(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Zeolites in California"

BULLETIN 208 




ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 




THE RESOURCES AGENCY 

GORDON K VAN VLECK 
SECRETARY FOR RESOURCES 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

GEORGE DEUKMEJIAN 
GOVERNOR 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

RANDALL M WARD 
DIRECTOR 



ryiff i:^^\.-i:: i^^i*- 




DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 

BRIAN E TUCKER 
ACTING STA TE GEOLOGIST 



BULLETIN 208 

ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 

By 

Melvin C. Stinson 
1988 




CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 
1416 Ninth Street, Room 1341 
Sacramento CA 95814 



CONTENTS 

Page 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY vii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Purpose and Scope 1 

Method of Study 1 

Acknowledgments 1 

MINERALOGY 2 

USES 2 

Synthetic 2 

Natural 2 

ECONOMICS 4 

LABORATORY STUDY OF ZEOLITES 4 

FIELD DESCRIPTION OF ALTERED TUFFS 5 

CALIFORNIA ZEOLITE DEPOSITS 5 

Geologic Occurrences 5 

Descriptions of Individual Deposits 6 

Inyo County 6 

Tuff deposits of Pleistocene Lake Tecopa 6 

Death Valley Junction (Ash Meadows) area 6 

Other reported Inyo County deposits 10 

Early Pleistocene Waucoba Lake beds 10 

Furnace Creek Formation 12 

Kern County 12 

Gem Hill Formation 12 

Kinnick Formation 12 

Ricardo Formation 14 

Tropico Group 18 

Mono County 22 

Older rhyolite — Hot Creek area (Casa Diablo Hot Springs) 22 

San Bernardino County 22 

Barstow Formation 23 

Pickhandle Formation 28 

Spanish Canyon Formation 36 

Cady Mountains quadrangle 42 

Daggett quadrangle 42 

Kerens quadrangle 46 

Klinker Mountain quadrangle 46 

Newberry quadrangle 52 

Ord Mountain quadrangle 53 

San Luis Obispo County 53 

Obispo Formation and the tuff unit of the Rincon Shale 

(or tuff member of the Monterey Formation) 53 

Santo Barbara and Ventura Counties 59 

Reported occurrences 59 

Miscellaneous locations — Inyo, Lassen, and San Bernardino Counties 59 

Reported Zeolite Occurrences, Not Examined 59 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK 71 

REFERENCES 71 

TABLES 

Page 

Table 1 . Formulas and properties of some zeolites 3 

Table 2. Chemical analyses of California zeolitic tuffs 3 

Table 3-A. Description of sample locations and samples — Pleistocene Lake Tecopa deposits 8 

Table 3-B. Description of sample locations and samples — Death Valley Junction area 9 

Table 4-A. Description of sample locations ond samples — Gem Hill Formation 13 

Table 4-B. Description of sample locations and samples — Kinnick Formation 16 

Table 4-C. Description of sample locations and samples — Ricardo Formation 19 



Table 4-D Description of sample locations and samples — Tropico Group of Dibblee (1958o) 25 

Table 5. Description of sample locations and samples — Tertiory or old rh/olite of Rinehart and Ross (1964) 26 

Toble 6-A Description of sample locotions ond somples — Borstow Formation .31 

Table 6-B. Description of sample locotions ond samples — Pickhandle Formation 37 

Toble 6-C. Description of sample locations ond samples — Spanish Canyon Formation 41 

Table 6-D. Description of sample locations and samples — Cody Mountains quadrangle 43 

Table 6-E. Description of somple locotions and samples — Doggett quadrangle 47 

Table 6-F. Description of sample locations and samples — Kerens quadrongle 50 

Table 6-G. Description of sample locations and samples — Klinker Mountoin quodrongle 51 

Table 6-H. Description of sample locotions ond samples — Newberry quadrangle 55 

Table 6-1. Description of sample locations and samples — Ord Mountoin quadrangle 57 

Table 7. Description of sample locations ond samples — Obispo Formation, tuff unit — 

Rincon Shale, or tuff unit — Monterey Formation 61 

Table 8 Description of sample locations and samples — Obispo tuff or equivalent 63 

Table 9 Description of sample locations and samples — Miscellaneous locations 65 

Table 10. Description of reported California zeolite occurrences 66 

FIGURES 

Figure 1 . Index mop of the Shoshone oreo, Inyo County 7 

Figure 2. Index mop of a port of the Ash Meadows 15' quadrangle, Inyo County ond Nevodo 10 

Figure 3. Sketch geologic mop of the SE ' j of the Ash Meodows 15' quodrongle 11 

Figure 4. Index map of the Gem Hill area, eastern Kern County 12 

Figure 5. Index map of the Sand Canyon area, eastern Kern County 14 

Figure 6. Geologic mop of o port of the NE '/< of the Tehochopi quadrangle 15 

Figure 7. Index map of the Lost Chance Canyon area, eastern Kern County 17 

Figure 8. Index mop of the Costle Butte area, eastern Kern County 23 

Figure 9. Index mop of the Boron area, eastern Kern County 24 

Figure 10. Index mop of the Hot Creek Pork oreo and vicinity. Mono County 27 

Figure 1 1 Index mop of the eastern end of the Mud Hills, Son Bernordino County 29 

Figure 12. Index mop of the western end of the Mud Hills and vicinity. Son Bernardino County 30 

Figure 13. Generalized geologic map of the western end of the Mud Hills and vicinity 33 

Figure 14. Index mop of the Opal Mountoin — Black Canyon area. Son Bernardino County 34 

Figure 15. Generalized geologic mop of the Opal Mountain — Black Canyon area 35 

Figure 16. Index mop of the Alvord Mountain area. Son Bernardino County 42 

Figure 17. Index map of port of the Cody Mountoins quadrangle. Son Bernardino County 42 

Figure 18. Index mops of ports of the Daggett quadrangle. Son Bernardino County 45 

Figure 19. Index mop of port of the Kerens quadrangle, San Bernardino County 46 

Figure 20 Index mop of port of the Klinker Mountain 7' ? quadrangle. Son Bernardino County 46 

Figure 21. Index maps of parts of the Newberry quadrangle. Son Bernardino County 54 

Figure 22. Index mop of a port of the Ord Mountain 7'/}' quadrangle. Son Bernardino County ... 58 

Figure 23. Index mops of ports of the Arroyo Grande quadrangle. Son Luis Obispo County . . 60 

PLATE 

Plate 1 . Location map of California zeolite deposits in pocket 

PHOTOS 

Photo 1 . Scanning electron micrograph of altered tuff containing phillipsite. Pleistocene Lake Tecopo locustnne de- 
posits. Sample site 96, Sample A 6 

Photo 2. Scanning electron micrograph of altered tuff contoining phillipsite. Pleistocene Loka Tecopo locustnne de- 
posits. Sample site 97, Somple B 6 



IV 



Photo 3. Sfoclcpiles and open pit workings of Anaconda Mining Company's zeolite operation east of Death Valley 

Junction. Open pit and stockpiles are in California. View west 10 

Photo 4. Stockpile area and north end of Anaconda Mining Company's zeolite operation east of Death Valley Junction. 

View northwest 10 

Photo 5. Exposure of zeolitized tuff of the Gem Hill Formation in a gully about 1 mile south of Gem Hill 12 

Photo 6. Zeolitized tuff of the Gem Hill Formation underlying a low ridge about 1 Va miles southeast of Gem Hill 14 

Photo 7. Exposure of zeolitized tuff of the Kinnick Formation, northern Sand Canyon area 14 

Photo 8. Zeolitized tuff of the Kinnick Formation underlying the ridge in the foreground and the hill in the background 14 

Photo 9. Scanning electron micrograph of altered tuff of the Kinnick Formation containing clinoptilolite. Sample site 

101, Sample A 17 

Photo 1 0. View south showing a bed of white zeolitized tuff interbedded in the Ricardo Formation, Lost Chance Canyon 

area, Kern County. View south ]7 

Photo 1 1 . Zeolitized tuff (white) of Member 4 of the Ricardo Formation. West side of Last Chance Canyon, Kern County. 

View north 18 

Photo 1 2. Zeolitized tuff bed about 8 feet thick consisting of two pole pink beds with a 2-foot thick interbedded white 

tuff bed. Gray sandstone overlies and underlies the altered tuff. Ricardo Formation, Lost Chance Canyon, 

Kern County. 18 

Photo 1 3. Zeolitized tuff (white) in sharp contact with gray sandstone. Near top of Member 4, Ricardo Formation, Last 

Chance Canyon, Kern County. 18 

Photo 14. Bulldozer cut exposing zeolitized tuff and clay of the Tropico Group. About 1,000 feet northeast of Castle 

Butte 22 

Photo 1 5. Close-up of bulldozer cut shown in Photo 1 4. The tuff of the Tropico Group has been altered to clinoptilolite 

and bentonitic cloy. 22 

Photo 16. View west along Hot Creek near the Hot Creek Pork. Boulders along the creek bonk are rhyolite flows and 

tuffs. The tuff has been altered to clinoptilolite 28 

Photo 1 7. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite from altered tuff. Hot Creek area. Mono County. 28 

Photo 1 8. Open pit mine of PDZ Corporation, Mud Hills, Son Bernardino County. Clinoptilolite occurs in altered tuff of 

the Miocene Borstow Formation. View south 28 

Photo 1 9. North end of PDZ Corporation Mud Hills zeolite deposit. Altered tuff of the Miocene Borstow Formation 

dips at a low angle to south. Bogs are mill residue from BNFL contract. View west 28 

Photo 20. View southwest toward west end of Mud Hills near the east end of Fossil Canyon. Most of white area is 

underlain by tuff and tuff breccia of the Pickhondle Formation. Much of the tuff and tuff breccia within the 

photograph has been zeolitized 29 

Photo 21 . Zeolitized tuff ond tuff breccia of the Pickhondle Formation near the west end of the Mud Hills — near east 

end of Fossil Canyon. Sample sites 2 1 -23 ore in the photograph 32 

Photo 22. View west across on area underlain by zeolitized tuff and tuff breccia of the Pickhondle Formation. Opal 

Mountain in bockground is capped by rhyolite breccia and flow breccia of the Opal Mountain volconics 32 

Photo 23. View northwest toward Opal Mountain showing zeolitized tuff of the Pickhondle Formation exposed on the 

lower slopes. The zeolitized tuff is overlain by a thin bed of granitic conglomerate. Dumps on upper slopes 

ore from perlite operations. Perlite occurs within the Opal Mountain volconics which overlie the tuff and 

conglomerate 32 

Photo 24. Zeolitized lopilli tuff of the Pickhondle Formation underlying a series of northwest-trending ridges northwest 

of Opal Mountoin. Dork rocks exposed neor top of tuff bed in center foreground and extending to right 

(west) are granitic conglomerate. View south 32 

Photo 25. View west down Black Canyon. Opal Camp in center foreground at east (near) end of white area is in tuff of 

the Pickhondle Formation. A major portion of the tuff in the foreground has been zeolitized 32 

Photo 26. Zeolitized tuff, probably of the Pickhondle Formation, exposed on the south side of a low ridge on the lower 

southeastern slopes of Lane Mountain at the northwest end of the Calico Mountains 32 

Photo 27. View southeast toward Jockhammer Gap on the Fort Irwin Road. White rocks are zeolitized tuff and tuff 

breccio of the Pickhondle Formation 34 

Photo 28. Zeolitized tuff near Bird Spring oreo. Gravel Hills. The tuff and tuff breccia are port of the Pickhondle Formation. 

View west from near Bird Spring 34 

Photo 29. Tuff and tuff breccia of the Pickhondle Formation near Bird Spring. Some of the tuff has been partially 

zeolitized. The basal conglomerate of the Borstow Formotion overlies the tuff 36 

Photo 30. Bluff of zeolitized tuff of the Spanish Canyon Formation exposed in Spanish Canyon, Alvord Mountain quad- 
rangle. Unaltered luff is interbedded in zeolitized tuff 36 



Photo 3 1 . Altered tuff of the Sponish Canyon Formation. Some of the tuff has been bentonized, other beds are zeolitized. 

North end of Sponish Conyon 36 

Photo 32. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolile from the Sponish Canyon Formation, Sample site 92, Sample 

B 36 

Photo 33. Prominent bluff composed of altered tuff (unnamed formation). The tuff unit is over 1 00 feel thick and consists 

of pale pink, white, and gray zeolitized tuff. A pink bentonitic cloy underlies the tuff. The zeolitized tuff is 

overloin by reddish-brown basaltic tuff and a basolt flow. Area is about 4V] miles northeost of Hector siding. ... 44 
Photo 34. View north up a canyon about 4' ? miles northeost of Hector siding Prominent ridge composed of altered tuff 

is exposed on the left (west) side of the canyon. Most of the tuff has been zeolitized. Basaltic tuff and a 

basalt flow overlie the oltered tuff beds 44 

Photo 35. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite from the Cody Mountains, Sample site 113, Sample C 44 

Photo 36. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite-beoring tuff from on unnomed formation, Doggett quadrangle, 

Somple site 37, Sample A 44 

Photo 37. Stockpiles of zeolitized tuff at on inoctive (?) bentonite deposit belonging to NL Industries — Norfti Group 

near Hector The pit is about 200' in diameter Zeolitized tuff is exposed in the pit walls to eost and south. 

View toward west 52 

Photo 38. Bed of zeolitized tuff in sandstone ond cloystone of Miocene or younger age on NL Industries' property north 

of Hector Beds strike E-W and dip to south at 20'. The zeolitized tuff bed is at least 4 feet thick and is 

overlain by o few inches of desert pavement 52 

Photo 39. Scanning electron microgroph of erionite from near Hector siding. Sample site 48 52 

Photo 40. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite-beoring tuff near Yermo, Sample site 1 1 9, Sample C 53 

Photo 41 . East-dipping partially zeolitized tuff of the Obispo Formcrtion at Mollogh Landing, Pt. Son Luis, Sample site 77 58 

Photo 42. Sconning electron micrograph of mordenite needles in altered tuff of the Obispo Formation, Sample site 69 59 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



Minerals of the zeolite group have been known for many years, primarily occurring as fracture fillings 
in igneous rocks, basalts in particular. The importance of zeolites became evident when scientists in the 
early 1900s identified the capacity of this mineral group for ion exchange, adsorption, and dehydration. 
Synthetic zeolites have been used since the 1940s. Commercial utilization of natural zeolites become a 
possibility in the late 1950s when it was recognized that extensive bedded zeolite deposits occur in Arizona, 
California, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Wyoming. Although natural zeolites from California deposits 
have been quarried and consumed since 1912 and were the subject of extensive prospecting programs 
in the 1960s and in recent years, very little information about potentially economic deposits is available. 
Production data of California zeolites ore practically non-existent. The purpose of this study is to present 
information on the locotion of possible economic zeolite deposits in California to potentially interested 
persons and companies. 

This study includes descriptions of over one hundred zeolite localities primarily from the southern part 
of California. Many of these deposits could be economically important and worthy of further study; 
however, no attempt has been mode to estimate the quantity of zeolites present in a deposit. Descriptions 
of the sample locations and the samples are included in a series of tables. The sample locations included 
with the report are plotted on a mop at o scale of 1:1,000,000. Background information on the identifica- 
tion and uses of zeolites along with a listing of reported California zeolite occurrences from available 
literature is also included in the report. 

About 300 samples were collected and identified as to rock type, physical and mineralogical charac- 
teristics. To identify any zeolite minerals present, all samples were examined by X-roy diffraction methods 
and several samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The zeolites identified in the 
study ore, in order of abundance, clinoptilolite, mordenite, phillipsite, erionite, and onolcime. 

Based upon their mode of occurrences, mineralogical composition, and geologic origin, zeolite deposits 
in sedimentary rocks may be grouped into six different groups or types (Mumpton 1973); 

1. Deposits formed from volcanic material in "closed" systems of ancient lakes and present-day saline 
lakes; 

2. Deposits formed from volcanic material in "open" systems of fresh-water lakes or groundwater 
systems; 

3. Deposits formed from volcanic material in near-shore or deep-sea marine environments; 

4. Deposits formed in low-grade burial metomorphism of volcanic and other material in thick sedi- 
mentary sequences; 

5. Deposits formed by hydrothermal or hot spring activity; and 

6. Deposits formed in lacustrine or marine environments without direct evidence of volcanic precursor 
material. 

Many of the known California zeolite deposits are formed from volcanic material in closed hydrologic 
basins (type 1). Such deposits generally result from the reaction of volcanic glass with connate water 
trapped during sedimentation in saline, alkaline lakes. Zeolite deposits of this type ore distinguished by a 
lateral zonation of minerals that contrasts with the vertical mineral zonation commonly exhibited by the 
other types of zeolite deposits. The tuffs of Pleistocene Lake Tecopa exemplify the lateral zonation pattern. 
Fresh gloss occurs along the margin and at inlets of the ancient lake. The glass is succeeded inwardly by 
zone of zeolites and in the central part of the lake by potassium feldspar A similar lateral zonation 
occurs in the Miocene Barstow Formation. The zeolite minerals commonly found in saline lake deposits 
are onolcime, chabozite, clinoptilolite, erionite, mordenite, and phillipsite. 

The Ricordo Formation of Pliocene age exposed in the Lost Chance Canyon area in the El Paso Moun- 
tains of eastern Kern County is on example of the open-system-type zoning in younger nonmorine sedi- 
ments (type 2). Here, the beds have been tilted, yet the contact between fresh and zeolitic tuff is nearly 
horizontal, showing that alteration occurred after tilting. Clinoptilolite is the only zeolite in this sequence, 
and it is associated with variable amounts of montmorillonite and opal. 

Zeolite deposits ore also found in low-grade metamorphic rocks in California. They occur in two types 
of terrains: (1) hydrothermal, and (2) burial. Hydrothermal occurrences (type 5) include active and fossil 
geothermol systems and rocks hydrothermolly altered by igneous intrusions. Zeolites developed on a 
regional scale in thick strotigrophic sections are usually attributed to burial metomorphism (type 4). Mor- 
denite is associated with clinoptilolite as a replacement of volcanic glass in tuffs of the marine Obispo 
Formation. Some of the zeolitized tuff beds are reported to be over 100 feet thick, and consist of more 



thon 75 percent mordenite. Rhyolite tuffs ond pumice in the vicinity of the hot springs on Hot Creek obout 
5 miles east of Casa Dioblo Hot Springs in Mono County hove been ottered to clinoptilolite and phillipsile 
by hot spring octivity. 

Other types of zeolite deposits in sedimentory rocks may be present in California, but insufficient dote 
ore ovoiloble to categorize the deposits by mode of origin. 

Based upon field examination of over 100 locations mostly in southeastern Colifornio and Son Luis 
Obispo County and laboratory exominotion of over 300 samples, the following conclusions were reoched: 

• Deposits of zeolite-bearing tuff of possible economic significonce occur in Inyo County in altered 
tuff deposits of Pleistocene Lake Tecopo, south of Shoshone, ond in altered tuff deposits on the lower 
north and northeastern slopes of the Resting Spring Range, east of Death Valley Junction (Ash 
Meadows area) 

• Deposits of zeolite-bearing tuff of possible economic significance occur in Kern County in the Gem 
Hill Formation in the Rosamond Hills south of Mojove, the Kinnick Formation near Tehochopi, the 
Ricordo Formation in the El Paso Mountoins, and in the lower port of the Tropico Group neor Castle 
Butte and north of Boron. 

• Deposits of zeolite-bearing tuff of possible economic significance occur in severol formations in Son 
Bernardino County. These hove been previously reported and include the Barstow Formation in the 
Mud Hills, the Pickhondle Formation in the Block Canyon area, the Spanish Canyon Formation near 
Clews Ridge and near the head of Spanish Conyon in the Alvord Mountains, and an unnamed 
formation on the south flank of the Cody Mountains. 

• Other potentially economic zeolite deposits occur in Son Bernardino County in unnamed formations 
in the following quadrangles: Cody Mountoins 15', Daggett 15', Kerens 15', Klinker Mountains TVi', 
and the Newberry 15'. 

• Deposits of zeolite-bearing tuff of Tertiary or younger oge occur in eastern Son Bernardino County 
ond southeastern Colifornio. The probobility that some may be of economic significance is high. 

• Deposits of zeolite-bearing tuffoceous rocks of economic significance occur in severol formotions in 
San Luis Obispo County. These include the Obispo Formation or Obispo tuff member of the Monterey 
Formation. 

This study has verified that deposits of possible economic significance occur in Colifornio os reported 
by previous reseorchers, that other deposits of possible economic significance are present, and thot there 
is high probability that many more deposits of zeolite-bearing tuff, some of possible economic signifi- 
cance, ore present ond as yet undiscovered in southeastern Colifornio. Sufficient zeolite resources exist 
in California to support a zeolite industry, and when o brooder market for noturol zeolites is developed, 
California moy hove a zeolite industry. 

Mony of the deposits exomined and sampled during this study are worthy of further work. Recommen- 
dations for further work include the following: 

• All exposures of formations known to contain zeolite-bearing tuffoceous units should be examined 
and sampled. 

• Detailed mapping and sampling should be performed at some of the new localities described in this 
report. 

• Tertiary or younger tuffoceous units of unnamed formations delineated by geologic mapping on 
quodrangles in southeostern Colifornio should be examined ond sampled for zeolites. 

• Reported zeolite occurrences not examined ond sampled during this study should be exomined ond 
sampled These include the eorly Pleistocene Woucobo Lake beds and the Furnace Creek Formation 
of Pliocene oge. 

• The Coso Formation in southern Owens Valley should be examined ond sampled. This formation has 
several beds of oltered rhyolite luff and tuff breccia that may contain zeolite minerals. 



vii 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



INTRODUCTION 



Zeolite is a broad term used to identify a group of hydrous 
alumino-siiicate minerals characterized by their easy and revers- 
ible loss of water by hydration. They are also known by their 
intumescence when heated strongly (swelling or frothing owing 
to the release of gases). Many are also characterized by a signif- 
icant capacity for ion exchange (Tables 1 , 2). 

Minerals of the zeolite group — including analcime. chabazite. 
clinoptilolite, erionite. faujasite, laumontite, mordenite. and phil- 
lipsite — have been known for many years, primarily occurring 
as fracture and vesicle fillings in igneous rocks, basalts in partic- 
ular. Commercial utilization of natural zeolites became a possi- 
bility in the late 1950s when it was recognized that extensive 
bedded zeolite deposits occur in Arizona, California, Nevada, Or- 
egon, Texas, and Wyoming. Exploration for deposits of natural 
zeolites peaked in the 1960s when the search concentrated on 
natural molecular-sieve zeolites that might compete with the syn- 
thetic zeolites. 

Zeolites analogous to many of the natural types were synthe- 
sized in the late 1940s and early 1950s and first commercially 
produced in 1954. 

In 1959 Deffeyes reported the existence of large minable de- 
posits of erionite, a large-pore natural zeolite possessing similar 
adsorption properties to the newly developed synthetic Zeolites A 
and X. Until this find, competition from natural zeolites had not 
been considered feasible. However, Deffeyes' (1959) announce- 
ment prompted several groups engaged in developing synthetic 
zeolites to embark on exploration programs to find and control 
any existing deposits of natural zeolites such as mordenite, cha- 
bazite, erionite, and faujasite. Small-pore zeolites such as cli- 
noptilolite, laumontite, and analcime were not explored at this 
time because the small-pore diameter and adsorption properties 
of these zeolites preclude their use in most molecular sieve 
applications. 

In I960, Ames announced the results of a study that examined 
the cesium selectivity of several natural and synthetic zeolites. 
Clinoptilolite was found to be the most promising. Mine-run 
sodium-based clinoptilolite from the Hector, San Bernardino 
County leases of the Baroid Division of the National Lead Com- 
pany was utilized in the study. The u.se of natural zeolites in large- 
scale ion exchange processes was developed mainly under the aus- 
pices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1960s 
as a means of concentrating and isolating radioactive species from 
waste waters generated by atomic installations. Ames, Mercer, 
and co-workers al.so demonstrated the usefulness of clinoptilolite 
in the removal of ammonium ions from sewage and agricultural 
effluents (Mumplon, 1973). Clinoptilolite from several California 
locations has been and is being used for this purpose. Other u.ses 
of natural zeolites from California include the use of clinoptilolite- 
rich ash-flow tuff from near Monolith, Kern County to manufac- 
ture pozzolanic cement products since 1912. 

Because of the several important physical properties exhibited 
by natural zeolites, there are excellent possibilities that natural 
zeolites from California and neighboring states will be exploited 
more fully in the future and that other uses tor natural zeolites 
will be developed. 

Purpose and Scope 

Although natural zeolites from California deposits have been 
quarried and consumed since 1912 and were the subject of exten- 
sive prospecting programs in the 1960s and in recent years, very 
little information about potentially economic deposits is available. 



Production data of California zeolites are practically nonexistent. 
The purpose of this report is to present information on the location 
and general characteristics of recognized zeolite deposits in Cal- 
ifornia to insure that these deposits receive consideration for com- 
mercial development when mine development and investment 
decisions are made. 

This study includes descriptions of over one hundred zeolite 
locations primarily from the southern part of California. Many of 
these deposits could be economically important and worthy of 
further study. No attempt was made to systematically sample any 
deposit nor was an attempt made to estimate the quantity of zeolites 
present in a deposit. Such work should be the subject of another 
study. Descriptions of the sample locations and the samples are 
included in a series of tables (Tables 3-9). Background information 
on the mineralogy, uses, and identificaton of zeolites is also in- 
cluded. Also included with the report is a listing of reported Cal- 
ifornia zeolite occurrences found in available literature (Table 10). 

Method of Study 

Library research for this study started in January 1983; field 
work started in April 1983 and was continued intermittently 
through March 1984. Laboratory work was done between periods 
of field work and continued after completion of field work. The 
field study .started with an examination of clinoptilolite in known 
sedimentary deposits considered to be of possible economic value 
(Sheppard, 1971). Four of the eight localities given by Sheppard 
were examined and sampled. Using the information gained from 
examination of these sites and others reported in the literature, a 
systematic examination of exposures of sedimentary rocks of Cen- 
ozoic or Tertiary age containing tuffaceous units was started in 
southern California, primarily in the vicinity of Barstow in San 
Bernardino County, western Kern County and Inyo County. In the 
fall of 1983, some field work was done in Ventura, Santa Barbara, 
San Luis Obispo and Mono Counties. All locations were plotted 
on 15-minute or 7'/;-minute quadrangle topographic maps. Maps 
showing the location of the individual deposits examined in the 
field are included with this report — Figures 1-23. A map at a 
scale of I : I ,(X)0,()00 has been prepared (Plate I ) showing ( 1 ) sam- 
ple locations, (2) location of reported deposits of possible com- 
mercial significance, not sampled or examined during this study, 
and (3) location of reported occurrences of zeolites of unlikely 
commercial significance. The map location numbers are keyed 
to the descriptions of the sample sites and samples given in 
Tables 3-10. 

About 3(X) samples were collected during this study. All of the 
samples were studied to identify the rock type and to determine 
the physical and mineralogical character of the rocks. All samples 
(with a few exceptions) were examined by x-ray diffraction meth- 
ods to identify the zeolites present, treated with dilute hydrochloric 
acid to test for carbonate minerals, and tested to determine the 
presence of saline minerals such as halite. Methods of study of 
zeolites and associated minerals by optical microscope, electron 
microscope, and x-ray diffraction are described in a later section. 

Acknowledgments 

The writer wishes to acknowledge the invaluable field assist- 
ance of J. R. Collins of Lenwood, California. His knowledge of 
the general geology, terrain, and desert roads expedited field 
work and saved valuable field time. The assistance of Division 
of Mines and Geology stafT in collecting samples of suspected 
zeolite-bearing tuffaceous rocks is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Martin Liebcrman of the U.S. Customs Service laboratory in San 
Francisco provided the scanning electron microscope facilities 
and worked with the writer m prepanng scanning electron mi- 
crographs of several zeolite samples. 

MINERALOGY 

Zeolites arc a group of crysiallmc. hydrated aluminum silicate 
mmcrals that contain alkali or aikaimc-earlh elements. This group 
has an empirical formula M.„0.A1 ,0,..xSiO.,.yH.,0 where M is 
any alkali or alkaline earlh cation, n is the valance of that cation, 
X is a number from 2 to about 10. and y is a number from 2 to 8 
(Mumpton. 1983b). The empirical and unit-ceil formulas of cli- 
nopiilolitc. the most common of the natural zeolites, is: 

(Na,K),.Al:OJ0SiO:.8H.O and 
(Na,K,)(Al^i«,0,i).24H:0 

Ions within the first set of parentheses of the unit-cell formula 
are known as exchangeable cations; those within the second set 
of parentheses are called structural cations because with oxygen 
they make up the tetrahedral framework of the structure. 

Zeolites have an open, infinitely extended, three-dimensional 
framework composed of silica and alumina tetrahedrons, simi- 
lar in some respects to the feldspars. Each tetrahedron consists 
of a central silicon or aluminum atom surrounded by four oxy- 
gens. T^e (Si, ADO, tetrahedrons are linked together into a con- 
tinuous network with each oxygen shared by two tetrahedrons. 
The resultant crystalline lattice is honeycombed with elongate 
cavities which are accessible through smaller apertures. The size 
of the cavities and apertures are uniform for each zeolite. 

In zeolite structures some of the quadrivalent Si is replaced by 
irivalent Al, giving a net negative charge on the framework 
which is balanced by the presence of the exchangeable divalent 
and univalent cations. In natural zeolites, these exchangeable 
citions commonly are Ca'", Na', K, or Mg". These cations 
oc-upy the cavities within the zeolite structure. Because these 
cations are loosely bound to the (Si,AI) O. — tetrahedral frame- 
work, they are easily replaced by other suitable cations; the 
zeolite minerals have higher cation exchange capacities than any 
other mineral. 

Another feature typical of both natural and synthetic zeolite 
minerals is the presence of water molecules within the structural 
cavities. These molecules are relatively loosely bound to the 
framework and to the exchangeable cations. Water constitutes 
10 to 20 weight percent of such structures and is readily removed 
at a moderate temperature (up to .150°C). The framework of the 
zeolite IS not affected by dehydration, unless the dehydration is 
complete or carried out under severe conditions The partially 
dehydrated zeolite readily regains water molecules even when 
exposed to a very low vapor pressure. The partially dehydrated 
mineral is a highly selective adsorbent of liquids and gases, and 
it has a large pore volume and surface area available for adsorp- 
tion. 

The zeolites identified in the present study are, in order of 
abundance, clinoptilolilc. mordcnile, phillipsile, erionile. and 
analcimc Table I (Mumpton 1<»77. I'JKJb) gives the representa- 
tive uml-ccll formula, crystal system, void volume, specific grav- 
ity, channel dimension, and habil in sedimentary riKks for these 
five /collie minerals Table 2 (Shcppard and Gudc. 1''82) shows 
available chemical analyses of analcime. clmoptilolite. morde- 
nile, and phillipsite-bcanng luff from several California locali- 
ties. 



USES 

The physical properties that make zeolites potentially useful 
include their ability to lose and regain water of hydration with 
little or no change in structural state, their open structures with 
interconnected channels that permit the dehydrated minerals to 
pass or adsorb some molecules and to exclude others, their abili- 
ty to act as calalysis for some reactions, and their high cation 
exchange capacities (Papke, 1972). 

The first discovery of zeolite minerals was of the attractive 
large crystals found in vugs and cavities in basaltic rocks. In the 
early IWOs, scientists discovered the adsorption, dehydration 
and ion exchange properties of zeolites. The potential industnal 
application of these properties was soon realized but it was as- 
sumed that zeolites were rare in nature. 

Synthetic 

In the late 1940s, Union Carbide synthesized a synthetic zeo- 
lite — "zeolite A" — with molecular sieving and adsorption prop- 
erties superior to chabazite. Many zeolite species have now been 
synthesized, some analogous to natural zeolites and others un- 
known in natural form. Synthetic crystalline zeolites were first 
pr(xluced commercially in the early 1950s and are now manufac- 
tured by several companies in the United States These products 
are used mainly as catalysts or catalyst earners in the treatment 
of hydrocarbons and in the field of adsorption. The total figures 
on production of synthetic zeolites arc not available but are esti- 
mated to be in excess of 200,000 tons annually. 

Currently the largest market for synthetic zeolites is in the 
field of catalysis. About 95 percent of the zeolite-containing 
catalyst is used in petroleum cracking catalysts. Silica-rich, 
large-aperture zeolites, those with apertures of 7 to lOA', are the 
most useful. Those now used are synthetic species related to the 
mineral faujasite or, less commonly, mordenite. In general terms 
natural zeolites are not able to compete against synthetic zeolites 
in the field of catalysis owing to their inherently smaller pore 
sizes and lower adsorption capacities. The presence of iron in the 
form of an impurity also mitigates against the use of some natu- 
ral zeolites in catalysis owing to its action as a poison in many 
catalytic reactions. However, there are certain exceptions to this 
rule where natural mordenite, chabaziie, and clmoptilolite have 
been successfully used to remove water and carbon dioxide from 
gaseous hydrocarbons (Clarke, 1980). 

The other major market for synthetic zeolites is in the field of 
adsorption. Not only the molecular sieving properties of zeolites 
are utilized but also other interaction effects such as the polanty 
of certain molecules. Therefore, the sieving action can be based 
either on the ability lo separate different types of molecules 
because of differences in size and shape (analogous to a mechani- 
cal sieve), or on the great affinity of the zeolite for polar mole- 
cules (those with positive and negative centers of elcvtncal 
charge) and unsaturated carbon comjxiunds Ze»">litcs used for 
adsorption are principally used in the petroleum refining, petro- 
chemical, and chemical industries Among the many uses are: 
removal of water from gases and liquids such as natural gas, 
cracked gas. jet fuel, hydrogen, pcntane. butane, and benzene, 
removal of other impurities, such as carbon dioxide and sulfur, 
from natural gas and other materials; selective separation of 
gases, such as oxygen and nitrogen from air; and separation of 
various hydnvarKins (Papkc. I''72). 

Natural 

Increasing interest in the use of natural rather than synthetic 
zeolites has occurred since the early I9(>0s when large deposits 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 





■D 








c 








O 


V 




■E-S 


S -s 


^§ ^ 




is 


O D O 


o -c 




-5 Q-J; 


j:-2-9 




l"g 


o = o 


m «/. c 




«1 


M ° oi 


0^ a* o 






1- S 
So- 


*o -o ^ 






i 2 9 












l-< 


•^ CN 


rv "V 00 






uS uS 


<0 -'T Tf 




2 E 


X X 


XXX 




O "5 


o o o 


O^ CN oo 


CO 




cs rj en 


(N -^ CN 


CO 


;5.^ 


o 


U-) o 




CN 00 


•— CN 




c s 


cvi ° 


CN CN 




II 


1 CN 

CN ^ 6 


CN *0 






CS (N Csj 


CS CN 




_ 








? 








"0 ~- 








2| 


00 ■« lO 


CO ■— 




•— CO n 


CN n 




















o 








>. 




lo Id 




"§ E 


.a "o 


E E 




.^l 


c c 


o o 




D ° aj 


o o 












u S X 


o 6 






q_ 








i" 








o- 


q_ 




n. D 


o5- 


i" 




1 i 


§^.1 


OS 




1^ 


-J oil 


CN o 
-L O 




u 


o'^T- 






-1 


CO* 


O "^ 

o _r 

.-' < 






-z — «> 








< ,r o 








— i<: i_) 


< 2 






« n ^ 








- O 


> o" 






o Z Z 


5 z 






z 


z — 






* 
















V "o 


i « 






E - «< 


= s 




^ 


o-- 
— o c 


■S.S. 




"o 


O c o 


II 




-? 


< u li; 





a 

,u 

"o 

ii 

.0 

I 

5 







-S 
■o 

.0 





00 


00 


o 


CO 


rv 




CN 


CO 


o 


2 


■<f 


CN 


-o 


ro 


CN 


00 


&« 


-^ 


fN. 


o-' 


00 


,-J 


o; 


d 


00 


CK 


d 


uS 


1 


o. 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o. 


o 


c>« 






' 




^" 






*" 




c c 


_ 


















o ,o 


(y 


•o 


00 


CN 


o 


lO 


o 


-o 


CN 


♦^ -^ 


rs 


CO 


CN 


oi 


CN 


wS 


oi 


ri 


in 


•^ c 




















•2 J> 




















O 


-^ 


CM 


c< 


CM 


CN 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CN 


c 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


5 


° 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 





d 


<3 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


q!" 






















