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Full text of "Zoological classification; a handy book of reference with tables of the subkingdoms, classes, orders, etc., of the animal kingdom, their characters and lists of the families and principal genera"

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ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: 

A HANDY BOOK OF REFERENCE, 

WITH 

TABLES OF THE 
SUBKINGDOMS, CLASSES, OEDEES, &c. 

OF THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM, 

THEIR CHARACTERS, AND LISTS OP THE 

FAMILIES AND PRINCIPAL GENERA. 



BY 

FEANCIS P. PASCOE, F.L.S. &c. 



SECOND EDITION. 
WITH ADDITIONS AND A GLOSSARY. 



LONDON: 

JOHN VAN VOOEST, PATEENOSTEE EOW. 

MDCCCLXXX. 

[All rights reserved.] 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



3335 



TABLE 

OF THE SUBKINGDOMS, CLASSES, AND SUBCLASSES 
OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 



Subkingdoms. 
Protozoa, p. 5 


Classes. 
!Ehizopoda, 6. 
Gregarinida, 12. 
Infusoria, 12. 
Spongia, 17. 
Hydrozoa 20 


Subclasses. 

f Hydroida, 20. 
\ Discophora, 26 


Ccelenterata, p. 16 


Actinozoa, 30 
Lctenophora, 36. 

Ehabdophora, 39. 
f Crinoidea, 41. 


[ Siphon ophora, 28. 
f Zoantharia, 31. 
" " \ Alcyonaria, 34. 



Vermes, p. 49 



Arthropoda, p. 70 



Mollusca, p. 152.... 



Vertebrata, p. 174 



^Holothurioidea, 46. 
f Platyelmintha, 50. 
| Nematelmintha, 54. 

Chsetognatha, 57. 
{ Gephyrea, 57. 

Annelida, 58. 

Eotifera, 63. 
_Polyzoa, 65. 

Crustacea, 70 

Myriopoda, 90. 

Arachnida, 93. 

Insecta, 102. 

Brachiopoda, 154. 

Lamellibranchiata, 1 55. 

Pteropoda, 159. 

Gastropoda, 160. 

Heteropoda, 167. 

Cephalopoda, 168. 
LTunicata, 170. 

{Pisces, 175. 
Amphibia, 192. 
Eeptilia, 197. 
Aves, 210. 
Mammalia, 238. 



f Cirripedia, 71. 
j Epizoa, 74. 
J Entomostraca, 77. 
1 Edriophthalma, 82. 
I Podophthalma, 84. 
^ Podosomata, 89. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

Page 38, line 17, for Stenosomata read Stenostomata. 

40, 22, for [ambulacra] read [ambulacral feet], and 
transfer to preceding line after "retractile 
tube-feet." 

49, after Nematelmia. add Prof. Huxley proposes "to esta- 
blish a division Trichoscolices," characte- 
rized by the presence of cilia, "in order to 
discriminate the morphological type which 
they exemplify from those of the Nemato- 
scolices, containing the Nematoidea." With 
the latter he includes the Nematorhyncha of 
Biitschli (Ichthyditim and its allies). 

97, line 3, after Ixodidai add (Ticks). 

157, 2 from the bottom, for Solon read Solen. 



183, 
221, 
246, 
290, 



6 from bottom, place Embiotica before Ditrema. 
6 from bottom, for Eudynamys read Eudynamis. 
9, for HEBEDIDENTATA read HEBEDIDENTATI. 
8 from bottom, for an insect read a crustacean. 



The star before the genus denotes that its species are 
extinct. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



My aim in the first edition of this work was to produce, as its 
title implies, a handy book of reference to the Classification of 
the Animal Kingdom, and to bring the contents of the various 
groups under the eye in the most concise and simple form. 
Beyond this some general notices were given, and the English 
names of the species, so far as they had any, and their scientific 
equivalents. No original remarks were attempted and no opi- 
nions expressed, excepting in the synoptical tables, and for them 
I claimed the indulgence of those who saw their way to a better 
selection of characters ; as to the classification, it is useless not to 
expect to find differences of opinion. In this edition the latest 
works have been consulted, especially those of Schmarda and 
Glaus, which, as giving the most recent views of the German 
naturalists, have been repeatedly referred to. I have not thought 
it necessary to go into any details respecting divisions, subdivi- 
sions, and so on, and their names, which specialists in so many 
instances delight to produce. Practically they are of little use, 
and serve chiefly as headings to their author's own pages. 

"Nomenclature is so trifling" a subject to the chieftains of 
science that I hesitate to mention it; but I think it as well to 



VI PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 

protest here against the barbarous and other objectionable names 
(sometimes at variance with good taste and even with decency) 
that have been introduced into science such, for example, 
as Batty ghur, Butzkopf, Agamachtschich, Know-nothing, Stuff, 
Jehovah, Cherubim ! or such idiotic names, or rather sounds, as 
Toi-toi, Sing-sing, Giu, Yama-mai, and many others. Indecent 
names need not be further alluded to. Under the law of priority 
it is assumed that any name must be retained. Surely such a 
law has its duties as well as its rights. Why should any name 
be sanctioned that shocks the good taste or feeling of all but the 
utterly hopeless ? This law of priority, too, has turned out to be, 
as A. Agassiz expresses it, " a mere shuffling of names." It was 
to have blessed us with a uniform nomenclature ; but, under its 
shelter, names familiar to us for a generation or more are swept 
away in favour of others published, in some obscure or forgotten 
work, one or two or twenty years earlier. Were this law to be 
carried out amongst insects, "a hopeless state of embarrassment " 
would be the result. In these pages, in the few instances (chiefly 
amongst birds) where such changes have been made, I have ad- 
hered to the familiar name. 

I am indebted to my friend Mr. J. W. Dunning, M.A., of 
Lincoln's Inn, for a long list of errors, in the first edition, in the 
generic and family names. I have profited by his suggestions in 
many instances; but, whilst admitting the correct form of the 
rest, I do not feel quite justified, in a work of this sort, in altering 
those which have received the sanction, in many cases, of long 
usage, or have been generally acquiesced in, and which would 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION". Vll 

now be proposed for the first time such, for example, as Cheli- 
pkorus for Chelifer, Petromyxon for Petromyzon, Loliginopsis for 
Loligopsis. Another class of errors is the non-duplicature of the 
r, as in Stylorhynchus, Biorhiza, Ptilorhis ; but this form is all 
but universal. Again, the practice of making ma or oma neuter 
is not so generally adopted that I have thought it necessary to 
make any change in the termination of the family names when I 
could find no authority for doing so ; id& and atidce are there- 
fore used indifferently. For the omission of that ill-used h in 
such words as Ryngota, Ramphodon, Sarcoramphus I am not 
responsible, or for its appearance in Micrhyla, Philhydrus, En* 
hydra, &c. Lastly, objection has been taken to the use as ordinal 
names of such words as Ecardines, Leptocardii, Polypi, Plecto- 
gnathi ; but here, as well as in others, except where they were 
intolerable, I have but followed suit. .Amongst about 5700 
generic names, exclusive of numerous others, mentioned in this 
little work, there are still, I am afraid, printer's errors and 'my 
own to be accounted for. 

Out of the 60.000 genera of the animal kingdom I have selected 
those which are the best known or are the most representative. 
The genera of the Protozoa, Coelenterata, and Echinodermata are 
largely in excess of the other subkingdoms on account of the 
interest of recent investigations. The class of Insects is least re- 
presented in proportion, the Coleoptera especially having less 
than an eighth of their number. 

There are now so many special terms to be met with in Biolo- 
gical science that I have thought a Glossary would be useful. 



Till PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 

Some of these terms are only to be met with in what may be 
called a diffused form, and to give a short and concise definition 
has been a matter of difficulty. But here, and, as I fear, through- 
out these pages, I hare sacrificed style to brevity. I have inserted 
many words, such as Evolution, Life, Materialism, &c., and cer- 
tain anatomical terms which may be an advantage to students. 

Since this book has been in the press much has appeared on 
subjects that I should gladly have availed myself of. Dr. Giinther, 
in that indispensable work the 'Zoological Record' (vol. v.), 
states that not less than 34,000 pages of " zoological literature " 
were published within the year 1868. How much has been done 
within the last six months at home and abroad will only dawn 
on us by slow degrees ; it is now scarcely possible for any one to 
keep up, except as to the most salient points, with the progress 
of zoological science. The best will be specialists and a little 
more. I do not say this to deprecate criticism, which, for the 
sake of truth, I shall be glad to see freely expressed ; it was 
kindly and, I may say, flatteringly so of the first edition. 

F. P. P. 

April 27, 1880. 



ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION 

<$<-. 



THE limits of the Animal Kingdom are still undecided, and it is 
probable that no absolute division between animals and plants 
exists. The thin membrane of the animal cell, when present, 
has been contrasted with the thicker and harder membrane of 
the vegetable cell, in the former case admitting solid particles of 
food into the body, as well as enabling it to combine to form the 
fibrous tissues, which the vegetable cell is unable to do. But it 
is doubtful if any such hard-and-fast line can be drawn between 
them. 

To evade the difficulty and to exclude all doubtful organisms, 
Hackel proposes to form an intermediate kingdom, Protista, 
including Protozoa and the lower plant-forms Labyrinthulea>, 
Diatomaceae, and Myzomycetes, to which he seems inclined to 
add the Fungi. But already, in 1859, Owen (Encycl. Brit.) 
introduced a " kingdom " Protozoa [this name was first proposed 
by Siebold], including Diatomacese &c., which he placed before 
the " kingdom Animalia ; " and John Hogg, the year after, pro- 
posed the term " Protoctista" for a " Prirnig 'enal kingdom," con- 
taining both Protophyta and Protozoa. The latter are, however, 
undoubtedly animal organisms; and in any case the limitation 
will be an arbitrary one. 

It is now considered almost without exception that there are 



2 ' ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION. 

seven fundamental forms or types (subkingdoms or phyla) of 
Animal life. 

They may be tabulated thus : 

Nobody-cavity PROTOZOA. 

A body-cavity [Metazoa]. 
No backbone. 

No intestinal canal COELENTERATA. 

An intestinal canal. 

More or less of a radiate structure ECHINODERMATA. 

Structure never radiate. 

With legs, or, if without legs, ver- 
miform. 

Legs never jointed VERMES. 

Legs jointed ARTHROPODA. 

Without legs, never vermiform MOLLUSCA. 

A backbone VERTEBRATA. 

Glaus adds Tunicata, and it has also been proposed that 
Spongia should rank as a subkingdom. 

The Theory of Descent assumes the common origin of all 
animals from these seven types ; and that these are derived from 
a single primaeval form, this, according to Hackel, " originating 
by spontaneous generation." The Biogenetic law, that the tribal 
history of the development of organisms (phylogeny) is repre- 
sented by their individual development (ontogeny), is assumed 
to be conclusive of the common origin of all animals. 

The primaeval form was a Moneron, and its existence is 
" attested by the fact that the egg-cell of many animals loses its 
kernel after becoming fructified, and thus relapses to the lower 
stage of development of a cytod without a kernel, like a Moneron." 
This Moneron is individually a Monerula, in the second stage 
becoming an Amoeba, individually a nucleated ovulum. Syn- 
amceba, a community of Amoebae, individually a Morula, is the 
third stage. Planaea, a many-celled primaeval animal without a 
mouth, its ciliated larva a Planula, marks the fourth stage. 

Lastly we come to Gastraea, another many-celled primaeval 
animal with intestine and mouth, its larva a Gastrula ; and this 
was the " common primary form of the six higher animal tribes " 
(Hackel, Hist. Great., Eng. transl.}. [The modified diagram 
below shows the pedigree of the Gastraeada, or the animals 
descended from Gastraea, according to Hackel.] This, the Gas- 
traea-theory as it is called, has been opposed by Salensky, 
A. Agassiz, Moquin Tandon, and others. 



ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION. 

Vertebrate. 



Arthropoda. 

Echinodermata. 
X 
Ccelelmintha. 



Tunicata. 



Mollusca. 

I 
Polyzoa. 

i 

Himatega. 



Spongia. 
\ 
Coelenterata. 




Vermes. 



Gastraeada. 



The Himatega or " sac-worms " designate a supposed " stage " 
of the animal pedigree connecting the Vertebrata with the Inver- 
tebrata, whose now nearest relatives are the Ascidians. That the 
ancestors of man " really existed " in the form of these Himatega 
" is distinctly proved " by the agreement presented by the " onto- 
geny of Amphioxus and Ascidians." 

Prof. Huxley, in a paper read before the Linnean Society at 
the end of 1874, proposed a classification substituting " series for 
divisions;" for, as he has since remarked, he considers the ordi- 
nary mode of arrangement into larger divisions " is a matter of 
altogether secondary importance." 

The following is his tabular arrangement of the animal king- 
dom : 

"ANIMALIA. 

I. PROTOZOA. 

i. MONERA. 

Protam&bidce. Protomonadida. Myxastrida. Foraminifera. 
ii. ENDOPLASTICA. 
Amwbidce. Infusoria flagellata. 
Infusoria ciliata. 

II. METAZOA. 
A. G-ASTRE.E. 

1. POLYSTOMATA. 

Porifera (or Spongida], 

ii. MONOSTOMATA. 

1. Archseostomata. 

a. Scolecimorpha. b. Coelenterata. 

Eotifera. Turbellaria. Hydrozoa. 

Treinatoda. Actinozoa. 

Nematoidea. Hirudinea. (Ctenophora.) 

Oligocheeta. 

n 9 



Gregarinidcs. Acinetidce. 
Eadiolaria. 



ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION. 



2. Deuterostomata. 
. Schizoccela. b. Enterocoela. 



Enteropneusta, 



Annelida Gephyrea (?). Brachiopoda. 

polychceta. Polyzoa (?). 

Arthropoda. Mollusca. Echinodermata. 

c. Epicoela. 

Tunicata (or Ascidioida}. 
Vertebrata. 
B. AGASTRE^E (provisionally). 

Cestoidea. Acanthocephala" 

Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. xii. p. 226. 

Some alterations in this scheme have since been made ; Spongida 
have been added to the type of the Coelenterata, and the Agastreae 
are relegated, the Cestoidea to Trematoda and Acanthocephala 
to the Nematoidea. The italicized groups or series are natural 
divisions to the extent and limits of which most biologists are 
agreed. 

As the Animal Kingdom can no longer be compared to a 
" chain extending from the monad up to man," a natural linear 
arrangement is impossible. From the Protozoa the Coslenterata 
branch off on one side and Vermes on the other ; from Vermes 
proceed (1) the Echinodermata, (2) the Mollusca, and (3) the 
Arthropoda ; and from the Mollusca follow, apparently after a 
long interval, the Vertebrata. The annexed scheme will show at 
once their relative position : 



Vertebrata. 



Echinodermata. / 

^\ Mollusca. 
\ 



Arthropoda. 



Coelenterata. 



Vermes. 



Protozoa. 



Subkingdom I. PROTOZOA. 

ACRITA. AMOEPHOZOA. SARCODEA. PLASTIDOZOA. 
HYPOZOA. 

Minute, nearly structureless animals, composed of a gelatinous 
matter [protoplasm or sarcode], and not developing true layers. 
Eeproduction principally by fission, or by the breaking up of the 
nucleus. 

The Protozoa differ from the rest of the animal kingdom in 
that they present no structural elements, or, even if they possess 
distinct cells, these cells do not develop into tissues. Such tissues 
as may be found in the higher Inftfsoria originate, not from the 
cells, but by changes in the physical and chemical characters. It 
is, however, undecided whether all Protozoa are unicellular. 

In Monera there is no nucleus ; and it has only been recently 
recognized in some of the Foraminifera. In all other Protozoa 
there is a nucleus [ = endoplast, Huxley]. 

In the absence of a nervous system, and in its inherent self- 
acting power, Bowerbank suggests the hypothesis that the sarcode 
may be a diffused form of nervous matter. * 

One mode of reproduction is by conjugation (zygosis), Two 
bodies come together, and a fusion more or less complete takes place. 
After a time the nucleus breaks up into a number of spores, or 
the spores are emitted in clouds without any apparent rupture of 
the surface. 

Bathybius, supposed to have been a living protoplasmic sub- 
stance, is now known to be " little more than sulphate of lime 
precipitated in a flocculent state by strong alcohol." 

The classification and even the limits of the Protozoa are still 
contested ; and the descriptions of these organisms are " in many 
instances very contradictory." It is doubtful whether many of 
them can be regarded as any thing more than stages in the develop- 
ment of other animals or of plants. Glaus (1876) has two classes 
Rhizopoda and Infusoria treating the remainder as outside 
the animal kingdom, and more related to Algse and Fungi. 
These are Schizomycetes (Bacteria), Myxomycetes (Trichia, 
MChalium) ; Flagellata (Monas, Volvox, Euglena, Peridium, Noc- 
tiluca) ; Catallacta (Magosph&rci) ; Labyrinthulese, apparently 
related to the Diatomaceae ; and Gregarinida. Schmarda (1877) 
has five classes Ehizopoda, restricted to Amceboidea, Acinetidse, 



6 PEOTOZOA. 

and Foraminifera ; Polycystina (=Radiolaria); Gregarinoidea ; 
Infusoria ; and Spongia. In Infusoria he places Vibrio, Bacterium, 
and Volvox ; his order Cymozoida includes the first two, while 
Volvox, together with Monas, Astasia, Noctiluca, &c., are com- 
prised under Mastigophora. Huxley divides the Protozoa into 
Monera (including Foraminifera) and Endoplastica (including 
Protoplasta (Amoeba, &c.), Gregarinida, Infusoria, &c.). 
For the present three classes may be recognized : 

Without a mouth. 

Without pseudopodia GREGARINIDA. 

With pseudopodia EHIZOPODA. 

With a mouth ... .. INFUSORIA. 



Class I. RHIZOPODA. 

SARCODINA. 

Minute aquatic animals, moving by an extension of their sub- 
stance (pseudopodia) ; with or without a shell, and without a 
mouth. 

The pseudopodia or extending portions of the substance are 
sometimes confined to one side of the body ; they may be merely 
short lobular dilations, or, as is generally the case, long fila- 
mentous processes capable of multiplying themselves and coales- 
cing whenever they come in contact. 

The nucleus is a hyaline vesicle generally containing a bluish 
nucleolus ; the central capsule is a membranous sac separating the 
nucleus from the outer protoplasm [sarcode]. The latter contains 
granules and certain yellow cells [sarcoblasts] supposed to be 
parasitic organisms (Cienkowski), an incipient form of liver 
(Hackel), and reproductive organs (Wallich). Eecent observa- 
tions seem to show that the " reproductive cells " are contained 
in the central capsule ; and the yellow cells are found by Hackel 
to contain a substance which cannot well be distinguished from the 
starch of plants. According to Sir W. Thomson, the capsule is 
" absent, or, at all events, exists in a very modified form in the 
more typical groups." 

Contractile vacuoles are certain cavities having a rhythmical 
movement : their function is possibly respiration. 

Four orders are indicated, but exceptions occur to most of their 
characters : 



PROTOZOA. 7 

Without a shell. 

Without a nucleus MONERA. 

With a nucleus AMOZBOIDEA. 

With a shell. 

Shell calcareous FORAMJNIFERA. 

Shell siliceous ... . . KADIOLARIA. 



Order I. MONERA. 

Homogeneous, structureless, naked particles of albumen capable 
of nourishment and reproduction. No nucleus nor contractile 
vesicle. 

In their mode of feeding and development, the Monera agree 
with the Foraminifera. Several of the forms are subject to be- 
coming encysted, and then to breaking up into spores, which may 
or may not at first resemble the parent. Others, assuming an 
amoeboid condition, may, when two come in contact, unite their 
pseudopodia and form a contractile network [plasmodium]. In 
Protomyxa the spores unite to form a body like the parent. 

There are about fifteen species known, which are found in fresh 
water as well as in the sea. 

There are two divisions : 

Naked (never encysted), reproduced by division... GYMNOMONERA. 
Encysted in a structureless membrane during a 

quiescent stage, then breaking up into spores ... LEPOMONERA. 

GYMNOMONERA. LEPOMONERA. 

Protamoeba. Protomonas=Monas. 

Protogenes. Protomyxa. 

Myxodictyum. Vampyrella. 

Myxaetrum. 



Order II. AM(EBOIDEA. 
AMOSBINA. LOBOSA. ATRICHA. PEOTOPLASTA. SPHYGMICA. 

Homogeneous, nearly structureless animals, with nucleus and 
contractile vesicles. Pseudopodia mostly short and broad, neither 
ramifying nor coalescing. 

These are mostly freshwater organisms, although a few are 
found in moss or in the earth ; they resemble the colourless 



PBOTOZOA. 

blood-cells of man, from which they cannot be distinguished ; 
but it is doubtful whether many of them can be any thing more 
than the earlier stages of other organisms. A sort of carapace 
or discoid shell is common to Arcella ; in Difflugia it is replaced 
by a shell formed by foreign particles agglutinated together. 

The limits of this order are undecided. Schmarda unites 
Amoebidae with Acinetidae to form his order " Thalamia, or Bhi- 
zopoda nuda." Von Hayek includes in it the three families of 
Amcebidaj, Arcellidae, and Actinophryidse ; Glaus places the latter 
in the Radiolaria, but Hack el, followed by Mivart, excludes it. 

The Heliozoa are mostly freshwater organisms, sometimes pro- 
vided with a siliceous skeleton of detached radiating spines, or 
with a hollow perforated globular shell (Clathrula], Except 
Actinophryidse, they appear more nearly related to Radiolaria 
than to Arnoeboidea. 

Pelomyxa is an " amoeboid organism " " spreading over the 
bottom of stagnant pools." 

The normal Amcelooidea include two families : 



Amcebidce. 
Amoeba. 
Corycia. 
Podostoma. 



ArcelKtUt. 

Arcella. 

Euglypha. 

Difflugia. 



The Heliozoa include three families. Actinophrys sol is the 
well-known "sun-animalcule" of microscopists. Actinophryidae 
constitute the order Phloeophora of Carus. Magosphcera is re- 
markable in that in its life-history it presents four independent 
forms ; the first morphologically represents an egg, the second is 
a Volvox-form, the third is a ciliated Infusorian, and the last appa- 
rently an Amoeba. It was discovered on the Norwegian coast by 
Hackel, who considers it the representative of a distinct group 
(Catallacta) linking together several of his Protista; but Huxley 
thinks it should form a "subdivision" of Infusoria ciliata. 



Actinopliryidce. 
Actinophrys. 
Actiuosphagrium. 
Ciliophrys. 



Acanthocystida. 
Acanthocystis. 
Rhaphidpphrys. 
Heteropurys. 
Cystophrys. 



ClathrulinidcK* 
Clathrulina. 
Hyalolampe. 
Hedriocystis. 



Magosphasra. 



PROTOZOA. 



Order III. FOKAMINIFEKA. 

POLYTHALAMIA. EETICULARIA. ACYTTARIA. HOMOGENEA. 
THALA.MOPHORA. 

Homogeneous, nearly structureless animals, without a central 
capsule or a contractile vacuole, generally provided with a par- 
tially enclosed calcareous shell, with or without a nucleus (or 
nuclei). 

Locomotion is performed by extending portions of the sur- 
face ; these are capable of multiplying themselves and coalescing 
whenever they come in contact. These pseudopodia also act as 
prehensile organs. The shell may be either simple or divided by 
septa, into chambers, and is often of extraordinary complexity ; 
occasionally, as in Lituolidce, it is partially composed of fine sand 
agglutinated together. In Hyperammina it is almost entirely 
composed of silica. The shells are extremely liable to vary, 
according to age and locality : the more simple have only the 
terminal aperture [Imperforata] ; in the Foraminifera proper 
[Perforata] the shell is pierced by numerous pores, through 
which the pseudopodia are emitted. 

The complex forms of their shells are said by Hackel to be 
" traceable to the active agency of the formless albuminous com- 
binations of protoplasm," the " results of inherited adaptation" 

The Foraminifera are marine, and are amongst the earliest 
forms of life ; the chalk formations and nummulitic limestones 
are almost entirely composed of their shells, and much of the 
Atlantic bed is covered with an ooze largely composed of Globi- 
fferina-shells, which, beyond a depth oi' 2400 fathoms, are sup- 
posed to pass gradually by their decomposition into the red clay 
which covers many thousand square miles of its bottom. In a 
living state it is believed they may be found at all depths. They 
are mostly very minute. 

Eozoon is the oldest known fossil. ParJceria, another fossil, is 
comparatively of large size (three inches in circumference). 
Eupertia is a sessile form from the Greenland seas. Many forms, 
however, are now said to be Algae (e. g. Ovulites, Dactylapora, &c.). 

IMPERFORATA. Miliolidce. Lituolidcs. 

r, ..j Miliola. Hyperammina. 

ftvmtftfe. Orbitulites. Spirillma. 

Gromia, Cornuspira. Lituola. 

Lieberkuhnia. *Parkeria. 



10 PROTOZOA. 

PERFORATA. Soritida. Nummulinida. 

Lagenida. Sorites. Cristellaria. 

OrbuHna ^, , . . -, Nonionina. 

*Lager Globigennida. Nummulina. 

Kotalia. Polystomella. 

Nodosariida. Uvellina. Acervulina. 

Nodosaria Textularia. *Nurnmulites. 

Dentalina.' Globigerina. *Eozoon. 
.Polytrerna. 
Carpentaria. 

Bupertia. 



Order IV. RADIO LAEIA. 

POLYCYSTINA. CYTOPHORA. 

Body differentiated into ectosarc and endosarc, and provided 
with one central capsule or with many [nuclei]. Pseudopodia 
rod-like, radiating, little disposed to ramify or coalesce. Shells 
siliceous, external. 

The shells are more or less perforated for the emission of the 
pseudopodia, and often furnished with radiating spicules ; they 
are of great variety of form and beauty, and of remarkable com- 
plexity. They are all oceanic, and, when alive, are of the most 
brilliant colours ; they appear only to come to the surface after 
sunset ; but they are believed to exist at all depths in the sea. 
In the fossil state they largely contribute to form the Tertiary 
rocks. 

A group of extremely minute forms, "approaching, but in 
many important points differing from, the Eadiolarians," has 
been brought to light by the ' Challenger ' expedition. They 
have received the ordinal name of " Challengerida." They 
have monothalamous siliceous shells, richly sculptured and 
filled with a nucleated sarcode. Sir Wyville Thomson consi- 
ders their position zoologically " not very "far from such forms as 
Gromia." 

Glaus divides the Radiolaria into five suborders : Heliozoa 
[here referred to Amoeboidea], Thalassicollea, Polycystinea, 
Acanthometrae, and Polycyttaria. They have also been di- 
vided into Collozoa (numerous nuclei) and Collida (a single 
nucleus). Hackel has two sections Monozoa and Polyzoa ; the 
former he divides into Ectolithia (skeleton external to the cap- 



PEOTOZOA. 



11 



sule) and Entolithia (skeleton more or less within the capsule). 
Mivart proposes to divide these into seven " primary groups "- 
Discida, Flagellifera, Entosphaerida, Acanthometrida, Polycys- 
tina, Collozoa, and Vesiculata. 

"These beautiful symmetrical and complex forms cannot be 
due to the action of natural selection ; and sexual selection can of 
course take no part in forming such organisms as these. We 
seem here to have forced upon our notice the action of a kind of 
organic crystallization, the expression of some as yet unknown 
law of animal organization, here acting untrammelled by adap- 
tive modification, or by those needs which seem to be so readily 
responded to by the wonderful plasticity of the animal world." 
Mivart. 

Having a single central capsule ... MONOCYTTARIA (or MONOZOA). 
Having several central capsules ... POLYCYTTARIA (or POLYZOA). 



MONOCYTTARIA. 


EthmosphcsridcB. 


Diploconida. 


TJialassicollea. 


Ethmosphaera. 


Diploconus. 


Tha lassicollidce. 


Heliosph<srid(S. 


Haliommatidce. 


Thalassicolla. 
Myxobrachia. 


Heliosphsera. 


Haliomma. 
Actinomma. 


Thalassospharidce. 


AulospharidcB. 


Dorataspis. 


Thalassosphaera. 


Aulosphsera. 


Sponguridee. 


Physematium. 
AulacanthidcB. 


Aca'ntJiometrce. 
Acanthometrida. 


Spongurus. 
Spongosphaera. 


Aulacantha. 


Acanthometra. 


Coccodiscidce. 


Acanthodesmiidce. 


Amphilonche. 
Lithoptera. 


Coccodiscus. 
Euchitonia. 


Acanthodesmia. 
Dictyocha. 


Ccelodendridcs. 
Coelodendron. 


LitheliidcB. 
Lithelius. 


Polycystina. 




POLYCYTTARIA. 


Eucyrtidiidce. 


Cladococcid(B. 


$ / DJl(BT020id(& 


Eucyrtidium. 
Litharachnium. 


Cladococcus. 


Sphaerozoum. 


Dictyopodium. 




CollosphceridcB. 


Dictyoceras. 




Collosphaera. 



Traquairia. 



12 PEOTOZOA. 



Class II. GREGARINIDA. 

One- or two-celled organisms, with a nucleus, and sometimes a 
nucleolus, but no contractile vesicle. No pseudopodia. 

Mostly small organisms which resemble, and have been mis- 
taken for, ova. They differ from single-celled plants in that 
their tissues are contractile and soluble in acetic acid. Some- 
times one extremity is furnished with hooks, serving as organs 
of prehension. They are all internal parasites ; they differ from 
Amoabae by having an external cell-membrane. 

A conjugative process, so-called, sometimes occurs : two Gre- 
garinida come together, a cyst forms around them, and certain 
globular vessels are formed in it, which ultimately become pecu- 
liar bodies known as " pseudo-navicellas," or "pseudo-naviculse." 
After a time these escape, and, bursting, give rise to amcebiform 
bodies which develop into Gregarinida. 

In the perfect form these parasites occur principally in insects, 
crabs, and worms. They have been also found in the human 
heart, kidney, &c. They vary in size ; some attain the length of 
half an inch. 

Monocystidce. Stylorhynchus. 

Monocystis. Actinocephalus. 

Hoplorhynchus. 
Dicystidce. 

Gregarina. DidymopJiyidcs. 

Pixinia. Didymophyes. 



Class III. INFUSORIA. 

POLYGASTRICA. MlCKOZOA. 

Minute, aquatic animals, or occasionally internal parasites of 
definite form, swimming by the vibration of cilia. A mouth and 
rudimentary stomach. No pseudopodia. A contractile vesicle 
and nucleus. 

An oral aperture or mouth is mostly confined to the ciliated 
Infusoria ; and an aboral aperture is sometimes present. The 
other Infusoria are somewhat doubtful organisms. The Acine- 
tidae have been regarded as the ancestral forms of the true 
Infusoria. 



PKOTOZOA. 13 

The ciliated Infusoria are composed of a cuticle lined -with a 
layer of gelatinous matter [endosarc] filled with chyme or a semi- 
fluid substance, within which the particles of food rotate. Besides 
the cilia, many Infusoria are furnished with bristles, hooks, &c., 
and some with thread-cells [trichocysts]. 

In most Infusoria, as well as in Amoeba and others, certain clear 
spaces or contractile vesicles exist. Other clear spaces [vacuoles] 
sometimes make their appearance in every part of the body. 
They vary in size, number, and position. 

A few species are found in the sea ; others are intestinal (Opa- 
linidae, Belantidium, Plagiostoma, &c.). Opalinidae were supposed 
to be the earlier stages of the Tremat,)de worms. 

Reproduction is by fusion or by gemmation, as well as bv the 
nucleus at certain periods breaking up into fragments, each deve- 
loping into the parental form. 

Without retractile tubes. 

Moving by cilia CILIATA. 

Moving by flexible filaments FLAGELLATA. 

With retractile tubes .. SUCTOIUA. 



Order I. CILTATA. 
STOMATODA. 

Body more or less provided with vibratile cilia. No filaments 
[flagella]. 

The cilia, which are organs of prehension as well as of motion, 
are expansions of the cuticle [exoplasm]. In the majority of the 
Infusoria, however, the cuticle is "nothing but a lifeless exuda- 
tion of the surface;" where it exists it is seen under various 
forms : in Dictyocysta it assumes the form of "lattice-like" shells ; 
in Vaginicola it is a protective sheath. 

Some species, as in Vorticetta, are attached to foreign bodies 
by a long and contractile pedicle. Torquatella is a marine Infu- 
sorium without cilia; Eay Lankester regards it as a section of 
Ciliata which he calls Calycata. 

The great majority of the Infusoria belong to this order, which 
has been divided into four suborders or sections dependent on 
the position of the cilia : in Holotricha they are dispersed, in 
Heterotricha a longer series is found near the mouth, in Hypo- 
tricha they are confined to the under surface of the body, and in 
Peritricha they are arranged round the mouth. 



14 



PROTOZOA. 



Omitting Acinetidae, Claus's arrangement of the families is here 
followed. 



HOLOTRICHA. 


Balantidium. 


PERITRICHA. 


Opalinidce. 


Bursaria. 


HalteriidcB. 


Opalina. 


Stentoridte. 


Halteria. 


Tracheliidce. 


Stentor. 




Trachelius. 


Freia. 


Tintinnidce. 


XjOxodcs. 


/> , 7 


Tintinnus. 




Spirostormdce. 


Codonella. 


Enchelyidce. 
Enchelys. 
Leucophrys. 
Coleps. 
Lacrymaria. 

Param&ciidce. 


Spirostomum. 
Blepharisma. 

HYPOTRICHA. 

Chlamydodontidce. 
Chlamydodon. 


Dictyocysta. 

Trichodinida. 
Trichodina. 
Urceolaria. 
Trichodinopsis. 
Didinium. 


Paramsecium. 


Chilodon. 


-T7- , 77-7 


Colpoda. 

Nassula. 


Huxleya. 
Aspidiscidce. 


Vorticelhdce. 
Vorticella. 
Epistylis. 


CinetocMida. 


Aspidisca. 


Gerda. 


Leucophrys. 
Ophryoglena. 


EuplotidfB. 


Carchesium. 
Vaginicola. 


Cinetochilum. 


Euplotes. 


Ophrydium. 


Trichoda. 
Cyclidium. 


Uronychia. 


Lageuophrys. 
Spirachona. 




Oxytrichida. 




HETEROTRICHA. 


Oxytricha. 


OpJiryoscolecida 


Sursariidce. 
Plagiotoma. 


Onychodromus. 
Cerona. 


Ophryoscolex. 
Entodinium. 



Torquatella. 



Order II. FLAGELLATA. 
MASTIGOPHORA. 

Body provided at its anterior portion with one or more long 
flexible filaments [flagella], the ends only vibratile. Cilia occa- 
sionally present. 

The flagella are never more than ten ; sometimes there is only 
one, more frequently two. They serve for locomotion. Astasia 



PROTOZOA. 15 

has a terminal mouth. Fission seems to be the only mode of ',.. 
reproduction. These organisms sometimes occur in colonies. { . ., 
Lophomonas is found in the intestines of Periplaneta orientalis. 

Euglence occur in green masses in our ponds in the spring. 
Flagellated organisms are sometimes found in the blood. Some 
are scarcely distinguishable from the spores of certain Algae. 
Peridinium is phosphorescent. 

Noctiluca, forming the class Myxocystodea of Carus, is a glo- 
bular organism furnished with a short stalk, a mouth, and a 
digestive cavity ; in temperate climates it is the principal cause of 
the luminosity of the sea. According to Allman, the special seat 
of the phosphorescence is the peripheral layer of protoplasm 
which lines the exterior structureless membrane. 

Peridiniidce. Astadidce. Monadidte. 

Peridinium. Euglena. Monas. 

Ceratium. Astasia. Cercomonas. 

Lophomonas. 
Noctiluca. 



Order in. SUCTORIA. 

AciNETA-forms. POLYSTOMA. TENTACULIFERA. 

Body stalked, provided with radiating retractile tubes, having 
at the extremity a disk-shaped mouth, acting as a sucker. No 
cilia in the adult. 

The prey is seized by these tubes, and the nutrient matter is 
then imbibed by the suckers. They have no definite mouth. 
There is only one family : 

Acinetidce. 

Acineta. 

Podophrya. 

Ophryodendron. 

A remarkable group of Infusoria of very minute size, distin- 
guished by the presence of a hyaline " wineglass-shaped struc- 
ture " at the anterior extremity, from which the flagellum takes 
its origin, has been investigated by J. Clark, and more recently 
by Saville Kent and Biitschli. They have been called " Flagel- 
late " or " Collar-bearing Monads." The principal genera are 
Codosiga, Salpingwca, Codomoeca, Dinobryon, and Antophysa. 



16 



Subkingdom II. CCELENTEEATA. 

EADIATA. ZOOPHYTA. CENTROXIJE. 

Aquatic animals with a distinct body-cavity, and a mouth open- 
ing into it ; no intestinal canal. Eeproduction normally by sper- 
matozoa and ova, which are discharged through the mouth. 

The majority of the Coelenterata are composite animals that 
is, organisms made up of colonies or communities of individuals 
organically united. The substance of the body, which is mostly 
of a radiate character, is composed of two membranes ectoderm 
and entoderm. There are no traces of a nervous system, except 
in certain Medusae, and there is no proper blood-vascular appa- 
ratus, although there is a fluid in the body-cavity which " repre- 
sents " the blood. 

Peculiar stinging-organs, supposed to be poisonous, are inva- 
riably present, except in Sponges ; they are called " cnidag,'' " ne- 
matocysts," or " thread-cells ;" they are usually colourless, elastic, 
double-walled sacs, round or oval, with a fluid in their interior. 
The inner wall of the sac is produced into a sheath terminating 
in a long thread [ecthoreum] ; this is usually twisted in many 
irregular coils round its sheath, and fills up the open end of the 
sac. " Under pressure or irritation, the cnida suddenly breaks, 
its fluid escapes, and the delicate thread [cnidocil] is projected, 
still remaining attached to its sheath." The cnidae are said to be 
analogous to the tactile organs of the Arthropoda. 

The body-cavity of the Coelenterata does not, according to 
Hackel, represent the true intestinal cavity [coeloma] of the higher 
animals, but, in many, a system of cavities [enterocoele] takes its 
place. 

There are four classes : 

Fixed, or, if free, not moving by means of cilia. 

No urticating organs SPONGIA. 

With urticating organs. 

Digestive cavity continuous with the body- 
cavity HYDROZOA. 

Digestive cavity separated from the body-cavity ACTINOZOA. 
Free, swimming by means of cilia CTENOPHORA. 



CGELENTEEATA. 17 

Class I. SPONGIA. (Sponges.) 
AMORPHOZOA. PORIFERA. POLYSTOMATA. SPONGOZOA. 

Fixed aquatic organisms, composed of an aggregate of amoebi- 
form bodies, etmb provided with a mouth and numerous pores, 
and including a fibrous framework, strengthened by horny or cal- 
careous spicules. Larvge free-swimming. 

The gelatinous sarcode forming the animal mass of the sponge 
is made up of a number of individual masses of protoplasm [plas- 
tides], forming a thin outer layer and entering deeply into the 
organism, coating every cavity in the interior. The cavities are 
connected by canals, which are continuous with ciliated chambers. 
Minute chambers [pores or ostioles], through which the water 
passes into the cavities, exist on the outer layer, and the water so 
admitted is discharged by larger orifices [oscula]. It is to the 
vibratile action of the cilia that the circulation of the water is 
due. According to Huxley, the " sponge represents a kind of sub- 
aqueous city, where the people are arranged about the streets and 
roads in such a manner that each can easily appropriate his food 
from the water as it passes along." 

It is doubtful, however, whether the digestion is carried on by 
the general cells lining the passages or by the ciliated cells. 

By Leuckart and Hackel the canal-system of Sponges is regarded 
as homologous to the gastrovascular system of the Hydrozoa and 
the Actinozoa. Furthermore, the Sponges and Corals are regarded 
as blood-relations, both originating [hypothetically] from a pri- 
mitive sac [protosaccus], the only morphological character sepa- 
rating them being the absence of urticating organs in the former. 

Thread-cells are, however, said to be found by Eimer in Reniera 
[these are by Carter declared to be parasitical polyps]. Eimer 
also considers that he has established a passage between Sponges 
and Hydroids. By Carter the relation of Sponges to Ascidians 
is regarded as greater than to Corals, the latter having only one 
aperture. 

Reproduction is either as exual by budding &c., or, in the Calci- 
spongige principally, by ova. According to Huxley, the embryo is 
" similar to the corresponding stage of a hydrozoon, and is totally 
unlike any known condition of a protozoon." The ova, so called 
by some observers, are supposed by Hackel to be spermatozoa, or 
perhaps vibratile cells. Sponges are also reproduced by gemma- 
tion. The Grastrula stage is disputed by Barrois and Hyatt. 

According to Saville Kent, " Sponges are compound, colony- 
building, collar-bearing, flagellate monads, exhibiting neither in 



18 C<ELENTERATA. 

their embryological nor in their adult condition phenomena that 
do not find their parallel among the simple unicellular Protozoa." 

The skeleton or internal framework of sponges is strengthened 
either by calcareous, siliceous, or ceratose spicules of various forms ; 
and a simple classification into three orders has been founded on 
this character. It sometimes happens that a sponge, as Dysidea, 
forms for itself a skeleton of spicules of other sponges or other 
foreign substances. 

The Physemaria of Hackel are supposed to be sponges which 
do not go beyond the Gastrula stage ; they have no pores and are 
fixed. Carter and Saville Kent assert their foraminiferal nature. 
Recently Eay Lankester decides Haliphysema to be an Amoeba 
enclosed in a test of sponge-spicules. Norman forms of it an 
order which he calls Psammoteichina. 

The common sponge of commerce is Spongia officinalis; the 
freshwater sponge, Spongilla fluviatilis ; Neptune's cup, Raphio- 
phora patera. 

Almost every one who writes on Sponges has a classification of 
his own. Gray had at least three, the most elaborate (though 
not the latest) being marked by the excessive multiplication of 
genera, which, as he himself observes, are "founded on very dif- 
ferent principles and characters" by different authors. Carter 
has divided the Sponges into eight orders, including numerous 
families and groups, the latter with hybrid and bizarre names, 
Bowerbank into three, Schmarda into nine, and Glaus into two. 
Hackel has three legions one of these, Calcispongise, is the subject 
of a remarkable work. His method obliges him to sweep away 
the old genera and to create new ones, whose names are drawn 
successively by affixes from the representatives of his three 
orders Ascones, Leucones, and Sycones. These are character- 
ized as "spurious genera" by Norman, who observes that our 
common Grantia compressa, with its varieties and "possible mo- 
difications," has 28 generic, subgeneric, and subspecific names, 
which might be further extended to 54. But all sponges are from 
their "unlimited pliability" subject to perpetual variation, and 
sometimes different form-species arise out of " one and the same 
stock," " which, according to the usual system, would belong to 
several quite distinct genera." 

The Calcispongiae Hackel affirms, " with the greatest certainty," 
were developed from Olynthus. The "order Ascones" was the 
first to develop, from which the Leucones and Sycones arose as 
"diverging branches." 

The British species of calcareous sponges belong, according to 
Hackel's nomenclature, to the following genera : Grantia com- 



CCELENTEBATA. 



19 



pressa and G. ciliata to Sycandra, also G. ensata (S. glabra) and 
G. tessellata (S. elegans=Dunst&rvilla) ; Leucosolenia botryoides to 
Ascaltis ; L. contorta to Ascandra L. lacunosa to Ascortis ; L. 
coriacea to Ascetta ; Lewonia nivea, L. fistulosa, and Leucogypsia 
Gossei to Leucandra ; and Leuconia pumila to Leucaltis. 

Following Hackel, and referring the Silicispongiae, Cerato- 
spongise, and Hyalospongiae to the Fibrospongise, we have three 
orders : 

Gelatinous, no skeleton MYXOSPONGLE. 

With a skeleton. 



Skeleton calcareous 




OALCISPONGI 


MYXOSPONGLE. 


Eaphiophora. 


CUonidce, 


Halisarcid<8. * 
Halisarca. 


Reniera. 
Spongilla. 


CHona, 
Xenospongiidce. 


Chondrillidce. 
Gunimina. ' 


Tethyidcs. 
Tethya=Donatia. 


Xenospongia. 


Chondrilla. 


Suberites. 


Hexactinellidce. 




, 


Euplectella. 


FlBROSPONGLE. 


Desmacidonidte. 


Aphrocallistes. 


Spongiidce. 
Spongia. 
Hercinia. 


Isodictya. 
Hymeniacidon. 
Desmacidon. 
Esperia. 


Meyerina, 
Hyalonema. 
Pheronema. 
Asconema. 


Aptysinida. 




Dactylocalyx. 


Aplysina. 
Luffaria = Verongia. 
Auliscia. 


Cka linopsidcB. 

Axinella. 
Chalinopsis. 


Rossella. 
Dendrospongia. 


ChalinidcB. 


GeodiidfB. 


CALCISPONGI^. 


Chalina. 


Pachymatisma. 
vjreodia. 


Grantiidce. 


Phacelliida. 




Grantia. O^^Jt 


Phacellia. 


Ancorinidce. 


Sycon. 


Dysideidce. 


Ancorina. 


Leuconia. 
Leucosolenia. 


Dysidea. 


Lithistiida. 


Leucogypsia. 


Halichondriidae. 


*Lithistius. 





Halichondria. 


*Corallistes. 


*Stromatopora. 






c2 



20 CCELENTEEATA. 

Class II. HYDKOZOA. 

HYDROMEDUSJS. 

Simple or compound organisms, the individual (polypite or 
hydranth) consisting of a sac composed of an outer (ectoderm) 
and inner membrane (endoderm), and enclosing a stomach-sac 
not differentiated from the general body-cavity, the opening fur- 
nished with tentacles. 

These organisms are nearly all marine ; they are almost in- 
variably soft and gelatinous, occasionally with a chitinous covering 
(perisarc). Reproduction is either by ova or by zooids, partially 
independent organisms produced by gemmation or fission ; but 
sexual communication is requisite at a certain period, or new sex- 
organs may, after several generations, he developed [alternation 
of generations]. The reproductive organs are exterior to the 
body. The digestive cavity communicates directly with the 
general body-cavity, the outer wall of which is in contact with 
the water in which the animal lives. 

The Hydrozoa are, if we exclude the Ehabdophora, divided 
into three subclasses : 

Attached to foreign bodies, sometimes in fresh 

water HYDROIDA. 

Free and oceanic. 

Polypites attached to a disk, float, or body- 
sac SIPHONOPHORA. 

A single polypite suspended from the disk... DISCOPHOKA. 



Subclass I. HYDKOIDA. 
HYDROPHORA. 

flydrosome fixed, consisting of numerous polypites united 
together in a branched or tree-like form, and originating from 
a single polypite, rarely the polypite maintaining a solitary 
existence. The reproductive elements mostly medusiform. 

With a very few exceptions, the polypites'are united to form a 
community or composite organism, which may include 100,000 
individuals or person ae. 

The character of Hydroida is, according to Dr. Allman, "never 
with a hydriform strophosome united with the gonosome into a 
natatory column," which is directly opposed to the character of 
Siphonophora. 

A community of Hydroids has to discharge two dissimilar 



CCELENTERATA. 21 

functions alimentation and reproduction; in roost cases, at a 
certain stage, the reproductive element separates, and thenceforth 
leads an independent existence. The alimentary element is 
termed the "polypite," and is either single or, more frequently, 
there is a large number united by the "coenosarc," which is usually 
invested by a chitinous covering called the "polypary." In 
Sertularida the polypary is composed of little cells or calycles 
[hydro thecas], in each of which an individual is lodged. This is 
the product of continuous budding. 

One of the forms of non-sexual reproduction is the "zooid." 
Zooids differ from organs in that the zooid is an individual 
organism, which may or may not be capable of independent 
existence. A community of zooids in union with one another 
constitutes the " hydrosome." Zooids are of two kinds: in one, 
destined for the nutrition of the community, the assemblage is 
called the "trophosome;" the other gives origin to the generative 
elements ova and spermatozoa ; and the entire association of 
these generative zooids is called the " gonosome." The tro- 
phosome is composed of the "hydranth" and the " hydrophyton." 
The hydranth (or polypite) contains the digestive sac ; the hydro- 
phyton (or coenosarc) is, as we have seen, the common basis by 
which the general community is kept together. The hydrorhiza 
is the adherent base. The ultimate zooid, which generates either 
the ova or the spermatozoa, is the " gonophore." The " sporo- 
sac" is a gonophore without the umbrella. The "gonozoid" is 
the sexual zooid, whether fixed or detached and fitted for loco- 
motive life; this is also known as a "medusiform gonophore," or 
" planoblast." The "gonangium," or "gonotheca," is an external 
receptacle in which the gonophore is formed. 

In the development from the egg the embryo in the ciliated and 
locomotive stage is known as a "planula." It is, however, not 
flat, as the name would imply, but conical or cylindrical. In a 
short time it loses its cilia and, with them, the power of active 
locomotion, and is gradually changed until it acquires its adult 
form. The planula consists of ectoderm and endoderm ; and the 
primitive digestive cavity is formed by the invagination of the 
ectoderm ; in Hydra, however, the mouth is produced directly 
from the body-wall. In Tubularia, and probably some others, 
the embryo assumes a radiate appearance, and is then known- as 
an " actinula." 

For Glaus Hydroida is an order with four suborders Tabu- 
lata, Tubularias, Carnpanulariae, and Trachy medusas. For Von 
Hayek it is a class with six orders Hydrida, Corynida, Cam- 
panularida, Sertularida, ^Eginida, and Graptolithida. 



22 CCELENTEEATA. 

With a calcareous polypary. 

Polypary, when present, chitinous ... HYDROCORALLIN.S. 
With a hydriforrn trophosome. 

Not permanently attached ELEUTHEROBLASTEA. 

Permanently attached. 

No hydrothecae nor gonangia GYMNOBLASTEA. 

Hydrotheoae and gonangia CALYPTOBLASTEA. 

Without a hydriform trophosome HAPLOMORPHA. 

Order I. ELETJTHEROBLASTEA. 
HYDRIDA. GYMNOCHROA. PCECILOMORPHA. 

Hydrosome consisting of a single polypite, not permanently 
fixed. Nutritiye buds at maturity discharging themselves and 
then growing independently as free organisms. 

Only one genus is known, containing the common Hydra viridis 
and two or three other species. They are found in fresh water, 
and if cut up each piece will develop in a few hours into a perfect 
animal. The body is tubular, capable of great extension ; and 
its proximal end is furnished with a hydrorhiza, by which it can 
attach itself at will to any foreign body ; the opposite end is pro- 
Tided with tentacles, by which it secures its prey. 

In the sexual mode of reproduction ova are formed near the 
fixed end, and spermatozoa, which are liberated at the same time, 
are formed at the base of the tentacles. Hydra is sometimes 
monoecious, sometimes dioecious. 

Hy&ridm. 

Hydra. 

Order II. GYMNOBLASTEA. 

CORYNIDA. TUBULARINA. ATHECATA. TuBULARIAN HYDROIDS. 

Polypites aggregated. No hydrotheeae nor gonangia present, 
either for the polypites or the gonophores. 

These are delicate plant-like marine organisms, except Cvrdylo- 
phora, attached to various foreign bodies, and developing buds 
[gonophores], which often becoming detached, float away into a 
free existence [planoblasts, or gonozoids], and are then known 
under the general name of Medusas. 

The Medusoid gonophore is composed of a swimming-bell 
(nectocalyx) with its inner margin produced into a delicate mem- 
brane called the "velum," its outer margin bearing the tentacles. 



C(ELENTEKATA. 



23 



From the centre hangs a tubular body the manubrium con- 
taining the body-cavity, and acting as a polypite. The body- 
cavity is connected with four or more canals radiating to the 
circumference, and giving rise with their branches to a circular 
canal. Nervous filaments with ganglionic enlargements running 
round the margin have been found in many genera. Pigment- 
spots (ocelli), black, vermilion, or carmine, are imbedded in the 
marginal ectoderm. Small corpuscles containing mineral con- 
cretions, and known as " lithocysts," are supposed to represent 
auditory organs. 

The classification is unusually difficult, owing to the association 
of similar trophosomes with dissimilar gonosomes, and vice versa. 
The planoblast also, at its liberation, is in an immature state, 
and the adult condition is therefore uncertain. In 1864 Allman 
divided this order into nine families ; Carus, the previous year, 
recognized only two ; Hincks, in 1868, had twelve ; and in 1871 
Allman made twenty-one ; eleven of these had only one genus, 
and mostly only one species in each : they are enumerated below. 
Schmarda has eight, and Glaus ten families, including Hydridce. 

Clavidce. BougainvillUdce. Myriothelida. 

Clava. Bougainvillia. Myriothela. 

Cordylophora. 

Clavatellidce. 
Clavatella. 

Corymorphidee. 
Corymorpha. 
Amalthfea. 

MonoeaulidcB. 
Monocaulus. 

Tubulariidee. 
Tubularia. 

Hybocodonida. 
Hybocodon. 

Hydrolaridce. 
Lar. 



Turns. 

Corynida. 
Coryne. 



Bougainvillia. 
Perigonimus. 

Eudendriidas. 
Eudendrium. 

Hydractiniida. 
Hydractinia. 

Podocorynida. 
Podocoryne. 



Syncoryne. 
Gemmaria. 



Cladonema. 



Dicorynida. 
Dicoryne. 



Nemopsis. 

Pennariida. 

Bimeriida. Pennaria. 

Bimeria. 

Wrightia=Atractylis. Cladocorymda. 
Hydranthea. Cladocoryne. 



24 



CCELENTERATA. 



Order III. CALYPTOBLASTEA. 

SERTULARIDA. CAMPANULARIDA. DIPLOMORPHA. THECAPHORA. 
SCENOTOCA. 

Polypites connected by a coenosarc, and invested by an unor- 
ganized cbitinous excretion [polypary or perisarcj. Hydrothec 
and gonangia present. 

Plant-like organisms often taken for seaweed, and always 
attached to some foreign body. The reproductive elements are 
matured in the gonophore or, in some cases, free mednsiform 
zooids are produced. The capsule or gonotheca is the chitinous 
receptacle in which the gonophores are formed. 

A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the polypary, in which 
thread-cells [nematophores] are sometimes imbedded, is charac- 
teristic of the Plumulariidas. 

In Ophiodes Hincks describes certain snake-like organs (cceno- 
sarcal appendages) distributed upon the creeping stolon ; " they 
are vigorous in their movements, capable of enormous elongation, 
and surmounted by a large capitulum thickly covered with thread- 
cells." They act as organs of defence and in the capture of food. 
Obelia geniculata is a phosphorescent species, as are also some 
others of this order. 

A new order Thecomedusae has been founded by Allman on 
a remarkable form, Stephanoscyphus mirabilis, found by him at 
Antibes, imbedded in the substance of a sponge ; but whether the 
association was one of parasitism, or merely accidental, it was 
impossible to say. 



Campanulariidos. 
Clytia. 

Campanularia. 
Obelia = Laomedea. 
G-onothyrea. 
Thaumantias. 



Campanulina. 

Leptoscyphidte. 
Leptoscyphus. 



LafoeidoB. 

Lafoe'a. 
Salacia. 

Trickydridce. 
Trichydra. 

Coppiniidce. 
Coppinia. 

Halecizdcs. 
Halecium. 
Ophiodes. 



Mquoreidce. 
^Equorea. 



Sertularia. 
Diphasia. 
Hydrallmania. 
Thuiaria. 

Plumularlida* 
Plumularia. 
Antennularia. 
Aglaophenia. 



CffiLENTEKATA. 25 



Order IV. HAPLOMOEPHA. 

CRYPTOCARPJE. CRASPEDOTA. HYDROPHORA. MONOPSEA. 
TRACHYMEDUS^E. 

No hydriform trophosome ; medusae developing directly from 
the ovum. 

These are the true Medusae ; but at present the order can only 
be regarded as provisional. The embryo, so far as is known, is 
directly developed from the parent without passing through any 
intermediate form as in the medusiform gonophore. Both seem 
able to produce independent forms like themselves by budding. 
Many naked-eyed Medusas (Gymnophthalniata of Forbes) are now 
known to be the free gonophores of the Gymnoblastea and the 
Calyptoblastea. Some are very minute, others attain the size of a 
walnut. 

The Acalephae of Cuvier comprised this order, Discophora, 
except Lucernaria, Siphonophora, and Ctenophora. 

Trachynemida, Cunina. Liriope. 

Trachynema = Circe. -^Sgineta. Carmarina. 
Ehopalonema. Polyxenia. 
Aglaura. Ckarybckridtf. 

Geryonlid. Charybdsea. 
Geryonia. 



Order V. HYDEOCOEALLIN.E. 

Polypary calcareous, sometimes divided into compartments by 
transverse partitions. Mouth of the polypites with or without 
tentacles. 

The coenosarc is made up of a "network of anastomosing 
canals," and its outer layer is provided with thread-cells. The 
zooids are of two kinds ; the smaller and more numerous have no 
mouth and no stomach-cells. Eeproduction is by means of 
gonophores. 

The Milleporidae, " in the general form of their zooids, seem 
allied to the gymnoblastic hydroids, whereas the presence of 
distinct gonaugia in the Stylasteridae seems to ally the latter to 
the calyptoblastic group " (Moseley}. 



26 CCELENTEKATA. 

Milleporida. Stylaster. 

MiUepora. Errina. 

Allopora. 

Stylasterida. Polypora. 

Cryptohelia. 

Distichopora. 

Subclass II. DISCOPHOBA. 

PHANEROCARPA. MEDUSAE. ACRASPEDA. 

Hydrosome consisting of a single disk, from which one or more 
polypites are suspended. 

Free-swimming oceanic animals, whose reproduction is some- 
times by buds, which are formed either in pouch-like organs, 
dilatations of the stomach, or from the tentacles, or from the 
sides of the polypite. They are the Steganophthalmata or 
covered-eyed Medusae of Forbes ; and to them Claus has restricted 
the old Cuvierian name of Acalephae. They are well known as 
sea-blubbers and sea-jellies. Most of them are luminous, but they 
do not appear to possess any special light-giving organs. 

Schmarda still (1877) includes in the Discophora the naked- 
eyed Medusae of Forbes, which are now known to be the sexual 
zooids or gonophores of the Gymno bias tea. 

There are three orders: but Calycozoa are sometimes ranked 
as a subclass ; by Schmarda they are placed with the Anthozoa. 

Capable of attachment by the proximal end ... CALYCOZOA. 
Incapable of attachment. 

Polypites numerous EHIZOSTOMEA. 

Polypite single MONOSTOMEA. 

Order I. EHIZOSTOMEA. 

Polypites numerous, modified with the genitalia into a root- 
shaped mass. No central mouth nor marginal tentacles. 

At the extremity of the arms of the root-like mass are small 
openings, through which the food is conveyed along a central 
canal to the stomach. 

The embryo is a free oblong body [planula] which, soon 
attaching itself to some foreign substance, forms a mouth and 
stomach by invagination ; tentacles then arise from the mouth, in 



C(ELENTEBATA. 27 

which stage it is known as the " hydra tuha" (Scyphistoma), which 
by budding gives rise to colonies of " Hydriform polypi ;" some of 
these assuming the form of a pile of cups placed one within the 
other, is now called a " strobila ;" then the cups separating, each 
becomes a free-swimming disk [ephyra], by degrees acquiring the 
adult form. 



Ehisostomidts. 
Rhizostoma. 

L.eptobrachiidts. 
Leptobrachia. 


Cassiopeiida. 
Cassiopeia. 

Cepheida. 
Cephea. 


Polycloniidce. 
Polyclonia. 

Crambessidce. 
Crambessa. 



*Hexarhizites. 

Order II. MONOSTOMEA. 
PELAGIADA. 

Polypite single. A central mouth. The disk with marginal 
tentacles, or if without them with tentacles under the disk. 

The reproductive elements are developed in the disk, or by 
fission from a fixed trophosome, and, in their detached condition, 
grow with great rapidity, ultimately attaining a weight of many 
hundreds of pounds. Cyanaa arctica has been found with a disk 
seven feet in diameter and with tentacles fifty feet long, the fixed 
trophosome from which it proceeded being of very small size. 

Pelagiida. Cyaneida. 

Pelagia. Cyanea. 

***"> 

Aurelia= Medusa. 



Order III. CALYCOZOA. 

PODACTINARIA. LUCERNARIIDA. 

Polypite single, in the centre of a cup-shaped umbrella, its 
proximal end fixed. Generative elements discharging themselves 
into the body-cavity. 

The umbrella is eight- or nine-lobed in Lucernaria, each lobe 
bearing a tuft of tentacles ; in Carduella they form one con- 
tinuous series. " The whole organism is semitransparent, variously 
coloured, and of a gelatinous consistence." 



28 CCELEXTEKATA. 

To the form of disk without a velum Huxley restricts the term 
umbrella : in the Calycozoa it is prolonged aborally into a longer 
or short peduncle, terminating in a hydro rhiza, by which the 
animal is enabled to fix itself to any foreign body at will. When 
detached, the contractions of the umbrella enable it to swim with 
the ease of an ordinary medusoid body. The order contains but 
one family : 

Lucernariidce. 

Lucernaria. 

Depastrum. 

Carduella. 



Subclass HI. SIPHON OPHOKA. 
OCEANIC HYDROZOA. 

Hydrosome free and oceanic, simple or branched, consisting of 
several polypites connected by a contractile coenosarc, and attached 
at the proximal end to a disk, float [pneumatophore], or body-sac 
[somatocyst]. 

The polypites have each a tentacle, often of great length, pro- 
vided with lateral branches having thread-cells [trichocysts, mo- 
dified zooids]. Each polypite is occasionally protected at the 
base by overhanging plates [hydrophyllia]. Certain bell-shaped 
cups [specialized nectocalyces] are frequently present, attached 
to the hydrosorne, by the contraction of which the animal is 
propelled through the water. The pneumatophore contains an 
air-sac [pneumatocyst], variously formed, with firm chitinous 
walls. Vesicles and pigment-spots [ocelli], often very brilliant, 
are found round the margins of the nectocalyces : the former 
have been called " otolites," and have been supposed to be audi- 
tory organs ; the latter are possibly the earliest indication of 
eyes. 

The Siphonophora are organisms of a very delicate and pecu- 
liarly composite character, almost exclusively found floating on 
the surface of tropical seas. They have rarely a radiate character, 
but are either bilateral or unsymmetrical. Their reproductive 
organs are gonophores, varying from the simplest form to me- 
dusoids of the normal type. 

A body-sac at the proximal end CALYCOPHOR.E. 

A float at the proximal end Pn YSOPHORX. 



CCELENTERATA. 29 



Order I. OALTOOPHORSl 

Polypites united by a filiform and unbranched coenosarc ; tlie 
proximal end modified into a somatocyst, and provided with one 
or more nectocalyces. 

" Sets of appendages each consisting of a hydrophyllium, a 
hydranth with its tentacle, and gonophores, which last bud from 
the pedicle of the hydranth are developed at regular intervals 
on the coenosarc, and the long chain trails behind as the animal 
swims with a darting motion, caused by simultaneous rhythmical 
contraction of its nectocalyces, through the water." [Huxley.'} 
The distal set of these appendages, as they attain their full 
development, " becomes detached as a free-swimming complex 
Diphyzooid" In this condition they grow and alter their form, 
until the gonophores which they develop " become detached, 
increase in size, become modified in form, and are set free as a 
third series of independent zooids." 

These animals are so transparent as only to be noticed at a 
distance by their bright tints. 

Diphyidcs. Sphceronectidce. Hippopodiidce. 

Diphyes. Sphseronectes. Hippopodius. 

Abyla. Monophyes. Vogtia. 

Prayidce. 
Praya. 



Order II. PHFSOPHOK.E. 

Polypites united by an unbranched, or very slightly branched, 
filiform, globular, or disooidal coenosarc ; the proximal end modi- 
fied into a pneumatophore, and sometimes provided with necto- 
calyces. Mostly monoecious. 

The tentacles are either attached to the coenosarc, or singly to 
a polypite ; they are forty inches long in Halistemma rubrum, 
while the pneumatophore is only three or four lines in its largest 
diameter. The pueumatophore, however, is generally of much 
larger size, and in the Velellidae it is "converted into a sort of 
hard inner shell, its cavity being subdivided by septa into nume- 
rous chambers." 

The members of this order differ considerably among them- 
selves, but they all agree in having a pneumutophore. 



30 



CCELEKTERATA. 



The well-known "Portuguese man-of-war " (Physalia pelagica) 
is the only species of the order that has received an English 
name. It represents a suborder (order) for Claus, as do also the 
Velellidae (Discoidese). 



Apolemia. 



Stephanomia. 

Agalma. 

Halistemma. 



Physophora. 
Stephanospira. 

Athorybiidfs. 
Athorybia. 

EhizophysidcB. 
Ehizophysa. 



Physalia. 

Velellida. 
Velella. 
Porpita. 



Class III. ACTINOZOA. 

POLYPI. CORALLARIA. AtfTHOZOA. 

The digestive cavity not in contact with the outer wall of the 
body, but separated by an intervening perivisceral space. 

The perivisceral space is radially divided into a number of 
compartments by membranous partitions [mesenteries], in which 
the reproductive organs are placed. Reproduction also takes 
place by budding, by fission of small fragments separating from 
the edge at the base [Gosse], as well as by ordinary generation. 
The egg, in the latter case, develops into an infusorial-like germ, 
with vibratile cilia and free locomotion [planula]. The sexes are 
either united or distinct. 

The mouth is furnished with tentacles, hollow, and either 
simple or fringed, capable of being withdrawn into the body- 
cavity. No manducatory apparatus exists. 

The great majority are composite organisms, mostly provided 
with a horny or calcareous secretion, known as the " corallum " 
or "polypary." The corallum-tissue [sclerenchyma] presents 
every gradation between the solid condition and the spicular 
stage. For these animals collectively Huxley extends the term 
" Coralligena." 

There are two subclasses : 

Tentacles simple ZOANTHARIA. 

Tentacles pinnately fringed ALCYONAKIA. 



CCELEffTERATA. 31 

Subclass I. ZOANTHAEIA. 

POLYACTINIA. 

Polypes with simple or occasionally branched tentacles, six, or 
a multiple of six. Corallum, when present, mostly sclerodermic, 
more rarely sclerobasic. 

The corallum is a hard, mostly calcareous substance [calcium 
carbonate], secreted externally in the sclerobasic corals, and inter- 
nally in the sclerodermatous ; in the Malacodermata it is, when 
present, disseminated in the form of small spicules [sole rites]. An 
individual [persona] of the compound corallum is known as a 
" corallite ;" the outer wall forms the " theca," the upper part of 
which is the cup or calicle ; below it is often divided radially by 
distinct vertical septa [mesenteries] united in the centre to the 
"columella." Sometimes the thecse are divided by horizontal 
plates [tabulae]. " Dissepiments " are incomplete plates growing 
from the sides of the septa. The " ccenenchyma " is the calcareous 
covering uniting the individual corallites together ; it is secreted 
by the'coenosarc, with which it may be said to correspond. 

Milne-Edwards divides the Zoautharia into three groups : 

Corallum either absent or rudimentary MALACODERMATA. 

Corallum present 

Corallum internal, calcareous SCLERODERMATA. 

Corallum external, not calcareous SCLEROBASICA. 

Order I. MALACODERMATA. (Sea-anemones.) 
HELIANTHOIDA. ACTINIARIA. HEXACORALLA. 

Corallum absent, or represented by a few spicules. Tentacles nu- 
merous, simple. Polypes rarely aggregated. Sexes mostly distinct. 

In the Zoanthidse only are the polypes united by a common 
creeping stem. The majority, owing to their muscular base, enjoy 
some power of locomotion, although generally adherent to some 
foreign body. The Ilyanthidae have no adherent base ; and 
Arachnactis is a free-swimming organism : it is, however, possibly 
an immature form. 

The tentacles are generally disposed in two or more series. 
These are successively developed from within outwards, in multi- 
ples of six ; but one or more tentacles are sometimes abortive. 
They are often perforate at the end. In Sagartia bellis, a common 
species, there are six rows, the inner minute, and altogether they 
amount to about 500. [Gosse.] 



32 



CCELEXTERATA. 



Zoanthidce. 
Zoanthus. 
Palythoa. 

Cerianthidts. 
Cerianthus. 

Minyadid(B. 
Minyas. 
Nautactis. 



ActiniidcB. 
Thalassianthus. 
Adanisia. 
Tealia. 
Bolocera. 
Bunodes = Cereus. 
Actinoloba. 
Sagartia. 
Capnea. 
Corynactis. 
Aiptasia. 



Anthea = Anemonia. 
Actinia. 

llyantliidcs. 
Edwardsia. 
Ilyantlms. 
Peacbia. 
Halcampa. 

Arachnactis. 



Order II. SCLEEOBASICA. 
ANTIPATHARIA. 

Corallum external, not calcareous. Tenl ''es six, simple. 
Polypes united, included within the corallum. 

There is a rough, stem- like, branched, horny axis, or coenosare, 
covered by a very friable ccenenchyma, which generally becomes 
detached in drying. 

Few species of this order are known, and they are mostly from 
the Mediterranean. One of the species of Antipathes has a tapering 
coenosarc nine feet long, with the diameter at the base - 3 of an inch. 

Antipathida. Arachnopatb.es. Gerardiida. 

Antipathes. Leiopathes. Gerardia. 



Order III. SCLEEODEEMATA. (Stone- corals.) 
MADREPORARIA. LITHOCORALLIA. CORALLIGENA. 

Corallum internal, calcareous. Tentacles more than six. 
Polypes generally united. 

The corallum-tissue is firm and compact in the Eporosa, porous 
and granular, or even spongy, in the Perforata. The Eugosa 
(Tetracoralla) are only known from the remains of extinct forms ; 
in these there are four septa, in all the others six, at least in the 
young state. 

The coral-reefs of warm seas are built up by the members of 
this order, mostly Astrjeidae. The largest of these, the Great 
Barrier Eeef, is 1200 miles long, and 20 to 100 broad. The coral 



C(ELENTERATA. 



33 



epta rudimentary or abs 
Tabulas well developed 



does not grow below a depth of 25 or 30 fathoms, and not in 
water under a temperature of 66. 
There are five suborders : 

Corallum hexameral. 

or absent. 

TABULATA. 

No tabulae TUBULOSA. 

Septa present. 

Corallum porous PERFORATA. 

Corallum imperf orate EPOROSA. 

Corallum tetrameral [Palaeozoic] EUQOSA. 

The Tabulata and the Rugosa have been placed by Cams among 
the Hydrozoa, forming his group (?) Lithydrodea.* 



B-UGOSA. 


Theciida. 


Dasmiida. 


Stauriidce. 


*Thecia. 


Dasmia. 


*Stauria. 
*Holocystis. 


TUBULOSA. 
Auloporidce. 


Oculinidce. 
Oculina. 


Cyathaxoniidce. 


*Aulopora. 


Amphihelia. 


y 

*Cyathaxonia. 


*Pyrgia. 


Stylophoridce, 


*Guynia. 


PERPORATA. 


Stylophora. 


Cyathophyl lidce. 


Madreporidce. 
Turbinaria. 


Astrceidts. 


*Zaphrentis. 
*Cyathophyllum . 
*Strombodes. 


Madrepora. 
Manopora. 
Eupsamma. 


Euphyllia. 
Favia. 
Meandrina. 


*Lonsdaleia. 


Balanophyllia. 
Dendrophyllia. 


Astrangium. 
Astraea. 


Cystiphyllida. 
*Cystiphyllum. 


Poritidce. 
Porites. 


Eck inoporidce. 
Echinopora. 


TABULATA. 

Seriatoporidfe. 


Montipora. 
Alveopora. 
Psammocora. 


MerulinidcB. 
Ukterulina. 


Seriatopora. 








EPOROSA. 


Fungiida. 


Favositidce. 


Turbinoliidae. 


Fungia. 


*Favosites. 


Turbinolia. 


Agaricia. 


Pocillopora. 


Caryophyllia. 


Ctenactis. 






D 



34 C(ELENTERATA. 

Subclass II. ALCYONAKIA. 

ASTEROIDA. OCTACTINIA. OCTOCORALLA. 

Polypes with eight pinnately fringed tentacles in one series. 
Corallum, when present, external, spicular, or with a sclerobasic 
axis, but occasionally thecal or tubular. 

The polypes are connected by the coenosarc, through which per- 
meates prolongations of the body-cavity of each, thus permitting 
a free circulation of fluids. There is sometimes an outer skeleton, 
either with or without a central sclerobasic axis. The corallum 
is rarely thecal, " never presenting traces of septa." 

These composite organisms are, with few exceptions, fixed ; 
they are only found in deep water. 

Adherent to some foreign body. 

Ectoderm leathery, contractile ALCYONIACE^E. 

Ectoderm hard, not contractile. 
Branched. 

Calcareous or horny G-ORGONIACB.E. 

Alternately calcareous or horny . . . ISIDACEJE. 

Tubular TUBIPORACE^E. 

Not adherent . .. PENNATULACEJS. 



Order I. ALCYONIACE^E. 

Ectoderm leathery, slightly contractile, with calcareous spicules 
in tissues. No sclerobasis. Permanently rooted. 

Alcywiium digitatum, a lobed, spongy-looking body, pellucid 
when distended with water, and covered with stellate apertures for 
the polypes, is well known under the name of " Dead men's 
fingers. Telesto is a tree-like organism, with a tubular, subcal- 
careous corallum. 

Alcyoniida. Cornularndce. 

Alcyonium=Lobularia. Cornularia. 

Nephthya. Anthelia. 

Sarcophyton. Sarcodictyon. 

Tekstida. 
Telesto. 

Order II. GOEGONIACE^. 

Axis branched, erect, sclerobasic, either horny or calcareous : 
permanently rooted. Ccenenchyma smooth. 



C(ELENTEE.\TA. 35 

The axis is sulcate, by which it is known, inter alia, from 
Antipathidae. The branches are frequently anastomosing. In 
Briareidae there is no horny axis, but the internal parts are com- 
posed of calcareous spicules. Corallium has a sclerobasic homo- 
geneous stony axis, and should probably form an order of its own. 
Its only representative is the red coral of commerce, Corallium 
rubrum. 

" Heliopora seems to differ from all other Alcyonarians except 
Corallium" [Moseley.] 



Primnoidce. 

Primnoa. 
Muricea. 

Gorgoniidae. 
Rhipidigorgia. 

Coral 
Coral! 


Gorgonia. 
Leptogorgia. 
Plexaura. 
Eunicea. 


GorgonellidcB . 
Gorgonella. 

SriaridcB. 


Siphonogorgia. Briareum. 
Paragorgia. 
Semperina. 

Hides. HelioporidtB. 
ium. Heliopora. 

Order III. ISIDACE^E. 



Axis branched, erect, composed of alternate calcareous nodes 
and horny internodes ; permanently rooted. Polypes embedded 
in the coenosarc. 

The nodes are larger than the internodes and are generally 
white and fluted. In Melitk&a the nodes are porous or corky in 
appearance. 

Isididce. Melithceidce. 

Isis. Melithaea. 

Mopsea. 

Order IV. TUBIPORACE^. 

Corallum sclerodermic, in the form of tubular thecae, bound 
together by horizontal plates [epithecae] ; no septa. Polypes com- 
pletely retractile. 

The horizontal plates are confined to the outside of the coral- 
lum, which is perforated by numerous minute canals. The 
" organ-pipe coral" (Tubipora musica), forming large hemisphe- 

D 2 



36 C(ELENTERATA. 

rical masses, is typical of this order, of which only one genus is 
known ; its polypes are violet or grass-green in colour. 

Tubiporidcs. 
Tubipora. 



Order V. PENNATULACEvE. 

Polypary free, the basal end without polypes, the upper end 
generally variously branched and bearing the polypes. 

The polypes or zooids are mostly of two kinds, one set being 
sexually developed, the other set sexless. These are borne on the 
upper part of a fleshy ccenosarc, provided with a horny flexible 
internal axis. 

These organisms mostly live with one end stuck deeply in the 
mud ; but the Pennatulidse are free, moving, however, languidly, 
and do not swim. Among the few British species one, known as 
the " sea-pen" (P ennatul a phosphor ea), is highly phosphorescent, 
and so probably are the entire group ; its ova are carried at the 
back of the pinna. 

UmbeUularia has a rod-like axis six feet in length, with a tuft 
of polypes at its apex. It is quite an aberrant form. 

Pennatulidae. Scytalium. Renillida. 

Pennatula. Pavonaria. -Remll*. 
Pteroeides. j^ ^-//-j 
Sarcoptilus. * eretillida. Cophobelemmdce. 

V 7 ~* yeretillum. Cophobelemnon. 

Virgularndce. Lituaria. 

Yirgularia. 

Tjmbellulana. 



Class TV. CTENOPHORA. 

ClLIOGRADA. 

Gelatinous, transparent organisms, swimming by means of rows 
of cilia, mostly disposed in comb-like plates [ctenophores]. No 
corallum. Hermaphrodite. 

The ctenophores consist of eight meridional bands, lying 
between the two poles marking the opposite extremities of the 
body, and dividing the interpolar region into an equal number of 



CCELENTERATA. 37 

lobes [actinomeres] ; each band has a number of successive ridges 
or plates, to each of which a row of cilia is attached. The lateral 
actinomeres contain each a sac, which gives rise to the tentacles 
when present. 

In this class occurs a well-marked sense-organ [ctenocyst], ovate 
or spherical, occupying a central position, which " would seem to 
be the localized recipient of those obscure general impressions to 
which its lowly-organized possessor is capable of responding." 
[Greene.] 

Reproduction is by ova, which are expelled by the mouth, 
and the young are gradually developed, few having a larval stage. 
The homologies between this class and the larval echinoderms 
have led to the suggestion of their being united. 

The species vary considerably in size and shape. They are all 
oceanic and of a very delicate texture, leaving only a mere film 
when dried in the sun ; they are said, however, to be very voracious, 
and to have a powerful digestion. 

With two oral lobes LOBATMS. 

Without oval lobes. 

Body ribbon-shaped TJENIAT^E. 

Body oval or round. 

With two filiform tentacles SACCATJE. 

Without tentacles . EURYSTOMATA. 



Order I. LOBAT^E. 

Body with two oral lobes. Tentacles various, turned towards 
the mouth or wanting. ' 

The lobes project from the antero-posterior regions of the body, 
sometimes so as to conceal the mouth. The two lateral actino- 
meres generally terminate in a slender appendage or tentacle. 
Eurhamphaeidae have no tentacles. 

According to Agassiz, Sicyosoma is the larval form of a Cesium. 

Eurhamphceidce. Mnemiidce. Calymfrrddcs. 

Eurhamphaea. Mnemia. Calymma. 

Lesueuria. 

Bolinida. Chiajea. 

Bolina. Ocyroe. 

Sicyosoma. 



38 CCELENTEEATA. 

Order II. T^ENIAT^E. 

Body ribbon-shaped, without oral lobes. Tentacles two, near 
the mouth. 

Each half of the ctenophoral system is represented by four 
very long canals. 

The common Mediterranean species, known as " Yenus's girdle " 
(Cestum veneris), has a flat, ribbon-shaped body, three or four 
feet in length, and a height of about two inches. 

Cestida. 
Cestum. 

Order III. SACCATE. 

Body oval or spheroidal, without oral lobes. Tentacles two, 
away from the mouth. 

The filiform tentacles are fringed in Cydippe on one side, and 
can be withdrawn instantly into the sac of the lateral actinomeres, 
at the will of the animal. 

This and the two preceding orders are united by Von Hayek 
under the name of Stenosomata. 

Cydippidce. Gegenbauria. 

Cydippe = Pleurobrachia. Owenia. 

Eschscholtzia. 

Callianirida. 

Mertensiida. Callianira. 

Mertensia. 

OrderlV. EURYSTOMATA. 

Body oval or oblong, without oral lobes. No tentacles. Mouth 
very large. 

The mouth and digestive cavity are large, unlike the remainder 
of the class. Beroe itself is of the size and shape of a lemon. 

Beroidce. Neisides. 

Berog. Neis. 

Idyia. 

Pandora. Rangiidce. 

Rangia. 



CCELENTERA.TA. 39 

The following group is made a subclass of Hydrozoa by Nichol- 
son, a suborder of Hydroida by Allraan, while Carus (1875) 
places it with the Polyzoa, as one of the four " orders " of 
Gymnolasmata. It is Von Hayek's sixth order of Hydroida ; but 
is placed as a pendant to the Alcyonaria by Schmarda. It is not 
noticed by Claus. 



KHABDOPHOEA. 
GRAPTOLITHINA. 

" Hydrosoma compound, occasionally branched, consisting of 
numerous polypites united by a ccenosarc, the latter being included 
in a strong, tubular polypary, whilst the former were protected 
by hydrothecae." (Nicholson.) 

These are Palaeozoic organisms, generally known as " Grapto- 
lites," whose structure is still far from being entirely understood. 
They " are usually found as glistening, pyritous impressions, with 
a silvery lustre. In some cases, however, they are found in re- 
lief." The genera are numerous. 

*Monograpsus. 
*Diplograpsus. 
*Rhabdopleura. 



40 



Subkingdom III. ECHINODERMATA. 

Marine animals, widely different in appearance, but with more 
or less of a radiate structure. An alimentary canal distinct from 
the body-cavity, and mostly with an anal aperture. A vascular 
system in most. Deuterostomatous. Sexes mostly distinct. 

The egg generally develops a free-swimming, ovoid, ciliated, 
bilateral larva or pseudo-embryo, called a "Pluteiis" A process 
of modification or secondary development within the embryo or 
larva, and absorbing its digestive organs, leads to the adult form ; 
the parts of the larva therefore do not correspond with those of 
the adult, they are either absorbed or cast off. There is, however, 
often a direct development, the young being reared within or 
upon the body of the parent, and retaining a commensal relation 
with her until able to provide for themselves. 

All Echinoderms have a calcareous skeleton, and many are pro- 
vided with movable spines. A characteristic apparatus of vessels, 
termed the ambulacral or water-vascular system, is present. It 
is composed of a ring round the pharynx, from which proceed a 
number of radiating canals, commonly giving off caecal appen- 
dages [Polian vesicles] as well as branches, which enter the re- 
tractile tube-feet, often furnished with a terminaLdisk or sucker 
[ambulacra], which, with the spines, are the organs of locomo- 
tion. The " madreporic canal " connects the pharyngeal ring 
with the exterior. " The ambulacral vessels are filled with a fluid 
containing numerous nucleated cells." 

Originally described as parasitic animals are the " pedicellarise " 
(homologous with the spines, according to A. Agassiz), found in 
some members of the Echinoidea and Asteroidea. They are small 
slender bodies having a soft skin, with two or three claws at the 
top, which they open and shut with great activity ; their use is 
supposed to be for cleansing purposes. 

The Echinodermata, are said to have no annectant forms. The 
Gephyrea resemble certain Holothurioidea ; but the structural dif- 
ference between their larvae are such that they "can never be 
genealogically connected." A. Agassiz, however, considers that 
there is " nothing in nature to justify their separation " as a sub- 
kingdom from Ccelenterata (1877). 

There are four classes ; but the Crinoidea are sometimes in- 
cluded in the Stellerida. 

Body stalked CRINOIDEA. 

Body not stalked. 
An external shell of calcareous plates. ECHINOIDEA. 



ECHINODERMATA. 41 

No shell. 

Body lobed or stellate STELLERIDA. 

Body elongated or vermiform HOLOTHURIOIDEA. 



Class I. CRINOIDEA. 
PALMATOZOA. 

Mostly star-shaped animals, fixed during the whole or part of 
life by a stalk or column. 

The body or calyx of the ventral surface is directed upwards ; 
the stalk is on the dorsal or inferior portion. 

The greater part of the Crinoidea are extinct. Eight genera 
are known in a recent state. 

There are three orders ; perhaps Edriaster should form another 
order, as has been done by Huxley. It is not supposed to have 
had any stalk. 

With arms. 

Body rounded CYSTOIDEA. 

Body cup-shaped CRINOIDEA. 

Without, arms BLASTOIDEA. 

Order I. CYSTOIDEA. 

Body rounded; enclosed in numerous pentagonal, suturally 
united plates, and furnished with a jointed stalk; at the side "a 
large aperture, closed by a pyramid formed of triangular plates " 
(Huxley}. Palaeozoic. 

The use of the " pyramid " is unknown ; some suppose it to be 
the "oro-anal" orifice. Hyponome, said to belong to this order, 
has been recently found in Torres Straits. 

The principal genera are : 

*Caryocrinus. *Codaster. *Comarocystites. 

*Hemicosmites. *Apiocystites. *Spha3ronites. 

*Edriaster. 



Order II. CEINOIDEA. 
BRACHIATA. 

Body cup-shaped, the dorsal portion furnished with calcareous 
plates, the ventral coriaceous; stalked, at least when young; and 



42 ECHINODERMATA. 

with five or more branching arms, not connected with the visceral 
cavity. 

This order abounded in Palaeozoic times. Comatula, the com- 
monest of the recent forms, is free when mature. The mouth is 
on the ventral surface ; the arms constantly in motion cause a 
sufficient quantity of organic matter in solution to pass into it for 
food. Some of the extinct forms had a proboscis or tube, often 
of great length, arising between two of the arms. 

There are two families, the first permanently stalked, the other 
free in the adult. J. Miiller, however, divides the Crinoidea into * 
" Articulata" and " Tessellata," the latter comprising Platycrinus, 
Actinocrinus, and some others, all extinct. 

Encrinida. Hyocrinus. ComatulidcB (Feather- 

Pentacrinus (Sea-lily). *Encrinus. stars). 

Holopus. *Apiocrinus. Comatula=Antedon. 

Ophiocrinus. *Platycrinus. Phanogenia. 

Ehizocrinus. *Actinocrinus. Actinomttra. 

Bathycrinus. *Saccosoma. 

Order III. BLASTOIDEA. 

Body rounded, enclosed in solid polygonal plates, and furnished 
with a jointed stalk ; the summit of the body, or calyx, with five 
areas longitudinally grooved. ]S T o pyramid. Palaeozoic. 

There are about fifty species ; the majority appear to have lived 
in the Carboniferous period. 

*Pentatremites. *Ela2acrinus. *Eleutherocrinus. 



Class II. STELLERIDA. 

ASTEROIDEA. 

Body star-shaped or pentagonal, composed of a disk, either five 
or more lobed, or with five or more arms. Mouth central, infe 
rior, without teeth. Sexes distinct. 

The integument is coriaceous, strengthened by a vast number 
of calcareous plates. One or more madreporiform tubercles or 
plates are connected with the ambulacral water-system. The anal 
aperture is either dorsal or absent. A blood-vascular system is 
present in most. 

Fossil species are numerous, extending from the Lower Silurian 
Asteracanthion, which still exists, up to the present time. Goni- 
aster and Astropecten are found in the London Clay. 



ECHINODEKMATA. 

Disk entire, with five or more arms .... 
Disk lobed or pentagonal 



43 



OPHIUROIDEA. 
ASTEROIDEA. 



Order I. OPHIUKOIDEA. 

Disk entire, containing all the -viscera, and giving off five or 
more slender arms, not channelled beneath. Tube-feet without 
suckers. 

The arms are not prolongations of the disk, and are not chan- 
nelled beneath, as in Asteroidea ; they are each enclosed in four 
rows of calcareous plates, and, having no suckers, these arms are 
their only means of locomotion. There are no pedicellariae. The 
madreporiform tubercle is inferior, near the mouth. 

J. Muller has two divisions Ophiureae with simple, and Eu- 
ryaleas with branched arms ; the latter is confined to the family 
Astrophytidse. The former are known as " sand-stars." Our com- 
moner British species are Ophioglypha lacertosa, Ophiura lavis, 
Ophiothrix rosula, and Amphiura sguamata [= Ophiocoma neglecta, 
Johnst.]. 



Ophiodermatidce. 


Ophiactes. 


Ophiomyxida. 


Pectinura. 


Amphiur?.. 


Ophiomyxa. 


Ophioderma= 


Hemipholis. 


Ophioscolex. 


Ophiura. 
Ophioglypha. 

Ophiokpididcs. 


Ophiocomidce. 
Ophiocoma. 
Ophiomastix. 


Astrophytidce. 
Astrophyton= 
EurYEtls. 


Ophiolepis. 


OpJiiothricidae. 


Asteronyx. 


Amphiurid(S. 
Ophiopholis. 


Ophiothrix. 
Ophiopsila. 


Trichaster. 
Asteroschema. 



Astrophiuridce. 
Astrophiura. 

Order II. ASTEEOIDEA. (Starfishes.) 

Disk more or less lobed or pentagonal, the lobes continuous 
with the disk, hollow, and receiving prolongations of the viscera. 
Tube-feet with suckers. 

The lobes are channelled beneath for the ambulacral feet or 
suckers, which act as organs of locomotion. The madreporiform 
tubercle is on the back ; a curved calcareous canal connects it 
with the mouth. Sometimes five tubercles are present, and as 
many canals. Pedicellariae occur on the body or on the mouth. 



44 ECHINODERMATA. 

Brackina of Van Beneden is supposed to be a larval condition 
of Astemcanthion rubens (Pivefinger of the oyster-dredgers), our 
common species. Bipinnaria and Brachiolaria are among the 
successive larval stages of the species of this order. 

Aster acanthiidce. Scytaster. Asterinida. 

