <*J& j *»^_iwJ,l i^LSaJI «ju »jIwI sJLa L^~y 

Oijjiiil Ty^-iJ jLni J-^*i i_*^ Sj*«joI /»•» LUjc» (<*£*«»» iJLo (jl »»->•£ 1 4JUsta 

sjLpvl ,^aJ Ig-^s- <Jj&i jl JL*U Jp <*;-£ IJU «,iijJLJl J 4jjjjail 
jl LgiS' <j ^j&y\\ oL>L»w» , >U 4-**Lw» jj^j *-*: >t ; t^La^Jl oljJUJJ 
*bf Jjuv» J _^*Jl jf Jl (»U ry^y, j~Z oUjJJI «J& jV tL$z5ljJ 

,(— »UaJl 6j~J ,vLj (VL^j oLUsX^^I 

: aJULI 4jU«i»-^lj ^l&Jl jJ* jjj SJL3UJI 4l>_)Jl S^l - Y 

J ^>. V ^jJi J-*U3t IJL* Ji* jf (Estes, 1944) U ^~J ^^ 
4jj-^jJJ iJUiJVl aJU-I Jblji iJjJu. Jl jj «— 'UaJl jj! j— ijj h_jL5a)I JJlai 



jSXj ijUwiw*'^! i)\j£\j jf-Jj t4LjLi j\ ljkl\ CjIjJ&I J~JaJ j^p <#-U|j 

Ju OI_pVl oLS' lij U a~>\ja Jj OjSp-UI ^j^saj Ui l» IJLa> . (jliJi 
^1 CUJl oUI^?-^! of Jl oUljjdl k*j t «Jli OjLif jjjj 

ejja tjlj 41— >Ubdl <UUi Jj ULa ljj.5 t^aJu cji: — a _/JiX»S' /^Jl ?JUl 

Jj t<— »U*)I aJjj jj^ i^-UJl iJUij'Vl iJU-1 Jj Sjjj-iJU >yu V ClUill 

(Azrin, ijbni^^l i sS" J 5JUJ _^St _^iil IJLa o^ t^LUJl f- j-J>y 

o\^\ i-^f J| j^L; tl^ 1 ^ I956 : Com P et aI ' l961 ~> Church, 1970) 

^JJI *~-U-l JjjJl "JJj (.(wJUaII iJUJ JbJLsi J t»^UftJlj iUc^-Vl yy 

. ^U*I— Vl i_«£Jl 4JLe^- <J ,V>jJl «U*L 

(J £LLJl \^j~*-j 4ijiJ,l olj;i*i3 ^LJI 4j_j-^*JI fjJ'fu J^A; 

J If J ejj.5j »_/f JjJ^ Jp ji£ 1 tJ^Ul IJU cJjbJ jjJl oL-ljOJi 
S^J-I of Ji oUljOJl ^^aj v jLJbf i^JUl oJLi ^ .iJjUl tiS" 
(Mil- wjUJI aIJUj t5_yu~« 4^-ai^ aIjLI jl i_ / H! ol^-iil i^ojdJ i^L-il 
J^l oJL* Ji, jf Ji tf>*f oU>> OjUif Jer, 1963; Carch, 1963) 

.(Pearl et al, 1964) ^UJI iJUi ^ Jbjl 

iA»u (Raymond, 1968) -LijXlj »li ti^iiLuLl ?yl^Jl «-L* «-j--» Jj 

yf ,j-ai^- jf oiLj J jijJ (^Jl aaUJI iollJl S?jjJj\ oL_J t^jU^Jl j«« 

w_iJbic iLLJl ijU*il S^l j\ of J^ owli cJjj .J>-!>Ul ^jUJI 

a^^J-l Ol* tiJj-Ui oj— ill oJu C-JlS" liji t.J?-!>Ul ^U«JI sj-J cj*^-l 

cJl^ lil Uf 4<cJUs ^ JU jf J^!>Ul ^UxJl ^f (j^s^ iiUI CliJl 

. ^>-*>Ul i_jlJLaJl iJUj "w» -AjJj iijLJl ijjlAaJ! ij3~\2 t,AjJZj>* »j*»4)! 



