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Full text of "The Zincali : or, an account of the Gypsies of Spain ; with an original collection of their songs and poetry, and a copious dictionary of their language"



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UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH 

73 7 




JJarlington j[Vl.emonal JLibrary 



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THE ZINCALI; 

OE, 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE GYPSIES OF SPAIN. 
VOL. II. 



J3y the same Author, 

THE BIBLE IN SPAIN; 

OR, THE 

JOURNEYS, ADVENTURES, AND IMPRISONMENTS 
OF AN ENGLISHMAN, 

IN 

AN ATTEMPT TO CIRCULATE THE SCRIPTURES 

IN 

THE PENINSULA. 

Fourth Edition, 3 vols, post 8vo, 27.9. 



THE ZINCALI; 



AN ACCOUNT 



GYPSIES OF SPAIN. 



AN ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF THEIR SONGS 
AND POETRY, 

AND 

A COPIOUS DICTIONARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. 

BY 

GEORGE BORROW. 



"For that, which is unclean by nature, thou canst entertain no hope; no 
washing will turn the Gypsy white." — Ferdousi. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 

THIRD EDITION. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1843. 



LONDON : 
GEORGE WOODFALL AND SON, 

ANGEL COURT, SKINNER STREET, 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IT. 



THE ZINCALI. 

PART III. 
CHAPTER I. 



Page 

The Poetry of the Gitanos 3 

CHAPTER II. 

Spurious Gypsy Poetry of Andalusia .... 54 

Brijindope — The Deluge 63 

La Retreque — The Pestilence 83 

The Praise of Buddh. 

Metempsychosis ....... 91 

Poem, relating to the Worship of the Great Foutsa or 

Buddh 94 

On the Language of the Gitanos . . . . .101 

Robber Language 127 

Vocabulary of the Language of the Zincali . . . *1 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Miscellanies in the Gitano Language. 

The Lord's Prayer *124 

The Apostles' Creed * 124 

Ocanajimia a la Debla — Prayer to the Virgin . . *126 
Or Credo— the Creed. Translated by the Gypsies of 

Cordova *128 

Rejelendres — Proverbs *128 

Odores ye Tiliche — The Lover's Jealousy . . . *132 
Or Persibararse sin Choro — The Evils of Concubinage *132 

Los Chores- The Robbers *134 

Cotor ye Gabicote Majaro — Specimen of the Gospel. 
From the Author's unpublished Translation of the New 
Testament *136 

The English Dialect of the Rommany . . . *145 

The Lord's Prayer *150 

The Belief *152 

Specimen of a Song in the Vulgar or Broken Rom- 
many ......... *154 



THE ZINCALI; 



OA, 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE GYPSIES OF SPAIN. 
PART III. 



VOL. II. 



THE ZINCALI. 



PART III. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE POETRY OF THE GITANOS. 

There is no nation in the world, however exalted 
or however degraded, but is in possession of some 
peculiar poetry, by which it expresses its peculiar 
ideas of religion or moraUty, depicts the manner 
of life to which it is addicted, or in which it em- 
bodies its traditions, if any it possess. If the 
Chinese, the Hindoos, the Greeks, and the Per- 
sians, those splendid and renowned races, have 
their moral lays, their mythological epics, their 
tragedies, and their immortal love songs, so also 
have the wild and barbarous tribes of Soudan, 
and the wandering Esquimaux, their ditties, 
which, however insignificant in comparison with 
the compositions of the former nations, still are 
entitled in every essential point to the name of 
poetry; if poetry mean those creations of the 
mind in which it seeks for solace and recreation 
from the cares, distresses, and anxieties to which 
mortality is subject, 

B 2 



4 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

The Gypsies too have their poetiy. Of that of 
the Russian Zigani we have already said some- 
thing, and hope on a future occasion to be en- 
abled to say yet more ; for, though the present 
work is devoted to the Spanish Gypsies, we are 
willing to confess that they afford a subject by 
no means so extensive and interesting as their 
brethren of Sclavonia, to whom we should as- 
suredly have turned our attention in preference, 
had position and circumstances brought us so 
much and so continually in contact with them 
as with the Zincali of Spain. It has always 
been our opinion, and we believe that in this 
we are by no means singular, that in nothing can 
the character of a people be read with greater 
certainty and exactness than in its songs. How 
truly do the warlike ballads of the Northmen and 
the Danes, their drapas and kioempe visers, depict 
the character of the Goth ; and how equally do 
the songs of the Arabians, replete with homage 
to the one high, uncreated, and eternal God, "the 
fountain of blessing," "the only conqueror," lay 
bare to us the mind of the Moslem of the desert, 
whose grand characteristic is religious veneration, 
and uncompromising zeal for the glory of the 
Creator. 

The poetry of the Spanish Gypsies is, in al- 
most every respect, such as might be expected to 
originate among people of their class ; a set of 



Ch. I.] THEIR POETRY. 5 

Thugs, subsisting by cheating and villany of 
every description ; hating the rest of the human 
species, and bound to each other by the bands 
of common origin, language, and pursuits. The 
themes of this poetry are the various incidents of 
Gitano hfe — cattle-steahng, prison adventures, 
assassination, revenge, with allusions to the pe- 
culiar customs of the race of Roma. Here we 
behold a swine running down a hill, calling to the 
Gypsy to steal him, which he will most assuredly 
accomplish by means of his intoxicating drao — a 
Gypsy reclining sick on the prison floor, be- 
seeches his wife to intercede with the alcayde 
for the removal of the chain whose weight is 
bursting his body — the moon arises, and two 
Gypsies, who are about to steel a steed, perceive 
a Spaniard, and instantly flee. Sometimes ex- 
pressions of wild power and romantic interest 
occur. The swarthy lover threatens to slay his 
betrothed, even at the feet of Jesus, should she 
prove unfaithful. And another hopes to bear 
away a beauty of Spanish race, by the magic 
sound of a word of Rommany whispered in her 
ear at the window. 

Amongst these effusions are even to be found 
tender and beautiful thoughts ; for Thugs and 
Gitanos have their moments of gentleness. True 
it is that such are few and far between, as a flower 
or a shrub are here and there seen springing up 



6 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

from the interstices of the rugged and frightful 

rocks of which the Spanish sien-as are composed : 

a wicked mother is afraid to pray to the Lord 

with her own lips, and calls on her innocent babe 

to beseech him to restore peace and comfort to 

her heart — an imprisoned youth appears to have 

no earthly friend on whom he can rely, save his 

sister, and wishes for a messenger to carry unto 

her the tale of his sufferings, confident that she 

would hasten at once to his assistance. And 

what can be more touching than the speech of 

the relenting lover to the fair one whom he has 

outraged ? 

" Extend to me the hand so small, 

Wherein I see thee weep, 

For O thy balmy tear-drops all 

I would collect and keep. " 

This Gypsy poetry consists of quartets, or rather 
couplets, but two rhymes being discernible, and 
those generally imperfect, the vowels alone agree- 
ing in sound. Occasionally, however, sixains or 
stanzas of six lines are to be found, but this is 
of rare occurrence. The thought, anecdote or 
adventure described, is seldom carried beyond 
one stanza, in which every thing is expressed 
which the poet wishes to impart. This feature 
will appear singular to those who are unac- 
quainted with the character of the popular poetry 
of the south, and are accustomed to the redund- 



Ch. I.] THEIR POETRY, 7 

ancy and frequently tedious repetition of a more 
polished muse. It \\dll be well to inform such 
that the greatest part of the poetry sung in the 
south, and especially in Spain, is extemporary. 
The musician composes it at the stretch of his 
voice, whilst his fingers are tugging at the guitar ; 
which style of composition is by no means fa- 
vourable to a long and connected series of thought. 
Of course, the greatest part of this species of 
poetry perishes as soon as bom. A stanza, how- 
ever, is sometimes caught up by the bystanders, 
dnd committed to memory ; and, being frequently 
repeated, makes, in time, the circuit of the coun- 
try. For example, the stanza about Coruncho 
Lopez, which was originally made at the gate of 
a venta by a Miquelet*, who was conducting the 
said Lopez to the galleys for a robbery. It is at 
present sung through the whole of the peninsula, 
however insignificant it may sound to foreign 
ears : — 

" Coruncho Lopez, gallant lad, 
A smuggling he would ride ; 
He stole his father's ambling prad. 
And therefore to the galleys sad 
Coruncho now I guide." 

The couplets of the Gitanos are composed in 

* A species of gendarme or armed policeman. The Miquelets 
have existed in Spain for upwards of two hundred years. They 
are called Miquelets, from the name of their original leader. They 
are generally Aragonese by nation, and reclaimed robbers. 



8 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

the same ofF-hand manner, and exactly resemble 
in metre the popular ditties of the Spaniards. 
In spirit, however, as well as language, they are 
in general widely different, as they mostly relate 
to the Gypsies and their affairs, and not un- 
irequently abound with abuse of the Busne or 
Spaniards. Many of these creations have, like 
the stanza of Coruncho Lopez, been wafted over 
Spain amongst the Gypsy tribes, and are even 
frequently repeated by the Spaniards themselves ; 
at least, by those who affect to imitate the phrase- 
ology of the Gitanos. Those which appear in 
the present collection, consist partly of such cou- 
plets, and partly of such as we have ourselves 
taken down, as soon as they originated, not un- 
frequently in the midst of a circle of these singu- 
lar people, dancing and singing to their wild 
music. In no instance have they been subjected 
to modification ; and the English translation is, 
in general, very faithful to the original, as will 
easily be perceived by referring to the lexicon. 
To those who may feel disposed to find fault with 
or criticise these songs, we have to observe, that 
the present work has been written with no other 
view than to depict the Gitanos such as they are, 
and to illustrate their character ; and, on that 
account, we have endeavoured, as much as pos- 
sible, to bring them before the reader, and to 
make them speak for themselves. They are a 



Ch. I.] THEIR POETRY. 9 

half civilised, unlettered people, proverbial for 
a species of knavish acuteness, which serves them 
in lieu of wisdom. To place in the mouth of 
such beings the high-flown sentiments of modern 
poetry would not answer our purpose, though 
several authors have not shrunk from such an 
absurdity. 

These couplets have been collected in Estre- 
madura and New Castile, in Valencia and Anda- 
lusia ; the four provinces where the Gitano race 
most abounds. We wish, however, to remark, 
that they constitute scarcely a tenth part of our 
original gleanings, from which we have selected 
one hundred of the most remarkable and inter- 
esting. 

The language of the originals will convey an 
exact idea of the Rommany of Spain, as used at 
the present day amongst the Gitanos in the fairs, 
when they are buying and selling animals, and 
wish to converse with each other in a way unin- 
telligible to the Spaniards. We are free to con- 
fess that it is a mere broken jargon, but it answers 
the purpose of those who use it; and it is but 
just to remark that many of its elements are of 
the most remote antiquity, and the most illustrious 
descent, as will be shewn hereafter. We have 
uniformly placed the original by the side of the 
translation ; for though unwilling to make the 

B 3 



10 THE ZiNCALI. [Part III. 

Gitanos speak in any other manner than they are 
accustomed, we are equally averse to have it sup- 
posed that many of the thoughts and expressions 
which occur in these songs, and which are highly 
objectionable, originated with ourselves. 



RHYMES OF THE GITANOS. 



POESIAS DE LOS GITANOS. 



I. 

Me ligueron al vero, 

For medio de una estainpel, 

Le penelo a mi romi, 

Que la mequelo con mi chabore. 

II. 
Abillelo del vero, 
Dique a mi chabori, 
He penado a mi romi : 
lo me chalo de aqui. 

III. 
Cuando me blejelo en mi gra, 
Mi cliabori al atras, 
Ustilelo io la pusca, 
Empiezan daraiiar. 

IV. 

Manguela chabori, 
Si estas en gracia de Uudebel, 
Que me saiga araquerarme, 
Descanso a mi suncue. 



RHYMES OF THE GITANOS. 



I. 

Unto a refuge me they led. 
To save from dungeon drear ; 

Then sighing to my wife I said : 
I leave my baby dear. 

II. 
Back from the refuge soon I sped, 

My child's sweet face to see ; 
Then sternly to my wife I said, 

You 've seen the last of me. 

III. 
O when I sit my courser bold, 

My bantling in my rear, 
And in my hand my musket hold, 

O how they quake with fear. 

IV. 

Pray, little baby, pray the Lord, 
Since guiltless still thou art. 

That peace and comfort he afford 
To this poor troubled heart. 



14 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 



V. 



El chuquel de Juanito 
Bien puede chalar con cuidao, 
Que los Cales de Lleira 
Le quieren dinar un pucazo. 

VI. 

Nueve bejis hace hoy 
Que chalaste de mi quer, 
Abillar a Santo Christo, 
A diiiarle cuenta a Undebel. 

VII. 

Mai fin terele el Crallis, 
Que lo caquero, 
Liguero a mi batus y min dai, 
Y me mequelo. 

VIII. 

Sinaron en una bal 
Unos poco de randes, 
Con las puscas en las pates, 
Pa marar a Undebel. 

IX. 

For aquel luchipen abajo, 
Abillela un balichoro, 
Abillela a goli goli : 
Ustilame Caloro. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 15 



The false Juanito, day and night, 

Had best with caution go, 
The Gypsy carles of Yeira height 

Have sworn to lay him low. 

VI. 

Nine years are past since this abode 

Thou left'st to grief a prey, 
And took'st to Christ the heavenward road, 

To him account to pay. 

VII. 

Upon the king may evils pour. 
Such ills from him I 've borne, 

From me my parents loved he tore, 
I now am left forlorn. 

VIII. 

Within a garden raved and yell'd 

A desperate robber horde, 
And in their hands they muskets held. 

To shoot their God and Lord. 

IX. 

There runs a swine down yonder hill. 

As fast as e'er he can, 
And as he runs he crieth still. 

Come steal me, Gypsy man. 



16 THE ZINCALI. 

X. 

El gate cle mi trupo, 
No se rauchobela en jDani, 
Se muchobela con la rati, 
De Juanito Rail. 

XI. 

He costunado en mi gra, 
Con Juanito Rali, 
Al sicobar por I'ulicha, 
Un pucazo io le cli. 

XII. 

Al pinre de Jezunvais 
Me abillelo matarar 
La gaclii que llo camelo, 
Si abillela nansala. 

xiir. 

Cuando paso por Tuliclia, 
Yebo el estache blejo, 
Para que no penele tun dai 
De que camelo io. 

XIV. 

No te cliibele beldolaia, 
A recogerte una fremi ; 
Quo no es el julai mas rico, 
Ni la bal mas bari. 



[Part n\. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 17 

X. 

1 wash'd not in the limpid flood, 
The shirt which binds my frame ; 

But in Juanito Kalli's blood 
I bravely wash'd the same. 

XI. 

I sallied forth upon my grey, 

With him my hated foe, 
And when we reach'd the narrow way, 

I dealt a dagger blow. 

XII. 

To blessed Jesus' holy feet, 

I 'd rush to kill and slay 
My plighted lass so fair and sweet, 

Should she the wanton play. 

XIII. 

I slouch my beaver o'er my brow, 

As down the street I rove, 
For fear thy mother keen should know 

That I her daughter love. 

XIV. 

The purslain weed thou must not sow, 

If thou wouldst fruit obtain, 
As poor would be the garden's show, 

As would the gardener's gain. 



18 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XV. 

He mangado la pani, 

No me la camelaron dinar ; 

He chalado a la iilicha, 

Y me he chibado a dustilar. 

XVI. 

He mangado una poca yaque, 
No me la camelaron dinar, 
El gate de mi trupo, 
Si io les camelare dinar. 

XVII. 

Najeila Pepe Conde, 
Que te abillelan a marar, 
Abillelan cuatro jundunares, 
Con la bayoneta cala'. 

XVIII. 

El Bengue de Manga verde, 
Nunca camela dinar, 
Que la ley de los Cales 
La camela nicabar. 

XIX. 

Chalando por una ulicha 
He dica'o una mulati, 
Y a mi me araquero : 
Garabelate Calori. 



Ch. I.] ilHYMES. 19 

XV. 

I for a cup of water cried, 

But they refused my pray'r : 
Then straight into the road I hied, 

And fell to robbing there. 

XVI. 

I ask'd for fire to warm my frame, 
But they 'd have scorn'd my pray'r, 

If I, to pay them for the same. 
Had stripp'd my body bare. 

XVII. 

Fly Pepe Conde, seek the hill, 

To flee 's thy only chance. 
With bayonets fix'd thy blood to spill, 

See soldiers four advance. 

XVIII. 

The Gypsy fiend of Manga mead, 

Who never gave a straw, 
He would destroy, for very greed. 

The good Egyptian law. 

XIX. 

I walk'd the street, and there I spied 

A goodly gallows-tree. 
And in my ear methought it cried : 

Gypsy, beware of me. 



20 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XX. 

He chalado a la cangri, 
A araquerar con Undebel, 
Al tiempo de sicobarme, 
Alache pansche chiiles. 

XXI. 

lo me chale a mi quer, 
En buscar de mi romi, 
La topisare orobando, 
Por medio de mi chabori. 

XXII. 

Me chalo por una rochime, 
A buscarme mi bien serial ; 
Me tope con Undebel, 

Y me peno : Aonde chalas ? 

XXIII. 

Abillaron a un gao 
Unos poco de Cales, 
Con la chaboeia orobando, 
Porque no terelaban lo hates, 
Pa diiiarles que jamar, 

Y maraban Undebel. 

XXIV. 

El crallis en su trono, 
Me mando araquerar; 
Como, aromali, me camelaba, 
Ahora su real me beta. 



Ch, I.] RHYMES. 21 

XX. 

The church I enter'd, thither bound 

With God discourse to hold, 
And when I left it, lo, I found 

A prize — five crowns of gold. 

XXI. 

I bounded through my cottage door. 

My partner to embrace. 
And lo, I found her weeping o'er 

My dying infant's face. 

XXII. 

I spurr'd my courser o'er the ford, 

Afar my luck I 'd try, 
Encounter'd me my God and Lord, 

And said, where dost thou hie ? 

XXIII. 

There came adown the village street, 

With little babes that cry. 
Because they have no crust to eat, 

A Gypsy company ; 
And as no charity they meet. 

They curse the Lord on high. 

XXIV. 

I spoke, 'twas at the king's command, 

And as I spoke he smiled 
Benign, and now, by all the land, 

Your Highness I am styled. 



22 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XXV. 
He chalado por un dru, 
He dicado una rande, 
A las goles que dinaba, 
Ha pejado Undebel. 

XXVI. 

El crallis anda najando, 
Que lo camelo marar ; 
Ha ampenado los chabes, 
Que no los tenga dustilar. 

XXVII. 

El erajai de Villa Franca 
Ha mandiserado araquerar, 
Que la ley de los Cales, 
La camela nicabar. 

XXVIII. 



Abillela el erajai 
Por el dru de Zabuncha, 
El chororo de Facundo 
Ha comenzado najar. 



XXIX. 



Me chalo de mi quer, 
En I'ulicha m'ustilaron ; 
Ampenado de los Busnes, 
Este Calo ha sinado. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 23 



XXV. 



Along the pathway as I trod, 

A beggar met my eye, 
And at her cries th' Almighty God 

Descended from the sky. 



XXVI. 



The king in fear before me runs, 
Because I him would slay, 

He bears with him his little ones, 
Lest hands on them I lay. 

XXVII. 

The priest of Villa Franca bold 
Proclaimeth far and wide. 

That he the law which Gypsies hold 
Is bent to set aside. 

XXVIII. 

And see adown the road doth prance 

The priest in full array, 
In fear before his countenance 

Facundo runs away. 

XXIX. 

I left my house and walk'd about, 
They seized me fast and bound ; 

It is a Gypsy thief, they shout. 
The Spaniards here have found. 



24 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XXX, 

Me sicobaron del estaripel, 
Me ligueron al libano ; 
Ampenado de los Busnes 
Esto Calo no ha sinado. 

XXXI. 

Toda la eraclii pirando 
Emposuno, emposuno, 
Con las acais pincherando 
Para dicar el Busno 
Que le diiiele con el chulo. 

XXXII. 

No hay quien liguerele las nuevas 

A la chabori de min dai, 

Que en el triste del veo 

Me sinelan nicabando la metepe ? 

XXXIII. 

Sinamos jatanes y les peno 
Que se sicobelen por abri, 



Que camel o araquerar 
Con esta romi. 



XXXIV. 



Me ha penado que gustisaraba 
Un estache de Laloro ; 
'Laver chibes por la tasala 
Chalo a la tienda y lo quino. 



Ch. I.] 



RHYMES. 25 



XXX. 

From out the prison me they led, 
Before the scribe they brought ; 

It is no Gypsy thief, he said, 

The Spaniards here have caught. 

XXXI. 

Throughout the night, the dusky night, 

I prowl in silence round. 
And with my eyes look left and right, 

For him, the Spanish hound, 
That with my knife I him may smite, 

And to the vitals wound. 

XXXII. 

Will no one to the sister bear 
News of her brother's plight, 

How in this cell of dark despair, 
To cruel death he 's dight ? 

XXXIII. 

We all are met, a sign I make. 
That they abroad should steal, 

For to this maid my mind to break. 
So sore inclined I feel. 

XXXIV. 

She told me she would gladly wear 

A hat of Portugal ; 
To-morrow's morn 't will be my care 

To buy one at the stall. 

VOL. II. c 



26 THE ZINCALI. [Part IIL 

XXXV. 

Le sacaron a mulabar 
Entre cuatro jundunares ; 
Ha penado la Crallisa 
Que no marela a nadie. 

XXXVI. 

Por la ulicha van beando 
Vasos finos de cristal ; 
Dai me re a mangue uno, 
Que lo camelo estrenar. 

XXXVII, 

No camelo romi 
Que camela chinoro ; 
Chalo por las cachimanis 
Beando el penacoro. 

XXXVIII. 

Undebel de chinoro 
Se guillo con los Cales ; 
Y sinelando el varo 
Le mataron los gaches. 

XXXIX. 

No cameles a gaches 
Por mucho que se aromanen, 
Que al fin ila por partida 
Te reverdisce la rati. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 27 

XXXV. 

The youth to execution went, 

Held fast by soldiers' hands; 
The queen proclaim'd him innocent, 

And freed him from his bands. 

XXXVI. 

Within the street they 're selling, see, 

Vases of crystal fine ; 
Dear mother, purchase one for me — 

I '11 fill it up with wine. 

XXXVII. 

I hate a wife who sits at home 

A-fondling aye her child ; 
Unto the brandy shops I roam. 

And drink till I am wild. 

XXXVIII. 

The Lord, as e'en the Gentiles state. 

By Egypt's race was bred, 
And when he came to man's estate, 

His blood the Gentiles shed. 

XXXIX. 

O never with the Gentiles wend, 
Nor deem their speeches true ; 

Or else, be certain, in the end. 
Thy blood will lose its hue. 

c 2 



28 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 



XL. 



Dela estaripel me sicobelaron 

Blejo im gel; 

Por toda la polvorosa 

Me zuran el barandel. 

XLI. 

Me sicobelan dela estaripel 
Me ligueron al vero 
Ustilada una pusca 
Un puscazo les diiio. 

XLII. 

He abillado de Madrilati 
Con muclia pena y dolor, 
Porque ha penado el Crallis : 
Marad a ese Calo. 

XLIII. 

Ya estan los Cales balbales 
Cada uno en sus queres, 
Y tosares los pobrecitos 
Los Uevan aljurepe. 

XLIV. 

La puri de min dai 
La curaron los randes, 
Al abillar a la Meligrana 
Pa manguelarrae metepe. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 29 



XL. 



From out the prison me they bore, 

Upon an ass they placed, 
And scourged me till I dripp'd with gore, 

As down the road it paced. 

XLI. 

They bore me from the prison nook. 
They bade me rove at large ; 

When out I'd come a gun I took, 
And scathed them with its charge. 

XLII. 

From out Madrid I wretch have fled 

With many a tear and sigh, 
Because the cruel king has said — 

This Gypsy he shall die. 

XLIII. 

Within his dwelling sits at ease 

Each wealthy Gypsy churl, 
While all the needy ones they seize 

And into prison hurl. 

XLIV. 

My mother, ag'd, afflicted dame, 

By thieves beset was she, 
To high Granada as she came 

From bondage me to free. 



30 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XLV. 

Que el encarcelamiento de Undebel 
No causo tanto dolor, 
Cuando se guillaba La Majari 
Atras de su Chaboro. 

XLVI. 

Sinaron en un paluno 
Unos poco de Cales ; 
Se ban sicobado najando 
Por medio del barate. 

XLVII. 

Empunandome '1 estache 
La plata para salir, 
Me curelan los solares — 
Ustile la churi. 

XLVIII. 

Me costune la cliori 

Para chalar a Laloro, 

Al nacar de la pani 

Abillo obusno, 

Y el chuquel a largo me chibo. 

XLIX. 

Empenete romi 

Con el carcelero, 

Que me nicobele este gran sase, 

Porque me merelo. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 31 

XLV. 

For oh ! th' imprisonment of God 

Awaked not gi-ief more wild 
In blessed Mary as she trod 

Behind her heavenly child. 

XLVI. 

Of Gypsy folk a scanty few 

Into the wood had stray'd, 
But out in hurry soon they flew 

Before the fierce alcayde. 

XLVII. 

My hat and mantle on I cast, 

To sally forth I thought, 
Then by the greaves they seized me fast. 

And I my dagger caught. 

XLVIII. 

My mule so bonny I bestrode, 

To Portugal I 'd flee, 
And as I o'er the water rode 

A man came suddenly ; 
And he his love and kindness show'd 

By setting his dog on me. 

XLIX. 

O wife, beseech the prison lord 

That he this chain remove, 
For I shall perish overpower'd 

Unless he clement prove. 



32 THE ZINCALI, [Part III. 

L. 

Tositos los correos 
Te dinelan recado, 

Y tu me tenelas en el rinconcillo 
De los olvidados. 

LI. 

Si mill dai abillara 
A dicar a su men, 
lo le penara que fuera 
Con Dios Undebel. 

LII. 

Me ardinelo a la muralla 

Y le penelo al jil, 

Que me querelaron un tumbacillo 
De acero y de marfil. 

LIII. 

Ducas tenela min dai 
Ducas tenelo yo, 
Las de min dai io siento 
Las de mangue no. 

LIV. 

Si pasaras por la cangri 
Trin beijis despues de mi raular, 
Si araqueras por min nao 
Respondiera mi cocal. 



Ch. I,] EHYMES. 33 



Each post that leaves the village gate 

My message forth doth bear, 
But still forgotten here I wait, 

And wither and despair. 

LI. 

Sir Cavalier, my mother dear 

Must come and visit you, 
That mother dear. Sir Cavalier, 

The face of God may view. 

LII. 

I '11 climb the wall which towereth there. 

And to the winds I '11 cry ; 
They 've built for me a tomb so fair 

Of steel and ivory. 

LIII. 

My mother has of griefs a store, 

And I have got my own ; 
Full keen and sore I hers deplore. 

But ne'er for mine I moan. 

LIV. 

When I in grave three years have lain. 

If thou shouldst pass thereby, 
And but to breathe my name shoulclst deign, 

My dead bones would reply. 

c 3 



34 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

LV. 

lo no tenelo batu 

Ni dai tampoco, 

lo tenelo un planelillo, 

Y le llaman el loco. 

LVI. 

Si tu te romandinaras 

Y io lo supiera, 

lo vestiria todo min trupos 
De bayeta negra. 

LVII. 

Si io no t'endicara 

En una semana — 

Como aromali Flamenca de Roma 

Me rincondenara. 

LVIII. 

Flamenca de Roma 
Si tu sinaras mia, 
Te metiera entre viere 
For sari la vida. 

LIX. 

Diname el pate 

For donde orobaste, 

A recoger la pani delas acais 

Que tu derramaste. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 35 

LV. 

Sire nor mother me caress, 

For I have none on earth ; 
One little brother I possess, 

And he 's a fool by birth. 

LVI. 

If thou another man shouldst wed, 

And I the same should know, 
In mourning clad, from foot to head, 

For ever I would go. 

LVI I. 

Unless within a fortnight's space 

Thy face, O maid, I see, 
Flamenca of Egyptian race 

My lady love shall be. 

LVIII. 

Flamenca of Egyptian race, 

If thou wert only mine. 
Within a bonny crystal case 

For life I 'd thee enshrine. 

LIX. 

Extend to me the hand so small, 

Wherein I see thee weep. 
For O thy balmy tear-drops all 

I would collect and keep. 



36 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

LX. 

El gate de mi trupo 
No se muchobela en pani, 
Se muchobela con la rati 
Que ha chibado mi romi. 

LXI. 

No sinela su men min dai 
La que me chindo, 
Que sinando io chinorillo 
Se liguero y me meco. 

LXII. 

Tosarias las mananas 
Que io me ardinelo, 
Con la pani de mis acais 
La chichi me muchobelo. 

LXIII. 

Tu patu y tun dai 
Me publican chinga, 
Como la rachi mu chalemos 
Afuera d'este gau. 

LXIV. 

Abillelate a la dicani, 
Que io voy te penelar 
Una buchi en Calo, 
Y despues te liguerar. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 37 



LX. 



I wash'd not in the limpid flood 
The goodly shirt I bear, 

1 wash'd it in the streaming blood 
Of my betrothed fair. 



LXI, 



Thou 'rt not, sweet dame who smil'st so mild, 

The motner me who bore, 
She left me whilst a little child. 

And fled and came no more. 



LXII. 



Each morning when from bed I rise, 

'Tis then I lave my face 
With tears, which from my wretched eyes 

Begin to flow apace. 



LXII I. 



Thy sire and mother wrath and hate 
Have vow'd against me, love ! 

The first, first night that from the gate 
We two together rove. 



LXIV. 



Come to the window, sweet love, do, 
And I will whisper there, 

In Rommany, a word or two, 
And thee far off" will bear. 



38 THE ZINCALI. 



[Part III. 



LXV. 

Unas acais callardias 

Me han vencido, 

Como aromali no me vencen otras 

De cayque nacido. 

LXVI. 

Como camelas que te mequele 
Si en su men tuve una chabori, 
Que cada vez que abillelo 
Le penara en German!. 

LXVI I. 

Undebel me ha castigado 
Con esa romi tan fea, 
Que nastisarelo liguerarla 
Adonde los busne la vean. 

LXVIII. 

Esta rachi no abillelan 
Dai los Cales ; 
Es senal que han chalado 
A los durotunes. 

LXIX. 

Un chibe los Cales 
Han gastado olibeas de seda, 
Y acana por sus desgracias 
Gastan saces con cadenas. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 39 

LXV. 

A Gypsy stripling's sparkling eye 
Has pierced my bosom's core ; 

A feat no eye beneath the sky 
Could e'er effect before. 

LXVI. 

Dost bid me from the land begone, 

And thou with child by me ? 
Each time I come, the little one 

I '11 greet in Rommany. 

LXVII. 

With such an ugly, loathly wife 

The Lord has punish'd me, 
I dare not take her for my life 

Where'er the Spaniards be. 

LXVIII. 

This night abroad the Gypsies stay, 

O mother, that's a sign 
They 've to the shepherds ta'en their way, 

To steal the lambkins fine. 

LXIX. 

Brown Egypt's race in days of old 

Were wont silk hose to wear, 
But for their sins so manifold 

They now must fetters bear. 



40 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

LXX. 

Esta gran duca 

Ha ardinelado al cielo, 

Que Undebel de los tres cayes 

Lo ponga en su remedio. 

LXXI. 

Tres vezes te he araquerado 
Y no camelas abillar ; 
Si io me vuelvo a araquerarte 
Mi trupos lian de raarar. 

LXXII. 

Alia arribita 

Mararon no clianelo quien ; 
El mulo cayo en la truni 
El raaraol se puso a huir. 

^• 

LXXIII. 

Sinaron en unos bures 
Unos poco de I'andes, 
Aguardisarando q'abillara 
La Crallisa y los parnes. 

LXXIV. 

Chalo para mi quer 
Me tope con el meripe ; 
Me peno, adonde chalas ? 
Le pene, para mi qiier. 



Ch. I.] EHYMES. 41 

LXX. 

That spirit, long oppress'd with grief, 
Hath 'scaped and heavenward flown. 

In hope the Lord will grant relief 
Who builds in heaven his throne. 

LXXI, 

1 've called thee thrice in anxious strain, 

But thou dost not appear, 
And should I raise my voice again, 

Thy kinsmen me would hear. 

LXXII. 

Above there, in the dusky pass, 
Was wrought a murder dread ; 

The murder'd fell upon the grass. 
Away the murderer fled. 

LXXIII. 

The thieves, the thieves are on the watch 

Amid the hills so green ; 
They're on the watch that they may catch 

The treasure and the queen. 

LXXIV. 

Towards my home I bent my course, 

Then death to me drew nigh. 
And where art bound .'' he bellow'd hoarse ; 

Home, home, was my reply. 



42 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 



LXXV. 



lo no canielo ser eray 
Que es Calo mi nacimiento ; 
lo no camelo ser eray 
Con ser Calo me contento. 

LXXVI. 

La filimicha esta puesta, 

Y en ella un chindobaro, 
Pa mulabar una lendriz 
Que echantan estardo. 

LXXVII. 

El reo con sus chineles 
Le sacan del' estaripel, 

Y le alumbran con las velas 
De la gracia Undebel. 

LXXVIII. 

El baro jil me janela 

Los chobares me dan tormento ; 

lo me chalo al baro quer, 

Y ote alivio a mi cuerpo. 

LXXIX. 

Si tu chalas por I'ulicha 

Y rachelas con mi romi, 
Pen que mangue monrabelo 
Que querele yaque a la peri. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 43 



LXXV. 



I am not of gentle clan," 

I 'm sprung from Gypsy tree, 
And I will be no gentleman, 
But an Egyptian free. 

LXXVI. 

The gallows grim they 've raised once more, 

The hangman ready stands, 
And all to slay a partridge poor 

That 's fallen in their hands. 

LXXVII. 

'Twixt soldier now and alguazil 

The culprit forth they bear, 
Whilst him with grace divine to fill 

The holy tapers glare. 

LXXVIII. 

1 'm bitten by the frosty air, 
The fleas about me swarm ; 

Unto the great house I '11 repair. 
And there myself I '11 warm. 

LXXIX. 

If down the street, my friend, thou stray, 

And my dear wife thou meet, 
I 'm plying, say, the shears all day. 

That she the pot may heat. 



44 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

LXXX. 

Mango me clialo a mi quer 

Y te mequelo un cotor, 
Si abillelas con mangue 
Te diiielo mi carlo. 

LXXXI. 

La tremucha se ardela 
Guillabela el caloro : 
Chasa mangue, acai 
Abillela obusno. 

LXXXII. 

Abillela la rachi 

Y io no puedo pirar, 
lo me clialo mirando 
Q' abillele un jundunar 

Y me camele marar. 

LXXXIII. 

Este quer jandela minchi, 
Acai no abillele la salipen ; 
Mi batus camela a tun dai 
Mango me chalo a mi quer. 

LXXXIV. 

La romi que se abillela 
Debajo delos portales, 
No s'abillela con tusa, 
Que s'abillela con mangue. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 45 

LXXX. 

I hasten home, but leave with thee 

A portion of my heart, 
But if thou home wilt come with me 

The whole I will impart. 

LXXXI. 

On high arose the moon so fair, 

The Gypsy 'gan to sing : 
I see a Spaniard coming there, 

I must be on the wing. 

LXXXII. 

The night descends, yet I 'm afraid 

Abroad my face to show ; 
I fear to meet a soldier blade, 

Who 'd kill me at a blow. 

LXXXIII. 

This house of harlotry doth smell, 

I flee as from the pest ; 
Your mother likes my sire too well ; 

To hie me home is best. 

LXXXIV. 

That lass with cheek of rosy hue 

That's entering now the gate. 
She does not come to visit you, 

She comes on me to wait. 



46 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

LXXXV. 

Tapa chabea las chuchais, 
Que las dica el buno ; 
Que las digue 6 no las digue 
A el chabe lo camelo io. 

LXXXVI, t 

Esta rachi voy de pirar 
A dinar mule a un errajai, 

Y me chapesgue de mi pasma 
A los pindres del oclay. 

LXXXVII. 

La romi que io camelo, 
Si otro me la camelara, 
Sacaria la chuli 

Y la fila le cortara, 

O el me la cortara a mi. 

LXXXVIII. 

Esos calcos que tenelas 
En tus pulidos pindres, 
No se los dines a nadie, 
Que me co star on el parnes. 

LXXXIX. 

Corojai en grastes 
Majares en pindre, 
Al tomar del quer lacho 
Del proprio Undebel. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 47 

LXXXV. 

daughter, hide thy breasts, for shame. 
For them the boy can see, — 

And if he can, or cannot, Dame, 
That boy is loved by me. 

LXXXVI. 

This night, to dog the priest I go, 

And shed his priestly gore. 
Then I will haste myself to throw 

The monarch's feet before. 

LXXXVII. 

The girl I love more dear than life 
Should other gallant woo, 

1 'd straight unsheath my dudgeon knife 
And cut his weasand through. 

Or he, the conqueror in the strife, 
The same to me should do. 

Lxxxviir. 
The shoes, O girl, which thou dost bear 

On those white feet of thine, 
To none resign for love or pray'r, 

They 're bought with coin of mine. 

LXXXIX. 

On horseback fought the bloody Moors, 

On foot the Christian clan. 
What time were gain'd the holy towers 

Where God once dwelt with man. 



48 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

xc. 

Mas que io me guillelo 
Por tu bundal, 
Al dicar tu cliaboreia 
Me dinela canrea. 

xci. 

Te chibelas en I'ulicha 
Querelando el sobindoi ; 
Abillela el barete, 
Y te chibela estardo, 

XCII. 

Voy dicando tus parlachas, 
Para poder las quinar, 
Para chibar las bucha, 
Sin que chanele tun dai. 

XCTII. 

Me ardinelo de tasala 
A orotarme que jalar, 
A tosare Busne puchando, 
Si tenelan que monrabar. 

xciv. 

Un caloro cliororo 
Se vino por jundunar, 
Se najo con los jalleri, 
Y le mandaron unglabar. 



K 

Ch. I.] RHYMES. 49 

XC. 

Whene'er, and that 's full frequently, 

I past your portal go. 
And there your naked babes espy, 

I feel at heart so low. 

xci. 

Within the street thou down hast lain 

To slumber in the ray. 
And yonder comes the justice train, 

Who '11 thee in prison lay. 

xcii. 

To spy thy window, love, I go, 

For I would creep in there, 
And out to thee thy things would throw, 

Thy mother not aware. 

XCIII. 

I '11 rise to-morrow bread to earn, 
For hunger 's worn me grim. 

Of all I meet I '11 ask in turn 
If they 've no beasts to trim. 

xciv. 

The Gypsy bold himself enroll'd 

As soldier of the king. 
But he deserted with the gold. 

And therefore he must swing. 

VOL. IT. D 



50 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

XCV. 

Retirate a la cangri 

Mira que abillela el chinel, 

Mira no te jongabe 

Y te Have al estaripel. 

xcvi. 
Chalo a la beia de Clunes 
A manguelar mi metepe ; 
Los erais de la beia 
Me dinaron estaripel. 

XCVII. 

A la burda de su men 

Abillela un pobre lango mango, 

Pirando del vero, — 

No permita su majai'o lacho 

Que su men se abillele, 

En semejante curelo. 

XCVIII. 

Mango me chalo pirar 
Por el narsaro baro, 
En estes andaribeles, 
Al chen de los pallardos. 

xcix. 
Un Corayai me penelo 
Que camelaba Undeber y mangue ; 

Y io le he penelado 

Tute camarelas ser chuquer. 



Ch. I.] RHYMES. 51 

XCV. 

Seek, seek the church, thou 'st broke the law, 

The alguazil I spy ; 
He comes on thee to set his claw 

And drag to custody. 

xcvi. 
I ran to Clune's judgment seat 

My forfeit life to crave ? 
The judges rose upon their feet, 

And chains and dungeon gave. 

XCVII. 

I come a-begging to your gate, 

A maim'd and crippled wight, 
From out the prison thrust of late 

In rags and tatters dight ; 
May thy blest saint from such a fate 

Protect thee, good Sir Knight. 

XCVIII. 

I leave my home and haste to roam. 

In yonder bark of pride, 
To lands far o'er the salt sea foam. 