Asteracanthion= *Palseaster. Asterina. 

Uraster Oreaster. Astenscus=Pal- 

Heliaster.' Asteriida. ^P 68 - 



Asterias = Astro- n 
Solastride. pec ten. 

Echinaster = Cribella. Ctenodiscus. 
Chgetaster. Luidia. Brisinga. 

Solaster. *Paleocoma. 



Class III. ECHINOIDEA. 

Body rounded or discoidal, enclosed in a shell composed of 
numerous closely connected calcareous plates, and studded with 
tubercles on which are jointed movable spines. Sexes distinct. 

Certain of the plates are perforated for the emission of the 
tube-feet. These are the "ambulacra!" plates, arranged alter- 
nately in pairs ; between each pair are the " interambulacral " 
plates, also in pairs ; usually there are five pairs of each. The 
anus is at the top, surrounded by two series of small plates, the 
inner known as the "genital," the outer as the "ocular" plates; 
each of the latter is perforated and "supports the eye-spot." 
The mouth is below, and furnished with a single series of " oral " 
plates. The latter has usually a very complicated arrangement 
of jaws or 'teeth [the splanchnic skeleton]. The intestine is con- 
voluted. There is a blood-vascular system, but no distinct organs 
of respiration. 

Sea- water is admitted into the peritoneal cavity and into the 
water-vascular system through the perforated madreporiform 
tubercle, which is borne on the largest of the five genital plates. 

Except in Cidaridse, there are found in the ambulacral areas 
certain minute hyaline ciliated bodies called " sphaeridia ; " Loven 
supposes them to be sense-organs. 

In the Pluteus-stage of the larva there is an internal keleton 
of calcareous rods as in the Ophiuroidea. 

The^first two orders of the following table form the Euechinoidea 
of Bronn ; the last order is known as " Tessellata," and is now 
extinct. 



ECHINODERMATA. 45 

Two rows of ambulacral alternating with two 

rows of interambulacral plates. 
Anus central ........................................ ENDOCYCLICA. 

Anus not central .................................... EXOCYCLICA. 

Three to six rows of plates in each ambulacral 

space ................................................ PAL^CHINOIDEA. 

Order I. ENDOCYCLICA. 
DESMOSTICHA. REGULARIA. 

Mouth and anus central. Two rows of ambulacral and two 
rows of interambulacral plates alternating with each other. 

The plates overlap one another in some of the extinct forms ; 
in Asth&nosoma and Phormosoma they are movably connected by 
membrane. 

In our common sea-urchin (Echinus sphtsra) there are about 
300 plates and 4000 spines (Forbes). The Mediterranean E. 
escutentus is extensively used for food ; the ovaries are the parts 
selected. Toxopneustes lividus is found in holes of limestone, 
sandstone, granite, &c., which it is supposed to form for itself. 

Cidarid(B. EchinotJiuriidce, Echinidce. 

Cidaris. *Echinothuria. Toxopneustes. 

*Goiiiocidaris. Phormosoma. Heliocidaris. 

Salenia. Asthenosoma=Cal- Hipponoe. 

Arbaciidce. veria. Echinus (Sea-urchin). 

Arbacia. Echinometridce. 



JXadematid*. Echinometra. Echnohrix. 

Diadema. Podophora. 

Order II. EXOCYCLICA. 

PETALOSTICHA. IRREGULARIA. 

Anus not central. Two rows of ambulacral and two rows of 
interambulacral plates alternating with each other. 

The masticatory apparatus is frequently absent. The mouth 
is central in Clypeastridae and Mellitidas, but excentric in the re- 
maining families. The two former are placed by A. Agassiz 
among the Endocyclica, by Claus they are ranked as a separate 
order (Clypeastridea). 

The English species of this order are known as " heart- 
urchins." As they mostly bury themselves in the sand or mud, 
the greater part of their spines are directed backwards. 



46 ECHItfODERMATA. 

ClypeastridcB. Cassidulidce. Spatangus. 

Echinocyamus. *Cassidulus. Agassizia. 

Fibularia. Echinoneus. Breynia. 

Clypeaster. Echinolampus. Palaeostoma = Leskia. 

Laganum. *Ceratomus. Amphidetus = Echi- 

,,;,.,., *Dysaster. nocardium. 

Melhtidcs. Brissus. 

Mellita. Anochanua. Metalia. 

Rotula. Meoma. 

Encope. Spatangidce. Linthia=Desoria. 

Echinarachnius. Anaachytes. Schizaster. 

*Scutella. Pourtalesia. Moira. 



Order III. PAL^CHINOIDEA. 

TESSELLATA. 

Three to six rows of plates in each interambulacral space. 
This order is confined to the Palaeozoic formations. There 
but one family : 

Palachinidce. 

*Palaechinus. 

*Melonites. 

*Eoeidaris. 



Class IV. HOLOTHTTRIOIDEA. 

SCYTODERMATA. 

Body cylindrical or vermiform, with a coriaceous skin, in which 
are scattered calcareous particles, and, with few exceptions, fur- 
nished with five longitudinal rows of ambulacra! suckers or tube- 
feet. Mouth tentaculate. 

The tentacles surrounding the mouth are plumose and retractile, 
and generally from ten to twenty in number ; they are prolonga- 
tions of the water-vascular system. The anal aperture is at the 
opposite extremity. The intestine is convoluted and often com- 
plicated. The skin is lined with powerful longitudinal and trans- 
verse muscles, by which the animal is enabled so to contract its 
body as to eject all its viscei-a. In this condition it will live for 
some time, and in three or four months the lost parts will be re- 
produced. Some members of this class will divide spontaneously 
into two or more parts, each developing new and perfect organs. 



ECHIXODEEMATA. 47 

Notwithstanding, the anatomy, especially of the water- vascular 
system, is very complex. 

Keproduction is sometimes direct, but a bilateral planula, it is 
said, generally emerges from the egg. Synapta has a form of 
larva known as " Auricularia." 

The "Cuvierian organs" are thread-like tubes and fibres open- 
ing into the cloaca, or into the water- vascular system. 

No fossil species are known ; a few of their calcareous spicules 
have been found in the Carboniferous deposits. 

Glaus has two orders Pedata and Apoda : the first with two 
families Aspidochirotae (Holothuria, &c.) and Dendrochirotae 
(Psolus, &c.) ; the second order contains the two families Molpa- 
didas (constituting his suborder Pneumonophora) and Synaptidaj. 

Without organs of respiration APNEUMONA. 

With organs of respiration PNEUMONOPHORA. 



Order I. APNEUMONA. 

No special organ of respiration. Hermaphrodite. No Cuvierian 
organs. 

There are no ambulacral feet in Synaptidae ; but locomotion is 
effected by the spicules, which are anchor-shaped, barbed, wheel- 
shaped, &c., according to the .genera. In Oncinolabidae the tube- 
feet are in five rows and the tentacles are filiform. 



Chirodota. Oncinolabidte. 

Synapta. Eupyrgus. Oncinolabes. 

Myriotrochus. Anapta. Echinosoma. 



Order II. PNEUMONOPHORA. 

DlPNEUMONA. 

Respiratory organs branching, tree-like, opening into the cloaca. 
Sexes distinct. Cuvierian organs present. 

Water is admitted into the abdominal cavity by means of the 
respiratory organs : these are two in number, except in Rhopa- 
lodina. Molpadiidae have no tube-feet ; they are doubtfully 
hermaphrodite. The tentacles are either shield-shaped [Aspido- 
chirotoe=:Holothuriidce] or branched [Dendrochirotse PsoLidae]. 
In Molpadiidaa the tentacles are either cylindrical or shield- 
shaped. Bhopalodina has a flask-shaped body, the mouth at the 



48 ECHINODERMATA. 

smaller end surrounded by tentacles ; it has four branchiae. It 
forms the order Tetrapneumona of Schmarda [=Diplostoinidea, 
Semper ; Decacrenidia, Bronn]. 

Some HolothuricB harbour inquilines or commensals (fish, mol- 
lusks, crustaceans). Holothuria argus, a large black species, is 
the trepang, or bfohe de mer, an article of considerable importance 
as food in the Eastern seas. 



Psolidte. Thyonidium. 

Molpadia! Psolus. Phyllophorus. 

laosoma. Cu G umaria= Hemicrepis. 

Pentacta. 

Holothuriida. Thy one. ,,, . ,. ., 

Holothuria (Sea-cu- Ocnus. Khopalodimda. 

cumber). Ehopalodina. 
Sporadipus. 



49 



Subkingdom IV. VERMES. (Worms.) 

Body generally elongate or vermiform, soft, bilaterally sym- 
metrical, with or without feet, but, when present, never jointed. 

There is a great diversity of form and structure in this sub- 
kingdom, so that little can be said of it collectively. There is a 
water-vascular system, and, occasionally, " pseudohaemal vessels 
are present. A digestive cavity is sometimes absent. A few have 
eyes, but sense-organs are of the simplest kind. Reproduction is 
mostly by ova. Many species are external (Ectozoa) or internal 
parasites (Entozoa). 

The water-vascular system is a tubular set of vessels having 
openings on the surface of the body, and branching out into its 
substance. It is never subservient to locomotion, as in the Echi- 
nodermata. 

The classes composing this subkingdom are widely different 
from one another, and were for a long time combined with 
Arthropoda, under the name of Annulosa or of Articulata. 
There are many points of approximation between them and the 
Mollusca. 

A division of the classes has been made into Archgeostomata 
(mouth the same through life) and Deuterostomata (mouth in 
the adult a secondary development). The former includes Pla- 
tyelmintha except Cestoda, Nematelmintha, Gephyrea, and Eoti- 
fera; the latter Annelida except Hirudinea, Chzetognatha, and 
Polyzoa. Giard unites Annelida, Polyzoa, and " satellite groups " 
to the Mollusca, constituting his Gynotoca ; while Nematoda, 
Gastrotrieha, &c. are his Nematelmia. 

Normally single animals. 
Tail never fin-like. 

Body distinctly segmented. . . . ANNELIDA. 

Body not segmented, or very indistinctly. 
No ciliated disk. 

Mouth simple or none. 

Body flat PLATYELMINTHA. 

Body rounded NEMATELMINTHA. 

Mouth at the end of a proboscis ... GEPHYREA. 
rn ., c ate d disk at the anterior end ... ROTIFERA. 
i ail nn -like p w ?Tnrivi 

-~, _ OH^ETOGN 

Compound plant-like organisms POLYZOA. 



50 VEEMES. 

Class I. PLATYELMINTHA. 

STERELMINTHA. SCOLECIMORPHA. COTYLIDEA. PLATODES. 

Body flat, more or less elongated, without true segments. 
Mouth sometimes wanting. Hermaphrodite. 

These worms are of a low organization. They hare, with few 
exceptions, no circulatory or respiratory systems, and their ner- 
vous system consists at most of two pharyngeal ganglia giving oft 
few branches. Some of the species are rather round than flat. 

The Scolecida of Huxley comprised that portion of his Annu- 
loida other than Echinodermata. In the Cotylidea of Van 
Beneden, Schmarda includes Cestoda, Trematoda, and Hirudinea. 

For Giard this class alone comprises the Vermes, and with 
them he places Dicyema (class Dicyernida) and his genera Eho- 
palura and Intoshia (class Orthonectida), the orders below being 
also ranked as classes. The Orthonectida are minute, ciliated 
animals, parasitic on Ophiuridae and Lineidas. Dicyemida are 
parasites apparently confined to Cephalopoda. "The renal or- 
gans of most Kepite may be said to be literally made up of these 
organisms in all stages of growth" (Bay Lankester). According 
to Van Beneden they are pluricellular animals, forming by them- 
selves one of the principal divisions of the animal kingdom, 
which he has named Mesozoa. 

With a digestive cavity. 

Cuticle ciliated ; free TURBELLARIA. 

Cuticle not ciliated ; parasitic T KEMATODA. 

Without a digestive cavity CESTODA. 



Order I. TTJEBELLAKIA. 
PLATYELMINTHA. TERETULAKIA. 

Non-parasitic, aquatic animals, having a flattened, ovoid, or 
elongate body, with a ciliated cuticle. Mostly hermaphrodite. 

Except in the Nemertidaj the sexes are rarely distinct. Repro- 
duction is either by ova, by internal gemmation, or by transverse 
fission. The intestine is either simple or branched, and in some 
there is no circulatory system. There are eye-specks in most. 
Some Nemertidse begin life as a helmet-shaped larva [pilidium]. 
A peculiar proboscidiform modification of the pharynx has been 
taken for a genital organ, for an embryo, for the digestive canal, 
for an organ of defence, and for a parasitic worm. 



VEKMES. 



51 



A few species are found in damp earth or in fresh water, others 
are inquilines in Holothurioidea or in the respiratory cavities of 
Ascidians. s 

Ehrenberg, M c lntosh, and others, rank the Turbellaria as a 
class ; and it is variously divided. The families below are dis- 
tributed under three sections : Dendrocrela with a ramified 
digestive cavity, Khabdocoela with a simple one, both being with- 
out an anal aperture (Aprocta), and Rhynchocrela with an anal 
aperture (Proctucha) and the pharynx (proboscis) protrusible 
and furnished with stylets. The first two sections also form the 
suborder Planaricla of some systematists, distinguished by their 
oval or elliptic form ; the third section, constituting the Nemer- 
toidea, have an elongated linear form, one Lineus marimis (the 
sea long- worm) sometimes attaining a length of 200 feet 
[M e lntosh~\. Of the Planariidas some are very minute. Geo- 
planidae comprise the " land-planarians." 

Pelagonemertes is a transparent leaf -shaped animal with a den- 
drocoele intestine. Pterosoma appears to be an allied form. 

Balanoglossus, forming the class Enteropneusti of Gegenbauer, 
has a complex branchial apparatus. Tornaria is supposed to be 
its larval form. Mitraria is also supposed to be a larval form 
belonging to this order. Convolutidse constitute the order Acrela 
of Ulianin, and is adopted by Schmarda. 

Dendroccela are divided by Stimpson into Monogonopora (single 
sexual aperture), including Planariidae and Geoplanidse ; and 
Digonopora (double sexual aperture), including Eurylepiida?, 
which has been split up into many families. Rhynchoccela are 
also divided into Enopla (proboscis armed with stylets) =Amphi- 
poridae, and Anopla (proboscis unarmed), including the remain- 
ing families. These have mostly received character-names. In 
this order there is very little accord between Schmarda and 
Claus as to the position of the genera or to the sequence of the 
families. In the Rhynchocoala, M c lntosh's classification has been 
adopted. 



RHABDOCCELA. 

Micro stomidce. 


Derostomum. 
Mesopharynx. 
Opisthomum. 


Convolutida. 
Convoluta. 
Nadina. 


Microstomum. 






Dinophilus. 


Mesostomidoe. 


Ehynchoprobolidce. 


DerostomidcB. 


Mesostomum. 
Macrostom um. 


Rhynchoprobolus. 
Prostomum. 


Vortex. 




Alaurina, 






E2 



52 



YEEMES. 



Catenulidce. 
Catenula. 

DENDROC(ELA. 
Planariidce. 
Polycelis. 
Planaria. 

Geoplanidce. 
Bipaliurn. 
G-eoplana. 
Polycladus. 

Euryleptida. 
Stylochus. 



Planocera. Lineidte. 

Leptoplana. Lineus- 

Thysanozoon. Borlasia. 

Cephalolepta. Meckelia. 

Eurylepta. Micrura. 

EHYNCHOCCELA. Amphi p ri d(S 

Cepkalothricida. Nemertes. 

Cephalothrix. Tetrastemma. 

Ommatoplea. Amphiporus. 

Carinellidce. 

CarineUa. Pelagonemertes. 

Valencinia=Polia. Pterosoma. 

Balanoglossus. 



Order II. TBEMATODA. 

External or internal parasites, flattened or rounded, not ciliated 
in the adult state, and provided with one, two, or more ventral 
suckers. Mouth and anus in one. Mostly hermaphrodite. 

The alimentary canal lies in the substance of the body, and not 
in a free perivisceral space ; in a few it disappears in the adult, 
and is sometimes much branched. 

Some of these parasites scarcely undergo any change [Mono- 
genea] ; others [Digenea] begin life on leaving the egg as a free 
ciliated infusorian ; if it meets with a suitable host in its wander- 
ing, it puts on many forms before reaching maturity. Individuals 
proceeding from ciliated embryos also produce buds which deve- 
lop numerous tadpole-shaped larvae [cereariae], which, when their 
ciliated skin has been thrown oif, are known as " redise." Cer- 
cariae often become encysted ; and in that state they are said to 
wait for years before their host is swallowed by the creature in- 
tended to lodge them. The cyst is then broken up, and the worm 
is set free to begin another form of life. 

These parasites, of which there are about 500 species, are found 
on the gills and skin of fishes, on mollusks, Crustacea, &c., and in 
the eyes, blood-vessels, and intestines of man and other animals. 
Distoma hepaticum is the liver-fluke of sheep. In Bilharzia 
hcematobi'iis, common in the Egyptians, the slender female is 
lodged in an abdominal groove of the larger and stouter male. 



VERMES. 53 

Myzostoma, an anomalous form, constituting the suborder Ecto- 
parasita of Von Hayek, is found on Comatulce. 



MONOGENKA. 


Ancyrocephalus. 


DlGKNEA. 


Octocotylidce. 
Octocotyle. 
Diplozoon. 


Octobothrium. 
Polystomum. 
Tetrastoma. 


Distomidce. 
Distoma (Fluke). 
Bilharzia. 


Choricotyle. 






Anthocotyle. 


Tristomid(B. 


Monostomidce. 


Gyrodactylida. 


Tristoma = Nitzschia. 
Udonella. 


Monostomum. 
Amphilina. 


Gyrodactylus. 
Calceostoma. 


EpibdeUa. 


Amphistomidce. 



Amphistomum. 

Polystomida. Diplostomum. 

Onchocotyle. Gastrodiseus. 

Myzostomldce. 
Myzostoma. 

Order III. CESTODA. 
T.ENIADA. AGASTRE^E. 

Internal parasites, mostly of an elongated and flattened form ; 
the anterior end of the body or head provided with hooks or 
spines, or both, or suckers. No digestive nor vascular systems. 
Hermaphrodite. 

In the more typical forms these parasites are composed of a 
head, which is the true animal, the joints being the hermaphro- 
dite reproductive organs developed by a process of gemmation 
from the head. The joints are called proglottides, and are orga- 
nically connected by the water-vascular system. There is only 
one proglottis in Caryophyllaeidae ; but in Tcenia solium there are 
sometimes as many as 800. 

Although the proglottides are only produced in the alimentary 
canal of man or some other warm-blooded animal, it is necessary 
for the evolution of an embryo that the ovum should be swallowed 
by some other animal than the one inhabited by the mature worm. 
When the fecundated proglottides, therefore, are expelled, the de- 
composing ova are liberated ; and should an ovum get into the 
alimentary canal of a vertebrate, the embryo (now called a " pro- 
scolex"), set free from its covering, proceeds to bore with its 
spines through the tissues of its host until it finds a resting-place ; 



54 VURMES. 

then it surrounds itself with a cyst, and a vesicle containing a 
fluid is developed ; it is now called a " scolex." These cysts were 
also known as " hydatids." 

" When ova of the pork tape-worm (Tosnia soliitm) gains access 
to the alimentary canal of a pig, their shells become digested, and 
the enclosed six-hooked embryos escape and bore their way into 
the circulation. Thence they proceed to the cellular tissue and 
become transformed into measles (Cysticercus celluloses). In the 
sheep the cystic worm of the brain (Ccenurus cerebralis), which 
causes the ' gid ' or ' staggers,' becomes the Tcenia coenurus of 
the dog. The Cysticercus pisiformis, or pea-measle of the rabbit, 
is the scolex of Tcenia serrata infesting the dog. The Cysticercus 
fasciolaris of the mouse becomes the Tcenia crassicollis of the cat. 
The common hydatid (Echinococcus vetcrinorum) becomes the Tcenia 
echinococcus of the dog. The slender-necked hydatid (Cysticercus 
teniuicollis) of the sheep becomes the Tcenia. marginata of the dog. 
The Cysticercus talpce and C. longicollis infesting moles become 
respectively the Tcenia tenuicollis and T. crassiceps of the fox. 
Lastly, a scolex called Staphylocystis micracanthus, which is found 
in a myriopod (Grlomeris), is the larval state of Tcenia pistillum 
infesting shrews (Sorex)." [Dr. Cobbold in lit.} 

The chain of reproductive joints or zooids is called the " stro- 
bila." Each new joint is formed between the head and the next 
joint ; the most distant joints are therefore the oldest. 

The Cestoda are sometimes combined with the Trematoda and 
the Turbellaria to form the class Platyelmintba ; or the two 
former only are combined to form the class Cotylidea. 

According to Cobbold, there are about 260 species belonging to 
the Cestoda. 

Tceniidce. Diphyllidce. Tetrarhynchidce. 

Tsenia (Tape-worm). Echinobothrium. Tetrarhynchus. 

Dibothriidce. Tetraphy Hides. CaryophyllceicJce. 

Dibothrium. Phyllobothrium. Caryophyllzeus. 

Eothriocephalus. Acanthobothrium. Eustemma. 

Ligulidce. 
Ligula. 

Class II. NEMATELMINTHA. 

Body more or less cylindrical or thread-shaped, without true 
segments, and without limbs. Mouth anterior, often furnished 
with hooks or papillae. 



VERMES. 55 

These worms are mostly entozoic ; they have generally a body- 
cavity and a distinct nervous system. Eye-specks or ocelli are 
frequently present. The water-vascular system assumes many 
forms, but is sometimes wanting Development is mostly direct. 

Schmarda includes Chaetognatha in this class. About 1400 
species are known. They are divided into two orders : 

With a body-cavity NEMATODA. 

Without a body-cavity ACANTHOCEPHALA. 



Order I. NEMATODA. 

COZLELMINTHA. NEMATELMINTHA. 

Mostly internal parasites, with thread-like or cylindrical non- 
ciliated bodies. No respiratory nor circulatory organs. Sexes 
distinct. 

These have a distinct mouth and intestine, although in some 
Gordiidse they are either rudimentary or wanting. Anguillulidae 
and Enoplidse have no nervous system. A few are subject to 
metamorphosis ; thus a Urolabes-form is the larva of Filaria, and 
a Rhabditis-form of Dochmius. Ascaris, and probably some others, 
are dimorphous. The young cast their skins before arriving at 
maturity. 

The Gordiidae are sometimes ranked as an order ; Gordius itself 
leads at first a free existence in water, but soon finds its way into 
some aquatic insect. Its species are sexless so long as they are 
parasitic. Mermis is found in Lepidoptera, and Spharularia 
bombi in the humble bee. The female of the latter, formerly mis- 
taken for the male, has the uterus 28,000 times larger than her- 
self ; this uterus was supposed to be the female. This excessive 
development of the uterus in some of these worms causes the obli- 
teration of the ordinary opening ; and the young only escape by 
the bursting of the maternal body. 

Anguillula are found in stale paste, vinegar, ears of wheat 
affected with blight, &c. ; while some of them cause galls on 
plants. The too well-known guinea- worm (Filaria medinensis) 
varies from six inches to ten or twelve feet in length, but is 
scarcely two thirds of a line in thickness. Synganius trackealis 
is found in the trachea of birds, and is the cause of the " gapes." 
Among the parasites in man may be mentioned Ascaris lumbri- 
coides and Trichina spiralis, the latter getting in millions into the 
muscles, and causing the disease called trichinosis or trichiniasia ; 



56 



its original home is said to be the rat. Dochmius duodcnalis is 
another parasite from which one fourth of the population of 
Egypt suifers more or less, and often fatally. The great kidney - 
worrn of dogs and wolves, Strongylus gigas, attains a length of three 
feet. It has been also met with in man. 

Chcetosoma (the Rhabdophora of Claparede), in some respects 
resembling Sagitta, is, with Cystoopsis and Desmoscolex, obscure 
forms, placed as pendants to this order by Schmarda. 

The following list of families and genera is from Glaus. He, 
however, has not mentioned certain genera which for Diesing 
and, after him, Schmarda are the types of families, i. e. Hedruris, 
Cheiracanthus, and Ophiostoma (=Dacnitidae). For the two 
families of free Nematoids Anguillulidae and Enoplidse (many 
species of both are marine) Bastian adopts thirty genera in his 
monograph of the Anguillulidee. 



Ascaridce. 
Oxyuris. 
Ascaris. 
Heteracis. 



Strongylus. 
Syngamus = Sclero- 

stomum. 
Dochmius. 
Ollulanus. 
Physaloptera. 
Cucullanus. 



TrichinidcB. 
Trichina. 
Trichocephalus. 

Filariidte. 
Filaria. 
Spiroptera. 
Ancyracanthus. 

Mermididcs. 
Mermis. 
Sphaerularia. 

GordiidcB. 
Gordius. 



Anguillula. 
Tylenchus. 
Ehabditis. 



Enoplidfs. 
Dorylaemus = Uro- 

labes. 

Enchelidium. 
Enoplus. 



Ehabdogaster. 
Chastosoma. 



Order II. ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

Internal parasites, worm -like, the anterior end armed with re- 
curved hooks. No mouth nor alimentary canal. Sexes distinct. 
The water-vascular system is said to have no external openings. 
The embryos are like Gregarinida, and become encysted as in 
Cestoda ; in that state they are swallowed by birds, fishes, &c., 
when they develop into mature animals. There are about 100 
species. 

Echin orhynckida. 
Echinorhynchus. 
Coleops. 



VEEMES. 57 



Class III. CHJETOGNATHA. 

CESTHELMINTHA. 

Free, elongate, transparent animals, with preoral setae and a 
fin-like tail, but without limbs. Hermaphrodite. No metamor- 
phosis. 

The body is fringed on each side by a striated fin -like mem- 
brane. The intestine is a straight tube. The nervous system 
consists chiefly of a single abdominal ganglion, sending backwards 
and forwards two pairs of lateral branches. The eyes are two 
pigment-spots. The embryo is non-ciliated, and its develop- 
ment is, in some respects, peculiar. 

This is a very aberrant form, and has even been regarded as a 
vertebrate. Forbes placed it among the Mollusca. There are six 
species, varying from half to one inch in length, mostly European, 
of the one genus 

Sagitta. 
Class IV. GEPHYREA. 

SlPUNCULACEA. EHYNGODEA. 

Body cylindrical, with a thick coriaceous skin, often indistinctly 
ringed. No limbs. Head not distinct from the body, often pro- 
duced into a proboscis. Sexes distinct. 

There are no respiratory organs, and sometimes no vascular 
system. The mouth, with or without tentacula, is placed at the 
end of a retractile proboscis. The anus is either at the base of 
the proboscis, or is at the posterior extremity of the body. Eye- 
specks are present in certain Sipunculidas. A Planaria-like form 
of male occurs in Bonellia. These animals have ciliated free- 
swimming embryos, not unlike Rotifera, to which Huxley con- 
siders them closely allied. In the subsequent growth only part 
of the larva is concerned in the development of the adult (an 
alternation of generation, or metagenesis). 

The Gephyrea, of which there are about 120 known species, 
vary from half to eight or more inches in length. They live 
among rocks or seaweed, or are sometimes found buried in the 



Formerly classed with the Echinodermata, they are now di- 
vided into two, somewhat artificial, orders Inerines (without 



58 



YERMES. 



bristles and without a double blood-vascular system), including 
Sipunculidse and Priapulidae; and Armata or Chsetiferi (with 
corneous bristles and a double blood- vascular system), =Echiuridae 
and Sternaspidas. The latter is, however, referred by Olaus to 
Polychaeta. Chafoderma, placed in Priapulidae by the same 
authority, has the body furnished with spines. 

SipuncuWda. Priapulida. Bonellia. 

Sipunculus= Syrinx. Priapulus. Thalassema. 

Phascolosoma. Anoplosomatum. Ancistropus. 

Aspidosiphon. Chaetoderma. 
Diesinga. Sterne 

Dendrostomum. Echiurida. Sternaspis. 

Echiurus. 



Class Y. ANNELIDA. 
ANNUL ATA. 

Body composed of numerous segments [somites], the limbs 
rarely present, or, if present, rudimentary [parapoclia]. A vas- 
cular system with red blood, but without corpuscles, in most. 

The skin is soft, composed of many layers, the surface mostly 
ciliated, the cilia bristle-like, and often fasciculate ; the segments 
are sometimes to the number of 400. There is occasionally a 
rudimentary head [prostomium] ; it bears two or more cirri or 
tentacles (antennae and palpi), sometimes, but rarely, jointed. 
The blood -vascular system is very variable, but is composed mainly 
of longitudinal canals. The blood is rarely propelled from behind 
forwards. 

There are no true parasites in this class, except some Hiru- 
dinea ; but inquilines or commensals are sometimes met with. 
Very few species are terrestrial. 

The genera Polyophthalmus, Dero, and Capitella form the 
Haloscolecina of Carus. Anarthropoda is a divisional name, used 
to include this and the two preceding classes. 

Mouth suctorial HIRUDINEA. 

Mouth not suctorial. 

Without branchiae OLIQOCB^TA. 

With branchiae. 

Branchiae dorsal CH^ETOPOD A. 

Branchiae cephalic CEPHALOBKANCHIA. 



VERMES. 59 



Order I. HIRUDINEA. (Leeches.) 

DlSCOPHORA. SUCTORIA. 

Mostly aquatic animals, with a sucking-disk at one or both 
extremities. Hermaphrodite. No metamorphosis. 

Although ringed, the body is not divided into distinct somites, 
the rings being merely surface-markings. Respiration is effected 
by the skin or by lateral sacs. The circulatory system consists 
mostly of longitudinal trunks or a series of sinuses. The eyes 
are little more than pigment-spots. The skin is without cilia. 

Leeches are mostly freshwater animals, swimming easily ; but 
many are parasites on fishes, Mollusca, and Crustacea. A few are 
terrestrial, occurring in Japan, Ceylon, Chili, &c. 

The ordinary leech is Hirudo medicinalis ; the Hungarian 
leech (H. officinalis) is probably a variety. Horse-leech ia a name 
given to two distinct species, or even genera Hcemopsis sanguined 
and Aulostomum gulo. Macrobdella valdiviana is 2J feet long. 

Malacobdellidce. Clepsinidee. Trochetia. 

Malacobdella. Clepsine. Aulostomum. 

Piscicola = Ichthyo- Nepheks. 

Acanthobdellid<s. bdella. Hirudo (Leech). 

AcanthobdeUa. Haemopsis. 

Histriobdella. Hinidinida. Pontobdella (Sea- 

Branchiobddlide. 3 " Branchellion. 



Branchiobdella. Bdella. 

Order II. OLIGOCH^TA. 
LUMBRICINA. TERRICOLA. SCOLEINA. ABRANCHIATA. 

Mostly land- or freshwater-worms, without feet, but provided 
with bristles [setae]. Mouth rudimentary. No branchiae. 
Mostly hermaphrodite. No metamorphosis. 

Reproduction is mostly by ova or by gemmation ; but the 
earth-worm (Lumbricus terrestris) develops directly. Respira- 
tion is by the skin. 

These worms are generally found in the mud of ponds and 
streams ; they are never parasitic or inquiline. They have great 
powers in repairing injuries. 



60 VERMES. 

Ichthydium (worm-shaped, with a ciliated ventral surface) is 
by some referred to the Botifera ; Metschnikoff forms for it an 
order Gasterotricha. Schmarda, the more recent authority, 
places it in this order, and he also includes in it " Polyophthal- 
mida," Maldanidge ( = Clymenidce), and Chaetopteridae. With the 
two following orders they form his sixteenth Class Chaetopoda 
( Van Benederi). He estimates that these three orders contain 
1500 species. 

Ichthydiidce. Enchytrceidce. Lumbricidce. 

Ichthydium. Enchytraeus. Lumbricus (Earth- 

Chastonotus. Chastogaster. worm). 

Dero=Proto. Perichaeta. 



.ZEolosoma. Scenuridce. Phreoryctida. 

Nais=Stylaria. Sagnuris=Tubifex. Phreoryctes. 

Aulophorus. Euaxes=Khynchelmis. Megascolex. 

Limnodrilus. 

Order III. CHJETOPODA. 
ERRANTIA. ANTENNATA. POLYCH^TA. EAPACIA. NOTOBRANCHIATA. 

Marine animals, mostly worm-like, with tubular setigerous 
feet [parapodia]. Body not presenting distinct regions. Meta- 
morphosis in most. 

The sexes are mostly distinct, but asexual forms occur giving 
rise to the former; "a process of zooid development" takes 
place which " appears to be a combination of fission with gem- 
mation ;" and " the result is, not infrequently, the formation of 
long chains of connected zooids." The males and females, in 
some cases, differ from one another as well as from the sexless 
forms. The young, on leaving the ovum, is a free-swimming 
ciliated body. SyUis, Eunice, and a few others are said to be vivi- 
parous. 

The branchiae are external and ranged along the side of the 
back ; but in many the branchiae are rudimentary or absent, and 
the respiration is either carried on by the skin or by sea-water 
admitted to the peri visceral cavity : mixed with chyle, this fluid 
is known as the "chylaqueous fluid." According to Owen it 
serves the place of an internal skeleton by acting as the base of 
resistance to the cutaneous muscles, "the power of voluntary 
motion being lost when the fluid is let out." The blood-vascular 
system is sometimes in abeyance. The blood is red in most, but 



VERMES. 61 

in Aphrodite it is yellow, in a few it is colourless. It is contained 
in two long tubes, one dorsal, the other ventral. The presence 
of corpuscles is disputed. 

The head is generally provided with two or four tentacles. 
The mouth contains one or more pairs of jaws (or teeth) ; and 
the pharynx forms a protrusible proboscis. Eyes are sometimes 
present. In Alciope there is a retina, iris, and lens. 

A few species are commensals; but they are mostly free, 
moving about at the bottom of the sea, or living in the sand, as 
the common lob- worm (Arenicola piscatorum}. Apparently they 
are capable of living a long time without food ; M c lntosh records 
a Eunice norvegica kept for three years without nourishment of 
any kind. Eunice gigantea attains a length of four feet. Several 
species are phosphorescent. " Tracks and burrows of Annelids 
are found commonly in rocks of all ages from the Cambrian 
period upwards." 

Tomopterus, forming the order Gymnocopa of G-rube, is a 
degraded form, with no trace of branchiae or of a blood-system. 
Although three or four inches long, it is so transparent as to be 
nearly invisible, except in certain shades of light. In the female 
the ova are in the general cavity of the body, there being no 
proper ovarium. Polygordius is a transitional form towards 
Trematoda : Schmarda places it as a pendant to Chastopoda. Of 
its two species, P. purpureus is hermaphrodite, while P. luteus is 
dioecious. 

The following list of families and genera is compiled princi- 
pally after Schmarda, except that Polyophthalmus, Clymenidae, 
and Chsetopteridae are placed by him in Oligochaeta: these 
families are placed by Glaus in this order, which, for him, also 
includes Sedentaria; he has, however, referred the first nine 
families in the list below to the same group (Cephalo- 
branchia). 

Capitellidce. Arenocolidce. Ariciidts. 

Capitella=Lumbri- Arenicola (Lob- Aricia. 

conais. worm). Ephesia. 

Notomastus. Eumenia. Aonis. 
Dasybranchus. 



OpheliidcB. 
Ophelia. 
Ammotrypane. 
Polyophthalmus. 


*-/(/ U IIV&HfWJUVG* 

Clymene. 
Maldane. 
Ammochares = 
Owenia. 


Cirratulida. 

Cirratulus. 
Audouinia. 
Cirrhinereis. 



62 



VEEMES. 



Nerinidce. 


PhyllodocidcB. 


Amphinomida. 


Nerine = Malaco- 


Phyllodoce. 


Hipponoe. 


ceros. 


Eulalia. 


Chloeia. 


Spio. 


Alciope. 


Euphrosyne. 


Disoma. 




Amphinome. 


Leucodoridce. 
Leucodora. 


Nephthyidce. 
Nephthys. 


Aphroditidcs. 
Aphrodite (Sea- 




Grlycerida. 


mouse). 


Ch<etopterid<B. 
Chaetopterus. 


& 

Glycera. 

RGT1Ct(&* 


Hermione. 
Pontogenia. 
Harraothoe. 


Syllid. 


Nereis =Lycoris. 


Polynoe. 
Pholoe. 


Syllis=Autolytus. 


Lycastis. 


Antinoe. 


Grubea. 
Dujardinia. 
Schmardia. 


Lumhriconereidce. 
Lumbriconereis. 


Sigalion. 
Pelogenia. 




Lysidice = Palolo. 


Palmyrida. 


Hesionidce. 


CEnone. 


Palmyra. 



Hesione. 
Castalia. 
Psamathe. 
Podarce. 



Eunicidce. 

Eunice = Marphysa. 
Diopatra. Tomopterus. 

Order IV. CEPHALOBEANCHIA. 

SEDENTARIA. TUBICOL^E. POLYCIIJETA. 

Worm-like, marine animals, mostly protected by a tube. Body 
presenting distinct regions. Eespiration by branchiae placed near 
or on the head. Sexes distinct. A metamorphosis. 

The tubes are mostly secreted by the animal itself, and are 
either calcareous or membranous, or they may be composed of 
grains of sand agglutinated together. The tubes are either free 
or adherent to some foreign body, and the animal is not organi- 
cally attached to them. The branchiae are generally filamentous 
and fringed with vibrating cilia, but they are sometimes absent. 
The blood in Sabella is olive-green. There is no proboscis. The 
embryo is a free-swimming ciliated body. 

A few fossil forms are known. Spirorbis and other tubicolar 
annelids occur as early as the Silurian period. Some forms, as 
Ditrupa, have been taken for shells of mollusks allied to Den- 
talium. 



VERMES. 63 

Pherusidae are free, but are often adherent ten or a dozen 
together to one Echinus. Phoronis is placed in Gephyrea by 
Glaus. In some of the Serpulidae the carbonate of lime is secreted 
in such masses that the small circular reefs formed everywhere 
round the Bermudas are due to their agency alone. 

The following families alone compose this order, according to 
Schmarda : 



Pherusida. Polycirrus. 

Pherusa=Chloraema. Sabellides. Serpula. 

Siphonostoma. Vermilia. 

Flemingia. Amphictenida. Cymospira. 

Amphictene = Pecti- Protula = Apomatus. 

Hermellida. naria< Ditrupa. 

Hermella = Sabellaria. Spirorbis. 

Pallasia. BOMUM*. Filograna. 

Sabella. Fabricia. 

Terebellid. Myxicola. Phoronis. 

Terebella. Branchiomma. 

Amphitrite. Amphiglena. 



Class VI. ROTIFERA. 

ROTATORIA. SYSTOLIDA. 

Minute, aquatic, rarely parasitic animals, mostly free-swimming. 
The head generally provided with one or more ciliated disks. 
Sexes distinct. No metamorphosis. 

The body is cylindrical, more or less distinctly ringed. At the 
anterior end is one or more retractile disks [trochal disk or 
corona], bearing cilia, which, when vibrating rapidly, produce 
the appearance of turning round like a wheel : hence they are 
sometimes called " wheel-animalcules." The mouth is ventral. 
The pharynx contains the biting and grinding machinery, and is 
known as the " mastax." Certain red spots, sometimes to the 
number of eight, are generally supposed to be eyes. The males 
are frequently smaller than the females, and have no digestive 
organs. So far as they are known they are shortlived ; " they 
seem to be simply locomotive organs of fecundation, whose ser- 
vices are occasionally required ; " the females carrying on the 
process of reproduction alone. The winter ova differ from the 
summer ova in being enclosed in a peculiar shell. 

Some genera are provided with a tube or sheath [lorica], into 



64 



YEKMES. 



which the animal can withdraw itself. Philodina, Melicerta, and 
one or two others construct a floccose covering for their protec- 
tion in winter. 

The Eotifers delight in the sunshine ; on a dull day they con- 
ceal themselves. They swim either by means of their cilia, or by 
bending the body and jerking themselves along. There are about 
200 species, nearly all freshwater. Flosculariidae are permanently 
fixed. Notommata parasita is an entozoon of Volvox globator. 

By some these animals are regarded as unsegmented Arthropods. 
Ehrenberg places Ichthydiidse in this class, under his order Mo- 
notrocha. Albertia is worm-shaped, and parasitic on Lumbricu&, 
Nais, &c. Seison is found on Nebalia ; these two genera consti- 
tute the Perosotrocha of Schmarda, a pendant to the Eotifers. 
Trochosphcera, with a globular body and a ciliated girdle, is 
another pendant. Apsilus and Balatro are destitute of vibratory 
cilia ; they are present, however, in the young of the former. 

No intestine nor anus G-ASTRODELA. 

With intestine and anus. 
One disk. 

Disk entire HOLOTROCHA. 

Disk divided SCHIZOTROCHA. 

Two disks .. ZYGOTROCHA. 



GASTRODELA. Flosculariidce. 

Asplanchnidce. Eloscularia. 

Asplanchna. Melicerta. 

Ascomorpha. Stephanoceros. 



HOLOTROCHA. 



ZYGOTROCHA. 



Ptygura. 
Diplotrocha. 

(Ecistide. 
GEcistes. 
Conochilus. 

SCHIZOTROCHA. 
Mega lotrochidce. 
Megalotrocha. 



Hydatina. 

Diglena. 

Eosphora. 

Notornrnata. 

Synchgeta. 

Polyarthra. 

Apsilus. 

EuchlanidcB. 

Euchlanis. 

Stephanops. 

Metopidia. 



Philodina. 

Eotifer. 

Actinurus. 

ScaridiidcB. 
Scaridium. 

JBrachionidoe. 
Brachionus. 
Anursea. 
Noteus. 

AlbertiidcB. 
Albertia. 

Seison = Saccobdella. 
Balatro. 



VEEMES. 65 



Class VII. POLYZOA. 

BRYOZOA. CILIOBRANCHIATA. POLYPIARIA. CELLULIFERA. 
TENTACULIPERA. TENTACULIBRANCHLE. 

Associated, mostly marine animals, each living in a cell on a 
plant-like organism, or adnate upon foreign bodies, very rarely 
free. Mouth surrounded with ciliated tentacles. Hermaphro- 
dite. A metamorphosis. 

The separate animals or zooids are called "polypides" or 
"persona}," the entire system is a "zoarium," also " polyzoarium " 
or " coancecium," and the "zooacium," or cell, is the organ in 
which the polypide is contained. The tentacles are borne on a 
projection or stage called the " lophophore." The alimentary 
canal " is suspended in a double-walled sac." There is a single 
nerve-ganglion placed between the mouth and the anus, which are 
very near together. There is no vascular system, nor any sense- 
organ. The animals do not communicate with one another as 
they do in the hydroid polypes [Calyptoblastea]. There is, how- 
ever, said to be a general system of nerves by which the polypides 
are placed in communication. 

Reproduction is by ova, the young appearing in the form of a 
free ciliated sac-like body ; and by continuous gemination, each 
new zooid remaining attached, and adding to, the parent-stock. 
Another form of gemmation, confined, however, to the Pbylacto- 
laemata, occurs in which certain bodies, called "statoblasts," are 
developed in the polypide ; these are enclosed in two horny disks, 
and "when the statoblasts are placed under circumstances favour- 
ing their development, they open by the separation from one 
another of the two faces, and then there escapes from them 
a young Polyzoon, already in an advanced stage of development, 
and in all essential respects resembling the adult individual in 
whose cell the statoblasts were produced" (Attmari). 

Much difference of opinion exists as to the affinities of the Poly- 
zoa. Ehlers considers that their nearest allies are the Gephyrea ; 
Claus places them between the Nernatoid worms and the Rotifera ; 
Barrois also insists on their intimate relations to Rotifers. Von 
Hayek (1877) unites the two orders Bryozoa and Roiaioria to 
form his Ciliata, the sixth and last class of Vermes. They have 
also been held to constitute a lower form of Tunicata ; but then, 
as has been observed, no Polyzoon begins life as an Ascidian, and 
no Ascidian begins life as a ciliated gemmule ; and if, as Hancock 

F 



66 VERMES. 

has suggested, the branchial sac of the Ascidian is (as are the en- 
dostyle, tentacular filaments, &c.) a new and distinct development, 
then they have no homological representations in the Polyzoa. 

Kecently Kay Lankester places this class with Brachiopoda 
and Lamellibranchiata to form his Lipocephala ; Huxley asso- 
ciates the Polyzoa with the Brachiopoda as " a division apart," 
for which he proposes the term " Malacoscolices." Brooks main- 
tains that the union of the Brachiopoda and Polyzoa is "without 
scientific value." Lastly, Schmarda (1878) keeps the old name 
" Molluscoidea " for this class and Tunicata. 

Cyphonautes is a remarkable form not yet determined ; it has 
been said to be the larva of Memf)ranipora. 

Schmarda gives 600 living and 1800 fossil species for this 
class. 

Mouth without an epistome GYMNOL^EMATA. 

Mouth with an epistome PIIYLACTOL.EMATA. 



Order I. GYMNOL^MATA. 

STELMATOPODA. INFUNDIBULATA. ECTOPROCTA. 

Separation of individuals complete. No epistome. Lopho- 
phore circular. 

This order is composed of marine organisms, often taken for 
seaweeds, and having a close resemblance to the Calyptoblastea ; 
the former, however, differ in that the cells do not communicate 
except by the external investing cuticle [ectocyst]. In one of the 
suborders [Chilostomata] this cuticle gives rise to certain ap- 
pendages called " avicularia," "vibracula," and " ooecia," or 
" oocysts." The avicularia are organs of prehension, consisting 
of a movable portion or mandible and a corresponding fixed 
portion ; the vibracula consist of a cup having a movable seta 
attached to it ; the ooecia or oocysts are globular cells receiving 
the ova. 

The sequence of the families in the following list is after Busk ; 
a later arrangement by Glaus omits many of the families and 
genera of the former, while, on the other hand, the latter gives two 
or three families not noticed by Busk. 

There are three suborders : 

Mouth of the cells with a movable lip CHILOSTOMATA. 

Mouth of the cells without a lip. 

Mouth round, open, not setose CYCLOSTOMATA. 

Mouth setose CTENOSTOMATA. 



VERGES. 



67 



CIIILOSTOMATA. Cell-opening or mouth closed with a movable 
lip or operculum. Ayicularia and vibracula mostly present. 

Glaus divides this suborder into four groups : a. Cellularina, 
zooecium corneous, funnel-shaped: ^Eteidse, Cellulariidae, and 
Bicellariidse. b. Flustrina, zooecium quadrate, smooth exter- 
nally : Flustridae, Cellariidas, and Membraniporidae. c. Escharina, 
zooecium mostly calcareous, quadrate or semioval, with a lateral 
opening : Eschariporidaj, Myriozoidse, Escharidae, and Discopo- 
rids=e. d. Celleporina, zooecium calcareous, rhomboid or oval, 
with a terminal mouth : Celleporidas and Reteporidse. For 
Schmarda this and the two following groups rank only as 
families. Hislopia is an aberrant Indian freshwater form. 



Catenicellidce. 
Oatenicella. 

Cellariida. 

Salicornaria. 

Cellaria. 

Nellia. 

Celhdariidz. 

Cellularia. 
Menipea. 
Scrupocellaria. 
Canda. 

Scrupariidce. 

Scruparia. 
Hippothoa. 



GemellariidcB. 

Gemellaria. 
Dimetopia. 
Notamia. 

Cabereidfs. 
Caberea. 

BicellariidcB, 

Bicellaria. 

Bugula. 

Naresia. 

Flustrid. 

Flustra (Sea-mat). 
Carbasea. 



Myriozoidce. 

Myriozoum. 
MoUia. 

Eschar vporida, 

Escharipora. 

Porina. 

Anarthropora. 

EscharidcB. 

Eschara. 
Lepralia. 

Reteporida. 
Retepora. 



Beania. 

FarciminariidcB. 
Farciminaria. 



Membraniporidcs. Vinculariidce. 

Membranipora. Vincularia. 



CelleporidcB. 
Cellepora. 



SelenariidcB. 
Selenaria. 



Hislopia. 



CYCLOSTOMATA. Cells tubular, " partially free or wholly <jon- 
nate ;" opening terminal, with a movable tip. 
vibracula. 



Noavicularia nor 



68 VERGES. 

Two groups may be distinguished : Articulata ( = Radicata), 
zoarium divided into internodes ; Crisiidse. Inarticulate. ( = In- 
crustata), zoarium not so divided ; including Frondiporidffi, with 
cells aggregated into bundles (Fasciculinea) ; the remaining fami- 
lies not so aggregated (Tubulinea). There are numerous fossil 
species. 

Crisiidce. Tubuliporidcs. Domopora. 

Crisia. Alecto. Defrancia. 



Idmoneidcs. 

Idmonea. 
Pustulopora. 


DiastoporidcB. 
Diastopora. 


Frondiporidcs . 

Fasciculipora. 
Frondipora. 



Hornera. Discoporellida. Cerioporidce. 

Discoporella. *Ceriopora. 

CTENOSTOMATA. Cell-opening closed by marginal setae. No 
avicularia nor vibracula. 

Only two families appear strictly to belong to this suborder, 
Alcyonidiidae and Vesiculariidas. Pedicellina, Paludicella, Urna- 
tella, and Loxosoma are by some considered to represent as many 
suborders. Of these Pedicellina is sometimes referred to Gyin- 
nolseinata, sometimes to Phylactola3inata. Schmarda, adopting 
Nitsche's name of Endoprocta as an order, takes Pedicellina 
and the last two genera as the types of three families; the 
rest of Polyzoa forming the order Ectoprocta. 

Alcyonidium gelatuwsum is A, diaphanum of Hooker's 'Flora 
Scotica.' 

Vesicular iidce. Bowerbankia. 

Vesicularia. 

Serialaria. Alcyomduda. 

Yalkeria. Alcyonidium. 



Order II. PHYLACTOL2EMATA. 

LOPHOPODA. HlPPOCREPIA. 

Separation of individuals incomplete. Mouth with an epi- 
stome (or epiglottis). Lophopore bilateral, crescent-shaped, with 
numerous tentacles. 

" The young, on its escape from the statoblast, is at first soli- 



VERMES. 69 

tary, but is rapidly multiplied by the production of gemrnte." 
(Allman.) 

These organisms are larger and more homogeneous than the 
Gymnolaemata, aud have a soft or leathery or gelatinous struc- 
ture, with no special stem. They are found attached to stones, 
plants, &c. in fresh water, only one or two species being marine. 
Cristatetta mucedo ("not unlike certain hairy caterpillars," and 
two inches in length) is found in many of our pools, creeping about 
in a sluggish manner. 

Ehahdopleura is an anomalous marine form from Norway ; it 
is said to have Hydrozoan affinities. Allman would place it 
in a distinct "suborder," for which he suggests the name of 
Aspidophora. 

Plumatellida. Lophopus. 
Plumatella. 
Alcyonella. CrittatdUfa 

Fredericella. Cristatella. 

Ehabdopleura. 



70 



Subkingdom Y. ARTHROPODA. 

CONDYLOPODA. ARTICULATA. GNATHOPODA. 
AETHEOZOA. 

Segmented, non-ciliated animals, with distinctly jointed legs. 
Nervous system ganglionic. Sexes generally separate. Ovi- 
parous. 

The Arthropoda, with more than 200,000 species, vary to such 
an extent that little can be said applicable to the whole group. 
Of all Invertebrata they are the most advanced in the develop- 
ment of the organs peculiar to animal life, " manifested in the 
powers of locomotion, and in the instincts, which are so varied 
and wonderful in the insect class." 

The Arthropoda fall naturally into four classes, which A. 
Agassiz, with cruel refinement, only ranks as orders. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen distinct INSECTA. 

Head or abdomen not distinct from the thorax. 
With antennae. 

One pair MYRIOPODA. 

Two pairs CRUSTACEA. 

Without antennae ARACHNIDA. 



Class I. CRUSTACEA. 

AGON AT A. BRANCHIOPNOA. 

Mostly aquatic animals, with articulated appendages as well on 
the thorax as on the abdomen? Two pairs of antennas in most. 

The segments of Crustacea consist, at least theoretically, of a 
" tergum " of two pieces and an " epimeron " on each side above ; 
and beneath of a "sternum," also of two pieces, and two lateral 
" episterna." The hard processes of the internal skeleton are 
the " apodemata," and serve, for the attachment of muscles &c. 

Some of the lower forms of Crustacea retrograde after passing 
the embryonic stage, but an advancing and gradual metamor- 
phosis is more general. Three larval forms may be distin- 
guished : (1) " Nauplius" oval, unsegmented ; one eye; three 
pairs of appendages, which are converted into antennae and 



ARTHROPODA. 71 

gnathites : (2) "Zoea" elongate, segmented ; thorax with a dorsal 
spine ; two sessile eyes ; abdomen as long as the body ; legs rudi- 
mentary: and (3) " Megalopa" flattened, segmented, no dorsal 
spine ; two pedunculate eyes ; abdomen much diminished, parti- 
ally bent under the body ; five pairs of legs. There are inter- 
mediate forms, and, not to be referred to the above, are Alima, 
Erichthus, and Phyllosoma, which are also said to be larvae the 
two former of Squillidae, the latter of Scyllaridse. The lower 
Crustacea do not pass the Zoea-stage ; and some go through the 
Nauplitts-stage in the egg. 

The sexes sometimes differ considerably, and there are occa- 
sionally two forms of males. Cymothoa and some allied genera 
are said by Bullar not to have distinct sexes. 

Owing to the extreme modifications in this class it is conve- 
nient to divide it into six subclasses. Some of these, however, and 
many of the minor groups, pass into one another with scarcely 
any line of differentiation. The grades of the divisions are 
therefore variously estimated by authors, and the names are not 
always conterminate. 

Adult parasitic ; if attached by the feet, . 
then the feet rudimentary. 

Sexes united CIRRIPEDIA. 

Sexes distinct EPIZOA. 

Adult free, or, if parasitic, attached by 

the feet, the feet jointed. 
With respiratory organs. 



Carapace in one or two pieces. . . ENTOMOSTRACA. 

No carapace EDRIOPHTHALMA. 

Eyes pedunculate PODOPHTHALMA. 

No respiratory organs PODOSOMATA. 



Subclass I. CIRRIPEDIA. 
PECTOSTRACA. 

Body furnished with a mantle, and enclosed in a many-valved 
carapace. Abdomen rudimentary or obsolete. Feet in the form 
of cirri. Mostly hermaphrodite. 

The adult is attached to some foreign body by the anterior 
extremity of the head, which is of large size, and almost always 
enveloped in a carapace containing also the rest of the body. 



72 ARTHEOPODA. 

The posterior extremities consisting of a rudimentary abdomen, 
thorax, and six pairs of many-jointed limbs, which are used for 
capturing its food. They have no heart. 

When the sexes are separate, the males are Yery minute and 
epizoic on the females ; they are very rudimentary, mere sperm- 
sacs, and their characters are valueless for classification. 

The metamorphosis of the Cirripedia is very complex, but in 
the earlier stages the larva? resemble the Entomostraca (Nauplius, 
Cypris). Darwin divides them into three orders, to which Glaus 
adds the Ehizocephala. Schmarda retains the latter in the 
Epizoa (Ichthyophthira). 

Body unsegmented EHIZOCEPHALA. 

Body segmented. 

Without limbs APODA. 

With limbs. 

Limbs abdominal ABDOMINALIA. 

Limbs thoracic THORACICA. 



Order I. EHIZOCEPHALA. 

SUCTORIA. 

Body cylindrical or sac -shaped, without segmentation. No 
limbs, organs of sense, nor intestine. 

There are two openings into the body, one serving as a mouth, 
the other as an anus. The reproductive organs are well deve- 
loped. 

These are sac-like or disciform parasites on crabs, to which 
they attach themselves by root-like tubes [modified antennas] pro- 
ceeding from the anterior portion of the body, penetrating and 
intertwining themselves into the substance of their victim. Crabs 
infested with Sacculina are barren, at first mechanically, after- 
wards histolcgically. Peltogaster is parasitic on the abdomen of 
Paguridse. An opinion has been expressed that the Peltogaster 
of the Pagurus has become a Sacctilina on the crab. 

The young pass through a Nauplius and a Cypris stage. 

Sacculinidee. Peltogastridce. 

Sacculina=Pachybdella. Peltogaster. 

Clistosaccus. Apeltes. 

Lernaeodiscus. Sylon. 



AKTHKOPODA. 73 

Order II. APODA. 

" Carapace reduced to two separate threads serving for attach- 
ment." Body without cirri. Mouth suctorial. 

Proteolepcts bicincta is the only member of this order. It is like 
the larva of an insect, about one fifth of an inch long, and parasitic 
on Alepas cornuta. Its earlier stages are unknown. 

Proteolepas. 

Order III. ABDOMINALIA. 

" Carapace flask- shaped." Thoracic segments without limbs ; 
the abdomen with three pairs. Two eyes. Mouth extensile. 
Sexes distinct. 

The members of this order are all burrowers in shells. Cryp- 
tophialus minutus, the only species of the genus known, is one 
tenth. of an inch in length, and is lodged in a flask-shaped cara- 
pace. " The early larval stages are passed under an egg-like 
condition within the sac of the parent." The pupa, having no 
natatory limbs, crawls about by the aid of its antennae. Cock- 
lorine burrows in the shells of Haliotis ; Alcippe is found on our 
own coasts, in the shells of Fusus and Buccinum. 

Cryptophialidce . Alcippidoe. 

Cryptophialus. Alcippe. 

Cochlorine. 



Order IV. THORACICA. 

" Carapace either a capitulum or a pedicel, or an operculated 
shell with a basis." Six thoracic segments with six pairs of limbs. 
Two eyes. 

In this order are two primary forms, the pedunculate and the 
sessile. In the pedunculate forms the peduncle is formed by a 
modification of the larval antenna. The sessile forms are pro- 
tected by a strong inulti valve conical shell closed by a four-valved 
operculum. " The whole shell has a cellular and organized texture, 
and its gradual expansion is provided for by the successive growth 
and calcification of processes of the mantle which penetrate the 
uniting sutures." The cement fixing the animal is secreted by an 
organ which Darwin has shown to be a modified portion of the 
ovarian tube. 

The soft parts and cirri are subjected to a periodical moult, 
not, however, affecting the shell. 



74 AETRROPODA. 

In the mature state the eyes only retain a certain susceptibility 
to light. The organs of hearing are two sac-like cavities situated 
at the base of the first pair of cirri. 

The sexes are distinct in Ibla Cumingii and in Scalpellum 
ornatum ; but many species of both genera are hermaphrodite, 
notwithstanding which they have also a (supplemental) male 
attached to them. 

Besides many species found on, or burrowing into, whales, fish, 
mollusks, crabs, &c., one (Ornitkolepas australis, a larval form, 
however) is said to attach itself to the feathers of a sea-bird 
(Puffinus cinereus). 

There are about 100 species in this order. 



Lepadidoe. 


Lithotrya. 


Acasta. 


Anelasma. 


Pollicipes. 


Balanus (Acorn- 






shell). 


Conchoderma = 
Otion. 


CoronulidcB. 
Xenobalanus. 


CthalamidcB. 


Dichelaspis. 


Tubicinella. 


Pachylasma. 


Poecilasma. 


Coronula. 


Cthalamus. 


Lepas (Barnacle). 




Octomeris. 




Balanidce. 




Pollicipedidce. 


Chelonobia. 


Verrucida. 


Scalpellum. 


Pyrgoma. 


Verruca = Clysia. 



Ibla. 



Subclass II. EPIZOA. 

SUCTORIA. ICHTHYOPHTHIRA. 

Body elongate, subarticulate, the antennae and limbs termi- 
nated either by suckers, hooks, or bristles. Mouth suctorial. No 
respiratory organs. Females with external pendent ovisacs. 

The Epizoa are deformed and grotesque ectoparasites of fish 
and other marine and freshwater animals. They differ from all 
other Crustacea, except Cirripedia, Copepoda, and Podosomata, in 
having no branchiae. They attach themselves to their prey either 
by a suctorial mouth a conical tube resulting in a modifica- 
tion of the upper and lower lips, accompanied by two bristle- 
shaped pieces, the analogues of the mandibles or by a circular 
disk formed upon the confluent extremities of the posterior pair 
of feet. Another mode of adhesion is by certain processes that 
grow from the head. 



ARTHROPODA. 75 

The normal number of thoracic segments is five, but, in gene- 
ral, two or more are fused. The abdomen is terminated by two 
fin-shaped or setiform appendages, but is frequently rudimentary, 
or in some reduced to its two appendages. The ovisacs are 
attached to the last thoracic segment, where they remain, even 
after the ovaries have parted with their contents. 

The inales are mostly rudimentary, but of many species they 
are unknown. The young are free, and resemble Copepods ; but 
there is a metagenesis resulting in a usually permanent attach- 
ment to fishes, Crustacea, or mollusks, to which they adhere in 
various ways. " Their development would seem to have been at 
first, as it were, hurried forward at too rapid a pace, and the 
young parasite, starting briskly into life, ranging to and fro by 
the highest developed natatory organs we have yet met with, and 
guiding its course by visual organs, must lose its eyes and limbs 
before it can fulfil the destined purpose of its creation." [Owen.] 

The Epizoa are supposed to be more numerous than the whole 
class of fishes. They are the " Crustaces suceurs " of Milne- 
Edwards, but including also his ' Crustaces araneiformes " [Podo- 
somata]. By many modern zoologists they are included in the 
Copepoda, to which they are nearly allied ; but Schmarda (1878) 
continues to keep them apart. 

Three or four pairs of limbs SIPHONOSTOMA. 

Limbs rudimentary LERN^EODEA. 



Order I. SIPHONOSTOMA. 

PARASITA. THECATA. POZCILOPODA. ONCHUNA. 
CORMOSTOMATA. 

Body divided into head, thorax, and abdomen ; the thorax 
segmented. Three pairs of short thoracic foot-jaws. " Two an- 
tennae." (Milne- Edwards.) 

The head is generally confounded with the first or first two 
thoracic segments. The antennae are two- or more jointed ; the 
inner or lower pair are modified into hook-shaped and clasping 
organs, and are not recognized as antennae by some authors. 
Besides the three pairs of foot-jaws, there are four pairs of nata- 
tory legs. In a few species the thorax is furnished with two ap- 
pendages, resembling elytra. 

In this and the following order, the families and genera are 
given after Glaus. Corycaeidae are often referred to Copepoda. 



76 



ARTHROPODA. 



Corycceidce. 

Corycaeus. 
Sapphirina. 

ErgadlidcB. 

Ergasilus. 
Nicothoe. 

BomolochidcB. 

Bomolochus. 
Eucanthus. 



AscomyzontidcB. 

Ascomyzon. 
Asterocheres. 

Caligida. 

Caligus. 

Trebius. 

Elytrophora. 

Euryphorus. 

Dmemura. 

Paudarus. 



Lannargus. 
Cecrops. 

Dichekstiidce. 

Eudactylina. 

Dichelestium. 

Lainprogena. 

Lernanthropus. 

Cycnus. 

Lonchidiuni = Kroy- 



The following family forms, according to Glaus, the suborder 
Branchiura ; but it is referred by Gerstaecker to Branchiopoda. 
Argulus lays its eggs, instead of carrying them about in ovisacs. 

Argulidce. 
Argulus. 
Gyropelds. 



Order II. LERN^ODEA. 

Limbs simple tegumentary lobes, without articulations, and 
only serving to fix the parasite on its prey. Thorax not ringed. 

The abdomen, with few exceptions, is rudimentary, and some 
are altogether without limbs. The antennae when present are in- 
distinctly jointed, and those of the inner pair are in the form of 
hooks or claws. In the young state they resemble Copepoda. 

In this order the females attach themselves to the eyes, mouth, 
skin, and especially to the gills of fishes. The males are found 
lying under the abdomen of the female. 

The Lernaeodea were placed by Latreille with the intestinal 
worms ; at the same time he recognized their similarity to the 
Siphonostoma. They are now generally included in one order 
or group, in which also Schmarda places Khizocephala. It forms 
the two orders Cephaltma and Brachiuna of Owen. 

Chondracanthid(S. Lernaea. 



Chondracanthus: 
Lernentoma. 

L&r-n&idcB. 
Lernseocera. 



Lernreonema. 
Pennella. 

LcrnceopodidcB. 
Achtheres. 



Basanistes. 

Lernaeopoda. 

Brachiella. 

Tracheliastes. 

Anchorella. 

Tanypleurus. 



ARTHROPOD A. 



77 



Subclass III. ENTOM08TBACA. 



Body furnished with a carapace, consisting of one or two shells, 
sometimes multivalve. Limbs jointed, setiferous. Branchiae 
attached either to the limbs or to the oral appendages. Mouth 
rnaudibulate. Sexes distinct. 

These are mostly minute and, with some exceptions, freshwater 
animals, very prolific, animal feeders, and very rarely parasitic. 
They undergo a moulting process as they grow, and some a me- 
tamorphosis. Parthenogenesis is not uncommon. 

The Entomostraca of Milne-Edwards is confined to the two 
orders Ostracoda and Copepoda. Dana includes in it his three 
"suborders," G-nathostomata [Phyllopoda and Lophyropoda, the 
latter containing Ostracoda and Copepoda], Cormostomata 
[Pcecilopoda and Arachnopoda, the former comprising the 
Epizoa only], and Merostomata [Xiphura]. Von Hayek confines 
the Entomostraca to Epiz^a and Copepoda ; Clans and Schmarda 
ignore the name. Excluding Epizoa, the term is here used in 
its original significance. 

Branchiae, when present, attached to the mouth. 

Head and thorax covered by a carapace COPEPODA. 

Body enclosed in a two-valve shell OSTRACODA. 

Branchiae attached to the legs. 
Eecent. 

Mandibles and maxillae simple. 

Feet few, not f oliaceous CLADOCERA. 

Feet many, foliaceous PHYLLOPODA. 

Mandibles and maxillae terminating in foot- * 

like appendages XIPHURA. 

Extinct. 

Body above three-lobed TRILOBITA. 

Body not lobed above EURYPTERIDA. 



Order I. COPEPODA. 

LOPHYROPODA. CROPHYROPODA. CYCLOPACEA. GNATUOSTOMATA. 
EUCOPEPODA. 

Body covered by a single shell (carapace). Abdominal seg- 
ments free. Four pairs of natatory legs. No branchia 1 . Tail 
setiferous. 

In addition to the four pairs of legs, there is also a rudimen- 



78 



ARIIIROPODA. 



tary pair, but attached to the abdomen. The head is tolerably 
distinct, having one eye (occasionally two) and two pairs of an- 
tennae, the latter sometimes differing considerably in the males, 
and one pair acting as a natatory organ. The mouth is mandibu- 
late. The young are naupliiform. The female has one, gene- 
rally two, pendent ovisacs. 

The Copepoda are minute free-swimming Crustaceans, found 
both in the sea and in freshwater. One species, Cetochilus septen- 
trionalis, forms the principal food of the southern whales. It 
also at times abounds on our coasts. Notodelphyidse are com- 
mensals in the respiratory sac of Ascidians. 

Glaus places the Epizoa in the Copepoda; while Schmarda 
ranks them as one of the two families composing the order 
Lophyropoda ( = Copepoda). 



Misophria. 
Oithona. 
Cyclops. 
Cyclopina. 

Harpacticida. 
Thalestris. 
Westwoodia. 
Canthocamptus. 
Harpacticus. 



Pettidiidte. 

Zaus. 

Peltidium. 

Alteutha. 

CalanidcB. 
Cetochilus. 
Calanus. 
Temora. 
Diaptomus. 

PontellidcB. 
Irenaeus = Anomalo- 
cera. 



Pontellfc. 

Notodelphyida. 
Notodelphys. 
Notopterophorus. 

AscidicolidcB. 
Ascidicola. 

TSuproridcB. 
Buprorus. 



Order II. OSTEACODA. 
CROPHYROPODA. OSTRAPODA. CYPRIDACEA. 

Body not ringed, enclosed between two shell -like valves, and 
terminated by a bifid tail. The inferior or second pair of an- 
tennas natatory, Branchias attached to the oral appendages. 
Two or three pairs of thoracic feet. 

The valves of the shell can be completely closed ; when open it 
allows the play of the feet and antennas. The abdomen is rudi- 
mentary. The eye is single (Baird), but this is due to the union 
of two ; in Cypridinidac there are two movable pedunculate eyes. 
There are no eyes in Halocypridae (Glaus). The young at once 
assumes the shape of the parent. 



AUTHROPODA. 79 

The Ostracoda are minute freshwater animals, very lively, 
swimming by the action of their antennae. They do not carry 
their eggs [about 20 or 30] as in most Crustacea, but deposit 
them on foreign bodies, fixing them by a greenish filamentous 
substance. 

Cyprididce. Ilyobates. Cypridinida. 

Bairdia. Loxoconcha, Cypridina. 

Candona. Paradoxostoma. Asterops. 
Notodromus. 

Cypris. HalocypridcB. Polycopidce. 

Conchoecia. Polycope. 

Cytherida. Halocypris. 

Cythere. Cytherellidce. 

Polycheles. CythereUa. 

Order III. CLADOCEEA. 
DAPHNIACEA. 

Head distinct ; a bivalve carapace covering the rest of the body . 
Four to six pairs of feet carrying the branchiae. Second pair of 
antennae large, branched, acting as swimming-organs. 

The carapace is composed of two valves, joined together on the 
back. The feet are foliaceous, and are scarcely organs of loco- 
motion. The eye is single, and very large. 

The Cladocera abound in fresh water, and are very prolific. 
They are more or less transparent, and have frequent moultings. 
" Ephippial eggs " are eggs with an additional covering, supposed 
to be the inner lining of the ovary. They appear to be produced in 
the winter. 

For Gerstaecker the Cladocera are merely a tribe of a subsection 
of a section of his suborder " Branchiopoda genuina." (Bronn's 
Cl. Ord. Thier-Eeichs.) 

PodontidcB. Daphniidce. Acroperus. 

Podon. Daphnia. Pleufoxus. 

Evadne. Moina. Chydorus. 

Bosmina. 

Polyphemid(B. Sididce. 

Polyphemus. Lynceidcs. gida. 

Lynceus. Latona. 

Leptodoridce. Eurycercua. Daphnella. 
Leptodora. Alona. 



80 ARTHROrODA. 

Order IV. PHYLLOPODA. 
BRAXCIIIOPODA. ASPIDOPHORA. CERATOPHTHALMA. 

Body divided into many segments, nearly all carrying a pair of 
loliaceous legs. Antennae small, one or two pairs, not natatory. 

The legs vary from eleven to sixty pairs. The abdomen is 
many -jointed, terminating in two long setaceous appendages. The 
eyes are two, or sometimes three ; occasionally, as in Branchipua, 
they are pedunculate. Branchipodidce have no carapace ; they 
swim on their backs. Apodidie have a large shield-shaped 
carapace. In Estheriidse the body is enclosed in a soft bivalve 
shell. 

Apus cancriformis, two or three inches long, sometimes met 
with in this country, changes its skin twenty times in two or 
three months. The males were unknown a few years ago. The 
name UTTOVS, given by Frisch in 1732, and adopted by later 
authors, is unwarranted. The family name is Apusidae for Claus. 

The sudden appearance of animals of this order is due to the 
latent vitality of their ova, which are only hatched under favour- 
able conditions. They are mostly freshwater animals. 

Apodidce. Branchipodida. Esther iiclce. 

Apus. Artemia. Limnadia. 

Lepidurus. Branchipus = Chirocephalus. Estheria. 



Order V. TEILOBITA. 
PAL.EAD.E. 

Marine animals, often of large size, belonging to the Palamoie 
period. Cephalic shield with two sutures dividing the median 
from the two lateral regions. Limbs rudimentary, lamelliform. 

These extinct Crustaceans are believed to be allied to Apus and 
Nebalia. Their body is composed of from six to twenty segments, 
and the tail or postabdomen is bent under the thorax. The 
limbs are unknown. According to Schmarda, there are 1600 
species ; he enumerates seven families. They have been found 
almost entirely in the Palaeozoic rocks. Among the principal 
genera are : 

*Isoteles. *Asaphus. *0gygia. 

*Amphyx. *Calymene. *Paradoxides. 

*A.rges. *Homalonotus. *Trinucleus. 



AKTHKOPODA. 81 

Order VI. XIPHURA. 

PCECILOPODA. XYPHOSUKA. MEROSTOMATA. 

Head not distinct from the thorax, covered by a carapace. A 
styliform process or tail terminating the abdomen. Legs six 
pairs, surrounding the mouth. 

The basal joints of the legs surrounding the mouth represent 
mandibles and maxillae, the rest of the joints are ambulatory and 
prehensile. The young have no tail, which in the adult equals 
the rest of the body. There are two eyes, with two ocelli. The 
eyes are not faceted. 

The embryo in its latest stage is said to resemble certain Trilo- 
bites. Only one recent genus is known, which existed also in the 
Oolitic period. The other fossil genera occur chiefly in the coal- 
formations. 

Limulus (King-crab). 
*Belinurus. 
*Cyclus=*Halicyne. 



Order VII. EURYPTERIDA. 

Head with two large marginal eyes and two median ocelli. 
Body of numerous free segments (12), all, except the first two, 
without appendages. 

These were marine animals, often of large size, belonging 
to the Pakeozoic period. They are allied to Limuhts and 
Trilobita, and, according to Van Beneden, cannot be separated 
from the Scorpions. They had only one pair of antennse. 
'Pterygotus angiicus is known to the Scotch quarry men. as the 
" Seraphim." 

Sclunarda makes this order a pendant to Xiphura. The two 
are joined by Claus to Phyllopoda, which comprises, according 
to him, as suborders, Cladocera and Branchiopoda. Branchio- 
poda, however, is by other authorities made to include Phyllo- 
poda as well as Ostracoda and Trilobita. 

Woodward has enumerated sixty-two species. 

*Eurypterus. *Stylonurue. 

*Pterygotus. *Hernirhypis. 



82 ARTttROPODA. 

Subclass IV. EDRIOPHTHALMA 

ARTHROSTRACA. TETRADECAPODA. 

Eyes sessile. No carapace. Head, thorax, and abdomen dis- 
tinct, the two latter segmented. Branchiae more or less connected 
with the legs. Sexes distinct. 

The two anterior pairs of legs [gnathopoda] are homologous to 
the two outer pairs of foot-jaws of the Decapoda. The young 
resemble the parent to a certain extent, and are for some time 
protected by the mother. The principal transformations take 
place in the egg. 

TheEdriophthalmaand Podophthalma form the Malacostraca 
of the older authors. Dana includes Trilobita and Eotifera in 
his Edriophthalma. Schmarda adopts the three following orders 
of Latreille : 

Abdomen well developed. 

Respiration by thoracic vesicles AMPHIPODA. 

Respiration by foliaceous limbs ISOPOD A. 

Abdomen rudimentary L^EMODIPODA. 

Order I. L^EMODIPODA. 

Abdomen rudimentary. Branchial vesicles attached to two or 
three thoracic rings. The first thoracic segments confluent with 
the head ; the first two pairs of legs attached to this part. 

The dorsal portion of the segments is entire. The female is 
furnished with abdominal laminse for retain ing the ova. Cyamus 
is parasitic, chiefly on whales. Caprella and Proto are sluggish 
inhabitants of our rocky tidal pools. 

Laeraodipoda are for Claus a tribe of Amphipoda. 

Caprellidce. Podalirius. 

Caprella. 

Proto. Cyamida. 

Protella. Cyamus. 

Cecrops. 

Order II. AMPHIPODA. 
Branchiae consisting of membranous vesicles attached to the 



ARTHEOPODA. 



83 



base of the legs. Thorax with six or seven free segments. Abdo- 
men of seven segments. Tail natatory or saltatorial. 

In this order the four anterior legs) including the gnathopoda, 
are directed forward, the three posterior backward ; the five pos- 
terior legs [pereiopoda] are the true walking-legs. Behind the 
legs are three pairs of appendages [pleopoda], plumosely fringed ; 
these are the swimming-organs. The terminal segment of the 
body is the telson, varying much in structure. The eyes are 
sometimes so slightly differentiated as to disappear after death. 
The largest species, from Lake Baikal, is five inches long. 

Dana includes this and Isopoda in one order Choristopoda. 
It comprises Crevettina \ and Hyperina of Glaus. 



Dulichiidcs. 



Gammaridce. 



Vibiliida. 



Dulichia. Atylus=Pherusa. 


Vibilia. 


Dexamine. 




Chelurida. Iphimedia. 


HyperiidtB. 


Cbelura. Odius^Otus. 


Hyperia = Lestri- 


(Edicerus. 


gonus. 


Corophiida. Xeucothoe. 


Tauria = Metoecua. 


Corophium. Probolium=Mon- 


Cystisoma= Thau- 


Cyrtophium. tagua. 
Podocerus. Phoxus. 


mops. 
Themisto. 


Amphithoe. Urothoe. 
Cerapus. Gammarus. 
Siphonoecetes. Moera. 
Melita. 


Phronimidce. 
Phronima. 
Primno. 


OrchestiidcB (Sand- Niphargus. 
fleas). Lysianassa. 
Talitrus=Orchestia. Anon y x - 
Hyale^Nicaja Pontoporeia. 


Typhida. 
Oxycephalus. 
Rhabdosoma. 
Pronoe. 


=Allorchestes. 


Typhis. 



Order III. ISOPODA. 

POLYGONATA. 

No branchial vesicles ; the respiratory organs placed beneath 
the abdomen, and modified in various ways. Body depressed. 
Tail well developed. 

The head is almost always distinct from the thorax ; the latter 
consists of seven segments bearing seven pairs of legs, all, the two 
anterior excepted, more or less conformable. The epirnera of the 
dorsal portion of the segments are small or wanting. The young 



84 



ARTIIROPODA. 



are somewhat different in form and with fewer limbs: in Arctu- 
ridse they are carried for some time clinging on to the antennas 
of the mother. In ordinary Isopoda they are retained for a time 
in a kind af pouch formed by the membranous plates at the base 
of the legs. The sexes are often more or less dissimilar. 

In the terrestrial Oniscidse the two or four anterior pairs of 
branchiae are modified into lungs or air-vessels. 

Some of the Oniscidse are land animals, and are known as 
hog-lice, sows, &c. One of our English species, Platyarthrus 
Hoff/nanseggii, is found in ants' nests. Limnoria terebrans is very 
destructive to submerged timber. JEga spongiophila resides in 
Euplectella aspergillum. Bopyrtis squitlarum is found commonly 
under the skin of prawns. Liriope is a parasite on Peltogaster, 
itself a parasite. 

Limnoria (Gribble). 

laera. 

Munna. 



Tanaida. 


Sphceromidi 


Apseudes. 
Tanais. 
Uhoe'a. 

Anthuridce. 
Anthura. 


Sphairoma. 
Cymodocea. 
Dynamene. 
Campecopea. 
Nesiea. 
Monolistra. 


Anceidts. 


Idoteidce. 


Anceus=Praniza $ 

CymothoidcB. 
Cymothoa. 


\. Idotea. 
Chaetilia. 
Arcturus. 
Leachia. 



Ceratothoa. 
Eurydice = Slab- 

berina. 
Cirolana. 
^Ega. 
Serolis. 



Munnopsidcs. 
Munnopsis. 

Asellidce. 
Asellus. 



Bopyrus. 

lone. 

Liriope. 

Gyge. 

Phryxus. 

Oniscid(B. 
Ligia. 
Oniscus. 
Porcellio. 
Platyarthrus. 
Philoscia. 
Armadillo. 
Tvlos. 



Subclass Y. PODOPHTHALMA. 

THORACOSTRACA. 

Eyes on movable peduncles. Head and thorax confluent, 
covered by a shell or carapace. 

The masticatory parts of the mouth [gnathites] are very com- 
plicated, the two or three anterior pairs of thoracic limbs being 
converted into foot-jaws [maxillipeds or pedipalpsj, and subject 



ARTHROPOD A. 85 

to considerable modifications. The teguraentary skeleton varies 
from being thin and flexible to a hard and solid calcareous 
crust. 

In their development the Podophthalma vary greatly ; in some 
reproduction is direct, but in others, and more generally, the 
young emerge from the egg as a Naiiplius or a Zoea, the Nauplius- 
stage, however, being sometimes passed in the ovum. A later 
larval form is the Megalopa. The changes are effected gradually, 
and while the animal is still comparatively minute ; and they do 
not appear to be correlated with other characters. 

Branchiae external STOMATOPODA. 

Branchiae enclosed in the thorax DECAPODA. 



Order I. STOMATOPODA. 

STOMAPODA. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae external, either placed beneath the abdomen or at- 
tached to the thoracic legs, occasionally rudimentary or wanting. 

The carapace covers the whole or only a part of the thorax, 
and is generally thin and flexible. The abdomen is elongate, and 
terminates in a natatory tail. The gnathites are confined to a 
pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxilla?, and a pair of foot-jaws, 
which are sometimes rudimentary, or are converted, as well as 
the seven succeeding pairs of limbs, into natatory feet. 

The branchiae consist of numerous minute cylinders, closely 
arranged on larger cylinders ; they are wanting in Mysis, 

Leuciferidas compose the " tribe " Aplopoda of Dana. They are 
placed in the Macrura by Clans, who confines this order to the 
Squillidae. The remainder are referred as a "suborder" to the 
Schizopoda of Latreille. Nebalia, formerly referred to Phyllo- 
poda, is sometimes doubtfully placed here; it is a transition-form 
of a special type. 

Mysidce. Euphausia. Sguillida. 

Mvsi Squilla. 

Sla. Lopkogastnda. G 4 onodactylus> 

Petalophthalmus. Gnathophausia. Coronis. 

Lophogaster. Leuciferida. 

EuphausiidcB. Chalaraspis. Leucifer. 

Thysanopoda. Sergestes. 

Nebalia. 



86 ARTHROPODA. 



Order II. DECAPODA. 

Branchiae enclosed in a special cavity on each side of the 
thorax. Five pairs of legs, the first pair didactyle. 

The branchiae consist of numerous thin plates placed closely 
together in the form of long quadrangular pyramids, nine on 
each side in the common crab, twenty-two in the lobster. The 
digestive organs comprise a large stomach and a large many- 
lobed liver. The heart is a contractile sac, with six main arteries. 
The eggs, after leaving the ovaries, are carried under the abdo- 
men of the female, generally until they are hatched. In some, 
as in Gecarcinidae, metamorphosis takes place within the egg. 

The gnathites are composed of a pair of mandibles, two pairs 
of maxillae, and three pairs of foot-jaws. There are five pairs of 
feet; the first and occasionally the second and third pairs are 
didactyle ; the last pair is rudimentary in Dynomene. The seg- 
ments of the head and thorax are closely soldered together and 
covered by the carapace. 

Ecdysis, or moulting, occurs annually or oftener, until the 
animal ceases to grow. The muscles are previously subject to 
active absorption to within a third of their natural size in order 
to facilitate withdrawal. The animal escapes where the abdomen 
is connected with the carapace, or the carapace is split down the 
middle. Crabs begin to breed long before they attain their full 
size. They and their allies are the scavengers of the seas. 

Milne-Edwards [1834] divided the Decapoda into three sec- 
tions, two fairly natural, but the intermediate one very hetero- 
geneous. In the first, Brachyura, the abdomen is small and folded 
under the body ; in the third, Macrura, the abdomen is well- 
developed, in general longer than the body, with natatory appen- 
dages at the end. Anomura [forming, it is said, the passage 
between the two] has, if we except Paguridag, little to distinguish 
it from one or the other ; Claus suppresses the section, but places 
Porcellanidas in the former. The Brachyura are further divided 
by Milne-Edwards into four families, the characters depending 
chiefly on the form of the carapace : thus, in the " Oxyrhinques " 
the carapace is narrowed anteriorly ; in " Cyclometopes " broad 
and rounded anteriorly; in " Catametopes " quadrilateral or 
ovoid; and in "Oxystomes" orbicular, prominent anteriorly. 
This is an artificial grouping ; but the tribes into which he has 
divided them, and which are now ranked as families, are natural, 
and, with few exceptions, are adopted by recent authors. [French 
authors rank tribes as subordinate to the family.] 



AKTHKOPODA. 



Our common crab is Cancer pagurus [closely allied species aro 
found in North and South America and in New Zealand] ; the 
shore-crab, Carcinus mcenas; the spider crab or corwich, Maia 
squinado ; the common land-crab, sold in the West-Indian mar- 
kets, is Cardisoma guanhumi but there are other species known 
as "land-crabs" belonging to Uca, Gecarcinus, &c. ; the lobster 
is Homarus gammarus ; the crawfish of the west of England and 
the London fishmongers is Palinurus vulgaris ["spiny lobster " 
seems to be a mere book-name] ; the river crayfish, Astacus fluvia- 
tilis; the shrimp, Crangon vulgaris; and the prawn, Palcemon 
serratus. Two Mediterranean prawns are Pandalus narwal and 
Pencsus caramote. 

MACRURA. Abdomen [or postabdomen] well- developed, the 
first five segments becoming natatory limbs, the sixth segment 
terminated in a five-parted tail-fin. 

Glaus heads Macrura with " Sergestidse " (including Leucifer\ 
Diastylidae constituting the "suborder" Cumacea. Schmarda 
begins with Diastylidas, Leucifer forming a pendant to Mysidte 
and Sergestes ranking under Caridinidae (=Alpheidse). 



Diastylid<B. 

Leptocuma. 

Leucon. 

Cyrianassa. 

Eudora. 

Bodotria. 

Diasty lis = Cuma. 



Alpheus. 
Caridina. 
Pontonia. 
Athanas. 



Stenopus. 
Sicyonia. 
Penaeus. 
Pasiphasa. 

Pal&monida. 
Hippolyte. 
Palasmon (Prawn). 
Pandalus. 



Cambarus. 
Homarus. 
Nephrops. 

Palinuridce. 
Palinurus (Crawfish). 

Nica. Scyllarida. 

Lysmata Scyllarus. 

Crangon (Shrimp). Th e nu8- 

Thalassinidw. Ibacus. 



Axius. 
Gebia. 
Thakssina. 



GalatJidda. 
Polycheles=Wille- 

moesia. 
Grimothea. 
AstacidcB. Galathea. 

Astacus (Kiver Cray- Munida. 
fish). *Eryon. 



ANOMURA. Abdomen slightly developed, except in Paguridse, 
and without a tail-fin. 

In this purely artificial division the two families Paguridae and 



88 AETHEOPOUA. 

Hippidae are referred by Glaus to Macrura, the remainder to the 
Brachyura ; Porcellanidas, Lithodidae, Dromiidse, and Dorippidre 
forming his group "Notopoda;" while Baninidae are placed, 
together with Leucosiidee and Calappidas in the Oxystomata. 
Schmarda includes in his Anomura only the families represented 
by Hippa, Litkodes, and Pagurus. Here Milne-Edwards is pro- 
visionally followed, except that Dromiidae change places with 
Dorippidae. 

Paguridce. Hippidce. Lomia. 

Pagurus (Hermit- Eemipes. Echidnocerus. 

crab). Hippa. Homolid. 

Cenobita. Albunea. Homola 

Birgus (Tree-crab). RaniaM*. 

^ . Donppida* 

Porcellanid*. Banma. Cymopolia. 

Porcellana. Lithodida. Dorippe. 

Lithodes. JEthusa. 



BRACHYURA. Abdomen reduced to a triangular (male) or 
rounded (female) tail, lodged in repose in a depression in the 
breast, and without a tail-fin. 

Schmarda adopts Milne-Edwards's four " families,'* with the 
addition of Dromiidge. Claus has nineteen ; excluding the Ano- 
inurous families, the principal difference in the following list 
is that he separates Eriphia from the Cancriclse, and unites 
Inachidae to the Maiidse. The last four families have been re- 
cently worked out by Miers, whose arrangement, reversing the 
order, is here followed. 



Leueosiida. Calappida. 

Dromia. Ebalia. Thealia. 

Dynomene. Philyra. Calappa. 

Oreophorus. Matuta. 



Atelecyclus. i xa . Mursia. 

Thia. Leucosia. 

Gomeza. Myra. 

Corystes. Persephone = Guaia. 

Iphis. Pinnotheres, 

Telmessus. Elamena. 



ARTHROPOD A. 



89 



Hymenosoma. 


Lupa. 


Pericera. 


Myctiris. 
Doto. 


Platyonychus. 
Portunus. 


Lissa. 
Libinia. 




Polybius. 




Grapsida. 


Carcinus (Shore- 


Maiidcs 


Planes = Nautilo- 


crab). 


Micippa. 


grapsus. 


Portumnus. 


Cyclax. 


Plagusia. 




Eurynome. 


Helice. 


Cancridce. 


Hyastenus. 


Grapsus. 


Melia. 


Pisa. 


Brachynotus. 


Pirimela. 


Maia (Spider-crab). 


Sesarma. 


Pilumnus. 


Herbstia. 


r 7 -J 


Eriphia. 


Hyas. 


(jr07l0^plCtCt(t(&. 


Etisus. 


Egeria. 


Gonoplax. 
Macrophthalmus. 


Cancer (Crab). 
Zozymus. 


InachidfB. 


Ocypodidce. 
Ocypode. 
Gelasimus. 


Daira. 
Ozius. 
Chlorodius. 
Xantbo. 


Tyche. 
Doclea. 
Acanthonyx. 
Epialtus. 