, 


CN 




00 


o 


»o 


o* 


rv 


_ 




o 




-— 


o 


o 


o 


CN 


o 


•— 




ci 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


o 


o 


o 


■^ 


CO 


N. 


CM 


N. 


■^ 


tv 


hv 


c^ 


CO 


r^ 


00 


<v 


rv 


MD 


^ 


d 


•~ 


*" 


n 


CO 


CO 


•~ 


in! 


-^ 







00 


o 


r^ 


q 


■^ 


«o 


o 


o 


o 


00 


>n 


■» 


CO 


CO 


uS 


d 


CO 


f< 


2 




















O 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


_ 


CM 


rs 


■o 


CO 


o. 


r^ 


CN 


o 


CO 


•o 


O; 


CN 


o 


d 


c> 


'~ 


d 


d 


d 


— 


d 


d 




*o 














c> 




o 


-o 


U-) 


u-) 


n 


''t 


-^ 


CN 


tN. 


CO 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


^ 


d 


r-^ 


5 




















d" 


■o 


r^ 


CN 


•o 


o 


r^ 


''T 


■v 


00 


o 


-^ 


CO 


rv 


K 


q 


00 


o 


lO 


«r 


(-: 


d 


d 


d 


d 


CN 


^ 


,— ' 


^ 


u; 




















o" 


00 


rN 


O; 


^ 


CO 


P^ 


'O 


■^ 


CN 


■6 


<N 


^ 


^ 


--' 


CO 


CM 


TT 


CO 


^ 




















^ 


,_ 


^ 


CN 


lO 


hv 


CN 


o 


*o 


r>^ 


P 


CN 


CO 


CO 


<3 


r< 


rv 


CO 


CS 


CM 


io 


-O 


^ 


« 


•O 


o 


kO 


o 


*o 


*o 




iT 


Q. 


_o 


o? 


5? 


5« 


ftj" 


ft;' 


ft)" 




E 
o 
2 


1 














1 


8 


O 
o 


o 

ft) 


ft; 
-o 
o 


Q. 

IE 


'5 

IE 




8 


o 


o 

E 


£ 


g 
ftJ 


E 

§ 

>^ 
ft; 

.1 

X 

o 

Q. 

a 
< 


a 
o 


Q. 

o 




00 


0) 
O 

E 




'5 
o 

Q. 

a 
< 


'x 
o 
o. 
a 
< 


1 


o 


O 

V 




"k 


1 


E 


c 
O 


c 


ft; 
O 


i 


a 







Q. 


o 


o 


S 
'x 



'x 


'x 




a 
a 


Q. 
< 


Q. 
Q. 


c 


c 


o 
a 


o 




< 


» 


< 


D 


—1 


Q. 

Q. 


a 
< 


Q. 
< 




o 


O 


o 


_ft) 


_a) 


< 


i 


o 








CO 


X 


"5 
> 


"5 
> 


O 

a 


o 


a 
o 


Q. 





o 
to 


c 


^ 


-£ 


o 


o 

CO 


ft) 








_o 




o 


o 


ft) 










c 






0) 


ft) 


t— 


c 








o 





o 
a 

4) 


O 


Q 


o 

a 

4) 


o 




'lA 
O 

a 


o 
a 




E 


o 

u- 


ft) 


3 


3 


E 


4) 


ft) 
-o 




o 
u_ 


> 


c 


» 


J 


"D 


o 

u- 


ft) 

C 


ft) 

c 




o 


o 
o 


3 
U 


_o 




ft) 


|_ 


s 


3 


0) 


o 


CO 

0) 

c 
u 


_g 


o 





3 


£ ft) 




_o 


8 


4> 




,9 


g 


ft) 

c 
ft; 

■ft) 


^1 

s? 


ft) 

c 

4> 


4» 

C 
4> 


J) 

1 




o 
5 


o 

3 


3 


ft) ^■ 

- Q. 

;t o 




u 
O 

ft; 

Ol 




■ft) 

o. 


T 


2 


il 


'^ 


1 s 






1 ."' 
1 o 


— U 


i 


4) 


^ — 

(_» N 


i « 


i ^ 


i «r 


i «; 


.C 


'^ Q, 






4) 

Q. 
4 
"5 

4) 


i 1 

.1 cr 

o 5? 
5 o 


1 ^ 
J o 


a 2 

O 


II 

^ Q. 


1 t 

1! 


— 


2! i 

£^ 
1° 

S CO 


i 1 

.9- „ 

— O 


1 J 

.9- „ 

U 

IE 


Nl 


< CN 


u .= 


U ^ 


U "u 


u -0 


uj Q. 


Q. ^ 


a. ^ 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



of natural /eoliic> were found in >>cdimcniar> rocks in ihe western 
Untied Slates. Most of those applications are in lht>se cases where 
the high cost of synthetic zeohtes makes their use impractical 
Since the mid-1960s small tonnages of chaba/ite. clinoptilolitc. 
and cruinitc have been mined chiefly from three deposits — near 
Bowie in Arizona, near Hector in California, and in Jcrsc\ Valley 
in Nevada More recently dcp<isits of clinoptilolite near Death 
Valley Junction. Tccopa. and Barstow have been intermittently 
worked A-ohtc deposits in pyroclastic deposits are also common 
in Japan, where the use of natural zeolites apparently is more 
advanced than in the United States The largest use of natural 
zeolites in Japan is in the paper industry where zeolites arc used 
as a filler Other uses include agricultural applications, and ad- 
sorption and water treatment priK-csses 

Since the cation exchange capacity of the zeolites is higher 
than that of any other mineral, there has been some use of 
zeolites as ion exchangers. It is probable that this use will be 
more important in the future, particularily for natural zeolites, 
because of their high and selective cation exchange capacity. 

Two applications are especially promising: ( I ) the use of the 
specific zeolite clinoptilolite in decontamination of cesium-bear- 
ing waste matenals and (2) the use of zeolites in water pollution 
control. Clinoptilolite is selective for the removal of radioactive 
cesium and strontium from low-level waste streams of nuclear 
installations. After removal the ions may be stored indefinitely 
in the zeolite or they may be removed by chemical means. 

The efficient removal of ammonia from sewage effluent by 
zeolites has been demonstrated at several locations in the United 
States. Because of their nonselective action, the use of conven- 
tional ion exchangers to remove ammonia from sewage plant 
cfTluent is prohibitive in cost. Clinoptilolite has been used in 
sewage treatment plants because of its high cation exchange 
capacity for ammonia and potential low cost. The water reclama- 
tion plant of the Tahoe-Truckee Sanitation Agency, for example, 
treats 4.8 million gallons of sewage a day from communities on 
the north and west shores of Lake Tahoe and along the Truckee 
River corridor from Lake Tahoe to Truckee, California by cli- 
noptilolite ion exchange to reduce the elTluent ammonia level to 
less than 2 ppm (Mumpton, 1983a). (The clinoptilolite is from 
Death Valley Junction, California.) The removal of ammonia, 
which can be toxic to fish and other aquatic life and can cause 
explosive growth of algae and consequent oxygen depletion in 
water (Papke, l*'72), is a growing concern in many areas. Other 
common zeolites, such as erionite, chabazite, and mordenitc. 
also have the ability to selectively exchange ammonia. 

Because of their relatively low cost as compared to synthetic 
zeolites, natural zeolites have also been utilized in industrial and 
agricultural applications. Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite and 
mordenitc) are mined by over a dozen companies in Japan. The 
largest use of natural zeolites in Japan is in the paper industry 
where the zeolite ore is characterized by a high degree of white- 
nevs, which is imp<irtant for its use as a paper filler. The next 
largest use of natural zeolites in Japan is as a soil conditioner. 
The pulverized zeolite is mixed in the soil to make it more 
workable and. because of the high cation exchange capacity of 
the zeolite, to ads<irb ferlili/er comp<iunds and prevent their 
leaching from the soil In the late 1'>6(X mined zeolite began to 
he added to the feed of swinc and poultry in Japan with rep<irtcd 
increa.sc in feed -con version values and in Ihe general health of 
the animals. 

In the United States there has been a significant interest in the 
use of natural zeolites in the field of agriculture and aquaculture. 
In 1*^82 a conference on the use of natural zeolites in agriculture 
and aquaculture held in Rochester, New York brought together 



researchers from many disciplines to exchange ideas and knowl- 
edge about the potential use of natural zeoliltes in the applied 
fields of agriculture and aquaculture. Some of the uses of natural 
zeolites discussed at this conference (Pond and Mumpton, 1984) 
include: as a slow-release fertilizer; as carriers of herbicides, 
fungicides, and insecticides, as possible traps for heavy metal 
contaminants in soil amended with municipal sewage sludge; as 
decaking agents for fertilizer and feed storage; as additives to the 
normal feed of swine, poultry, and ruminants to deodonze and 
increase nutrient content of animal excrement; and to remove 
toxic concentrations of ammonia from aquacultural systems. 
The development of solar-refngeration units using certain zeo- 
lites was also discussed. Zeolites arc also used as construction 
materials. 

Massive zeolite-nch rock has been used as building block and 
decorative rock. Natural zeolites are used as lightweight aggre- 
gate and in pozzolanic cement and concrete. Other uses include 
oil-spill cleanup and oxygen production. 

ECONOMICS 

A ready market does not yet exist for natural zeolites although 
natural zeolites have been mined and sold since about I960 in the 
United States. As with many industrial minerals, the prospective 
producer of natural zeolites might have to develop a market for 

the product. 

Natural zeolites can be mined and processed at low cost com- 
pared to synthetic zeolites. In high-value applications such as 
catalysis where the natural zeolite would have to compete with 
synthetic zeolites, a relatively pure product with uniform chemi- 
cal and physical properties would have to be produced. This 
could be difficult and costly because of the great vanations in 
zeolite mineralogy, content, and physical properties within a 
zeolite deposit. Natural zeolites used in ion exchangers do not 
require a relatively pure product but require selective mining to 
keep the zeolite-content uniform, and special processing so that 
the final product meets the required grain size. Because natural 
zeolites used in agriculture and construction are high-bulk 
products with a low unit value, it is important that costs of 
mining, and necessary processing, and transjKirtation of the 
product to the market be taken into account when considering 
the development of a deposit. 

LABORATORY STUDY OF ZEOLITES 

All samples of altered luff collected in the field were examined 
by x-ray diffraction using nickel-filtered copper radiation The 
samples were powdered and placed on a gla-ss slide coated with 
silicon grease An x-ray difTraction pattern was run from 4" to 
60° at a rate of 1' 2-theta per minute The x-ray diffraction 
pattern was compared with a series of templates showing the 
x-ray diffraction patterns of clinoptilolite. mordenite. phillipsite. 
enonite. analcimc. chabazite. p<itas.sium feldspar, opal, quartz, 
and cnstobalite. A rough estimate of the relative abundance of 
the zeolites was made using peak intensities as recorded by the 
x-ray diffraction pattern. 

Several samples were examined with the optical microscope 
using finely ptiwdcrcd material immersed in oils of known refrac- 
tive index Because of the extremely fine grain size of the zeolite 
minerals, the optical microscope was used pnmanly to identify 
minerals avsociated with the zetilitcs. Thin sections of zeolite 
samples were not prepared for this preliminary study of zeolites. 

The scanning electron microscope is especially gixxl for the 
study of the size and shape of zeolite minerals. About 2$ samples 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



were examined with the scanning electron microscope and scan- 
ning electron micrographs were prepared for several samples in 
the San Francisco laboratory of the U.S. Customs Service. The 
zeolite samples were coated with a gold-palladium mixture with 
a Technics Hummer V Sputter Coater and examined with a 
Cambridge Stereoscan 150 scanning electron microscope. 

FIELD DESCRIPTION OF ALTERED TUFFS 

Most of the zeolite-rich beds are more resistant to erosion than 
the country rock. In some places such a bed forms the crest of a 
low ridge (see Photo 6) and is the only rock exposed on the ridge. 
Most of the zeolite-rich beds produce an erosion-resistant float 
(see Photo 26), often with a distinctive color such as white, pale 
gray, pink, green, or tan, which gives a distinctive color to the 
surrounding ground and a white, pink, green, or tan color to 
the entire zone of zeolitization. The altered tuffs or tuff breccias 
being more resistant to erosion often form bluffs or hogbacks 
(see Photos 10, 30 and 33), some of which can be traced for 
a considerable distance. Sedimentary structures such as 
crossbedding, ripple marks, and slump bedding are visible in 
the altered tuffs. 

Altered tuff is easily distinguished from fresh tuff in the field. 
The altered tuff has a conchoidal fracture, greater hardness, and 
a dull earthy luster rather than a glassy luster. Rock fragments and 
mineral crystals such as quartz, feldspar, biotite, and hornblende 
that were part of the original tuff remain unaltered in the zeolitized 
tuff. Exposures of zeolitized tuff have a blocky appearance re- 
sulting from numerous intersecting fractures. Individual frag- 
ments are often nearly equidimensional with sharp edges. Slopes 
below exposures of zeolitized tuff or low ridges underlain by zeo- 
litized tuff are covered with small ('/:" to 2") sharp-edged frag- 
ments (Photo 6). Fragments of zeolitized tuff have a peculiar dull, 
hollow rattle when several pieces are shaken together like dice. 
Silicified tuff on the other hand has a very different sound when 
fragments are shaken together. Unfortunately there is no foolproof 
method of recognizing zeolitized tuffs in the field but familiarity 
with different exposures of zeolitized tuff increases the reliability 
of field identification. Laboratory examination of suspected zeo- 
lite-bearing tuffs, preferably by x-ray diffraction, is the final test 
as to presence of zeolites and the most reliable way to identify the 
zeolite or zeolites present. 



CALIFORNIA ZEOLITE DEPOSITS 

Geologic Occurrences 

Based upon their mode of occurrences, mineralogical compo- 
sition, and geological origin, zeolite deposits in sedimentary 
rocks may be grouped into six different groups or types (Mump- 
ton, 1973): 

Type 1. Deposits which formed from volcanic material in 
"closed" systems of ancient lakes and present-day 
saline lakes. 

Type 2. Deposits which formed from volcanic material in 
"open" systems of fresh-water lakes or groundwater 
systems. 

Type 3. Deposits which formed from volcanic material in 
near-shore or deep-sea marine environments. 

Type 4. Deposits formed by low-grade burial metamorphism 
of volcanic and other material in thick sedimentary 
sequences. 

Type 5. Deposits formed by hydrothermal or hot spring activ- 
ity. 



Type 6. Deposits formed in lacustrine or marine environ- 
ments without direct evidence of volcanic precursor 
material. 

Many of the known California zeolite deposits are formed 
from volcanic deposits in closed hydrologic basins (type 1). 
Such deposits generally result from the reaction of volcanic glass 
with connate water trapped during sedimentation in saline, alka- 
line lakes. The zeolite minerals commonly found in saline alka- 
line lake deposits are analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite. erionite, 
mordenite, and phillipsite. The most distinguishing feature of the 
closed-system, saline-lake zeolite deposits is the lateral zonation 
of minerals. Other types of deposits commonly show a vertical 
mineral zonation. The tuffs of Pleistocene Lake Tecopa exem- 
plify the lateral zonation pattern (Sheppard and Gude, 1968). 
Fresh glass occurs along the margin and at inlets of the ancient 
lake. The glass is succeeded inwardly by a zone of zeolites and 
in the central part of the lake by potassium feldspar. The zeolites 
in the Lake Tecopa deposit are chiefly phillipsite, erionite, and 
clinoptilolite. A similar lateral distribution pattern has been 
recognized in the Miocene Barstow Formation (Sheppard and 
Gude, 1969a). A zone of analcime separates the other zeolites 
found in the Barstow Formation from a zone of potassium 
feldspar. 

The Ricardo Formation (Pliocene) exposed in the Last 
Chance Canyon area in the El Paso Mountains of eastern Kern 
County is an example of open-system-type zoning (type 2) in 
younger nonmarine sediments. Here, the beds have been tilted, 
yet the contact between fresh and zeolite tuff is nearly horizon- 
tal, showing that alteration occurred after tilting. Clinoptilolite 
is the only zeolite in this sequence, and it is associated with 
variable amounts of montmorillonite and opal (Hay and Shep- 
pard, 1977). In this type of deposit, alteration of tuffaceous 
sediments to zeolites was by flowing or percolating groundwater 
which was chemically modified by hydrolysis or dissolution of 
vitric materials. Meteoric water entering the system moves either 
downward or with a downward component; hence, the zeolitic 
alteration zones are either horizontal or gently inclined (Hay 
and Sheppard, 1977). 

Two types of zeolite deposits are found in California in low- 
grade metamorphic rocks. They occur in two types of terrains: 
(1) hydrothermal, and (2) burial. Hydrothermal occurrences 
include active and fossil geothermal systems and rocks hydro- 
thermally altered by igneous intrusion (type 5). Zeolites devel- 
oped on a regional scale in thick stratigraphic sections are 
usually attributed to burial metamorphism (type 4) (Boles, 
1977). In surface outcrops, mordenite, stilbite, heulandite, and 
laumontite have been identified in Miocene sandstones and tuffs 
of the Coast Ranges. Mordenite is associated with clinoptilolite 
as a replacement of volcanic glass in tuffs of the marine Obispo 
Formation (Surdam and Hall, 1968), and in marine volcanogen- 
ic sandstone of the Briones Sandstone (Murata and Whiteley, 
1973). Many of the zeolitized tuffs of the Obispo Formation are 
in beds, someof which are over 100 feet thick, consisting of more 
than 75 percent mordenite (Surdam and Hall, 1968). 

Zeolites (type 5) are reported (Hay and Sheppard, 1977) to be 
widespread in areas of hydrothermal alteration and may exhibit a 
well-defined zonation. Clinoptilolite or mordenite characterize the 
shallowest or coolest zones; progressively deeper zones commonly 
contain analcime or heulandite. laumontite, and wairakite. Several 
California zeolites may have been formed by hydrothermal alter- 
ation of tuffs or by alteration of tuffs near hot spring areas. Rhyol- 
ilic tuffs and pumice in the vicinity of the hot springs on Hot Creek 
about five miles east of Casa Diablo Hot Springs in Mono County 
have been altered to clinoptilolite and phillipsite by hot spring 
activity. 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Other reported occurrences of zeolites in low-grade meta- 
morphic rocks include an area of alteration of the Great Valley 
sequence with the formation of laumonlitc as a replacement of 
plagioclase in the lower part of a thick section exposed near 
Cache Creek (Dickinson and others, 1969). Several other zeo- 
lite occurrences have been reported from subsurface cores in 
Tertiary rocks. These include laumontite in Eocene- Miocene 
sandstone of the Tejon area and in Miocene volcanogenic sand- 
stone from Ketlleman North Dome (Hay. 1977). 

Other types of zeolite deposits in sedimentary rocks may be 
present in California, but insufTicient data is available to classify 
the deposits. 

Descriptions of Individual Deposits 

INYO COUNTY 

Zeolites have been reported from several localities in Inyo 
County. These include: altered tuff deposits of Pleistocene Lake 
Tecopa. south of Shoshone; altered luff deposits on the lower 
north and northwestern slopes of the Resting Spring Range, east 
of Death Valley Junction (Ash Meadows); Waucoba Lake bed 
deposits, east of Big Pine; lake bed deposits at Owens Lake; and, 
altered tuff in the Furnace Creek Formation, east side of Death 
Valley. 

TuH deposits of Pleistocene Lake Tecopa. 

The Pleistocene Lake Tecopa deposits consist chiefly of mud- 
stone and interbedded rhyolilic viiric tuffs that interfinger mar- 
ginward with coarser clastic sediments (Sheppard and Gude, 
1968). The deposits of Lake Tecopa extend about 14 miles in a 
north-south direction and about 1 1 miles in an east-west direc- 
tion. The towns of Shoshone and Tecopa lie near the north and 
south ends of the lake deposits, respectively. The tuff (ash) beds 
within the lake deposits of Lake Tecopa on the western half of 
the lake bed have been delineated by Chesterman ( 1973). Dur- 
ing diagenesis, zeolites, potassium feldspar, and other authigenic 
silicate minerals formed in the tuffs. The zeolites are mainly 
phillipsite. clinoplilolite, erionite. and minor amounts of analcite 
and chabazite. A study of the Lake Tecopa deposits by Sheppard 
and Gude ( 1968) indicates that the fresh-glass facies is along the 



lake margin and is succeeded basinward by the zeolite facies and 
then by the potassium feldspar in the central part of the t>asin 
(see Figure I; Photos 1.2) 

During the study, 12 tuffs, which make up from 8-12 percent 
of the section, were recognized, but only two could be traced 
from the fresh-glass facies, through the zeolite facies and into the 
potassium feldspar facies. The two marker tuffs were used to 
delineate the extent and general configuration of the tuff beds. 
According to Sheppard and Gude ( 1968), tuffs of the fresh-glass 
facies are typically pale gray and friable; shards have a distinct 
vitreous luster. 

Altered tuffs generally are white or pastel shades of green, \-el- 
low. orange, or brown, relatively hard, and dull or earthy Unlike 
tuffs of the fresh-gla.ss facies. altered tuffs are resistant and ledge- 
forming. 

During the present study, samples of altered tuff were collect- 
ed from a number of sites including the Pfizer bentonitic clay 
deposits near the southwestern end of the lake deposits. Sample 
colors were white, tan, and various shades of green. Phillipsite 
and clinoplilolite were the only zeolite minerals identified in the 
samples. The luff beds are nearly flat-lying or dip at a low angle 
toward the center of this basin. Contortion of the beds by slump- 
ing during consolidation of the ash is common. Swirls of green 
zeolitized tuff in unaltered tuff were noted at several locations. 
Figure 1 is an index map showing the sample locations. A brief 
description of the four sample locations is given in Table 3-A. 

Death Valley Junction (Ash Meadows) area. 

A large deposit of zeolite-bearing tuff occurs about five miles 
east of Death Valley Junction and one mile west of the Califor- 
nia-Nevada border in NE ', NW ', NW ■, section 15. T.25N., 
R.6E., SBBM. This deposit lies within a sequence of Tertiary 
rocks underlying the low rolling hills on the lower slopes of the 
north and northwestern end of the Resting Spring Range and 
largely concealed beneath younger formations. These rocks were 
mapped by Denny and Drewes (1965) and placed in a "sand- 
stone and claystone" unit of possible Oligocene to Pluvene age. 
The rocks consist of moderate brown to very light gray, locally 
yellow or green sandstone and claystone, with subordinate 




Pholo I. Sconning electron micrograph of ollered tuff contoining 
phillipiile. Pleitlocene Lake Tecopo lacuitrine depoiitt. Sample 
site 96. Sample A. 




Pholo 2. Sconnmg electron microgroph of altered tuff contoining 
philliptile. Pleitlocene lake Tecopa lacuitrine deposits. Sampi* 
lite 97, Somple B. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



R.6E. 



R.7E. 




T22N. 



T21N 



T.20N. 



Topography from U S G S 
Shoshone and Tecopa 15' 
quadrangles 

Figure 1. Index map of the Shoshone orco, Inyo County, showing the location of the Pfizer zeolite quarry and the zeolite sample locations 
(dots) . Dashed lines indicate the approximate shoreline of Lake Tecopa and the boundories between the three diagenetic fades for Tuff A 
of Sheppard and Gude (1968). 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



-e 

o 

E 



.5 



o 
E 

3 

c 

O 
1 



o 
o 






c 
o 






« 



I 

Q 
.0 



.9. 



5 



I 

o 



o 



o^ 



hA 



S o 

-= w 

O " 

X o 

a ^ 

u O g 

f> 9 o 



= o ^ 



g 8 S 

Sis 

< o E 

•00 

o. c ^ 

E i a 



^ ■= a > 

° i i i 

2 ^ - - 

^ o o r 



iS 



a E ^ c 
i «« E i 



i O S 

Jl g " 

E ^ 



" z 

a. >- 
E ~ 



o o 



11 



■£ Z 



!1 

o s 



-DO? 
O « O 

a 2 -o 
ago 
e -o _ 
- e o 



■/I 



j: o 



Z o 

o a. 

£ i 

o 2 

J I 



o £S: 



JC l>^ CD 



Q, 0> 

E o 



c 00 -= 

xo- E 
£ — ° 



wt 9 u C 



f: » 



V i "o «« 
^ = e o 
o O ^ ^ 



lis 

i"s - 
=u i ■» 

1 ' a 



« c c 
> o s 

o ai 
.= E o, 
< 2 E 
41 ^ t> 
■5. ° :£ 
E ■!: o 
00; 
(/> a. > 



c _ 

2 " . ^ 
c j: • E 



■ S j: -3 
-£ <?> Q- o> 

E «> E S 

u > o ^ 

« — u - 

0> _ -D •£ 

* -c c ,E 

.5>— -n -« 

- •£ « ? 

° * .£ S 



- 2 f"? 

E « J ? 
° — a 



E ■: 



o c 



» E o 

J S-o 
o .£ . 

Sol 

• CO 

i E ° 

•« n k. 
•J C O 

Joe 

= S'i 
< S g 



O TJ c 

.. O O 

• "^ x; 

^1 g 



-£ ? 
^ g 



a. ^ 

• c 



Q. O - 

0-0 § 

J ti O 

V 5 E 

° E s 

1 2 1 

o • E 

E o -o 

o •■ c 



9 

O J 

E o 



g » • c o 



7l 

C 3 



E E Q. £ 



2 — o "S 



O • TT 2 • 



i " a-D 

o S — = 

c ■£ ^ ° 

O iM ^ « 

" o - ^ 

- S 3 o 

^ *» o — 

■n i E Q. 

■D » o p I 



S o 



S = r = 

ii o 5-:: 

o »- \= E o 



o « 



E * E - E 

O * O g "D 

^ X . O = 

o fr- o -c o 

o .; o c • 

E £ F * - 

^ 1= t t, •» 



E Ji 

^ a 

1 ?-s . 

^io g 
ill" 

^< °1 

-S E = 
o o c 2 

«* O u O 



1.1 

o E 

= -D 
S g 



c o. 
o = 






S H -o « 



"o -2 



7 ■= "D y 

o||| 
o * © ~ 

_. O T3 C 

2 - -D O 

— = • c 

a » -D - 

E * •'2 
o 01-? S 



»— O 3 O 



— .; O" 



■5 O 

^1 



E "O e o 



^ ^ S 3 — 



5 " i 
2 E 



■o _ £ 

n O O 



2 ;£ ^ ; 



1 E 
9 o 



a 3 - 

E ~ -€ 

O "D J 

' S - 

• £ E 



s 



fe ^ - ^ ° 

S tt £ > ■^ 

O O ^ .= O 

- — „ V t) 

• 5 £ o — 

E = o 5. < 



: O i: J: 2^ 

3 ?, <^ ~ a. 

: ^ " ■ c o 

— >^ E " c 



J! E 




^ o 

I!- 



E i 



E ^^ 

c _ n 



9- « « 

111 
a. i/> « 



_« « » 

a. E o 

E ° - 

g *" S 

•"of 

— S 3 

■2-S-: 



» • s 

_o 3 o 
"S "S 



■S -o E 

E g E 

? ^o ' - 

■" £ • 

.? ti c 5 

-I > 3 a 



_ c £ 

— o - 

n ' o 
L 9- "O Q. 

E = • 
3 o -o 

'i ' -o 

D t> c 

a. « o 

■" -n 
• 5 -D ^ 



o .: a 

— o c 
-co 



i-o ^ 



° : 5 
2 9 I 



9 I3S |< 



o a 

E £ 



£ "O 
E 2 



. 



c — 

6 " 



'- "S3 = 
o -o i i 

> C -n O 

' o ; c 

. o -o * - 
* E *■ — -C 



o o 
E 



.E «/) a a. 



>7 

5 i 

* to 

«/> 

c « 

1 tt 

u 



11 I 

5 y -s 






£ , 
a - 

Js Z 



>^ . 

e" 
i z 

1:- 




O UJ 

-6 z 

« I- 



s 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



.0 

I 

i 



i 

i 

« 

5 



I 

u 

c 



.5 






W| 

I 



J) 

I 

D 



S- 






■a 

pi 

■o 



.9. 



•4 





o 



O 



05 



<o ^ 



o _i 






"5. i 

E S 



II 



V -o 



■•- _0 (U o> - 



4) 3 i~ O C 



E ■" 

Q. 4) 



11 



.E o ;r 

E V 3 

111 

o S; ° 

-c u 



» E 



O £1' 



O .2' c 

> o — ii 

I — — -o 

° 3 5 



o 

E 

Q. 4) 

c 
u •- 

'5> " 

o 'O 



o 







_ o 



















V > 


-? 




J, Z 






E .£ 


x' 




.^^ 


? 




S -° 


Z 




P- ° 


\' 


s 


J! "D 






tn > 


< 


o 


;=l 


z 


s 



■o :£ 


0) 


T) 


Z> 


O 








01 








II 

u o 




D 
O 

-c 


u 

lij 

1— 


.9 
a 




a> 




< 


o 




O ^ 


ri 


'* 


o 


-D 

o 




>^ « 




o 


O) 


o 








F 


o 

E 














osed prin 
slightly 
from Ne 


o 

u 

o 


o 

CL 
41 

-o 
'r 


c 
o 


t 



o 
5! 


c 
o 

D 


Q.-£ 4» 


-n 




4) 


3 


pie com 
biy wi 
n samp 


a; 


h 










o 









Sum 
poss 
gree 


5 




3 


0) 

c 

UJ 


o 



o ai 



^ E o X 

o E £ J 

i ^ I = 

* =6 i 

2 o - 



pi-S * 






O — c -i! 

u o c ■- 

5 Q. E > 

> o * 






o -a 

= 4) 



E ro_ 



-o '.€ t ^'Ji 



> >^ o ■ 



>^ « 0) 



5 8 



<U O 

.c *■ 

■*" 4) in 

c = -o 

■ - 4> O^ 

.t: o _ 

>£ . 

-= o J 



- a Q 



E "g 



0) to 

^ CN - 
1.1- 

11 



.£ o 
Tj a. 

I' 

s ° 



o 

I "2 i> 



2 o 



j: a 

H 

•^ o 
■^ 01 

S -I . 

OJ — a> 

■£ flj o 
OS? 



S! 
? 



5 

z 

OQ 

!" at 
Z 1/) 






10 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 






41 



K^ 



■*-:*•.■ 



,#'•»► 



-A 



Other reported Inyo County deposits. 
Early Pleistocene Waucoba Lake beds. 

These dept)Mis are on the lower slopes of ihc Inyo Mouniains 
east of Big Pine, and consist largely of sillslone ami sandstone 
about 24U to 3U0 feet thick. Interbcdded within the silLstone and 
sandstone are about a do/en rhyolite tuff beds half an inch to a 
foot thick that have been altered almost entirely to phillipsitc and 
a minor amount of clinoptilolite (Hay. 1964). The zeoliTrred tuff 
beds are reported by Hay ( 1964) to extend southwesterly from the 
NE '/4 SW % section 7. T.9S.. R.35E.. MDBM to the southeast 
corner of section 12. T9S.. R.34E . MDBM. 

At present the area is highly dissected with many siccp-sided 
gullies making it extremely difficult to traverse. Two attempts 



Photo 3. Stockpiles and open pit workings of Anaconda Mining 
Company's zeolite operation eost of Death Valley Junction. Open 
pit and stockpiles ore in Colifornia. View west. 



amounts of conglomerate, siltstone. tuff, and limestone. The.se 
rocks were deposited both as alluvial fans and as lake sediments 
(Denny and Drewcs. 1965). The deposits have been developed by 
an open pit about 1.000 feel long in an east-west direction, over 
100 feel wide (north-south) and 7>Q to 40 feet deep. Several large 
sttKkpiles of crushed and screened zeolite-bearing tuff are located 
just north of the pit. Exposed, altered tuff beds strike nearly north- 
south and dip 25° to the east. A sample of pale yellowish, altered 
lapilli luff collected at this site (field site no. 95) consists princi- 
pally of clinoptilolite. Similar yellowish-white, zeolite-bearing 
tuff is exposed on the pit walls and on the pit floor. This pit has 
been operated intermittently by Anaconda Mineral Corporation 
(Photos 3. 4). Anaconda has another zeolite deposit located in 
Nevada about three miles northeast of the California deposit. That 
zeolite-bearing tuff is green and is reported to have a lower zeolite 
content than their California deposit. In October 19S3. Anaconda 
had a portable crushing and screening plant at the old Ash 
Mcadt)ws "Rancho" a few miles cast of the California border. 
This plant was used for processing material from both of their 
deposits. The sample locations are shown in Figures 2 and 3. 
and Table 3-B gives a description t)f the sample locations and the 
samples. 




■^'*^- 



1 



Photo 4. Stockpile area and norlti end ot Anaconda Mining Com- 
pany's zeolite operation eost ol Death Valley Junction. View north- 
west. 



T25N 



i 


26 94 

• 

.1 


• 

95 



T18S 



T19S 



Topograptiy Irom U S G S R 6E 
Asli Meadows 15 quadrangle 

Scale 1 62.500 



1 IMilas 

_l 



Contour interval 40 Feet 

Figure 2. Index mop o< o port of the SE '^ o< the Ash Meadows 
15 quadrangle, Inyo County and Nevodo, showing zeolite sample 
locations (dots) . 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



II 



R.50E. 



R.51E. 




■Tsc 



!??^ 



\.-^ 



\^ 



■^-^ft«' 




_^ .— -^J / 

-^ ''-^--f 11 



QTf ' ■■c^/' 



/ 



^.on|^^> 






o^ 






C>5> ^ - ^ 



C 






Tsc- 






V 

QTf \ 



N 




22- 



e 






T19S. 



I 



Qgs 



/ 









y 

/ 



Tsc 



^ 



^^ ( 'Jj ( (j-i|-: f f/{.; 



Topography from U.S.G S. 
Ash Meadows 15' quadrangle 



3 ! Y'^^Lr^klh 



T25N 



Geology after Denny and 
Drewes, 1965 



Scale 1 :62,500 



I 



1 Miles 

_1 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 



EXPLANATION 



Qgs 



Alluvial fan deposits (sand and gravel 
with areas of desert pavement) 



Tsc 



Sandstone and claystone with zeoli- 
tized tuff 



QTf 



Tertiary and Quaternary fanglomerate 



Cambrian quartzlte, limestone and 
dolomite 



95 



•^ Zeolite sample site 



Figure 3. Sketch geologic map of the SE '/, of the Ash Meadows 15' quadrangle, Inyo County, showing the location of zeolite deposits 
(dots) and areas favorable for other zeolite deposits (Tsc). 



12 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



were made dunng ihis study lo collect zailile-bcaring tuff from 
this area Zeolites were not identiried in either sample collected 
from this site (Sample site 14, 122). The area examined is in the 
Waucoba Mountain 15' quadrangle in the SE '. section 7, T.9S., 
R35E . MDBM 

Furnace Creek Formatiort. 

The Furnace Creek Formalion of Pliocene age consists of 
about 7.000 feet of sedimentary' rocks including some interlay- 
ercd and intrusive volcanic rock most of which are basaltic. 
Lacustrine mudstone and sandstone are prevalent in the main 
part of the Furnace Creek Formation. According to McAllister 
( 1<J70). a few beds of tuff, limestone, and minor dolomite, along 
with some conglomeratic or gypsiferous beds that are not distin- 
guished from the main unit, are interst ratified with the mudstone 
and sandstone. The tuff, in extensive beds as much as two feet 
thick, but mostly a few inches thick, lacks calcite and is generally 
altered to clinoptilohte. A conspicuous color of the tuff is very 
pale blue-green, but most of the tuff is very light gray tinged 
pinkish or yellowish or nearly w hite. No specific location for the 
zeoliiized tuff is cited by McAllister, but Sheppard ( 1971 ) gives 
section 2. T.26N.. R.2E., SBBM as the location of a deposit of 
possible economic significance. This deposit was not examined 
during the present study. 

KERN COUNTY 

Zeolite-bearing tuff has been reported from several Tertiary- 
age formations in Kern County. These include the Gem Hill 
Formation in the Rosamond Hills south of Mojave, the Kinnick 
Formation near Tehachapi, the Ricardo Formation in the El 
Paso Mountains, and the lower part of the Tropico Group near 
Castle Butte. 