Where foreign nations 'bide. 

xcix. 
One day a bearded Moor did vow 

He lov'd the Lord and me ; 
And I replied with frowning brow. 
Thou lov'st a dog to be. 

D 2 



52 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

C. 

El eray guillabela 
El eray obusno ; 
Q'abillele Romanela, 
No abillele Caloro. 

CI. 

La chimutra se ardela, 
A pas-erachi ; 
El Calo no abillela 
Abillela la romi. 



Ch. L] RHYMES. 53 

C. 

Loud sang the Spanish cavalier, 

And thus his ditty ran: — 
God send the Gypsy lassie here, 

And not the Gypsy man. 

CI. 

At midnight, when the moon began 

To show her silver flame, 
There came to him no Gypsy man, 

The Gypsy lassie came. 



CHAPTER II. 

SPURIOUS GYPSY POETRY OF ANDALUSIA. 

The Gitanos, abject and vile as they have ever 
been,have nevertheless found admirers in Spain,in- 
dividuals who have taken pleasure in their phrase- 
ology, pronunciation, and way of life ; but above 
all, in the songs and dances of the females. This 
desire for cultivating their acquaintance is chiefly 
prevalent in Andalusia, where, indeed, they most 
abound ; and more especially in the town of 
Seville, the capital of the province, where, in the 
barrio or Faubourg of Triana, a large Gitano 
colony has long flourished, with the denizens of 
which it is at all times easy to have intercourse, 
especially to those who are free of their money, 
and are willing to purchase such a gratification 
at the expense of dollars and pesetas. 

When we consider the character of the Anda- 
lusians in general, we shall find little to surprise 
us in this predilection for the Gitanos. They are 
an indolent frivolous people, fond of dancing and 
song, and sensual amusements. They live under 



Ch. II.] SPURIOUS GYPSY POETRY. 55 

the most glorious sun and benign heaven in 
Europe, and their country is by nature rich and 
fertile, yet in no province of Spain is there more 
beggary and misery; the greatest part of the land 
being uncultivated, and producing nothing but 
thorns and brushwood, affording in itself a strik- 
ing emblem of the moral state of its inhabitants. 

Though not destitute of talent, the Andalusians 
are not much addicted to intellectual pursuits, at 
least in the present day. The person in most 
esteem among them is invariably the greatest 
majo, and to acquire that character it is necessary 
to appear in the dress of a Merry Andrew, to 
bully, swagger, and smoke continually, to dance 
passably, and to strum the guitar. They are fond 
of obscenity and what they term picardias. 
Amongst them learning is at a terrible discount, 
Greek, Latin, or any of the languages generally 
termed learned, being considered in any light but 
accomplishments, though not so the possession of 
thieves' slang or the dialect of the Gitanos, the 
knowledge of a few words of which invariably 
creates a certain degree of respect, as indicating 
that the individual is somewhat versed in that 
kind of life or trato for which alone the Anda- 
lusians have any kind of regard. 

In Andalusia the Gitano has been studied by 
those who, for various reasons, have mingled with 
the Gitanos. It is tolerably well understood by 



56 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

the chalanes, or jockeys, who have picked up 
many words in the fairs and market-places which 
the former frequent. It has, however, been cul- 
tivated to a greater degree by other individuals, 
who have sought the society of the Gitanos from 
a zest for their habits, their dances, and their 
songs ; and such individuals have belonged to all 
classes, amongst them noblemen and members of 
the priestly order. 

Perhaps no people in Andalusia have been more 
addicted in general to the acquaintance of the 
Gitanos than the friars, and pre-eminently 
amongst these the half-jockey half religious per- 
sonages of the Cai'tujan convent at Xeres. This 
community, now suppressed, was, as is well 
known, in possession of a celebrated breed of 
horses, which fed in the pastures of the convent^ 
and from which they derived no inconsiderable 
part of their revenue. These reverend gentlemen 
seem to have been much better versed in the 
points of a horse than in points of theology, and 
to have understood thieves' slang and Gitano far 
better than the language of the Vulgate. A 
chalan, who had some knowledge of the Gitano, 
related to me the following singular anecdote in 
connexion with this subject. 

He had occasion to go to the convent, having 
been long in treaty with the friars for a steed 
which he had been commissioned by a nobleman 



Ch. II.] SPURIOUS GYPSY POETRY. 57 

to buy at any reasonable price. The friars, how- 
ever, were exorbitant in their demands. On 
arriving at the gate, he sang to the friar who 
opened it, a couplet which he had composed in 
the Gypsy tongue, in which he stated the highest 
price which he was authorized to give for the 
animal in question ; whereupon the friar instantly 
answered in the same tongue in an extemporary 
couplet full of abuse of him and his employer, and 
forthwith slammed the door in the face of the dis- 
concerted jockey. 

An Augustine friar of Seville, called, we be- 
lieve. Father Manso, who lived some twenty 
years ago, is still remembered for his passion for 
the Gitanos ; he seemed to be under the influence 
of fascination, and passed every moment that he 
could steal fi'om his clerical occupations, in their 
company. His conduct at last became so noto- 
rious that he fell under the censure of the Inqui- 
sition, before which he was summoned; whereupon 
he alleged, in his defence, that his sole motive 
for following the Gitanos was zeal for their spi- 
ritual conversion. Whether this plea availed him 
we know not ; but it is probable that the Holy 
Office dealt mildly with him ; such offenders, in- 
deed, have never much to fear from it. Had he 
been accused of liberalism, or searching into the 
Scriptures, instead of connexion with the Gitanos, 
we should, doubtless, have heard either of his 

D 3 



58 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

execution or imprisonment for life in the cells of 
the cathedral of Seville. 

Such as are thus addicted to the Gitanos and 
their language, are called, in Andalusia, Los del' 
Aficion, or those of the predilection. These peo- 
ple have, during the last fiftj years, composed a 
spurious kind of Gypsy literature : we call it spu- 
rious because it did not originate with the Gi- 
tanos, who are, moreover, utterly unacquainted 
with it, and to whom it would be for the most 
part unintelligible. It is somewhat difficult to con- 
ceive the reason which induced these individuals 
to attempt such compositions ; the only probable 
one seems to have been a desire to display to 
each other their skill in the language of their 
predilection. It is right, however, to observe, 
that most of these compositions, with respect 
to language, are highly absurd, the greatest liber- 
ties being taken with the words picked up 
amongst the Gitanos, of the ti'ue meaning of 
which, the writers, in many instances, seem to 
have been entirely ignorant. From what we can 
learn, the composers of this literature flourished 
chiefly at the commencement of the present 
century : Father Manso is said to have been one 
of the last. Many of their compositions, which 
are both in poetry and prose, exist in manu- 
script in a compilation made by one Luis Lobo. 
It has never been our fortune to see this com- 



Ch. II.] SPURIOUS GYPSY POETRY. 59 

pilation, which, indeed, we scarcely regret, as a 
rather curious circumstance has afforded us a 
perfect knowledge of its contents. 

Whilst at Seville, chance made us acquainted 
with a highly extraordinary individual, a tall, 
bony, meagre figure, in a tattered Andalusian 
hat, ragged capote, and still more ragged panta- 
loons, and seemingly between forty and fifty years 
of age. The only appellation to which he an- 
swered was Manuel. His occupation, at the time 
we knew him, was selling tickets for the lottery, 
by which he obtained a miserable livelihood in 
Seville and the neighbouring villages. His ap- 
pearance was altogether wild and uncouth, and 
there was an insane expression in his eye. Ob- 
serving us one day in conversation with a Gitana, 
he addressed us, and we soon found that the 
sound of the Gitano language had struck a chord 
which vibrated through the depths of his soul. 
His history was remarkable ; in his early youth |i 
manuscript copy of the compilation of Luis Lobo 
had fallen into his hands. This book had so 
taken hold of his imagination, that he studied it 
night and day until he had planted it in his 
memory from beginning to end ; but in so doing, 
his brain, like that of the hero of Cervantes, had 
become dry and heated, so that he was unfitted 
for any serious or useful occupation. After the 



60 THE ZINX'ALI. [Part III. 

death of his parents he wandered about the streets 
in great distress, until at last he fell into the 
hands of certain toreros or bull -fighters, who 
kept him about them, in order that he might 
repeat to them the songs of the AJicion. They 
subsequently carried him to Madrid, where, how- 
ever, they soon deserted him after he had ex- 
perienced much brutality from their hands. He 
returned to Seville, and soon became the in- 
mate of a madhouse, where he continued several 
years. Having partially recovered from his 
malady, he was liberated, and wandered about 
as before. During the cholera at Seville, when 
nearly twenty thousand human beings perished, 
he was appointed conductor of one of the death- 
carts, which went through the streets for the 
purpose of picking up the dead bodies. His 
perfect inofFensiveness eventually procured him 
friends, and he obtained the situation of vendor 
of lottery tickets. He frequently visited us, and 
would then recite long passages from the work 
of Lobo. He was wont to say that he was the 
only one in Seville, at the present day, acquainted 
with the language of the Aficion ; for though 
there were many pretenders, their knowledge was 
confined to a few words. 

From the recitation of this individual, we wrote 
down the Brijindope, or Deluge, and the poem 



Ch. II.] SPURIOUS GYPSY POETRY. 61 

on the plague which broke out in Seville in the 
year 1800. These, and some songs of less con- 
sequence, constitute the poetical part of the com- 
pilation in question ; the rest, which is in prose, 
consisting chiefly of translations from the Spanish, 
of proverbs and religious pieces. 



BRIJINDOPE.— THE DELUGE. 

A POEM. 



IN TWO PARTS. 



BRIJINDOPE. 



BROTOBA PAJIN. 

Dajieando presimelo 
Abillar la pelabru ; 

Y manguelarle camelo 
A la Beluni de otarpe, 
Nu inerique sos terelo 
De soscabar de siarias, 
Persos menda ne clianelo 
Sata niquillar de ondoba, 

Y andial lo fendi grobelo 
Sin utilaraae misto : 
Men crejete orobibelo 
Dicando tiinclia henira 
Sata aocana nacardelo, 
Delos chiros naquelaos. 

Y aocana man presimelo 
On sandani de Ostebe 

Y desquero day darabemos, 
Sos sin nonrro longono : 



THE DELUGE. 



PART THE FIRST. 

I WITH fear and terror quake, 
Whilst the pen to write I take ; 
I will utter many a pray'r 
To the heaven's Regent fair, 
That she deign to succour me, 
And I '11 humbly bend my knee ; 
For but poorly do I know 
With my subject on to go ; 
Therefore is my wisest plan 
Not to trust in strength of man. 
I my heavy sins bewail, 
Whilst I view the wo and wail 
Handed down so solemnly 
In the book of times gone by. 
Onward, onward, now I '11 move 
In the name of Christ above, 
And his Mother true and dear, 
She who loves the wretch to cheer. 



66 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

Jinare lo sos chanelo, 
Sasta Ostebe se abichola 

Y le penelo a Noyme : 
Tran quinado soscabelo ; 
les Estarica queraras, 
Sos or surdan dicabelo 
Tran najabao, y an dial 
Quera lo sos man te pendo, 
Sos se ennagren persos man 
La Janro en la Bas terelo : 

Y Noyme pendaba a golis : 
Sos se ennagreis os penelo, 
Sos dico saro or surdan 
Najabao y lo prejeno ; 
Ostebe nu lo dichaba, 
Per lo trincha lo penelo. 

Y saros se sarrasiran : 
Sos duquipen dicobelo ! 
Los Brochabos le bucharan 
E nonro Bato, y diquelo 

A saros persibaraos : 
La Erandia la dicobelo 
Bartrabe de su costuri 

Y or Erajay — presimelo 
A jinar sata Ostebe 
Yes minricla dichabelo 
Sar yes simaches bare — 
Sin trincha dan sos terelo 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 67 

All I know, and all I Ve heard 
I will state — how God appear'd, 
And to Noah thus did cry : 
Weary with the world am I ; 
Let an ark by thee be built, 
For the world is lost in guilt ; 
And when thou hast built it well. 
Loud proclaim what now I tell : 
Straight repent ye, for your Lord 
In his hand doth hold a sword. 
And good Noah thus did call : 
Straight repent ye, one and all, 
For the world with grief I see 
Lost in vileness utterly. 
God's own mandate I but do. 
He hath sent me unto you. 
Laugh'd the world with bitter scorn, 
I his cruel sufferings mourn ; 
Brawny youths with furious air 
Drag the Patriarch by the hair ; 
Lewdness governs every one : 
Leaves her convent now the nun, 
And the monk abroad I see 
Practising iniquity. 
Now I '11 tell how God, intent 
To avenge, a vapour sent. 
With full many a dreadful sign — • 
Mighty, mighty fear is mine : 



68 THE ZINCALI. [Part III, 

Dicando los Lariandeses 

Tran bares sos me merelo, 

Dicando saro or surdan 

Tran jurune dan terelo, 

Y ne camelara menda, 

Trincha sata orobibelo, 

Chalabear la pelabru 

On la opuchen sos terelo 

De soscabar libanando — 

Per los barbanes junelo 

Bates benges balogando, 

Pendando a golis bares 

Ochardilo terelamos ; 

Aocana sin la ocana 

Sosque sinastra queramos. 

Dajiralo sos punis 

Dicar las queles petrando, 

A butes las chibiben 

Les nicaba merelando, 

Persos los cotos bares 

A butes guilla marando ; 

Ne sindo lo chorro ondoba, 

Sos aocana presimando 

Las minrriclas bus pani 

On or surdan techescando, 

De chibel y de rachi nardian tesumiando. 

Sos perplejo tranbare ! 

Saros a Ostebe acarando 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 69 

As I hear the thunders roll, 
Seems to die my very soul ; 
As I see the world o'erspread 
All with darkness thick and dread ; 
I the pen can scarcely ply 
For the tears which dim my eye, 
And o'ercome with giievous wo, 
Fear the task I must forego 
I have purposed to perform. — 
Hark, I hear upon the storm 
Thousand, thousand devils fly, 
Who with awful howlings cry : 
Now 's the time and now 's the hour, 
We have licence, we have power 
To ©"btain a glorious prey. — 
I with horror turn away ; 
Tumbles house and tumbles wall ; 
Thousands lose their lives and all, 
Voiding curses, screams, and groans. 
For the beams, the bricks, and stones 
Bruise and bury all below — 
Nor is that the worst, I trow. 
For the clouds begin to pour 
Floods of water, more and more, 
Down upon the world with might, 
Never pausing day or night. 
Now in terrible distress 
All to God their cries address. 



70 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

A nonrria day j Erani — 
Chi de ondoba ne molando, 
Per socabar Ostebe 
Sar los murciales sustinaos. 
O henira tran bare 
A golis saros pendando ; 
Chapescando nasti chanan 
De or rifian sos dicando 
Flima a flima bus pajes ; 
La chen se cha pirrandando : 
Se quimpina la sueste 
Sos niquilla chapescando, 
E isnalongono cautej 
Bute pani brijindando ; 
Saros los peiifuyes 
De los jebis niquillando : 
Or jabuno y jabufii 
On toberjeli guillando ; 
La Julistraba y chaplica 
Se encaloman per lo sasto ; 
Chiribito y tejuni, 

Y oripatia pirelando, 

Ne chanan sosque chibarse, 

Y se muquelan tasaos. 
GoUori, braco y braqui — 
Los jurus catabranando, 

Y or batane y Jabuni, 
On or chasno an sustinao 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 71 

And his Mother dear adore, — 
But the time of grace is o'er, 
For the Almighty in the sky 
Holds his hand upraised on high. 
Now 's the time of madden'd rout 
Hideous cry, despairing shout ; 
Whither, whither shall they fly ? 
For the danger threat'ningly 
Draweth near on every side, 
And the earth, that's opening wide, 
Swallows thousands in its womb. 
Who would 'scape the dreadful doom. 
Of dear hope exists no gleam, 
Still the water down doth stream ; 
Ne'er so little a creeping thing, 
But from out its hole doth spring : 
See the mouse, and see its mate 
Scour along, nor stop nor wait ; 
See the serpent and the snake, 
For the nearest highlands make ; 
The tarantula I view, 
Emmet small, and cricket too, 
All unknowing where to fly, 
In the stifling waters die. 
See the goat and bleating sheep, 
See the bull with bellowings deep, 
And the rat with squealings shrill. 
They have mounted on the hill : 



72 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

Bajilache y Baluni, 
Los duis se an cataneaos : 
Chelendres j Bombardos, 
De or rifian chapescando ; 
La sorjia sar los chabales, 
Tramisto cha platanando ; 
Or chinoje y Jerini, 
Choro y choria acareando, 
La andalula y or Jojoy, 
Per or dron cataneaos ; 
Los grates y los gadujos, 
De chapescar tesumiaron — 
On yes pray se catanan, 
Y aoter catane mucaron ; 
Escotria en I'avel pajin, 
Pendare lo sos queraron. 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 73 

See the stag, and see the doe, 
How together fond they go ; 
Lion, tiger-beast, and pard, 
To escape are stri\dng hard : 
Followed by her little ones, 
See the hare how swift she runs : 
Asses, he and she, a pair. 
Mute and mule with bray and blare. 
And the rabbit and the fox, 
Hurry over stones and rocks, 
With the grunting hog and horse, 
Till at last they stop their course — 
On the summit of the hill 
All assembled stand they still ; 
In the second part I '11 tell, 
Unto them what there befell. 



VOL. II. 



BRIJINDOPE. 



REBLANDUY PAJIN. 

Bus muque la avel pajin, 
Dine carema a or surdan 
De pendar sata guillo 
Or janbri sar la Pastia, 
La Cremen j or Piribicho, 
Saros se guillan aotar, 
On la Pray se catanan ; 
Bus dicaron abillar 
Or Bispibi y Coligote, 
Y la Anis sar la Macha j 
Or Chilindrote y Lore, 
y or Cacarabi apala ; 
Ballestero y Ballestera, 
Curraco tramisto cha ; 
CatacoUa y Escobiche 
Balogan per or barban ; 
Ne beijan sosque urdifarse, 
!Per soscabar or surdan 



THE DELUGE. 



PART THE SECOND. 

When I last did bid farewell, 
I proposed the world to tell, 
Higher as the Deluge flow'd. 
How the frog and how the toad. 
With the lizard and the efte, 
All their holes and coverts left, 
And assembled on the height ; 
Soon I ween appear'd in sight 
All that 's wings beneath the sky, 
Bat and swallow, wasp and fly. 
Gnat and sparrow, and behind 
Comes the crow of carrion kind j 
Dove and pigeon are descried. 
And the raven fiery-eyed, 
With the beetle and the crane. 
Flying on the hurricane : 
See they find no resting-place. 
For the world's terrestrial space 

E 2 



76 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

Saro perdo de pani ; 
Se petran y se tasaban : 
" Guillemos a monrro Bato '." 
Sos la Estarica pirranda, 
Chibelando eniTe a saros 
Periftiyes y los garaba, 
De cata yesque yes cro ; 
Tramisto chibelo aotar 
Desquero sueste, y cotria 
La Estarica la panda. 
De saros ha chibelado, 
Y garabaos aotar. 
On los sastos de la pray 
La pani begorea otar ; 
Naquelao bin chibeles, 
La Estarica sustina, 
La legera aupre y aostele, 
Sata yes buchi basta. 
Diquemos sos duquipen, 
Per la pani nonabar 
Trincha los drupos mules, 
Sos ne se asislan jinar ! 
O duquipen tran bare, 
Sos se tasabo or surdan. 
Aunsos nasti sin saro, 
Flimas se muquelaran, 
Pa en camelando Ostebe 
Linbidien a perbarar 



Ch. il.] THE DELUGE. 77 

Is \nth water covered o'er, 
Soon they sink to rise no more i 
" To our father let us flee ! " 
Straight the ark-ship openeth he, 
And to every thing that lives 
Kindly he admission gives. 
Of all kinds a single pair, 
And the members safely there 
Of his house he doth embark, 
Then at once he shuts the ark ; 
Every thing therein has pass'd, 
There he keeps them safe and fast. 
O'er the mountain's topmost peak 
Now the raging waters break. 
Till full twenty days are o'er, 
'Midst the elemental roar, 
Up and down the ark forlorn. 
Like some evil thing, is borne : 
O what gi'ief it is to see 
Swimming on the enormous sea 
Human corses pale and white. 
More, alas ! than I can wiite : 
O what grief, what grief profound. 
But to think the world is drown'd ; 
True a scanty few are left. 
All are not of life bereft. 
So that, when the Lord ordain, 
They may procreate again,- 



78 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

Avel sueste bufendi, 
Pa querar demo surdan 
Sos archaben a Ostebe. 

Y aocana canbro pendar, 
Sueste de andoba chiro, 
Ennagrabarse, y dicar 
Sos oclinde sia pani 
Aocana sen bus basta : 
Sos pendan los Manjaros 
Se remarara or surdan 
On llaquele retablejiendo, 

Y flacha se querara. 
A la Estarica linbidio 
Sos pira per or surdan 
Najabada, y Ostebe 
Los camela listramar : 
Yes callico pirrandaron 
Yesque besni per dicar 
De otarpe la simachi ; 
Pa orondar or surdan 
Subliman la Ballestera ; 

Y a las duis canas le an 
Yesque corbi de eruquel, 
On or punsabo alala. 
Pendan dinelando golis, 
" Sos terelamos surdan." 
Begorean a yes pray ; 

Y bus se dican aotar, 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 79 

In a world entirely new, 

Better people and more true, 

To their Maker who shall bow ; 

And I humbly beg ye now. 

Ye in modern times whx) wend, 

That your lives ye do amend ; 

For no wat'ry punishment, 

But a heavier shall be sent ; 

For the blessed saints pretend 

That the latter world shall end 

To tremendous fire a prey, 

And to ashes sink away. 

To the Ark I now go back, 

Which pursues its dreary track, 

LfOst and 'wilder'd till the Lord 

In his mercy rest accord. 

Early of a morning tide 

They unclosed a window wide, 

Heaven's beacon to descry. 

And a gentle dove let fly, 

Of the world to seek some trace. 

And in two short hours' space 

It returns with eyes that glow, 

In its beak an olive bough. 

With a loud and mighty sound. 

They exclaim : " The world we' ve found." 

To a mountain nigh they drew, 

And when there themselves they view, 



80 THE ZINCALI. [Part III. 

Saros panelan on Chen 
De siarias per dinar 
Las sardanis a Ostebe ; 

Y se camelan guillar 
Yesque lacri y yesque lacro, 
A perbarar or surdan, 

A or sichen Corajano. — 
Avel cro tramisto cha 
A la chen del Gabine ; 
Saros guillan andial 
Querando nevel sueste- 
Ondoba panchabaras, 
Sos lo miico libanado 
Nonrro Bato, y andial 
Abillo de yesque avel 
Pa enjalle per or surdan. 
Man soscabo manguelando 
Estormen pa libanar 
A saros lo sos chanaren 
Chipi Cayi araquerar ; 

Y la Debel de Inerique 
Me dine la sardaiia, 
Sos me quera farsilaja, 
E ochipa. Anarania. 



Ch. II.] THE DELUGE. 81 

Bound they swiftly on the shore, 
And their fervent thanks outpour, 
Lowly kneeling to their God ; 
Then their way a couple trod, 
Man and woman, hand in hand, 
Bent to populate the land. 
To the Moorish region fair — 
And another two repair 
To the country of the Gaul; 
In this manner wend they all, 
And the seeds of nations lay. 
I beseech ye '11 credence pay, 
For our father, high and sage, 
Wrote the tale in sacred page, 
As a record to the world. 
Record sad of vengeance hurl'd. 
I, a low and humble wight. 
Beg permission now to write 
Unto all that in our land 
Tongue Egyptian understand. 
May our Virgin Mother mild 
Grant to me, her erring child, 
Plenteous grace in every way. 
And success. Amen I say. 



E 3 



LA KETREQUE. 
THE PESTILENCE. 



A POEM COMMEMORATIVE OF THE PLAGUE WHICH BROKE OUT 
AT SEVILLE IN THE YEAR 1800. 



LA RETREQUE. 



Man camelo libanar, 
Pa enjalle on chipi Cale, 
Saro lo SOS chundeo 
On caba Foro bare. 

On or brege de ostor gres, 
On macara llacuno, 
Tenblesquero sustino 
La bate tabastorre 
Sar ies griba tranbare, 
Dinelando a jabelar 
Sos camelaba Hilar 
Jina de monria puchel. 
Par dinelar irsimen 
Man camelo libanar. 

Dajirando on la retreque 
Se ennagro saro or surdan ; 
Y aocana sen bus bastas 
On or surdan los crejetes, 
Per socabar la sueste 



THE PESTILENCE. 



I 'm resolved now to tell, 
In the speech of Gypsy -land, 
All the horror that befell 
In this city huge and grand. 

In the eighteenth hundred year 
In the midst of summer tide, 
God, with man dissatisfied. 
His right hand on high did rear, 
With a rigour most severe ; 
Whence we well might understand 
He would strict account demand 
Of our lives and actions here. 
The dread event to render clear 
Now the pen I take in hand. 

At the dread event aghast, 

Straight the world reform'd its course ; 

Yet is sin in greater force. 

Now the punishment is past; 

For the thought of God is cast 



86 THE ZINCALI, [Part III. 

Chanorgaos cle Ostebe, 
Sata unga la beriben 
Se udicara merelao ; 
Per ondoba e libanao 
Pa enjalle on chipi Cale. 

De niquillar a la olicha 
Dinelaba duquipen, 
On dicar trincha mule 
Sueste on la ferminicha ; 
Flimas a la banbanicha 
Guillan a tapillar mol, 
Per soscabar nasalos — 
Diifielaba alangari : 
Sian canrrias y Puiiis 
Saro lo SOS chundeo. 

La sueste a or drobardo 
Guillan orobibelando 
Per la olicha manguelando 
Estormen a or Eraiio ; 
Y los cangallos perdos 
Mustinando los mules 
Bartrabes a oltarique — 
Sos duquipen sia, Erais, 
Ne dicar ies Arajay 
On caba foro bare. 



Ch. II.] 



THE PESTILENCE. 87 

All and utterly aside, 
As if death itself had died. 
Therefore to the present race 
These memorial lines I trace 
In old Egypt's tongue of pride. 

As the streets you wander'd through 
How you quail'd with fear and dread, 
Heaps of dying and of dead 
At the leeches' door to view. 
To the tavern O how few 
To regale on wine repair ; 
All a sickly aspect wear. 
Say what heart such sights could brook- 
Wail and woe where'er you look — 
Wail and woe and ghastly care. 

Plying fast their rosaries, 

See the people pace the street, 

And for pardon God entreat 

Long and loud with streaming eyes. 

And the carts of various size, 

Piled with corses, high in air, 

To the plain their burden bear. 

O what grief it is to me 

Not a friar or priest to see 

In this city huge and fair. 



THE PRAISE OF BUDDH. 



METEMPSYCHOSIS. 



It is scarcely necessary to apologize for the in- 
sertion, in this place, of the following poem, which 
contains the creed of the Buddhists. In many por- 
tions of the present work, allusion has been made to 
the want of any fixed or certain religious opinions 
amongst the Gypsies, since their appearance in 
Europe. Of their original religion, whatever it 
was, no vestige seems to remain, save some vague 
ideas of metempsychosis, which are still occasion- 
ally to be found amongst them in England and in 
Russia, and the remembrance of which has not 
altogether disappeared from those of Spain. 
India is the proper home of that superstition, 
from whence, by the transmigration of nations, or 
by other circumstances, it was conveyed, at an 
early period, to more westerly regions, where it 
subsequently fell into total discredit. At present 
no trace of it is found in the West, except 
amongst the Gypsies, whose arrival dates from a 
very modem period. 



92 THE ZlNCALI. 

This attachment of the Gypsy race to metemp- 
sychosis, or even their remembrance of it, is one 
of the distinguishing marks of their Indian ex- 
traction. It pertains as much to India, as do 
their complexions, and the broken jargon which 
they speak : it connects them with Buddh and 
Brahma. The wild dream of spiritual wandering 
through millions of ages, even through calaps, 
when the world itself goes to wreck, till, by enor- 
mous penance and mortification, the state is at- 
tained where there is no pain, no birth, and no death, 
forms an essential part of the two great religious 
systems of India. It is with the view of affording 
the reader some idea of what the original re- 
ligion of the Gypsies may possibly have been, 
that we lay before him a synopsis of Buddhism, 
contained in a brief but singularly comprehensive 
hymn to Buddh, or, as he is called by the Tartars, 
the Great Foutsa, who seems to have been the 
father of religious imposture, and whose system 
was subsequently modified by Brahma for the 
worse. 

The Gypsies know not Buddh by name, but 
they unconsciously acknowledge him when they 
declare, as they have been known to do, that it is 
useless to execute them, as they cannot die ; for 
such doctrine is his own, and from him it sprang. 
In the following hymn the transmigration of souls 
is distinctly alluded to : the human or dragon 



METEMPSYCHOSIS. — THE BUDDHISTS. 93 

spirit, bereft of kindred, solitary and desolate, 
may discover the spot where its parents and 
kindred have been born again, and rejoin them 
by paying reverence to Buddh — as individual 
Gypsies have said, that however the souls of their 
race may go a-wandering they are sure to rejoin 
each other at last. This hymn is chaunted in 
their respective languages by Buddhists of most 
lands, by the Chinese and Cingalese, by the 
Mongolians, and by the present lords of China, 
the Mandchou Tartars, and it is from the Mand- 
chou that the present version has been made. 



POEM, 

IlELATING TO THE WORSHIP OF THE GREAT FOUTSA OR BUDDH. 



Should I Foutsa's force and gloiy, 

Earth's protector, all unfold, 
Through more years would last my story, 

Than has Ganges sands of gold. 
Him the fitting I'everence showing. 

For a moment's period, brings 
Ceaseless blessing, overflowing, 

Unto all created things. 
If from race of man descended, 

Or from dragon's kingly line, 
Thou dost dread, when life is ended. 

Deep in sin to sink and pine — 
If thou seek great Foutsa ever, 

With a heart devoid of guile, 
He the mists of sin shall sever, 

All before thee bright shall smile. 
Whosoe'er his parents losing. 

From his earliest infancy. 



THE PRAISE OF BUDDH. 95 

Cannot guess, with all his musing, 

Where their spirits now may be ; 
He who sister dear nor brother, 

Since the sun upon him shone, 
And of kindred all the other 

Shoots and branches ne'er has known — 
If of Foutsa Grand the figure 

He shall shape and colour o'er, 
Gaze upon it rapt and eager, 

And with fitting rites adore. 
And through twenty days shall utter 

The dread name with reverent fear, 
Foutsa huge of form shall flutter 

Round about him and appear. 
And to him the spot discover 

Where his kindred breathe again, 
And though evils whelm them over, 

Straight release them from their pain. 
If that man, unchanged still keeping, 

From backsliding shall refrain, 
He, by Foutsa touch'd when sleeping, 

Shall Biwangarit's title gain. 
If to Bouddi's elevation 

He would win, and from the three 
Confines dark of tribulation 

Soar to light and liberty ; 
When a heart with kindness glowing 

He within him shall descry. 
To Grand Foutsa's image going. 

Let him gaze attentively ; 



96 THE ZINCALI. 

Soon his every wish acquiring 

He shall triumph glad and fain, 
And the shades of sin retiring 

Never more his soul restrain. 
Whosoever bent on speeding 

To that distant shore, the home 
Of the wise, shall take to reading 

The all -wondrous Soudra* tome ; 
If that study deep beginning. 

No fit preparation made, 
Scanty shall he find his winning. 

Straight forgetting what he 's read ; 
Whilst he in the dark subjection 

Shall of shadowing sin remain, 
Soudra's page of full perfection 

How shall he in mind retain ? 
Unto him the earth who blesses, 

Unto Foutsa, therefore he 
Drink and incense, food and dresses 

Should up-offer plenteously ; 
And the fountain's limpid liquor 

Pour Grand Foutsa's face before. 
Drain himself a cooling beaker 

When a day and night are o'er ; 
Tune his heart to high devotion ; 

The five evil things eschew, 
Lust and flesh and vinous potion, 

And the words which are not true ; 

* The Sacred Codex of the Buddhists, which contains the 
eanoiis of their religion. 



THE PRAISE OF BUDDH. 97 

Living thing abstain from killing 

For full twenty days and one ; 
And meanwhile with accents thrilling 

Mighty Foutsa call upon — 
Then of infinite dimension 

Foutsa's form in dreams he '11 see, 
And if he with fix'd attention, 

When his sleep dissolved shall be, 
Shall but list to Soudra's volume, 

He, through thousand ages' flight, 
Shall of Soudra's doctrine solemn 

Ne'er forget one portion slight ; 
Yes, a soul so richly gifted 

Every child of man can find, 
If to mighty Foutsa lifted 

He but keep his heart and mind. 
He who views his cattle falling 

Unto fierce disease a prey, 
Hears his kindred* round him brawling, 

Never ceasing night nor day. 
Who can find no rest in slumber "' 

From excess of grief and pain, ,. 

And whose prayers in countless number 

Though they rise, are breathed in vain — 

• Literally, in whose house bones are breaking and cuts occurring 
continually. In the metaphorical language of the Chinese and 
Tartars, who profess the Buddhic religion, the flesh and bone of a 
man stand for his kindred. 

VOL. II. F 



98 THE ZINCALI. 

To earth favouring Foutsa's figure 

If but reA'erencc he shall pay, 
Dire misfortune's dreadful rigour 

Flits for ever and for aye : 
No domestic broils distress him, 

And of nought he knows the want ; 
Cattle, corn, and riches bless him, 

Which the favouring demons grant. 
Those, who sombre forests threading, 

Those, who sailing ocean's plain. 
Fain would v>'end their way undreading 

Evil poisons, beasts, and men, 
Evil spirits, demons, j avals. 

And the force of evil winds. 
And each ill, which he who travels 

In his course so frequent finds, — 
Let them only take their station 

'Fore the form of Foutsa Grand, 
On it gaze with adoration. 

Sacrifice with reverent hand, 
And within the forest gloomv, 

On the mountain or the vale. 
On the ocean wide and roomy. 

Them no evil shall assail. 
Thou, who every secret knowest, 

Foutsa, hear my heartfelt pray'r ; 
Thou, who earth such favour showest. 

How shall I thy praise declare } 



THE PRAISE OF BUDDH. 99 

If with cataract's voice the story 

I through minion calaps roar, 
Yet of Foutsa's force and glory 

I may not the sum outpour. 
Whosoe'er the title learning 

Of the earth's protector high, 
Shall, whene'er his form discerning, 

On it gaze with steadfast eye, 
And at times shall offer dresses. 

Offer fitting drink and food. 
He ten thousand joys possesses, 

And escapes each trouble rude ; 
Whoso into deed shall carry 

Of the law each precept, he 
Through all time alive shall tarry. 

And from birth and death be free. 
Foutsa, thou, who best of any 

Know'st the truth of what I 've told, 
Spread the tale through regions many 

As the Ganges' sands of gold. 



F 2 



ON THE 

LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 



ON THE 

LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 



" I am not very willing that any language should be totally ex- 
tinguished ; the similitude and derivation of languages afford the 
most indubitable proof of the traduction of nations, and the gene- 
alogy of mankind, they add often physical certainty to historical 
evidence of ancient migrations, and of the revolutions of ages which 
left no written monuments behind them." — Johnson. 

The speech of the Gitanos, as it at present exists 
in Spain, though scarcely entitled to the appel- 
lation of a language, was, nevertheless, at one 
period, the same which the first wanderers of the 
Romanian sect brought with them into Europe 
from the remote regions of the East. It may now 
be termed with more propriety the ruins of a lan- 
guage than the language itself, enabling, however, 
in its actual state, the Gitanos to hold convers- 
ations amongst themselves, the import of which 
is quite dark and mysterious to those who are not 
of their race, or by some means have become 
acquainted with their vocabulary. The relics of 
this tongue, singularly curious in themselves, must 
be ever particularly interesting to the philological 
antiquarian, inasmuch as they enable him to 



104 THE ZINCALI. 

arrive at a satisfactory conclusion respecting the 
origin of the Gypsy race. During the latter 
])art of the last century, the curiosity of some 
learned individuals, particularly Grellman, Rich- 
ardson, and Marsden, induced them to collect 
many words of the Romanian language, as spoken 
in Germany, Hungary, and England, which, upon 
analyzing, they discovered to be in general either 
])ure Sanscrit or Hindustani words, or modifi- 
cations thereof; these investigations have been 
continued to the present time by men of equal 
curiosity and no less erudition, the result of which 
has been the establishment of the fact that the 
(iypsies of those countries are the descendants 
of a tribe of Hindus, who, for some particular 
reason, had abandoned their native country. In 
England, of late, the Gypsies have excited par- 
ticular attention ; but a desire far more noble and 
laudable than mere antiquarian curiosity lias given 
rise to it, namely, the desire of propagating the 
glory of Christ amongst those who know him not, 
and of saving souls from the jaws of the infernal 
wolf. It is, however, with the Gypsies of Spain, 
and not with those of England and other coun- 
tries, that we are now occupied, and we shall 
)nerely mention the latter so far as they may serve 
to elucidate the case of the Gitanos, their bre- 
thren by blood and language. Spain for many 
centuries has been the country of error ; she has 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITAXOS. 105 

mistaken stern and savage tyranny for rational 
government ; base, low, and grovelling super- 
stition for clear, bright, and soul-ennobling re- 
ligion ; sordid cheating she has considered as the 
path to riches ; vexatious persecution as the path 
to power ; and the consequence has been that 
she is now poor and powerless, a pagan amongst 
the pagans, with a dozen kings, and with none. 
Can we be surprised, therefore, that, mistaken in 
policy, religion, and moi'al conduct, she should 
have fallen into an error on points so naturally 
dark and mysterious as the history and origin of 
those remarkable people, whom for the last four 
hundred years she has supported under the name 
of Gitanos? The idea entertained at the present 
day in Spain respecting this race is, that they are 
the descendants of the Moriscos who remained in 
Spain, wandering about amongst the mountains 
and wildernesses, after the expulsion of the great 
body of the nation from the country in the time of 
Philip the Third, and that they form a distinct 
body, entirely unconnected with the wandering 
tribes known in other countries by the names of 
Bohemians, Gypsies, &c. This, like all unfounded 
opinions, of course originated in ignorance, which 
is always ready to have recourse to conjecture and 
guesswork, in preference to travelling through 
the long, mountainous, and stony road of patient 
investigation; it is, however, an error far more ab- 

F 3 



106 THE ZINCALI. 

surd and more destitute of tenable grounds than 
the ancient belief that the Gitanoswere Egyptians, 
which they themselves have always professed to 
be, and which the original written documents 
which they brought with them on their first arrival 
in western Europe, and which bore the signature 
of the king of Bohemia, expressly stated them to 
be. The only clue to arrive at any certainty re- 
specting their origin, is the language which they 
still speak amongst themselves; but before we can 
avail ourselves of the endence of this language, it 
will be necessary to make a few remarks respect- 
ing the principal languages and dialects of that 
immense tract of country, peopled by at least 
eighty millions of human beings, generally known 
by the name of Hindustan, two Persian words 
tantamount to the land of Ind, or, the land watered 
by the river Indus. 

The most celebrated of these languages is the 
Sanskrida, or, as it is known in Europe, the 
Sanscrit, which is the language of religion of all 
those nations, amongst whom the faith of Brahma 
has been adopted; but though the language of re- 
ligion, by which we mean the tongue in which the 
religious books of the Brahmanic sect were origi- 
nally written and are still preserved, it has long 
since ceased to be a spoken language ; indeed, 
history is silent as to any period when it was a 
language in common use amongst any of the va- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 107 

rious tribes of the Hindus ; its knowledge, as far 
as reading and writing it went, having been entirely 
confined to the priests of Brahma, or Brahmans, 
until within the last half century, when the 
British, having subjugated the whole of Hin- 
dustan, caused it to be openly taught in the col- 
leges which they established for the instruction of 
their youth in the languages of the country. 
Though sufficiently difficult to acquire, princi- 
pally on account of its prodigious richness in 
synonymes, it is no longer a sealed language, its 
laws, structure, and vocabulary being sufficiently 
well known by means of luimerous elementary 
works, adapted to facilitate its study. It has been 
considered by several famous philologists as the 
mother not only of all the languages of Asia, but 
of all others in the world. So wild and pre- 
posterous an idea, however, only serves to prove 
that a devotion to philology, whose principal 
object should be the expansion of the mind by 
the various treasures of learning and wisdom 
which it can unlock, sometimes only tends to its 
bewilderment, by causing it to embrace shadows 
for reality. The most that can be allowed, in 
reason, to the Sanscrit is that it is the mother 
of a certain class or family of languages, for ex- 
ample, those spoken in Hindustan, with which 
most of the European, whether of the Sclavonian, 
Gothic, or Celtic stock, have some connexion. 