Gecarcinidce (Land- 
crabs). 


Atergatis. 
Carpilius. 


Men9gthiu8. 
Huenia. 


Cardisoma. 
Uca. 


Parthenopid(S. 


Chorinus. 
Aniatbia. 


Gecarciiius. 


Zebrida. 


Halimus. 




(Etbra. 


Eurypodius. 


ThelphusidcB. 


Cryptopodia. 


Oncinopus. 


Thelphusa. 
Potamia = Boscia. 


Parthenope. 
Lambrus. 


Inacbus. 
Camposcia. 






Achaeus. 


PortunidcB. 


Pericerida. 


Stenorhynchus. 


Podophthalmus. 


Mithrax. 


Leptopodia. 


Thalamita. 


Othonia. 





Subclass VI. PODOSOMATA. 

PYCNOGONIDA. NYMPHONACEA. ARACHNOPODA. PANTOPODA. 
ARANEIFORMIA. APOROBRANCHIA. POLYGONOPODA. L.EVIGRADA. 

No respiratory organs. Abdomen rudimentary, unsegmented. 
Thorax of four segments, each carrying a pair of many-jointed 
legs. Sexes distinct. 



90 ARTHROPOD A. 

These are mostly spider-like, marine animals, very sluggish, and 
some of them external parasites. They have four ocelli, no 
antennae, and a rostrate head, with a mouth either with or with- 
out mandibles and palpi. In Nymphon the digestive tube sends 
a branch into each limb, which are, according to Milne-Edwards, 
the seat of a peristaltic motion. Johnstone asserts that the heart 
also sends a branch into each limb. The females are known by 
having a pair of spurious legs for the purpose of carrying the 



The earlier states are not well understood ; but there appears 
to be first a naupliiform state, the larva afterwards losing its 
three anterior pairs of appendages. [In the Crustacean Nauplius 
these three pairs always represent the antennary and inandibular 

From their tegumentary respiration, having no tracheae or 
pulmonary sacs, Milne-Edwards considers that they have more 
analogy with the lower forms of Crustacea, which are similarly 
conditioned. A. Dohrn denies their being either Arachnida or 
Crustacea. They are now generally placed with the Arachnida. 
Hackel at one time combined them with Arctisca to form his 
subclass " Pseudarachna ;" but the latter he now places with the 
Worms ; the Podosomata he retains in the Crustacea. 

Pycnogonidce. Kymphonidce. Ammothea. 

Pasithoe. Nymphon. Phoxichilidium= 

Phoxichilus. Zetes. Orithyia. 

Pycnogonum. Achelia. Pallene. 

Oomerus. 



Class II. MYEIOPODA. 

MlTOSATA. 

Head distinct ; thorax and abdomen not differentiated, divided 
into numerous segments [somites]. Two antennae. Feet always 
more than eight pairs in the adult. Eespiration tracheal. No 
metamorphosis. 

Although there is no metamorphosis, the young have fewer 
segments, and three to six pairs of legs or none, but with each 
successive moult the number is increased. The mouth is com- 
plex, two pairs of feet sometimes enter into its composition ; the 
mandibles are jointed. The eyes are simple or compound, in one 



AKTHROPODA. 91 

or two rows, but sometimes absent. The females are largest, and 
are oviparous or ovoviparous. The respiratory, digestive, and 
nervous systems closely resemble those of the larvae of insects. 

Fossil species are found as early as the Carboniferous epoch. 

The species of this class are known as gaily worms and centi- 
pedes. For Latreille they formed the first order of insects. 

Body segmented. 

One pair of legs to each somite CHILOPODA. 

Two pairs of legs to each somite CHILOGNATHA. 

Body unsegmented MALACOPODA. 



Order I. CHILOGNATHA. 

DlPLOPODA. 

Body more or less cylindrical and crustaceous. No foot-jaws. 
Antennae of rarely more than seren joints. Two pairs of legs to 
each somite, except the first five or six. 

The mandibles are without palpi ; the second pair of gnathites 
(maxillae) are united to form a lower lip. The number of somites 
varies from nine to eighty. 

These are sluggish animals, living on decomposing animal and 
vegetable matter, and laying in the earth a great number of eggs. 
Glomeridae are capable of rolling themselves into a ball. Poly- 
zoniidaa are the Siphonizantia or Sugentia of Brandt. 

A minute centipede, Pouroptts Huxleyi, in its earliest stage with 
three pairs of legs, gradually increasing with each moult to nine 
pairs, was discovered by Sir J. Lubbock in Kent. He considers 
it the "connecting-link between Chilognatha and Chilopoda ; 
Packard places it between Myriopoda and Collembola. Claus 
puts it with Polyxenida3. It differs from all other Myriopoda 
in having no tracheoa, and also in having bifid antennae. Another 
species is found in !Xorth America. 



Glomeridce. 
Glomeris. 
Zephronia. 
Sphgerotherium. 

Polyzoniidcs. 
Polyzonium. 
Siphonophora \ 
Brachycybe. 


Polydesmidts. 
Polydesmus. 
Craspedosoma. 

Polyxenidce. 
Polyxenus. 


Midas. 
Spirostreptus. 
lulus. 
Spirobolus. 
Lysiopetalum. 

Arckiulidcs. 
*Archiulua. 


Pauropodida. 
Pauropus. 



92 ARTHROPODA. 

Order II. CHILOPODA. 
SYNGNATHA. 

Body flattish, submembranous. Two anterior pairs of legs 
modified into foot-jaws. Antennas with fourteen or more joints. 
One pair of legs to each somite. 

The two mandibles have each a palpiform appendage ; the 
second pair of foot-jaws are perforated for the discharge of a 
poisonous secretion. The eyes are generally numerous in the 
adult, and in Cermatia they are large and faceted ; they are 
wanting in Geophilidae. Some species of Scolopendra are said to 
be viviparous. 

Except the Greophilidas, these centipedes are very active and 
voracious ; the bite of the larger species is highly venomous and 
very painful, leaving a callus which may last for months. Some 
of the Geophili have the property of secreting a phosphorescent 
matter. 



LithobiidcB. Eucorybus. 

Strigamia. Lithobius. Scolopendra. 

Cryptops. 

G-eophilus. Scolopendridte. Cermatiidts. 

Himantarium. Heterostoma=Der- Cermatia =Scutigera. 

Arthronomalus. cetum. 



Order III. MALACOPODA. 
ONYCIIOPHORA. PERIPATIDEA. 

Body soft, cylindrical, unsegmented. Jaws foot-like, termi- 
nated by two curved claws. Legs from fourteen to thirty pairs. 
Viviparous. Sexes distinct. 

There are two simple eyes and two tentacular-like antennae. 
The lips are soft, and the mouth has a perforated papilla on each 
side. The legs are indistinctly articulated, and provided with 
two terminal claws. The tracheal pores are diffused over the 
surface of the body. 

The body is unsegmented according to Huxley, but it has from 
13 to 36 segments according to Schmarda. There are evident traces 
of segmentation in Peripatus Edwardsii, but there are none in P. 
Blainvillei, P. juliformis, P. capensis, and P. novce-zelandia. 



ARTHROPOD A. 93 

The members of this order, confined to a single genus, are found 
in the West Indies, South America, the Cape, Australia, and New 
Zealand. Hutton says of the New-Zealand species that it is noc- 
turnal, living in decayed wood and under stones, feeding " upon 
animals," and able to shoot from its oral papillae a viscid fluid, 
which hardens into a spider-like web, and by means of which it 
catches its prey. It breeds all the year round, although in the 
winter it is half-torpid. 

These animals have been classed with the Vermes ; but Moseley 
has shown that they really belong to the Arthropoda, in which 
they have also been placed by Schmarda, who has adopted Blain- 
ville's earlier name of Malacopoda. 

Peripatidce. 
Peripatus. 



Class III. ARACHNIDA. 

UNOGATA. ACERA. 

Head united to the thorax (cephalothorax) ; no antennas. 
Abdomen not segmented, or if segmented not distinctly separated 
from the cephalothorax, and never provided with limbs ; legs 
never more than four pairs. 

The palpi, mandibles, and sometimes the anterior pair of legs 
are variously modified ; the latter are, according to Claparede, 
homologous with the labial palpi of insects ; the maxillary palpi 
are known as " pedipalpi." All the appendages of the mouth 
being posterior, there are no homologues of the antennae. The 
eyes are simple and generally more than two. Respiration is 
eifected either by pulmonary sacs or by tracheae, or by both, and 
mure rarely by the skin alone. All Arachnida are digitigrade. 
Like the Crustacea they have the power of reproducing lost 
limbs. 

Arachnida " occur in the Mesozoic formations, while spiders 
and scorpions of large size have been found in the Carboniferous 
rocks." According to Schmarda there are about 4600 species. 

Solpugidea, Phalangidea, and Cheliferidea are sometimes 
united to form the order Adelarthrosomata ; Phrynidea and 
Scorpiodea form another order Pulmonaria, or they are all 
united under the name of Arthrogastra, Araneidea and Acaridea 
forming the Sphserogastra. Owen has also an order, Dermo- 
physa, including Arctisca, Demodex, and Podosoniata, characte- 



94 ARTHROPODA. 

rizedby the absence of distinct respiratory organs. Arctisca and 
Pentastomidea are two very aberrant and dissimilar groups. 

Abdomen segmented. 
Respiration by tracheae. 

Abdomen distinctly separated from the 

cephalotkorax SOLPUGIDEA. 

Abdomen not distinctly separated. 

Maxillary palpi didactyle CHELIFERIDEA. 

Maxillary palpi monodactyle PHALANGIDEA. 

Respiration by pulmonary sacs. 

A postabdomen terminating in a claw SCORPIODEA. 

No postabdomen PHKYNIDEA. 

Abdomen unsegrnented. 

Abdomen united to the cephalothorax ACARIDEA. 

Abdomen distinct from the cephalothorax ... ARANEIDEA. 

A vermiform body with four pairs of rudimen- 
tary limbs ARCTISCA. 

A vermiform body, the embryos only with two 

pairs of rudimentary limbs PENTASTOMIDEA. 

Order I. SCOEPIODEA. (Scorpions.) 

Abdomen indistinctly separated from the cephalothorax, of 
seven segments, with a six-jointed postabdomen having a curved 
claw on the extremity of the last segment. Maxillary palpi 
(pedipalpi) longer than the feet, terminating in a didactyle hand 
with a movable finger. 

The head is furnished with a pair of chelicerae or mandibles 
(supposed by some to be modified antennae), each having a mov- 
able and a fixed claw. There are from six to twelve ocelli, 
two of which are larger and approximate, and placed more or 
less in the centre of the cephalothorax. The respiratory organs 
" are four pairs of flattened sacs, which open externally by as 
many stigmata, on the sterna of the four posterior free thoracic 
somites." 

The curved claw or telson at the extremity of the abdomen is 
pierced for the passage of a venomous fluid, from a gland placed 
in the last segment. In both sexes there are peculiar comb-like 
organs situated directly behind the last pair of legs ; their use is 
unknown. Scorpions are viviparous, producing 20-60 at a time ; 
the young are carried on the back of the female for about a 
month. They live on insects, which they sting to death. 



ARTHROPODA. 



95 



The Scorpions closely resemble in many respects the Xiphura 
and Euryptericla, from which Van Beneden thinks they cannot be 
separated. Fabricius placed them with the Crustacea in his 
order Agonata (Syst. Ent. 1 775). They date back to the Car- 
boniferous period. 

This is such a homogeneous order that some authors recognize 
only a single genus. Peters, however, divides it into four groups, 
depending on the form of the sternum and the armature of the 
mandibles ; more recently, and on different principles, Thorell 
makes four families and 31 genera. With Phrynidea they form 
the Polymerosomata or Pedipalpi of some writers. Combining 
Vejovis with Scorpionidae (Peters), and Centrums with Aiidroc- 
tonidae (Thorell), we have three families. 

TelegonidcB. . Androctonidce. 

Bothriurus. Centrurus. 

Telegonus. 
Cercophonius. 



lurus. 

Heterometrus. 

Scorpio. 

Vejovis. 

Ischnurus. 



*Cyclophthalmus. 



Lychas=Tityua. 
Isometrus. 
Buthus. 
Androctonus = 
Prionurus. 



Order II. CHELIFEEIDEA. 

PSEUDOSCORPIONES. 

Abdomen segmented, indistinctly separated from the cephalo- 
thorax, mutic at the extremity. Maxillary palpi longer than the 
feet, terminating in a didactyle hand with a movable finger. 
Eyes 2-4. 

Like the Spiders the Cheliferidea are provided with silk-glands, 
and unlike the Scorpions, which they externally resemble, they 
have neither a postabdomeu nor poison-glands. They breathe 
by tracheaa. 

These Arachnids are of small size, and are found chiefly in 
caverns and damp places in temperate countries. Chelifer can- 
croides is often to be met with among old books. Owen's order 
Trachearia comprises this and three co-ordinate groups, " Acarina, 
Opilionina, and Solpugii." 

ObisiidcB. Cheliferidce. 

Cthonius. Chernes. 

Blothrus. Garypus. 

Obisiuin. Chelifer. 

Boncus. Olpiumu 



96 ARTHROPOD A. 

Order III. ACARIDEA. 

MONOMEROSOMATA. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen united. Eight legs, six in the 
young. Eespiration tracheal or dermal. With or without eyes. 
Mouth either masticatory or suctorial. 

The bases of the chelicerae and of the pedipalpi sometimes 
coalesce with the labrum and give rise to a suctorial rostrum. In 
some mites certain pairs of legs are terminated by suckers, in 
others by setse. In a common form, probably the earlier state of 
a Trombidium (Acarus libellulce of Carus), of a bright scarlet 
colour, found attached to the wings of various insects, there are 
no legs or other appendages. Phytoptus (supposed by some to be 
a larval form) does not appear to have more than four legs. 

Acariclea are mostly oviparous ; some are subject to a kind of 
metamorphosis, being worm-like when hatched. They are gene- 
rally parasitic, but many are also found in clung, decaying matter, 
and on plants. Some are marine, and a few are found in fresh 
water. Acarus- domesticus is the cheese-mite. Leptus autumnalis 
is the harvest-bug. Gamuts coleopterorum occurs abundantly 
on dung-beetles. Atax lives in the branchiae of Mytilus, Unio, 
and Anodonta ; and Halarachne halichari in the nostrils of the 
seal. Demodex folliciilorum is found in the sebaceous follicles of 
man ; in the dog it causes the mange. It is a very minute ani- 
mal, footless, and without a mouth ; after two or three changes of 
skin it acquires its adult condition. The itch is caused by Sar- 
cojrfes scabiei, an eyeless form, burrowing through the skin. 

Various species of Pkyfopfas are very injurious to vegetation, 
either through the bud or through the leaves ; they browse on 
the surface of these " until they have flayed it to the quick." 
Galls are frequently caused by them ; but these are not true galls, 
as " they have always an opening leading into them " (Murray). 
The "witch-knot" found on the birch, and resembling a great 
mass of twigs like a bird's-nest, is an abnormal growth of some 
years caused by Phytopti. Some of these galls were formerly 
supposed to be Fungi, and received from botanists such names as 
Erineum, Phyllarium, &c. 

Tetranychus telarius (the red spicier) spins silky webs on the 
leaves of various plants. Its colour is very variable. 

The young Acariclea with six feet were placed by Latreille in 
his family " Microphthires." Hermann combined this order with 
Phalangidea under the name of " Holetra." 



ARTHROPODA. 



97 



Demodicid<e. Dermaiiyssus. 
Demodex = Simonea. Pteroptus. 



SarcoptidcB. 
Sarcoptes. 

Dermalichus=Anal- 
ges=Myocoptes. 

Acaridte. 
Acarus = Tyrogly- 

phus.' 

Glyciphagus. 
Mjobia. 

GamasidcB. 
G-amasus. 



Ixodida. 
Argas. 
Ixodes. 
Amblyomrna. 

TrombidiidcB. 
Tetranychus. 
Leptus. 
Linopodes. 
Erythraeus. 
Trombidium. 
Pliytoptus. 



Hydrachn idee. 
Limnochares. 
Hydrachna. 
Hydrochoreutes. 
Atax. 

Oribatidce. 
Halacarus. 
Oribates = Notaspis. 
IVothrus. 
Hoplophora. 
Damseus. 

Bdellidce. 
Bdella. 
Scirus. 



Pcecilophysis. 



Order IV. ARANEIDEA. (Spiders.) 

DlMEROSOMATA. PuLMOTRACHEAKIA. 

Respiration by pulmonary sacs, often combined with trachea;. 
Abdomen distinctly separated from the cephalothorax, not seg- 
mented. Two paipi. Eyes simple, 4-8. Eight feet, each of 
seven joints. 

There are special abdominal glands for the secretion of a 
gumrny fluid, which, exposed to the air, hardens into silk, used 
for the construction of webs; they communicate externally with 
the spinnerets by long convoluted vessels. There are also special 
glands for the secretion of a poison, placed at the base of the 
falces or poison -fangs ; these are situated between the eyes and 
the mouth, and are hollow for the passage of the fluid. The 
mouth has two maxillte, each of which bears a palpus, often leg- 
shaped. In the male spiders the parts analogous to the vesiculse 
seininales ai*e lodged in these maxillary palpi, but the testes are, 
as usual, in the abdomen. The males are much smaller and weaker 
than the female, and are frequently sacrificed to her savage in- 
stincts etiam in amoribus scst-a. They moult when growing, but 
there is no metamorphosis. In the embryonic state there is a 
postabdomen which gradually disappears. Arthrolycosa, a fossil 



98 



ARTHROPOD A. 



species from the Coal-measures of Illinois, appears to have had a 
segmented abdomen. 

Spiders are oviparous, generally placing their eggs in a silky 
cocoon, which is sometimes carried by the mother beneath the 
body. Species of Cteniza, Atypus, and other genera construct 
tubular burrows, lined with silk or otherwise, and closed with a 
hinged door. These are the ' ' trap-door spiders." Gossamer is 
the web formed by young spiders, by which they are enabled to 
float to a great height in the air. 

Argyroneta aquatica is the well-known water-spider ; the house- 
spider is Teyenaria domestica. The " bird-spider " (My gale aviwi- 
laria) is strong enough to kill small birds. 

Spiders have been divided into two groups dependent on the 
number of pulmonary sacs [Dipneuinones with two, Tetrapneu- 
mones with four] ; also on the number of eyes [two, six, or 
eight]. Only one is known with two eyes, Nops guandbacoce, a 
Cuban spider ; three or four have four eyes. The species with 
two pulmonary sacs, the great bulk of the order, have been formed 
into two divisions, Sedentariae and Vagabundap, the former again 
divided into Orbitelariae or Inaequitalae, Ketetelariae, Tubitelaria?, 
and Laterigradae ; the latter into Citigradje and Saltigradas ; while 
the species with four pulmonary sacs comprise only one division, 
Territelariae. These divisions, however, dependent chiefly upon 
habits, form of the web, &c., seem incapable of being satisfac- 
torily defined ; and accordingly they have only been indicated in 
the following list, in which Thorell's arrangement has been gene- 
rally adopted. Recently Bertkau proposes to divide spiders ac- 
cording to the number of spiracles : Tetrasticta with two pairs, 
Tristicta with one pair ; the latter including all the families 
except " Atypidae " and Dysderidse. 

According to Cambridge, there are about 500 British species of 
spiders. 

Gastracanthidce. 
Gastracantha. 
Acrosoma. 
Cyrtarachne. 



ORBITELARI.E. 
Epeiridce. 

Tetragnatha. 

Epeira. 

Argyope. 

Nephila. 

Miagrammopes. 

Uloborus=Veleda. 

Phoroncidia. 



Arcyidce. 
Arcys. 
*Archsea. 

Poltys. 



RETETELARLE. 

Theridiidce. 
Theridion. 
Neriene. 
*Mizalia. 
Erigone. 
Walckenaera. 
Linyphia. 
Argyrodes. 
Tapinopa. 
Steatoda. 



ARTHROPODA. 



99 



Scytodidce. 


FilistatidcB. 


ClTIGRAD^E. 


Pholcus. 
Latrodectus. 


Filistata. 


Lycosidce. 


Scytodes. 


TERRITELARLE. 


Lycosa. 
Tarentula. 


Enyidoe. 
Enyo. 


MygalidfB, 
Mygale = Thera- 
phosa. 
Atypus. 


Pirata. 
Dolomedes. 
Ctenus. 
Ocyale. 


TUBITELARLE. 


Cteniza. 
Eriodon. 


Oxyopidfs. 


AgelenidcB. 


Idiops. 


Sphasus. 


Argyroneta. 
Amaurobius = Ci- 


Xysticus. 
Neroesia. 


Oxyopes. 
Peucetia=Pasithea. 


niflo. 


Anetes. 





Dictyna. 


*Phalangites. 


Podophthalma. 


Lethia. 






Agelena. 


Liphistiida. 




Tegenaria = Aranea. 
Uroctea= Clotho. 


Liphistius. 


SALTIGRAD^;. 


CEcobius. 
Hersilia. 
*G-erdia. 


Catadysidce. 
Catadysas. 


Eresidce. 
Eresus. 


Coelotes. 




Chersis=Palpima- 





LATERIGRAD^E. 


nus. 


Tetrablemma. 


Thomisidce. 





DrassidfB. 


Stephanopi&. 


Dinopis. 


Hecaerge. 


Sparassus. 
Misumena. 


Salficid<e. 


Liocranum. 


Disea. 


Salticus. 


Drassus. 


Thomisus. 


Euophrys. 


Clubiona. 


Oxyptila. 


Marpessa. 


G-naphosa. 


Thanatus. 


Attus. 




Philodroraus. 


JElurops. 


Dysderidce. 


Selenops = Hypo- 


Synemosyne. 


Stalita. 


platea. 





Nops. 


*Cb.alinura. 


Otiothops. 


Segestria. 







Harpactes. 


Heteropoda = 


MyrmeciidcB. 


Dysclera. 


Sarotes. 


Myrmecia. 



*Arthrolycosa. 



*Protolycosa. 



100 ARTHROPODA. 

Order V. PHALANGIDEA. 
OPILIONINA. 

Abdomen segmented, indistinctly separated from the cephalo- 
thorax. Maxillary palpi filiform, with a single claw. Eyes two. 
Respiration by tracheae. 

Unlike spiders, they hare no poison -gland or spinning-organs ; 
and it is difficult to tell the males from the females, except from 
the greater length of the maxillary palpi ; but the latter have 
an ovipositor. The young have the same form as the adult. 
Dolichoscelis Haworthii has legs 25 times longer than the body. 
The Phalangidea are very voracious and destroy one another. 
The British species are sometimes called " harvest-spiders ; " they 
all, with one rare exception, belong to the family Phalahgiidte, 
Unlike spiders, they die, so far as is known, at the end of the 
autumn. 

Siro has the eyes widely apart, each placed on a peduncle. 

Cryptostemmidce. Scotoleraon. Ischyropsalis. 

Crypfcostemma. Gonyleptes. Discosoina. 

Stygnus. Leiobunum. 

Sironidts. EusarcuB. Opilio. 



Siro = Cvphophthal- 

Trogulus. 

Cosmetidce. 

Gonyleptidce. Phalanmida. 

Goniosoma. Eg*nus. Cosinetus. 



Order VI. PHKOIDEA. 

Abdomen segmented, distinct from the cephalothorax, with or 
without a seta or style at the end. Palpi long, leg-shaped, mono- 
or didactyle. Anterior pair of legs simulating antenna. 

There are 4-8 pulmonary sacs. The ocelli (or eyes) are ordi- 
narily eight ; none, however, in Nyctalops. 

In Phrynidae the abdomen is rounded and mutic, and the 
maxillary palpi are armed with a single claw. In Thelyphonid-v 
the maxillary palpi are didactyle, and the abdomen is furnished 
with a jointed setiform appendage. 

These Arachnids are all tropical, living under stones and in 
damp places ; they are not venomous. Latreille combined them 



AETHROPODA. 101 

with the preceding to form his family Pedipalpi. Tarantula of 
Fabricius included Phrynus and Thdyphonus. 

Phrynidce. Thelyphonidce. 

Phrynus. Thelyphonus. 

*Architarbus. Nyctalops. 



Order VII. SOLPTJGIDEA. 

Abdomen segmented, distinct from the cephalothorax, mutic at 
the extremity. Palpi filiform, simple, porrect. Two eyes. 

The mandibles, modified antennae, are very large, didactyle, 
and without a poison-gland. The palpi are in the form of legs 
or of antennae, and, like the first pair of feet, are without claws. 
The body is hairy. 

These Arachnids are found in the hot countries of the Old 
World. They are very ferocious ; Galeodes will attack and kill 
small mammals, biting into them until its jaws have attained a 
vital part. 

Galeodidce. 

Galeodes = Solpuga. Rhax. Gluvia. 

Aellopus. Gaetulia. Datames. 



Order VIII. ARCTISCA. 

MACROBIOTIDA. TARDIGRADA. COLPODA. CORMOPODA. 

Minute, worm-like animals, with eight very short, indistinctly 
triarticulate feet. Cephalothorax and abdomen united. 

The mouth is suctorial, with two styles, the rudiments of lateral 
jaws. There are no respiratory organs nor heart. The last pair 
of legs is given off from the abdomen. They are mostly herma- 
phrodite. 

The Arctisca are known as "water -bears;" they are very slow 
in their movements, and are found in damp places. They were 
originally grouped with the Eotifers, and, like them, they regain 
their vitality after being desiccated, and apparently dead, for many 
years. They are oviparous ; the eggs are very large, and the 
young have the same number of legs as the adult. 

Macrobiotida. 
Macrobiotus. 
Emydium = Echiniscus. 
Milnesium. 



102 ARTHROPODA. 

Order IX. PENTASTOMIDEA. 

LlNGUATULiNA. ACANTHOTIIECA. 

Worm-like entozoic animals without feet, but the embryo with 
four rudimentary legs. Body long, annulated. Sexes distinct. 

These are colourless parasites, classed by Eudolphi with Tre- 
roatoda, and having a parasitism very similar to the Cestoda. 
They have no special organs for respiration. The mouth has 
two pairs of hooks in lieu of limbs. They require about a year to 
attain the adult condition. 

These parasites are found in a sexless condition in the lungs 
and liver of hares and other herbivorous mammals and of rep- 
tiles ; and in the sexual state in the nostrils of dogs and other 
carnivora by whom the herbivorous mammals have been devoured. 
The males are much smaller than the females; the latter in Penta- 
stoma tcenioides is 3 or 4 inches long. The larvae of P. constrictum, 
has been found encysted in the human liver. There is only one 
genus, with upwards of twenty species. 

Pentastoma. 



Class IV. INSECTA. 

CONDYLOPODA. HEXAPODA. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen distinct. Two antennas. Three 
pairs of legs. Somites never more than twenty. Eespiration by 
tracheae. Sexes distinct. 

The wings, which are almost always present, are developed 
from the second and third thoracic somites. They " are essen- 
tially flattened vesicles, sustained by slender but firm hollow 
tubes called nervures [but more analogous to veins], along which 
branches of the tracheae and channels of circulation are conti- 
nued." By Oken they were called " aerial gills," the hornologues 
of the tergal branchiae of the Vermes. 

The eyes are either simple or compound ; the former (ocelli or 
stemmata), situated on the vertex, are generally three in number, 
and are found in all orders ; compound eyes, always two, but in 
rare cases divided or apparently so, are made up of a number 
of cones, separated from one another by a layer of pigment, the 
external broad end hexagonal, capped by a facet or "corneule," 
the narrow end communicating with the optic nerve. These 
facets vary in number; there are about 40 in Myrmecina La- 



AETHEOPODA. 103 

treillei; in Mordellal (120 species) there is said to be 25,000; in 
the largest beetle. Dynastes Hercules, they are so numerous as only 
to be seen by the most powerful lens. Only the rays of light 
which enter the cones in a direct line can reach the optic nerve, 
and yet insects have the power of discerning objects at compa- 
ratively great distances. The larvae of insects having a complete 
metamorphosis are said to be destitute of compound eyes. Be- 
sides the antennas there are a pair of mandibles, often aborted 
and two pairs of maxillae, the second pair coalescing and forming 
the labium ; but either pair may become suctorial, and of the 
labium only the palpi may be developed. In all orders there are 
species with the mouths either obsolete or rudimentary. 

In all insects there are never more nor less than six legs, but 
the fore legs are sometimes rudimentary. The leg consists of five 
parts coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and tarsus. The coxa is 
articulated to the thorax, the trochanter is attached both to the 
coxa and the femur : the tarsus is made up of from one to five 
joints, and almost invariably of a pair of claws ; it is either naked, 
hairy, or scaly beneath ; the joints are sometimes furnished with 
a dilatable membranous sac. 

Of somites the normal number is thirteen, one for the head, 
three for the thorax, and nine (or, according to some, eleven) for 
the abdomen ; the head, however, is assumed to consist of from 
four to six " coalesced somites," each somite being indicated by a 
pair of appendages. 

The nervous system consists of ganglia (varying from one to 
eleven) connected by double commissures, giving off the nerves. 
The supraoesophageal ganglion is sometimes called the brain, 
with the functions of which it is analogous ; the subcesophageal 
ganglion supplies the mouth and its appendages. 

Four or more slender cylindrical vessels, terminating at the 
commencement of the small intestine, are supposed to perform 
the function of a liver. They are known as " Malpighian tubes," 
and are found in most insects. The heart is a long dorsal tube, 
largest in the abdomen, where it is included in a saccular venous 
sinus from which the colourless blood passes into it, and, flowing 
towards the head, returns to the sinus by certain lacunae. There 
are no arteries or veins. The tracheae are aeriform tubes ; they 
commence from lateral openings, known as " stigmata" or " spi- 
racles," and ramify over every part of the body. 

Nearly all insects undergo a metamorphosis, which may be com- 
plete or incomplete. The pupa, when quiescent, is either entirely 
enclosed in its case, or each limb may be more or less separately 
enclosed ; when the pupa is active it may resemble the imago 



104 ARTHROPOD A. 

(only wanting the wings, or the wings only partially developed), 
or it may have no resemblance to it. 

Agamic reproduction (parthenogenesis) occurs in some of the 
orders, chiefly among the Hemiptera and Hymenoptera ; this is 
said to be the result of cell-formation, " comparable to a kind of 
budding." 

The life of an insect for good or for evil, with a few exceptions, 
is in its larval stage ; in its perfect state its life is short, some- 
times lasting only a few hours. In the fertilization of plants 
insects play an important part by conveying the pollen from the 
anthers to the stigma. 

Insects and their allies are supposed by Herbert Spencer to 
be compound animals, each one representing as many individuals 
as there are true segments, but which have become severally spe- 
cialized for certain definite functions. 

Considering the Mallophaga to be degraded forms of Hemiptera, 
and that the Trichoptera are not more entitled to ordinal rank 
than other groups of Neuroptera, there will remain nine orders 
which, if we except Collembola and Thysanura, are universally 
admitted. To these are sometimes added Thysanoptera [aberrant 
Hemiptera], Euplexoptera [an isolated form of Orthoptera], 
Aphaniptera [degraded Diptera], and Strepsiptera and Achri- 
optera [abnormal Coleoptera]. 

Apterous : no metamorphosis (Arnetabola). 

Abdomen with terminal saltatory appendages. . . COLLEMBOLA. 

Abdomen without such appendages THYSANUKA. 

Winged : metamorphosis in nearly all. 

Metamorphosis incomplete (Hemimetabola, Ho- 
momorpha). 

Without mandibles [suctorial] HEMIPTERA. 

With mandibles. 

Wings dissimilar in texture ORTHOPTERA. 

Wings similar in texture NEUROPTERA. 

Metamorphosis complete (Metabola, Hetero- 

morpha). 
Without mandibles. 

Two wings DIPTERA. 

Four wings LEPIDOPTERA. 

With mandibles. 

Upper wing coriaceous COLEOPTERA. 

Upper and. lower wings membranous HYMENOPTERA. 

After the Collembola and Thysanura, the Hemiptera contain 



ARTHKOPODA. 105 

some of the lowest forms of insect-life, and Hymenoptera pro- 
bably the highest ; between these it is scarcely possible to arrange 
the remaining orders in any thing like a satisfactory manner. 
There cannot be said to be any connecting links between them, 
although superficial resemblances may in a few instances be ob- 
served. 

Hackel, according to his views of the succession of insect-life 
on the earth, places the orders in this sequence: Archiptera, 
Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera (these orders hare mandi- 
bulate mouths, and were the only insects existing for a long 
period ; the last three, he continues, were probably derived from 
the Archiptera, i. e. Ephemera, Libellula, Lepisma, Termes, &c.), 
Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. An ancient 
fly (Eugercon) in the Permian system seems to indicate, he 
thinks, the derivation of the Hemiptera from the Neuroptera. 
Gerstaecker (1873) begins with the Orthoptera aud ends with 
the Hemiptera, placing Hymenoptera in the middle as the highest 
type of the insect-forms. 

Fritz Miiller thinks " that the most ancient insects " approached 
most nearly to the wingless Blattidae, and that the complete 
metamorphoses of Diptera, Lepidcptera, Coleoptera, &c. were 
of lat'er origin, and that there were perfect insects before larvie 
and pupas. 

A sequence based on fossil remains would, at present, be un- 
satisfactory, seeing that at least one Coleopteron (allied to the 
Curc-ulionidse) has been found in the Coal-measures, and so far is 
among the oldest known insects. 



Order I. COLLEMBOLA. 

Thorax of three, abdomen of six segments ; the anterior abdo- 
minal segment with a ventral tube or sucker beneath, the penul- 
timate segment with saltatory appendages. Antennae few-jointed. 
Wingless. No metamorphosis. 

The eyes consist of ' ' distinct ocelli." Templetonia has one ocellus 
on each side, and Smynthurus and some others eight. The mouth 
is not very distinctly mandibulate, and in Anurida it is suctorial. 
The trachea; are in general well developed. The saltatory appen- 
dages consist of two long processes bent under the body and held 
by a small catch ; directly this releases its hold, the spring jerks 
back, and the creature is thrown upwards and forwards. The 
tube or sucker contains a viscous fluid. The body is clothed either 
with hairs or with scales. 



106 



ARTHROPOD A. 



These insects are found commonly in damp places and on the 
surface of pools. Desoria nivalis lives on the glaciers of the Alps, 
the ice being sometimes blackened by its numbers. Templetonia 
crystallina is said to do great mischief to the gutta-percha pro- 
tecting the underground telegraph-wires of London. 

This order was separated from the following, with which it had 
been included, by Sir J. Lubbock, who, however, does not regard 
them as true insects in the " strictest sense." They are said to 
be primitive, not degraded, forms of the original insect stock. 
They are sometimes associated with the Neuroptera or with the 
Orthoptera. Gerstaecker places them with the latter as a " tribe" 
between Thripidae and the "true" Neuroptera; Glaus as a sub- 
order, also of Orthoptera, before Forficulidas ; Schrnarda as an 
order between Hemiptera and Orthoptera. It is the first order 
of insects, including Thysanura, according to Von Hayek (1879). 

Smynthuridee. Templetonia. Desoria. 

Smynthurus. Orchesella. 

Papirius. Lipuridte. 

Degeeriidce. Poduridce. 

Lepidocyrtus. Podura. Anuridida. 

jria. Achorutes. Anurida. 



Order II. THYSANURA. 

Thorax of three, abdomen of ten segments ; the latter terminated 
by setiforin appendages. Antennas long, many-jointed. Wing- 
less. No metamorphosis. 

The mouth is more distinctly mandibulate. The abdomen be- 
neath is furnished with groups of stiff hairs or with cylindrical 
appendages. The females have an ovipositor. lapyx and Cam- 
podea have no eyes ; the former has its caudal appendages (cerci) 
modified into a pair of horny forceps. The nerve-centres are re- 
duced to two ventral ganglia (Glaus). 

Unlike the preceding, these insects are found in dry warm places. 
They are frequently clothed with hairs or with scales. Machilis 
wiaritima is common on rocks by the sea. Campodea is sup- 
posed to be " the representative of a form from which many other 
groups have been derived." Lepisma saccharina is frequently 
found among sugar. 



lapygidce. Lepismidce. 

Campodea. lapyx. Lepisma. 

Nicoletia. Machilis. 



ARTHROPODA. 107 

Order III. HEMIPTEEA. 
RYXGOTA. SIPHONATA. DERMAPTERA. 

Four wings, more or less membranous. Mouth produced into 
an acute suctorial proboscis (mandibulate in Mallophaga). Larva 
with no trace of wings. Pupa active, semicoinplete. 

The proboscis is formed by modifications of the labium, man- 
dibles, and maxillae, and, except in Thripidag, there are no palpi. 
The upper wings in the more normal forms are merely coverings 
(tegrnina) for the lower, but they always differ in size and texture ; 
in some cases they are covered by the scutellum. The females 
have frequently an ovipositor, by which galls are often produced. 
Ocelli are very commonly present. In some Nepidie there are 
caudal setae connected with anal spiracles and subservient to 
respiration. 

The greater part of the Hemiptera are vegetable feeders, suck- 
ing the juices of plants. The Aphides, of which there are about 
350 British species, are the most obnoxious ; Coccidae are also 
very injurious. In the West Indies, Delphax saccharivora is very 
destructive to the sugar-cane. Coccus cacti, when dried, is the 
cochineal of commerce ; a pound weight contains 70,000 insects. 
Coccus lacca yields the prepared substance called shell-lac. Dor- 
thesia secretes from the end of the abdomen long snow-white 
flocculent masses of a waxy character. Ancyra, Plata, Lystra, and 
others are also wax-producers ; some are so completely enveloped 
in this secretion as to be unrecognizable. The "Pela," or Chinese 
wax, is prepared from this substance. Manna is a vegetable secre- 
tion caused by Coccus manniferits. 

The eggs of Corixa mercenaria form a food extensively used by 
the Mexicans. They are collected in freshwater lakes, or are 
washed on shore. A white limestone rock is forming at the pre- 
sent day in the lakes of Texcono and Chalco from their remains. 

There is a tendency to degradation in this order, as shown by 
the frequent absence of wings, an obsolete mouth, a tarsus re- 
duced to one joint, &c. In the Coccidae many of the females 
become more and more inert as they approach the imago state, 
and the young are sometimes hatched beneath the dead body of 
the parent. 

Westwood places Hemiptera between Diptera and Lepidoptera ; 
Glaus (as Ehynchota) between Neuroptera and Diptera. 

Besides plant-lice (Aphidas) and scale-insects (Coccidae), this 
order contains the lantern-fly (Fulgora laternaria}, frog-hopper 



108 ARTHROPOD A. 

or cuckoo-spit (Ptyelus spumarius), the water boatman (Notonecta 
glauca}, the bug (Cimex lectularius), and the louse (Pediculus 
humanus). The latter, a very abnormal form, cannot well be 
separated from the bird-lice (Mallophaga). The number of spe- 
cies in this order cannot be estimated at less than 20,000. 

There are five well-marked suborders : the first two are often 
regarded as forming a distinct order under the name of " Homo- 
ptera," while the fourth forms the order " Thysanoptera " of 
Halliday and Westwood. Mallophaga are not regarded as true 
insects by the latter ; they form the first two of the sixteen fami- 
lies of Neuroptera according to Von Hayek. 

Potyctenes, a very remarkable form originally described by 
Giglioli, and which Westwood considers to have an affinity with 
the Hemiptera, is now approximated by C. Waterhouse to the 
Pupipara. It is a parasite on bats ; one of its species is from 
China, the other from Jamaica. 

Thorax normal (of three pieces). 
Mouth suctorial : without palpi. 
Wings membranous. 

Tarsi one- or two-jointed PHYTOPHTHIRIA. 

Tarsi three-jointed HOMOPTEKA. 

Anterior wings coriaceous at the base . HETEIIOPTERA. 
Mouth submandibulate : with palpi THYSANOPTERA. 



Thorax abnormal (of two pieces, or three in- 
distinct) MALLOPHAGA. 

PHYTOPHTHIRIA ( = Stenorhynchi). Tarsi one- or two-jointed. 
Antennas of more than six joints. Wings two or four, often 
wanting. 

The pupae in many cases are not to be distinguished from the 
imago. The larva, especially in the Aphides, is often covered by 
a cottony secretion. 

Aphides are mostly viviparous in summer, but oviparous in 
winter ; in the former case the females are winged. Partheno- 
genesis goes on among them through many generations. Whole 
generations are sometimes resident in gall-like excrescences caused 
by them. A peculiar secretion (honey-dew) is voided from the 
anal siphunculi of many species. Phylloxera vastatrix is the 
vine-pest. 

Coccidee have only one-jointed tarsi, the male two-winged, the 
female apterous. 



ARTKROPODA. 



109 



Coccid(S ( Scale - 


Aphididce. 


Rhizobius. 


insects). 
Coccus. 
Lecanium. 
Aspidiotes. 


Aphis (Plant-louse). 
Lachnus. 
Pemphigus. 
Chermes. 


Thelaxes. 

Psyllidce. 
Psylla. 


Mytilaspis. 


Tetraneura. 


Livia. 


Dorthesia. 


Schizoneura. 


Trioza. 




Eriosoma. 


Arytaena. 


AleurodidcB. 


Adelges. 


Aphelara. 


Aleurodes. 


Phylloxera. 





HOMOPTERA (mAuchenorhynchi). Tarsi three-jointed. An- 
tennas three- or six-jointed. Wings membranous, deflected. 

The female is often furnished with an ovipositor composed of 
a two-valved sheath enclosing a cylindrical horny borer. 

Cicadiclse are remarkable for their song ; it is confined to the 
males, and is due to two membranes, acted on by muscles placed 
in a cavity at the base of the abdomen, and covered externally by 
the dilated sides of the metasternum. 



Bolbonota. 

Enchenopa. 

Membracis. 

Tettigometrida. 

Tettigoinetra. 

FlatidtB. 

Nephesa. 

Eicania. 

Poeciloptera. 

Flata. 

Pochazia. 

Derbidts. 
Diospolis. 
Dei-be. 
Otiocerus. 

Issidce. 
Ancyra. 
Eurybrachys. 



lassidce. 


Cercopis. 


Typhlocyba. 
lassus. 


Eurj'mela. 
Cephalelus. 


Bythoscopus. 


Ulopa. 


Acocephalus. 
Eupelix. 


Membracida. 




Centrotus. 


Ledridce. 


Combophora. 


Penthimia. 
Gypona. 
Ledra 


Cyphonia. 
Bocydium. 
CEda. 




Heteronota. 


Tettigonildce. 
Ciccus. 


Darnis. 
Hemiptycha. 
Thelia. 


Diatostemma. 
Aulacises. 


Entylia. 

"PnlvD*! VTlf f) 


Proconia. 
Tettigonia. 


J:U V& v I 

Aconophora. 
Smiliorachis. 




Smilifi* 


CercopidcB. 


Ceresa. 


Aphrophora. 


Umbonia. 


Ptyelus. 


Pterygia. 



110 ARTHROPODA. 

Hemisphaerius. Ly strides. Phrictus. 

Mycterodes. Elidiptera. Pyrops. 

Issue. Dichoptera. Fulgora (Lantern-fly). 

Dictyophora. 

Ciociidcs. Poeocera. Cicadida. 

Achilus. Aphasna. Huechys. 

Cixius. Lystra. Mogannia. 

Argeopus. Carineta. 

Asiraca. FulgoridcB. Cicada. 

Allelophasis. Cyrene. Fidicina. 

Delphax. Enchophora. Dundubia. 

Phenax. Hotinus. "~ 

Cystosoma. 

HETEROPTERA. Tarsi three-jointed. Antennae with four or 
five joints. Wings horizontal, the upper pair coriaceous at the 
base. 

The rostrum springs from the fore part of the head, not from 
beneath as in the Homoptera. 

The majority of this group are vegetable feeders, one (Cimex 
lectularius) has man for its prey. 

The first three families of the following list form the Hydroco- 
risas ( = Cryptocerata) of Latreille; the remainder are his Geoco- 
risae ( = Gyinnocerata). Hydrocorisee and the first two families 
of the Geocorisas are aquatic. Gerstaecker includes Gerridse in 
the Hydrocorisse ; but the latter, with the Hydrometridas, are the 
Hydrodromica of Fieber. There are other equally useless divi- 
sions and subdivisions and names, whether synonymous or not. 
In round numbers there may be about 10,000 species in this 
suborder. 

Notonectidce. Eanatra. Hydrometrida. 

Anisops. Hy drometra = Lim - 

Notonecta. Galguhda. nochares. 

Ploa. Pelogonus. 

Sigara. Galgulus. Saldidce. 

Corixa. Salda= Acanthi a. 

Gcrridcs. Leptopus. 

Nepid*. Hebrus 

Aphelochira. Microvelia. Emesidce. 

Naucoris. Mesovelia. Emesodema. 

Nepa. Velia. Eruesa. 

Belostoma. Gerris. Ploearia. 





ARTHKOPODA. 


Ill 


Eeduviidce. 


Capsus. 


Mormidea. 


Nabis. 




Atelocera. 


Prostemma. 


Lygaidce. 


Acanthosoma. 


Pirates. 


Microphysa. 


Ehaphigaster = Ne- 


Eeduvius. 


Geocoris = Ophthal- 


zara. 


Ectrichodia. 


micus. 


Palomenus. 


Apiomeras. 


Henestaris. 


Pentatoma. 


Pygolampis. 
Harpactor. 


Pyrrhocoris. 
Anthocoris. 


Strachia. 
Sciocoris. 


Prionotus. 


Ischnodemus. 


Sehirus. 


Eulyes. 


Plinthisus. 


Cydnus. 


Sycanus. 


Ehyparochromus. 


^Ethus. 


Centrocnemis. 


Orsillus. 


Zicrona. 


Zelus. 


Nysius. 


Arma. 


Cimbus. 


Phygadicus. 


Picromeru9= 




Lygasus. 


Asopus. 


Tingida. 




Canthecona. 


Syrtis = Phymata. 


Berytidce. 


Stiretrus. 


Cimex = Acanthia 


Metacanthus. 




(Bug). 
Aneurus. 


Metatropis. 
Berytus. 


Scutelleridfe. 
Coptosoma = Thyreo- 


Aradus. 


Iseides. 


coris. 


Agramma. 




Probanops. 


Monanthia. 


Coreidce. 


Plataspis. 


Dictyonota. 
Orthostira. 
Derephysia. 
Zosmenus. 
Tingis. 


Micrelytra. 
Chorosoma. 
Alydus. 
Phyllomorpha. 
Verlusia. 


Corimelsena. 
Podops. 
Phimodera. 
Ancyrosoma. 
Psacasta. 


Capsidce. 

Bryocoris. 
Halticus. 
Pithanus. 
Calocoris. 
Phytocoris. 


Coreus=Dasycoris. 
Syromastes. 
Atractus. 
Ehopalus. 
Stenocephalus. 

PentatomidcB. 


Tetyra = Eurygaster. 
Symphylus. 
Agonosoma. 
Graphisoma. 
T'rigonosoma. 
Odontotarsus. 
Pachycoris. 
Callidea. 


Psallus. 
Heterotoma. 


Edessa. 
Phloea. 


Scutellera. 
Cantao. 


Lygus. 


^Elia. 


Sphajrocoris. 


Miris. 


Eusarcoris. 


Tectocoris. 



( =Physopoda).-Mouth with four palpi the 
mandibles forming a short rostrum. Wings nervelessSged 



112 ARTHROPOD A. 

The tarsi are two-jointed, the last joint, instead of claws, 
having a sort of sucking-disk. In some species the female is pro- 
vided with an ovipositor. 

A limited group of small insects living under the bark of trees, 
or in flowers, and sucking their sap. Glaus places them in the 
Pseudo-Neuroptera. 

Thripidee. 
Coleothrips. 
Thrips. 

MALLOPHAGA ( = Anoplura). Meso- and metathorax united. 
Mouth rnandibulate. Wingless. No metamorphosis. Parasitic. 

The mouth has two mandibles, with or without palpi. The 
antennas are from three- to six-jointed. The eyes are simple, but 
sometimes absent. The thorax is apparently composed of two 
rings. 

The Mallophaga are Hemiptera, which, owing to their parasitic 
nature, have not passed beyond a primary stage of development. 
They are found mostly on birds, living on the feathers. The 
Pecliculidas, which must be placed near them, have the mouth 
produced into a fleshy proboscis, with hooks at the end, within 
which, enclosed in a chitinous sheath, are two sharp-pointed sty- 
lets. They live on the blood of mammals. Hosmatomyzus is a 
peculiar parasite of the Indian elephant. 

Nirmidce. Docophorus. Gyropus. 

Trichodectes. Menopon. 

Nirmus L/iotheidtB. Eureum. 

Goniodes. Liotheum. Colpocephalum. 

Trinotum. 



Pediculidce. Haamatopinus. 

Pediculus (Louse). 

Phthirius. Hsematomyzus. 

OrderlV. OETHOPTERA. 
ULONATA. 

Four wings, two anterior coriaceous, pergameneous, or sub- 
membranous ; two posterior membranous, folded longitudinally. 
Manclibulate. Larva and pupa more or less resembling the 
imago, but without wings. 

The upper wings are variable in texture, either meeting at 
the edges or overlapping more or less, but they are never exactly 



ARTHROPOD A. 113 

like the lower pair. Many species are apterous, especially among 
the females. Ocelli are frequently present. Some have an ex- 
serted ovipositor. Earwigs (Forfieulidas) are armed with a caudal 
forceps, and the crickets (Gryllidse), Mantidse, &c. have setaceous 
appendages (cerci), which are common to both sexes, and are 
supposed to be connected with the sense of touch. Besides these 
ordinary anal appendages, there is in some one or two pairs of 
stylets, occasionally, in the male, modified into hooks. 

In their internal anatomy the Orthoptera are very highly orga- 
nized, and are considered to stand in the foremost ranks of 
insects. None of them are aquatic in any stage of their existence. 
Prisopus flabellicornis (Brazilian) is said, however, to spend the 
day under water, attached to stones &c., and to fly about only at 
dusk. 

The noise produced by male crickets and Locustidae (the females 
are silent) is due to the anterior wings rubbing against each other 
at a part where both are furnished with a rasp-like nervure ; while 
in grasshoppers and locusts (Acridiidae) it is the posterior femora 
rubbing against the anterior wings. In the former the males 
are also provided with a talc-like spot at the base of the anterior 
wings. 

In the cockroaches (Blattidaa) the eggs are deposited in a cap- 
sule, which is carried by the female, and in which the larvae are 
hatched. The Mantidae deposit their eggs in cases of a papery 
texture divided into cells, which they make under stones or on the 
twigs of plants. The Saltatoria generally place their eggs in the 
earth, often forming clay-tubes for their reception. 

Except the Mantidse and omnivorous Blattidas, all are vegetable 
feeders, and, being very prolific, frequently destroy the produce 
of a whole district . The locust ( (Edipoda migratoria) is only too 
well known. Earwigs are great enemies of bees, as well as being 
herbivorous. 

The only special auditory organs in insects are found in Acri- 
diidse (a small membranous expansion on each side of the meta- 
tborax) and in Locustidse and Gryllidas (a similar membrane on 
each of the fore tibiae). 

The cockroach (Periplaneta orientalis'), mole cricket ( Crryllotalpa 
wtlgaris), cricket (Grryllus domestieus), locust ((Edipoda migra- 
toria), [the North-American locust is Caloptenus spretus], and 
earwig (Forficula auricularid] belong to this order. Grasshoppers 
are of various species, and belong to Stenobothrus and (Edipoda, 
but the latter genus is not found in England. The stick- and 
leaf-insects are Phasmidas ; but .the anterior wings, resembling 
leaves, are also found in certain Locustidas. 

I 



114 ARTHROPODA. 

It is very unfortunate that locusts should not have been retained 
under the old Latin name of Locusta ; but the nomenclature here 
given is now universally adopted. 

Thysanura and Collembola have been placed in this order. 

With it also have been combined Dragonflies and other Neu- 
roptera, the so-called incomplete metamorphosis being the only 
character in common. Perhaps it would be more convenient to 
unite the two; naturally they appear to include ten distinct 
groups. 

Of the four suborders of Orthoptera, Euplexoptera [=Der- 
maptera] is so far differentiated that Westwood considers it en- 
titled to ordinal rank. Blattidas has also been elevated into an 
order [Dictyoptera] by Leach. They are both included in the 
Cursoria by Glaus. 

Anal segment without a forceps. 
Hind legs formed for walking. 

Head retracted CURSORIA. 

Head exserted GRESSOKIA. 

Hind legs formed for leaping SALTATORIA. 

Anal segment with a movable forceps . . . EUPLEXOPTERA. 

CURSORIA. Body ovate, depressed. Head retracted into the 
prothorax. Legs slender; tarsi with an accessory joint [plan- 
tula] between the claws. 

The antennae are generally very long and slender. The upper 
wings are coriaceous, the lower longitudinally folded ; but they 
are not often developed in the female, and not always in the 
male. 

These insects are mostly nocturnal, and are vegetable feeders, 
but many are omnivorous. 

Blattidce. Blatta. Gynopeltis. 

Polyzosteria. Thyrsocera. Euthyrhapha. 

Perisphreria. Periplaneta (Cock- Panesthia. 

Heterogamia. roach). Hormetica. 

Corydia. Panchlora. Blabera. 

Phoraspis. Derocalymma. Monachoda. 

GRESSORIA. Body long, narrow. Head exserted. Legs slender; 
posterior femora not thickened. 

In the Mantidse the anterior legs are raptorial and their femora 
grooved beneath for the reception of the tibiae in repose. The 
prothorax is by far the longest of the thoracic segments ; in the 
Phasrnidffi it is the shortest. Both families are remarkable in 



ARTHROPOD A. 



115 



that some of their species have the upper wings resembling leaves, 
hence " walking leaves." In those Phasraidae devoid of wings, 
the resemblance is to a twig or stick, "walking sticks." Although 
very often sluggish in their movements, some are capable of 
taking short leaps. 

The Mantidae are very voracious animal feeders: the Phas- 
midie live entirely on vegetable matter ; they are amongst the 
longest of insects Bacteria sarmentosa is ten inches in length. 



MantidcB. 
Ereniiaphila. 
Schizocephala. 
Acantbops. 
Toxoderes. 
Harpax. 
Empusa, 
Ameles. 
Mantis. 
Blepharis. 
Pyrgomantis. 



Metallyticus. 
Tarachodes. 
Deroplatys. 
Hoplophora. 



Phasmidce. 

Bacillus. 
Bacteria. 
Lonchodes. 
Cladoxerus. 



Cyphocrania. 

Podacanthus. 

Diapherodes. 

Euracantha. 

Phasma. 

Necroscia. 

Aschiphasma. 

Prisopus. 

Metriotes. 

Extatosoma. 

Phyllium. 



SALTATORIA. Body generally slender. Hind legs saltatorial, 
the femora thickened. 

These are voracious vegetable feeders, some of the species oc- 
curring in vast numbers at uncertain intervals. 

In Gryllidas and Locustidse the antennae are long and setaceous, 
with sometimes as many as 140 joints ; in Acridiidas they are 
short and stout, rarely clavate. The ovipositor in the two former 
families is often very large ; in Acridiidae there is no ovipositor. 
Hemimerus is an aberrant form allied to Gryllotalpa according 
to Walker, but for De Saussure forming a distinct order (Diplo- 
glossata). 



rcloptera. 

bophyllum. 
Phaneroptera. 
Meconema. 
Barbitistes = Odon- 

tura. 

Conocephalus. 
Xiphidium. 
Hetrodes = Eugaster . 
Anostostoma = Dina- 

crida. 

i2 



GvyUute. 

Gryllotalpa (Mole- 
cricket). 
Cylindrodes. 
Xya=Tricondyla. 
My rmecophila = 
Sphaerium. 
Gryllus=Acheta 
(Cricket). 
CEcanthus. 
Nemobius. 


Platyblemma. 
Hemimerus. 

Locustidce. 

Saga. 
Phalangopsis. 
Locusta. 
Decticus. 
Phyllophora. 
Pterochroza. 



116 ARTHROPODA. 

Ephippigera. Stenobothrus. Hymenotes. 

Schizodactylus. Gomphocerus. Chorotj r pus. 

Acriditd*. Opomala. Pamphagus = For- 

- . Acndium. thetis. 

Proscopia. Caloptenus. Pneumora. 

Romalea. Tettix=Tetrix. 

Ouhpoda . = Pachy- C horiphyllum. Ommexecha. 
tylus (Locust). 

EUPLEXOPTERA. Anal segment provided with a movable for- 
ceps. Under wings folded both transversely and longitudinally. 
No ocelli. 

The upper wings are very short, coriaceous, and without veins. 
The antennas are filiform, with from twelve to forty joints. 

These are chiefly vegetable feeders, but some are carnivorous. 
They are mostly nocturnal insects. 

Forficulid<e (Earwigs). 
Labia. Forficula. 

Labidura. Brachylabis. 

Pygidicrania. Apachya. 

Order V. NEUKOPTEEA. 

Four more or less equal membranous wings, generally qgticu- 
lated, rarely folded. Mandibulate. Pupa incomplete, more or 
less resembling the imago, either quiescent or active. Larva 
with six articulated legs. 

There are exceptions to all the leading characters of this order, 
especially in the transformations, which are often of an anoma- 
lous character. In the imago state the wings are sometimes 
wanting, or only present in the male ; in Perlidse they are longi- 
tudinally folded. In Ephemeridfe there are no mandibles. One 
family, Termitidse, contains neuters of two kinds soldiers and 
workers which, with the females, but only after pairing, are 



It will thus be seen that the order comprises several discor- 
dant groups, dissimilar in their leading characters as well as in 
their habits ; and their earlier states are equally diversified. The 
four nearly equal wings are said best to distinguish them. 

Fabricius (Syst. Ent. 1775), in his purely artificial system, 
classed spiders and centipedes with dragonflies in his order L T no- 
gata ; a few years later (Mantissa, 1787) he proposed Synistata 
for the remainder of the JSeuroptera, including also the Hy- 
menoptera, as well as Oniscus, Monoculus, &c. 



AKTHEOPODA. 117 

The Planipennia alone constitute the Neuroptera according to 
the views of some authors, the remainder, including Trichoptera, 
being placed with the Orthoptera, under the name of " Pseudo- 
Neuroptera " (Archiptera of Hackel). 

According to Packard, Libellulidae and the Ephemerida? are 
the most typical of the Neuroptera. These families and the Per- 
lidas are among the earliest known insects. They seem to occur 
most abundantly in the Devonian formations of North America. 

To this order belong the destructive white ants, Termes belli- 
cosus and other species ; the death-watch, Apropos pulsatoria ; 
the may-fly, Ephemera milgata ; and ant-lion, Myrmeleon formi- 
caleo. Libellulidse are known generally as dragonflies or horse- 
stingers, and in the United States as the " Devil's darning- 
needles." It is curious to contrast these names with that of the 
French, "Demoiselles." Chrysopa, of which there are many 
species, is known as the " Golden-eye." 

The earlier stages of these insects are very variable. In the 
Libellulida?, Termitidae, and Ephemeridaa, although very unlike 
each other, the metamorphosis is sernicomplete, while Chloeon 
undergoes a series of not less than twenty moultings, in some 
stages a retrograde movement taking place. Prof. Westwood, 
with regard to the earlier states of the order, proposes two pri- 
mary divisions: " 1. Those with an active pupa, undergoing a 
metamorphosis which, for want of a better name, we may, with 
MacLeay, term sub-semicomplete ; in all which there is a greater 
dissimilarity between the larva and imago states than exists in 
the insects typical of the monomorphous, semicomplete metamor- 
phosis. Here belong the Psocidae and Termitidae, which have 
terrestrial lar\93, and the Libellulidae, Ephemeridae, and Perlidae, 
which are aquatic in their preparatory states. I term the species 
of this division Biomorphotic insects. 2. Those which have 
quiescent incomplete pupae, which, however, acquire the power 
of locomotion shortly before the assumption of the perfect state. 
This division (Subnecromorphotica) comprises the families Myr- 
meleonidae, Hernerobiidoe, Sialidae, Panorpidae, Baphidiidas, and 
Mantispidae." The aquatic larvae breathe by means of filamen- 
tous branchias. 

Retaining, with M'Lachlan, the order Neuroptera " as a 
matter of convenience only," it may be naturally divided into 
seven suborders : 

Wings naked, rarely a few hairs or scales. 

\V ings folded in repose PLECOPTERA. 



118 ARTHKOPODA. 

Wings not folded. 
Jaws well developed. 

With wingless neuters ISOPTERA. 

No neuters. 

Antennae short, few-jointed ODONATA. 

Antennae longer, many-jointed 

Wings with few veins CORRODENTI A. 

Wings with many veins PLANIPENNIA. 

Jaws rudimentary or obsolete AGNATHI. 

Wings hairy TRICHOPTERA. 

CORRODENTIA. Antennae many- jointed. Wings few-veined. 
Tarsi 2- to 3-jointed. 

The posterior wings of Psocidae are small or rudimentary, or 
both pairs may be wanting. They live on dead animal and 
vegetable matter, and are mostly arboreal in their habits. Atropos 
pulsatoria is the pest of insect collections. Embiidse have moni- 
liform antennae. They are vegetable feeders, and construct silken 
galleries under stones. 

Psocidts. Embiidts. 

Psocus. Embia. 

Atropos = Troctes. Olyntha. 

Caecilius. Oligotoma. 

ISOPTERA. Antennae rather short, many -jointed. Wings very 
large, equal. Neuters. 

The larvae and pupae resemble the neuters. These insects are 
social in their habits, building large nests on trees and on the 
ground, and are very destructive to woodwork. The female of 
Termes bellicosus is said to lay 80,000 eggs in twenty-four hours. 

TermitidcB. 

Termes (White Ant). 
Calotermes. 

PLECOPTERA. Antennae long, setaceous, many-jointed. Wings 
subsimilar, folded longitudinally in repose. Jaws rudimentary. 

The larvae and pupae are aquatic ; the latter, except in wanting 
wings, resemble the imago. Some species have caudal setae. 

Perlid(B. Isopteryx. 

Nemura. Perla. 

Capnia. Pteronarcys, 



ARTHROPODA. 119 

AGXATIII. Antennae shortj setaceous, of three joints, the last 
very long. Jaws soft, membranous or obsolete. Posterior wings 
small, sometimes wanting. Abdomen ending in two or three 
long setae. 

The fore legs are long in the male. The larvae are aquatic, live 
two or three years ; the perfect insect takes no food, and dies in a 
day or two. They sometimes appear in almost fabulous numbers, 
and always in the evening. 



Chloeon. Palingenia. 

Oligoneura. Baetis. Ephemera (May-fly). 

Lachlania. Heptagenia. Oniscigaster. 

Caniia. Potamanthus. *Platephemera. 

*Herneristia. *Breyeria. 

ODOXATA. Antennae short, setaceous, of seven joints at most, 
the last subulate. Jaws very strong, covered by the lips. 
Wings subequal, reticulate. 

The abdomen in the male ends in two curved, in the female in 
two simple appendages. The eyes are very large. The larva and 
pupa are aquatic, the former very dissimilar to the perfect in- 
sect ; in all stages they are voracious insect feeders. 

The three groups given below are not strictly entitled to the 
rank of families. They are all known as " dragonflies." 



LibellulidcB. JEschnidcs. 

Agrion. Cordulia. ./Eschna. 

Lestes. Epitheca. Anax. 

Callepteryx. Libellula. Gromphus. 

Platycnemis. Diplax. Cordulegaster. 

PLANIPENNIA. Antennae elongate, many-jointed. Jaws di- 
stinct. Wings nearly equal. 

The larvae mostly terrestrial ; in Sialidae they are aquatic, but 
sometimes they live out of the water before transformation. 
Pupae incomplete, inactive. Myrrneleontidas and Ascalaphidae 
have clavate antennas. Coniopterygidae are covered with a 
whitish powder. In Ehaphidiidae the female has an ovipositor. 
Panorpiclae have a clypeus lengthened into a snout with very 
small mandibles at the end. The perfect insects are generally 
herbivorous, but the larvae are voracious insect feeders. 



120 



AETHROPODA. 



Myrmeleontidee. 
Myrmeleon (Ant- 
lion). 

Ascalaphidce. 
Stilbopteryx. 
Pamexis. 
Ascalaphus. 
Palpares. 

HemerobiidcB. 
Sisyra. 
Micromus. 
Hemerobius. 



Psectra. 

Psychopsis. 

Rapisma. 

Cbrysopa. 

Osmylus. 

Nemoptera. 

Nymphes. 

Coniopterygida 
Coniopteryx. 

Mantispidce. 
Mantispa. 
Tricboseelia. 



Rhaphidiidce. 
Rhaphidia. 

Sialidcs. 
Chauliodes. 
Corydalis. 
Sialis. 

Panorpida. 
Boreus. 
Merope. 
Bittacus. 
Panorpa (Scorpion- 

fly). 



TRICHOPTERA (Caddis-flies). Four membranous wings ; the 
anterior generally hairy, the posterior folded when at rest. 
Mandibles rudimentary. 

The antennas are many-jointed, setaceous. The maxillary 
palpi vary considerably in structure. The wings have longi- 
tudinal nervures and few transverse ones ; and in repose they 
are closed up and deflexed in an almost vertical manner. The 
hairs covering them are mostly simple, but occasionally inflated 
and scale-like. The abdomen has nine segments, the last bearing 
appendages of very varied kinds. The tibiae are furnished with 
fine spines and also with movable spurs ; the tarsi have a pair of 
simple claws, between which is a short cushion [plantula] and 
two membranous "arolia." 

The larvae are six-footed and aquatic, and construct cases of 
bits of leaves, twigs, straw, sand, or shells ; in these cases the pupa 
stage is assumed. 

M'Lachlan gives eight families for the European fauna. These 
families include all the species known at present. 

PhryganeidcB. Stenophylax. Goe'ra. 

Phryganea. Halesus. Silo. 

Nosopus. 



Neuronia. 
Agrypnia. 

LimnopMlidee. 
Glyphotaelius. 
Limnophilus. 



Chaatopteryx. 

Thamastes. 

Enoicyla. Leptoceridae. 

Setodes. 

Leptocerus. 

Sericostomatidee. Mystacides. 
Sericostoma. Trisenodes. 



ARTHROPODA. 121 



ffistropsidce. 
CEstropsis. 

Hydropsy chides. 

Hydropsyche. 
Piplectrona. 
Tinodes. 


Lype. 
Psychomyia. 
Polycentropus. 

Rhyctcophilidte. 
Chimarrha. 
Ehyacophila. 


Agapetus. 
Bersea. 

Hydroptilid( 
Agraylea. 
Hydroptila. 



Order VI. DIPTEEA. 
ANTLIATA. 

Wings two, membranous, never folded, with radiate nervures; 
posterior wings replaced by a small clavate filament on each side 
[halteres]. A suctorial proboscis. Prothorax very short. Me- 
tamorphosis complete. Larva apodal. 

In this order the proboscis is composed of mandibles, maxillae, 
and a central piece or tongue [glossarium], the labium, often 
with a fleshy terminal lip, serving as a sheath, and they are often 
converted into chitinous setae or into lancet-shaped bodies. 
There are commonly two maxillary, but no labial palpi. The 
antennae are in general very short, of three joints, the last fur- 
nished with a bristle ; in the Nemocera the antennae are jointed 
in the ordinary manner. The eyes are large, and there are three 
ocelli. The pro- and metathorax are much reduced, and the 
mesothorax correspondingly enlarged. The wings have often a 
membranous appendage at the base [alula] ; there is also fre- 
quently a small scarious scale [squamula] placed behind the 
insertion of the wings. The halteres are attached to the meta- 
thorax ; they have been supposed to be subservient to respiration, 
to hearing, and to smell. The abdomen in the female is some- 
times terminated by a sort of telescopic ovipositor. The foot, 
besides its two claws, is provided with two, rarely three, cushions 
[pulvilli], covered beneath with fine hairs, expanded at their 
tips, supposed to act as suckers, probably aided by the secretion 
of a viscid matter. 

Many of the Diptera are useful scavengers in the larval state, 
but others are very injurious e. g. 'Cecidomyia destructor to 
wheat-ci*ops, Tipula oleracea to grass-lands, JJacus olece to the 
fruit of the olive, &c. In the perfect state they are too often 
pests to man and beast, sucking the blood, or depositing their 
eggs in or on their bodies, causing tumours, ulcerations, and 
death. 



122 ARTHROPOD A. 

The fecundity and rapid succession of generations of many 
species cause them to appear sometimes in immense quantities ; 
the progeny of the blowfly is said to amount to 500 millions in 
twelve months. Agamic reproduction occurs in some species ; 
the larva of Miastor metraloas has been found to contain other 
larvas identical in all respects, except in size, with the enveloping 
larva ; and these larvae continue to produce successive generations 
which ultimately develop into perfect inseots. 

In the Pupipara the larva changes into the pupa in the abdo- 
men of the mother; in all other Diptera eggs, or larvae just re- 
leased from the egg, are produced. The larvae, known as maggots, 
are apodal, or very rarely with rudimentary legs. In the blow- 
fly " not one structure exists as it exists in, the maggot " (Lowne). 
The mouth is generally provided with tv^o hooks, which " are 
thrust into the substance from which the larv* derive their nu- 
triment." The pupa, in the majority of Diptera, is merely the 
larva with a hardened case [pupas coarctatae] ; in the remainder 
the pupa is in a separate case, having its limbs enclosed in 
distinct sheaths [pupae obtectae]. The pupae of the Culicidae are 
locomotive. 

The species are very numerous ; about 9000 are found in 
Europe ; Schiner thinks that they are not a twentieth part of 
those inhabiting the whole world. Among them are the gnat 
(Cukx pipiens), musquito (Culex, sp. variaa), Hessian fly (Ceci- 
domyia destructor), gad-fly ( Tabanus bovinus), fly (Mttsca domes- 
tica), blue-bottle (Musca Ccesar), blow -fly (Musca vomitoria), 
flesh-fly (Sarcophaga carnaria), tzetze (G-lossina morsitans), 
cheese-hopper (Piophila casei), bot-fly of the sheep ((Estrus 
ovis), bot-fly of the horse (Gastrus equi\ bot-fly of the bullock 
(Hypoforma bovis), spider-fly, forest-fly or bot (Hippobosca 
equina), sheep-tick (Melophagus ovinus), and fLea,(Pulex irritans). 
Sand-flies are a general name ; some are referable to Simulium. 

The Diptera are divided into four sections or suborders ; but 
the last is aberrant, and is by some ranked as an order. Brauer 
has divided them according as the pupa-case opens longitudinally 
(Orthorhapha) or curvilinearly (Cyclorhapha). 

Thorax distinct from the abdomen. 
Larva developed from the egg. 

Antennae many-jointed NEMOCERA. 

Antennas three-jointed BRACHYCEKA. 

Larva and pupa developed in the body of the 

mother PUPIPARA. 

Thorax confounded with the abdomen .. .. APHANIPTERA. 



AUTHBOPODA. 123 

PUPIPARA. Larva and pupa developed in the abdomen of the 
mother. Head retracted. Antennas in a cavity of the head. 
Parasitic. 

The mouth is peculiar and the analogies of its parts very 
obscure. The wings are often rudimentary or absent, and with 
or without halteres. Eyes and ocelli are sometimes wanting. 
The bee-louse (Braula cceca) is a parasite on the Italian bee (Apis 
Ligustica). Nycteribia is a spider-like wingless form found on 
bats. 

Braulidce. Hippoboscidce. 

Braula (Bee-louse). Hippobosca (Bot, or Forest-fly). 

Melophagus (Sheep-tick). 
Nycteribiida. Ornithomyia. 

Nycteribia. Strebla. 

BRACHYCERA. Oviparous. Antennae short, apparently not 
more than three-jointed. Palpi one- or two-jointed. 

The larvae are aquatic or terrestrial,' v feeding on vegetable or 
animal matter, or parasitic. The perfect insect lives on the 
juices of animals or plants. 

The antennas are many-jointed in some families (Beridse, Stra- 
tiomyidae, Tabanidas), the so-called third joint really consisting 
of several. The number of pieces composing the haustellum 
varies two, four, or six; and on this character Macquart has 
founded his arrangement, naming his divisions Dichaetae, Tetra- 
chaetae, and Hexachaetas respectively. Tabanidae, in having nearly 
all the parts of a mandibulate mouth, should probably be consi- 
dered as the highest form ; and the parasitic OEstridae, which 
have an obsolete mouth, the lowest. It is perhaps, however, 
more convenient to adopt the sequence of Macquart. 



Tabanidce. 
Haematopota. 
Chrysops. 
Tabanus (Gad-fly). 
Pangonia. 



Berida. Stmtiomyida. Pachygaster=Vappo. 

Xylophagus. Coenomyia. Nemotelus. 

Actina. Clitellaria. Platyna. 

Beris. Sargus. Odontomyia. 



124 



ARTHROPODA. 



Stratiomys. 


Eamphoniyia. 


Chrysotus. 


Oxycera. 


Empis. 


Medeterus. 






Dolichopus. 


Mididce. 


Acroceridce. 


Rhaphium. 


Midas. 
Apiocera. 


Panops. 
Oncodes = Henops. 


Syrphida. 




Acrocera. 


Ceria. 


Asilida. 




Chrysotoxom. 


Leptogaster. 
Dioctria. 


Bombyliidce. 
Loraatia. 


Paragus. 
Pipiza. 


Dasypogon. 
Mallophora. 
Laphria. 
-A^silus 


Anthrax. 
Bombylius. 
Nemestrina. 


Chrysogaster. 
Syri^tta. 
Eumerus. 
Xylota. 


Hybidce. 


Leptida. 
Atherix. 


Milesia. 
Merodpn. 
Eristalis. 


Ocvdromia. 


Leptis. 


Volucella. 


Hybos. 


Therevida. 


Bhingia. 
Chilosia. 


Envpida. 


Thereva. 


Doros. 


Tachydroraia. 




Syrphus. 


Platypalpus. 


Dolichopodidce. 


Asda. 


Hilara. 


Argyra. 


Baccha. 




DlCILET.E. 




ScenopinidcB. 


Stachynia. 


Miltogramma. 


Scenopinus. 


Conops. 


Lophomyia. 


PipunculidcB. 
Pipunculus. 


(Estrida. 
Hypoderraa. 
CEstrus (Bot-fly). 


Ocyptera. 
Gymnosoraa. 
Phasia. 
Dexia. 


Lonchopteridce. 
Lonchoptera. 


Gastrus. 
Muscidce. 


Sarcophaga. 
Stomoxys. 
Achias. 


Platypezidce. 


Echinomyia. 
Gonia. 


Glossina. 
Musca (Fly). 


Platypeza. 


JVemoraea. 


Mesembrina. 


Conopidce. 


Eurygaster. 
Metopia. 


Aricia. 
Hydrophoria. 


Myopa. 


Tachina. 


Sepedon. 


Zodion. 


Exorista. 


Antbomyia. 



ARTHROPOD A. 125 

Ooenosia. TJrophora. Caenia. 

Tetanocera. Tephritis. Ephydra. 

Loxocera. Trypeta. Piophila. 

Chyliza. Sepsis. Borborus. 

Cordylura. Nemopoda. Drosophila. 

Scatophaga. Diopsis. Oscinis. 

Sapromyza. Elaphomyia. Chlorops. 

Sciomyza. Calobata. Meromyza. 

Dorycera. Micropeza, Agromyza. 

Ortalis. Calopa. Phytomyza. 

Dacus. Lauxania. 

Ceratites. Celyphus. Ph&ridas. 

Platystoma. Ochthera. Phora. 

NEMOCERA. Antennas with 6-16 joints. Palpi 4-5-jointed. 
Larvae frequently aquatic and free-swimmers ; variously feeding 
according to the family. 

The antennas are often plumose, especially in the males. Culi- 
ciclse have a long proboscis of seven pieces. In Tipulidee and the 
other families the proboscis is short and the number of pieces 
vary. Cecidomyiidae are gall-makers. Psychodidae are small 
moth-like flies, with hairy wings and body. 

Bibionidcs. Ptychoptera. Psychodida. 

Scatopse. Ctenophora. Psychoda. 

Simuliuin. Dixa. 

Aspistes. ChironomidcB. 

Bibio. Mycetophilida. Ceratopogon. 

Ehyphus. Corethra. 

Cliionea. Platyura. Chironomus. 

Molobrus=:Sciara. Tanypus. 

Tipulida. Mycetophila. 

Limnobia. Culieida?.. 

Geranomyia. Cecidomyiidce. Miastor. 

Tipula (Daddy- Cecidomyia (Hes- Anopheles, 

long-legs). sian-fly). Culex (Gnat). 

AIMIANIPTERA. Thorax not distinctly marked off from the ab- 
domen ; the former with two scales on each side [abortive wings]. 
Larva vermiform, with a distinct head and jaws. Pupa inactive. 
Perfect insect an animal-sucker. An aberrant group. 

The sucking-apparatus is made up of two elongated mandibles, 



126 AETHROPODA. 

a sharp slender tongue (labrum), and a sheath formed by the 
labial palpi. There are also two long maxillary palpi. The an- 
tenna are very small, placed in a cavity, and with the number 
of joints varying according to the species. The hind legs are 
formed for leaping. 

Pulicid(S. 
Pulex (Flea). 
Sarcopsylla (Chigoe, or Jigger). 

Order VII. LEPIDOPTERA. 

GLOSSATA. 

Four extended wings, scaly on both sides ; nervures branching. 
Tibise spurred. Haustellate or antliate. Larva or caterpillar 
inandibulate, with six legs and four to ten prolegs. Pupa ob- 
tected. 

The suctorial proboscis [antlia], or tongue, as it is incorrectly 
called, consists of two slender pieces [elongated maxillae], and is 
rolled up in a state of repose ; it is accompanied by two well- 
developed labial palpi. The head is attached to the thorax by 
slender ligaments. The body is hairy. The legs are long, slen- 
der, and similar, and very loosely attached. In some butterflies 
the fore legs are rudimentary. A pair of scales [tegulre, para- 
ptera, or pterygoda] are found on the rnesothorax at the base of 
the upper or anterior wings ; and a pair of vesicular bodies 
[patagia or tippets] close to these, but attached to the prothorax. 
There are also peculiar plumose scales on the wings of the males 
of certain butterflies. Some of the moths have a special appa- 
ratus for keeping the wings on the same side together during 
flight. The scales covering the wings are very variable, even on 
different parts of the same insect. 

The species of many genera of butterflies and moths closely 
resemble species of other genera, Trochilium and Sesia simula- 
ting bees, wasps, and flies, and some even beetles. One (Callima 
Inachis) might be taken for a leaf when at rest. Dimorphism or 
polymorphism is probably not uncommon. Papilio Pammon has 
three sets of females, P. Memnon and some others two. Butler 
remarks that species "almost identical in every respect" in their 
perfect state are in their larval condition so dissimilar as to leave 
no doubt of their being distinct ; Bates, indeed, considers the value 
of the larval structure as a systematic character to be " very small." 

The lame, or caterpillars, before passing into the pupa stage, 



AETIIEOPODA. 127 

form cocoons of silk, or silk mixed with other substances, such as 
bits of wood or their own hairs. The spinneret is a modification 
of the larval lip. The silk-glands are two long lateral sacs. 
Caterpillars, are almost invariably vegetable feeders, rarely of 
flowers, and are often very destructive ; a few live in the water. 
No species is known to be parasitic in any stage of its existence. 
Gatteria mellionella and Achr&a grisella, although found in bee- 
hives, feed only on the wax. 

The affinities of the Lepidoptera are not very decided ; some of 
the Neuropterous Trichoptera have an outside resemblance, and 
so have species of Hemiptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera. The 
species are very numerous, but the colours, on which so many 
so-called species depend, are very variable. The nomenclature, 
too, in the attempt to restore obsolete (and in some cases mere 
catalogue) names, is not uniform. Indeed in this respect the 
generic names are so unstable that many amateurs are content to 
omit them altogether. Among the nioths the names given to 
species are often simply absurd, as has been pointed out by Stau- 
dinger in such words as " Schmidtiiformis" or " Millieridactylus" \ 
and the silly custom of requiring a uniform termination to the 
specific names of certain groups, as "-ella," "-aria," "-ata" "-ana,'' 
"-alis" &c., can now only mislead, as they are no longer strictly 
confined to such groups, to which, when Phalcena included almost 
all known moths, they were supposed to afford a kind of clue. 

A curious set of English names are given by collectors to butter- 
flies and moths, especially the latter ; but the following names in 
common use may be cited as species of this order : The white 
cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassier} ; the peacock ( Vanessa Io} ; the 
brimstone ( Gonopteryx rhamni) ; the painted lady (Pyrameis 
cardui] [a cosmopolitan species] ; Atlas moth (Attacus Atlas) ; 
the silkworm moth (BomJ)yx mori} ; the death's-head (Acherontia 
atropos) ; the humming-bird moth (Macroglossa stellatarum) ; the 
goat-moth (Cossus ligniperda} ; the puss-moth (Cerura vinula); 
the magpie moth (Abraxas grossulariata) ; the dart-moth (Noct'ita 
segetum, very injurious in the caterpillar state to turnip-crops) ; 
the clothes-moths are various species of Tineidse. The larva of 
Geometriclje are well known under the name of " loopers ;" those 
of the Tineidae mostly feed on the parenchyma of leaves and are 
known as " leaf-miners." 

HETEROCERA (Moths). Antennae pectinate, setaceous, plumose 
or fusiform, rarely clavate. Frequently nocturnal. 

In the males the antenme are often more developed than in 
the females. The first four families are known as the " Micro- 
lepidoptera". Sesiidse are of uncertain affinity. 



128 



ARTHROPOD A, 



Pterophoridtf. 


Geometridce. 


Aplecta. 


Alucita. 


Psodbs. 


Hadena. 


Pterophorus. 


Cidaria. 


Diantboecia. 

T> 1 ' 




Nyssia. 


.roiia. 


Tineidce. 


Biston. 


Miselia. 


Butalis. 


Hyberaia. 


Acronycta. 


Chrysoclista. 
Laverna. 


Gnophos. 
Boarmia. 


Diloba. 
Apamaea. 


Elachista. 


Cleora. 


Marnestra. 


Bucculatrix. 


Zerene. 


Cbaraeas. 


Cemiostoina. 


Ennomos. 


Xylopbasia. 


Nepticula. 


yVnaitis. 


Caradrina. 


Coleopliora. 


Melanippe. 


Orthosia. 


Gelechia. 


Emmelesia. 


Agrotis. 


Depressaria. 
Litbocolletis. 


Eupitbecia. 
Abraxas. 


Tripbaena. 
Noctua. 


Cleophora. 
Hyponomeuta. 
Adela. 
Tinea. 


Fidonia. 
Selenia. 
Urapteryx. 
Rumia. 


Psychidce. 
Fumea. 
CEceticus. 




Acidalia. 


P?ycbe. 


TortricidcB. 


Geometra. 


Litfiosiida. 


Peronaea. 
Eupoecilia. 


Uraniid<g. 


Gnophria. 

Ijithoeia. 


Grapholitha. 


Thaliura. 


Setina. 


Carpocapsa. 
Lozotaenia. 


Urariia. 


Calligenia. 

"NTnln 


Penthina. 


Noctuidte. 


i>i oia. 
Nudaria. 


Conchylis. 


Hypena. 




Teras. 


Brepha. 


Arctiidae. 


Tortrix. 


Mormo= Mania, 


jS"otodonta. 




Erastria, 


Limacodes. 


Pyralididce. 


Acontia. 


Cerura=Dicranura. 


Achroea. 


Heliothis. 


Orgyia. 


Galleria. 
Botys. 
Myelois. 


Anarta. 
Nonagria. 
Cucullia. 


Stauropus. 
Pygaera. 
Porthesia. 


Acentropus. 
Cataclysta. 
Eudorea. 


Leucania. 
Xantbia. 
Cosmia. 


Li paris. 
Spilosoma = Pb rag- 
mat obia. 


Pernpelia. 


Tbyatira. 


Cbelonia. 


Crambus. 


Diphtbera. 


Arctia. 


Asopia. 


Catocala. 


Eutbemonia. 


Pyralis. 


Plusia. 


Callimorpha. 



ARTHROPODA. 



129 



Euchelia. Ino=Procris. Zeuzera. 

Deiopeia. Cydosia. Macrogaster. 

Emydia. Syntomis. Hepialus. 

Bombycidce. 
Clisiocampa. 
Lasiocampa = Gas- 

tropacha. 
Endromis. 
Odonestis. 
Attacus. 
Saturnia. 
Bombyx. 

Zyg&nidae. Hepialidce. Trochilium. 

Dioptis. Cossus. Sesia=Egeria. 

EHOPALOCERA (Butterflies). Antennae terminated by a club or 
knob. Diurnal. 

A few exceptions occur in which the antennae are filiform or 
even pectinated ; in the Hesperidse they are hooked at the tip. 
Lycagnidse, Erycinidae, and Nymphalidae have small or rudimen- 
tary fore legs ; in the two former this peculiarity is confined to 
the males. 



Zygaena=Anthrocera. Sphingidce 

Agaristidce. Acherontia. 

Eusemia. Deilephila. 

Agarista. Chaerocampa. 

Hecatesia. Smerinthus. 

Ambulyx. 

Castniida. Macroglossa. 

Castnia. Sphinx. 

Synemon. 

Hepialidce. 
Cossus. 



Tfp$'Y)py')irf(p( mci TYHPYS 


i). Darnis. 


Mycalesis. 


Thanaos. 


Theope. 


Hipparchia= Satyrui 


Erinnys. 
Thymele = Syrich- 
thus. 


Nymphidium. 
Lemonias. 
Mesosemia. 


Haetera. 
Thaumantis. 
Brassolis. 


Cyclopides. 


Mesene. 


Morpho. 


Pyrgus. 
Phareas. 


Nemeobius. 
Erycina. 


Prepona. 

Agrias. 


Pyrrhopyga. 


Emesis. 


Callima. 


Pamphila. 


Helicopis. 


Apatura. 


Hesperia. 


Euryzona. 


Adolias. 




Calydna. 


Charaxes. 


Lyccenida. 


Zeonia. 


Paphia. 


Amblypodia. 
Dipsas. 


NymphalidcB. 


Limenitis. 
Pyrameis = Cynthia. 


Thecla. 


Pronophila. 


Diadema. 


Loxura. 


Libythea. 


Ageronia. 


Polyommatus. 


Euptychia. 


Catagramma. 


Lyca^na. 


Epinephile. 


Vanessa. 


Erycinidce. 


Erebia. 
Chionobas. 


Grapta. 
Melitaea. 


Lampides. 


Arge = Melanagria. 


Argynnis. 

K 



130 



ARTHROPOD A. 



Nymphalis. 

Epicalia. 

Anartia. 

Eunica. 

Heterochroa. 

Timetes. 

Eubagis. 

Myscelia. 

Acrsea. 

Coloenis. 

Euides. 

Heliconia. 



Mechanitis. 


Gonopteryx. 


Ithomia. 


Leucophasia. 


Dircenna. 


Pieris^Pontia. 


Euploea. 


Anthocharis. 


Danais. 


Thyca. 




Tachyris. 


PapilionidcB. 


Callosune. 


Terias. 


Iphias. 


Callidryas. 


Thais. 


Zegris. 


Doritis = Parnassius. 


Leptalis. 


Ornithoptera. 


Colias. 


Papilio. 



Order VIII. COLEOPTERA. 
ELEUTHERATA. 

Four wings, the anterior [elytra] hard, meeting down the back 
by a straight suture; the posterior wings membranous, folded * 
back transversely before the apex. Mandibulate. Four palpi. 
Larva variable, with legs (six) or apodal ; no prolegs. Pupa in- 
active, showing more or less the parts of the future insect. 

The antennge are generally composed of eleven joints, but some- 
times, although very rarely, fifty or more, in Articerus only one, 
varying greatly in character, and occasionally also according to 
sex. There are two eyes ; one or two ocelli are found in some 
Dermestidse, as well as in Homalium and a few allied genera. 
That they are true ocelli, however, has been denied. The mouth, 
very uniform in its type, and complete in its structure, consists of 
an upper lip or labrum attached to the clypeus, generally by a 
membrane called the epistome, two strong mandibles, two weaker 
maxillae, each carrying a palpus and mostly two-lobed, and a 
lower lip or labium, with a pair of palpi, and attached to the 
mentum, which in its turn is attached to the lower part of the 
head, or jugulum. Some confusion has arisen from calling the 
labium and mentum together by the former name : the labium 
then becomes the " ligula," an inappropriate designation, some- 
times confounded with "lingula" ["languette" of the French 
entomologists], and so regarded as a tongue ; but if any thing is 
to be considered in Coleoptera analogous to the tongue, it is the 
paraglossae, delicate membranous organs occasionally found behind 
the labium. The prothorax is the only portion of the thorax 
seen from above when the elytra are closed, except the scutellum ; 
but this part is frequently wanting ; it belongs to the mesothorax. 



ARTHROPODA. 131 

The elytra, coriaceous, or horny, when there are no inferior wings, 
are frequently soldered together ; in one or two genera one over- 
laps the other, and in some they diverge. Rarely the females 
have neither wings nor elytra. The abdomen is connected by 
its entire anterior portion to the metathorax. A small movable 
piece attached to the coxa, called the trochantin, is sometimes 
present. The anterior tarsi are absent in some Lainellicorns, as 
well as the claw -joint in certain Curculionidae. 