Gem Hill Formatiort. 

The Gem Hill Formation of Miocene (?) age consists of a 
light-colored sequence of rhyolitic lithic tuff, tuff breccia, tufTa- 
ceous sandstone, conglomerate, and associated volcanic rocks 
that form the lower part of the Tropico Group in the Rosamond 
Hills (Dibblee, 1%3). 



R 12W 





HON 



T9N 



Topography trom U S G S 
Rosamond 15 quadrangle 



Scale 1:62.500 



I 



1 Miles 

J 



Photo 5. Expoiure of zeoliiized luff of the Gem Hill Formation in 
o gully obout 1 mile south of Gem Hill. 



Contour Interval 1 00 Feel 

Figure 4. Index mop of the Gem Hill oreo, eastern Kem County 
showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 

The Gem Hill Formation crops out in a nearly continuous bell 
that extends from Gem Hill near the west end of the Rosamond 
Hills, southeastward nearly eight miles to Red Hill Other isolated 
outcrops of the formation are within the area The Gem Hill R>r- 
mution erodes to conspicuous light-colored exposures that are gen- 
erally smooth and almost devoid of vegetation In places, the 
formation contains thin. hard, resistant layers that protrude as thin 
ledges. Samples were collected from near Gem Hill and from two 
other sites — one about 1 '/< miles south of Gem Hill and the other 
about I ''4 miles southeast of Gem Hill (Photos 5. 61. The samples 
collected consist of tannish-white tuff, lapilli tuff, and tuff brec- 
cia Zeolites arc present in samples from all three sites Clinop- 
lilolitc is the principal /colilc mineral; mordcnite is present as a 
minor constituent ,\ sample from a low. rounded ridge in the 
northwest quarter of section I. T 9N . R 1.1W.. MDBM. from a 
bed at least 50 feet thick contains over 50 percent clinoptilohte 
and mordcnite Other parts of this deposit are accessible but were 
not sampled for this invvstigalion Figure 4 is an index map of the 
area showing the sample liKations and Table 4-,'\ is a description 
of the sample sites and samples collected from the Gem Hill 
i-ormation 

Kinnick Formation. 

The Kinnick Formation of Miocene age is composed mainly 
of bedded while to greenish-whitc tuff. lufTacetius sandstone, and 
luff breccia that contain numerous fragments of andesitc and 
lival inlcrhcds of lacustrine luffacetius or hcntonitic clay and 
tuffacetius shale that are livally siliceous (Dibblee and Louke. 
1970). During the study of a Fuller's canh deposit by Kerr and 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



13 



o 
E 

3 



c 



.0 



o 



Q 




g 


lO 






i 


Q. 


. 


E 







-C 


>y^ 






i-- 


o 


4) 


fe 










1 





«« 


4) 


^O' 


o 


Q 




F 















c 













c 




.p 





S 6 

■0 ■■=: 

O p 

o 5 



I.? I 



— 




i= 


a 










E 


o 


■^ 




•^ 




4) 


a 






trt 












r 




c 












o 




u 




u 




£.9 






<A 












O 

c 
o 

u 






c 
o 




II 






CD 




O j^ 


4) 


^ 


<ii 


C 


S 2 
o i 


a. 

E 


:d 


1 


^ 


.« 


o 




o 


^ s- 



5. E 

E -D : 






tn O D> O 



-Q 
S 

E 



O — 

^■5 



? > 





< 


E 
o 








■^ 




o 


a. 


0) 


V 




b 







^ S 



J J 





c 




E 




Q. 
0) 


~ D 


D 


■a 


— '> 


o 




r 


03 


m J. 




•y -n 




4) 


"5. S 


« 


a i> 


c 
5 




F 


^ m 




E >^ 


o> 


o 1 


c 


.9-5 





^ E o 

o o ^ 

-= c w 





^ 


9 






-o 


o 






0) 







4) 


0) 




V 




(U 




h 








F 






O 


CL 




_g 


o 


-^ 




c 


43 












4) 






^ 








.!£ 


3 






h- 


o 




o 




E 
o 




a 




o 


43 




CO 


"o 

Q. 
O 

O 


"5 




* 

4) 

a 


* — : 




0) 
Q. 

e 

o 
(/I 


Q. 

4) 




E 
o 

4> 

1— 


1 g 
















z 

o 










o 
• 





i^ 




^ 




t/> 




i^ 


? 


? 


CD 


irt 


t/) 


j:; 


^ 


5 


r> 


z 


ae 



:^ 5 



D to 
O — 
S -D 

c 
"D O 
-S i 



a o 

E ~ 



4) >^ 
^ O 



-a o 

Si 
■o S 



Ol o £ 



e 2 



_ d) 

S E 

OJ o 

c to 

£ K . 

■a "^ -D 






^ ■" E . 

1 -S S ' 

i -o ^ ; 
o ^ ►- . 

O -D 5 ' 
c t to . 

^ Ol ■- 

a, a*3 1 
-^ Q. *- 

2 T) 4) 

si- 

* ^ c 

> o - 

^•"01 

Q-"o .£ 

E ^ TJ 

O 4) "D 

1/1 ■- 41 

v^ 4) ^ 

IE >" — 
I- o o 



,E D 

E 5> 



E S 

2 > 
^ o 



Z ° 

O _43 



CN 


-a 




4> 


5 

z 






U> 


i^ 




:^ 


o 




UJ 


1^ 

c 


o 


to 


o 


rr 




. ? 


c 




!B 


^ to 


o 




UJ to 


5: 


-o 


--'^ 


O 


o 
E 
o 


C QC 

o : 
" Z 


Ui •" 
Z c^ 


"6 


o 





s S? 



E o 



is E 
— o 
u o to 

_k: "D "O 

e o o -g 



>- £ E ^ 

**■ Ol (u 



'8-.?:! 5 

- E < -= 
g °-£ S 
^ S E g 



4) O 












O D.-D 

ail 



E - 
a. □ 



a 0) 

^ E 

.^ 01 



o o 2 -5 



^ >% 



-2 c "5 i 

O o c o 



E - 






— a " 

3 O 4> 

"En 



° E -S, ■ 

E TJ ?^ 



a 


— 


=; 




D 


n 


n 




-o 


t 


O) 




43 
43 


"O 

c 


-D 

03 




















>. 


J2 


o 




O 


c 


-D 




O) 


E 


03 












n 


o 






a. 


'^ 


Ol 




43 




4) 


i 






^ 


43 



^ ^ -£^ 



E ^ -D :° ^ 



2 — •= 



S -^ -D 



a o 
"? E 



4, 5 - = - 



43 U OJ C 

~ -^ -B' 

•rt *- *^ T3 

— S " ° 

o — « a 



4> ■ I ^ 

* <i 4) ^ 

^ ^ J> B 

■2-sl-2 

_>■ _03 Q ■^ 



."^ Ol O J3 1= 



c-s o i 

C 0> 43 O 



E ^ -? £ 



i: zo i 



^ 03 

«- -IT 

D *- 

r E 



Ol « 

c •« 

o 

-5 i^ 

° UJ 

§■ z 

rs UJ £0 

= "S 

I ?^ 

S <y — 



o O 



-o 



Z 

Z (fi 
z <-> 



14 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 




R34E 



Photo 6. Zeolilized tuff of the Gem Hill Formation underlying o 
low ridge obout 1 '/^ miles southeast of Gem Hill. 




Photo 7. Exposure of zeolilized lu(f of the Kinnick Formation, 
northern Sand Canyon area. 





•»* 



'« 




Photo 8. Zeolitizcd tuH of the Kinnick Formation underlying the 
ridge in the foreground and the hill in the background. 







T31S 



T32S 



Topograpfiy (rem U S G S 
Tetiactiapi 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1 62.500 
5 



_L 



_L 



1 Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 100 Feel 

Figure 5. Index mop of the Sand Canyon area, eostem Kem Coun- 
ty, showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 



Cameron (1936) located five miles ea.si of Tchachapi, a zeolite 
identified as clinoptiloliie or heulandile wa.s found assiKialed with 
montmorillonite formed by alteration of vulcanic ash. This deposit 
lies within the Kinnick Formation. Clinopiiioliic-rich jxjz/olans 
were used in 1912 in the construction of the 240-milc long Los 
Angeles aqueduct. This material is still being quarried from a 
massive, /.eolitically altered ash-flow luff near Tehachapi b\ Mon- 
olith Portland Cement Company and is the principal constituent 
in their po//olaniccemeni priKluctsiMumpton. 1973) The quarry 
from which the altered luff was i.>blained lies within the Kinnick 
Formation (Photos 7-9). During the present study, samples were 
collected from three localities in the northern Sand Canyon area 
(mostly within a subdivision by the Sugarloaf Mountain Ranch 
Company). Clinoptilolite and mordenite were found in all samples 
collected A-olite content of the altered tuff is generally less 
than 50 percent The altered tuff occurs in beds up to over 100 
feet thick with a generally north-south strike and a dip to the 
south at I.** to 25 degrees. The tuff vanes in color from gray to 
green or bluish-green. Figure 5 is an index map of the Sand 
Canyon area showing the sample liKations. Figure 6 is a geo- 
logic map of an area which includes the sampled locations 
A description of the samples and sample sites is included in 
Table 4 B 

Ricardo Formation. 

The Ricardo Formation is well developed on the north-wcsl 
flank of the F"l Paso Mountains, extending from RcdriKk Can- 
yon northeast through l.ast Chance Canyon to the Black Hills. 
The Ricardo Formation of Pliocene age con.sisls mainly of fluvia- 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



15 




T.31S. 



T.32S. 



Topography from U.S.GS. 
Tehachapl 15' quadrangle 



Qa I Alluvium 



Tk 



Scale 1 :62,500 

EXPLANATION 

Miocene Kinnick Fm . 
(Zeolite-bearing in part) 



Geology simplified from Dibblee and Louke, 
1970 



gr granitic rocks 



Tv Tertiary volcanic rocks 



100 



I Ts I Tertiary sedimentary rocks fns Metasedlmentary rocks 
Zeolite sample site 



Figure 6. Geologic mop of a part of the NE'/^ of the Tehachapi 15' quadrangle showing zeolite sample locations (dots) and extent of the 
zeolite-fovoroble Kinnick Formation (Tk). 



16 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



1 

c 


!l 






« 


■JZ c 


< 


< 


o« 


^ O ti 


_*J 


• 


1 




E 
o 


e 

o 


.1 


"1^ 


o 





7 


.E ^ c 


J. 


t_ 




O £ 


o 


o 










e 




E 


E 




S i i 




«• 


3 
•< 


• S ^ 
-9-Z 9- 


« 


u 
«l 
a 






s ^ a 



< i 



o 

c 
a 



^ 



c 
.c 



o 

c 
o 



4; 

O 



c 

.0 

c 

t 

Q 



.0 




I » 

"S o 

o S 

E o 



: E « 
> 2 ^ 
i CO g 

; S ?• 

! E ? 

: i*^ 

i-o ° S 

: c '■ 
; O ■ 



-5 ^ 

o 2 

■~ O 

<J E 

• 2 

Q. O) 

E c 

O c 



J! e 



c 
_ - o 

III 

r..E « 

• 1^ 
c (^ ^ 

£ ° E 
o ^ T 



■D 

2 § 



- a 9 

O 3 — 



-2 i 

-o E 
S-o 
«> c 
^ o 

O J, 

s s 

-= s 
£ a 

S o 

JS "5 
S E 



E-* 



o> 



i 8 



o • g 



— j; « 

«| o ~ 

Q. E = 

E -D r 

o c £ 



» £ • 

X a E 

3 o a> 

. - — o 

= o ^ 

O u 

^ c *- 
o o c 

• E » 

.= 0)0 

■> — s 

£ 2 -E 

^.|-D 

s E • 

3 ^ 

* o • 

^ "- TJ 

a >^ e 

§|i 

bO E o 



"2 S 
E S. 



a^ 



< o 

± s 

a — 
E S 
o o 
in »- 



tr O 

■5 Q. - 

- o E 

Q.J S 



c O -t 

° E . 



'o i 



E o -= 
o E .? 

bO O "? 



s £"2 

Q. S o 



S _3 r 

o X ■£ 
^ o o 
5 c = 



3"" 

« O <> 

« « s 

■£ -c — 



§1:? 

o o « 

Is? 



Ill 



»P o " 

d. Q.-° 
X ^ ° 

y £ o 



o ^ — -t 

O = -D i 

5l|| 



— c c "* 
»- -n ■- 
Oi-D c -^ 

- S 2 O 



e g t: "2 

.2 J C tl 

c ' «» « 

E ^ E -o 

S = o. < 

_ -n P O 



- i -5 -5 
< o £ ° 
», -o E .S 



E 8*1 

-D _ O * J 
w -c — w 

1 * 1 »^ 

» "5 o 3: 

o * '5- 
c o o o 

° tj.j -S 

'-' • — o 
0-° E J 

*- -c j; o 

< 2 • < 






:= j; o 

* %-5. 

- • ? 

= c O 

_g o. g 

■0 — 
« c o ■ 

-c - S tl 

1 i ii 

•3 .0 -o o 

sill 

- 3 • ^ 



a E I i; 

E o> E E 

O O o 3 

I/) ^ o* a 



• E 



© w w - 
> o o 

2 "it. 

E ^ 9> 

2 2 S ■ 
— Z. o 
2 2.- 

J T) - 

c ^ • 

T3 - 3 

C "o O 

o £ c 

-" ~ ii 

u o 

TJ X 
•- • 3 
>^ C — 

1 §J 

E oi»- 



E -S 



o -^ 
c 5 



i. 

II 









s< 


ui 




s 






r) 






_£ 


ii a 


►- 


• 


i? 




Z ~ 


en « 

z . 


a 
c 


1 

3 
IT 


in 

si 


Z 


5?^^ 


fl 


z 


u,«| 




w *^ 




n 


1 


$ or 


z i 


? 


?- 


1 




IS 


1 


Ss 




I/) t- 


u « 


»- 


t/> ^ 



8 



8 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



17 



117°55W 




35°25'N. 



Topography from Army Map Service 
Saltdale 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1:62,500 



1 Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 50 Feet 

Figure 7. Index map of the Last Chance Canyon area (NW'/i Saltdole 15' quadrangle) eastern Kern County, showing zeolite sample 
locations (dots). 





Photo 9. Scanning electron micrograph of altered tuff of the Kin- 
nick Formation containing clinoptilolite. Sample site 101, Sample A. 



Photo 10. View south showing a bed of white zeolitized tuff in- 
terbedded in the Ricardo Formation, last Chance Canyon areo, Kern 
County. View south. 



18 



DIVISION OF MINES ANDGEOLCXiY 



BULLETIN 208 



tile and lacustrine sedimentary rocks (Photos 10-13). The for- 
mation has a ma-ximum thickness of about 7,000 feet and dips 15" 
to 20° to the northwest. The formation was divided into eight 
members by Dibblce ( 1952). Lava flows and volcanic breccias are 
li>cally common in the lower portion (Members 1-5) of the for- 
mation. Sheppard and Gude ( l%5b) studied conspicuous tuff ex- 
posed along the east face of Red Buttes on the west side of Last 
Chance Canyon The tuff occurs in Member 4 of Dibblee and is 
white to light gray and 6 to 22 feet thick. It consists of individual 
beds that range from thin laminae to beds 30 inches thick. 
Crossbcdding and channeling are locally present. Over a vertical 
distance of about 250 feet, the fresh tuff has been completely 
altered (Sheppard and Gude. 1965b). The altered tuff ha,s a con- 
choidal fracture, an earthy luster, and is harder than the unaltered 
tuff. The altered tuff weathers into small, nearly ei)uidimensional 
fragments with sharp edges and a conchoidal fracture. The color 
varies from white to pale pink or green. Once recognized in the 
field, altered tuff is readily distinguished from unaltered tuff. Ac- 
cording to Sheppard and Gude (1965b). the zeolitic alteration 
probably occurred after the Ricardo Formation was tilted because 
the alteration transects bedding. The surface separating fresh glass 
from zeoliti/.ed glass is nearly horizontal but locally uneven. Evi- 
dence cited by Sheppard and Gude (1965b) indicates the zeoliti- 
zation of volcanic glass was not the result of hydrothermal 
alteration, but rather that the zeolites formed in an environment 
of moderate to high pH and high salinity by hydrolysis and solution 
of vitric material by subsurface water. Samples were collected for 
this study from nine sites extending in a southwesterly direction 
from the northwest quarter of section 4, T.29S.. R.38E.. MDBM. 
on the north side of the east extention of Last Chance Canyon to 
the southeast quarter of section 24. T.29S.. R.37E.. MDBM. a 
distance of about 4'/; miles. All samples were from Members 2 or 
4 of Dibblee ( 1952). Zeolite minerals identified were clinoptilolile. 
phillipsite. analcime. and mordcnite. Associated authigcnic min- 
erals include opal, cristobalite. montmorillonitc. and potassium 
feldspar. Figure 7 is an index map of the Last Chance Canyon area 
showing the sample locations. A description of the samples and 
sample sites is included in Table 4-C. 



%A 





Photo 12. Zeolitized tuff bed about 8 feet thick consisting of two 
pole pink beds with o two-fool thick interbedded white tuff bed. 
Gray sandstone overlies ond underlies the oltered tuff. Ricardo 
Formation, Lost Chance Canyon, Kern County. 



,N ^»^i^' -r 






T, 





Photo .^j- :'i'. J . le) of Member -1 ^'. ::^ ■ ;:Jo 

Formation. West tide of Loll Chance Canyon. Kern County. View 
north. 



Photo n .' 'Met wiih gfoy sand- 

stone. Near top of Member 4, Ricardo Formation, Last Chance 
Canyon, Kern County. 



Tropica Group. 

The Tropico Group of Miocene (?) and Pliocene age was 
named by Dibblee ( 1958a) after the Mojave-Tropico Road that 
traverses the type scx'tion in the Ros;imond Hills, it is a se- 
quence of nonmarinc sedimentary, pyrivlastic. and volcanic 
rocks of Tertiary age exposed in the vicinities of Rosamond. 
Mojave. Castle Butte, Kramer borate area, and Kramer Mills In 
general, the lower part is composed mainly of tufTaccous strata 
of rhyolitic comptisition, and the upper part is made up of cither 
coarse stream-laid or fine lacustnnc sediments or both. The Gem 
Mill f-'ormation has already been described in this rcp«irt and is 
the lower unit of the Tropico Group in the Rosamond Mills. The 
Cjem Mill Formation has been tentatively ci>rrclatcd b\ Dibblcc 
( |95Sa) on the basis of its lithologic similaritv and stratigraphic 
position With the Muxene Kinnick Formation in the Tchachapi 
area. Because the rhyolitic pyrixMastic nvks of the Kinnick and 
Gem Mill Formation have been /coliti/cd. exposures of the lower 
part of the Tropico Group were examined in the nearby Ca.slle 
Butte and Boron 15' quadrangles. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



19 



c 



^ 



o 

s 



o 



Li 

■4 
•o 

.0 



S" 



O ° 



1*1 



_ -5 
o t 
a □ 



-e i 



■^ Q. 

9- E 



O 



.1. "O 

ly O m 

t N u 

-- O O 

u E lo 

^ ^ * 



"■ C E 
o " oi 

.^-o 2 

I'i S- 

E 9>-S 
o E I 
to D •*- 






. E 



^ 
^ 






5 2 2 

fli »- C 
"3 O TJ , 



» o o E 



ut - 






i? 



.y -c ■- 



s 

a 



O 4; 



c ^ 
— o 



01 o 



HI c ^ 

S £ o 
■5 •" ^ 

S O «> 

o ^ a)_^ 
^ "= .y ~- 

w» *" C — ' 

"c ° ^ JS 
■q. •- o " 

5 ~ SE 

^ u c — 

Ji In -D S 

I- o'S 



E — 
J " 



* > 
o o 



-S ^ 



3 i » 






— O) 

a c 
£ =6 



o 

-2 

o 

c 

o 
■5 . 

a u 



2 at ) B-Q 



:<:-^ 






O O 

■D -a 



o 



^s 



LU Q 

Z S 



0) Ol . 
o •£ 



HI 3 4J N 

-5 S O ° 

v> o 4> ^ 

t E ■" 

¥ o _- o 



■ u o 1* 



SS 5-i 



0) "D 



W l_ - 

to O) E 



E E 



O) O 



IE i 



— £ «> 



■2 E 



< s 


CN 2 g 

», " i 




a > 


Q. - -i 


II 


E "2 *. 


in JO 2 






E S 



.S o 












o> o 
















o o 








o 




0--D 


.^' 


u c 








Q. 0) 


O 

F 






o 


-C O 






^ o 





3li 

-r, " "O 



i O 



O O . 

5> 9- 5 



J) c 

-o .9 
c o 



.5! S 3= 



^ 


N 


N 





















^ 


n 












D 












o 


F 


o 






^ 


3: 


e 








1) 


D 




-n 






n 






V 






E 
o 
to 


O 


c 
n 


o 






_g 


-C 


o 






z 


"o 


4) 

1— 


? 


4) 

C 




o 


:o 


d 


CM 


o 




'q. 


o 

c 


o 

c 
o 




c 


> 

O 

F 


c 


0) 


4) 
U 


TJ 




o 


3 


c 
o 


O 
U 


c 
o 




F 


0) 

5 


c 


i 


n 


b 


o 


c 














.i! 


u 


*o 


ci 


c 


-C 
















o 


c 


Z 


o 


f 



0^7^ 



a •> 







y 


*- 


^ "o 






to 


l! 




4) 

Q. 

E 
n 


^ 

§ 


U w 




to 


— ' 


«-•- ./» 








•^ .9 


E 














-D O) 


-a 






" -i 


c 


^ 




£ a 


F 


c 






F 


u 




-o 








7 - 
?-2 


c 
n 


Q. 












O)-:!: 


IS 


i 




0) o 


« 


' 




C T3 




3 
O 






-t^ 




.M 


o 
u 







V o 




c 




^ s 


O 










c 




■re 








> 


u 






o 






0) o 


y 








■^.- 


<r 


-o 


^^■ 


'o 




















:> 


CN 




4> 


in 


< 





4; 

E 


a 




' 


D 


<y 








S 






n 




4J 




4) 

C 




Q. 




"o 


4> 
0) 
-O 




O 
UJ 










O) 


O 


> 




Q 
















>n 










D 


Z 




D 


u 
O 


c 


E 




4> 


£ 


4) 


o 

E 



Q. 4> — 

ill 



£ 3- Z .9 S 



CL T) 

E ^ 



^ — 'i: "C 



I- I- ° ^ >- ■£ 



ti-; 



Z 



^ UJ 

to 5 



% ? 



o 


i^ 


s 


« 


^ 


o 


a> 


. ■< 


s 




" ' 


UJ 


s 


i 


00 


< 


z 


QC 



■o 
o 

E 

o 

c 

E 



^5 

C -D 



•- D 


"- 






O ./■ 








c 
-o '5 


■£ 
P 


-o 












y-f: 


.c 


C 




O) o 


o 




1^ 

-o 


■a 

4) 

5 


O 

C 




E 


D 


o 






c 


TJ 




% <= 


o 






-2 E 


_c 


o 












>- o 








-C "O 




.£ 




.*« 4) 


\r 






c 2 








S a 


-a 


4; 




5>S 


_c 









E 

E 


C 







*~ 






O O 
















.E jz 






Q 


0) c 


"D 




*o 








=: oo 


tt 




c 
o 


?• r 


O 




o 


J D 


T) 


'u 


E 


I % 

E •^ 
o ^ 

it 

O o 


4) 


o 


2 


4) 


U- 

O 


V 

r 


3 


O 
u 


v«I 


,^ 


a: 




O 




o 


4) 
4) 


^ 




■D 


o 


?l 


0) 


S 


CN 


i^ 


.J£ 


X 
^ 


-Q CN 


i - 






(U o* 


,^ 


o 


5: C 


u D 


fi 




E ,:, 


7^ E 




> 





>? 



'o 




c 



5^ 


3 
O 




3 


to Q 


« 




i^ 


»S! 


4) 






z ™ 


o 




i 


^ oe 


X 


4) 


z 


;r, "^ 








8- 


3 
o 


a 

6 


o 
5 






o 


UJ rv 


< 


*J 


in 


to i-^ 



o E 

■9 o 
< u 



S 
II 

s 



20 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



S 

5 






.9. 



O 



3 



.0 






I 



* « 



O -D 






E 



.13 o 

.^ — • 

) a « 

^ g o. 
.S .£ « 

• ^g 

z 8.S 

= ii 

> 2-5 E 

-D o S 

: i i s 

< o Ji £ 
J!-2 ? I 

1 P S"? 



i1 

(SO-.. 

-5 ^ o 

■S ~ " ^ 

fl O X. .. 



s-§ 

SI 



■ii 

o E 
t^ o 



g^ 



SO 

o -o 

— c 
_« o 

Q.-0 
E 9 

2 o- 



s 





1 


1 




E 


1 


^ 





1 


1 


1 


J 


«t 


■5 


} 


1 

e 


a 

i 

•5 



^■5 



» o 

■5 T 



- E -5 

o S -9 
^ -o 



E V -£ 
° — ; 



ij 



J-sl 

■" J! '., 

c o 3 

a o 

a>.£ ^ 
p - o 
= S| 

1 il 

E r .i .5 

O 3 im ^ 

= ■? I E 
E >-- - 



1 

E 

J! 



Tj E a 

? E = 

E '^ o 

o <N ^ 

5.2 S 



= 5 

.•■5 "5 



.= « o 
-K .E c 
.| E-g 



o S E g 






2 E-o 



I : 



M^. 



-Si 



o = 

•£ « 

-D ■£ 

£ c 

S ° 

=5 "2 

V ^ 

t '3 



E 





O 



"D -C '5 •- 

_S -o *> 

« c « 

:t c o * 

- 1 »" 

* "D -^ 3 
«> 3 * ^ - 
-= ^ p u " 



Q. .= 



S o 



»- o O) ^ ^ 



a 
E 



9-Z~ . 

*rt :r .E O 



E J = i 
2 S • 5 

Efij. 

J: i c " . 

=5 - • - = 

•-So 
? ^ ^ • 

OSS* 

o •= ° -» 

— g -D y 

e 2 = j: 

a-§ ° - 

E -6 « E 

o » e ^ 

•* _D .-r • 

Jill 



1-2 

eI 

o c 

I/) u 



3 « O 



• C = 

O *^ v 

5. i£ 



o o E ^ 

» "o 2 := 

-5 .9-- > 

Q. " j< = 

° I ° - 



1^3 = 



> o 

O »i: 



II 



ii 



=£■■5 S 

B 5 s 

a fc - 

ill 



O C D 

E S ^ 

c o w 

. " O 

£- c 

:£ 2 o 

» -D ^ 

°.E i 

- ° : 

i E o> 

Q..5 „ 

i/> E <j 







> • 


i i 




^3 


1 i 




■0 z. 

• 


i| 




I0 


fl 




I' 






; -D 


< Q. 




■s S 







11 




« 


Q. 






E c 





• 


i^ s 





to, 



1-5 



■5 E 

a. o 



o. 

E 



£i 



f 1 



^ _• 

o a 

■° i- 

• 2 



i -o 



« u . ' 
= E c 



c c ° X 

S-g-5£oxc 
o-Oe2~ 3" 
_S^ E o ^flO"D(N 



•£ - 

» i 05 

1 |2 
■3 £* 

■ ^ o s 

c * J 

S E -| 

CD 1^ ^ 

£* o 
j: 3 

■5 -D J 



S c 

■3 g 

T3 -X 



-O E X 
£ O O 

O ' o 



3 -^ CO -C 



a « 
E wS 



r Z) 
o — 



»1 £ 



So- 



1 SI 

i1 s. 



•> o o 

£ < 3 



< 

o 



i 5 E 

O w o 



■3 5j 
S = "5 

«• « a 

o • S 
Q.— ; 

° =1 



■g -S -s 
, ^ E 



5 - • 
o « ^ 



I 



Z 
J! 

-8 



I- 

^^ 

zS 



Z o) 

1; 



2 



o *>• 



rs 00 o o 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



21 



13 



c 



U 

-S 
■o 



I 
o 



I 



O 5 



I. -si 



a • 
E -5 



_Q , — 

E c^ 



o — * J 

o = " o- = — 

" o - - S c 

-- E — -• •- 

'~ ~ S--S o o 

E 3 Q. c 

o (^ X E 



ii c 



0} o 
Q. E 

E -o 

~ c 
o 



(/} 



o 2 



E S 

-c O 



=s "5 » ? 



_ o 



g - Q. 



} O u 
-n .9- O 



O. V 

J S 3 

•^ a •" 

-2- E J 

0) o a> 

E " - 

S 3: o 

tt) *- 



<u E 
■Q..2 
E 13 E 
2 c ° 



S ^ -2 
^ o = 



E » 



-o 



E c 



> ® 

o -o 



o ai 

-o 2 
at >^ 



P =S -i "9 



o ^ 



O 



" E 
iS 2 



CM JS S 



E E 



coo 
En — 



i o < 






^22 



S E 





i? 




lU 




Z 




i^ 


f 


^i 


^ 


UJ S 


o 


z . 



5 

z 



z a 



T) 


F 


C 






o 




0) 












i 






a 


o 


o 


-n 


r 


r 












V 


*« 










-o 



2 § 

•^ E 



CN ^ 



E o - 
P E £ 



(U c 5 

•E ° E 

2 "5 E 

O) o o 

i ' " 

c -i£ 4) 
■— u t- 

^ o o 

.•2 3 £ 

111 

111 



"SI 

c Hi 
o .E 

ii 

> o 





^ 




,j 


^ * 


c 
















o 






^ 3 


n D 




O) 






«» -n 


~o 


« -o 




Q. <l> 




a V 


c 



F ni 




E V 


o ^ 




o ^ 



</) o E 



I £^ -i ® 



* c = c 

D - O > 

*" ^ -O * 

^ O n O 



° -a 



So 



* fe E 
n .^ o 
*_ o ^ 

-a e^ 



o -S 3: -o 

o ■© S s 

o "O .^ o 

i! S ° ■» 

_p -Q ^ - 

^ o g."? 

a V S o 

E -o 3-^ 

S "o » - 

® h ; 4> 

^ Q. y "5 

< S •£ .1 



.if a " 



£ E 



« ° -£ -O 
S -o .£ 5 
i S. ! I 



-£ -Q 
E ^ 



;£ O CN 9- 



5 

z 



i^ 




z 


O 


i^ 


S 




lij 









oc 
















o> 




(N 






O 




Z 


CN 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Altered while luff and luff breccia of the lower pari t>f the 
Tropico Group underlie several low ridges and arc expt)scd in gul- 
lies and prospect pits cast and northeast of Ca.stlc Butte Samples 
of altered tuff and tuff breccia were collected during this study 
from a small dozer cui a short distance norihexst of Castle Buite 
(Pht)tos 14. 15). The tannish-whitc liihic tuff and pale green lithic 
luff breccia contain 50 percent or more clinoplilolite and morden- 
ile. Both contain fragments of dacitic and andcsiiic riKJcs. Ac- 
cording to Dibblee ( 1958b). the tuff and luff breccia unit is overlain 
by a while-weathering luffaceous shale. This unit was also sam- 
pled from a large dozer cut (clay pit'.') about half a mile west of 
Clay Mine Road. The cut is on the side of a small circular hill 
capped by basalt. The cut expt)ses white, hard, altered tuff which 
has been altered to bentonilic clay and zeolites. A very fine- 
grained, massive altered luff from this site contains a minor 
amount of clinoplilolite — opal is the major constituent However, 
a sample of grayish-white, sandy tuff with visible bedding 
planes is composed of at least 50 percent clinoplilolite and minor 
amounts of cristobalite. Geologic mapping (Dibblee. l95Sc) in 
Castle Butte 15' quadrangle shows many other areas underlain 
by the tuff and tuff breccia unit of the lower Tropico Group. 
None of these other areas were examined or sampled as part of 
(his study. 




Photo 14. Bulldozer cut exposing zeolitized tuff and cloy of the 
Tropico Group. About 1,000 feet northeast of Coitle Butle. 



.•«*c'/i 





Photo 15 Cloic up of bulldoze cut itiown In Photo 14 The luff 
of the Tropico Group hat been altered to clinoptilolile and bentonilic 
cloy 



Farther east on the Boron 15' quadrangle, which was also 
mapped by Dibblee ( 1958b), several exposures of white, bedded 
fine- to medium-gramcd lufT and w hue, bedded to massive tufT 
breccia with grains of quartz, feldspar, flakes of biotite, and 
pea-size fragments of volcanic and granitic rock are delineated 
on the western half of the geologic map. Three exposures of tufT 
or tuff breccia were examined and sampled dunng the present 
zeolite study. A sample of partially altered tufT from an old 
bentonilic clay prospect about a mile northwest of Saddleback 
Mountain did not contain zeolites nor did a sample from about 
5 miles farther northwest. However, a sample collected from a 
body of altered luff about a mile and a half northeast of the latter 
site contains about 50 percent or more clinoplilolite Similar al- 
tered tuff is exposed in low ridges lo the north and east. Other 
bodies of tuff breccia of the lower part of the Tropico Group are 
indicated on the geologic map of the Boron quadrangle but were 
not examined and sampled. 

Two areas underlain by tuff or tufT breccia of the lower part 
of the Tropico Group were examined and sampled in the Kramer 
and Hawes 15' quadrangles (San Bernardino County) which 
adjoin the Boron quadrangle on the south and southeast, respec- 
tively. These quadrangles were mapped by Dibblee (I960a,b). 
Zeolites were not identiTied in samples collected from either of 
the exposures. 

Figure 8 is an index map of sample locations in the Castle 
Butte area; Figure 9 covers the Boron area. A descnption of all 
of the sample sites and samples collected from the tuff and tuff 
breccia unit of the lower part of the Tropico Group in Kem 
County and San Bernardino County is given in Table 4-D. 

MONO COUNTY 

Older rhyolite — Hot Creek area fCasa Diablo Hot Springs). 

The older rhyolite of Rineharl and Ross (1964) consists of 
several lilhologic types which grade laterally and vertically 
from one to the other: gray pcrliiic glass, locally pumiceous; pitch- 
stone and obsidian: and flow-banded rhyolite Pot>rly consolidated 
and crudely stratified pumice, lapilli tuff, and ash crop out in a 
few places including in the vicinity of Hot Creek (Photi>s 16. 17). 
The luff is weakly indurated and ranges from shades of light gray 
to white. It consists of angular to subroundcd pumice lapilli. a few 
millimeters to several centimeters in maximum dimension, embed- 
ded in a matrix of fine ash. The relationship of the tuff and ash 
to the flow-banded rhyolite was not determined by Rinehart and 
Ross ( 1964) who assumed that the tuff and ash arc part of a single 
/one interlayered with the rhyolite flows. 

Pumice, lapilli tuff, and tuff are exposed along both sides of 
Hot Creek in the vicinity of the hot spnngs at the Hot Spnngs 
Park. Samples of these rocks were collected along Hot Creek 
several hundred feet west of the fixitbridgc across Hot Creek. 
The pumice, lapilli luff, and tuff within 50 feet or so of the creek 
have been altered to a pale yellow ish-grecn or grcenish-whilc 
color The unaltered rivks are light gray and apparcntlv o\erlie 
the altered nvks. Six samples of altered tuff, lapilli tuff, and 
pumice collected from different sites on both sidc-s of Hot Creek 
contain appreciable amounts of clinoplilolite and minor amounts 
of phillipsite and feldspar One example of pale green, altered 
pumice contains more than 50 percent clinoplilolite A scanning 
electron micrograph of altered pumice shows terminated plates 
and laths of clinoplilolite Figure 10 is an index map of the Hot 
Creek area showing sample hvations A descnption of the sam- 
ple Itvations and s;miplcs is given in Table 5. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY 

Altered tufT and tuff breccia containing potentially economic 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



23 




T.32S 



T.12N. 



TUN. 