Y^V 



i^^jdl ilUJl oUI^^I ^U J] ijM 4( jjOUI ^UJI J i&UJl 

/SiL- ~£jS*j IjJhS) >_jUaJi jL tUj^jP J^ajI jiv£ J^vJj . tgJLJaJ Oly 

^ ^ v >j oiM' ^- J^ J t-u-j .>*» *y-ii J •* 

jUaJl >w»jJl OljJcUj tiij-^oaU (JjL-JS ^UaJI ?«jjwI 4SjJW jJj? v_4S^j 

.J^>UI 
:*LjJI w4Ub£~»VI iyl^». t 

13] tiJjJLJl (Ji^-*J (j l-kr'^l** »'-5' *— 'U«Jl (1)1 silt* iUtpl .Sj^_j 

4jj-^*JI /£-+£ ijjUil oL)U«i~»l ojil^j 13] t<_£-ul iL^b 41*5 IjlSI ?*ii> 

^ sj^-*^ £-^> cJiWl iJLi i-ij^laJl Ojij Js \gi \jS- JajL* fulj-l 

JjJUJ J iJUi _^5t j-Uj u-»U*Jl jf jJ?u . t«JI . . •(•—*./" jf <;^b 
CU^-VI <d>lif JjJjJ Jp Ijjl* (ij^bJl jf) *JLcll jlS" 13] 4iJjJ — II 

iljj /»JLP l. •■■■' lijUtaJl oL-ill »../» Jp (*1aJ.I aj-li *.1P j] 

iaJ_*aJl f LSjI isyfj <_^Al jJp juJl ojJi t>Jj*S tiij-wl C->L)L>il— si 

Learned Helplessness ^^JbcJI j#**JL L? *— j U J] ^jj t-U^ iyl^SJl 
t-j^SCJl jf oLJjjJl ^yiuj «Jlxi Oj^isf Jij .(Solomon et ai, 1977) 



«J_a JJu *bLj j»L-ill Ijlj^ p-ij-** .p 1 " J-* •—'^31 c«JUj 

Jp j^Li j^P ij*^jj 4 4** i^Jji'Jt ji* J\ Sj# jJL** jj djS^J (_gJUI iyjjlj 

,Jp ujLIsJI f-lLl <_jt !JJ (Gass and Singer, 1973) OjJlJ; y%j <Jp ojtaf, 

6*1 j lfc3 \-Jj&j* ijj»-i i?UI pJLajj tlfci i— J^P^ jiP i^L-x i»lcf 



<Um£j 



XP IgJ i— 'jPjll j*P iSjLJ\ J?liVl ^^aj Ji-^ ti V^' fl«*»w-l 

i<j> Jut *i \jA <ul-l>wJ lfe» dj& (jJl f-UsjVl J yliJl *l^"Vl 
lu^UaJl ^l^s^U-l (Jl ft^>JJl SjJ^^ JU- J 4*JUI wJUiiJI 

ilj ijlj lL-»J /UUj* f£jZ~»A Cjlj j^Lixjl ^^ill «Xi j^J <ji 4— ~^ - \ 



. L^jJL) 4jj*J cobjl I i| 



(1)1 uir* "^* 4*J-Us^ ^jUaJ! j%Sl,( i^J Uj^J U-Up <Us»U*jj iiajLi 
ydll i^f-J (J ,_£="- 4-SUIl CjUU«X^ jl jj^aJ ^w JLxil l»->UL»Ji 

(J\ t ( jX~j\ ^UbJi *\J&C~*\ (,4_-jUaJl f L *#j Vl ^iaa,* (j ^Lii - V 

J«Jj tioUl ^lj>" U_ r x«j jJl olj-iil Jp iJtjtjli <,ZjA} JjLJI 



*LVl 4i»U^( t£J$\j <•>— 'UsJl j 4-^f 4-«Jj! a^pUl J&f Jb4 61- A 

ul*-"^! JjJaJU JaJjj Ujup 4 <u1pUJI <*!«->■ ^» ( -^tiVl s-A>- *Lj 

^*£j iS^J II JjOax! 4--L.VI SbVl <1)V tlfj *rl^-A' i^l— Jl i»li*»U 

V U JUkVl a*-w U UU-j .^UaJ! J jj-Jj t^Wr^l jjjaxJI J 

*_£SjJL» jijuj *-~j U Ij^Uj tiJjJL- ^ 4j *UaJl j\ ejtal *4-i* »— at 
Uf tdOpUll y^ t<i <—^jl! ii^i-JLJ ^If-"}/! jj^dl j| . -ti (-JjPjII 