The larvae vary enormously, from the shrimp-like active Dyticus 
to the footless Curculionidae. In Meloe there are three larval 
forms. 

The cockchafer (Melolontha vulgaris), the sacred beetle of the 
Egyptians (Scarabceus sacer), shard or dung-beetle (Geotrypes 
stercorarius), Spanish fly (Cantharis vesicatoria), glow-worm 
(Lampyris noctiluca), and corn- weevil (Calandra granaria) are 
members of this order, and, too well known in the larva state, 
the turnip-fly (Haltica nemorum) and others of the same genus, 
wire-worm (Agriotes lineatus), meal-worm ( Tenebrio molitor], the 
church-yard beetle (Blaps mortisaga), and Colorado potato-beetle 
(Doryphora decemlineata). Anobium domesticum has the common 
name of " death-watch." 

Latreille long ago divided this order into four sections, under 
which the families are even now almost universally arranged. It 
is, however, a somewhat artificial system, as it would, if strictly 
followed, widely separate closely allied groups. These sections 
are dependent on the number of joints of the tarsi, thus : Pen- 
tamera have five joints to all the tarsi ; Heteromera have five 
joints to the four anterior tarsi only, the posterior having only 
four; Tetrarnera have the tarsi four-jointed, and Trimera have 
them three-jointed ; but exceptions occur in all. The last two 
sections have frequently a minute penultimate joint [arthrium], 
and have therefore been named Subpentamera, Pseudotetramera, 
and Cryptotetramera, and Subtetrarnera, Pseudotrimera, and 
Cyptotrimera respectively. The subsections were ranked as 
families by Latreille. Stylopidse, frequently placed in a distinct 
order [Strepsiptera, or Bhipiptera], are now pretty generally 
regarded as a degraded type related to E-hipiphoridas and Me- 
loidae. 

Above 80,000 species belonging to this order are described, 
distributed under nearly 8000 genera. 

TRIMERA. 

Maxillary palpi securiform APHIDIPHAGA. 

Maxillary palpi filiform FUNGICOLA. 

K2 



132 ARTHROPODA. 

APHIDIPHAGA. Maxillary palpi with the last joint securiform. 
Antennae short, the last three joints forming a club. 

The bodies of these insects are hemispherical ; they have short 
legs, and strong powers of flight. They feed on Aphides, both 
in the larval and perfect states. 

Coccinellidcs (Lady- Cbilocorus. Scymnus. 

birds). Coccidula. Synonycha. 

Epilachna. Cranophorua. Coccinella. 

Exochomus. Ehizobius. Megilla. 

FUNGICOLA. Maxillary palpi with the last joint filiform. An- 
tennae moderately long, flattened, or with a flattened club. 

The European species only are known to feed on fungi both in 
their larval and perfect states. Trochoideus has 4-jointed an- 
tennae. Mycetaeidae contains a number of genera of uncertain 
affinities. Their tarsi are 4-jointed; nevertheless their nearest 
allies appear to be the Endomychidae. Orestia is referred by 
Erichson to the Halticidas. Trochoideus is a very aberrant genus, 
simulating the Paussidae. 

Endomy chides . Dapsa. Myceteeidce. 

Stenotarsus. Corynomalus. Lithophilus. 

Endomychus. Eumorphus. Symbiotes. 

Lycoperdina. Encymon. Leiestes. 

Daulis. Mycetaea. 

Orestia. Trochoideus. 



TETRAMERA. 

Head rostrate EHYNCHOPHORA. 

Head not rostrate. 

Maxillae with one lobe XYLOPHAGA. 

Maxillae with two lobes. 
Antennae linear. 

Body elongate LONGICORNIA. 

Body ovate or round PHYTOPHAGA. 

Antennae clubbed at the end CLAVIPALPI. 

CLAVIPALPI. Last three joints of the antennae forming a com- 
pressed club. Maxillary palpi with the last joint broadly trans- 



These insects are apparently vegetable-feeders ; they are mostly 
exotic ; the few British species are found in fungi. 



ARTHROPODA. 



133 



Ischyrus. 
Mycotretus. 
Engi3=Dacne. 
Thallis. 
Triplatoma. 
Episcapha. 


Encaustis. 
Helota. 

Languriida. 

Lang aria. 
Macromela. 



Erotylidce. 
Homceotelus. 
Zonarius. 
Erotylus. 
Cy clomorphus . 
Tritoina. 
Triplax. 

PHYTOPHAGA. Antennae linear, of moderate length, or short. 
Body ovate or suborbicular. The elytra covering the sides of 
the abdomen. 

Crioceridae have an oblong body, and frequently enlarged pos- 
terior femora (hence Eupoda of Latreille) ; many species are more 
or less aquatic. The other families have mostly a rounded body 
(Cyclica, Latr.), and are invariably terrestrial. They are all found 
on plants, feeding principally on the leaves. In this group there 
are over 10,000 described species. 



Cassididce. 


Cephalolia. 


Octogonotes. 


Aspidomorpha. 
Elytrogona. 
Selenis. 


Leptispa. 
Eurispa. 
Aproida. 


Homotyphus. 
Loxoprosopus. 
Podontia. 


Poecilaspis. 
Chelymorpha. 
Mesomphalia. 


Galerucidcs. 
Cerotoma. 


Blepharida. 
(Edionychis. 
Thyamis = Longi tar- 


Coptocycla. 
Cassida. 


Aplosonyx. 
Adimonia. 


sus. 
Haltica. 


Batonota. 


Galeruca. 


Mantura=Balano- 


Dolichotoma. 
Desmonota. 


Metalepta. 
Ccelomera. 


morpha. 
Arsipoda. 


Tauroma. 


Atysa. 


Diamphidia. 


Calopepla. 


Luperus. 


/-*T j j 


Prioptera. 


Agetocera. 


ChrysomehdcB. 


Himatidium. 


Malacosoma. 


Paropsis. 


Hoplionota. 


Agelastica. 


Phratora. 




Diabrotica. 


Timarcha. 


Hispidce. 


Adorium. 


Diphyllocera. 


Hispa. 




^sernia. 


Cephalodonta. 


Halticidfs. 


Ceralces. 


Metaxycera. 


Psylliodes. 


Doryphora. 


Arescus. 


Sphaeroderma. 


Zygograrnma. 


Alurnus. 


Mniophila. 


Chrysomela. 


Gonophora. 


Linozosta=Hermeo- 


Lina. 


Cryptonychus. 


phaga. 


Pheedon. 


Hispodonta. 


Monoplatus. 


Gastrophysa. 



134 



ARTHROPODA. 



Chrysochus. 
Corynodes. 
Pachnephorus. 
Adoxus=Bromius. 
Eumolpus. 
Colaspis. 
Lamprosoma. 

Cryptocephalidce. 
Chlamys. 
Pachybrachys. 


Cadmus. 
Monachus. 
Cryptocephalus. 
Megalostomis. 
Eurysoopa. 
Clytra. 
Megalopus. 
Mastostethus. 
Megascelis. 

Criocerida. 
Crioceris. 



Lema. 

Hsemonia. 

Donacia. 

Bhaebus. 

Orsodacna. 

Ametalla. 

Sagra. 

Diaphanops. 

Carpophagus. 

Polyoptilus. 

Megamerus. 



LONGICORNIA. Antennae long, filiform. Body oblong or elon- 
gate. Female with an ovipositor. 

The larvae are mostly wood-feeders ; the perfect insects live but 
a short time, and feed on vegetable substances ; none are known 
to be aquatic. A few species have the aiitenns& in the male either 
pectinate, flabellate, or serrated ; the under surface of the joints 
in many species have one, two, or more pores. Lamiidse may be 
almost always recognized by their vertical head ; Cerambycidae 
have the head porrect ; and the Prionida& have the sides of the 
prothorax sharply delimited from the upper portion (pronotum), 
and frequently toothed or spined. Tmesisternus and its allies are 
intermediate forms. Erichsonia and Parandra differ from all 
other longioorns, except Anoploderma, in having the third tarsal 
joint entire, not bilobed. There are above 8000 described species 
in this group. 



Lamiid(S. 


Hippopsis. 


Henicodes. 


Amphionycha. 
Tetrops =K Poly opsia. 
Phytceoia. 
Glenea. 


Oncideres. 
Hypselomus. 
Compsosoma. 
Megabasis. 


Olenecamptus. 
Petrognatha=Oma- 
oantha. 
Xylorhiaa. 


Saperda. 
Agapanthia. 
Colobothea. 
Exocentrus. 


Pogonochosrus. 
Desmiphora. 
Symphyletes. 
Synelasma. 


Ceroplesis. 
Tragocephala. 
Sternotomis. 
Anoplostetha, 


Acanthocinus. 


Praonetha. 


Agelasta. 




Niphona. 


Gnoma. 


Acanthoderes. 


Hebesecis = Hebe- 


Batocera. 


Steirastoma. 


cerus. 


Tseniotes. 


Oreodera. 


Zygocera. 


Monochamua. 


Acrocinus, 


Tapeina, 


Lamia. 



ARTHKOPODA. 



135 



Dorcadion. 


Oxypeltus. 


Philus. 


Parmena. 


Dorcasomus. 


Cyrtonops. 


Microtragus. 


Encyclops. 


^Egosoma. 


Deucalion. 


Leptura. 


Polyoza. 


Hexatricha. 


Ametrocephala. 


Closterus. 




Macrones. 


Anacanthus. 




Anatisis = Petalodes. 


Toxeutes. 


Tmesistemus. 


Aprosictus = West- 


Hystatus. 


Pascoea. 


woodia. 


Notophysis. 




Tricheops. 


Mallodon. 


CeraanbycidQ. 

Vesperus. 
I}istcni.i 


Obrium. 
Ibidion. 
Phoracantha. 


Ehaphipodus. 
Aulacopus. 
Macrostoma. 


Coptomma. 
Tragocerus. 
Trachyderes. 
Ctenodes. 
Stenygra. 
Cosmisoma. 


Eburia. 
Phacodes. 
Cerambyx. 
Cyriopalus. 
Metopocoelus. 
Torneutes. 


Ergates. 
Navosoma. 
Callipogon. 
Xixuthrus. 
Aulacocerus. 
Ancistrotus. 


Mydasta. 
Collyrodes. 
Clytus. 
Oallidium 


Xystrocera. 
CEme. 
Tetropium. 
Spondylis. 


Titan us. 
Macrodontia. 
Acanthophorus. 
Prionus. 


Coremia. 


Dynamostes. 


Dorysthenes. 


Callichroma. 

T)pllllR 


Thaumasus. 


Prionapterue. 
Polyartkron. 


-l^eHUS. 

Pyrestes. 
Eroschema. 
Distichocera. 
Hes thesis. 


Prionides. 
Pcecilosoma. 
Solenoptera. 
Pyrodes. 


Psalidognathus. 
Anoploderma. 
Sceleocantha. 
Cantharocnemis. 


Tomopterus. 
Rhinotragus. 


Anacolus. 
Tragosoma. 


Erichsonia. 


Necydalis. 


Prionoplus. 





Cheloderus. 


Doesus. 


Parandra. 



XYLOPHAGA. Head not rostrate. Antennae short, claviform or 
perfoliate. Maxillae with one lobe. Wood-feeders. 

The head is sometimes terminated by a short muzzle, but not 
a true rostrum, the antennas not being inserted on it, or at any 
distance from the eyes. In the larval state these insects do im- 
mense damage to trees. Bostrychidae, with which the Xylophaga 
are sometimes confounded, have, inter alia, a two-lobed maxilla. 



136 



ARTHROPODA. 



Tomicus. Platypus. 

Hylesinus. Scolytus. 

EHYNCHOPHORA. Head prolonged into a rostrum. Antennae 
most frequently geniculate, with its basal joint [scape] received 
into a groove [scrobe]. Vegetable-feeders. 

The rostrum varies from a mere vestige to three times the 
length of the body. The larvae are without legs ; some spin a 
silky cocoon in which they pass the pupa state. The Curculionidaa 
are estimated by Jekel to include 30,000 species. It is one of 
those groups in which many of the forms do not seem to be dif- 
ferentiated into species. 



Bruchida. 
Caryoborus. 
Bruchus. 
Urodon. 

Anthribida. 
Notioxenus. 
AraBOcerus. 
Brachytarsus. 
Cratoparis. 
Anthribus. 
Eugonus. 
Xenocerus. 
Apolecta. 
Habrissus. 
Zygaenodes. 
Nessiara. 
Systaltocerus. 
Cedus. 
Sintor. 
Mecocerus. 

Xenorchestes. 

Aglycyderes. 

Brenthida. 
Ulocerus. 
Diurus. 



Ithystenus. 

Brenthus. 

Ectocemus. 

Arrhenodes. 

Ephebocerus. 

Taphroderes. 

Calodromus. 



Hypocephalus. 

CurculionidcB. 
Episus. 

Strophosomus. 
Naupactus. 
Eustales. 
Astycus. 
Sitona. 
Platyomus. 
Cyphus. 
Praepodes. 
Eupholus. 
Pachyrhynchus. 
Otiorhynchus. 
Trachyphlceus. 
Phyllobius. 
Leptops. 
Catasarcus. 
Hypsonotus. 
Ehigus. 
Entimus. 



Brachycerus. 

Byrsops. 

Amycterus. 

Psalidura. 

Hipporhinus. 

Ehyparosomus. 

Perperus. 

Molytes. 

Gronipterus. 

Hypera = Phy tono- 

mus. 

Ehinaria. 
Ehadinosomus. 
Cleonus. 
Lixus. 
Hylobius. 
Hilipus. 
Erirliinus. 
Bagous. 
Eugnomus. 
Tranes. 
Oxycorynus. 
Belus. 

Ctenaphides. 
Ehinotia. 
Cylas. 
Apion. 
Apoderus. 
Attelabus. 
Ehynchites. 
Otidocephalus. 



ARTHROPODA. 



137 



Magdalis. 

Balaninus. 

Anthonomus. 

Orchestes. 

Tychius. 

Sibinia. 

Cionus. 

Gymnetron. 

Laemosaccus. 

Haplonyx. 

Camarotus. 

Alcides. 

Cholus. 

Homalonotus. 

Guioperus. 

Acalles. 

Cryptorhynchus. 

Cratosomus. 

Mecomastyx. 



Hybomorphus. 


Lyterius. 


Zygops. 
Sphadasmus. 


Ebynebophorus. 
Protocerius. 


Phaenomerus. 


Sphenophorus. 


Arachnopus. 


Poteriopborus. 


Mecopus. 


Cercidocerus. 


Talanthia. 


Eugnoristus. 


Chirozetes. 


Calandra = Sitopbilus 


Odoacis = Macroba- 


(Corn- weevil). 


mon. 


Litosomus. 


Tachygonus. 


Oxyrhyncbus. 


Trypetes. 


Sipalus. 


Antliarhinus. 


Rbina. 


Ulomascus. 


Cossonus. 


Pterocolus. 


Glceodema. 


Ceuthorhynchus. 


Pentartbrum. 


Eurhinus. 


Ebyncolus. 


Baris. 


Notiomimus. 


Centrinus. 


Onycbolips. 



HETEROMERA. 



Head narrowed behind into a neck TRACHELIDA. 

Head not narrowed behind ATRACHELIA. 

TRACHELIDA. Head exserted, narrowed behind into a neck. 
Antennas never clavate (Tetratoma excepted). Claws often bifid. 

In the larval state they feed on fungi, rotten wood, and other 
vegetable matter ; but many are parasitic in the larvae or in the 
nests of other insects. In the perfect state they are mostly vege- 
table-feeders. Meloidse are wingless, with the edges of the 
elytra overlapping ; their larvae in the earliest stages are found 
in the spring on bees and flies, and, being mistaken for lice, 
were named by Kirby Pediculus mellttcB. Stylopidaa is the most 
aberrant family of the Coleoptera ; the male only is winged, and 
ceases to be a parasite only when adult ; their victims are almost 
exclusively bees. 

Cantharis Lytta 

(Spanish fly). 
Palaestra. 
Mylabris. 
Horia. 



(Edemerida. 


Nacerdes. 


Mycterus. 


Agasma. 


Stenostoma. 
CEdemera. 


Cantharides. 


Dryops. 


Goetymes. 




Sitaris. 



138 



ARTHKOPODA. 



Meloida. 
Cysteodemus. 
Meloe. 

Stylopidce. 
Stylops. 
Xenos. 
Hylechthrus. 

Ehipiphoridce. 
Bhipidius = Symbius. 
Myodites. 
Rhipiphorus. 
Emenadia, 
Evaniocera. 
Pelecotoma. 

Mordellida. 
Anaspis. 
Mordella. 



Pyrochroida. Melandryida. 

Ischalia=Eupleurida.Osphya = Nothus. 



Lemodes. 
Pyrochroa. 

Anthicidce, 
Ochthenomus. 
Notoxus. 
Formicomus. 
Mecynotarsus. 

Pedilida. 
Scraptia. 
Macratria. 
Pedilus. 

Lagriidce. 
Statira. 
Emydodes. 
Lagria. 



Stenotrachelus. 

Chalcodrya. 

Melandrya. 

Dircsea. 

Phlceotrya. 

Serropalpus. 

Orchesia. 

Mycetoma. 

Tetratoma. 

Nilionida. 
NUio. 

Pythida. 
Agnathus. 
Khinosimus. 
Salpingus. 
Pytho. 



ATRACHELIA. Head not exserted nor narrowed behind. An- 
tennas linear or subclavate. Claws undivided, in Cistelidse ser- 
rated or pectinated. 

The penultimate joint of the tarsi is almost always entire. 
The typical Tenebrionidae have mostly connate elytra, and no 
lower wings. - They are nearly all vegetable-feeders, like the pre- 
ceding, and invariably terrestrial. Monommatidse have been 
referred to the Erotylidse. 



Cistelida. 
Prostenus. 
Cistela. 
JEthyssius = Atractus 

TenebrionidcB. 
Strongylium. 
Spheniscus. 
Amarygmus. 
Megacantha. 
Penthe. 
Helops. 
Cnodalon. 



Sphaerotus. 

Hegemona. 

Apocrypha. 

Adelium. 

Camaria. 

Cyphaleus. 

Pycnocerus. 

Heterotarsus. 

Calcar. 

Tenebrio. 

Eutelus. 

Cossyphus. 

Cilibe. 



Helseus. 

Toxicum. 

Uloma. 

Gnathocerus. 

Phrenapates. 

Diaperis. 

Platydema. 

Bolitophagus. 

Byrsax. 

Phaleria. 

Ammobius. 

Opatrum. 

Praqcis. 



ARTHROPOD A. 139 

Sepidium. Acis. Mesostena. 

Ossiporis. Morica. Tentyria. 

Moluris. Stenosis =Tagenia. Anatolica. 

Pimelia. Steira. Epiphysa. 

Nyctelia. Eurychora. Adesmia. 

Asida. Nosoderma. Erodius. 

Embaphion. Rhypasma. Arthrodes. 

Machla. Zopherus. Zophosis. 

Elaeodes. Cryptochile. 

Blaps. Himatismus. 

Scaurus. Hegeter. Monommatida. 

Nyctoporis. Epitragus. Monomma. 

PENTAMEBA. 

One palpus to each maxilla. 
Elytra covering the abdomen. 
Antennae pectinated or serrated. 

Prosternum not produced in front . . . MALACODERMI. 

Prosternum produced in front STERNOXI. 

Antennae not serrated. 

Palpi prolonged PALPICORNIA. 

Palpi shorter. 

Antennae clavate CLAVICORNIA. 

Antennas lamelliferous LAMELLICORNIA. 

Elytra not covering the abdomen BRACHELYTRA. 

Two palpi to each maxilla ADEPHAGA. 

MALACODERMI. Prosternum not produced in front, not pointed 
behind. Antennae serrated, or produced more or less at the side 
of the joints. Body frequently soft. Larvae animal and vegetable 
feeders ; the perfect insects mostly on flowers. 

The families of the Malacoderms are variable in their appear- 
ance and habits ; the name itself is only applicable to the Tele- 
phoridae. The larvae of the first four families are wood-eaters, 
but a few feed on animal substances. Some of the Cleridae, the 
larvae of which are mostly animal-feeders, have frequently clavate 
antennae ; in Ehipiceridae the antennae are flabellate or pectinate, 
with sometimes as many as forty joints. Some of the females of 
Lampyris are larvaeform and phosphorescent ; they feed on living 
snails. The phosphorescence, when present, is, in most cases, 
common to both sexes. Aspisoma lineatum is the common fire- 
fly of the Amazon district ; Luciola italica of Southern Europe. 



140 



ARTHROPOD A. 



Cioidce. 


CleridcB. 


Aspisoma. 


Lvctus. 


Necrobia. 


Lampyris (Grlow- 


GIB. 


Corynetes. 


worm). 


Bostrychida. 


Enoplium. 
Cormodes. 


Homalisus. 
Lycus. 


Psoa. 
Ehizopertha. 
Bostrychus = Apate. 


Stigmatium. 
Hydnocera. 
Thanasimus. 


Eros. 
Dictyopterus. 




Trichodes. 


DascillidcB. 


Ptinida. 


Clerus. 


Cyphon. 


Anobium (Death- 


Opilus. 


Scirtes. 


watch). 


Tillus. 


Eucinetus. 


Xyletinus. 




Eubria. 


Niptus. 
Ptinus. 


TelephoridcB. 
Ichthyurus. 


Dascillus Atopa. 
Lichas. 


Ectrephes = Ana- 


Dasytes. 
JVlalachius. 


Ehipicerida. 


pestus. 


Chalcas. 


Sandalus. 


Lymexylidce. 


Melyris. 
Drilus. 


Rhipicera. 
Callirhipis. 


Atractocerus. 


Malthinus. 





Hyloecetus. 
Lymexylon. 


Telephorus. 
Luciola. 


Cerophytum. 






Cebrionida. 


Cupes. 


.A.mycietes. 
Dioptoma. 


Cebrio. 



STERNOXI. Prosternum produced in front and pointed behind. 
Antennae filiform or serrated. Vegetable-feeders. 

The Elateridse possess a peculiar process of the prosternum 
which, acting as a spring on the mesosternum, enables them, if 
placed on their back, to regain their natural position. Their 
larvae are wood- and root-feeders. To PyropJwrus belongs some 
of the fire-flies of the Tropics. The antennas of Buprestidse are 
marked by small pores, either diffused, or concentrated in a 
depression on each joint. 



Elate rides. 
Campylus. 
Agriotes. 
Corymbites. 
Athous. 
Dima. 
Pyrophorua. 



Elater. 

Limonius. 

Tetralobus. 

Semiotus. 

Hemirhipis. 

Lacon. 

Amychus. 



Adelocera. 

Eucnemidee. 
Microrhagus. 
Eucnemis. 
Galba. 
Anelastes. 



ARTHROPODA. 



141 



Pterotarsus. 

Melasis. 

Fornax. 

Dronieeolus. 

Tharops. 

ThroscidcB. 
Lissom us. 
Drapetes. 
Throscus. 



Buprestidce. 
Trachys. 
Agrilus. 
Chrysobothris. 
Caloclema. 
Stigmodera. 
Anthaxia. 
Curis. 
Melobasis. 
Buprestis. 



Nascio. 

Dicerca. 

Capnodis. 

Polybothris. 

Chrysochroa. 

Chalcophora. 

Euchroma. 

Catoxantha. 

Julodis. 

Sternocera. 



LAMELLICORNIA. Last three joints of the antennae lamelliform, 
or in the Lucanidae pectinate. 

The larvae are wood -eaters, and with the perfect insect also 
scavengers ; many also in the latter state flower- and leaf -eaters. 
The subfamily Cetoniinse is often treated as a distinct family ; it 
is differentiated chiefly by the position of the meso thoracic epi- 
mera. [The first twelve genera in the following list belong to 
this subfamily.] Lucanidas are sometimes ranked as a separate 
group, under the name of Pectinicornia. In both families there 
are extraordinary developments of either mandibles, head, or 
thorax. Trictenotomidaa are an anomalous group, considered by 
some to be allied to the Prionidse. 

Scarabceida. 
Valgus. 
Trichius. 
Gnorimus. 
Osmoderma. 
Cyclidius. 
Cetonia. 
Schizorhina. 
Pogonotarsus. 
Macronota. 
Gymnetis. 
Heterorhina. 
G oliathus. 
Syrichthus. 
Antedon. 
Agaocephala. 
Megalosoma. 
Chalcosoma. 
Dynastes. 
Golofa. 



Oryctes. 


Elaphocera. 


Callicnemis. 


Melolontha (Cock- 


Cyclocephala. 


chafer). 


Hexodon. 


Ancylonycha. 


Geniates. 


Rhizotrogus. 


Anoplognathus. 


Ancistrosoma. 


Chrysina. 


Ceraspis. 


Chrysophora. 


Dicrania. 


Pelidnota. 


Macrodactylus. 


Kutela. 


Dichelonycha. 


Parastasia. 


Piphyllocera. 


Peperonota. 


Haplonycha. 


Antichira = Ma- 


Liparetrus. 


craspis. 


Calouota = Pyronota. 


Anomala. 


Phagnognatha. 


Phyllopertha. 


Pachytricha. 


Anisoplia. 


Ma2chidius. 


Euchirus. 


Diphucephala. 


Pachydema. 


Hoinaloplia. 


Pachypus. 


Phyllotocus. 



142 



ARTHROPODA. 



Serica. 


Hybosorus. 


Lepti nopter us = Psa- 


Hoplia. 


Aphodius. 


lidostomus. 


Dichelus. 


Onthcphagua. 


Lucanus (Stag- 


Pachy enema. 


Bubas. 


beetle). 


Hoploscelis. 
Peritrichia. 


Phanaeus. 
Copris. 


Lamprima. 
Dendroblax. 


Glaphyrus. 


Canthon. 


Cbiasognathus. 


Amphicoma. 


Scarabseus = Ateu- 


Pholidotus. 


Acanthocerus. 


chus. 




Trox. 




Passalidee. 


Lethrus. 


Lucanida. 


Passalus. 


Geotrypes (Dung- 
beetle). 


Sinodendron. 
Figulus. 


Trictenotomida. 


Bolboceras. 


Dorcus. 


Trictenotoma. 



CLAVICORNIA. Antennae clubbed at the end, the club 2-5- 
joiuted. In the larval and perfect stages living mostly on dead 
animal matter, several in flowers, or in fungi. 

The first three families in the following list are aquatic, except 
the species of Sostea. The majority are known as the " Necro- 
phaga." Platypsylla is a remarkable form, a parasite on the 
Canadian beaver, for which Westwood has proposed a special 
order Achrioptera. Le Conte indicates its affinity to several 
families of this group. Paussidae are an isolated family; the 
joints of the antennae vary from two to ten, all, except the first 
two when more are present, curiously enlarged. 



Heteroceridce. 
Heterocerus. 

Parnidfg. 
Macronychus. 
Elmis. 



Sostea. 



Georyssus. 

Thorictida. 
Thorictus. 



Chelonarium. 

Byrrhus. 

Nosodendron. 



Anthrenus. 

Trogoderma. 

Dermestes. 

Attagenus. 

Byturus. 

Cryptophagide 
Mycetophagus. 
Corticaria. 



Monotoma. 

Lathridius. 

Atomaria. 

Cryptophagus. 

Antherophagus. 

Elacatis=0thnius. 



Cucujida. 
Silvanus. 
Brontes. 
Inopeplus=Ino. 
Hemipeplus = 
Ochrosanis. 



ARTHROPOD A. 



143 



Cucujus. 


Nitidulidcs. 


Scaphidium. 


Ancistria. 
Hectarthrum. 


Khizophagus. 

Tv-vq 


Diatelium. 


Passandra. 


ips. 
Paromia. 


Trichopterygida. 


Colydiidce. 


Cychramus. 
Camptodes. 


Ptilium. 
Trichopteryz. 


Cerylon. 


Lordites. 


Limulodes. 


Dastarcus. 


Meligethes. 




Pycnoraerus. 


Omosita. 


Platypsyllidce. 


Bothrideres. 
Deretaphrus. 


Nitidula. 
Brachypeplus. 


Platypsylla. 


Aglenus. 
Nematidium. 


Carpophilus. 
Conotelus. 


Corylophidce. 

AT-' 


Colydium. 
Acropis. 
Aulonium. 


Mystrops. 
Cercus. 


Alexia. 
Sacium. 
Corylophus. 


Synchita. 
Bitoma. 


Phalacridce. 


Anisotomida. 


Cossyphodes. 
Tarphius. 
Enarsus. 


Olibrus. 
Tolyphus. 
Phalacrus. 


Clambus. 
Agathidium. 
Anisotoma. 


Endophlceus. 
Sarrotrium. 


Histeridce. 


Sphserius. 




Acritus. 




Rhysodldce. 


Abrseus. 


Silpkidee. 


Khysodes. 


Onthophilus. 
Plegaderus. 


Catops = Cholera, 
Leptinus. 


Omma. 


Trypanaeus. 


Adelops. 




Saprinus. 


Silpha. 


Trogositidce. 
Thymalus. 
Peltis. 


Carcinops. 
Hetaerius. 
Margarinotus. 


Necrophorus. 
Leptodirus. 


Elestora. 


Hister. 


Scydmcenidce. 


Leperina. 
Gymnochila. 
Temnochila. 


Platysoma. 
Hololepta. 
Murmidius. 


Mastigus. 
Clidicus. 
Scydmasnus. 


Trogosita. 
Melambia. 


ScaphidiidcB. 


Gnostidce. 


Nemosoma. 


Scaphisoma. 


Gnostus. 




Paussidcs. 






Paussus. 






Hylotorus. 





144 ARTHROPOD A. 

BRACHELYTRA. Elytra very short, not covering the abdomen. 
Antennse short, never clubbed. Two anal appendages. Voracious 
animal-feeders, occasionally living on decaying vegetable matter 
or carrion. Larva resembling the imago. 

In Staphylinidae the abdomen is free and at the tip furnished 
with vesicular papillas connected with glands secreting a dis- 
agreeable fluid. Some species reside in ants' nests; Velleius dila- 
tatus in the nests of hornets. Pselaphidae are trimerous, have 
the abdomen fixed, and without anal appendages. They live in 
moss, and many in ants' nests. In Articerus each antenna con- 
sists of a single joint. 



Lathrobium. Atemeles. 

Micropeplus. Oxyporus. Aleochara. 

Anthobium. Astrapaeus. Oxypoda. 

Homalium. Quedius. Homalota. 

Lesteva. Velleius. Myrmedonia. 

Anthophagus. Philonthus. Autalia. 
Micralymma. Ocypus. 

Piestus. Staphylmus. Pselaphidce. 

Syntomium. Xantholinus. Claviger. 

Oxytelus. Othms. Articerus. 

Bledms. Mycetoporus. Euplectus. 

Osorius. Tachmus. Bryaxis. 
Platystethus. Conosoma = Co- Amaurops. 

Stenus. nurus. Pselaphus. 

Psederus. Hypocyptus. Chennium. 

Sunius. Diglossa. Ctenistes. 

Lithocharis. Dmarda. Tjrua. 

Stilicus. Lomechusa. Faronus. 

Spirachtha. 

PALPICORNIA. Maxillary palpi elongate. Antennas short, 
generally club-shaped. Mostly aquatic ; in the perfect state 
herbivorous. 

In some of the Hydrophilidas the palpi are longer than the 
antennas. Sphaeridiidas are mostly found in excrementitious 
matter. 

Sphoeridiid<B. Hydrochus. Laccobius. 

Cercyon. . Hydnena. Hydrobius. 

Sph^riduim. Helophorus. Eygmodus. 

Spercheus. Hydrous. 

Globaria. Hydrophilus. 

HydnptiRd*. Berosus. Philhydrus. 

Ochthebius. Limnebius. Tropisternus. 



ARTHROPOD A. 



145 



ADEPHAGA. Two palpi to each maxilla. Antennse filiform. In 
the larval and perfect states voracious animal-feeders. 
The first two families are exclusively aquatic (Hydradephaga), 
but flying occasionally at dusk. Carabidse and Cicindelidae, ex- 
cept a few of both families, which live partially under water, but 
never swimmers, are terrestrial (Geodephaga). Gyrinidae have 


four eyes. 






Gyrimfo. 


Cyclosomus. 


Zuphium. 


Porrorhynchus. 


Pelecinus. 


Galerita. 


Gyrinus (Whirlgig), 


Promecognathus. 
Stomis. 


Drj^pta. 

Casnonia. 


Dyticida. 


Broscus. 


Hexagonia. 


Dy ticus = Dy tiscus. 


Miscodera. 


Pamborus. 


Colymbetes. 


Dioctes. 


Tefflus. 


Hydroporus. 


Badister. 


Cychrus. 


Pelobius. 


Licinus. 


Scaphinotus. 


Haliplus. 


Oodes. 


Damaster. 





Chlaenius. 


Carabus. 


Amphizoa. 


Callistus. 


Haplothorax. 




Loricera. 


Calosoma. 


Carabida. 


Panagaeus. 


Leistus. 


Bembidium. 


Clivina. 


Nebria. 


Cillenum. 


Scarites. 


Elaphrus. 


Ega. 


Carenum. 


Notiophilus. 


Aepus. 


Pasimachus. 


Omophron. 


Anophthalmus. 


Morio. 




Pogonus. 


Hyperion=Campy- 


Cicindelidce. 


Dyscolus. 


locnemis. 


Ctenostoma. 


Anchomenus. 


Anthia. 


Procephalus. 


Calathus. 


Graphipterus. 


Pogonostoma. 


Sphodrus. 


Apotomus. 


Collyris. 


Metius. 


Ditomus. 


Tricondyla. 


Amara. 


Siagona. 


Therates. 


Zabrus. 


Ozsena. 


Euprosopus. 


Feronia. 


Adelotopus. 


Dromica. 


Catadromus. 


Silphomorpha. 


Odontochila. 


Trigonotoma. 


Mormolyce. 


Cicindela. 


Stenolophus. 
Harpalus. 


Scopodes. 
Catascopus. 


Eurymorpha. 
Oxygonia. 


Barysomus. 


Dromius. 


Megacephala. 


Acinopus. 


Cymindis. 


Oxychila. 


Diachromus. 


Agra. 


Omus. 


Cratocerus. 


Brachinus. 


Platychile. 


Daptus. 


Heliuo. 


Manticora. 



146 ARTHROPOD A. 

Order IX. HYMENOPTEEA. 
PIEZATA. PHLEBOPTERA. 

Four naked, membranous, unequal few-veined wings. Mandi- 
bulate ; labium and maxillae more or less elongate. Larvae apodal 
[excl. Terebrantia]. Pupa incomplete, inactive. 

The mouth has two robust mandibles, protected by a labrum 
above, and two united maxillae forming a sheath for the labium, 
when developed into a suctorial proboscis, below, and two pairs 
of palr,i. The mandibles, however, are chiefly employed in the 
construction of the nest ; the labium, when used as a sucking-organ, 
is retractile. 

The abdomen, mostly attached by a pedicel to the thorax, is in 
the female furnished with an ovipositor, which is frequently 
modified into a sting [aculeus], or in one group into saws [serrae], 
and in another into a borer [terebra]. It consists normally of 
six pieces, the two outer forming a sheath. The mesothorax forms 
the bulk of the thorax, the other two parts being but moderately 
developed. The wings are always horizontal, the upper pair fre- 
quently with a chitinous nodule (tegulum) at the base ; the lower 
pair along its anterior margin is provided with a series of minute 
hooks, which catch into the reflected posterior margins of the 
upper wings, for the purpose of keeping them together during 
flight. On the upper wings is an opaque spot, as in the Neuro- 
ptera, named the " stigma." 

Wingless species (but the absence of wings frequently depending 
on sex) are frequent. Female ants, after pairing or when pre- 
paring to lay their eggs, shake off their wings, a small portion, 
however, generally remaining. The wings, as in Chalcididae, 
are sometimes almost destitute of venation. Some species are 
eyeless, or are without mandibles, or without a sting. Never- 
theless the order cannot be said to contain any aberrant or 
abnormal forms, except among the neuters ; these are undeveloped 
females peculiar to the Hymenoptera, with the sole exception of 
white ants among the Neuroptera. 

In the aculeate Hymenoptera a poison, strongly impregnated 
with formic acid, is secreted by a special gland. 

Galls, although produced by other insects, and even by worms, 
are in this order almost exclusively caused by Cynipidae. These 
insects deposit their eggs in the leaves, stems, and roots of plants. 
Different kinds of galls are seen on the same plant, produced by 
different species of gall-flies. Some galls contain but a single 
egg, as those of Cynips gallcB-tinctorice ; in other galls more than 



ARTHROPODA. 147 

a thousand eggs will be found, as in Cynips qtiercus-radicis. Oak- 
apples are the galls of C. terminalis ; the bullet-galls of the oak, 
of Cynips Kollari -. and oak-spangles, of C. longicornis. The 
" bedeguar," or gall of the wild rose, is caused by Bhodites ros&. 
Cynips aptera form clusters of galls on the roots of the oak. 
Gall-like substances are also produced by other Hymenoptera. 

In the Terebrantia the larvse resemble the caterpillars of the 
Lepidoptera, having legs varying from three to eleven pairs, but 
always six true legs, the remainder abdominal or prolegs. All 
other Hymenoptera have footless larvse, which are often parasitic. 
Many species of Hymenoptera spin cocoons. 

To this order belong saw-flies ( TenthredinidcB), the turnip saw- 
fly (Athalia spinaruin), whose black caterpillar is so destructive to 
our turnip-crops, ants (Formicidce), the wasp (Vespa vulgar is), 
hornet ( Vespa crabro), the honey-bee (Apis mellifica), and humble- 
bees (Bombi). More than 16,000 species are known, of which 
about 3000 are British. 

Six groups may be distinguished ; the last two or three are fre- 
quently mentioned as the " aculeate Hymenoptera. 

Posterior segments of the abdomen retractile TUBULIPEKA. 

Posterior segments of the abdomen not retractile. 
Females armed with a saw or borer. 

Abdomen sessile TEREBRANTIA. 

Abdomen petiolate PUPIVORA. 

Females armed with a sting. 

With wingless neuters HETEROGYNA. 

With winged neuters, if any. 

Basal joint of the posterior tarsi cylindrical FOSSORES. 
Basal joint of the posterior tarsi dilated ... MELLIPERA. 

TEREBRANTIA. Abdomen sessile, in the female armed with a 
saw or saws or a borer. Larva with six legs and with a number 
of prolegs. Feed on vegetable substances. 

By means of the saw or borer the female makes slits or punc- 
tures in the shoots of young plants or in trees, in which she places 
her eggs ; galls are frequently the result. A number of species 
form double cocoons, sometimes of earth, in which they pass the 
winter. In the TenthredinidiB the female is furnished with a 
pair of saws, in the Siricidas with a borer. 

TcnthredinidcB. Perga. Fenusa. 

Cimbex. Hylotoma. Selandria. 

Abia, Pachylota. Allantus. 

Trichiosoma. Athalia. Ernphytus. 

L2 



148 



ABTHEOPODA. 



Tenthredo (Saw- 
fly). 

Cladius. 
Neraatus. 
Dolerus. 



Croesus. 

Lophyrus. 

Tarpa. 

Lyda. 

Xyela. 



Siricidce. 
Cephus. 

Sirex=Urocerus. 
Xiphydria. 
Oryssus. 



PUPIVORA. Abdomen petiolated, in the female armed with a 
saw or borer. Larva without feet. 

The females deposit their eggs in the larvae or pupse of other 
insects, or, in the Cynipidas, in plant-structures or in galls. Cy- 
nipidae are mostly gall-makers, but some, e.g. Figites, Allotria, 
&c., are insect-parasites like the other families of the group. 
Braconiclae (=Ichneumones adsciti) are differentiated from the 
genuine Ichneumones by having only one recurrent nerve in the 
fore wing, instead of two. The Pupivora exactly correspond to 
the Spiculifera of Westwood. 



Cynipid (Gall-flies) 


. Myina. 


Ceraphron. 


Italia. 


Eupelmus. 


Telenomus. 


.Egilips. 


Trigonoderus. 


Teleas. 


Euccela. 


Chiropachus. 


Prosacantha. 


Figites. 
Cynips. 


Cleonymus. 
Pteromalus. 


Platygaster. 
Mymar. 


Teras. 


Eunotus. 


Cosmocoma. 


Biorhiza. 


Melittobia. 


Prestwichia. 


flhodites. 


Entedon. 




Andricus. 


Cirrospilus. 


Braconidce. 


Synergus. 


Trichogramma. 


Dacnusa. 




Omphale. 


Alysia. 


Chaltididcs. 


Entedon. 


Opius. 


Chalcis. 


Eulophus. 


Perilitus. 


Halticella. 




Aphidius. 


Leucospis. 


Proctotrypida. 


Microgaster. 


Agaon. 


Helorus. 


Chelonus. 


Apocrypta. 
Sycophaga. 


Belyta. 

Cinetus. 


Sigalphus. 
Ehogas. 


Torymus. 


Paramesius. 


Colastes. 


Monodontomerus. 


Proctotrypea. 


Bracon. 


Callimome. 


Embolimus. 




Eurytoma. 


Gonatopus. 


Ichneumonida 


Eucharis. 


Chelogynus. 


Lissonota. 


Perilampus. 


Antfeon. 


Glypta. 


Ormyrus. 
Eacyrtus. 


Bethylus. 
Megaspilus. 


Pimpla. 
Ephialtes. 



ARTHROPODA. 149 

Bassus. Ophion. Evaniida. 

Tryphon. Agriotypus. Stephanus. 

Banchus. Pezomachus. Evania. 

Exetastes. Hemiteles. Pelecinus. 

Porizon. Cryptus. Fcenus. 

Campoplex. Amblytelus. Megalyra. 

Paniscus. Ichneumon. Trigonalys. 

TUBULIPERA. Posterior segments of the abdomen retractile, 
and provided with a membranous ovipositor, composed of a 
single piece. Solitary, deposit their eggs in the nests of other 
Hymenoptera. 

Eichly coloured insects, only appearing in the hottest sunshine, 
and capable of rolling themselves up into a ball. They are re- 
markable for having the underside of the abdomen concave. 

Chrysididce. Elampus. 

Chrysis. Hedychrum. 

Euchroeus. Parnopes. 

Stilbum. Cleptes. 
Homalus. 

HETEROGYNA. Males, females, and neuters ; the latter abortive 
wingless females, sometimes of two kinds workers and soldiers. 
Social, build nests, and excavate tunnels. 

The soldiers (or "policemen") have very large heads. The 
females and workers of many species are furnished with a sting. 
Some species carry off the larvas of other species, which are edu- 
cated as slaves and then take charge of their captor's colony. 
The common Formica sanguined is one of the slave-making ants. 

The Dorylidas are differentiated from the Formicidae by the 
first segment of the abdomen only forming the peduncle. Their 
sexes are not certainly known. 

Formicidce (Ants). Myrmecia. (Ecodoma. 

Formica. Myrmecina. Cryptocerus. 

Tapinoma. Stenomma. 

Ponera. Crematogaster. Doryliaa. 

Polyergus. Eciton. Anomma. 

Odontomachus. Solenopsis. Myrmecocystus. 

Polyrhachis. Strongylognathus. Labidus. 

Ectatornma. Daceton. Dorylus $ } 

(EcophyUa. Phidole. Dichthadia ? I ? 

Myrmica. Monomorium. Typhlopone, $ J 



150 



ARTHROPOD A. 



FOSSOEES. Neuters, if any, winged. Basal joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi cylindrical. A sting. 

The neuters are mostly, perhaps entirely, confined to the 
Vespida3. Nearly all the species are fossorial ; but there is no 
special adaptation of legs, except that in some the anterior tibiae 
and tarsi are ciliated. They burrow in rotten wood, twigs, sand 
banks, or construct mud or paper nests. The larvae often feed 
on other larvae, flies, spiders, &c., provided by the mother. 

The females of Mutillidae are wingless. The upper wings in 
Vespidae ( = Diploptera) are folded longitudinally. 



Pison. 

Tachytes. 

Astata. 

Mellinus. 

Cerceris. 

Philanthus. 



Mutillida. 


Odynerus. 


Mutilla. 


Synagris. 


Myrrnosa. 


Epipone. 


Methoca. 


Abispa. 


Tiphia. 
Thynnus, $ \ 
Myrmecoda, ? / 


Rhynchium. 
Celonites. 
Masaris. 
Paragia. 


ScoUida. 


Apoica. 


Myzine. 




Elis. 


Orabroni 


Scolia. 


Crabro 


Sapyga. 


Oxybelus. 


Bembecidce. 


Trypoxylon. 
Psen. 


Bembex. 
Stictia = Monedula. 


Pemphredon. 
Dinetus. 




Miscophus. 


Vespidce. 


Passalcecus. 


Vespa (Wasp). 
Polistes. 


Stigmus. 

Nysson. 


Polybia. 


Larra. 


Eumenes. 


Gi-orytes. 



Sphex. 
Ampulex. 
Trigonopsis. 
Ammophila (Sand- 
wasp). 
Miscus. 
Pelopoeus. 
Chlorion. 



Pompilus. 

Dolichurus. 

Aporus. 

Pepsis. 

Mygnimia. 

Ceropales. 



MELLIPERA (Bees). Neuters winged. Basal joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi dilated, adapted for collecting and carrying pollen. 
A sting in the females and neuters. 

The only genera having neuters or workers in this country are 
Apis and Bonibus. The basal joint of the posterior tarsi is 
scarcely dilated in the solitary species. These deposit their 
eggs either in the nests of other species whose young are starved 
by the intruders, or they form nests in twigs, rotten wood, old 



ARTHROPODA. 



151 



wails, banks, &c. Social species construct combs, composed of 
hexagonal cells, for storing the food [honey] of their larvae. 
Honey is the nectar collected from flowers which, undergoing a 
certain alteration in the stomach, is regurgitated into the cells. 
Wax is digested honey emitted through the sides of the ventral 
segments and worked up by the mandibles into a state fit to form 
tie cells. The queen-bee is a selected and richly-fed larva ; 
during her life of five years she is said to lay about a million of 
eggs. Tegetmeier cites cases of eggs laid by neuters. The un- 
impregnated eggs give rise to drones, the impregnated eggs to 
females (and neuters). What is called the wedding-flight, which 
occurs but once in a lifetime, is always taken in the air. 

A community of the hive bee is estimated by Westwood to 
contain 2000 males or drones, 50,000 workers, and 1 queen. 

Pollen is collected either with the hind femora (Apis, An- 
drena), with the abdomen (Megachile, Osmia, Anthidium), or 
with the hind tibiae (Anthophora, Eucera). Sphecodes and Pro- 
sopis do not collect. Melecta, Nomada, Epeolus, and others are 
solitary and parasitical. Andrenidse have short tongues, Apidae 
long ones. There are about 250 British species. 



ApidcB. 

Apis (Hive-bee). 
Melipona. 
Trigona. 
Bombus (Humble- 

bee). 
Eulema. 

Apathus = Psithyrus. 
Euglossa. 
Aglae. 
Epicharis. 
Centris. 
Anthophora. 
Saropoda. 
Eucera. 
Systropha. 



Oxasa. 

Lestis. 

Xylocopa. 

Megachile. 

Chalicodoma. 

Osrnia. 

Ceratina. 

Heriades. 

Chelostoma. 

Anthidium. 

Melecta. 

Chrysantheda. 

Thalestria. 

Crocisa. 

Nomada. 

Epeolus. 



Stelis. 
Coelioxys. 

Andrenidce. 
Panurgus. 
Andrena Melitta. 
Cilissa. 
Dasypoda. 
Nomia. 
Cyathocera. 
Halictus = Hylaeus. 
Colletes. 
Macropis. 
Augochlora. 
Agapostemon. 
Sphecodes = Dichroa. 
Prosopis. 



152 

Subkingdom VI. MOLLUSCA. 
HETEKOGANGLIATA. 

Soft-bodied, unsegmented animals, often protected by a shell 
The digestive system including stomach, intestine, and anus. 
Keproduction by ova, rarely by gemmation. Hermaphrodite, 
but generally the sexes on distinct individuals [dioecious], A 
metamorphosis in nearly all. 

The nervous system generally consists of three pairs of ganglia, 
giving off branches to the different parts ; but in Brachiopoda 
and Tunicata there is only one ganglion. The heart has two or 
more chambers, but in the Ascidians it is reduced to a simple 
tube. The blood is generally colourless, and circulates in sinuses, 
having no proper walls. Respiration is mostly effected by 
branchiae, a specialized portion of the mantle ; there is one or, 
most commonly, two on each side. 

The integument of the body, continuous or divided into two 
lobes, is called the mantle [pallium]. From the ventral surface 
projects a muscular disk or foot [podium], a modification of the 
lower lip and an organ of locomotion, and generally the only 
one, but it is sometimes absent. The foot is often divisible into 
three parts pro-, ineso-, and metapodium ; it is the last that 
sometimes secretes a calcareous or horny disk, known as the 
" operculum." 

The mantle secretes the shell, which is rarely absent ; it may 
be in one or two pieces [univalve or bivalve], rarely of many 
pieces [multivalve] ; in a few instances it is internal. The inner 
layer of the shell is sometimes nacreous in its texture ; its colour 
is due to finely sculptured lines. A rudimentary shell is frequently 
present whilst the young mollusk is still in the egg, and it has 
even been observed in forms which have no shell in the adult 
state. 

In certain classes the mouth is provided with an organ [radula 
or odontophore], often, but erroneously, called the tongue. It is 
armed with teeth (in the large garden-slug, Limax maximus, they 
amount to 26000) and is an important part in classification. It 
is found in Pteropoda, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda. 

The embryo of the Mollusca ordinarily passes through three 
stages: (1) the Gastrul&-atage, including the earlier Morula; 
(2) the TrochospJiGra-tiagQ, when the embryo is girdled with a 



MOLLTJSCA. 153 

row of cilia ; and (3) the Veliger-stage, when it has acquired the 
" velum " a ciliary cephalic expansion of the integument, said 
to be identical with the ciliated disk of the Eotifera. The ova 
are often defended by hard albuminous capsules of various, and 
sometimes very complex, forms. 

" In the Mollusca the developmental energies seem to have been 
expended chiefly in the perfection of the vegetative series of 
organs, or those concerned in the immediate preservation of the 
individual and the species." 

The limits of the Mollusca are at present unsettled. Hay 
Lankester places the Tunicata with the Vertebrata, Hackel and 
other biologists with the Vermes. Molluscoida included Polyzoa, 
Brachiopoda, and Tunicata. A " roughly " drawn distinction is 
sometimes made between those Mollusca with a head [Encephala 
or Cephalophora] and those without [Acephala]. In the former 
the head is generally provided with tentacula, eyes, and a mouth 
armed with jaws ; in the latter there is no cephalic ganglion, and 
the mouth is a simple inlet for the food, " having no power of 
selection in the first instance." Otocardia, excluding Brachiopoda 
and Tunicata, is another name for the Mollusca. Schmarda has 
seven classes, including Polyzoa ; Glaus four, excluding Brachio- 
poda and Tunicata, Gastropoda including Heteropoda and Pte- 
ropoda, while Scaphopoda is raised to the rank of a class. 

Animal enclosed in a bivalve shell. 

Mouth with two arms BRACHIOPODA. 

Mouth without arms LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Animal either naked or enclosed in a uni- 
valve shell. 

With a head ; heart with two or more 
chambers. 

Mouth with long arms CEPHALOPODA. 

Mouth without arms. 

Locomotion effected by a ventral 

disk GASTROPODA. 

Locomotion effected by fin- or 

wing-like appendages. 
With a fin-like tail or a ventral 

fin HETEROPODA. 

With two wing-like expansions... PTEROPODA. 
Without a head ; heart a simple tube ... TUNICATA. 



154 MOLLUSCA. 

Class I. BRACHIOPODA. 

SPIROBRANCHIATA. PALLIOBRANCIIIATA. HAPLOCARDIA. 

Headless, symmetrical mollusks, enclosed in a bivalve shell. 
Mouth with two long, cirriferous arms. No true branchias. 
Mostly hermaphrodite. 

The valves of the shell are above and below the animal, not 
right and left, as in ordinary bivalves, and they have no elastic 
ligament ; the lower, posterior, or ventral valve is frequently pro- 
longed into a beak, and perforated, to allow the passage of a pe- 
duncle by which the animal attaches itself to some foreign body. 
The dorsal integument lines the interior of the valves, and " forms 
by its expansions the lobes of the mantle," here subservient to 
respiration. The heart is a simple ventricle ; the cavity formed 
by the lobes is partly occupied by " two long fringed arms, con- 
tinued from the sides of the mouth, and disposed in folds and 
spiral curves." 

Most of the species (upwards of 1800) are extinct ; they appear 
to have been most abundant in the Silurian epoch ; about 80 
still exist, some living at a depth of 2500 fathoms. 

Brachiopoda are embryologically allied to the Vermes, and by 
some writers they are cousidered to be very similar in structure 
to the Polyzoa. Ray Lankester unites them with the Lamelli- 
branchiata, under the name of Lipocephala. Glaus places them 
as a pendant to the Mollusca. They are the lowest " stage of 
genuine mollusks," according to Hackel ; but others consider that 
they are most allied to Annelida. Huxley holds their affinities 
to be between the Polyzoa and the higher Mollusca. 

There are two orders : 

Shell hingeless LYOPOMATA. 

Shell with a hinge-line AKTHROPOMAT A. 



Order I. LYOPOMATA. 

ECARDINES. PLEUROPYGIA. INARTICULATA. SARCOBRANCHIATA. 

Valves not toothed, held together by muscles ; shell corneous. 
Intestine terminating in a lateral anus. 

The oral arms are mostly fleshy, and without the bony support 
of the next order. In the Craniidse the shell is calcareous ; in 
the Lingulidge it is covered with a horny epidermis ; in the latter 
the peduncle is emitted from between the valves. 



MOLLTTSCA. 155 

Of the three living genera only a very few species are known ; 
one Crania, with two species is found in European seas. Lin- 
gula, anatina and two or three other species, now confined to the 
Eastern seas, do not differ morphologically from their congeners 
of the Cambrian epoch. Discina, of which there are several spe- 
cies, is found in China, the West Indies, and the Pacific coasts ; 
it was also existent in the Silurian epoch. 

Lingulidce. Discinida. Craniidcs. 

Lingula. Discina. Crania. 

*Obolus. *Trematis. 



Order II. ARTHROPOMATA. 
TESTICARDINES. APYGIA. ARTICULATA. SCLEROBRANCHIATA. 

Valves held together by teeth. Shell calcareous. Intestine 
without an anus. 

A peculiar calcareous loop is attached to the upper valve of 
most of the species, destined for the support of the arms. The 
alimentary canal is short, with a cascal end. 

The recent species, mostly confined to deep water, are found in 
almost all parts of the world. The Terebratulidae are commonly 
known as "lamp-shells." 

Terebratulidce. Spiriferidee. Orthidce. 

Terebratula. Spirifer. *Orthis. 

Waldheimia. *Koninckia. 

Kraussia. *Spirigera. Productidce. 

*Productus. 

i. BhynchonellidcB. *Chonetes. 

Rhynchonella. 

Class II. LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 
BIVALVIA. CONCHIFERA. ACEPHALA. DITHYRA. CORMOPODA. 

Headless mollusks encased in a bivalve shell, sometimes with 
accessory valves. Body enclosed within a mantle. Respiratory 
organs consisting of lamelliform or filamentous branchiae. Sexes 
distinct. 

The branchiae are usually two on each side, placed between the 
mantle and the foot, and well supplied with cilia. The mouth 



150 MOLLUSCA. 

has no radula. The heart is always well developed. Ocelli are 
present in most. 

The shell is frequently inequivalve and inequilateral, with 
either one or two adductor muscles for closing its valves. The 
apex of each valve is the umbo, and between them is the hinge 
[cardo], with or without teeth, where the two valves are joined 
to one another. 

Locomotion is very imperfect in the adult state ; many are per- 
manently fixed, either by their shells or by a peculiar secretion, 
one form of which is known as a "byssus," or they bury them- 
selves in the sand, or bore into timber or rocks. They are mostly 
very prolific ; in the oyster the number of ova [known as the 
"spat"] varies from 250,000 to 800,000 in the season ; but they 
take three years to come to maturity. The young of this class 
are in their earliest stage ciliated and free-swimming. 

While Huxley sees nothing having the value of orders in this 
class, Carus gives us ten. Schmarda has five orders divided into 
two sections Endocardines (Rudistae only) and Exocardines 
(Monomya, including Ostrea, Pecten, &c. ; Heteromya, Mytilus, 
&c. ; Isomya, Area, Unio, Chama, Venus, &c. ; and Inclusa, 
GastrochcBna, Pholas, &c.). Some writers adopt two divi- 
sions, depending on the number of adductor muscles, those bi- 
valves with one adductor being called " Monomyaria," and those 
with two " Dimyaria ;" or, again, we have two divisions, based on 
a character nearer ordinal rank than the other viz. the absence 
or presence of siphons (tubular prolongations of the mantle). 

There is said to be 14,000 species, recent and fossil. 

With siphons SIPHONIATA. 

Without... .. ASIPHONIATA. 



Order I. ASIPHONIATA. 
ATRACHIA. 

Headless mollusks without respiratory siphons. Lobes of the 
mantle free. 

Most of the Asiphoniata are fixed and motionless, the foot 
being either small or wanting ; in the former case frequently 
provided with a byssus-secreting gland, situated at the base of 
the foot, by which it attaches itself to foreign bodies. 

This order includes the oyster (Ostrea edulis), pearl-oyster [of 
Indian sesis](Meleaffri r >iamarffaritifera), pearl-oyster [of European 
rivers] (Margaritana margaritifera), mussel (Mytilus edulis), and 



1IOLLTJSCA. 



157 



scallop (Pecten maximus). Freshwater mussels are various species 
of Unio and Anodonta. 



Anomiidce. 
Anomia. 
Placunanomia. 

Placunida. 
Placuna = Placenta. 

Ostreidce. 

Gryphaea. 
Ostrea (Oyster). 

Spondylida. 
Spondylus. 

Pectinidce. 

Amusium =Pleuro- 

nectia. 
Pecten (Scallop). 



Limida. 
Lima. 

Aviculidce. 

Malleus. 

Vulsella. 

Perna. 

Meleagrina. 

Avicula. 



Pinna. 



Arcidce. 
Leda. 

Nucula. 

Axinaea = Pectun- 

culus. 
Cucullaea. 
Anomalocardia. 
Area. 



PinnidcB. Trigonia. 



Prasina. 
Dreissena. 
Mytilus (Mussel). 
Modiola. 
Lithodomus=Litho- Unio. 
phagus.. 



Unionidce. 

.^Etheria. 

Hyria. 

Mycetopus. 

Anodonta. 

Margaritana. 



Order II. SIPHONIATA. 
MACROTRACHIA. 

Headless mollusks with one or two respiratory siphons. Lobes 
of the mantle more or less united. 

Locomotion, effected by the more developed foot, is general in 
this order, and the respiratory system is more complex. For this 
purpose there are one or two tubular prolongations [siphons] 
from the margin of the mantle ; when two. generally united the 
one inhalant, the other exhalant, and furnished with muscular 
fibres for their emission and retraction, but in some cases the 
siphon is incapable of being retracted. The foot is sometimes 
provided with an orifice through which the water enters, and 
when swollen by its admission the foot may exceed the capacity 
of the shell. 

This order includes the clam [of North America] (Mactra 
soUdissima) [the river-clams are Unios], cockle (Cardium cdule], 
cob (My a arenaria), razor-shell (Solon siliqua), and ship- worm 
( Teredo navalis). The shell of Tridacna gigas, one valve of which 



158 



MOLLTJSCA. 



serves as a font in many continental churches, frequently attains 
a weight of 500 pounds. 

Pholadidas have accessory valves in the hinge of the shell. In 
Teredo the valves are merely appendages of the foot. In Gastro- 
chaenidse the valve or valves are adherent to a tubular shell. 

The extinct family Hippuritidse ( = Rudistas) is characterized 
by an inner 1-3-toothed hinge, the teeth confined to one valve. 
It is a distinct order for some authors ; allied to Chamidte for 
others. It is only known in the Cretaceous period. 



Chamidce. 


Venerid. 


Anatinidce. 


Chama. 


Artemis. 


Glauconome. 


Tridacna. 


Meroe. 


Pholadomya. 


Hippopus. 


Cytherea. 


Anatina. 




Venus. 


Lyonsia. 


Cardiidce. 


Tapes. 




Didacna 


Petricola. 


Chamostreidce. 


Cardium (Cockle). 


Venerupis. 


Chamostrea = Clei- 


Lucinida. 


Mactridce. 


dotha3rus. 


Solenomya. 

TT 11 ' 


Mactra. 


Ampkidesmidce. 


Kellia. 
Cyanium = Turtonia. 


TelUnida. 


Amphidesma. 
Ervilia. 


Cryptodon. 
Corbis. 
Lucina = Loripes. 


Donax. 
Asaphis. 
Tellina. 


Paphia. 
Thracia. 
Pandora. 


Cyrenidce. 


Psammobia. 


Gastrochcenidce. 


Pisidium. 

Cyclas = Sphajrium. 
Cyrena. 


Solenidce. 

Solecurtus. 
Solen (Eazor-shell). 


Gastrocha3na. 
Brechites=Asper- 
gillum. 


Isocardiida. 


Myida. 


Saxicavidce. 


Cyprina. 
Isocardia. 


Mya (Cob). 
Corbiila. 
Neasra. 


Saxicava. 
Glycimeris. 


Astartidae. 


Panopgea. 


Pholadidce. 


Mytilicardia. 
Astarte. 


Hippuritidcs. 


Pholadidia. 
Pholas (Piddock). 


Gouldia. 
Galeomma. 


*Hippurites. 
*Rudistes. 


Teredinidce. 


Scintilla. 


*Caprina. 


Teredo (Ship-worm). 



MOLLFSCA. 159 



Class III. PTEROPODA. 

COPONAUT^E. 

Free pelagic mollusks swimming by means of two fin-like ex- 
pansions developed from the anterior extremity. Hermaphrodite. 

The head, not well defined, is expanded on each side into a 
large muscular fin [epipodium]. There is a small mouth, some- 
times tentaculate and having a radula. The mantle may be 
absent or only slightly developed, or it is only present in the 
earlier stages. There is no proper respiratory organ, but there 
is occasionally a ciliated branchial sac. 

These are small, active animals, gaily coloured, mostly provided 
with thin, symmetrical shells, and found in large numbers on the 
surface at night (Major Owen), or glistening in the sunshine 
(Wyville Thomson). They " absolutely swarm " in the high seas ; 
in the north Clio borealis and Limacina arctica are the chief food 
of the whale. 

Pteropoda are Schmarda's twenty-sixth class. For Glaus they 
are a subclass of Gastroppda. According to the former there are 
scarcely 100 living, and about 150 fossil species. 

Without a shell GYMNOSOMATA. 

With a shell THECOSOMATA. 



Order I. GYMNOSOMATA. 

Head and foot distinct; no mantle. Shell absent. Larva 
eventually with cilia. 

The fins are attached to the neck ; the head is tentaculate, 
except in Cliodita, and in Pneumodermon the mouth also. The 
latter has a rudimental shell placed at the bottom of the visceral 
cavity. 

Cliid(g. Cliodita. Pneumodermida. 

Cll ' 



Order II. THECOSOMATA. 

Head rudimentary. Shell always present, but internal in 
Cymbuliida3. Larva without cilia. 

In these animals the hinder part of the body is protected by a 
light transparent or semitransparent shell, variously shaped, but 
spiral in Limacinidse. 



160 MOLLUSC A. 

Of the fossil species, many are congeneric with existing forms, 
and some of them are of comparatively large size, e.g. Conularia, 
which is sometimes nearly two feet in length. The Silurian Ten- 
faculties, " though often referred to the Tubicolar Annelides, ap- 
pear to belong, without doubt, to the Pteropoda." 

Hyalceidce. Hyalaea= Carolina. Thecidcs. 

Triptera. *Conularia. 

Cleodora. Cymbuhtda. 

Balantium. Cymbulia. Limacinida. 

Styliola Creseis. Halopsyche= Psyche. T . 

Diacria. Tiedemannia. 

Spiriahs. 

*Tentaculites. 



Class IV. GASTROPODA. 

BRANCHIOGASTEROPODA. COCHLIDES. PLATYPODA. 

Land or water mollusks, generally encased in a univalve shell. 
Locomotion effected by the ventral disk or foot. A distinct head 
in nearly all, with one or two pairs of tentacles. Dioecious or 
hermaphrodite. 

A heart, liver, and convoluted intestine are mostly present : 
the mouth is provided with a radula. The eyes are never more 
than two, either placed on the tentacles, or more frequently sessile 
at their base ; but they are absent in Scaphopoda and CbitonidEe. 
There is a distinct organ of hearing, consisting of two round 
vesicles containing ciliated otolites, remarkable for their oscil- 
latory action in living or recently killed animals. 

The shell is rarely hidden in the mantle, and except in Chito- 
nidae it is invariably single, and most frequently spiral. 

Heteropoda are sometimes included in this class. Scaphopoda 
are placed by Hackel and Huxley with Pteropoda ; but Glaus 
ranks them as one of the four classes of Mollusca. 

There are said to be upwards of 22,000 species in this class. 

Head rudimentary SCAPHOPODA. 

Head distinct. 

Respiration by branchiae. 

Branchiae arborescent OPISTHOBRANCHI ATA. 

Branchiae pectinate PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Respiration by a pulmonary sac PULMONIFEEA. 



MOLLUSCA. 161 

Order I. SCAPHOPODA. 

SOLENOCONCILE. PROSOPOCEPIIALA. ClRROBRANCHIA. 

Head rudimentary ; a pair of horny jaws ; mouth surrounded 
by many filiform tentacles. No eyes. Dioecious. 

There is no heart nor branchiae. The foot is tbree-lobed. The 
shell is slender, conical, curved, and perforate at the apex, and 
the aperture is round. The animal is attached to the shell at the 
hinder part. The young are free-swimming, propelled by vi bra- 
tile cilia. 

There is only one family, containing, according to Schmarda, 
about 50 living and 125 fossil species ; they mostly occur in the 
Devonian formation. 

Dentaliida (Tooth-shells). 
Dentalium. 
Entalis = Antalis. 
Gadila. 

Order II. OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

Eespiration aquatic, effected by arborescent or fasciculate 
branchiae, more or less exposed, rarely absent ; and placed pos- 
teriorly. With or without a shell in the adult. Hermaphrodite. 
Larva with a velum and shell. 

The shell is rudimentary or absent ; but in many cases it is well- 
formed, and is always enclosed in the mantle. Tentacles are 
generally present, and are mostly non-retractile. The branchias 
are either covered or uncovered ; in the latter case they are occa- 
sionally capable of being withdrawn into one or more branchial 
cavities. The nervous system is well developed ; aud they have, 
with few exceptions, two eyes, which are placed behind the ten- 
tacles. 

Most of the species are littoral, swimming or creeping about 
amongst sea-weed, but a few are pelagic. They are carnivorous. 
One of the commonest species on our shores is known as the sea- 
hare (Aplysia depilans} ; it is said to emit a violet-coloiyed fluid 
when molested, due to the presence of iodine. r 'Sea-slugs seemSto 
be a general term applied to several species or even genera. The 
nearest external approach to slugs is perhaps best shown in JEolis 
and the Abranchia. 

Certain worm-like marine animals forming the genus Neomenia 
( = Solenopus} compose the i( order" Telobranchiata of Koren and 
Danielssen. 



162 MOLLUSC A. 

Glaus divides this order into two sections Dermatobranchia 
[or Gyrnnobranchia] and Pleurobranchia. The last contains tha 
Tectibranchiata and Inferobranchiata ; the first the remainder of 
the following suborders: 

No shell in the adult. 
Without branchiae ........................... ABRANCIIIATA. 

With branchia3. 

Branchiae on the back ..................... NCDIBRANCIIIATA. 

Branchiae on both sides ........ ......... INFEROBRANCHIATA. 

A shell in most ; branchiae on one side ...... TECTIBRANCHIATA. 

ABRANCHIATE (=Apneusta=Dermatopnoa). No branching ; 
upper surface of the body ciliated. A shell only in the larval 
state. 

A subclass for Schmarda ; but not differentiated from the Nu- 
dibranchiata by Glaus. 

Limapontiidce. PhyllirJioida. 

Limapontia = Pontolimax. Phyllirhoe. 

Cenia. Acura. 



. 
Ehodope. .* 

Elysia^Actseon. 

.NUDIBRANCHIATA ( = NotobranchiaV Branchiae placed on the 
back, often retractile. Shell only in the larval state. 

Branchiae either cylindrical, fusiform, or club-shaped (Cera- 
tobranchia) ; leaf -shaped, feathered, or branched (Cladobranchia) ; 
or placed behind and arborescent (Pygobranchia). 



Pavorinus. TetTiyididcB. 

Proctonotus. Embletonia. Scyllsea. 

Antiopa. -5Colis. Tritonia. 

Fiona. Tergipes. Tethys. 

lderia - Dendronotida. Voridida. 

Hermaea. ^ T 

JEolididcB. Melibo 2 a. Onchidoris. 

Glaucus. Hero. Polycera. 

Cratena. Dendronotus. Doris (Sea-lemon). 

INFEROBRANCHIATA (=Hypobranchia; Dipleurobranchia). 
Branchiae leaf-shaped, situated in a fold on each side. No shell. 
A family of Pleurobranchia for Schmarda, the true Pleuro- 



MOLLT7SCA. 163 

branchia forming the second family, Monopleurobrandiiata (or 
Pomatobranchiata). 

Phyllidiidfs. Pleurophyllidiidce. 

Phyllidia. Pleurophy llidia = Diphyllidia. 

TECTIBRANCIIIATA ( = Pleurobranchia). Branchiae feather- 
shaped, on the right, rarely on both sides. A shell in most, en- 
closed in the mantle. 

Branchiae lie under the edge of the mantle. Shell mostly in- 
ternal, unsymmetrical, either discoidal, subspiral, or involute 
with one or more whorls. 

Runcinida. Lophoeercus=0xy- Tornatettida. 



Runcina. 


noe. 


Acera. 




Lobiger. 


Philine. 


Pleurobranckida. 


Aplyslidte. 


Chelidonura. 
Bulla. 


Umbrella. 


Notarchus. 


Cylichna. 


Pleurobranchus. 


Doiabella. 


Aplustrum. 


Pleurobranchffia. 


Aplysia (Sea-hare). 


Tornatella. 



Order HI. PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Eespiration aquatic, effected by pectinate or plumose branchiae 
placed in a cavity in front of the heart. Animal enclosed in a 
univalve shell [multivalve in Ghitonidse]. Dioecious. Larva with 
a velum and shell. 

The shell is sometimes simple, but most commonly it is spiral ; 
in the latter the mouth [peritreme] is variously shaped, and the 
whorls coil round a pillar [coluruella], frequently perforated by a 
canal [umbilicus]. The animal is always capable of withdraw- 
ing entirely within the shell, which is sometimes closed by an 
operculum. The mantle is placed over the back of the head, and 
the branchiae are lodged beneath it, anterior to the heart. Loco- 
motion is invariably, except in lanthina, performed by crawling. 

To this order belong the limpet (Patella vulgata), money-cowry 
(Cyprcea moneta\ whelk (Buccinum undatum}, and periwinkle 
(Littorina lift or ea). Various species of Purpura and Murex 
yielded the " purple " of the ancients. 

lanthina, now generally referred to this order, is provided with 
a float which resembles a mass of soap-bubbles, having no organic 
connexion with the animal, and to which the female parent commits 
its ova, attached to one extremity. The float is then detached, 

M2 



164 



MOLLUSC A. 



and drifts away on the surface of the sea, the contents of the ova 
to be eventually warmed into a free life. 

According to Carus there are 12,000 species in this order, 
which he distributes into upwards of fifty families. The order 
has also been subjected to a somewhat cumbrous set of divisions, 
the secondary ones dependent on characters derived from the 
radula, except in Siphonostomata and Holostomata, where the 
character is taken from the form of the mouth of the shell, pro- 
duced and corresponding to the siphon of the mantle in the 
former, while it is rounded and entire in the latter. The table 
below will perhaps be sufficient to show these divisions, and the 
families, here admitted, that are placed under them. Claus, how- 
ever, makes only two sections Cyclobranchia and Ctenobran- 
chia, the latter comprising Scutibranchia, Pectinibranchia, and 
Neurobranchia, this last being included in his " group " Tsenio- 
glossa, while Scutibranchia is conterminate with the group 
" Ehipidoglossa " (=Aspidobranchia). 



CYCLOBRANCHIA. 

Polyplacophora 
Docoghssa 

SCUTIBRANCHIATA ... 

PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Siphonostomata. 

Tcenioglossa ... 

Toxoglossa 

Khaokiglossa. . . 
Holostomata. 

Ptenoglossa ... 

T&nioglossa ... 



Chitonidge. 
Patellidfe. 

Fissurellidae, Haliotidae, Trochidse, Pleuro- 
tomariidaa, Neritidse. 



Strombidge, Doliidae, Cyprasidse. 

Conidae, Terebridae. 

Muricidae, Buccinidae, Volutidae. 



lanthinidae, Scalariidas, Solariidae. 
Cerithiida3, Melaniidae, Pyraniidellidas, 

Turritellidae, Vermetidas, Xenophoridaa, 

Naticidaa, Calyptraeidas, Littorinidae, Pa- 

ludinidaa. 
NEUROBRANCHIATA (=Pulmonata operculata). Helicinida?, Cy- 

clostomidae, CyclophoridaB, Aciculidas. 



Chitonidcs. Lepeta. 
Cryptoplax=Chito- Helcion. 
nellus. Patella (Limpet). 

Chiton * Fissurellida. 


Emarginula. 
Fissurella. 

Halwtidee. 
Haliotis (Sea-ear). 


Patellidcs. Scutus=Parmo- 
Acmasa. phorus. 


Trochidcs. 
Stomatia. 



MOLLTTSCA. 



165 



Delphinula. 


Latirus. 


Cerithiidce. 


Phasianella. 


Trophon. 


Cerithium. 


Trochus. 
Gibbula. 


Typhis. 
Murex. 


Potamides. 


Astraliura = Impe- 




Melaniidce. 


rator. 


BuccinidcB. 


T)' 


Margarita. 
Turbo. 


Buccinum (Whelk). 
Nassa. 


Jr irena. 
Melania. 


PleurotomariidcB. 
*Pleurotomaria. 

Neritidcs. 


Eburna. 
Purpura. 
Concholepas. 
Coralliophila. 
Bicinula. 


Pyramidellids. 
Obeliscus. 
Chfemnitzia. 
Stylifer. 
Eulima. 


Nerita. 
Neritina. 


Cuma. 
Magilus. 


Pyramidella. 


Navicella. 
*Pileolus. 


Conida. 
Conus (Cone). 


Turritellidcs. 
Turritella. 


lanthinida. 
lanthina. 
Eecluzia. 


Terebride. 
Cancellaria. 
Pleurotoma. 


Vermetidoe. 
Vermetus. 
Siliquaria. 


Solariidce. 


Terebra. 


, ., 


*Cyclogyra. 
Solarium. 


Cyprceidos. 
CyprsBa (Cowry). 


<& / flypfl01*l(t(B. 

Xenophorus= 
Phorus. 


Scalariidfg. 
Scalaria (Wentle- 


Ovula. 
Pedicularia. 


Naticida. 
Velutina. 


trap). 


DoliidcB. 


Sigaretus. 


Volutidce. 
Marginella. 
Voluta. 


Sycotypus = Ficus. 
Tritonium = Triton. 
Eanella. 


Natica. 
Entoconcha. 


Cymbium. 
Mitra. 


Dolium. 
Oniscia. 


Calyptrceidos. 


Harpa. 
Oliva. 
Ancillaria. 


Cassis. 
Strombida. 


Pileopsis = Capulus. 
Calyptrasa, 
Trochita. 




Terebellum. 


Crepidula. 


MuricidcB. 


Aporrhais. 


Hipponyx. 


Pyrula. 


Eostellaria. 


Amathina. 


Columbella. 


Pterocera. 





Fusus. 


Strombus. 


Marsenia. 



166 


MOLLTJSCA. 




Littorinida. 


Bithynia. 


CyclopJiorid 


Eissoa. 
Hydrobia. 
Assiminia. 
Littorina (Peri- 
winkle). 


Helicinidce. 

Stoastoma. 
Helicina. 
Proserpina. 


Pomatius. 
Cyclotus. 
Cyclophorus. 
Diplomniatina. 
Pupina. 




CyclostomidcB. 


Aciculidcs 


_Pfl ludinidcB, 

Paludina. 
Ampullaria. 


Cyclostoma. 
Cboanopoma. 
Leptopoma. 


Truncatella. 
Acicula. 


Valrata. 


Eealia. 





Order IV. PULMONIFEEA. 

PULMOXATA. PuLMOGASTEROPODA. 

Eespiration either aerial or aquatic, carried on by the lining 
membrane of a pulmonary cavity. Head distinct. Hermaphro- 
dite. Larva with the velum absent or inconspicuous. 

The pulmonary sac or cavity is placed near the neck on the 
right side, and communicates with the external air by a single 
aperture. Many of the terrestrial species have cutaneous foli- 
cular glands which secrete a granular mucus. A curious organ 
is a pyriform muscular sac, containing one or two slender conical 
styles, which can be thrust out through the aperture of the sac ; 
they are found in certain snails, and with them they pierce each 
other's skin. They are known as " love-darts." 

In some species the ova are of very large size. Gadinia, Sipho- 
naria, &c. have simple patelliform shells. Some have no shells, 
or the shell is very small or is hidden within the mantle. The 
common garden-snail (Helix aspersa) and the slugs, of which we 
have five or six species belonging to Arion and Limax, are mem- 
bers of this order. Amphibola is the only genus with an oper- 
culum ; it is also without tentacles. 

Many species hibernate ; during hibernation the shell is closed 
by an epiphragm, a calcareous secretion of the foot, which is 
dropped when hibernation is over. 

Helicidse [ = G-eophila ; Stylommatophora] is the only exclu- 
sively land family. They have their eyes, except in Onchidium, 
placed on retractile stalks or tentacles (two or four). The re- 
maining families [included under the name Basommatophora] are 
found in fresh or brackish waters. About 6500 species are con- 
tained in this order. 



MOLLUSC A. 167 



Auriculidce. 


Amphibolida. 


Achatina. 


Carychium. 
Auricula. 


Amphibola = Ampul- 
lacera. 


Bulirnus. 
Helix (Snail). 


Pythia. 




Arion (Slug). 


Scarabus. 


Siphonariidce. 


Geomalacus. 


Melampus. 


Siphonaria. 


Sagda. 

TT " 1 






Hyalma. 


LimnceidcB. 


ffelicidcs. 


Zonites. 


Physa. 


Succinea. 


Nanina. 


Chilina. 
Amphipeplea. 


Simpulopsis. 
Janella. 


"Vitrina. 
Parmacella. 


Limutea (Mud-snail). 


Clausilia. 


Limax (Slug). 


Planorbis (Pond- 


Zua. 


Glandina. 


suail). 


Balea. 


Ennea. 


Ancylus. 


Azeca. 


Streptaxis. 




Pupa. 


Testacella. 


GadiniidcB. 


Achatinella. 


Onchidium. 


Ghidinia. 


Cylindrella. 


Perouia. 



Class V. HETEROPODA. 

NUCLEOBRANCHIATA. 

Free-swimming pelagic mollusks, mostly with a shell, and pro- 
vided with a fin- like tail or with a ventral fin. With or without 
branchige. Sexes distinct. 

The locomotive organs are modifications of the foot ; these are 
directed upwards, the animal swimming on its back. In Atlanta 
with a spiral shell, the foot is provided with an operculum. 
Firola has no shell ; Carinaria has a small conical transparent 
shell which hangs below, protecting the heart, branchiae, &c. The 
remainder of the animal is a gelatinous transparent sac with two 
eyes and a pair of tentacles. Bellerophon is one of the genera 
of shells which goes to form the limestone beds of the Silurian 
and Carboniferous epochs. 

This class is generally regarded as a simple order of Gastro- 
poda ; but it is a subclass for Glaus. Its peculiarities are only 
developed in the later stages of the embryo. 

Only two families are included in the Heteropoda. 

Firolida. Atlantidce. 

Firola = Pterotrachea. Atlanta. 

Carinaria. Oxygyrus. 

Cardiopoda. *Beilerophon. 



168 MOLLUSCA. 



Class VI. CEPHALOPODA. 

Free oceanic mollusks, with a distinct head ; swimming or 
moving by long arms [modifications of the foot] placed around 
the mouth ; the arms often provided with suckers [acetabula]. 
Mouth with two long beak -like jaws, and provided with a radula. 
Body sacciform. Sexes distinct. 

The most highly organized of the Mollusca ; the blood, however, 
is colourless, or with a slightly bluish, greenish, or yellowish tint, 
due to the presence of copper. The heart consists of a ventricle, 
two or four auricles, and two aortse. Respiration is effected by 
two or four branchiae placed within the mantle ; the water enter- 
ing into the branchial cavity is ejected through a peculiar tube or 
funnel [infundibulum], corresponding to the epipodium of the 
Pteropoda. The cerebral ganglia are often protected by a car- 
tilage or rudimentary cranium, at the base of which are the 
two organs of hearing [otocystsj. The eyes approach the ver- 
tebrate type ; they include a cornea, sclerotica, crystalline lens, 
retina, and vitreous and aqueous humours, and they are moved 
by muscles which arise from the orbital cartilages. In the Nau- 
tilus the eye is " a mere cup lined by the retina." 

The change of colour noticeable in these animals in a living 
state is due to small pigment-cells [chromatophores] capable of 
dilatation, and, when contracted, appearing as so many specks. 

Reproduction is by ova of comparatively large size ; there is 
no metamorphosis, and there is no lower form of invertebrate life 
manifested by the embryo at any time during its development ; 
on the other hand, " no arrested stage of development of any 
higher animal would produce any thing like a Cephalopod." 
[Owen.] 

This class, according to Schmarda, includes 218 living and 1780 
extinct forms ; it is divided into two orders : 

Arms with suckers DIBRANCHIATA. 

Arms without suckers.... .. TETRABRANCHIATA. 



Order I. TETRABRANCHIATA. 

TENTACULIFERA. 

Four branchiae. Arras more than ten, without suckers. Shell 
external, camerated. No ink-bag. 



MOLLUSC A. 169 

The shell is divided into chambers by transverse septa, through 
which runs a slender tube [siph uncle], which may be either cen- 
tral, dorsal, or lateral. In the adult of the pearly nautilus 
(Nautilus pompilius] only one fourth of the shell is occupied by 
the animal, the remainder having been progressively evacuated as 
it required more room. The empty chambers are said to contain 
air. There are no important differences between the sexes. 
Nautilus is the only existent genus. The extinct forms were nu- 
merous in the Palaeozoic and Secondary periods. The Ammoni- 
ticlse were almost entirely confined to the latter period. 

AmmonitidcB. Orthoceratidce. Nautilid<s. 

* Ammonites. *Orthoceras. *Clymenia. 

*Baculites. *Cyrtoceras. Nautilus. 
*Ancyloceras. 

Order II. DIBEANCHIATA. 

ACETABULIFERA. 

Two branchiae. Arms eight or ten, with suckers. With or 
without an external shell. Provided with an ink-bag. 

The female Argonauta, and not the male, is provided with an 
external shell. It is secreted by the dilated dorsal pair of arms, 
and is not divided into chambers. Spirilla has a chambered shell 
enclosed by the mantle ; only a small portion of the body of the 
animal occupies the last chamber. Three species are known. 
In the extinct Liassic genus Belemnites the shell was conical and 
internal, having a " camerated and siphoniferous structure." In 
the remaining genera there is an internal shell in the form of a 
dorsal plate, which is either calcareous (as in Sepia] or corneous 
(as in Loligo}. An ink-bag, enclosed in the visceral cavity, for 
the secretion of a black fluid, which is discharged through the 
infundibulum, is always present, even in the extinct species. 

The " hectocotylus " is a peculiar modification of one of the 
arms of tlie male as a sex-organ ; in performing its genetic func- 
tion it becomes detached, but another is subsequently developed. 
It was first described, when so detached, as a parasitic worm, 
which Cuvier afterwards named "Hectocotylus." 

Some species of this class attain a large size ; Architeuthis dux 
is said to have arms forty feet long. They are all predatory and 
carnivorous animals. 

The order has been divided into two suborders Decapoda and 
Octopoda ; and the former again divided and subdivided. The 
extinct forms are only known in the Secondary and Tertiary epochs. 



170 



MOLLrSCA. 



DECAPOD A. 


Loligwida. 


Cranchiidce. 


Spirulidce. 
Spirula. 


Loligo = Teuthis(Ca- 
lamary, Squid). 
Sepioteuthis. 


Cranchia. 


Belcmnitida. 
*Belemnites. 


Chiroteuthida. 

Chiroteuthis. 


OCTOPODA. 

Octopodida. 


*Spirulites. 


Histioteuthis. 


Octopus. 


SepiidcB. 


Octopodoteuthis. 
Architeuthis. 


Eledone. 
Cirroteuthis. 


Sepia (Cuttle-fish). 
*Belosepia. 

SepiolidcB. 


Ommastrephes. 
Onychia. 
Enoploteuthis. 


ArgonauHdce. 
Argonauta (Paper 


Sepiola. 


LoligopsidcB. 


Nautilus). 


Eossia. 


Loligopsis. 


Philonexis. 



Class VII. TUNICATA. 

SACCOPHORA. ASCOZOA. PUOTOVERTEBRATA. UROCIIORDA. 

Marine, simple or compound, unsymmetrical animals, pro- 
tected by a coriaceous sac, or, in the compound, jelly-like skin, 
with two apertures [oral and a trial]. No foot. Heart a simple 
tube. Mostly hermaphrodite. Young tadpole-like, free-swim- 
ming. 

The nervous system is confined to a single ganglion with its 
branches. Tbere are no eyes, but one or more pigment-spots 
have been detected. There are also a liver, stomach, and convo- 
luted intestine, the former sometimes rudimentary, but usually 
very large ; in the latter the flexure is hsemal, according to Huxley, 
not neural as in Polyzoa. 

The Tunicata follow the Mollusca, and are a " typus " or sub- 
kingdom for Claus. They form Schmarda's twenty-third class, 
which he places between Polyzoa and Mollusca. Hackel classes 
them with Vermes, but having a " true blood-relationship" with 
Vertebrata. Huxley considers them "in many respects" an 
isolated group. 

There are two orders ; but their limits are not very definite, 
Pyrosoma and Doliolum being in some respects intermediate. 

A single ribbon-shaped branchia EIPHORA. 

A pharynx acting as branchiae ASCIDIOIDA. 



MOLLT7SCA. 171 

Order I. BIPHOKA. 
THALIA. THALIACEA. T^ENIOBRANCHIATA. MONOCHITONIDA. 

Outer and inner integuments united throughout. Branchia 
ribbon-shaped. An opening at each extremity. Free-swimming. 
Sexes distinct. 

Salpidae were said to be solitary in one generation, which, by 
gemmation, gave birth to a connected group in the next. This 
was the ' ' simplest form " of the alternations of generations. But 
it is now maintained by Brooks and Todare that the solitary and 
the grouped individuals are the offspring of the same parent, the 
former being the result of sexual reproduction (the female), 
the latter of budding (the chain of males). Like the Pyroso- 
rnatidas, they are brilliantly luminous. 

As individuals these animals are transparent, tubular in shape, 
and when united form a long chain, sometimes called by seamen 
" sea-serpents." On the west coast of Scotland they are occa- 
sionally found in vast numbers ; at such times M'Intosh com- 
pares the appearance of the sea to boiled sago, and Huxley 
speaks of their masses through " which the voyager in the great 
ocean sails day after day." 

Doliolidre are pelagic, and are represented by sexual and sexless 
forms. They are transparent cask-shaped organisms, progressing 
by contracting and forcing the water out at one or the other 
extremity. The branchiae consist of ciliated tubular bars, di- 
viding the respiratory sac into two chambers. 

Schmarda refers Appendiculariidas and Pyrosomatidse to this 
order. 



Salpidcs. 
Salpa= Thalia. Doliolum. 

Order II. ASCIDIOIDA. (Ascidians.) 
ASCIDIACEA. TETHYONACEA. SACCOBRANCHIATA. CHTHONASCIDLE. 

DlCHITONIDA. 

A dilated pharynx performing the functions of branchise. 
Outer and inner integuments only united at their apertures, or 
by blood-vessels at a few other points. 

The pharynx acts as a respiratory organ as it passes the sea- 
water and nutrient matter to the stomach ; it is " always exceed- 
ingly dilated," and the sides more or less perforated. The entry 
to this pharyngeal or " branchial " sac is occasionally guarded by 



172 MOLLTTSCA. 

a circle of short tentacles. Hancock considered the sac to be 
the rudiments of the lamellibranchiate gills. A peculiarity of 
the Ascidians is the longitudinal fold in the pharynx, termed the 
" endostyle ;" its use is unknown, but it may be a sensitive 
organ. 