Topography from USG S. 
Castle Butte 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1:62,500 


I 



1 Miles 

-J 



Contour Interval 25 Feet 



Figure 8. Index map of the Castle Butte area, eastern Kern County, showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 



deposits of zeolites have been reported from several formations in 
San Bernardino County. These include the Barstow Formation in 
the Mud Hills, the Pickhandle Formation in the Black Canyon 
area, the Spanish Canyon Formation near Clews Ridge and the 
head of the Spanish Canyon in the Alvord Mountains, and an 
unnamed Ibrmation on the south flank of the Cady Mountains 
near Hector, in addition to these reported deposits, many more 
potentially economic zeolite deposits have been found during this 
study in other unnamed fonrations in San Bernardino County. 
In the following section on the zeolite deposits and occur- 
rences in San Bernardino County, the formations known to 
contain zeolite-bearing tuff will be discussed first. Then the un- 
named formations will be discussed on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle 
basis. 

Barstow Formation. 

The Miocene Barstow Formation as defined by Dibbiee 
(1968) is a sequence of deformed, stream-laid conglomerates, 



sandstones, lacustrine clays, and several thin tuffs, which lie 
uncomformably above granitic breccia and tuff of the Pickhan- 
dle Formation. The Barstow Formation is unconformably over- 
lain by flat-lying older alluvium of Pleistocene age. The Barstow 
Formation is well exposed in the Barstow syncline in the Mud 
Hills, especially in the Rainbow Basin where varicolored clay 
shale and sandstone beds are exposed. The formation crops out 
discontinuously to the southeast of the Mud Hills to the Calico 
Mountains. To the west and northwest from the Mud Hills the 
Barstow Formation is concealed by alluvium but crops out at 
Black Canyon and extends northwesterly through the Gravel 
Hills. During the present study, most of the emphasis was placed 
on examining the Barstow Formation in the Mud Hills. 

The Mud Hills are a low range of hills located about 10 miles 
north of Barstow in west-central San Bernardino County. In the 
Mud Hills the Barstow Formation is composed of nearly 3,000 
feet of stream-laid conglomerates, sandstones, and lacustrine 
clay shales, together with several thin layers of localized lime- 



24 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



R40E 



R41E. 



• 116 



20 



115 



r^ 



,^' 



f: 



14 






n \ V 




114 



\1 



lO 



, irrtahao 



T32S 



T12N 



T11N. 



Topography from U S G S. 
Boron IS' quadrangle 



Scale 1 62.500 


I 



1 Miles 

_i 



Contour Interval 20 Feet 
Figure 9. Index mop of the Boron area, eastern Kern County showing zeolite somple locations (dots). 



Stone and lulT. and a basal conglomerate as thick as 1,000 feet 
(Dibblcc, 1968) The lulTs in the HarMow Formation of the Mud 
Hills make up about 1-2 percent of the siratigraphic section and 
are the most conspicuous and contmuous strata (Sheppard and 
Gude, l')6'}a) The tuffs of the Barstow |-'ormalion in the Mud 
Hills were studied in detail by Sheppard and Gudc( 1969a) who 
chose this area to study because the tuffs are well exptiscd and 
an earlier reconnaissance of the area showed an abundance and 
vanely of authigcnic silicate minerals. A geologic sketch map 
showing sample hxrations and a table sh<ming the mineralogic 



composition of one of the more persistent and recognizable tuffs 
(informally called the Skyline tuff) is included in their study 
Access to the area is via Fossil Canyon and Fossil Bed Road. 

Near the eastern end of the Mud Hills, the Barstow Formation 
crops out as small discountinuous Kxiies within the alluvium 
The Mud Hills mine of the PDZ Corporation (Phelps Dtxlgc 
Corp«iration) is hxrated in one of these small expi>surcs of the 
lacustnne sandstone, mudslone. siltstone, limestone, and tufT 
member of the Barstow Formation as mapped by McCulloh 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



25 



I 



I 

o 



"O 


c 










o 


a> 


a 


V 




u~t 




o 


K 


9 




-D 








a 


o 




1 


c 


O 


V J 


in 






c 




fi) 


<D 










c 


* 


n 




















o 




u 


b 


-O 


< 


o 


o 




*^ 


-D 














F 


o 


O 


n 


h 


h 


CO 


D 





i= .^ 0) 



s "5 ^ i 



-£ E 
— m 



5> i 



J en - 



— S c 



s > 



E -D 



E - 



o 5 := 

E ° 

% % £ 
E £ _S* 
D oi a 



o £; E 

X *- 1/5 



41 fl> 

E 2 ai 

5 «< £ - 



-5 *Jil 



_o E o £ :£ 



t- .E C J3 



U'z 



^:S 



^ Q i 
2 "o 



E c 



T3 c 
c O 
O u 



■ — 


n 


c 


n 


o 




o 

c 


c 


o 


K ) 








c 








w> 






C 


c 


* 




a> 
























b 


^ 




o 






Xl 








4) 




■D 


F 


O 


O 


o 


b 


F 


m 


o 


■^ 


^ 


tfl 


■o 


t 


OJ 




o 


b 


o 




n 




u 




0) 

c 


-Q 




^ 






^ 2; c 

O V <U 

a^ E 



J* ^ o -a 

Q. 4> ^ C 

o o c if 



E a; 



_'0 






o 1 -o 



n ° " 



r 




V 


c 




c 


o 

r 


c 
o 


"o 




c 





1 i 


o 




a 


o 


b 


u if 


< 






CQ 




i; a- 


Q. 


c 
-> 


(J 


0) 
Q. 


c 


;i^ 


F 


o 


c 


F 






o 


h 


^ 


o 




o c 


to 







'-=■ 





2 E 

C mZ 



E 5 
2 -a 



5 E 



E -2 o 

O -D 



E -D 



Q. u O 



CO 



D .rz 



■^ E 





0) 




n 








<1> 




* 


Ql 








O 


n 










o 


c" 


i 


c 


- 




o 








D 




n 


3 


n 


E 


£ 


-C 




-D 



0) 




a> 




n 










"o 


o 

0) 


Q. 

<1> 


c 
o 


> 




r 




r 
















C 


% 


E 


-> 




<b 






*" 


Q. 

E 




O 
O 


C 

n 


'a 


5 




z> 




-o 















o 


^ 




<)} 


-C 



£ o * £ 



>7 



-I 



->-Z 



1 o ^ 



11 






» 5. 

E _g 

ii 



S-5 s. 






n ^ »^ 



- ./. t 01 



II 

< i 



o 

Z 



E -6 



i S 

i-r 

o % 

O) c 

« tt 
,c ^ 
*•- a, 






O ;^ £ 



.•z "D b 



_ g' X Q. ° 



■Sou 



Q t — 



«> .y 
S » 

41 2 



Si 

41 i 
4. 2 

i a. 






2 c * 

t_ a> 0) 

o a> _c 

a -o I- 



0> 4) S a IE — 



a ii " 
o S-'O 

w O 0) 



E X 



z 

o 



io 



,2 



7 J 



>_ CO 

V CO 



05 






C V 

o ;c 



il 



4) N 

1^ 



o v 
S a 






i £ . 

° 2 41 .y 

■El i-6 
□ Sag 

9-1-0-0 

4; t 41 4j 
O 41 — ^ 

o * o o 

41 1 "O "o 

:£ i ° S! 

-5 ° 5-i 

E 52 o 
O Q.i; 5i 



"DOC 

t: "n 2 ■ 

O ^ "D 

4) 4) 4) 

-C -^ ^ 

■" ■ = < 

c ^ 

O jrt JJ 

5; ja o 

o M- > 



3 _0 

"if. 

-a 01 = 

41 41 

41 "o ■£ 



— 41 



Z oi 



" E 
o o 



1 i 



o o 



41 = 

S o 



* a 



41 



^"1 
90 

" c S 

f s I 

D 4) O 
I O Q. 

0> O 41 

2 ■» E 

lis 



o 

1 E 



%o 

41 41 



o 41 o *- 
■^ Hi =1 o 



41 01 



^ i! -o ^ 4. 



J i 



t 41 -O 2 -^ 



c ■£ 



£■0 



41 o s o i 
< o ^ E 



41 -o 

^ c 
o □ 






-=. « 



^ ^ 



I.? I 



26 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



.0 

E 
>S 

3 

c 

3 
O 

s 



J 

o 

i 



o 

.c 

o 
5 

I 

5 
o 






I 

D 

c 

O 



4> 



O 
.1 

i 



2 

.0 



o 

E 



<? 



I 

c 



I 



o 



**. S 



i 



c 
o 

t 
o 



o 



^s 






11 

a = 
o c 

si 

I £ 

a o 

o S 

.9 at 



< if 

if 

o — 



E -^ 

1 9 

I ^ 

O ^ 

C *~ 1^ 

« :s o 

* I o 



.* w *- 

- o a 
< "- ** 



LO ^ O 



9 "5 » 

t-8 i 

= S ■£ 

o K * 
a. « o 

» ^ t 



" S * 

tl ^ •> 

£ « £ V 

o «. z « 

o o o _ 

• 9 'o „ 

• ■£ 



Z 



J^ c 

E • 

O -D 



E -S 






2 

8 

c 

"i 



O 

c 
o 

u 
U 
_t> 

a 
E 



1 o - 



i i o E 



a s <« 



5> c 



c a 



>. o 

i 

01 o 



» 2 



Q. E 
o I 



a. 
E ^ 
o S 



^ o 



l£ 



- 2 ■ 
r 5) 



E ;^ a 



3: » 

*- « 
-D » 

•8 



D U -D ^ 
•< ^ C O 



o o ■" S 



Mi ji o- ■© 



£ -c 



S -D 



o <^ 



a. V 
20 



E - 






° t "- 
£?■£•> 
o = S 
- « ^ " 
„•£_«; 
^ _ 1^ •£ 
o g «i - 

'-' 2 * E 

§ E J! t 
CD a Q ft 

§ ? J J 



S "0 



E 

I 

i 

X 

r 

£ 



J o 

^5 



e -o 
1 ° 



Q. £ 

.!! O 

c 

£ Mt 
3 ^ 



a » . 

E -^ -- 



E » 0.-E 

9 t E -o 

•*- ^ -M O 

•I -» o £ 

o y a — 

E .? • t 

S.- - 9 

° O 9 

2: * » 9- 

^ :? 3 

~ ^ V a. 

TJ ■£ ■= >- 

S I -D -° 

o. si 2 



I 
1 



3 

I 



f 

J5 



8 
a. 



■5 
o 



a 

E 



_• o 

a- 9- 
E -S 

o "a 
•A -Z 



yallow 

pumice 

nd britti 


c 


i 


-S c o 


o 


l-y 


^ 


-1° 




■J B.= 





U . ..J< 






E ••= o 






» 


o- « « 


~ S -c 









f:" E . 


.2 


'^ i-s 


< . 


e -o = 


• "a 


Q. • ; 


a - 


E S - 


E TJ 


o *■ ■- 


s 


1/) M 


irt ;= 



» t 



o E 
_ o 



£ E 
2 E 



ll 






S"S 


8 : 












£ »— 




a — 








- -D 




^ 


■?■? 




^1 


i! 8 


c 


S- 


O-D 





F E 


■" n 










J o 


T) -0 


c 


^" ^ 






c *" 




« 


■S 2 




■= 


*" -D 


• , 


n 


o * 


« J} 


E 


« ';; 


- 


g 


^■2 


sf 


- 



9 ^■ 

■8 »• 






z 

Z J 



< i 0.1 I. 



Z Ui 



2 

* 



8 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



27 



R.28E. 



R.29E. 




T3S 



Topography from U S.G S 

Whilmore Hot Springs Th' quadrangle (NE 1/4 Mt. Morrison 15' quadrangle) 



1000 
I l_ 



Scale 1 :24,000 
2000 



4000 

I 



.5 

I 



Contour Interval 10 Meiers 
Supplementary Contour Interval 5 Meters 



6000 Feet 

) 



1 Kilometers 

J 



Figure 10. Index map of the Hot Creek Park area and vicinity. Mono County, showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 



28 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



(I960) on the Lane Mountain 15' quadrangle The Mud Hills mine 
is in section 28. T UN . R IW . SBBM. about 10 miles north of 
Barslow via the Fort Irwin Road and Copper City Road At the 
Mud Hills mine, the zeolite-bearing tuff deposit has been devel- 
oped by an open cut with an area of about one acre (Photos 18. 
19) The exposed tuff beds are about 10 to 15 feet thick, strike 
nearly east-west, and dip to the south at about 1 5*" Waste rock and 
overburden are stockpiled to the north of the pit. Cut slopes in the 
overburden and ore are about I: I (45°). The overburden varies in 
thickness from a few feet to about 20 feet. The mine was operated 
for several months in late 1982. and 2.000 short tons of clinoptil- 
olite were sold to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. ( BNFL) by Occidental 
Minerals Corpt)ration who owned the mine until it was sold to 
PDZ Corpt)ration (late 1982') The site of the Mud Hills mine is 
one of the areas studied and sampled by Shcppard and Gude 
(1969a). The mineralogic composition of the altered tuff at 
this location is estimated by Sheppard and Gude at 90 percent 




Photo 16. View west along Hot Creek near the Hot Creek Park. 
Boulders olong the creek bonk ore rhyolite flows ond tuffs. The tuff 
has been ollered to clinoptilolile. 






Photo 18. Open pit inine of PDZ Corporation. Mud )-lills. Son 
Bernardino County. Clinoptilolite occurs in altered tuff of the Mio- 
cene Barslow Formotion. View south. 




^ 



m 



Photo 17 Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite from al- 
tared luff, Mot Craak areo. Mono County. 



Photo 19. North end of PDZ Corporotion Mud Hills zeolite depos- 
it. Altered tuff of the Miocene Borstow Formotion dips o low angle 
to south. Bogs ore mill residue from BNFL controcl. View west. 



clinoptilolite with 10 percent clay. Undeveloped deposits of 
similar zeolitized tuff appear to underlie several low hills cast of 
the Mud Hills mine. A sample of clinoptilolitc-bcaring tuff from 
the Mud Hills mine was used dunng the present zetilite study as 
a standard for estimating clinoptilolite content of tuffs collected 
from other deposits. 

The locations of samples collected from the Barstow Forma- 
tion arc shown on Figures II and 12 A dcscnption of the sample 
sitc-s and the s;imples collected from the Barslow Formation in 
the Mud Hills IS given in Table 6-.A 

PIckhandle Formation . 

I he middle or pcivsibly lower Miocene Pickhandle Formation 
was named for a sequence of pyrivlastic rocks cxpcTsed in the 
Pickhandle Pass area in the western Calico Mountains It crops 
out in a discoMlnnunis west- to northwest -trending belt from 
the Pickhandle Pa.vs area, which is on the Fon Irwin Road 
about IS miles from Barslow, through the Mud Hills where it 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



29 



'^^■^■jiso ■ *-.S 



T.11N. 



42A 



41 



20A, 




24 



1 



Mud Hills 
Mine 



sJ. 



'40 







i<«e' 



^J= 



^'fS' 







Topography from U.S.G.S. 
Lane Mountain 15' quadrangle 



R.1W. 



RIE. 



.5 



Scale 1 62,500 


1 



1 Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 

Figure 1 1. Index map of the eastern end of the Mud Hills, Son Bernardino County, showing the location of the Mud Hills mine and the zeolite 
sample sites. 




Photo 20. View southwest toward west end of Mud Hills near the 
east end of Fossil Canyon. Most of white area is underlain by tuff 
and tuff breccia of the Pickhandle Formation. Much of the tuff and 
tuff breccia within the photograph has been zeolitized. 



is prominently exposed on the north flank of the Barstow syncline. 
North of the Mud Hills a few miles north of Coolgardie Camp, 
there arc several small outcrops of the Pickhandle Formation. In 
the Opal Mountain-Black Canyon area, the Pickhandle Formation 
is well exposed where it is associated with rhyolitic volcanic rocks 
(Photos 20-26). About 4 miles west of Black Canyon, the Pick- 
handle Formation is exposed as an 8-mile long, west-trending belt 
on the crest of the Gravel Hills. 

The major part of the Pickhandle Formation is composed of 
white or light-colored lithic and lapilli tuffs that are fine-grained, 
ill-sorted tuff and sandy tuff (Dibblee, X'ibi). Both contain 
quartz and feldspar, flakes of biotite, angular lithic fragments of 
volcanic rocks, reworked tuff, and subrounded lapilli fragments 
of devitrificd pumice and pumiceous perlite. Samples of altered 
tuff and lapilli tuff were collected from near the Fort Irwin Road 
between Pickhandle Pass and Jackhammer Gap in the Calico 
Mountains westward to the northwest end of the Mud Hills. The 
samples varied in color from white with a pink, tan, or green tint 



30 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 




T11N 



Topography from U S G S 
Opal Mountain 15 quadrangle 



R2W 



L 



R 1W 



.5 

_J_ 



Scale 1 62.500 



I 



1 Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 
Figure 12. Index mop of the western end of the Mud Hills ond vicinity. Son Bernordino County, showing zeolite sample locotions (dots). 



to pale green Content and size of nxk and pumice fragments 
and mineral grains varied from one sample site to the next, as 
did the amount of clinoptilolitc. potassium feldspar, cristobalite, 
and other minerals present. Tuffs and tulT breccias of the Pick- 
handle Formation in the Opal Mountain-Rlack Canyon areas 
contain fewer inclusions of colored volcanic rock and lapilli 
fragments than the tuffs and tuff breccias of the Mud Hills, Lane 
Mountain, and Calico Mountain areas Samples of altered luff 
and tuff breccia collected from the south, east, and north sides 
of Opal Mountain just below the capping of rhyolite flow breccia 
and pcrlitc contain varying amounts of clmoptilolite, phillipsitc, 
pota.vsium feldspar, and cristobalite The /coliti/ed pyriKlastic 
rocks arc underlain by quart/ monzonitc. In general, the beds of 
zeolilizcd rock strike NICW and dip 20'W and arc at least 15 



feet thick A small circular hill about a mile north of Opal 
Mountain is underlain by zeolitized iithic tufT and luff breccia 
capped by rhyolitic flow breccia. Samples collected from here 
contain about 50 percent clinoptilolitc. Altered luff and tulT 
breccia from near Opal Camp and on both sides of Black Canyon 
west to the ptiint where the Pickhandlc Formation dips under the 
Harstow I'ormation near the mouth of Black Canyon als«i con- 
tain appreciable amounts of clinoptilolitc. Farther west, samples 
of lithic and lapilli tuff with rtxk fragments and lapilli of pumice 
from near Bird Spring in the Gravel Hills contain various 
amounts of clinoptilolitc These beds of zcolili/cd pyroclastic 
rock extend westerly from Bird Spring for nearly 2 miles to near 
an old pumice pit near the center of section 26. T.3IS.,R.43E., 
MDBM I Photos 27-2<*). 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



31 



g^ 



61 






T3 
c 
O 



" •£ 



o 
E 

3 



o 

c 

■§ 

o 
5 

C 

o 



Q 
cs 



-Si 

I 
o 






4j 



■6 
-i 



^ 
^ 



S -D 

Q.-D 
</> c 
— o 

3 ° 

.E 4J 

u 3 



^ o 



o o 

c il 



CM O ^ 
0) 

i! O) w 

- 5 c 

>* u -!: 

^ < c 

.12 O- 



QUO 



— o c 

O •- c 

n O) o 

— t/) 

■O D 



we* 



l!:l! 



o -o 



S--? o-^' 

8.---^, 



E a. 



O "D O (— 



J! O 








V 








-n 


f- 


O 




n 




Ti 






r 


0) 


a; 
-O 


o 


oi 


o 

E 











b 










, 




o 














X 


t 








o 


s 


c 





o 



>- o 1= : 



9 § 

p 



0) q, 



LU 

^^1 



- ^ 3 



E o 



-S _E 



s 


> 


T3 


> 


:= 


o 




•D 


Z 


4) 


0) 








3 


u 


4) 


3 










T3 


ti 


,^ 








C 




3 


n 







en 


O 


-o 








r 




O 




n 


c 


fc 


OJ^t 



<U O >- 3 



J 


o 


0) 




Ol 


F 


ID 


"o 


o 
to 




V 




n 


E 


4) 


O- 


^ 



t/> o 



Q- o 
=6 E 



— 


r < 


-** 


n 




TJ 


t 


r ^' 


&) 


"' 


!i'Z 


_o 



-s r-r P 



Q- 3 - 



s £^ 



-;- U 



■o 

C 

o 



S 



E a. 



E » -9 



- S c 

J! S ^ 

O i 3 

a. o ^ 



P^ 


to 


,,, 







4) 


*o 







in 








b 








c 







-XI 


T 






Q 


4) 

C 


-C 






°3 



O D. 

"o E 






> -i 

O w 



= o 



? s 



zE 



Z 1^ s 



LU 
^ CN 

Z oi 



a. 3 

o E 
to o 



* :€ 



4) 4) 



"5 ^ o' 

° -D S 

.« «» .E 

- t E 

°- C 0} 

E o -S E 

.^ S> 2 S 



-C 


en 





to 


0) 

-C 


5 















CO 




Z 




F 


£ 


c 




-K 



t« E 



■»i 



2 »> 



5 -i » 
woo 

J! c F 

n OJ > 

■» s = 

ID O C 

a, lO o 

E i 5- 

-D -2 



'^ a -o 



E § ■= 
o 2 

-^ — ' 0) 

S 0) !^ 

s o J 

S ° "n 

., "2 * •» 

^ .9- 

I— a. ■/) ~o 



a 
O 



i^ 



1^ 



Z 1- 



32 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 




Photo 21. Zeolilized tuff and luff breccio of the Pickhondle For- 
motion near the west end of the Mud Hills — near east end of Fossil 
Conyon. Sample sites 21-23 are in the photograph. 




Photo 22. View west across an area underlain by zeolitized tuff 
and tuff breccia of the Pickhondle Formation. Opal Mountain in 
background is capped by rhyolile breccia and flow breccia of the 
Opal Mountain volcanics. 




Photo 23. View northwest toward Opal Mountain showing zeolit- 
ized tuff of the Pickhondle Formation exposed on the lower slopes. 
The zeolitized tuff it overloin by a thin bed of granitic conglomerate. 
Dumps on upper slopes are from perlite operations. Perlite occurs 
within the Opal Mountain volconics which overlie the tuff and con- 
glomerate. 




Photo 24. Zeolitized lapilli tuff of the Pickhondle Formotion under- 
lying a series of northwest-trending ridges northwest of Opal Moun- 
tain. Dork rocks exposed near top of tuff bed in center foreground 
and extending to right (west) ore granitic conglomerote. View 
south. 




Photo 25. View west down Block Canyon. Opal Camp in center 
foreground at east (near) end of white area is in tuff of the Pickhon- 
dle Formation. A major portion of the tuff in the foreground has been 
zeolitized. 







^r^ 

>- 



c 




Photo 26 Zeolilized luff, probably of the Pickhondle Formotion, 
exposed on the south side of o low ridge on the lower southeastern 
slopes of Lone Mountain at the northwest end of the Calico Moun- 
tains. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



33 




TUN 



Topography from US.GS, 
Opal Mountain 15' quadrangle 



R.2W. 



.5 

_1_ 



Scale 1 :62,500 


I 



R 1W. Geology modified 

after TW, Dibblee. Jr., 
1968 



1 tVllles 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 



Qa Alluvial sand and gravel 



Qoa 



Tb 



EXPLANATION 



Tbt 



Older alluvium 

Barstow Formation, Undiff. 

Barstow Formation, tuff bed 
(Zeolitized in part) 



.33 



Tpt 



Pickhandle Formation, tuff and tuff 
breccia (Zeolitized in part) 



Tp 



Pickhandle Formation, Undiff. 



Tv Opal Mountain volcanics 
gf Granitic rocks 



Zeolite sample site 



Figure 13. Generalized geologic map of the western end of the Mud Hills and vicinity, San Bernardino County, showing the location of 
zeolite-bearing tuff of the Barstow Formation and tuff and tuff breccia of the Pickhandle Formation. 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



T31S 



T,32S. 




Topography (rom U S G S 
Opal Mountain 15 quadrangle 



R44E. 



R45E. 



Scale 1 :62.500 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 



1 Miles 

J 



Figure 14. Index mop of the Opol Mountain-Black Canyon area, San Bernardino County, ihowing zeolite sample locations (dots). 




Photo 27. View southeast toword Jackhommer Gop on the Fort 
Irwin Road. White rocks are zeolitized tuff and tuff breccia of the 
Pickhondle Formation. 




Photo 28. Zeolitized tuff neor Bird Spring area, Gravel Hills. The 
luff and tuff breccia ore part of the Pickhondle Formation. View west 
from near Bird Spring. 



I<588 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



35 




Topography from U.S.G.S R.44W. 

Opal Mountain 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1 62.500 



R.45W. Geology modified 

after TW Dibblee. Jr., 
1968 



1 lilies 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 



EXPLANATION 



T.31S. 



T.32S. 



Qa 



Qoa 



Alluvial sand and gravel, 
terrace gravels 

Older alluvium 

Volcanic rocks, Undiff. 
25 



Tb 



Tpt 



gr 



Barstow Formation, Undiff. 

Pickhandle Formation, tuff and 
tuff breccia (Zeolitized in part) 

Granitic rocks 



Zeolite sample site 



Figure 15. Generalized geologic map of the Opal Mountain-Block Canyon area, San Bernardino County, showing the location of zeolitized 
tuff and tuff breccia of the Pickhandle Formation. 



36 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 




Photo 29. Tuff and tuff bieccia of the Pickhondle Formation near 
Bird Spring. Some of the tuff has been partially zeolitized. The basal 
conglomerate of the Barstow Formation overlies the tuff. 



Figures 1 1, 12, and 14 are index maps showing the location of 
samples collected from the Pickhandle Formation. Generalized 
geology of the area sampled is shown on Figures 13 and 15. A 
description of the sample sites and the samples collected from the 
Pickhandle Formation is given in Table 6-B. 

Spanish Canyon Formation. 

The Miocene Spanish Canyon Formation (Photos .30-32) in the 
Alvord Mountains is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, tuff, 
and ba.salt flows. According to Byers ( 1960). the lithology of the 
Spanish Canyon Formation is heterogeneous. The lower part of 
the formation consists of lenticular white and olive-gray tuffs in- 
terbeddcd with sandstone and granitic boulder conglomerate. In 
the most complete cxp<jsurcs. two tuff units arc each overlain by 
two sandstone and conglomerate units. The lower tuff unit is the 
thicker of the two. The upper part of the formation consists of 
erosion-resistant basalt flows. 

The Spanish Canyon Formation at the head of Spanish Can- 
yon and the southeast flank of Clews Ridge in the Alvord Moun- 
tains IS reported by Sheppard and Gude (1964) to contain 



potenttally economic zeolite deposits. The lower tufTaceous unit 
of the Spanish Canyon Formation has been zeolitized on both 
flanks of the Spanish Canyon anticline of Byers (I960). The 
tufTaceous unit of the Spanish Canyon Formation on the cast 
limb of the anticline is exposed on the southeastern slopes of 
Clews Ridge Here two beds of zeolitized tuff containing clinop- 
tilolite arc present. The upper bed is about 3 feet thick; the lower 
IS about 4 feet thick. A 3-foot thick bed of bentonitic clay lies 
between the two zeolitized tu(T beds Altered tuffs exp>osed near 
the southwestern tip of Clews Ridge also contain clinoptilohte. 
A large body of zeolitized tuff containing clinoptilohte occurs 
near the northern end of Spanish Canyon on the west limb of the 
Spanish Canyon anticline. A prominent bluff of north-dipping 
beds of zeolitized tuff containing clinoptilohte occurs near the 
type section of the Spanish (Canyon Formation in the SE '/, 
section 30, T. 1 2N ., R.4E. , SBBM The altered tufT beds are about 
8 to 10 feet thick and are underlain by gray unaltered tuff. The 
altered tuffs of the Spanish Canyon Formation are grayish-white 
to pale green, contain some unaltered rock and mineral frag- 
ments, and have a clinoptilohte content of 50 to 75 percent. 

Figure 16 is an index map of the Alvord Mountain area show- 
ing the sample locations. A description of the sample sites and 
samples from the Spanish Canyon Formation is given in Table 
6-C. 




Photo 31 Altered luff o' Formation. Some of 

the tuff has been bentonized, other beds ore zeolitized. North end 
of Spanish Canyon. 




Photo 30. Bluff of zeolitized luff of the Spanish Canyon Formo 
lion exposed in Spanish Canyon, Alvord Mountain quadrangle. 
Unaltered luff it inlerbedded in zeolitized tuff. 




Photo 32. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite from 
Ihe Spanish Canyon Formation, Sample site 92, Sample B. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



37 



o 



O 5 



4> 9t 



Q. O 
E .E 



111 



c V j; 
^ -^ "d 



o g E 

-C O .^ «« 

°- D O C 

■5 £ Q. S 



* o o 



•= .2 



•I o 



" E ■" 

01 01 £ 

.E o « 

1 S.E 

-5 E 5 
;-= 9- 

c5 I ^ 



; O -D o - 



-C 0} 

•- 01 



-a ci 



^ 4) O C 



¥ ° 



■S -c - .? 





^ :^ 



O i! t: : 2 



- ■ o E 

«> O CM — 

g So S 

O ^ O 0) 

lU — > o 

-C "O (/) 'y 

C U 

5 ° -5- £ 

4) *. "D _Q 

2 "D r 



o 



! a o *o _ 
' p -Q "^ * 

I O (I) -^ 3 



ft) ftj ^ 

E o -Q 

"o Q."0 

>- V 

> "5 5 

S E -Q. 



J £ -o 



? «) -D i ^ 



h- ^ o o 



i^ 

J 



i 5 



3 ^ 

— o 
-D E 











b 


OJ 


E 


n 


u 






c 



CD 4) _Q 



o -D n 

■5 o .9- 
£3.-0 



o 

O 



-Q 00 
O c Z 



E 01 "o 
P J S 



I zs 

n V m 

5 c 10 

< o ■ 

O Z of 



-5 E 
•>. E 
2 10 
O) ^ •« 



c c o 

° l-s 

<A C O 

a. O) > 



^8 



E .■: 

5 -n 



ii 



^ OJ 
1- -Q 



z 



2? 



i i^ 



g 








■0 















V 





















c 






































■si 








E 

s 








"e 













» -0 














C 



« 













° "5 



a. 

-0 








a. 
« 

1 


« 






Q. 


c 


1 


u 

-0 




■0 

o 






U 






0. 










c 




Q. 






<" . 

















"0 














1! 


E 










c 

1 









C 

"5 

c 



«> 
9. 




c 
'6 






a> 


a 






C 


c 






u 


CL 




c 






-0 -Q. 








s 


'i 








*^ 











£ E 

V 


"o 






<■? 






CD 




Ml 




U 






ft, 0) 


c 






• 









0) 


c 




^ 






D 






a. 








Q. 


3 




a. 













E 


s. 






E 







E 






i^^ 


E 
















E 


















<n 


M 






t/> 


a 




i/> 






5 E 
» 


E 
E 


C 
V 


-3^ 
U 




-B 
i 


c 

4) 






"d 


_« 


^o 


2 z 


01 




> 




to 


o> 






E 








-0 



E 

C 
3 


o> 








2 - 


p 
a 

3 
C 


0) 


a 

1- 


"5 
E 

C 
D 

4) 


"q. 


o> 

u 





c 

V 

u 




o> 

'c 



_o 


c 


e 

E 
n 

c 


^3 
* Q. 




O) 



'c 







is 


0) 

E 

OJ 


E 

E 






a 

0} 


u 



> 




01 





D 


II 


u 



> 





E a; 
2 ►^ 


D 


10 


u 




3 


u 




J: 








"D 


T3 


<1> 


CM 




E 

3 


C 






E 


OJ 


-S* 


c 


C N 




0) 



■S E Q- , 



O) 'i J5 



- i * 



E ■= 



ft) y 


U i_ 


n i- 


< u 


a 


11 


-1 -0 






c 




































ftj a> 












ir CL 






S E 











-6 ^ 


X 


U 




a 

-a 


E 01 











E S 


F 




-0 










a 

E 


li3 
_ 

T> 


-a 


c 
E 




E -e 




fe b 






to 


O) 


a 


</> * 


M 


-S-b 


u 






» 


V i 


e 






t; 


= b 


CN 







u 




Q. 


^ 


6 

3 


c 



°^ 


E 




u 






C 
4> 




> 




c 




E 



a> 


a i 
g c 










4) 


F 





4) 





















lO 













^ 








.— 







<D 


c 











b 



3 


^ 



c-i' 


<•- 


c 


s 




4) 


4) 


" — 


c 
n 


■t 


















-D 








U 


**- 





VI 






■% 


V 




X 




t— 


Jl 







° s - 



"^ "D "5; 
Q. c 



>? 



CO 

z- 



? ^ 






£ c 1; .2 E 



? 5 

o _ 



o 



Z 



2 Z 5; 



38 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



— a 



o 

i 



5 
I 



il 



■c z 

i • =5 



1.1 



6 -D 

o c 



o = 

It 

O -o 

" c 

a, o 

Jl 



• o 

^ a. 
o — 
^ o 
a. c 
c o 



1 § i 

2 s 2 
Ul 

Q.:n o 
E Q.-0 
o . c 
l/> o o 



.0 



O 





9 


"o 






a 


ft 


E 








_c 








ft 




^ 


o 








o 






C 


O 




E 








3 






'5 

9 


.£ 


> 


C 
3 






> 

c 
« 








j 


c 

§ 


2 


O 

0» 






« 


_c 






>>. 


a» 


o. 


o 






O) 


'^ 









JC 


S 










ft 

i 








-g 


ft 


c 
ft 









i 









ft 

O 





E 
o 






< 
a. 


3 
ft 


ft 




V 

a 


c 
o 


ft 
a 


ft 


w 

'c 
o 




E 


'f 




E 


^ 


E 


E 


u 




o 




o 




o 







3 


"o 




to 


ft 


15 




t>? 


> 


tn 


a 


> 




ft 


E 
o 


UJ 

b 


J 


> 

E 

o 










1 


ft 
ft 




1 

b 

Z 


ft 

q 












^ 


ft 















2 




o 


jf 


> 


_» 










3 





o 
a 


** 


-S 


o 

> 










•Q 


■*■ 


* 


-S 


M 


■ J 










s 


ft 


"5 


i 


"o 


2 










-Q 


_t[ 


^ 


"a 


Q. 


"o 










o 


"5 


ot 




5 












b 


w 


c 


ft 




o 










w 






^ 

















ft 


T) 


»- 




o 










"o 


ft 


C 
ft 


ft 


ft 
} 


U 










^ 


•*< 
ft 


ft 


o 





"5 


c 
ft 








1 


a 
E 




o 


c 

I 


ft 

_>. 




ft 

> 

o 


ft 

« 










ft 

ft 


c 




o 


ft 
c 


UJ 


a 










1 


"o 


3 





■§ 


o 









o £ 



a. S 

1= C 



< o 



i i 



O -D 3 

?" I 

c •" ^ 

- -o S 



C "5 



E 2 
o E 



-^ c 



a. 
- ■§ 

■D t 

" E 
i E 



■ s I 

I 2 
11'. 



£ s 2 

S J o 



^ o 






c — — 



i «> s 

o 1- i! 



I £ 
« % 

o o 



E ^ "« 



a-o 
E 5 



» c E 

E o o 

a ^ " 

o o c 

i > • 

i S « 

E V > 

3 — o 

Q. O ^ 



I 

s 

1 

3 



o 
u 

!| 

irt E 

S "O T 
= c • 

o " • 

w w o 

i °-^ 

ill 

Til 
ri = 2 

C ft ra 

ft U 

£ ft O 

O Q. ^ 

J£ o ' 

O ro j; 

" E - 

s 9 <» S 
••" c>i o — 

I* s S 
I s = - 

.S 2 E S 



E 
I 

"5 



o i 



Q. - 
E -5 



• = c 

c ; • 

S S •? 

- o 'S 






t> E "O 






o -o ■ 
= o o 



82 i 
. - = 

^ 2 
E "o _ 
o o 



S - - 



i E 






O _ - 



2 E ; 



E 
o- E 



2 E 



Q-T) 

S 



ll 



S! E 

^1 
.a 3 

E 2 

3 a> - 

^ o £ 



c E c 
e 3 e 
K a JO 

^i s 

o ;= J= 

§ I J 

^ t a 
^£ S 



- » i 



» E 5 5 

s ■? "5 ° 

;= 2 - • 

^ o n o 

_ c u — 



t = ° )i 

LJ w O 






CM E 



£ s = 



" g 

E = 



-5*2 
S ^ = « 
o ^ — -S 



= o 
o <■< 

e o. 



o 

-o ° 
a o 



-X o - 

:= • o 



?^=S 



o 5 ^ J i 



E ° £ 



^ o = - 
""o 2 ^ 



■o -o -o " 



o a. 2 

«" o o 

o -» •* 

s §-2 

o "* ft 



-Si^ c2 



E i 

o — 

•• c 

o o 



£ -6 



Ml 

>- Q. 
2 •* 



t O > 



-•. 3 ,i 
o 2 _ 



£ — - 

c O «) 

s - s 

c o > 

o. E ^ 

S c J! 