Extinction «?«ll 

J^J 1 (*tCJl) 4jU«z-VI «JLa jf JLo 1*xp ••si* *LO J* 5, *-«£JIj Jiiall 
(J^U>| ^p jlj~bdl LikJl t-ii^j \ C S' • J-*^-l jl iSj^~^ J' fUJaJL ***** 

jl -si—Li ol-bJ— fJl «JL» jjl&Uw /^--jll «JI (JLo t*-UP t^jl-b-^: 

of J| oVlill jli* j^-ij . lf^ yi~J uf ,j^r jJl ?y tdl <>*• j^JI (j^u 

J*_i!l '»£\£ iJL-.t.>l' tLj-iP J_jJ^uli *ia_AJ! I3] <JljjJ« -b-U Oub»w««3l 

(II <o$j t<) LvJUJ *j .jjJI ol>l>*x— ^l ^jS* JjJjcJI «ij jb tl**** 

jl-iUj i| t y»Uail ^^a^j J ^ilj t-Aa-Jl iiljX-il ^y. j»i^Jl Jp 
. OLabi- L»f ^| tLfiS' jf iJUuil OLU.I—VI (ji»*» uiUwil L^» J£ 
oljj^ll *j-U7 ^ k-iijxJL LjiS" jl olU»i-<^l i_iL«wi} J| i-JOj- _p»ili 
u-jUaJI Uf <:\^J ^Jt-j* CjI^JU illjl J* j>1\ ijja^, tj 1 4 ^U J' 
,j\ liiy j\ Ijk^ <zJ\jLa sj-ia^ l$J& J* CjLI>»X^VI ciUw»| J| "-»-4-» 

yA\ ilwJ iJucil otUc—Vl i»jUw tjJS olp _p»J>l yl ^r-Lij 

J^JI OLUO-Vl 30aj ^f t UjyJ ^! Ol^jiLl iJlil jf £*J ^P i^Ul 



r . \ 



iP 6 t^J-^ J^ ti* ^"^ Ji l*j*\~* jij*^' fUa4Jl Jyw djjj£ *$ j*J,\ 

t *Us>-Vlj JljjJt i^-b jf J] t sjjail _^* obb>i-Vl *bf Jo^m, Os-Uj 
J^ iJ^IjaII ^y i.Uu Jte j>A\ LLuz of J| £jj&*2\ «jb ^ij 

(Williams, ^Uj jy oii .i^II oUj-dl ^ L^iJL^ o.bf ^1 
^^ j»L" ^oJ U^p ^ ^st oljij^j t ^ib; jJI oU^-aJI of 1938) 

£* ^^—^l a -^* J— £j ,y_yc}\ cAja .ilpjb iyULl eJU abjj «»L^»«j 
jLjjI ol JJUJIj cillJUl JUUI jJLdl ol>; jjwl ^^Jl ^I^VI 



r«r 



^4j .(Hulse, 1958; Wagner, 1961) UojI j^J.1 l&j*. J| ^pj; \a 
J_& Jj*aJ-l Ij^L^I jjJJt wtALJU iJ-liJL t-j^LJl ^L^-J J^ 

*d_P) AJLajLj jjjjli (*j*l^I «j~£ CjIjJa*) *#Jijj* ■uL^i^. O^fjj^ 
, (*»»»J-I 4k^U Cjt\j\aj>) iijJUv! 4jhat,n£ OliM ,lp <J «*,ai-l lpl^| 

js*&,\ 0>jUb «uJjdl CjLI>«Xw» 31 u)I j_J| OUkIjJJI ^ft»j «jlli («>-jj 

(Logan, IjjUuj IuUj UjjJ j&i JLcJl bjjJ, cJ\S lij _^Sl j*J Jp 

. 4jU»i« l\j j£l\ {jA *$& Silp JsjjjUl aJL» /yt^J^jJ 1976) 