The outer integument, or sac, of the Ascidians " secretes upon 
its surface a case, or ' test,' which may vary in consistence from 
jelly to hard leather or horn :" the test is " rendered solid by 
impregnation with a substance identical in all respects with the 
' cellulose ' which is the proximate principle of woody fibre and 
forms the chief part of the skeleton of plants." An inner inte- 
gument or tunic is composed of longitudinal and circular mus- 
cular fibres. Of the two apertures, the atrial leads into a large 
cavity lined by a membrane or third tunic. The anus opens 
near the mouth. 

With a somewhat complex organization, the only vital action 
seems to be an occasional ejection of water from the two openings 
followed by a sudden contraction. 

^Reproduction, whether by buds or by ova, is of the most com- 
plex description. Some larval forms develop zooids, and these 
maybe " supplanted " by other zooids. The morphological con- 
ditions are peculiar and deceptive, and varied or modified ac- 
cording to the species. The young from the ova are like tad- 
poles, swimming about by means of a long tail ; but in the com- 
pound Ascidians the tail is lost before leaving the egg. As adults 
they are mostly fixed to some foreign body. The compound 
species may be seen coating the under surfaces of rocks on most 
of our shores. Their food, according to Hancock, is " extracted 
from sedimentary matters." 

The Ascidians are regarded by Kowalewsky and others as the 
nearest relations of the Vertebrata, in consequence of the pre- 
sence in the larval form of the rod-like body (notochord), which 
disappears in the mature animal, and in the Vertebrata is re- 
placed by the spinal column. One of many objections to any 
identity of development in the Ascidians and Vertebrates in this 
respect is that the rod-like body is ventral in the former and is 
developed in the same cavity as the viscera. 

Huxley remarks that "In the Ascidians the central nervous 
system is produced by the invagination of the epiblast, as in the 
Vertebrata, and that, in most, the m'esoblast of a caudal prolon- 
gation gives rise to an axial column flanked by paired myotomes, 
which are comparable to the notochord and myotomes of the 
vertebrate embryo." Other authorities, however, consider that 
the Annelids stand nearer to the Vertebrata. 



MOLLUSCA. 



173 



Appendiculariidae [ = " suborder Copelatse "] appear to retain 
a tadpole-like larval form through life. Of Appendicularia 
flagettum, Huxley says it has " an ovoid or flask-like body, one 
sixth to one fourth of an inch m length, to which is attached a 
long curved lanceolate appendage or tail, by whose powerful 
vibratory motions it is rapidly propelled through the water." 
It has the power of excreting from the surface, " with extreme 
rapidity, a mucilaginous cuticular investment, in the interior of 
which, as in a spacious case, the whole body is lodged." 

The two British species of Pelonaiidse are found in the mud in 
deep water ; they are not fixed, and their outer and inner integu- 
ments are united. According to Goodsir and Forbes, " they 
indicate a relation to the cirrhograde Echinodermata." Clavel- 
linidae are social, connected by creeping prolongations of a common 
stem, and having a common circulation. Botryllidae are com- 
pound, each individual imbedded in a jelly-like substance ; and 
Aseidiidae are simple forms, always fixed. Hypobythius occurs at 
a depth of l!900 fathoms. 

Pyrosomatidae [ = " suborder Lucise"] are free-swimming aggre- 
gations of individuals united together in the form of a hollow 
cylinder, sometimes 14 inches long, one end of each individual 
opening into the cavity of the cylinder. They are highly 
luminous, two phosphorescent organs being found in each indi- 
vidual ; they are pelagic, and seem merely to float about in the 
water. 



Appendicidariidce. 


Ciona. 


Botryllidce. 


Appendicularia. 


Hypobythius. 
Ascidia = Phallusia. 


Polyclinum. 
Amaurcecium. 


Pelonaiidce, 
Pelonaia. 


Boltenia. 
Chelyosoma. 
Chevreulia= 


Aplidium. 
Sidnyum. 
Diazona. 


Ascidiidce. 


Schizascus. 


Didemnurn. 






Distomus. 


Engyra. 
Molffula. 


Clavellinidce. 


Botryllus. 



Cynthia. 
Styela. 



Clavellina. 
Perophora. 



Pyrosomatidce. 
Pyrosoma. 



174 

Subkingdom VII. VERTEBRATA. 

MYELENCEPHALA. 

Red-blooded animals, with the mass of the nervous centres 
enclosed in a bony axis [cerebro-spinal system]. Sexes always 
distinct. 

The cerebro-spinal system is not represented among inver- 
tebrated animals, their ganglionic system being only the homo- 
logues of the vertebrate sympathetic system. Among invertebrates 
there is only one general cavity, in which the viscera and circula- 
tory organs are contained. This is the " haemal " region. In ver- 
tebrates a "neural" region, containing the great nervous masses, 
is also present. In the embryo the two cavities are developed 
at an early period. 

Another character in which the vertebrate embryo differs from 
all others is in the possession of a "notochord " or "chorda dor- 
salis ;" this is found in early embryonic life before the cerebro- 
spinal axis is complete ; it is a rod-like body, the " substance of 
the centre of the floor " of the spinal column, by which in most 
cases it is replaced. An amniou and allantois, foetal membranes, 
are confined to reptiles, birds, and mammals. 

Vertebrates only have true teeth ; these are quite distinct from 
bone, and belong to the dermal appendages. The jaws are in- 
variably above and below ; never on each side. The muscles are 
always external to the bones. 

Owen divides the Vertebrata into Hgematocrya and Haemato- 
therma cold- and warm-blooded animals respectively. Huxley 
recognizes three primary divisions Mammalia, Sauropsida (com- 
prising birds and reptiles), and Ichthyopsida (amphibia and fishes). 
Hackel has four " main classes " Leptocardia or Acrania; Mono- 
rhina, lampreys only ; Anauinionata (=Anallontoidea), fishes and 
amphibia; and Amnionata (=Allantoidea), reptiles, birds, and 
mammals, the last comprised in Pachycardia or Craniota ( = Holo- 
crania). Ray Lankester, adopting Leptocardia (but with the name 
of Cephalochorda) and Craniota, includes also Urochorda(=Tu- 
nicata) in the Vertebrata. 

The five universally recognized classes are : 

Cold-blooded ; heart with less than two auricles and 

two ventricles. 
Gills present, at least in the earlier stages. 

No lungs PISCES. 

Lungs in the adult AMPHIBIA. 



VERTEBRA! A. 175 

Gills never present KEFTILIA. 

Warm-blooded ; heart with two auricles and two ven- 
tricles. 

Oviparous; no mammary glands AVES. 

Viviparous; mammary glands in the female MAMMALIA. 



Class I. PISCES. (Fishes.) 

Vertebrate animals, breathing by gills throughout life, and 
covered by scales or naked, the scales overlapping each other or 
imbedded in the skin, or taking the form of detached tubercles or 
of spines. Heart with one auricle and one ventricle. Blood cold. 
Limbs in the form of fins ; caudal fin vertical. 

Although the blood is cold, there is no doubt that it is higher 
than the surrounding temperature, especially in the spawning- 
season. One of the characters of this class is to have the ver- 
tebras concave at both ends [amphiccelous] ; the cavity thus 
formed is filled with the remains of the notochord. The aorta is 
very generally enlarged at its junction with the ventricle [conus 
or buibus arteriosus] and is capable of rhythmical contraction. 
The sound (air-bladder or swiui-bladder), peculiar to fishes, is 
generally present, and is often connected with the oesophagus by 
an air-tube. The air in this organ varies according to the species, 
and is believed to be secreted by the inner membrane ; in some 
species there are muscles for compressing it. It is mostly simple, 
but is sometimes cellular, and is variable in form even in species 
of the same genus. The air-bladder is supposed to regulate the 
specific gravity of the fish ; but in many good swimmers it is 
absent, or it may be present in one or absent in a closely allied 
congener. In Lepidosiren and Ceratod'iis it is lung-like, and acts 
as a respiratory organ. The skin of fishes is more closely con- 
nected to the underlying flesh than in other vertebrates. In most 
there is a lateral line of peculiar scales, each of which is perfo- 
rated by a tube communicating with a longitudinal canal, giving 
passage to a mucous secretion produced by the glands beneath 
and connected with cavities in the head. The use is unknown ; 
according to Vogt it is a system of absorbent vessels, while Leydig 
considers it to be subservient to the sense of touch. 

The vertebrae are of two kinds, " characterized by the direction 
of the parapophyses." They vary in number from 15 to 236, or 
350 in some of the sharks ; but, owing to the coalescence of some 



176 VERTEBRATA. 

of them, it is not easy to determine their exact number. The head 
contains the heart and breathing-organs as well as the brain. 

The organ of hearing (it has been doubted if they hear at all) 
is rather complicated in fishes, although a tympanum and cochlea 
are absent ; two osseous bodies (otolites) are generally found in 
the vestibule. 

The teeth are not always present, e.g. pipe-fishes, sturgeons, &c. 
In others they are very numerous, and attached to other bones 
besides maxillae and mandibles ; they are shed and renewed 
throughout the whole of their lives. 

In their earlier stages of growth many fishes are known to un- 
dergo great changes, nor is growth known to be definitely ar- 
rested at maturity. The eye, however, ceases to grow at an early 
stage, so that "old fishes have comparatively smaller eyes than 
young ones." Fishes are very prolific ; the roe of the cod is said 
to contain nine millions of ova. 

A few species are viviparous. In no fish is there a trace of an 
amnion or of an allantois. 

Fish swimming near the surface respire more oxygen than those 
living at greater depths ; hence they die soon after they are taken 
out of the water, such are pilchards, salmon, mackerel, &c. Many 
are enabled to live in mud when hardened and dried up by the 
sun, and others may be kept for a time in a frozen state without 
destroying life. 

Among the many deep-sea fishes discovered during the ' Chal- 
lenger' expedition, one, Halosaurus restrains, was found to live 
at a depth of 2750 fathoms. 

Fishes were most abundant during the Old Red Sandstone 
epoch ; the earliest traces of them are found in the Silurian rocks. 
Of the recent species some 12,000 are described ; of these only 
about 220 inhabit the English seas and rivers, but there are no 
seas which yield so many for the table, whether in species or in- 
dividuals. 

It is difficult to find two writers agreeing upon the classification 
of fishes. Some consider that the class should be so limited as to 
exclude the Pharyngobranchii, the Marsipobranchii, and the Dip- 
noi, each of these also forming a class. Dr. Gtinther, taking 
the three groups as subclasses, and uniting Chondropterygii to 
the Ganoidei under the name of Palaeichthyes, makes, together 
with the Teleostei, five subclasses. Prof. Huxley more recently 
adheres to the six orders adopted by him some years ago, though 
he has since proposed certain primary divisions in reference prin- 
cipally to the mode of attachment of the jaws to the skull. 
Another classification, founded almost exclusively on the skeleton, 



VERTEBRATA. 177 

has been proposed by Dr. Cope ; it is of a most radical character, 
what nearly corresponds to the Teleostei being divided into 24 
orders, all with new names. A good account, by Dr. Th, Gill, of 
the various systems previous to 1873 is given in the 'American 
Naturalist,' vii. pp. 71 et seq. 

Schmarda (1878) has six subclasses with fourteen orders. The 
former are Leptocarclii, Cyclostomata, Selachii, " Ganoidea," Te- 
leostei, and Dipnoi. The last four constitute the subclass Euich- 
thyes for Glaus, Leptocardii and " Cyclostorni" forming the other 
two subclasses of his arrangement. 

The orders here adopted are those recognized by Huxley, with 
the addition of Cuvier's two orders Lophobranchii and Plecto- 
gnathi, and Muller's order Holocephali. Giinther's arrangement 
of the families and genera has been generally followed, except 
that the sequence has been reversed. Some families have only 
one species in each. 

Without lungs, branchiae only. 

No skull PHARYNGOBRANCHII. 

With a skull. 

No lower jaw MARSIPOBRANCHII. 

With a lower jaw. 
With free gill-covers. 
Gills pectinate. 

Without true scales PLECTOGNATHI. 

With true scales. 

Scales horny, overlapping each 

other, &c TELEOSTEI. 

Scales bony, not overlapping. . . GANOIDEI. 

Gills in tufts LOPHOBRANCHII. 

Gill-covers rudimentary ; one branchial 

aperture HOLOCEPHALI. 

Gill-covers absent ; 5-7 branchial aper- 
tures CHONDROPTERYGII. 

With lungs and branchiae DIPNOI. 



Order I. PHAEYNGOBEANCHII. 

ACEPHALA. MYELOZOA. CIRROSTOMI. ENTOMOCRANIA. ACRANIA. 
LEPTOCARDII. CEPHALOCHORDA. 

Notochprd persistent. Skeleton membrano-cartilaginous. No 
skull, brain, limbs, nor heart. Mouth without jaws, surrounded 
with cirri. 



178 VERTEBRATA. 

The persistent notochord extends beyond the cerebro-spinal 
axis, in all other vertebrates it stops behind the pituitary gland. 
Some of the great blood-vessels are rhythmically contractile, but 
the blood is colourless. Eespiration is effected by a ciliary mem- 
brane lining the pharynx, which extends to nearly half the length 
of the body, and is continued into a straight simple intestine. The 
eyes are rudimentary, there is no organ of hearing, and there are 
no scales. 

Until very recently only one species was certainly known, the 
lancelet, AmpTiioxus lanceolatus ; it is found on the English coast, 
and is probably an inhabitant of most seas. It is a small trans- 
parent creature, with a delicate fin extending the whole length 
of the back and passing round the tail to the anus. Pallas first 
described it as a Limcuc. Peters has a second genus from Moreton 
Bay, Epigonichtfiys ; it has no anal nor caudal fin, and the anal 
aperture is median ; only one species is known E. cultellus. 

Amphioxus=Branchiostoma. 

Order IL MAESIPOBEANCHII. 

CYCLOSTOMI. MONORIIIXA. DERMOPTERI. 

Notochord persistent. Skeleton cartilaginous ; no ribs nor 
limbs. Mouth suctorial, but without jaws. Gills sac-like, com- 
municating externally by six or seven holes. No bulbus arte- 
riosus. 

The body is eel-shaped, and the skin is without scales. The 
eyes are either wanting or are very small. The mouth, longitu- 
dinal when closed, circular when open, has flexible lips capable 
of adhering to any smooth substance, with numerous small teeth 
within. There is only one nasal opening. In Myxine the lips 
are provided with 6-8 cirri, and its teeth are developed in the 
median line of the palate. 

There is a distinct brain ; but the skull is without sutures, and 
not separable from the vertebral column. There is no air-bladder. 
The kidneys are well developed. 

The hag (Myxine glutinosa) is without eyes ; it bores into and 
lives in the interior of other fish. The pride (Ammoccetes branchi- 
alis} is the larval form of the river-lampreys (Petromyzan fluvia- 
tilis and P. planeri) ; it is three years before the adult form is 
acquired. Conodonts, supposed to belong to the Myxinidae, are 
minute Palaeozoic tooth-like fossils. 

There are two families. Hyperotreta of Miiller are the Myxi- 
nidse, and his Hyperoartia are the Petromyzontidse. 



VEETEBRATA. 179 

Myxinida. Petromyzontidce. 

Myxine = Gastrobranchus Petromyzon (Lamprey). 

(Hag). Geotria. 

Bdellostoma. Mordacia. 



Order III. TELEOSTEI. 

TELEOSTOMI. 

Skeleton osseous; cranium of many bones, provided with a 
lower jaw. Gills free, pectinate, protected by a bony gill-cover 
[operculum], with gill-membrane and rays. Body covered with 
imbricated scales. Bulbus arteriosus not rhythmically contrac- 
tile. 

The scales are sometimes embedded in the skin, as in the Murse- 
nidiB, and there are no true scales in the Siluridse. They are, 
however, mostly present, thin and flexible, either with their edges 
entire (cycloid) or with their posterior edges toothed (ctenoid). 
They are marked with concentric and radiating lines. In some 
the scales are partially ossified, e. g. the Tunny. " Argentine " is 
the name of the silvery matter of the scale ; the brighter colours 
are due to pigment-cells in the skin. 

The skull is very complex, owing to the number of bones, which 
are, however, only centres of ossification. Four branchial arches 
on each side, articulated to the base of the cranium, support the 
gills. The operculum or gill-cover, attached to the hyoid arches, 
id composed of four flat bones, below which are the bony rays sus- 
taining the branchiostegous or gill-membrane. 

The muscular system of these fishes is made up of a series of 
vertical flakes (myotomes) corresponding in number with the ver- 
tebrae ; they are connected together by a gelatinous tissue, which 
is dissolved by boiling. The vertebrae are often very numerous 
(236 in Gymnotus) ; they either gradually diminish in size to 
the end (Muraenidae), or end, as a rule, in a compressed series of 
anchylosed bones, from which the caudal rays proceed. A caudal 
fin so formed has almost always two equal lobes (homocercal). 

Lcptocephalus and Hyoprorus are probably, according to 
Gunther, the offspring of Mursenids arrested in their develop- 
ment in early life, yet continuing to grow without corresponding 
development, and never attaining the character of perfect animals. 
The former, indeed, is now said to be the larval form of the 
confer. 

Nearly all the ordinary fishes (about 9000 species) are contained 



180 VERTEBRATA. 

in this order; among them are the eel (Avguilla acutirostris), 
conger eel (Conger vulgaris), sprat (Clupea sprattus), sardine 
(Clupea sarda), pilchard (Cliipea pilchardus), herring (Clupea 
karengus) [the young is the whitebait], shad (Alausa communis), 
anchovy, (Engraulis encrasicholus), loche (Cobitis iarforzWa), barbel 
(Barbus vulgaris), bream (Abramis brama), roach (Leuciscus ru- 
tilus\ dace (Leuciscus vttlffons), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), bleak 
(Alburnus lucidus), minnow (Phoxinus minimus), gudgeon (Gobio 
fluviatilis), tench (Tinea wlgaris), carp (Cyprinus carpio), gold- 
fish ( Cyprinus auratus), pike (Esox lucius), smelt ( Osmerus eper- 
lanus), salmon (Salmo salar) [parr, smolt, salmon-peal, or 
grilse &c. the earlier stages, kelt is the female after spawning], 
trout (Salmo fario), sea-trout (Salmo trutta), charr (Salmo 
salvelinus\ gwyniad (Coregonus lavaretus), holibut (Hippo- 
glossus vulgaris\ turbot (Rhombus maximus), brill (Rhombus 
vulgaris), sole (Solea vulgaris), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), 
flounder (Pleuronectes flesus), ling (Molva vulgaris), hake (Mcr- 
luccius vulgaris\ cod (Gadus morrhua), whiting (Gadus mer- 
langus), pollack (Gadus pollachius), haddock (Gadus ceglefinus}, 
bib or whiting-pout (Gadus lusctis], mullet (Mugil cephalus), 
atherine or sand-smelt (Atherina presbyfer), sword-fish (Xiphias 
gladius), scad (Caranx trachurus), dory (Zeus faber\ pilot-fish 
( Centronotus ductor), tunny ( Thynnus vulgaris), bouito ( Thynnus 
pelamys), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), barracouta (Fphyrcena 
baracuda), bream [sea] (Pagellus erythrinus), red mullet or striped 
surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), basse (Labrax lupus), and' perch 
(Perca fluviatilis). 

The Teleostei are sometimes ranked as a subclass, and four of 
the five divisions below as orders, the Apoda and the Abdominalia 
forming the Physostomi ; and to these are sometimes added the 
Plectognathi and the Lophobranchii, which are here treated as 
separate orders. The Siluridffi, as supposed descendants of the 
sturgeons, are placed by Cope after Amiidje. Pegasus is an ano- 
malous form, generally placed with the pipe-fishes. 

Fin -rays soft, articulate. 

Ventral fins none APODA. 

Ventral fins abdominal ABDOMINALIA. 

Ventral fins pectoral or jugular ANACANTHINI. 

Bays of the dorsal, ventral, and anal fins 

SpinOUS ACANTHOPTERYGII. 

APODA. Fin-rays soft; no ventral fins. Swim-bladder fur- 
nished with an air-tube. 

Voracious fresh- and salt-water fish. Body long, slender; the 



YERTEBRATA. 



181 



Ophichthys. 
Muragna. 

Symbranchidcs. 
Symbranchus. 
Monopterus. 


G-ymnotida. 
Carapus. 
Sternarchus. 
Ehamphicthys. 
Grymnotus (Electric 
eel). 



scales are minute and embedded in the skin. Gymnotushns two 
sets of electrical organs. 



Mu/reenidee. 
Saccopharynx. 
Anguilla (Eel). 
Conger. 
Ophisurus. 
Myrus. 



ABDOMIXALIA. Fin-rays soft ; the first dorsal and first pectoral 
rays frequently spinous. Ventral fins behind the pectoral. Swim- 
bladder furnished with an air-tube. 

Fresh- and salt-water fish ; a few only, chiefly Cyprinidte, are 
vegetable feeders. The skin is either naked or covered with 
cycloid scales ; some of the Siluridae are encased in bony plates ; 
Salmonidae have the second dorsal fin without rays. Amblyo- 
psidae are remarkable for having the anus under the throat, hence 
they have received the name of Heteropygii. In Anableps the iris 
is perforated by two pupils. Malapterurus is electrical. The 
male Arius carries the eggs in its mouth until they are hatched. 
One species, the flying-fish, is capable of sustaining itself out of 
the water for about 300 yards, turning round and rising and 
falling with the swell of the sea. 

Glaus has nine families in this group. It forms the order 
Malacoptera of Schmarda. 



Halosaurida. 


Alausa (Shad). Cyprinida. 


Halosaurus. 


Clupea (Pilchard, Cobitis (Loche) . 


Notopteridce. 


1? V/A u N Barbus (Barbel). 
Engrauhs( Anchovy). Alburni j s (B}e ^ 


Notopterus. 


Abramis (Bream, or 




Osteoglossida. Carp-bream). 


Alepocephalidce. 


Osteoglossum. Leuciscus (Roach, 


Alepocephalus. 


Sudis (Piraracu). Dace, &c.). 
Phoxinus (Minnow). 


Chirocentrida. 
Chirocentrus. 


Hyodontida. Gobio (Dudgeon). 
* Tinea (Tench). 
Hyodon. Labeo 



Elops. 
Pristigaster. 



Osteochilus. 

Gonorhynckidce. Cyprinus (Carp). 
Gonorhynchus. Catastomus. 



182 



VERTEBRATA. 



Ayiblyopsida. 


Galaxiida. 


Sternoptyckida. 


Amblyopsis. 


Galaxias. 


Chauliodus. 
Sternoptyx. 


Cyprinodontida. 


Percopsida. 


Hap lochitonidfB . 


Poecilia. 
Anableps. 


Percopsis. 


Haplochiton. 
Prototroctes. 


Fundulus. 






Protistius. 


Bathythrissida. 


CkaracinidcB. 


Orestius. 
Cyprinodon. 


Bathythrissa. 


Myletes. 
Serrasalmo. 


Sco mberesocidce. 
Exocoetus (Flying- 


Salmonidce. 
Salanx. 


Gastropelecus. 
Tetragonopterus. 
Alestes. 


fish). 


Thyrnallus. 


Anostomus. 


Hemirhamphus. 
Scombresox. 
Belone (Garpike). 


Argentina. 
Coregonus. 
Osmerus (Smelt). 
Salmo (Salmon, &c.). 


Curimatus. 
Erythrinus. 


UmbridcB. 




Aspredo. 


Umbra. 


StomiatidcB. 


Loricaria. 


Esocidce. 


Stomias. 


Hypostomus. 
Malapterurus. 


Esox (Pike). 




Doras. 




Scopelida. 


Arius. 


GymnarchidcB. 


Alepidosaurus. 


Pimelodus. 


Gymnarchus. 


Paralepis. 


Amiurus. 




Scopelus. 


Macrones. 


Mormyrida. 


Aulopus. 


Silurus (Sheat-fish). 


Mormyrus. 


Saurus. 


Clarias. 



ANACANTHINI. Fins without spinous rays. Ventral fins, when 
present, either pectoral or abdominal. Scales cycloid or ctenoid. 
Air-bladder not always present. 

Salt-water fish, mostly very voracious. Pleuronectidce have 
unequally developed sides, the upper coloured, the lower white ; 
the eyes are normally placed in the young, but one of them 
passes gradually to the other or upper side ; they are either on 
the right side or the left according to the species. They have 
been separated as an order under the name of Heterosomata. 
Of the remaining families the Anacanthini Gadoidei of Giin- 
ther nothing can be said collectively, except that their scales are 
very small or wanting. The burbot (Lota vulgar-is) and the 
" freshwater trout" of Australia and Tasmania (Cradopsis mar' 
moratus) are river-fish. 



VERTEBRATA. 



183 



Pleuronectidce. 

Cynoglossus. 
Hippoglossus (Holi- 
but). 
Khouibus (Turbot). 
Synaptura. 
Solea (Sole). 
Pleuronectes (Plaice, 
&c.). 
Arnoglossus (Scald- 
fish). 


Macrurida. 
Coryphamodes. 
Macrurus. 

OphidiidcB. 
Oxvbeles = Fieras- 
fer. 
Ophidium. 
Ammodytes (Sand- 
launce, or Sand- 
eel). 
Brotula. 


Lota (Burbot). 
Motella (Eockling). 
Brosinius (Tusk). 
Eaniceps. 
Chiasmodus. 
Pbycis. 
Merluccius (Hake). 
Gadus (Cod, &c.). 

LycodidcB. 
Ly codes. 
Gymnelis. 



Ateleopus. 



Gadida. 
Molva (Ling). 



GadopsidcB. 
Gadopsis. 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. Dorsal, anal, and ventral fins with spinous 
rays. Scales cycloid in most. Inferior pharyngeal bones some- 
times united (Pharyngognathi). 

Mostly salt-water fish. Pharyngognathi of some authors in- 
clude Chromidae, Labridse, Pomacentridse, and Scomberesocidae, 
but the limits are uncertain. Embioticidae (Holconoti) are fresh- 
water fishes from Japan and California, whose females retain 
their young in a pouch at the end of the ovarium until they are 
one-third grown. Osphrornenidse (=Labyrinthica) have a pecu- 
liar cavity above the gills for retaining the water, whereby they 
are enabled to remain on land for several days at a time. Cata- 
phracti are synonymous with Triglidas, and Pediculata or Hali- 
batrachi with Lophiidas. The ventral fins in Cyclopterida? are 
modified into an adhesive disk ; while in the rernora (Echeneis 
remora) the spinous dorsal is so modified. Chsetodontidae have 
the dorsal and anal fins scaly at the base. Sticklebacks are re- 
markable among fishes as almost the only nest-builders ; the work 
is done by the males. 



Chromida. 
Cichla. 
Heros. 
Acara. 
Chromis. 



Embioticid(B. 
Ditrema = Embio- 
tica = Holconotus. 
Hysterocarpus. 



Gerrida. 



Labridae. 



Gerres. 



Odax. 
Scarus. 



Gomphosus. 

lulis. 

Epibulus. 

Platyglossus. 

Cossyphus. 

Choerops. 

Crenilabrus. 

Labrus (Wrasse). 



184 



YERTEBBATA. 



Pomacentrida. 


Mugilida. 


Lophotida. 


Amphiprion. 


Myxus; 


Lophotes. 


Pomacentrus. 


Agonostoma. 




Glyphisodon. 


Mugil (Mullet). 


Trachypteridce. 






Stylophorus. 


' Notacanthid<e. 


Atherinida. 


Eegalecus. 


Notacanthus. 


Tetragon urus. 


Trachypterus. 




Atherina (Sand- 




Mastacemhelidce. 


smelt). 


ComephoridcB. 
Comephorus. 


Rhynchobdella. 
Mastacembelus. 


Luciocephalida. 
Luciocephalus. 


Acanthoclinidce. 
Acanthoclinus. 


F'istulariida. 
Aulostoma. 
Fistularia. 


Osphromenida:. 
Anabas (" Climbing 
perch"). 


Blenniidce. 

Anarrhioas (Wolf- 
fj a i,\ 




Osphromenus. 


n8n^. 
Patsecus 


Centriscida. 




Centronotus = Gun- 


Amphisile. 


Polycentrida. 


nellus. 


Centrisous. 


Polycentrus. 


Salarias. 






Zoarces. 


Psychrolutidcs. 


Nandidce. 


Blennius (Blenny). 


Psychrolutes. 


Pleeiops. 
Nandus. 


LophiidcB. 


GobiesocidcB. 




Chironectes. 


Lepadogaster. 
Gobiesox. 

f\ i 1 


Malacanthidce. 
Malacanthus. 


Malthe. 
Chaunax. 
Antennarius. 


Cotylis. 
Sicyastes. 


Hoplognathidee. 


Lophius (Angler). 




Hoplognathus. 


Batrachidte. 


Cepolidts. 




Batrachus. 


Cepola. 


AcronuridcB. 






Ceris=Keris. 


Oxudercidce. 


TrichinotidcB. 


Prionurus. 


Oxuderces. 


Trichinotus. 


Acronurus. 
Acanthurus. 


Cyclopteridee. 


Ophiocephalida, 
Ophiocephalus. 


Teuthid. 
Teuthis. 


Liparis. 
Cyclopterus (Lump- 



VERTEBRATA. 



185 



Gobiidce. 


TrichiuridcB. 


Cottus (Father- 


Callionymus. 
Eleotris. 


Gempylus. 
Thyrsi tes. 


lasher). 
Scorpsena. 

"D 1 


Gobius. 


Dicrotus. 


Pelor. 




Trichiurus. 


Synanceia. 


Xiphiida. 


Lepidopus. 


Pterois. 
Sebastes. 


Xiphias(Sword-fish). 
Histiophorus. 


Sphyr&nidce. 


Chirus. 




Sphyraena (Barra- 


Cirrhitidce. 


Carangidcs. 


couta). 


Chiron emus. 


Cyrtus=Kurtus. 
Pempheris. 


Polynemidce. 


Cirrhites. 


Equula. 


Polynemus (Mango- 


Chcetodontid(B. 


Antigonia. 


fish). 


Toxotes. 


Capros (Boar-fish). 
Psenes. 
Zanclus. 


Scicenida. 
Corvina. 


Drepane. 
Ephippus. 
Holacanthus. 


Platax. 


Otolithus. 


Chelmon. 


Psettus. 


Sciaena. 


Chsetodon. 


Trachynotus. 


Eques. 


Heniochus. 








JjlC-UlcL. 

Argyriosus = Vomer. 
Caranx (Scad). 


Umbrina. 
Micropogon. 
Pogonias. 


Sparidts. 
Chrysophrys. 
Sparus. 


ScomberidcB. 


TrachinidfS. 


Pagellus (Bream). 
Pagrus. 


Lampris (Opab). 
Pteraclis. 


Opisthognathus. 
SiUago. 


Sargus. 
Cantharus. 


Brama. 


Percis. 




Coryphaena (Dol- 

V-i-M\ 


Trachinus (Weever). 


Mullida. 


pninj. 
Stromateus. 
Cyttus. 


Agnus. 
Uranoscopus. 
Cathetostoma. 


Mullus (Surmullet). 
Upeneus. 


Zeus (Dory). 
Cybium. 




PristipomidcB. 


Auxis. 


Triglidce. 


Caesio. 


Echeneis (Bemora), 


Dactylopterus. 


Smaris. 


Naucrates (Pilot- 


Peristedion= Periste- 


Masna. 


fish). 


thus. 


Synagris. 


Pelamys. 


Agonus. 


Dentex. 


Thynnus (Tunny). 
Scomber (Mackerel). 


Trigla (Gurnard). 
Prionotus. 


Scolopsis. 
Haeinulon. 



186 



TERTEBRATA. 



Diagramma. 
Pristipoma. 
Therapon. 
Helotes. 

Aphredoderid(S. 
Aphredoderus. 

Percida. 
Dules. 
Pomotis. 
Bryttus. 
Centrarchus. 
Huro. 
Arrhipis. 



Grystes. 
Apogon. 
Ambassis. 
Pentaceros. 
Mesoprion. 
Genyoroge. 
Ehypticus (Soap- 
fish). 

Plectropoma. 
Serranus. 
Anthias. 
Centropristis. 
Enoplosus. 
Niphon. 
Etelis. 



Aspro. 

Lucioperca. 

Acerina. 

Lates. 

Labrax (Basse). 

Perca (Perch). 

Berycidce. 
Beryx. 
Myripristis. 
Holocentrum. 

G-asterosteidcB. 
Gasterosteus (Stickle- 
back). 



Order IV. LOPHOBEANCHII. 

Skeleton only partially osseous. Gills placed in tufts on the 
branchial arches. Body covered with plates united at their 
edges. 

The jaws are united and tubular ; and the mouth is without 
teeth. There are no ribs, and the air-bladder is without an air- 
duct. The tail is prehensile in Hippocampus. The fins are im- 
perfectly developed. 

The Syngnathi "are supposed to be able, by dilating their throat 
at pleasure, to draw their food up their cylindrical beak-like 
mouths, as water is drawn up the pipe of a syringe." 

In some of the Syngnathidse the males have a subcaudal pouch, 
formed by two flaps of the skin, into which the female casts her 
roe, and in which the young are hatched ; in others there are he- 
mispherical depressions in which the eggs are placed. In Hip- 
pocampus there is also a pouch, but opening by a vertical fissure. 
It has been observed that when " any unusual care is taken of 
the eggs or young of fishes, the duty devolves upon the male." 
Pegasus has laminate gills, as in the ordinary fishes ; its place is 
probably near Triglidre. 



Syngnathidce. 
Kerophis. 
Syngnathus (Pipe- 
fish). 
Stiginatophora. 


Hippocampida. 
Phyllopteryx. 
Hippocampus (Sea- 
horse). 
Solenognathus. 


Solenostomidce. 
Solenostoma. 

Pegasidce. 
Pegasus. 



VURTEBEATA. 187 

Order V. PLECTOGNATHI. 

SCLERODERMI. GYMNODONTES. 

Skeleton only partially osseous. Gills pectinate ; a narrow 
gill-aperture on each side. No true scales, but either bony plates 
firmly united or a spiny skin, or naked. 

The body is either covered by large bony plates united together 
to form an inflexible case, as in Ostraciontidos, with small scale- 
like movable plates as in Balistidae, with a rough granulated or 
spiny skin as in Gymnodontidas, or naked as in Orthagoriscus. 
The maxillary and intermaxillary bones are united, forming the 
jaw, which is immovable. The gill-covers are hidden beneath 
the skin. 

The Globe-fishes, a few of which are found in fresh water, 
blow themselves up by swallowing air, which is retained 
in a dilatation of the oesophagus. They have as well an air- 
bladder. Their teeth are represented by the ivory-clad termina- 
tion of their jaws. They form, with Orthagoriscus, the family 
Gyrunodontes of Cuvier. His Sclerodermes comprise Ostracion- 
tidas and Balistidae. 

Ostraciontid(S. Monacanthus. Diodon. 

Ostracion (Trunk-fish). Triacanthus. Triodon. 

BalistidcB (File-fish). Gymnodontida Orthagoriscida. 

Balistes. (Globe-fish). Orthagoriscus=Mola 

Tetrodon. (Sun-fish). 

Order VI. CHONDKOPTERYGIL 

NANTES. CARTILAGINEI. PLAGIOSTOMI. PLACOIDEI. 
ELASMOBRANCHII. SELACIIII. 

Skeleton cartilaginous ; skull without sutures. Gills fixed, 
communicating externally by five to seven slit-like apertures. No 
gill-cover, or rudimentary. Bulbus arteriosus rhythmically 
contractile. 

The mouth is transverse, placed beneath the head. The ribs 
are small or rudimentery. The tail is unsymmetrical (hetero- 
cercal). The skin is composed of small portions of dentine in the 
form of granules, tubercles, or spines. There is no air-bladder ; 
and the optic nerve is not decussating. In the males are two 



188 VERTEBRATA. 

cylindrical appendages, one on the inner edge of each ventral fin , 
supposed to be uped as " claspers." 

Many species of this order bring forth their young enclosed in 
horny pouches, known as sea-purses, mermaid's eggs, &c. These 
are secreted by a gland in the oviduct. 

Among the members of this order are the shark or white shark 
(Carcharias vulgaris), blue shark (Carcharias glaiicus), basking 
shark (Selache maxima), dogfish (Scyllium canictila), thresher 
(Alopias vulpes), angel-fish (Squatina vulgaris), torpedo (Tor- 
pedo marmorata), skate {Raia batl-i), thornback (Eaia clavata), 
sting-ray (Trygon pastinaca}, eagle-ray (Myliobatis aquila), and 
saw-fish (Pristis antiquorum). 

The Chondropterygii, notwithstanding their high development, 
but also accompanied by reptilian characters, are among the 
oldest known fish. Cestracion Philippi seems to have been their 
nearest modern representative. The fossils known as " Ichthyo- 
dorulites " are the spiny fin-rays of these fish. 

There are two suborders : 

Gill-openings inferior BATOIDEI. 

Gill-openings lateral SELACHOIDET. 

About 300 species are known, nearly equally divided between 
the two suborders. 

BATOIDEI (Rays). Gill-openings free, inferior. No gill-cover. 
No anal fin. Body broad, depressed. Notochord not persistent. 
Oviparous. 

The pectoral fin is mostly continued to the snout. The upper 
lid is united to the eye, or absent. The teeth are flattened. 

Torpedo has an electrical organ, composed of vertical tubes on 
each side between the pectoral fin and the head. Myriosteon of 
Dr. Gray, which he regarded as one of the spines of an unknown 
starfish, is one of the three or four hollow cylindrical tubes form- 
ing a portion of the endoskeleton of the snout of the saw-fish. 
According to Giinther, these are modifications of the toothed pro- 
cesses of the cranial cartilage. 

EaiidcB. Myliobatida. Torpedinidce. 

Eaia (Ray, Skate). Cephaloptera. Temera. 

*Asterodermus. Myliobatis. Narcine. 

^tobatis. Torpedo (Torpedo). 
*Rbinoptera. 
Trygonida. 

Pteroplatea. RhinobatidcB. Pristida. 

Trygon (Sting-ray). Rhinobatus. Pristis (Saw-fish). 



VEfiTEBRATA. 189 

SELACHOIDF.I (Sharks). Gill-openings mostly fine, lateral. No 
gill-covers. An anal fin. Body fusiform. Notochord not per- 
sistent. Ovoviviparous. 

The pectoral fin is free. In some species there are two spi- 
racles on the top of the head communicating with the pharynx. 
The teeth are mostly in several rows, compressed, triangular, and 
sometimes trilobed, with their edges serrated ; they are united 
by ligament to the jaws. 

A foetal peculiarity is the existence of external filamentary 
branching, as in the Batrachia ; they are early removed by 
absorption. 

Some of these fish attain to a large size Carcharodon Ronde- 
letii 40 feet ; Selache maxima 30 feet ; Carcharias vulgaris 25 
feet [not found in the English seas] ; Alopias vulpes 13 feet ; 
Lemma cornubica 9 feet. The blue shark ( Carcharias glaucus), 
8 or 9 feet, is sometimes caught on the Cornish coast. They are 
nearly all very bold and voracious. 

Squatimda. CestraciontidcB. EMnodontidce. 

Squatina=Khina Cestracion. Ehinodon. 

(Angel-fish). *Acrodus. 

. 7 . , *Ptychodus. Lamnidce. 

Pnstophand*. gdache 

Pristiophorus. Hybodxmtid*, Carcharodon. 

Spinacidce. *Hybodus. Alopias (Thresher). 

Echinorhinus. Lamna (Porbeagle). 

CentrophoruB. ScyMd*. 

Scymnus. Scylhum (Dog-fish). Carchariidce. 

Lsemargus. Pristiurus. Carcharias. 

Spinax. Mustelus (Hound). 

Acanthias. Notidanidce. Zygna=Sphyrna. 

Centrina. Notidanus. Galeus (Tope). 



Order VII. HOLOCEPHALI. 

Notochord persistent, skeleton cartilaginous; skull without 
sutures. One gill-aperture, with a rudimentary gill-cover and 
membrane. Skin naked. 

The rudimentary gill-cover is concealed by the skin. Although 
there are five openings in the gill-cavity there is only one external 
opening. The upper jaw is united to the skull ; and, in lieu of 
teeth, there are four hard plates above and two below. 



190 VERTEBRATA. 

In the male of Callorhynchus antarcticus there is a peculiar 
prehensile organ on the upper part of the snout. The subarctic 
and Mediterranean Chimcera monstrosa is known to the northern 
fishermen as " King of the herrings." 

There is only one family : 

Chimaride. *Edaphodon. 

Chimaera. *Passalodon. 

Callorhynchus. *Elasmodus. 

Order VIII. GANOIDEL 

Skeleton variously ossified ; gills free ; gill-aperture with gill- 
cover. Body covered with plates or scales which are composed 
of two layers, the upper of enamel, the lower of bone, or occa- 
sionally naked. 

The notochord is frequently persistent in the extinct forms. 
The vertebras, when developed, are ainphicoelous, except in Lepi- 
dosteus, which approaches the Reptilian type in being opistho- 
eoelous. The bulbus arteriosus, provided with numerous valves, 
is rhythmically contractile, as in the Chondropterygii. The fins 
are often studded on the fore edge with a single or double row of 
spiny scales (fulcra). The tail-fin is mostly unsymmetrical. 

The living species are only about 35 ; the extinct forms are nu- 
merous (about 600 species), occurring principally in the Old Red 
Sandstone ; among the recent ones we have the bony pike (Lepi- 
dosteus osseus), sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), beluga (Acipenser huso), 
and sterlet (Acipenser rutkenus). They generally ascend rivers 
for the purpose of spawning. 

Isinglass is prepared from the air-bladder of sturgeons ; caviare 
or botargo is the roe (sometimes weighing 800 Ibs.) of the beluga. 

The Ganoids have been divided into two groups or orders 
(J. Miiller) Chondroganoidea or Chondrostei [a cartilaginous 
skeleton] and Osteoganoidea or Holostei [an osseous skeleton]. 
Another mode of division is into Placoganoidea [more or less 
protected by large osseous plates] and Lepicloganoidea [covered 
with scales]. The Crossopterygidas of Huxley comprise Poly- 
pteridse, Holoptychiidse, &c. Schmarda's arrangement is here 
followed, except that Ceratodida3 are referred to Dipnoi. 

(Chondroganoidca.) Pterichthyida. Pycnodontidae. 

Cephalaspidce. *Coccosteus. *Platysornus. 

*Cephalaspis. *Pterichthys. *Pleurolepis. 

*Pteraspis. *Pycnodus. 



VEETEBRATA. 



191 



Acipenseridcs. 


Acanthodida. 


Lepidosteida. 


Acipenser (Stur- 


*Acanthodes. 


Lepidosteus (Bony 


geon, &c.). 


*Ctenacanthus. 


Pike). 


Scaphirhynchus. 
* Chondrosteus. 




HoloptychiidcB. 




Di-pteridcB, 


*lloloptychius. 


Spatulariidce. 


*Dipteru8 = Cteno- 


*Glyptolepis. 


Spatularia = Poly o- 
don. 


dus. 


Coelacan t hides. 






*Co?lacanthus. 


(Osteoganoidea.) 


LcpidotidcB, 




Potypterid(B. 


*Lepidotus. 


AmiidcB. 


Polypterus. 


*Dapedius. 


*Leptolepis. 


Calanrichthys. 


*Palceoniscus. 


Auiia. 



Order IX. DIPNOI. 

DlPNEUSTI. SlRENOIDEI. PROTOPTERI. LEPIDOTA. 

Skeleton partially osseous. Gills free, a narrow gill-aperture 
with a rudimentary gill -cover. Air-bladder double, lung-like. 
Scales cycloid. 

Tbe notochord is persistent ; but the cranial bones are distinct. 
In Lepidosiren the pectoral and pelvic fins are subulate and rnany- 
jointed. There is a continuous vertical fin posteriorly. Eespiration 
is effected by the lung, a modification of the air-bladder, as well as 
by the gills. The heart has two auricles and one ventricle. The 
lung is double in Protopteridae, single in Ceratodus. 

Lepidosiren paradoxa and another species inhabit the Amazon ; 
Protopterus annectens the Gambia, Nile, &c. ; Ccratodus is from 
Queensland. The two former genera are known as "mud-fish," 
from the habit of burying themselves in the mud in the dry season. 

The Dipnoi are a suborder of Ganoidei for Giinther, while 
they constitute a class for others. Claus divides them into two sub- 
orders Dipneumona for Protopteridrc, and Monopneumoua for 
Ceratodidse. Schmarda puts the Teleostei between this order 
and the last. 



ProtopteridcB. 
Lepidosiren. 
Protopterus=Rhino- 
cryptis. 



CcratodidcB. 
Ceratodus (Bar- 
ram unda. ) 



192 VEETEBRATA. 

Class II. AMPHIBIA. 

PsiLODERMATA. NuDIPELLIFERES. 

Vertebrate animals breathing by gills, mostly external in the 
earlier stages of life, afterwards by lungs. With or without 
limbs ; never with fins in the adult. Heart with two auricles 
and one ventricle. No amnion nor allantois. 

In some Amphibia the gills are retained through life, notwith- 
standing the presence of lungs ; but much of the respiration is 
also carried on by the skin. They all undergo a metamor- 
phosis, the young gradually departing from their fish-like form 
and developing limbs. 

The lungs are generally long and narrow, sometimes extending 
nearly to the anus. There is no diaphragm. The kidneys are 
homogeneous in texture, as in fishes, reptiles, and birds. The 
tympanitic cavity in the ear first makes its appearance in the 
Batrachia. There is a single occipital condyle on each side. 
True ribs are wanting, or they are only rudimentary, or are not 
supplemented by sternal ribs. The vertebrae vary from 10 to 
230. Reproduction is by ova. 

None of the Amphibia are poisonous, but several secrete a 
very acrid fluid in their subcutaneous glands. 

There are four orders : 

Recent. 

Without limbs ; vermiform OPITIOMORPHA. 

With limbs ; never vermiform. 

Body elongated, tailed URODELA. 

Body short, tailless BATRACHIA. 

Extinct .. LABYKINTHODONTA. 



Order I. OPHIOMORPHA. 

APODA. GYMNOPIIIONA. PSEUDOPHIDIA. OPIIIOSOMA. 
PEROMELA. 

Apodal vermiform amphibians, with small scales imbedded in 
the soft skin. Anus terminal. Eyes rudimentary or wanting. 
Young breathing by gills. 

The body is transversely grooved or ringed. The ribs are 
numerous and very short, and there is no sternum. The teeth 



VERTEBRATA. 193 

are sharp and recurved, and there is a short fleshy tongue. 
Prom the little that is known, the gills appear to be sometimes 
external, sometimes internal. 

These animals, often several feet in length, burrow beneath 
the soil in tropical countries and occasionally take to the water ; 
they live, it is believed, on vegetable matter. 

There is only one family : 

Cceciliida. 

Siphonops. Epicrium. 

Ehinatrema. Caecilia. 



Order II. UKODELA. 

QBADIEUTIA. ICHTIIYOMORPIIA. SOZURA. CAUDATA. 
SAUROBATKACHIA, 

Tailed amphibians with lizard-like bodies ; the caudal ver- 
tebrae numerous and distinct. Two or four feet. Gills either 
retained through life [perennibranchiate] or disappearing at 
maturity [caducibranchiate]. 

The skin is always soft and naked, occasionally warty, and 
sometimes prolonged on the back into the appearance of a fin. 
The mouth is furnished with numerous small teeth and a short 
tongue. The branchial openings disappear with the gills. The 
ribs are short or rudimentary. 

The axolotl (Siredon) is the larval state of Arnblystoma ; but 
it sometimes remains in that state throughout life, and is at the 
same time most prolific, whilst those which must be supposed to 
have attained a higher form are utterly sterile, the sexual organs 
becoming apparently atrophied. From the observations of Du- 
meril, the gills appear to be readily reproduced when lost. 

The Urodela are unknown in the southern hemisphere beyond 
the tropic ; they are most numerous in North America. In this 
country we have only three species, which are known as efts or 
newts, the commonest being Triton punctatus. In the limestone 
grottoes of Carniola is found the curious Proteus anguinus. A 
Japanese species, Cryptobranchus maximus, attains a length of 
six feet. The mud-eels of North America belong to the genus 
Siren ; some of these attain a length of three feet. 

Two divisions are usually adopted Ichthyodea (three pairs 
of gills, external or internal, and amphico?lous vertebrae), and 
Salamandrina (without gills or gill-openings, and opisthoccelous 





194 



YERTEBRATA. 



vertebrae). These include nine families, according to Glaus; while 
Schmarda (1878), ignoring any higher divisions, has only five. 



ICIITHYODEA. 

Proteidce. 
Siren. 
Proteus. 
Menobranchus. 



Menoporaa. 
Cryptobranchus = 
Sieboldia. 

SALAMANDRINA. 



AmblystomidcB. 

Cryptobranchida. Plethodon. 
Amphiuma. Pectoglc 



Geotriton = Sperlepes. 
Amblystoma. 

Salamandrida. 
Triton (Eft, Newt). 
Salamandra. 
*Telerpeton. 



Order III. LABYKINTHODONTA. 
ARCHEGOSAURIA. GANOCEPHALA. STEGOCEPHALA. 

Extinct amphibians, "with relatively weak limbs and a long 
tail." Teeth conical, their structure complex. 

The body appears to have been defended by bony plates of 
various sizes according to the parts on which they were placed. 
The teeth were more or less indented by convoluted folds con- 
verging towards the centre. 

The Labyrinthodonla were colossal animals of a salamandriform 
type, living mostly in the Triassic period. Their footprints 
afforded us the first indication of their having ever existed ; and 
the unknown animal that made them, then supposed to be a 
kangaroo, received from Kaup the provisional name of " Chiro- 
therium." 

Three suborders or families are indicated Archegosauria, 
Microsauria, and Mastodonsauria ; one of the genera (Archcgo- 
saurus), it is suggested, may have been a larval form. Numerous 
genera have been proposed ; the principal are : 

^Labyrinthodon. 

*Herpeton. 

*Dendrerpeton. 



Order IV. BATKACHIA. (Frogs and Toads.) 

BATEACIIIA SALIENTIA. ANURA. THERIOMORPHA. 

Tailless amphibians, breathing by lungs in the adult state. 



VERTEBRATA.. 195 

Legs always well developed. Vertebrae procoelous. Body short 
and depressed. Oviparous. 

In the earlier or tadpole stages the Batrachia agree with 
the Urodela ; but eventually the tail and the gills are ab- 
sorbed, the latter being replaced by two equally lobed lungs. 
Respiration, owing to the rudimentary ribs, is an act of swal- 
lowing. 

The teeth are small, variously disposed, but sometimes absent, 
especially in the lower jaw. The trunk- vertebras are few in 
number (7-10). There are a sternum and a pelvis. The toes 
are, with one exception, without claws ; the hind feet are often 
webbed. The larynx is well developed. 

The skin is shed periodically, as in the serpents ; the toad 
swallows his. The Batrachia live on insects, small fish, or 
mollusks ; and the bigger ones are quite capable of swallowing 
the smaller species. 

The eggs are frequently not fecundated until after they have 
been laid. In Alytes obstetricans the female lays a chain of 
eggs, which the male twines round his thighs until the young 
leave the eggs. The female of Pipa americana has a soft skin 
on the back, in which the male embeds the eggs, which then 
closes over them. The female Nototrema has a dorsal pouch, 
extending over the whole of the back, in which the eggs 
are sheltered. Bony plates are found on the back of Cera- 
tophrys. 

The three British species of this order are the frog (Eana 
temporaria), toad (Bufo vulgaris), and natterjack (Bufo calamita). 
The little green frog of the south of Europe is Hyla arborea, and 
the edible frog is Rana esculenta. A Ghiiana frog with a most 
fish-like larva, attaining a large size, is Pseudis paradoxa. The 
larva of Pipa is tailless. 

The five or six hundred species of which this order consists 
are very homogeneous. The subdivisions and genera [about 
130] have been founded chiefly on modifications of the skeleton 
and disposition of the teeth. G-iinther (in 1858) had twenty-five 
families, Cope (in 1865) fourteen, Owen (in 1866) four, Mivart 
(in 1869) sixteen, Car us (in 1875) seventeen, and Schmarda (in 
1878) five the fifth, in addition to the four mentioned below, 
being represented by Bombinator. A higher series of divisions 
has been into Aglossa (tongueless) and Phaneroglossa (tongue 
present), the latter again into Oxydactyla (slender toes) and 
Platydactyla or Discodactylia (toes dilated at the tip). 

Tne following is a tabular view of Dr. Grunther's classifica- 
tion : 

o2 



196 VEBTEBRATA. 

Series. Sections. Families. 

A. AGLOSSA. 



Aglossa Diplosiphonia 1 . My obatr achidae. 

B. OPISTHOGLOSSA. 

Opisthoglossa Oxydactyla. ^ Kanids. 

| 2. Cystignathidae. 

Eanina .. . \% Discoglossidse. 

' j 4. Asterophyidae. 

5. Alytidae. 
^ 6. TJperoleidae. 
Bombinatorina 1. Bombinatoridae. 



Opisthoglossa Platydactyla. 

{1. Rhinoderinatidae. 
2. Engystomatidas. 
3. Bufonidae. 
(\. Polypedatidffi. 
2. Hylodidas. 

Hylina ^3. Hylidae. 

4. Pelodryidas. 
^5. Phyllomedusidas. 

Micrhylina 1. Micrhylidse. 

1. Hylsedactylidaa. 
Brachym 
Hylaplesiidae. 
C. PROTEEOGLOSSA. 



fl. 

Hy laplesiina < 2. Brachymeridae. 

1 3. " 



Ehinophrynina 1 . Khinopb rynidas. 

The groups adopted bere may be tabulated tbus : 

No tongue (Aglossa) PIPIDJ:. 

With a tongue (Phaneroglossa}. 
Toes not dilated at the end. 

With maxillary teeth ... BANID.E. 

No maxillary teeth BUFONID.E. 

Toes dilated at the end 



VERTEBRATA. 



197 



Pipidce. 
Pipa. 

Dactylethra. 
Myobatrachus. 

EanidcB (Frogs). 
Pseudis. 
Eana. 

Ceratophrys. 
Pleurodema. 
Cystignathus. 
Limnodynastes. 
Discoglossus. 
Alytes. 
Asterophrys. 



Hyperolia. 


Hylidce (Tree-frogs). 


Bombinator. 


Acris. 


Pelobates. 


Ixalus. 


Liopelma. 


Polypedates. 


Cacotus. 


Hylodes. 


Phryniscus. 


Hyperolius. 


Pseudophryne. 


Callula. 


Rhinodernia. 


Litoria. 


Engystoma. 


Hyla. 




Nototrema. 


Bufonidce (Toads). 


Pelodryas. 


Bufo. 


Phyllomedusa. 


Otilophus. 


Micrhyla. 
Hylaplesia. 


Rhinophrynus. 


Dendrophryniscus. 



Class III. REPTILIA. (Eeptiles.) 

Vertebrate animals, breathing by lungs throughout life ; the 
body covered with bony plates or with scales. Blood cold. 
With or without limbs. An anmion and allantois. 

The heart has two auricles and a ventricle, but in crocodiles 
the latter is divided by a septum. The heart has two aortic 
arches. The lower jaw is attached to the skull by the interven- 
tion of an os quadratum, as in birds, and there is only a single 
occipital condyle on each side. The teeth, which are sometimes 
absent, are conical, and not adapted for crushing or tearing ; the 
food is consequently swallowed entire. The teeth are not pro- 
vided with fangs at the root, and they are generally anchylosed 
to the jaw. The ribs are always well developed, but the sternum 
is often wanting. The cavity of the thorax is not separated from 
the abdomen by a diaphragm. The segmental structure of the 
lateral muscles is still shown in the crocodile, but it is almost lost 
in the Ophidia and Chelonia. 

A " purposive weapon " is found in the embryo of snakes and 
lizards, a sharp tooth being developed in the premaxillary bone, 
wherewith they cut through the egg-shell ; it disappears in the 
adult. 

There are about 1900 living species in this class ; of the extinct 
forms over 400 are known, mostly belonging to the Secondary 
period. There are ten orders ; Ichthyopterygia and Sauropterygia 
form the Enaliosauria of some writers. 



198 YERTEBRATA. 

Kecent. 

An osseous exoskeleton CHELONIA. 

No osseous exoskeleton. 
No sockets for the teeth. 

No eyelids OPHIDIA. 

With eyelids SAURIA. 

Sockets for the teeth CROCODILIA. 

Extinct. 

Limbs natatory. 

No neck ICHTHYOPTERYGIA. 

A long neck SAUROPTERYGIA. 

Limbs not natatory. 

With molar teeth TIIERIODONTIA. 

Without molar teeth. 
Teeth conical, numerous. 

Four strong, unguiculate limbs DINOSAURIA.. 

Fore limbs adapted for flying PTEROSAURIA. 

Teeth wanting, or with two tusks only ANOMODONTIA. 



Order I. OPHIDIA. (Serpents.) 

Body slender, cylindrical, covered with horny scales ; no visible 
limbs. No eyelids. Mouth dilatable. No sacrum, sternum, or 
pelvis. Vertebrae and ribs very numerous. Tongue bifid. 

All the bones composing the upper and lower jaws are movably 
united by ligament or muscle, and not by cartilage ; the mastoid 
bone is also movable, and the os quadratum often passes behind 
the head. This peculiar structure allows the mouth to be enor- 
mously dilated. The vertebra are procoelous and very numerous 
[from 200 to 420]. The ribs, of which there are sometimes 300 
pairs, are always free at the extremity ; assisted by the ventral 
scales, they are the real organs of locomotion. The teeth are slender, 
curved, and anchylosed to the bones to which they belong. There 
are no eyelids, but the eyes are covered by the transparent epi- 
dermis. There are no external ears. The anal cleft is trans- 
verse. 

In most serpents there is one lung of great length, the other 
rudimentary or aborted. The heart "agrees with other organs 
in its elongate form." 

In venomous serpents there are two poison-fangs firmly fixed 
to the upper maxillary bones. These may be moved backwards 
or forwards, so that with either movement the fangs are raised or 
depressed. The fang is a long conical tooth, either grooved ex- 



VERTEBRATA. 199 

ternally, or it is inflected on itself so as to form a tube ; the 
poison-gland is at its base beneath the eye on each side. The bite 
of a venomous serpent makes two punctured wounds, but from a 
non-venomous serpent there will be probably two lines of punc- 
tures. In this country we have only one venomous species, 
whose bite is rarely attended with fatal effects. On the other 
hand, in Hindostan the number of persons killed annually is esti- 
mated by Sir J. Fayrer to be over 20,000 (Thanatoph. p. 32). 

The action of serpent-poison is neurotic, annihilating in some 
unknown way the nerve-power. Serpents, it is said, are not 
affected by their own poison. Ophiophagus elaps, the largest and 
most venomous of them, feeds on other serpents only less dan- 
gerous than itself. Hydrophidas are marine, but confined to 
Indian seas. 

The most noted serpents are the rattlesnake ( Crotalus korridus), 
the asp [of Cleopatra] ( Cerastes Hasselquistii, or Naia haje accord- 
ing to Glaus), the puff-adder [of the Cape] (C'otho arietans), 
viper or adder (Pelias berus), cobra (Naia tripudians), and the 
snake (Natrix torquata). The coral-snake of Guiana is llysia 
scytale. The largest snakes belong to the genera Python and 
Boa. Eunectes murinus of the Amazon is over 20 feet long. 

The Ophidia, of which more than 900 species have been de- 
scribed, are divided by Dumeril and Bibron into five suborders, 
which may be tabulated thus : 

Mouth dilatable. 
With poison-fangs. 

Fangs perforate SOLENOGLYPH A. 

Fangs grooved PROTEROGLYPH A. 

Without poison-fangs AGLYPHODONTIA. 

Mouth not dilatable. 

With anal spurs ANGIOSTOMATA. 

Without anal spurs OPOTERODONTIA. 

OPOTERODONTIA. Mouth small, not dilatable. Teeth in the 
upper jaw only. No poison-fangs. 

The tail is short or none. The head is small, and the eyes are 
rudimentary. There are no anal spurs. 

These are small worm-like animals, sometimes referred to the 
lizards, living in burrows underground or under stones; they 
feed on insects and worms. 

Typklopidce. 
Stenostoma. 
Typhlops. 



200 



YERTEBRATA. 



ANGIOSTOMATA. Mouth not dilatable. Teeth variable, but no 
poison-fangs. With anal spurs. 

As in Opoterodontia, with which this suborder is sometimes 
combined, the mastoid, when present, is united with the temporal 
bone, and the os quadratum is fixed. The anal spurs are the 
condensed epidermis of the rudimentary hind limbs. 



Cylindrophida. 
Hysia = Tortrix. 
Cylindrophis. 



Uropeltidce. 
Uropeltis. 



AGLYPHODONTIA ( Colubrina = Colubriformia). Mouth dila- 
table. Solid hooked teeth in both jaws. No poison-fangs. 

Innocuous; a few have fangs, but no poison-glands. Rudi- 
ments of a pelvis and hind limbs are found in some of the Boidse. 
Tail prehensile in many species. 



CalamariidcB. 
Calamaria. 
Oligodon. 

Colubrida. 
Coronella. 
Ablates. 

Simotes. 
Tachyinenis. 
Liophis. 
Natrix Tropido- 

notus (Snake). 
Coluber. 
Zamenis. 
Dromicus. 
Herpetodryas. 

Bhachiodontidee. 
Rhachiodon. 



Homalopsidce. 
Hy drops. 
Herpeton. 
Homalopsis. 

Dryophidce. 
Dryophis. 



Ccelopeltis. 

Dendrophidce. 
Chrysopelea. 
Dendrophis. 



Leptodira. 



Scytalida. 
Scytale. 

Lycodontida. 
Lycodon. 

Boid<B. 
Eryx. 

Eunectes (Anaconda). 

Enygrus. 

Boa. 

Python. 

Liasis. 

Morelia. 

*Palseophis. 

Acrochordida. 
Acrochordus. 



PROTEROGLYPHA. Mouth dilatable. Fangs in the upper jaw 
grooved, with strong hooked teeth behind them. Poison-glands 
always present. 

Palate and pterygoid bones with teeth, as well as the lower 
jaw. The tail is vertically compressed in Hydrophidae. 



201 

Elapidas, Ophiophagus. Hydrophida (Sea- 

Diemenia. Naia (Cobra). snakes). 

Bungarus. Furina. Hydrophis=Pelamis. 

Hoplocephalus. Elaps. Enhydrina. 

Platurus. 

SOLENOGLYPHA. Mouth dilatable. Fangs in the upper jaw 
perforated. Poison-glands always present. 

The head is triangular, much broader at the base than the neck. 
The palate and under jaw are provided with teeth. The tail is 
comparatively short ; in the rattlesnake terminated by 20-30 
horny movable rings formed by the epidermis. In Cerastes the 
epidermis is developed into small horns above the eyes. 

ViperidcB. Cerastes. Cenchris. 

Pelias (Viper or Atractaspis. Bothrops. 

Adder). Crotalus (Eattle- 
Vipera. Crotalidce. snake). 

Clotho! Trimeresurus. Trigonocephalus. 



Order II. SAHRIA. 
LACERTILIA. 

Body slender, covered with horny scales; mostly with four 
legs. Eyes with movable lids. Mouth not dilatable. 

The legs are generally four, sometimes only two, or they may 
be absent. In the apodal forms there are only rudiments of the 
shoulder-girdle, and in Anguis fragilis of a sternum and pelvis. 
The vertebras, except in Hatteria, are procoelous : in the dorsal 
vertebras there is only one surface on each side for the articulation 
of the ribs. These, except in the apodal forms, are few in number 
comparatively, and, in the normal forms, some of them are always 
attached to the sternum. The teeth are usually simple, fixed in 
the jaws, not in distinct sockets; the palate is rarely toothed. 
The upper jaw has no independent motion, as it has in the ser- 
pents, and the lower jaw forms one bone. The tympanum of the 
ear is nearly on a level with the skin. In some species there is^ 
row of perforated scales on the inside of the thighs ; these are the 
femoral pores. The anal cleft is transverse. 

In most Sauria the lungs are equal, but in the blindworm 
(Anguis fragilis') the left lung is only half the length of the right. 
Another peculiarity of this animal is that it casts its skin like 
serpents. 



202 VERTEBRA! A. 

The Sauria are oviparous or ovo-viviparous, not producing 
many young at a birth. They are mostly very active, enjoying 
the hottest sunshine, although a few are seminocturnal, and living 
chiefly on insects. 

Out of nearly 800 species only three are found in this country, 
viz. two lizards (Lacerta agilis and Zootoca vivipara) and the 
blindworm (Anguis fray His). Various large lizards of the tropics 
are known as Iguanas. Ascalabotes fascicularis is the Tarentola 
of the Italians. The glass-snake of North America is Ophisaurus 
ventralis. The Tuatara of New Zealand (Hatteria punctata) is 
the most remarkable form of the Eeptilia, combining "the cha- 
racters of a high and low organization." 

The Sauria may be divided into eight suborders, but of these 
the Cyclosaura and Geissosaura are sometimes united under the 
name of Cionocrania or of Leptoglossse. Gray's classification is 
here principally followed. Amphisbasnoidaea he placed with the 
" Shield Eeptiles," his Cataphracta. 

Vertebrae proccelous. 
Tongue short, thick. 

Pupil linear NYCTISAURA. 

Pupil round. 

Tail short, anus terminal AMPHISB^ENOID^EA. 

Tail long, anus not terminal. 
Ventral scales overlapping. 

Tongue entire or nearly so STROBILOSAURA. 

Tongue notched at the tip G-EISSOSAURA. 

Ventral scales placed in cross bands CYCLOSAURA. 
Tongue elongate. 

Eyes covered, except round the pupil, by 

a circular lid DENDROSAURA. 

Eyes with two valvular lids FISSILINGUIA. 

Vertebrae amphiccelous EH YNCIIOCEPIIALIA. 

CYCLOSAURA ( = Ptychopleurse). Tongue short, slightly ex- 
tensible. Ventral scales arranged in cross bands. 

Body either lizard- or serpent-like. There are two or four 
short feet or none. The back is covered with large scales. 

Gray included Lacertidse, Monitoridae, &c. in his Cyclosaura. 
Claus unites this and the former in one suborder Brevilinguia. 

Chalcididce. Zonurida. Ecpleopodida. 

Chalcides. Zonurus. Ecpleopus. 

Chamaesaura. Pseudopus. Cercosaurus. 

Cricochalcis. Ophisaurus. 

Gerrhonotus. 



VERTEBRATA. 



203 



FISSILIXGUIA.- Tongue slender, cleft, extensible. Eyelids pre- 
sent, except in Ophiops. 

There are two movable eyelids, and sometimes a nictitating 
membrane. The body is never serpent-like; and the legs are 
always well developed. The scales are disposed in transverse 
bands on the belly and tail ; the latter is often compressed, es- 
pecially in the aquatic species. Some of the species attain a 
length of seven feet ; Mosasaurus, an extinct form of the Chalk 
formations, of seventy-five feet 



Monitor 
Hydrosaurus. 



Ophiops. 
Acanthodactylus. 

O-fc T\AA WOWU.A U.0 ^ , . 

Monitor = Varanus. <fbrita. 
Heloderma. Tropidosaurus. 

Psammodromus. 

Lacertida. 
Eremias. 

*Mosasaurus. 



XantusiidoB. 
Xantusia. 

Ameivid<B. 
Teius. 
Ameiva. 
Crocodilurus. 



STROBILOSAURA. Tongue short, fleshy, not extensible. Eyelids 
present. Ventral scales small, rhombic, overlapping. Four well- 
developed feet, with mostly slender unequal toes. 

Body frequently compressed, and with a row of erect pointed 
scales on the head and back. Draco has the skin expanded at the 
side by its six false ribs, greatly elongated, by which means it is 
enabled to take flying leaps. 

Agarnidse are acrodont, Iguanidae pleurodont. These are 
lizards, frequently of large size, found on trees and on rocky 
ground. 



AgcmddcB. 


Stellio. 


Holbrookia. 


Draco. 


Hoplurus = Uroma- 


Cyclura. 


Chlamydosaurus. 
Ceratophora. 
Sitana. 


stix. 
Hoplocercus = Pa- 
chycercus. 


Iguana. 
Basiliscus. 
Anolis. 


Calotes. 




Polychrus. 


Agama = Amphibo- 


Iguanidce. 


Ecphymotes. 


lurus. 


Phrynosoma. 




Trapelus. 


Ophryoessa. 





NYcrisAURA(=Ascalabota). Tongue short, fleshy, not exten- 
sible. Eyelids rarely present. Toes subequal, more or less dilated, 
the claws sometimes absent 



204 VEBTEBRATA. 

Body, and especially the head, somewhat depressed, covered 
with small scales more or less tuberculate. Eyes large, with 
frequently a linear vertical pupil. 

Found under stones and in houses in most warm climates, 
running up the walls or on the ceilings. Many species are noc- 
turnal. 

Geccotids. Phelsuma. Hemidactylus. 

CEdura. Naultinus. Ascalabotes. 

Ptyodactylus. Phyllurus. Gecco. 
Ptychozoon. 

DBNDROSAURA ( = Vermilinguia=Rhiptoglossi). Tongue long, 
club-shaped, extensible. Eyes large, covered, except around the 
pupil, by a circular lid. 

Body compressed, covered with a shagreened skin. The head is 
more or less crested. The toes are divided into two equal sets. 
The tail is round and prehensile. 

Confined to the warmer parts of the Old World. They are 
exceeding slow in progression. The power of changing colour is 
common to these and to many other lizards. 

Cham&leontidce. 

Chamaeleon. 

Rhampholeon. 

RHYNCHOCEPHALIA. Vertebrae amphicceloua. Quadrate bone 
immovably united to the skull. 

There is a complex abdominal sternum as in the crocodiles, 
and the lungs have large air-cells as in the Amphibia. 

This group is represented by Hatteria putwtata, a large sluggish 
New-Zealand lizard, now almost extinct. A second species from 
Cook's Straits (H. Guntheri) has been described. 

HatteriidcB. 
Hatteria= Sphenodon. 

AMPHISB^ENOID^A (= Annulata). Tongue short. Eyes very 
small or wanting ; no eyelids. No legs, except a small fore pair 
in Chirotes. 

Body cylindrical, the head and tail being alike. The scales 
are arranged in rings round the body. 

These are serpent-like, sluggish animals living in or near ants'- 
nests, and are mostly nocturnal. 



VEETEBRATA. 



205 



Amphisbanida. Trogonophis. 

Lepidosternon. Chirotida. 

Amphisbaena. Chirotes. 

GEISSOSAURA. Tongue short, bifid at the tip, slightly exten 
sible ; ventral scales rounded, imbricate. 

Body lizard-like or serpent-like, generally covered with rounded 
overlapping scales ; the feet, when present, or more than rudi- 
mentary, are very small. 

Feeble, harmless animals, living in holes or under stones, and 
feeding on insects and worms. Seps is viviparous. Our only re- 
presentative of this suborder the slowworm or blindworm is 
ovo-viviparous, bringing forth from seven to twelve young at a 
birth. The Scinck (Scincus officinalis), a native of Egypt and 
Syria, was once highly valued for its medicinal qualities. 

Scincidce. Anguidce. Acontiidce. 

Lygosoma = Hinulia Anguis (Slowworm). Acontias; 

= Mocoa. Diploglossus (Gaily- Typhlonurus=Ty- 

Euprepes = Mabouy a . wasp) . phline. 

Scincus. Ophiodes. Gymnophtkalmidas. 



- 

Seps-=Gongylus. Gyinnophthalmus. 
Scelotes. Ablepharus. 



Order III. CROCODILIA. 
LORICATA. EMYDOSAUEIA. HYDROSAURIA. 

Teeth lodged in distinct sockets. Body covered with bony 
plates. Feet short, toes webbed. Ribs with bifurcate heads. 
Ectopterygoids present. Ventricle double. 

The cervical vertebrae are remarkable for having short ribs ; the 
dorsal vertebrae are procoelous in the recent species. A series of 
so-called abdominal ribs, which are not connected with the ver- 
tebrae, are formed by the ossification of tendinous portions of the 
rectus abdominis. There are three eyelids, a movable earlid, 
the only approach to an external ear in reptiles, and a short 
fleshy tongue. The heart has four complete chambers ; but there 
is an opening between the two aortic arches (foramen Panizzte), 
and consequently the mixture of venous and arterial blood does 



206 VERTEBRATA. 

not take place in the heart itself as in other reptiles. The lungs 
are confined to the thorax. As in the tortoises, the anal cleft is 
longitudinal. 

This order contains the alligator (Alligator lucius), the Gan- 
getic crocodile ( Gavialis gangeticus), and the crocodile [of the 
.Nile] (Crocodilus vulgaris). " Cayman " and " Jacare " are the 
names of certain Alligatoridas given by savages and imposed on 
science. 

Of the two extinct families, Teleosauridce have amphicoelous , 
and Stenosauridae opisthocoelous vertebrae. 

There are about twenty-three recent species, all confined to fresh 
water. Some of the extinct forms were marine. The remains of 
crocodiles and alligators are found in the Tertiary deposits of 
England. 

Teleosauridce. Mecistops. Gavialis. 

*Teleosaurus Crocodiius (Croco- *Leptorhynchus. 

dile). 

Stenosaurida. Alligatorida. 

*Stenosaurus. Gavialida. Alligator (Alligator). 

' 



Tomistoma = Rhyn- - 

,-,7.7.7 , ' Jacare. 

Crocodihda. chosuchus. 

Osteolaetnus. 

*Froterosaurus. 



Order IV. ICPITHYOPTEKYGIA. 

ICHTHYOSAURIA. 

Limbs paddle-like, furnished with marginal ossicles ; the digits 
not more than five, but with numerous phalanges. Neck very 
short. No sacrum nor sternum. Body fish-like. 

The jaws were produced ; the nostrils were placed close to the 
large orbits ; the teeth were lodged in grooves, not in distinct 
sockets, and were numerous and powerful. The vertebrae were 
amphicoelous. A vertical caudal fin is supposed to have been 
present. 

If we except Eosaurus (from the Coal-measures of North 
America), one genus only is known, the species of which abounded 
during the Mesozoic period, and it is believed were very voracious. 
They were supposed to be marine, corning occasionally to the 
shore. Coprolites are said to be their droppings. 

* Ichthyosaurus. 



VERTEBRATA. 207 

Order V. SAUKOPTERYGIA. 

PLESIOSAURIA. 

Limbs paddle-like, formed for swimming. Vertebras with their 
articulating surfaces flat or slightly concave. Neck mostly very 
long. A sacrum of two bones. No sternum. 

The jaws were produced, but the nostrils were placed far back 
near the orbits ; the teeth were lodged in distinct sockets, and, 
except in Placodus, were of the normal character. The eye had 
no bony plates. The scapula resembled the scapula of Chelonia. 

This order contains Mesozoic marine lizards, generally of large 
size. 

*Nothosaurus. *Plesiosauru3. *Placodus. 

*Simosaurus. 

Order VI. PTEEOSAUEIA. 

Forearm and fifth digit very long, formed for flight. Vertebrse 
procoelous. Jaws prolonged; teeth conical, lodged in distinct 
sockets. 

The long bones and vertebra? had air-cells, as in birds. The 
neck was very long ; and there was a sternum with a mesial crest. 
For these and other reasons, Prof. H. G. Seeley thinks them 
more nearly allied to birds than to reptiles ; and he proposes for 
them a class which he names Saurornia. 

These flying lizards of the Mesozoic period seemed to have been 
confined to mid-Europe. One appears to have had an expanse of 
wing of more than twenty feet. 

Marsh has recently described a new form (Pteratiodori) allied to 
this order found in the Cretaceous beds of Kansas. It is without 
teeth, and constitutes, according to him, a distinct order and a 
distinct family. 

*Ramphorhynchus. *Dirnorphodon. *Pterodactylus. 

Order VII. DINOSAURIA. 
ORMTHOSCELIDA. PACIIYPODA. 

Teeth lodged in distinct sockets. Vertebrae mostly flat on their 
articular surfaces, a few anterior opisthocrelous. Limbs ambu- 
latory. Exoskeleton consisting of bony plates in some, in others 
only a naked skin. 



208 VEBTEBRATA. 

In some of their characters the Dinosauria approach the 
ostriches ; but their metatarsal bones were not anchylosed to the 
tarsus, except partially in Compsognathus, which it is supposed must 
have walked more or less in an erect position. Huxley considers 
that the gradation between birds and reptiles will be found in this 
group. 

These Saurians were mostly of gigantic size ; Cetiosaurus was 
60 or 70 feet long ; Compsognathiis, however, was only about two 
feet long. They are found chiefly in the Oolitic and Cretaceous 
formations. 

*Cetiosaurus. *Megalosaurus. *Iguanodon. 

*0mosaurus. *Compsognathus. 

Order VIII. ANOMODONTLA. 

DlCYNODONTIA. 

No teeth, or with closely-set teeth in both jaws, or two large 
tusks in the upper jaw. Vertebras amphicoelous. Sacrum large. 
Limbs ambulatory. No exoskeleton. 

In Dicynodon an important step towards the mammalian type 
is made in the constant renewal of the tusks from the matrix, as 
in the long-lived and ever-growing tusks and scalpriforni incisors 
of the Mammalia. In their beak, sheathed in horn, they resembled 
the Chelonia. They are found in the Trias of South Africa, 
Europe, and Bengal. 

*Oudenodon. *Dicynodon. 

*Rhynchosaurus. 

Order IX. CHELONIA. 
TESTUDINATA. CATAPIIRACTA. 

No teeth. " Trunk-ribs broad, flat, suturally united, forming 
with their vertebrae, sternum, and dorsal bones an expanded 
thoracico-abdominal case." External nostril single. Eyelids. A 
sacrum. 

The upper plate, or " carapace," is composed of the dorsal ver- 
tebrae and ribs; the lower, or "plastron," represents the sternum. 
These are formed of bony plates covered with unconformable 
horny scales. The vertebras oi the neck and tail are alone movable. 
The lungs extend into the abdominal cavity with the viscera ; and, 
owing to the immobility of the ribs, these reptiles, like the Batra- 
chia, swallow the air they breathe. 



VERTEBRATA. 209 

The Chelonia are very sluggish in their movements, very tena- 
cious of life, and are said to pass even years without food. 
[Cuvier.] They are oviparous, and live mostly on vegetable food ; 
Trionychidse are carnivorous. In their jaws deprived of teeth 
they resemble birds. Their anal cleft is longitudinal. 

This order includes the green-turtle ( Chelonia midas), tortoise- 
shell or hawk's-bill turtle (Chelonia imbricata), logger-headed 
turtle (Thalassochelys caretta), terrapin (Emiys sps.), box- tortoise 
(Cistudo carinata), alligator-tortoise (Chelydra serpentina), and 
soft-back ( Trionyx ferox). The common tortoise is Testudo grceca. 

Several gigantic species of tortoise ( Testudo), living and extinct, 
are known ; the former are now almost entirely confined to the 
Galapagos and Aldabra islands, the latter to Mauritius and Eocl- 
riguez. Colossochelys atlas, an Indian fossil species, is said to 
have been 20 feet in length. 

There are about 200 good species in this order, which have been 
distributed into 103 so-called genera, many of them, according to 
Giinther, depending on slight differences of the skull, but unac- 
companied by any external characters. 

CheloniidcB. Chelydidce. Clemmys. 

Sphargis. Emydura. Chelydra = Chelo- 

Thalassochelys= Hydraspis. nura. 

Caouana. Podocnemis. Emys (Terrapin). 
Chelonia (Turtle). Pelomedusa. 

Chelys. Testudinida. 

TrionychidcB. Teleopus. 

Emyda. Emydida. Cinyxis. 

Trionyx. Cinosternum. *Colossochelys. 

Cistudo. Testudo (Tortoise). 



Order X. THEEIODONTIA. 

Incisors defined by position, and divided from the molars by a 
large laniariform canine on each side of both jaws, the lower 
canine crossing in front of the upper. No ectopferygoida. The 
huruerus with a supracondylar foramen. 

The supra condylar foramen is one of the characters of the 
Felidae. In this and certain other respects the Theriodontia had 
mammalian resemblances. Owen has described many genera and 
species whose remains have been found in the Triassic lacustrine 
deposits of South Africa. 

*Cynodraco. *Tigrisuchus. *Galesaurus. 

p 



210 VERTEBRATA. 



Class IV. AVES. (Birds.) 

Vertebrate, warm-blooded, oviparous animals, breathing by 
lungs, and clothed with leathers. Heart with two auricles and 
two ventricles. No corpus callosum. An amnion and allantois. 

The lower jaw is articulated to the skull by the intervention of 
an os quadratum (representing the incus of mammals), and the 
skull to the atlas by single occipital condyles. The cervical ver- 
tebrae vary from nine to twenty-three. The coracoid process of 
the scapula in mammals is a distinct bone in birds, and the two 
clavicles are united to form the furculum [merrythought]. The 
sternum, or breast-bone, is generally notched posteriorly [one or, 
more rarely, two notches on each side] or perforated. In all 
living birds the terminal tail-bones are anchylosed. The bones 
are permeated with air derived from the bronchi, but in very 
young birds they are filled with marrow. Air-cells are also 
more or less interposed between the skin and the muscles. 

Most birds have an inferior larynx situated close to the bifur- 
cation of the trachea ; sound is produced here arid is modified 
above. In singing birds it is worked by five or six pairs of 
muscles. The trachea is composed of bony rings, the bronchi of 
half-rings situated on the outer side, the inner side being com- 
pleted by a membrane. There is no epiglottis, or at least it is 
only rudimentary ; the papillae at the base of the tongue, directed 
backwards, prevent the food from entering the trachea. The 
tongue is more an organ of touch than of taste. The oesophagus, 
always very dilatable, terminates in the " proventriculus," which 
is lined with the glands secreting the gastric juice. Close to the 
proventriculus is the stomach, thin and membranous in carni- 
vorous, muscular in granivorous birds. The intestine is from three 
to nine times the length of the body ; it is longest in gramini- 
vorous birds. 

In many birds, such as those that gorge themselves at uncertain 
intervals, and those which, living exclusively on vegetable food, 
require a temporary store, the oesophagus dilates to form a 
" crop" [ingluvies]. From the crop, or from the stomach, many 
birds, such as kingfishers, parrots, pigeons, &c., have the power 
of producing their partially digested food for the support of 
the female during, and the young after, incubation ; in the latter 
and a few others the crop secretes a peculiar milky fluid. Some 
birds also have the power of casting up the indigestible matter 
which they iiave swallowed. 



VERTEBHATA. 211 

The liver is two-lobed, rarely there is also a small central lobe. 
A gall-bladder may or may not be present, even in allied 
species, or occasionally in the same species. The kidneys are 
remarkable for being placed in cavities of the iliac bones, as in 
reptiles, and their substance is homogeneous. The lungs are 
attached to the ribs and spine, but they are al first free. The 
diaphragm is not well developed. 

Birds have no eyelashes, but they possess a third eyelid [mem- 
brana nictitans], transparent or otherwise. The sclprotica ante- 
riorly is supported by covered bony plates. There is always an 
ear, but no external concha. In no bird is the eye ever rudi- 
mentary, or wanting. The brain is very variable in size ; it is 
about ^V the weight of the body in the sparrow, and TT Vcy in the 
ostrich. The optic thalami are small, and the optic lobes, dif- 
fering from " every other class," are lateral and inferior. 

The feathers in birds consist in general of the shaft [scapus], 
a continuation of the quill [calamus], to which the " webs " are 
attached on each side ; these are made up of a number of barbs 
[rami], each furnished with hooked branches [barbules or ramuli]. 
The "contour-feathers" [pennse], as distinguished from "down- 
feathers" [plumje], are worked by muscles, sometimes too small 
to be easily detected, but amounting to four or five to each 
feather. In Anas marilci and in Sula bassana, Nitzsch counted 
3000 of the contour-feathers, so that in each bird there must 
have been 12000 of these muscles. 

The down on newly hatched birds is only partial and tem- 
porary. The dry membranous bodies in the quill are the remains 
of the pulpy medulla of early life. Once or twice a year birds 
moult or renew their feathers; in many cases the difference 
between the summer and winter moults is very great. 

In many groups the female is much less or very differently 
coloured to the male, the young birds are mostly coloured like 
the females ; in the latter it is probably due to the arrested deve- 
lopment 'of the colouring-matter, just as, on the other hand, old 
female birds sometimes partially assume the coloration of the 
male. 

Peculiar formations of integument [corium] are known as 
caruncles, wattles, &c. The cere at the base of the bill is of the 
same nature. 

All birds are oviparous ; they have usually only one ovary, 
which lies towards the left side. The period of incubation varies 
from two weeks to nearly two months. 

As to the nests of birds, Wallace draws the conclusion that 
" when both sexes are of strikingly gay and conspicuous colours. 



212 VERTEBRATA. 

the nest is such as to conceal the sitting bird ; while, whenever 
there is a striking contrast of colours, the male being gay and 
conspicuous, the female dull and obscure, the nest is open and 
the sitting bird exposed to view." The Duke of Argyll, on the 
other hand, maintains that rather the nests themselves require 
concealment, and that the structure "which most completely 
covers up the eggs, or the sitting bird, may, and often does, 
render the nest itself only more conspicuous." It appears to 
be still a question whether birds build from instinct or from 
imitation. No bird hibernates. 

Slight differences are sometimes observable between birds from 
different localities, differences in some cases considered to be 
specific ; but they are probably only " races " depending on local 
causes. According to Blanford, eastern and western " races" are 
found " passing into each other and breeding together where they 
meet in the Levant." 

Systems of classification for birds have been numerous ; of the 
two latest Huxley's and Garrod's the first is founded on the 
palatal structure, the latter mainly on the disposition of the 
muscles of the thigh. Huxley divides birds into three orders 
Saururee, Batitse, and CarinataB, the latter comprising all known 
living birds except the ostriches, emus, &c. The Carinatas 
include four suborders: (1) Dromseognathse [vomer very broad, 
united in front with the maxillo-palatine plates, receiving behind 
the anterior ends of the pterygoid bones, &c.] : represented by 
Tinamus only ? (2) Schizognathas [vomer various, tapers to a 
point arteriorly, behind it embraces the basisphenoidal rostrum 
between the palatines ; maxillo-palatines fissured] : includes 
plovers, gulls, cranes, GallinaB, pigeons. (3) Desmognathae 
[vomer abortive or very small ; "maxillo-palatines united across 
the middle line, either directly or by the intermediation of ossifi- 
cations in the nasal septum "] : includes most of the Grallae and 
Anseres which are not Schizognathous, the Accipitres, the Scan- 
sores, and many of the Volitores (i. e. swifts, kingfishers, hoopoes). 
(4) ^Egithognathas [vomer very broad, truncated in front and 
cleft behind, embracing the rostrum of the sphenoid between its 
forks] : includes the great majority of the Passerine birds. The 
last three " suborders " are divided into " groups." 

Of this classification it has been remarked as " questionable " 
" how far any approach to a natural system can be based on the 
modification of one part of an animal's structure without any 
reference to other portions of it " (Newton). 

Garrod divides birds into two subclasses according as the 
"ambiens" (or rectus femoris, a slender musele arising above the 



VERTEBRATA. 213 

acetabulum, and joining the tendon of the flexor perforatus digi- 
toruin) is present (Hornalogonati) or absent (Anomalogonati). 
The former has four orders : (1 ) Galliformes : including ostriches, 
Gallinae. rails, cuckoos, parrots. (2) Anseriforrnes : Anatidae, 
penguins, petrels, &c. (3) Ciconiiformes : storks, " Catharteae," 
herons, Steganopoda, falcons, and owls. (4) Charadriiformes : 
pigeons, plovers, cranes, gulls, &c. The second subclass has three 
orders: (1) Piciformes : woodpeckers, toucans, kingfishers, &c. 
(2) Passeriformes : Passeres, goatsuckers, rollers, &c. (3) Cypse- 
liformes : swifts and humming-birds. 

With regard to the palatal system a fifth suborder for the 
woodpeckers has been proposed by Parker [Saurognathae]. He 
holds that " the lineaments of the old feathered fathers of the 
existent types " must be sought for in the embryo ; and he finds 
that the parts of the ^Egithognathous face, of which those of the 
Saurognathas are but a " degradation and simplification," " were 
really built up of elements which had their true counterparts or 
' symrnorphs ' in the snake." 

Another system, in which external are preferred to internal or 
anatomical characters, was proposed by Sundevall in 1872. The 
Passeres and Picas of Linnaeus form the "agrnen" Psilopaades 
or Gymnopaedes (young at first naked), comprising two orders, 
19 cohorts, and 157 families. The second " agmen," Ptilopaedes or 
Dasypaedes (young covered with down from the first), comprises 
the orders Accipitres, Gallinae, Grallatores, Natatores, Proceres, 
and Saururaa ; excluding the last, these orders include 22 cohorts 
and 60 families. In the Psilopaades each order is divided into 
two series, and in the cohorts of the first we have also 14 " Pha- 
langes," each phalanx, like the cohorts, mostly bearing a charac- 
ter-name, such as Brevipennes, Latirostres, Novempennatas, &c. 
The definitions are very clear, and all barbarous names of genera 
are rejected. As this classification has been favourably received 
in some quarters, the following tabular view may be useful, and 
will enable it to be better understood. Many of Sundevall's 
families are generally regarded as subfamilies. 