O <> o 

^ a. K 

E t, - 

2 = « 

S ^§ 

? • .9 



i^ o-o 



o b t 
^ n o 
•! a = 

£'^ 

o -o - 

i o £ 

?§ I 

-z i 

^ = 2 

-= ^ *" 

° > a 

E -o c 

' V z 
o-° g i 

- £ a E 



a. 0. E o 

K * - « 

« -D (/> C 



J 2 

o □ 



si 

o ^ 

> 



5 o 



c ? */> 

-o » •" 



" b 

E _ 

i 5 

T E 



SI 



II 



3 ! C 

• □ 

w — » 

3 O » 

■5 ° * 
oli 

^ o 
o • 

u c 

-0 ° j; 



i s 



V) 



? 

o 

s - 



3 

1 
o 






■Q 
O 



i 

i 



-'i 



(/) I- 



} 






I -I 

I Ui * 

* Z 

O m at 



« Z 



6 






T? 


vj 




3 


>u S 






u^ a 




In 






.£ 


tU lu 







•"5 


d 


i 


• ac 


S 


i 


3 i/i 


u 


X 


r» 


"8 


o 


*A •- 









8 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



39 



.0 
.0. 






S 6 

O 
3 Si 

03 



i -a 



o 2 
< ^ 

J! E 



- 5 -i: o 



_0 jj 
■^ O 



u 2 
•oji 

« E 
a 3 
E =! 



S t E 



a) c " 

S I 2 



^ o E 



L~ >.1: ¥ 



TJ S " ^ 



£ ■£ 



u 

•J "5 



E " =: 

o « = 

1/1 — c 

« ° O 

:£ ^ ^ 



0) -O 41 



o o 






tn 



g-5 



-S ^ o 

.1 ^-s 



» I 



O O i 



0> Q. C " C 

"5 I ° "2 J 



* ^ if I" 5~ S 



LU 
</) 

uj i 

ii 






i i 

o ^s 
§ 2 

o O 

a 
_£ -^ 
a o 
E .. 

^ i 



u "- 3 *«_ D 
:£ -D O « •- 



4) — 

E o 



o'-£ i J 2 ^ i 



E E -S 
§ 01 o 
Q. ° 



': -B ^ ~ 



° I ° "o ^ i 



= -2 



^ O 4j ._ 



<i) a; 



o -5 s ^ Q- 1; 

^ ^ i £ ^ Q. 

K D S 
41 O ^ 
^ -Q * 

^ O -^ 

<u c -" 

^ u - 

o ^ - 

^^ u a> 

^ _o -c 

-o -r- a 
o ° E 
-O D o 

if J'- 

— O ^ Q. 

"o "n 



— a; 



a- c I g 
E o > ^ 

1- Q. o Z 



° > • 

°" z 1 

O So: 



O 

c 

1 

-I 
^^ 

I ° 

O VI 
c ^ 

U ^ 

-^ 2 ° 



■0 c 

« 3 

N O 

« E 

■5 o 

a » 

£ o 

J, > 

Q. C 






a 

E 



E = S 

o OJ o 

" E -D 

2 ? g 



_2 o *> 

^ E 

:|| S 

° at c 



" J_ E 

.2 -^ "0 1. 

E ^ o 

j; 3 S! ^ 

Q. Q- o 

E E -S 

S "S 1 2 

0, 5 o » 

I— o 01 ^ 



o o 



■S o j: ^ 



* r 



» 3: 



E o 

Si § 

° i-g 



o E 
o in 






^ E T3 u 



t— ^ ^ O u 



^ '% ~ r 



o o 



O D 

a Q. 



s r- 



■s " -? ^ "? I s -? 

^ -o g ^ =-o-§ g 
-oSpSgo-ss 



» -5 >•- 

Q- ~ -O 

E*- 4J 

„ 4) flJ ^ 

O (U 01 ^ 

< ;^ ^ £ 



o — £ -a 

4* * 



O 4) "^ 



2 2 -D E 



i^^ 4; 

■ 4) 
_4) CO * 

So o 



.5 " O 3 

-DC E 

„ ° J -D 



^ i — 

o o ^ 

-C 4, ^ 

•^ ^ 3 

O »— o 



H o 

-i i 



z S 



Z ^^ 



> a> 

> m 
trt to 



'^ "D 













./> 












n " 






^ 




s- 

F -S 







^ 




i 


a 










c b 






^-^ 


0) 






c 


































£ 


















E 


a. 






n 




4> -0 


r 




a c 






F " 




0) 


01 






V 











tt 




Q) T= 






^ a 


■g 


c 
1) 



I S S 



:= O) 



3 O 

^ g S 

° £"0 

-o £ > 

41 c -D 

» o> » 

:£ S c 

J ^ o 

o "5 c 



"o "5 S - 

» E c g 

■>- o o X 

01 o ° E 

s 2 i - 






"9 r 



£ E S ■£ o 
= _ Q. c S 



^ S 



-2 -D r^ "D 

E I E § 

11 = 2 



" E 

' -5 4) 

, » E 

J^ o 



i-'» 



E ° 



J -^ -t; u^ ■= 

"«j O "D "^ E 

X ® O — 

" u fl) — -7 

W ° ° ° o 

^ -D ._ a o 

- _S » o 3 

3 o o ? g 2 

Q. i/i ^f £ E o 



J- » 



E 
o 



1 41 -D 
lO -D .t 

-D 4) c 
-O - f 

2i 






Ii5 



3: D O 
3 4) H« 



o 

3 

a- 



UJ Z 

Z ;; 

-o 1-^ 
c 
o rv 

•~ ^ 4J 

= % ' 

6 Z s; 

1 i?J 
3 m v> 
5 10 • 

41 ~i^S 

Ji to Z 10 



J) 4j 



40 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



I 

c 

I 

•a 
■6 

i 
& L 



! 
I 
I 

s 

Ql 



.9. 



10 



O 



o 



51 



1 



C5» 






s 

i. 

I 

1 

■£ 
1 

s 

I 



c -o 



2 



■5 



2 

s 



H=. y -r. 



•> a. 

Is? 

< § 
i - 

■S I 



a o. 
E E 



s = o 
00^ 



2 E 

:= E 



O ^ 



S E 



s s -S 

o «. E E 

-c S <» 

> -D o 

• c "5 •- 

c 3 £ B 

c n a. = 



• " -1"° 

U C g — 

E Wt O V 

O- ^ U CI 

— S o a. 

r E u° 

E o » CM 



» E 



1 J 



§2 r 



is;* 
£ I S. 

J! c - 

00- 

- = O 

< |i 

J! £ e 

a B y 

E E E 

2 o S 



E 
E 
o 



If 
o E 



J! » Si 
a .i ~" 

o 3 o 
</i a. £ 



I- 



O "O 






i .3 -O — 

o 



^ E 

V P 



S 

t s 



•o 



• 01 

■5:1 



-! ° = 5 

° S • o S 
5 " . 

- = i 

•^ » o> 
h V ° c 

'- 52 



IS 



I 5 

S o 

o C 

00 y 



- ■" s- ° 



« « o 
-£ -o ^ 



_„ c 
o S 



81;? 



o 



o 



o 2 2 



E «« 



■?2 

o „ 









O o t 



» o 



lA Z 



or 



C C .Z "T 



o * 



"z 

J ^ * 

J -5 * 



5- 



o 

o 






1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



41 





»n 






1^ 






-n 


O 




c 
o 


u 


V 




■- 




*o 


4) 






a 




a; 


l- 




* 


o 


















o 


-Q 




o 




,^ 




^ 


o 








u 


O 


4) 
TI 


r 






n 


0} 


n 


r 


o 


F 






u 






V 


4) 


4) 


a 






E 


^ 


*: 



O O c 

C C 4, 

.E 5 °- 

£ S-fC 






o S 



"5 ») a> 



■2 e 



3 ? ? 



E ? E 
to E o 



o S 



S > 

O 3 



o -Si g 

to Q. E 



< -5 

il 

I/) u 






^ 



o 

.c 

o 



c 
o 



c 
o 



c 
o 



I 

o 

«/> 

T3 
C 

o 

c 
.o 

o 
u 



I 



4> 

Q 
-S 

■Q 



a 
E 
o 



J) 



O 5 






i ^ 



4) 
V 


^ 


0) 


O) 






ft) 








O) 


E 


u 
























-C 




O) 


o 




_0 










J 





"o 






D 


a> 


11^ 

o 


T3 
4) 






fc 

c 

3 






4) 

C 

o 


c 
o 


O 












.!i^ 


o> 




O) 


Q. 

E 

o 


Q. 

F 


4> 

c 


U 

O 


4) 


o 






■ 





O J3 E J3 





-D 


*1 


5: E 


c 
o 


V 

^ 
































^ 


O 


c 

4) 


-0 a> 


o 


-O 




o! 


O 




Si "- 


-c 


c 








O 


°tJ^ 


c 




1 



»1 




4) 


*o "^ 


a-D 




w 






lo 


c 




O 

o 



O 

r-) 
o 




4) 

o 


3: 

3 







TT 


o 


n lu 


E 


-n 




1 


O 




.. o 








E 




^ 


4) lO 

■B Z 
o 


o 


"n 


o 

4) 














f- 


^ 


— 


o 


o r¥ 


-C 


r 


O 


-i 

4) 
O 


4) 

a 
E 
o 


u 

IE 


1 - 

5--S 


E 
o 




c 

D 

Ll- 






3 




4) 


c 



4) 



-o S 



I/) 

Z m 

« « 

S z 

Z 1^ 



.1: 


* 


o "Ti 


* 




t- 








:r 


-D 


-F. «» 














^ 




»-o 












c c 




O) 


o S 


V 




D> 5 


IE 


O 

r 


r" 


* 






-C 


4) 


■p f! 



^ "D 0) 



t D 



«> o ■" 



• t— V -7 
n ^ 



= j= ">= a 



E 5 



; -D 



-S -6 

O 4J 4> 

-D ^ ^- 

- o -^ o 



p ° 
o 2 



E :5 S 



5 .^ 



S: > 



r E ■£ i" 

O p 4} lO 
C ^ -D >— 






5 -° 



Z <D 



Z n 



— 2 



i-i 



3 


4) 

E 

4> 







c 
4) 




^"S 


e 


tn 




4) 


0) 


3 






- -o 


o 


4) 




















n 




O 


K 

4) 


E 

D 

a 




-n 


5 




"o 


4) 

C 
Ji 
-O 







O 


4; 


J 


c 
o 


_o 


■£ .s 


E 






0) 


> 


« 


3 


O) ■ - 


c 


c 
o 




c 
c 


4) 


-> 


4) 



3 

■D 
0) 

C 


o 


-Q 


S-3 


-1£ 
c 


-C 

c 
o 






n 


en 




o 


c 

4) 


3 


o -o 


ft) 


o 


o 




* 


en 


E 


O 


c 
n 


o 




OJ 




































< 






o 
o 
u 

"O 

c 
o 




"O 




n 




o 


Q. 

E 
o 


o 

c 

£ 
"o 


c 
'o 


o 

4) 

c 

'e 


4) 
O 


i 2 


4J 


b 
E 
tn 

o 


D) 

3 
O 



E^l 



- s => - 



i) — ."J c 



ii 

1"? 
-D O 

"S ° 

-a -o 

C c 

2 "5 
5) .2 



a. i 



D o -£ 0> 



^ ui 






S S. 



i^ 



i^ . 



S Z 

E <^ 

o *" 

Z CO 



2 — o 
01- E 



•£ "° -r, 

a » o Ji 
E — J< 



CO 



in 



3 P S, 



5 £ -£ 



>* 




t^ 


n 




5! 


^ 







•— 






s^ 


■ - CN 


c 
o 
E 

4J 




o 

-Q 


^O 




Q. c 
X O 

4J Q. 


"O -a 




4i 3 

1-s 


c 
o 

u 




c c 


.2^ 


O 

4) 

> 




OJ 






-a o 


F Z 


O 




i^.S 


4) 




= o 


2 "J 










o 


















Q. 




^1 

^ 4) 



4> 

C 


o 
£ 



Li- 


E i 

O c 

^ o 


E ^ 

..^ 


.'ii 


•*■ 


>- 


c 


0. -S 


< 

41 


3 
T7 


CD V 
Ji .1 


"o 

u 

_o 


c 
o 
u 


a c 4) 5 
E o j: ^ 

5 Q. 1- !> 


a 

F 




^f. 


S 00 


C V 


o 




a-a 






° ■? 


in 


o 


►- 


.12 














^ to 






% ^ 






7 £ 












^1 






5 s. 






<« — 


c 
c 




i^'^ 
? "^ 


3 




in : 


S 


o> 


1^ 

S "^ 

!" o 


TJ 


p 


O 

> 


•o 


< 


a- 


Z CN 



42 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Cody Mountains quadrangle. 

Altered lull anJ lull breccia coniaining zeolites »Kcur in at least 
two different lithographic units in at least two arca^ within the 
Cady Mountains 15' quadrangle. One such area reported by Ames 
and others ( 1 95S) occurs near the western border of the quadrangle 
about 3 miles west of Hector siding (Photos 33-35). Since most of 
the /eolile-bearmp tuff (Kcurs in the adjacent Newberry quadran- 
gle, this deposit will be discussed with those of the Newberry 
quadrangle. 

The Cady Mountains quadrangle has been mapped by Dibblee 
and Bavsctt (1966a) who include a tuff breccia unit within an 
assemblage of "volcanic and sedimentary rocks" of OligcK-enc or 
early Miocene, or possibly older age. This unit consist of light 
gray to greenish-tan, massive to bedded tulT breccia, composed 
of angular to subrounded fragments as much as I foot in diame- 
ter of andesite in a fine- to coarse-grained tuff matrix composed 
of grains of quartz, feldspar, basalt, andesite, and shards of devit- 



R4E 



T.12N. 




T11N 



Topography from U S G S 
Alvord Mountain IS' quadrangle 



Scale 1 62.500 


I 



t Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 

Figure 16. Index mop of the Alvord Mountain area, San Bernor- 
dino County, thowing zeolite tomple locotioni (dolt) within the 
Spaniih Canyon Formation. 



rified glass. The tuff breccia was deposited as volcanic mudflows 
and ash (Dibblce and Ba-ssctt, |966a). This lithologic unit is 
widespread throughout this quadrangle and several of the adja- 
cent quadrangles. One such exposure of the tuff breccia unit is on 
the north side of a northeast-trending canyon about 5 miles 
northeast of Hector siding on the Santa Fe Railroad. This area 
is in the NW '. section 24, T 9N , R.5E . SBBM There a se- 
quence of west-dipping beds of luff and sandstone form a promi- 
nent bluff several hundred feet long and about 100 feet high. A 
bed of pink bentonitic clay at least 10 feet thick is exposed at the 
base of the bluff. Overlying the bed of clay is a 6- to 8-foot bed 
of white altered tuff, a bed of tan sandstone about 25 feet thick, 
another bed at least 20 feel thick of pinkish altered lithic lufT, a 
bed of greenish altered tulT 10 feet thick, and a bed of pinkish 
altered tulT about 20 feel thick The whole sequence is capped by 
a bed of red basaltic tuff and a basalt flow. All of the altered tuffs 
contain clinoptilolile. Other areas within the quadrangle under- 
lain by lufTand tuffbreccia assigned to the tuff breccia lithologic 
unit may be altered to zeolites. No other areas within the quaid- 
rangle were examined or sampled during the present study. 

Figure 17 is an index map showing the sample location. A 
more complete descnption of this sample site and samples is 
included in Table 6-D. 

Daggett quadrangle. 

The Daggett 15' quadrangle is located in west central San 
Bernardino County. The eastern outskirts of Barstow lie near the 
west central edge of the quadrangle. The Mojave River crosses 
the quadrangle near the center in an east-west direction. 

The Daggett quadrangle has been mapped by Dibblee (1970), 
who divided the rocks into map units. Zeoliie-beanng tuffs occur 
in at least two of these map units. In the Daggett Ridge area near 
the southwestern comer of the quadrangle, a narrow southeast- 
trending, north-dipping altered lufTbed crops out for a distance 



R5E 



R6E 



108 
•=^113 





T9N 



Topography Irom U S G S 
Cady Mountains 15 quadrangle 



Jl. 



Scale t 62.500 


I 



I Miles 



Contour Interval 40 Feel 

Figure 17. Index map of port of the Cady Mountains quodrangle. 
Son Bernordino County thowing a leolite tomple location (dot). 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



43 



is 
o 

E 



5 





E 
•S 

<3 

o 

.c 

o 

CO 

c 
o 
•r> 

4? 

» 

£ 
I 

I 



I 

s 

I 

I 

I 



.0. 






■Q 
.0 



.g. 



I 





=s « ? 



-2 5-2 

|U 

E o c 

I ^^ 

.E . o 

O «) _c 

o "S 5 
< B-B 

I"? ii 

10 0):= 



H) 



F o 



oi 



E 0) 
o E 



^ »! o 








o. 


■? 








-) 


^ 


m 










4» 


<n 


^ 


Q. 


n 


i 




o> 




O 


















c 


o 







n 


&> 




> 




o 




r 






> 


-o 








g i 



s 1^ 

:|-0 






I 



O 



o> 



E i 



-o o 

g) ^ 

— o 

O JU 

"o o 






_2 c j; 
-O a. o 



o p 
05 



l-.i1 



IS 



■Q.:£ 
E ^ 



a o o 

D> J 

"is 

.!2 ^ -c «> 

Q. QJ « C 

§1 ° S 

t/i a ^ o) 



*" « ^ 

-g 5 3 -i 

S "D T3 O 

^ c J> ^ 

a o 5 -o 

.« — = 

«j y ° 2 

» ^ - 

» t °Z 

■£ •*" o 

Elf" 

o -i J! 

«. O -2 CN 

" -s " » 

< D o -D 

«, - -E .E 

aj: o ^ 
E ^ c 5 

Irt * -O o 



" * - 

i e E 

2-0 E 

Q. O O ^ 

ll of 



- -o 



O o 

.- OJ 

o _^ 

4) o 

E >. 

o c 



S r^ 




£ -o 








o o 




IS 




, _^ 




g 




■o "O 




ITi 




P £ 




n 








c c 




5 § 












:is 




a J 




-S 3 




O J3 




Q. 






<n 






- i 


O 


a ~ 


Ol 


«. 2 




o 



E S 



a, 1= 

^ > 
a o 






o. ^ 

E :: 



4) 


















> 






^ 


a 


*: 








^ 






J 




4> 


D 


-D 


4) 








-n 


4) 


O 








01 

"5 


O 
C 
< 


4) 
4) 



-£ -D 

Ol 4> 

E « 
o ^ 
CO o 



■S o -t 

s I -s 
5--0 -o 

"u "o 5: 

U k ^ 

111 
■p .= 4) 

11^ . 

O O -E J 

K 5 •- Z 

« -g J >o 

S « - "o 

'- o 

ai 4) to "U 

^ ^ O c 

I- O ^ O 



z 

^ Z (/) 

5 "^ *; 

3 -^ ^ .*■ 

° ? • z 

>.-5 8 ^ 

O 3 UJ ^ 

CO" t/) (N 



•? 
o 

! 

1 
& 

i 

s 
a 

c 

i 

II 

o 



44 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



of about a mile. The tuff is one of the map units assigned by 
Dibblcc ( 1970) to a sequence of Miocene sedimentary rocks in- 
cluding stream-laid and lacustrine sedimentary deposits and a few 
thin tuff beds. According to Dibblcc (1970). the tuff forms the 
ba.sal bed and a few other beds a.s thick as 30 feet. The luff is tan. 
light gray to white, massive, semi-friable, fine- to medium- 
grained, composed of glass shards, feldspar grains, scattered bio- 
titc flakes, and small fragments of pink to brown andcsitic rocks. 
Samples of altered tuff collected over a distance of more than a 
mile contain appreciable amounts of clinoptilolitc. The tuff unit 
crops out about 7 miles farther east as a narrow east-west-trending 
ridge near the old abandoned Gem (Columbus) borate mine. Sam- 
ples collected from this body of altered tuff contained various 
amounts of clinoptilolite (Photo 36). One sample contained ma- 
gadiite in addition to clinoptilolite. A small body of Miocene tuff 
occurs about half a mile northwest of the Gem mine. This area 
was not examined or sampled. 

A small deposit of light green altered tufT occurs about a 
half mile west of the Gunn bcnlonitc deposit in the northeastern 
quarter of the quadrangle. This altered tuff deposit is in the 
sandstone map unit of Dibblee's Miocene sedimentary rock se- 
quence. Other areas underlain by rocks of this map unit occur 
in the northern half of the Daggett quadrangle but were not 
examined or sampled. 

An older (?) tuff or tuff breccia unit and a limestone, shale 
and tuff unit occur within a sequence of Oligocene to MiiKene 
volcanic and sedimentary rocks within the Daggett quadrangle, 
primarily in the north half. Rocks assigned to both of those 
lithologic units occur south of Lead Mountain and west of Ele- 
phant Mountain in the northwestern quarter of the Daggett 
quadrangle. Exposures of altered tuff occur on b<Mh sides of a 
north-trending canyon about a mile north of the Marine Corps 
Supply Center at Nebo. A number of prospect pit and "gopher 
hole" workings for bentonitic clay occur within the area. These 
were examined and sampled for zeolite minerals as were the 
dumps and surface workings at the old "Soapstone" bentonite or 
clay mine a mile and a half farther southeast. No zeolite minerals 
were identified in the tuff from this area. 




Hhoto JJ Hroniincnl blull compoied of altered lutf (unnamed 
formalion). The lull unit it over 100 feet thick and consisit of pole 
pink, while, and gray zeoliliied luff. A pink bentonitic clay underlies 
the luff. The zeolilized luff n overlain by redditfvbrown boiailic tuff 
end a botall flow. Ar«o i> obout 4'/^ milei northeott of Meclor lidino. 




Photo 34. View north up o canyon about 4'/, miles northeast of 
Hector siding. Prominent ridge composed of altered tuff is exposed 
on the left (west) side of the canyon. Most of the tuff hos been 
zeolitlzed. Basaltic tuff and o basalt flow overlie the altered tuff 
beds. 




Photo 35. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptilolite from the 
Cady Mountains, Sample site 113, Sample C. 




Photo 36. Scanning electron microgroph of clinoptiloltte-bearmg 
tuff from an unnamed formation, Daggett quadrangle. Sample site 
37, Sample A. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



45 



R.1W. 



R 1E, 



» , ^ v^ ■-, ,. 



■7^ 



-36..'^- 



m^::^^ 



s_l_-. .■■;- ..■'-V 



T8N 



^,Sxr 




V 


37 

• 


38 
• 39 


^ 


^^ 






f, - 


1 1 





T8N. 



R.1W. 



R.1E. 






36 



y :i„ 





84 



85 ^#60 




fO 



^ 



88 



1 87^1 



---, Nel>o 



5ft«>i -'-.V«£i3t.->-- -If ■" 



:t^ 



55 



V' 



•>«-*^ 



•1^ 



R.2E. 



T.I ON. 



T.9N. 





\^,,-WjC^'^' 








- • 22 




120 


^K:^! 






27 



T10N 



Topography from U.S.GS. 
Daggett 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1 :62.500 

.5 

J I 



1 Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 
Figure 18. Index maps of ports of the Daggett quodrongle. Son Bernardino County, showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 



The tuff breccia map unit is described by Dibblee (1970) as 
yellowlsh-ian. cream-white to greenish-tan, rarely pink, bedded 
to massive luff breccia composed of pea-sized devitrified pumice 
lapilli or poorly sorted fragments of Tertiary volcanic rocks 
embedded in a matrix of light-colored luff that contains grains of 
feldspar, quart/, and flakes of mica. This rock is widespread in 
the Calico Mountains in the norlheaslern quarter of the quadrangle 
and in the vicinity of Lead Mountain and Elephant Mountain. 
Farther north in the Calico Mountains, this unit has been mapped 



by McCulloh (1960) as the Pickhandle Formation. During the 
present study, the Calico Mountain area within the Daggett quad- 
rangle was not studied. However, the tuff breccia in an area ad- 
jacent to Elephant Mountain and southeast of Lead Mountain was 
examined, sampled, and checked for zeolite minerals. Only one 
sample from a low ridge half a mile west of the southern end of 
Elephant Mountain contained clinoptilolite. No other zeolite min- 
erals were identified in pyrocla.stic rocks of Oligocene or Miocene 
age in the Daggett quadrangle. 



46 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Figure 18 is an index map of parts of the Daggett quadrangle 
showing the sample locations. A dcscnption of sample sites and 
samples collected from the Daggcit quadrangle is given in Table 
6-E. 

Kerens quadrangle. 

PyriH-lasiiL- riH.ks of Tertiary age crop out in many areas in the 
Bristol Mountains which cross the southwestern corner of the Ker- 
ens quadrangle Ludlow, the closest town, is about 13 miles east 
of the west edge of the quadrangle Dibblcc (1967) indicates that 
a luff breccia unii of Oligocene to Miocene age is exposed through- 
out the Bristol Mountains on Ihc Broadwell Lake quadrangle, 
which adjoins the Kerens quadrangle on the west. The light-col- 
ored luffaceous rocks assigned lo this map unit range from nearly 
white. pt>orly-bcdded tuff breccia composed of small white frag- 
ments of dcvitrificd andesiiic glass or of pumice in a tuffaccous 
matrix to a massive or crudely-bedded buff to greenish-tan tuf- 
faccous breccia with andesiiic fragments up to a fool in diameter 
embedded in a tuffaceous sandstone (Dibblee. I%7). A similar 
Tertiary luff breccia crops out in the Bristol Mountains in the 
southwestern pari of the Kerens quadrangle. The only geologic 
mapping in the Kerens quadrangle was done by geologists of the 
Southern Pacific Company (Laird. I960) who used different map 
units than Dibblee. 

During the present zeolite study, a series of samples of altered 
luff and tuff breccia was collected from a site near an old "onyx" 
mine (Ribbon Rock mine) on the east lower foothills of the 
Bnstol Mountains in section 8, T.8N., RICE., SBBM. The al- 
tered tufTand tuffbreccia underlie a prominent bluff and contain 
vanous amounts of mordenite, clinoptilolite. and phillipsite. No 
other tuff or tulT breccia exposures were examined on the Kerens 
quadrangle. A sample location is shown in Figure 19. A descrip- 
tion of this sample site and of the samples is given in Table 6-F. 



H 4lE 




T2eS 



Topography from U S G S 

Klinker Min 7'^ quadrangle Section boundaries are protected 



Scale 1 :24.(X)0 



1 Km 

J 



Ck>ntour Interval 40 Feel 



R9E 



R 10E 




\- 



121 



-^>3 



i . 



T8N 



Topography from U S G S. 
Kafens 15' quadrangle 



Scale 1 62.500 


I 



I Miles 

J 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 

Figure 19. Index mop o( part of the Kerens quadrangle, Son Ber- 
nordino County, ihowing a zeolite tomple location (dot). 



Figure 20. Index map of port of the Klinker Mtn. 7'^' quodrangle, 
San Bernardino County, showing zeolite sample locations (dots). 

Klinker Mountain quadrangle. 

An area underlain by white, pale green, or pale yellow altered 
tuff and tuff breccia occurs near the crest of the Summit Range in 
the norihwesi quarter of ihe Klinker Mountain 7' .-' quadrangle. 
Johannesburg lies about 8 miles south of the quadrangle bt>undar> 
The Trona Road crosses near Ihc eastern edge of Ihe area .Aci;i>rd- 
ing lo Smith ( 1964). who mapped Ihe area cast of the Trona Road, 
the pyroclastic rocks are pan of a lithologic unil called 'Aokanic 
rocks older than the Bednvk Spring Formation." which contain 
some luff, lapilli luff, and luff breccia. A small do?er cut or pros- 
pect pit on the easi side of the road exposes a greenish-gra> altered 
lapilli tuff The luff beds strike nearly north-south and dip to the 
west Mordcnile has been tentatively identified as a major con- 
sliluenl of the altered lapilli luff The area underlain by altered 
luff and tuff breccia extends west beyond the Trona Road lo a basin 
surrounded b\ low rolling hills These hills are underlain by while 
tull. most of which has been altered to hcntonitic clay Howe\cr. 
on the southeast corner of the basin, the altered luffs form resistant 
bluffs with individual beds up lo 6 lo X feel thick Faulting has 
disrupted the bedding within ihe altered luffs and luff breccias. 
Samples collected from these resistant bluffs contain various 
amounts of a mineral tenlativrly identified as mordcnile. opal, 
and quart/ Figure 20 is an indcv map showing Ihc sample liva- 
lions A description ol the sample sites and samples is given 
m Table 6-G 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



47 







I 



S § 
o p 

Q 3 






c 
o 



a. 



4) O 

E -S 

^1 






4) o 



■t o _£ 

g o £ 

- £ o 

g o <« 



■9 S 

-5 E 



E S o 
o o i! 



< .£ ■= >^^ 
J) o J b 



*t: 4) -o "a 

O -E C O • 

>^ "^ 4> O 

O ° 41 C 

Jl 41 ^ ii ■ 

_ Q-"0 

O O 41 41 . 

£ 41 1- 5 i 

'-' •£ 41 ^ 



41 O 

"d. a. 
E-5 
^5 



3: T -2 

3 41 U 

■= -O c 

III 

41 ^ 2 C 

^ E 4) 41 

o E c 3 

41 o E E 

> O c -^ 

* *; o -D 

-^ = £ O 

.£ c "^ ttj" 

CL 4> CN .^ 

D £ o o 

»« o> * ■= 

- O Q.-° 

CO ^ 3 ' 

Ji 0) 4) C 

£ £ ^ c 

O D 0) o 






U 



» 2 



"•- _, C 



£ Q.^ 



a> 



Z 3 



O) 



i;-°-5E 

o « o > 

0—41 



J) £ E ~ 

Q- E 41 „ 

E oi E s 

O O o D 

u^ ^ in E 



■" ? ° E 

41 41 Q ^ 

Q.— v- O 

E 3 o >, 

o - -o — 

S £ ^ 



~ z 

— o 

CM 



If 



— n a) 



o 
O 



5-8 
5 o 
° E 



S c £ 






>^ o 

o > 
at "o 



i -a 



poo 

7^^ :£ 

C > T3 

:r > a* 



D 41 
(/) > 



O :0 

E t 



E 
o 
in 



5).E 
i 2 



■^' E 
o E 



"5. i 

E v. 



o o 

" E 



IE 

to o 



£ D 

o ^ 



^ « 0* 



I i 



O o 

E 41 
O c 



o i! 



I— c > O 

■ 4) O "^ 

4) O) — 9> 

1 3 i .i 

-° S Z 

»; o) S ^ 

2 £ >--s 
-° o S-S 

~~T..S 

i E -O ^ 41 

■ = £ -o E 

O Q. c o 

U 2 ° '^ 

1 E "5 S :? 

! S = . 5 

2 -o S ^ 

° J 4. O 

" o H£ = .^ 

— -E i T3 C 

i_ ^ •« 41 «> 

41 41 = 5 2: 

c jQ o ~ a. 






5 


0- 


Z 


*o 


\'S 




at 


^ 








0> 


vr<lU 


Q 


1/1 OC 



~D 4J 






4> 


•- 


?» z 


UJ 




O 


4) 


^ E 


m 




0) 


c 
o 


u 2 


o 




c 


o 

4) 

a 
n 








n 




n 




c 






> 


V 




c 










a. o 


-D 


-D 


.=^ 


^ 


















> 
o 




tt 


4) 


> 
4) 


E 


"' n 


m 


D 


o> 


./. 


.? .E 




3 




4) 
Q. 


c 


F 


(U 


o 


fc 



E •£ 41 .y 

to J I— £: 



= ¥ 2 



-- 1/1 Jl 



E -; -D 

^3 i 



o 


^ 


-D 

E 

3 


F 


41 

E 
o 


O 


O 


T1 


41 


— 


41 




F 






O 


_« 


O 



J- C 4) 

i-"S 

o:5 a 

31 i 



z 



- — 


O 






4> 


A 


O 


n 


b 


>. 










— 


F 


C7I 


X 




o 








Q. 














c 
O 


< 


u 


4) 


CO 


a 
F 




n 


a 


to 


E 

D 
to 


c 
o 



■~ 41 41 



>- 2 -i 



< ^ 



"ll i 

■^ Z B 
=5 2 I 

-"S o S 
o 5 -° o 
c — 12 t; 

E O o "D 



— C 



5) O 41 

■ '^ -o 

|0J 
4) O -O 

«)(*>£ 
h,~ o 

41 -^ 41 

■q. » -3 
E - .9 

O -t J3 
lO 3 — 



1 I 

O O $ 41 

41 ^ ^ -D 

* E - 5 

^ £ -5 ? 

4, wt o ■- 

"• 41 o •- 

S ■£ "D ^ 

O 5 I « 

5 41 X -c 

►— C 41 ►- 



J) 



T3 
O 

3 



O UJ •— 

O Z « 



48 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



"8 



3 



5 



•e 

o 
E 



e 






.0. 



o 



S3 

O u 



o E 



a. o 
E E 

2 E 



■8 
I 

o 

c 
2 



o 

a 
ji 



E ■■ 

o 2 

c i 
o 

" E 

"S-'s 

E S 



•o 
J 

§ 

£ 
i. 

o 

s 






•5 * 

.2 3 



2 -o 
a S 



IS 




° ■£ 



c « — 

• -D J 



O -D 



.9 -5 a 

C -D O 

3 C 

-D o •£ 

C . 3 

O « O 
— "o T 

fc *o ^ ^ 



S o 



E S 



• 
Z 






lU 

« . 



li 



Jj 



i 

Z 



> o 



Z 



a 
E 



o c 



.£ E 

a. " 



= > 

a"3 

E - 
o -o 

•• • 

•> £ 



^T3 • 2 -C -D 

*. » i= -, — ■- 

If ^ J ^» 

--!?=§■ 

— i: - O £, o 
-o '^ o ~ » 2 

S « t ^ - £ 
e c o 3 "* ~ 

— «.;=«> 
o E S 

"O ^= u-> — 

S T ? ° 
S b = 

» s § £ 

E -f ? i 
o o 9 - 

-£ ? - 2 

>- E S c 



Z 



I"? 5 
'. 1-0 

t O Q. 



-D • - 
C O »- 



c o b ■ 

~ "• ° -Q. 

i "o ; E 

J" t 2 2 

„ E 9 „ 



a. . 
1 ° 

O CL. 






• > 

11 



I i 



• • c 
•E E S 
— o « 



» - S 



O J " 

-30 

"0 9™ 



c -s ■! 



o - o £ 
1/^ > E Q. 



ri:l 



« O) c ; 



— -S J) 

o o «. 

'^ V o 

,-5 S 



O c 

» o 

■D ■ 

f ° s 

Q. u -* 

o S - 

-O" S S 

■ .: V 

T) ■" - 

o o o 



E 2 

"5 -D 

• S 

.- * 

» o 



■DOE 

• E S 

« C ° 
= « •fc 



O 

oo 

■* S - 
_ o a 

*■ « ^ 
« o 

Oil 



• ° • 

a"? * 
E -s S 



Z 



II! 

> 

q c ^ 



a. 

E 



£-p < 



5-S J 

1» - 
:=■£ E 

i ° 6 

S -c " 

e } o 

"5 - ■£ 



i.3 2 .: 
E -o » o 
o S e c 
' c "o ^ 



o :. TJ .; 
_ e c ^ 
■S -o o - 

E =1 o 
£ g-S-o 

i ° 9 "• 

c w ^ 

•> o i; ■? 

o J S 
E -o = , 
2 £ 2 € 

ill"! 