JlSwL ol^-iLl «jJQj jup _p»«lJ ^»jIa» JS\j (JjS) «JLcJl u*Su 
li* *ai lij Ul (, ijLi* fUs>jij pj3*&-j jljjlj JlCil (^bS3j ^f) jd.\ 

<Jj£l~3 lJ&-\j a*J>jj t-b-lj OjJj (,-b-lj **»*s~j t»b-lj JSw jvll 

. j*dj~" J**J <J* j»«-&iJ <L^P oUwl 
' f 

CjI_^oL «i — »lzS"» i*K JaiL jlS" tip^io (jjlaj iU«l-<Vl *bl Jik)l Jbu* „ 

j jj£ L « A tiuLxa cjUu- « jj t <iu^ Jlx^iu 1^>j jf t oLu jF <ik# 



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Jmu j,y£ (gl - 4 ijj^-l jij^b - U*& ^**s^-^l olUc-.Ml y.'f" 
u iuLd.1 oL.Uc-.Ml ijJi -bJji <j _^M1 (j^JI Op oL.Uc-.Ml 

. , , -,^ Lj^Lj -i (jJi oLUc-.Ml 0? Ji IJj^s. oL.ljj gj& j*w 
JuJUdl olUc-<Mi <y jtff j>A\ i»j&» J* ijili ijji-l y&d\ Jy^ 

JU>J c5^ «3> Jl V*^ 1 o^O '•** ->^ >.>^ -kl^ *j** J 

^lUc-.°)i! Sjj*ll oL.Uc-.Ml v-J jf 'j^' j^***^ <,oljJ«ill ^j^rj 

1! o-^Ui t>»L -X2a . oljjail *j JJB (J ^LtJl jl jjL*yt ol Js* j( 4 4J5JI 

,f t 3jJO jf oLi tiLjw i^AJ Cj\J& i^^y- oL.Uc-.Ml t jOeu jtjaS 

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jf Jbjii >y*. i^jJLI <Jb> S/IJJI J ij>il oU>dl j* JsIiJI 

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J* o*j*>- ^ t^Ji-Vl j- £jJl lift <_ — ?- toUjUtl fU-^-i oV 
t^JUl <~*j3l Ujuc-j Jj tfaUcJll <JuUI il^JU Lw Ly JUdl 

jj*dlj S^IJJI L-ljj J y-t •LpJt-.'ill flJUiw-l f^J; yb ,.,.,. „i| 

tJ^iliJl J ^la -tI I ^ Jytjj ju (Tulving, 1968) ^iJy j-X 
VsV ^ W—' *«^-j^Jl ^^iJLJL J^-ii 'Jj^' j«-JiiiHj ^jp-ijj tJjVl 



JUlJl fj*py» (oUyJUll jl iJkaUl ol-b^jJl) Ol^^ill ^^ >^-«J/ JJ 

oU^Uil ji \ Jai. ll l ol^-^Jl) oU-^>*il k-J^" jJL>. (jf- J t*Lcil J* 

t o!>U-jJlIj LLUl Jucil iaif ^JU Jp JjVl *JalJl <-iiji 
*aJl Jj ^yJl apjJ ^f i Recency effect £ljyJ-l j\ j!>U- j* ?*-^j 

olJU»-jJl aJLa i«PjJ jp jiaJl (j^iu (,i«jUJl olJ^>j 4-i «IpJLlJ *j ^j 
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^ *lj-bU( -up (^^lUt *Jadl j^ fjJl IJu UjU; jS ISj t^yJ! 