Agmen primum, PSILOP^DES. 

Order 1. OSCINES. 
Series prior, Lamelliplantares. 

Cohorts. Phalanges. Principal families. 

1. Cichlomorphae. 1. Ocreata. Lusciniinag, Saxico- 

linae, TurdinaB. 



214 



VEETEBEATA. 



Cohorts. Phalanges. 

1. Cichlornorphae. 2. Brevipennes. 

3. Miminse. 

4. Ampelidinas. 

5. Latirostres. 

6. Novempennatse. 



2. Conirostres. 



3. Coliomorphse. 



4. Certhiomorphse. 

5. Cynnirimorphas. 



1. Ploceime. 

2. Amplipalatales. 

3. Atratipalatales. 

4. Simplicirostres. 

1. NoTempennatse. 

2. Humilinares. 

3. Altinares. 

4. Idiodactylse. 



Principal families. 

Malurinse, Copsychi- 
nse, Malaconotinag, 
Troglodytinse. 

Vireoninas, Phyllo- 
pneust inse , Sy Ivii n se , 
Paringe, La,niinae. 

Oriolince, Campopha- 
gince, Dicrourinas. 

Ficedulinae, Muscica- 



6. Chelidonimorphe. 



Motacillinse, Icteri- 

ine, Pardalotime. 
Viduinse.AccentorinjE. 
Cliloridinte, Fringil- 

linas. 

Loxiinae, Emberizinse. 
Kamphocelinze, Tana- 

grinse. 

Agelffiinae, Icterinaj. 
Sturninse, Bupha- 

gin.T, Fregilin. 
Nucifragin^e, Garru- 

linag, Coryinse. 
Subgarrulinse (Citta), 

Paradisaeinse. 
Certhiinas, Sittinae. 
Arbelorhininse (Caere- 

ba cyanea], Drepa- 

nidinse, Nectari- 

niidas, Melipha- 

gida?. 
Hirundinidse. 



Series posterior, Scutelliplan tares. 

1. Holasp ideas. Alaudina?, Upupinaa. 

2. EndaspideaB. Furnariinag, Dendrocolaptina3. 

3. Exaspidefe. Oxyrhyncbinae, Tyranninas, Todin93, Piprinae. 

4. Pycnaspideas. Rupicolinae, Ampelinaa. 

5. Paietinss. Thainnopbilinas, Scytalopodinae. 



TERTEBRATA. 215 

Order 2. VoLuCREa. 
Series prior, Volucres zygodactyli. 

Cohorts. Principal families. 

1. Psittaci. Camptolopliinae (Microglossus &c.), Platy- 

cercini, Trichoglossini. 

2. Pici angusticolles. P. securirostres, P. ligonirostres, P. nudi- 

nares, Picumnini, lynginffi. 

3. Coccyges. Ramphastinae, Galbulinae, Bucconinas, Cu- 

culinae, Crotophaginae. 

Series posterior, Volucres anisodactyli. 

4. Coenomorphae. Musophaginae, Coliinae, Coraciinag. 

5. Ampligulares. Trogoninse, Podarginae, Caprimulginre, Cyp- 

selinas. 

6. Volucres longi- (Humming-birds, divided into thirteen fami- 

lingues. lies.) 

7. Volucres syndac- Meropinae, Prionitinae, Alcedininas, Bucero- 

tyke. tinaa. 

8. Peristeroide83. Didinas, Columbines, Megapeliinae (Goura 

= Lophyrus). 

Agmen secundum, PTILOP.EDES. 
Order 3. ACCIPITRES. 

1. Nyctharpages. Ululinaa, Btiboninas, Noetuinae. 

2. Hemeroharpages. Asturinas, Buteoninas, Falconinse, Aquilinas, 

Milvinae. 

3. Saproharpages. G-ypaetinae, Vulturinae. 

4. Necroharpages. Cathartinae, Polyborinse, Dicholophinas. 

Order 4. GALLING. 

1. Tetraonomorphae. Pteroclinae, Tetraoninae. 

2. Phasianomorphaj. Phasianina, Pavoninas, Perdicinae, Homi- 

podiinae. 

3. Macronyches. Catheturinae (Catheturus=Talegallus'), 

Megapodiinae. 

4. Duodecimpennatae. Cracinaa, Penelopinae. 

5. Struthioniformes. Crypturinaa. 

6. Subgralla^ores. TMnocorinae, Chionodinas. 



216 VEBTEBEATA. 

Order 5. GRALLATORES. 
Series prior, Grallatores altinares. 
Cohorts. Principal families. 

1. Herodii. Ardeinse. 

2. Pelargi. Plataleinas, Ciconiinse, Ibidinae, Scopinaa. 

Series posterior, Grallatores humilinares, 

3. Limicolse. Totaninaa. 

4. Charadriinas. Charadriinae, Otidinae, Gruinse, E/allinse. 

Order 6. NATATORES. 

1. Longipennes. Sterninse, Larinae. 

2. Pygopodes. Alcarias, Colymbinae. 

3. Totipalmatae. Pelecaninse. 

4. Tubinares. Procellariinaa, Diomedeinaa. 

5. Impennes. Spheniscinas. 

6. Lamellirostres. Phenicopterinse, Anatina3. 

Order 7. PROCERES. 

1. Proceres veri. Struthioninse, Dromasinag. 

2. Subnobiles. Apteryginae. 

Order 8. SAURUIM:. 
(Archasopteryx.) 

In the more simple arrangement of Schmarda (1878) there are 
ten orders : 1. Archasopterygida ; 2. Natatores ; 3. Grallatores ; 
4. Cursores ; 5. Gallinacea ; 6. Columbae ; 7. Passeres ; 8. Syn- 
dactyli ; 9. Scansores ; and 10. Eaptatores. This arrangement 
differs from that of Glaus (1876) in that Syndactyli are com- 
bined with Passeres, and the Cursores are placed last after 
Raptatores. 

In the absence of an absolute agreement among ornithologists, 
the classification here adopted so far differs from the ordinary 
modifications of the " mercurial taxonomist " as to include the 
" Volitores" of Owen as an order, and in beginning with the 
Pici as the lowest type of living birds and ending with Psittaci 
as the highest. The " Eeptilian birds " are aberrant, and, not 
forming a direct passage from the preceding class, are placed 
last. 



VERTEBRATA. 217 

The characters of birds are so unvarying " that it is difficult to 
separate them into subordinate groups;" these are "more 
arbitrary and artificial than in those of the other vertebrate 
classes." 

Bill without teeth (all living birds). 
Breast-bone keeled. 
Feet not webbed. 

Legs feathered to the knees. 
Nostrils pierced in the bony structure of the bill. 
Bill various, not arched from the base. 

Tongue long, extensible PICI. 

Tongue short, not extensible. 
One toe behind. 

Feet short, weak VOLITORES. 

Feet long, moderately strong... PASSERES. 

Two toes behind SCANSORES. 

Bill strongly arched from the base. 

Two toes behind PSITTACI. 

One toe behind ACCIPITRES. 

Nostrils pierced in a membrane. 

Hind toe on a level with the others ... COLUMB^E. 

Hind toe elevated GALLING. 

Legs naked above the knees GRALI^E. 

Feet webbed ANSERES. 

Breast-bone not keeled STRUTHIONES. 

Bill with teeth. Extinct. (Odontornithes.) 

Breast-bone keeled ODONTORM^E. 

Breast-bone not keeled ODONTOLC^E. 

Breast-bone rudimentary SAURURE. 

There are about 8000 species of birds according to Schmarda 
(1878), but 11,162 are enumerated in G. B. Gray's ' Hand-List ' 
(1871) ; of these, about 270 species, not counting stragglers, are 
British. 

Order I. PTCI. 

SAGITTILINGUES. CELEOMORPH^E. SAUROGNATILE. 
Bill straight, wedge-shaped : tongue extensible, barbed at the 
end. Tail-feathers stiff at the points. Feet short, stout ; first 
and fourth toes turned backwards. 

The bill in the typical species is of an ivory-like hardness and 
much compressed, especially towards the tip. The tongue, pro- 
vided with a tenacious secretion, is capable of great elongation 
and extension, the two cornua of the hyoid bone extending round 



218 VEBTEBRATA. 

to the back of the head, forming a bow which can be lengthened 
or shortened by accompanying muscles. 

The palatal structure is " at a most simple and Lacertian 
stage" (Parker). The voraers are delicate rod-like bones which, 
in some cases, remain permanently separate. The qu;idvate bone 
is very short. The sternum has two notches on each side pos- 
teriorly, and a forked manubrial process. There is only one 
carotid. The tarsi are covered with short imbricated scales 
anteriorly. In Sasia and Apternus the inner posterior toe is 
wanting. 

The Pici are shy untamable birds, flying from man, living in 
woods, and nesting in holes of trees ; the males share the duty of 
incubation. They live on insects and worms, or on fruit ; some 
of the North- American species of Melanerpes are said to enter 
dovecots for the purpose of sucking the eggs of pigeons. They 
creep, rather than climb, on the trunks and branches of trees. 
Picumnidae are exceptional; their tail-feathers are broad and 
rounded at the tip, and they do not appear to climb. 

Sundevall was the first (but only for a time) to separate these 
birds as an order, in which he is followed by Carus and Huxley. 
To it belongs the green woodpecker (Gecinus viridis), great spotted 
woodpecker (Pious major], black woodpecker (I)ryocopus martins], 
and the wryneck (Yunx torquiUa). 

There are 350 species in G. E. Gray's ' List ;' but none are 
found in Madagascar or in Australia. 

Picumnidcs. Ohrysoptilus. Hemilophus. 

Picumnus. Chrysonotus=Tiga. Dryocopus. 

Sasia. Gecinus. Campophilus. 

Celeus. Picus. 

Picida (Wood- Meiglyptes. 

peckers). Colaptes. Twigida. 

Apternus = Picoides. Geocolaptes. Yunx (Wryneck). 

Melanerpes. 



Order II. VOLITOEES. 

FISSIROSTRES. PICARLE. STRISORES. COCCYGOMORPH^B. 

Bill various, with mostly a wide gape ; no cere. Legs small 
and weak ; a back toe, outer toe sometimes reversible. Wings 
strong. 

In this order the bill is often remarkable for length or breadth, 
or both. The feet are mostly small, with little grasping power. 



VEETEBEATA. 219 

The wings are strong, and frequently long and pointed, these 
birds "moving solely by flight" and taking their food on the 
wing. They nestle in holes of trees, or in holes of banks, or on 
the earth ; or, as some of the swallows, they build mud nests 
against the sides of rocks or walls. Humming-birds construct 
very delicate and compact nests of moss, lichens, feathers, &c. ; 
while the kingfisher is content to heap together a few fish-bones, 
in some hole or hollow, on which to lay her eggs. In the horn- 
bills the male, as is well known, shuts up the female in her nest 
in a hollow tree by filling up the entrance with mud, leaving 
just enough space through which the latter and her family may 
receive the food he brings them. Livingstone says that the 
" poor slave of a husband " often dies of inanition after his 
exertions. 

The majority of these birds live on insects ; humming-birds in 
part on the nectar in flowers, which they extract without alight- 
ing ; kingfishers feed on water-insects, small fishes and their 
fry ; hornbills on fruits, and sometimes on small birds. 

Among other well-known birds in this order we have the king- 
fisher (Alcedo ispida), the laughing jackass of Australia (Dacelo 
gigantea), the nightjar or goatsucker (Caprimulgus europceus), 
whip-poor-will of North America (Antrostomus vociferus), the 
" old jew " of New South Wales (Podargus auritus), sand-martin 
(Cotyle riparia), house-martin (Chelidon urbica), swallow 
(Hirundo rustica}, the "edible" swallow (Collocalia esculenta, 
whose nests, partially composed of a gelatinous secretion of the 
bird itself, is much sought after by Chinese gourmands), and the 
swift ( Cypselus apus). Bee-eaters and rollers also belong to this 
order. The humming-birds (of which there are 460 species) 
Sundevall, under his cohort "Volucres longilingues," splits up 
into twelve families. Their so-called genera are about 150. 

Volitores include the Coccygomorpha? of Huxley except the zygo- 
dactyle families and Coliidse, and the whole of his Cypselomorphae 
(Macrochires, NitzscJi). The Fissirostres of Cuvier were con- 
fined to the genera Hirundo, Cypselus, Caprimulgus, and Podargus. 
Syndactyli of the same author comprised the five genera Merops, 
Prionitcs, Alcedo, Ceyx, and Todus. Picarise are an indefinite group 
not generally adopted. Hirundinidae are occasionally placed 
in the Passeres ; Wallace says that they " are undoubtedly very 
isolated ; " but Huxley thinks that they are " very nearly related " 
to the Cypselidae. Claus and Schmarda unite them and Capri- 
mulgidse in one " group " (Fissirostres). The order is included 
in the " Volucres anisodactyli " of Sundevall ; but he includes in 
it also the Pigeons. 



220 



VERTEBRATA. 



Capitonidce (Barbels). Alcedinidce. 



Hirundinidce. 



Pogonorhynchus = 

Laimodon. 
Megalaema. 
Capito. 

Coraciida. 
Eurylasmus. 
Corydon. 
Eurystomus. 
Coracias (Boiler). 
Colaris. 

Bucerotidfs (Horn- 
bills). 
Bucorax. 
Buceros. 
Euryceros. 

Upupid(S. 
Upupa (Hoopoe). 
Irrisor = Promerops. 



Ceyx. 
Syma. 
Halcv 



alcyon. 
Tanysiptera. 

Alcedo (Kingfisher). Hirundo (Swallow). 
Dacelo. Atticora. 



Progne. 

Cotyle (Sand-Martin). 
Cheiidon (House- 
Martin). 



Nyctiornis. 
Merops (Bee-eater). 



Jacamerops = Lam- 

protila. 
Galbula. 



Todida. 



Todus. 



Cypselidce. 

Chgetura. 
PrionUidfS. Collocalia. 
Prionites = Momotus. Cypselus (Swift). 



Trogonidce. 
Hapaloderma. 
Priotelus. 
Harpactes. 
Calurus. 
Trogon. 

Caprimulgidce. 
Antrostomus. 
Steatornis. 
Chordeiles. 
^Egotheles. 
Caprimulgus (Goat- 
sucker). 
Podargus. 
Nyctibius. 
Batrachostomus. 



Trochilidce (Hum- 
ming-birds). 
Kamphodon. 
Phaethornis. 
Campylopterus. 
Petasophora. 
Thalurania. 
Sparganura = 

Cometes. 
Heliothrix. 
Lophornis. 
Glauds. 
Selasphorus. 
Trochilus. 
Amazilis. 
Docimastes. 
Patagona. 



Order III. SCANSOEES. 

ZYGODACTYLI. AMPHIBOLI. ERUCIVORES. COCCYGES. PICARLB. 
COCCYGOMORPH^:. 

Bill various, but never arched from the base ; no cere. Tongue 
not extensile. Tarsi with broad scutes. First and fourth toes 
turned backwards. 

The bill varies more in size than in shape, being very small 
comparatively in the cuckoos, and nearly as large as the bird it- 



VERTEBRATA. 



221 



self in some of the toucans. With the latter it is of a delicately 
cellular structure, and therefore very light. 

The Scansores do not climb, or rather creep, in the sense of 
woodpeckers and creepers ; some of them live on the ground and 
are good runne>rs ; they have a short flight, and place their nests 
in holes of decaying trees, or, as in some of the cuckoos, they lay 
their eggs in the nests of other birds. Indicator, however, builds 
a complex bottle-shaped nest. They feed mostly on insects and 
fruits, the toucans and some of the ground-cuckoos also on small 
birds and reptiles : the former are known to "regurgitate partially 
digested food, and after submitting it to a rude kind of masti- 
cation by their enormous beaks, again to swallow it." 

The cuckoo ( Cuculus canorus) is the only British bird belonging 
to this order, which includes also the plantain -eaters and the 
toucans. Coliidas are South-African birds with no obvious 
allies ; in them all the toes are turned forwards. Murie thinks 
that they are an annectent group between " Coccygomorphas and 
Coracomorphae," which he names Coliomorphas (not the Colio- 
morphaa of Sundevall). G. E. Gray placed them in the Coniros- 
tres. They have the peculiar habit of hanging by one foot with the 
head downwards. 

This order corresponds to the second group of Huxley's Coccy- 
gomorphas, except that he includes Galbulidse. To this second 
group he thinks it may be desirable to restrict the term. The 
order also forms part of the Zygodactyli and of the Picariae of 
the older authors, which included the Volitores and woodpeckers, 
and for some writers the parrots and chatterers also. 



MusophagidfB* 
Corythaix (Touraco). 
Schizorhis. 
Musophaga (Plan- 
tain-eater). 

CuculidcB. 
Scythrops. 
Eudynamys. 
Cuculus (Cuckoo). 
Lamprotornis = 
Chrysococcyx. 


Leptosomus. 
Pho3nicophaes. 
Crotophaga (Ani). 
Corydonyx (Serico- 
sornus). 
Coccyzus. 
Saurothera. 
Centropus. 
Polophilus. 


Bucconidce (Puff- 
birds). 
Brachypetes = Cheli 
doptera. 
Monasa. 
Malacoptila. 
Bucco. 

KhamphastidcB 
(Toucans). 
Pteroglossus. 
Ehamphastos. 


Indicator (Honey- 
guide). 



Collide. 



Colius. 



222 VERTEBRATA. 



Order IV. PASSEEES. 

INSESSORES. CANTORES. AMBULATORER. CLAMATORES. 
VOLUCRES. OSCINES. CoRACOMORPH^E. 

Bill various, but never arched from the base ; no cere. Tongue 
not fleshy. Legs moderate ; one toe behind, three in front, the 
outer joined at its base to the middle toe. 

The comparatively strong feet are formed for perching, all the 
toes being on the same level, and only one directed backwards. 
The tarsus is covered anteriorly by five or six or seven imbricated 
scales (scutes or scutellse), rarely by one only. The females are 
smaller than the males, and are less distinctly coloured. They 
build complex nests, and the young leave the egg in a blind and 
naked state. 

Passerine birds, as here limited, have only moderate powers of 
flight, and live chiefly either on berries and seed, or on insects 
and worms ; but a few are omnivorous. This order contains all 
the singing birds ; they have all, even those species that do not 
sing, a lower larynx, which may be of "every degree of com- 
plexity" and worked by five pairs of muscles, or it may only 
nave two pairs, or may be devoid of any. Wallace observes that 
Passeres with "imperfect singing apparatus" are characterized 
by having wings with ten primaries, while all other birds have 
nine only, or if ten then the first " below its proportionate size." 

Besides the names mentioned below, the following are some of 
the most familiar birds belonging to this order : the night- 
ingale (Luscinia philomela), [the Persian nightingale or bulbul is 
the Luscinia Hafizii, the bulbuls of India are Pycnonoti], black- 
aup(Curruca atricapilla), white-throat (Curruca cinerea), garden- 
warbler (Sylvia hortensis), wood-wren (Phyllopneuste sibilatrix), 
chiff-chaff (Phylloscopus rufus), robin (Eryihacus rubec'iila), hedge- 
sparrow (Accentor modularis), titlark (Anthus pratensis), wheatear 
(Saxicola cenanthe], thrush (Turdus musicus), blackbird (Turdus 
merula), fieldfare ( Turdus pilaris), wagtail (Motacilla alba), wren 
(Troglodytes vulgaris), goldfinch (Carduelis elcgans), canary 
(Carduelis canarid), chaffinch (Fringillaccelebs), hawfinch (Cocco- 
thraustes vulgaris), sparrow (Passer domesticus\ linnet (Linota 
cannabina), yellow-ammer (Emberiza citrinella'), ortolan (Embe- 
riza hortulana), skylark (Alauda arvensis), crow (Corvus cor one], 
raven (Corvus corax), jackdaw (Corvus monedula), rook ( Corvus 
friigileyus}, magpie (Pica caudata), and jay ( Garrulus glandariua}. 



YERTEBRATA. 223 

The lyre-bird (Menura, superba) is a very aberrant form, and has 
been placed with the Gallinae. Its affinities are supposed to be 
with Pteroptochidse or with Orthonyx (a gigantic wren in other 
words), and also with the Birds of Paradise. Todus is another 
peculiar form ; its nearest living allies, according to Murie, after 
an examination of its skeleton, are the motniots and kingfishers. 
Claus, however, confines it to its old place among the Tyrannidae. 

Although now much restricted (opinions differing as to its ex- 
tent), the Pa.sseres are still the most numerous of all the orders 
of birds, and, owing to their slightly varying characters, one of 
the most difficult to classify. Wallace, recognizing four typical 
forms of wings, proposes to classify them thus : primaries 10, 
the first well developed (4), or ''reduced'' (1), or rudimentary (3), 
and primaries 9 only (2). The typical or " Turdoid series " (1) 
contains the great majority of families, the " Tanagroid series" 
(2), the '' Sturnoid series '' (3), and " Porinicarioid series " (4) 
comprise the remainder. The Passeres have also been divided 
iuto " Acromyodi," in which the intrinsic muscles of the voice- 
organs are fixed to the end of the bronchial half-rings, and 
" Mesomyodi, 1 ' in which they join them at or near the middle. 

Taking the form of the bill, as is most commonly done, as a 
practical character correlated in many respects with what is best 
known to the ordinary observer, and omitting Fissirostres and 
Levirostres, which are included in the Volitores, we have four 
suborders : 

Bill elongate, slender, often curved TENUIROSTRES. 

Bill shorter and stouter, never curved. 

Bill notched at the tip DENTIROSTRES. 

Bill entire, or only obsoletely notched. 

Bill short, conical CONIROSTKES. 

Bill large, subconicai or compressed MAGXIROSTRES. 

TENUIROSTRES. Bill lengthened, slender, mostly curved, never 
notched at the tip. Legs strong. 

Perching or "climbing" birds, living on small insects, larvae, 
&c., which they do not catch on the wing. They have no song. 

Nectar iniida. Zosterops. Meliphaga. 

Dicseum. Promerops. Anthoinis. 

An'chreptes. Anthochasra. 

Arachnothera. Mcliphagidte. Prosthemudera 

Nectarinia = Cinnyris Myzomela- (Parson-bird). 

(Sun-bird). Grlyciphila. Tropidorhyuchus. 



224 



VERTEBRATA. 



Dendrocolaptidce. Geositta. 



Anabates. 
Xenops. 


Furnarius = Opetio- gifcta (Nuthatch ). 
rhynchus. Orthonyx. 


Lochraias. 




Oxyrhynchus. 


CertJiiidee. C&rebidce. 


Synallaxis. 


Tichodroma. Diglossa. 


Sittasomus. 


Climacteris. Dacnis. 


Dendrocolaptes. 
Xiphorhynchus. 


Certhia (Creeper). Caereba. 
Drepanis. 



DBNTIROSTRES. Bill slenderly conical, the upper mandible 
notched or toothed, sometimes hooked at the tip. 

Mostly worm- or insect-feeders, a few preying on birds and 
small mammals, or on berries, the insects frequently taken on 
the wing. 

Our best-known songsters nightingale, thrush, blackcap, &c. 
belong to this group. 



Pteroptochida. 


Saurophaga. 


Campephaga := 


Rhinocrypta. 
Hylactes. 
Scytalopus. 
Pteroptochus. 


Myiarchus. 
G-ubernetes. 
Tyrannus. 
Fliivicola. 
Alectrurus. 


Ceblepyris. 

Muscicapidts. 
Monarcha. 
Myiagra. 


Formicariida (Ant- 




PetrOBca. 


birds). 


Dicruridce. 


Rhipidura. 


Thamnophilus. 
Formicarius. 


Irena. 
Artamus. 


Muscicapa (Fly- 
catcher). 


Pithys. 
Conopophaga. 
Grallaria. 


Dicrurus=Edolius 
(King-crow). 


Mniotiltidte. 
Mniotilta. 


Pittida. 


LaniidfB. 


Icteria. 
Dendroeca. 


Pitta. 


Falcunculus. 
Pachycephala. 


Setophaga. 


Timaliida. 


Eectes. 


Sylviidce. 


Cissa=Kitta. 
Eupetes. 
Cinclosoma. 
Timalia. 
Paradoxornis. 


Eopsaltria. 
Myiolestes. 
Malaconotus. 
Lanius (Shrike). 
Vireo. 


Accentor (Hedge- 
Sparrow). 
Acanthiza. 
Eegulus (Gold-crest). 
Curruca (White- 






throat). 


Tyrannidce. 


Campephagidce. 


Luscinia (Night- 


Megarhynchus. 


Pericrocotus. 


ingale). 



VERTEBRA.TA. 



225 



Sylvia. 


Andropadus. Grallina. 


Phyllopneuste. 


Pycnonotus. Anthus (Tit-lark). 


Phylloscopus. 


Pomatorhinus. 


Saxicola (Stonechat, 
&c.). 
Sialis. 
Copsychus. 


Mimus. TroglodytidcB. 
Turdus (Thrush, Troglod %/ (WrenX 

CinciL (Dipper). Thryothoru, 


Dasyornis. 




Drymoeca. 


Motacillidce. Paridce. 


Cisticola. 


Seiurus. Panurus=Calamo- 


Malurus. 


Budytes. philus. 


Turdidee. 


Motacilla ("Wagtail). Acredula=Mecis- 
Henicurus. tura. 


Ixos. 


Ephthianura. Parus (Tit). 



CONIROSTRES. Bill short, stoutly conical, not, or occasionally 
slightly, notched, and never hooked at the point. 

Mostly granivorous, and more exclusively perchers. They are 
all of comparatively small size, and many are eminently song- 
birds. 

Crows, starlings, and even hornbills have been referred to this 
group. Phytotomidae is sometimes placed in the next group. 
The Eocene Protornis is one of the earliest known Passerine birds. 



Tanagridce. 
Euphonia. 
Calliste. 
Pyranga. 
Tanagra. 
Arremon. 
Tachyphonus. 
Nemosia. 
Saltator. 
Pitylus. 
Bethylus. 

Ploceida. 

Symplectes (Weaver- 
bird). 
Ploceus. 



Amadina. 

Estrelda. 

Pyrenestes. 

Oryzornis (Paddy- 
bird). 

Vidua (Whydah- 
bird). 



Fringilla (Finch). 
Carduelis (Gold- 
finch). 

Linota (Linnet). 
Zonotrichia. 
Emberiza (Bunting). 

PhytotomidcB . 
Phytotoma. 



Cardinalis. 
Pyrrhula (Bullfinch) 
Loxia (Crossbill). 
Corythus (Hawfinch) 
Coccothraustes 
(Greenfinch). 
Passer (Sparrow). *Protornis. 



AlaudidcB (Larks). 
Alauda. 
Otocorys. 



MAGNIROSTRES. Bill large, elongate, conical, not or only 
slightly notched. 

Q 



226 



YERTEBRATl. 



Frequently ground-feeders and often omnivorous. They have 
no song, but some are mimics. The raven is held by Swainson 
to be the most typical of birds. Bombycilla is placed by some in 
the Muscicapidae. There is considerable difference of opinion as 
to the limits of the families. 

This group agrees with the Magnirostra of Schmarda, and 
includes the major part of the Coliomorphae of Sundevall. 



Ampelidce (Chat- 


Sturnidce. 


Lophocitta. 


terers). 


Dolichonyx. 


Gymnorhina. 


Arapelis = Cotinga. 
Phibalura. 


Icterus. 
Cassicus. 


Podoces. 
Pyrrhocorax. 


Procnias. 
Chasmorhynchus. 


Molothrus (Cow- 
bird). 


Fregilus (Chough). 
Nucifraga (Nut- 


Gymnocephalus. 
Coracina. 


Quiscalus. 
Gracula. 


cracker). 
Corvus (Crow, &c.). 


Calyptomena. 


Gymnops. 


Pica (Magpie). 


Eupicola (Cock-of- 


Acridotheres. 




the-rock). 
Pipra (Manakin). 


Buphaga. 
Heteralocha = Neo- 


Paradiseidts (Birds 
of Paradise). 


Calyptura. 
Pardalotus. 


morpha. 
Pastor. 


Epimachus. 

~Pfi1rhT*Vkia 


Tityra=Psari8. 

BombycillidcB. 
Bombycilla (Wax- 


Lamprotornis. 
Sturnus (Starling). 

Fregilupus. 


-t UllOrlllS. 

Seleucides. 
Paradisaea. 
Cicinnurus. 
Astrapia. 


wing). 




Lophorina. 


OriolidcB. 


Coruida. 
Struthidea. 


Semioptera. 
Parotia. 


Chlamydodera. 


Glaucopis. 


Diphyllodes. 


Sericulus. 


Scissirostrum. 




Ptilonorhynchus. 


Cracticus = Barita. 




Oriolus (Oriole). 


Garrulus (Jay). 


Menura. 



Order V. COLUMBjE. 

GEMITORES. GYBANTBS. BIPOSITORES. PERISTEROMORPH^. 

Bill various ; nostrils pierced in a membrane. Hind toe 
placed on a level with the other toes ; claws short, only slightly 
curved. Wings strong. 

The bill is " swollen at the tip, and provided at the base with 
a tumid membranous space, in which the nostrils open ;" this 



YERTEBRATA. 227 

part often assumes a warty appearance. The feet are as much 
fitted for walking as perching ; but the tarsus is short and stout, 
scutellate in front, and sometimes feathered. 

Pigeons, the best known family of this order, are monogamous, 
and pair for life. They are without a gall-bladder, except in 
Carpophaga and Ptilopus, and hence, it is said, their placid 
disposition ; it is wanting, however, in many other birds. Their 
nests are very simple, a few sticks, or merely a hollow amongst 
herbage. The males and females sit by turns on the eggs. The 
two dodos, Didus ineptus and Didus solitarius, are now extinct. 
They were very heavy birds, incapable of flight, and in other 
respects very unlike pigeone. Didunculus is an intermediate 
form. 

Among the members of this order are the common pigeon, 
supposed to be descended from the rock-dove (Columba livid), 
wood-pigeon (Columba palumbus), stock-dove (Columba cenas), 
turtle-dove (Turtur auritus}, passenger-pigeon (Ectopistes migra- 
torius}, the bronze-wing (Phaps chalcoptera], and the great-crested 
pigeon of the Indian Archipelago ( Goura coronata}. 

This order with Megapodiidae and Cracidae were the Pullastreae 
of Sundevall, but in 1872 it became his eighth cohort (Pe- 
risteroideas) of the Volucres. Didunculidse and Dicliclae are 
united as a family Didina. Goura is the type of another 
family Megapeliinae. Cal&nas has also been separated as a 
family. Pteroclidse are by some writers considered to belong to 
this order. 

Columbia (Pigeons), phaps. Zenaida. 

Caloenas. Geopelia. Ptilopus. 

Goura = Lophyrus= Turtur (Turtle- 

Megapelia. dove). Didunculida. 

Treron. OEna. Didunculus. 

Vinago. Ectopistes. 

Carpophaga. Chamaepelia. Didida. 

Columba. Macropygia. *Didus (Dodo). 



Order VI. GALLIN.E. 

EASORES. CLAMATORES. ALECTOROMORPH^E. 

Bill mostly rather short, vaulted, edges of the upper mandible 
overlapping. Nostrils pierced in a membranous space. Hind 
toe above the level of the others ; claws thick, obtuse, 

Q2 



228 



VERTEBRATA. 



The legs are very stout, feathered to the knees and often 
beyond them ; the tarso-metatarsus at its back part is often 
armed with a spur, or accessory toe, rarely with two. The head 
is small, the body bulky, the wings only adapted for short flight, 
which is accompanied by a whirring sound. 

In the Tinamous the sternal notch extends nearly to the costal 
margin. 

The Gallinae are mostly polygamous ; the females make very 
slight nests on the ground ; the young feed themselves. Me- 
gapodiidas raise huge mounds in which they place their eggs, 
leaving them to be hatched by the heat of the sun. 

The order Turnicomorphae of Huxley is confined to the family 
Turnicidae. 

Tinamus represents the Dromaeognathous suborder, which 
Huxley considers to be nearly allied to the Struthiones. Opis- 
fhocomus comprises his Heteromorphse. Chionis has been placed 
with the pigeons ; some consider it to be allied to the rails, and 
others to the grouse ; it has also been suggested that from such a 
stock gulls and plovers have descended. Carus includes Thino- 
corus in the Chionidae. 

This order contains the quail ( Coturnix dactylisonans), partridge 
(Perdix cinerea), ptarmigan (Lag opus vu(garis), red grouse 
(Lagopus scoticus), black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), prairie-hen of 
America ( Tetrao cupido), capercailie ( Tetraogallus urophasianus), 
guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), peacock (Pavo cristatus), and 
turkey (Meleagris gallo-pavo] [the "turkey" of Australia is Otis 
australasianus}. The domestic fowl is supposed to be descended 
from the jungle-cock (Gallus bankiva). 



Pterodida. 


Turnicida. 


Polyplectron. 


Syrrhaptes. 


Turnix = Hemipo- 


Argus. 


Pterocles. 


dius. 




Thinocorus. 


Pedionomus. 


Megapodiidcu. 






Leipoa. 


Tetraonida. 
Cryptonyx. 


Phasianida. 
Lophophorus. 


Talegalla. 
Megapodius. 


Tetraogallus. 
Ortyx. 


Euplocamus. 
Gallus (Fowl). 


Cracidce. 


Odontophorus. 
Coturnix (Quail). 


Tragopan. 
Numida (Guinea- 


TJrax = Mitu = Pauxi. 
Crax (Curassow). 


Perdix (Partridge). 


. fowl). 


Ortalida. 


Lagopus. 


Meleagris (Turkey). 


Penelope (Guan). 


Tetrao (Grouse). 


Pavo (Peacock). 


Oreophasis. 



VERTEBRATA. 229 

Opisthocomidce. Tinamidce. Ehynchotus. 

Opisthocomus. Nothura. Tinamotis. 

Tinamus = Crypturus 
(Tinaraou). 

Chionidce. 
Chionis. 

Order VII. STRUTHIONES. 

RATIT.E. BREVIPENNES. PLATYSTERN.E. PROCERI. 

Bill various. Breast-bone without the mesial keel. Wings 
rudimentary. Barbs of the feathers not connected to one an- 
other. 

All other birds have a keeled breast-bone ; and in no others 
are the feathers so hair-like ; they have no accessory plumes in 
the ostrich and Apteryx, while in the cassowary there are two. 
The quill-feathers of the wings and tail are the ostrich-feathers of 
commerce. Few air-cells are found in the bones. There is no 
lower larynx. The feet are large ; the toes are two or three, there 
being no back toe, except a rudimentary one in Apteryx. In the 
ostrich alone are the two pubic bones united, and it has no, or only 
rudimentary, clavicles. In the foetal state of this bird there are 
18 caudal vertebrae, in the adult they are reduced to 9. In the 
emu, in both sexes, there is a large membranous sac opening into 
the trachea ; its use is unknown. Apteryx has its nostrils placed 
at the tip of the bill. 

The intestinal canal is very complicated in the ostrich ; the 
caeca are upwards of two feet in length, but they are absent in the 
cassowaries. The stomach or gizzard is very muscular. 

Ostriches are polygamous ; both parents attend to their eggs, 
which are laid in holes in the sand. The nandou ( E hea ameri- 
cana) is also polygamous, takes the water readily, and is a good 
swimmer. Emus and cassowaries are monogamous. Apteryx 
is nocturnal. Dinornis and Mpyornis, both extinct, are amongst 
the largest of known birds. The egg of JEpyornis maximus was 
equal to about 148 hen's eggs, while the egg of the apteryx is one 
quarter the weight of the bird. 

The following short list includes all the well-ascertained living 
forms of what probably has been a very extensive group : The 
ostrich (Struthio camelus), three nandous (Ehea americana, E. 
darwinii, and It. macrorhynchd), two emus (Dromceus nova- 
hottandicB and D. irroratus), five cassowaries (Casuarius galeatus, 



230 VERTEBRATA. 

C. australis, C. bermettii [the mooruk], C. uniappendiculatus, and 
C. bicarunculatus}, and three kiwis (Apteryx australis, A. owenii. 
and A. mantelli). Six other species, or so-called species, of casso- 
waries have been described, but they appear to differ very slightly 
from one or another of the above (in one case the young), and 
are mostly only known from one or two specimens. 

Struthiones have been combined with bustards, and ev^n with 
the dodo, to form the order Cursores of the older authors. They 
form, according to Huxley, one of the two orders of living birds. 
Claus places them after Accipitres, as the last order of birds. 
Mpyornis has been referred to the Vulturidse. 

StruthionidfB. Casuariida. JEpyornithid&. 

Struthio (Ostrich). Dromaeus (Emu). *J3pyornis. 

Casuarius (Casso- 

Rheidte. wary). Apterygidce. 

Khea (Nandou). Apteryx (Kiwi). 
Dinornithidce. 

*Dinornis (Moa). 
Order VIII. GRALLJ3. 

GrRALLATORES. LlTTORES. 

Bill various, generally longer than the head. Legs long, naked 
above the knee ; toes not webbed. 

The tibia and tarso-metatarsal bone are generally long, and the 
former more or less naked. The neck and bill are also long ; the 
latter may be weak or porous, as in the snipes, or strong, with a 
cutting-edge, as in the herons. The body is mostly thin and 
compressed, with wings of great power, although the flight is 
often slow, and near the carpal joint they are sometimes armed 
with a spur or spine. Many can swim with ease ; but the greater 
part are waders, living on fish, worms, &c ; a few feed on grain, 
insects, &c., never going near the water. 

In some of the Grallae the trachea is singularly convoluted, 
bent sharply back in the thorax before it enters the lungs, or, as 
in the crane, the convoluted part is lodged between the two walls 
of the keel of the breast-bone. 

These birds construct very simple nests, some indeed, as the 
bustards, lay their eggs on the bare ground. The young in some 
cases feed themselves, especially when the parents are polygamous, 
In many species there is a considerable difference between summer 
and winter plumage. 



VERTEBRATA. 



231 



In this order we find the crane (Grus cinerea), coot (Fulica 
atra), corn-crake ( Crex pratensis), peewit, lapwing, or plover of 
the London poulterers ( Vanellus cristatus), dotterel ( Charadrius 
morinellus), golden plover ( Charadrius pluvialis), curlew (Nume- 
nius arquatus), whimbrel (Numenius phceopus), snipe (Scolopax 
gallinago), jack-snipe (Scolopax gallinula), woodcock (Scolopax 
rusticola), knot (Tringa canutus), sacred ibis (Ibis religiosa), red 
ibis (Tantalus ruber), jabiru (Mycteria americana), adjutant 
(Mycteria argala), stork (Ciconia alba}, bittern (Botaurus stellaris), 
and heron (Ardea cinerea). Sandpipers are various species of 
Totanus and Tringa. 

The last four families in the following list are sometimes sepa- 
rated as a distinct order [Ciconiae=Pelargomorphae]. Pala- 
medea, " a lacertine goose," according to Parker, has been placed 
among the Natatores. 



Otididce (Bustards). 


EhinochetiddB. 


Machetes (Ruff $ , 


Otis. 
Eupodotis. 


Eurypyga. 
Rhinochetus. 


Reeve ? ). 
Phalaropus. 
Limosa (Godwit). 


PsophiidcB. 


Charadriidee. 


Himantopus. 


Psophia. 


Strepsilas (Turn- 


Numenius '(Curlew, 

\ 




stone). 


&c.). 


Gruidce (Cranes). 


Vanellus (Plover, 


Recurvirostra (Avo- 


Anthropoides. 
Balearica, 
Grus. 


Lapwing). 
jEgialites. 
Charadrius (Plover, 
Dotterel). 


cet). 
Scolopax (Snipe, &c.). 
Rhynchaea. 
Dromas. 


ParridcB. 


Cursorius. 




Parra (Jacana). 


GMicnemus. 
Esacus. 


Tantalus. 


Eallida. 
Ocydromus. 


Haematopus (Oyster- 
catcher). 


Geronticus. 
Falcinellus. 

TU- 


^Totornis 


_ 


1D1S. 


Porphyrio, 


Glareola (Pratin- 


Platalea (Spoonbill). 


Podoa Heliornis. 


cole). 




Fulica (Coot). 
Gallinula (Water- 


Scolopacidce. 


CiconiidcB. 
Mycteria. 


hen). 


Calidris (Sander- 


Anastomus. 


Crex (Corn-crake). 


ling). 


Ciconia (Stork). 


Rallus (Rail). 


Tringa (Sandpiper). 


Ct^t^j^^J^n 





Totanus (Redshank, 


bcopiate. 


Mesites. 


&c.). 


Scopus. 






Balaeniceps. 



232 VERTEBBATA. 

Ardeida. Nycticorax. Tigrisoma. 

Cancroma (Boatbill). Botaurus (Bittern). Ardea (Heron.Egret), 

Palamedeidce. 
Opistholophus = 

Chauna. 
Palamedea. 



Order IX. ANSEKES. 
NATATORES. 

Legs mostly short, naked above the knee ; toes webbed, the hind 
toe, except in the Steganopoda, free. 

The legs are placed behind the centre of gravity, so that many 
can only walk in an erect position. The body is heavy, and 
covered with a thickish coating of down beneath the feathers. The 
anterior toes only are webbed, except in the Steganopoda, which 
have the hind toe also united to the others ; in Podic&ps the web is 
confined to the sides of the toes. The bill is variously formed, flat, 
and furnished with lamellae in the geese, with tubular nostrils in 
the petrels, compressed in the gulls, and provided with a gular 
pouch in the pelicans. In some of the males of the duck and 
merganser families there is a bony dilatation of the lower part of 
the trachea (two in the sheldrake). 

The Anseres are almost invariably water-birds ; they are mostly 
polygamous ; the young are often capable of feeding themselves. 
The nest, if any, is always of the rudest kind, and they lay few 
eggs. The penguins are incapable of flight, but, aided by their 
fin-like wings, they are the best of divers and swimmers ; on the 
other hand, the albatross seems to pass its whole life in the air, 
now motionless, now " performing its vigorous evolutions with- 
out a perceptible movement of the wings," feats " simply impos- 
sible by any mechanical means of which we have the least con- 
ception" (Wyville Thomson*). Besides fish, many feed on sea- 
weed, grass, &c. 

This order contains the wild swan or hooper (Cygnus fertts), 
the tame swan (Cygnus olor), wild goose (Anser ferns), wild duck 
(Anas boschas), widgeon (Anaspenelope), teal ( Qiterquedula crecca), 
eider (Somateria mollissima), sheldrake (Tadorna vulpanser). po- 
chard, or dun-bird (Fuligula ferina), scaup (Fuligula marila), 
golden-eye (Clangula glauciori), gannet (Sula bassana), booby 
(Sulafusca), shag (Phalacrocorax graculus\ cormorant (Phala- 
crocorax carbo), pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus], frigate-bird 



VERTEBRATA. 



233 



(Tachypetes aquila), tropic bird (Phaethonphwnicurus}, stormy 
petrel ( Thalassidroma pelagica), shearwater (Puffinus cinereus), 
fulmar (Procellaria glacialis), albatross (Diomedea exulans), grey 
gull (Larus canus), noddy (Anous stolidus), grebe (Podiceps cris- 
tatus), dabchick (Podiceps minor), puffin, coulterneb, or pope 
(Mormon fratercula), king-penguin (Aptenodytes patagonica), and 
jackass-penguin (Eudyptes demersus). The great auk (Ale a im- 
pennis) is extinct. 

It is usual to divide the Anseres into four groups, which some 
authorities rank as orders ; these are : Lamellirostres (=Un- 
guirostres Chenomorphae) : edges of the bill furnished with thin 
plates or lamellae. Steganopoda ( = Totipalmatae, Dysporomor- 
phaj) : all the toes united by a membrane. Longipennes : hind 
toe free ; wings long [from these Procellariidse were separated as 
Tubinares ; Aptenodytidse are the Spheniscomorphse of Huxley]. 
Pygopoda (=Brevipennes, Urinatores): hind toe sometimes ab- 
sent ; wings very short. Phaenicopterus is placed by Huxley be- 
tween the anserine birds and the storks and herons, under the 
name of Amphimorphze. Garrod makes it a subfamily of bustards. 
Its webbed feet is said by Owen to be an artificial character. 



LAMELLIROSTRES. 


Somateria (Eider). 


Phaethontida. 


Ph&nicopteridce. 


CEdemia (Scoter). 
Erismatura. 


Phaethon (Tropic- 


Phoenicopterus (Fla- 


Biziura. 


bird). 


mingo ). 


MergidcB. 


LONGIPENNES. 


AnatidcB. 
Cygnus (Swan). 


Mergus (Goosander, 
Smew, &c.). 


Procellariidcs. 


Anser (Goose). 
Bernicla. 


STEGANOPODA. 


Thalassidroma 
(Petrel). 


Cereopsis. 


PelecanidcB. 


^istrelata. 


Plectropterus. 
Tadorna. 
Cairina. 


Sula = Dysporus 
(Gannet). 


Prion. 
Procellaria(Fulmar). 
Puffinus ( Shear- 


Ehynchaspis (Shel- 
drake). 


Phalacrocorax = 
Car bo = Haliaeus 


water, Mollymock) . 
Halodroma . 


Anas (Duck, &c.). 
Querquedula (Teal, 
&c.). 


(Shag, &c.). 
Plotus (Darter). 
Pelecanus (Pelican). 


Diomedea (Alba- 
tross). 


Aix = Dendronessa. 
Harelda. 


Tackypetidcs. 


LaridtB. 


Fuligula (Pochard). 


Tachypetes (Frigate- 


Lestris (Skua). 


Clangula. 


bird). 


Larus (Gull). 



234 



VERTEBRATA. 



Sternida. 


Alclda. 


Chimerina. 


Sterna (Tern). 
Anous (Noddy). 
Rhynchops. 


Alca (Eazor-biU). 
Uria (Guillemot or 
Murre). 


Aptenodytidce 
(Penguins). 
Spheniscus. 


PYGOPODA. 


Grylle. 


Eudyptes=Catar 




Mergulus. 


rbact.es. 


ColymhidcB. 


Mormon =Frater- 


Aptenodytes. 


Colymbus (Diver). 


cula (Puffin). 


! 


Podiceps (Grebe). 


Phaleris. 


*Cnemiornis. 



Order X. ACCIPITEES. 
RAPTORES. RAPTATORES. 

Bill arched, strongly hooked at the tip ; a cere at the base in 
which the nostrils are placed. Legs stout, the inner toe only 
turned backwards ; claws hooked, sharp, and partially retractile. 

The strongly hooked bill is armed with a lateral tooth in the 
carnivorous species, but in the carrion-feeders it is obsolete or 
wanting. In some of the eagles (Aquila, Pandion, Haliaetus) the 
sternum is entire. In the Cathartidae only are the claws blunt 
and comparatively straight. There are two carotids. The lower 
larynx, worked by only one pair of intrinsic muscles, is present 
in all except the Cathartidse. Gypogeranus is remarkable for the 
length of the tarso-metatarsus. The tarsi and toes in this order 
are generally reticulated, and sometimes clothed with feathers. 
Excepting the owls, the females are always larger than the males. 

In the owls the eyes are frontal, and there is a large circle of 
feathers around each ; the ear is well developed, and often pro- 
vided with an operculum. The iris is enlarged to allow a greater 
dilatation of the pupils that more light may enter the eye. The 
outer or fourth toe is reversible. Their plumage is peculiarly 
soft and downy. 

It is only among the vultures that social species are found. 
Hawks and owls are solitary birds, building rude nests in almost 
inaccessible situations, the latter in holes of trees, laying few eggs. 

In this order we have the condor (Sarcoramphus gryphus), 
king- vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), turkey-buzzard (Catkartes 
aura), lammergeyer (Gypaetiis barbatus), goshawk (Astur palum- 
barius), sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus), merlin (Falco tssalon), 
kite (Milvus regalis), buzzard (Buteo vulgaris), osprey (Pandion 
haliaetus), eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), falcon (Falco peregrinus), 
kestrel (Cerchneis tinnunculus), barn-owl (Strix flammea), great 



VERTEBRATA. 



235 



eagle-owl (Bubo maximus), screech-owl, tawny owl, or ivy-owl 
(Syrnium aluco), snowy owl (Nyctea nivea), and burrowing-owl 
(Athene cunicularia). 

The Accipitres are sometimes divided into diurnal and noctur- 
nal. Huxley's Gypaetidse comprise Vulturidaa and Falconidse. 
Dicholopkus is a very aberrant form, frequently classed with the 
Grallse ; by Sundevall it is placed with Polyborus to form his 
Polyborinse, which, with " Cnthartege," constitute his fourth 
cohort of Accipitres (Necroharpages). Harpagornis is a large 
extinct New-Zealand form. 



CathartidcB (Vultures Accipiter=Nisus 
of the New World). (Sparrow-hawk). 


Strigidce (Owls). 
Athene. 


Sarcoramphus. 


Nauclerus. 

JjjiHTlUS. 


Surnia. 


Cathartes. 
VulturidcB (Vultures 


Milvus (Kite). 
Pernis (Honey-buz- 
zard). 


Nyctea. 
Asio=Otus. 
Scops. 


of the Old World;. 

Gypaetus. 
Neophron. 
Gyps. 


Buteo (Buzzard). 
Circus (Hen-har- 
rier). 
Pandion (Osprey). 


Bubo. 
Smilonyx=Ketupa. 
Nyctea. 
Syrnium. . 
Sfcrvr 


Vultur. 


Circaetus. 


otrix. 


Falconidce. 


Harpyia. 

Aquila (Eagle). 
Haliaetus. 


GrypogeranidcB. 
Gypogeranus:=Ser- 


Polyborus. 


Falco (Falcon). 


pentarius. 


Ibycter. 


Cerchneis (Kestrel). 





Gyinnogenys. 




Dicholophus= 


Astur (Goshawk). 




Cariama. 



*Harpagornis. 



Order XI. PSITTACI. 

PREHENSORES. PSITTACOMORPH^. 

Bill short, stout, arched, hooked at the tip ; a cere at the base. 
Tongue fleshy. Tarsi short, reticulate. Outer and inner toes 
turned backwards. 

The upper mandible is articulated with the frontal bones by a 
complete hinge-joint ; the nostrils are pierced in the cere. The 
tongue is unusually soft and fleshy, and has a brush at the end in 
Trichoglossidae. The inferior larynx has three pairs of muscles. 
The clavicles are comparatively weak, and are sometimes absent. 



236 VERTEBRATA. 

The sternum is either perforated or entire. There are two caro- 
tids. The gall-bladder is generally absent. 

In the foetal parrakeet the margins of the bill are beset with 
tubercles, under each of which is a gelatinous pulp, like that of 
a tooth. 

The bill assists in climbing, and the feet are used as hands, a 
peculiarity possessed only by these birds and the goatsuckers. 

These birds are monogamous, living in society, and forming 
their nests in holes of trees. The females have the same rich 
colours as the males. They feed mostly on seeds and fruits, and 
scream horribly. They are the only real climbers (hand-over- 
hand) among birds. Some, as the grey parrot, are known to live 
to a great age. 

The grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), ground-parrakeet (Pezo- 
porus formostu), canary parrakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus), the 
love-bird (Agapornis Swinderiana), white cockatoo (Plyctolophus 
sulphureus), the macaws (Macrocercus, sps.), and the green par- 
rots of Brazil (Chrysotis, sps.) belong to this order. Strigops is 
an owl-like, nocturnal bird of New Zealand, feeding on roots, &c. 
It has a keelless breast-bone. 

There are about 430 known species. 

StrigopidcB. Pezoporus. Microglossus. 

Strigops. Platycercus. Plyctolophus =Ca- 
Palaeornis. catua (Cockatoo). 

Trichoglossida:. Conurus. 

Nestor. Henicognathus Psittacida (Parrots). 

E Macrocercus =Ara = 

T : n --nnmWlli, a Sittace (Macaw). Corylhs. 

LonuB=Domicellus / Agapornis =Psitta- 

(Lory). 8 cl a 

Coriphilus. Ptyctolophid*. Brotogerys . 

Trichoglossus (Par- Nasiterna . Chrysotis. 

rakeet). Nymphicus = Calop- Pionus = Deropty us. 

., sitta. ' Eclectus. 

Macrocercida. Licmetis> Dasyptilus. 

Melopsittacus Calyptorhynchus. Psittacus. 
=Nanodes. 

Order XII. ODONTOEM^E. 

Jaws with teeth in separate sockets. " Vertebrae biconcave. 
Sternum with a keel. Wings well developed." 

Extinct " Eeptilian birds " found in the Cretaceous shales of 
Kansas. The species are supposed to have been carnivorous and 



VEETEBRATA. 237 

aquatic. Ichthyornis was about the size of a pigeon. Odonto- 
pteryx toliapicus, from the Isle of Sheppey, regarded as*most 
nearly related to Natatores, has bony processes of the jaws equi- 
valent to teeth. 

*Ichthyornis. *Apatornis. 

*0dontopteryx. 

Order XIII. ODONTOLCLE. 

Jaws with the teeth in continuous grooves. " Vertebrae as in 
birds. Sternum without a keel. Wings rudimentary." 

Extinct birds of large size, contemporaneous with the last. 
They are also supposed by Marsh, to whom we owe all we know 
of this and the preceding order, to have been carnivorous and 
aquatic. Hesperornis he compares with the cassowaries and the 
penguins. 

*Hesperornis. *Lestornis. 

Order XIV. SAUKUIkE. 
UROIONI. 

Tail composed of numerous free vertebras, each carrying a single 
pair of feathers. Sternum rudimentary. Metacarpal bones not 
anchylosed. 

The first known specimen of the remarkable form (Archao- 
pteryx lithographica) which alone constitutes this order was 
found in 1861, in the lithographic limestone of Solenhofen, near 
Munich. It was about the size of a pigeon, and was supposed to 
have been web-footed and a fish-eater. A more perfect specimen 
has recently been discovered. Two small conical teeth remained 
in the upper jaw ; there was no appearance of a furcula, and the 
sternum was " reduced to zero." The manus resembles that of a 
tridactyle lizard. According to Vogt, its only bird-characters 
were its feathers and feet. The tail, always a variable organ, 
shows in this animal the persistency of what is now an embryonal 
character. 

The Archcscpteryx is what Huxley has called an " intercalary 
type," that is, not representing the direct passage from one group 
to another. It would seem to lie somewhere between the gulls 
(or perhaps falcons) and the extinct reptilian form Compso- 
gnathus. 

*Archaeopteryx. 



238 YERTEBRATA. 



Class V. MAMMALIA. 

Vertebrate, warm-blooded, viviparous animals, more or less 
covered with hair, breathing by lungs, the females having mam- 
mary glands (rudimentary in the males). A corpus callosum. 

Mammals are the only animals that suckle their young, and 
which, before birth, are nourished by a placenta. There are two 
types of placentas : in the one the uterus produces a " decidua," 
a modification of its mucous membrane, between which and the 
chorion a placenta is gradually formed ; in the other there is no 
decidua, the uterus simply becoming more vascular and forming 
a union with the chorion, which is dissolved at parturition. 

It is only in the brain of mammals that we find a greater or 
anterior commissure [corpus callosum] uniting the two hemi- 
spheres of the cerebrum, and a lesser commissure [pons Varolii] 
those of the cerebellum ; but they are small or wanting in the 
Monotremata and Marsupialia. 

The skull is articulated to the atlas by double condyles, and the 
lower jaw to the temporal bone without the intermediation of an 
os quadratum, as in birds and reptiles. 

The teeth are fixed in distinct sockets, and " usually consist of 
hard unvascular dentine, defended at the crown by an invest- 
ment of enamel, and everywhere surrounded by a coat of cement." 
The typical number is forty-four. In some mammals the teeth 
are permanent [monophyodont], in others the first-developed 
teeth are succeeded by another set [diphyodont]. 

The heart has two auricles and two ventricles. The abdo- 
minal are separated from the thoracic viscera by the midrib, or 
diaphragm. Unlike birds and reptiles, the kidneys are com- 
posed of two parts cortical and medullary ; one kidney is always 
placed higher than the other. There are two ovaries, but in 
the Monotremata the right one is rudimentary. A membrana 
nictitans is present in nearly all mammals except man and 
monkeys, but in whom it is represented by the plica semilunaris. 
In the mole and Spalax typhlus the eyes are obsolete, but in the 
former they are well developed in the embryo. Most mammals 
have an external ear (concha). The young are often born blind ; 
they acquire their sight in from eight to fifty days ; others see 
at once, and are able to accompany their mother a few hours 
after birth. 

Among the many systems of classification of the Mammalia, 



VERTEBRATA. 239 

the most remarkable is that which Professor Owen laid before 
the Linnean Society in 1857, based on four leading modifications 
of the brain. In the " first and lowest primary group or sub- 
class" Lyencephala the cerebral hemispheres are smooth and 
without folds, leaving the olfactory ganglions, cerebellum, and 
optic lobes more or less exposed [Monotremata, Marsupialia]. 
(2) Lissencephala : cerebral hemispheres with few folds ; olfac- 
tory lobes and cerebellum exposed, but a corpus callosum present 
[Bodentia, Chiroptera, Insectivora, Bruta]. (3) Gyrencephala : 
hemispheres folded into more or less numerous " gyri," and 
extending more or less over the cerebellum and olfactory lobes 
[Cetacea, Ungulata, Quadrumana]. (4) Archencephala : hemi- 
spheres more folded, overlapping the olfactory lobes and cere- 
bellum [Man only]. The last character was said to be peculiar 
to the genus Homo, and also " equally peculiar" were the ' poste- 
rior horn of the lateral ventricle ' and the ' hippocampus minor,' 
" which characterize the hind lobe of each hemisphere." But 
these characters are now known to exist in the ourang-outang 
and all the higher Quadrumana. 

Milne Edwards and Alphonse Milne-Edwards have given a 
classification of the Mammalia as below : 



Primiere sous-classe Mammiferes normaux. 
Phalange des Hematogenetes. 
Legion des Micrallantoides. 

Cohorte des Primates (Bimanes, Quadrumanes). 
Cohorte des Plebeiates (Chiropteres, Insectivores, Ron- 

geurs). 
Legion des Mesallantoides (Carnivores, Pinnes ou Am- 

phibies). 

Phalange des Hyraciens. 
Phalange des Proboscidiens. 

Phalange des Megallantoidiens (Pachydermes solidongul6s, 
Pachydermes bisulques, Camelides, Tragulides, Pecorides). 
Phalange des Edentes. 
Deuxieme sous-classe Pinniferiens ou Mammiferes Piscif rrues 

(Sirenides, Cetaces). 
Troisieme sous-classe (Marsipiaux, Monotremes). 

The Mammalia are divisible into Non-placentals and Placentals. 
In the former De Blainville includes two subclasses Ornitho- 
delphia (=Monotremata) and Didelphia (~ Marsupialia), while 
the latter corresponds to his third subclass Monodelphia. 



240 VERTEBRATA. 

Huxley, also considering that the placenta affords the "best cha- 
racters " for classification, divides them as follows : A discoidal 
deciduate placenta : Primates, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Eodentia. 
A zonary deciduate placenta : Carnivora, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea. 
A non-deciduate placenta : Ungulata, Cetacea. [Placenta of Si- 
renia unknown.] A variable placenta : Edentata. 

The classification adopted here is substantially the one now in 
use, only that the Pinnipedia are sometimes combined with the 
Carnivora, and the Hyracoidea are not always disunited from 
the Proboscidea, or Sirenia from Cetacea. The Lemurs also, 
under the name of " Prosimii," or " Prosimise," are by some sepa- 
rated from the Quadrumana. 

Without a placenta [Implacentalia] . 

No abdominal pouch ...."....'..... MONOTREMATA. 

An abdominal pouch in the female MARSUPIALIA. 

With a placenta [Placentalia]. 
With hind legs. ~ 
Hind legs free. 

No thumb opposable to the fingers. 

Unguiculate [claws on the upper part 

of the toes only]. 
Claws small or moderate. 

No canines EODENTIA. 

With canines. 

Fore limbs formed for flight ... CHIROPTERA. 
Fore limbs normal. 

Canines small INSECTIVORA. 

Canines large CARNIVORA. 

Claws very large BRUTA, 

Ungulate [claws enclosing the toes, i. e. 

hoofs]. 
Placenta deciduajgu. 

InCiSors tusbxformed PROBOSCIDEA. 

Incisors normal HYRACOIDEA. 

Placenta non-deciduate UNGULATA. 

A &umlFOpptTsable to the fingers. 

Teeth uneven, interrupted QUADRUMANA. 

Teeth even, uninterrupted BIMANA. 

Hind legs fin-like PINNIPEDIA. 

No hind legs, a horizontal tail-fin. 

Nostrils on the muzzle SIRENIA. 

Nostrils on top of the head CETACEA. 



VERTEBRATA. 



241 



As no linear arrangement of the Mammalia can be quite satis- 
factory, an attempt is here made to show the affinities of the 
orders in a diagrammatic form. No species of Bruta, however, 
the lowest of the placental Mammalia, and a fragmentary 
order appears to approximate to any known Marsupial. The 
passages from the latter to the Eodentia is made by the wombats, 
and to the Insectivora by the smaller opossums. The affinities 
of the remainder are not doubtful. 

Bimana. 



Carnivora. 

Pinnipedia. 
Hyracoidea. 

Proboscidea. 

/ \Sirenia. 

Ungulata. Cetacea. 




Quadrumana. 



Insectivora. 
Eodentia. 



Bruta. 
\ 



Marsu 




Chiroptera. 



(ialia. 



Monotremata. 

According to Schmarda there are above 2300 recent and 300 
extinct species of mammals. 



Order I. MONOTEEMATA. 
ORNITHODELPHIA. 

A common cloaca. Jaws without true teeth. No marsupial 
pouch. Mammary gland without a nipple. No corpus callosum. 

The face is prolonged into the form of a bird-like beak, covered 
by a smooth skin, the mouth at the extremity and without fleshy 
lips, although they are for a time manifest in the young. 

Another inferior character, like the common cloaca, is that 
the coracoid bone extends from the scapula to the sternum ; they 
have also an epicoracoid or interclavicle, and an episternum, as 

R 



242 VERTEBRATA. 

in the lizards. Marsupial bones [wrongly so called, Huxley'] art 
present, but there is no marsupial pouch. There are no external 
ears. The corpus callosum is wanting, and the optic lobes are 
simple or undivided. 

Of the two genera, Echidna is terrestrial, with beak-hike jaws, 
and a small mouth at the end, a long slender tongue, and a body 
covered with spines, and with an exceedingly short or almost 
obsolete tail ; the male has a perforated spur. There are two 
Australian species, and one or two from New Guinea. It is 
doubtful if the species are oviparous or ovoviviparous. Orni- 
thorhynchus is aquatic, with a flat duck-like beak, short tongue, 
mole-like fur, and a broad flat tail of moderate length. A single 
Australian species is known the duck-mole or water-mole ( Orni- 
thorhynckus paradoxus). It is a good swimmer and constructs 
long burrows in the banks of rivers ; it feeds like a duck, sucking 
up its prey from the mud. 

Echidnidce. Ornithorhynchidce. 

Echidna = Tachy glossus. Oraithorhynchus = Platypus. 

Order II. MAESUPIALIA. 

DlDELPHIA. 

An abdominal pouch in the female. True teeth of two or three 
kinds. No common cloaca. No placenta. 

The abdominal pouch [marsupium] is supported by the mar- 
supial bones, which are ossifications of the inner tendon of the 
external oblique muscle. It is into this pouch that the prema- 
turely born offspring is transferred, the young animal remaining 
suspended from the nipple, and so helpless as to be unequal to 
the muscular effort of sucking. The mother, however, has the 
mammary gland provided with a cremaster muscle, by which she 
is able to force her milk into the mouth of her pendent young. 
The marsupial bones occur also in the males, but without the 
pouch. The coracoid, as in the higher Mammalia, forms part 
of the scapula, and is not attached to the sternum. The corpus 
callosum is very small or wanting. The size of the brain is ^ in 
Pefaurisfa pygmcea, and T ^ in Macropus major. 

The fore and hind limbs are somtimes connected by an exten- 
sion of the integument from the side, as in Petaurus and Acrobata. 
In Chironectes, the only aquatic form, the feet are webbed. The 
opossums have on their hind feet a thumb opposable to the digits, 
as in the Quadrumana. 



VERTEBRATA. 



243 



The affinity of the Iraplacentalia to the Sauria is shown in parts 
of the skeleton. One reptilian character is that the bones of the 
skull remain in a state of permanent separation. 

The Marsupials are amongst the oldest known mammals, and 
some were of very large size. Diprotodon australis had a skull 
three feet in length. Several species are found in the British 
Mesozoic formations. 

The recent species are mostly Australian, but they were once 
common in Europe. Didelphidse are American. Owen has di- 
vided them into five "tribes," all of which are represented among 
the monodelphous Mammalia. Eeversing the descending order, 
these tribes are : 

EHIZOPHAGA. Two scalprifqrm incisors in both jaws ; 110 

canines ; short cgecum. 
POEPHAGA. Anterior incisors large and long in both jaws ; 

canines in the upper jaw only, or wanting ; a long 

caecum. 
CARPOPHAGA. Anterior incisors large and long in both jaws 

canines inconstant ; a long caecum. 
ENTOMOPHAGA. Three kinds of teeth in both jaws ; a 

caecum. 
SARCOPHAGA. Three kinds of teeth in both jaws ; no caecum. 



RHIZOPHAGA. 

Phascolomyida. 
Phascolomys 
(Wombat). 

^Diprotodon. 



POEPHAGA. 



CARPOPHAGA. 

Phascolarctida. 
Phascolarctos 
(Koala). 

Pha langistidfB. 
Cuscus. 
Phalangista. 
Acrobata. 
Petaurus. 



Macropodidce. 
Dendrolagus. 
Hypsiprymnus ENTOMOPHAGA. 

(Kangaroo-rat). 
Macropus=Halma- Peramelida). 

turu8(Kaugaroo). Cbceropus, 

Perameles (Bandi- 
Hypsiprymnodon. coot). 



Tarsipes. 

Didelphyida. 
Didelphys (Opossum). 
Chironectes. 



SARCOPHAGA. 

Dasyuridce, 
Thylacinus. 
Dasyurus. 
Myrmecobius. 
Phascogale. 

*Pha8Colotherium. 
*Microlestes. 



*Thylacoleo. 



244 



VERTEBRATA. 



Order III. BRUTA. 

EDENTATA. 

Teeth small, or sometimes wanting ; no median incisors ; no 
canines. Feet with long and strong claws. 

There are no teeth in Manis and Myrmecophaga ; but in Dasy- 
pus gigas there are about 100, all molars. There is no second 
set, and they are without enamel and destitute of roots. The 
tongue in the toothless species is long and extensible. In Dasy- 
podidae the skin of the upper parts is covered with bony plates 
[scutes], in Manis with scales; hair is also present. There are 
two pectoral mammae, to which sometimes a pair of inguinal 
or abdominal is added. The stomach is musculo-tendinous, a 
set-off for the low power of mastication. There is no caecum in 
Manis, and there are two casca in Dasypus. Choloepus has twenty- 
three pairs of ribs, the largest number known among the Mammalia. 

The placenta is variable but mostly non-deciduate. There is 
only one young at a birth, except in the armadillos. In the great 
anteater the young remains with the mother for a year, and is 
carried on her back. 

The Bruta are very slow in their movements, have a very 
feeble cry, or are mute. The sloths are arboreal ; the remainder 
are mostly burrowing ; therefore they have unusually powerful 
fore limbs and stout clavicles. The extinct species were of large 
size, and appear to have been numerous ; South America then, as 
now, was the region most affected by them. 

To this order belong the great anteater (Myrmecopkagajubatd), 
armadillo (I)asypus sexcinctus and D. peba), and sloth (Bradypits 
torquatus). Two species of Orycteropus are the only African 
representatives of the family ; while Manis represents it in Asia. 
Manis. Myrmecophaga, and Orycteropusiorra. the family Vermilin- 
guia of some writers. Dasypodidas are synonymous with Cingu- 
lata or Loricata. Tardigrada are the Bradypodidae, and Gravi- 
grada the Megatheriidae. 



Maniacs. 
Manis (Pangolin). 

Macrotheriidce. 

*Macrotherium. 
*Ancylotherium. 



Myrmecophagidce. 

Myrmecophaga 

(Anteater). 
Cyclothurus. 
*Glossotherium. 



Orycteropodida. 

Orycteropus 
(Ground-hog). 

Dasypodida. 
Chlamyphorus. 



TEETBBRATA. 245 

Tolypeutes. Megatheriida. Bradypodid(s(Slot,hs}. 

Da 8 ypus(Armadillo). * Meg alonyx. Bradypus=Acheus. 

, ., .., ^Megatherium. Cholopus. 

Glyptodontida. * Mv f odon 

*Glyptodon. *Sphenodon. 

Order IV. EODENTIA. 

GLIRES. EOSORES. 

Two long, incurved incisors in each jaw, remote from the 
molars ; no canines. Hallux not opposable to the digits. Cla- 
vicles generally present. 

The molar teeth are few in number, and are transversely pene- 
trated by the enamel ; they have often no roots, or the roots are 
tardily prod uced. The incisors, separated by a wide interval from 
the molars, are bevelled off 1 on the inner surface from attrition ; 
but they continue to grow from the base through life, and thus 
they preserve a uniform length. In early life in hares and 
rabbits there are six upper incisors, but four of them are deci- 
duous. There are, however, in the adult two supplementary 
teeth behind the upper ones. The upper lip is sometimes di- 
vided. The fore feet are frequently used as hands ; the hind 
feet in a few species, like the jerboa, are of great length, chiefly 
owing to the extreme development of the metatarsal bone. The 
mammae vary from two to ten, and are pectoro-abdominal or 
entirely abdominal. The stomach is simple ; the caecum is of 
large size, but is absent in the dormice, and the intestines are very 
long. 

Some of the Eodentia build nests ; they are very prolific ; 
many, especially in northern climates, hibernate. In a few of 
those that lead a subterranean life the eyes are reduced to a small 
bulb. The brain is smooth and without convolutions. The orbits 
are incomplete, not being separated from the temporal fossae. 
Clavicles may or may not be present. 

The greater part of the Eodentia feed on vegetable matter of 
one kind or another, but some are omnivorous. About 700 spe- 
cies are known, 100 of these are found in Europe. 

Among the members of this order are, the hare (Lepus timidus), 
rabbit (Lepus cuniculus), chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera), guinea- 
pig ( Cavia aperea), porcupine (Rystrix cristata), lemming (My odes 
lemmus), black rat (Mus rattus), the brown rat, introduced, and 
now the commonest of the two (Mus decumanus), mouse (Mus 
musculus), harvest-mouse (Mus messorius), wood-mouse (Mus syl- 



246 



VERTEBBATA. 



vaticits), hamster ( Cricetus frumentarius), jerboa (Dipus sagitta), 
dormouse (Myoxus avellanarius), water-rat or vole (Arvicola am- 
phibius), field-mouse (Arvicola agrestis), beaver (Castor fiber], 
prairie-dog (Cynomys ludovicianus), marmot (Arctomys marmota), 
and squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris}. 

Alston divides the Eodentia into three suborders, according to 
the characters of the teeth ; one of these is subdivided into three 
sections : these are indicated in the following list : 



HEBEDIDENTATA. 
Mc&oiheriidcB. 
*Mesotherium. 

DlTPLICIDEtfTATI. 

Leporidce. 

Lagomys. 
Lepus (Hare, Rab- 
bit). 

SlMPLICIDENTATI. 

Hystricomorpha. 
Caviidce. 

Dasyprocta (Agouti). 
Coelogenys. 
Dolichotis. 
Cavia (Cavy). 
Hydrochcerus. 

Dimomyid*. 

Dinomys. 

Chinchillidee. 
Lagostomus. 
Lagotis = La- 
gidium. 
Chinchilla = 
Eriomys. 

Octodontida. 
Oanromvs. 


Echimys. 
Loncheres. 
Myopotamus. 
Habrocoma. 
Octodon. 
Ctenomys. 
Petromys. 
Pectinator. 
Ctenodactylusr. 

HystricidcB. 

Synetheres^Cer- 
colabes. 
Erethizon. 
Atherura. 
Hystrix (Porcupine). 

My omo rp h a. 

Spalacidcs. 
Myospalax. 
Bathyergus. 
Georhychus. 
Spalax. 

Dipodid&. 

Pedetes. 
Scirtetes = Alactaga. 
Jaculus. 
Bipus (Jerboa). 

Murida. 
Siphneus. 


My odes = Lemm us 
(Lemming). 
Arvicola (Vole). 
Fiber. 
Hypudaeus. 
Hydromys. 
Psammomys. 
Gerbillus. 
Meriones. 
Hesperomys. 
Hapalotis. 
Dendromys. 
Mus (Mouse, Eat). 
Sminthus. 

Lophiomys. 

Cricetidee. 

Saccostomus. 
Cricetus (Hamster), 

Saccomyid<. 

Geomys. 
Saccomys. 

Myoxida, 

Myoxus (Dor- 
mouse). 
Graphiurus. 

Sciuromorpha, 
Anomaluridce* 
Anomalurus. 



VERTEBRA! A.' 247 



Spermophilus. Haplodontiida. 

Castor (Beaver). Tamias. Haplodontia. 
Pteromys (Flymg- 

Sciurida. Squiml). Ischyromyida. 



Arctomys (Marmot), iuras (Squirrel). *Ischyromys. 



Order V. CHIROPTERA. (Bats.) 

VOLITANTIA. 

Fore limbs with four prolonged ulnar digits, united by an 
extension of the integument. Three kinds of teeth. One or two 
pairs of pectoral mammae. 

The pollex (or thumb) is free, and not prolonged as are the 
digits, and is alone furnished with a claw or nail. A membranous 
skin extending from the lower part of the neck to the extremities 
of the digits, and usually continued to the tail, forms a powerful 
organ of flight [patagium]. The bones contain no air-cells as in 
birds, nor is there any mesial crest to the sternum. The eyes are 
small ; but the ears are often very large and, as well as the mem- 
brane of the wings, are probably subservient to the sense of touch. 
The nose, also, is sometimes furnished with peculiar membranous 
expansions. In the tongue of the Phyllostomidae there is a pecu- 
liar disposition of the terminal papillae, enabling it to act as an 
organ of suction. These bats, it is well known, suck the blood of 
other animals, man included. The vampyre ( Vampyrus spectrum) 
is one of the worst. 

Bats are crepuscular or nocturnal and hibernate in cold cli- 
mates. Except Pteropodidae, which are exclusively frugivorous, 
they are nearly all insect-feeders. When at rest, they suspend 
themselves by one of their thumbs, or hang head downwards, 
holding on by their hind feet. 

The female bat brings forth one or two at a birth, which she 
carries about with her. The young, in some species at least, are 
born blind and destitute of hair. 

Six families are recognized ; but the genera and " subgenera " 
are very numerous. Dobson divides them into two suborders 
Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera the large and the small 
bats respectively. There are some 500 species, of which about 17 
are British. Our common bat is Vespertilio pipistrellus ; the 
long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) is also common ; V. murinus is 
only a very rare straggler. 



248 



VERTEBRATA. 



Phyllostomidcs. 
Glossophaga. 
Anura. 
Vampyrus. 
Phyllostoma. 
Stenoderma. 
Carollia. 
Artibeus. 
Mormops. 

Desmodus. 

Noctilionidce. 
Emballonnra. 


Taphozous. Megadermatidce. 
Khinopoma. Nycteris. 
Noctiho. Megaderma. 
Dysopes = Molossus. 
Mystacina. Rhinolophida. 

,, .... ., Khinolophus. 
Vespertihomda. ph^W 

Atalapha. Harpy ia. 
Plecotus. Macroglossus. 
Synotus. Cynopterus. 
Vesperugo = Scoto- Pteropus. 
philus. Coelops. 
Vespertilio. 



Order VI. INSECTIVOEA. 

Plantigrade. Three kinds of teeth ; incisors short, simple. 
Five toes, furnished with claws. Clavicles present. 

The canine teeth are small and the molars are studded with 
small tubercles, fitting them more for grinding than for tearing 
their food. The limbs are short and feeble, except in the Macro- 
scelidse &c. The mammae are abdominal. The placenta is deci- 
duate and discoidal. The brain is without convolutions. A gall- 
bladder is always present. 

In the mole the eye is very small and nearly covered by the 
skin ; but in the embryo it is as well developed as usual. The 
hedgehog has a powerful cutaneous muscle attached to the inte- 
gument, by which it is enabled to roll itself into a ball or to 
erect its spines. This power is not possessed by its allies. In 
the Soricidae the lower incisors become anchylosed to the jaw- 
bone, a reptilian character not occurring in any other mammal. 

The Insectivora are mostly nocturnal and subterranean, and 
many hibernate. The Tupaiidae are arboreal, and live on fruit 
as well as on insects. A few are aquatic or semiaquatic. 

In this order we have the hedgehog (Erinaceus europ&us), two 
species of shrews generally confounded together, both common 
(S&rex tetragonurus and Sorex rustious), [Crocidura aranea has 
not been found in England], water-shrew ( Crossopiis fodiens), and 
mole (Talpa europcea). Galeopithecus is placed here by Huxley, 
but by Glaus and Schmarda it is retained among the lemurs. 
With some of the characters of the latter, it has also a tegumentary 
membrane extending from the neck to the tail, and embracing 
the legs. 



VEETEBKATA. 



249 



Talpida. 

Urotrichus. 
Scalops. 
Condylura. 
Chrysochloris. 
Talpa (Mole). 

Soricidce. 

My ogale = Mygale 

(Desman). 
Pachyura. 



Crocidura. 
Crossopus. 
Sorex (Shrew). 

Macroscelidida. 

Rhynchocyon. 
Macroscelidea. 

Tupaiidce. 

Tupaia= Cladobates. 
Hylomys. 



Erinaceidte. 

Centetes. 
Echinogale. 
Erinaceus (Hedge- 
hog). 
Gymnura. 

Solenodon. 

PotamogalidcB. 
Potamogale. 



Galeopithecidce. 
Galeopithecus (Flying lemur). 



Order VII. HYKACOIDEA. 
LAMNUNGUIA. GLIRIFORMIA. 

Two long curved incisors in the upper jaw ; no canines ; 
molars 12-14 in each jaw. Toes with flattened nails, the hind 
toe with a claw. Mammas four inguinal, two pectoral. 

The lower incisors are straight ; they are four in number, the 
upper are only two. There are no clavicles. The stomach is 
complex [simple, Huxley'], the caecum "very large," and there is 
no gall-bladder. As in the preceding order and in the Garni vora, 
there is a zonary deciduate placenta. 

This is a very small group, with four or perhaps five species. 
One of them, Hyrax syriacus, is the coney of Scripture ; another 
species (Hyrax capensis) is the " badger " of the Cape colonists. 
It was at one time considered to be a Eodent. Very recently 
it has been combined with the elephant to form the order 
" Chelophora" \y. Koch]. 

HyracidcB. 
Hyrax. 



Order VHI. PEOBOSCIDEA. 

Two tusk-like incisors in the upper jaw ; no canines ; molars 
few. Nose prolonged into a proboscis, with the nostrils at the end. 
Mammae two, pectoral. 

In some of the extinct species there are incisors in the lower 
jaw. In the elephant, the only recent genus, the two large per- 



250 



VERTEBRATA. 



manent tusks, composed entirely of dentine, are preceded by two 
deciduous smaller ones. The structure of the molars is exceed- 
ingly complex, but there is only one molar at a time in 
each jaw. The proboscis is a long flexible organ, known aa 
the trunk ; it is terminated by a thumb-like appendage, and 
encloses a double tube, between which and the integument is 
a thick layer of muscular substance. The cranial cavity is very 
small, the immense size of the head being due to the enormous 
development of the frontal sinuses. This peculiarity depends on 
the necessity of supporting the tusks, and of affording sufficient 
surface for the attachment of muscles to work the trunk. There 
are no clavicles. The stomach is simple, the intestines very long 
and voluminous, and the caecum of large size. The placenta is 
zonary and deciduate. 

The elephant is herbivorous ; every thing it eats is put into its 
mouth by its trunk. There are two species Elephas indicus, 
with smaller ears and the males alone with well-developed tusks ; 
and E. africanus (separated as a genus Loxodon by Gray), with 
large ears and well-developed tusks in both sexes ; the enamel is 
also markedly different. A third species, the mammoth (E. primi- 
genius), is now extinct, but it was once common in England. 
Fossil species are somewhat numerous ; their remains have been 
found in all parts of the world ; one of them, Dinotherium, has 
been regarded as a dugong and as a Marsupial. Like Mastodon 
and the extinct elephants, it belonged to the Miocene period. 

ElepJiantid(e. Dinotheriid<B. 

*Mastodon. *Dinotherium. 

Elephas (Elephant). 

Order IX. UNGULATA. 

Toes never more than four, protected by hoof-like nails, and 
incapable of grasping. No clavicles. Placenta non-deciduate. 

There are two sets of enamelled teeth ; canines are not often 
present ; the lower incisors are sometimes wanting, and the upper 
incisors in most of the ruminants are replaced by a callosity of 
the gum. There are generally six molars on each side of either 
jaw ; these teeth are deeply penetrated by the enamel, and are of a 
massive character. In the pig family and musk-deer the canines 
are in the form of tusks. 

Many of the Ungulata are furnished with horns. These are of 
various kinds : a solid prolongation of bone, covered by the skin 
and persistent, as in the giraffe ; a solid outgrowth of the frontal 



VERTEBRATA. 251 

bones, confined (except in the reindeer) to the males, frequently 
branched and always deciduous, as in the deer family ; neither of 
these are true horns ; the latter are, indeed, more generally called 
antlers. The horns in the ox and antelope families are hollow 
and persistent, consisting of a bony core covered by a corneous 
Ease. These are known as the Cavicornia. The nasal horns of 
the Ehinoceroses are composed of concrete hairy fibres, closely 
compacted and fixed on a bony protuberance. 

In the ruminant families the feet are bisulcate, with two sup- 
plementary hoofs in some, placed above and at the back of the 
foot. Camelidas (=Tylopoda, Phalangigrada) have two toes, 
callous beneath, the hoofs scarcely more than rudimentary. None 
of the Ungulata have clavicles. 

The stomach is divided into four compartments the two upper 
essentially dilatations of the oesophagus, the third or, rather, per- 
haps the fourth, being the true stomach. In the stag family there 
is a sebaceous gland [lachrymal sinus] in front of the eye, secreting 
a disagreeable waxy substance. 

The placenta is diffused in the camels and in non-ruminants ; 
and is cotyledonary in the true ruminants. 

The Ungulata pretty nearly include the old orders Belluse, 
Pecora, Euminantia, Pacbydermata, and Solipeda or Solidungula. 
They were divided by Owen into two orders Artiodactyla and 
the Perissodactyla (the former with paired, the latter with un- 
paired toes) ; these are now reduced to suborders. 

The animals most important to man are included in the 
Ungulata. Among them are the camel or dromedary (Camelus 
dromedarius), the wild camel, now domesticated ( Camelus bactri- 
anus), alpaca (Auchenia pacos), lama (Auchenia lama), giraffe 
(Camelopardalis giraffa). stag (Cervus elaphus), wapiti (Cervus 
canadensis),roeb\ick ( Cervus capreolus), reindeer ( Cervus tarandus), 
elk (Alces male his), fallow-deer (Lama platyceros), musk-deer 
(Moschus moschiferus). saiga (Colus tataricus), gazelle (Antilope 
dorcus), water-buck (Cervicapra elllpsiprymtms), chamois (Rupi- 
capra tragus), ibex (Capra ibex], goat (Capra hircus), sheep (Ovis 
aries), wild sheep or moufflon (Ovis musimon'), bighorn (Ovis 
montana), musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus), ox (Bos taurus), buffalo 
(Bos bubalis), bison or auroch (Bos bison) [the buffalo of North 
America is scarcely distinct], Cape buffalo (Bos caffer), zebu (Bos 
indicus), and yak (Poephagus grunniens). Among the non-rumi- 
nants are the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), pig (Sus 
scrofa), wild boar (Sus aper), rhinoceros [about five species ; the 
best known perhaps is Rhinoceros bicornis, but an extinct species 
(E. tichcrhinus) was once very common in England], tapir ( Tapirus 



252 



VERTEBRATA. 



americanus), horse (Equus caballus), ass (Equus asinus), and zebra 
(Equus zebra). 

ARTIODACTYLA. Two or four toes. Stomach complex ; caecum 
small, wanting in Hippopotamus. 

Buminants subject their food to a second mastication, bringing 
it up from the .stomach into which it had passed. They have 
the " cloven foot " a median pair of hoofed toes, and generally 
two behind. 

The musk-deer, according to Flower, is a low and doubtful 
type of Cervidse. It has until recently been placed with Tra- 
gulus, which is now considered to constitute a distinct family. 
The musk of commerce is secreted in an abdominal pouch found 
only in the males. 

Many extinct genera " once linked together the now broken 
series "of this suborder. 



"NON-RUMINANT" 


CamelidcB. 


Bubalis. 


(=Bunadontia). 


Camelus (Camel). 
Auchenia (Llama). 


Portax (Nylghau). 
Catoblepas (Grnu). 


Hippopotamida. 




Tragelaphus. 


Hippopotamus. 

rr j 


Oreodontida. 
*Oreodon. 


Oryx = Hippo- 
tragus. 
Damalis. 


aUiaes. 
Phacocharus. 


Tragulidce. 


Oreas (Eland). 
Cephalophus. 


Dicotyles (Peccary). 


Tragulus. 


Cervicapra = Kobus. 


Sus (Pig). 


Hyomoschus. 


Antilope (G-azelle). 


* Cho3ropotamus . 




Colus^ Saiga. 


*Anthracotherium. 


Cervidce. 


Calotragus. 


*Hyopotamus. 


Hydropotes. 


Tetracerus. 




Cervulus. 


Hemitragus = Ne- 


Anoplotheriida. 


Subulo (Brocket). 


morhedus. 


*Anoplotherium. 
*Dichobune. 


Cervus (Stag). 
*Megaceros. 


Eupicapra. 


*Dichodon. 


Dama (Fallow- 


Ovidce. 


" EUMINANT " 


deer). 
Alces (Elk or 
Moose). 


Capra (Goat). 
Ovis (Sheep). 


( = Selenodontia). 


Moschus (Musk- 


Bovidcs. 




deer). 


Anoa. 


Cameloparda lidce. 
Camelopardalis 


Antilopida. 


Ovibos (Musk-ox). 
Bos^Bubalus (Ox, 


(Giraffe). 


Dicr anoceros = An- 


&c). 


*Sivatherium. 


tilocapra. 


Poephagus (Yak). 



VERTEBRATA. 



253 



PERISSODACTYLA. Toes one or three, encased in hoofs, or, if 
four-toed, then the toe smaller and not touching the ground. 
Stomach simple ; caecum large and sacculated. 

The living species of this suborder " are widely removed from 
one another in many important characters ; but the intervals 
between them are largely filled up by an extensive series of fossil 
forms, commencing in the Lower Tertiary strata." A large 
number have been recently discovered in North America (in 
Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Oregon, &c.), and have been worked out 
principally by Marsh and Leidy. 

In regard to the extinct forms of Equidae, Eohippus and Oro- 
hippus were Eocene, Miohippus and Anchitherium Miocene, and 
Hipparion, Protohippus, and Pliohippus Pliocene. Dinocerata 
( = Uintatheriidae) and Pantodontia (Bathmodon, &c.) constitute 
the Amblypoda of Cope. 

Of the Rhinoceroses one form (R. tichorhinus) was once common 
in Europe. 



Ehinocerotidce. 


Coryphodontida. 


Brontotheriida. 


Rhinoceros. 


*Coryphodon. 


*Brontotherium. 


*Acerotherium. 


*Lophiodon. 


Tillotheriid<s 




Equidoe. 


(Tillodontia). 


Tapirida. 


*Eohippus. 


*Tillotherium. 


Tapirus (Tapir). 


*Orohippus. 
*Miohippus. 
* Anchitherium. 


*Stylinodon. 
UintatheriidcB 


Pal&otheriidcB. 


* Hipparion. 


(= Dinocerata). 


*Pal03otherium. 


*Protohippus. 
*Pliohippus. 


*Uintatherium. 
*Dinoceras. 





Equus (Horse, Ass 


i, *Tmoceras = *Eoba- 


*Macrauchenia. 


&c.). 


sileus. 



*Bathmodon. 



The systematic position of the following group is very doubtful. 
It comprises certain very large extinct mammals from the 
Pleistocene deposits of South America, having affinities with 
the Rodentia, Bruta, and Ungulata. It forma the order Tozo- 
dontia of Owen. 

TOXODONTIA. 

* Nesodon. 

* Toxodon. 



254 VERTEBRA.TA. 

Order X. CETACEA. 
NATANTIA. MUTILATA. 

Fish-like ; nostrils (spiracles) on the top of the head. Fore 
limbs only, fin-like and without nails. No sacrum. Pelvis 
rudimentary. A horizontal tail-fin without bony rays. 

The Cetacea differ from all other mammals in having the 
nostrils, or blowholes, placed on the top of the head, and, except- 
ing Sirenia, in having a horizontal tail-fin, not supported by bony 
rays. A few species have a dorsal fin. By some they are supposed 
to be modified Ungulata, by others modified Carnivora (Pinni- 
pedia). 