= _? 2 " 

S - S •" 

- = • 

« o « £ 

O • 3 j: 
^ a o c 

° =s ■" : o 

■" i £ E s 

< I ° J o 



a 
E 



1^0 



• « "5 ji 

:£ > i S 

» o E ' 

. » 2 2 



E ^ 1^ 
0-° E ^ 

>- o o -o 



giS 



=3 "S <« 
^I o 

■5 O -D 
ill 



5 • i. 

Ill 

HI 



a. S ' 

His 

*- -£ ^ o 



V lu 



•01 

£ C 

» 2 
o 7 



z 






"2 1 

r ? 

M 

Q o- 



o «n 

I? 



c o 

11 



ss 



^1 

Z « 



5 z 

• » 



z 
Jt 

? 

o 

■5 



r ? 

• 2 

n 



z 
>?« 

z-" 
15 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



49 









"6 




j2 










*f 


















a. 






1 




E 




i 






e 




'5; 




T5 






4) 




o 










% 












1 















I 




Q. 














4)" 




8. 






s 




"o 




! 






<£ 




O 4) 




3 






J2 








O 











■ - 'c 




^ 






t 




U ^ 




o 






c 




lO .— 




M 










.£ o 




C 






1 














S e 




'o 












^ 






o 




!1 










i 






8 






.01 






« 






* 




■5.-D 




CL 






*> 
3 




i! 




E 






-^ 






5 










4) a 




^ £ 










J= a. 












t- ir 




1- = 










tered 
■verol 
esent 
mm 
















i! ° E 










-5^0.- 




"5 "o ^ 2 










lined 

nts. 

ore 

Ip to 




ined 
yers 
alack 
the : 










a 4) u ^ 




— 










ine-gr 

fragm 
m wid 
veins 




" — >^ D 






1 
.0. 






ine-g 
mm) 
w tin 
ugho 






u 




^^ 3. £ ? 




■*: io j; 2 






£ 




2 s-e:o:6 




1- . . "n 






Q 




OJ *- O n ^ 








1 




sample is a whitish- 
with a few small 
sh-gray layersiup 
e sample. Some c 
cut across the be 




The sample is a light g 
tuff with a few narrow 
pale green altered tuff 
fragments are scattere 










Thes 
luff 
pinki 
in Ih 
wide 










1 

1 


most of two large 
Mine." The work- 
ilile luff with some 
xposure has been 
ft about 60 feet 


c 
o 

4) 
J 

o 

4> 


ed of altered tuff 
minor faulting or 
e N10°W and dip 
similar in appear- 
North Group of 


§-? 
«. 2 
•£ T 



■s §■ 

t 

4) 4) 




1 


Q 


the eastern 
"Soapstone 
altered rhyc 
lay. Each e 
vertical she 


4) 


om a 5'-6' b 
displaced by 
ff strata strike 
imple is very 
mpled in the 






o 




s 




-O 
3 


ll 

a c 




-2 


.f 


E _ 0) " 


"O 






8 
o 


"o 
o 


mple is fro 
at the old 
e in a whit 
bentonitic 
ped by a 


4) 

4) 


mple is fn 
has been 
ig. The tu 
rE. The so 
o that so 


n 

_ o 
D -Q 






4> 


n ■« ± o 


lO 


o _ .= tJ * 


wf 0) 






o 


Thesi 
dump 
ingsc 
white 
devel 


d'» 


The s 

which 
slump 

once 


E -5, 








S.9- 


1 2 








k CN 




■?? - 


C 

o 








IV — 




S 








o ij 




4) 


>. 








-o S 




E *" 


^ 








0) 






o 








z. ^ 




1 ^ 


UJ 

o 








UJ 




UJ 


u 








oi t/) 




«i z 


"o 








? ^ . 




? :>? . 


U 








9 UJ S 




o lu 5 


*© 




"o 




~D Z CO 




-5 <^ a> 


•- 


.C 


c 


01 * 

II 



o 5 




o -^ m 

o- :^^^ 

in 1 ^ B:' 

•-en ^ — 




o , ., CO 
3 >^ to 

^ S 'Tl O* 


_4; 
E 






iggett 
ondroni 

nter of 
9N., R. 




iggelt 
odrang 
corner 
ION., R 










O D OJ . 




O 3 UJ 


^ .£ 








Q O- U »- 




Q o- UI t- 


< ■ = 


ui 














-6 


0) 4^ 














lo -5 




00 




S 









CO 








t-r 















— c 



50 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



5 
I 

c 

=5 



* 

r 



I 



< c 

• '5 
Q. Q. 
E = 

o ^ 

t/> Q. 



s 5 -i* 



■51 



S o- 

i'i 



^1 

J? i 





u 


c 


a 






• 


c 
o 


& 


o 


«> 


*n 




r 


t^ 




« 


•o 




-n 




c 


n 


o 


u 


6 


X 


« 


« 


r 


'c 


»— 


» 


• 


M 


i 










o 


n 


h 


3 




c 




- 


o 


C 


«> 


c 
o 


E 





w 


Tt 




u 


C 

n 


« 


J! 













E 








a 




a 


o 



.0 

c 



.0 

.a. 







u C» c 

;£ E s 

-o J o 

V *•- 

« tt — 



- i: -o 

«i ;= c 

<!' 

o o 

o- i 

E •£ E 
o - o 



E 2 

9 e S 

E -S g 
o o 5» 

a> I (i 
« £ tn 
c *~ ^ 

o ^ J 
c <» o 

'~ o •« 

S = 'Z 

- ° c 

:-!§ 
J^ :; 

g i £ 

S -5 E 









:= E 

c a> 



2 — -S 

ft 

o E 

ft^« 



^ o 






^ O 
u 0> 



r- 



— c 

C«- ft 

- E u 

_g O ^ 



— o o 

ft >--D 

£ 2 S 



O c o 

^ O 3 

^ -o j: 

c — a> 

"• ft o ^ 

■5 ft - -5 

a Q--0 o* 

o o ft u 

«. <^ ft c 

•- — r o 

u 2 o ^ 

O U Q 

ft _o -A > 

■S i I • 



c 










•6| 


•" 








|§ 


1 








IJ 











-d3 










c -s 










.11, 












-? 








■5 " » 



a. 










1 








.E ft .n 










■n -- f^ 


^ 








" c 










» ft -0 


c 








C T) C 


S 

c 









16° 


5 








uj ft 


«i 'c 








J! £ t 


"1 
2 

CO E 








f"5 • 


ft "o 

J 2 


E 

3 







l-i?! 


x"o 


a 


E 




-c 0.^ 


S 


ft 
ft 


3 






— -D 
■D • "" -. 


^ 


■5 


a 




Jiii 


i a 


» 







c 


^ 


c 




^ «J "D 


^1 




-0 

c 



E 
E 


•A 


1 S "5 1 
> g 
&E c 5. 

-S 


^.ii 


E 
E 


5 




at 


i ^x E 

E £ -D E 


» 1 


en 







a ft E 


° -0 
« s 


0* 


a 


a 

3 


'E 


u 




-I il:^ 


a % 


3 


C 
ft 


> 


= 3^ ° 




^ 


E 


ft 


""goo. 


-a1 


ft 
E 


o» 



ft 


Q. ° J. » 


1 
1/5 a 





ft 

u 


*o 


-^ ^ ft 

./) J -5 E 



Q 
0) 

c 

Q 

■6 
O 

3 



^ 



o 

■o 

c 
o 

.§ 



o 



.0 
.0. 









4 
.0 



6 



o 



■5 ft 



O 



O O X 

2 5 2 
- S ft 



r :; p * 



" o _ 

C -O 






^ 3 □ 

ft a- ^ 



- o 

--8 



c ^ 



? 
e 



E to 
o 

J 2 

z « 

gz 

Is 

I? 



8 



E i- 

S o • E 






•c 6 
o ■ 

^! 

a. o 



11? 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



51 



I 



.0 

I 

5 
s 

o 

.c 



I 

I 

cr 
,c 

o 

I 
1 



o 



I 



.9. 



I 



J) 

I 











i- o 



E o 






O 5 






O 

-Q 
.0 



O) « 



I.? I 



■o 
o _ 

Ol 

c 
^j« o 



O gi 



■g 
o 

E 



Q. 

E 
o 



trt o* 



;S ° -i 



-2 --8 

.y f -n 


c 




5 t; 

C 01 

.S 






41 

> 







_ 




o> e 






J 


c 




ed lith 
by the 
ce, an 




c 

01 

E 

O) 




D 


i 






_o 

"41 


-0 

41 




alter 
s left 
pumi 


u 

'c 


01 *- 

>^ — 






'E 
01 
01 









"o 




u 



> 


J= 

•i 1 

0) 






01 

4) 






-^ .^ 


01 


-D 


o- 

0) ul 









3 




eni: 
ulai 
irat 




4) 






Q. 


-D 




4) O) 5? 










D 


0) 


c 


5.g| 


TJ 


"0 


* 








£ 


s 


= ';; 





"o 






._ 


"o 


O) 


.^ l-v 




In 








U 


-0 

0) 


"5 


< " -0 


KJ 





m "2 








c 


V 


_c c 





E 













c 


".■no 




■D 


^ -0 






41 


E 

-0 


%i ? 


c 


C 



Q. 4) 
E V 


c 
■5 




0. 

E 


5) 

i 


'^ c 





D ~ 







c 


c 


-0 


O) 


10 


O) 




to 


*^ 











D 4) 


^ 










-0 






D 










4) 






-^ -O 












JO V, 






"D D 


0) 














a> -^ 


^ 














i ^ 


^- 










-c 

5 £ 






JJ 


01 














■0 ° 


i 


>. 












lA 


^ 











— 01 






.?"S 





u 








3 c 






5 ; 


c 











■5. 

^-0 






3 
E 0. 
^ 

^ 1— 


-0 

c 


01 


"c 



c 

0) 















4) -1^ 


5 




01 








11 






5J 

U 2 


4) 








»*- irt 






■D 1 





£ 








tf> -C 






C Ol 


1— 














* 

trt 












< 1 






cii 

c 




c 








j; o> 






1^ 

E -0 


~D 


4) 
41 








O..S 









^ 








E H£ 








^ 








»- 






01 


>. 











»/) "^ 






to ^ 


J3 


j: 









Z £ 



z ■» 

0- 52 

? o to 

to 10 t- 



si 

4J Z . 

O LU 

>/5 Z 1^ 



52 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Newberry quadrangle. 

The Newberry 15' quadrangle lies about 25 miles east of Bar- 
slow in ccniral San Bernardino County /^■olite deposits occur 
in two different map units in the Newberry quadrangle. The 
youngest lithologic map unit is included in a sedimentary rock 
sequenceof Miocene or younger age (Dibblee and Bassett, 1966b) 
The map unit is a sandstone and claystone unit thai is exposed m 
several small areas in the northern two-thirds of the quadranglc 
(north of the railroad tracks) The unit consists of light gray fri- 
able, locally pebbly fine- to medium-grained arVosic sandstone, and 
interbedded light greenish-gray claystone or micaceous sillstone 
(Dibblee and Bassett. 1966b). One of the areas is at the south 
margin of the Cady Mountains near the eastern edge of the quad- 
rangle where the riKk unit contains one or several thin beds of 
white tuff. This area contains one or more zeolite deposits and ex- 
tends eastward into the adjoining Cady Mountains quadrangle 
These zeolite deposits were described by Ames and others ( 1958) 
as the North Group of Claims (Photos 37. 38). The North Group 
is located about 4 miles west-norlhwcsi of Hector siding on the 
Santa Fe Railroad or about 10 miles east of Newberry Springs. 
Ames and others ( 1958) also described a South Group. The South 
Group lies within the Cady Mountains quadrangle but was not 
examined during this zeolite study. At both areas, the zeolites arc 
associated with deposits of bentonite. According to Ames and 
others ( 1958). "the unique Hector bentonite occurs along a north- 
west-trending fault zone for a distance of about 5 miles. Hot 
springs emanating along this fault during Pliocene (?) time 
deposited travertine in a then-existing lake in which sand. marl, 
and siliceous pyroclastics also were being dept>sitcd. The tuff 
lying on the travertine benches was altered to saponite by 
solutions containing lithium and fluorine in the last stages 
of hot spring activity, with the magnesium being extracted from 
the lake water. Analeime. representing alteration of the 
tuff when the springs were inactive, is found below and 
above the bentonitic bed. Clinoptilolite is present directly 
associated with the hot spring activity." Because of chemical 
changes (less lithium, fluorine, and magnesium), the 
bentonite at the North Group of Claims is nearly a normal 
aluminum bentonite whereas the bentonite at the South Group 
IS a unique bentonite called "Hectorite." 





Photo 37. Stockpilei o( zeolitiied tuff at an inactive (?) bentonite 
deposit belonging to Nl Indutlriei — North Group near Hector. The 
pit is obout 200 in diameter. Zeolilized luff i> exposed in the pit 
walls to east and south. View toward west. 




Photo 38. Bed of /coliiiied tuff in sonoituni/ ond claystone of 
Miocene or younger age on NL Industries' property north of Hector. 
Beds strike E-W and dip to south at 20'. The zeolitized tuff bed is 
at least 4 feet thick ond is overloin b/ a few inches of desert 
pavement. 




Photo 39. Scanning electron micrograph of erionite from neor 
Hector siding. Sample site 48. 



The North Group of Claims was examined during the present 
zeolite study The South Group, which includes the active under- 
ground mining operation of NL Industries, was not examined be- 
cause of access restrictions. The North Group of Claims is w iihin 
one of the areas cited by Sheppard and Gude ( 1964) as a fHiientially 
economic /x'olile deposit The old workings at the North Group 
include several small mining prospects and shallow shafts Ex- 
posures of altered tuff occur in several small gullies north of an 
inactive ( ') pit about 2(K) feet in diameter where National Lead or 
Nl. Chemicals, the present owners, mined bentonite A sample of 
pale green, fine-grained, altered tuff from the pit flo«u contains 
an appreciable amount of clinoptilolite Samples from the gully 
areas north of the open pit also contain clinoptilolite Samples 
from a series of norlh-soulh-trcnding bulldozer cuts east of the 
pit area contain analeime and clinoptilolite The zcoliiizcd lulf 
beds exposed in the bulldiver cuts strike caslwesi and dip 
10"- 1 5" to the south Overburden consists of desert pavement 
and alluvium and varies in thickness from less than I fool lo 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



53 



a maximum of 6 to 8 feet. Altered tuff containing erionite 
occurs in a bed of 2 to 3 feet thick exposed on the east side 
of a small knoll about half a mile north of the railroad tracks 
and about three-fourths mile south of the pit area previously 
discussed (Photo 39). 

Another area of zeolitized tuff occurs near the western edge 
of the quadrangle about 3 miles west of Howard Hill. Mapping 
by Dibblee and Bassett (1966b) delineates a small east-west- 
trending area underlain by sandstone and claystone of Miocene 
or younger age exposed near the base of a series of low hills. Four 
samples collected along the length of the exposure all contained 
significant amounts of clinoptilolite and mordenite. 

A tuff breccia unit is included within a sequence of volcanic and 
sedimentary rocks of Miocene or older age by Dibblee and Bassett 
(1966b). They describe the rocks as "yellowish- to light greenish- 
gray, crudely-bedded tuff breccia composed of angular andesitic 
fragments, mostly less than 6 inches in diameter, in a matrix of 
light-colored tuff." This tuff breccia unit was examined and sam- 
pled at several exposures within the southwest quarter of the New- 
berry quadrangle. The first area examined is in section 29, T.8N., 
R.3E.. SBBM. near the south boundary of the quadrangle. In this 
area, the tuff breccia occurs as a series of northwest-trending beds 
within a series of andesite flows. Most of the samples of altered 
tuff, lapilli tuff and tuff breccia are composed principally of cris- 
tobalite and opal. Several samples contain minor amounts of cli- 
noptilolite (Photo 40). Another area sampled is in section 9, 
T.8N., R.3E., SBBM, about half a mile south of the Brubaker- 
Mann decorative rock quarry near Newberry Springs. At this 
locality, altered tuff, lapilli tuff, and tuff breccia form a prominent 
bluff at least 50 feet thick. Most of the bluff is composed of tan- 
weathering, greenish-gray tuff breccia containing about 30 percent 
angular dark volcanic rock fragments, mostly below 1 inch in 
largest dimension but a few up to 6 inches in diameter. In general, 
the beds strike N20''W and dip 30°SW. The tuff matrix includ- 
ing pumice fragments has been altered to clinoptilolite and 
minor amounts of mordenite. The bluff of altered tuff breccia 
extends for about 200 to 250 feet in a northwesterly direction. It 
is interbedded within the flows of dark reddish-brown porphyritic 
andesite. Other areas of the tuff breccia interbedded with andesite 
flows have been mapped by Dibblee and Bassett (1966b) in the 
Newberry quadrangle but were not examined or sampled during 
this study. 




Photo 40. Scanning electron micrograph of clinoptiiolite-bearing 
tuff from near Yermo, Sample site 119, Sample C. 



Figure 21 is an index map of parts of the Newberry quadrangle 
showing sample locations. A description of the sample sites and 
the samples is included in Table 6-H. 

Ord Mountain quadrangle. 

The north boundary of the Ord Mountain 7",' quadrangle is 
about 10 miles south of Barstow in west-central San Bernardino 
County. An area north of Kane Wash in the northeast quarter 
of the quadrangle is underlain by a tuff unit included by Dibblee 
(1964a) within a sequence of Miocene(?) sedimentary rocks. 
The tuff is creamy-white, massive, fine- to medium-grained, 
composed almost entirely of glass shards and scattered flakes of 
biotite and small angular fragments of volcanic rock. An expo- 
sure of altered tuff was examined in the bottom of a small gully 
that trends northerly from a dry wash that intersects Kane Wash 
about a half mile east of Hadden Well. Samples were collected 
from two sites where the tuff was exposed. Most of the area is 
covered by talus from a basalt flow which caps the surrounding 
hilltops. Although the tuff was not completely altered, some 
clinoptilolite is present in the tuff samples. The same Miocene 
tuff unit extends to the east on the adjoining Rodman Mountains 
15' quadrangle. The tuff is exposed along the north slopes of 
Kane Wash for several miles. These exposures of tuff were exam- 
ined, sampled , and checked for zeolites. Although the tuff is 
altered to bentonitic clay in a number of areas, no zeolites were 
identified in the samples. 

Figure 22 is an index map of a part of the Ord Mountain 7 
1/2' quadrangle showing the gully sample locations. A descrip- 
tion of the gully sample sites and samples is included in Table 
6-1. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY 

Altered tuff, lapilli tuff, and tuff breccia containing zeolites 
have been reported from several formations, or members of for- 
mations in San Luis Obispo County. These include the Obispo 
Formation or Obispo tuff member of the Monterey Formation 
and the Rincon Shale. Several other tuffaceous formations or 
lithologic units associated with the Obispo tuff member of the 
Monterey Formation were also examined and sampled. Data on 
these lithologic units will be found in Tables 7 and 8. 

Obispo Formation and the tuff unit of the Rincon Shale (or 
tuff member of the Monterey Formation). 

The Obispo Formation (or Obispo tuff member of the Monte- 
rey Formation) of Miocene age is apparently thickest between 
the towns of San Luis Obispo and Nipomo. The formation may 
be as much as 3,200 feet thick and thins over a short distance 
to a feather edge in the southeastern part of the Nipomo 15' 
quadrangle (Hall and Corbato, 1967). In the Nipomo quadran- 
gle the tuff member of the Obispo Formation consists of light 
yellow-brown to white rhyolitic tuff, commonly with streaks of 
red or reddish-brown. The rock is dense and commonly zeolit- 
ized, accounting for its local resistant nature and prominent 
outcrops (Hall and Corbato, 1967). In the Arroyo Grande 15' 
quadrangle which adjoins the Nipomo quadrangle on the west, 
the Obispo Formation consists of fine- to coarse-grained rhyo- 
litic vitric tuff, tuffaceous siltstone or claystone, and perlite 
breccia (Hall, 1973). 

Surdam and others (1970) studied the distribution and gene- 
sis of authigenic silicates in the Obispo Formation and found 
that the tuffaceous member of the formation has been extensively 
altered to mordenite, clinoptilolite, phillipsitc, analclime, and 
montmorillonite, making it possible to study alteration of rhyo- 
litic glass deposited in a marine environment. They noted that 
a systematic horizontal variation exists in the distribution of 



54 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



-J 1 ■ 


109 


- 


i"^ 




^2 


43 

42B-~« • 



T8N 



R3E 



R2E 

119 

E C 

^ ■ 



Topography Irom U S G S 
Newberry IS quadrangle 



T10N 



1 .5 
I l_ 



Scale 1 62.500 


I 





R4E 


R5E 






47 


_ 




46^^ 
45— ♦ 

44--^ 










• 
48 


1 1 







J 



T9N 



T8N 



Contour Interval 40 Feet 
Figure 21. Index mopi of parts of the Newberry quodrongle. Son Bernardino County, thowing zeolite sample locations (dots). 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



55 



o 
S 

3 



c 

o 

c 

t 

o 

p 



c 
o 

^~ 

c 

-i 

o 

3 

o- 



1 



I 

c 








I- 




I 



Q 



M E 



o 

a.= 
■S o 



i S- 



E E 



i 5 



c o 
o a. 
u o 

< -D 



w f- u 

E = c 
o E o 






E = o 
o ^ E 



Z .£ ~ £ 

a c ° 
-S i s o 



o 
|o 

O Q. 
1. o 

.E ^ 
E « 



o *" 
•= TJ 

&s 

"= 2. 
.i-8 
a "• 

c "*• 
° E 

< 's 

_ft) o 

Q. o 
E a 
o ^ 
tn o 






I 

O 



o 

TJ 



c 2 

O 0) 



E 2 
o o 



•S .E 
"5 _ 
» S . 

ill 

:5-o-o 

D O 4, 



< I O 



4) V vl 

£ C vi 

■5 S ■" 

o ■ 



^ .S c 



o E 



T3 E 



-5 ^ -^ p 01 



Ut 



E o 



"JO 

■" ■> 

f -§0: 

■= S ^ 

■^ ■ 0) 

O D Hi 

E B ^ 

O 4" VI 

^ ^ -o 



if o 



-o> E * 

= _ "D 



E = s 

o o o 
to -D E 



a - -o 
I or 

I/) o> 'f 



E "° 
o> S 

O 0) 



E :: 

3 O 

°- E 



* 01 



.2 E 

2 °- 

o ^ 

.1: * 

10 c 

li 

E :£ 



o ■" 

■7. E 
S E 



o> E o 

. D U 
» 0.-5 
~ C > 

'" -a 
c V ^ 
o S. S 

^ 4) O C 

E -S - ^ 

4> O O ° 

o> * 3^ 

" J! E -S, 

■o-l:? 



S ° S 
:S 0-2- 

o E :£ 

IP 

^ ,/> o 

l!i 



P £ o 



■O u 

4> 3 
C ^ 

'o *" 

O) 3 
0, O 



£ -E 
o> o 

o -£ 



2 o 

' r, 01 



,9 S "o 

v> E > 






O i 

^1 



E 5 






O 3 oj Q. 

_S -D •" 

|§ ? 

^ o 



I "2 ■=; 

ft) « "D 

1-00 



-E JS 

s° : 

- S -D 

o <£: a> 
■5 "^ -° 

O ^ 4) r: 
E ^ ;E 4. 

E » 

4> "O «i •£ 
O O o O 

4) . :z •" 



E -o 4. o 

o £ ? 

•t S g .9- 

£^^"° 

o _ - "S 

^ "-o ° 

^ ft) ft) VI 

O 5l T > 

>A O ^ -^ 

41 Q.-0 w 

-c K 5 O 

»- 4) -i: c 



< 3: 



E E - 

O O "O 



" 






- > 


>— 










ti 


> 
-n 




< 3: 

a* 3 


c 


^2 






E V 


n 


V 

■5 


4) 

C 


E 


















P 




















c w 










>^ u 





o E 



" • 

•Oq. 

• E 
a o 
E •« 

O HI 



^ a 
o E 

■p a 



£ E 



ft) J> 






^ o ^ 

►- -s = 



s -5 

4) C 

>- 5 



E r. 



4) t 






4) J] 
-O O 



S 1 1 * o 

E ^ 5 -D c 
o " l|| 



Q. Q. 



ft) ft> 

.i S 





'5. 


c 

s 


4> 







> 


1 s: 


0) 


0) 


> 







E 



3 -D 






-D 


ft) 




T3 


S-¥ 





•D 





.- 


S ? 


4, .- 

3 


g 


M 

ft) 


< 


4) 

E 


^ 


i s 


E .£ 
o§ 


4> 

E 



c 
'5 


c 





u 


4> 

> 


£ 



3 

* 

VI f 

-s § 


■< : 


."C 


4) 


TI 


-D 


0) 


4) t; 


ta 


> 


r 






O) 












b 


n «■ 


|s 


a 


^ 


ft> 


0) 




n ? 










^ 


4) 




" * 





3 




U 


= P 



^5 



Q 



3: 



■Q 
.0 






4; ft) 



z 



5 <N 






z 




ic 




1/3 


ui 


V 


rj 


n) 


QC 






9 


7 




m 






3 





>. 0) 
^ v> 

I? 

z m 





, 


















z 














^'■ 




00 






Z 


CO 






CO 




h^ 






CO 









• 










h^ 









4) 




<<> 








<^ 










u 






•0 


S^ 










s 






i 


? 






::^ 


ft) 

i 






□> 

c 








ft) 

O) 

c 

s 


4) 
^ UJ 


■D 
§ 

a- 
to 


z 
z 


s 


1 

o- 
to 


z 


t/1 

c 




CD 


-0 


3 


t- 


4) 

C 


CD 

to 


£■ 


c 


-D 


ui 


^ 


*o oc 


V 




K/} 







C 


a: 


4) 


4) : 


1 


8 




J3 







* 


^ Z 


i 


^ 


ui 




^ 


UJ 

in 


Z 


:5 ^ 


z 


DC 


z 


Z 


QC 


t— ■ 


Z 


5 






in 








5 





56 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



is 

I 

o 



13 



.£ 5 — 
o 



~ o 



a=? 



O 



?5 



E c » 
• o >> 

HI 

<-5i I 

"5. ? -£ 1 
in 01 > o 



o » S 

.E -j "D 

o o ^ 

Q. • .^ 

« e > 



■6 > J _ 

• -° ' a 

S Jto S 

2 T> ^ E 



8 

I 
r 



^ E 
a. o 
E <" 
o > 

V) o 



•»2i 

- 11 

= »:? 

5. 9 o 
S E = 

f> 3 O 

Si • O 



Q- t o 

- .Si c s 
"EOS 

151 -i 

I/) £ o o 



a 






• ^ 
"5 ; 

£ o 



' s 






a » -S 



I 

i 

2 



^1 
11 






o : 


» -D > 
: c 


a ( 


) a. 




? 




M 




s? 




?. » 










» 


^ 


? 


,*« 


1 




«n 


1- 


1 




z 


J.v' 



E >. 



i is? 

«, O c 

-O « a. ;£ 
X ^ "5 * 

3 r -D S 

"O O o o 

e • a 

§ ^ ^. 1 

2 o = = 
■~ a. ~ a 



E » t = S 
2 - = 2 I 

^ o c X — 









i§ 



— o 
o 3 



-5. ° 
E -£ 



ill 

He 

i f ^ 

O o " 

a"? o 
^ o " 
.Sea 
e o 3 

l^r: 

" » c 

-o 2; « 

° i ^ 

- » o 
< S ■" 

|Ji 
111 






^ c 2 

r o E 

c — T3 

« C 

E » ^ 

9 E t» 



c s 2 



■? §1 
- o — 






H 

8-5 
c £ 

2M 

. E 



^=5 i 

• -£ C 

I J 5 

</> u E 



• C O 

£ o ; 

— JO 

° X E 

-o 9 "o 
?-S § 
5-g 9 

i E o 



I 

3 
a. 



■> -S 9 ;i 



- s " o 



= 1 



V ^ *. V C *fc 



* 

E - 



= - 9 

E i » 

^ ;; o 

-S = E 

* I-" 

i o 2 = 

o - t^ 

, « 5 <» 

£ E £ £ 

S 3 - o 

E a. o u 



2 I 



s I s r 
?|-.| i 

« O £ u 
^ •= > -D 



o E 
<~ o 
° o. 

Is 

-o E 



8? 

.. o 



-- E g 



c E 



■D » 

£ o 



01 > 
O u 



• 2 

i g 

V « 

1 £ 



S 'o 






9 O. 





o 


r 


— 


e 




9 


3 




u 




D 




X 


■• 




c 


» 


X 


g 


o 


-c 




•» 


tt 


X 


« 


C 

o 


? 




• 




• 


o 


>» 


< 
• 




« 

X 

»— 




a. 
F 


o 


3: 


• 


.s 


8 


2 


E 



= p 



o 5 



■D 3 

» « 



e-p 



■5.1 
o E 

t/i o 



■s is i 

■£ -o E o 

i i^ * 

^ E « 

2 E o s 

5 o = 

■I dl"^ 
>^ = • - 

S r I S 



" S S "o 

■" 9 • • 

o 2 c 

i - " 9 

a. § c o ^ 

o 3 ! c ^ 



"O S 



• c ■ c 

.£0—0 



n 

c o 






a — 

° i 



I? 

1^ 

•n "o 
'^ - 
3 S 

•l-i 

■ O c 

2 I 

a. a 
I o 

C 



3 c 



a o 
E 



u 

^ c : 

woo 
5 * Ti 



■S E 



c c T 

T - O 
O) -Q c 

E-f- 

9 I 3 
— So 



l> "O • 

I 9-S 



o o 



?i 






j; - o 

a ^ 

C — w 
En* 



O Z 
E if 



E = 



I ^ 



j; ^ 



a. £ 



£ 
? 

e 
1 






I. 



? 

8 
1 



r 
» 

z 



s 



z « 
I z 

C <D 

8- 

^ *** 

z >? 



1 

O 

I 
1 


m 

I 



3 



II 



o 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



57 

























c 






o 










u 


! 


g 


c 






*j 




s. 


1 


i 


'i 
















o 






1 




"O 


<o 


■o 










<o 


tv 


tN 


"a 






'^ 




-o 


•o 


-o 


c 










c 


c 


c 


o >, 






i 




o 


o 





o 










s 


5? 


8 








1 




C 


g 


e 


-s° 
















?£ 






i 




J 


J 


J 










i 


^ 


w» 4) 






c 










c ♦- 










M 


M 


M 








? 




,c 


^C 


C 


s 1 










'5 


*5 


'5 


c ^= 












^ 




81 






1 




<=5 


c 

8 «• 

•o =5 


c 

S i 






3 
•^ 




ft* -^ 

°- s- 


0) -.^ 

o- 9- 


It 


11 










ij 


iJ 


i.i 


E 2 










o E 










(O u 


t/i u 


trt "ti 


to o 










ireenish-yellow very fine- 
Ith a few scattered rock 
mass of altered volcanic 


"D C -s£ 

r: s 


_L 4) 


3 






! 




B is a pale greenish-tan very fine-grai 
tuff with no rock or mineral inclusion 
dmass of altered volcanic glass. The r 
ly saline. 


T3 

11 

!l 

S 5 


it 

.^ 3 
D -C 

-D .E 

4> _ 

.E o 

2 » 
oi.E 

i, E 

=S o 










A is a light g 

altered tuff w 

IS in a groundi 


"1 '^ 

Jl o o 


* O 

4» •- 

^1 












o 5 

■^ 8: 

Q 










o- g 5 -i 


J! -D i :e 


^ 3 " 


12 










a « o ^ 


n £ u 

« 5 S 










o S-p^ 


1 i; o,^ 


M 










to .i: 


m » 








D 
CO 

"0 


f a series 
es under- 
ary rocks 
der valley 


a 

4) 


2; ttJ 

£ ■:> 
5 » 


J 

5 






5 


4) 


im 




2 E 
o o 








io 


■Q 


^ C 4) 


I"? 


li 


O 

> 






««w 




■£ ^ D u 




E< 
2=5 ^ 


O 








D 


O 

^2 


e samples are from 
low eroded eost-we 
n by Miocene or yo 
d fanglomerate and 
diments. 


^ 

o 

z s 

■- c 
< o. 

ft) c 


es B and C are f 
pinches and swe 
4 to 5 feet thic 


4> 
O 

E 
2 

Q g 

4> **" 








<! 


rl 


-5.JZ -t: 


-5.'^ 








E ^ -o 


E 2 








1- o ^ o S 


O X 


o -c v 


o ■" 








to ft) 


CO J ^ 


to ^ 












£ 


i?ui 


J ui 


J ui 










* 

"S 




Z2 

iv - 


1". 










'c 


a 


^§ 


ii 




1 

Q 
II 




iwberry 15' quadrangle, 
ward Hill jy^' quadrangle 


'.5 

> 

ft) 

e • 

£ • 

II 


8;: 

UJ 

„ CN 

E S 
<l 


■£ 1- 
E W 

O (N 

o " 


4) T 

^ 1- 

-D , 

E o 

41 
.C U 

M UJ 

a UJ S 






« § 


E > ai 

O > lO 

t/> </> t/> 


E Z m 


E ■/> a) 








z i 


ilo 


O ^, CO 
to ^ (O 


o , , <o 

(j^ >- (/) 


J; 

1 


.1 




o> 










O 


^1 














V) 




*" 











^ 



c 

o 

.c 

t 



p 



c 
o 
<o 

UJ- 
O) 

c 

I 



.c 

c 
o 

O 



.5 

.0. 









M 












c 




tJ> 





















"6 





















-g 




c 






a 








tj 








4> 




< 









a: 

1 




41 

a 




c 










E 




E 




1 




2 4i 









W| 




(/) i- 








S 














<*- "o 









0. 




:= 
2 O. 




E 




^ 




? ° 









4) 




E •— 




•n 




C 




-0 <J 




C 




5 




8 ° 









.O 













c 

.8. 




0.| 

If 

° 

II 




ri 










1— 5 








?- s 




■gs s 








0. 2 Q. 




c ;; 








^ ~ =• o> 




c o> 








^ -3 r .a 




k 4) 

9" E ■- 








1 2 £ § 

2 j: E -y 




^ a> £ 

^ 2 8 








o>.- 01 




'^ 




.§ 




fine 
uff w 
e fra 
red v 




lish-white 
rk biotite 
altered v 




•1 




hite 
liili t< 
umic 
alte 






1 




* °-t, 

^ — -D v» 




E 




! 




pinkis 
d lithic 
mm an 
ndmas 




pole t 
1 a few 

tially 1 




lO 




* g 




.■= 








<^i° 












=.?■» 








^ Q. C 












mple 
lly (? 
ints u 

mm i 




j; ^ ? 










amp 
Itere 
mat 








" m 










<n -ii E — 




to 








C _!? "? 4) 


4) 


4J >v 






1 


red tuff i 
iple site i 
M that lie 
tured. Th 


c 



* 


Is 

c 

^ 4. 

'o 5 






"■"" 


u E " 









4J 


4) 


■S =: g 




"S 3 






4^ 


«« »t 





D _Q 




"a 


-•a 


ire of 
. The 
basalt 
ighly 


a. 


4) ^ 

1 t 







on exposi 

small gully 
us from 
te tuff is h 


C 


4) 


2 4) 
^ 




^ 



4) 




.0 -^ 




i 


■5 


i os- 





E 

'^ 
>t 









•^•B^S-i 


4) 






1 


•n ■£ 


i -C 


l/t vt 






Sample A i 
the bottom 
surrounded 
above the 


-s i 


Sample B i 
A. The bed 
horizontal. 












^ 












UJ 












Z 








6 




i^ 








1 1 




J 








§ 2 




z s 








■5 ■§ 




i^S 




■? 




5 = 




Z "J 









<— rs. 




-£ <^ 




J! 




c c 




».. 








"0 




° z 

aj 1^ 




■6-5 




D 3 






E I-' 




O 

3 y 




5 5 




. 




05 




6 




^ ii 

z s 


4) 

1 


4J 

.^1 













>o| 




0. 






to 




00 







58 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



R2E 




T8N 



T7N. 