108 THE ZINCALI. 

True it is that in this case we know not how 
to dispose of the ancient Zend, the mother of 
the modern Persian, the language in which 
were written those writings generally attributed 
to Zerduscht, or Zoroaster, whose affinity to 
the said tongues is as easily established as that 
of the Sanscrit, and which, in respect to an- 
tiquity, may well dispute the palm with its 
Indian rival. Avoiding, however, the discussion 
of this point, we shall content ourselves with ob- 
serving, that closely connected with the Sanscrit, 
if not derived from it, are the Bengali, the high 
Hindustani, or grand popular language of Hin- 
dustan, generally used by the learned in their in- 
tercourse and writings, the languages of Multan, 
(xuzerat, and other provinces, without mentioning 
the mixed dialect called Mongolian Hindustani, 
a corrupt jargon of Persian, Turkish, Arabic, and 
Hindu words, fust used by the Mongols, after the 
conquest, in their intercourse with the natives. 
Many of the principal languages of Asia are 
totally unconnected with the Sanscrit, both in 
words and grammatical structure ; these are 
mostly of the great Tartar family, at the head of 
which there is good reason for placing the Chinese 
and Tibetian. 

Bearing the same analogy to the Sanscrit 
tongue, as the Indian dialects specified above, we 
find the Rommany, or speech of the Roma, or 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 109 

Zincali, as they style themselves, known in Eng- 
land and Spain as Gypsies and Gitanos. This 
speech, wherever it is spoken, is, in all principal 
points, one and the same, though more or less 
corrupted by foreign words, picked up in the va- 
rious countries to which those who use it have 
penetrated. One remarkable feature must not be 
passed over without notice, namely, the very con- 
siderable number of pure Sclavonic, or Russian 
Avords, which are to be found imbedded within it, 
whether it be spoken in Spain or Germany, in Eng- 
land or Italy; from which circumstance we are 
led to the conclusion, that these people, in their 
way from the East, travelled in one large compact 
body, and that their route lay through the steppes 
of Russia, where they probably tarried for a 
considerable period, as nomade herdsmen, and 
where numbers of them are still to be found 
at the present day. Besides the many Scla- 
vonian words in the Gypsy tongue, another curious 
feature attracts the attention of the philologist — 
an equal or still greater quantity of terms from 
the modern Greek ; indeed, we have full warranty 
for assuming that at one period the Gypsy nation, 
or at least the Spanish branch thereof, understood 
the Greek language well, and that, besides their own 
Indian dialect, they occasionally used it in Spain 
for considerably upwards of a century subsequent 
to their arrival, as amongst them there were indi- 



110 THE ZINCALI. 

viduals to whom it was intelligible so late as the 
year 1540. 

Where this knowledge was obtained it is diffi- 
cult to say, perhaps in Bulgaria ; that they did 
understand the Romaic in 1540, we gather from a 
very remarkable work called " El Estudioso Cor- 
tesano," written by Lorenzo Palmireno ; this 
learned and highly extraordinary individual was 
by birth a Valencian, and died, we believe, about 
1580 ; he was professor at various universities — of 
rhetoric at Valencia, of Greek at Zaragossa, 
where he gave lectures, in which he explained the 
verses of Homer ; he was a proficient in Greek, 
ancient and modern, and it should be observed 
that, in the passage which we are about to cite, he 
means himself by the learned individual who held 
conversation with the Gitanos*. El Estudioso 
Cortesano was reprinted at Alcala in 1587, from 
which edition we now copy. 

" Who are the Gitanos? I answer; these vile 
people first began to shew themselves in Germany, 
in the year 1417, where they call them Tartars or 
Gentiles ; in Italy they are termed Ciani. They 
pretend that they came from Lower Egypt, and 
that they wander about as a penance, and to 
prove this, they show letters from the king of 

* For information upon these points, and also for a sight of the 
somewhat rare volume of Palmireno, the author was indebted to a 
kind friend, a native of Spain . 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. Ill 

Poland. They lie, however, for they do not lead 
the life of penitents, but of dogs and thieves. A 
learned person, in the year 1540, prevailed with 
them, by dint of much persuasion, to shew him 
the king's letter, and he gathered from it that the 
time of their penance was ah-eady expired ; he 
spoke to them in the Egyptian tongue ; they said, 
however, that as it was a long time since their de- 
parture from Egypt, they did not understand it ; 
he then spoke to them in the vulgar Greek, such 
as is used at present in the Morea and Archi- 
pelago ; some understood it, others did not ; so 
that as all did not understand it, we may con- 
clude that the language which they use is a 
feigned one *, got up by thieves for the pui-pose 
of concealing their robberies, like the jargon of 
blind beggars." 

Still more abundant, however, than the mixture 
of Greek, still more abundant than the mixture 
of Sclavonian, is the alloy in the Gypsy lan- 
guage, wherever spoken, of modern Persian words, 
which circumstance will compel us tt) offer a 
few remarks on the share which the Persian has 
had in the formation of the dialects of India, as 
at present spoken. 

The modern Persian, as has been already ob- 

* A very unfair inference ; that some of the Gypsies did not 

understand the author when he spoke Romaic, was no proof that 

their own private language was a feigned one, invented for thievisli 

purposes. 



112 THE ZINCALI. 

served, is a daughter of the ancient Zend, and, 
as such, is entitled to claim affinity with the San- 
scrit, and its dialects. With this language 
none in the world would be able to vie in 
simplicity and beauty, had not the Persians, in 
adopting the religion of Mahomet, unfortunately 
introduced into their speech an infinity of words 
of the rude coarse language used by the barbaric 
Arab tribes, the immediate followers of the war- 
like Prophet. With the rise of Islam the modem 
Persian was doomed to be carried into India. 
This country, from the time of Alexander, had 
enjoyed repose from external aggression, had 
been ruled by its native princes, and been per- 
mitted by Providence to exercise, without con- 
trol or reproof, the degrading superstitions, and 
the unnatural and bloody rites of a religion, 
at the formation of which the fiends of cruelty 
and lust seem to have presided ; but reckoning 
was now about to be demanded of the accursed 
ministers of this system for the pain, torture, 
and misery which they had been instrumental 
in inflicting on their countrymen for the grati- 
fication of their avarice, filthy passions, and 
pride ; the new Mahometans were at hand — Arab, 
Persian, and Afghan, with the glittering scimitar 
upraised, full of zeal for the glory and adoration of 
the one high God, and the relentless persecutors of 
the idol-worshippers. Already, in the 426th year 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 113 

of the Hageira, we read of the destruction of the 
great Butkhan, or image-house of Sumnaut, by the 
armies of the far-conquering Mahmoud, when the 
dissevered heads of the Brahmans rolled down the 
steps of the gigantic and Babel-like temple of the 
great image — 

(This image grim, whose name was Laut, 
Bold Mahmoud found when he took Sumnaut. ) 

It is not our intention to follow the conquests of 
the Mahometans from the days of Walid and 
Mahmoud to those of Timour and Nadir ; suffi- 
cient to observe, that the greatest part of India 
was subdued, new monarchies established, and 
the old religion, though far too powerful and 
widely spread to be extirpated, to a considerable 
extent abashed and humbled before the bright 
rising sun of Islam. The Persian language, which 
the conquerors* of whatever denomination intro- 
duced with them to Hindustan, and which their 
descendants at the present day still retain, though 
not lords of the ascendant, speedily became widely 

* Of all these, the most terrible, and whose sway endured for the 
longest period, were the Mongols, as they were called: few, how- 
ever, of his original Mongolian warriors followed Timour in the in- 
vasion of India. His armies latterly appear to have consisted chiefly 
of Turcomans and Persians. It was to obtain popularity amongst 
these soldiery that he abandoned the old religion of the steppes, a 
kind of fetish, or sorcery, and became a Mahometan. 



114 THE ZINCALI. 

extended in these regions, where it had pre^dously 
been unknown. As the language of the court, it 
was of course studied and acquired by all those 
natives whose wealth, rank, and influence neces- 
sarily brought them into connexion with the ruling- 
powers, and as the language of the camp, it was 
carried into every part of the country where the 
duties of the soldiery sooner or later conducted 
them ; the result of which relations between the 
conquerors and conquered, was the adoption into 
the popular dialects of India of an infinity of 
modem Persian words, not merely those of 
science, such as it exists in the East, and of 
luxury and refinement, but even those which 
serve to express many the most common objects, 
necessities and ideas, so that at the present day 
a knowledge of the Persian is essential for the 
thorough understanding of the principal dialects 
of Hindustan, on which account, as well as for 
the assistance which it affords in communication 
with the Mahometans, it is culti^•ated with pe- 
culiar care by the present possessors of the land. 

No surprise, therefore, can be entertained, that 
the speech of the Gitanos in general, who, in all 
probability, departed from Hindustan long subse- 
quent to the first Mahometan invasions, abounds, 
like other Indian dialects, with words either purely 
Persian, or slightly modified to accommodate them 
to the genius of the language. Whether the Rom- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 



115 



many originally constituted part of the natives of 
Multan or Guzerat, and abandoned their native 
land to escape from the torch and sword of Tamer- 
lane and his Mongols, as Grellman and others have 
supposed, or whether, as is much more probable, 
they were a thievish caste, like some others still to 
be found in Hindustan, who fled westward, either 
from the vengeance of justice, or in pursuit of 
plunder, their speaking Persian is alike satisfac- 
torily accounted for. With the view of exhibiting 
how closely their language is connected with the 
Sanscrit and Persian, we ^subjoin the first ten 
numerals in the three tongues, those of the Gypsy 
according to the Hungarian dialect, as quoted 
in the Mithridates of Adelung, vol. i. page 246. 





Gypsy. 


Persian. 


Sanscrit. 


1 


Jek 


Ek 


Ega 


2 


Dui 


Du 


Dvaya 


3 


Trin 


Se 


Treya 


4 


Schtar 


Cheliar 


Tschatvar 


5 


Pan sell 


Pansch 


Pantscha 


6 


Tschov 


Schesche 


Schasda 


7 


Efta 


Heft 


Sapta 


8 


Ochto 


Hescht 


Aschta 


9 


Enija 


Nu 


Nava 





Dosch 


De 


Dascha 



It would be easy for us to adduce a thousand 
instances, as striking as the above, of the afiinity 



116 THE ZINCALI. 

of the Gypsy tongue to the Persian, Sanscrit and 
the Indian dialects, but we have not space for 
further observation on a point which long since 
has been sufficiently discussed by others endowed 
with abler pens than our own ; but having made 
these preliminary remarks, which we deemed ne- 
cessary for the elucidation of the subject, we now 
hasten to speak of the Gitano language as used 
in Spain, and to determine, by its evidence, (and 
we again repeat, that the language is the only 
criterion by which the question can be deter- 
mined,) how far the Gitanos of Spain are entitled 
to claim connexion with the tribes, who, under 
the names of Zigani, &c., are to be found in 
various parts of Europe, following, in general, 
a life of wandering adventure, and practising 
the same kind of thievish arts which enable those 
in Spain to obtain a livelihood at the expense of 
the more honest and industrious of the com- 
munity. 

The Gitanos of Spain, as already stated, are 
generally believed to be the descendants of the 
Moriscos, and have been asserted to be such in 
printed books*.. Now they are known to speak 



* For example, in the Historia de los Gitanos, of which we 
have had occasion to speak in the first part of the present work : 
amongst other things the author says, p. 95, " If there exist any 
similitude of customs between the Gitanos and the Gypsies, the 
Zigeuners, the Zingari, and the Bohemians, they (the Gitanos) can- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 117 

a language or jargon amongst themselves, which 
the other natives of Spain do not understand ; of 
course, then, supposing them to be of Morisco 
origin, the words of this tongue or jargon, which 
are not Spanish, are the rehcs of the Arabic or 
Moorish tongue once spoken in Spain, which they 
have inherited from their Moorish ancestors. Now 



not, however, be confounded with these nomade castes, nor the 

same origin be attributed to them all that we shall 

find in common between these people will be, that the one, (the 
Gypsies, &c.,) arrived fugitives from the heart of Asia by the 
steppes of Tartary, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, whilst 
the Gitanos, descended from the Arab or Morisco tribes, came from 
the coast of Africa as conquerors at the beginning of the eighth." 

He gets rid of any evidence with respect to the origin of the Gi- 
tanos which their language might be capable of affording, in the 
following summary manner : " As to the particular jargon which 
they use, any investigation which people might pretend to make 
would be quite useless ; in the first place, on account of the reserve 
which they exhibit on this point ; and secondly, because, in the 
event of some being found sufficiently communicative, the informa- 
tion which they could impart would lead to no advantageous result, 
owing to their extreme ignorance." 

It is scarcely worth while to offer a remark on I'easoning which 
could only emanate from an understanding of the very lowest order, — 
so the Gitanos are so extremely ignorant, that however frank they 
might wish to be, they would be unable to tell the curious inquirer 
the names for bread and water, meat and salt, in their own peculiar 
tongue — for, assuredly, had they sense enough to afford that slight 
quantum of information, it would lead to two very advantageous 
results, by proving, first, that they spoke the same language as the 
Gypsies, &c., and were consequently the same people — and secondly, 
that they came not from the coast of Northern Africa, where only 
Arabic and Shilhah are spoken, but from the heart of Asia, three 
words of the four being pure Sanscrit. 



118 



THE ZINCALI. 



it is well known, that the Moorish of Spain was 
the same tongue as that spoken at present by the 
Moors of Barbarj, from which country Spain was 
invaded by the Arabs, and to which they again 
retired when unable to maintain their ground 
against the armies of the Christians. We will 
therefore collate the numerals of the Spanish Gi- 
tano with those of the Moorish tongue, preceding 
both with those of the Hungarian Gypsy, of 
which we have already made use, for the purpose 
of making clear the affinity of that language to 
the Sanscrit and Persian. By this collation we 
shall at once perceive whether the Gitano of 
Spain bears most resemblance to the Arabic, or 
the Rommany of other lands. 



1 

2 


Hungarian 
Gypsy. 

Jek 
Dui 


Spanish 
Gitano. 

Ye que 
Dui 




Moorish 
Arabic. 

Wahud 
Snain 


3 


Trin 


Trin 




Slatza 


4 


Schtar 


Estar 




Arba 


5 


Pansch 


Pansche 




Khamsa 


6 


Tschov 


Job. Zoi 




Seta 


7 


Efta 


Hefta 




Sebea 


8 


Ochto 


Otor 




Sminia 


9 
10 


Enija 
Dosch 


Esnia. (Nu. 
Deque 


Pers.) 


Tussa 
Aschra 


We believe the above specimens will go very 
far to change the opinion of those who have im- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 119 

bibed the idea that the Gitanos of Spain are the 
descendants of Moors, and are of an origin different 
from that of the wandering tribes of Rommany in 
other parts of the world, the specimens of the two 
dialects of the Gypsy, as far as they go, being 
so strikingly similar, as to leave no doubt of their 
original identity, whilst, on the contrary, with the 
Moorish, neither the one nor the other exhibits the 
slightest point of similarity or connexion. But 
with these specimens we shall not content our- 
selves, but proceed to give the names of the most 
common things and objects in the Hungarian and 
SjDanish Gitano, collaterally, with their equivalents 
in the Moorish Arabic ; from which it will appear 
that whilst the former are one and the same lan- 
guage, they are in every respect at variance with 
the latter. When wie consider that the Persian 
has adopted so many words and phrases from 
the x\rabic, we are at first disposed to wonder that 
a considerable portion of these words are not to 
be discovered in every dialect of the Gypsy 
tongue, since the Persian has lent it so much of 
its vocabulary. Yet such is by no means the 
case, as it is very uncommon, in any one of these 
dialects, to discover words deiived from the 
Arabic. Perhaps, however, the following con- 
sideration will help to solve this point. The 
Gitanos, even before they left India, were pro- 



120 THE ZINCALI. 

bably much the same rude, thievish, and ignor- 
ant people, as they are at the present day. 
Now the words adopted by the Persian from the 
Arabic, and which it subsequently introduced into 
the dialects of India, are sounds representing objects 
and ideas with which such a people as the Gita- 
Hos could necessarily be but scantily acquainted, 
a people whose circle of ideas only embraces 
physical objects, and who never communed with 
their own minds, nor exerted them, but in de- 
vising low and vulgar schemes of pillage and 
deceit. Whatever is visible and common is sel- 
dom or never represented by the Persians, even 
in their books, by the help of Arabic words : the 
sun and stars, the sea and river, the earth, its 
trees, its fruits, its flowers, and all that it pro- 
duces and supports, are seldom named by them 
by other terms than those which their own lan- 
guage is capable of affording ; but in expressing 
the abstract thoughts of their minds, and they are 
a people who think much and well, they borrow 
largely from the language of their religion — the 
Arabic. We therefore, perhaps, ought not to be 
surprised, that in the scanty phraseology of the 
Gitanos, amongst so much Persian, we find so 
little that is Arabic ; had their pursuits been less 
vile, their desires less animal, and their thoughts 
less circumscribed, it would probably have been 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 



121 



Otherwise ; but from time immemorial they have 
shown themselves a nation of petty thieves, horse- 
traffickers, and the like, without a thought of the 
morrow, being content to provide against the evil 
of the passing day. 

The following is a comparison of words in the 
three languages. 





Hungarian 
Gypsy. 


Spanish 
Gitano. 


Moorish 
Arabic. 


Bone 


Cokalos 


Cocal 


Adom 


City 


Forjus 


Foros 


Beled 


Day 


Dives 


Chibes 


Youm 


Drink (to) 


Piava 


Piyar 


Yeschrab 


Ear 


Kan 


Can 


Oothin 


Eye 


Jakh 


Aquia 


Ein 


Feather 


For 


Porumia 


Risch 


Fire 


Vag 


Yaque 


Afia 


Fish 


Maczo 


Macho 


Hutz 


Foot 


Pir 


Piro, pindro 


Rjil 


Gold 


Sonkai 


Sonacai 


Dahab 


Great 


Baro 


Baro 


Quibir 


Hair 


Bala 


Bal 


Schar 


He, pron. 


Wow 





Hu 


Head 


Tschero 


Jero 


Ras 


House 


Ker 


Quer 


Dar 


Husband 


Rom 


Ron 


Zooje 


Lightning 


Molnija 


Maluno 


Brak 


Love (to) 


Camaba 


Camelar 


Yehib 


VOL. II. 






G 



122 


THE 


ZINCALI. 






Hungarian 
Gypsy. 


Spanish 
Gitano. 


Moorish 
Arabic. 


JNIan 


Manusch 


Manu 


Rajil 


Milk 


Tud 


Chuti 


Helib 


Mountain 


Bar 


Bur 


Djibil 


Mouth 


Mui 


Mui 


Fum 


Name 


Nao 


Nao 


Ism 


Night 


Rat 


Rachi 


Lila 


Nose 


Nakh 


Naqui 


Munghar 


Old 


Puro 


Paro 


Shaive 


Red 


Lai 


Lalo 


Hamr 


Salt 


Lon 


Lon 


Mela 


Sing 


Gjuwawa 


Gilyabar 


Iganni 


.Sun 


Cam 


Can 


Schems 


Thief 


Tschor 


Choro 


Haram 


Thou 


Tu 


Tucue 


Antsin 


Tongue 


Tschib 


Chipe 


Lsan 


Tooth 


Dant 


Dani 


Sinn 


Tree 


Karscht 


Caste 


Schizara 


Water 


Pani 


Pani 


Ma 


Wind 


Barbar 


Barban 


Ruhk 



We shall offer no further observations respect- 
ing the affinity of the Spanish Gitano to the other 
dialects, as we conceive we have already afforded 
sufficient proof of its original identity with them, 
and consequently shaken to the ground the absurd 
opinion that the Gitanos of Spain are the descend- 
ants of the Arabs and Moriscos. We shall now 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 12:1 

conclude with a few remarks on the j)resent state 
of the Gitano language in Spain, where, per- 
haps, within the course of a few years, it will have 
perished, without leaving a vestige of its having 
once existed ; and where, perhaps, the singular 
people who speak it are likewise doomed to dis- 
appear, becoming sooner or later engulfed and 
absorbed in the great body of the nation, amongst 
whom they have so long existed a separate and 
peculiar class. 

Tliough the words or a ]iart of the words of 
the original tongue still remain, preserved by 
memory amongst the Gitanos, its grammatical 
peculiarities have disappeared, the entire lan- 
guage having been modified and subjected to 
the rules of Spanish grammar, with which it 
now coincides in syntax, in the conjugation of 
verbs, and in the declension of its nouns. Were 
it possible or necessary to collect all the relics of 
this speech, they would probably amount to four 
or five thousand words ; but to effect such 
an achievement, it would be necessary to hold 
close and long intercourse with almost every 
Gitano in Spain, and to extract from them, by 
various means, the information which they might 
be individually capable of affording; for it is 
necessary to state here, that though such an 
amount of words may still exist amongst the 
Gitanos in general, no single individual of their 

G 2 



124 THE ZINC ALL 

sect is in possession of one third part thereof, 
and indeed we may add, those of no single city 
or province of Spain ; nevertheless all are in pos- 
session, more or less, of the language, so that, 
though of different pro^dnces, they are enabled to 
understand each other tolerably well, when dis- 
coursing in this their characteristic speech. 
Those who travel most are of course best versed 
in it, as, independent of the words of their own 
village or town, they acquire others by inter- 
mingling with their race in various places. Per- 
haps there is no part of Spain where it is spoken 
better than in Madrid, which is easily accounted 
for by the fact, that Madrid, as the capital, has 
always been the point of union of the Gitanos, 
from all those provinces of Spain where they are 
to be found. It is least of all preserved in Se- 
ville, notwithstanding that the Gitano population 
is very considerable, consisting, however, almost 
entirely of natives of the place. As may well be 
supposed, it is in all places best preserved amongst 
the old people, especially the females, their chil- 
dren being comparatively ignorant of it, as per- 
haps they themselves are in comparison with 
their own parents, which naturally leads us to the 
conclusion that the Gitano language of Spain is 
at the last stage of its existence, an idea which 
has been our main instigator to the present at- 
tempt to collect its scanty remains, and by the 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITANOS. 1-25 

assistance of the press, rescue it in some degree 
from destruction. It will not be amiss to state 
here, that it is only by listening attentively to the 
speech of the Gitanos, whilst discoursing amongst 
themselves, that an acquaintance with their dialect 
can be formed, and by seizing upon all unknown 
words as they fall in succession from their lips. 
Nothing can be more useless and hopeless than 
the attempt to obtain possession of their vocabu- 
lary by inquiiing of them how particular objects 
and ideas are styled in the same, for with the ex- 
ception of the names of the most common things, 
they are totally incapable, as a Spanish writer has 
observed, of yielding the required information, 
owing to their great ignorance, the shortness of 
their memories, or rather the state of bewilderment 
to which their minds are brought by any question 
which tends to bring their reasoning faculties 
into action, though not unfrequently the very 
words which have been in vain required of them, 
will, a minute subsequently, proceed inadvertently 
from their mouths. 

We now take leave of their language. When 
wishing to praise the proficiency of any individual 
in their tongue, they are in the habit of saying, 
" He understands the seven jargons." In the 
Gospel which we have printed in this language, 
and in the dictionary which we have compiled, 
we have endeavoured, to the utmost of our ability. 



126 THE ZINCALI. 

to deserve that compliment; and at all times it 
will afford us sincere and heartfelt pleasure to be 
informed that any Gitano, capable of appreciating 
tlie said little works, has observed, whilst reading 
them or hearing them read : It is clear that the 
writer of these books understood 

The Seven Jargons. 



BOBBER LANGUAGE. 



ON 

ROBBER LANGUAGE 

OB, AS IT IS CALLED IN SPAIN, GERMANIA. 



" So I went with them to a music booth, Vvhere they made me 
ahnost drunk with gin, and began to talk their Flash Language, 
which I did not then understand." — Narrative of the Exploits of 
Henry Simms, executed at Tyburn, 1746. 

" Hablaronse los dos en Germania, de lo qual resulto darme un 
abra^o, y ofrecerseme. " — Quevedo. Vida del gran Tacafio. 

Having in the preceding article endeavoured to 
afford all necessary information concerning the 
Rommany, or language used by the Gypsies 
amongst themselves, we now propose to turn our 
attention to a subject of no less interest, but which 
has hitherto never been treated in a manner cal- 
culated to lead to any satisfactory result or con- 
clusion ; on the contrary, though philosophic 
minds have been engaged in its consideration, 
and learned pens have not disdained to occupy 
themselves with its details, it still remains a sin- 
gular proof of the errors into which the most 
acute and laborious writers are apt to fall, when 
they take upon themselves the task of writing on 
matters which cannot be studied in the closet, 
and on which no information can be received by 

G 3 



130 THE ZIXCALI. 

mixing in the society of the wise, the lettered, and 
the respectable, but which must be investigated in 
the fields, and on the borders of the highways, in 
prisons, and amongst the dregs of society. Had 
the latter system been pursued in the matter now 
before us, much cleai'er, more rational, and more 
just ideas would long since have been entertained 
respecting the Germania, or language of thieves. 

In most countries of Europe there exists, 
amongst those who obtain their existence by the 
breach of the law, and by preying upon the fruits 
of the labours of the quiet and orderly portion of 
society, a particular jargon or dialect, in which 
the former discuss their schemes and plans of 
plunder, without being in general understood by 
those to whom they are obnoxious. The name of 
this jargon varies with the country in which it is 
spoken. In Spain, it is called " Germania" ; in 
France, "Argot"; in Germany, "Rothwelsch" 
or Red Italian ; in Italy, " Gergo "; whilst in 
England it is known by many names, for ex- 
ample, "cant, slang, thieves' Latin," &c. The 
most remarkable circumstance connected with 
the history of this jargon is, that in all the coun- 
tries in which it is spoken, it has invariably, by 
the authors who have treated of it, and who are 
numerous, been confounded with the Gypsy lan- 
guage, and asserted to be the speech of those 
wanderers who have so long infested Europe 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 131 

under the name of Gitanos, &c. How far this 
belief is founded in justice we shall now en- 
deavour to show, with the premise that whatever 
we advance is derived, not from the assertions or 
opinions of others, but from our own observation ; 
the point in question being one which no person 
is capable of solving, save him who has mixed 
with Gitanos and thieves, not with the former 
merely or the latter, but with both. 

We have already stated what is the Rommany 
or language of the Gypsies. We have proved 
that when properly spoken it is to all intents and 
purposes entitled to the appellation of a language, 
and that wherever it exists it is virtually the 
same. That its origin is illustrious, it being a 
daughter of the Sanscrit, and in consequence in 
close connexion with some of the most celebrated 
languages of the East, although it at present is 
only used by the most unfortunate and degraded 
of beings, wanderers without home and almost 
without country, as wherever they are found they 
are considered in the light of foreigners and inter- 
lopers. We shall now state what the language 
of thieves is, as it is generally spoken in Europe ; 
after which we shall proceed to analyze it ac- 
cording to the various countries in which it is 
used. 

The dialect used for their own peculiar purposes 
amongst thieves, is by no means entitled to the 



132 THE ZINCALi. 

appellation of a language, but in every sense to 
that of a jargon or gibberish, it being for the most 
part composed of words of the native language of 
those who use it, according to the particular 
country, though invariably in a meaning differing 
more or less from the usual and received one, and 
for the most part in a metaphorical sense. Meta- 
phor and allegory, indeed, seem to form the nucleus 
of this speech, notwithstanding that other ele- 
ments are to be distinguished ; for it is certain 
that in every country where it is spoken, it con- 
tains many words differing from the language of 
that country, and which may either be traced to 
foreign tongues, or are of an origin at which, in 
many instances, it is impossible to arrive. That 
which is most calculated to strike the philosophic 
mind when considering this dialect, is doubtless 
the fact of its being formed everywhere upon the 
same principle — that of metaphor, in which point 
all the branches agree, though in others they 
differ as much from each other as the languages 
on which they are founded ; for example, as the 
English and German, from the Spanish and 
Italian. This circumstance naturally leads to 
the conclusion that the robber language has not 
arisen fortuitously in the various countries where 
it is at present spoken, but that its origin is one 
and the same, it being probably invented by the 
outlaws of one particular country ; by individuals 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 133 

of which it was, in course of time, carried to 
others, where its principles, if not its words, were 
adopted ; for upon no other supposition can we 
account for its general metaphorical character in 
regions vaiious and distant. It is, of course, im- 
possible to state with certainty the country in 
which this jargon first arose, yet there is cogent 
reason for supposing that it may have been Italy. 
The Germans call it Rothwelsch, which signifies 
" Red Italian," a name which appears to point 
out Italy as its birth-place ; and which, though 
by no means of sufficient importance to determine 
the question, is strongly corroborative of the sup- 
position, when coupled with the following fact. 
We have already intimated, that wherever it is 
spoken, this speech, though composed for the 
most part of words of the language of the par- 
ticular country, applied in a metaphorical sense, 
exhibits a considerable sprinkling of foreign 
words ; now of these words no slight number are 
Italian or bastard Latin, whether in Germany, 
whether in Spain, or in other countries more or 
less remote from Italy. When we consider the 
ignorance of thieves in general, their total want 
of education, the slight knowledge which they 
possess even of their mother tongue, it is hardly 
reasonable to suppose that in any country they 
were ever capable of having recourse to foreign 
languages, for the purpose of enriching any pe- 



134 THE 2INCALI. 

culiar vocabulary or phraseology which they 
might deem convenient to use among themselves; 
nevertheless, by associating with foreign thieves, 
either exiled from their native country for their 
crimes, or from a hope of reaping a rich harvest 
of plunder in other lands, it would be easy for 
them to adopt a considerable number of words 
belonging to the languages used by their foreign 
associates, from whom at the same time they de- 
rived an increase of knowledge in thievish arts of 
every description. At the commencement of the 
fifteenth century no nation in Europe was at all 
calculated to vie with the Italian in aits of any 
kind, whether those whose tendency was the 
benefit or improvement of society, or those the 
practice of which serves to injure and undermine 
it. The artists and artisans of Italy were to be 
found in all the countries of Europe, from Madrid 
to Moscow, and so were its chaiiatans, its jug- 
glers, and multitudes of its children, who lived by 
fraud and cunning. Therefore, when a compre- 
hensive view of the subject is taken, there appears 
to be little improbability in supposing, that not 
only were the Italians the originators of the meta- 
phorical robber jargon, which has been termed 
" Red Italian," but that they were mainly instru- 
mental in causing it to be adopted by the thievish 
race in the less civilized countries of Europe. 
It is here, however, necessary to state, that in 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 135 

the robber jargon of Europe, elements of another 
language are to be discovered, and perhaps in 
greater number than the Italian words. The lan- 
guage which we allude to is the Rommany ; this 
language has been, in general, confounded witli 
the vocabulary used among thieves, which, how- 
ever is a gross error, so gross, indeed, that it is 
almost impossible to conceive the manner in 
which it originated. The speech of the Gypsies 
being a genuine language of oriental origin, and 
the former little more than a phraseology of 
convenience, founded upon particular European 
tongues. It will be sufficient here to remark, 
that the Gypsies do not understand the jargon of 
the thieves, whilst the latter, with perhaps a few 
exceptions, are ignorant of the language of the 
foi'mer. Certain words, however, of the Rom- 
many have found admission into the said jargon, 
which may be accounted for by the supposition 
that the Gypsies, being themselves by birth, edu- 
cation, and profession, thieves of the first water, 
have, on various occasions, formed alliances with 
the outlaws of the various countries in which 
they are at present to be found, which association 
may have produced the result above alluded to ; 
but it MuU be as well here to state, that in no 
country of Europe have the Gypsies forsaken or 
forgotten their native tongue, and in its stead 
adopted the " Germania," " Red Italian," or rob- 



136 THE ZINCALI. 

ber jargon, notwithstanding that they presen'c 
their native language in a state of more or less 
purity. We are induced to make this statement 
from an assertion of the celebrated Lorenzo 
Hervas, who, in the third vol. of his " Catalogo 
-de las Lenguas," trat. 3. cap. vi. p. 311, expresses 
himself to the following effect: " The proper 
language of the Gitanos neither is nor can be 
found amongst those who scattered themselves 
through the western kingdoms of Europe, but only 
amongst those who remained in the eastern, 
where they are still to be found. The former 
were notably divided and disunited, receiving 
into their body a great number of European out- 
laws, on which account the language in question 
was easily adulterated and soon perished. In 
Spain, and also in Italy, the Gitanos have totally 
forgotten and lost their native language ; yet still 
wishing to converse with each other in a language 
unknown to the Spaniards and Italians, they have 
invented some words, and have transformed many 
others by changing the signification which pro- 
perly belongs to them in Spanish and Italian." 
In proof of which assertion he then exhibits a 
small number of words of the " Red Italian," or 
allegorical tongue of the thieves of Italy. 

It is much to be lamented that a man like 
Hervas, so learned, of such acknowledged, and 
upon the whole well-earned celebrity, should 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 187 

have helped to propagate three such flagrant 
en-ors as are contained in the passage above 
quoted. 1st. That the Gypsy language, within 
a very short period after the arrival of those who 
spoke it in the western kingdoms of Europe, be- 
came corrupted, and perished by the admission 
of outlaws into the Gypsy fraternity. 2ndly. 
That the Gypsies, in order to supply the loss of 
their native tongue, invented some words, and 
modified others, from the Spanish and Italian. 
3rdly. That the Gypsies of the present day in 
Spain and Italy speak the allegorical robber dia- 
lect. Concerning the first assertion, namely, that 
the Gypsies of the west lost their language shortly 
after their arrival, by mixing with the outlaws of 
those parts, we believe that its erroneousness will 
be sufficiently established by the publication of 
the present volume, which contains a dictionary 
of the Spanish Gitano, which we have proved to 
be the same language in most points as that spoken 
by the eastern tribes. There can be no doubt 
that the Gypsies have at various times formed 
alliances with the robbers of particular countries, 
but that they ever received them in considerable 
numbers into their fraternity, as Hervas has 
stated, so as to become confounded with them, 
the evidence of our eyesight precludes the pos- 
sibility of believing. If such were the fact, why 
do the Italian and Spanish Gypsies of the present 



138 THE 21NCALI. 

day still present themselves as a distinct race, 
differing from the other inhabitants of the west 
of Europe in feature, colour, and constitution? 
Why are they, in whatever situation and under 
whatever circumstances, to be distinguished, like 
Jews, from the other children of the Creator ? 
But the question involves an absurdity ; and it 
is scarcely necessary to state that the Gypsies of 
Spain and Italy have kept themselves as much 
apart, or at least have as little mingled their blood 
with the Spaniards and Italians as their brethren 
in Hungaria and Transylvania with the inhabitants 
of those countries, on which account they still 
strikingly resemble them in manners, customs and 
appearance. The most extraordinary assertion 
of Hervas is perhaps his second, namely, that 
the Gypsies have invented particular words to 
supply the place of others which they had lost. 
The absurdity of this supposition nearly induces 
us to believe that Hervas, who has written so 
much and so laboriously on language, was 
totally ignorant of the philosophy of his sub- 
ject. There can be no doubt, as we have before 
admitted, that in the robber jargon, whether 
spoken in Spain, Italy, or England, there are 
many words at whose etymology it is very diffi- 
cult to arrive ; yet such a fact is no excuse for 
the adoption of the opinion that these words are 
of pure invention. A knowledge of the Rom- 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 139 

many proves satisfactorily that many have been 
borrowed from that language, whilst many others 
may be traced to foreign tongues, especially the 
Latin and Italian, Perhaps one of the strongest 
grounds for concluding that the origin of language 
was divine, is the fact that no instance can be 
adduced of the invention, we will not say of a 
language, but even of a single word that is in use 
in society of any kind. Although new dialects 
are continually being formed, it is only by a sys- 
tem of modification, by which roots almost coeval 
with time itself are continually being reproduced 
under a fresh appearance, and under new circum- 
stances. The third assertion of Hervas as to 
the Gitanos speaking the allegorical language of 
which he exhibits specimens, is entitled to about 
equal credence as the two former. The truth is, 
that the entire store of erudition of the learned 
Jesuit, and he doubtless was learned to a remark- 
able degree, was derived from books, either printed 
or manuscript. He was aware, from the then 
recent publication of Grellman, that the Gypsies 
of Germany and Hungaria spoke among them- 
selves a language differing from the rest of the 
European ones, specimens of which he compared 
with various vocabularies, which have long been 
in existence, of the robber jargon of Spain and 
Italy ; which jargon, by some unaccountable fa- 
tuity, has been considered as belonging to the 



140 THE ZINCALI. 

Gitanos, but he never gave himself the trouble 
to verify whether this jargon was intelligible to 
the Gypsies of the respective countries ; had he 
done so, he would have found it about the same 
degree as unintelligible to them, as the words in 
the vocabulary of Grellnian would have proved, if 
quoted to the thieves. With respect to the Gitanos 
of Spain, it will be sufficient to observe that they 
speak the language of the present volume, whilst 
the Gitanos of Italy, who are generally to be 
found existing in a half savage state in the various 
ruined castles, relics of the feudal times, with 
which Italy abounds, speak a dialect very similar, 
and about as much corrupted. There are, how- 
ever, to be continually found in Italy roving 
bands of Rommany, not natives of the country, 
who make triennial excursions from Moldavia 
and Hungaria to France and Italy, for the pur- 
pose of plunder ; and who, if the}' escape the 
hand of justice, return at the expiration of that 
period to their native regions, with the booty they 
have amassed by the practice of those thievish 
arts, perhaps at one period peculiar to their 
race, but at present, for the most part, known and 
practised by thieves in general. These bands, 
however, speak the pure Gypsy language, with 
all its grammatical peculiarities. It is evident, 
however, that amongst neither of these classes 
had Hervas pushed his researches, which, had he 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 141 

done, it is probable that his investigations would 
have resulted in a work of a far different cha- 
racter from the confused, unsatisfactory, and in- 
correct details of which is formed his essay on 
the language of the Gypsies. 

Having said thus much concerning the robber 
language in general, we shall now proceed to 
offer some specimens of it, in order that our 
readers may be better able to understand its 
principles. We shall commence with the Italian 
dialect, which there is reason for supposing to be 
the prototype of the rest. For this purpose we 
avail ourselves of some of the words adduced by 
Hervas, as specimens of the language of the 
Gitanos of Italy. " I place them," he observes, 
" with the signification which the greater number 
properly have in Italian." 





Robber jargon 
of Italy. 


Proper signification 
of the words. 


Arm 


fAle 

I Barbacane 


Wings 
Barbican 


Belly 


Fagiana 


Pheasant 


Devil 


Rabuino 


Perhaps Bahhin 
which, in He 
brew, is Master 


Earth 


Calcosa 


Street, road 


Eye 


Balco 


Balcony 


Father 


Grimo 


Old, wrinkled 


Fire 


Presto 


Quick 



14-2 


THE ZINCALI. 




Robber jargon 
of Italy. 


Proper signification 
of the words. 


God 


Anticrotto 


Probably Antichrist 


Hair 


Prusa* 






CElmo 


Helmet 


Head 


< Borellaf 
( Chiurla X 




Heart 


Salsa 


Sauce 


Man 


Osmo 


From the Italian 
uomo, which i.s 
man 


Moon 


Mocoloso di Sant' 


Wick of the firma- 




Alto 


ment 


Night 


Brunamaterna 


Mother-brown 


Nose 


Gambaro 


Crab 


Sun 


Ruffo di Sant' 


Red one of the fir- 




Alto 


mament 


Tongue 


(Serpentina 
( Danosa 


Serpent-like 
Hurtful 


Water 


fLenza 
1 Vetta § 


Fishing-net 
Top, bud 



The Germania of Spain may be said to divide 



• Possibly from the Russian Boloss, which has the same signi- 
fication. 

-f Basque, Burua. \ Sanscrit, Schira. 