*Uui-Vl J S^lJLLi i5_yWl ,»J9.rJl Jalif ^j»t Jb-f Clustering *-«.>jl 

«_>».>jlj «, associative clustering ^LJjVl a~*>«JI tL> tt jwL-.f 
tLc-JUu-l J| ^Lj/ill £-^1 jwL .Category clustering ^a.L.qiH 
iJS" »lpjt-.l Ji. iUsL'jVl oU^Ul oli UkiUl olJb^JI jf oUKll 
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t «C-jt« iii jl t(Ji** rj-fr*'" til *i»IJl>^Jl «Jj* *| c i!l tw...~ > - ^1 tij^jjiil 
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k>J otf^U *^i j dJij tilaul^L. oU*ji JSw Jp OuJJt olJo-^Ji 

ju J^jj (jil JaJj^J UJ? t (_y«r*^ .P** (J* ^*J^JI ci»bji* *Ip-U*J J| 
tiljli* L^jZ 'J** oUS" j-»-*a£ £*jUJI cJlS* jJi . c^bjiil si* 

4jUC*«Vl iol^Jl ^-JC^J Oj*« jvtll 4*lSsJl 0|* tf«-il . . , f l*l> t£t»k* 

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. I JL£*j . . . <r>»UJo» US 

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^.J-f-f iJpVI ^LJjNI tijx-il ob oL»K3l ^l^i-l of c$f 
vilttJ . 4ki>l jrjP jf JiVl J^UjVI Jj^JLI oli oUKll fk-ji-l 

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jf iLUjJl jf *~*'VIS' cui* - '-a.i».vff Jl ^*^ JS" Cj\ijkA j\ oIJj-j 



jm 4 S:>Uc~II oUSOl iJju JJd\ lJu ^-J IS| t^Ul Jp zj&S opU, 
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y, t^JUJI jf f- U-^Vl Jp Sj-ii ^f t ( _ 5 i-widl £~>«£)l Jp i*i;JU 
(Thompson, et £?*>d\ y -k^l II* Jp S-^ikdi SjIiJl <£jS il^Vi 
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, l^lc-lj oUjLdl jg-jl Jp Sj05 ^f jjJLdl *^3* 

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(Kendlerand Kendler, 1968; Montague, 1972; Schultz, 1972) Jjd\ Jp 
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t iUw-^lj jd.1 (jij as^U j\ <L*> jl£j iJu _ cvs* J* Cv^J <J' Cv. 
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jf K&yv> A-S'ljil oLi*P jl 4-JaiJ ol-b»-j /il-LiC—l Ja~-jJI oL^«JljI»-i 

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. JaiJJl *JLcJl /»Lp J 1_*J^I—I ij— j (_^JJl lu-jJl oL>wljl»-l 



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iU£3l Jifj i^^Ll 3Ji>-j o^A-I Jic d~>«j tSJb»-l_j <uiSj a^L* <_iy»- ^ 
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♦^UJ ca^jiS' oLp-f J Oy>M-C~j >\J>H\ bit tA^UJl 3_ jr i-l ^J-y 

LjJ l^i^ i-.ljJb (Montague et al, 1966) oj%>jj j->-l^j^ Ai tjS'JLJl 



. JaSLyJl aid JiL ^ I Jiw.1 JU- J «J»Uli vill; Je-jJ J Uj*Ji^J jj| 

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J^v-i-J albeit «Js>Ull <L»J jl (j^J JL£j (."UlajJl SjloJ) eJLft Juu t aJsUJLI 

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JipIj2J| ia-.y 

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t ^f jjdl Ij^- fcjtfll Obbsu-Vl ^IsfjS-l Jp ^1 •> CJtf fc*i)l 

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oUjLdl y~*j J A>ill j^l <j f>* tfNl f Uf JJ-^ L^ 
<uS^j t U>. s^ iJUL oU^il j^ J* fUAi ^t-j ,jJl ^.JUVl 



jj£j ti^JUVl «JU Jb-f Method of loci ««il^il il^kj JSwij 

Jpj .U^JUj oUjLdl j~*^ *s\j*£ tUUJl ij^aJl j»-aH oli liijJtll 
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. (_jLSCLi IjjJ^a ji UjU»} ^+~J> eUJbbU i^» ^dj-A 
^jo>*J, jp (Luria, 1968) LjjJ j^-lll ^j^l ^— iJi iU jUT jSj 

olj-iLl J-*_^J fji '-^-^ *k*" til jjj"' 3 "" *^ <§. j»i iij±j+aj ijSM oJuX 
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jT <j If*-*" <~\j>y iiJl oU^Uil j^y j^t <£s ^Jl (Synesthesia) 

cJlS 1 l^f* tUlJUj L-JUj i>Jljj Ij^j Up (iJULc dXp jwi Jx» tJb-lj 

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.^JJbll (Jp S^jAiil SjJLaJU ojjj (_5-iJl j^Vl tifijJw»j 