Topography from U S G S 
Ord Mountain Vh' quadrangle 



Scale 1:24.000 



1 Km 



Contour Interval 40 Feel 

Figure 22. Index mop of a port of the Ord Mountain 7'/4' 
quodrongle, Son Bernardino County, showing zeolite sample 
locations (dots). 



zeolite mineral species. Honzonlally lo the south and west the 
successive mineral zones are charactenzcd by mordcniic, morde- 
nite and clinoptilolitc. and clinopiilolitc and/or analcimc. They 
concluded (hat the mineral /ones arc not related to depth of 
bunal, but instead probably are a reflection of an ancient shore 
line to the south and west. They also concluded thai the altera- 
tion of rhyohtic glass m a manne environment is very similar to 
the process whereby rhyolitic glavs alters in saline lalics. but it 
occurs more slowly in the manne environment In the ca,sc of the 
Obtspo Formation, alteration t(xik a minimum of I million years. 

The luff member of the Obispo Formation was examined and 
sampled (mm east of the town of Nipomo(wcst flank of Tcmettalc 
Ridgc) where the formalion starts to thin, to Mallagh Landing 
near Avila Beach, a disiaiKC of about 16 miles (Photo 41). In the 



Nipomo quadrangle, the tuff member of the Obispo Formation 
consists of light yellow ish-brown to while rhyolitic tuff, commonly 
streaked with brown or red Samples of altered luff collected from 
within the Nipomo quadrangle exhibit a great variation in zeolite 
(mordenitc) content, and sample sites were difHcult to find because 
of the lack of accessible exposures, primarily caused by urbani- 
/.ation. A sample collected from a small decorative rock (') quarry 
near the western edge of the quadrangle contains slightly more 
than 50 percent mordcnite. Farther northwest near Los Berros 
Canyon, altered tuff of the Obispo Formation underlies the low 
rolling hills along the east side of Highway 101. Samples collected 
from the north side of Los Berros Canyon and from roadcuis at a 
new subdivision a short distance south of the canyon contain mor- 
denitc and feldspar (sanidine') About 2 miles northwest of Los 
Berros Canyon, altered luff of the Obispo Formation underlies a 
northwest-trending ridge culminating in a peak called "Picacho." 
Sample collected along the western edge of this body of altered 
tuff contain less than 50 percent mordenite. Because of accessi- 
bility restrictions, samples could not be collected from other parts 
of the ridge. The altered tuff occurs near the northeastern edge of 
the town of Pismo Beach (Camp Hill) and along the coastline 
in the vicinity of Elmer Ross Beach. Here the tuff beds strike 
east-west and dip at about 60° to the north Mordenite is 
a major constituent in the altered tuffs in this area. Clinoptilo- 
lite occurs in minor amounts at several of the sites sampled 
near Pismo Beach. Near Avila Beach, a low blocky easl-west- 
trcnding ridge lies along the shoreline between Fossil Point and 
Mallagh Landing This ridge is underlain by altered luff of 
the Obispo Formation containing mordenite (Photo 42). The 
altered tuff is much more resistant to weathering and erosion 
than the unaltered tuff which lies lo the north and forms a 
low depression. The luff member of the Obispo Formation 
extends westward from Avila Beach across Point San Luis to 
the coastline near Diablo Canyon, and then along the shore- 
line for another mile or two. The area between Avila Beach 
and Diablo Canyon was not sampled because of accessibility 
restrictions. 

Exposures of the Obispo Formation tuff from northeast of Ar- 
royo Grande to northwest of San Luis Obispo were not examined 
and sampled during this zeolite study. Most of this area has been 




Photo 41. East dipping partially leolitiied tuff of the Obispo For- 
mation at Mallogh Landing, Point San Luis, Sample site 77. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



59 



mapped by Hall (1973) and Hall and Prior (1975). With the ex- 
ception of a small area in the northeastern edge of the Arroyo 
Grande NE 7'/:' quadrangle, altered tuff containing zeolites is not 
reported. In the San Luis Obispo area to as far northwest as 
Cambria the Obispo Formation consists of soft, white, light 
brown or gray, fine-grained, poorly-bedded, crystalline vitric 
tuff, locally interbedded with porcelaneous siltstone (Hall and 
Prior, 1975). 

According to Hall and Prior ( 1975) an area about 4 to 5 miles 
northeast of Morro Bay is underlain by a tuff member of the lower 
Miocene and Oligocene Rincon Shale that has been zcolitized. 
The altered tuff is yellowish-brown, fine-grained, and interbedded 
with siltstone. The large fragments of pumice common in the tuff 
of the Obispo Formation are absent. The tuff member of the Rin- 
con Shale is reported by Hall and others (1979) in the area east 
and northeast of Cambria. The tuff is hard, extremely fine- 
grained, yellowish-brown to white to gray and interbedded with 
siltstone. This area was not examined and sampled during this 
study. However, three samples collected by a consulting geologist 
were made available for examination. These samples are from 
the Warren Ranch area north of the highway from Cambria to 
Paso Robles (Highway 41 ) near the eastern boundary of the 
Cambria 7'/:' quadrangle. These samples contain mordenite and 
clinoptilolite. 

Figure 23 is an index map of parts of the Arroyo Grande 
quadrangle showing the sample locations. A description of the 
sample sites and the samples collected in San Luis Obispo Coun- 
ty is included in Table 7. 

SANTA BARBARA AND VENTURA COUNTIES 

Reported occurrences. 

A study of the Monterey Formation (Bramlette, 1946) included 
a discussion of pyroclastic material within the formation. In par- 
ticular, Bramlette mentions a thick tuff bed recognized in many 
places in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties where the 
tuff bed is the lowest and thickest in the Monterey Formation. He 
designated this tuff bed as the Obispo tuff member of the Monterey 




Photo 42. Sconning electron micrograph of mordenite needles in 
altered tuff of the Obispo Formation, Sample site 69. 



Formation and noted the presence of zeolites at the type section, 
a short distance south of San Luis Obispo. Occurrences of zeolites 
in San Luis Obispo County, in the tuffaceous member of the 
Obispo Formation — as the tuff is now designated (Hall and 
Corbato, 1967; Surdam and others, 1970; Hall, 1973; and Hall 
and Prior, 1975) — were discussed in the previous section of 
this report. 

In Santa Barbara County, Bramlette (1946) mentions several 
exposures of Obispo tuff containing zeolites. In Bixby Canyon 
near Point Conception, a bed of tuff 120 to 130 feet thick is re- 
ported by Bramlette to be more altered than the tuff in San Luis 
Obispo County and to contain a greater quantity of zeolites and 
clay minerals. This same zeolite-bearing tuff unit is exposed in 
the sea cliffs below Naples, and in a canyon (Canada del Barro) 
near Gaviota. Dibblee ( 1950) gave the name Tranquillon volcanics 
to a "local phase" of the Obispo tuff exposed in southwestern 
Santa Barbara County at several sites including Tranquillon Moun- 
tain ridge and vicinity, Bixby Canyon (Bramlette 's Bixby Canyon 
site), along the Santa Ynez River in the vicinity of the Santa Rosa 
Hills, near Solvang, and along the shoreline between Gaviota and 
Cojo Canyon. 

In Ventura County, Kerr (1931) reported upon the occurrence 
of bentonite at five localities in the general vicinity of Ventura. 
The bentonite occurs in an altered tuff bed which overlies the top 
of the Rincon Formation of Kerr (1931). Bramlette (1946) corre- 
lates the Rincon Formation with a dark mudstone that underlies the 
Obispo tuff in San Luis Obispo County. Therefore the bcntonite- 
bearing tuff of Kerr may be equivalent to the Obispo tuff in Santa 
Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Kerr in his study of the 
"bentonite deposits noted that thin sections of mixed volcanic ash 
and sediment show an abundance of zeolitization. The platy zeo- 
lite has indices of refraction corresponding to heulandite. 

During the present zeolite study an attempt was made to ex- 
amine and sample a number of the reported zeolite occurrences in 
Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties. Unfortunately, no sample of 
altered tuff containing zeolites was collected although a number 
of the reported occurrences were examined. 

Detailed index maps showing sample locations were not pre- 
pared for Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties. However, the sam- 
ple locations are shown on Plate 1 . 

A description of the sample sites in Santa Barbara and Ventura 
Counties and of the samples collected is included in Table 8. 

MISCELLANEOUS LOCATIONS — INYO. LASSEN AND 
SAN BERNARDINO COUNTIES 

During the course of this zeolite study, several reported zeolite 
occurrences were examined and sampled outside of the original 
study area, or were sampled during field work for another project, 
or were sampled by DMG staff geologists during their field work. 
Most of the areas sampled did not have zeolites present. However, 
there are a few exceptions as authigenic minerals including zeolites 
were identified at several locations. 

Detailed index maps showing sample locations were not pre- 
pared for these miscellaneous locations. All sample locations are 
shown on Plate I. A description of these miscellaneous locations 
and the samples is included in Table 9. 

Reported Zeolite Occurrences, Not Examined 

In addition to the zeolite occurrences examined in the field and 
sampled during the zeolite study, a number of zeolite occurrences 
are reported in the literature that were not examined. Some of the 
occurrences were not examined because the deposit did not appear 



60 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 




_ 35-10N 



T32S 



120 40 W 



R 13E 



R 14 E 




T.32S. 



Scale 1 62.500 




1 Miles 



Contour Interval 50 Feet 



T12N. 



H 35W 



Topography Irom U S G S 
Arroyo Grande 15 quadrangle 



R 34W 



Figure 23. Index mapi of ports of the Arroyo Grande quodrongle, San Luis Obispo County, showing zeolite sample locotions (dots). 



lo contain sulficicnl /colitcs to he of economic significance. 
Others were not visited because of accessibility restrictions or 
because of insuflicieni field time All of these Acoliie (Kcurrenccs 
are described in Ihc literature in sufficient detail that the occur- 
rence can be accurately located on a map 

Table 10 contains a brief description of each of these 21 incur- 
rences which were not examined during this zeolite study. The 
sample liKalions are shown on Plate I 

A number of other reported /colile occurrences were left off 



Table 10 because the liKaiion data were vague, the occurreiKe 
covered a large area, the samples were collected from drill holes, 
or data on the incurrence were not found until after the field wori 
for this studs was completed The following is a list of the refer- 
ences for these reported incurrences: ( 1 1 Gilbert ( 1*^51 1. (2t Har- 
die (I96K). Jones il*>65). Kaley and Hanson (l<*55). Langbicn 
(I9ft|). Madscn and Murala (l<)70). Merino (1975). and Mc 
Culloh. and other. ( I9SI ). The complete reference is given in the 
list of references cited. 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



61 



I 





-Q 
.D 



^1 
O p 

O 5 






o g 



£ B 

Si 

■O Q. 
° I 

E S 



o ^ 
t o 



E a 
° o 



E qj 



E > w K 

O J o ■= 

•^ aj (U o 

-o '^ E e 



!i:5 

: :t O 



E 2? 



° < ^ X. c 

£ . ? o* o 

V o c 2 o 

t/> 'f ;f « > 



K Si 
S:2 o 

*^ ^ Q. 
O O T3 



,0 ■= 

O^ o 

§11 

to- 
ft) 

•o o « 

S « i 
° o o 
**- c 

?-? o 



Ol c — - 

■§ 2 1 



P 

Z I" 
Z " 

^ z 

o 1- 



o >o 



a 


Q. 






E: 


-n 






o 

CO 


^ 








-n 






4) 




n 




<l) 


o 








m 


o 




















n 


o 











b 




-» 


4) 












E 


F 






Ol 




o 




r 








* 

o 


(D 






O 


-o 




o 




c 






f- 


n 




1 




a> 




^ 


V 


Wl 
















o 


E 


o 


OJ 
u 


















< 


r 


'^ 


u 










0) 


% 


a 


> 


F 






■n 




ji 


4) 


o 
to 


3 


« 


_ 


-n 


4) 


« 






c 




b 








« 


n 


T3 




n 

















_g 




0) 




b 




r 


n 






n 


in 


-C 


o 


E 


« 


"o 




-D 




at 


.£ 



o ^ 



» 3 

1 r S 

4> o 2: 



E J 

c o 

•p E 

c c 

o o 

" E 

Ji § 

5 Q- 



iz 






1 ^ 



o i 
a, i 



E -o -D 



I? 

K O 

4) r> 



5.5 






4 Z 

* CN 

o •- 



5 r> -o 



a 

E 



~ 2 S 

% 4) O 

i .E ro 

- E o 

^1 

4> O -i:! 



* 






o 




o 


. 


o 


n 




O) 










c 
c 


in 

■o 


o 

F 




o 


-n 


o 


> 




.'il 


a 


o 


<D 


b 


en 


a 


VI 


n 


b 


o 


c 




















c 


>. 




o 


^ 


O) 



^ " o * 



1: o 0) ^ 

•^i s s 

c •^ - 

:£ O s ^ 



rr, 




^ 


ll 









4( 






1 


a 
£ 


C 

o 


*o 


2 

o 










fs 




41 

r 




4) 


J, 




1— 


tft 


^ 


•o 



1 o H 



i h . 



:9 3 



a > 
E -n 





>?s 


o> 


?S 


o 


^ ? 


D 




CT 


lO — 




V oc 


:s.' 


^ 


r^ 


M- to 




c 


O CN 


t> n 


o 


-o 1- 



i^ Jl 



"i; 


D 
















> 


_C 


"5 








D 






4) 


C 










£ 










n 




















O) 






-6 


^ 


9i 
















n 










-C 




,^ 






V. 


r 




























> 


M 


o 






X 




E 






z> 


Tl 








J3 


D 


c 








.C 


o 


«n 




— 


•/I 


O) 


n 














n 


o 




o> 




F 




c 


u 




n 


(II 




c 






^ 


c 



o 




r 




o 




1— 


> 


"" 


> 




*o 


-o 

4) 




>. 


1 

u 
D 


4> 
-O 

E 

D 
C 


D 


4) 


o 


OJ 





t 


^ 


c 






-n 














o 










o 


<]> 


r 




t- 


Ul 






o 




c 








D 
















c 








■n 


n 




-o 






c 






_4> 

"5 




-o 


4) 




> 


o 


E 






-( 


<1t 


X 


4* 






* 


4) 


4) 


4) 




r 




"6 


O 


o 


O 












4) 


O 


4) 




4) 


a 
E 




4) 


O 




E 
o 



lA V ^ ^ o 



o 

■D 



82 

J? 



ri 



3 '- > Jl 

O- > 3 

^ " " o 

° Z -S 

O Z 1^ s 





o 















> 


-n 


c 


n 








u 


o 
















n 


* 


V 








b 




4) 


D 


o 


« 


Q. 

E 




**" 


O 






Tl 




% 




4) 






4) 






^ 


c 


o 


»- 


d 


E 


o> 



* o 



4) O 4, 
^ P 



-a «! 
?-5 



.■^ E 



"a o 

E c 



I— VI ^ Ol 



« 41 • 

c ^ 



o 

J! J -I 

■o Z * 

S >- 1/5 



E S 







m •" 


o o 




o o 






4) 


■^ o 




- 


"D ^ 


-o > 


" % 




V O 




E 


4^ E 


5j P 


4> ^ 


^ "O 


^ E 





o ^ 



O O ,^ "q. 



./. Ol 


O 


F 


J 


c 












a> -S! 


irt 




o 




n -° 


o 


4J 


', 




^■J 


E 




> 


-o 




















J) E 










t y 










O) 


O) 


>. 


4) 


4> 4) 


4) 


c 
o 

u 






OJ -c 


-C 






-o t- 


t— 








Z 


n 






J -D 


*o 


^ 






ro 








4) J 




ra 








-C 







*" "O — 

O o ^ 

Q. jn 4) 

5 n, » 



O "O o 

E £ ■= 



S ° 3: 



E 3 
o ± 



m 

Uj cfi 

z •? 



M. Z 

O CN 



Z 



62 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



! 
I 

1 







i 



I 



I 

o 



O w 

u o 

Is 



■DEO 

S^-o 

• = •© 

i ^ < 

> w - 
? ^ O 

-5 S E 
? 2-"o 

o c o 



11- o 
•- □ o a 



r> * .E 

&; 2 o 

-• -o .= 

£ e 

^ •*■ « 

is- O J 



I J ": , 

8 : »^ 
o 

E 
o 



C 
O 

o 



o 

I 



2 



s 



It 

" o 

< _ 



E 9 



•o 
o 

E 



•g 

o 
E 



o o 






- -D 

. c 

"2 ° 
s 
-= o 

■ Q. 



!; o 



S o 



1 E 



II 






E -c 
o - 



^ 2 



O O (( 

•o ^ "5. 

* o i 

j; E S 



- JS 

■^ E 



a K c 

o ^ - 
m i J3 



1-8 

ii 



i E 

"S-o-s 



> £ > 

■£ -9 "2 
* ^ I 



i o E 

Q. - T5 

E ■£ 5 



i o 



^ ^ u 



v> > a 



O « 



it 
a 

c 

9 

•D 
O 

3 

a 

ic 

K 

i 

s 

o 



it 

>" o 



?f 1= 



? 

9 



iC 






2 - 



s 

z 



</) — 



* 9 



2-S i 

73 ' « 

S « ^ 
• O .£ 

f i-5 

S a. S 
S E £ 

F "^ Z 

0>i Q 

J: c >- !« 
.2 S ^ Q. 

Q. " e T5 

2*0° 
. 5 E - 
S ' •» • 

;= o £ > 



I -,, 



D 



iC 



I I 



I 

2 



Si 



T3 -e 

s ° 

.E T) 

O _ 

a E 
c E 
!« 
• o 

Is 

■S i^ 

a a. 
o 9 E 



2*1 
i=? 9 

o s <i "o 

^ 2 '^ ^ 

o -D a = 

- S =6 -o 

- • 



c • 



^2 



1-° * E 

ill i 
111* 



3 ^ 



E ' ^ , 

; c — o 



a J. 

E ' 



Z 



»- • »- r> i 






is 

2 ^ 



* e IV i CM 



■5 - 



o 

I 

o 

i 



i^ 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



63 











>* 
















« 


























^ 






1 


























g 






g 










J» 
















T 






1. 










*. 






^ 










1 

1 






« 'c 












s 

"c 

i 

o 

E 


11 
a. E 

.1 
■C .E 




0) 

1 



E 








(A 


•> E 




w* 






5 




c 

■5 


■J-i 




C 

'5 






0) 




c 


c 




c 























.8. 




u 


u ~ 




U 






■£ 




< 


" £ 




U 






3 







0) li 




4} 






•< 




■5. 

i 


-5. » 

en 1^ 




a. 

E 

5 










_L C 


"c — *t; 




"D r 


"D 











m M. 




a> S 


H 








c — 


c — .» 




■ E-S 


3i 








i-B 


S -5 




= 










i| 






? 4) 
4) -^ 



*o 




1 






ite fii 
nd m 
grou 




c^ 
15 

-^ 




E 






-0 ^ 


-C 0) 




t- u 


-Q 




.9- 




.Is 


?^^ 




o> 

J= -Q 


3 




1 




II 

.E £ 

^ u 

V 
> »^ 

^ 


1 tannish 
few ro( 
ougfiout 




5 
V 



O) 


_c 




1 




a pale 
red tfir 




O) 
u 

'c 


-5 I;! 
°--c 
° 1 


4> 

C en 








- 1 


«i _4) 







i S 








< 3: s: 


"""as 




> 


'-' *2 


£ °> 








« 2- 


- "o !^ 


-D 


^ -0 


"O '^ 








E-S:S 




4) 


CL 4) 

E t 








Ss g 




- 


c 








CO O) 


"a 


to 


> 








-C 0) 


^7-2 












S^ 




t 41 *- 












0) 


"o c 


is 

3 01 


of o no 
d interb 
ed from 


^ 










■£ 




DC. 


'6) 








£ 


O 




-g"^ S 






4) 








to 


-D 


- 


«> -^ -5 










c 

o 


41 •- 


c - 


o> 








^^ 


4) "D J 


D> 








E 


"o 


E i 


•s S «) 


C 











X 


p .5 J 


'*- 








"O 

"o 


i 

o 


"^ 


4) 4> 

S q 


3 
C 

U 








Q> 


- ^ 











-i 


a 


£ -a 

a> 


s are fn 
ng belt 
e. The < 


u 

c 










"o 


"■ 


ample 
trendi 
iltston 













° 


« (/) 


0£ 

c 










s 


Ttie t 
Rinco 
Formi 


4J "^ -D 













o 


1^ j-S 


» 












i^ 
















» 
















W) 
















i^ 
















^ 1 
















* ^2 
















? ..i 
















2 Ui . 












■0 




-D <>1 J" 












c 




D „ O- 

















3 a> 
























1 
1 






Nj; "o in 










■§1 

3 y 




.5 E f^ 
^ 8 o> 










03 




u ^ S 












w 














K 


-* s 














-S 


^?1 















~o 


^ Z 



















>— 










>-: 

















.0 

I 

5 



§ 

2 

I 

s 





1 

ta 



s 



c 
•S 
.1 

a 



5 

o 



4j 



s 



-S 

I 



Q 



-Q 
.0 



I 



O 



a. t 
E ° 



"S ■= E 

-S 2 S 

"D 01 — 

S -= ^ 

-Q t- _4I 

C -D 7= 

Q 4) Jrt 

*" 4) O 

Hi 

4) o 

O V Ji 



"5. - -o 
E ° 5 



iS-5 £ 

— ■= -C 

O g -D "^ 
-c t c o 

.1 rii 



o 2 



-oO 

0* .^ 



3 -D i: g 



§ 


.0- 






•^ 




4> 


V 





01 






^ 









"0 












.s 



- o " -° « :S 

■^ **- 2: '-' w 



c E -, 4; 
O ^ c -o 



a> o o * 

O Q. o. 3 

"o - X 

0) _a 4) V 

O O - t£ 



O 4) 3 t _4J 

"a 

E 
a 



O 2 o 



- o ^ 

2 4> U 
.-Geo 

1££ 

too 



0>i 



T3 -C 
O O 

O .2 



J) 4j 

o <n ^ 



ki- 



■B Z 



l3 4) 

i ? "? 



< to 



Q. 1 

E 



01 

3 
O 

■o" 
o 



" o 

41 :£ 



"P -K n o 




a 

X 


4) 


*= 




3 




c 


Id 







c 




n 





U 


c 


£ 

* 


E 



Q. 

'■V 


4) 


J3 


t— 
4) 


41 






.— 


>> 


3 


u 


r 















r 


at 




E 




a 


4) 


IE 





:d 






>i; o B 



4) s = 10 



o . 



41 -D -D 



M- i- o •- JU 



= 5-0 



u * .9 

4» O > 

< ^ o 



■£ o o > ■ 



o 



_4> 

at 

c 
o 

O 



I- 

•> o 

(Si 



uj <n 

t/5 — 

UJ '-' 
i^ Q. 






Z r> 



64 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



.? 






* E 
_ o 

2 o 

« > 

~ o 
o « 

» S 
-o o 

si 

iJ 

J* 



.O 

t 

I 

o 



I 



o E o 

Jl -It C 

^ 9 o 

X ,5 * 



-o^i 



a 3 « 
E o c 

2 S I 
Ill 






*" 5 • 

"O > ■£ 

• = •" 

« o o 



at c — . 



2 C ;= 

• S ° 

"5.5 S 



1%I 

1- -D E 



^ o 



O Ji o 



E^ 



E ? 



J I 



-5 ? 



o 



X -D 

-2?i 2 

1 ° s 

£ c ^ o 

O Q. 

a. u "D K 

o "o c « 

E > o c 






1 

.c 
c 

3 



o 

i 



2 as- 

O 7 C u 



o « 



E 3.2. 

o O £ 
S >. = 

° -" " 
c 3 • 
o Si " 
,- = o 
E o -o 

o JS «. 
^ o o 

o > 2 . 

O = • S 

W. -- -• Q. 

» CT o o 

Ills 

2 « * o 
t- o a ^ 






o 



i :? 



IJ 



-o ! 



8 
I 

e 

o 

I 



o 

IJ 

c 
O 



» E -= i 

— 2 .S .c 

"a » Q- .!2 

*" » E = 

■o E 2 « 



c c a 

t> > o — 

« c u » 

oo o ° 

M — o >^ 

- o _g 

.£ S S ~ 

O-.E o c . 

E E E c -5 

S .. c c t 



I- " o> o E 






c c « . 

V O J3 .' 
«) u t- 

* = ^ o 

X i o <»• 
.D ^ E E 

ii gi 

S o o o 

O O c 

" § E E 

„ i J. o 

€ o ,£ "- 

- E >- 
g 5^ I 

- o "g c 

u O 

o S « • 






"n O O S 

V B ^ ^ 
»- 5: ri ry 



j; 



8 

= i 

I u 

!^ 



ii 



at — 






1= 




s s 

.x'S 






V o 

■= > 

Jl 



^'! 

8 §1 

S t -D 

_• j> £ 
a. c • 
E • "o 
o .> o 
m a E 






"8 



::C 






1^ 


i^ 




Z a 


o « 


S f 






i 2 

o -« 


11 


!- 


8l 


z S 


z « 



If 

> u 



is 

n 

3 ■ 




1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



65 



o 



E 



O 



S § 



o 5 



S. 



a 

1 ° 
.2 9- 



4) „ 

« c S 

2 "° -^ 

o S ° 



«- E i 

-2 o O 



< "5 2 



a 0) " ^ 

U7 O O 0> 



■i -o 



Q. 

E 
o 



-D o 

je in 



J! "O '^ 

O 4) - «J ^ 

? 3 o "o '^ 



S E 
o -D 



E r 



S3i 



« -t: 
"q. * 

E - 



— "D 



c3 

c 
u o 

u —■ 

0) o 

"5- S- 

1 2 
.2^ 



3: E -b 

Q. O " 



1 = ^ 

1 5 o^ 

2 >■ Q. " 

-o u 3 .y 

•s i E ° 



^ 4> **" 0) 

ul S^ 

„ o E - 

JJ U 3 O 

ui J o E 



c O 
O Q. 

E >, 






li 



a. £ 

E 



2 5 



P E B 



E o 



O) 



r * 


O 




* .?' 


<U 


>/l 


-c 




n 


15 :£ 


O 


E 
-a 

c 


«D *^ 


O) 


o 
m 


O "^ 


0) 




Q.-D 


b 


"0 



QJ O £ 
5 "^ 0) 





-n 


o 


-o 


a 




lO 


c 


b 
n 


o 


c 
a> 


o 




O) 


h 


o> 


<u 


0) 


? 


« 



Q--S 



2 .y 

•~ 2 ° -O 
J I I- 

tO o c 






E 5: o 



o, o 



o s, «! ^ 



0>-D p 



"*- ^ w 2: 

O J; «, -O . 

^ i 2| 

O •" 41 Jj 

0) ■- .Jf 

S -D = 

^ C Q. _ 

1- O : 



o E 
• -o 



a -D 
T! E 



-D 


> 

D 


E 



■^ 


■a 


^ 








-D 


4( 


3. 






i 




o 


a) 






c 


o 


' 


E 


0) 


o 


V 


Q. 

E 




r 


o 


O 








< 


Tl 


ai 




n 


n 




JZ 




o 


T> 


o- 


F 




— 


o 








C 


o 


"D 


o. 










^ 


£: 




O 


1— 




U 



■5 K = 



" Z . 

O ■£ CM 

< O Qc 



C3J 


i^ 






2 


J 





Z . 


3 ^^ 


•> s 


''i- 


:£ m 


C 




2 S 


"o •« 


u 


I"! 


■s? 


-■ -0 


U 





3 Z 


-D E 


n 


v 


-e "^ 


(/) to 


< h^ 



o E 



v 


o> 




•^ 






*t 


* 






3 












u 






c 










J 




u 


D 


0) 

> 






V 




<u 







^ 


a. 

F 


0; 


>-. 


-D 





F 


V 























a 




t- 



~ ° E § 

E J i E 

**- 4) fl. 

_ c c S 

o> 4J .E 



°- E 

S < 



J2 O) 



-2 E .^ 



o o 



z .- 



o , 

S Z 



a. 

E 



_Q 4> 

4) N 

4) *- 

O > O 

a * -^ 

^ 4) C 

O c o 

.« O -^ 

_4) -^ U 

a-a 2 
E g^ 



T3 'G t— ^ -C 



E " :: 



4; oc 



2: 1^ 



0) w 



' "2 E 



^ 4) "O Z 






(/5 o o I: 



.2 =5-6 

S E i 

S " o 

-o E 5i 

3: E -o 

D O 4» 

- tN 5 

-D O ^ 

4> *• O 

5 9- c 



tj. 5) £ 
iJ £- 

— U 4) 

o E -3 

«i 3 o 

- 0.3 

a S ^ 

E 4) o 

2-5 ? ^ 

-1 ° i 

1- * o- E 



"0=5 

o " I 
° S S 
E -o £ 

O 5; O 

— = -S 



i 3- 



< E o 



Z 



Z Q 

z - 



^ z 

o tp 



o 2- 



^i 



1= 

-£ Z 






z i^ i 






>o 



66 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



I 



5 



o 2. 

^ o 

a c 



E ^ "5 



2 i^ 



o £ 

•: i- 



• » 



e s 
o a 
" E . 



• UJ — o 

* _ a o 
E ^ • -* 

^ Q- : - 

.= u ■§ i 

^ . • o 

< a c E 

V » i " 

i i E ° 



o S o 



o o 

■o E 

c 

o E 

- o 

• 1 



o E 



I; 



E 

T> 



a 



111 ri 

, -s q .So 



• o 



Q. a 
E 9- 



^ 1 S t 

.2 ° I £ 



</> 



I/) 



■£ ■" 






S c 
il 

M 



1 5 
3 i 



< 2 
-2 -^ • 

Q. » " 



3: r o 
2 £ E 

Z 11 

■'1 = 

-c s o 
* E S 
-£ E ^ 



O MJ "^ O 



? » 



c c — 
n O -n 



.2 "D O 
(B i .E 



U. CI • = 

E E E 

O § 3 

to ^ a. 



^ =i^ 1 



a 
^ » E 

-2 s: 2 



i o 



o r 

E - 



> _ E 

-= E ? 

= 12 

.£ - • « 

Q, U ■* 

^ — "E o 

o "o I E 

-» E a'o 

^ >^ S 2 

o « «i ^ 

~ > ^ 



a 
E 

o 



E :? i S S 

<* — M c 

-£ - - • o 

o ° o -Q. " 

*- £ « Q. 

• n * • E 

»- w • »- S 



-C *- T) O 

■ -■> = * 

> > O u 

— «. o 

£ -^ E = 

:£ - § 2 

* = "-D 

.= a o s 



E » -D o 
o - C - 
«/) o o .= 



its 
o i <5 



> ** c 

i § ° 

1 -« -2 

*- W 3 

T) O o 

• •" • 

° £^ 

i o Q- . 

s § • - 



S - 3 - 

o- ^ o » 

o « « -£ 

- E E _ 

O 3 3 

>" o z o 

g-= C 3 

E O K o 

o E 2 s 



- * _: 

i 1-5 1 

o 2 §-"5 

> S * I 

.= c V E 
coco 

ll^-c 
-. — ° • 

.: o ^ •> 
< E g o 

S ~ o -a 
Q. ) Q. c 

lis! 



o S 

is 

^ o 



i 9- 



a. c 
E - 
o ^ 



1 s 




- O J 



- £ -D 
• .5 >■ 
^ -D -= 



"• X * 

« o > 

1 5 3 
•E . ■£ 

!h 

^J.eI 



g 



I 



oli i 



o 



•? ^ ? - 



•5 J S ,^ -I 

" - s <rt S 

" "S 2 - • 

> O O Q. 

;; ■£ "S 5 o 
i Sji- 
g-2 ° i - . 

b »- o •- • 

o O T= 



• o ^ c • 

On ^ *i • 



1 I - - J 1 

° S" 5 I I * 

° 2 I ^ * Z 

2 fr _ ° - ~ 

• o 



a — 



• c — w "5 
►- — a E • */> 



? 
8 









c 

-8 ^ 
' ? 

H 



~ z 
"6 2 



S 

5 



J 



:2 



J 





? S 


a 






-S 2 


1 






li 


« 






o"- 


"o 






S ° 


c 






o ■£ 


" 








_c 






: » 








Q-X 


-S 






E 3 


5 






o ~ 


> 






"■ -a 


— 






c * 









£ • 


E 






1"^ 


o X 3 








.. c r ■• 




a 


=5 S 


lili 




8 




■i ~ a 
) ^ 




c 




— _c »_ 


jt 


2 

c 


>^ o 


c "- . ^ 

■" c >' y 


^ 


i. 


~ -o 


1 ; 1 1 


V 


1 


S t 


11- i 


c 
o 







Z o - 


"5 




■5 


° >. 
"o "o 
. E 




> 
• 


1 


o 2 


o o • •" 


9 


s 


2 -5 

>. 

-c 

• c 

> c 

J5i 


S ■? c 

1 ^ ; ? 

i' c O > 
-C O OE O 


o 

3 




J 


) 






9 


Z 






"1 


>7 






"■ 


zg 






»n 


i^S 








i Ui 






i 


•"ft 






at _ 


Z r 






• £• 


» I/* 






S c 


O • 






1^ 

o 


i V 

6 n 






II 


ii 





1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



67 





f 



5 



c 



4; 
■Q 
.0 



o 



I 



-S; 

On 
c 
p 
"O ■■ 








it 6 



o e 





o> E 


c 


O) 






js 










p 


4) 

C 






>s 


>^ 






.§ 


0) T 




4> 




1 


5.S 


IE 
o 


E 


o 


-s 


-5 1 

t- _ 




C 
4) 
£ 


E 

V 




"^ _c 









<o 


o| 


o 

u 





o 



J! -D S S J! -D 

a » _ — a S 

E 5 "a -= E £ 

o — E S o ^ 

CO O M « CO o 



^it 



— »*- J! * - 

-S "o -= ° u 

-2 , o ■" o 

f :i i i ! 

o Q <5 " o 



J! -D -2 ff (U 

^ •! 8 o ;£ 

E c. oi «) -a 

o j; » -c c 

V u i: ,E t 

- «■ ^^ "S 

^ >■ I- o 

•B 1??^ 

-9 -5.0 



O 



2 o .E * E 



Z <" 



= 'J 

5 i 






; z 



° > 

< CO 



6X 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



S = 



o 

i 






£ 



1^" 
5 o- xi 

I/) lO •» O -£ 



c • 

o .r 

o — u — 

o r> On 

12: Is 



c » 

o r 



-si '4 

o ■" ? 
r * c t» , 

a .- o "D * 

> -= ■" 

> u ^ « 

: o 2 E 
° J o ' 
^ o - c 

= O S c 



o o ; 

- ■£ 5 
6 "S i ■= 



-S E 



«> £ c •^ 

■5 S O • 

o £ o i 

c -. o -S 



E o 

2 "° 

«i "o 

•B "^ 

o -5 
2 -" 



2 

u: 



T3 

c 

i 

O 



o 

e 






1 



s 



a 






c s o 5 
2 -§.i E _ 



5|£ 



S~ a 

•D ^ " 



"o E .= 

3 t ^ 



V. 


■D 
C 


O 










c 




% 




3 


« 






0--C 


u 


C 








« 


3 


o 


« 


F 






















t) 


« 








c 


J) 





,r 


V 








> 




i 




o 


ti 


o 










c 




^ 


* 


*© 




E 






§• 


& 


> 




u 




v 






^ 



.= o 
c i 



S -o 
^ E 



.= E 



-I I 



E » 



£ E 
3^ 



:= O 



^ O 

a S 



E £ 



i _ 



p — 
o r) 

Is 



£ E 






■5 o 

« ci 

" Z 

^ •*- 

I- o 



■o " 

c • 

o .t 
(/) 

p — 

o n 

s 2 



> _ 

c • 

o r 
p — 
On On 

Is I2 



C • 

o .• 

*/) 

o — 



J _ 

■o* 

C «t 

o * 
p — 
p r> 



i_ 

e • 
o .— 

p — 
o r> 



^5 



p — 

o en 



» g 

c <rt 

-£ • 

5 I 



■5 * 



E 



•o 
c 



o ■:: 



— -n •.= " S 



3 i 

y < 



5.E g 
g c E 

c «1 w 



.i1 

• c 

a. 5 

• g 



5 » 



V -D 

11 

a. >. 

Is 



S £ %■ 

• o c 
> t ^ 

ill 

= I .3 

• I -D 
.■= O .= 
JO — ^ 

PI 

= tl ° 
o S, a 

« J o 



o = Q. 
I o .c 



E o S 
ill 

O u 

-.CO 

5 i'S- 



E ^ 
o — 



o E 



o 3 
* o 



:S o » 



; Ji 2!: 

U 01 ) o 



I 

1 £ 

^ I 

h. M 

3 

" I 

o ■£ 

ti o 

E >. 



o .- 
-o » 



15 
2 o 



II 



ig ?< 

w X O « . 