§ These two words, which Hervas supposes to be Italian used 
in an improper sense, are probably of quite another origin. Len, 
in Gitano, signifies "river," whilst vadi in Russian Ms equivalent to 
wa'er. 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 143 

itself into two dialects, the ancient and modern. 
Of the former there exists a vocabulary, published 
first by Juan Hidalgo, in the year 1609, at Barce- 
lona, and reprinted in Madrid, 1773. Before no- 
ticing this work, it will perhaps be advisable to en- 
deavour to ascertain the true etymology of the word 
Germania, which signifies the slang vocabulary, or 
robber language of Spain. We have no intention 
to embarrass our readers by offering various con- 
jectures respecting its origin ; its sound, coupled 
with its signification, affording sufficient evidence 
that it is but a corruption of Rommany, which 
properly denotes the speech of the Roma or 
Gitanos. The thieves who from time to time 
associated with this wandering people, and ac- 
quired more or less of their language, doubtless 
adopted this term amongst others, and, after 
modifying it, applied it to the peculiar phrase- 
ology which, in the course of time, became pre- 
valent amongst them. The dictionary of Hidalgo 
is appended to six ballads, or romances, by the 
same author, written in the Germanian dialect, 
in which he describes the robber life at Seville 
at the period in which he lived. All of these 
romances possess their peculiar merit, and will 
doubtless always be considered valuable, and be 
read, as faithful pictures of scenes and habits 
which now no longer exist. In the prologue, 
-the author states that his principal motive for 



144 THE ZINCALI. 

publishing a work written in so strange a lan- 
guage was, his observing the damage which re- 
sulted from an ignorance of the Germania, espe- 
cially to the judges and ministers of justice, whose 
charge it is to cleanse the public from the perni- 
cious gentry who use it. By far the greatest part of 
the vocabulary consists of Spanish words used al- 
legorically, which are, however, intermingled with 
many others, most of which may be traced to the 
Latin and Italian, others to the Sanscrit or Gitano, 
Russian, Arabic, Turkish, Greek, and German lan- 
guages*. This circumstance, which at first may 
strike the reader as singular, and almost incredible, 
will afford but slight sui'prise, when he takes into 
consideration the peculiar circumstances of Spain 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
Spain was at that period the most powerful mo- 
narchy in Europe, her foot reposed upon the Low 
Countries, whilst her gigantic arms embraced a 
considerable portion of Italy. Maintaining al- 
ways a standing army in Flanders and in Italy, 

* It is not our intention to weary the reader with prolix speci- 
mens ; nevertheless, in corroboration of what we have asserted, we 
shall take the liberty of offering a few. Piar, to drink, (p. 188,) is 
Sdnscrit, piava. Basilea, gallows, (p. 158,) is Russian, becilitz. 
Caramo, wine, and gurapo, galley, (p. 162-176,) Arabic, haram 
(which literally signifies that which is forbidden) and grab. Iza, 
(p. 179,) harlot, Turkish, kize. Harton, bread, (p. 177,) Greek, 
artos. Guido, good, and hurgamandera, harlot, (p. 177-8,) Ger- 
man, gut and hure. Tiple, vyine, (p. 197,) is the same as the 
English word tipple, Gypsy, tapillar. 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 145 

it followed as a natural consequence, that her 
Miquelets and soldiers became tolerably convers- 
ant with the languages of those countries ; and, 
in course of time, returning to their native land, 
not a few, especially of the former class, a brave 
and intrepid, but always a lawless and dissolute 
species of soldiery, either fell in or returned to 
evil society, and introduced words which they 
had learnt abroad into the robber phraseology ; 
whilst returned galley-slaves from Algiers, Tunis, 
and Tetuan, added to its motley variety of words 
from the relics of the broken Arabic and Turkish, 
which they had acquired during their captivity. 
The greatest part of the Germania, however, re- 
mained strictly metaphorical, and we are aware 
of no better means of conveying an idea of the 
principle on which it is formed, than by quoting 
from the first romance of Hidalgo, where particu- 
lar mention is made of this jargon : — 

" A la cama llama Blanda 
Donde soman en poblado. 
A la Fresada Vellosa, 
Que mucho vello ha criado. 
Dice a la sabana Alba 
Porque es alba en sumo grado, 
A la camisa Carona, 
Al jubon llama apretado : 
Dice al Sayo Tapador 
Porque le Ueva tapado. 
Llama a los zapatos Duros, 
Que las piedras van pisando. 
VOL. II. H 



146 THE ZINCALI, 

A la capa llama nuve, 
Dice al Sombrero Texado. 
Respeto llama a la Espada, 
Que por ella es respetado, &c., &c. 

Hidalgo, p. 21-3. 

After these few remarks on the ancient Ger- 
mania of Spain, we now proceed to the modem, 
which differs considerably from the former. The 
principal cause of this difference is to be attributed 
to the adoption by the Spanish outlaws, in latter 
years, of a considerable number of words belong- 
ing to, or modified from, the Rommany, or lan- 
guage of the Gitanos. The Gitanos of Spain, 
during the last half century, having, in a great 
degree, abandoned the wandering habit of life 
which once constituted one of their most remark- 
able peculiarities, and residing, at present, more 
in the cities than in the fields, have come 
into closer contact with the great body of the 
Spanish nation than was in former days their 
practice. From their living thus in towns, their 
language has not only undergone much cor- 
ruption, but has become, to a slight degree, 
known to the dregs of society, amongst whom 
they reside. The thieves' dialect of the present 
day exhibits, therefore, less of the allegorical 
language preserved in the pages of Hidalgo than 
of the Gypsy tongue. It must be remarked, 
however, that it is very scanty, and that the 
whole robber phraseology at present used in 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 



147 



Spain barely amounts to two hundred words, 
which are utterly insufficient to express the very 
limited ideas of the outcasts who avail them- 
selves of it. As our readers may perhaps en- 
tertain some curiosity respecting this dialect, we 
subjoin a small vocabulary, compiled in the 
prison of Madrid. In this vocabulary, some of 
the allegorical words of Hidalgo will be observed, 
though the greater part consists of Gitano words 
modified, and not unfrequently used in a wrong 
sense. 



Abillar 


To have 


Agarabar 


To seize 


Alajai 


Friar 


Alares 


Pantaloons 


Aquerar 


To say 


Aplacerarse 


To be 


Aniar 


To send 


Baril 


Judge 


Barria 


Ounce of gold 


Bastes 


Hands 


Bato, Bata 


Father, Mother 


Bero 


Galley 


Bola 


Street 


Burda 


Gate 


Calcos 


Shoes 


Camalinches 


Buttons 


Cargar 


To take 




H 2 



148 



:8 


THE ZINCALI. 


Clais 


Eyes 


Coba 


Mouth 


Coba 


Talk, fun 


Colgandero 


Watch 


Culebra 


Girdle 


Cha 


Yes 


Chai 


Woman 


Charros 


Fetters 


Chima 


Head 


Chiscon 


Dungeon 


Chivel 


Village 


Chuli 


Knife 


Chulo 


Good 


Dinar 


To give 


Estabo 


Robbery 


Estaro 


Prison 


Estache 


Hat 


Falda 


Clothes, linen 


Fila 


Face 


Filipichi 


Jacket 


Filar 


To see 


Filotear 


To recognise 


Filoteo 


Recognition 


Gache 


Man 


Gao 


Madrid 


Gitana 


Twelve ounces of bread; 




small pound 


Jardin 


Court of the prison 


Jaula 


Chapel 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 



149 



Junar 


To learn 




Jundo 


Soldier 




Liban 


Ink 




Libanadora 


Pen 




Libanar 


To write 




Lib an 


Notary Public 




Lima 


Shirt 




Manro 


Bread 




Maque 


In Spanish Carajo, an 


oath 


Monro 


An adult 




Mosquete 


Dollar 




Muy 


Tongue 




Nacle 


Light 




Nel 


No 




Nibel 


God 




Nube 


Cloak 




Pal cm a 


Billet, note 




Papiri 


Paper 




Pela 


Peseta 




Pelusera 


Blanket 




Pen a 


Brandy 




Pesquivar 


To like 




Picudos 


Field pease 




Pili 


Cigar 




Pifios 


Teeth 




Pinres 


Feet 




Piano, Plana 


Brother, Sister 




Pusca 


Pistol 




Quile 


Mentula 

H 3 





150 



•0 


THE ZINCALI. 


Recani 


Window 


Rumi 


Harlot 


Safo 


Handkerchief 


Sarto 


Seijeant 


Tarpe 


Heaven 



Concerning the Germania of France, or " Ar- 
got," as it is called, it is unnecessary to make 
many observations, as what has been said of the 
language of Hidalgo and the Red Italian, is 
almost in every respect applicable to it. As 
early as the middle of the sixteenth century, a 
vocabulary of this jargon was published under 
the title of " Langue des Escrocs," at Paris. 
Those who wish to study it as it at present exists 
can do no better than consult " Les Memoires de 
Vidocq," where a multitude of words in Argot 
are to be found, and also several songs, the sub- 
jects of which are thievish adventures. 

The first vocabulary of the " Cant Language," 
or English Germania. appeared in the year 1680, 
appended to the life of " The English Rogue," a 
work which, in many respects, resembles the his- 
tory of Guzman D'Alfarache, though it is written 
with considerably more genius than the Spanish 
novel, every chapter abounding with remarkable 
adventures of the robber whose life it pretends to 
narrate, and which are described with a kind of 
ferocious energy, which, if it do not charm the 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 151 

attention of the reader, at least enslaves it, hold- 
ing it captive with a chain of iron. Amongst his 
other adventures, the hero falls in with a Gypsy 
encampment, is enrolled amongst the fraternity, 
and is allotted a " mort," or concubine ; a bar- 
barous festival ensues, at the conclusion of which 
an epithalaraium is sung in the Gypsy language, 
as it is called in the work in question. Neither 
the epithalamium, however, nor the vocabulary, 
are written in the language of the English Gyp- 
sies, but in the " Cant," or allegorical robber dia- 
lect, which is sufficient proof that the writer, 
however well acquainted with thieves in general, 
their customs and manners of life, was in respect 
to the Gypsies profoundly ignorant. His voca- 
bulary, however, has been always accepted as the 
speech of the English Gypsies, whereas it is at 
most entitled to be considered as the peculiar 
speech of the thieves and vagabonds of his time. 
The cant of the present day, which, though it dif- 
fers in some respects from the vocabulary already 
mentioned, is radically the same, is used by the 
greatest part of those who live in open defiance 
of the law, or obtain their livelihood by means 
which morality cannot sanction ; it is used not 
only in the secret receptacles of crime, but on the 
racecourse, and in the " ring," where those tre- 
mendous beings, the pugilists of England, display 
their prowess and ferocity. It is, moreover, much 



152 THE ZINCALI. 

cultivated by the young and debauched aristocracy 
of England, whose pride it is to converse with 
the pugilists of the ring, and the jockeys of the 
racecourse, in their own vulgar and disgxisting 
jargon, resembling, in this point, the Grandees of 
Spain, who are not ashamed to receive into their 
palaces, and to feast at their tables, the ruffian 
Toreros of Andalusia. As a specimen of the 
cant of England, we shall take the liberty of 
quoting the epithalamium to which we have above 
alluded. 

Bing out, bien morts, and tour and tour, 
Bing out, bien morts and tour ; 
For all your duds are bing'd awast, 
The bien cove hath the loure. 

I met a dell, I view'd her well, 
She was benship to my watch ; 
So she and I did stall and cloy 
Whatever we could catch. 

This doxy dell can cut ben whids, 
And wap well for a win, 
And prig and cloy so benshiply, 
All daisy-ville within. 

The hoyle was up, we had good luck, 
In frost for and in snow ; 
When they did seek, then we did creep 
And plant in roughman's low. 

It is scarcely necessary to dilate further upon 
the Germania in general or in particular; we 
believe that we have achieved the task which 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 153 

we marked out for ourselves, and have con- 
veyed to our readers a clear and distinct idea 
of what it is. We have shown that it has 
been erroneously confounded with the Rommany, 
or Gitano language, with which it has never- 
theless some points of similarity. The two lan- 
guages are, at the present day, used for the same 
pui*pose, namely, to enable habitiial breakers of 
the law to carry on their consultations with 
more secrecy and privacy than by the ordinary 
means. Yet, it must not be forgotten, that the 
thieves' jargon was invented for that purpose, 
whilst the Rommany, originally the proper and 
only speech of a particular nation, has been pre- 
served from falling into entire disuse and oblivion, 
because adapted to answer the same end. It was 
impossible to treat of the Rommany in a manner 
calculated to exhaust the subject, and to leave no 
ground for future cavilling, without devoting a 
considerable space to the consideration of the 
other dialect, on which account we hope we shall 
be excused many of the dry details which we 
have introduced into the present essay. There is 
a link of connexion between the history of the 
Roma, or wanderers from Hindustan, who first 
made their appearance in Europe at the com- 
mencement of the fifteenth century, and that of 
modern roguery. Many of the arts which the 
Gypsies proudly call their own, and which were 



154 THE ZINCALI. 

perhaps at one period peculiar to them, have be- 
come divulged, and are now practised by the 
thievish gentry who infest the various European 
states, a result which, we may assert with con- 
fidence, was brought about by the alliance of the 
Gypsies being eagerly sought on their first arrival 
by the thieves, who, at one period, were less skil- 
ful than the former in the ways of deceit and 
plunder ; which kind of association continued 
and held good, until the thieves had acquired 
all they wished to learn, when both parties re- 
tired to their proper and most congenial orbits, 
the Gypsies to the fields and plains, so dear 
to them from the vagabond and nomade habits, 
which had become identified with their nature, 
and the thieves and vagabonds of European 
origin to the towns and cities. Yet from this 
temporary association were produced two results ; 
European fraud became sharpened by coming 
into contact with Asiatic craft, whilst European 
tongues, by imperceptible degrees, became re- 
cruited with various words, (some of them wonder- 
fully expressive,) many of which have long been 
stumbling-stocks to the philologist, who, whilst 
stigmatizing them as words of mere vulgar in- 
vention, or of unknown origin, has been far from 
dreaming that a little more research or reflection 
would have proved their affinity to the Sclavonic, 
Persian, or Romaic, or perhaps to the myste- 



ROBBER LANGUAGE. 155 

rious object of his veneration, the Sanscrit, the 
sacred tongue of the pahn-covered regions of 
Ind ; words originally introduced into Europe by 
objects too miserable to occupy for a moment 
his lettered attention, — the despised denizens of 
the tents of Roma. 



THE 



ZINCALI. 



VOCABULARY 

OF 

THEIR LANGUAGE. 



Vol. II. App\ * a 



ADVERTISEMENT 



VOCABULARY. 



i HE Gypsy words in this Collection are written 
according to the Spanish orthography; and their 
pronunciation is the Spanish ; the rules for which 
need not be laid down, the Spanish language being 
at present very extensively cultivated in Europe, 
and a knowledge of it considered as forming part 
of a liberal education. 

The words pointed out as derivatives, though 
tolerably numerous, are to be considered merely 
in the light of specimens of what may be accom- 
plished. We are within compass, when stating, that 
there are hundreds of words in this Vocabulary 
which we could as easily have traced to the Sanscrit, 
Modern Greek, Sclavonian, &c. — and have for- 
borne ; it being our belief that the general scholar 
will peruse the following columns with increased 
interest, on perceiving that many roots have been 
left in the soil, which will not fail to reward his 
patient research. 

*A2 



*4 ADVERTISEMENT 

To those who may feel inclined, in some in- 
stances, to call in question the correctness of our 
derivations, we wish to observe, that in order to 
form an opinion on this point, it is necessary to be 
well acquainted with the manner in which not only 
the Gitanos, but the lower orders of the Spaniards 
themselves, are in the habit of changing and trans- 
posing letters. In some provinces, the liquids are 
used indifferently for each other — I for r, r for n 
and J, y for //, and vice versa. With respect to the 
Gitanos, they not only confuse the liquids, but fre- 
quently substitute the I for the d: for example, 
they have changed the Persian duriya, " the sea," 
into luriya ; and in their word for ' thunder,' have 
afforded a curious instance how the change of a 
letter may render it difficult to trace a word 
to its etymon : unacquainted with this habit of 
theirs, no one would venture to derive lurian, 
their term for " thunder," from the Sanscrit ; yet 
when spelt and pronounced durian, as it ought to 
be, the difficulty at once vanishes : durian being 
twin brother to the Celtic darian, which is clearly 
allied to the Danish torden, the German donner, 
the English thunder, which latter is but a slight 
modification of the Sanscrit indra. They likewise 
occasionally confound a liquid with a labial ; saying. 



TO THE VOCABULAKY. *5 

lombardo or homhardo indifferently, which word in 
their language signifies " a lion." 

We shall offer no examples as to their manner of 
transposing letters ; but content ourselves with ob- 
serving, that nothing is more common than such 
transposition. With all its faults, we recommend 
this Vocabulary to the Reader, assuring him that 
it contains the elements of the speech of a most ex- 
traordinary people, the Spanish Gypsies — a speech 
which, if this memento preserve it not, must speedily 
be lost, and consigned to entire oblivion — a speech 
which we have collected in its last stage of decay, 
at the expense of much labour and peril, during 
five years spent in unhappy Spain — Spain, which 
we have traversed in all directions, mindful of the 
proverb — 

Chuquel sos pirela 

Cocal terela. 



( *7 ) 



ZINCALI. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. 



A. 

Abatico, s. m. Father. Padre. Vld. Batu. 

Abelar, u. 0. To have, possess. Tener. Sans.'^^. 

Abertune, s.a. Foreigner, foreign. Forastero. 

Aberucar, v. 71. To repent. Arrepentirse. 

Abicholar, v.n. To appear. Parecer. 

Abillelar, u./i. To come. Venir. Pers. j^tVc' Ilin. Ana,. 

Abri, adv. Out, abroad. Fuera. Pers.,Si Sans. "^f^. 

Acaba,, pro7i.dem. This. Este. 

Acana, adv. Now. Ahora. Pers. ^Jy^^ Sans. ^'*y»TT. 

Acarar, v. a. To call. Llamar. 

Acatan, adv. Hither. Aca. 

Achibes, adv. To-day. Hoy. Hin. Ajhee. 

Achineiar, v. a. To cut. Cortar. 

Achogomar, v.7i. To assist. Acudir. 

Acoi, adv. Here. Aqui. 

Acores. s. pi. Nuts. Nueces. Mod. Gr. KupvSc. 



*8 THE ZINCALI'. 

Ajojoy, s. m. A hare. Liebre. 

Ajoro, s. m. Friday. Viemes. 

Ajua, s.nt. Halter. Cabestro. 

Alachar, v.7i. To meet. Encontrar. 

Alala, s. /. Joy. Aleg-ria. Sans. T^TO . 

Alangari, s.f. Grief, sorrow. Pesar. 

Alao, s. m. Word. Palabra. 

Alcarran, s. m. Drone. Zangano. 

Alcorabisar, v. a. To arrive at. Alconzar. 

Alendarse, u. r. To rejoice. Alegrarse. Sa/is. ^rT«T»^ (joy)- 

Alialy, s.f. Temper, disposition. Genio. 

Alicati, s.f. Time, turn. Vez. 

Aligata, s.f. Side. Lado. 

Aligatas, adv. Just by. Al lado. 

Aljenique, s.f. Fountain. Fuente. 

Almedalle, s.f. Almond. Almendra. 

Almensalle, s.f. Table. Mesa. 

Amal, s. m. Companion. Companero. 

Amala, s.f Companion. Companera. 

Amartelar, v. ii. To wither. Marchitar. 

Amiiii, s.f. Anvil. Ayunque. 

Amolar, v. n. To be worth. Valer. 

Ampio, s. 7«. Oil. "^Oleo, aceyte. Sa/is. ^{WI^'T. 

Ampio majaro. Holy oil. Santo oleo. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *9 

Amucharse, v. r. To intoxicate oneself. Emborracharse. 
Amular, v. a. To hang, execute, strangle. Ahorcar, dar- 

garrote. 
An, s. pi. Things, matters. Cosas. Mod. Gr. ov (being, 

existence). 

Anacar, v. impers. To happen. Suceder. 

Anarania j 

> adv. Amen, so be it. Amen, asi sea. 
Anariana 3 

Andandula, s.f. Fox. Raposa. 

Andial ^ 

>• adv. Thus. Asi. 
Andiar ' 

Andingla, s.f. Girth. Cincha. 

Andoba, pron. dem. This. Este. 

Andoriles, s.pl. Strings, garters. Ligas. 

Andre, adv. prep. In, within. En, dentro. Pers.jdJ\. 

Sa?is. W*Kt. 

Anduque, adv. Whither. Adonde. 

Anduyo, s.m. Lamp. Velon. 

Anglal, adv. Before, forward Delante. Hin. Age. 

Anglano, *. m. A publican. Publicano. 

Angrunio, s. m. Lock, bolt. Cerrojo. Sans. -^nAtp. 

Angui, s.f. Honey. Miel. Pers. jjJ^l • 

Angusti, s.f. Finger. Dedo. Pers. c^^>*^'>' • 

Sans. ^T( ^r^ft,. 

*A 3 



*10 THE ZINCALI. 

' o ■" ^ 

Angustro, s. m. A ring. Anillo. Pers. ^^y^^iJj] . 

Sans. W^^. 
Anjella, prep. Before. Antes. 
Anjelo, s. m. Desire. Deseo. 
Anis, s.f. Wasp. Avispa. 
Anro, s. 7n. Egg. Huevo. Sans.'^^T^. Both in Sanscrit 

and Gypsy, this word signifies a testicle. 
Ansul, adj. Sick. Enfermo. 
Aocana. Vid. Acana. 
Aopler, V. a. To open. Abrir. 
Aotar, adv. Yonder. Alia. 
Aoter, adv. There. Alli. 
Apajenar, v. a. To approach. Acercar. 
Apala, prep. Behind. Detras. Sans. ^TR. 
Aparati, s.f. Cloud. Nube. Pers.ji} . 
Apenar, v.a. To take. Tomar. Hin. Pana. 
Apuchelar, v. n. To live, dwell. Vivir, habitar. Sans, fxiftf . 
Apucheris, s.pl. The living. Los vivos. 
Aquia, s.f. The eye. Ojo. Sans. ^rfs^. Germ. Auge. 
Aquinbilaneto, s. ni. Attendance, accompaniment. Acom- 

panamiento. 
Aquirimen, s.f. Affection. Aficion. 
Aquirindoy, adj. Affected. Aficionado. 
Aracate, s.m. Guard. Guarda. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *11 

Aracatear, v. a. To guard. Guardar. 

Arachi, adv. Last night. Anoche. 

Arajambi, s.f. Under-petticoat. Zagalejo. 

Arajay, *.m. Friar. Frayle. ^rfi6. ^^^J6l^ . 

Araperar, v. a. To remember. Acordar. 

Arapuchi, s.y. Tortoise. Galapago. Sans. oh-<3d.M , stTi s m q • 

Rus. Cherepakia. 
Araquerar, v. a. To speak, talk, call. Hablar, llamar. 

Sans. XS- 
Araquerepenes, s.jjl. Sayings. Dichos. 
Arara, s.f. Pledge. Prenda. 
Arari, adj. Pregnant. Preiiada. 
Arasno, s.m. Fear. Miedo. 
Arate, s. m. Blood. Sangre. 
Archabar, v. a. To serve. Servir. Sans. ^fiT^t, tyftj^ 

(servant). 
Ardeler -j v. a. To raise. Levantar. Sa7is. '^TOT^. 
Ardinelar 3 (rising). Celtic, Ard (high, exalted). 
Ardoria, s.f. Vein. Vena. 
Arispejal, 5.?n. Metal. Metal. Saws. ^TTT. (brass) TfttT^J 

(yellow) ; liteTally, yelloiv brass. 
Arite, s.7n. Lentil. Lenteja. 
Arjaiia, s.f. Salad. Ensalada. 
Armensalle, adj. Free. Libre. 



*12 THE ZINCALI. 

Aromali, adv. Verily, indeed. En verdad. 
Aruje, *. m. Wolf. Lobo. Hin. Bheruha. 
Asaselarse, v. r. To rejoice, to laugh. Alegrarse, reirse. 

Sans. ;fTO (laughter). Hin, Hansna. 
Ashios, proti.pl. Those. Aquellos. 
Asislable, adj. Powerful. Poderoso. 
Asislar, v. a. To be able. Poder. Vid. Astisar. 
Asisnastri, s.f. Apprentice. Aprendiz. 
Asisprole, s. m. Brass. Bronce. 
Asnao, s. m. Name, word. Vid. Alao. 
Asparabar, v. a. To break, tear. Romper, lacerar. 

Gr. ffirapoKTiro), 
Astis, a. Possible. Posible. 
Astisar, v. a. To be able. Poder. 
Astra, s.f. Moon, star. Luna. Estrella. 
Atelis, a<ZtJ. Below. Abajo. Fid. OsteU. Turk. >iSjj\] . 

Hin. Tule. 
AternijS. o. Dead-born. Nacido muerto. This word in 

Sanscrit signifies pregnant : 'g^fx?^^. 

Atudiesalle, s.w. Steel: rather iVow. Acero. Saiis. ?il'M^. 

Avel ■) 

( adj. Other, another. Otro. Sans. '^TTt.. Arab, ij^j:- . 
Aver 3 -^ 

Aunsos, conj. Although. Aunque. 

Aupre, adv. Above. Arriba. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *13 

Ayes, adv. Yet, nevertheless. Aun. 
Ayore, adv. Above. Arriba. 
Azia, s.f. Mill. Molino. Pers. U-j1 . 
Azimache, s.f. Sign. Sena. 

B. 

Babinar, v. a. To exting-uish. Apagar. 

Baehildoy, s.f. Loose-hair. Melena. 

Bacria, s.f. A goat. Cabra. 

Bajanbar, v. a. To touch. Tocar. Hi?i. Pnkurna. 

Bajatia, s.f. A bell. Campana. A derivative from the 
preceding word. 

Baji s.f. Luck, fortune. Suerte, ventura. — Penar baji, 
' to tell fortunes.' Decir la buena ventura. Sans. 
^TPTJ. Pers. ci^sj^. Instead of this word, the 
English Gypsies make use of a derivative from 
the Sclavonian, dukkerin. In their dialect, to tell 
fortunes is ' penaw dukkerin.' 

Bajilache, *. m. Deer, venison. Venado. 

Bajin, s. m. Event. Caso. — Bajine, ' that which has hap- 
pened.' Acaecido. 

Bajuma, s.f. Bug. Chinche. 

Bal, s.f. Garden, kitchen-garden. Jardin, huerta. 
Sajis. %^. 



*14 THE ZINCALl. 

Bal, s./ Hair. Pelo. Saiis.^T^. Gr. fxaXo^. Mod. 
Gr. /j.a\Xi. 

Balbalo, adj. Rich, strong. Rico, fuerte. Pers. y.«^ 
Sans. <!|cjl""=<rr. 

Baliba, s.f. Bacon. Tocino. 

Balicho, s. m. Hog. Marnino. Sans.^f^^. Hin.Barah. 

Ballestera, s.f. Pigeon. Paloma. Mod. Gr. -rrepKyrepa. 

Ballestero, s. m. Cock-pigeon. Palomo. 

Balogar, v. a. To fly. Volar. 

Balunes, s.pl Pantaloons. Pantalones. 

Baluiii, s.f. Wild-goat, chamois. Corza, gamiiza. 

Bambanicha ■» s.f. Shop, cellar ; also Gallows. Botica, 

Banbanicha 3 bodega, tambien, horca. 

Bar, s.f. Stone. Piedra. Hin. Puthur. 

Bar lachi, s.f. The loadstone. La piedra iman. — Con- 
nected with this word there is a kind of magic 
rhyme*, used by the Gypsy women in their incan- 
tations : it runs as follows : — 

En el beji d'Olivete eutrisare, 
Trin braquia callardia encontrisare, 
En trm bedoa las ordenisare, 



* Of this rhyme there is a translation in the First Volume. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *15 

Y trin quiralis callardia nicobe : 
Yeque se lo diuelo a la bar lachi 
Para que me nicobele de meripe ; 

Y 'laver se lo dinelo a Padilla romi 
Con saria su suesti ; 

Y '1 aver al Bengui lango 

Para que m'otorguisarele lo que camelo yo. 

Baraca, s.f. Winter. Invierno. 

Barader, s. m. Justice of peace, a person of authority. 

Alcalde, hombre principal. 
Barandi, s.f. Back, shoulder. Espalda. 
Barani, s.f. Galley. Galera. 
Barbalu, s. m. Physician. Medico. 
Barban, s.m. Wind, air. Viento, ay re. Vid. Bear. 

Sans. innW^, ""^^^ . 
Barchata, s.f. Knobbed stick. Porra. 
Bardadi, adj. Empty. Vacio. 
Bardi, s.f Prison. Carcel. 
Bardon, s.m. Reason. Razon. 
Bardroy, adj. Green. Verde. Sans. HfTJT. 
Barendani, s.f. Stone. Piedra. Vid. Bar. 
Bares del mol, n.p. Val de penas ; literally, 'The rocks 

of the wine,' Penas del vino. 
Bargaiia, s.f War. Guerra. Pers. ij^^y, • 
Baribu, adj. Much. Mucho. Sans. "T^. 



*16 THE ZINCALI. 

Baricuntus, s. m. The Captain or Count of a band of 
Gitanos, — a governor; literally, The Great Count. 
El Capitan 6 Conde de una tropa de Jitanos, — 
gobernador. 

Baro, adj. ; pi. bareles ; Great. Grande. Hin. Bura. 

Barsali ^ 

V 71. p. John. Juan. 
Barsane ' 

Barsamia, adv. Enough. Bastante. 

Bartrabe, adv. Without. Fuera. Moorish Arabie,^arTa. 

Bartrabes, adv. Contrariwise. Al reves. 

Bas, s.f.; pi. bastes; The hand. Mano. Pers. • ;b . 

Basno, s. m. Cock. Gallo. Sans. MPodH . 

Bastardo, s. a. Affliction, evil, prison. Atiiccion, mal, 

carcel. The proper signification of this word is 

probably slavery. Pers. jc^CLs^ . 
Bastarre, s.f. The right-hand. La derecha. 
Basto, adj. Evil. Malo. v. Bastardo. 
Basya, s.f. Sleeve. Manga. 
Batane, s. m. Calf. Becerro. 

Bato ■» s. m. ; pi. batuces ; Father. Padre. From the Rus- 
Batu ' sian word, batuschka. 

Bato Majoro, The holy Father, the Pope. El Padre Santo. 
Bausale, s.f. Cause. Causa. 
Bayopio, adj. Maimed, one-handed. Manco. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *17 

Bazin, pron. dem. pi. mas. These. Estos. 
Bazan, pron. dem. pl.fem. These. Estas. 
Beao, *. m. A lord, a gentleman. Senor, caballero. 
Tzirk. cL^. . 

Bear ^ 

V s. m. Wind, air. Viento, ayre. Hin. Bara. 
Bearbal ) 

Beda, s.f. Manner, way, custom. Manera, costumbre. 

Bedar -j 

'r V. a. To teach. Ensenar. It has many other 
Bedelar 3 

meanings; e.g. Bedar or yaque, 'to light the 

fire.' Encender fuego. — Bedar or chiros, ' to 

pass the time.' Pasar el tiempo, &c. 

Bede de mulo, ' Funeral of the dead.' El entierro de un 

difunto. 

Bedora i 

>■ s.f. A girl, virgin. Muchacha, virjen 
Bedori ) 

Bedoro, s. m. Boy, youth. Muchacho, joven. Arah.jSi . 
Bedrajami, s.m. Giant. Jigante. Pers. j^l^ (strong- 
man). Sans. Tifg', frasfin^. 

Bedo •) 

Berdo . 

Bejanbi, s.f. Fault, crime. Delito. 

Bejari, s.f. Female lizard. Lagarta. Lagartija. 

Bejelar, v. a. To sit. Asentar. 

Belga, adv. There. Alli. 



}s. m. Cart. Carro. 



^Ib THE ZINCALI. 

Bella, s.f. War. Guerra. 

Beluni, s.f. A calash. Calesa. 

Beluiii, s./. Queen. Reyna. Pers. ^[i Sans.V^^. 

Bengue ^ 

V s.m. Devil, evil spirit. Demonio, espiritu malo. 
Bangui ' 

Sans. T?^ i. e. mud, bog. According to the 

Hindoo mythology, there is a Hell of mud, 
called Bengaprabha : the Bengues of the Gyp- 
sies appear to be the tenants of this Hell. The 
Russian Bog (God), and the English nursery 
demon, Bogey, are possibly derived from the 
same Sanscrit root. 

Benseni, s.f. Audience. Audiencia. 

Beo, s. in. Las partes vergonzosas de una mujer. 
Sans. JTT Hin. Bhug. 

Beo, s. m. Prison. Carcel. 

Berabar, v. a. To save. Salvar. 

Berallas, s.f. pi. Bee-hives. Colmenas. 

Beralli, s.f. Galley. Galera. 

Berbal, s. m. Picture. Cuadro. 

Berbel, s. m. Looking-glass. Espejo. 

Berbirincha, s.f. Star-lizard. Salamanquesa. — The pro- 
per meaning is squirrel, vphich is an animal rarely 
found in Spain. Mod. Gr. ^ep^ipir^a. Ardilla. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *19 

Berdacuni, s.f. Window. Ventana. 

Berdeji, s. m. Lizard. Lagarto. 

Berdi, s.f. Quarrel, dispute. Riiia. Perhaps from the 

Scandinavian word Barda, ' to fight.' 
Berdo, s. in. A ship. Navio. Vid. Bero. 
Berdoehe, s. m. Coach. Coche. 
Beribu, s.f. Multitude. Multitud. Vid. Baribii. 
Beriga, s.f. Chain. Cadena. Rus. Veriga. 
Berilli, s.f. Wasp. Avispa. Hin. Birnee. 
Berjar, v. a. To find. Hallar. 
Berji, s. m. A year. Alio. Hin. Burukh. 
Bero, s. m. Galley ; garrison to which criminals are sent 

for hard labour. Galera, presidio. Sans. iT^Tt. . 
Berquero, *. m. Wen. Lobanillo. 
Berrandaiia, s.f. Stone. Piedra. Vid. Barendani. 
Berrinches, s. pi. Lemons. Limones. 
Bersali, s. Spy. Espia. 
Berseji, s.f. War, quarrel. Guerra, riria. 
Berseli, adj. Coarse, rude. Basto. 
Berteleri, s.f. Appellation. Apelacion, Perhaps Wordy 

fi-om the Sanscrit. 
Beruni, s.f. Balcony. Balcon. 
Beslli, s.f. War, dispute. Guerra, quimera. Vid. 

Bella. 



*20 THE ZINCALI. 



Besni, s.f. Window. Ventana. Pers. ^ (seeing). 



Bestale ■ 

\ s. Seat, chair, saddle, bench. Silla, banco. 
Besti 3 



Bestelar, v. a. To sit. Asentar. 

Bestipen, s.f. Wealth, riches. Riqueza. 

Bestique, par. Seated. Asentado. 

Beyio, adj. Single, singular. Solo, unico. 

Bian, adj. Twenty-three. Veinte y tres. 

Bica, s.f. Chair. Silla. 

Bichabar, v. a. To send. Enviar. Hin. Bhejwa'd. 

Sans, f^^, f<4BjM (casting). 
Bichola, s.f Likeness, similitude. Semejanza. 
Bicholar, v. n. To appear. Parecer. Vid. Abicholar. 
Biere, s. m. Glass. Vidrio. 
Bifi, s.f. Snow. Nieve. Pers. <— ^ • 
Bigorear, v. a. To arrive. Llegar. 
Binar, v. a. To sell. Vender. Sans. P^ fh*\Mi (selling), 

MU.I'H (sale). Hin. Bikna. Arab. ^a_j . 
Bique, s.m. Edict. Cartel. 
Biruquero, s.m. Carpenter. Carpintero. 
Bis, adj. Twenty. Veinte. Hin. Bis, i/««^J- 
Bisarar, v. a. To owe. Deber. 
Bisinia, s.f. Pasture-ground. Dehesa. 
Bisna, s.f Sale. Venta. Vid. Binar. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *21 

Bispaparo, s. m. Grandfather. Abuelo. 

Bispibi, s.f. Hornet. Avispon. 

BlanI, s.f. Jacket. Chaqueta. 

Blejo, adj. Slouched. Sesgo. 

Bobes, s. jjI. Beans. Habas. Rus. Boby. Hin. Lobiya. 

Boltani, s.f. Turn. Vuelta. 

Bonbachi, s.f Pipe. Pipa. 

Bombardo, s. m. Lion. Leon. Hin. Bubur. 

Bomboi, adj. Foolish. Tonto. 

Boqui 1 

(S.f Hunger, famine. Hambre. Hin. Bhukh. 
Boquis 3 

Bordani, s.f. Tower, castle. Torre, castillo. 
Bordeles, s.pl. Christians. Cristianos. 
Bosnansibla, s.f. Confidence. Confianza. Query, Possi- 
bility. Rus. Vosmojgnost. 
Bostan, s. m. Linen. Lienzo. 
Bostan, adj. Weak, feeble. Flojo. 

Bouchoy 1 

> s. m. A bear. Oso. 
Bozuchoy 3 

Brabani, adj. Valiant. Valiente. 

Braco, s. m. Mutton. Carnero. 

Bracufii, s.f. A sheep. Oveja. 

Braga-lachi, Much shame. Mucha ver^enza. 

Bragante, adj. Made of straw. Pajizo. 



*22 THE ZINCALI. 

Brajata, s.f. Necessity. Necesidad. 

Braji, s.f. Sheep. Oveja. Pers. %ji. 

Brajial, s. m. Hospital. Hospital. 

Breji, s. m. Field, mountain. Campo, monte. H'm, Bur 

(a desert). 
Brequejo, adj. par. Obliged. Obligado. 
Brequenar, v. a. Defend, defender. 
Bresban, adj. Blessed. Bendito. Possibly that which is 

connected with jsj^'rl or Brahma. 
Bretegeli, s.f, pi. Delights. Delicias. 
Brichardilar, v. a. To ask, implore. Rogar. 
Bricholar, v. a. To bear, suffer. Padecer. 
Bridaque, s. A break, rupture. Quiebra. 
Bridaquelar, v. a. To break. Romper, quebrar. 
Brijindal, s. Rain, shower. Lluvia. Pers. ^j\i . 

Sans.TC^. Mod.Gr.jopo'xri- 

Brijindar, v.7i. To rain. Llover. 

Brijindope, s. m. Deluge, mighty rain. Diluvio. 

Brijindobio, s. m. Hunchback. Jorobado. Sans. H^t.. 

Brinda, s.f. A pear. Pera, fruta. 

Brinsela, s.f. Bottle. Botella. 

Brinza, s.f. Flesh, meat. Came. 

Broba -j 

\ s.f. Pompion, calabash. Calabaza. 
Brobia ) 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *23 

Brochabo, s. m. Boy, lad. Muchacho. 

Brodelo, s. and adj. Third, third party, mediator. 

Tercero. 
Brojuchi, s.f. Pink, flower. Clavel. 
Brondo, conj. But, yet. Pero. 
Brono Alieiiicato, n.pr. Pontius Pilate. Poncio 

Pilato. 

Bros, adj.pron. Your, yours. Vuestro. 

Brosibana, s.f. Bramble. Zarza. Hin. Bhur-band. 

Brostildan, s. m. Mayor, justice of peace. Alcalde. 

Brote, s. m. Camel. Camello. 

Brotobo 1 

[ adj. First. Primero. Gr. irpaiTog. 
Brotoboro ^ 

Brotomuchi, s.f. The spring. Primavera. 

Brotomucho, s.m. First-cousin. Primo-hermano. 

Brucharno, s.m. A shot. Tiro. 

Bruchino, s. m. Dried cod-fish. Bacallao. 

Brudilar, v. a. To answer. Contestar, responder. Vid. 

Rudilar. 
Bruja, s.f The Holy Brotherhood. La Santa Hermandad. 

This word is a cant term (Bruja, in Spanish, means 

a witch), and does not properly belong to the 

Gitano language. 
Bruji, s. f A real, a Spanish coin. Un real. 



*24 THE ZINCALI. 

Bruni, s.f. A she-goat. Cabra. 

Brunito, s. m. A kid. Cabrito. 

Bucharar v. a. To shoot. Tirar. — This word has nume- 
rous significations ; e.g. Bucharar la baste, ' To 
extend the hand.' Extender la mano. — Me bucha- 
rela I'errate, ' My blood beats.' Me arde la 
sangre. Sans. f^UjH . Vid. Bichabar. 

Buchi, s.f. Any thing, the public executioner. Cualquiera 
cosa, el verdugo. 