There are no external ears. The body is sparsely hairy, or it 
may be without hairs in the adult. There are no clavicles, and 
sometimes there are no teeth except in the foetus. The dolphins 
have from 100 to 200 teeth. In the male narwhal a tusk is 
developed in the left premaxillary bone often attaining the length 
of ten feet ; on the right and in the female the germ-cavities are 
gradually enclosed by the forward growth of the bone. The two 
mammae are inguinal. The placenta is diffused. To the palate 
are attached certain plates, or baleen ; as many as 302 rows on 
either side have been counted in the " right " whale [Eschricht]. 
From these are derived the whalebone of commerce. Their use 
is to retain the small animals on which the creature lives, until, 
having collected a sufficient quantity, they are swallowed, the 
water either making its escape at the sides or being ejected through 
the blowhole. The stomach is complex, divided into three or 
four cavities in all true Cetacea. Two little detached bones, 
placed near the anus, are the only vestiges of the posterior 
extremities. 

Spermaceti is a fatty secretion found in cells in the upper part 
of the skull of the cachalot, as well as in the blubber. Ambergris 
is an odorous concretion found in the intestines. 

Among the members of this order are the grampus (Phocana 
orca), porpoise (Phoc&na communis], dolphin (Delphinus delphis), 
[the dolphin of sailors is a tropical fish, Coryphcena hippuris], 
dolphin of the Ganges (Platanista gangetica), dolphin of the 
Amazon (Inia amazonica), grampus (Orca gladiator], the ca'ing 
whale oTbott\eu.ose(Globiocephalus globiceps), the finner, rorqual, 
or fin-whale (Balcenoptcra sibbaldii and B. rostrata], hump-backed 
whale (Megaptera boops), cachalot or spermaceti whale (Physeter 
macrocepkalus), right or Greenland whale (Bal&na mysticetus), 
narwhal (Monodon monoceros), white whale (Beluga leucas]. 



VERTEBRATA. 



255 



There are upwards of sixty genera for less than that number of 
well-ascertained species ; Sowerby's whale has been placed in not 
less than thirteen of them. Zeuglodontidse are found in the 
Eocene and Miocene deposits of North America ; they differ from 
all other Cetaceans in having molars with two fangs. Some of 
the Cetacea attained a length of 70 feet. 

Bal&nopteridce Physeteridce. Delphinidee. 

(Fin- whales, or Physeter=Catodon Platanista. 

Eorquals). (Cachalot, or Inia. 

Megaptera. Sperm-whale). Delphinus (Dolphin). 

Physalus Monodontidce. (Grampus). 

Balaenoptera. .. Phocagna (Porpoise). 

Monodon (Narwhal). Gi obic ephai u / ( B o t- 

Balcenidce. Hyperoodontidce. tlenose). 

Balsena (Whale, or Ziphius. Beluga (white whale, 

Whalebone Whale). Hyperoodon. r white-fish). 

*Zeuglodontid(B. 
*Zeuglodon. 

Order XI. SIRENIA. 

Body fish-like. Nostrils on the muzzle. Fore limbs only 
fin-like. No sacrum. Pelvis rudimentary. A horizontal tail- 
fin without bony rays. 

The Sirenia differ from the whales in having two kinds of teeth, 
incisors and molars; in the position of the nostrils on the 
snout ; in the fleshy lips, provided with short thick scattered 
bristles : and in the pectoral mammae. They have also a third 
eyelid and salivary glands. Their limb-bones are solid ; they 
have no clavicles, and no external ear. Their pelvic bones 
in their highest development " retain the size and shape of the 
small contiguous costal arches.'' The stomach is large, and the 
caecum is of moderate size. The diaphragm is exceedingly 
oblique. 

In the dugongs the males are furnished with two large incisors 
in the upper jaws ; in the female they are arrested in their growth 
without cutting through the gum, and they remain through life 
concealed in the premaxillaries. 

The Manatidse (the only family) are herbivorous ; one of its 
species (Manatus americanus) lives almost exclusively on Pistia 
stratiotes ; another species (Rhytina stelleri), of large size, is now 



256 VERTEBRATA. 

extinct. Other members of the order are the dugongs (Halicore 
australis and H. indica) and two or three species of manatee or 
sea-cow (Manatus). Halitherium and Prorastomus are from the 
Tertiary deposits ; the latter had canine teeth in both jaws. 

In the recent works of Glaus and Schmarda this group is not 
separated from the Cetacea. Cope's Homodonta include these 
orders and the Edentata. 

Manatida. Ehytina. 

Halicore (Dugong). *Halitherium. 
Manatus. *Prorastomus. 



Order XII. PINNIPEDIA. 

Limbs fin-like ; the posterior horizontal, directed backwards. 
Three kinds of teeth. Mammas two or four, ventral. 

The toes are entirely enveloped in the integument, and almost 
the only indication of their presence is their strong claws. The 
hind limbs, from their horizontal position and their close con- 
nexion with the tail, form the principal organ of progression in 
the water. On the land they move by a shuffling on of the body 
or by short leaps. 

The teeth vary in number according to age ; the incisors are 
nearly all deciduous after a time. The lips are fleshy, furnished 
with long bristles, and the nostrils are capable of being closed by 
a peculiar sphincter muscle. The brain is large. There are no 
clavicles. 

Owing to the peculiar structure of the vena cava, the blood 
finds its way back to the lungs so slowly as to check the respiration, 
and so enables the animal to remain a considerable time under 
water. 

The male of the sea-elephant (Cystophom proboscidea) has a 
muscular sac at the tip of the nose, which it can inflate at plea- 
sure ; a somewhat analogous appendage is placed on the head of 
Stemmatops cristata. 

The common seal (Phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (Halichoerus 
gryphus] are the only species that can be said to inhabit these 
islands. Others have been mentioned, but they are either strag- 
glers or doubtful ; among them are the harp-seal (Phoca gr&n- 
landica) and the walrus (Trichechus rosmarus). 

Pinnipedia are by some regarded as a suborder of Carnivora ; 
Glaus and Schmarda rank it as an order. Two very distinct 
families are included. The eared seals (Otarice) are by some 



VERTEBRATA. 



257 



separated from the ordinary seals. The genera, so-called, have 
been excessively multiplied. 

Phocidts (Seals). Halichcerus. Otaria = Arctoce- 

Cystophora (Sea- Pelagius = Steno- phalus. 

elephant). rhynehus. 

Stemmatops = Stem- Phoca =-- Callocepha- Trlchechidce. 

matopus. lus. Trichechus (Walrus). 



Order XIII. CAENIYOEA. 

FERJE. 

Three kinds of teeth, the canines large and projecting. Toes 
with long sharp claws. Mammas abdominal. 

The toes are webbed in the otters ; in the Felidse the claws are 
retractile. Some species walk with the whole of the foot to the 
ground [plantigrade], others entirely on their toes [digitigrade], 
but some of the Viverridae do both. A remarkable peculiarity of 
this order is that the lobes of the cerebrum are separated from the 
cerebellum by a long process arising either from the occipital or 
parietal bone, or from both. The clavicle is either wanting or 
rudimentary, but is never attached to the sternum or to the sca- 
pula. The stomach is simple, the intestines short, and the cascum 
small or wanting. 

To this order belong the lion (Felis leo), jaguar (Fells onca), 
puma (Felis concolor), tiger (Felis tigris), leopard (Felis leopardus), 
wild cat (Felis cat us) [the origin of the domestic cat is unknown], 
cheetah (Felis jubatus), lynx (Lynx cervaria), hyaena (Hycena 
striata and H. crocuta are the two common species), fox ( Vulpes 
vulgaris\ wolf (Canis lupus) [the dog is probably a domesticated 
variety], jackal (Canis aureus\ ichneumon or Pharaoh's rat 
(Herpestes ichneumon), civet-cat ( Viverra civetta), martin (Mustela 
martes), sable (Mustela zibellinci), polecat (Piitorius fcetidus) [the 
ferret is a domesticated variety], weasel (Putorius vulgaris) stoat 
(Putorius ermineus) [in its winter dress it is the ermine], mink 
(Putorius lutreola), glutton or wolverene (Gulo borcalis} [the 
American glutton is not distinct], otter (Lutra vuJgaris), sea-otter 
(Enhydris marina), badger (Meles taxus), skunk (Mephitis ameri- 
cana), racoon (Procyon lofor}, bear (Ursus arctos*), polar bear 
( Ursus maritimus), grizzly bear ( Ursiis ferox), and sun -bear (He- 
larctos malayanus). 

Prof. Flower has founded a classification of this order on the 



258 



VERTEBRATA. 



characters afforded by the auditory bulla and surrounding part 
at the base of the skull. He divides it into three groups ^Elu- 
roidea, Cynoidea, and Arctoidea. They are given below as well 
as the families belonging to them. It is unfortunate that the two 
names ^Eluroidea and jEluridas should clash, as not belonging to 
the same " sections." 

The Pinnipedia are sometimes placed in this order. The first 
four families in the following list are plantigrade ; the remainder, 
with some exceptions, are digitigrade. 



ARCTOIDEA. 

Ursid(S. 
Prochilus. 
Helarctos (Sun- 

bear). 
Ursus (Bear). 

Procyonidee. 
Procyon (Eacoon). 
Bassaris. 
Nasua. 

Cercoleptes. 

JELurida. 
^Elurus. 

MustelidcB. 
Gulo. 
Galictis. 



Putorius (Polecat 

&c.). 

Mustela (Martin). 
Mellivora. 
Mephitis (Skunk). 
Mydaus. 
Meles (Badger). 
Pteronura. 
Enhydra. 
Lutra (Otter). 

CYNOIDEA. 

Canidce. 
Megaloti.s. 
Vulpes (Fox). 
Canis (Dog). 



Felida. 
Lynx (Lynx). 



Felis (Cat, Lion, &c.). 
*Machaerodus. 

Hycenida. 

Proteles. 
Hyaena. 

Viverrida. 

Herpestes (Man- 

gouste). 
Ehyzaena. 
Crossarchus. 
Arctictis = Ictides. 
Prionodon. 
Viverra. 
Paradoxurus. 
Cynogale. 
Cryptoprocta. 






Order XIY. QUADEUMANA. 

PRIMATES. POLLICATA. 



- 



The hallux, and in many the pollex, opposable to the digi 
Teeth uneven and interrupted ; never more than four incisors i 
each jaw. 

It is only a certain number that are " four-handed ; " in many 
the anterior extremities have no thumbs, and in Galeopithecus 
there is no opposable thumb on either extremity. The canine 
teeth pass beyond the line of the other teeth ; and in the upper 
jaw there is an interval in which the lower canine is received, as 



VERTEBEATA. 259 

in the Carnivora ; the upper canine passes towards or outside the 
lower jaw, and is sometimes a formidable tusk. Clavicles are 
always present. 

In a natural state the Quadrumana are quadrupedal ; their 
narrow pelvis and inability to place the sole of the hind feet to 
the ground, owing to the oblique articulation of the foot on the 
leg, disable them from walking erect except with difficulty. 

The younger animals of the anthropoid species most nearly 
approach man in the form of the skull ; as they get older they 
become more bestial, and the brain is smaller in proportion. 
The two mammae are pectoral, except in some of the lemurs, 
in which they are sometimes ventral. 

This order comprises two suborders Simise and Prosimiae. 
The latter has been separated as an order by some authors. Carus 
even places it between the Rodentia and the Carnivora. The 
Sirnise have a discoidal deciduate placenta ; a face mostly naked 
or without hair, and flat nails on all the fingers, although there 
are some exceptions. The Prosirniae have an indeciduate placenta, 
a hairy face, and nails mostly unguiculate. Their brain is much 
less convoluted (in some quite smooth) than the brain of the 
Sirniae ; and the incisors, always four in each jaw in the Siniise, 
are sometimes only two in the Prosimiae. 

In the Sirnias of the New World the nostrils are lateral and 
widely apart (Platyrrhini), and the pollex is not opposable to the 
fingers ; Cebidae have prehensile tails. In the Simiae of the Old 
World the nostrils are oblique and close together (Catarrhini), and 
the pollex is opposable to the fingers. In the Prosirnise the nostrils 
are curved or twisted (Strepsirrhini). 

There are many fossil forms supposed to be allied to Lemur, 
especially several recently discovered in the Eocene of North 
America. The first remains of the higher Quadrumana appear 
in the Miocene. 

In this order we find the gorilla ( Troglodytes gorilla), chim- 
panzee (Troglodytes niger), ourang-outang (Simla satyrus), ape 
[Barbary] (Inuussylvanus), baboon (Cynocephalmpapio), mandrill 
(Cynocephalus mormon), spider-monkey (Ateles paniscus), green 
monkey (Cercopithecus sabceus), howler (Mycetes seniculus), and 
marmoset (Hapale jacchus). The sacred monkey of India is Sem- 
nopithecus entellus. Among the Lemurs are the macaco (Lemur 
catta), potto (Perodicticus potto], and the aye-aye (Chiromys ma- 
dagascariensis'} . 

The last two genera of the following list comprise the "Anthro- 
poid apes." 

s2 



260 



VERTEBRATA. 



PROSIMLB. 


SIMILE. 


" Catarrhini." 


(Pedimana=Le- 


" Platyrrhini." 


Cercopithecida. 


muroidea=Strep- 
sirrhini.) 


Hapalidce (Marmo- 
sets). 


Cynocephalus= 
Papio (Baboon). 


Chiromyidce. 


Hapale = lacchus. 
Midas. 


Inuus (Ape). 
Rhesus. 


Chiromys. 




Cercopithecus. 


TarsiidcB. 


Pitheciida. 


Colobus. 
Semnopithecus. 


Tarsius. 


Callithrix. 


Nasalis. 




Chrysothrix. 


Presbytis. 


LemuridfB. 


Nyctipithecus 


Ma^acus. 


Nycticebus. 
Galago = Otolicnus. 


(Night-ape). 
Pithecia (Saki). 


Hylobates( Gibbon). 
*Dryopithecus. 


Stenops. 
Perodicticus. 


CebidcB (Monkeys). 


SimiidcB. 


Jji cii & n o ti s 


Cebus, 


Simia=Pithecus 


Propithecus. 
Chirogaleus, 
Lemur = Prosimia. 


Ateles. 
Mycetes. 
Lagothrix. 


(Ourang-outang). 
Troglodytes (Gorilla, 
Chimpanzee). 



Order XV. BIMANA. (Man.) 
ERECTI. ANTHROPJD^;. HOMINID^E. ARCHENCEPHALA. 

Hallux not opposable to the digits ; all the nails broad and 
flat. Teeth even, contiguous. Skin not covered with hair. 
Walks erect. 

It would perhaps be more in accordance with modern views to 
place man as a " family " in the preceding order, seeing that he 
is morphologically nearer to the higher apes than the higher apes 
are to the lemurs. Yet, when it is considered that he alone is 
endowed with the power of improvable reason and of articulate 
speech, and that " he is the only earthly being of practically un- 
limited power," it may be a question whether such differences do 
not warrant giving to him a higher taxonomic rank. Glaus, 
indeed, places him at the end of his work as "Der Mensch," 
without consigning him to any order or family, like the rest of 
the animal kingdom ; and Sehmarda omits him altogether. But , 
no one can fail to draw " a very sharp line between man and the 
ape," and few " are disposed to underrate the enormous gap which 
separates man from the brutes." 



VERTEBEATA. 261 

The characters peculiar to man are numerous, but mostly 
adaptive. Such are the tenuity of the derm or skin ; the rudi- 
mentary hairs, except on particular parts; the comparatively 
email face, even in the lowest savages, compared to the large size 
of the skull ; and the even teeth without a break in the series. 
He is the only " plantigrade biped " known, and the only animal 
whose chief locomotive power is thrown on the innermost side 
of the foot. 

That man was contemporary with the mammoth, the woolly 
rhinoceros, and the cave-bear can now admit of no doubt. His 
bones, preserved from decay by the constant dripping of water 
charged with carbonate of lime, have been found in many cal- 
careous caverns in company with those of these and other extinct 
animals. The Engis cavern, near Liege, has yielded a skull 
which, being restored, is one of the most perfect that has yet been 
found ; another, from the Neanderthal, is said to be the " most 
brutal of all known skulls." Yet these skulls do not differ essen- 
tially from one another or from modern types more than those 
of now existing races differ from each other. The Neanderthal 
skull stands, indeed, " in capacity very nearly on a level with the 
mean of the two human extremes, and very far above the pithe- 
coid maximum " (Huxley). 

Whatever may be said as to the unity of the species, or of 
the "endless diversity of opinion" that exists as to races, it is 
admitted that there is only one genus Homo. Linnaeus, in his 
' Fauna Suecica' (1761), puts it at the head of his order " Mag- 
nates " [afterwards changed to Primates], under the specific name 
of " HOMO sapiens" with the character " Naturae regnorum 
Tyrannus." 



262 



GLOSSARY. 



Abdomen. The cavity containing the intestines. 

Abiogenesis. The production of living organisms without pre- 
existing germs. 

Acephalous. Having no head. 

Acetabula. The suckers on the arms of a cuttle-fish. 

Acetahulum. The cavity which receives the head of the thigh- 
bone. 

Ac&lous. Without an intestinal cavity. 

Acontia. See Craspeda. 

Acrocyst. " An external sac which in certain hydroids is formed 
upon the summit of the gonangium, where it constitutes a 
receptacle in which the ova pass through some of the earlier 
stages of their development." (Allman^) 

Acrodont. The attachment of a tooth by its base to the edge of the 
jaw. 

Acromyodic. When certain muscles in birds are attached to the 
end of the bronchial semirings of the syrinx. 

Actinomeres. The lobes lying between the ctenophores of an ac- 
tinosoma. 

Actinosoma. The body, simple or compound, of an Actinozoon. 

Actinula. " The locomotive polypoid embryo into which, in cer- 
tain genera (of Hydroida), the egg becomes directly developed." 
(Allman.) 

Aculeus. The sting of bees, wasps, &c. 

Adaptation. The variation which tends to fit an organ for the 
part it has to perform, or to enable it to meet new conditions. 

Adelocodonic. The condition of a gonophore when no developed 
umbrella is present. 

JEtiology. The study of physical causes in the origin and de- 
velopment of organized beings. The "doctrine of efficient as 
opposed to final causes." 

Agamic. Non-sexual reproduction. 



GLOSSARY. 263 

Agamogenesis. Discontinuous development, as when the ova is 
not brought into contact with the spermatozoa. 

Air-bladder. See Swim-bladder. 

Allaogenesis. A term used by Hackel to denote a form of pro- 
duction in the Geryoniidae. (Now explained in another way.) 

Allantois. A foetal membrane, disappearing in the Mammalia at 
an early period of foetal life, or else it is " placentiferous." In 
function it is respiratory. 

Alternation of generations. First used by Steenstrup to designate 
the phenomenon of an animal bringing forth a progeny not 
resembling itself, but to whose descendants the resemblance 
returns in the second, third, or fourth generation. One is an 
act of reproduction, the other of development. A " successive 
series of individuals" which "seem to represent two species 
alternately reproduced" (Owen}. "An alternation of asexual 
with sexual generation, in which the products of the one pro- 
cess differ from those of the other" (Huxley}. " An interca- 
lation of a proper sexual reproduction " is necessary in a true 
alternation, according to Dr. Allman. See also Metagenesis. 

Alula. The small membranous appendages at the base of the 
wings posteriorly in the Diptera. 

Alveoli. The sockets of the teeth in the Mammalia. In the Ea- 
diolaria they are certain vacant spaces in the sarcode, placed 
either within or without the capsule. 

Ambulacra. The perforated spaces for the emission of the tube- 
feet (pedicelli) in the Echinodermata. The tube-feet them- 
selves are sometimes called ambulacra, and that part of the 
plate from which they issue ambulacral spaces. 

Ametabolous. Not undergoing any change. 

Amnion. A foetal membrane enveloping the embryo. It is 
found only in reptiles, birds, and mammals. 

Amphiblastula. A stage in the development of sponges before 
they become fixed. 

Amphicoelous. Said of vertebrae which are concave at both ends. 

Amphidiscs. " Two-toothed disks, like cogged wheels, united by 
an axis" (Huxley}, forming a siliceous spiculum found in cer- 
tain sponge-corpuscules. " Spicula which surround the gem- 
mula of Spongilla" (Nicholson}. 

Amphigonous. When qualities or characters are transmitted from 
both parents. 

Analogy. A similarity of functions without a similarity of parts. 



264 GLOSSARY. 

Anapophyses. Processes of the lumbar vertebras. 

Anchylosis. The union of two bones to form one bone. 

Androgeny = hermaphroditism. 

Androphores. The gonophores carrying the male elements in 
the Hydroida. 

Anenterous. Without intestines. 

Antenna. Two or four movable jointed organs situated before 
or between the eyes in the Arthropoda. Also in some worms, 
but unjointed. 

AntennulcB. The smaller antennae when four are present. 

Anthogenesis. " That mode of reproduction in which there inter- 
venes a form furnishing male and female pupa? from which 
the sexual individuals issue." It occurs in some of the Phy- 
tophthiria. 

Antigeny. Sexual dimorphism. 

Antimeres. "Equivalent parts or homotypes" (Gegeribauer}. 
The parts formed by the segmentation of the embryo. " They 
vary in number ; each segment of a bilaterally symmetrical 
animal (Vertebrate or Arthropod) has two : " there are as many 
as eight in the Ctenophora. " The increase of a function may be 
provided for by a multiplication of organs;" "hence the next 
step in complexity is the formation of a chain of similar groups 
in succession." To each element in this chain is given the 
name of metamere. Thus "a vertebrate animal is made up of 
a series of successive externally-unjointed metameres, each con- 
sisting of two symmetrical antimeres " (Macalister, An .Morph. ) . 

Antlia. The suctorial mouth-organ of the Lepidoptera. 

Anus. The termination of the intestine. 

Aorta. The artery arising from the left ventricle of the heart. 

Apodemata. Certain processes in the interior of the thorax of 
the higher Crustacea, serving for the attachment of muscles. 

Aponeurosis. The expanded tendon of a muscle. 

Apophysis. A process of a bone ("a mischievous word," Parker). 

Aproctous. Without an anal opening. 

Apteria. The naked parts in the skin of birds where feathers do 
not occur. 

Aptychi. " Plates of a shelly substance " found associated with 
ammonites, or sometimes lodged within the shell. 

Arachnidium. The spinning-apparatus of the spiders. 

Archceostomatotts. When the mouth of the gastrula is retained, 



GLOSSARY. 265 

Archebiosis = spontaneous generation. 

Archetype. The simple primary form. 

Archigony. The primitive generation of organic from inorganic 
matter. 

Arrhenotocous. Applied to those cases in which males only 
are developed from the eggs. The females are partheno- 
genetic. 

Arthrium. The minute penultimate tarsal joint of many Cole- 
optera. 

AsterisGus. One of the otoliths in fishes. 

Astomatous. Without a mouth. 

Astragalus. A tarsal bone articulating above with the tibia. 

Atavism. See Reversion. 

Atlas. The first vertebra of the neck. 

Atrium. The cloacal cavity of the Tunicata. 

Auricle. A cavity of the heart. 

Autogenous. When parts of a bone are developed from inde- 
pendent centres of ossification. 

Autogeny. The origin of an organism from " an inorganic for- 
mative fluid." 

Autophagous. When newly-born animals are at once capable of 
feeding themselves. 

Avicularia. Organs of prehension in the Polyzoa, consisting of 
a movable portion, or mandible, and a corresponding fixed 
portion. 

Axis. The second vertebra of the neck. 

Azygous. Single ; without a fellow. 

Barbs. The small branches forming collectively the web or yane 
of a feather. 

Barbule. The small processes on each side of the barb. 

Basipodite. The small conical joint (the second) attached to the 
first joint of the leg of a Crustacean. 

Biogenesis. The production of living from pre-existing organ- 
isms, 

Biology. The science of living beings, ineluding Zoology and 
Botany. 

Bioplasm. Dr. Beale's name for Protoplasm. 

Bioplast. See Plastide. 



266 GLOSSARY. 

Biotome (Cobbold). " A successive life-epoch in the development 

of some of the lower animals," e. g. Entozoa. 
Blastema. A mass of formative matter. 
Blastocheme. " A medusiform planoblast which gives origin to 

the genei'ative elements, not directly, but through the medium 

of special sexual buds which are developed from it " (Allmari). 
Blastocotle. The cavity of the morula. 
Blastoderm. The outer membrane of the embryo. 
Blastomeres. Division-masses or germ-masses. The divisions of 

the germ ; these become cells and give rise to tissues. 
Blastopore (Ray Lankester). The orifice of the invagination in 

certain invertebrates, either becoming a mouth or eventually 

closing up. 

Blastosphere. Blastomeres arranged in a hollow sphere. 
Blastostyle or gonoblastidium. " A columniform zooid destined 

to give origin to generative buds " (Allmati). 
Brachycephalous. When the breadth of the head is more than 

its length. 

Branchiae = gills. The organs in which the venous blood is oxy- 
genized. 
Bronchi. The branches of the windpipe conveying the air to the 

lungs. 

Bulbus arieriosus. The dilated base of the arch of the aorta. 
Byssus. The filamentous substance secreted by the mouth of 

certain bivalve Mollusca. 

Cacum. A blind pouch opening into the duodenum. 

Cainozoic. The Tertiary period. 

Calamistrum. Two rows of movable spines on the metatarsal 
joints of each posterior leg of certain spiders form an appara- 
tus called a calamistrum. 

Calcaneum. The heel-bone or os calcis. 

Calicle. The cup-like excavation terminating the theca of a 
corallite. 

Calycle or hydrotheca. The receptacle in which the polypites 
are lodged in the Calyptoblastea. 

Canthus. The angles or corners of the eyes. In certain insects 
it is a process of the clypeus partially or completely dividing 
the eye. 

Carapace. The dorsal plate of the Crustacea and Chelonia. 



GLOSSARY. 267 

Carpodite. The fifth joint of the leg of a Crustacean. 

Cell. (1) In its original condition " a naked lump of protoplasm 
with an imbedded nucleus," and with or without an external 
membrane. (2) The interneural spaces in the wings of insects. 

Cellulose. A peculiar substance forming the cell- wall of plants ; 
it is found also in the tests of the Ascidioida. 

C&nogenesis. Embryonic adaptation. 

Central capsule. A porous membrane separating the sarcode of 
the Radiolarians from the " yellow cells." 

Centrum. The body or common centre of a vertebra. 

Ceratode. The horny substance of sponges. 

Cercarics. The tadpole-like larvas of the Trematode worms and 
of many Ascidians. 

Cerci. Setaceous or filiform appendages attached to the last seg- 
ment of the abdomen in certain Orthoptera. 

Cere. The naked skin at the base of the bill in some birds. 

Cerebellum. The posterior portion of the brain. 

Chelcs. The " claws " or anterior pair of thoracic legs of the 
Crustaceans, generally of large size and furnished with two 
" fingers," only one of which is movable. 

ChelicercB. The prehensile " pincer-ended " claws placed on each 
side of the mouth of scorpions. They are supposed to be mo- 
dified antennae. 

Chevron-bones. Small bones placed below and between the caudal 
vertebrae and protecting the artery. 

Chiasma. The expansion formed by the union of the optic nerves-* 

Chitine. The substance composing the exoskeleton of insects. 

Chlorophyll. The green colouring-matter of leaves, found also 
in the Infusoria, Turbellaria, &c. 

Choance. The nasal cavities. 

Chondrine = gristle. 

Chorda dorsalis. See Notochord. 

Chorion. The outer membrane of the ovum. 

Chorology. The study of the local distribution of animals over 
the earth. 

Chromatophores. Minute sacs containing pigmentary matter. 

Chyle. A milky fluid, the nutrient portion of the food. 

Chyme. The digested food as it passes from the stomach. 

Cicatricula or "tread," a peculiar opaque spot on the embryo. 



268 GLOSSAET. 

Cicatrix. The truncated portion of the apex of the basal joint 

of the antennas in some of the Longicorn Coleoptera. 
Cilia. Minute hair-like bodies, which in the lower forms of In- 

vertebrata are organs of locomotion. 
Cinclides (sing. Cinclis). Apertures in the walls of the somatic 

cavity of the Actinias for the emission of craspeda and acontia. 
Cirri. Curled appendages on the feet, mouth, &c. in many ani- 
mals. 

Clavicle. The collar-bone. 
Clavus. The basal inner portion of the hemelytron in the He- 

miptera. 
Cloaca. The common efferent opening in birds and many other 

animals. 
Clypeus. The part, often very indistinctly marked off, to which 

the upper lip and its membrane is attached in most mandibu- 

late insects ; it is often called the epistome. 
Cnidcs. See Trichocysts. 
Coarctate. Applied to an insect pupa where it gives no indication 

of the parts it covers. 
Coccoliths. Minute calcareous concretions formed at the end of 

the contractile processes of certain Radiolaria ; when they are 

massed together they are called coccospheres. 
Coccyx. The anchylosed terminal tail-bones in birds and some 

mammals. 
Cocoon. The outer covering, whether of silk or other material, 

of the pupae of certain insects. 
Codonostoma. "The orifice of the umbrella in the Medusae, 

through which its cavity communicates with the external 

water " (Allmari). 

Coeloma. The general body-cavity. 
Ccenenchyma. The common calcareous tissue which connects the 

scleroderrnic coralla of certain Actinozoa. 
Coenacium. See Polypary. 
Ccenosarc. " The common flesh or trunk which unites and binds 

together the polypites in a compound zoophyte " (HincJcs). 
Colon. The large intestine opening into the rectum. 
Columella. The axis of a spiral univalve. The centre of the thecas 

in a corallite. 
Commensal. An animal that lives with but does not feed on its 

host. 



GLOSSAET. 269 

Concha. The external ear. 
Condyle. The articulating surface of a bone. 
Conjugation. " The coalescence of two similar masses of proto- 
plasm ;" not supposed to be of a sexual nature. 
Conjunctiva. The mucous membrane of the eye, covering the 

anterior surface and reflected internally on the eyelids. 
Connexivn.m. The lateral more or less expanded border of the 

abdominal segments in certain Heteropterous Hemiptera. 
Coracoid. A process of the scapula or sometimes a separate 

bone. 

Corallite. The corallum secreted within the body of a polype. 
There may be a single corallite, or several connected by a coe- 
nenchyma. 
Corallum. The skeleton or hard structure deposited in the 

tissues or by the tissues of the coralligenous Actinozoa. 
Corbel. A hollow or cavity partially closed by a plate in which 

the tarsus is inserted in certain Coleoptera. 
Corbiculum. The dilated posterior tibia of the Apidse is some- 
times so named. 
Corbulce. Basket-shaped receptacles which enclose the gonangia 

in Aglaophenia. 

Corium. The middle portion of the hemelytron in the Hemi- 
ptera, between the clavus and the cuneus. 
Corneule. Applied to the transparent "segments " which defend 

the eyes of insects. 
Corpus callosum. A layer of transverse fibres forming the great 

commissure of the brain connecting the two hemispheres. 
Correlation. The mutual relation or association of phenomena 
or of parts. The correlation of parts does not always imply 
correlation of development. 
Cotyledonary. When the villi of the placenta are collected 

into bundles. 
Cotyloid cavity. The opening in which the coxa of insects is 

placed. 

Coxa. The basal joint of the leg in insects. 
Coxopodite. The basal joint of the leg of a Crustacean. 
Craspeda. Convoluted cords formed in the Actiniae and furnished 

with thread- cells. 

Crepitaculum. A talc-like spot at the base of the upper wings in 
certain Locustidae. 



270 GLOSSARY. 

Cterwcyst. A peculiar body in the Ctenophora. 

Ctenoid. Applied to fish-scales with a toothed or spinous 
hinder margin. 

Ctenophores. Meridional bands, eight in number, bearing comb- 
like fringes ; the organs of locomotion in the Ctenophora. 

Cuneus. A portion of the hemelytron of certain Hemiptera be- 
tween the corium and the posterior membranous portion. 

Cycloid. Applied to fish-scales with a rounded entire hinder 
margin. 

Cytoblast. See Nucleus. KLrrTot p <> 

Cytode. A plastide without a nucleus. A plastide with a nu- 
cleus is a cell. Prof. Huxley holds that " the primary form of 
every animal is a nucleated protoplasmic body, cytode or cell." 

Cytogenous. Producing cells. 

Cytostome. The point where the ingestion of food takes place in 
the flagellate Infusoria. 

Dactylopodite. The seventh or terminal joint, exclusive of the 
" fingers," in the leg of a Crustacean. 

Decidua. " The modified mucous membrane of the pregnant 
uterus." 

Degradation. Eudimentary or abortive structural development. 
Often due to parasitism. Not to be confounded with arrest of 
development. 

Delamination. "The splitting into two layers of cells of a pri- 
mitively single-layered blastoderm " (Huxley}. 

Dentine. The tissue forming the body of the tooth. 

Derivative theory as opposed to Natural Selection, holds " that 
every species changes, in time, by virtue of inherent tendencies 
thereto." 

Dermatosis. When the derm or skin forms a bony plate. 

Dertrum. The apex of a bird's bill. 

Deuterostomatous. When the mouth of the gastrula is secondary. 

Deuterozooid or proglottis. Zooids produced by gemmation from 
zooids. 

Dialysis. The separation of parts previously joined together. 

Diaphragm. The muscle separating the thorax from the ab- 
domen. 

Diaphysis. Ossification proceeding from the centre of a long 
bone. 



GLOSSAKY. 271 

Diapophysis. The upper articular transverse costal process of 

certain vertebrae. 

Diastema. An interval in the line of teeth. 
Digitigrade. When an animal walks on its toes. 
Dimorphous. A species having two forms not depending on 

sex. 

Dioecious. The sexes in separate individuals. 
Diphycercal. The tail in fishes being equal above and below, 

with the vertebral axis in the centre. 
Diphyodont. When the earlier teeth are replaced by a second 

set. 
Diphyzooid. A reproductive group of organs detached from the 

coenosarc of certain Calycophoridae. 
Diploe. The cancellous layer between the two plates of a flat 

bone. 
Diverticulum. A blind tube springing from the side of another 

tube. 
Dolichocephaloiis. When the length of the head is more than its 

breadth. 
Dorsigrade. When a mammal walks on the back of its toes, as in 

certain armadillos. 

Dualistic theory holds that creation was definite and purposive. 
Duodenum. The first portion of the small intestine. 
Dysteleology. The study relating to the " purposelessness " of 

structure or of organs. 

Ecderon. The " external plane of growth " of the ectoderm of the 
Actinozoa. 

Ecdysis. Shedding the skin or moulting. 

Echinopadium. Prof. Huxley's name for the "worm larva" of 
the Echinoderrnata. 

Ecthor&iim. A thread-like body continued and capable of being 
discharged from the cnidaa of the Actinozoa. 

Ectocyst. The outer layer of the ccenoecium of the Polyzoa. 

Ectoderm (epiblast of the embryo). A multicellular membrane, 
" the result of the segmentation of the vitellus in a true ovum " 
(Allmaii). The external tegumentary layer of the Metazoa. 

Ectopterygoid. One of the lateral palatine bones in certain rep- 
tiles. It is peculiarly developed in the Crocodilia. 

Ectosarc. The outer layer of sarcode in the Protozoa. 



272 GLOSSARY. 

Ectostosis. Ossification proceeding from without to within. 

Elytra. The upper or anterior wing-cases of the Coleoptera. 
The term is also applied to the scales on the back of certain 
Annelida. 

Embolium. A part of the corium in the hemelytra of certain 
Hemiptera. 

Emboly. " Invagination," the formation of a cavity in the 
embryo. 

Embryo. The animal in the egg or in the womb ; but it is also 
sometimes applied to the young larva. " We look at the em- 
bryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the progenitor, 
either in its adult or larval states, of all the members of the 
same great class." 

Embryology. The study of the embryo. 

Empodium. That part of the last tarsal joint in insects to which 
the claws are attached. 

Enamel (Encaustum). The hardest constituent, when it exists, 
of the tooth. 

Endoderm (hypoblast of the embryo). The inner tegumentary 
layer of the Metazoa. 

Endoplast. The probable analogue, according to Huxley, in the 
Protozoa of the nucleus of the Metazoa. 

Endopleurite. That part of the apodema of a Crustacean which 
arises from the interepimeral membrane. 

Endopodite. An inner filamentous appendage attached to the 
basal joint of some of the Crustacea. 

Endosarc. The inner layer of sarcode in the Protozoa. 

EndosJceleton. The internal hard or bony structure. 

Endosternite. That part of the apodema of a Crustacean that 
arises from the intersternal membrane. 

Endosteum. The vascular tissue lining the medullary cavity of 
the long bones. 

Endostoma. A part behind the labrum in the Crustacea. 

Endostyle. The longitudinal fold in the pharynx of Ascidians. 

Enterocode. The " perivisceral cavity " of the Echinoderms, 
Mollusca, &c. 

Environment. "The totality of all surrounding agencies and in- 
fluences " (Mivart). " A term of the most comprehensive 
kind, embodying, in every case that it is used, an assemblage 
of conditions presenting an amount of complexity that is not 
only inconceivable but wholly unnanieable " (Romanes). 



GLOSSARY. 273 

Eocene. The earliest Tertiary epoch. 

Ephippium. The case in which the winter eggs of the Daphniidse 

are deposited. 
EphyriK, The disk-like segments which gradually fall off from 

the "hydra-tuba" of certain Hydrozoa, growing often to a large 

size, and developing organs. 
Epiblast in the embryo is the ectoderm in the adult ; in the 

higher animals the latter becomes the epidermis. 
Epiboly. An occasional form of growth in the embryo (the epi- 

blast over the hypoblast). 
Epiccele. The " perivisceral cavity " of the Ascidians and Ver- 

tebrata. 

Epidermis. The outer skin or cuticle of the higher animals. 
Epigenesis. The doctrine that organic development depended 

upon the juxtaposition of molecules according to " the opera- 
tion of a developmental force." 
Epiglottis. A cartilaginous valve placed in front of the larynx 

which it closes when in the act of swallowing. 
Epimera. Lateral pieces of the thorax placed behind the epi- 

sterna. 
Epiphragm. The calcareous secretion of the foot in snails, 

closing the aperture of the shell during hibernation. 
Epiphyses. The separately ossified ends of a long bone. 
Epipleura. The sides of the elytra in Coleoptera, they are not 

commonly marked off from the dorsal portion. 
Epipodia. Appendages of the foot in some Mollusca. In the 

Pteropoda they are wing-like expansions from the head. 
Epipodite. A process of the basal joint of the legs in certain 

Crustacea. 
Episterna. Lateral pieces of the thorax, above or outside the 

cotyloid cavities in the Arthropoda. 
Epistoma. The part, not always apparent, connecting the upper 

lip to the clypeus in the mandibulate insects, or the part above 

the mouth generally. In the Crustacea it seems to answer to 

the clypeus. In the Polyzoa it is a lip or valve placed over 

the mouth of the polypide. 
Epitheca. A continuous external layer of the thecce of the coral- 

lites in some of the Zoantharia. 

Epithelium. The thin membrane that covers the mucous mem- 
branes. 



274 GLOSS AST. 

Epizoic. Parasitic on an animal. 

Ethmoid. A bone between the two orbits. 

Ethnology. The science of Race. The study of the varieties of 
mankind. 

Etiology. See JEtiology. 

Etology. The study of the general laws that contribute to form 
the character of individuals and communities. 

Evolution. The descent of species, " each within its own class or 
group, from common parents" (Darwin}. "A change from 
indefinite, incoherent homogeneity, to a definite coherent he- 
terogeneity, through successive differentiations and integra- 
tions " (Herbert Spencer). " Evolution teaches us that at a 
certain period in the history of this planet such albuminoid 
substances as protoplasm came, by gradual building up, into 
existence" (Ray Lankester}. "The only perfectly sate founda- 
tion for the doctrine of Evolution lies in the historical, or 
rather archaeological, evidence that particular organisms have 
arisen by the gradual modification of their predecessors, which 
is furnished by fossil remains " (Huxley}. The difficulty of 
explaining the existence of the myriads of lowest and almost 
structureless animals has led Dr. Bastian and others to the 
belief that " living matter is continually coming into being." 

Exocorium. The narrow portion of the hemelytron of certain 
Hemiptera bordering the corium externally. 

Exogenous. A term applied to bones that are developed from 
previously ossified parts. 

Exoplasm. An expansion of the so-called cuticle in certain Pro- 
tozoa. 

Exopodite. An inner filamentous appendage attached to the 
basal joint of certain Crustacea. 

Exoskeleton. The external hard integument of animals. 

Exothecce represent externally the dissepiments in the thecae of ; 
corallite in some Zoantharia. 

External influences. See Environment. 

FabellcB. Sesamoid bones in the gastrocnemius muscle of 

dog. 
Fades. The face, also the outside figure (statura or habitus} ; in 

the latter sense Huxley proposes the word "Metope" 
Falces. The poison-fangs of spiders. 
Femur. The thigh-bone. 



GLOSSAKT. 275 

Fissiparous. Asexual generation by division into two parts. 
Flagellum. A hair-like body differing from a cilium in its 

greater length. 
Foramen magnum. The large opening in the occipital bone where 

the spinal cord joins the brain. 

Forceps. A pair of movable anal appendages, as in the earwig. 
Fornix. Forms part of the floor of the left ventricle of the 

brain. 
Frenum. A fold of skin, sometimes, as in certain Cirripedia, 

bearing ova. 

Fulcra. Spiny scales on the ns of certain Ganoid fishes. 
Funicle. That part of the antennae of certain insects between 

the scape and the club. 

G-amogenesis. Sexual reproduction. 

Ganglion. A knot (or centre) of nervous matter. 

Grastr&a. The unknown or hypothetical stock, according to 
Hackel, from which the gastrula is derived. 

Gastrocnemiws. The large muscle of the calf of the leg. 

Gastrula. The larval form from which all the Metazoa are sup- 
posed to be descended. It is said by Agassiz to be only another 
name for planula ; it is, however, a later development. 

Gemmation, or budding, occurs when a small portion of the 
parent is detached and develops into the likeness of its parent. 

Gemmiparous. Forming buds. 

Gemmules. " Spores," or capsules containing protoplasmic cells 
in certain sponges. These cells develop into the mature form, 
and are one of the forms of asexual growth. 

Geneogenesis (Quatrefages). Apparently synonymous with Par- 



Geographical distribution of living beings is concerned with the 
areas of the earth's surface within which groups of different 
kinds of organisms exist which are not found elsewhere. For 
plants botanists give from twenty-five to thirty such areas or 
provinces; a much smaller number suffice for the zoologist. 
The most usually, or rather only, adopted provinces are those 
proposed by Mr. Sclater for birds, but which are found to be 
well adapted generally for the whole animal kingdom (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. ii. p. 130, 1857). He divides the earth's surface into 
six regions: (1) The Palsearctic Kegion Africa north of the 
Atlas, Europe, Asia Minor, Persia, and Asia generally north of 

T2 



276 GLOSSARY. 

the Himalaya range ?, Northern China, Japan, and the Aleutian 
Islands. Area about, 14,000,000 square miles. (2) Ethiopian 
Region Africa south of the Atlas range (south of- the Sahara 
would have been better), Madagascar, Bourbon, Mauritius, 
Socotra, and probably Arabia (?) up to the Persian Gulf. Area 
about 12,000,000 square miles. (3) Indian Region India and 
Asia generally south of the Himalayas, Ceylon, Burmah, Ma- 
lacca, and Southern China, Philippines, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, 
and adjacent islands. Area "perhaps " 4,000,000 square miles. 
(4) Australian Region Papua and adjacent islands, Australia, 
Tasmania, and Pacific islands. Area "perhaps" 3,000,000 
square miles. (5) Nearctic Region Greenland and North 
America down to centre of Mexico. Area " perhaps " 6,500,000 
square miles. (6) Neotropical Region West-India Islands, 
Southern Mexico, Central America, and whole of S. America, 
Galapagos Islands, Falkland Islands. Area about 5,500,000 
square miles. The weak points of this scheme appear to be 
the separation of Papua or New Guinea from the Indian archi- 
pelago, and the omission of New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. 
These, as well as Madagascar and Japan, are " satellite " pro- 
vinces, having too many endemic forms to be included in the 
"regions" in which they are geographically situated. The 
Vertebrata, Prof. Huxley thinks, " are so distributed at the 
present day as to mark out four great areas or provinces of dis- 
tribution." " These are : 1. The Arctogeeal, including North 
America, Europe, Africa, and Asia as far as Wallace's line, or 
the boundary between the Indian and Papuan divisions of the 
Indian archipelago. 2. The Austrocolumbian, comprising all 
the American continent south of Mexico. 3. The Australian, 
from Wallace's line to Tasmania. 4. The Sovozelanian, in- 
cluding the islands of New Zealand." The late Andrew 
Murray maintained that " all the Coleoptera in the world are 
referable to one or the other of three great stirpes." " These 
are: 1, the Indo- African stirps ; 2, the Brazilian stirps; and 
3, ' the microtypal stirps.' " The first included the Indian 
archipelago and New Guinea ; " the Brazilian stirps inhabits 
South and Central America east of the Andes and north of the 
river Plate." In the microtypal stirps he included Europe, 
Asia north of the Himalayas, North America, Peru, Chili, New 
Zealand, Australia, &c. He held that the fauna of one class 
was not to be judged by the fauna of another, and that the 
peculiarities of geographical distribution were only to be ac- 
counted for on the supposition of " continuity of soil at some 
former period." (Proc. Linn. Soc., Zool. xi. 1 et seq.) 






GLOSSAKT. 277 

Germ-cell or Germ-vesicle. "The first nucleated cell that appears 

in the impregnated ovum " ( Owen). 
Germ-lamellcB. The two primary layers of the embryo epiblast 

and hypoblast in the Metazoa ; in the great majority a third 

layer (mesoblast] is developed. 
Gigerium gizzard. The muscular stomach of certain birds and 

insects. 

Glabellum. The central ridge in the shield of the Trilobites. 
Gland. An organ that secretes certain constituents of the blood, 

which are then voided by a duct. 
Glossarium. The middle portion of the suctorial proboscis in 

the Diptera. 

Glottis. The opening of the larynx. 
Gnathites. The masticatory organs of the Crustacea. 
Gnathopod. See Maxillipedes. 
Gonangium. A " receptacle " in which, in some of the Hydrozoa, 

planoblasts or sporosacs are developed. 
Gonoblastidiuwi. See Blastostyle. 
Gonocalyx. The swimming-organ of the gonophore of a Hydro- 

zoon. 
Gonocheme. A sexual medusa. " A medusiform planoblast, which 

gives origin directly to the generative elements " (Allmari). 
Gonophore. " The ultimate generative zooid (in the Hydrozoa), 

which gives origin directly to the generative elements, ova or 

spermatozoa" (Allmari). 

Gonosome. The assemblage of sexual zooids in the Hydrozoa. 
Gonotheca. A peculiar ovigerous capsule in some of the Hy- 
drozoa. 

Gyncecomasty. Milk-secretion in the breast of man. 
Gynophores. The generative buds of the Hydrozoa which con- 
tain the ova only, not the spermatozoa. 

Habit. See Fades. 

Haemal. Connected with the blood-system. 

Hcemapophyses. Processes of the vertebrae ; in the Eeptilia they 

form the abdominal ribs. 

Hallux. The great toe, or the innermost digit. 
Halteres. Small clavate filamentous organs, one on each side the 

metathorax of the Diptera ; supposed to represent the posterior 

wings. 



278 GLOSSARY. 

Haustellum. The suctorial proboscis in the Diptera. 

Hectocotylus. One of the arms of a cuttle-fish modified into a 
reproductive organ. 

Hemelytra. The upper or anterior wings of Hemipterous insects. 

Hemimetabolio. Incomplete metamorphosis. 

Heredity. The tendency (mental or physical) which asserts itself 
in successive generations. 

Heterocercal. When the upper and lower lobes of the tail of a 
fish are dissimilar. 

Heteroplast. The dissimilarity in the cells of a group of tissues, 
as in muscles, nerves, &c. 

Heteroplasty. "The method whereby physiological division of 
labour is accomplished " (Macalister). 

Hexicoloyg. The study of the inter-relations of animals. 

Hippocampus minor. An elevation in the posterior oornu of the 
lateral ventricle of the brain. 

Histology. The minute anatomy of the tissues. 

Homocercal. When both lobes of the tail of a fish are alike. 

Homogeny (Bay Lankester) Similarity of structure due to de- 
scent from a common ancestor. 

Homologue. Identity of an organ in different animals under every 
kind of form and function. 

Homomorphous. Having the same form. 

Homoplast. A structure which is supposed " to have grown 
alike in obedience to the influence of similar external causes 
acting on similar innate powers " (Mivarf). 

Homoplaxy (Eay Lankester). Similarity of structure due to 
adaptation. 

Homotypes. Analogical parts. 

Hydatid. A pathological product, caused by entozoic worms, 
consisting of a cyst containing a watery fluid. 

Hydranth. See Polypite. 

Hydra-tuba. One of the earlier forms of certain Hydrozoa de- 
veloping buds, and passing into the " Scyphistoma "-stage. 

Hydrocaulus. "All that portion of the hydrophyton which in- 
tervenes between the hydrorhiza and the hydranth " (Allmati). 

Hydrocysts. Peculiar sacs which, with " groups of gonophores, 
are borne upon a common stem, and constitute a gonoblasti- 
dium or blastostyle." 



GLOSSARY. 279 

HydroRcium. A sac attached to the nectocalyx of some of the 

oceanic Hydrozoa. 
Hydrophyllia. The plates protecting the polypites of the oceanic 

Hydrozoa. 
Hydrophyton. " The common case of the trophosome by which 

its zooids are connected into a single colony " (Allman). 
Hydrorhiza, "The proximal end of the hydrophyton, by which 

the colony fixes itself to other bodies" (Allmari). 
Hydrosoma. The entire colony of the Hydrozoa. 
Hydrotheca. See Calycle. 
Hyoid. The bone of the tongue. 
Hypermetamorphosis. When an insect passes through several 

larval stages. 

Hypoblast. The inner mucous layer of cells of the blastoderm, 
the eudoderm of the adult ; in the higher animals the latter 

becomes the epithelium. 

Eeum. The small intestine opening into the colon. 
Ilium. The large pelvic bone on each side of the sacrum. 
Imaginal disks. Centres of formative tissue in the larva of cer- 
tain insects, especially Diptera, which give rise to the legs, 

wings, &c. 

Imago. The perfect insect. 
Incus. One of the bones of the ear. 
Individual. Physiologically a single form, morphologically an 

entirety of independent beings, the result of the development 

of a single ovum. 
Individuation (Mivart). The power which differentiates and 

assimilates " all that comes to it (the germ) into a definite and 

predeterminate issue." 
Infundibulum. A tubular organ found in the Cephalopoda. 

Alan one of the gastric cavities of the Ctenophora. 
Ingluvies. The crop a dilatation of the oesophagus in birds. 
Ink-bag. In the Cephalopoda an oval or pyriform glandular 

sac, placed near the liver or within it, and secreting a dark 

fluid. 
Inquiline or commensal. A tenant, not a parasite ; an animal 

that dwells with, not at the expense of, its host. 



280 GLOSSARY. 

Instinct. An inherent cause of doing not depending on memory 
or observation. "Inherited memory." 

Intercalary (Huxley). When intermediate forms " do not repre- 
sent the actual passage from one group to another." 

Intercentra. Spaces between the centra of the vertebrae. 

Ischiopodite. The third joint in the leg of a Crustacean. 

Kainoz&ic. See Cainozoic. 

Keratode. See Ceratode. 

Labium. Lower lip of an Arthropod attached to the mentum. 

Labrum. Upper lip of an Arthropod attached to the clypeus 
(epistome of some writers), either with or without a membra- 
nous connexion. 

Larva. A rather indefinite word, generally used for all animals 
undergoing a metamorphosis, for the state in which they 
emerge from the egg. 

Larynx. The upper part of the windpipe. 

Lemma. The primary or outer layer of the germinal vesicle. 

Life. " Organization in action " (Beclard). " The sum total of 
the functions which resist death " (Bichai). " The movement 
of the bioplasm ;" " the state of action peculiar to an organized 
body or organism " ( W. B. Carpenter). " A series of definite 
and successive changes, both of structure and composition, 
which take place within an individual without destroying its 
identity " ( &. H. Lewis). " The definite combination of hetero- 
geneous changes, both simultaneous and successive, in cor- 
respondence with external co-existences and sequences " (Herbert 
Spencer). The last, speaking of the coordination of actions, 
says, " an arrest of coordination is death, and imperfect coor- 
dination is disease." Life is generally regarded as " a mode of 
energy ; " in the Eotifers it may be dormant for years. 

Ligula. See Labium. 

Lingua. The tongue. The term is sometimes applied to a part 
of the sucking-apparatus of insects, and to the " inner integu- 
ment " of the labrum in some Orthoptera, &c. 

Lipostomy. Absence of a mouth. 

Lissotrichous or Liotrickous. Having straight smooth hair. The 
hair is cylindrical, and a section of it circular. 

Lithocyst. A cavity containing mineral particles ; supposed to 
be subservient to hearing. It occurs in the Coelenterata. 



GLOSSARY. 281 

Loculi. Certain spaces in the corallite of an Actinozoon between 

the vertical septa. 
Lophophore. A ridge on which the tentacles are placed in the 

Polyzoa. 
Lores. A stripe on each side between the bill and the eye in 

birds. 
Lorica. A shield. In the Eotifers a cylindrical gelatinous shell, 

into which they can withdraw their bodies. 
Lymphatic vessels or absorbents. Minute and delicate vessels 

which collect the products of digestion and detrita of nutrition 

and convey them into the venous circulation. The lacteals are 

the lymphatics of the small intestines. 

Madreporiform tubercle or madreporite. A wart-like body placed 
externally on the aboral surface of starfishes. Its use is un- 
known. 

Malacology. The study of the Mollusca. 

Malpighian tubes. Delicate vessels opening into the intestines in 
most insects ; they vary from four to a hundred. 

Mandibles. The upper and outer pair of jaws in the Arthro- 
poda ; they correspond to the lower jaw of the Vertebrata. 

Mantibrium. (1) The process in the middle of the anterior border 
of the sternum in mammals and birds (also Pr&sternum). (2) 
In the Hydrozoa the central tubular body attached to the bell 
or umbrella, the other extremity bearing the mouth. 

Marsupium. The abdominal pouch in the Marsupial. See Pecten. 

Mastax. The muscular bulb comprising the biting- and grinding- 
organs of a Eotifer. 

Materialism. The denial of " spiritual substances " (Johnson). 
Scientific materialism affirms " that every effect has its cause, 
and every cause its effect." It rejects miracles and all super- 
natural processes. Moral or ethical materialism is based on 
material enjoyment and the gratification of the senses, and it 
has no place among naturalists and philosophers. (See Hist, 
of Great, i. 36.) 

MaxillcB. The lower pair of jaws in the Arthropoda. The upper 
jaw only in the Vertebrata. 

Maxillipedes or foot-jaws. The three posterior of the six pairs of 
appendages of the mouth of a Crustacean ; the two following 
pairs are the maxillae, the last the mandibles. See Siagonopoda. 

Meconidia. Peculiar sacs of the hydroid genus Gonothyrcea. 



282 GLOSSARY. 

Medulla. The ordinary marrow of bones. Medulla spinalis, the 
spinal cord. 

Medulla oblongata. The upper enlarged portion of the spinal 
cord where it joins the brain. 

Megalopa. The latest larval stage in the development of the 
higher Crustaceans. 

Membrana nictitans. The third eyelid of birds, a duplicature of 
the conjunctiva; it is found also in sharks, frogs, in some rep- 
tiles, and in many mammals ; in man and monkeys it is repre- 
sented by the "plica semilunaris." 

Menisci. Cartilaginous rings between the vertebrae of some birds. 

Mentum. The part to which the lower lip of many Arthropods 
is attached. 

Meroblastic. When, as in birds, the germ and yolk of the egg 
are separate. 

Meropodite. The long fourth joint in the leg of a Crustacean. 

Mesenteries. Vertical partitions in the somatic cavity of the 
Actinozoa. 

Mesentery. The membranous connection between the small in- 
testines and the posterior wall of the abdomen. 

Mesoblast. A cellular layer between the epiblast and the hypo- 
blast ; in the adult the mesoderm. 

Mesoderm. The part between the ectoderm and the endoderm. 

Mesomyodic. In birds, when certain muscles are attached to the 
middle of the bronchial semirings. 

Mesothorax. The intermediate segment of the thorax of insects ; 
the mesosternum corresponds to it beneath. 

Mesozoic or Secondary period in geology ; it includes the Trias, 
Oolitic, and Cretaceous formations. 

Metabolic. Complete metamorphosis. 

Metacarpus. The assemblage of bones between the wrist and the 
fingers. 

Metagenesis. "When the produced zooid is dissimilar to the 
producing zooid " ( Greene). " Changes of form which the repre- 
sentative of a species undergoes in passing by a series of suc- 
cessively generated individuals from the egg to the perfect 
state" (Owen). See also Alternation of generations. 

Metameres. Coalesced segments which have lost their primitive 
distinctness. See Antimeres. 



GLOSSARY. 283 

Metamorphosis. Changes undergone by the individual before at- 
taining the perfect state. 

Metapodium. The posterior part of the foot in the Mollusca. 

Metapophyses. Lateral processes of the vertebrae. 

Metasternum. The under part of the metathorax of an insect. 

Metasthenic. Having the maximum power in the posterior ex- 
tremities. 

Metastoma. The labium so-called of a Crustacean. 

Metatarsus. The assemblage of bones between the tarsus and the 
toes. 

Metathorax. The third or posterior segment of the thorax in 
insects. 

Microbia. Extremely minute life-producing organisms in the air. 

Micropyle. An aperture in the ovum through which the male 
element enters. 

Mimetic. When animals of different groups resemble one 
another. 

Mimicry or imitation. A repetition of form and colour. In 
many cases it has been shown by Mr. Bates, who first called 
attention to this subject, that this superficial resemblance acts 
as a safeguard to the form most exposed to attack. Mr. 
Darwin thinks it is " only explicable on the theory of descent;" 
but this does not explain the resemblance of many insects to 
leaves and twigs of trees, sometimes as if covered with moss, 
or of others to the excreta of birds, &c. 

Miocene. The middle Tertiary epoch. 

Molecule. " The smallest possible portion of a particular sub- 
stance" ( Clerk-Maxwell). "Every atom is a molecule, but every 
molecule is not an atom." 

Monadiary. The common envelope of a monad assemblage. 

Monaxial. When the axis is in one direction only. 

Monism. The descent of all organic beings from one primitive 
stock. 

Monistic theory holds that creation was the product of natural 
forces. 

Monoecious. When the male and female are associated in one 
organism. 

Monomyary. When a bivalve shell has only a single muscle. 

Monophyletic. Derived from a single form. 



284 GLOSSARY. 

Monophyodont. When only one set of teeth is developed. 

Monoplast. A naked cell. 

Morphology. " The history of the modification of form which 
the same organ undergoes in the same or in different organ- 
isms" (Owen}. " The law of form or structure independent of 
function" (Dallas). 

Morphone. A morphological element. 

Morula. " The multicellular blastosphere from which the gas- 
trula is developed." 

Muffle. The naked part of the nose in the cow, dog, &c. 

Mutable types. (1) Those which have undergone modification of 
structure during geological time ; they " all belong to the most 
differentiated members of the classes " (Huxley}. (2) In modern 
times there are numerous forms which, from inherent causes, 
deviate from the parental type, " the whole organization," as 
Mr. Darwin puts it, "having a tendency to vary." 

Myelon. The spinal cord. 

Myonine. The material of muscle. 

Myophane. A striated layer in Infusoria, supposed to represent 
muscle. 

Myotomes. The vertical flakes of muscle in fishes. (Myotoma = 
Myocomma of Owen.) 

Natural sekction is the theory that the " origin of species" is due 
to the " preservation of favourable individual differences and 
varieties, and the destruction of those which are injurious," 
and in "the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, 
each good for the individual possessor" (Darwin}. Geological 
research, Mr. Darwin thinks, "does not yield the infinitely 
many fine gradations between past and present species required 
on the theory ; and this is the most obvious of the many objec- 
tions which may be urged against it." Mr. Darwin further 
observes that he has " probably attributed too much to the 
action of natural selection or the survival of the fittest." Prof. 
Mivart goes further, and asserts that " natural selection utterly 
fails to account for the conservation and development of the 
minute and rudimentary beginnings, the slight and insigni- 
ficant commencements of structures, however useful these struc- 
tures may afterwards become." It is, perhaps, scarcely neces- 
sary to observe that the origin of species has nothing to do 
with the origin of life. 



GLOSSARY. 285 

Nauplius. The earliest larval form of Crustaceans. 

Nectocalyx. The swimming-bell of a Medusa. 

Nematocysts, Trichocysts, or Cnidce. Peculiar cells in the Acti- 
nozoa containing thread-like bodies having a stinging or urti- 
cating power. 

Ncmatophores. Appendages of the coenosarc of Plumulariidae con- 
taining thread-cells. 

Neossology. The study of the nestlings of birds. 

Nervures. The hollow tubes supporting the wings of insects, and 
acting as organs of circulation and respiration. 

Neural. Eclating to the nervous system. 

Neurapophyses. The spinous processes of the vertebrse. 

Neurilemma. The membrane investing a nerve. 

Neuroglia. The connective network of the eye. 

Neuropodium. The ventral portion of the parapodium of an 
Annelid. 

Nisus formativus. One of the old-fashioned phrases, "self-de- 
ceiving, world-beguiling simulacra of science." 

Nomogeny. The law of coming into being, i. e. of creation. 

Noth&um. (Qu. j/wros or voQos ?) A name for the mantle of the 
Mollusca. 

Notochord or chorda dorsalis. "A cellular rod which is developed 
in the embryo " of the Vertebrata, and is ultimately replaced 
by the spinal cord. 

Notopodium. The dorsal portion of the parapodium of an Annelid. 

Nucleolus. A minute particle in the middle of the nucleus. In 
the ovum it is the " germinal spot." 

Nucleus. The central particle in the elementary cells of animal 
tissues. In the ovum it is the " germinal vesicle." 

Nymph. The active pupa of certain insects. 

Ocelli or stemmata. Simple or supplementary eyes in insects and 
spiders. 

Odontophore. See Radula. 

(Ecoid. A name for a blood-disk. 

(Edagus. The membrum virile of insects. 

(Esophagus. The gullet, connecting the mouth to the stomach. 

Omostegite. The posterior portion of the dorsal plate of a Crus- 
tacean. 



286 GLOSSARY. 

Oology. The study of eggs of birds. 

Ontogeny. The development of the individual from the germ- 
cell to the mature form. 

Ontology. The study that relates to the being of an individual 
organism. Formerly a synonym for metaphysics, 

Ocecia. Cells for receiving the ova of the Polyzoa. They are 
also called ovicells and ovicysts. 

Operculum. (1) The gill-cover of fishes. (2) The disk closing 
in the mouth of most univalve shells. 

Ophthalmite. The peduncle supporting the eye of the Decapod 
Crustacea. 

Opistkocoelous. Said of vertebras which are concave only behind. 

Optic lobes or corpora quadrigemina (or bigemina). Oval or 
spherical bodies giving rise, wholly or in part, to the optic 
nerve. 

Optic thalami. The inferior ganglia of the cerebrum on which 
the optic nerves rest. 

Organ-systems are the bone-system, nerve-system, &c. 

Orientation. The relative direction of parts. 

Orthognathous. When the jaws do not project and the teeth ai 
perpendicular. The highest type of the Vertebrata. 

Oscula. The large exhalant apertures of a sponge. 

Ossification. The conversion of tissue into bone by the deposi- 
tion of earthy matter. 

Osteine. The tissue of bone. 

Osteocomma or osteomere, bone-segment, sclerotome, or ver- 
tebra. 

Ostioles. The smaller inhalant apertures of a sponge. 

Otoconium. The ear-dust of the higher Mammalia, composed of 
calcareous particles. 

Otocyst. A vesicle, often containing otoliths, in some of the In- 
vertebrata, and subservient to hearing. 

Otoliths. (1) The internal ear-bones of fishes. (2) Calcareous 
bodies connected with hearing in many of the lower animals. 

Ovary. The organ in which the ova are produced. 

Ovicell, Ovicyst. See OoRcia. 

Ovipositor. A tubular organ possessed by many insects, and used 
for placing the eggs ; it is a modification of the aculeus. 



GLOSSARY. 287 

Ovisac. The external bag in which some of the lower Crusta- 
ceans carry their eggs for a time after they are extruded from 
the ovary. 

Ovoviviparous. When eggs are retained until they are hatched. 

Ovum, egg, or germ. "A highly differentiated portion of the 
parent organism." 

Palaozoic. The primary fossiliferous period in geology; it in- 
cludes the Laurentian, Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Car- 
boniferous, and Permian formations. 

Palingenesis. Recapitulative ontogeny. 

Pallium. The mantle or fold of integument on each side in the 
Mollusca. 

Palpi. Jointed appendages of the mouth in Arthropoda. 

Palpocil. A hair-like process in the tentacles of some Hydroida. 

Paluli. Small detached rods round the columella of an Actino- 
zoon. 

Pancreas. A conglomerate gland situated behind the stomach 
and connected with digestion. 

Pangenesis. Mr. Darwin's hypothesis that countless ' ' gemmules " 
are generated in every organ which, having the power of re- 
production, are the cause of the appearance in offspring of 
ancestral characters or of physiological peculiarities. 

Panspermism. The hypothesis that all organisms come exclu- 
sively from preexisting living germs. 

Paraglosscs. Two delicate membranous organs placed behind and 
above the labitnn in certain insects. 

Parapleurce. The flanks or sides of the thorax. 

Parapodia. The unjointed feet of the Annelida and of the larva 
of many insects. 

Parapophyses. The lower articular transverse processes of certain 
vertebrae. 

Paraptera. See Tegulce. 

Paratoids. Glandular tubercles, chiefly found above the tym- 
panum in Batrachia. 

Parostosis. The fibrous matrix in which integumental bones are 
developed. 

Parthenogenesis. Virginal reproduction. "Asexual reproduc- 
tion either by fission, gemmation, or the process of internal bud- 
ding" (Huxley}. 



288 GLOSSARY. 

Patagium. (1) The expanded integument forming the wing of a 
bat. (2) A vesicular body, one on each side, attached to the 
prothorax of the Lepidoptera ; it is covered with hair. 

Paxillcs. Clusters of spines or bristles in the Echinoderms. 

Pecten or Marsupium. A plicate membrane of the eye, placed 
in the vitreous humour anterior to the retina. 

Pectines. A pair of comb-like organs situated behind the two 
posterior legs of scorpions. 

Pedicellarice. Small two- or three-pronged pincer-like bodies, 
found on most Echinoderms. 

Pedicelli or "Ambulacra" or " Ambulacralfeet." The suckers of 
Echinoderms. 

Pedicle or Pedicel. A diminutive peduncle, variously applied. 

Pedipalpi. The maxillary palpi of the scorpions, the large pre- 
hensile claws. 

Peduncle. A foot-stalk, variously applied. 

Pelvis. The bony " hip-girdle " supporting the lower extremities. 

Pereion. The thoracic segments of the lower Crustaceans. 

Pereiopoda. The legs attached to the body (pereion) of the lower 
Crustaceans. 

Periosteum, The fibrous membrane covering a bone. 

Perioslracum. The membrane covering the shell of the Mollusca 

Perisarc. The chitinous envelope of some Hydrozoa. 

Perisome. The calcified integument of an Echinoderm. 

Peristome. The part surrounding the mouth of an Actinozoon. 

Peritoneum. The serous membrane investing the intestines, and 
reflected on the walls of the abdomen. 

Peritreme. The aperture or mouth of a univalve shell. 

Persistent types are those which have not undergone any notable 
modification in geological time, and even exist at the present, 
day ; they belong chiefly to the lower forms of life. There is 
no "valid reason for the supposition that the earliest forms 
known in the oldest fossiliferous rocks were the first to make 
their appearance on our planet'" (Huxley}. Animals with 
what Mr. Darwin calls " an inflexible organization " may al&o 
be referred to this type. 

Persona. See Individual. 

Phalanges. The bones composing the digits. 



GLOSSARY. 289 

Pharynx. A. membranous sac, in which, inter alia, the mouth 

and the oesophagus open. 

Phragmacone. The conical endoskeleton of a Belemnite. 
Phylogenesis. The development of the race from the lowest to 

the highest forms. 
Phylogeny. "A branch of biological speculation" which seeks to 

determine the ancestral history of species. 
Phylum. Hackel's name for a subkingdom. 
Physoclistous. When the swim-bladder of a fish has no duct. 
Pilidium. The helmet-shaped larva of certain worms. 
Pineal gland. A small non-glandular body connected to the 

optic thalami. 
Pituitary gland. A two-lobed non-glandular body at the base of 

the brain. 

Placenta. A vascular structure formed by the interlacing of the 
villi of the chorion and the inner membrane of the uterus in 
pregnancy. 
Placoid. Applied to bony fish-scales, whether in the form of 

plates, grains, or spines. 
Plantigrade. When a Mammal walks on the soles of its hind 

feet.' 

Plantula. An accessory joint between the claws of certain in- 
sects. 

Planula. The locomotive embryo of many Hydroids. 
Plasma. The fluid part of the blood in which the corpuscles 
float. "By the evolution of albuminous granules and oil-par- 
ticles plasma becomes yolk" (Owen). 

Plasmodium. A complex network of protoplasm, only obser- 
vable in the lowest organisms. 
Plastide. An independent mass of protoplasm. 
Plastron. The ventral plate of Chelonia. 
Picon. The seven abdominal segments or somites of some of the 

lower Crustaceans. 
Pleopoda. The appendages attached to the abdominal segments 

of some of the lower Crustaceans. 
Pleura. The serous membrane investing the lungs and reflected 

on the walls of the thorax. 

Pleurodont. When a tooth is attached to the jaw by one of its 
fangs with the inside of the socket. 

TJ 



290 GLOSSARY. 

Plexus. A. network of nerves. 

Plica semilunaris. See Membrana nictitans. 

Plumules. The down-feathers. 

Pluteus. The larval form of the Echinoidea. 

Pneumatocyst. The air-sac contained in a pneumatophore. 

Pneumatophore. The air-sac or float attached to the proximal 

end of the coenosarc of the oceanic Hydrozoa. 
Podex. The last segment of the abdomen in insects. 
Podium. The muscular so-called foot of certain Mollusks. 
Polian vesicles. Interradial sacs connected with the ambulacral 

system of Echinoderms. 
Polymely. The monstrosity when one or more of the extremities 

are doubled, or when there is any supernumerary part. 
Polymerism. A. multiplicity of parts. 
Polypary. The chitinous sheath investing more or less the 

coenosarc in the Hydroida. 

Polyphyletic. When the descent is from more than one form. 
Polypide. The zooid of the Polyzooid colony. 
Polypite or hydranth. The "nutritive zooid" of the Hydroid 

colony. 

Polyplast. See Morula. 
Pons Varolii. The commissure of the cerebellum connecting the 

two lateral lobes. 

Primitive groove. A straight shallow depression of the blasto- 
derm, indicating the longitudinal axis of the future embryo. 
Proccelous. Said of vertebrae which are concave only in front. 
Proglottis. A reproductive segment of a Cestode. 
Prognathous. Projecting jaws and teeth ; in man a sign of de- 
gradation. 

Pronotum. The dorsal surface of the prothorax. 
Propodite. The sixth joint of the leg of an insect. 
Propolis. A substance collected by bees, composed of wax and 

resin. 

Proscolex. The earliest larval stage of a Cestode. 
Prosthema. The upright leaf-like process on the nose of certain 

bats. 

Prosthenic. Having the maximum of strength in the fore ex- 
tremity. 



GLOSSAKT. 291 

Prostcmium. The segment bearing the rudimentary head in the 
Annelida. 

Prothorax. The anterior segment of the thorax in insects. 

Protoplasm. " The physical basis of life." An albuminoid sub- 
stance, homogeneous in the first instance, but capable of assi- 
milation and differentiation. It is a compound of hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. Protein and white-of-egg are 
very nearly identical with it. 

Protopodite. The basal division of the appendages of a segment 
of a Crustacean. 

Proventriculus. The dilated inferior portion of the oesophagus 
in birds. 

Pseudo-hcemal system. In Annelids, canals filled up by a clear 
red or greenish fluid. 

Pseudonavicell(B. Peculiar bodies developed by the Gregarinida. 

Pseudonychium. See Plantula. 

Pseudopodia. Extensions of the sarcode in the Ehizopoda, act- 
ing as feet and as organs of prehension. 

Pseudova. Eggs of the Aphides, hatched without fecundation. 

Pseudovaria. Ovaries which produce gemmules in cases of par- 
thenogenesis. 

Pterygoda. See Tegulce. 

Pterygoid. The wing-like process on each side of the sphenoid ; 
it is a distinct bone in the lower Mammalia. 

PterylcB. The bands or tracts marking the grouping of feathers. 

Pulvillus. A tuft of hairs attached to the underside of the 
tarsal joints in some insects. 

Pupa. That stage in the life of an insect before it assumes the 
perfect or imago form. 

Pygidium. The rump ; a general term for the posterior part of 
the body. 

Quadrate hone. A bone which is placed between the upper and 
lower jaws in reptiles and birds. 

Radius. One of the bones of the forearm (antebrachiutn). 

Eectrices. The quill-feathers of a bird's tail. 

Redice. The tadpole-shaped larvae of the Digeneous worms when 

they have thrown off their ciliated skin. 
Eemiges. The quill-feathers of a bird's wing. 

T72 



292 



GLOSSAET. 



Repetition. When there occurs a succession of similar pr.rts in 
the same animal, as in the centipede. 

Retina. The third tunic of the eye, formed by an expansion of 
the optic nerve. 

Retinaculum. A minute scale or plate which checks the too great 
protrusion of the sting of certain insects. 

Reversion or Atavism. When a character reappears in an indi- 
vidual animal which had disappeared for some preceding gene- 
rations. 

Rhachis. The axis of a feather. 

Rudimentary organs. Parts which have been gradually atrophied 
owing to disuse. A rudimentary part is larger comparatively 
in the embryo than in the adult. 

Sacrum. Anchylosed vertebras, to which, on each side, the pelvic 
bones are attached. 

Sarcoblasts. The " yellow cells " of the Eadiolaria. 

Barcode. See Protoplasm. The term is most frequently applied 
to the protoplasm of the Protozoa. 

Sarcolemma. " The elastic tunic of the striped muscular fibre." 

Scape. (1) The basal joint of the antennas of insects when un- 
usually developed, (2) The axis or rhachis of a feather. 

Schizocale. The perivisceral cavity that results from the split- 
ting of the mesoblast. 

Sclerenchyma. Coral tissue. 

Sclerobase. A form of skeleton in the Alcyonaria " formed by 
the cornification or calcification of the axial connective tissue 
of the zoanthodeme " (Huxley). 

Sclerotic. With the cornea the exterior tunic of the eye; in 
many of the Vertebrata it is ossified. 

Scolex. The second larval stage of a Cestode worm when it has 
encysted itself. 

Scrobe. A groove in the rostrum of certain Coleoptera for tl 
reception of the scape. 

Scutellum. The posterior part of the mesothorax of insects 
from above. It is variously modified, but in Coleoptera it 
triangular. 

Scutes. The bony scales of the Crocodilia. 

Scyphistoma. A form developed from the hydra-tuba of certaii 
Hydrozoa ; it afterwards passes into the strobila stage. 



GLOSSARY. 293 

Segmentation or yolJc-division. One of the changes occurring in 

the egg after fecundation, by which it becomes divided into 

cells. 
Segments or somites. The transverse rings which go to make up 

the body of an Arthropod or of an Annelid. Metamere is used 

in a more special sense. 

Septum. A partition bony, muscular, membranous. 
Sesamoid bones. Small bones developed in the tendons. 
Siagonopoda. The two pairs of maxillae and first pair of maxilli- 

pedes in certain Crustacea (Spence Bate}. 
Siphon. The respiratory tube of certain bivalve Mollusca ; but 

it is also used in a more general sense. 
Siphunculi. The hollow anal processes of the Aphides. 
Somatic cavity. See C&loma. 
Somites. See 



Species. Individuals having certain characters in common while 

absent in other individuals. 
Spermatoa. " The nucleated cell in which the spermatozoa are 

developed" (Owen). 
Spermatozoa. The minute moving flagellate plastides forming 

the male element. " The nature of the influence of the male 

element upon the female is wholly unknown " (Huxley} . 
Sph&ridia. Minute transparent bodies found in the Echinoidea. 
Sphenoid. A bone placed at the base of the skull, articulated as 

well with the bones of the face. 
Spiculum amoris. The love-dart of the snail. 
Spiracles. See Stigmata. 

Sporosac. "A gonophore destitute of obvious umbrella" (All- 
man). 
Statoblast. A gemmule enclosed in a peculiar bivalve shell in 

some of the Polyzoa, agamogenetically developed. 
Steatopygons. When there is an unusual development of adipose 

matter posteriorly. 
Stemmata. See Ocelli. 
Stigma. A small opaque spot on the fore wing of certain 

insects. 
Stigmata. Pores through which air is admitted into the tracheal 

vessels of insects. 
Stipes. A stalk ; the basal portion of the maxillae of insects. 



294 GLOSSARY. 

Stolons. In zoology connecting processes of the ccenosarc, &c. 

Stomatodcndra. The branches of the tree-like mass of the syn- 
dendrium of the Khizostomidae. 

Strobila. A stage in the development of certain Hydrozoa. 

Stroma. The bed in which a tissue or organ originates. 

Struggle for life. Mr. Darwin uses "this term in a large and 
metaphorical sense, including dependence of one being on 
another, and including (which is more important) not only the 
life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny." 

Swim-bladder, air-bladder, or sound. An organ filled with air, 
placed under the spine in fishes. It is the homologue of the 
lungs. 

Symmely. A monstrosity, as when two or more parts are joined 
together. 

Symmorpks. Parts having the same form. 

Synangium. The bulbous end of the aortic trunk in Amphibia. 

Synapticula. " Transverse props " between the septa in a coral- 
lite. 

Syncytium. The ectoderm of certain Spongia in which the nuclei 
show no trace of being contained in cells. 

Syndendrium. The complex tree-like mass dependent from the 
umbrella of the Rhizostomidse. 

Synthetic. When a combination of characters occur which nor- 
mally find their expression in other groups. 

Syrinx. The lower larynx, the chief organ of the voice in birds. 

Syzygium. An unmovable suture. 

Tabula. Horizontal plates in the thecae of certain corallites. 

Tarsus. In mammals and some other vertebrates the small 
bones of the foot ; in insects the small consecutive joints end- 
ing the legs. 

Taxonomy. " The principle of classification." 

Tectology. The science of the laws of the grouping of parts 
which go to make up an individual. 

Tectrices or wing-coverts. The small feathers on the forearm 
are the lesser, and those over the quill-feathers are the greater 
coverts tec-trices primes and tectrices secundce respectively. 

Tegmina. The upper wings of the Orthoptera and homopterous 
Hemiptera ; they are uniform in texture, and have no lining 
membrane beneath. 



GLOSS AH Y. 295 

Tegulte. Scales, one on each side, attached to the mesothorax of 

the Lepidoptera. 
Teleology. The doctrine of final causes, or, the indication of 

design and purposiveness. 
Telson. The last -segment, or the appendage of the last segment, 

of the abdomen of certain Crustacea. 
Tentacula. Prehensile organs of the Ccelenterata, and especially 

of the Hydroida. 

Teratology. The study of abnormal forms or monstrosities. 
Terebra. The boring-organ of insects. 
Tergal. Eelating to the back. 
Test. The shell of Mollusca or of Eehinoidea ; also the tunic of 

the Ascidians. 
Thalerophagous. Feeding on decomposing animal or vegetable 

matter. 

Thaumatogeny. Genesis by miracle. 
Thelytocous. When a parthenogenetic female produces only 

female offspring. 
Thermlgenous. Generating heat. 
Thomia. The sharp edge of a bird's bill. 
Thorax. The chest, the upper or anterior part of the trunk. 
Tibia. The shin-bone of mammals, in birds the drumstick. In 

insects it is the fourth joint of the legs. 
Tornaria. The larval form of Balanoglossus. 
Trachea. The wind-pipe. In insects and their allies the trachea 

are tubes subservient to respiration. 
Trichocysts. See Nemafocysts. 

Trochal disk. The wheel-shaped ciliated organ of a Rotifer. 
Trochanter. A process of the upper part of the thigh-bone. In 

insects it is the second joint of the leg ; but it appears to have 

no separate motion distinct from the femur to which it is at- 
tached. 
Trocha-ntin. A small movable piece of the exoskeleton of insects 

placed on the outer part of the coxa. 
Trochosphcera. A larval form of Mollusca where the head is 

girdled with a row of cilia which ultimately becomes the velum. 
Trophi. The parts of the mouth concerned in feeding. 
Trophosome. The "assemblage of zooids" in the Hydrozoa 

"destined for the nutrition of the colony." 



296 GLOSSARY. 

Tympanum. The drum of the ear. In insects certain membra- 
nous parts subservient to sound. 

Typhlosome. A peculiar fold of the intestine in the Tunicata and 
the Lamellibranchiata. 

Typical. What is the most representative of a group. 

Ulna. One of the two bones of the forearm. 

Ulotrichous. Having woolly hair; the hair is also flattened, and 

its section oval. 

Umbo. The boss or beak near the hinge of a bivalve shell. 
Umbrella. "The gelatinous bell of a medusiform planoblast" 

(Allmaii). " A swimming-bell with the velum" (id.). Without 

a velum (Huxley}. 

Unguligrade. Walking on the hoofs. 
Uropoda. The three pairs of expanded hind legs in certain 

Crustacea. 
Uropoietic system. The organs for the secretion of water and 

urea ; in the invertebrates they are supposed to be represented 

by the water-vascular system. 

Urosthenic. When the maximum of strength is in the tail. 
Urostyle. A prolongation of the spinal cord in certain fishes 

and amphibians. 
Uterus. The womb. 

Vacuoles. Certain cavities in the Rhizopoda having a contractile 
or rhythmical movement. 

Variability. All individuals vary, but accidental variability is 
due to "indeterminate antecedents," and only exists to a " very 
small extent," and only in plastic forms. Some species have a 
" singularly inflexible organization" (Darwin). 

Variety. Any departure from the parental type. 

Veliger. An advanced larval form of Mollusca when the velum 
is fully developed. 

Velum. (1) In a medusiform gonophore, "the membranous 
perforated diaphragm which stretches transversely across the 
codonostome " (Allmari). (2) A ciliary expansion of the integu- 
ment attached to the head in the larval Mollusca. 

Veiia cava. The great vein that returns the blood to the heart. 

Ventricle. A cavity ; one or two in the heart, two in the brain. 

Vertebra. The bones forming the spinal column. 



GLOSSAEY. 297 

Vestibule. A cavity within the ear. 

Vexillum. The web, composed of barbs, with its scape or rhachis, 

of a feather. 
Vibracula. A peculiar cup-shaped appendage in the Polyzoa, to 

which is attached a movable seta. 
Vibrissce. Stiff hairs ; a general term. 
Viscera. Internal organs, especially those within the thorax and 

abdomen. 

Vitellus. The yolk of an egg. 
Vomer. A bone forming part of the septum of the nares, and 

connected more or less with the palatine bones. 

Wallace's line. A line which is assumed to divide the " Malayan " 
from the " Austro-Malayan " regions. It passes between Bali 
and Lombok in the south, through the Macassar Straits, di- 
viding Borneo from Celebes, and to the north-east between 
Mindanao and Grilolo. 

Yellow cells or sarcoblasts. Peculiar nucleated structures in the 
Eadiolaria, containing yellow protoplasm (possibly parasites). 

Zoanthodeme. The body formed by the coherence of many zooids 
of a single polyp of an Actinozoon. 

Zoarium. See Ccenoecium. 

Zo'ea. An intermediate larval stage in the higher Crustaceans. 

Zonites, Somites, or Metameres. See Segments. 

Zocectum. A cell in which a polypide of the Polyzoa is lodged. 

Zooid. '' A term applied to the individuals of compound or- 
ganisms, as the polyps of a polypidom" (Huxley). "The de- 
tached portions of an individual in discontinuous develop- 
ment" (Greene). "The more or less independent products of 
non-sexual reproduction " (At/man). Zooid is a name given 
also to the central basis of a blood-corpuscle. 

Zoology. The science of animals. 

Zoomorphism. The series of changes in the life of an animal. 

Zoon. Mr. Herbert Spencer's name for "the whole product of a 
fertilized germ." 

Zootheme. The compound animal mass produced by budding. 

Zygapophyses. Certain processes of the vertebrae. 

Zygosis. See Conjugation. 



299 



INDEX 

TO CLASSES, OEDEES, &c., PEINCIPAL GENEEA, AND 
ENGLISH NAMES. 



Abdominalia, 72, 


Acepbala, 153, 


Acyttaria, 9. 


73, 180, 181. 


155, 177. 


Adder, 199, 201. 


Abramis, 180, 181. 


Accra, 93. 


Adelartbroso- 


Abranchiata, 59, 


Acetabu'lifera, 


mata, 93. 


162. 


169. 


Adelges, 109. 


Abraxas, 127. 


Acberontia, 129. 


Adepbaga, 139. 


Acalephae, 26. 


Achrioptera, 104, 


Adjutant, 231. 


Acanthia, 110, 


142. 


jEgina, 24. 


111. 


Achrcea, 127. 


^Egitbognatbse, 


Acanthobdella.59. 


Acbtheres, 76. 


212. 


Acanthocephala, 


Acicula, 166. 


^Eolis, 162. 


55. 


Acineta, 15. 


JEpyornis, 229, 


Acanthoclinus, 


Acipenser, 190, 


230. 


184. 


191. 


Mquorea,, 24. 


Acanthocystis, 8. 


Accela, 51. 


^Escbna, 119. 


Acantbodes, 181. 


Acontias, 205. 


JStomorphae, 234. 


Acanthodesmia, 


Acorn-sbell, 74. 


Agama, 203. 


11. 


Acrania, 177. 


Agarista, 129. 


Acanthometra, 11. 


Acraspeda, 27. 


Agastrese, 53. 


Acanthoptery gi i, 


Acridium, 116. 


Agelena, 99. 


180. 


Acrita, 5. 


Aglossa, 195. 


Acanthotbeca, 


Acrocera, 124. 


Aglycyderes, 136. 


102. 


Acrocbordus, 200. 


Aglyphodontia, 


Acaridea, 94, 96. 


Acronurus, 184. 


199, 200. 


Acarus, 97. 


Actinia, 32. 


Agnatbi, 118, 


Accentor, 222, 


Actiniaria, 31. 


119. 


224. 


Actinopbrys, 8. 


Agonata, 70. 


Accipitres, 217. 


Actinozoa,* 16, 30. 


Agouti, 246. 



300 



INDEX. 



Agrion, 119. 


Ampelis, 226. 


Angiostomata, 


Agriotes, 131. 


Amphibia, 174, 


199, 200. 


Alauda, 222, 


192. 


Angler, 184. 


225. 


Amphibola, 166, 


Anguillula, 55, 


Alausa, 181. 


167. 


56. 


Albatross, 232. 


Ampbiboli, 220. 


Anguis,201,202, 


Albertia, 64. 


Amphictene, 63. 


205. 


Alca, 233, 234. 


Ampbidesma, 158. 


Ani, 221. 


Alcedo, 220. 


Ampbiliua, 53. 


Anisotoma, 143. 


Alcippe, 73. 


Amphimorphse, 


Annelida, 49, 58. 


Alcyonaria, 30, 


233. 


Annulata, 58. 


34. 


Amphinome, 62. 


Anomalogonati, 


Alcyoniaceae, 34. 


Ampbioxus, 178. 


213. 


Alcyonidium, 68. 


Amphipoda, 82. 


Anomia, 157. 


Alcyonium, 34. 


Amphiporus, 52. 


Anomobranchi- 


Alectoromorphse, 


Amphisbsenidae, 


ata, 85. 


227. 


205. 


Anomodontia, 


Alepas, 73, 74. 


Amphisbaenoidea, 


203. 


Alepocephalus, 


202, 204. 


Anomura, 87. 


181. 
Aleurodes, 108. 


Atnpbistomum, 
53. 


Anoplotherium, 
252. 


Alima, 71. 


Amphitrite, 63. 


Anoplura, 112. 


Allantoidea, 174. 


Ampbiura, 43. 


Anseres, 217. 


Alligator, 206. 


Amphizoa, 145. 


Anseriformes, 


Alopias, 188. 


Anableps, 181, 


213. 


Alpaca, 251. 


182. 


Ant-birds, 224. 


Alpheus, 87. 


Anacanthini, 180. 


Antedon, 42, 


Alytes, 195. 


Anaconda, 200. 


141. 


Ambergris, 254. 


Anallantoidea, 


Antelope, 251. 


Amblyopsis, 182. 


174. 


Antennata, 60. 


Amblystoma, 193. 


Anamnionata, 


Antbea, 32. 


Ambulatores, 222. 


174. 


Antbicus, 137. 


Ameiva, 203. 


Anarrhicas, 184. 


Antbozoa, 30. 


Ametabola, 104. 