- -S ^ -^ : 

"O i , "B i 

5 i < 1 



- ■■= T r o ^ 

^ o c - := 



S I 3 5 ■= 

o - • -D £ 

*.' -; -^ c ^ 

^ "2 — ° o 

^ ° ^ £ E 

— " - 2 o 



S = s 
-5 .5 -5 



0^0-= 

■£ ■-'ft 



1 t ° i- 

£ g- 9-= ! 

xj 3 



If? 

C ft 

I S = 

^ O u 

u c a. 



* 1 o 2 
; ^ c ■» 

o -o • , 



p 
£- 

w 

■D 
• 

E 

o 



o t 




i?S 



i o 

Zbi 



O «^ 



* w c 



m 9 



a 
g>' 

1^ 






=5^2 
E iu c 
■* </) o 

^>'- 

O UJ ' 

c _ eo 

ill 
• c 

OS "^^ 
TS at 



^ c f^ 

O J ri 

3 

or c ■ 



r. 

ic2 



Is 



CO 

o 



13^ 

22^ 



Ifi 

I • - 

i E-g- 

ft ° ■■ 



< — 



> *rt E 



. 3 5.5 

J:! J 

o ■*■ - 
!•£ g > 

U E ^ g 

- - i- 
O oe c 



E ;= 



«■ e -o 
ire g 

o _ 

X -^ £ 

a * • 
E c 2 



•2 ^ ° - 

u 9 i -o 

o t c = 

.. ^ • o 



^ o • .9 *- 



E (J E > 2 



>7 



> ' 

> Q 
Z S 






c oe 

o 

vO >- 

9 



■Si3 Q 



6 J - 



UJ w o 



i. o i 

= -E •* 2 

is g- 



O n 



^ o S 



I E J 



-8 J, -r o E j( 



O s z 



o 3 g t r. 



=^ S • 

^« »■ 

•^ .-? I 
■ >^ r 

; J I 

•o Z o 






8:> 



_-- ^ «r» 

J ■ !2 
>^ jj 

OS* 
" K Z u 



1 

< 

O J c" 
Ml 

O UJ C 



i S! 



UJ ^ 



X 8 

Hi 
z s 



--•I 

4 UJ a 
z z * 



9"J 


?i 


TO *rt 


2 u< 




■D - 


^".-2, 


§«- 


■ u 


O- r £. 


:^« 








m 

\j >n — 


■i *" I 




1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



69 



-o 

c 
o 



o 
Is 






C « 

o .^ 

to 
p — 

o n 

I* 



C 0) 

O .r 

to 

p — 

p en 



p — 

p en 



s ^ 



C 4) 

o .t: 

P — 

o r> 



o2: 



■D 
C 
O 



t -o 
o o 

to •— 



o — >» 

a c — 

i_ 0) U 

t S 

■= o -D 

■: » 3 

~ >. "^ 

3 O -Q 

o o 2 

^ — 3 

o .;; q 



-S o > 
° J) " 

11^ 

O C 4» 

> D ^ 

•^ to o 

O V. ^ 

-D * Q. 

*> £ o 
-o .9 c 

< ffl "u 



^ i; £ g = • 
- * o -5 -g 
?"§ S B E 

.E 0) 1= to 4rt 
a -c _ 0) ■" 
2 - ' 



E o E 



, «- O O) "^ 



S ■? 2 



- .c r- ~ 



_o i 



= go 

^i SI 

o _y 4) ^ 

_4> O 3 O 

. > 15 - 

" o ¥ ?i 
o c 



?.|^ 



4; 



O -C 



O ^ 



> 2^ * ^ S 

£ ^ -° i 

J - -D ^ 

O » c " 

•D O C3 J! 



"o o J, 

q; b lO 

O 5 <^ 

-C u- ^ 

" O o 

a> c 

5 I S- 

E 4 -o 

>^ «* n 

° •£ 



a, 4» O 
° E 

" 5 HI 
^52 



g- o^ °-S 

•" 0) *: — fl, 

0) » 4» ft^ o * 

t— -2 I— »i: M ^ 












r S ° 



E < 



U 3 ^ ST ■— 



E " > 

Q. 3 ;= 



E £ 

O _ 



O >f 
- T3 



E ° 



5 = , 



0) 

E 
o 



.E o 

E 



3 O 



X ;:: -^ o 



V 



. "2 -° 



■"a T) 
■3. 5 



— c 

■K ~ a >. 



5 ^ ;= 






o 
= "2 



•O ^ 

o S 



~ ^ ^ In}^ o 

"o "^ u » ,J u 

S lo" 5 "t <^" I 

s >> £ 5 S § 






2 it; 



> c 

» .9 



J t 



Z ^ 



9> 



c 

(3 



J3 



Z ~ 



4) O o 

O) u 

c 41 . 

2 •" O 

S £ 



S 5 . 

^ 2 



o 



4> ^ , 

■<? S >■ 

trt ;n < tj 



= g^^ 



9. e 
iE 
I "» 

£ 2 

"d 



3 ^ 
U 

u -a 



= o 



S-° ^ o 



=0 r -3 



O lu ^ 

-6 <« E 

o v^ '5 



13 S a; O 3 i^- ^ 



?^ c 




= :? 








UO .<^ 




X t 








n 






c 




u 

to 




■v?* 




W 


l/> 







z p 


c 


-?^, 


Q. 





■ a 

4( — 

01 ■ 
c lu 

t-> 

-5 Q: 
, 




U 



u 


r 


a ^ 
S 




-C 

s 




U 
4) 


u 

c 


c 

3 



x"- 



to 


?rv- 


s 


(fi 


u 




-6 




. 

-0 to 


1 

nr 


"o 

c 



u 


U 


V 

a 




to 





p 

c 



3 :^^ 


u. 

c 

to 


c 
j; .9 

V 


1 


4) 
OJ 


c 

-5 


Ji 
"0 

> 



O -i 



o £ 
E^ 

■^ Q- 
o </> 

Ji E 
S c 



52s 

o> o 

^ 0, -c 

■S .E " 
*" **■ o 

C 5 D 

— _o ^ 

u O > 

o o :£ 
5-S.I' 

2 ~- ^ 
5 -o ^ 

i 2|- 
° ° 1 

2 -D 



ȣ 4) -C T" 4) 



4) u 

°- 2 

D 0) 






-s - ^ 



O) "5 t/D ■ 



0> 3 ^ 



irt i "M 

' I S ° J 

i .E ^ E < 

91 



V -£ 



^ J 

t- o 

10 o — 

I i^ * 

m uj ^ 

■ Z S 

o>>^ E 

C I 

O UJ to 

■D 2 <> 



.c s s 



3-i§ 

U c 4) 

c a> c 
< .£ o 

c 

UJ ;^ ■- 

lO ? E 
^-Z •? 






c -O 



Ji T o O-'a. o 

.y ~ ■•= ?• o ■5 

S- 2 ^ ."? 



i c O 
■ ■= -O 

■.-5 o 



-D ^ 4) 



•= i- 



-S CI 
■C TJ 

■I2 

Si 



° » I o 
2 lij S 



"u S " i 

S " E ^ 

.^ «) — 

4) ^ w 

~ TJ -X S 

5? J Si 

J o ^ •£ = 



^ ° 2 E -2 

>^ _^ 4) 4) 

- 2 ° o o 

" C. E " E 
c >■ 41 

CP ^ .Si "o 
c .S -5 Q. 01 

: J £ 5 -^ 

3 3 4) 

■; o - •.= 
4, j; o ° 2 

^ 3 -^ -D 4> 

1 111! 



u c UJ 
C o <N 



= 2 i^ -j 

I "o £ 

° 2-Z '^ 
E "^ ."- 
G V" 2 ■' 






U >/) (^ 



70 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



S o- 






S 

» 



o 



E 
< 



o 

c 

o 






£ o E -D 

o o E «< 
c J> o -q 



o 
a. 
a. 



^ o 



> 73 



o 





> 

2 




E 
o 




jf 


E 


a. 


a 
o 

c 


t 




E 


V 




-o 

c 
o 




c 




a 




9i 


X 











a 




E 


o 






F 




3 


c 




a. 


a 







■D 




« 


<>; 


a. 




o 

c 









3 



3 

i 




3 


o 

• 3 
11 


-0 

n 
c 
5 
c 
o 

« 
a 


u 

c 
* 

a 
o 


c 

« 

O 




o 

« 

"o 




« 
a 

E 
o 


a 
a 


c 

5 

c 
o 

u 


a. c 


b 
o 

< 
•* 


-D 

C 

o 




V 

o 



Q. 


V 

o 

-o 














« 


o 


















































o 


^ 




o 


a 


Tl 




V 


a 
o 


< 


°l 


s 
2 


c 


c 
o 

n 


c 




U 


"a 


c Ic 

o a. 


it 


& 


E 


o 


R 

*• 



i! ^ -° ■" 

° T> < 

1 9 S o 

O • O C 
• S • O 
" E 

J o •" e 

J O jj - 

a ^ -^ o 
^ - >~'^ 

o o e — 

4S I - 

o o < -^ 

^ ^1- 



l>° 



O :£ 



S O - 

° IS 

.^ **• -^ 



Q. 1> _© 

.5 o -O 
U i Q 



o • ^ .= je 

■" w O -O '-* 

2 - O -D 

s ? g - 

^ "D — 

3 C _ 

- o - 

- •- c 

- o o 

-Si * - 

O © tt 



P 7. 



o ■= E 



o- E 



? .9 E 



r o 

C — 

6 -o 



tl 



3i 



I? 



E J> 



; «i tl 

c — — 

2 c -D 

o o -o 
"■ a - 

r tl • 

ilil- 
■2 t > 

o o 

O tl ■© 
Q. c ^ 

o|i 

« o. o 



?2 



E 3 



tl ft k 

re-* 



ft C ^ 

5 c ;S 
Si s 



i T ft 3 









B^? 



S • 5 



O ft > 

E o 

ft ft x 

u E u 

£ - S 

i 1 o 

^ .r ft Q. 

i^ O i Z 



r) 3 5 



i". 



■5 
tl 

3 
C 
'C 
C 

o 

o 



■a 



• z 

E o 
"S ^ 



in 
o - 

11 



' (J 

O O (O 

^ S */> 

— 3 

i • ^ 

A *0 (K 

*" l± 

lu O o 

<K ^ »- 



;^* 



ft 



Zi3 



■ "O 

^ « :? 

^ 0» < 

coo 

g.l «. 

r>. " 
S '^' 



-So 



a. 









c — 
o ^ 



J1 

O I 



2 o 



-£ I ? 



« z 



^ 5 g S S • 

o o o 

j^":^ gt 

5 O C £ A 

5 2 o J J 



5;;o'Di 



i ^ S i 



z" 2* 

»~ • C 
C "^ O 

?f f. 

S 3 g 

l|5 

2- 5 

a •■ 
K • o 
« •/) O 



1/) — 

c 



Z o 



Iji 

■"0 2 
Si i - 

>" g 

m o ^■ 



^X 



o 

J) - 

S-o 



ft A 
C O 
O C 

~ o 

'^8 g 

I „ c 
. o 

* '-' 

00 o 
•« o 
— > 

f s 



s ^ 



si f 

' ft ° 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



71 



SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK 



During this study of zeolite deposits in California over 100 
areas containing zeolites or suspected of containing zeolites were 
given a cursory examination and sampled. No detailed examina- 
tion or sampling was done at any location. Most of the deposits 
reported to have commercial potential were examined and sam- 
pled. When some degree of familiarization with the field appear- 
ance of sedimentary zeolite deposits had been gained, a number 
of other altered zeolite localities were found, examined, and 
sampled. Several of these sites represent zeolite deposits of possi- 
ble significance and are worthy of further work. Most of these 
deposits are discussed in the sections of the report dealing with 
locations within individual quadrangles. Deposits of altered Ter- 
tiary or younger tuffs certainly exist in other quadrangles east of 
the Kerens 15' quadrangle, the easternmost quadrangle exam- 
ined during this study. All Tertiary or younger tuff units of 
rhyolitic composition should be examined and sampled if further 
reconnaissance-type work is done on zeolites. The Bishop tuff 
and the rhyolite tuff of the Coso Formation should be examined 
and sampled for zeolites. 

Several of the zeolite deposits examined and sampled during 
this study are worthy of further work. In general, these are in 
altered tuffs in the formations cited by Sheppard (1971), e.g., 
Kinnick Formation, Gem Hill Formation, Spanish Canyon For- 
mation, Tropico Group, Barstow Formation, Pickhandle For- 
mation, Ricardo Formation, and the Lake Tecopa lacustrine 
deposits. Several deposits found during this study in Tertiary or 



younger tuff units should be re-examined and sampled in more 
detail. The zeolitized tuff of the Obispo Formation is worthy of 
more study, especially in San Luis Obispo County. 

Clinoptilolite is the most abundant zeolite mineral found dur- 
ing this study of zeolites in California. Mordenite is the second 
most abundant zeolite and is found associated with clinoptilolite 
and also in altered tuffs, where it is the principal zeolite present. 
Phillipsite, erionite and analcime were also identified from sev- 
eral deposits but in smaller quantities than either clinoptilolite 
or mordenite. It appears, therefore, that future production of 
zeolites from California will be from deposits where clinoptilohte 
or mordenite are the principal zeolite minerals. This study has 
shown that in addition to the deposits of high-grade clinoptilolite 
already mined on a limited scale, many large deposits of altered 
tuff or tuff breccia containing from 30 to 60 percent are present 
in southeastern California. Futhermore, it is reasonable to pre- 
dict that further exploration and sampling will result in the 
discovery of many more zeolite-bearing tuffs of possible com- 
mercial significance in California. 

The principal deterrent to a viable zeolite industry in Califor- 
nia appears to be the absence of a market for natural zeolites, 
especially lower grade material, rather than a lack of zeolites. It 
is hoped that information presented in the report will stimulate 
interest by industry in developing uses for California zeolites. 
The zeolites are available; only a market is needed. 



REFERENCES 



Ames, L.L., Jr., 1960, Cation sieve properties of clinoptilolite: Amer- 
ican Mineralogist, v. 45, p. 689-700. 

Ames, L.L., Jr., Sand, L.B., and Goldich, S.S., 1958, A contribution on 
the Hector, California bentonite deposit: Economic Geology, v. 53, 
p. 22-37. 

Balder, N.A., and Whittig, L.D., 1968, Occurrence and synthesis of 
soil zeolites: Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, v. 32, 
no.2, p. 235-238. 

Barnard, R.M., and Kistler, R.B., 1961, Stratigraphic and structural 
evolution of the Kramer sodium borate ore body, Boron, Califor- 
nia, in Rou, J.L., editor. Second symposium on salt: Northern Ohio 
Geological Society, p. 133-150. 

Boles, J.R., 1972, Composition, optical properties, cell dimensions, 
and thermal stability of some heulandite group zeolites: American 
Mineralogist, v. 57, p. 1468. 

Boles, J.R., 1977, Zeolites in low-grade metamorphic rocks in Mump- 
ton, F.A., editor. Mineralogy and geology of natural zeolites. Short 
Course Notes 4: Mineralogicol Society of America, p. 103. 

Bowen, O.E., Jr., 1954, Geology and mineral deposits of the Barstow 
quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California: California Divi- 
sion of Mines Bulletin 165, plate 1. 

Bramlette, M.N., 1946, The Monterey Formation of California and 
the origin of its siliceous rocks: U.S. Geological Survey Professional 
Paper 212, p. 22-29, plate 2. 

Bramlette, M.N., and Posnijok, E., 1933, Zeolite alteration of pyro- 
clostics: American Mineralogist, v. 18, no. 4, p. 167-171. 

Brendo, W.K., Erd, R.C., and Smith, W.C, 1960, Core logs from five 
lest holes near Kramer, California: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
1045-F, p. 319-393 



Brown, R.E., 1962, The use of clinoptilolite: Ore Bin, v. 24, no. 12, 
p. 193-197. 

Byers, P.M., Jr., 1960, Geology of the Alvord Mountain quadrangle, 
San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Bul- 
letin 1089-A, p. 22-26, plate 1. 

Chesterman, C.W., 1956, Pumice, pumicite, and volcanic cinders in 
California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 174, p. 46, 53. 

Chesterman, C.W., 1973, Geology of the northeost quarter of the 
Shoshone quadrangle, Inyo County, California: California Division 
of Mines and Geology Mop Sheet 18. 

Clarke, G., 1980, Zeolites — take off for the tuff guys?: Industrial 
Minerals, no. 149, (February 1980), p. 21-35. 

Cleveland, G.B., 1962, Geology of the Little Antelope Valley clay 
deposits. Mono County, California: California Division of Mines 
and Geology Special Report 72, p. 10-12, plate 1. 

Curtis, CD., and Cornell, W.C, 1972, Unusual occurrence of clinop- 
tilolite, Fresno County, California: Geological Society of America 
Bulletin, V. 83, p. 833-837. 

Deffeyes, K.S., 1959, Zeolites in sedimentary rocks: Journal of Sed- 
imentary Petrology, v. 29, p. 602-609. 

Denny, C.S., and Drewes, H., 1965, Geology of the Ash Meadows 
quadrangle, California-Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
1181-L, p. L18-19, plate 1. 

Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1950, Geology of southwestern Santa Barbara 

County, California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 150, 
p. 33-34, plotes 1 and 3. 

Dibblee, T.W., Jr, 1952, Geology of the Saltdale quadrangle, Cali- 
fornio: California Division of Mines Bulletin 160, p. 25-30, plate 1. 



72 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Dibblee, T W, Jr., 1958a, Tertiary stratigraphy of the western Mojave 
Desert, California: American Association of Petroleum Geologists 
Bulletin, v. 42, no 1, p. 135-140 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr, 1958b, Geologic map of the Boron quadrangle, 
Kern ond Son Bernardino Counties, California: US Geologicol 
Survey Mineral Investigations Field Studies Mop MF-204. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr., 1958c, Geologic map of the Castle Butte quadran- 
gle, Kern County, California: US. Geological Survey Mineral 
Investigations Field Studies Mop MF-170. 

Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1960a, Geology of the Rogers Lake and Kramer 
quadrangles, California: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1089-B, 
p 92-95, plate 8. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, 1960b, Geologic map of the Howes quadrangle, 
San Bernardino County, Californio: U.S. Geological Survey Min- 
eral Investigations Field Studies Map MF-226. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr., 1960c, Geologic map of the Barstow quadrangle, 
Son Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Min- 
eral Investigations Field Studies Mop MF-233. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr, 1963, Geology of the Willow Springs and Rosa- 
mond quadrangles, Californio: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
1089-C, p. 164-175, plate 1. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr., 1964a, Geologic map of the Ord Mountains quad- 
rangle. Son Bernordino County, California: U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Mop 1-427. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr, 1964b, Geologic map of the Rodman Mountains 
quadrangle. Son Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological 
Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Mop 1-430. 

Dibblee, T.W, Jr., 1966, Geology of the central Santo Ynez Moun- 
tains, Santa Barbara County, California: California Division of 
Mines ond Geology Bulletin 186, p. 46, plate 3. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, 1967, Areol Geology of western Mojave Desert, 
California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 522, 
p. 126-127. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, 1968, Geology of the Fremont Peak ond Opol 
Mountoin quadrangles, Colifornio: California Division of Mines 
and Geology Bulletin 188, p. 19-24, 26-36, plate 1. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, 1970, Geologic mop of the Daggett quadrangle, 
Son Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Mis- 
cellaneous Geologic Investigations Map 1-592. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, and Bossetl, A.M., 1966a, Geologic map of the 
Cody Mountains quodrangle, San Bernardino County, Colifornio: 
U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations 
Map 1-467 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, and Bossett, A.M., 1966b, Geologic mop of the 
Newberry quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. 
Geological Survey Mlsceiloneous Geologic Investigations Map 
1-461. 

Dibblee, TW, Jr, and Louke, G.P., 1970, Geologic mop of the Te- 
hochopi quadrangle, Kern County, California: U.S. Geological 
Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Mop 1-607, plote 
and p 3 

Dickinson, WR , 0|okangas, R.W, ond Steworl, R.J., 1969, Burial me- 
tomorphism of the late Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Cache 
Creek, California: Geological Society of Americo Bulletin, v. 80, 
p 519-526 

Durrell, Cordell, 1953, The Solomon and Ross strontionite deposits. 
Mud Hills, Son Bernardino County, California in Geological inves- 
tigotions of strontium deposits in southern Colifornio: Californio 
Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 32, p. 23-36. 

Gilbert, Cm., 1951, Loumontite from Anchor Bay, Mendocino County, 



Colifornio: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v 62, p. 1517. 

Gilbert, CM., and McAndrews, M.G., 1948, Aothigenic heulondite 
in sandstone, Santa Cruz County, California Journal of Sedimen- 
lory Petrology, v. 18, no. 3, p. 91-99 

Grose, T.L, 1959, Structure and petrology of the northeast port of 
the Soda Mountoins, Son Bernardino County, Californio: Geolog- 
ical Society of America Bulletin, v 70, p. 1509-1548, plate 1. 

Gude, A.J., 3rd., and Sheppord, R-A., 1966, Silico-rich chobozite 
from the Barstow Formation, Son Bernardino County, southern 
California: Americon Mineralogist, v. 51, p. 909-915. 

Holl, CA., Jr, 1973, Geology of the Arroyo Gronde quadrangle, 
California: Californio Division of Mines ond Geology Mop Sheet 24. 

Holl, CA., 1974, Geologic map of the Combrio region. Son Luis 
Obispo County, Californio: U.S. Geological Survey Miscelloneous 
Field Studies Map MF-599. 

Holl, CA., Jr, ond Corbato, C.E., 1967, Strotigrophy and structure of 
Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, Nipomo quadrangle, southern 
Coast Ranges, California: Geological Society of Americo Bulletin, 
V. 78, p. 559-582. 

Hall, C A, Jr., ond Surdom, R.C., 1967, The Son Luis Obispo-Nipomo 
area. Son Luis Obispo County, Colifornio: Geological Society of 
America Guidebook, 63rd Annual Meeting of Cordilleron Section, 
Geological Society of America, p. 1-26. 

Hall, CA., and Prior, S.W, 1975, Geologic mop of the Coyucos-Son 
Luis Obispo region. Son Luis Obispo County, California: U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey Miscelloneous Field Studies Mop MF-686. 

Hall, C.A., Ernst, W.G., Prior, S W, and Wiese, J.W, 1979, Geologic 

mop of the Son Luis Obispo-Son Simeon region, Colifornio: U.S. 

Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Mop 

1-1097, Sheet 2. 
Hardie, L.A., 1968, The origin of the recent non-marine evoporite 

deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California: Geochimico el 

Cosmochimico Acto, v. 32, p. 1279-1301. 

Hay, R.L., 1964, Phillipsite of saline lakes ond soils: Amencon Min- 
eralogist, V. 49, nos. 9-10, p. 1366-1387. 

Hoy, R.L., 1966, Zeolites ond zeolitic reoctions in sedimentory rocks: 
Geologicol Society of America Speciol Poper 85, 130 p. 

Hoy, R.L., 1977, Geology of zeolites in sedimentary rocks in Mump- 
ton, FA., editor. Mineralogy and geology of noturol zeolites, Short 
Course Notes 4: Minerologicol Society of America, p. 53-64. 

Hoy, R.L., and Moiolo, R.J., 1963, Authigenic silicate minerals in 
Searies Lake, California: Sedimentology, v. 2, p. 312-332. 

Hoy, R.L., and Moiolo, RJ., 1964, Authigenic silicate minerols in three 
desert lakes of eastern California (obstroct): Geological Society 
of America Speciol Paper 76, p. 76 

Hay, R L., and Sheppord, R.A., 1977, Zeolites in open hydrologic 
systems, in Mumpton, FA., editor, Minerology and geology of nat- 
ural zeolites. Short Course Notes 4: Minerologicol Society of 
Americo, p. 98. 

Hoyhurst, B.A., and Mathios, R.W, 1982, Zeolite minerol group, bib- 
liography: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-715, 28 p. 

Henderson, G.V., 1980, Geology of the Pink Lody bentonite mine, 
Zzyzx, California in Geology ond minerol weolth of the California 
desert: South Coost Geological Society, p. 278. 

Hewett, D F, 1956, Geology and minerol resources of the Ivonpoh 
quadrangle, Colifornio and Nevada US Geologicol Survey 
Professional Paper 275, p. 80-81, 160-161, plate 1. 

Jones, B F., 1965, The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Springs 
Lake, Inyo County, Colifornio: U.S. Geological Survey Professional 
Paper 502 -A 56 p 



1988 



ZEOLITES IN CALIFORNIA 



73 



Kaley, M.E., and Hanson, R.F., 1955, Laumontite and leonhardite ce- 
ment in Miocene sandstone from a well in San Joaquin Valley, 
California: American Mineralogist, v. 40, p. 923-925. 

Kerr, P.F., 1931, Benfonite from Ventura, California: Economic Geol- 
ogy, V. 26, no. 2, p. 153-168. 

Kerr, P.F., and Cameron, E.N., 1936, Fuller's earth of bentonitic origin 
from Tehachapi, California: American Mineralogist, v. 21, p. 230- 
237. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1918, Strontionite deposits near Barstow, California: 
U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 660, p. 257-270. 

Loird, R.T., 1960, Geologic map of T.8N., R.9 and lOE., SBBM, Kerens 
quadrangle: Southern Pacific Company, Land Department re- 
gional geologic mapping program, project 11, scale 1:24,000. 

Langbien, W.B., 1961, Salinity and hydrology of closed lakes, U.S. 
Geological Survey Professional Paper 412, 20 p. 

Lynton, E.D., 1938, Sulphur deposits of Inyo County, California: 
California Division of Mines Report 34, p. 563-590. 

Madsen, B.M., and Muroto, K.J., 1970, Occurrence of laumontite in 
Tertiary sandstones of the central Coast Ranges, California: U.S. 
Geological Survey Professional Paper 700 D, p. D188-D195. 

McAllister, J.F., 1970, Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area. 
Death Valley, Inyo County, California: California Division of Mines 
and Geology Mop Sheet 14. 

McCulloh, T.H., 1960, Geologic map of the Lane Mountain quad- 
rangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open- File report. 

McCulloh, T.H., Frizzell, V.A., Jr., Stewart, R.J., and Barnes, Ivan, 1981, 

Precipitation of laumontite with quartz, thenardite, and gypsum at 

Sespe Hot Springs, western Transverse Ranges, California: Clays 

and Cloy Minerals, v. 29, no. 5, p. 353-364. 
Merino, E., 1975, Diagenesis in Tertiary sandstones from Kettleman 

North Dome, California: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 45, 

p. 320-336. 
Miller, W.J., 1944, Geology of parts of the Barstow quadrangle, San 

Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and 

Geology, v. 40, p. 73-112. 

Morgan, V., ond Erd, R.C., 1969, Minerals of the Kramer borate 
district, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Min- 
eral Information Service, v. 22, nos. 9 and 10, p. 146-147, 152, 
165-166. 

Mumpton, F.A., 1973, Worldwide deposits and utilization of natural 
zeolites: Industrial Minerals, no. 73, p. 30-45. 

Mumpton, F.A., 1977, Natural zeolites in Mumpton, F.A., editor. Min- 
eralogy and geology of natural zeolites, Short Course Notes 4: 
Mineralogical Society of America, p. 5. 

Mumpton, F.A., 1978, Natural zeolites: a new industrial mineral com- 
modity in Sand, L.B., and Mumpton, F.A., editors, Natural zeolites, 
occurrence, properties, and use: Pergamon Press, New York, 
p. 3-27. 

Mumpton, FA., 1983a, Field trip stop 7, Tohoe-Truckee Water Recla- 
mation Plan in Zeo-trip 83: International Committee on Natural 
Zeolites, p. 60-65. 

Mumpton, F.A., 1983b, Natural Zeolites in Pond, W.G., and Mumpton, 
F.A., editors, Zeo-ogriculture: use of natural zeolites in agriculture 
and aquaculture: Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, p. 34-36. 

Mumpton, FA., and Fishmon, PH., 1977, The application of noturol 
zeolites in animal science and aquaculture: Journal of Animal 
Science, V. 45, p. 1188-1203. 

Munson, R.A., 1973, Properties of natural zeolites: U.S. Bureau of 
Mines Report of Investigations 7744, 13 p. 



Murota, K.J., and Whiteley, K.R., 1973, Zeolites in the Miocene 
Briones Sandstone and related formations of the central Coast 
Ranges, California: Journal of Reseorch, U.S. Geological Survey, 
v. 1, p. 255-265. 

Popke, K.G., 1972, Erionite and other associated zeolites in Nevada: 
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 79, 32 p. 

Pond, W.G., and Mumpton, F.A., editors, 1984, Zeo-ogriculture, the 
use of natural zeolites in agriculture and aquaculture: Westview 
Press, 450 p. 

Rinehort, CD., and Ross, D.C., 1964, Geology and mineral deposits 
of the Mount Morrison quadrangle. Sierra Nevodo, California: 
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 385, plate 1. 

Ross, C.S., 1928, Sedimentary anolcite: American Mineralogist, v. 13, 
p. 195-197. 

Sand, L.B., and Mumpton, F.A., editors, 1978, Natural zeolites, 
occurrence, properties, and use: Pergamon Press, 546 p. 

Santini, K.N., and Knostmon, R.W., 1979, Geology of the Ash Mead- 
ows clinoptilolite deposit, Inyo County, California and Nye County, 
Nevada in Program and Abstracts: Society of Mining Engineers 
of AIME Fall Meeting and Exhibit, October 17-19, 1979, Tucson, 
Arizona, p. 35. 

Sheppard, R.A., 1971, Clinoptilolite of possible economic value in 
sedimentary deposits of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey Bulletin 1332-B, p. B1-B15. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1964, Reconnaissance of zeo- 
lite deposits in tuffoceous rocks of the western Mojove Desert and 
vicinity, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
501-C, p. C114-C116. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1965a, Potash feldspar of pos- 
sible economic value in the Barstow Formation, Son Bernardino 
County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 500, 7 p. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1965b, Zeolitic authigenesis of 
tuffs in the Ricardo Formation, Kern County, southern California in 
Geological Survey Research 1965: U.S. Geological Survey Profes- 
sional Paper 525-D, p. D44-D47. 

Sheppord, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1968, Distribution and genesis 
of authigenic silicate minerals in tuffs of Pleistocene Lake Tecopo, 
Inyo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional 
Paper 597, 38 p. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1969a, Diagenesis of tuffs in 
the Barstow Formation, Mud Hills, Son Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 634, 35 p. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1969b, Chemical composition 
and physical properties of the related zeolites offretite and erion- 
ite: American Mineralogist, v. 54, p. 875-886. 

Sheppard, R.A., and Gude, A.J., 3rd., 1982, Mineralogy, chemistry, 
gas adsorption, and NH4' - exchange capacity for selected zeo- 
litic tuffs from the western United States: U.S. Geological Survey 
Open-File Report 82-969, p. 3, 6, 7. 

Sheppard, R.A., Gude, A.J., 3rd., and Munson, E.L., 1965, Chem- 
ical composition of diogenetic zeolites from tuffoceous rocks of 
the Mojave Desert and vicinity, Californio: American Mineralogist, 
V. 50, p. 244-249. 

Smith, G.I., 1964, Geology and volconic petrology of the Lava 
Mountains, Son Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 457, p. 14-15, 56, plate 1. 

Smith, G.I., and Pratt, W.P., 1957, Core logs from Owens, China, 
Searles, and Panamint basins, California: U.S. Geological Survey 
Bulletin 1045-A, p. 1-62. 

Smith, G.I., Almond, H., and Sawyer, D.L., 1958, Sossolite from the 



74 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULLETIN 208 



Kramer borate district, Colifornio; American Mineralogist, v. 43, 
p. 1068-1078. 

Smith, G.I., and Haines, D V., 1964, Chorocter and distribution of 
nonclostic minerols in the SeaHes Loke evoporite deposit, Colifor- 
nio: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1181-P, 58 p. 

Spotts, J.H., and Silverman, S.R., 1966, Organic dolomite from Point 
Fermin, Colifornio: American Mineralogist, v. 51, no. 7, p. 1144- 
1155. 

Storkey, H.C., ond Blockman, P.D., 1979, Clay mineralogy of Pleis- 
tocene Lolce Tecopa, Inyo County, California: U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey Professionol Paper 1061, p. 18. 

Surdom, R.C., and Hall, C-A., 1968, Zeolitization of the Obispo For- 
motion. Coast Ranges of Colifornio (Abstracts) for 1966: Geolog- 
icol Society of America Special Paper 101, p. 338. 

Surdom, R.C., Turner, D.L, ond Hall, C, 1970, Distribution ond genesis 



of outhigenic silicates in the Obispo Formation: Geological Society 
of America Abstracts 2, no. 2, p. 151-152 

White, D.E., 1967, Mercury ond bose-metol deposits with associated 
thermal and mineral waters in Bornes, H L., editor. Geochemistry 
of hydrothermol ore deposits: Holt, Reinhord and NA^inton, New 
York, p. 598 

Wise, WS , Nokleberg, WJ., ond Kokinos, M., 1969, ClinopHlolite 
and fernerite from Agoura, Colifornio: Americon Mineralogist, 
v. 54, p. 887-895. 

Woodford, A.O., 1925, The Son Onofre Breccio: University of Coli- 
fornio Department Geological Sciences Bulletin, v. 15, no. 7, 
p. 210. 

Woodring, W.P., Bramlette, M.N., and Kew, W.S.W, 1946, Geology 
and poleontology of Polos Verdes Hills, Colifornio: U.S. Geolog- 
ical Survey Professionol Poper 207, p. 16-32, plote 1. 



I 77»«J 



TNE4 

C3 

03 

no. 208 

+ 1 MOP 

c. 2 

Phv Bci 

Enqr 



ZEOLITE DEPOSITS OF CALIFORNIA 
BULLETIN 208, PLATE 1 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 

BRIAN E. TUCKER, ACTING STATE GEOLOGIST 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA-GEORGE DEI 

THE RESOURCES AGENCY-GORDON K. VAN VLECK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION-RANDA 




JFORNIA-GEORGE DEUKMEJIAN, GOVERNOR 
;y-gordon k. van vleck. secretary for resources 
of conservation-randall m. ward, director 



TNS4 

C3 

PIS 

n o . 388 

+ 1 MOP 

c. S 

Phv Sci 

Engr 



ZEOLITE DEPOSITS 

OF 
CALIFORNIA 

by 

Melvin C. Stinson 
988 



Scale 1.1,000,000 

10 10 20 30 40 Miles 



10 10 20 30 40 50 Kilometers 



EXPLANATION 

o Sample location, zeolites identified, 

• Sample location, no zeolites identified. 

® Reported zeolite deposit of commercial 
significance, not examined or sampled. 

• Reported zeolite occurrence, commerical 
sign if icance unlikely. 



ZEOLITE DEPOSITS OF CALIFORNIA 
BULLETIN 208, PLATE 1 





.■v.K"'i<=" icvjiiic ui.i,ui I elite, commericai 
sign if icance unlikely. 



Table numbers on map ("Table 3a") refer to tables in 
text wtiere samples are discussed. 




c 




BASE FROM U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 




_ ^^J^ 




S^-l.-^t'^i^^HJ^ 


.z., -r^ .|M'- 


'^'u 


^t| 


%rh 


1 


tW" 1 



V 


^ 


^ 


Jr 


G " ' 


■of 



k_M- - 


-i\ 


.^-J-^t-Sl 


1'..1V 


■ fe 


^ 



N(-i''^ 



\-i^~ 



v-.-^-- 



,'*•»■ 



U- 



i 



I 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



BOOKS REQUESTED BY ANOTHER BORROWER 
ARE SUBJECT TO IMMEDIATE RECALL 



AOO I 9 ^UOO 
RECEIVED 
AUG 3 2000 
PSL 



N 

m 
O 



m 

CD 



O 

> 



O 

39 



LIBRARY. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

http://libnteucda vis. edu/Palron Renew. html 

Automated Phone Renewal (24-hour): (530) 752-1132 

04613 (4/99)M 




09 

C 
r- 
r- 
m 



o