Bucos, s. m. Liver. Higado. Sans. '^^ (heart). 

Bufa, s.f. Crib, manger. Pesebre. 

Bufaire s. m. A king's evidence, informer, cat. Soplon, 
gato. 

Bufendi, adv. Better. (From bus, ' more,' and fendi, 
' good'.) Mejor. 

Bujendi, s. m. Catamite. Bujarron. 

Bujiblo, s. m. Hunchback. Jorobado. 

^'^ \s. The anus. Ano, orificio. Sans."^, Mic6<*. 
Bullati3 Jfm. Bil. 

Bullas, s.f. pi. Grey hairs. Canas. 

Bundal, s.f. Gate, door. Puerta. Vid. Burda. 

Buque, s. m. Point. Punto. Sans. ir«F^ (peak). 

Buquepe, s. Account, information given to the ministers 

of justice. Cuenta dada a la justicia. Arab. *— y^ • 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *25 

Bur, s.m. Mountain. Montana. Rus. Bugor. 

Burda, s./! Gate, door. Puerta. Sans. mirK(of a town). 
Hin. Bur. 

Burlo, s. m. Play, sport. Juego. 

Bus, adv. & conj. More, but, yet. Mas, pero. 

Bus, adv. When. Cuando. 

Busne, adj. Sweet. Dulce. 

Busno, s. m. A gentile, a savage, every person who is 
not of the Gypsy sect. Jentil, salvaje ; asi llaman 
los Jitanos al que no es dela sangre de ellos. — 
The English Gypsies make use of the word 
Tororo in this sense, which signifies what is poor 
and pitiful : See Chororo. The root of Busno is 
probably the Sans, xr^^ (a man in general) or 
T[^^ An impure person. ' Busurman,' in the 
Russian tongue, signifies, ' A heathen.' 

Busne, s. pi. The Gentiles, savages. Los Jentiles, los 
salvajes. 

Busnos, s.pl. Torments, pains. Tormentos. 

Busorala, adj. Ripe. Maduro. 

Buste, s.f. The act of sticking or joining together. 
Pegadura. Pers. <UmjJ. 

Butacole, adj. Yellow. Amarillo. Sans. tftlT^J. 

Butanar, v. a. To drain, spill, scatter. Derramar. 

Vol. II. App''. * q 



*26 THE ZINCALI. 

Buter -i 

> adv. More. Mas. 
Butre J 

Butron, s. m. Abyss, a deep hole. Abismo, hoyo pro- 

fundo. This word is evidently derived from the 

Sanscrit ^T^^ . Mod. Gr. ^vdo^. English, Pit. 

C. 

Caba, pron. dem. This. Este. Vid. Acaba. 

Cabana, s.f. Tomb, grave. Sepultura. Moorish Arab. 

Cawar. 
Cabanar, v. a. To bury. Enterrar. Mod. Gr. ffKcnrTO). 
Cacabi, s.f. A kettle. Caldera. This vi^ord is pure 

Greek, KUKKaJSr]. 
Cacalufii, s. f. Species of earthen pan. Cazuela. 
Cacarabi, s. 7M. A crow. Grajo. Satis. "Sftfafi, ohH3. 
Cachas, s.f. pi. Scissors. Tijeras. Sans. oB^. 
Cachicalli, s./! Female relation. Parienta. 
Cachimani, s.f. Brandy-shop, tavern. Aquardienteria, 

taberna. Query, The seller of brandy, from ofif^ 

a kind of liquor. Riis. Quass, and JTT^T Man. 
Cafi, s.f. Nail. Clavo. Mod. Gr. Kap(pL 
Cajuco, adj. Deaf. Sordo. 
Cajuguy, s.f. File. Lima. 
Calabea, s.f. Lie, falsehood. Mentira. Arab. i—siU- . 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *27 

Calabear, v. a. To lie. Mentir. 

Calafresa, s.f. Chitterlings. Asadura. 

Cales, s. pi. The Gypsies. Jitanos. Vid. Calo. 

Calisen, s.f. Death. Muerte. Sans. oFT^ . 

Callicaste, adv. Yesterday. Ayer. 

Callico, s.m. Dawn. Madrugada, Sans. "Sf!^. 

Callardo, adj. Black. Negro. 

Calo \ s.m. A Gypsy, a black. Jitano, hombre negro. 

Caloro ' Sans. <Jk\"i^ . H'm. Kala. 

Calli, s.f. A Gypsy woman. Jitana. 

Calochin, s. m. Heart. Corazon. Properly, liver. 

Sans. cFIqJ^'WT. 
Caltrabo, s. m. Convict-garrison. Presidio. 
Calumbrico, *. m. Understanding. Entendimiento. Sans. 

ohc^r^t^oH. Mod. Gr. KaTa\afx/3avo), to ' understand.' 

Cam-j 

> s.m. Sun. Sol. Hi?i. Kh.au. S'a?ts. ^irftj. 
Can 3 

Camaranchas, s.f. pi. Buttons. Botones. 

Cambani, s.f. Shop. Tienda. 

Cambrai, s. m. Dog. Perro. 

Cambri -j adj. fern. Pregnant. Prenada. 

Cambrobi 3 Sa?is. nfi^TIlf^ . 

Camelar, v. a. To love. Amar. 

Sans. olJR, oRTT (Cama, Love, Cupid). 

*b2 



*28 THE ZINCALI. 

Cameni, s.f. Shop. Tienda. Peis. <)jli-.IS • The root is 

the Sa7is. cfiT^tT (work, action). 
Camuchi, s. Heel-bone. Zancajo. 
Cana, s.f. Hour. Hora. 
Cana, s.f. A bell. Campana. 
Canbrar, v. a. To love. Amar. Vid. Camelar. 
Canbuter, 5. m. Sorcerer, wizard. Hechicero. Sans. 

^|Ji+l''HI (magic). Russ. Caldun. 
Canche, s. m. Saturday. Sabado. 
Candon, s. m. Companion. Compaiiero. 
Candorry, s. m. Christian. Cristiano. 
Cangallo, s.m. Waggon, cart. Carro. Properly, one 

that is tilted, from WS^ (a blanket). 
Cangri, s.f Church. Iglesia. The literal meaning 

appears to be Tower. Pers. %,tj^ 
Cangrias, s.f. pi. Heels of shoes. Tapas de los zapatos. 
Canguelar, v. a. To fear. Temer. Sans. eF.¥iT*T 

(trembling). 
Canguelo, s.m. Fear. Temor. 
Cani, s.y. Ear. Oreja. Sans.^^. Hin.'Ka.xia. 
Canrea, s.f. Pity. Lastima. Sans. oh4;4ill. Hm. Ku- 

roona. 
Canriano, s. m. Summer. Verano. Mod. Gr. KuXoKaipi. 
Canrias, s.f. pi. Troubles. Fatigas. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. "^29 

Canro, s. m. Neck. Pescuezo. 

Canucho, s. m. Heel-bone, stupid person. Zancajo. 

CaSi, s.f. Hen. Gallina. 

Canismi, s.f. Forge. Fragua. 

Capirima, s.f. Aloe. La Pita. Mod. Gr. Kainrapt. 

Capucho, s. m. Child's cap. Capillo. 

Car, *. m. Heat. Calor. Sans. 7s(^. Arab.jS-. 

Carbe, 5. »7. Dike. Malecon. 

s ^ ^ 

Carema, s.f. Word. Palabra. Arah /*(JS . 

Carjibar, v. a. To finish. Fenecer. 

Carlo, s. m. Heart. Corazon. Arab. Lj^Jj • 

Carmujon, *. m. Mouse. Raton. 

Carobi, s.f. Staple, ring. Argolla. Query, bracelet. 

Sans. ofiXiTTO'. 
Cartacaya, s.f. Stork, heron. Cigiiena. Sans, ofitj. 
Cartrabar, v. a. To load. Cargar. 
Casabo, s.m. Liver, Higado. 

Cascane, 5. m. Avaricious, stingy. Pe?-s. XJUw.^ (hungry)* 
Cascane, s. m. Tuesday : according to others, Thursday. 

Martes, Jueves. 
Casian, s.f. Wood, timber. Madera. ■ - 

Casidazo, s. m. March, month of. Marzo. 
Casinoben, s. m. Hell. Infierno. Liter alii/, A blaze, 

conflagration. Mod. Gr. Kavtriixov. 



*30 THE ZINCALI. 

Caste, s. m. A stick. Palo. The true meaning is. Tree. 

Sa7is. •SR^ (wood). Pers. —lil . Hin. Gachh. 

Caste-randador, s. m. A working stick, /. e. a plough. Arado. 

Casto, s. m. Hammer. Martillo. 

Castorro, *. m. Hat. Sombrero. 

Castumba, s.f. The province of Castile. Castilla. 

Cata, adj. Every. Gada. 

Catabranar, v. n. To roar. Bramar. 

Catacolla, s.f. Stork, crane. Ciguena. 

Catanar ■» 

\v).a. To assemble. Juntar. Hin. Ckhuthan-k. 
Catanar 3 

Catane,pZ. Catanes, adj. United, assembled. Junto, juntos. 

Catesca, s.f. Spot, mark. Pinta. 

Caute, adj. None, not one. Ningun, ninguno. 

Cayes, 8.^)1. Heavens. Cielos. 

Cayque, s. m. Nobody. Nadie. 

Cende, s.f. Light. Luz. 

Cengarica, s.f. Desire. Gana. Sans. oRTTSfT. 

Fers. J5l^s>^li>-. Hin. Chana (to desire). 

Ciria, s.f Passover, Easter. Pascua. 

Ciria, s.f. Garlick. Ajo. Hin Seer. — Vid. Sar. 

Claby, s.f. Earthen pan, pipkin. Cazuela. 

Clarico, s. m. Dawn. Madrugada. Vid. Callico. 

Clasma, s.f. Queen. Reyna. Vid. CralHsa. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. ^31 

Clemaco, s. m. Hunter. Cazador. 

Clichi, s.f. Key. Llave. Rus. Clootch. Tlie root is 

Sanscrit, '5Bi^5eii (bolt). 
Clonel, s. 7n. Pink. Clavel. 

Cobadrar, ?;.«. Tobark. Ladrar. Jrab.^Ji. Rus. Gnhh. 
Cobler, s. m. Elbow. Codo. Sans. "SSad, . 
Cocal, s.m. Bone. Hueso. Mod. Gv. KOKKaXov. 

Sans. <^t^. 
Cocalis, pi. Bones. Huesos. 
Cocal ie Lubano. Bone of the navel. Hueso del em- 

peyne. 
Cochoco, s. ?>i. Evergreen oak. Encina. 
Cochoglera, s.f. Oil-cruse. Alciiza. 
Coco, s. m. Nut. Nuez. 
Cocole, s. m. Number. Numero. 
Com, pron. rel. Who. Quien. Hin. Kaun. 
Colcoro, adj. Alone. Solo. 
Coligote, s. m. Bat. Murcielago. 
Combo, adj. Dumb. Mudo. Sayis. JTofi. 
Conche, s. m. Anger. Coraje. 

Condari, s.y. Beam. Viga. Hi71.Ka.ndee. 6'ctns. oFR^ . 
Contique, s. m. Neighbour. Vecino. 
Coplemande, s. m. Coward. Cobarde. 
Coracano, s. m. Guard. Guarda. 



*32 THE ZINCALI. 

Corajai, s. pi. The Moors. Los Moros. Probably derived 
from the wood Kurreh, a term of execration and 
contempt too frequently employed by the common 
Moors in their discourse. 

Corajano, s. & adj. Moor, Moorish. Moro, Moruno. 

Corbo, adj. Strange. Estrano. 

Corby, s.f. Branch, shoot, sprig. Rama. 

Corcorria, s.f. Solitude. Soledad. Vid. Colcoro. 

Cori, s.f. Island. Isla. 

Coria, s.f Large jar. Tinaja. 

Corio, s. m. An ochavo, a small brass coin. Ochavo. 

Coripen, s.f. Trouble, affliction. Tribulacion, aflicion. 

Cormuni, adj. Some. Alguno. 

Cornes, s. pi. Buskins, Botines. 

Cornicha, s.f. Basket. Espuerta. Sans. '<^A^i . 

Coro, s. m. Pitcher. Cantaro. H'm. Ghurola. 

Corpichi, s.f. Rice. Arroz. Sans. ofi^. 

Corroro, adj. One-eyed. Tuerto. 

Costini, s.f Tax levied on horses sold at fairs. Alcabala. 
Literally, ' The mottnting, or ' tax paid for 
mounting.' Vid. Costunar. 

Costipen, s. m. The summer. Verano. 

Costunar, V. 72. To mount. Montar. Pers. ^JXm's-. 

Costuri, s. Convent. Convento. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *33 

Cotor, s. m. A piece. Pedazo. Arab. <Ouas . 

Cotria, adc. Immediately. Luego. 

Coyme, s. m. Farm-house. Cortijo. 

Crallis, s. m. King. Rey. From the Sclavonian word Krai. 

Crallisa, s.f. Queen. Reyna. 

Crejete, s.pl. Sins. Pecados. Rus. Graike. 

Cremen, s.f. Worm. Lombriz. Sans. '^^' 

Criscote, s. m. A book. Libro. Vid. Gablcote. 

Crisirne, n. pr. Christ. Christo. 

Cro, s. m. Pair. Par. 

Cuarinda, s.f. Lent. Cuaresma. 

Cucana, s.f. Millet, panic-grass. Panoja. Sans. oKlp. 

Cuchiyo, s. m. Sedge. Esparto. 

Cudo, s.m. Mill. Molino. H'm. Kolhoo. 

Cueni, s. f Cave. Cueva. Sans. J|^r| . 

p. 
Cuji, s.f. Rose. Rosa. Pers. {ji^ . 

Culana, s.f. Bell. Campana. Sans. "Sp^y (to sound). 

Rus. Kolokol. 
Culco, s. m. Sunday. Domingo. 
Cumorra, s.f. Hall, chamber. Sala. Hin. Cumra. 

Germ. Kammer. 
Cundus, s. m. Count, lord. Conde. Mod. Gr. koi'tjj?. 
Curar, v. a. To strike, do, work. Pegar, hacer, trabajar. 

Hin. Gurhna. 

*B 3 



*34 THE ZINCALI. 

Curda, s.f. Drunkenness. Borrachera. 

Curebay, s.f. Bit of a bridle. Bocado de freno. 

8ans. ofif^. 
Curelo, s. m. Trouble, pain. Trabajo, pena. 
Curolamiento, s. m. Carpenter's plane. Cepillo de car- 

pintero. 
Curoro, s. m. Colt. Potro. Hin. Koorru. 
Cunque, s.m. Sunday. Domingo. Modern Greek, 

KVplUKYj. 

Curraco, s. m. Raven. Cuervo. Sans. oh|ahlc$. 

Currandea, s.f. Flat roof of a house, terrace. Azotea. 

Currandi, s.f. Veil. Mantilla. 

Currando, s. m. A hammer. Martillo. 

Curriel, s.m. Trade, business. Oficio. Smis. <MM. 

CH. 

Chabal, s. m. Son. Hijo. 

Chabo ■» 

> s.m. A boy, a child. Muchacho, nino. In 
Chaboro ) 

the English dialect, Chab ; e. g. Rommany Chab, 

'A Gypsy boy' or 'fellow;' whence the cant 

expression, Rum Chap. Arab. C—^li . 

Sa?is. ^31^. 

Chabori, s.f A girl. Muchacha. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *35 

Chachipe, s.f. Truth. Verdad. — This word, which the 
English Gypsies pronounce Tsatsipe, seems to be 
a compound of the Sanscrit ^TiT , which signifies 
' True/ and the word of Sanscrit origin, Chipe, 
' a tongue.' Chachijje therefore is, literally, 
' True tongue.' 

Chai,s. j)l. Children, fellows, Gypsies. Ninos, muchachos. 
Jitanos. Vid. Chabo. 

Chaja, s.f. Cabbage. Col. 

Chajamen s.f. Prudence, bashfulness. Recato, timidez. 
Pers. AjMi . 

Chalabear, t;. a. To move. Mover. .Sa?is. ^^. 

Rus. Kolebat. 

Chalar, v. 7i. To walk, to go. Andar, ir. Sans. ^55 . 

Chalendre, s. m. Tiger. Tigre. Sans. ^\^^ . Pers.j*^. 

Chalchiben, s. m. Steel for striking fire. Eslabon. 

Challas, s.pl. Ear-rings. Zarcillos. 

Challu, s.f. Lie. Mentira. 

Chalorgar, s. 7re. Altar. Altar. Pers. »o aJui' . S«7ts. ^TRT.. 

Chamuliar, v. a. To speak. Hablar. Sans. ^f^TT^ . 
(discourse). 

Chan, s. m. Cloth. Pano. Sans. ■»ii|'«Alt^r| . 

Chancle, s. f. Knee. Rodilla. Sans. irnT . 

Chando, s. & adj. Wise, a sage. Sabio, doctor. 



^36 



THE ZINCALI. 



Chanelar, v. a. n. To know. Saber. Pers. ^jlls-Ubi . 

Chaneo, *. m. Ring. Anillo. 

Changanar, v. a. n. To awake. Despertar. Sans. ^TTT . 

Hin. Jugana. 
Changane, adj. Awake. Despierto. Sa?is. IfFTft?^. 
Changero, adj. False. Falso. 

Chanispar, v. a. n. Exhale, breathe, inspire. Espirar. 
Chauispero, s. m. Spirit. Espiritu. 
Chanorgar, v. a. To forget. Olvidar. 
Chantar, v. a. To plant. Plantar. 
Chaomo, s. m. Winter. Invierno. Pers. Ujjj . 
Chapardo, s. m. Tinder. Yesca. 
Chapesca, s.f. Flight. Fuga. 
Chapescar. v. n. To flee. Huir. 
Chaplesca, s.f. Serpent. Serpiente. 
Char, s. m. Heaven. Cielo. Sans. '^T,. Pers. ^j»- . 
Char, s. m. Egypt ; according to the dialect of Estrema- 

dura. Egipto ; segun en dialecto de los Jitanos 

Estremenos. 
Char, s.f. Grass. Yerba. Pers. i^ . 
Charabaro, adj. Sad. Triste. 
Charaburi, s.f. Sadness. Tristeza. 
Chardi, s.f A fair, market. Feria. Vid. Chati. 
Charnique, s.f Life. Vida. Hin. Jan. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *37 

Charipe, s.f. Bed, bedstead. Cama. Hin. Charpoy. 

Mod. Gr. Kpe/BficcTi. 
Chasar, v. n. To pass. Pasar. 
Chaseos, s. m. Exercise. Ejercicio. 
Chasilar, v. a. To sup. Cenar. 
Chati, s.f. A fair. Feria. Hin. Chhetr. 
Chavo, s. m. A plate. Plato. 
Chaute, n. ]). The fortress of Ceuta. Ceuta. 
Che, s.f. Scab. Tina. Sans. «fi^. Hin. Khaj. 
Chen, s.f. Earth, land. Tierra. Fid. Chim. 
Chepo, s. m. Breast, bosom. Seno, pecho. Pers. (w^^. 
Cherdillas, s.pl. The stars. Las estrellas. 
Cherdiiio, s. ni. The morning-star. Lucero. 
Cherja, s.f. Bag, bundle. Halda. 
Chetalli, s.f. Olive. Oliva. 
Cheti, s.f. Olive-oil. Aceyte. 
Chi, s.f & adv. Nothing. Nada. 
Chiaca, s.f. Table. Mesa. 
Chibalo, s. m. Cigar. Cigarro. 
Chibar, v. a. To cast, shoot. Echar. Saiis. f^^. This 

verb is used in many senses. 
Chibarse a penar. To begin to speak. Comenzar a 

hablar. 
Chibar lacho, To make well, to cure. Curar, sanar. 



*38 THE ZINCALI. 

Chibar sermon, To preach. Predicar. 

Chibel. Vid. Chibe's. 

Chlbel, s. m. A river. Rio. Pers. (_f I»- . 

Chibelar, v. a. Vid. Chibar. 

Chibes, s. m. Day. Dia. Sans.fl^^. Hm. Dewns. 

Chibiben '. 

Life. Vida. 
Chibos 



I s. Lif 



Chicato, s. m. Uncle. Tio. Hin. Chucha. 

Chiche, s.f. Face. Cara. 

Chichi, s. Nothing. Nada. Query, Any thing. 

Pers. f^y^. 

Chichoji, s. Cat. Gato. 

Chiguay, s. in. Louse. Piojo. 

Childar, v. a. To put, place. Poner, meter. 

Childo, par. pas. Put, placed. Metido, puesto. 

Chilindrote, s. m. Sparrow. Gorrion. Hin. Chiriya. 

Chim, s.TTZ. Kingdom, country. Reyno, tierra. S«n.s. T^TT. 

Chimoni, s.f. Any thing. Cualquier cosa. 

Chimudani -j 

\ s. Glory. Gloria. Sans. JHMJM'r||. 
Chimusolano ) 

Chimuyar, v. a. Vid. Chamuliar. 

Chimutra, s.f. Moon. Luna. Arah.jA^ . Sans. "^t^T^^^. 

Chinaora, s.f. Sickle. Hoz. Vid. Chinelar. 

Chindar, v. a. To hang up. Colgar. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *39 

Chindar, v. a. To bear, produce. Parir. Sans. lff»T 

(birth). Hin. Junna. 

Chinday, s.f. Mother. Madre. Sans. ^iPriHl • 

Chindo •» s. & adj. Blind, blind man. Ciego. Sa7is. 

Chindotiuendo ' W^. Hin. Choondhla (blear-eyed). 

Chindoma, s. m. Butcher. Carnicero. Sans, airiiqn. 

Chinel \ 

> s. in. A person of official rank. Hombre de ffra- 
Chino 3 

duacion, oficial. Derived from the Russian, 

Chin, ' Rank.' 

Chinelar, v. a. To cut, reap. Cortar, segar. 

Chingabar, s. m. Pin. Alfiler. 

Chingarar, v. a. To fight. Pelear, renir. 

Chingaripen, s. m. War, battle. Guerra, combate. 

Sans. '^T^. Pers. uiXb«-. 
Chinobaro, s. m. High-constable, governor. Alguacil, 

mayor, gobernador. Vid. Chino and Baro. 
Chinoje, s. m. He-ass. Burro. 
Chinoro, adj. Small, little. Pequeno. Sans. <^?*ix<^, 

flhPtiV; whence likewise the English cant word 

Kinchin. 
Chipalo, s.m. Blacksmith. Herrero. Sans. '^Rftl^, 

(dark, tawny). 
Chipe, s.f. Truth (improperly). Verdad. 



*40 THE ZINCALT. 

Chipe\ s.f. Tongue. Lengua. Sa7is. Hiid^ • H'm.3\b\\. 

Chipi J Pers. ^bj . 

Chipen, s.f. Life. Vida. Sans. »0«JH. Pers. ^^ ■ 

Hin. Jee. 
Chique, *./". Earth, ground. Tierra, suelo. .S'aviA ^fT«Kr. 
Chique, s.y. Butter. Manteca. Hin. Ghee. 
Chirdabar, v. a. To cut. Cortar. 
Chirdo, adj. Short. Corto. 

Chiribito, s. m. A cricket. Grillo. Sans. -^Um • 
Chiriclo, s. m. A fowl, chicken. Polio. Properly , A bird. 

Ave. Hin. Chiriya. 
Chirijimar, v. a. n. To advance. Adelantar. Hin. Chur- 

hana. 

Chirijimen, ^;ar. j9as. Advanced. Adelantado. 

Chirinda-j 

>■ s.f. An orange. Naranja. In Moorish, China. 
Chiringa 3 

Chiro ■» s. m. Time. Tiempo. Sa7is. f^TW (long time). 

Chiros ) Mod. Gr. Kuipo^. 

Chirriria, s.f. Bit of thread, lint. Mota. Sans. ^^\l. (rag). 

Chismar, v. a. To spit. Escupir. Sans. WU^T^ (saliva). 

Chitar ■> 

[■ Fid. Childar. 
Chitelar 3 

Chitino, s. m. Passport. Pasaporte. 

Cho, s.f. Barley. Cebada. Pers. ^ . 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *41 

Chobar -j 

> V. a. To wash. Lavtir. Pen. ..itiJJtjit . 
Chobelar) ^ ""^ 

Chocorono, s. m. A remedy. Remedio. 

Chocoronar, v. a. To remedy. Remediar. 

Choji ^ s.f. Petticoat. Saya, enaguas. Saris. ''^H^^^, 

Chojinda 3 ^l\i<^ . 

Chen, s.f. Beard, chin. Barba. Mod. Gr. <yeveiov. 

Choneria, s.f. Barber's shop. Barberia. 

Chonero, s. m. Barber. Barbero. Sans. ^f^Jic^. 

Chono, s. m. Month. Mes. Hin. Chand. 

Chopala, s.f. Hut, tent. Choza. Sans. V^- Hin. Chup- 

pur. Italian, Capanna. 
Chopon, s. m. Quince. Membrillo. 
Chor, s. m. Thief. Ladron. Sans. ^T,. Hin. Chor. 
Chori, s.f. Knife. Cuchillo, navaja. Sans. '^. 

Hin. Chooree. Mod. Gr. fxa^xaipt- 
Chori, s.f Mule. Mula. Hin. Khuchur. 
Choro, s. & adj. Thief, thievish, evil. Ladron, male. 
Chororo, adj. Poor. Pobre. Saiis. "^T^- Hin. Shor. 
Chorripen, s.f. Evil, wickedness. Maldad. 
Chotiar, v. a. To spit. Escupir. Sans. f^{Wi( (spitting). 
Chova, s.f. Hand. Mano. Sans. ^tI7 (the palm). 
Chuajarii, s.f Witch, sorceress. Bruja, hechicera, profe- 

tisa. Sans. ^T^^TT • Hin. Syana. Rus. Charobnitza. 



*42 THE ZINCALI. 

Chube, s. ?n. Louse. Piojo. Sa7is. fsS^Z^ , Hin.Joon. 

Chubalo, .9. m. Cigar. Cigarro. 

Chucha, s.y! Breast, pap. Pecho. Sans.'^fi^. 

Chuchipon, s. m. Suet, grease. Sebo. 

Chuchiri, s.f. Fat. Gordura. 

Chuchuquelar, s.f. Oil-cruse. Alcuza. 

Chuli ) 

y s.m. A dollar. Un duro, un peso fuerte. 
Chuloi 

Chulo, s. m. A knife. Un cuchillo. Hin. Chulhoo. 

ChuUo, adj. Fat. Gordo. Sans. 'W^F. Hin. Chuodhur. 

Chumasconas, s.f. Harlot. Ramera. Sans. ^fJR (love). 

Chumajari, s. m. Shoemaker. Zapatero. Sans. ^*^oiil<. 

Chumajayal, s.f. Grinders. Muelas. 

Chumia, s.f. Time, turn. Vez. 

Chundear, zj.zmp. To happen. Suceder. i/i/z. Ho-chookna. 

Chungalipen, s.f. What is ugly, heavy. Cosa fea, pesada. 

Hin. Choonna. 

Chungalo^ _ ^ ^... 

V adj. Ugly, heavy. Feo, pesado. Pers. i,.^JJ^ . 
Chungo ) 

Chupardelar, v. n. To stumble. Tropezar. 

Chupendi, s.f. A kiss. Beso. Sans. '^IR (kissing). 

Hin. Chooma. 

Chuque 1 s.?n. Dog. Perro. Sans."^^. Basque, Cha- 

Chuquel ' curra. Pers. lL^*** . 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *43 

Churdani, s.f. Fancy, presumption. Fantasia. 

Churdina, s.f. Dagger-blow. Punalada. 

Churrilli, s.f. Nit. Liendre. 

Chusno, s. m. Hillock. Cerro. 

Chuti, s. f. Milk. Leche. Sa?is.'^7X(,-^. Hiti.DooAh. 

Chuvias, s.'pl. Fisty-cuffs. Punadas. 

D. 

Dabastro. Vid. Drabaro. 

Dai -J s.f. Mother {properly, ' Nurse'). Madre. 

Day ) Pers. ^JJ . Mod. Gr. Beta. 

Dajiralo, s. m. Trembling*. Temblor. 

Dajirar, v. n. To tremble. Temblar. 

DalN 

Dan > s. m. Fear. Temor. Mod. Gr. SeiXta. Sans. ^ . 

Dar^' 

Danbilar, v. a. To chew. Mascar. 

Dandesquero, s. m. Lamp, candle. Candil. 

Dam,s.pl. Teeth. Dientes. .S'a??s. ^JfT. Per*. yjltiJt>. 

Darabar, v.a. To praise (properly, 'to fear'). Alabar. 

temer. 
Daranar, v. n. To fear. Temer. 
Darano, adj. Fearful. Temeroso. 
Dari, s.f. Thread, line. Hilera. Fid. Dori. 



*44 THE ZINCALI. 

Debel, s. m. God. Dios. Sans. f?f^ (heaven), ^ 

(deity). 
Debla, s.f. The Virgin. (Goddess). La Virjen. Diosa. 
Debleschinday, The Mother of God. Madre de Dios. 

Vid. Debel, & Chinday. 
Debus, adv. Over and above. Demas. 
Delale, ^jffr. Presented. Presentado. 
Delune, s.f. Sickle. Hoz. 
Deplemande, adv. For nothing. Debalde. 
Deque, s. m. Ten. Diez. Mod. Gr. Bcku. Pers. St) . 
Derno, adj. New. Nuevo. Sans. At^'Mi. 
Desparugar, v. a. To return a thing bartered. Destrocar. 
Desquero, pron. pers. injiee. Of him, his. Del, sd. 

Hin, Iska. 
Desquinar, v. n. To rest. Descansar. 
Destechescar, v. a. To undo. Deshacer. 
Diar, v. a. To see. Ver, mirar. Pers. ^^'^l'^ . 
Dicani, s.f. Window. Ventana. 
Dicar, v. a. To see. Ver. Sans. ^'?^. 
Dichabar, v. a. To send. Mandar. Vid. Bichabar. 
Diclo, s. m. Handkerchief, clout. Paiiuelo, panal. 
Dilia, s.f Lettuce. Lechuga. 
Dinaste, s. m. Glass. Vidrio. 
Dinelo, s. & adj. Fool. Tonto. Pers. ^'^p . 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *45 

Dini, s.f. Pound. Libra. 

Dinar •» v. a. To give. Dar. Mod. Gr. ^ivco. 

Dinelar) m?i. Dena. 

DiSator, s.m. Doctor. Doctor. 

Dinople, s. m. Harm, damage. Dafio. 

Discoli, s. m. Disciple. Discipulo. 

Disde, adv. Until. Hasta. 

Docurdanza, s.f. Mistress. Maestra. 

Docurdo, s. m. Master. Maestro. Sans. 7'^^. 

Hin. Thakur. 

Doj ) 

\ s.f. Fault. Culpa. Sans. ^t^. Hln. Dokh. 
Doji) 

Dori, s.y. Rope. Soga. Pers. t_S;'<^. 

Doscusana, s.f. A crown. Corona. 

Dosta, adv. Enough. Basta. From the Russian verb, 
DostJit, ' to suffice.' Sans. TT^. 

Drabaro, s. m. Rosary. Rosario. — Drabarar or drabaro, 
' To tell one's beads/ Rezar el rosario. This tvord 
is compounded of ' dal' and 'baro': literally, 
' a thing of great fear ' or ' sanctity.' 

Drabuco, adj. Flat. Chato. 

Dracay, s.f pi. Grapes. Uvas. Sa7is. ^liSjI. 

Drami, s.f Week. Semana. 

Drante, s. Ink. Tinta. 



*46 THE ZINCALI. 

Drao, s. m. Poison. Veneno. The Gitanos apply this 
word to a certain noxious preparation, which 
they are in the habit of casting in the mangers 

o 

of cattle, to cause sickness and death. Pers.JbJ 

(poison). Vid. Grao. 
Draute. Vid. Drante. 
Drescos, s.pl. Corns. Callos. 
Droba, s.f. Leather-bag for wine. Bota. 
Droji, s.f. Rind, peel. Cascara. 
Dromalis, s. pi. Carriers, muleteers, men of the road. 

Arrieros, viajeros. 
Dron 1 s.jn. Road. Camino. Pers.SJ^jii. 
Drun J Mod. Gr. hpofio^. Hin. Duhur. 
Dron-grugi \ s. Royal road, likewise a Footpath. Camino 
Drunji 3 real, vereda. 

Drupos, s. 7n. Body. Cuerpo. 

Dua -J 

>• s.f. Pain, grief. Pena. Sans. 71^ (to pain). 
Duga 3 '^ 

Dubela, s./. Clip. Tasa. Pers. ^[^j. 

Ducano, adj. Compassionate. Compasivo. 

Dm, adj. Two. Dos. Pers. ji) . 

Dujo, adj. Wroth in spirit, angry. Enojado. Vid. 

Duquende. 

Dumen, s. m. Loin. Lomo. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *47 

Dundilo, s. m. Lamp. Velon. 

Duneo, s. m. Sunday. Domingo. 

Dundun, s.f. Light. Luz. 

Duqueles, s.j)!. Dobloons. Doblones. 

Duquende, s. m. A spirit, ghost. Duende. From the 

Russian, Dook, 'a spirit'; which is itself derived 

from the Sans. XT^ (air). 
Duquendio, s. m. Master, a principal person amongst the 

Gitanos. Maestro, hombre principal entre los 

Jitanos. 
Duquipen, s. ?n. Grief. Dolor. 
Dur, adv. Far. Lejos. Sa?is. ^. Pers.j^d. 
Durlin, «. m. Police-archer. Corchete. 
Durotunes, s.pl. Shepherds, herdsmen. Pastores. 

Hin. Dhoongur. 
Dusuldo, s. »i. Drunkard. Borracho. 
Dut, s.f. Light. Luz. .S'a/is.?rfiT. Hi?i. YoL Moorish 

Arabic, Dow. 

E. 

E, gen. si?i. of the article O. Jenetivo singuhir del arti- 

culo O. 
Efta, adj. Seven. Siete. Pers. u:.^vAa . Gr. eirra. 
Egresiton, adj. Last. Ultimo. 



*48 THE ZINCALl. 

Embeo, s. m. Book. Libro. Hln. Bed. 

Emposuno, adv. Attentively. Atentamente. 

Enbrota, s.f. Trunk, proboscis. Trompa. 

Encalomar, v. n. To mount, ascend. Subir. Sans. "ST^TT 

(raising-). 

Ende, adv. prep. Since, after, from. Desde. 

Engrejeri, 5. 771. Asparag-us. Esparrago. Sans.'^r^}:^. 

Enjallar, v. n. To remember. Acordar. 

Enjalle, s.f. Memory. Memoria. 

Ennagrar, v. a. To repair. Enmendar. 

Enorme, *. m. Enemy. Enemigo. 

Enpirre, s.pl. Footmen, infantry, labourers. Peones. 

Enre' ^ 

> adv. Within. Dentro. Gr. ev^ov. 
Enrun 3 

Enrecar, Within us. En nosotros ; e. g. Saboca enrecar 
Maria ereria ! ' Dwell within us, Blessed Mary \' 

Enrrar, v. n. To enter. Entrar. 

Ensimacha, s.f. Ensign. Ensena. 

Enia, adj. Nine. Nueve. Mod. Gr. evvea. 

Epicon, s.f. Corner. Esquina. 

Erajay, s. m. Friar. Frayle. Vid. Arajay. 

Erajami, s. f. Dress of a friar. Habito de fraile. 

Erajarda, s.f. Bramble, thistle. Zarza, cardo. Pers.j\s>- 
Hm. Jardar. 



VOCABULARV OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *49 

Erandia, s.f. Nun. Monja. 

Erani, s.f. Lady. Senora. 

Erafio, s.m. Lord, master. Senor. Sans.t^JJ^. 

Rus. Bareen. 
Eray, s. m. Gentleman, knight. Caballero. H'm. Rae. 
Erdicha, s.f. Poverty. Pobreza. Vid. Zicha. 
Eres, s. pi. Men not of the Gypsy caste : ' Hombres que 

no son Jitanos.' 
Ererio, adj. Blessed. Bendito. 
Erescare, adj. Blue. Azul. 
Eresla, s.f Vine, vineyard. Vin, viiia. Pers.jj. 

Sayis. "^i;^n (grape). 

Eriche, s. m. Pig, swine. Marrano. Sans, f^ift,. 

Erines, s.])L Hogs. Marranos. 

Erisimen, s.f. Blessing. Bendicion. 

Erraderas. .";. pi. Lettuces. Lechugas. 

Eru -) ^ , 

V s. m. Olive-tree. Olivo. Mod, Gr. eXaia. 
Eruquel ) 

Erucar, s. m. Olive-ground. Oliviir. 

Escami, s.f Staircase, ladder. Escala> 

Escobiche, s. m. Beetle. Escarabajo. 

Esden, s. Ten. Diez, proj9er^3/ Deque, q.v. 

Esden y yesque, Eleven. Once. 

Esden y duis, Twelve. Doce. 

Vol. ir. ^PP''- *G 



*50 



THE ZINCALI. 



Esden y trin, Thirteen. Trece. 

Esden y ostar, Fourteen. Catorce. 

Esden y panche, Fifteen. Quince. 

Esden y jobe. Sixteen. Diez y seis. 

Esden y ester. Seventeen. Diez y siete. 

Esden y ostor, Eighteen. Diez y ocho. 

Esden y esne. Nineteen. Diez y nueve. 

Esne, adj. Nine. Nueve. Vid. Enia. 

Esnerdi, s. Ninety. Noventa. 

Esorgie, adj. Extreme. Estremo. 

Espajuo, s. VI. Fright, wonder. Espanto. 

Espandador, s. m. Gorge of a hill. Barranco. 

Esparrabar. Vid. Asparabar. 

Esparrusar, v. a. To hide. Esconder. Sans. W^WUJ!! 

(concealment). 
Espibias, s.jjl. Chesnuts. Castaiias. 
Espirabia, s.f. Leech. Sanguijuela. Sans. ^TH^- 
Esporboria, .s.f. Onion. Cebolla. 
Esprejano, s. w. Mulatto. Mulato. 
Espurria, s.f. Gut. Tripa. 
Espusifia, s.f. Spur. Espuela. 
Estache, s. m. Hat. Sombrero. From the Arab. — Ij 

(a crowrn). 
Estar, adj. Four. Cuatro. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *5 1 

Estarica, s.f. Ark, chest. Area. Vid. Jestari. 

Estardi, adj. Forty. Cuarenta. 

Estardo, 5. & f/c?;'. Prisoner, captive. Preso. Arah.jSM). 

Estaripel, s.f. Prison. Carcel. Arab, i^y^^ ■ 

Esterdi, adj. Seventy. Setenta. 

Estomar, v. a. To pardon. Perdonar. 

Estongri, s.f. A weight, dollar. Peso. 

Estonquelar, v. a. To weigh. Pesar. 

Estonquele, s. m. A weight. Peso. 

Estonqueleta, s.f. Small silver coin. Peseta. 

Estoriar, v. n. To be tired. Rendir. 

Estoriel, adj. Fatigued, worn up. Rendido. Sans. '^RTn7 

(weariness). 
Estormen, s.f. Pardon, remission. Remision. 
Estuche, s. 771. Sword. Espada. Sans, ^f^^'^ (knife), 

F. 

Fachoyi, s.f Grub, insect. Vicho, vichuelo. 

Facorro, s. m. Halt. Alto. Querelar facorro, To halt. 

Hacer alto. 
Farafais, s.pl. Buttons. Botones. 
Farsilaja, s.f. Fault. Falta. 
Feda, s.f. Way, path. Camtno. 
*c 2 



*52 THE ZINCALI. 

Felicha, s.f. Tower (prison). Torre. Modern Greek, 

Fermentar, s.f. Penitence. Penitencia. 

Fendo, fendi, adj. Good. Bueno, buena. 

Fermicha, s.f. Tower. Torre. 

Feter, adv. Better. Mejor. Pers.J^ . 

Fiafo, s. in. Steel for striking fire. Eslabon. 

Fila, s.f. Face. Cara. 

Fili, s.f. Jacket. Chaqueta. 

Filimicha, s.f. Gallows. Horca. Rus. Bicelitza. 

Fingule, s. m. Kind of gnat. Cagarropa. 

Fire, s.pl. Sparrows. Gorriones. 

Flacha, s.f. Ashes. Ceniza. Hin. Rakh. 