Anas, 232, 233. 


Anthrenus, 142. 


Amia, 191. 


Anatina, 158. 


Anthribus, 136. 


Ammocoetes, 178. 


Anceus, 84. 


Anthropidse, 260. 


Ammodytes, 183. 


Anchitherium, 


Anthropoid apes, 


Ammonites, 169. 


253. 


259. 


Amnionata, 174. 


Anchovy, 180. 


Anthura, 84. 


Amoeba, 8. 


Ancorina, 19. 


Anthus, 222. 


Amcebina, 7. 


Ancyra, 107. 


Antilope, 252. 


Amoeboidsea, 7. 


Andrena, 151. 


Antipatharia, 32. 


Amorphozoa, 5, 


Androctonus, 95. 


Antipathes, 32. 


17. 


Angel-fish, 189. 


Antliata, 121. 



INDEX. 



301 



Ant-lion, 120. 


Arcella, 8. 


Ascidia, 173. 


Ants, 149. 


Archaeopteryx, 


Ascidiacea, 171. 


Antostromus, 219. 


237. 


Ascidicola, 78. 


Anura, 194. 


Archseostomata, 


Ascidioida, 170. 


Anurida, 106. 


49. 


Ascomyzon, 76. 


Ape, 259. 


Archegosauria, 


Ascones, 18. 


Aphaniptera, 122, 


194. 


Ascozoa, 170. 


125. 


Archegosaurus, 


Asellus, 84. 


Aphides, 108. 


194. 


Asilus, 124. 


Aphidiphaga, 131, 


Archencephala, 


Asiphoniata, 156. 


132. 


239, 260. 


Asp, 199. 


Aphis, 107, 109. 
Aphredoderus, 


Archiptera, 105. 
Architarbus, 101. 


Aspidobranchia, 
164. 


186. 


Archiulus, 91. 


Aspidophora, 69, 


Aphrodite, 62. 


Arctia, 128. 


80. 


Apis, 147, 151. 


Arctisca, 94, 101. 


Aspisoma, 139. 


Aplopoda, 85. 


Arcturus, 84. 


Asplanchna, 64. 


Aplysia, 161, 163. 


Arcys, 98. 


Ass, 252, 253. 


Aplysina, 19. 


Ardea, 231, 232. 


Astacus, 87. 


Apneumona, 47. 


Arenicola, 60. 


Astarte, 158. 


Apneusta, 162. 


Argentine, 179. 


Astasia, 15. 


Apoda, 47, 72, 73, 


Argonauta, 170. 


Asteracanthion, 


180, 192. 


Argulus, 76. 


44. 


Apolemia, 38. 


Argus, 228. 


Asterias, 44. 


Aporobranchia, 


Argyroneta, 98, 


Asterina, 44. 


89. 


99. 


Asteroida, 34. 


Appendicularia, 


Aricia, 60. 


Asteroidea, 42, 


173. 


Armadillo, 84. 


43. 


Aprocta, 51. 


Arnoglossus, 183. 


Astraea, 33. 


Apsilus, 64. 


Artemia, 80. 


Astrophiura, 43. 


Aptenodytes, 233, 


Arthrogastra, 93. 


Astrophyton, 43. 


234. 


Arthrolycosa, 97, 


Atax, 96. 


Apteryx, 230. 


99. * 


Ateleopus, 183. 


Apus, 80. 


Arthropoda, 2, 70. 


Athalia, 147. 


Apygia, 155. 
Aquila, 234. 


Arthropomata, 
154, 155. 


Athecata, 22. 
Athene, 235. 


Arachnactis, 31, 


Arthrostraca, 82. 


Atherina, 180, 


32. 


Arthrozoa, 70. 


184. 


Arachnida, 70, 93. 


Articerus, 144. 


Athorybia, 30. 


Arachnopoda, 77. 


Articulata,70,155. 


Atlanta, 167. 


Araneidea, 94, 97. 


Artiodactyla, 252. 


Atrachelia, 137. 


Araneiformia, 89. 


Ascalabotes, 202. 


Atrachia, 126. 


Arbacia, 45. 


Ascalaphus, 120. 


Atricha, 7. 


Area, 157. 


Ascaris, 56. 


Atropos, 118. 



302 



INDEX. 



Attacus, 127. 


Bdella, 97. 


Blowfly, 122. 


Attus, 99. 


Bear, 257. 


Blue-bottle, 122. 


Atypus, 98. 


Beaver, 246. 


Boa, 199, 200. 


Auchenia, 251. 


Becbe de mer, 48. 


Boar-fish, 185. 


Auk, 233. 


Bee, 147, 150. 


Boatbill, 232. 


Aulacantha, 11. 


Bee-eater, 219, 


Bolina, 36. 


Aulopora, 33. 


220. 


Bombinator, 195. 


Aulosphgera, 11. 


Beetles, 131. 


Bombus, 150. 


Aulostomum, 59. 


Beleranites, 170. 


Bonibycilla, 226. 


Aurelia, 27. 


Belluse, 251. 


Bombylius, 124. 


Auricula, 167. 


Beluga, 254, 255. 


Bombyx, 127, 129. 


Auroch, 251. 


Bembex, 150. 


Bomoiochus, 76. 


Aves, 175, 210. 


Beris, 123. 


Bonito, 180. 


Avicula, 157. 


Beroe, 38. 


Bony Pike, 191. 


Avocet, 23. 


Berytus, 111. 


Booby, 232. 


Axolotl, 193. 


Beryx, 186. 


Bopyrus, 84. 




Bib, 180. 


Bos, 251, 252. 


Baboon, 259. 


Bibio, 125. 


Bostrvchus, 140. 


Badger, 249. 


Bicellaria, 67. 


Bot, 122. 


Balsena, 254, 255. 


Bighorn, 251. 


Botargo, 190. 


Baleeniceps, 231. 


Bilharzia, 52, 53. 


Bot-fly, 122. 


Balaenoptera, 254. 


Bimana, 240, 260. 


Bottle-nose, 254. 


Balanoglossus, 51, 


Bimeria, 23. 


Botryllus, 173. 


52. 


Biphora, 170. 


Bougainvillia. 23. 


Balanus, 74. 


Bipinnaria, 44. 


Brachelytra, 139, 


Balatro, 64. 


Bipositores, 226. 


144. 


Balistes, 187. 


Bird-li^e, 108. 


Brachiata, 41. 


Bandicoot, 243. 


Birds, 210. 


Brachina, 44. 


Barbel, 180. 


Birds of Paradise, 


Brachiolaria, 44. 


Barbets, 220. 


226. 


Brachionus, 64. 


Barnacle, 74. 


Bird-spider, 98. 


Bracbiopoda, 153, 


Barracouta, 180. 


Birgus, 88. 


154. 


Barramunda, 191. 


Bison, 251. 


Brachiuna, 76. 


Basornmatophora, 


Bittern, 231. 


Brachycera, 123. 


166. 


Bivalvia, 155. 


Brachyura, 88. 


Bassaris, 258. 


Blackbird, 222. 


Bracon, 148. 


Basse, 180. 


Blackcap, 222. 


Bradypus, 245. 


Bats, 247. 


Blaps, 131. 


Brancbiobdella, 


Bathybius, 5. 


Blastoidea, 41, 


59. 


Bathytbrissa, 182. 


42. 


Branchiogastero- 


Batoidei, 188. 


Blatta, 114. 


poda, 160. 


Batrachia, 192. 


Bleak, 180. 


Brancbiopnoa, 70. 


Batrachus, 184, 


Blennius, 184. 


Brancbiopoda, 80. 


194. 


Blindworm, 202. 


Branchipus, 80. 



INDEX. 



303 



Branchiura, 76. 


Calamaria, 200. 


Carabus, 145. 


Braula, 123. 


Calamary, 170. 


Caranx, 185. 


Bream, 180. 


Calandra, 137. 


Carcharias, 188, 


Brenthus, 136. 


Calanus, 78. 


189. 


Brevilinguia, 202. 


Calappa, 88. 


Carcharodon, 188, 


Brevipennes, 213, 


Calcispongias, 19. 


189. 


229. 


Caligus, 76. 


Carcinus, 87, 89. 


Breyeria, 119. 


Callianira, 38. 


Cardinalis, 225. 


Briareum, 35. 


Callima, 126. 


Cardisoma, 87. 


Brill, 180. 


Callionymus, 185. 


Cardium, 158. 


Brisinga, 44. 


Calliste, 225. 


Carduelis, 222, 


Brocket, 252. 


Callithrix, 260. 


225. 


Brontotherium, 


Callorhynchus, 


Carduella, 27, 28. 


253. 


190. 


Cariama, 235. 


Bronze-wing, 227. 


Calycophorse, 29. 


Carinaria, 167. 


Brosinius, 183. 


Calycozoa, 26, 27. 


Carinatae, 212. 


Bruchus, 136. 


Calymene, 80. 


Carinella, 52. 


Bruta, 240, 244. 


Calymma, 37. 


Carnivora, 240, 


Bryozoa, 65. 


Calyptoblastea, 


257. 


Bubo, 235. 


22, 24. 


Carp, 180. 


Buceinum, 165. 


Calyptomena,226. 


Carpophaga, 227. 


Bucco, 221. 


Calyptraa, 165. 


Cartilaginei, 187. 


Buoeros, 220. 


Camel, 251. 


Caryophyllseus, 


Buffalo. 251. 


Camelopardalis, 


54. 


Bufo, 195, 197. 


251, 252. 


Cassida, 133. 


Bug, 108. 


Campanularia,24. 


Cassidulus, 46. 


Bulbul, 222. 


Campanularida, 


Cassiopeia, 27. 


Bullfinch, 225. 


24. 


Cassowary, 229, 


Bunting, 225. 


Campanulina, 24. 


230. 


Buphaga, 226. 


Campephaga, 224. 


Castnia, 129. 


Buprestis, l4l. 


Campodea, 106. 


Castor, 246, 247. 


Buprorus, 78. 


Canary, 222. 


Casuarius, 229, 


Burbot, 183. 


Cancer, 87, 89. 


230. 


Bursaria, 14. 


Canis, 257, 258. 


Cat, 257. 


Bustards, 231. 


Cantharis, 131, 


Catadysas, 99. 


Butterflies, 129. 


137. 


Catallacta, 8. 


Buzzard, 235. 


Cantores, 222. 


Cataphracta, 208. 


Byrrhus, 142. 


Capitella, 58, 61. 


Catarrhini, 259, 




Capito, 220. 


260. 


Caberea, 67. 


Caprella, 82. 


Catenicella, 67. 


Cachalot, 254. 


Caprimulgus, 219, 


Catenula, 52. 


Caddis-fly, 120. 


220. 


Cat-fishes, 182. 


Caecilia, 193. 


Capros, 185. 


Cathartes, 235. 


Caereba, 224. 


Capsus, 111. 


Caudata, 193. 



304 



IKDEX. 



Caria, 245, 246. 


Ceriantbus, 32. 


Chelonia, 198, 


Caviare, 190. 


Ceriopora, 68. 


208, 209. 


Cavy, 245. 


Ceritbium, 165. 


Chelophora, 249. 


Cayman, 206. 


Cermatia, 92. 


Chelura, 82. 


Cebrio, 140. 


Ceropbytum, 140. 


Chelydra, 209. 


Cebus, 260. 


Certbia, 224. 


Chelyosoma, 173. 


Cecidomyia, 121, 


Cervus, 251,252. 


Cbelys, 209. 


125. 


Cestoda, 50, 53. 


Chenomorphae, 


Celeomorphse, 


Cestracion, 189. 


233. 


217. 


Cestum, 38. 


Chetah, 275. 


Cellaria, 67. 


Cetacea, 240, 254. 


Chiff-chaff, 222. 


Cellepora, 67. 


Cetiosaurus, 208. 


Chigoe, 126. 


Cellularia, 67. 


Cetochilus, 78. 


Chilodon, 14. 


Cellulifera, 65. 


Cetonia, 141. 


Chilognatha, 91. 


Centipedes, 91. 
Centrina, 169. 


Chaetoderma, 58. 
Cbastodon, 185. 


Chilopoda, 91, 92. 
Chilostomata, 66, 


Centriscus, 184. 


Chaetognatha, 49, 


67. 


Centronix, 16. 


57. 


Chimaera, 190. 


Cephalaspis, 190. 


Cha3topoda,58,60. 


Chimpanzee, 259. 


Cephalobranc hia, 


Chaetopterus, 62. 


Chinchilla, 245, 


58. 


Chaetosoma, 56. 


246. 


Cephalochorda, 


Cbaffinch, 222. 


Chionis, 228, 229. 


177. 


Chdcides, 202. 


Chirocentrus, 181. 


Cephalophora, 


Chalcis, 148. 


Chiromys, 260. 


153. 


Chalina, 19. 


Chironomus, 125. 


Cephalopoda, 153, 


Cballengerida, 10. 
Cbama, 158. 


Chiroptera, 240, 
247. 


Cephalothrix, 52. 


Chamaeleon, 204. 


Chirotes, 205. 


Cephaluna, 76. 


Chameleon, 204. 


Chiroteuthis, 170. 


Cephea, 27. 


Chamois, 251. 


Chirotherium, 


Cepola, 184. 


Charnostrea, 158. 


194. 


Cerainbyx, 135. 


Characinus, 182. 


Chirus, 185. 


Cerastes, 199. 


Charad r iiform es, 


Chiton, 164. 


Ceratobrancbia, 


213. 


Chlamydodera, 


162. 


Charadrius, 231. 


226. 


Ceratodus, 175, 


Charr, 180. 


Chlamydodon, 


191. 


Charybdsea, 24.', - 


14. 


Ceratophthalma, 


Cheiracanthus, 


Chlamyphorus, 


80. 


56. 


244. 


Cercoleptes, 258. 


Chelidon, 219. 


Chloeon, 117. 


Cercopis, 108. 


Chelifer, 95. 


Choloepus, 245. 


Cercopithecus, 


Cheliferidea, 94, 


Chondracanthus, 


259, 260. 


95. 


76. 


Cercosaurus, 202. 


Chelonarium, 142. 


Chondrilla, 19. 



INDEX. 



305 



Chondroganoidea, 


Cladobranchia, 


Coelacanthus, 191. 


190. 


162. 


Ccelelmintha, 55. 


Chondropterygii, 


Cladocera, 77, 79. 


Ccelenterata, 2, 


177, 187. 


Cladococcus, 11. 


16. 


Chondrostei, 199. 


Cladocoryne, 22. 


Coelodendron, 11. 


Choristopoda, 83. 


Cladonerua, 22. 


Coleoptera, 104, 


Chough, 228. 


Clam, 157. 


130. 


Chromis, 183. 


Clamatores, 222. 


Colius, 221. 


Chrysis, 149. 


Glathrulina, 8. 


Collembola, 104, 


Chrysochloris,249. 


Clava, 22. 


105. 


Chrysomela, 133. 


Clavatella, 22. 


Collocalia, 219. 


Chrysopa, 117. 


Claveilina, 173. 


Collosphsera, 11. 


Chrysophora, 141. 


Clavicornia, 139. 


Colossochelys, 


Chthonascidiae, 


Clayiger, 144. 


209. 


171. 


Clavipalpi, 132. 


Colpoda, 101. 


Chub, 180. 


Clepsine, 59. 


Coluber, 200. 


Churchyard 


Clerus, 140. 


Columba, 227. 


beetle, 131. 


Climbing-perch, 


Columbae, 217. 


Cicada, 110. 


184. 


Colydium, 142. 


Cicindela, 145. 


Clio, 159. 


Colymbus, 234. 


Ciconia, 231. 


Cliona, 19. 


Comatula, 42. 


Ciconiiformes, 


Clotho, 199. 


Comephorus, 184. 


213. 


Clupea, 180, 181. 


Compsognathus, 


Cidaris, 45. 


Clypeaster, 46. 


208. 


Ciliata, 13. 


Clymene, 60. 


Conchifera, 155. 


Ciliobranchiata, 


Cob, 158. 


Condor, 234. 


65. 


Cobitis, 180, 181. 


Condylopoda, 102. 


Ciliograda, 36. 


Cobra, 201. 


Cone, 165. 


Cimex, 108. 


Coccinella, 132. 


Coney, 249. 


Cinetochilum, 14. 


Coccodiscus, 11. 


Coniopteryx, 120. 


Cionocrania, 202. 


Coccus, 107. 


Conirostres, 223, 


Circus, 235. 


Coccyges, 220. 


225. 


Cirratulus, 60. 


Coccygomorphse, 


Conodonts, 178. 


Cirrhites, 185. 


220. 


Conops, 124. 


Cirripedia, 71. 


Cochlides, 160. 


Conus, 165. 


Cirrobranchia, 


Cockatoo, 236. 


Convoluta, 51. 


161. 


Cockchafer, 131. 


Coot, 231. 


Cirrostomi, 177. 


Cockle, 157. 


Copelatse, 173. 


Cis, 140. 


Cock-of-the-rock, 


Copepoda, 77. 


Cistela, 138. 


226. 


Cophobelemnon, 


Cistudo, 209. 


Cockroach, 113, 


36. 


Citigradae, 99. 


114. 


Coponautse, 159. 


Civet-cat, 257. 


Cod, 180. 


Coppinia, 24. 


Cixius, 110. 


Codonella, 14, 


Copris, 142. 


X 



306 



INDEX. 



Coprolites, 206. 


Crawfish, 87. 


Cuckoo, 221. 


Coracias, 220. 


Crax, 228. 


Cucujus, 142. 


Coracomorphse, 


Cray-fish, 87. 


Cucullanus, 56. 


222. 


Creeper, 224. 


Cuculus, 221. 


Coralligena, 32. 


Crex, 231. 


Culex, 122, 125. 


Corallium, 35. 


Cricetus, 246. 


Cuma, 165. 


Corals, 32, &c. 


Cricket, 113. 


Cumacea, 87. 


Coreus, 111. 


Crinoidea, 40, 


Cupes, 140. 


Corixa, 107. 


41. 


Curassow, 228. 


Cormopoda, 101, 


Crioceris, 134. 


Curculionida?, 


155. 


Crisia, 68. 


136. 


Cormorant, 232. 


Cristatella, 69. 


Curlew, 231. 


Cormostomata, 


Crocodile, 206. 


Currnca, 222, 224. 


75. 


Crocodilia, 198, 


Cursoria, 114. 


Corncrake, 231. 


205. 


Cyamus, 82. 


Cornularia, 35. 


Crocidura, 249. 


Cyanea, 27. 


Corn-weevil, 131. 


Crophyropoda, 


Cyathaxonta, 33. 


Coronella, 200. 


77,78. 


Cyathophyllum, 


Coronula, 74. 


Crossbill, 225. 


33. 


Corophium, 82. 
Corrodentia, 118. 


Crossopterygidae, 
199. 


Cyclica, 133. 
Cyclobranchia, 


Corycseus, 76. 


Crotalus, 201. 


164. 


Corylophus, 143. 


Crotophaga, 221. 


Cyclopacea, 77. 


Corymorpha, 22. 


Crow, 222. 


Cyclophorus, 166. 


Coryne, 22. 


Crustacea, 70. 


Cy cl ophthalmu s, 


Corynida, 22. 


Cryptobranchus, 


95. 


Coryphaena, 185. 


193, 194. 


Cyclops, 78. 


Corystes, 88. 
Corythaix, 221. 


Cryptocarpse, 25. 
Cryptocephalus, 


Cyclopterus, 184. 
Cyclorhapha, 122. 


Cosmetus, 100. 


134. 


Cyclosaura, 202. 


Cossus, 127. 


Cryptophagus, 


Cyclostoma, 166. 


Coitus, 185. 


142. 


Cyclostoruata, 66, 


Coturnix, 228. 
Cotyle, 219. 


Cryptophialus, 
73. 


67. 

Cyclostomi, 178. 


Cotylidea, 50. 


Cryptops, 92. 


Cydippe, 38. 


Cowry, 165. 


Cryptostemma, 


Cylindrophis, 200. 


Crab, 87, 89. 


ioo. 


Cymbulia, 160. 


Crabro, 150. 


Ctenobranchia, 


Cymothoa, 84. 


Crambessa, 27. 


164. 


Cymozoida, 6. 


Cranchia, 170. 


Ctenophora, 16, 


Cynips, 147, 148. 


Crane, 231. 


36. 


Cynocephalus, 


Crania, 155 


Ctenostomata, 


260. 


Crangon, 87. 


66. 


Cynodraco, 209. 


Craspedota, 25. 


Cthalamus, 74. 


Cynomys, 246. 



INDEX. 



307 



Cyphonautes, 66. 


Decapoda, 85, 86, 


Diastopora, 68. 


Cypraa, 163, 165. 


170. 


Diastylis, 87. 


Cypridacea, 78. 


Degeeria, 106. 


Dibothrium, 54. 


Cypridina, 79. 


Deilephila, 129. 


Dibranchiata, 168, 


Cyprinodontus, 


Delphax, 107. 


169. 


182. 


Delphinus, 254, 


Dichaetge, 124. 


Cyprinus, 180, 


255. 


Dichelestium, 76. 


181. 


Demodex, 96, 97. 


Dichitonida, 171. 


Cypris, 79. 


Demoiselles, 117. 


Dicholophus, 235. 


Cvpseliformes, 


Dendrerpeton, 


Dicoryne, 22. 


'213. 


194. 


Dicrurus, 224. 


Cypselomorphte, 


Dendrocoela, 52. 


Dictyocysta, 13. 


219. 


Dendrocolaptes, 


Dicyema, 50. 


Cypselus, 219, 


224. 


Dicynodon, 208. 


220 


Dendronotus, 162. 


Dicynodontia,208. 


Cyrena, 158. 


Dendrophis, 200. 


Dictvoptera, 114. 


Cysticercus, 54. 


Dendrosaura, 202. 


Dicystidae, 12. 


Cystiphyllum, 33. 
Cystoidea, 41. 


Dentalium, 161. 
Dentirostres, 223, 


Didelphia, 239. 
Didelphys, 243. 


Cystoopsis, 56. 


224. 


Didiuium, 14. 


Cystosoma, 110. 


Derbe, 109. 


Didunculus, 227. 


Cythere, 79. 


Dermaptera, 107, 


Didus, 227. 


Cytherella, 79. 


114. 


Didyraophyes, 12. 


Cytophora, 10. 


Dermatophysa,93. 


Difflugia, 8. 




Dermatopnoa, 


Digenea, 53. 


Dace, 180. 


162. 


Digonopora, 51. 


Dacnitidas, 56. 


Dennestes, 142. 


Dimerosomata, 


Dactylocalyx, 19. 


Dermopteri, 178. 


97. 


Dacus, 121. 


Dero, 58, 60. 


Dimyaria, 156. 


Daddy-long-legs, 


Derostomum, 51. 


Dinoceras, 253. 


125. 


Desmacidon, 19. 


Dinocerata, 253. 


Daphnia, 79. 


Desman, 249. 


Dinophilus, 51. 


Daphniacea, 79. 


Desmodus, 248. 


Dinopis, 99. 


Darter, 233. 


Desmognathas, 


Dinornis, 229, 


Dascillus, 140. 


212. 


230. 


Dasmia, 33. 


Desinoscolex, 56. 


Dinosauria, 198, 


Dasypus, 244, 


Desmosticha, 45. 


207. 


245. 


Desoria, 106. 


Dinotherium, 250. 


Dasyurus, 243. 


Deuterostomata, 


Diodon, 187. 


Dead-men's fin- 


49. 


Diopsis, 125. 


gers, 34. 


Devil's darning- 


Diphyes, 29. 


Death-watch, 


needles, 117. 


Diphyllidffi, 54. 


131. 


Diadema, 45. 


Dipleurobranchia, 


Decacrenidia, 48. 


Diaperis, 138. 


162. 


x2 



308 



INDEX. 



Diploconus, 11. 


Dorylus, 149. 


Echinus, 45. 


Diploglossata, 1 15. 


Doryphora, 131. 


Echiurus, 58. 


Diplomorpha, 24. 


Dotterel, 231. 


Ecpleopus, 202. 


Diplopoda, 91. 
Diploptera, 150. 


Draco, 203. 
Dragon-flies, 119. 


Ectopistes, 227. 
Ectoprocta, 66, 68. 


Diplostomum, 53. 


Drassus, 99. 


Ectrephes, 140. 


Diplostomidea, 


Drilus, 140. 


Edentata, 244. 


48. 


Dromaeus, 229, 


Edriophthalma, 


Dipneumona, 47, 


230. 


71, 82. 


191. 


Dromasognathus, 


Eel, 180. 


Dipneusti, 191. 
Dipnoi, 177, 191. 


212, 228. 
Dromedary, 251. 


Eft, 194. 
Egret, 232. 


Dipper, 225. 


Dromia, 88. 


Eider, 232. 


Dipsas, 200. 


Dryopbis, 200. 


Elacatis, 142. 


Diptera, 104. 


Dryopithecus,260. 


Eland, 252. 


Dipterus, 191. 


Duck-mole, 242. 


Elaps, 201. 


Dipus, 246. 


Dugong, 256. 


Elasmobranchii, 


Discina, 155. 


Dulichia, 82. 


187. 


Discodactylia, 


Dung-beetle, 131. 


Elater, 140. 


195. 


Duplicidentati, 


Electric eel, 181. 


Discophora, 20, 


246. 


Elephant, 250. 


59. 


Dyiiastes,103,141. 


Elephas, 250. 


Discoporella, 68. 


Dynomene, 86. 


Elk, 251. 


Distichopora, 26. 


Dysdera, 99. 


Eleutherata, 130. 


Distoma, 53. 


Dysidea, 19. 


Eleutheroblastea, 


Dithyra, 155. 


Dysporomorphae, 


22. 


Ditrupa, 62, 63. 


233. 


Elysia, 162. 


Diver, 234. 


Dyticus, 145. 


Emberiza, 222. 


Dochmius, 56. 




Embia, 118. 


Docoglossa, 164. Eagle, 234, 235. 


Embiotica, 183. 


Dodo, 227. 


Eagle-ray, 188. 


Emesa, 110. 


Dog-fish. 189. 


Earthworm, 60. 


Empis, 124. 


Dolichopus, 124. 


Earwigs, 113,116. 


Emu, 255. 


Dolichoscelis, 100. 


Ecardines, 154. 


Emydium, 101, 


Doliolum, 171. 


Echeneis, 185. 


Emydosauria, 


Dolium, 165. 


Echidna, 242. 


205. 


Dolphin, 254. 


Echinodermata, 


Emys, 209. 


Donacia, 184. 


2,40. 


Enchelys, 14. 


Dorataspis, 11. 


Echinoidea, 40,44. 


Enchytrasus, 60. 


Dorippe, 88. 


Echinouietra, 45. 


Encrinus, 42. 


Doris, 162. 


Echinopora, 33. 


Endocardines,156. 


Dormouse, 246. 


Ecbinorhynchus, 


Endocyclica, 45. 


Dorthesia, 107. 


56. 


Endomychus, 132. 


Dory, 180. 


Echinothuria, 45. 


Endoplastica, 6. 



INDEX. 



309 



Endoprocta, 68. Eschscholtzia, 38. ! Filaria, 55, 56. 


Engraulis, 180. Esox, 180, 182. File-fish, 187. 


Enhvdris, 257, Estheria, 80. Filistata, 99. 


253. Ethmosphaera, 11. Finch, 225. 


Enoplus, 56. Euchlanis, 64. 


Finner, 254. 


Enteropueusti, Eucnemis, 140. 


Firola, 167. 


51. Eucopepoda, 77. 


Fishes, 175. 


Entoconcha, 165. Eucyrtidium, 11. 


Fissilinguia, 202, 


Entomocrania, Eudendrium, 23. 


203. 


177. Eugereon, 104. 


Fissirostres, 219. 


Eutomophaga, Euglena, 15. 


Fissurella, 164. 


243. Euglypha, 8. 


Fistularia, 184. 


Entornostraca, 71, Euichthyes, 177. Fivefinger, 44. 


77. Eunectes, 199. Flagellata, 14. 


Entozoa, 49. Eunice, 62. 


Flamingo, 233. 


Enyo, 99. 


Euphausia, 85. 


Flata, 107, 109. 


Eobasileus, 253. 


Euplectella, 19. 


Flea, 126. 


Eosaurus, 206. 


Euplexoptera,114, 


Floscularia, 64. 


Eozoon, 10. 


116. 


Flounder, 180. 


Epeira, 98. 


Euplotes, 14. 


Fluke, 53. 


Ephemera, 104, 


Eupoda, 133. 


Flustra, 67. 


119. 


Eurha.mpb.sea, 37. 


Fly, 124. 


Epigonichthys, 


Eurylepta, 52. 


Flycatcher, 224. 


178. 


Eurypterida, 77, 


Flying-fish, 180. 


Epimachus, 226. 


81. 


Foraminifera, 


Epizoa, 71, 74. 


Eurypterus, 81. 


7,9. 


Eporosa, 33. 


Eurystomata, 36. 


Forest-fly, 123. 


Erecti, 260. 


Evania, 149. 


Forficula, 116. 


Eresus, 99. 


Exocardines, 126. 


Formica, 149. 


Ergasilus, 76. 


Exocyclica, 45. 


Formicarius, 224. 


Erichsonia, 135. 




Fossores, 147. 


Erich thus, 71. 


Faloo, 234, 235. 


Fregilupus, 226. 


Erinaceus, 248, 


Falcon, 234. 


Fregilus, 226. 


249. 


Fallow-deer, 251. 


Frigate-bird, 232. 


Eristalis, 124. 


Farciminaria, 67. 


Fringilla, 222, 


Ermine, 257. 


Father-lasher, 225. 


Erotylus, 133. 


185. Frog-hopper, 107. 


Errantia, 60. 


Favositee, 33. Frogs, 194. 


Erucivores, 220. j Feather-stars, 42. ' Frondipora, 68. 


Erycina, 129. 


Felis, 257, 258. Fulgora, 107, IK). 


Eryon, 87. 


Feraj. 257. Fulica, 231. 


Erythacus, 222. 


Ferret, 257. Fidmar, 233. 


Eschara, 67. 


Fibrospongiae, 19. 


Fungia, 33. 


Escharipora, 67. 


Fieldfare, 222. Fungicola, 131. 



310 



IXDEX. 



Gad-fly, 123. 


Geodia, 19. 


Goldfish, 180. 


Gadinia. 167. 


Geometra, 128. 


Goliathus, 141. 


Gadopsis, 183. 


Geomys, 246. 


Gonoleptes, 100. 


Gadus, 180, 182, 


Geophila, 166. 


Gonoplax, 89. 


Galathea, 87. 


Geophilus, 92. 


Gonopteryx, 127- 


Galaxias, 182. 


Geoplana, 52. 


Gonorhynchus, 


Galbula, 220. 


Georyssus, 142. 


181. 


Galeodes, 100. H>l- 


Geotrypes, 131. 


Goosander, 233. 


Galeopithecus, 


Gephyrea, 49, 57. 


Goose, 232, 233. 


248, 249. 


Gerardia, 32. 


Gordius, 56. 


Galeruca, 133. 


Gerres, 182. 


Gorgonella, 35. 


Galgulus, 110. 


Gerris, 110. 


Gorgonia, 34, 35. 


Galleria, 127. 


Geryonia, 25. 


Gorgoniaceas, 34. 


Gall-flies, 148. 


Gibbon, 260. 


Gorilla, 259. 


Galliformes, 213. 


Gid, 54. 


Goshawk, 234. 


Gallmge, 217. 


Giraffe, 251. 


Goura, 227. 


Gallus, 228. 


Glareola, 231. 


Gradientia, 193. 


Gallywasp, 205. 


Glass-snake, 202. 


Grallse, 230. 


Gaily worm, 91. 


Glires, 245. 


Grallatores, 230. 


Gamasus, 97. 


Globe-fish, 187. 


Grampus, 254. 


Gammarus, 82. 


Globigerina, 9, 10. 


Grantia, 18, 19. 


Gannet, 232, 233. 


Glomeris, 91. 


Grapsus, 89. 


Ganocephala, 


Glossata, 126. 


Graptolites, 39. 


194. 


Glossina, 122. 


Graptolithina, 39. 


Ganoidei, 177. 
Garden-warbler, 


Glow-worm, 131. 
Glutton, 257. 


Grasshoppers,113. 
Grebe, 234. 


222. 


Glycera, 62. 


Greenfinch, 225. 


Gasterosteus, 186. 


Glyptolepis, 191. 


Gregarina, 12. 


Gasterotricha, 60. 


Gnat, 125. 


Gregarinida, 6,12. 


Gastracantha, 98. 


Gnathopoda, 70. 


Gressoria, 114. 


Gastraeada, 2. 


Gnathostomata, 


Gribble, 84. 


Gastrochaena, 153. 


77. 


Grilse, 180. 


Gastrodela, 64. 


Gnostus, 143. 


Gromia, 9. 


Gastropoda, 153, 


Goat, 251. 


Grosbeak, 225. 


160. 


Goatsucker, 219, 


Ground-hog, 244. 


Gastrus, 122. 


220. 


Grouse, 228. 


Gavialis, 206. 


Gobiesox, 184. 


Grus, 231. 


Gazelle, 251. 


Gobio, 181. 


Gryllus, 113, 115 


Gecarcinus, 89. 


Gobius, 185. 


Guan, 228. 


Gecco, 204. 


God wit, 231. 


Gudgeon, 180. 


Geissosaura, 202. 


Goldcrest, 224. 


Guinea-fowl, 228. 


Gemellaria, 67. 


Golden-eye, 117, 


Guinea-pig, 245. 


Gemitores, 226. 


232. 


Guillemot, 234. 


Geodephaga, 145. 


Goldfinch, 222. 


Gull, 233. 



INDEX. 



311 



Gulo, 257, 258. 


Haliphysema, 18. 


Hermit-crab, 88. 


Gurnard, 185. 


Halisarca, 19. 


Heron, 231. 


Gwyniad, 180. 


Halocypris, 79. 


Herpestes, 257, 


Gymnarchus, 182. 


Halosaurus, 176, 


258. 


Gynmoblastea, 22. 


181. 


Herring, 180. 


Gynmochroa, 22. 


Halteria, 14. 


Hesione, 62. 


Gymnocopa, 61. 


Haltica, 133. 


Hesperia, 129. 


Gymnodontes,187. 


Hamster, 246. 


Hessian-fly, 122, 


Gymnolasmata, Hapale, 259, 260. 


125. 


66. Haplocardia, 154. 


Heterocera, 127. 


Gymnomonera, 7. Haplochiton, 182. 


Heterocerus, 142. 


Gyrunophiona, Haplodontia, 247. 


Heterogangliata, 


192. Haplomorpha, 25. 


152. 


Gyninophthal- Hare, 245. 


Heterogyna, 147. 


rnata, 25. 


Harpactinus, 78. 


Heteromera, 137. 


Gymnophthal- Hatteria,201,204. 


Heteromorpha, 


mus, 205. Hawfinch, 222. 


104. 


Gymnosomata, Heart-urchins, 45. 


Heteropoda, 153. 


159. 


Hebedidentati, 


Heteroptera, 108. 


Gymnotus. 181. 


946. 


Heteropygii, 181. 


Gypogeranus, 235. 


Hedgehog, 248. 


Heterosomata, 


Gyrantes, 226. 


Hedge-sparrow, 


182. 


Gyrencephala, 


222. 


Heterotricha, 14. 


239. 


Hedruris, 56, 


Hexachgetoe, 123. 


Gyrinus, 145. 


Helarctos, 257, 


Hexacoralla, 31. 


Gyrodactylus, 53. 


258. 


Hexactinellide,19. 




Helianthoida, 31. 


Himatega, 3. 


Haddock, 180. 


Helicina, 166. 


Hippa, 88. 


Hsematocrya, 174. 


Heliconia, 130. 


Hippobosca, 122. 


Hsematomyzus, 


Heliopora, 35. 


Hippocampus, 


112. 


Heliosphsera, 11. 


186. 


Haematopinus, 


Heliozoa, 8. 


Hippocrepia, 68. 


112. 


Helix, 166, 167. 


Hippopodius, 29. 


Haematotherma, 
174. 


Helophorus, 144. 
Helota, 133. 


Hippopotamus, 


Hgemopsis, 59. 


Henierobius, 120. 


Hippurites, 158. 


Hag, 178. 


Herniinerus, 115. 


Hirudinea, 58, 59. 


Hake, 180. 


Heminietabola, 


Hirudo, 59. 


Halarachne, 96. 


104. 


Hirundo,219,220. 


Halecium, 24. 


Hemiptera, 104. 


Hislopia, 67. 


Halibatrachia, 83: 


Hen-harrier, 235. 


Hispa, 133. 


Halichondria, 19. 


Hepialus, 129. 


Hister, 143. 


Haliomma, 11. 


Hermsea, 162. 


Holconoti, 183. 


Haliotis, 164. 


Hermella, 63. 


Holetra, 96. 



312 



KS'DEX. 



Holibut. 180. 


Hybocodon, 23. 


Hypozoa, 5. 


Holocephali, 177, 


Hybodus, 189. 


Hyracoidea, 249. 


189. 


Hybos, 124. 


Hyrax, 249. 


Holoptychius, 191. 


Hydatina, 64. 


Hystricornorpha, 


Holostei, 190. 


Hydra, 22. 


246. 


Holostomata, 164. 


Hydrachna, 97. 


Hystrix, 245, 246. 


Holothuria, 48. 


Hydractinia, 23. 




Holothurioidea, 


Hydradephaga, 


lanthina, 163, 


41, 46. 


145. 


165. 


Holotricha, 14. 


Hydrida, 22. 


lapyx, 106. 


Holotrocha, 64. 


Hydrobius, 144. 


lassus, 109. 


Homalogonati, 


Hydrocorallineae, 


Ibex, 251. 


213. 


22, 25. 


Ibis, 231. 


Homalopsis, 200. 


Hydroida, 20. 


Ichneumon, 149. 


Homarus, 87. 


Hydrolaridae, 23. 


Ichthydium, 60. 


Hominidse, 261. 


Hydromedusse, 


Ichthyodea, 194. 


Homo, 261. 


20. 


Ichthyodorulites. 


Homodonta, 256. 


Hydrometra, 110. 


188. 


Homogenea, 9. 


Hydrophilus, 144. 


Ichthyomorpha, 


Homola, 88. 


Hydrophis, 201. 


193. 


Homomorpha, 


Hydrophora, 20, 


Ichthyophthira, 


104. 


25. 


74. 


Homoptera, 108. 


Hydropsyche, 121. 


Ichthyopsida, 


Honey, 151. 


Hydroptila, 121. 


174. 


Honey-buzzard, 


Hydrosauria, 205. 
Hydrozoa, 16, 20. 


Teh thy opteryg ia, 
198, 206. 


Honey-guide, 221. 


Hyla, 195, 197. 


Ichthyornis, 237. 


Hoopoe, 220. 


Hymenoptera, 


Ichthyosaurus, 


Hoplognathus, 


104, 146. 


206. 


184. 


Hyodon, 181. 


Idmonea, 68. 


Hornbills, 220. 


Hyoprorus, 179. 


Idotea, 84. 


Hornet, 147. 


Hyper ammina, 9. 


Iguana, 203. 


Horse, 252. 


Hyperia, 83. 


Iguanodon, 208. 


Hound, 189. 


Hyperoartia, 178. 


I ly an thus, 32. 


House-martin, 


Hyperoodon, 255. 


Ilysia, 199. 


219. 


Hyperotreta, 178. 


Impennes, 216. 


Howler, 259. 


Hypobranchia, 


Imperforata, 9. 


Humming-birds, 


162, 


Itnplacentalia, 


219, 220. 


Hypobythius, 173. 


240. 


Huxleya, 14. 


Hypocephalus, 


Inachus, 89. 


Hysena, 257. "136. " 


Inaequitelffi, 98. 


Hyalffia, 160. 


Hypoderma, 122. 


Inarticulata, 68. 


Hyalonema, 19. 
Hyalospongiae, 19. 


Hyponome, 41. 
Hypotricha. 14. 


Incrustata, 68. 
Indicator, 221. 



INDEX. 



313 



Inferobranchiata, Knot, 231. 


Lantern-fly, 109. 


162. Koala, 243. 


Lapwing, 231. 


Infundibulata, 


Lar, 23. 


66. 


Labrax, 186. 


Larks, 225. 


Infusoria, 6. 


Labrus, 183. 


Larus, 233. 


Insecta, 70. 


Labyrinthica, 183. 


Laterigradoe, 98. 


Insectivora, 240, 


Labyrinthodon, 


Launce, 183. 


248. 


194. 


Leaf-miners, 127. 


Insessores, 222. 


Labyrinthodonta, 


Ledra, 111. 


Inuus, 259, 260. 


192, 194. 


Leech, 59. 


Irrisor, 220. 


Labyrinthuleae, 5. 


Lemming, 245. 


Isidaceae, 34. 


Lacerta, 202, 203. 


Lemur, 259. 


Isinglass, 190. 


Lacertilia, 201. 


Lemuroidea, 260. 


Isis, 35. 


Lasmodipoda, 82. 


Leopard, 257. 


Isocardia, 158. 


Laernea, 76. 


Lepas, 74. 


Isopoda, 82, 83. 


Laerneodea, 75, 


Lepidoptera, 104. 


Isoptera, 118. 


76. 


Lepidosiren, 175, 


Isoteles, 80. 


Laerneopoda, 76. 


191. 


Issus, 109. 


Lsevigrada, 89. 


Lepidosteus, 191. 


Ithomia, 130. 


Lafoea, 24. 


Lepidotus, 191. 


lulus, 90. 


Lagena, 10. 


Lepisma, 106. 


Ixodes, 97. 


Lagopus, 228. 


Lepomonera, 7. 




Lagria, 138. 


Leptalis, 130. 


Jabiru, 231. 


Lama, 251. 


Leptis, 124. 


Jacana, 231. 


Lamellibranchi- 


Leptobrachia, 27. 


Jacare, 206. 


ata, 66, 153, 


Leptocardii, 177. 


Jackal, 257. 
Jackdaw, 222. 


155. 
Lamellicornia, 


Leptocepbalus, 


Jaguar, 257. 


139, 141. 


Leptocerus, 120. 


Jay, 222. 


Lamellirostres, 


Leptodora, 79. 


Jerboa, 246. 


231. 


Leptoscyphus, 24. 


Jigger, 126. 


Lamia, 134. 


Lepus, 245, 246. 




Lammergeyer, 


Lerneea, 76. 


Kangaroo, 243. 


234. 


Lernseodea, 76. 


Kangaroo-rat, 


Lamna, 189. 


Lernaeopoda, 76. 


243. 


Lamnunguia, 249. 


Leucifer, 85. 


Kelt, 180. 


Lamprey, 179. 


Leuciscus, 181. 


Kestrel, 234. 


Lampris, 185. 


Leucodora, 62. 


King-crab, 81. 


Lamp-shells, 155. 


Leucones, 18. 


Kingfisher, 219. 


Lampyris, 131. 


Leucosia, 88. 


King of the her- 


Lancelot, 178. 


Lialis, 205. 


rings, 190. 


Land-crabs, 87. 


Libellula, 119. 


Kite, 234. 


Languria, 133. 


Ligula, 54. 


Kiwi, 230. 


Land us, 224. 


Lima, 157. 



314 



INDEX. 



Limacina, 159, 


Loligopsis, 170. 


Lyneeus, 79. 


160. 


Lonchoptera, 124. 


Lynx, 257. 


Lirnapontia, 162. 
Limax, 166. 


Longicornia, 132. 
Longipennes. 233. 


Lyopomata, 154. 
Lyre-bird, 223. 


Limnadia, 80. 


Loopers, 127. 


Lystra, 109. 


Limnsea, 167. 


Lopbiomys, 246. 


Lytta, 137. 


Liinnopbilus, 120. 


Lopbius, 184. 




Limnoria, 84. 


Lophobranchii, 


Macaco, 259. 


Limpet, 163. 


177, 186. 


Macacus, 259, 


Limulus, 81. 


Lopbogaster, 85. 


260. 


Lineus, 53. 


Lopbopoda, 68. 


Macaw, 236. 


Ling, 180. 


Lopbotes, 184. 


Machilis, 106. 


Linguatulina, 102. 


Lophyropoda, 77. 


Mackerel, 180. 


Lingula, 155. 


Loricata, 205. 


Macrobdella, 59. 


Linnet, 222. 


Lory, 236. 


Macrobiotida, 


Lion, 257. 


Lota, 182. 


101. 


Liotheum, 110. 


Louse, 108. 


Macrobiotus, 101. 


Liphistius, 99. 


Love-bird, 236. 


Macrocercus, 236. 


Lipocephala, 66. 


Loxosoma, 68. 


Macrochires, 219. 


Lipura, 106. 


Lucanus, 142. 


Macroglossa, 127. 


Liriope, 84. 


Lucernaria, 28. 


Macropus, 243. 


Lissencephala, 


Lucernariida, 27. 


Macroscelides, 


239. 


Luciae, 173. 


249. 


Lithelius, 11. 


Lucina, 158. 


Macrura, 87. 


Lithistius, 19. 


Luciocepbalus, 


Macrurus, 183. 


Lithobius, 92. 


184. 


Mactra, 157, 158. 


Lithocorallia, 32. 


Luciola, 139. 


Madrepora, 33. 


Lithodes, 88. 


Lumbricina, 59. 


Madreporaria, 32. 


Lithosia, 128. 


Lumbriconereis, 


Magilus, 165. 


Lithydrodea, 33. 


62. 


Magnates, 261. 


Littores, 230. 


Lumbricus, 59, 


Magnirostres, 223, 


Littorina, 163, 


60. 


225. 


166. 


Lump-fish, 184. 


Magosphsera, 8. 


Lituola, 9. 


Luscinia, 222, 


Magpie, 222. 


Liver-fluke, 52. 


224. 


Maia, 89. 


Lizard, 202. 


Lutra, 257, 258. 


Malacantbus, 


Lobatee, 37. 


Lycaena, 129. 


184. 


Lobosa, 7. 


Lycodes, 183. 


Malacobdella, 59. 


Lobster, 87. 


Lycodon, 200. 


Malacodermata, 


Lobworm, 61. 


Lycosa, 99. 


31. 


Locbe, 180. 


Lycus, 140. 


Malacodermi, 139. 


Locust, 113. 


Lyencepbala, 239. 


Malacopoda, 91, 


Locusta, 115. 


Lygseus, 111. 


92. 


Loligo, 169, 170. 


Lymexylon, 140. 


Malacoptera, 181. 



INDEX. 



315 



Malacoscolices, 


Megatherium, 


Microsauria, 194. 


66. 


245. 


Micros tomum, 51. 


Malacostraca, 82. 


Melandrya, 138. 


Microzoa, 12. 


Malapterurus, 


Melania/165. 


Midas, 124, 260. 


181. 


Meleagrina, 156. 


Midges (the fry 


Mallophaga, 108, 


Meleagris, 228. 


of fish and very 


112. 


Meles, 257, 258. 


small flies are 


Mammalia, 175. 


Melicerta, 64. 


so-called). 


Man, 260. 


Meliphaga, 223. 


Miliola, 9. 


Manakin, 226. 


Melita, 83. 


Millepora, 26. 


Manatee, 255. 


Melithaea, 35. 


Milvus, 234, 235. 


256. 


Melitta, 151. 


Mink, 257. 


Manatus, 255, 


Mellifera, 147, 


Minnow, 180. 


256. 


150. 


Minyas, 32. 


Mandrill, 259. 


Mellita, 46. 


Mites, 96. 


Mango-fish, 185. 


Meloe, 138. 


Mitosata, 90. 


Mangouste, 258. 


Melolontha, 131. 


Mitra,165. 


Manis, 244. 


Melophagus, 122. 


Mitraria, 51. 


Manna, 107. 


Melyris, 140. 


Mnemia, 37. 


Manticora, 145. 


Membracis, 109. 


Mniotilta, 224. 


Mantis, 115. 


Membranipora, 


Moa, 230. 


Mantispa, 120. 


67. 


Mola, 187. 


Margaritana, 156. 


Menura, 223. 


Mole, 248. 


Marmoset, 259. 


Mephitis, 257, 


Mole-cricket, 113. 


Marmot, 246, 


258. 


MoUusca, 2, 152. 


Marsipobranchii, 


Mergus, 233. 


Molluscoida, 66. 


177, 178. 


Merlin, 234. 


Mollymock, 233. 


Marsupialia, 240, 


Mermaid's eggs, 


Molpadia. 4S. 


242. 


188. 


Molva, 180, 183. 


Martin, 257. 


Mermis, 55. 


Monas, 15. 


Mastacembelus, 


Merops, 220. 


Monera, 7. 


184. 


Merostomata, 81. 


Money-cowry, 


Mastigophora, 6, 


Mertensia, 38. 


163. 


14. 


Merulina, 33. 


Monitor, 203. 


Mastodon, 250. 


Mesites, 231. 


Monkey, 259. 


Mastodonsauria, 


Mesostomum, 51. 


Monocaulus, 23. 


194. 


Mesotherium, 246. 


Monochitonida, 


May-fly, 117. 


Mesozoa, 50. 


171. 


Meal-worm, 131. 


Metabola, 104. 


Monocystis, 12. 


Medusae, 26. 


Metazoa, 3. 


Monocyttaria, 11. 


Megaehile, 151. 


Miastor, 122. 


Monodelphia, 


Megaderma, 248. 


Microlepidoptera, 


239. 


Megalotrocha, 64. 


127. 


Monodon, 254, 


Megapodius, 228. 


Microphthires, 96. 


255. 



316 



INDEX. 



Monogenea, 53. 


Musk-ox, 251. Narwhal, 254. 


Monogonopora, 


Musophaga, 221. Natantia, 254. 


51. 


Musquito, 122. Natatores, 232. 


Monomerosomata, Mussel, 156. Natica, 165. 


96. 


Mustela, 257, 258. : Natrix, 200. 


Monomma, 139. 


Mustelus, 189. Natter-jack, 195. 


Monopleurobran- 


Mutilata, 254. 


Nautilus. 169. 


chiata, 16o. 


Mutilla, 150. 


Nebalia, 85. 


Mon opneum ona, 


Mya, 157, 158. 


Necrophorus, 143. 


191. 


Mycetsea, 132. 


Nectarinia, 223. 


Monopsea, 25. 


Myceptophila,125. 


Neis, 38. 


Monorhina, 178. 


Myelencephala, 


Nematelmintha, 


Monostomea, 26. 


174. 


49, 54. 


Monostomum, 53. 


Myelozoa, 177. 


Nematoda, 55. 


Monotremata, 


Mygale, 98, 99, 


Nemertes, 52. 


240,241. 


249. 


Nemocera, 122, 


Monozoa, 11. 


Myliobatis, 188. 


125. 


Moose, 252. 


Mvodes, 245, 246. 


Nemopsis, 23. 


Mordella.103,138. 


Myogale, 249. 


Neomenia, 161. 


Mormyrus, 182. 


Myoxus, 246. 


Nepa, 110. 


Morpho, 129. 


Myriopoda, 70, 


Nephthys, 62. 


Mosasaurus, 203. 


90. 


Neptune's cup, 18. 


Moschus, 251, 


Myriosteon, 108. 


Nereis, 62. 


252. 


Myriothela, 23. 


Nerine, 62. 


Motacilla, 222, 


Myriozoum, 67. 


Nerita, 165. 


225. 


Myrmecia, 99. 


Neurobranchiata, 


Motella, 183. 


Myrmecina, 102, 


164. 


Moths, 127. 


149. 


Neuroptera, 104, 


Moufflon, 251. 


Myrmecophaga, 


116. 


Mouse, 245. 


244. 


Newt, 194. 


Mud-fish, 191. 


Myrmeleon, 117, 


Night-ape, 260. 


Mud-snail, 167. 


120. 


Nightingale, 222. 


Mugil, 184. 


Mysis, 85. 


Night-jar, 219. 


Mullet, 180. 


Mytilus, 156, 157. 


Nilio, 138. 


Mullus, 185. 


Myxine, 179. 


Nirmus, 112. 


Munnopsis, 84. 


Myxocystodea, 15. 


Nitidula, 143. 


Mursena, 180. 


Myxospongiae, 19. 


Noctilio, 248. 


Murex, 163, 165. 


Myzostonaa, 53. 


Noctiluca, 15. 


Murre, 234. 




Noctua, 127, 128. 


Mus, 245, 246. 


Naia, 201. 


Noddy, 233. 


Musca, 122, 124. 


Nais, 60. 


Nodosaria, 10. 


Muscicapa, 224. 


Nandou, 229, 230. 


Notacanthus, 184. 


Musk, 252. 


Nandus, 184. 


Nothosaurus, 207- 


Musk-deer, 251. 


Nantes, 187. 


Notidanus, 189. 



INDEX. 



317 



Notobranchia, 


Odontolcse, 217, 


Ophiosoma, 192. 


162. 


237. 


Ophiothrix, 43. 


Notobranchiata, 


Odontoptervx, 


Ophisaurus, 202. 


60. 


237. 


Ophiura, 43. 


Notodelphys, 78. 


Odontormse, 217, 


Ophiuroidea, 43. 


Notomrnata, 64. 


236. 


Ophrydium, 14. 


Notonecta, 110. 


Odontornithes, 


Ophryoscolex, 14. 


Notopterus, 181. 


217. 


Opilionina, 100. 


Nototrema, 195. 


(Eceticus, 128. 


Opisthobranchi- 


Nucleobranchiata, 


CEcistes, 64. 


ata, 160, 161. 


167. 


CEdemera, 137. 


Opisthocomus, 


Nudibranchiata, 


CEdipoda, 1 13. 


229. 


162. 


(Estheliiiintha, 


Opossum, 243. 


Nudipelliferes, 


57. 


Opoterodontia, 


192. 


(Estropsis, 120. 


199. 


Numida, 228. 


CEstrus, 122. 


Orbitelariae, 98. 


Nummulina, 10. 


Ogygia, 29. 


Orca, 254, 255. 


Nutcracker, 226. 


Old jew, 219. 


Orchestia, 83. 


Nuthatch, 224. 


Oligochseta, 59. 


Oreodon, 252. 


Nyctalops, 101. 


Oligodon, 200. 


Orestia, 132. 


Nyctea, 235. 


Oliva, 165. 


Oribates, 97. 


Nycteribia, 123. 


Olynthus, 18. 


Oriole, 226. 


Nycticebus, 260. 


Omma, 143. 


Oriolus, 226. 


Nyctipithecus, 


Onchuna, 75. 


Ornithodelphia, 


260. 


Oncinolabes, 47. 


241. 


Nyctisaura. 202, 


Oniscus, 84. 


Ornitholepas, 74. 


203. 


Onychophora, 93. 


Ornithorhynchus, 


Nylghau, 252. 


Oomerus, 90. 


242. 


Nymphalis, 129. 


Opah, 185. 


Ornithoscelida, 


Nymphon, 90. 


Opalina, 14. 


207. 


Nymphonacea, 89. 


Ophelia, 61. 


Orthagoriscus, 




Ophidia, 198. 


187. 


Obisium, 95. 


Ophidium, 183. 


Orthis, 155. 


Oceanic Hydro- 


Ophiocephalus, 


Orthocerus, 169. 


zoa, 28. 


184. 


Orthonectida, 51. 


Octactinia, 34. 


Ophiocoma, 43. 


Orthonyx, 223. 


Octocoralla, 34. 


Ophioderma, 43. 


Orthoptera, 104. 


Octocotyle, 53. 


Ophiodes, 205. 


Orthorhapha, 122. 


Octodon, 246. 


Ophiolepis, 43. 


Ortolan, 222. 


Octopus, 170. 


Ophiomorpha, 


Ortyx, 228. 


Oculina, 33. 


192. 


Oryzornis, 225. 


Ocypode, 89. 


Ophiomyxa, 43. 


Oscines, 222. 


Ocyroe, 37. 


Ophiophagus, 199, 


Osphromenus, 


Odonata, 119. 


201. 


184. 



318 



INDEX. 



Osprey, 234. 


Pabeotherium, 


Pavo, 228. 


Osteoganoidea, 


253. 


Peacock, 228. 


190. 


Palainedea, 232. 


Pearl-oyster, 156. 


Osteoglossum, 


Palinurus, 87. 


Peccary, 252. 


181. 


Palliobrancbiata, 


Pecten, 157. 


Ostracion, 187. 


154. 


Pectinibranchiata, 


Ostracocla, 77, 78. 


Palmatozoa, 41. 


164. 


Ostrapoda, 78. 


Palmyra, 62. 


Pectinicornia,141. 


Ostrea, 156, 157. 


Palolo, 62. 


Pectostraca, 71. 


Ostrich, 229. 


Palpicornia, 139. 


Pedata, 47. 


Otaria, 257. 


Paludicella, 68. 


Pedicellina, 68. 


Otiothops, 99. 


Paludina, 166. 


Pediculata, 183. 


Otis, 231. 


Pandalus, 87. 


Pediculus, 112. 


Otocardia, 153. 


Panclarus, 76. 


Pedilus, 138. 


Otter, 257. 


Pandion, 234, 235. 


Pegasus, 180, 186. 


Ourane-outang, 


Pangolin, 244. 


Pelagia, 27. 


259 


Panorpa, 120. 


Pelagonemertes, 


Ovis, 251, 252. 


Pantodontia, 253. 


51, 53. 


Owenia, 38. 


Pantopoda, 89. 


Pelamis, 201. 


Owls, 235. 


Paper Nautilus. 


Pelamys, 185. 


Ox, 251. 


170. 


Pelargomorpba?, 


Oxuderces, 184. 


Papilio, 130. 


231. 


Oxybeles, 183. 


/^Paramsecium, 14. 


Pelecanus, 232, 


Oxydactyla, 195. 
Oxyopes, 99. 


: Parandra, 135. 
i Pardalotus, 226. 


233. 
Pelias, 199,201. 


Oxytricha. 14. 


Parkeria, 9. 


Pelican, 232. 


Oyster, 156. 


Parnus, 142. 


Pelomvxa, 8. 


Oystercatcher, 


Parr, 180. Pelonaia, 173. 


231. 


Parra, 231. Peltidium, 78. 




Parrakeet, 236. 


Peltogaster, 72. 


Pacliycardia, 174. 


Parrot, 236. 


Penaeus, 87. 


Pachydermata, 


Parson-bird, 223. 


Penelope, 228. 


251. 


Parthenope, 89. 


Penguin, 233. 


Pachymatisma,19. 


Partridge, 228. 


Pennaria, 23. 


Pachypoda, 207. 


Parus, 225. 


Pennatula, 36. 


Paddy-bird, 225. 


Passalus, 142. 


Pennatulaceas, 34, 


Pagurus, 88. 


Passandra, 143. 


36. 


Palseadae, 80. 


Passeres.217,222. 


Pennella, 76. 


Palaechinoidea, 


Passeriformes, 


Pentamera, 138. 


46. 


213. 


Pentastonia, 102. 


Palachinus, 46. 


Pastor, 226. 


Pentastoniidea, 


Palseichtbyes, 176. 


Patella, 163, 164. 


94, 102. 


Paljemon, 87. 


Pauropus, 91. 


Pentatoma, 111. 


Palseophis, 200. 


Paussus, 143. Perarneles, 243. 



INDEX. 



319 



Perca, 186. 


Phasianus, 228. 


Pica, 222, 22o. 


Perch, 180. 


Phasma, 115. 


Picarias, 218, 220. 


Percopsis, 182. 


Pherusa, 63. 


Pici, 217. 


Perdix, 228. 


Philodina, 64. 


Picumnus, 218. 


Perforata, 10, 33. 


Phleboptera, 146. 


Picus, 218. 


Pericera, 89. 


Phoca, 256, 257. 


Piddock, 158. 


Peridinium, 15. 


Phoenicopterus, 


Pieris, 127. 


Peripatus, 92, 93. 


233. 


Piezata, 146. 


Penplaneta, 113. 


Pholas, 158. 


Pig, 251. 


Perissodactyla, 


Phora, 125. 


Pigeo s, 227. 


253. 


Phoronis, 63. 


Pike, 180, 


Peristeromorphas, 


Phorus, 165. 


Pilchard, 180. 


226. 


Phoxinus, 181. 


Pilot-fish, 180. 


Peritricha, 14. 


Phreoryctes, 60. 


Pinna, 157. 


Periwinkle, 163. 


Phronima, 83. 


Pinnipeda, 240, 


Perla, 118. 


Phryganea, 120. 


256. 


Pernis, 235. 


Phrynidea, 94. 


Pinnotheres, 88. 


Perodicticus, 259, 


Phrynosoma, 203. 


Piophila, 122. 


260. 


Phrynus, 101. 


Pipa, 195, 197. 


Peromela, 192. 


Phylactolasmata, 


Pipe-fish, 186. 


Petalosticha, 45. 


66. 


Pipra, 226. 


Petromyzon, 178, 


Phyllidia, 163. 


Pipunculus, 124. 


179. 


Phyllirhoe, 162. 


Pisces, 174, 175. 


Phacellia, 19. 


Phyllodoce, 62. 


Pithecia, 260. 


Phaethon, 233. 


Phyllopneuste, 


Pithecus, 260. 


Phalacrus, 143. 


222. 


Pitta, 224. 


Phalana, 127. 


Phyllopoda, 77.80. 


Placentalia, 240. 


Phalangidea, 94, 


Phylloscopus. 222. 


Placoidei, 187. 


100. 


Phyllosoma, 71. 


Placuna, 157. 


Phalangigrada, 


Phyllostoma, 248. 


Plagiostomi, 187. 


251. 


Phylloxera, 108. 


Plaice, 180. 


Phalangista, 243. 


Physalia, 30. 


Planaria, 52. 


Phalangium, 100. 


Physaloptera, 56. 


Planipennia, 118, 


Phaneroglossa, 


Physemaria, 18. 


119. 


195. 


Physeter,254,255. 


Plantain-eater, 


Phaps, 227. 


Physophora, 29, 


221. 


Pharaoh's rat,257. 


30. 


Plant-lice, 107. 


Pharyngobran- 


Physophorae, 29. 


Plastidozoa, 5. 


chii, 177. 


Physostomi, 180. 


Platodes, 50. 


Phary ngogn athi , 


Phytophaga, 132, 


Platyarthrus, 84. 


183. 


133. 


Platydactyla, 195. 


Phascolarctos, 


Phytophthiria, 


Platyelmintha,49. 


243. 


108. 


50. 


Phascoloniys, 243. 


Phytotoma, 225. 


Platypeza, 124. 



320 



INDEX. 



Platypoda, 160. 


Pceci 1 om orpha, 22. 


Pontella, 78. 


Platvpsylla, 142, 
143. 


Poecilophysis, 97. 
Poecilopoda,77,81. 


Porbeagle, 189. 
PorceUana, 88. 


Platypus, 242. 


Poephaga, 243. 


Porcupine, 245, 


Platyrrhini, 259, 


Poephagus, 251, 


246. 


260. 


252. 


Porifera, 17. 


Platysternse, 229. 


Polecat, 257. 


Porites, 33. 


Plecoptera, 117. 


Pollack, 180. 


Porpoise, 254. 


Plecotus, 247. 


Pollicata, 258. 


Portuguese man- 


Plectognathi, 177. 


Pollicipes, 74. 


of-war, 30. 


Plesiosauria, 207. 


Poltys, 98. 


Portunus, 89. 


Pleurobrachia, 38. 


Polyactinia, 31. 


Potamogale, 249. 


Pleurobranchia, 


Polycentrus, 184. 


Potato-beetle, 131. 


163. 


Polychajta, 60. 


Potto, 259. 


Pleurobranchus, 


Polyclonia, 27. 


Praniza, 84. 


163. 


Polycope, 79. 


Prawn, 87. 


Pleuronectes, 180, 


Polyctenes, 108. 


Praya, 29. 


183. 


Polycystina, 10. 


Presbytes, 260. 


Pleurophyllidia, 


Polycyttaria, 11. 


Priapulus, 58. 


163. 


Polydesmus, 91. 


Pride, 178. 


Pleuropygia, 154. 


Polygastrica, 12. 


Primates, 258. 


Pleurotomaria, 


Polygonata, 83. 


Primnoa, 35. 


165. 


Polygonopoda, 89. 


Prionites, 220. 


Ploceus, 225. 


PolynemuSj 185. 


Prionus, 135. 


Plover, 231. 


Poly ophthalm us, 


Prisopus, 113. 


PlumateUa, 69. 


58. 


Pristiophoru?,! 89. 


Plumularia, 24. 


Polyphemus, 79. 


Pristipoma, 185. 


Plyctolophus, 236. 


Polypi, 30. 


Pristis, 188. 


Pneumodermon, 


Polypiaria, 65. 


Proboscidea, 249. 


159. 


PolvpJacophora, 


Procellaria, 233. 


Pneumonophora, 


164. 


Proceri, 229. 


47. 


Polypterus, 191. 


Proctotrypes, 148. 


Pochard, 232. 


Polystoma, 15. 


Proctucha, 51. 


Podactinaria, 27. 


Polystomata, 17. 


Procyon, 257. 


Podargus, 219. 


Polystomuru, 53. 


Productus, 155. 


Podoa, 231. 


Polythalamia, 9. 


Prom crops, 220. 


Podocoryne, 23. 


Polyxenus, 91. 


Prosimie,257,258. 


Podon, 79. 


Polyzoa, 49, 65. 


Prosobranchiata, 


Podophthalma,71, 


Polyzonium, 91. 


160, 163. 


84, 99. 


Pomacentrus, 184. 


Prosopocephala, 


Podophthalmus, 


Pomatobranchi- 


161. 


89 


ata, 163. 


Prosthemadera, 


1 } odosomata, 71,89. 


Poinpilus, 150. 


223. 


Podura, 106. Pond-snail, 167. 


Proteol pas, 73. 



INDEX. 



321 



Proteroglypha, 


Pterygotus, 81. 


Quail, 228. 


199. 


Ptilonorhynchus, 




Proteus, 193, 194. 


226. 


Babbit, 245. 


Protoctista, 1. 


Ptilopaedes, 215. 


Kacoon, 257. 


Protolycosa, 99. 


Ptilorhis, 226. 


Eadiata, 16. 


Protomyxa, 7- 


Ptinus, 140. 


Eadiolaria, 7, 10. 


Protoplasta, 7. 
Protopteri, 191. 


Ptychopleurse, 


Eaia, 188. 
Bail, 231. 


Protopterus, 191. 


Ptygura, 64. 


Eallus, 231. 


Protozoa, 2, 5. 


Puff-adder, 199. 


Eana, 195, 197. 


Psammophis, 200. 


Puffin, 233. 


Eangia, 38. 


Pselaphus, 144. 


Pulex, 126. 


Eanina, 88. 


Pseudophidia, 


Pulmogastero- 


Eapacia, 60. 


192. 


poda, 166. 


Eaphiophora, 18. 


Pseudoscorpiones, 


Pulmonaria, 93. 


Eaptatores, 234. 


95. 


Pulmonata, 166. 


Eaptores, 234. 


Psilopsedes, 213. 


Pulmonifera, 160, 


Easores, 227. 


Psittaci, 217, 235. 


166. 


Eat, 245. 


Psittacomorphse, 


Pulmotrachearia, 


Eatitse, 212, 229. 


235. 


97. 


Eattlesnake, 199. 


Psittacus, 236. 


Puma, 257. 


Eaven, 222. 


Psocus, 119. 


Pupipara, 123. 


Eay, 188. 


Psolus, 48. 


Pupivora, 147. 


Razorbill. 234. 


Psophia, 231. 


Purpura, 163. 


Razor-shell, 158. 


Psyche, 128. 


Putorius, 257, 


Eecurvirostra, 


Psychoda, 125. 


258. 


231. 


Psychrolutes, 184. 


Pycnodus, 190. 


Eed mullet, 180. 


Psylla, 109. 


Pycnogonida, 89. 


Eedshank, 231. 


Ptarmigan, 228. 


Pycnogonum, 90. 


Eed-spider, 96. 


Ptenoglossa, 164. 


Pygobranchia, 


Eeduvius, 111. 


Pteranodon, 207. 


162. 


Eeeve, 231. 


Pterichthys, 190. 


Pygopoda, 233, 


Eegularia, 45. 


Pterocles, 228. 


234. 


Eeindeer, 251. 


Pterodactylus, 


Pygopus, 205. 


Eenilla, 36. 


207. 


Pyralis, 128. 


Eeptilia, 197. 


Pteromys, 247. 


Pyrameis, 127. 


Eetepora, 67. 


Pterophorus, 128. 


Pyramidella, 165. 


Eetetelarise, 98. 


Pteropoda, 153, 


Pyrochroa, 138. 


Eeticularia, 9. 


159. 


Pyrosoma, 173. 


Ehabdoccela, 51. 


Pteroptochus,224. 


Pytho, 138. 


Ehabdophora, 39. 


Pteropus, 248. 


Python, 199. 


Ehabclopleura, 69. 


Pterosauria, 198, 




Ehachiglossa, 


207. 


Quadrumana, 240. 


164. 


Pterosoma, 51. 


258. 


Ehachiodon, 200. 


Y 



322 



INDEX. 



Ehamphastos, 


Ehytina, 255, 258. 


Salpa, 171. 


221. 


Eoach, 180. 


Saltatoria, 114, 


Ehaphidia, 120. 


Eobin, 222. 


115. 


Eb.ea, 229, 230. 


Eock-dove, 227. 


Salticus, 99. 


Ehina, 137. 


Eockling, 183. 


Saltigrada?, 98, 99. 


Ehinobatus, 188. 


Eodentia, 245. 


Sand-eel, 183. 


Ehinoceros, 251, 


Eoebuck, 251. 


Sanderling, 231. 


253. 


Eoller, 220. 


Sand-fleas, 83. 


Ehinochetus, 231. 


Eook, 222. 


Sandpiper, 231. 


Ehinodon, 189. 


Eorqual, 254. 


Sand-smelt, 180. 


Rhinolophus, 


Eosores, 245. 


Sand-stars, 43. 


248 


Eotatoria, 63. 


Sarcobranchiata, 


Ehinophrynus, 


Eotifera, 49, 63. 


154. 


197. 


Eudistse, 158. 


Sarcodea, 5. 


Ehipicera, 140. 


Euff, 231. 


Sarcophaga, 122, 


Ehipidoglossa, 


Eugosa, 33. 


243. 


164. 


Euminantia, 251. 


Sarcopsylla, 126. 


Ehipiphorus, 138. 


Euncina, 163. 


Sarcoptes, 96, 97. 


Ehizocephala, 72. 
Ehizophaga, 243. 


Eupertia, 9, 10. 
Eupicola, 226. 


Sarcorhamphus, 
234, 235. 


Ehizophysa, 30. 


Eyngota, 107. 


Sardine, 180. 


Ehizopoda, 6. 




Sasia, 218. 


Ehizostoma, 27. 


Sabella, 63. 


Sauria, 198, 201. 


Ehizostomea, 26. 


Sable, 257. 


Saurobatrachia, 


Ehombus, 180, 


Saccate, 37, 38. 


193. 


183. 


Saccobdella, 64. 


Saurognathae,217. 


Ehopalocera, 129. 


Saccobranchiata, 


Sauropsida, 174. 


Ehopalodina, 47, 


171. 


Sauropterygia, 


48. 


Saccomys, 246. 


198, 207. 


Ehyacophila, 121. 


Saccophora, 170. 


Saurornia, 207. 


Ehynchocephalia. 


Sacculina, 72. 


Saururaj,213, 217. 


204. 


Sacred beetle, 


Saw-fish, 188. 


Ehynchocoela, 


131. 


Saw-flies, 147. 


52. 


Ssenuris, 60. 


Saxicava, 158. 


Ehynchonella, 


Sagitta, 57. 


Scad, 180. 


155. 


Sagittilingues, 


Scalaria, 165. 


Ehynchophora, 


217. 


Scale-insects, 109. 


132, 136. 


Saiga, 251. 


Scallop, 157. 


Ehynchoprobolus. 


Saki, 260. 


Scansores, 217. 


51. 


Salamandra, 194. 


Scaphidium, 143. 


Rhynchota, 107. 


Salda, 110. 


Scaphopoda, 160, 


Ehyngodea, 57. 


Salmo, 180, 182. 


161. 


Ehvpticus, 186. 


Salmon, 180. 


Scarabasus, 131, 


Ehysodes, 143. 


Salmon-peal, 180. 


142. 



INDEX. 



323 



Scaridium, 64. 


Sea-anemones, 31. 


Shearwater, 233. 


Scenopinus, 124. 


Sea-blubbers, 26. 


Sheat-fish, 182. 


Scenotoca, 24. 


Sea-cow, 256. 


Sheep, 251. 


Schizognathae, 


Sea-cucumber, 48. 


Sheep-tick, 123. 


212. 


Sea-ear, 164. 


Sheldrake, 233.^ 


Schizopoda, 85. 
Schizotrocha, 64. 


Sea-elephant, 256. 
Sea-hare, 163. 


Ship-worm, 157, 
158 


Sciaena, 185. 


Sea-horse, 136. 


Shore-crab, 87. 


Scincus, 205. 


Seal, 256. 


Shrew, 248. 


Scirus, 97. 


Sea-leech, 59. 


Shrike, 224. 


Sciurus, 246, 247. 


Sea-lemon, 162. 


Shrimp, 87. 


Sclerobasica,31,32. 


Sea-lily, 42. 


Sialis, 120. 


Sclerobranchiata, 


Sea-mat, 67. 


Sicyosoma, 37. 


155. ' 


Sea-mouse, 62. 


Sida, 79. 


Sclerodermata, 31, 


Sea-purses, 188. 


Silicispongiae, 19. 


32. 


Sea-slugs, 161. 


Silpha, 143. 


Sclerodermi, 187. 


Sea-snakes, 201. 


Silurus, 182. 


Scolecida, 50. 


Sea-trout, 180. 


Simia, 259, 260. 


Scolecimorpha, 50. 


Sedentariae, 98. 


Simplicidentati, 


Scoleina, 59. 


Seison, 64. 


246. 


Scolia, 150. 


Selache, 188. 


Siphonaria, 167. 


Scolopax, 231. 


Selachii, 187. 


Siphonata, 107. 


Scolopendra, 92. 


Selachoidei, 188, 


Siphoniata, 156. 


Scolytus, 136. 


189. 


Siphon izantia, 91. 


Scomber, 180, 


Selenaria, 67. 


Siphonophora, 20, 


185. 


Selenodontia, 252. 


28. 


Scombresox, 182. 


Semnopithecus, 


Siphonostoma, 75. 


Scopelus, 182. 
Scopus, 231. 


259, 260. 
Sepia, 170. 


Siphonostomata, 
164. 


Scorpio, 95. 
Scorpiodea, 94. 


Sepiola, 170. 
Seps, 205. 


Sipunculacea, 57. 
Sipunculus, 58. 


Scorpion-fly, 120. 


Seraphim, 81. 


Siren, 194. 


Scorpions, 94. 


Sergestes, 85, 87. 


Sirenia, 255. 


Scoter, 233. 


Seriatopora, 33. 


Sirenoidei, 191. 


Scruparia, 67. 


Sericostoma, 120. 


Sirex, 148. 


Scutellera, 111. 


Serpents, 193. 


Siro, 100. 


Scutibranchiata, 


Serpula, 63. 


Sitta, 224. 


164. 


Sertularia, 24. 


Skate, 188. 


Scydmaenus, 143. 


Sertularida, 24. 


Skink, 205. 


Scyllarus, 87. 


Sesia, 126, 129. 


Skippers, 129. 


Scyllium. 189. 


SJbad, 180. 


Skua, 233. 


Scytale, 200. 


Shag, 232. 


Skunk, 2S6 T1 


Scytodermata, 46. 


Shard, 131. 


Skylark, 222. 


Scytodes, 99. 


Sharks, 188, 189. 


Sloth, 244. 



324 



INDEX. 



Slowworm, 205. | Spbserozoum, 11. 


Stellerida, 41, 42. 


Slugs, 166. 


Sphserularia, 55. 


Stellio, 203. 


Smelt, 180. 


Spheniscomor- 


Stelmatopoda, 66. 


Smew, 233. 


pha, 233. 


Stenobothrus,113. 


Smolt, 180. 


Sphenodon, 204, 


Stenorhynchi, 


Smynthurus, 106. 


245. 


108. 


Snail, 166. 


Sphex, 150. 


Stenosaurus, 206. 


Snake, 199. 


Sphinx, 129. 


Stenostomata, 38. 


Snipe, 231. 


Sphygmica, 7. 


Stenostoma, 199. 


Soap-fish, 186. 


Sphyraena, 185. 


Stentor, 14. 


Solarium, 165. 


Spider-crab, 87. 


Stephanomia, 30. 


Solaster, 44. 
Sole, 180. 


Spider-monkey, 
259. 


Stephanoseyphus, 


Solea, 180, 183. 


Spiders, 97. 


Sterelmintha, 50. 


Solen, 157, 158. 


Spinax, 189. 


Sterlet, 190. 


Solenoconchae, 


Spirifer, 155. 


Sterna, 234. 


161. 


Spirobranchiata, 


Sternaspis, 58. 


Solenodon, 249. 


154. 


Sternoptyx, 182. 


Solenoglypha, 


Spirostomum, 14. 


Sternoxi, 139. 


199, 201. 


Spirula, 170. 


Stickleback, 186. 


Solen opus, 161. 


Spondylus, 157. 


Sting-ray, 188. 


Solenostoma, 186. 


Sponge, 18, 19. 


Stock-dove, 227. 


Solidungula, 251. 


Sponges, 17. 


Stomapoda, 85. 


Solipeda, 251. 


Spongia, 16, 17. 


Stomatoda, 13. 


Solpugidea, 101. 


SpongiUa, 18. 


Stomatopoda, 85. 


Sorex, 248, 249. 


Spongozoa, 17. 


Stomias, 182. 


Sorites, 10. 


Spongurus, 11. 


Stonechat, 225. 


Sozura, 193. 


Spoonbill, 231. 


Stone-corals, 32. 


Spalax, 246. 


Sprat, 180. 


Stork, 231. 


Spanish-fly, 131. 


Squatina, 189. 


Stratiomys. 124. 


Sparrow, 222. 


Squid, 170. 


Strepsilas, 232. 


Sparrowhawk, 


Squilla, 84. 


Strepsiptera, 104. 


234. 


Squirrel, 246. 


Strepsirrhini, 259, 


Sparus, 185. 


Stag, 251. 


260. 


Spatargus, 46. 


Stag-beetle, 142. 


Strigops, 236. 


Spatularia, 191. 


Stalita, 99. 


Strisores, 218. 


Spermaceti, 254. 


Staphylinus, 144. 


Strix, 234, 235. 


Spermaceti whale, 


Star-fishes, 43. 


Strobilosaura, 


254. 


Starling, 226. 


203. 


Sphaeridium, 144. 


Stauria, 33. 


Stromatopora, 19. 


Spbaerius, 143. 


Steganophthal- 


Strombus. 165. 


Spbaerogastra, 93. 


mata, 26. 


Strongylus, 56. 


Sphaaroma, 84. 
Sphaeronectes, 29. 


Steganopoda, 233. 
Stegocephala, 194. 


Struthio,229,230. 
Struthiones, 217. 



INDEX. 



325 



Sturgeon, 190. 


Tanagra, 225. 


Territelariaj, 99. 


Sturnus, 226. 


Tanais, 84. 


Tessellata, 46. 


Stylaster, 26. 


Tantalus, 231. 


Testicardines, 155. 


Stylommatopho- 


Tapir, 251, 253. 


Testudinata, 208. 


ra, 166. 


Tapirus, 253. 


Testudo, 209. 


Stylophora, 33. 


Tardigrada, 101. 


Tethya, 19. 


Stylops, 138. 


Tarentola, 202. 


Tethyonacea, 171. 


Suctoria, 13, 15, 


Tarsius, 260. 


Tethys, 162. 


72, 74. 


Teal, 233. 


Tetrabranchiata, 


Sugentia, 91. 


Tectibranchiata, 


168. 


Sula, 233. 


162. 


Tetrachsetse, 123. 


Sun-bear, 257. 


Tegenaria, 98. 


Tetracoralla, 32. 


Sun-bird, 223. 


Telegonus, 95. 


Tetradecapoda, 


Sun-fish, 187. 


Teleosaurus, 206. 


82. 


Surmullet, 180. 


Teleostei, 177, 


Tetramera, 132. 


Sus, 251, 252. 


179., 


Tetrao, 223. 


Swallow, 219. 


Teleostomi, 179. 


Tetraogallus, 228. 


Swan, 232. 


Telephorus, 140. 


Tetraphyllidge,54. 


Swift, 219. 


Telesto, 34. 


Tetrapneumona, 


Sword-fish, 180. 


Tellina, 158. 


98. 


Sycones, 18. 


Telobranchiata, 


Tetrarhynchus, 


Syllis, 62. 


161. 


54. 


Sylvia, 222. 


Templetonia, 106. 


Tettigometra, 109. 


Symbranchus. 


Tench, 180. 


Tettigonia. 109. 


181. 


Tenebrio, 131, 


Teuthis, 170, 184. 


Symplectes, 225. 


138. 


Thsecidse, 150. 


Synapta, 47. 


Tentaculibran- 


Thalamophora, 9. 


Syndactyli, 219. 


'chiae, 65. 


Thalassicolla, 11. 


Syngamus, 56. 


Tentaculifera, 15, 


Thalassina, 87. 


Syngnatha, 92. 


65, 168. 


Thalassosphaera, 


Syngnathus, 186. 


Tentaculites, 160. 


11. 


Synistata, 116. 


Tenthredo, 147. 


Thaliacea, 171. 


Syrnium, 235. 


Tenuirostres, 223. 


Thalia, 171. ' 


Syrphus, 124. 
Systolida, 63. 


Tephritis, 125. 
Terebella, 63. 


Thecaphora, 24. 
Thecata, 75. 




Terebra, 165. 


Thecida, 160. 


Tabanus, 123. 


Terebrantia, 147. 


Thecla, 129. 


Tabulata, 33. 


Terebratula, 155. 


Thecosomata, 


Tachypetes, 233. 


Teredo, 157, 158. 


159. 


Tsenia, 54. 


Teretularia, 50. 


Thelphusa, 89. 


Tasniada, 53. 


Termes, 118. 


Thelyphonus, 101 


TseniatEe, 37, 38. 


Tern, 234. 


Theraphosa, 99. 


Taenioglossa, 164. 


Terrapin, 209. 


Thereva, 124. 


Talpa, 248, 249. 


Terricola, 59. 


Theridion, 98. 



326 



INDEX. 



Theriodontia,198, 


Torquatella, 14. 


Trimera, 131. 


209. 


Tortoise, 209. 


Tringa, 231. 


Theriomorpha, 


Tortrix, 128, 200. 


Trionyx, 209. 


194. 


Totanus, 231. 


Tristoma, 53. 


Thomisus, 99. 


Totipalmatse, 233. 


Triton, 193, 194. 


Thoracica, 72, 73. 


Toucans, 221. 


Trochilium, 126. 


Thoracostraca, 


Toxodon, 253. 


Trochilus, 220. 


84. 


Toxoglossa, 164. 


Trochus, 165. 


Thorictus, 142. 


Toxopneustes, 45. 


Troglodytes, 222, 


Thornback, 18. 


Trachearia, 95. 


225, 259, 260. 


Thresher, 189. 


Trachelida, 137. 


Trogon, 220. 


Thrips, 112. 


Trachelius, 114. 


Trogosita, 143. 


Throscus, 141. 


Trachinus, 105. 


Trogulus, 100. 


Thrush, 222. 


Trachymedusse, 


Trombidium, 97. 


Thylacoleo, 243. 


25. 


Tropic-bird, 233. 


Thynnus, 150,180. 


Trachynema, 25. 


Trout, 180. 


Thysanoptera, 


Trachypterus, 


Trox, 142. 


108,111. 


184. 


Trunk-fish, 187. 


Thysanura, 104, 


Trachysaurus, 


Trygon, 188. 


106. 


205. 


Tubicolse, 62. 


Ticks, 97. 


Tragopan, 228. 


Tubifex, 60. 


Tiger, 257. 


Tragulus, 252. 


Tubinares, 233. 


Tillodontia, 253. 


Traquairia, 11. 


Tubipora, 34, 35. 


Tillotherium, 253. 


Tree-crab, 88. 


Tubiporaceae, 34. 


Timalia, 224. 


Trematoda, 40. 


Tubitelariae, 99. 


Tinamus, 228, 


Trepang, 48. 


Tubularia, 22. 


229. 


Trichechus, 256, 


Tubularina, 22. 


Tinea, 180. 


257. 


Tubulifera, 147, 


Tinea, 128. 


Trichina, 56. 


149. 


Tingis, 111. 


Trichinotus, 184. 


Tubulipora, 68. 


Tintinnus, 14. 


Trichiurus, 185. 


Tubulosa, 33. 


Tipula, 125. 


Trichodina, 14. 


Tunicata,153,170. 


Tit, 225. 


Trichoglossus, 


Tunny, 180. 


Titlark, 222. 


236. 


Tupaia, 249. 


Tmesisternus, 


Trichoptera, 118, 


Turbellaria, 40. 


134. 


120. 


Turbinolia, 33. 


Toads, 194. 


Trichopteryx, 143. 


Turbo, 165. 


Todus, 219. 


Trichydra, 24. 


Turbot, 180. 


Tomopterus, 62. 


Trictenotoma, 


Turdus, 225. 


Tooth-shells, 161. 


142. 


Turkey, 228. 


Tope, 189. 


Tridacna, 157,158. 


Turkey-buzzard, 


Tornaria, 51. 


Trigla, 185. 


234. 


Tornatella, 163. 


Trigonia, 157. 


Turnicomorphae, 


Torpedo, 188. 


Trilobita, 77, 80. 


228. 



INDEX. 



327 



Turnip-fly, 131. 


Vespa, 150. 


Whitebait, 180. 


Turnix, 228. 


Vespertilio, 247, 


Whitethroat, 222. 


Turris, 23. 


248. 


Whiting, 180. 


Turritella, 165. 


Vibilia, 83. 


Whiting-pout, 


Turtle, 209. 


Vidua, 225. 


180. 


Turtle-dove, 227. 


Vincularia, 67. 


Whydah-bird, 


Turtur, 227. 


Viper, 199. 


225. 


Tusk, 183. 


Vipera, 201. 


Widgeon, 232. 


Tylopoda, 251. 


Virgularia, 36. 


Wild boar, 251. 


Typhis, 83. 


Viverra, 258. 


Wild sheep, 251. 


Typhlops, 199. 


Vole, 246. 


Wire- worm, 131. 


Tyrannus, 224. 


Volitantia, 247. 


Witch-knot, 96. 


Tzetze, 122. 


Volitores, 217, 


Wolf, 257. 




218. 


Wolf-fish, 184. 


Uintatherium, 


Volucella, 124. 


Wolverene, 257. 


253. 


Volucres, 222. 


Wombat, 241, 


Ulonata, 112. 


Voluta, 165. 


243. 


UmbeUularia, 36. 


Vorticella, 14. 


Woodcock, 231. 


Umbra, 182. 


Vultur, 235. 


Woodpeckers,218. 


Ungulata, 240, 


Vulture, 235. 


Wood-pigeon, 


251. 




227. 


Unio, 157. 


Wagtail, 222. 


Wood- wren, 222. 


Unogata, 93. 


Walrus, 256. 


Wrasse, 182. 


Upupa, 220. 


Wapiti, 251. 


Wren, 222. 


Urania, 128. 


Wasp, 147. 


Wryneck, 218. 


Uraster, 44. 


Warbler, 222. 




Urinatores, 233. 


Water-boatman , 


Xantusia, 203. 


Urochorda, 170. 


108. 


Xenophorus, 165. 


Urodela, 192, 193. 


Water-buck, 251. 


Xenorchestes, 136. 


Uroioni, 237. 


Waterhen, 231. 


Xenospongia, 19. 


Uromastix, 203. 


Water-mole, 242. 


Xiphias, 180, 185. 


Uropeltis, 200. 


Water-rat, 246. 


Xiphura, 77, 81. 


Ursus, 257, 258. 


Water-shrew, 248. 


Xylocopa, 151. 




Wax, 151. 


Xylophaga, 135. 


Vagabundse, 98. 


Waxwing, 226. 


Xyphosura, 81. 


Vampyre, 247. 


Weasel, 257. 




Velella, 30. 


Weaver-bird, 225. 


Yak, 251. 


Venus, 158. 


Weever, 185. 


Yellow-ammer, 


Veretillum, 36. 


Whale, 254, 255. 


222. 


Vermes, 2, 49. 


Whalebone, 254. 


Yunx, 218. 


Vermetus, 165. 


Whelk, 163. 




Verruca, 74. 


Whimbrel, 231. 


Zebra, 252. 


Vertebrata, 2, 174. 


Whirlgig, 145. 


Zebu, 251. 


Vesicularia, 68. 


White ant, 118. 


Zeuglodon, 255. 



INDEX. 



Zeus, 180. 
Ziphius, 255. 
Zoantharia, 30, 
31. 



Zoanthus, 32. 
Zonites, 167. 
Zonurus, 202. 
Zoophyta, 16. 



Zootoca, 203. 
Zygasna, 129. 
Zygodactyli, 220. 
Zygotrocha, 64. 



THE END. 



Printed by TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, Bed Lion Court, Fleet Street.