(Paivio, 1969; Bower, 1970; ^^Luil J^-LJI ( _ ? *a*j <-a^sjj 

^ jAiOl *LJ J *5I^L! ii^Wj j^aJl jila>u-.l aJ^ 4 ! Anderson, 1974) 

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*LJiVi ,>•■ i^t^-i «> *-ijo» cs- 1 -* *jy ^y v*^ ^-^ 

*^il L_aJaJ! Jju" J-P JVJ^-VI U^C <.wL*aJl II* <y «ili»fyJl| 

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. «JI . . . «?Sjjb o-U Jaj jf «?y-f IJLa Jaj JLcdl JLj utS" luyw 

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.(Hay good and Bourne, 1962) <^>*Jl 9 y&y pf»il 

^-ij-aJlj t Reception paradigm JL-JJi^Vl- r-ij-gJl tL/ 1 6^-.»"l »t 

^yu JL2i~.Vl rOj*JJ lit ii>-Ul pi . Selection paradigm ^Uisl 

, JLcJl f-j-rf>j_» (_i^dJl_j pfillj *l>cdl l-i* c^i •**> vilJij i(^~~* 
refill (1)15 I jli * a-^UlI AliJI J **^p c$^ j^ 4 J^ *- fr^ JLcil Jjl4 
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^U^pl IjJj^Ai ^y Ij^Vl r-J^»J! I^A J?*~i , S-l>- <Jp jwi J5 i ty . /i" 

oVjUJl SJL-L- j ^tolj-J-l f^l J^-f ^ tAj^li Jp jjjdl 



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(Bourne et al, jlyJl s\£\j ilSCiil J>- J £Ldl oL^Jl^Vl *^i ^ 

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jwUii ajjl. (jJJl ^--Jl y> IJL* J*Jj (Haygood and Devine, 1967) 
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jf J^J -Ui t (Baume, 1967) oj-J jl f_^iil JuJ^ j i»o>ci-il SOpUJI 

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— Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D., and Hanesian, H. (1978) Educational 

Psychology: A Congnitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 

— Bloom, B. S., Hastings, J. T., and Madaur, G. F. (1971) Handbook on 

formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning. New York: 
Mcgraw - Hill Book Company. 

— Bolles, R. C. (1975) Theory of Motivation. New York: Harper and Row 

Publishers. 

— Bolles, R. C. (1978) Learning Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Win- 

ston. 

— Brown, F. G. (1976) Principles of Educational and Psychological Testing. 

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 

— Clarizio, H. F. (1976) Toward Positive Classrom Discipline. New York: 

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

— Clarizio, H. F., Craig, R. C, and Mehrens, W. A. (1981) Contemporary 

Issues in Educational Psychology. Boston: Ally and Bacon, Inc. 

— Cronbach, L. J. (1973) Educational Psychology. London: Hart - Davis Ltd. 

— Ellis, H. C. (1978) Fundamentals of Human Learning, Memory, and Cogni- 

tion. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers. 

— Ellis, H. C, Bennett, T. L., and Rickert, E. J. (1979) Psychology of Learn- 

ing and Memory. Monterey, California; Brooks - cole Publishing Company. 

— Frazier, A. (1980) Values, Curriculum, and the Elementary School. Boston: 

Houghton Mifflin Company. 

— Gage, N. L., and Berliner, D. C. (1979) Educational Psychology, Chicago: 

Rand Mc Nally. 

— GagneV; R. M. (1977) The Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rine- 

hart, and Winston. 
£4 Goodwin, W. L., and Klausmeier, H. J. (1975) Facilitating Student Leam- 
g: An Introduction to Educational Psychlolgy. New York: Harper and 
+\ . -v, Publishers. 

■m 



— Hamachek, O. E. (1979) Psychology in Teaching, Learning and Growth - 

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— Vander Zanden, J. W. (1980) Educational, Psychology in Theory av 

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