Flamar, s. m. Jest. Chanza. 

Floja, s.f. Account. Cuenta. 

Floripi, s.f. Mass. Misa. 

Fondela, s.f. Tavern. Taverna. 

Foro -j . . , r. 

> s. m. City. Ciudad. Sans. Tift. Hin. Poor. 
Forosi ^ 

Fracaso, s. m. Hog. El puerco. 

Fracasia, s.f Sow. La puerca. 

Frasardo, s. m. Tiled Roof. Tejado. 

Fresiego, s. m. Gulf. Golfo. From the Sans. W^HUl 

(deep). 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE, *53 

Fresiego e Bombardo, Gulf of Lyons. Golfo de Leon. 

Aunsos guilles 

Y te chobes 

En e fresiego 

E Bombardo — 

Nasti nicabas 

E quichardila 

Sos sar menda 

Te petro. 
" Although thou go and wash thee in the Gulf of 
Lyons, thou wilt not gfet rid of the stain which thou 
didst obtain through me (which with me fell to thee)." 

Frima, adv. Little. Poco. — ' Frima, frima/ ' By degrees.' 

'Poco a poco.* 
Fronsaperar, v. a. 7i. To wait, to hope. Esperiir. 
Frujeria, s.f. Fruit. Fruta. 
Fufu, s. m. A well. Pozo. 

Ful, s. m. Dung. Estiercol. Sans. f^. Hin. Mul. 
Fulalo, s. m. A dirty fellow. Hombre dispreciable. 
Fulani, s.f. Dirtiness. Suciedad. 
Furi, s.f. Jacket. Chaqueta. 
Furi, s.f. Pudendum muliebre. Hin. Furj. 
Furnia, s.f. Cave. Cueva. 
Furune, s.f. Favour, grace. Favor, gracia. 



*54 TilE ZINCALI. 

G. 

Gabicote, s. m. Book. Libro. Arab. l_->1!o . 

Gabine, s. m. Frenchman, French. Frances. 

Gabuno, «. in. Mouse. Raton. 

Gachapla, 8.f. Couplet, catch. Copla. 

Cachaten, s. Cup, brasier. Copa. 

Gachinbarta, s.f. Goodness, righteousness. Rectitiid, 

justicia. 
Gacho, *. m. A gentleman. Caballero. — Properly, Any 

kind of person who is not a Gypsy : ' Cualquier 

hombre quo no sea Jitano.' 
Gae, s. m. Wine-press. Lagar. 
Gajere •\ 
Gayeres - 

Galisarda, s.f. Hunger. Hambre. Rus. Golod. 
Gancibe, s.f. Avarice. Avaricia. 
Gandi, s.f. Smell. Olor. Sans. 1T^. Hin. Gund. 
Gandias, s.pl. Dross, siftings. Granzas. 
Ganisardar, v. a. To gain. Ganar. 
Gao, s. ?». Town, village. Pueblo. Sa7is. cfi^i. Pers. 

(_$y . In the Thieves' language, this word is 

applied to Madrid. 
Garabelar, v. To be on one's guard, to guard. Guardar. 
Garapatia, s.f. Thanks. Gracias. Arab. <lci^Lc. 



V adv. Always. Siempre. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *55 

Garibardo, adj. Wounded, full of sores. Llagado. 
Garipe, s. Scab. Postilla. 

Garloehin, s. m. Heart. Corazon. Vid. Carlochin. 
Gate, s. m. Shirt. Camisa. Properly, A cloth round the 

middle. Sans, oirfe^. 
Gavin, s.f. France. Francia. 
Gel, s. m. Ass. Burro. 
Geliche, s.m. Cord. Cordel. 
Geremancha, s.f. Shop. Tienda. 
Gerjeres. Vid. Guergere. 
Gerinel, ii.j). Michael. Miguel. 
Gi, *. m. Wheat. Trigo, 
Gilo, s. Kind of rope. Soga. 
Gimona, s.f. Hunting-cap. Montera. 
Ginar, v. a. To count. Con tar. Sans. Tnjr. Hin. Ginna. 
Ginglar, v. n. To smell. Oler. 
Girelar, v. n. To laugh. Reir. Hin. Khilkhilana. 
Give, s.f. Snow. Nieve. 
Giyabar, v. a. To relate. Contar. 
Glandaseo, *. & adj. A gallant. Gallant. Galante. 
Glandi, s.f. A knife. Cuchillo. 
Gloriban, s. m. Idler. Holgazan. 
Gola, s.f Order. Orden. 
Golberi, s.f Crop, harvest. Cosecha. 



*56 THE ZINCALI. 

Gole, s.f. Shout, cry. Voz, grito. Hin. Ghooloo. 

Rus. Golos. 
Golipen, s.f. Health. Salud. 
Golisarelar, v. n. To smell. Oler. 
Golli, s.f. Black-pudding. MorclUa. Hin. Gulgul. 
Gollori, s. m. Male animal. Macho. 
Goneles, s. m. Garments, linen. Vestidos, ropa. Sa?is. 

tftiri^ . Riis. Gune. — These words in the Sanscrit 

and Russian tongues are solely applied to the 

habiliments of a beggar. 
Gono, s. m. A sack. Saco, costal. Hin. Gon. 
Gorberi, s. m. Farmer. Cosechero. 
Gorbio, s.7n. A swelling. Bollo. 
Gorbi, s. m. Ox. Buey. Sa7is. T^TTiT (bull). 
Gorobar, v. n. To howl. Aullar. Fid. Cobadrar. 
Gorotune, s. jn. Native of Estremadura. Estremeiio. 
Goruy, s. m. Ox. Buey. Fid. Gorbi. 
Gozoiii, s.f Young mare. Potranca. 
Gra, s. m. Horse. Caballo. Sans, ig^ . Hin. Ghora. 
Grajuiio, adj. Dirty. Sucio. 
Granajina, 5.y! Species of plant. Berengena. 
Granar, v. n. To bray. Rebuznar. 
Grani, s.f. Mare. Yegua. 
Grao, s. ?n. Poison. Veneno. Sans. t[l^. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *57 

Gras ^ 

> s. m. Horse. Caballo. Vid. Gra. 
Graste ' 

Grateriza, s.f. Stable. Cuadra. 

Grejelo, adj. Certain. Cierto. 

Grejeri, *. Asparagus. Esparrago. 

Gres, s. Hundred. Ciento. 

Gres, prep. adv. Before. Antes. 

Gresdene, s. m. Stove. Anafe. 

Gresone, pr. n. Jesus Christ. Jesu Christo. 

Grestis, s.pl. Breeches. Calzones. 

Grey, s. m. Century. Siglo. 

Griba, s.f. Rigour. Rigor. 

Gribule, adj. Rigorous. Rigoroso. 

Grimpar, v.n. To toast, pledge. Brindar. 

Gris, s. m. Cold. Frio. 

Grobelar, v. a. To repair, govern. Componer, gobernar. 

Giodogopo, adj. Wounded. Estropeado. 

Gronichen, s.f. Manured earth. Tierra estercolada. 

Groni, s.f. Dung- heap. Estercolero. 

Grose, s. m. Forest, mountain. Monte. Rus. Gora. 

Grucha, s.f Cloth. Tela. 

Guachedre, s. Manger. Pesebre. 

Guajalote, s. m. Turkey, peacock. Pavo. Sans. J|4>lri, 



*58 THE ZIXCALI. 

Gucanar, v. a. To opeu. Abrir. Hin. Kuhna. 

Guchiba, s.f. Stable. Cuadra. 

Guel, s. 7)1. Donkey, ass. Borrico, asno. 

Guel, s.f. Itch. Sarna. 

Guergere, s. }n. Tuesday. Martes. 

Gui, s.f. Wheat. Tn'go. 

Guillabar, v. a. To sing-. Cantar. Sans. %f^ (a song). 

Hij2. Guwuya. 
Guillar, V. ii. To go, to walk. Ir, pasear. Rus. Gulliat. 
Guilloplo, adj. Maimed. Manco. 
Gula, s.f. Wave. Onda. 
Gule, s. m. Must, sirup. Arrope. 
Gulupe, s. m. Cotton. Algodon. Sans. '|J^(jbMg . 
Guribano, s.m. Silence. Silencio. 
Gurubano, s. m. Pastry-cook. Bollero. 
Guruju, s. ??i. Dissolute fellow. Tunante. 
Gusto, s. m. Goose. Ganso. 

H. 

Haccuno, s. in. Summer. Verano. 

Hambo, s. m. One who is not a Gypsy. El que no es Jitano. 

Harero, s. m. Plum-tree. Ciruelo. 

Helo, s.m. Hog. Marrano. Sans. "3^^. Moor. ^ro6.Haluf. 

Henira, s.f. Misfortune. Desgracia. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *59 

Heta, adj. Named. Nombrado. — This word appears to be 
derived from the same root as the English 'flight,' 
and the ' hedte ' of the Danes and Scandinavians. 

Horipaquia, s.f. Ant, emmet. Hormiga. 

I. 

Ibrain, s. m. February. Febrero. 

Iclene, adj. Celebrated. Celeb re. Rus. Slavnoy. 

1&, properly the genitive singular of the article O; also 
the accusative : it frequently serves for the nomi- 
native ; e. g. le pray the mountain ; le ran the 
rod ; le trujacai the grapes. — Propriamente el 
jenitivo singular del articulo O ; tambien el acu- 
sativo : frecuentemente sirve por el nominativo. 

lege, s.f. Mass. Misa. 

leque, adj. One. Uno. Sans. ITsR. 

leru, s. m. Wolf Lobo. 

les, gen.pl. of the article O. Jen.pl, del articulo O. 

les, adj. One. Uno. 

lesano, s. in. Bacon. Tocino. 

lescotria, adv. Immediately. Luego. Vid. Escotria. 

lesdra, s.f. The left-hand. Mauo izquierda. 

lesque. Vid. leque. 

lesque avel. One to another, Uno a otro. 



*60 THE ZINCALI. 

Inclobo, s. m. Hermitage. Ermita. 

Inericar, v. a. To protect, shelter. Amparar. 

Inerin, .9. ?«. January. Enero. 

Inerique, s. m. Protection, sli^lter. Amparo. 

Ingodine, adj. Gluttonous. Goloso. 

Ingodile, adj. Impossible. Imposible. 

Inica, adj. Doting. Chocho. 

Inolobi, s. m. Hermit. Ermitano. Kus. Inokk (monk). 

Irsimen, s. m. Information. Aviso. 

Isicon, s. m. Comer. Esquina. 

Isnabar, v. a. To have. Haber. Isna, ' There is.^ Hay. 

lu, *. m. Paper. Papel. Hin. Ruq (parchment). 

lusmito, s. m. Smith. Herrador. 

J. 

Jaba, s.y. Harlot. Ramera. Sa/is. ejiT%T.. il/oom/t, Kahbah. 

Jabillar, v. a. To understand. Enteuder. 

Jabuni, s.f. Rat. Rata. 

Jachapen, s. Food. Comida. Sa?is. oRf^TiT . Hiti. Khaja. 

.Tacharar, v. a. To burn. Quemar. Sans. ^^.. 

Jachari, s.f. Conflagration, blaze. Incendio. 

Jal, s. m. Rope tied round the neck. Dogal. 

Jalar, v.«. To eat. Comer. Sans.Tf^. 

Jalares, s.pl. Breeches. Calzones. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *61 



huri 1 

r s.f. Strawberry-tree. Madrono, 
iiiri 3 



Jamar.r.o. Toeat. Comer. -Scr/js. ^lUKfood). i//?j.Khana. 

Jamachuri • 

Jamadiiri 

Jamaco, s. m. Apricot. Albaricoque. 

Janbri, s. m. Toad. Sapo. 

Jandeblaban, s. m. Proverb. Refran. 

Jandojo, *. m. Sin. Pecado. 

Jandorro, s. m. Money. Dinero. 

Janreles, s.jL>Z. The genitals. Los jeni tales. 

Janrio ■) 

\ s.m. Sabre. Sable. 
Janro 3 

Jana ■» 

> s.f. Virgin. Virjen. Sa?is. '^Tffl' . 
Jani 3 

Japune, s. m. Soap. Jabon. 

Jar, s. m. Heat. Calor. .S'ans. 73R.. 

Jara, .<?. f. Ounce of gold. Onza de oro. ^ 

Jaracanales, s.'pl. Guards, officers of the revenue. 

Guardas, carabineros. 

Jarambelis, s.'pl. Rags. Trapos. 

Jarami, s.f. Jacket. Chaqueta. 

Jarando, s. m. Pool, puddle. Charco. 

Jardani, pr. n. John. Juan. 

Jarima, s.f. Crumb, migaja. 

Jarrumbo, *. m. Sieve. Harnero. 



62 THE ZINCALI, 

Jarsia, s.f. Justice. Justicia. 

Jayere, s. m. Money. Dinero. 

Jayro, adj. Dry. Seco. 

Jebe^ ^ 

V s. Hole. Agujero. Sans. JmiVi| . Hin. Beh. 
Jebi 3 

Jebilen, s. m. Hole, well, Pozo. 

Jele, s.f. Rope. Soga. 

Jell, s.f. Love, Amor. 

Jenebel, s. m. Cloak. Capote. 

Jeni, s.f. She-ass. Burra. 

Jeralli, s.f. Hunting-cap. Montera. 

Jerami, s.f. Bracelet. Manilla. 

Jerardo, s. m. Hell. Infierno. 

Jerias, s.pl. Legs. Piernas. 

Jerini, s.f. She-ass. Burra. 

Jero, s. ?ra. Head. Cabeza. Sans. f^. 

Jeroro, s.m. He-ass. Burro. 

Jeroscosa, s.f. Crown of the head. MoUera. 

Jerqueni, s.f. Fountain. Fuente. 

Jerrumbro, s. m. Muleteer. Arriero. 

Jesame, s.f Waistcoat. Chupa. 

Jestari, s.f. Chest. Area. Gr. Kiart]. 

Jetayo, s.vi. Lackey, footman. Lacayo. 

Jetro, adj. Another. Otro. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *63 

Jibicha, s.f. Soup. Sopa. 

Jichanca, s.f. Gypsy-woman. Jitana. 

Jichanco, s. m. Gypsy-man. Jitano. 

Jil, s. m. Cold. Frio. Sans. ^Hnc?- 

Jil, s. m. Wheat. Trigo. 

Jimilo, s. 7)1. Sigh. Suspiro. 

Jinar, v, a. To count, reckon. Contar. Vid. Ginar. 

Jinco, adj. Deep. Hondo. 

Jindo, adj. Dirty. Sucio. 8ans. TR^efi (dirt). 

Jinar, v. n. To exonerate the belly. Descargar el vientre, 
Sans. '^. Mod. Gr. y^iwia. 

Jir, s. m. Cold. Frio. Vid. Jil. 

Jircar, v. n. To shiver. Tiritar. 

Jire, adj.pron. Your, yours. Vuestro. 

Jiribar, v. a. To cook victuals, to curry. Guisar. Vid. 
Querabar. 

Jirirde, adj. Thin. Delgado. 

Jitarrorro, s. m. Rag. Trapo. 

Job, adj. Six. Seis. 

Joberdi, s. Sixty. Sesenta. 

Jojabar, v. a. To deceive. Engauar. Sans, cfi^lfi (de- 
ception) ; whence also the English Hoax, Hocus. 

Jojana, s.y. Deceit, lie. Engano, Mentira. Sa/is.'^^T. 
Hin. Jhooth. 



*64 THE ZINCALl. 



lan ^ 

>• s. m. Captain. Capitan. 
rian ) 



Jojenan 

Jojerian 

Jojoy, *. ni. Hare, rabbit. Liebre, conejo. 

Jolili, s.f. Earth, country. Tierra, pais. Sans. ^^. 

Jollin, s.m. Anger, rage. Coraje. Hin. Julun. 

Jongabar, v. a. To tie, bind. Atar. Hin. Jukiirnar. 

Jorgarse, v. r. To divert oneself. Divertirse. 

Jorosnosco, adj. Hoary, grey. Canudo. 

Jorpoy, s.w. Wool. Lana. Arab. uJya . 

Jostia, s.f. Dispute. Disputa. 

Jotisarar, v. a. To approach. Acercar. 

Jubeiii, s.f. Sale. Venta. 

Jubichen, s. m. Gaspacho. 

Jucal, adj. Lovely, generous. Hermoso, generoso. 

Sans. TJoF^ ^lohcj. Hin. Shukeela. 
.Tucali,yew. of the preceding. Hermosa, &c. 
Juco, adj. Lean. Delgado. fern. Juqui. 
Juica, s.f. Cradle. Cuna. 

Julabar, v. a. To sweep. Barrer. Sans. ^oTT (sweeper). 
Julabay, s.f. A broom. Escoba. 
Julani, s.f. Mistress. Ama. 

Julay,s.7n. Master. Amo. .Sows. "^f^T^ (head of a family). 
Julistraba, s.f. Serpent. Culebra. .Sons. <*T^5M (black 

snake). 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *65 

Jumeri, s.y. Bread. Pan. Bans. "■HH«T (wheat). Per^-. *iiJk5. 

Junar, v. a. To hear, listen. Oir, escuchar. Pers. ^jdJkj^ . 

Jundro, s. m. Tubo, pipe. Caiion. 

Jundro de la pusca, Barrel of a gun. Canon de la escopeta. 

Jundunar, s. m. Soldier. Soldado. Sans. ehl4!itJL (an 
archer), /;o?;i ofinjl (an arrow). 

Junios, s. m. A lamb. Cordero. Mod. Gr. apvi. 

Juntuno, s. m. Listener, scoundrel. Escuchador, bribon. 
Fid. Junar. 

Jurdi, s.f. Gunpowder. Polvora. Sans. "^t^. 

Jurepe, s. in. Prison, tribulation. Carcel, tribulacion. 

Juri, s.f. File. Lima. 

Juribuni, s.f. A cow. Vaca. 

Jurnio, s. m. A rope, Soga. Hin. Joorna (to tie). ' Chi- 
bar un jurnio en el aver pinre.' — When an animal 
is lame in one foot, the Gypsies are in the habit of 
driving" a nail into the other, by which they fre- 
quently deceive the chapman : for when a horse is 
lame in both feet, it is difficult to perceive that 
he is lame at all, the paces being equal. This 
trick is expressed by the above phrase ; which 
means, literally, ' To cast a rope into the other 
foot.' 

Jurtibar, s. W2. September. Septiembre. 



66 THE ZINCALI. 

Juru, s. m. A bull. Toro. 

Jurune, adj. Dark, obscure. Oscuro. 

Jiisti, s.f. Girdle. Faja. 

Justia, s.f. Pinchbeck. Tumbaga. 

Juter^ 

[■ s. Vinegar. Vinagre. Mod. Gr. ^vhi. 
Juti 3 

Jutia, s.y. Needle. Agdja. Sans.'Pif^. Hin. Sooyd. 

L. 

Labelar, tJ.a. Tosing, tospeak. Cantar, hablar. Sa?is.'^^. 

Mod. Gr. AaAw. Germ. Lallen. 
Lacha, s./. Shame, modesty, Verguenza. Sans. ' ^^\ . 
Lachinguel, adj. Long. Largo. 
Lachipe, s.f. Silk. Seda. 
Lachipen, s.f. Goodness. Bondad. 
Lach6,/e?w. Lachi, adj. Good. Bueno. Hin. Achchha. 

Sans, ^f^^ (beautiful). 
Labane, s. Purple, a red cloak. Purpura, capa encarnada. 
Lacvo, s. m. Servant. Criado. Sans. '^St^ (a man). 

Hin. Larka (lad, boy). 
Lalo, adj. Red, purple. Rojo, purpureo. Sans- c^fscri. 

Pers. J^ . 
Laloro, Portugal, '■The red land.' Tierra bermeja, i.e. 

Portugal. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *67 

Lalore, s. m. A Portuguese. Portugues. 

Lanbar, s. m. Law-suit. Pleyto. 

Lanbio i 

>■ s. Farming-man, labourer, Aperador. 
Lanbro 3 

Lanchicol s. fn. Charcoal-dust. Cisco. 

Landari, s.f. Ribbon. Cinta. 

Lanelar, v. a. To bring. Traer. Hin. Lana. 

Langar, s. m. Coal. Carbon. 

liango, adj. Lame. Cojo. Sans."^^. Pers. i^jJ . 

Languear, v. n. To limp. Cojear. 

Languiao, s. m. Thigh. Muslo. 

Languro, s. in. Back-door. Postigo. 

Lao, s. ?n. A word. Palabra. Saiis. qSTTJ (speaking). 

Rus. Slobo. See Labelar. 

Larpa, s.f. A blow. Golpe. 

Lebate, s. OT. Flint. Pedernjil. 

Leberbena, s.f. Public walk planted with elms. Alameda. 

Legrente, s.m. A gallant. Galan. 

Juel.s.m. The world. Mundo. 

Lembresque, s.f. Lie, error. Mentira. 

Lemitre, v. Limitren. 

Len, s.f. River. Rio. 

Lendriz, s.f. Partridge. Perdiz. 

Leprefete, s. in. Parsley. Perejil. 



*68 



THE ZINCALI. 



Leprentero, s. m. Glazed pan. Lebrillo. 

Lerenes, s.pl. Letters. Letras. 

Li, s.f. Paper, a letter. Papel, carta. Sans, f^jftl. 

Libanar, v. a. To write. Escribir. Scnis. f^TS". 

Hin. Likhna. 

Libano, «.m. Notary Public. Escribano. Safis.f^fxfSff^. 
Hi?!. Likhunhara. 

Licliri, s.f Lantern. Linterna. 

Liganda, s.f. Tassel. Borla. 

Liguerar, v. a. To carry. Llevar. 

Lilibuto, s. m. Sale, despatch, bureau. Despacho. 

Lillar, v. a. To take. Tomar. 

Lillax, pr. n. Thomas. Tomas. — This is one of the many 
ridiculous words manufactured by the "Aficion" 
of Seville. Lillar, in Gypsy, signifying, ' to take,^ 
in Spanish Tomdr, they, by slightly modifying the 
word, have attempted to make it serve for ' Tomas,' 
or ' Thomas ' : whereby, unwittingly, they have 
converted an Apostle into a thief or shop-lifter ; 
for such is Lillax, according to the principle of the 
Gypsy tongue. In like manner, from Lon, ' salt,' in 
Spanish Sal, they have coined Londilla for ' par- 
lour,' because in Spanish it is called Sala ; whereas 
the proper meaning of Londilla is a ' salt-cellar.' 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *69 

Lilo, s. m. Fool, madman. Loco. Sajis. frt'i . M.G. AwAo?. 
Lima, s.f. Wood. Lena. 
Lima, s.f. Shirt. Camisa. 

Limbidiar \ 

> v.a.n. To return. Volver. 
Linbidiar 3 

Limitren, s.m. Monday. Lunes. 

Limutra, s.f. Public walk. Alameda. 

Linaste, s. jn. Motive. Motivo. 

Lipendi •) «. ?n. Fool, ignorant person. 1 onto, ignorante. 

Lilipendi 3 Mod. Gr. AwAoTroiSw. 

Liquia, s.f. Nit. Liendre. Sans. H^Si)! . Hin. Leekh. 

Lirenar, v. a. To read. Leer. 

Lirestres, s.pl. Letters. Letras. 

Liri, s.f. Law. Ley. 

Lirlone, adj. Light, Lijero. : 

Liripio, s. ?H. Lead. Plomo. Sans.'^f^^. 

Listrabar \ ' 

> ?;. a. To free. Libertar, librar. 
Listramar J 

Listrabea, s.f. Livery. Librea. 

Liter, s. m. Inscription. Letrero. 

Liting-uag"i, s.f. Dispute, law-suit. Pleyto. 

Lofi, s.f. Navel, Ombligo. 

Lole \ 

> s. m. Love-apple. Tomate. 
Lolo3 



*70 THE ZINCALI. 

Lombardo, s. m. Lion, the province of Leon. Leon. 
Vid. Bombardo. 

Lon, s.f. Salt. Sal. .S'a/«s. ^■^TST • Hin.'Lon. — Ha 
jyerddo la lon chingarlptn, ' the salt of quarrel 
has fallen ; ' a proverbial expression of the Gypsies 
vi^hen they chance to drop salt, which they con- 
sider to be a prognostic of strife. 

Londilla, s.f. Parlour, hall. Sala. 

Londe, prep. For, by. Por. 

Londone, s. m. Englishman. Ingles. — This word is 
derived from ' London,' which the Spaniards in 
general consider to be synonymous with Eng- 
land. 

Longono, s. m. Comfort. Consuelo. 

Lorampio, s. m. A watch. Relox. 

Lore, s. m. Gnat. Mosquito. 

Loria, s.f. The sea. El mar. Pers. bjj from the 
Saras. "fft^fV. 

Loriazo, s. m. March. Marzo. 

Luandar, v. a. To hang up, weigh. Colgar. 

Luas, s.pl. Pesetas, coins. Pesetas. 

Lucali, s.f. The river Guadiana. La Guadiana. — This 
word seems to be derived from Jucdl, q. v. 

liUchardo, s. m. Steel for striking fire. Eslabon. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *71 

Luchipen, s.f. ClIfF, declivity. Cuesta. 

Lucrarre, *. Large jar. Tinaja. 

Luey, s. m. Wolf. Lobo. Gr. \vko<;. 

Lull, s.f. Basket. Espuerta. Hin. Duliya. 

Lumi \ 

Lumia V s.f. Harlot. Ramera. 

Lumiaca / 

Lunberu, s. m. Lantern. Farol. 

Luno, *. m. Sickle. Hoz. Sans. ^^TOcR, ^^»T (reaping). 

Luquindone, s. m. Cypress-tree. Cipres. 

Lurco, s. m. Well. Pozo. 

Luriandez, s.f. Thunder. Trueno. — It is probable that 
this word sprung from the same root as the Celtic 
Daran, which it very much resembles ; which root 
seems to have been the Sanscrit 5^ (Indra), from 
which the Gothic ' thunder,' ' donner,' &c., are 
more immediately derived. Lur, in old Danish, 
signifies ' a horn.' 

Luricani, s.f. Guest-house. Posada. 

Lluslu, s. m. Water-parsnep. Berro. 

M. 

Maas, *./! Meat, flesh. Came. Sans.fd^. i2?/s. Miaso. 
Maasengoro, s. m. A butcher. Carnicero. 



*72 THE ZINCALI. 

Maasquero, s. m. Shambles, public market-place. Carni- 
ceria, plaza publica. 

Macache, adj. Dull. Torpe. 

Macolotende, s. m. The abode of the fish, i. e. the sea. 
El mar. — This word is compounded from the 
Sansciit JR5 (fish) and WT^'T (abode), and is one 
of those beautiful metaphorical terms for the great 
deep with which " the divine language " abounds. 

Macota, s.f. Drop. Gota. 

Macha, s./! Fly, Mosca. Sans. ^f^3S{. Pers.^juX^. 

Machican ■\ 

> s. m. A cat. Gato. 
Machico 3 

Machingano -j 

>■ s. m. A drunkard. Borracho. 
Machargarno 3 

Machiro, s. m. Witness. Testigo. 

Macho, s. 771. Fish. Fez. Sa?is. W^. Hin. Mnchee. 

Machunu, s.f. Fish-market. Pescaderia. 

Madoy, s. m. A clove for eating. Clavo de comer. 

Majara, ac?;". Half, middle. Medio. Sans.^^. 

Majara-chibel, s. Mid-day. Mediodia. Sam. f^^TlTSI. 

Majares, s. m. pi. The saints. Los santos. 

Majari, s.f. The beatic one, i.e. The Virgin. La Virjen 

Majaro, adj. Holy. Santo. Mod. Gr. fxaKupiog. 

Mai, a.m. Comrade. CompaSero. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *73 

Malabar, r. ff. To rob. Robar. Saris.ff^S^. 
Maluno, s. ???. Lightning'. Relampago. Sans, ♦i^r*!- 

Bus. Molnia. 
Mamucha, s.f. Short carbine. Tercerola. 
Man, pro/i.pers. I. lo. Pers. ^^ . 
Manchin, .9. 7)i. Treasure. Tresoro. 
Manclay, .f. m. Prince. Principe. Sans. H<i^^\^H . 
Man clay i, s.f. Princess. Princesa. 
Mancon, s. in. Hedge-hog. Erizo. Mod. Gr. ey^va. 
Mandela, s.f. Cloak. Capa. 
Mang, s.f Meat, flesh. Carne. Vid. Maas. 

H'm. Mans. 
Mangue, the accusative of the pron. pers. Man. El acu- 

sativo del pro. pers. Man. 
Manguelar, v. a. 71. To entreat, beg. Pedir, rogar. Sans. 

c(»l)<* (beggar). Hln. Mangna. 
Manpori, s.f Tail. Cola. 
Manricli, s.f Kind of cake. Torta. 
Manro, s. ???. Bread. Pan. In the Gypsy dialect of 

England, Morro. Hln. Roti. 
Manronas, s.pl. Bags (for bread). Alforjas. 
Mansenquere, s.f Meat, flesh. Carne. Vid. Maas, 

Mang. 
Mantroji, s.f. Wrist. Muiaeca. 

Vol. II. App''. * d 



*74 THE ZINCALI. 

Manu 1 

\- s. m. Man. Hombre. From the Sans. JT»T, 
Manupe3 ^ 

i.e. Menu, 'the first man,' 'the creator of the 
world,' and ' the giver of political institutes.' 
Manus, s. m. A man. Hombre. In this form it is like- 
wise found in the Sans. *\\r\t\. Hin. Manoos. 
Manusalo, adj. Valiant, powerful. Valiente, ponderoso. 
Manusardi, .9./. Woman. Mujer. Sans.^^^. 

G 

Maqueo, s. m. Halter. Cabestro. Arab. J jAaj (rope). 

Marabear. v. a. To grind. Moler, 

Maramfios, s. m. Fennel. Hiuojo. 

Marar, v. a. To kill. Matar. 

Maraol, s. m. Assassin. Asesino. 

Marciiri, s. m. Cat. Gato. Sans- TntTR. 

Marelar, v. a. To kill. Matar. Pers. ^SJ)\jJ^.* . 

Marmulli, s.f. Wax. Cera. Pers. *»/c . 

Marmuya, s.f. Ball. Bala. 

Maru, s. m. Man. Hombre. Pers. dj^ . 

Masvaro, s. ni. Flesh-market. Plaza de la came. 

Mastronges, s.pl. Wrists. Munecas. 

Masune, s. Skirt. Falda. 

Matipen, s.f. Drunkenness. Borracheria. Sans- J^^ 

.. c. -- 
(to make drunk). Pers J^t*i.-xi . 

Mato, adj. & part. Drunk, drunken. Borracho. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *75 

Matobar, v. a. To intoxicate. Emborrachar. Mod. Gr. 

/uiediio). 
Matogarno, s. m. Drunkard. Borracho. 
Meelfa, s./. Measure. Medida. 
Melalo, s. m. A measure of wine, a drunkard. Medida 

de vino : tambien, borracho. 
Meligrana, s.f. A pomegranate, The city of Granada. 

Granada fruta, tambien, la ciudad de Granada. 

From the Italian, Melagrana. 
Men, pron.jjos. Mine. Mi. 
Men, s. Person, honour. Persona, honor. — Su men, 

' Your lordship.' Usted. From the Suns, i^rf (to) 

honour, respect). 
Menbrerico, s. m. Purgatory. Purgatorio. 
Mencha, s.f. Pudendum feminse. Hiii. Chicha. 
Menda, jJroyi. pers. I. lo. 
Menderi, s.f. Phial. Limeta. 
Mendesquero, adv. Less. Menos. 
Mensalle, s.f. Table. Mesa. 
Mequelar, v. a. To leave, let go. Dejar. .Soz/s. ?ft^. 

Moorish, Ihalli. 
Merdipen, s.f. Wound. Mataddra. 
Merdo, adj. Sick. Enfermo. 
Mericha, s.f. Bushel. Fanega. 
*d2 



*76 THE ZINCALl. 

Mericlen, s.f. Yard, court. Corral. 

Merinao, adj. An immortal. Immortal. Sans. 'l^rT . 

Meripen, s.f. Death. Muerte. Sans. mM • Arab, ijcjy* . 

Mermelll, s.f. A taper. Vela. 

Mestepen, s.f. Life. Vida. 

Mesiina, s.f. Guest-house. Posada. 

Milan, s. m. One thousand. Mil. 

Miliyo, s. in. Heart. Corazon. 

Milla, s.y! League. Legua. Pers. (JjUi. 

Minchabar, v. a. To produce, bring forth. Parir. 

Minchi, s.f Pudendum feminse. In the English 

dialect, Milchi. Sans. ^^IV^. 
Minchoro, s. m. The bully of a prostitute. El querido, 

6 rufian de una mujer publica. 
Minrio, pron. poss. Mine. Mio. 
Minrricla, s.f. Cloud. Nube. Sa?is. JTf^. 
Mirindia, adv. In the meanwhile. Mientras. 
Mistos, adv. Well. Bien. 
Mochi, s.f. Doublet. Coleto. 
Mochique, s. Mallet. Mazo. 

Mol, s. m. Wine. Vino. A pure Persian word, t>e . 
Mollati, s.f. Grape. Uva. 
Monborico, s. & adj. Violet. Morado. 
Monrabar, v. a. To clip, shear. Esquilar. Vid. Munrabar. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *77 

Monro, s.?«. A friend. Amigo. Su7is. W^ . 

MorchAs, s. Skin, hide. Pellejo. Hin. Mushk. 

Morquilen, s. m. Mentula. 

Moscabis, adj. Enamoured. Enamorado. 

Mostarban, s. m. A traveller. Viajante. Arab.^im^ . 

Mostipelo, s. m. Farm-house. Cortijo. 

Mu, jvon. pers. pi. We, ourselves. Nosotros. 

Muchi, s.f. Spark. Chispa. 

Muchobelar, v. a. To wash. Lavar. Vid. Chobelar. 

Sans. ^^^ . 
Muclar, V. 71. To hold one's tongue. Callar. 
Muclar, v. n. To void urine. Orinar. 
Mui, s.f. Mouth, face. Boca, cjira.— De mamui, ' In front.' 

De frente. Sajis. J?^. Hin. Mookh. 
Mulani, adj. Sad. Triste. 
Mulati, s.f. The gallows. Horca. 
Mulelo, adj. Mortal. Mortal. — Crejete mulela, ' morta] 

sin.' Pecado, mortal. 
Mulo, s. m. A dead man. Muerto. Pe7's. 8 J_< . 
Munela, s.f. Cap. Gorra. 
Munrabar, v. a. To clip, shear. Esquilar. 
Munrabador, *.???. A shearer. Esquilador. 
Muquelar, v. a. To leave, abandon. Dejar. Vid. Me- 

quilar. 



*78 THE ZINCALI. 

Murcia, s.f. Arm. Briizo. 

Murciales, s. jjL Arms. Brazos. 

Murclali, s.f. A sweet drink of wine, water, sugar, &c. 

Mistela. 

Mureo, s.ni. A wall. Pared. 

Murmo-j 

> adj. Dear. Caro. 
Mnrno 3 

Mus, C07IJ. But, yet. Pero. 

Musile, adj. Dumb. Mudo, 

Musley, s. m. Lamp. Candil. 

Mustiuar, v. a. To extract, pull out. Sacar. 

Mutrar, v.n. To void urine. Orinar. Sans. W^. 

Hill. Mootna. 

N. 

Na, orfi). No. E7iglish dialect,!:^ aw. Satis, tj}. Pers.lS . 

Nacar, v. n. To pass. Pasar. 

Nacardelar, v. a. To read. Leer. 

Nacicar, v. a. To grind, whet. Amolar. 

Nacle, s.f. Fire. Candela. 

Nafre, «.???. Thread. Hilo. 

Naguerindoy, s.f. Idle discourse, conversation. Conver- 

sacion. 

Najabar, r'.a. To lose. Perder. Sa/is. «T^ (to destroy). 

Najar, v. n. To flee. Huir. Hin. Nathna. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *79 

Najipen, s.f. Loss, perdition. Perdida, perdicion. 
Najira, s.f. Banner. Bandera. 
Nanai, adv. No. 
Nansu, adj. Pleasant. Chusco. 
Nao, s. m. Name. Nombre. 
Naquelar, v. n. To pass. Pasar. Vid. Nacar. 
Naqul, s./ Nostril. Nariz. Sans.'j^ez^. Hin.'Nakh. 
Nardian, adv. Never. Nunca. 

Narsichisle, s. m. A dwarf. Ensmo. Sans. "^ (man), 
7ft%^ (low). 

Nasalo, adj. Sick, infirm. Enfermo. 

Nasallipen, s.f. Sickness. Enfermedad. Mod. Gr. voffev/ma. 

Nasti, adv. No. 

Nastibre, s. m. November. Noviembre. 

Nasula, s.f. The evil eye. Mai de ojo. 

Nausardan, adj. Vile. Vil. 

Ne, adv. No, not. No. Sans. «Tf^. 

Nebel, adj. New. Nuevo. Sans. «T^hT . 

Nebo, adj. New. Nuevo. Sans. »f^. 

Neboro, adj. Small, yoimg. Pequeiio, joven. 

Necaute, adj. None, not one. Ning'iin. 

Nicabar, v. a. To take away, steal. Quitar, robar. 

Nichobelar, v. n. To appear. Parecer. 

Niffuillar, v. n. To go out. Salir. Hin. Nikulna. 



*80 THE ZINCALI. 

Nililo, s. m. Turkey, peacock. Pavo. 

Ninelo, s. m. Fool, ninny. Tonto. 

Nislo, adj. Prompt, quick. Pronto. 

Nivel, s.f. Ray. Raya. 

Noiiabar, v. n. To swim. Nadar. 

Nonrro, pron. jjoss. Our. Nuestro. 

Noques, *. j^l- Horns. Cuernos. Riis. Rogg. 

Norical, s. Snail. Caracol. 

Norungarse, v. r. To be angry. Enojjirse. 

Norungy, adj. Angry. Enojado. 

Nostaro, s. m. Small coin. Cuartillo. 

Nostu, s. m. Small coin. Cuarto. 

Noyme, iLpr. Noah. Noe. 

l>ivi, pron. pers. ace. 8171. Me. Me. 

Nu, adj. Nme. Nueve. Pers. ^ . 

Nuca, s.f. Mother-in-law. Suegra. 

Nunutibe, s.m. July. Julio. 

Nutibe, s. w. June. Jiinio. 

O. 

O, art.def. The. El.— ex.gr. O can, 'The sun.' El sol. 

Pi 
O, pron. pers. He. El. Pers. jl . 

Oben, s. Winter. Invierno. Sa7is. \*\^. 

Obiserna, s.f. Scabbard. Vayna. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *81 

Ocajanaycha, s.f. Hut. Cabana. 

Ocana, s.f. Hour. Hora. 

Ocanagimla, s.f. Prayer. Oracion. 

Ochardilo, s. m. Permission. Licencia. Hin. Clioottee. 

Ochi, s.f Soul, spirit. Alma, espiritu. Hin. Jee. 

Ochipa, s.f. Fortune. Fortuna. 

Ochon, s. m. Month. Mes. 

Oclajita, s.f. Estate. Hacienda. 

Oclaye, s. in. King. Rey. 

Oclinde, adv. Then. Entonces. 

Ocrianse, s. Ant. Hormiga. 

Odisilo, .V. in. Vice. Vicio. 

Odoros, s.jil. Jealous fancies. Zelos. 

Ogomo, s. in. Stomach. Estomago. Sans. '^^ (body). 

Hin. Ojh. 
Ojabesar, v. a. To pardon. Perdonar. 
Ojarar, v. n. To remember. Acordar. 
Ojomon, s. in. Stomach. Estomago. 
Olacerar, v. n. To cost. Costar. 
Olajay, s.f Curse. Maldicion. 
Olebanichi, s.f. Midnight. Media-noche. 
Oleiia, s.f. Roof-tile. Teja. 
Olibias, *. pi. Stockings. Medias. Ras. Obubh (shoes 

and stockings). 

*u3 



*82 THE ZINCALI. 

Olicha, s.f. Street. Calle. Vid. Ullcha. 

Olilo, s. m. Heart, Corazon. 

Ollarub, s. m. Wolf. Lobo. 

Oltarique, s. m. Plain. Campo. 

Olune, s. Sickle. Hoz. 

Oman, s.m. Hole, pit. Hoyo, agujero. Sans."^"^. 

Riis. Obman (deceit, artifice). 
Omito, s. m. Farrier. Albeytar. 
On, prep. In. En. 

Onchullao, adj. Having the dropsy. Hidropico. 
Onchullar, v. n. v. a. To grow fat, to fatten. Engordcir. 
Ondila, s.f. Wing. Ala. 
Ondinamo, s. m. Elm. Alamo. 

Ondoba, p)ro7i. dem. This. Este. 

Ondolaya, jjron. pers. fetn. She. Ella. 

Ondole, p?-07i. pers. i7ias. He. El. 

Ondoquel, pron. dem. That. Aquel. 

Onrres, s.f. Skirt. Falda. 

Operisa, s.f. Salad. Ensalada. 

Opoy, s. Pupil of the eye, Niiia del ojo. 

Opre, adv. Above. Encima. Hin. Oopur. Gr. virep. 

Opucher, s.f. Occasion. Ocasion. 

Or. Vid. O. 

Oranpion, s. m. Watch. Reloj. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *83 

Orasta, s.f. Play, comedy, Comedia. 

Or-bajando, s. m. Drum. Tambor. Literally, The thing 

that is touched or beaten. Vid. Pajabar. 
Orcajani, s.f. Cage. Jaula. 
Orchiri, s.f. Beauty. Hermosura. 
Orfi, s.f. Fig. Higo. Sans. '^^^rf^. 
Orioz, *. m. Wolf. Lobo. 
Orobar, V. 71. To weep. Llorar. Sans.'^T^. Hi?i. Ko- 

wuya (weeping). 
Orobrero, s. m. Thought. Pensamiento. 
Orocana, s.f. Foot-path. Senda. 
Orondar, v. a. To seek. Buscar. 
Oropate, s.f Ant. Hormiga. 
Oropatia, s.f Leaf. Hoja. Probably from the Sanscrit 

compound 'T^'"^ (large leaf). 
Oropatiara, interject. God grant. Ojala. 
Oropendola, s.f. Will. Voluntad. 
Oropera, s.f. Company. Compania. 
Oropielar, v. a. To suck the breast. Mamtir. — Coin ne 

orobiela ne oropiela, ' He who does not weep does 

not suck.' — Gypsy Proverb. 
Orosque, s. m. Copper. Cobre. Properly, Brass. 

Sans. WRoRT. 
Orotar, v. a. To seek. Buscar. Vid. Orondar. 



*84 THE ZINCALI. 

Orpachirlma, s.f. Patience. Paciencia. 

Ortalame, *. ??i. Plain, field. Campo. 

Orteli, s.f. Love. Amor. 

Oriiji, s.f. Rind, husk. Cascara. 

Orzica, s.f Harlot. Ramera. 

Ospanto, s.m. Pompion, calabash. Calabaza. 

Ospesimla, s.f Spice. Especia. 

Ostabar, i'. a. Rob. Robar. 

Ostalique, s. Plain, field. Campo. 

Oste, tit. hon. Your worship. Usted. j^l. Ostelende. 

Ostebel, s. m. God. Dios. Fid. Debel. 

Ostelmda, s.f Goddess, the Virgin. Diosa, la Virgen. 

Ostele •» 

, > adv. Under, below. Abajo. Sans. '^iiV^Tff. 
Ostely ) ^ 

Ostilar, v. a. To rob. Robar. 

Ostilador, s. m. Robber, thief. Ladron. 

Ostinar, v. a. n. To awake. Despertar. 

Ostor, adj. Eight. Ocho. 

Ostordi, adj. Eighty. Ochenta. Pers. t^KyjLib. 

Osuncho, *. m. Pleasure. Placer. 

Osune, adj. Obscure, dark. Oscuro. 

Otal, s. m. The heavens. El cielo. 

Otan, adv. Already. Ya. 

Otarpe, s. m. The heavens. El cielo. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *85 

Ote, adv. There, yonder. Alli, alia. Hin. Oothe. 

Otembrolilo, s. m. Heart. Corazon. 

Otoba, jJron. de?n. That. Aquel. 

OtoUojo, adj. Tame. Manso. 

Otor, adj. Eight. Ocho. Fid. Ostor. 

Otorbar, s. m. October. Octubre. 

Oygue, s. m. Lodging for soldiers. Cuartel. 

Ozandi, s.f. Hempen sandal. Alpargata. 



Pa, pre]}. For. Para. 

Pacuaro, adj. Handsome, pretty. Bonito. — The Gypsies 
have a trick, which they employ when they wish 
to get rid of an animal with an ugly neck and 
head: they place him in an attitude by which his 
ugliness is partly concealed from the chapman, 
which they call De pacuaro. The word is pure 
Persian, jj^V. • 

Pachabelar, v. a. To believe. Creer. Sa?is. tfif (to re- 
verence). 

Pachandra, s.f. The festival of Easter. Pascua. 

Pacharraear, v. a. To sow. Sembrar. 

Pachatrar, v. a. To pound, break to pieces. Machacar. 



*86 THE ZINCALI. 

Pachi, s.f. Modesty, honour, virginity. Verguenza, vir- 

jinidcid. Sans. THTT. 
Pachibalo, adj. Honest, honourable. Honrado. 
Pachibar, v. a. To honour. Hourar. Rufi. Pachitat. 
Pachimachi, s.f. Foot and leg. Pata. 
Pachuno, adj. Modest, bashful. Vergonzoso. 
Paillo, s. m. One who is not a Gypsy. El que no es 

Jitano. 
Pajabar, v. a. To touch, feel. Tocar, tentar. Sana, tpj . 
Pajanbo, s.f. Temptation. Tentacion. 
Pajandi, s.f. Guitar. Guitarra. Literally, The thing 

that is touched or played upon. 
Pajardo, s. m. Watch. Reloj. 
Pajilas, s. A ball. Pelota. 
Pajin, s.y! Part. Parte. Sans.V^. 
Pajorias, s.pl. Ribs. Costillas. 
Pajiimi, s.f Flea. Pulga. 

Palabear, ?;. o. To shave. Afeytar. Sans.'^^v^'^ {to cwi)- 
Palal, adv. Behind. Atras, detras. 
Palaro. Vid. Pajardo. 
Palchandra, s.f Carnival. Carnestolendas. 
Paldurao. s. m. Hunchback. Jorobado. 
Palife, adj. Exquisite. Esquisito. Sans, x^'^^ (delicate). 
Palomias, s. pi. Hips. Caderas. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *87 

Paluli, *./. Acorn. Bellota. Pers- sAj . Arah.lsAi. 
Paluno, s. ?n. A wood, farm-house. Bosque, tambien 

cortijo. Sans. TI^ (kind of shed). 
Panchabar. J'id. Pachabelnr. 
Panche, adj. Five. Cinco. Peis. A^ . 
Pancherdi, adj. Fifty. Cincuenta. 
Pandar, v. a. Fid. Pandelar. 
Pandela, s.f. Frying-pan. Sarten. Ital. Padella. 
Pandelar, v. a. To inclose, to tie, to shut. Atar, cerrar. 

Sa7is. "^r^. Pers. f^i^y^ ■ 
Pandipen, s. m. Dungeon, prison. Calabozo, carcel. 
Panelar, v.n. To leap, jump. Saltar. Sans. JTf . 
Pani, s. /. Water. Agua. Sans. m^T(, mqrj . Hin. Pame. 
Paniscara, s.f. Water-melon. Sandia. 
Pansiberarse, v. r. To live in concubinage. Amance- 

barse. 
Pantaluno, s. m. A Frenchman. Frances. — This is a cant 

word, and not Gypsy. 
Paiii, s.f. Vid. Pani. 
Papajoy, s.f. Parable. Parabola. 
Paparuiai, s.f. Grandmother. Abuela- 
Papimia, s.f. Flea. Pulga. 
Papiri, s. Paper. Papel. 
Paque, adv. Near at hand. Cerca. 



*88 THE ZINCALI. 

Paquilli, s.f. Silver. Plata. 

Parabar, v. a. n. To break. Partir, romper. 

Paraiii, s.f. Broom. Escoba. Hin. Burhnee. 

Paratute, *. m. Rest. Descanso. Sans. tn^TlTT (adopted, 

nourished). 
Parauco, s. m. Care. Cuidado. See the last. 
Parbarar, v. a. To nurse, ediicate. Criar. San)>. mM\t\ 

(adopted). Pers. ^^j^j^. 
Parbaraura, s.f. A child, infant. Criatura. 
Parchandi, s.f. Easter. Pascua. Vid. Pachandra. 
Parchandrero, adj. Ragged, slovenly. Despilfarrado. 
Parcharique, adj. Obstinate. Porfiado. 
Pardy, s.f Tinder. Yesca. 
Pariolar, v. ji. To rage. Rabiar. 
Paripen, s. in. Danger. Peligro. 
Parlacha, s.f. Window. Ventana. 
Parlaora, s.f. A letter. Carta. 
Parne, s. in. White or silver money. Dineros blancos, 

i.e. De plata. 
Parno, adj. White. Blanco. Sans. Mi.<}s. 
Paroji, s.f Leaf. Hoja. 
Parracha, s.f Wave. Onda. 
Parrotobar, v. n. To fast. Ayunar. 
Parta, s.f. Ribbon. Cinta. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *89 

Parug-ar, v. a. To exchange, barter. Cambiar, trocar. 

Sans. Tftl'^W (exchange), tjIJiTX. (interchanging). 
Paruipen, s. m. Exchange, barter. Cambio. 
Parufii, s.f. Grandmother. Abuela. 
Pas, orf/'. Half. Medio. — Pas-chibe, 'Half- day," i.e. Noon, 

Medio-dia. In like manner, the English Gypsies 

say, Pas-korauni, ' Half-a-crown,' &c. 
Pasabia, s.f. Strength. Fuerza. 
Pas-callico, s. m. The day after to-morrow. Pasado ma- 

nana. 
Pas-pile, Half drunk. Medio borracho. 
Pasque, s.f. The half. Mitad. Sans. HTT. 
Pastia, s.f. Frog. Rana. 
Pastimache, s.f Footstep. Pisada. 
Pasuno, s.f. Farm-house. Cortijo. 
Patupire, s. Staircase. Escalera. Sans. V^ (a foot). 
Pavi, s.f. Nostril. Nariz. 
Pea, s.f. Chair, saddle. Silla. 
Pebuldorico, adj. Catholic. Catolico. — Cangri Pebuldorica 

y Rebuldorica, ' Catholic and Apostolic Church.' 
Pecalis, s.f. French silk. Seda Francesa. 
Pechisla, s. in. Sexton. Sacristan. 
Peco, adj. Roasted. Asado. Sans, x^ from "T^ (to cook). 

Pers. ^jic^.,. Rus. Petsch. (oven). 



*90 THE ZINCALI. 

Pelanbru, s.f. Pen. Pluma. 

Pele, s.pl. Eggs, the genitals. Huevos, los jenitales. 
Sans. ■q^. 

Pen, A particle frequently used in the Gypsy language 
in the formation of nouns; e.g. Cliungalipen, 
' ugliness,' or ' an ugly thing ;' in which word the 
particle Pen is affixed to Cliungalo, ' xigly.' — 
Una particula de que frecuentemente se sirve en 
Jitano para la formacion de substantivos. 

Penar, v. a. To say, speak. Decir, hablar. Hin. Bolna. 

Penchabar, v. n. To think. Pensar. Hm. Bicharna. 

Pendar. Vid. Penar. 

Pendebre, s. m. December. Diciembre. 

Penebri, s.f. Root. Raiz. 

Peniche, s.m. The Holy Ghost. El Espiritu Santo. 
Gr. Iljet'^ca. 

Penascoro \ s.m. Brandy. Aguardiente (fire-drink). 

Penaquero 3 Sans. xrHT (drinking), ^fTTT: (fire). 

Peiiaspe, s. m. Blunderbuss. Trabuco. 

Pepedro, s. m. Plain, field. Campo. 

Peperes, s.m. Pepper. Pimiento. Sans, fipxff^ . 

Per, prejj. For, by. Por. 

Perar, v. n. To fall. Caer. Hin. Purnar. 

Perbarar, r. «. To create. Criar, 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *91 

Perbaraor, s. m. Creator. Crlador. 

Percara, s.f. Tongue. Lengua. 

Perdine, s.f. Musket. Escopeta. 

Perdineles, s.jd. Musketeers. Escopeteros. 

Perdo, adj. Full. Lleno. 

Perdobal, s.m. A debauchee. Tunante. 

Perdoripe, adj. Full. Lleno. 

Perelalo, adj. Full. Lleno. Sans. trftjT. 

Perfine, adj. Necessary. Precise. Mod. Gr. TrpeireL. 

Pergenamiento, s. ?«. Feeling, grief. Sentimiento. 

Pergenar, v. a. To feel. Sentir. 

Pergoleto, s. m. Pilgrim. Peregrine. 

Perifuye, s. in. Worm, reptile. 

Perindola, s.f. Ball. Bola. Suits. ur<H<[ic*, IW- 

Hin. Pinda. 
Peris, n.p. Cadiz. Cadiz. 
Perma, s.f. Yolk of Egg. Yema. 
Pernasi, s.f. Salad. Ensalada. 
Perpello, s. m. Calf. Becerro. 
Perpelo, s. m. Peach. Melocoton. 
Perpeni, s.f. Bridge. Puente. 
Perpiche, s. m. Cat. Gato. 
Perplejo, s. m. Fright. Susto. 
Persibarao, adj. Living in concubinage. Amancebado. 



*92 THE ZINCALI. 

Persibararse, v. r. To live in concubinage. Amance- 

barse. 
Persifuye, s. m. Worm, reptile. Bicho. Vid. Perlfuye. 
Persine, adj. Savage, fierce. Bravo. 
Persos, conjunc. Because. Porque. 
Perto, s. m. Bolt. Cerrojo. 
Pertraba, s.f. Knapsack. Mochila. 
Pespuro, s. in. Pepper. Pimiento. 
Pesquibar, v. a. n. To taste, enjoy. Gustar. 
Pesquilar, v. a. To deceive. Enganar. 
Pesqultal, *. m. Pleasure. Placer, giisto. 
Petali, s.f. Horse-shoe. Herradura. Mod. Gr. ireruXov. 
Petallas, *. pi. Horse-shoes. Herraduras. 
Petalli, s.f. Lodging. Posada. Mod. Gr. cnrrp-i (a house). 
Petano, s. ?n. Calf. Becerro. 
Petra, s.f. A fall. Caida. Scms. Tfjfm^ . 
Peujo, s. m. He-goat. Macho cabrio. 
Pichibibi, s.f Linnet. Jilguero. 
Pichiscas, s.f. Cough. Tos. Hans. f^HJI^. 

Mod. Gr. /3^;)^a?. 
Pico, s.m. Shoulder. Hombro. 
Picon, n. p. La Mancha. — This word seems to belong to 

the Germania, or cant dialect. 
Piltra, s.f. Bed. Cam a. 



'1 

>■ s. m. Foot. Pie. pi. Pinres. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *93 

Pilvo, adj. Bald. Calvo. 

Pincherar, v. a. r. To know, to be acquainted with. Conocer. 

Hill. Puh-channa. 
Pindorri, s.f. Girl, lass. Muchaclia. 
Pindorro, s. in. Boy, lad. Muchacho. 
Pindrabar, t\«. To open. Abrir. i//«. Bihurna. 
Pindro ■ 
Pinro 

Pinre-bustaro, The right foot. El derecho. 
Pinre-can, The left foot. El izquierdo. 
Pinnelar, v. a. To paint. Pintar. 
Pinpore, s.m. Lip. Labio. 
Pinsorra, s.f. Crab-louse. Ladilla. 
Pipindorio, n.j). Antonio. 
Pipochi, s.f. Block, stock. Cepo. 
Pirabar, v. r. a. To copulate, to heat. Copulrir, calentar. 

Mod. Gr. iTvpwvo}. Sans. (4^4 (love). 
Pirando, s. »2. Lover, libidinous person. Amante, hombre 

libidonoso. Sans. tflTi^Tfts. 
Pirar, v.n. To walk. Andar. Properly, To fly. 

Pers. ^^^^^, . 
Piri, s.f. Earthen pot. Olla. Sans. ftTJT.. 
Piribich a, s./; Female lizard. Lagarta. Firf. Berbirincha. 
Piribicho, s. m. Lizard. Lagarto. 



*94 THE ZINCALI. 

Piro, s. m. Foot. Pie. Vid. Pinro. 

Pisabais, s.pl. Buckles. Hebillas. 

Pispindi, s.f. Pepper-plant. Plmiento. 

Pispiri, s.f. Pepper. Pimienta. 

Pispirucha, s.f. Widow. Viuda. 

Pista, s.f. Account. Cuenta. — Dinar pista, ' To give 

account.' Dar cuenta. 
Pita, s.f. Drink, beverage. Bebida. Rus. Pitie. . 
Piuli, s./. Widow. Viiida. Pt-rs. 8»aj. 
Piyar, r.a. Todrink. Beber. Sf/Ms. ftr^frT- /fm. Piya-k 
Placo, s. m. Tobacco. Tabaco. Literally, Dust, powder. 

Rus. Prak. 
Plai, s.f. A mountain. Sierra, montaiia. 
Plajista, s. m. Smuggler of tobacco. Contrabandista de 

tabaco. 
Plal "\ s.m. Brother. Hermano. — The first of these 
Plan y words is neither more nor less than the En- 
Plano ^ glish Pal, a cant expression much in use 
amongst thieves, which signifies a comrade or 
brother in villainy. 
Plani, s.f Sister. Hermana. Sans. W^ . 
Plasarar, v. a. To pay. Pagar. Rus. Platit. 
Plastaiiar, v. a. To follow, to pursue. Seguir. 

Sans. "HWnr (march). 



|- s. Cloak. Capa. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIIl LANGUAGE. *95 

Plastaiii, s.f.K company, a band of people pursuing 
thieves. Compania, caterva que sigiie a la- 
drones. 

Plata 

Platamugion 

Platesquero, s. m. Court. Patio. 

Platilla, *./. Straw. Paja. 

Playi, s.f. Importunity. Porfia. 

Plescari, adj. Clear, Claro. 

Plubi, s.f. Silver. Plata {properly, Riipi). Sans. Ch^. 

Pluco, adj. Strang-e, rude. Fantastico, basto. Rus. Plok. 

Po, s. m. Belly. Vientre. 

Poba, s.f. Apple. Manzana. 

Pobano, s. m. Apple-tree. Manzano. 

Podya \ 

Ducat. Ducado. 



[ova ) 



Poloyt 

Polvorosa, s.f. Road, way. Camino. — This is a cant ex- 
pression, and does not properly belong to the 
Gypsy language. 

Pomi, s.f Silver. Plata. 

Pondesquero, s. m. Pontif, chief. Pontifice, cabo. 

Pondone, s. m. Mattress. Colchon. 

Poquinar, v. a. To pay. Pagilr. Hin. Pukrana. 

Por, s.f. Feather. Pluma. Pers.-i. Rus. Pero. 



*96 THE ZINCALI. 

Porescaro, s.in. Governor of a town. Gobernador de 

ciudad. Scms. trft. (city), ofiTT. (lord). 
Fori, s.f. Tail. Cola. 

Porias, 5. o/. Bowels. Entranas. Suns. trOriri . 
Porsumi, s.f. Onion. Cebolla. 
Pos, s. Belly. Barriga. 

Posilati, adv. Compulsively, by force. For fuerza. 
Postan, s. m. Skin. Piel. Pers. <:l^^m^. ^4 /so, Linen, 

Lienzo. Properly, The skin or hide in which 

smuggled goods are wrapped. 
Postani, s.f. Parcel of smuggled goods. Contrabando. 
Poste, s, m. Bosom. Pecho. 
Posuno, s.m. Court, yard. Corral. 
Potosi, s. Bottomless abyss. Abisimo sin fondo. Vid. 

Butron. Also, A pocket, Faltriquera. 
Prachindo, adj. Dirty. Sucio. From the Sans. X?[ (dust). 
Prasni, s.f. A family, a tribe. Familia, tribu. Hans. 

HWtfT (crowded, swarming). 
Fray, s.f. Mountain. Montana. Vid. Flai. 
Pre, jirep. For. For. 
Frelumina, s.f. Week. Semana. 
Fresas, conjunc. Because. Porque. 
Presimelar, v. a. To begin. Empezar. Sans. JIWI<=HT. 

(beginning). 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *97 

Prestani, s.f. Pasture-ground, meadow. Dehesa. 
Prevarengue, s. Hell. Infierno. Sans. TnTTTrT. 
Pritingina, s.f. Week. Semana. 

Probosquero, s.m. Herald, common crier. Pregonero. 
Prochlbar, v. a. To offer. Ofrecer. 
Protobolar, v. a. To cure. Curar. 
Prulano, s. 7n. Hedgehog. Erizo. 
Prumi, s.f. Beard, chin. Barba. 
Prusiatiiii, s.f. Pistol. Pistola. 

Pucanar, v. a. Proclaim. Pregonar. Hin. Pookarnar. 
Pucano, s.m. Herald, common crier. Pregonero. 
Puchabar-j v. a. To question. Preguntar. Sans. TT^. 
Pucharar 3 Hin. Poochna. 

Puchel, s.f. Life. Vida. 
Pujumi, s.f. Flea. Pulga. 

Pul, s. m. A bridge. Puente. This word is pure Per- 
sian, J^. Sans. mPc*. 
Pumen, s. m. Shoulder. Hombro. 
Puni, s.f. Trouble, affliction. Pena. 
Punsabo, s. 7n. Beak. Pico. Sans. ^^ . 
Pur, adv. When. Cuando. 
Purelar, v. n. To be born. Nacer. 
Puro, adj. Old. Viejo. Satis. 'Jtl. Fers.jXi . 
Pus, s.m. Straw. Paja. Hin. Bhoosa. 

Vol. II. ^PP"- * E 



*98 THE ZINCALI. 

Pusabar, v. a. To prick. Picar. 

Pusca, s.f. Musket. Escopeta. Rus. Puschca. 

Puscali, s.f. Pen, feather. Pluma. 

Putar, s.w. Well. Pozo. Sans. THHiJ^ . 

Puy, s. Straw. Paja. 



Q. 

Quejelano, adj. Open, clear, unincumbered. Raso. 

Quejena, s.f. Custom-house. Aduana. 

Quejesa, s.f. Silk. Seda. Sans. ^T^i^. 

Quelalla, s.f. Egg-plant. Berengena. 

Quelar, V. /?. To dance. Baylar. Saws, f^i^ (to sport). 

Quelati, s.f A rial, coin. Real. 

Quele, s. m. Dance. Bayle. 

Quelebao, s.m. Dancer. Baylador. 

Queliben, s.f Declaration. Declaracion. 

Quer, s.m. House. Casa. Sans. ^TR. -ffm. Ghur. 

Querabar, v. a. To cook. Guisar. Vid. Jiribar. Hin. 

Kuma. 

Querar -j ^ . 

> v.a. To do, make. Hacer. Pers. ij<^- 
Querelar 3 

Querelar nasula. To cast the evil eye. Aojar. 

Querdi, par. pass. Done. Hecho. Pers. id^. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *99 

Querescaro, s. m. Steward, butler. Mayordomo. 

Querisar, v.a. To scratch. Aranar. 

Querlo, s.m. Neck, throat. Pescuezo. Sans. "T^. 

Pers. lil. Rus. Gorlo. 
Querosto, s.vt. August. Agosto. 
Quichardila, s.f. Stain. Mancha. 
Quichardmo, adj. Tight, hard, mean. Apretado. 
Quichi, adj. adv. As many as, concerning. Cuanto. — 

On quichi, ' Inasmuch.' En cuanto. 
Quicia, s.f. Basket. Espuerta. 
Quiguinibe, s.ni A cook. Cocinero. 
Quijari, s.f. Stirrup. Estribo. 
Quilen, s. Mentula. 
Quillaba, s.f Prune. Ciruela. 
Quimbila, s.f. Company. Contpania. 
Quimbilo, s.m. Companion. Companero. 
Quimpiiiar, v. a. To swallow. Tragar. 
Quimuqui, s.f. Gimlet. Barrena. 
Qmnar, v.a. To buy. Comprar. Sans."^. Hln. Keenna. 

Pers. jj;«^^/=*- • 
Quinate, s.m. Cheese. Queso. 
Qiiindia, s.f. A species of bean. Abichuela. 
Quinguina, s.f. Kitchen. Cocina. 
Quifiao, adj. Tired. Cansado. 
*e2 



*100 THE ZINCALI. 

Quiquiria, s.f. Bug. Chinche. Hin. Khut-keera. 

Mod. Gr. Kopiq. 

Quira \ 

> s.f. Cheese. Queso. Mod. Gr. rvpi. 
Quiralis ) 

Quiria, s.f. Ant. Hormiga. 

Qulribi, s.f. Godmother. Comadre. 

Quiribo, s.m. Godfather. Compjidre. 

Quirindia, adj. Most holy (female). Santisima. — Debla 

quirindia, ' Most blessed Virgin.' Maria Santisima. 

Quisi, s.f. Purse. Bolsa. Pers. i^-t^jS. 

Quisobu, s.m. Money-bag, pouch. Bolsillo. 

R. 

Raco, s.m. A crab. Cangrejo. Rus. Rak. 

Rachar, v.a.n. To meet. Encontrar. 

Rachi, s.f. Night. Noche. Sans.Xif^. Hin. Rat. 

Ran, s.f. Rod. Vara. — Without doubt, one and the same 
with the Bengalic Rata?i, Sanscrit t^ ; whence 
the English Rod, and German Ruthe. 

Randar, v. a. To rob. Robar. 

Randar, v. a. To write. Escribir. 

Rande, *.m. Thief. Ladron. Pers.si,. 

Randinar, v.n. To work, labour. Labrar. 

Randinipen, s.f. A writing. Escritura. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *101 

Rapipocha, s.f. A fox. Zorra. 

Rapipoche, s.m. Dungeon. Calabozo. 

Rasajel, adj. Oppressed. Oprimido. 

Rastrajel, adj. Miserable. Miserable. 

Rati, s.f. Blood. Sangre. Sans. TU. Rus. Ruda. 

Rebardroy, s.f. Obstinacy, rebelliousness. Rebeldia. 

Reblandani, s.f. Stone. Piedra. 

Reblandete, s.m. Mat, clout. Pallete. 

Reblanduy, adj. Second. Segundo. 

Reblantequere, s.m. Joint. Coyuntura. 

Rebrino, s.Tn. Respect. Respeto. 

Rebuldorico, adj. Apostolic. Apostolico. 

Recafa, s.f. Heat. Calor. 

Recardi, adj. Dragged along. Arrastrado. 

Reche, s. Cane, reed. Caiia. 

Rechibilly, s.f. A little net. Redecilla. 

Rechipatis, adj. Naked. Desnddo, en cueros. 

Rechitar, v. a. To patch, mend. Remendar. 

Redundis, s.pl. Chick-peas. Garbanzos. 

Rejelendre, s.tti. A proverb. Refran. 

Rejonisa, s.f. Dough. Masa. 

Relichi, s.f. Net. Re'd. 

Relli, s.f. Inclosure. Cercado. 

Remacha, s.f. Procuress. Alcahueta. 



*102 THE ZINCALI. 

Remarar, v.a.n. To finish. Rematar, acabar. 

Rendepe, adj. Round. Redondo. 

Repaiii, s.f. Turnip, radish. Nabo. Sans. '^ftJF'TO. 

Mod. Gr. paivavi. 
Repaui, s.f. Brandy. Aguardiente. 
Repurelar, v. a. To resuscitate. Resucitar. 
Resaronomo, adj. Cheap. Barato. 
Resis, s.f. Vineyard. Viria. 
Retablejar, v. n. To flame, burn. Arder. 
Retaja, s.f. Cabbage. Col. 
Retanio, s.m. Cloak. Capote. 
Retejo, adj. Content, merry. Contento. 
Retre'que, s.f. Pestilence, plague. Peste. 
Reutilar, v. a. To withdraw. Retirar. 
Reyi, s.f. Dust. Polvo. Sans. I5f. Pers- i^J^j . 
Rias, s.f. Damsel. Doncella. 
Rifian, s.?n. Danger. Peligro. 
Rilar, V.71. To belch. Peer. 
Rilo, s.m. Belching. Pedo. 
Rilli, s.f Wax. Cera. 
Rin, s.f. Engine for drawing water. Noria. Properly, 

A river. Icelandic, Rin. 
Rinballar, v. a. To pull up by the roots. Arrancar. 
Ro. Pld. Rom. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *103 

Rocamblo, s.7n. A friend. Amigo. Scms. T!^ (pro- 
tecting). 

Rochimel, s.m. River. Rio. Mod. Gr. pvuKi. 

Roi, s.f. Flour. Harina. Hm. Ru-ee. 

Roin, s.f. Spoon. Cuchara. 

Rolli, s.f. Spoon. Cnchara. 

Rom, *. m. A husband, a married man, a Gypsy. Ma- 
rido, hombre casado, un Jitano. Sans. TF. 

Roma, s.pl. The Husbands ; the generic name ot" the 
nation or sect of the Gypsies. Los maridos, 
i.e. nombre jenerico de la nacion 6 secta de los 
Jitanos. 

Romi, s.f A married woman, a female Gypsy. Mujer 
casada, Jitana. 

Romalis, s.f. A Gypsy dance. Danza Jitana. 

Romandinar, v,?i. To marry. Casar. 

Romandiiiipen, s.f. A marriage, bridal. Casamiento. 

Romani, s.f The Rommany or Gypsy language. Lengua 
de los Jitanos. 

Romani-chal, s. Gypsy-grass, a species of plant. La 
yerba de los Jitanos, una planta. 

Romuy, s.f The face. La cara. 

Roscorre, s. m. Lamb. Cordero. 

Rotufii, s.f Mouth. Boca. Rus. Rot. 



*104 THE ZINCALI. 

Rudelar, v.a.n. To answer. Responder, contestar. 

Rujia, s.f. Rose. Rosa. 

Rulisarra, s.f. Knee. Rodilla. 

Rnllipate, s.f. Wheel. Rueda. Sans. iym\K^. 

Rnllitagar, v. a. To turn upside down. Trastomar. 

RuUitaque. Fid. RuUipate. 

Rumijele, s.m. Pilgrim; also, Rosemary. Romero. 

s. 

Sabocar, v. a. To inhabit. Habitar. Sans. '^MT (house) 

Saces, s.pl. Irons, chains. Cadenas. 

Safacoro, n.p. The city of Seville. Sevilla. 

Salamisto, s.m. Physician. Medico. 

Salchuyo, s.m. Anvil. Yunque. 

Salquero, s.m.. A glass. Vaso. 

Salvaiii, s.f. A long sausage. Longaniza. 

Sampiiiii, s.f. Soap. Jabon. Properly, The Hindoo 

shampooing or rubbing. Sans. t<cii^<i . Mod. 

Gr. arairovn. Germ. Seife, &c. 
Sane, s.m. Sausage. Chorizo. 

Sapumetelli, s.f. Trumpet. Trompeta. Mod. Gr. aaXirc^/'ya. 
Sar, s.m. Iron. Hierro. Sans. '?rn!I. 
Sar, prep. With. Con. 
Sar, s.m. Garlick. Ajo. Hhi. Seer. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE, *105 

Saraballi, s.f. Money, coin. Moneda. Arab, '—-y* . 

Saracate, s. ?n. Tailor. Sastre. Sans. ^TlpMoF. 

Saray, s.m. Sergeant. Sarjento. 

Sarballeri, adj. Convalescent. Convaleciente. 

Sardana, s.f. Favour. Gracia. 

Sardenar, v. a. To condemn. Condenar. 

Sardo, s.m. Brandy. Aguardiente. Sans. '^n^'Ff. 

Sarmenda, With me. Conmigo. Vid. Sar, menda. 

Sarmune, adj. Prompt, quick. Pronto. Sans. Wf*m 
(haste). 

Saro, «c?;'. All. Todo. Saits.W^. Pers. ji].M . 

Saro asisilable, All-powerful. Todo poderoso. 

Sarplar, v. a. To pass judgment. Juzgar. 
Sarquere,s.7n. Glass, cup. Vaso. Sans.'^H^. Pers.jh^Mj. 
Sarquerin, s.m. Large pan. Bacni. 
Sarracatin, s.m. Huckster. Regaton. 
Sarrasirar, v.n. To laugh. Reir. 
Sarsale, With him. Con el. Vid. Sar. 
Sarsos, So that. Con que. Vid. Sar, sos. 
Sarta, adv. How, as, why. Como. 
Sas, s.m. Iron. Hierro. Sajis. 'SnTH. 
Sasta, adv. As, how, until. Como, hasta. Sans. ^^. 
Saste, adj. High, tall. Alto. Sans. ^RT (crest). 
Sasteji, s.f. Complaint. Queja. 
*e3 



*106 THE ZINCALI. 

Sastri, s. Relation. Pariente. 

Sat, prep. With. Con. Sans. ^ . 

Sata, adv. As, how. Como. Vid. Sarta, Sasta. 

SauUo, s.m. Colt. Potro. 

Segritin, adj. fern. Last. Ultima. 

Segriton, adj.m. Last. Ultimo. 

Segron, s.m. Fruit, benefit. Fruto. 

Selvani, s.f. Buffet. Bofetada. 

Semiiche, s. in. Monkey. Mico. 

Senjen. s.pl. Spaniards. Espanoles. 

Sentalli, s.f. Front. Frente. 

Seneba, *. Fowl, pigeon. 

Serdaiii, s.f. Razor. Navaja. ' 

Sersen, n.p. Spain. Espaiia. 

Servani, s.f. Pilchard. Sardina. 

Servlche, s.m. Morning-star. Lucero. Seems to be the 

Sanscrit ^rsrf»T5^ , one of the names of Agni, the 

personification of Fire. 
Seso, n.adj. Spaniard, Spanish. Espanol. — Sesi, ' Spanish 

woman,' Espaiiola. 
Sestroji, s.f. Shell, husk. Cascara. 
Siarias, s.pl. Knees. Rodillas. 
Sibica, s.f. Trumpet, proboscis. Trompa. 
Sicha, s.f Female monkey. Mona. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *107 

Sichen, s. m. Kingdom. Reyno. 
Side, s.m. Age, century. Siglo. 
Sicobar, v. a. To extract, pull out. Sacar. Properly, 

To lift. Mod Gr. crrjKcovw. 
Sila, s.f. Strength. Fuerza. 
Sillofi, s.f. Thorn. Espina. Sans. Jl^ (pin, spit). 

Hi7i. Sool. 

Silno, adj. Strong. Fuerte. Rus. Silnoy. 

Simache \ 

> s. Sign. Senal. Gr. (renelov. 
Simachi 3 

Simbres, s.pl. Eye-brows. Cejas. 

Simprofie, n.p. Joseph. Jose. 

Sinar, v. n. To be. Ser, Estar. 

Sinastra, s.f. Capture, prize. Presa. 

Sinastro, s.m. Prisoner. Preso. Sans. ^f^. 

Sincarfial, s. m. Slave. Esclavo. 

Sinchule, s. ni. Roll of tobacco, cigar. Cigarro. 

Singa, s. f. Singing, music. Cantar, miisica. 

Singe, s.w. Horn. Cuerno. Sans.'^^. Hin. Seeng. 

Singo, adv. Quick. De priesa. Satis. ^"^ 

Sinpalomi, adj. Peeled. Decorticated. Pelado. 

Sirbalo, s. m. Thimble. Dedal. 



Sirguedes 
Sirqued 



.esi 

> s. m. Wednesday. Miercoles. 
is J 



*108 THE ZINCALI. 

Siroque, s.m. Hemp. Cafiamo. 

Siscabelar, v. a. To teach. Ensenar. 

Siscunde, s.m. Wednesday. Miercoles. 

Sisla, s.f. Fid. Slla. 

Sisll, s.f. Moment. Momento. — Or sisli, ' At the moment.' 

Al momento. 
Sistig-ui, s. Girdle. Cenidor. Sa7is.'Wff^. 
Sitacoria, s.f. Kind of tax, carved work. Talla. 
Sitaescorial, s.f. Un glazed jug. Alcarraza. 
Sixtiliar, v. a. To kindle. Encender. 
Soba, s.f. Nightmare. Pesadilla. 
Sobadrar, v. a. To sweat. Sudar. 

Sobelar, v.n. To sleep. Dormir. Sans. ^^^ (sleeping). 
Sobindoy, s. Sleep. Dormidura. Perhaps the. proper 

signification of this word is, Dream, vision. Fro?n 

the Russian, Snobidenie. 
Socabar, v. a. n. To inhabit, dwell. Habitar, morar. Also, 

To be. Estar. Vid. Sabocar, Soscabar. 
Socreteria, s.f. Synagogue. Sinagoga. 
Sodimiar, v. a. To sweat. Sudar. 
Sofanar, v. n. To travel, go. Viajar, ir. Arab. jAjm 

Qonvney). 
Solaja, s.f Curse. Maldicion. — Chibar una solaja, ' To 

curse.' Maldecir. Vid. Olajay. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *109 

Solares, s.pl. Pantaloons, trowsers. Pantalones. 

Solares, s. pi. Powers. Poderes. Sans. ^R (power).^ — 
I found this word in a translation, apparently 
ancient, of a church canticle, which a Cordovese 
Gypsy repeated to me ; and which runs as 
follows : — 

Majaro Undebel ! " Holy God ! " 

Majaro Solares ! " Holy Powers ! " 

Majaro Merinao ! " Holy Immortals ! " 

Listrabanos, Erano, " Save us, Lord," 

De saro bastardo ! " From all affliction ! " 

'Solgia, s.y. Hare. Liebre. -Sw/is. ^f^Jcfi . Arab.i!\s^. 

Solibari, s.f. Bridle. Freno. Mod. Gr. a-vWtj/Sapc 

Solter, s.m. Notary Public. Escribano. 

Sonacai, s. Gold. Oro. Sa?is. oRtTsfi . Pers. Akii . 

Sonsane, s.m. Sausage. Chorizo. 

Sonsi, s.f. Mouth. Boca. 

Sonsibelar, v. n. To keep silence (hold the mouth). Callar. 

Sorinbo, adj. Serious, dejected. Serio. 

Soripa, s.f. Wood. Lena. 

Sornar, v. n. To sleep. Dormir. Hin. Sona. 

Soronje, adj. Sorrowful. Aflijido. 

Soronji, s.f. Sorrow. Afliccion. 

Sos, pron. rel. Who, that. Que. 



*110 THE ZINCALI. 

Soscabar, v. a. n. To inhabit, dwell. Habitiir. Hems. 44<4IV 

(a house). 
Sosi, s. Court, yard. Corral. 
Sosimbo, s.m. Oven. Homo. 
Sosimbres, s.pt. Eye-lashes. Pestanas. 
Soso, s.7n. Tranquillity. Sosiego. 
Sosque, adv. Where. Donde. 
Sotagaji, s.f. Jujube, fruit of the jujube. Azufayfa. 

Sans. ^Ht^ . 
Sublimar, v. a. To set at liberty, loose. Soltar. 
Sudo, adv. Asleep. Durmiendo. 
Sueti, s.f. World, people, Mundo, jente. — lyiis word is 

pure Russian. 
Sugerilar, v. a. To put. Poner. 
Sugilla, s.f. Justice. Justicia. 
Sulando, adj. Loose, light, easy. Suelto. 
Sulastraba, s.f Chain, shackle. Cadena. Arab. ^Lm*Lj . 

Sans. J^^-cJI . 
Sumi,s./. Broth, soup. Caldo. Mod.Gr.l^ovfxi. Sann.W^. 
Sumuquelar, v. a. To cement, join. Pegar. 
Suncai, s.f. Spirit, soul. Espiritu, alma. 
Sundilar, v.n. To descend. Descender. 
Sungalo, s.m. Traitor, he-goat. Traidor, cabron. 
Sungar, v. a. To betray, inform against. Soplar. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. ^111 

Sungelar, v.fi. To stink. Heder. 

Sunglo, s.7n. Melon. Melon. 

Sunpaeel, adv. Near. Cerca. Sans, ^nfttj . 

Surabi, adj. Fine. Fino. Sans. ^T^ . 

Surdan, s.f. World. Mundo. Sans. ^■^TR. 

Surde, adj. Buft-coloiired. Anteado. 

Surdete, s.m. World, Mundo. Sans. An^A. 

e 

Surdinar, v. a. v.r. To raise, stand up. Levantar. 

Susalar, v. a. To satisfy. Satisfacer. 

Sustilar, v. a. v.r. To detain, to be detained. Detener. 

Hin. Soostana (to rest). 
Sustiry, s.f. Lot, fortune. Suerte. Sans. *i*^nl 

(happiness). Hin. Sitaree. 

T. 

Ta, conjunc. And. Y. — Chulo ta-paque, • Dollar and 

a-half,^ Duro y medio. 
Tabastorre, s.f. The right-hand. Mano derecha. 

Sa7is. ^nr^r^. 

Tabuman, s.m. May. Mayo. Sans. ri'MH . 

Tacuni, s.f. A kind of leather case. Petaca. 

Tajuni, s.f. Box. Caja. 

Talabi, s.f Sedge. Esparto. 

Talaroris, s.pl. Garments. Vestidos. Sans. ^^. 



*112 THE ZINCALI. 

Tanbubian, s. m. Horse-jockey. Chalan. 

Tandal, s. m. Court, yard. Patio. 

Tangle, s. m. April. Abril. 

Tapillar, v. a. To drink. Beber. Vid. Piyar, 

Taquibaque, s. Ramrod. Baqueta. 

Tarpe, s. m. Heaven. Cielo. Sans. ^A^'^, f^. 

Tarquino, s.m. Parable. Parabola. 

Tasabar, v. a. To choak, suffocate. Ahogar. 

Tasala, s.f. Evening. Tarde. Sans. 'Hm . 

Tasalar, v.n. To delay. Tardar. 

Tasar. Vid. Tasabar. 

Tasarbani, s. m. Mason. Albanil. 

Tasarden, adv. Late. Tarde. 

Tasquino, s.m. Million. Millon. 

Tati, s.f. Fever. Calentura. Sans. fTTTaB. 

Tati bari, s.f. The great or putrid fever. Calentura 

maligna. 
Tato, s. m. Bread. Pan. 
Tebleque, God, the Saviour. Dios, Jesiis. 
Techafao, adj. Bent, crooked. Agachado. 
Techescar, v. a. To cast. Echar. 
Techorde, adj. Weak, infirm. Invalido. 
Tejuiii, s.f. Tarantula. Tarantula. 
Telejeiii, s.f. Mat. Estera. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *113 

Tellorre, s.m. Minister. Ministro. 

Tememblero, adv. Early. Temprano. 

Tempano, s.m. Piece, portion. Pedazo. Sa}is. ^^ 

(to divide). 
Terelar, v. a. To hold, have, possess. Tener. Sa?is. inTJCr 

(holding). 
Ternaciba, s.f. Rage, madness. Rabia. 
Ternasibel, s.m. Worth, valour. Valor, valentia. 

Sa?is. iTTTjtrr . 
Terneja, adj. Valiant. Valiente. 
Ternoro, adj. Young, new. Joven, nuevo. Pers.Ji . 
Terrepleco, s.m. End, boundary. Termino. 
Ternmi, s.f. Scratch. Araiio. 
Tesquelo, s.m. Grandfather. Abuelo. 
Tesquera, s.f. Front, forehead. Frente. 
Tesquinso, adj. Sour. Agrio. Pers.Jyi . 
Tesumiar, v.n. To stop. Pariir. 
Tibay, adj. Stiff, firm. Tieso. 
Tiliche, s.m. Lover. Amante. 
Timuchi 



icni ) 
nil } 



Same. Mismo. 
Timuiii 

Tinbalo, s.m. Musician. Musico. Sans. rfHii'4 (dancing). 

Tirabani, s.m. Shoe. Zapato. 

Tirajai, s.pl. Shoes. Zapiitos. Sans, qn; -511*11 . 



*114 THE ZINCALI. 

Tirajero, s.ni. Shoe-maker. Zapatero. 

Tiro, pro n.pos. Thine. Tu. — Fern. Tin. Hi/i. Tera,. 

Torbergeli, s.f. A plain, desert place, mountainous re- 
gion. Campo, despoblado, serrania. Sans.Xft. 

Tornasiba, s.f. Rage, anger. Rabia. 

Tornasibe, s.jn. Pride, passion. Soberbia. 

Tosinbo, s. m. Circumvolution, wheel. Torno. 

Toto, s.m. Cheese. Queso. Properly, Curdled milk. 
Sans. ^fl| . 

Trabare, So great. Tan grande. 

Traisne, s.m. The post, courier. Correo. Sans, fncfi^^- 

Tramalar, v. a. To tie, trammel. Atar. 

Tran, adv. camp. So much. Tan. 

Tran-flima, adv. So little, neither. Tampoco. 

Trani, s.f. Mouth. Mes. 

Traquias, s.^jZ. Grapes. Uvas. Sans, ^i ttj i . lid. 
Dracay. 

Tramistos, conjunc.adv. Also, as well. Tambien. 

Trasardo, s.m. Tiled roof. Tejado. 

Trebena, s.f. A star. Estrella. 

Tremendo, s.m. Danger. Peligro. — This word appears 
to belong to the cant, or robber jargon. 

Tremucha, s.f. Moon. Luna. Sans. "^r^Hn . 

Trianda, adj. Thirty. Treinta. Mod. Gr. rpiavra. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *115 

Trijul, s.f. The cross. La cruz. Hin. Trisool. — QuereLir 

la trijul, ' To make the sign of the cross,' 

Persignarse. 
Triman, s.f. Alms, charity. Limosna. 
Trin, adj. Three. Tres. 
Trin, adj. So much so. Tanto. 
Troecane, s.f. Work, deed. Obra. 
Tronfaron, s.m. Stock, trunk. Tronco. 
Trostis, adj. Educated, nourished. Criado, alimentado. 

— A child that has lost its parents, and is adopted 

by other people, is Trostis. 
Trujan, s.w. Tobacco. Tabaco. 
Trujatapucherido, adj. Conceived. Concebido. 
Truni, s.f. Floor, ground. Suelo. 
Trupo, s.m. Body. Cuerpo. Rus. Trup. 
Truta, s.f. Return. Vuelta. 
Trutar, v.a.n. To return. Volver. 
Tvlcuq, pron.pers. Thou. Tu. Pers. ^ . 
Tumbardo, s.m. Purgatory. Purgatorio. 
Tun, pron.j)Os. Thy, thine. Tu. 
Tundico, adj. Muddy, turbid. Turbio. 
Tunia, s.f. Cave. Cueva. 
Turn, s.f. Apothecary's shop. Botica. 
Tuili, s.f. Oil-flask. Alcuza. 



*116 THE ZINCALI. 

Turno, s. m. Castle. Castillo. 
Turra, s.f. Nail, claw. Una. 
Tusni, s.f. Earthen jar. Botija. 
Tuyalo, adj. Bad, evil. Malo. 

V. 

Vea, s.f. Garden, kitchen-garden. Jardin, huerta. 

Velar, v. a. To cut. Cortar. 

Verable, adj. Everlasting. Sempiterno. 

Visabi, s.f. Debt. Deuda. 

Vriardao, ^«r. ^as. Dressed, adorned. Vestido, adornado. 

U. 
Uchagardi, s.f Star. Estrella. 
Uchi, s.f Tongue. Lengua. 
Udicare, v. def Might or should have. Hubiere. 
Ulandar, v. a. To hang xip. Col gar. 
Ulandi, s.f. Hook to hang things upon. Colgadero. 
Ulaque, s. One of the districts into which a town is 

divided. Barrio. 
Ulicha, s.f Street. Calle. Rus. Ulitza. 
Ulilla, n.p. Seville. Sevilla. 
Ulique, s. Festival. Fiesta. 
Ululo, adj. Angry. Enojado. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *117 

Uluya, s.f. Fame. Fama. 

Uncho, A particle, which the Gypsies of Estremadura 
are in the habit of affixing- to Spanish words, in 
order to disguise them, and to prevent their being 
easily understood ; e. g. Favoruncho, ' favour ;' 
Gozuncho, 'joy,' &c. — Particula que los Jitanos 
de Estremadura, suelen posponer a palabras Cas- 
tellanas, para disfrazarlas, y que no se les entienda 
facilmente. 

Undabilar, v. a. To chew. Mascar. 

Un-debel, s. m. God. Dios. — The first syllable of this 
word seems to be the Om of the Buddhists and 
Brahmins, which is one of the names of the 
Deity : and is the commencement of that myste- 
rious sentence, Om ma ni hat si khom ; which, 
according to the creed of the followers of the 
Grand Lama, contains the essence of all prayer ; 
and by the constant repetition of which, they 
hope to obtain the title of Bivangarit, and to 
ascend to the elevation of Bouddh. 

Unga, adv. Yea, truly, yes. Si. In the English dialect, 
Auka. Sa7is. ^mT. 

Ungachoba, *./. Syllable. Silaba. 

Ungla, *./. Nail, claw. Uiia. 



*118 THE ZINCALI. 

Unglabar, v. a. To seize, to hang-. Agarrar, ahorcar. 

Ununique, s.f. Confession. Confesion. 

Urapero, adj. Prudent. Cuerdo, prudente. 

Urdifar, v. a. To put. Poner. 

Urdiflar, v. a. To kindle. Encender. 

Urdini, s.f. Fancy, presumption. Fantasia. 

Urjiyar, v.a. To suffer. Sufrir. 

Ustilar, v.a. To take, to steal. Tomar, robar. 

Usur, s.m. Smoke. Humo. 

Uyi, s.f. Sugar. Azucar. Sans. ^'^ (sugar-cane). 



Y. 

Yaque "j s.m. Fire. Fuego, lumbre. Sans. '^Dn,. 

Yaquero * Hin. Ag. 

Ybucho, s.TU. Jew. Judio. 

Ye-ref, s.m. The colour, form. El color, la figura. 

Yeru, s.m.. Wolf. Lobo- 

Ylo, s. m. Soul, Alma. Vid. Olilo. Sans. "feiT . 

Yustique, s.m. Girdle, belt. Ceiiidor. 

Z. 

Zamborino, s.m. Pumpkin, calabash. Calabaza. 
Zarapia, s.f. The itch. Sarna. 
Zerecin, s.m. Sausage. Salchichon. 



VOCABULARY OF THEIR LANGUAGE. *119 

Zermana, s.f. Curse. Maldicion. Sa7is. ^^m«i. 
Zi, s.f. Hen. Gallina. 
Zlbaora, s.f. Needle. Aguja. 
Zln-calo, s.m. Gypsy. Jitano. 



RICHARD WATTS, ORIENTAL PRINTING OFFICE, 
Crown Court, Picket Place, Temple Bar. 



MISCELLANIES 



GITANO LANGUAGE. 



VOL. II. App*. *F 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



It is with the view of preserving as many as 
possible of the monuments of the Spanish Gypsy 
tongue that the author inserts the following pieces ; 
they are for the most part, whether original or 
translated, the productions of the "Aficion" of 
Seville, of whom something has been said in the 
Preface to the Spurious Gypsy Poetry of Anda- 
lusia; not the least remarkable, however, of these 
pieces is a genuine Gypsy composition, the trans- 
lation of the Apostles' Creed by the Gypsies of 
Cordova, made under the circumstances detailed 
in the second part of the first volume. To all 
have been affixed translations, more or less literal, 
to assist those who may wish to form some ac- 
quaintance with the Gitano language. 



*F 2 



COTOERES ON CHIPE CALLI. 



Bato Nonrro sos socabas on o tarpe, manjirifi- 
cado quejesa tute acnao ; abillanos or tute sichen, 
y querese tute orependola andial on la chen sata 
on o tarpe ; or manrro nonrro de cata chibel dina- 
noslo sejonia, y estormenanos nonrrias bisauras 
andial sata gaberes estormenamos a nonrros bisa- 
raores ; y nasti nes muques petrar on la bajanbo, 
bus listrabanos de chorre. — Anarania. 

Panchabo on Ostebe Bato saro-asisilable, Per- 
baraor de o tarpe y la chen, y on Gresone des- 
quero Beyio Chabal nonrrio Erano, sos guillo 
sar-trujatapucherido per troecane y sardana de or 
Chanispero Manjaro, y purelo de Manjari oste- 
linda debla ; Bricholo ostele de or asislar de 
Brono Alienicato ; guillo trejuficao, mule y caba- 
fiao; y sundilo a los casinobes*, y a or brodelo 

* V. Casinohen in Lexicon. 



MISCELLANIES. 



Father our, who dwellest in the heaven, sancti- 
fied become thy name ; come-to-us the thy king- 
dom, and be-done thy will so in the earth as in 
the heaven; the bread our of every day give-us- 
it to-day, and pardon-us our debts so as we-others 
pardon (to) our debtors ; and not let us fall in the 
temptation, but deliver-us from wickedness. — 
Amen. 

I believe in God, Father all-powerful, creator of 
the heaven and the earth, and in Christ his only 
Son our Lord, who went conceived by deed and 
favour of the Spirit Holy, and born of blessed 
goddess divine ; suffered under (of) the might of 
Bronos Alienicatos*; went crucified, dead and 
buried ; and descended to the conflagrations, and 
on the third day revived f from among the dead, 

• By these two words, Pontius Pilate is represented, but whence 
they are derived I know not. 
f Reborn. 



*126 THE ZINCALI. 

chibel repurelo de eniTe los mules, y encalomo a 
los otarpes,y soscabela bestique a latabastorre de 
Ostebe Bato saro-asisilable, ende aoter a de abillar 
a sarplar a los Apuclieris y mules. Panchabo on 
or Chanispero Manjaro, la Manjari Cangari Pe- 
buldorica y Rebuldorica, la Erunon de los Man- 
jaros, or Estonnen de los crejetes, la repurelo de 
la mansenquere y la chibiben verable. — Anarania, 
Table que. 

OCANAJIMIA A LA DEBLA. 

O Debla quirindia, Day de saros los Bordeles 
on coin panchabo : per los duquipenes sos naque- 
lastes a or pindre de la trejul de tute ChaboiTo 
majarolisimo te manguelo, Debla, me alcorabises 
de tute chaborro or estormen de sares las dojis y 
crejetes sos menda udicare aquerao on andoba 
surdete. — Anarania, Tebleque. 

Ostebe te berarbe Ostelinda ! perdoripe sirles 
de sardana ; or Erauo sin sartute ; bresban tute 
sirles enrre sares las rumiles, y bresban sin or 
frujero de tute po. — Tebleque. 

Manjari Ostelinda, day de Ostebe, brichardila 
per gaberes crejetaores aocana y on la ocana de 
nonrra beriben ! — Anarania, Tebleque. 



MISCELLANIES. *127 

and ascended to the heavens, and dwells seated 
at the right-hand of God, Father all-powerful, 
from there he-has to come to impeach (to) the 
living and dead. I believe in the Spirit Holy, 
the Holy Church Catholic and Apostolic, the 
communion of the saints, the remission of the 
sins, the re-birth of the flesh, and the life ever- 
lasting. — Amen, Jesus. 



PRAYER TO THE VIRGIN. 

O most holy Virgin, Mother of all the Christ- 
ians, in whom I believe ; for the agony which 
thou didst endure at the foot of the cross of thy 
most blessed Son, I entreat thee. Virgin, that thou 
wilt obtain for me, from thy Son, the remission of 
all the crimes and sins which I may have com- 
mitted in this world. Amen, Jesus. 

God save thee, Maria ! full art thou of grace ; 
the Lord is with thee ; blessed art thou amongst 
all women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 
Jesus. 

Holy Maria, mother of God, pray for us sin- 
ners, now and in the hour of our death ! — Amen, 
Jesus. 



*128 THE ZINCALI. 

Chimuclani or Bato, or Chabal, or Chanispero 
manjaro ; sata sia on or presimelo, aocana, y ga- 
jeres : on los sides de los sides. — Anarania. 

OR CREDO. 

SARTA LO CHIBELARON LOS CALES DE CORDOVATl. 

Pachabelo en Un-debel batu tosaro-baro, que 
ha querdi el char y la chique ; y en Un-debel 
chinoro su unico chaboro erano de amangue, que 
chalo en el trupo de la Majari por el Duquende 
Majoro, y abio del veo de la Majari ; guillo 
curado debajo de la sila de Pontio Pilato el chino- 
baro ; guillo mulo y garabado ; se chalo a las 
jacharis ; al trin chibe se ha sicobado de los mules 
al char; sinela bejado a las baste de Un-debel 
barrea ; y de ote abiara a juzgar a los mules y a 
los que no lo sindan; pachabelo en el Majaro ; la 
Cangri Majari barea; el jalar de los Majaries ; lo 
meco de los grecos ; la resureccion de la maas, y 
la ochi que no marela. 



REJELENDRES. 

Or soscabela juco y terable garipe no le sin 
perfine anelar relichi. 



MISCELLANIES, *129 

Glory (to) the Father, the Son, (and) the Holy 
Ghost; as was in the beginning, now, and for 
ever : in the ages of the ages. — Amen. 

THE CREED. 

TRANSLATED BY THE GYPSIES OF CORDOVA. 

I believe in God the Father all-great, who has 
made the heaven and the earth ; and in God the 
young, his only Son, the Lord of us, who went 
into the body of the blessed (maid) by (means of) 
the Holy Ghost, and came out of the womb of 
the blessed ; he was tormented beneath the power 
of Pontius Pilate, the great Alguazil ; was dead 
and buried ; he went (down) to the fires ; on the 
third day he raised himself from the dead unto the 
heaven ; he is seated at the major hand of God ; 
and from thence he shall come to judge the dead 
and those who are not (dead). I believe in the 
blessed one ; in the church holy and great ; the 
banquet of the saints ; the remission of sins ; the 
resurrection of the flesh, and the life which does 
not die. 

PROVERBS. 

He who is lean and has scabs needs not 
carry a net *. 

* Poverty is always avoided. 

*F 3 



*130 THE ZINCALI. 

Bus yes manupe cha machagarno le pendan 
chuchipon los brochabos. 

Sacais sos ne dicobelan calochin ne bridaquelan. 

Coin terelare trasardos e dinastes nasti le bu- 
chare berrandanas a desquero contique. 

On sares las cachimanes de Sersen abillen 
reches. 

Bus mola yes chirriclo on la ba sos gres balo- 
gando. 

A Ostebe brichardilando y sar or mochique 
dinelando. 

Bus mola quesar jero de gabuno sos manpori 
de bombardo. 

Dicar y panchabar, sata penda Manjaro Lillar, 

Or esorjie de or narsichisle sin chismar lachin- 
guel. 

Las queles mistos grobelas : per macara chibel 
la piri y de rachi la operisa. 

Aunsos me dicas vriardao de jorpoy ne sirlo 
brace. 



MISCELLANIES. *131 

When a man goes drunk the boys say to him 

" suet."* 

Eyes which see not break no heart. 

He who has a roof of glass let him not fling 
stones at his neighbour. 

Into all the taverns of Spain may reeds 
come. 

A bird in the hand is worth more than a hun- 
dred flying. 

To God (be) praying and with the flail plying. 



It is worth more to be the head of a mouse 
than the tail of a lion. 

To see and to believe, as Saint Thomas says. 

The extreme t of a dwarf is to spit 
largely. 

Houses well managed : — at mid-day the stew- 
pan J, and at night salad. 

Although thou seest me dressed in wool I am 
no sheep. 

• A drunkard reduces himself to the condition of a hog. 
f The most he can do. 

I The puchero, or pan of glazed earth, in which bacon, beef, and 
garbanzos are stewed. 



*132 THE ZINCALI. 

Chachipe con jujana — Calzones de buchi y me- 
dias de Ian a. 

Chuquel sos pirela cocal terela. 

Len SOS sonsi bela pani 6 reblandani terela. 

ODORES YE TILICHE. 

Dica Calli sos linastes terelas, plasarandote 
misto men calochin desquinao de trinchas punis 
y canrrias, sata anjella terelaba dicando on los 
chorres naquelos sos me tesumiaste, y andial 
reutila a men Jeli, dinela gao a sos menda oro- 
bibele ; men puni sin trincha per la quimbila 
nevel de yes manu barbalo ; sos saro se muca per 
or jandorro. Lo sos bus prejeno Calli de los 
Bengorros sin sos nu muqueis per yes manu 
barbalo. . . On tute orchiri nu chismo, tramisto 
on coin te araquera, sos menda terela men nostus 
pa avel sos me camela bus sos tute. 



OR PERSIBARARSE SIN CHORO. 

Gajeres sin corbo rifian soscabar yes manu 
persibarao, per sos saro se linbidian odoros y 
beslli, y per esegriton apuchelan on sardana de 
saros los Benjes, techescando grejos y olajais — 
de sustiri sos lo resaronomo niquilla murmo ; y 



MISCELLANIES. *133 

Truth with falsehood — Breeches of silk and 
stockings of wool*. 

The dog who walks finds a bone. 

The river which makes a noise f has either 
water or stones. 

THE LOVER'S JEALOUSY. 

Reflect, O Callee % '• what motives hast thou 
(now that my heart is doting on thee, having 
rested awhile from so many cares and griefs which 
formerly it endured, beholding the evil passages 
which thou preparedst for me ;) to recede thus 
from my love, giving occasion to me to weep. 
My agony is great on account of thy recent ac- 
quaintance with a rich man ; for every thing is 
abandoned for money's sake. What I most feel, 

Callee, of the devils is, that thou abandonest 
me for a rich man. . . I spit upon thy beauty, 
and also upon him who converses with thee, for 

1 keep my money for another who loves me more 
than thou. 

THE EVILS OF CONCUBINAGE. 

It is always a strange danger for a man to live 
in concubinage, because all turns to jealousy and 

* Truth contrasts strangely with falsehood ; this is a genuine 
Gypsy proverb, as are the two which follow ; it is repeated through- 
out Spain without being understood. 

■f In the original wears a mouth ; the meaning is, ask nothing, 
gain nothing. 

I Female Gypsy. 



*134 THE ZINCALI. 

andial lo fendi sos terelaraos de querar sin teches- 
carle yes sulibari a or Jeli, y ne panchabar on 
caute manusardi, persos trutan a yesque lili. 



LOS CHORES. 

On grejelo chiro begoreo yesque berbanilla de 
chores a la burda de yes mostipelo a oleba rachi — 
Andial sos la prejenaron los cambrais presime- 
laron a cobadrar ; sar andoba linaste changano or 
lanbro, se sustiuo de la charipe de lapa, utilo la 
pusca, y niquillo platanando per or platesquero 
de or mostipelo a la burda sos socabelaba pandi, 
y per or jobi de la clichi chibelo or jundro de 
la pusca, le difio pesquibo a or langute, y le 
sumuquelo yes bruchasno on la tesquera a or 
Jojerian de los ostilaores y lo techesco de or grate 
a ostele. Andial sos los debus quimbilos dico- 
belaron a desquero Jojerian on chen sar las 
canrriales de la Beriben, lo chibelaron espusifias 
a los grastes, y niquillaron chapescando, trutando 
la rorauy apala, per bausale de las machas 6 
almedalles de liripio. 



MISCELLANIES. *135 

quarrelling, and at last they live in the favour of 
all the devils, voiding oaths and curses : so that 
what is cheap turns out dear. So the best we 
can do, is to cast a bridle on love, and trust to no 
woman, for they * make a man mad. 

THE ROBBERS. 

On a certain time arrived a band of thieves at 
the gate of a farm-house at midnight. So soon 
as the dogs heard them they began to bark, which 
causing t the labourer to awake, he raised himself 
from his bed with a start, took his musket, and 
went running to the court-yard of the farm-house 
to the gate, which was shut, placed the barrel of 
his musket to the key-hole, gave his finger its 
desire |, and sent a bullet into the forehead of the 
captain of the robbers, casting him down from 
his horse. Soon as the other fellows saw their 
captain on the ground in the agonies of death, 
they clapped spurs to their horses, and galloped 
off fleeing, turning their faces back on account of 
the flies || or almonds of lead. 

* Women understood. 

f With that motive awoke the labourer. Orig. 

\ Gave its pleasure to the finger, i. e. his finger was itching to 
draw the trigger, and he humoured it. 

II They feared the shot and slugs, which are compared, and not 
badly, to flies and almonds. 



COTOR YE GABICOTE MAJARO, 

OR SOS SARO LO HA CHIBADO EN CHIPE CALLl OR RANDADOR DE 
OCONOS PAPIRIS AUNSOS NARDIAN LO HA DINADO AL SURDETE. 



Y soscABANDO dicando dico los Barbalos sos 
techescaban desqueros mansis on or Gazoiilacio ; 
y dico tramisto yesque pispiricha chorrorita, sos 
techescaba duis chinorris saraballis, y penelo : en 
chachipe os penelo, sos caba chorrorri pispiricha 
a techescao bus sos sares los aveles : persos saros 
ondobas lian techescao per los mansis de Ostebe, 
de lo sos les costuiia ; bus caba e desquero chor- 
rorri a techescao saro or susalo sos terelaba. Y 
pendo a cormuuis, sos pendaban del cangaripe, 
soscabelaba uriardao de orchiris berrandafias, y 
de denes : Cabas buchis sos dicais, abillaran chi- 
beles, bus ne rauquelara berrandafia costune ber- 
randana, sos ne quesesa demarabea. Y le pru- 
charon y pendaron: Docurd6,bus quesa ondoba? 

Y sos simachi abicara bus ondoba presimare ? 
Ondole penelo : Dicad, sos nasti queseis jonja- 
baos ; persos butes abillaran on men acnao, pen- 
dando : man sirlo, y or chiro soscabela pajes : 



SPECIMEN OF THE GOSPEL, 

FROM THE author's UNPUBLISHED TRANSLATION OF THE 
NEW TESTAMENT. 



And whilst looking he saw the rich who cast their 
treasures into the treasury ; and he saw also a 
poor widow, who cast two small coins, and he 
said : In truth I tell you, that this poor widow 
has cast more than all the others ; because all 
those have cast, as offerings to God, from that 
which to them abounded ; but she from her po- 
verty has cast all the substance which she had. 
And he said to some, who said of the temple, 
that it was adorned with fair stones, and with 
gifts : These things which ye see, days shall 
come, when stone shall not remain upon stone, 
which shall not be demolished. xlnd they 
asked him and said : Master, when shall this 
be ? and what sign shall there be when this be- 
gins ? He said : See, that ye be not deceived, 
because many shall come in my name, saying : 
I am (he), and the time is near : beware ye of 
going after them : and when ye shall hear (of) 



*]38 THE ZINCALI. 

Garabaos de guillelar apala de ondolayos : y bus 
junureis bargaiias y sustines, ne os espajueis ; 
persos sin periine sos ondoba chundee brotobo, 
bus nasti quesa escotria or egresiton. Oclinde 
les pendaba : se sustinara sueste sartra sueste, y 
sichen sartra sichen, y abicara bareles dajiros de 
chenes per los gaos, y retreques y bocatas, y abi- 
cara buchengeres espajuis, y bareles simachis de 
otarpe : bus anjella de saro ondoba os sinastraran 
y preguillaran, enregandoos a la Socreteria, y 
los ostardos, y os legeraran a los Oclayes, y a los 
Baquedunis, per men acnao : y ondoba os chun- 
deara on chachipe. Terelad pus suraji on bros 
garlochines de ne orobrar anjella sata abicais de 
brudilar, persos man os diiiare rotufii y chanar, 
la SOS ne asislaran resistir ne sartra pendar saros 
bros enormes. Y quesareis enregaos de bros bates, 
y opranos, y sastris, y monrrores, y queraran me- 
rar a cormuiii de averes ; y os cangelaran saros 
per men acnao ; bus ne caijibara ies bal de bros 
jeros. Sar bras opachirima avelareis bras orchis: 
pus bus dicareis a Jerusalen relli, oclinde chanad 
SOS desquero petra soscabela pajes ; oclinde los 
soscabelan on la Chutea, chapesguen a los tober- 
jelis ; y los que on macara de ondolaya, niquil- 
lense ; y lo sos on los oltariques, nasti enrren on 
ondolaya; persos ondoba sen chibeles de Abil- 
laza, pa sos chundeen sares las bucliis soscabelan 
libanas ; bus isna de las araris, y de las sos dinan 



MISCELLANIES. *139 

wars and revolts do not fear ; because it is need- 
ful that this happen first, for the end shall not 
be immediately. Then he said to them : Na- 
tion shall rise against nation, and country against 
country, and there shall be great tremblings of 
earth among the towns, and pestilences and fa- 
mines; and there shall be frightfiil things, and 
great signs in the heaven : but before all this 
they shall make ye captive, and shall persecute, 
delivering ye over to the synagogue, and prisons ; 
and they shall carry ye to the kings, and the 
governors, on account of my name : and this 
shall happen to you for truth. Keep then firm 
in your hearts, not to think before how ye have 
to answer, for I will give you mouth and wisdom, 
which all your enemies shall not be able to resist, 
or contradict. And ye shall be delivered over by 
your fathers, and brothers, and relations, and 
friends, and they shall put to death some of you ; 
and all shall hate you for my name ; but not one 
hair of your heads shall perish. With your pa- 
tience ye shall possess your souls : but when ye 
shall see Jerusalem surrounded, then know that 
its fall is near; then those who are in Judea, 
let them escape to the mountains ; and those who 
are in the midst of her, let them go out; and 
those who are in the fields, let them not enter 
into her ; because those are days of vengeance, 
that all the things which are written may happen ; 



*140 THE ZINCALI. 

de oropielar on asirios chibeles ; persos abicara 
bare quichartura costune la chen, e guillara pa 
andoba Gao ; y petraran a surabi de janrro ; y 
quesan legeraos sinastros a sares las chenes, y 
Jerusalen quesa omana de los suestiles, sasta sos 
quejesen los chiros de las sichenes; y abicara 
simaches on or orcan, y on la chimutia, y on las 
uchurganis ; y on la chen chalabeo on la sueste 
per or dan sos bausalara la loria y desqueros gulas ; 
muquelando los romares bifaos per dajiralo de 
las buchis sos costune abillaran a saro or surdete ; 
persos los solares de los otarpes quesan sar-cha- 
labeaos ; y oclinde dicaran a or Chaboro e Manu 
abillar costune yesque minrricla sar baro asislar 
y Chimusolano : bus presimelaren a chundear 
caba buchis, die ad, y sustinad bros jeros, persos 
pajes soscabela bras redencion. 



MISCELLANIES. *141 

but alas to the pregnant and those who give suck 
in those days, for there shall be great distress 
upon the earth, and it shall move onward against 
this people ; and they shall fall by the edge of 
the sword ; and they shall be carried captive to 
all the countries, and Jerusalem shall be trodden 
by the nations, until are accomplished the times 
of the nations ; and there shall be signs in the 
sun, and in the moon, and in the stars ; and in 
the earth trouble of nations from the fear which 
the sea and its billows shall cause ; leaving men 
frozen with terror of the things which shall come 
upon all the world ; because the powers of the 
heavens shall be shaken ; and then they shall 
see the Son of Man coming upon a cloud with 
great power and glory : when these things begin 
to happen, look ye, and raise your heads, for 
your redemption is near. 



THE ENGLISH DIALECT 



ROMMANY. 



THE ENGLISH DIALECT 



ROMMANY. 



" Tachipen if I jaw 'doi, I can lei a bit of tan 
to hatch : N'etist I shan't puch kekomi wafu 
gorgies." 

The above sentence, dear reader, I heard from 
the mouth of Mr. Petulengro, the last time that 
he did me the honour to visit me at my poor 
house, which was the day after Mol-divvus*, 
1842 : he stayed with me during the greatest part 
of the morning, discoursing on the affairs of 
Egypt, the aspect of which, he assured me, was 
becoming daily worse and worse. " There is no 
living for the poor people, brother," said he, " the 
chok-engres (police) pursue us from place to place, 
and the gorgios are become either so poor or 
miserly, that they grudge our cattle a bite of grass 

* Christmas, literally Wine-day. 
VOL. II. App'. *G 



*146 THE ZINCALI. 

by the way side, and ourselves a yard of ground 
to light a fire upon. Unless times alter, brother, 
and of that I see no probability, unless you 
are made either poknees or mecralliskoe geiro, 
(justice of the peace or prime minister,) I am 
afraid the poor persons "will have to give up wander- 
ing altogether, and then what will become of them ? " 

" However, brother," he continued, in a more 
cheerful tone, " I am no hindity mush *, as you 
well know. I suppose you have not forgot how, 
fifteen years ago, when you made horse-shoes in 
the little dingle by the side of the great north 
road, I lent you fifty cottors f to purchase the 
wonderful trotting cob of the innkeeper with the 
green Newmarket coat, which three days after you 
sold for two hundred." 

" Well, brother, if you had wanted the two 
hundred, instead of the fifty, I could have lent 
them to you, and would have done so, for I knew 
you would not be long pazorrhus to me. I am 
no hindity mush, brother, no Irishman ; I laid 
out the other day twenty pounds in buying rupenoe 
peam-engriesj; and in the Chong-gav §, have a 
house of my own with a yard behind it." 

" And, forsooth, if I go thither, I can choose 

* Irishman or beggar, literally a dirty squalid person. 

f Guineas. 

^ Silver tea-pots. 

§ The Gypsy word for a certain town. 



ENGLISH ROMMANY. *147 

a place to light a fire upon, and shall have no 
necessity to ask leave of these here Gentiles.^'' 

Well, dear reader, this last is the translation of 
the Gypsy sentence which heads the chapter, and 
which is a very characteristic specimen of the 
general way of speaking of the English Gypsies, 

The language, as they generally speak it, is a 
broken jargon, in which few of the grammatical 
peculiarities of the Rommany are to be distin- 
guished. In fact, what has been said of the 
Spanish Gypsy dialect holds good with respect to 
the English as commonly spoken : yet the English 
dialect has in reality suffered much less than the 
Spanish, and Still retains its original syntax to a 
certain extent, its peculiar manner of conjugating 
verbs, and declining nouns and pronouns. I 
must, however, qualify this last assertion, by ob- 
serving that in the genuine Rommany there are 
no prepositions, but, on the contrary, post-posi- 
tions ; now, in the case of the English dialect, 
these post-positions have been lost, and their 
want, with the exception of the genitive, has been 
supplied with English prepositions, as may be 
seen by a short example : — 

Hungarian Gypsy*. English Gypsy. English. 

Job Yow He 

Leste Leste Of him 

* As given by Grellman. 

*G 2 



*148 


THE ZINCALI. 




Hungarian Gypsy. 


English Gypsy. 


English. 


Las 


Las 


To him 


Les 


Los 


Him 


Lester 


From leste 


From him 


Leha 


With leste 

PLURAL. 


With him 


Jole 


Yaun 


lliey 


Lente 


Lente 


Of them 


Len 


Len 


To them 


Len 


Len 


Them 


Lender 


From Lende 


From them 



The following comparison of words selected at 
random from the English and Spanish dialects of 
the Rommany will, perhaps, not be uninteresting 
to the philologist or even to the general reader. 
Could a doubt be at present entertained that the 
Gypsy language is virtually the same in all parts 
of the world where it is spoken, I conceive that 
such a vocabulary would at once remove it : 



Ant 


English Gypsy. 

Cria 


Spanish Gyf 

Crianse 


Bread 


Morro 


Manro 


City 
Dead 


Forus 
Mulo 


Foros 
Mulo 


Enough 
Fish 


Dosta 
Matcho 


Dosta 
Macho 


Great 


Boro 


Baro 



ENGLISH ROMMANY. 



*149 



House 


English Gypsy. 
Ker 


Spanish Gypsy. 

Quer 


Iron 


Saster 


Sas 


King 
Love (I) 


Krallis 
Camova 


Oralis 
Camelo 


Moon 


Tchun 


Chimutra 


Night 
Onion 


Rarde 
Purrura 


Rati 
Porumia 


Poison 


Drav 


Drao 


Quick 
Rain 
Sunday 
Teeth 


Sig 

Brishindo 
Koorokey 
Danor 


Sigo 

Brejindal 
Curque 
Dani 


Village 
White 


Gav 
Pauno 


Gao 
Parno 


Yes 


Avail 


Ungale 



As specimens of how the English dialect may 
be written, the following translations of the Lord's 
Prayer and Belief, will perhaps suffice. 



*G 3 



*150 THE ZINCALI. 



THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

Miry dad, odoi oprey adrey tiro tatcho tan ; 
Medeveleskoe si tiro nav ; awel tiro tem, be kairdo 
tiro lav acoi drey pov sa odoi adrey kosgo tan : 
dey mande ke-divvns miry diry morro, ta fordel 
man sor so me pazzorrus tute, sa me fordel sor 
so wavior mushor pazzorrus amande ; ma riggur 
man adrey kek dosch, ley man abri sor wafodu ; 
tiro se o tem, tiro or zoozli-wast, tiro or corauni, 
kanaw ta ever-komi. Avali. Tatchipen. 



ENGLISH ROMMANY. *151 



LITERAL TRANSLATION. 

My Father, yonder up within thy good place ; 
god-like be thy name ; come thy kingdom, be 
done thy word here in earth as yonder in good 
place. Give to me to-day my dear bread, and for- 
give me all that I am indebted to thee, as I for- 
give all that other men are indebted to me ; not 
lead me into any ill ; take me out (of) all evil ; 
thine is the kingdom, thine the strong hand, 
thine the crown, now and ever more. Yea. 
Truth. 



*152 THE ZINCAtl. 



THE BELIEF. 

Me apasavenna drey mi-dowel, Dad soro-ruslo, 
savo kedas charvus ta pov: apasavenna drey 
olescro yeck chavo moro arauno Christos, lias 
medeveleskoe Baval-engro, beano of wendror of 
medeveleskoe gairy Mary: kurredo tuley me- 
cralliskoe geiro Pontius Pilaten wast ; nasko pre 
rukh, moreno, chivios adrey o hev; jas yov tuley 
o kalo dron ke wafudo tan, bengeskoe stariben ; 
jongorasa o trito divvus, atchasa opre to tatcho tan, 
Mi-dowels kair ; bestela kanaw odoi pre Mi-dowels 
tacho wast Dad soro-boro ; ava sig to lei shoonaben 
opre mestepen and tnerripen. Apasavenna en 
develeskoe Baval-engro ; Boro develeskoe congri, 
develeskoe pios of sore tacho foky ketteney, sorer 
wafiidupenes fordias, soror mulor jongorella, kek 
merella apopli. Avail, palor. 



ENGLISH ROMMANY. *153 



LITERAL TRANSLATION. 

I BELIEVE in my God, Father all powerful, who 
made heaven and earth ; I believe in his one Son 
our Lord Christ, conceived by Holy Ghost*, born 
of bowels of Holy Virgin Mary, beaten under the 
royal governor Pontius Pilate's hand ; hung on a 
tree, slain, put into the grave ; went he down the 
black road to bad place, the devil's prison ; he 
awaked the third day, ascended up to good place, 
my God's house ; sits now there on my God's 
right hand Father-all-powerful ; shall come soon 
to hold judgment over life and death, I believe 
in Holy Ghost; Great Holy Church, Holy fes- 
tival of all good people together, all sins forgive- 
ness, that all dead arise, no more die again. Yea, 
brothers. 

* The English Gypsies having, in their dialect, no other term 
for ghost than mulo, which simply means a dead person, I have 
been obliged to substitute a compound word. Bavalengro sig- 
nifies literally a wind thing, or form of air. 



*154 THE ZINCALI. 



SPECIMEN OF A SONG 

IN THE VULGAR OR BROKEN ROMMANY. 

As I was a jawing to the gav yeck divvus, 
I met on the dron miro Rommany chi : 

I puch'd yoi whether she com sar mande ; 
And she penn'd : tu si wafo Rommany. 

And I penn'd, I shall ker tu miro tacho Rom- 
many, 

Fomigh tute but dui chave : 
Methinks I '11 cam tute for miro merripen, 

If tu but pen, thou wilt commo sar mande. 



ENGLISH ROMMANY. *155 



TRANSLATION. 



One day as I was going to the village, 

I met on the road my Rommany lass : 

I ask'd her whether she would come with me, 

And she said thou hast another wife. 

I said, I will make thee my lawful wife, 
Because thou hast but two children ; 
Methinks I will love thee until my death, 
If thou but say thou wilt come with me. 

Many other specimens of the English Gypsy 
muse might be here adduced ; it is probable, 
however, that the above will have fully satisfied 
the curiosity of the reader. It has been inserted 
here for the purpose of showing that the Gypsies 
have songs in their own language, a fact which 
has been denied. In its metre it resembles the 
ancient Sclavonian ballads, with which it has an- 
other feature in common — the absence of rhyme. 



THE END. 



G. AVoodfall and Son, Printers, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London.